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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D.
Reprinted 1913. 8. U. September. May.A. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1917. Mass. May. Berwick & Smith Co. 1910 .COPYRIGHT. 1915. Norwood.' February. 1916. 1910. 1911. IQJS January. . January. . July. September. Cushlng Co. August.S.. J.
in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory." this book. Elementary Algebra. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. owing has certain distinctive features. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. manufactured for this purpose. and conse .. however. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Such a large number of methods. etc. specially 2. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.
the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. are placed early in the course. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. For the more ambitious student. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. hence either book 4. may be used to supplement the other. however. In regard to some other features of the book. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. as quadratic equations and graphs. Topics of practical importance.g. two negative numbers. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. especially problems and factoring.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. e. etc. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. elementary way. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. viz. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. Moreover. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. in " geometry . but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and commercial are numerous." Applications taken from geometry. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. is based principally upon the alge . such examples.
however. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. 1910. April. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
.CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors...... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . ....... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . Powers... ..
. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . . Type Polynomials.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type III.. Type V..... .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type VI.. Type IV. .114 . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . * . /^ . Type II.... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .
. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . Evolution of Monomials 170 ........ Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XIV 169 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ..... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. ..
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
a polynomial of two terms. A binomial is 62 . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. V^a6. [6c] 3 . 4V3~6c. Val \fi?." EXERCISE If a 1. or 9 Vx. 5Vl6c. x 9. 9. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 27. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. V2a. V36". 26. V3 . 4(a 6(6 + &). \/c. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. since the parts are a . are trinomials. find the numerical value of: Vff. as in arithmetic. !^f\/03 3 ft. 10. 8. is 28. 0. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 17. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. c f d). 6. 16. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 11. e. 7 = 2. d 7. (cfd) 4. c = 1. some number is . 12.g. + c). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. aVc^. 3.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 2 . 13. A polynomial is an y. 6. b = 3. + 1]. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 2. 14. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 15. v'Ta.
52 . i. 2. 2 ). a=4. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 6.99.. 14.2 + I126. 4. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 4 . 12. c = 2. 4a6fVaV2^. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . a 2 6.30 = 270 . 5.e. a2 11. 8.5 ax 50 a6cd. subtraction. 10.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . + 26+3 c. 5c +d 2 . 3 2 If 1.g. 3.390. 1. 5. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. EXERCISE 8*  . (a (a f b) 7. * For additional examples see page 268. __ E. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. multiplication. Otherwise operations of addition.9 aWc + f a b . . d = 0.9. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 3 4 . 2. .4 6^9 ad. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. d=Q. . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. c=l. b = 3. 5=3. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. = 32 + 4527 = 50.810 + 150 = . 6. Ex. x=^. Ex.INTRODUCTION 29. find the numerical value of: 9. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 16.19 = 6. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . l 13.
w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. . 6 = 3.c) (a . geometry. 6. a a=3. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 25. a = 3. Six 2 . : 6. 6 = 2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 7. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 2. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a =4. 24. a = 4. 35. Read the expressions of Exs. 37. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a.6 . 28. 6 = 5. and other sciences. 6 = 6. 30. 6. 6=2. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. = 3. 6 = 5. sible to state Ex. 6 = 4. 29. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 27. 30. 6 = 1. a = 3. 22. a = 4. physics.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 6. 34. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 38. 33. 26 of the exercise. a =3. 26. 23. if : a = 2. Express in algebraic symbols 31.
b 14. An electric car in 40 seconds. Find the height of the tree. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = . (b) 5. 2. and 5 feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. (c) 4. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v : a. and 13 inches. 4. b.16 centimeters per second. 13.16 1 = 84.) Assuming g . . 15 therefore feet. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. A train in 4 hours. d.e. then a 13. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v . c. i. 12. the area of the triangle equals feet. 14. and 15 feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.INTRODUCTION E. 84 square EXERCISE 1.g.
: 8000 miles.14d (square units). square units (square inches. (The number 3.14 square meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. . (c) 5 miles. the area etc. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. ~ 7n cubic feet. the 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. 2 inches. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 5. meters. (c) 10 feet.).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. 32 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.14 4. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. This number cannot be expressed exactly. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 5 F. $ = 3.).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.
In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. . AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. SUBTRACTION. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. however. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or positive and negative numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.
the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. = 5. is 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 19. of 2. d = 0. of: 20. 4 is 3 J. Thus. lf(2). 22. c = = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 4. + 12. d = 5. + (9).3. (17) 15 + (14). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. '. 24. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. (_ In Exs. 6 6 = 3. 23. 33. .  0. is 0. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 5. subtract their absolute values and . 12. 10. the one third their sum.16 32. 21. 5. if : a a = 2. 2326. 18. c = 4. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.
. 3. 10. $7000 gain. 3 and 25.. 7 yards.13. . . 6.7. 72. 36. and 3 yards. : 34. affected by the same exponents. are similar terms. 29. and 3 a. and 3 a. . and 3 F. 6. 35.ADDITION. 2. sets of numbers: 13. $1000 loss. 32. 39. : 48. }/ Add 2 a. 41. and 8 F. \\ Add 2 a. 60. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. which are not similar.5. . 10. c = 0. = 13..7. & 28. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 37. 34. & = 15. 7 a. 09. 30. 42. 40.5.3. and 4.. ' 1? a 26. 13. 55. 2. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 7 a. or and . 74. 4. $3000 gain. 10. . 5 and 12. : and 1. 0. 43. 4 F. c=14. SUBTRACTION. 31. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. . Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 27. ^ ' 37. 11 (Centigrade). 33. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. and $4500 gain. = 22. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 25. 1. 32. 38. $500 loss. ' Find the average of the following 34. 12. AND PARENTHESES d = l. d= 3. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.4. 66. 6. = 23.
sign. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 7 rap2. f 4 a2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . Vm f. 5 a2 .18 35. 2(af &). . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 13. 2 a&. : 2 a2. b a f ( 6). or a 6. 5Vm + w. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 12(af b) 12. Algebraic sum. + 6 af . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 14 . 10. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 5l 3(af6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 12 2 wp2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12Vmfn. ab 7 c 2 dn 6.13 rap 25 rap 2. 9(af6). EXERCISE Add: 1. 2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2.ii. 3a . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term.
2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 21. is . + y. n x* 2 22. 17. 2 7 1 26. 36. + / + 3 Va. 32. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 33. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 6 23. 35. ra 19. without finding the value of each term 34. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 1 27. 37. 2 2 2 31. c 2 ^24. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. l^S 25. 30. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 2/ : Add. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. SUBTRACTION. a a8 ZL **. and to add each column.ADDITION.
o c and 4. .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. to show any error. 2 025. of that letter.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . x of x. . 4 2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. c = 1.7 2 . 3a 2? . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2 Sum.c= 2.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.g. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2c. s. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. therefore the answer is correct.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . e. 3 a f 4 1) 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. NOTE.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . the erroneous answer equal 7. 9 q 4.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . ft any convenient and c. and 2 .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.20 c 5 ab 4. to add 26 ab . . 6=2. a 4.g.12 a& 4.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 5.3 s. 46 4z 7 c. = . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 4 = 7.15 6c. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. f 110WS: 26 aft. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 5 . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 3. 2 Thus. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 7 4.8 abc . 2 .15 abc . and J 2 s. V3.41 = 3.
ADDITION. 16e + 17/90. 4.9(a + &) . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 19. 4 8 3 4 4 .(b + c) 1.10 Vc.5a^6 f 6) . . a + 1> 8 2 2 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 11. a2 2 14. .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and 5 Vb 18.12.and 6. v/20.VS 4 2 Vc. 4 ajy 17.8 m 2m 12. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. and v 15.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. a) y ^/.4:xy xz 6yz.4 Va . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 4(a .a 4 a 4 1. ^2 1 e. a 4 a . e a4 /. + 50 + 62 . . and 8 3 . SUBTRACTION. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.a. 56 w. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .1 a 4 1 0. d. 2 3(c f a).a.1. and 1 4 a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 2 and . + a + 1. 18/+6y + d. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. d and / 3 ? 12. ?/ . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. .a . and 12a 4 15& 20c . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.5 cr& + 7 6 9.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . . 2 2 . xy3xz + yz. 4 Vc. m 4 6.15 5.Ga 43x45. 4 3 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.7v/if. . a.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7ar + 3B 5. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .7m .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . in 8 3 m n 4. . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. a2 a. and and 13. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2 a.12 6 ~5 a . 3 2 2 3 9 . 2 ?ft ?/z. 16. .12(a 4. and .2n 2 2 3 rz . 2 ?/. 8. . .6. a 4 a . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.
1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. c 3 3 3 2 3 .3 taken from 2 ? 5.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 12 xyz. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .3^* 2n 2 .4 2tn* Sic 2 . 6 f c 2 23.17 + 4 ?nfy . T8a. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1. 45a6 2 .m 4m ?/?/ d. 8 . and e + 6y . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1. how 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.ra + m. 1/ . 1. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . s . + n*. f 1.11 xy + 12. and 2 24. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. +d a. is 2. a 6 2 c.9aj 2. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 1. and 25. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .22 21.. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. . If you diminish a person's debts. The sum and ? 1. f number may be added 3. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 22. many negative units re main ? from 2. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. f 1. 13 1. + 1.
the given number the subtrahend. two numbers are given. From 5 subtract + 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. This gives by the same method. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 3. called the minvend. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . a. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 1.g. +b 3. the other number is required. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. and the required number the difference. 7. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.3. Ex. ab = x. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. from What 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 2. From 5 subtract to . To subtract. In addition. and their algebraic sum is required. NOTE. .2. if x Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. In subtraction. Or in symbols. Ex. ( 6) ( = . 5 is 2. 41. 6 (3) = 8.
5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t . Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex.3 r*5o.f 8 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .
4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.ADDITION.a 2 j. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.7 a . 44. 42. 45. 2y 2 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 54. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 50. check the answer. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 56. and 3 7/ . .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 48. 46. 6 4 a. + a the 2 a. c f d. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .4 a*& + 6 a & . 49. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 43. tract 4 x 3. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 6(af. From 2 a take a & j.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.4 a^ 4.6)f.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 2.w>t. 52. 51. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 57. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 53. 55.c. of a 4. SUBTRACTION. 58. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .2. 41. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 47.
Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. subtract # + 1. A is n years old. 16. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . +a add the difference duce 13. + 6 + c. + 2. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 6 17. 9. a 2y + z. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.15. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 19. of # 2 8. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 20.26 4. 6. a + 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 2 m 21. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.
the sign is understood. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 46. a+(bc) = a +b .a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. SUBTRACTION. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.c. changed. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. II.ADDITION. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. I.b c = a a & f f. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.2 b . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a^6)]  } .g. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.6 b f (.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.c. 45. one occurring within the other. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. . & f c.
m f ft) a. 15. 6) 2. Ex.7i h jp) (m ?*. ? 11. find the numerical value of { 1422 .1422) J ] .)]. By removing parentheses. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). + (2a 6 + c ). 2 2 2 a(. 6. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 9. [36+ (a 2c]. 16. 18.) 5 .[271 47. 2 2a. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. a f (a a . 4. 2a (4a 26 +c ). Signs of aggregation 1. 19. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. In the following expression inclose the second and third.: Ex. . 3.(a + 6). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. : x + (2yz). may be inserted according to 43. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 8. a (a + 6). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 21. 271 + (814 . a (a + 26 c ). 13.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 17. 5.+ 6)f (a2 b). 14. 3 3 f 7.y (60. (m a2 f. 2.
m x 2 4. 12. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. z + d. 4. The difference of a and 6. terms 5. and the subtrahend the second. 3. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. p + q + rs. 2. m and n. II. The sum^)f m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.4 y* . 3. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5 a2 2. y f 8 . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 13. ' NOTE. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 7. 6 diminished . The square of the difference of a and b. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 5^2 _ r . a\l> > c + d. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2mn + 2q3t. )X 6. 10. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. . of the cubes of m and n. 5. 7. 8. SUBTRACTION. difference of the cubes of n and m. 6. 9.7fa. first.2 tf . The product The product m and n.ADDITION.1.
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 18. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 16. b.30 14. 6. d. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.) . The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 3. 5. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 2. force is produced therefore. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads what What. let us consider the and JB. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weights.
becomes meaningless if definition. To take a number 7 times. Practical examples^ it however. 9 x ( 11). 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. x 11. ( (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(. Thus. (5)X4. such as given in the preceding exercise. (.32 8.9) x 11. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4 multi44444 12. 9 9. or plied by 3. the multiplier is a negative number. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 5x(4). . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4)(4) = + 12. however. 4 multiplied by 3. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 48. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. thus. 4x(3)=12. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.
MULTIPLICATION 50. about fac (2)X If 6. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3. 27. 5. (c#) . 11. X(5). 4 a2 . 17. 13.4.7.a)( =+ a&. 6.(4J). 2. +5. NOTE. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. x= 0. . 4. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (2)x9. 20. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. is 6x7. of Signs: TJie positive. (7) X (12). 4 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . _2. x. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.2 f+x 2 . 12. 8 31. (. 16. (2) 8 (.(a&c) 2 2 . If a cal = 4a6c. and y = 4.2f 18. 6 2. 26. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 3 aW. 15. 7. Law Thus.2. 3 a2?/2 . . 1. . 29. 10. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 2a 2 6c. 24. _3.3) (1) 7 2 . 9. 8 4 . (10) 4 . (4)'. . (4)X(15). 6. 30. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 22. 3. 1. 14. 8. _2^ 3. find the numeri values of: 21. 2a6 c . 32.3. Ua b 28. 5x3. c = 25. etc. 23. z s 11 aWcx. 19. b = 3.
a 2 2 . 3. 14. 2. =2 a *. 78 . 5 = 2. 3 2 . 53. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2 3 . : 3a7abc. 11. Ex. 6 aWc x . i.6 if 35. a= 1. of the factors. 1. 12 U U .(2. . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. . 4. 9 .<?. 4. 36. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . B. 7.7. 127  127 9 7 . &*) c d*.2 2 23 + 5 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 13. 5(711. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 2(7.m a 3  4 . 10.. = 2. 5 3 5 3 2 . 3 3 4 .503). + 2/). & = 3.  2 2. (a6) (a5) 9.35). 100.. 4.3). a8 a=2. fl*" integers.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2(14.2). 2 2 3 6 . or 2 . 17. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 6" 127 U .(12) . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2 2 2 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . By 3 definition. . . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . m*. 6.e. 6 = . 34. This 52. 5.  and 2 25 8 . 3. 5 . 6 = 1. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 16. 50(112. 200.257). a = 3. 2. a = 2. IB. Ex.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. .(7).
(. If results ft. 3. Thus we have in general a(b 56. by first multiplying. . This principle. 2 32. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 3(124342). _4aft. . 7p*q r*.7 w'W (8 n^W). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. ax /) 2 4 1 (. called the distributive law. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier.6. .4a#.A).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. and then adding : 1. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). ) 2 33. 24. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2. 2(5fl5f25). (. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. /). 28. 31. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 21. 6. 27.f 2). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 23(10004100420). 5. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 17(10041042). . multiply each by the monomial. 34. 19. 25. 6(10420430).7pqt. 22. 11(3. c(4a ftc ).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 4. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 20. 29. 2(645410). 23. . 35 4 7(6. 26.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . but we shall assume it for any number. . 7. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .3 win ) . 35. 12( + 1 4 i).2 3 aft ).
21. f7a. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 28. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 23. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .5 w*V f 7 wn).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. By what 25. 26. 11.asa product. 22. . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 9.2 mn(9 mV . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.3 aftc). 20. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Find the factors of 6 ary . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 19. 2 m(mhn \p). 2 27. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. ~2mn(m +n p ). . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 12.60 a& 10 aft.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 3 ).6 a6). 30. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 5).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.we b) (x law.5 x 7). . 2 2 16. . be multiplied to give 4o. 17. : expression must 24. 29. 7 a 6 c(.^ c + 2 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.
Check. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. the student should apply this test to every example.4. Since errors. Multiply 2 + a a.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .1.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.a . To multiply two polynomials.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. however. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Since all powers of 1 are 1.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. a2 + a8 + 3 . . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 2. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. 59. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 b by a 5 b.
2 . 30. 2) (3 A: 1). 9. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 24. (4a 2 33. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. l)(raf 2). 28. (6a~7) 2 . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).4) (mnp 4. 3<7). 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). (13 A. (2 x* x 2 . 3. 7y). 12)(a?^2l). 41. QQ O7. I (mfn)(m4.4) (x + 1). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 5.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 18.2m)(l m). 36) I) 14. (6p (2 f 21. 40. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4. 2  37. ^ 2 . 7. 6. (a^26) . 11. 29. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). OQ OO. 20. 15. 35. 22. a 5c)(2a6c). 13. 36). 1). (8r7*)(6r39. 12. 36.2). 31. 17.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 25. 8. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 16. 10. (2w 19. (6i7n)(llJn). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 32. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 26.1 . 2. 4 2). * For additional examples see page 261. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).
10. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 27. 19. 21. 1005x1004. (6 12) (6 f. 6. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 1) (10 + 2). 25 a 2 . (*.2 6) (a f 6). + 3) (a 7). 18. + 2) (a f 3). . ft 16. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . (10+ (1000 (2. 25. (J 23.!!)( (a + 21). 12. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 75 ab f 54 ft . 3. 2) (1000 + 3). + 60)(f2). 8. 2 a? 29. 13. (ra. 9. X 102. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (!)(* 5). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (a 9) (a + 9). plus the product 62.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61.e. : 23 2. + 9)(m+9). in of the two unequal terms. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 22. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (a 102 x 103. _3)(a _4). i. 14. 15. (p12)(p + ll). 26. (a3)(a + 2). . 11. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 24.4). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . i. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.n)(wf w). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (a (a (a. 7.13).e. 2 6) (a 3 6). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 17. plus the product of the two unequal terms. + 5) (1000 + 4). 20. 28.
oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 9.15. 4. a2 2 w + 2 w . second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 2 5. . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.e. III. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 34. 31.e. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 33.66 s. p 2 p. . <J>7) J . (a2) (p a . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 32. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). Ex. 63. 3. : 24 (a 2. 49 y*. (a26) 2 .30. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (x+3i/) 2 . 8. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 7. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . + 6 a + 8. 7 a + 10. . plus the square of the second. w 2 ro .15. i. 35. 2 (a (*5) 2 . of the second. 37. and the second. 77ie square of the of the first. III. + 3) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.e.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. n2 10ii+16. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. i. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 6. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. plus twice the product of the first and the second.
29. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 51. 41 16. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 9 a2 . n 2 f4n+4. 31. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. (1000 2 . 24. 49. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 . 32. 99x101. + 3z) 2 2 . 28. 11. 2 . 42. 2 9a 496 2 56. . . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). I) 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (20 f 1) . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 33. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 47. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . n*6n+9. 18. (6afy 2 5) (a. . 4 53. 103 36. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 7& ) 25. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 38. 44. (^. 15. (2x3yy. 2 2 .998 39. 17. 21. 22 2 . ). 16aW25. 48. a2 9. + 5). 35. 25 a 9. 40. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 41. + 5)(5+a). 23. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). G> +5g)*. 998x1002. 2 J ). By actual multiplication. ( 27. 991 2 2 . 34. (100 + 2) (100 2). 62 25n 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 104 2 37. 52. m 2 16.MULTIPLICATION 10. 54. 12. . 46. a 2 8a6+166 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 45. 2 . 14. 22. 55. The product of 57.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 (4a36) 2 13.
that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 8. The square 2 (a 4. 7. 4. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 13. plus the last terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 3. ) (2 of a polynomial. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 11.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 6. (5a4)(4al). 14. : 25 2.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. ((5a? (10 12. 65. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 2 10. sum of the cross products. (4s + y)(32y). . or The student should note minus signs. (3m + 2)(ml). 5. 9. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). (5a64)(5a&3). (2a3)(a + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).
X2 + 2 x . 13.i2&c) 2 . 4(* + 2)5(3). (xy+z)*. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 8. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. Find the square root 11. Check.1 5 = 10 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.8 x + 15] . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (u4& + 3c'. 3. = .29.5). 6~2(a + 7). 5. 9.5) = (7 . (  2 4) =  20 a. 7.39. after multiplying the factors of a term. 8. a. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). If x = 1. 12. 4y sf n) 2 . = 10 x . 4. + 6)( . n). (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (a (.3) (x . 7. and check the answers !. 4(aj2)h3(7). 2 2.4) . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .24] . 5. 6. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Ex. 66.(m 2 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).4) . 2)6. 4. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. Hence.3)(z. of z : 10.y? + 8 .(= [ Xa + 2 . + 65) .r _ 2 .(x .3) . Simplify (x + 6) (a . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.(>. .[a? . 3.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.39.24 . 6(a 2. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
e. (81 m + 1 . 20. .DIVISION 14. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 51 15. . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 18.2) (3 a . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 19. 16.11 a + 9 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .l.2). a I. .
0001. 12. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 9& 2 . 16.49. 14. aW 12 a. r/ 1. 121a a 16 100 11. f 13. 15. : the following w a 4 !.000. 16 . . 1. 10.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 4 b. 100ry.
(rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . An equation of condition is usually called an equation.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. in the equation 2 x 0. 83. . . =11. 81. . the first member is 2 x + 4.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (a + ft) (a b) and b. the 80. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. is said to satisfy an equation. 82. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. x 20. second member is x + 4 x 9. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.
2 = 6#f7.e. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be multiplied by equals. If equals be divided by equals. 85. the quotients are equal. x I. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.2. If equals be added to equals. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the sums are equal. 2. called axioms 1. 5. but 4 does not equal 5. NOTE. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. Transposition of terms. A 2 a. the remainders are equal. the divisor equals zero. one member to another by changing x + a=. a. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 87. If equals be subtracted from equals.g. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 4. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 90. 89. To solve an equation to find its roots. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. .54 84. . the products are equal. E. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. A term may be transposed from its sign.b. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 3. 86. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . A numerical equation is one in which all . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.
may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Dividing by Check. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.6 y f y\ .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.2. f If y 20 . b c.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. b Adding a to both + a. a= a 6fc. 91. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. . Hence the answer. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Unite similar terms. Uniting. Uniting similar terms. x = 3. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. The first member. The second member. Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. is correct. 3 y . 4x 1 + 6.8. (4y)(6. if a x = b. The first member. x = (Axiom 3) 92. and the known terms to the second. if 55 x members. 2(11 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. x = 93.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. To solve a simple equation. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . a? Adding 5 to each term. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 2 x = 6. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Transposing.9 y + y2 = 22 . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Dividing both members by 2. Check.2 y= f .
13 y 99 = 7 y. a.69. 3 7 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). and check the answers 9. . 8. = 2 ?/. 9 9a? = 7 13. 6.7a: = 394a. 32 = 264. 17 7 a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.. 24. aj * See page 264. 7 (6 x 16). + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). x x 1 . 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3)= 9(3 7 a. 7a? 5. 16. 11 ?/ a? 18. 4. 21. 3. 22. 14. v23. 4a + 5 = 29. 50. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. it NOTE. . = 7. = 3. 19. + 16 = 16 + 17. 4y 10. Transposing. etc. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.56 Ex. 2. 3. x = 18. \x x 2^xfl. 247y = 68lly.. If x = 18. =2 = 3.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. J. 15. 17 + 5a. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 7. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Solve the following equations by transposing. a?. Uniting. a. : 5# = 15+2a. 20. {(x (x The The member right member left . = 5a?+18. + 22. a? a?. 13a? 3a?. 12.7. 11.17 + 4y = 36. f Simplifying. Dividing by Cfcecfc. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.
is the other part.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . . . 35. 25. 7(7 x y 26. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 34.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. a? 28. . 40. e. find the other part.2) (M . (a. 38.4) + 4 w . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. a? 43.3) + 14.3) .5) + 199.1 0) = 0. 39. . 31.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. + 7) (. . 7) (a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 33. 41. this question. 42.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). Evidently 45.32. (aj 37. (6 u =5 44. .3) + . 5) (as (a. 6(6a. 30.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.g.7. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. or 70 a?.(2 + 6) (4 .5) = (a.5(2 u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 27. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . . 2 2 * Jaj. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. + 4). .14 = 0. 36.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 29.7) (7 x + 4) .12) (2 + 5) .1) (u . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.
Ex. 14. 11. Divide 100 into two 12. 10. 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. Divide a into two parts. smaller one 16. is b. so that one part The difference between is s. 3. x f y yards cost $ 100 . and the smaller one parts. greater one is g. is a? 2 is c?. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. find the cost of one yard. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 1. 15. 4. EXERCISE 1. a. is d. one part equals is 10. 13. or 12 7. Find the greater one. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. If 7 2. 17. 6. 5. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 33 2. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . one yard will cost 100 dollars. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. so that one part Divide a into two parts. so that of c ? is p. 9.58 Ex. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one.
How many cents had he left ? 28. How many cents has he ? 27. is A A is # years old. 20. 26. 19. numbers is x. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 28. 32. Find 35. How many years A older than is B? old. and spent 5 cents. A dollars. 34. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 22. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. Find 21. 24. b dimes. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. A feet wide. and B is y years old. 33. find the has ra dollars. find the of their ages 6 years hence. amount each will then have. sum If A's age is x years. and B's age is y years. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. If B gave A 6 25.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. ?/ 31. A man had a dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. and c cents. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. The greatest of three consecutive the other two.
If a man walks ? r miles per hour. Find a. A cistern is filled 43.50. 48. he walk each hour ? 39. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The first pipe x minutes. A was 20 years old. . Find the number. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. find the fraction.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. Find x % % of 1000. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. of m. of 4. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. The two digits of a number are x and y. m is the denominator. c a b =  9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. a. . and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. 49. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. % % % of 100 of x. Find a 47. 46." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9.
by one third of b equals 100. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. a exceeds b by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. same result as 7 subtracted from . of x increased by 10 equals x. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a and 10 equals 2 c. of a increased much 8. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The double as 7. 2. double of a is 10. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. c. 5. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. c. etc. 6. 80. 9.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The excess of a over b is c. 4. 80. 3.
14. m is x % of n. and C have respectively 2 a. 11. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. and C's age 4 a. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. they have equal amounts.000. 3 1200 dollars. and C's ages will be 100. of 30 dollars. In 10 years the sum of A's. amounts. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. is If A's age is 2 x. B's age 20. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 18. 16. symbols B. a second sum. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. they have equal of A's. B. as 17 is is above a.62 10. pays to C $100. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 12. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 6 % of m. #is5%of450. >. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 50 is x % of 15. x 4 If A. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. a.. express in algebraic symbols : 700. A gains $20 and B loses $40. (c) If each man gains $500. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. a. B's. .
x+16 = 3(35). x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. x = 20. etc. 3z40:r:40z.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 23 =30. 15. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. In 15 years 10. but 30 =3 x years. Let x = the number. number of yards. Three times a certain no. 1. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Simplifying. be 30 . Find A's present age. Uniting. In order to solve them. Ex. Uniting. denote the unknown 96. number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Transposing. the required . 6 years ago he was 10 . number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Dividing. 2. x= 15. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Check. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. NOTE. A will Check. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. much as 40 exceeds the number. . 4 x = 80. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. the .
. Dividing. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Hence 40 = 46f. 300 56. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. % of 120. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. exceeds the width of the bridge. 5.2. Find 8. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 4. by as much as 135 ft. Find the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. EXERCISE 1. Forty years hence his present age. A number added number. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. twice the number plus 7. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 3. Let x 3.64 Ex. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 120. 11. 14. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.
numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. . x. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. How many dol A has A to $40. which gives the value of 8. 97. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and as 15. and B has $00. B will have lars has A now? 17. During the following 90 years. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. is the equation. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.000. The other verbal statement. 1. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. five If A gives B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Ex. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. 14. times as much as A. Vermont's population increased by 180. two verbal statements must be given. If A gains A have three times as much 16. A and B have equal amounts of money. If a problem contains two unknown quantities.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.000. the second one. F 8. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. One number exceeds the other one by II. Maine's population increased by 510. 65 A and B $200. The problem consists of two statements I. B How will loses $100. statements are given directly. written in algebraic symbols. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.
the greater number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. x x =14 8. 8 = 11. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. 25 marbles to B. to Use the simpler statement. which leads ot Ex. x = 8. + a f f 8 = 14. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. . = B's number of marbles. If A gives are : A If II. terms of the other. B will have twice as many as A. Uniting.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. A has three times as many marbles as B. Statement x in = the larger number. the smaller number. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. . = 3. < Transposing. B will have twice as viz. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. A will lose. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 2. = A's number of marbles. / . unknown quantity in Then. 8 the greater number. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. The two statements I. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 2x a? x j = 6. although in general the simpler one should be selected. I. the sum of the two numbers is 14. . o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. A gives B 25 marbles. = 14. Dividing. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. consider that by the exchange Hence. has three times as many marbles as B.
50 x Transposing. x from I.$3. . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 50. The number of coins II.550 f 310. by 44. x = the number of half dollars. the number of half dollars. but 40 = 2 x 20. have a value of $3. cents. 45 . Two numbers the smaller. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. the price. Simplifying. . Simplifying. Dividing.25 = 20. w'3. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. x = 6. dollars and dimes is $3. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 11 x = 5. Let 11 = the number of dimes. of dollars to the number of cents. 1. Uniting. 2.. 40 x .. consisting of half dollars and dimes. * 98. The value of the half : is 11. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). etc. the number of dimes. 15 + 25 = 40. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.10. 6 times the smaller.75. x = 15. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. and the Find the numbers. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Check. Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers is 42.10.. B's number of marbles. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Eleven coins. is 70. (Statement II) Qx . greater is . Uniting. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3. Dividing. 60.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.240. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. then. Find the numbers. * ' . The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Check. A's number of marbles.5 x .10. 3 x = 45.
11. McKinley. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Everest by 11. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. one of which increased by 9. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.. tnree times the smaller by 65. Find their ages. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and twice the altitude of Mt. 7. 9. On December 21. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and four times the former equals five times the latter.68 4. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many inches are in each part ? 15. How many volcanoes are in the 8.000 feet. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. United States. as the larger one. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 6. 5. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Twice 14. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. How many 14 years older than B. A's age is four times B's. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. the number.
