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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

AS - BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAI-I. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .

NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.

IQJS January. . 1917.S. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. September. U. . 1911. Norwood. 1916.COPYRIGHT.' February. May. Published Set up and electrotyped. July. 8. January. August. Reprinted 1913. Berwick & Smith Co. J.A. Mass. September. 1910 . May.. 1915. Cushlng Co. 1910. .

All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends." this book. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many text-books In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. chief : among These which are the following 1. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. short-cuts that solve only examples real value. however. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.. owing has certain distinctive features. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. manufactured for this purpose. Elementary Algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Such a large number of methods. specially 2. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. etc. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. and conse- . All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. are omitted.

hence either book 4. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. however. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. In regard to some other features of the book. Moreover. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. two negative numbers. are placed early in the course.g. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. as quadratic equations and graphs. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis- sion to our best universities and colleges. etc. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. For the more ambitious student. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. Topics of practical importance. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . e. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertext-book is logically unsound . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge- bra". may be used to supplement the other.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra.

but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. By studying proportions during the first year's work. viz. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. Moreover. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. is based principally upon the alge- . the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. physics. in " geometry . based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im- provements upon the prevailing methods. and commercial are numerous. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. such examples. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt." Applications taken from geometry.

Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. 1910. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. . desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi- but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. NEW YORK. edge of physics. however. April. William P.

II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. . Powers... ...... SUBTRACTION..

.. .. . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type Polynomials. .... Type II. Type V.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. * ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. Type VI. . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ... Type IV. /^ . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. Form x'2 -f px -f q Form px 2 -f qx + r -f . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..114 . Type III.

.. ... ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XIV 169 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ..

xii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195

THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents

....

195

200

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals

205

206 210

.212

Involution and Evolution of Radicals

.....

214

218

Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations

219
221

CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM

XVIII
227

CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.

......
.
.
.
.

232
232

II.

Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic

.

.

234

III.

Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices

236
237

IV.

Interpretation of Negative Results

and the Forms

i

-,

.

.

241

Problems

243

CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.

246
24(j

251

Geometric Progression

263

CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

255

BEVIEW EXERCISE

.

268

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I

INTRODUCTION
1.

Algebra
it

may

arithmetic,

treats of

be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,

quently denoted by problem.

as illustrated in

the following

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.

Problem.
'

The sum
x

is five

times the smaller.

Let

two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of

Then
and
Therefore,

5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x

= 42,

and
3.

x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.

A problem
An

is

a question proposed for solution.

4.

equation is a statement expressing the equality of

two

quantities; as,
5.

6 a?

= 42.

In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.

Unknown numbers
;

are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,

by the

last

letters of the alphabet

but sometimes other letters

are employed. B

1

2

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1

Solve algebraically the following problems
1.

:

of two

times the smaller.
2.

numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.

is

four

twice as

and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse

A man
A

much

How

3.

and

B own

a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.

A

has

in-

vested twice as
invested ?
4.

much

How much
is

has each

The population

of

South America

9 times that of

Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.

and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.

The

rise

of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.

6 times as
7.

Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.

A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.

The sum

If

two

of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?

A

9.

The sum

triangle is are equal,

of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4

times their sum,
there in each ?

how many

degrees are

is

G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?

B

INTRODUCTION
11.

3

twice as
12.

Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.

B may

receive

twice as
13.

Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.

A
is

which
14.

line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.

How

travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.

A

sum

of the dis-

How many

miles did

each travel ?
15.

4

A, B, C, and

does

A

take, if

B

D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much

much

as B,

and

D

six times as

NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.

2

Subtract 9 from 16.

2.
3.

Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic

why

cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*

\

4.

The temperature
is

What
5.

noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at

of subtraction.

The temperature

4 P.M.

is

7, and

at 10 P.M.

it is

10

less.
6.

What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 -10?
(3

expressing the last

answer
7.
8.

Can you think

of

any other

practical examples

which

require the subtraction of a greater

number from a smaller

one?
7.

Many

greater

number from a smaller

practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in

a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,

4

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.

8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;

quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as -f- 5 or 5.
;

The

fact that a

thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 -10

below zero

may now

= -3.
is

loss of $ 60,

Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write

equal to a

$30
9.

-$90 = -$60.
number
is

The

absolute value of a

the number taken

without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.

6,

of -f 3 is 3.

It is convenient for

many

discussions to represent the

positive

a line

numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar

series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I

lit
-4
to

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-6

-5

-3

-2

-1

+\
4,

+2

+

3

+4

4-5

+6

y

Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.

to 4- 6 represents 4- 5,

resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the

The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.

Thus, 5 added to

1

equals 4, 5 subtracted from

1 equals

6, etc.

EXERCISE
1.

3

If in financial transactions

we

indicate a man's income

by

a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west

longitude, motion upstream

and downstream.

INTRODUCTION
3.

5

If north latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what

is

south latitude represented ?
4.

If south latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what
?

is

north latitude represented
5.

the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.

What

20 A.D. ?

Of an

east-

A

his total gain or loss ?
7.

merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350. - 350. (b) Find 200

(a)

What

is

higher, is 8

- +7? 8. A vessel
(6)

If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,

starts

sails

38 due south,

(a)

from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the

journey.
9.

Find 25 -38.

A
22

sails

vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)

journey,
10.

Subtract 22 from

15.
18.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.

From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From

19. 20.

21.
22.

23.
24. 25.

To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To - 8 To 7 From

add add add

12.
1.

2.

subtract 2.

add add

9. 4.

1 subtract 2.

Add

1 and 2.

26.

the one of

Solve examples 16-25 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as

motions.
27.
(a) 28.

Which is the greater number lor -1? (b) -2 or -4?

:

By how much

is

7 greater than

12 ?

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.

Determine from the following table the range of tempera:

ture in each locality

NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;

EXERCISE
1.

4
is

If the letter

t

means 1000, what

the value of

5t?
a=

2.
3.

What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?

if

6,

and

b

=

4?
is

4.
5.

What
If a

the value of 17

c,

if c

= 5?

ifc

= -2?
marbles,

many
6.

boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last

how

7.

How
8.
9.

merchant had 20 much has he left ?

A

answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m

dollars.

What

is

the

sum

of 8 &

and G

b ?

Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain

of the last

answer

if b

= 15.

10.

number, what represents 9 times

that

number ?

INTRODUCTION
11.

1

From 26 w

subtract 19 m.

12.
if

What is the numerical
From 22m
if

value of the last answer

if

m = 2?

m = -2?
13.

subtract
1

25m, and

find the numerical value

of the answer
14.

m=

2.

Add

13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.

15.
16. 19.

From

10 q subtract 20

q.

17.
18.

Add -lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=

From subtract 26 Add - 6 x and 8 x.

x.

20.

From

Wp subtract 10^).
is

What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.

The

and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.

signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have

If there is no sign between

two
is

letters, or

a letter and a

number, a sign of multiplication
6

is

understood.
written win.

x a

is

generally written 6 a

;

m

x n

Between two
(either

figures,

x

or

)

however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;

4x7 cannot be
14.

written 47, for 47

means 40

-f 7.

A product is
=

the result obtained by multiplying together

two or more
Since 24
Similarly,

quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.

7, a, 6,

and

c are factors of 7 abc.

15.

A

power
is

thus,

aaaaa

6 aaaaaa, or a ,

is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.

;

;

The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.

8
16.

ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a

power

is

the

number which

is

repeated

as a factor.

The base

of a 3

is a.

17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.

The exponent

of

m

6

is

6

;

n

is

the exponent of an

.

EXERCISE
1.

5

find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.

Write and

72

.

6.

42

.

10.
11.
.

8

(i)

.

14.
15.
2
.

25 1

.

2*.

7.
8. 9.

2*.

O

9
.

.0001 2

.

4. 5.

52
83

.

10 6
I 30
.

12.

(4|)
(1.5)

16.
.

l.l 1

.

.

13.

2

17.

22

+3

2
.

If

a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.

d=^
22.
a*.

find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.

20.
21.

c

10
.

3

(2 c)
ab.

.

26. 27.

2

at).

b2

.

d\

23.

(6cf)

25.

(4 bdf.

28.

If

29.
30.

= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
-jJg-,

In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.

is

called the coefficient of the

In 12 win 8/), 12
19.

is

the coefficient of
is

mw 8p,

12

m is the coefficient of n*p.

A
17

numerical coefficient

a coefficient expressed entirely

in figures.
In
aryx,

17

is

the numerical coefficient.
is

When

stood ; thus a

a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.

under-

=

=

INTRODUCTION

9

20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.

3 9

2

means 3
3

aa, while (3

2

)

=3ax

3 a.

= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 2-2.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty

1 abc*

7 abccc.

EXERCISES
If

a

= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the

numerical values of

:

21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is

A

6

is is

the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth

a

root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,

The nth
Va,
is

fifth root of a,

indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is

A/27

Using

this

(Va)
22.

n

= a.
The

symbol we

may
is

express the definition of root by
the

index of a root

number which

indicates

what

root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.

It is written in the opening of the radical

is

the index of the root.

The
[ ]
;

signs of aggregation are

:

the parenthesis,
.

( )

;

the

bracket,

the brace,

j

j

;

and the vinculum,

Val -\fi?. 0. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 2. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. are trinomials. 26. 4V3~6c. aVc^. !^-f\/0-3 3 ft. is 28. A polynomial is an y. V2a. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. [6-c] 3 . 14. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 -f 1). 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. d 7. + 1]. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 -f 9. 10. since the parts are a . c -f d). 16. some number is ." EXERCISE If a 1. A binomial is 62 . 6. 13. V36". 12. a2 + and | - \/a are binomials. v'Ta. 9. 17. 5Vl6c. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 2 . 11. a polynomial of two terms. 8. 7 = 2. V3 . c = 1. + M -f c 4 -f- d 4 are polynomials. 27. AND NUMERICAL sym- SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial.g.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 3. find the numerical value of: Vff. b = 3. e. A monomial or term -f- an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. as in arithmetic. 6. 15. V^a6. + c). 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. or 9 Vx. 4(a 6(6 + &). x 9. \/c. (c-f-d) 4.

g. 3. b = 3. . 8. 3 2 If 1. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.4 6^9 ad. 5a2 2 a2 -46c-f2^^ + 3 a& +. l 13.810 + 150 = . 4 . find the numerical value of: 9.3-0 = 270 . 3 4 . a 2 -6.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .390.2 + I-126. EXERCISE 8* - . a2 11. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con- tained in a parenthesis.9 aWc + f a b .9-9. d=Q. 2 ). 4. = 32 + 45-27 = 50. Ex. .. 2. -5c +-d 2 . 6. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. Otherwise operations of addition.9. Ex. 5c6 2 +-6ac3 a 3 17c3 -hl2o. 5 means 3 4- 20 or 23. 2. 52 . multiplication. i. (a (a -f b) 7. + 26+3 c.5 ax 50 a6cd. a2 -f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5=3. c = 2.e. 5. . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6-a&c2 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32 - *^. * For additional examples see page 268. c=l. subtraction. d = 0. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 -+12a(i *15. a=4. x=^.INTRODUCTION 29.19 = 6. 16.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . . 6. 1. ' -f & -f c 3 8 -d s . _|_ E. 3a + 56 a 2 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5. 12. 4a6-fVa-V2^. 10. 14. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.

30. a =4. sible to state Ex. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. physics. a = 4. 27. .6 -f c) (6 a + c). = 3. 22. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 4. 6. 6 = 1. a =3. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 7. 12 cr6 -f- 6 a6 2 6s. 29. 30. 25. Six 2 . Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 38. 6 = 6.c) (a . 23. 24. 6 = 3. 28. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a a=3. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a. Read the expressions of Exs. : 6. 35. 33. 10-14 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 26.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 37. 6 = 6. a = 4. and other sciences. a = 3.6 . a = 2. a = 3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. geometry. 34. 6 = 2. 2-6 of the exercise. 6=2. 6 = 5. 6. if : a = 2. 6 = 5.

and 13 inches. i.e. 14.seconds. 84 square EXERCISE 1. and 5 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 4. A train in 4 hours. c.INTRODUCTION E. An electric car in 40 seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2-J. and 15 feet. then a 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v : a. 13. b. 12. . if v . (c) 4. (b) 5. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.) Assuming g . d. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. Find the height of the tree. the area of the triangle equals feet. 15 therefore feet.16 centimeters per second. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. count the resistance of the atmosphere. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. S = | V(13-hl4-fl5)(13H-14-15)(T3-14-i-15)(14-13-f-15) = V42-12-14.g.16 1 = 84. b 14. and c 13 and 15 = = = . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 2.

(c) 5 miles. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. : 8000 miles. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. meters. square units (square inches.).14 4.). (c) 10 feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. ~ 7n cubic feet. 32 F.14d (square units). 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 8000 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. $ = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. . 5. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.14 square meters. (The number 3. is H 2 units of length (inches. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 5 F.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 2 inches. the 3. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F-32). This number cannot be expressed exactly. the area etc.

in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however. or positive and negative numbers. In algebra. . or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. SUBTRACTION. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.$6) + (- $4) = (- $10). the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.CHAPTER II ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.

- 0.16 32. 23. is 2. d = 0. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 24. + (-9). 18. c = 4. 22. 10. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. (-17) 15 + (-14). the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 21. 4. . d = 5. c = = 5. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 19.3. 12. 6 6 = 3. 5. if : a a = 2. of 2. is 0. l-f(-2). 23-26. (_ In Exs. find the numerical values of a + b -f c-j-c?. subtract their absolute values and . = 5. Thus. the one third their sum. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 5. + -12. of: 20. 33. 4 is 3 J. '.

6. . 42. 38. are similar terms. : 48. and 3 yards. . 29.5. $7000 gain. 32.3. = -23. 33. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 09. : and 1. $3000 gain. d= 3. . 6. 66. 40. or and . 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.ADDITION.13. . 3. = -13. affected by the same exponents. -' 1? a 26. which are not similar. & 28. 31. sets of numbers: 13. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. AND PARENTHESES d = l. . 10. c = 0. = 22. and -8 F. 36.. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. $1000 loss. 37. 43. and 4..7. 55. . 25. 2. \\ Add 2 a. -11 (Centigrade). }/ Add 2 a.4. and 3 a. & = 15. 5 and 12. : 34. 6. 35. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. $500 loss. 7 yards. 0. 2.7. 60. 72. ' Find the average of the following 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. -4. 7 a. 39. 13. 32. SUBTRACTION. ^ ' 37. and 3 F. 10. and 3 a. . 10. 27. 30. 3 and 25.5. 12. 34. . c=14. 7 a.. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 4 F. 74. 41. and $4500 gain. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 1.

. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 9(a-f-6). b a -f ( 6). 1 \ -f- 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. Algebraic sum. 5Vm + w. in algebra it may be considered b. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. : 2 a2.sign.13 rap 25 rap 2. 10.18 35. + 6 af . sum of two such terms can only be them with the -f. -3a . -f 4 a2. 2(a-f &). 11. 13. 12(a-f b) 12. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a& -|- 4 ac2. 5l 3(a-f-6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The sum x 2 and f x2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. EXERCISE Add: 1. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. Vm -f. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is -f- a2 . 14 . 12Vm-f-n. 11 -2 a +3a -4o 2. 5 a2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2 a&.ii. 12 2 wp2 . 2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. or a 6. 7 rap2.

17. 35. 21. 33. SUBTRACTION. 2a -4a-4 + 6a -7a -9a-2a + 8. 6 23. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. c 2 ^24. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. is . 37. i xyz -co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2/ : Add. 3a-76 + 5a + 2a-36-10a+116. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. + y. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. without finding the value of each term 34. 5x173 + 6x173-3x173-7x173. and to add each column. -17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . -36. l^S 25. a a8 ZL **. + / + 3 Va. 2 7 -1 26.ADDITION. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 32. 30. 1 27. +m """ 20. n x* 2 22.

c = 1.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.3 s.15 abc . 5 . 2 Thus. the following polynomials : 2a 364-6 t c. 2 . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2z2 -4?/ 2 -f2z 2 5 -3ar -22/2 4- 4 -3 /. and 2 . and J 2 s.4-1 = -3.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.15 6c.7 2 . 3a 2? . to show any error. 5. 3 a -f 4 1) 4. . of that letter.g. 4a4-6 12 q 5 2 a.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. a 4.2z and 0^-9 z * For additional examples see page 259. = .20 c 5 ab 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 -7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac- aW a.o c and 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. 9 q 4. 6=2.8 & c~15&c -12a&4l5a&c -20c2 -f-lO&c . to add 26 ab .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.12 a& 4. s. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2 0-25. f 110WS: 26 aft.g. therefore the answer is correct. e. 3.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . NOTE. x of x. 7 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 4 = 7. 2c.c= 2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. -f 5 c -f- But 7 = 10 .8 abc . V3.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 2 Sum. 46 4z 7 c.3 a -f 4 the sum a = 1. . ft any convenient and c. 4- 2.

6. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2 a. v/20.15 5. and 1 4 a .7v/i-f.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .(b + c) 1. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. -18/+6y + d.1. a2 2 14. m 4 6. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 4 ajy 17. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d-15e + 2/. xy3xz + yz. .a -. and and 13. a2 a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. a4 6(a a a2 -f a -f- 1.and 6. .10 Vc. . . 2(6 + c) + (c -f a). a.5 cr& + 7 6 9. a 4 a .12(a 4. a) -y -^/.ADDITION. . 2 3(c -f a).a.4 Va .VS 4 2 Vc.2n 2 2 3 rz . and 8 3 . e a4 /. and 5 Vb 18. 16e + 17/-90. . and v 15.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 16.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . d. + a + 1. SUBTRACTION.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 2 ?ft ?/z. 4(a . in 8 3 m n 4. . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.a 4 a 4 1.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 8. and -12a 4 15& -20c . 2 2 and . 2xy + 4:XZ-}-5yz. . 2 2 . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.a.5 c ll& -7c -6 4. 19.8 m 2m -12. d and / 3 ? 12.7m .5a^-6 -f 6) . 5-6 w. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .12. 4.12 6 ~5 a . 6a -5a &47a& -4& and 7. 4 3 3 ^* -f- -h <l.1 a 4 1 0. -7ar + 3B -5. .4:xy xz 6yz.Ga 4-3x45. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4 Vc. a + 1> 8 2 2 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . ?/ .9(a + &) . 11. 4 8 3 4 4 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 3 . a 4 a . + 50 + 62 . 10a +lOa 6-ll& 10. and . ^2 1 e.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2 ?/. 4 + 6) - 5 (a + 6) + 3.

3 taken from 2 ? 5. 8 -f-3f a n-2<w +n . 12 xyz.-9aj 2. . + 1.. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1. 22. +d a. 5 -}- and 3 m 3 7 m. 2 a3 -a 4 3 a-f^. -f 1. 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . is 2. and 2 24. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. -T-8a. + n*. 13 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units -f 1. a 6 2 c. a s -f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1. 1. The sum and ? 1. and 25. 4^ + 3t*n l-2aj 2 a. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ -f x y bxyz~lx. If you diminish a person's debts. c 3 3 3 2 3 . many negative units re- main ? from 2.5< 3 2 s 4^4.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1/ .11 xy + 12.3^* 2n 2 . 5 3 -f- 4 ?n 4 -2m+2m e. 1. and e + 6y . -2 8 n + <w 2 . . -4-5a-6 2 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .22 21. . 2-fa 3 4 -a +7a. 8 . -f- number may be added 3.ra + m.4 2tn* Sic 2 . s . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken -5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 16m 7/-12my d+e a 6. how 1.m 4m ?/-?/ d. What away is the value of the sum if two neg- ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 6 -f c 2 23. -f 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.

if x Ex. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. a. the given number the subtrahend. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 7. a-b = x. (- 6) -(- = . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 41. From 5 subtract + 3. two numbers are given. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. In subtraction. and their algebraic sum is required. the other number is required.g. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number.ADDITION. 6 -(-3) = 8. Or in symbols. Ex. and the required number the difference. . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. +b 3.3. 5 is 2. 1. To subtract. SUBTRACTION. In addition. 2. From 5 subtract to . 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. called the minvend. NOTE. Ex.2. 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. This gives by the same method. Therefore any example in subtraction different . change the sign of the subtrahend and add. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. from What 3.

-f 8 .3 r*-5o. Ex. Check. From _6ar3 -3z + 7 2 -6ar3 -3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 -t- .

6)-f. 43. 41. 58. 57. and 3 7/ .4 a^ 4. 50. 44. 6 4 a.w>t. 47. 2y 2 . 42. From 5a-(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn -f ??/> 8d 11 c-f 17 d. 2 + 4 a& 3 -f 6 4 .a 2 -j. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 -f a3 From a 4 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract -f a + b 3 1.4 a*& + 6 a & . c -f d. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/-' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . -f 2 aa -7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 -f & take 1 -f b -f- & s . +3x -f & -f- 12 take 3 -f- ar -f- 4 x + 11. 2. check the answer.2. 51. 49.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. tract 4 x 3. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 -f mn -f wp -f. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 4v From 6 subtract l-t-2a-f3& + 4<7. From 6(a-f.c. -f 12 b -f From 10 a 12 & -f 6 subtract 5 c. 53. of x2 4x -f- 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub- From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 -}- a2 2a and a 2 + 4.ADDITION. 56. From 2 a take a & -j.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 54. From a3 subtract 2 a3 -f. 45.b -h c and a & -f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. of a 4.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(a-f&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. SUBTRACTION. From From $ -a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract -f- ar -f 7 a 2 ?/ . 55. 46. 52. + a the 2 a. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a-& 59. 48.7 a .

To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a + 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. + 2. 19. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. + 6 + c. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 6. subtract # + 1. 6 17. 2 m 21. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 -j- +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . ~2a-6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce -a+6? v . Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. of # 2 8. 16. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci-66 + c and 11. +a add the difference duce 13. 20. a a + c.26 4. 9. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4- a2 3 between 5 a 12. What expression must 8a3 -2a-7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro- expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro- duce 14. A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.15. a 2y + z.

46. & -f c. 4a-{(7a + 6&)-[-6&-f(-2&. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. may be written as follows: a -f ( 4.a^6)] - } . SUBTRACTION. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* -f- thesis. 66 2&-a + 6 4a Answer.6 b -f (.2 b .b c = a a & -f- -f. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4-. I. one occurring within the other.c.g. . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub- + d) = a + b c + d.a -f- = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. II. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. a+(b-c) = a +b . the sign is understood. Ex. changed.ADDITION. (b c) a =a 6 4- c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the -f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign -f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)-[-6& +(-25. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a -{7 a 6 b -[. 45.

a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. find the numerical value of { 1422 . m -f ft)- a. 2 2a. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. : x + (2y-z). 4. a -f (a a . 3.(a + 6). 17. By removing parentheses. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n-\-p. 5. 15.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. a (-a + 6). Signs of aggregation 1. 2a -(4a -26 +c ). a-(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).7i -h jp) (m ?*. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. may be inserted according to 43.1422) J ] . 6) 2. (m a2 -f. 271 + (814 . 2. 14. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.)]. 18.: Ex. a -(a + 26 -c ). + (2a -6 + c ). .[271 47. 8. 2a 2 + 5a-(7-f 2a )-f (5-5a). 13. [36+ (a -2c]. 21.+ 6)-f (a-2 b). Ex. 2m 4a-f- 2 2 2 10. 9. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 16.-y (60. 2 2 2 a-(. 6.) 5 . 19.- ? 11. 3 3 f 7.

3. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. p + q + r-s. The square of the difference of a and b. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The sum^)f m and n. m x 2 4. 13. terms 5. )X 6. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 10. m and n. z + d. 3. 5. difference of the cubes of n and m. 7. 12. of the cubes of m and n. 7. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : -27i2 -3^ 2 + 4r/. and the subtrahend the second.2 tf .7-fa. II. 2m-n + 2q-3t. ' NOTE. 9.4 y* . EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2. 5^2 _ r . a-\-l> > c + d.1. 6 diminished . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. SUBTRACTION. The product The product m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 4-9 x + 2. The difference of a and 6. 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.ADDITION. 5 a2 2. 4. y -f- 8 . . first. 8.

and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6. d. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. dif- of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. (Let a and b represent the numbers.30 14. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. a plus the prod- uct of a and s plus the square of -19. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. b. 16. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 18.

therefore. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 3. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. force is produced therefore. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weights. two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. 4. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 5. If the two loads balance. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. A A A 1. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 2. If the two loads what What.

( (. (- 9) x (- 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac- tors can be obtained. 9 9. becomes meaningless if definition. Practical examples^ it however. x 11. Thus.4)-(. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus- by the following examples : 4x3 = 4-12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = -(. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.9) x 11. To take a number 7 times. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. however. thus. (-5)X4. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multi44-44-4 12. 5x(-4). or plied by 3. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub- traction. the multiplier is a negative number. 4 x(-8) = ~(4)-(4)-(4)=:-12. . Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. make venient to accept the following definition : con- 49.4)-(-4) = + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. (. 4x(-3)=-12.32 8. 48. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 multiplied by 3. NOTE. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(-4)+(-4)+(-4)=-12. 9 x (- 11).

16. 4 . (-4)X(-15).-2--f 18.7. and y = 4. NOTE. 2. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 6. 7. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. of Signs: TJie positive.(-4J). 8 4 . 20. 15.2 f+x 2 . 26. 3. -1. 3 a2?/2 . 5. 8. 4a -f-26 2 2a + 3&2 -6c* . (c#) . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 17. Ua b 28. .MULTIPLICATION 50. 2a 2 6c. +5. 22. 11. b = 3. _3. 23. X(-5). (-7) X (-12). x= 0.(a&c) 2 2 . 8 31. the parenthesis frequently omitted. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (-a)(+6) = -a&. 14. . 10.3) (-1) 7 2 . 4 a2 . 6 2. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. -5x-3. If a cal = 4a6c. etc. (. 13.a)(- =+ a&. 19. (-4)'. z s 11 aWcx. (-10) 4 . -. find the numeri- values of: 21. (-2)x9. Law Thus. 24. 1. 9. 3 aW.-3. 2a6 c . 27. about fac- (-2)X If 6. 29.-4. c = 25. 4. _2.-2. (-2) 8 (. is 6x-7. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. . 6. . 30. _2^ -3. 12. x. 32.

78 . a 2 2 . a= 1. 100. 13. By 3 definition. 36. of the factors. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . i. 3 3 4 . 5 . 2(7. if =2 a a to - 2 2 x2 2 2. 9 . m*. 2 -2 3 6 . 4.<?.(-7). Ex.. 17. 6" 127 U . (a6) -(a5) 9. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 2 2 2 .6 if 35.(2.. 53. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) -f n) factors. = 2.7 &*# =(6 - 7) (a 2 a8 ) . 5(7-11.257). Ex. .3-5). This 52. & = -3.2). 2 3 . =2 a *. 6 aWc x . 3. a 5 (-a) (^ + 14 8 2/) -(a? + 4 2/) -(aj . 7. B. or 2 . &*) c d*. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.m a 3 - 4 . 11. 6 = 1. + 2/). 200. . 2.7.2 -2 23 + 5 . 34.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a8 a=2. 5. 4.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 3 2 .1 2 a 6 -f 6 aW . 5 3 5 3 2 .e. 16.50-3). : 3a-7abc.(-12) . 4. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 10. . . IB. 50(11-2. . 5 = 2. 6. 12 U U . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. fl*" integers.3). 3. 127 - 127 9 7 . 6 = . - 2 2. - and 2 25 8 . 14. 2(14. 1. a = 2. 2. a = 3.

26. 2(5-fl5-f25). . tet^m -f c) = ab +ac. . 11(3. 20. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a -f 8 54. c-(-4a ftc ). 19. 6. This principle. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5 - 2 ran4 30.6. but we shall assume it for any number. 2(645410). 23(10004100420).6 a2 62c -f 8 a2 6. 31. 35. 2 32. . 4. 22. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . 2. 25.7 w'W (-8 n^W). 6(104-20430).3 win ) .A).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 29. by first multiplying. 3.-4a#. multiply each by the monomial. -7p*q r*. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. _4aft. 23. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 17(10041042). 5. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 6 e/ a (- (- 2 a2 ) 3 . 24. ax /) 2 4 1 (.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) -f (a 4- 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.f- 2). 4 aft -5 aft 2 . 12(| + 1 4 i). Thus we have in general a(b 56. . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 27. 21. 35 4 7(6. (. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. and then adding : 1. ) 2 33.2 3 aft ).-7pqt. 28. (. 34.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be - 1) =- 18 a 4 6 2 c . called the distributive law. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 3(124342). /). If results ft. 7.

Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 28. 21. 5). 19. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. By what 25.6) (x -f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) -f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 23. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. . 2 2 16. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.60 a& 10 aft. 29. -: expression must 24. -5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . .2 mn(9 mV . 2 27. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. ~2mn(m +n -p ).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 20.3 aftc).we b) (x law. 26. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.6 a6). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* -f 3 x* -f arty 3 a4 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 3 ). 11. 7 3 (7 3 -f-7 +7 10 ). . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. . Find the factors of 6 ary . be multiplied to give 4o. 30. 17. 2 m(m-hn -\-p). -f7a. 4 13 (4 9 -4 5 -4).5 w*V -f 7 wn).5 x- 7). 7 a 6 c(. 22. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.asa product. 9.^ c + 2 . 12. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.

are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 b by a 5 b. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Since errors.4.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* * - 2" a2 -7 60. a2 + a8 + 3 . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Multiply 2 + a -a. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Check. .1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab - 13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. To multiply two polynomials. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.a . 2a-3b a-66 2 a . Ex. 59. the student should apply this test to every example.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 2. Multiply 2 a . however.3 a 2 + a8 a a = =- I 1 =2 -f 2 a 4. Since all powers of 1 are 1. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 2 + a8 .

10. 40. . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 31. 20. 2. 15. 6 2 (6a&c-5) -3a6-f-2)(2a6~l).4) (mnp 4. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (6i-7n)(llJ-n). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 11. + & + 1-f a^faj -1). 41. I (m-fn)(m-4. 26. (6p (2 -f- 21. (a-^-26) . -^ 2 . 25. 2 - 37. 36). 3. 5. 32. (4a-f 76)(2tt (4ra -f-ra (5c-2d)(2c-3d).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (a -|-2a + 2)(a-3). 12. 1). 16. 36. a 5c)(2a-6c). (9m-2n)(4m + 7tt). 17. 22. 24. 6. 7. 36) I) 14. -2) (3 A: -1). 2 . (13 A. 2 (a a-l)(2a?-fl). (8r-7*)(6r-39.2m)(l -m). 2 . OQ OO. 8. * For additional examples see page 261. 9. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 35. (2w 19. 12)(a?^2-|-l). 18. (2 x* x 2 . 29. (aj-f6y)(aj 23.1 .4) (x + 1).2). 7y). (4a 2 33. l)(ra-f 2). . 3n)(7m -f-6<7)(5^) + 8n). 4 2). 28.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp -f. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c-3).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 4. QQ O7. 30. 3<7). 13. (6a~7) 2 .

in of the two unequal terms. + 60)(f-2). (ofy* -f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 2 a? 29. 24. 8. : 23 2. ft 16. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 1005x1004. i. . 3 (a -7) 3 (a -8).4). 20.13). 27. . 28. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 3. (p-12)(p + ll). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. . 9. 1) (10 + 2). (a (a (a. 19. 75 ab -f 54 ft . 21. 25 a 2 . -2) (1000 + 3). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (a -9) (a + 9). 12. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. + 9)(m+9). + 5) (1000 + 4). _3)(a _4). (wi 2^*-12)(ajy 6.e. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 25.2 6) (a -f 6). 11. + 2) (a -f 3). 6.-25)(y+4). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 2 5 b z) (a2 -f 4 (a 2 4. 10. i. (a-3)(a + 2). (a 102 x 103. (*. 15.!!)( (a + 21). (10+ (1000 (2.e. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). plus the product of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 26. 18. 7. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 17. (100-1) (100 (1000 + 2). 14.n)(w-f w). 22. -2 6) (a -3 6). (6 -12) (6 -f. 13. plus the product 62. + 3) (a -7). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. X 102.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (J 23. (ra. (-!)(* -5).

40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). n2 10ii+16. i. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36.66 s.e. 35. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 49 y*. 77ie square of the of the first. i.15. (x+3i/) 2 . III. + 6 a + 8. Ex. : ar'-Sz + a 2 G. 34. 9. w 2 ro . 2 (a (*-5) 2 .e. 7. 32. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. + 6) (a + 2) -a) 2 . of the following expres- Find two binomial factors sions 30. 37. 7 a + 10. 8. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 2 5. plus the square of the second. second. + 3) 2 . of the second. : 24 (a 2. 31.30. p 2 -p. . and the second.15. 6. a2 2 w + 2 w . plus sum of two numbers the square II. 63. 33. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. III. . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP -f. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 4. <J>-7) J . (a-2) (p a .e. (a-26) 2 . 3.

a 2 + 10 ab -f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 (4a-36) 2 13. (m -f 2 tt n)(ra w )- 26 - (^ (2m + 3)(2m-3). 29. 12. 99x101. n*-6n+9. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 45. 2 J ). 16aW-25. ). 62 -25n 2 . 2 9a -496 2 56. a2 -9. m 2 16. 35. 2 -11 # ) 2 20. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xy-Sy* . (100 + 2) (100 -2). -I) 2 . n 2 -f4n+4. 33. 31. 2 2 (5 (a r*-2t ) 2 5 (c-d -5)(c d 2 . 34. -7& ) 25. The product of 57. 2 (2a6-c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . 28. 51. 38. + 5). 998x1002.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 2 . G> +5g)*. (m -27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). By actual multiplication. 52. . 23. a 2 -8a6+166 2 . 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 18. 103 36. 11. 17. 104 2 37.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 41 16. 991 2 2 . 24. 2 2 -5c ) 2 2 19. ( 27. (2x-3yy. 47. 42. 40. 2 + 11 -2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2 - Z ) 2 2 (5 r -f 2 2 . 15.998 39. (1000 2 . 54. (3p -9) (6a 2 2 2 . . 14. 4 53. 55. . 22 2 . 49. : factors of each of the following expres- y?-f. 46. 9 a2 . 22. 41. + 5)(5+a). . 2 . 21. (^-. 25 a -9. -7)(a 2 2 -f 7). 32. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 -2a6 + & 2 m 2 -2m-hl. (a -3) 2 2 2 . (6afy 2 -5) (a.MULTIPLICATION 10. (20 -f- 1) . 48. 44. 2 .

65. 8. (2a-3)(a + 2). 4. ) (2 of a polynomial.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. or The student should note minus signs. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. . 7. 5. (4s + y)(3-2y). 2 2 + 2) (10 4-3). 11. The middle term or Wxy-12xy Hence in general. 6. 2 (2m-3)(3m + 2). 3. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ((5a? (10 12. The square 2 (a 4. 2 10. (5a-4)(4a-l). 13. : 25 2. 9. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). sum of the cross products. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (3m + 2)(m-l). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 -7)(a & + 5). 14. (x i- 5 2 ft x 2 -3 6 s).-f 2 a& -f 2 ac + 2 &c. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive.& + c) = a + tf + c . plus the last terms. (5a6-4)(5a&-3).

= 10 x . after multiplying the factors of a term.4) .1 5 = 10 . 8. 13.39. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.r _ 2 .8 x + 15] . . 2 2. 6~2(a + 7). : 43 26 (m-f n+p) 2 2 . (m-f n)(m+2)-3m(n + m).5) = (7 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.X2 + 2 x .(= [ Xa + 2 . (a-2)(a-3)~(a-l)(a-4). 8. of z : 10. 5. 3. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 3.3) (x . 7. and check the answers !. (2a-36 + 5c) (3 (. Ex. 4. = . 6.(x .29.5). a. 12.4) . 2 m 2 -+- n2 2 "-f- jp -f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. (x-y+z)*.3) . 4(aj-2)-h3(-7). 6(a 2. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.24 . (a (. Hence. + 6-5) . Find the square root 11. 66. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 9.(m 2 6. + 6)( . 7.(>-.24] . + 6 )-2(6 + &)~(&4-& ).3)(z. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 4y s-f n) 2 . 4. If x = 1. ( - 2 -4) = - 20 a.39. 4(* + 2)-5(-3). (u-4& + 3c'.[a? . n). -2)-6. 5. Check.y? + 8 .i-2&-c) 2 .

44
9.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

10. 11. 12.
13.

4(m + 2)
(a?

+ 5(w

3)

5)(oj-2)

(a;-

(n -f 5) (w

- 2) + (n - 7) (n + 4) - 2 (n* - 2)

14.
15.

6(p+2)-7(p-9)-2(i> + l)(p-l).

16.
17.

x- 2 y)(3 x -f 2 y) - (4 - y) (a3 (a -f 6) - 4 (a + &) (a -f 2 6) + (a (5
2

18.

