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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
September. IQJS January.A..S. July. . . Berwick & Smith Co. 1916. 1910. August. Norwood. May. 1910 . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1915. . Mass. U. 1917.COPYRIGHT. Reprinted 1913. January. Published Set up and electrotyped. September. May.' February. 1910. 1911. Cushlng Co. J. 8.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. chief : among These which are the following 1." this book. however. Elementary Algebra. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. specially 2. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. are omitted. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. owing has certain distinctive features. Such a large number of methods. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. etc. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.
especially problems and factoring. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. etc. are placed early in the course. may be used to supplement the other. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Moreover. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. Topics of practical importance. however. In regard to some other features of the book. two negative numbers. hence either book 4. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . as quadratic equations and graphs. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work.g. e. For the more ambitious student.
McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. viz. is based principally upon the alge .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. such examples. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. Moreover. By studying proportions during the first year's work. elementary way. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. in " geometry . and commercial are numerous. physics." Applications taken from geometry.
April. 1910. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. William P. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible.
.. Powers. SUBTRACTION... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ...... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION...
The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ....114 .. Type III. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type V. . * ... .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. . Type IV.. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . Type II. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . /^ ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. .. Type VI... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type Polynomials.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ..
...... Evolution of Monomials 170 . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . CHAPTER XIV 169 ..... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ...... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
12. are trinomials. 9. e. as in arithmetic. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. V36". d 7. 6. (cfd) 4. 14. V^a6. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 2. 27. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. or 9 Vx. aVc^. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. c = 1. \/c. some number is ." EXERCISE If a 1. 26. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 13. 17. a polynomial of two terms. x 9. since the parts are a . V2a. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 16. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. V3 . 6.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 11. [6c] 3 . 2 . v'Ta. + c). a2 + and   \/a are binomials. Val \fi?. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). c f d). 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A binomial is 62 .g. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 7 = 2. 10. 15. 0. b = 3. !^f\/03 3 ft. 4V3~6c. + 1]. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. find the numerical value of: Vff. 8. is 28. A polynomial is an y. 5Vl6c.
INTRODUCTION 29.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .99. x=^. c = 2. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5=3. b = 3. __ E. 5c +d 2 . 14.2 + I126.. . l 13.5 ax 50 a6cd. i. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 8. . 12. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.g. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5. . + 26+3 c. 2.e. 4 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . Ex.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 6. c=l. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 52 . 10.9 aWc + f a b . 4. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. find the numerical value of: 9. d = 0. 2 ). 16.810 + 150 = . Otherwise operations of addition. multiplication. 2. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. a=4. 3a + 56 a 2 . 3 4 . (a (a f b) 7. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. * For additional examples see page 268. 6.30 = 270 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 3.4 6^9 ad. Ex.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. EXERCISE 8*  . . 4a6fVaV2^.19 = 6. a2 11. 5. 1.9. a 2 6. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. d=Q.390. subtraction. 3 2 If 1.
27. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. geometry. a = 4. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 35. sible to state Ex. 6 = 7. : 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 3. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 24. 6 = 4. a = 3. a = 2. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 4. 23. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 38. a =3. .c) (a . 37. 25. Read the expressions of Exs. a =4. 29. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6. 26 of the exercise. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.6 . 6 = 6.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6. and other sciences. 6=2. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 26. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 2. 28. 33. 6 = 1. 34. 22. physics. Six 2 . = 3. a. if : a = 2. 30. a a=3. 6 = 5.6 f c) (6 a + c). 30. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6 = 5.
16 centimeters per second. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. (c) 4. if v : a. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.g. 13. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v = 30 miles per hour. c. Find the height of the tree. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. then a 13. 15 therefore feet.) Assuming g . 12. the area of the triangle equals feet.16 1 = 84. b. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v . and 13 inches.seconds. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.INTRODUCTION E.e. An electric car in 40 seconds. . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 2. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 14. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 4. b 14. and 15 feet. (b) 5. d. A train in 4 hours. and 5 feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. i. and c 13 and 15 = = = .
the area etc. . This number cannot be expressed exactly. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14 4. (c) 5 F.14d (square units). 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. $ = 3. 2 inches. 5.14 square meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). ~ 7n cubic feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. is H 2 units of length (inches. : 8000 miles. the 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (The number 3. (c) 10 feet. square units (square inches. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 5 miles. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). meters. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 32 F.
we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. however. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. SUBTRACTION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. or positive and negative numbers. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.CHAPTER II ADDITION. .
21. '. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. of: 20. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. is 0. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 24. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. (_ In Exs. d = 0. d = 5. if : a a = 2. 12. 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 22. + 12. . Thus. 6 6 = 3. 4.3. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. the one third their sum.16 32. lf(2). is 2. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. = 5. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 5. 10. of 2. 18. 5. c = 4. 2326. c = = 5. 19.  0. subtract their absolute values and . 33. (17) 15 + (14). + (9). 4 is 3 J.
5. 72. 12. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 38. 2. \\ Add 2 a.4. and $4500 gain. affected by the same exponents.. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 11 (Centigrade). $1000 loss. and 3 yards.ADDITION. 32. 10. 55. 30. . 4. . 40. }/ Add 2 a. 29. 4 F. $7000 gain. & = 15. 7 a. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. . . 66. and 4. : 48. 2. 25.5. 35. 37. = 22. which are not similar. 7 yards. c = 0. 09.7. and 8 F. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 10. 42. ^ ' 37. = 13. $3000 gain. 41. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. or and . 36. & 28. 60. and 3 a. . 5 and 12. 1. ' 1? a 26. 27. 43. : and 1. 33. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.. SUBTRACTION. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.3. . 32. 0. c=14.. 6. 39. 74. ' Find the average of the following 34. and 3 a. $500 loss.7. are similar terms. . = 23. d= 3. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. and 3 F.13. 34. 10. 3 and 25. 6. 7 a. 6. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 31. 3. 13. sets of numbers: 13. . : 34.
2 . 5Vm + w. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 5l 3(af6). Algebraic sum. 11. 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6).sign. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. . 10.13 rap 25 rap 2. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. in algebra it may be considered b. f 4 a2.18 35. : 2 a2. Vm f. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 2(af &). The sum x 2 and f x2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. + 6 af . 2 a&. b a f ( 6). 12Vmfn. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 14 . 7 rap2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 13. 12(af b) 12. 5 a2 .ii. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 3a . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. or a 6.
l^S 25. + / + 3 Va. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2/ : Add. without finding the value of each term 34. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. +m """ 20. 2 7 1 26. 2 2 2 31. 36. a a8 ZL **. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 32. 6 23. 1 27. 17. + y. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. is . 33. 30. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 37.ADDITION. 21. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . and to add each column. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 35. SUBTRACTION. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. ra 19. c 2 ^24. n x* 2 22.
5 . 2 .g. c = 1. . NOTE. the erroneous answer equal 7. to add 26 ab .o c and 4.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.7 2 .3 s. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. f 110WS: 26 aft. ft any convenient and c. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 4 2. x of x. and 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.g.12 a& 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 3. and J 2 s. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. of that letter. 2c.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. to show any error.41 = 3. 2 025. 4 = 7. = . 2 Thus. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6=2.8 abc . 3 a f 4 1) 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. . 5.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 9 q 4. 3a 2? . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2 Sum. V3. 7 4.15 6c.20 c 5 ab 4. e. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. s.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 46 4z 7 c. a 4.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.15 abc .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . therefore the answer is correct.c= 2.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.
6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. .5a^6 f 6) .4:xy xz 6yz.8 m 2m 12.15 5.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 2 2 . and 12a 4 15& 20c . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.ADDITION. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 4. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. e a4 /.7m . a + 1> 8 2 2 . . SUBTRACTION. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.a . and v 15. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 2 ?/. . . + a + 1. and and 13.1. in 8 3 m n 4.10 Vc. and 8 3 . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 4 3 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.4 Va . d and / 3 ? 12.7v/if. 16.a. and 5 Vb 18. d.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 2 and . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.Ga 43x45. 19. a 4 a . a 4 a .a 4 a 4 1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.9(a + &) . a2 2 14.and 6.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a) y ^/.1 a 4 1 0.2n 2 2 3 rz . 16e + 17/90. 4 Vc.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . ^2 1 e. 4 8 3 4 4 . 2 a.a. 7ar + 3B 5. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . 4 ajy 17. . m 4 6. 2 3(c f a).12(a 4. . 11.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4(a .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 3 2 2 3 9 .VS 4 2 Vc.3 mn 2 2 n8 .12. . v/20.12 6 ~5 a . ?/ . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 2 ?ft ?/z. and 1 4 a . 56 w. + 50 + 62 . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a. and . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .(b + c) 1. 18/+6y + d.6. xy3xz + yz. a2 a. . 8.
5< 3 2 s 4^4. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 45a6 2 .11 xy + 12. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 22.3^* 2n 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2. and e + 6y . and 25. . f number may be added 3. + n*. 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. how 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 8 . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e.9aj 2. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. f 1. . + 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. T8a. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . a 6 2 c. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 6 f c 2 23. The sum and ? 1. +d a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. f 1.ra + m. 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 1. is 2.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. and 2 24. s . c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1/ . 1.22 21. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . If you diminish a person's debts.m 4m ?/?/ d. 12 xyz.
State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. from What 3. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 7.ADDITION. In addition. and the required number the difference. two numbers are given. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. called the minvend. +b 3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract + 3. if x Ex. . ( 6) ( = . 5 is 2. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.3. 1. the given number the subtrahend. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. and their algebraic sum is required.2. To subtract. 41. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 6 (3) = 8.g. 2. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Ex. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. NOTE. 3. a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . Ex. This gives by the same method. Therefore any example in subtraction different . SUBTRACTION. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. In subtraction. ab = x. the other number is required. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.
5 x + 8. Check. Ex.3 r*5o. If x = l = 2 t .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* .f 8 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
a 2 j. 2y 2 . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.7 a . 53. + a the 2 a. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2. 45.4 a^ 4. tract 4 x 3. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 58. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.4 a*& + 6 a & . 54.c. and 3 7/ . 57.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. .ADDITION. 49. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 44. 47. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 42. 43. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .2. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 50. 6 4 a. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .6)f. 46.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 56. of a 4. From 2 a take a & j. 51.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. SUBTRACTION. c f d.w>t. 48. From 6(af. 55. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 52. 41.
16. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. a a + c.15. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a + 6. 6 17. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 9. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 2 m 21. 6. 19. a 2y + z. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. A is n years old. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 6 + c. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. subtract # + 1. + 2. of # 2 8. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .26 4. 20.
6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 46. II. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.b c = a a & f f. one occurring within the other. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. SUBTRACTION. changed. 45. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. I. . the sign is understood.ADDITION.6 b f (.2 b .c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. & f c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a^6)]  } .g. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. Ex.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. a+(bc) = a +b .
a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 3. 6. 2a (4a 26 +c ). + (2a 6 + c ). 271 + (814 . m f ft) a. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 17. 15. By removing parentheses. 21. [36+ (a 2c]. 2 2a. (m a2 f. Signs of aggregation 1. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.1422) J ] . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.)].7i h jp) (m ?*. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 6) 2. 19.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 8. a f (a a . may be inserted according to 43. 2 2 2 a(. a (a + 26 c ).+ 6)f (a2 b). ? 11. 16. .: Ex.(a + 6).[271 47. : x + (2yz). Ex. 14. 5. 13. 2. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.) 5 . 4. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 18. a (a + 6).y (60. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 9. 3 3 f 7.
of the cubes of m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 8. m and n. z + d. difference of the cubes of n and m. terms 5.1. 6.ADDITION. 7. m x 2 4. The square of the difference of a and b.7fa. p + q + rs. SUBTRACTION. 9. The product The product m and n. 3. 2mn + 2q3t. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 7. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 13. 12. 10. )X 6. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. first. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 5 a2 2.2 tf . The difference of a and 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 3. 2. . and the subtrahend the second.4 y* . a\l> > c + d. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. y f 8 . 4. 5. 6 diminished . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. II. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. ' NOTE. 5^2 _ r .
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.) . 16. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6. d. 18.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the Ib. 2. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. A A A 1. 3. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 4. therefore. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. force is produced therefore. If the two loads what What. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. let us consider the and JB. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
Thus. NOTE. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 9. Practical examples^ it however. 4 multiplied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 4x(3)=12. such as given in the preceding exercise. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 48. or plied by 3.4)(4) = + 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4 multi44444 12. (5)X4. the multiplier is a negative number. To take a number 7 times. x 11. .4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 9 x ( 11). 5x(4).32 8. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. thus. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. ( (. becomes meaningless if definition.9) x 11.4)(. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.
32. 20. 1. 14. (. _3. 17. b = 3.3. 3. 8 31.2. z s 11 aWcx. tors is no misunderstanding possible. . NOTE. (2)x9. 3 aW. 15. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers.7. . _2. 8 4 . 8. 24. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 6.3) (1) 7 2 . 2a6 c . (2) 8 (. . c = 25. _2^ 3. x= 0.MULTIPLICATION 50. 6 2. 12. Ua b 28. 27. 2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 19. (10) 4 . (c#) . x. 1. 6.4. +5. Law Thus. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 3. X(5). etc. 3 a2?/2 .(a&c) 2 2 . of Signs: TJie positive. 5. . 2a 2 6c.(4J). (4)X(15). 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 16. If a cal = 4a6c. 7.2 f+x 2 . is 6x7. 22. 29. 10.2f 18. (4)'. about fac (2)X If 6.a)( =+ a&. 26. 23. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 5x3. 4 . find the numeri values of: 21. 4 a2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. (7) X (12). 30. 4. 11. and y = 4. 9. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. . 13.
+ 2/). B. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 2(14. 6. 3.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 4. 7.(12) . 2 2 2 . 6" 127 U .503). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 34. of the factors. m*. .2). known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. By 3 definition. 4. .(7).34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 100. 2. 16. 2 2 3 6 . 6 = . IB.3). 2 3 . 2(7. & = 3. 3 2 . a = 3. Ex. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 10. 200. .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. (a6) (a5) 9.<?. 50(112. 17.35). 9 . 5 = 2. = 2. : 3a7abc. 3.m a 3  4 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.2 2 23 + 5 . . &*) c d*. 127  127 9 7 .  and 2 25 8 . 78 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . . 6 = 1. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. or 2 . i. This 52. a 2 2 . 6 aWc x . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 1. 4. 5(711. 36. a8 a=2.e. 53. 3 3 4 . =2 a *. 14. a = 2. 5. 5 . a= 1.(2. 5 3 5 3 2 .. fl*" integers.  2 2..6 if 35. 11. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.257). 12 U U . 13. Ex. 2.7.
If results ft. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. _4aft. called the distributive law. /). 25. 23(10004100420). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . Thus we have in general a(b 56. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 6(10420430). 35 4 7(6. but we shall assume it for any number. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.A). 24. This principle.f 2). 3.6. c(4a ftc ). 20. . 2 32. 28.7 w'W (8 n^W). . 21. ) 2 33. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 35. . . . 29. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 5.2 3 aft ). 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .7pqt. (. 31. 23. .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .3 win ) . 6.4a#. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). (. 11(3. 7. and then adding : 1. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 34. 2. by first multiplying. 19. 12( + 1 4 i). multiply each by the monomial. 27. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 2(645410).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 3(124342). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 26.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 22. 7p*q r*. 17(10041042). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 2(5fl5f25).
22. 26. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. . By what 25. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Find the factors of 6 ary . 17. 2 2 16. f7a. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 20. 12. . . 9. 29. 2 m(mhn \p). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .5 w*V f 7 wn). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 30. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 11. 23. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 7 a 6 c(.2 mn(9 mV .3 aftc).60 a& 10 aft. 21. 2 27. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .^ c + 2 . 3 ).we b) (x law.5 x 7).asa product.6 a6).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. be multiplied to give 4o. 19. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 28. : expression must 24. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. ~2mn(m +n p ). 5).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.
3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.4.3 a 2 + a8 . . however. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Multiply 2 + a a.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example.3 b by a 5 b. 59. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Since all powers of 1 are 1. 2.1.a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. To multiply two polynomials. Since errors. a2 + a8 + 3 . Multiply 2 a . 2a3b a66 2 a . Check. Ex.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.
3<7).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 40. (2 x* x 2 . 7y). 12.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 35. 4 2). 24.4) (mnp 4. 3. 7. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (6i7n)(llJn). QQ O7. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 9. OQ OO. (8r7*)(6r39. . 2 . 1).n)(m 8 n)(m n). (4a 2 33. 20. 8. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 13.1 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (a^26) . 4. 15. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 28. 12)(a?^2l). 31. 2 . 36). 17. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . ^ 2 . 5. I (mfn)(m4. (6p (2 f 21. l)(raf 2).2m)(l m). 2  37. 26. 11. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 6. . (13 A. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2) (3 A: 1). (6a~7) 2 . 29. 2. 41. 22. 36. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 36) I) 14. (2w 19. 10. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 16. 18. 25. 32. 30. * For additional examples see page 261.4) (x + 1). (a 2a + 2)(a3). a 5c)(2a6c).2).
(100 +2) (100 + 3). 27. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. i. (10+ (1000 (2. (*. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 12. 8. 19. 3. 17. _3)(a _4). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .!!)( (a + 21). 20. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. + 9)(m+9). i.2 6) (a f 6).e. (a 9) (a + 9). : 23 2. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). + 60)(f2). ft 16. 18. (!)(* 5). 28. . 24. (6 12) (6 f. (a (a (a.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 75 ab f 54 ft . plus the product 62. 2) (1000 + 3). X 102. (a3)(a + 2). 14. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 26. (ra.n)(wf w). (p12)(p + ll).25)(y+4).4). 11. 1005x1004. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 13. . (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 2 a? 29. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 25. plus the product of the two unequal terms.e. + 2) (a f 3). in of the two unequal terms. 6. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 1) (10 + 2). 9. + 5) (1000 + 4). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 2 6) (a 3 6). 7. 10.13). 21. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 25 a 2 . Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 15. (J 23. + 3) (a 7). (a 102 x 103. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). . 22.
16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. + 3) 2 . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. n2 10ii+16. a2 2 w + 2 w . 2 5.e. plus sum of two numbers the square II.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 3.30. : 24 (a 2.15. Ex. <J>7) J .15. . (a26) 2 .e. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus twice the product of the first and the second. i. i.66 s.e. 8. + 6 a + 8. 7. 7 a + 10. III. 9. . 49 y*. 37. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. second. w 2 ro . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 77ie square of the of the first. 31. . 32. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. and the second. 34. 35. III. plus the square of the second. (x+3i/) 2 . 2 (a (*5) 2 . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 63. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 33. of the second. (a2) (p a . 6. 4. p 2 p.
2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . a2 9. 55. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 4 53. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 32. 41 16. ). 33. The product of 57. (1000 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 7& ) 25. 24. . 54. 46. 16aW25. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 17. 38. 12. 14. 22. I) 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3).ll^X^+lly (100 30. 15.30 ab + 25 6 64. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 J ). 2 . 18. 44. 51. 104 2 37. 103 36. 9 a2 . + 5). By actual multiplication. 40. . 62 25n 2 . (2x3yy. 22 2 . n 2 f4n+4. 42. + 5)(5+a). 2 . 28. 2 (4a36) 2 13. n*6n+9. 25 a 9. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 41. 99x101. (6afy 2 5) (a. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 2 . 48. m 2 16. 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . (20 f 1) . 47. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 31. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 29. 2 11 # ) 2 20. . 23. 34. 49. G> +5g)*. 45. 21. . 998x1002. ( 27.998 39. 11. 991 2 2 . 52. (a 3) 2 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (^.MULTIPLICATION 10. 35.
. (3m + 2)(ml). or The student should note minus signs. 4. 9. 8. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 7. 2 10. 3. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 65. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 11.& + c) = a + tf + c . (2a3)(a + 2). (4s + y)(32y). 6. (5a4)(4al). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). plus the last terms. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 13. The square 2 (a 4. (5a64)(5a&3). : 25 2. 5.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 14. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. ((5a? (10 12. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). sum of the cross products. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.
5). 3. + 6)( . Find the square root 11. 2 2.y? + 8 .39. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 8. 5.X2 + 2 x . 6(a 2. 4y sf n) 2 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.3)(z. and check the answers !. n).24] . of z : 10.4) . 4(aj2)h3(7).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 3. .r _ 2 . Hence. + 65) . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (  2 4) =  20 a.39. 13.(x . 8.(m 2 6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.i2&c) 2 .24 . 7. 5. Ex. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 9. 7. 66.(>.1 5 = 10 . = 10 x . Check. 2)6. (u4& + 3c'. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 4(* + 2)5(3). = . a. If x = 1. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).5) = (7 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.29. 12. 4. (xy+z)*. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 6~2(a + 7).8 x + 15] .[a? .4) .3) .3) (x . after multiplying the factors of a term. (a (. 6.(= [ Xa + 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
18. . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (81 m + 1 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). .2) (3 a . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 20. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 16.DIVISION 14. a I.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. .e. v/17. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).2).11 a + 9 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 51 15. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 19.l.
10. aW 12 a.0001. 15. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 9& 2 . 16 .49. 100ry. . r/ 1. f 13. 1. 4 b. 12.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16. . 121a a 16 100 11. : the following w a 4 !.000. 14.
in the equation 2 x 0. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 82. 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80. second member is x + 4 x 9. . the first member is 2 x + 4. hence it is an equation of condition. 81. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . x 20. is said to satisfy an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. . which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . =11.
2.b. NOTE. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. . 87. the quotients are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. one member to another by changing x + a=. Transposition of terms. 5. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.g. 3. If equals be added to equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. x I. the sums are equal. If equals be divided by equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .54 84. If equals be subtracted from equals. but 4 does not equal 5. A 2 a. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 89. the divisor equals zero. To solve an equation to find its roots. 4. 90. A numerical equation is one in which all . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. a.2. the remainders are equal. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A term may be transposed from its sign. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.e. 85. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the products are equal. . 86. called axioms 1. 2 = 6#f7. E.
2 x = 6. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. b Adding a to both + a. 4x 1 + 6.8. 6a5 = 185 = 13. The first member. x = 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Unite similar terms. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. (4y)(6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. b c. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Transposing. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 2(11 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Uniting. The first member. 3 y . 91.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. a= a 6fc. Uniting similar terms.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Hence the answer.6 y f y\ . and the known terms to the second. .2 y= f . if 55 x members.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . transpose the unknown terms to the first member.2. if a x = b. The second member. To solve a simple equation. f If y 20 . x = (Axiom 3) 92. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Check. x = 93. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Dividing by Check. a? Adding 5 to each term. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + y2 = 22 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. is correct.
= 7.. 21. 13a? 3a?. 11. 16. J. 17 7 a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 13 y 99 = 7 y. f Simplifying. 4y 10. 14y = 59(24y + 21). etc. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. . .4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. a?. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 + 5a.56 Ex. a? a?.. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 3 7 a. aj * See page 264. it NOTE. 8. 32 = 264. 11 ?/ a? 18. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 19. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 22. x = 18. 3)= 9(3 7 a. Uniting. 14. 4. 3.17 + 4y = 36. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). Transposing. 15. and check the answers 9. = 3. 20. + 7(3 + 1) =63.69. If x = 18. a. 6. 7a? 5. Solve the following equations by transposing. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. : 5# = 15+2a. 50. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7 (6 x 16). 24. =2 = 3. a.7a: = 394a.7. \x x 2^xfl. 247y = 68lly. = 2 ?/. + 22. 9 9a? = 7 13. 4a + 5 = 29. 7. 2. v23. = 5a?+18. x x 1 . {(x (x The The member right member left . 3.
a? 43. (6 u =5 44.12) (2 + 5) .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . + 7) (.14 = 0. is the other part.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 5) (as (a.32. or 70 a?.3) + . 36. .5(2 u .3) + 14.5) + 199. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 31. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 30. 38. this question.(2 + 6) (4 . . .5) = (a. 7(7 x y 26. 33. 6(6a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 39. a? 28. 2 2 * Jaj. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . + 4). 7) (a.7) (7 x + 4) .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 29. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.1) (u .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. : One part is of 70 is 25 . (a.7.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 41.3) .g. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. (aj 37. . 40.4) + 4 w . 42. . 34. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). . 27. find the other part. 35. . 25. Evidently 45. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. e. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.2) (M . .1 0) = 0.
one part equals is 10. 6. 9. If 7 2. Divide 100 into two 12. EXERCISE 1. 33 2. smaller one 16. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 3. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 17. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 14. 15. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. or 12 7. is d. Find the greater one. 5. Divide a into two parts. 7. is a? 2 is c?. and the smaller one parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. is b. Ex. greater one is g. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. so that of c ? is p. so that one part The difference between is s. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 13. 4. so that one part Divide a into two parts. x f y yards cost $ 100 . find the cost of one yard. 11. 10. 1.58 Ex. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 6.
How many cents has he ? 27. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 19. 28. 24. and B's age is y years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. If B gave A 6 25. 20. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 22. 26. 32. and c cents. numbers is x. 34. 28. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find 35. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. find the has ra dollars. sum If A's age is x years. and B has n dollars. ?/ 31. b dimes. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and spent 5 cents. 33. and B is y years old. How many years A older than is B? old. is A A is # years old. A feet wide. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. amount each will then have. A man had a dollars. Find 21. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago.
A cistern is filled 43. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. m is the denominator. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. a. A was 20 years old. Find a 47. Find the number. per Find 5 Find 6 45. Find a. find the fraction. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). The two digits of a number are x and y. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes.50. of m. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. 48. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 49. % % % of 100 of x. . The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. he walk each hour ? 39. of 4. c a b =  9. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . Find x % % of 1000. 46. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.
The double as 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. same result as 7 subtracted from . a exceeds b by c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 3. etc. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. of x increased by 10 equals x. The excess of a over b is c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 5. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 2. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 8 b ) + 80 = a . third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. double of a is 10. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. c. 80. 80. 4. 6. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. by one third of b equals 100. c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a increased much 8. 9.
and C have respectively 2 a. B's age 20. B's. of 30 dollars.62 10. express in algebraic symbols : 700. amounts. 17.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. a second sum. 3 1200 dollars.000. a. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. #is5%of450. x is 100 x% is of 700. A gains $20 and B loses $40. x 4 If A. 11. . >. is If A's age is 2 x. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. express in algebraic 3x : 10. symbols B. a.. as 17 is is above a. they have equal of A's. they have equal amounts. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. m is x % of n. In 10 years the sum of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's age 4 a. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 12. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. sum equals $20. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 50 is x % of 15. 14. B. 18. 16. (c) If each man gains $500. and C's ages will be 100. 6 % of m. pays to C $100.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. but 30 =3 x years. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In 15 years 10. number of yards. Find A's present age. Dividing. 1. Let x = the number. 2. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Uniting. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. the . verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x+16 = 3(35). 23 =30. 3z40:r:40z. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Check. x = 20. A will Check. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. x= 15. 4 x = 80. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Ex. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 6 years ago he was 10 . be 30 . In order to solve them. Three times a certain no. Simplifying. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. etc. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the required . Ex. much as 40 exceeds the number. Uniting. NOTE. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 15. Transposing. Transposing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. number. . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. denote the unknown 96.
47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 14. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Dividing. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Let x 3. A number added number. 11. 5. % of 120. Forty years hence his present age.64 Ex. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 120.2. Find the number. Hence 40 = 46f. exceeds the width of the bridge. EXERCISE 1. 300 56. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Six years hence a 12 years ago. twice the number plus 7. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 4. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 3. 13. Find 8. by as much as 135 ft. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft.
while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. A and B have equal amounts of money. 97. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and B has $00.000. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. times as much as A. 65 A and B $200. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Maine's population increased by 510. statements are given directly. During the following 90 years.000. 1. B will have lars has A now? 17. . F 8. B How will loses $100. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The sum of the two numbers is 14. five If A gives B $200. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. The other verbal statement. One number exceeds the other one by II. 14. the second one. Ex. is the equation. two verbal statements must be given. x. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. written in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. which gives the value of 8. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. How many dol A has A to $40. The problem consists of two statements I. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Vermont's population increased by 180. and as 15. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. If A gains A have three times as much 16.
Let x 3x express one many as A. = 14. and Let x = the Then x +. / . 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as many as A. If A gives are : A If II. If we select the first one. 2.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. I. + a f f 8 = 14. terms of the other. to Use the simpler statement. the sum of the two numbers is 14. the greater number. 8 the greater number. Uniting. which leads ot Ex. . A gives B 25 marbles. x x =14 8. A will lose.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. The two statements I. x = 8. = 3. has three times as many marbles as B. unknown quantity in Then. x 3x 4 and B will gain. the smaller number. consider that by the exchange Hence. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. 2x a? x j = 6. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Let x 14 I the smaller number. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. = B's number of marbles. = A's number of marbles. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 25 marbles to B. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. although in general the simpler one should be selected. < Transposing. Then. 8 = 11. Statement x in = the larger number. B will have twice as viz. A has three times as many marbles as B. Dividing. .
Simplifying. The value of the half : is 11.10.. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Find the numbers. Eleven coins. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. and the Find the numbers. A's number of marbles. then. 3 x = 45. 11 x = 5. Let 11 = the number of dimes.25 = 20.5 x .75. * ' . is 70. . 15 + 25 = 40.. 50 x Transposing. by 44. Uniting. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. the number of half dollars. 50. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 40 x . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 2. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Dividing. Check. Check.$3. . the price.240. etc.10. 3.. consisting of half dollars and dimes. * 98. w'3. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers is 42. Two numbers the smaller.550 f 310. x = 6. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. x = the number of half dollars. 6 times the smaller. 1. 45 . B's number of marbles. 60. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). of dollars to the number of cents. x from I. The number of coins II. Simplifying. Uniting. greater is . x = 15. but 40 = 2 x 20.10. the number of dimes. Dividing. have a value of $3. dollars and dimes is $3. (Statement II) Qx . cents.
McKinley. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. A's age is four times B's. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 7. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and twice the altitude of Mt. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 5. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. one of which increased by 9. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many 14 years older than B. What is the altitude of each mountain 12.000 feet. On December 21. Everest by 11. How many hours does the day last ? .68 4. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 6. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. as the larger one. United States.. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 9. 11. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. the number. How many inches are in each part ? 15. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Two numbers The number differ by 39. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Twice 14. Find their ages.
