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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
Norwood. 8.. Berwick & Smith Co. Cushlng Co. September. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass.A. September. . 1911. 1910 . May. U. May. . J.S. 1917.COPYRIGHT. 1910. 1915. . IQJS January. Reprinted 1913.' February. 1910. July. January. Published Set up and electrotyped. August.
giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject..PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. etc. are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. manufactured for this purpose. and conse . omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Such a large number of methods." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. specially 2. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. however. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.
Moreover. e. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. etc.g. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. hence either book 4. may be used to supplement the other. as quadratic equations and graphs. are placed early in the course. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. Topics of practical importance. For the more ambitious student. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. two negative numbers. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . however.
By studying proportions during the first year's work. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. is based principally upon the alge . and commercial are numerous. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. viz. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. elementary way. based upon statistical abstracts. such examples. physics. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. Moreover. in " geometry ." Applications taken from geometry.
viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. 1910. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. . NEW YORK. edge of physics. William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.
..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors....... Powers... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... SUBTRACTION.... ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. ..
108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .114 . * . Type V. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . /^ . Type Polynomials.. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type IV.. Type VI. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... Type III.... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . ..... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type II. ...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.
..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Monomials 170 .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . CHAPTER XIV 169 . ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... .....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
10. 4(a 6(6 + &). A polynomial is an y. 9. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). + 1]. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. A binomial is 62 . A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. V36". 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 2. V3 . 14. \/c. 3.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. or 9 Vx. 5Vl6c. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. [6c] 3 . find the numerical value of: Vff. V2a. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. are trinomials. + c). as in arithmetic. d 7. e. since the parts are a . 8. v'Ta. 4V3~6c. 17. !^f\/03 3 ft. 2 . 6. is 28. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. (cfd) 4." EXERCISE If a 1. 7 = 2. c = 1. x 9. b = 3. V^a6. 0. 26. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 15. 11. c f d). separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. aVc^. some number is . 12. 27. 6. Val \fi?. 13. a polynomial of two terms. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 16.g.
d=Q. 12. 5. 3a + 56 a 2 . (a (a f b) 7. . Ex. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 8. 6. + 26+3 c. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5.g. EXERCISE 8*  . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.5 ax 50 a6cd. . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . multiplication.e.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 = 6. a=4.390. subtraction. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 3. a2 11. __ E. find the numerical value of: 9. d = 0. 5=3.INTRODUCTION 29. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. c = 2. a 2 6. 2. c=l. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.99.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .4 6^9 ad. 10. 6. 4. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 2. 4a6fVaV2^. .9. 2 ).30 = 270 . 4 . 5c +d 2 . 1.. 52 . 3 4 .2 + I126. Otherwise operations of addition. b = 3. 3 2 If 1.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .810 + 150 = . 14.9 aWc + f a b . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . i. 16. . * For additional examples see page 268. Ex. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . l 13. x=^. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.
then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 34. geometry. 28. 29. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 5.c) (a . a. Express in algebraic symbols 31. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 6. 35. 6 = 4. a = 4. 6 = 6. Read the expressions of Exs. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. : 6. 6. 26. 33. 38. 6 = 1. and other sciences. 30. . a = 2. physics. 22. sible to state Ex. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 4. 6 = 5. a = 3. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a =3. = 3. a a=3. 6 = 3. Six 2 . 6. 25.6 . if : a = 2. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 30. a = 3.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 26 of the exercise. 6=2. Six times a plus 4 times 32.6 f c) (6 a + c). and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a =4. 27. 6 = 2. 24. 6 = 7. 37. 23.
b.) Assuming g . c. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 14. (c) 4. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 13. i. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. count the resistance of the atmosphere. A train in 4 hours. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 4. and 15 feet. and 5 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet.g.16 1 = 84. if v .seconds. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. 12.INTRODUCTION E. Find the height of the tree. (b) 5.e. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 13 inches. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. 15 therefore feet. d. b 14. 2. . By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. then a 13. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.16 centimeters per second. if v : a.
the area etc. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 5 miles. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (c) 5 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 10 feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 5. the 3. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. $ = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.). ~ 7n cubic feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. (The number 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14d (square units). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 2 inches.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (c) 8000 miles.14 square meters. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 32 F. is H 2 units of length (inches.). If the (b) 1 inch. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14 4. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. square units (square inches. : 8000 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. . meters.
SUBTRACTION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In algebra. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or positive and negative numbers. . AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however.
4. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. c = = 5. 21. 6 6 = 3. 10.3. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. subtract their absolute values and . 23. = 5. 5. lf(2). c = 4. + (9). (_ In Exs. + 12. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. '. 22. of 2. is 2. 12. . add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. the one third their sum. 18. Thus. 33. d = 0. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.  0. d = 5. if : a a = 2. (17) 15 + (14). is 0.16 32. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 19. of: 20. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 2326. 5. 4 is 3 J. 24.
Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 41. . 2. 36. 4. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 6. AND PARENTHESES d = l. sets of numbers: 13. 32.ADDITION. and 3 a. 27. 30. 25. & 28. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $500 loss.7. . 72. 2. 66. = 23. and 4.7. 09. \\ Add 2 a. d= 3. 39. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 6. 7 yards. ' 1? a 26. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 33. 6. $3000 gain.13. 34. 38. SUBTRACTION. : 48. 74. 29. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. affected by the same exponents. 3. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 42. 35. 3 and 25. 7 a. 37. 10. 11 (Centigrade).5. and 3 F. . 31. 12. 60. = 22. or and . 7 a. which are not similar. : and 1. c = 0. 55. 5 and 12. ' Find the average of the following 34. $1000 loss. . . and 8 F.5. 40. . are similar terms.. 13. 4 F. 32. 10. 10. = 13. ^ ' 37. 0.. : 34. and 3 yards. and 3 a.3. 43. c=14. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. & = 15. $7000 gain. 1. . }/ Add 2 a.4. . and $4500 gain.. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.
13. f 4 a2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12Vmfn. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.ii. Algebraic sum. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 10. in algebra it may be considered b. 3a . + 6 af . Vm f. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. b a f ( 6). 2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6).sign. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 5 a2 . : 2 a2.13 rap 25 rap 2. 14 . 11. 5Vm + w. . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 5l 3(af6). 2(af &).18 35. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 7 rap2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. or a 6. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2 a&. 12(af b) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.
"Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. + / + 3 Va. + y. 36. 37. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 33. 6 23. +m """ 20. 32. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 2 2 2 31. without finding the value of each term 34. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 1 27. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 21. 30. and to add each column. ra 19. 2 7 1 26. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. SUBTRACTION. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 2/ : Add.ADDITION. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. is . n x* 2 22. l^S 25. c 2 ^24. a a8 ZL **. 35. 17. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms.
s. of that letter. 2c. 2 025.c= 2. 4 = 7.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. and 2 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.g. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.7 2 . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.41 = 3. 3a 2? .8 abc .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 9 q 4. . V3.20 c 5 ab 4. 2 .g. e.15 abc . to show any error. 3. c = 1.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 5 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .3 s. 2 Thus. x of x.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . a 4. 7 4. . therefore the answer is correct.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. f 110WS: 26 aft. 6=2. and J 2 s. 46 4z 7 c.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 3 a f 4 1) 4.12 a& 4.o c and 4. 2 Sum. 5. 4 2. = .15 6c. ft any convenient and c. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. . the erroneous answer equal 7.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . NOTE. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. to add 26 ab .
.1. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.7v/if. .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.9(a + &) . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . a) y ^/. 2 a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . and 1 4 a . xy3xz + yz. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a2 2 14. ?/ .ADDITION. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.Ga 43x45.a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.12. in 8 3 m n 4. a 4 a .4:xy xz 6yz. and .and 6. a2 a.(b + c) 1.4 Va .a 4 a 4 1. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. .a . 4 3 . . d. 56 w. . 8. e a4 /. a 4 a . and 8 3 . 3 2 2 3 9 . ^2 1 e. SUBTRACTION.10 Vc. and v 15.12(a 4.12 6 ~5 a .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2 2 .2n 2 2 3 rz . 2 ?ft ?/z.5a^6 f 6) . 4.1 a 4 1 0. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4 Vc.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 2 and . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .VS 4 2 Vc.8 m 2m 12. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . d and / 3 ? 12. 4(a . + 50 + 62 . 18/+6y + d. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 2 ?/. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7ar + 3B 5. + a + 1.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.5 cr& + 7 6 9. and and 13. and 5 Vb 18. 4 ajy 17.7m . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. v/20. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 19. 11. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). . . a. 2 3(c f a). m 4 6. . 16.15 5. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 16e + 17/90.6.a. 4 8 3 4 4 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .
f 1. 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. a 6 2 c. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. T8a. + n*. and 2 24. f number may be added 3. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. and e + 6y .9aj 2. 1. 8 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . The sum and ? 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . s . + 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1/ . 13 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. 1.11 xy + 12.m 4m ?/?/ d. f 1. 22.4 2tn* Sic 2 . c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.5< 3 2 s 4^4. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. how 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. is 2. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .17 + 4 ?nfy . and 25. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 1. 12 xyz.3^* 2n 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2. +d a.. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.3 taken from 2 ? 5. .ra + m. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . . 45a6 2 . 1.22 21. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.
Therefore any example in subtraction different . from What 3. . Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. In addition. ( 6) ( = . NOTE.g. In subtraction. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. From 5 subtract + 3. 5 is 2. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.2. 2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the other number is required. SUBTRACTION. the given number the subtrahend. if x Ex. 1. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Ex. and their algebraic sum is required. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 6 (3) = 8. To subtract. This gives by the same method. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Or in symbols. two numbers are given. 7. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 41. From 5 subtract to .ADDITION. called the minvend. and the required number the difference. +b 3.3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ab = x. a. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.
f 8 .5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Ex.3 r*5o.3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check.
53. 44. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.w>t.a 2 j. c f d. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 46. 49. 50. From 6(af. 48. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 56. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.7 a . 58.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 43. check the answer. 55. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 51. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 57.4 a*& + 6 a & . tract 4 x 3. 42. 54. 2y 2 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 2.2. 45. . 47. From From x2 the sum sum 7. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. + a the 2 a. From 2 a take a & j.c. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .6)f. 6 4 a. of a 4. and 3 7/ . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 52. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .4 a^ 4.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 41. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.
19. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +a add the difference duce 13. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 9. + 6 + c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. + 2.15. 2 m 21. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. a + 6. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a a + c. subtract # + 1. 6 17. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 20. a 2y + z. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.26 4. A is n years old. of # 2 8. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 16. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.
a^6)]  } . one occurring within the other. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.g.b c = a a & f f. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. the sign is understood. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II.6 b f (. SUBTRACTION. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 45. & f c. I.c. changed.ADDITION. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.c. a+(bc) = a +b . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. . 46. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Ex.2 b .
9. m f ft) a. 5. [36+ (a 2c].7i h jp) (m ?*. 2. Ex. (m a2 f. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 16. 271 + (814 .+ 6)f (a2 b). may be inserted according to 43. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 8.)].1422) J ] . 3. 3 3 f 7. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 13. : x + (2yz). 17.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 21. 14. 4.) 5 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. By removing parentheses. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 18.y (60. ? 11. a f (a a . .: Ex. 6. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. + (2a 6 + c ). Signs of aggregation 1. 2 2a. 6) 2.(a + 6). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 19. 2 2 2 a(. 15. a (a + 26 c ). a (a + 6).[271 47.
4. II. ' NOTE. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. first. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 3. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.4 y* .7fa. of the cubes of m and n. 5^2 _ r . terms 5.1. 6. 8. 7. The square of the difference of a and b. )X 6. 2. 13. 9.ADDITION. 6 diminished . 3. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. y f 8 . . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 10. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The product The product m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 5 a2 2. difference of the cubes of n and m. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The difference of a and 6. 7. m and n. a\l> > c + d. 2mn + 2q3t. SUBTRACTION. m x 2 4. z + d. 5.2 tf . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. and the subtrahend the second. p + q + rs. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 12.
6 is equal to the square of b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. d. 16. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.) . 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
If the two loads what What. 2. weights. 5. therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. A A A 1. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. If the two loads balance. 4. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. force is produced therefore. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance.
.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. thus. however. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 multi44444 12. 5x(4). (5)X4. ( (. such as given in the preceding exercise. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. or plied by 3.9) x 11. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.4)(. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. Thus. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 9 9. 48. x 11. becomes meaningless if definition. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. (.32 8. 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. 9 x ( 11). NOTE. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. To take a number 7 times. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 multiplied by 3. the multiplier is a negative number. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.4)(4) = + 12.
. 4 a2 . the parenthesis frequently omitted.2. (10) 4 . 29.(4J). and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 6. z s 11 aWcx. . 27. 2a6 c . +5. 26. 17. NOTE. is 6x7. 24. of Signs: TJie positive. (2)x9. and y = 4. about fac (2)X If 6. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 9. 22. 16. 8 31. 20. 3. b = 3. 6.(a&c) 2 2 . (7) X (12). 2a 2 6c. 5. 4 . _3. 8. 19. 3. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 15. etc. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)X(15).7. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . Ua b 28. x= 0. If a cal = 4a6c. (2) 8 (. 5x3. 30. . 8 4 . X(5). 6 2.3. 10. 13. . _2. find the numeri values of: 21. 11. 1. _2^ 3.3) (1) 7 2 . Law Thus. (.2f 18. 7.4. 23.a)( =+ a&. 3 aW. c = 25.2 f+x 2 . 3 a2?/2 . x. 14.MULTIPLICATION 50. 32. 2. 12. (c#) . (4)'. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . 4. 1.
MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.(12) . 3 3 4 . 10. 5 3 5 3 2 . 34. m*. . 9 . 2(14. 53.(7). a 2 2 .. : 3a7abc. 3. 4. . By 3 definition. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 6 aWc x .2 2 23 + 5 . of the factors. 4. + 2/). . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 6 = 1.e. 4. 50(112. 6. 2 2 3 6 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 127  127 9 7 . =2 a *.7. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 200. 36. 2(7. 16.257). a= 1.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2 2 2 . 14. 5(711. This 52.<?. a = 3. 2 3 .. 7. (a6) (a5) 9. 6 = . or 2 . 1. 11. 13.503). 6" 127 U . IB. 5 = 2. Ex. & = 3. 2. fl*" integers. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 3.35). 2.  and 2 25 8 . 5.(2. 12 U U . 100. B. 5 . 3 2 . 17.3).m a 3  4 .  2 2.6 if 35. a8 a=2. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. i.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. &*) c d*. 78 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.2). = 2. . Ex. . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. a = 2.
3 win ) . by first multiplying.A). c(4a ftc ). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). If results ft. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 2. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. ) 2 33. 7p*q r*. 28. 3(124342). 34. 35.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2(5fl5f25). 26. This principle. multiply each by the monomial. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. (. /). 6(10420430). . 3. 12( + 1 4 i). 29. 2(645410).2 3 aft ). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.7pqt. 20. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .4a#. . Thus we have in general a(b 56. 23(10004100420). . 4. 19. 5. 24. 21. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 6. 31. 17(10041042). 2 32.6. . (. 11(3. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.f 2). 35 4 7(6. 27. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . _4aft. 22. 23. and then adding : 1. but we shall assume it for any number. 25. ax /) 2 4 1 (.7 w'W (8 n^W). called the distributive law. 7. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .
4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).3 aftc). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 2 m(mhn \p). 3 ).5 x 7). : expression must 24. 2 2 16. 26. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Find the factors of 6 ary . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. f7a. 17. . 21. 12. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .we b) (x law.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 20. . . 5). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 7 a 6 c(. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.2 mn(9 mV . 2 4 %Pq\ 14.5 w*V f 7 wn). 29. 19.6 a6). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.60 a& 10 aft. 28. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 9. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.asa product. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . be multiplied to give 4o. 2 27. 30. ~2mn(m +n p ). 11. By what 25. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 23.^ c + 2 .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 22. .
the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Ex. Check.1. 59.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .4. To multiply two polynomials. . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 2a3b a66 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 . Since all powers of 1 are 1. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Multiply 2 + a a.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 2.3 a 2 + a8 .3 b by a 5 b.a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Multiply 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Since errors. however.
(6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (2w 19. 26.4) (mnp 4. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). QQ O7. 2  37. 36) I) 14.n)(m 8 n)(m n). l)(raf 2). (6p (2 f 21. 17. 32. 30. 41. . 2. (4a 2 33. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 13. (6a~7) 2 .4) (x + 1). (a^26) . (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 12. 11. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (6i7n)(llJn). 10. 36. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2 . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 36). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 2 . (ajf6y)(aj 23. 31.2). 29. 35. (2 x* x 2 . 15. 7. 3<7). OQ OO. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 16. 40. I (mfn)(m4.1 . 20. . 8. 28. (8r7*)(6r39. 2) (3 A: 1). 1). 25. 18. 24.2m)(l m). a 5c)(2a6c). 4 2).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 3. 5. 4. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). * For additional examples see page 261. 22. ^ 2 . 9. 12)(a?^2l). (13 A. 6. 7y).
25 a 2 . (10+ (1000 (2. + 60)(f2). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (J 23. 2 a? 29. (ra. 11. 13. (a 9) (a + 9). + 2) (a f 3). + 9)(m+9). ft 16. i. + 3) (a 7). (a 102 x 103. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 26. 21.e. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. _3)(a _4). : 23 2.n)(wf w). plus the product 62. . 27. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a (a (a. 7. X 102. 24. in of the two unequal terms. 20.13). 28. i.e. 1) (10 + 2). 8. 2) (1000 + 3).!!)( (a + 21). 18. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4). (!)(* 5). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 2 6) (a 3 6). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 10. + 5) (1000 + 4). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 3. 17. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (6 12) (6 f.2 6) (a f 6). (a3)(a + 2). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 15. 12. 1005x1004.4). 19. (*. 25. 75 ab f 54 ft . ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 22. 6. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (p12)(p + ll). 14. 9. . The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.
<J>7) J . 32.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. i. .15. III. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. . 6. 9. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 4. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 33. n2 10ii+16. 49 y*. 7 a + 10. of the second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e.30. 37. III. w 2 ro . 34. 7. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 31. plus sum of two numbers the square II. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (x+3i/) 2 . 63. Ex. 35. (a2) (p a . : 24 (a 2. plus twice the product of the first and the second.e. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. + 3) 2 .66 s. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (a26) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. . second. 3. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . and the second.15. 77ie square of the of the first. 8. plus the square of the second. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. + 6 a + 8. a2 2 w + 2 w . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). p 2 p. 2 5. i. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second.e.
(100 + 2) (100 2). 18. 52. 32. 2 . 22 2 .998 39. 991 2 2 . m 2 16. By actual multiplication. n*6n+9. 51. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 . (2x3yy. 42. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 24. n 2 f4n+4. 45. 48. 49. (20 f 1) . 998x1002. 35. (6afy 2 5) (a.MULTIPLICATION 10. 28. 34. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 16aW25. 2 J ). x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 55. 54. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 46. G> +5g)*. 29. . 47. + 5). 41 16. + 5)(5+a). 38. 62 25n 2 . 99x101. 9 a2 . . . 23. . 103 36. 2 9a 496 2 56. 44. 2 2 . 31. 41. 17. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 12. 22. + 3z) 2 2 . 11.ll^X^+lly (100 30. a 2 8a6+166 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 15. ( 27. 14. 21. 33. 104 2 37. 25 a 9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). I) 2 . 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (^. (a 3) 2 2 2 . ). (1000 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 40. a2 9. The product of 57. 7& ) 25. 4 53. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 .
2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). plus the last terms. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ) (2 of a polynomial. 4. or The student should note minus signs. 65. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. The square 2 (a 4. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (4s + y)(32y). (5a64)(5a&3).& + c) = a + tf + c . : 25 2.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. sum of the cross products. 9. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 14. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 13. (5a4)(4al). . 3. ((5a? (10 12. 2 10. 11. 5. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (3m + 2)(ml). 7. 8. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 6.
i2&c) 2 . n).(x . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 13. 4.4) . Ex. 8.1 5 = 10 .X2 + 2 x . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 8.(>. .3) (x . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 4. 3. 66.3) . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (xy+z)*. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.24] . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 7.4) .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. = .3)(z. (u4& + 3c'. = 10 x . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (  2 4) =  20 a. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.(= [ Xa + 2 . + 65) . Check.39. Hence. 6~2(a + 7). 6.39. a. 4(aj2)h3(7). and check the answers !. 2 2.y? + 8 .5).29. 4y sf n) 2 .(m 2 6. 9.5) = (7 . + 6)( . 6(a 2. Find the square root 11. (a (. 12. If x = 1. 3.24 . of z : 10. 5. 4(* + 2)5(3).[a? . after multiplying the factors of a term. 7. 5.r _ 2 . 2)6. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.8 x + 15] .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
DIVISION 14. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 16. 20. 18. 51 15. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .2).e. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). Division of the difference of two squares. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2) (3 a .11 a + 9 a . a I. v/17.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). . (81 m + 1 .l. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 19.
1. 16. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .0001.49. 100ry.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 15. 10. 9& 2 . 14. . 16 .000. 4 b. r/ 1. . 12. f 13. aW 12 a. 121a a 16 100 11. : the following w a 4 !.
The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 83. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. hence it is an equation of condition. the first member is 2 x + 4. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. in the equation 2 x 0. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. x 20. An identity is an equation of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 82.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 81. second member is x + 4 x 9. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. . is said to satisfy an equation. . =11. the 80. Thus. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 .
90. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.e. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. but 4 does not equal 5. . 89. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 87.g. called axioms 1.2. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 5. A 2 a. 2 = 6#f7. Transposition of terms. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. A term may be transposed from its sign. the sums are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. a. 3. To solve an equation to find its roots. x I. one member to another by changing x + a=. If equals be added to equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 85. the products are equal. the divisor equals zero. . E. the quotients are equal. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.54 84. 86. NOTE. A numerical equation is one in which all . 4. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be multiplied by equals.b. the remainders are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2.
The second member. 4x 1 + 6.2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Check. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. f If y 20 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Dividing both members by 2. if a x = b. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 2 x = 6. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Uniting. Dividing by Check. 2(11 . x = (Axiom 3) 92. The first member. x = 93. Ex. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Unite similar terms. Uniting similar terms. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. a= a 6fc. and the known terms to the second. x = 3. . 91. (4y)(6. a? Adding 5 to each term. The first member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. To solve a simple equation. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.9 y + y2 = 22 . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.6 y f y\ . 3 y . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. b c. is correct.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Hence the answer.8. if 55 x members. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. b Adding a to both + a.2 y= f . Transposing.
50. + 22. 16.. 8. a? a?. Uniting. 19. 4y 10. Dividing by Cfcecfc.17 + 4y = 36. and check the answers 9. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. a. 11 ?/ a? 18. v23. 7 (6 x 16). Transposing. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.69. 11. 21. 3 7 a.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. it NOTE. 14. = 5a?+18. x x 1 . = 2 ?/. f Simplifying. 17 + 5a. a?. + 16 = 16 + 17. = 3. . BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.7a: = 394a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 13a? 3a?. 4a + 5 = 29. a. J. etc. 7a? 5. . 9 9a? = 7 13. 7. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 24. 6. 13 y 99 = 7 y. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 12.7. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3. 247y = 68lly. \x x 2^xfl. : 5# = 15+2a. aj * See page 264. 22.56 Ex. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 15. 3. = 7. 4. If x = 18. x = 18. 20. 2. Solve the following equations by transposing. 32 = 264. =2 = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 17 7 a. {(x (x The The member right member left ..
g. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . 30.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. . . 35.12) (2 + 5) . . find the other part.(2 + 6) (4 . 39. a? 43. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 31. this question.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 29. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 42. a? 28. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 6(6a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. (a. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 33. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. (aj 37. + 7) (.32. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.7.5) = (a.1 0) = 0. 7(7 x y 26. . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. (6 u =5 44. 41.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 36. 7) (a.3) . or 70 a?. 34.5) + 199. 25. e.5(2 u . + 4).3) + . .2) (M . 40. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. .7) (7 x + 4) . is the other part.1) (a (a? + 3) = .14 = 0. 27. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.1) (u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 2 2 * Jaj. 5) (as (a. Evidently 45. 38.3) + 14.4) + 4 w .
x f y yards cost $ 100 . $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Ex. 14. Find the greater one. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 6. 9. is a? 2 is c?. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. If 7 2. and the smaller one parts. Divide 100 into two 12. find the cost of one yard. 5. one part equals is 10. 10. so that one part The difference between is s. one yard will cost 100 dollars. or 12 7. 11. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 13. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. is b. 7. 15. Divide a into two parts. 1. 4. smaller one 16. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . a. so that of c ? is p. is d. EXERCISE 1. 33 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 17. 3. greater one is g. 6.58 Ex. so that one part Divide a into two parts.
rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 26. 28. How many cents had he left ? 28. and spent 5 cents. 28. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. If B gave A 6 25. A dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. is A A is # years old. 32. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B has n dollars. sum If A's age is x years. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 34. and B's age is y years. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 19. 24. Find 21. and c cents. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 20. ?/ 31. and B is y years old. numbers is x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. A man had a dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. find the has ra dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . How many cents has he ? 27. Find 35. amount each will then have. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A feet wide. b dimes. 22. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 33.
miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. . A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. c a b =  9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a 47. 49. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. find the fraction. Find a. Find x % % of 1000. The two digits of a number are x and y. of m. m is the denominator. of 4. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. % % % of 100 of x. A was 20 years old. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. 46. he walk each hour ? 39. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. The first pipe x minutes. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find the number. a. 48.50. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. . The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.
c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. etc. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. of a and 10 equals 2 c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. a exceeds b by c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of x increased by 10 equals x. of a increased much 8. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 2. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. same result as 7 subtracted from . 4. by one third of b equals 100. 80. 9. c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. double of a is 10. The excess of a over b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 80. 3. 5. The double as 7. 6. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7.
. and C have respectively 2 a. a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (c) If each man gains $500. a second sum. 3 1200 dollars.62 10. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. is If A's age is 2 x. 14. B's. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.000. symbols B. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. x is 100 x% is of 700. express in algebraic symbols : 700. #is5%of450. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. In 10 years the sum of A's. and C's age 4 a. x 4 If A. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 18. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. pays to C $100. 12. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 17. a. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. . the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. m is x % of n. of 30 dollars. >. sum equals $20. they have equal of A's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 50 is x % of 15. 6 % of m. B's age 20. B. they have equal amounts. and C's ages will be 100. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 11. amounts. 16. A gains $20 and B loses $40. as 17 is is above a.
. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. denote the unknown 96. x+16 = 3(35). 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 3z40:r:40z. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. In 15 years 10. Let x = the number. etc. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Check. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Let x The (2) = A's present age. Dividing. x = 20. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 4 x = 80. x= 15. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. NOTE. 23 =30. the required . Three times a certain no. Transposing. the . much as 40 exceeds the number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. A will Check. In order to solve them. be 30 . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 2. Find A's present age. 6 years ago he was 10 . The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Transposing. Uniting. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. but 30 =3 x years. Uniting. Ex. number of yards.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 1. Ex. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Simplifying. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. number.
35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. . 120. Hence 40 = 46f. % of 120. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 4.64 Ex. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Let x 3. A number added number.2. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. EXERCISE 1. 300 56. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 13. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. by as much as 135 ft. 5. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find 8. Dividing. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. exceeds the width of the bridge. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the number. 3. 11. twice the number plus 7. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14.
000. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. and B has $00. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and as 15. The other verbal statement. Ex. 97. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If A gains A have three times as much 16. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. 1. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. The problem consists of two statements I. 14. five If A gives B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. statements are given directly. One number exceeds the other one by II. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. During the following 90 years. . How many dol A has A to $40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. which gives the value of 8. 65 A and B $200. written in algebraic symbols. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. the second one. Vermont's population increased by 180. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. times as much as A. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. two verbal statements must be given. Find the population of Maine in 1800. F 8. B will have lars has A now? 17. B How will loses $100. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x.000. is the equation. Maine's population increased by 510. x. A and B have equal amounts of money. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont.
I.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. B will have twice as viz. A will lose. 25 marbles to B. and Let x = the Then x +. Then. 2x a? x j = 6. which leads ot Ex. to Use the simpler statement. Statement x in = the larger number. The two statements I. 8 the greater number. x = 8. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. + a f f 8 = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. Let x 3x express one many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If A gives are : A If II. If we select the first one. Let x 14 I the smaller number. Uniting. the greater number. x x =14 8. although in general the simpler one should be selected. A has three times as many marbles as B. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. = 14. . consider that by the exchange Hence. unknown quantity in Then. 8 = 11. < Transposing. Dividing. = 3. / . = A's number of marbles. the smaller number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as many as A. . expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. . terms of the other. 2. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. the sum of the two numbers is 14. has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = B's number of marbles.
Find the numbers. by 44. have a value of $3. Eleven coins. the price. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). x from I. The number of coins II. is 70. 45 . Check. Find the numbers. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. and the Find the numbers. Let 11 = the number of dimes. etc. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.$3. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310.25 = 20. 50..LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Uniting. (Statement II) Qx . w'3. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. A's number of marbles. . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. . 60.5 x . 11 x = 5. x = the number of half dollars. 15 + 25 = 40. then.. x = 15. 6 times the smaller. * 98. x = 6. dollars and dimes is $3. greater is . 1. Check. 3. Uniting. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.10. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.550 f 310. 3 x = 45. The value of the half : is 11. Dividing. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). of dollars to the number of cents.10. but 40 = 2 x 20. Dividing. consisting of half dollars and dimes.10. B's number of marbles. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. the number of half dollars.. Two numbers the smaller.240. 2. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42. * ' . 40 x .75. the number of dimes. Simplifying. 50 x Transposing. cents.
5. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.000 feet. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Find their ages. Twice 14. tnree times the smaller by 65. 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 11. McKinley. and twice the altitude of Mt. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. United States. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number.. A's age is four times B's. Everest by 11. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. 6. and four times the former equals five times the latter. the number. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. On December 21. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many 14 years older than B. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13.68 4. one of which increased by 9. as the larger one. 7. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. How many hours does the day last ? . How many volcanoes are in the 8. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.
first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. I. has. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. If 4x = 24. 1. II. original amount. and C together have $80. Ex. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B. they would have 3. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. x = 8." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. has. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B. bers is denoted by x. The third verbal statement produces the equation. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. B has three times as much as A. and B has three as A. = 48. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the money by I. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. III. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. times as much as A. 19. number of dollars A had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and C together have $80. and 68. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Let x II.
according to III. sheep. number of horses. and each sheep $ 15. + 8 90 x and. Let then. 2. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. number of sheep. cows. 4 x f 8 = 28. according to II. The I. the third five times the first. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. number of cows. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. = the number of dollars spent for cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 90 may be written. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 9 cows. and the sum of the . x j = the number of horses. Dividing. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and. III. 185 a = 925. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. each horse costing $ 90. number of cows. 28 2 (9 5).70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. The total cost equals $1185. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. first. + 35 x 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. Uniting. 1 1 Check. 9 5 = 4 . and Ex. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. three statements are : IT. x Transposing. x f 4 = 9. each cow $ 35. x = 5. = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185.
women. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and 2 more men than women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. how many children were present ? x 11. men. increased by three times the second side. New York delphia. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and children together was 37. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the copper.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 7. 13.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.  4. v . 9. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). The gold.000. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. A 12. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. first. the third 2. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. what is the length of each? has 3. and the sum of the first and third is 36. what is the population of each city ? 8. what are the three angles ? 10. twice the 6. equals 49 inches. twice as old as B. first. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. "Find three is 4. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If twice The sum the third side.000. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.
= 5. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 7 Uniting. and distance. 8 x = 15. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. First fill in all the numbers given directly. 3 and 4. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000. Find the value of each. . start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000 more than that the copper. but stops 2 hours on the way. of 3 or 4 different kinds. we obtain 3 a.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. and quantities area. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.g.e. together. number of hours.000. of arid the value of the iron was $300. how many 100. speed. number of miles A x x walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. After how many hours will they meet and how E. i. Dividing. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.000. 14. such as length. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. width. Hence Simplifying. or time. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. The copper had twice the value of the gold. = 35. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Let x = number of hours A walks. A and B apart.
But 700 certain = 800 2. . x + 200). $ 1000 x . $ 800 = 800. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. 2   and transpose. + 8.04 = $ 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 10 x = 200. l. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards.05 x x . the area would be 100 square yards less. the second 100." gives (2.M(x . x .04 8. Find the dimensions of the field. 70x10 Ex. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. $ 800 = required sum. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. z = 20. original field has Check. Check. . The an area 40 x 20 =800. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 2 a = 40.06 = $ 40. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.01 = = . Multiplying.053. were increased by 30 yards. x . or 700. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Transposing and uniting.
and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and its width decreased by 2 yards.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Find the share of each. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. twice as large. of coffee for $ 1. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. What are the two sums 5. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. as a 4. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. sions of the field. but four men failed to pay their shares. A sum ? invested at 4 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Six persons bought an automobile. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 2. were increased by 3 yards. A sets out later two hours B . but as two of them were unable to pay their share. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. 3. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A of each. 1. and a second sum. mobile. A man bought 6 Ibs. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. the area would remain the same.55. invested at 5 %. Ten yards $ 42. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. together bring $ 78 interest. After how many hours will B overtake A. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money.
After how many hours. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. The distance from If a train starts at . and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and from the same point.
a2 to 6. but fractional with respect 103. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . vV . it contains no indicated root of this letter . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. if it does contain some indicated root of . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . 5. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. as. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. we shall not.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a. it is composite. 76 . consider 105. if. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. which multiplied together are considered factors. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 104. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . at this 6 2 . 6. stage of the work. expression is rational with respect to a letter. irrational. this letter. An after simplifying.
55. 2. x. y.62 + &)(a 2 .3 sy + 4 y8). in the form 4) +3.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 8) (s1). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . E. . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. It (a. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 77 Factoring is into its factors. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 109.3 6a + 1). 1. 2. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. Divide 6 a% . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.) Ex. it follows that a 2 . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.g. Factor G ofy 2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). for this result is a sum. TYPE I. Ex. .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 01. 110. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .62 can be &). or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. or that a = 6) (a = a .FACTORING 106. 107. ?/. x.
3. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2 23. (as 3) and (ccf5).2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.5 + 13 8. q*q*q 2 a. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 Or. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 4.5 x*y 2 17 a? . + llm llm.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 7a & 10. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. in general. 20.8 c a 15 ofyV . 19. 34 a^c 8 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.30 aty. 4 8 .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 18. 17. 14a 4 5. Ilro8 9. 32 a *?/ . 7i 13. 3x*6x*. ) 22  2. obviously.4. 13. : 6 abx . 2 6. a a 'Ja . 5f 2 .51 aW + 68 21. 15. .45 afy .6. 12. . 16. 2 2 . a6c. x2 f2 x = 15 we have.g. 3. e. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 3 2 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 8. 15 2 7. 11.3. 14. 3 3 5 6.4. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).51 x4 2 6 xy s . TYPE IT.12 cdx. 4 tfy f.5 + 2. 2. 2 + q.
3.6 = 20. a 2 .11. Factor a2 . or 77 l. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . or 7 11. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.a). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. . 4. If q is negative.1 1 a tf a 4. 2. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.FACTORING Ex. as p. however. and (a . Factor + 10 ax . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.4 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.4 x . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. determine whether In solving any factoring example. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). can be factored. 77 as the product of 1 77.30 = (a .. 2 6.77 = (a. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.5) (a 6).5) (a . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Ex. tfa2  3. + 30 = 20. We may consider 1. the two numbers have opposite signs. + 112. Ex. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.11 a 2 . Factor x? .11 a + 30. .11) (a + 7). 11 7. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Therefore Check. 5. . of this type. m 5m + 6. If q is positive. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.G) = .
a 2 +11 a a? 16. 4 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 11. 20. 29. 25. 18. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. + 30. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. . TYPE 113. 21 a 2 2 . 27. 33. 16. + 5<y 24. 31. a 7 a 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 ?/ 22. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 26. 19. 100 xr . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.6.500 x + 600. or . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 14. 2 ?/ 28. 2 . a2 . 35. 2 . 8. ra + 25ra + 100.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 17. 36. 15. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 30. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 24. 21. 2 2 . 12. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 4 3 2 . 13. and 5 x. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 2xS. 2 ?/ 5?/14. ITT. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.80 7. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . . + 44.48 + + 446 200. + 4?/21. 9. x2 23. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ay 11 ay +24.180 a. 32. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 16. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20.17 + 30. 2 2 a' 34.70 x y .
the signs of the second terms are minus.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and r is negative. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.5) (2 x . the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . . 3 x and x. the If p and r are positive. Ex. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 3. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 18 x 3. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.83 x f 54. 2 x 27. sible 13 x negative.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If p is poxiliw. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. then the second terms of have opposite signs. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.1). none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. a.5 . but the opposite sign. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. viz. . or G 114. 54 x 1. X x 18. 6 x 9.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 2. and that they must be negative. 9 x 6. Factor 3 x 2 . 27 x 2. 11 x 2x.
13. 2.179. 100^200^ + 100^. 6.27). 9. 17.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2m t7w + 3.2) (x . 9a. 9 y + 32^16. Sar' + SaG. 14. 14 a fa 4. .30 y 6 4 . . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 28. 25.83 x . 2 2 2 . + 4. 3.19 a f 6. 12. 2 2 2 23. 10. 5. 16. 12y 2/6. 21.163 x 2 . 19. 2 . 2 fc . 10a?2 2 33. 22. 32. 2 26. 18.7.83 x = (3 . . 34. 4a2 9tt + 2. X 27 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 8. 7. 24. 4. 15. 11. 5m 26m f 5. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.260 xy . 20. 6n + 5?i4.y + 172/9. the expressions should be it. 12^17^16. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. : 41 2. 35. 2 31. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. + 2/3. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 29.2 a 90 x*y . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2 . and the monomial factors should be removed.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 3x*Sx + 4. 30. x54 a. 144 x . 10 a . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. f go.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . since all others (II. 2x* + 9x5. 90 a 8 2 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 3a + 13a.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.300 ab 2 f4 250 .
25 7. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 11. 13. 9 10a625. it is a perfect square. 14. 2 9 10gf25. 5.e. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. must have a positive sign. square. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. . and factor whenever possible : 1. 4. of its terms are perfect squares. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 16 y? The student should note that a term.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. and a perfect square. x* . 116.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.20 xy f 4 y\ . it is more convenient for that type. 8. however. 3. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 2 . 9. 2 2 . 2.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. form are special cases of the preceding type. 6. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 10. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.10 x f 16. 12. i. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.
m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 3. aV . a. 6 2 . 9. 22. 4a2 l. 9a2 . prime. 29.60 a# + 4. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).3 * ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. 17. 16. 2 .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. + GO + 25. 19.20 ab + 10 b a . !Gar 9 ( )+25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 4 2 23. 1. 3. product i.6 m* + 9 m. ). 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . * 2 .84 15.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. . 2. 18.e. 149 a 81 8. ^//c to the Ex. 27. According to 65.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 2. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. ). 26. ). 16&*. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 48 a +( ). 2 . .2 ofy + ofy m . 5. V. a. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 7. 36 2 4. 25. Ex. 6. 2 20.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. +( )f816 30. a2 24.64 6 = 16(a . TYPE 117. 225 ofy .
d) 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 14. of polynomials. a:) 12. (m7?) y. 36> . One or both terms are squares 1. 11.FACTORING 85 118. 6. a2 . 5. 4.c . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 8. 2. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Factor a 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 . 9. 13. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. T. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Ex. 2. 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Ex. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.(I) . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 16p 2 .(c 4.
2. . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 6. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 5. x8 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. By grouping. a5 + ab 6 . 3.14. . 9. Ex. 12. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.a a . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.r.and trinomials. ma ?*a + m& nb.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 4 B. 2. 8. 1. + x + 2x + 2.1.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.VI. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. A. 7. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 10. After grouping tain a the terms. 4:cx .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.y + 2 2). a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. a 26 2 2 3 . = (3 x + y .ab + bx. 5) . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. ive find that the new terms con common factor. Ex.7 c + 2c . 119. which may be factored according to types I.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a? 11.2 ) (3 x .
4. IV. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 3. 6a4 12a2 + 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. II. 2a3/ 7.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . = (a + 6)(a6). 8ra 2 + 16. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.FACTORING Ex. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6. 2.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .4 f . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. First find monomial factors common to all terms. $ a8 . 4 a2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 2 7.12 aaj 4 6y. 6 6. . l~a 2a56 2 2 .l. 36 9 m . 4. : 46 x* 2.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w m 2. 3. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. : m 2 2 16. 8. 5. . + 2xy + y*q*. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. Arranging the terms. 2. +c+ 2 2 2/ .
80 a 2 ft 38.310 x .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. . 13 c . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 50^ + 45. 14. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 48. 27. 40. 2 ft . 2 a 128. 11. 19. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. or 3 7#2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 13. 3 41. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 5 a. 42 s 2 . 35. 30. 4 a.156. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. a5 a 1 4 2 39. a6 36. 5a' 20. (^ 34. 3 25.24. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 22.88 10. 3 a2 23.40. 32. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 24. a. + 14. 12. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 18. 2 17. + 6 aft + 3 .13 c . 29. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. a3 156. 3 2 . 4 8 tt 2 z . 28. 42 x . (a. a + a + a + l.
3 . C. 5. C. Thus the H. 3. The H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of 6 sfyz. 89 . C. F.  23 3 . are prime can be found by inspection.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The highest is common factor (IT. C. 8 . 122. 12 tfifz. F. 24 s .) of two or more . F. The student should note H. of the algebraic expressions. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. F. EXERCISE Find the H. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. of aW. II 2 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 2 2 . 15 aW. . F. 6. Two common factor except unity The H. 5 7 34 2s . F. C. 121. The H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 5 2 3 . aW. of : 48 4. 54  32 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. C. F. F. 2. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 25 W. of two or more monomials whose factors . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.
6 a2 y? .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 0^80:416. 6(m+l) (m+2). 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 2 . 6 3 a.y) . 49 C. (a7 ?/) .5 + 6. 38 #y. ^a + 5^ + 6. a3 9a. 8. 2 . 9. = x 2 y. C.5 x3?/ 2 6. 8. aWd. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 8(?/ifl) 14.y + y42. 2 . y + 3y64. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 2a f5af 2. 3^ 2 4 . 16. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4(m+l) 3 .5 y). resolve each polynomial into prime factors. x* x2 Hence the H. 12 . 6 mx . 2 . 4 ?io. ^f a. of polynomials. F. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . C. Find the H. of: . a. 8 a 10 . ^707 + 12. 225 4a 9 . 3. 10. 5. 13. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . .y) 123.^9. a2 + 7af!2. 12 w*nw 8. 1.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 8 6. . ^2 2 . . 11. a 3a4. 3 . 65 zfyV. F.8 a + 16.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 7. a2 + 2a3. a2 .6 a&. and apply the method of the preceding article. 15. a2 ar* 4. a3 16 a. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F. 14. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 12. . .6. 10. To find the H.?/ .2 ?/) (x . 16 a . Ex. of + 4 if. 9 aj*(a? . C. 11. 12.6 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).2 y) (a.# 4 afy f 4 . 24 a 2 . 9.90 7. 1. 57 a>V. 15 3ao. 95 2/V. . 52 oryz4. 13. F. 25 m27i. 3). 2.12 as 66 .
M. which also signs. The L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M.C. 60 x^y' 2 . To find the L.C. 128. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . M. L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. ory is the L. C. C. etc. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. Ex. 2. 1. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. M. 126. two lowest common multiples. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. Find the L. M. Find the L. C. C. of tfy and xy*.6 3 ). of 3 aW. of several expressions which are not completely factored. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. . 2 The The L. M. =4 a2 62 (a2 . M of the algebraic expressions. each set of expressions has In example ft).M. L. M. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . A common remainder. C.M. Ex.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Common 125. 127.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 300 z 2 y. . C. thus. of the general. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. but opposite . NOTE.6)2. &) 2 M. The lowest common multiple (L. C. Hence the L. a^c8 3 . C. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .
22. 6b 2 . ic 23. ic 2 ?/. 4 a . f b. 5 a? 5 a? y. + 2 7i) . 1. a 2 f 4 a +4. 3 . M. a !. #. 17. 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. T a 3 a 2 . a2 4. x2 + 4 a f 4. 8 afy. 13. 2 7ic+10. + 6. b 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 18. 2 a. 30 a. G a. 3 ab. a f 3. a f 2 19. 2 a . y*. . 2. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 20 9 a. afc'cd 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi.1. 2 10. 3(a + b). a^1. ) . xy\ . a 1. a. a& 4 +& 2 . 2 . 8. 3. x* ~5a. 2 x \2 y. 3. by. a?b. a { a~b. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b.1. a2 ~ab 1. a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 6 y. x 2 5 a. 24. 21. 4 a f 2. 3 f2. 6 a. afy. 15. 24 x. 2 . + 2. . 11. 4 a 5 6cd.f 6. a 2 a3 . of: 4. 2(m 2 . 3 6 xif. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 6. (For additional examples see page 268. a. (a 4)(a2) 12. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 5. 14. 2 a . 20. 40 abJ. 3 Z> . or f 3 a 15 #. Find the L. 16. 7. 9. a 2 fa6. 8 d 5 .
Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. 131. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. rni Thus 132. but we In arithmetic. etc. 130. and denominators are considered. a b = ma mb . Ex. as 8.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. C. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. however. A f fraction is b. successively all 2 j/' . a?. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Thus. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. an indicated quotient. Remove tor.ry ^ by their H. F.
4) Ex. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 2. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Ex. 3. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .
x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. nx 17. ^' rt ^  31.7 ..*. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . _ 3 7i rt< 26. . ^+3*.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 23. ' ^ . . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. . 5^10 y 30. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ny 4 18.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. LJZJ^JL.' 32. """. 9x + "a" 10. 29. g J 21. 16. 19.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 11 ^ Mtr f .
1. 2> . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.r 2 2 .M. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. TheL.C. we have the quotients (x 1). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .1^22 ' .D. C. and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and the terms of ***. 1). To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.M.C. =(z (x + 3)(z. we may extend this method to integral expressions. and 135.  of //* 2 . we have M^. . take the L.~16 (a + 3) (x. Ex. multiplying the terms of 22 . C.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . by the denominator of each fraction. .  by 4 6' . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. M. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. mon T denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .96 134. ^ to their lowest com The L. Divide the L.3) (!)' = . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Reduce ^.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. + 3). Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. .
i. a? 1 5 > ^* . 137.oj o* or / . If the given fractions have different denominators. j y 3. common denominator 6. 2aj ~ .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74). .. o o a.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 18..^1. . 5?. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 3. JL. 8 i i.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. . . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 22 a2 5a * . 2. 2 ay IB. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 7i 2 ab* ". 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. .
(a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .3 .ft) (a ft ft)~. L.. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) . D. in the beginning.2 = a(a . 2. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. D. e. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.3 ft 2).3 ft).aft) Ca2 .(a 2 6). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 4(2 a 3 ft). the student should remember that parentheses are .7 . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.ft)(a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a ft)..2 ' 2 _. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g. and adding.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. as 4 aft f. ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft). The L. C. T? Ex.
a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.5 18 ^4f25. 23. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + . 2. 46 2a 4a 12. 15. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 f q * 1 m m . t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. + a "" 2 6 ' . 20. A+2_3. 5a76 4a 106 9. 24. 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. j>0 i> 21. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 6 c 3a 7. 1 1 f w 16.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a 36 ++.
! n. a 4 31. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . a 30. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _ + a? ?/ + y. 1 34. ic 1 + 1.9 79 6 2 i. 43. 3a 9 +. a. a ?^ 40. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 42. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 2 af1 32. af 1f /j. 41.9.
To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  . . 101 mixed expression.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . Reduce .6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139. .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. T. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  4 or 3 2a.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 1. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.
) Ex. !. or. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . fractions to integral numbers.g. (In order to cancel common factors. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. Since  = a. we may extend any e.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. integer. 2. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. F J Simplify . multiply the 142. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.
50 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15..6 12 d6 4. 4 8. 2 f 5 a. 14. . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5# 56 / c& 4.. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .
1.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 144. : a 41 ab * See page 272. . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. Divide Xn?/ . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . To divide an expression by a fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
FRACTIONS 105 . ga2 4 8 5 a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . Ex.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.10 ?/ _.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a a2 4.6 s + 064. l.^c 2 2 .5 ??i 80 50 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . are fractional. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . or both.
Ex. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. Simplify x }. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . & .y 32 . 9. a m "" . i. JL.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . x* 4. c +6. 2. n a 8. . 7i+~ 7. y X 4* 2 y 3. 6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. C. . 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . M. of their denominators. the answer is directly obtained.a ^c c _^ a .
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . m^n* n L a 17. 1 i 1 2 5 . o 15. sy 18.
1.28 x + 42 = . Bx 12 Qx.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. x = 6. 4 4)  x. Uniting. 148. 2 3.9 x2 + 9. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). of the denominator.48.f3# + C:E=6f7212. M. 2z2a. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Uniting.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .28 a = 5 x2 . + 1) (a + 3) .42 + 9. . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. each member is reduced to Ex. each member is reduced to 1. = 6. 1. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.8 x = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. If x 6. 5(3 85 Check. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). these Ex. Transposing.14 (a. C. = 6. 2x Transposing. Clearing of fractions. 108 . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .l)(z + 3) = . tions. If = 64. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 9x x Check. a. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2.
'  4 13. +1 = 5. 16. ^' 2. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. 1 *> = 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.= 2. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. .1 _77 a. a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 18. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 15. +4 14.
11_4 x 149. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. J_. If two or more denominators are monomials. .  38 = 40. 31 31. 3x 35. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. y+3~2 29. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 25. . . ?_=_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 32 6 . 33. 26 26._ _ . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 4a4l4* + l~. . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 27 .
10 x f 6 __ 4a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.1. 5# 10. Transposing and uniting. . the 1 5 L. = 9. each member is reduced to ^. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 24 a. Check. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C.  5 = 20 x 45.2 3 ~  == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. a. 60.. 1. Dividing.2 42 9 43. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.29 50712' 9 18 . If a. 26 a. M. 5x x : = 9.
they are united by factoring.3 6 2 = a' .1. = = 6 6c 7 6c.be. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. a. Uniting the Dividing. jr. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = l^ 9 b 4 . = 2 f b 2 . Ex. =a 2 151. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. find a in terms of b and c. y.2 62 2 ab. Ex. Thus. Dividing. If 3ac L= = a ? .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 4 ac 1. = 6 a2 .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. It frequently occurs that the x. Uniting. ax f x f. fr Reducing lowest terms. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 2. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. 5> a.m bx 2 mn) x. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. f ~ 5c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.& . .2 ac + 3 aft . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.
14.a. c. co?. . . s = Vt solve for v. 31. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. ^ ax a^ 26. + 3a. m a? x . _ 2. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. mx = n. a. If s If 16. = 5. 34.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. t. 3(* 8. 4. q solve for/. 4. 6. 2 solve for y a. = vt. 17. c 18. + xx = 1. rate. If s (wi n) x =px + q. f P =+!. 10. denoting the interest. If * 33. = 8 4 #.i l .= c a Z> . solve for a.= H. solve for . 13. . If ^^ = a 1 32. 3. p the principal. in terms of other quantities. 29. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. IIL n b + &o. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). The The i time. iw 21. 12. . r the number of $>.= n. 5) is t =^. 30. and n the number of years. 11. = 3 (6 a). 9. 1 f. 15. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . * Solve the same equation for^). i The formula for simple interest ( 30. f ^o. Ex. = rt.
114 35. . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. = 16^. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.20 C.180. 2. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. is 36. Multiplying by Dividing. A would do each day ^ and B j. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. 2 3 . Ex.. then = 2 TT#. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 1. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Ex. 100 C. . Find R in terms of C and TT. x Or Uniting. 12. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. and 12 = the number over.. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.
in Then Therefore. Solving. Clearing. the rate of the express train. and the statement. or 1J. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = the x part of the work both do one day. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 4x = 80." : Let x  = the required number of days. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. Ex. 180 Transposing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 3. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 32 x = .
3.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. make 21. by 3. and of the father's age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. which was $4000.  Find their present ages. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. length in the ground. fifth Two numbers differ 2. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. by 6. ceeds the smaller by 4. ex What 5. Find A's 8. to his daughand the remainder. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. money and $10. to his son. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is oO. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and one half the greater Find the numbers. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. is equal 7. and J of the greater Find the numbers. a man had How much money had he at first? . and 9 feet above water. of his present age. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other.
^ at 5%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. Ex. 152. . A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 3. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and it B in 6 days. How much money $500? 4%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. after rate of the latter ? 15. Ex. A has invested capital at more 4%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. air. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and B in 4 days. 1. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 2. what is the 14. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) 22. investments.
. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 12. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. 25. .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. B in 30. 26. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.g. 2. is 57.009 918. The problem to be solved. Ex.414. . if B in 3 days. A in 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence. A in 6. they can both do in 2 days. B in 16.118 153. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. and n = 3. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. e. B in 5. and apply the method of 170. 3. is 42. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.e. To and find the numerical answer.= . A in 4. Then ft i. therefore. m and n.
Two men start at the first miles apart. respectively (a) 60 miles. (d) 1. the rate of the first. The one: 31. is ?n . 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. 33. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. After how many hours do they meet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. (c) 16. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 2 miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. if m and n are. squares 30. and the second 5 miles per hour.001. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 34. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the second at the apart. and how many miles does each travel ? 32.721. : (c) 64 miles. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (b) 35 miles. squares 29. respectively. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 2 miles per hour. Find the side of the square. (b) 149. 3J miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. is (a) 51. 4J miles per hour. . and the rate of the second are. meet. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000. 5 miles per hour.
antecedent. " a Thus. E. Simplify the ratio 21 3.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the antecedent. 1. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. 6 12 = . instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. a ratio is not changed etc." we may write a : b = 6. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. In the ratio a : ft. b is the consequent. etc. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the symbol being a sign of division.g.5. The first 156. Ex. 158.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the second term the consequent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. : : 155. the denominator The the 157. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.
the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b and c the means. 4:5f : 5. 18. 159.RATIO Ex. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 4. 3. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. Simplify the following ratios 7. 10. equal 2. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. J:l. 12. 61 : ratios 72:18. extremes. a and d are the extremes. b. 11. 16a2 :24a&. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 27 06: 18 a6. Transform the following unity 15. terms. 3:4. 8^ hours. 3 8. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 62:16. 7:4 T T 4 . and c is the third proportional to a and . 17. 5 f hours : 2. In the proportion a b : = b : c. The last first three. 3:1}. : ay . two  ratios. and c. 9. proportional between a and c. : 1. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 16. $24: $8. 6. 7f:6J. 1. b is the mean b.
2 165. The mean proportional of their product. and the time necessary to do it. and the other pair the extremes. i. of iron weigh 45 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. !. 164. 6 ccm. ad = be. of iron weigh . 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.) b = Vac. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. : : directly proportional may say. 163. of a proportion. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. are : : : inversely proportional. 3 4. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. briefly. Hence the number of men required to do some work. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.) mn = pq.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. " we " NOTE.122 162. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. then G ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.30 grams. If (Converse of nq.__(163. q~~ n . ccm. pro portional.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. : c. Clearing of fractions. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.
If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. hence the proportion true.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) II. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. is Ex. = 35 . d d. Or IV. is 4$ = 35. 2. 1. V.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) d 167. I. a:c=b:d. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.PATIO Ex. (163. (Frequently called Inversion. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. 12x Hence a? = 42.) = f f = 3 J.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c. ad ( 163. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. . if 6 : 7. (Composition. a III. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. + b:b = c + d:d. bd bd. then =d c. (Division. I. ad = be.
= 2:3. i. . 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. Or III.!=!*. : 3 = 5 f x : x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 120:42 2 2 7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.g. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 4. V. mx tin Apply composition and division. Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. E. 6 =4 : x. 10. IV. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.124 IT. 2. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 5. = 12 5ft. the consequents by 7. . To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. x = 2. = 180:125. = 20:7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 7:2f 3J. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. : x. 3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 5 5. Simplify the following proportions. 3n JJ =n x NOTE.e. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 9. 8. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 2:x.
33. : 53. 39. 5= 18 a? : a?. 22. 2. 1 and a.:ff. 12.8:1. ra 2 . y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 41. rap. a 2 and ab. = 5 x 12. 6 x = y. 16 and 28. if : 40. . 23. a. 28. 51. 17. ratio of y. 1. 2 a and 18 a. 27. x m = y n. ra. to : 9 and 12. 38. (a : : 45. 50. 20. 16. 43. x:5 = y:2. = l^:18. 2. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 14. 112:42 = 10:a. 7iy = 2:x. 03:a?=135:20. Find the third proportional 24. = 2 + x: x. + fyx = cy. 44. 25.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 3. 47. Find the 37. to: = 35:*. 3t. 21. 31. Find the mean proportional 30.. 2= 5 x x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 46.j>. 26. f. mx = ny. 34. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 18. 14 and 21. = 15o.  32. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. = 3 43 + x. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. and 2/. : . terra 2:3 = 4. 13. 29. 9 x = 2 y. 6. 6x = 7y. : a2 . rag. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. ra + landra 1. w.x: 6:5 a : x.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. b. 35. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. a?:15 15. to : a and 1. 2 3 = y #. 4 and 16. 3. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 4. 52. 5. 42.
A line 7^. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. the squares of their radii (e) 55. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the area of the larger? the same. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. 57. 56. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the speed of the train. and the area of the rectangle.126 54. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. what 58. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the : total cost. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the time. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.
Let A B AC=1x. 11 x x 7 Ex. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. x = 6. 18 x = 108. as 11 Let then : 1. 2. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. AB = 2 x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 inches long. . so that Find^K7and BO. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2 x Or = 4. is A line AB.000 168. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. x=2. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. : Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. = the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. produced to a point C. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).
128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. and 15 inches. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 3. What are the parts ? 5. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.000 square miles. find the number of square miles of land and of water. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 12. How many 7. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. : 197. How The long are the parts ? 15. and c inches. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. : 4. 6. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 13. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 11. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 9. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.000. 7.) . what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 2. Gunmetal tin. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many gen. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 14.
2 y = .y=. a? (1) then I. Hence. However. such as + = 10. x = 1. if . Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. The root of (4) if K 129 . y = 1. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.e. expressing a y.. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. values of x and y. =. is x = 7.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.L x If If = 0. etc. there is only one solution. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.
ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. E. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . are simultaneous equations. Therefore.X. for they express the x f y 10. 172. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 3. of elimination most frequently used II. Substitution. 4y . the last set inconsistent. to The two methods I. By By Addition or Subtraction. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. cannot be reduced to the same form. y = 2. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). The first set of equations is also called consistent. y I 171. viz. and 3 x + 3 y =. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 26 y = 60.24.130 170. unknown quantity. same relation. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 21 y . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.26. = .3 y = 80. 174. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. ~ 50. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x .
by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. x = 10.3 1 = 47.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3y = 3. Therefore Check. y = 2. = 406. Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.14 =8. 64 x = 040.3 y = 47. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 3. subtract the equations. 37. + 2. whose coefficients In general. are like. = 235. 8 2. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 5 13 . 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 1. add the equations. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 10 . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Transposing. 60 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.2 = 6. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. x = 10. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 25 x .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1).
i 3. 7 ' 1fi fl . 13 61 l7a. = 6.5 y = 2.3. .v 23. f 3X 7x 14. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 9 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. I oj 5y = 17. x 11.f2/ ' = 50. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 41. J I y = 1U. * + 3 y = 50. I ~ y~~> 22. [2o. 13. O t K 8.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.4.3. I . I i 3 a. = 24. ' 12.9 *. _.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. ] ^ . 19< I a. v ^ = ll. + 2/ 17.
tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. and solve the resulting equation. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 4#8. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 13. = 60. = 2y + 10. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. x ) ^"" 13. . = 2.
and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. \ \6(a. (7) (7) (8) .3. 2 y = . . 3. 21z6y=9. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). x = l. From 9 = 36. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Substituting in (6) . 3 (1) Ex. (4). simplified before elimination is possible. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. however.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. + 212y4 = 14.6)7(y7)==18. 4* + 3y = 19. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 29 x = 29. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 7x_2y=3. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 7 y = 6. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.
ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. a. = 3. 10. . a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) + 5(6 y . J 9. yM a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 12. 16. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.1) = 121. . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4 11. 10 2a?5 17. +y 2 .f2 2. .