19.

20.
21.

22.

2

(a

-fa-f

1)

(

a - 1)

- (a + 1) (a - 1).
8

CHAPTER
DIVISION

IV

is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

67.

Division

if

their product

is

Thus
by
-f

to divide
12.

12

by

+

3,

we must find
is

the
;

number which

3 gives

But

this

number

4

hence

_

multiplied

12 r +3

=4.

68.

Since

-f

a

-

-f b

-fa

_a
and
it

-f-

a

= -f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
-f-

follows that

4-a

=+b

ab

a
ab

a
69.

Hence the law
:

of signs

is

the same in division as in

multiplication
70.

Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.

Law

of
,

a8 -5- a5

=a

3

for a 3

It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8

=

.

Or

in general, if

greater than

m n, a

-f-

and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"-", for a
<

m

m

is

45

46

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent

of the divisor.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently

2x y
6

2
,

we have
z

to

find

the

2x*y

gives 10 x^ifz.

This

Therefore,
the quotient

*

,

= - 5 a*yz.
is

Hence,
sign,

of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the

a monomial whose

coefficient is the quotient

preceded by the proper
literal

and whose

literal

found

in accordance with the

quotient of their law of exponents.

parts

73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)-?-4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.
-

-

.

-

.

-

.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:

28

'

2

.

76-H-15.
-39-*- 3.
2
15

3"
7

7'

3.

-4*
'

4.
5.

-j-2

12
.

4

2

9

5 11

68

3 19 -j-3
5

10.

(3
38
-

-2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'

11.

3

(2

.3*.5 7 )-f-(
2
'

12

'

2V

14

36 a
'

13

''
y-ffl-g

35

-5.25

-12 a

2abc

15

-42^
'

-56aW
'

UafiV

DIVISION
lg

47

-^1^. 16 w
7

20>

7i

9

_Z^L4L.

22.

10 iy.

132 a V* 14 1

*

01

-240m
120m-

40

6c

fl

/5i.
3J)

c

23.

2 (15- 25. a ) -=- 5.

25. 26.

(18
(

.

5

.

2a )-f-9a.
2

24.

(7- 26 a

2

)

-f-

13.

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS

To divide ax-}- fr.e-f ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx -J- ex.
74.

But
TT

x(a
aa?

Hence

+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx -f ex = a 4- b +
-\.

,

.

c.

a?

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.

3 xyz

EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:

29

2.
5.

fl

o.

(5*

_5* + 52)

-5.

52

.

3.
97
.

(2

(G^-G^-G^-i-G
(11- 2

4.

(8- 3

+

11 -3

+ 11

-5)-*- 11.

18 aft- 27 oc

Q y.

9a

4

-25 -2 )^-2
<?

2

.

+8- 5 + 8-

7) -*-8.

5a5 +4as -2a

2

-a

-14gV+21gy
Itf

15 a*b

-

12

aW + 9 a
2

2

3a

48
,

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,

m n - 33 m n
4

s

2

-f

55

mV

- 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3

- 49 aW + 28 a -W - 14 g 6 c
4 4

15. 16.

2 (115 afy -f 161 afy

- 69
4
2

a;

4
?/

3

- 23 ofy
3

4

)

-5-

23 x2y.

(52

afyV - 39
4
?/

oryz

- 65 zyz - 26 tf#z)

-5-

13 xyz.
-f-

,

17.

(85 tf

- 68 x + 51 afy - 34 xy* -f 1 7

a;/)

- 17

as.

DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.

Let

it

be required to divide 25 a

- 12 -f 6 a - 20 a
3

2

by

2 a 2 -f 3 a, divide

4

a, or, arranging according to
2

descending powers of

6a3 -20a

-f

25a-12

2 by 2a -

The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is

If

the product of 3 a and 2

2

4 a

+

3, i.e.

6 a3

12 a 2

-f

9 a, be sub-

8 a 2 -f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have

therefore to divide the remainder,

8 a2

-f-

16 a

12,

2 by 2 a

4 a

+

3.

consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,

We

4,

the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
-I-

+ 3, we

obtain the product

8 a2

16 a

12,

which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.

no remainder. Hence 3 a

4

is

DIVISION
The work
is

49
:

usually arranged as follows

- 20 * 2 + 3 0a-- 12 a 2 +
a3

25 a
{)

-

12

I

2 a2 8 a

-

4 a 4

a

_
12

+3

I

-

8 a? 4- 16

a-

76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:

descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.

Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and

subtract the result
4.

from
it

the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.

Arrange

the

remainder in
as a

expression, consider
5.

until the highest poiver

Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less

was arranged
the divisor.

than the highest poiver of the same

letter in

77.

Checks.

Numerical substitution constitutes a very con-

venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division

was

exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.

if

the

Ex.

1.

Divide 8 a3

-f

8 a

- 4 + 6 a - 11 a
4

2

by 3 a
,

- 2.
^ _ _
,

Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4

,

,

+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8

11

a2 a2

-f

8a

4

I

3 a
2 a8

-2
-f

=
a _+ 2
.

7-r-l,

4 a2

=

7

+

-11

-

3 a2

3

a'

2

+ +

8 a 2 a

-4 + 6a - 4

50
Ex.
2.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4

- 46 -6a6
4
3

-f-

9

2

6

2

2 l by 26 -3a& + a

.

Arranging according to descending powers of

a,

we have

a<a4

6 a36
fr

-f
-f

9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2

-46*

I

a2
a*

-

8 ab 3 ab

- 3 a8

-

|

+ 2 6^ - 2 62

-46*

- 3 a^ + 9a 2 6 - 6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a - 4 6 4 - 2 a^a + 6 aft - 4
Check.
ft*

The numerical
it

substitution a

=

1,

&

=

1,

cannot be used in this
either to use

example since
larger

renders the divisor zero.

Hence we have

a

number

for a, or multiply.
2 - 8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab - 2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2 - 3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2 - 3 a&) - 2 62 ] = (a 2 -3 aft) 2 -4 6* = a2 - 6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2 - 4 5*.

EXERCISE

30 *
:

Perform the operations indicated and check the answers

2. 3.

(jf_2y-15)-i-<y-6).
2 (15 a
2

4.
5.
6.

- 46 a# -f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4- 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/

-5-

(5

a5 w).

2

-*-

(m

7.

(6^-53^ + 40)^(6^-5).
(56
2 a; -f-

8.

19 x

-15) --(8

-3).

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

2 (25 a

- 36

2
ft

)

-j-

(5

a

-f-

6

6)

* See page 263.

EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 -x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 -^. Division of the difference of two squares.18 m 2 ) -f- (1 G m -f 9 m 2 ). . a I. . (8xy + lo-22x' y)-+(2x y-3). (81 m + 1 . b -f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.l.2).2) (3 a .DIVISION 14.81 c8 f ' ISVft-Qc 8 64 ' a2 -166 2 ' a? 10 -1 . 18. (a -f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 51 15. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (a? s -8) 4 -*-( 2). 20.11 a + 9 a . + 23a& + 20)-*-(2a& + 6). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m -f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 -f- 2 3 -f- ) -5- 1) . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 19.e. 16. (aj -3aj-2)-^(oj-2). . v/17.

f 13. . aW 12 a. 16 . .000-1. 16. 10.000. -9& 2 . -r/ 1.49. 1. 15. -100ry. 121a a 16 100 11. 4 -b. 12. 14. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 -!.

in the equation 2 x 0. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 83. 82. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the 80. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. . . (rt+6)(a-ft) = 2 - b' 2 .r -f9 = 20 is true only when a. is said to satisfy an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. =11.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 81. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. x 20. second member is x + 4 x 9. the first member is 2 x + 4. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.

2. To solve an equation to find its roots. If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be multiplied by equals. A 2 a. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.e. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x -f a letters 88. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. but 4 does not equal 5. the known quan x) (x -f 4) tities are = . 5. called axioms 1. a. fol- A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 89. 3. the divisor equals zero. 90. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. A term may be transposed from its sign. If equals be divided by equals. one member to another by changing x + a=. 2 = 6#-f7.g. 4. the sums are equal.b. the remainders are equal. 85. NOTE. 2. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 86. 87. . an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the products are equal. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. E. the quotients are equal. Transposition of terms.54 84. If equals be added to equals. x I. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A numerical equation is one in which all . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.

(4-y)(6.8. Dividing by Check. x = 3. a? Adding 5 to each term. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i + | = 26 -f f = 26$ JI . Uniting similar terms. Uniting.2. b c. The second member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Transposing. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x-\1. if 55 x members. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Unite similar terms. Ex.9 y + y2 = 22 . Dividing both members by 2. a= a 6-fc.9 y + 6 y = 20 -f 22. To solve a simple equation. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.6 y -f y\ . and the known terms to the second.2 y= f . 4-fl = 12-fl = 13 3. x = 93. Hence the answer. 2(11 . Check.y) = C4 + })(5-f The second member. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. --f If y 20 . 91. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. The first member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 -f 1. 2 x = 6. 4x 1 + 6. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. is correct. b Adding a to both + a. The first member. if a x = b. 6a-5 = 18-5 = 13. 3 y . .

9 9a? = 7 13. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 17 7 a. v23. etc.69. 24-7y = 68-lly. . 22. 6. If x = 18. =2 = 3. + 22. 14. = 60 -7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 19. 3 7 a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 17 -9 x + 41 = 12 -8 17.7. 12. 7a? 5. = 7. 3. -f- Simplifying. Uniting. 17 + 5a. 3. : 5# = 15+2a.. a?. = 3.56 Ex.17 + 4y = 36. . a? a?. 24.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. {(x (x The The member right member left . x x 1 . 20. 2. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 4. = 5a?+18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 16.-7a: = 39-4a.. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. = 2 ?/. aj * See page 264. 4y 10. a. and check the answers 9. Solve the following equations by transposing. -50. 13 y -99 = 7 y. 14y = 59-(24y + 21). 3-2 = 26-4. 21. 11 ?/ a? 18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 13a? 3a?. 7 (6 x -16). 8. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation | (x 4) = \ (x + 3). Transposing. J. \x x 2-^x-fl. a. 15. 87- 9(5 x -3) 6(3 a? = 63. it NOTE. x = 18. 4a + 5 = 29. 7. -3)= 9(3 7 a.

30. e. . 33. (aj- 37.3) + . | +6= |aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .2) (M . . 38. 31.3) + 14. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 34. 42. 57 73-4* = 13*~2(5*-12). . 2 2 * -Jaj. (a. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) -(2J-3)( + 2) = 12. + 1) -8(7-5 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .1 0) = 0.(2 + 6) (4 .3) .5) + 199. 6(6a.7) (7 x + 4) . 7(7 x y 26. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 40.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) -(a-5) :=2. . Evidently 45. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. + 7) (. . 39. 36. or 70 a?. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.5) = (a. 29. this question. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 5) (as (a.7.5(2 u .1) (a (a? + 3) = .14 = 0.1) (u . a? 28. : One part is of 70 is 25 . find the other part.-5)-5(7a>-8)=4(12-3a5) + l. .4) + 4 w . 41. a? 43. 27. + 4).32. -7) (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 25. . . is the other part. (6 u =5 44.12) (2 + 5) .g. 35.

Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. is b. 7. so that one part The difference between is s. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 11. a. Find the greater one. 14. one yard will cost - Hence if x -f y yards cost $ 100. one yard will cost 100 -dollars. 3. is d. 9. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. or 12 7. 6. 17. 5.58 Ex. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro- The answer is 5. greater one is g. one part equals is 10. Divide a into two parts. x -f- y yards cost $ 100 . 33 2. smaller one 16. find the cost of one yard. If 7 2. 6. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 1. 15. is a? 2 is c?. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 13. Ex. so that of c ? is p. 4. 10. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. EXERCISE 1. Divide 100 into two 12. and the smaller one parts.

28. 24. find the has ra dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 26. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. sum If A's age is x years. and B is y years old. How many years A older than is B? old. 28. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 20. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. amount each will then have. How many cents has he ? 27. ?/ 31. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. Find 21. 33. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. find the of their ages 6 years hence. A feet wide.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. How many cents had he left ? 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find 35. and B's age is y years. and c cents. A man had a dollars. numbers is x. If B gave A 6 25. 32. and spent 5 cents. b dimes. 34. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. is A A is # years old. A dollars. 19. 22. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex.

A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. 48. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. The two digits of a number are x and y. A was 20 years old. . per Find 5 Find 6 45. A cistern is filled 43. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. Find x % % of 1000. m is the denominator. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. 49. c a b = - 9. -46. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. find the fraction. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.50. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. he walk each hour ? 39. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. Find the number. of m. Find a 47. a. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. of 4. -. % % % of 100 of x. Find a.

c. The double as 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 5. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased -}- a2 i<5 - b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. a exceeds b by c. 8 -b ) + 80 = a . 4. same result as 7 subtracted from . c. = 2 2 a3 (a - 80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 3. 6. 9. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 80. etc. of a increased much 8. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. double of a is 10. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. by one third of b equals 100. -80. of x increased by 10 equals x. 2. The excess of a over b is c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c.

B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. a. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's.000. 17. and C have respectively 2 a. 18. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. express in algebraic symbols : -700. x is 100 x% is of 700. (c) If each man gains $500. is If A's age is 2 x. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's age 4 a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. #is5%of450. pays to C $100. 3 1200 dollars. 16. amounts.. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. sum equals $20. 6 % of m. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. and C's ages will be 100. In 10 years the sum of A's. A gains $20 and B loses $40. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. x 4- If A. symbols B. of 30 dollars. as 17 is is above a. 12. 50 is x % of 15.62 10. a. ->.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. they have equal amounts. . express in algebraic 3x : 10. they have equal of A's. m is x % of n. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. a second sum. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. B's age 20. 11. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 14.

much as 40 exceeds the number. Check. 3 x + 16 = x x (x - p) Or. -23 =-30. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Uniting. = x x 3x -40 3x 40- Or. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In order to solve them. Transposing. 6 years ago he was 10 . x+16 = 3(3-5). The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. . Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Simplifying. x = 20. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 2. A will Check. the required . Let x = the number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 4 x = 80. 15. but 30 =3 x years. Dividing. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x= 15. Transposing. be 30 . In 15 years 10. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. denote the unknown 96. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. NOTE. number. 1. Ex. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. etc. Uniting. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 3z-40:r:40-z. Ex. Find A's present age. number of yards. Three times a certain no.

Hence 40 = 46f. 14. A will be three times as old as to-da3r .2. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 11. Find 8. Six years hence a 12 years ago. . A number added number. Find the number. 4. % of 120. 120. 3. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. exceeds the width of the bridge. Dividing. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. EXERCISE 1. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Let x 3. by as much as 135 ft. Find the number. Uldbe 66 | x x 5(5 is = -*-. twice the number plus 7. 300 56. 5. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.64 Ex. 13. Forty years hence his present age. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.

During the following 90 years. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. One number exceeds the other one by II. times as much as A. If A gains A have three times as much 16. The other verbal statement. 65 A and B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. is the equation. Vermont's population increased by 180.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. A and B have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. 1. Maine's population increased by 510. statements are given directly. five If A gives B $200. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ex. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. the second one. and B has $00. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B How will loses $100. B will have lars has A now? 17. written in algebraic symbols. The problem consists of two statements I. and as 15. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 14. which gives the value of 8. x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. How many dol- A has A to $40.000. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. F 8. two verbal statements must be given. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.000. . 97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.

The two statements I. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. B will have twice as many as A. . although in general the simpler one should be selected. consider that by the exchange Hence. Dividing. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. = 3. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. + a- -f -f 8 = 14. the smaller number. and Let x = the Then x -+.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. the greater number. to Use the simpler statement. / . Let x 3x express one many as A. 25 marbles to B. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 2x a? x -j- = 6. Uniting. x = 8. = B's number of marbles. unknown quantity in Then. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 8 = 11. A gives B 25 marbles. If we select the first one. which leads ot Ex. = A's number of marbles. the sum of the two numbers is 14. o\ (o?-f 8) Simplifying. .= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. in algebraic -i symbols produces #4a. . = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. terms of the other. A will lose. has three times as many marbles as B. Statement x in = the larger number. Then. x 3x 4- and B will gain. If A gives are : A If II. I. < Transposing. 8 the greater number. B will have twice as viz. x x =14 8. 2.

240. . A's number of marbles. * 98. etc. 2. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Check. Eleven coins. 3. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. is 70. dollars and dimes is $3. 60. w'3. Uniting. have a value of $3.10. 11 x = 5. The sum of two numbers is 42.. 45 . The value of the half : is 11. then. the number of dimes. * ' .$3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. but 40 = 2 x 20.75. x from I.10. the price. x = 15. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 1. 50(11 660 50 x -)+ 10 x = 310. B's number of marbles. 50 x Transposing. 40 x . by 44. 15 + 25 = 40. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). x = 6. . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Check. 3 x = 45. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Dividing.10. The number of coins II. 50. x = the number of half dollars. greater is . Two numbers the smaller. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. and the Find the numbers. 6 times the smaller. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.5 x . cents. Find the numbers. 67 x -f 25 25 Transposing. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Dividing. of dollars to the number of cents.550 -f 310. (Statement II) Qx ... we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.25 = 20. Find the numbers. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Simplifying. the number of half dollars. Uniting. Simplifying.

Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 11. Twice 14. 9. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 6. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Two numbers The number differ by 39.68 4. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. one of which increased by 9. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. Find their ages. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 5. A's age is four times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 7.. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. McKinley. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many inches are in each part ? 15. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. How many 14 years older than B. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many hours does the day last ? . and twice the altitude of Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Everest by 11. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. United States. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. as the larger one. the number. tnree times the smaller by 65. On December 21.000 feet.

B has three times as much as A. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z-5) (90-4z) = x. has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state- ment directly in algebraical symbols. Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. bers is denoted by x. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. times as much as A. If 4x = 24. are : C's The three statements A. B. I. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. x = 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C. they would have 3. number of dollars A had. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 19. number had. = 48. original amount. Let x II. then three times the money by I. three One of the unknown num- two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and C together have $80. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. 1. and C together have $80. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B. III. . and 68. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. has. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and B has three as A. II. 69 If a verbal statements must be given.

+ 35 x 4. number of horses. x -f 4 = 9. x = 5. = the number of dollars spent for horses. sheep. 2. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. and the sum of the . and. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each horse costing $ 90. + 35 (x +-4) -f 15(4z-f 8) = 1185. + 8 90 x and. 9 cows. 90 x -f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each cow $ 35. 90 may be written. three statements are : IT. 4 x -f 8 = 28. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. x Transposing. and Ex. The I. III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. number of sheep. Uniting. number of cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. Let then. 2 (2 x -f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x -j- = the number of horses. Dividing. 1 1 Check. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 -f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. cows. 28 2 (9 5). first. 185 a = 925. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. the third five times the first. x 35 -f + = + EXERCISE 1. according to III. number of cows. and each sheep $ 15. The total cost equals $1185. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 9 -5 = 4 . = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. according to II.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185.

and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the second one is one inch longer than the first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). how many children were present ? x 11. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. - 4. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and 2 more men than women. and children together was 37. A 12. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. "Find three is 4. men. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the population of each city ? 8. v . increased by three times the second side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. 13. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 9. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and the sum of the first and third is 36. twice the 6. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. the third 2. what is the length of each? has 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. first. twice as old as B. women.000. New York delphia. first. v - Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. 7. If twice The sum the third side. equals 49 inches.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. The gold. the copper. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000.

e. Hence Simplifying. we obtain 3 a. 7 Uniting. = 35. 3z + 4a:-8 = 27. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Dividing. i. or time. Find the value of each. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. speed. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 3 and 4. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.000. After how many hours will they meet and how E. = 5.g. The copper had twice the value of the gold.000. of 3 or 4 different kinds. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Let x = number of hours A walks. how many 100. 8 x = 15. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. A and B apart. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. width. 14. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.000. number of miles A x x walks. but stops 2 hours on the way. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000 more than that the copper. such as length. . and distance. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and quantities area. number of hours. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. together.

Cancel 2 # 2 (a -10) = 2s -100. $ 800 = 800. original field has Check. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 2 - - and transpose. Find the dimensions of the field. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 10 x = 200. Check. But 700 certain = 800 2.05 x x . the second 100. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. + 8. were increased by 30 yards. Multiplying. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide." gives (2.04 8. $ 1000 x .04 = $ 40. x + 200).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . z = 20. 2 a = 40. .053. 70x10 Ex. or 700. What brings the same is the capital? in- Therefore Simplify. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.06 = $ 40. $ 800 = required sum. l.01 = = . Transposing and uniting.M(x . the area would be 100 square yards less.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x .

as a 4. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. 3. Find the share of each. Ten yards $ 42. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and its width decreased by 2 yards. Six persons bought an automobile. 2. What are the two sums 5. Find the dimen- A certain sum invested at 5 % %. sions of the field.55. were increased by 3 yards. 1. and the cost of silk of the auto- and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. After how many hours will B overtake A. A man bought 6 Ibs. A sets out later two hours B . Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. the area would remain the same. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. A of each. together bring $ 78 interest. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and a second sum. but four men failed to pay their shares. invested at 5 %. twice as large. of coffee for $ 1. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.

and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.

if this letter does not occur in any denominator. at this 6 2 . consider 105. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a- + 2 ab + 4 c2 . expression is rational with respect to a letter. which multiplied together are considered factors. a2 to 6. as. + 62 is integral with respect to a. 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. if. irrational. vV . An after simplifying. 104. stage of the work. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if it does contain some indicated root of . if it is integral to all letters contained in it.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. this letter. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 5. a. it is composite. 76 . we shall not. but fractional with respect 103. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . -f- db 6 to b. \- V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.

POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 107. TYPE I. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. E. ?/. 110. 2. x. Ex. y. it fol- lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.3 6a + 1). Factor 14 a* W- 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 1. for this result is a sum. . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 01.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 8) (s-1).62 + &)(a 2 . 2. 2. 109. it follows that a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 77 Factoring is into its factors. in the form 4) +3. x. Divide 6 a% . or that a = 6) (a = a . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.) Ex. It (a.62 can be &).g. 55. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.3 sy + 4 y8). Factor G ofy 2 .FACTORING 106.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy -f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.

in general. 2 6. 5-f 2 . 13. : 6 abx . 2 2 . 20. . 18. 32 a *?/ .51 aW + 68 21.5 + 13 -8.4. 15.16 a'V -f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b -f 8 6V . 14. )- 22 - 2. TYPE IT. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. e. 11.5 + 2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 16.51 x4 2 6 xy s . q*-q*-q 2 a.45 afy . 2 23. 2 + q. 3x*-6x*. 34 a^c 8 . 2 Or.g. a6c. &-{-20a 6 4 &3 2 . 3 2 .4.8 c a 15 ofyV . 7i 13. x2 -f-2 x = 15 we have.12 cdx. 2.3. + llm -llm. a -a '-J-a . in factoring a trinomial of the form x -f-/>#-f q. 3 3 5 6.3. 15 2 7.30 aty. a(m-f-7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) -3 /(a + 6).5 x*y 2 17 a? . the y factored expression is (x -}-m)(x + n).6. 8. 4 8 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x -f 5) 15. (as 3) and (cc-f-5). obviously. 4 tfy -f. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is -f. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. -f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 14a 4 5. 19. 3.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. . 12. Ilro8 9. 17. 4.2. -7a & 10.

Factor x? . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.11 a + 30. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. of this type. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.4 x . Therefore Check. tfa2 - 3.6 = 20. 2 6. 11 7. We may consider 1.1 1 a tf a 4. can be factored. 77 as the product of 1 77. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. the two numbers have opposite signs. . If q is negative. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. .11 a 2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. however. as p. 4. 2.5) (a 6). and (a . Factor a2 . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.77 = (a.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are -4 y* and -3 y*.4 .11.11) (a + 7). is The two numbers whose product and -6. Hence z6 -? oty+12 if= (x -3 y)(x*-4 y ).5) (a . a 2 ..a). 79 Factor a2 -4 x .FACTORING Ex. or 77 l. + 112. 5. but of these only a: Hence 2 . or 7 11.G) = . m -5m + 6. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Ex. Hence fc -f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a - 12 /. + 30 = 20. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If q is positive. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 3. determine whether In solving any factoring example.30 = (a . . Ex. Factor + 10 ax .

such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. -17a& + 7(U -9a&-226 + 8 a -20. 35. a -7 a -30. 27. . 12.500 x + 600. ^ </ 2 2 -7p-8. + 44. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*-2x-8. y_ 6y +6y -15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 2 . x2 23. 26. 31. 6 a -18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 30. + 4?/-21. 2 2 . 18. 2 . 32. 24. + 30. TYPE 113. 4 3 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .180 a. 2 ?/ -5?/-14. 15. 16. 100 xr . 14. 8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 20. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 ?/ 28. 21. ay -11 ay +24. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.80 7. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. a2 . ra + 25ra + 100. 13. 2 2 a' 34.17 + 30. or . . 19. a? + 5 + 6 a. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 25. 2 . 2 ?/ 22. and 5 x.6. + 2x-S. we have to find two bino- mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 9. 3?/-4 + a' -2a&-24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a -30.48 + + 446 200. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ITT. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 11. 21 a 2 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 36. 29. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. .70 x y . 4 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 16. + 5<y 24. 17. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 33.

none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. . If py? -\-qx-\-r does not contain any monomial factor. 11 x 2x. 27 x 2. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.17 x 2o?-l V A 5 - 13 a combination the correct one. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.5 . the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 9 x 6. . 2. 54 x 1. If p is poxiliw.13 x + 5 = (3 x . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and that they must be negative. sible 13 x negative. 2 x 27. 18 x 3. all pos- combinations are contained in the following 6x-l x-5 . and r is negative.1). or G 114. viz. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. The work may be shortened by the : follow- ing considerations 1.83 x -f- 54. the If p and r are positive. a. Factor 3 x 2 . the signs of the second terms are minus. X x 18. 3 x and x. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of -f 5 as must have is : like signs. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 3.5) (2 x . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. but the opposite sign. Ex. 6 x 9. then the second terms of have opposite signs.e-5 V A x-1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.

IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.19 a -f 6.-7. 3a + 13a. 2 31. 2 26.27). 5m -26m -f 5. 35.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 12y -2/-6. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 14 a -fa -4. 2. the expressions should be it. 34.83 x = (3 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 16. + 4. 30. 8.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3x-l 3s-2 x X 115. 2 .2 a 90 x*y . 22.77 xy + 10 y -23afc + 126 . 2 2 2 23. 20. 7. 14. 24. 13. -h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. . + 2/-3. 11. 29. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. : 41 2. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. -9a. -f go. 2m -t-7w + 3. 4. Sar' + Sa-G. 12^-17^-1-6. . 5. 2 28.290 xy -f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 -f- .300 ab 2 -f4 250 . and the monomial factors should be removed. 100^-200^ + 100^. 4a2 -9tt + 2. 19. 10 a . since all others (II. . 2x* + 9x-5.y + 172/-9. 3. 25.260 xy . 12. 2 . 5 a6 2 2 -9 a .30 y 6 4 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.163 x 2 . 2 f-3y -4y 40a -90aV + 20aV.17-9. 90 a 8 2 . 6n + 5?i-4. 32. 21. 144 x . 9. 2 fc . 9 y + 32^-16. 6. 10a?2 2 33. 10.83 x . 3x*-Sx + 4. 6n 2 -f 13w + 2.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x -7 ay. x-54 a. 15. 18. X -27 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 17. 2 2 2 .2) (x .

20 xy -f 4 y\ . 4 6 m*ti -f 9 n*. 9 +6a6 2 2 -f a4 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 11. it is a perfect square.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 5. 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 13. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 25 7. 9. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 6. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. .e. 116. form are special cases of the preceding type. m + 2mn + n c -2cd-d 2 2 . it is more convenient for that type. 9 -10a6-25. x* . m -14ww + 49n 2 16 a . a -flOa&4-6 4 wi -f 2 2/ 2 . however. - 2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. square. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . connect the re- square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 2 9 -10g-f25. and a perfect square. . i. 14. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 2 2 . 2. 3. EXERCISE 42 per- Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. and factor whenever possible : 1. of its terms are perfect squares. 4. 10. 8. 12.10 x -f 16. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.

- + 6a + ( 9a -( ) + 144 a 2 28. TYPE 117.2 ofy + ofy m .6 m* + 9 m. x*-Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 . : 43 tf-y\ a -9. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 . product i.20 ab + 10 b a . 2 -f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. -6 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 -f- ( ). prime. 100a2 -68 a2 & 2 -121. 10 a 2 4 2 . 3. aV . + GO + 25. a4 a2 2 -f 6 is . . 6. V. According to 65. 1. ^//c to the Ex. 4a2 -l.6 = (a 4 -b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(a-b). 2 20. 3. !Gar 9 -( )+25. 19. +( )-f816 30. 7. 5. 2. Ex. 29. 36 2 4. 2 . 225 ofy . 2.60 a# + 4. 17. . ). 9. 18. 22. 16.3 * ).84 15. a. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 -24a&4. 1-49 a 81 8. 16&*. 25.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a -26 ).e. a.64 6 = 16(a .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . a2 24. -* 2 . 4 2 23. 26. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 -/. u2 -6& + 2 ( ). -48 a +( ). ). . 27. 9a2 .

(m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Ex. (m-7?) -y. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y -f 2 . 2. Factor a 2 . 11. 2 . 25a -(&-c) (m-h2n) 2 2 . (2a (2s + 5) -(3a-4) 2 2 . 2 2 : (m-f-n) _p 2 . 6.FACTORING 85 118. 2. 16p 2 . 8. (x -f 3 9 2/ 2 . (a x? -f- 6) 6 2 . 14. 4.(I) . 36|> . 5.d) 2 . Ex. (2a-5&) -(5c-9ef) 2 3. a:) 12. (m -f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. T. a2 . 2 .(c 4. 13. One or both terms are squares 1.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . of polynomials. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.c . 9.

Factor 9 x*-y*-4:Z 2 -f 4 yz. A. 4 B. 4:cx . 8. a 26 2 2 3 . 7.y + 2 2).86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. x8 .VI.ab + bx. which may be factored according to types I.7 c + 2c .and trinomials. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an-3&n + 2ag-3&?. ive find that the new terms con- common factor. + x + 2x + 2. Ex. 12. a? 11. + 4cy--5dx 2 5dy. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 5) . 2.a a . 3. . 10.4 6 x -f 3 a y 2 4.r. Ex. . ma ?*a + m& nb.(x - 5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 119. By grouping. 6. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.1. 1. Factor ax ax -f- bx -f ay -f by. a3 c 3 10ax-5ay-6bx + 3by. 5. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. After grouping tain a the terms. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. a5 + ab 6 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x -f 5. = (3 x + y . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.2 ) (3 x .14. 9. 2.

8. 87 -f- Factor 4 a2 - 6 2 + 9 tf . a 2 -10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x -ar -2a. 6a4 -12a2 + 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 2. 2. 6 6.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 4 a2 .FACTORING Ex. 2a3/ 7.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 8.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. IV. 4. Arranging the terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 -4a6 + 46 -25. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 5. First find monomial factors common to all terms. + 2xy + y*-q*. 6. 4. II. 3. $- a8 .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. m -Gw + 9-n * See page 266. : m 2 2 16.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. : 46 x* 2. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 -6 2 III.-l.4 f . 2 7. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 36 9 m . 3. w -m 2. = (a + 6)(a-6). 8ra 2 + 16. . l~a -2a5-6 2 2 .

25 a + 25 aft . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. (a. (^ 34. _|_ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a6 36. 35. 48. 3 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. -32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 13. 18. 28. 29.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. or 3 7#2 . 4 2 2 ft ft -2a + a*-l. 3 25. 19. 3 41. 24. 13 c . 80 a 2 ft 38. 42 s 2 . 32.24.310 x . 11. 2 a -128.40. . 4 8 tt 2 z . a3 156.88 10. 2 3#4 -3a2 -36. 3 a2 23. 27. -50^ + 45. 22. 2 ft . a. 49 a 4 4 -42 a + 9 a 20a -90a -50. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 40. + 14. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. a + a + a + l. 30. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 12.156. + 6 aft + 3 . 2 17. 14. 5 a. 5a' 20. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 42 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*-xif.13 c . 4 a.

3 . F. aW. of the algebraic expressions. 2. C. The highest is common factor (IT. Two common factor except unity The H. 24 s . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The student should note H. F. - 23 3 . of two or more monomials whose factors . 13 aty 39 afyV. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 121. F. of 6 sfyz. 12 tfifz. 3. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 5 2 3 . C. . The H. C. 122. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .) of two or more . of aW. F. 89 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. are prime can be found by inspection. 8 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. C. F. II 2 . of : 48 4. C. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. Thus the H. 5 s 7 2 5. F. EXERCISE Find the H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. The H. C. 6. 54 - 32 . F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 25 W. C. 5 7 34 2s . 2 2 . 15 aW. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. 5. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 .

1.y) . a2 . of + 4 if. 10.^-9. F. 5 a6 -5^ 2 a. 2 .y + y-42. a -3a-4. . 7. F. 38 #y. . 8 a 10 . To find the H. 12 w*nw 8.6 . 4(m -f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 12.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . x* x2 Hence the H.y)\ O+ 0^(0. ^2 2 . 11. 2. 0^-80:4-16. 8(?/i-f-l) 14. 8 6. (a7 ?/) .90 7.5 y). 3 . 225 4a 9 . 14. Find the H.12 as 66 . 11. 52 oryz4. a2 + 2a-3. F. aWd. 6 mx . ^-707 + 12.?/ . 2a -f5a-f 2. 3). 12 . 75 a&X -15 bed 11 . 5. 8. 49 C. Ex. 6 a2 y? . 13. 4 ?io. 12. 25 m27i. 15 x-y^ 2 10 arV . ^a + 5^ + 6. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. C. 10. 2 . of polynomials. and apply the method of the preceding article. 6(m+l) (m+2). . ^-f a. C. = x 2 y.y) 123. 15 3ao. 65 zfyV. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 95 2/V.6 a&. x2 ^-4^ and tf -7 xy + 10 f. 4(m+l) 3 .5 + 6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . a2 ar* 4.2 ?/) (x . 9 aj*(a? . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . . 13. 16 a . a. 2 . 4a -f 4a2 2 2 a 2 - . 2 . 24 a 2 . 8. 15. 9. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. y + 3y-64.5 x3?/ 2 6. C. -3^ 2 4 .# 4 afy -f 4 . . 16. a3 -16 a. 6 3 a.-6.8 a + 16. 9. of: . F. .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 3. a3 -9a. 1.2 y) (a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 57 a>V. a2 + 7a-f!2.

of 3 aW. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*( - is 12(a + &)( . of several expressions which are not completely factored. of the general. L. A common remainder. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 -4 a 68 2 . a^c8 3 . &) 2 M. 1. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 2. M. 126. M. etc. Hence the L. 2 The The L. M. M.M. Ex.6 3 ).M. M. Common 125. The lowest common multiple (L. M. M of the algebraic expressions.C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. NOTE. . L. C. thus. C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of as -&2 a2 + 2a&-f b\ and 6-a.6)2. each set of expressions has In example ft).LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of tfy and xy*. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. Find the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. = (a -f last 2 &)' is (a - 6) . =4 a2 62 (a2 . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. Find the L. C. The L. C. 127. ory is the L. To find the L. C. 300 z 2 y. 128. 60 x^y' 2 .C. M. C. M. but opposite . Ex. two lowest common multiples. which also signs. .

-f 6. 5. 3. 5 a? 5 a? y. 6. 3. 14. x2 5 -f 2 3# 5 + 2. 24. . 9. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. of: 4. 2 x -\-2 y. 4 a -f 2. a 1. ax -{-ay ~ 3 a 3 b. or -f- 3 a 15 #. 3 Z> . 4 a 5 6cd. 11. x 2 5 a. (For additional examples see page 268. 15. 8. -f b. #. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 13. T a 3 a 2 . 2 a?-b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a-2b. 20 9 a. by. 2 . (a -4)(a-2) 12. Find the L. 2 7ic+10. 3 . a. 3(a + b). a -{- a~b. a 2 a3 .- 3 -f2. 2. 2 a . a 2 -f 4 a +4. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . x2 + 4 a -f 4. 8 afy. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a?b. b 2 . 4 a . y*. a -f- 2 19. ) . 24 x. 20. + 2.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 22. 2 a . 3 ab. 2 10. a -f 3. 6 y. x* ~5a.1. a 2 -fa6. a& 4 +& 2 . 17. + 2 7i) . a -!. 8 d 5 . . 21. 6b 2 . 3 (a-2)(a-3) ( a -3)(a-4) 2 2a?b-'2ab 2 a. 2 . a. 16. 30 a. 2 . a2 4. M. ic 2 ?/. 2(m 2 . 3 6 xif. 40 abJ. 7. 1. 18. ic 23. a^-1.1. afy. a2 ~ab 1. xy\ . bx a? 8 2 lOaj-f-lfi. afc'cd 2 . a. + 6. 2 a. G a. 6 a.

a b = ma mb . TT Hence 24 2 z = -- 3x . A -f- fraction is b. and denominators are considered. an indicated quotient. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina- and z 8 (or divide the terms . as 8. rni Thus 132. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Thus. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators.ry ^ by their H. however. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Reduce ~- to its lowest terms. etc. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 131. a?. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. C. but we In arithmetic. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. successively all 2 j/' . thus - is identical with a divisor b the denominator. F. Remove tor. Ex.

3. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 9-5 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. cancel factors only.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. tf a* - n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex.33 -7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex. . Keduce -62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.

"-""-. 29. 23. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. g J- 21. 19. '-M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ' ^ . 16. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.FRACTIONS 7- 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4- ^-. 5^-10 y 30. . ^' rt ^ - 31. ^+3*.10 a + 3 2 14.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " -*-7 . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.7 . ny 4 18. LJZJ^JL. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 3a ^ ^ "-^ 2 -9 . . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.' 32. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. nx 17. 9x + "a" 10. 11 ^ Mtr f . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*. .. ^" a.

~16 (a + 3) (x. TheL. multiplying the terms of 22 . Since a (z -6 + 3)(s-3)O-l)' 6a.-1^22 ' . and the terms of ***. 1. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. ^ to their lowest com- The L.D. and (a- 8). by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.3)O - Dividing this by each denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. Divide the L. of the denominators for the common denominator. + 3). C.3) (-!)' = . we have (a + 3) (a -8) (-!)' NOTE. mon T denominator. 1).by 3 ^ A 2 ' . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. . we may extend this method to integral expressions. M. Reduce -^-.r 2 2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. . - by 4 6' . take the L. C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. - of //-* 2 .C. 2> . and 135.96 134. we have -M^.M. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Ex. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.C. Ex - Reduce to their lowest common denominator.M. by the denominator of each fraction. we have the quotients (x 1).

22 a2 5a * . 7i 2 ab* ". 74). .^1.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.. i. .a+2 ' a 2 -3a-f 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. bxby g ! a 5 ' a -f-5 a2 25 ?--.oj o* or / .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 137. common denominator 6. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2 ay IB.T 3y Ga-1 ax 9 ' 2a . . o o a. j y 3. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). a? 1 5 > ^* . 8 i i. 18. Since --{-c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2aj ~ . . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 5?. JL. If the given fractions have different denominators. 2. 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2a-l n.. 2 3 9a ~l' 3a-l 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a- 9 ^ .

ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2 - 2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a-2ft) +a (2q + a(a .2 = a(a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a -ft) _ 8 a 2 -f 24 aft 20 a 2 -f -f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. a -3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a - + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft) - ft) a(a -2 ft) NOTE. e. ^ _ ^ a-3b ft). The L.3 ft). in the beginning.(a 2 6).20 aft 3ft) -f 3 ft 2 4(2a-3ft)(2a-f 4 aft -f 21 2 138. C. 2 ^. and adding.ft) (a ft ft)~. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 -f 2 6 a2 . (a-8ft)(a~-ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a -4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (a ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re- duced to their lowest terms..4 aft + ft ft ) a(a - ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.2 ' 2 _.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA - Ex ' Sim C. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g.aft - _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 -2 aft :=(. 2. 4(2 a 3 ft). D. the student should remember that parentheses are . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 -3 ft 6 a -f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) -f (2 a . (a . L.. ^ is 2^JT) .3 ft)(2 a -f + : Ga-6 + 3 ft).3 . as 4 aft -f.3 ft 2). 4 6 + 2qg+6~ag-f4a&-8 a(a-ft)(a -2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . T? Ex.7 .aft) Ca2 . cr -\-t Simplify _T__ -r* + . D.ft)(a . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .

23. 5a-76 4a 106 9. t-3 m-2* a _2 6 a 4. 18 v 19. a+6 a 6 2 14. a-2 a + 3* 2 a -7 a-f-1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 -f q * 1 m m .5 18- -^4-f25. 20. 6a-116 13 a 15a-26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 15. + . j>0 i> 21. 2. 6 c 3a 7. a 36 ++. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 1 -f w 16. 2L + 2a 1 17. -1* 1 + m-f 3 1 M. A+2_3. + a "" 2 6 ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a-4 5 3. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 30 u -+? + i- _H_ + _*_. 24. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.

2 a-f-1 32.9. x + 3y x-3y Gx x2 2x . / IIlNT: Let a 1 - 39. 42. a. 43. ! n. 3a 9 +. ^-2-^+6m 3 45 ' 44. -_ + a? ?/ + y. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 2 ^> 2 x2 -7x+12~x -l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a ?^ 40. 1 34.9 79 -6 2 i. a 30. a-f 1-f /j.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26 - x*3x + 2 x-2 5x 27 ' ~. ic 1 + 1. 41. x-2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 IT-i ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1 - 1 i 1 '> a2 -. a 4 31.

101 mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 .17 (2^ + 2x -f 5-3 (2x-. T. - . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 1. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * *- (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 -15a-7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. . - 4 or 3 2a. .FRACTIONS 139. Reduce . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 -6a + 2 3a m 2 *- 5 m -f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. .

Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2 a Ex. -x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.g. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. !. (In order to cancel common factors. Since - = a. fractions to integral numbers. we may extend any e. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.) Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi- nator has to be factored. 2. integer. F J Simplify . or. multiply the 142. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .

14. 2 -25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5# 56 / c& 4. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 50 . aj 5 1 a? 18.. 5n a2 4-3a-4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 -5a-h4 < - x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 4 8.. _G x 7 a2 -5a-6 a. 2 -f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?-f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4a-f-86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a-216 a2 2 q~.6 12 d6 4.

* x* -f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. 144. 8 multiply the Ex. : a 4-1 a-b * See page 272. Divide X-n?/ . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ -f y 8 y -f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'-*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r - 3 i_L#_-i-17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 -f- reciprocal of J is | |. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.

t ' a^-3^-4 ? 4* ' a?-~ab > a 2 a- 4a 4- 4 a: +3 m 12 2 -f.afr 4. c ab 2 4- &c* & a . or both.&c 2 ~ a 4- a2c 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4- -L 4. Ex.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.10 ?/ _.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. a a2 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.5 ??i 80 50 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . l. ga2 4- 8 5 a . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4-g-2 2a 2 4-g-20 25 .6 s + 064.FRACTIONS 105 -. are fractional.' ' * ' ^-5^+4 .

a m "" . . c +6. 9. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. Simplify x -}. -n a 8. Ex. & . 7i+~ 7.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . JL. 6. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . 2. the answer is directly obtained. 10. i. x* 4. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. y X 4* 2 y 3. . . of their denominators.a ^c c _^ a -.y 32 . C.

-i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^-5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flg-f-l a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20 - a4-6 13. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*-_i_i 4- 14.) .-~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 . o 15. s-y 18. : . m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.

6 = = 72 72 -3 (a.48. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Clearing of fractions. = 6. these Ex. 9x x Check.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . each member is reduced to 1. 5(3 85 Check. 1. Bx 12 Qx.42 + 9. Solve ^-2^ = 63 2 x 12 -* + *-*.14 (a. 148. If x 6. - 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.8 x = . 2x Transposing.l)(z + 3) = . If = 64.1. each member is reduced to Ex.28 a = 5 x2 . + 1) (a + 3) . a. Transposing.9 x2 + 9. of the denominator.-f3# + C:E=-6-f72-12. M. Uniting. -!)(&+ 1) (x + 3). tions. 2. Uniting. x = 6. Solve 5 -I 14 x +1 x +3 I).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. = 6. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .28 x + 42 = . 2 3. 2z-2a. . 108 . C. 4- 4) - x.

^-1 = 9. a: 7 a. 18. . ^' 2. 15. ' - 4 13. +4 14. 3 a? '2 4 " - 2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1+5 & ^0 -^ a? = 19 1 11. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi- x +^ + 3 = 11. 1 *> = 2.1 _7-7 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y-2 y-3 == on . 16.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a/ - 5 a/ = 12. a.= 2. --.

. . ?_=_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. ._ _ . - 38 = 40. - 2 - 13 _J_ = _J3 . 4a4-l4* + l-~. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 26 26. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. If two or more denominators are monomials. 2 20 x+3 x-3 3 o^- 28 .11_4 x- 149. 3x 35. . 32 6 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. + 26 2^4-3 1 4^-9 1 2a?-3 A* 37. 27 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 3 3x-2 51 3x*-2x 23 x 3x-2 22 36. 25. J_. y+3~2 29. 31 31. 33. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.

5x x : = 9. 1.-2 42 9 43.-29 507-12' 9 18 . If a. -f 13 8#-f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~7-16* 6a? 44.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. each member is reduced to ^. the 1 5 L. 26 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. . Check. Transposing and uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3-~ x 16 x - 2.-r-7 5 +l 6a-fll~~ 3 6x-flO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 64-14 . 10 x -f 6 __ 4a.. a. C. 24 a. Dividing.2 3 ~ - == 7a.1. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 5# 10. = 9. M. 60. - 5 = 20 x 45.

When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.be. 4 ac 1.3 6 2 = a' . It frequently occurs that the x. y. -f ~ 5c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Uniting.c) (3 a ac 6(rt-fc)(a-c) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3a-c). Thus. ax -f- x -f. find a in terms of b and c. 3(a-c) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .1. Ex. = 6 a2 . fr Reducing lowest terms.m 2* = (a -f 6) mnx = (1 4. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.& .2 ac + 3 aft . they are united by factoring. . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = 2 -f b 2 . 2. Ex. Uniting the Dividing. = = 6 6c 7 6c.2 62 2 ab. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 5> a. ax- + bx ax (a -f IP Transposing.m bx 2 mn) x. jr. a.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. =a 2 151. = -l^ 9 b 4- . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Dividing. If 3a-c L= = a ? . l to = !=?_=^6? a -f 6. bx -f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.

and n the number of years. = 2(3a = aaj-ffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 2 solve for y a. 30. c. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. If s (wi n) x =px + q. r the number of $>. = vt. . = 3 (6 a). q solve for/. = 6 (m -f n) = 2 a + (m-?i)a?. The The i time. 6. -f- ^o.i l . m a? x . 29. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . Ex. = rt. . If s If 16. s = V-t solve for v. 5) is t =^. If ^^ = a 1 32. 31. p the principal. 3(*- 8. t. 34.= c a Z> . 17. rate. If * 33. 13. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 8 4 #. -4-. iw 21. -.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. * Solve the same equation for^). ^ ax a^ 26. _ 2. + 3a. solve for a. c 18.= H. IIL n b + &o. 3. 12. a? x!7 - a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. solve for . 11. + xx = 1. 4. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. . 15.= n. f P -=-+!. a. 10. denoting the interest.a. in terms of other quantities. mx = n. 14. co?. 1 -f. = 5. 9.

x Or Uniting.20 C. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then /- the required number by 1. .. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. = 16^. 100 C. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 12. is 36. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.180. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Multiplying by Dividing. 1.. . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2. 2 3 . Ex. and 12 = the number over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Find R in terms of C and TT. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.114 35. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. then = 2 TT#. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.

The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80. the required number of days. the rate of the express train." gives the equation /I).FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Clearing. 180 Transposing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 32 x = |. and the statement. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. in Then Therefore." : Let x - = the required number of days. or 1J. Ex. Solving.

ceeds the smaller by 4. by 6. 3. of his present age. length in the ground. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find A's 8. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and 9 feet above water. -| Find their present ages. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. a man had How much money had he at first? . money and $10. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Twenty years ago A's age was | age. is equal 7. to his daughand the remainder. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. is oO. ex- What 5. and of the father's age. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and J of the greater Find the numbers. which was $4000. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. make 21. J- of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. How did the much money man leave ? 11.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and one half the greater Find the numbers. to his son.

1. ^ at 5%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses -fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver -fa of an ounce.) 22. and B in 4 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A man has invested J- of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 3. If the rate of the express train is -f of the rate of the accommodation train. and losing 1-*- ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. 2. what is the 14. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and it B in 6 days. air. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. How much money $500? 4%. investments. . Ex. A has invested capital at more 4%.

414. if B in 3 days. A in 4. 3. B in 12. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. B in 30.g. B in 16. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.118 153. e. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.= m -f- n it Therefore both working together can do in mn -f- n days.009 918. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Ex. is 42. 26. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 2. . The problem to be solved. To and find the numerical answer. A in 6. m and n. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. n x Solving. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= -. 25. they can both do in 2 days. Then ft i. and apply the method of 170. therefore. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. A in 6. B in 5. and n = 3. . is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. we obtain the equation m m -. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.e. is 57. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Hence.

(d) 1. 3 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. . (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (b) 35 miles. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. is ?n . After how many hours do they meet.000. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. if m and n are.721. the second at the apart. squares 29. 33. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. and the rate of the second are. The one: 31. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. is (a) 51. 2 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. same hour from two towns.001. the rate of the first.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. squares 30. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. respectively (a) 60 miles. (c) 16. Two men start at the first miles apart. meet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Find the side of the square. (b) 149. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 34. 4J- miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. Find two consecutive numbers -the difference of whose is 21. respectively.

The ratio - is the inverse of the ratio -." we may write a : b = 6. b. antecedent. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. the antecedent. In the ratio a : ft. the symbol being a sign of division.5. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.g. 6 12 = . The first 156.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the denominator The the 157. 1. Simplify the ratio 21 3|. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. . b. Ex. " a Thus. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. etc. the second term the consequent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b is the consequent. 158.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. : : 155. a ratio is not changed etc. is numerator of any fraction consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . E. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.

term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. = |or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 1. b and c the means. 7f:6J. 11. b. In the proportion a b : = b : c. two | ratios. 16. 4|-:5f : 5. 17. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 3:4. 159. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 8^- hours. 9. Simplify the following ratios 7. 3:1}. $24: $8. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 61 : ratios 72:18. 12.RATIO Ex. Transform the following unity 15. 18. 4. 7|:4 T T 4 . 10. terms. equal 2. : a-y . J:l. and c is the third proportional to a and . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 3. proportional between a and c. b is the mean b. 27 06: 18 a6. a and d are the extremes. 16a2 :24a&. extremes. : 1. and c. The last first three. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 6. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 5 f hours : 2. 3 8. 62:16.

Clearing of fractions. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of a proportion.) mn = pq.) b = Vac. of iron weigh . Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. : c. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 3 4. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. then G ccm. of iron weigh 45 grams. and the other pair the extremes. : : directly proportional may say. In any proportion product of the extremes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. ad = be. 2 165. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.30 grams. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Hence the number of men required to do some work.122 162. i. The mean proportional of their product. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. q~~ n . !-.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. briefly. are : : : inversely proportional. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. pro- portional. 164. " we " NOTE.__(163. and the time necessary to do it. 6 ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.e.

I.) II.PATIO Ex. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. a:c=b:d. a III.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad - Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. . hence the proportion true. V. is Ex. ad ( 163. Or IV. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. if 6 : 7. is 4$ = 35. + b:b = c + d:d. then =d c.) = f f = 3 J. (Composition. = 35 . 1. 12x Hence a? = 42. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) a b b=c b = c-)-d:c d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. I. d d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (Division. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166. (163. 2. ad = be. bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4|.) (Called Alternation.) d 167.

V. 9. 4. 6 =4 : x. 10. x = 2. = 12 5ft. 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. mx tin Apply composition and division. = 7:2f 3J. i. : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. : 3 = 5 -f x : x. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 5. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. Or III. .!=!*. . A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. E. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. Simplify the following proportions. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. IV. the consequents by 7. 3. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 120:42 2 2 7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.e.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 8ajy:17 = i^:l-^. = 180:125. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 2:x. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 8. = 20:7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 5 5. = 2:3.g. Apply composition.124 IT. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.

9 x = 2 y. to: = 35:*. 6. 25. 7iy = 2:x. 47. : 53. 13. Find the third proportional 24. 3t. mx = ny. f. 14. x:5 = y:2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. ratio of y.x: 6:5 a : x. = 5 x 12. a 2 and ab. 26. terra 2:3 = 4. 42. 1 and a. 2 a and 18 a. 23. : . Find the mean proportional 30. 2. 39. a. rag. 33.j>. 51. 6 x = y. 4. 41. 12. to : 9 and 12. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 35. : a2 . 43. 3. 3. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. ra + landra 1. 6x = 7y. ra. 18. + fyx = cy. 03:a?=135:20. 21. w. 31.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 38. 16 and 28. and 2/. 50. 1.8:1. 44. 16. if : 40. Find the 37. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. = 2 + x: x. 5. to : a and 1. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 2 3 = y #. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. x m = y n. = 3 43 + x. 5= 18 a? : a?. rap. 2. 27. ra 2 . 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 14 and 21. = 15-o. b.:ff. 28. 17. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 46. . 4 and 16. 22.. a?:15 15. |- 32. 2= 5 x x. 20. 34.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 112:42 = 10:a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. (a : : 45. = l^:18. 29. 52.

the area of the larger? the same.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time. and the area of the rectangle.126 54. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor- tional to the pressure (P). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). 56. and the : total cost. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the squares of their radii (e) 55. A line 7^. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 57. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the time necessary for it. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). what 58. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the speed of the train. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.

is A line AB. = the second number. x = 6. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. x=2. so that Find^K7and BO. 2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 11 x -f 7 x = 108. : Ex.000 168. 4 inches long. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 18 x = 108. as 11 Let then : 1.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x x 7 Ex. . 2 x Or = 4. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Let A B AC=1x. Then Hence BG = 5 x. produced to a point C. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. AB = 2 x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.

Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. What are the parts ? 5. : 197. 12. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 6. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 14. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 9. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 2. 12. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 13. : 4. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. How many gen. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How The long are the parts ? 15. 3.000. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun- metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.) . Gunmetal tin. and c inches.000 square miles. 11. and 15 inches. 7.

such as + = 10.e. there is only one solution. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. 2 y = . is x = 7. if . if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj-3y = 6. etc. The root of (4) if K 129 .CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.y=--|. values of x and y. expressing a y. x = 1. y = 1. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.-. =.-L x If If = 0. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. a? (1) then I. Hence 2s -5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. However. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.

Therefore. the last set inconsistent. Solve -y=6x 6x -f Multiply (1) by 2. of elimination most frequently used II. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. ~ 50. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. cannot be reduced to the same form.X. = . to The two methods I. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . E. 4y . The first set of equations is also called consistent.26. 174. 172. By By Addition or Subtraction. 3. 26 y = 60. y = 2. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. are simultaneous equations. for they express the x -f y 10. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by - Subtract (4) from (3). same relation. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 6x .3 y = 80. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x -f. 30 can be reduced to the same form -f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 21 y . x -H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. Substitution. y I 171. unknown quantity.24. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. and 3 x + 3 y =. viz.130 170.

Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). = 235. x = 10.3 1 = 47. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 8 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. y = 1. Transposing. 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. Therefore Check. 25 x . 5 13 . are like. y = 2. 64 x = 040. whose coefficients In general. 3y = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . subtract the equations. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 10 . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Check.14 =-8. 60 .2 = 6. add the equations. 3-7.3 y = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. + 2. x = 10. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.

* + 3 y = 50. = 24. -I i 3 a. I . 19< I a. ] ^ . O t K 8.4. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^ - 25 * -60. v ^ = ll. J I y = 1U. 13. = 41.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. i 3.5 y = -2. I oj 5y = 17. f 3X 7x 14.-f2/ ' = 50. ' 12. 13- 6-1 l7a. 9- 1 r 20. I ~ y~~> 22.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. . [2o. x 11. + 2/ 17. 7 ' 1fi fl . _.9 *.3.3. f 3# ?/ = 0. = 6. + 3?/ { 3 x -f 2 y = 39.v 23.

3. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 60. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (2-7. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. and solve the resulting equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 8. = 2. . tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan- other equation. = 4#-8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 13.

+ 21-2y-4 = 14. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 29 x = 29. (4t(x-\-) ' ""^IT 3. From 9 = 36. 4* + 3y = 19. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. however. f8(z-8)-9(y-9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. . (4). \ \6(a. 7x_2y=-3. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 7 y = 6. Substituting in (6) . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 3 (1) Ex. x = l. 2 y = . (7) (7) (8) . 43 + 8-f-3y + 7z From (3). 3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. simplified before elimination is possible.-6)-7(y-7)==18. 21z-6y=-9.

4~2v 3a?-2^4 3 1 18. 10. 12. 10 2a?-5 17. +y 2 . 4 11. 14. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 16.1) + 5(6 y .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . y-M a. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a.1) = 121. a. . J 9.-f-2 2. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. . = 3. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.

22. e.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA -4_1 2' 19. l_3 4' 2/4-1 2 a.and x y . ?~y . 3x-\" 1 23 24.#.Q ^ 4 21. <X + 20. . {. and y. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. but some expressions involving x. 180. -f y . * ((* (( .

3 xy. of this type. 2* * x 2. Therefore y=4. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 4. . Clearing of fractions. etc. y 1. 1. 15 y + 8 x . Substituting x = 3 in (1). however.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. x 3.4 x = 4 xy. y. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 33 = 11 x. (2) (3) a. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (4) + (G). x 2x(2). 137 Solve y y (1) . can also be solved Examples method.

= 5. 4 13. = en. x 8.= o 6. Ex. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K --. 21 9 --. . x y 5. 1. 6. y M-Oi y a. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n. x y 331 9. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 253 7.

a Find a and terms of n. Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 5.y = = 9a + 46. amx + bmy amx -f any = any (an cm. Dividing. x 12. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ax + by = 2 a&. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. ap. d. apan cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. w.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm -f- 6y = c. 14. . x a. . fax -f = l. . 6. bmy bm}y ap cm. and I. x -f my = 1. d.W. s in 11. -f- 6^ [ nx -f my == m. and I if 13. ny = fy/ I sc 1. W . .

by 3.2 + 3. -f 3y 12 =s 8.3=-4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. y =* 2. 8 x .1+4. 20.2 + 4. . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. l.1-3. 3. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.lf> z . 182. etc. 3y = Hence Check. (4) -(5). Ex.15z=-12 Adding. = 3.12 y + 6 z = . = 30. x + 12 y . -4. ties are Similarly.by 2. 1.2-5. To solve equations containing By tions.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).1-6. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). (8) 2. 6.3 = 8. 8B-12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 1.8 = 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.

14. 12. y -f ?/ -M 2? = 4. k 2/ -f 2 x a. 10. 2z = 40. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5. 49.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. 2 . x 13. -f- 2 i/ -f- z = 14. a? + 70-9 = 26. 15 2 = 45. + y -f z = 15. a? 11. == 6. 2 4. 7. + 2 y -f 2 = 35.

84 21. ^ = 2. 16.2 a.. 4. ? = llz. . =s 20. (3 _.3 y + . 27. 19. .42 = 2. 32. . x _2 3 ' 074-2! J 18. = 8*. 1510 4- 17.6 2. 60. ?/ 3x = 0. 22. = 5. 23.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.

( 99. M=i. 2 = 6.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. = 2 m. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . the number. 1 = 2. Check. +2+ 6 = 8. y * z 30. either directly or implied. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. however. Find the number. z + x = 2 n. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. . y 31. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. = l. + z = 2p. 1 digit in the tens place. 1. x : z =1 : 2. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. . and to express In complex examples. # 4. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Ex. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. symbols: x + y +z- 8. Obviously of the other . the first and the last digits will be interchanged. 2 = 1(1+6). and if 396 be added to the number. and Then 100 + 10 y +z- the digit in the units' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. The digit in the tens' place is | of the sum of the other two digits.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + 396 = 521.

= the fraction. xy a: 2y 4y 2. we obtain. 5_ _4_ A. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. x y = the = the x denominator . the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator.144 Ex. B. direction. 2. 6 x 4 = 24. 4 x = 24. Ex. = Hence the fraction is f. . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. increased by one. Or (4)-2x(3). 3+1 5+1 4_2. x 3 = 24. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 2. the fraction is reduced to | and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin- ished by one. By expressing the two statements in symbols. x 3x-4y = 12. C. 3. 8 = xy + x xy = xy -f 3 x 2 y = 2. y = 3. Find the fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (1) (2) 12. From (3) Hence xy Check. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. = 8. the distance traveled by A. Since the three men traveled the same distance.

Find the fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the numbers. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. it is reduced to J. 183. If the denominator be doubled. ? What 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. . part of their difference equals 4. 6. Find the numbers. Find the number. to the number the digits will be interchanged. tion ? 8. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 5. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the fraction equals . if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. its value added to the denominator. 7. the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. If 9 be added to the number.) added to a number of two digits. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. the last two digits are interchanged. fraction is reduced to \-. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the fourth 3. the Find the fraction. 1. and the numerator increased by 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. number by the first 3. both terms. and its denomi- nator diminished by one.}. 2. If 27 is 10. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.

partly at 5% and partly at 4%. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. 19. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. A sum of $10. in 8 years to $8500. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 12. Find the rates of interest. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. the annual interest would be $ 195. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 13. now. and 4 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.grams. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. the rate of interest? 18. 5 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains.000 is partly invested at 6%. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. If the rates of interwere exchanged. How 6 %. partly at 5 %. respectively ? 16. Find their present ages. A man invested $750. . 14. and money and 17. and partly at 4 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and in 5 years to $1125.

triangle Tf AD. BC = 7 inches. BD = HE. and their difference by GO . are taken so ABC. . and $15 for each sheep. is the center of the circum- scribed circle. and e. BE. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F. three AD = AF. and AC = 5 inches. $ 50 for each cow. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. E. ED = BE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. An C touch ing the sides in D. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. . what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and sheep. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 1 NOTE. and GE = CF. cows. and angle BCA = 70. 23. BC=7. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. Find their rates of walking. what is that = OF. the three sides of a triangle E. B find angles a. then AD = AF. and F. but if A would double his pace. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. angle c = angle d.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. points. 24. On /). the length of NOTE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and CE If AB = G inches. c. 25. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. receiving $ 100 for each horse. andCL4 = 8. respectively. for $ 740. A farmer sold a number of horses. and F '(see diagram). and angle e angle/.

and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. or its equal OM. It' Location of a point. PN.. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. first 3). ?/. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PN _L YY'. is The point whose abscissa is a. and r or its equal OA is . -3). (2. (7. PM. 2). Thus the points A. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. the ordinate by ?/. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. is the abscissa. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). YY' they-axis. jr.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. . 186. and ordinates abore the x-axis are considered positive . and point the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jr-axis. B. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. the ordinate of point P. The of Coordinates. (3. (2. and PJ/_L XX'. PN are given.

2J-). (-1. (-2. 6. Graphs. 4) from the origin ? 7. 4) and (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. and measure their distance.4). 3). 71 2).2). which of its coordinates known ? 13. 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of cross-section paper. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4.e. Plot the points: (-4. (0. -2). 0). 0). (-3. Plot the points (6. 1). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (-l. What is the locus of (a?. (See diagram on page 151. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.3).(!. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 6. -4). (4. 3. -!). . Plot the points : (0. (0. 12. (-5. (4. 11. (-4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 0). 4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.and(l.) EXERCISE 1. i. -2). . 2. 1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 3). (4.1). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 8. -3). (-4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.

188. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. however.. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ABCN y the so-called graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. C. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 1. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 10 . A. . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. from January 1 to December 1. we meas1 . Thus the first table produces 12 points. or the curved line the temperature. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. may be found on Jan. D. By representing of points. 15. ure the ordinate of F. B.

uses them. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. etc. The engineer. as the prices and production of commodities. . (d) November 20. the matics. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. (c) January 15. Whenever a clear. the graph is applied. (b) July 15. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utt|s33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the rise and fall of wages.

1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what months above 18 C.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. 1? 11 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (d) 9 0. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. on 1 to the average. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. When the average temperature below C. (1) 10 C..152 2. ? - 3. How much. is 10. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 15. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ? 9. 1 to Oct.

Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren- heit) : 21. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou- sands) of the following states 22. One meter equals 1. 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Hour Temperature . a temperature chart of a patient. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 1-18. Draw . NOTE.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20.09 yards. transformation of meters into yards. Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.

29. if he sells 0. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.50. 9. if each copy sells for $1. 3. . The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. then C irJl. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. A 10 wheels a day. x* x 19. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. represent his daily gain (or loss). the value of a of this quantity will change.g. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. function If the value of a quantity changes. x increases will change gradually from 13.. 1 to 1200 copies.. to 27. +7 If will respec- assume the values 7. 4. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.) T circumferences of 25.154 24.inch. 190. x 7 to 9. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. and $. e. 28.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 2 x -f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 2 . binding. amount to $8. 2. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. etc. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. books from for printing. etc. 3.50. 26.. gas.5 grams. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.

is supposed to change. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 (0.1). however. 4). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.2 x may 4 from x = 4. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. (1. (1^. may. plot points which lie between those constructed above. be also represented by a graph. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of -3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 -f. Q-. 3 50. may . The values of func192. (- 2. for x=l. If a more exact diagram is required. construct '. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 155 -A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.g. 2. (2. a*. Graph of a function. 9). E. . 2 (-1. 2). while 7 is a constant. x a variable.e. 1 the points (-3. 9).0). etc. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. to x = 4. as 1.1). 4). and (3. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. Ex. -J).

Thus 4x + 7. 7 . (-2.) For brevity. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. = 4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. j/=-3. -1). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.2 x . Ex. (-3.4). and join(0. rf 71 .-. (4. straight line produces the required graph. Thus in the above example. 5). y = 6. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 0. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 194. as y.. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x-3. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 4).20). etc. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 2 4 and if y = x -f.. 4J.. . or ax + b -f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. r */ +* 01 .

(7i) (c) 23. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. -Jar . The smallest value of the function. 2 2 a. 12. 11. 15. y = 2x = -4. 5. if the function equals zero. 2J-. 2 a. The roots of the equation 2 -{-2x a*2 = l. 22. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 1. if y = 2. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 6 -fa. 3. The values of a*. 9. i. 2. if a. -J-. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. the function. The values of a?. (C ) (-2. 2-3x. a? 2 4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 1-J-. 2x + 3x a?. 2. a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x -f 2 = 1. a?. if"a.e. 7. 14. -3 a -8. 1-J-. a* 13. Draw the graph ofy=2-j-2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. ?/ a. = 4. 2 2. 2 a.5)2. a? 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2 or 2 20. 6. from x VlO-'S".-or. (-If) Va25. 18. -fa-- 17.5)2. 16. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 21. 19. . 3. (ft) (_ 1.8)'. a ar. l. x-l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. xz + x. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x -f 2 = 2. 2 4 x -f 2 = 0. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. + 4. . = The values of a*. 1J-. 4a? I. 8. x+1. 2J. 4 a. 1 8 10.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The roots of the equation 2 -f 2 a a*2 = 0.

Therefore x = 1. that graph with the o>axis. then cXj where c is a constant. 32 F.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.e.24 or x = P and Q.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.24. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.158 24. C. Represent 26. 9 F.. Show any convenient number). what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). y= formula graphically. 1 C. the abscissas of 3.where x c is a constant. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. then y = . A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. . i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F-32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 25. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi-1 F. 14 F.

= 0. cross-section paper is used. is called a quadratic equation. Such equations in general have two roots. and determine the abscis- 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. 7. 3. 197. (0. 11. or 5 2. 13. 6. 8. de- = termine the points where If the function is 1. (a) x2 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 10.-7 2 -a -5 = 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a2 -2a. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #-axis. viz. 12. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. and c represent \-3 -2 --1 1/2 known quantities. 0. . 14. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. + + = where a. (a) (6) 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.-f 9 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 4. 2 and 1. a: (a) (6) (c) -6a.

T . produces the 7* required locus. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . i. .2 y ~ 2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Ex. y = -l. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.1. = 0. if y = is 0. solve for ?/. first degree. because their graphs are straight lines. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. y y 2. ?/ =4 AB. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 4) and (2. 199. locate points (0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x - - -L^- \ x =2 - graphically. unknown quantities. Hence. Hence we may join (0. 3x _ 4 . Hence if if x x - 2. y= A and construct x ( - graphically. 1) and 0). Ex. == 2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Represent graphically Solving for y ='-"JJ y. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. and join the required graph. fc = 3. ?/. X'-2 Locating the points (2. (f .e.2. If x = 0. NOTE. and joining by a straight line. 0). 2).

By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. equation x= By measuring 3. (2) . AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Graphical solution of a linear system.57.15. 202. 201. we obtain the roots. and CD. AB y = . The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. linear equations have only one pair of roots. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 203. To find the roots of the system. parallel have only one point of intersection. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. viz. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \x-y-\. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P.

0) and (0. i. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 3x 2 y = -6. e. (4. (-2.5. 3). 4. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3.0.5. 4. 2 equation x 3). 2. 4. Inconsistent equations. 5. (-4. . y equals 3. intersection.e. 4. The equations 2 4 = 0. P graphs meet in two and $. we of the + y* = 25. Solving (1) for y. the point we obtain Ex. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. = 0. Solve graphically the : fol- lowing system = = 25. In general. 3. and joining by a straight line. 0.g. x2 . 2. (1) (2) -C. Locating two points of equation (2). if x equals respectively 0. Locating the points (5. they are inconsistent. 0. and . construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.9. 1. - 4. and + 3). 4. 4. 1. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. etc. 5. V25 5. Since the two - we obtain DE.y~ Therefore.. the graph of points roots. There can be no point of and hence no roots. AB the locus of (1).0). 3. Using the method of the preceding para. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Measuring the coordinates of P.

2. as 2^3 and 3x -f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y 2 4. 9. 6. x~y=0. y=x + 5. 8. \ 2x + 3^ . a+r/=6. if possible. 3. 5. 7. y= a2 2x y6. 20. '163 Dependent equations.. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 17. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. state reasons.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2x 3?/=6. . 16 22. 4. vice versa. and. and solve each If there are no solutions. the graphs of the following systems. a. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 23. Draw system. 10. y = 4. 19.

4 a = 3(6 .164 24.14 y = . CUBES. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 26. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x -f 5y = 5.y). 29 . 3 31. 25.8. 30.

is may be by 207.a2 . (- 3 a268 ) (- a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .-faa a a a Obviously 1. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. involution repeated multiplication. -fa. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 3 -f a = -f a = +. (- 3 2 6 3 )* = (- 3 a2 6 8 ) . etc. According to 1. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 8. 2. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. ^4/? it According to 50. 2. a special kind of product. ( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. on to in factors 4. 52. a = a3 . follows that 3. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs.

multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (-277171 )*. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 . (-a ) 2 5 . ^--/-2?n?A 4 ' 30. 6. raise a fraction to a power. 4 /2mV. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. The &- cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . V V/ 13. 5. 24. 210. 3 2 2 8 . 15.6) = a . am-Vy) 3 .3 a 6 -f 3 a6 . (-a ) 2 4 - 3.166 To find To To power. 16. 4. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. a product to a given power. 2 11 (afc ) . (-2ar). 2. (-|^^) 2 . . \ 3 J ' - M-W 10. the required power. 76 : (>y.

. 16. are obtained by multiplication. = s= (2s) 8 a. 167 Find the cube of 2 x -f. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . : a 20. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 5. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 3. (5 (1 -a) 3 . + 3a 6 + 3a& -f-& ^-Sx^ + S^ -^ 3 2 2 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . + a 2 a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 -f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 8. 6. +5a) 22. (m-2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (a + &)8 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. nent of the binomial.INVOLUTION Ex. or* - Find the cube root of 19. 3 . + 4aj) 3 . 2. (3a-f26) 8 . 12.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.3 y.) 14. (3 (l -I) 2 8 . frequently called ex. 2 a8 -3a2 + 3a-l. 8 (a?-?/) 3 . (a-j-7) . 9. (3 x . pansions. 4. 211. - lx - (7 a (1 -I) 3 17. 18. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (3a (a (4 62 -l) 3 .6 2 8 ft) . (a-fl) . 15.y . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 -126 + G6-l. 2 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 1 -f 3 2 3 . Ex. 2. 3 8 . 23. 7. 21. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.y) = (3 y?y . etc. (6m+2w) (3 8 . . 13. An 1. 1. The higher powers of binomials. a.

2. (m -fl) 2 20. (2 4. 5. 8. . 18. 2. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) -f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (m 5 I) 2 22. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . Ex. . 9. (l-fa 6 2 ) 5. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. . 4 .168 3. 78 s .216 a^ 4. 4. (m-J) 4 11. 3. (l-a&) 4 12. (w 4 ?i) 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 24. . 5. and the powers negative.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Expand (x = ic 5 -f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 4 (1-for) 5 . (1 + 4 ?/) . (m 2 + n) 8 . . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (2a-5c) (1 -f 2 4 a:) 4 . . 3. 10. 17. . 25. is the coefficient of the next term. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (l 8 . ( &) 5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. (3a -f5) 5) 4. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (a-f 5) . 1.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .a) 3 19. 14. 15. 13. Ex. 23. Expand <? 2 (2 # - 3 y3 ) 4 2 . (?/i-~w) : 16. 21. (2 a 4 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (a~^) 5 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (?>i?i -f c)*. The minus. (tf-f-1) (c-fd) . Ex. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.96 ^y -f 216 o?y . 6. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (2w 2 2 -f-l) 4 .

CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (-f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 109 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. and all other numbers are. \/"^27=-3. 4 4 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or -3 for (usually written 3) . (_3) = -27. a) 4 = a4 . = x means = 6-. tity . 2. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 1. which can be simplified no further. V \/P 214. Since even powers can never be negative. and ( v/o* = a. 27 =y means r' = 27. V9 = + 3. called real numbers. etc. or y ~ 3. 215. for distinction. numbers. or x &4 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive.

1. 7 . Ex. EXERCISE 1. 3i . 8. 2 . To extract the root of a power. 10. 9. 6. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 82 . 6- 7 = 030. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. . V?. - 100 a 2 . roots of the numerator \/18 .(.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex.64 5 4 . To extract a root of a fraction. 2. 7.201) = 2. = V26TIT81 = 5-3.125. 8. . -v/2^. 79 2 -v/2 5 . 7 . = 199 + (_ 198) . 62 = V2* . \/2 4 9 . . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3/0** = am . 4 v.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. index.4. 3.200 .lL. extract the and denominator. V36 9 4. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V5 -v/2 7 2. 3 33 53 . Ex.9 = 136. 7. 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . V25 9 16. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 5. Ex. -fy 5 3 . Ex. 6. Ex 5 a" . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 9. v/^i2 = a*. = 19472.

3 y2) ( vV . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.(V200) -f ( VI5) 2 . -\/d -\-Vab r + b\ 9. (Vl24) -{ 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. .EVOLUTION 171 28. ^-40^4. Hence _ 6 ary -f 9 y = (s . Ex. 2y-h2/ 4 - 9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 32. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. V9216. 6. 116. 33. 30./). Find the square root of a2 . 31. 2 .6 ofy 2 -f 9 y4 . 5.3 .98.75. 2 -f ( V240) 3 .6 tfif + 9 y = O .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 34. a* 4 8 2 .3. a -f2 l 2 + l. 45 V5184. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . V20 . V8. 2. 29.4/.) by inspection. 1. 3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2 .

2 ab + b . the that 2 ab -f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.2 &c. 2 .172 7. 2 2 218. #2 a2 - 16. let us consider the relation of a -f.> 13. . and b (2 a -f b). however.2 ac .b 2 2 to its square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 14. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 8 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2ab . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the so-called trial divisor. 11. mV-14m??2)-f 49. 12.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 10. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 .e. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. and b. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . i. a -f. + 6 + 4a&. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 -44a?> + 121V2 4a s . a-\-b is the root if In most cases. 15.

2.24 a + 4 -12 a + 25 a8 s . As there is no remainder. First complete divisor. The square . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. First trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. */'' . . 1. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . \ 24 a 3 4-f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. Ex.EVOLUTION Ex. Second trial divisor. the first term of the answer. 8 /-. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2 . by division we term of the root. . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and so forth. 1.24 afy* -f 9 tf. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2 - 12 a +4 a -f 2. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Explanation. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 219. of x. 6 a. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. - 24 a 3 + 25 a 2 - 12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 8 a 2 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. .

4 x 4.a 6 x*y 2 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.42 a*& 4.16. 9.42 a -f 49 a 6 16 a4 -|- 24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .V4-30^4-25^ 4m 4. 12. 5.40 a 22 . 2 4.20 o 4. 1 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 4 . > 7.24 or . 15. 8. 2 x2 3 2x. .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 3.9. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.162 a2 60 a10 4.6 . 4 4-?/ 4-2x- 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. x 6 4- 4 0^4. 6.73 a8 . a? 2 . 36a 4-60a 4-73a 4-40a 4-16a 3 2 13. 3 a2 a4 4- 2a + a4 2 or 4-1 3 2 a3 + 1.12 a6 2 2 3 4- 4 64 .12m 5 4. 4- 36 a 2 12 4- 4- 16 a4 4- 46 a 4 4- 44 a 8 -f 25 a -h 12 a 4- 4 25 a6 4. 16x6 4. 4-12 a& -f 37 a' 6 . 36it. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 17.2^4-3^4-2^ 46 5 4 a. 16.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. l 4. 729 4. + 81 a 4-54 a + 81.37 a ^ . 20. 25 x 4 -f- 40 afy 4-46 x 2 if 4- 24 a^ 8 4- 9 4 i/ .25 x 4 4.14^4-4 ic 4^ 3 12^. 18. 4-36^?/4-69a. 5 4- 16 4 iK . 14.54 a 40 a 6 4- 9 a4 .10 x2 4.25. 19.73a4 4-40^4-36^4-60^. 6 11.12 m 4. 24. 10. 13#4 4-13ar 4-4a.

Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. which may contain one or two). of a number between 100 and 10.000. Therefore 6 = 8. 1. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 100. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. = 80. and the square root of the greatest square in units. first .000 is 1000. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the first remainder is. Ex. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the complete divisor 168. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the first of which is 4. a 2 = 6400. The is trial divisor = 160. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. etc.176. Find the square root of 7744. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the first of which is 8. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Ex. two figures. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of 10. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Find the square root of 524.EVOLUTION 220.1344.. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. 2. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.

688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. 3.70 6. places. The groups of 16724. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.1 are Ex.7 to three decimal places. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid- ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.0961 are '. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1T6 221. Find the square root of 6/. 12. in .GO'61. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .10.

37.22. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 39. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 36. 13.58 square 38. JT .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow- ing numbers: 29. 32. 35.1410. 31. whose area equals 48. 33. 5.53. 1. 34. T\. 30.) 40. J-.01. feet. 1. = 3.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. feet. .

178 . or incomplete.g. 6 y2 = 17. complete. or affected. 225.. 2. is 12. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. . but no higher power e. 2)* + 5 = 33. x = + 2 or x =2. = 7^ + 5. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 1. Transposing. Solve 13 x2 -19 etc. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 6#2 = x* 24. x -f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. The 7 equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 226. 224. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. + bx -f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 4. x 2 7. or equation of the second degree. Ex. This answer Check. 2 ic = a. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7( - 19 = 33 . Dividing. Extracting the square root of each member. is A quadratic equation. A pure.

5. 19 + 9 = 5500.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ax Transposing and combining.2. 4 ax. . 3. 2 2 a. 7. . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.25. s-3 -? + oj x +3 = 4. or Therefore. ' =: y? b* b . 0^ + 1 = 1. (a?- 9. 2. 6(--2)=-10(aj-l). Solve 179 . -7 = 162. 10. 8.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 16^-393 = 7. : 83 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 -f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 2 4fc -5' 18. o. 4. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 15^-5 = 6.

solve for v. 29. then Since such a triangle tangle. A right triangle is a triangle. 24. 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. is 5(5. solve for d.b 2 If s If =c . If 2 -f 2 b* = 4w 2 -f c sol ve for m. find a in terms of 6 . Find is the number. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. . If G=m m g . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. ' 4. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for r. its area contains =a 2 -f- b2 . opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find the numbers. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 22 a. 2 . 9 & -{- c# a x +a and c.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. r. 26. may be considered one half of a rec- square units. 2. and they con- tain together 30G square feet. : 6. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 27. If 22 = ~^-.) of their squares 5. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 3. EXERCISE 1. Find the side of each field. . 2 . 2a -f- 1 23. 4. If a 2 4. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and their product : 150. 108. 25. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 228. 28.

the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. add (|) Hence 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Method of completing the square. (b) 100 feet? = . . 9. 24. 4. The following ex- ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. is and the other two sides are equal.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. radii are as 3 14.2 7 . of a right triangle Find these sides. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx -f m to 2 . 2m.7 x -f 10 = 0. 8. . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. To find this term. and the two smaller 11. A body falling from a state of rest. The area : sides are as 3 4. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Find these 10. x* 7 x= 10. -J- = 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Solve Transposing. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find the radii. Find the unknown sides and the area. Find the sides. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. (b) 44 square feet. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) 13. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. we have of or m = |. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.

Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*-\-px==q.a. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Simplifying. | \. = |. Hence Therefore Check. Ex. 2 ax -f 2 o) s a . = \ # = ff.. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Uniting.e. a Clearing of fractions. Or (*-i) x Extracting square roots. J. 230.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.x(l = .2. Extracting square roots. or J. Transposing. -7 5 + 10 = 0. a. | x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 -| .2 a2 . . adding member). Therefore. = x-\ = 2. 80^69^-2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 22 -7 2 + 10 =0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x -f a = 2 ax.1. = 6. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. or x = 2. (*~8) a = at . 62 x 5 = f. 2 a* a. Transposing. Ex.

x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.1+2?= "*" - - Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT -* Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.

c = 0. 49. ao. =0. and c in the general answer. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. o^ or -}- 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 2x 3 4. article. =8 r/io?. Solution by formula. . = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 231. -\-bx-\. x la 48.

2 a. V^tT)* . 9. 17. 6 Ex. 16. 6. 14. 26. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6. - . 12. 10. 5 x2 Transposing. = 12 . ?i 2 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). - P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. Reducing to general form. 20. 2. TIO. 2 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . 15. 4. 3. c = 5. 11. c p. 18. 2 a? = 44 x . 2or } -5o. 2. 6^+5^ 56. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. b = - + 20 == = 0.25 x. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x-5. 7^ + 9 x 90. 21. 19. 3 x -11 + 10 = 0. 7. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. = 64-120?. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2 o. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 13. a.4 4- 5 .. 1. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 6 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.

all or.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 25. Bx 1 1. 27 x== 4-2a. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.5) =0. and 6. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x.5 Solving (1) and (2). Clearing for fractions. = 0. . a=:i^-^. Factoring. if either of the uct is zero. 2a^7x sc(2 --16rc Therefore a = 0.x. a? 28 - 7a-l=-7s be required to solve the 232. 233. 5 = 0. 2S-3x 1 2 . orz roots. Eesolving into factors. }. 26. (5 a? -!)(. x(x <2 . 3x?+x = 7. or # 5 is zero. = 14. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . member can be Ex.2. x2 = 1 . 24. 23. 1. factors Now. 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 5) = 0. = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. any degree. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2x-f3=0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . ar>-8o. Transposing. transposing terms to one member. Solution by factoring. = 0.

(*-2)(x + 2)(a-3)=0. 3) Factoring. for a: . Ex. + 8=s: 7. EXERCISE Solve by factoring -|-6 2. 2. a?-10a=:-24. aj( 15. 3^ = 0(110-6). 16. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. + 10 a = 24. 3# y 5 = 0. 3. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 5. x2 -f 2 x . 5 = 0. 0(0-2) = 7(0-2). evidently (x Or 4)(x . 13. (aj-4)(a. a?.g. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.= 24. we 9 obtain x 4. 3) = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 12. : 87 = 0. a* 10a=24.6)) = 0. 7. 187 Solve x? -3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 14. 0^ ar> 11. - 3) 2 4 (x = 0. O roots are 2.3)(x + 3 3. 3 or 2 a. 3.24 = 0. ar'-Sa^ -12. + 6)=0. and the equation thus formed be solved. The equation I. + 100. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. + 9 -f 20 x = 0. 2o3 -f9a. 2. 9. Therefore x =3 = 2. } 2 2 (5 .e. 4or + 18a -f 8a. -4)(z-3) = 0. 6. is 5) = 0.:=0. 4. Or Hence the 234.(. E.

uz + u 21. 19. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 -a). 18. or 3 -a -2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.188 17. 22. 27. 23. 2. 50. '-3a!J - . ara + ft + c*. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 25. 20. a 2 =(x a)b.

3. and equals 190 square inches. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 1. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find the numbers. 57.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 6.9. and whose product 9. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 52. 2.3. number by 10. feet. 3. 58. -4.0. Find a number which exceeds its square by is -|. 5. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Find the sides. -5. EXERCISE 1. 3. 56. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. -2. of their reciprocals is 4. and the difference Find the numbers.0. and consequently many prob- 235.3. 55. -2. 2. 0. -2. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. is Find two numbers whose product 288. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. The 11. G.1. 54. and whose sum is is 36. 1. 8. : 3. -2. Find the number. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.2. 7. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the number. two numbers is 4. . The difference of |. Twenty-nine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.

start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. What did he pay for 21. 17. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 13. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. dollars. . If he each horse ? . it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. ABCD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. he would have received two horses more for the same money.10. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. as the 16. Find the rate of the train. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.190 12. sold a horse for $144. watch for $ 24. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and Find the sides of the rectangle. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 14. other. ply between the same two ports. 15. Two vessels. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 19. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20.

How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. . 27. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. contains B 78 square inches. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. or x = \/l = 1. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. ^-3^ = 7. By formula. so that the rectangle. Solve ^-9^ + 8 = ** 0. 1. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and working together. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. 237. 23 inches long. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is - by a path 5 feet wide.I) -4(aj*-l) 2 = 9. a point taken. 24. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. B AB AB -2 191 grass plot. Find TT r (Area of a circle . the two men can do it in 3 days. of the area of the basin. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. (tf. Ex. constructed with and CB as sides.) 25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Find and CB. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. as 0.

3 a4 -44s + 121=0. 19. 18. 2 (^-Z) - "3 14. 2 -h9:=0. 2. 4 6. 4 : 89 -10a. 2 16 a^-40 11. a. = 1. 16. 4 -8 = 2 a* 2. 10. Hence Le. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or r-f 15 = 0. 4 2 4 -37aj 2 = -9.T 2 2 . 4. aV+9o 4 =0.)+72=0. 4 a. 9. 8. Solving. a4 -5o. ^^ ~ 28 (a?- ^ 2:=Q> . 7. = 13. 4-36 3. a? 15 1=2*. >. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. y-8)=0. Ex. 12. T 17. or y = 8. a -21or=100. 6.192 238. (a: +aj) -18(x2 +a.2 =-4.

the roots are unequal. 3.bx 4- by ' i\ and r2 then .5) = 04. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are irrational. a perfect square. 2. negative. Hence the roots are real. c the roots are real.f> = 0. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. rational.2 z . Relations between roots and coefficients.12 x + 9 = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . rational. is 4ac not zero.2) 2 4 3 (. 241. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are equal. The discriminant =(. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are rational. and unequal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.bx 4. Ex. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4-r2 = a Or . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 -f- bx -f- c = has two roots. ( 2a Hence 1. the roots are imaginary. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are real. and equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 1. 240. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. b 4. . Ex.

If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 5a -26a? + 5 = 0. 14. 12. x2 -!i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2a -4z-5 = 0. 21.19 # 20.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 17. 22. o.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : -x +a +-= a 0. 60 2 = 0. = Q. n a?-3 ' ~ == l 5. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. -9a-3 = 0. ^-12. -lla. = 0. 2 : 3. 2 7. tfmx+p^Q. 5oj -aj + l = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. their product is-f. 5aj 9. + 18 2 8. ar + ^ + 2^-2 = 0. 15. 24. + 2a-15 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. x2 -7 10. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. -f 2 E. 12~x = x 2 . 4. x2 -4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 2. 6. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.. 23.g. + 12 2 - . : a 2 . 18. = 0. = 5x. 2 a. = 0. 3a. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 2-a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.

m IV. and .a" = a m n mn . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. no Fractional and negative exponents. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. (ab) . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . a m a" = a m+t1 . ~ a m -f. II." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . while the second of the first. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. The first of these laws is nition of power. hence. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con- venient for other work. Then the law of involution. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. 244. however. = a"" < . must be *The symbol smaller than.* III. We assume. for all values 1 of m and n. provided w > n. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. such as 2*. (a m ) w . > m therefore.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. that a an = a m+n . It is.

Assuming these two 8*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 30. as. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. a?*. m$. (xy$. 31. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 23. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. n 2 a. 24. etc. = a. laws. a*. '&M A 27.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 28. 0?=-^. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. . 245. disappear.g. a\ 26. - we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. ml. e. 29. at. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . (bed)*. 25. fractional. 4~ . 3*. or zero exponent equal x. a .

hence is .g. 27* = 3. 41. -v/o&cT 34. : 197 33. 246. the base is zero. -\/xy- -\/m. = 2. 50. 40. Solve the following equations 39. Let a = a. 48. a.\/n. 5 a* = 10. 46. e. v'mT 36. 45. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 38. 3* = 27.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. a . 42. 37. 44. a* * = 3. 49. 64* + 9* + 16* + (-32)*. equal to unity. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 2' 4* = 4. To find the meaning of zero exponent. Vo5 . ty?. = 49. e. 35. If. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 7z* Find the values of 47. 43. -\fi?. a * a2 Or a=l.g. = 2. however.

Multiplying both members by a". 248. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". or the exponent. an x = a. e. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.g.198 247. . etc. Or a"# = l. consider the following equations. cr n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.2 = a2 . vice versa. by changing the sign of NOTE.

25. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 40. 2 . : mi m~^. a^ 41. 22.- 27."* 38. * 24. 39. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 44. : or 5 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ^L. rfS. 66 45. 36. 3 a? * 42. m . 2m~i 43. 6 or 2 ^-^ ^. 1 -L ?>i""i 3 cci . f (2w)~i 1 -. c 32. a. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. . 3 a. 37. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29.

of: 3-ll4~* 60. ar = i. (. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. (81)* + (3f)*-(5 TV)*-3249 + 16 * . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con- taining fractional exponents.1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 55. Ex. 49. = l. 17' 2 51. = 5.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = -^.26)* 1 (I-) 2 .008)* + A.343)* + (. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + 1~* -f 21 .6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 54. 250. 5 - 75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 57. . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 10* Find the values 56. 47. = . 58.81 -f (a . z 5or*=10.001.9*.(. 52. 61. 1. + A_. 59. z* = 1. 10* 5* = . 48. 53.

14. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.7*. 4 5. 7~ 5 27 - . 95 -^9i 5-*-*. 4 x^.7i.5. etc.4 a8 . Remove the negative exponents.3 aj" a. 3 a. 25 26 - 2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 79 .$-". 7~ 6 . __ 29- /m -'-=V a9 -i-a. #* a. remove the fractional exponents. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 27 - 28. &.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. a.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 17. 3-s-VS. 72 . 6. OA 20. ' 11. . 6 *. (d) If required..$-*. 23. 14an- (4**(Va) 4 . Perform the operation indicated. / 7-f--v 7. 10. 16. 3.4 . . S-'-s-S-8. 12. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 7.&. 8 ' 9. 26.^/5-^5. 13.5a. 6a-.6 *' 6 *25. 16. V5. 18. are performed. 7*.7W. .&. NOTE.

the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 40.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. 2. 34. The 252. lix = 2x-l =+1 Ex. 6 35. powers of x arranged are : Ex. V ra 4/ 3 -\/m 33. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.2 d . If powers of a?.

THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93

203

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4. 5. 6.

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-f-

3.

V25 #

- 2()"ar r+ 34 - 12 x -f 9 x*.

20.

^^
l

21. 22.
23. 24.
25.

+2
a?
8

(l+4^-flO^ + 20oT-f 25^T -f-24-\/i?-f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V2-2). (5+V3)(5-2V3).
26. 27.

)*.

(1-3VS)(2 + V5).

(VU - V2)(Vn~3V2)

204

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:

Find by inspection
28.
29.

(x*

+ 3)(tf*-f 2).

35.
36.

8 (a;*

yi)

.

a*

+ 3l-5.
V2

(5*-2*

2
.

30.
31.
32.

38. 39.

(3^
(#* ^
(fl

2*)
-f-

.

33. 34.

5) (x*

5).

40.

(m

n)

-f-

(m*

11
-f-

n 5 ).

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.

A

radical is the root of

a quantity, indicated by a

radical sign.

254.

The

radical is rational, if the root can be extracted

exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.

^9
4^
\/2,

(*

+ V) *

are radicals.

= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4a-f
b are irrational.

255.
root.

The

order of a surd

is

indicated by the index of the

va
\/2

/-

.

is
is is

of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.

Vc

256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.

An
257.
factor.

entire surd is

one whose coefficient

is

unity; as

Va,

Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6

which contain the same irrational
are similar.

av^

3V2 and

3 V8 are dissimilar.

206

206
258.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.

All even roots
e.g.

may

be positive or negative,

VI = + 2

or

2.

Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict

the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.

Thus

5 V4 4- 2 V4

= 7 VI = 14.

If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;

=-

(oj- 2).

259.

Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional

exponents, all examines relating to radicals

may

be solved by the

methods employed for fractional exponents.

Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T

1

1

(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.

(242).

to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the

factors.

TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.

A radical is simplified when the

expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.

Ex.

1.

Simplify

= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4

Ex.

2.

Simplify

-v/16.

-J/lB^^.

4/2

= 2^.

RADICALS
.

207

261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.

Ex.

3.

Simplify V|.

Ex.

4.

Simplify

EXERCISE

94

208

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s

37.

39.

j

*x+y
38.

n

\ 2m

262.

An

same manner

imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;

42.

V-16a
:

,

2
.

44.

2\-

Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.

VJ.*

49.
50.

Vf.

VJ.

VA

263.

Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.

Ex.

Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.

EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:

95

4V5.

3.

2-\/lL

5.
6.

7.

2.

3V7.

4.

3^5.

a VS.

8.

* See table of square roots on page 164.

RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.

209

Ex.

1.

Transform -\/uW into a surd of the 20th order.

Ex.

2.

Transform

\/2,

V3, and

\/5 into surds of the

same

lowest order.

V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. |^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1

Ex.

3.

Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.

Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by

same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.

96
:

to surds of the 6th order
2.

Va?.

-fymn.

3.

\/ v

4.

v'c?.

5.

\|

z

\

^3

6.

mn.

Reduce
7.
8.

to surds of the 12th order
9.

:

V2~a.

\/a4 6 2c.
-\/3ax.

11.
12.

-\/oP6.

13.
14.
a.

^v/mV

10.

\/5a5V.

Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:

15.

-v/o

5
.

16.

\/oW.

17.

-v/IaT .

2

18.

-\/

20.

A/^

22.

VSlmV.

24.

Ex. V2.2. -^2. ^5. if dissimilar. -v^S. 38. (i. Simplify V| + 3 VlS. Ex. 3 - s/- / 3ft 2 - 3 ^y Ex. ^/IT. -\/5. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. V5. ^2. -^7.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 .3-\| . ^126. 27.2 V50. 40. -v/4. 28. V3. Arrange 35. 30. ^30. 29. VS. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 26. -v/3. V3. 34. 32. -^4. Simplify V|~ . V2. 33. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . </20. I VJ + 3VT8 . </2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. + . terms their If the resulting surds are similar. -v/3. </3. 31.10 V2 = - V2. 36. A/2. 39. A/3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. s!/3. 4^/4. signs. ^4. ^3. 2\ 3*. 37. 3. subtract surds. 5V2. -^6. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. V2. To add or form.e. -\/7. connect them by proper 1.

11. 14. 8. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 -f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .J a6 V4 aft.3V20 + 6V5. V175-V28+V63-4V7. 8VT8-J-2V32 7. 3. . 9. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V18+V32-VT28+V2. 6. VJ+V8-V1 + V50. 4V80-5V45-. 13. 2V8-7Vl8-f5V72-V50. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V75-9V48. 12. 4. 6. + 3V8-35V2.

fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 4-60V35-100 .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 2. Ex.100 = -f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 1. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 6*. 3. 23. . Multiply 3-\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex. y* = Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 26^ .

25. 40 10 30. 13. 34.^/2. 213 98 11. (6V2-3V3)(6V2-|-3V3). (3 20. -v/4. . + VB)(2-V5). -v/18 -v"3. 41. VlO V15. V2 -V50. V3 V6. 14. 8. (5V5-8V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V20 V30. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (Va Va 36. aVa.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (2-V3) 8 . 10. 40. 21. 12. V42.VSS. Vll. 6. 18. 2 . -\/3 -\^). 38. fWa 17. -VTO. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 28 . (Vm-Vn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V3 Vl2. 6 V4 5. 27. (5V2-2V3-CVS)V3. 15. 19. a?. V2a-V8^. 3. (V6 + 1) 1 . (Vm-Vn) (V3-V2) 8 . 37. ( Vm -\- 1 Vm) (Vm-f 1 6(Va-f Va -{- Vm). 7. 39. 6. 2. 4. 9.

-v/a - DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (5V7-2V2)(2VT-7V2). the quotient of the surds is If. (3V5-2V3)(2V3-V3). 49. 52. 53. a VS -f- a?Vy = -\/ - x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 43.214 42. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. all monomial surds may be divided by method. V3 .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 44. Ex. . (5V2+V10)(2V5-1). E. 51.y. Va -v/a. 60. is 1 2. Ex. 46. 268. 47. a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V5-5V3) S . (2 45. (3V3-2Vo)(2V3+V5). 48. (V50-f 3Vl2)-4-V2== however. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.

is illustrated by Ex.73205. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Divide VII by v7.73205 we simplify JL-V^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. metical problems afford the best illustrations. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.. The 2. 1.by the usual arithmetical method. e.RADICALS This method. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. arithTo find. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. by V7. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. we have V3 But if 1. . . .57735. /~ } Ex. however. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 3. Evidently.g.

they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V2 22 . Vll 212*. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V48 25. 14.. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20. . --. ^/H . A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. Vn V7 ' * 8. 271.2361. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom- inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V8 JL. A.7320. V3 = 1.4142. 21. 23 . -i. 7.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. Vf-f-V?. V5 270. V5 = 2. 272. V8 12. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. and Given V2 = 1. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 -2-. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 .

Vs2 . 3.= 18.vffi^T _ . s Simplify a.RADICALS Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. . 217 Simplify 2V3-V2 ' V3-V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V2-1 e . V8-2 2-V3 1-fVS .1 x-Vtf a.2. Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V2-1 2V2-1 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . . 1.

-J?_. 2V5-V18 m-Vm Va 22. V5-2 17 1-Va? Vg+v/2 5V7-7V5 ' V3-V2 15. By the use of fractional exponents . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V5-1 14 A 16. V3-2* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 -f- 2V2. 6V7-.7320. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . . Vo-1 26.218 6 . = V3 = 1. 27. V2-1 -= 25 .2361. four places of decimals 23 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3-V5 ' V5+2 31. : and V5 = 2. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.5 3 = 125. Given V2 1. 19.4142. 24. V5-V7 18> ^-SVg.W3. find to _!_. v 2-V3 28.

2. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . 3. -\/l6*. the If. V255 . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v5-|-2V3 5 + 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 8.RADICALS 219 274. In other examples of involution and evolution. 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 4. According to G3. viz. \/125" . 11. 1. 5. on the other hand. Simplify Ex. . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 3 (V2~u-) - 7. 2 12. v8-f 2\/15. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. it to this form.

6\/2 = ^9 . Find V4 + VJ8.A/2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6 V2. +2 Ex. 3. 12 and whose product is 20. 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. ^TT. is 11. Find Vll . The Hence ^11 .2 A/2 = V9-A/2 = 3 .220 Ex. Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex.2 \/20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. and whose product is 18. 2 \/18. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .

by raising both members equal powers. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl3-2V22. VT . -+=. first involution. 277. * 4-- * 2 V6 VT 4. Transposing and uniting. . -\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. x2 = x -f 2.e. = xa + 4 x -f 4.V48 4 20. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Solve vV-f!2-a = 2. Ex. Transposing Vsc2 + -f 12 12 Squaring both members. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. member to 2. a. 4.1. 5. V48 23. are radical equations. 19. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. (2x xrf 1. 4x x = 2. r 22. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Radical equations are rationalized..RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. i. Before performing the involution. 8. The value x =2 reduces each . Dividing by Check. they are transto formed into rational equations.

222 Ex. Dividing by 24. V4afT~l. or = VzMx2 7 x -f -f 7 x + 9. Therefore CftecAr. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 -f V4 -f 1 . -f- 25 = 12. member =|\/2 + -jV2=|v^. 278. tion which has two roots. -f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 24 \/4 #-|- Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 4#-f 4 = 9. Vitf 4x -f 25 -f- 25 4x -f- 1 25. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Factoring. they may be extraneous roots. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25x-f3 = 0. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . . the first member = V2. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Transposing and uniting. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. V24~+~l = 0. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. It = 3 x . Ex. Squaring both members.3. Transposing and uniting. 3. Solve -Vx -f- Squaring both members. 5. 2. a. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. viz. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. x = J. Extraneous roots. Transposing. a so-called extraneous root. Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . Therefore Check. at . viz. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. one root.1) = 0.

2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Transposing. and to 5. Factoring. or x *j-. 2 Clearing of fractions.47) = 0. V2x' 8 4-2x4-3 Transposing. = 3. (x x = 3. viz. the right member = |V2. equation it is an extraneous root. . If If x 3 = 3. 4- VxT~0 = \/8 x -f 1. Solve the following equations : = G. . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. \ does not satisfy the given. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x -f A5_ 15. Squaring. 4. x root of the preceding equation. .12 . Hence there is only one root. Check. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. is x V. Hence x = the only root.RADICALS Hence x If a. ViTie- 4 z2 .2 r. 223 x = 3. Therefore. NOTE. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 -f 141 = 0.3) (2 x . + 6~ieT~3 .

Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Therefore . Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.

45 14VJB = . = 26. = 0. 2_8z 4-40 = 49.*-2a. Q . . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. x =6 or 3. 4-12a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. members of the equation were squared.8 z-|-40 = 7. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. o. x + Vx a? = 6. Let 8 x -f 40 . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 5. This can be seen without substituting. _ 2 y . 2Va.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 4. Ex. Vi 2 -8a. = 7.35 = 0. Substituting. y then x2 .8 x + 40 = 36. 3 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 2. some of the roots be extraneous. 3. x Since both =9 or 1. 2. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.RADICALS Raising both members to the | power. + 40 = 6.i~24 = 0.-f40= 5. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.

a^x2 5 2 13. +x . 18. ar -fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7-^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"-^I + 2 = 4. 15. 12. +3= 6. 4 V SB* 4- a. a.a 4-40 = 35. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x -f . 20. 19. 17. 2. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a -f- 40 2 V* 2 8.-f 18 = 24. 14. 2 7a?H-V^ 3 7a.226 11.

= 2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.<fo -f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: -f (to + e (x = w. ^ = 3-81+2. 1.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . Ex.2 x 5 by x 3. find the remainder when m.2 + 4. Without actual division. a? R = x* . 2. If x* . however. even if Q is unknown. then or* -2 and there is a 3 x2 -f. 3 2 Ex. Hence. Without actual division. E = ax + &z + m) Q. no matter If. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. -f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient -f Remainder.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). we make a? what the value of Q. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. then (x 2)Q 0. 227 .3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .2 + 8-0 = 12. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.4 a. to x we # = 2 -3. " Or.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. could." transposing. by dividing 3 x* -f.3-6-0 = 244. if Q was known. ax4 4. does not contain a?.

+ 7 = 632. -}- 2 by a-1. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 2 j 7. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. hence (x divided by x 4. + ^by x + b. 8.4x4-11)^0 + 4 (- 3) .228 282. 5. of the division 3) is m in place of x. the remainder equals 8 2 x . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . a100 -50 a47 4- 48 a2 b.3)-f 11 =.g. The Factor Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. if 8 42 - . 3. fora?. + 3x3 -2x* 32x12 by a?-3. x* s 2 4. If the remainder is zero. 43 -3 E. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x - - - 00 *. x*-x + 4x -Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5 (4x . + 6. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.8.949. x m is factor of the expression. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.g.4(. a -f b 7 by a ^-14y ~132/ -- 283. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X - 1) +7 by x - 1 is 6* -3 .8'= 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.

12.1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 5. x8 By dividing by x a?8 -f 1. 7 4-6 = 0. & p*. . 2m -5m .7 -f -5a 18 divisible by x 2.7 x + 15 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 1. 8. 3 2 : 7. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 17. -7 2 a? 2 -f 7a?-f 15. -f 15 does not vanish. 2.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.-12 = 0. -f- 3. 1. -f 5. -f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 18. ^ + 7y + 2y-40 = 0. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. _ . x -4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* -f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 1ft : ar*-f 6aj 2 o?-5ar 3 l + lla. 9. 21. + 27 + 27. we obtain 7 - 7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2 - 8 a.13m + 30 10. 6. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. + tt-t-15 = 0. 20. a^-8^ + 19a. a? 19. a -8a -f 19 a -12. 11.-r-6 = 0.7 + 16 . or 5 4 + 3^ . i. Resolve into factors 4. is a factor. factors of the absolute term. 2 2. The 5. 25. + 15. oj 5x2 -f3a. 8. a. 2o? m -6ra -fllm 6. m -f m n 14. Let x = .e. Factor a? 15. a 5x 6. are -f 1. p -5^ + 8p 4. 106 division. 3. Therefore x ( 1). 229 1. or x -4. ^-10^4-29^-20=0. a + 32.4-9 = 0.1. 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.9^ + 23^-15. 24. 23. 8 -}3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 -t- . a -2a + 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.

if n For ( y) n -f y n = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2. xn -f. 1. - y 5 = (x - can readily be seen that #n -f either x + y or x y. Ex. 286. xn y n y n y n = 0. For substituting y for x.g.230 285. ar +p= z6 e.y n is divisible by x -f ?/. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . is odd. 2 Ex. x* -f-/ = (x +/)O ." . actual division n. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif- * The symbol means " and so forth to. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. It y is not divisible by 287. Factor 27 a* -f 27 a 6 8.xy +/). : importance. if w is odd. By we obtain the other factors. if n is even. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.

28. 27.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. as -27=0. however. y 3 +8=0. x3 -8=0.i mn -f w 2). -f n)(m 2 mn -f w 2 )(wi . 3.= . 26. leads 231 is The first method. since it more directly to the prime factors. a. Hence = (m Ex. preferable. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.

= 6. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 290. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un- known quantities lead. xy x*y -f y = 4 is of the second degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. however. x-ywe have 3. can be solved by the methods degree. (5) Combining (5) with (1). x y. & + 2 xy + = 25. (4) Hence. of quadratics. 232 . the third one can be found by means of the relation (oj-j-y) 2 4 xy Ex. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. Squaring Solve (1). in general. xy are given. If two of the quantities x -f y.1. 4 xy = 16.y4 is of the fifth degree. Hence " / | X y = =} 4. * A I. + 6 a?V . to equations of the fourth few cases. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND x-y 291. ==5 > 1^ = 4.

the answers of the last example are : r*=-2. = .g. 108 2. 12. r- (" 1 = 876. I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. but can be found. b=-3. 1. In many cases two of the quantities x -f y. x and xy are not given. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) -2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 3. " "' "' { r 8. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ' 10. The arranged in pairs. 233 y. ^.

5. one linear and ne quadratic. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 4 y = 20.. 2 (1) From (1) we have. or JJ.~ y = 5. r^ 2 as ] -f. Ex.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x -4.?/ i = 6. 19. 6 "I 14. I x+y = a. x " (3) 49 etc. 3. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y - 40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). A system of simultaneous equations. EXERCISE Solve : 109 -47/ = 0. - 42 y + Transposing. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.20) = 0. la. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. .o 18. or y = 1 . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. ^ f or* -f 4 xy = 28. ' ' . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. Factoring. 7 . aj = 2. I* Jj ^ [.a. - . + 29 = 0. - f J. .i/ = r 13.

3 2x 2 Ex. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. x-2y. Solve . the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). ':il -e :) . = 1 3 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 235 - > ' 1 lla 8- 12~ 10 13. quantities. y* + 2y = 3. 3y) : Factor (2). 4 f- + 2 y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 10. If of the preceding type. ' x*. 9. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V-~80 Hence y =1 y . III. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.

20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 15 x2 . (rc-2/)(llx-5y) 16 xy -f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). Solve 2. = 0. 2 . j Substituting y in (2). = 0. = Ex. y = 110 f 10^-370^ + 7^ = 16^-7^ .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2. 109 a. (1) (2) x x 5. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar --7aK/4-27/2 ==0. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 11 a2 Factoring. } VI09.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Division of one equation by the other. A. y? a? -f .xy 4. .y = 7. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 150 */2 . (4) -(3). f 1 150 a?.125 ay = . Bxy-9. E. Solve * + '-* { Dividing (1) by (2). " IV.3^4-2^=43.175 ay = 12. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices. ' <"" -=m _ 14 ' &. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 298. and others not belonging to them. 2 xy + y2 = 10.6. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. ' ^ 15.!.

xy.. Solve Ex. we have from (1). B. Therefore x = 16. = 12 J. quadratics can be solved by ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. y = 3|. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. i ^ *>. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x -. i" <--Vx -f -' unknown 6. Some simultaneous ?/. x 2 . at first it is unknown quantities. jc~ y = 9. y . 2. from (2). we obtain by squaring.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : faj-y=152. * ' 300. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4- or But the negative roots being extraneous. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 189. (1 > (2) 1. x +y y etc.