1. Let x II. If A and B each gave $5 to C. original amount. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. B has three times as much as A. has. B. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and B has three as A. and 68. B. number of dollars of dollars B C had. Ex. 19. I. and C together have $80. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. bers is denoted by x. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. number had. = 48. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. II. x = 8. and C together have $80." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. The third verbal statement produces the equation.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. are : C's The three statements A. III. . then three times the money by I. times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number of dollars A had. has. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If 4x = 24. they would have 3. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively.
three statements are : IT. each horse costing $ 90. 2. The I. according to II. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. and. x Transposing. = the number of dollars spent for horses. number of sheep. x j = the number of horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 90 may be written. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. sheep. The total cost equals $1185. 1 1 Check. cows. Let then. 28 2 (9 5). each cow $ 35. first. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. + 8 90 x and. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 9 cows. 4 x f 8 = 28. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. and each sheep $ 15. 185 a = 925. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. III. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for cows. the third five times the first.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. number of horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 9 5 = 4 . and Ex. according to III. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and the sum of the . + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. x f 4 = 9. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. Dividing. Uniting. number of cows. x = 5.
The gold. what are the three angles ? 10. 13. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.  4. women. how many children were present ? x 11. A 12. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and children together was 37. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v . is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. what is the population of each city ? 8. "Find three is 4. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. men.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). twice as old as B. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. equals 49 inches. twice the 6. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. New York delphia. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. 7.000. 9. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. first. the third 2. the copper. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. If twice The sum the third side. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . what is the length of each? has 3. and the sum of the first and third is 36. increased by three times the second side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and 2 more men than women.
it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. but stops 2 hours on the way. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. The copper had twice the value of the gold. number of hours. First fill in all the numbers given directly. Find the value of each. speed. = 5. and distance. 8 x = 15. = 35. Dividing. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Hence Simplifying.g. After how many hours will they meet and how E. we obtain 3 a.000.e.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750.000. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. such as length. 14. of 3 or 4 different kinds. how many 100. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. i.000 more than that the copper. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. together. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of miles A x x walks. and quantities area. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000. width. 7 Uniting. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. 3 and 4. Let x = number of hours A walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. . or time. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. A and B apart.
Find the dimensions of the field. x . + 8.05 x x . Multiplying.06 = $ 40. the second 100. x + 200). fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. were increased by 30 yards. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Check." gives (2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. Transposing and uniting. original field has Check.01 = = . The an area 40 x 20 =800. . 2   and transpose. $ 800 = 800. $ 800 = required sum. .04 8. the area would be 100 square yards less. 70x10 Ex. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. But 700 certain = 800 2. 2 a = 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards. or 700. 10 x = 200.M(x . z = 20. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. l.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.04 = $ 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 1000 x .053.
paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. but four men failed to pay their shares. 2. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Find the share of each. the area would remain the same. of coffee for $ 1. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. What are the two sums 5. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. 1. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. sions of the field. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %.55. and its width decreased by 2 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. Ten yards $ 42. Six persons bought an automobile. twice as large. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A of each. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. 3. and a second sum. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. as a 4. After how many hours will B overtake A. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. were increased by 3 yards. together bring $ 78 interest. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A sets out later two hours B . and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. invested at 5 %.
how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
vV . but fractional with respect 103. a. 6. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. irrational. it is composite. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if. An after simplifying. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . stage of the work. f db 6 to b. as. 5. which multiplied together are considered factors. this letter. 76 . expression is rational with respect to a letter.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. if it does contain some indicated root of . + 62 is integral with respect to a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 104. at this 6 2 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a. we shall not. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. consider 105. a2 to 6. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.
TYPE I. in the form 4) +3. 55. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 01. 1. 2. E. . 107. Factor G ofy 2 . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.FACTORING 106. It (a. factors of 12 &V is are 3.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . for this result is a sum. 2. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).62 can be &).3 sy + 4 y8). . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 109. Divide 6 a% .) Ex. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. y.62 + &)(a 2 . 77 Factoring is into its factors.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 110.g. Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . it follows that a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 8) (s1). ?/.3 6a + 1). or that a = 6) (a = a . x. x.
In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 32 a *?/ .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. e. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 34 a^c 8 .6.g. 4. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. . 11. 8. obviously. (as 3) and (ccf5).12 cdx. 15 2 7. a6c. 18. ) 22  2. 3x*6x*.5 x*y 2 17 a? .4. 4 tfy f. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 16. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 2 2 . 3 2 . 14. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. q*q*q 2 a. TYPE IT. 15. 7a & 10. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.2.4.30 aty. Ilro8 9. 2 Or. 19.5 + 13 8.5 + 2. 14a 4 5. 2. 2 + q. 5f 2 . 12.45 afy . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2 23. 20. 4 8 . a a 'Ja .51 aW + 68 21.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 3. 7i 13.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . + llm llm. : 6 abx . in general. . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 2 6. 17. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 13.3.8 c a 15 ofyV . 3 3 5 6. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .3.
5) (a . however. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. or 7 11.30 = (a .77 = (a. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Therefore Check. If q is negative. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.5) (a 6). 3. . Factor x? . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 79 Factor a2 4 x . tfa2  3. Ex. Factor + 10 ax . the two numbers have opposite signs. Factor a2 . 4.6 = 20. and (a .4 . but of these only a: Hence 2 .FACTORING Ex. m 5m + 6.. a 2 .G) = . 5.11 a 2 . of this type. 11 7. or 77 l. can be factored.11) (a + 7). If q is positive.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. . .a). but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. is The two numbers whose product and 6. + 30 = 20. 77 as the product of 1 77. + 112. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 2.1 1 a tf a 4.4 x . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.11. determine whether In solving any factoring example. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Ex. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.11 a + 30. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). We may consider 1. as p. 2 6.
35. 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 30. 33. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 21 a 2 2 . 24. TYPE 113. a2 . 32. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 ?/ 22. 2 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. and 5 x. 19. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 13. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. .500 x + 600. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 . 27. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 31. 4 2 . 36. 100 xr . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 25. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 2 a' 34. 26.70 x y . 2 . 2 ?/ 28.180 a. a 7 a 30. 8. 16. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 14. + 5<y 24. 4 3 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 17. 21.80 7. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 16.17 + 30. .48 + + 446 200. + 44. or . ay 11 ay +24. + 4?/21. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. ITT. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 29. 9. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. + 2xS. 11.6. 12. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . x2 23. . + 30. a? + 5 + 6 a. 15.
we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.5 . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 27 x 2. and r is negative. 9 x 6. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.1). Ex. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. . 3. 54 x 1. 2 x 27. Factor 3 x 2 . 18 x 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. X x 18.83 x f 54. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 2. viz.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. sible 13 x negative. If p is poxiliw. the signs of the second terms are minus. . the If p and r are positive.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 3 x and x. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. a.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. or G 114. 11 x 2x. and that they must be negative. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 6 x 9. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.5) (2 x . but the opposite sign. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.
34.83 x = (3 . 10.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 10a?2 2 33. 17.2 a 90 x*y . . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 26. 29. 12. 2 2 2 . 90 a 8 2 .y + 172/9. 16. 4a2 9tt + 2. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 3x*Sx + 4.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 2 31. 144 x . . 10a2 G a2 2 . 19. 11. 30.179. the expressions should be it. and the monomial factors should be removed.300 ab 2 f4 250 .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 25. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.30 y 6 4 . 10 a . 22. 2 ar* 2 i/ . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 14.19 a f 6. 6n + 5?i4. 14 a fa 4. : 41 2. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 35. since all others (II. 2 28. 5. 2. . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. + 4. x54 a. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 12^17^16.7. 15. 9 y + 32^16. 9a. 2m t7w + 3. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 3. 2 . 9. Sar' + SaG.260 xy . 21. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 20. X 27 .83 x . 13. f go. 2x* + 9x5. 2 .2) (x . 4. 2 fc . + 2/3.163 x 2 . 12y 2/6. 2 2 2 23. 8. 3a + 13a. 5m 26m f 5. 100^200^ + 100^.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 24. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.27). 6. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 18. 7. 32.
116. 25 7. . 9. 10.20 xy f 4 y\ . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 13. To factor a trinomial which maining term. it is more convenient for that type.10 x f 16. x* . 9 10a625. i.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 8. 12. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . of its terms are perfect squares. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4. it is a perfect square. 6. 14. 5. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 2 .e. 16 y? The student should note that a term. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11. 3.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. and a perfect square. square. form are special cases of the preceding type. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. however. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . and factor whenever possible : 1.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 9 10gf25. 2. must have a positive sign. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.
26. 9a2 . 2 .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. According to 65. 149 a 81 8. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. aV .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 2. product i. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 25.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 16. 3. 29. 48 a +( ).3 * ).20 ab + 10 b a . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. prime. +( )f816 30. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 225 ofy . 18. TYPE 117. 4a2 l. ). 3. 10 a 2 4 2 . u2 6& + 2 ( ).84 15. a. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).60 a# + 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a2 24. 7. 27. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 2 . 5. . 2. 36 2 4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . .e. 6 2 .6 m* + 9 m. ^//c to the Ex. 2 . 16&*. * 2 . !Gar 9 ( )+25. 9. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 1. a.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). ).64 6 = 16(a . 22.2 ofy + ofy m . + GO + 25. ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. V. 4 2 23. 2 20. . 17. Ex. 19. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 6.
(a x? f 6) 6 2 .c . 2.(I) .FACTORING 85 118. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (m7?) y.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 9. Factor a 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 14. 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .d) 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 4. 11. Ex. a:) 12. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . T. 8. of polynomials. a2 . 5. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 6. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 36> . Ex. 2. 16p 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 13. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .(c 4.
a 26 2 2 3 . 7.2 ) (3 x . 2. 119.a a .7 c + 2c . 6.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ma ?*a + m& nb.ab + bx. = (3 x + y . 5.and trinomials.VI. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. After grouping tain a the terms. a5 + ab 6 . A. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 9. 8. 10. . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. By grouping. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 5) . 3.1. x8 . 2. 4:cx . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 12. + x + 2x + 2. Ex.14. a? 11. 1.r. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Ex. which may be factored according to types I.y + 2 2). Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 4 B.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. ive find that the new terms con common factor.
First find monomial factors common to all terms. IV. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. +c+ 2 2 2/ .l.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 2.12 aaj 4 6y. Arranging the terms. .FACTORING Ex. w m 2.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 2a3/ 7. 2. 4 a2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. . : 46 x* 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 36 9 m . + 2xy + y*q*. 8ra 2 + 16. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 4. : m 2 2 16. 3.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .4 f .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 8. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6 6. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 4. 2 7. l~a 2a56 2 2 . $ a8 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 8. 6a4 12a2 + 6. II. 5. 3. = (a + 6)(a6).
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif.13 c . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 4 8 tt 2 z . 30.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 35. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. 3 2 . (a. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 2 17. 3 a2 23. 13 c . 50^ + 45. or 3 7#2 . 14. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 2 a 128. 25 a + 25 aft . 2 ft . 5 a. 13. a. a + a + a + l.88 10. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 24. + 14. a3 156. 42 s 2 .156.24. . 4 a. a5 a 1 4 2 39.310 x . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.40. 28. 27. 29. 80 a 2 ft 38. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 42 x . 5a' 20. 11. 18. 32. 3 41. 40. 19. 3 25. (^ 34. 48. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 22. a6 36. + 6 aft + 3 .
122. C. F. 5 7 34 2s . 6. C. F. F. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. 89 . The highest is common factor (IT.  23 3 . F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. II 2 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 2 2 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . 5 s 7 2 5. are prime can be found by inspection. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. 54  32 . 3. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 2. Two common factor except unity The H. 121. C. 5. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. aW. F. of aW.) of two or more . EXERCISE Find the H. F. 3 . 5 2 3 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 25 W. 24 s . 8 . The student should note H. C. of the algebraic expressions. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. F. of : 48 4. The H. 15 aW. F. F. The H. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. Thus the H. of 6 sfyz. . 12 tfifz. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C.
4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. a2 . 13. 4 ?io. and apply the method of the preceding article. 8.2 ?/) (x . 16. ^707 + 12. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. F. 9.# 4 afy f 4 . a2 + 2a3. 4(m+l) 3 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 2 . 3^ 2 4 . .8 a + 16.2 y) (a. a2 ar* 4. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 2. of + 4 if.5 + 6. 95 2/V. 12 w*nw 8. 52 oryz4. of: . 8(?/ifl) 14. 12 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. ^a + 5^ + 6.y + y42. x* x2 Hence the H.?/ . a. 2 . a 3a4. 0^80:416. ^2 2 . 11.6 . 7. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. a3 16 a.6 a&.5 x3?/ 2 6. 15 3ao. 2 . ^f a. aWd. = x 2 y.6. 24 a 2 . 10. . . C. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 6 3 a.y) 123. 225 4a 9 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 25 m27i. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 9 aj*(a? . 3). a2 + 7af!2.90 7. 8. F. 13. Find the H. F.y) .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .12 as 66 . 57 a>V. C. 12. F. . 10. 49 C. 11. 16 a . 8 6. 9. of polynomials. . 1. 15. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 2 . 3. (a7 ?/) . Ex. C. a3 9a. 38 #y. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 1.5 y). 3 . 5. To find the H. y + 3y64. 65 zfyV. 6 mx .^9. 6(m+l) (m+2).3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 6 a2 y? . 2a f5af 2. 8 a 10 . . 12. 14. 5 a6 5^ 2 a.
M.M.M. 127. 128.6 3 ). a^c8 3 . A common remainder. M. &) 2 M. The L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . of 3 aW. 2 The The L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. thus. To find the L. Hence the L. each set of expressions has In example ft). of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . NOTE.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. Find the L. M. C. C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . etc. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Ex. L. two lowest common multiples. 1. Ex.C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.6)2.C. of the general. The lowest common multiple (L. of tfy and xy*. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. . =4 a2 62 (a2 . M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. Common 125. C. M of the algebraic expressions. L. C. M. M. but opposite . ory is the L. 126. Find the L. 60 x^y' 2 . 300 z 2 y. 2. C. which also signs. C. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. C.
. 11. a 1. a. 7. 2 . Find the L. a { a~b. 5. a2 4. 4 a f 2. (For additional examples see page 268. 2. 3 f2. x2 + 4 a f 4. M. ) . 2(m 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 21. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 . 9. f b. 20. x* ~5a. of: 4. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3 Z> . (a 4)(a2) 12. 16. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 3 6 xif. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a . 3. + 6. 17. 24. a f 3. 6 y. a 2 f 4 a +4. a. by. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . xy\ . 30 a. 3 . 2 7ic+10. 8. 2 a . a& 4 +& 2 . 22. #. 8 d 5 . afc'cd 2 . afy. . a?b. 3(a + b). 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2 10. 1. 15. 18. G a. 3. T a 3 a 2 . 40 abJ. 24 x. 2 . a. 2 a.1. 13. a 2 a3 . 4 a . + 2. y*. 4 a 5 6cd. 8 afy. a^1. 20 9 a. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a !. x 2 5 a. ic 2 ?/. a f 2 19. 3 ab. 6b 2 .1.f 6. 14. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2 x \2 y. or f 3 a 15 #. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. ic 23. a 2 fa6. 6. a2 ~ab 1. b 2 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 6 a. + 2 7i) .
and denominators are considered. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. however. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Remove tor. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a b = ma mb . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators.ry ^ by their H. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . rni Thus 132. 131. Thus. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . an indicated quotient. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. etc. C. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. but we In arithmetic. Ex. as 8.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 130. successively all 2 j/' . a?. F. A f fraction is b. and i x mx = my y terms A 1.
Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. cancel factors only.4) Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
^' rt ^  31. ny 4 18. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 16. ^+3*. ^" a. 9x + "a" 10. ' ^ . 29.*. 19. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.. LJZJ^JL. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. _ 3 7i rt< 26.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.' 32. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. nx 17.10 a + 3 2 14. . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 23. 11 ^ Mtr f .7 . . 5^10 y 30. """. . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. g J 21. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.
C. by the denominator of each fraction. 2> .~16 (a + 3) (x. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . + 3).by 3 ^ A 2 ' . M. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.r 2 2 .3) (!)' = . we may extend this method to integral expressions. and 135.M. Divide the L. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.C. and the terms of ***. 1).  of //* 2 . 1.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . =(z (x + 3)(z.96 134. ^ to their lowest com The L. Ex. Reduce ^. C.1^22 ' . multiplying the terms of 22 . mon T denominator. we have M^. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.M. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.D. TheL. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. C. take the L. .  by 4 6' .
137. . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.oj o* or / .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.. i. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). o o a. 22 a2 5a * . 7i 2 ab* ". 2.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74). If the given fractions have different denominators. a? 1 5 > ^* .^1. 2 ay IB. j y 3. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 5?.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 18..Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 3.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . JL. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . common denominator 6. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. . 2aj ~ . 8 i i.
cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . The L. T? Ex. L.ft)(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. D. (a ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .g. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 . 2 ^. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .2 ' 2 _. C.7 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft) Ca2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). D.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft). as 4 aft f. in the beginning.(a 2 6). the student should remember that parentheses are . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. 2. 4(2 a 3 ft).2 = a(a . e.. and adding. ft).3 ft 2).. ^ is 2^JT) .
j>0 i> 21.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 f q * 1 m m . + . 46 2a 4a 12. 6 c 3a 7. a+6 a 6 2 14. 15. 24. 20. A+2_3. 2L + 2a 1 17. 18 v 19. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 5a76 4a 106 9. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a 36 ++. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2.5 18 ^4f25. 1 1 f w 16. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.
1 34. 2 af1 32. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 4 31. 43. 41. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a ?^ 40.9. a. _ + a? ?/ + y.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ! n. a 30. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . af 1f /j. 42. 3a 9 +. ic 1 + 1.9 79 6 2 i. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.
1.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .FRACTIONS 139.  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. T. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 101 mixed expression.7 5a v Ex. .
!. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. or. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. Since  = a. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.) Ex.g. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. (In order to cancel common factors. 2 a Ex. fractions to integral numbers. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. integer. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.
5# 56 / c& 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. . 14.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. aj 5 1 a? 18.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. 2 f 5 a. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.6 12 d6 4.. 50 .
: a 41 ab * See page 272. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Divide Xn?/ . 1. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. . 144.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.
FRACTIONS 105 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. Ex. or both.10 ?/ _. l. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . a a2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .6 s + 064.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. are fractional._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . ga2 4 8 5 a .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.5 ??i 80 50 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.afr 4.
xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). & . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 10.a ^c c _^ a . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. Ex. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. JL. M. . 7i+~ 7. x* 4. . C. i. 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. the answer is directly obtained. 9. . a m "" . 6. Simplify x }. . c +6.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . n a 8. of their denominators.y 32 .
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. sy 18.~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15.) . m^n* n L a 17.
each member is reduced to 1.14 (a. these Ex. 148.1.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . M. of the denominator. If x 6. Uniting. a. 2. x = 6. 1. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 2x Transposing. Clearing of fractions. 2 3.28 a = 5 x2 . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . tions. Uniting. 9x x Check. 5(3 85 Check. 108 .28 x + 42 = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). . each member is reduced to Ex. Transposing.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 2z2a.f3# + C:E=6f7212. C.42 + 9. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . + 1) (a + 3) .8 x = . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. = 6. 4 4)  x.l)(z + 3) = . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. If = 64.9 x2 + 9. = 6.48. Bx 12 Qx.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.
a. +1 = 5. ^' 2.= 2. 1 *> = 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 15. 16. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9. +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . '  4 13. a/  5 a/ = 12. a: 7 a.1 _77 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 18. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10.
3x 35. 27 . 32 6 . .  38 = 40._ _ . J_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. ?_=_. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and" the remaining one a polynomial.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 33. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 31 31. 26 26. . 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. If two or more denominators are monomials. . 4a4l4* + l~. . y+3~2 29. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .11_4 x 149.
2 3 ~  == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.  5 = 20 x 45. 5x x : = 9. M.29 50712' 9 18 . Check. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . the 1 5 L. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 1. C. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 60. 24 a. each member is reduced to ^. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. a. Dividing. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting..2 42 9 43. . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5# 10.1. 26 a. Transposing and uniting.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . = 9. If a.
It frequently occurs that the x. Thus. ax f x f.2 ac + 3 aft . Dividing.be.2 62 2 ab. 5> a. Ex. Uniting.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. = l^ 9 b 4 . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. jr. 2. fr Reducing lowest terms. =a 2 151. Ex. a. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. = 2 f b 2 . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. find a in terms of b and c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .m bx 2 mn) x. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. y. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 4 ac 1. = = 6 6c 7 6c.& .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). they are united by factoring. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. = 6 a2 .3 6 2 = a' .1. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. If 3ac L= = a ? . . f ~ 5c. Uniting the Dividing.
co?.= c a Z> . + 3a. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).i l . r the number of $>. = vt. . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 4. The The i time. t. m a? x . IIL n b + &o. iw 21. solve for . rate. 10. If ^^ = a 1 32. 3. c 18. in terms of other quantities.= H. If s If 16. 12. f ^o. q solve for/. + xx = 1.= n. 11. 13.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 3 (6 a). If s (wi n) x =px + q. denoting the interest. 30. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 4. mx = n. = 8 4 #. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. . If * 33. = 5. 14. * Solve the same equation for^). p the principal. . 17. Ex. 5) is t =^. _ 2. = rt. ^ ax a^ 26. 31. 15. c. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 29. s = Vt solve for v. 1 f. 9. 3(* 8. . 6. 34. 2 solve for y a. a. f P =+!. solve for a. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?.a. and n the number of years.
. is 36. Ex. 2 3 . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 2. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.. and 12 = the number over. then = 2 TT#. x Or Uniting. Find R in terms of C and TT. = 16^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Multiplying by Dividing. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. A would do each day ^ and B j. 100 C. Ex. 12.180. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 1. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.20 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. .114 35..
" : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. 32 x = . The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80. 3. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 180 Transposing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. and the statement. Ex. Clearing." gives the equation /I). the rate of the express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. the required number of days. Solving. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x. = the x part of the work both do one day. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance .
by 3. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. is oO. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. a man had How much money had he at first? . its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. to his son. ex What 5. is equal 7. make 21. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. money and $10. 3.  Find their present ages. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. by 6. and J of the greater Find the numbers. and of the father's age. and 9 feet above water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. length in the ground. fifth Two numbers differ 2. of his present age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. which was $4000. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. to his daughand the remainder. Find A's 8. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. ceeds the smaller by 4.
^ at 5%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. 3. air. 1. and it B in 6 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. what is the rate of the express train? 152.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. How much money $500? 4%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. . If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and B in 4 days. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. Ex. investments. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.) 22. A has invested capital at more 4%. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 2. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.
The problem to be solved. they can both do in 2 days.414. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.009 918. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. . B in 12. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. if B in 3 days. n x Solving. Ex. A in 6. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.e. and n = 3. and apply the method of 170. B in 5.118 153. Then ft i. 3. we obtain the equation m m . m and n.g. A in 4. 26. B in 16. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.= . 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. 25. . Hence. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. therefore. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. e. 2. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. To and find the numerical answer. is 57. . is 42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. B in 30. A in 6.
If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. respectively. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 3J miles per hour. is (a) 51. the second at the apart. and the rate of the second are. 33.721. (b) 149. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 4J miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. is ?n . same hour from two towns.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. squares 29.000. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. respectively (a) 60 miles. 5 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. . (b) 35 miles. (d) 1. meet. The one: 31. if m and n are. 3 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 2 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. squares 30.001. : (c) 64 miles. (c) 16. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. Find the side of the square. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the rate of the first. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 34. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. and the second 5 miles per hour.
Simplify the ratio 21 3. b." we may write a : b = 6. the antecedent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Ex.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent. the second term the consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . etc.g. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. In the ratio a : ft. The first 156.5. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. the denominator The the 157. 6 12 = .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. antecedent. 1. 158. E. b is the consequent. b. : : 155. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. " a Thus. the symbol being a sign of division. a ratio is not changed etc. .
8^ hours. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : ay . 16. : 1. 159. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 16a2 :24a&. 3:4. 61 : ratios 72:18. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 6. J:l. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 12. equal 2. 5 f hours : 2. 10. two  ratios. 3 8. 7:4 T T 4 . 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b and c the means. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. Simplify the following ratios 7. and c. proportional between a and c. and c is the third proportional to a and . 1. 17. 11. terms. The last first three. 4:5f : 5. 3. 9. b. 18. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 62:16. a and d are the extremes. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 7f:6J. extremes. 4. 3:1}. b is the mean b. $24: $8. Transform the following unity 15. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 27 06: 18 a6.RATIO Ex.
In any proportion product of the extremes. : c. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Clearing of fractions. 3 4. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 2 165. ad = be. : : directly proportional may say. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of a proportion.e. and the time necessary to do it. are : : : inversely proportional. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. and the other pair the extremes. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 6 ccm. briefly. The mean proportional of their product. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.) b = Vac. of iron weigh 45 grams. If (Converse of nq. Hence the number of men required to do some work. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. " we " NOTE.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. !. = 30 grams 45 grams.122 162. 164.) mn = pq. i. 163. of iron weigh .30 grams. 163. pro portional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.__(163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ccm. then G ccm. q~~ n .
(163. (Composition. bd bd. 1. 166. . Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. a III. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. is Ex. I.) II. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. 12x Hence a? = 42. I. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) = f f = 3 J. a:c=b:d. (Division.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. 2. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. d d. = 35 . ad ( 163.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Frequently called Inversion. + b:b = c + d:d.PATIO Ex. hence the proportion true. Or IV. ad = be. if 6 : 7.) (Called Alternation. V. is 4$ = 35.) d 167. then =d c.
120:42 2 2 7. 10. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. . 5 5. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 2:x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 12 5ft. E.e. i. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 2:3. 6 =4 : x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Simplify the following proportions. 5. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 180:125. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. : 3 = 5 f x : x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 3. the consequents by 7. = 20:7. IV. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 2. 8. = 7:2f 3J. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.g. 9.!=!*. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.124 IT. x = 2. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 4. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. Apply composition. . V. mx tin Apply composition and division. : x. Or III.
j>. to : 9 and 12. 25. = 15o. 18. ratio of y. if : 40. and 2/. 5. ra. ra 2 . f. 39. 03:a?=135:20. 6 x = y. to: = 35:*. a 2 and ab. 14 and 21. = l^:18. = 2 + x: x. 14. 26. 28.x: 6:5 a : x. 16. terra 2:3 = 4. 2 3 = y #. 1 and a. Find the third proportional 24. + fyx = cy. 9 x = 2 y. 22. 6x = 7y. a. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. Find the 37. 47. 41. 3. a?:15 15. 2. 52. 31. : . 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 33. 7iy = 2:x. : a2 . 4 and 16. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 17. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3t. 35. = 3 43 + x. 4. 34. x:5 = y:2. 2. w. 20. 112:42 = 10:a. b. (a : : 45.:ff. 2= 5 x x. 46. rag. 21. 43. 2 a and 18 a.  32. to : a and 1. 13. 51. Find the mean proportional 30. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. : 53. 42.. rap. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 44. 5= 18 a? : a?. 6. 38. mx = ny. = 5 x 12.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 50.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.8:1. 27. 1. . 29. 12. x m = y n. 23. 16 and 28. ra + landra 1. 3.
The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the : total cost. 57.126 54. the area of the larger? the same. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the time necessary for it. A line 7^. and the area of the rectangle. what 58.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 56. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the speed of the train. and the time. the squares of their radii (e) 55.
AB = 2 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 inches long. is A line AB. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. : Ex. .RATIO AND PROPORTION 69.000 168. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 11 x x 7 Ex. x = 6. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 2 x Or = 4. x=2. as 11 Let then : 1. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 2. 18 x = 108. = the second number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). so that Find^K7and BO. Let A B AC=1x. produced to a point C. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC.
and c inches. 6. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 7. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 3. : 197. How many 7. What are the parts ? 5. and 15 inches. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. How many gen. 9.000. 2. How The long are the parts ? 15. 14.000 square miles. 12. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : 4. 12. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.) . what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 13. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 11. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Gunmetal tin.
there is only one solution.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. Hence. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. a? (1) then I. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. values of x and y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. The root of (4) if K 129 .L x If If = 0. such as + = 10.. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6.e. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1. if . y = 1. etc. is x = 7. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. However. 2 y = .y=. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. =. expressing a y.
Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . same relation. y = 2. y I 171. By By Addition or Subtraction. and 3 x + 3 y =. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.24. for they express the x f y 10. of elimination most frequently used II. 3.3 y = 80. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Therefore. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. ~ 50. E. 4y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.26. The first set of equations is also called consistent. = . cannot be reduced to the same form. 6x . the last set inconsistent. 174. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170. viz. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.X. Substitution. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. to The two methods I. 21 y . are simultaneous equations. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 172. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. unknown quantity. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 26 y = 60. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.
3 y = 47. + 2.14 =8. 37. subtract the equations.3 1 = 47. 3. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). are like. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 64 x = 040. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 406. Therefore Check. 60 . 10 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 5 13 . Transposing. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 25 x . = 235. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. whose coefficients In general. 3. 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. y = 2. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 8 2. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . add the equations. Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.2 = 6.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. y = 1.
f 3# ?/ = 0.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. * + 3 y = 50. f 3X 7x 14. x 11.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I oj 5y = 17. i 3.4. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 41. I . ' 12. 19< I a. . v ^ = ll. I ~ y~~> 22. _. I i 3 a. J I y = 1U.5 y = 2. ] ^ . 7 ' 1fi fl . + 2/ 17. 13. = 24. 9 1 r 20.9 *. [2o. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3.3.v 23. = 6. 13 61 l7a. O t K 8.f2/ ' = 50.
EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2. 3. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 4#8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. . I3ar + 2y and dividing by . tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 13. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 60. 8.