B. bers is denoted by x. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. II. has. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. I. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. Let x II. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. The third verbal statement produces the equation. If A and B each gave $5 to C." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. number had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and C together have $80. and 68. are : C's The three statements A. original amount. Ex. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. . x = 8. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. has. 1. III. If 4x = 24. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. = 48. If A and B each gave $5 to C. number of dollars A had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars of dollars B C had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. they would have 3. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. then three times the money by I. B has three times as much as A. and B has three as A. 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. times as much as A. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.
1 1 Check. 9 5 = 4 . three statements are : IT. number of cows. + 35 x 4. number of sheep.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 90 may be written. x Transposing. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 2. The I. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The total cost equals $1185. x j = the number of horses. and each sheep $ 15. + 8 90 x and.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and the sum of the . first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. III. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. Dividing. and. each cow $ 35. cows. each horse costing $ 90. Let then. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 28 2 (9 5). Uniting. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. number of cows. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. the third five times the first. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. x f 4 = 9. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 4 x f 8 = 28. x = 5. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 9 cows. sheep. first. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to II. 185 a = 925. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. number of horses. according to III. and Ex. = the number of dollars spent for horses.
000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. "Find three is 4. the second one is one inch longer than the first. equals 49 inches. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. what is the length of each? has 3. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. first. A 12.000. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the third 2. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. v . what is the population of each city ? 8. 13. If twice The sum the third side. women. and 2 more men than women.  4. 9. how many children were present ? x 11. what are the three angles ? 10. New York delphia. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and children together was 37. twice the 6. first. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. increased by three times the second side. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. the copper. The gold. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . twice as old as B. men.
number of miles A x x walks. but stops 2 hours on the way.000.e.000.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Let x = number of hours A walks. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Hence Simplifying. First fill in all the numbers given directly. = 5. and distance. 3 and 4. 8 x = 15. of arid the value of the iron was $300. The copper had twice the value of the gold.g. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. After how many hours will they meet and how E. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. = 35. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. . 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Dividing. together. and quantities area. 7 Uniting. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. A and B apart. such as length.000 more than that the copper. of 3 or 4 different kinds. speed. number of hours. or time. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. width. Find the value of each. how many 100. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. i. we obtain 3 a.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. 14.
2 a = 40. 10 x = 200. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. l. Check. $ 800 = 800. .06 = $ 40. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. $ 1000 x . the second 100. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 70x10 Ex.01 = = . Multiplying. or 700. But 700 certain = 800 2.053. the area would be 100 square yards less. original field has Check.04 8. x + 200). x .x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. x . and the width decreased by 10 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. + 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800." gives (2. were increased by 30 yards.05 x x . 2   and transpose. z = 20. .M(x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 800 = required sum.04 = $ 40. Transposing and uniting.
74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Six persons bought an automobile. A sets out later two hours B . the area would remain the same. 1. were increased by 3 yards. twice as large. 3.55. and a second sum. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Ten yards $ 42. mobile. A sum ? invested at 4 %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. as a 4. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. sions of the field. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Find the share of each. of coffee for $ 1. A of each. What are the two sums 5. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. invested at 5 %. After how many hours will B overtake A. together bring $ 78 interest. and its width decreased by 2 yards. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. 2. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. but four men failed to pay their shares. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. The second is 5 yards longer than the first.
A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . A and B set out direction. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point.
a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . but fractional with respect 103. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . this letter. 104. if. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if it does contain some indicated root of . An after simplifying. 76 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 6. f db 6 to b. consider 105. + 62 is integral with respect to a. we shall not. expression is rational with respect to a letter. as. which multiplied together are considered factors. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. 5. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV . a. irrational. a. stage of the work. it is composite.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a2 to 6. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. it contains no indicated root of this letter . at this 6 2 .
9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 109. 2. factors of 12 &V is are 3.62 can be &). ?/. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. E. TYPE I.62 + &)(a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2.g. 55. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 107. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.) Ex. for this result is a sum. 77 Factoring is into its factors.FACTORING 106. . 01. in the form 4) +3. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Factor G ofy 2 .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.3 6a + 1). Divide 6 a% . 2. x. 110. Ex. it follows that a 2 . y. x. 1. or that a = 6) (a = a . It (a. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 8) (s1). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.3 sy + 4 y8).
we had to add tain the coefficient of x. + llm llm.2. obviously. 32 a *?/ .30 aty. 13. 19. 2 6. 14. . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 4 tfy f. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 4 8 .4. 5f 2 . 16. 2 Or. 2 + q. 34 a^c 8 .5 + 2. 15. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. : 6 abx . 2 2 . 17. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. Ilro8 9. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.3.6. ) 22  2.5 + 13 8. 18. (as 3) and (ccf5). in general. 2. 2 23.4. . 7i 13.45 afy .51 aW + 68 21. a6c. 3 3 5 6. 14a 4 5. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. q*q*q 2 a. 8.51 x4 2 6 xy s .3. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 4. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3. TYPE IT. 12.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 3 2 . 11. 7a & 10.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . e. 15 2 7.12 cdx. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .g. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. a a 'Ja .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 3x*6x*.8 c a 15 ofyV . 20.
Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Factor x? . tfa2  3.11. . Factor a2 . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the two numbers have opposite signs. Factor + 10 ax . 2 6. m 5m + 6.11 a 2 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. determine whether In solving any factoring example. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. a 2 . .5) (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x . We may consider 1. 2. 5. If q is positive.6 = 20. 4. Therefore Check.a). is The two numbers whose product and 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. + 30 = 20.G) = .FACTORING Ex.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 11 7. or 7 11. of this type. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 77 as the product of 1 77. or 77 l. If q is negative. as p.. + 112. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Ex. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. . Ex.5) (a 6). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.77 = (a.1 1 a tf a 4.11 a + 30.11) (a + 7). can be factored.30 = (a . 3.4 . and (a . however. but of these only a: Hence 2 .4 x .
a 2 +11 a a? 16. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 32. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 17. 21 a 2 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 29. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 30. 2 2 a' 34. 100 xr .180 a. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. .80 7. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 16. a 7 a 30. + 5<y 24. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ay 11 ay +24.17 + 30. 31. or . ra + 25ra + 100. 35. a2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . x2 23. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 26. 25. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 33. 36. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 18. 4 2 . 30. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 9. 4 3 2 .70 x y . 19. 13. 2 ?/ 28. 2 2 . ITT.6. 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.500 x + 600. 8. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 12. 15. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 27. and 5 x. 20. 14. 16. TYPE 113. 2 . + 44. + 4?/21. 11. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 2 ?/ 22. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 24. 21. a? + 5 + 6 a.48 + + 446 200. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. . + 2xS.
and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 11 x 2x. then the second terms of have opposite signs. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. If p is poxiliw. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 2. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. X x 18.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 9 x 6. . but the opposite sign.13 x + 5 = (3 x . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 3. 54 x 1.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 3 x and x. viz.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.83 x f 54. a. . sible 13 x negative. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . and r is negative. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 27 x 2. 2 x 27. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 18 x 3.1). 6 x 9. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. or G 114. and that they must be negative. Ex. Factor 3 x 2 . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. the signs of the second terms are minus.5) (2 x . the If p and r are positive. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.5 .
9a. since all others (II. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2x* + 9x5. : 41 2. 5.2 a 90 x*y . Sar' + SaG. 21. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 24. 7. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 11. 2 2 2 23. 100^200^ + 100^. 90 a 8 2 . 15. 34.260 xy . 32. 17. 9 y + 32^16. f go. + 4. 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2. 10a2 G a2 2 . 6. 20. 22. 18.27). and the monomial factors should be removed. 3. 2 28.179. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 16. .163 x 2 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 144 x .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 2 . 2m t7w + 3. 10 a . 14 a fa 4. 30. 12y 2/6. 4a2 9tt + 2. 3a + 13a. 12. 3x*Sx + 4.30 y 6 4 .83 x = (3 . 10a?2 2 33. . + 2/3. 2 26. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 13. 5m 26m f 5. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 8.2) (x . 14. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 10.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 35. x54 a. 19.19 a f 6. 2 2 2 . the expressions should be it.y + 172/9. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 9. 2 fc . 4. 25. . 12^17^16. 6n + 5?i4. 29.7.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. X 27 . 2 31.83 x .10 4a? + 14oj + 12.
FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. . form are special cases of the preceding type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 13.26 ab + 9 6 2 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. and factor whenever possible : 1. it is a perfect square. 116. 9. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . .e. 11. 14.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 25 7. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 2 2 . of its terms are perfect squares. and a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 9 10gf25. 6. 12. 2 . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 10. 3. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . x* . 9 10a625. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.10 x f 16. 5. however. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 4. must have a positive sign. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. it is more convenient for that type. To factor a trinomial which maining term. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. i. 8. 2.
9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 16&*. !Gar 9 ( )+25. + GO + 25. 9a2 .64 6 = 16(a . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 19.2 ofy + ofy m . ).6 m* + 9 m.e. a. 17. 3. V. According to 65. 18. 3.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .84 15. Ex.20 ab + 10 b a . 5. 2 . u2 6& + 2 ( ). 6. 7. a2 24. 26. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . a.3 * ). 22. . . ^//c to the Ex. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 16. +( )f816 30. 10 a 2 4 2 . 2. 48 a +( ). 6 2 . 27. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 29. 2 . 2. 4a2 l. 2 . 1. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 2 20. 149 a 81 8. product i. * 2 . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . aV . 225 ofy . .60 a# + 4. 25. TYPE 117. prime. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 4 2 23. ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 36 2 4.
13. 2. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 4. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 8. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 36> . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 6. 2 . T.c . Ex. 9. a2 . (m7?) y.(c 4. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .FACTORING 85 118.(I) . 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11. 16p 2 . Factor a 2 . 14.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. a:) 12. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .d) 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . of polynomials. One or both terms are squares 1. 2. Ex. 5. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.
8. 12. which may be factored according to types I. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. By grouping.2 ) (3 x . 5) . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.1. Ex. Ex. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.ab + bx. a5 + ab 6 .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 3. 2.and trinomials. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. A. 6. 119. ive find that the new terms con common factor.a a . 10. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. + x + 2x + 2. a? 11. 9. ma ?*a + m& nb.7 c + 2c . 7. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. a 26 2 2 3 . . x8 . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.y + 2 2). After grouping tain a the terms.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 4:cx . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 4 B.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 5. 2. 1.VI. = (3 x + y .r.14.
6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 2.l. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 2 7. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 6. 2. : 46 x* 2. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.9 a2 4 v* 2 .4 f .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 2a3/ 7. w m 2. : m 2 2 16. 8. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 3. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . $ a8 . IV.12 aaj 4 6y. . + 2xy + y*q*. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 5. 8. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 36 9 m . . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 4. Arranging the terms. 4. 4 a2 . II. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 8ra 2 + 16. = (a + 6)(a6). l~a 2a56 2 2 . 3.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.FACTORING Ex. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.
35. 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 ft . 30. a.24. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 3 a2 23. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 4 a.310 x . 42 s 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 2 a 128. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 80 a 2 ft 38. 12. . 5 a. 29. 48. 5a' 20. 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 14. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 11. 13 c . 3 25. 32. (^ 34. a + a + a + l. a6 36. 2 3#4 3a2 36. a3 156. 40. 3 2 . 13. 27. or 3 7#2 .40. 19. 42 x . 24. + 14. 3 41. 2 17. 18.156. a5 a 1 4 2 39.13 c . 28. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 50^ + 45. (a. + 6 aft + 3 . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33.88 10. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.
F. of 6 sfyz. Thus the H. are prime can be found by inspection. 15 aW. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 5 2 3 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 3 . 2 2 . C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 2. of two or more monomials whose factors . II 2 . C. EXERCISE Find the H. C. C. . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F. 5 s 7 2 5. 54  32 . of aW. The H. F. 12 tfifz. The student should note H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . of the algebraic expressions. The H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. F. F. 24 s . aW. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. 5. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. 89 . C. 13 aty 39 afyV. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 3. 8 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. F. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 5 7 34 2s . The highest is common factor (IT. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F.  23 3 . 6. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 122. 25 W. 121. Two common factor except unity The H. C.) of two or more . of : 48 4.
C. 6(m+l) (m+2). 8 a 10 .6 a&. aWd. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. C.2 ?/) (x . 14. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. . ^a + 5^ + 6.^9. ^707 + 12. and apply the method of the preceding article.5 x3?/ 2 6.2 y) (a. 2.5 y). x* x2 Hence the H. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. Find the H. 52 oryz4. 3 .6 . 65 zfyV. of + 4 if.# 4 afy f 4 . 3^ 2 4 . 24 a 2 . 38 #y. 2 . 12. a2 + 2a3. 2 . 49 C. a2 .12 as 66 . 9 aj*(a? . . 10. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. of polynomials. 15.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 0^80:416. . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7. a3 9a. 16. F.y) 123. 2 . 1.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 8 6. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . F. 3). 3.5 + 6. = x 2 y. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a2 ar* 4. a 3a4. y + 3y64. 8(?/ifl) 14. 6 3 a. 8. 1.8 a + 16. . 11. F. .y + y42. a3 16 a. 225 4a 9 .6. 4 ?io. (a7 ?/) . 13. 6 mx . 11. 95 2/V. a. To find the H. . 57 a>V. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . ^f a.?/ . 9. 12. 2 .90 7.y) .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . Ex. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . C. 13. F. ^2 2 . 2a f5af 2. 10. 12 w*nw 8. of: . 25 m27i. 9. 4(m+l) 3 . 16 a . 15 3ao. 8. 5. 6 a2 y? . a2 + 7af!2. 12 .
(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. a^c8 3 .C. 126. of tfy and xy*. but opposite . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M of the algebraic expressions. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. &) 2 M.C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. . Find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. NOTE. of 3 aW. which also signs. A common remainder. To find the L. The L. Ex. C. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 1. 2. Common 125. Find the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L.6)2. M. C. of the general. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. . 300 z 2 y. 60 x^y' 2 .M. M. thus. 128. C. 2 The The L. L. each set of expressions has In example ft). Ex. C. M.6 3 ).M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. two lowest common multiples. ory is the L. The lowest common multiple (L. M. 127. etc. M. M. Hence the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .
a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. ic 23. a.1. 2 x \2 y. x* ~5a. 16. 5 a? 5 a? y. 4 a . a?b. M. + 2. or f 3 a 15 #. ) . . 3 6 xif. 8 afy. 40 abJ. b 2 . a2 4. Find the L. 3 f2. 8 d 5 . 1. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. (a 4)(a2) 12. T a 3 a 2 . 2 10. . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2(m 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. 2. y*. a f 3. afy. 3 Z> . 3. a 2 fa6. 2 a . a2 ~ab 1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a. a f 2 19. x 2 5 a. a !. 7. 3(a + b). 2 a.f 6. 14. + 6. 20. 17. 5. xy\ . f b. 6b 2 . 2 . a 1. 6 a. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 7ic+10. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 4 a 5 6cd. 22. + 2 7i) . 9. 2 . a^1. 8. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. of: 4. 24 x. 3. 15. a. 6. 30 a. afc'cd 2 . a 2 a3 . 2 . 11. 13. G a. ic 2 ?/. 18. 6 y.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 4 a f 2. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 3 ab. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 24. 3 . 21.1. 20 9 a. a& 4 +& 2 . a { a~b. 2 a . x2 + 4 a f 4. by. #.
and i x mx = my y terms A 1. and denominators are considered.ry ^ by their H. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. as 8. a b = ma mb . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. Ex. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Remove tor. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 131. etc. 130. C. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . a?. however. A f fraction is b. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. but we In arithmetic. rni Thus 132.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. F. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. successively all 2 j/' . Thus.
Ex. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 2. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . . and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex.
n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 29. 23. g J 21. 11 ^ Mtr f . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ^' rt ^  31. . 5^10 y 30. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. """.*. . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 19. nx 17.7 . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. LJZJ^JL. 16. ny 4 18. . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.' 32. ^+3*. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ' ^ . 9x + "a" 10. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.
=(z (x + 3)(z. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Divide the L. we have the quotients (x 1). Ex.  by 4 6' . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and 135. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and (a 8). Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x. 2> .D.96 134. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. Reduce ^. take the L. TheL.C. C. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .  of //* 2 . by the denominator of each fraction. 1. C. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. .M. ^ to their lowest com The L. and the terms of ***. multiplying the terms of 22 . + 3). mon T denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .r 2 2 . M.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 1).C. we have M^. we may extend this method to integral expressions.3) (!)' = . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.1^22 ' . . .
5?. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.oj o* or / . 137. 2aj ~ . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . common denominator 6. 8 i i. 2 ay IB. 7i 2 ab* ". 2. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.^1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 18. . If the given fractions have different denominators. j y 3. 3.. 22 a2 5a * . 74). . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted)..T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. o o a. i.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . . a? 1 5 > ^* . JL.
3 ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4..(a 2 6). 2. as 4 aft f. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).3 ft 2). 4(2 a 3 ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. in the beginning.2 ' 2 _. (a ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .ft)(a . ^ is 2^JT) .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . the student should remember that parentheses are . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .ft) (a ft ft)~. e.g.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). L. and adding.2 = a(a . T? Ex.7 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. ft). D. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (a .3 .aft) Ca2 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. The L. D. C.
a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. 20. a+6 a 6 2 14.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. A+2_3. 23. 18 v 19. 46 2a 4a 12. + a "" 2 6 ' . a 36 ++.5 18 ^4f25. j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. + . 24. 15. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 6 c 3a 7. 2. 1 f q * 1 m m . t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1 1 f w 16. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.
a ?^ 40. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 4 31. a. 43. a 30. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 2 af1 32. 1 34. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9.9 79 6 2 i. 42. ic 1 + 1. 3a 9 +.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ! n. af 1f /j. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 41. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44.
17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.  4 or 3 2a.FRACTIONS 139. . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. T. .  .6 + 4x 4 x2 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 1.7 5a v Ex. Reduce . 101 mixed expression. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .
Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. (In order to cancel common factors. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. or. fractions to integral numbers. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. F J Simplify . Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Since  = a. we may extend any e. 2 a Ex.g.) Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . integer. !. multiply the 142.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. 2. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.
.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 50 . .. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 4 8. 5# 56 / c& 4. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Divide Xn?/ . 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. . 1. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.
_ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .FRACTIONS 105 .5 ??i 80 50 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. ga2 4 8 5 a .10 ?/ _. or both. a a2 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. Ex.^c 2 2 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. l. are fractional.afr 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). Simplify x }. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. M. JL. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 2. . i. Ex. & . x* 4. . of their denominators. the answer is directly obtained. . 9. 10. 6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 7i+~ 7. a m "" . . y X 4* 2 y 3.a ^c c _^ a . n a 8.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . c +6. C.y 32 .
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17. o 15. 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) .
Transposing. of the denominator. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 5(3 85 Check.48. Uniting.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 1. Clearing of fractions.42 + 9. + 1) (a + 3) .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 9x x Check. a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 148. these Ex. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 4 4)  x. M. 2. = 6.f3# + C:E=6f7212. = 6.14 (a. Uniting. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. x = 6.9 x2 + 9. 2x Transposing. each member is reduced to Ex.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. If x 6. each member is reduced to 1.l)(z + 3) = . Bx 12 Qx. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2 3. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). If = 64.28 a = 5 x2 . tions. 2z2a. 108 .8 x = .1. .28 x + 42 = . C.
^' 2. '  4 13. +4 14. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. ^1 = 9. . 15.= 2. a/  5 a/ = 12. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 18. a. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1 *> = 2. +1 = 5.1 _77 a. 16.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .
4a4l4* + l~. y+3~2 29. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . 3x 35. ?_=_. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. .  38 = 40. 31 31. 26 26. If two or more denominators are monomials.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 32 6 . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . J_.11_4 x 149. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x._ _ . . . 25. 27 . 2^12 = 2 = 34. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 33. and" the remaining one a polynomial.
1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. If a.. Transposing and uniting. 26 a. C. a. 60. the 1 5 L. . Check.29 50712' 9 18 .  5 = 20 x 45. 24 a. 5x x : = 9. 5# 10.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.2 3 ~  == 7a. = 9.2 42 9 43.1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . M. each member is reduced to ^. Dividing. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.
If 3ac L= = a ? . 2. = = 6 6c 7 6c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = l^ 9 b 4 . = 2 f b 2 .1.& . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. It frequently occurs that the x. Thus. =a 2 151. f ~ 5c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. fr Reducing lowest terms.2 ac + 3 aft . y. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Uniting. 5> a. = 6 a2 . 4 ac 1. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . jr. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.3 6 2 = a' . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. find a in terms of b and c. Dividing. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. a.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).m bx 2 mn) x. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. they are united by factoring. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Ex. . ax f x f. Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.2 62 2 ab.be. Uniting the Dividing.
= 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 1 f. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. in terms of other quantities. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 10. Ex. q solve for/. 31.= H.= c a Z> . 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = vt.a.i l . + xx = 1. 4.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 8 4 #.= n. ^ ax a^ 26. 17. * Solve the same equation for^). . . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 11. a. m a? x . = 3 (6 a). c. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. co?. 29. If * 33. 2 solve for y a. c 18. If ^^ = a 1 32. If s (wi n) x =px + q. denoting the interest. 9. mx = n. solve for a. . 15. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). = rt. 6. r the number of $>. iw 21. = 5. t. 5) is t =^. p the principal. solve for . 14. + 3a. _ 2. 12. f ^o. 30. 3(* 8. 13. f P =+!. rate. The The i time. and n the number of years. If s If 16. . s = Vt solve for v. 4. 3. 34. IIL n b + &o.
C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.. and 12 = the number over. Ex. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.114 35. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. is 36. 1.180.. A would do each day ^ and B j.20 C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2 3 . x Or Uniting. Find R in terms of C and TT. . 100 C. 2. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Multiplying by Dividing. . then = 2 TT#. 12. = 16^.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.
" : Let x  = the required number of days. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore." gives the equation /I). Solving. and the statement. 3. Clearing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. = 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . 180 Transposing. 4x = 80. the rate of the express train. in Then Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. the required number of days. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
and J of the greater Find the numbers. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How did the much money man leave ? 11. 3. to his son. is equal 7. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. length in the ground. money and $10. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. by 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. ex What 5. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. of his present age.  Find their present ages. and of the father's age. a man had How much money had he at first? . its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. by 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. and one half the greater Find the numbers. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. is oO. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. which was $4000. ceeds the smaller by 4. to his daughand the remainder. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find A's 8. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. make 21.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and 9 feet above water.
3. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B in 4 days. what is the 14. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A has invested capital at more 4%. after rate of the latter ? 15. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 152. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. How much money $500? 4%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16.) 22.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and it B in 6 days. investments. what is the rate of the express train? 152. . 2. air. ^ at 5%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 1. Ex. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.
009 918. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. and apply the method of 170. A in 6. Hence. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. and n = 3.e. they can both do in 2 days. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. n x Solving. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. . B in 5. m and n. therefore. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 2. 26. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. . A in 6. 25. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.414. A in 4. Ex. we obtain the equation m m . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Then ft i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.= . e. is 42. 3. B in 30.g. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. if B in 3 days. .118 153. is 57. To and find the numerical answer. The problem to be solved. B in 16.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. B in 12.
(b) 149. (b) 35 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. same hour from two towns. respectively.721. squares 30. Two men start at the first miles apart. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. Find the side of the square. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. squares 29. : (c) 64 miles. After how many hours do they meet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. and the rate of the second are. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (d) 1. .001. 34. (c) 16. 2 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. if m and n are. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 5 miles per hour. is ?n . and the second 5 miles per hour. 4J miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. respectively (a) 60 miles. The one: 31. the second at the apart. 2 miles per hour. is (a) 51. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 33. meet.000. the rate of the first.
b is the consequent. : : 155. Simplify the ratio 21 3. the symbol being a sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. Ex. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. . The first 156. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b. 6 12 = .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. etc. antecedent." we may write a : b = 6. b.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. 1. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158.5. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the denominator The the 157.g. E. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. " a Thus. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .
12. 62:16. two  ratios. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. Transform the following unity 15. 27 06: 18 a6. 8^ hours. 17. 4. extremes. b. 11. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b and c the means. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. The last first three. 4:5f : 5. 6. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 7f:6J. 9. 61 : ratios 72:18. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3 8. 3. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. $24: $8. 18. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 1. proportional between a and c. terms. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif.RATIO Ex. 7:4 T T 4 . 16a2 :24a&. Simplify the following ratios 7. 3:4. b is the mean b. and c. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 10. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3:1}. equal 2. : 1. 159. 16. a and d are the extremes. J:l. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. and c is the third proportional to a and . : ay . 5 f hours : 2.
: : directly proportional may say. Clearing of fractions. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.) b = Vac. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. i. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.30 grams. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. If (Converse of nq. 163. of iron weigh . " we " NOTE. 3 4.) mn = pq. = 30 grams 45 grams. Hence the number of men required to do some work. 2 165. q~~ n . ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 164. of a proportion. !. then G ccm. 6 ccm. The mean proportional of their product.__(163.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. are : : : inversely proportional. : c. briefly. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. and the time necessary to do it. 163. and the other pair the extremes. ad = be. pro portional.122 162. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. In any proportion product of the extremes.e. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.
(Frequently called Inversion. 12x Hence a? = 42. if 6 : 7.) II. (Division. Or IV. + b:b = c + d:d. ad ( 163. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. then =d c. 166. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. is 4$ = 35. 1.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) (Called Alternation.PATIO Ex. hence the proportion true. = 35 . 2. I.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. d d. ad = be. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a:c=b:d.) = f f = 3 J. . a III. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. V. is Ex. bd bd. (Composition. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) d 167.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (163.
. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : x. the consequents by 7. 3. = 12 5ft. = 20:7. 10.!=!*. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 5 5. mx tin Apply composition and division. = 7:2f 3J. 9. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. E. 3n JJ =n x NOTE.g. Simplify the following proportions. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Apply composition.124 IT. 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. x = 2. IV. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. i. . A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 2:3. = 180:125. Or III. 120:42 2 2 7. V. 6 =4 : x. 4.e. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 8. 5.
. 50. to : a and 1. 52. 44. 22. : . (a : : 45. 2. + fyx = cy. x:5 = y:2. 35. 43. 41. = 5 x 12. 25. 3.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 17. 21. ra. 2 3 = y #. 2 a and 18 a. : 53. = 3 43 + x. 16. ratio of y. terra 2:3 = 4. mx = ny. 6x = 7y. 51. 4. 2= 5 x x. 28. rap. 27. = 15o. 6. 1 and a. to : 9 and 12. x m = y n. 5= 18 a? : a?. and 2/. 9 x = 2 y. 39. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 29. 13. 112:42 = 10:a. 03:a?=135:20. = 2 + x: x. 38. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.x: 6:5 a : x. 12. f. ra + landra 1. ra 2 . 14 and 21. 47. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 20. w. 3t. 16 and 28. 42.:ff. 14. 5. a?:15 15. : a2 . 4 and 16. 26. 3.j>.  32. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. Find the mean proportional 30. Find the third proportional 24. 1. . 6 x = y. Find the 37. = l^:18. a 2 and ab. 46. b. 7iy = 2:x. a. 18. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 33. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 34. to: = 35:*. 23. 31. if : 40. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2.8:1. rag.
(b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the area of the rectangle.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time. the area of the larger? the same. and the time necessary for it. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles.126 54. and the : total cost. and the speed of the train. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. 57. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. 56. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). the squares of their radii (e) 55. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 7^.
produced to a point C. 11 x x 7 Ex.000 168. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 inches long. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 2 x Or = 4. 2. 18 x = 108. is A line AB. as 11 Let then : 1. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. x = 6. : Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 7 x = 42 is the second number. = the second number. Let A B AC=1x. so that Find^K7and BO. 11 x f 7 x = 108. . it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. x=2. AB = 2 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.
13. 12. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 9. and c inches.000. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 6. 3. What are the parts ? 5. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000 square miles.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a.) . and 15 inches. : 197. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 11. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 14. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many 7. 12. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : 4. Gunmetal tin. How many gen. 2. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 7. How The long are the parts ? 15. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.
there is only one solution. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. 2 y = . x = 1. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.y=. etc. =.e. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. a? (1) then I. is x = 7. values of x and y.. such as + = 10. y = 1. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.L x If If = 0. Hence. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. However. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. expressing a y. The root of (4) if K 129 . if .CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.
Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. viz. y I 171. of elimination most frequently used II. E. By By Addition or Subtraction. and 3 x + 3 y =. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. are simultaneous equations.3 y = 80. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. = . y = 2.130 170.X. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 26 y = 60. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent.26. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 6x . same relation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 21 y . the last set inconsistent. 4y . for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. to The two methods I. 172. for they express the x f y 10. The first set of equations is also called consistent. unknown quantity. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. Substitution. 174. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. ~ 50. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Therefore. cannot be reduced to the same form. 3. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).24.
131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Transposing.14 =8. y = 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 5 13 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). = 406. + 2. y = 1. add the equations. Check. x = 10. 3. subtract the equations.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 37. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. are like. 60 . 10 . 25 x . whose coefficients In general.3 1 = 47.3 y = 47. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 3y = 3. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 64 x = 040. 8 2. Therefore Check. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. x = 10. 3. = 235. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).2 = 6.
9 *. . i 3. 7 ' 1fi fl . 9 1 r 20. I . = 6. * + 3 y = 50.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. f 3# ?/ = 0. 13. [2o. + 2/ 17. 19< I a. = 24. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. ' 12. O t K 8.3. x 11. J I y = 1U. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 13 61 l7a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4.3. v ^ = ll. = 41.f2/ ' = 50. I ~ y~~> 22.v 23.5 y = 2. _. I i 3 a. f 3X 7x 14. I oj 5y = 17. ] ^ .
EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 4#8. and solve the resulting equation. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2y + 10. = 60. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 3. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 13. 8. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation.
7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. however. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. From 9 = 36. Substituting in (6) . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. + 212y4 = 14. 3 (1) Ex.6)7(y7)==18.3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (4). simplified before elimination is possible. . 2 y = . \ \6(a. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. x = l. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 21z6y=9. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (7) (7) (8) . 4* + 3y = 19. 29 x = 29. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3.
2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. . . yM a. 10 2a?5 17. = 3. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a.1) = 121.1) + 5(6 y . J 9. +y 2 . 4 11.f2 2. 16. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 12. 10. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
* ((* (( . {. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y .Q ^ 4 21.#. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. <X + 20. . but some expressions involving x.and x y . and y. 180. e.
