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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH.D.
Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. September. 1915. August. J. September. July.A. . 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Cushlng Co. 1916. May. IQJS January. Norwood. Published Set up and electrotyped.' February.. May. January. 8. Reprinted 1913. U.S. Mass. . 1917. 1910 . .COPYRIGHT. 1911.
giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Elementary Algebra. owing has certain distinctive features. and conse . Such a large number of methods. chief : among These which are the following 1.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory." this book. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. manufactured for this purpose. specially 2. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. etc. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. are omitted. however.
all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.g. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. may be used to supplement the other. especially problems and factoring. e. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. hence either book 4. Moreover. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. etc. as quadratic equations and graphs. Topics of practical importance. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. however. two negative numbers. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. are placed early in the course.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. In regard to some other features of the book.
and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. elementary way. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. By studying proportions during the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform." Applications taken from geometry. Moreover. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and commercial are numerous. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. such examples. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. in " geometry . an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. based upon statistical abstracts. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. is based principally upon the alge . of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. viz.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.
.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics. 1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. April. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
. .. ......... SUBTRACTION. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. Powers... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ..... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..
/^ ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .114 . Type Polynomials.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ..... Type II. ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . ... .. Type V. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type VI. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Type IV. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . . Type III. * .
. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. ... CHAPTER XIV 169 ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ....... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . Evolution of Monomials 170 ..... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . ..
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
Val \fi?. are trinomials. 12. 9. 5Vl6c. + 1]. 27. 0. is 28. 4(a 6(6 + &). since the parts are a . aVc^. d 7. V3 . 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 8. 6. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. A polynomial is an y. 2. V2a. v'Ta. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 15. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 26.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. (cfd) 4. as in arithmetic. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. e. V36". V^a6. 3. or 9 Vx." EXERCISE If a 1. + c). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 4V3~6c. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. x 9. \/c. 16. 11. c = 1. find the numerical value of: Vff. 14. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 13. 17. [6c] 3 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5.g. 6. some number is . c f d). 10. A binomial is 62 . b = 3. 7 = 2. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. a polynomial of two terms. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 2 . !^f\/03 3 ft.
4 6^9 ad. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. . + 26+3 c.810 + 150 = . 3 2 If 1.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 12. 16. 3. a2 11. 1. Otherwise operations of addition.. 2. d=Q.19 = 6. * For additional examples see page 268.390. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 5c +d 2 . a=4. 5. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 4a6fVaV2^. 3 4 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s .e. 4. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .INTRODUCTION 29.g. i. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. b = 3. EXERCISE 8*  . __ E. c=l. find the numerical value of: 9.2 + I126. 2.9. d = 0. 8. 6. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .9 aWc + f a b . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. a 2 6.30 = 270 . 5. . multiplication. 6. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 2 ). x=^. Ex. = 32 + 4527 = 50. c = 2. 14. l 13. 10. subtraction. 5=3.5 ax 50 a6cd. Ex. 52 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . (a (a f b) 7. 4 .99. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.
and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 30.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). = 3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. geometry. : 6. a = 2. if : a = 2. 6 = 6. 22. a = 4.6 . and other sciences. a a=3. . a = 3. sible to state Ex. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a =3. 27. 25. 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.c) (a . Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 7. 23. 6 = 1. 26. 37. 6. 35. Express in algebraic symbols 31. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 29. 33. 6=2. 6 = 4. 26 of the exercise. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. a. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 34. physics. 38. Six 2 .6 f c) (6 a + c). then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 2. 24. a = 4. 30. 6 = 5. 6 = 3. 28. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 5. a =4. a = 3.
12. (c) 4. Find the height of the tree. count the resistance of the atmosphere. the area of the triangle equals feet. A train in 4 hours. b 14. 14. d. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.g.) Assuming g . if v = 30 miles per hour. 15 therefore feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. if v : a. . (b) 5. and 13 inches. c. b.INTRODUCTION E. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 5 feet.e. and c 13 and 15 = = = .16 1 = 84. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. i. and 15 feet. if v . 13.16 centimeters per second.seconds. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 2. 4. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.
32 F. 2 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 4. (c) 10 feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. square units (square inches. : 8000 miles. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. $ = 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 5.14d (square units). (c) 8000 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. This number cannot be expressed exactly. the 3. .14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.14 square meters. (The number 3.). (c) 5 miles. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 5 F. meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).). If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. is H 2 units of length (inches. the area etc. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.
but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. however. . the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. or positive and negative numbers. SUBTRACTION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In algebra.CHAPTER II ADDITION. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).
c = = 5. = 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. the one third their sum.3. 12. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. d = 0. 6 6 = 3. of: 20. d = 5. 4. is 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. if : a a = 2. '. 21. 5. (17) 15 + (14). 23. subtract their absolute values and . 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 4 is 3 J. 22. + (9). of 2. is 0. + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. Thus. 10. 19. 33.16 32. c = 4. . lf(2). (_ In Exs. 18. 2326.  0. 24. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs.
\\ Add 2 a. $3000 gain.7. and $4500 gain. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.3.5. 10. 7 a. or and . 31. $1000 loss. = 22. = 13. ' 1? a 26. . = 23. 10. 6. c = 0. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 29. 34.. 7 a. 38. c=14. 60. . SUBTRACTION. 1. 27..13. }/ Add 2 a. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. d= 3. 40. : 34. 0. 25. 13.. 09.4. . 39. sets of numbers: 13. 42. are similar terms. 72. ^ ' 37. 36. : and 1. ' Find the average of the following 34. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. and 3 a. 3.7. and 3 yards. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 74. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. and 3 F. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 55. 2. 5 and 12. : 48. . & = 15. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. . 11 (Centigrade). 37. 30. 32. 6. 4 F. 3 and 25. 7 yards. . & 28. 6. and 3 a. 10. 43.ADDITION. 12. 41. $7000 gain. 4. . and 8 F. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 32.5. which are not similar. and 4. affected by the same exponents. 35. 66. $500 loss. 33.
+ 6 af . 12 2 wp2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. or a 6. 5Vm + w. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . f 4 a2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 10. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 5 a2 . 7 rap2. EXERCISE Add: 1.18 35. 12(af b) 12. Algebraic sum. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.ii. 13. Vm f. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. : 2 a2. 3a . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . in algebra it may be considered b.sign. 5l 3(af6). 12Vmfn. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term.13 rap 25 rap 2. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 9(af6). 14 . 2 . 2 a&. b a f ( 6). 2(af &). .
+ y. l^S 25. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 36. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. a a8 ZL **. 17. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 33. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. and to add each column. + / + 3 Va. 21. 2 2 2 31. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 35. 1 27. 2 7 1 26. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. ra 19. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. c 2 ^24. without finding the value of each term 34.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 30. 2/ : Add. 6 23. 32. 37. n x* 2 22. is .
c= 2. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. c = 1. NOTE.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. of that letter. 2 .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.g. 46 4z 7 c. 7 4.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 9 q 4. 4 2.8 abc .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. ft any convenient and c. 5 . e.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 6=2.o c and 4.g. .7 2 .12 a& 4. 2 Sum. f 110WS: 26 aft. . .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. s. 2 025. 2 Thus. V3. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .15 abc .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 5. to add 26 ab . to show any error. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2c. therefore the answer is correct. 3 a f 4 1) 4. and J 2 s.3 s. the erroneous answer equal 7.41 = 3. a 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. x of x.15 6c. = . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. and 2 . 4 = 7. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.20 c 5 ab 4. 3. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 3a 2? .