3x\" 1 23 24. 180. e.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. ?~y . 22. {. but some expressions involving x. . f y .and x y .#.Q ^ 4 21. and y. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. <X + 20. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. * ((* (( .
. y 4.3 xy. y 1. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. x 3. y.4 x = 4 xy. (2) (3) a. can also be solved Examples method. 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 15 y + 8 x . Therefore y=4. of this type. (4) + (G). 2* * x 2. Clearing of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . 33 = 11 x. however. x 2x(2). Dividing by 11 3 = #. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . etc.
= 5. 1. Ex. x y 331 9. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x y 5. y MOi y a. n. 6. 21 9 . Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). . 253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.= o 6. x 8. 4 13.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x 12. and I. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. x a. . bmy bm}y ap cm. ap. ax + by = 2 a&. and I if 13. w. d. . 6. 14. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. a Find a and terms of n. W . s in 11. f 5.W.y = = 9a + 46. d. fax f = l. Dividing. apan cm. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. ny = fy/ I sc 1. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . x f my = 1.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c.
Ex. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.2 + 4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. ties are Similarly.1+4. To solve equations containing By tions. y =* 2. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. 20.13. 3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. .16.3=4.25.12 y + 6 z = . 8 x . 4. 1. f 3y 12 =s 8.3 = 8. (4) (5). 182. x + 12 y . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. = 30. l.8 = 1. 3y = Hence Check. = 3.2 + 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.lf> z . 4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.15z=12 Adding. 1. (8) 2. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.by 2. etc. 6. by 3. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.
2 4. 7. 14. == 6. a? + 709 = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. ~6?/ 5. 12. 49. x 13. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . 4 = 42. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2z = 40. + y f z = 15. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 10. 15 2 = 45. a? 11. y f ?/ M 2? = 4.
6 2. 60. 19.42 = 2. 23.2 a. ..142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0. ^ = 2.3 y + . 1510 4 17. (3 _. 22. 4. 84 21. ? = llz. 32. 16. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. . . = 5. = 8*. =s 20.
x : z =1 : 2. + z = 2p. Check. 1 digit in the tens place. 1 = 2. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. Ex. either directly or implied. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. . z + x = 2 n. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . M=i. = 2 m. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Obviously of the other . = l. the number. symbols: x + y +z 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. + 396 = 521. y * z 30. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. ( 99. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 1. and to express In complex examples. +2+ 6 = 8. y 31. # 4.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and if 396 be added to the number. . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 2 = 6. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 1(1+6). however.
Ex. x y = the = the x denominator . 4 x = 24. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. . ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . Find the fraction. x 3 = 24. 5_ _4_ A. 2. the distance traveled by A. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. C. Or (4)2x(3). = 8. 6 x 4 = 24. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. direction. = Hence the fraction is f. From (3) Hence xy Check. x 3x4y = 12. increased by one. we obtain. (3) C4) = 24 miles. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3+1 5+1 4_2.144 Ex. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. y = 3. = the fraction. 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. B. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 3.
and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. part of their difference equals 4. the number (See Ex. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. it is reduced to J. 5. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the numbers. If 27 is 10. Find the number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. fraction is reduced to \. Find the numbers. 7. . 6. Find the numbers. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.) added to a number of two digits. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the digits will be interchanged. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. and the fourth 3. Find the number. the fraction equals . A fraction is reduced to J.}. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. ? What 9. number by the first 3. and its denomi nator diminished by one. to the number the digits will be interchanged. 1. both terms. the Find the fraction. Find the fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. If 9 be added to the number. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. its value added to the denominator. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and the numerator increased by 4. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the last two digits are interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. 183. added to the numerator of a fraction. 2. tion ? 8.
. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and partly at 4 %. and money and 17. 13.grams. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . A man invested $750. the rate of interest? 18.000 is partly invested at 6%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find the rates of interest. and 4 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 14. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 19. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. the annual interest would be $ 195. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. respectively ? 16. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 5 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. partly at 5 %. in 8 years to $8500. and in 5 years to $1125. How 6 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Find their present ages. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. A sum of $10. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 12. now.
Find their rates of walking. BE. triangle Tf AD.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. respectively. and F '(see diagram). Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. receiving $ 100 for each horse. 25. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. the length of NOTE. and $15 for each sheep. and GE = CF. and F. BC=7. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. BC = 7 inches. then AD = AF. is the center of the circum scribed circle. but if A would double his pace. and AC = 5 inches. B find angles a. and angle BCA = 70. cows. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. points. and CE If AB = G inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. . 23. 24. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. On /). . and e. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. 1 NOTE. and angle e angle/. BD = HE. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. andCL4 = 8. ED = BE. and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. E. angle c = angle d. An C touch ing the sides in D. for $ 740. the three sides of a triangle E. and sheep. c. $ 50 for each cow. are taken so ABC. three AD = AF. what is that = OF. and their difference by GO .
2). The of Coordinates. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . is the abscissa. and r or its equal OA is . 186. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. first 3).. YY' theyaxis. PN. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. Thus the points A. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. is The point whose abscissa is a. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (2. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4).CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. jr. ?/. (3. . and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and PN _L YY'. B. and point the origin. It' Location of a point. the ordinate of point P. 3). PN are given. (7. PM. (2. the ordinate by ?/. and PJ/_L XX'. or its equal OM.
0). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (1. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 2). 11.1). What is the locus of (a?. 6. 4). (See diagram on page 151. (2. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Plot the points (6. (4. 4. 2. Graphs. (0. 2). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (0.2).e. 6. (3. (4. 2J). and measure their distance. 4) and (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3).(!. (5. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 0). 1). Plot the points: (4. 71 2). 3. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.) EXERCISE 1. 3).3).4). (4. 0). !). 0). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 12. . 3). . (4. 4). 8. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points : (0. 1). Plot the points: (4.and(l. i. 4) from the origin ? 7.
10 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. however. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. may be found on Jan. 188. .. or the curved line the temperature. A. By representing of points.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 1. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. C. Thus the first table produces 12 points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. D. we meas1 . 15. B. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. from January 1 to December 1. ure the ordinate of F.
(b) July 15. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15. physician. etc. The engineer. and to deduce general laws therefrom. uses them.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the matics. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the graph is applied. . Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the merchant. (d) November 20.
1 to Oct. (freezing point) ? 7. 15.152 2. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ? 9. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. (1) 10 C. During what months above 18 C. 1? 11 0. on 1 to the average. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (d) 9 0. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is 10. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.
09 yards. transformation of meters into yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 19. Draw . One meter equals 1. NOTE. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 20. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw a graph for the 23. Hour Temperature . a temperature chart of a patient.
function If the value of a quantity changes. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. then C irJl. A 10 wheels a day. books from for printing. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 26. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.50. 9. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. amount to $8. gas. if he sells 0.154 24.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 3. x increases will change gradually from 13. 4. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.) T circumferences of 25. x* x 19. and $.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.. 2. x 7 to 9. . The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.50. etc.5 grams. 28. 3. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. e.. the daily average expenses for rent. to 27. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. binding. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. the value of a of this quantity will change. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 190. 1 to 1200 copies. if each copy sells for $1. etc.g.inch. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. represent his daily gain (or loss). If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 2 . 29.
x a variable. plot points which lie between those constructed above. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . while 7 is a constant. etc. is supposed to change. The values of func192. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.g. may .1). 2 (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Q. J). 2. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 4).0). (1. 1 the points (3.e. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. . ( 2. E. 4). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Ex. and (3. may. however. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. a*. Draw the graph of x2 f. it is In the example of the preceding article. be also represented by a graph. and join the points in order. 9). to x = 4.1). 2). If a more exact diagram is required. (2.2 x may 4 from x = 4. construct '. as 1. 9). for x=l. 3 50. (1^. 3 (0. Graph of a function.
Thus in the above example. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 1). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. r */ +* 01 . 2. (4.. (2. 5). 7 .4). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.) For brevity.. 4). 4J. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. Thus 4x + 7. and join(0. 2 4 and if y = x f. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable..20). (3. rf 71 . = 4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. straight line produces the required graph. j/=3. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.2 x . = 0.. as y. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. etc. . y = 6. 194. Ex.
a? 2 4. if a. if y = 2. y = 2x = 4. if"a. 21. + 4. = The values of a*. 12. 2 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (If) Va25. 22. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1.e. 1J. 16. 15. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. i. Jar . 2 or 2 20. (7i) (c) 23. 2x + 3x a?. from x VlO'S". 1 8 10. x+1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The values of a*. 1J. ?/ a. = 4. J.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 3 a 8. 2J. 14. 8. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.5)2. 9. fa 17. 6. l. 7. (ft) (_ 1. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 23x. a. The smallest value of the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2.8)'. 4 a. 19. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. xl. 2 a. the function. 5.5)2. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. a ar. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . if the function equals zero. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a? 1. a?. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2 2 a.or. 2 a. 3. 11. 1. 1J. 6 fa. . 3. xz + x. The values of a?. . 2J. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 18. 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. a* 13. 4a? I. (C ) (2.
9 F. C.24. the abscissas of 3. y= formula graphically. 25.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Represent 26.. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. that graph with the o>axis.158 24.where x c is a constant. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Therefore x = 1.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 14 F. then cXj where c is a constant.24 or x = P and Q.e... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. . then y = . 32 F. 1 C.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.
12. 4. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. = 0. 3. 11. a2 2a. viz.f 9 = 0. 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 197. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. is called a quadratic equation. 7. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. (a) (6) 9. 10. crosssection paper is used. or 5 2. (a) x2 = 0. 8. 2 and 1. 13. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. Such equations in general have two roots. . + + = where a.7 2 a 5 = 0. 6.
160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. (f . Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . if y = is 0. 2). 3x _ 4 . i. Ex. and joining by a straight line. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.1. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. If x = 0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. ?/. y= A and construct x (  graphically. NOTE. Hence if if x x  2. y y 2. y = l. because their graphs are straight lines.e. == 2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. = 0.2 y ~ 2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. T . Hence. unknown quantities. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). solve for ?/. Hence we may join (0. ?/ =4 AB. and join the required graph. fc = 3. 1) and 0). 0). . first degree.2. 4) and (2. Ex. locate points (0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 199. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. produces the 7* required locus. X'2 Locating the points (2.
P. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. equation x= By measuring 3. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and CD. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). Graphical solution of a linear system. 201. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.1=0. we obtain the roots. 202. parallel have only one point of intersection. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.57. AB y = . The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. linear equations have only one pair of roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. viz. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).15. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. (2) . 203. 3. To find the roots of the system.
Inconsistent equations. 5. Solving (1) for y.g. 4. 4. 5. V25 5. Locating two points of equation (2). obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. the point we obtain Ex. 4.  4. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. 0. and + 3).0).y~ Therefore. x2 . e. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Since the two  we obtain DE. 0. (4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 4.9. and . 3. the graph of points roots. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. There can be no point of and hence no roots. and joining by a straight line. they are inconsistent. The equations 2 4 = 0. if x equals respectively 0. 4. we of the + y* = 25. 0) and (0. intersection. (2. 3x 2 y = 6. 4.0. 2. 3..e. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). . y equals 3. 2. (1) (2) C. 2 equation x 3).5. Measuring the coordinates of P. Locating the points (5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.5. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. 3). AB the locus of (1). (4. i. In general. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. = 0. etc. 4. 1.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 1.
Draw system. 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 9. 5. and solve each If there are no solutions. 8. a. y=x + 5. y = 4. a+r/=6. y 2 4. y= a2 2x y6. \ 2x + 3^ . the graphs of the following systems. state reasons. 7. and. 2x 3?/=6. 6. 17. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 20. 16 22. if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 3. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2. 16 23. 10. vice versa. . '163 Dependent equations. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs..
26.164 24. AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25. CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES. 28. 29 . 3 31.14 y = . 4 a = 3(6 .y). 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .8.
CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 2.a2 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 52. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 8. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. . ^4/? it According to 50. etc. powers of a positive quantity are positive. follows that 3. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a = a3 . fa. According to 1. Law of Signs. 3 f a = f a = +. a special kind of product. ( a) is positive. 2. is may be by 207. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . on to in factors 4. involution repeated multiplication. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.faa a a a Obviously 1.
V V/ 13. 4. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 24. a product to a given power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 2. 76 : (>y. 3 2 2 8 . 6. (277171 )*. 2 11 (afc ) .6 (a 8 8 . 16. (^^) 2 . raise a fraction to a power. 15. . the required power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 4 /2mV. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 210. (a ) 2 5 . amVy) 3 . (a ) 2 4  3.6) = a . (2ar). 5.166 To find To To power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.
= s= (2s) 8 a. (aj7) .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.y . (3 x . (afl) .3 y. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 2 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. are obtained by multiplication. 3 8 . 211. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 2. nent of the binomial. 2. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 23.) 14. Ex. The higher powers of binomials.INVOLUTION Ex. 8. 18. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. +5a) 22. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 12. 9. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .y) = (3 y?y . etc. 5. 16. 6. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (5 (1 a) 3 . 1 f 3 2 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . 3. + a 2 a. An 1.6 2 8 ft) . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 13. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. : a 20. pansions. (3af26) 8 . 7. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 3 . 21. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 15. (a + &)8 . . 4. . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . a. + 4aj) 3 . frequently called ex. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.
13. 6. 4 . (p + q) 4 * 7. 21. (?/i~w) : 16. . (mJ) 4 11. (3a f5) 5) 4. 23. The minus. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (2 a 4 . 8. 24. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (a~^) 5 . 14. 3. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 .2. 9. is the coefficient of the next term. 18. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . . 2. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 1. (2 4. Ex.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (tff1) (cfd) . (1 + 4 ?/) .168 3. (m fl) 2 20. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.a) 3 19. mn 5 2 5 ) . (?>i?i f c)*. 25. . (la&) 4 12. 4. 4 (1for) 5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . 5. (l 8 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 17. (af 5) . . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 78 s . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 15. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 10. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. and the powers negative. .216 a^ 4. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (m 2 + n) 8 . ( &) 5 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 5. Ex. Ex. 3.
tity . = x means = 6. V \/P 214. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 2. 4 4 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Since even powers can never be negative. a) 4 = a4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. or 3 for (usually written 3) . or x &4 . called real numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. 1. etc. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. and ( v/o* = a. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. numbers.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 109 . which can be simplified no further. for distinction. or y ~ 3. and all other numbers are. 215. \/"^27=3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. (_3) = 27. V9 = + 3.
3. 7 .200 . = 199 + (_ 198) . 62 = V2* . V?. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 82 . 6 7 = 030.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 8. . Ex.9 = 136.125. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 6. V36 9 4.1. 2. 3 33 53 . 5. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex. 10.201) = 2. 7. Ex 5 a" . . 8. roots of the numerator \/18 . 2. Ex. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . extract the and denominator. To extract the root of a power. EXERCISE 1. 9. . 9.64 5 4 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . v/^i2 = a*.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . fy 5 3 .4. 3i . V25 9 16. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. 3/0** = am . index. 7 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.lL. 4 v. 7. \/2 4 9 . v/2^.(. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 2 . = 19472.  100 a 2 . 6.
(V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 5.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Ex./).) by inspection. 32. ^40^4. Find the square root of a2 . 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. a* 4 8 2 . 2. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 3. 45 V5184. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.3 . 2 . V9216. a f2 l 2 + l.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V8. 1.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3 y2) ( vV . 29. 31.4/.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .98. 30. V20 .3. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.75. 33. 34. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 6. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. .
the given expression is a perfect square. however. and b (2 a f b).b 2 2 to its square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a f. 10. and b. #2 a2  16. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 11. 2 . 14.172 7. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 2ab . 12.> 13.2 ac . + 6 + 4a&. let us consider the relation of a f.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 8 . mV14m??2)f 49. 15. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 2 2 218. The term a' first 2 . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.2 &c. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. . i. a\b is the root if In most cases.72 aW + 81 & 4 .2 ab + b . a2 + & + c + 2 a& .
the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2 . and consider Hence the their sum one term. 2. 1. First trial divisor. Second trial divisor. Ex. As there is no remainder. by division we term of the root. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 /. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 8 a 2 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. */'' .EVOLUTION Ex. First complete divisor. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. The square . 219. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Explanation. the first term of the answer. is As there is no remainder. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. of x. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . 10 a 4 8 a. and so forth. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 6 a. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf. . . 1. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.
4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 8. 2 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 2 x2 3 2x.10 x2 4. > 7. 20.12 m 4.42 a*& 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 436^?/469a. 9.V430^425^ 4m 4.25.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 3.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 6.24 or . 36it.20 o 4. 24. 10. 5 4 16 4 iK . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 5. + 81 a 454 a + 81. a? 2 .162 a2 60 a10 4. 17.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .4 x 4.12m 5 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 1 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .37 a ^ . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 12.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 14. 729 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 15.6 . 19. 16. 4 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. l 4. 16x6 4.9. 6 11.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .a 6 x*y 2 .25 x 4 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.73 a8 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.16. 18. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .40 a 22 .
Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the complete divisor 168. etc. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Therefore 6 = 8. a 2 = 6400. Ex.. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. As 8 x 168 = 1344. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the first of which is 8. etc. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the first remainder is.000 is 100. Ex. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 2. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.1344. Find the square root of 7744. = 80.EVOLUTION 220.000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Find the square root of 524.000. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. two figures. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.176. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. first . of a number between 100 and 10. of 10. of 1. 1. which may contain one or two).000 is 1000. the first of which is 4.
places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.7 to three decimal places.0961 are '. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.70 6. 12.GO'61. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Find the square root of 6/.1 are Ex. in . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher.10. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1T6 221. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. The groups of 16724.
JT . 37. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .58 square 38. 36.) 40. feet. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. feet. 35. . 30. 39. 31. 13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. J. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .53. 1. 5. = 3. 33.22.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.1410. T\.01. 34.
quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. A pure. but no higher power e. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Ex. or affected. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. complete. 2)* + 5 = 33. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Dividing. This answer Check. 224. x = + 2 or x =2. The 7 equation. is 12.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 225. 6 y2 = 17. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Extracting the square root of each member. . = 4. 2. or incomplete. = 7^ + 5. Transposing. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 1. 226. x 2 7. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is A quadratic equation. or equation of the second degree. 178 . 6#2 = x* 24.g. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2 ic = a..
ax Transposing and combining. Solve 179 . 2. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 19 + 9 = 5500. (a? 9. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 7 = 162. o. 8. ' =: y? b* b . 10. 5. . 2 4fc 5' 18. 2 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.2. : 83 2. 4 ax.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 6(2)=10(ajl). 7. 15^5 = 6. 0^ + 1 = 1. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.25. . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 4. 16^393 = 7. 3. or Therefore.
then Since such a triangle tangle. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. find a in terms of 6 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 3. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. 2 : 3.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a.b 2 If s If =c . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and they con tain together 30G square feet. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for v. solve for d. 29. 2 . 228. 4. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 27. : 6. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for r. If G=m m g . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 108. 25. . may be considered one half of a rec square units. If 22 = ~^. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2 . 28. EXERCISE 1. r. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 2. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. ' 4. Find is the number. 26. is 5(5. 2a f 1 23. Find the numbers.) of their squares 5. If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. 24. and their product : 150. 22 a. .
To find this term. is and the other two sides are equal. sides. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. radii are as 3 14. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the unknown sides and the area. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 9. A body falling from a state of rest. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . and the two smaller 11. Method of completing the square. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . . 24. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Solve Transposing.2 7 . . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. (b) 44 square feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Find the radii. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 8. 2m. of a right triangle Find these sides. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find the sides. . and the third side is 15 inches. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Find these 10. J = 12. we have of or m = . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 4. add () Hence 2 .) 13. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. x* 7 x= 10. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.7 x f 10 = 0.
(*~8) a = at . = 6. 2  . Transposing. 62 x 5 = f. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Ex. . or x = 2.. Uniting. = x\ = 2. = . 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Transposing.x(l = .2 a2 . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. a. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Extracting square roots. J. = \ # = ff.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Therefore.1. 2 a* a. 230. a Clearing of fractions.  \. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. or J.2. Simplifying. adding member).a. Ex. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.e.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Hence Therefore Check.
183 Simplifying. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing.
2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. = 12.c = 0. article. ao. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula. =0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =8 r/io?. \bx\. 2x 3 4. 231.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . . x la 48. and c in the general answer.
Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 1. 10. 15.4 4 5 . 2 a.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 26. TIO. 13. 2 . 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 19. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. c p. 20. 9. 6 . 6.  .15 x9 25x* = 21 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 11. 2 a? = 44 x . 6 Ex. 8. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). ?i 2 . 2 o. 6^+5^ 56. 4. 18. = 64120?. a. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. V^tT)* . c = 5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2or } 5o. 6. 14. 7. 5 x2 Transposing. 21. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 17. 7^ + 9 x 90. 12. 2. 2.. : 86 + 2 = 0. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. Reducing to general form. = 12 .25 x. 16.
Eesolving into factors. 3x?+x = 7. 5 = 0. member can be Ex. 26. 0. 2S3x 1 2 . 23. any degree. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 24.5 Solving (1) and (2). Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . x(x <2 . . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Factoring. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. or # 5 is zero. if either of the uct is zero. transposing terms to one member. Clearing for fractions. 5) = 0.x. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 27 x== 42a. and 6.5) =0. = 0.2. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Solution by factoring. = 0. factors Now. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Bx 1 1. a=:i^^. }. 25. 233. orz roots.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. ar>8o.4) = . = 0. (5 a? !)(. x2 = 1 . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Transposing. = 14. 1.
for a: . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. is 5) = 0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. + 8=s: 7.(. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. + 6)=0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4. 13. } 2 2 (5 .g. E. The equation I. 0(02) = 7(02).6)) = 0. 3) = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. evidently (x Or 4)(x . and the equation thus formed be solved. a?10a=:24. Or Hence the 234.24 = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3. 9. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3# y 5 = 0. 12. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 2. Ex. : 87 = 0. 8.:=0.e. we 9 obtain x 4. 2. a?. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. (aj4)(a. 3) Factoring. x2 f 2 x . 5 = 0. a* 10a=24. 3^ = 0(1106). + 100.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. + 10 a = 24. 0^ ar> 11. ar'Sa^ 12. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 14. 3 or 2 a. aj( 15. O roots are 2. 3. 16.3)(x + 3 3. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 6. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 7. 5. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.= 24. 4)(z3) = 0. 2o3 f9a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.
or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a. 23. '3a!J  . 2. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 50.188 17. 19. a 2 =(x a)b. 27. 18. (2a? 3) (a 24. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. ara + ft + c*.3) = (s + l) (3 a). + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 20. 22. 25. uz + u 21.
1. two numbers is 4. 58. and whose product 9. : 3. . 57. The 11.0.3. 52. 5. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 7. 56. 2. and the difference Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. 2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. and equals 190 square inches. 2. 55.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.1. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 8. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 4. 2.0. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and whose sum is is 36. Find the number. 0. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 54. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. feet. and consequently many prob 235.3. 6. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. The difference of . of their reciprocals is 4.9. 5. number by 10. 2.3. 3.2. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 1. Find the numbers. Find the number. Find the sides. G. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.
ply between the same two ports. 17. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. 14. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If he each horse ? . dollars. watch for $ 24. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. sold a horse for $144. other. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.10. and Find the sides of the rectangle. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. What did he pay for 21. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. ABCD. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. Find the rate of the train. Two vessels.190 12. . he would have received two horses more for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. as the 16. 15. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 13. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. had paid $ 20 less for each horse.
Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. ^3^ = 7. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 237. of the area of the basin. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 23 inches long. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 24. or x = \/l = 1. 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. the two men can do it in 3 days. constructed with and CB as sides. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Find and CB. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. a point taken.) 25. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Ex. (tf. By formula. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. as 0. contains B 78 square inches. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 27. . so that the rectangle. and working together.
4. a 21or=100. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. a. 18. y8)=0. 10. >. or y = 8. 16. Ex. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 a. = 13. 4 : 89 10a. 9. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. a4 5o. 436 3. 19. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. a? 15 1=2*. Solving. aV+9o 4 =0. = 1.192 238. 12. 7. T 17. Hence Le. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4 6. 2 h9:=0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 6. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 2.)+72=0.T 2 2 . 8. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.2 =4.
rational.5) = 04. Relations between roots and coefficients. 240. the roots are equal. The discriminant =(. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.f> = 0. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. the roots are irrational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Ex. 241. is 4ac not zero. b 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . . 2. rational.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .bx 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . it 2a follows 2 : 2. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. and equal. c the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .12 x + 9 = 0. and unequal.2) 2 4 3 (. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. a perfect square.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are unequal. the roots are rational. Ex. 1. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. the roots are real. Hence the roots are real. the roots are imaginary. 3. negative.2 z . ( 2a Hence 1.
= Q. f 2 E. 5aj 9. x2 7 10. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 14. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 4. 18. 10 x = 25 x + 1. ^12. = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 2 a. 12. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2 7. 60 2 = 0. 21. 5oj aj + l = 0. = 5x. 23.g. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 18 2 8. 3a. = 0. 2. + 2a15 = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. : a 2 . o. 22. lla. their product isf. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 12~x = x 2 . Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term.19 # 20.. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 12 2  . 6. tfmx+p^Q. 17. + 2a. 15. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 24. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 9a3 = 0. 2 : 3.
the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. II. hence. ~ a m f. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. provided w > n. (a m ) w . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . however. such as 2*. The first of these laws is nition of power.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. It is.a" = a m n mn . for all values 1 of m and n." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . We assume. m IV. a m a" = a m+t1 . that a an = a m+n . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.* III. = a"" < . and . 244. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. Then the law of involution. while the second of the first. no Fractional and negative exponents. > m therefore. (ab) . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. must be *The symbol smaller than.
n 2 a. 24. 28.g. 30. at. a*. fractional. a?*. = a.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 31.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 0?=^. a\ 26. 25. 23. 29. etc. 4~ . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. disappear. as. or zero exponent equal x. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 3*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Assuming these two 8*. ml. . 245. '&M A 27. a . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. (xy$. m$. (bed)*. e. laws.
38. Solve the following equations 39. 35. : 2' 4* = 4. 7z* Find the values of 47. 48. If. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 46. ty?.g. = 49. e. equal to unity. Let a = a. 44. 246. v'mT 36. e.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. v/o&cT 34. a * a2 Or a=l. a* * = 3.g. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 50. a. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. hence is . Vo5 . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 5 a* = 10. 45. 41.\/n. 49. 43. 37. a . = 2. 40. \/xy \/m. 3* = 27. 27* = 3. = 2. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. To find the meaning of zero exponent. : 197 33. the base is zero. \fi?. however. 42.
e. an x = a. by changing the sign of NOTE. etc. Or a"# = l. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". 248. . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. or the exponent. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". vice versa. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.2 = a2 . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. cr n. consider the following equations.198 247.g.
7~ l a 2b 2 . : mi m~^. 25. m .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 37. rfS. 2 . : or 5 . 27. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 36. ^L. a. 44. 22. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 40. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. f (2w)~i 1 . ^?2 y' 34. a^ 41. 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci ."* 38. 2m~i 43. 39. 3 a. . 66 45. * 24. . c 32. 3 a? * 42. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35.
26)* 1 (I) 2 . + 1~* f 21 . 59. 54.001.008)* + A. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 10* 5* = . 55. of: 3ll4~* 60. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 48. Ex. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 47. 58. + A_.(. = l. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. ar = i. = ^. 49. 61.9*.343)* + (.81 f (a . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. (. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 10* Find the values 56.1. z* = 1. 57. 53. 52. 250. = . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 1. = 5. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 17' 2 51. z 5or*=10.6). .
Remove the negative exponents.7i. 3 a. a. 6 *. 27  28.5. remove the fractional exponents. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 12.&. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. V5. . 79 . 26.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 8 ' 9.6 *' 6 *25.$". (d) If required. 10. 7.7W.&. 4 x^. 6a. #* a. 3sVS. / 7fv 7. 95 ^9i 5**. &. 14.$*. 7~ 5 27  . are performed..^/5^5. ' 11. . NOTE. .7*.5a. OA 20. 4 5. 3. S'sS8. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. Perform the operation indicated. 16. 7~ 6 . 16. 13. 7*. 17.4 a8 . 18.3 aj" a. etc. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .4 . 6. 72 . 23. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.
34. 6 35. 40. If powers of a?. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. The 252. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 2.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. powers of x arranged are : Ex.2 d .
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
e. v/4. 4^/4. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. (i. Simplify/a35 ~ o . \/5. Arrange 35. A/3. V5. 38.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. Ex. + . </3. </2. 32. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^/IT. V3. ^2.2. 3. 33. ^3. VS. 29. V3. 30. 26. subtract surds. ^4. 37. 27. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^4. \/7. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^6. ^126.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 36. 34. Ex. ^7. v/3. ^2. V2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^5. ^30. Simplify V~ . 40.10 V2 =  V2. To add or form. A/2. connect them by proper 1. </20. 39. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.3\ . signs. v/3. 2\ 3*. 31. V2. if dissimilar. s!/3. 5V2. 28. V2.2 V50. v^S. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .
11. VJ+V8V1 + V50. . 8. V175V28+V634V7. 6.J a6 V4 aft. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6.3V20 + 6V5. 9. 14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V18+V32VT28+V2. 3. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. + 3V835V2. 4V805V45. 10. 12. 8VT8J2V32 7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4.
and then multiplied. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 3. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. y* = Ex. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex. 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105.6V35 106 460V35100 . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 6*. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 23.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 1. . 26^ .
37. 19. 6. 2. 38. 40 10 30. V3 Vl2. 15. 3. V2 V50. 7. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 28 . 13. v/18 v"3. 21. 18. 12. 25. + VB)(2V5). v/4. 27. 10. VTO. a?. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). Vll. V42. 9.VSS. 4.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 8. V2aV8^. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. VlO V15. . 41. (Va Va 36. 213 98 11. (3 20.^/2. (V6 + 1) 1 . 6. 39. 6 V4 5. V20 V30. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 40. \/3 \^). 34. 2 . 14. (V2+V3+V4)V3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). aVa. (2V3) 8 . fWa 17. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V3 V6.
44.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (5V2+V10)(2V51). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. V3 . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45. E. 43. 47. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 268. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. Ex. 46. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . Va v/a. 52.214 42. 49. is 1 2. (3V52V3)(2V3V3).y. 53. the quotient of the surds is If. 51. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 48. a fraction. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 60. Ex. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.