1. Therefore y=4. 33 = 11 x. y 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 2* * x 2. etc. however. y. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . x 3.3 xy.4 x = 4 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Clearing of fractions. y 4. . x 2x(2). (4) + (G). 137 Solve y y (1) . Substituting x = 3 in (1). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. 15 y + 8 x . (2) (3) a. of this type. can also be solved Examples method.
= o 6. = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. .= 5.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 6. y MOi y a. 253 7. 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. Ex. x 8. 1. 21 9 . n. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x y 331 9. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 5.
Uniting. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. . . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. d. d. . apan cm. and I. . 14. x 12. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. 6. a Find a and terms of n. and I if 13.W.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. Dividing.y = = 9a + 46. W . x a. bmy bm}y ap cm. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. fax f = l. From the same equations find s in terms of a. ax + by = 2 a&. w. f 5. x f my = 1. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. s in 11. ny = fy/ I sc 1.
Solve the following system of equations: = 8.3=4. 4. = 3. y =* 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. = 30. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 8 x . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). . Ex. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 20.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).16. 1. 1. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. l. f 3y 12 =s 8.2 + 4.8 = 1.1+4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. x + 12 y . (4) (5). 3y = Hence Check.13. (8) 2. by 3.by 2. ties are Similarly.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. etc.25.12 y + 6 z = .15z=12 Adding. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 6.3 = 8. 3. 3. 4.2 + 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.lf> z . To solve equations containing By tions. 182.
8. a? + 709 = 26. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 4 = 42.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. == 6. x 13. 2 . 14. + y f z = 15. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 49. a? 11. 2z = 40. ~6?/ 5. 7. 15 2 = 45. 12. 10. 2 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
?/ 3x = 0. 16. 23. = 5. . ? = llz. 27. 60. 4. 22.6 2. =s 20. . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.. 84 21. 19.3 y + . . ^ = 2. 1510 4 17. 32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 8*. (3 _.2 a.42 = 2.
however. +2+ 6 = 8. + z = 2p. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 2 = 6. . Obviously of the other . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 1.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. the number. + 396 = 521.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. z + x = 2 n. = 2 m.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. symbols: x + y +z 8. and to express In complex examples. Check. Ex. . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. M=i. and if 396 be added to the number. y * z 30. = l. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. y 31. # 4. 2 = 1(1+6). 1 digit in the tens place. either directly or implied. x : z =1 : 2. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Find the number. ( 99. 1 = 2. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.
x y = the = the x denominator . (1) (2) 12. direction. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 4 x = 24.144 Ex. y = 3. we obtain. Since the three men traveled the same distance. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. = the fraction. B. . x 3x4y = 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 6 x 4 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. 2. x 3 = 24. 3. = Hence the fraction is f. Or (4)2x(3). who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. C. increased by one. 2. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 5_ _4_ A. From (3) Hence xy Check. = 8.
If 9 be added to the number. Find the numbers. fraction is reduced to \. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 2. 1. 5. Find the numbers. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. . Find the number.}. the value of the fraction is fa. to the number the digits will be interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. number by the first 3. and the fourth 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. tion ? 8. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the last two digits are interchanged. both terms. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and its denomi nator diminished by one. part of their difference equals 4. the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. the fraction is reduced fraction. it is reduced to J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 183.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 6. If 27 is 10. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 7. the Find the fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the number (See Ex. its value added to the denominator. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the fraction equals . to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. ? What 9. If the denominator be doubled. Find the number. Find the fraction. and the numerator increased by 4. added to the numerator of a fraction.
and partly at 4 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A sum of $10. now. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. . Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. respectively ? 16. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and 4 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. the rate of interest? 18.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. A man invested $750. 12. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 14. Find their present ages. 13. partly at 5 %. Find the rates of interest. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. 19.grams. How 6 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 5 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. in 8 years to $8500. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and in 5 years to $1125.000 is partly invested at 6%. and money and 17. If the rates of interwere exchanged.
A farmer sold a number of horses. 1 NOTE. are taken so ABC. for $ 740. the three sides of a triangle E. and e. Find their rates of walking. BD = HE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. An C touch ing the sides in D. E. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. triangle Tf AD. . c. what is that = OF. BE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. On /). and F '(see diagram).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. BC = 7 inches. and AC = 5 inches. and angle BCA = 70. points. and $15 for each sheep. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and angle e angle/. . 23. and GE = CF. and sheep. and their difference by GO . three AD = AF. and F. $ 50 for each cow. cows. but if A would double his pace. then AD = AF. andCL4 = 8. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. receiving $ 100 for each horse. respectively. 24. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC=7. angle c = angle d. 25. is the center of the circum scribed circle. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and CE If AB = G inches. ED = BE. and F. B find angles a. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. the length of NOTE.
lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 3). Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (7. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. PM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. the ordinate by ?/. 186. It' Location of a point. the ordinate of point P. (2. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and r or its equal OA is . and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). first 3). and PN _L YY'. is the abscissa. jr. 2). The of Coordinates. ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and point the origin. (3. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4).. PN. YY' theyaxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. or its equal OM. B. is The point whose abscissa is a. Thus the points A. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2. and PJ/_L XX'.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. . PN are given.
the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 11. (1. (4. 4). (4. (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 2J). 2. 4) and (4.4). (0. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. Plot the points: (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 12. i. 3). . (0. (2. (5. (3. which of its coordinates known ? 13. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 8. (See diagram on page 151. 4). 0). What is the locus of (a?.(!. 6. 3). !).3). Plot the points: (4.) EXERCISE 1. Plot the points (6. (4. (4. and measure their distance. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.e. 6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. Plot the points : (0. 0). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 3. 2). 4) from the origin ? 7.and(l. 4. 1). 1). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. . 2).1). Graphs. (4. 71 2). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 0).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 3). 0).
we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. or the curved line the temperature.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. may be found on Jan.. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. we meas1 . in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 10 . ure the ordinate of F. C. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 15. 1. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. B. . from January 1 to December 1. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. however. A. D. 188. By representing of points.
Whenever a clear. physician. uses them. (d) November 20. the graph is applied. the rise and fall of wages. (b) July 15. The engineer. the merchant. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities. . etc. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what months above 18 C.. (1) 10 C. 1? 11 0. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. on 1 to the average.152 2. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1 to Oct. (d) 9 0. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C... June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. How much. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ?  3. is 10.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ? 9. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. When the average temperature below C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (freezing point) ? 7.
Hour Temperature .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. 19. 20. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. NOTE. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.
if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 4. function If the value of a quantity changes.inch. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. A 10 wheels a day. 3.50. etc.. 26.) T circumferences of 25. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. etc. x* x 19. binding. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 2 . to 27.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 28.5 grams. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. then C irJl..154 24. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. books from for printing.. the daily average expenses for rent. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. if each copy sells for $1. . Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. represent his daily gain (or loss). 29. 1 to 1200 copies. gas. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2. 3. and $. 190.g. x increases will change gradually from 13.50. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. amount to $8. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 9. e. x 7 to 9. the value of a of this quantity will change. if he sells 0. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.
however. for x=l. . Q.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. plot points which lie between those constructed above. J). 2 (1. is supposed to change. 4). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. x a variable. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .2 x may 4 from x = 4. (2. as 1. and join the points in order. may . may. etc. E. 3 (0. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.1). to x = 4. 9). 4). be also represented by a graph.1). (1^. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . it is In the example of the preceding article. a*. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. construct '. If a more exact diagram is required. Ex. (1. 3 50. ( 2. while 7 is a constant. Draw the graph of x2 f.0). 1 the points (3. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 2). and (3. The values of func192.g.e. Graph of a function. 9). 2.
straight line produces the required graph. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. r */ +* 01 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. rf 71 . 194. 4).) For brevity. 7 .. = 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. . y = 6.20). 2 4 and if y = x f. 5). 4J.. 1).4). Ex. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. (4. = 0. j/=3. and join(0. as y. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. Thus in the above example.2 x .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. (2. Thus 4x + 7. etc. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. (3...
The values of a*. 2. (C ) (2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2x + 3x a?.5)2. + 4. The smallest value of the function. 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.8)'. a* 13. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 12. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. l. 3. a ar. 21. xz + x. . the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 19. = The values of a*. a? 1. if y = 2. ?/ a. from x VlO'S". a. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if a. 2 a. if"a. 1 8 10. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. fa 17. 2J. 22. (7i) (c) 23. a? 2 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2 a. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 6 fa. . 2. 5. if the function equals zero. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. y = 2x = 4. i. 1. 2 2 a. 14. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 6. 2 2. 7. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a?. 1J. 16. 3 a 8. 15. 1J.or. (ft) (_ 1. the function. x+1. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. The values of a?. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 3. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.e. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 18. = 4. 23x. 1J. Jar .5)2. 2J. (If) Va25. 4 a. xl. 2 or 2 20. 9. J. 8. 4a? I.
If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).. C. then y = . 9 F. Show any convenient number). From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. . Therefore x = 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. then cXj where c is a constant.24. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 14 F. y= formula graphically. 25... 1 C. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.e. that graph with the o>axis. the abscissas of 3.24 or x = P and Q. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. i. Represent 26. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.where x c is a constant.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.158 24. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. 32 F.
0. 8. . viz. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. crosssection paper is used. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. a2 2a. 4. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 13. 11.f 9 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 10. 7. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. (0. 12. is called a quadratic equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. or 5 2. 2 and 1. 14. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 6. Such equations in general have two roots. + + = where a. = 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. 3. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 197. (a) (6) 9. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. (a) x2 = 0.
Hence if if x x  2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. fc = 3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. and join the required graph. 0). produces the 7* required locus. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. If x = 0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . . == 2. 1) and 0). because their graphs are straight lines. ?/.e.1. = 0. X'2 Locating the points (2. solve for ?/. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. (f . 3x _ 4 . i. T . Hence we may join (0. ?/ =4 AB.2. 199. if y = is 0. and joining by a straight line. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. y y 2. NOTE. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Hence.2 y ~ 2. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 2). Ex. 4) and (2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. unknown quantities. first degree. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). locate points (0. Ex.
and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.15. (2) . equation x= By measuring 3. AB y = .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. P. linear equations have only one pair of roots. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. To find the roots of the system. Graphical solution of a linear system. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.1=0. 203. parallel have only one point of intersection. viz.57. 201. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. and CD. we obtain the roots. 3.
etc.5. 5. (1) (2) C. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. (2. intersection. if x equals respectively 0. 2. they are inconsistent. the graph of points roots.9.y~ Therefore. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. AB the locus of (1).e. Locating the points (5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 3. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. In general. 3). 3. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.. Solving (1) for y. e. Measuring the coordinates of P.0). 3. 1. 4. 4. 4. 2 equation x 3). 4.g. = 0. 0. 1. 5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. and .0. (4. we of the + y* = 25. 4.5. and joining by a straight line. 2. P graphs meet in two and $.  4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. Since the two  we obtain DE. the point we obtain Ex. x2 . There can be no point of and hence no roots. Locating two points of equation (2). The equations 2 4 = 0. 0. i. 4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. . Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Using the method of the preceding para. 3x 2 y = 6. and + 3). 4. 0) and (0. y equals 3. (4.
2. Draw system. 17. y= a2 2x y6. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 16 22. 9. 19. if possible. 10. 3. '163 Dependent equations. \ 2x + 3^ . as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. state reasons. and solve each If there are no solutions. y 2 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. the graphs of the following systems. 6.. 20. 4. . idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 7. 8. 16 23. vice versa. 5. a+r/=6. and. a. y=x + 5. y = 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 2x 3?/=6. x~y=0.
25. 4 a = 3(6 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 3 31. CUBES.164 24. 29 . 28.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y). 26. 30.14 y = . TABLE OF SQUARES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
8. follows that 3. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. According to 1. ^4/? it According to 50. a special kind of product. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . involution repeated multiplication. fa. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. Law of Signs.faa a a a Obviously 1. . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 52. etc. a = a3 .a2 . is may be by 207. 3 f a = f a = +. on to in factors 4. 2. 2.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( a) is positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .
The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 76 : (>y. 24. (^^) 2 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. . 2 11 (afc ) . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 3 2 2 8 . 4. 16.166 To find To To power. 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 210. 2. V V/ 13. 15. (a ) 2 4  3. a product to a given power. 5. (a ) 2 5 . (2ar). ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (277171 )*.6 (a 8 8 . the required power. 4 /2mV. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.6) = a . \ 3 J '  MW 10. amVy) 3 . raise a fraction to a power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.
y) = (3 y?y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .INVOLUTION Ex. 21. 12. = s= (2s) 8 a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 3 . (afl) . 2. 1 f 3 2 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. +5a) 22. nent of the binomial.) 14. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . The higher powers of binomials. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (aj7) . . a. 1. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . + a 2 a.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.y . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. (3af26) 8 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. pansions. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 13.6 2 8 ft) . + 4aj) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . 18. frequently called ex. 8. 15. An 1. 2 . 5. (3 x . etc. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 7. 3 8 . (a + &)8 . 3. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. : a 20. . 6. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. are obtained by multiplication. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 9.3 y. or*  Find the cube root of 19. Ex. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 23. 211. 2. 16. 4.
. (2 4. 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 25. (?>i?i f c)*. (2 a 4 . is the coefficient of the next term. (3a f5) 5) 4. (?/i~w) : 16. (mnp 5 I) 5 . . (1 + 4 ?/) . 24. (p + q) 4 * 7. (m 5 I) 2 22. 21.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 13. (tff1) (cfd) . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 17. (l 8 . . 5. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 6. Ex. 4 . 9.2. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 10. 3.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . Ex. 18. 4. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (a~^) 5 . 78 s . 3.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . and the powers negative.216 a^ 4. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (m fl) 2 20. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. ( &) 5 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .168 3. Ex. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 1. . (w 4 ?i) 4 .a) 3 19. 23. (af 5) . 2. 14. 5. . (la&) 4 12. 4 (1for) 5 . 15.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . . The minus. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . mn 5 2 5 ) . (m 2 + n) 8 . (mJ) 4 11.
Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. or x &4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. a) 4 = a4 . V \/P 214. V9 = + 3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 1. or y ~ 3. numbers. for distinction. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 109 . = x means = 6. 215. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and all other numbers are. etc. (_3) = 27. or 3 for (usually written 3) . and ( v/o* = a. tity .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 2. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 4 4 . \/"^27=3. which can be simplified no further. called real numbers.
for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 8. 4 v. 62 = V2* . V?. 6. 3 33 53 . 8. 7.lL.201) = 2. 79 2 v/2 5 . 2. \/2 4 9 . index. . V36 9 4.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 3/0** = am . V25 9 16. 6. 7. 9. 82 .64 5 4 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . = 19472. extract the and denominator. 3i . To extract a root of a fraction. . v/^i2 = a*. EXERCISE 1.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.9 = 136. Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Ex. fy 5 3 . roots of the numerator \/18 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex. Ex 5 a" . 10. To extract the root of a power. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 9. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .200 . V5 v/2 7 2. 2.4.125. 7 . 2 .(. 7 . 3. . 6 7 = 030.1. Ex. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 5.  100 a 2 . v/2^. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.
/).4/. 6. 2.3 y2) ( vV . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 2 . 33. 31.98.) by inspection. 29. 5. 1. 34. 3. Ex. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. a f2 l 2 + l.EVOLUTION 171 28.6 tfif + 9 y = O .75. 116.3. 45 V5184.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ^40^4. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 . 32.3 . a* 4 8 2 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. V20 . V8. V9216. Find the square root of a2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 30. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2 f ( V240) 3 .
10. . 2 2 218. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. mV14m??2)f 49. 11. #2 a2  16. 2ab . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 ac . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 14.172 7. the given expression is a perfect square.2 &c.e. let us consider the relation of a f. a\b is the root if In most cases.72 aW + 81 & 4 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ab + b . and b (2 a f b). 8 . + 6 + 4a&. 15.> 13. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. however. 12. The term a' first 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .b 2 2 to its square. and b. 2 . i. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . a f.
10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 2. 1. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Explanation. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. */'' . . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 6 a. by division we term of the root. The square . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 219. Second trial divisor. . 8 /. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Ex.24 afy* f 9 tf. and so forth.EVOLUTION Ex. First trial divisor. As there is no remainder.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . of x. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 1. First complete divisor. is As there is no remainder. . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 8 a 2 . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. the first term of the answer. and consider Hence the their sum one term.
4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 20. 18.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 12. 6. 3. 17.16.12m 5 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.162 a2 60 a10 4. 9.10 x2 4.73 a8 .6 .25 x 4 4. 4 .9.24 or .4 x 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 8.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .42 a*& 4. 15. . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 16. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 13#4 413ar 44a.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 19. 10. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.20 J or 2 16 x 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 5. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 1 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 16x6 4. 2 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . > 7.40 a 22 . 436^?/469a.20 o 4. 24.12 m 4. 6 11. 729 4. a? 2 .V430^425^ 4m 4. 14. 36it. 5 4 16 4 iK .25. 2 x2 3 2x.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . l 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.37 a ^ .
= 80. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. The is trial divisor = 160. two figures. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Find the square root of 7744. a 2 = 6400. of a number between 100 and 10.176. etc. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.1344.000. of 10. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.EVOLUTION 220. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.000 is 100. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 2.. Ex. Find the square root of 524. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the first of which is 8. Ex. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the complete divisor 168. 1. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the first of which is 4. Therefore 6 = 8.000.000 is 1000. and the first remainder is. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. which may contain one or two). etc. the square root of 7744 equals 88. first . a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '.7 to three decimal places.70 6. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . annex a cipher. in . The groups of 16724. places. Find the square root of 6/. 12. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.1T6 221.10. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. 3.
) 40. 32. 5. 30. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. .53. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . feet.58 square 38.01.1410. whose area equals 48. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. JT . 37. = 3. T\. 1. 39. 34. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 35. 13. feet.22. 31. 36. 33. J.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.
6#2 = x* 24. is A quadratic equation. The 7 equation. 2)* + 5 = 33..g.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 178 . 6 y2 = 17. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 226. x 2 7. 2 ic = a. Extracting the square root of each member. x = + 2 or x =2. 1. Transposing. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 224. Ex. This answer Check. complete. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or incomplete. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Solve 13 x2 19 etc. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 225. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. A pure. Dividing. or affected. . = 4. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. but no higher power e. is 12. = 7^ + 5. 2.
7. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 5. or Therefore. 6(2)=10(ajl). 10. 3.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4 ax.25. o. 19 + 9 = 5500. 2. Solve 179 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ' =: y? b* b . ax Transposing and combining. . : 83 2. 7 = 162. 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. . 15^5 = 6. (a? 9. 8. 2 2 a.2. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 16^393 = 7. 2 4fc 5' 18.
. 2 . 24. 28. solve for d. 2a f 1 23. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 27. 26. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for r. 2 : 3. EXERCISE 1.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a.) of their squares 5. 22 a. find a in terms of 6 . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If G=m m g . 228. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 4. If a 2 4. r. 2 . and their product : 150. .b 2 If s If =c . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 29. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. : 6. Find is the number. If 22 = ~^. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2. Find the side of each field. 108. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and they con tain together 30G square feet. solve for v. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. A right triangle is a triangle. Find the numbers. 3. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. is 5(5. 25. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find the side of each field. ' 4.
8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. (b) 100 feet? = .) 13. 8. Solve Transposing. of a right triangle Find these sides. Find these 10. sides. Find the unknown sides and the area.7 x f 10 = 0. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 9. . and the two smaller 11. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. A body falling from a state of rest. 24. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. . 2m. is and the other two sides are equal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Method of completing the square. we have of or m = . and the other two sides are as 3 4. Find the sides. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. and the third side is 15 inches.2 7 . J = 12. x* 7 x= 10. The area : sides are as 3 4. (b) 44 square feet. radii are as 3 14. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. add () Hence 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. To find this term. Find the radii. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 4. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .
 \. Ex. = x\ = 2. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.2. adding member). 230. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Therefore. a Clearing of fractions. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Transposing. 2  . = 6. Transposing. = . 2 a* a. . Hence Therefore Check. (*~8) a = at .e. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . = \ # = ff. Extracting square roots.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 62 x 5 = f. Simplifying. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Ex. a.x(l = . Uniting. or x = 2. or J.a. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2 a2 . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. J.1..
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying.
= 12. 231. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. x la 48. ao. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.c = 0. =8 r/io?. 2x 3 4. Solution by formula. =0. article. and c in the general answer. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 49. .
18. 16. 4. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 12. c p. 26. 15.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 21. 2 a? = 44 x . c = 5.  . 6 . 5 x2 Transposing. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 7. 8. 9. Reducing to general form. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 11. 6. 6^+5^ 56. TIO. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 20. = 12 . 2 a..4 4 5 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.15 x9 25x* = 21 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 17. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 19. 3. 6 Ex. 2. 2or } 5o. 2. 2 o. : 86 + 2 = 0. 14. = 64120?. 2 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). a. 7^ + 9 x 90. 10.25 x. V^tT)* . b =  + 20 == = 0. ?i 2 . 13. 6. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 1.
any degree.5 Solving (1) and (2). . Bx 1 1. factors Now. 3x?+x = 7. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* .5) =0. if either of the uct is zero. member can be Ex. 24.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. = 0. x2 = 1 . 5 = 0. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. or # 5 is zero. 25. 2S3x 1 2 . 27 x== 42a.x. and 6. transposing terms to one member.4) = . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.2. 233. Factoring. = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. = 0. ar>8o. }. x(x <2 . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. all or. 5) = 0. (5 a? !)(. Clearing for fractions. 0. a=:i^^. Eesolving into factors. = 14. orz roots. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 1. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Transposing. Solution by factoring. 26. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 23.
} 2 2 (5 . 7. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 8. : 87 = 0. for a: . + 9 f 20 x = 0.(. 13. 4or + 18a f 8a.g.24 = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. a?10a=:24. + 6)=0. x2 f 2 x . (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 16. 4. 0(02) = 7(02).= 24. Ex. + 10 a = 24. 3) Factoring. 3 or 2 a. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. O roots are 2.e.:=0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. we 9 obtain x 4. aj( 15. 9. 0^ ar> 11. ar'Sa^ 12. 3^ = 0(1106). Therefore x =3 = 2. 3. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. (aj4)(a. The equation I. evidently (x Or 4)(x . E. 2o3 f9a. 3) = 0. + 8=s: 7. 2. 5 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. a?. 14. 3# y 5 = 0. 5.3)(x + 3 3. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 100. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 6. 4)(z3) = 0. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Or Hence the 234. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. a* 10a=24. is 5) = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 12. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.6)) = 0.
23. 50. 2. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19.188 17. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a. 22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 27. 20. '3a!J  . ara + ft + c*.3) = (s + l) (3 a). a 2 =(x a)b. 18. 25. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24.
1. two numbers is 4. .2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .3. 2. 1. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 56. 54. Find the number. and the difference Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. The 11. 7.0. 6. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. : 3.9. 1. and equals 190 square inches. 0. and consequently many prob 235. 2. 3.3. 52. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. The difference of . 8. 4. 58.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 3. and whose product 9. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 5. feet. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. G. EXERCISE 1. Find the number. of their reciprocals is 4. and whose sum is is 36. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. 57. 55.0. 2. Find the sides. number by 10. 5.
190 12. Two vessels. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey.10. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 19. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. ABCD. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. If he each horse ? . watch for $ 24. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 15. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for 21. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ply between the same two ports. other. Find the rate of the train. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. 13. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. . and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 17. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. as the 16. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 14. sold a horse for $144. dollars. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.
) 25. the two men can do it in 3 days. is On the prolongation of a line AC. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. 237. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. so that the rectangle. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. By formula.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 1. Ex. of the area of the basin. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and working together. a point taken. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. how wide is the walk ? 23. 27. (tf. as 0. constructed with and CB as sides. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. contains B 78 square inches. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. ^3^ = 7. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. . The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. 23 inches long. Find and CB. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 24. Find TT r (Area of a circle . or x = \/l = 1. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
4 8 = 2 a* 2. aV+9o 4 =0. 7. or y = 8. 6. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.T 2 2 . 18. 8. a? 15 1=2*. Hence Le. 4 : 89 10a. T 17.2 =4. 19. Solving. = 13. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.)+72=0. 2. 2 h9:=0. y8)=0. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a4 5o. 10. = 1. 16. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 16 a^40 11.192 238. 436 3. 9. 4 a. a. 12. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . >. 4 6. a 21or=100.
12 x + 9 = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. is 4ac not zero. 3. Relations between roots and coefficients. the roots are real. the roots are rational. the roots are unequal. The discriminant =(. and unequal. a perfect square. rational. rational. negative.5) = 04.2 z . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .2) 2 4 3 (.bx 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Ex.f> = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . and equal. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. ( 2a Hence 1. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are equal. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 240. .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Hence the roots are real. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are irrational.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 2. Ex. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. b 4. the roots are imaginary. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 1. c the roots are real.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 241.
194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 60 2 = 0.. lla. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 12~x = x 2 . = Q.g. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. ^12. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2 a. 2a 4z5 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 24. = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 14. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. f 2 E. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 4. 2 7. 2. o. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = 0. 6. 15. + 18 2 8. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1.19 # 20. 12. x2 7 10. 2 : 3. 3a. 17. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 22. their product isf. 23. + 12 2  . + 2a15 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 18. + 2a. = 5x. 21. 9a3 = 0. 5aj 9. 5oj aj + l = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. = 0. : a 2 .
instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. We assume.* III. Then the law of involution. m IV. and .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242.a" = a m n mn . for all values 1 of m and n. hence. must be *The symbol smaller than. 244. The first of these laws is nition of power. a m a" = a m+t1 . provided w > n. ~ a m f. = a"" < . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. while the second of the first. It is. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . that a an = a m+n . II. however. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. (a m ) w . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. > m therefore. (ab) . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. such as 2*. no Fractional and negative exponents. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.
29. 28. 3*. 31. = a. '&M A 27. laws. Assuming these two 8*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a?*. 0?=^. disappear. or zero exponent equal x. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. (xy$. e. 245. m$. a*. (bed)*. as. n 2 a. 24. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. . 25. ml. a\ 26. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. fractional. at. etc. ^=(a^) 3* 3 .g. 4~ . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. a . 23. 30.
\/n. 49. 246. e. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. however. Vo5 . equal to unity. \/xy \/m. 5 a* = 10. 44. 41. hence is . a. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 45. Let a = a. = 2.g. a* * = 3. : 2' 4* = 4. If. ty?. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. \fi?. 48. : 197 33. Solve the following equations 39. 46. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a . 27* = 3. = 49. a * a2 Or a=l. v/o&cT 34. 7z* Find the values of 47. 43. v'mT 36. 50. 37.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. = 2. 40. the base is zero. 42. 38. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. e. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 35. 3* = 27.g.
a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. by changing the sign of NOTE.2 = a2 . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. . vice versa. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.g. or the exponent. 248. Let x= or". a8 a 2 = 1 1 . etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. e. Multiplying both members by a".198 247. Or a"# = l. an x = a. consider the following equations. cr n.
3 a. : or 5 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. . * 24. rfS. c 32. 40. 37.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 39. 2 . 66 45. 3 a? * 42. 27. 44. 36. 2m~i 43."* 38. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. . : mi m~^. ^L. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2 . a^ 41. ^?2 y' 34. m . a. 25. 22. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . f (2w)~i 1 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 7~ l a 2b 2 .
6).343)* + (. 1. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = 5. (.9*. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. ar = i. + A_. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.1. 10* 5* = . 57. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . = . 17' 2 51. 250. 61. .008)* + A. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 10* Find the values 56. Ex.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 58. 49. 54.001. = l. 47. 53. 59. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. z 5or*=10. of: 3ll4~* 60. 52. 55. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.26)* 1 (I) 2 .81 f (a . z* = 1.(. = ^. 48. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. + 1~* f 21 .
EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.&. 12. 18.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 16. 6 *. S'sS8. V5. 4 x^. #* a. 8 ' 9.$*. 4 5. 7.7W. 6a.5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .3 aj" a. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 3 a.7i. a. OA 20. 14. .5a. 72 . 7*. 6. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 23. are performed. 17. / 7fv 7.6 *' 6 *25.$". . 79 . 26. . remove the fractional exponents. 3sVS. 27  28. ' 11. Remove the negative exponents. 13.7*. NOTE. etc.. 16. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. (d) If required. &. 7~ 5 27  . Perform the operation indicated. 95 ^9i 5**.^/5^5.4 . 10.4 a8 . 7~ 6 .&.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 3.
The 252. Arrange in descending powers of Check. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. powers of x arranged are : Ex. If powers of a?.2 d . 34. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 6 35. 2. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 40. 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V2. signs. \/5. </20. 38. ^2. ^6. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 26. V2. V3. ^2. 39. ^5. 4^/4. A/2. To add or form. 3. V3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. </3. Arrange 35. if dissimilar. ^30. Ex. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. v/4. ^3.2. 33. ^4. + . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.3\ .10 V2 =  V2. 28. v^S. 37. V2. 40. connect them by proper 1. ^126. VS. ^/IT. 5V2. ^4. in order of magnitude : \/7. 2\ 3*. v/3. 34. Simplify/a35 ~ o . \/7. s!/3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^2. 36. ^7. 27.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 30. (i. 29. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.e. 31. Ex. </2. v/3. I VJ + 3VT8 . Simplify V~ . subtract surds.2 V50. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 32. A/3. V5.
6. 13. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.3V20 + 6V5. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 12. 4V805V45. . 10. 4. 8VT8J2V32 7. VJ+V8V1 + V50.J a6 V4 aft. 11. 3. 14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6. + 3V835V2. 8. V18+V32VT28+V2. 9. V175V28+V634V7.
the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. . 1. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 23. 2. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 3.6V35 106 460V35100 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. y* = Ex. .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 26^ . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . and then multiplied. 6*.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex.
40. . \/3 \^). V3 V6. 19. VlO V15.^/2. 21. 39. 2 . 27. (Va Va 36. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . VTO. V2 V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). v/4. (3 20. 3. V3 Vl2. 2. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). v/18 v"3. 40 10 30. 28 . V2aV8^.VSS. 213 98 11. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. + VB)(2V5). a?. 25. 9. (2V3) 8 . 37. 7. 13. 12. Vll. 15. 6 V4 5. 6. 38. aVa. 10. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 6. 14. (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V22V3CVS)V3. V42. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V20 V30. 41. 4. fWa 17. 8. 18. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 34.
268. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). V3 . Va v/a. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). . 51. 49. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 46. the quotient of the surds is If. Ex. 47. 52. 44. 53. 60. 43. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.y. 48. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.214 42. a fraction. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). all monomial surds may be divided by method. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). is 1 2. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45.
. Divide VII by v7. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.g.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. however.RADICALS This method. by V7. Evidently.by the usual arithmetical method. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. metical problems afford the best illustrations. e. arithTo find. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is illustrated by Ex. 3. /~ } Ex. 1. we have V3 But if 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. The 2.73205. .57735..
V8 12. 20. A. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.2361. 21.7320.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V3 24 . . 271. 272. 14. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. i. Vll 212*. V3 = 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate.4142. A. V5 = 2. V2 22 . 7. 23 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. VffV?. V5 270. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. and Given V2 = 1. V8 JL.. Vn V7 ' * 8. ^/H . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V48 25.
V82 2V3 1fVS .2.= 18. s Simplify a.1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex. Ex.Vs2 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 1.vffi^T _ . Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. . 3.
Given V2 1. v 2V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. = V3 = 1. . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.5 3 = 125. : and V5 = 2.4142. J?_.218 6 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.2361. Vo1 26. V21 = 25 . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 27. 6V7.7320. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 19. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.W3. four places of decimals 23 . 24. By the use of fractional exponents .
\/125" . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. the If. \/l6*. 5.RADICALS 219 274. In other examples of involution and evolution. 2 12. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. 4. viz. 2. . 8. it to this form. 3. V643 . 11. 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. V255 . Simplify Ex. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. v8f 2\/15. 1. on the other hand. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. we must find 8 and whose product is 15.
2 \/20. Find V4 + VJ8. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. +2 Ex.220 Ex. These Ex.6\/2 = ^9 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . is 11. 12 and whose product is 20. Find Vll . 2 \/18. and whose product is 18. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find Vl2 4. ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.A/2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6 V2. 2. The Hence ^11 . 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.
: 221 Vl32V22. x2 = x f 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.V48 4 20.e. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. Solve vVf!2a = 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. are radical equations. 19. r 22. member to 2. Before performing the involution. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Ex. Radical equations are rationalized. 4. V48 23. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 4x x = 2. . (2x xrf 1.. 8.1. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Dividing by Check. 5. The value x =2 reduces each . first involution. +=. a. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. they are transto formed into rational equations. VT . by raising both members equal powers. 277. Transposing and uniting. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. = xa + 4 x f 4.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.
1) = 0. they may be extraneous roots. Therefore CftecAr. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Squaring both members. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. x = J. . V4afT~l. Squaring both members.222 Ex. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Therefore Check. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Dividing by 24. V24~+~l = 0. viz. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. the first member = V2. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. It = 3 x . viz.3. Transposing and uniting. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Ex. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Extraneous roots. 5. a socalled extraneous root. Transposing and uniting. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 2. 278. at . . one root. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Factoring. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing. tion which has two roots. a. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 4#f 4 = 9. f 25 = 12.
\ does not satisfy the given. x root of the preceding equation. for it satisfies the equation . Hence x = the only root.2 r. Factoring.47) = 0. equation it is an extraneous root. both members reduce to 5. Therefore. + 6~ieT~3 .12 . is x V. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Hence there is only one root. and to 5. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Squaring. If If x 3 = 3. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . the right member = V2. Check. (x x = 3. ViTie 4 z2 . . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. or x *j.3) (2 x . 4. viz. Solve the following equations : = G.RADICALS Hence x If a. NOTE. 223 x = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Transposing.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. = 3.
33 af* + 32=0.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*. Ex. Factoring. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore .
o. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Let 8 x f 40 . = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 412a* = 16. 45 14VJB = .8 z40 = 7. Q . = 0. + 40 = 6. Ex. x + Vx a? = 6. 5. x =6 or 3. 2_8z 440 = 49. This can be seen without substituting. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.i~24 = 0. 2. . members of the equation were squared. some of the roots be extraneous.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.35 = 0. Vi 2 8a.f40= 5. x Since both =9 or 1. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 3 6.*2a.8 x + 40 = 36. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. y then x2 . Substituting. 3. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2Va. 4. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. = 26. _ 2 y .
+x . 17. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.a 440 = 35. a^x2 5 2 13. 16. 2. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 4 V SB* 4 a. 19. +3= 6. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 20. a.f 18 = 24. 14. 18.226 11. 15. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 12.
to x we # = 2 3. 2. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ax4 4. by dividing 3 x* f.bx? + ex2 4. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. we make a? what the value of Q. if Q was known. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. = 2. however.2 + 80 = 12.2 + 4. even if Q is unknown. 1. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. Without actual division. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. no matter If. does not contain a?.2) Q .3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?)." transposing.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division. Ex.4 a. E = ax + &z + m) Q.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . could. 3 2 Ex. then (x 2)Q 0. Hence. " Or. ^ = 381+2.360 = 244.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. a? R = x* . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. If x* . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. 227 . find the remainder when m.
a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 6.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x* s 2 4. 8. the remainder equals 8 2 x .228 282. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. } 2 by a1. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The Factor Theorem. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . hence (x divided by x 4. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 3.8.4(. 2 j 7. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. of the division 3) is m in place of x. + ^by x + b.g. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .g.8'= 0.3)f 11 =. x m is factor of the expression. if 8 42  . If the remainder is zero.949. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5. + 7 = 632. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. fora?. 5 (4x . 43 3 E. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.
x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. Factor a? 15. 23. a + 32. f 5. m f m n 14. 2. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. f 15 does not vanish. 15. a 5x 6. 3 2 : 7. are f 1. 2 2. . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. The 5. a? 19. 1.49 = 0. a.12. 3. Resolve into factors 4. 5. a^8^ + 19a. + ttt15 = 0. f 3.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 8.13m + 30 10. oj 5x2 f3a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 1.9^ + 23^15.r6 = 0. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.12 = 0.1. factors of the absolute term. or 5 4 + 3^ . 8. 20.7 + 16 . a 8a f 19 a 12. + 15. 6. 9. + 27 + 27.1. 25.e. ^10^429^20=0. then x8 7 x'2 4. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. or x 4. p 5^ + 8p 4. Let x = . & p*. 24. 17. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 106 division. 229 1. 7 46 = 0.7 x + 15 = 0. i. is a factor. 11.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. a 2a + 4. 18. Therefore x ( 1). 2m 5m . x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. _ . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 21. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.
if n is even. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.xy +/). Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. By we obtain the other factors. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. actual division n. 1. : importance.g.230 285. if w is odd. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . For substituting y for x. xn y n y n y n = 0." . If n is a Theorem that 1. is odd.y n is divisible by x f ?/. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2. 2. xn f. ar +p= z6 e. Ex. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. It y is not divisible by 287. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 286. 2 Ex.
3. Hence = (m Ex. 27. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 26. y 3 +8=0. as 27=0.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. since it more directly to the prime factors. preferable. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 28.= . however. a. leads 231 is The first method.
If two of the quantities x f y. 232 . the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.y4 is of the fifth degree. + 6 a?V . *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 290. x y. 4 xy = 16. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. * A I. however. = 6. Squaring Solve (1). in general. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (4) Hence. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. (5) Combining (5) with (1). to equations of the fourth few cases. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xywe have 3.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. xy are given. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. of quadratics.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289.
In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. b=3. but can be found. 108 2. r (" 1 = 876.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 1.g. = . The arranged in pairs. 12. x and xy are not given. I I x + y=7. EXERCISE Solve: 1. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. ^. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. ' 10. " "' "' { r 8.
 42 y + Transposing..4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. or JJ. I* Jj ^ [. Factoring. .?/ i = 6. 7 . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. .~ y = 5. one linear and ne quadratic. 3. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. aj = 2. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . ' ' . r^ 2 as ] f. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. or y = 1 .i/ = r 13. Ex. A system of simultaneous equations.  . la. 6 "I 14.20) = 0. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 19.a. x " (3) 49 etc. + 29 = 0. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).o 18. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. I x+y = a. 5. 4 y = 20.  f J. 2 (1) From (1) we have.
4 f + 2 y = 3. 9. If of the preceding type. ' x*. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 1. quantities. III. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. y* + 2y = 3. 3y) : Factor (2).3 2x 2 Ex. = 1 3 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. x2y. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ':il e :) . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). Solve . 10.
= 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = Ex. (1) (2) x x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = 0. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 11 a2 Factoring. 2. } VI09. 109 a. (3) (4) Subtracting. Solve 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. j Substituting y in (2). 15 x2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.
298. A. . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Division of one equation by the other. (4) (3). and others not belonging to them.!. Bxy9. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. ' ^ 15. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4.3^42^=43.y = 7.175 ay = 12. y? a? f . E.6. " IV.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?. can be solved by special devices. 150 */2 .
quadratics can be solved by ?/. * ' 300. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. jc~ y = 9.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. we obtain by squaring. x 2 . y . xy. Some simultaneous ?/. we have from (1). (1 > (2) 1. = 12 J. 2. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. y = 3. i ^ *>. B. x +y y etc.. = 189. Therefore x = 16. Solve Ex. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.
Hence = V or = 4. F+y+ . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. 239 Ex. 36* 2. 2. 7. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . 4. [2x + : y= 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . I e. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. M6.
27. 25. = y 1 y* . * . f 18.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 19 ' 26. 16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.21 ^ = 15. . . = 198.4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.
7' j/ 39. finite  =x y if = x. Interpretation .of  According to the definition of division. . 3 a2 38. 25 34. = 48201. Q 7.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 31. oo 301. as a . or ~ indeterminate.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 33. y % 9 f*K 36. . etc. ~\ OK OO. ^ oo . . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . 32. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. hence may be any finite number. etc 302.
000 a. without exception. By making x any * assigned zero. and . 1. be the numbers.242 303. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.g. and becomes infinitely small. great.x'2 2 x = 1. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Hence such an equation identity. Let 2. x f 2. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . i. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1) = 0. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. or that x may equal any finite number.increases if x de x creases. ToU" ^100 a. as + l.can be If It is made larger than number. (1). (a: Then Simplifying.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. I. = 10. i. equation.e. (1) is an identity. creases. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. 306. TO^UU" sufficiently small. is satisfied by any number.e. oo is = QQ. 1. The ~~f fraction . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.decreases X if called infinity. it is an Ex. . The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. Or. cancel. . the answer is indeterminate.
Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. third and sixth parts. z = 1 Substituting. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.e. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. (2). is their 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 4 3 x x5 a2 . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. . and the sum of Find the numbers.8 x + 15 6. Solve  9 7. EXERCISE 1. Hence /. 2. and a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 1=0. = oo. Solve . no numbers can satisfy the given system. y finite QO. 42 and' their product is 377. * 6.2 y = 4. Solve x a. two numbers is 76. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 3.
and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the edges. 12. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 146 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the numbers.quals 20 feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. . 103. and the hypotenuse is 37. 13. two numbers Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.) 53 yards.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet.244 3. 190. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the other two sides. Find the edge of each cube. Find the sides. and the diago(Ex. and the edge of one. 255 and the sum of 5. the area becomes f% of the original area. 6. 8. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. of a rectangular field feet. equals 4 inches. is 6. Find the sides of the rectangle. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the side of each square. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find these sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. p. is is 17 and the sum 4. increased by the edge of the other. 14. and the sum of ( 228. 10. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. of a right triangle is 73. 9. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet.
differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. is 20 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. Find the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) 17. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. irR *. the quotient is 2.
The first is an ascending. 12. 309. (n 1) d must be added to a. .. a + 2 d. progression.7.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 16. . .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a 11.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. added to each term to obtain the next one. except the first. : 7. 2 d must be added to a. to produce the 3d term. To find the nth term / of an A. 3. 11. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. a. and d. P. An arithmetic progression (A. f . The common differences are respectively 4. to each term produces the next term. The progression is a. 3 d must be added to a. 4... the first term a and the common difference d being given.. 19. of a series are its successive numbers. each term of which. 17. P. series 9.) is a series. Since d is a f 3 d. a 3d. Hence / = a + (n . a + d. a f d. to produce the nth term. 10. of the following series is 3.. + 2 d. . P.. the second a descending. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law... 15 is 9 f. to produce the 4th term.1) d.
. = I + 49 = *({ + . 8.. 5. Find the 12th term of the 4.. 3. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A... = a + (a Reversing the order.4. 19. 9. . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .' cZ == . a = 2. 1. 6. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). the term a. 21. 99) = 2600. 5. . 2.. 1J.. P. 2 EXERCISE 1..16.. .. . 115. ? (a) 1. of the series 10. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 6 we have Hence . 4. 9. 3. 2. = 99. 5. d = 3.. (d) 1J. 5.. if a = 5. 7. 1. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. series 2.. Find the 101th term of the series 1.PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. . 2J. . Find the 10th term of the series 17. Adding.. 8. 3. 5.. 8. P. Find the nth term of the series 2. 4^. = 2. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Find the 5th term of the 4. 10. (a + + (a + l) l).8.. d .3 a = l. 24.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 6. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 3. 7. 7. series . P. 6... .
. 21. rf. 12.5 H + if f to 10 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 20 terms. to 20 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 17. striking hours only. In most problems relating to A. 18. 3.. to 8 terms. 11. '. 2J. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 11. . 16. 6. 13. 1J. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 16. (x +"l) 4. to 7 terms. to 10 terms. 22. 8. to 15 terms. P. 11. 15. 4. 11. to 16 terms. 19. 23. strike for the first yard. to 20 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 29. . 1. 20. 7. . Sum the following series 14. : 3.248 Find the 10. 31. . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 1. 12. . . > 2f 2. \n. + 3. 7. and for each than for the preceding one. 1. 15. 33. Jive quantities are involved. (i) (ii) . 2.1 f 3. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 15.7 f to 12 terms. hence if any three of them are given. 7.
1. 111. the second one mean between the other two. n = 6. 204 = ^ (98 . . if a. = n(104 . = 13. 2. #.. 204 = ^ (a + 49). . Substituting in (2). = a + (w.6 n). P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P. 312.e. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. n d.1) . 89. 2 (2) From Hence (2). the and the sum of all terms 1014. a = 12. 100. s 24ft last term 144. = 144. 133. Findn. 78 n Substituting in (1). 45. The series is. Find the series. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. I Substituting in (I) and (II). hence n = 6. or if x Solving. or 11 J. l)e?. From (1). 122. a = 49 6(71 . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum..1). 56. if s = 204.104 w + 408 = 0.PROGRESSIONS Ex. is 12. J = 49. I. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 6. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. Solving. = 1014. 34. 23. 6 n2 . 12. = 1014. and b form an A. The first term of an A.~n~\ 408 6). 67. Ex.6. But evidently n cannot be fractional. P. 78. 144. d = 6.
s == 440.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 17. 3. d = 5. = 17. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 74. = 52. f? . T? ^. f J 1 1 / . 78. 8. n = 13. How much did he save the first month? 19. 12. I Find I in terms of a. 13. Find d. ceding one. 4. Find d. 15. Find a Given a = 7. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Given a = . Given a = 4. Find a and Given s = 44. of 5 terms 6. 16. Find?. a+ and b a b 5.3. produced. 7. . 6? 9. n has the series ^ j . n. n = 16. 14. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. a x f b and a b. = 1870. Find w. I. Given a = . = 16. n = 17. How much . y and #f5y. n = 4. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. and s. = ^ 3 = 1. P. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. has the series 82. 11. s = 70. n = 20. 10. = 83. Find n. = 45. Given a = 1. m and n 2. Find d and Given a = 1700.
12. 36. r n~ l . rs = s 2 .. . P. 2. 4 (1) .. E. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . is it (G.. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. or. If n is less : than unity.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . 108. called the ratio. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 36. <zr .. or 81 315. +1. (I) of the series 16. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. and To find the nth term / of a G. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. . The 314. NOTE.. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. ar. The progression is a. A geometric progression first. P.arn ~ l . 24.. 2 a. 24.) is a series each term of which. . I. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.... 4.g. . 4. 36. ar8 r. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . ratios are respectively 3. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . is 16(f) 4 . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . of a G. the first term a and the ratios r being given. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. P..
9. P.. series 5. 0.. fa.18. 6. . r^2. 18. fa. hence. P. whose . (b) 1. (d) 5. P. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.... 144. . . or 7. (it..4. 20. 72. is 3. f.54. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 25.l.288.. Find the 6th term of the series J. 36. 36. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. . . Hence n = 7. first term 4. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 1. series 6. . is 16. whose and whose second term is 8. +f%9 % . ? (c) 2.. volved . 80. 8. 4.. Ex. l. f. i 288. . if any three of them are given...252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 288. a = I.. . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. first term is 125 and whose common . 2 term 3. P. \ t series . + 5. I = 670. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 576.. . 144._!=!>. 7. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. And the required means are 18.72.. 10.6. Jive quantities are in. 36. 676.18. In most problems relating to G. . 72. 4. 9. Hence the or series is 0.5. . 144.*. EXERCISE 1. 3. 9. P.5. Find the 5th term of a G. series . first 5.
15. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 72. J. 22.. = 3. to 6 terms. 4. P. 19. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. . is less than unity. 243. to 6 terms. Given r = n Z 5. . to 5 terms. 14. to 8 terms.. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. = 3. Find a and 4. n = 5. 13. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. may be than any assignable number. M. .. == 160..nV> i*> !718. 48. a^. J. . 16 . 126. 24. to 6 terms.J and 270. Find a and Given r = 3.. of r n decreases. 27. 25S series : 32. 81. 81. I. . 14. a. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. n = 5. 21. to 7 . + 4 .. 54. J. J. and hence ~ r . s = 605.i a9 . Find the geometric mean between 7. 42. to 7 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 1. be written If the value of r of a G. to G terms. 12 terms. >"> . 1. r . 2. Z s. 36. 20. Find a and n = 4. 23. 12. s = 310. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.
5. of: 11. (6) the sum of the perimeters. is J. . of an infinite G. Hence .3121212..37272 .... If a = 40.. of all squares ? . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. Find the value 9. 3.. 1... 1.00072 f . 8.072. is 9.99 .)7?7272 ... . . 250. 13. 16.. . ..555. 66 Therefore . =A+ 10 i. . 12. ratio 15. = . 10.254 Ex.. . Given an infinite series of squares. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.717171. P. .272727.01 ^ .. 4... . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 2. I.72. . first and the common term. 4. 6.3 + . . = a . . . 8. 9. ..191919.27777 . 5.. The sum Find the of an infinite G... The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G..Ql. 2..072 + .. 1 r = . 1. i. r = j. P. 14. 40.. = . 1.. 9. is 16.. i i J. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 7. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 100. .. 16.. 12.= _4Z* ... . and the first term is Find 17.3727272 . P.= . Find the sum to infinity.1.. 6. The sum r. = 990 .
+ a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . a6 8 16 in . . 29.b ). 10. 26. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 14. 25. 5. 17.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 15. 20. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 16. l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 11. 21. : (1 + xy. 28. . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .6) 20 . 22. (a + b) . 4 7. 4. (s + i). Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . coefficient of . 7 . Find the 6th term of (x . . 13. (a 100 .6) . /2a+Y\ 8. . (\ 9 . (a2) 6. 2 2 24.b) w (a (a f (1 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 12. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (xy) : 6 .
3. . a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 3. 5.  8 ^ 2. 4. 5. 2. 5. 3. 2. 24 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 5. ^+^ 3. 3. 1. 2. 2. aft 3 + 4. 3. = 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 5. 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 3. 4 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 6. 3. if x^l. 2. 1. 3. if = = 2. 3.f ac 1. 2. + 2. 1. 3. 4. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 2. 6. ft) . 5. 1. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.  a)(a 1. (c 3. 2. 1. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 5.c )(fta) 1. if y=2j 2. 2. 1. 4. 2. 2. 6. 2. 1. y 3. 6. 1. if = = = 2. 3. 2 . 3.a(a 4. 2.  2. 1. 3. a ft c = = 2. 5. 3. 2. 2. 1. 1. 4. 6. 1. 3. 5. + c(a  c). 4. 1. 2. 2. + 1. 4. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 1. ft 4 ) 5. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 3. + 2. 2. 1. c if 7 . 3. 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. l. 3. 5. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 7. 1. c = = = 2.  2. 3. 4. . 4. 2. 3. 1. 4.
x = 4. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 25. 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 40. + 1. + 3 y 2* . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.x 5 4 . ~c)(b. 5. 2. 21.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 5. ' b) + 3. 7y 4 .7 ys. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 4 y 13. + 8 x4 *y . 6 a4 4 a8 . 4 x 4 .7 + . 3. 41. 2. 3. 20. . 26. 12. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 8. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .\ yz + xz. a 4 + 11 a .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . r> .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 16.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 1. 21.1. x 3 x' 14.10. 15.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 9. 18.2. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 6.a 4 . 10. 8 .2 x2 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. (5. 2 . + 4 ?y .r 6 x  4 xy . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .259 x c) . x 3 11. .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . c = 3. = 2.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .a8 . a: . 2. a.7 y 2* 4. c)(x a} . b(x (b 1.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .3 xyz. 9.a 5 a . f 8. 29. . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4. 15. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.2 a?y + 3 aty . if a 6 = = c = 3. 5. 4. 24.2 x?/. x3 2 a2 . + 4. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 7 xy 3 .  a) (c 2.5.4.8 3 + 7 x4 .2. x C 4 4x y + . a.2 z8 4 x.3 a?y . a /> 3.c' 2 4 / . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 17. or . 5. 1.a) . 2  + 12 a 8 . + 2. .8 + 2 // . 2. 4 z . 2 x 8. 7.
[4 x 4. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.{G * 2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.] 26. x8 x2 2 a'2x.27~~7)}]..(x 4.4) .?> x 4 20.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 29. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .3 x . c =x y }~ z. 5 10 + 7 . 542 x 2 and . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.x .c 3 a. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .c. : a x . a  ft + c.c 4 3 a. .6T . From of 2 the 4.3 .(x* . 4 4 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(7 x 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.3 .a ft.6 x ] .2) .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . c 4ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.#48.c.2 3 ax 2 .5 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 7 12 .4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].x 4.2 a .(5 c . 35.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 0" 30.1)}] . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. c 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. (*) a  c. 4 3 5 y/ .(4 * . 36. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . of a. ft.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . and . Simplify 31. 4 2 x2 23.4 ft) 4.260 19.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. .5. Take the sum of 3 x 4. .x 2 4.(a . . 2 x 32.x . take the sum of G x 5 .7. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(4 x 2 .{2 x 2 .8 3 4. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.2 . .2 x 8y2 44 .3.4 Vl 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . f ft. .(5 y .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 4vTT~y 3. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 33. ft 25. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 34. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. x'2 . 5 4 7 12 . sum of . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 4 .2 .[4 z 8 . = x y ft z. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].1). Take the sum 4x 4.x2 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 3 ft.
.(6 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 4 + 2 2 + 1). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].{3 c .2a .56.ac . 63.2 2 .96 [17 a. a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2)(1 . 50. 49.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. a {. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(7 i + 4 r:) . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.{2 a (ft .12).4 a . 2 : 7e)a}].(2 . 'J 44. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .2 zz . 62. 51.3c). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (/> 4 .1). (1 55.Z . (r (1 (a.ab .b (c . 48.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 3 x 42. 54.6)}]. 13 a .(2 x2 .4 a 2 + a 4 ). (4 + 3a 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).{2 a . 43.5 )}] + {4 c .(2 a 2 .(7 a. 60.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 68.(2 a + 5 a . (. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (a 2 + 2 + 9 . . 46. + 4x + 5)(j. 65.2 2 + 1)(7. (. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.[4 x  5 .[2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 57.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .& + {. (x.3 *). . )(lz a ).c 2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3 z 2 ). . (5 a 39.3 c)]. 2 f [3 c 7 a .be) (a 58. + *+!){> + 2). . .rf)} + a [. 2 52. 64.7). 2 ft 41.6 xy .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (x .2x + 3).0)} . 59.JT^T+1)} + (2 . (1 ar+a. 56.6c) (a + f c).2c(V/ . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).a~^~c)K].(4 d .c).3)(*5)(* 7). .(5 y .5)} + (3 a 2 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).3). 2 53.  2 a  {3 2x a . 45. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 2 2 x + !)(* .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 67. .
1). xy y 2 ). ft 95.z)(x y + z)(.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c)].c . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).n pc).3 a .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 75. (a (2 b)*(a 4.2y)(. 84.6*y .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).5 . 74.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 1). 79. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 2 (x 2 . 89.c)} .c) rr identities.x + y + z). . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.r 2 .c) .b 4. 71.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). . ft" l Simplify 80. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 92.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 88. .{3 a . (p 2 . ft 78.2 (y 4.O (a 4(a 4. (x (x ( + *) . ar . Prove the following 8 4.am&t 4 A 2 *). 83.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .ft) + 4(2 . 90.ft) 4 . 93. 87.:y)( a.y). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(4 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 4. f 72.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 94.c . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(c 4.(/>  3 v)^(. 70. ft /.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c) 2 . 76.z) . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .y + z)(x + y . 91.c) j.z\x 4. 73. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .m np c .a) 2 .y)\x y).c) . 77. 82.c) 4) (ft 4.<f(p . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.q).3 (ft .2 ft}) f (3 a . 86. ft ft ft a}. 2 + a 2 ). 85.9y2). (a 2 ft 2n 4. 4 4 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(ft 4.3y) a (* 2 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).v) 4.2 (a . b 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .262 69. (.(a 48 8 8 4.
1).35 x 2 2 ) .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 3*. 122. 103. 102.v/ ~ // = a: . 25 4 . a*. 110. (.9 x 2 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.2 2% 4.r 4 4. 26 (a 4 c).16 a 6 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).2y 2 4. 99 100. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 2 (a+ . 108. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.(2 a 2 .) . 2 4 41 x 4a. 109. 121. 118.(a 1 2 8 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (8 x* 115.xy 4. 1). 124.27 x* .a". (2< 107.y 4 ) . . r .3 a"+ 4.4 aft .5 xy).(7 xi/ . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 105.40 />) . 114.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 116.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).5 b*). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).y 4 .*) (x 8 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 120. 106.y 2 4. 123. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.6 y 4 4. 113.2 xy 8 .&).(x 2 . 10). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.b) 98. (80 a 112. [10( 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 117. 1O4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.
(1 . 138.22.9) 4. 149.9) + 3. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.4) . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 1) .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).r + 7[or . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 129. 143. 5(2 x . .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 139. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . . 128. 2 4(ar .12 M 132.3).5) = 12(4 x .a:)]}.5). . . 127.2) (a: + 3).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. o o 140.2) = 3 . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .5{. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.1) (a? .27 a 3" . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.(x + 3) ] . 7(2 x .3(2 z .7(4 * .3 x). (4 x .3) = 12 .3) (3 x 4.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). (*+ + . .3). (5a: 150. 136. . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .n .3(* + 4) + 9} . 137.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2(5 .(j a? 144. 42(3ar 145. 1) = 2(* . 148. 10(2 x 141.2(j: . 3) = x\x . 126.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .18 *&) (1 .4(0 x .19) + 5 = 4 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 5 146. x 147.2(10 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(x .G) .4) .1) .2) + 2(ar + 4).2 7^~5] + 1). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 3(2 x 134. 135.7) = 4 .2(4 . . 142.r>) .264 125.8 6 .3 a:). y (* l x.(x f 9).
+ 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.T)O .2 x) = (1 . = 15. + 4) (2 x + 5). There are 63 sheep in three flocks.3) (a: .5)(.6 x) (3 . f^ + ^sO.19) + 42.3) (3 . find the value of F. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 165.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 156.4) (a .17) 2 + (4 x . these two angles would be equal.8) = (2 x 4. (a) If C. 160.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 157. (7 14 . and the third twice as many as the first. 159. 158.1) (s + 3). 162. + 2) + (5 . (a .5*) + 47.r + 3) .5) = (3 . . (x (x a.7) (1 x . 161. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. If the area of the frame inches. 166. (a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.5(x . = 2 C. .7) (a. The second contains 3 first.1) O + 4) = (2 * .2 x) (4 .2) (7 *) + (*.76. transformed into F.14) (a: + 3).2) a + 7(x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.a:) + 229. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.29) 2 = 1. sheep more than the 169.25) 2 .z) (4 .3) = (3 x .9) + (a. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 153. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. will produce F. 155. . (2 .(5 x .? . The sum What 171. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. .l)(z .5 x) = 45 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 2 4 . 265 152.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 154. a: ar a. 5(ar x . (3 O + . 164.2). + 5) = (9 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.24. How many 170.2) (j? + 1) + (x . 163. =  (F 32). + 10) (ar .3) (j.3) (3 .
sister . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Find the dimensions of the floor. + 11 ~ 6. A each 177. . How many are there in each window ? . respectively. power one of the two Find the power of each. younger than his Find the age of the father. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 3 gives the 174. dimension 182. 4 a 2 yy 42. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. . + a. 2 2 + a _ no. 10x 2 192. x* 185. 180. A boy is father. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. aW + llab2&. two boys is twice that of the younger. 176. 189. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. side were one foot longer. and 5 h. z 2 92. same result as the number diminished by 175. ll?/102. 190. 188. 12 m. z 2 + x . . train. number divided by 3.36. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. +x 2.266 173. 179. 15 m.56. 13 a + 3. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. A house has 3 rows of windows. 7/ 191. 187. 181. if each increased 2 feet. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. father. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 186. 178. Find the number. was three times that of the younger.