7x_2y=3. x = l.6)7(y7)==18. 3. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. simplified before elimination is possible. 4* + 3y = 19.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. + 212y4 = 14. (4). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 29 x = 29. . 3 (1) Ex. 21z6y=9. the equation must be cleared of fractions and .3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Substituting in (6) . however. \ \6(a. (7) (7) (8) . 2 y = . From 9 = 36. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7 y = 6.
yM a. = 3. . 12. J 9. a. 4 11. .1) = 121. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. +y 2 . 10 2a?5 17. 16. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . 10. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.f2 2.1) + 5(6 y . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.
e. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. but some expressions involving x. f y . ?~y .and x y .#. {. <X + 20. 180. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. * ((* (( . 3x\" 1 23 24. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. . and y.Q ^ 4 21.
x 2x(2). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . .3 xy.4 x = 4 xy. 1. Clearing of fractions. however. 2* * x 2. Therefore y=4. 15 y + 8 x . x 3. y. (2) (3) a. 33 = 11 x. (4) + (G). can also be solved Examples method. Substituting x = 3 in (1). Dividing by 11 3 = #.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. etc. of this type. 137 Solve y y (1) . y 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y 4.
y MOi y a. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.= 5. = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 21 9 .= o 6. 6. x 8. 4 13.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x y 331 9. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. Ex. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. . 1. x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. n.
Dividing. ax + by = 2 a&.y = = 9a + 46. a Find a and terms of n. 6. . . w. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. d. f 5. d.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x a. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. fax f = l. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x f my = 1. W . . and I if 13. apan cm. Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I.W. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. bmy bm}y ap cm. s in 11. x 12. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.
8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. y =* 2. 1. .16.15z=12 Adding.lf> z .3=4.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 20. 4. 3y = Hence Check. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.12 y + 6 z = . etc. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3 = 8.25. 182.2 + 4. 1. Ex. 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. by 3. (4) (5). l.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). x + 12 y . To solve equations containing By tions. ties are Similarly. f 3y 12 =s 8. = 30. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).2 + 3. 6. 3.1+4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. (8) 2. = 3.13. 4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.by 2.8 = 1. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 8 x .
k 2/ f 2 x a. a? + 709 = 26. 10. 2 4. == 6. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 12. ~6?/ 5. x 13. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 7. 14. 49. a? 11. 2z = 40. + y f z = 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2 . 15 2 = 45. 4 = 42. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 8.
. 27. 32. 60. = 5. . ? = llz.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.42 = 2. 84 21. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. (3 _.3 y + . 16. 19.. =s 20. ?/ 3x = 0. 22. 4. ^ = 2. . = 8*.6 2. 23.2 a. 1510 4 17.
2 = 1(1+6). = 2 m. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. ( 99. either directly or implied. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. x : z =1 : 2. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Find the number. M=i. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. +2+ 6 = 8. symbols: x + y +z 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. + z = 2p. however. . Check. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . = l. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. and to express In complex examples. + 396 = 521. z + x = 2 n. Ex. y 31.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. Obviously of the other . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. the number. and if 396 be added to the number. 1 = 2. 1. 1 digit in the tens place. # 4. 2 = 6. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. y * z 30.
3+1 5+1 4_2. 5_ _4_ A. = Hence the fraction is f. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. By expressing the two statements in symbols. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. . C. 3. (1) (2) 12. 6 x 4 = 24. y = 3. x y = the = the x denominator . the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Ex. B. direction. x 3x4y = 12. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. xy a: 2y 4y 2. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x 3 = 24. = the fraction. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 2. increased by one. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.144 Ex. 4 x = 24. = 8. Since the three men traveled the same distance. we obtain. Or (4)2x(3).
Find the number. 183. Find the numbers. 1. 2. part of their difference equals 4. 6. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. and the fourth 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 7. . tion ? 8. 5. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the number. If the denominator be doubled. added to the numerator of a fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the Find the fraction. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. A fraction is reduced to J. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the fraction. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and its denomi nator diminished by one. it is reduced to J. fraction is reduced to \. the number (See Ex.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the digits will be interchanged.}. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction equals . Find the numbers. If 27 is 10. number by the first 3. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. its value added to the denominator. the value of the fraction is fa. the fraction is reduced fraction. ? What 9. both terms. and the numerator increased by 4. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.
and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. respectively ? 16. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. A man invested $750. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. in 8 years to $8500. 19. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and in 5 years to $1125. Find the rates of interest. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 13. How 6 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. . Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 5 %. partly at 5 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and 4 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11.000 is partly invested at 6%. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Find their present ages. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.grams. 14. and money and 17. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. the rate of interest? 18. A sum of $10. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and partly at 4 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. now. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. 12.
BE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. are taken so ABC.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 1 NOTE. E. and $15 for each sheep. then AD = AF. . How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. for $ 740. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. three AD = AF. BD = HE. $ 50 for each cow. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. A farmer sold a number of horses. respectively. and F. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. angle c = angle d. 25. Find their rates of walking. the three sides of a triangle E. triangle Tf AD. and CE If AB = G inches. and F '(see diagram). and sheep. BC = 7 inches. and their difference by GO . points. but if A would double his pace. and angle e angle/. On /). B find angles a. and F. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and e. receiving $ 100 for each horse. . An C touch ing the sides in D. and GE = CF. and AC = 5 inches. and angle BCA = 70. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. cows. c. 24. 23. andCL4 = 8. ED = BE. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC=7. the length of NOTE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. is the center of the circum scribed circle. what is that = OF.
The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. It' Location of a point. (2. and r or its equal OA is . and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive .. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (3. ?/. 186. PN are given. and PN _L YY'. B. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). The of Coordinates. is The point whose abscissa is a. and point the origin. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate by ?/. is the abscissa. (2. . PM.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and PJ/_L XX'. the ordinate of point P. 3). (7. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. Thus the points A. first 3). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. jr. or its equal OM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. YY' theyaxis. 2). PN.
3). Plot the points : (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. !). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 3).e. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 2. and measure their distance. 4) from the origin ? 7. 0). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. 6. 3. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.3).4). Graphs. (4. 2J). (4. 4. Plot the points (6. 4). 1). (4. i.(!. 4).1).) EXERCISE 1. 4) and (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (2. whose coordinates are given NOTE. which of its coordinates known ? 13. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3). . (1.and(l. (0. (See diagram on page 151. (4. 2). 8. (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. (5. What is the locus of (a?. 11.2). 0). (3. 6. 12. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. . Plot the points: (4. 2). 0). 1). (4. 71 2). 0).
we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. however. Thus the first table produces 12 points. D. A. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 15. or the curved line the temperature. 188. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. By representing of points. ure the ordinate of F. may be found on Jan.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . we meas1 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. C. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. from January 1 to December 1. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. . B. 10 ..
etc. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. The engineer. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (b) July 15. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the rise and fall of wages. (d) November 20. uses them. Whenever a clear. the graph is applied.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . the matics. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.
1? 11 0. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (d) 9 0. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. is 10. (freezing point) ? 7. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.. (1) 10 C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ?  3. on 1 to the average. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what months above 18 C. How much. ? 9. 15. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.152 2. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1 to Oct.? is is the average temperature of New York 6..
Draw . One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Hour Temperature . transformation of meters into yards. a temperature chart of a patient. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 20. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. NOTE.
190.154 24.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. A 10 wheels a day.50. 2 . x 7 to 9.. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 3. 29.. if he sells 0. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.inch. etc. binding.. to 27. 4. x* x 19. gas. amount to $8. etc. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. .5 grams. 26.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. e. 28. 1 to 1200 copies. then C irJl. function If the value of a quantity changes. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if each copy sells for $1. books from for printing. x increases will change gradually from 13. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2.50. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 9. 3. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. the value of a of this quantity will change. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.) T circumferences of 25. and $. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.
155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. (2. may. and join the points in order. 9). plot points which lie between those constructed above. If a more exact diagram is required. The values of func192. as 1. 3 50. (1^. 4). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2.g.1). 1 the points (3. a*. 3 (0.1). Ex. and (3. is supposed to change. ( 2. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. construct '. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. E.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Graph of a function.e. . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 9). however. Draw the graph of x2 f. 2). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . etc. while 7 is a constant. 2 (1. x a variable. J). Q. may .0).2 x may 4 from x = 4. (1. for x=l. 4). to x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. be also represented by a graph.
as y. Ex. = 0. 4).2 x . straight line produces the required graph. 2 4 and if y = x f.. etc. 5).) For brevity. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.. (4. Thus in the above example.. j/=3.20). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 194.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. 4J. 2. and join(0. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. y = 6. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 1). or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.4). = 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. rf 71 . and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. r */ +* 01 . . (2. Thus 4x + 7. (3. 7 .
a. 22.5)2. 9. 2 a. = The values of a*. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. Jar . = 4. 6. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. from x VlO'S". 4a? I. 6 fa.5)2. i. 2 or 2 20. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. a? 2 4. 4 a. if y = 2. 1 8 10. 1J. 2x + 3x a?. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 8. 7. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 14. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. if"a. 11. x+1.8)'. 15. xz + x. l. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2J. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1J. 2 2. 3. The values of a?. a? 1. 12. y = 2x = 4. 2 2 a. 2. (ft) (_ 1. (If) Va25. 2. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. The values of a*. the function. J. ?/ a. a* 13. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.or. 2 a. 3 a 8. (C ) (2. xl. a?. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 5. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.e. 18. 1. 23x. 2J. The smallest value of the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. if the function equals zero. fa 17. (7i) (c) 23. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. . 19. if a. . a ar. + 4. 1J. 21. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 16.
14 F. 1 C.where x c is a constant.. Represent 26. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27... if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.e. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.24. 25.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. . then cXj where c is a constant..24 or x = P and Q. 9 F. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.158 24. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i. that graph with the o>axis. 32 F. C. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. Therefore x = 1. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. y= formula graphically. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). then y = .. the abscissas of 3. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. Show any convenient number).
2 and 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 4. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 197. viz. (0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (a) x2 = 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities.7 2 a 5 = 0. . 7. 3. + + = where a. 0. crosssection paper is used. 6. = 0. 6. 14. a2 2a. 8.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 10. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. or 5 2. 13. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 12.f 9 = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. (a) (6) 9. is called a quadratic equation. Such equations in general have two roots. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 11.
locate points (0. Hence if if x x  2. and join the required graph. Hence. NOTE. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. (f . . and joining by a straight line. ?/. fc = 3. 0). X'2 Locating the points (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . If x = 0. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Ex.2 y ~ 2. == 2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y = l. unknown quantities. 199. solve for ?/. = 0.2. 4) and (2.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence we may join (0. Ex. because their graphs are straight lines. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. T .1. 3x _ 4 . ?/ =4 AB. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). if y = is 0. first degree. y= A and construct x (  graphically. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically.e. y y 2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 1) and 0). 2). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. produces the 7* required locus. i.
we obtain the roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. P. and CD. parallel have only one point of intersection. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Graphical solution of a linear system. viz. equation x= By measuring 3. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.1=0. linear equations have only one pair of roots. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).57. 203. 202. AB y = . 201. (2) . 3.15. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. To find the roots of the system.
0. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3). 0) and (0. 4. 3. (4.g. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. AB the locus of (1). 4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (2. we of the + y* = 25. intersection.e. 3. 4. V25 5. (4. e.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. 0. 2. i. 4. Locating the points (5. etc. = 0. P graphs meet in two and $.0). y equals 3. 1. 2. Since the two  we obtain DE. 3x 2 y = 6. 3. and joining by a straight line. the graph of points roots.9. 5. Measuring the coordinates of P. (1) (2) C. and . x2 . There can be no point of and hence no roots.5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.0.y~ Therefore. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. and + 3). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). . Solving (1) for y. Locating two points of equation (2). obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. the point we obtain Ex. 5. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.  4. In general. if x equals respectively 0. Using the method of the preceding para. Inconsistent equations. 4.5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. they are inconsistent. 2 equation x 3). 4. 1.. 4.
8. 16 23. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y 2 4. 4. if possible. a. and. 20. y= a2 2x y6. \ 2x + 3^ . 2. 6. y = 4. . 10. 16 22.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 19. Draw system. a+r/=6. 7. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. '163 Dependent equations. 17. 2x 3?/=6. y=x + 5. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. the graphs of the following systems. vice versa. and solve each If there are no solutions. 9. 3.. 5. x~y=0. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. state reasons.
Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. TABLE OF SQUARES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .14 y = . CUBES. 29 . 4 a = 3(6 . 25.164 24. 30. 28.8. 3 31. 26.y).
is may be by 207. involution repeated multiplication. 8. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. a = a3 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 52. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ^4/? it According to 50. follows that 3. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. etc. fa. Law of Signs. According to 1.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 3 f a = f a = +. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.faa a a a Obviously 1. on to in factors 4. 2. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . powers of a positive quantity are positive.a2 . a special kind of product. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.
(277171 )*. 3 2 2 8 . 15. V V/ 13. .166 To find To To power.6 (a 8 8 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 4. 4 /2mV. raise a fraction to a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (a ) 2 4  3. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 2 11 (afc ) . 16. (2ar).6) = a . a product to a given power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 76 : (>y. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 6. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 210. (^^) 2 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 5. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. amVy) 3 . 2. 24. the required power. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (a ) 2 5 .
1 f 3 2 3 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. The higher powers of binomials. 18. (3 (l I) 2 8 . An 1. 21.y . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.INVOLUTION Ex. 211. 2 . . . + a 2 a. (5 (1 a) 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 8 (a??/) 3 .) 14. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1. = s= (2s) 8 a. (3af26) 8 . 23. 3. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (aj7) . a. etc. 3 8 . frequently called ex. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 2. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 7. or*  Find the cube root of 19. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .y) = (3 y?y . pansions. : a 20. 15. 12. (afl) . 16. +5a) 22.3 y. (3 x . + 4aj) 3 . nent of the binomial.6 2 8 ft) . 13. 3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 6. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 4. Ex.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2. are obtained by multiplication. 5. 8. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 9. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (a + &)8 .
(?>i?i f c)*. 24. 17. 4. 25. 1. ( &) 5 . 23. 18. 78 s . (mnp 5 I) 5 . . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. and the powers negative. Ex. (tff1) (cfd) . The minus. 14. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (m 2 + n) 8 . (1 + 4 ?/) . . . (?/i~w) : 16. 21. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. (m 5 I) 2 22. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 5. (m fl) 2 20.168 3. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 2. Ex. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (w 4 ?i) 4 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 6. . 3. (l 8 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 10.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 4 (1for) 5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (2 4. . 9.a) 3 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. is the coefficient of the next term. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (a~^) 5 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6.2. (la&) 4 12. 5. . (3a f5) 5) 4. Ex. (af 5) . 4 .216 a^ 4. 8. 15. (mJ) 4 11. 13. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 3. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . . (2 a 4 . mn 5 2 5 ) .
V9 = + 3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 215. 27 =y means r' = 27. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or y ~ 3. tity . = x means = 6. V \/P 214. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. called real numbers. or x &4 . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 4 4 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for distinction. Since even powers can never be negative. 1. and all other numbers are. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and ( v/o* = a. (_3) = 27. a) 4 = a4 . \/"^27=3. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or 3 for (usually written 3) . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 109 . etc. numbers. which can be simplified no further. 2.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213.
for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 7. = V26TIT81 = 53. 4 v. To extract the root of a power. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. 7 . 9. 2 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. v/2^. Ex. 3. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 2.(. 9. v/^i2 = a*. Ex 5 a" . extract the and denominator. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. 5. 8. for (a")" a = a mn 3. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex.  100 a 2 . Ex. 82 .200 . V5 v/2 7 2. 10. 62 = V2* . index. roots of the numerator \/18 . . = 19472. .125. EXERCISE 1. = 199 + (_ 198) .lL. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.1. 7.64 5 4 . To extract a root of a fraction. V?. 6. 6 7 = 030.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 6. 3 33 53 . V25 9 16. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 8. .201) = 2. 7 . 3i . fy 5 3 .4. V36 9 4. 79 2 v/2 5 .9 = 136. 2. Ex. 3/0** = am . \/2 4 9 .
116.3 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 30. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . ^40^4. 2 . 6.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 34. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.3 y2) ( vV . 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 33. Find the square root of a2 .) by inspection. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35./). 32. 31. 1. 3. 5. a f2 l 2 + l. 45 V5184. a* 4 8 2 . V8.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 29. V20 .3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. Ex.75. V9216.4/.98. 2 f ( V240) 3 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.EVOLUTION 171 28. . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.
e. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 10. and b (2 a f b). 14. The term a' first 2 . 8 . 15. and b.172 7. 2 2 218. let us consider the relation of a f. i. 2ab .72 aW + 81 & 4 . mV14m??2)f 49.2 ac . 2 .2 ab + b . a\b is the root if In most cases. #2 a2  16. 11. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . the given expression is a perfect square. + 6 + 4a&. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .2 &c. a f.b 2 2 to its square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. however.> 13. . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 12.
Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. First trial divisor. The square . 8 a 2 2. . 1. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. and so forth.24 afy* f 9 tf. Explanation. 219. 6 a. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. .EVOLUTION Ex.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. by division we term of the root. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . and consider Hence the their sum one term. is As there is no remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 /. . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 8 a 2 . As there is no remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . the first term of the answer. Ex. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. of x. First complete divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Second trial divisor. 1. */'' . 10 a 4 8 a.
6.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. l 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .162 a2 60 a10 4.6 .40 a 22 .12 m 4.16. 1 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .V430^425^ 4m 4. 17.12m 5 4. 3.73a4 440^436^460^.25. 36it.10 x2 4. 13#4 413ar 44a.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 10. 5 4 16 4 iK . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. x 6 4 4 0^4. 15. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. . 729 4. 2 x2 3 2x.20 J or 2 16 x 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 2 4. 16x6 4.42 a*& 4.20 o 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 6 11.24 or . 20.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.25 x 4 4.9. a? 2 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 19. 8.37 a ^ . 24.73 a8 . > 7. 4 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 436^?/469a. 16. 9.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 14.4 x 4. 12. 5. 18.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.
which may contain one or two)..1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.EVOLUTION 220. of 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. Find the square root of 7744.000 is 100. As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc. Find the square root of 524. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Ex. Therefore 6 = 8. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.000 is 1000. the square root of 7744 equals 88. = 80. the first of which is 4. and the complete divisor 168. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. first . Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. two figures. Ex. 1. The is trial divisor = 160. 2.176. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. a 2 = 6400. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000. of a number between 100 and 10. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. etc. the first of which is 8. of 10. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the first remainder is. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.
EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12.7 to three decimal places.10. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3.70 6.GO'61. Find the square root of 6/. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in . Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.0961 are '. places. The groups of 16724.1T6 221.
Find the mean proportional between 2 and .1410. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 5. 33. T\.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. JT .53. 36.58 square 38. . feet. 13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 37. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 34. whose area equals 48.) 40. 39.22. = 3. 1. J. 31.01. feet.4 square when R = radius and 11. 35. 30. 32.
is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 2.g. but no higher power e. Dividing. is 12. Ex. The 7 equation. 6 y2 = 17. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x = + 2 or x =2. 178 . absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or affected. = 7^ + 5. x 2 7. 225. 224. 2)* + 5 = 33. complete. or incomplete. . ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. = 4. 6#2 = x* 24. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. This answer Check.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. A pure. Extracting the square root of each member. 1. Transposing. is A quadratic equation.. 226. 2 ic = a. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227.
0^ + 1 = 1. . 2 4fc 5' 18. 7. (a? 9. : 83 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 6(2)=10(ajl). Solve 179 . 3. 8. ' =: y? b* b . o.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 7 = 162.25. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 16^393 = 7. 10. 4. 2. or Therefore. ax Transposing and combining. 5. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 15^5 = 6. 19 + 9 = 5500. 4 ax. 2 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.2.
. 2 : 3.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2 . Find is the number. solve for v. A right triangle is a triangle. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length.b 2 If s If =c . then Since such a triangle tangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 29. 26. 28. Find the side of each field. 25. Find the side of each field. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. : 6. 27. 22 a. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2. is 5(5. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 3. solve for r. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 108. find a in terms of 6 . EXERCISE 1. and they con tain together 30G square feet. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and their product : 150. 2a f 1 23. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 24. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for d. 228. If a 2 4. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144).) of their squares 5. Find the numbers. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If 22 = ~^. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. ' 4. 2 . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 4. . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . r. If G=m m g . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units.
Find the radii. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 24. x* 7 x= 10. sides. and the third side is 15 inches. and the other two sides are as 3 4.7 x f 10 = 0.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Method of completing the square. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. 4. . Find the sides. Find the unknown sides and the area. is and the other two sides are equal.2 7 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. of a right triangle Find these sides. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 8.) 13. Find these 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. add () Hence 2 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. . and the two smaller 11. Solve Transposing. we have of or m = . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. To find this term. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 2m. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. J = 12. (b) 44 square feet. radii are as 3 14. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 9. (b) 100 feet? = . .
Simplifying. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 2  .  \. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Therefore. 230.1. or x = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.x(l = . = . = x\ = 2. a Clearing of fractions. . Transposing..2 a2 . (*~8) a = at . = \ # = ff. 62 x 5 = f. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.e. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.2. Ex. adding member). Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Hence Therefore Check. J. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Transposing. = 6. 2 a* a. Extracting square roots. Uniting. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. or J.a. Ex. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.
Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .c = 0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. ao. Solution by formula. 2x 3 4. . and c in the general answer. = 12. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. x la 48. =8 r/io?. =0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 231.
2or } 5o. 12. ?i 2 . 13. 20.4 4 5 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 18. V^tT)* . = 64120?.  . c p. 26. 7^ + 9 x 90. 7. 19. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6^+5^ 56. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 9. 4. 1. 2 . 3. Reducing to general form. : 86 + 2 = 0. = 12 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2. 2 a? = 44 x . a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6 . 21. 2 a. TIO. b =  + 20 == = 0. 17..15 x9 25x* = 21 . 11. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 14. 15.25 x. 16.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. c = 5. 2 o. 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6. 6 Ex. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 8. 6. 2. 5 x2 Transposing.
26. x(x <2 . Bx 1 1. 27 x== 42a. 5 = 0. 24.4) = . = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 2S3x 1 2 . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. factors Now. orz roots. Transposing. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. . Clearing for fractions.x. 5) = 0. }. or # 5 is zero.5) =0. and 6. 25.5 Solving (1) and (2). transposing terms to one member.2. 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. if either of the uct is zero. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 23. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. (5 a? !)(. member can be Ex. 3x?+x = 7. x2 = 1 . = 14. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Solution by factoring. a=:i^^. = 0. 233. Eesolving into factors. any degree. all or. = 0. 1. Factoring. ar>8o. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* .
for a: . 4. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3^ = 0(1106). 0^ ar> 11. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 6)=0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 2o3 f9a. : 87 = 0. + 100. 9.= 24. a?. Or Hence the 234. + 9 f 20 x = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 7. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. a?10a=:24. 5. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3 or 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 12. } 2 2 (5 . 2. The equation I.24 = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. + 8=s: 7. x2 f 2 x .g. (aj4)(a.6)) = 0. 5 = 0. 13. O roots are 2. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 8.e.:=0. 3# y 5 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. 16. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3. 3) = 0. E. aj( 15. 14. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. Ex. and the equation thus formed be solved. + 10 a = 24. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.(. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3. 2. 4)(z3) = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 6. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.3)(x + 3 3. 3) Factoring. is 5) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. a* 10a=24. 0(02) = 7(02).
'3a!J  . 20. 27. uz + u 21. 50. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 a). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 19. 2.188 17. (a + 1) (a. 18. 23. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. ara + ft + c*. 25.
2. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 6. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 58. 5. Find the sides. and the difference Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1.1.0. feet.0. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the numbers. 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 3. The difference of . Find two numbers whose difference is 40.3. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 5. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 8. two numbers is 4. of their reciprocals is 4. 4. . 2. 7. 56. is Find two numbers whose product 288. and consequently many prob 235. G. 1. and equals 190 square inches. The 11. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. 1.3. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 55. 57. 52. 54. 0. and whose product 9.3.2. Find the number. number by 10. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.9. and whose sum is is 36. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 3. : 3. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.
At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18.10. 19. other. Find the rate of the train. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. watch for $ 24. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. What did he pay for 21. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 14. 13. dollars. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. If he each horse ? . What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. as the 16. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. . 17. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. sold a horse for $144. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster.190 12. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two vessels. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. ABCD. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 15. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and Find the sides of the rectangle.
237. 24. (tf. a point taken. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. By formula. contains B 78 square inches. or x = \/l = 1. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. how wide is the walk ? 23. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 23 inches long. Find and CB. Find TT r (Area of a circle . of the area of the basin. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.) 25. 1. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. . constructed with and CB as sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. as 0. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. ^3^ = 7. Ex. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is On the prolongation of a line AC. the two men can do it in 3 days. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. and working together. so that the rectangle. 27.
4. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. = 13. 16. 2. T 17. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 6. 9. 7. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a.T 2 2 . 3 a4 44s + 121=0. or y = 8. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 12. y8)=0. = 1.2 =4. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 19. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 a. 4 6. 8. Ex. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a4 5o.192 238. Solving. >. a? 15 1=2*. 18. a 21or=100. 4 : 89 10a. 2 h9:=0. 436 3.)+72=0. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. a. 10. Hence Le.
The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . and unequal. negative.5) = 04. 1. rational. 2. and equal.2) 2 4 3 (. a perfect square. the roots are unequal.bx 4. . b 4. is 4ac not zero. c the roots are real. Ex.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.12 x + 9 = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are rational. the roots are equal. ( 2a Hence 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Ex.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Relations between roots and coefficients. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.2 z . 240. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. rational. Hence the roots are real. the roots are irrational. The discriminant =(. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.f> = 0. 3. the roots are imaginary. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 241.
10 x = 25 x + 1. 21. o. 9a3 = 0. ^12. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. = 0. + 18 2 8. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 2a. 2.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 24. 17. f 2 E. 2a 4z5 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2 a. 6. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 22. their product isf. tfmx+p^Q.g. 18. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. = Q. 12. x2 7 10.19 # 20. = 5x. 23. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 60 2 = 0. 3a. + 2a15 = 0. 15. 2 : 3. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 12 2  . 5oj aj + l = 0. lla. 12~x = x 2 . n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 2 7. 5aj 9. : a 2 . = 0. = 0.. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 4. 14.
such as 2*. ~ a m f. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . = a"" < .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. provided w > n. a m a" = a m+t1 . We assume. > m therefore. hence. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. It is. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. however. for all values 1 of m and n. must be *The symbol smaller than. (ab) . II. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. and . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. m IV.* III. no Fractional and negative exponents. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. Then the law of involution. while the second of the first. (a m ) w . that a an = a m+n .a" = a m n mn . The first of these laws is nition of power. 244. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.
29. etc. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 4~ . laws. fractional. n 2 a.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. e. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. . 28. at. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 25. = a. '&M A 27. disappear. 0?=^. m$. 24. a?*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 245.g. ml. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 23. a*. as. Assuming these two 8*. (bed)*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 3*. 30. 31. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. a . or zero exponent equal x. a\ 26. (xy$.
49. 42. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 7z* Find the values of 47. Vo5 . a* * = 3. however. equal to unity. the base is zero. 27* = 3. a. = 49. 246. 38. = 2. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. hence is . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. = 2. \/xy \/m. v/o&cT 34. 40. e. To find the meaning of zero exponent. v'mT 36.g. 43.\/n.g. Let a = a. 44. 50. If. ty?. Solve the following equations 39. 5 a* = 10.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. : 197 33. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 35. : 2' 4* = 4. 3* = 27. 45. 46. 41. \fi?. 48. a . 37. a * a2 Or a=l. e.
a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Multiplying both members by a". by changing the sign of NOTE. consider the following equations.198 247. vice versa. Or a"# = l. etc. e. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Let x= or". cr n. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. an x = a.g. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. 248. . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. or the exponent.2 = a2 .
2m~i 43. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. f (2w)~i 1 . c 32. 3 a? * 42. rfS. a^ 41. 22. . a. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 25.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 39. 3 a. 2 . * 24. 27. . : mi m~^. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. ^?2 y' 34. 7~ l a 2b 2 . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. m . 2 . 40. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 37. : or 5 . 44. 66 45. 36."* 38. ^L.
5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.26)* 1 (I) 2 . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . . 61. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 58.008)* + A.001.81 f (a . + A_. + 1~* f 21 . 49.(. Ex. 1. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. (. = 5. of: 3ll4~* 60. = . ar = i. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. z* = 1.343)* + (. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.6).9*. = ^. = l.1. 53. 10* 5* = . 52. 57. 48. 47. 59. 250. 17' 2 51. z 5or*=10.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 10* Find the values 56. 55. 54.
' 11. Remove the negative exponents. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7*.^/5^5. 14.5a. 4 5.4 . 13. 8 ' 9. 27  28. 72 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.7W.5. 17. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.$". Perform the operation indicated. 6a. 7.7i. V5. OA 20. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . / 7fv 7. 3 a. 3. remove the fractional exponents. 6.6 *' 6 *25. 79 . 23. NOTE.3 aj" a.&. 16. .7*. . 3sVS. are performed. 26.$*. (d) If required. 6 *. 16. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. &. 12.&. S'sS8. etc. 4 x^. 18. 7~ 5 27  .4 a8 . 7~ 6 .. . a. 10. #* a. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 95 ^9i 5**.
202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 40. If powers of a?. powers of x arranged are : Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 34. 1. The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.2 d . Arrange in descending powers of Check. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 2.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex.3\ . 37. ^6. 40. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 4^/4. 38. ^7. 36. A/2. A/3. 26. Arrange 35. </3. V3.e. subtract surds. (i. 5V2.10 V2 =  V2. ^2. ^4. if dissimilar. 31. </20. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Simplify V~ . V2. V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 27. \/5.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^30. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. ^2. signs. 32. 33. + . ^5. ^/IT. s!/3. 39. v/3.2. ^3. V5. </2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. VS. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. v/4. 28. I VJ + 3VT8 . 30. V2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. v/3. v^S. 29. V3. To add or form. 2\ 3*. connect them by proper 1. ^126. 3. Ex. \/7. 34. Ex. ^4.2 V50.