^2 1 e. . 16e + 17/90. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a) y ^/.2n 2 2 3 rz . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 8. and and 13. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. SUBTRACTION.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .12(a 4. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. . . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. a.12. and 1 4 a . 11. 3 2 2 3 9 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 16. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a 4 a . + a + 1.6. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 ?ft ?/z.10 Vc. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .(b + c) 1. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .1 a 4 1 0. d and / 3 ? 12. .5a^6 f 6) . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.7m . . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 7ar + 3B 5.and 6. xy3xz + yz. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2 3(c f a). 2 and 9m 48m 4. and 8 3 . and v 15. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). and 5 Vb 18. a2 2 14.7v/if. in 8 3 m n 4. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . and 12a 4 15& 20c . . e a4 /.1. 4. v/20.4:xy xz 6yz. and . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. + 50 + 62 .9(a + &) .a.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.a . 4 ajy 17. 2 ?/.Ga 43x45.15 5. a 4 a . . ?/ .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 18/+6y + d.ADDITION. 56 w. .VS 4 2 Vc. 4(a .3 mn 2 2 n8 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4 3 . 4 8 3 4 4 . 2 2 . 19. 4 Vc.8 m 2m 12.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . m 4 6.a.4 Va . . 2 2 and . a2 a.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.a 4 a 4 1.12 6 ~5 a . . d.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 2 a. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.
1/ .m 4m ?/?/ d. 6 f c 2 23.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 12 xyz. 8 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. The sum and ? 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 2fa 3 4 a +7a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .11 xy + 12. T8a. many negative units re main ? from 2. 1. is 2.. . 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.3^* 2n 2 . +d a. a 6 2 c. 1. + n*. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.9aj 2. 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 2 24. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 45a6 2 .ra + m. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 22.22 21. f 1. . s . and 25. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1. + 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. f 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. and e + 6y . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.17 + 4 ?nfy . f number may be added 3. how 1.
SUBTRACTION. . 2. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. the other number is required. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. +b 3. In subtraction. This gives by the same method. ( 6) ( = .g. ab = x. From 5 subtract + 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. and the required number the difference. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. called the minvend. 1.ADDITION. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 6 (3) = 8. and their algebraic sum is required. NOTE. Ex. In addition. Ex. From 5 subtract to . 3. two numbers are given.2. if x Ex. a. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. from What 3. 41. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . To subtract. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 7. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Or in symbols. the given number the subtrahend. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 5 is 2. Therefore any example in subtraction different .
Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. Ex.3 r*5o.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.7 a .c. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .4 a^ 4. 49. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 51. 43. 50.a 2 j. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. .6)f. 52.ADDITION. c f d. 2. 41. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. of a 4. 47.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 2 a take a & j. 54. 48. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 2y 2 . SUBTRACTION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.w>t. 42. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 55. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 56. 53. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.2. 46. From 6(af. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 6 4 a. 57. tract 4 x 3. 45. + a the 2 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 44. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. check the answer. and 3 7/ . 58.4 a*& + 6 a & .
15. 2 m 21. a + 6. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. A is n years old. a a + c. subtract # + 1. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. + 2. +a add the difference duce 13. 19. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 9. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 20. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 16. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. a 2y + z.26 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. of # 2 8. 6. 6 17.
g.b c = a a & f f. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. a+(bc) = a +b . 45. II. one occurring within the other.2 b . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. I. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Ex. changed. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. SUBTRACTION.6 b f (. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.ADDITION. the sign is understood. .a^6)]  } . tractions By using the signs of aggregation.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.c. & f c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 46.
)]. 6.) 5 . . a (a + 6). 19. 15. may be inserted according to 43. 5. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. Ex. 16. 14.[271 47. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). : x + (2yz). [36+ (a 2c]. 271 + (814 . 21.1422) J ] . 3 3 f 7.: Ex.(a + 6). + (2a 6 + c ).+ 6)f (a2 b).y (60.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. ? 11. 13. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. In the following expression inclose the second and third.7i h jp) (m ?*. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 3. 2 2 2 a(. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. (m a2 f. 2 2a. a (a + 26 c ). By removing parentheses. 6) 2. 17. 2. a f (a a . 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 9. 4. m f ft) a. 8. 18. Signs of aggregation 1.
4 y* . 7. 6 diminished . m x 2 4. ' NOTE. 4. The product The product m and n. The sum^)f m and n. )X 6. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. a\l> > c + d. 5^2 _ r . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 10. and the subtrahend the second. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. terms 5. 3. 3. y f 8 . The square of the difference of a and b.ADDITION. 7. difference of the cubes of n and m. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.1. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 9. II. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 5 a2 2. m and n. 6. first. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 2mn + 2q3t. The difference of a and 6. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.7fa. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2. . 13. 12. p + q + rs. 8.2 tf . 5. z + d. SUBTRACTION. of the cubes of m and n.
a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. b. d. (Let a and b represent the numbers.) . The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 16. 6 is equal to the square of b.
is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. let us consider the and JB. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 3. weights. 4. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 2. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads what What. therefore.
x 11. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. becomes meaningless if definition. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.32 8. (. Practical examples^ it however. Thus. NOTE.9) x 11. such as given in the preceding exercise.4)(. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. To take a number 7 times. however. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. . or plied by 3. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. ( (. 4 multiplied by 3. thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4)(4) = + 12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. the multiplier is a negative number. 9 x ( 11). 9 9. 4x(3)=12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. (5)X4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 5x(4). 48. 4 multi44444 12.
8 31. etc. (4)X(15). x= 0. 6. _2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.MULTIPLICATION 50. of Signs: TJie positive. . 4 a2 . 1. 3 a2?/2 . about fac (2)X If 6. 22. 20. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 5x3. . +5. 11. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3. _3. 2a 2 6c. 4 . 27. 6. 1. 9. 15. 16. 3 aW. Ua b 28.2 f+x 2 . (10) 4 .4. . NOTE. _2^ 3.3) (1) 7 2 . 17. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. find the numeri values of: 21.(4J). 3.7. Law Thus. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 24. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.(a&c) 2 2 . 4. b = 3. 32. (7) X (12).2f 18. (. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 10. 2. 13. . z s 11 aWcx. . 12. 7.3. 5. 14. 2a6 c . If a cal = 4a6c. (2)x9.2. 6 2. (c#) . (4)'. 8. 30. 29. x. X(5). and y = 4. 19. 8 4 . 26.a)( =+ a&. c = 25. is 6x7. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (2) 8 (. 23. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .
a 2 2 . a = 3. m*. 34. a8 a=2.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 6 = . 11. 5. .. 9 .(7). known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a= 1.m a 3  4 . 16.2 2 23 + 5 . 2(7. 6" 127 U . 2.503). 7. .257). 127  127 9 7 .(12) . + 2/). 3 3 4 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 5(711. 50(112. Ex. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.35). IB. &*) c d*. 4. This 52. 6. fl*" integers. =2 a *. 1. 2. . 100. 2 2 2 .7. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 2 3 . 5 = 2. of the factors. By 3 definition. 2(14. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. : 3a7abc. 4. . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.3). 36. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.  and 2 25 8 . B. i. 5 . 3. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . Ex. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 12 U U . 2 2 3 6 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. or 2 . a = 2. 3 2 . 6 = 1. 6 aWc x . 4. 17. 200. 13. 78 . (a6) (a5) 9. 10. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.e. 3.  2 2.<?.6 if 35. = 2. & = 3.2). 5 3 5 3 2 . 53. 14.(2.. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .
3(124342). and then adding : 1.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 28. 23(10004100420). ax /) 2 4 1 (. 17(10041042). but we shall assume it for any number.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. . 2 32. 23. multiply each by the monomial. 11(3. ) 2 33. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 6. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. Thus we have in general a(b 56.7pqt.4a#. 2. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. _4aft. 26.7 w'W (8 n^W). 27.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . . (. 3. called the distributive law. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.3 win ) . 5. 2(645410). This principle. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. If results ft. 6(10420430). 7.2 3 aft ). 24. 19. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 4. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). c(4a ftc ). 21. . 7p*q r*.f 2). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. . 22. 20. 31. (. 29. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . by first multiplying.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. /). . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 12( + 1 4 i). 2(5fl5f25).A). 34. 35 4 7(6.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 25. 35.6.
2 27. 5). 19. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.2 mn(9 mV . 17.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 26. 20.^ c + 2 .6 a6). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 28. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). f7a. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . be multiplied to give 4o.5 x 7). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 22.we b) (x law. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. By what 25.3 aftc). 11. Find the factors of 5 a 6 .5 w*V f 7 wn). 2 2 16. : expression must 24. . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .60 a& 10 aft. 12. . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 m(mhn \p).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 23.asa product. 29. 9.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 21. ~2mn(m +n p ). 7 a 6 c(. . Find the factors of 6 ary . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 30. 3 ).
2.1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Check.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. however. . Multiply 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Ex. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 59.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .3 b by a 5 b. Since errors. To multiply two polynomials. 2a3b a66 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a .4. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.
4 2). (6p (2 f 21. (8r7*)(6r39. 9. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). . . 32. (2w 19. I (mfn)(m4. QQ O7. (6a~7) 2 . 24. 5. (ajf6y)(aj 23. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 40. 20. OQ OO. (2 x* x 2 . 1). 35. 7y). (a^26) .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 10.4) (x + 1).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 22. * For additional examples see page 261. 18. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 . l)(raf 2).1 . 4. 11.4) (mnp 4. ^ 2 . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 17. 3<7). 28. (4a 2 33. 7. 29. 2. 15. 6. 31. 36). 36) I) 14.2). 2 . 25. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 13. 36.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 12)(a?^2l). 2) (3 A: 1). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (13 A. 26. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 12.2m)(l m). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (6i7n)(llJn). 16. 8. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 41. 2  37. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3. 30. a 5c)(2a6c).
Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 25. 17.25)(y+4). 6. 75 ab f 54 ft . . (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 18. 12. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 28. 7. (!)(* 5).!!)( (a + 21). + 60)(f2). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (a (a (a. 22. 8. + 2) (a f 3). (J 23. . 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (10+ (1000 (2. 25 a 2 . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). i. . 13. 24.n)(wf w). in of the two unequal terms. (ra. _3)(a _4). 26. + 5) (1000 + 4). 21. plus the product 62. 3. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 19. 9. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.2 6) (a f 6). (100 +2) (100 + 3). (*. 1) (10 + 2). (6 12) (6 f.e. 2) (1000 + 3). X 102.13).4). 10. (a 9) (a + 9). (a 102 x 103. : 23 2. 2 6) (a 3 6). 14.e. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 2 a? 29. 11. + 3) (a 7). ft 16. i. 20. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (p12)(p + ll). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 1005x1004. + 9)(m+9). 27. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (a3)(a + 2). 15.
16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. a2 2 w + 2 w . 35. III. 8. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 7 a + 10.e.30. 3. .e. 7. : 24 (a 2. + 3) 2 . 4. plus twice the product of the first and the second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 37. 6. plus the square of the second. i. (a26) 2 .e. 31. . 32. 63. 77ie square of the of the first. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. III. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 33. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. and the second. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . Ex.66 s. 2 5. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. of the second. (a2) (p a . .15. 34.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. i. second. w 2 ro . 2 (a (*5) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 9. + 6 a + 8. 49 y*. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .15. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. <J>7) J . n2 10ii+16. p 2 p. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). : ar'Sz + a 2 G. (x+3i/) 2 .
: factors of each of the following expres y?f.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 2 . ( 27. a 2 8a6+166 2 . + 5). 29. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 18. . 34. I) 2 . 14. 62 25n 2 . 22 2 . 11. 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 31. 38. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 55. . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 28. 44. . 51. 9 a2 . 49. 21. 41. 16aW25. . 23. The product of 57. 2 J ). (a 3) 2 2 2 . 15. 22. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 25 a 9. a2 9. (20 f 1) . 32. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 54. 42. (^. 41 16. n*6n+9. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 24. 17. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 99x101. 2 9a 496 2 56. 33. 104 2 37. 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . + 5)(5+a). + 3z) 2 2 . 4 53. (1000 2 . 48. (6afy 2 5) (a. (100 + 2) (100 2). 47. By actual multiplication. n 2 f4n+4. 12. 35. 46. m 2 16. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 40. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 52. 2 . 7& ) 25. 45.ll^X^+lly (100 30. ). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ).MULTIPLICATION 10. 103 36. 998x1002. (2x3yy. 991 2 2 .998 39. G> +5g)*.
(4s + y)(32y). sum of the cross products. (2a3)(a + 2). 8. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 4. . : 25 2. 7. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 14. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). The square 2 (a 4. 11. 9. (3m + 2)(ml). ) (2 of a polynomial.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 13. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 65. (5a4)(4al). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). ((5a? (10 12. plus the last terms. (100 + 3)(100 + 4).& + c) = a + tf + c . 6.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (5a64)(5a&3). 2 10. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. or The student should note minus signs. 3. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 5.
Check. Hence. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 4(* + 2)5(3). after multiplying the factors of a term.4) . n). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .(>.39. 12. 5. 4.39. Simplify (x + 6) (a .5).24 .(x . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 5. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.[a? . (xy+z)*.3) .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. + 65) .3) (x .4) .5) = (7 . 8.3)(z. 7. of z : 10. 6(a 2. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 2 2.24] . Ex.8 x + 15] .(m 2 6. + 6)( . 6~2(a + 7). 6.X2 + 2 x . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 3. 8. 4y sf n) 2 . = 10 x . 2)6. (  2 4) =  20 a. (a (.r _ 2 .(= [ Xa + 2 . and check the answers !. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 3. = . 7. 4. 13. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Find the square root 11. a. 66. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.y? + 8 .i2&c) 2 . If x = 1. 4(aj2)h3(7). (u4& + 3c'. .29. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.1 5 = 10 . 9.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. .l. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17. a I. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).DIVISION 14. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. .2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .2) (3 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 18. 16. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .e. (81 m + 1 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 19. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 51 15. 20.11 a + 9 a . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).
aW 12 a. 9& 2 . 16 . 4 b. f 13.000.0001. : the following w a 4 !. 100ry. 121a a 16 100 11. 14. r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 1. .49. 15. 10. . 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 12. 16.
the first member is 2 x + 4. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. hence it is an equation of condition. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . . (a + ft) (a b) and b. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9. x 20. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. Thus. 81. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in the equation 2 x 0. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 82. 83. . =11. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality.
86. a. 90. but 4 does not equal 5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 87. x I. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 4. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. If equals be divided by equals. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 3.b. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Transposition of terms. If equals be added to equals. 2. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 5. . 2 = 6#f7. called axioms 1. 89. the remainders are equal. the divisor equals zero. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be multiplied by equals. E. the sums are equal.2. 85. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. the products are equal.g. the quotients are equal. one member to another by changing x + a=.54 84. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A term may be transposed from its sign. A 2 a.e. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. NOTE. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be subtracted from equals. .
