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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. .
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.
A. Norwood.' February. July. May. August. Mass. 1915. 1910. . September. 1910. J. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick & Smith Co. 1916. U. May. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1911.. Reprinted 1913. Cushlng Co. 8. September. . 1910 .COPYRIGHT. . 1917. January.S. IQJS January.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.. manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. specially 2." this book. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Elementary Algebra.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. and conse . however. owing has certain distinctive features. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Such a large number of methods. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. etc.
as quadratic equations and graphs. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.g. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. however. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. e. etc. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. Moreover. hence either book 4. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. For the more ambitious student. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". are placed early in the course. may be used to supplement the other. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. especially problems and factoring. two negative numbers. In regard to some other features of the book. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . Topics of practical importance. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.
such examples. in " geometry . the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and commercial are numerous. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. physics.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. elementary way. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. is based principally upon the alge . But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. viz. based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt." Applications taken from geometry.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.
. edge of physics. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. 1910. William P. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April.
.CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ...... ....... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Powers. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... .. SUBTRACTION.
.. Type Polynomials... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... /^ .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type II. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . .114 . Type VI. * .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... Type IV. Type V... Type III... .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .
. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ....... . . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . CHAPTER XIV 169 .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V36". c = 1. V^a6. a polynomial of two terms. Val \fi?. x 9. 0.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. A binomial is 62 . v'Ta. A polynomial is an y. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 5Vl6c. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 8. !^f\/03 3 ft. is 28. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. [6c] 3 . d 7. 11. 26. or 9 Vx. b = 3. 2 . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. \/c. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 14. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. are trinomials. (cfd) 4. as in arithmetic. 6. 27. find the numerical value of: Vff. V3 . c f d). 9. 13. V2a. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. some number is . since the parts are a . 16. 12. aVc^. 4V3~6c. 6." EXERCISE If a 1. + c). + 1].g. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). e. 7 = 2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 17. 15. 2. 10.
x=^. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. Ex. b = 3. a2 11. 4. 3 2 If 1. 16. subtraction. multiplication. __ E. 1. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .9 aWc + f a b . 2.4 6^9 ad. 5c +d 2 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. . 4a6fVaV2^.e. i.30 = 270 .INTRODUCTION 29. 2 ).g. + 26+3 c. . (a (a f b) 7. 3 4 . c=l. . a=4. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 6. * For additional examples see page 268. 5=3. a 2 6. 6. d=Q. 3. Otherwise operations of addition. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . = 32 + 4527 = 50. l 13. 12.390.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . EXERCISE 8*  . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 52 . 5..810 + 150 = . 4 . find the numerical value of: 9. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.9. 10. Ex. c = 2. .19 = 6. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2. 14. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . d = 0.5 ax 50 a6cd. 8.2 + I126.99.
38. 29. 24. a =4. 6 = 3.c) (a . 30. 33. sible to state Ex. 6=2. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 7. if : a = 2. 6 = 5. 6. 26 of the exercise. physics. 30. 6 = 1. a = 4. 22. a = 3. geometry. 6 = 4. 28. 6 = 6. Six 2 . a = 4. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6. a = 3. 26.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a. . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. = 3.6 . a a=3. 34.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 5. 37. 6 = 2. 35. 23. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 25. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Read the expressions of Exs. 27. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. and other sciences. Six times a plus 4 times 32. : 6. a = 2. a =3.
A train in 4 hours.seconds. i.16 1 = 84. (c) 4. and 15 feet. 15 therefore feet. (b) 5. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 14. count the resistance of the atmosphere. and 5 feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. Find the height of the tree. b 14. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.e. 2.INTRODUCTION E. . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.16 centimeters per second. b. d. if v .) Assuming g . and 13 inches. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. the area of the triangle equals feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = .g. 13. then a 13. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. c. 12. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v : a.
. (The number 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 5 miles. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. ~ 7n cubic feet. meters.14 square meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. the 3.).14d (square units). If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). the area etc.).14 4. 5. $ = 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 32 F.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. 2 inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 8000 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. : 8000 miles. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 10 feet. square units (square inches. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. (c) 5 F.
CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. . or positive and negative numbers. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. however. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).
c = 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. d = 5. lf(2). 2326. (_ In Exs. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 12. is 0. 18. 5. Thus. 19. of 2. 5. if : a a = 2. + (9). 33. 4. '. 4 is 3 J. subtract their absolute values and . 21. = 5. 6 6 = 3.3. 22. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.  0. 10. c = = 5. the one third their sum. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. + 12. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17.16 32. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. . d = 0. of: 20. 23. (17) 15 + (14). is 2. 24.
= 23. 1. ^ ' 37. & 28.. . = 22. $500 loss. 36. : 48. \\ Add 2 a.7. 7 a. $1000 loss. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 27. 74. = 13. . . 41.4. 09. 6. 25. 40. and 3 yards. are similar terms.. and 3 a. & = 15. d= 3. 55. 34. and 3 a. 72. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards.5. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 10.3. 5 and 12. 10. 6.7. }/ Add 2 a. . Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 29. 31. 33. 7 yards.5. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 2. 30. and 3 F. $7000 gain. AND PARENTHESES d = l. affected by the same exponents. 13. and 8 F.13. and 4. 11 (Centigrade).. 6. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. . 66. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. : and 1. or and . 39. and $4500 gain. 60. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 35. 32. which are not similar. 4 F. . c=14.ADDITION. . 43. 2. 3. 12. 7 a. 37. 10. 4. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 32. 3 and 25. SUBTRACTION. ' Find the average of the following 34. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. $3000 gain. 38. c = 0. ' 1? a 26. : 34. sets of numbers: 13. 42. . 0.
ab 7 c 2 dn 6. : 2 a2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. b a f ( 6). 14 . 7 rap2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.sign. 9(af6). 10. b wider sense than in arithmetic. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. EXERCISE Add: 1. in algebra it may be considered b.ii. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 5Vm + w. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 2 a&. 3a . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f.13 rap 25 rap 2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. Vm f.18 35. 2(af &). either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. + 6 af . 11. 12 2 wp2 . f 4 a2. Algebraic sum. 2 . 5 a2 . . 12(af b) 12. 5l 3(af6). or a 6. 13. 12Vmfn. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.
17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2 2 2 31.ADDITION. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. l^S 25. 6 23. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 32. 17. 35. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. and to add each column. SUBTRACTION. 1 27. 2/ : Add. ra 19. c 2 ^24. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. a a8 ZL **. 33. + y. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. n x* 2 22. 37. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. + / + 3 Va. is . 2 7 1 26. without finding the value of each term 34. 36. 30. 21.
2c. 9 q 4. 4 = 7.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 3a 2? . of that letter.7 2 . . 5 . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. and 2 .41 = 3.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.g. 46 4z 7 c.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. a 4. e. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.c= 2. x of x. V3. f 110WS: 26 aft. .15 6c. s. 7 4. therefore the answer is correct. . 2 Thus. = . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.o c and 4.3 s.15 abc .8 abc . to add 26 ab .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . the erroneous answer equal 7. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 5. 4 2. ft any convenient and c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. and J 2 s.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. NOTE. 2 025. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 3.20 c 5 ab 4. to show any error.g. 6=2.12 a& 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 Sum. 2 . c = 1.
9(a + &) . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.ADDITION. ^2 1 e. 7ar + 3B 5.2n 2 2 3 rz .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. SUBTRACTION. 19. 4 8 3 4 4 . d and / 3 ? 12. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.12. m 4 6. 11.1 a 4 1 0. 2 3(c f a).12 6 ~5 a .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a + 1> 8 2 2 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . a 4 a . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.1.and 6. and 1 4 a . ?/ .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.15 5. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.6. a2 2 14. in 8 3 m n 4. . and and 13.VS 4 2 Vc.8 m 2m 12. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.a. . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). d. 2 and 9m 48m 4.(b + c) 1. . + a + 1. . and . . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . 2 ?ft ?/z. + 50 + 62 .7m . 2 2 . 16e + 17/90. a2 a. 4. a 4 a .4:xy xz 6yz.5 cr& + 7 6 9.a .7v/if. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. and 8 3 . 56 w.5a^6 f 6) . a) y ^/.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .3 mn 2 2 n8 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . and 12a 4 15& 20c . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 2 and . . 4 Vc. e a4 /.10 Vc. 8.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.a. 2 a. v/20. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. xy3xz + yz. . 2 ?/. . 4 3 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 16.a 4 a 4 1. and 5 Vb 18.Ga 43x45. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.4 Va . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 3 2 2 3 9 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. . and v 15.12(a 4. a. 4 ajy 17. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 18/+6y + d. 4(a .
17 + 4 ?nfy . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.ra + m. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. 22. 6 f c 2 23. +d a. and e + 6y . 1. and 2 24. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. + n*. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.9aj 2. 12 xyz. + 1. how 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. If you diminish a person's debts. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. 8 . T8a. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . is 2.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1/ .11 xy + 12. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. many negative units re main ? from 2. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 25. The sum and ? 1. 1. 13 1. f 1. 1. .4 2tn* Sic 2 .3^* 2n 2 . 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1.22 21. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.5< 3 2 s 4^4.. c 3 3 3 2 3 . f number may be added 3. . . s . 2 8 n + <w 2 . 45a6 2 . a 6 2 c.
and their algebraic sum is required. ( 6) ( = . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. To subtract.ADDITION. 3. two numbers are given. +b 3. ab = x. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. a. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.g. . SUBTRACTION. called the minvend. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. Or in symbols. 7. From 5 subtract to . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the other number is required. and the required number the difference. 41. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. the given number the subtrahend. 2. From 5 subtract + 3.3. NOTE. In subtraction. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 1. In addition. 6 (3) = 8.2. Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. from What 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . if x Ex. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. This gives by the same method. 5 is 2.
f 8 .5 x + 8. Check. If x = l = 2 t .3 x* .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Ex.
4 a*& + 6 a & . 55. 2y 2 . 49. 56. 48. From From x2 the sum sum 7.ADDITION.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 47. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 6(af.7 a . 54.6)f. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 50. 44. 46. 53. From 2 a take a & j. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 58. + a the 2 a. tract 4 x 3. 52. c f d. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.4 a^ 4. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 42. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. . 57. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. of a 4.w>t. 45. SUBTRACTION. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .2. 43.c.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.a 2 j. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. and 3 7/ . 6 4 a.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 41. check the answer. 51. 2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.
~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . of # 2 8. A is n years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 20. +a add the difference duce 13. subtract # + 1.15. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. a + 6. 19. 6 17. a a + c. + 6 + c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a 2y + z. 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 2 m 21. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 16. 9. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. + 2.26 4. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.
The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. one occurring within the other.g. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Ex.c.b c = a a & f f. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. & f c. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. SUBTRACTION.6 b f (. 45. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.a^6)]  } . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. changed. 46. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. . II.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. the sign is understood.ADDITION.2 b .a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. I. a+(bc) = a +b .
may be inserted according to 43. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6) 2.[271 47.y (60. 2 2 2 a(. 2a (4a 26 +c ). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 15. 2. (m a2 f. 21. a f (a a . [36+ (a 2c]. 9. : x + (2yz).)].) 5 . 13. In the following expression inclose the second and third. .(a + 6). 271 + (814 . Ex. 17. 4. a (a + 6). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. find the numerical value of { 1422 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 3 3 f 7. Signs of aggregation 1.1422) J ] .+ 6)f (a2 b). By removing parentheses.: Ex. 5. 18.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. m f ft) a. 16. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 6. 3. a (a + 26 c ). 14.7i h jp) (m ?*. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2 2a. ? 11. 19. 8. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. + (2a 6 + c ).
terms 5. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 10. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 2mn + 2q3t. m and n. 4. The product The product m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. first. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 5 a2 2. 7. 9. 13. p + q + rs. a\l> > c + d. of the cubes of m and n. II. The sum^)f m and n.1. The difference of a and 6. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 6. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 3. 6 diminished .7fa. m x 2 4.ADDITION. difference of the cubes of n and m. 2. 5. SUBTRACTION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 12. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. . 3. and the subtrahend the second. 8. 7. )X 6. The square of the difference of a and b. z + d. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. ' NOTE.4 y* .2 tf . 5^2 _ r . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. y f 8 . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.
18. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers. b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. d. 6. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.) . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .30 14. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.
two loads balance. therefore. 5. A A A 1. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 3. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. If the two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. force is produced therefore. 4. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . let us consider the and JB. 2. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7.
however. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. . 4 multi44444 12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. x 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. (. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.32 8. 4x(3)=12. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. 5x(4). Thus. 9 9. NOTE. Practical examples^ it however. (5)X4. becomes meaningless if definition. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 multiplied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. thus. ( (. 9 x ( 11). a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.4)(.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 48.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. the multiplier is a negative number. or plied by 3.9) x 11. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.
(4J). (7) X (12). 29. 8 31. 7. 3 aW.MULTIPLICATION 50. (4)X(15). (4)'.a)( =+ a&. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.2 f+x 2 . . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 13.4. _3. the parenthesis frequently omitted. b = 3. 14. 23. 32. 6 2. 15. (c#) . 4 . X(5). 2a6 c . (. 12. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . 1. c = 25. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. x= 0. 26.2. x. 8. 10. 8 4 . _2. 27. +5. 17. 3. . 1. (2)x9. and y = 4. 24. z s 11 aWcx.7. 5. 3. etc. 9.3) (1) 7 2 . 6. If a cal = 4a6c. 2a 2 6c. Ua b 28. . 19. . 5x3. 3 a2?/2 . is 6x7. 20. Law Thus.(a&c) 2 2 .2f 18. NOTE. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . find the numeri values of: 21. _2^ 3. (2) 8 (. 2. 4 a2 . 22.3. of Signs: TJie positive. 11. 4. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (10) 4 . about fac (2)X If 6. 16. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 6. 30.
2(14. m*. 50(112. = 2. a = 3. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. Ex.2).257). 6. =2 a *. Ex. 5 = 2. 5(711. 10. 4. 4. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. (a6) (a5) 9.. 53. a 2 2 . 2.(12) . 100. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 2(7. . + 2/). IB.(2.3). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. of the factors.2 2 23 + 5 . 17. 5. a= 1. . 11. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 6 = . 7.m a 3  4 . 127  127 9 7 . 5 . 2 2 2 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . fl*" integers. 78 .<?.503). i. 13.(7). only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 2 3 . 12 U U . 36. 4. 1. . 200.35). 3. a = 2. & = 3. .7..e. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.  and 2 25 8 . a8 a=2. : 3a7abc. .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 2 2 3 6 . 3 3 4 . 2. 14. 9 . &*) c d*. 3 2 .  2 2. 6 aWc x . or 2 . 16. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. By 3 definition. 5 3 5 3 2 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . B. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 6 = 1. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 3. 34. This 52. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .6 if 35. 6" 127 U .
35. 22.7pqt. 12( + 1 4 i). called the distributive law. Thus we have in general a(b 56. . . 7. If results ft.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. This principle.3 win ) . 5. 7p*q r*. 23(10004100420). 21. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 25. c(4a ftc ). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. but we shall assume it for any number. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.f 2). 26. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 6(10420430). 2(5fl5f25). 3(124342). 29. 35 4 7(6. ) 2 33. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. (. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). (. .4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 23. 24. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 20.A). 11(3. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 2(645410).2 3 aft ). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). . and then adding : 1. by first multiplying.6. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2 32. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. /).4a#. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 19.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. multiply each by the monomial. 17(10041042). .5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 27. 4. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 28. 31. 2. 6. 3. 34. _4aft.7 w'W (8 n^W).
5). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.5 x 7). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Find the factors of 5 a 6 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 23. ~2mn(m +n p ).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 22. By what 25.5 w*V f 7 wn). 7 a 6 c(. 2 2 16. 9. 2 27. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.2 mn(9 mV . .asa product.we b) (x law. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 m(mhn \p). 19. . 11. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.^ c + 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. be multiplied to give 4o. 21. 29. 20. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 28. : expression must 24. .3 aftc).60 a& 10 aft. 17. . 26. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . f7a. 12. Find the factors of 6 ary . 2 4 %Pq\ 14.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 30. 3 ).6 a6). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .
multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 b by a 5 b. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 2. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Since errors.1.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. a2 + a8 + 3 .4. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. To multiply two polynomials. Multiply 2 + a a. Multiply 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example. .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 2 + a8 . 2a3b a66 2 a . 59. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Check.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. however.
(2 x* x 2 . 2  37. 3. 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). . (8r7*)(6r39. 17. 24. 22.2m)(l m). 5. 6. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 15. QQ O7. 36). 1). 32.1 . (2w 19. (13 A. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 2. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 28. 41. OQ OO. 11. 4 2). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 2 . 29. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 4. 30. 2) (3 A: 1). 20. 31. * For additional examples see page 261. (6a~7) 2 . 12)(a?^2l). 8. 10. 25. a 5c)(2a6c). I (mfn)(m4. 26.4) (x + 1). (a^26) . (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (ajf6y)(aj 23.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (6p (2 f 21. 36) I) 14. 13. . ^ 2 . 9. 3<7). 36. l)(raf 2).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 35. 7.n)(m 8 n)(m n). + & + 1f a^faj 1). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).2). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 40. (6i7n)(llJn).4) (mnp 4. (4a 2 33. 7y). 12. 16. 18. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt).
(1001) (100 (1000 + 2). plus the product 62. + 2) (a f 3). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 8. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (a 9) (a + 9). plus the product of the two unequal terms. : 23 2. i. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 28. + 5) (1000 + 4). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 2 a? 29. i. 6. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 20. (J 23. (a3)(a + 2). 27. (a 102 x 103. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 24.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. X 102. (!)(* 5). 26. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .4). 1005x1004. 25. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 1) (10 + 2). (a (a (a. + 9)(m+9). 12. (ra. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 17. 25 a 2 . (6 12) (6 f. + 60)(f2).25)(y+4). . 9. ft 16. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 18. 2 6) (a 3 6). _3)(a _4). 10. 15. 14.!!)( (a + 21). 13.n)(wf w). 7. (10+ (1000 (2. 19. .2 6) (a f 6). 22. (*. 3. + 3) (a 7). in of the two unequal terms. 75 ab f 54 ft . 11. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.e. (p12)(p + ll). 2) (1000 + 3).13). 21.e. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. .
77ie square of the of the first. a2 2 w + 2 w . 3. 34. 4.e. 49 y*.30.66 s. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the second. (x+3i/) 2 . + 6 a + 8. plus the square of the second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (a26) 2 . i. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . <J>7) J . . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . 2 (a (*5) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 7 a + 10. 6. 33. w 2 ro . 8. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 35. 63. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. second. : 24 (a 2. 7. . i. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. p 2 p. and the second.e. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 9. 32. 2 5. (a2) (p a .15. 37. + 3) 2 .e. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). III. n2 10ii+16. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. Ex.15. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 31. III. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. plus twice the product of the first and the second.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .
15. 62 25n 2 . ). 998x1002. 103 36. 4 53. 28. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . . 14. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. . a2 9. 55.MULTIPLICATION 10. 32. (1000 2 . 16aW25. 21. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 52. 42. 2 J ). 22. (^. 9 a2 . 104 2 37. + 5). 41 16. 51. 7& ) 25. The product of 57. 34. ( 27. G> +5g)*. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 54. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 41. 24. 47. 23. 2 11 # ) 2 20. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. n 2 f4n+4.998 39. 29. (2x3yy. 17. I) 2 . . + 3z) 2 2 . 11. 45. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 2 . (20 f 1) . 2 (4a36) 2 13. n*6n+9.30 ab + 25 6 64. 33. (a 3) 2 2 2 . + 5)(5+a). 49. 18.ll^X^+lly (100 30. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 40. m 2 16. 31. 2 . 99x101. By actual multiplication. 22 2 . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 12. 48. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 . 38. 991 2 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 44. 25 a 9. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 . . (100 + 2) (100 2). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 9a 496 2 56. 35. 46.
the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). . 14. 4. plus the last terms. 65. (4s + y)(32y). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (2a3)(a + 2). or The student should note minus signs. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 8. sum of the cross products. 11. The square 2 (a 4. : 25 2. 13. ((5a? (10 12. 2 10.& + c) = a + tf + c . and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (5a4)(4al). ) (2 of a polynomial. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (3m + 2)(ml). 3. 5. 7. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (5a64)(5a&3).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 6. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.
3) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.y? + 8 . 13. + 65) .24] . 4. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. n). 6.r _ 2 . 6~2(a + 7). (  2 4) =  20 a.i2&c) 2 . Hence.5) = (7 . . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. and check the answers !.24 .29.(>.3)(z. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 6(a 2. (u4& + 3c'. 8. 5.3) (x .8 x + 15] . (xy+z)*.39. 3. = 10 x .[a? . 66. 8. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.(= [ Xa + 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 3.(m 2 6. a. 4. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). Check. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . after multiplying the factors of a term. 7. = .5). + 6)( .1 5 = 10 . 4(* + 2)5(3). Find the square root 11. 2 2.4) . 9.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 2)6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.X2 + 2 x . 7. If x = 1.(x .4) .39. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 5. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 12. (a (. 4y sf n) 2 . Ex. of z : 10. 4(aj2)h3(7).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
+ 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (81 m + 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 16.11 a + 9 a . 20. 18.DIVISION 14. 19.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).2) (3 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.2).e. v/17. .l.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 51 15. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. a I. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . Division of the difference of two squares.
16 . 10. . 15. 14. 12. 4 b.0001. 9& 2 . f 13.49. 100ry.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. aW 12 a. r/ 1. 121a a 16 100 11. 1. . 16. : the following w a 4 !. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .000.
=11. . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . in the equation 2 x 0. 83. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 81. the first member is 2 x + 4. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. second member is x + 4 x 9.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 82. (a + ft) (a b) and b. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the 80. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus. x 20. . is said to satisfy an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . hence it is an equation of condition. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. .
The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the divisor equals zero. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 3. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. NOTE. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. the quotients are equal. If equals be divided by equals. 5. A term may be transposed from its sign. the products are equal. 2. 4. E. . A 2 a. . 85.e. 89.54 84. but 4 does not equal 5.b. a. Transposition of terms.2. called axioms 1.g. the sums are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. 87. If equals be added to equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. x I. A numerical equation is one in which all . 90. If equals be multiplied by equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. To solve an equation to find its roots. the remainders are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. one member to another by changing x + a=. 86. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 2 = 6#f7. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.
2. Dividing both members by 2. b c. a= a 6fc. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.9 y + y2 = 22 . Check. The first member. . a? Adding 5 to each term. Hence the answer.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. is correct. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Dividing by Check. To solve a simple equation. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. x = 93. Unite similar terms. Transposing. (4y)(6. f If y 20 . if 55 x members. b Adding a to both + a. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 91. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 3 y . 4x 1 + 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . if a x = b. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Ex.8. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.6 y f y\ . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 2 x = 6.2 y= f . 2(11 . and the known terms to the second. Uniting. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = 3. Uniting similar terms. The second member.
20. = 7. + 22. 15. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 14. 247y = 68lly.. 3. 7 (6 x 16). 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.56 Ex. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. . f Simplifying.7. Solve the following equations by transposing. 4y 10. 22. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 13a? 3a?.17 + 4y = 36. a?. = 5a?+18. = 3. . 2. J. a? a?. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 9 9a? = 7 13. etc. + 16 = 16 + 17. \x x 2^xfl. 7. 7a? 5. If x = 18. Uniting. a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 4a + 5 = 29. aj * See page 264. = 2 ?/. 12. : 5# = 15+2a. 3 7 a. it NOTE. 16. 4. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 11. 17 + 5a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3. 8. 17 7 a. and check the answers 9. 21. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). v23. {(x (x The The member right member left . 50. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 19.7a: = 394a.. =2 = 3. 11 ?/ a? 18.69. 6. x x 1 . 32 = 264. a. Transposing. 24. x = 18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.
(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.14 = 0. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 38.(2 + 6) (4 . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.7) (7 x + 4) . .3) + . 34.2) (M . 36. find the other part. 7) (a.5) = (a. 2 2 * Jaj.12) (2 + 5) . 42. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). . 7(7 x y 26.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 31.g.3) + 14.1) (u .5) + 199. a? 43. 6(6a. + 4).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 27. .5(2 u . (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. . this question. 40.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . or 70 a?.1 0) = 0.32. 29. Evidently 45. 41.4) + 4 w . a? 28.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . . + 7) (. (aj 37. (6 u =5 44. 35. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 30. e.3) . . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 33. . 39.7. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. is the other part. 25. 5) (as (a. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.
If 7 2. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. Divide 100 into two 12. and the smaller one parts. Ex. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. is b. 1. is d. EXERCISE 1. 6. 6. 9. one part equals is 10. 4. so that of c ? is p. or 12 7. greater one is g. so that one part The difference between is s. 17. 7. 10. Find the greater one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Divide a into two parts. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 3. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 5. x f y yards cost $ 100 . What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . a. find the cost of one yard. 15. 14. 33 2. is a? 2 is c?. 11.58 Ex. smaller one 16.
28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. A man had a dollars. Find 21. find the has ra dollars. 32. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 20. 26. How many cents has he ? 27. Find 35. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. b dimes. A dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. and c cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and spent 5 cents. 22. and B is y years old. amount each will then have. 33. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and B has n dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . A feet wide. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 34. 24. 19. How many years A older than is B? old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. If B gave A 6 25. ?/ 31. 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. numbers is x. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. and B's age is y years. find the of their ages 6 years hence. is A A is # years old. sum If A's age is x years.
What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. A was 20 years old. The two digits of a number are x and y. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. a. The first pipe x minutes. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. 49. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. of m. find the fraction. Find a 47. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. m is the denominator. . How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.50. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. he walk each hour ? 39. 48. Find the number. c a b =  9. . 46. of 4. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find x % % of 1000. % % % of 100 of x. Find a.
The excess of a over b is c. a exceeds b by c. c. 5. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 80. 80. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a increased much 8. 6. etc. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. double of a is 10. same result as 7 subtracted from . of a and 10 equals 2 c. 4. The double as 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 8 b ) + 80 = a . the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 3. of x increased by 10 equals x. by one third of b equals 100. 2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C have respectively 2 a. 3 1200 dollars. of 30 dollars. x is 100 x% is of 700. m is x % of n. symbols B. sum equals $20. #is5%of450. express in algebraic 3x : 10. a. B's. is If A's age is 2 x. B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. . 6 % of m. and C's ages will be 100. amounts. B's age 20. 18.. a second sum. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 50 is x % of 15. In 10 years the sum of A's. 12. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. they have equal of A's. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 14. and C's age 4 a. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B.62 10. as 17 is is above a. x 4 If A. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. a. express in algebraic symbols : 700.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. pays to C $100. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. >. 16. they have equal amounts. 17. 11. B's.000. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (c) If each man gains $500. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old.
Transposing. 3z40:r:40z. Check. x = 20. NOTE. Ex. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. but 30 =3 x years. Transposing. A will Check. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Uniting. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. be 30 . the required . x+16 = 3(35). equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Three times a certain no. 6 years ago he was 10 . In 15 years 10. 4 x = 80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. . Find A's present age. 2. number. Uniting. number of yards. Simplifying. 1. x= 15. etc. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 15. In order to solve them. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. much as 40 exceeds the number. Let x = the number. 23 =30. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Dividing. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Ex. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Let x The (2) = A's present age. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. the . denote the unknown 96.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find 8. Find the number. 5. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. . Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. by as much as 135 ft. 3. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 11. Six years hence a 12 years ago.64 Ex. % of 120. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Hence 40 = 46f.2. Let x 3. Find the number. exceeds the width of the bridge. Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. twice the number plus 7. 4. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 120. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 14. 300 56. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Forty years hence his present age. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 13. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A number added number. EXERCISE 1. How long is the Suez Canal? 10.
How many dol A has A to $40. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. B How will loses $100. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. B will have lars has A now? 17. statements are given directly.000. the second one. During the following 90 years. Maine's population increased by 510. and B has $00. two verbal statements must be given. 1. A and B have equal amounts of money. The other verbal statement. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. Ex.000. 14. 97. is the equation. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. . In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Vermont's population increased by 180. F 8. 65 A and B $200. five If A gives B $200. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. The sum of the two numbers is 14. The problem consists of two statements I. times as much as A. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. x. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. Find the population of Maine in 1800. If A gains A have three times as much 16. written in algebraic symbols. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. One number exceeds the other one by II.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. and as 15.
the sum of the two numbers is 14. and Let x = the Then x +. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. < Transposing. A has three times as many marbles as B. + a f f 8 = 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. The two statements I. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. If A gives are : A If II. / . Uniting. 2. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If we select the first one. B will have twice as viz. x x =14 8. A gives B 25 marbles. 8 the greater number. = A's number of marbles. terms of the other. Then. . 2x a? x j = 6. the greater number. Let x 14 I the smaller number. although in general the simpler one should be selected. I. B will have twice as many as A. 8 = 11. = 3. = 14. has three times as many marbles as B. which leads ot Ex. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. x = 8. consider that by the exchange Hence. . Statement x in = the larger number. . Dividing. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. A will lose.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. Let x 3x express one many as A. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 25 marbles to B. the smaller number. to Use the simpler statement. unknown quantity in Then. = B's number of marbles.
550 f 310. 40 x . 50 x Transposing. 6 times the smaller. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. x = 6. . The number of coins II. etc.10. but 40 = 2 x 20. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Uniting. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310.75. and the Find the numbers. of dollars to the number of cents. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Check. consisting of half dollars and dimes. The sum of two numbers is 42. then. is 70. Simplifying.$3. 50.240. . by 44. Find the numbers. 3 x = 45. the price. B's number of marbles. w'3. 45 . dollars and dimes is $3. * 98. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).. Eleven coins. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 15 + 25 = 40. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).5 x . x = 15. 60. Find the numbers. Check.10. Two numbers the smaller. A's number of marbles. Dividing. have a value of $3. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. the number of half dollars. 2. the number of dimes. x = the number of half dollars. greater is .10. Uniting. Dividing. Simplifying. The value of the half : is 11. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 3.. 11 x = 5. x from I. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. * ' . (Statement II) Qx . 1.25 = 20. cents.
5. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.. Twice 14. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. McKinley. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and twice the altitude of Mt. A's age is four times B's. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the number. as the larger one. 7.000 feet. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many 14 years older than B. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many inches are in each part ? 15. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. United States. How many hours does the day last ? . 11. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 9. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Find their ages.68 4. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 6. tnree times the smaller by 65. Everest by 11. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. On December 21. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. How many volcanoes are in the 8. one of which increased by 9.