[2x + : y= 17. 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 4. I e. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ . 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 4-0. 2. 36* 2. |. M-6.

* . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 27. = 198. 25. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . f 18. = y 1 y* . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.4 y = 47 a. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. .21 ^ = 15. 19 ' 26. + o5)(6-hy) = 80.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 16. .

33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . = 48201. etc. etc 302. 32. hence may be any finite number.of - According to the definition of division. 31. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . ~\ OK OO. -- But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . 25 34. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. -. ^ oo . oo 301. or ~ indeterminate. 3 a2 38. Interpretation .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Q 7. . y % 9 f*K 36. finite - =x y if = x. 7' j/ 39. 30. as a --.

i. I.242 303.decreases X if called infinity. and .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.x'2 2 x = 1. or that x may equal any finite number. = 10. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.e. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. (1) is an identity. . The ~~f fraction . of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. as + l. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. and becomes infinitely small. (a: Then Simplifying. By making x any * assigned zero.e.increases if x de- x creases. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 306. Let 2. x -f 2. oo is = QQ. equation.can be If It is made larger than number. however x approaches the value be- comes infinitely large. (1) = 0. cancel. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. be the numbers. The solution x =- indicates that the problem is indeter- If all terms of an minate. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. without exception. it is an Ex. the answer is indeterminate. . TO^UU" sufficiently small.g. Or. (1). i. 1. creases. + I) 2 x2 ' -f 2x + 1 -x(x + 2)= . great. Hence such an equation identity. is satisfied by any number.000 a. ToU" ^-100 a. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.

e. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y finite QO. z = 1 Substituting. and a. 42 and' their product is 377. two numbers is 76. 1=0. The sum is of squares 2890. * 6.2 y = 4. Solve | 9 7. . and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve . Solve x a. 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = oo. Solve ~o -3 x v ~K -6 x r x 6 4. 4 -3 x x-5 a2 . is their 2.8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. no numbers can satisfy the given system. EXERCISE 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. third and sixth parts. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). (2). Hence /. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 3.

148 feet of fence are required. and the edge of one. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328.244 3. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. increased by the edge of the other. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. of a rectangular field feet. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the side of each square. 13. and the hypotenuse is 37. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet.) 53 yards. 8. 103. Two cubes together contain 30| cubic inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. is 6. 190. Find the numbers. of a right triangle is 73. equals 4 inches. Find the other two sides. Find the edges. 255 and the sum of 5. and the diago(Ex. 9. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the edge of each cube. 14. 146 yards. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the dimensions of the field. the area becomes -f% of the original area. 10. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7.quals 20 feet. and the sum of ( 228. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find these sides. 12. Find the sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 6. p.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. Find the radii. irR *.) 17. differ by 8 inches. Find the number. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. by the product of 27 be added to the number. .

the second a descending. added to each term to obtain the next one.. each term of which. -4. except the first. a 3d. 15 is 9 -f. An arithmetic progression (A. P.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 12.7. Since d is a -f 3 d.. of a series are its successive numbers. .. (n 1) d must be added to a. The common differences are respectively 4. .1) d.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.. and d. of the following series is 3.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 19. P. a 11. 3 d must be added to a. a -f d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. progression. : 7. P. + 2 d. to produce the nth term. Hence / = a + (n . 309. a. 10. a + d. series 9. 16. . To find the nth term / of an A. 11.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to produce the 4th term.. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. . to produce the 3d term.) is a series. 17. The progression is a. 2 d must be added to a.. a + 2 d. to each term produces the next term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. -f . The first is an ascending. 3.

5.. series 2. d . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 1-J.. -|. P.. d = 3. the last term and the common difference d being given. P. P.. 99) = 2600. -24. Find the 5th term of the 4.16. 6. (d) 1J. 3. a = 2. 6. 2. 21. 2J. 6. . 1.-. Find the 12th term of the -4.. 8.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. series . ..4. 115. 2 EXERCISE 1. 8. Adding. = I + 49 = *({ + . . -10.- (a + + (a + l) l). 3. = -2. 9. 5. Find the 101th term of the series 1..8. .. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 7.. 4. of the series 10. 9. 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).PROGRESSIONS 310. -7. 8. 19. 5.. .' cZ == .. 5. the term a. ? (a) 1. 5. 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. 3. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 7.. -4^.-. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series ... -3. if a = 5. = a + (a Reversing the order.3 a = -l. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . . = 99.. 3. 6 we have Hence . Find the nth term of the series 2.

23. 1|. . 21. 19. -. 16. to 10 terms. to 8 terms. to 20 terms. . 3. 1. hence if any three of them are given. to 20 terms. 16. 11. 22. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 29. and a yearly increase of $ 120. + 3. 1J. 7. (i) (ii) .(# 1 2) -f (x -f 3) H to a terms. and for each than for the preceding one. > 2-f 2. \-n. to 16 terms.5 H + i-f -f- to 10 terms. 7. 11. . 2. 11. 17. 15.1 -f 3. 15. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. '. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . + 2-f-3 + 4 H hlOO. 18. 13. 2J. . to 15 terms. . Jive quantities are involved. to 20 terms. 15. 4.. : 3.7 -f to 12 terms. Sum the following series 14. 31.248 Find the 10. 12. to 7 terms. In most problems relating to A. 7. striking hours only. 1. (x +"l) 4. . 33. . 20. strike for the first yard. rf. 12. 8. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. P.

100. = 1014. 133. 6. 2. s 24ft last term 144.. = 13. 111. 67. = 1014. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. J = 49. P. 89. 122. #. is 12. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. From (1).PROGRESSIONS Ex.1). x= - 4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.6 n). n = 6. Findn. and b form an A. Ex. I Substituting in (I) and (II). = a + (w.e. I. 204 = ^ (a + 49). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 56. P. 78.. 78 n Substituting in (1). n d. l)e?. 204 = ^ (98 . the and the sum of all terms 1014. Find the series. if s = 204. 6 n2 . The series is. if a. or if x Solving. 312. 12. P.1) . or 11 J. 45. 23. a = 49 -6(71 . d = 6. = n(104 . the second one mean between the other two. 144.6. Solving.~n~\ 408 6). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. . The first term of an A. 34. = 144. 2 (2) From Hence (2). a = 12. Substituting in (2). But evidently n cannot be fractional. 1.104 w + 408 = 0. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. . hence n = 6.

Find a Given a = 7. 6? 9. Find a and Given s = 44. n = 4. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Given a = 1. T? ^. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 7. n. How much did he save the first month? 19. ceding one. . Find d. 11. 4. 8. Given a = . 14. 12. Find w. 17. = 17. = 1870. = 45. n = 20. 78. f? . n = 16. I. = 83. = 52. Find n. Given a = |. Find d and Given a = 1700. 15. produced. 3. P. 10. I Find I in terms of a. s = 70. s == 440. and s. has the series 82.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Find?. Given a = 4. d = 5. a+ and b a b 5. n has the series ^ j . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. a x -f- b and a b. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. y and #-f-5y. Find d. n = 17. m and n 2.3. = ^ 3 = 1. of 5 terms 6. = 16. 16. How much . n = 13. f J 1 1 / . 74. 13.

P. the first = a + ar -for ar -f ar Multiplying by r. or 81 315. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. <zr . 2 a. of a G. rs = s 2 -. 12.. -I. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. P. +1. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). E. The progression is a. P. . fl lg[(i) -l] == 32(W - 1) = 332 J.. ratios are respectively 3. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . the first term a and the ratios r being given. 108. is 16(f) 4 ... ..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. If n is less : than unity.. and To find the nth term / of a G. 4- (1) . 36. 4. -2. (I) of the series 16. or. called the ratio. A geometric progression first.) is a series each term of which. . .arn ~ l .... 24. 36. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. The 314. ar. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 36..g. r n~ l . NOTE. 24. 4. |. is it (G. the following form 8 nf + q(l-r") 1 r . . ar8 r.

Jive quantities are in. .l. 1. 20. 288. . (d) 5. \ t series . 25. 4. 3. . or 7. -fa. P. Hence n = 7. 144.. f. 6. series 6. . first term is 125 and whose common . |. 144. + 5. 36. is 3.._!=!>. 2 term 3.18..5. . P. Find the 6th term of the series J. ? (c) 2. 9.... ..*. hence. 4. i 288. Ex. first 5. l. 8. 72.-. 9. And the required means are 18.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. -fa. +-f%9 % .. 576. 9. (it. first term 4. . 36. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. .5.6. . 0.54... whose and whose second term is 8. 144.. a = I. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. if any three of them are given. P.4. (b) 1. series 5.. In most problems relating to G. Hence the or series is 0.18. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/-'. P. 80. 72. 676. 18. f.72. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . volved . Find the 5th term of a G. r^2. whose . EXERCISE 1. 36.. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 10. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 7.288. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. series . is 16. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. P. . I = 670.

>"> -. Given r = n Z 5. Find the geometric mean between 7. 36.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. of r n decreases. Find a and Given r = 3. to 7 terms. a. Find a and n = 4. 81.-. is less than unity.. n = 5. 4.-. 13. . -. 48. 81. 54. s = 310. 42. J. to G terms. and hence ~ r . 126. 25S series : 32. 21. to 6 terms. 27. be written If the value of r of a G. I. 243. = 3. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. -J-. + 4 . s = 605. == 160. to 8 terms. 72. to 7 . .-. -J. 15. J. 22. 2. 16 . 14... 12. 24.. 19. to 5 terms. a^.i a9 . 14. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less -r^Ex. 20. to 6 terms. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. M. to 6 terms.J- and 270. 23. P. may be than any assignable number. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317.nV> i*> !718. r . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 1. n = 5. 12 terms. Find a and 4. Z s. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 1. . . = 3.

1. . Find the value 9.. of an infinite G..00072 -f . = . what is (a) the sum of the areas. i.. . 1 r = .3 + . 12. -.. 100. The sum r. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . is 16.072. is 9. 2.. 8. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 1. 2.. 9. 1. 12. 16.. of all squares ? . I. Find the sum to infinity. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 250. P.72.. .254 Ex.27777 . = . P. 3.. .. . ... 66 Therefore .1. 7. . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 40.. Hence . =A+ 10 i. 4.191919-... r = j. .37272 .. ratio 15..= _4Z* ... first and the common term.. and the first term is Find 17.99 . . 16.)7?7272 . 5. = a .01 ^ . is J. = 990 ..272727-. If a = 40.= . 10...3727272 ...555.. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. P. 1. .. The sum Find the of an infinite G. i i J.072 + . of: 11. 5... 13.717171-. . 9. -... Given an infinite series of squares. 4. 6. 8.. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. . 6.3121212-.. 14.Ql. -.

6) 20 . coefficient of . (a + b) . 29. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a -f 5) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 22. a4 b 12 in (a -f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 10. .6) . .b) w (a (a -f (1 . 5. 4 7. l 2. (s + i). Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (x-y) : 6 . /2a+|Y\ 8. Find the 3d term of fa -f V -^Y Va/ - 19. 26. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a -f 2 b) . 20.b ). 21. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . : (1 + xy. (a 100 . 14. 12. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 11. a6 8 16 in . . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 13.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + -^r 18. 25. 16. (\ 9 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 15. 7 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 2 2 24. Find the 6th term of (x . . 17. 4. (z2 -^ Simplify 9. 28. (a-2) 6.

6. 4. 2. - 2. 4. 3.] a 2^ aft + -r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 5. ft) . 5. -1. 2. 2. l. 4- ft - c) 2. 4. 1. 1. = 2. 2. 3. 1. 3. 2. 2. c if 7 . + 1. 1. 2.c )(ft-a) 1. 4. *=M - M 3J -f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. (ft c)(c 4- ) 3. 1. -3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. -5. -3. 1. 1. 4. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 x-y or -f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. c = = = 2. 2. 4 (2 a - 13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2 - 38 3. 3. 3. -1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . -4 2. 4. 2. -3. 5. y 3.a(a 4. 6. . 4. 1. 1. 2 . 1. 3. 5. 3. - 2. 3. 3. 3. 4 *2 - 4 xy - 4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. . 5. 3. -3. 5. if y=2j 2. 3. 3. - 8 ^ 2. 2. + 2. (c 3. - a)(a 1. 2. 2 (2 a - 3 aft -f- 4 2 ft ). 2. 24 4. 3. 6. 4. 2. -6. 2. 5. if = = = 2. 2. ft 4 ) 5. -1. 1. 3.f ac 1. 3. aft 3 + 4. 2. 3. 1. 7. + 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 1. -2. a ft c = = 2. 3. 2. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T -r C + + c2 + 2 . if = = 2. 2. 2. 3. i (a-ft)(a-c) a 6 (ft. 4. 4. ^+^ 3. 1. 2. 6. 1. 2. 5. 1. (c-a)(c-ft)' 4. if x^l. 4. + c(a -|- c). 5. 2.

10 z 8 12 - 6 2 8. 6. 6 a4 4 a8 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .3 a?y . 21.x 5 4 . and 3 y 8 -f 12 z 8 . 25. + 2. if a 6 = = c = 3. 9.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.a) . 7y 4 .4 yz\ -7xy* + z 3.4 x'2 -f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 7 xy 3 . + 1. 8. 4. (5. c = 3. a. 11 z 4 x4 -12 17.259 x c) . b(x (b 1.2 x?/. 2. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . - a) (c 2. x3 -f 3 ax'2 .a 4 .7 y 2* 4.5. a 4 + 11 a . 2. -f 8. 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x3 2 a2 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 29. .' 4 x2 2 - 5 z3 8 . + 3 y 2* . 1. 2 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.8 3 + 7 x4 . 15. 8 .2.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 9. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.2 a?y + 3 aty . .10. 40. x = 4. 5. + 4. 16. 41.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.a 5 a . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 15. c)(x a} . 2 x 8. c(x (c g)(x 6-) = 1. 5. x 3 x' 14. + 8 x4 *y .\ yz + xz.7 ys.a8 .r 6 x - 4 xy . 20. 5. 3. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // -f ax'2 . 4 z . 12.3 xyz. 2. 4. x C 4 4x y + . 5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 3. 17. 21. 4 x 4 . 7.c' 2 4 / . 10.2 z8 4 x. 4 y 13. 2 - + 12 a 8 .4. a: . = 2. a. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy* - zy + 12 xy* - 4 y4 . 18. x 3 11. 26.8 + 2 // . .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .2 x2 .2.1. - 2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/ - 7 y3 . + 4 ?y . or .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . x 2 + - 2 ax* -f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 2. 4a + 9 a2 - 3 a5 . ' b) + 3. 24. r> .5 xy 3 + + 4 . . 1. a /> 3. ~c)(b.7 + .

of a. -f ft. and 7 x a 2x -2 ax'2 4. 36.x2 . and a ft 4- ft 3 c take - 6 a.c.{2 x 2 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.6 x ] . 4- 4 4. x'2 .5 10 b 3 -\- G 11 = ft x4-y4-2. ft. of 2 x 8 4- 4 x2 4- 9 and 4 x . 33. = x y ft z. .c 3 a. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4- 3 will give 27. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 7 12 . and d= c c 4- x4-#4-z </.(4 * .3 . From of 2 the 4. Take the sum of G a8 4- 4- 4 a 2x 4- .[4 x 4. 7 x -x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 2 x 32. . 4- 2 x8 x 4- 4.1).8 3 4. 3 ft. and a 2 ft 4- ft 3 c take sum - 2 c 4- 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 5 10 + 7 .[4 z 8 .(x* .#4-8. c 4.5 . take the sum of G x 5 . sum of .(x 4. .x . 0" 30.(5 y .(7 x 4. and . 4- 2 x2 23.4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4- G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . [4 I 2a4-7c-(7ft4-4c)-[6a-3ft4 2~c4-4c-{2a-(ft-2T-2)}].x .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2 3 ax 2 .2) .2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .(5 c .4 Vl 4. 4- 3 From 44- the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .6T .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x - 4 x8 22. . : a x .3. 34.2 _[5ft-{^ 2 8 4 x* .2 a . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 4vTT~y 3.x 4. (*) a - c. /- x5 -2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4- 3 5 y/ . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.{G * 2 .4 ft) 4.7. (/) a + - ft 4- 6 + - rf. 4 . 5 10 4- G 11 4.(a .4) .?> x 4- 20.3 x . .c 4- 3 a.(4 x 2 .3 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. Simplify 31.. 5 4 7 12 . 3 4- 5 10 2 - 7 12 . 3 x2 13-3ft-[l7a-5ft^[7fl-3ft-{4fl~4ft-(2a-3ft)}]]. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4-X-5V14.a ft. c 4ft.260 19.] 26.n/ 4 4- 12 x 5 4- 4 x?y 4- 2 x6 -f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 35. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4- .x 2 4. 29.4 x 8 from ax 2 4- 6 x8 4- 21. c =x y -}~ z.1)}] . 54-2 x 2 and .27~-~7)}].[3 if - (3 _^ ft 6- ft -f- c)}] a: . 2 c - 2 a - and 2 a 3 x2 28. Take the sum 4x 4. a - ft + c.5.2 . ft 25.1 and x 8 G 11 4- 3 x2 + - from G x2 4- x.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.c.2 x 8y2 44 .

(x.(6 .3 *). (.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 68. 46.4 a 2 + a 4 ).(2 . . (a:-2)(r-4)(a:-9).2 2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . a . 56.(2 a + 5 a .6 xy . (/> 4 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .ab .a~^~c)K].Z .56. . 2 -f [3 c 7 a .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 13 a . (5 a 39.r -2:c+ l)(ar. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 5a-(7ft+4c) + [6 a.e -'/)}] -(2a + 2b . (4 + 3a 2 . 3 x 42.2c-(V/ . 'J 44. + 4x + 5)(j.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). .be) (a 58.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 2 2 x + !)(* . 45.{3 c . 4 + 2 2 + 1).c 2 .(2 a 2 .2x + 3).3 z 2 ). 2 53.3)(*-5)(* -7). (x .ac .{2 a . 49. 59.rf)} + a -[. . 50. + - ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).6c) (a + -f c). )(l-z a ).3).5 )}] + {4 c . 67. 60.(7 a.& + {.{2 a -(ft . 7 a 2 261 -{5 2 a2 -2 a + (2 a 2 i j- 38. 2 : 7e)-a}]. 48. 54. + 2) - (4 x 2 - 2 x -7)}].3~ft -f 2 c + 4 ^ . 43.(7 i + 4 r:) .0)} . 51. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(4 d .[7 a 36 -{4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(5 y . (r (1 (a. + *+!){> + 2). .4 a .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . . (1 -ar+a. 62.3c).1).2a .2)(1 .JT^T+1)} + (2 .5)} + (3 a 2 .3 c)].6-)}].12).2 2 + 1)(7.(2 x2 . - 2 a - {3 2x a .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + -*)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).b -(c . 2 52. 57. . (2 x 2 -3 ar+ 1)(3 z -2 x+ 1).2 zz . . . 63.[2 .[4 x - 5 .7). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 65.c). (. (1 55. a -{. 2 ft 41. 64.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].96 -[17 a.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&-{2c-(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.

-2y)(. 77. (p 2 . b 4. by multiplying out each 4- side of the equality.c . 89. a (a 2 -2a + + " 4- l)(u 2a n -f (:r a.c) 2 . .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c) j. (. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .(c 4.3 (ft .z) .5 .(x 42 y) O 2 4- y) (^ 44- y ). 74.ft) + 4(2 .c) rr identities. 2 + a 2 ).(/> - 3 v)^(.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).a) (a? 4--(c 4- y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). ft 8 ft) 4- ft 8 4.6*y . 75.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).y'*4-y 2m )OK --y I)(a m ).c . 83.(ft 4.(4 .a) 2 .q). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4- 2 2 ^>) c) 44- a2 a8 4- 2 4.c) . (a (2 b)*(a 4. xy y 2 ).c c 2 4- 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 -f- p ) (w .r 2 .:-y)( a. 73. -f 72.(a 2) (s 4- ft.b 4.y + z)(x + y .c 8 4- 3(6 c)(c 4- a)(n + 2 ft). 70. 85. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 71.<f(p . 94.3y) a (* 2 4.y)\x y). + (rtP+i 4- 2 6)(a^+ . .9y2). 86. O (x (a 2 + 4- y y) 2 a J 4 . Prove the following 8 4. 82.z\x 4. a(2 + 4- 3ft) 2 -(2a 4- 4- 8 ^) . 84.O (a 4(a 4.(^ 4- y 2 ) - 4 ^/(. (x 4- 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V) - . ft ft ft a}.c) . 2 (x 2 .m np c . 1). 88. ft /.{3 a .2 ft}) -f (3 a . 1). 90.c) 4) (ft 4.ft) 4- . 76. 4.c)]. 92. (x (x ( + *) .(a 48 8 8 4.2 (a . .v) 4. 91.z)(x -y + z)(.(a? 4- y)*(x - y). ar .x + y + z).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. ft 78. ft" l Simplify 80. ft 95. 4- 4- . 93. 79.n pc).2 (y 4.am&t 4- A 2 *).r-3y)4-l)y( a :-y)^-2y)4-18 // (2r-y)4-6 8 // . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2 - z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a - + l)(a 2 -f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).262 69. (a) (a (ft) a8 4- ft 8 4.3 a .c)} . 87.y). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (b-c)(x + ft) (a: 4.

c 4- 6 afo) -f- + ^ 4 ).a". (a 8 - 8 68 8 4.4 aft . 3*.40 />) . 114.&).35 x 2 2 ) .5 xy). 113.(a 1 2 8 . 4 (6 x 4- 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 106.b) 98. 121. 105.v/ ~ // -=- a: . 120.y 4 ) . (80 a 112. 2 (a+ . . 116. (4 4 3 a - 4- - 5 a 3 .2 xy 8 . 1). 1O4. 25 4 .r 4 4.) . 108. (8 x* 115. 20) -*- (3 a* 4- 4 a? + 5). [10( 4.y 2 4. 99 100.(7 xi/ .1).16 a 6 4. 103.*) -(x 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. -26 (a 4- c).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .&) 8 - 5(a n 4- 2 6) ]- 5(a 4- &) 6 (a 4.(2 a 2 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44- 12 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 118. (20 x* - 4- 72 x 2 - 35 4. 102. 10).y 4 .6 y 4 4.27 x* .5 b*). (2 y 44- 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4- 3 16 y a 50 4- 48) 2 111. 117. (2< 107.3 a"+ 4. 110. . 2 4- 41 x 4a.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a - 1). (.2y 2 4. 122. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) ( - 2 2 119. a*.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a - 12). Cr (z -27y -l-9a:y) -(a:-3yy 6 ) -r- 2 (a: 4- xy 4- y 2 ). 4 (a 8 44- 16 a 2 4 4- 256) -s- ~4 2 (a 4- 4a ^ 4- 16). 109.(x 2 .5 a 21 (10 a 4- 5 a*) Qa-f-l^ -=- 5 a*. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a -T- (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 123.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 124.'30) ~ (4 ^ - 5 x 4- 10).xy 4.2 2% 4. -r- .9 x 2 .

9) + 3. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2 - 2 6 2 - 8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 148. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 3(2 x 134.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 143.9) 4.r + 7[or . . 139.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.r>) .4(0 x . 3) = x\x . 1) . x 147. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(x + 3) ] .3) = 12 .3 x).19) + 5 = 4 .2(5 . 5 146.2) = 3 .(j a? 144. -1) = 2(* .(9 x + 10) (a: - 3) . What is the 2 by a*-ab + 26 ? 130.3).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .7) = (7 x - 1 1) (3 x . 10(2 x 141. 127. 7(2 x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2 7^~5] + 1).(1 .n .1) (a? .(x . .8 6 .3(* + 4) + 9} .3(2 z .2(4 .27 a 3" . 129.1) . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.12 M 132. 128. . 142. .4) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3 - G ax z8 - 8 z 8) -5- (1 - a - 2 x). 135.3 a (1 + *- l l 1 3 -f- 2 &).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). . - 9) - 7(0 x a? - 32) + 5 = 4x - 3(2 j - 3).264 125.22.5{. (*+ + .2(10 x . 136.3) (3 x 4. 138. .2(j: .7(4 * . 4-2(3ar 145.a:)]}. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2 - b* is divided By what expression must a: -f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3). 137.2) + 2(ar + 4).(x -f 9). y (* l x.5).5) = 12(4 x . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.4) . 149.3 a:). (5a: 150.18 *&) (1 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar- 2 4} = 2(3 x . .7) = 4 . (4 x .G) . o o 140. By what expression must x* + G x2 - 4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 5(2 x .2) (a: + 3). 2 4(ar . 126.

1) O + 4) = (2 * .7) (1 x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (x (x a.5) = (3 .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. = 15.4) (a . + 10) (ar .3) (3 . 155. 158. 164.76. + 5) = (9 .(5 x . 159. . 166. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 5(ar x . + 4) (2 x + 5). a: ar a.2). 162. 153. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 2 4 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.3)(* (ar 2 7) - 113.2 x) (4 . 157. (a.. . (a .5*) + 47.3) (3 . (2 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.l)(z .6 x) (3 .2) (7 -*) + (*. 154. If the area of the frame inches.3) = (3 x . The sum What 171. (3 O + . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 156.T)O . these two angles would be equal.5)(. sheep more than the 169.5(x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 163.7) (a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 265 152.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.2) a + 7(x . f-^ + ^s-O.r + 3) . + 5) 2 -(4-a:) 2 =r21a:. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.2 x) = (1 .24.9) + (a. 160. will produce F. 165.29) 2 = 1. The second contains 3 first.25) 2 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . and the third twice as many as the first. find the value of F.5 x) = 45 x . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. = 2 C. . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . transformed into F.19) + 42. How many 170. .3) (a: . + 2) + (5 . (7 14 .17) 2 + (4 x . . (a) If C.1) (s + 3). A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.a:) + 229.8) = (2 x 4. 161.z) (4 . = | (F 32).3) (j.14) (a: + 3).? .2) (j? + 1) + (x .

The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. x* 185. z 2 + x . power one of the two Find the power of each. father. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Find the number. and 5 h. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 4 a 2 y-y -42.266 173. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. dimension 182.56. 12 m. 187. number divided by 3. How many are there in each window ? . Find the dimensions of the floor. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 190. 176. younger than his Find the age of the father. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. sister . A boy is father. . + a. . 7/ 191. +x- 2. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. was three times that of the younger. 181. two boys is twice that of the younger. -ll?/-102. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. train. aW + llab-2&. 188. 189. . A each 177. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. z 2 -92. 13 a + 3. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 186. 179. + 11 ~ 6. 2 2 + a _ no. and | as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A house has 3 rows of windows.-36. if each increased 2 feet. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. respectively. 15 m. 3 gives the 174. side were one foot longer. 10x 2 192. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 178. 180.

238. 224. 2 a 2 . (a + . 4a 2& 2 241. 208. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .14 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247.6. 8 a: ar. # 2 - 29 y + 120. 244. a a: a: 237. 216. x* + 8 2 + 15.6 aq .6s.(b + rf) 2 . y 2 194.3 c/> + 6 cq. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 3 x V . 207. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 3y 248. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 24 2 + 2 .3 xy. 246. 3 ap 2 . 2 2 y -f 1. 4 m +^. 211.6 2 ?/ . x 219. 7x 2 225. 245. -23 -12. 2 a 8 . 218.c) 2 - (a .8 6 2. if-W-y+b. 222. a: . 233. 209. . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.6 y2 + 4.20 z 8 a: 220. a.77 y + 150. 14x 2 -25ary + Gy 2 3 x* -x 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a: 4 - a: 2 a: V 2 . 9a-4a6 (a 2 + b .r?/-f y 2 -9. 16x 4 -81. 210. 213.21 a: - 54. . + 3a 196. -11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . *2 234.c) 2 . z + 5x 2 .x + 1. a: 236. wiy + la mx + aw. a. 4 -f yx* + z*x + z*y. + 198. 3y 2 + ary . 5 x 2. x 5 . + 8. 12 x +4. 3 x 2 . . 7a 228.1. 2 200. . 201.10 xy. 221. a 2 .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . .64.xm y + xym - + (a c) - (c rf) 242. a+a* + o a +l. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a^a 226. 232. 202.19 a . 2 .10. .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.22 z + 48. 195. 229. 239. 267 199. 6 197.19 z 4 204. 215. + 2 . 2 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 227. 235. z 2 -2. xm+l 243. 206.10 y a x* . a. 230.28. a. x*y 223.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 203. a: 231. 8 -a. 60 a 2 - a: // 205. . 2 - 5 xy 13 y a. 212. + 30 x. 217.12 * .

261.36. + 3 x + 2. 270.73 xy .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 -7 .2 z .4. a: . * 2 . 2 z 2 -f 13 x + 1 5. C. 3 #2 255.16 x . F. + 8. + 20 x 4.7 -f 5. G(x+ -|- l)'\ 9(x 2 - 1). .10.13. z 2 268. 1 x- ar Find the L.1 9 . of: 266. 10 x 2 .9 x .48 afy 2 .9 x + 14. + 8 x + 5.ry .2/ 2 . 10 a.120. x*y* 4.x . 2 + 7 r -f 2. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. _ 40 y 2 272 -f -f- 2 !8a: .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 260.9.23 + 12.10 a 4. 2 8 . 6.3. x 2 + 2 x . ^2-7/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 263.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a -5y>+4. x 2 + 5 -f .12.3 x . x 2 4.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 7 ax 250. 8 2 + 10 x . 2 a. 15 # 2 z/ /.11 a 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3.ry -21.15.14 bx a%% 8 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.r .23 x -f 20. 2 x2 . ft a.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . * a . of: 253.(55. 265.11 x -f 28.18 xy + 5.r + a# + az -f 2 6z fry 4. 3 a% 2 . x 2 . 2 .91. a 4. -I- Find the II. x* . 252. 3 ay 4. * 2 . 258. a. 2-2x2 a. 18 x 2 . 254. * 2 .80. x 2 -f 9j: + 20. + 23 x -f 20.8. 28 2 -f 71 x .4 ab + 1. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. a 3 a 2 2 .G7 x -f 33.5 ab -f 2.M.a + 2 4. 269.15 + 30.&z. z 2 267. 5 x 2 256. 7 12 2 2 . a? a: a: // 262.6 by. 30 ^ .a 2 />c 2 -f 3. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.3 abc .2 aft*. 251. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 257.C. 259. x* . 264.

(y 2 z) * t (j.. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 -f sa . y)' z2 283 t- 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.!/. m 4. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4- 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^ - ?/. 8 .rL. 289 ' .2* + 3 x* 280. + ac .2c a: 282. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2 - 4 - ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' ..J' 4- 2 2 w mp . a. - 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' -8x+8 ' 278.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269 - 6 a. *2 " 2 + Og-e. 285 z4 n* + a. -9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x -f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2 - a: 2 ) m 288 ' .ar 1 279.

2 + 7 _ 44 3. O(c-a) 306. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a -f e) 304. x 7. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 4 3 301. + 19) 2Lz| + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *-3 a +7 300. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: -2 a: 2 -2 a: - 17 a:-2 ar-3 x 2 -5a:-i-6" . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^. ^_2*(m 308. a? __ + -*_ + + -la?-la? * a l 303. Lnl + ar 2 a. X2 (c-a)(a-i) 1 x2 4- (a- +9 i_ 20 a . * 19 23 19(23 -23.

a: 1 313. (a? 4- 2) 317._ '(a-6)*-(a:-r)a 323.ft) 2 322. _ x8 -.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 -9*+ 20 *2 - 8* + 15 315.(a . 1a: + y a.- 1 x2 + + a. . 2 + y 2 319.*) + * 2) 321 - c) 2 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.2 1 -f 1 + : *2 1 - 2 x' 316. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. ( ft-c g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. } . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. .. (1 . 1 _. Dx x(l *) * 8(1-*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .

272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 a2 - 2 a - ' 03 i^+^T- 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 250 5 10 2 325.15 -33 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x - 3.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. -* 3a. z2 - 4 x - ^ "" 12 *. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .28 8 2 - 11 2 + J?_ x fl^-^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a - 4 6~7** 27^-12^7 .V - + y - x 3y a ./ - 3 y - 6 ( 331 g gy ' -f a 3y ~ 6 q - 9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4-y+ 15 ^e - 10 6y 332 3 a: +lly-10 4 xy -8 2 - a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.5 a .y-20 - 2y + 4 2 .7 xy + 12 x .6* t 328.9 *// + 27 . a: 2 x* .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 20 44 333.ll. . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: -f zy + 4 y* .2 +lOar 2 a.. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 -i- + 2 a. 2 -lOx 5x..y 2 x (a?-4y) 3(2 x - ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .B ~ 1037 - 329 4 a.

w \. a>74 . if a = 3.1V. (ar \ 346.y. xi 347. ( 342. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. f V. 7 ( -?-f!?. 1 345. 348.r -5 2 . \x yj 340. ** -i. ?_2 ^ . + ni + -. (a \ + lV.. fl-. (a-Wi + iJ. ' 2 -"l 5 . a: 349 _ o. 344. 338.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. \5yl 341. 278 C | ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q | q c 6 *| \ : f 1 \ - { 337. (a-f2/. aj 339. : 1+ i--. Simplify : 353 ^-3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 5 343. + l + IV. 352. +^ a: y x .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.) 2 .+ r .

274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>-3) 356 fl V ___ _/| 2(*-l)J + ya xl x 1-* YTx 2 1-10*W*-1 1-** JUa-l + xy 357. _ + l a 359. + x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. a2 4- . y360. (a a b y-x c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 -f 363. (~ 364. I - I -f 366.

. 2 - m 373 "1*7 374. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*-c*)^ c ^\ b (b* -f c*) } c 4- c a b . 370 ' 1 (-/')(&-o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.

2(3 x |(x + 4) + 10) + 1 |(x + 7) = 0. + 1) 45 O 377. 1 + 16ar_63 -24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5 - 14(ar-l) 18 105 390. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear-7 + i3JTo^ . 4(* . # k 1 _j- j a: 2 a: 3 383. .^-^ + x -f o 51) +2J = 0. 5*-8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^ - 10 x-f x - 382. 5 {2 x 381. ^ . r 1 - 3(* + 1)} ! ' .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. __4 2x 3_ = !. -3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. J !__7. + 6)+ - -(* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^-\:) / 380. <3 378. . 379. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 -7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 8 - 376.*-2 = 15. 20 iLf-5 + !*=! = 2 J.

a:- a)(a: - &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. (8 x - 3) (x 2 - 1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x - 5). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. u '2 a.6 - . a. ____-_ . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.8 = ..5 1 -f 1 x - 2 = x . - J).5 ^ ~ a: a. 401.25.2 a: - 1. 3* 177.147. b 404. .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. n a 4O5 b b x f -(a: - a) + a-(a. "i 2 3737-0 ^ x i x x + 1 a? - R - 7 ~r * 1 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. (x ~ a)(x -f 6) -f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). + 4 a.75 x -f . -f 1 1 + a 403. 399. c . - 8 9* x ~r. 40. l)(x - a) (a: - 3) 42 3(4 * - 2)(ar + 1).25 x + . 397.5 x =r -f .1 . 396. .. JLg:== 7wa: c c -}- -q. m x 398.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. - ft) = 2(ar - ) (a. 400. ^ (a .6~a: 7 _ x -8~a.

hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. (x -f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z - b) = a 2 alb = a (x -f b)(x 2 .(5 I2x ~r l a) . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 411. In a if and 422. 421. far did he walk all together ? A . 2 a x c x 6 -f c a + a + a + 6 -f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. the order of the digits will be inverted. 418 ~j-o. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. Find the number.(c rt a)(x - b) = 0. 18 be subtracted from the number. - a) -2 6 2a. and was out 5 hours.c) . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.278 410. -f a x -f x -f c 1 1 a-b b x 415. How long is each road ? 423. a x a x b b x c b _a b -f x 414. 420. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. Tn 6 hours . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. (x . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.

iand 22 22 -I a . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^- - miles.6 8 ).& 5 ) (a 8 . a8 -f 2 ab -f 6 2.46 2): (15a 2 . 435. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. . a - t>. |.2 (a + &*) (a -h & ) = (a ) (a -6). angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. d. 431. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 2 2 8 2 . find the angles of the triangle. 428. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a-26):(3o-46).a 2^ 8 + aft* . Solve 436. a. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . y. 430. 432. 3 and 1J. : If is one equal 434. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Which ratio is greater.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. x 427. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Find the length of the parts. If a b : =5 n : 7. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . and : b : c = 14 : 15. z2 - y\ x* -xy + y*. a + 5. : i. ax is -\- by - ex + dy.49 63). z 2 y. Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the fourth proportional 426. find : a : c. if .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 438. wi* + y= ny. . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 433. b.