4a 2& 2 241. 2  5 xy 13 y a. a.10. 230. a+a* + o a +l.64. 60 a 2  a: // 205. # 2  29 y + 120.19 a . + 3a 196. wiy + la mx + aw.3 xy. .3 c/> + 6 cq. *2 234. a: 231. 8 a: ar. 246. 232. 12 x +4. 2 x 2 . 3 x V . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 221. a. 267 199. 2 a 8 . 23 12. + 8. a. 3y 248. ifWy+b. 211. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 208. 3y 2 + ary . 218.6 aq .22 z + 48. a: 236. 5 x 2. . 233. z + 5x 2 . z 2 2.(b + rf) 2 . a. 235. . 2 2 y f 1. 238.10 xy. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 222. 7a 228. xm+l 243.19 z 4 204. (a + . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 .x + 1.10 y a x* .r?/f y 2 9. x 5 .28.6s. 203.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. a 2 .12 * . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. x 219. 215. 3 x 2 . 2 a 2 . .1. 6 197.8 6 2. 201.c) 2  (a . 224.21 a:  54. 207. + 2 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 239.14 2 .77 y + 150. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . + 198. 202. 2a te 3% ly 247. 209. a^a 226.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. . 206. .c) 2 . x*y 223. 227. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .20 z 8 a: 220. x* + 8 2 + 15. . 2 200. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 8 a. 216. y 2 194. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . + 30 x.6. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a: . 245. a a: a: 237. 3 ap 2 . 244. 210. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 7x 2 225.6 y2 + 4. 24 2 + 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 212. 16x 4 81. 4 m +^. 217. 195. 229.6 2 ?/ . 213.
r .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . * a .a 2 />c 2 f 3. x*y* 4. 270. 30 ^ . 18 x 2 .1 9 . x* . C. 3 ay 4. z 2 268.36. a? a: a: // 262. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.80. 261. x 2 f 9j: + 20. x 2 263. 2 .6 by. 254. a: . of: 266. 257. x 2 + 5 f . 260. 2 8 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).12.16 x . 258. 3 a% 2 . 265.48 afy 2 . 5 x 2 256.3 x .9.120. + 8 x + 5. a. 22x2 a. a 4.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . x 2 4. + 20 x 4. 10 x 2 .ry 21. 3 #2 255.3.91.x . 7 ax 250.4. 264.G7 x f 33. of: 253.11 x f 28.C.7 f 5. 269. * 2 . x 2 + 2 x . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 10 a. x 2 + 4 + 3.2/ 2 .3 abc .ry . + 23 x f 20.4 ab + 1. 7 12 2 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . z 2 267. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 28 2 f 71 x .a + 2 4.M.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.5 ab f 2. 251. + 8.8.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.15 + 30. x* . 252.2 z .10. 2 + 7 r f 2.9 x + 14. F.23 + 12.10 a 4. * 2 . ft a.73 xy .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x 2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . .(55. 6.11 a 2 .23 x f 20. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.2 aft*. I Find the II. 2 x2 . * 2 . 15 # 2 z/ /.14 bx a%% 8 .18 xy + 5.9 x .13. 2 a. 8 2 + 10 x . 1 x ar Find the L.15. + 3 x + 2. 259.&z. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .
ar 1 279. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 8 .J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2c a: 282. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge.2* + 3 x* 280.. 289 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. z2 (a 2 + c)a. + ac . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .(y 2 z) * t (j. m 4.!/.. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . 285 z4 n* + a.
_L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^. a (: a) (x 2. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. * 19 23 19(23 23. 4 3 301. x 7. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^_2*(m 308. Lnl + ar 2 a. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . O(ca) 306.
ft) 2 322. (a? 4 2) 317. 2 + y 2 319. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . (1 . 1a: + y a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a . .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 ..+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1 x2 + + a. . 1 _._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. } . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . a: 1 313.
ll. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. .V  + y  x 3y a .5 a .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .15 33 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 20 44 333.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.. 2 lOx 5x. 250 5 10 2 325.9 *// + 27 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 +lOar 2 a. a: 2 x* . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .7 xy + 12 x . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .y20  2y + 4 2 . . * 3a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.6* t 328.
344. w \. a>74 . a: 349 _ o. ?_2 ^ . +^ a: y x .y. \x yj 340. 7 ( ?f!?. 348. 5 343. aj 339. 338.r 5 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. xi 347. fl. ** i. (ar \ 346. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ( 342. 1 345. f V. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (aWi + iJ.1V.. \5yl 341. (a \ + lV.+ r . if a = 3. + ni + . (af2/. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 352. + l + IV. ' 2 "l 5 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. : 1+ i.) 2 .
(a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. I  I f 366. + x x a . _ + l a 359.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. 1+2 362. (~ 364. a2 4 .
b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5*8. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. <3 378. + 1) 45 O 377. . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 379. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. __4 2x 3_ = !.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 4(* . 8  376. ^ . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.*2 = 15. 5 {2 x 381. J !__7.
6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.25. b 404. . .147.  8 9* x ~r. 396. 401. c . 3* 177.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). f 1 1 + a 403.. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.5 ^ ~ a: a.1 . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).25 x + . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.2 a:  1. 399.8 = . 397. m x 398.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.5 x =r f .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .  J). (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).75 x f . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. ^ (a . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. a. + 4 a. 400. _____ .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. u '2 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 40.6  . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar..
down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Tn 6 hours . hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. far did he walk all together ? A . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.278 410. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .c) . 420.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 421. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. 18 be subtracted from the number.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. and was out 5 hours. Find the number. 411. 418 ~jo. In a if and 422. (x . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.  a) 2 6 2a.
a 2^ 8 + aft* . if . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 432. Find the mean proportional to 429. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.& 5 ) (a 8 . b. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.6 8 ). find : a : c. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). z 2 y. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. a. d. . If a b : =5 n : 7.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Find the length of the parts. x 427. : i. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. y. 428. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. . 2 2 8 2 . 430. ax is \ by  ex + dy.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Solve 436. 438. : If is one equal 434. 433.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 431. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J.49 63). .iand 22 22 I a . a  t>. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Which ratio is greater. a + 5. wi* + y= ny. 435. find the angles of the triangle. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .46 2): (15a 2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Find the fourth proportional 426.
ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.11 7. 444. 449. . 9ar7# = 71. /) ar a. 7 442. a. 459. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 5x+4y=lQ. 458. 9/> = 2 .4 12 . . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 56 + 10y = 7a. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 3 . . Solve the following systems: 441. = 25. x + 17 # 53. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 7a?y = 3. Find the value of a.35. .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.55 y = . 452. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 457. c. 5z4:# = 3. 453. 451. 454. 16. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 28 = 5 a .rf2# = l. The volumes If their diameters. 445. 446. + 5y = 59.(or l(*2y)=0. 3 a. a: a: + 5y). 443. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . . 7 a: . 455. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 7jr9y = 17. 5 2 = 7 .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 456.7 y = 25. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. ?/ 447. ft. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 42 = 15y + 137. ft.11 y = 95. 448. />(. 8 x + y = 19. 1(3  a. 8 .59 = 3 z..89 = q. 4 = 5 y + 29. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 450. if 2 ft : 439. a: 2y= = 1 .*.
ax by = c \ 472. 468.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. + eyn. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ^ + i^ = 7. ax cx by = m. 473.c=563y. (or . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .  = 2. 475. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. _ 469.2y) (2 = 2J. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. x y 474. i = 5.+ =2.7. 8 461.?/ + 1 ..
485. whose difference is 4. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 481. 479. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. years. Find the numbers.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and in 18 months to $2180. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. A spends \ of his. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. the Find their ages. Find the numbers. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. How much money less 484. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the sum and the rate of interest. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and the other number least. 483. Find the number. age. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. by 4. fraction becomes equal to . 477. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find their ages. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 487. and in 20 months to $275. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. to . 486. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the fraction. A number consists of two digits 4.
~ 507. 5^ 9z = 10. 2/>3r = 4. 492. 4z+3z = 20. 2 e. 7 + 2 z . x s + y z = 18J . 2y + 2z = a: 2. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.z = 12. 4 506. 496. . 490.? + 2y = 8. = 209. + y 5 y = 101 ./ f z =a. 3 x 500. . 1. 4 497. 2 a. a: + // = 11.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2 2 = 41. 2y + 3a = ll. x f y f z 29 . . 489. * + 425  = . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 3ar 503. z y x 25 . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d./ 504. x y f z = 13. . 498. 493. a: f z = 79. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 3 a: + 5=84. 2a:f 7. y Solve : x +z= 5. \ . = 20. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.z = 20. 7.5#+2z = $x a: G. 495. a: 499. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. a number . 494. z y ifi = z x 502. The sum of two numbers squares is b. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 5 + a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. ifi = x a. : Solve the following systems 491. 1+1 = 6. *i. . 8. + # +z= 35. = 15. a.
+ + 3579 2+?. + : = 1472. 523. ll" . z z =3a&c. i=a + 6 c. 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. 517.
M. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. N. . CD. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if and L. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 527. If they had walked toward each other. L. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. touches and F respectively. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Find the numbers. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and CA=7. Find the present ages of his father and mother. In circle A ABC. When weighed in water. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. Tf and run together. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 90. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. it is filled in 35 minutes. in 28 minutes. BC = 5. and BE. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. it separately ? 531. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 532. if the number be increased by Find the number. if L and Af in 20 minutes. AC in /). his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . E 533. AB=6. the first and second digits will change places. 530. How long will B and C take to do . . What are their rates of travel? . they would have met in 2 hours.
How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 544. The values of x if y = 2. FRANCE. 2. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 540.  3 x. x 2 + x. to do the work? pendulum. x *x + x + 1. if x = f 1. One dollar equals 4. 3 x 539.e. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. d. x 8 549. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x*  2 x. 2. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.10 marks. . the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. . e. GERMANY. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 547. + 3.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 543.  7.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. c. The values of y. 546. 542. then / = 3 and write = 3. a. b. formation of dollars into marks. The greatest value of the function. the function. 548. from x = 2 to x = 4. 545. 536. 2 x + 5. 550. z 2  x x  5. x*. 2  x  x2 . 2 541. i.
i. a. 555. c. 568. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 18 x  4 = 0. z 4 .3 x . 15. 558. + 10 x . 564. x 4 . if y =m has three real roots.4 . 2 554. . 2. 553. 2 a.4 = 0. 572. Solve// = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.r 1 561. = 5. 556. a. and make the unit of the b. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . 3 x . a? 4 x . 2 8 . h. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 3 x* . f.5 x . c. j.= 0.15 = 0. 3 + 3 z . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 563.11 = 0.0. J. r?. 3 . . 557.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.  2 1 a: a. Represent meters. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . x 5 .7 = . 566. 565. // Solve y Solve y = 5. . g.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. z 2 .13 = 0. \ to t = 5.3 . x 2 ~ 2 .r .3 = 0. 2 x 2 560. If y +5 10. ' = 8.r a: a: x a.6 + 3 .G . x* . a. 2 567. a: 559.= 0.17 = 0. Solve 552.1 = 0. 562.3 x . + 5 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.9 = 0. e.
600. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. jj+. 609. a: . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. f ?>) 3 591. 596. 2 611. (1 + x a. 582.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. j^f = 3. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + . x + z2) 8 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 595. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. (a. (aiy.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 5 a*. 2  2 aa: 2 . (# 2) .%) 4 (aa. 6 + 1) . 9  4 fSb 607.2 2 + y. 608. + + 4 . 1 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 579.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 598.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.4. (a  8 ft) .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 4 . 593. 4 a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a 612. 604. 589. a:. a 8 606. 3 . xY.5 xy = 0.frf : 583. 588. 592. 2 943 ++ ~bx. x [ ?/ 577. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 585 594. 64 a 12 603. . 597. 3 (f. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (1 (1 (1 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 599. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. : y* or 25. [ y =10. + ^) + (air%)8. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.x + 2 )'2 601. a. a 2a. . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .(1 . 4 (1a:) 3.
GGff. 637. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 494210400001.2. 643. 639. 636. 626. 4J. = .\/4090. 630. 644. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 40. 650. a 642. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 25023844.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. According to Kepler's law. 614. 632. Find the eighth root 617. 645. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 4370404.191209. 035.*. VOIOOD + V582T09. + 2 21 x = 100. : 5. Find the square root of 619. 2 + 21Ga. 647t x 2 648 649. 624.2410. 44352. 942841. 371240. 651. 32 631. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .15174441. x 2 641. 2 + 189 z = 900. 622. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 623. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 8*' + 24* = 32. 49042009. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. *+* = 156. 9a. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . V 635. 625 : 621. 620.49. x 2 .871844. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. find Jupiter's period. 2.150. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. (x 9 x 646. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. = 87.30. + 112 a 8 . 638. /. 9g. 3a. 7) 2. 0090. + 24 a 2 4 . ft . + 54 'x*y* .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 628.1024 x + a: 256. 629. 210.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . V950484 . = 0. 633.12 a?y + y*.53 x ~ .V250 . = 70. 49. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 634. 615. 21. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
+ ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 692. 706. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. = 0. 2 702.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. a. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. .a a )jr . . 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 695.c = 0. 696. 2 2 . ax 2 698. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 697. ex abc= fx 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 707.ax . 694. 708.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .bx .
and working together they can build it in 18 days. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 717. 12 4*+  8. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the price of an apple. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. sum is a and whose product equals J. 716. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 729. How shares did he buy ? if 726. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. A equals CO feet. 16 x* . . Find two numbers whose 719. in value.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 722.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. a: 713. 724. 217 . 3or i 16 .44#2 + 121 = 0. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 721. **13a: 2 710. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 723. 727. 725. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.292 709.
33.2 ).2)(x2 4. 41.l).2? 50. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).)(ai + &. 36. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). .1 + c. 42. 35. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 32. 40. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 f ^ 2). (v/x).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. . +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 f c" ). n. 38. 46. 37. 52. 43. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 34. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 1 6.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .aft* 1 + a 2*. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 31.X . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.1 + x. 39.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).
. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. ~ r* x . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. JU.1+J 756. 761. 768. 759. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 757. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 2V2 2V3 . 758.294 753. [1r^ T 1 i .
790. + 2V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 783.4 V(j.VlO. . 10 785. 786. 16 + 2V55. 794. c 792. 3J .2 V30. 92VI5. 789. a 9442V5. Va 809.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.2V3* ^ 807. 14 791. 7512V21. . 13 799. x 782. . 103 788. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.12VIT. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 793. . 3812VIO. 806. 787. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.
+ ViTli + V7 . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. /9ar a: = 17.g. Va: . 812.4 = 0. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 818. 820. 3 x + 2 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 819.Vc^lJ . 833. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. x/aT+l . 816. 830. + Vx . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.  5 + V3 f 12 817. V3 f 1 V4a. + 103Var. 811.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. (x a: 2 ) 4 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . V14 a.13 = 0. 815. = 1. \/12 a.V2 ar 10. VaT+lJ f ^l .\/2y  810. 831. 814. 836.V? = 813.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 829.79.
x*y + 3x f 2. 8 8 848. 6. a*" & 6n . 729 867. 4 x* 847. a 872.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 875.3 Va: 2 . 844. 876. 851. 27 862. 871. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. f b**. + 216 rt aty a 10 .ab9 ft*. 863. 868. 8 a. 839. 4o. a: .a. a. f 12. a 8 850. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 8 . y 4. 840. 8 8  13 a. + 512 y8 874. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 64 a 866. 8 860.3 a:. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . + 1. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . +3 4 +  4. . 2 a: 64 y*. x 8 2 857. 861. 275 8 l. V4 x 2 . 64. 19 x 14. 853.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.3 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. . + . . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a 18 4. 5 a 4 7 a8 .1. . 852. 845. 846. 8^27^. 2 x 3. a: 849. 864.10 = 118. 2 f" + a/ 15. 870. f 841.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a 8 869. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 8 4a: 8 a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a l0m . 16 859.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 27 y 8.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a. 856. z*y 8 l64a.  3x a. a 8 873. 855. a. 8 2a. a. x 4 + f 2 a. 865. 9. 4 a. 4 a: 2 842. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 4 x 8 858. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.1000 6.3 x .12.
901. a: a. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. f ?/ a: a: . 887. a: 2 897. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. + 2y=\2. 889. 2 + y 2 . +y f y = 7. 886. a: 884. 2 . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.sy = 198.15. 1 x 893. . xy + y = 32. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 . 2 + xy = 10. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.y 2 = 2 y + 2. y*+ xy . 899. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. x 8 3 = 13:3. 890. y y 2 y 2 1121. . a# f + xy = 126.5 xy + 4 f = 13. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . . 883.18.1 = 2 a#. 894. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 888. + ary + 2 = 37. x 882. . x*xy. 895. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 896. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. a.xy + y 2 = 19. a.Vi' + 1 1_3. a:y . x a: lI = xz .298 877. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. z 2 898. 2 + xy = 28. 5. . M1 891 1 .y 2 + V(j.y 2) = 20.35. a. 2 = 2 + 5. 3 x 2 . 2 + 2 f = 17. y 2 4. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. . 878. y = 28. 900. y 2 2 8f.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 885.
2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 915. * + y = 444. 2 924. + ?/) . Vary + y = 6.16 y 3 8 = . + 2 ary = 39. ary y = 8. 2 * 2 ~ g. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. a. 2 2 2 916. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 911. y + a:y = 180.x) = 21. = 8. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. . 2 + y = 2 a 4. *y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902.3) 2 f (y .y2 = 22. x 4 299 xy z 904. xa 903. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 917. 908.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.23 = 200.2 y) = 49 2 919. 912. + 2 a:y + = 243. 907. 2 913. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 3 :r(3 . 23 x 2 . a: a. (!) * . 905. or or a? a: a: . (o.3)2 = 34. + ary = a*. . yz = 24. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 5 xy = 11.6. 7 y . a: y zx 12. 920. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. (a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y = a(ar + y).y).y) (a? . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 910. 923.#y + 2 = 27.y) = 33. 3 y 8 ) =1216. ^ 2 . (3 x . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. x 2 ry + y = 3. xy + x= 15. x + y 2 = aar. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 921. 906. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (* 918. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.3(* + y) = 6. + y 8 = 189. x f 2 a:y = 32.r a.y) (3 y . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 914. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. x + y}(x + y) = 273. + y = 9. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + y)(a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. y 3 2 2 922. y x 2 = by. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + a. 4 (a. . 909. y . a: * a: a: ar 928. # + xy + y = 7. a:y xy 929.
Find the side of each two circles is IT square. y( 934. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 937. is 3.000 trees. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 943. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. How many rows are there? 941. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. 152. z(* + y + 2) = 76. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet.square inches. 2240. Assuming = y. (y + *) = . two squares equals 140 feet. 34 939.300 930. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. two squares is 23 feet. diagonal 940. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. In the second heat A . two numbers Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. A is 938. . A plantation in rows consists of 10. If each side was increased by 2 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. + z)=18. find the radii of the two circles. 931. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and 10 feet broader. Tf there had been 20 less rows. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. + z) =108. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. is 20. rate each man ran in the first heat. feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. s(y 932. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. there would have been 25 more trees in a row.102. and also contains 300 square feet. *(* + #) =24. and the difference of 936. 942. feet. Find the numbers. is 3 . 944. 935. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. A and B run a race round a twomile course. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.
and that B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Two starts travelers. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the digits are reversed. is 407 cubic feet. sum Find an edge of 954. that B A 955. 953. triangle is 6. each block. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. whose 946. and travels in the same direction as A. P and Q. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. . if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find in what time both will do it. and its perim 948. Find the eter 947. 952. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. distance between P and Q. Find its length and breadth. A and B. 951. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and if 594 be added to the number. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find the number. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. unaltered. . Find the number.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. set out from two places. overtook miles. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . 949. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 950. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. at Find the his rate of traveling. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet.
\ . P.3151515. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Sura to 24 terms. Find the sum of 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. 1G series . How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. 5.. P.302 956. '. 3 + 5 7 + . to 7 terms. 975.  2. 4. P. Find an A.141414. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 18th terms of an A. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Sum Sum to infinity. (to 2 n terms). f + 1 . Find n f (ft) .1 4 f j$V . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.321? 965. Sum to 20 terms. are 29 and 53. !Ll^ + n .4142 . 972. 964. . x(x to 8 terms. 12434+ j I 967. Find n. (x 4 to n terms... 36 963. to n terms.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. 969. + (iiven a +  4 d .. . n to n terms. ^ 1 . 971.. ^ Vfirst five 959.. P..to infinity. and 976. 974. *" 968. . 970. 966..v 973... ^1 + Vj 1 2  . .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 3 . 9th and llth terms of an A.>/) to infinity.V2 . to infinity. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Find the Find the common 977.. J. 958. 957. the terms being in A. 5. 4 4 to 7 terms . 1 to n terms. 16 962... s  88. 961. Evaluate (a) . fourth of the unity. difference.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. = 4.454.
who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. The sum 982.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 987.1 + 2. named Sheran. 2 grains on the 2d. and so on. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. to oo.. to n terms. Find four perfect numbers. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 0.01 3. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 986. P. 4 grains on the 3d. P.. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. The term. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 989.. Find the sum of the series 988.04 + .2 . Find n. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. is 225. . and of the second and third 03.. 1.001 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. and the common difference. of n terms of an A. The 21st term of an A. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. Find four numbers in A.001 4.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 985. 980. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 990.. to 105? 981. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.) the last term the series a perfect number. 5 11. P. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . : + 9   V2 + . to infinity may be 8? . "(. 992. 303 979. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . first 984. Find the first term.+ lY L V. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid..
areas of all triangles. many days will the latter overtake the former? . ft. are 28 and find the numbers. of squares of four numbers in G. AB = 1004. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. in this square a circle. find the series. 998. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The sum and product of three numbers in G. are unequal. inches. 995.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. 994. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 1000. c. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. Under the conditions of the preceding example. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. at the same time. prove that they cannot be in A. 1001. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. and G. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to infinity. 999. The fifth term of a G. (6) the sum of the infinity. 997. is 4. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. P. ABC A A n same sides. (a) after 5 strokes. 1003. If a. The sum and sum . Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 512 996. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Two travelers start on the same road. in this circle a square. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. . pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver.
Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 1009.l) w f . Find the middle term of 1020.ft) 19 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1008. + lQ . 1006. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (1 1018. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. ) 1021. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. a: 8 7. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.o/) 14 . 1011.iV 2i/ 5 . x) 18 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of ( . 1014. Expand  2 a. 2 ) 5. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . . 1012. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.
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. . 129 54. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 112 54 54 251 ... ..... . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... .. . . . numerical . 8 . 232 169 807 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . simple simultaneous . . 54.. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . Aggregation. Checks Coefficient 20. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ... . .. . t 53 120 ..... 160 in quadratic form 191 . . graphic tion of representa .. .. linear literal Common ** * difference .130 . 129. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 158.. 232 mean progression . 37. . .. 97.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .178 Completing the square . ... . .193 11 .. 9 ** . signs of Algebraic expression . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . quadratic .. 123 . .. . .108 160 " . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. 9. 246 91 " multiple.. 19. . . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .... . lowest ratio " '* .] Abscissa Absolute term .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ......
.. exponent . 114.. 243 7 .. Known numbers .808 Exponent Exponents. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . . .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Insertion of parentheses .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. addition of " square of . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . . . . Mathematical induction . . . 34. . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . G. . 205 . Geometric progression . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. Inconsistent equations . 109 102 . . Imaginary numbers . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.31. 184 54. 42 7 Independent equations Index . numbers . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 112 . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 143. . . 227 geometric . 195 33. 91 . . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . .C Multiplication . 45. 84. . first and second . P . .. . inversely 122 numbers . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. law of Extraneous roots .108 Minuend .154 Order of operations " of surds . 9. INDEX 8 . . 23 10 91 102. directly. 45 Laws of signs . Negative exponents 11 . arithmetic . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Product '* 76 Infinite.. 253 28 70 1. . 189... 120 Member. 63. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 227 . 45. Like terms Linear equation . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . L. 17 65... 212 . 241 123 geometric . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. . 180.. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .251 Graphic solution of simultane.105 Monomials 03 Multiple..
.. 129. . algebraic Surds . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. polynomial .. ... 4 155 9 " of ... 27 17 Unknown numbers ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... . 9. Sum. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. absolute 54 Variable .. binomial Third proportional Transposition .. .. . .... ..... . 45 Trinomial 240 ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Set up and electrotypcd. August. December.COPYRIGHT. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. 1913. Norwood. U. 1910. Berwick <fe Smith Co.S. Mass. 1916. 1910.A. . Published September. NorfoooS J. 8.. 1917.
126.  2 p. 14.000. 17. 15. _ 32. 20 B. Ot 15. 5. 12. 16 in.. 13. + 1. 37 S. 37.. 24. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 6* 16. $40. 5. 1. 17.. 23. 30?. 32. 26. 16. }.000. 16. 7. 10. 16. 2. 5000. B $ 128. 8. 8. 21. 12. 3. 7. 5. sign. 25. 2. 8. 11.000. . is $10. 14. Page 13. 9 16  larger than 7. 2. 2. per sec. 15. 7. 29. i .  13. B $4700. 14. 3. 16. 9. 13. 14. 59. . 15. 8.. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 2.000. 5. 6. 106. westerly motion. 4. 7m. Multiplication.21 24. 9 m. 27. 24. 6. 2 5. 9. 4. 14. 13. 6. 12. 4. 2.  1. 72 = = 216. 2. 10. sign. 19. 8 ft.. 3 m. 3. 13 d. 8. 20 jo. V 23. 25. 18. 7. C $1(50. B $80. 1. A 15. 4.150. 32. 3. in. 9. Yes. . 29. Page 8.  22 20. 2. 6. 3. 14. Page 4. 3. 3.. 3. 16. 4. 2..000. 15. 210.12. 1. x. 6. Page 1. 12. 20. 19. A Bl 7. 5. 17. ft. 9. 4. 15. 6. 7. 192. 9. 16. 13. 2. C $60. 28. 5. 28. in 12. 18. B $20. 5. 1. $100. 3. 2  Page 8. 16. 85. 49. 32.. arithmetic. 9. 6. 576. 30. 14. 12. 9. 6 yd. 22. 2. 3. 16f 2.2. 13 V. ^. $160. 1. 12. 6. 48 ft. 7.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 12. 10.00000001. 10. 1. A . 3 below 0. 21. 3. 32. 9 = 4. b. 144. 12. 89. 27. 1. 10g. 8. 14. (a) (/>) 1. 3.$9400. 7. 3. 115. 1 16. 27. A 38 mi. 16.  1.000 Indians. Australia ft. C $ 16. 18. 21. 0. . 150.000. in. 3. 1. 1. 5. 24. 512. 20 \. 18. 1. T . 11. 1. 16 in. 18. 4.3. 6. 8. 10. 19 4. 7. . 3* 7. 128. 10. 6. 1. 2. 20. 6. 18. 8 13. 1. 20. loss. 9. 49. 1. 20. Page?. 9 14.000. 2. 9. x. 3. = 5 81. 13 S. c. 14 11. 3. 10. 11. 12. 17. 16.1. 17. 12.. 2 ~ 15. 73. 2.000. 256.8. 10. 11. 25. 25. 6. Not 5. 36. 26z. $ 1 50 10. 22. 7. 19. B 10 mi.C. 13. A $90.000 negroes. South America 46. 11. 0. 1. 64. 3.
23.000 sq. (a) r>23ifcu. 17. 30. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 8. ft. (a) <> sq. 38. 25. :. 25. 1.4 ft. . $3000 Page 6. 41.rty8. Pagel4r.. 21. 5. 9.  1. 3. sq. 51 f. (a 4 4. 5x+3.'J. 12. 8. (r) 2G7. 30. Page 18. 15. \'\ 4. 0. . 0. 0.. 26. 10. 27. 21. 2. 11. 2. 21 a 3 4 10. 9. 11. ft' 3 . 104. 0. II. ft n. 04.r 2 . 22.. 6<t. 37. a2 4 15^44. 9. (r) 2. 22. 31. 20(. 14. 14. 14. 8. 27. 7. (ft) Page 2. 7 7.'JO ft. 17. . 4<> 2 ?t Vc. (b) 135 mi. 7. 13. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. :J!>r'. ]*. 8. 27. 28. 5. 15. 28. 13. 23. <i~ 26.. 314 sq. 4. 36. 35.  40. 2.14 sq. c. f  5e 35. 3 a* + 2 at*. jrif 4 9. 92. 32 2 ftc. 3.r~ f 34. 27. 00 24 04 ft. 237.  3. 5. 15.. I. (59. 31. a 32. 35. 7. 3. 39. 2x' 2 5 . 38 ab. 27. Monomial.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 49. (a) 200. 21. . 42. r:A 29. 4. i:5. 1.ab. 31. 29. 13. 22. 12 a.1. $80. 16. 43w//2 17.a . ft. 7. 0. r+l. //'. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 26. 12. 20. (r) 78. (ft) mi. 32. (r) 2000 m. 3a. 58. (ft) 12. 22( 19. 8. 21^. 29. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 4 y/ .. 18. 0. 13. +/2(/. _ 4 . v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 27. Polynomial.. 33. 14. 1. (c) S(i.94(>. 2. + 5.<>Gq.5 (ft) sq. ft. 3. vi 14. 3.900. x^ 20. It. Page 21.  11. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 11. rt. ^. 35.32 c2 > ft 3 .GOG. 15. 3rf 27. 20. 15a. 25.6) 38. 1. w.. 1. (ft) $40.9?/2 8. 16. 3. 4. 3. 6.. m + 3(a. yyz+xyz*. mi. in. Page 31.. 17. 4.q 4. 2.x. 2ftx. 36. 1. 18. (ft) 7. Va'+Y2 8^2 .~4. . 19. WIN + wiw. 13 cu. 8. a ft c. 14.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 14. arty 1 20. in.000 . 34. ??i??. 6. Page 7. 13. 19. 5. 12. #1111.  2 4 13 ft 2 . y. + ft). 9. 11. 10. 15. 16. 2oVmf?i. ^). 15. 16. t. 16. Trino inial.  12. 12yd. 57. 0. 5. = ()501. 24. 5. 0. r/ \(\xyz.ft) 4.  0. 17. (c) 8. + v> 2 . 19. 5. . 9. 3 . 50. 2. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. ft.ft.5f> sq. 4. 34. 20. m 24. 30. 33. o^ft. 0. . = 81. 3. Binomial. 173. 17. 14:). 12. 1. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 24.. 3. Polynomial. in. 4. ft. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 14. 12. 18. in. 1. 10. 4 9/^/rl 2. 28. . 32. . 3(c4a).. 1. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 18. 12.4  2ft 2 33.r f 15. 22. 6. 8.  xV 3 y.. 240. 7. 13. 5. 18. 8. Page 23. (a) 50. ft f 19.