Divide VII by v7. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . The 2.g..73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . arithTo find. 3. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .RADICALS This method. is illustrated by Ex. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. by V7. however. Evidently. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.73205. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. metical problems afford the best illustrations. e. /~ } Ex.57735. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.by the usual arithmetical method. we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.
4142. V3 24 .. 14. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 23 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 20. A.2361. Vn V7 ' * 8. V3 = 1. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. A. 272. 21. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. and Given V2 = 1. V2 22 . . . V5 270. V8 12. VffV?. ^/H . 7. V5 = 2.7320. Vll 212*. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . i. V48 25. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 271. V8 JL.
217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .vffi^T _ . Ex. 1.1 xVtf a.Vs2 .= 18. . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2.RADICALS Ex. . V82 2V3 1fVS . s Simplify a. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex.
19. V5V7 18> ^SVg. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .7320. 27.5 3 = 125. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. Given V2 1. find to _!_. four places of decimals 23 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. V21 = 25 . J?_. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 24. = V3 = 1. By the use of fractional exponents .W3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. v 2V3 28.2361. : and V5 = 2. . Vo1 26. 6V7.4142.218 6 .
11. Simplify Ex. 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/l6*. 5. 1. . the If. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 3 (V2~u)  7. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 2. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . V643 . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. it to this form. In other examples of involution and evolution. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3.RADICALS 219 274. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 9. v8f 2\/15. \/125" . viz. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. According to G3. 2. V255 . 4. 8. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. on the other hand. 2 12.
and whose product is 18. These Ex. +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find Vll . ^TT.220 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 V2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 3.A/2. 2. is 11. Find Vl2 4. The Hence ^11 .2 \/20. 12 and whose product is 20. 2 \/18.6\/2 = ^9 . Find V4 + VJ8. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.
Ex. VT . Solve vVf!2a = 2. first involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 4x x = 2. Before performing the involution. are radical equations. Dividing by Check. Radical equations are rationalized. V48 23. = xa + 4 x f 4.V48 4 20. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.1. : 221 Vl32V22. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. The value x =2 reduces each .e. . they are transto formed into rational equations. (2x xrf 1. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. +=. 8. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. r 22.. x2 = x f 2. 4. by raising both members equal powers. a. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. member to 2. 19. Transposing and uniting. i. 277. 5. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.
Transposing and uniting. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 5. Squaring both members. viz. 2. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. a. one root. they may be extraneous roots. at . Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 3. Dividing by 24. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. It = 3 x . a socalled extraneous root. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Therefore Check. tion which has two roots. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. .1) = 0. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. x = J. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 278. 4#f 4 = 9. Ex. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2.222 Ex. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. viz. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. V24~+~l = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . . Factoring. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Therefore CftecAr. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Transposing. . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. V4afT~l.3. Transposing and uniting. the first member = V2. Extraneous roots.
. + 6~ieT~3 . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Hence x = the only root.47) = 0. If If x 3 = 3.2 r. Check. x root of the preceding equation. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5. Factoring. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . 4. 223 x = 3. viz. NOTE.RADICALS Hence x If a.12 . Hence there is only one root. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. and to 5. Squaring. Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given. Therefore. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 2 Clearing of fractions. Solve the following equations : = G. ViTie 4 z2 .3) (2 x . equation it is an extraneous root. the right member = V2.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. or x *j. is x V. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. (x x = 3. . = 3.
224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore . Solve af*. Factoring. Many 1. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
= 26. 2. Vi 2 8a. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. . = 0. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Substituting. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x =6 or 3.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.35 = 0. members of the equation were squared. 4. Ex. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. some of the roots be extraneous. _ 2 y .i~24 = 0. y then x2 . + 40 = 6.f40= 5.*2a. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. Let 8 x f 40 . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. = 7. 2Va.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 2_8z 440 = 49. Q . o. x + Vx a? = 6. 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 412a* = 16. 5. This can be seen without substituting. x Since both =9 or 1. 3 6.8 x + 40 = 36.8 z40 = 7. 2. 3.
a^x2 5 2 13. 2. 17. +3= 6. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.f 18 = 24. 19. a. 18. 12. 20.226 11. +x . 4 V SB* 4 a. 15.a 440 = 35. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 14. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.
we make a? what the value of Q. even if Q is unknown.2) Q . by dividing 3 x* f.2 + 80 = 12. ax4 4.2 + 4. Ex. no matter If.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 2. Hence.2 x 5 by x 3. = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. to x we # = 2 3. If x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.bx? + ex2 4. could. Without actual division. find the remainder when m. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. " Or. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. does not contain a?.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. then (x 2)Q 0. if Q was known.360 = 244.4 a. a? R = x* . we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 1. 227 . ^ = 381+2. however." transposing.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 3 2 Ex. Without actual division.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x m is factor of the expression. if 8 42  . fora?. of the division 3) is m in place of x.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .228 282. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x* s 2 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x . + ^by x + b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .8. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5 (4x . + 7 = 632.8'= 0. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. + 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. hence (x divided by x 4. 3. 5. } 2 by a1. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 43 3 E. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. The Factor Theorem.3)f 11 =.g. 8.4(. 2 j 7.g. If the remainder is zero.949.
229 1. f 5.r6 = 0. m f m n 14.e.12. a. f 15 does not vanish. & p*.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . The 5. or 5 4 + 3^ . 21. is a factor.1. or x 4. _ . 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. a? 19. ^10^429^20=0. + 15. 7 46 = 0. 2. 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 17.9^ + 23^15. factors of the absolute term. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.13m + 30 10. 18.7 + 16 . + ttt15 = 0. 2m 5m . 106 division. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. .TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. p 5^ + 8p 4. are f 1. 24. Resolve into factors 4. i. a 2a + 4. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. Therefore x ( 1). 25. 2 2. a^8^ + 19a. a + 32. 9. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 5. 3 2 : 7. 11. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.7 x + 15 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 8. oj 5x2 f3a. Factor a? 15. 3. Let x = . 23. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. + 27 + 27. 8. 15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.49 = 0.1. 20. a 8a f 19 a 12. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 6.12 = 0. f 3. a 5x 6.
" . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. By we obtain the other factors. is odd.230 285. 2 Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2.xy +/). Ex. 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. actual division n. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if n is even.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. if w is odd.g. 286. If n is a Theorem that 1. xn f. ar +p= z6 e. : importance.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2. For substituting y for x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.
as 27=0. 28. since it more directly to the prime factors. x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 3. Hence = (m Ex. 26. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). however. a.= . leads 231 is The first method. 27. preferable. y 3 +8=0.
& + 2 xy + = 25. can be solved by the methods degree. (4) Hence. of quadratics. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. If two of the quantities x f y.1. in general. = 6. xywe have 3. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. 4 xy = 16. x y. * A I. (5) Combining (5) with (1). Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 290. Squaring Solve (1). + 6 a?V .y4 is of the fifth degree. 232 . however. to equations of the fourth few cases. xy are given. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. ==5 > 1^ = 4.
^. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. I I x + y=7. 108 2. The arranged in pairs. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. r (" 1 = 876. " "' "' { r 8. 12. 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. x and xy are not given. ' 10. but can be found. = . 1. b=3. 233 y.g. EXERCISE Solve: 1.
Substituting in (2) Simplifying.~ y = 5. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.?/ i = 6.a. + 29 = 0. A system of simultaneous equations. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.  f J. 7 . la.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 5.20) = 0. . one linear and ne quadratic. Factoring. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. I* Jj ^ [. 3. x " (3) 49 etc. 4 y = 20.i/ = r 13.  42 y + Transposing. 2 (1) From (1) we have. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. ' ' . aj = 2. or y = 1 . I x+y = a.  . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . r^ 2 as ] f. 6 "I 14. Ex.o 18. .. 19. or JJ. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).
3 2x 2 Ex. ':il e :) . y* + 2y = 3. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 9. 3y) : Factor (2). Solve . III. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 4 f + 2 y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 1. 10. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. quantities. ' x*.
If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. = 0. 2 . 2. 11 a2 Factoring. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. Solve 2. 109 a.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 15 x2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (3) (4) Subtracting. = Ex. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. j Substituting y in (2). (1) (2) x x 5. } VI09. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).
which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Division of one equation by the other. " IV.125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. and others not belonging to them. Bxy9.175 ay = 12.xy 4. A.!. 298. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. can be solved by special devices. (4) (3). f 1 150 a?. 2 xy + y2 = 10.6. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. . 150 */2 . ' ^ 15.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.3^42^=43. y? a? f . E.y = 7.
we have from (1). y . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. jc~ y = 9. = 189. (1 > (2) 1. xy. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. Therefore x = 16. = 12 J. at first it is unknown quantities. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . * ' 300. we obtain by squaring. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. 2. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Solve Ex. i ^ *>.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. from (2). f^ + 3 7/ = 133. x 2 .. B. x +y y etc. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous.
[2x + : y= 17. M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 2. 239 Ex.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence = V or = 4. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e. F+y+ . 36* 2. . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4. 6. 7.
' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. * .21 ^ = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 16.4 y = 47 a. = 198. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 27. .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 19 ' 26. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . 25. f 18. = y 1 y* .
INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . Interpretation . 7' j/ 39. oo 301. 32. .of  According to the definition of division. . ^ oo . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 25 34. Q 7. 33. finite  =x y if = x. = 48201. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 3 a2 38. as a . etc 302. hence may be any finite number. or ~ indeterminate. 31. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. etc. 30.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . ~\ OK OO.
(1) is an identity. cancel.can be If It is made larger than number. ToU" ^100 a. is satisfied by any number. Hence such an equation identity. x f 2. and . (a: Then Simplifying. without exception. i.g. (1) = 0. great. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.e.242 303. The ~~f fraction . equation. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. TO^UU" sufficiently small.e. = 10. oo is = QQ. as + l. and becomes infinitely small. i. Let 2. creases. By making x any * assigned zero.x'2 2 x = 1. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. . . 1. be the numbers. or that x may equal any finite number.decreases X if called infinity. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. I.000 a. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.increases if x de x creases. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. the answer is indeterminate. it is an Ex. 306. Or. (1). of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.
(2).8 x + 15 6. * 6. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. and the sum of Find the numbers. z = 1 Substituting. 4 3 x x5 a2 . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Hence /. = oo. 3. 42 and' their product is 377. two numbers is 76. . Solve  9 7. 1=0. and a. Solve . y finite QO. Solve x a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. third and sixth parts.e. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. is their 2.
Find the edges. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. of a right triangle is 73. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the dimensions of the field. and the edge of one. increased by the edge of the other. and the hypotenuse is 37. p. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 12. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the edge of each cube. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the sum of ( 228. The area of a nal 41 feet. 6. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. of a rectangular field feet. Find the sides. Find the numbers. 13. Find the side of each square.) 53 yards. 9. 8. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 148 feet of fence are required. is is 17 and the sum 4. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. equals 4 inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 190. and the diago(Ex. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 146 yards.quals 20 feet. 103. Find the other two sides. 14. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7.244 3. is 6. two numbers Find the numbers. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find these sides. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 10.
Find the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. . irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17. the quotient is 2.
. 12.. P. : 7. The first is an ascending. 10. The common differences are respectively 4. + 2 d. to each term produces the next term. added to each term to obtain the next one.) is a series. 19.. each term of which. to produce the 4th term. .. a. 3 d must be added to a. P. 15 is 9 f...1) d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. (n 1) d must be added to a. To find the nth term / of an A. the second a descending. a f d. 2 d must be added to a. of a series are its successive numbers. series 9. to produce the 3d term. of the following series is 3.. a 3d. except the first. 3. An arithmetic progression (A. a + 2 d. progression. Since d is a f 3 d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. 16. The progression is a. Hence / = a + (n . a + d. 309.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. to produce the nth term..7. . a 11. 17. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. P. . 4. 11. f .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. . and d.
d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3. = 99. Find the 101th term of the series 1. Adding. Find the 10th term of the series 17. = 2. 9. P. 1..4. .. 6..PROGRESSIONS 310. 8. 8. 24. a = 2. .16.3 a = l.. 5.. 5. 1J. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. = I + 49 = *({ + . ? (a) 1. the term a.... . 7... P. 4^.. d = 3.' cZ == .. 99) = 2600. 7. 8. . 21. 2. = a + (a Reversing the order. series 2. 6 we have Hence . 115. if a = 5. 9.. (d) 1J. 3.. 3. 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. (a + + (a + l) l). 5. 7. 2J. 4. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. series . Find the 5th term of the 4.8. 1. Find the 12th term of the 4. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 5... 5.. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 6.. Find the nth term of the series 2. . 10. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 19. 3. P. of the series 10. 6. . .
17. P.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms.7 f to 12 terms. (i) (ii) . > 2f 2. 23. to 20 terms. 11. . striking hours only. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . In most problems relating to A.248 Find the 10. \n. 12. and for each than for the preceding one. 16. Jive quantities are involved. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 22. 7. 11. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 16. 20. 15. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . '. hence if any three of them are given. strike for the first yard. . 18. . 15. 4. Sum the following series 14. 1. 33. 13. 7. : 3. to 20 terms. to 8 terms.1 f 3. to 16 terms. to 7 terms. . 21. to 15 terms. 2. 15. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1. 19. 7. to 10 terms. 1. + 3. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 6. 29. 11.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . (x +"l) 4. 31. 3. . to 20 terms. 1J. rf. . 2J. 12.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 8. . 11.
is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. if a. is 12.1). = 13. 1. From (1). P.. P. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.1) . 312. = 1014. 100. or 11 J. 204 = ^ (a + 49). and b form an A. 111.PROGRESSIONS Ex. d = 6. 133. P. 23. if s = 204. 34. the second one mean between the other two.e. n = 6.6 n). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 78. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 56. = 144. The first term of an A. or if x Solving. 2.. 45. 2 (2) From Hence (2). . a = 12. = 1014.6. 12. 67. Findn. hence n = 6. s 24ft last term 144. Substituting in (2). the and the sum of all terms 1014.104 w + 408 = 0.~n~\ 408 6). a = 49 6(71 . Solving. I. l)e?. But evidently n cannot be fractional. The series is. 122. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 144. #. 78 n Substituting in (1). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 6. n d. Ex. 89. = n(104 . 6 n2 . 204 = ^ (98 . = a + (w. J = 49. Find the series. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. .
s = 70. = 16.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. and s. 6? 9. How much . n = 16. a+ and b a b 5. Find n. = 17. 13. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n has the series ^ j . 15.3. d = 5. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 8. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. I Find I in terms of a. n = 20. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 4. m and n 2. Given a = . of 5 terms 6. Given a = . = 83. . 7. Find d. 3. Find d and Given a = 1700. n = 13. n. How much did he save the first month? 19. has the series 82. = ^ 3 = 1. 78. n = 17. Find d. = 1870. Find?. Given a = 1. 14. T? ^. = 52. I. = 45. n = 4. P. y and #f5y. Find a Given a = 7. f? . Find a and Given s = 44. f J 1 1 / . 12. s == 440. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = 4. 16. Find w. 11. 17. produced. 74. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . a x f b and a b. 10. ceding one.
2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 2.g. is 16(f) 4 . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . . 36. . 36. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. is it (G. called the ratio.) is a series each term of which.arn ~ l . 24. of a G. P. ratios are respectively 3. rs = s 2 .. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 2 a. 12. A geometric progression first. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. NOTE. or. I. 36. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 108. If n is less : than unity.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. ar. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. the first term a and the ratios r being given. and To find the nth term / of a G. The 314. or 81 315. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. ar8 r. P. The progression is a. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. . <zr . 24. r n~ l ... +1. . 4. 4. P.... E. (I) of the series 16. . 4 (1) ... a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .
or 7. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.. f.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.5. . 8. series 5.. series . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. i 288.5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. . Find the 6th term of the series J. 6. if any three of them are given. 4. ? (c) 2. (d) 5.. fa. \ t series . In most problems relating to G. l. Hence the or series is 0.18. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . first 5. +f%9 % . 144. fa. first term is 125 and whose common . P. P. 36. 4. . I = 670.. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. .4. 0. Ex. f. 80. .288. . 288. . 144. 576. is 3.54.*.. . 2 term 3._!=!>. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. whose and whose second term is 8.. 9. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.. P. 20. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P... EXERCISE 1. 9.. 18. a = I. Find the 5th term of a G. 10. volved . + 5.6. (it. 1. 36. P. r^2. is 16. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. whose .72. 72. 676. 3. series 6. Jive quantities are in. hence..18. . And the required means are 18... . 144. . 9. first term 4. 7. 25.l.. Hence n = 7. 36. . (b) 1. 72.
22. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. .. be written If the value of r of a G. 12 terms. n = 5. 19. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 27. + 4 . n = 5. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 54. . J. Find a and n = 4. to 7 . 12. 48. = 3. J. 15.nV> i*> !718. s = 605. of r n decreases. >"> . Find a and Given r = 3. to 7 terms. 24. may be than any assignable number.. and hence ~ r . 42. 4. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 2. J.. to 5 terms.. Given r = n Z 5. == 160. 36. = 3. . J. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 13. 243. . 1. 81.i a9 . to 8 terms. . 1. a. Find a and 4.. 14. to G terms. 14. I. 16 . M. Find the geometric mean between 7. r .. Z s. s = 310. to 6 terms. P. 20. 72. is less than unity. 23. a^. 25S series : 32. 81. 126.J and 270. 21. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.
is 9. . . 16.Ql. . 12. and the first term is Find 17.. Given an infinite series of squares. Find the sum to infinity. 1.1. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 3.. P..254 Ex... Find the value 9. 6. 13. 2. ..072...272727. is J.3727272 . 4.. =A+ 10 i. If the side of the first square is 2 inches..37272 . 5. 16. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. .. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. is 16.. 4. 250. 1... 1 r = . of all squares ? . 2. = a . of an infinite G. of: 11..072 + .. The sum r.717171. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.3 + .. . (6) the sum of the perimeters. . 5..555. . . . 66 Therefore . .00072 f .)7?7272 .. i i J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .01 ^ .. . = . P. P. 12...3121212. 100. . ratio 15... 7.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.27777 . = 990 . 10. 1.= _4Z* .. 8.. r = j. 6. 8.. .99 .72.. 9..191919. 14. 9. . . I. 1.. first and the common term. Hence . = .= . ... i. If a = 40. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 40.
(\ 9 . 4. 21.b ). 15. 10. 7 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 17. a6 8 16 in . 11.6) . (xy) : 6 . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (a2) 6. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 29. (a 100 . . (a + b) . 28. /2a+Y\ 8. . . 22. 2 2 24. 20. 13. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 26. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. (s + i).b) w (a (a f (1 . 16. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 12. 4 7. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .6) 20 . 5. coefficient of . l 2. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 14. 25. : (1 + xy. .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.
+ 2. 2. ^+^ 3. 2. c = = = 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 1. y 3. 2. 24 4.  8 ^ 2. 4. 6. 4. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3.f ac 1. 1. 2. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. . + 1. 2. 2. 1. 3. if x^l. 1. 3. 3. 4. a ft c = = 2. 2. 5. 5. 5. 2. 1. 6. + c(a  c). 2. 1. 4. if y=2j 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft.c )(fta) 1. 5. if = = = 2. + 2. ft) . 3.  2. 6. 1. 1. 5. 4. 2. 3.a(a 4. c if 7 . 3. 2. 1. 3. 2. 1. 5. 5. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. 3. 3. aft 3 + 4. 3. l. 6. 2 . 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 5. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M.  2. if = = 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. 2. 4 2. 1. 1. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 6. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 1. 3. 3. 2. 5. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 4. 4. 2. .  a)(a 1. 3. 2. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. (c 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. ft 4 ) 5. 7. = 2. 4. 2. 3. 2. 4. 4. 1. 2.
2 a?y + 3 aty . 9.8 + 2 // . 3.259 x c) . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 2. c)(x a} .a 5 a . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 12. x C 4 4x y + . 17.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .2 x2 .c' 2 4 / . f 8. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .2. 8.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 7.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. a.3 xyz. 4. x 3 x' 14.a) .3 a?y .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . b(x (b 1. a. 25.r 6 x  4 xy . 4. 5. if a 6 = = c = 3.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.  a) (c 2. 10. 16. ~c)(b. 3.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . c = 3. a: . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .x 5 4 . 2 x 8.2 z8 4 x. . 7y 4 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. x = 4. r> . a /> 3. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 15. 41. 9. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 29. 20. 26. + 2. (5. or .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 5. .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 4 z . . 40. 4 x 4 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. + 1.5. 6. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 21. 6 a4 4 a8 . ' b) + 3. + 8 x4 *y .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 24. 2. = 2. + 3 y 2* . 2  + 12 a 8 .a8 .10.2 x?/. 2 . 5. 7 xy 3 . 4. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.2.5 xy 3 + + 4 .4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.8 3 + 7 x4 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 4 y 13.\ yz + xz. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .a 4 . . 5. 8 . 1.7 y 2* 4.7 + . x 3 11. 2. 21. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 2. + 4 ?y . 18. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .7 ys. 15. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. x3 2 a2 . a 4 + 11 a . 1. + 4.1.
3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(a . 33. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].c. 5 4 7 12 .1).?> x 4 20. 34.a ft. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.2 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 7 12 .c. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. x'2 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .3 x .(x* . 4 3 5 y/ .(5 y . ft 25. 5 10 + 7 . Take the sum 4x 4. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.[4 x 4. .c 4 3 a.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .x .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. Simplify 31. a  ft + c.260 19. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.#48.(7 x 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. .4) .{G * 2 .(x 4.5.3. 36. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 0" 30.x 2 4. . . = x y ft z.2) . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .{2 x 2 .6 x ] .2 x 8y2 44 . c 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . c =x y }~ z. 29. From of 2 the 4. c 4ft.6T .2 a . take the sum of G x 5 .x .(4 * .(4 x 2 .(5 c .x2 . 4 . (*) a  c.c 3 a.[4 z 8 .] 26. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 4 2 x2 23.2 3 ax 2 . and . 4vTT~y 3. sum of . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.2 . of a.3 . 3 ft.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 2 x 32. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.7.4. x8 x2 2 a'2x.5 .8 3 4.x 4. : a x .4 ft) 4. f ft. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.27~~7)}]. ft. . 542 x 2 and . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4 Vl 4.1)}] . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.3 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 35.. 5 10 4 G 11 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 4 4 4. .
64. 54. 2 : 7e)a}].ab .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . . . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (x.5 )}] + {4 c .4 a 2 + a 4 ). a {. .{3 c . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(2 a + 5 a .6)}]. 2 2 x + !)(* .(6 . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.6 xy . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2 2 + 1)(7.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (5 a 39.1).Z . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 13 a .3 c)].3 z 2 ).3)(*5)(* 7). . + 4x + 5)(j. 46. 4 + 2 2 + 1).12). 2 ft 41. 67.r 2:c+ l)(ar.2a .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).{2 a (ft .96 [17 a.(4 d . .6c) (a + f c).(2 x2 .c). 50.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .4 a .(2 a 2 . a .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . .(5 y . 2 52.ac . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).REVIEW EXERCISE 37.{2 a . 48.3). 63. 57. (.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.2)(1 .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (1 ar+a.3 *).c 2 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.& + {.2 zz . 68.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (r (1 (a. )(lz a ).rf)} + a [.[2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 56.(7 a.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (x . 43.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (4 + 3a 2 .7). (a 2 + 2 + 9 . . .(7 i + 4 r:) .  2 a  {3 2x a .2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 'J 44.5)} + (3 a 2 . 2 53. 51. (/> 4 .a~^~c)K].be) (a 58. 45.[4 x  5 . (1 55. 60. 59.b (c .2 2 .0)} . 49.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . + *+!){> + 2).JT^T+1)} + (2 . .(2 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).56. 3 x 42. (. 62. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 65.2x + 3).
r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . ft /.z\x 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c)]. (x (x ( + *) .5 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. .(/>  3 v)^(. 82.3 a . (a 2 ft 2n 4. ft 95.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. ft ft ft a}.2y)(.y + z)(x + y . 89. 84.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.am&t 4 A 2 *).b 4. xy y 2 ).a) 2 . 73.c) .(a 48 8 8 4.O (a 4(a 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. (a (2 b)*(a 4. (.(ft 4. f 72.z) .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 85. 87.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).x + y + z).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). ar .ft) + 4(2 . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .ft) 4 . 76.9y2). 2 (x 2 . ft" l Simplify 80. 94.c .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).q). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (p 2 .y).{3 a .<f(p .3 (ft .2 ft}) f (3 a .c) 2 . 88.262 69. 75. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 71. 1).(c 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .:y)( a.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 92.6*y .n pc).r 2 . 86.y)\x y).c) . 4.z)(x y + z)(.c) rr identities.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).2 (y 4. 90. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 77.c) 4) (ft 4. 1).c)} . . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.2 (a . b 4. 70.v) 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 2 + a 2 ).3y) a (* 2 4. . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 74. 79.c . ft 78.c) j. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 93. Prove the following 8 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .m np c . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 83.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 4 4 . 91.(4 .
*) (x 8 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 106. 105.&).(2 a 2 . 110. 124. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".y 4 .5 xy). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 103.27 x* .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 109. 116.9 x 2 . .y 2 4. .(x 2 .6 y 4 4.1). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 3*.4 aft .(a 1 2 8 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 ) . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 117. a*.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (8 x* 115.35 x 2 2 ) .5 b*). 1). 114. 120. 108.v/ ~ // = a: . 123. (80 a 112.b) 98.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 121.3 a"+ 4. 1O4.r 4 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 25 4 .40 />) .2y 2 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 102.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). r . [10( 4. 113. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 122. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 2 (a+ . 26 (a 4 c).16 a 6 4.(7 xi/ .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).2 2% 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (.a". 118. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .xy 4. 99 100. (2< 107. 2 4 41 x 4a.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .) . 10).2 xy 8 .
3) = 12 .2) = 3 .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). . 127. (4 x .r>) . 128. (*+ + . 143. 136.2(5 . 7(2 x .2(j: .5).(x f 9).1) (a? . 10(2 x 141. x 147. 5 146. 139.7) = 4 . .G) . . 138. y (* l x.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .18 *&) (1 .a:)]}.9) 4.4) . 135.19) + 5 = 4 . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 42(3ar 145.3 a:).9) + 3.3(2 z .12 M 132. 137.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.2) + 2(ar + 4).2(10 x .4) .3 x). 129. 149.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .r + 7[or .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).7(4 * . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.(x + 3) ] . 3) = x\x .(x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . o o 140.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .8 6 .3) (3 x 4.5{.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 148. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(j a? 144.5) = 12(4 x . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(4 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. . 2 4(ar .4(0 x .1) .22. . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. . . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 126. (5a: 150. 1) .3(* + 4) + 9} .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).264 125.(1 . 142.27 a 3" .3). 5(2 x .2) (a: + 3). 1) = 2(* .3). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.n .2 7^~5] + 1). 3(2 x 134. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .
sheep more than the 169.6 x) (3 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.76.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.5*) + 47. The sum What 171.3) (a: . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. .T)O .z) (4 . 159.2) a + 7(x .25) 2 .2) (7 *) + (*. + 2) + (5 . =  (F 32).r + 3) . 165. (a . (7 14 .29) 2 = 1.3) (j. = 2 C. How many 170. . 154. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. . (3 O + . 158. (x (x a. 160.7) (1 x . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. = 15. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.1) (s + 3). and the third twice as many as the first. 163. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . If the area of the frame inches. The second contains 3 first. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.24. + 10) (ar . 162. these two angles would be equal. 156.19) + 42. 2 4 . (a) If C. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. + 5) = (9 . 164.5)(. (2 . transformed into F.(5 x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.9) + (a.a:) + 229.5(x . 265 152.8) = (2 x 4.2). .3) (3 . f^ + ^sO.3) = (3 x .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.3) (3 . find the value of F. a: ar a. .17) 2 + (4 x . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. will produce F..2) (j? + 1) + (x .? .4) (a . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 157.5 x) = 45 x . (a. 153. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.2 x) = (1 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.1) O + 4) = (2 * .2 x) (4 .7) (a.l)(z . 166.5) = (3 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .14) (a: + 3). + 4) (2 x + 5).REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 161. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 5(ar x . 155.
Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. x* 185. How many are there in each window ? . the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. two boys is twice that of the younger. father. dimension 182. Find the number. 15 m. was three times that of the younger. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 186. +x 2. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. side were one foot longer. number divided by 3. aW + llab2&. same result as the number diminished by 175. 3 gives the 174. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A boy is father. 187. 13 a + 3. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet.36. sister . train. if each increased 2 feet.56. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 189. Find the dimensions of the floor. A each 177. 2 2 + a _ no. 190. 176. . 178. z 2 92. 180. 4 a 2 yy 42. . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. younger than his Find the age of the father. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. z 2 + x . and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 179. 7/ 191. 188. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. . 12 m. A house has 3 rows of windows.266 173. + 11 ~ 6. power one of the two Find the power of each. + a. respectively. and 5 h. 10x 2 192. ll?/102. 181.
6. 221. a: . 16x 4 81. 2 x 2 . . 8 a: ar.77 y + 150. a+a* + o a +l. 23 12.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 4a 2& 2 241. 3 x V . 245. y 2 194. 2 2 y f 1. z + 5x 2 . .6s.28. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 217. a.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 233. a. 211. 2  5 xy 13 y a. x* + 8 2 + 15. 209. 201. 224. + 3a 196. a 2 . xm+l 243. a^a 226. a. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . (a + . x 219.22 z + 48.10 y a x* . a. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .10 xy. 6 197.14 2 . 203. 216. wiy + la mx + aw. 267 199.c) 2  (a . a: 231. 7a 228. 244. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 218. a: 236. 229. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 227. 4 m +^. 3y 248. 202. 212. 238. . 24 2 + 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .19 z 4 204. 232.6 2 ?/ . 207.8 6 2.12 * . 3y 2 + ary . 210. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .1. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. . 12 x +4. ifWy+b.19 a . 230. + 8. 2 a 8 .3 c/> + 6 cq.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. . 2 a 2 . . 222. 246. x*y 223.3 xy. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.6 y2 + 4. z 2 2. 3 ap 2 . + 30 x.6 aq . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. *2 234. + 198.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 2 . 195. 208.c) 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 60 a 2  a: // 205.21 a:  54. 3 x 2 . 213. 215. 239. 235. x 5 . .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 2a te 3% ly 247.10.64.3 xf + 3 * 2y .x + 1.(b + rf) 2 . 7x 2 225. 2 200. a a: a: 237.20 z 8 a: 220. 206. # 2  29 y + 120. 8 a. + 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 5 x 2.