5j + 7 7 = = 2. 448. 452.59 = 3 z. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. + 5y = 59.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.*. 4 = 5 y + 29.35. 5z-4:# = 3. Solve the following systems: 441. 449. 443. 1(3 | a. 453. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3 - ) 19(a - &). 2 (3 a + 2 ab - 8 ft) : 2 (5 a -f 4 ai - 12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a - 6 ft). ?/ 447. 5#+ 10 = -27 a.11 7. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . Find the value of a. a: a: + 5y).(or |-l(*-2y)=0.11 y = 95.3 y = 3 5 -f 7 . 457.89 = q. 455. 7 a: . ox -f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 456. x + 17 # 53. 16. 3 a. 8 . 5 2 = 7 . a: -2y= = 1 . . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 458. 446. c. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 56 + 10y = 7a.7 y = 25. ft. 7jr-9y = 17. 445. 15ar = 20 + 8y. /) ar a. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.55 y = . . 451. 42 = 15y + 137. 28 = 5 a . 444. 450. a. 7a?-y = 3. 9/> = 2 .4 12 . . 5x+4y=lQ. . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 8 x + y = 19. />(. . ft. The volumes If their diameters. 3 .. 454. 9ar-7# = 71. if 2 ft : 439.r-f-2# = l. = 25. 459. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 7 442.

_ 469. ^ + i^ = 7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. - = 2. ax by = c \ 472.c=56-3y.7.+ -=2. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. car = 4- rf cte - ey =/. 465. + ey-n. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y)- (2 = 2J. 475. x y 474. (or . 8 461.?/ + 1 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. -_ & +y 3 dx+frj- c\ .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.. i- 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 473. 468. ax cx by = m. --i = 5.

485. 479. A spends \ of his. A number consists of two digits 4. Find the number. 481. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j| 478. Find the numbers.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the numbers. Find the principal and the rate of interest. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 486. and in 18 months to $2180. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. How much money less 484. fraction becomes equal to |. . by 4. age. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and in 20 months to $275. Find the fraction. years. whose difference is 4. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 487. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. the Find their ages. Find the sum and the rate of interest. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. to . Find their ages. 477. and the other number least. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 483. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.

1. 30 -2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=-9. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 3ar 503. 3 a: + 5=84. 2y + 3a = ll. = 209. 7. 492. a: 499. 1+1 = 6./ 504. 2 e. -f- + 3 y 62 4 y 4a./ -f z =a. y Solve : x +z= 5. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 4 506.-5#+2z = $x a: G. z y x 25 . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 495. x -f y -f z 29| . 7 + 2 z . 490. 498. . 3 x 500. a number . . ~ 507.z = 12. 2 2 = 41. i-f-i = x a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. + # +z= 35. --\ . = 20. 496. 494. 5^ 9z = 10. x s + y z = 18J . z y i-fi = z x 502. 2 a. 4 497. 489. a: + // = 11. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. a: -f z = 79. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 4z+3z = 20. x y -f z = 13|.? + 2y = 8. 2/>-3r = 4. 8. .z = 20. *i. * + 425 - = . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2a:-f 7. : Solve the following systems 491. 7 -4#+ 3z = 35. . . + y 5 y = 101 . = 15. a. 493. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a. 5 + a.

36 + c. 523. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. i=a + 6 c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3a-f& + r. ll" . z z- =3a-&-c. + : = 1472.

In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . E 533. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. If they had walked toward each other. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. AB=6. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. AC in /). BC = 5. When weighed in water. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 532. it separately ? 531. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. it is filled in 35 minutes. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. CD. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. they would have met in 2 hours. in 28 minutes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if the number be increased by Find the number. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. B and C and C and A in 4 days. In circle A ABC. 527. How long will B and C take to do . Find the numbers. and BE. Find the present ages of his father and mother. the first and second digits will change places. and CA=7. . 530. L. .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. N. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. M. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. if and L. What are their rates of travel? . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Tf and run together. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. touches and F respectively. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 90.

543. x 8 549. - 3 x. x 2 + x. 547. The values of x if y = 2. 2 541.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. . 550. 536. One dollar equals 4.e. 3 x 539. a. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. of Draw a graph for the trans- The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. formation of dollars into marks. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 2 x + 5. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . The values of y. x* - 2 x. e. 540. x *-x + x + 1. x 2 544. c. 2 - x - x2 . - 3 x. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. + 3. from x = 2 to x = 4. GERMANY. The greatest value of the function. 2. if x = f 1. 2|. . x*. - 7. the function. z 2 - x x - 5. d. 546. 548. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.10 marks. to do the work? pendulum. i. 545. b. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. then / = 3 and write = 3. 542. FRANCE.

- 2 1 a: a.' 2* + Z - 4 = 0. + 10 x . c. 3 x . h. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. g.15 = 0. 568. Represent meters. 3 + 3 z . . 2 567. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . . x 4 . 565. 562.G .r a: a: x- a. 572. z 2 .0. 553.= 0.17 = 0. 2. 563.3 x .11 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 3 x* . 2 a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.3 x . = 5. 3 .9 = 0. 558. r?. a? 4 x .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569.13 = 0. + 5 . a. if y =m has three real roots. a. 555. a: 559. 2 8 . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.4 = 0. f.r . x 2 ~ 2 . .1 = 0. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 556.6 + 3 . x* .7 = . 2 x 2 560. J. Solve// = 0. 566.4 x 2 + 4 . 2 554. ' = 8. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. z 4 . i. 15. c. 564.3 . \ to t = 5.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*-"2x-7 = Q. x 5 . 557. // Solve y Solve y = 5.3 = 0.5 x . and make the unit of the b. If y +5 10.4 . j.r -1 561.= 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 18 x - 4 = 0. e. Solve 552.

(1 (1 (1 . 588. 6 + 1) . x [ ?/ 577. a.2 6a: + 30 &c a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 1 . 582. 593. (a-iy. -f ?>) 3 591.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 600. 585 594. + ^) + (air-%)8. <r)3 - 2 3 a:) . 596. a 8 606. -f ^s_ 14 a 4/.4 8 -f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 -f (a 1 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA |4.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .%) 4 (aa. 2 611. 9 - 4 fSb 607. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 608. 4 a. a 2a. x + z2) 8 . a:. + %) (a* + *) 5 .x + 2 )'2 601. 3 (f-. 2 - 100 aW + 100 aW. 598.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y -4 a: 10 2 + x^f . a: -f ~+ x [ 10 ^i - 1 V 6x + 4 --+ 610. + .-5 xy = 0. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. jj+. 592. (# 2) . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2 + -f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac - a6.o 2 [ ?/ > 3' - 578. 5 a*. 599. (a - 8 ft) . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . a: -f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) -f (2 -3 x + -f. f-MV -- 586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 64 a 12 603.-4. 589. a: . {f_7l j? 2* + |''. : y* or 25. (a.frf : 583. . 2 - 2 aa: 2 .(1 . [ y =10. 597.2 2 + y. 609. 579. - 128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. (1 + x a. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x -f 13 2 . 4 (1-a:) 3. 595. 2 943 +-+ -~-bx. 3 . . xY. 4-8 xf + a: 4 - 04 aty 6 a: // 16 -2 605. + + 4 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 604. a 612. j^-f = 3. 4 .

= . (x 9 x 646. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . a- 642. 035.*. 210. find Jupiter's period. 494210400001.53 x ~ . 637. x 2 641. GGff.2410. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 4J. 629.30. /. V950484 . 25023844. 2 + 21Ga. 650. 49.49. 628.12 a?y + y*.2. ft .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 633. 647t x 2 648 649. 21. 371240. = 70.15174441.150. = 0. Find the square root of 619. VOIOOD + V582T09. 615. 9g. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. x 2 -f x ~ - 16 = 0. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 644. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 40. + 24 a 2 4 . x 2 .871844. 44352. 651. 643. 626. 634. 636. 9a.1024 x + a: 256. + 2 -21 x = 100. 630. 3a. 7) 2. : 5. V 635. 942841. 2.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. -f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 2 + 189 z = 900. 620. 0090. 625- : 621. 32 631. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s - 108 afy 616. 645. 638. 639. According to Kepler's law.448 z + 1120 a: 4 - 1792 x* + 1792 2 . -f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 4 289 of : 4- 4 a*b + a2 2 /.V250 . + 54 'x*y* . + 112 a 8 . *+* = 156. 49042009. 622. 4370404. 632. 624. 8*' + 24* = 32. 614. Find the eighth root 617.\/4090. a 8 of: - 8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2 - 50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4 - 50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .191209. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 623. = 87.

290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .

a a )jr . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :c-f 1) = 42. 693. ax 2 698. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.ax . 696. 699. a. 1 + V* -2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.2 a(l + & )z -fa 2 (1 ax + to -f ru: 2 . ex -a-b-c= fx 0. 695.bx . 706. 2 702. 708. 2 2 . 4 a: + 4 ^^ -6a:x2 8 701. 1 __ : )'*' _i.c = 0. = 0. 692. . . 694. 707.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b - ~ " x 690.2V3:r 2 V5 a: -f + fa + 1 = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. (x 2 +3a:) 2 -2a. 2 ' 3 2 a:) - 28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 2 697.

217 . 724. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. in value. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 723. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. . A equals CO feet. 725. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 729. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 722. sum is a and whose product equals J. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 2n n 2 2 -f-2aar + a -5 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 3or i -16 . 717. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.l + 8 -8 + ft)' (J)-* (3|)* + (a + 64- + i. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16 | 25 a2 711. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 716. How shares did he buy ? if 726.44#2 + 121 = 0. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. **-13a: 2 710. 721.292 709. 727. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find the price of an apple.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 16 x* . 12 -4*+ - 8. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. ___ _ 2* -5 3*2-7 715. Find two numbers whose 719. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. a: 713. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720.

35.2 d*m* + 4 d-)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 + x.2 ).aft* 1 + a 2*. 36. 46.1 -f c" ). 41.X . n. 39. (64 x~ + 27 y -r- (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (v/x). (x* 2 a M+ -f a8) (x* - 2 aM" a). 43. -f- + M 6* -f 6) (a* U*") -4- a*6^ (<i* &*). . (x* (i* (a-2 (a(1 1 4 d*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 40. .- 1 + l)(>r 2 - -i + 1). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 -f ^ 2). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 42.)(a-i + &. 32.2? 50. 33. 31.1 + c. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y -f- y*) * + -* (x* - y*). 37. 38. + - - c* + 2 + ^ + cb-f 44. + &-2)( a -2_ 1 j-2). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aM ?n^n^ -f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 34. 52. (4 a: 2 - 12 x* 28 x + 9 x* - 42 x* + 49)*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 1 -6.-l). 293 (y* (a* + -f y* + y*+l)(y*.2)(x2 4.

758. 768. 757. + V22 + + 12 V2b8 - 760. JU. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lG-v/128. 761. 2-V2 2-V3 . 759..1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ -2^/2 776._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 754. 4\/50 4- SVlOOO. [1r^ T 1 i . 2^3(^-2^21 + 4^-3^:0.294 753. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.

Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 9-2VI5. 789. 75-12V21. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.4 V(j. 87 ac + 6t - 12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . 794.VlO. 3J- . 786.2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. -f x Va z Va -f x + Va a. x 782. . 806. 787. .2 V30. 103 788.12VIT. 16 + 2V55. 783. 10 785. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7 - 3 V'5 ( 2 4 7-3V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4 | 5 . 38-12VIO.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 -f 780. . 14 791. c 792. 13 799. a 94-42V5. + 2V21. 790. 793.

13 = 0.V-c^lJ . Va: + 28 -f + V9 x . 829. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar -2 Vx -f 1 834. \/12 a. 3 x + 2 . 812. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.4 = 0.V2 ar 10. + ViTli + V7 . 815.-f 5 = V5x + 4. Va: . 811.79.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . + Vx . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 818.\/2y - 810. 819. (x a: 2 ) 4 . x/aT+l . 833. 820. /9ar a: = 17. V3 -f 1 V4a. 814. -f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. = 1. VaT+lJ -f ^l . 836. 816. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2y-x 2)* and 1.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V? = 813. - 5 + V3 -f 12 817. + 10-3Var.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~-K5 + V5. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor-7 = V25 .g. V14 a. 831. 830.

+ . a: 849. + 512 y8 874. x 4 + -f 2 a. 875. 2 a: 64 y*. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. .3 x . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. y 4. 861. 4 a: 2 842. -f 12. V4 x 2 . -f b**. 870. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 855. 2 -f" + a/ 15. 844.3 . 6. 8 8 - 13 a. 4o. x 6 x4 -f + + a: x -f 1. 2 -f 2 18a: -f + 16.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a. -64. a.12\/(ar4-4)(5z~ = 36. 40 x 2 7 -f 49. a 18 4. a*" & 6n . 4 a. 839. 851. 840. 865. a 872. + 216 rt aty a 10 .-12.10 = 118. 8 + a: 5 8 a.3 a:. -f 841. 4 x 8 858.10 x -f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 860.x*y + 3x -f 2. 8 4a: 8 a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 16 859.ab9 ft*. a. a 8 869. 845.a.3 Va: 2 . x 11 a^ -J- 13 854. 5 x* -f 297 9) 11 x . 27 y 8. a 8 850. . 9. 8 . 8 -2a. a. 64 a 866. +3 -4 + - 4. 8^-27^. 863. 864. 876. . 853. x 8 2 857. 868. 275 8 -l. 8 8 848. a: . 729 867.1. 6 2 -f 3 6 s. 19 x 14. -8a: 2 4 -f 8 a: + 2 19a.1000 6. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 2 x 3.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x -f 5 = 7 . a 8 873. 4 x* 847. 871. . 27 862. 8 a. + 1. z*y 8 l-64a. 846. 856.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 852. a. 8 + 4- 4 ar 2 2 a. - 3x a. a l0m . . a.

2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 2 2 = 16 y.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.Vi' + 1 1_3. -f- a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 886. . 887. a# f + xy = 126. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.sy = 198. . x 882. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx -f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. --. 895. a: 888.15. 2 + xy = 10. 894. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . +y -f y = 7. a: + y 2 = 34. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 2 897. x a: l-I = xz . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + 2 f = 17. 899. a: a. a: 884. y = 28.xy + y 2 = 19. 885. + 2y=\2. y*+ xy .35.18. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x - 880. 900. y 2 2 8f. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. M1 891 1 . a:y . z 2 898. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 = 2 + 5. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 -f ary = 8 + 3. a.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. . 2 + y 2 . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 890. 2 + xy = 28. xy + y = 32. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.y 2) = 20.1 = 2 a#. y y 2 y 2 1-1-21. -f ?/ a: a: . 2 . a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 878.298 877. 883. -. 3 x 2 . 5. 901. y 2 4. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 896. . 2 . 889.y 2 + V(j. a. 1 x 893. x*-xy. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + -f ary + y = 37.

y). 9 -f 8 y -f 7 ay/ = 0. 7 + 4 y -f 6 ary = 0. 2 * 2 ~ g. (3 x . 921. y + a:y = 180. 2 2 -f 4 a: ar// or -f- a.6. 920. 909.y) (3 y . 7 y . 23 x 2 .23 = 200. ary y = 8. 2 913. 905. 4 (a. a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. x* + ary -f y 2 = 9. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.3)2 = 34.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 907.y = a(ar + y). a:y xy 929. + 2 ary = 39.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + 2 a:y + = 243. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + y 8 = 189. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. x 2 ry + y = 3. 908. Vary + y = 6. yz = 24. x -f 2 a:y = 32.16 y 3 8 = . xy + x= 15. 912. 2 + y = 2 a 4. (* 918. + y)(a. a: a. y 3 2 2 922.y) (a? . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. -f y 2 x 2 y = 1. (a. .3(* + y) = 6. . ?/ ^: ^-f!i^2. x 4 299 xy z 904. *y . a: * a: a: ar 928.y2 = 22. + ary = a*. y # 2 2 -f -f y = 84. = 8. 906. a: y zx 12. + y = 9. 910. 2 924. 3 :r(3 . + ?/) . x + y}(x + y) = 273. y . a o o- 2 j + a:y = 2. # + xy + y = 7. xa 903. 2 y 2 -f ay/ = 16. (0 Vx -f 10 -f v^+T4 = 12.x) = 21. ^ 2 . 917. 914. * + y = 444. (!) * . 2 2 2 916.r a. 2 5 xy = 11. y x 2 = by. x + y 2 = aar.2 y) = 49 2 919. 923. + a. ny ft- ma: = * a 2 m*.y) = 33. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 911. or or a? a: a: . 2 915. (o. 3 -|-y 8 ) =1216.3) 2 -f (y .#y + 2 = 27.

(y + *) = . two numbers Find the numbers. How many rows are there? 941. *(* + #) =24. s(y 932. is 3 . is 3. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Assuming = -y. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. diagonal 940. Find the sides of the rectangle. find the radii of the two circles. and also contains 300 square feet. 34 939. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the difference of 936. is 20. A is 938. In the second heat A .300 930. + z)=18. A and B run a race round a two-mile course. 2240. 931. 935. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. and 10 feet broader. Tf there had been 20 less rows.square inches. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 942. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 943. 152. two squares is 23 feet. Find the numbers. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. . and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. If each side was increased by 2 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. feet. y( 934. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. rate each man ran in the first heat. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.102. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. 937. = ar(a? -f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet.000 trees. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. z(* + y + 2) = 76. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. + z) =108. 944. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. y(x + y + 2) = 133. and the sum of their areas 78$.

950. 953. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. each block. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. and that B. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. 952. and if 594 be added to the number. unaltered. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find its length and breadth. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. P and Q. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. A and B. set out from two places. 949. and travels in the same direction as A. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the eter 947. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. sum Find an edge of 954. Two starts travelers. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. overtook miles. whose 946. Find the number. . When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. distance between P and Q. . triangle is 6. . the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the digits are reversed. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and its perim- 948. 951. Find in what time both will do it. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. that B A 955. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. What is its area? field is 182 yards. is 407 cubic feet.

to infinity. 5. Evaluate (a) . -^-1 + V-j 1 2 - . 961.>/) to infinity. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. difference. Find the Find the common 977. to 7 terms. the terms being in A. 16 962. and 976. Find an A... Find n -f (ft) .4-142 . '. 971. 957. \ . P. Sura to 24 terms.. 964. *" 968. . are 1 and sum of 20 terms.321? 965. 5. f + 1 . Sum to 20 terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 975. 9th and llth terms of an A.141414. Find the sum of 4. x(x to 8 terms. .to infinity.302 956. 974.. 1G series .. - 2.1 4- f -j$V . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.. 970. s - 88... = 4. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. P. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). ^ Vfirst five 959.. ^ 1- . P.v 973. 972.. . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4- 4... are 29 and 53.. 18th terms of an A..-. J. 12434+ j I 967. 3 .454.. 969. 958. (x 4- to n terms..3151515. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x-(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 966. 1 to n terms. : + -f 24 21 24 4-f 32 36 1G 10. 4 4- to 7 terms . Sum Sum to infinity. 3 + 5 7 + -. (to 2 n terms). to n terms. 4. n to n terms. fourth of the unity. P. Find n.-.x*(x 3 -f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.V2 . 36 963. !Ll^ + n . + (iiven a + - 4 d .

doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and -. to oo. 5 11. and so on. to n terms. 989. P. The term. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. P. to 105? 981. first 984. 303 979. is 225. and the common difference.-. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chess-board.. named Sheran. 4 grains on the 3d.2 . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 987. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7-! v^5 .001 + . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.001 4. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible... Find four perfect numbers..-.+ lY L V.01 3. and of the second and third 03. . to infinity may be 8? . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.. Find four numbers in A. P. 2 grains on the 2d. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 985. 986. The 21st term of an A.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 990. of n terms of an A. 992. Find the sum of the series 988. 1. Find n.1 + 2. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . The sum 982.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. "(. 980. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Find the first term. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.) the last term the series a perfect number.. 0.--- : + 9 - - V2 + .04 + .

third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. is 4. c. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. of squares of four numbers in G. at the same time. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. Two travelers start on the same road. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. in this square a circle. 1001. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 997. (a) after 5 strokes. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The sum and sum . 1003. ABC A A n same sides. 512 996. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. . and so forth to infinity. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . AB = 1004. many days will the latter overtake the former? . and G. 998. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. prove that they cannot be in A. If a. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. areas of all triangles. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. P. (6) the sum of the infinity. ft. The sum and product of three numbers in G. in this circle a square. 994. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. The fifth term of a G. are unequal. 999. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. find the series. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 995. 1000. P. are 28 and find the numbers. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. inches.

Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . x) 18 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 -7 . ) 1021. (1 1018. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the two middle terms of 1013.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1011.-i-V 2i/ 5 . . 1012. Find the coefficient a: X ---- \88 1 in 1019. Find the fifth term of (1 - a:) 1015.o/) 14 . . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. (1-2 #) 7 . + lQ . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1006.l) w -f . 1014. Expand - 2 a. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of - *)". 2 ) 5. Find the middle term of 1020. 1009. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. a: 8 7. 1008.ft) 19 . Write down the 1 5a - 6 |V .

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... 232 169 807 . 232 mean progression . numerical . .... 160 in quadratic form 191 . .... 54.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 -10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. 9 ** . .. . 37.193 11 . 8 .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. .. ..178 Completing the square . 246 91 " multiple. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . 112 54 54 251 . .. . signs of Algebraic expression . . ... .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 9. Brace Bracket Character of roots .. .108 160 " ... . . t 53 120 ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 123 ... . 19. . . ..130 .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. graphic tion of representa- . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . linear literal Common ** * difference . 158. . . lowest ratio " '* . . .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . simple simultaneous ...] Abscissa Absolute term . .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . Checks Coefficient 20.. 129... .. 129 54. Aggregation.. quadratic . 97.. .

45. 180. 91 . 227 . .. L. ...105 Monomials 03 Multiple. C Factoring 222 Literal equations .251 Graphic solution of simultane. Insertion of parentheses . 45 Laws of signs . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Product '* 76 Infinite. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .. .. 112 .108 Minuend .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . first and second . 241 123 geometric . . . . . law of Extraneous roots . 212 . 227 geometric . directly. Mathematical induction . arithmetic . 114. 189. ... . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 84. INDEX 8 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest ... 143.. 120 Member. P .. 184 54.. addition of " square of . . Geometric progression .. . . Inconsistent equations .31. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 23 10 91 102. . . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 63. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . Known numbers . Imaginary numbers . exponent . 17 65. Negative exponents 11 .C Multiplication . . . 34. inversely 122 numbers . 195 33. . . . G. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . . 45.808 Exponent Exponents. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 205 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . .. 253 28 70 1.154 Order of operations " of surds . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 243 7 . numbers . 9. 109 102 . Like terms Linear equation . .

. ... . . 9.. 45 Trinomial 240 ... . .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . algebraic Surds .. . .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 129. absolute 54 Variable . polynomial . binomial Third proportional Transposition ... 4 155 9 " of ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . Sum.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33...... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.

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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.

1913. 1917. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. 1916. Norwood. 1910. Published September. NorfoooS J. December. 8. Mass. Berwick <fe Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. Set up and electrotypcd. U.A. Reprinted April.. August. . 1910.S.

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000. 2. 33. 34. 27. 16. 120. . 5. 2z 8 -s 2 -3z-l. 30. ci 5 . 14 m 2 . n (a6) 125. 66 8W 34. .25 + 14. 18. Ox a -5 . 42. -f 26.6) =a2 31. 19. 30. 10. 3. 216. 4. -42. 15 lb. 11. s 9 w-w.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 18. 0. ! 2. 17. 14. -12. 3 a 3 . . 2 ). 8. 24. 8 . 16. 18. + 7. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.21.. 30. 26. 22. 21 a-'&c. 4. 102.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 16. 2 w +2 2 . 210. 30 j9 jt?g -j- . 30. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . -18a% y. -108. 2*8-f x2 -6x-4. -64. 37. 60. 10. 7. . 23. + 58 .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 20. 25 4 4. 24. -27. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 5. a*b*c. 7G . 7 + r/m 4^-4^-414. 4. 343. 1. 9. 2. 3. 12 x2 2 . 25. -30. 29. 3. 52 + 6s 12. 4 -jcy*z*>. 15 q\ 6.. 8. 26. 1. 13. -108. 1.16 x2/ 5 4. a. 17. 13. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 38wiw. 90.57 p6 3 2 -4 25. 2.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 21. 13.14 ?/i r?/-6j/ 5. 15. 36. 8. (+3)x6=+16. 11. 2 + aft 4- ft 2. 29. 2 ll9H-H 2) + . Page 7. 4200. 28. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2 a2 (y 2 . fa 2. 19. . a 8 . 28. 34. 6". 10. 20 aW.8 12. //.1. 3 -a 2 -4-6. 14.14 . 4. 9. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. 32. 2 * 80 . -24. 18. -18. 8.-15. x2 -xy-42^. -30. 18> ^|* = a -. -ISartyW e*f*tj. 3300. a: . 3. 11. iSx8 .2. 20.28 p'^/-.19p" + 19^ 10 . 28. 27. +. 6.. 14f 5. 9 13. 22. . 84. 23. 0. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 1904. . 4aWy. . m. 2 2 +26-21ft 2 . 16. 25. 1400. 4 fc. 4 a2 . 4. -. 16.r% 2 2 ry. 2 2 2 . 76 8 a' 1 . 60. 20. 16 51. 6. . 29. 33. 6 . etc.21 a 3 c2 21. Page 38. 24. 19. 17.14 w 2 2 . Page 5. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . a. 32. 66 39 k* . 4 a8 .44 aWc 16 abxy.8 4a-12 a2 ft-f 5aft2 -f 6 6. 2 .>(/ r . ?> 4 . Page 35. 13.12. 7.:>/ .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 24. -15. 2 7t A. -1. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 40 r 2 .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 27. ll 2 i.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 22.7(50.32 y s s G .64 190 p6.32.16 a 2 + 32 a . 15. 83 In + 1 n*. 14. 17. 1.6 2 .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 2'-'.18 w w + 10 WI M . 23. 127-"'. 19. 15. 6. 21. 11. 18. 8. 14. 16 lb. . 4. 9. 360. 2. 12. 5aft(a- 126- 2).36 35. 31. 6. 10. 21.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . -161b.26. 35. ^^ = -20. +15. 29. a. a: 3a: 2 (2a:-f iH-a.. 25. -28. 22. 12.(3x2_4^+7). -20. 9z 8 -16z2 -9z + 10. 7. Page 36. .12. 25. -04. 2 ).10 3 30 a a 4 c -f 15 aWc .20 xyz . 20. ?/ . -2 8 xy -f 4 a. 23. 770. -216. 10c 2 -19rd+0c? a I' . 27. (x -f ?/) - a 12 10. 3(*+0 + 2). -161b. 1. 13.19 + 2. 33. . 31. a + ft. + O4 66 .35 a*b*c8 -f 14 a?/e . ft 17.11 xyz . . Page 3. 15. 1. 30 n?b*c*. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 7. 34. 12 ^.

4. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 15. . 34. ft' 11. lflrt 2 -8 + l.20. + 2 9. x*-2^-f I.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . (p 2. I/). .001. + 4 a +4. -8 38. ~ 6 20 . 29. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 26. 11. 53. 41. + - - 5). 5. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 5. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 4 + 25 q*. 2 4 a + 4. 31. 10. 2 4 2 2 64 . 30.5 ~ 81. a2 >2 2 2 - 84 a a + 49.p-132. 3wi2 -m Page 42. 1. 998. + 3)(-3). 2 6' . . (w-4)(w + l). 2 0)(p + 5). r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 33.000. x 2 -f xy + 9 41. 10.8. ^V^4 .49. a3 0. 2 a 2 + a . 41.. (x - 2) (x Page (rt-2). . 4 21. 40. 10 a' 2 . 7 . 2 .500. 3.2 6 + 13. -2 m3 + 4m2 .004. 32. x2 -GiC+5. + 10 + 121 y*. (n 2 5. 4 2 //. 17.020. 40. . ' 46. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 441.x2y22. a' . -7> .84 a' 9. 2 j3 Z -. 6 2 + 6-lf>0. n + 2.15. a4 4 ?/ . x4 28.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 -()Or 2 20.^.35 ab 9. p4 + .201. 39. 25 25. + 12.009. 18. 57. ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 a' y' . 2 62 V2 132. 24. 37.6 xy . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 23. r. 2 +10s-281.404. -4x-21. 35. 20a 2 -21a + 4. fo*. 4. 9. 33. 25 a 2 6 2 . ( 5) O-5)(w + 3). 8. 14.54 p 2 + 81. . 1. 35.^ + a? + 1. m 3 j) 3 . . m 2 . 7.098. 10 a 4 ?. 42. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a-66)(3a-6&). + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.6. 36.712. s rc 47. Page 12. 6.m 30 6 4 1. 31. 9999.2 y*. .000. 39. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2. 1. 36. 999. 55. 2 (5 a -3). 990. .00 + 37. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. . 4.^V"' . 25.r . ?/-H)0. 10. a + 56. 9 4 /> . 8)(?i (x-2)(x-3). 27. a-b. 10. Om2 4 6m -6. 1. 10. G a-6 2. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 10. w-'-n 2 //-^ + 25.996. (w+4)(m-4). 1).4 a&+ 4 &*. 166. x* . 24. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 4 x2 13. -21 2 . .10 x + 25. 30 x + 19 x3 . 8.606. 38.16 a3 -f 50.r . 31.6 y4 10. 2 1: 21.r* 2 30. 14. + <z 22 2 4 20 r-t2 32.ri 17. 19. 32. . 9990. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 16. 36 a 4 . 45. . (a (3 54. 9.25. 19.14 jp + 49. ab .<* &2 + 106 + tt + .. (a + 4) (a + 2). a + 25. V + o ft . 2.-/ . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y- + 121 x4 29. y. 27.3. ^' J - 7 -f 12. 484. 11. 8. 10. .ab . x 48.2 x + 2 x.10 35. 2 fr . 10. + 4 t*. 1. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 26.008. n2 a4 6. 12 x2 . 3. 29. + - m' 1. a 2 . . a + 25. 10.4 n. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. +4 34. 7. 52. 2 . 37. -4 .2. ^/> 8 4 . Page 39. 6. a2 ' + 48Z-100. (m + 6)(m-3).009.4 12. - 12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 36.994. 28. 56. 2). 14. 44. . 10. 1. 2 12.810.1. . p 2 . 8 a W . 15. 40.ANSWERS 28.6 x2 13. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 30 />-<. 10. 9801.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .020. 51. 34. -4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 4 . 33. 7.

Exercise 2 a:// 26. 7a-3ft. x 4. aftc 52. 11.2 aft 4. 4.000.rw -f 8 . ft* ft /- .1. '. 3. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 1000 1000 . 9. 9. 16.2 ftc . 44. 13. .2 wZ 4. 4. 7 r . 4. - 3 c.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. a r'4-3 ll'a^-S 15. 10.5 n*. w . . a 2 . 6. 3.1*5 2 r 2 . x-4. a 4- 4 ft.> 10.8. 4- n2 4- +p ft 2 4-2 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \- x* 4- 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 -f 25 - 2 np. -9. 4 a* 4 9 11./ 4.3 a 4-1. 5. 12. Page 51. sr 11. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 4x4-3?/. 6.2 ar. 8. 11. 11 4. 6. 20. /r . 2 ?/' .2 2 2 8 . + x?/ 2 1. 12. 9. 10.2. 8 ?/ . 1. ft 17. -3. 15.23.5 a . 7a 2 ftc 4 -4c4-2a. y 7. - 12 y 25. c-3. -13.x^.25 c . 23. i 2 tji. _ 2 a . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . *3 -y 4 . 14. x 2 + 2r f J. . r/2 4. 12. 24.10 2 + z 2 410. 2 2 + 2 a. 26. 20 15. m L 4.25.30 ftc. 21. 2 . 8. 2 12. 4ft. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. j) . -5. . 5. 1. 8. 5. 1. ?--?. 10 ft.r?/ j/. 3. 18.c ft*/ 1 -|- ft' ?/ . 12. 18. 47. 01. 8.y3.15.7. .3 ry. -5. 3. a.6 :rs 4. 4.2 <</. 19.29. - . 2 .1.lit x + 4. 15. 4 x. 2 4- 2 x 4. 1.n. :r !>. 14. 5 a - (5 ft. 9. 5. 6 <z 2 4- ft 3 . 3 aft 20.r?/. a2 x 8 4- ft 8 . 19. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.r" 20 S? .1. - 5 z* . y-fl.rw. 8.2 .w.3 5. Page 13.3 3.27 x 2 4. a 8 4. 5.2 ac . r ft. 2.r'^ 15. // 19. 8. . aft. -i 9.5 mp. 1/*. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 6. 5 4 a Oft. 135. 22. 2 ?/ 4.3^V. 2.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. Page 11. 21. l 4 . f>r* 4. 2. 8 x5 ? + 4- 1. 5^4-18(7. 4 pq. ft. 10. Page 22.r . 3*y2 w + 1.1. 14. a 2 ft 4- 9 c3 . + 4. .9 4. a 2 4-4 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.2 . -6x 3. + c 2 -4 aft-2 ac + 4 ftc.2-1 2 2 -f + -.+ 77 15. 1. 6.7 arty 4- 4 x 2 //V2 - 3 Z2 3 1.1. 4 c m . aft 4 tt ac -2 ftc. w 2 . 2 ? 14 . 2. . 4 d 2 4. 14.- - 11. 13.2 1 //. .2 . 1. 2. abc 7. +w . .15 21. . 5. Os-y. 4. 75 a 2 29.r ?/ ??i ?). 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.9 d. 13. a 10. 4. 4 a-c-.8 y. .2 2 .1.10 xy*. 16.8. as _ 10 16. c 12. 4. 5. ti'jry-1 7. . 7. 14 r 2 . ?/2. - 10. -G. -49. 17. 50. 16. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 3 l4-8m4-7?n 2 20. r 7. ft ? ft' ft ft. 2 a -3 ft. . 2 4- 3 9.1. -4xy + 13 <) .12 aft 4 20 ac . 13. 12. 8 x . z. 8 ?/ .24 . 3 5 a4 - 4 a2 4. 2.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2 4. -14. 3 a-. .3 w 4-*7 m 2 3 mn . 46. + 3. aft 12. -125. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 17. Page 48.8 yn . 17.r' ~ 16. 8 r<ft -4 2 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 2 4-10 + 9 r -8 + w-2l ftc. 4 a 2 4.3 x 2 2 4. 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 4. r//. 13. Exercise 27.VI ANSWERS 43.4. 1.34. 2 1. m'2 3. . Page 7.

y 100 a 24. s. 23. m= -- 100 2x=2(3x~10).r-1. }f. (> 27. . 4. 36. 37. d + !. 28. + 3x + 2y + 32. 44. 35. 6. 24. 36. 9. % 4. 6. 16. 10. 40. 100 2. 2. x 48. lOx 10 + w. 1&. " lir. 3 9. 2x + 35. 5. (</) 2a. 20. + 4x 3y 34. (a) ' 12. 7. 20. ft. 1. 2=10.a-b a. 43. 7. 7. 2. 39. rn mi. 19. + 10 b + c ct. 31. ( a -f- 4. 2b. # + 20yr. 32. 5. 33. x 2y 10 act. + -f + b 2. 10. 38. ct. x + 1=a. sq. (2 a. I. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x -f 1200) - x.200) -f(^ + (e) 200. x 49. ) 2^ x 20 =a- 7.ANSWERS Page 9. 25. 10. ct. d. 11. 8 n - 10 yr. ^ 12 sq. + 3 = 2(3* . 27.. 2. 26. m+ 11. 4(a -ft) c = 8. 10 >-_&. 16. 41. 9. ft. 5. 00. 58. 18.6 = *.7). r tx mi. 1. "mi. 13. 11. -f (I. lO. - 1$. 2b 22. 44. 29. 7. Page 31.000. 1. 10) (6) 2 z-f 20 3^-740. y ?>i x + 26. x = m. 0. b. 30. 5. ct. l. 1. (c) (2z-f 600) (3 =4. 19.10) 100. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 17. 45. 10 yr. 16. x y $ 6 yr. 46. v (6) 2x. 7. 2 ct. 8. -f = eZ 2 x. 7.p+7. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 34. r>?imi. 3x2. 18. 30. . 6. b. (A) 3 x -f (4 x . n M.rr-2. 100= -^. 0. 100 14. 15. 3. 20. 29. fix. 8. (c) 2x. y 50. (>. . Page 61. 37. 25. iL*. / + y + a-// 12 yr. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 3x - 1700) = 12. y yr. 15. 10 x sq. 1. 2. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl5-8)-h(8ar-ia)=60. 10 a. -13. 4.(3x - 700) = 5. 59. . 3. 5. !).100-. 100 d ct. ? 43. 41. 23. = -5 ?i x 460. 21 2. 12. '^ . Page 40. 4-^ = 100. 5.x700. - 6 10. m -+~m 3. 7. a -10. 14. 2.. 11.(3x+ = rrax-lO.. 12. 4. 22. x. 42. 17. 10. 38. 2. <>. vil 56. </ 20.r ct. X 60. 6. 3. 33. ft. 57. -Jj12. 14. 13. 22. 800 = x + 1300. - 2\. 4 -f 39. 6. - />) a = all-. 4. -f 6)(o 62. 17. xy ft. ] 2 ri 42.-. Page 13. . 7x 2 Page 21. 60 25 1. 50= L 100 15. a 8. . 47. - 9 = 17 -a. I. Page 6. 4. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 'nj 100 a 28. .