. x = 8. are : C's The three statements A. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. = 48. 1. then three times the money by I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 19." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. bers is denoted by x. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. and C together have $80. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. III. has. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. number of dollars A had. times as much as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. original amount. Let x II. Ex. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and B has three as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. and 68. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and C together have $80. has. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B has three times as much as A. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. B. I. II. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. they would have 3. number had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. If 4x = 24.
The I. x = 5. according to II. number of cows. 4 x f 8 = 28. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. and the sum of the . 28 2 (9 5). = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. cows. x j = the number of horses. III. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. first. and. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. number of horses. The total cost equals $1185. sheep. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Uniting. number of sheep. each cow $ 35. 90 may be written. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and each sheep $ 15. 9 cows. 9 5 = 4 . 2.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. + 35 x 4. each horse costing $ 90. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. + 8 90 x and. and Ex. Let then. number of cows. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. three statements are : IT. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. the third five times the first. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. = the number of dollars spent for cows. x f 4 = 9. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Dividing. x Transposing. according to III. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 1 1 Check. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2.
and the third part exceeds the second by 10. first. and children together was 37. v . and 2 more men than women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. what are the three angles ? 10. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. what is the length of each? has 3. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. twice as old as B. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. New York delphia. A 12. If twice The sum the third side.000. the copper. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. how many children were present ? x 11. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. the third 2.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). men. and the sum of the first and third is 36. 7. first. 13. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. twice the 6. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. increased by three times the second side. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.  4. "Find three is 4.000. what is the population of each city ? 8. 9.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. equals 49 inches. the second one is one inch longer than the first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The gold. women.
speed. of 3 or 4 different kinds.000. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.000 more than that the copper. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. A and B apart. number of miles A x x walks. First fill in all the numbers given directly. After how many hours will they meet and how E. such as length. i. number of hours. together. = 35. 7 Uniting. we obtain 3 a. Find the value of each. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 8 x = 15. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 14.000. Let x = number of hours A walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and quantities area. and distance. but stops 2 hours on the way.000.g. width. The copper had twice the value of the gold. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. = 5. 3 and 4. Hence Simplifying.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. how many 100. or time. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. . of arid the value of the iron was $300. Dividing.e.
+ 8. Multiplying. the area would be 100 square yards less. The an area 40 x 20 =800. But 700 certain = 800 2." gives (2. $ 800 = required sum. . $ 800 = 800.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. l. . $ 1000 x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.04 = $ 40. were increased by 30 yards. x . Check. the second 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. Transposing and uniting. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. or 700. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.04 8.06 = $ 40. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. z = 20. 2 a = 40. x . 10 x = 200. original field has Check. x + 200).M(x .053.01 = = . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 2   and transpose. 70x10 Ex. Find the dimensions of the field. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.05 x x .
together bring $ 78 interest. A sets out later two hours B . invested at 5 %. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and a second sum. but four men failed to pay their shares. twice as large. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A of each. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. sions of the field. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sum ? invested at 4 %. 3. What are the two sums 5. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and its width decreased by 2 yards. mobile. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 1. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. the area would remain the same. Ten yards $ 42. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Find the share of each.55. were increased by 3 yards. as a 4. After how many hours will B overtake A. 2. Six persons bought an automobile. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards.
and from the same point. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. After how many hours. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a2 to 6. irrational. as. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . but fractional with respect 103. at this 6 2 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 5. 76 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. which multiplied together are considered factors. f db 6 to b. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 6. a. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. this letter. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if. vV . 104. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . consider 105. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . An after simplifying. + 62 is integral with respect to a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . we shall not. stage of the work. it is composite. if it does contain some indicated root of .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101.
It (a. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 8) (s1).9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . . 2. 77 Factoring is into its factors. it follows that a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . TYPE I. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). x. 01. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . x. factors of 12 &V is are 3.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.62 can be &). 2. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.3 sy + 4 y8).3 6a + 1). since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 109. ?/. 110. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 107. y. 55. Factor G ofy 2 .g. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Divide 6 a% .) Ex. in the form 4) +3. . 2. for this result is a sum.62 + &)(a 2 . or that a = 6) (a = a . Ex.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 1.FACTORING 106. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. E. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.
8. 14a 4 5. e. 3 3 5 6. : 6 abx .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 2.12 cdx. 7i 13.30 aty. 15. 3.4. (as 3) and (ccf5). in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. obviously. 2 + q. ) 22  2. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 7a & 10. 11. 4. 16. Ilro8 9. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 Or. 4 8 . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).5 + 2. 19.45 afy .3. q*q*q 2 a. a6c. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.3. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 23. in general. 17. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 5f 2 . 2 2 . 34 a^c 8 . . 14. 15 2 7. 3x*6x*. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .4. 3 2 . 2 6. 32 a *?/ .2.8 c a 15 ofyV . 18. 4 tfy f.5 + 13 8. + llm llm. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.51 aW + 68 21. 12.6. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 13. . 20. a a 'Ja .51 x4 2 6 xy s .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . TYPE IT.g.
1 1 a tf a 4. If q is positive.77 = (a. + 112. however. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Ex. a 2 . can be factored.5) (a 6). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 2.11. as p. . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 5.11) (a + 7).4 x .5) (a . determine whether In solving any factoring example. 2 6. m 5m + 6. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Ex. 4. and (a .11 a 2 . We may consider 1. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. tfa2  3. . 3.6 = 20. or 7 11. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /..11 a + 30. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. + 30 = 20. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.FACTORING Ex. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.30 = (a . .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. of this type. 11 7. If q is negative. the two numbers have opposite signs. or 77 l. Factor a2 . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Therefore Check.4 . Factor x? .G) = . 77 as the product of 1 77. Factor + 10 ax . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.a).
12. x2 23. 19. TYPE 113.180 a. ay 11 ay +24. + 2xS. 9. 16. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 30. 2 ?/ 28. 36. 2 2 a' 34. 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 15. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . 4 2 . ITT. 13.17 + 30. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. + 4?/21. 25. 33. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.48 + + 446 200. 26. 8. a? + 5 + 6 a. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 14. 2 2 .70 x y .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . + 44. 30.6. 2 ?/ 22. 4 3 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 27. 100 xr . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 18. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . and 5 x. . 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 29. . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 5<y 24. a 7 a 30.80 7. 17. or . 20. 31. 24. 21. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 32. 16. 2 .500 x + 600. a2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . ra + 25ra + 100. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 11. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 35. 21 a 2 2 .
6 x 9.83 x f 54. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. the signs of the second terms are minus.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. Ex. 3.5) (2 x .13 x + 5 = (3 x .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. then the second terms of have opposite signs.1). 2 x 27.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the If p and r are positive.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 9 x 6. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. a. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 3 x and x. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 18 x 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . If p is poxiliw. X x 18. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 27 x 2. . and that they must be negative. but the opposite sign. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. sible 13 x negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. viz. or G 114. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 2. 54 x 1. and r is negative. Factor 3 x 2 . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.5 . 11 x 2x.
: 41 2. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. . 2 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 19. 2. 10 a .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 32. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 2 2 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 2 2 23. 30. . 12y 2/6. 7. 5.83 x . 14. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. f go. 13. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.163 x 2 . + 4. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 3. + 2/3. 10. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 17. 2m t7w + 3. 16. 2x* + 9x5.179. 5m 26m f 5.260 xy . 3x*Sx + 4.30 y 6 4 . 9a.2 a 90 x*y .7. . x54 a. since all others (II. 18. 24.83 x = (3 . 2 28. 25. 2 26.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 9. Sar' + SaG. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.19 a f 6. the expressions should be it. 9 y + 32^16. 4a2 9tt + 2. X 27 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 15. 12^17^16. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 3a + 13a. 20. and the monomial factors should be removed. 90 a 8 2 . 4. 144 x . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 11. 29.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 34. 12. 21. 2 31. 6n + 5?i4. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 6. 14 a fa 4. 2 fc . 35. 100^200^ + 100^.y + 172/9. 22.2) (x . 10a?2 2 33. 8.27).
2 2 . however. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 8. 116. 11. must have a positive sign. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 12. 9 10a625. 5. it is a perfect square. form are special cases of the preceding type.10 x f 16. 16 y? The student should note that a term. and factor whenever possible : 1. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2. it is more convenient for that type. i.20 xy f 4 y\ . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 2 9 10gf25. square. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 2 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 6.e. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 25 7. To factor a trinomial which maining term. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. . 3. 10. of its terms are perfect squares. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. x* . 13. . 9. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 14.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 4. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and a perfect square.
. : 43 tfy\ a 9.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). +( )f816 30. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .3 * ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 29. a. 2 . product i. aV . ). . ). a2 24. Ex. 10 a 2 4 2 . 1. 17. 27. 25. 7. 18. + GO + 25.20 ab + 10 b a . 5. 16. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 4a2 l. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 9. 225 ofy .60 a# + 4. 16&*. 4 2 23. prime. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 19. 2. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. !Gar 9 ( )+25.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 3. 48 a +( ). . 6. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 149 a 81 8. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. * 2 .64 6 = 16(a . 22. 2. According to 65. 2 20.84 15.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). a.6 m* + 9 m. 2 . V. ^//c to the Ex. 2 . TYPE 117.2 ofy + ofy m . 6 2 . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 36 2 4. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.e. 3. 26. 9a2 .
Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. Factor a 2 . 5. a2 . 4. 2. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 9. 2 . (m7?) y. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 14. 8. 16p 2 . Ex. Ex.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a .(I) . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .(c 4. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .d) 2 . T. 6. 2 . 11.c . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 13. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 36> . of polynomials.FACTORING 85 118. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a:) 12.
. 7. 12. ive find that the new terms con common factor. By grouping. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.ab + bx. Ex. 2. 1.y + 2 2). a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 9. 4:cx . = (3 x + y . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 5. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 8. 4 B. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 6.1. 2.a a . ma ?*a + m& nb.and trinomials.r.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.14. Ex.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 10. a5 + ab 6 . . 5) . which may be factored according to types I. a 26 2 2 3 . 119. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. x8 . 3.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.2 ) (3 x .VI. a? 11. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. A. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. After grouping tain a the terms.7 c + 2c . + x + 2x + 2.
6. . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2. 5. 2 7. 4. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 36 9 m . 4 a2 . 2a3/ 7. w m 2. 8ra 2 + 16.FACTORING Ex. : 46 x* 2. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . IV.l. 6 6. = (a + 6)(a6). +c+ 2 2 2/ . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. First find monomial factors common to all terms. l~a 2a56 2 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.12 aaj 4 6y. + 2xy + y*q*. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 3. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.4 f . $ a8 . 4. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 8.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 3. Arranging the terms. II. : m 2 2 16.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 6a4 12a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2. 8.
3 25.156. 19. 2 17. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.24. 5 a. + 6 aft + 3 . 29. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 32. 22. 12. 2 3#4 3a2 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif.310 x . 2 ft . 13. 4 a. 3 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. . 48. or 3 7#2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 80 a 2 ft 38. (a. (^ 34. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 24. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 18. 50^ + 45. 40. a6 36. 3 a2 23. a. 3 41. 42 s 2 . 2 a 128. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 35. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 30. a3 156. 13 c . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.88 10. 14.13 c . 42 x . 11. 4 8 tt 2 z . a + a + a + l. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. + 14. 27.40. 5a' 20. 28.
of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Thus the H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. Two common factor except unity The H. . 54  32 . 121. 25 W. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. 8 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F. The H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . II 2 . F. 89 . 2 2 . C. F. 5 s 7 2 5. 3 . 2. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. C. C. 24 s . expressions which have no are prime to one another. of : 48 4. 5 7 34 2s . F. The highest is common factor (IT. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. F.  23 3 . 6. aW. of two or more monomials whose factors . EXERCISE Find the H.) of two or more . 122. C. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. The H. C. of 6 sfyz. F. 15 aW. The student should note H. F. 5 2 3 . C. C. F. 12 tfifz. of aW. are prime can be found by inspection. 5. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 3. of the algebraic expressions. F.
5 x3?/ 2 6. 15 3ao. 2a f5af 2. 4 ?io. 8. 57 a>V. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. . (a7 ?/) . 24 a 2 . . . 11. 2 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 4(m+l) 3 . y + 3y64. 14. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 12.8 a + 16. 13. a2 . 7. 2 . 15.6 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. Find the H. x* x2 Hence the H. a3 16 a. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.?/ . a. a 3a4. of + 4 if.2 y) (a. a2 ar* 4. C.y) 123.12 as 66 . 16. and apply the method of the preceding article. 8.# 4 afy f 4 . of polynomials. 3. 8(?/ifl) 14. 8 a 10 . 9.2 ?/) (x .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . a3 9a. 3^ 2 4 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .5 + 6. 12 w*nw 8. ^2 2 .y) . a2 + 7af!2. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. F. F. 13. . 38 #y.6 a&. 8 6. C. 16 a . 65 zfyV.6. ^f a. 2 . 3 . 12. 12 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. . 225 4a 9 . C.90 7. = x 2 y. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 1. 3). ^a + 5^ + 6. 2.5 y). 6 mx . 6 3 a. aWd. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 25 m27i. 52 oryz4. 9 aj*(a? . ^707 + 12. 6 a2 y? . 5.y + y42. 6(m+l) (m+2).^9. a2 + 2a3. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . F. Ex. 9. 10. 10. 1. 0^80:416. 95 2/V.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 49 C. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). F. of: . 11. To find the H. 2 . .3 xy + 2 y* = (x .
C. Ex. 128. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 1. 126. C. but opposite . =4 a2 62 (a2 . of the general. of tfy and xy*. C. M.M. C. Hence the L. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. NOTE. 2 The The L. C. M. M of the algebraic expressions. The lowest common multiple (L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. &) 2 M. Common 125. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M.M. of several expressions which are not completely factored. To find the L. . two lowest common multiples. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. ory is the L. The L. M. M.C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 300 z 2 y. which also signs. Ex.6 3 ). L. a^c8 3 . of 3 aW.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 127.6)2. 2. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. M. etc. thus. L. 60 x^y' 2 . A common remainder. Find the L. .C.
15. 3 ab. a2 ~ab 1. 2 a . of: 4. 2(m 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. 21. 8 afy. x2 + 4 a f 4. 30 a. 6 a. a !. 3 6 xif. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3. 5. a 2 fa6. 3 f2. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. afy. 2 . f b.1. Find the L. a. 11. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 14. M. + 2. 6 y. T a 3 a 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. x 2 5 a. 2 10. a f 2 19. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. y*. 18. ic 2 ?/. #. 3 . x* ~5a. 17. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 20 9 a. 3 Z> . 40 abJ. 5 a? 5 a? y. afc'cd 2 . 1. 2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 6b 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. a. 6. + 2 7i) . + 6. 2 a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a?b. 24 x. 2 7ic+10. a& 4 +& 2 . xy\ . 2 x \2 y. 4 a . a. 3. 24. 8. 2 .1. b 2 . a2 4. 8 d 5 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6.f 6. . 9. a 2 f 4 a +4.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 3(a + b). . 2 a . 13. 4 a f 2. a 2 a3 . a { a~b. a f 3. 20. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. ic 23. or f 3 a 15 #. by. 16. 22. 2 . a^1. G a. 7. ) . a 1.
thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. rni Thus 132. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . a?. successively all 2 j/' . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. as 8. Ex. Thus. but we In arithmetic. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators.ry ^ by their H. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. an indicated quotient. however. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Remove tor. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. etc. A f fraction is b. and denominators are considered. 131. F. a b = ma mb . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. C.
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only. 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both. . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 3. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.
* OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.. . . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ' ^ . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.7 . .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 16. 19.*.' 32. 29. nx 17. 5^10 y 30. ^+3*. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^" a.10 a + 3 2 14. ny 4 18. _ 3 7i rt< 26.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 23. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. g J 21. LJZJ^JL. ^' rt ^  31. 9x + "a" 10. 11 ^ Mtr f . """. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.
Divide the L. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .C. we may extend this method to integral expressions. and 135. we have the quotients (x 1). we have M^. ^ to their lowest com The L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .M. 1). M. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. of the denominators for the common denominator.3) (!)' = . .~16 (a + 3) (x. and the terms of ***. =(z (x + 3)(z. 1. mon T denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 .96 134.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.  by 4 6' . + 3). Reduce ^. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.  of //* 2 .D. . C.M.r 2 2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Ex. take the L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. 2> . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. . and (a 8). TheL. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. C.1^22 ' . by the denominator of each fraction. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .
18.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). j y 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2. 137. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 74). 2aj ~ . 22 a2 5a * . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. If the given fractions have different denominators.oj o* or / .^1. common denominator 6.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. i. . .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.. o o a. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2 ay IB..T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 3. . 8 i i. 5?. . a? 1 5 > ^* . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. JL. 7i 2 ab* ". . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .
^ is 2^JT) . the student should remember that parentheses are . D.ft)(a . and adding. in the beginning. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.2 = a(a . D.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. The L. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 4(2 a 3 ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign..aft) Ca2 . 2.(a 2 6). as 4 aft f.ft) (a ft ft)~. T? Ex.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.2 ' 2 _.7 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. (a . e. 2 ^. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.g.. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ft). L. C.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).3 ft).3 .3 ft 2).
1 f q * 1 m m . 2. a+6 a 6 2 14. 46 2a 4a 12. 18 v 19. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 23.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 20. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 24.5 18 ^4f25. 6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . a 36 ++. 1 1 f w 16. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + . 15. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. A+2_3. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. j>0 i> 21.
a. a 30.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 2 af1 32. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ic 1 + 1. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 1 34.9. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9 79 6 2 i. 41. ! n. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j. 42. a 4 31. a ?^ 40. 3a 9 +. 43.
'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 1. 101 mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . T.7 5a v Ex. .  . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .
we may extend any e. !.g. fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2 a Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. integer. or. F J Simplify . Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .) Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. multiply the 142. Since  = a. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. (In order to cancel common factors.
14. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5# 56 / c& 4.. 4 8. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 .. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. . aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 f 5 a.
144. To divide an expression by a fraction. . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Divide Xn?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .
FRACTIONS 105 . a a2 4.^c 2 2 . l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 s + 064. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. or both.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.afr 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. ga2 4 8 5 a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.10 ?/ _._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 . Ex. are fractional.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 .
. & . M. 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). the answer is directly obtained.a ^c c _^ a . i. . JL. c +6. of their denominators. x* 4. Simplify x }. n a 8. 7i+~ 7. 9. 6. 2. . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . y X 4* 2 y 3.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . C. a m "" . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Ex.y 32 .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.
1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. : . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. m^n* n L a 17. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.
a. x = 6. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 5(3 85 Check. 2z2a.1. M.48. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).8 x = .28 x + 42 = .9 x2 + 9.14 (a. Uniting. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). If = 64. Uniting. 9x x Check. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.28 a = 5 x2 . Clearing of fractions. of the denominator. 2 3. these Ex.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. + 1) (a + 3) .42 + 9. = 6.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . If x 6. Bx 12 Qx. . each member is reduced to 1.f3# + C:E=6f7212.l)(z + 3) = . C.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Transposing. 4 4)  x. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2x Transposing. 108 . 1. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2. = 6. 148. each member is reduced to Ex. tions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.
a: 7 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.1 _77 a. ^1 = 9. 18. a/  5 a/ = 12. 15. . +4 14. . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.= 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a. ^' 2. 1 *> = 2. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 16.
2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . 27 . 33. 3x 35.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. If two or more denominators are monomials. 25.  38 = 40. ._ _ . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 32 6 . 4a4l4* + l~. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and" the remaining one a polynomial.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . .11_4 x 149. 31 31. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 26 26. ?_=_. J_. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. y+3~2 29.
5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Check. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1.2 42 9 43. 5x x : = 9. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. a. If a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. . M.29 50712' 9 18 . Transposing and uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . the 1 5 L. 5# 10.  5 = 20 x 45. C. 60. Dividing. each member is reduced to ^. 1.. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 26 a. 24 a. = 9.
ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Ex. Thus. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .3 6 2 = a' . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Ex. fr Reducing lowest terms.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = l^ 9 b 4 . y. ax f x f. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.m bx 2 mn) x.2 62 2 ab. find a in terms of b and c. a.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Uniting. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. . 5> a. they are united by factoring. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. = = 6 6c 7 6c.be. Uniting the Dividing.& . If 3ac L= = a ? . =a 2 151. jr. 2.1. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Dividing. f ~ 5c. = 2 f b 2 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. 4 ac 1.2 ac + 3 aft . = 6 a2 . It frequently occurs that the x. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.
. solve for a. 3(* 8. solve for . 6. + xx = 1. m a? x . 1 f. co?. 15. p the principal. = 8 4 #. c 18. f P =+!. = 5. 2 solve for y a. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. + 3a. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). * Solve the same equation for^). a. iw 21. 3. denoting the interest. 17. . 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 11. If s If 16. IIL n b + &o. 5) is t =^. _ 2. 10. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. mx = n. 4. Ex. 29. . 4.= c a Z> . = 3 (6 a). rate. s = Vt solve for v. 13. c.i l .= n. = rt. The The i time. 34. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. and n the number of years. in terms of other quantities. 31.= H. t. If * 33. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 14. f ^o. . r the number of $>. 9. = vt. 30. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. q solve for/. If ^^ = a 1 32.a. ^ ax a^ 26.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 12.
100 C. is 36. .180. x Or Uniting. 12. = 16^. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.20 C. Ex. 1. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. . Ex. 2. and 12 = the number over. Find R in terms of C and TT. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.114 35.. A would do each day ^ and B j. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. then = 2 TT#. 2 3 . of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Multiplying by Dividing.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.
and the statement. Solving. Ex. in Then Therefore.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. = 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 180 Transposing. 3. or 1J. 4x = 80. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. the rate of the express train. Clearing." : Let x  = the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
fifth Two numbers differ 2. is oO. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. to his daughand the remainder. is equal 7. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. of his present age. 3. and of the father's age. ex What 5. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find A's 8. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 3. make 21. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and J of the greater Find the numbers. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How did the much money man leave ? 11. ceeds the smaller by 4. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. money and $10. which was $4000. length in the ground. to his son. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and 9 feet above water. by 6. and one half the greater Find the numbers. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.  Find their present ages. a man had How much money had he at first? . 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water.
A has invested capital at more 4%. investments. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. what is the 14.) 22. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and B in 4 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ^ at 5%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 152. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. . 1. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex. How much money $500? 4%. Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 3. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. air. Ex. and it B in 6 days.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.009 918. Hence. . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 3. Then ft i. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.e. is 57. 2. B in 16. B in 12. Ex.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. 26. is 42. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. To and find the numerical answer. A in 6. therefore. The problem to be solved. they can both do in 2 days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. m and n. B in 30. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.= . .118 153. and n = 3. if B in 3 days. B in 5. and apply the method of 170. A in 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. A in 6.414. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. 25. . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.g. e.
last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem.721. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. the rate of the first. Find the side of the square. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. . the second at the apart. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 3 miles per hour. is ?n . is (a) 51. same hour from two towns. meet. and the second 5 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. (d) 1. : (c) 64 miles. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. After how many hours do they meet.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. The one: 31. respectively (a) 60 miles. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. Two men start at the first miles apart. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. squares 29. (c) 16. 2 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour.001. 4J miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 2 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour.000. (b) 149. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. respectively. 33. squares 30. if m and n are. 34. (b) 35 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.
antecedent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.5. E. etc. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . In the ratio a : ft. b. 158. 6 12 = . Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . Ex. the antecedent. a ratio is not changed etc. " a Thus. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. . b. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios." we may write a : b = 6. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. b is the consequent. 1. is numerator of any fraction consequent. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.g. the second term the consequent. the symbol being a sign of division. Simplify the ratio 21 3. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the denominator The the 157. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : : 155. The first 156.
: 1. 159. 4:5f : 5. The last first three. 3. 3:4. 4. and c is the third proportional to a and . 17. 18. Transform the following unity 15.RATIO Ex. and c. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 6. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 27 06: 18 a6. Simplify the following ratios 7. 62:16. a and d are the extremes. equal 2. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. terms. 7:4 T T 4 . 1. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 7f:6J. 16a2 :24a&. 3:1}. 3 8. b is the mean b. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 8^ hours. 61 : ratios 72:18. : ay . The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 10. proportional between a and c. two  ratios. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 11. 9. 16. extremes. 5 f hours : 2. b and c the means. J:l. b. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 12. $24: $8. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. In the proportion a b : = b : c.
: : directly proportional may say. 163.) b = Vac. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.30 grams. 3 4. The mean proportional of their product.) mn = pq. i. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. of a proportion. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. and the other pair the extremes. 163. ccm.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ad = be. and the time necessary to do it. q~~ n . pro portional. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. briefly. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. are : : : inversely proportional.__(163. 2 165. of iron weigh . If (Converse of nq. " we " NOTE. 6 ccm. 164. of iron weigh 45 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. Hence the number of men required to do some work. : c. Clearing of fractions. = 30 grams 45 grams.122 162. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. !.e.
ad ( 163. ad = be. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Frequently called Inversion. (Division.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. hence the proportion true. 166. then =d c. Or IV. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (163. + b:b = c + d:d.) (Called Alternation. I.) d 167. 1. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I. a:c=b:d.) = f f = 3 J. is Ex. (Composition. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) II. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. V. if 6 : 7. 12x Hence a? = 42. . 2. bd bd. is 4$ = 35. a III. d d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. = 35 .PATIO Ex.
and determine whether they are true or not : 6. E. V. 5. Or III. = 12 5ft. = 180:125. 4. . 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 120:42 2 2 7. 8. x = 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Simplify the following proportions.e. 5 5. IV. Apply composition. 2. 10. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. : x. = 20:7. 9. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 2:x. . 6 =4 : x.g. mx tin Apply composition and division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 3. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. the consequents by 7. i.124 IT.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 7:2f 3J.!=!*. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:3. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.
23. x m = y n. 33. 2. + fyx = cy. rag. 26. 2 a and 18 a. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 46. 21. 20. 51. 18. 6x = 7y.j>. 12. 13. 3. = 5 x 12. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. a 2 and ab. 5. 6 x = y. 3. 50. 38. ra. 39. a?:15 15. to: = 35:*.  32. ra + landra 1.:ff. = l^:18.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 2. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 2= 5 x x. f. 47. Find the mean proportional 30. (a : : 45. ra 2 .. 22. 1. : a2 . w. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 35. x:5 = y:2. 41. = 2 + x: x. 31. = 3 43 + x. and 2/. 112:42 = 10:a. a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 14 and 21. Find the third proportional 24. terra 2:3 = 4. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. = 15o. : 53. to : a and 1. 27. 16 and 28. 4. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 42. 2 3 = y #. to : 9 and 12. 3t. 29. 4 and 16. 16. ratio of y. 7iy = 2:x. 25. 34. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 52. 6. mx = ny. 17. Find the 37. 14.x: 6:5 a : x. 44. rap. if : 40. 28. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. b. 9 x = 2 y.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. : . 03:a?=135:20. 43. 5= 18 a? : a?.8:1. . 1 and a.
inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 7^. and the speed of the train. and the time necessary for it. what 58. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the area of the rectangle. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 56. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the time. and the : total cost. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.126 54. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. 57. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. the area of the larger? the same. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches.
4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. = the second number. as 11 Let then : 1. . 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 4 inches long.000 168. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108. is A line AB. x=2. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. produced to a point C. x = 6. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x x 7 Ex.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 2 x Or = 4. : Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 2. AB = 2 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Let A B AC=1x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. so that Find^K7and BO. 7 x = 42 is the second number.
and 15 inches. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. and c inches. 12. Gunmetal tin.000. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 3. 13. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. How The long are the parts ? 15. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.000 square miles. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many gen. 12. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How many 7. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 7. : 4. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. find the number of square miles of land and of water. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 9. 2. What are the parts ? 5. 6. 14. : 197. 11.) .
the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. a? (1) then I. =. The root of (4) if K 129 . is x = 7.. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.L x If If = 0. However. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1. y = 1. Hence. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. etc. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. values of x and y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. there is only one solution.y=. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. such as + = 10. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. if .CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. 2 y = .e. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. expressing a y.
of elimination most frequently used II. 21 y . 174. The first set of equations is also called consistent. the last set inconsistent. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.26. unknown quantity. Substitution. 6x .24. same relation. E.130 170. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 3.3 y = 80. to The two methods I. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. Therefore. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . viz. y I 171. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. ~ 50.X. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 4y . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. = . 172. are simultaneous equations. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. and 3 x + 3 y =. By By Addition or Subtraction. 26 y = 60. for they express the x f y 10. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. y = 2.
Transposing. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3. are like. 3. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.14 =8. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 37.2 = 6.3 1 = 47. subtract the equations. + 2. = 235.3 y = 47.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 60 . 5 13 . add the equations. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 10 . y = 1. whose coefficients In general. 25 x . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). = 406. x = 10. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 64 x = 040.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 2. 3y = 3. Therefore Check. 8 2. Check.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. * + 3 y = 50. O t K 8. = 6. I . .3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. [2o. _.v 23. = 24. I oj 5y = 17. f 3# ?/ = 0. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 7 ' 1fi fl . I i 3 a.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 13 61 l7a.5 y = 2.9 *.f2/ ' = 50.3. x 11. v ^ = ll. ' 12.4. i 3. + 2/ 17. J I y = 1U. 13. f 3X 7x 14. 9 1 r 20. 19< I a. I ~ y~~> 22. ] ^ . = 41.
= 2. . (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. and solve the resulting equation. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 4#8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 8. = 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 60. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. x ) ^"" 13. 3. = 2y + 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .
4* + 3y = 19. 21z6y=9. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7x_2y=3. however. From 9 = 36. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. + 212y4 = 14. 2 y = . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (4). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 29 x = 29. (7) (7) (8) .3. 3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 3 (1) Ex. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6.6)7(y7)==18. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. Substituting in (6) .
16. a. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. 12. 4 11. = 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. J 9. yM a.f2 2. . +y 2 . . 14. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.1) = 121.1) + 5(6 y . . 10 2a?5 17. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 10.