23 x f 20. x 2 f 9j: + 20. a.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 6. 2 8 .9 x . 1 x ar Find the L. 2 + 7 r f 2.ry .91.5 ab f 2.11 a 2 .16 x . + 8. 2 x2 . ft a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. + 23 x f 20. a 3 a 2 2 .2/ 2 . 30 ^ .15. 251.11 x f 28. + 20 x 4. * 2 .3. + 8 x + 5.8. x 2 263. 270. * 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 28 2 f 71 x . 259. a 4. x 2 4. z 2 267. x 2 . 264.9 x + 14. 269. 252.10 a 4. 254. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 2 a. * 2 .a + 2 4.6 by. 3 #2 255.120.2 aft*.2 z . 261.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 3 ay 4.48 afy 2 .r . 18 x 2 . 265. of: 253.12.7 f 5.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x*y* 4.(55.13. x 2 + 4 + 3.1 9 . C. 260. 8 2 + 10 x .9.G7 x f 33. 15 # 2 z/ /. .36. x* . 258. 2 . x* . 7 12 2 2 .&z. a: .a 2 />c 2 f 3.3 x .14 bx a%% 8 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.ry 21. 10 a. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .18 xy + 5.3 abc .73 xy .4. x 2 + 5 f . I Find the II.C.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .80.23 + 12.10. a? a: a: // 262.x . 10 x 2 .M. 5 x 2 256. of: 266. 3 a% 2 . 22x2 a.4 ab + 1. x 2 + 2 x . * a .15 + 30. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 257. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. + 3 x + 2. z 2 268.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 7 ax 250. F.
(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. m 4. 289 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. *2 " 2 + Oge. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . + ac . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a.. 8 .J' 4 2 2 w mp .2* + 3 x* 280. 285 z4 n* + a. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2c a: 282.!/.ar 1 279..rL.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.
x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. a (: a) (x 2. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. O(ca) 306. Lnl + ar 2 a. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . * 19 23 19(23 23. ^_2*(m 308. ^.
*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.ft) 2 322. _ x8 . 1 x2 + + a. 2 + y 2 319.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. } . . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (a? 4 2) 317. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. (1 .(a . a: 1 313. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 _. 1a: + y a.
4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .. a: 2 x* . .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 250 5 10 2 325.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. 20 44 333.7 xy + 12 x .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 ..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.V  + y  x 3y a .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.y20  2y + 4 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .5 a .ll. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. * 3a. 2 lOx 5x.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .15 33 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.2 +lOar 2 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . .6* t 328.9 *// + 27 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .
** i. a>74 . ' 2 "l 5 . \x yj 340. 1 345. + ni + . 348. 5 343. ( 342.+ r . : 1+ i. 352. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 344. (af2/. (a \ + lV. ?_2 ^ . w \. if a = 3..REVIEW EXERCISE 336. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.) 2 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. a: 349 _ o. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. f V. aj 339. 7 ( ?f!?. +^ a: y x .y.1V. xi 347. (aWi + iJ.r 5 2 . \5yl 341. 338. + l + IV. fl. (ar \ 346.
(a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366. (~ 364. y360. + x x a . a2 4 . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357.
370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. . a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 4(* .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15. __4 2x 3_ = !. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 379. ^ . . 5*8. + 1) 45 O 377. 5 {2 x 381. J !__7. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. <3 378.
. 401.. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.25 x + . m x 398. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).REVIEW EXERCISE 391. + 4 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.5 ^ ~ a: a.  8 9* x ~r. u '2 a. c .  J).  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. _____ .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .75 x f . 400.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. b 404. f 1 1 + a 403. 3* 177. 399. 397.1 . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.2 a:  1. ^ (a .6  . a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.147.5 x =r f . 396. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 40.25. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).8 = .
A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.278 410.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. and was out 5 hours. 421. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. far did he walk all together ? A . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Tn 6 hours . In a if and 422. the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.c) .  a) 2 6 2a. How long is each road ? 423.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 411. hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 18 be subtracted from the number. 420. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 418 ~jo. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. (x .
279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. a + 5. d. and : b : c = 14 : 15. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 433. ax is \ by  ex + dy.& 5 ) (a 8 .49 63). Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.6 8 ). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 2 2 8 2 . .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). b. Find the length of the parts. Find the fourth proportional 426. 430. x 427. find : a : c.46 2): (15a 2 . 438. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. z 2 y. Find the mean proportional to 429. 435. a  t>. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. If a b : =5 n : 7. 428. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. . . y.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . : i.iand 22 22 I a . find the angles of the triangle. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Which ratio is greater. wi* + y= ny. 431.a 2^ 8 + aft* . : If is one equal 434. 432. a. 3 and 1J. if . Solve 436. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .
8 . 8 x + y = 19. ?/ 447. Solve the following systems: 441. 443.35.11 y = 95. = 25. 42 = 15y + 137. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . ft. 28 = 5 a . x + 17 # 53. . The volumes If their diameters. 16. a: a: + 5y). 7a?y = 3. 9ar7# = 71.(or l(*2y)=0.*. 454. 455. a: 2y= = 1 . 1(3  a. Find the value of a.89 = q. if 2 ft : 439. 9/> = 2 . 449. 4 = 5 y + 29. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. . ft.rf2# = l. 7jr9y = 17. 457.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y.59 = 3 z. 448..55 y = . + 5y = 59. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. . 453. 446. 445. 452. 3 a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 444. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. . 459. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 7 442. c. 5x+4y=lQ. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . a. 7 a: . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 458. /) ar a. 56 + 10y = 7a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . 451. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.4 12 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. />(. 5z4:# = 3.7 y = 25. 456. 5 2 = 7 . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).11 7. 3 . 450.
i = 5. 465. (or .. 473. x y 474. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ax by = c \ 472. ax cx by = m. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 8 461.2y) (2 = 2J. 475.?/ + 1 .c=563y. ^ + i^ = 7.  = 2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. + eyn.7. 468. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .+ =2. _ 469. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.
483. 487. 486. A number consists of two digits 4. fraction becomes equal to . Find the numbers. age. Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. to . Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the principal and the rate of interest. . if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. years. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the number. 481. and in 18 months to $2180. by 4. whose difference is 4. Find the fraction. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. 479. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and the other number least. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the numbers. How much money less 484. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 477. A spends \ of his. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and in 20 months to $275. Find the sum and the rate of interest. the Find their ages. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 485.
a: + ?/ 2z = 15./ f z =a. + # +z= 35. 5 + a. a: 499. 3 a: + 5=84. 2 2 = 41. . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 495. \ . x y f z = 13.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. y Solve : x +z= 5.5#+2z = $x a: G. + y 5 y = 101 .z = 12. z y x 25 . a number . 1. 2y + 3a = ll. and the difference of their Find the numbers. . 494. 498. a. a. x f y f z 29 . of two the sum of the digits also if number. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 7 + 2 z . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. : Solve the following systems 491.? + 2y = 8.z = 20. ifi = x a. 2 e. 2a:f 7. 4 506. z y ifi = z x 502. a: f z = 79. . 4z+3z = 20. 490. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 1+1 = 6./ 504. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 493. a: + // = 11. x s + y z = 18J . 496. 8. 2 a. . 492. 489. * + 425  = . = 15. 3ar 503. *i. 5^ 9z = 10. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2/>3r = 4. 4 497. . 3 x 500. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 7. ~ 507. = 209. The sum of two numbers squares is b. = 20.
ll" . 36 + c. + + 3579 2+?. 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 523. i=a + 6 c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + : = 1472. z z =3a&c.
532. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. . When weighed in water. 527. AC in /). L. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. In circle A ABC. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. CD. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. touches and F respectively. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. AB=6. 530. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. Find the present ages of his father and mother. How long will B and C take to do . Tf and run together. they would have met in 2 hours. What are their rates of travel? . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. BC = 5. Find the numbers. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it is filled in 35 minutes. E 533.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. . in 28 minutes. and CA=7. if the number be increased by Find the number. M. N. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. 90. If they had walked toward each other. the first and second digits will change places. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. it separately ? 531. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. and BE. B and C and C and A in 4 days. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . if L and Af in 20 minutes.
from x = 2 to x = 4.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. if x = f 1. x 2 544. x*  2 x. to do the work? pendulum. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. a. 550. FRANCE. i. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 2. d. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.e. z 2  x x  5. 2 541. The greatest value of the function. the function. 542. 547. 2. 543. If to feet is the length of a seconds. then / = 3 and write = 3. 546. x *x + x + 1. + 3. 536.  3 x. 545. x 2 + x. x*. 3 x 539. c.  7. .  3 x. One dollar equals 4. The values of x if y = 2. 548.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2  x  x2 . The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. x 8 549. The values of y. e.10 marks. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2 x + 5. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. b. . How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 540. GERMANY. formation of dollars into marks.
0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a: 559. x 2 ~ 2 .13 = 0. = 5. Solve// = 0. and make the unit of the b.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.15 = 0. x* . + 10 x . 568.9 = 0. e. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2.r 1 561.G . 3 x . 556. 2 8 . 563.  2 1 a: a. 555. 564. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. . a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a? 4 x .1 = 0.= 0.= 0.3 .4 = 0. c. h. J.5 x .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 572. x 5 . 553.r a: a: x a. 2 554. Represent meters. 2 567. if y =m has three real roots. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .17 = 0.4 . 15. If y +5 10. g. 566.4 x 2 + 4 . .6 + 3 . ' = 8. a. 557.r .3 x . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. z 4 . \ to t = 5.11 x* + + 2 8 569. + 5 . i.7 = . j. a.3 x . x 4 . z 2 . 18 x  4 = 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. . f. 3 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 3 x* .11 = 0.3 = 0. 558. 2 x 2 560. 2 a. 562. r?. 3 + 3 z . Solve 552. 565. c.
2 6a: + 30 &c a. x + z2) 8 . . xY. 582. 585 594.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 598. 600. 6 + 1) . 595.frf : 583. (a. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 3 . 4 . a:. 608. (1 (1 (1 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. f ?>) 3 591. 2 943 ++ ~bx. (# 2) .2 2 + y. 1 . x [ ?/ 577. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . a. a 8 606. 4 a. 5 a*.5 xy = 0. a: . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a 2a. 3 (f. + ^) + (air%)8. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + %) (a* + *) 5 . .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .%) 4 (aa.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 588. 2  2 aa: 2 . 592.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 611. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 579. (a  8 ft) .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 604. a 612.x + 2 )'2 601. 4 (1a:) 3. + .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .(1 .4. 599. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 609. (aiy.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . jj+. 596. + + 4 . : y* or 25. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 589. (1 + x a.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 593. 597. 9  4 fSb 607. 64 a 12 603. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. [ y =10. j^f = 3.
44352. 2 + 21Ga.191209. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 371240. 4J. 623.53 x ~ . 40. 638. 3a. x 2 641. /. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 49042009. 942841. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 49. 645. : 5.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 651. 650. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.2. a 642.*. 620.150. 633. 035. + 2 21 x = 100. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. + 112 a 8 . 8*' + 24* = 32. + 54 'x*y* .15174441. 2. 626. GGff. 9a. 637. 0090.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 7) 2. 25023844. 9g. 643.12 a?y + y*.871844. 630. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 625 : 621. 2 + 189 z = 900. 629. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 210. = . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 32 631. 628. find Jupiter's period. = 70. 622. 615. 647t x 2 648 649. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . VOIOOD + V582T09. Find the square root of 619. 639. (x 9 x 646. 21. 4370404.V250 . = 87. + 24 a 2 4 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 494210400001. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.1024 x + a: 256. = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 624. V 635. *+* = 156. 632. 614. 636. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 634. ft . 644.30.49. According to Kepler's law.2410. V950484 . Find the eighth root 617. x 2 .\/4090.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
c = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 706.ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694.a a )jr . 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. ex abc= fx 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. . 695. 693. = 0. .bx . 692. 2 2 . 696. 707. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 2 697. ax 2 698. 2 702. 708. a.
___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 3or i 16 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.292 709. 217 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 721. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. sum is a and whose product equals J. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.25 might have bought five more for the same money. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 16 x* . 725. 716. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. . a: 713. 727. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 729. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 724. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. A equals CO feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 717. Find the price of an apple. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. **13a: 2 710. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.44#2 + 121 = 0. and working together they can build it in 18 days. in value. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find two numbers whose 719. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 722. 12 4*+  8. 723. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.
31. 36. 38.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 39. (v/x). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 32. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2)(x2 4. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 37. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 + x. 42. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.aft* 1 + a 2*. 41.1 f c" ). 43.1 f ^ 2). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 52.l). n.2 ).)(ai + &. . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 34. 33.X . 1 6. 46. 35.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 40. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.1 + c.
_ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 754. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 2V2 2V3 . 758. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. [1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 768.1+J 756. 757.294 753. 761. JU. 759. \/G86 v/lGv/128. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.
2 V30. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. c 792. 92VI5. 7512V21.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.VlO. + 2V21. 3812VIO. 793. .12VIT. 3J . 103 788. 806. 790. a 9442V5. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .2V3* ^ 807. 16 + 2V55. 786. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 794. 14 791. 789. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . x 782. 10 785. . Va 809. 13 799. 783. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 787.4 V(j.
V3 f 1 V4a. 3 x + 2 . + ViTli + V7 . 815. 836. VaT+lJ f ^l .\/2y  810. 814. 830.4 = 0. 816. \/12 a.79. 831. x/aT+l .V2 ar 10. + Vx .Vc^lJ . + 103Var. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. = 1. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 820. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Va: . 833.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 829.13 = 0.V? = 813.f 5 = V5x + 4. 818. 819. (x a: 2 ) 4 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.  5 + V3 f 12 817. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812.g. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 811. /9ar a: = 17. V14 a.
. 868. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 4 x 8 858. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 40 x 2 7 f 49. + . a l0m .1000 6. 871.12. 8^27^. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 875. a*" & 6n . 27 862. . 8 8  13 a. 8 860.10 = 118. 864. 64. a 8 873.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 a. 64 a 866. 876. 8 . 852. a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a 18 4. 863. 16 859.ab9 ft*. 861. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 856. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 840. 8 2a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 855. + 216 rt aty a 10 . + 1. 2 x 3. z*y 8 l64a. 19 x 14. y 4.28 a 4 xy 8 80.3 x . 2 a: 64 y*.x*y + 3x f 2. 2 f" + a/ 15. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a: 849. x 8 2 857. 865. 839. 27 y 8. 9.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. f 12. 8 4a: 8 a. 844. 846. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a.3 a:. a.3 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a. f b**. a 872. 4o. 275 8 l. a 8 869. 8 8 848. a: . 4 a. . +3 4 +  4. + 512 y8 874. 5 a 4 7 a8 . a 8 850.  3x a. f 841. 4 x* 847. 870. 729 867. a. x 4 + f 2 a. 6. . 851. 4 a: 2 842.1.a. V4 x 2 .3 Va: 2 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. . a. 853.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 845.
y*+ xy .y 2 = 2 y + 2.298 877. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . y y 2 y 2 1121. a: a. 2 + 2 f = 17. 889. a:y .xy + y 2 = 19. . 890. xy + y = 32. 2 . 896. x 8 3 = 13:3. a: 884. a: 2 897.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 894. x 882.15. M1 891 1 . x a: lI = xz . 2 + xy = 28. . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. . 901. 886. a. a: 888. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 5.1 = 2 a#. + 2y=\2. 2 + xy = 10. z 2 898. + ary + 2 = 37. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a.18. 1 x 893. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 . a: + y 2 = 34.35. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a# f + xy = 126. 899. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y = 28. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 900. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. x*xy. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 887. 2 = 2 + 5.y 2) = 20.Vi' + 1 1_3. 895. 2 + y 2 .y 2 + V(j. 885. +y f y = 7. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 3 x 2 . 878. .sy = 198. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. f ?/ a: a: . y 2 2 8f. 2 2 = 16 y. y 2 4. 883.
912. .y).REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y x 2 = by. a: a. y 3 2 2 922. * + y = 444. 908. 23 x 2 . 2 + y = 2 a 4. y + a:y = 180. + ?/) . + 2 ary = 39. + ary = a*. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 913. x 2 ry + y = 3. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 920. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. x + y 2 = aar. 905. 921. 907. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. a:y xy 929.3) 2 f (y . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 923. a: * a: a: ar 928. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 7 y . (o. 914. 911. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. Vary + y = 6. (3 x . . 2 915. 2 * 2 ~ g.y2 = 22. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 917. 909. ary y = 8. 3 y 8 ) =1216. + 2 a:y + = 243. (!) * . xa 903. a.3(* + y) = 6.y) = 33. or or a? a: a: .r a. 2 5 xy = 11. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. x 4 299 xy z 904. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. yz = 24. 906. 910.6. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.x) = 21.y) (3 y .3)2 = 34.y) (a? . + y)(a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + y = 9.16 y 3 8 = . (a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 2 2 2 916. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. ^ 2 . *y . y . a: y zx 12. + a. x f 2 a:y = 32.#y + 2 = 27. 4 (a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. + y 8 = 189. (* 918. # + xy + y = 7.2 y) = 49 2 919.23 = 200. 2 924.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . = 8. . xy + x= 15. 3 :r(3 . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.y = a(ar + y).
How many rows are there? 941. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. + z) =108.square inches. 34 939. two numbers Find the numbers. rate each man ran in the first heat. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the sides of the rectangle. 937. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 935. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and also contains 300 square feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the difference of 936. Find the numbers. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 944. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. + z)=18. there would have been 25 more trees in a row.300 930. is 3 . 943. 2240. find the radii of the two circles. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. is 3. a second rec8 feet shorter. . A plantation in rows consists of 10. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. s(y 932. and 10 feet broader. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. y(x + y + 2) = 133. two squares is 23 feet. In the second heat A . A is 938. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. (y + *) = . Tf there had been 20 less rows. 152.102. If each side was increased by 2 feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. and the sum of their areas 78$. y( 934. 942. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. feet. 931. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. diagonal 940. Assuming = y. two squares equals 140 feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. *(* + #) =24.000 trees. A and B run a race round a twomile course. is 20. z(* + y + 2) = 76. feet.
952. at Find the his rate of traveling. and if 594 be added to the number. triangle is 6. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and that B. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. 951. P and Q. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 950. overtook miles. Find the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. 953. the digits are reversed. that B A 955. is 407 cubic feet. . A and B. Find in what time both will do it. distance between P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the eter 947. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. . whose 946. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Two starts travelers. .REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. and its perim 948. set out from two places. sum Find an edge of 954. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. each block. and travels in the same direction as A. 949. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find its length and breadth. Find the number. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. unaltered.
v 973. 18th terms of an A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. s  88.. ... first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Sum Sum to infinity. to 7 terms. 969. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 3 + 5 7 + . Find n f (ft) .. (x 4 to n terms. Sura to 24 terms. (to 2 n terms).. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. P.. 966. are 29 and 53..321? 965. !Ll^ + n . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. x(x to 8 terms. and 976. 970.. .. 4. Find the Find the common 977. ^ 1 .. 4 4 to 7 terms .V2 .>/) to infinity. n to n terms. 961.4142 . P.. difference.454. 1G series . 974.. 12434+ j I 967. 5.  2. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. 958. ^ Vfirst five 959. to n terms. 3 . . Find n. f + 1 .. 975. \ ..to infinity. 957. 5. ..3151515. '. Find the sum of 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. J. fourth of the unity. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. = 4. 36 963. P. 9th and llth terms of an A. Evaluate (a) . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 972. 16 962. 1 to n terms. to infinity. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. + (iiven a +  4 d .141414.302 956. *" 968. Find an A. the terms being in A.1 4 f j$V . 971.. P. Sum to 20 terms. 964.
.. 303 979. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. and so on. 990. The 21st term of an A. of n terms of an A. 989. and of the second and third 03. P. Find the first term. The term.3 ' Find the 8th 983. to 105? 981. 2 grains on the 2d..001 4. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 1.2 . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 0. P. Find the sum of the series 988.+ lY L V. is 225.1 + 2. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 4 grains on the 3d. to oo. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . and the common difference. 992. The sum 982. 986. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. P. "(.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 985. 980. named Sheran.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.01 3. to n terms. 987. first 984. to infinity may be 8? .. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find four numbers in A. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount ..001 + .. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.. Find n.) the last term the series a perfect number. Find four perfect numbers.04 + . 5 11.. : + 9   V2 + .
are 45 and 765 find the numbers.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. ABC A A n same sides. of squares of four numbers in G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. are unequal. and G. AB = 1004. Two travelers start on the same road. If a. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. (6) the sum of the infinity. The sum and sum . . 1001. 995. and so forth to infinity. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. 998. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. (a) after 5 strokes. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. are 28 and find the numbers. 999. 512 996. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. is 4. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 994. P. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. ft. find the series. P. prove that they cannot be in A. 997. 1003. in this square a circle. at the same time. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 1000. c. inches. in this circle a square. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. areas of all triangles. The fifth term of a G. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. Under the conditions of the preceding example.
Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.l) w f .iV 2i/ 5 .o/) 14 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1006. x) 18 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the middle term of ( . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1014. + lQ . . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. ) 1021. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. a: 8 7. 1012. 1009. . Find the middle term of 1020.ft) 19 . Expand  2 a. (1 1018. (12 #) 7 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1008. 1011. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 2 ) 5.
.
. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . . 37... 246 91 " multiple.. lowest ratio " '* . numerical ... ... 9 ** . 97.... 123 . 19. t 53 120 . 8 ...Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. simple simultaneous . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ... .. . .. .. . 112 54 54 251 ..... . . . linear literal Common ** * difference . .. . Checks Coefficient 20. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. signs of Algebraic expression . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .108 160 " . 129 54. . .178 Completing the square . quadratic . .193 11 .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. . . 129. 232 169 807 ... Brace Bracket Character of roots .130 .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . . . Aggregation. 54..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . . graphic tion of representa . . . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution...] Abscissa Absolute term . 158. 232 mean progression .... 9..
. . 205 . 112 . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 114... 45.108 Minuend .. 63. . 184 54. 109 102 .. .808 Exponent Exponents. 212 . 9. Mathematical induction . 195 33. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 243 7 . 84.. Insertion of parentheses .. Inconsistent equations . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions... 227 geometric . 45. . . arithmetic . 120 Member. P . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.251 Graphic solution of simultane. . first and second . 143. 45 Laws of signs . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 241 123 geometric .. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. G. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 17 65. exponent . . 189.. . 253 28 70 1. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. 34.154 Order of operations " of surds . .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . addition of " square of . numbers . 42 7 Independent equations Index . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . Like terms Linear equation . Negative exponents 11 . inversely 122 numbers . . Product '* 76 Infinite. . .. .C Multiplication . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . law of Extraneous roots . . . . INDEX 8 . Known numbers . directly.. 227 . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 23 10 91 102. . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 180. .. 91 . . . Geometric progression . . L. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.31. Imaginary numbers . .
23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. . . . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 45 Trinomial 240 .. 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America........... . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. absolute 54 Variable .. 4 155 9 " of ...... ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . 9.. . . 129. binomial Third proportional Transposition . algebraic Surds .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. Sum. polynomial ..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
1910. Published September. December. 1916. 1917. Set up and electrotypcd. Mass. U.S.COPYRIGHT. Norwood. Gushing Co. 1913. .A. 8. NorfoooS J. 1910.. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick <fe Smith Co. August. Reprinted April.
6. 13. 15. 2 ~ 15. arithmetic.  2 p. 7. 37 S. 29. 19 4. A $90. A Bl 7. 5. Ot 15. 4.000. 3.. 10. sign.000. 18. 14. 7. 2 5. 3 below 0. }.21 24. 2.000 negroes.. 3. 2. 4. 2.. 7m. 24. 9 14. 16. 8. 16. (a) (/>) 1. T . 32. x. 1. 6. 21. 12. 12. 3 m. 14. B 10 mi. 25. 7.. 7. 3. 150. 5. 49. 13. 512. 12. 1. . 8. i . 25. 3. 6. Australia ft. 1. 14 11.8. 7.150. 3. 72 = = 216. 12. 4. 17. 12.  13. 6. 9. 17. 7.1. 14. 7. 10. 9. 12. 48 ft. 4. 1. 27. B $4700. 1. 37. 20 B. 6. 13 V. $40. 256. 13. 14. B $ 128. 16. 2. 49. 2. 3. 1. 2. 1. 3. 26. B $20. 30. 3. 14. 19. 2. 20 \. 5. 9. 8.00000001. 5. . 17. 115. 85. 10. C $1(50. C $60. 13 d. 0. $100. in. 6.2.. 9 16  larger than 7. = 5 81.000.. 7. 9. Multiplication. 6. 15. 14.12. 144. 9. is $10. 6. 64. 3. 9. per sec.000. 24. 3. 126. Not 5. 25. 16 in. 18. Page?. 10. 5000. $ 1 50 10. 7.000. 13. 2. 1. 12. $160. 12. 2. 10..000. 32. 192. 4. 2. 8. 6. 5. 3. 6* 16. 16. B $80. 1. + 1. 18.. 3. 27. 1. Page 1.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 24. 20. 15.  1. 21.000 Indians. 3. Yes. 18. 14. 22. 2. 3. 16f 2. 15. 2. 16. 11. 21. 6.$9400. 1.3. 8 ft. 3* 7. 4. 10. 1. Page 13. Page 4. 2  Page 8. . 4. 19. ft.  1. 3. . 6 yd. 11. 2. 106. 20. 13. 5. 0. _ 32. loss. 30?. 16. 9 m. b. 59. 17. C $ 16. 16. 26z. 22. 16. 89. 8. 8 13.000. 12. 32. sign. 9 = 4. 19. 1. A . 73. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 28. 5. 13 S. 11. 29. in.. 3. 6. A 38 mi. c. V 23. South America 46. 10g. 10. 11. 27. 9. A 15. 128. 2. 210. 8. Page 8. 28. 1. 9. 17. 3. 14. ^. 1 16. 12.  22 20. 23. 20. 5. 16. 576. 10. x. 8. 1. 18. 20. . 32. 11.000. 25. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 18. westerly motion. in 12. 9. 36. 6. 15.C. 20 jo. 16 in.
5.  40. (a) r>23ifcu. :J!>r'. <i~ 26. jrif 4 9. (b) 135 mi. 4 y/ . 35.. 14. 42. 38 ab. 20.rty8. 0. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 15. 5. c..  1..<>Gq.  xV 3 y. 2. m 24. 4 9/^/rl 2. Pagel4r. 7 7.4  2ft 2 33. 13. 14. 36. 26. in.'JO ft. 12 a. 8. 25.. 20(. 1. 32 2 ftc. +/2(/. i:5. $80. 23. (r) 2. 6. 0. 21. + 5. . 6.32 c2 > ft 3 . II. 32.  0. x^ 20. 12. 17. Page 18. 314 sq. 8. r:A 29. 04. 5. 19. 5. 7. 3.a . 17. o^ft. 2. ft' 3 . 3. 27. 15. + ft). 0. Binomial. a ft c.4 ft. 31. 11.3 * 10 r5 <3 . (ft) $40. $3000 Page 6.  3. 12. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 0. yyz+xyz*. 2. I. (a) 200. 5. 6. 3. 15. 0. 21^. 24. 23. 13 cu. 3. (c) S(i. 3 a* + 2 at*. 237. 10.. 31. 3. 16. \'\ 4. 9. 12yd. 17.. 41. 1..r f 15. _ 4 . 21. 14. 2. ^). Va'+Y2 8^2 .x. It. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 13. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 32. 12. 3. r+l. arty 1 20.. 92.. in. 18. Page 31. Polynomial. 15. 22.5 (ft) sq. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 3(c4a). 7. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. = ()501. 2x' 2 5 . 30. 12. 14. 1. 4. #1111. 49. 6<t. 10. 20. 25. 3 . 4. 15. 1. 0. 8. 30. 5. f  5e 35. 22. . 16. 9. 16. 8. 8. (a 4 4. 13. 18. (a) <> sq. y. 27. 7.q 4. 50. 31. a2 4 15^44. 7. in. 21. 13. 22. (ft) mi. 17. 240.000 sq.1. ft. (c) 8. 27. 0* Page 3 w" 0.. 38. Page 23. 0. ft. vi 14. 3a. 35. 4. 20. 5. WIN + wiw. 9. (r) 78.ii ANSWERS Page 11. Page 7.  2 4 13 ft 2 . (ft) 7. .r~ f 34. 1. 14. 28.900. 18. 0. 9. 18.6) 38. . mi. 39. (<7) (a) 314 sq. ??i??. 14. 14. 33. Polynomial. 18.  11.14 sq. //'.. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (r) 2G7. ft.94(>. 17. 1. rt. 13.~4. . 1. t. = 81. 27. 16. 00 24 04 ft. 3. 12. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 5. 35. (a) 50.r 2 .ab. 8. 13. 8. (r) 2000 m. 19. 11. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .000 . m + 3(a. sq.  12. 7. 11.. Monomial. 15.ft. 104. 36. 16. (ft) 12. 24. 9. Trino inial. 30. ft. 37. 0. 26. 34. 29. w. 4.5f> sq. 15a. 14:). ft. 8. . . . 10. 21 a 3 4 10. 22. 43w//2 17. 12. in. (ft) Page 2. 33. 3. 22( 19.9?/2 8. 27. 4. 58. ^. 57. 2. ft n. 3rf 27. 25. + v> 2 . :. 2oVmf?i. 28. a 32. 34.GOG. 3. 5x+3. .. Page 21. 1. 51 f. 4. 11.ft) 4. 27. 28. ]*. 2. 1. ft f 19. 173.'J. (59. r/ \(\xyz. 29. 2ftx. 19.