8. + c 4 d x + 6 e. + 4 c. 2 3. 5. c. '  . 25. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 4 21. 15.4x. 20. 19. x3 . M + 10.a'2 . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 28. 1 4. 14. . ft Exercise 17. 2 a 37. w* ( . 7. Exercise 16.1. f 2 ?/  2.4c 3 8 8 J. _5a<>&43c. 43.a . 10 x.  23. a 52. a. 15. 5. a 3a 4 2 &.h. x a8 1. 4wipg>' 27. 2m. 25 47.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 20. a2 24. 2 a f 6 414. 4ft ~. 11. 1 + 45. (w4w)(ww). 55. 12. 8. 2 4. 2. 2. 2 3x f z. a). + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .  b* 4 r 1 .2 . 8 . 14. !  </ . 18.3 6. a4 4 4. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 51.  G J8 r  4 a <?. a 10w. ti.  b. 7  # + 12. 3. a 3& .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 364c. 13.  12. 34 39.2 ft 2 r2 10. 10. 8 b. a' 4ab + ?/. 22. a f 2 f 2 9. Page 28. 5x 2 rt ft. 32 w 2 w.aft. 26. 1. . 13. ri\ 18. 2 2 2 6. 32. 21. 6. 2 17. a + (ftc4df).8(c + a). f ft 9. \ :{ 2 a 48.5 z?/ + 3 y . (mn} 11. 5 2 Page 29. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 2. 3 a3 & 41.x f 1 2 . 0. :5 41. a a. 2. 7. 30. 24. 12. 2.a f 54. t). (5x47 3.2. 4. 2. 14.r 2. 3 Ji 8 . 0. 24. 1. 2 . ( 7. 6. ?/. 2 + a4l). 2. 21. 15.abc. (2n' 43p 47 ). n*. + 2y. a2 9. 6. a 3 .  1. 36.. 1. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 12.6 x + 0) 16. 25. 16. 31. 4. a + a. 4r 2 . 34.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 6.ws 2 ft) . 3.(7x2 Ox2). 59. a  49. .  a: 2.  14 afy . 7. x  + 3z. 1. 8.l. w 17. + 6. . 2.2 a.1 . 37. a 6 2 . 40. .c. 4. 33. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 20.(2 x2 . ab a. m*  n*. 18. 3. 21. 29. 1.2 57. . 7 a5 1 . 36. lOrt 15w4. 2 y' 4 . 1. ar. 14. c2 .'U4j>. . . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .2 a2 2m 2 4.5 4 2 3 ?/ . . 24. Page 7. 58. 8 8 .4 d. + 8. 4.5. 16. 19. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. . 56. G a bd. 0.Oa: + 10. . 38. 3 m. ii\ 22. 10. 11. 22. r.a~. . 2x 4 a 13. mn. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . j)(g1.a*. 8 + 2 a . G. Page 44. Page 8. 50. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 17. 12. 2.  17. 24 b 46. 9. 11.. (yz~d}. 10 m. 2// 16. 7  a + 2 + c. 7. s_r>a5. ^ <. 5.4. . ?>4tl 53. 42. 5. 814. 2 6. 26. 2a. a 4 + ft. ?/i 13. 19. 2.11. c. 10. 2 .7. &. 3 a . 2a: 2 4x. 18. . 2m + 2w. 26. 2. . 25. _ Page 30. 35.r. 4.3x 2 2 tf. 17. 4. ?> 22. 31.  4 b 17 y*. a  ISjfat. .
12. iSx8 . 18. 13. 90. 66 8W 34. 32. . 2 a2 (y 2 .000. ! 2. 7. 360.18 w w + 10 WI M . 16. 27. Page 36. etc. Page 5. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 108. 4 jcy*z*>. a + ft. 2. 18> ^* = a . 25. +15. 216. 13. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 8.21. 120. 15. 30 n?b*c*. 16. 15 lb. 2''.32 y s s G . 10.26.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 30. 9. 22. 11. Page 3. 16 lb. 6. Page 35. Ox a 5 . 3300. 84.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 4 a2 . a.20 xyz . 9. + O4 66 . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. Page 7. 11. + 7. 29. 4 fc.21 a 3 c2 21. 8 . 12 x2 2 . 7. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 1.19 + 2. 16. 13.. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 27. 0. 33. 36. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 28. 31.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 22. a: .36 35. +.:>/ . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 5aft(a 126 2). 20 aW. f 26. 3 a 3 . 210. 17. 1. 60. ci 5 . 23. 32. 4. 10. 2 2 2 . 21. 10. 161b. ?> 4 . 14f 5.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 20. 17. 1.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 14. 25. ISartyW e*f*tj. 52 + 6s 12. 19.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 0. 1. 2 ). 27. + 58 . 8. 25. a. . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 2 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 2 ). 35. 4. 29.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 2*8f x2 6x4. 34. 1. 20.11 xyz .(3x2_4^+7).>(/ r . 22. 10. 30. ?/ . 27. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 33. . 12. 1. 34. 24. 13. 9 13.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 3 a 2 46. 4. 38wiw. 6". 1904. 8. x2 xy42^.7(50. . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 4 a8 .2. 24. 64.. m. 9. 42. 20.28 p'^/. 18. 6 . 23. 37. 16.32. s 9 ww. 4. 14 m 2 . 6. ^^ = 20.44 aWc 16 abxy. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 42. 24. 12 ^. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 .12. 15. 17. . 4200.. 25 4 4. 21 a'&c. 343. 15. 5. 8. . 3. 66 39 k* . 40 r 2 . 28. 2. 216.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 15 q\ 6. 7G . 21. 76 8 a' 1 . 13. 29. 27. 4aWy. 3(*+0 + 2). 7. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .1. . 60. 2 * 80 . 04. 31. 28. 34. 20. 2. a*b*c.8 12. 24.19p" + 19^ 10 . 18. 14. 17. 14. 30. 3. 11. 26. 12. 28. 14. a 8 . 15. 161b. 30. 2 7t A. 16 51.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.25 + 14. 25. 108. . 2 w +2 2 . 1400. 30. 127"'. n (a6) 125. 5.16 x2/ 5 4. 3. (+3)x6=+16.r% 2 2 ry.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 21.14 w 2 2 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 18. 2. 102. 30. 6. 83 In + 1 n*. //.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 30 j9 jt?g j . 8. 26.6) =a2 31. . 16.14 . 20. . 770. 4. 22. 3. .64 190 p6.15. .. a. 19. 7.12. 1. 18. 11. ft 17. Page 38. 18a% y. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. fa 2. 19. 20. 18. 33. 19. . 23. 29. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 23. . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 6. 24. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 4. 15.6 2 . r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .16 a 2 + 32 a . ll 2 i.
441. . 6. +   5).x2y22.712. 8 a W . 52. 9 4 /> .6 x2 13. 35. 166. 41.^ + a? + 1. ^/> 8 4 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. m 2 . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 25.8. 9990. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 2 4 2 2 64 .54 p 2 + 81. V + o ft . a 2 . 10. 32. x2 GiC+5. 28. 40. y. . 8. 26. ab.^V"' .4 a&+ 4 &*. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.994. a4 4 ?/ .4 12. 10.10 x + 25. 3. (a (3 54.5 ~ 81. 41. +  m' 1. 42. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). (w+4)(m4).84 a' 9. 9. 6 2 + 6lf>0.020. a + 25.020. x*2^f I. 24. 990. .. 33.000. + 12. . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.ab . 2 4 a + 4. 5. 6.500. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. p 2 . 4 x2 13. . 1. 10. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 34. . 33. 14. 15. 1). 7 .15. 37. m 3 j) 3 . 14.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 36. 15. 11. . ' 46. ?/H)0. a3 0. fo*. ~ 6 20 . . 12 x2 . . 44. 10. 1.4 n. 38.6 xy . 7> . 11. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). + 10 + 121 y*. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 34. 5. + 2 9. 2 +10s281. 51. x4 28. 45.p132.ANSWERS 28. 2 a' y' . 8. 31. ft' 11. 55. 14. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 10. 484. 39. 4 2 //. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.25. 36. x 4 ?/4 + ab .^. 16. 33. 18. 19. 37. 4. (a + 4) (a + 2). 10 a 4 ?. .004. 10. p4 + . 20a 2 21a + 4. 999.2 x + 2 x. (m + 6)(m3). 2 0)(p + 5). . 10. (w4)(w + l). 10. n2 a4 6. 4 21. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 32.m 30 6 4 1. 4 + 25 q*. 24. + 3)(3). I/)./ . 7. . 1.2 y*. 8 38. 8.2.201. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 40. a' . 26. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 2 (5 a 3). G a6 2. s rc 47. ^V^4 .ri 17. r. 1. 998. 10 a' 2 . 56. 10. 7. 57. (n 2 5. 30. lflrt 2 8 + l.009.996. 36.r* 2 30.6. . 29. x* . Page 39. 2 6' .606. 23. a + 25. 2 j3 Z . Page 12.2 6 + 13. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. ^' J  7 f 12. a2 ' + 48Z100.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 3. 30 x + 19 x3 . + 4 t*. Om2 4 6m 6. 2 fr . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 27. 2.35 ab 9. 21 2 . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2 1: 21. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 4 . . ab . n + 2.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.098. +4 34. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). ) 4' 6/ 49. (p 2.r . 1. 36 a 4 . . 2 a 2 + a . 30 /><. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 27. 2 . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2 12.000. x 48. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.14 jp + 49.10 35.3.404. 7. 4.009. 29. 10.20.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 3wi2 m Page 42. 2). + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. a + 56. 53.810.r . 25 a 2 6 2 .. 9. 1. 25 25.16 a3 f 50. 2 62 V2 132.008. 31. . 31. 19. 39. 9801.001. 2.00 + 37. + 4 a +4.1. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 4x21.49. . 2 . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 4 . 40. 17. 9999. 10. 35. 4.6 y4 10.
23. 4 x. 8. 9. m L 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.> 10. 15. yfl.lit x + 4. 1. . aft. + 4. . 10 ft. 4. . ft ? ft' ft ft. Page 7. ft 17. . 2 12.r ?/ ??i ?). '. 2 4. 6. 12. 24. 49. c 12. 1. 13.r'^ 15. 21.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.1. 5. 6. 7a3ft. 15. 5. 5. 2 1.2 2 .3 3. 6.VI ANSWERS 43.2 <</. j) . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. Page 13. 2 ^r ???' 2 .2 aft 4.2 ftc . 10.6 :rs 4. w . ft* ft / .000. 14. 2 4 2 x 4. *3 y 4 .2 . 2 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 5. 3.r?/. ?/2. a 8 4. 1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 3 a. z.1. 2. + x?/ 2 1. :r !>. 11 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .8.r . 8 ?/ . 4. 8. 7.2 ar. 13. x4.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4 d 2 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20./ 4. i 9. sr 11. 4.r' ~ 16.  11. 13. l 4 .1. 3 aft 20. . a 10.2. 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 9. 4 pq. 2. 46.y3. a 2 . . 19.5 n*. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.2 . 14 r 2 . 135.2 1 //. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. .r?/ j/. 01. 4. 8 r<ft 4 2 .8. 2.3 ry.2 2 2 8 . 18.1. 5. 13.3 x 2 2 4. 4.+ 77 15. 50. 2. 5.1. y 7. 23. r/2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. Osy. 2 .5 a . 8.1*5 2 r 2 . .12 aft 4 20 ac . 3. 8 ?/ . 3.  . 6x 3. 12. . 4. . + 3. 8 x . 16. 1. 2 ?/ 4. a 4 4 ft. 19. 4 ac. .2 ac . 9.rw f 8 . 2 4 3 9. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 4 c m . as _ 10 16. 5.15. 3.8 yn . aft 12. 4 a* 4 9 11. 26.10 xy*. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 5. Page 48. 13. 4xy + 13 <) . 6. 20 15.25. .5 mp. aftc 52. 2. w 2 .8 y. 1. m'2 3. 1000 1000 .10 2 + z 2 410. ti'jry1 7. 20. 1/*.25 c .3 a 41.1. . c3. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 3*y2 w + 1. 8. 16. abc 7.15 21. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 4x43?/. 11. 17. .r" 20 S? .34. x 4. 2 ? 14 . i 2 tji. 14. 12.1.4. 47.n. x 2 + 2r f J. ??. 2. 6. 18. 11. 9. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 12. r ft. 7 r . 3. 3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .  10. 12. 4 a 2 4. 2 2 + 2 a. 17. .7. 2 a 3 ft.x^. 1. G. Page 11. 17.21 2 2 f + . r 7. 10. 1. Page 22. Page 51.3 5. 14. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 5 4 a Oft. 125. // 19. /r . 8. 21. ft. _ 2 a .30 ftc. 75 a 2 29. r//.2 wZ 4. .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .9 4.  12 y 25.rw. 8. 2 ?/' . 5^418(7. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 16. a. 14.  3 c. 14.  5 z* . 9. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 22. 4.24 . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 5. 10. 44. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . f>r* 4.27 x 2 4.3^V. Exercise 2 a:// 26.9 d.29. 13. 4ft. Exercise 27.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. +w .2 . 5 a  (5 ft.w.
y 100 a 24. + 3x + 2y + 32. lOx 10 + w. 2b. 13. 37.6 = *. 17. (>.200) f(^ + (e) 200. (</) 2a. 100 2. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. Page 61. "mi. ft. 3. 0. y ?>i x + 26. 11. 41. 18. iL*. 5. 5. Page 6. !). 4^ = 100. 43. 2=10. 21 2. 8.000. I. y yr. 7. r tx mi. 36. 11. 1. 29. (a) ' 12. 4(a ft) c = 8. 4. lO. 14. 3. a 10. . 47. 4. 18. ft. vil 56. 5. f (I. + 4x 3y 34. 1. 100 d ct. <>. m +~m 3. 100 14. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x.r1. 6. m+ 11. x. x y $ 6 yr. 37. 7.  1$. 10.  9 = 17 a. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 100= ^.  6 10. 6. 16.rr2. rn mi. 30. 50= L 100 15. x + 1=a. 8. 12. 44. 27. 1. sq. 23. 10 a.. 58. 20. 10 >_&. 5. 22. 20. . 35. 7. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 9. ct. 59. 38. 16. ^ 12 sq.ANSWERS Page 9. 2. b. " lir. l. Page 31. 2b 22.r ct. ft. 42. 15. 2. a 8. fix. ( a f 4. 7. 13. 44. (2 a. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 4. Jj12. + 3 = 2(3* . (c) 2x. 6. 800 = x + 1300.x700. 2 ct. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 31.10) 100. 22. 2. 23. 6. 30. . 19. 2x + 35. / + y + a// 12 yr. 10. 0. 1. ct. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 25. 3. 10 x sq. r>?imi. 11. 26. n M. d. 4. x 48.p+7. 38. 2. = 5 ?i x 460. f 6)(o 62. y 50. v (6) 2x. }f. 2. 41. 4 f 39. 6.ab a. 7.  2\. 10. 10. 34.100. 36. 29.. 5. 3x2. d + !. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.(3x  700) = 5. 8 n  10 yr. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. x 2y 10 act. 17. % 4. 3 9. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. x 49. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 57. 17. 7.  />) a = all. 40. b. ] 2 ri 42. 33. 24. Page 40. 32. 2.. f = eZ 2 x. 5. 7. + 10 b + c ct. 'nj 100 a 28. 28. + f + b 2. 15. 13. 20. 60 25 1. 39. 14. 16. (> 27. ? 43. 7x 2 Page 21. 25. I. 45. 3x  1700) = 12. 10 yr. 33. 1. 12. 1&. s. X 60. ct. 9. </ 20. .. Page 13. '^ . 46. 4. 00. # + 20yr. . x = m. 19. . xy ft.7).(3x+ = rraxlO. .
20. 6. 85 ft. 300. 12. 3. 75. + 7)(y3). 90. 2 3 6 7. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 15. ?(g ? g+ 1). (y7)(y + 2). 15. 30 yr. 78. 29.. 14. 12 mi. 18. 05.. 600.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 10 yd. 10 Mass.000 N. w (/) 64. 9.. ~=90. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 180. 71. (*4)( + 11.000. Ib. (a + 5)(a + 6). 1313. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 25. 5 lb.000 ft. 4.. 1. 2.411.(5z . 200. 12. 50.. 1. Page Page 480 12. 7. (c) ^ v ' . 3 hr. 6. 7a*fe(2a & l). 90 mi. 22.13. 23. 14. 3. . 2. 30. 20 yr. 9. 3. 4.000 pig iron. 11.. 100 1. 70^.. Page 7. (m + n)(a + 6).3aftc + 4). 10 yr.8. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .. (a + 4)(a + 8). 17z8 (l3z + 2x').11. 160 lb. 200. Page 7. 20.22. 2 2 ?/ 21.000. 55. ^ .210^. 74. 8. (a 4) (a. 2. 10. 5. 12. 80 A.1). Y. 3. 6. 19. 8 in.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 4.000. .79. 8. (y 13. 6.10. 5. 1. 3 (a +&)(*. 8. by 12 yd. 6.000 copper. 6. Page 79. 3.. Page 5. 11. 17. 1.000 Phil.21. . 11 pV (2 p8 . 4.  PageSO. 13. 250. 30 mi. 10. 7.. 5$ hr. 2. 13. 52. 9. 8. 15. 8 2 19. 8 12. 3x (3r. 4pt.. 2. 13.000. 2$. 72. 12. 9. 10 yr. . 3.000 ft. 1 lb. 11 w(w' + wi .5.2). 45 in. 70.. 10. 2). 15. 150. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).24. 10. Oaj(o62cd). 14. 24J. 42yr. 20 yd. (y8)(y + 2). 30. 11 in. 6.000. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 1250. 7. (a5)(a4). 5. 1.3). $40. 13. 4. 15 mi. 82 mi. 9.000. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.. 67. (6) (6 a 30) =20. (y + 8)(y2). 78.. 9. ( + 4)(*2).3. 10.3. 20 yr. (e) i* + A. 8.5p + 7 g ). 100. 2. 5pt. 10 Cal. 25. 2.0. 15 in. 9. 14. 28yr. 15 yd.0. 1. 7. 4. = _?_(2ar + 1). 1200.000 Berlin. 7.5.16. 40 yr. 12.000 gold. 9 in. Pace 65. 1200. 14. 5.000. (a + 6) (a + 3). 1. 10. 14. 13. (z5)(z2). (yll)(y4). 15.. 2 2 2 5. 68. 8. 17. 8. 11.2.7. 480. 5 Col. 10. a a (a 8 a+l). 20. a 12. 6rt 2 11. 25 yr. 7 hr. (ro3)(w2). 16. 18.6). 11. 18. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. Page Page 4.y"). 21. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 7. 8. 5. (p + 7)(3a5&). 3. 12. Page Page 4. 6.
(3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (ft + ll)(aftll). (9y4)(y + 4).6) 2 1. + 2y). 24. 18. 25. . 27.11 ft)(a6). Yes. (w ~ n (x . Oa 2 (a2)(al). 19. 24 9. 12. . + 3)(c44). a*(5a f l)(flr . (x + y4 )(x . 7. 216 aft.2). 36. 20. (a 6 6) (a 4. 31. 10. .7) (a. (y8) 2 2 . Yes.+4 y)(3x4 y). (7 a + 4) (2 a . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 2. No. y) 2 29. (m + w) 2 5. 26. No. 3(x + 2)(zl). .3). 24. f 2). Yes. 25. 14. (4al)(a2). 17. 2 No 4. Yes. 10(a + ft)(aft). (y + 4)(yl). 22. 2 17. (2yl)(y + 9). (2o + l)(2l).1). 21. 12. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 17. (4 13.1). (4a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 21. (15ay2) 2 . 2.2 by2 6. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 4 (a . 9. (2 a? 4. (6n + l)(+2).1).2 ft). 10(2 30. 33. (6 a. (10a + ft)(10aft). 2. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 4. a. 15. 2).4p).7)(2z f 1). 26. 30. 9. ix 18. 28.r2). (a (p8)0> + l). . 8.y) 2 aft. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 3)(3a. (0 + 6)(66). 34. Yes. Yes. 100(x. 32. 22. 23. 103x97. (ay8)(ay3).8). 100 (a. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 7 6) (a 10 6). (a + 8)(a3). (g . 21. 23. 29. y) (a. 5. (a a: 19. (m + n +p)(m + wp). Page 82. 7.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 8. 9. 35. 3. x\x 24. 11. Yes. Page 84. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 8) (a. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 1. Yes. 13x(a + ft)(aft). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 11. 19. . (3#y)(+4y). . (13a +10)(13a 10). 30. 35. 21. + 0(90 Page 85. (a.4 6). 13. (2w+l)(ro + 3).   . 27. 8. 10. . 23. 14. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). . (w* (3a26). ( 2 4 19. Yes. 15. 3a. 9. 16. 32. 10. x(x +y)(x y). 27. 1. 17. (a 3 + 10)(a. 20. (2 *+!)(* 9). No. (* + y)(zy). 34.4.2 y). 18. 7. . 25. .2). (4 18. 16. 10.11 6) (a 4. 2 3 by2 Yes. Page 83. + 8)(g3). 3. (w + 20)(w + 5). 10(a . + 9^)(oxy .3)(z2). a . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 6. 24.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (<7 20. 11. 2 2 15. 25. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). . Yes. 22. 26. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (5wl)(m5). (4y3)(3y + 2).6) 2 2 .9*). 28.  x (5 a. 22. 29.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 14. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 33. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). . 1.ANSWERS 16. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 3.. 6. + 4) (a. 26. 12. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (15z2y)(x5y). (3a.5y)(3a. a(2u. (:52y)(2a!3y).1). + 5) a. + y + . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 28. Yes. + 3). y(x. 23. 5. (m7n) (a. 40 x. 16.y4 ). (az + 9)(ox2). No. No. 4.* (2 y + 3)(y. 10 a 2 (4 . (5x . 13x7. 20. (2xl)(x + f>).c 2 ). 31. 25. (3*2)(. 9. Yes. (5a +l)(5a l).
Page 12. 9. 20. (f> + fo 7. 8. (7/1 2) (m 41). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 4.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 6. x 4.&).7)(^ {I 12. b) (r 4. 10.2). + 2 //). 4 a8 . ( { &). 2 (a 4. (5 31.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 22. 7.3.y).l)( a 25. ( rt 23. 17(x43//)(x2y). 24. (2 a ~ f> b 4.2 y). 8. 30. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 5. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). ah}. (a 4.'})(c . (a />. 3. 17. 5. 15.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (r420(4 10. 5 x8 3. x43. 6. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 6 f c). . 14.&). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. .b.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. Page 89. (5a+l)(9a). 41. 42). a (a + 2 6). 8x. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).0+ 12). 2 8(w . .1). Exercise 47. (c. 2 k (wi 4. 14. 8. ^ . 3(. 37. 13. . 2. ( y). 7.1) 3.4. (^ 7. + 3. (16 4  2(5 n . 7.1). 1. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).8) n 43*).X 5. 11. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.'J)(' .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (w * . 13. (x//.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). n  r)(5a 10. 450. 10(8x' 4l) 4. . (m  I)' 6. 27. (5 26. 2. 5..y)(fi a . 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.3. Gp). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 2(m4l)' . 24x sy s 9.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 38. a x 3 10. 2 a 2 13x 3 y.?50)(xt/z. x(x f y)(jr .?/). 15. Page 90. a + a b. 7. 4 a s &8 .3)(x 4.  (w' 4. 8. 2 2 3 .42 x 4. 6. y )(. 4. 19.r(3x' 2 4 (14.n). 3 x4 . 4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 14.e 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 39.  WIM.2). 2. 32.^ 48. r x 2 */3 . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (!__/>). 5  (2 2 . x  1). 1(V/ 88.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . ofc)( fid). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). Exercise 46.y. 2 1. 2 .2)(x 1. 12. (^ + ?>_8). (5^4. 40. 11. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ( (<> r4y3 .36). ?i(w 4y) . 2 y) ^ . 12. 13. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 9. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 12. 36. 2 21.8).  29. 42a 3 x. 4. 18. 6. 6. a8 . fi(c426). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 11.) j). l. 4). 8).8) ( (16. 35. (a 9. y(2x?/).!) (x42)(x2). 7. 14. 13( 33. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 6.?>) H. 4 3. Page 86. 3p (^9)(j) 4). a 4. 10(2 (3 4. 2 2 10. 3x(x?/) 4. . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 16. 13 x 8 2 . 4.5 m2 x2. ?>). (a &4.4. 4. y6. (. 11. (> 1. 28. 4 6.'/)('< 4.7s) (2 a. y).4). 2 + . 8.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (x. 7. 2. (14. Page 92. (w4w) 2 1. a 2 (a9).4). 4  9. 8.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. Page 87. 15 M. ( a ^)(^3. 5. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).9).y '2 2). 8. 16. 4. a 4. x . a 41.
 1). (a2)(a + 2)2. x 12. + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6). 30(3 2 (a 15. + y) (a: y). +5 1. a 23. 2(2al) + l).6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 13. x 22. 1). // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21.ANSWERS 10. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 18. + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. 11. x 24. a 10 25.
w1 + ac w 4 7. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 7. 6. 4.  **/* + 84 _.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . . 4 L 8 2 .. c 8. 30. + lH + . i. a 5.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 4c 10. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + 2H 1 ^. 1. 6a5f^. Page 101. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6. ^~ 29. 6. Page 100. i^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 11. 0. ' 2 7. _*^p5_^^_.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 26. 28.50 ~ 1/2 . A^. xy 43. 2 a.
f Page 107. .^_. 11. 4. 1. n 16. 29. 37. 23. 5 be _J_. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 4. ^_. Page 111. 44. n . 3. 6. 1. 18. 6. 16. 33. 2 47. 10. 39. x\. a2 2. ^i 11. 15.  10 X + u. 6. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. w^x 2 b Page 105. 32. n m a + 13. 3. 4. x 05m ' 5. a 17. 11. . 1. 11. 6. 25. 5. pf n 6 1. 3. 17. 27. (>. 24. 3. . 0. 1. j L . 11. 4. c 8. 2) 19. 8. 4. 2ft a i m x. (y + (z 12. +3 ( + 15. 9. 4. 1. ft. ?. 8j_m 7 3. 40. 7. 9. Page 110. 1. 9. 12 28. 12. ac mp lf> n 12. flf. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 36. 41.y 7. 19. Page 106. . f 7. 0. 21. 1. ! 4 20. A. 1. J.L+ft.^U\WF### X<6. 3 7 i o. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 15. + f. 4. 34. 21. 6 . 6. b 2. an 18.  V o 4. 31. 7. ' 6. 1. 10. y(x + x ?/). 11. 21. x 1. 3. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 45. 46. 43. 35. 14. Of. 26. J. 30. 14. J. 5. 3. ?+_!?>. 16. 4a3ft. 8. 7. m 9. 7.ft . I) 2 3z 1. 12. 13. b a f +c 14. a. 1. 14. Page 113. 38. 20. 17. 42. 5. 5. 15.
10. . 1. " 0. 212.. 15. w 21. 3:2. _JL. Yes.002. 15. 300. Page 119. dn ~ mi. $0. 9. (a) 4 min. 22. xy. 7. * 7:9. $30. 15. w 18. $00. 17. 7. 10 yrs. 1:1 = 1:1.. 2x:3y. '"I 22. 14. 27. a 4 ft. 5. 16. 74. 1 da. 12. f . 8. 36. 4. .  C .15. #V ~~ 34. 4. 4fl M_. 300. 8.000. 11. 21. 5 2. 30. Page 121. . 10.x + y. 1. 55 mi. 10. nm. 14. (a) 30. 14. after $12. 17. (r) 3^ da. 9. 2 20. 17.11. 6. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .. No. 3.138. min. 19.000. 13. 40 yrs. 16. 7T 2 Page 116. ^p^ r ~ 7. 24. 35. 19. 10^ oz. 26 30. = A's. 32. () 2. 18. $45.139. 23< &n b ' .10. 30ft.  + .XIV '/ . 20. 3. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 2. jj./hr... 11. (ft) 5 hr. ^?i min. 26. 7. 6. 28. (d) 500. 40wn. ANSWERS 16. 10.} da. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 00.0 & . 275:108. 1:3. 10. 10. J ^'. 7. 1^'. 8301 hr. 5ft 30mi. 12. 1:1=1:1.0. 3. [>> ^ a . 15. (a) 12 hr. Yes. 20. 3. No. 13. 20. 19. 5. Yes. 12. 21ft min..004. Page 125. 2:1. 8. (c) 8300. 7} 18. 1:1 = 1:1. 5 25. 24. 34. 2. 4~r~ n . a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 6.000 1 = 23.001. 10. 33. 9. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. (d) 4 da. 13. Yes. Yes. 15. 33. ft. 21. 500. 9.. 1. 40 mi. 9$. gold.000. 18. 7. 4. 4. (ft) 104. 15. 10. 75 . . 1: ~. IV s. after 20. 8. 13. 5. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 19. 18. 16. ~m . 30 yrs. 9ft. 24 mi. 5. 8. after 18. 1:4. (ft) 28.2. 9J oz. Page 118. 0. n 32. silver.. 15.003. Page 117.000. Yes.137. . min. f. 81. 30 mi. J. 3 da. (c) 2 hr. 4. Yes. 11 hrs. (ft) 5 da. 3. . P+ ^ 33.000 If da./hr. ^m . 10. 3.9.. w 44. 38ft min. (a) 25.2. . 300. 1. Page 124. 14. $40. 1 : 12. 31. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 26 mi.. Yes. 11. 17.  29. :2. 7 .