In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. ?~y . e. 180.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. and y. f y . . 22. but some expressions involving x. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.and x y .Q ^ 4 21. <X + 20. * ((* (( .#. 3x\" 1 23 24. {.
however. Substituting x = 3 in (1). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y 1.4 x = 4 xy. . 15 y + 8 x . y 4.3 xy. 2* * x 2. can also be solved Examples method. y. Therefore y=4. x 2x(2). of this type. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. x 3. Dividing by 11 3 = #. 137 Solve y y (1) . 33 = 11 x. . Clearing of fractions. etc. (2) (3) a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) + (G).
253 7. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 1. Ex. n. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 331 9. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x 8.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 21 9 . y MOi y a. . x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6.= 5. = en. 4 13.= o 6.
ap. d. Dividing. . x f my = 1. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. W . From the same equations find s in terms of a. w. x 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. . and I. x a. a Find a and terms of n. fax f = l. and I if 13. 6. Uniting. ny = fy/ I sc 1. f 5. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.y = = 9a + 46. s in 11. ax + by = 2 a&. d. apan cm. 14.W. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. bmy bm}y ap cm. .
8 = 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 1.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 8 x . To solve equations containing By tions.15z=12 Adding.2 + 3. (8) 2. Ex. 20. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).12 y + 6 z = . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. = 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. x + 12 y .2 + 4. 182. ties are Similarly. = 30.25. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. y =* 2. 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 1.by 2.3=4. 3. f 3y 12 =s 8. (4) (5). (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 4. by 3. l. 6. 4.16.13. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.lf> z . . 3y = Hence Check. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3 = 8.1+4. etc.
a? 11. 2z = 40. 4 = 42. 8. k 2/ f 2 x a. + y f z = 15. ~6?/ 5. 12. a? + 709 = 26. 10. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 7. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . 15 2 = 45. 2 4. 14. 49. == 6.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. f 2 i/ f z = 14. x 13.
6 2. = 8*. 27. 19. . (3 _. ? = llz. 1510 4 17. . ?/ 3x = 0. =s 20. 4. 16. 60.42 = 2. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 84 21. 32.. 22. = 5. ^ = 2.2 a.3 y + . . 23.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.
Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. + 396 = 521. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . ( 99. = l. 2 = 1(1+6). however. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. . and to express In complex examples.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. = 2 m. +2+ 6 = 8. z + x = 2 n. 1 = 2. . M=i. 2 = 6.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. y 31. x : z =1 : 2. 1. symbols: x + y +z 8. and if 396 be added to the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. # 4. Ex. the number. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Find the number. + z = 2p. y * z 30. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Check. 1 digit in the tens place. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. either directly or implied. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Obviously of the other .
the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 4 x = 24. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3+1 5+1 4_2. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3 = 24. we obtain. direction. 2. . By expressing the two statements in symbols. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 2. Ex. y = 3. xy a: 2y 4y 2. = the fraction. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. From (3) Hence xy Check. = 8. = Hence the fraction is f. B. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. C. (1) (2) 12. 5_ _4_ A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. increased by one. x 3x4y = 12. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one.144 Ex. Or (4)2x(3). (3) C4) = 24 miles. 3. 6 x 4 = 24.
Find the numbers. and the fourth 3. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. number by the first 3. 2. Find the numbers. and its denomi nator diminished by one. the value of the fraction is fa. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. it is reduced to J. the fraction equals . Find the fraction. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. ? What 9. the digits will be interchanged. the last two digits are interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. added to the numerator of a fraction. If 9 be added to the number. If 27 is 10. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. both terms. part of their difference equals 4. the Find the fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 1. tion ? 8. . If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and the numerator increased by 4. the fraction is reduced fraction. Find the number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 7. 183. Find the numbers. its value added to the denominator. 5. Find the number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.}. the number (See Ex. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11.) added to a number of two digits. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 6. to the number the digits will be interchanged. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. fraction is reduced to \.
What was the amount of each investment ? 15. . Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 14. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. 5 %. 19. A man invested $750. 13.grams. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Find the rates of interest. the annual interest would be $ 195. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 12. partly at 5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and partly at 4 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%.000 is partly invested at 6%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and in 5 years to $1125. A sum of $10. in 8 years to $8500. and money and 17. Find their present ages. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. the rate of interest? 18. How 6 %. and 4 %. now. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. respectively ? 16. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.
the length of NOTE. 1 NOTE. the three sides of a triangle E. and GE = CF.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and CE If AB = G inches. An C touch ing the sides in D. B find angles a. triangle Tf AD. and F. BC = 7 inches. and F '(see diagram). and angle BCA = 70. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. E. respectively. BD = HE. . and e. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. three AD = AF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. 24. and F. angle c = angle d. and $15 for each sheep. for $ 740. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and angle e angle/. On /). and AC = 5 inches. then AD = AF. BE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. receiving $ 100 for each horse. are taken so ABC. ED = BE. cows. is the center of the circum scribed circle. A farmer sold a number of horses. and sheep. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. BC=7. 23. points. c. $ 50 for each cow. Find their rates of walking. but if A would double his pace. 25. what is that = OF. and their difference by GO . what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. .
first 3). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. 186. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. PM. (2. and r or its equal OA is . ?/. 3). and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. the ordinate of point P.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.. and PJ/_L XX'. (7. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. B. 2). jr. The of Coordinates. is the abscissa. and PN _L YY'. PN. the ordinate by ?/. Thus the points A. (2. and point the origin. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (3. It' Location of a point. or its equal OM. is The point whose abscissa is a. PN are given. YY' theyaxis. . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading.
1). 0). Plot the points: (4. 3). (4.and(l. 71 2). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. . 6. (2.4). (0. (See diagram on page 151. 0). (4. i. 4). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. and measure their distance. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. !). 2J). 4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (4. (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 0). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2). 2.1). 8. 3). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points : (0.e. 2). 3).3). Graphs. 0). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 3. (1. 4) and (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 6. 12. (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.(!. (3. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (5. 4) from the origin ? 7. 1).) EXERCISE 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 11. 4). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Plot the points: (4. . (0. What is the locus of (a?.2). Plot the points (6. (4.
Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ure the ordinate of F. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 188. By representing of points. may be found on Jan. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . Thus the first table produces 12 points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 1. C. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. or the curved line the temperature. from January 1 to December 1. . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. however. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 10 .. D. we meas1 . B. 15.
. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (b) July 15. Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. uses them. the merchant. the rise and fall of wages. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. physician. etc. the graph is applied. (d) November 20.
?  3.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (d) 9 0. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 15.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.. is 10. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. When the average temperature below C. 1? 11 0. How much. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. During what months above 18 C. 1 to Oct. on 1 to the average. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (freezing point) ? 7. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. ? 9.152 2. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. (1) 10 C.
Draw . a temperature chart of a patient. NOTE.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw a graph for the 23. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Hour Temperature . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. One meter equals 1. transformation of meters into yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 20.
binding. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. if each copy sells for $1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. if he sells 0. then C irJl. 26. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. amount to $8. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 4. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 28. 9.50. 2 . x* x 19. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. gas..inch.5 grams. e. etc. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 2.) T circumferences of 25. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. x increases will change gradually from 13. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. A 10 wheels a day. function If the value of a quantity changes.154 24. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. the daily average expenses for rent. 29. . to 27.. represent his daily gain (or loss).. and $. 3. x 7 to 9.g. 190. books from for printing. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 1 to 1200 copies. 3.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. the value of a of this quantity will change. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50.
The values of func192. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 50. 2 (1. plot points which lie between those constructed above.1). (1^. as 1. be also represented by a graph. and (3. 4).e. J). 3 (0. . (1. to x = 4. however. 2). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. x a variable.g. 9). construct '.1). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2. for x=l. may . Graph of a function. may. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 9). Q. 4). Ex. ( 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191.0).2 x may 4 from x = 4. and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 f. If a more exact diagram is required. etc. is supposed to change. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. while 7 is a constant. (2. E. 1 the points (3. a*. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .
= 4. 4).. r */ +* 01 .. . (To avoid very large ordinatcs. rf 71 .4). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.20). = 0. 4J. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. straight line produces the required graph..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 7 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and join(0. (2. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. Thus in the above example. j/=3. 1). Ex. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. etc. Thus 4x + 7. 194. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.. 5). (3. 2. y = 6. 2 4 and if y = x f. as y.) For brevity.2 x . (4.
2J. (C ) (2. the function. a* 13. from x VlO'S". Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. . if"a. 9. 2J. x+1. 16. 23x. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 1. (If) Va25.or. 2. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y.5)2. 4a? I. 2 a. 15. Jar . 12. 6. xz + x. a? 2 4. 7. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 3. 1 8 10. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. The values of a*. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. = 4. + 4. 2. 1J. The smallest value of the function. . (7i) (c) 23. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 1J. = The values of a*. 3. 2 2. 3 a 8. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.5)2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 21. l. ?/ a. fa 17. 18. a? 1. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 8. a?.8)'. 5. (ft) (_ 1. y = 2x = 4. 1J. 6 fa. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. The values of a?. 11. 2x + 3x a?. J. if the function equals zero. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 2 a. 4 a. i. if a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. if y = 2. 2 or 2 20. 14. 19. 22. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2 2 a. a.e.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. a ar. xl.
C. then cXj where c is a constant. y= formula graphically. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. .158 24.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.. 9 F. the abscissas of 3. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 25.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. Therefore x = 1.where x c is a constant. then y = . 1 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.24 or x = P and Q.. Represent 26. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. that graph with the o>axis. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 14 F. 32 F. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Show any convenient number). A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. i.24. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.e.
13. a2 2a. 10. . 6. Such equations in general have two roots. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a.7 2 a 5 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 4. (0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 197.f 9 = 0. 3. 7. (a) (6) 9. = 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 2 and 1. 12. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. (a) x2 = 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. crosssection paper is used. or 5 2. 11. 6. + + = where a. is called a quadratic equation. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. viz. 8.
y = l. 0). 2). produces the 7* required locus. NOTE.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. if y = is 0. and join the required graph. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . X'2 Locating the points (2. fc = 3. 3x _ 4 . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. and joining by a straight line. ?/ =4 AB.2 y ~ 2. ?/. 4) and (2.1. unknown quantities. Hence if if x x  2. i. If x = 0. Hence. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. locate points (0. first degree. .e. y= A and construct x (  graphically. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 1) and 0). T . because their graphs are straight lines. = 0.2. (f . Ex. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. == 2. y y 2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. solve for ?/. Ex. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 199. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence we may join (0.
we obtain the roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 203. AB y = . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. parallel have only one point of intersection. linear equations have only one pair of roots.15. 3. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.57. equation x= By measuring 3. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). P. 201. To find the roots of the system. and CD. (2) . 202. viz.1=0. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Graphical solution of a linear system. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.
1. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P.g. AB the locus of (1). and joining by a straight line. 3. (1) (2) C. 2 equation x 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. P graphs meet in two and $. 3x 2 y = 6. and + 3). there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.  4. 4. 0. and . 2. Using the method of the preceding para.5. 4. 5. x2 . e. Solving (1) for y. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.0). they are inconsistent. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. 2. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. = 0.5. Locating two points of equation (2). 0. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. if x equals respectively 0. y equals 3.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Inconsistent equations. (4. 4.9. intersection. 3. 3). the point we obtain Ex.y~ Therefore. V25 5. (4. the graph of points roots. 0) and (0. i. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. . There can be no point of and hence no roots.. 1. Locating the points (5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). we of the + y* = 25. In general.e. 4. 5. 3. etc. The equations 2 4 = 0.0. (2.
1 6* + 7 y = 3. x~y=0. 16 22. vice versa. 2x 3?/=6. 16 23. the graphs of the following systems. y=x + 5. 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 8. \ 2x + 3^ . 6. 7. if possible. and solve each If there are no solutions. 9. y= a2 2x y6. '163 Dependent equations. a+r/=6. 20. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1.. a. 19. Draw system. y = 4. 3. state reasons. . 2. 10. 5. and. 17. y 2 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.
14 y = . 3 31. 25.8. 29 .y).164 24. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 30. 4 a = 3(6 . CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES.
INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ^4/? it According to 50. ( a) is positive. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . Law of Signs. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 52. According to 1. on to in factors 4. 8. follows that 3. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. a = a3 . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.a2 . fa.faa a a a Obviously 1. a special kind of product. involution repeated multiplication. etc. 2. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. is may be by 207. . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.
' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. the required power. (2ar).166 To find To To power. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.6) = a . raise a fraction to a power. 3 2 2 8 .6 (a 8 8 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . \ 3 J '  MW 10. a product to a given power. 15. (a ) 2 5 . 4. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 5.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 76 : (>y. (^^) 2 . (a ) 2 4  3. 210. 2. 2 11 (afc ) . 6. V V/ 13. 4 /2mV. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. . 16. 24. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (277171 )*. amVy) 3 .
8. 211. nent of the binomial. 9. 1.3 y. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (a + &)8 . 13. 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . + a 2 a. (6m+2w) (3 8 .y . An 1. frequently called ex. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 18. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .y) = (3 y?y . +5a) 22. The higher powers of binomials.INVOLUTION Ex. 12. 1 f 3 2 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. + 4aj) 3 . a. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.6 2 8 ft) . (aj7) . 4. 21. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. : a 20.) 14. 23. . are obtained by multiplication. (afl) . 15. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 2. pansions. 2 . 6. etc. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (3 x . 7. 3. 3 8 . 8 (a??/) 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (5 (1 a) 3 . 2. 16. 5. (3af26) 8 . . Ex.
. The minus. (m 2 + n) 8 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 17. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. (2 a 4 . . (?>i?i f c)*. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 4 (1for) 5 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (la&) 4 12. 13. 6. . 14. (a~^) 5 . (af 5) . 25.a) 3 19. 9. . 4 . Ex. 5. 78 s . 18.216 a^ 4. 10.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 4. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . .2. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 3. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 15. 1. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. . (?/i~w) : 16. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 21. 2. 24. . mn 5 2 5 ) . (l 8 . 3. (m 5 I) 2 22. (m fl) 2 20. (p + q) 4 * 7.168 3. and the powers negative. (1 + 4 ?/) . 23. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. Ex. 5. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (w 4 ?i) 4 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (tff1) (cfd) . ( &) 5 . is the coefficient of the next term. Ex. (mJ) 4 11. 8. (2 4.
(_3) = 27. or x &4 . 27 =y means r' = 27. called real numbers. and ( v/o* = a. which can be simplified no further. 4 4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 2. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 215. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 1. and all other numbers are. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. a) 4 = a4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. = x means = 6. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or y ~ 3. Since even powers can never be negative. V \/P 214. tity . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 109 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. numbers. \/"^27=3. V9 = + 3. for distinction.
7. fy 5 3 . 9. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.1.200 . . 79 2 v/2 5 . extract the and denominator. index. = 19472. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex. 62 = V2* . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . roots of the numerator \/18 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 7 . 3i .4. To extract a root of a fraction. 9. 8.64 5 4 . v/2^. 3.(. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = V26TIT81 = 53.lL.  100 a 2 . Ex. To extract the root of a power. 4 v. 6 7 = 030. V?. EXERCISE 1. 10.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . = 199 + (_ 198) . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3/0** = am . 8. 6. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. . 2. . 5. \/2 4 9 . V36 9 4. Ex 5 a" . Ex. 2 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 82 . v/^i2 = a*.201) = 2. Ex. 7 .9 = 136. 2. 6. 7. V25 9 16.125.
31. 33. 2 . Find the square root of a2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 3. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. . V8. Ex.98. 30. 5. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. ^40^4.3 . 45 V5184. a* 4 8 2 . 32. 34.3. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 6. a f2 l 2 + l. 2 f ( V240) 3 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . V20 . 2.) by inspection. V9216.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.75. 2 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116./).(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/.EVOLUTION 171 28. 116.3 y2) ( vV . 1. 29. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.
8 . let us consider the relation of a f. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. #2 a2  16. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2ab . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. + 6 + 4a&.2 &c. a f. 10.2 ab + b . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.2 ac . a\b is the root if In most cases.72 aW + 81 & 4 . and b. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. mV14m??2)f 49. 2 2 218.172 7.> 13. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. i. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .e. however. 14.b 2 2 to its square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . . 11. 15. 12. and b (2 a f b).
. Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . 2. 8 a 2 . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. */'' .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 8 /. the first term of the answer. 219. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 1. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 2.EVOLUTION Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .24 afy* f 9 tf. . and consider Hence the their sum one term. First trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. by division we term of the root. As there is no remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. The square . 1. is As there is no remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. of x. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. and so forth. 6 a. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. First complete divisor. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Explanation. . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.
2 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.9. 16. l 4. 3. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.24 or . 20. a? 2 .a 6 x*y 2 .12m 5 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.73 a8 . x 6 4 4 0^4.16.25.12 m 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.73a4 440^436^460^.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .10 x2 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 12. 13#4 413ar 44a. 10. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 36it. 24. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 1 4. > 7. + 81 a 454 a + 81.37 a ^ . 6. 4 . 436^?/469a. 5. 6 11. .4 x 4. 14.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 15.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 5 4 16 4 iK .20 o 4. 9.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 19. 17.25 x 4 4. 18. 2 x2 3 2x.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 8. 16x6 4.42 a*& 4.6 . 729 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.40 a 22 .
which may contain one or two). Find the square root of 524. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the first of which is 8. the first of which is 4.000 is 100. first . of 10.1344. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. of 1. and the first remainder is. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Ex.000. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 2. the square root of 7744 equals 88. The is trial divisor = 160. Therefore 6 = 8. and the complete divisor 168. of a number between 100 and 10.176. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Find the square root of 7744. etc. and the square root of the greatest square in units. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. etc. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.EVOLUTION 220. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Ex. = 80. two figures.000 is 1000.. 1. a 2 = 6400.000.
places. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher.1 are Ex. Find the square root of 6/.70 6. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 12.0961 are '.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.GO'61.10. The groups of 16724. 3. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.
01. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .4 square when R = radius and 11. 13. 31. 1. . whose area equals 48. T\.) 40. JT . 36. = 3.53. 39. 34. 1. feet.22. 30. 35. feet.58 square 38. 5.1410. 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 33. J. 32.
= 4. 6 y2 = 17.g. x 2 7. Transposing. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. x = + 2 or x =2. 6#2 = x* 24. complete. 2)* + 5 = 33. The 7 equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. = 7^ + 5. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Extracting the square root of each member. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. A pure. 1. or equation of the second degree.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. or incomplete. 226. 225. Ex. is 12. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . This answer Check. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. or affected. 224. 178 . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation.. 2 ic = a. is A quadratic equation. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. 2. . Dividing.
. (a? 9.2. . 19 + 9 = 5500. 10. 7 = 162. 3. 7. : 83 2. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8. o. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . or Therefore.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. Solve 179 . 15^5 = 6. 2 2 a. 5. 16^393 = 7. 2. 0^ + 1 = 1. ' =: y? b* b . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ax Transposing and combining. 2 4fc 5' 18. 4 ax.25. 6(2)=10(ajl).
Find the side of each field. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. and their product : 150. ' 4. 2 . may be considered one half of a rec square units.) of their squares 5. 2 . is 5(5. 228. 4. solve for v. find a in terms of 6 . If G=m m g . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 2 : 3. If a 2 4. 29. A right triangle is a triangle. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 24. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. : 6. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 27. Find is the number. 25. . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 26. Find the numbers.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. solve for d. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 108. Find the side of each field. If 22 = ~^. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. .b 2 If s If =c . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. then Since such a triangle tangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. EXERCISE 1. 22 a. 28. 2. and they con tain together 30G square feet. solve for r. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. r. 3.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. is and the other two sides are equal. Find these 10. we have of or m = . The area : sides are as 3 4. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. (b) 100 feet? = . Method of completing the square. sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 9. To find this term. . Solve Transposing. and the two smaller 11. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the radii. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 24.2 7 .) 13. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . x* 7 x= 10. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. J = 12. 2m.7 x f 10 = 0. A body falling from a state of rest. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. and the third side is 15 inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. radii are as 3 14. of a right triangle Find these sides. . . Find the sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . (b) 44 square feet. add () Hence 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. 8. Find the unknown sides and the area. 4.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.
a.2 a2 . 230. = \ # = ff. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Uniting. Transposing. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Transposing. = x\ = 2. Simplifying. adding member). 7 5 + 10 = 0.e. 62 x 5 = f. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Ex. = 6. Therefore. = .  \.2. Hence Therefore Check. a Clearing of fractions. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Extracting square roots. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. or x = 2. J.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. (*~8) a = at . 2 a* a. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2  . a. Ex.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member..x(l = .1. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. . or J.
4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
Solution by formula.c = 0. \bx\. x la 48. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. and c in the general answer. = 12. =8 r/io?. =0. 49. 231. ao. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. article. . o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.
3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 9. 19. 26. 1. 2or } 5o.4 4 5 . 7^ + 9 x 90. a. 18. : 86 + 2 = 0. 5 x2 Transposing. TIO. 7. 10. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. = 64120?. 2.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2 o. 4. Reducing to general form. 17. 6. 21. 2 a.25 x. 12. c p. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6. 13. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). b =  + 20 == = 0.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 16. V^tT)* . 8. c = 5. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 15. 6 . 20. 2 a? = 44 x . 6 Ex.  . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2. 11. = 12 . 2 . 14. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6^+5^ 56.. ?i 2 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.
Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 5) = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Transposing. . Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . 23. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. x2 = 1 . = 14. = 0. 5 = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.5) =0. Bx 1 1. 233. if either of the uct is zero.2. 1. x(x <2 . and 6. Clearing for fractions. 0. factors Now. (5 a? !)(. 26. orz roots. 24. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solution by factoring. a=:i^^. Factoring. 27 x== 42a.x. member can be Ex. }. 2S3x 1 2 . 3x?+x = 7. any degree. = 0. 25. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. all or. or # 5 is zero. Eesolving into factors. ar>8o. transposing terms to one member.
16. E.g. aj( 15. Or Hence the 234.e. + 10 a = 24. 3 or 2 a. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3^ = 0(1106). 5. 5 = 0.(. 12. 6. a* 10a=24. Ex. x2 f 2 x . is 5) = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. + 100. 3# y 5 = 0. + 8=s: 7. 3) = 0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. } 2 2 (5 . members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. : 87 = 0. 2. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. O roots are 2. 4. 7. (aj4)(a.24 = 0. 2o3 f9a. a?. a?10a=:24.6)) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 0^ ar> 11. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 14. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 13. + 6)=0. 2. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. we 9 obtain x 4.= 24. The equation I. 0(02) = 7(02). 3. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 8. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.:=0. 9. 3) Factoring. for a: .  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a.3)(x + 3 3. 4)(z3) = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.
w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b. 20. 2. 25. 23.188 17. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. '3a!J  . (a + 1) (a. 50. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 19. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. 18. 22. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).3) = (s + l) (3 a). ara + ft + c*. 27.
. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find the numbers. 1. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and consequently many prob 235. The 11. 4. 52. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. 8. and whose product 9.3. 3.3. 54. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 189 the equations whose roots are 53. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. number by 10.0. of their reciprocals is 4. EXERCISE 1. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 7. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 58. Find the number. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the number. 5. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. two numbers is 4. 5. 2. feet. G. 2.9. 3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and equals 190 square inches.1. is Find two numbers whose product 288.2. 0.3. 2. and whose sum is is 36. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 2. The difference of . : 3. 55. Find the sides. 56. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.0. 57. 1.
13. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch.190 12. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. ply between the same two ports. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. as the 16. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 17. If he each horse ? . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Two vessels. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. . ABCD. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. Find the rate of the train. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet.10. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. What did he pay for 21. 14. 15. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. dollars. sold a horse for $144. he would have received two horses more for the same money. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and Find the sides of the rectangle. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. watch for $ 24. 19. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.
By formula. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. and working together. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Ex. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 24. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. is On the prolongation of a line AC.) 25. 27. the two men can do it in 3 days. 237. Find TT r (Area of a circle . (tf. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. ^3^ = 7. or x = \/l = 1. of the area of the basin. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. constructed with and CB as sides. how wide is the walk ? 23. Find and CB. 23 inches long. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. a point taken. so that the rectangle. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. contains B 78 square inches. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. . as 0. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26.
19. Ex. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 2. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2 h9:=0. Hence Le. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4. T 17. 4 : 89 10a. 8. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 16. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 10. 12. a? 15 1=2*. a. or y = 8. 436 3. = 13. y8)=0. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a 21or=100. >. 2 16 a^40 11. 9. 4 6. 6. aV+9o 4 =0. 4 a. 7. = 1.192 238. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a4 5o.T 2 2 . 18. Solving. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.2 =4.)+72=0.
The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. ( 2a Hence 1. 240.5) = 04. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . b 4. and unequal. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2 z .2) 2 4 3 (. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .bx 4. rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 241. and equal. c the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 1. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Ex. the roots are irrational. the roots are unequal. the roots are equal. The discriminant =(. the roots are imaginary. 3. rational.f> = 0. the roots are rational. the roots are real. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Relations between roots and coefficients. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. is 4ac not zero. Ex. 2. a perfect square. . negative. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .12 x + 9 = 0.
= 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. + 18 2 8. : a 2 . 2a 4z5 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 4. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. their product isf. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.. f 2 E.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 5aj 9. lla.19 # 20. 9a3 = 0. 2 7. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 12~x = x 2 .g. + 12 2  . + 2a. 21. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. x2 7 10. 18. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. ^12. + 2a15 = 0. 14. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 22. = Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 6. 12. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2 a. 2. 60 2 = 0. 24. o. 17. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 23. 2 : 3. = 5x. 3a. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 15. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 10 x = 25 x + 1. = 0.
> m therefore. no Fractional and negative exponents. We assume. II. a m a" = a m+t1 ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. (a m ) w . The first of these laws is nition of power. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. hence. It is. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. and . Then the law of involution.a" = a m n mn . that a an = a m+n . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.* III. such as 2*. (ab) . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. provided w > n. for all values 1 of m and n. = a"" < . while the second of the first. however. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . ~ a m f. must be *The symbol smaller than. 244. m IV.
at. 0?=^.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. (bed)*. 31. = a. (xy$. a . Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. as.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . fractional. . a\ 26. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. e. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 24. or zero exponent equal x. Assuming these two 8*. ml. 28. a?*. 30. disappear. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.g. 29. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. m$. 245. 25. '&M A 27. laws. n 2 a. 4~ . a*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. etc. 23. 3*.
37. a * a2 Or a=l. = 49. \fi?. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. v/o&cT 34. 7z* Find the values of 47. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. e. hence is .g. Vo5 . 38. = 2. : 197 33.g. 246. Let a = a. v'mT 36. 49. \/xy \/m. the base is zero. Solve the following equations 39. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. equal to unity. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 42. e. a. however. 41. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 40. 35. 3* = 27. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4. 45.\/n. 27* = 3. If. 5 a* = 10. 46. a . ty?. 44. 48. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a* * = 3. 43. 50.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. or the exponent. consider the following equations. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. . an x = a. vice versa. e. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. by changing the sign of NOTE.198 247. cr n.2 = a2 . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Or a"# = l. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.g. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Let x= or". 248. Multiplying both members by a". etc.
. 36. 3 a? * 42. 25. ^L. 66 45. 22. 37. 2 . 2m~i 43. . 39."* 38. rfS. 3 a. 40. ^?2 y' 34.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 27. 7~ l a 2b 2 . : mi m~^. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. * 24. 44. c 32. : or 5 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. a^ 41. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. a. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. f (2w)~i 1 . 2 . m .
58. 57. = ^. 53. . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.6). 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = l. + A_. 17' 2 51. 59. 10* 5* = .001. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. z* = 1. of: 3ll4~* 60. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.26)* 1 (I) 2 . z 5or*=10.(. 49. ar = i. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 1.343)* + (. + 1~* f 21 . 48. 61. = 5. 47. 54. 250. = .008)* + A. 55.81 f (a .1. Ex. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 10* Find the values 56. 52.9*.
Perform the operation indicated. 10. (d) If required.4 . 3. 16. 17. 18. .&.$*. 3sVS. V5. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.. 72 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7~ 6 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 4 5.4 a8 .7*. #* a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 6.6 *' 6 *25. OA 20.3 aj" a. Remove the negative exponents. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7~ 5 27  . NOTE. . &. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.5.5a.&. a.^/5^5. 95 ^9i 5**. 14. 16. 8 ' 9. etc.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. are performed. remove the fractional exponents. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 13.$". 12. 27  28. / 7fv 7.7i. S'sS8. 6 *. 7.7W. 79 . . 26. 3 a. 6a. 7*. 23. 4 x^. ' 11.
we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35. 1. 2. 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.2 d . If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. The 252. 34. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 40. Arrange in descending powers of Check.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
33. in order of magnitude : \/7. Ex. VS. ^/IT.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^4. signs. To add or form. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 38. 31. 28. if dissimilar. </20. 39. connect them by proper 1. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 37. 5V2. ^6. v/3. Arrange 35. 27. 32. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. V5. V2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. V3. Simplify/a35 ~ o .e. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Ex. A/3. 40. 4^/4. ^2. 26. 30. 29. ^30.2. v/3. v/4. 36. Simplify V~ . subtract surds. v^S. ^3. 3. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^4.3\ .210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. (i. s!/3. A/2. 34. </2. V2. ^2.10 V2 =  V2. V3. </3. 2\ 3*. ^5. ^126. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. \/5. \/7.2 V50. ^7. ^2. V2. + .
V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4V805V45. 4. 9. 8VT8J2V32 7. + 3V835V2. 6. V18+V32VT28+V2.J a6 V4 aft. 3. . V175V28+V634V7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10. 8. 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 11. 13. VJ+V8V1 + V50.3V20 + 6V5. 6.
2. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. . Ex. Ex. 23. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 3. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. y* = Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. and then multiplied. 6*. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 1. 26^ . .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .2v/6 + IPV6 105.
\/3 \^).VSS. a?. v/18 v"3. 6. 27. 37. 21. 13. 41. V3 Vl2. 38.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. Vll. 12. 2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 34. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 25. + VB)(2V5). 213 98 11. 7. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (2V3) 8 . 18. (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V22V3CVS)V3. V42. aVa. (Va Va 36. 4. 6. (3 20. . 39. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 6 V4 5. 40. fWa 17. VlO V15. 19. V2aV8^. 14. 40 10 30. V3 V6. 15. 8. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 3. V20 V30. 2 . V2 V50.^/2. 28 . 9. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 10. (V2+V3+V4)V3. v/4. VTO.
46. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . Ex. 47. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 53. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 60. 49. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 268.214 42. 43. a fraction.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 52. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). V3 . 48. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. Va v/a. E. 51. .y. (2 45. Ex. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. the quotient of the surds is If. is 1 2. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 44.
by the usual arithmetical method. is illustrated by Ex. however.RADICALS This method. Divide VII by v7. /~ } Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .g.57735. metical problems afford the best illustrations. arithTo find.. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 1. Evidently. The 2. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 3.73205. . by V7. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. we have V3 But if 1. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. e.
23 . V2 22 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V8 12.7320. 20. 272. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 7. V5 270. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 = 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. Vll 212*. and Given V2 = 1. i. V8 JL.. ^/H . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. VffV?. 21. 14. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. A. .2361. 271. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. .4142. A. V3 24 . V5 = 2. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . Vn V7 ' * 8. V48 25.
1. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex.Vs2 . s Simplify a.vffi^T _ .2. . Ex. Ex.1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. . V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .
4142. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.218 6 . v 2V3 28. : and V5 = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.2361. 19.5 3 = 125. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 24. By the use of fractional exponents . Given V2 1. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.7320. J?_. 6V7. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. find to _!_. . V21 = 25 .W3. four places of decimals 23 . = V3 = 1. Vo1 26. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 27.
To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 2. According to G3. 9. \/125" . 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 11. . 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. on the other hand. 8. Simplify Ex. 3 (V2~u)  7. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 1. viz. the If.RADICALS 219 274. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V255 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . v8f 2\/15. 5. it to this form. \/l6*. 2 12. 4. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.
220 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 2. 12 and whose product is 20. Find Vll .6 V2. 3. Find Vl2 4. Find V4 + VJ8. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. +2 Ex.A/2.6\/2 = ^9 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . The Hence ^11 . and whose product is 18. 2 \/18. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 \/20. ^TT. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is 11.
+=. . 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.V48 4 20. 4x x = 2.e. x2 = x f 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. by raising both members equal powers. first involution. Radical equations are rationalized.1. are radical equations. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 277. V48 23. VT . a. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Before performing the involution. 8. 5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Ex. Transposing and uniting..RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. The value x =2 reduces each . Dividing by Check. : 221 Vl32V22. (2x xrf 1. member to 2. = xa + 4 x f 4. they are transto formed into rational equations. r 22. i. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 19.
Ex. viz. 4#f 4 = 9. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. at . . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Factoring. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Extraneous roots. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . they may be extraneous roots. one root. f 25 = 12. 2. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. x = J. 5.222 Ex. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing and uniting. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Transposing. Squaring both members. a socalled extraneous root. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Dividing by 24.3. 3. Squaring both members. Therefore Check. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12.1) = 0. 278. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. . or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. . tion which has two roots. V4afT~l. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. V24~+~l = 0. It = 3 x . a. the first member = V2. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing and uniting. Therefore CftecAr. viz. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.
RADICALS Hence x If a. If If x 3 = 3. Therefore.2 r. ViTie 4 z2 . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. is x V. . (x x = 3. and to 5. Transposing. + 6~ieT~3 . or x *j. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence x = the only root. 223 x = 3. = 3.47) = 0. NOTE. Check. Solve the following equations : = G. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Squaring. viz. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. x root of the preceding equation. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5. 2 Clearing of fractions. 4. . equation it is an extraneous root. Factoring. Hence there is only one root. . If the signs of the roots were not restricted.3) (2 x . the right member = V2. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.12 . \ does not satisfy the given.
Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*. Ex. Factoring. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0.
*2a. 3 6.i~24 = 0. 2. = 7. _ 2 y . Let 8 x f 40 . 412a* = 16. Q . 3. 4. . 2Va. = 0. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. + 40 = 6. x =6 or 3.35 = 0. Vi 2 8a. Ex. 2_8z 440 = 49. y then x2 . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 45 14VJB = . 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. x Since both =9 or 1. This can be seen without substituting.f40= 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. x + Vx a? = 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2. some of the roots be extraneous.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Substituting. = 26. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. o. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.8 x + 40 = 36. members of the equation were squared. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 z40 = 7.
a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. +x . 2. 20. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +3= 6. 16.f 18 = 24. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. a. 4 V SB* 4 a. 17. 18. 15.226 11. 19. 12. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14.
Hence.bx? + ex2 4. however. if Q was known. does not contain a?. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. could.2 + 4. Without actual division. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 2. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Ex. then (x 2)Q 0. Without actual division.4 a. ^ = 381+2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 227 . 3 2 Ex. If x* .360 = 244. = 2.2 x 5 by x 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder." transposing. even if Q is unknown.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. a? R = x* .CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. to x we # = 2 3.2) Q . ax4 4. " Or.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . no matter If. find the remainder when m. we make a? what the value of Q.2 + 80 = 12. 1. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). by dividing 3 x* f. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.
5 (4x .8. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 6. 3. of the division 3) is m in place of x.228 282. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 2 j 7. 43 3 E. hence (x divided by x 4. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.g. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.3)f 11 =. 8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. fora?.g.949.4(. + ^by x + b. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. + 7 = 632. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. The Factor Theorem. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . If the remainder is zero.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x* s 2 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. the remainder equals 8 2 x . if 8 42  . } 2 by a1. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.8'= 0. x m is factor of the expression. 5.
8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .1. 2m 5m . Let x = . 21. 6. 7 46 = 0. 9. p 5^ + 8p 4. factors of the absolute term.1. 11. 2 2. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 5. 3 2 : 7. f 15 does not vanish. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.13m + 30 10. a^8^ + 19a.7 x + 15 = 0. Resolve into factors 4. i. 24. Therefore x ( 1). f 5. a. 229 1.7 + 16 .r6 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. then x8 7 x'2 4.e. . 1.12 = 0. 20. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. ^10^429^20=0. or x 4. 15. 25. are f 1. oj 5x2 f3a. a 5x 6.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 8. 2. + 27 + 27.49 = 0. 1. + ttt15 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 3. a 8a f 19 a 12. Factor a? 15. a + 32.12. f 3. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 18. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 23. 106 division. The 5. a 2a + 4. or 5 4 + 3^ . _ . & p*. 8. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a? 19. + 15. m f m n 14. 17. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.9^ + 23^15. is a factor.
1. ar +p= z6 e. By we obtain the other factors. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . is odd. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.y n is divisible by x f ?/. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. xn f. if n is even. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Ex. For substituting y for x. It y is not divisible by 287.g. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 Ex. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. xn y n y n y n = 0." . x* f/ = (x +/)O . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/). if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. if w is odd.230 285. actual division n. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. 2. 286. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2. : importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.
= . leads 231 is The first method. 28. 27. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.i mn f w 2). a. x3 8=0. Hence = (m Ex. preferable. however. as 27=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26. since it more directly to the prime factors. 3.
232 .CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. of quadratics. (4) Hence. * A I. x y. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. xy are given. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general. however. = 6. 290. (5) Combining (5) with (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 4 xy = 16. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.1. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. & + 2 xy + = 25.y4 is of the fifth degree. xywe have 3. + 6 a?V . If two of the quantities x f y. Squaring Solve (1). can be solved by the methods degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.
r (" 1 = 876. ' 10. 233 y. b=3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. " "' "' { r 8. 108 2. ^. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 1. but can be found. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. I I x + y=7.g. = . x and xy are not given. EXERCISE Solve: 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 12. The arranged in pairs. 3.
.a. Factoring. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. x " (3) 49 etc. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. r^ 2 as ] f. 4 y = 20. 7 .20) = 0.. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 19. 6 "I 14.  42 y + Transposing. ' ' .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.i/ = r 13. 2 (1) From (1) we have.  f J.o 18. . Ex. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 5. A system of simultaneous equations. or JJ. + 29 = 0. aj = 2. one linear and ne quadratic. I x+y = a. I* Jj ^ [. 3.?/ i = 6. la. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .  . or y = 1 . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).~ y = 5. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.
3 2x 2 Ex. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ':il e :) . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. Solve . y* + 2y = 3. ' x*. 10. quantities.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. x2y. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . the example can always be reduced to an example 296. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. If of the preceding type. III. 9. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2).
(1) (2) x x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2 . = Ex. 2. = 0. 109 a. = 0. j Substituting y in (2). (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 11 a2 Factoring. Solve 2. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 15 x2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . } VI09.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
xy 4. 298. . Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). y? a? f . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Division of one equation by the other.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices. f 1 150 a?. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).3^42^=43. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.y = 7.125 ay = . Bxy9. (4) (3). ' ^ 15. 150 */2 .6. " IV. E. A. and others not belonging to them. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.!.175 ay = 12.
x 2 . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Solve Ex. we have from (1). considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.. y . * ' 300. x +y y etc. we obtain by squaring. i ^ *>. = 189. 2. Therefore x = 16. Some simultaneous ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. B. (1 > (2) 1. = 12 J. from (2). y = 3. xy. jc~ y = 9. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. at first it is unknown quantities.
F+y+ . I e. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. M6. 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. [2x + : y= 17. 7. 36* 2. 239 Ex. .
2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.21 ^ = 15. 25. f 18.4 y = 47 a. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 27. * . . 19 ' 26. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = 198. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . 16.
32. y % 9 f*K 36. 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. finite  =x y if = x. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . etc. 25 34. oo 301. 31. hence may be any finite number. as a .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 33. ~\ OK OO. Q 7. etc 302. . 7' j/ 39. . 30. = 48201. or ~ indeterminate. Interpretation . ^ oo . .
as + l. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. be the numbers. Or.can be If It is made larger than number.e.g. (a: Then Simplifying. (1) = 0.increases if x de x creases. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. great. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.e. and . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . (1) is an identity. By making x any * assigned zero. The ~~f fraction . . ToU" ^100 a. equation.242 303. creases.decreases X if called infinity. oo is = QQ. 306. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. 1. and becomes infinitely small. it is an Ex. cancel. Hence such an equation identity.000 a. = 10. is satisfied by any number. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1. . (1). without exception. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.x'2 2 x = 1. I. x f 2. the answer is indeterminate. Let 2. i. or that x may equal any finite number. TO^UU" sufficiently small.
Solve . * 6. EXERCISE 1. and a. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 2. 3. Solve  9 7. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). . = oo. two numbers is 76. (2). z = 1 Substituting. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. no numbers can satisfy the given system.2 y = 4. and the sum of Find the numbers. 1=0. Solve x a. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.e. y finite QO. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. The sum is of squares 2890. Hence /.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.8 x + 15 6. third and sixth parts. is their 2. 42 and' their product is 377.
p. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 9. the area becomes f% of the original area. of a right triangle is 73. 146 yards. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 255 and the sum of 5. two numbers Find the numbers. equals 4 inches. Find the side of each square. 148 feet of fence are required. 6. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the edges. increased by the edge of the other. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find these sides. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. of a rectangular field feet. 103. 12. Find the sides of the rectangle. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 14. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 13. Find the numbers. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 10. and the sum of ( 228.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 8. 190. Find the edge of each cube.quals 20 feet. Find the other two sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and the edge of one. .244 3. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.) 53 yards. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. is 6. and the diago(Ex.
differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. the quotient is 2. Find the number. . and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) 17. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. Find the radii. by the product of 27 be added to the number. irR *. is 20 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.
. each term of which. of a series are its successive numbers. and d. P.. .CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. of the following series is 3. 4. The first is an ascending. P.. 16..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. a f d. 3 d must be added to a. 309. the second a descending. to produce the 4th term.7. Since d is a f 3 d.) is a series. progression. To find the nth term / of an A. the first term a and the common difference d being given. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. An arithmetic progression (A. (n 1) d must be added to a. a + d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. .1) d. a + 2 d. 10.. . 17. P. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to each term produces the next term. added to each term to obtain the next one. 19. 12. The common differences are respectively 4.. 2 d must be added to a. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. series 9. 15 is 9 f. 11. except the first. to produce the nth term.. 3.. : 7. to produce the 3d term.. a 3d. a. + 2 d.. The progression is a. f .. a 11. Hence / = a + (n .
the term a. 9. .' cZ == . 8.. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 10.. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 1J. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 5. . the last term and the common difference d being given. (a + + (a + l) l). 6. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2. . = 99. 3... Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). (d) 1J.8. 24. 6 we have Hence . ? (a) 1. . 115. = a + (a Reversing the order. . 7.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3.4. d = 3.. Find the 12th term of the 4. = 2.. a = 2.. 2J. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 5. series .. Adding. if a = 5. 1. 3.. .. Find the nth term of the series 2. 5. 8. 5. P. 3. . of the series 10. Find the 10th term of the series 17... 7. 5. = I + 49 = *({ + . 99) = 2600. series 2. 8. 6.. 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 6. Find the 5th term of the 4. 4^. 2. P. 1. d .. 21. P. 4. 9..PROGRESSIONS 310.3 a = l.16. 7.. 19.
2. 7. to 20 terms. 4. to 16 terms. 20. 13. 16. Sum the following series 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 15 terms. . 22. . 16. 17. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. striking hours only. 11. Jive quantities are involved. 7. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 33.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 29. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .. 1.248 Find the 10. to 20 terms. P. (i) (ii) . . 11. to 7 terms. . . '. 1. 31. 1. : 3. 19. hence if any three of them are given. In most problems relating to A. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 3. strike for the first yard. 8. . 11. . and for each than for the preceding one. to 20 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 15. > 2f 2.1 f 3. 15.7 f to 12 terms. 15. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. \n. 23. 12. rf. 12. 7. 21. 18. to 10 terms. to 8 terms. . + 3. 6. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 2J. (x +"l) 4. 11. 1J.
I. 2.1). 78.6. 204 = ^ (98 . or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 1. 12. or if x Solving. 100. 67.e. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 6 n2 . hence n = 6. 6. #. The first term of an A. . 23. 45.. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. n d. if s = 204. Substituting in (2). a = 49 6(71 . Find the series. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 34. l)e?. d = 6. P. Findn. s 24ft last term 144. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 78 n Substituting in (1). = n(104 . 144. = 13. = a + (w.6 n). 122. Solving. The series is. 133. From (1).PROGRESSIONS Ex. the and the sum of all terms 1014. the second one mean between the other two. 89. 56. if a.~n~\ 408 6). But evidently n cannot be fractional. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. or 11 J. a = 12. .104 w + 408 = 0. is 12. and b form an A. 312. P. n = 6.1) . P. I Substituting in (I) and (II).. 111. Ex. J = 49. 2 (2) From Hence (2). = 144. = 1014. = 1014. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.
A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. I Find I in terms of a. = 45. 7. 15. = 16. = 52. a x f b and a b. Find d. ceding one. n = 20. n = 4. 11. n. 14. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. of 5 terms 6. Find n. T? ^. d = 5. = 17. I. n = 17. 8. = ^ 3 = 1. has the series 82. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. a+ and b a b 5. 16. s == 440. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 13. m and n 2. 6? 9. 10. n = 13. = 83. 17. Find a Given a = 7. Given a = . 12. 4. f? .3. Given a = 4. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 78. produced. and s. n = 16. P. Find w. 3. How much . Find d. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find a and Given s = 44. = 1870. s = 70. Find?. 74. Find d and Given a = 1700. n has the series ^ j . f J 1 1 / . Given a = .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. y and #f5y. . How much did he save the first month? 19. Given a = 1.
and To find the nth term / of a G. +1. .. 4 (1) . . E.. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . rs = s 2 . 2 a. 2. 12. . . P.arn ~ l .) is a series each term of which.. 24. ar8 r. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . ratios are respectively 3. 4. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. or 81 315.. 4. I. (I) of the series 16. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. If n is less : than unity.. The progression is a.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. is 16(f) 4 . A geometric progression first. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 36. of a G. .g. <zr . The 314. 108.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. .. ar. or. is it (G. NOTE. 36. P. 36. called the ratio. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). r n~ l . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. P.. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 24.
P.54. is 3.. series 5. +f%9 % . series 6. P.l. + 5. 4. 36. (it._!=!>. 576. fa. or 7. r^2. . 36. 9. 25. a = I. Find the 5th term of a G. 9. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. first term 4. P. Ex. 80. 7. EXERCISE 1.*. if any three of them are given. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Hence n = 7. is 16. 20. 144. volved . I = 670. . ? (c) 2. P. 18.18.. 72. . first term is 125 and whose common . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. In most problems relating to G. . series .. . 36. fa. 0. f. 8. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. first 5....18. 288. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G..288.. 3.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . . 10... 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.6.5.72. 1. And the required means are 18. . \ t series . Hence the or series is 0. (d) 5. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.. .. Jive quantities are in.4. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. . 9.5. Find the 6th term of the series J. 6. (b) 1. l... 144. . P. 144. f. . . hence. 676. whose . i 288. 4. whose and whose second term is 8. 2 term 3. 72.
243. 23. a. 24. 2. . 14. = 3. . Find a and n = 4. 25S series : 32.. 36. J. Find the geometric mean between 7.J and 270. 21. M. n = 5. to 8 terms... 81. 54. J.. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. s = 605. >"> .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 72. P. 14.. J. . 16 . to 5 terms. . n = 5. s = 310. to 7 . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.nV> i*> !718. 1. to G terms. may be than any assignable number.. and hence ~ r . a^. Given r = n Z 5. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. to 6 terms. 19. r . 12. to 7 terms. Find a and 4. is less than unity. 15. 42. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. of r n decreases. . J. be written If the value of r of a G. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. == 160. = 3. 27. 13. Find a and Given r = 3. 22.i a9 . 126. 1. 12 terms. + 4 . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. 81.. 4. Z s. 48. I. . 20.
= 990 . . 1. first and the common term.3 + .. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 4..Ql... . 100. .99 . .... the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. of: 11.. . 2. Find the sum to infinity.. =A+ 10 i.254 Ex.01 ^ .. .)7?7272 . 13.272727. = . 6... 8. 16. Find the value 9. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. = . 40. i. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 14. P. .. . P.. 66 Therefore . ratio 15. 8. .072..= . 5.. 3.. 1 r = . 4. (6) the sum of the perimeters. ..... is J...1.3121212. . 6... 9. is 9.3727272 . 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 10.00072 f . 250. of all squares ? .. 1... is 16. 9. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 1.717171. 5. . If a = 40. .191919. 2. 1. I. what is (a) the sum of the areas.72.555. .= _4Z* . The sum r. = a . 16.072 + .37272 . P. 12.. and the first term is Find 17.27777 . Hence . of an infinite G. 7. .. r = j. 12. i i J. Given an infinite series of squares... .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .
4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . : (1 + xy. 26. . 4 7. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . 22. 28. (a + b) . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 20. 12. /2a+Y\ 8. 15. (s + i). Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a 100 . 21. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 10.b ). 13. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 5. 14. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 2 2 24.6) . (\ 9 . 16. (a2) 6. 4. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 25. 11.b) w (a (a f (1 . 29. 7 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (xy) : 6 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 6th term of (x . l 2.6) 20 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . a6 8 16 in . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 17. coefficient of .
3. 1. 7. 3. 4. 3. 1. 3. c = = = 2. 2. 2. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ).] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 4 2. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. 2. ft 4 ) 5. + 2. l. 1. + 2. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 5. 6. 2. 3. 2. if = = = 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. a ft c = = 2. 5. + 1. 4.c )(fta) 1. 4. 5. 2. 4. ft) . 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 5. 5. (c 3. 3. 4. . 2. 1. y 3. 5.  a)(a 1. 2. 3. 2. 2. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 6. 3. if x^l.  2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 4. 2. 2. 1. = 2. 6. 1. 5. . 4. 1. 1. 3. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 2. 3. 2. 1.a(a 4. 24 4. 1. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. 2.f ac 1. 4. 4. 3. aft 3 + 4. 3. 4. 3. 1. 2. 3. 3. 6. 5. + c(a  c).  2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 2. 1. 3. 3. 3.  8 ^ 2. c if 7 . 1. if y=2j 2. if = = 2. 6. 5. 2 .258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 3.
4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .a) .8 3 + 7 x4 . 40. a. 8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.c' 2 4 / .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 21. ~c)(b. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. .a8 . x 3 x' 14. 12.2 a?y + 3 aty . 24. 9.3 a?y .\ yz + xz. 4 y 13. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. if a 6 = = c = 3. 4.3 xyz.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2.  a) (c 2. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . + 1. 20.5 xy 3 + + 4 . b(x (b 1.5. 4.7 ys.2 z8 4 x. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .8 + 2 // . or . r> . + 2. 2. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 5. + 4 ?y . 8.2.7 + . 7y 4 . 5.1. 18. 4 x 4 . a /> 3. 3. 16. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 26.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 29.10. x C 4 4x y + . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6. 17. . + 8 x4 *y .2 x?/. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . = 2.259 x c) . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . c = 3.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x 3 11. a. 7 xy 3 . f 8. 15. 7. (5. ' b) + 3. 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2 . x = 4. 10.r 6 x  4 xy . 4 z .4.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 41. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . a: . 25. 2 x 8. + 3 y 2* .a 5 a . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . .2 x2 .7 y 2* 4. 21. 1. + 4. 2  + 12 a 8 . 15. 3.x 5 4 . 1. 6 a4 4 a8 .a 4 . 2.2. 5. c)(x a} . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 5. x3 2 a2 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . a 4 + 11 a . 2. 9.
8 3 4.c. . of a.c. 5 10 + 7 . f ft. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.?> x 4 20. 4 2 x2 23. c 4ft. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.2 x 8y2 44 .{G * 2 .2 . 4 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .x2 . 4 3 5 y/ . = x y ft z. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 35.4. 29. Simplify 31.4) .(x* .(a . ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 0" 30.4 Vl 4.#48.2 .6 x ] .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .3 x .7. take the sum of G x 5 .1).3 . 5 10 4 G 11 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 7 12 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.{2 x 2 . ft 25. 4vTT~y 3. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .x .3. : a x .2) .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.[4 x 4. . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .(x 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.x 2 4. Take the sum 4x 4.c 4 3 a.3 .(5 y . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 2 x 32. 34. sum of . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.] 26. .(4 x 2 . 33.2 a .27~~7)}].2 3 ax 2 ..a ft.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .260 19. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .x 4.(4 * .5. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. c =x y }~ z. 542 x 2 and . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .5 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. a  ft + c.6T .[4 z 8 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. . 4 4 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 5 4 7 12 . c 4. .c 3 a.4 ft) 4. From of 2 the 4. . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .(7 x 4. 3 ft. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . (*) a  c. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .(5 c . and .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.x . 36.1)}] . x'2 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.
6c) (a + f c). a {. 57. . 63. a .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 45.ac .c 2 . .{2 a . . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). + *+!){> + 2).2 2 . (r (1 (a. .ab . (x.(2 a 2 . 4 + 2 2 + 1).b (c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 2 53. )(lz a ). 48. (4 + 3a 2 .1). 60. 13 a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 46.Z .3c).2 zz . 62. . 50. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).3 c)].3)(*5)(* 7). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.{3 c . 67. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .2a . .(7 i + 4 r:) .3 *). 2 52.(6 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .6)}].0)} . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].4 a . (. + 4x + 5)(j.(7 a. 2 2 x + !)(* .[2 .56. 68.7). (/> 4 . (. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.[4 x  5 .c). 3 x 42.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 2 : 7e)a}]. 54.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3).5 )}] + {4 c .6 xy .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (a 2 + 2 + 9 .  2 a  {3 2x a .2x + 3). 2 f [3 c 7 a .(2 .5)} + (3 a 2 . 59. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (5 a 39. (1 55.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 64.96 [17 a.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(5 y . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 43. 49.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).& + {. (x .12). 2 ft 41.JT^T+1)} + (2 .3 z 2 ). 65.2c(V/ .(2 a + 5 a .(2 x2 . (1 ar+a. 'J 44.{2 a (ft . .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 56.2 2 + 1)(7.(4 d . 51.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.a~^~c)K].2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.2)(1 . .be) (a 58. .r 2:c+ l)(ar.rf)} + a [.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .
93. 84.ft) 4 .c) 2 . 82.z) . Prove the following 8 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 91.(a 48 8 8 4. (x (x ( + *) .y)\x y).c) j. 90. 73. . (a 2 ft 2n 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 87.(a 2) (s 4 ft.(/>  3 v)^(.{3 a . 74.2 (a .a) 2 . 75.x + y + z).2 ft}) f (3 a . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.ft) + 4(2 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ft" l Simplify 80.2 (y 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .y + z)(x + y . 92. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .r 2 . ft 95.v) 4.c) . . 1).(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 88.5 .3 (ft . ft /. 89.y). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . xy y 2 ).(ft 4. 70. 1). 79.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 4.b 4. b 4.c)]. 94.3y) a (* 2 4. 2 (x 2 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ft ft ft a}.c) . (. 83.262 69.c) 4) (ft 4. (p 2 .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . f 72.z)(x y + z)(. ar .c .<f(p . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 85.6*y . 76.9y2).c)} . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. ft 78. 86.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.n pc). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).2y)(.O (a 4(a 4. 71.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 77.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c .z\x 4.(c 4. .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. (a (2 b)*(a 4.m np c .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).:y)( a. 2 + a 2 ). 4 4 .3 a .am&t 4 A 2 *).q).c) rr identities.(4 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.
. 124. 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4. (. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).&).2y 2 4.5 b*). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .(7 xi/ . 108. 123. 122.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(2 a 2 . 106.16 a 6 4. 99 100.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).1). .y 4 ) . 113. (80 a 112. r .35 x 2 2 ) . 25 4 . 109.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).b) 98. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 116.(a 1 2 8 .r 4 4.v/ ~ // = a: . 2 (a+ .a".xy 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 117. 105.*) (x 8 .(x 2 . [10( 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). (2< 107. 110.y 2 4. 121.9 x 2 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.5 xy). 120.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). (8 x* 115. 114.27 x* .6 y 4 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.2 xy 8 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.3 a"+ 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.4 aft . 3*. 1).) . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).y 4 . 26 (a 4 c). 118. 1O4.2 2% 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 102.40 />) .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. a*. 103.
3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). o o 140.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).19) + 5 = 4 . 135.4) .1) (a? .5) = 12(4 x .3 a:). 7(2 x .27 a 3" . 149.3(* + 4) + 9} .4(0 x . (4 x . 10(2 x 141. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.1) .r>) .(j a? 144. 1) . 5(2 x . . .3(2 z .(x + 3) ] . .n . 3) = x\x . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .(1 .2(4 . . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 142.3) = 12 .264 125.2(5 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2(j: . 127.22.7(4 * . (5a: 150.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 138.2(10 x . . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. (*+ + .9) 4. 2 4(ar . 3(2 x 134. 137. 129. .r + 7[or .2) = 3 . 5 146.12 M 132. 136.4) .18 *&) (1 . 1) = 2(* . 42(3ar 145. 139.3 x). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.7) = 4 .(x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .2) (a: + 3).(x f 9).a:)]}. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 148.5). 128. x 147.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .3).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.3).2 7^~5] + 1). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). y (* l x.3) (3 x 4.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).G) .9) + 3.8 6 .5{.2) + 2(ar + 4). 143. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 126. .
=  (F 32). + 4) (2 x + 5). (x (x a. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .5)(. If the area of the frame inches.? .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. .2) (j? + 1) + (x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. . 158. 155. 154.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 164.a:) + 229. (a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.9) + (a.1) O + 4) = (2 * .29) 2 = 1. (3 O + . 162.17) 2 + (4 x .8) = (2 x 4. (2 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. will produce F.2) a + 7(x . 2 4 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 163. 265 152.3) (j.(5 x .76.3) (a: . The second contains 3 first. a: ar a.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. sheep more than the 169. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. The sum What 171.3) (3 .5) = (3 . 160. + 5) = (9 . = 15. transformed into F.7) (a. 165. .r + 3) . How many 170.z) (4 . = 2 C. 5(ar x .25) 2 . f^ + ^sO.T)O . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 153. 166.3) (3 .14) (a: + 3).l)(z . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 159. 157.3) = (3 x .2) (7 *) + (*.1) (s + 3). Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. (7 14 . + 2) + (5 . . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. .7) (1 x . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5 x) = 45 x . these two angles would be equal. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.2). + 10) (ar .2 x) (4 .4) (a .5*) + 47. 161.19) + 42.24.5(x . and the third twice as many as the first. (a . 156..6 x) (3 . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.2 x) = (1 . find the value of F.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (a) If C.
6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 178. number divided by 3. 12 m. respectively. ll?/102. Find the number. + a. 10x 2 192. two boys is twice that of the younger. 2 2 + a _ no. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. train. 179. 181. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. father. 7/ 191. 188. aW + llab2&. 180. . if each increased 2 feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. power one of the two Find the power of each. +x 2. 4 a 2 yy 42. side were one foot longer. younger than his Find the age of the father. 187. 189. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. z 2 + x . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. Find the dimensions of the floor. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. was three times that of the younger. dimension 182. 186. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. A boy is father. 3 gives the 174. A house has 3 rows of windows. 190.56. 176. sister . the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. . A each 177. x* 185. + 11 ~ 6. z 2 92. and 5 h.36. How many are there in each window ? . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3.266 173. 15 m. 13 a + 3. . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass.