8VT8J2V32 7. 13.3V20 + 6V5. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. . VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . V18+V32VT28+V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 12. 11. 14. + 3V835V2. 3. 6.J a6 V4 aft. 10. 8. 6. 4. V175V28+V634V7. 9. 4V805V45.
Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Ex. 6*. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 26^ . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.6V35 106 460V35100 . . .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . y* = Ex. 1. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 2. 3. and then multiplied. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 23.2v/6 + IPV6 105.
\/3 \^). (2V3) 8 . (V6 + 1) 1 . 3. 2. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 15. 38. V2aV8^. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. 4. 9. (3 20. v/4. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2).RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 8. Vll. 12. 41.^/2. 40. V3 Vl2. 19. a?. . 25. fWa 17. 27. v/18 v"3. V2 V50. 2 . VlO V15. (6V23V3)(6V23V3).VSS. 6. + VB)(2V5). 6. 39. aVa. V3 V6. 40 10 30. VTO. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V20 V30. 14. V42. 213 98 11. 13. 37. 18. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 7. 10. (Va Va 36. 34. 6 V4 5. 21. 28 .
60. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. is 1 2. V3 .y. (2 45. 48. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). the quotient of the surds is If. 44. 52.214 42. a fraction. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 49. . Ex. 43. 53. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). all monomial surds may be divided by method. 46. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (5V2+V10)(2V51).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 268. E. Va v/a. 51. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. Ex.
g.73205. Evidently. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 3. The 2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. we have V3 But if 1. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . however. . Divide VII by v7. /~ } Ex. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.57735.RADICALS This method. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. . arithTo find. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. e.by the usual arithmetical method. .. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 1. is illustrated by Ex. by V7.
Vll 212*. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate.7320. i. 14. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.2361. V8 JL. V5 = 2.4142. V2 22 . 7. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V5 270. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8 12.. VffV?. V48 25. A. 23 . 21. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V3 = 1. A. and Given V2 = 1. 271. . V3 24 . ^/H . 272.
V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.1 xVtf a. Ex. 1.= 18. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . .Vs2 .2. s Simplify a. . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex. 3.vffi^T _ .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.2361. 24. v 2V3 28. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg.W3. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. Given V2 1. four places of decimals 23 . 27. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. = V3 = 1. : and V5 = 2. 6V7. 19.218 6 . . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. By the use of fractional exponents .5 3 = 125. J?_.4142. find to _!_. V21 = 25 . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . Vo1 26.7320.
To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 .RADICALS 219 274. the If. \/l6*. V643 . In other examples of involution and evolution. 5. \/125" . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 11. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 9. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. it to this form. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. V255 . v8f 2\/15. 2. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. 4. Simplify Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 2. According to G3. 2 12. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. viz. 8. 1. on the other hand. .
coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. is 11. Find Vll . and whose product is 18. 12 and whose product is 20.A/2. Find Vl2 4. The Hence ^11 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. +2 Ex. 2 \/18. These Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 \/20. 3. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT. Find V4 + VJ8.6\/2 = ^9 .220 Ex.6 V2.
. i. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Before performing the involution. The value x =2 reduces each . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. a.V48 4 20.. are radical equations. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Transposing and uniting. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 8. = xa + 4 x f 4. first involution. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. x2 = x f 2. Dividing by Check.1. by raising both members equal powers. Radical equations are rationalized. 4. member to 2. +=. : 221 Vl32V22. 19. VT . V48 23. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Ex.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. r 22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 277. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.e. 5. (2x xrf 1. they are transto formed into rational equations. 4x x = 2.
tion which has two roots. Factoring. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. x = J. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. viz. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Therefore CftecAr. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25.1) = 0. V24~+~l = 0. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members. V4afT~l. Transposing and uniting.3.222 Ex. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. . . Ex. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Extraneous roots. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Dividing by 24. 2. at . the first member = V2. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 3. viz. It = 3 x . 5. Transposing. one root. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. they may be extraneous roots. Therefore Check. . Transposing and uniting. a. Squaring both members. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. a socalled extraneous root. 4#f 4 = 9. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 278. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.
(x x = 3. Solve the following equations : = G. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. and to 5. Factoring.3) (2 x . Transposing. or x *j. ViTie 4 z2 . . NOTE. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . for it satisfies the equation . \ does not satisfy the given. both members reduce to 5. x root of the preceding equation. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. + 6~ieT~3 . 2 Clearing of fractions. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Hence there is only one root. . 223 x = 3. Hence x = the only root. If If x 3 = 3. .12 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0.2 r.47) = 0. viz. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. equation it is an extraneous root. is x V. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Therefore. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. 4. the right member = V2.RADICALS Hence x If a. Squaring. Check. = 3.
Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Ex. Factoring. Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 0. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 412a* = 16. This can be seen without substituting.f40= 5. o. Let 8 x f 40 .i~24 = 0. 5. y then x2 . Ex. 3. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. x =6 or 3. x Since both =9 or 1. 2Va. 45 14VJB = .8 x + 40 = 36. Substituting. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. _ 2 y . x + Vx a? = 6. = 26.8 z40 = 7.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. + 40 = 6. = 7. 2. 2_8z 440 = 49. 4. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2. .*2a. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. Q . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. some of the roots be extraneous.35 = 0. 3 6. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.
a. a^x2 5 2 13. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.226 11. +3= 6. 17. 20. 2. 12. 4 V SB* 4 a. 14. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 15. +x . 18.a 440 = 35.f 18 = 24. 19.
227 . no matter If.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. ax4 4. 1. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2) Q .2 x 5 by x 3. a? R = x* . even if Q is unknown.360 = 244. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. we make a? what the value of Q. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder." transposing. Ex. Without actual division. does not contain a?.2 + 4. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. then (x 2)Q 0. Without actual division. could. 3 2 Ex. however.bx? + ex2 4.4 a. to x we # = 2 3. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. by dividing 3 x* f. find the remainder when m. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. If x* . ^ = 381+2. if Q was known. E = ax + &z + m) Q.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 2.2 + 80 = 12. = 2. Hence. " Or.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .
x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.949. x* s 2 4. 5. } 2 by a1. 2 j 7. If the remainder is zero. 43 3 E.8. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . fora?. if 8 42  . of the division 3) is m in place of x.3)f 11 =. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g.228 282. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. the remainder equals 8 2 x .8'= 0. 5 (4x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. The Factor Theorem. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.g. 8. + 7 = 632. + 6. x m is factor of the expression.4(. + ^by x + b. 3. hence (x divided by x 4. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .
_ . 1. a 5x 6. is a factor. or 5 4 + 3^ . 9. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 21. 20. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 5. + ttt15 = 0. 2 2. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 3.13m + 30 10.49 = 0. i. ^10^429^20=0. 8.e. a^8^ + 19a.r6 = 0. Let x = . 3 2 : 7. . 2m 5m . m f m n 14. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. The 5. Therefore x ( 1). 25. oj 5x2 f3a. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 23. + 27 + 27. 106 division. 229 1. 18.12. f 5. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a 2a + 4. p 5^ + 8p 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.1. 11. & p*.7 + 16 . 1.7 x + 15 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. f 15 does not vanish. + 15. f 3. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. or x 4. 2. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 15. 6.12 = 0. a? 19. Resolve into factors 4. Factor a? 15.9^ + 23^15. factors of the absolute term. 17. a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a 8a f 19 a 12. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a + 32. 24. 8. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. are f 1. 7 46 = 0. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.
and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. : importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. By we obtain the other factors.230 285. xn y n y n y n = 0. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to." . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. if n is even. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . actual division n. It y is not divisible by 287. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. For substituting y for x. If n is a Theorem that 1.xy +/). 1. 2 Ex. xn f. ar +p= z6 e. 286. x* f/ = (x +/)O . if w is odd. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Ex. 2. is odd. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.y n is divisible by x f ?/.g.
a. 3. y 3 +8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 28. 26.i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex. as 27=0.= . x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. preferable. however. leads 231 is The first method. 27.
x y. 4 xy = 16. Squaring Solve (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xy are given. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). * A I. 232 . & + 2 xy + = 25. in general. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. however. can be solved by the methods degree. (4) Hence. 290. to equations of the fourth few cases. of quadratics. = 6.1.y4 is of the fifth degree. xywe have 3.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. + 6 a?V . If two of the quantities x f y. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.
r (" 1 = 876. ^. b=3. 108 2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. but can be found. 233 y. x and xy are not given. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . The arranged in pairs. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 1. 12.g. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. " "' "' { r 8. ' 10. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. I I x + y=7.
A system of simultaneous equations. 4 y = 20. x " (3) 49 etc. 19. ' ' .~ y = 5.. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . la. Ex. .i/ = r 13. 3.o 18. I* Jj ^ [. Factoring.a.  f J.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. + 29 = 0. aj = 2. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. or JJ. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).  42 y + Transposing. 7 . 2 (1) From (1) we have. . or y = 1 . 6 "I 14. r^ 2 as ] f. I x+y = a. one linear and ne quadratic. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 5. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.?/ i = 6.20) = 0.  . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.
= 1 3 3. 4 f + 2 y = 3. III. ':il e :) . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. Solve . 3y) : Factor (2). quantities. y* + 2y = 3. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 1. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.3 2x 2 Ex. If of the preceding type. ' x*. 9. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .
(1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 109 a. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 11 a2 Factoring. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 15 x2 . Solve 2. = Ex.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) (2) x x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. j Substituting y in (2). } VI09. 2 . = 0. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).
.125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. " IV. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 298. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.!. f 1 150 a?. can be solved by special devices. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.6. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. A. (4) (3).3^42^=43.y = 7. E. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Division of one equation by the other. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Bxy9. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 150 */2 . Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). and others not belonging to them. ' ^ 15.xy 4.175 ay = 12.
x 2 . we have from (1). x +y y etc. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. quadratics can be solved by ?/. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . Solve Ex. = 12 J. (1 > (2) 1. y . Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. * ' 300. 2.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. jc~ y = 9. = 189. B.. from (2). Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. we obtain by squaring. i ^ *>. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. xy. Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.
[2x + : y= 17. F+y+ . M6. 2. 4. 239 Ex. Hence = V or = 4. 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. I e. 36* 2.
+ o5)(6hy) = 80. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 19 ' 26. . * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 27. . f 18.21 ^ = 15. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 25. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . = 198.
. . etc. ~\ OK OO. Q 7. 32. etc 302. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 3 a2 38. = 48201. or ~ indeterminate. 31. hence may be any finite number. as a . 30. 7' j/ 39. oo 301.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. 33. Interpretation . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. ^ oo . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . 25 34. . finite  =x y if = x.
Hence such an equation identity. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. i.x'2 2 x = 1. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.decreases X if called infinity. (1) is an identity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. 1.e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. great. (1) = 0.g. oo is = QQ. . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . TO^UU" sufficiently small. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.000 a. 306. The ~~f fraction .e. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. creases. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. the answer is indeterminate. i. x f 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.242 303. 1. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. is satisfied by any number. I.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. it is an Ex.can be If It is made larger than number. and . without exception. (1).increases if x de x creases. and becomes infinitely small. . Let 2. (a: Then Simplifying. By making x any * assigned zero. ToU" ^100 a. Or. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. be the numbers. as + l. = 10. equation. or that x may equal any finite number. cancel.
no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum is of squares 2890. = oo.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. and a. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 42 and' their product is 377. 2. Solve  9 7. Hence /. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. third and sixth parts. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve x a. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. z = 1 Substituting.e. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). is their 2. .8 x + 15 6. 3.2 y = 4. Solve . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. (2). 4 3 x x5 a2 . * 6. y finite QO. two numbers is 76. 1=0. EXERCISE 1.
148 feet of fence are required. The area of a nal 41 feet. 10. 13. the area becomes f% of the original area. Find the edges. p. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the diago(Ex. 190. Find the edge of each cube.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 8. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 6. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and the hypotenuse is 37. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 146 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the numbers.) 53 yards. 14.quals 20 feet. of a right triangle is 73. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. two numbers Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. . Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the sides. 255 and the sum of 5. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the other two sides. equals 4 inches. Find the side of each square. of a rectangular field feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the sides of the rectangle. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the sum of ( 228. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. increased by the edge of the other. Find these sides. 9. 103. 12. is 6. and the edge of one.244 3. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area.
The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.) 17. irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. the quotient is 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the number. is 20 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged. . their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. differ by 8 inches.
f ..7. to produce the 3d term. P. to produce the 4th term. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. of a series are its successive numbers. An arithmetic progression (A. a + d. 11. each term of which. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a + 2 d. 3 d must be added to a. a 3d. a f d. The common differences are respectively 4. P. 17. a 11. to produce the nth term. (n 1) d must be added to a. 15 is 9 f.. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. To find the nth term / of an A. 2 d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. . . P. 12. : 7. + 2 d. to each term produces the next term. 309. the second a descending. The first is an ascending. series 9.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 16. a.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The progression is a.. of the following series is 3. ... Since d is a f 3 d. 4.1) d.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. and d.) is a series. 19. except the first.... 10. added to each term to obtain the next one. Hence / = a + (n . 3. progression. .
5. the last term and the common difference d being given. 1. 1.. 8. P.3 a = l. 7. P. 8.. . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. a = 2.' cZ == . 5. 6. if a = 5. 5. 2J. = 99. 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 6. d = 3. = I + 49 = *({ + ... Find the 5th term of the 4. 24. series 2. 3. d . 6. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).. the term a. .16. series ..4. 19. 2.. 8. 7. 115. 2.. 99) = 2600. = 2. 5. 1J. 2 EXERCISE 1. 21.. 4. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . (d) 1J... Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. . . 9. 7. Adding. Find the nth term of the series 2. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 10. = a + (a Reversing the order. (a + + (a + l) l). . .. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 6 we have Hence . ? (a) 1.PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. 4^. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 3. of the series 10.. 3.... Find the 101th term of the series 1. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 9. P.. 3.8.
11. 2. .1 f 3. 1. 18. 12. striking hours only. (i) (ii) . 16. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 7. . 2J. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. + 3. to 15 terms. 11. 29. hence if any three of them are given. '. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 19. Sum the following series 14. : 3. 21. 15. strike for the first yard. to 16 terms. 15. rf. 33.5 H + if f to 10 terms. P. 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120.7 f to 12 terms. 8.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. (x +"l) 4. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 20 terms. . > 2f 2. . and for each than for the preceding one. 23. 11. to 8 terms. 13. 17. 20. to 20 terms. . 16. 11. 15. 4. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 1J. 22. . In most problems relating to A. 6. 1. to 10 terms. \n. . 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. . 31.. to 7 terms. 1. 12. 7. Jive quantities are involved.248 Find the 10.
122. if s = 204.e. 34. = 13. J = 49. 312. 12.. or 11 J. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. and b form an A. 89. n = 6.~n~\ 408 6). hence n = 6. But evidently n cannot be fractional. = 1014.1). n d. 23. Findn. The first term of an A. P. P. 78. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014. the second one mean between the other two.1) .6 n). 2. 56.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 204 = ^ (a + 49). = n(104 . . 144. Find the series. 45. the and the sum of all terms 1014. or if x Solving.. . a = 12. l)e?. d = 6. The series is. = 144. = a + (w. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. From (1). is 12. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. I Substituting in (I) and (II). I. 6. 1. if a.104 w + 408 = 0. P. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 111. 100. 133. Ex. a = 49 6(71 . 2 (2) From Hence (2). #.6. Solving. Substituting in (2). 204 = ^ (98 . 67. 6 n2 . s 24ft last term 144.
74. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 6? 9. P. = 1870. and s. 12. I Find I in terms of a. = 16. f J 1 1 / . Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n. 16. n = 13. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 17. n = 16. T? ^. Find w. s = 70. 14. = 45. = 83. 4. = ^ 3 = 1. f? . . Find d. s == 440. Given a = 1. d = 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. a+ and b a b 5. Find d and Given a = 1700. 8. 13. has the series 82. n = 20. 10. How much . 7. Given a = 4. Find a and Given s = 44. ceding one.3. n has the series ^ j . How much did he save the first month? 19. Find a Given a = 7. n = 4. produced. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 3. 15. n = 17. m and n 2. 78. of 5 terms 6. I. a x f b and a b. Given a = . Find n. y and #f5y. 11. Find d. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find?. Given a = . = 52. 17.
. P.. ar. or 81 315. . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 36. is it (G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . called the ratio.. 12. 4. and To find the nth term / of a G. . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 24.arn ~ l . ar8 r.. or. 4 (1) . The progression is a. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). of a G. rs = s 2 . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. <zr . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. P. . . 108. The 314. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 2 a.. 4. is 16(f) 4 . ..g.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. 24.. P.) is a series each term of which. r n~ l . 2. If n is less : than unity. +1. . 36. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. E. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. NOTE. I. ratios are respectively 3. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. A geometric progression first. (I) of the series 16. 36.
P. 576. +f%9 % . .*. (d) 5. EXERCISE 1.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. P. .4. 20. first term 4. fa..18.5. 7. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 36. f. l. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G... . .. 144. I = 670. 9... first 5. 4. 1. 25. 9. . is 3. And the required means are 18. series 6. . 36. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. whose . Find the 6th term of the series J. 144. 288. or 7. ? (c) 2. r^2. volved . (it.. 2 term 3. a = I. P. is 16.5. P. 72. 10. Find the 5th term of a G. (b) 1. 72. hence. . first term is 125 and whose common . \ t series . 144.. if any three of them are given. 4. In most problems relating to G. .l.. i 288.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. whose and whose common ratio is 4.. 0. series . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. whose and whose second term is 8..54.. Hence the or series is 0. . series 5. 8.6. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 80. . Hence n = 7. f.72. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. Ex.288. 36. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.18._!=!>. fa. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . 3.. 676. . 6. Jive quantities are in. 9. 18. + 5.
J and 270. 1. . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. n = 5. to 7 terms. a. M. be written If the value of r of a G. 4. 48. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 36. to G terms. 243. 12. of r n decreases. 12 terms.. 1. J. Find a and Given r = 3. 22. may be than any assignable number... . 23.nV> i*> !718. 24. = 3.. Find the geometric mean between 7.i a9 . == 160. . to 8 terms. 54. 126. Find a and n = 4.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. to 5 terms. s = 310. n = 5. 72. 81. to 6 terms. .. to 6 terms. + 4 . J. . 14. 14.. J. s = 605. 16 . 21. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 42. and hence ~ r . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. = 3. r . is less than unity. a^. 81. 19. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 25S series : 32. 2. Z s. to 6 terms. I. 15. Find a and 4. Given r = n Z 5. 27. J. 13. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 20. to 7 . P. >"> ..
. . 7.. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 16. . I.= _4Z* .....01 ^ . If the side of the first square is 2 inches.)7?7272 . .555. 6...99 . Hence . .072.. . 3. 4. 1. 9.072 + .191919. of an infinite G. 16. 40..3 + . 66 Therefore . 8. 2. is 9. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. and the first term is Find 17. first and the common term.. ... . 9. .= .. 2. (6) the sum of the perimeters. ratio 15.. .72. 1.. of all squares ? .27777 . 250. what is (a) the sum of the areas. = a . . = . 1 r = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. .. is J.254 Ex... The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 100.00072 f .. If a = 40. 10.. 8. = .. 12. Given an infinite series of squares. 14.. . 1.717171...1.. 5. Find the value 9. 12. .. of: 11.. 13. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. is 16.3121212. . 4..37272 .. 6. . P. P. 5.. r = j. P. .272727. i i J.. =A+ 10 i. = 990 . The sum r.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.3727272 .Ql. 1. Find the sum to infinity. i.
2 2 24. Find the 6th term of (x . 12. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 13. 20. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 22. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 14. . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (xy) : 6 . 4. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 25. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . (a2) 6. (s + i).6) 20 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 15.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 11. 4 7.6) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 21. 28. 26. /2a+Y\ 8. 29. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 5. (a + b) . coefficient of . l 2. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (a 100 . .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 17. 7 . . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . a6 8 16 in . 16.b ). (\ 9 . : (1 + xy. 10.
a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . a ft c = = 2. 2. 5. 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 2. 1. 3. 4 2. 2. aft 3 + 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1.  2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 5. if y=2j 2. 1. 2. 5. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 3. 6. 1. 2. . 3. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 5. 5. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 2. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. c = = = 2. + 2. if = = 2. 3. 2. 1. 2 .a(a 4. 3. 2. 3. . 6. ft 4 ) 5. 3. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. 6. = 2. l. 2. ft) . if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 1.  2. 2. 2. 1. 3.  a)(a 1. 4. + c(a  c).c )(fta) 1. 4. + 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 5. if = = = 2. 1. 2. 5. 5. 3. 4. 2. 1. 3. if x^l. 5. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. + 2. 2. (c 3. 1.  8 ^ 2. 2. 2. 6. 1. 4. 4. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 2. 1. 2. 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 4. 6. 3. 3. c if 7 . 3. 5. y 3. 2. 4. 3. 3.f ac 1. 2. 4. 2. 24 4. ^+^ 3. 2. 2. 7. 3. 3. 3. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 1.
f 8.2. 40. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.a) . 5. if a 6 = = c = 3.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 8 x4 *y . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .259 x c) . 15.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 24. 4. a. 9.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 16.3 a?y . c)(x a} . 1. + 4. (5.8 + 2 // .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .  a) (c 2. ~c)(b. 2 . 9.2 x?/. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .10. 2. 29. 26.7 + . 5. + 3 y 2* .3 xyz. x C 4 4x y + .r 6 x  4 xy . a. 8. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.2 x2 . 21. + 1. r> .2.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4. 4 x 4 .4.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .7 ys. 6. a /> 3. x3 f 3 ax'2 . . 4 y 13.7 y 2* 4. a 4 + 11 a . or . 5.8 3 + 7 x4 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . a: .a8 . 2.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 25. . = 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.c' 2 4 / . 18. 1. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 2. x 3 x' 14. 3.\ yz + xz. 20. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x3 2 a2 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . b(x (b 1. 2  + 12 a 8 . c = 3. 2 x 8.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 21. + 2.2 z8 4 x.x 5 4 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 4. 15. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . x = 4. 10. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . ' b) + 3.a 5 a .2 a?y + 3 aty .a 4 . + 4 ?y . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 7y 4 . 2. . x 3 11. 7. 12.1. 41. 3. 6 a4 4 a8 . 17. . 8 . 7 xy 3 . 4 z .5.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .
/ x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.c. c 4ft.27~~7)}]. 34. .4 Vl 4. ft. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .4 ft) 4. 542 x 2 and . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. Take the sum 4x 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 a .(4 x 2 . and .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .6T .3 . ft 25. 5 10 4 G 11 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. .(4 * . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. a  ft + c.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.6 x ] . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.4. 29. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 3 ft. 0" 30. x8 x2 2 a'2x. = x y ft z. 33.x .{2 x 2 .c 3 a.1)}] .(a . . . 4 3 5 y/ .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.c 4 3 a. f ft. take the sum of G x 5 .(7 x 4.c. 5 4 7 12 . .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.2 .] 26. x'2 .(5 c .x . Take the sum of 3 x 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].2 x 8y2 44 .x 4.8 3 4. : a x .1).2) . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.5 .3. 5 10 + 7 .x 2 4.(5 y . Simplify 31. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .(x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .?> x 4 20. . 4 2 x2 23..(x* . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.x2 .2 3 ax 2 . of a. 4 4 4.260 19. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 4vTT~y 3.#48. (*) a  c. c 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . From of 2 the 4. 35.2 . 2 x 32. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.3 x . 36.3 .5.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 7 12 .4) . sum of .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 4 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .7.a ft.{G * 2 .[4 z 8 . c =x y }~ z.[4 x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].
& + {.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 13 a . (x. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.3)(*5)(* 7). .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . a {. 54.(2 a + 5 a . . 57. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 62.c 2 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(4 d .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).3 *). 64.3c). 67. .ab .{3 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .0)} .2a .4 a 2 + a 4 ).2)(1 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 68. (1 ar+a. 43. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 53.(5 y .ac .Z .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.JT^T+1)} + (2 .2x + 3). 2 2 x + !)(* . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 56. + *+!){> + 2). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.b (c .6c) (a + f c).r 2:c+ l)(ar. 59. (. 46. .1).(7 a. 63. (r (1 (a. .[2 .56.(7 i + 4 r:) .2 zz . 2 ft 41. (.be) (a 58. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.5 )}] + {4 c . 51. .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 60.a~^~c)K].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .[4 x  5 .4 a .(2 a 2 . .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 45.  2 a  {3 2x a . (/> 4 .12). (5 a 39. (1 55. (x . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 49. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2c(V/ . 65. 50.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2 2 + 1)(7.(6 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 'J 44.c).3). 2 : 7e)a}]. )(lz a ).6 xy .(2 .(2 x2 .3 z 2 ). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 2 f [3 c 7 a .5)} + (3 a 2 . + 4x + 5)(j.96 [17 a. a . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 2 52.{2 a .6)}].3 c)]. (4 + 3a 2 .2 2 .rf)} + a [. 48. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).{2 a (ft .7). 3 x 42.
3 a .v) 4. 94.6*y . 92.x + y + z).m np c .c .z\x 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c)]. . 71. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(/>  3 v)^(.a) 2 .c) 4) (ft 4.<f(p .2 (a .2 ft}) f (3 a . 84. 2 + a 2 ).{3 a . 90. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 77.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.n pc). 89. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.:y)( a. (p 2 .y)\x y).c . .c) .(a 2) (s 4 ft.(c 4.c) rr identities.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 4. b 4.(ft 4. 79. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c) .y + z)(x + y .am&t 4 A 2 *).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 4 4 . 76.2y)(.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .z)(x y + z)(.b 4. 91.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 87.9y2). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).y). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.O (a 4(a 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . ar . 2 (x 2 . 82. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. .ft) + 4(2 . ft ft ft a}.(4 . xy y 2 ). (a (2 b)*(a 4.q). 83. f 72. ft" l Simplify 80. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft 95.3y) a (* 2 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.5 . 73. (. Prove the following 8 4.r 2 . 93.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c) 2 . 74.z) . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .c)} . 86. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (x (x ( + *) . 88.262 69. 70.(a 48 8 8 4. 85.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 75. 1).3 (ft .2 (y 4.c) j. ft /. 1). ft 78.ft) 4 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .
4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).*) (x 8 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 99 100. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).xy 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(x 2 . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 123.27 x* . 108.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). r .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 118. 1O4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 110. (8 x* 115. 116. 124.y 4 ) . a*. 114.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 105. 2 (a+ .35 x 2 2 ) .2 2% 4.(7 xi/ .40 />) .b) 98.5 xy). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).9 x 2 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).) . [10( 4.r 4 4.4 aft .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 25 4 .2y 2 4.(a 1 2 8 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .(2 a 2 . 102. 1).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.16 a 6 4. 3*. 117. 26 (a 4 c). 120. 106.&). 10). (. .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .2 xy 8 .a".y 4 . .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".5 b*). 103. 121.1). (80 a 112.y 2 4. 122. (a 8  8 68 8 4. 109. (2< 107.6 y 4 4.v/ ~ // = a: .3 a"+ 4. 113.
1) . (4 x .2) (a: + 3). y (* l x. .3). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .19) + 5 = 4 .2 7^~5] + 1). 1 o + 5 + 1=15.27 a 3" . . 129. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 10(2 x 141.18 *&) (1 . 3(2 x 134. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 149.5). . 148. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .(1 .2(j: .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).4) .3 x). 5 146.3 a:). 143.264 125.2(10 x .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 135. 126.1) .22. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.n . 7(2 x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .4) .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(x . 137.7) = 4 .2) = 3 . .3(* + 4) + 9} .3(2 z . 127. .G) .r>) . o o 140.3).a:)]}.5{.9) 4. 142.r + 7[or .12 M 132.1) (a? . 5(2 x .2(5 .3) = 12 .5) = 12(4 x . .2(4 . (*+ + .4(0 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. (5a: 150.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 136. 2 4(ar .(x f 9).3) (3 x 4. 138.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 42(3ar 145. 128. 1) = 2(* . x 147. . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 139.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).7(4 * .(x + 3) ] . 3) = x\x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .8 6 .9) + 3.(j a? 144.2) + 2(ar + 4).
.5 x) = 45 x . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2 x) = (1 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . = 15. + 5) = (9 .25) 2 .5) = (3 .(5 x .z) (4 .3) (a: . + 10) (ar . 154. . 156.7) (a.1) (s + 3). (a) If C. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.24.17) 2 + (4 x .6 x) (3 . 162.19) + 42. these two angles would be equal.3) (3 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.7) (1 x . transformed into F.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (a. The second contains 3 first.14) (a: + 3). If the area of the frame inches. . 164. and the third twice as many as the first.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. sheep more than the 169. 155. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 265 152.? . (3 O + . . (x (x a. 163.2) (7 *) + (*. 160.T)O . 158. The sum What 171. 161. a: ar a. (2 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.2) a + 7(x .3) = (3 x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . 166.76.9) + (a. f^ + ^sO. (a .8) = (2 x 4.2). . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. =  (F 32). find the value of F.29) 2 = 1. 2 4 . + 4) (2 x + 5). how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. + 2) + (5 .3) (j. 153. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 157.5(x .5)(. How many 170.2 x) (4 .l)(z . 5(ar x . = 2 C. 159.4) (a . will produce F.r + 3) . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.3) (3 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 165. .a:) + 229. (7 14 .5*) + 47.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .
side were one foot longer. . A boy is father. A house has 3 rows of windows. A each 177. 187. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. number divided by 3. +x 2. 179. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 3 gives the 174. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. respectively. 4 a 2 yy 42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h.56. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. was three times that of the younger. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. power one of the two Find the power of each. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 189. sister . z 2 92. + a. Find the number. 188. same result as the number diminished by 175. dimension 182. 176. father. two boys is twice that of the younger. 12 m. 178. . The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 13 a + 3. x* 185. and 5 h. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 186. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 7/ 191. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. Find the dimensions of the floor. 190. ll?/102. aW + llab2&.266 173. 2 2 + a _ no. if each increased 2 feet. z 2 + x . younger than his Find the age of the father. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. How many are there in each window ? . + 11 ~ 6. 10x 2 192. 180. 181. train. 15 m. .36.