28yr. 1 lb. 6. 30 yr. 20 yr.. 9. = _?_(2ar + 1). 12.3). . 25. 10. 40 yr.210^. 2 2 ?/ 21.. 14. 3 (a +&)(*. 200. by 12 yd. 1200. 100.(5z . 2 3 6 7.000. 14.. 5 lb. 13.000 ft.. 14. 85 ft. 72. . 3.13. 6. 55. 50. 4pt.. 8.3. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 6. 250.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 -ay4-3y 2 ). z?/(4^ + 5xy ..16. 20. 4. 22. 5 Col.24. 05. 9. 1. 15. (ro-3)(w--2). 17. 5. 11 w(w' + wi . 6rt 2 11. 1. 71. 15 in.000. 8.21.5. 600. (a + 6) (a + 3).3aftc + 4). 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 23. ?(g -? -g+ 1).. . 90.4-11. 15 mi. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. ~=90. 7. 2.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 6.2. 11. 82 mi. Page Page 4. 8.000. (y-ll)(y-4). 1. + 7)(y-3). 10 yr. 11. 20. 8 in. 30. 18. 20 yr. 15. 7.. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (5-3 xyz + x y'W).0.000. 90 mi. 6. Oaj(o6-2cd). 1250. Ib. 8. (e) -i* + -A. (c) ^ v ' . 150. ^ . 13. 5$ hr. (m + n)(a + 6). ( + 4)(*-2). - PageSO. 10 Cal. (y + 8)(y-2). 13. 52. 13. 42yr.79. 2 2 2 5. 1. 7.000 copper. 9. 78. 18. 8(a6 2 +6c2 -c2 a2 ). 19. 30 mi.8.000 Berlin. Page 7. 25. 7. 17. 10 yr. 2). 1. 3x (3r. 7a*fe(2a & -l). 6. 2. 5. 70^. 75. (y 13. 13. Pace 65. 10 Mass. 18. 24J. 78. 12. 300. ? 2 - = SJL+J10 13.000. 1. Page 5.000 gold. Y. 67. 100 1. 70. (a + 5)(a + 6). 7. 25 yr. 2. a a (a 8 -a+l).0.. .10. (a-5)(a-4). 3. 6. 68.000.y"). 160 lb. 2. 3. 14. 4. 3 hr.. 12. 9. Page 7. 30. 2. 8. 21.000 pig iron. 8. 11. 4.000 N. Page Page 4. 7. 3.11.5. 20. 5.1).. $40. 10. 12.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. (2a6-3?2_4 a /^) 16. 11 pV (2 p8 . 8. 14. 10. 45 in. 12 mi. 7 hr.-2). 180.000. 9.5p + 7 g ). 11. 80 A. (y-7)(y + 2). 9 in. 1200.. 17z8 (l-3z + 2x-'). w (/) 64. 1. 29. 16. 2. 12. 5. (y-8)(y + 2). (p + 7)(3a-5&). 4. 14. 2.6). 5. 6. 9. 15 yd. 9.. (z-5)(z-2). 3. 3. 20 yd. 12. 8. 5pt. 15. 15. (6) --(6 a -30) =20. 10. 4. MOO HXT 100 100 -^-~ -(5z-30) =900. 13-13. Page Page 480 12. (*-4)( + 11. (a + 4)(a + 8). 10. 4. 3. 10. 8 12. 10. (a -4) (a. 11 in.7. 200. 10 yd. 480.3.000 ft.. 2$. 15. 74. Page 79. 8 2 19. a 12.000 Phil.22..

21. 216 aft. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 29. 100 (a. 2 No 4. + y + . x\x 24. (y + 4)(y-l). + 3?i) 2 (5x-2y) 2 . 16. 2 2 15. 10. 36. 17. 10(a + ft)(a-ft). 10. (* + y)(z-y). 10(2 30. No.-5y)(3a. (2 *+!)(* -9). 14. (ay-8)(ay-3). . (m + n +p)(m + w-p). . 4. 21. 20. (5a +l)(5a -l). 2. No. 34. . 10. (g . Yes. a*(5a -f l)(flr . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 23. 2 3 by2 Yes. Oa 2 (a-2)(a-l).w*)(l -2 n 2 ). Yes. 9. Yes. Page 83. 4. (3*-2)(. (a 4 -10) (a 4 + 3). (15a-y-2) 2 . 23. (5x . (az + 9)(ox-2). 8. 12. + 3)(-c4-4). (5a-4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 25. a(2u. . 10 a 2 (4 . (w* (3a-26). 8. (15a + 46*)(16a-46). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 3. . (4a. 7. (m + w) 2 5. . (13a +10)(13a -10). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 28. -8) (a. . 27. 35.r-2). 34. 22. 15. (3#-y)(+4y).c 2 ). Yes. (m + n + 4p)(w + .11 ft)(a-6). 12. Yes. 24. 26. (10a + ft)(10a-ft). 35. 25. -y) 2 29. 18. + 5) a. 9. 3a.6) 2 1. 19. 2(9a:-8y)(8a:-0y). Yes. Page 82. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12-y 2 ).2). 23. + 0(9-0- Page 85. 25. + 2 )(a + ft)(a-ft). 20. + 9^)(oxy . 8. 24. 11.y4 ). No. 26. + 4) (a. (a + 8)(a-3). 32. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 23. 11. Page 84. 10(3 -5 6) 2 . ( 2 4 19. (6n + l)(+2). Yes. 11. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 9.ANSWERS 16. (m-7n) (a. -3)(3a. 27.2 y). (a a: 19. 21. Yes. 3. 12. 21. 30.1). + 2y). 2.7) (a. 25. (a2 + 10) (a2 -2).+4 y)(3x-4 y).2 ft). 29. x(x +y)(x -y). 22. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).y (6x + 4)(5x-4).1). 19. 33. 7.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 -f y'2 )2 3 Yes. a 2 (w-7)(w + 3). 5. 103x97. 40 x. . (9y-4)(y + 4). -y) (a.2). (4 13. 15. (2w+l)(ro + 3). Yes. . (a. 14. (4 18. No. 10. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 13x(a + ft)(a-ft). 17. 5.3)(z-2). (5w-l)(m-5). (2y-l)(y + 9). 26. No. 1. y(x. (4a-l)(a-2). .. 26. 6. (a -6 6) (a 4.1). (w + 20)(w + 5). + 3). 25. 22. 2. (a 3 + 10)(a. 33. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .11 6) (a 4. 1.2 by2 6. 9. . (x + y4 )(x . 7. 6. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 28. (4y-3)(3y + 2).3).* (2 y + 3)(y. 31. 1. Yes. 18.8). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft -3).1). (w ~ n (x . 16. (0 (l+7a)(l-7a). 9ft w(?-3) 140 w 2 27. 16. (2x-l)(x + f>). 20. 32. 31. 13.4p). (0 + 6)(6-6). 100(x. . (6 a. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(l-x). a. - x (5 a.7)(2z -f 1). (:5-2y)(2a!-3y). 27. Yes. 3(x + 2)(z-l). (3a. (2o + l)(2-l). 17. (y-8) 2 2 .9*). -7 6) (a -10 6). 13x7. 14. 4 (a .6) 2 2 .y) 2 aft. Yes. 10(a . 9. (a (p-8)0> + l). -f 2). 2 17. 28. 24. (ft + ll)(aft-ll).4 6). (2 a? 4. 24 9. 30. 22. 2 -y' (2y-3)(2y-l).4. (15z-2y)(x-5y). (5 a -2) (2 a -3). . a- . ix 18. (<7 20. 3. 10x2 (y-9)(y + 2). -2). + 8)(g-3). - - .

7s) (2 a. 2. 4.) j). 4). (x//.& (a 5 & 4-# - 2 y) (a 1. Page 86. Gp). 2 2 3 . (r4-20(4 10.?>-) H. 6. 12. ( rt 23. (5 31.))(x - ^OC 1 1).8). (f> + fo 7. 13. 12. (a 4. 16. a 2 (a-9). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. Page 90. x(x -f y)(jr . 8.4). 2. (a + (2a-3fc)0*+ tf)Or 4-1) (^4-2).3.!) (x4-2)(x-2). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (c. Exercise 47. 10(2 (3 4. 7. 4. (a &4. 15. (-> 1. + 2 //). 3 x4 . 4. 7. 8x. (m - I)' 6. (^ + ?>_8). 13( 33. 2 y) ^ . 6 -f c). (* _ 2 )(a 4. 11. x 4. (w * .>*-)(:> 4- lj 4. 6. 2(m4-l)' . a x 3 10. x - 1). . 2 21. (16 4- - 2(5 n . ?>). 35.1).y)(fi a . x4-3. 38. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 1(V/ 88. 8 4- 15 ?>)(a 34. 4 a8 . (14. Page 92. 22. ah}. Page 12.&). O + ?/4-<?)O ?> 4- q). 2 2 (3a -4// )(x4->/).0+ 12).2 y). (w4-w) 2 1. 3(. 4. 6.y '2 2). 17. 2 k (wi 4. ^ . 20.8) n 4-3*). 6. 4. ( (<> r4-y-3 .7)(^ {I 12. a 4-1. (a />.'/)('< 4. 9. .?-50)(xt/z. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 11. 4 a s &8 . 14. ANSWERS -r)(4x (4x 4. a 4.'})(c . 8.4. (Ox - 7 ?/)(7 x4- y/).3.^ 48. 13. 2(5 a - ft) (a -3 ?>). 4- 6. 4-& 2 )(tt4-/>)('e 62 2 2 4-l)(a' & -&) 5). - (w' 4. 4-2). -8). (a 9. - (m3n + a + b)(m 3n-ab). ( -{- &). 15. 12. 6. 450. 2 (a 4. y-6.8) ( (16.3)(x 4.n). 24x sy s 9. 10.2).^4-6) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). a + a b. 2. Page 87.a + (< (3 7>)(3 - a l fo). 15 M. a 2_rt4-l)(a -rt- 1). 7.b.1). r x 2 */3 . (5a+l)(9-a).36). (2x-7)(x 2 -2). 17(x4-3//)(x-2y). ?i(w 4-y) . 19- 13> -(7rt-3)(7a~3). b) (r 4. a -4.42 x 4.&). 8. 19. K + l) a (a 5 />-z 9.2)(x 1. 24. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .9). 2 .1) 3. 1. ( a -^)(^3. 2 2 10. 4 - 9.4). (5^-4. fi(c4-26). 8. . + 3. 28. (5 26. 2. x . 4. 8. 14.y). ( 4- 1 ) (2 m . 10(8x' 4-l) 4.-?/). 7. 13 x 8 2 .X 5. 41.i-4-l)(x4-l)(x~l). . . a8 . 5 - (2 2 . 4. 7.2).4. 2.'J)(' . 14. (x-f!/)' 3 4- w)(m. 4.l)( a 25. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . a (a + 2 6). 5. - WIM. 8. 8. l. Page 89. 27. (^ 7. (!__/>). (7/1 -2) (m 4-1). 37. 32. 2 1. 3p (^-9)(j) -4). 3(4-7>4-4)(^4-'> -22/)((3-x).e 4. 18. ofc)( fid). Exercise 46.y. 3x(x-?/) 4. .4)(? - 5 (6a 4-l)(a +)2( 2x-2/)(x-2?/). ( y). 16. 80a6 4- 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 4- 3. 13. 7.5 m2 x-2. 11. 14. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 39. 5. y )(. (. (x. 36. 9. y(2x-?/). 30. 2 + .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + -\- . n - r)(5a 10.//)(5y- x(x4-ti<0.^ c)((> 4- 3 (3 w 2 w 4- m - ).. - 29. 2 8(w .w )(l 4- w 2 )(l 3 + ( y)- r)(x- ( . 3. 11.r(3x' 2 4 (14.5 <: - 9 </) (2 a 12. 5 x8 3. 42a 3 x. 40. y). 6. 5. 5.

11. + &)(-&) ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^-1 rr Pace 991 20 . 1). 6a2&(rt-6). 18. +8b a -4 3 / ^. +5 1. + &) 2 ( . 13. ?-_!&. a 10 25. 2(2a-l) + l). (a-2y2 (a-3) 2 (a-4) 2 14. b ! 21.6). x 24. x 22. (a-2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15. // m+1 !+*?. x 12. - 1). + y) (a: -y).ANSWERS 10. a 23.

. w-1 + ac w 4 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi-8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i^. r > 'a2 -f an -f ft' ' 2(cz-ft) (x 2. 6. + lH + . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft - 1>* - 10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . -A^. Page 101. 6. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.. rt 3a-2 + ~3a a 3. 0. i.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 6a-5-f^. 26. 1. ' 2 7.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . Page 100. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. -^-~ 29. c 8.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ab121 12 ft 2 -8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4 L 8 2 . _*^p5_^^_. 4c 10. 28. + 2H 1 ^. x-y 43. 7. 2 a. 11. ^i 2n a 22 9x * -T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 4. a 5. - **/* + 84 _. 2x1 + 5x 12 + -^-.50 ~ 1/2 .

38. J. 1. 11. 30. 5. A. J. 2 47. 25. 6. 19. 40. 4. 31. 15. 11. a2 2. 4. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 14. 12 28. 4a-3ft. (>. 46. 14. 24. 11. +3 ( + 15. 5. 3. 0. 6 . . ^i 11. ft.^U\WF### X<6. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 10. ft 2 -f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 6. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. -3. c 8. J. 45. flf. (y + (z 12. 12. Page 113. 4. 2-ft a i m x.L+-ft.ft . 3. 9. a. x 05m ' 5. -Of. 6. 5. 1. 1. 7. 37. 29. 11. x-\. ! 4 20. b a -f +c 14. 7. 13. m 9. 4. ?-+_!?>. 7. 4. 43. 5. 20. an 18. 2) 19. Page 106. 21. -3. 4. x 1. 9. 1. 26. . 8. ?. 1. Page 111. w^x 2 b Page 105. p-f n 6 1. 1. 16. b 2. 8j-_m 7 3. 0. 3. 8. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 5 be _J_. ^_. 10. 44. 15. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13.^_. 17. 34. 3. n . 27. ac mp lf> n 12. 36. Page 110. 33. 35. I) 2 3z 1. a 17. 18. 21. . 16. 39. f 7. n 16. 41. 4. n m a + 13. 12. 1. y(x + x ?/). 14. 1. - 10 X + u. 15.y 7. j L . 17. 32. 21. + f. - V o 4. 42. 23. 6. 7. 1. 6. ' 6. 11. . -f Page 107. 9. 3 7 i o.

Yes. 34. 19. 2. 18. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. P+ ^ 33. 2 20. 6. 17. 8. 19. gold. 24 mi. w 21.. 10. Yes. 3. Yes. 3:2. (a) 12 hr. 1:1=1:1. 8. (c) 8300. (r) 3^ da.. 10. 15. No. 26 30. 3. 4~r~ n . Page 121. 9. 10^ oz. 300. 1: ~. 7. 20. ~m . 8. 31. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 81. 20. $00. Page 125. 19. ----- + . - 29.. 300. 300. _JL. :2. 10.. 12. nm. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 4.004. 40 mi. (d) 4 da.0. f . 500. 32. 1:4. 16. 26. 36. Page 119. jj. (ft) (r) 8 hr. --1^'. Yes. 16. 21. silver. (ft) 104. 1. - C -. 9$. 28. ^p^ r -~| 7. (a) 30. 27. (a) 4 min.000.000. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.000 1 = 23. 30ft. (a) 25. . Yes. . () 2.002. J. a 4- ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 9. $0. 6. Yes. 30 mi. r/ i - PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 3 da. w 44. (c) 2 hr. 3. 20.9. 15.137. 2x:3y. 1 da. (d) 500. ft. 7 . " 0. 14. 3. 40 yrs. 7} 18. 1:1 = 1:1. 15.001.. 10. 1 : 12. 15. . 1. 8. 5. $45. 1:1 = 1:1. . 33. after 18. J ^'. 15. 9J oz.0 & .x + y. 8301 hr. 00. 5. IV s. min. 13.000. 9. . 21. Yes. 55 mi. (ft) 28. n 32.XIV '/ . 14. 1|.138. 4. 35. -^?i min. 15. 275:108. No. $40. 5ft- 30mi. [>> ^ a . 23< &n b ' . 21ft min. .003. 7. Page 118. (ft) 5 da.2. 17. 5. 40wn. 12. 7. w 18. 11 hrs. 10. * 7:9. 16. 7.. -^m -.000 If da. 18. 13. 10. Page 124. 4.2.. 1:3. 10 yrs. 9. 22.11.139. 24. 11. Page 117. 75 . -'"-I- 22. 2. 4fl -M_. 14. min. 5 2. after 20. 212. 15. . 17. 4. dn ~ mi. 10./hr. 10. 11. Yes. 11. 30 yrs. 2:1. 19. -#V ~~ 34. 6.000. 1. 10. 8. x-y. 30. -4. 5 25. 7T 2 Page 116. 3.} da. 0. 9ft. 26 mi. a 4- ft. 7. 24. 17. 13. 13./hr. 12. 38ft- min. 14. $30. 7. f.10. (ft) 5 hr. 3|. after $12. 18. = A's... ANSWERS 16. 74. 33..15.

20.x a. t 5. "lO.1. -2. 21. 26.2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 1. -4. w. 25. /. 8.' : : : : <>. 8. in n.17. 4. 7. 1. : : .4. 17. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.15. 4. 29. x 42. 22.2. 20 20 J -^. w 8. 2 n . 26. y 1. x:y -a: b. x y y .J -3. cu.ANSWERS 22. + 7>i// - ft 1 . 9. 15> 9. y a y = 7 0.57. 1. 1.2. 1. 6*. 3 - 24. .5.-) 31. 5. -2. - 19. in. (</) ft. 59. 5. 174+ Page 128. 2. 2. 200 mi.000 sq. 4. : . 25. 17. $. 7. 49. 20. . 23. 6. 4. 10. 12. () 7 Page 126. 38. 2.15 x. -7. 32j. ' 55.1. 4. OJ. 7. 9. : 23. 5:0 = 10:12. -J. 41.*. 21. land. 46. -1. 30.J.C ?/ a . 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 8. .7.. OJ."2:1. 2. y :y =. 3. 36. I.22. 2.4. Page 136.8 oz. 9. 7.].7. J pq. 2. 19 OJ. 19. 11. a 3. 13. 20 cu. 1(5. 3 2=3 x. (b) Inversely. 2. 2. 35. 23.4. 44. 3. a +b 1. 141. 56. 18. ~ 1. tin.3. . (I.. . Page 9. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 8. 7.r. 8. 13.9. i. ft. 55. 12. Of. 3. 7. 6. 2|. 4. 945 11 10 .46. 7. 50. ini. 30. 2. 14.5. 11. 4.3. 20. -. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 41. 14.^ 0?j ' gms. 6. 13. : : T 1' : /> : -. a -f 2 2 = 5 x. 24. 5. 11 5 . 2. .a. 40. : XV 27. 3. 27.5. 5.3. 31. 1 rt * vm-^1. -7.3. 19. 11. 1. 52. 7. 19 3 . 24.- 1 1 : : : : : : (I. Page 133. 10.3.5. 16. 2.36. 7. 7. ig 6. J. 16. 2. . Page 137. 127. 4.3. 7.12. x y = 1 = 3 2.li.. 47. b x 37. 2. 31J. Inversely. . 5. 43.3. 10.4. 13. 28. - 28. 3. : />. 2. 15. 2. \\. mi. 1. 36. . -2. lo mi. 57. 7. 4.1. J. 5. 2. 3. .3. 9. 1 18 = 3 51. 3. 3}. Page 135.1. 7^. 3. 6. 8.5. mi. l. 11. 5:3 = 4: x. 48. copper.3. -1.6. 2. 5.2. 19. 4.000 sq. . 11. Page 131. 15. 14. 16.1.5. = 7 b'. jc:y = n:m. 6. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 11 w a 13.12. 9." ^ 2. 2.5. 2. 54. 22. 12. 9.160.5. . \.4.3. 6 10 = 12.2 oz. 5. + W. -7./':</ c a -f :y=2:9. - ?. 39. 17. a~. 5 2. (a) Directly. 138. 45. 40. 53. 58. 2. 9. 5. 5.840. 7. Page 132. 4. 9. . *. y . () Directly. 4. 3. Page 5. x +y x + 74 7 \. + b 7 . s<i. 4. 1. 32+ mi. 3. -3.2 x. 8. 14. 24 1 (e) Directly.5. 32 - <>' 33 - 4 <^: 34 : : . Page 134.3. 2. water. 10. 9 - 15. 3. 12. 5. 13J. -3. 25. 3. 4.

2. 23f . 1 (c) Jan. $250. 8. 3. 16. 7. A a parallel to the x axis. (a) Apr. 7. 1. 14. 3. 3. A's 30 18.. &. 10. 3.1. 21. $ 1000. 30. 20. $3000. 2t2.33. 2. 12. 5. May 5. 4. 7. & part of Feb. 1.^. On the x axis. 4. (ft) 20.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 3. Apr. July. |. 3.$2000.8. Page 145. 20 to Oct. parallel to the x axis 0. 4. 9. 20. 9. June. 4. 26. 12. Oct. 29. Jan.4. $900 5%. Apr.10.9. 3. . 27. 7. 24. Page 149. 11. ' . 16. A's 50 13. . . Page 22. 10. 12. (c) . 40. Nov. Page 153. 2. 16. 22. 15. $6500at3Ji%. Page 143. 3. 20. 4 mi. . - 17. 11. a =J- (n - 1) rf. 9. 11. 2. ad AzA-.1J. 3. 4. 2. . 3. 5. 24. $4000. 3. 30. Jan. 6%. 2. 17. 40. $500. 2. 0. 6. Feb. 4. (a) 12. 11. 25. . 9. On the y axis. 3). Jan. 6. 11. 17. Nov. 24. 4.0. 2.3. 16 to July 20. 4. Nov.n + p. 4. C's 30 yrs.4. Aug. 1.2. -3. ' w_i 7 fr-^ m -w ' 2 m+w . 2. 31. 25.3. (<f) 13. 1. 6. 2. & part of Sept. 1. 12. 2 horses. 14. 0. -. Nov. 3. 10. be 10. 3. through point (0. ad _(?jrJL. 23. 19. About 12f. 4. 30. 21.65. (ft) 23 J. 2. Apr. July. 18. 5.. 5. ^. Jan. 4. 13. 10. 5. B's 15 yrs. 3. 18.4. ft 3. J. 18. 20 & Oct. July 20. 19 gms. B's 40 yrs. 3. 11. 1. 20.XVI Fagel39. 3. 16.. 0. 10 sheep. & May. u 2ft. 4. 23. m -f 8. M 2. 2.0. 6. at 15. . - Zn - -"-(^-ll 14. . 13. 1. 6. 3. yrs. 15. 423. 4. 2. C's 10 yrs. 7./hr. 13. 5. m . The ordinate. 2. 6 cows. 1. (5. be 7. <*-ft/ bd 1. yrs. 15. 00. 20.. 14. 7.2. 7. ' 6 3 a. 5.7. 19. 7.$5000. 32. 4 ' q. a. 16. 1. . 6. 7. - 11. 2 a. 24. 1 (d) Apr. Page 152. Page 151. 6. 90. 8.-l. af-cd ae ftd 8 ft.. 26. 25. On 11. . 18.3. 3. 2. 7. = ^ a Page 141. 9. 72. Page 146. 17. 1. 5. 10^ gms. 2. 5. 5%. -4. 5. 16. . 147. 3. 2. 2.1. 8. 9.. SL=J o ft r^2. 28. 4. 1. m -f 9. m + n -p. 10. 1. 8. 100. 25. Page 142. Jan. 6. 12.

Inconsistent. 28.24. 2 2 22. _ 9 -x ^27 1 . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n -f 2. 5. 15. 22. 3. (a) 4. xg .1. 1. (e) 3. 0C. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a-135a2 ft4-225aft2 -125ft8 . -18C. 27 a6 ft - 9a 2 1. 24. 11.41 and 23.75. 2. (<?) 2. x*-f 4x 8 + 6x2 -f-4 x-f 1. 1. 1 23. 13. 7. -4. 2. Page 163. 5. 1|. xW.4 aft -h a 2 ft 2 . . 4.84. 13 . H. +3 4. 19.. 10. . 17. 2. 0. . . 4. 19. ImW. 1.25. a + ft. |..7. 8 1 -f -f g*. -4. 8. 11. 24.25.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2.75 (ci) 3^. 2. 10 C.25. 16. a 6o&i85 c i5o . * 16. . -f-4p 7+6p g -f-4pg 6. -a 10 ' a ll V&.73. 3.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 -f 8. . 1.6. 83. ' :=_!. 1 4. 18. 20. 3. -f-12 wi 9. .73. 5. -2. x3 -3x2y + 3x?/2 -2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. jgiooyiio 17.27. 27.59 . 1. m. 1.25. - . 6. 5. 4. 1. f. 14. 4.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 3. . Inconsistent. -1. 5 and 2. 9.5 (ft) 3. 22. 11. -2. 2. -3. (c) 14 F. 2|. 3. 4 |) 21. 3. 30. Indeterminate. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. 3. G. 125a 28.. x-y. 2. 32F.79.83. (/) 3. 12.3. 13. 25. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 5. 3. 1. -27 19. 2. 9. 3. 9 and Page 166. 2 -l. (a) 2. - 12 ft xW - 26 31. 81 -". -2. 15 . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' -1 125 29. .67.5. 3. 4wn8 + n4 5.. -f 10. 15. Indeterminate. 10.75. . (ft) 2. () (rt) 3. - 1. 1. 3.59. 2. (ft) (ft) 2. 5. (e) 2.83. 1. . 6. . -1. 8 a-1.64. .75.25. 30. 3. 3. |. 2. 3. 27a 3 -27 343 a 6 27 2 +9a-l. 1.73. 125 16. . 8.1. 1^. 8.4. -. - 1. + a 4 ft* . 3. 2ft4 Page 168. -1. Page 158. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t - 9- 11. (/) 3. 2. 13. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 14.2 (ft) - 1. . 15. . -1. m + 8 m% -f 60 win2 4. 12. 3.73 ami . -8mW.3. 26. 2. (c) -2." 23. . Page 159. -. 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 5. 1. a- 29. 1. -125 a 8 12.5. 21.34F.17 (ft) (c) 2. 20.79. 2. f. . 3.24 .64. 14. (a) 5. ft . 14. 4}. 10. SlstyW 7.24. (c) 7. \ft) 5. . 2 a&m Page 167. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. ft 2 4. (ft) and (d) 2. Page 164. H. (ft) (d) 2. 27 27 81. . -13C. 4. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 2. . 3 . 1.13. (a) 12. (gr) 21. 4-4 + 6t/2 m4 -4m8 H-6m2 -4m4-l.41 and .

17. 36. 763. 35. (a 2. 10*. 6.037. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 70. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 8. 8.r 2 + 6jt). 71. 90.10 a~ + 5 a . 32. Page 171.3 ab + 2 2 ).a b 22. 20. 76. 30. 7. 2 49 . 12. 2. 3 6 23. 84. ( Page 174. 3. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 9. (:' + (2a-3a: 2 + a. 6. Page 170. 26. 247. 5. 28. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 3 2 8 3 12. 7. 18. . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 5. 25 19. + Z). 72. (3a. 8 /. 19. (4a2 -9& 2 13. 2 2 4. 11. + l). 18. 237. 25. 978. (rt'- (2 a (7 4 10. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 -fa 5 14. 15. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 2 4 8 2 . +35. 2. a ).+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >-/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 -G mw 6 + w 6 11. 420. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2. 99. + + ?V 22. 9. + y).GO a c + 23. . 14. 6. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. . (1 (x-2y). (l + x + .1. (x + y\ 90. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 6. 64. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. AN S WE no . . 24. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 2 2 7. 9. 16. 15. 17. 3. 119.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. - +X '-. 22. 40.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 27. 31.XV111 7. +3 + 5 4. 3 2 ^-. 14. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 3. 11. ( x + 2 x -2z + 4). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 9. -/> 4 ).i c 6 15. ? . 5 -5 8. 30. 3. I 8x2). fe *?>-' ?> fi . 14. 4. - x. ? : 1 . +(^ 2 -3^ + 2). 16. 10. Page 172. (a-b + c).7 /)). 7. . a: l . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.94. 18. 21.x ). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.5. 4.+3^ + 4. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 1247. 10.83. -f 21 rt'-6 + 7 -f 6 13. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).y2 ). 16. 90. -^i. (a + 2 -+l).6. 5. 8. 00. m 13. 15. 10 x G a 4 . 1. Page 176. 11. 4. + (win . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 2. 13. 10. 57. + i)). GOO 2 c 2 . 9. 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. 20. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . ??i ?i . 23. -3M. 1.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2 12. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . (2 a + ft). 1. 98. a. 12. 11. 19. 17. 16 6 w . 9. 2038. 33.1. 21. 4.-2). (l-y). 15. .5). 0. . (x' -l). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.-f 1 m 9 16. 300. c 10 6 :l 20. 1. 8. + 29. -5. . 2. 13. 8. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (a + y+l). 34. rt . fr -ft i/ /> ^ | 23 . 14. r> 4 : 1 . 309.^). ). (48 + 6. -20. Zll. 6 (\x 3. 20. a. . 101. a 2 . 1 1 ?>). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 180 . (2-3 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 12.

7. 10.. *. - 1.236. w.645. 9. 5. 14. 6. J.522 38. f. 5. 34. 28. 10. 36.--w 18. 2. 10.6. 20. -4. f. 21. Page 181. Page 179. 28 in. 5. 16.469. 22.916 yds. . 7. 27. 49. f . 1. 7. 24. m. 4. 3. 3J. () 2. 21yds. -^-^7m. 31. 7 45. 4.-4. 39. 4.ANS WERS 22. 5. 8.4. 2. _ iVaft. 25. 3. - 2. - 14. 19. 46. Page 183. -4J. Page 180. 6V21. 44. / 11. 270 sq. or 5.. 4. 1.243. 14. 39. i. ~ V^3. 7 in. JJI. -10. 1. 30.798 yds. a. 12. Page 185. 8. 11. 5.18. 6561. 33. or 3. 28. 12. ft.13. 20. 4 W**. Page 177. . 10.4.}. (6) Vl4 3. 3. ZLlAiK 19.. 9. 7. V17. 2.V 8-j. 4. 13. xix 26. 32. 2. 2. 5083. 31. 15. 13. 1. 23. 6. 47. 7. 33. 1 -f Vl3. 26. (a-fl). - 43. 1. 5.5. 34. 3. 18. -2. 2. 35. - 5. V2. 29. 7. 6- f !. 17. 32. 4. 1. 4. -9. 7. * 1. 17. 13. V35 1. 8. f -f -V. 2. . Af^. 36. -6. 5. 6V'2J. V- J l. 25- J. 2] see.60. /. 8.. 10. 36 in. 7. 1. 2. ^-. 11. -i ^. .005. 27.. 24. . 15 1 10. 7. 5f. 1. 3. -m. 15.237. 41. i-i :J _7. -16. 2. -2.6. 10. 11. a + 6-1. }. 1. \/3.. 48. 14. 29. 4. |.690. 10. 37. >i 27. f ^ is. 9. (< + ?>). 12. 5. 50. 21. . 35. 14. 6. V2. -3.-?. 1 -7. 6J. ft. 7}. 42. 9 15 ft. 18. 1. 3. - -|f. 2. 7563. 7. 13. |. -^. 8. 3. 9. 12. 9.742 in. 14.5. 30.935. -V.i.a. 6|.6.925 ft. 37.. 11. 17.1. 15. -4. 2.6.*. 3. 12. 3. 1 38. 7. 23. 25. 16. 6yds. 4. 3. 11. 3. If ^. 6..367. >TT 26. 8. -5.1. 12. 40. 21 in. .. 39 in. 5. 12. 16. 5. - f. 21. " ^_ 22. 3. l~8. 5. 10. 4. 2 sec. 6. 19. 4 n. Page 184. 40. 12. 3. . 9. 21 28 ft. 5. > w ft.S-n. 15. 6. 5. 20. vV-'-TA 24. -16n. v 17. 1&. 4 a. . ft. 4 TT M 28. -f 3. 29. 4. 23.. {. vYb.-6. 1. . 9. 15. 13. - 3.

27. . 0. - 6. 3. x*-4x=0. 2. 1. 44. AB = 3. 28. 3. 26. equal. Page 187. a + 6. 3. 58. jr . 30. . 0. irrational.62. .'. 15. - 2.7. -3. AB = 204 ft. 5. 10. 34. r* -i. 43. 2. - 1. 7.1. $ 120.]. 47.. 5. 6.2. 10. unequal. 1.48 -3. - 13. . . Page 189. irrational. . . 1. VV11. 2 . rational. 6. 1. *'-' 12. 50. 3. .74. 12.7.6 = 0. Page 192. 4. orf. 13. 40. 35. Real.5 x + 6 = 0. 2. 7. 3.2.a 3 a. unequal. 2. 7. Imaginary. 16. -12.70. 9. 12. 38./hr. -f 6 5-2 a. - 5. Real. 5 ft. #<7=3.2 x2 . 9. 20 eggs. 1 . 3. 10 mi. %. 0. 17. - 2. . If. 19. -1. rational. 48. 2. 26. 31.* 2. V2. 1. 27. 20. - Page 194. - 1.0*8. unequal. 37. 2. 64-c.-6. 5. . 1. 8 or 12 mi. 1.. 20 nii. 7. 0. 0. -21. 0.12. 1. Real. 15.4.1. 25.1. 42. - 5. -4. 1_^L ft 14. 23. . 53. rational. 6V-64. 8.. 6.3. 10 or 19. 10 in. 4. 4. ' - f 5. unequal. 6. .$40 or $60. -4. f. 2.3. 6^2 in. 12. - 24. 2 V3 in. -2.7. 3. 6. (5 10. 1. 14. 11. a. 7. Real. equal. 55. Page 191. 35. 0. _ 19. 32. ' 1. 4. 2. 13.a. 22. 15 ft. unequal. 4. 41. 16.2. 28. . 1.. 10 mi. 9. - 9x <). 0.12 = 0. 12. 23. 2. + 11 x. 2. = 0. 3|.a. -1|. 64. H. v^^fcT"^. 3. 29. -3. . 27. 1. Real. 2.2.41. 20. 3. 33. 24. - i. ANSWERS 22. 3. $30 or $70. Imaginary. - 1. 3. 1. V7.2. U. . 2. Page 188. 7. unequal. i . Imaginary. 0. 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 28. 11. 3.4. 2. Imaginary. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 3if. rational. . -4. 57. ft. 0. 15. 45. 14. 0. unequal. -7. 5. 1. 2.02. + 7 x + 10 = x*-x 2 -6x = or . 4 da. 36. 1.. -3. 2.59.4. 2. Real. 20. 9. 26. 19 in. 10.XX Page 186.48.37. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 18.2. 4. x 14. 2. . 24. 19. f. - 1. 7. a8 . 4. 52. unequal. 0./hr. V^~2. V^l. . 6. 2.l.3. a + 1. 3. 6. rational. unequal. 23./hr.4. 6. s 11. 8. 1. 6. Real. 6. 1. 2.Oa. a. 25. 25. 24. 22. 8\/2 17. 70 ft.23.23. |. 8. 3. Page 190. 0. 1 3.2. i. x2 + B .2.4. - 1. t is. -0. 18. 1.10. x* 51. 8. V^l. 18. 3. 39. . 16. V2.. 21./hr. 5. 3. 2. 0.2. .2. 2. -2 ft. 3.5^. 3. 21. 46. $80. 56. 3. equal. 1. 25. Real. 120 ft. .5. 2. 49. 1).17. 26. in.