7  # + 12.. 25. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. . 42.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ?/i 13. 35. 12. 11. 5. 29. 34 39. 1. a 3 . 32 w 2 w. 40. 43. 2 17. 12.a . 10. 5. Exercise 16. 6. 2 + a4l).'U4j>. 24.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 3 a3 & 41. 8 + 2 a . 3. (mn} 11. ?> 22.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 34. 1 + 45. . a f 2 f 2 9. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . . (yz~d}. a 3& . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 1. ti. a2 9. 36. 7.1 . . 12. 30. a 3a 4 2 &. 2 2 2 6. . f ft 9. 8. 15. 7  a + 2 + c.  23. a + a. 17.  1.h. 25 47. 20. Page 7.2 57.ws 2 ft) . 3 a . x  + 3z.(7x2 Ox2). 814. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2.a f 54. 5x 2 rt ft. _ Page 30. 3.  G J8 r  4 a <?. + 4 c. 2 3.2 a2 2m 2 4. 26. 6. a 6 2 . 2. 2. 2 2. 6. . c. 2x 4 a 13. 4. a  49. '  .  a: 2.  4 b 17 y*. 14. Page 44. 4 21. 4wipg>' 27. 5. ab a. 11. 1. 12. ^ <. ' 12 m?/'2 27.5. + 2y. 15. 2. a2 24. 2. 2 a f 6 414. + 6. 21. a  ISjfat. Page 28. 5.r 2. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 16. 2a. 10. c. 24.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 4. 1. c2 . 2.a~. 2// 16. 37. 25. 31. ar. 2 3x f z. 2m + 2w. 4r 2 . 2 6.4x. . 21. ii\ 22. w* ( . . 14. 18. 3 Ji 8 . a' 4ab + ?/. t). + 8. 2m. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 1 4. . 58.  17. 2. x3 .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 16.a'2 . 2 4.4.  12.2 a. 26. w 17.5 z?/ + 3 y . 50. . a 10w. 19. 21. a a. a4 4 4. 10.4 d.3x 2 2 tf. 51. 38. 1. 2 . _5a<>&43c. \ :{ 2 a 48. 18. 14. 15. 364c.x f 1 2 . . 4. 4. 2. ft Exercise 17. 2 a 37. 7.4c 3 8 8 J. j)(g1. 5 2 Page 29. 32. ?/.Oa: + 10. 8 . 56. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 13.a*. 31. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.1. :5 41. 2a: 2 4x. 19.2 . 7. 22. n*. 10 m. 0.11. 2 . . 24 b 46. a 52. (5x47 3. 20.2. 13. 18. r. .l. ?>4tl 53.c. . 19. 1. 22.  14 afy . 33. 10 x.  b* 4 r 1 .  b. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . M + 10. 2. 9. !  </ . 7 a5 1 . (w4w)(ww). 7. mn. 28. f 2 ?/  2. 8. 36. 24.8(c + a). a 4 + ft.aft. x a8 1. 3 m. 4. m*  n*. &.r. 4. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 55. G. 17. 59. ( 7. . 0. 4ft ~. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 11.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2. 3. G a bd. 6. Page 8. ri\ 18. a + (ftc4df). a. 25. a). 26. 8.(2 x2 .abc. 0. .7. 20. 14. 8 8 . 8 b.. 2 y' 4 .3 6.6 x + 0) 16. s_r>a5. lOrt 15w4.
34. Page 5. 2''.7(50. 6 .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 21. 7. + 58 . 4 a2 .20 xyz . ?> 4 . 33. 2 w +2 2 . 30 j9 jt?g j . 18a% y. 29. a*b*c. 25.. 32. + 7. 24.6 2 . 13.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 25. 28.16 x2/ 5 4. 16. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 8. 5. 16 51. 22. 19. a. 83 In + 1 n*. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 12. . 22. 23. 23. 23. 40 r 2 . 15 lb.(3x2_4^+7). 30 n?b*c*. ft 17.44 aWc 16 abxy.21. 35. 11. n (a6) 125. 12. 26. . 108.1. 28.14 .32. 11. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 216. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 161b. 12 ^. etc. 18. x2 xy42^. 4. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7G . 10. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 18> ^* = a . 0. 27. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 9 w 2 + 13 n . a: . 120. 12. 26. 127"'. 18. 13. 15 q\ 6. 1. 4 a8 .11 xyz . 3 a 2 46. 8 . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 22.28 p'^/. 66 8W 34. 6.19 + 2. 9.64 190 p6. 18.12. m. 6. 1. . 9 13. 4. 25. 29. 20. 18.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 11. 21. 9. 10. Page 35. 2 a2 (y 2 . 343. 1400. 34. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 161b. 20. 1. . 28. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 6". +15. 66 39 k* . 3. 10. 30.r% 2 2 ry. 27. 4. 27.16 a 2 + 32 a . 25. 17. Page 38. 2.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 33. . r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .26. 11. 30. 84.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 18. a 8 . 5. Page 36. 4. a. 2. 8. //. 17. 31. +. 4aWy. 42. 14. 38wiw. 60. 14 m 2 . 20 aW. 22. a + ft. 14. 4 fc. 15.6) =a2 31. 64. 20. 1. 216.15. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.21 a 3 c2 21. ll 2 i.. 19. (+3)x6=+16. 20. 360. 42. 13. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 102. 770.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 9.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 14. 29.2. 8. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 3300. 12 x2 2 .57 p6 3 2 4 25.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 7. 34. 15. 30.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .. 16 lb. 10.>(/ r . 19. iSx8 . 28. 20.25 + 14. 4. 60. 16. 27. 14f 5. 36.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 1904. 7. 37. 3. 7. 2 ). 20. .. 8. 4200. 76 8 a' 1 . 5aft(a 126 2). ! 2. 27. 15. 29.32 y s s G . 8.19p" + 19^ 10 . . 24. 52 + 6s 12. 4 jcy*z*>. 31. 18. 33. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 21.18 w w + 10 WI M . 17. 25 4 4. 4.8 12. 30. f 26. 24. 16. 2 . 3. 1.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 16. 3. 6.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 13. 24. a. 2 ). 2. ISartyW e*f*tj.:>/ . ?/ . Ox a 5 . 2*8f x2 6x4. 16. 3 a 3 .36 35. 6. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. fa 2. . 32. ci 5 . . 04. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 15. 2 * 80 . 2 2 2 . 21 a'&c. Page 3. 14. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2 7t A. 15. ^^ = 20. . 1. + O4 66 . . 90. 108. 3(*+0 + 2). . 1. 23. 30. s 9 ww. 2. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. . . Page 7. 24.12.000. 210. 30.14 w 2 2 . 13. 17. 19. 0.
. 10. (m + 6)(m3). 27. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.004. 29. 42. . 9990.008. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 55. 4x21. 14. 31. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 10. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 27. 2 12.000. 6. y. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 36. a + 25. (n 2 5. 998. +   5). 10. +4 34.r* 2 30. 24.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . x 48. 32.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .25. + 7 6)(3a~76>. a 2 . m 2 . s rc 47. 36. . + 12.84 a' 9. 30.098. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.x2y22. ab. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 1.r . 4 x2 13. ^V^4 . 2 6' . 10. 11. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . .4 n. 18.6 x2 13.020. 7. ^/> 8 4 . . p 2 . 5.009. 33.009. 2 . 7> . 40. (p 2. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 37. 9. 34. G a6 2. 2 a' y' . 4 . 10 a 4 ?. 1.10 35. a' . x2 GiC+5. 28. r.ANSWERS 28.16 a3 f 50. 4. 32. + 3)(3). 8 a W .^.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 4 21. 26. p4 + .^ + a? + 1. 9999. 1. w'n 2 //^ + 25. ab . 10. 2 (5 a 3). 36 a 4 . Page 12. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). .20. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 37. 38.3. 56.8. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.1. 53.ri 17. 7 . . x 2 f xy + 9 41. x*2^f I. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.2 x + 2 x. 6. 25 a 2 6 2 . 34. ) 4' 6/ 49. 11. 8.2 6 + 13. 15. 30 /><. 4.404. 2.994. 36. + 2 9. . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 2 4 2 2 64 . 23. 441. 21 2 . (w+4)(m4). 10. 25.. 2.500. x 4 ?/4 + ab . a2 ' + 48Z100.ab . m 3 j) 3 . .14 jp + 49. 166. 1).54 p 2 + 81. (a + 4) (a + 2). 4 . 484.. 12 x2 . (w4)(w + l). 4 + 25 q*. (a (3 54. 39.810.001. 4. 39. 52. a3 0.p132. 40. x* . 41.000. 26.00 + 37. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 2 a 2 + a . ' 46. 3wi2 m Page 42. + 10 + 121 y*. n + 2.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 9 4 /> . 8. 2 0)(p + 5). n2 a4 6. V + o ft . 999. 2).2. 4 2 //.5 ~ 81. a + 25.2 y*.4 12. Page 39.m 30 6 4 1.r . ?/H)0. 10 a' 2 . 9. 3. . I/).712. fo*. 8 38. 44. . 14./ . Om2 4 6m 6. 25 25. 24. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 30 x + 19 x3 . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 57. 33.020. ft' 11. 35. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 3. 8. ~ 6 20 . 51.4 a&+ 4 &*.996. 1. 990. 17. 33. 19. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 5. 2 62 V2 132. 40. 2 +10s281.10 x + 25. 7. .6 y4 10. lflrt 2 8 + l.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . +  m' 1. 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 4 a + 4. .^V"' . 29. 2 fr . . 15. 2 j3 Z .35 ab 9. 10. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 2 . 31.6 xy . 1. 19. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . . a + 56. + 4 a +4. 31. 10.15. 1. 2 1: 21.49. 10. x4 28. 35. ^' J  7 f 12. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 16. + 4 t*. 45. . 9801. a4 4 ?/ . 7. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . .606. 10.201. 14.6. 41. 10.
2 aft 4. . x 2 + 2r f J.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 19.5 a . f>r* 4.2 . Page 51.rw.  12 y 25. 11. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 3 a. 75 a 2 29. 44.+ 77 15.2 2 . 26. .2 .  11. ti'jry1 7.2 ac . 2. y 7.34. 2 4 2 x 4. 4. 2 12. x 4.30 ftc. 8 ?/ . 2. Page 48.3 a 41. 1. 9. r 7. 13. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2. c 12. 4. 4x43?/. 12.1. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 16.9 4. ft 17. 4 d 2 4.r" 20 S? . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. x4. aftc 52. + 4. 1000 1000 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 12.3^V. 14 r 2 . 14. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 18.15 21. 8. 7a3ft. 2 2 + 2 a. aft 12. 4.  5 z* . a. 8 x .rw f 8 . 10.1. yfl. 16. r/2 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .2 2 2 8 . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. . ft.2 . Osy. 2. 8.r?/. ft* ft / . 1. i 2 tji. + x?/ 2 1.x^.5 n*. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . ?/2.6 :rs 4. 2 a 3 ft. . abc 7.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . m'2 3. 5^418(7. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 6x 3. 3. 3. 17. z.lit x + 4.3 3. 50.r'^ 15. . 16. 6.8.2. 2 ?/ 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. i 9. 4. *3 y 4 . 11 4. 13. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .21 2 2 f + . 15.  3 c. 18. 6. 1.25. Page 11. .n. 8. r ft. 3. 9.3 x 2 2 4. 5. :r !>. 4ft.> 10. 2 4. 12. sr 11. a 4 4 ft. c3. . 1/*. 4. ??. 5. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4 c m . 10. 23. 8. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 6.r' ~ 16. /r .2 ftc .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. Page 7.2 1 //. .10 xy*. 13. 5. 5. .y3. as _ 10 16.1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . a 2 .8 y. 4 pq. 4.r . 5. .8 yn . . 8 x5 ? + 4 1.r?/ j/. 5. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 4xy + 13 <) . 2 4 3 9. + 3. 13. aft. . 5. 5. 2 . 2 ?/' . 4 a 2 4. 2 1. r//. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 21. 4 a* 4 9 11. Exercise 27./ 4. w 2 . 7.VI ANSWERS 43. 12. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 10. 49. l 4 . 4 ac. +w . 14. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. // 19.29.3 ry. 13. 3 aft 20. 8. 1. w . 6. 12. 1.27 x 2 4. 14. 46. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 125. m L 4. 10 ft. 7 r .25 c . 19. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2. 2. Page 13.000. 9. 11.12 aft 4 20 ac .1*5 2 r 2 .8. 9.9 d.7. 21. 6. 5 4 a Oft.  10. 8 ?/ . 8. 135. . 13. 17. 2 . 4 x. 1.4.15. j) .1.r ?/ ??i ?). 5.3 5. 4.1. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.2 <</. a 10.w. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 3. 14. . _ 2 a . 17.10 2 + z 2 410. 15. 22. 8 r<ft 4 2 . a 8 4. 3*y2 w + 1. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 2 ? 14 . 20 15.2 wZ 4. 1. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 24.24 . 20.1. 9. . 5 a  (5 ft.23.2 ar. . 3.1.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. Page 22. '.5 mp. 3. 47. 01. G. 4.  . 14.
28.  2\. y 50.(3x+ = rraxlO. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 50= L 100 15. 59. 11. 10. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 25. Jj12. 800 = x + 1300. 5. 2b. 7. 2x + 35. 3. 23. x. 58. 29. 10 yr.p+7. 4^ = 100. x + 1=a. 36. 17. f = eZ 2 x. 47.x700. </ 20. + 4x 3y 34. 25. r tx mi. 26. 39. 20. 4(a ft) c = 8. 4. 3x  1700) = 12. 42. % 4. + 10 b + c ct. 7. d + !. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 5. (2 a. Page 13. "mi. m+ 11. xy ft. 3. 31. 37. 7. 20. 29. a 10. 7. = 5 ?i x 460. 2.r1. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 6. 5. .000. 1. 30. n M. . v (6) 2x. ct. 19. }f. 20. 15. 2. 4. 7. 3x2. 44. 24. . sq. ft. lO. ( a f 4. 17. 44. 21 2. 16. 10. Page 6. x y $ 6 yr. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. b. X 60. 1.6 = *. 100 d ct. m +~m 3. 2.  9 = 17 a. 27. 7. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. Page 40. iL*. ct. s. + f + b 2. r>?imi. 46.  1$. 100 2. 14. x 49. 2b 22. 100 14. 4 f 39. 3. 1. 22. 0. 6.(3x  700) = 5. (>. 60 25 1. 'nj 100 a 28. + 3x + 2y + 32. 17. 37. 40. y 100 a 24. 5. 3 9. 4. 8 n  10 yr. d. b.ANSWERS Page 9. # + 20yr. 1&. 9. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 2. (a) ' 12. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 10. Page 31. f 6)(o 62. 14. 10 a. 19. 11. (> 27. 18. 38. 38. 2 ct. 11. y yr. 4. 2. x 2y 10 act. 13. fix. 41. lOx 10 + w. 45. 4. 8. 6.  6 10. 00. 16. 13. 10 x sq. ft. 10. 7x 2 Page 21.7). + 3 = 2(3* . 34. ] 2 ri 42. y ?>i x + 26. rn mi. 1. 2=10. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 9.  />) a = all. 43. 33. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. '^ . 2. Page 61. / + y + a// 12 yr. . 0. 6. 32. 12. (</) 2a. l.100. 7. 13. <>. (c) 2x. vil 56. .r ct. 12. 10 >_&. .ab a.. 35. 5. I.. 16. x 48. ^ 12 sq. " lir. 5.. !). 33.. 41.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 36. a 8. 1.rr2. 30. f (I. 6. 22. 8. 57.10) 100. I. ft. . ct. 100= ^. 18. x = m. 23. ? 43. 15.
12. 18. 25.22. 3 hr. 3. 8.  PageSO. 13. + 7)(y3).3aftc + 4)..10. 100 1. ^ . 12.1). 55. (y8)(y + 2). 7.000. 50. 20 yr.11.. 20.. 6rt 2 11..(5z . 10. 1.000.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 3. 5. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).000 ft. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1200.000. 8.. 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 74. Page 7.21. 12 mi. 9. 15 mi. 20. 600. 10. 300. 3x (3r. (a 4) (a.. 1. 180. 10. 8 in. 52. 10 yr. 78. 12. (a + 5)(a + 6). $40.000 pig iron. 05. . 6. 7 hr. 5pt. 70^. 3 (a +&)(*. by 12 yd. (m + n)(a + 6). 3. 200. 14. (a + 4)(a + 8). 2.3). 90 mi. a 12. 250.. 5 Col.210^. 1. 9. 3. 24J. 6. 160 lb. 2$. 13. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 11. 10 yr.5. 2 2 2 5. 7. 4. 40 yr. 30 mi. (*4)( + 11. 15 yd.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. Page Page 4. 14. 42yr. 20 yd. 20. Oaj(o62cd). 70. (yll)(y4). Y. 21. 12. 7. 100. 22. 6.000 copper. 2 2 ?/ 21. = _?_(2ar + 1). 12. 5$ hr. 1313. 72. 8. 17.6). 2. 5. 10 yd. Ib.. w (/) 64. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 4pt. 4.. 7a*fe(2a & l). 5. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 10 Mass.. 19. 11 pV (2 p8 . 6. 90. 9. 17. 12. 11.000. . Pace 65. 8 2 19. (y7)(y + 2). 4. 5. (p + 7)(3a5&).7.2.000. 8 12. Page 5. 9. 15.3. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 82 mi. (y 13.411. 78. 14.79. 3. 10. Page Page 480 12. 2. 15. 2. Page Page 4. 1200. 15. 8. 1. 15.0. 2. Page 7. 1 lb. . 11 w(w' + wi . 15 in.. (c) ^ v ' . 4..000 ft. 11 in..2). 67. 71. 2). (a + 6) (a + 3).y"). 6. 1250. 2.. 30.000 Berlin. 13. (ro3)(w2). ( + 4)(*2). 20 yr. 11.3. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 7. 5. 2 3 6 7. 8. 25. 80 A. 1. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.24. 1. 3. 15.000.000. 10. 23. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 2.16. a a (a 8 a+l). 10. 4. 28yr. 85 ft. 200. 13. 1. (e) i* + A. 6.000 Phil.000 N.000 gold. Page 79. 45 in.5. 18. 5 lb. 30 yr.. 8. 10. .0. (z5)(z2). 75. 14. (a5)(a4). 7. 150. 480. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 68. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 14. 18. 16. 14. 8. 13. (y + 8)(y2). 4. 25 yr. 10 Cal. 3. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 9.8. 11.5p + 7 g ). 29. 9.. ~=90.13. 9 in. 30. 9. 6. 6. 7.
.y) 2 aft. (5x .9*). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 16. . 18. 10. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 1. 10 a 2 (4 . 1.1). (4y3)(3y + 2). y) (a.7) (a. + 0(90 Page 85. 10(a . 2 3 by2 Yes. 7.2). . x(x +y)(x y). Page 82. 2. 11. 1. .2 y). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 27. 7. ix 18. 2 2 15. a*(5a f l)(flr . (6n + l)(+2).2 by2 6. . 14.5y)(3a. No. (y8) 2 2 . (<7 20. 2). 3a. 2. (4al)(a2). . (w ~ n (x .r2). 20. 8. 17. 4.6) 2 1. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 9. (15ay2) 2 .c 2 ). 15. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (3*2)(. 31. 31. . 30. (15z2y)(x5y). (ft + ll)(aftll). 3)(3a.y4 ).. 29. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (a 6 6) (a 4. (ay8)(ay3). 26. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 17. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 28. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 23. (2 a? 4. (g . 33. 12. 19. (2o + l)(2l). 13x7.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 30. 216 aft. 21. 28. (w* (3a26). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (y + 4)(yl). ( 2 4 19. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 20. 16. 2 17. 22. 5. a. + 3). 3.ANSWERS 16. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 3. 10(2 30. 10(a + ft)(aft). (10a + ft)(10aft). 103x97. + 9^)(oxy . 22. (4 13. a . Yes. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 20. x\x 24. 11. f 2). 35. (a 3 + 10)(a. 21. (4a. 16. 23.4. No. 12. 2 No 4. 100(x. (4 18. Yes. y(x. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 24 9. (2 *+!)(* 9). 5.4p). (5a +l)(5a l). (x + y4 )(x .11 6) (a 4. 100 (a. 11. 8. (:52y)(2a!3y). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 8) (a. 32. 24. 4 (a . No. 13. (a (p8)0> + l). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 9. + y + . (a. 14. 2. 24. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 26. 19. 26. Yes. (3#y)(+4y). (w + 20)(w + 5). 7. 25.2 ft). 6. (3a. 10. + 4) (a. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (a + 8)(a3).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 35. (9y4)(y + 4). 9. 28. . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 32. . (0 + 6)(66). (m + n + 4p)(w + .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. Yes. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 9. 6. 34. 14.* (2 y + 3)(y. (a a: 19. (5wl)(m5). 8. (m + w) 2 5.+4 y)(3x4 y). .6) 2 2 . Yes. 40 x. 3.   .3). a(2u. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). Yes. + 8)(g3). (az + 9)(ox2).  x (5 a. 21. (2xl)(x + f>).1).4 6). Yes. Yes. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 10. 15. Yes. . 25. (* + y)(zy). 23. Yes. y) 2 29. (6 a. Yes. 24. (2yl)(y + 9). . 27. + 5) a. 26. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 4. 7 6) (a 10 6). 17.1). Page 84.3)(z2). 25. 29. 3(x + 2)(zl). 10. 9. No. Page 83.11 ft)(a6). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 36. + 3)(c44). (m7n) (a.8). (13a +10)(13a 10). 27. 25. + 2y). 34. 22. 23. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 12.2).7)(2z f 1). No. 33. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 18. 21. 25. 22. Yes.1).
19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). ( { &). 17. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 12. .?/). 40.0+ 12).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 8. 13. a + a b. 8. 7. 8).!) (x42)(x2). (5a+l)(9a). 22. 6. (a 9.'})(c .&). (a 4. 4 6. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).  WIM. (5 26. 14. 30. 37. 2 8(w . Page 87. (w * . 5. b) (r 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). (5^4.42 x 4.y)(fi a .36).) j).1) 3. 2.  (w' 4. x 4. (7/1 2) (m 41).e 4. 6. 11. ?i(w 4y) . Page 12. (16 4  2(5 n . 3. 8. 2. . 4). 5. 32. Page 90. 15 M.3. (14. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 5. y). 2 k (wi 4.4). 2 (a 4. x(x f y)(jr . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.8) n 43*). a x 3 10.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ah}. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . a8 . 8.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. + 3. 13. 3x(x?/) 4. y )(. 11.4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 2. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. a (a + 2 6). 12.3.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2. 10. Page 92.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.2). 9. ?>). 14. 6. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 24x sy s 9. . 7. a 2 (a9). 27. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 11. 2. ofc)( fid).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 15. 8x. 6.&). 6. l. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (2x7)(x 2 2). 13.^ 48.2 y). 41. a 41. 4. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 2(m4l)' . 7.X 5. 13 x 8 2 . Exercise 47. 5 x8 3. 17(x43//)(x2y). 7. . 4. (x. (w4w) 2 1. (m  I)' 6. 4  9. 2 + . x43.7)(^ {I 12. a 4.b..^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 39.4).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .))(x  ^OC 1 1). 5  (2 2 .3)(x 4.1). 14. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. ^ .l)( a 25. 4.8).?>) H. 2 21. 4 3. (r420(4 10.y '2 2). ( a ^)(^3. (a &4. 4. (5 31. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 14.y. Gp). (a />. 36. Page 89. (. y(2x?/). (x//. 4. (c. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 16. x . 42a 3 x. ( y).9). 5. 2 2 10. (^ 7.?50)(xt/z. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 4 a8 .5 m2 x2. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 7.2). (f> + fo 7. 450.'J)(' . 1. 8.2)(x 1. 7. x  1). 8. 42). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (> 1.y).'/)('< 4. 4. 24. .7s) (2 a.  29. 28. 15. a 4.1). 6 f c). 16. 1(V/ 88. 19. 2 y) ^ . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 4 a s &8 . a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). ( rt 23. 8. Page 86. (2 a ~ f> b 4.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). . n  r)(5a 10. + 2 //). y6. 3(. 10(2 (3 4. fi(c426). 4.8) ( (16. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 11.n). (!__/>). 12.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 9. Exercise 46. ( (<> r4y3 . 2 . 13( 33. 20. 6. 4. 35. 18. 2 2 3 . r x 2 */3 . 2 1. 38. (^ + ?>_8). 3 x4 . 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).
6).ANSWERS 10. x 22. 6a2&(rt6).  1). 30(3 2 (a 15. b ! 21. 1). ?_!&. 2(2al) + l). a 23. // m+1 !+*?. x 24. +8b a 4 3 / ^. + y) (a: y). x 12. 11. 18. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. + &) 2 ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + &)(&) ( . (a2)(a + 2)2. 13. +5 1. a 10 25.
y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 11. 0. 6. a 5. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 30. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. c 8. 7. 6. i^. 4. 28. + lH + . 4c 10. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.50 ~ 1/2 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. _*^p5_^^_. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 26. 2 a. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. i. . + 2H 1 ^.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . xy 43. Page 100.. 6a5f^. w1 + ac w 4 7. 4 L 8 2 . Page 101. 6. 1. ' 2 7. ^~ 29.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . A^.  **/* + 84 _. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .
ft.y 7. 23. Page 113. 21. 4a3ft. 24. 39. 21. y(x + x ?/). x 1. J. 1. 4. 45. 5. 3. 18. w^x 2 b Page 105. 8j_m 7 3. 44. 1. 8. 17. ac mp lf> n 12. 6. 2 47. c 8. 32. 12. J. ^_. 25. 4. n . 38. 6. 11. I) 2 3z 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. f Page 107. 46. (y + (z 12. 6. 11. 3. Page 111. b a f +c 14. 6. 31. A. Page 106. 1. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 19. 3. 42. 43. 21.^_. f 7. 34. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 15. 1. 1. 10. 0. 6. 11. 5. 9. 2) 19. 8. 15. a 17.L+ft. 41. ' 6. a. 16.^U\WF### X<6. 4. 1. j L . 14. a2 2. ?+_!?>. ! 4 20. m 9. 14. . 2ft a i m x. 12. 16. Page 110. 3. n 16. flf. 35. 26. 30. 0. 4. 1. 3. . n m a + 13. 27. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. (>. 9. +3 ( + 15.ft . 9. x 05m ' 5. 13. . 10. + f. ^i 11. 12 28. 4. 11. 7. 1. 3. 7. x\. ?. 5.  V o 4.  10 X + u. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. Of. 1. 1. 3 7 i o. 17. 29. 14. 4. b 2. 11. 5 be _J_. 40. 6 . 7. 36. pf n 6 1. 5. 7. 33. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 4. 37. 20. J. 15. an 18. .
8. 2.000. 4. 3. 33. 24. 5.2. 5 2. 4. 11. f. 6. 40 yrs. . . dn ~ mi. () 2.} da.0. 9$. 13. Page 125. 00. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. ^?i min.000. :2. 15. Yes. 1^'. 275:108. 17. * 7:9. 7. 14. '"I 22. 30 yrs. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 12. [>> ^ a . 13.. . 27.  + . 3. $40. 3.. nm. 15. after $12.15. 500. 1. w 21. 10 yrs. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 124..0 & . (d) 500. . Page 121. (a) 25. 8. 16. 10^ oz. 21. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 8. 12. 11. 5. 10. $45.137. (c) 2 hr. (ft) 5 da. w 18. 7.000. 40wn.. (a) 4 min. 20. 18. w 44. 2 20. 1 : 12. 5 25. 75 .001. 1 da. 15. " 0. 31. 14. Page 118. 7. 5. jj. . 1:1 = 1:1. #V ~~ 34. 19. 7 .000 1 = 23.002. min.138. (a) 12 hr.. 21ft min. 40 mi. after 18.10. J.x + y. (ft) 28. 11 hrs. Yes. No. 20. 1. 32. a 4 ft. 6. Yes. 8. 16. 15. No. Yes. 12. = A's. 4. 17. (ft) 5 hr. J ^'. 15./hr. 20. 8.000. 2. 17..000 If da. ft. 13. 24 mi. 28. ANSWERS 16. 7. 3:2. 1:1=1:1. 1:4. 38ft min. 300. gold. $0. 1: ~. 10.11. 15. 10. 6. min. (d) 4 da. 1.004. 7T 2 Page 116. 3. Page 117. 22. (ft) (r) 8 hr. (a) 30. 8301 hr. 7. 1.  C . 2x:3y. 2:1.. 7} 18. (r) 3^ da. 33. . 10.  29. 5. 9... 26 mi. 19. 10./hr. 212. silver. 19. ~m . 35. (c) 8300. _JL. 18. 10. 4~r~ n . 1:1 = 1:1. f . $30. 30ft. 24. n 32.9. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 4. 9J oz. after 20. 3. 30 mi. 10. 15.003. P+ ^ 33. $00. xy. 9. IV s. 74. 30. Yes.. 14. ^p^ r ~ 7. 26. 55 mi. 5ft 30mi. 17. 10. 9. (ft) 104. 18. 14. 10. Yes. 11. Page 119. 0. 19. 81. 9ft. 23< &n b ' . 4. Yes. .139. 9.XIV '/ . a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 3.2. 1:3. 300. 7. ^m . 26 30. 34. 4fl M_. 16. 13. 300. 21. 3 da. 36. Yes.