21 a:  54. 245. + 8. 239. xm+l 243. . . *2 234.6 2 ?/ . 24 2 + 2 . 23 12.3 c/> + 6 cq.6 aq . 60 a 2  a: // 205.20 z 8 a: 220. 8 a: ar. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .12 * . a: . a: 236. 233.22 z + 48. 7x 2 225.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 8 a. 209. 210. z + 5x 2 .c) 2  (a . 2 . 2 x 2 . 4a 2& 2 241. z 2 2. x 219. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . x 5 .6 y2 + 4. 211. a 2 . 229. 217. + 3a 196. wiy + la mx + aw. 7a 228. 227.77 y + 150.6s. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a. a a: a: 237. 208.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 202. . 5 x 2. 3 x V .1. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .c) 2 . 218. 235. a. + 198. 2 200. 195. 3 ap 2 . x* + 8 2 + 15. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. (a + . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 244. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 230. 267 199.8 6 2. 213. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10.64. 207. a: 231.10 y a x* . 203. 2 2 y f 1.28.(b + rf) 2 . a. 222. 2 a 8 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 206. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . . 212. . 3 x 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 2 a 2 . + 30 x. . 238. # 2  29 y + 120. y 2 194. 3y 248. a+a* + o a +l.3 xy. 16x 4 81. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2a te 3% ly 247. 6 197.x + 1. 4 m +^.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .10 xy.6. a^a 226.19 z 4 204. 246. x*y 223. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 224. 201. . 215. ifWy+b. 3y 2 + ary . + 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 232. 12 x +4.19 a . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 216.14 2 . 221.
of: 266. x* .3 abc .11 a 2 . 252.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . * 2 .3. 7 12 2 2 . 5 x 2 256. * 2 .9. 254. 259. x 2 + 4 + 3. 3 #2 255.ry . a 4. x 2 4.23 + 12.&z. 8 2 + 10 x .2/ 2 .a + 2 4.14 bx a%% 8 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. x 2 f 9j: + 20.80.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . z 2 268.15 + 30.C. a: . F. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .2 aft*.73 xy . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). + 3 x + 2. a? a: a: // 262. z 2 267. 18 x 2 . 260.7 f 5. 269. 265. 257.48 afy 2 . 258. 28 2 f 71 x .11 x f 28. 1 x ar Find the L. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. a. + 23 x f 20.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.36.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.13. 2 . + 8 x + 5. 10 x 2 . x 2 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . ft a.3 x . x 2 + 2 x .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .10.4 ab + 1. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.10 a 4.a 2 />c 2 f 3. * 2 . 3 a% 2 . . 270. of: 253.5 ab f 2. 264. + 8.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. Reduce to lowest terms 271.ry 21. 251. C. 2 a.r . + 20 x 4.x .16 x . a 3 a 2 2 .8.120. 6.18 xy + 5.9 x + 14.G7 x f 33. I Find the II. 3 ay 4.15. 30 ^ . 2 x2 .4. 261. x*y* 4.91. x* .1 9 .M. x 2 + 5 f .23 x f 20. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.2 z . 7 ax 250.(55. * a .12. x 2 263. 15 # 2 z/ /. 2 8 . 2 + 7 r f 2. 10 a. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .9 x . 22x2 a.6 by.
 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . m 4.2* + 3 x* 280.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 289 ' . + ac .. z2 (a 2 + c)a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a..rL. 8 . 285 z4 n* + a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.(y 2 z) * t (j.2c a: 282. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .!/.J' 4 2 2 w mp .ar 1 279.
x 7. 4 3 301. ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. O(ca) 306. * 19 23 19(23 23. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. Lnl + ar 2 a.
2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. (1 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . } . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a . 1 x2 + + a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 1 _. 1a: + y a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 .ft) 2 322. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.
4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .ll.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .5 a .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .6* t 328..V  + y  x 3y a .7 xy + 12 x . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.B ~ 1037  329 4 a.9 *// + 27 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. .. 2 lOx 5x. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y20  2y + 4 2 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.15 33 . 250 5 10 2 325./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 20 44 333. a: 2 x* . * 3a. . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 +lOar 2 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .
if a = 3. (af2/.) 2 . \5yl 341.1V.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. + ni + . 338. (ar \ 346.. ?_2 ^ . ** i.r 5 2 . a: 349 _ o. aj 339. f V. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. +^ a: y x . 352. xi 347. 344. (aWi + iJ. fl. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. + l + IV. 7 ( ?f!?. : 1+ i. 348.+ r . a>74 . 1 345. 5 343. \x yj 340. w \. ' 2 "l 5 .y. (a \ + lV.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ( 342.
i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. 1+2 362. _ + l a 359.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. + x x a . y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. (~ 364. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361.
370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + .
276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. + 1) 45 O 377. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 379.*2 = 15. 4(* . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. J !__7. 5 {2 x 381. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. ^ . 8  376. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 5*8. . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. .
 8 9* x ~r. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. .8 = . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. + 4 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. c . 396. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..5 ^ ~ a: a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.75 x f . 401. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 399.147. a. m x 398.25 x + . u '2 a. f 1 1 + a 403.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. ^ (a . 3* 177.  J). 400. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.6  .25.2 a:  1. b 404. 40. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). _____ ..1 . 397.5 x =r f .
Find the number. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.c) . How long is each road ? 423.  a) 2 6 2a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . (x . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.278 410. 420. hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. Tn 6 hours . 18 be subtracted from the number. 421. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 418 ~jo. and was out 5 hours. In a if and 422. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 411.(5 I2x ~r l a) . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . the order of the digits will be inverted.
When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 428. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : If is one equal 434.46 2): (15a 2 . 435. find : a : c. d. Find the mean proportional to 429.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). y. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. z 2 y. find the angles of the triangle. Which ratio is greater. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).6 8 ). Solve 436. 2 2 8 2 . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 433. a.a 2^ 8 + aft* .49 63).iand 22 22 I a . Find the length of the parts. a + 5. If a b : =5 n : 7. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a  t>. if . 438. x 427. . 3 and 1J. 430. 431. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. ax is \ by  ex + dy. b. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 432.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. : i.& 5 ) (a 8 .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). . and : b : c = 14 : 15. wi* + y= ny. Find the fourth proportional 426.
445. if 2 ft : 439.11 7. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 444. = 25. 5z4:# = 3. 450. 7jr9y = 17. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 3 a. 449. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 7 442..(or l(*2y)=0. 3 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 452. . 456. 56 + 10y = 7a. 443.*. 8 x + y = 19.rf2# = l. 5x+4y=lQ. 42 = 15y + 137.4 12 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 1(3  a.35. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 454. 457. 28 = 5 a . />(. Find the value of a. . a. ft. a: 2y= = 1 . ?/ 447. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 7a?y = 3. 459. 455. The volumes If their diameters.11 y = 95. x + 17 # 53. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 4 = 5 y + 29. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 9/> = 2 . 7 a: . Solve the following systems: 441. . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.55 y = . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 5 2 = 7 . /) ar a. + 5y = 59.59 = 3 z. ft. c.89 = q. 448. . 453. 458. 446. 8 . . 16. 9ar7# = 71. 15ar = 20 + 8y.7 y = 25. 451.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . a: a: + 5y).
475.7.?/ + 1 . + eyn.+ =2. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. _ 469. ax by = c \ 472. i = 5.. ax cx by = m. 8 461.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 473. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. x y 474. 465. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.c=563y. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . (or . ^ + i^ = 7. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .  = 2. 468.2y) (2 = 2J. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.
fraction becomes equal to . 479. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. whose difference is 4. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find the number. Find the sum and the rate of interest. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. by 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the fraction. 487. 485. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A number consists of two digits 4. age. 477. Find the numbers. years. Find the numbers. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 483. and in 18 months to $2180. 486. How much money less 484. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. . and in 20 months to $275. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. the Find their ages. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find their ages. A spends \ of his. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and the other number least. to .
2 a. ifi = x a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 3 x 500. a: 499. 2/>3r = 4. z y ifi = z x 502. : Solve the following systems 491. and the difference of their Find the numbers. x s + y z = 18J .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2a:f 7. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a. 5^ 9z = 10. a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + y 5 y = 101 . 3ar 503./ f z =a. a: f z = 79. 496. * + 425  = . a: + // = 11. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 492. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 2 = 41. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. . 1. a. 498. a number . 4 506. . 2y + 2z = a: 2. x y f z = 13. 3 a: + 5=84. 490.z = 12. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2y + 3a = ll. ~ 507. = 15.5#+2z = $x a: G. z y x 25 . y Solve : x +z= 5. 489. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6./ 504. 7 + 2 z . *i. 495. + # +z= 35. 2 e.? + 2y = 8. 493. = 20. . 494.z = 20. \ . x f y f z 29 . 4 497. = 209. 1+1 = 6. 7. 8. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. .
523. i=a + 6 c. 517. 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. ll" . z z =3a&c. !f == 2800.
Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. B and C and C and A in 4 days. Tf and run together. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. if the number be increased by Find the number. 527. 90. 532. it is filled in 35 minutes. 530. CD. touches and F respectively. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. the first and second digits will change places. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it separately ? 531. they would have met in 2 hours. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. M. L. . N. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. E 533. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. in 28 minutes. If they had walked toward each other. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. In circle A ABC. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. How long will B and C take to do . and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. AB=6. Find the numbers. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. and CA=7. What are their rates of travel? . When weighed in water. . AC in /). A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. BC = 5. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. and BE.
The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. a. i. c. e. 2 541. x *x + x + 1. The greatest value of the function. 543.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The values of y. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. The values of x if y = 2. 536. 550. d. x*. x*  2 x. 548. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 542. 2 x + 5. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2. 3 x 539. 545. x 2 + x. 546. . the function. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. GERMANY. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. b. x 2 544. 540. + 3. 2. If to feet is the length of a seconds. from x = 2 to x = 4.  7. x 8 549. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. then / = 3 and write = 3. z 2  x x  5. FRANCE. 2  x  x2 . 547.  3 x. formation of dollars into marks. to do the work? pendulum.10 marks. if x = f 1.  3 x. . One dollar equals 4. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.e.
x 2 ~ 2 . 555.= 0. a? 4 x . 3 . 18 x  4 = 0. . j.9 = 0.r 1 561. a: 559. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 565.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. i. a. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . and make the unit of the b.0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. f. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.= 0. z 2 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. + 10 x . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 2 554.4 x 2 + 4 . . a. c. 2.G .4 . If y +5 10.7 = .5 x . e.4 = 0.3 x .15 = 0.1 = 0. x* . if y =m has three real roots. 3 + 3 z .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. Solve// = 0.  2 1 a: a. x 5 . 563. 15. 557.3 . 566.6 + 3 . 553. . = 5. g. 2 a. 558. ' = 8.r . c. x 4 .13 = 0. z 4 . + 5 .11 x* + + 2 8 569.3 = 0. 572. 3 x . Represent meters. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.17 = 0.3 x .11 = 0. 2 8 . 564.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. J. r?. 3 x* . 2 567.r a: a: x a. h. 562. a. Solve 552. 568. 556. \ to t = 5. 2 x 2 560. // Solve y Solve y = 5. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.
(a  8 ft) .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 5 a*. + . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 3 (f.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 595.x + 2 )'2 601. 579.frf : 583. 2 611. 2  2 aa: 2 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . a 8 606.(1 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a:. 592. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. x [ ?/ 577.4. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. . (a. 585 594. + + 4 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 608. (1 (1 (1 . 588.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 593. [ y =10. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 604. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (# 2) . . 9  4 fSb 607. (aiy. 4 a. a: . 6 + 1) . + ^) + (air%)8. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 609. 599. 582.%) 4 (aa. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 1 . 64 a 12 603. 589. 600. xY. 598. <r)3  2 3 a:) . j^f = 3. a. a 612.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . : y* or 25.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 4 (1a:) 3. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. f ?>) 3 591. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. a 2a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 597. (1 + x a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 3 .2 2 + y. x + z2) 8 . 596. 4 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.2 6a: + 30 &c a. jj+. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .5 xy = 0.
a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 614.V250 . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 4370404. 035. 9a.2. = 87. 8*' + 24* = 32. 3a.53 x ~ . ft .1024 x + a: 256. 620. 32 631. 25023844. x 2 . 650.871844. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. + 112 a 8 .30. GGff.150. = . 2 + 21Ga. According to Kepler's law. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 623. 494210400001. 2 + 189 z = 900. (x 9 x 646. find Jupiter's period.*. 625 : 621. 633. 634. : 5. 639. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.\/4090. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . = 0. 628. 615. 630. 644. 636. 210. 643. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 49. 4J. 371240. /. 632. 40. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 647t x 2 648 649.49. 9g.12 a?y + y*. 942841. 651.191209. 21. 624. 2. + 24 a 2 4 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . a 642. Find the eighth root 617. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.15174441. 622. 49042009. 626. 0090. VOIOOD + V582T09. + 54 'x*y* . V950484 . 645. = 70. *+* = 156.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . + 2 21 x = 100. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 637. 7) 2. 638. 629. Find the square root of 619. x 2 641. V 635.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .2410. 44352. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
a.c = 0.a a )jr . . 706. 707.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. . 2 2 697. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 708. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 696. 2 2 . 692. ex abc= fx 0.bx . 694. 699.ax . 2 702. 695. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . ax 2 698. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.
What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. a: 713. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 716. 12 4*+  8. 3or i 16 . 725.292 709. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 722. 16 x* . A equals CO feet. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find two numbers whose 719. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. in value. 723. 729. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.44#2 + 121 = 0. 721. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 717. 217 . and working together they can build it in 18 days. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 724. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 727. **13a: 2 710. sum is a and whose product equals J.
(64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 52. 40.2)(x2 4. 1 6. 41. 34. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 46. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).aft* 1 + a 2*.1 f ^ 2).2 ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 37.)(ai + &. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 + x. 33. (v/x). 43.l).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . . 35. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 36. 38.X . n. 39.1 f c" ). . 32. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 42. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2? 50. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 31. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).1 + c.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.
[1r^ T 1 i . 761. ~ r* x . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. 757. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. JU. 754.. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 759. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. \/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753.1+J 756. 2V2 2V3 .
789. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. . 793.VlO.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. .2 V30. 13 799. x 782. 783. 92VI5. Va 809. 10 785. + 2V21. . 787. 3J . 794. .4 V(j. 3812VIO. 806.2V3* ^ 807. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. c 792. 103 788. 790. 7512V21. 16 + 2V55. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.12VIT. a 9442V5. 786. 14 791. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .
13 = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 3 x + 2 .4 = 0.f 5 = V5x + 4.Vc^lJ . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. + Vx . /9ar a: = 17. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. VaT+lJ f ^l . 836.\/2y  810. Va: . 830. V14 a. 819. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 831.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . x/aT+l . 812.79.V? = 813. 818. + ViTli + V7 .V2 ar 10. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. (x a: 2 ) 4 .  5 + V3 f 12 817.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 833. V3 f 1 V4a.g. 829. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 820. 814. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 811. + 103Var. 815. 816. \/12 a. = 1.
5 a 4 7 a8 . a l0m . 2 x 3.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . + 216 rt aty a 10 . a.1. . 4 a: 2 842. 864. a 8 850.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 16 859. . 4o. a. x 8 2 857. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a 8 873.x*y + 3x f 2. 729 867. 8 a. 851. V4 x 2 . 8 . . f 841. 27 862.10 = 118. a: 849. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .3 x . 8 860. 876. 861. 275 8 l. a. 64.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a 872. 839. 8 2a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 875. + 512 y8 874. 846. x 4 + f 2 a. a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. . 8^27^. + 1. 8 + a: 5 8 a. + . 2 a: 64 y*. 6. 4 x 8 858. y 4. 856. a 18 4. 868.a. 2 f" + a/ 15. x 11 a^ J 13 854.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a*" & 6n . 27 y 8. 844. a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 64 a 866. f 12. 853. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 6 2 f 3 6 s. . 9.3 Va: 2 . 865. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.3 . a 8 869. 855. z*y 8 l64a. f b**.3 a:. 840. +3 4 +  4. 863. 852.12.  3x a. a. 845. 4 a. 8 8  13 a. a: . 19 x 14. 870. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.1000 6. 871. 8 8 848.ab9 ft*. 4 x* 847. 8 4a: 8 a.
2 f ary = 8 + 3. x 882. a. 900. 5. M1 891 1 . f ?/ a: a: . y 2 2 8f. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. x*xy. a:y . y y 2 y 2 1121. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 899.sy = 198. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 889. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: 2 897. 895. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 .1 = 2 a#.298 877. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 + xy = 10. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. . + ary + 2 = 37. a. y = 28. 878.y 2) = 20. 2 . 886. 2 + 2 f = 17.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 = 2 + 5. x a: lI = xz .xy + y 2 = 19. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 883.18.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a. .35. . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + y 2 . a: 888. a: a. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. xy + y = 32. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . y 2 4. y*+ xy . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. . 2 + xy = 28. 885. 901. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 894. x 8 3 = 13:3.y 2 + V(j. a# f + xy = 126. +y f y = 7. + 2y=\2. z 2 898. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 887. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a: + y 2 = 34. .Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 2 = 16 y. 3 x 2 . 890. 1 x 893. a: 884. 896.15. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.
7 y . 923. 2 * 2 ~ g. Vary + y = 6. 905. . + y 8 = 189. a: a. (3 x .3(* + y) = 6.23 = 200. . ^ 2 . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. x f 2 a:y = 32.2 y) = 49 2 919. a: * a: a: ar 928. (* 918. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.y = a(ar + y).y) = 33. * + y = 444. 2 2 2 916. 911. . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. (!) * . 909. or or a? a: a: . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). # + xy + y = 7. y . y # 2 2 f f y = 84. a. (o. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.y). f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + y)(a. 2 5 xy = 11. 23 x 2 . *y . 906. x + y 2 = aar. 3 y 8 ) =1216. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 921.6. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y + a:y = 180. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.y) (a? . a:y xy 929. (a.16 y 3 8 = . 914.#y + 2 = 27. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y x 2 = by. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. xy + x= 15.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . = 8. + a. + ?/) .y2 = 22. y 3 2 2 922. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 3 :r(3 . 2 915.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. x 4 299 xy z 904. 4 (a. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. yz = 24.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 908. xa 903. 2 924. 907. + 2 a:y + = 243.y) (3 y .3)2 = 34. ary y = 8. x 2 ry + y = 3. a: y zx 12.3) 2 f (y . + y = 9.x) = 21. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 910. + ary = a*. 920. 912. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 917. 2 913.r a. + 2 ary = 39.
The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. rate each man ran in the first heat. + z) =108. 944. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. How many rows are there? 941. Tf there had been 20 less rows. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. a second rec8 feet shorter. 937. s(y 932. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour.300 930. 935. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. is 3 . 942. and also contains 300 square feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. (y + *) = . 931. + z)=18. and the sum of their areas 78$. 34 939. feet. is 20. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. y( 934. y(x + y + 2) = 133. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the difference of 936. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. In the second heat A . and 10 feet broader. Find the sides of the rectangle. two squares equals 140 feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. diagonal 940. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. Find the numbers.square inches. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. find the radii of the two circles. 2240. *(* + #) =24. 152. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.102. If each side was increased by 2 feet. feet.000 trees. two numbers Find the numbers. is 3. Assuming = y. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. A and B run a race round a twomile course. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. A is 938. 943. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.
is 407 cubic feet. Find its length and breadth. that B A 955. Find the number. . The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. distance between P and Q. A and B. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. each block. and its perim 948. whose 946. sum Find an edge of 954. at Find the his rate of traveling. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. the digits are reversed. and if 594 be added to the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and travels in the same direction as A. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find in what time both will do it. was 9 hours' journey distant from P.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 952. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. 950. overtook miles. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Two starts travelers. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. triangle is 6. . The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. unaltered. set out from two places. Find the number. 953. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. . 949. 951. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. P and Q. and that B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the eter 947. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q.
. (x 4 to n terms.454. P. 974.to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. + (iiven a +  4 d . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. !Ll^ + n .. (to 2 n terms). P. Find the Find the common 977.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. to infinity. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Sum to 20 terms.4142 . Sum Sum to infinity. and 976. 9th and llth terms of an A. 3 + 5 7 + . Find n.v 973.. difference. the terms being in A.. 957. 969. 5. . 16 962.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 36 963. 3 . f + 1 .>/) to infinity.1 4 f j$V . x(x to 8 terms. \ . . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. P..V2 . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Sura to 24 terms.. '.. 961.  2..141414. 5. ^ 1 . 4. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Evaluate (a) . .. *" 968. 12434+ j I 967. P. to 7 terms.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 18th terms of an A. Find n f (ft) . 971. s  88.. n to n terms. ^ Vfirst five 959.. 970. 958.3151515. 1 to n terms. J. Find the sum of 4. = 4. 964.. fourth of the unity. to n terms.. are 29 and 53. Find an A... 4 4 to 7 terms . 975. 1G series . 966. 972.321? 965.302 956.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.
and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 987.) the last term the series a perfect number. 4 grains on the 3d. 0. 1.. P. Find four numbers in A.001 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.. and of the second and third 03. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Find four perfect numbers. The sum 982. Find n. 980..+ lY L V. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .1 + 2. to n terms. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 5 11. first 984. 989. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . The term. and so on. 992. is 225. 986. P..001 4. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The 21st term of an A.3 ' Find the 8th 983. named Sheran. and the common difference. to infinity may be 8? . to oo. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54... 2 grains on the 2d.. : + 9   V2 + . Find the first term.2 . 990. 985. of n terms of an A. 303 979. P.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.04 + . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.. Find the sum of the series 988. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . to 105? 981. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. "(.01 3. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.
1000. prove that they cannot be in A. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. c. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 1003. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. find the series. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. at the same time. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 512 996. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. is 4. ABC A A n same sides. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (a) after 5 strokes. 995. . P. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. of squares of four numbers in G. AB = 1004. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and G. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. inches. (6) the sum of the infinity. areas of all triangles. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 999. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 1001. ft. many days will the latter overtake the former? . and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. Two travelers start on the same road. P. P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The fifth term of a G. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. If a. The sum and sum . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. in this square a circle. 998. P. 997. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 994. and so forth to infinity. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are unequal. are 28 and find the numbers. in this circle a square.
Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of ( . (12 #) 7 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .l) w f . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. ) 1021. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .iV 2i/ 5 . 1009. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1006. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). (1 1018. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . .ft) 19 . 2 ) 5. 1014.o/) 14 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. a: 8 7.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1012. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. . 1011. 1008. + lQ . Find the middle term of 1020.
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. 246 91 " multiple... .. ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 37. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 97... ... 129. . 129 54.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ... simple simultaneous ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 9. .178 Completing the square . . ... .. lowest ratio " '* . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 112 54 54 251 . 54. 8 .. 232 mean progression .... 232 169 807 . .. ...108 160 " . . . . . ... ..130 . 160 in quadratic form 191 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. Aggregation...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .193 11 . quadratic . . . numerical .. linear literal Common ** * difference .. . .. ... 158.. 9 ** . . 19. Checks Coefficient 20.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . . .. 123 . . t 53 120 . graphic tion of representa . . signs of Algebraic expression .] Abscissa Absolute term . ...
. 243 7 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. .C Multiplication . Negative exponents 11 . .. . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 112 . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 212 . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . addition of " square of .. . 227 geometric . 195 33.31. .. . 45. Product '* 76 Infinite. directly. Geometric progression . 205 . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.154 Order of operations " of surds . Insertion of parentheses . Mathematical induction .. . . .808 Exponent Exponents. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions... 253 28 70 1. . 9. . 23 10 91 102. Inconsistent equations . Mean " 81) proportional Mean... 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . 241 123 geometric . .. . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Known numbers . . Imaginary numbers . exponent . . . 227 . . 17 65.. INDEX 8 . 63. L. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 45.. law of Extraneous roots . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.108 Minuend . 114.. 84. Like terms Linear equation . . 120 Member. G. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 189. P . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. arithmetic . inversely 122 numbers . 45 Laws of signs . numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 91 . 143.. first and second . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 34. 109 102 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 184 54.. . . 180. .
255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. .. ... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ... . 45 Trinomial 240 . 9.. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem......INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 129. algebraic Surds . .. Sum. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... 4 155 9 " of .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. absolute 54 Variable ... polynomial . . 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. . . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
NorfoooS J. December. 1916.S. Berwick <fe Smith Co.. Gushing Co. . U. August. Norwood. 1917. 1913. Published September. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.COPYRIGHT. Mass. Reprinted April. 1910.A. Set up and electrotypcd. 8.
$40. 21. 9. 24. 22. is $10. 72 = = 216. 115. 16f 2. 20 \. 10. 37 S. per sec. 13 d. 20. 3. B $80. 10. 89. c. 14. 3. 22. . 14. . 25. 24. 15. 25. 192. 3. 26z. A 15. 9. 16. 1. 30?. 16. 27. 1. 16. 8 13. 2. 9 = 4. 2. 18. 1. 17. 8. 29. 2. 4. 13. 3. B $4700. 0. 21. 73. $160. 27. 5000. 15. 1. 1.000. 8 ft. 16. 7. 1. 9. 6.. 12. 15. 2 ~ 15. A 38 mi. 3 m. 106. 12.2. 3. A $90. 4. 25. 3. 11. 1. Page?. 256. 11. 14.8. 19 4. 11. 20 B. sign. Page Page Ilis expenditures.000.. Ot 15. 32. 3. . 11.. 10. 150. 18. 8. 17. 6. _ 32. 64. 23. 1. 2.. Australia ft. 20. x. 14. in. B 10 mi. 4. in 12.. 3. 10. 4. Not 5. loss. 2.C. 1 16. 2. 15. 4. 12.3. 0. 3. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 2 5. 27. 10. 49. (a) (/>) 1. C $ 16. 16 in. 28. 25. b. 10. 12. 19. . 6. 5. 20. 3.000. 6. 13. 5. 3. 3. 6 yd. 4. 3 below 0. 7. 7. 29.00000001. 9 m. 5. 5.000 negroes. 28. 13 S. 1.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 6. 49. $ 1 50 10. Page 13. 1. 3* 7. 1. 14. 9. ft. 14.  22 20. 24. 26. 210. 3. 4.. 17. B $ 128. 2. 576. 8. 7. 20 jo.000. 512. Page 8. 10. 8. 5. 37. C $60. 6* 16. 6. 12. + 1. 14 11. 7. 18.  1. 6. 5. South America 46. 17. 3.000. 6. $100. 12. 9. 32. 10. A Bl 7. 7m. 13. 8. Page 4.$9400. 13. 7. westerly motion. 7. 2.. A . . 12. 5. x. 14. 21.000 Indians. 20. 2. 12. 2. 5. = 5 81. 18. 9 14. 144. 19.  1. 59. ^. 6.1. 30. 18. 85. 32. in. 16. 9.  2 p. 128. 36. 19.000. 9 16  larger than 7. 16. 10g. 2. 18. 32. B $20.. }. 3. 13 V. i . 7.. 1. C $1(50.  13. 8. 17. 2. 14.21 24.000. 16 in. arithmetic. 16.150. V 23. 7. 48 ft. 6. Multiplication. 2. 6. 12. 6. 3. 12. T . 2. 3. 126. 11.12. 16. 13.000. 2  Page 8. sign. 15. 8. Yes. Page 1. 1. 9. 9. 1. 1. 16. 9.
14. 3.~4. 9. . 8. (ft) 7. 7. 37. ft. 11.'J. ft. Binomial. Pagel4r. 0. 6. Monomial. 11. 30. 7. 1. 35. 35. 16. 25. 7 7. 5. 27. 0. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 2. yyz+xyz*.. 3rf 27. 21..ii ANSWERS Page 11. Page 31. a2 4 15^44. 8. 19. 17. ^. 8. 16. 10. x^ 20.14 sq. 1.. 6. 7. (r) 2000 m. 2x' 2 5 . 34. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. (a) 50. w. 13. 5. 4. 13. 8. 5. 21. 13 cu. 1. (a) <> sq. = 81. 3.900. 32. 16.. 14:). 33.5f> sq. 0.. 4. 1. (<7) (a) 314 sq.. 3. \'\ 4. 30. 2. 3 .. 16. 17. 8. (ft) $40. Va'+Y2 8^2 . y. 33. 7. (r) 2G7. 12. 6.  1. 14. 36. in. 237. 21 a 3 4 10.9?/2 8. 0. sq. 27. 6<t.'JO ft. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.. +/2(/. 9. 7. 00 24 04 ft. rt. Page 21. 22.000 sq. Polynomial. + v> 2 . 1. 12 a. r/ \(\xyz. 19. 11.a . 12yd. 3. $3000 Page 6. 5. 9. It. 31. 31. 20. 12.1. ft.32 c2 > ft 3 . 0.. . ft' 3 . 5. m + 3(a. #1111.  12. 173. 0. 4 y/ . Page 7.  11. 14. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.r f 15.GOG. 38.r~ f 34. 13. 5. m 24. 28. 3.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 42. 5. 26. . 15. 27. 10. 10. :J!>r'. 14. 32. (ft) Page 2. (r) 78.5 (ft) sq. Page 18. in. 3 a* + 2 at*.. 15. 20. 38 ab. 31. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 20(. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 29. 28. 27. 3(c4a). (c) S(i. mi. 4. c. 2. (a) 200. 8. 2. 23. 21^.4 ft. 18. = ()501. 18. in. 12. (59. 0. 18. 11. 3a. 314 sq. r+l. Trino inial. 35. 50. 27. 14. 0. 22( 19. 8. 25. 240.r 2 . (c) 8. //'. 41. in.  2 4 13 ft 2 . jrif 4 9. 58.q 4. 36. 9. . 5. ft. .  3. 18. 14. 17. f  5e 35. a ft c. 5x+3.4  2ft 2 33. WIN + wiw. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .6) 38.<>Gq. 22. o^ft. 4. 13. 12.. $80. 29. .. 4 9/^/rl 2. 18. 1. ]*. 28. 43w//2 17. 92. 15. + ft). a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 26. . :. 57. 15.ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 22. ft n. (b) 135 mi. 19. 3. ft.x. <i~ 26. 04. 30. 25. 49. 9. . 1. vi 14. (ft) 12. + 5. 4.rty8. 14. 24. 1. 34.  xV 3 y.000 . 24. 3. 51 f. 27. 2. (r) 2. 15a. 3. 12. 2. 2ftx. a 32. i:5. _ 4 . 17.ft) 4. (a) r>23ifcu. 23. (ft) mi. 4. ??i??. 13. 39. 17. 15. 12. (a 4 4.  40. 8. 13. 2oVmf?i. Polynomial. 15. Page 23. ft f 19. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 16. . 20. ^). 1. 21. 22. arty 1 20. II. t. 0. 3. 32 2 ftc. r:A 29.94(>.  0..ab. 104. I.