45. 1. J. 58. 21. 5\/5. 46. 1. 8. 49. 9. - J j. i. \. 28. 10. 14. I. 31. 15. -2. 16. 9. 38. 4. 25. 4. 6. 1. v'frc 18. -3. . 23. 17.ANtiWEUS rational. -2. 41. 18. 243. 40. . 56. 24. 53. . 8. 15. 2. JV37. 29. 48.2. 30. 24. V^ 34. 2. 4. Jb \. 19. 25. 5. 55. -jV- 10. 0. 8. x. 18. 59. 32. 22. wA 46. 35. 5. 9. v. 9. 16. 1. 36. 18. 5. 2. 11.1 5 15. 0. 49. 1 39. . - 5. y. - 48. 125.^7. 9. \/3. 29. Page 201. 6 - AAf. 51. -1V-1. 20. 84. v^T4 m. '-J. 0. xxi 15. vV. 12. 4. 33. 3. 47. 1. \ -. v'frW. 14. 27. 17. Page 200. J. . 14. z + 22. p. 1. 24. 47. 60. 4. -3. 13. 1. 25. 17. ^49. 16. 27. Page 199. -1. r*. 2. 1.-32. 57. 20. 13. 32. 39. 42. 31. 52. 3. 50. 7 . 21. 37. J. 19. -3. 19.6. 3.//^. 2 L ( V. aW\ 40. 50. 9. x$. 3. 21. 2. ar 1 . vm. 19. Page 196. 8. 15. J. 3 4 11. 44. 13. r. n\/* Page202. 30 a. 8. -_! V3. 20. 33. 3. 7V7. -2. 29. 5. 4. a. 14. 8. 2. 49. 6. 10. 12*2 61. 3. -3. . -1. 1. 4. 12. $7. \. ). . 20. 43." 17. \/r\ 11. : . 8. ? . (m 26.. *V. 7. 22. 11. 23. 30. a 18 . Vr. 13. 1. x/25. 4. 49. 5. - f. -ifa. - f . 8. \a\ \/^. 7. 2. ^Sf|- 3 38. 3. 16. 26. &. J 3. m. l - 5 12. 2V a. - a'2 . Page 197. 54. |. 5. 2. fx'-^z'l 23. .17. 7. \/. m'. 10. 3. 28. 10. . ) 2 >J i 10. v/3. 33. y .

2>X2. ftV 46. + 1. 31. 1 2 or 1 ?. x + 5 x3 + 0. v'TM. 3 \ 39. 27.f. 4. 5 22. 15. 18.). 8.yl : . a 3. ?tV?w. 21. r 17 - Page 204.2 18. - a Vft -2 121 b. V. 28. 11V3. 39. 6. 5. 45. V 5 47. x y. 29. 32. 33. V80. 19. Page 208. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . 2v (T 2aVf. 36. (o* 2. 9. 3. . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. Vz2 -?/ 2 44. x^ .r-^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 34. -T. V2 + 4 V22. 16. ^7 \AOx-. ^88". -v/^r 5 - A/^~. Page 203. . x 25. 22. 19. Vr 8. 4. r c . 20&V6. 3 x^y 33. 7. 2. 32. + 2). (a 27. 13. 10. + . 51. . . l 5.692. 13 35. 38. 9 .. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12.x^y* + y%. -2.577. 37. 2\/7. 3V5. 20. 10. 5 ( . 1) 3V3.2 VlO. 7. 20. 31.XXii ANSWERS 1. a^ + 2^+1. . 49. m* -n*. 3. 21. 2. 30. (x' (l 1+x). 11. 24. . 34 r 6. 40. 48. x% - 3 ^+ 1. . 9. 3. 2 4 z2 l 3. 2 a?>V2 a. 8a6V5. 2 x* 15. 11.r.648. V.632. -13-5V6. 2. 29. 5. 3^2. 8. 12. yV35. 30. Va 2 "ft. 2. 25. 43. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 2 '"V5. 41. JIV6. y. V63. 26.Vxy 35. 3 4\/2. abVab. 40.'\ 14. ^: V2c. 13 a. 6. 37. 8V/) 15.12 *^ + x 7/> x - a-** + or " 2 + 1. 2. + 2 V22. + + ft. 23. 9. 16. 4aV^J 16. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. Page 207. v^. 1. x. 3V^T. 19-5V3. 24. / V3. 17. 03r* 7.3 + 40 3 . 28. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 6-2V(J. 17. ).707. 101 1. - 2 3:r. y (a + ft) V2. a2 4. + 2 ar 1 ). 10. 3 42. a 4 +-* + !. 13. x 7 - 34. 26. 3^ + 2). + Vic + 25.rV:r. k/2. 50.

^9. 33. 1-V5. ^v 7 15. Page 213. 12. 53. 32m-27n. 23. v^30. 8V2. v/lO. 3. rtv/5. W). 6. 10. 52. 21. 17. 11. a^\/a7>. 43. 20. r)\/(l Vrt-r. a2 - b. 6. 9. 24. x/w^ 8. : ^32.. . v^lf. 22. % 29. 2 1. 21. 2 \/2. vT). 7-4\/Jl 120 46. 19. Page 211. 10. 1. 28. x/125. -V-Jla. V3. \XO-fl-6Vi5. 35. 5V2. ^27. 3 V2. 46. 2 28. 14. 16. 31. 3\/15 - 6. 37. 9 VlO + 4. 12. 3. w-?i. 3 Vl5 30. Vat. . -13\/3. 18. 41. 14. 17. 1. 16. 40. 26. 29. 8. Vtf +3+ 33. 3\/2. x/8. \/abc*. 4VO. + 20. VT5. 27. "v/wi ??. v 25^4714 V2"a. 10V(). V3. 49. 32. 14. 38. V2. 0. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 2. 25. 2\/7. 51. 34. 2 ate-. Page 216. x/3. 14c 4 V5. '-. 3\/wi. Page 210. \V3. 8 - \/15. 42. 36. v/8. 30 Vl4.30 2. 4 >/3. 7\/(l 7VTO. V5. + VlO - v y (5. 4\/5. D 45. 30. 3v^2. 6. 4. 6 2\/0. 5. .T*. 2. 39. 8v2T 12. V5. 0. / \/w/t 4 13. 5v/2. Page 214. 44. x/8l. \/128. 36. ab 4. 6.r v/^ v^fr*. 6. \^6. - 3. \/2. 25. m ?i-2Vm/t. 27. 2yV2?/. 7. 6aV2-\^.J Page 212. v"3. 7. 48. V2. 3. 9. 18. v^a. 31. 6x-2?/. 19. a\/5c. aVa. V3"m. 10. 13. \^r^bVabc. \^6.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 5V2. 2. 39. 18. x/8L v/27. \/8. 9. 2. x/4. . -21 23. 16. x/27. 7. V/. v^O. v/i). 5. 40. 3. ^\/3. 15. . 2 V'3. 2. fl^Vac. xx 1. 11. 3 V15 - 47. 23. 50. v/l2. __ rw 3- \~s~' ] * . 3. 1. 8V73\/IO. Vn. 4 a*. Vdbc. 32. \/a6c. v/9. 38. -^ 3 b 5 24. 6V2. "^8000. 34. 8. 37. b. 5. 22. 17. v7^. 24. 35. 15. 11. v"5. 6+2V5. v^4. 26. \/04a. 13. 4. . 5 \/2. v^f. V8. .

100. (V8 + V2.\/TO). 16. 14. (Vll-V2). 22. fV2. 3(7+3V5). -3. . 36. . . 27. 23. 16. Va. V6c. x 20. 64. 23. 3. 8 V3-V2. 4. 6.9. 8. (V2-1). 25. 29. 6 V. - f. 10. 12. 8. 4V3 + 6. 7. 23.7071. n*. 19. (2-V2). 16. K>/0 + \/2). 14. 8. 24. 9.6. 2. (Vf + (4 V2). 11. {. 3V2-3. 15. 10. . Page220. 1.2. 4. 9 mn. 7 -f 5 4. 4. * 3. 30. 0. 7. + 5V2. 24. V2. ~ Vac _c 0. \. -1. 16. J. 4. 10. Va. 2ajV2*. ' 22 i . 1. Page 226. . 16. 125. V3. 14. 17.7083. 10. + 6) 2 . 3. 512. f. 23. 24. 5 + 2 vU 17. 19.464. ANSWERS 8. ^\/2. nVTl. 18. 21. 13. 3. 25.1547. 34. 2.625 10.3. 32. 5. 1. V^TTfc. V. 2. j. 11.732. Vf6-f|Vtf.1|. 2V2. Page 225. 20. _^JflJ?. 216. 14. ^(VlO-\/2). 29. - 13. 2. 3. x-y 2. 9. 4. 9. 20. 2. 18. 12. 4. 12. 35. 5. 10. 18. 19. +3 V2). 2. 30. 27. (a 1. 25. 13. 9.3535. 7. 2 .2828. i^ ~ 1 v ^-. . (V5-f 5. 1.64. 31. \/57t.0606. -2!5_. 12. 1. ^r. . 9. 5 V65. V3 . (2. \/3). 7. 11.V3). 25. 11. (V5-1). 1. 28. - . 5. 13. 12. 2. V3. 15. -26.5530. 11. 1. 10. . 8. 5 f. 9. 33. 224. V35. 21 ' Vob 26. 1.3. 37. 15. 11. 18.13. 10.1805. 15. 6 |(V2 + 1). ^. 9. 8. . 5. 0. 20. 17. 2x^2^. 5. (\/5-V2). 81. 26. i(V-f Vft). 16. 21. (V6 + 2V2). j 15. 4 14. 2-V3. 5. -4. 27. 7 Page221. 19. 25. Page 219. 16. 81. 4. 7. 19. (VaT^-v a). 6. 4. 25. 4. (\/3-f 1). 1. 4. 5. A- . m -f. .XXIV 7. 8. V5. (2-f V"5). 8. J.w 6. 22.389.4142. 6. 23. 5. 22.6 V3. 2V3. Page217.^ (\/22 4. 5. 9. ^. 4.4722.5. 4. 4. 25. Page 218. 3. 8. !^ 6 4. 6.W + 12 v/7 - 3 \/15 . 24. (3+ v/2). V3.732. 7.601. 4. Page 223. Page 28. 12. 21. 1. i^Lzi. 7. 15 -f 3 V2L 4. 16. 17.2. 9. p 6 13. 20. -. 3.81. 15. - 2. (2-Vll). 17.. 7. 18. 6.

-73. 21. 3. 5.-f 2)(sc 2 -2 r + 4). - 3. 13. 20. 5. 3. .+ ^)( 4 -a 2 6 2 -h6 4 ). 15. 1 . 7.. 4. 3. -P. 23. a(. 25. . 0. + 6 4 )(a*-a' 6 + a 2 6 2 -a& 8 H-6*). 17. 2. (p-l)(p-2)(p-2). 20. 5. 7. 24. 2. J 24. 3.12.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).l)(a-3)(a . 10. 3 . 2. 1. y. 11. (+!)( -2) 10. (a. 2. . 3. 10. .2 + (ro-w)(w-4w)(w a + 6mw -f w 2 ). 5.^a. 19. 1 . 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). (rt. - 2. 1.2)(* . 3.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 -f 4 winy 2 Page 231. Page 234. 9. 19.3). 1 . 1. 15.8a 18. 16. 7. 1. |. 1. 2.2)(m. 4 20. 2. 5. 7. . J Page 235. 2. 3. 2 . . 2 . (&y-2a#H-4).4. 0. . 1. 4. . -0. 11. 2. 8. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 0. l. . 2 6. \/0. qpl. 11. t/ 23. . 2 6. 1.ANSWERS Page 228.10. (6-3)(6' -t- 18. 4. 17. -13. a(l+a)(l_a-fa 2 ). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 18. -20. -3 . 1 6. 9. 3 9. 30 30. o. 2 -V^ . 5. 8. 4 4. 8 6 & 0. 2 > 1.1.5. 13. 6 2 2a + 2). 1 . 2. 12. (4 mn . - 16). 2 <? 4a2 . - 3. (p-l)(p-3)(p-6). (10 -#0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 2. 1. 11. (l-a&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).1. 8. Page 233.2. 1. 1 3. 2. 10. 4. 3. 12 24 y . 6. 0.3. . b . (m 4 + l)(ro. - 5. (2 a. 2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l -a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 7. 25. - 1. (8. 2.3. 6. 3. . 6. 2. 12. 5. . 3. 3. 73.4). V3. 4.2. (a . . . 5. (w-2)(m-3)(2m + 5). 3. 3. 4. (a 4. 2. 7. 5. 6.4. 3. 22. 3.Y. ~ f7. a: :} . '- J. 3. 8. 4. -11. . 2. 1. 14. 15. 25.3. -7. 6. 10. 14. (a+&)( 2 14. 1 . a . 3 . . 4 . 3. 13. 2. 17. 26. //. 14. & + 6 2 ). 5.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 -f a -f 1). - 3. 5. 50. 1. (w . . 1.3. -56-l). (2a + l)(4a*-2a + l). 3. 4 1. (a-2)(:iB2 -f 2a44). 4 . 2. 2 .3. 5. 2 . -1 (-?> x/^3.7. (xy + 5) (x*y* .3. a - . f . 4. 22. 4. 1. 16. 2. 4. 2.5 xy + 25) 22.2. (a + l)(a*-a 8 + a--a + l).22. 1. 3. 30 . - .l)(z 2 + z + 1). 4. 9. 87 . 3.w 4 + 1). 3. 24. 2. 7. 0.nl^EI. 21. 6. - f . 4. 2.l)(a 2 + a -f 1).3 2. (w-p)(w-2p)(wi-3p)(w*4-2p). 3 5. . - J. (r. (a. 19.0. XXV 4. 3. . 4. 13. ( 16. 8. 10. 5. 2 &. 2. 27(2 a 4-fc)( 4 2 -2 (a -4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 5. 4. 1. 4. 4. 8.4. 4.l)(m .r . . 4. 25. 12. 18. 1. 12. f>. J. 28. - 1. 6. - 4. 4. 30. 2. -10. (B4-3). 1. 1. . =A|^Z3. (s + l)(x2 -:r + 1). 1. 3. 2. 3. J. 11. 30. 2. 100. -2. 0. 3. -12. 0. Page 236.

3 .1. Page 248. 10. $. 2. _ 10. 10. j. 14. 14. 17. -5. 2.. 3. 4 8. . 21. 23. 15. 8 3. 4.3. 14. ^ }.. - 11. 1. 8. 5 4. 1. 12. 4. 8. 21 30. 1 . 2 26. in. 18. 78. . 24. 4.. |. + - n. 8. 4.. 16. . . . 11. 5. . 4. 3. 20. 3. in. 9. | . . 9. 2 1. 1. 1. 1 . 4. 1. (a) 5. 22. .4. ' j. 1. 3. 29. 20. . 12. 16. 17. 5. 5050. 201. 5 cm. 8ft. 33. ft. . 16. 5. oo. 5. 10. 11. Page 241. 40 in. Page 240. 12. 4. 2. 38. 5. ..e. 4|. and _ 4. Page 243. 2. 1. 2. 3 4. 1. . 3 . Page 238. 1. 8 . x 4. . 1 .5. 13. 24. 7f solution. 3V5. 25. 512. 2.3. 4. in. 2>/3. 15. 40 25 in. m + n. . 4 34. jj. . n . 37.. 2.4. 9. 12ft. 2. J.-y. 36. -50. - 2 . 31. 30. 40. 2 . 4. 8. Indeterminate. 18. 15. 2. -14. 2. ^~2. 900.3 . m28. -$VO. Page 239. 4. 11.18. 17.1. 9. 14. 35. 1. 18. 5.200. - 1. 6. 12 d. co . 1. oo . 5. 15. \/6. 1.3. 4. \. c. 3. 3. 5. 32. 12. J. (/>) "_. 2 . 3.5. _ 13 (0 6. 1 . _ 5. f>.xxvi Page 237. }. 5. 125 125. 5. 11. 3 2. 4. 3. 19. 2V7. . i'ljVU. (>. . 7. ft. 3. 41. 35 a. 11. 3. 4. Indeterminate. 13. -2. . 9. 35^ 5. 30. 2 ft. 7. in. 3. ANSWERS 2. no co . . 84. 7. _ 7.13. 37. -3. 1. 512. . 2. 3. 8. 2. . V3~. 5. 45yd. 5 . 1. 7. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 8. 35 ft. . Exercise 114.. 12. 39. 6. 26. 3. in. 2. 8. 12 1. 7. 2 Y> V . ( 3. . 1. 7. . 1. 5. 15. . 1. 23. 5. -400.6. 12 ft. 4. . . 2. . 2. 6. 7 3. . 2 -10. 288. -3. f. i. 1. Page 245. 5. ft.1. 3. 2 . 17. 30 13. 11.. . 4 6. 0. 2n. Page 244. 13.020. 1. tn 2. (&) 2. 1. 3. 4. 17. 3 . 2.2. 3. 3. 9. 3 3.3. J. V7. 1. 3.3. 1. 4. 1. 2. 4 . 1. 55. 3 cm. 48. 3. 15. $. oo .3. (a) $3400. 3. 0. J.. 4.. 1 . 20 in. 69. 0. 28yd. i j. m27. 2. 1. 5. 7. 2 2. 4. } . 14. -37. ri*. Exercise 113. i i i . Page 247. 3. 50. -1J. . 4. 10. 5. 2. 1. 12. 31. 2 16. 4. GO . '>. 1. 14. 1 2. 20 7. 8. 1. f*. 5.0. 2.0. 1. 21. 19. 15. 6. 4. = QO 6. 1. 2. 2.3. . 3. 17.30. . 3.4. |. 1. 22. n.6. |.136. $46. 3. 1.4. 6.

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te + . 2. 32 yr. - f>. 496. \.-vz in. 90. & 491. . 425. . 464. 481. 500. 460. 17. ft 5. 10. |. 33. (c) not true. 0. 463. 6. |. 480. . 14 miles.3. 484. 20 yr.rz Page 279. 2 a 2.. 477. 461. (a) 1.}. . 7. 447. 2$. B $ 2500. 450. 439. 7. z8 +?/ 3 431. 50.4. 465. 2. 503. 0. . 5.55. 53 yr. 507. - 453. 10. - 7. B 4 mi. 1. 5. 9. 441. 21. 454. i a b 451. --. (d - 6) f. 445. 499.2. 472. 436.. '. 492. a 22 -. 7. 24 days. 2. 6. 0. 6. 10. 10. A 5 mi . 428. 5. 462. . 8. 418. 2. 501. 1 a /?$-+&?. 28 yr. 506. 32.4. b 449. - 2. 10. Page 278. : />a. I. 8. 442. . Page283. 468. 467.. 479.-488. 2. 4. 1. - 7. 6. 432. 419.7. not true. 446. 495. 0. m- 1 : wi.} ' c^ac-j-d} ^ fcfZ a/- ?>rf + 86 (. 476.7. 20. a* 424. A $ 3500. Page 281.-. . 498. 6 -f- c a + ? & ~ a 0.. 3. 444. $2000 at 0%. 3. ISjmi. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w -f w 417. 430. . 40. ^. c. 412. 8. |. 423. 487. - .m - m+ M in. 10. (&) true. />c c(f- be. . <L+ 6 (. 435. |. ISJini. - 1.5. (&) 443.12. 490. ^V. 10$. 0.7. (d) true. 5-1. 426. - 2. 411. (a - c). 1$. 8. 18. Page 282. 497.}. 5J.7.0. 5. |. 508. 413. 2. i. \ 1. 458. 2. 486. . 7. 4. 10.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. ' $260 at 0%. 429. 6. 485. 440. 2. 493. * . 2. fj. 4. 6. 459.0. 1. L2 a - 6 . 40| oz. 3. 502. - 505. 11. 420. 5. Page 280. - -10. 6.2.. 3a- 4 5. 427. c 6-fc 10.46. 457. 421. 12. 7|. 17. 63. 0. 4. 422. 7 : . *+-. - 2. 22. 2 438. 483. m.1. !L=4. . 84. 0.7. 5. -^r?i 434. fc. 2. 478. 3 . - 2f 504. 494. 1. + () 433. . a + + ft c. 42. L (c) I. 1. 466. - 1.3. 456. 452. 448. 482.489. -410. 455.

(c) -4.8. + 26 + .03. a + ft - a - -f c. 40 Ib. - 2ft da.75. _ 4. -1. -f36a-2-8x8 592. .1. (d) 537. 1$. (e) 570.. 3. 598. _^ 27-54x . . 2 10.15.62. 583.5. 578. 576. 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 525. 6435. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2 - rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. J7] min. per hour. 516.02. da. 536.83.54. 3f 4f. 560.37. 1. . 1.6 2.. - (a) (d) 1.35. 559. x8 .78.14.51. 4. 8 a6 4-2x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4-x4 601. . 2.73. . 3. . 24 da. 571. 1. 599.02.7. 1 . 3.62. 5. - J(a -f + 2c). 24. 4. 4.15. 2$. 1 . g(rc+ 6-c).7.31. Page 288.37.03. 531. a*-8a + 24tf -82a. 532. 4. tin. . 3 da. (/) - 10 to 8. 1.9. 3. 574. 115 Ib. 8 mi. S82 c.04. . . <z ft 1. - 3. 5. 1J. 529.0.00.33. 4.. _ 3. 1. + 6 tf -f 3 . 3. 7. 3. 566. . > ^ . lead. - 7. 2 imag.24. -1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 2(6 597. 4- 8 x2 ?/4 605. 561.5.78.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4- 6 x4 3 xG -f-x. Page 285. 3.21. 1. 551.4. 568.54. 1.-f 1. -2. 2. f.4.52. 582. . ft 584. 1. lead. 558.56 sec. 3. 4. 5. 565. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 528. (c) 3. (gr) -10 1. Page 287. 1. tin. y% Z * 586.. 0. 1. -2.4.88. -8 +3 x -f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. (i) -3. 550. -3.3. -1. - . 518. (6) . 1. 2 . 554. 3.16. .0. ^ ft 4. 553.83.r8 596.6.1.3. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.24.3. 4. - 4. y 4. 3.55. 4. 526. 569..1. |. 4. 552. 509. 2(4 602.02. 573.24 sec. 564. 1.8 x3^.04.1.2. 232. 579. 577. 581. - ft*.0.6. 1 580.xV -f +6 a2 &2 - 4 6. - 2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 603.10. 3 . . 515.02.3. 2.12.7. 514.5+.53.xj/ -f xV . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 -f x4 4 4 594. .1. 0000. or 8. o> . (e) (c) 2. 2 2. - - (h) 8. . 555. . 527.8.10. -1.1. 1 600. -1. 1. .8. 512. . - + + c.25m.38. - 557. H.30. 7^ da. - 1. 2. 6. 533.25.3. 562.4.75.4 x + .05. 4 0.8. 2 . 2. 14. 1. 593. - (a) 2.6. per hr. 1. imag. . . 2 1. 5. 31. - imag. 556. Roots imaginary.3. 6. . a+ Page 286. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.5 -f. 3. -2. (6) 3. 3.5.5. . 1.4. 4* da.15. T . f. .21 a2 + -3x + 3x2 -rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 567. . (a) 74 Ib. a -f ft + c.0. 563. i -_ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a-6) . 510. . (ft) Ill Ib. . 1 1 - 2 x 7 2 -f 3 2 x' -2 + x8 -f x4 . If 572. 1. 8.% rr\* 585.3.4. 575.31. 591. 2. 513. (ft) -4. 2 1. xxxin 511. f -?-- a -f ft __ + c C).20. 530. 27 y* f\4 .ANSWERS Page 284. 4 mi.3. . -21*_. - 2.6.5. + 12 x .

8 6 fo .2f Page 290. 640. 009. be ac \. 696. ^. 648. a-b. 4. V2. 2. z - 1. 622. 4$. 1$ 639. 677 680. l/'3. 4. 14. 629. 7. 660. i.a~- {Z 663. 647. ab 689. If. a-f6-fc __ __ ( a 4. 2. 626. 657.2f (5 4. 5. a 673. + 2 A (i -f- Page 291.14 If 1. b 664. 50. 2&). 703. 7. / V^+lO^M-"^-. 9*. 623. 1 2. - 1. 698.001. 4.303. -if 4/> 671. ' 674. 2f. 4- 676. |. 615. . 0. 620. - a2 - a (ab)-. 12. . 1 V5 1. 632. 4330 da. If 665. 971.y. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a -+^ 694. - 6. V7. -11. 25. a 4. ANSWERS -(- 3 -x 2 -S 2 . 2. -0. - ft. 2f. 2.3. If . 614. 0. a ' 2 + . l-a6 2. 5. 650. 702. a + b. 13. b.b. . 635. 617. 616. 3 a. 1. 669. 4 V 0. .001. 1. n-^l +-^. 651. 653. c. (a-3&4-5rj. 1|.002. 2. 641. 1m*. - 2f r 659. 656. 6 685. 11. 708. -a. 612.b 686. 5 3. 8 f 3. . 2 a - 6*. 630.0. ^. 0. 898. J^-^. . 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 0. 3 x2 . 78. 625. K- 5 2 V2. . 662. 642. 627.4-3^4. 636. 2.3. 9. 679. 6. Page 289. 661. 2 / 2 4. 608. ft). 1 704. 2 a: 4. (*_ + a: 611. 706. 1 ~a . fe + a. 628. 5002. -6.>A 610. 3. 645.203. 691. /> 4. a 2. 703. 613. 3. 1010.XX XIV 606.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 633. . 4. ' fe 2 ). 3.3f l 668. 618.f 3 V^3).|. . ^ 1. 646. - 4. 0. 701. 638.04. .3. . V^~3). If b. 5. \. <T! . - -3. ^-^ 695. 3 681. 25. 649. - 684. a 1J. y - 619. + ~^'2 + a 1. 2 x- 4-4 ^/. . . 655. 2. 1. 2 a 688.049. 210. x3 4- 3 x x ' 4- X* 609. 7003.- 678< 682. 644. 705.25. 2. b . 683. 666. - 13. 2 a-b + a - &-.. - .c ) 697. V"^TJ. 621.3. 692. If 658. ft-a a/> ^A. 5. - 4. ix 2 .702. V2. 672. 690. 643. 2092. 10. 631. If f 667. 654. 1 ^ - 7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 652. 634. 637. I}'/. 624. 607. 700. \+ab 699. -8. 2. |o. 670.

2 V2 . J(v'lO-2V 791. 1 752. 717. 24. x-\-y. -^ . 768. 782 785. 29\/3. 24 4 . 34-2V3. cr*-lr*. v'll. i 2. 726. a 2 - x2 . 2x-3^ a. 729. 3V7-2VO. 1. 3-V7. 746.r+y-> 759.r.V2. . 712. 751.4 . Hi a. 715. 1 -[- + '> J. 777. 763. 758. 30\/10 764. 3 720. 39. 1. ^ ?->. ^7x-y. 730. 790- 2v 3-v 2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 796. 753. a db Va^T < 45da. . 723.~ .9. 755. i^. 00. 756. + <- 735. 722.. v/7 / . 1 747. 1. 300.r-J w L 754. 725. "V313.^ 743. 4 x' 5 -x 4- 3 x~* -(- 2 ar- 1.ANSWMHti Page 292. 8.1 . 793. 3V7-2V3. 3. 719. 17ft. Page 294. iv/Jj.11. rt3 2 ^-i-^-.1 -/>--f f- + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 33^2. fya-w&cu. 713. 794. 15 shares. ^^ -f ^3 _ r} t 2 -i-3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 5. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 3V5-2V3. a:-* .2. .8. 750. 778. 728. 776. m-n. Page 293. 739. 716. 788. 709. > 748. 710. 734.- 711. 4- 104 v/2. r.. VIO-\/3.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 8.257. y - 1. j 742. 24-V2. 732.-V/^ 741. 2\/5-3V2. 721. 3-2>/2.12 af -V^ 4 744. 3 VlT 795. *+V( x 2 -"r 2 )' ^ 786. 727. -3^. 724. 733. -5. VT14-V5. a".10. T%. 740. 13ft. 731. 714. 736. 773. a 2 6^. 749. -. a- 5 . 737. 25.-. 769. + 6 2 tf-'c. VV> -L4V-34. 792. 7 - 3V5. 789. / 787.4 . 767.. . x i f^' . 738. 34. 718.^. 59. 1 I . 4-7.9. 1-^ _ 760.

m = 2. 4. o 828. \/5. (2 a . 4. 5. 900. (a 4 871. 4. 820. 14. 811. 3. (2 x + 3 y} . ( - ?>) (a + ^> .XXXVI 797. 2 .. 3 . + d)*. . 1 1. (a m . 4 . 2. 831. (2 4. -f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (. 8. 4. Va + 6 + Vtt-"fc. 800. Va 803. 826.l)(x + 2). . 893. 880. (:r 11.r |. 17. 0. 2.7). 898.2 ax 4. 808. (3 b . m 875. 6 4- V& - e " X/^-^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2.5) (x + * 853.1)(0 865. a^*4l)(a-a 4 + l). 810. (x 2 . 836. 814. 0. 1 . 882. ( 869. (x . 3.a 3 " 4. 887. 11. -5). 1. 10. 840.f. jV3 -f 3.3)(x + 4). 886. 2. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . (x 845. 6(a-6)(o a + + &). 884. ^ V}.. Hoots are extraneous. 7.l)(x . 6. 4.7. 868.25 ?>2). 841. (x*y*-ryz + z*). 1. -X4 1). 2. a(-ft)( 873. (x-3). x . 2. (4 c 4. (x . 8 09. 48. (3 862. 833. +j!>. 859. 847. **. ) (a' 874. ( 4 4. 824. 16xyV2*/^-~x2 . 3.5 b) 4 1). H. 813. . - 839. 838. 817. 2/ 856. 4. 4- 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .10 ab 4. 6+V7. .2w . 4. 4. 835. (1 . 830. 17.7). 801. 819. (x 4. 2 2 . . 832. 1.7)(4 x. - + l(l^).2) (x 4 2). 2 . (x + y) (x -f y) (x + y) (x . 4. 2 - 2.1). 837. 1.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).y) 852. 19. 823. 2|.+ m -f ") (a* ). 899. Hoots |.r?/ 50(i ( -2)(5 04. . 2 m . 7. (2x (r. a- 4-2)(x . 2. 8. 822. a* 4. f. 857. Page 296. 2 j 889.a 4 + 1). 2 *x 807. . 6. 804. 825. n = - 29. 834. 891. Page 297. 2. 3.1) . | ' .0. 2 . 894. $. are extraneous. 881. 3.7 4 1) 846. . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 5. 3. -1. 849. o. 896. 861. ANSWERS 798. 879. 890./>") (a'. x. 4. 816. 3. J V|. 897. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4- 5 -f- 8). 848. 4. 5.4)(1 -f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2 (x 4-*4. . 6 $. b' 2 821.3. 895.4. . . 858. 812. 4 885. 883. a2 ^E*!.a 2m W" 4 ^ m -f & 2m 870. 829. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 11. 863.l)(x .a 2 2 ). 2 854. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc -f- 1 '* Page 298. ((' 1). a(ry + 864. 827. 3. 1C. 0. (a 1) (x 4. 867. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .l)(x + 3)(2x4-3). 7. . (x4-2?/)(x-2y)(4x -. (x + 0X0-24. 872. 851. ^. 20). (x 2 -f r . V 3. 5. 799. 13. 892.1) (a 8 . 25. \/2. 888.om 441) (a 855. ^VG. db 7.. 876. 4 818. (x-l)(^~3)(. 3.r-4). - 1. 23.3.4. 6. (2x-3?/^)(4x2 4-Ox^ + 9//%2). 0.1.1)(V 2 . 2. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). - tt 815. 5.rae) (4 . . 7.4) 860. $. 844. 843. 3. Va. 2 806. 842.

073. . 905.1 = 9. 939. 925. . - 1 . w 3. 919. 944. 985. 0. -f ft- -4 . . 2 i ' a V. 2| ft. 8128.. 942. Page 301. 56. Page 302. 1. 908. 12 in. 961. a. 3. 2 1. 4. 1 2. 927. 8. 6 1 1. 948. 4.1. 921. 2.. 938. - 1. 957. 66 924. 7. 3 . S07. 40 16 in. 9 in. 917. 4.. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 4.. 1 . 5. 4 . 2 yd. 73. 5. i-1" 913. . 916. 4. . ft.I. 7. 956. 982. 909. 1 _2 .760 sq. 940.. 8 . 111.. J.446. 903. ^y. i 8. 11.V-~~3).01. 955. 941. 28. 983. 2. |. 5. i>.. 3. 0. 11. 960. 6. 115. 2 w 914. 951. 1 1. 931.' -i-fcVira^ 2 3. 904. 3. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 930. 60 949. dL 4. 7 or 30. 6. 1 + V953. V5 fj. 947. 12 mi. 963. 3).111. 906. 6.1. 911. 1. 0. 3. 934. f. 108.. ft.0. 6.ANSWERS oJ--V 41 6 901. ft. 4 in. 2. 2. 978. %* . 950. a + . 981. 15 16 ft. 8. V5 T 2 . 2. 80. 20 19 ft. . 7 ft. . 0. 280... 902. 4. 954. 7. 977. T 6. ft. w.615. yd. 10. 15 946. 4. J(_ ft. 6 a 915. 1). 3. 2. 4 6 mi. . 14 . 12. 18. 6. -. 923.744. 5. 8. . 945.. $(l 4.2. 6 .2. 8. T3. . . 4. ft. 4. 7. 5. 987. -333. 11. . . 986. 1. 964. 3.. 2. 8. 3. 4. i 3. 6 da. ?/i 6. Z ^. 2. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.651.709. 918. 958. 12. 979. 937. v/(ai- !)(&910. 962. |. . ft. -5 . 935. r ft ' < Page 299. 922. '3 3 in. J. 248. Va926. Page 300. 28. 8. i(6 in. =F J. 984. 28. 333. 11. . V^3). Y. 952. 6. 943. 5l4f. T 6. 980. 936. 8. - 26-j. 329. 6. 480 8 sq. 496. 912. 3 4 ./hr. . . ft. 2. 100 rows. ft. 959. 920.. 8. tt2 19. Page 303.. 2. 932. 933. 12.. 10.

'^^ } ( . 991. 48. (5. . 1008. 992. 1014. 1005. in. 997. (a) (6) -^ 1002. 990. . 1010. 24. 32 13 (tx 4V3.92. ~ \. 1009. (Z>) 999. 72. (J. 120 a. Page 305. - W1W -JI + 1 / 1 _ -_L\ a . (6) 8(1 .378 <W and 92. () 12(2+V3).51. - 5&7 1021. 1 8 8 2. a- a 13 - 13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1001. 12.128 I. . 1016.378 1015. 1018. 9 da. 988. 6 70 . 996. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 2 ..xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 994. 12. 120 i-^l^. (a) 2^ + --1 \/2)..870 z8 . 4. 1007.870 a 6 1011.192rt?)r 120 *. X. 1(5. Page 304. 78 n+ a' x 2 t - 13 . 108. + v 2). 5 :J2 r 10 - 14 y + 84 y* - 280 + 5(>0 - 72 C- K 4- 2 MJ--iy 8 r? -" 8 . 995. 993. 0. 8. 2(2 -v/2). ^f (2-f-3V2). 1017. r = 2. 1000. ^Trsq. 1- 1004. 0.18. 162. 1013. 192. 1019. 1006. 4 and 1020. 1012. 1003. 3003. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . + 448 .

but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. so that the Logarithms. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this grade. i2mo. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. comparatively few methods are heretofore. and commercial life.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Ph.25 lamo. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 64-66 FIFTH AVBNTC. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. physics.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. A examples are taken from geometry. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+563 pages. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. The more important subjects tions. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. great many work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. than by the . without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. save Inequalities. given. xi 4- 373 pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. Half leather.D. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. HEW TOSS . especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.

but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. comparatively few methods are given. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. etc. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and commercial life. 12010. 64-66 7HTH AVENUE. Logarithms. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Half leather.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The author grade. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. so that the tions. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. physics. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. HatF leather. HEW YOKE . In Factoring. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.25 i2mo. $1. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. save Inequalities. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.D. great many A examples are taken from geometry. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. xiv+56a pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. xi -f- 373 pages.

State: . 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE. izmo. 6.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the text-book.r and.. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 7 he . Attention is invited to the following important features I. The numerous and well-graded Exercises the complete book. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. i2mo. 9. Half leather. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.D. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. lines. SEVENOAK. Cloth. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most text-books in Geometry 8. Ph. text-book in Geometry more direct ositions 7. SCHULTZE. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. $1. 10. wor. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. xii + 233 pages. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. iamo. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Cloth. NEW YORK . $1.10 L. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . more than 1200 in number in 2. xtt-t PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . under the heading Remarks". aoo pages. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for class-room work. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 4.

" The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach- ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. Students to still learn demon- strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . 370 pages. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . 12mo. and not from the information that it imparts. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . of these theoretical views. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . $1. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.

AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.40 is distinguished from a large number of American text-books in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. This book is up-to-date not only in its matter and method. diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . " This volume etc. i2mo. $1. and a full index are provided. Topics. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Cloth.

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