10. : : . 1 rt * vm^1." ^ 2. 4. 2. Page 135. b x 37. 1.1. 174+ Page 128. 4.5.000 sq. 56. 5. 7. 2. 5.5. 2. 4. 9. 5:3 = 4: x. 2. y :y =.2 x.000 sq. 11. . 1.J. 9  15.36. 7. . jc:y = n:m. 27. : 23. + b 7 . 20."2:1. 55. Page 131. 3.1. . + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 2. + W.1. 3. 6*. y a y = 7 0. . 48. 17. 2. 12. 32j. 24 1 (e) Directly. 2. 12. 127.5. 6. 1. .. 43. 58. 11. 2. in n. y 1. 2. 3  24. 3.4.4. 26. 21. 20 cu. 5. 7.15 x. 4.1.^ 0?j ' gms. 28. 13. y . Page 132. 2.17. 17. 45.3.3. ' 55. x +y x + 74 7 \. 9. ~ 1. 8. 7. 6. J pq. (I. 5 2. 25. 5. 15. 200 mi.3.160. Page 5. 7^. a~. 11. 8. 4. 14. t 5. lo mi. 44. 38. Inversely. $. 11. /.6. 3 2=3 x. 11. 2.15. 3. 24. I.3. 9. . 11 5 .2.3. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 4.a. 20. 7. 50. (b) C C' = fi JR'.57. 2.9.  ?. 1. 10. 14. l.  28. 6. 47.7. 1. 3}. 19. : . Page 133. s<i. Page 137. 4. 46. 49. J. land. 13.2.7. 945 11 10 . 7. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . a 3. 2. 52.3. water. 1 18 = 3 51. . 6.) 31. 2. 2. 2. 4. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. (a) Directly. 31J. 8. Page 134. 2. OJ. 16.20.x a. 39.5. (b) Inversely. () 7 Page 126. 14. 22. 2. 1. 19 OJ.. 3.12. 18. . 5. 138.li. 12. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 9. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 5:0 = 10:12. x:y a: b. 7. 6 10 = 12. 21. 35. 3. 3. Of. tin. 5. 25. () Directly. cu. 53.r. 7. J. 36. \. 5. : : T 1' : /> : . w. 1(5. 59.4. 5.840. 17. in. 4. 5.46. 40. 1. 4. 2. x 42. . 7. 2. 4. 7. 1. 6. ini.1. w 8. 3. mi.5. .' : : : : <>. 7. Page 9. 8. 10. 15. 5. 24. ig 6. 41. OJ. 7. : XV 27. 3. 23. 9. 10. 32+ mi. i.2.]. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 19 3 . 8.3.22. = 7 b'.C ?/ a .3. 2. 40. 4. copper.J 3. 7. 3.5. 54. 25. a f 2 2 = 5 x.ANSWERS 22. 57. 7.  19. 7. 141. ft.2. 29. 2. 1. 8. 9.. *. 36. 41.4. 31. \\. 3. .5. 15> 9. 20 20 J ^. 13. 2. 26. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 19.4. 1.8 oz. 12. 5. 4. 7. 4. a +b 1. 8.2 oz. 11 w a 13. 9.3. 13J. 16. x y = 1 = 3 2.5.3. J./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 16.5. 14. 3. 9. 30. x y y . 4. 19. . (</) ft. Page 136. mi. 23. 3. "lO. .*.12. 2. 3. 22. .3. 2 n . 13. 2. 30. : />. 2.
1. 147.3. 10 sheep.. On 11.65. be 10. Page 143.. at 15. Apr. 2. 1. 4. 8. 2.9. 5. a. . 20. 3. 2. a =J (n  1) rf. 6. ^. 27. be 7. 2. 11. 18. 3. Feb. 15. 12.$5000. 9. 2. . 2. J. Page 151. 7. Page 152. 20.^. . 24. C's 30 yrs. 20.l. 10. 16. 12.  17. May 5. .4. 0.4. 20 to Oct. . 5. 4. Apr. (ft) 23 J.1J. Nov. Page 22. Apr. ad AzA. 7. 7. 6%.0. 3. 2. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. (ft) 20. . m + n p. 16. Nov. June. The ordinate. 4. 4. 25. 0. 4. 100. 9. 3. 5. 1. 7. 14. 11. through point (0. parallel to the x axis 0.8. 20. 16. 3. Page 149. 3.. 2 horses. 19. 7. 26. 4. 3.. 1. = ^ a Page 141. 31. (5. (a) Apr. .n + p. Page 142. yrs. 4 ' q. 9. 12. 30. (a) 12. (c) . B's 15 yrs. 18. 20. 10.. 19 gms. 30. Jan. 3. 21. 1. 23. 23f . & part of Sept.2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. Nov. 4. 2. m f 9. 11.1. 15. 17. 24. 6. 3. m . 4. About 12f. 3. 17. 1. Jan. 40. 2. 3. 00. 5. 4. $ 1000. 2. 4. 9. <*ft/ bd 1. 13. 3. ad _(?jrJL. 9./hr. A's 50 13. 7. 2. 6. On the y axis. Page 145. 6 cows. (<f) 13. 1. 29.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 13. ft 3. 6. 90. 8. 5. 3. . 10^ gms. Page 146. 3. $900 5%. 2. 1. 14.33. Jan. 5. 20 & Oct. &. A's 30 18. 1 (c) Jan. 11. 423. On the x axis. 1. 32. 11. B's 40 yrs. 3. 4 mi. 1. 7.2. 1. 0. 16 to July 20. 10. Jan. . 25. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . m f 8.7. 4. July. 25. 5. 12. Page 153. July. 1 (d) Apr. 3. $4000. 4. 12.3. ' 6 3 a. 24. 6. 15. 40. 2. 22. Aug. 30.0.  11. . 16. 6. 1. 3. .$2000. 3. 5. Jan.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=.1.. 3. 2. 9. $3000. 11. 3. 6.XVI Fagel39. 2 a. C's 10 yrs. 2. M 2. 8. 7. 23. 72. 2. 10. ' . $500. 25. & May. 16. 18. 24. 4. 8. 4. u 2ft. 7. $250. 21. 10. 5. .4. Oct. 28. July 20. 2. SL=J o ft r^2. 16. 6. 13. 2t2. 5%. 18. 26. $6500at3Ji%. 2. . 5. 17. 7. 3). Nov.3.10. & part of Feb. yrs. 14. 19.
14. . . Page 164. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.73.17 (ft) (c) 2.3. . 15.64. 27 27 81. + a 4 ft* . 3. 10 C. 3. (/) 3. 2. 10. 125 16. (a) 5. . 1. +3 4. . 1. 4. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. a 6o&i85 c i5o . Inconsistent.24 .1. (e) 3. . 5. 5 and 2. 3. 1. 28. 2. (a) 12. 1. * 16. .. 11. xg . 83. 3. 13C. . .79. 1. 20. 10. H. 0. 14. 2 2 22. (c) 14 F.73.4.83. () (rt) 3.2 (ft)  1. Indeterminate. 3. 3. 8. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 1 23. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 4. 1. 9 and Page 166. 2. (c) 7. 19. . (a) 4. 125 a 8 12. . 3. m. 4. 4wn8 + n4 5. 14. . 9. . f12 wi 9. 20. 14.73 ami . 11. .27. 26. 12. 3. 3.79. xy. 5. (a) 2.3. 1. 15 . 1. f 10.75. (e) 2. 8. 2. a + ft. 4 ) 21.. 125a 28. 2. .6. 25.25.. 27. 2. (ft) (ft) 2. . . f. . . 3. 12. 2. H. 2ft4 Page 168. 22.  .25. 15.64.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 17.75.  1. 13 . . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 1.75 (ci) 3^. 11. ImW. 5. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 9. 2. a 29.24. Page 159. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2. 2. 3. 6. 4. 6. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.24. 5. 24.73. 2.83.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.. 4. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 13. 4. . . 5. 24. 1. 2. 22. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 19. Page 163.5. \ft) 5. 7. .59 . 4}. 5. 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 1 4. 3.67. 1. 21.34F. 30. 3.25. 3. 2 l. a 10 ' a ll V&. 18. xW. 1." 23. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 1. SlstyW 7. ' :=_!.5. (<?) 2.41 and 23.84. (ft) 2. 13.75. 8mW. 2. 0C. 32F. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .13. 8 a1. 1. 3. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . ft . 10.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 8.1. f. 1.25. 1. 2. 13. 30.41 and . 4.59. 27 19. 16. 1^. 3 . 2. G. (ft) and (d) 2.7. 3.5 (ft) 3. Indeterminate. 18C. 1. 2. 15. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. .25. 2 a&m Page 167. 2. . 81 ". 3.  1. (c) 2. Inconsistent. 8 1 f f g*. 1. ft 2 4. 1. . (/) 3. 3. (ft) (d) 2. Page 158. jgiooyiio 17. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 3.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 5. (gr) 21.
10*. rt . 25 19. 20. 2. 17. 2 2 7.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 32. 26. 16. m 13. +3 + 5 4. 21. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 15. 99. 300. 35. 3 2 ^. . (x' l). 247. (4a2 9& 2 13. 309. 1 1 ?>).GO a c + 23. Zll. 11. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). (1 (x2y). 24.a b 22. (Gx + (i + 2a. (l + x + . 2 49 . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 13. ??i ?i . 98. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 3 6 23.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.037. 8. a. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 5. 10.f 1 m 9 16.83. I 8x2). 10 x G a 4 . c 10 6 :l 20. 1. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .1. 2. ). 11.10 a~ + 5 a . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 34. 11.5). 71.2). 14. 15. 1. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 6 (\x 3. 8. 9. 237. GOO 2 c 2 . 3. 978. (a 2. 21.+3^ + 4. 8 /. 18. 12. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 13. ? . 90. 7. (ab + c). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . Page 172. 3 2 8 3 12. 2. 57. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 4. ( Page 174. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).94. 00. Page 170. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 8.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 16. 9. 18. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 22. 1247.r 2 + 6jt). 30.7 /)). 9. 30. . 3. 4. 6. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. . 7. 84. . 36. 40. r> 4 : 1 . a. 17. 17. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). + y). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 20. 19. + (win . +35. 76. 180 .y2 ).i c 6 15. 3. (a + y+l). 9. 31.  x. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 10. 6. a ). 119. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . (3a. ? : 1 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 19. 9. 64. (48 + 6. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 6. 20. 16 6 w . (ly). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 2. 7. 10. 8. . 4. 4. 2. 15. /> 4 ). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 3M. a: l . 6. 14. a 2 . . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. (x + y\ 90. 1. . . 5. 27. 20. 3. 2038.^).3 ab + 2 2 ). 5. 420. 70. 12. (a + 2 +l). fe *?>' ?> fi . + i)).x ). AN S WE no .5. . 33. 90. 72. (2 a + ft). + + ?V 22. 15. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 5. 2 12. Page 171. + 29. 2 2 4. 101.  +X '. 6. 28. 23. 5 5 8.6. 25.1. 18. + Z). 2(> + ( 2 7>). 14. 2 4 8 2 . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 9. 14. 763. Page 176. 5.XV111 7. 12. + l). 11. 1. 0. 8. ^i. 16.
_ iVaft.6. . 41. 15. 7.. 14.a. 5. 44. 14. 5.4.916 yds. 6. 14. 13. 22. 8. 3. 21 in. 8. 30.*. /. 3.522 38. 2. 35.798 yds. 9. 2. 4 W**. 5. 9. 7. 10. 15. Page 185. " ^_ 22. 31. 10. f ^ is. 35. 4. 3. 2.4.  3. Page 179.237. (< + ?>). 6yds.  2.?. f f V. () 2. vV'TA 24.. 10.236. 4 n. 6J. 3. 28. ^^7m. 4. 3.6. V J l. 19. a.6.4. 5. 32. 17. 24. 6. 4. 31. 10. 4. or 3. 12. 8.. 18. 5. 17. 36. > w ft. m.6. 2. *. 1. V35 1. 32. 12. V2. 12. 6. (6) Vl4 3. 7. ft. 4J. 25 J. 15 1 10. 6. 5. a + 61. JJI. 42. If ^.Sn. 23.690. 40. 10. 10. 9. 7. 20. 6V'2J. 2. 23. 6 f !. 15. 33. V.  5. 1.. 5.925 ft. 21. 36. 4. 20. 1 7. 5. 11. m. 2. ft. . 39 in. 4. 7. 12. V17. {. 21 28 ft. 16. 5083. ft. 4. 34. 3. 37. 5.  f. 4 a. 9. Af^.243. 7. 1. 21. .i. 5. 6561. 1. 13. 13. 1. 7. l~8. ^. ii :J _7.5. i. 23. 28 in. 4. 50. >i 27. 10. 3. / 11.6.367. 12. 30. 5. 5.. or 5. 2. 3J. . 21yds. xix 26. 46. }. ~ V^3. f 3. 9. 8. 4. 13. \/3. 2. 2.18. 34. 1.. 3. f. w.935. (afl). 1&. 29. 5f.5. . . 1.  43. 3. 27. >TT 26. 40.. 6. 6. 4. 3. . vYb. 5.V 8j. 7. 11. . 16. 1 38.ANS WERS 22. 2. 1 f Vl3.13. 2. * 1. 7. 270 sq. 3.  1. . 37. 4.. 26. 4. 29. 3. 11. 21. 25. . 12. v 17. 48.w 18. . Page 180. 16. 7. 49. 9. 15. . ^. 14. 28.}. 1. 1.645.  14. V2. 2] see.60. 9. 10. 8.005. 27. Page 181. 17. 24. 6. 7. 4. 16. 11. 3. 2 sec. 29. 9 15 ft. 9. J. 2. 12. 14. Page 183. 7}.469. Page 184. 18. 33.. 15. 1.1. 16n.742 in. 7 45. 13. 1. 4 TT M 28. 6V21. 19. 2. 3. 7563. Page 177. 10. 20. 25. 39. 5. 7 in.1. 6. 39. ZLlAiK 19. f.. f . 36 in. 8. 11. 47.  f. 12. i ^.
22. 3. 17. 10. 7. 18. 0.12 = 0. ft. 2. 9. 0. 0. 2. i. 22. 13. 58. 1). v^^fcT"^.  13. 10 mi. 6. 3. 24. 12. 1. s 11. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 27.2. 0. %. 56.  5. x*4x=0. V2. 18. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. Page 189.  6. Real. 9. 48. 7. 1.4. V^l. 26. 30. V^~2. 21. 26. 18. rational. 35. 4. H.7. 50. orf. AB = 3. 25. 3. 20 eggs. . 20 nii. . 3. 2. 3. 1. 2. 0. 38.  5. AB = 204 ft. 10 in. 2. 64c. 24. a8 . V^l. 3if. 26. 3.70. ANSWERS 22. 6. U. 2.  1. 6. 1 . 5.  2. jr . + 11 x. 2. 3. 3. ./hr. . 7. . 0. 23. 3. . 28. 2. equal. 0.2. 21.. 4. equal. 1. 27. 23. 10. 1.4. 40. 4. Page 190.. .4. 4. 11.5 x + 6 = 0.02. = 0. Real.a 3 a. 20. 2. 7. rational. unequal. 35. 2. 5. 7.* 2. 1 3. irrational..6. 55. 4 da. 0. 47. 57.4.5. 28. V2. unequal. 7. 49. 4. 12. . 2. 1. Imaginary. 1. 3. 16. 0.3. _ 19.23. 5. 25. unequal. 15. 43.0*8. 0.7. 8 or 12 mi.6 = 0. Page 188. 20. 2.a. 2 ft. 1. 46. 1. 9. a + 1. 36. 4. 3. Page 187. 6. 1. 4.5^.12. 70 ft. 3. r* i.59. f 6 52 a. 8. 14. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. 1. 29.2. 32. 6.2 x2 . 1. 1.48 3. 26. ./hr. 2 V3 in.  2. 0.  i. 1. Real. 52.  9x <)./hr.. 7. 1. 5 ft. a. 20. Real./hr. 39. 2. 15 ft. 12. 2.7. $ 120. f.1. Real. 64. 1. 3. 34. VV11. x2 + B . unequal. 2. 4. 19 in. 14.2. 15. 8\/2 17. 44. 3. 6. 2.2.  1.1. 2.  1. 28. . 3. Page 192. 0. .  1.48. rational. 19. Imaginary. Real.74. 27. . #<7=3. 6^2 in. 2. 3. 8. 19. 3. 1. i .'.3. 21. in. 23. ' 1. . If. 13. 3.  Page 194. 0. 7. 2. 1.  24. 1_^L ft 14. unequal. 1.2. 2.2. 2 . 6V64. 3.2. Real. 53. unequal. Real. 120 ft.  1. 37.. 12. . 24. 16. 4.2. . 16. 11.2. 10 or 19.62.. unequal. . 31. 2. .$40 or $60. 6. 2. 3. 0. 1. 6.1. . 42. t is. 25. equal. 45. x 14. rational. *'' 12. 41.a. 8. 5. 3. . 12. unequal. .23.10. 5. V7. V ~ 16 4 2. a. 3.l.3. Page 191.]. '  f 5. Imaginary.41. 0. rational. 25. 6.Oa. 2. 6. 0. x* 51. Imaginary. 4. 15. 8. 9.4. $30 or $70. $80.XX Page 186. 10 mi.37. (5 10. irrational. f. . 33. 3. 10. unequal. a + 6.17.
^Sf 3 38. 17. 19. . 9. 4. 1. 'J. 13. 243. 21. a. n\/* Page202.2. 2. 38. 19. 4. 27. 56. 41. V^ 34. 48. Page 201. 0. 3 4 11. 13. 1. 45. 1. Page 196. 15. 11. J 3. Page 200.  48. i. 3. 2. 9. 50. 8. 25. 125. v'frc 18. ? . 27. v. 49. $7. 25. 2. 22. ) 2 >J i 10. 12*2 61. 18. 14. 47. I. wA 46. 9. *V. 59. J. 15. 3. 24. 33. 3. 4. 9. 52. 1. Jb \. 16.  a'2 . v^T4 m. 20. 14. 18.  J j. 33. 7V7. 7. . J. 1." 17. z + 22. 5. 16. J. 4.  5. . 11. 2. ). 4. x/25.. 3.  f. 84. . 5. 42. y . 46. 37. 1. p.6.32. 3. 2V a. 10. y. : . _! V3. 0. 12. 3. \ . Page 197. 0. 16. 19. 30. 7. 5. 53. 21. 22. 2. .17. x$. 20. 1. 49. 7. 1 39. \. 31. 10. 17. 55. 6  AAf. 8. jV 10. 3. 58. aW\ 40. \/r\ 11. ^49. 40. r*. 10. 2. xxi 15. 15. 4.1 5 15. . 33. 24. 6. x. r. 1. 12. 51. 10. 9. 36. Page 199. 2. 3. 32. (m 26. 13. 3. 5\/5. 16. 49. 2. . 23. 3. 31. 32. 19. \a\ \/^. 4. 1V1. \/. 28. 14. 7 . 20. 60. 21. fx'^z'l 23. vV. 47.//^. ar 1 . 23. 1. 8.^7. 8. 35.  f . . &. v'frW. J. 18. 29. \. a 18 . 54. 50. v/3. 2 L ( V. 26. 39. 2. 43. 13. m'. 8. 1. 29. . 17. 20. 5. 57. 28. 3. 30. 44. 1. 14. 25. vm. 8. 1. m. ifa. 8. JV37. 9. 4. Vr. 5. 30 a. 8. 29. 2. 6. 24.ANtiWEUS rational. . l  5 12. 49. \/3. 2. 5. 3.
31. 13. 3 4\/2.632. . 4.692. 16. 62V(J. ^88". 29. 19. 3 42. 34. 13 35. abVab. + + ft. V 5 47. . + Vic + 25. Vr 8. 1) 3V3. 34 r 6. 2. 12..2 VlO.'\ 14. 22. 37. 31. 26. 21. x. l 5.). 3 x^y 33. + 2). 3^2. 101 1. 3. (a 27.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 2. 13. 3.707. 19. 4aV^J 16. JIV6. 11. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3^ + 2). v'TM. y (a + ft) V2. + 2 ar 1 ). 5. ^: V2c.Vxy 35. x y. . 24. 27. 28. Page 203. 8V/) 15. 16.648. 135V6. 36. 2 '"V5. 10. 1. 20. x 25. 2. 2 a?>V2 a. 18. 39. 45. 5. 2>X2.  2 3:r. . a2 4. 9. 30. (o* 2. 15. x%  3 ^+ 1. 29. x 7  34. + . yV35. 32. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V. 4. 25. 30. 40. m* n*. 03r* 7. y.yl : . 49.2 18. 20. 2v (T 2aVf. 9. 10. 2\/7. 9. 38. V. 48. . 2. Va 2 "ft. / V3. V2 + 4 V22. a^ + 2^+1. Page 207. 6. + 2 V22. k/2.rV:r. x + 5 x3 + 0. 8. 2. ?tV?w.3 + 40 3 . 32. 26. + 1. 13 a. 43. 3 a~ 3 (x (. a 3. . 1 2 or 1 ?. 23. 21. 40. . 17. ). 28.577. 3 \ 39.  a Vft 2 121 b. 37. r 17  Page 204. v/^r 5  A/^~. + 2 Vzy + y 1. .f.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. V63. 3. v^. 17. (x' (l 1+x). 2. ^7 \AOx. 33. 7. 8. a 4 +* + !. x^ . 24. 9 . T. 11V3. 10. 51. V80. 5 ( . 20&V6. r c . 8a6V5. 41. Page 208.r. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3V^T. 5 22. 2 x* 15. 6. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 195V3.XXii ANSWERS 1. 3V5. ftV 46. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 11. 7.x^y* + y%. 50.
50. aVa. 4. 2. 40. 6. 24. 7. . 23. 19. 15. 13\/3. + VlO  v y (5. v"3. \V3. 5. 5v/2. Vn. b. 2yV2?/. 5V2. VT5. 32. 34. 3. 25. v/i). x/27.. 25. ^9. 26. 1. 28. w?i. 18. v^f. 1. 46. x/8. 5. 30. x/8l. V/. 6 2\/0. 29. 31. \^r^bVabc. 6+2V5. '. 37.T*. 21 23. D 45. v^4. vT). 41. 49. \/8. . x/w^ 8. r)\/(l Vrtr.J Page 212. \/04a. 3v^2. . 5 \/2. \^6. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . v"5. 39. 36. 27. 35. v 25^4714 V2"a. 3 V2.r v/^ v^fr*. 27. 3\/15  6. rtv/5. V5. 4VO. v^a. v/lO. Vat. 7\/(l 7VTO. 3. 4 a*. Page 211. 32. 6. 16. m ?i2Vm/t. 52.  3. Page 214. 20. 3 V15  47. \XOfl6Vi5. V3. 2 28. 2. 6x2?/. 33. a2  b. 6. 13. 10. 9. 3 Vl5 30. Vdbc. 7. 0. 35. VJla. 2. 5V2. 36. ^\/3. 2 1. a^\/a7>. 74\/Jl 120 46. 23. v/l2. 4\/5. 0. 9. v^lf. 8. x/8L v/27. 5. ^27. 14. 42. \/abc*. 21. 4. 24. 14. 10. x/3. xx 1. 48. : ^32. 14. \/a6c. 53. 22. 6. 17. V3"m. v^30. 10V(). 2. 2 \/2. . 17. 17.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 14c 4 V5. 2. v/9. 11. 18. \/128. 1V5. 8. 3. 51. x/125. 12. . 10. 2 ate. 18. 1. 12. 3\/2. 26. % 29. 38. x/4. ^v 7 15. 6aV2\^. v7^. 2 V'3.30 2. 39. Page 216. 16. v/8. 15. / \/w/t 4 13. 6. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 21. ^ 3 b 5 24. 38. 44. 8  \/15. 43. 22. V2. V8. 19. 40. v^O. + 20. V5. 3\/wi. 30 Vl4. 32m27n. "^8000. . 3. 4 >/3. 7. 31. V3. "v/wi ??. 9. 8V73\/IO. 2\/7. fl^Vac. Page 210. Page 213. 11. 37. . W). 3. 8v2T 12. a\/5c. V2. 34. 13. 9 VlO + 4. ab 4. \/2. \^6. 8V2. Vtf +3+ 33. 6V2. 11. 16.
1547. 20.  f. ^. 23. 13. 24. 11. Page 223. 26.81.13. . 16. 8. 10. 10. \/3). 1. 7. 12. 1. 21 ' Vob 26.7071. 4. Page217. (Vf + (4 V2). 2. V3. \. 11.0606. 29. p 6 13. 1. 1. V35. 27. 34. 18. (2f V"5). 5. i^ ~ 1 v ^. n*. 33. ^r. 11. 24. 4. 2 . 125. 15. 7 Page221. 12. A . 512.. 21. 4 14. 3V23.6 V3. 0. _^JflJ?. 11. 10.7083.732. 4. (V21). ANSWERS 8. nVTl.^ (\/22 4. 12. 13. 5.4142. 1. 25. 5. . j 15. 18. . 16. 5 V65. 25. 5. 4.  . 31. (VllV2).625 10. (2Vll). 15. ^\/2. 22.732. ^.2. . 12. 12. 11.5530. 2ajV2*.5. 25. + 6) 2 . 25. 3. 20. 2V2. 8. J. 23. 4. 8. 23. 14.6. 4. 30.2828. 20. 4V3 + 6. 19. 5. 21. 11. . 2x^2^. 30. 1.\/TO). ' 22 i . V. 25. 2.1. 15. xy 2. 13. 5. (VaT^v a). 17. 3. \/57t. 25. Page 225. K>/0 + \/2). 29.389. 5. 7. 7. 23. V6c. 100. 4. !^ 6 4. V3. 0. ~ Vac _c 0. V5. 2.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 9. 4. 24. 10. 224. Vf6fVtf. 5 f. 9.2. . (\/3f 1). 2V3. 19. 3. 6 (V2 + 1). 3. 4.  2. 3. 6.XXIV 7. Page 226. +3 V2). 8. 5. (2V2). 4. Page 219. ^(VlO\/2). 22. 4. 10. 10. 6. 3(7+3V5).  13. 6. 27. 64. 16. V3 . Page 28. 4.1805. 9. 27. 20. V^TTfc.3.3535. 19. 2. 1.601. 9 mn. 9. 18. Page 218. 1. 15.9. 21. 8. 16. 9. 9.w 6. 37. 16. 216. 24. 8. 17. 9. 23. 8 V3V2. . (V5f 5. 17. i^Lzi. 7 f 5 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. 14. 8. * 3. 14. 6 V. 7. 4. V3.64. 5.V3). {. 17. J. 14. (V8 + V2. 4. 26. 2.4722. 18. Va. 2V3. 16. 1. (\/5V2). 2. 9. i(Vf Vft). 15. (3+ v/2). . Va. j. m f. 1. . 25. 36. 19. 2. 4. 18. 3. 28. 32. 19. 1. 12. 6. V2. 3. . 7. fV2. 8.464. 35. 7. (V6 + 2V2). 81. Page220. 2!5_. 22. 10. 81. 15 f 3 V2L 4. . 7. 7. + 5V2. 16. (a 1. 16.3. f. x 20. 6. 9. (2. (V51).
2. 2 . 21.l)(a3)(a . . 13. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 30. 14. 8. 3. 11. 16. 1. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). . 4. 28. 15. 15. 2. 10. 1. 12. 25. 2 .4. (a 4.r .  5. 16. 8. . 3. (rt. 6. (a. //.  4. 3 . 1. 7.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 3. 2. 4 .3. P.2. 5. 3 5. 18.4. 4 20. 73. 2. 8. J Page 235.l)(a 2 + a f 1).8a 18.  16). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. (+!)( 2) 10. 3.4). 3.Y.12. . (a . 2.  . Page 234. 22.  3. . 3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). . f . 2.w 4 + 1). . 13. (&y2a#H4). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). (B43).0. 10.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 1 . . 19. (pl)(p3)(p6). 0. 4. 2. (xy + 5) (x*y* . (a. 1 . (a+&)( 2 14. J.  J.4. .  3. 3. 20. 5. a  . 4.3 2. 7. 25. 1. 4.5. 4. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 4.22. 4 1. (2 a.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). qpl. . 25. . 19. y. . 4. 13. 6 2 2a + 2). 2. J 24. 3.. 5. 3. 73. 7. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 6. 2. 14. 11. 5. 4. . 6. 3. 3. 19. 4. a: :} .10. 25.3). 50. 13. 1. 1. 10. 1 . 15. 7. ' J.2. f>. 3. 1 6. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).3. 1. 3. 2.  3. 1. 30 30. 17. 5. 2. 3 9. 24.l)(m . 2 <? 4a2 . 100. 10. 17. 3. 5. 5. 4. 5. a . 2. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 0. 1.nl^EI.  2. 2 &. (4 mn . .  1. 18. 0. 4. 3. 12. 30. 21. 0. 4 . 12. V3. (63)(6' t 18. 0. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 6. =A^Z3. 6. 3. XXV 4. 7. (pl)(p2)(p2). 3 . 6. 26. 2. 7. ~ f7.7. 8 6 & 0. 56l). 9. 17. b . & + 6 2 ). 8. 4. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (w . 2 6. 1. 0. 24.2)(* . 5. 5. 1. \/0. l.2. 4. Page 236. 1 3.  1. .3.1. 12. 1 (?> x/^3.  f . 2 . 3.5 xy + 25) 22. 1. 2. (r. 3. 1 . 12. 11. 11. . 2. 3. 4 4.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 30 .ANSWERS Page 228. 1. 10. 1. 1. 3.^a. 2 6. 7. 87 . 13. 2. 7. o. 4. 2. . 1. 2 > 1. 2. J. 4. Page 233. 20. 4. 9. 2. 23. 4.1. 3. 3. 4. 3 . 8. 14. 0. 8. 2 . 0. 10. 2. 5.3. 1. . 2. (m 4 + l)(ro. 22. a(. 2. 2. 5. . . 4. 2.3. t/ 23. 11.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 1 . ( 16. 2. 2. . 2 V^ . 3.2)(m. 2. 2. 5.3. 1. 3. 1. 5. (8. 9. 12 24 y . 11. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 20. 6. 1.