3y 2 + ary . . 230.12 * . a: 236. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .r?/f y 2 9. . 3y 248.6s. a. 215.14 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . *2 234. 210. 16x 4 81. 202. + 30 x. 4 m +^. 238. 8 a: ar. 2 2 y f 1. x 219. 239. + 2 . 24 2 + 2 . z 2 2. 244. (a + . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 7x 2 225.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.3 xy.3 c/> + 6 cq.19 a . 23 12. a: . ifWy+b. 195.6 2 ?/ . a. a. 2 200. 213. + 8.6 y2 + 4. 246. 2 x 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a^a 226. a a: a: 237. + 198. 2 . y 2 194.c) 2 . 2 a 8 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. x*y 223.10. a 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 224. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 3 x 2 . xm+l 243. 229. 217. . .6. . x 5 . a. 209.77 y + 150. 267 199.10 xy. 222.19 z 4 204. 2a te 3% ly 247. # 2  29 y + 120. a+a* + o a +l. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. wiy + la mx + aw.1. 201. 2 a 2 . 216.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.(b + rf) 2 .6 aq . 6 197. 218. 245.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 235. 8 a. 212. 232. 12 x +4.x + 1.c) 2  (a . 207.21 a:  54.28.22 z + 48. 227. x* + 8 2 + 15. 233. a: 231. . 4a 2& 2 241. 3 x V . 5 x 2.20 z 8 a: 220.8 6 2. 206. z + 5x 2 . 211. 208. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 60 a 2  a: // 205. + 3a 196.10 y a x* .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 221. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 7a 228.64. 203. 3 ap 2 .
a: . 10 x 2 .3 x . 1 x ar Find the L.23 + 12. z 2 267. + 8.x . + 23 x f 20. a 4.23 x f 20. Reduce to lowest terms 271.ry 21. 260. F. 7 ax 250. 2 x2 .10. + 3 x + 2. * a .9 x + 14.14 bx a%% 8 . a 3 a 2 2 .48 afy 2 . 269.80. x 2 .r .16 x . x 2 + 4 + 3.&z.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. . of: 253. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x 2 f 9j: + 20.(55. 265. 6. 3 #2 255. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 30 ^ . 8 2 + 10 x . + 8 x + 5. C. 2 a. 3 a% 2 .18 xy + 5. * 2 .ry . 2 2 + 39 xy 4.a 2 />c 2 f 3.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .1 9 . 258.15.73 xy . 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 18 x 2 . * 2 .9 x . 2 8 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .15 + 30.4 ab + 1. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).2/ 2 . of: 266. x 2 + 5 f . x 2 + 2 x .36.8.9. 270.120.M. 22x2 a. 7 12 2 2 . z 2 268. x* . 257.91. 254. x 2 4. x*y* 4. ft a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 259.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .10 a 4.11 a 2 . 251.3. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a? a: a: // 262.7 f 5. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * 2 .2 aft*.C. 10 a.6 by. x* . 261.12. 5 x 2 256. 264. 3 ay 4. x 2 263.G7 x f 33. 15 # 2 z/ /. 252.11 x f 28.5 ab f 2. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 2 + 7 r f 2. I Find the II.13. a. + 20 x 4. 28 2 f 71 x .3 abc .4.a + 2 4.2 z .
285 z4 n* + a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. z2 (a 2 + c)a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j.rL. + ac ..REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 8 . a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2c a: 282. *2 " 2 + Oge.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.J' 4 2 2 w mp .ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280. 289 ' .!/.
* 19 23 19(23 23. a (: a) (x 2. Lnl + ar 2 a. 4 3 301. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^. ^_2*(m 308. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 6) _ ~ i 305. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x 7. O(ca) 306.
. 2 + y 2 319. 1 _.(a . 1a: + y a. (a? 4 2) 317. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. } .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . a: 1 313. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (1 . 1 x2 + + a.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. .ft) 2 322.. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. _ x8 .
7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .2 +lOar 2 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.6* t 328. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .7 xy + 12 x . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. a: 2 x* .15 33 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .ll.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 20 44 333. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.9 *// + 27 . 2 lOx 5x.y20  2y + 4 2 .V  + y  x 3y a .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . * 3a.5 a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 250 5 10 2 325..19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.
. fl. (af2/. ** i. + ni + . if a = 3. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 1 345. 338.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 7 ( ?f!?. xi 347. 5 343. 352. aj 339. ' 2 "l 5 .r 5 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ. \5yl 341. (ar \ 346. \x yj 340.1V. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. : 1+ i. ?_2 ^ . (a \ + lV. + l + IV. w \. a>74 . f V. ( 342.) 2 .y. 344.+ r . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. +^ a: y x . 348. a: 349 _ o.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. + x x a .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. y360. 1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. (~ 364. a2 4 .
REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. b c 368. a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
__4 2x 3_ = !. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. <3 378. 8  376. 5 {2 x 381. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15. 5*8. 4(* . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. . J !__7. + 1) 45 O 377.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. . ^ . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 379.
25 x + . b 404. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).8 = . .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. .  J). _____ . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.75 x f . 3* 177.5 x =r f . 396. 400. 40.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). a.. f 1 1 + a 403. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.6  .147.1 . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.2 a:  1.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 399. m x 398. c . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 401..25. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. 397. u '2 a. + 4 a. ^ (a .  8 9* x ~r.5 ^ ~ a: a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.
(x . hour. Tn 6 hours . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .  a) 2 6 2a. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 420. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. In a if and 422. How long is each road ? 423. and was out 5 hours.278 410. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.c) . 18 be subtracted from the number.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 421.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 418 ~jo. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 411.
A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. a + 5. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .46 2): (15a 2 . y. a. ax is \ by  ex + dy. a  t>.& 5 ) (a 8 . b. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. .iand 22 22 I a . If a b : =5 n : 7. Find the fourth proportional 426. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 435. Solve 436. x 427. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. z 2 y. d. : i.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . find : a : c. : If is one equal 434. if . and : b : c = 14 : 15. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the mean proportional to 429. 2 2 8 2 . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 433. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 432. Find the length of the parts.a 2^ 8 + aft* . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.49 63). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 430. 438. . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 3 and 1J. 431. .6 8 ). Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. wi* + y= ny. Which ratio is greater.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 428. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find the angles of the triangle.
20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.11 7. 16. ft. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 457. .7 y = 25. 459. a. .rf2# = l. 452. 8 x + y = 19. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 9/> = 2 . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 446.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 455. 458. 453. 5z4:# = 3. 56 + 10y = 7a. 1(3  a. 7a?y = 3.35. Find the value of a.(or l(*2y)=0.. />(. 5 2 = 7 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . x + 17 # 53. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.*. + 5y = 59. 5x+4y=lQ. ?/ 447. 7 a: . Solve the following systems: 441. 454. 450. 42 = 15y + 137. 8 . a: 2y= = 1 . . 7jr9y = 17.59 = 3 z. 9ar7# = 71. 448. = 25. if 2 ft : 439. The volumes If their diameters. 456. a: a: + 5y).11 y = 95.4 12 . . 445. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 4 = 5 y + 29. 28 = 5 a . 3 . 3 a. /) ar a. 444. ft.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . c. 443. 449. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 15ar = 20 + 8y.55 y = .89 = q. . 451. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 7 442.
+ eyn. 473. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.c=563y. 475. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .+ =2. x y 474. 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ax cx by = m. 8 461..REVIEW EXERCISE 460.?/ + 1 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax by = c \ 472. ^ + i^ = 7.7. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468. _ 469. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. i = 5.  = 2.2y) (2 = 2J. (or .
and in 20 months to $275. A spends \ of his. Find the numbers. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. How much money less 484. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the fraction. Find their ages. fraction becomes equal to . 487. whose difference is 4. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 486. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and in 18 months to $2180. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. . to . If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. the Find their ages. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 483. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. age. Find the numbers. A number consists of two digits 4. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and the other number least. 477. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the number. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 479. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the sum and the rate of interest. by 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. years. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 485. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3.
7 + 2 z . of two the sum of the digits also if number. 5^ 9z = 10. . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 4 506. 496. = 15. 4z+3z = 20.z = 12. 489. * + 425  = . 4 497. 2a:f 7.5#+2z = $x a: G. a. 2 a. 3 a: + 5=84. z y ifi = z x 502. . = 20. z y x 25 . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 5 + a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . x s + y z = 18J . .? + 2y = 8. ~ 507. 2 e. 1+1 = 6. a. 492. a: 499.z = 20. . 2y + 3a = ll. 2 2 = 41. 1. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + # +z= 35. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. x f y f z 29 . 7./ f z =a. *i. and the difference of their Find the numbers. x y f z = 13. a: + // = 11. : Solve the following systems 491. + y 5 y = 101 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 493. The sum of two numbers squares is b.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. \ . 494. 498. 2/>3r = 4./ 504. 495. ifi = x a. 490. 3ar 503. a: f z = 79. 2y + 2z = a: 2. = 209. a number . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. y Solve : x +z= 5. . 8. 3 x 500.
!f == 2800. 517. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . + : = 1472. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. z z =3a&c. 523.
E 533. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it is filled in 35 minutes. When weighed in water. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. B and C and C and A in 4 days. CD. Find the present ages of his father and mother. 530. If they had walked toward each other. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and CA=7. . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. BC = 5. 532. L. Tf and run together. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. if L and Af in 20 minutes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. What are their rates of travel? . in 28 minutes. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. the first and second digits will change places. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. AB=6. N. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. if and L. AC in /). 90. and BE. Find the numbers. 527. . it separately ? 531. How long will B and C take to do . touches and F respectively. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. M. In circle A ABC. they would have met in 2 hours. if the number be increased by Find the number.
 3 x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.e. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. b. from x = 2 to x = 4. One dollar equals 4. 2 x + 5. The values of x if y = 2. 2 541. 2. the function. x 8 549.  3 x. to do the work? pendulum. 543.  7. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. c. 547. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 544. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. then / = 3 and write = 3. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. FRANCE. 545.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. formation of dollars into marks. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. + 3. 542. The values of y. 540. . 546. The greatest value of the function. 2. 548. if x = f 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. a. 550. 536. e. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.10 marks. i. 2  x  x2 . 3 x 539. x 2 + x. GERMANY. x *x + x + 1. x*  2 x. z 2  x x  5. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x*. d. .
z 2 . 568. a? 4 x . 2 8 . if y =m has three real roots.5 x . 2 a. x 4 .3 x . i. f.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.r a: a: x a. and make the unit of the b. 2 x 2 560. a. 572. x* . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 556. 555. = 5.13 = 0.4 . Solve 552. .1 = 0. + 5 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. Represent meters. 564. 2 554. a. z 4 .= 0. j.  2 1 a: a. 2 567. 565. \ to t = 5.4 x 2 + 4 .11 x* + + 2 8 569. 2. 558.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. g.15 = 0. + 10 x . If y +5 10.r 1 561. 3 + 3 z . e.3 = 0.11 = 0.17 = 0. Solve// = 0. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .6 + 3 .9 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. J. 3 . 3 x . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 15. 563. . x 5 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 562. r?. // Solve y Solve y = 5.0.4 = 0. 3 x* .7 = . 557. . 553.r . c. ' = 8.= 0.3 x . c.G . 566. 18 x  4 = 0. a. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.3 . a: 559. h. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.
a 8 606. a. 3 .4.(1 . 598. (1 + x a. [ y =10. 589. 5 a*. 609. a 612. 604. 9  4 fSb 607. 597. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 611. x + z2) 8 .%) 4 (aa.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a:. (a. a 2a. a: . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + ^) + (air%)8. 596.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . j^f = 3. xY. 4 (1a:) 3.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + + 4 . (# 2) . 608. .2 6a: + 30 &c a. . 1 . 6 + 1) . jj+.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 599. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.2 2 + y.5 xy = 0. (1 (1 (1 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. x [ ?/ 577.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 4 .frf : 583. 3 (f. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 582.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 64 a 12 603. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. f ?>) 3 591. 593.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 4 a. : y* or 25. 2  2 aa: 2 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (aiy. 595. (a  8 ft) . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + . 588. 585 594. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 600. 579.x + 2 )'2 601. 592.
626. 645. 21. x 2 641. = 87. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 632. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 371240.150. x 2 . 2 + 21Ga. 2 + 189 z = 900. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 625 : 621. 629. 615. GGff. 4370404. 9a. ft . 650.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 651.V250 . find Jupiter's period.871844. 624.2410. 49042009. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. Find the square root of 619. 633. According to Kepler's law.\/4090. 49. 628. 636. + 24 a 2 4 . 614. 25023844. 637. 210. 0090. 638. 623. 643. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 035. + 112 a 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. + 54 'x*y* . 2. VOIOOD + V582T09.191209.53 x ~ . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. V950484 .2. = 70. + 2 21 x = 100. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 8*' + 24* = 32. 634. 4J. 622.*. *+* = 156.15174441. 942841. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. a 642. 7) 2. 44352. 630. : 5. (x 9 x 646. = .30. 639.1024 x + a: 256. 9g. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 494210400001. 3a. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 647t x 2 648 649.49. /.12 a?y + y*.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 32 631. 40. = 0. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . Find the eighth root 617. 620. 644. V 635.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
708. 692. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 696. 694. ax 2 698. 2 2 . 2 2 697. a. . ex abc= fx 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 702. 707. . 1 __ : )'*' _i.ax . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .a a )jr . 706. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 693. 699. 695.c = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.bx .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.
16 x* . 722.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. Find the price of an apple. and working together they can build it in 18 days. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. Find two numbers whose 719. 3or i 16 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 721. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. A equals CO feet. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 12 4*+  8. a: 713. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.25 might have bought five more for the same money. . If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. **13a: 2 710. 217 . sum is a and whose product equals J. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 723. 717. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. in value. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 729. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.292 709. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. How shares did he buy ? if 726. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 716.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0.44#2 + 121 = 0. 724. 727. 725.
aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 41. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 + c. 36.)(ai + &. 33. 43.2? 50. n. 34. 42.aft* 1 + a 2*. 35. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f c" ). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 32. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 39.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 38.1 + x. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).2)(x2 4. 52. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).1 f ^ 2). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 40. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .X . . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 31.l). 37. (v/x). 46. 1 6. .
[1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x . 2V2 2V3 . 759._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.294 753. 754..1+J 756. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. \/G86 v/lGv/128. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 761. 757. JU. 768. 758.
12VIT. 3812VIO. 793. 13 799. x 782. 16 + 2V55. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 783.VlO.2 V30. 3J .2V3* ^ 807. 806.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 786. 790. . 14 791. 10 785. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. a 9442V5. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .4 V(j. 7512V21. + 2V21. 794. 92VI5. c 792. . . 787. 789. 103 788. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. Va 809. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.
Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 811. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 818. V3 f 1 V4a.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 829.13 = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . = 1. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. x/aT+l . 816.V2 ar 10.  5 + V3 f 12 817. + 103Var. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 836.Vc^lJ . 833. 831. 820. Va: .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + Vx . (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/12 a.g.79. /9ar a: = 17. 819. V14 a. + ViTli + V7 . 814. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. VaT+lJ f ^l .f 5 = V5x + 4.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 3 x + 2 . 830.\/2y  810.4 = 0.V? = 813. 815.
851. 4o. . 8 + a: 5 8 a. + 512 y8 874. V4 x 2 . 861. 844.28 a 4 xy 8 80.3 Va: 2 . 855. 729 867. 27 862. f b**. 868. z*y 8 l64a. 27 y 8. 8 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. x 8 2 857. x 4 + f 2 a. a: . 845. 870. +3 4 +  4.1. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 4 x 8 858. . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a. 8 8  13 a.3 x . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a: 849.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 64. a 8 850. 275 8 l. a 8 873. 8 4a: 8 a. a 8 869.x*y + 3x f 2.10 = 118. a l0m . + . + 216 rt aty a 10 .1000 6.12.a. 9. 8 860. 64 a 866. a 872. 8 a. a. . 4 a: 2 842. 863. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 840. y 4. 875. 852. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. f 841. a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a*" & 6n . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 2 x 3. 871. 839. 4 a.  3x a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. a. 864. 4 x* 847. . 6. 2 f" + a/ 15. 5 a 4 7 a8 . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 853. 2 a: 64 y*. . f 12. 856. 8 2a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . a 18 4. + 1. 8 8 848. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 16 859. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.3 a:. 8^27^. 19 x 14.ab9 ft*. a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 876. 846. 865.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .3 .
8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.sy = 198. 2 + xy = 10. a: 2 897. 2 + y 2 .1 = 2 a#. 895. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. x 8 3 = 13:3.18.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 3 x 2 . z 2 898. 885. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. . 900.5 xy + 4 f = 13. +y f y = 7.298 877. 2 + 2 f = 17. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. y 2 2 8f.y 2 + V(j. 2 + xy = 28. x*xy. 896. 2 2 = 16 y. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. . f ?/ a: a: .15. 889. a: + y 2 = 34. a# f + xy = 126. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 886. 5.xy + y 2 = 19. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 894. a.y 2) = 20. 1 x 893. 899. 2 . + ary + 2 = 37. y y 2 y 2 1121. 890. x a: lI = xz . y*+ xy . 878. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.Vi' + 1 1_3. x 882. y = 28.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a. a:y . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 887. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 901. a: 884. a: a. . M1 891 1 . 2 . a. a: 888.35. xy + y = 32. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. y 2 4. + 2y=\2. 883. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 = 2 + 5. .
^ 2 . * + y = 444. y 3 2 2 922. (3 x . yz = 24. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. a:y xy 929. + ary = a*. = 8. 2 5 xy = 11.23 = 200. . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. y + a:y = 180.x) = 21. y . (!) * . + y = 9. .y = a(ar + y). 905.r a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 2 913. x 4 299 xy z 904. (o. 2 915. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. a: * a: a: ar 928. a.#y + 2 = 27. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 907. or or a? a: a: . xy + x= 15. 908. 911. + y)(a. 906. + y 8 = 189. 3 y 8 ) =1216. a: a. + a.16 y 3 8 = .y). y # 2 2 f f y = 84.y) (a? .y) (3 y . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + ?/) . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. y x 2 = by. 912. x f 2 a:y = 32.y) = 33. a: y zx 12. . x + y}(x + y) = 273.6. 921. 920. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 2 924. xa 903.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . (* 918. 910. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 4 (a. (a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. x + y 2 = aar. ary y = 8. 909. 2 * 2 ~ g.y2 = 22. 23 x 2 . + 2 ary = 39. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.3) 2 f (y . 3 :r(3 . 7 y .3)2 = 34. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. *y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).3(* + y) = 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. x 2 ry + y = 3. 923. 914. 2 2 2 916. 917. + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 + y = 2 a 4. # + xy + y = 7.2 y) = 49 2 919. Vary + y = 6. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.
much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. two squares equals 140 feet.102. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Find the numbers.300 930. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. In the second heat A . feet. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. z(* + y + 2) = 76. y( 934. How many rows are there? 941. two numbers Find the numbers. is 3. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. find the radii of the two circles. is 20. a second rec8 feet shorter. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 2240. two squares is 23 feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. + z)=18. 34 939. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Tf there had been 20 less rows. Assuming = y. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. s(y 932. 942. 935. (y + *) = . and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. and also contains 300 square feet. + z) =108. and the difference of 936. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. rate each man ran in the first heat.square inches. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 937. 931. *(* + #) =24. If each side was increased by 2 feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 3 . and 10 feet broader. diagonal 940. 943. and the sum of their areas 78$. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. A is 938. 152. Find the sides of the rectangle. 944. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.000 trees.
The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. .REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. unaltered. 953. triangle is 6. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . Two starts travelers. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and its perim 948. set out from two places. P and Q. 949. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and that B. A and B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the eter 947. that B A 955. 952. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find in what time both will do it. the digits are reversed. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and travels in the same direction as A. at Find the his rate of traveling. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. its area will be increased 100 square feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 951. Find its length and breadth. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 950. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. is 407 cubic feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the number. sum Find an edge of 954. and if 594 be added to the number. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. each block. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. whose 946. distance between P and Q. . The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. overtook miles. Find the number.
958.. difference.  2. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. the terms being in A. (to 2 n terms).321? 965.1 4 f j$V . 18th terms of an A.141414. 970.. . to 7 terms. s  88. 971.. Evaluate (a) . 4. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. x(x to 8 terms. Find the sum of 4. ^ 1 . + (iiven a +  4 d . Sum to 20 terms. to infinity. . 5.v 973...>/) to infinity. P. = 4. 969. are 29 and 53. 957. 12434+ j I 967... !Ll^ + n . 961.. ^ Vfirst five 959. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. P. Find the Find the common 977. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms..to infinity.V2 ..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Sum Sum to infinity..454. P. to n terms. 5.. 972. 975. \ . P. fourth of the unity. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 3 + 5 7 + . Find n f (ft) .. 16 962..3151515.302 956. (x 4 to n terms.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. . '. 4 4 to 7 terms . 1G series . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). the first term being Find the sums of the 960. J. Sura to 24 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A. 3 . and 976. n to n terms. Find an A. *" 968. f + 1 . 966. 974. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 1 to n terms. Find n. 964. 36 963..4142 .. .
How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . "(.. 986. and of the second and third 03. P. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 4 grains on the 3d.001 4. The term.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find the first term. 992. 980. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.1 + 2. Find four perfect numbers. : + 9   V2 + .04 + . 0. 1. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .3 ' Find the 8th 983. The 21st term of an A. 987.. is 225. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. The sum 982. 2 grains on the 2d. first 984. named Sheran...01 3. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 303 979. P. to oo. Find the sum of the series 988. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. 989. 990. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. P. Find n. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Find four numbers in A. . to 105? 981.+ lY L V. of n terms of an A.001 + . doubling the number for each successive square on the board.2 . 5 11. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. and the common difference. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 985. to n terms. to infinity may be 8? .) the last term the series a perfect number. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. and so on..
is 4. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are 28 and find the numbers. are unequal. ABC A A n same sides. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. 995. The fifth term of a G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . inches. (6) the sum of the infinity. The sum and sum . 1001. in this square a circle. c. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 994. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 998. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. prove that they cannot be in A. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 1000. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. AB = 1004. 512 996. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Under the conditions of the preceding example. P. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. (a) after 5 strokes. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. areas of all triangles. P. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 999. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. ft. 1003. and so forth to infinity. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The sum and product of three numbers in G. Two travelers start on the same road. at the same time. find the series. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 997. of squares of four numbers in G. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. and G. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. . in this circle a square. If a.
x) 18 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.ft) 19 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. 1012. (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. a: 8 7. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". ) 1021. Expand  2 a.o/) 14 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1006. Find the middle term of 1020. (1 1018. 1011. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .l) w f . 1014. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .iV 2i/ 5 . . . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. + lQ . 1009.
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. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . 54. Checks Coefficient 20. ..] Abscissa Absolute term .. . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots ... . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 123 .. .108 160 " ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. linear literal Common ** * difference . . 129 54.. . graphic tion of representa . 232 169 807 .. 112 54 54 251 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. t 53 120 .. 9. 129.... 19. 160 in quadratic form 191 .. . 232 mean progression .. 246 91 " multiple... . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. .. 37. . signs of Algebraic expression ...193 11 .. . . . Aggregation. . . 97.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . 8 . . lowest ratio " '* .... simple simultaneous . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .. .. 158. . 9 ** ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. . . . . . ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.178 Completing the square .. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .130 ... quadratic .. numerical .
. . 42 7 Independent equations Index .C Multiplication . G. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. directly. .251 Graphic solution of simultane.. Like terms Linear equation . . . 243 7 . P . .. 227 . . . Imaginary numbers . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 9.. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 212 . . ... numbers .. 23 10 91 102.. 91 . Negative exponents 11 . .808 Exponent Exponents.. Known numbers . 112 .. . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 180. 205 . .154 Order of operations " of surds . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest .. . 184 54. 84. . Product '* 76 Infinite. 189. arithmetic . Geometric progression . 120 Member. . 114.... . 109 102 . 143. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. .108 Minuend .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . Mathematical induction . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Inconsistent equations . exponent .. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . 34. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 227 geometric . 241 123 geometric .. 45. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . . 253 28 70 1.. L. addition of " square of . 45 Laws of signs . inversely 122 numbers . 63. 45. law of Extraneous roots . 17 65. 195 33. Insertion of parentheses . first and second . .31. INDEX 8 . . .
. . 9.. .... absolute 54 Variable .. Sum... .. .. 45 Trinomial 240 ..... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. .. 27 17 Unknown numbers ... algebraic Surds . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . polynomial .. . 4 155 9 " of .. 129. ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Mass. Gushing Co. U. 1913. Norwood. . December. NorfoooS J. 1910.. Published September. August. Reprinted April. 1917.COPYRIGHT. Set up and electrotypcd.A.S. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. 1916. 8.
3 below 0. B $ 128. 0. 16. 22. 5. 2.000 Indians. . 11.. 17. 29. 6. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 15. 5000. 6. 210. 3. 9 14. 12. = 5 81. 73. 3* 7. 7. A . 5.. 4. 85. 16. 12.000.8. 11. 37. A Bl 7. 16.. i . C $ 16.. 12. 12. 24. 21. 15.000. 18. 17. 16 in. 1. 24. 1. 37 S. 3. 3. 14. 7. 2. 14.3.000. 19. 3. 2. 14. 14. $40. 32. 13 V. 10. 9. 32. 1. 13. 2. 16. 7. 7. Yes. 21. 1. 32. 2. 16. 27. Page 8. $ 1 50 10. 8. 15.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 17. westerly motion. 10. 2 5. 25. 1. . 20 jo.12. 10. 2. 6. 16 in. 16. 11. C $60. 5. c. B $20. 18. 106. 7. 12. A 38 mi. Page 13. 30. 1. 10. 126. 20. 3.000 negroes. 2. 14. 3. 7. 6. 12. 3. ^. 16. A 15. 48 ft. 5. 16. 3. loss. 9 m. 13.$9400. 9. 6. 9. 2. 14 11. 23. 10g. 2. 2. 1. 5. 3. 5.. in. 144. 49. ft. 2.C. 6. 8. $100. 3. 89... 6. x. 115. 8. arithmetic. 8 ft. 18. 9 16  larger than 7.2. 19 4. 4. 20. 8. 20 B. 9.  13. 1. 6. $160. 12. 28. B $4700. 12. 3. 1. 7. 27. 20. 7. B $80. 16. A $90. 9. Page 4. 3. 8. 3. 17. . 13. 25. . 2 ~ 15. }. 14. 12. 1. 8. 1.  22 20. sign. 15. 3. 21. 8 13. 9.000. 1. 256.  2 p. 49. 576. 192. x. 4. 25. 22. 10. 19.1. T . Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 4. 14. 11. 24.00000001. 2. 5. 10. sign.  1. 14.21 24.000. 7m.  1. 19. 1. 9. 29. Ot 15. 26z. 8. 10. 128. 16f 2. (a) (/>) 1. 25. 18. 59. in 12.. 512. 3. per sec. 30?. 6. 7. b. 3. 0. 2. Page 1. 1 16. Multiplication. 1. 28. + 1. 3 m. 6 yd. Not 5. 13 S. _ 32. 20. 27. 9 = 4. 150. 36. 2  Page 8. 2. 4. 9. 10. .000. 6. 4. 18.150. 3. 1. 12. 6* 16. 13 d.000. 17. C $1(50. 15. B 10 mi. 26. 5. 72 = = 216. 11. 13. 20 \. 64. Page?. South America 46. Australia ft. 13. 18.000. is $10. in. 9. 32. 6.. 6. V 23. 4.
8. //'. ^). 31. 13. a2 4 15^44. 43w//2 17. 13. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 50. 19. 4. II. 34. Page 18. 0. 14. ^. 30. 5. 237. 4. 3 .'J. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 26. 12yd. 25. . ft n.9?/2 8. 9. 4 y/ . arty 1 20. 28.q 4. 2. .  1. x^ 20. 19. 33.  11. 15. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 12. 36. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 24. _ 4 . 11. 39. 1. :. (a) r>23ifcu. 2x' 2 5 . 14. (ft) Page 2.a . 14:). 5x+3. 31.. 21.ii ANSWERS Page 11. (ft) mi. 14. 22. (a 4 4. 18. 15. Page 23.000 . 23. + ft). 11..rty8. 92. Page 31.900. 27. 28. #1111.. 8. 5. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 5. :J!>r'. = 81. 8. 16. a ft c. 3.6) 38. 2. 3. 0. 2. 22.1. 9. m + 3(a. Page 7. 2. 20. 1.'JO ft. 173. 8. 21^. ft. 28. 13. 4. 3a. 30.5f> sq.. 35. 25. 37. 16. (c) 8. 31. 18. 35. <i~ 26. 12. in. 11. (59. Monomial. 27. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 17. y. Trino inial. 00 24 04 ft. 4. 12. 0. 1..94(>. in. 9. 0. + 5. +/2(/. 12. 0. 2ftx. (ft) 12. (a) 200. rt. 5. 13. 14. 17. 240. 6. (r) 2. 17. ft.<>Gq. 1. 4 9/^/rl 2. 3. (<7) (a) 314 sq. . vi 14. 1.ab. 16. $80. WIN + wiw. . 314 sq. 12 a.. 17. 23. i:5. 3. ft. 32.  0. (c) S(i. 22. (r) 78.ft) 4. 20. 2oVmf?i. 22( 19. 3(c4a). 10. 38 ab.. ft. 14.000 sq. 42.. 27. . r/ \(\xyz. 14. 35. 2.3 * 10 r5 <3 . ??i??. Binomial. 5. $3000 Page 6. jrif 4 9. 8. (b) 135 mi. 0. 13. 21. 6. 11.r f 15. 2. 10. 4.r 2 . 32 2 ftc. 7. (r) 2000 m. 21. = ()501. 04.4 ft. 27. 15. 9. . Page 21. ft f 19. 0. 8. 3. 51 f. w. sq.ft.. 6. mi.5 (ft) sq. 7. o^ft. 12. ft' 3 . 33.14 sq. 7 7. (r) 2G7. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.4  2ft 2 33. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 12. 13 cu. 29.  xV 3 y. 15a. 30. t. ft. 16.. 19. + v> 2 ..GOG. 3. 20. Pagel4r. 3. 1. in. 36. 18. m 24. 15. f  5e 35.~4. 9. 10. 20(. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 1. I. Polynomial. 8. 49. in.32 c2 > ft 3 . 41. 15. 18.  40. (a) 50. 5. 18. 24. 4. 27. 6<t. 0. 26. 25. 104. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 21 a 3 4 10. a 32. ]*. 17. (ft) $40.. 3. yyz+xyz*. 29. 34. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 7. 3 a* + 2 at*. 5. \'\ 4. (ft) 7. 7. . 0. Polynomial. 14. .. . c.  12.x. It. 3rf 27. 22. r:A 29. 7. r+l. 57. 1. 38. 8.  3. 3.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 32. 16. (a) <> sq. 27. 5. 13.r~ f 34. 58. 15. 1.