2 y= f . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. a? Adding 5 to each term.9 y + y2 = 22 . Uniting. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.6 y f y\ . The second member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. if a x = b. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 4x 1 + 6. 2(11 . Uniting similar terms. Check. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.8. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Dividing by Check. a= a 6fc. To solve a simple equation. x = 93. b Adding a to both + a. (4y)(6. Unite similar terms.2. x = (Axiom 3) 92. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. and the known terms to the second.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . . x = 3. 91. The first member. if 55 x members. f If y 20 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 2 x = 6. b c. Ex. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. is correct.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. The first member. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Transposing. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 3 y . Dividing both members by 2. Hence the answer. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.
3)= 9(3 7 a. 7 (6 x 16).17 + 4y = 36. 13a? 3a?.. a?. 7a? 5. =2 = 3. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 6. 4a + 5 = 29. {(x (x The The member right member left . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.56 Ex. . 3. 20. . = 7. 17 7 a. Transposing. a. = 3. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. + 22. 14y = 59(24y + 21). = 5a?+18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. : 5# = 15+2a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 9 9a? = 7 13. \x x 2^xfl. and check the answers 9. x x 1 .4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. a? a?.. 2. 21. 24. 15. 7. 4. aj * See page 264. 4y 10. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 11. 11 ?/ a? 18. Solve the following equations by transposing. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 50. 19. v23. 3 7 a. x = 18. it NOTE. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3. 12.69. etc. 247y = 68lly. 14. + 16 = 16 + 17. a.7. 16. Uniting. f Simplifying. 22. 8. 32 = 264.7a: = 394a. 17 + 5a. J. If x = 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). = 2 ?/. + 7(3 + 1) =63.
. : One part is of 70 is 25 . . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). (aj 37.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .14 = 0. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.1 0) = 0. 31. a? 28. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 39. 7) (a. + 7) (. . 25.3) + 14. 6(6a. 33.3) + .7) (7 x + 4) .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.5) = (a. 35. 30. or 70 a?.7. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.5(2 u . 41.1) (u .1) (a (a? + 3) = . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. find the other part. 29. 42.32. 5) (as (a. . . a? 43.(2 + 6) (4 . 27.3) . 38.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. is the other part. 7(7 x y 26. (6 u =5 44. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . .g. 36. .4) + 4 w . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. (a.12) (2 + 5) . + 4).4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . 2 2 * Jaj. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. e. 34.2) (M . 40. this question. Evidently 45.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. .5) + 199.
11. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 17. Divide a into two parts. 10. 9. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 7. Ex. 6. so that one part Divide a into two parts. x f y yards cost $ 100 . If 7 2. 4. 1. is a? 2 is c?. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one part equals is 10. or 12 7. smaller one 16. so that one part The difference between is s. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 15. one yard will cost 100 dollars.58 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 33 2. find the cost of one yard. 6. 13. and the smaller one parts. is b. is d. greater one is g. so that of c ? is p. 14. 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 3. EXERCISE 1. Divide 100 into two 12. Find the greater one. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. a.
is A A is # years old. How many cents has he ? 27. 33. and B's age is y years. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. ?/ 31. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the has ra dollars. 34. How many years A older than is B? old. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B has n dollars. sum If A's age is x years. 22. Find 21.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. b dimes. 19. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 26. How many cents had he left ? 28. 24. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 32. find the of their ages 6 years hence. amount each will then have. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 28. and c cents. If B gave A 6 25. Find 35. A man had a dollars. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. and spent 5 cents. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and B is y years old. numbers is x. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 20. A feet wide. 28. A dollars.
50. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A was 20 years old. . .60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. The two digits of a number are x and y. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. he walk each hour ? 39. The first pipe x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. a. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. m is the denominator. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. 48. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a 47. of m. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. of 4. 46. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. find the fraction. Find x % % of 1000. Find the number. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. % % % of 100 of x. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. Find a. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. c a b =  9. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 49. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours.
In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. etc. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 9. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 4. 80. 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 6. c. double of a is 10. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a increased much 8. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. The double as 7. 80. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . a exceeds b by c. c. 5. 2. The excess of a over b is c. of x increased by 10 equals x.
x 4 If A. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. m is x % of n. they have equal of A's. a. of 30 dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. amounts. B. #is5%of450. B's. B's age 20. x is 100 x% is of 700. 17. In 10 years the sum of A's.000. a second sum. 16. 18. . (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. (c) If each man gains $500. express in algebraic symbols : 700. and C have respectively 2 a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. B's. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. symbols B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 3 1200 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.. express in algebraic 3x : 10. pays to C $100. 14. and C's ages will be 100. a. they have equal amounts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. >. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 6 % of m.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 12. and C's age 4 a. as 17 is is above a. 50 is x % of 15. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. sum equals $20.62 10. 11.
Transposing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. but 30 =3 x years. In order to solve them. Check. 23 =30. etc. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Dividing. Find A's present age. 4 x = 80. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 2. 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. denote the unknown 96. Simplifying. . Ex. 3z40:r:40z. NOTE. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. the . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. A will Check. x+16 = 3(35). Uniting. Ex. much as 40 exceeds the number. Transposing. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x= 15. In 15 years 10. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. be 30 . be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 6 years ago he was 10 . 1. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x = 20. number of yards. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Let x = the number. Uniting. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. the required . verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Three times a certain no.
300 56. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. EXERCISE 1. How many miles per hour does it run ? . twice the number plus 7. Find the number. Find the number. Dividing. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 4. A number added number. by as much as 135 ft. Hence 40 = 46f. 3. 14. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 120. Let x 3. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find 8. 11. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. exceeds the width of the bridge. . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Six years hence a 12 years ago. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Forty years hence his present age. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *.2. 5. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 13. % of 120. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent.64 Ex. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft.
1. and B has $00. How many dol A has A to $40.000. Vermont's population increased by 180. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. two verbal statements must be given. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. statements are given directly. 65 A and B $200. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If A gains A have three times as much 16. the second one. A and B have equal amounts of money. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. B will have lars has A now? 17. and as 15. Maine's population increased by 510. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 14. F 8. x. The other verbal statement. The problem consists of two statements I. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. Ex. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. is the equation. The sum of the two numbers is 14. During the following 90 years. B How will loses $100. 97. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. . How many dollars must ? B give to 18. One number exceeds the other one by II. Find the population of Maine in 1800.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. written in algebraic symbols. times as much as A. which gives the value of 8. five If A gives B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.000.
If A gives are : A If II. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. . 2. the sum of the two numbers is 14. unknown quantity in Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Let x 3x express one many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. to Use the simpler statement.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 8 = 11. 8 the greater number. terms of the other. Uniting. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. 25 marbles to B. B will have twice as viz. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as many as A. Let x 14 I the smaller number. x = 8. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. / . x x =14 8. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Dividing. + a f f 8 = 14. Statement x in = the larger number. The two statements I. < Transposing. consider that by the exchange Hence. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = B's number of marbles. Then. 2x a? x j = 6. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. A has three times as many marbles as B. If we select the first one. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. A will lose. the greater number. = A's number of marbles. . which leads ot Ex. = 3. I. A gives B 25 marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. . = 14.