4. y .) 31.5. (b) Inversely.000 sq. 2. 11. 11 w a 13. 7. 7. 30.2. w 8.46. 6.3. 17. 20 cu. 26. 2. 3.2.15 x. 15> 9. 10. 200 mi. i. 16. 2.3. 2 n . 5. 25. 6 10 = 12. + b 7 . 3. 5:3 = 4: x. 5. 13.r. 2. + W. *. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.4. 3. 31. 24. 10. 57. lo mi. 2. . Page 137. \. 24. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.*. 174+ Page 128.x a. 36. 5. 54. 29. J. ft. 2. 12. 1. . 7.a. 25. 945 11 10 . a~. 14. 1(5. . 11. 7. 16. "lO. 14. 53. 4. 38."2:1. 1.20. 52. 5.6. 3. 17. 13. .ANSWERS 22. 4. 44. (</) ft. = 7 b'.4. 48. Page 9. Page 135. 3. 22. 8. 39. 14. ' 55. 3. 9. 8. 2. 7. 7./':</ c a f :y=2:9. /.' : : : : <>. Page 132. . 3. tin. y :y =. Inversely. 6. land. 55. 19. 4. cu.3. 5 2. 7.5. 49. 56. . 20 20 J ^. 26. 9. + 7>i//  ft 1 .3. 10. 9. . 2. mi.1. 3. 2. I.  28. in. 1 rt * vm^1. (a) Directly.2 x. 11. a 3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 41. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 36. 6.8 oz. 20. : .C ?/ a . 3. 5. 59. 4. 7.5. 43.2 oz. 7. J pq. 1. 8. .1. 21. 5. 5. 2. 19. 32j. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 138.5.5. Of.J. 19 OJ. a +b 1. 9.. 28.5. 2.840. 58. 4. 11.  ?. 6*.22. 7.15. . 9. : : . (I. 3 2=3 x. 1. x +y x + 74 7 \. water. 23. 46. 7. : 23. Page 5. . a f 2 2 = 5 x. 2. 4. 13.4. 4. OJ.7. . 9.3. 2. 6. 50. 4. x y = 1 = 3 2. l. b x 37. 19 3 .57. 14. 2. 7^. 8.]. 7. 5.12. 5.12. \\. 3  24. 13. 7. 4. 3. 12. : />. x y y . : XV 27. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 7. 2.17. copper. Page 133.3..5. 7. Page 131. 2. 1 18 = 3 51. 2. ig 6. 2. 3. 2. ~ 1. 1. . 12.2. 47.J 3.5. 2. x 42. 2. Page 134.000 sq. 9  15. 24 1 (e) Directly. 41. 127. 2. 16. 4. 5:0 = 10:12. 27. y a y = 7 0. 2. 2. 4. 3. 4. 4. 1.. 15. t 5. 8. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 9. () Directly.7. jc:y = n:m. J. 3.3. 1. 8. 20. 1. 25. . 40.3. 30. 31J. 1. 22. 15. 17. 11. ini.160. 32+ mi. Page 136. 6. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 .1. 2. 13J. 12. 7. 8. : : T 1' : /> : . 5. y 1. w. 4. OJ. 11 5 . 10.3.^ 0?j ' gms. 9. 1. s<i. 45.5. 40. mi. in n. 23.1. 4.36.9. J." ^ 2.3. 3}. 35.li. 2.1. $. x:y a: b.3.  19. 18. 5. 141. . 19. 21.4.2. () 7 Page 126. 3.
3. 6. Apr.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 1 (c) Jan. 11. 3. & May. 20. 40. 7. 25. A's 30 18. 21. 3. 7. 72. 5. 23f . 21. June. 2.  17. 16. 25. . Apr. 24. .. 4. 18. 7. 9.0. yrs.1. 1. J. 28. 2 horses. Nov. 90. & part of Sept. parallel to the x axis 0. 11.n + p. 3. 1. 6. 2. 3.XVI Fagel39.^. 4. 4. 4. $ 1000.. $4000. 423. 00. 2. $900 5%. 18.3. 26. 2. 24. 25. A a parallel to the x axis. m . 4. 10. 5. 6. 3. 7. 20. 8. On 11. 10. July 20. 5.2. (ft) 23 J. 19. 100. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.4. 2. ad AzA. 4 mi. (ft) 20. 16 to July 20./hr. SL=J o ft r^2. 9. 4. 16.$2000. 3. 20 & Oct. 0. 1. 6. 13. 5. 10. 3). 10. The ordinate. 26. 1. 11. 1 (d) Apr. 20. be 7. yrs. 24. 14.1. About 12f. (a) Apr. 4. 14. 16.8. 3. . 12. 7. 1.. 9.3. 5%. On the y axis. ^. .  11. 4. M 2. 3. 1. (a) 12.. 3. 17. Page 153. 4. 19.l. 23. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 7. (5.2.4. 2. 3. 2. 15. at 15. C's 30 yrs. 4.0. B's 40 yrs. 1. 31. 1. 3. July. 8. 7. . ad _(?jrJL. 13. Page 142. . be 10. Page 22. m f 8. 30. $500. 12.1J. u 2ft. 0. 2. Feb. 16. 40. 14.7. 7. m f 9. 19 gms. July. Jan. 12. 6. 6%.33. 4. 13. 3.$5000. 6. 10. Jan. 2. 3. On the x axis. 2. Nov. 2. 4. 2. 10^ gms. 16. Jan. 11. &.4.3. 3. 1. 12. Nov. Jan. 7. 2. 5. 25. 17. 147. 2. 3. . 7. 9. . . Jan. 32. . (<f) 13. 15. 8. 20 to Oct. Page 149. 15. 12.10. Page 145. a. 24. 2. a =J (n  1) rf. ' 6 3 a. 29. 6 cows. 3. 6. 5. $6500at3Ji%. 11. 2t2. 2.65. . 4. A's 50 13. 9. Nov. 23. B's 15 yrs. 2 a. (c) .. $250. 30. 0. 2..9. 6. = ^ a Page 141. Page 152. 8. . ft 3. 20. 9. Aug. m + n p. 11. 30. May 5. 27. 20. 4 ' q. 4.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 2. . Apr. 5. through point (0. 22. & part of Feb. Page 146. 3. 3. ' . Page 151. 1. 4. <*ft/ bd 1. $3000. 16. 1. Oct. 18. 3. C's 10 yrs. 5. Page 143. 18. 5. 1. 5. 10 sheep. 17.
3. 2. 2 a&m Page 167. 27. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.64.. 13. 4wn8 + n4 5. 0C. 1. 3. * 16. 1. 4. . ImW. . 1. 14. 1.67. 1. 4. 14. 1.59 . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 4. xy. f12 wi 9. 3. 7. (gr) 21.24. 2. 4. 13C. 5. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 5. 1. (/) 3. 18C. 2 2 22. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.3. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 14. 83. 13. (ft) and (d) 2. 1. 2. 27 19. 13. 1 4. . I21a 4 ftc 2 18. ft . . a 29. a + ft. 125 16. 10. . (a) 5.  1. . 1.25. 6. 3. . 15 . 1. 8 1 f f g*. .73 ami . Page 163. m. 32F.27. 3.41 and .25. 10 C.6. 3. . . . 2. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. f 10. 15.64. . .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . (ft) 2. xW. Indeterminate. + a 4 ft* . 20. 11. 20. 4. 9 and Page 166.  1. 3. 5 and 2. 12. .73.5. 3. f. 2.84. 1. 3. 1. 3..83. 3.41 and 23. 10. 5.75. 30. . 2. . 28.25. 0. H. 25.24. 2. 18. 2. 1 23. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. (c) 7.25. 9.1. 4}.  . (a) 12.75 (ci) 3^. . 2. 1. 1. Indeterminate. 2. 1. 21. 13 . .2 (ft)  1. (ft) (d) 2. 8 a1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.59. 3.73. 17. (<?) 2." 23. H. 5. 2.75. \ft) 5. . 22. (ft) (ft) 2. 4 ) 21.1. 14.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . Page 159.7. a 10 ' a ll V&. 9. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 3.24 . 2. 15.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. (a) 4. 5. Inconsistent. 11. 24. xg . (e) 2. 10. (/) 3. 125 a 8 12. 4. 5. +3 4. 8. ft 2 4. . 8. (a) 2. 1. 2 l. (c) 14 F. () (rt) 3. 15. 19. . ' :=_!. 24. G. SlstyW 7. 26. 16. (c) 2.25. _ 9 x ^27 1 .13. 3. 4.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. Page 158. . 125a 28. 30.79. 6. 2. 5. 2. 2.73.17 (ft) (c) 2.34F. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 1^.75. f. 3. 1.5 (ft) 3. 19.79. 27 27 81. 11. 8mW. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. .. 2ft4 Page 168. 3. (e) 3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. jgiooyiio 17. 22. 8. 2. 1. 2. 3 . 3. 1.5. Page 164. 12. 81 ". m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .3. Inconsistent.83.. 3.4. 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. .
10. 15.f 1 m 9 16. 17. 10.1. + + ?V 22. 14.x ). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 35. 7. . 119. 1. 2. 3.94. 3. 11. (3a. +35. a. rt .i c 6 15. + i)). 98. 763. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 20. 23. 8 /. 3M. (1 (x2y). a. 2. 978.r 2 + 6jt). 1. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.5. 5. AN S WE no . 64. 4. 247. 4. 40. 1 1 ?>). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 4 8 2 . 10*. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 5. 00. 12. 18. 6. 99. ? : 1 . 5. 6. 11.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .10 a~ + 5 a .5). . 3. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 2.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 1. 8. 10 x G a 4 . ( Page 174. Page 176. (x' l). (48 + 6. 20. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 16. 2 2 4. 34. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 1247. 180 . . Page 170. 6. 5. 16. 15. 14. 16. 8. 12. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. + y). 21. 71. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 36. + 29. (ly). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 57. 9.3 ab + 2 2 ). 13. ??i ?i . 3. 2. /> 4 ). (ab + c). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5 5 8. 3 2 ^. 9. m 13. 6 (\x 3. 26. 90.83. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . c 10 6 :l 20. 22. 9. (l + x + . Page 171. 0.a b 22. 13. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.1. 11. ?7i 1 1 3 1. . 24. 5. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). a: l . 15. 17. I 8x2). . 27.^). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 76. 25 19.6. 10. 9. (a + 2 +l). fe *?>' ?> fi .037. 19. (a 2. 30. 15. 72. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).y2 ). 16 6 w . (a + y+l). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). . 19.7 /)). 4. 84. + l). 18. 30. 21. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 4. + (win . 9. (4a2 9& 2 13. 70. . ? . a 2 .  x.2). 2 12. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 237. ). 2. 2 49 . 2(> + ( 2 7>). (2 a + ft). +3 + 5 4. 3 6 23. Page 172. 300. 14. 18. 28. 25. 11. 101. . 90. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. ^i. 6. 7. 31. Zll. 8.XV111 7. 8. 6. 20. 7. 2038. 309. r> 4 : 1 .+3^ + 4. 1.  +X '. 12. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 8. 14. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). a ). 33. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . + Z). (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).GO a c + 23. (x + y\ 90. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 32. 9. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. (Gx + (i + 2a. 20.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 420. . GOO 2 c 2 . 2 2 7. 3 2 8 3 12. 17.
ii :J _7. 6V'2J. . 21 in.1. 3. 5. . .469.522 38. Page 180. 3. 6 f !.ANS WERS 22.935.  5.  f. / 11. 2. 4 W**. 29. 7. 36 in. f ^ is.  2. 12. JJI.6.. 2 sec. 5. 15. V17. 39 in. 2.925 ft. 16n. 9. ft. f . Af^. 42. 3. *. 1. ft. V2. 37.i. 9 15 ft. 3. 15 1 10. 23. 3. 1. 7. 6J. 21 28 ft. 9. 7.4. \/3. . ^^7m. 20. 3. 5. 6. 13. 5083. >i 27. 3. f 3. 7}. 8. 1.6. 29. 25 J. 5.1. 14. . (afl). ft. i. 47. 39. 6. 9. 12. _ iVaft. 14. 5. 26. 18. If ^. 15.18. 4. or 3. ZLlAiK 19. 20. . 14. 21.. xix 26. l~8.690. 1&. 2. 31.  1. 7. i ^. 44.6. 17. . 32.236. 4. 4J.. v 17. 11. 6.916 yds. . 7.*. 24. 34.Sn. (6) Vl4 3. ^. V35 1.. 1. or 5. 9. 10. 12. 10. 5. 16. 3. 4. . 17. Page 185. J. " ^_ 22. 4. Page 184. 35. 5. 36. 28 in.237. 7563. 7.. 28.?. /. 3. 5. 27.  43. 6yds. 21. 4 a.798 yds. m. 7. w. 14. 5.13.243. (< + ?>). 4. vYb. 3. 7 in. 30.005. . V. 4.V 8j.. 3. Page 183. 16. 2.367. a + 61. 2] see. 50. 19. 4. 2. f. 13. 13. 6.w 18. ^. 11.4. 1. V2. 8. 12. a. 19. 13. 8. 30. >TT 26. 5. 8. 25. 35. 33. 5. 10. 1 f Vl3. 6. 2.}. 6. 2. 10. V J l. 2.5. 18. 5f. 2.. 37. 8. 10.. 7.5.  14. 31. 1.60. 40. * 1. 4. 20. 16. 7 45. 8.4. f. 10. . 1. 13. 10. 11. vV'TA 24. {. 1 38. . 15. 4. 6. f f V. 10. 46. 23. 15. 12. 48. 16. 39. 5. 1. 3. 5. 6V21. 3. 33. 21. 11. 4. 28. 4 n. Page 177.. 6561.a. 2. 40. 10. 7. 4 TT M 28. 9. m. }. > w ft. 1. 4. 15. 12.. () 2. 32.6. 9.  3. 17. 49. 24. 9. 12. 4. 3J. 29. 36. 2. 3. 5.6.  f. 7. 12. 4. 7. 23. 9. 270 sq. 1. 22.742 in. 11. 14. 2.645. 1 7. 27. 25. Page 181. 6. 41. 34. 21yds. 1. ~ V^3. Page 179. 2.
3. 30. 2.. 8.02. H.4. 0. 53.3. 31. 0. 8. 5. 20 eggs.62. 1. 13. 29. 3. 1_^L ft 14. 9. 10. 11.23. . 2. Real. 3. 64c. 64. 2 . 26. . 33.'. rational. 0. 2.  13.  5. AB = 3. 5. . 4. 28. . 2./hr. If.Oa. 1 3. 3. a + 1. unequal. 28. VV11. 2. i. 2. 1. Real. unequal. 1.  Page 194. 48. s 11. 0. 1. 9. 45.  2. ANSWERS 22.2.12. 1. Real.  24. . 2 V3 in. . 2 ft. 19 in. irrational. . 12. 8 or 12 mi. 0. 22.10. 1. 0. V^l. 4. 3.37.4. 23. 15. 42. 3. f.a. 2. 15.7. . Page 188. 0.2. 14. 0. 2. 10 mi.  1. unequal. 7. 4./hr. 10 mi. 12. .  1. 0. 70 ft. 5.48. 2. 2. 1. 18. 9. Page 190.. 10. 3.3.  2. Real. 120 ft. 2. 4. 16. 10. 3. 0.74. 1 . i . 3if. 55.4. r* i. 35. Imaginary. f 6 52 a. 19. 16. orf. 8\/2 17. 11. 2.5 x + 6 = 0. 4. a. 1. 19.17. equal. 2. 17.3. 1. 1. 1. $30 or $70.l. 15. 8. 3. 46. 22. 24. V^l. 1. 3. 6. 37. 3. 6. 0. . 39. 36. 1. 2. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 56. 3.XX Page 186. 6.  9x <). Real.2.1. rational. .* 2. 27. 50. 6. 27.4. Real. equal. *'' 12. 1. 20 nii. 57. 24. Real. 6. 1. 25. 3. 9. 3. rational. rational. 2. 47. Page 189. 2.  1. V2. . 35.0*8. f.  i.48 3. + 11 x. 6. 0. 2. 28. 6. 23.23. 14.1. 26./hr. Imaginary. Page 187. unequal. 25. 3. . V^~2. 3. x2 + B . a8 . unequal. 26. 3. V2. 40. = 0.  5. 15 ft. '  f 5. Page 191. t is. 10 or 19. 4 da. unequal. 6. 0. x 14. 26. unequal. 12. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. _ 19.. $ 120. Real.. 41. V ~ 16 4 2. 3.70. 5 ft..2. #<7=3.2. 2. a.2.7. (5 10.1. 6V64. 3. v^^fcT"^. . in. $80.a. . 4. 3. 3. 10 in. 4. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  6. V7. 12. 18. 0. 6. 34. ft. 7. 16. 3. 58.  1. jr .2. Page 192. 4. . a + 6. 5. 1. 20. 25. 4. 52. 1.59. 1). unequal. ./hr. x* 51. 7. U. . ' 1. 6^2 in. 12. . 49. 13.2. 4.4.a 3 a. 0. 44.  1. 23. 7.. 27.6.7. 1. 7.2.$40 or $60. 18. . 1. unequal. 2. Imaginary. 32. 7.6 = 0. equal. 7. . rational. x*4x=0.2. 0.5. 2. 21. 3. . 8. 2. 43.5^. 25.2 x2 . 2. 38. 1.]. 20. AB = 204 ft. 21. 7. 20. 6. Imaginary. 2. 24. 21.41. 5. %. irrational.12 = 0.
ar 1 . Page 199. 55. 2V a. 37. 13. 0. 4. 21. 3. 3. 33. $7. 1. fx'^z'l 23. 2.  5. 5. 57. 17. 2. 16. vm. \/r\ 11. \. I. 43. 8. 38. . 59. 24. 49. 22.  a'2 . 14. . 27. 1V1. 9. 9. 41. m. 1. 15. 28. 4. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 49. 15. 8. 5. 15. 40. v/3. 26. . i. x. 29. J. 21. 1. 47. 3. 1. 29. 19. 56. &. Page 197. 60. 5. 31. 16. 2. 58. 25..^7. JV37. 243. 20. wA 46. aW\ 40. 10. 1.  f. Jb \.32. 7. 24. \/3. 29. x/25. r. 2. 4. 2 L ( V. m'. 25. 21. xxi 15. 18. 16. 6. 54.17. \ . 44. r*. J. 42. 4. 47. 0.//^. 8." 17. 8. 9. J. 4. 11. 20. 49. 1. . 125. 8. 13. 33. y. vV. 3. 16. 17. 27. ifa. 19. 36. 0. 32.1 5 15. 52. l  5 12. 4. 1 39. 2. 31. 48. jV 10. 53. Vr. 30 a.  J j. 10. 30. 10. 17. 2. 3. 13. 5\/5. . 5. \a\ \/^. 33. \. 12.2.ANtiWEUS rational. 3. 7 . 1. a 18 . v. 24. 84.  48. J. 18. 3. 7. : . 45. 25. (m 26. 14. 3. 18.  f . 4. . . 20. 23. 14. 5. 1. V^ 34. 9.6. 12*2 61. \/. . J 3. . 3 4 11. 8. 3. . 23. 3. Page 200. ^49. 3. 1. 20. x$. 49. 3. n\/* Page202. 6. 19. 30. 2. 7. v'frc 18. 9. 2. p. 39. v'frW. 51. 13. 28. a. 8. 6  AAf. Page 201. 2. 50. ). v^T4 m. 1. z + 22. 22. *V. 5. 50. 8. 46. 10. 'J. 9. 32. 11. ? . _! V3. 1. 4. 35. 12. 2. 7V7. Page 196. ^Sf 3 38. 2. y . 14. 19.
a 3.  a Vft 2 121 b. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).yl : . 32.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. x 25. 30. 28. 40.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. (o* 2. 28. 10. 19. V. . 3V5. + 2 ar 1 ). 16. 62V(J. + 2 Vzy + y 1.'\ 14.f. ?tV?w. 18. . ^88". 3^ + 2). + Vic + 25. V80. 8. 1 2 or 1 ?. 26. 33.  2 3:r. 11V3. 03r* 7. . 27. JIV6. 34. 41. 19. a^ + 2^+1. 2v (T 2aVf.707.rV:r. 17. 1) 3V3. yV35. 9. / V3. 17.r.648. m* n*. 20&V6. + + ft. 6. 3^2. x y. x%  3 ^+ 1. + 2). 50.. 20. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. y. 13. 32.632. T. 13. 16. 40. (a 27. 5. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 8. 101 1. a2 4. r c . 9. abVab. 37. 3 42. 2. 20. ).).3 + 40 3 . ^: V2c. . Va 2 "ft. 12. 2.692. + 2 V22. 3. 23. v^. 45. x. 13 35. 2 a?>V2 a. 2>X2. . 2. 4. 3 4\/2. 2 '"V5. 9 . 10. 21. k/2.2 18.x^y* + y%. 24. 3 a~ 3 (x (. ^7 \AOx. 11. 4aV^J 16. 34 r 6. Vr 8. 29. 49. 135V6. 10. x^ . 2. 25. 11. 31. . 5 22. 2. 4. y (a + ft) V2. 7. Page 207. 8V/) 15. 195V3. 1. 15.577. . Vz2 ?/ 2 44. V63. 3 \ 39. 13 a. v'TM. r 17  Page 204. 26. v/^r 5  A/^~. + 1. (x' (l 1+x). 8a6V5. x 7  34. 7. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3. 31. V. 48. 39. 3V^T. 30. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 2\/7. 3. 24. 2 x* 15. 2. 5 ( .Vxy 35. 21. 6. a 4 +* + !.XXii ANSWERS 1.2 VlO. 38. 22. 3 x^y 33. V 5 47. 36. + . 29. 37. . x + 5 x3 + 0. V2 + 4 V22. ftV 46. Page 208. l 5. 43. Page 203. 51. 9. 5.
6x2?/. v"3. 14. b.  3. 19. 38. ^ 3 b 5 24. v^O. 1. "^8000. 21. 3. 2 \/2. / \/w/t 4 13. V5. \V3. . 16. . 8V2. 7. Page 211. 17. W). 32. v7^. 23. 39. 51. 3. 9.J Page 212. 7. a^\/a7>. 53. v 25^4714 V2"a. 3 V15  47. \/8. "v/wi ??. x/4. x/27. V3"m. 31. 25. 8. m ?i2Vm/t. x/125. . 14. 4 >/3. v/lO. 34. Page 214. v^4. xx 1. 13. 3\/15  6. 3. . 22. 12. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . \/128. : ^32. V3. rtv/5. 24. 5 \/2. 27. 13\/3. VT5. 32m27n. 2\/7. VJla. 6. 9. 38. 32. V5. 48. 52. 21. 5. 3 Vl5 30. Vn. 74\/Jl 120 46. V2. 2yV2?/. v/9. 11. 6+2V5. v^a. aVa. Vtf +3+ 33. 6aV2\^. 0. 25. 5V2. w?i. \/abc*. ab 4. x/3. . 16. ^27. fl^Vac. 36. 17. x/w^ 8. 37. 5V2. . 8. ^\/3. 11. 15. 0. 40. V8. 34. ^v 7 15. x/8L v/27. 7. 29. 41. D 45. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * .30 2. 18. \/2. v/8. 8  \/15. 10V(). 1. Page 210. 13. 2. 9 VlO + 4. 4\/5. 28.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 1V5. 10. 5v/2. % 29. 36. + VlO  v y (5. 19. 3 V2. v"5. 27. 2 V'3. Vat. 4. 46. V3. v^30. 6. 24. 21 23. 14. 18. 8v2T 12. 4VO.r v/^ v^fr*. 12. 6V2. 44. v^lf. 42. 2 28. 31. 37. 49.. 2. 5. 2. .T*. Page 216. 30. v^f. 5. 17. 2 1. 23. 35. 26. \/a6c. \^r^bVabc. \/04a. 39. 2. 10. 14c 4 V5. x/8l. 50. ^9. 30 Vl4. 6 2\/0. 3\/wi. 40. 9. 8V73\/IO. 1. 4 a*. a2  b. 16. 35. V/. '. x/8. 7\/(l 7VTO. 26. Vdbc. Page 213. \XOfl6Vi5. \^6. 11. 18. 15. a\/5c. 2. + 20. V2. v/i). 3\/2. 3. 2 ate. v/l2. 10. 3. vT). 6. 20. 22. 6. \^6. 43. 33. r)\/(l Vrtr. 3v^2. 6. 4.
8. 8. 6. 25. 25.6.  13. 5. 3. 3. 30. 15. 4. ^.601. 5. 224. 12.1805. 10.  f.81. 9. 15. 29. . p 6 13. (VaT^v a).3535. 20.6 V3. 23. 29. 1.7071. 19. 5. 19. 9. V. (2f V"5). (3+ v/2). 21 ' Vob 26. 17. 512. 2. 17. 64. 2. \. 10. 37. 16. 3.\/TO). (\/3f 1). 11.. V^TTfc. 4. 3. V3. 1. 26. 8. 1. j. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 11. 5. Page 223. . 16. 6. m f. 20.^ (\/22 4. 8. . 5. 25. 2. 31. . . 4. 18. 4. 18. 7 Page221. 2. 4V3 + 6. . 7. 2x^2^. K>/0 + \/2). 14. 22. 5. 27. Page 219. 27. 19. 1. 4. 0. 8.13. 23.732. 16. 81. 16. 2V3. V3.7083. 6. V5. 13.464. (V6 + 2V2). 16.1. 21. f. x 20. 2. 32.5. 14. 4. 1. 21. (V5f 5. 9. 2. 5. 216.  . 5. 2 . Page 218. !^ 6 4. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 18. V3. 30. 23. n*. 9. 18. 2. ^(VlO\/2). 4. 17. 9 mn. 125. 4.732. 6 V.625 10.V3). (2V2). 1. V2. 23. 9. 4. 12. 6. 20. nVTl. 20. 2!5_. 5. . 15. V35. 8.4142. 35. 5 + 2 vU 17. 3. (VllV2). 7. Va. 7. 81. ~ Vac _c 0. 16. 17. \/3). 14. 24. 27.389. (V51). A . 0. xy 2. .w 6. 15. Page 225. 7. 15. 19. _^JflJ?. 2V3.5530. 16. J. . 7 f 5 4. 12. 3. (Vf + (4 V2).2. 24. 10. 7. 12. 24. Va. 4. 21. i(Vf Vft). 4 14. 5 V65. j 15. 16. 3V23.3. 3(7+3V5). 5 f. 25. Page 28. 1. 1. 11. 11. V6c. 7. 10. 6.2.9.1547. 26. 2ajV2*. 28. 24. {. 100. 1. 14. Page220. fV2. (V8 + V2. (2Vll). ANSWERS 8. 10. 13. 7. 9. 9. 12. Vf6fVtf. 6 (V2 + 1). 9. V3 . 4.  2. 22. 36. 8. 10.64. ^\/2. 4. 25. + 5V2. . 11. 13.0606. 4. 1. +3 V2). (V21). . (\/5V2). (2.XXIV 7. ^r. (a 1. Page217. 2V2. 10. 34. * 3. 12.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 8. 11. i^Lzi. 1. Page 226.4722. ' 22 i . 8 V3V2. 3. 25. 4.3. 9. 23. 22. ^. 7. 4. 18.2828. + 6) 2 . J. 19. \/57t. 33. 25.
3. 5. 3. 4. 4.4.8a 18. 6. 4. J. 5. 7. 3. 2.  3. 1. 25. 10. 2. 13. .4). 13.1. 3 . 8. 17.r . 19. 4 . a .5. 12. 100. 4. 2. 4. 1. 18. 7. (a. 15. f . . 1.Y. (a 4. 23. 1.3. 14. 11. J 24. 2. 1. 4. 5. . 25. J. 10. 5. 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 1 6. t/ 23. (B43). 5.  5. 12 24 y . . 24.  1. 5. 2. 10. 4 4. 4 20. . 2. b .4. 2. 21.2. 2 . 7. 5. 30. 19. (&y2a#H4). 3. (pl)(p3)(p6). ' J. . 1 . 2 <? 4a2 .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 1 (?> x/^3. 5. 19. 14. 11. 7. 21. 1. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). (4 mn . V3. 1. 8. 30 30. 26. a  . 0. 4. 16. 20. (w . 4.  J. 20. 30 . 5. 0.  3. . 3. 3. . 30. 13. 1 .10. 56l). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). . 87 . 0. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 4. 1 . (xy + 5) (x*y* . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).3 2. 8. 6. 13. 0. 28. 8 6 & 0. . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). .2)(* . 22.1. 3. 2. 3. 1.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 4. (m 4 + l)(ro. 6. 2. 1 .  4. 1. 0.3. 2. 3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1. . 2 . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 2.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 24. 0. (a + 2) (a Page 229. . 7. 3.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 4.l)(a3)(a . 10.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 2 . 1. 18. . 2.2.. 2. 6. . ( 16.l)(m .ANSWERS Page 228. 2. (a+&)( 2 14. 9. 3 9. 1. 4. 73. (+!)( 2) 10. . . 10. 0. P. 3.nl^EI. 6. 12. J Page 235. 3. 50. 4.  f . 3 . 3. . 2. 2.22.^a. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. y.3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1. 3. (a. 4. (rt. l. 4 1. 3. 2. 3. 1.  3.2)(m. 13. 6. . 4. 6. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 11.w 4 + 1).12. 4. 2 . 3. 2. 7.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 1. 3. 12. .3. 2. 3. 9. 7.0. 73. XXV 4. 3. 1. 1. 2. 3. 0. 2 6. (r. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). (8. 2 6. Page 233. & + 6 2 ). 6 2 2a + 2). 2 &. 7.3. 10. 11. 5. a: :} . 4. . 1 . qpl. . 5. 11. 2 > 1. a(. 12. 17. 8.  16). 25. 12. 5.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). =A^Z3. 9. 3 5. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2.  2. 4. 2. 2. //.  1.3). 5.  . 22.7. 16. (2 a. o. 3. Page 234. 25. 11. 2. 2. 2. 14.5 xy + 25) 22. (pl)(p2)(p2). . 3 . \/0. 4 . 5. 1 3. 2 V^ . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). f>. (63)(6' t 18. 8. 8.3. 2. 3. 2. Page 236. 20. 1.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).2. 15. 4. (a . 17. 15. 3.4. ~ f7.