39. . 13.y. Page 245. 31. 35^ 5. 2 26.13. . 12 1. 2. 28yd. 1. . 2. 201. 0. 21. \/6. . . _ 13 (0 6. Page 243. Page 247. 5 4. 3. . (a) $3400. Indeterminate. i i i . 1. 3. 1 . 2 1. Exercise 113.. 4. 4. 3. 23. 9. 15. 20. 6. 7. 12 ft. oo. 22. $46. . oo . . 3. 1. 30 13..020. 4.6. 6. 3 . 2. 48. n . .  . 20 7. 4 34. ANSWERS 2.4. 3. 84. . m27. 4 6. 21. m28. m + n. 20 in. 17. 8. 1. 5. 1. 15. . } . i j. 7. 40 25 in. 9.18. 7. 8 . ft. 19. 37. 5.3. Page 244. 3V5. 5050.2. 12. 5. 10. 2. 35 ft. in. 15. 512. . ft. 6. (a) 5. 3 cm. 4.4. 4. 18. Page 238.4. ' j. 4. 0. 1. 4. 38. 15. Page 239.. 13. and _ 4. 2.6. 14. $. 16. 7. 15. 4. 3 . . 40. in. _ 7. 15. Page 241. c. 18. . 78. 1J. 12 d. 1. 45yd. f*. 14. 11. 1 . 12. 22. 3. 8ft. 69. 1. Exercise 114. 4. 1. 1. x 4. 2. . ^~2. 37.3. 5. 3.1. 11.3. 5. 1.1.. 1. 3. 8. 4. 5. }. 37. 3. 900. 31.  2 . 4. 2. j.1. 26. 7. 8. 2 16. 14. 15. 14. in. i'ljVU. J. 1. 8. 14. 10. 1.  1. 6. 11.136.0. 8. 1. 2. 5. 5. 17. 5 cm. 3. 3. . 2. 3. 50. 3. 10. 24. 3. 1. 4.xxvi Page 237. . ^ }. \. 17. 2V7. 19. . 2 . 8. ri*. 400. 14. 9. 2. 2. 3. 13. 40 in. +  n. no co . 2 2. 1. 2. 23. 24. jj. f.. 1. 2. 2. V3~. 6. . 30. (>. 3. . 4. . 512. 1. 21 30. . . 29. 2. n. 5. 2. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2. 2. 125 125. 5. . . 4. 1. 3 3. 4. 55. 7f solution. 3. _ 5. 30. 1. 2>/3. ft. 12ft. 3.3. Indeterminate.. 5. 7. 4. 1 . 14. in. i. 3. 1. . . 1 . 288. 2 . 2. (/>) "_.3.e. 41. = QO 6. 2. tn 2. 1. 36. 0. 2 ft. 5. 3. 3. 4.30. 2. 9. 9. 16. 2. 35 a. 50. 1.. 5. J. 3 2. 7 3. 20. . _ 10.. 1. 4. 8. Page 248. . 5. 8.  11. 1. 12. 17. 2. ( 3. 11. 10. 17. 35. 16. $. 2n. 17. 11. 4 8.5.. J. 8 3. . 12. 1. 2 Y> V . 1. 5. 5.3. . . f>.. 3. 1. in. 5 . 12. 4. . 12. 1 2. oo . 5.4. 3. 1 . $VO. 32. 7. 33. '>. 2 . . (&) 2. 4 . . 1. 11. GO . 3 . 3. .5. 9. 1.0. co . 5. 18.3. 3 4. 3. J. 4. 25. 1. Page 240.200. 4.3 . 3. V7. 4. 2 10.
r x>/ 7 3. 708. 4. 55. **+.4 &z x>&. 35. 0. JSg. w9  8. a4 4 14. <. 120 aW. 35. 5. 5. 8J. 10. 5. 7 x4 17. 16. 13. 10. 2. . Page 259.  17.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 32.6 . 75. 3. 45.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. in. 0. A. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. 11. 15. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 7 2 x 4 x8 . 7. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 17. 2.680.170.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 13. 4.7 10. 6. 15. 44.419. 2. 27. 8. y ^ 5  ^\ ).0. 9. 21. 4. . . . 1000 aW. 05.2 9. 1. 50. 105. 405. 5. 5. &' 14. 3.1. 1.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 27. . 220 . 495. 8. 0. 70. . 910.5. 04. 22. Page 252. 7. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 17. 9. 2. ?/i 6 x llj . c. 1. 327. 11. 1.5 x.v Page 253. (). 27. 3. 1820. 1 7 4. Page 258. 16.5y 4 . x + Vy. 16 11. . 43. 0. 125. 04. 18. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8. 8. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .4. 45 Page 257.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . x r 4. 4.12 x*y 16. B . 12. 0. 1. 2. 1.700. 280 53. 4. xxvii 1. 8. 22. 20. 6. 2. 5 13. ^a 8. 8 1. 70. 12. 6i.504.384. 18.ANSWERS Page 250. 2i* 7f. 13. />*. 1. . Page 254. 15. sq. 23. 16. 17. 10. 8. . 9. 8.210. 3. 16. 6. i 10. 5. 4. 192. 7. 25. Ja. 15.870 m*n*. 8.  20 flW. f y 8 + z* . 12. 410. . 3.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 16.r 4. 2. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 12. and 1. 4. 18. Y11. r r j. 5. . J 2 //2 25. 3. 4. 8 . 4. 9. 128. 11. d. 343. } $ 50.470. 6. 70. 16. 3.^ ?>i 2412x4.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 1 14. 0. \ w 4 . ~v 9.r* 4 70 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 7. 3.  101. 7. .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 4. 005. 12.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 28. '23.x' 10 . 48. 19. 2. 1. G. 0. 6. 2. 3. 27. 1. 45. 3. ~ an . 4. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 2. 12. 5. 1JH. 4. 10. 4. 6. vy. 1. x4 .920. ' 1. 2.2 45 a 8 /). 3. 5. 3. 6. I.3 ays. 4. 15.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.120. 19.<2 4. 53. 0. r 5 4. 8 4x' 2 . 81. 7. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 4. 4 0. 343.53.192. 7. . Jj? 45. a. 9. 10. 14. 2. 26.5. 29. REVIEW EXERCISE . 3. 10 14. 1. 5.8. 8. 16.13. 304.6. . 19. 20. 125. 4. 20. 7. 18. 9. . 10. 12. . 8. 100. 2. 5. 6. 12. 21. 0.
c3 4 58. 93. 4 .2.rty x2 4 123. 63. a 4 .. Page 263. 2 53. 99. 114. 0.18 x?/0. ft2ft 4 4l.6 b. 4.4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.c. 3 c . * 60. 3a~2c. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 . 6 c 47. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 29. 80. + z. 2 x2 4. 50.c 3 4. 4 115. . 16t/.^a . . 13 + 2 s.4. !! 71.a'2 c. 4 fee 4.ft). 4 ! . 22. 10 a 12 b. 37. 120.2 xy + 4 y2 106.4 x?/2 3 4.7. .  e +/. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.x. 3 36 b c . 32. 1 + 4 xy. 125. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. df. 8 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x 3 41. 110. 2 a. 5x + 2y~z. 2 113. m " + n + P3c . 66.a 2 x 2a . 52.fee 2 4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. . x' 79. x . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 3 a 5 a 5. 5 4 4. .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 2 30 .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.y*.1 4 jry 4 x .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 23.4 x y 87.4 ac. . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. as 20.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 9x. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.1. 118.5 3n 4. . f5+7.18 ?/ 5x4.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 2 . 6 a2 97.7 x   15. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . a4 x.3 x 2 + 3 x . 1 a"* 4 an . x2 a2 1 . 4 69. 72.105. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x2 471x4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 91. x* . 31.1.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 28. x4 f + 23 . 2 2/' . .x4 + y'2 z 4. . . ft n . 43. 27. 16. xyxzyz. x' . 49. . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 6a6c. +^ + ft W. x 3 4. _55_7c 48. . 5x 2 2x43. 4.41. . 0. x8 x2 55. 107.x 51.9 b. () 2 x 33. 0. . 21.2. . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.5x4. 94. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.1.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 133. x2 2 .4. ^ . 3a'2 Page 261. 1 . a* a 8 a aftc. 12 x.x 2 4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 96.  . Page 260. 1 121.  12 a. 12 a/.5. 25. 14 x . 35. 3 a 44.a*ft 2 126. . 36. 38. a J . 2 x'V2 90. t 81.1. ?> .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . .4.3 . + 3 a?. 82. x 8  a8 . &p 84. 70.  3 x2 .c. az 4. 46. y 4 z* 0. 122.3 a'ft.2 c . 8x3 8x. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 61. 132. ?/ .a.15 4 62 x  72.{ 54. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.a' 'ft 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 127.  + 3 x2 . 62.4 x 2 . . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 64. 109. a 3m 4. 39. 86. . + a 4. .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .3 103.ac 44 aft.2. . 131. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 88. 76. x 2 . 2 q. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 26. 3~ n 4. 3 a . 100. 40. I 57. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 104. /> 4 83.xxviii ANSWERS 19. . x 4. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.5 b + c . . 9 2w 128. (a + ft)" 98. 130. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 4 65. 2 .9 x .1w 77. ft /> 78.  4 a3 85.6 am b\ 129. 124. 7 + 3 xf 2.a6 2 4. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.3 aftc. a~b 89. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.x24 73. 4 15 x 5 .4 2 4 c2 42 . 243x4729.3 y. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 10 4. 1 x 45. 5 42. x 8 + x 4 68. .2 x 4.2 x^. a* 4. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 4. 30.3 b . 4ft y3. 24. 4 2 . 102. 2 x2 108.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. a2 2 aft 2 2. a' 111. 4 Page 264. 105. ?/ 3. x } 4.
191. a(a. 10 in. 232. 187. 2. 1.2) (3 x .2).  1. 2. (2 198. 20. 151. 147 mi. 10). 1. 2 2 (a. 147. + 3). 138.3 y). y3. 180. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 202. . 176. 231. 217. 2.2ac + 229. 168. (y  17)(y + (>).1). (8x + 3)(3x4). 238.r . 1. 199. y 245. 22. 197.3) (2/3y).l)(a 2 +3). 148. 190. 214. +)(x2 x^+2. 156. 201. z(x10)(xl). 12. (x^ + x1) 234. m. 3.ANSWEKti 135. aft. 207. 205. (/ 246. (7x2//) 203. 154. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. Iff 145. 164.1). ( jc // a 2 (a1). 222. (233). Page 266. 48 h. ( + 2y)(2x3y).2 )(x+y) 228.3 y)(a . (3x  . 6. 32 h. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.. p.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 10). 237. 235. 12 yr. (a& 192. + 2) + 9a. 1. 15  a. 171. 12 6 panes. . (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 12. (. 15. 3(x ..4xl). p. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. + 7)(rt4). (xyX^+y" )1 243. (7 c 2 ).9)(xf 2). (x . x(x + 6) 213. (JT y 225. 2. a + 2x2 ). 220. 184. 193. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 224. (y_24)(y5). 167.6)(4 + 6). fc'2a+62c). 212.. 208. 1. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 209.6) (2 x + 1). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (3x2?/)(2. 30 + xyr. k. 137. . G7.r + 4). 240. 140.3). (y 7f))(y 196. HI.y). 239. 18. (x + 6)(x6). a. 10. 152. 172. 8 204. (c) 160 C. . 75. 210. 50. 178. + 3) (x f f>) .. 136. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 142. C3 y _l)(. 5. 230.l)(y + 1). 211. 182. 2a(42ft)(2fo). Or (a + 2)0el). . 179. 19. 144. 170. 1. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 161. 23 18. (y _ ft)(y 4. Page 265. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 183. 150.I2y). xxix 139. (ab + 8) ( 7). 6. (2a + l)(a . 215.1). 155. 153. 218.y + 3)(r (. r>x 2 (4x. + y. 186. (r7y)(ai. 157.2.y) (\r3y).6 . 12 yr. 159. a 2 (15. y. 30 yr. 233. (5 x . x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 160.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 20. (6) 40. 15. . 175. 2(x8)(x3). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 185. 1. (y7)(y + 188. 163. 2 (4 x . 158.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (r^x + 1). (x  42 yr.m)(x + a). 1. 10 ft. 21. (a} 59. 4. 146. 169.y2 ). + 11) (a 10). 143. 236. 36ft. 177. 218. 40 yr. 2 xy(3 x . + 22). 226. 181. 2. 4. (?/+l)(yl)./_4). (a 2 + 2a6. 2^.y)(jc + 7 y). 7. (x 227.y)(z . 206.1(5) 200.2). (x + 2)(x . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). ?. 149. 174. Page 267. 30. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 173. 244.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 8(ar}(/)27). 162. 241. ft. 195. y  y 165. 37 1. 3. 24. . (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . as 194. 6). 216. 219. yr.3. 247. 189. 166.l)(x8 + x2 . 12) (j.
250.(x  4) (x4 304.2* i^^ !^. 3  262. 266. 263. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 10. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 307. *>). 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 269. 3). x 283. 295. x . ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 258. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 260.^ ^^. 279. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275.4) 1) (3 x .^^^^^^^^. x12. o(x4l). *. 298. > 4.  3xyf x// 257. 3. 301. o. 0. 251. 7 x 265. 268. + f. 261. ^/>J. x 267. x ?/ z 1. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 2. ? 1) 302. 43 '^rJ'.. 4 5.1. 310. 7^T 2 . 2 4 300. 264. 303. 249. 306. 256. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 0. 259. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . a~ ' b*). &).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. ^ 299. 2 x  3. 3). 5.4). (7 255. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . ?^ZLiZ 308. 7. 254.   . a. 305.  7.
0. 394. T\.  1. a +6.(5 a . 2(a i 403. 333. 395. + 4 & 4 \ b. ^_:r f> 331. 7/i ^ _ .!. 3. 401. a) A^_. . 2 ). 400. 6 ?/+:>. 3. 399.J . 397. + 335.1. 1 i 2 ^. 386. 387. * 357. 383.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 382. 408. _*L'L+. 3. . + x 362. . Page 277. ab. 389.". 0. 13 391. 2 ab  a Page 276. .. 355. A^L5L. 1. . 0. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 7. m. 385. a 2 . 390. " 4 378. 376. 4. 393. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 339. 4 rw. ^ 3 // . 380. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.  1 356. 396. 360. 1. 324. 329. 2(q. 364. 2.H ' 2wi ^' /' .vin a /r " 337. 370. 1. ^"" 4 s . 365. 12. 361. 388. j 328. 343 00 351. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. L . S. 404. 0.XXXI Page 272.)Cr4)__ . 2 ?/ 363. (a + b + c\ . 406. 1. f. Page 274. l . 334. ?=. 405. 375. <L 409. x 54 359. 392. 9^. ?/ + 3 332. 336. 2 327. 2. 2 r36 384.3. 379. 366. 377. 398. 4 A. ?>*. y 4 I 340. 11. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. . 325. T+^. a + b + 6). 6a. 20. 4. 1. 407. c 402..7. If. l'j. 326.
468. B 4 mi. & 491. (&) 443. 12.7. 465. 2. ISJini. 485.  2.  10. 7. '. 3 . 0. 24 days. 450. 9. 479. . . 6. .  453. A $ 3500. 441.488. 412.2.  1. 10. m 1 : wi. 497.489. 484. *+. 10.vz in. 500. 455. . fc. 42. 17. 1. * . 2 a 2. 442. 0. 483. Page 282. 21. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. m.7. 2. !L=4. i. a + + ft c. 5. 490. 50. 423. (a) 1. 428.3. 486. 467. L (c) I. 507. 2$. 421. 6. 502. 22. 1. 435. 0. 1. . 430. 476.. 8. 448. 462. 420. 10.te + .rz Page 279. 40. z8 +?/ 3 431. 466.  2f 504. 6. \ 1. 422. Page283. 492. 2. 418. 496. 2. i a b 451. 14 miles. 452. . B $ 2500. ' $260 at 0%. 6. 40 oz. 8.  1. 17.1. 2. 7. 8. 0. 1 a /?$+&?. 5.7. a 22 .4. 432. 51. . 3. . 2. />c c(f be. 6.  . 8. . 3a 4 5.5. $2000 at 0%. 3. 2. 10. 2. 7. 28 yr. L2 a  6 . . 508. 429. 5. 32 yr.}. 10. 4.7. 501. 463. 459. 32.}. 419. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 18. 20 yr. 90. (&) true.. ft 5. 481. c 6fc 10. 5. 498. 2 438. 472.  7. 478.. 33. (a  c). 0. 487. 457. 482. . + () 433. 411. 413. 5J. 447.7. 10. ..55. 499.. 458. 445. ^r?i 434. 11. 425.0. 495. 436. .  2. 5. 427. 6. 460.  f>. fj. 2. <L+ 6 (. 461. 53 yr. I. : />a. 4.  505. 480. 444.  7.m  m+ M in. 0. 10$. 426. 464.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 7 : . 3. 456. (c) not true. 1$. ISjmi. Page 280. 440.4. 506.2. . 494. 2. (d) true. 63. 7.3. 84. . 6. 493. . 4. 454. 7.. Page 278. c. . (d  6) f. 503. 477.  2.12. 5. 0. 10. ^V. Page 281. 410. 446. not true. 4. . 1. 20. A 5 mi . ^.0. b 449.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. \. . 1. a* 424. 439.46.
4. 1. 6435. .14. (/)  10 to 8.1. 3 da. 5. 561.3. 593. 571. 529.10. tin. .0. 1. 564.. (e) 570. Page 285. (ft) Ill Ib. 3. 560. + 6 tf f 3 . . . 565. Page 288. 1$.38.  (a) (d) 1. 513.33. . 530.6. 4* da.  2ft da. (c) 4. 1 600. 3. . 582. 3. _ 3. 1.7. 24.0. imag. 516. 1. . (6) 3. xxxin 511. 3.4 x + . 1 .3. .5+. 2. . 4.1.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .00. ^ ft 4. 536. 3. 4. a*8a + 24tf 82a. . (i) 3.62.1.25m. 2 . 7. 566. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 24 da. tin. 576. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. (a) 74 Ib. 509. M ft c 2 ft 3465.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 2 . 603.6 2.4.15. 556. 3. 553. 525. f. 40 Ib. . 598. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 1.  557._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 2.12. 3. 3. Roots imaginary. 21*_. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 2$.04. T . 512. 559. 2(6 597. 3 .4.83. 8.8.5 f. 1.21. 518. 5. 2.24.  2. + 26 + .10.54. If 572. y% Z * 586. 1.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.4. 2. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.  (a) 2.55.5. 4. 1.. f36a28x8 592. per hour. 1.3. (e) (c) 2.  + + c. 4. 31. 0.6. 2. 558. 550.37. 2 10.3. 533. J7] min. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).25.r8 596.5. . 1. 7^ da..24. 1. 5. (c) 3. .0.30. 527.f 1. 1. . a+ Page 286. ft 584. . 3. 581.02.8.15. 1. 232. 3.4. _^ 2754x .  ft*. 531. 5. (gr) 10 1.02. Page 287. 4 mi. . . 1.5.04. 552.02. 1 .6. 1. > ^ . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .8.83.  imag. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 563. y 4.31.3.03.  7. . 0000.31.8 x3^.5. 2 1.  4. . 515.52. lead. 6. 510. 4. x8 .37.8.03. 4. 3.20. a + ft  a  f c. 1. 2. 1. a f ft + c.53.4. 1.62.16.02. 577. 4. 4 0.  . 569. 2 imag. 4. .7. 1J. 555.  1. .ANSWERS Page 284. 554. . 575. 2. 532. 1 580.3.1.56 sec. 591. 2.3.15. . 568. or 8.24 sec.5. o> .xj/ f xV .  J(a f + 2c). 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 3. 3.35.0. <z ft 1. 2 1. 1. 14. 1. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 551. .78. 562..4.6. per hr. 2 2. 27 y* f\4 .3. 6. _ 4. lead. (6) .78. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.73. 2(4 602.9. + 12 x . 579. 3. 2. 115 Ib.54.   (h) 8.51. 3f 4f. 599. 583. S82 c. f.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.% rr\* 585. H. 1. . 514. 578. 528.. 567. (d) 537.7. da. . . .2.1. (ft) 4. 8 mi. 1.1.75. 526. 573.  3. g(rc+ 6c).75.05. 574.88.
2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 10. 2092. 646. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . a 673. 2&). 620. b. 5. 2 ab + a  &. c. be ac \.049. 691. 2. 645.y. 633. ^^ 695. l/'3. 701. J^^. If f 667. 9*. 3. 13. 662. 3 a. 655. 78. y  619. K 5 2 V2. . 1 704. 0. .04. 644. 12. i. a + b.b 686.. 672. 643. la6 2. 3. . 898.>A 610. I}'/.XX XIV 606. 1. ^. 1 V5 1. 666. 2 a: 4. + ~^'2 + a 1.  2f r 659. If b. b . 616. 703. fe + a. 5.001. 4330 da. 2. 618. 0. 614. + 2 A (i f Page 291.3. 613.3. 624. V2. 11. If 665. . If 658. 679. 669. 692. 621.702.2f (5 4. . 631. o. /> 4. 0. 703. 636. 640.f 3 V^3). 608.  13. 6 685. 634. 25. a. 8 6 fo .  3. a 2.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. V7. 625. ^ 1. 14. 210. 661. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 648. 0. 696. 5. n^l +^. 3 x2 .  6. 7. 9.. 3. 626. \+ab 699.203. V"^TJ.14 If 1. 2f. b 664.  684. 4. If . 5. 628. 683. 4$. . 652. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 2. 1$ 639. 651. a 1J.  a2  a (ab).001. (a3&45rj.43^4.  ft. 629.  4. 1 2. 1 ~a . 0. 2.3.a~ {Z 663. 4. 678< 682. 698. 607. 656. 3 681. 700. 615. 657.  4.  1. 2 x 44 ^/. 2 a 688. 654. . 612. 660. ' 674.b. 705. 1. <T! . 4.002. 5 3. V^~3). 1010. Page 289. 1m*. 650. 677 680. 7. 2. . 5002. \. 009. 632. 6.  .0. 622. 0. . . 630. 708. If. 690.3f l 668. 627. . 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15).c ) 697. 1. 638. 2. 702. 25. . a 4. 2.303. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 2 a  6*. 649. (*_ + a: 611. 641. 2.2f Page 290. 1. 637. V2. 2 / 2 4. ft). 7003. 4. 653.25. if 4/> 671. 8. / V^+lO^M"^.3. ' fe 2 ). 623. 6. ab 689. z  1. 670. 4 V 0. 11. a ' 2 + . 2. . ^. 50. 8 f 3. . 2f. 647. 706. 4 676. 617. ix 2 . ab. 971. 635. fta a/> ^A. 642.
x i f^' . 755. 782 785.r.11. mn. 750. a". 1. 3V52V3. 777. 758. 727. + < 735.~ . 1. 776. 15 shares. 751. 736. iv/Jj. 725. / 787.V2. i 2.. 773. 733.r+y> 759. a 2 6^. > 748. 731. . 794. Page 294. 710. 24. 300. 1. a 2  x2 . 3 720. 717. 3 VlT 795. 715. 2\/53V2. 30\/10 764. Page 293. 3^.rJ w L 754. 711. ^7xy. 33^2. 3V72VO. 17ft.. Hi a. 722. 793. + 6 2 tf'c. 713. 721. x\y. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 740. a db Va^T < 45da. 25. 756.8.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 1^ _ 760. 719. 1 752. VV> L4V34. 732. 00. 5. 712. 728.. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. "V313. 34. 739.2. 789. 4 104 v/2.9. 714. . 738.9. 1 747.^ 743. 763.10. T%. . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .4 . 3. 716. y  1. cr*lr*. 39. a 5 . fyaw&cu. 13ft. 767. v/7 / . VIO\/3. ^ ?>. 778. 342V3. 5. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. a:* . 8.257. 726. 3V72V3. 47. 753. 790 2v 3v 2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 1 [ + '> J. 724. . 769. i^. 788. 737. VT14V5. 734. 796. v'll. 1 I . 723. 24V2. 2 V2 .. 746. 7  3V5. 730. 2x3^ a. 709. 24 4 .V/^ 741.4 . 3V7. j 742. rt3 2 ^i^.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. J(v'lO2V 791. 718. .ANSWMHti Page 292.12 af V^ 4 744. 792. r. 29\/3. ^ .^. 729. 32>/2. 768.1 . 8. 749. 59.
832. 837. m 875. 2 854. 4.. 898. J V. 4.2) (x 4 2).6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).a 4 + 1). 3. 843.l)(x . (2x (r. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4. (x . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 2 . 817. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. b' 2 821. 1. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). (x 4. (2 4. 872. 849. 6. 2 (x 4*4. 5). 820.l)(x + 2). 884. 3. 893.+ m f ") (a* ). 897. 882. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). m = 2. (x 2 f r .  839. \/5. 2 2 .2 ax 4. + d)*. 11. f. 17.7 4 1) 846. ((' 1). 2. 2 m . 842.1)(V 2 . 3. 0. (. ^VG. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 3. 804. 4. 833. ( 869. 2  2. (2 x + 3 y} . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 17. 881. 836. 2. 2. 7. 2 j 889. Hoots are extraneous. a2 ^E*!. (3 862. 2 806. ) (a' 874. 825. 1. 1. . 830. **.r4). 819. Hoots . (1 .5) (x + * 853. 829. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 48.a 3 " 4.0..r . 2. 7. 826./>") (a'. 1C. 5. 14. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 5. 3 . (x .  ' . (xl)(^~3)(. . 23. 900.XXXVI 797. o. 896. 11. .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. H. 3. \/2. 13. . 857. (x3). o 828. 0. 4. 8 09. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 899. 831. a(ft)( 873. a 42)(x . 25. . 2. (a 4 871. 4. 868. ^ V}. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).3. 887. 4 885. a* 4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. (a 1) (x 4. ANSWERS 798.1)(0 865. 2 *x 807. . 7.5 b) 4 1). x . a(ry + 864. 0. 7.rae) (4 . 811. 1. db 7. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 876. 10. (x + 0X024. ^.y) 852. $.2w . 2/ 856. 879. 2. 895.7. 6 $. 6+V7. 2. 888. . (x*y*ryz + z*).1.  + l(l^).a 2 2 ). n =  29. 810. 834.4. 2.1).l)(x + 3)(2x43). 867. 892.  tt 815. 0. V 3. X4 1). 19. . 799. 890. 841. 3. are extraneous. (  ?>) (a + ^> . . 6. 863. 824. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (x 845. 5. 2. 4. 847. 880. 3. 891.1) (a 8 . 3.3)(x + 4). 813.4. x.l)(x . . 20). (:r 11. $. 6. . 894. 1.  1. 816. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).7). 861. 840. jV3 f 3. 3. Va 803. 4 818.10 ab 4. 2 . Page 296. (4 c 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . Va. 2 . Page 297. 883. (a m . 886. 801.25 ?>2). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 800. 814.. (x 2 . 5. ( 4 4. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 823. (2 a .1) . 851. 835.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 858. 8.7)(4 x. 812. .7). 827. 3. 1 1. 844. 5. 4 . 4. 2. 848. 4. 8. +j!>. 4. (3 b . 4. 859. . 808. 822.f.3. 838.4) 860. 1 .om 441) (a 855.
 1 . 984. 3 . Page 300. . . 950. 1 . 115. 2 ft. w. 6 .2. 6. 2. 4. 939. 1 2. 921. 923. 6. 7. ft. 1). 3. . =F J. 932. 5. . 919. 987. 986. 8. 1 + V953.. V5 fj. 6 a 915. ^y. 943. 944. 333. 6. 108. V5 T 2 . 1.. 954. . 8.. 3. ft. 4 6 mi. 951. 945. 922. 5l4f.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 1 _2 . a. . %* . 930. 60 949.. 6. 933.1.. J(_ ft. 4. 12 mi. f ft 4 . 248. . 8. 73. 5. 979.709. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 3. '3 3 in. 902.. Page 302. 936. 916.. w 3. 941.1 = 9. 4. 920.. 100 rows.615. 947. 15 946. ft. . v/(ai !)(&910. 12. 8 . 2. 7 ft. 977. 1. 28. 942. i 8. ft. 12 in. i>. 5. 496. 3). i 3. 2. . 7. $(l 4. 6.. 280. ?/i 6. 985. 3. 2. 6 da. .651. 4. 4 in. ft. 10./hr. ft. 18. 11. 9 in. 66 924. J. 480 8 sq. 11. 7. 931. 40 16 in. 7 or 30.  1. 934. 329. 927.. T 6. J. 960. 908. 906. 952. Page 303. dL 4. 10. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 11. 2.1. 4. . 959. ft. 0. 3. 28.01. . 1 1. 15 16 ft. 3. tt2 19. . 4. 8128.2. 8. 2. S07. 5.744. 2 yd. 6 1 1. 7. 2 w 914. 333. . 12. 4. 80. 2. 11. 56.. 909. . 0. 912.I. Z ^. 2. 918. . 982. 3 4 . 957. 940. T 6. 8. ft. 903. 964. 955. V^3).. . 3. 8. 961. 948. Page 301. 4. 12.. 0. 2. i(6 in. 983.V~~3).073.111. Va926. 2. 978. 935. 6. 20 19 ft. 4. 925.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 958. r ft ' < Page 299. 981. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. . 956. 904. 28. a + . 962. Y. 14 .  26j. 5 . 0. i1" 913. 111. 8. 937. f. 905. 963.. 2 1. 5. .446.760 sq. 938. 8..0. . 2 i ' a V. yd. 4 . 6. T3. 4. 911. 1. 917. 980.
1008. Page 304. 162. 1 1004. 992. 997. 995. + 448 .  5&7 1021. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1000. 1(5. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .. 2(2 v/2).  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 108. 4. (5. 192. . in.92. 120 a. Page 305. 48.192rt?)r 120 *. 1012. (Z>) 999. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 993. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1 8 8 2. 6 70 . 1013. 4 and 1020. r = 2. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . ~ \. + v 2). 0.128 I. 1014. 990. 1009. 9 da. 996.870 a 6 1011. 988. 12.870 z8 . 1019. 3003.51. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 120 i^l^. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 991. 12.378 <W and 92. 1017. 1001. . 994. 1018.18. 1010. 0. (J. ^f (2f3V2).378 1015. 1007. 72. 1006. 24. (6) 8(1 .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1003. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .'^^ } ( . ^Trsq. 8. 1016. 1005. X. () 12(2+V3). 2 ..
not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. $1. great many work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1. and commercial life. A examples are taken from geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. etc. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW TOSS . physics. Half leather. than by the .D.25 lamo. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. save Inequalities. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. i2mo. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The more important subjects tions. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Ph. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xi 4 373 pages. given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. comparatively few methods are heretofore. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+563 pages. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.
The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. etc. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The author grade. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. xiv+56a pages.D. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. HatF leather. comparatively few methods are given. Half leather.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. 12010.25 i2mo. Ph. $1. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. so that the tions. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. and commercial life.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. physics. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. In Factoring. save Inequalities. xi f 373 pages. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. HEW YOKE . Logarithms.
Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Cloth. Cloth. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. i2mo. 6.D. 9. NEW YORK . aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook.r and. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. xii + 233 pages. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. lines. Half leather. 10. $1. These are introduced from the beginning 3. more than 1200 in number in 2. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Ph. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . 4. SEVENOAK. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. $1. Attention is invited to the following important features I. State: . izmo. wor. iamo.10 L. SCHULTZE. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. under the heading Remarks". 7 he . . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book.
25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. $1. . . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . and not from the information that it imparts. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . of these theoretical views. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 12mo. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . New York City.
40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps. " This volume etc. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. diagrams. photographs. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. i2mo. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. and a full index are provided. Topics. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. $1.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.
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