4. + 8.  b* 4 r 1 . 51. 2x 4 a 13. 1.aft.2 57. 18. 28. (mn} 11. t). Page 28. 17.4. 31. .6 x + 0) 16. 58. a4 4 4. 4. (5x47 3.5. 7.1. 2// 16. f ft 9. 8 . 1 + 45. 1. 3. x3 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 24. 21. 2. 26. 55. 2 + a4l).1 . r.r. a 4 + ft. c. . 13. M + 10. 7. Page 44. 14. 19. 25 47. a. 4.4 d. 26. 12.  1. 32 w 2 w. + 2y.  a: 2. 7  a + 2 + c. 2a. 7  # + 12. 50. 12.4x. 2. 6. 18. 10 m. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2. 10. \ :{ 2 a 48. 32. 2. 8. 2m. 2 17. . 0. 2 . 6. . 12. . ?>4tl 53. 2 a 37. 364c. a 10w. 18.2 a. 1. 5. 31.3 6.3x 2 2 tf. 1 4. 36. 3 Ji 8 . 19.l. 3. 30. 814.r 2. 42.2 ft 2 r2 10. 10 x.a'2 . 10. a  49. 22. 21. + 4 c. 19. !  </ . 2 3.  12. 11. 14. 35. 4wipg>' 27.2. . ( 7. m*  n*. 2 2 2 6. 1. a 3 . 7. 8. 16. 20. 5 2 Page 29. a  ISjfat.7. . .. a a.a . 20. 2. a2 24. 11. 1. c2 . 15. a + a. j)(g1. 3 m. . .c. 5x 2 rt ft. a 3& . 2 . ti. 4. 5. 4.5 z?/ + 3 y . 33. ^ <.  b. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 4ft ~.(7x2 Ox2). 24.2 . 3 a . &. 40. Exercise 16. 2. a2 9. 34 39. . ?/i 13. a). w 17.x f 1 2 . 13. 2 a f 6 414. 36. '  . s_r>a5. 59. a 3a 4 2 &. . G a bd.2 a2 2m 2 4. a + (ftc4df). 7 a5 1 . 21. 2a: 2 4x. 43. a 6 2 . 6. 11. 12.  17. 0. ' 12 m?/'2 27.5 4 2 3 ?/ .abc. w* ( . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 25. 24. 2. 34. mn. 14. ab a. 24 b 46.8(c + a).r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 16. a f 2 f 2 9. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. x  + 3z. 29.. a' 4ab + ?/. x a8 1. ar. 1. f 2 ?/  2. 22. + 6. 4. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2 2. 8. 15.Oa: + 10. 7. 4r 2 . 37. 8 + 2 a . 9.h. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2m + 2w. 17. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2 4. 4 21.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 2.a*. (w4w)(ww).AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ri\ 18. c. a 52. . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9.a f 54. ii\ 22. (yz~d}.(2 x2 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. n*. 2.  14 afy .  G J8 r  4 a <?. 25. 2 y' 4 . 8 8 . 2 3x f z. 3 a3 & 41. ft Exercise 17.  23. 25. _5a<>&43c. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. :5 41.'U4j>. 2. 6. . G. 26. . 20. 38. 14. 5. lOrt 15w4. 15.a~. Page 7. 10.  4 b 17 y*. ?> 22. _ Page 30. 8 b.ws 2 ft) . 0. 3. 5.4c 3 8 8 J.11. 2 6. ?/. 56. Page 8. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . .
102. 2 * 80 . 25 4 4. 34. 22. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 34. 2 n8 29 a + 30.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 108.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 3.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . . //. Page 38. + 7. 8. 34. 14. 6". 12. 31. 4200. a. 20. 5. 161b. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 19. 4.14 w 2 2 .19p" + 19^ 10 . 26. f 26.7(50.16 a 2 + 32 a . 6. 9 13. 4 a8 . 4aWy. 4 jcy*z*>. 28. a*b*c. 1. 3300.20 xyz .000.(3x2_4^+7). 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 17. 15. 8. 4.12. 27. . 30. 9. Page 7.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 1904. 19.21 a 3 c2 21. 26. 120. 30. 2 ). 16 lb.19 + 2. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 4. 2*8f x2 6x4. 6. 29.36 35.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.11 xyz . 27. ci 5 . 27. 13. 3(*+0 + 2).18 w w + 10 WI M . 12. 10. 4. iSx8 .64 190 p6. 33.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 15. 42. 20. + O4 66 . .26. 19. 33. 28. 25. 16. . 32. etc.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 60. 24.:>/ . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 2 2 2 . 2 a2 (y 2 . 7. 15 lb. 30. 04. 19. 76 8 a' 1 . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 22. 23. 31. 2. 23. 20. 16.44 aWc 16 abxy. 11. 14 m 2 . a: .28 p'^/. 3. 8.14 . 29. 18. 90. 60.32 y s s G . 360.6 2 . 30 n?b*c*.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .15. 24. 1.25 + 14.16 x2/ 5 4. 8. . 8. 6. 15. ?/ . 18. 127"'. . 2. 35. Page 5. 1.21. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 21. 3 a 2 46. 1. 1. 6. 13. 2. n (a6) 125. 2. 11. 64. 36.32. 9. 14f 5. 2 ). 770. 4 fc. 3 a 3 .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 13. 27. x2 xy42^. (+3)x6=+16. a + ft. 15. 9. 11. 24. a. 108. 17. 21. 18> ^* = a . ^^ = 20. 17. 16.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 3. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 33. . a 8 . 24. 84. Ox a 5 . +15. 28. 25. a. 20.. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 18. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 66 39 k* . ISartyW e*f*tj. 2 ll9HH 2) + .r% 2 2 ry. 22. 30. 10. Page 3. Page 35. 42. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 20. 25. 2 7t A. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 12 x2 2 . 3. 0. 7. 7. .2. 16. 216. 2 . . 10. ?> 4 . 15. 13. 14. 83 In + 1 n*. + 58 . 2 w +2 2 . 13. 18.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. +. 66 8W 34. 1. 25. 4. . 14. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 11. 27. 15 q\ 6. 21 a'&c. 37.. 2''. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 16 51. 5aft(a 126 2). 29. 216. 16. . ft 17. 8 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 20 aW. 20. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.8 12.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. . . 38wiw.1. 161b. 18. 30. ! 2. 14. fa 2. 4. 12 ^. 12. 40 r 2 . 4 a2 . 210. 32. 6 . .6) =a2 31. 29. 28. 7G . m. 0. 17. 24. 10. 1. Page 36. 18a% y. 7. 23. 18. 5. 21. 23. 22. ll 2 i.>(/ r . 52 + 6s 12.. 30 j9 jt?g j . 343. s 9 ww.. 30. 1400.12.
I/).996. G a6 2.000. + 4 t*. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.8. 27.6 xy . 6. 7. + 10 + 121 y*. 2. 2 0)(p + 5). 2 +10s281.49. Page 12. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. . 17. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . ~ 6 20 .009. 2 1: 21.009. 10. a3 0. 4.1. . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). (w4)(w + l).2 y*. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 36. 2 a' y' .20. 6 2 + 6lf>0. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 57.001. 11.84 a' 9.2 6 + 13.020. (n 2 5.. (a + 4) (a + 2). m 2 . 4 + 25 q*.6. 1.r . . 31. 21 2 . 28. 31. 4.3. 36. 10. 52. 441. 10. 2 62 V2 132. lflrt 2 8 + l. + 3)(3). 1). x2 GiC+5. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 10. 18.098. a4 4 ?/ .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .712. ' 46. 10. (p 2.^. 9 4 /> .5 ~ 81. 3. 24. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. . . 2 4 a + 4. . . 30 /><. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.810. . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 44. ab . . 39. 51. 2 4 2 2 64 . 9.16 a3 f 50. 14. 166. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . m 3 j) 3 . 27. 2 6' . ^/> 8 4 . a 2 .ANSWERS 28. Page 39. 14.008. 38.p132.2 x + 2 x. 1. 10 a' 2 . . r. n + 2. 20a 2 21a + 4.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 42. 41. 37. Om2 4 6m 6. 998. 19. 15.35 ab 9. 4 . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 14. 9. 34. 4. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.ri 17. . 2 j3 Z .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. p4 + . 9990.25. 29. ^V^4 . V + o ft . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 4x21. 25 25.m 30 6 4 1. 2. 7 . 990. 10./ .^ + a? + 1. 29.r* 2 30. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 31.000. a + 56. 30 x + 19 x3 . 6. +4 34. 5. 30. 10 a 4 ?.4 a&+ 4 &*. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 8 38. 2 . 40. 999. s rc 47. 1. ) 4' 6/ 49.ab .15. (w+4)(m4). +   5). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). a2 ' + 48Z100. x4 28. + 12. . 19. ab. 7> . 2 12. 8. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 41. 34. 12 x2 . 4 2 //. 7.x2y22. 2 m3 + 4m2 .4 12. p 2 . 4 21. . 37. 33. 484.10 35. 1.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . a + 25. 3wi2 m Page 42. 15.606. (a (3 54. 32.00 + 37. y.500.r .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.14 jp + 49.6 y4 10. x 48. 11. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 40. 35. . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 8)(?i (x2)(x3).6 x2 13. fo*. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 4 x2 13. 53.54 p 2 + 81. 9801. 32. 8 a W . ^' J  7 f 12. . 7. 25 a 2 6 2 . 24.404. 10. 23. 2 a 2 + a .. 40. 1. 35. . 3. 10. 10. 1.10 x + 25. 36. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 56. 10. w'n 2 //^ + 25. a + 25. n2 a4 6. 25. + 2 9. 45. ft' 11. 26. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.201. 39. 2 fr . 36 a 4 . x* . 16.004. 33. ?/H)0. 2 (5 a 3). 8.994.^V"' .2. +  m' 1. 55. a' .4 n. x*2^f I. 33. 4 . (m + 6)(m3). 8. 5. 10.020. 9999. 2 . 2). + 4 a +4. 26.
. 10.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 11 4.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 14. i 9. Page 22.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . .r'^ 15. as _ 10 16. yfl.2 . 125. ft* ft / . a 10. 4 x. 20 15. 4 a* 4 9 11. 18. 01. 44. // 19.n. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. + 3.r?/ j/. 8 x .8. ft ? ft' ft ft. 10.2 .r ?/ ??i ?). . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. Page 51. r ft.5 mp.9 4. . 12. 3. 5. 4 pq. 4 d 2 4.8. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 3. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 8.6 :rs 4. r/2 4. . 16. 8. 1. 16. 13. + x?/ 2 1. 7 r . w . Page 11. 5. 6./ 4.2 1 //. 9. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .10 2 + z 2 410. 2.12 aft 4 20 ac . 13. 5^418(7. 5. 15. 13. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. a 2 . 1. 7a3ft. 13. /r .2 ac . 2 4 3 9. 9. 4x43?/. 5. 9. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 7. 4ft. 50.+ 77 15. 4. 2 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. Page 48. 8. y 7. 2 ? 14 . aftc 52. 46.9 d. 14. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . j) .r' ~ 16.15 21.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 2 1. 17.3^V. 3*y2 w + 1. 135. m'2 3. 5.25 c . a 4 4 ft. 4xy + 13 <) . 2.1. 4.lit x + 4.x^.29. 4. 4. 4.15. 15. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 6. ft. ?/2.1.2 2 . 2 2 + 2 a. . ??. . 8.1.  11. c3.1. 47.VI ANSWERS 43. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 4 c m . Osy. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 3. 2. 8. . 22. 23.2 wZ 4. 11. . z. '. 5. 10. 21.  10. 9. 2 ?/ 4.3 ry.2 . 24. 3. x4. *3 y 4 .3 x 2 2 4. 1. 14 r 2 . 13. 11.  . aft. 1.21 2 2 f + . + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 2 12. f>r* 4.3 3.> 10. c 12. 17. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.5 n*.  5 z* . 2. 1.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 5. 18. . _ 2 a .r" 20 S? . ft 17.1*5 2 r 2 . 12. . 14. Page 13.2 <</. . 2 .10 xy*. 16.1.7. 3. 1/*.2.3 a 41.2 2 2 8 . r 7. 8 ?/ .25. Page 7. :r !>. 26. 5. 4. 8 ?/ . 4. a. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 6.rw f 8 . l 4 . Exercise 27. 19.1.2 ftc .  3 c. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .4.8 yn .y3. 14. 3. w 2 . 5 4 a Oft. . 5 a  (5 ft. 2 a 3 ft. 1. 4 ac. 2 .30 ftc. 2. 8. . 3 a. r//. i 2 tji. 1000 1000 . 19. 6. x 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.1.rw. x 2 + 2r f J.w.8 y. . abc 7. 3 aft 20. + 4. 75 a 2 29. 49. 12.2 aft 4. 2.23. 17. aft 12. 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 2 ?/' . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 12.3 5. .r?/. 14.27 x 2 4. 12.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 6x 3. 21.r . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .34. ti'jry1 7.2 ar. 5. 9.5 a . sr 11. 1.  12 y 25.24 . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 10 ft. 20. 4 a 2 4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. m L 4. 2 4 2 x 4. a 8 4. 6. 13. +w . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.000. G.
v (6) 2x. 50= L 100 15. y 100 a 24.200) f(^ + (e) 200.(3x  700) = 5. 7. = 5 ?i x 460. "mi. (> 27. 3 9.. 10) + = (a) 2 x . . 38. d + !. 20. 37.. 13. s. 46. 100 2. 22. 2 ct. sq. 8. 10. . ft.  6 10. 8. 10 a. ct. a 10. 19. x = m. 10 >_&. 42. 3. 3x2. 1. 14. ct. 2. f (I. 11. 38.. 5.000. 58. ^ 12 sq. ? 43. f = eZ 2 x. 17. 4^ = 100. % 4.(3x+ = rraxlO. 5. 8 n  10 yr. 24. 2. 41. b. 33. 12. 29. 18. 32. 7. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60.  1$. 15. 59.6 = *. Page 6. 20.. 45. 17. b. 26. 21 2. X 60. 23.100. + f + b 2. 10 x sq. vil 56. 11. }f. 5.10) 100. 6. (>. Page 13. 6.ANSWERS Page 9. 1. I. . r tx mi. + 10 b + c ct. !). " lir.r1. 2. 3x  1700) = 12. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 18. 28. Page 31. 13. 9. 34. 6. lO. 6. ( a f 4. # + 20yr. 17. ft. x 2y 10 act. iL*. 35. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 7.  2\. 16. 7. 7. 2x + 35. 60 25 1. x 48.  9 = 17 a. 2. 4. 22. 4.  />) a = all. (2 a. y yr. 7x 2 Page 21. + 3 = 2(3* . 4(a ft) c = 8. 1. 1. n M. 3. 44. 0. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. <>. 100= ^. 19. Page 61. (c) 2x. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). / + y + a// 12 yr. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 29. 4. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 12. rn mi. y 50. 15. 2=10. 11. 13. 39. x. xy ft. 36. 100 14. 9.rr2. f 6)(o 62. 47. 31. r>?imi. 36. 2. ct. 25. '^ . 4 f 39. 4. 23. 40. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. (A) 3 x f (4 x .x700. 100 d ct. (</) 2a. 2b. 25. a 8. 16. d. 'nj 100 a 28. I. x y $ 6 yr. 2. 4. l. 7. 10.p+7. . 90 7 2 + 10 = c.r ct. 33. 44. + 4x 3y 34. 37. 10. y ?>i x + 26. . 5. Page 40. 30. 5. 2b 22. 5.7). m +~m 3. 0. (a) ' 12. 16. m+ 11. ] 2 ri 42. 14. 43. . 10. 57. Jj12. x 49. fix. 800 = x + 1300. 1&. 10 yr. 27. 00. 7. x + 1=a. 6. lOx 10 + w. + 3x + 2y + 32. 30. ft. 1. </ 20. 3.ab a. 20. 41. .
. 24J.y").000. 71. 7. 20 yd. 11 in. 2$. 5. 3. 11 w(w' + wi . 20. 2. 10. 100 1.5p + 7 g ).0. Page Page 4. 78. 3 hr. 28yr. 2 2 2 5. 6. 70^. Y. 18. (m + n)(a + 6). 7 hr. 4. = _?_(2ar + 1). 15 mi. 8. 1. 20 yr. (6) (6 a 30) =20.411.6).. 13. 5 Col. 2. 67. 8.000 N. + 7)(y3). 14. 13.210^. 10. 30 yr.000 pig iron.10. 3.2).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 90 mi.13. 8 in.3. 1250. 9.0.000. 2. 30. (y7)(y + 2). 8. Page Page 4.. 15 yd. 13. (y + 8)(y2). 25 yr. 1 lb. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 13. 6. 1200. 7. 3. Pace 65.000 gold. 10. 300. 6rt 2 11.. 3.11. 68. 2. (*4)( + 11. a a (a 8 a+l). 52. 6. 21. $40. 40 yr. 14. 15 in. Ib. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 10. (e) i* + A. (y 13. 90. 7. 18. 1200. Page 7. Page 79. 12.. 3 (a +&)(*. 3.000.3aftc + 4). (y8)(y + 2). 7. . 4. 17. 8.21.000 Berlin.22.5. 25. 5$ hr. ~=90. Oaj(o62cd). ?(g ? g+ 1). a 12. 2. 4. (a5)(a4).(5z . 9. 9 in. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 20. 55. 8. 14. 5pt. 5. (ro3)(w2). 15. 200.000 copper. 10.  PageSO. 6.. 14.1). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.79. (a + 5)(a + 6). 20 yr. 10. 7.. Page Page 480 12. 5. 11 pV (2 p8 . 15. 14. 10 yd. 16. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 15.3).. 11. (p + 7)(3a5&).16. Page 7. 150. 5. 200. ^ . 6. 10 yr. 78. . 85 ft. 7a*fe(2a & l). 1. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 72. (a 4) (a.000. 12.000 ft. (c) ^ v ' . 1313. 10 Cal.3. 11. 8. 4. 22. w (/) 64.. 13. 10.000. 14. 12... 3. Page 5. 2 3 6 7. 3x (3r. 6. 9.8. 30. 19. . 600. 82 mi. ( + 4)(*2). (a + 4)(a + 8). 480. 250.2. 29. 42yr.. 1. 1. 11. 9. 8. 50. 05. 100. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 1. 75. 2.. 23.. 12. 12. 12 mi. 15. 80 A. 17. 4. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 8. 11. 2). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 2 2 ?/ 21. 4. 9. 18. 6.000 ft. 4pt. 9. 1. 25.5. 8 2 19. (a + 6) (a + 3).. 9. 8 12. 70.000. 2. 74.000 Phil.24. (z5)(z2). 20. 12. 6. 180. 5. 15. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. . 1. 3.7. 30 mi.. 5 lb. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 10 Mass. 160 lb. 7. by 12 yd.000. 45 in.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. (yll)(y4). 10 yr.
* (2 y + 3)(y. 28. 22. 21. 36. . (5x . 8. 26. 3(x + 2)(zl). (w ~ n (x . 3)(3a. 100(x. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 10 a 2 (4 .5y)(3a. (4a. 33. 34. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. + 5) a.11 6) (a 4. 20. 2. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).c 2 ). 3a. 10. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 7. (2 *+!)(* 9). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 9. 16. (az + 9)(ox2). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). + 4) (a. 26. No. 17. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (x + y4 )(x . Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). 10.4p). 200 (x + l)(x + 1).6) 2 1. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (6 a. (:52y)(2a!3y). 19. 31. 16. . 25. 1. (0 + 6)(66). Yes. ix 18. Page 82. x\x 24. No. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 17. 30. . 14..y4 ). 2 17. 18. 2 3 by2 Yes. 1. (15ay2) 2 . 5.2 ft). Yes. 18. 9.+4 y)(3x4 y). . 3. 9. 19. (3a. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 11. (5a +l)(5a l).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 8.2). . 2 2 15. (6n + l)(+2).1). f 2). . Page 83.11 ft)(a6).2 y). a . 12.4. 7 6) (a 10 6). 7. y(x. 29. y) 2 29. 6. + 0(90 Page 85. 35. 40 x. Yes. (a 3 + 10)(a. 14. 12. 5. (15z2y)(x5y).1). 20.1). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). a*(5a f l)(flr .y) 2 aft. 32. 35. 6. (9y4)(y + 4). (4y3)(3y + 2). 4. a(2u. (<7 20. 24. 28. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 11.8). (y8) 2 2 . No. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (a a: 19. 100 (a. 27. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 9. (5wl)(m5). 22. 33. . (3#y)(+4y). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (a 6 6) (a 4. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). . 3. (4 18. 2). (2xl)(x + f>). + 3). 11. . (2o + l)(2l).3)(z2). 21.3). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (m7n) (a. 32.7) (a. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (4 13. 8) (a. . (m + w) 2 5. 8.y (6x + 4)(5x4). . 31. + 8)(g3). (2 a? 4. 15. 21. . 17. + 2y).2). 23. 29.  x (5 a. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 27. No. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 27. 21. 4. 24 9. 25. (* + y)(zy).4 6). 10. 2. 10(2 30. 23. (3*2)(. Yes. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 16. 30.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).ANSWERS 16. (2yl)(y + 9). (w + 20)(w + 5). + 9^)(oxy . 28. 7. + y + . Yes.7)(2z f 1). Yes. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).   . (g . 216 aft. 4 (a . (10a + ft)(10aft). (ft + ll)(aftll). a. No. 12. 13x7. 22. 24. 26. 103x97. (ay8)(ay3).6) 2 2 . 2 No 4. 13.9*). (4al)(a2). 15. (w* (3a26). 1. . Yes. 14. (a.2 by2 6. Yes. 10(a + ft)(aft). Page 84. 2. (a2 + 10) (a2 2).1). (13a +10)(13a 10). Yes. 20. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 34. 26.r2). 24. + 3)(c44). 23. 13x(a + ft)(aft). x(x +y)(x y). ( 2 4 19. 25. 9. 22. y) (a. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 23. (y + 4)(yl). 10(a . (a + 8)(a3). 10. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. Yes. 25. 3. 25. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).
.36). 4.2 y). 4. Page 87. 1(V/ 88. 15. (5a+l)(9a). y6. 2. 2 1.r(3x' 2 4 (14. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).42 x 4. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (a 9. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. x .  29. 11. (f> + fo 7. 17(x43//)(x2y). x(x f y)(jr . 10. ofc)( fid). a + a b. (5 31.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 13 x 8 2 .5 m2 x2. 5. . 2 2 3 . (7/1 2) (m 41). 42a 3 x. 4). 8. 30. 4 3. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).?50)(xt/z.4). a 41. (2x7)(x 2 2). + 2 //). 2(m4l)' . 2. 37. 9. 7. 2 (a 4. 14.2). (16 4  2(5 n .n)..&). 19. 7. Page 90.?>) H. 16. 8. ( { &). 4. . 4  9. 2 y) ^ .^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). . a 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). ( (<> r4y3 . (* _ 2 )(a 4. 8). ( y). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (14. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 7.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.'})(c . (r420(4 10. 3 x4 . 6. (!__/>).2). 8.b. 2. 7. 24x sy s 9. 4. 18. 2 k (wi 4. (x//. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 41.y). ^ . a8 . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. ( a ^)(^3. a 2 (a9). 2 . Page 92. (5^4. 7.2)(x 1. (^ 7. 3x(x?/) 4. x43. (.1). (2 a ~ f> b 4. 6.y. 4.7)(^ {I 12. (^ + ?>_8). 14. Page 12. 1. 20. n  r)(5a 10.9). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 40. 2. r x 2 */3 . ?i(w 4y) .  WIM.!) (x42)(x2). 10(2 (3 4. 8. 27. a 4. (w * .4). 3p (^9)(j) 4).&). 450. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .'/)('< 4. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (m  I)' 6. ?>). 36.3.1) 3.?/). 2 21. 4. fi(c426).l)( a 25. a x 3 10. 35.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 22. (c. ah}. .4. 38. 5 x8 3. 11. 12.8).y '2 2). 2 + .5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (a &4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (5 26. 3.1). l.X 5.7s) (2 a. . 3(. 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). Page 89. 6 f c).e 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).) j). 6. 2 8(w . y )(. 13. (a 4. 6. 6. 7.8) n 43*).4. 24. 14. 12.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . Page 86. ( rt 23. 15.8) ( (16. (w4w) 2 1. 8x. 9. 17. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 11. 5. 11. (a />.'J)(' . Exercise 46. 6.^ 48. 2 2 10. (> 1.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 5. 13. 14. 4 a8 . y(2x?/). 4 a s &8 . 13.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .3. a (a + 2 6).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (x. 28. 39. x  1).3)(x 4. 8. 8.0+ 12).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . b) (r 4. 32. 42). 4.  (w' 4. 5. 15 M.y)(fi a . (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 4 6. Gp). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 8. 13( 33. 2. 12. y). Exercise 47. x 4. 5  (2 2 . + 3. 16.
 1). 11. +8b a 4 3 / ^. + &) 2 ( . + y) (a: y). x 22. + &)(&) ( . a 23. 2(2al) + l). // m+1 !+*?. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 18.6). 6a2&(rt6). b ! 21.ANSWERS 10. 1). ?_!&. 30(3 2 (a 15. a 10 25. x 24. x 12. +5 1. (a2)(a + 2)2. 13. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.
w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. i. 26. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ' 2 7. 11. Page 101. 1.. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. a 5. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 0. + 2H 1 ^. A^. 28. 6. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. c 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.  **/* + 84 _. 4c 10. 2 a. 30. i^. 4 L 8 2 .50 ~ 1/2 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 4.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. xy 43. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . ^~ 29. + lH + . Page 100. 6a5f^. w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 7.
27. 1. 1. 10. 32. 0. 33. 7. 16. ft. ' 6. 16. x 05m ' 5. 4. Page 113. 1. f 7. 5. 44. J. 29. 14. 11. b a f +c 14.  10 X + u. 4a3ft. 3. 30. 5. 13. 2) 19. a2 2. Page 106. f Page 107. 7. 12 28. ?. 3. J. 20. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 1. 45. m 9.L+ft. 40. 21. 23. n m a + 13. 5 be _J_. + f. 1. 3. ac mp lf> n 12. n 16. y(x + x ?/). 10. a. 2 47. 0. 6. 15. 25. 38. 4. . 21. j L . +3 ( + 15. 41. 9. 6. an 18. 3. Page 111. . 1. 19.ft . 1. 4. 5. 3. J. 9.^U\WF### X<6. (y + (z 12. ?+_!?>. 8. x 1. a 17.y 7. 14. 43. 4. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 34. A. 46. 6. ^i 11. 15. 37. 5. . 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 4. 11. 8j_m 7 3. (>. 36. 7. 12. 6. 39.  V o 4. 31. 3 7 i o. 24. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 7. 6. ! 4 20. 1. 11. 2ft a i m x. 1. 3. 6 . Of. w^x 2 b Page 105. 9. 1. 17. flf. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. pf n 6 1. 26. 15. 12. n . c 8. 42. 11. 35. 17. 8. . 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. x\. 4.^_. 18. 11. ^_. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 21. b 2. Page 110. 14.
19. 7. 00. 17. 4. 11. (c) 8300. 18. jj. 24. 9. 4fl M_. 17. 15. a 4 ft. 3. 15. . 20. 3. 21. Yes. 30ft. 10^ oz. 9$. 10 yrs. 13. " 0. 28. 1:1=1:1.11. 16.10. 9. 5. 11 hrs. _JL... No. 10. after 18. 10. 3. 74. 9J oz. () 2. dn ~ mi. [>> ^ a . 13. Yes. 18.. Page 121. 11.. Yes. 275:108. 14. Page 117. (a) 30. ~m . 7. (ft) 28. 10. 3. 8301 hr. 1:4. 30. 2.. 15. 1. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. Yes. 9. . IV s. 8.003.002. 1^'. 4. Page 119. 300. 6.. 13. 4. 7 . nm. ^?i min. (c) 2 hr. (ft) 104. 75 . 26 30. 10. 9. Yes. 12.0. 1:1 = 1:1.000 1 = 23.} da. 4. 300. 7. 3. 1:1 = 1:1. 1:3. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. $40. 7} 18. min. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4. 22. f .000 If da. (a) 25. 5 25. (d) 500. 12. 2. 16. 1. $00. :2. 0. f. 3. 23< &n b ' . (ft) (r) 8 hr.000. 7T 2 Page 116. 17.137. gold. w 18. ft. 33. 30 mi. 21. Yes. Page 125. P+ ^ 33. 20. 55 mi.9. (r) 3^ da. 11..  29. 3 da. 10. 12. 15. Yes.004. .2. 5 2. ^m . 3:2. 5. 13./hr. 5. 1:1 = 1:1. 19. 40wn. 10. 32. = A's.  C . 14. 38ft min. 9ft.. 40 yrs. Page 118. 1: ~. .0 & . 6. No. (a) 4 min. ^p^ r ~ 7. 7.. 14. 2 20. 8. xy. 8.000. after $12. after 20. J. 24 mi. 4~r~ n . 10. 1 : 12. n 32. $45. 33. 34. (a) 12 hr.138. '"I 22./hr. 10.001. w 21. 7. 26.  + . (ft) 5 da. 40 mi. 5.000. 21ft min. 35. 1 da. (ft) 5 hr. . 18. 212. w 44. 30 yrs. 15. 10. 26 mi.x + y. 17.. . 5ft 30mi. min. 15.139. . 500. J ^'. * 7:9. (d) 4 da.000. 15.2. 8. 20. 36. 24. 2:1.XIV '/ . Yes. $30. #V ~~ 34. ANSWERS 16. 14. silver.15. 81. $0. 19. 6. 1. 8. 300. Page 124. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 1. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 2x:3y. 19. 31. 7. 16. 27.