50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. by 44.240. Eleven coins. 2. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 3 x = 45. 1. B's number of marbles. x = 15. The sum of two numbers is 42. 50. Two numbers the smaller. Find the numbers. 45 . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Uniting. cents. the price. the number of dimes. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. .$3. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Find the numbers. Dividing.5 x . Let 11 = the number of dimes. x = 6.75. then.. 15 + 25 = 40. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x = the number of half dollars. 60. * 98. * ' . x from I. and the Find the numbers. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Check. greater is .10. The number of coins II. Simplifying. w'3. The value of the half : is 11. 50 x Transposing. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. is 70. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).. 11 x = 5. have a value of $3. dollars and dimes is $3. the number of half dollars. consisting of half dollars and dimes. but 40 = 2 x 20. Dividing. 40 x . A's number of marbles. .550 f 310.. 6 times the smaller. 3. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.10. Check.25 = 20.10. of dollars to the number of cents. Simplifying.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. (Statement II) Qx . Uniting. etc.
What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. A's age is four times B's. as the larger one. How many hours does the day last ? . Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. 5. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Everest by 11. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.000 feet. McKinley.68 4.. the number. tnree times the smaller by 65. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 9. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. one of which increased by 9. 11. United States. Find their ages. 7. Twice 14. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 6. Two numbers The number differ by 39. On December 21. How many volcanoes are in the 8. How many 14 years older than B. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number.
4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. are : C's The three statements A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Let x II. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. B. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If A and B each gave $5 to C. number of dollars A had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. times as much as A. has. I. Ex. then three times the money by I. number had. B has three times as much as A. = 48. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. original amount. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. B. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. 8(8 + 19) to C. . they would have 3. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. If 4x = 24.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. x = 8. number of dollars of dollars B C had. bers is denoted by x. and 68. and C together have $80. III. II. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 19. has." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 1. and B has three as A. and C together have $80. The third verbal statement produces the equation. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check.
Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. + 8 90 x and. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. x Transposing. number of horses. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. = the number of dollars spent for horses. Dividing. 28 2 (9 5).140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x j = the number of horses. + 35 x 4. three statements are : IT. 1 1 Check. 4 x f 8 = 28. Uniting. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for cows. III. 9 cows. Let then. 9 5 = 4 . The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 may be written. sheep. number of sheep. and each sheep $ 15. each horse costing $ 90. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x f 4 = 9. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The total cost equals $1185. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and Ex. cows. number of cows. each cow $ 35. and the sum of the . + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. The I. 2. and. x = 5. first. the third five times the first. according to II. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 185 a = 925. according to III.
000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. the copper. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. If twice The sum the third side. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. men. increased by three times the second side. twice as old as B. the third 2. what are the three angles ? 10. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first. 13. 9. what is the length of each? has 3. "Find three is 4. women. The gold. equals 49 inches. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . A 12. New York delphia. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and 2 more men than women.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. what is the population of each city ? 8. twice the 6. and the sum of the first and third is 36. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.  4. how many children were present ? x 11. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. first. and children together was 37. v . 7.
B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Find the value of each.e. such as length. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. we obtain 3 a. 7 Uniting. Dividing. 3 and 4. speed. of arid the value of the iron was $300. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. and quantities area. First fill in all the numbers given directly. number of hours. or time. but stops 2 hours on the way. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. A and B apart.000. i. together. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. . statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. 8 x = 15. After how many hours will they meet and how E. how many 100. = 35. = 5.000. number of miles A x x walks. and distance. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.000.000 more than that the copper. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. width.g.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 14. Hence Simplifying. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Let x = number of hours A walks. The copper had twice the value of the gold. of 3 or 4 different kinds.
." gives (2. $ 800 = 800.M(x . + 8. x + 200). fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.04 8.053. were increased by 30 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 800 = required sum. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. But 700 certain = 800 2. 10 x = 200. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Transposing and uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.05 x x . x . the area would be 100 square yards less.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. z = 20. the second 100. The an area 40 x 20 =800. . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. l. Multiplying. or 700. 2 a = 40.01 = = . Find the dimensions of the field. 70x10 Ex.04 = $ 40.06 = $ 40. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. $ 1000 x . Check. and the width decreased by 10 yards. original field has Check. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. x . 2   and transpose.
mobile.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. together bring $ 78 interest. What are the two sums 5. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. of coffee for $ 1. A sum ? invested at 4 %. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Find the share of each. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. but four men failed to pay their shares. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. sions of the field. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. the area would remain the same. A sets out later two hours B . 3. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound.55. A man bought 6 Ibs. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and a second sum. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. as a 4. Six persons bought an automobile. and its width decreased by 2 yards. invested at 5 %. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. twice as large. were increased by 3 yards. A of each. 2. Ten yards $ 42. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. After how many hours will B overtake A. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. 1.
how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. but A has a start of 2 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A and B set out direction. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
76 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 104. a. a. this letter. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 6. which multiplied together are considered factors. consider 105. 5. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. irrational. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An after simplifying. we shall not. at this 6 2 . + 62 is integral with respect to a. if it does contain some indicated root of . as. vV . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . it is composite. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a2 to 6. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. stage of the work. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if. but fractional with respect 103. f db 6 to b.
.3 6a + 1). 2. y.62 can be &). factors of 12 &V is are 3. or that a = 6) (a = a . 01. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Ex. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 2. .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2. 1.3 sy + 4 y8). E.) Ex. x. TYPE I. 55. x. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 109. in the form 4) +3. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). It (a. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 110. Factor G ofy 2 . it follows that a 2 . ?/. 77 Factoring is into its factors.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.FACTORING 106. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.g. for this result is a sum. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 8) (s1). 107.62 + &)(a 2 . Divide 6 a% .
TYPE IT. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.5 + 13 8.8 c a 15 ofyV . e. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3x*6x*. 16.2. 32 a *?/ . 7i 13. 4 tfy f.5 + 2. 3 3 5 6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . ) 22  2. 2 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 14. 2 + q. 7a & 10. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 20. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). obviously. 4 8 . 11. a a 'Ja . 2. in general. 3 2 .6. 17.3.45 afy .51 aW + 68 21.12 cdx. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 15. . q*q*q 2 a.4. 8. Ilro8 9. 2 23.4. 3. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. + llm llm. 2 6. (as 3) and (ccf5). 2 Or. 18. 12. : 6 abx .g. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. a6c. 34 a^c 8 .3. 15 2 7.30 aty. 4. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.51 x4 2 6 xy s . . 13.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 14a 4 5. 19. 5f 2 .
77 = (a.30 = (a . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 2. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11) (a + 7). but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. . + 112. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). m 5m + 6. and (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x . or 77 l.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. If q is negative.1 1 a tf a 4. 77 as the product of 1 77.G) = . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.4 .4 x . Factor a2 . 5.a). Factor x? .11 a + 30. 3. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Therefore Check. a 2 .5) (a 6).FACTORING Ex. Factor + 10 ax . however. If q is positive. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example. We may consider 1.11. + 30 = 20. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. or 7 11. 2 6. the two numbers have opposite signs. tfa2  3. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. of this type. . Ex. can be factored. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 11 7.6 = 20.. Ex. . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 4.5) (a . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. as p.11 a 2 .
ay 11 ay +24. + 44. 12. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 35. 31. a 2 +11 a a? 16. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 8. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . or . + 5<y 24. 20. 32. 17. a2 . a 7 a 30. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 2xS. TYPE 113. 100 xr . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.6. 4 3 2 . 25. 13. 15. ITT. 16. 30. 2 . ra + 25ra + 100. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 6 8 8 4 2 a. a? + 5 + 6 a. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 19. 2 2 a' 34. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 2 ?/ 5?/14. . 14. + 30. 2 . 21. 26.80 7.17 + 30. .70 x y . 24. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 ?/ 22. 9. 27. . 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 18. 33. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .180 a. 16. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.500 x + 600. 21 a 2 2 . 2 ?/ 28. + 4?/21. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. x2 23. 2 2 . 4 2 .48 + + 446 200. 11. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 29. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. and 5 x. 36.
FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. or G 114. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. and r is negative.5) (2 x . 3. 27 x 2. but the opposite sign. Factor 3 x 2 . viz. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 11 x 2x. 3 x and x. 6 x 9. sible 13 x negative. X x 18. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. . then the second terms of have opposite signs.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 2. 9 x 6. the signs of the second terms are minus. 54 x 1. the If p and r are positive.1). If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. Ex. 2 x 27. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. If p is poxiliw. and that they must be negative.83 x f 54. 18 x 3.5 . . a. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .
. 25.30 y 6 4 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 9a. 2. 12^17^16. X 27 . 2 2 2 23. 21. + 2/3. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2x* + 9x5. 24. 13.2) (x . 4.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. and the monomial factors should be removed. 19. 11.83 x . f go. .2 a 90 x*y . 2 28. 3a + 13a. 12y 2/6.260 xy . 15.19 a f 6. 6n + 5?i4. 32. 2 fc .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 2 31. 2 . 17. the expressions should be it. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 30. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. x54 a.27). 6. 2m t7w + 3. 10a?2 2 33.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 144 x . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 35. 14.y + 172/9. : 41 2. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 . 20. 5m 26m f 5. 10. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2 26. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. since all others (II. 7.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 22. 29. 34. .163 x 2 .179. 9. 2 2 2 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 5. 12. 8. 10a2 G a2 2 . 14 a fa 4. Sar' + SaG. 90 a 8 2 . 10 a . 16. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 3. + 4. 100^200^ + 100^.83 x = (3 . 18. 4a2 9tt + 2. 3x*Sx + 4. 9 y + 32^16.7.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.
To factor a trinomial which maining term. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 8.10 x f 16. 2 9 10gf25.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. and a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . x* . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 9. i. 116. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 25 7.e. it is a perfect square.20 xy f 4 y\ . 2 2 . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 13. 4. 11.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. form are special cases of the preceding type. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 12. 10. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 6. of its terms are perfect squares. . and factor whenever possible : 1. square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 3. 2. must have a positive sign. it is more convenient for that type. 14. however. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 9 10a625. 5.
2 20.60 a# + 4. . 7. 19. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 3. 9. + GO + 25. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 10 a 2 4 2 . prime. 2.2 ofy + ofy m . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 225 ofy . 149 a 81 8. TYPE 117.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 18. 2 . ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 17.84 15. ). ^//c to the Ex. 1.e. 48 a +( ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 2 . 29. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. According to 65. : 43 tfy\ a 9.3 * ). * 2 .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . +( )f816 30. 27. u2 6& + 2 ( ). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ). 16&*.6 m* + 9 m. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. !Gar 9 ( )+25. aV . 26. 4a2 l. 2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). . 4 2 23. Ex. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 9a2 . 3. 25.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.20 ab + 10 b a . a2 24. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.64 6 = 16(a . 36 2 4. . product i. 16. 5. a. V. 2. 22. a. 6. 6 2 .
5.c . 14. One or both terms are squares 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .d) 2 .(I) . 11. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 36> . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . T. 16p 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . a2 . Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . of polynomials. 2. (m7?) y. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. a:) 12. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 4. 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.(c 4. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2 . 9. 13. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 6. Ex. 8. Factor a 2 .
10. After grouping tain a the terms.14. 12. 3. 8. a? 11. By grouping. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.ab + bx.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. ive find that the new terms con common factor. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 1. 4:cx . 7. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.r.a a . + x + 2x + 2. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a 26 2 2 3 . . 2.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. Ex. 119.and trinomials. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.1. x8 .7 c + 2c . Ex. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 4 B. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a5 + ab 6 . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.2 ) (3 x . ma ?*a + m& nb. A. 9. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. = (3 x + y . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. which may be factored according to types I. 5) .VI. 6. 5.y + 2 2). Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.
2 7. : 46 x* 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 4. 2.FACTORING Ex. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.l. 3. 6.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. $ a8 . : m 2 2 16. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. w m 2. 8.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 5. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 6a4 12a2 + 6. Arranging the terms.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 4. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. + 2xy + y*q*. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2a3/ 7. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. .4 f . 8ra 2 + 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ . IV. = (a + 6)(a6). 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . . 4 a2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . II. 6 6. 8.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 36 9 m . 3. 2.12 aaj 4 6y. l~a 2a56 2 2 .
88 10. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. (a. 2 17. 4 8 tt 2 z . 48. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. a6 36. 13 c . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .24. 29. 19. (^ 34. 3 a2 23. + 6 aft + 3 . 12. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 22. 42 x . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 25 a + 25 aft . 3 2 . 28. a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 14. 80 a 2 ft 38. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .156. 50^ + 45.13 c . 18. 32. 13. 35. or 3 7#2 . 42 s 2 . 30. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. . 24. 2 a 128. 3 41. a3 156. 5 a. 11. 2 3#4 3a2 36. + 14. 40. 3 25.40. 2 ft . 27. 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. a + a + a + l.310 x . 5a' 20.
of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 5 2 3 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . 6. C. of two or more monomials whose factors . 89 . F. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 3. 12 tfifz. EXERCISE Find the H. 5 s 7 2 5. 2 2 . 25 W. The student should note H. 3 . . of : 48 4. The H. II 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. C. 8 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 54  32 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of 6 sfyz. 5 7 34 2s . F. C. C. C. The highest is common factor (IT. 24 s . 2. 15 aW. 122. F. C. F. of the algebraic expressions.) of two or more . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. aW. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 13 aty 39 afyV. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients.  23 3 . 5. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. Thus the H. are prime can be found by inspection. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. F. C. of aW. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. 121. F. The H.
5 y). y + 3y64. a2 ar* 4.90 7. 1. 2 . F. aWd. 6(m+l) (m+2). . ^2 2 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. F. 5. 8.6 .6. ^f a. a2 . a3 9a. 11. 9. 9 aj*(a? . 8 6. 2 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 15 3ao. a.y) 123. and apply the method of the preceding article. 2a f5af 2. 9. 52 oryz4. 0^80:416. 16. 6 a2 y? . 24 a 2 . 2. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 3. of: . 2 . 65 zfyV. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 6 mx . ^a + 5^ + 6.5 + 6. 8 a 10 .5 x3?/ 2 6. . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 12 . ^707 + 12.12 as 66 . 8.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 95 2/V. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 4(m+l) 3 . . 2 . 225 4a 9 . To find the H. 14. 7. Find the H. 49 C. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. C. of polynomials.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . a 3a4. 57 a>V. 25 m27i.y) . 13.2 ?/) (x . 16 a .2 y) (a. 38 #y. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. C.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . F. x* x2 Hence the H. of + 4 if. 10.6 a&.8 a + 16. 15.^9.y)\ O+ 0^(0.# 4 afy f 4 . . 13. = x 2 y. Ex. a2 + 7af!2. 1. 10. 3). resolve each polynomial into prime factors.y + y42. a2 + 2a3. a3 16 a. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.?/ . 8(?/ifl) 14. 4 ?io. . 12 w*nw 8. 12. 3^ 2 4 . 12. 6 3 a. (a7 ?/) . 3 . C. F.