. .2. Page 247. . in. 15. 3 . 1. 4. 69. }. 40.4. 1 2.. 3. 3 4. c. 18.3. 3. 0.18. 1. 16. 7. j. 16. 30. 1.3 . 8. Page 243. 14. 4. 7. 1. 5. in. 4. 2 . Page 238.  1. Indeterminate. 3V5. +  n. . 15. in. 84. 5. 24. 4 34. x 4. 2. 10.0. 4. 40 in. 2 ft. . 1. 2. GO . 25. 1 . 5 . oo. 3. 11. 40 1} 9 3 ft. . 13. (a) 5.. 2. 3. 13. . m27. and _ 4. f. 8 3. 2. 17. _ 7. 5. 10. 9. 37. 4. 4. 31. 2. 6. f*. 288. i. 6. 2. 9. . 50. 12. 1. 3. Exercise 114. 2. . 3.. m28. . . 2 . 36. (/>) "_. 15. 2 26. 2 2. . 2. 18. 4. 3 3. 2. 15. n. 9. 8.. . 9. 8. 78. 28yd. . J.200. $. 3. (&) 2. 48. Indeterminate. 12. 6. 35. 30 13. 14. 1. 2. 3.. 2 1. 9. 1.6.0. 1. 12. V7. $46. 24. $. 5050. _ 13 (0 6. 17. 2 16. . . 35^ 5. 5.30. 17. 3. 3 2. 1. Page 248. 3. 2. 3 . 22. 1. 7.4.1. ( 3.4. 21 30. 11. 2. ANSWERS 2. no co . 14. 26. co . 900. 4. J. 2. Page 244. 45yd. 38. 7. 4.3. 4 . 17. 3. 1. . 7. 3. 6. 4. in. 512. 1 . 8. 3. f>. 14. 5. 37. 3. $VO. 1 . 12. 7. 10. 400.. 1. 14. 2 Y> V . 8. oo . 4. 20. . . Page 241. 1. 2. 16. 2. 3. 2. 1. 3 cm. 3. 5. 12ft. 5. 35 ft.136. 17. 41. . 1.3. _ 5. 3. ft. 2>/3. in. 21. 6. 5. ^~2. 20 in. 29. Page 240.3.xxvi Page 237. \. 12 d. 3. 1.13. 7f solution. 19.5.  11. 39. 1J. 3. Page 239. 50. 4. 2n. 2.3. 1. 4. . 3.  2 . tn 2. . ri*. 5. 512. 5.020. 12 ft. 8ft. ft. . 11. . 1 . 3. Page 245. 10. . 12. 1. 2. 9. i j. 23. 1. 37. 55. 3. 2. 0. . ft. 8. 4. i'ljVU. 5.. n . Exercise 113. (>. 4. . 0. . 5 cm. 5. 1. 21. . 4. . ^ }. 3 .1. 1. 125 125. 11. 15. 5. 8. 15. 4.6. 1 . 7 3. 5. 1. 1. 4. 40 25 in. 14. 11. 8.  . 1. '>. 4. 5 4. 15. 32. 23.5. . 4. 20 7. 2. \/6.. 1. 2V7. 5. 4 8. 3.. jj. 3. 3. 4. 5. 2 10. } . ' j. 1. 22. 2 . . 17. 18. J. 30. . 2. 5. 2. 5. . 19.e. 11. 1. 33. . 12. 3.3. oo . 2.1. 8 . i i i . 1. (a) $3400. 35 a.3. 31. 4. 12 1. 7. 1. = QO 6. V3~. m + n.4. . 1.. 14. 1. 13.y. 201. _ 10. J. 20. 4 6.
Ja. 2. and 1. in. 10. 26. 8. 20. 1JH. 343. 44.120. ~v 9. 6.<2 4. 3. REVIEW EXERCISE . 11. 19. 1. 1 7 4. 04.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 5. 45. .210. 1. c. 7. 7. 22.r* 4 70 .v Page 253. \ w 4 . 5. f y 8 + z* .ANSWERS Page 250.5y 4 . 10 14. 2. 19. 405. 708. 4.12 x*y 16. 7. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 3. 10. 18. 81.419. 70. 410. 53. } $ 50. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 12. 8.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .r x>/ 7 3. 1. 12.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. (). 20. 100. 15.r 4. r 5 4. 10. 4. . 105. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 1 14. 13.1.4. . 120 aW. 1820. 0. 1.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 5. 0. 27. 5. . 22. 8. i 10.470. .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.870 m*n*. 2. 5. 15. 12. a. 5. B . . 0. 05. 18. 5 13. 8. 11.6 .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. x4 . 4. 6. . 280 53.700. 5. 13. Jj? 45. 8. 2. JSg. 18. 4950 M 2 b y *. 9. 0. 2. 192. 304. 1. 32. 20.384. 12. 16.13. 4. 6. sq. 21. 2. 3. x + Vy. 4. 343. 2. 0. 18. Page 258. 15. 4. ~ an . 3. 3. 5. 2. 1. <. 4. 21. 3. 16.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6.  101. A. 17. 23.192. 70. 8. 4. xxvii 1. 125. 1. . 14. .5 x. 4. 2i* 7f. 12. ?/i 6 x llj . 3. 6i. 27. ' 1.  17. 3. **+. 7. d. 0. 7. 5. . 15.2 9.7 10. 2. 6. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 16. 1.680.8. 10. 0. 17. 005. . 45 Page 257. 4. 35. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 8. 327. 19. 70. 9. 11. 5. 220 .x' 10 .0. 8 4x' 2 . />*. 12.504.170.53. 75. 6. 0. 13. .  20 flW.2 45 a 8 /). f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 3. 1. G. 43. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . . 4. J 2 //2 25. Page 254. 910. 3. 2. . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . r r j.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 35.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 8.6.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .5. 10. 6. Page 259. 12. 4. 27. 8. 55. 9. 16.^ ?>i 2412x4. 2. x r 4.920. 04. 8J. . 7. 4. 16. 1. 495. 125. 6. 0. 4. 29. 1. 128. ^a 8. 9. 28. 6. 17. 8 1.4 &z x>&. 4. 15. 50. 2. 7 x4 17. 3. I. 1000 aW. 7. w9  8. 12. 3. .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. '23. 9. vy. 5. 4 0. 9. Y11. 27. 2. 16 11. 16. 16.3 ays. 8 . 10. 4. 4. 48. 8. 45. 3. 6.5. Page 252. 7. 25. &' 14. a4 4 14.
6a6c. 62.9 b. 16t/.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 46. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 3 36 b c . I 57. 114. 5x + 2y~z. x' 79. t 81. 52. 10 a 12 b. 80. 2 30 .  4 a3 85. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. x 8 + x 4 68.a.6 am b\ 129. 243x4729.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. ^ .5. 3 a . 28. 131. 4 15 x 5 . .3 a 2 '6 w 4.a' 'ft 4. . 109. y 4 z* 0.c. .  + 3 x2 . Page 260. 49. 63. ft /> 78.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .c. 2 . . 39.a 2 x 2a . 3~ n 4. 8 . 120. 127.3 103. 91. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .15 4 62 x  72.4. 40. 4 69.. ft n . 72. .^a . ?/ 3. 7 + 3 xf 2. 6 c 47. 132. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 107. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 6 a2 97. !! 71. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 102. 93.{ 54. 4. + 3 a?. 82. 76.3 y. 2 a. az 4.2 x 4. . 26. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .3 aftc. m " + n + P3c . .5 3n 4. 29.41.x4 + y'2 z 4. 104.c 3 4.ft). 110. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. a' 111.xxviii ANSWERS 19.6 b. x8 x2 55.2. . 5 42.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 4 115. . .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 3a~2c.rty x2 4 123.  12 a. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 4ft y3. 0.ac 44 aft.2 x^.3 a'ft. 70.3 b . 124. x . x } 4. . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 16.  e +/. a2 2 aft 2 2. 27.1. 23. x2 a2 1 . 96. () 2 x 33. . 1 .1. . 9 2w 128. 0. 94. ?/ . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 5 4 4. 22. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.7. . x 8  a8 . +^ + ft W. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 105. 2 2/' .a'2 c. 14 x . 25. (a + ft)" 98. _55_7c 48. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 4 65. 2 x2 4. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.4.  3 x2 . 64. 4 Page 264.4.4 x 2 .a*ft 2 126. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . . 4 2 . 35. ?> .9 x . 1 + 4 xy. x2 471x4. 61. + a 4. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.2 c . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 . 122. 3 a 44. 24. 125. 50. as 20. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. x2 2 .2. 99. x 4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. . 8x3 8x. 86. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.y*. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. a J .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 3 a 5 a 5.18 ?/ 5x4. 38. 2 x'V2 90. a* 4. 4. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . x4 f + 23 .  . 3 c . . 4 . f5+7. 31. x 3 41. + z.4.7 x   15. 32.x.a6 2 4.1w 77. &p 84. 12 a/. x' . . a4 x.x24 73. .4 ac. 2 53.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. c3 4 58. xyxzyz. 1 a"* 4 an . df. 118. 13 + 2 s.18 x?/0. 5x 2 2x43.1. ft2ft 4 4l. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.1. 12 x.5x4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 133. 2 . 30.3 x 2 + 3 x .2.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. a 3m 4. 100. 36. 9x.5 b + c . a~b 89. 2 113. . 21. a* a 8 a aftc.4 2 4 c2 42 . 4 ! . . x* . 1 121. 4 fee 4. 66. 0. a 4 . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .1 4 jry 4 x . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .4 x?/2 3 4. 2 x2 108. . 43. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x 3 4. 130.4 x y 87. . 2 q.x 51.3 . 10 4. Page 263. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 88. 1 x 45.2 xy + 4 y2 106. . 3a'2 Page 261. /> 4 83.fee 2 4.105. 37.x 2 4. x 2 . * 60.
4. (x + 6)(x6). C3 y _l)(.r . 40 yr. . 180. x(x + 6) 213.y)(jc + 7 y). xxix 139. 6). 183. 137. . (/ 246. fc'2a+62c). + 2) + 9a. 1. 150. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 235.y)(z . 18. 237. ( jc // a 2 (a1).l)(y + 1). 216. a(a. 206. (2a + l)(a . (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 208. Page 266. p. (x + 2)(x . 184. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).4xl). 166. 147 mi.m)(x + a). 154. 10). + 3) (x f f>) . 238. (x^ + x1) 234. .1). p. (7 c 2 ). 193. 161.y + 3)(r (. 157. 232. 185. 217. + y. 210. 201. 181.l)(a 2 +3). 3. HI. + 3). 2(x8)(x3). 224. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 10 ft. 6./_4). 3. m.. 195. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (a} 59. 199. 2 xy(3 x . x(x f 3)(x+ 2). Or (a + 2)0el). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 218. 164. 191. 19.3 y)(a . . 174. aft. 2 2 (a. (y _ ft)(y 4. 222. 12 yr. 12 yr. 148. 6. 171. Page 265. (y_24)(y5).2). 2. 189. 144. 168. 2^. 226. 2 (4 x . 236.r + 4). G7. (y 7f))(y 196. 172. ( + 2y)(2x3y). Page 267. + 7)(rt4). 142.6) (2 x + 1). 159. (.2) (3 x . 15  a. (5 x .  1. 12. (3x  . (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. ft. 211. (r7y)(ai. 212. 241.9)(xf 2). 190. 10 in. 153.2ac + 229. (233). k. 136. Iff 145.. 12 6 panes. (x  42 yr.1(5) 200. 160.6)(4 + 6). 147. 230. 175. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 1. 182. 220. 1. a. 20. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 179. 240. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 1. 2.2.3) (2/3y). (y7)(y + 188. 140. 30 yr. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 169. 15.y). (?/+l)(yl). ?.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 152. 36ft. r>x 2 (4x. 244. 187. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 4.y) (\r3y).y2 ).2 )(x+y) 228.3 y). 23 18. . (ab + 8) ( 7). 207. y  y 165. 176. 1. y3. (JT y 225. (c) 160 C. 215.. (6) 40. 146. 143. 1. + 22). 218. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 15. 149. 163. 155. 22. 21. 75. 1. 233. 7.1). 214. . 10).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 170.2). 32 h. 186. 156. 20. (2 198. y. 2. (3x2?/)(2.3. 5. z(x10)(xl). 239. 12. a 2 (15. 205. 162. 202. 209.ANSWEKti 135. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 151. (y  17)(y + (>).6 . (r^x + 1).3). 231. 247. 12) (j. + 11) (a 10). 30. 48 h.I2y). 50. +)(x2 x^+2. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . y 245. (7x2//) 203. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 8(ar}(/)27). 2. (xyX^+y" )1 243. a + 2x2 ). 37 1.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 8 204.1). (a 2 + 2a6. 2. (a& 192. as 194. 158. 173. 10.l)(x8 + x2 . 30 + xyr. 1.. 219. 177. (8x + 3)(3x4). 138.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 24. 197. 3(x . . yr. 178. 167. (x 227. (x .
264. 0.  7. o. *>). 256. 263. 2 4 300. 43 '^rJ'.  3xyf x// 257.^^^^^^^^. 254. 298. > 4. 10. 266. 3). (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 268. (7 255.. x12. 7 x 265. 3. 7^T 2 .   . \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . x ?/ z 1. x .2* i^^ !^. 7. Ca&c 1)(M 253.^ ^^. a. 250. *. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. ^ 299. 269. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 301. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 306. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 2. &). a~ ' b*). 310. ^/>J. 5.4). 0. 279. 260. 3). 261.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. x 267. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 305. 249. 259. 303. 2 x  3. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.4) 1) (3 x . o(x4l). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.(x  4) (x4 304. ? 1) 302.1. 4 5. 3  262. ?^ZLiZ 308. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. + f. 295. x 283. 307. 251. 258.
* 357. 7/i ^ _ . 392. m. 329. 386. l'j.3. j 328. 20. 325. a + b + 6). 376. 3. 364. . 7. 12. 390. a) A^_. 387. " 4 378. Page 277. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 375. 398. 2 r36 384.(5 a . 2. 1. 1 i 2 ^. 1. 339. _*L'L+. 343 00 351. 334. 6a.vin a /r " 337.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 0. 383. 360. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 324. 0.!. 399. ?=. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 405.  1. 4 A. . 326. 2(q. 361.. + x 362. 0. 406. 0. ?/ + 3 332. . f.  1 356. 385. 379. 2. ab. 11. 408. .XXXI Page 272. 370. c 402. 4. 395. 382. 3. y 4 I 340. 355. 4. + 335.1. 2 ?/ 363. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. ^"" 4 s . T+^. 2 ). 400. 1. ?>*. T\. x 54 359. 393. 1. 380. a +6. + 4 & 4 \ b. 397. l . 13 391. S.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. ^ 3 // . . 377. If. 2 327. 365. A^L5L. <L 409. . 396. 4 rw.. Page 274. (a + b + c\ . 336. 1.J . 2 ab  a Page 276. 404. 333. a 2 . 366. 3. L . 6 ?/+:>. 401. ^_:r f> 331.)Cr4)__ .7. 407. 2(a i 403. 394. 389. 388. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 9^.".
. '. 418. (a) 1. (a  c). ' $260 at 0%.rz Page 279.  7. 2.488. 450.0. . 500. fj. 446. 447. 1 a /?$+&?. />c c(f be. a* 424. 7. 10. 0. 5.}. 411. . . 5J. \. 462. c 6fc 10. . 466. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 2. 426. 428. 4. 9. 444. 2. 3 . !L=4. 7. 17. 1. 63. 432. 452. 468.  f>. \ 1. 7. 6. A 5 mi . 0.  10. 3a 4 5. ^V. a 22 . 442.55. 422. a + + ft c. 458. 427. 6.  1. 10. 20 yr. 0. B 4 mi. 464. 506.7. 454. m 1 : wi. (d  6) f. i. 6. 503.m  m+ M in. 2. A $ 3500.. 478. not true. 2. 50. .7. 6. 10.  453. b 449. 477. Page 280. . 1. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 480. 482. 8. 1$. 435. . 459. 12.4. 436. 14 miles. . .. 2 a 2.46. 90. 498. 496. (&) 443. .  . 32 yr.7. *+.3. 28 yr. 53 yr. 7. 487. 457. 5. 2. 0. 423. 455. 1.. 4.2. 18. 6. 445. (d) true. 24 days. 51. c. 6. 10.7. ^. . 20. L2 a  6 . 508. 483. ISJini. 460. 1. 484.7.  2f 504. : />a. 3. 22. L (c) I.te + .  1. Page283. 5. 5. 461.. 5. 7. 17.}. 2. 425. ft 5. 0. 32. 499.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 494. 507. 456.1. 502. 493. 486. 441. 467. Page 278. (&) true. 501.489. 8. 492. 10$.  505. 481. 497.12. Page 281. 2. 8. + () 433. m. 1. 2. * . 410. 448. 10. . Page 282. 11. 3. 430. 463. & 491.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 2 438. 10. 413. 420. 476. 485. I. 439. i a b 451. 21. 4. z8 +?/ 3 431.5. 2$. 479.. ^r?i 434.  2. 6. fc. 40. 495. . 0.  2. 3. . 0. 2.2. 472. B $ 2500.3.0. 419. . 7 : . $2000 at 0%. 5. 490. 42. 8. 33. 10. . . 465. <L+ 6 (. (c) not true. 84. 4.4.vz in.  2. . 412. ISjmi. 421. 440. .  7. 40 oz. 429.
Page 285. 0000. (e) 570.78. or 8. 2 .0.15. 2(6 597. . 1$.5.14.73.4. . .24.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 603.38. f. 6435. 576. 1. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).4. J7] min. 532. 4 mi. 579. 552. 559. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .1.10. (ft) Ill Ib. f. 3. 232.5.4.   (h) 8. S82 c. 3. 553.88.12. 564. ft 584. (c) 3.75.  1. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 526. (6) 3. . 510. 1.30. 568. 3. tin. . + 12 x .8.. 1. 512. M ft c 2 ft 3465. _ 4. 3 da. 582.6 2. 7. 1. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 525.6. H.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 1. 561. 40 Ib. _^ 2754x .8. 577.4. 598. 550. 2.8.3. 567. 5. 1. 551. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.5. a+ Page 286.02.  ft*.21.54. 556. . 21*_. 14.10.53.1. 529. . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.3. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 573. y 4. 4 0. .3.51.1. 578.33. 3. 3. a f ft + c.7. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 563. <z ft 1. 115 Ib. 513.00. 560. 1. 1. (d) 537. T . f36a28x8 592. 574. 531. 1. 555. 6. 2 10. . (i) 3. If 572.  imag. 1J. per hr. 5.xj/ f xV .8 x3^.83.02.  (a) (d) 1. 2. 536.7. 1 .  2ft da. da. 1 ..4.% rr\* 585. 4* da. 565. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. imag.f 1. Page 288. 27 y* f\4 .02. . 8 mi. . 4.4. 0. 591. 2 2. tin.5. . 7^ da. Roots imaginary.1. lead. (a) 74 Ib.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .5 f. + 6 tf f 3 . 4. 2 imag. 1.. 2 1..3.6. . 514. 3.  (a) 2. 3._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.62. 569.03. .25m. 2 . 6. . 571.16.83. 1. a + ft  a  f c.. . . 2.  . 2. x8 . 1. 4. 593. 2. . 583.37. 533. 3.56 sec. 2. 31. 3.05. 599. 1.55. . ^ ft 4.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. o> .1.7. _ 3. 562. 3.24.02. 3. 4. (gr) 10 1.37. 518. xxxin 511. 1.  J(a f + 2c). 1.31. 24 da. 2. 8. .8. lead.  4.3. 2. 1 580. 4. 530. 575. . 509. f ? a f ft __ + c C).04. 1. (e) (c) 2.  2. Page 287. 24.0. 554.r8 596. 2(4 602.  557. . .03. 515. 3.6. > ^ . per hour. 5.9. 581.1.24 sec. 1.15. .20. . 4. 2$.35. 3 . + 26 + . g(rc+ 6c).3. 3f 4f.5+.31.  + + c.15.75. 2. 3.25.6. 527.78.3. 1.62. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .5. 4. 4.2.3. 516. (6) . 2 1.0.ANSWERS Page 284. . 5. 3. (/)  10 to 8. (ft) 4. 1.54. 1.04.  3. (c) 4. 528. 558. . . 1. 4.  7. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.4 x + .52. 1 600. 566.0. y% Z * 586. 1.
a ' 2 + . 629. 2. 0. 656. a + b. 607. 25. J^^. b. 653. 702. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. . + ~^'2 + a 1. 3.2f Page 290. 1m*. 616. 5 3. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 3 681. 2 / 2 4.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. V2. if 4/> 671. 5. 3. 9*. 641.  3. 635. 627. a 1J. 4 676. 2. 631. 7. 679. . V7. V"^TJ.702. 615. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2092. 669. 0. 633. 3 x2 . 650.b. 4.3..y.303.. 625. 647.  684. 4330 da. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 971. 1 2. b 664. If 658. .  13. 644. (*_ + a: 611. 4. 2 ab + a  &. 11.  a2  a (ab). 678< 682. (a3&45rj. 700.001. 630. V2. 8 6 fo . 652.b 686. ft). 698. 620. 666. 622. 655. 1010. 13. /> 4.>A 610. 696. 2&). 661. 637. If. . 632. 690. 617. 628.a~ {Z 663. . 2. 25. 703. 7003. 2 x 44 ^/. 4. 5. 5. ^. y  619. K 5 2 V2. 623. 3 a. 621. 2 a 688. 640. 6 685. 636. \. 649. . b .  4.203.  1. 634. Page 289. 642. 5.3f l 668. . 654. 3. 662. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 898.  . be ac \. ' 674.049. 0. 2. 2. 0. 646. + 2 A (i f Page 291.04. 1. 692. 6. 4 V 0. 708. l/'3. 618. ^ 1. n^l +^. fe + a. 626. .2f (5 4. 2. 7. ab 689. 1. I}'/.  4. 12.0. a 2. <T! .001. a. 608. 1 ~a . o. z  1. 645. 210. 8.3. 613. ^^ 695. 638. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .  2f r 659. .14 If 1. 009. 14. 4. 624. 78. 1 704. If . 691. .  6.f 3 V^3). 706. 2 a: 4. 683. 657. . 703. 701. 1. i. 672. 1 V5 1. ab. If f 667.XX XIV 606. If 665. 6. ^. 50.3. 651. \+ab 699.43^4. . 614. 8 f 3. V^~3).002. 2. 0. a 4.c ) 697.3. 9.25. 10. 2. 660. / V^+lO^M"^. c. 705.  ft. fta a/> ^A. 4$. . 1$ 639. 5002. ix 2 . a 673. 643. 2 a  6*. 11. If b. 648. la6 2. 677 680. . ' fe 2 ). 612. 2. 2f. 670. 1. 0. 2f.
^ 743.V/^ 741. 1 752. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 3 VlT 795. 740. 717.. v/7 / . fyaw&cu. . 737. 8.rJ w L 754. 776. 1 [ + '> J. 715. > 748. r. 725. 790 2v 3v 2. 24. a". a 2 6^. 734. 1. x i f^' . 15 shares.10. 342V3.9. 726. 2 V2 . 3V52V3. 3 720. v'll. 5. 728.V2. y  1. a db Va^T < 45da. 788.8. 7  3V5. 721. 713. 724. 32>/2. cr*lr*. 782 785. 712.9. j 742. a 2  x2 . 39. 729. . "V313. VV> L4V34. Page 294. 730. 777. 1. 3V72V3. 768. 4 104 v/2. .r+y> 759. rt3 2 ^i^.~ . 716. 763. ^ ?>.2.^.ANSWMHti Page 292. 727. i 2. 714. 733. 751. ^7xy. 749. 710. 746. 789. 767. 722. i^. 47. Page 293. 59. 792. 24V2.. ^ . 738. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. J(v'lO2V 791. 300. 796. 3V7.4 . x\y. 793. 34.4 . 753. 709. 1.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. VT14V5. 24 4 . + 6 2 tf'c. 755. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 1^ _ 760. 3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 1 I . T%. 756. 2x3^ a. 00. 17ft. 731. 5. . 13ft.12 af V^ 4 744. 794. 778. 758. 736. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 33^2. iv/Jj.r. a:* . 773. + < 735. 732. 750. 2\/53V2.11.. 8. 30\/10 764. VIO\/3. / 787. a 5 . 719.. Hi a. 769. 3^. 29\/3.257. . 1 747. 723.1 . 739. 718. 25. 3V72VO. mn. 711.
11.a 3 " 4. . ^ V}. 895. 859. 1. 891. . 851. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .3. 826. (x 2 f r . 11.XXXVI 797. a2 ^E*!. 876. 831. ( 869.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 900.4. ^VG.7). (x + 0X024.l)(x . . 2 m .a 4 + 1). 3 . 4 . 868.1) . 898. 4. 892.4) 860. 2 2 . . 6. 2. 832. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . db 7. 7. 899. 827.rae) (4 . + d)*. 896. 19. (x*y*ryz + z*). 800.1). x . 848. 882. 799.2) (x 4 2). 888. \/5. 893. 833. 843. 3.7. 5.a 2 2 ). 5. 823. 824. 4.y) 852.  + l(l^).10 ab 4. (x . 2 j 889.l)(x + 3)(2x43). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 8 09.4. 808. $. 834.1) (a 8 .l)(x + 2). 810. 17. 7. X4 1).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 835. 48. 804. (x3). 2. a* 4. 881.om 441) (a 855. m 875. 2. 5). 0.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 879.3)(x + 4). 5. (4 c 4.  1. (3 b .. 3. jV3 f 3. 3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 7. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 6+V7. 23. (2 x + 3 y} . 3. 841. 2. 7. 2 (x 4*4. . (2 4. 840. Page 297. 836. Hoots are extraneous. 822.f.2 ax 4. (a m . . 1. 1 1. 817. 872. Va 803. (a 1) (x 4. 0. J V. H. 2 854. 837. 0.7). 884. V 3. (:r 11. 6 $. (x 2 . 4. 4. 10. 2  2./>") (a'. 3. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).0. 20). 17.r4). (2x (r. 6. f. +j!>. . 5. (1 . 1. 812. 1C. 2. 858. ( 4 4. 3. 6. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 8.2w . 886. 1. 2 . 801. 2. 4 885. 830. 2 . . (. 2 806. 816. 880. a 42)(x . 4 818.3.25 ?>2). 814. 829. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 2/ 856. ^. o 828.  ' . 5. 3. ANSWERS 798. 838. 811. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). $.  tt 815. Va. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2. 2 . 4. 4. 867. (a 4 871. 13. **. 819.1. 842. 2.l)(x . 8. o. 4. 14. m = 2. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).+ m f ") (a* ). (x 845. 890. 861.. x. 825.1)(V 2 . 4. (2 a . 2 *x 807. ((' 1). 0. 2. 847.7 4 1) 846.. 4.r . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). are extraneous. (x . 25.7)(4 x. 897. 2. n =  29.5 b) 4 1).5) (x + * 853. (xl)(^~3)(. 3. . ) (a' 874.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 863. 894. 883. 813.1)(0 865. 6(a6)(o a + + &). b' 2 821.  839. Hoots . 1 . (x 4. . 887. 4. a(ry + 864. 849. 844. . a(ft)( 873. Page 296. 4. . 820. 1. \/2. 3. 3. 857. (3 862. .
. 11. Page 303. 4 6 mi. . 983. . 982. 2 1. 4. 329. ft. 2 w 914. 8. 961. 6. 4. T 6. 6 1 1. 977. 8. 12. 935. 940.0. 947. 925. 0. 927. 956. i 8. 12 in. 6. 2 ft.. f.709. ft. 8. ?/i 6. V^3). 4. 934. J(_ ft.. 2. yd.446. a. 980.615. 951. 80. 960. 40 16 in. 978. i 3. 3 .. S07. 4. . 931. 1. 108. 5. $(l 4. 28. 2. ft.. 2. Page 301. 963. 950. 4 . 902. 3. 6. . . 5. 909. w 3. =F J.. 919. . 911. %* . 2. 986. 1). . 937. . T 6. 2. 957. 28.2. 11. 10. 0. 981. 903. 908.. 958. J. 8. 2. 5. 3.. 7. 2. 985. 8 .. V5 T 2 . 73. 912. 6. tt2 19. . 66 924. 4. 480 8 sq. 8. 936. 15 946. 1 1. 3. 8128. 5.. V5 fj. 12. 905. 1 . 1 + V953. .  1. 115. 6. Page 300.  1 . 0.1 = 9. ^y. Va926. 7. 979. . 7. 943. 11. 962. 5 . .. T3. . 280.760 sq. .. dL 4.. 984. 987. . 15 16 ft. v/(ai !)(&910. r ft ' < Page 299. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 923. 6. 333. 3. 0. 8. 1 2.. 930. 1. 6.1. 1 _2 . ft. J. 3. 56. 4.. 918. i(6 in. 954. 948. 6 da. 6 a 915.01. 952. ft. 248./hr. 916.651. 1. 111. 10.744. 9 in. . 3 4 . 28. 921. 939. . 5. 8. 11. 932. 3. '3 3 in. ft. a + . 964. 944. i1" 913. 496. 942. i>. 12. 2 i ' a V. 7 or 30.I. 6 .' ifcVira^ 2 3. Page 302. 920. 2.V~~3). 906. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.. 100 rows. 938. 2. 904. 14 .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 2. . w. 4. 933. 3). 955. 4. 2 yd. 60 949.111. 4 in. Y. 917. 941. Z ^. 5l4f. 12 mi. 333. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.073. 959. 8. 4. ft.  26j. 18.1.2. ft. 922. 7. 945. . 3. 7 ft. 20 19 ft. f ft 4 . 4.
991. 1010.378 <W and 92.'^^ } ( . 1014. 1000. 1006. 1008. (6) 8(1 . 1019. 4 and 1020. 9 da.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 3003. ^f (2f3V2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 162. 12.51. 4. 1 1004. 24. Page 304. 1017. (Z>) 999. 992. 120 a.  5&7 1021.. in. 48. 996. 12. Page 305. 108. 1005. r = 2. 1(5.92. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 6 70 .378 1015. 988. 0. 2 . + 448 . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1003. () 12(2+V3). . 1013. 1007. 2(2 v/2). ^Trsq. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 0.128 I. 1009. 1012. . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 990. 1018. 1016. 997.192rt?)r 120 *. 995.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .18.870 z8 . (J. 994. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 993. 8.. 32 13 (tx 4V3.870 a 6 1011. 72. (5. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 120 i^l^. 192. X. ~ \. + v 2). 1 8 8 2. 1001. .
D. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. A examples are taken from geometry. xiv+563 pages. than by the . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. comparatively few methods are heretofore. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. etc. save Inequalities. $1. The more important subjects tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. Half leather. physics. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.25 lamo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. great many work. Ph. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. given. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. so that the Logarithms. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. HEW TOSS . 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. i2mo. xi 4 373 pages.
so that the tions. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. great many A examples are taken from geometry. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. The author grade. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.D. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. HEW YOKE . Logarithms. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. xi f 373 pages. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.25 i2mo. HatF leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. etc. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. comparatively few methods are given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. 12010. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. save Inequalities. xiv+56a pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. In Factoring. Ph. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. physics. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1.
7 he . Half leather.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. $1. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 4. Cloth. izmo. 9. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. wor. more than 1200 in number in 2.. SEVENOAK. lines. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. . i2mo. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. $1.10 L. 10. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Attention is invited to the following important features I. xii + 233 pages. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. iamo. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. under the heading Remarks". State: . aoo pages. Ph.D. NEW YORK . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. SCHULTZE. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.r and. 6. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Cloth. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.
and not from the information that it imparts. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . of these theoretical views. $1. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. 370 pages. . . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . New York City. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. 12mo. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.
$1. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Topics. Cloth. diagrams. i2mo. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. photographs. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. " This volume etc. Maps.
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