48. 3. 8. 1. 2. 127.1.2 x. 3.4.12.1. (I. 138. 9. b x 37. Page 135. 23. 59. 3. x:y a: b. 41. 7.1. x y = 1 = 3 2. 4. y a y = 7 0. 5. OJ. 19. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 14. 10. 2. 9. : : T 1' : /> : . 19.2. 7. 3. 25.3.000 sq. J pq. 945 11 10 . 5. 21. 9.. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 4.22. () Directly. 2. 2. 11. 5.4. . 3  24.^ 0?j ' gms.20. 12./':</ c a f :y=2:9.C ?/ a . 11. 3. t 5. 2. Page 9. 1 rt * vm^1. 19. in n.2 oz.."2:1. 2 n . 13J. 7.840. 8. 16.  28. l. 54. /. : : . 1 18 = 3 51. copper. 4. 7. 11 w a 13. 30. 9. 21. 46. $. OJ. 1.J 3. 4. 17. 5. 2.3. 24.2. 19 3 . 7.3.5. 25. a~. 2. 20.' : : : : <>. 2. 52. x y y . w 8. 4. 4. .160. 3. = 7 b'. mi. 1.ANSWERS 22. 58.57. . 24. 53. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 3.li. . 5. 1.6.a.9. 13. Page 136.) 31.5.12. + b 7 . 2. . 7. 9.  ?. 3}. 7. 6 10 = 12. 47. 7. 4. 35.5. 27. : . 50. 12.15. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 12. w. \\. : 23.4. mi. 13. 11 5 .000 sq. Page 5. Page 131. 2. .3. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 3.3. 2. 141. 9.4. 3.3. 11. 9  15. 29. 3. 49. x 42. 8. 9. 5. 2. 7. 5.].3. 31. Page 137. 1. 8. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.3. 39. ~ 1. : XV 27. ft. Page 132. jc:y = n:m. 4. 6. 3 2=3 x. () 7 Page 126. . ' 55. 22. 41. 28. 56. 12. land. 20 20 J ^. 40. 1.17. 6*.7.3. 174+ Page 128.5. 11. 8. 7. 17. 36. (</) ft. 7.1. J. 20. 7. 31J. J. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5. 5. 15> 9. tin. 2. 5. 1(5. 1.*. 2. in. . 5. 6. a 3. 7. 7^. i. 18. Page 133. 1. . 14. 4. 55. 36. 2. 11. 8. s<i. cu. .  19. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 14. 1. (a) Directly. 16. 3. x +y x + 74 7 \. 7. 10. 16.3.5. 3. 5 2. 38. Inversely.15 x. 25. 32j. .7. y . 10. a +b 1. *. 44.r. \. 24 1 (e) Directly. water. 32+ mi. 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'.46. . ini. "lO.8 oz. I. + W. Of. 2. . 26. 13. Page 134. : />. 15.3. 10. 4.2. 2. 26. ig 6. .5. (b) Inversely. 17. 40. 19 OJ. 2. 4. 4.1. 13. y 1.5." ^ 2. 4.5. 3. 14. 6. 3.J. 20 cu. 2. 22. 8.2. 2. J.36. 2. 4. 5:0 = 10:12. 7. 200 mi. 5:3 = 4: x. 4. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 30. 43. 23. 2. 9. 15. y :y =.4. 57. 45.. 2. 2. 2.5. lo mi. 2. 6.x a. 1. 6.
3. 4. 14. 5. 5%.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 4. SL=J o ft r^2. 9. 18. 5. 19 gms. 20. 4. 4 ' q. 7. 9. 23.$2000. 10. 2. 4. ft 3. 32.XVI Fagel39./hr.3. 10. 21. Page 143. 2. 6 cows. Page 151. 0. About 12f.0. B's 15 yrs. $6500at3Ji%. 10. 8. $900 5%. 13. 29.1J. 72.n + p. 147. 12. .10. ad _(?jrJL. 2. Nov. yrs. 3. 3. June. 3. C's 10 yrs. (ft) 23 J. 3. 12. . 90. 20 & Oct. 8. 15. Jan. Aug. 11. 6. 3.. Jan. 19. 23f . 4.1. 1 (c) Jan. be 10. 12.2.l. 24. 2. 9. ' 6 3 a. 6. 20. . Nov. 4.9. 1. 3. 5. July 20. 20. 5. 14. (c) . yrs. & May. . 8. 30.7. 7. Page 152. 20. 3). 0.^.8. On 11.33. Page 149. 2. 11. &. 26. 6. 4. 19. 1. . afcd ae ftd 8 ft. Apr. a. 26. & part of Sept. 18. $250. 1. parallel to the x axis 0. (a) Apr. July. 12. 7. 10. 1. 2. 2. 25. m f 9. m . 3. 6. 6. 2. m + n p. 20. 13. 2. (a) 12. Jan. 423. C's 30 yrs. 31. 10^ gms. 3.4. 25. 17. Nov. 4. Nov. 5. 24. 27. 16. $3000. 20 to Oct. 2. . 9. 3. 22.3. 11. 4.  11. Apr. 8. 15. 7. A's 30 18. 2. 100. Page 142. . Page 153. 16. Oct. 6%. Jan. 21. Jan. 1. M 2. 1 (d) Apr. 4. & part of Feb.65. = ^ a Page 141. 4.0. 10. 3. 2 horses.. 3.3. 5. 16. 25. 7. 2. 40. 9. 7.4. 1. $4000. On the x axis.4. 3. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. 30. The ordinate. ad AzA. 3. 5. Apr. 0. 16. On the y axis. 4. 9. 30. . 40. 12.. 4. at 15.. 1. 5. (ft) 20.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. (<f) 13. 3. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3. 13. Page 146. 6. 1. (5. . 2. A a parallel to the x axis. 3. . 1. B's 40 yrs. 18. Page 145. 15.. $500. July. 2. Feb. . 2. 7. 6.  17. 2. 2. ' . A's 50 13. ^. 00. 7. be 7. 11. m f 8. 24. 4. through point (0. 28. 2 a. 17.2. 17. 16. 1. 2t2. 16 to July 20. 7. 25. May 5. 11. 1. 5.$5000. . u 2ft. 3. 11. 7. 4 mi. 10 sheep. 18. 16. 2. <*ft/ bd 1. 3. . J. 24..1. 6. $ 1000. 5. 1. 14. 23. Page 22. 4.
2. (<?) 2. a 10 ' a ll V&. 1. 9 and Page 166. Inconsistent.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 5. 1. 27. 9. 2. 11.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (c) 2. . .41 and 23.73.67.24. xy. 2.64. Inconsistent.17 (ft) (c) 2. 2. Page 158. 1. xg . 1. 1. 24. 3. 15.75 (ci) 3^.25. xW. 3. . 1. 8mW.. \ft) 5. . . 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. . SlstyW 7. 10. 4. 26. 0.. 3. . 4. 5 and 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.13. . 3 .79. 4. (c) 14 F. 3.83. 2. 1. 3. 4 ) 21. 0C.83. (ft) 2. (e) 2. (a) 4. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 8 a1. 2.5 (ft) 3. f 10. 1. 1. 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 19. 3. 4. 2.25. H. f. 14. 1. 22. 1.25. ft 2 4.7. (c) 7. 27 19. . 13. (a) 12. 13. .24 . 10.84. . 3. G. 11. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.75. . 28. 15 . 15. (/) 3.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. H.1. . 8. 125a 28. .  12 ft xW  26 31. 3. . a + ft. 2 2 22.41 and . 12. 1. 2. 25. 30. .3. 8. 125 16. Page 159.4. .1. 14.25. (ft) and (d) 2. 4}. 6. . 22. (gr) 21. (a) 2. f. 8 1 f f g*. 1 4. 3. (e) 3. . 14. 3. + a 4 ft* . (a) 5. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 1.75.64. 4. 12. 1. 24.59 . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 7. 2ft4 Page 168.34F. 9. 3. 83.  . 2.2 (ft)  1. 1. 1. . 3. a 6o&i85 c i5o . . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 4wn8 + n4 5.25. 3. 5. 2. 13 . 2. 18C. .  1. () (rt) 3.. Page 164. 21.6. 2. 30. 1.5. 16. 13.24. 3. 10.5.. 18. 5. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 1.79. 2. (ft) (ft) 2. 4. 2 l.73 ami . 6. 1 23. (ft) (d) 2. 2. +3 4.75. ' :=_!. 2 a&m Page 167. 32F. 2. .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 5.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .27. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 5. 13C. (/) 3. 1^. Indeterminate.59. jgiooyiio 17. 3.73.73. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 1. 20. 81 "." 23. 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. . . 14. 2. 5. 20. 10 C. a 29. 5.3. 3. . Page 163. m. f12 wi 9. 15. 3. ft . 4. Indeterminate. 2. 19. 125 a 8 12. 3.  1. * 16. 8. ImW. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 27 27 81. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 11. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 17.
100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 10. AN S WE no .037. 2(> + ( 2 7>). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 10*. 119. m 13. 70. a: l . 4. 15. 31. 22. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 19.5). 2. 21. 98. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 18. 2 2 7. 2 4 8 2 . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 3.94. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).3 ab + 2 2 ). 9. 2038.y2 ).  +X '. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 978. 13.a b 22. 13. 4. 12. 9. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 4. 25 19. 420. . 8 /. 1. /> 4 ). 5. + Z). 33. 18. 7.6. 3M. 14. 16. rt . 237. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 71. 20. 40. 9. 3. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 3. 17. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 57. 16.  x. 36. 2. 2 2 4. 14. + i)). 28. +35.10 a~ + 5 a . 7. 15.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 16 6 w . +3 + 5 4. 8. 11. 20.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 24. 14. 20. ). a ). Page 170. 2. Zll. 27.7 /)). 76. (1 (x2y). 1. + l). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 9. 1 1 ?>). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . ? . 3. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. (a 2. 309. 3 6 23. 247. 11. . (Gx + (i + 2a. 3 2 ^. (3a. ? : 1 . 6. 1. 90.r 2 + 6jt). . 101. ?7i 1 1 3 1. Page 172. . (x' l). 18. . 12. . 32. 12. ??i ?i . . (a + y+l). 17. 11. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 9. (48 + 6. c 10 6 :l 20. 9. 5. 16.XV111 7. 6. (2 a + ft). 5. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l.x ). 6. . 99. 6 (\x 3.^).GO a c + 23. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . ^i. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2. 84. 10.f 1 m 9 16. 4. 19. 20. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 10. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. + y). 8. r> 4 : 1 . 2 49 . Page 171. 2 12.i c 6 15. 15. 0. 64. a 2 . 8. 14. (x + y\ 90. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. GOO 2 c 2 . 300. 17. 11. 00. 21.1. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 5. 8. 5. + 29. 35. 1247.83. 7. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.2). 6. (4a2 9& 2 13. 1. . 8. 34. 72. (ab + c). a. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. I 8x2). Page 176. 90. 25. (ly). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . (l + x + . 6. (a + 2 +l). 180 .+3^ + 4. 26. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 3 2 8 3 12. 5 5 8. fe *?>' ?> fi . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 23. + + ?V 22. 30. 763. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). + (win . 30. a. ( Page 174. 2.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 15. 10 x G a 4 .5. .1.
ii :J _7. 15. 3. 17.798 yds. f ^ is.4. 4 n. 13. 9. 5. 12. V17. 1.  43. 15. 1. 37. 2] see. 40. 18. 21. 7. 4. f . . 1 7. ^. 31. vYb. 4. / 11. 33. 11. 10. Page 181. 4 a. 16n. V J l. 9. 11.4. 2. 4. 1. 34.. 1&. 21. 33.. 3. 6. 16. 36. >i 27. 4. a.V 8j. a + 61. 5. 6. 1. ft. *. Page 183. 7. 6. 3. 1. 12.*. 27. 2.367. 3. 17. . 7. . 6. 5. (afl). 19. 7. 30.6. 25. . 2. 14. or 5. 7. 10. 28. 14. 12. 14. 44. 9. m.60.  5. 1.ANS WERS 22. 12.Sn. 6561. 6V'2J. 5. 3.5. Page 177. .a.. 11. 6V21. 17. 28 in. 15. ^.. i. 2. 8. 13. 2. 3J. 29. xix 26. 23. 2. 16.  14. f 3. . . 8. i ^. 5. ft. 35. 5. 35.935.}. 2. Page 179. . 7. * 1. 36. 20. . (< + ?>). 3. 3. Af^. \/3.645. 34. w. 12. 8. 6yds. 4. 3. 1. 10.6. 5. ~ V^3. 6. _ iVaft. 10. If ^. 10.?. Page 185. V2. > w ft. 13. Page 184. 47. . 7563. f. 4 W**. 10. 5. JJI.925 ft. 4J. J. 12. 39. 4. 4. }.4. 14. 26.5. 9. 27. 3. 16.1. 48.236. 5083. 32.  f.916 yds. 4.18. 4. 49.. 39 in. 1. 20. 7}. 7. 2. 3. {. 10. 7 45.  1. 1 f Vl3. 9. 22. 29.  f.. 11. 18. 24. l~8. . >TT 26. 28. 9. 2 sec. 2. 9. 10. 6J. 29.742 in. 5. vV'TA 24. 4 TT M 28. 3. 14. 39. 25 J. 4. 1 38. 3. V.237..6. 5f. 9. 1. 2.469. 8. 13. /.. 270 sq. ^^7m. 30. 20. (6) Vl4 3. f.005.6. " ^_ 22. 4. 11. 7. or 3. 36 in. 40. 2. 24.6. 37. 31. () 2. 10. ft. 23. 5.. 1. ZLlAiK 19. 6 f !. 7. 50. . 21 28 ft.. 8.690. 15. 4. 21yds. V35 1. 2. 46. 42. 23. 6. m. v 17. 6. 15 1 10. 3.w 18. 7 in. 32.522 38. f f V. 1.243. 5. 9 15 ft. V2. 7. 5.13. 21 in. 12.  3. 19. Page 180. 8. 12. 13. 15.1. 41. 7. 6. 5.  2. 4. 25. 2.i. 5. 3. 16. 21.
5. f. 6^2 in. 4. 27. 2. . 12. 2. 6. 21. 3. 28. Real. 4. 4. 48. 3. 64.  13. 0. $80.2. 35. 1. . 13. 3. 24.17. i. 10. rational. 10 mi. 3. 6. rational. 1). 3. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. f 6 52 a.* 2. 11. 41. Real. unequal. AB = 3. V ~ 16 4 2. 0. (5 10.  1. 4. in.  6. 6. 4. 0. 23. 4. 0. ' 1.2. . 2. 2.'. x* 51. . 5. 0. 6V64. 0. rational.  1. 25. 5. 13. 47. 3.41. f. 31. a8 . . 2 . . 1 . 10 or 19. 2 V3 in. . 52. 6.59. 3. 6.  1. 16. 12. 2. $ 120. 8\/2 17. . 28. . 1.. 19 in. . rational. 20 eggs.. . Imaginary. 18./hr. 19. %. 6. 21. 10 in. equal.  5. 20.3. 0.1. x2 + B . rational. 17. 3.37. Page 192. equal. 2. 4.2 x2 . $30 or $70. 2. 3. 20. 2. 3. 3if. 7. 8. _ 19. 3. 22.  2. 53. . 1. 2. 2. . 1.. 5 ft. 29. . '  f 5. 2. 10. Imaginary. 20 nii. 38. 16. 3. 15 ft. 12. 7. 1.48 3. . 20.12 = 0.XX Page 186. irrational. unequal.  i. 12. 2. 33.4. 28. VV11.4.2. 3. 6.48. 14. 64c. 0. 5. V2.10. 2. V7.74. 18. 39. a. 24. 19.6 = 0. 3. 45. unequal. 14. 1.. 26.  Page 194. x*4x=0.a 3 a. a. 4.]. i . Page 191.. 23.12. Real. 0.3. 1_^L ft 14. 15. unequal.Oa. . 26. 6. . 1. If. Page 187./hr. V^~2. 9.  1. 0. 36.  9x <). 8.7. Page 190. 2. Imaginary.4.7. Page 189. 3.  2. 7. 3.2. 2. 2.. 25. 50. a + 6. 4. 16. #<7=3.2. 35. Imaginary. 32. 15. 7. 6. 21.4.a.1.  24. x 14. 37. 22. 34. 70 ft.02. 58. 3. 0.7. 44. Real. 43.5. 8 or 12 mi.4. 12. 1. V^l.2. 7. . + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 11./hr.  5.1. 3. 8. r* i. 1. 2. 57. ft. 0. Real. 56. 2. unequal.23. orf. 1. jr . 1. irrational. 1.2. 42. V^l. 1 3. 1.3. Real. 25. 0. unequal. Real. 18.70. 25. 49. 23.l. 1. 3. Page 188. 4. 1.6. 3. 10. v^^fcT"^.2. 0.a. 1.5 x + 6 = 0. V2. 9.0*8. 3. *'' 12. 46. 2. 40. 55. unequal. 10 mi. 2 ft. = 0. unequal./hr. 9. 1. 27. 30. 3.2. 15. unequal. 0. 9.62. 2. 2. 24.2. 26. ANSWERS 22. 120 ft. 8. t is. U. 6.$40 or $60. 27. 1. 1.5^. 7.23. AB = 204 ft. 0. 7. 5. a + 1. 26. . 7. equal. 4 da. + 11 x. H. 1. . . 2. Real. s 11.  1. . 2. ^l/>> = 85 ft.
19. ^Sf 3 38. 1. 10. p. x/25. \/r\ 11.2. J. 33.1 5 15. n\/* Page202. 29. . 15. wA 46. 16. . . 8. 49. 43. 25. 2. 13. ." 17. ar 1 . 0. 30 a. 8. 3. v^T4 m. 6. 46. v. 31. 57. 10. 125. 20. 33. 53. 35. 50. 44. 59. 14.. 1. JV37. 51.  f . 9. 84. 16. . y. 8. \/3. a. 2. 4. 60. 17. 4. $7. a 18 . 1. 5. 4. 28. m. 54. 0. 19. 2V a. 50. 4. 13. \. 2. V^ 34. fx'^z'l 23.17. ifa. Page 201. Page 200. 18. 'J. 33. 56. 32. 3. . 1 39. 24. xxi 15. *V. J. 19. 55. 14. 1. 243.  a'2 . . 2.ANtiWEUS rational. 49. 2. . 3. 11. 30. 13. (m 26. x. ). 22. 31. r. 36. 1. 4.  f. : . Page 199. 7V7. 2. 2. 2 L ( V. 7 . vV.32. 49. \ . &. 7. vm. 19. ? . 9. Page 197. 21. 26. 1. jV 10.^7. 4. 47. 27. 37. 3. 23. 8. 9. 10. 20. J. v/3. 8. l  5 12. i. 29. 8. 1.  48. 6. 20. 1. 12. 25. y . 14. 5\/5. 3.6. 1. 14. J 3. 11. Jb \. 3. 17. 16. 7. \/. 21. _! V3. v'frc 18. 6  AAf. 2. aW\ 40. 22. z + 22. . 12. 30. 13. Page 196. 29. 40. 39. r*. 3. 9. 9. 12*2 61. 3 4 11. 4. 1V1. 42. 3.  J j. m'. 21. 38. Vr. 58. 3. 49. 16. J. 9. 5. 5. 1. . 41. 24. 18. 3. I. 20. 10. 3. v'frW. 2. 5. 2. 4. 15. 48. 27.//^. 5. 45. 24.  5. 8. 32. 18. 15. 3. 8. 1. 28. 7. 0. \. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 47. 23. ^49. 2. 25. 5. 17. 52. \a\ \/^. x$.
16. 25. + . 3^2. a 4 +* + !. 9. 36. Vr 8. 24. 9 . V2 + 4 V22. 27. 17. V63. 2 '"V5.  a Vft 2 121 b. V. 2. 2 x* 15. .). . 28. 10. 37. + + ft.XXii ANSWERS 1. 13 a. 28. 3.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. r c . 50. 3 x^y 33. Page 207. (a 27. 20.'\ 14. 1. 5 ( . yV35. Vz2 ?/ 2 44.Vxy 35. 32. x y. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 30. 2v (T 2aVf. k/2.2 18. 26. 2. 6. x. v^.632. 3 \ 39. 51.. 40. 11V3. + 2). (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).577. l 5. 2. 10. 10. 37. 31. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 4aV^J 16. 5 22.yl : . 4. 2. x%  3 ^+ 1.648. a2 4. 13 35. 11. 3 a~ 3 (x (. V80. + 1. ). x 25. 41. 9. y. 43. V.x^y* + y%. 11. 16. 6. 03r* 7.3 + 40 3 . 24. 19. . 34. 21. 2 4 z2 l 3. x 7  34. (x' (l 1+x). 40. + 2 V22. 39. 21. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. v'TM. 1) 3V3. 3 42. Page 208. / V3. 7. 195V3. + Vic + 25. 5. ^88". 23. . 18.rV:r. Va 2 "ft. 7. 29.  2 3:r. a 3. 13. 3. x^ . 17. ^7 \AOx. v/^r 5  A/^~. T. 2 a?>V2 a. + 2 ar 1 ). 2.r.707. 1 2 or 1 ?. 19. 48. V 5 47. 33. 2\/7. 62V(J. ?tV?w. 13. 31. 29. 45. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. abVab. 20&V6. 8V/) 15. 15. ^: V2c. . 49. a^ + 2^+1. 38. y (a + ft) V2. 3^ + 2). . ftV 46. 2.f. 9. 12. 8a6V5. 8. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 22. m* n*. 4. 30. 5. 3 4\/2. Page 203. . 32. 2>X2. 135V6.692. 101 1. r 17  Page 204. 3V^T.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 20. 8. JIV6. 3. 34 r 6. 3V5. (o* 2.2 VlO. 26.
VT5. v"5. 2yV2?/. 39. 17. \/128. 37. 21 23. 53. 22. 8.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 36. 29. 7. V3"m. 6+2V5. 32m27n. 14c 4 V5. Vn. 37. 48. 7\/(l 7VTO. 18. 5 \/2. \/04a. : ^32. a\/5c. 3 Vl5 30. v/8. V3. \/2. ^27. 3. 5. 5v/2. 11. 0. v^O. 9 VlO + 4. 15. x/w^ 8. 6. 38. . v 25^4714 V2"a. v/lO. 5V2. 2\/7. ^v 7 15.30 2. 0. . 6. x/3. \/a6c. . / \/w/t 4 13. xx 1. 21. 2. 10. 3.. 21. 7. 2 \/2. 14. 10. + VlO  v y (5. 22. 2 V'3. 2. 36. 6V2. v^4. 3 V2. 3v^2. a2  b. v/i). 6x2?/. 34. 12. 24. 3. 9. Page 216. 14. vT). 35. 4 >/3. Vat. 1. x/8. 19. 31. 39. "v/wi ??. 4 a*. 25. D 45. v/l2. 8V2. x/4. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . v^lf. a^\/a7>. 18. \XOfl6Vi5. 4. 33. \^r^bVabc. 44. 3\/wi. 6. v"3. . V/. v7^. 2 ate. ^9. 24. 25. 30. 9. 17. V5. m ?i2Vm/t. 3\/2.  3. 3 V15  47. 4\/5. 28. 2 28. 8. v^f. x/8L v/27. Page 211. 30 Vl4. 5. 7. 10. 35. 74\/Jl 120 46. 6. "^8000. v^a. v/9. 6. 14. 2. 19. 34. 11. \/abc*. 31. 27. 52. V2. ^\/3. 23. 1.J Page 212. V3. 13\/3. V2. fl^Vac. 8V73\/IO. 20. 27. 2. + 20. 51. Page 213. 23. Page 210. 50. 18. 11. Vdbc. aVa. 4. 2 1. . ab 4. 13. 9. VJla. 1V5. \^6. 12. 10V(). 6aV2\^. 32. 16. 43. x/125. '. 3. v^30. Vtf +3+ 33. 17. \V3. 15. \^6. V8. x/27. 2. 16. % 29. 49. 16. 4VO. r)\/(l Vrtr. 8v2T 12. 3\/15  6. 26.T*.r v/^ v^fr*. 38. 26. x/8l. \/8. 40. W). 41. . 40. . 46. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 1. rtv/5. 13. Page 214. 42. b. ^ 3 b 5 24. V5. 32. 6 2\/0. 3. w?i. 5V2. 8  \/15. 5.
Page 223.601. f. ^. 16. 6 V. 29. 12. 20.V3). 25. x 20. 36. 10. 14. 23. 512. 5. (V51). 9. V3. i^ ~ 1 v ^. + 5V2. \/3). 6. 3. 2V3. V2. \. !^ 6 4. 2!5_. 5. 4. 81. 30.7083. 25. 15.XXIV 7. 16.  13. 11.  f.732. 25.  . 4. 7. 100. (2f V"5). V5. ^. 32. 5 f. 12. 17. Page 219. (V5f 5. 7. 1. 3. 22. 15.81. 25. 21. 3. 1. 4. j. 9. 17. Page217. 13. 20. J. 2V3.0606.4142. V3 .\/TO). \/57t. 0. K>/0 + \/2).13. 2 . 28. 21. 81. 2V2. 3V23. 216.3. 24. 9. _^JflJ?. 11. 10. A . 19. 1. 7 Page221. 18. ' 22 i . 9 mn. 22. (VaT^v a). ANSWERS 8.. 23.4722. 21 ' Vob 26. 10. (V21). . (\/5V2).5530. 125. 5. 15 f 3 V2L 4. (2V2). 33.^ (\/22 4. 31. (V6 + 2V2). 8. 1. ^(VlO\/2). {. 4. 24. (VllV2). 5. 12.  2. 13. 4. 2ajV2*. . 26. . V3. 8. 4. 2.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 27. 5. ^\/2. 27. . 16. ^r. 14. 7. +3 V2). 7. 3(7+3V5). 24. Vf6fVtf. 37. 10. i(Vf Vft). 9. 25. * 3. (V8 + V2. 7.64. 4. 6 (V2 + 1). 3. 4.5. Va. 10. 18. 0. 18. 17. 9. Page 225. 17. . 1. 16. 11.2.6 V3. 4. 27. . 9.1805. 10. 13. 2. 12. 19. 5. 18. 2. 7. (2. 4. 7. 21. nVTl. 8. 4. . 9. 18. .6. Page 226. 64. 16.3535. 16. . 11. 19. 6.389. 2. 24. 12. V3. xy 2. 20. 5.625 10. 15. 19. 8. 5 V65. 3. + 6) 2 . 8. 1. 6. 5. m f. Page 28.1547.3. 7 f 5 4. Page 218. 20. 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. 10. 34. 2. 1. 8.9. 25.w 6. 3. 1. 2x^2^. 23. (Vf + (4 V2). 15. 12. 22.2. 8. 4. (3+ v/2). ~ Vac _c 0. 4V3 + 6.732. 4. (\/3f 1). 1. 11. p 6 13. 25. 3. 35. n*. 30. j 15. 9.464. 26. 8 V3V2. (a 1. 29. Page220.2828. 4. 224. 2. 16. 19. 16. 4 14. V35. 7. J. . 1. 5. 14. 1. Va.1. V. 23. 2. 6. V^TTfc. (2Vll). 6. fV2. 15. 11. i^Lzi.7071. 14. 9. 8. 23. V6c. .
. . 2 > 1. 2. 5. a  . 2. a: :} . 1 (?> x/^3. 100. 12. 4.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 1. 19. 28. 1. 2.  f . 2. 2. 10. .3. 2 .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.10. 3. 2 . 2. 6. 73.  J. 13.2. 3. .1. (B43). 3. 1. 3. 13. 3. 3.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 4. a . 2. . 0.3. . P. 1. 1. 23. . (r. 2. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 7. 12 24 y . 4. 4. 18. (a. . 2. 2. . 13. 11. . 9. & + 6 2 ). 1.l)(m . J 24. 11. J. 4. 2. 2 . 2. 4. 0. Page 233. 21. l.  3.2. 2. ( 16. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 15. 3. 2. 1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 5. 3. 6 2 2a + 2). 5. 20. 4 . (a+&)( 2 14.l)(a3)(a . . 9. 13. 6. (4 mn .5.4. 5. 20. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 2 <? 4a2 . 3. 4.5 xy + 25) 22. 2 6. J Page 235. 50. (w . (m 4 + l)(ro. 19.w 4 + 1). 0. 16. 30. 3.2)(* . . 3. 8. 9. 2. 0. 8. 1. 56l). 2.  3. 3. . 3. (pl)(p3)(p6). V3.^a. 7. 11. 3. 0. 25. 3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 30 30. 8. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 7.  5.  3. 10. 1. 5. 19. . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 3. 3 9. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 3 5.0. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2. . 2. 4. 7. f>.12. 2 .nl^EI. 2.8a 18. 5. .r . . 3 . 3. 2. Page 236. 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 24. . 11. 7. 2 6. (63)(6' t 18. 6. 8 6 & 0. =A^Z3. 1 6. 12. 12. 3. 3. 11. 18. 3. 4. 10. (pl)(p2)(p2). 7. . 2. 3 . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 22. 7.  16). 1. 4. Page 234. 17. 4. 4. 1. qpl.ANSWERS Page 228. 25. 4 4. 4. 1. 5. 4 20.. 21.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). ' J. 26. 11. 1. 6. 4. 2. 5.3. (2 a. (+!)( 2) 10.Y.22. 3 . 5. 2. 2. 3. 4. 2 V^ . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).4. 4 . 1 . (a. 8. 14.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 8. . XXV 4.3 2. //. 3. 4. 17.  1.  4.3. 1 .4). (a + 2) (a Page 229.  2. 3. 6. 30. \/0. 0. 17. 14. a(. 1.4. . 5. 14. 1 . 4. 12. 1. (a 4. 15. b . 5. t/ 23. 1 . 2. 73. o. 2. 30 . 2. (a . 4. J.3). 12.  . .  1. 4 1. 1. (&y2a#H4).l)(a 2 + a f 1). 1. 16. 1. 5.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 25. 25. 87 .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 7. 1. 0. 10.7. 8.2. 3. 2 &. (8. 10. 15. 1 3. 6. ~ f7. f . 0. 24. 1. y.3. 10. 5.3. (rt.2)(m. 22. 20. 13. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 4.1. 5. 6. 1 . . 3.