20. 31. 11. Page 7. G.  1. 2 . ar.a . 8 .  G J8 r  4 a <?. (5x47 3. 24 b 46. 16. (mn} 11. .3 6. m*  n*. ft Exercise 17.Oa: + 10. 2 a f 6 414. . 9.1 . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 2. . 10 x. ti. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 19. _ Page 30. a4 4 4. .2 a2 2m 2 4. Page 8. 14. 11.a*. 58.r. 12. a + (ftc4df). 7 a5 1 .  4 b 17 y*. c2 .2 a. 19.r 2. x  + 3z. 8 8 .a'2 . 22. 2m + 2w.(2 x2 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. ^ <. 33.4x. 2. 2m. 51. 22. 7.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 7.2. 2.'U4j>. 4. 24.8(c + a). a 6 2 . 10 m. 2.  12. 13. 2. 2 2. 40. mn. . 5 2 Page 29.1. 11. (w4w)(ww). 32. x3 .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 1. a 4 + ft. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2. 1. 26. 4. 1 + 45.c. .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ( 7.l. 5. 3. 10. 14. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 13.a~. '  . 3 a3 & 41. . a2 24.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).2 57. ?/i 13.h. 24.4c 3 8 8 J. 5.4.6 x + 0) 16.  b* 4 r 1 . 10. f ft 9. .ws 2 ft) . G a bd.3x 2 2 tf. . j)(g1. 7  # + 12. 19. . 21.. 25. . 4 21. 0. 17.11. 8. t). (yz~d}. 12. 7  a + 2 + c. .(7x2 Ox2). (2n' 43p 47 ). 14. 7. 364c. 26. 6. + 2y.  14 afy . x a8 1. a 3& . 12. 1. c. 32 w 2 w. 2 17. . 20. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . !  </ . 3. ri\ 18. 1 4.. 4. lOrt 15w4. M + 10. 30. 37. . ii\ 22. 29. 42. 35.  17. 2. 2// 16. s_r>a5. 2 + a4l). 814. 18. a a. a.aft.  a: 2. 17.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 6. 25. a 10w.x f 1 2 . 14.a f 54. a 3a 4 2 &. f 2 ?/  2. ?/. 8. 15. 6. 3 a . 2 y' 4 . 4. 18. a  ISjfat. Page 28. 2 a 37. 4wipg>' 27.abc. .2 . 2 3. 2 . 3 m. ?> 22. 1. 1. 16. 59. 21. 0. a' 4ab + ?/.5 z?/ + 3 y . 2 3x f z. 5. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 5. 8. + c 4 d x + 6 e. c.  23. 43. 1. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .5. 25. 2 6. 6. _5a<>&43c. a 52. 2. 2 4. 0. Exercise 16. 55. a f 2 f 2 9. 3 Ji 8 . 26. Page 44. 12. n*. 15. 10. 18. + 8. a 3 . 2a: 2 4x.7. 24. 5x 2 rt ft. 4. 2 2 2 6. 34. 20. 36. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 56. 31. \ :{ 2 a 48.4 d. &. . 34 39. + 6. 21. a + a. ?>4tl 53. 4. 8 + 2 a . r. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 28. 15. :5 41. + 4 c. 3. 4r 2 . 50. 2x 4 a 13. a2 9. w 17. 25 47. w* ( .  b. 36. 2a. 8 b. ab a.2 ft 2 r2 10. ' 12 m?/'2 27. a  49. 4ft ~. 7. a). 2. 2. 38.
Page 36. 16 lb. 25. 2. 7. 10. iSx8 . 23. 23. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 15 lb. 10. 3(*+0 + 2). ^^ = 20. . f 26. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 19. 13. 27. 127"'. x2 xy42^. 4. a. 34. 8.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.8 12.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 11. 2. +15. 2*8f x2 6x4. 52 + 6s 12. 16. 9. ?> 4 . 32. 12. 28. 2.. 7. s 9 ww. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 4.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. Page 7. a. 30. 21. . 15. 3. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 20.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 90. 20.15. 29. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. m. 12 ^.16 a 2 + 32 a . ft 17. 1. 18. . 3. 216. 24. 21. 0.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 29. 24. 2 * 80 . 13. 40 r 2 . 22. 28. 42. a + ft. 18. 6. 4. 6. 8. . 31. 17. 18. 30 j9 jt?g j .000. 30 n?b*c*. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 1.19p" + 19^ 10 . Page 38. 4. 5. 4 fc. 27. 26. 15. 20. 16.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 1400. 3.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .. 24.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.2. 216.19 + 2. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .26. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2 7t A. 18a% y. a*b*c. 9. 1. 1. 76 8 a' 1 . 27. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 29. 5. 15 q\ 6. . 102. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 2 ). etc. 108. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.28 p'^/. 2''. 25. 22..16 x2/ 5 4. 6.6) =a2 31. 2 2 2 . 31.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a: . 18. 28. 12. 33. 1. 360. 14. ISartyW e*f*tj. a 8 . 770. 19.14 w 2 2 . 18.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 6 . 6".21 a 3 c2 21. 22. 20 aW. 20. 24. 2 a2 (y 2 . Page 3. 26. 28. 20. 8. 8 . 11. 19. n (a6) 125. . 33. . 20. + O4 66 . 25.12. 7. ?/ . +. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. Page 35. 161b. .21. 21. 108. 13.:>/ . 37. 36.12. 14. 19. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 9. 120. 14f 5. 15. 15. ll 2 i. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. ci 5 .1. 2 . 14 m 2 .>(/ r .44 aWc 16 abxy. 18> ^* = a . + 58 . 16. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 4. fa 2. 21 a'&c. 16. 23.14 . 8. 4 a8 .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 60. . 10. 1.18 w w + 10 WI M .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 30. ! 2. 42. 34. . . 10. 17. . 1. 7G . 3300. 30.32 y s s G . 3 a 2 46. 17. 161b.36 35. 64. 30. 9 13. 11. 27. 29.7(50. 4200. 8.r% 2 2 ry. (+3)x6=+16. 2. 35. 17. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 343. 1904. 84. 33. 22. 13. 2 w +2 2 . 18. 210.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 04. 30. 3. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .64 190 p6.(3x2_4^+7). + 7.20 xyz . 11. . a. 66 39 k* . Ox a 5 . 16. 83 In + 1 n*. 5aft(a 126 2). .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 24.6 2 . 12 x2 2 . 12. 2 ). 25. 60.. 4.11 xyz .32. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 15. 14. 6. 16 51. 23. 14. 4 jcy*z*>.25 + 14. Page 5. 27. //. 34. 25 4 4. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 4aWy. 38wiw. 30. 3 a 3 . 32. 13. 7. 0. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 66 8W 34. 4 a2 .
27. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 9. 10.4 12. a3 0. 2). +  m' 1. x 48. 4 . r. 10 a 4 ?. . 2 a' y' . 33. . 19. 14. 37. 24. ft' 11. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 39. m 2 .001.r .2 x + 2 x. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 1. 4. 2 (5 a 3). 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 30 /><. (a + 4) (a + 2). + 12. 34. +4 34.4 n. a + 25. 14. . 2 6' . 4 21.6. 8 a W . 6.m 30 6 4 1. 10.008. I/).^ + a? + 1.ANSWERS 28. 998. Page 12.14 jp + 49. 2 fr . 29. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 10. 44.000. 28. 2. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. a 2 . n2 a4 6. 45. Page 39.6 xy . 57. + 3)(3). 10. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. + 10 + 121 y*. 5. 7 . 4. a2 ' + 48Z100. lflrt 2 8 + l. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). (w+4)(m4). ~ 6 20 . x* . + 4 t*. ^V^4 . 441. y. 2 1: 21. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 . 2 j3 Z . 11. 7. 3. ^/> 8 4 . .8.009. Om2 4 6m 6.r* 2 30.098.4 a&+ 4 &*.3. a' . 31.2 y*. 2 12.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 51. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 166. 5. 9801.35 ab 9.994. .201. 32. 7. 40. (a (3 54. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. . a4 4 ?/ . 11. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 10. . 34.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. .20. n + 2. 1.2 6 + 13. 4. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 26.ri 17. 53. 9. 4 2 //. 8. 2. 10. 36. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 56. 25 25. 29.404. ab. 4 + 25 q*. 8 38. a + 25. w'n 2 //^ + 25.p132. 12 x2 . V + o ft . .6 y4 10. ab . 7> . 52. 6. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 2 62 V2 132.606. 36. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.712.. (n 2 5. 8. 24. . 2 4 a + 4. 10. 37.00 + 37. s rc 47.810. . ?/H)0. 4x21. 14. +   5). 9990. 31. 35.2. 33. 19. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 36 a 4 .500.54 p 2 + 81. 55.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.10 x + 25.009.x2y22.15. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 41. + 7 6)(3a~76>.004. + 2 9. x2 GiC+5. 3. 8.. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 23. . 7. 18. 2 0)(p + 5). 17. 2 a 2 + a . . 1. ^' J  7 f 12. ' 46. G a6 2.020.r .^. x*2^f I. 1). 42.000.49.5 ~ 81. 25. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 10. 3wi2 m Page 42. p4 + .25. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 38. p 2 . 41. 30. x4 28. (w4)(w + l). 4 x2 13. + 4 a +4. 1. 4 . 30 x + 19 x3 . 26. 32.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . fo*. 990. 25 a 2 6 2 .020. 2 4 2 2 64 .1. (m + 6)(m3).6 x2 13. 15. (p 2. 10.84 a' 9. 10 a' 2 . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. a + 56. 40. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 9 4 /> . 1. 21 2 . . 10. 1. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 31. 10. 36. 16. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 39. 2 . 27. 15. .10 35. 484. 2 m3 + 4m2 .16 a3 f 50. . 33. .ab . 35. ) 4' 6/ 49. 9999. m 3 j) 3 .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 40.996. 2 +10s281. 999.^V"' ./ .
10 2 + z 2 410.lit x + 4. 135. '.r" 20 S? . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 4. 1. 2. 5.  12 y 25.23.8 yn . 4. x 2 + 2r f J.2.3^V. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. ft 17. 3 aft 20. 4 c m . 2 a 3 ft.3 5. 7. G. 4.r?/.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 22.2 ac . 8.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.2 . 47. 8 ?/ . Exercise 2 a:// 26.  10. a.n. 1.2 2 2 8 . aftc 52. 1. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 24. 2 2 + 2 a.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 5.  11.1. 13. 2. 12. 3.1.3 a 41. . y 7. 4 pq. 49.rw f 8 . m'2 3.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 19. 10.w. yfl.29. 2. 2 4. 1.7. 4. 3. 8. 11. 12. 5 a  (5 ft. z. 75 a 2 29. /r . 6.  3 c. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 6. 9. x4. 26.25. 8 ?/ . ft* ft / . .VI ANSWERS 43. + x?/ 2 1. x 4.24 . i 9. 18. 11 4. 20. . 5. ft ? ft' ft ft. 3. 7a3ft. 18. :r !>. 6. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 2 4 3 9.15 21.1. 17. 4ft. 8. 16. 5. 3. abc 7.  5 z* . . 2 . 12. 15. i 2 tji. + 3. 10. 5. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 3. 14 r 2 . _ 2 a . Page 7.> 10. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 5. 9. 4.2 ftc . Page 51. 21. ?/2. 3*y2 w + 1. 2. 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 2.4. 44. . 5. 1/*.x^. sr 11. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 15. 13.r ?/ ??i ?). 9. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.5 a . r//. aft 12.27 x 2 4. Page 13.10 xy*. 16. 2 ? 14 . . m L 4. 4 a* 4 9 11. // 19. 12. . 1.1. . 3 a. 2. 2 ?/' . aft. 16. 14.r'^ 15.000. 8 r<ft 4 2 .2 2 . 5 4 a Oft. 1. 4 x. 2 4 2 x 4.r . a 2 .rw. Page 22. 6. *3 y 4 .2 wZ 4. 2 12. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 14. 1000 1000 . 7 r .1. 4.8. r ft.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 5. 46.2 ar. a 4 4 ft. 17. +w .8. 4xy + 13 <) . 11.2 <</. 2 1.r?/ j/. 01.12 aft 4 20 ac . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.y3.9 d. w 2 .2 .8 y. + 4.5 mp.3 ry. 20 15. 50. 14.1*5 2 r 2 . 17. .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.+ 77 15. 9. f>r* 4. 125. r/2 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 5^418(7. Osy. 8 x . l 4 . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 10 ft. 14. Page 11. 1. 14. 5.34. 23. 3. . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. Exercise 27. r 7.5 n*. ti'jry1 7. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.21 2 2 f + . 13. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . j) . 12. c3. ??. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 21.30 ftc. 6x 3. 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8.  .15. 8.r' ~ 16. a 8 4. ft. 13.9 4.3 3. . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.2 . 4 a 2 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.2 1 //.6 :rs 4. w . 8. 4 ac.3 x 2 2 4. 13.1. . Page 48.25 c . a 10./ 4. . 10. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. . 6. 19. .2 aft 4. 4x43?/. . 9. 2 . 2 ?/ 4. c 12. 13. as _ 10 16. 4 d 2 4.1.
4^ = 100. 1. 17. b. x. Page 40. . 1. 31. 17. 38. 3 9. x 48. 35. 10. 22. 100 14. 6. (c) 2x. 10. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. rn mi. . 8. 11. 44. ft. 11. 2. + 4x 3y 34. 11. 18. 4. 36. 3. + 10 b + c ct. s. 57. 10 a. 2. Page 61. a 10. 60 25 1. 2. f = eZ 2 x. 100 2. X 60. 2. x = m. . 1. }f. (a) ' 12.  9 = 17 a. 6. 16. .100. 36. 40. 100 d ct. 26. 20. Page 31. 10 yr. = 5 ?i x 460.. 34. I. (</) 2a. (2 a. ] 2 ri 42. 47. y 2z p= 3 (a c. x 2y 10 act. 20.r1. 100= ^. 6. f (I. 7. 8 n  10 yr. 15. 13. y 100 a 24.10) 100. f 6)(o 62. 50= L 100 15. (d) 2a + 10 = n. r>?imi. r tx mi. !). m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 7. 5. Jj12. 10. ^ 12 sq. "mi. 2 ct. 9. sq. '^ . 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 2. 2=10. <>. 9. 4(a ft) c = 8. (A) 3 x f (4 x . a 8. 25. 4.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 17. 7. y 50. 25. . # + 20yr. 00.ANSWERS Page 9. 10 x sq. 10.. 10) + = (a) 2 x . Page 6. (> 27. 1&. ct. 5. 2. 3x2. 21 2. 4 f 39. b. 32. 45. 7x 2 Page 21. y ?>i x + 26. 5. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. n M. 2b. 29. 5. 3. 7. 22. 16.  6 10.x700. 37. + 3 = 2(3* . 41. 'nj 100 a 28. m+ 11. 20.(3x+ = rraxlO. lOx 10 + w. 30.000. 38. 5. v (6) 2x. 0. 28. 3x  1700) = 12. ( a f 4.  />) a = all. 30. 800 = x + 1300. I. 16. 46. xy ft. 3. " lir.r ct. 19. (>. . + f + b 2. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x.p+7.  2\. 42. l. 14. 33. 7. 14. 23. 4. 8. 2x + 35. 12. 29. 1. 12. d. 39. 15. 43. 5. 7. m +~m 3. 41. lO. + 3x + 2y + 32. 6. 44. 19.7). 6. ? 43. 58. ft. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 13. / + y + a// 12 yr. ct. 7. 4. x y $ 6 yr. 1.rr2. 10 >_&. iL*. 59. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. x 49. 4. 13. 27. 2b 22. ct. x + 1=a. </ 20. d + !. y yr.ab a. vil 56.6 = *. Page 13. 37. 24.. . 0. 18. % 4.  1$.(3x  700) = 5. 33. 23.. ft. fix.
210^. 8. 7a*fe(2a & l). 180.. 1313. 2. 300. 20. 25 yr.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 10 Cal. 4. 13. (a + 4)(a + 8). 72. 11. 14. 8 12. 24J. (a 4) (a. 3x (3r. (z5)(z2). 19. 15. 12 mi. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 15. $40. 22. Page Page 480 12. 80 A. 10 yr. 45 in. Pace 65. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 14. 6rt 2 11. 13. 13. 68. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 9. (a5)(a4). Page 5.000. 1. ?(g ? g+ 1). 5 lb. w (/) 64. 42yr. 4. 3. (y8)(y + 2). 18. 4. 3. 17. 13.5. 10. 40 yr. 7. 8. 4.6). 1. 2 2 2 5. 6.. a a (a 8 a+l).000.000. 9. 9. 5 Col. 12. 10 yr. 67. 10. 9. (y 13.. . 30 mi.000.10. 1250.. (ro3)(w2). 2). 4. 10 Mass. 6. 9.000.24.000 copper. 2 3 6 7.y").000 pig iron. 20. (a + 5)(a + 6). 10. 70^.7. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). ( + 4)(*2). (m + n)(a + 6). 10. 3. 50. 5$ hr.000 ft. 7.000 ft. 20 yd. 20 yr.. 12.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^..5p + 7 g ). 25.3). 15 in. 14. 10. (a + 6) (a + 3). 160 lb. 100.. 20. 14. 30. 1200. by 12 yd.000. Page Page 4.(5z .411. 9. 2 2 ?/ 21.000 N. 9.. 7. 2. 15 yd. 7.000 Berlin.3. 1.  PageSO. 3. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . . a 12.. 4. (y + 8)(y2). 18.22. 3. 25.. 18. 5.000..79. 11. 2. 6. Page 7. 13. 3 (a +&)(*. 6. 11. 12. 4pt. 5.. 29. 12. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 1. 8 2 19. 7. (c) ^ v ' . 8. 20 yr. ~=90.. 10 yd.3. 2.1). Page 79.2. 30 yr.13. 9 in. 8. (*4)( + 11.8. 52. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.2). 5. 17. 1. 16. 12. 15 mi. 90 mi. 250. 6. 8 in.. 78. 28yr. 11 in. 6.21. 3. 15.0. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). Page Page 4. 2$. 600. 14. 70. 71. 7. 480. 2. 8. 10. 14. 5. (e) i* + A. (6) (6 a 30) =20. + 7)(y3). 5pt. 82 mi. 90. 85 ft. 11.000 gold. 150. 21. 1. (y7)(y + 2). 8. = _?_(2ar + 1). 200. 200. 3. 100 1. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.16.. 8. (yll)(y4).11. 1200. 10. 11 pV (2 p8 .0. ^ . 30.000 Phil.. 05. 2. 23. Page 7. 15. Y. 1.3aftc + 4). 8. . Ib. Oaj(o62cd). 11 w(w' + wi . 7 hr. 74. 6. 15. 75. 78.5. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 6. 1 lb. 5. 55. 2. 12. 3 hr. (p + 7)(3a5&). .
19.2 ft). 28. 24 9. 15. 26. 100(x. 14. 3. 22. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 4. 8. 1. . + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 3)(3a. 28. (* + y)(zy). 27. (15ay2) 2 . 9. 22. 31. a*(5a f l)(flr . 10(a . 7. 10. 18. 3.9*). (m + n + 4p)(w + .6) 2 2 .. (5x . 2 No 4.4. 9. . 29. 22. 18. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 7. (4 13. Page 84. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (az + 9)(ox2). 15. 2. 22. 16. (9y4)(y + 4). 10. (a 6 6) (a 4. (0 + 6)(66). No.r2). . 33. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 21. Yes.2 y).2). + y + . + 0(90 Page 85. No. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (2 a? 4. 4 (a . . ( 2 4 19. (4a. + 9^)(oxy . No. 8. Yes. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 10 a 2 (4 . 8. Yes. Yes. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 32. 12. 12. No. 7. 2 3 by2 Yes. (x + y4 )(x . 17. ix 18.6) 2 1.* (2 y + 3)(y. 29. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . 17. 20. . (<7 20. Yes. + 2y). Yes. Yes. (4al)(a2). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 30.8). . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 1. 6. (w + 20)(w + 5). (a + 8)(a3). (2xl)(x + f>). (a. 8) (a. y(x. (15z2y)(x5y). (5wl)(m5). 40 x. (3#y)(+4y). 34. (13a +10)(13a 10). (g . 9. + 4) (a. 3(x + 2)(zl). . 19. . (10a + ft)(10aft). 34. 2 2 15. . y) 2 29. (y8) 2 2 .1). 31. 12.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (a (p8)0> + l). . 100 (a. 1. Yes. + 5) a. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 26. 25. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 6. Yes. 23. (:52y)(2a!3y). (2o + l)(2l). Page 83. 28. x\x 24. (3a. f 2). 3a.1). (ft + ll)(aftll). 11. 7 6) (a 10 6). . No. 11. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).1). 4. 27. (m7n) (a. 33. 21. 20. 16. x(x +y)(x y). 26. 3. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 25. 10(a + ft)(aft). (a 3 + 10)(a. 23.7)(2z f 1). (2yl)(y + 9). 26. (4y3)(3y + 2). 16. (m + w) 2 5. (2 *+!)(* 9). + 8)(g3). 25. a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). + 3). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). Page 82. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 24. y) (a. 103x97. 24.ANSWERS 16.7) (a.c 2 ). 35. 10(2 30. (4 18. 30. . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft).4p). (6 a. Yes.  x (5 a.2). 20. a . (y + 4)(yl). 14. 24. (6n + l)(+2).   . 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Yes. 2. (5a +l)(5a l).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 23.y) 2 aft.11 ft)(a6).3). 5. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (w* (3a26).2 by2 6. 216 aft.4 6). Yes. 9. 32. 35. 21. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 11. 27.3)(z2). 9. a(2u. 17. 13. 10. 36. 25.5y)(3a. 10. 2).1). 5. + 3)(c44). (3*2)(.11 6) (a 4. (a a: 19. 23. 25. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).+4 y)(3x4 y). Oa 2 (a2)(al). (w ~ n (x . 2. (ay8)(ay3). 13x7. 21.y4 ). 2 17. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 14. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13.
39.3. 11. 5. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.7)(^ {I 12.8) n 43*). 7.5 m2 x2. (c. 10(8x' 4l) 4.2)(x 1.3. ^ . Page 87. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4.?50)(xt/z. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). a 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 12.&). 15 M. + 3. 4. (x. 10(2 (3 4. (!__/>). x  1).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 24. 13.. 20. (> 1. 7.n). 42a 3 x. 6.36). 5. 5. 4.e 4. 5. 18. 2 8(w . x 4. ofc)( fid). (5^4. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.'/)('< 4. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).!) (x42)(x2). (^ + ?>_8).1) 3. a + a b.  (w' 4. (a 4. y )(. 6. b) (r 4. 28. 9. l. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .&).0+ 12). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 450. 4 a8 . 2 . 12. 8). Page 90. a 2 (a9). 36. x(x f y)(jr .9). 1(V/ 88. 13( 33. 16. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 8.42 x 4. . . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. . 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 4. 6. y). 4). n  r)(5a 10.) j). 4. 3 x4 . 35.?>) H. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. a 4. 7.y. 40. 2 k (wi 4. ( a ^)(^3. (5a+l)(9a). (a />. 8x. x . 2 (a 4. (5 26.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). x43. 14. 12. 14. 41. 6 f c).b. 14.7s) (2 a. ah}. fi(c426). 15. a (a + 2 6). 1. 2. 5  (2 2 .2). 5 x8 3.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 22. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .1). ( rt 23. (14.?/). 6. . Page 89. Exercise 47. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .y '2 2).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (^ 7. (7/1 2) (m 41). (2x7)(x 2 2).'})(c .2 y). 30.4). 7. 7. (f> + fo 7. 6. a x 3 10. y6. Page 12. 3p (^9)(j) 4). .  29. y(2x?/). 27. a 41.^ 48. 2. 2 2 3 . 11.'J)(' . 4 6. 17. 8.))(x  ^OC 1 1). (a 9. 4 3. 2 21. 2 y) ^ .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (2 a ~ f> b 4. 4.l)( a 25.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (16 4  2(5 n .X 5.4).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. ?i(w 4y) . 4  9.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 2 + . . 8. Exercise 46.3)(x 4.1). 8. 8. 2.4. 13. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 38. ( { &). (5 31. 4 a s &8 . 4. 4. 2 1. + 2 //). (. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 19. 3. (a &4. r x 2 */3 . 37. 42).  WIM. 7.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 6. 2(m4l)' .2).y).4. 32. (m  I)' 6. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 2. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 17(x43//)(x2y). 15.8). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). Page 86. 8. (r420(4 10. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). Gp). 3(. a8 . 2. (x//. ( (<> r4y3 . (w * . (w4w) 2 1. 11.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 13 x 8 2 .8) ( (16. 2 2 10. 3x(x?/) 4. 9. ?>). 14. Page 92. 8. 13. 24x sy s 9. 16. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). ( y). 11.y)(fi a . 10. (* _ 2 )(a 4.
+ y) (a: y).ANSWERS 10. 6a2&(rt6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . // m+1 !+*?. ?_!&. x 24. a 10 25. 1). (a2)(a + 2)2.  1). 30(3 2 (a 15. x 22.6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. b ! 21. +8b a 4 3 / ^. +5 1. + &)(&) ( . a 23. 18. 2(2al) + l). x 12. + &) 2 ( . 13. 11.
1. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . a 5. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 4 L 8 2 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . A^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w1 + ac w 4 7. + lH + . 6. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. Page 101. i^. Page 100. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. _*^p5_^^_. 28. 6a5f^. c 8. . 4c 10.  **/* + 84 _. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.. i. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 11. ' 2 7. + 2H 1 ^. 2 a. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 26. 4. 30. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.50 ~ 1/2 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. 7. 6. xy 43. 0.
J. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 4a3ft. 4. 1. 1. 3. 8. ?. 7. 15. 5. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 6. 11. 6. 38. j L . 27. (y + (z 12. a 17. f 7. n 16. J. 2 47. flf. 5. 9. 31. . 12. 13. 11. 11. ?+_!?>. b a f +c 14. x\. 24. . 14. 35. 37. 16. 3. 8. 6. 15. 6. 34. n . a. pf n 6 1. x 1. 1. 45. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. +3 ( + 15. m 9. 20. f Page 107. x 05m ' 5. 4. y(x + x ?/). 3. 18. (>. 1. 2ft a i m x. 46. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 14. Of. 9. n m a + 13.  10 X + u. ^i 11.y 7. 19. + f. ' 6. 5. 33. ^_. 5 be _J_. 17. 4. b 2. 1. 44. 11. 6 . 1. 4. 16. 11. 10. 3. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 15. A. 5. 12. 4. I) 2 3z 1. 42.^U\WF### X<6. 7. 21. 3. 21. 0. 3 7 i o. . 3. an 18. 26. 14. 43. 10. . 9.ft . 6. 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. 17. Page 111. 32. 23. c 8.  V o 4. 40. 4. Page 110. Page 106. 7. 7. 29. 30. Page 113. ! 4 20. ft. 36. 39. ac mp lf> n 12. 41. J. 1. 21. 12 28. 8j_m 7 3. 25. 1.L+ft. 2) 19. 0. 4. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. a2 2.^_.
31. 10. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . [>> ^ a . 18.. xy.} da. 1. ^?i min. 40 mi. $40. 3.. 24.002. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.000 1 = 23. 4. 5 25. 3 da. '"I 22. (ft) 28. (c) 2 hr. 5ft 30mi. 2 20.004. 1 da. 14. 4~r~ n . ~m .XIV '/ . a 4 ft. 4. _JL. 10 yrs. 5. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 1 : 12. 300. No. 38ft min. 12. 18. 21. 14. 8. 15. (a) 4 min. ft. 15.  + . 2. 300. 30 yrs. 6. . 15. 8. 26 mi.003. 10^ oz. 212. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. after 18. 1:1 = 1:1. 6. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .138. 9$. . 1^'. 23< &n b ' .x + y. Yes. 26. 11.2. 8. 3. (a) 30. Yes. 3. 11. 7} 18. 10. 21ft min.0..000 If da. 27. (d) 4 da. f. 15. 24. $45.. 20. 1:4. 275:108. 12. 1:1=1:1. J. 30. 10.10. (ft) 5 hr. jj. 13. 1. #V ~~ 34. :2. 15. 17./hr. Page 124. 75 . nm. 500. 19. 6. (r) 3^ da. 13. $0. n 32.001. 20. 1:3.2. 9. 300. 5. (d) 500. No. Page 118. 9ft. Page 117. " 0. . 13. 19. 26 30.. (c) 8300. 8301 hr.9. min. 10. 81. () 2. 10. gold. 17. after $12. 7. 20. 55 mi. 1. 3. 4. $00. 1: ~. 12. 7.15. 10. 22. 10. 10.000. 17. 3. 2:1. 4.. 16. 9.000. 40wn. $30. 7T 2 Page 116. ^p^ r ~ 7. 2. 0. (a) 12 hr. Page 119. Page 121. 16.  C . 19. 14. . 10. IV s. 5.. 36. dn ~ mi. min. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 30ft. 11 hrs. 7.  29. 33. 7. 11. 13. 35. 1:1 = 1:1. 40 yrs. Yes. (ft) 104. . 17. 8./hr. w 21. 3:2. 4fl M_. (ft) 5 da. 15. 5.. J ^'.000. (a) 25.000. w 44. 3. 21. 15. 74. 30 mi. 8. 1. . 4. 32. ANSWERS 16. after 20. 7. = A's. 18. . 2x:3y. Yes. 1:1 = 1:1.0 & . ^m .. P+ ^ 33. w 18. 14. * 7:9. 7 .137. 33. Yes.. 24 mi.139. 16. 7.11. 9. 19. 00. Yes. Yes. 9J oz. Page 125. 34. silver. f . 9. Yes. 28. 5 2.