2 ft. 2 2. 8. 4.3. 2. 3. 2n. 11. 400. 12ft. 2. V3~. 17. 6. 10.. 4 8. 1. . 5 4. 0. 2.4. 7. Page 243. 4 34. 78.3. 2V7. 14. 7. 1 . 3 . 8 . 2. 5050. 29. Page 244. Exercise 114. 3 . 3. 3. 4. . 10. 14. 3. 3 . _ 5. 2. 5. in.30.  .3 .13. f>. 288. 3. Page 245. 2 26. 3. 22.2.. 2. ft. . 1. 37. in. oo . . 0.3. \.. 10. . 84. 36. 17. jj. 5. J. 512.0. 1. . 5. 12 d.4. 1. 20. 1. 2. 1. 13. 14. 19. f*. 5. 3. 9. 3. 8ft. 8. 17. 1 . 11. 3. 28yd. 7. 35 a. 16. in. Page 247. 2. 9. 1. 5.1. . n . 40 25 in. 41. $46. 2 1.3. 5. 5. ft. 6. 26. 2. 3 2. '>. 20 in. 4. 2 16. oo . 3. 11. ANSWERS 2. 9. 2. 4. 15. 2 . 4. 32. . 2. 2. 30. Exercise 113. 50. J. 17.. 2 Y> V . 15. 3. 2 . 6. 12. 125 125. 30. 4. 2. . 25. 13.y. tn 2. 3. (a) 5.1. 8. 4 . 1. . oo. 5. 4. 1. 2. 12. (>. . }. Page 239. 8. 1. 7. .6. 1. 1.020. 48. 50. . in. n. 13. .. $VO. in.0. Page 248. (/>) "_. 7. } . (&) 2.5. V7.. 12. 12. . f. 37. . 45yd. 4. . 24. 3. 1. 1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1. 15. 1. 2. $. 2.200. 5. 3 cm. 18. 5. m + n..3. 4. . 14. 7f solution. 3. 3. 4. _ 7. 6. . _ 13 (0 6. 900. 3 4. 1. 1. 2. 5 cm. 1 .  11. 1 .. 7. 4. i i i .3. 4. 2. 33. 1. 3. . 5. 1J. 4 6. 5. J. 1. 69. 1. 201. i'ljVU. 1.xxvi Page 237. _ 10. 35 ft. \/6. co . Page 238. 1. . 5 . 1. ( 3. 18. 30 13. 2. . 4. 21. and _ 4. 11. 18. 3. 6. 5. 14. 1. 15.  1. . 8. m28. 3 3.. 20.136. . 4.1. 1 2. 17. 2. . . 5. Page 241. 1. no co .4. 31. 24. 11. 5. 15. 5. 3. 12. 38. 2.5. 37. . 3V5. c. ^ }. j. Page 240. 3. ri*. 1. (a) $3400. 9. . 31. 3. 1.. 40. 3. 4. 2>/3. 4. 2 . 10. 8 3.4. 4.6. 8. 7.  2 . . 1. 3. 15. GO . 8. . . 1. 2. 9. 4. i. 23. 512. 1. 2. 14. +  n. i j. . 21. = QO 6. 19. 15. 4. 16. 3. 55. Indeterminate. 4. 16. 2 10. 3. ft. 3. 1 . x 4. . . . 12 1. ' j. 9. Indeterminate. . 23. 12 ft. 3. 35. 5. 35^ 5. 22. 39. m27. $. 8. ^~2. 5.3. 4. 7 3. 17. 14. J. 0. 11. 12. 1. 40 in. 20 7.e. 4.18. 21 30.
8.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. i 10. 1000 aW. sq. 26. 8.120. 10. 3. 12. 2. Page 252. 8.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 405. 0. 28. 70. 11.3 ays. 3. 12. . 17. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 5.2 9. 0.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 2.4 &z x>&.4. 12. 4. 48. vy. J 2 //2 25. .  20 flW. 6. 495. 4. .0. 9. 3. 70.1. 125.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 6. 8. 2. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 15. 343.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 8. 04. 45. 22. 45 Page 257. 4. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 53. 6. 12. . 45. 16. 17. 7.  17. in. 8. 50. . 81. 005. Page 258. } $ 50. 8. 1 7 4. 16.5 x. 2. 25. 9. 105.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 70. <. 5. 1 14. 0. 192. 4 0. 22. 2. ~ an . 18.210. 29. ' 1.419.  101. 10. 6. 6. 12. 0. 4. 12. 8. 3. 10 14. 5 13. 2. 5. 20. 7. 5. 8. . 16. 4. 6i. 18. \ w 4 .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 343. 6. 7. w9  8.12 x*y 16. 6.13. A. 21. 9. 5. 7.920. 20. '23. 27. 4. a4 4 14. 3. Jj? 45. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 27. xxvii 1. 32. 27. 2. 7. 8 . 8J. a.5. 1. 13. 05. Y11. .5y 4 . 910.6 . 128. 327. 11. ?/i 6 x llj . 1. 5. 10. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 1JH. 4. 0.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 11. 2. 708. 4. 4. 4.8. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 3.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 4. 44. 10. 04. 4. 1. 3. 8. 16 11. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 120 aW. 15. 1. 7. . 4. 2. 12. 35. 4. 6. and 1. Page 259. . 7. 4. 9. JSg. 3. 19. . &' 14. 5. 15. 9. (). 10. 220 . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . Page 254. 16.v Page 253. 280 53. f y 8 + z* . 2. .x' 10 . 20. 4. 8 1. 1. . 14. r 5 4. 18. 2. d. 1. 3. 3. . 15. ~v 9. 2i* 7f.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 0. 1. G. 1820. 16. 3. 55. 3.2 45 a 8 /). 6. x4 . r r j. 13. 0.ANSWERS Page 250. 304. 2. 27. 7 x4 17.r* 4 70 . 3. 18. c. 1. 1. Ja. . 10. 35. 23. 2. 0. 5.470. x + Vy.7 10. 100. 0. 16. 17. 43. 8 4x' 2 . 9. 5.170. 125. 19.680.504. 4. B . 12. 15.6.384. 13. 5.53.<2 4.192. 410. 19.870 m*n*. 4950 M 2 b y *. I.r x>/ 7 3. 75. 1. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 7. .r 4.^ ?>i 2412x4. **+. 5. 21. REVIEW EXERCISE . 1.5. .700. />*. 16. 7 2 x 4 x8 . ^a 8. x r 4.
x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. &p 84. 76. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x8 x2 55. 132. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.a*ft 2 126.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 43. 109. 9x. 118. 39.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .2 xy + 4 y2 106.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 4. +^ + ft W.a.15 4 62 x  72. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.. 2 x'V2 90. . x . . x2 5r*x ft 5 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 4 . 3a'2 Page 261.3 x 2 + 3 x . 124. 8x3 8x.3 103. . 99. 107. 1 x 45. () 2 x 33. 3a~2c. 120.1. x4 f + 23 .1.4. 1 . 62. .3 aftc.x 51. 30. (a + ft)" 98. 6 c 47.5 b + c .5 3n 4. 14 x . 28. 2 x2 108. 13 + 2 s. x 3 41. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. Page 260. 46.4. 4 15 x 5 .105. 35. 25.{ 54. _55_7c 48.9 x . ft2ft 4 4l. df. . 21. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 243x4729. 110. + z. 4 ! . .6 am b\ 129. 0.2. x2 a2 1 . x 8  a8 .18 x?/0. . 64. y 4 z* 0. 50. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 125. 10 a 12 b.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 114.3 b .5. 0. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. x } 4. 61.2. 2 30 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 3 c .18 ?/ 5x4.2 x^. 4 fee 4. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 4 69.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 6a6c. ?/ . 49. t 81. 4 115. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 9 2w 128.4.x.2 x 4. 1 121.a 2 x 2a . .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 3 a 5 a 5. 93.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4 Page 264. . c3 4 58. 1 a"* 4 an . 4 2 . a J . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 6 a2 97. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 2 53. 22. 16. 100.x24 73. 3 a 44. 1 + 4 xy.^a . 5x 2 2x43. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.3 a'ft. /> 4 83. 29. 4ft y3.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.xxviii ANSWERS 19. ^ . . . x2 2 .fee 2 4. x' .  + 3 x2 . .a'2 c. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 10 4.rty x2 4 123. 122. 66.y*.ac 44 aft. 2 .41.  e +/. 24.4 2 4 c2 42 .c. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 2 a.5x4.4 x y 87. a2 2 aft 2 2.  12 a. + a 4. . 4. . 31. 63. az 4. a4 x. . 86. 52. x 3 4.4 x 2 .6 b. 32.1. 37.1. 94. m " + n + P3c . . 2 113.  . 2 . x 2 . x 8 + x 4 68.a6 2 4. * 60. 2 q. 88. 131. a* 4. 104. 12 a/.7 x   15.a' 'ft 4.4 ac. . ft n . x 4. 102. a 4 .9 b.2. !! 71. x* .  4 a3 85. + 3 a?. 4. 4 65. 3 a . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 40. 72. 8 . 12 x. 130. x' 79.x 2 4.4. as 20. 23.4 x?/2 3 4. xyxzyz.  3 x2 .3 a 2 '6 w 4. .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. ?> . 82. 127. 105. 96. I 57.c 3 4. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 36. a~b 89. 0. a 3m 4. 3~ n 4.7. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 5x + 2y~z. x2 471x4.1 4 jry 4 x .1w 77. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 3 36 b c . 2 . 70. f5+7. 5 42. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 5 4 4. 7 + 3 xf 2. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . Page 263. . . 27. 133. .ft).x4 + y'2 z 4. . . 2 x2 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .3 . 38.c.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 91.2 c . a' 111.3 y. 16t/. 2 2/' . ft /> 78. ?/ 3. 80. 26. a* a 8 a aftc.
+ 22). 30. (2a + l)(a . (xyX^+y" )1 243. 21. (a& 192. (x  42 yr. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 2(x8)(x3). 185.y)(z . as 194.1). y 245.l)(a 2 +3). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 1.2. 4. 240. (x 227. 177. 1. Or (a + 2)0el). 142. 6.y + 3)(r (. 239. y3.2) (3 x . 148. 1. (y _ ft)(y 4.l)(y + 1). 40 yr.r ./_4). a + 2x2 ). 212. 15. 10. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).y)(jc + 7 y). 216. m. 2. 238. 8(ar}(/)27). 164. 162. 48 h. (. 12 6 panes. (r7y)(ai. 2. y  y 165. (JT y 225. 136. 32 h. 3. 218. . 3(x . 4. 220. C3 y _l)(. 1.3) (2/3y).. r>x 2 (4x. (5 x . 159. 186. 210. 7. 235. 174.y2 ). 2. G7. 183. + y.3. . (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 181. 202. k. 178. 232. 2 2 (a. (x^ + x1) 234. 166. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . Iff 145.ANSWEKti 135. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).6)(4 + 6). . +)(x2 x^+2. Page 265. + 2) + 9a. (x .1(5) 200. 15  a. 230. ?. (7 c 2 ). Page 266.1).3 y). . 30 yr. HI. 146. 149. 12. (x + 2)(x . 218. 6). 160.. (/ 246. (c) 160 C. 20. 18. 151.I2y). (ab + 8) ( 7). 156.. 171. 189. 15. 233. 147. + 11) (a 10). .l)(x8 + x2 . 24. 231. 197. Page 267. 2 xy(3 x .2ac + 229.3).2 )(x+y) 228. 36ft. 155. 180.3 y)(a . . 2. 244.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (8x + 3)(3x4). 152. 215.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 12) (j. 158. 236. 10). 201. 1. 22. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 147 mi. 187. 179. 2^. aft. xxix 139. 169. a 2 (15. 175. 144.y) (\r3y). 222. 167. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 226. + 3) (x f f>) ..2).6 . 143. 208. (a 2 + 2a6. (y  17)(y + (>). 207. 12 yr. 191. 8 204. 247. 138. 199. 214. 211. 176. (r^x + 1). (3x  . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 173.r + 4). 20. 209. 10 in. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 182. 1.y). ft. 10 ft. 206.  1.1). (y7)(y + 188. yr. 163. 161. (y 7f))(y 196. 217. (3x2?/)(2. 5.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 237. 219.2). 224.9)(xf 2). 30 + xyr. 153. fc'2a+62c).c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 1. 154. 168. 195. 172. 19. 241. y. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (?/+l)(yl). ( + 2y)(2x3y). 193. 157. (7x2//) 203. 3. 150. a(a. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).m)(x + a). (2 198. (233). + 7)(rt4). x(x + 6) 213. 23 18. 2 (4 x . 50. 37 1. p. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 75. z(x10)(xl). 10). (y_24)(y5). a. . (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. + 3). 170. 2. 137. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 6. 184. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).4xl).6) (2 x + 1). p. 12. 205. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 190. (a} 59. 1. 140. 12 yr. (6) 40. (x + 6)(x6).
268. x 283. 303. x . a~ ' b*). 7 x 265. 2 x  3. 256. 3).  3xyf x// 257. + f. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. x12.^^^^^^^^. 2 4 300. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. > 4. ? 1) 302. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 4 5. x ?/ z 1. o. &). 250.. *. 254. 3  262. 7^T 2 . 10. 266.4) 1) (3 x . o(x4l). 298. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 260. ^ 299. 43 '^rJ'. 258. 251. 0. 307. 2. 295. 249. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. ^/>J. 301. 3.2* i^^ !^. Ca&c 1)(M 253. (7 255.(x  4) (x4 304. x 267.1. 305. 310. 261.  7.4). 306. ?^ZLiZ 308. 0. 259. 7. 3). 263. a. 279. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .^ ^^. 264. 269.   . *>). 5. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.
385. 324. <L 409. 2 ab  a Page 276. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 20. 6 ?/+:>. 3.)Cr4)__ . 382. 375. + 335. 4. 2 327. 13 391. ?/ + 3 332. 405.vin a /r " 337.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 399.. 1. f. 361. 0. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). . 7/i ^ _ . 336. Page 274. ^_:r f> 331. .  1. 365. 404. 2. j 328.3.7. a + b + 6). 4 A. 376. m. 390. 370. 406. l'j. x 54 359. Page 277. 392. . 355. T+^.1. 1. 389. 364.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381.!. 3. L . 401. 1. . a 2 .. 388.". . 326.XXXI Page 272. 408. 2(a i 403. 377. 334. * 357. 11. 339. 398. 6a. y 4 I 340.  1 356. 329. 360. 333. 394. 343 00 351. T\. " 4 378. 396.(5 a . A^L5L. 2 ?/ 363. ?=. ^"" 4 s . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. ^ 3 // . 325. 3. + x 362. c 402. 0. a) A^_. 2. l . 383. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330.J . 2 ). 4. . 387. 12. 395. (a + b + c\ . 1 i 2 ^. 397. 9^. 0. 2(q. + 4 & 4 \ b. 1. 386. 366. S. If. 4 rw. 0. 393. 407. 7. 379. _*L'L+. ab. ?>*. 380. 1. a +6. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 2 r36 384. 400.
472.. Page 280. 476. 464. 3a 4 5. 481. 84.7. 425. 411. 432. 5. 6. A 5 mi . : />a. 508. \ 1. L2 a  6 . Page283. 503. 7. 63. 440.  2f 504. 9. 1. 4. ^V. 421. B 4 mi. 4. 14 miles.vz in. 6. 435. . c. A $ 3500.5. 6. 2. * . 490. z8 +?/ 3 431. 1$.  2. (a  c). 477.7. 2 a 2. 418. 0. 486. 487.3. 8. 495. 90. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 7. 457. 461. 463.12. 6. 506. 427.te + . . 2. m 1 : wi.3. 10. \. 0.  505.0. 17. 479. 5.4. 7 : . *+. .  7. 10. 430. 50. 8.7. 20. 42. . (a) 1. 3. 7. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 478. i. .. 0. 445. $2000 at 0%. Page 278. 499. 51. 5. .55. 8.  7. fc. 2. 1. 2. 452. 460. B $ 2500. 6. 502. 10. 6. . ISjmi. 1.1. . 484.  . 5. (d  6) f. a + + ft c. 10. 494. . 24 days. 32. 419. 10.  453. 496. 20 yr. 2. 2. <L+ 6 (. 467. 5. a* 424. 10. 4. 33.0. 456. c 6fc 10. 462. 40 oz. 5. />c c(f be. 22.489. b 449. 444..46. 468.7. 2. 441. ft 5. 426. 53 yr. ' $260 at 0%.  f>. 1.. . 447. 442. 455. 497. 2$. 2. 3. 454. 18.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.}. 7. 1. I. 412. 450. 507. 439. (&) true. 12. 422. . ISJini.  2. . 485.m  m+ M in. (&) 443. . 446. 436. 420. not true.488. 480.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 448. 21. 32 yr. 493. 429. 3 ..rz Page 279. i a b 451. 6. 10. 459. 3. 28 yr. 0. 0. .2. 40. 8. 465. !L=4.  1. L (c) I. 428. 11. 0.7.. 483. fj. 0.  2. Page 281. 2. 2. m. 500. 4. 2 438. 492. 458.4. 1 a /?$+&?. Page 282. . . 466. .  1. 5J. + () 433. . 10$. (c) not true. a 22 . 17. ^. 413. (d) true. & 491. ^r?i 434. 7. 498. '. 410. 423.2. 501. . 482.  10.}.
14.15. 2$.. 515. 3. 1. 555. 2 imag. 593. .02. + 6 tf f 3 .25. ^ ft 4. 599. 3.62. 510.  2ft da.  4.55.0. . . or 8.0. 560.75. 2 1. 3.05. (e) (c) 2.  imag. 1.52.5. 526.5. . 3.5. 530. . 559. H.37.3. 514. 531. 2. (a) 74 Ib. 2(4 602. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.7.83.. .8. 7. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 573. 8. 2. 5. 567.5.  ft*.8. 3. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.02. 581. Page 287. 513. 536.3. 2.6. 4. 1. 2. _^ 2754x . (c) 4. 1. (ft) Ill Ib.25m. 4.r8 596. 554. + 26 + . 1 .4. a+ Page 286.83. 1. 518.8. 556.3.78. 578. f36a28x8 592. tin. 3. . 563.20.16.3. <z ft 1. 3f 4f. 3.53. (gr) 10 1. 24 da. 1. 5. T . 1. Page 285. 1.3.88. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 564. _ 3. per hour. x8 ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 571.9. . M ft c 2 ft 3465.10. 27 y* f\4 .1.ANSWERS Page 284. 4 mi. .56 sec.   (h) 8. 1. 1. (6) .  7.8. Page 288. . S82 c.51. 603.54. 509. (ft) 4. f. . 598.54.  + + c.21.8 x3^. 6.62.  557. f. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).24.2. 591. 558.15. 562.12. (c) 3. 1.6. 1.10.4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . > ^ . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.  3.0. a f ft + c.33.1. 2. a + ft  a  f c. 1. 551. 512. xxxin 511. 4.4. 21*_. 8 mi.73. 4.38. 2. 582.  .00.31. J7] min.% rr\* 585.4 x + . .6 2. 553. 516. 1 . (e) 570.1.5 f.02. 4. 4 0. . 1 580. 115 Ib.24 sec.f 1. 4. ft 584. 561. _ 4. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 2 . . 3.3. 1.02.03. . 1. 2 1.0.7. 4.. (d) 537.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 4* da. 529. 532. 579. .xj/ f xV .3.  (a) 2. 31. y% Z * 586. 527. 0.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. da.1. . . 1.  2. lead. y 4. 4. 2 2. . f ? a f ft __ + c C).21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.  (a) (d) 1. 575.6. 3 da. 525.31. 1.  J(a f + 2c).35. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .4. 2 10. 3.14. 1 600. 3. 6.5+. 3 . . 5. . 1. 40 Ib. g(rc+ 6c). 3. lead. 0000. 4. 569. .7.78. 2. .4. 5. (/)  10 to 8. 1. tin. 1. 576. 3. imag.37. 6435. If 572. 568.1. 3.1. Roots imaginary.04. 552. 232.75.15.. 24. 574. 1. 2(6 597. (6) 3.5.3.6. . 2. 2. 1. per hr.24. (i) 3. . o> . 528. 533. 1$.  1.30. 7^ da. 566. 2 . 577.4. .03. 3. . 550. 583.04.. . 565. 1J. + 12 x .
(*_ + a: 611.049. 3 x2 .  684. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 2. ^. ^.702. 50. 3 a.b 686. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 661. y  619. 5. 615. ^^ 695. 898. a 1J.y. 635. a. 3. V^~3). 703. 678< 682. 13. 14.002. 3. V2.14 If 1. 10. \+ab 699. .2f Page 290. b 664. 2 a: 4. 643. 8 f 3.203. Page 289. 2. 5002. ' 674. 632.  1. 2. . 654. 636. n^l +^. 0. 5. 622. ix 2 . 700. 647. + ~^'2 + a 1.  4. 6. . fta a/> ^A. 646. 666. 657. J^^. 631.b. 2 x 44 ^/. a + b. \. 1 ~a . 9*. 11. 696. 4 676. V"^TJ. l/'3.  3. + 2 A (i f Page 291. a 4. 1$ 639. 2092. 0. V7. 655. 692. 638.  a2  a (ab).3f l 668.f 3 V^3). 4. 0. I}'/. 653. if 4/> 671. 651. a ' 2 + . 662.2f (5 4. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 640. 630. 683. 1. 971.001. 1. 616. 4 V 0.001. 1. 641. 25. 2 a  6*.3. 649. 25. ' fe 2 ). 672.. 3. 0. 2.  13. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 2 / 2 4. 5. <T! . 2 a 688. . 613. 6 685. 7. .c ) 697. 618. K 5 2 V2. If f 667. 626. 2f.>A 610. 2.. 1.  6. . 210. (a3&45rj. 1 2. If . 009. / V^+lO^M"^.303. ^ 1. 1m*. 624.  4. 669. 7. 690. 645. 703. ab. 2. 608. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 1010. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.XX XIV 606. be ac \. 4. 628. 8. 648. 7003. 1 V5 1. 620. 2f. If 658. 0. 78. 623. o. 11. 637. 2&). z  1. a 2. 691. 642. ab 689. 614. b.3. la6 2. 3 681.  . 5 3. 12.  ft. 621.3.0.  2f r 659. V2. 625. 8 6 fo . . 701. If b. 705. fe + a. 2. . 607.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 633. 652. 708. 634. 706. 644. 4. 679. i. 629. 5. . 9. . 4. a 673. /> 4. 4330 da. 677 680. 650. c. If.a~ {Z 663. 617. 0. 670.43^4. . b . 2 ab + a  &.25.04. If 665. 1 704. 698. 660. 702. 656. . 2. .3. 2. 627. ft). . 4$. 612. 6.
776. 788. 790 2v 3v 2. 719. 34. 59. 731. 738. 1. 724. 24 4 . 729. ^ . 758. .ANSWMHti Page 292. 727. 768. 2 V2 . a". 5. 723.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 13ft. 773.V2. rt3 2 ^i^. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 769. 4 104 v/2.rJ w L 754. 1^ _ 760. 751. 710. 755.. y  1. Page 293. 39. + 6 2 tf'c. 5.4 . iv/Jj. 796.^. 716. fyaw&cu. i 2. 728. 29\/3. j 742. + < 735. a 2  x2 . 33^2. 789. 712.10. a 5 . 15 shares. 739. 721. T%. 2x3^ a. 3. 3V7. 746. 792. r. 726.8. 709. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 00. 8.9. 3 720. 8. a db Va^T < 45da. 794. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.1 . 1 I . . 767. 3 VlT 795. x i f^' . 25. 732. 714. .V/^ 741. 1 752. 718. 737. 47. 713. 32>/2. 717. mn. 2\/53V2. 300.r+y> 759. 756. 749. 753.. 722. 740. 7  3V5.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. . 3V52V3. 763.11.. 3V72V3. v'll. 1.^ 743. ^7xy. > 748. 734. VT14V5. 711. ^ ?>. a:* . "V313.r. 777. VIO\/3. 3V72VO. / 787. 17ft.4 . . Page 294. 1. 736. 733.. 730. 715. J(v'lO2V 791. 342V3. v/7 / .~ . VV> L4V34.12 af V^ 4 744.2. 30\/10 764. cr*lr*. 3^. x\y. 782 785.9. 725. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 793. a 2 6^. Hi a. 750. 24V2. 778. 24. i^. 1 [ + '> J. 1 747. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .257.
3. 812. 7. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . +j!>. 48. 6. 872. 817. . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 5. n =  29. (x 845. 8. 819. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 25. 3. 2  2. (x . V 3. $. 6 $. 6. 831. 2.  1.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 1.XXXVI 797. 4.a 4 + 1). 813. 6(a6)(o a + + &).. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 13. (x + 0X024. 8 09. Hoots . + d)*. 833.r . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 2. 2 2 . . 868. 895. .y) 852. 0. 827. 1.7). Hoots are extraneous. **. (:r 11. . Va. 887. f. 5. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 847. 886. 900. (4 c 4. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).l)(x . 7. H. (a m .5 b) 4 1). 23. db 7. . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 3. 863. 6. a(ft)( 873. 894.  + l(l^). 7. 4. 2 *x 807. x. 6+V7. x . 3. 3.4. 4. ^ V}.1). o 828. 5. 2 m . 19. 801. 2 . 7. ^. a2 ^E*!. ^VG. 8. 4. Va 803. Page 297. 2.4) 860.1) (a 8 . 4 885. 3. 2 (x 4*4. 5. ((' 1). 4 . 891. (x*y*ryz + z*). (3 b . 851. are extraneous. (x .7)(4 x. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 884. 836. 3 .  tt 815.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870./>") (a'. (x 4. 838. 2. ( 869. 879. 4. 848. 823. (x 2 .10 ab 4. J V. b' 2 821.f. 2/ 856. 810. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 j 889. 799. 2. 3. 842. jV3 f 3. 867. 832.1)(0 865.7. (3 862. a 42)(x . 830. o.3)(x + 4). ) (a' 874.  839. 814. 17. 804. 811. a* 4. 2. 898. 881. 1 .2) (x 4 2). m 875. 4.3. 4. 3. . m = 2. ANSWERS 798. 824. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).+ m f ") (a* ). 849. 0. 0. 876. 859.l)(x .0. 1.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2.1) . 1 1. (a 4 871. 0. 2 . . (a 1) (x 4. (. (x3). . 840. . 5). 1C. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 816. (x 2 f r . 1..a 3 " 4.5) (x + * 853. Page 296. 880.r4). 834. 861.om 441) (a 855. 890. .1.a 2 2 ). 858. 888.rae) (4 . 14. 5.7). (2x (r. 2 854.2w .4.l)(x + 2). 4. \/5. (2 4. 2 806. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 11. 2. 822. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 11. 835. 883. 4. 882. 20). 808. 826. 2. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 829. 897. 800. X4 1). 4 818. 2.7 4 1) 846. 825. 857. 837. a(ry + 864. \/2. 10. 1.  ' . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 820. 896. (2 a . 843. 844.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 3. 4. . (2 x + 3 y} . .. 899. 3.1)(V 2 .2 ax 4. 4. ( 4 4. 2 . 17. 893.3. (1 .25 ?>2). 892. (xl)(^~3)(. $. 841.
954.. . 6 1 1. 6. v/(ai !)(&910. 12. Z ^. 932. 942. 959. yd. . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 10. 7. ft.. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.446. %* .744. 333. 10. .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 12 in. T 6.1 = 9. 6. 12 mi. 921. ft. 4 6 mi.1. . T 6. 985. 18. 2. 955. 7 ft. i>. 934. 100 rows. 8. 978. 108. 987. 333.. 3. 8128. . 66 924. 248. 2. 3. 0. V5 T 2 . 4. ^y. 0. 1. 943. 8. 916. 3. .. . 12. 329. Va926. . 938. 280. 4 . 2. 1. 4. 4. 923. 3.I. 948. 905. 983. T3. 7. 3. 903. tt2 19. 904. 2 ft.0. 496. Page 303. 14 . 5 . 2.. 3 4 . Y. 962.  1. a + . 3 . 2 yd. 5. 1 + V953. w 3. 6 a 915. Page 302. 2. 1 _2 . 11.073. 950.2. .. 984. 6 . ft. 3.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 937. 1 2. ft. 947. 8. 15 16 ft. 979. J(_ ft. =F J. 115. i 3.01. 2 1. ft. 952.. 111. ft. i 8.  26j. 939. 11. a. 8. i(6 in. 6.1. Page 300. 80. 6. 12. 1 1. 960. 944. 2.709. i1" 913. 957. 5. S07. 4. V5 fj. 8. 964. 6. 6 da. f. 1 . 3./hr. ft. 2. ?/i 6. 8 . 5. w. 2. 6. 5. 1. 2 w 914.. 0. 945.. . 6. . 902. 0. 7. . 2 i ' a V. 9 in.615.651. 11. 986. 918. 963. 7. 73. 4. 3). 958. 4.. 911. V^3). . 2.. . 4. 951. 56. 4 in. Page 301.2. 982. 8. f ft 4 . 4. 977. 941. r ft ' < Page 299. 931. .760 sq. 15 946.111. 60 949. dL 4. ft. $(l 4. 933. 909. . 917. 4.V~~3). '3 3 in. 940. 28.. 927... 908. 935. 980. 20 19 ft. . 925. 8. 4. 480 8 sq. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 2. J. . . 8. 919. 956.. 936. . 11. 961. 920. J. 7 or 30. 28. 981. 28.  1 . 1). 922. 906. 5. 40 16 in. 5l4f. 912. 930.
'^^ } ( . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 48. (J.. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1010.18. 32 13 (tx 4V3. ^f (2f3V2). 0. 995. 1017.51. 1012. 1016. 8. 1008. 1018. 1019. (6) 8(1 . X. 996. (5. 1007. .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 120 a. 6 70 . 2 .870 a 6 1011. 990.92.870 z8 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 4.192rt?)r 120 *. Page 305. 2(2 v/2). . r = 2. 108. Page 304.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 3003. + 448 . 72. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 9 da. 1005. 1013. 1(5. ^Trsq. 991. 1000. 1 1004. 1006. 992.  5&7 1021. + v 2). 120 i^l^.128 I. 994. 192. 4 and 1020.. 993. 988. 1 8 8 2. 1001. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 997. 1009.378 <W and 92. 24. (a) (6) ^ 1002. () 12(2+V3). 1014. 12. 1003. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . in. 0. 12. .378 1015. (Z>) 999. 162. ~ \.
etc. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. comparatively few methods are heretofore. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The more important subjects tions. given. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.25 lamo. and commercial life. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Ph. great many work. $1.D. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. i2mo. physics.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xiv+563 pages. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. Half leather. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. so that the Logarithms. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. HEW TOSS . than by the . $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. A examples are taken from geometry. xi 4 373 pages. save Inequalities.
which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. etc. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. HatF leather. comparatively few methods are given. physics. save Inequalities. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. In Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. and commercial life.D. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The author grade. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. xi f 373 pages. so that the tions. 12010. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW YOKE . great many A examples are taken from geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. xiv+56a pages. $1. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE.25 i2mo. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. Logarithms.
guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.10 L. State: . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. i2mo. Cloth. under the heading Remarks". 6. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. izmo. . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 9. wor. more than 1200 in number in 2. xii + 233 pages. Attention is invited to the following important features I. $1. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Cloth.r and. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. SCHULTZE. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.. aoo pages. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. NEW YORK .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. 7 he . SEVENOAK. Ph. $1. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. iamo. 4.D. lines. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 10. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Half leather.
The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. 12mo. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . and not from the information that it imparts. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. $1. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. New York City. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 370 pages. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . . . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. of these theoretical views. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view.
which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. and a full index are provided. diagrams. Cloth. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. " This volume etc.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. photographs. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Topics. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Maps. i2mo. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. $1. An exhaustive system of marginal references.
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