.a. 14.5. 9  15. 32j. 24. (b) Inversely. 5. 127. 4. 2. 2.  ?. 47. 5. 2. /. 4.  28."2:1.3. : />.3. 138. 7. 141. y .  19. J. J. 7. 19. ' 55. .2.000 sq. 2. 13. Page 5. 11 w a 13. 5. 14. = 7 b'.5. 1. Page 134. . 2. . *.*. : XV 27.840.15 x. 3. . 32+ mi. 4.r. 200 mi. 43. 26. i. 9. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 5. 7. OJ." ^ 2.1. 9. 7. 4. 50.1. 11. : 23. 6. 3.J.36. Page 137. 2. 19 3 . 3. 13J. () Directly. 22. 39. x y = 1 = 3 2. 25.12.. 40. 55.5. x:y a: b.1.) 31.x a. $. 2. 49.4. 6. 13.4. 11. a +b 1. 4. x 42. 22. ini. . 5.7. 7. 7. 9. 30. \\. 8. 54.12. lo mi. 11.. 31.. 7. 2. 4. 24 1 (e) Directly. 5.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. 5. 4. 5:3 = 4: x. Page 132. 1. (a) Directly. 4. 3. jc:y = n:m. 9.ANSWERS 22. : : T 1' : /> : . Page 9. mi. 17. 1 rt * vm^1. 27. 2. 945 11 10 . 17. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.17. 41. 2.li. copper. in. 5:0 = 10:12. tin.6. 28. 2. 35. land. 19. 7.5. 9. J pq. 8. 12. 4.C ?/ a . 5.2. (I. 4.4. 36.5. 2. 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 19 OJ. a~. J. 12. ig 6. 5. s<i.5.5. 2.2. 8. 11. 2 n . . 8. 16. 57. OJ. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.1. 10.2. 9. 20 cu. 2. 1. 5. 26. 1 18 = 3 51. 1. "lO.57. a 3.1. 13. 4. 2. 36. 6.3. 11. 3. ft. 7. 17. 14. 3 2=3 x. 1(5. . x +y x + 74 7 \.15. 3. 18. cu.5. 21. 3  24. 7. 56. 12. 1. 2. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .3. 38. 6*.22. Page 131. 4. . 5. l. ~ 1. 8. 2. 7^. 3}. 52. in n. Inversely. 2. 1.4. 40. 4. 45. Page 133. 6. 31J.20. Page 136.3.3. 12. 25. 3.000 sq. 19. 7. 20. Page 135. 2. water. 25. x y y . \.5. t 5. w. 53. 16. 2. (</) ft.3. 3.160. a f 2 2 = 5 x. y a y = 7 0. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 .2 x. .3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 15. 6. 20. 23.8 oz.3. 48. 2.J 3. 24. 10. + b 7 . 11 5 . : : . 30.4. 7. y 1. 7. 2./':</ c a f :y=2:9.3. : . w 8. 2. + W. 59. 3. y :y =. 21. 4. b x 37.7.' : : : : <>. 3. . 1. 2. 5 2.46. 8. Of. 10. 7. 3. 15> 9. 3. 41. 2. 1.3.]. 13. . 16. 15. 1. 8. 174+ Page 128. .2 oz. . 2. 23. I. 14. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 9. 7. () 7 Page 126. 3. 6 10 = 12. 44. 46.9. 20 20 J ^. 3. 10. mi. 9. 29. 58. 1.
4. 4. 31. 2.. 11. 10^ gms. 2. 20. 11./hr. 7. 5. June. 32. 5. ad _(?jrJL. 4.1J. 19. 11. 2 a. 9. 3.. 3. 3. Jan. $250. 4. 16. Jan. 17. 12.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. ' . $3000. 9. 3). 4. 00. 1. & part of Feb. 6. . .9. A's 50 13.33. On the y axis. 5. M 2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 2. 1. a. July. 30. . Oct. Nov. Aug. 2. 12. A's 30 18. u 2ft. 2.  11. ' 6 3 a. 16. at 15. 3. 12. 23. 13. (a) 12. 2. m . 7. 30. 5. 5. 10. $ 1000. 9. 8. 6. 7. 20 to Oct. (c) . 10. 4. 2 horses. 5. Apr.4. 9. J. 3. 26. 1. 25.3. 1. 1. (ft) 20. 15. 1. 1. Page 146. 4. 20. 3.$2000.. (ft) 23 J. (a) Apr. Jan. 2. 30. 12. 14. 90. 40. 3. 2. 7. 2. 6. 6%.n + p. 11. 1. yrs. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.  17. 6. 7. (<f) 13. On the x axis. 14. be 7.0. ^. . Page 153. 2.. 2. 24. 6. <*ft/ bd 1. . & May. 6. 23. C's 30 yrs. 3. 10 sheep.65. 3. 3. 18. A a parallel to the x axis. Apr. 40. . 1 (c) Jan. 2. July 20. Page 22. Page 149. Page 142. Page 151.8. 19 gms. 16.4. 423. 5%. On 11. 2t2. 3. . 7. 7. 18. 2. 3. 17. 15. 5. 6 cows. 23f . 3. 72. Nov. 3. 19. 8. 1. 5. 24. 147. The ordinate. 20 & Oct. 18. 8. 1. Nov. . 10.XVI Fagel39.. 4. (5. 13. ft 3. 6.. About 12f. m + n p.  Zn  "(^ll 14. Feb.4. 10. 7. 13.3. ad AzA. 16. 7. a =J (n  1) rf. 16. parallel to the x axis 0.$5000. .l. 2. 4.2. 4 mi. B's 40 yrs. 2. 2. 5. 21. 3. 3. 100. 17. 4. yrs. May 5. B's 15 yrs. 22. 4. 24. 3. 4. 10. 0. . Page 152. 4 ' q.0.2. $6500at3Ji%. 25. 26. . m f 9. 4. m f 8. . 18. July. 27. 1. 0. Nov. SL=J o ft r^2. Page 145. 9. 20. 16. = ^ a Page 141. $500. 6. 15. 25. C's 10 yrs. through point (0. 2.3. 25. $900 5%.^. 29. 4. .7.10. Jan. 1 (d) Apr. 11. 8. &. 3.1. 12. Page 143. 20. 28. 2. $4000. be 10. 4. 20.1. 7. Jan. 24. 5. 11. Apr. 3. 3. & part of Sept. 21. 16 to July 20. 14. 9. 1. 0.
13 . . 9 and Page 166. 1^. 1. H. 14. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 20. 1. 17. . . 1 23. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. (e) 2. \ft) 5. .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 8mW. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 10. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 15. xW.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 10. 1. (a) 2. 4.2 (ft)  1. G.1. 18. (a) 5.73. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4. 18C. 3. 13. . 19.75.25. 1.13.1.41 and 23. 125 16.24. .59. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. .83. 11.24 . a + ft. 27. . 2. 7. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. Indeterminate. 4. 4wn8 + n4 5. xg . 2 2 22. 1 4. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3.75 (ci) 3^. .25. . 13. 2. (ft) and (d) 2. 1. 2ft4 Page 168. * 16. (c) 14 F. 12. 14. 1. 2. Inconsistent. 27 19.75. 8 a1. 5. 14. 3. 21. ft 2 4. 1.67. 10. (c) 7. 5 and 2. . 2. 5. ft . 8. 11. 2.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. jgiooyiio 17. (<?) 2.41 and . 81 ". (a) 12.73 ami . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 26.5. (/) 3. 2. 2.79. 3.7. 28. 15. 3. (gr) 21. () (rt) 3. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . . H. 8.6. 2. 3. _ 9 x ^27 1 . (ft) (ft) 2. 1. 30.3. . 0C.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .17 (ft) (c) 2. 5. 22. 4.. 1. 1. 13C. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.3.73. 5. 3. .24. 24. ' :=_!.  12 ft xW  26 31.59 . 2 l. Inconsistent. (/) 3. 5. 3 . 15." 23. 3. 4. xy.  . 83. 3. 25. 1.75. 2.25.. 4. 16. 1.64. 6. 2. 0. f12 wi 9. 2 a&m Page 167. 2. 22. f.. 1. 9. 2. +3 4. . . 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 1. 5.5 (ft) 3. f 10. m. SlstyW 7. Page 163.4. 2. 15 . 20. + a 4 ft* . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. (ft) (d) 2. . Page 164. 11. Page 158. . . 8 1 f f g*. 14. 1. 10 C. 24. .  1. . 13.5. 5.25. (a) 4. 125 a 8 12. 3. 6.64. 3. 9. 3. . 2. ImW. Indeterminate.27. Page 159. .25. (e) 3. 3. 19. . 3. 30. 2. 12. 2. . 4. 4}. 2. 8. 3. 1. 125a 28.. 4 ) 21. 3. (ft) 2. 1. a 29. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. a 6o&i85 c i5o . (c) 2.  1.79.73.83. 1. 3. 1. 32F. 27 27 81.84. 3. f.34F. 2. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 3.
. 15. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 4. 16 6 w . 9. 2 2 7. (Gx + (i + 2a. 1. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 8 /. + i)). +35. 72. 8. 2038. . (4a2 9& 2 13. 20. + y). AN S WE no . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 16. 7. 237. /> 4 ).5). 17. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 16.7 /)). 6. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 9. 3.5. 20. 26. fe *?>' ?> fi . 35. 119. 1247.^). (a 2. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 10. 98. 2.x ). 309. 300. 23. 247. 33. r> 4 : 1 . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. (ly). + Z).6.3 ab + 2 2 ). 32. 20. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 13.  +X '. rt . 3 2 ^. 4. 1. 8. 5. 24. 30. 15. 4. 31. 2 2 4. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. (2 a + ft). 3. 14. 14. 12. 11. 90. Zll. Page 170. 13. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). a 2 . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 0. . . 40. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 8. . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 8. 8. (x' l). 14. 10. 2. 12. 90. 3M. ). 2 4 8 2 . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.f 1 m 9 16. 5.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 763. 6. . 1. 5. 76. 11. 420. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (3a.1. c 10 6 :l 20. 2. a: l . I 8x2). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 34. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 84. 64. 6. 4. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 19. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 19. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .GO a c + 23. . 1. 15. 180 . 10*. (a + y+l).94.1. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). + 29. (l + x + . 18. Page 172. 71. 3. + + ?V 22. 5 5 8. + (win .r 2 + S:r2/2 ).a b 22. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 12. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. (1 (x2y). 2.83. 5. . 2(> + ( 2 7>).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . Page 171.XV111 7. ? .  x. 2 49 . 9. 15. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. ?7i 1 1 3 1. . 3 6 23. 27. 25.+3^ + 4. 9. 14.037. ^i. 11. +3 + 5 4. 6 (\x 3. 3 2 8 3 12. 17. 30. 10 x G a 4 . 7. 6. 21. 70. + l). GOO 2 c 2 . a. 18. 7.y2 ). 2.r 2 + 6jt).10 a~ + 5 a . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 22. 00. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . m 13. .i c 6 15.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. Page 176. 36. ( Page 174. ? : 1 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 18. 57. 10.2). 16. (ab + c). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 28. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 101. ??i ?i . a. 17. 20. (x + y\ 90. 6. 99. 9. a ). 978. 2 12. 5. 25 19. (a + 2 +l). 11. (48 + 6. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 1 1 ?>). 21. 9. 3.
13. ^^7m. 3. 34. 23. V35 1. 19.. () 2. 30. 14. Page 183. 36. 1. Page 177. 17. 2. 14. 6. 29. 4. 17. 5.18. . 4. 2] see. 8. (afl). 5083. 11. .ANS WERS 22. 11. 2. 5. . 21. 20. 7. 21yds. ZLlAiK 19.935. 2.4. i. 18. 3J. m. . 2 sec. 7. >TT 26. 3.V 8j. 4. \/3. 4. ft.}. 2. 4.237. 14. 6561. J. . 1. 16. 2.916 yds. 8. 3. 11. 39. V. 6. 33.?. or 3. 3.  2.798 yds. 5. 9. 5. 1. 26. }. 7.  43. 10. 49. 5. Page 184. i ^. 4 a. . 12. 19. 13. / 11. 20.469. 7. 1. 1. 10.243.. 1.690. w. 4. 2. 28. 2. 5. 8. ~ V^3.  1. 44. or 5. 15.522 38. 12. f 3. 13. 3. 15 1 10. 8. 9 15 ft. Page 179. 3.236. If ^. 11.6. a. 5f. 5. 7 45. 4J. m. 7.w 18.645. Page 185. 15. 7}. 21 28 ft. l~8. V2. 40. 27. 32. 2. 35. 10. > w ft. f. 2. 13. 1. 16. 2. 21. 6. 31.6. Page 181.Sn.1. >i 27. 39 in. 4.  3. V2. 10.5. (6) Vl4 3. V17. 7.. vV'TA 24. 29.. 5. 33. 6V'2J. 4. 7. ft. 35. a + 61. 25 J. 6. 9.6.6.4. 12. 24. 5. 50. 16. 46. 1 7. 22. 9. 42. 4. 48. " ^_ 22. ^. 1. . 4. JJI. 15. 1 38. 25. 37. 5. 5. vYb. V J l. 10. 6yds. 7.. 36 in. 7.  f.a. 32. . 31. 13. 270 sq. . 4. 10. 14. 20. . 5. 30.. Page 180.367.. 9.*. 14. * 1. 6. 8. Af^.5. 28. 10. ft. f ^ is. 9. 29. 3. 12. 39. 7563. 2. 12. 4 n. f.4. 47.i. 8. . .  5. xix 26. 10. 36.. 3. 5. 1&. v 17. 21.925 ft. 1. *. 27. f f V. 37. 6. 4 TT M 28. 9. 9. 7. 7.005.13. 1. 15. 6 f !. 3. /. 12. _ iVaft. 3. 18. 1.  14. 4 W**. 11. 5. 15.. 3. 3.  f. 3. 28 in. (< + ?>). 6V21. 34. 10. 9. 16n. 41.742 in. 4. 2. 6J. 25.1. 23. 7 in.6.60. 12. 2. 12. 23. f .. ^. 17. 3. 6. {. 16. 4. 24. ii :J _7. 21 in. 1 f Vl3. 40. 6.
VV11. 6. jr . rational. 1.. V2.XX Page 186. unequal. Real. 6^2 in. 2. 28. equal. . 16. in. V ~ 16 4 2.7.74.  Page 194. i.1. 3. f. 31.* 2. ^l/>> = 85 ft. f 6 52 a. Page 188. 22.2.3. 3. 3. 2. 1.  1. 6. 3.6 = 0. 10 in. 4. 56. 25. . 23. rational.2. 64. 0. 1. 3. Imaginary. 4. 7. 50. 2. 25. 6V64.l. 2. . 10 mi. 23. x 14. 27. 21.a.2. 8. . 10. 2.2. If. x* 51. 48.$40 or $60. 14. 7. Real. 3. 42. 2. . .37. + 11 x. 1. V7. .2. 6. i . 47. 7. 1. 3. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 4. rational. 15. 20.2. 0. 15.a. Real. 1. 3. 3. 13. 1. 20 eggs. 20. Imaginary. unequal. 3. 0. . 2.12..1. 2 ft. unequal. 1 . $80. 1. 2 V3 in. '  f 5. H. f. 4. 2. _ 19. 0. 25. . 19 in. 2.2. 24. 12.. 37. 20. 16. 7. 11. 13. 2. 23. 5.0*8. .4. AB = 3. 8. 1. 5 ft. 4. 24. 6.  9x <). 2. irrational.6.  1. a8 . 16.4. 2./hr. Real.70. irrational. Imaginary. 7. . 49. Page 187. a. 2.2.10. 1. . x2 + B . . . 3if. Real. 12. 14.  2. 3. 5.  1. 10 or 19. 3. 0. 8 or 12 mi. 3. %. ft. 25. 20 nii. Page 190. 1. 0. U.23. a + 1. 0./hr. 8. unequal. Page 191.  2. 6. 1. 9. 4. 21. 18. 26. 4. 3. unequal.. 0. 0. 0. 0. 55. .4. 2. 2. unequal.3.62. unequal. 3. 18. s 11. 8. 22. $30 or $70. rational. a. 46. 0. Page 192. #<7=3. unequal. 26. *'' 12. 2. 12. 70 ft. .  6. 7.7.  1. 3.  i. 4.3. Real. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . . 9. 3. . 28.7. 12. 35. 0. 8\/2 17. 3. 3. 10 mi. 53. 43. 1. Imaginary. 15 ft.  24. 1.2. 0. r* i.17.  5. 1.48 3. 5. 28. 9. $ 120. 39. 26.48.5^. equal. 11. 4 da. 27. 7.59. 34. 0. 3. 1 3.  5. 3.1. 2.a 3 a. 36. 44. ANSWERS 22. 3. 38. 2. 6. 32. 15. 33. 40. equal.5 x + 6 = 0. 2. 1. 19./hr. 120 ft. 57. 1. V^l. 10. 12. 52. . v^^fcT"^. AB = 204 ft.  1. 6. 6. .2.02. . 5. 1. 6. 19. 2. V2. (5 10. 7. 30. 64c. Page 189.. 17. 4. V^~2. 41. 0. 21.]. . 9. 27.2 x2 .4. 4. 58. 26. 1).Oa. ' 1. a + 6.  13.23.4. 24.12 = 0. 35. 3. 2. 29. 2. 45.41. Real. rational. 18. 2.5. = 0. 2 . orf. 6.'. unequal. 1_^L ft 14. Real. 1. 10.. x*4x=0./hr. 5. V^l. t is. 1.
3. 58. $7. 4. 31. 5. . 1. Page 201. 5. 11. 4. l  5 12. 16. 4. 1. 2.^7. 17. 2 L ( V. 16. 22. 17. 18. 3. Page 200. 1. 6. . 3. 8. 9. 35. 20. 24. 1. : . 2. 8. v^T4 m. 15. 54. v. aW\ 40. 5. 8. 15.  48. 10. Page 197. 14. 16. 1. 33. 43. 18. i. 19. 2." 17. J. 3. \/. 1. 32. ^49. 4. . 13. 20. 14. Vr. ) 2 >J i 10. ifa. 55. 3. 1. &. 47. 32. 4. m. 21. 10. v'frW. 49. 3. 1. a 18 . 17.1 5 15. 7. xxi 15. 11. 49. 45. y. 1. 2. 6  AAf. 18. 84. 3.. 50. 10. 41. 50. 19. (m 26.//^. 1. 1 39. 3. \/r\ 11. . 37. v/3. 4. J. 12. 3. 13. 29. 56. ^Sf 3 38.17. x/25. 48.ANtiWEUS rational. ). r*. 3. n\/* Page202.2. . 60. 23. 5\/5. 20. . 52. 5. JV37. 33.  a'2 . r. 44. y . . 14. 125. fx'^z'l 23. 38. 1. v'frc 18. z + 22. vm. 30. 9. *V. 25. m'. . 12*2 61. J.32. 1. \ . x. 7V7. a. 9. 14. 7. x$. 51. Jb \. 2. 12. 6. 15. 2.6. ? . 25. 29. p. 13. J 3. 10. 2. 30 a. 0. 5. 2. 19. wA 46.  f . 1V1. _! V3. 9. 59. 24. 2. 7 . vV. 27. 9. 7. 24. 49. 3. 47. 8. 28. Page 199. 8.  J j. . ar 1 . 4. V^ 34. 2. 20. 39. 33. \a\ \/^. Page 196. 2V a. 13. J. 2. 19. 23. 22. \. 53. 31. 9. 5. 21. 3 4 11. 'J. 49. 30. 57. 16. 46. 8. 27. I. 8. 36. 0. 0. 28. 40. . 26. \/3. 243. jV 10.  f. 42. 8. 4. \. 21. 3. 25. 29.  5.
4aV^J 16.2 VlO. 17. 16.2 18. r c . 101 1. 3. 8. 11. 13 35. 48. Page 207. 19. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 62V(J. 39. 3V5. x. ^: V2c. 4. abVab. / V3. V80. l 5. 3^ + 2). v'TM. 20. x + 5 x3 + 0.  a Vft 2 121 b. 20&V6. . v^. 135V6. 24. 9. 29. + . 3. Page 203. 3^2. ftV 46. (o* 2. 3. 2 x* 15. 8V/) 15. 2>X2. 26. 1. 9. 11. 45. 6. 33. . + 2). 2. 3 x^y 33. ^88". 3 4\/2.707. V 5 47. 3 \ 39. 2v (T 2aVf. 30. . 1 2 or 1 ?. 9. 34. + 1. V2 + 4 V22. ^7 \AOx. . 9 . . 13. x 7  34. 50.. ). 2.692.Vxy 35. 8.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. + 2 ar 1 ). V. 10. y. 37. k/2. 10. + + ft. 1) 3V3. 31. r 17  Page 204. 5. 29. 28. 5. 4. 5 22. 7. x y. 25. 26. 2 a?>V2 a. 27. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). x^ . 10. (x' (l 1+x). Va 2 "ft. 24. V. a 3.yl : . 8a6V5.577. 51. 5 ( . 2. x 25. 2.632. 32.XXii ANSWERS 1. Vr 8. + 2 Vzy + y 1. x%  3 ^+ 1. 36. y (a + ft) V2. 40. 3 42. 11V3. V63. 19. 2.x^y* + y%. 16.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 23. 20. 34 r 6. 6. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 41. 15. + 2 V22. (a 27. 21. JIV6. 195V3. . 3V^T. 2 '"V5. 31. yV35. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.  2 3:r. + Vic + 25. 13 a. Page 208. 03r* 7. 43.). 32. a 4 +* + !. 18. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 2 4 z2 l 3. 2. a2 4. 38.f. ?tV?w.648. a^ + 2^+1. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 40. 13. 17. m* n*. 28. 30. T. 21. v/^r 5  A/^~.rV:r. . 49. 37.'\ 14.r. 12. 7. 2\/7. 22. .3 + 40 3 .
x/8L v/27. 24. x/27. 15. 0. v 25^4714 V2"a. b. V3. 6. V3"m. 30. 9. 34. 21. v^lf. 7. 25. v^f. 31. . 52. V5. Page 213. 53. 25. xx 1. Page 214. W). x/8l. 4 >/3. 41. . V8. 5V2. 3 V15  47. \^r^bVabc.r v/^ v^fr*. 2 28. 21. ^\/3. 3. 40. fl^Vac. 5v/2. % 29. 2 1. 4\/5. 5V2. 42. 30 Vl4. 21 23. ^27. v^a. 48. x/4. 13. v/9. \^6. ^ 3 b 5 24. 12. 1. vT). 37. 16. 18. 12. 10. 13\/3. 43. v^O. \/abc*. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . ^v 7 15. 2. 39.30 2.  3. "^8000. 9. 2. V/. a2  b. 4. 5 \/2. 19. 4 a*. v/l2. 6V2. V2. 17. 2 ate. 10V(). 9. v/lO. 10. . 74\/Jl 120 46. + 20. m ?i2Vm/t.. 26. 8V73\/IO. Vdbc. 1V5. 2 \/2. v/8. 14c 4 V5. 2 V'3. 38. 22. 6. 49. 39. 11. aVa. 5.ANSWERS _ Page 209. \V3. 35. 4. V5. \^6. 6+2V5. 11. Page 216. v^30. 3. 14. 32. 8. 40. 5. ^9. 29. 10. + VlO  v y (5. : ^32. 7\/(l 7VTO. 15. 6 2\/0. 2. . \/128. 6x2?/. 44. 2\/7. 16. v"5. 8. 16. 23. 3 V2. 6. 3v^2. . 22. x/w^ 8. \/2. \/04a. 3\/15  6. 3 Vl5 30. 3\/2. x/8. 19. 13. 2. 32. 6aV2\^. 9 VlO + 4. 5. 0. 14. Page 210. . 50. / \/w/t 4 13. 23. 8  \/15. 3\/wi. 18. VT5. 37. 7. 46. 1. Vat. "v/wi ??. 17. r)\/(l Vrtr. 2. 26. 24. 3. v^4. 38. \/a6c. 6. a\/5c. . \/8. V3. ab 4. Vn.T*. v"3. Page 211. rtv/5. 4VO. 27. \XOfl6Vi5. 8V2. D 45. 36. 31. x/125. 14. 6. 27. v7^. V2. 36.J Page 212. 51. 18. 33. 3. 2yV2?/. w?i. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . a^\/a7>. '. 8v2T 12. Vtf +3+ 33. 1. x/3. 17. 28. 20. 34. 32m27n. 7. 11. 35. v/i). VJla. 3.
64. . (2Vll). ^. 125. 5. 7 f 5 4. 24. 10. (2. (V8 + V2. 5. 23.7071. 8.6. 8.3535.  . 3. Page 219. 24. 9 mn. 5.2828. i(Vf Vft). Va. j. . 2. 2x^2^.5530. (V21). 12. 37.V3). 4. 3(7+3V5). 4. 4. 19. 12. {.464. 2V3.\/TO). 19. J. 8 V3V2. 13. j 15. 1. 2.7083. 7 Page221. 4. Page 225.  f. 2. 15. 22. . 18. V3. 2. 22. p 6 13. 5. 6. 4.3. 12. 16. 16. 26. 18. 25. (\/5V2).XXIV 7. 12. 7. 23. (Vf + (4 V2). 4. 2V3. (2f V"5). 16. 31. 9. (3+ v/2). 10. ^.2. 29.1547. 7. 33. 5.4722. 9. 3V23. 16. (V5f 5. _^JflJ?. 5. xy 2. . 6. 1. 224. 512.732. 2.^ (\/22 4. 20. 11. 28. 23. 4. 4. 4. 17. Page 226. Va. 5 + 2 vU 17. 15. i^ ~ 1 v ^. +3 V2). n*. ^(VlO\/2).. 4. nVTl. 13. \. 17. 6. 34. 216. 9.9. 5. 2ajV2*. 1. 9. 1. 10.625 10. 23. 25. 4 14. 4. V2. 36. 27. fV2.3.  13. 21 ' Vob 26.601. Vf6fVtf. 24. Page 218. 27. 4. 2!5_. 11. 6. (V51). Page220. 15 f 3 V2L 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 25. 15. 3. 32. 30. 1. 5 f. ' 22 i . 8. 4. 1. 11. 25.2. 9. 2. (V6 + 2V2). (\/3f 1). V3 .5. 3. x 20. . 26. 7. (a 1. 1. 11. 8. . 5 V65. 4. . 16. Page 28. 20. 14. 12. 14. (2V2). 15. \/57t. 19. 4V3 + 6. 16. J. 10. m f. 100.389. 3. Page 223. 8. 11.w 6.81. 7. 23. 3. 25. 12. ANSWERS 8. ~ Vac _c 0. 20. 2. 11. . 10. 7. ^\/2. \/3). 35. 16. 9. V6c. 25. 4. 14. 1. V3. 13. 21. . V^TTfc. 15. 27. 18. 8.1. 6. 30. Page217. V5. * 3. 20. 22. 9. 5.4142. 17. 24. . 81. 7. V. 1. (VaT^v a). i^Lzi.  2. A . 21. 8.0606.1805. 81. 29. 1. ^r. 17. 3. 25. 19. 6 (V2 + 1). 16. 7. 0.13. V35. 7. (VllV2).732. !^ 6 4. + 6) 2 . 18. 10. 1. + 5V2. 14. f. 2 . K>/0 + \/2). 19. 10. 3. . 0. 8. V3.64. 9. 18. 9. 21. 2V2. 6 V. 5.6 V3.
a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2 . (m 4 + l)(ro. y.22. .  1.3). 3. 0. 4. ' J. 1. 16. (a 4. 11. .2. 4. 1 . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 11. 3. 13. 6. 3. 2. 3. . 1. 12. 11. 100. 12. 4. 4.  J. 1.8a 18. 24. 3. (&y2a#H4).  3. 3. 7.  16). 2. ~ f7. 1.2)(* .  3.3. 2. 11. & + 6 2 ). 5. 3. 30. (2 a.3. . (a . J. =A^Z3. 3. 20. 4. V3. 2. 3. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 10.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 2. 8 6 & 0. 3. . 2. . 14. 2.  . 2. 0. 3.  4.^a. 6. 7.3. 17. 50. 4 .Y. 20. 6. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 18. 2 &. 20. 1 3. 0. 13. 11. 3 5. 2.10.5 xy + 25) 22.7. 13.4. 12. 2. 3. 24. 4. ( 16. 6. 1. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 2. f>.5. 1. . (B43). . 30. 2. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 25. 6. 7. 15. 4.  3. . 13. 1.2)(m. 5. 5. 25. 2 6. 6 2 2a + 2). 30 .12. 4. 15.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3. 1. 3. 56l). (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 12. a . Page 236. 2. 0. 2. . 3.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 5. 4. 2. Page 233. 3. 0. (8.  2. 8. 9. 2. (w . 25. 2. 12 24 y . 1. (pl)(p2)(p2). . 2 V^ . 7. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 5. a  . 87 . 10. 7. 3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 5. 10. 1 . 17. 4 1. . 7. 7. 22. 5. (a+&)( 2 14.3. 12. (r. 2 > 1. 2. 5.3 2. 2 . . 16. 18. f . 2. (+!)( 2) 10. 2. 28. 3 9.  5. (a. 2 . . 1. 8. 25. 1 . 4 20. 4. 3 . . 3. 2. 6. b . 2 . 2. 19.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).  f . (4 mn .2. l. 73. 1 6. 1. 4. 15. (pl)(p3)(p6). 13. 5. Page 234. 1. 4. 3. 14. 1 . 3 . 9. 1. 8. a: :} . 2. 5.ANSWERS Page 228. 26. 1 (?> x/^3. 3. 21. XXV 4. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 0. qpl. 10. . . 5. 19.r . 1. 3. 4.l)(a 2 + a f 1).4.0. . 22. o. 4. 21. 4.. 8. 10. 8. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 3. 4 4. 2. 1. 3 . 10.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). J Page 235.nl^EI. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (rt. 30 30. 2. (63)(6' t 18.l)(m . 1. 2 6. 4. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 0.1. 1. 8. 4. .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 4. . 2 <? 4a2 . 3. . 1. 4. . 5. 9. J 24. 4 . 5. 1 . a(. 73. 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).3. . 2. \/0. //. 1.  1.l)(a3)(a . 11.4). (a. 23. 7. 5. t/ 23. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).2.w 4 + 1). 6. 14. 17.3.1. 2. J. P. 19. 0.4.
0. 2.. 45yd. 8. 5050. . x 4. _ 13 (0 6.  1. co . 17. _ 7. 1 . 15. 7.. 3 . 13. 4. 2 2. 5 cm. 11. 9. . oo . 36. 12. 4. 7. 7f solution. 7. 35 ft. 4. 1. Page 247. 78. 3. 5. }. 26. 5 4. 12. 1. 2. 9. 20. 3. 3. 2. 1.6. 6. 3 3.4. . 1.3. 2. 3. . 19. $. 4. 39. Page 243. . 84. 2 1. 2 Y> V . 3. 3. . . 18. 5. (a) $3400. 14. J. . 38. = QO 6. 8. 40. 2. f. 5. 3. ( 3. 18. 30. 2 10. 2. 4. 2n. 3 2.3. i. 30 13. Page 240. 8 3. \.1. . in. 17. 1J. 1 . 4. 1.136. J. 3. 3. . 9.3. Page 238. 22. in. . 5. 25. i'ljVU. 1. 900. 5. 3. 14. Page 241. 5. 4. 50. 5. 7. 3. 6. 12. 1 2. 1.3. 1. 31. 12.18. 125 125. 40 in. 1. 29. 512. . Indeterminate. 1. 4. 7. 4. . V3~. 2. in. 2. 2. 1. . 1 .4. 3 .e. 11. . 37. 1. f*. and _ 4. 9.  11. 1. Page 245.2. 22.. 288.3 . 3 . 14. ft.020. 11.0. 9. 40 25 in. . . 35. 5. 16. $46. . 5. i i i . 7 3. 11. 4. . 3. 15.13.3. (&) 2.. 2. 48. 32. Page 244. 1. 1. 4. 5. 6. 1. 3. 16.4. 1. _ 10. J. no co . 3. 4. 11. 2.3. 12 ft. 5. 0.  . 8. 1.0. 3. 10. ANSWERS 2. ft. 19. 15. 201..30. 1.. n. _ 5. 3. '>. f>. . 1. 3. Page 248. 8ft. . . 2. 2. . 5. 4. Indeterminate. 4. 17. 1. 4. 2 . 2. 5. ri*. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft. n . . jj. 14. . 14. 55. 3. in. 4. 1. 1 . 37. 1 . 8.200.1. 15. m + n.y. } . 20. 18. 4. 13. 2. 3. V7. 2.1. 10. ' j. 28yd. 1. 7. . 7. 9. . 2>/3. oo. 10. 50. 4.. 4. 2 26. \/6. 17. 31. 5.. 3 cm. 12ft. 5. 12. .5. 3. 2 ft.3. 3V5. 13.. 35 a. 30. m27. 5 . 4. tn 2. 2. 400. 23. 10. 3. 35^ 5. 12 1. 4 8. 14. . 2 . 69. 20 7. 16. 5. 23. Exercise 114. 3. $VO. (/>) "_. oo . 14. 20 in. (>. 1. 2. 24. in. 21. 8. 1. Page 239. 2. 6.5. 8. 1. GO . ft. 3. 15. 21 30. 37. ^~2. . 512. . i j. Exercise 113. 3.. 17. 1. 3.  2 . 12. +  n. 8 . J. 41. 6. 11. 1. 24. . 4 6. 1. . 4 . 3 4. ^ }. j. . 33. 5. . $. 12 d. 2 . (a) 5.4. 4 34. m28. 17. 1. . 4. 8. 8. 2. 2. 15. 3. 2.6. 2V7. 1. 21. 2 16. 15.xxvi Page 237. 2. c. 1. 5. 0.
12. . 17. 5. 3. B . \ w 4 . 343. 9. 9. 3.1. 10. 8. 1000 aW.r x>/ 7 3. 0.0. 4.870 m*n*. 70. 4. 1. 16. 495. 16. 8 1.x' 10 . REVIEW EXERCISE . J 2 //2 25. 1. 8. 16. 4. 21. 75. 4. 4. 3. i 10. 29. 1. JSg. 8. 1.6 . 3. 14. r 5 4.419. 280 53. 1. 27. 2.120. 7 2 x 4 x8 . Y11. 2. x r 4. 04.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . vy.5y 4 . 10.5 x. 0. 4. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 12. 220 . 2. 11. 4. 5.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 910.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 0. a. 16 11. . '23. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 125.12 x*y 16. Page 254. 1820. 12. 25. 10. . 48. 6. 5. A. 12.r 4. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 6. . 1. Page 252. 405. 7. 2i* 7f. 128.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 4. 17. 1JH. 11. 12. 8J. 343. 2. Jj? 45. I. 15. 16. 8 4x' 2 . 0. 4. 7. 32.2 9. 6. 5. . 04. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. <. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1. 5. ?/i 6 x llj .920. 10 14. 8 . 70. 0. **+. />*.210.3 ays. 9. G. Page 259. 5. f y 8 + z* .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 8. 2. 35.<2 4. ^a 8. 28.ANSWERS Page 250. Page 258. 7.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 81. 10. 23. 20. sq. 1. 8.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. x + Vy. 304. . 0. 1 14. 2.^ ?>i 2412x4. 4.7 10.  17. 26. 44. 100.5. 3. &' 14. 8. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 5. . } $ 50. 4. 20. 12. 12. 18. 27. 22. 16.384. a4 4 14. 17. 18. 4. 0. 19.700. 2. .v Page 253. 18.r* 4 70 . 11. 8. 45 Page 257.2 45 a 8 /). ' 1. 0. 50. 45. 4. 005. 2. 7 x4 17.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 125. . 2. 3. 53. 3. 6. r r j.680. 105. 3. ~ an . 55. 6. .6. 2. 15.8. 9. 15. 35. 5. 7. 18. 3. in. 9. 19. 15. 05. 27. 27. 8. ~v 9. 12. 43. 19.  20 flW. 3.504. . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 5. 7. 10.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . x4 . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 10. 0. . 4 0. (). 70. 4.4 &z x>&.5. 21.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 8. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 4. 13. 6. 15. xxvii 1. 5.  101. Ja. 6. 7. 20. 3. 192. 7. 5 13. 9. 22. 2. 7. 13. 8. 5. d.192.4. 410.170.53. 1. 4. 120 aW. 45. 3. 1. 708. . . 1 7 4. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 2. 2.13. and 1. 13.470. 6i.130 x30 189 a 4 24. . 3. 4. . 327. w9  8. c. 1. 6. 16. 16.
5 42. 1 121. . . 109. 114.4 x y 87.6 b. az 4. ^ . x2 a2 1 .4 2 4 c2 42 . 2 x2 108.4. 127. ?/ .  e +/. 120. f5+7. .rty x2 4 123.ac 44 aft. 21. 29. 131. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.105. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.3 103.^a . 24. 38.9 b.2 x 4. ft n . 4 115. .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.x x*  f 2 ax 4.4 x 2 . y 4 z* 0. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . x4 f + 23 . x 8  a8 . &p 84. 4 65. 3a'2 Page 261. 6 a2 97. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 43. . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 61. x 8 + x 4 68. ft /> 78.1. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .3 b . () 2 x 33. .c.  12 a. 4 fee 4. 2 q. 31. (a + ft)" 98. Page 263.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 96. 28. 104. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 4 15 x 5 . 1 . . 2 x'V2 90. 5x 2 2x43. . 26. a4 x. 4 Page 264. 88.5x4. 3~ n 4. /> 4 83.2 x^. 25. a~b 89. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . .1. ?/ 3. df. 4.15 4 62 x  72.c. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. x 2 . 4.18 x?/0. 8 .4.a*ft 2 126. 62.18 ?/ 5x4.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .x24 73. xyxzyz. .1.4 x?/2 3 4. 16. x 3 4.a'2 c.a6 2 4.3 a'ft. . a' 111.y*. 35. * 60. + a 4.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 66.1 4 jry 4 x . 93. 105. 82. t 81. x . 6 c 47.3 y. . 3 36 b c .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 86.{ 54. x8 x2 55. x } 4.4 ac. 130. 80. . . !! 71. 2 2/' . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3 a 44.7 x   15. . 100. a 3m 4. x' .9 x . 125. _55_7c 48. 4 2 . a* a 8 a aftc. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 4 69. 14 x . 72. . 76. 243x4729.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 3 a 5 a 5.3 . 39. 0. 0. c3 4 58. a 4 . 2 113.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 64. 10 a 12 b. ft2ft 4 4l.x 2 4.ft). 27. a J . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 49. 102. Page 260. 124. 3 a . as 20. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.c 3 4. 7 + 3 xf 2..5. . 23.7. 40. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.5 3n 4.  + 3 x2 . 1 a"* 4 an .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.x4 + y'2 z 4. 30. x 3 41. 3 c . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 . 132. 1 + 4 xy. 99.1. 133. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 6a6c. 16t/.3 x 2 + 3 x . 13 + 2 s. 52.2. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 5 4 4.2. x2 2 . x' 79. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 9 2w 128.a' 'ft 4. 2 . 4 ! . a2 2 aft 2 2.41. x* . 22. 122. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 91. 94. a* 4. 46. . 4. 2 30 . 2 a.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 110. 1 x 45. x 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 12 x. 118.xxviii ANSWERS 19. + 3 a?. 63.  . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().  4 a3 85.2 c . x2 471x4. . . +^ + ft W. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 36. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.5 b + c . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 4 .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 37.a 2 x 2a . 10 4. 12 a/.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .x. 32. ?> . 0. . 2 x2 4. . 70.x 51. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.fee 2 4. 9x. 8x3 8x.  3 x2 . 5x + 2y~z. 4ft y3. 2 .3 aftc. . + z. 3a~2c.6 am b\ 129.2.4.1w 77. 2 53. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.a. m " + n + P3c . I 57. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 50. 107.4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. .
20. 162. 208.6)(4 + 6).m)(x + a). 187. 235. ?. 224. 170.y)(z . 2. 30 + xyr. 36ft. 30. 10). 2 (4 x .r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).1). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 20. (3x2?/)(2. 3. 232.. 231. Page 265. . y3. (y 7f))(y 196.  1. 22. + 22). x(x + 6) 213. aft.3.. 210. Iff 145. 189. 247. (a} 59.r . (ab + 8) ( 7). 153. 171. as 194. 21. (r7y)(ai. 240. 147. 1. . . 15  a.y)(jc + 7 y). 212. 186. 7. + 7)(rt4). (x + 2)(x . + 3) (x f f>) . 4. 163.l)(y + 1). 12) (j. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . + y. 236. p. 177. 10). 211.2 )(x+y) 228.1(5) 200.9)(xf 2).ANSWEKti 135. 15. 142. (5 x .1). Or (a + 2)0el). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). ft. z(x10)(xl). 149. . 12 yr. 241. 2. 150. 191. 195. 12. 201. 138. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 23 18. 136. p. 50. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). (?/+l)(yl). 158.2. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 1. Page 266. a(a. (/ 246. a. 155. 175. 2. 222. yr. r>x 2 (4x. . ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 183. (r^x + 1). (x + 6)(x6). (a 2 + 2a6. 12. (y _ ft)(y 4. 205. (x 227. (6) 40. (233). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (y  17)(y + (>). fc'2a+62c). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 219. + 11) (a 10).2).1). 2(x8)(x3). 218. G7.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 209. (7x2//) 203.y2 ). +)(x2 x^+2. Page 267. (a& 192. 24. (y7)(y + 188. (8x + 3)(3x4). 199. 220. 146. 159. (x . 238. 218. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 48 h. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 75. 197. 169. (. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 230.2). 137. 239. 214. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 167. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).y). (x^ + x1) 234. 215. 148. 1.3 y)(a .y + 3)(r (.I2y). 6). 8 204.r + 4). 226. 140. 152. m. 37 1. 182. 12 yr. 244. 10 ft.. (c) 160 C. y 245. 4. + 2) + 9a.6 . (2a + l)(a . 147 mi. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 40 yr.3) (2/3y). 217. 164. 178. 181. 15.4xl). 2. y. 12 6 panes.3). 151. 207. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. . 156. 166. 5.3 y).l)(a 2 +3). (x  42 yr. 193. (2 198. 168. 1. 233. 1. 202. (7 c 2 ). 10. 143. 176. 161. 190. 10 in. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 160. 6. 19. (3x  . 154. + 3). 180. a 2 (15.. 1. 174. 2^. 6.2) (3 x .c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 237. 172. HI. 2 2 (a. 1. a + 2x2 ). (y_24)(y5). (JT y 225. C3 y _l)(. 144. 184. 2.6) (2 x + 1).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 3. 3(x . 18. 32 h. 179. y  y 165. 157. ( + 2y)(2x3y).y) (\r3y)./_4). 206. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 1. k.2ac + 229. xxix 139. 216. 8(ar}(/)27). 173.l)(x8 + x2 . 185. . 30 yr. 2 xy(3 x .
43 '^rJ'. 2. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. x . Ca&c 1)(M 253. > 4. 3). 10. x12. 250.1. 307.  7.4) 1) (3 x . ^ 299.4). 3  262.(x  4) (x4 304. ?^ZLiZ 308. 7^T 2 . 7. *>). 2 x  3.^ ^^. 310. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. o(x4l). 264. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 263. 251. x 267.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.  3xyf x// 257. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 269. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . *. ? 1) 302. x ?/ z 1. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 295. &). 306. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . + f. 298. x 283. 260. a~ ' b*). 0.. (7 255. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 266. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 303. 2 4 300. 249. 3. ^/>J.2* i^^ !^. a. 259. 4 5. 3). 261. 0. 5. 254. 301. 268.   . 279. 7 x 265. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 256. o. 258.^^^^^^^^. 305.
5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). Page 277. 1. y 4 I 340. 407. 387. <L 409. 386. 6 ?/+:>. 2 ?/ 363. 399. 364. 9^. " 4 378.XXXI Page 272. x 54 359.  1 356. 2 r36 384. 375. .!. 2. 360. 383. 13 391. 325. 11. 326. 355. 404. 4. 380. ?=. * 357. l . 329. f. 2. 1. 1.J . 12. l'j. 400. 2(a i 403.. 336. 401. ?/ + 3 332. S. 390.(5 a . 4 A.3. a) A^_. Page 274. 2(q. 3. ?>*. a +6. A^L5L. 361.. + 335. T\. . 382.  1. 0. 388. 370. 2 ). **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. c 402. + x 362. 393. 6a. 397. 394. 4. 366. 324. (a + b + c\ . 392. a + b + 6). 0. _*L'L+. 389. + 4 & 4 \ b. . 398. 334. ^ 3 // . 7/i ^ _ . 379. 395. 1. 377. If.H ' 2wi ^' /' . . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.1.)Cr4)__ . 408. 7. 405. 2 ab  a Page 276.". j 328. 339. 1 i 2 ^. 4 rw. 385. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. 396. 406. 3. 0. L . 376. 0. T+^. 2 327. 333. 20.vin a /r " 337.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. ab. 365.7. . ^"" 4 s . 3. . ^_:r f> 331. m. a 2 . 343 00 351.
10. .7. 496. 502. A 5 mi . 22.7. 459. 492. L (c) I. 21. 12. Page 282. 2.te + . 6.46. c 6fc 10. 435. 1. 423.7. 8. 5. 5. not true. (a) 1. 477. : />a. 494.  505. 5. . 14 miles.. 454. 497. 2. Page 278. a* 424.. 506. (&) 443. Page 281. 17. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab.  10. 53 yr. 426. ISJini. . + () 433. 4. 8.  7. 482. 6. 463. 17. z8 +?/ 3 431. 0. 467. 418. (&) true. 476. . 495. . 5J. 0.rz Page 279. 478.2. 493. . 420. '. ^r?i 434. 6.  7. 10$. 40 oz.  2f 504. 422. 40. & 491. . 484. (c) not true. 0. 498. 448. 410. 0. 4.  1. .  2. 486. 457. 7. 2 a 2. 3a 4 5. 450. 84.. 479. 427. 500.55.m  m+ M in. 1 a /?$+&?. 430.12.4. \. I. * . 7. ^. 2. L2 a  6 . 2. 490. a + + ft c. m.489. 487.}. 481. . 0. . a 22 . 419. 458. 455. 2. 508. />c c(f be. fc. 3 . 32 yr. .7. 2. 460. (d  6) f.0. \ 1. 452. .488.. 1. 3. 429. 18. . 447. ^V.0. <L+ 6 (. 445. 6. 5. 8. 1. fj. 412.3. 11. 411. 1$. 3. 464. 2. B $ 2500. 503. 20. (d) true. 50.5. 90. . 2 438.  . 444. 446. Page 280. 24 days. 461. 32. 6. m 1 : wi. 440. .. 2$. 456. 4. 3. 485. 7 : . 2.7. 439. 507. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 10.. . 428.2. 1. . 6. 432. 441.1. 10. 413. .  1.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. ft 5.4. 0. c. 51. 472. 465. 10. 462. ' $260 at 0%. Page283. ISjmi. 468. $2000 at 0%. 501.  2. !L=4. 42. 9. 28 yr. 421.}. i. 2. B 4 mi. 436. 7.  2. 6. 5. 33.3. 0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0.  453. 5. 7.  f>. 480. 8. 63. 2. 1. 20 yr. A $ 3500. i a b 451. 425. 10. b 449. 483. 7. 466. 10. (a  c). 499. 442. 4. 10.vz in. *+.
33. .83. 576. H.38.75. 5. . 577. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. .   (h) 8.7. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .1.30. 556. 3. 1 . a*8a + 24tf 82a.75. 2.4. 3 .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.6.4. 510. 7^ da. 1.  ft*. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 2 . 603. 3. 5. 4. Roots imaginary. (c) 4. 509.1. 4 0. 583. f ? a f ft __ + c C).37. 566. 0000.3. 1 580. 24 da. 1. 2(6 597. 553. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 1. 3.  4.12. 561. 562. 2 1. y% Z * 586.6 2. 5.4. 581. 3. 525. 1.3.5. a+ Page 286.. 1 600.. 6. 515. 6. 2 2.7.7. 1. 550. da.% rr\* 585. 512. 564._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 3. 579. Page 287. . 1. 2. 514. (gr) 10 1. 555.  2ft da. 582.1. 1. . . f. a + ft  a  f c. 598. tin. .02.8. + 6 tf f 3 .62.03.5.  imag. . 1. M ft c 2 ft 3465. a f ft + c. 4. 533. 554.54. . If 572.f 1. 559.78. 568. 5. 14.5.0. 4.0. 558. 578.31.37. 1. Page 288.24. .5. . f36a28x8 592.73.62.24 sec.03. 3. 1.51. 40 Ib. y 4.  1. T . 1.3. 2 10. 3. 31.9.  . o> .  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . <z ft 1. 591. (e) (c) 2. . 2. 2. 2.4. 3. 551.6. 1. _ 3. 1$. 1J. 2.54.6. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 3.00. ft 584. (a) 74 Ib. 3. x8 .  3. + 12 x .02. 552.1.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.8. 1.14. 529. 4. 0.3.1.6.5 f.05. (6) . J7] min. + 26 + .  2. (/)  10 to 8.88. 569. 4. 1. .15. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 3 da.25.20.8. . lead.02. 7. _^ 2754x . 530. . 527. 528.5+.  + + c.  (a) (d) 1. 4. 513. 4. 6435. 1.3.8 x3^. Page 285. 2$. 4. xxxin 511. per hr..ANSWERS Page 284. 4 mi. (e) 570. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). . (d) 537. 518. 24. 2 . > ^ . . (i) 3. 1.8. 21*_. 571.  7.2.16.31.55. 599. 536. (6) 3. S82 c.1.04.21. (ft) 4. 2.15. .3. lead. _ 4.3. 3.r8 596. 516. 1.. 526.. (ft) Ill Ib.56 sec. 2 1. per hour. . 2. g(rc+ 6c). 8 mi. 4. 574. f.24.83.10.0. . . 2. . 1. tin. or 8. . ^ ft 4.10. 115 Ib. 3. 4* da. 563. imag.4. 2(4 602. 575. 3. 531. . 3f 4f. 1. 1. .3. (c) 3. 8. 532.52. 560.78. 573. .  557.4 x + . 27 y* f\4 . 1. . 1.  J(a f + 2c). 567.25m. 232.xj/ f xV .4. 593.15.  (a) 2.04.0.53.02. 565. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 1 .35. 2 imag.5.
2092.>A 610. 1. 703. 1 2.  684. 4 V 0. 650. 641. 640. 3 681. . 0. 708. (a3&45rj. 1$ 639. 666. . 50.  6. 692. 4. .001. 2f.  . 3. 629. 9*. 647. a 4. . . 1. If 658. 210.702. 3 a. ^.  ft. If f 667. 0. 645.. . 2.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 615. a 1J. ix 2 .049. 649. a ' 2 + . 643.3. 636. 13. 696.  3. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. i. I}'/. 4 676. 2 / 2 4. 651. 2 a  6*. 7. z  1. (*_ + a: 611. 700. 5. ^^ 695. ' 674. ab. ^ 1. K 5 2 V2. 9. 0. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. l/'3. 613. J^^. 626. n^l +^. 677 680. if 4/> 671. 672. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 662. la6 2. 1 704.203. 2 x 44 ^/. be ac \. 2.303.001. .  4. a. 11. 679.XX XIV 606. b 664. 621. 653. 3 x2 . 678< 682. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.0. a + b.c ) 697. 4330 da. . 009.3. V2. 642. 1. c.b. 5 3. 1 ~a .. 0. V2. ^. 1 V5 1. \. ' fe 2 ).f 3 V^3). 646. 628. 5002. 2. 8. 4. b . 3. 698. 616. 654. 4$. If b. 2 ab + a  &. 5. 7003. If. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 4. 2. fe + a. V^~3). 644. 607. 635.3f l 668. 2f.  2f r 659.  a2  a (ab). 620.  4. 648. 4. 683. 8 f 3. 614.y. y  619. / V^+lO^M"^.3. + ~^'2 + a 1. 624. 612. 78. 705. 670.2f (5 4. 7. a 673. b. ab 689. 627. 2 a: 4. ft). 661.  13. V7. . If . 2. a 2. 1m*.25. fta a/> ^A. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 3. 2. 703. 637. 5.2f Page 290.  1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). . o. 618.3. 625. 12.14 If 1. 655. 702. 11. 2 a 688.a~ {Z 663. . 632. 631. 690. 971. 691. 25. 706. 657.b 686. 669. 617. 14. 623. 1010. 6. 656. 0. 633. 630. 6. Page 289. . 634. If 665. 2. 701.002. 2&). <T! . 898. 8 6 fo . 10. 5. 608.43^4. V"^TJ. 2. . /> 4. 2. 638. 25.04. . 652. 0. 622. 6 685. \+ab 699. 1. 660.
763. 794. 5. VV> L4V34. 731.V/^ 741. rt3 2 ^i^. 778.r.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 788.12 af V^ 4 744. 15 shares.. 300. iv/Jj. 711. ^7xy.4 . 732. cr*lr*. ^ ?>. 750. 714. 740. 2 V2 . 756. x\y.ANSWMHti Page 292. 30\/10 764.. 24. y  1.9. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. . 769. 1 752. 749. 767. 716. 1 I . 736. 2\/53V2. 739. 3^. 3V52V3. i^. 8. VIO\/3. 776. 725. 722. a 2  x2 . 1.rJ w L 754.4 . mn. 33^2. r.. 1. 4 104 v/2. 712. 25. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 1^ _ 760. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 17ft. i 2. 32>/2. 737.11. 710. 34. J(v'lO2V 791. 2x3^ a.8. 709. Page 293. 713. a 2 6^. 733.r+y> 759. 8. . 24V2. 728. VT14V5.9. 59.^ 743.^. 724. 7  3V5.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.~ . 729. 777. 1 [ + '> J. 3V7. a".. 792. 47. T%. 3V72VO. 790 2v 3v 2. 3V72V3. 758. j 742. a:* . "V313. . 773. a 5 . 342V3. 793. 5. 715. fyaw&cu. / 787. 723. 24 4 . 3.V2. 1. 746. 721. . 751. 00. 730. 39. > 748. 727.10. 1 747. a db Va^T < 45da. v/7 / . 796. ^ . 768.257. Hi a. 718. 3 VlT 795. 755. 13ft. v'll. 3 720. 719. . x i f^' . 734. 738.1 . a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 789. Page 294. 29\/3. 753.2. 726. + 6 2 tf'c. 782 785. 717. + < 735.
a 42)(x . 2  2. 895. 48. x. . 867. (x + 0X024. 3 .a 4 + 1). 2.r .. 872. +j!>. H. 2 . 3. (:r 11. (3 862. . 19. 891.l)(x . 829. 3. 896.om 441) (a 855. 886. 0. \/5. 3. 4.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. . 848. 799. . 6. 3. 827.7 4 1) 846. 5. 812. **. 17. 2. 838. 2. 4. .5) (x + * 853. . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .25 ?>2). o 828.  tt 815. a(ry + 864. 884. 3. Va 803. 2 m . (3 b . ^ V}. 836.y) 852. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .1) (a 8 . (2 x + 3 y} . 25.3.rae) (4 . 1. 831.l)(x + 2).7. (x 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 826. 882. (  ?>) (a + ^> . ) (a' 874. 1. 820.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.2 ax 4. 20). 14.. 894. 813. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 4. 825. m = 2. (4 c 4. (xl)(^~3)(.7). 898. (a m . 6 $. 899. . .2) (x 4 2). x . 4.1)(0 865. 6+V7. 900. 8. Hoots . 858.a 2 2 ). 890. 2.7). 8 09. 2 806.l)(x .r4). (x*y*ryz + z*). 835. .1). 811. 3. db 7. 2. 833. (x 2 f r . 3. 887. 0.3)(x + 4).4. 7. 844. 17. 1. $. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 816. 13.a 3 " 4. 5. 4.. 804.7)(4 x. X4 1). (a 4 871. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 11. a2 ^E*!. 3. (2 4. . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 843. 817. $. 822. + d)*. 849. 897.  ' . .1. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 861. a(ft)( 873. 868. 7. 879.XXXVI 797. o. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). a* 4.4) 860. 11. 5).10 ab 4. 10. 2 . 7. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 857. 2 2 . 834. 823. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 0. V 3. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 2/ 856. ^. 808. Va. 2 . 1 1. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . J V. . 5. 6. 2 *x 807. 832. 883. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 4. 1. ((' 1). 7. (x3). 23.2w . 4. 881. 1 . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). are extraneous.  1. 859.  + l(l^). 800. 2. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).1) . \/2. 810. 3. 4. (a 1) (x 4. b' 2 821. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).1)(V 2 . ( 4 4. 2.0.f. 847. 830. 2. Page 297. 814. . 3.3. 801.+ m f ") (a* ). 5. ^VG. 892. (x . 888.4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 893. f. Hoots are extraneous.5 b) 4 1). 2. (1 . 842. (2 a . 819. 840. 6. jV3 f 3. (x 2 . 837. 4. 4. n =  29. 863. 1. 8. 841. 0. 1C. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. ANSWERS 798.  839. (. 2 854. 4 . ( 869. m 875. Page 296. 4 818. 5. 880. 824. 2 j 889. 2 (x 4*4. 876. (2x (r. 2./>") (a'.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 4. (x . 4 885. (x 845. 851.
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1000.870 a 6 1011. 1017. 1001. 0.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. ^Trsq. 3003. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1003. 992. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .  5&7 1021. 32 13 (tx 4V3.. 12. 9 da. (Z>) 999. 1012. 995.192rt?)r 120 *. 1 1004. 1005. ^f (2f3V2). 1010.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . Page 304. 120 a. (5. 72.18. 994. (J. 991. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . + v 2). 996. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 990. ~ \. 2(2 v/2). 24.128 I. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 108. 1013. r = 2. 993. 1 8 8 2. 1(5. 0.'^^ } ( . 192. 6 70 . 1018.378 <W and 92.378 1015. in. Page 305. X. 2 .870 z8 . 1006. 4. 1014. 48. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).51. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1009. 8. 4 and 1020. 1008. . 120 i^l^. . 1016. (6) 8(1 . 997. 1007. 12. .92. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 988. + 448 .. 1019. () 12(2+V3). 162.
$1. than by the . but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xiv+563 pages. xi 4 373 pages. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. HEW TOSS .25 lamo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. physics. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. i2mo. $1.D. The more important subjects tions. Ph. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. comparatively few methods are heretofore. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. A examples are taken from geometry. etc. so that the Logarithms. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. great many work. and commercial life.
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 12010. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. save Inequalities. xi f 373 pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. etc.25 i2mo.D. HatF leather. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. so that the tions. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xiv+56a pages. Logarithms. great many A examples are taken from geometry. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. comparatively few methods are given. HEW YOKE . In Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. $1. Ph. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. $1. and commercial life.
The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. SCHULTZE. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.. wor. 4. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. i2mo. Cloth. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. 10. Ph. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .r and. $1. xii + 233 pages. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. aoo pages. These are introduced from the beginning 3.10 L. 7 he . more than 1200 in number in 2. lines. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. izmo. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.D. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. 6. NEW YORK . Half leather. 9. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. SEVENOAK. under the heading Remarks". State: . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. iamo. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.
and not from the information that it imparts. 12mo. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . 370 pages.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York City. of these theoretical views. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. $1. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.
and a full index are provided. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. $1. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. photographs. diagrams. Maps. Cloth. Topics. " This volume etc.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.
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