M. M of the algebraic expressions.6)2. of several expressions which are not completely factored. Ex.M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. two lowest common multiples.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. Hence the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of the general. L. C. C. 2 The The L.M. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). 128. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . Find the L. M. 1. C. etc. . 60 x^y' 2 . A common remainder. M.6 3 ). Ex. 300 z 2 y. M. 127. 2. ory is the L. Common 125. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . thus. =4 a2 62 (a2 . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. The L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. The lowest common multiple (L. of 3 aW.C.C. which also signs. M. Find the L. . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. To find the L. but opposite . C. L. of tfy and xy*.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. C. M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. NOTE. 126. &) 2 M. C. a^c8 3 . C.
3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2 a. + 2 7i) . y*. Find the L. 8 afy. 16. xy\ . 21.1. 18. (For additional examples see page 268.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a2 ~ab 1. 3 6 xif. 2 7ic+10. 4 a . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 24.f 6. b 2 . 5. ) . 22. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 Z> . 14. + 2. . 2. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 10. 40 abJ. 6. 11. 30 a. . a. a { a~b. T a 3 a 2 . 6 a. 2 . a 2 f 4 a +4. 24 x. 3. 8. 2 a . ic 23. 8 d 5 . afy. 3. #. a !. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 a . or f 3 a 15 #. a f 2 19. x* ~5a. a 1. 13. 6 y. 7. 2 x \2 y. a. x 2 5 a. 3 . 2 . 20. x2 + 4 a f 4. 4 a 5 6cd. a 2 fa6. 17. 3 f2. 9. a f 3. 3(a + b). a2 4. a& 4 +& 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 . a 2 a3 . f b. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. G a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 4 a f 2. a^1. ic 2 ?/. M. 15. of: 4.1. afc'cd 2 . by. 6b 2 . 3 ab. a?b. + 6. (a 4)(a2) 12. 1. 2(m 2 . 20 9 a. a.
All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. as 8. C. Thus. 131. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. 130. an indicated quotient. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. however. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . etc. Ex. and denominators are considered. A f fraction is b. but we In arithmetic. successively all 2 j/' .ry ^ by their H. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. rni Thus 132. Remove tor. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. F. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a?.
94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 3. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 2. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. Ex. . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .
11 ^ Mtr f . . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.. _ 3 7i rt< 26. """. 9x + "a" 10. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.10 a + 3 2 14. LJZJ^JL. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ny 4 18. 19. ' ^ . 5^10 y 30. ^+3*. g J 21.' 32. ^' rt ^  31. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^" a. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.*. 16. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 23.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . nx 17. . 29. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.
3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. Ex. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. we may extend this method to integral expressions. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. by the denominator of each fraction. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. of the denominators for the common denominator. Reduce ^.C. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . . ^ to their lowest com The L.3) (!)' = . 1). we have the quotients (x 1). C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. we have M^. Divide the L. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.M. multiplying the terms of 22 . 1.M. . M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . + 3).by 3 ^ A 2 ' . and (a 8). and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.96 134. C. =(z (x + 3)(z.  of //* 2 .1^22 ' . TheL. take the L.r 2 2 . 2> . . mon T denominator. and 135.C. and the terms of ***.~16 (a + 3) (x.  by 4 6' .D.
common denominator 6. a? 1 5 > ^* .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2aj ~ . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art..T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2 ay IB. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . j y 3. 22 a2 5a * .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . i.^1. JL. 7i 2 ab* ".. 137. 74). 2. . 5?. . 18. 3.oj o* or / . . 8 i i. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. o o a. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. If the given fractions have different denominators.
C. T? Ex. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). as 4 aft f.g.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.ft) (a ft ft)~. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . in the beginning.(a 2 6). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (a ft). D.ft)(a . 4(2 a 3 ft).. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .7 . 2.. The L. and adding. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft).2 ' 2 _.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ft).3 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . ^ is 2^JT) . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.aft) Ca2 . L.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . (a . the student should remember that parentheses are . 2 ^. D. e. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft 2).2 = a(a .
30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.5 18 ^4f25. a 36 ++. j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 1 1 f w 16. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. A+2_3. a+6 a 6 2 14. 5a76 4a 106 9. + a "" 2 6 ' . 46 2a 4a 12. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 2. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. 23. 18 v 19. 20. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6 c 3a 7. 24. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17. + .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3.
^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 41. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 43. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 42. 1 34. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9 79 6 2 i.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a 4 31. 3a 9 +. _ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ! n. a ?^ 40. 2 af1 32. a 30. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9. ic 1 + 1. a.
17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . Reduce . 1. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  4 or 3 2a. T. .FRACTIONS 139. 101 mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 + 4x 4 x2 .  .7 5a v Ex. .
Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. !. F J Simplify . and the product of the denominators for the denominator.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. integer. or. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors.g. fractions to integral numbers. Since  = a.) Ex.
5# 56 / c& 4.. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 50 . 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. . 4 8. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 14.. aj 5 1 a? 18. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .
Divide Xn?/ . 144. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. 1. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction.
5 ??i 80 50 . l. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. ga2 4 8 5 a .afr 4.FRACTIONS 105 . Ex. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .^c 2 2 .10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. or both.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. are fractional. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . a a2 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .
Ex. 2. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4.a ^c c _^ a . n a 8. a m "" . 9. C.y 32 . of their denominators. . . Simplify x }. JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. & . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. c +6. the answer is directly obtained. 7i+~ 7. 10. y X 4* 2 y 3. M. i. .
) . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 2 & a 20  a46 13.~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : . sy 18. m^n* n L a 17. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.
4 4)  x. 108 .l)(z + 3) = . Bx 12 Qx. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . of the denominator. Uniting. a. each member is reduced to 1. 5(3 85 Check. these Ex.8 x = . 9x x Check. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). = 6.1. 1.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). x = 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2 3. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. . M. If x 6. + 1) (a + 3) . 148. 2x Transposing.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Transposing.48. = 6. each member is reduced to Ex.28 x + 42 = . C. tions. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.14 (a. If = 64. Clearing of fractions. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.42 + 9.28 a = 5 x2 . 2. 2z2a.9 x2 + 9.
16. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +4 14. . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 15. a/  5 a/ = 12. ^' 2. ^1 = 9. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 1 *> = 2. . a. 18. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a: 7 a. +1 = 5.1 _77 a.= 2.
?_=_. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. .  38 = 40. 4a4l4* + l~. 31 31. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 33.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 .11_4 x 149. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x._ _ . . J_.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 3x 35. 25. If two or more denominators are monomials. and" the remaining one a polynomial. y+3~2 29. . 26 26. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 32 6 . 2^12 = 2 = 34. . 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.
Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. M.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 26 a. 5# 10.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 24 a. C. a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Check. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 60.  5 = 20 x 45. Dividing.29 50712' 9 18 . = 9. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 5x x : = 9.2 42 9 43. If a.2 3 ~  == 7a.1.. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. the 1 5 L. 1. Transposing and uniting. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. each member is reduced to ^. .
and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.be.1. = = 6 6c 7 6c.3 6 2 = a' . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.m bx 2 mn) x. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. = 2 f b 2 .2 ac + 3 aft . jr. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. 2. find a in terms of b and c. Uniting. a. =a 2 151. ax f x f. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. It frequently occurs that the x. f ~ 5c. they are united by factoring. 5> a. = 6 a2 . y.2 62 2 ab. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. If 3ac L= = a ? . Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Ex. Thus.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).& . = l^ 9 b 4 . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Dividing. . fr Reducing lowest terms. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Uniting the Dividing. 4 ac 1.
Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 3. 14. f P =+!. = 5.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. co?. If s (wi n) x =px + q. The The i time. _ 2. q solve for/. If ^^ = a 1 32. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). a. + 3a. and n the number of years. 30.i l .= H. iw 21. 10. 17. in terms of other quantities. . 13. c 18. solve for a. 1 f. f ^o. ^ ax a^ 26. rate. . denoting the interest. . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 34. 31. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . If * 33. + xx = 1. 4. mx = n. * Solve the same equation for^).= c a Z> . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. = 3 (6 a). c. = 8 4 #. 6. t.= n. IIL n b + &o. . Ex. = rt. m a? x . r the number of $>. s = Vt solve for v. 2 solve for y a.a. 12. solve for . p the principal. 15. 29. 4. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 5) is t =^. 9. 11. If s If 16. = vt. 3(* 8.
Find R in terms of C and TT. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. = 16^.114 35.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Ex.. 2 3 . 2.20 C.180. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. x Or Uniting. is 36. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. . A would do each day ^ and B j. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 12. and 12 = the number over.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. . 100 C. then = 2 TT#. Multiplying by Dividing. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.
or 1J. 32 x = . the rate of the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the required number of days. Ex." : Let x  = the required number of days. in Then Therefore. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. Solving. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. and the statement. = the x part of the work both do one day. = 100 + 4 x. Clearing." gives the equation /I). 180 Transposing. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. 4x = 80. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day.
are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. is oO. fifth Two numbers differ 2. and of the father's age. length in the ground. is equal 7. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers.  Find their present ages. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. to his son. 3. and one half the greater Find the numbers. by 6. by 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. of his present age. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. ceeds the smaller by 4. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ex What 5. money and $10. which was $4000. a man had How much money had he at first? . and 9 feet above water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Find A's 8. make 21. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. to his daughand the remainder.
If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. investments. ^ at 5%. 2. after rate of the latter ? 15. 1. How much money $500? 4%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. Ex. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. what is the 14. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and B in 4 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) 22. Ex. and it B in 6 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 3. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A has invested capital at more 4%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. .) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. air. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 152.
B in 30. 25.009 918. therefore. A in 4. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Hence. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.e. To and find the numerical answer. if B in 3 days. e. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. B in 16. and n = 3. n x Solving.g. . Ex.414. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. m and n. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. we obtain the equation m m . is 57. . it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. A in 6. The problem to be solved. they can both do in 2 days. 26. B in 5. B in 12. 3. is 42. A in 6. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.= . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. and apply the method of 170. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.118 153. Then ft i. 2. .
last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. is (a) 51. (b) 35 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Find the side of the square. (b) 149. the rate of the first. 2 miles per hour. The one: 31. 34. : (c) 64 miles. 2 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart.000. is ?n . respectively.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. squares 30.001. squares 29. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (c) 16. (d) 1. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 5 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. 3J miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. if m and n are. the second at the apart. meet. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. After how many hours do they meet. 4J miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. same hour from two towns. 33. .721. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21.
E. The first 156. is numerator of any fraction consequent. 6 12 = . the symbol being a sign of division.g. 1. Ex. In the ratio a : ft. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.5. etc. the second term the consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is ." we may write a : b = 6. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . antecedent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. " a Thus.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the antecedent. b. b is the consequent. b. Simplify the ratio 21 3. : : 155. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. a ratio is not changed etc.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. 158. the denominator The the 157. . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.
7:4 T T 4 . 7f:6J. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 3:4. 3:1}. 16. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. J:l. b is the mean b. terms. 12. In the proportion a b : = b : c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 61 : ratios 72:18. The last first three. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 27 06: 18 a6. a and d are the extremes. Simplify the following ratios 7. equal 2. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 159. Transform the following unity 15. 17. and c. 1. 9. proportional between a and c. 8^ hours. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. and c is the third proportional to a and . 3 8. 11. 18. 4:5f : 5. 4. : ay . : is If the means of a proportion are equal.RATIO Ex. b. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b and c the means. 16a2 :24a&. $24: $8. 5 f hours : 2. 62:16. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : 1. extremes. 10. 6. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3. two  ratios.
and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 3 4. are : : : inversely proportional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. then G ccm.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 2 165. of a proportion. i. If (Converse of nq. 163. pro portional. Clearing of fractions. The mean proportional of their product.__(163. : c. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. = 30 grams 45 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.) mn = pq. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. ad = be. of iron weigh . 6 ccm. and the other pair the extremes. In any proportion product of the extremes. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. 163. Hence the number of men required to do some work. 164. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.e. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.122 162. briefly. q~~ n . !. : : directly proportional may say.30 grams. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of iron weigh 45 grams. " we " NOTE. ccm. and the time necessary to do it.) b = Vac.
) (Called Alternation. then =d c. (Composition. a III.) II. hence the proportion true. Or IV. 1.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. . (163. bd bd. ad ( 163. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is 4$ = 35. (Division. 166. (Frequently called Inversion. d d. 12x Hence a? = 42. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. = 35 . + b:b = c + d:d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) d 167.PATIO Ex. a:c=b:d. I. V. ad = be. is Ex. 2.) = f f = 3 J. if 6 : 7.) a + b:a = c + d:c. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.
3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.!=!*. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. IV. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. Simplify the following proportions. : x. 9. 5.g. 8. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 12 5ft. . = 2:x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 10. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 6 =4 : x. = 2:3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. i.e. . its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 2. x = 2. mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. = 180:125. : 3 = 5 f x : x.124 IT. the consequents by 7. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. Or III. = 20:7. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 5 5. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. = 7:2f 3J. 3. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 120:42 2 2 7. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. Apply composition. E. V. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 4.
x: 6:5 a : x. Find the third proportional 24.j>. 46. 4. a 2 and ab. terra 2:3 = 4. 2= 5 x x. 31. 9 x = 2 y. = 5 x 12. 3. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. = 2 + x: x. 27. if : 40. a?:15 15. 21. 2 a and 18 a. 112:42 = 10:a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. b. 34. 3t. mx = ny. 03:a?=135:20. x:5 = y:2. ra. 28. 38. to: = 35:*. 2 3 = y #. 20. 29. 18.  32. (a : : 45. . 1 and a. Find the mean proportional 30. 25. to : 9 and 12. 6x = 7y. = l^:18. Find the 37. 41.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 5.8:1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 43. a. 39. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 33. 50. 4 and 16. ratio of y. ra + landra 1. : 53. : a2 . 14 and 21. 2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 22. + fyx = cy. 35. 12. 3. 1. 6 x = y. 6. 23. 47. f. 7iy = 2:x. ra 2 .6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. rag. and 2/. 44. rap. : . to : a and 1.. w. 52. 42. 16 and 28. 14. 17. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. = 15o. 13.:ff. 26. x m = y n. = 3 43 + x. 2. 5= 18 a? : a?. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 16. 51.
(d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 56. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. what 58. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 57. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches.126 54. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the speed of the train. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the : total cost. A line 7^. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the area of the rectangle. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. the area of the larger? the same. and the time necessary for it. and the time.
as 11 Let then : 1. is A line AB. = the second number. 2 x Or = 4.000 168. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 11 x f 7 x = 108. x=2. . 7 x = 42 is the second number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x = 66 is the first number. x = 6. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). AB = 2 x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 4 inches long. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x x 7 Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 18 x = 108. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. produced to a point C. so that Find^K7and BO. Then Hence BG = 5 x. : Ex. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2. Let A B AC=1x.
14. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. What are the parts ? 5. 12. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 13. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How The long are the parts ? 15. and c inches. How many 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : 4.) . find the number of square miles of land and of water. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a.000 square miles. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 3. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : 197. and 15 inches. 12. 9. 11. How many gen.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Gunmetal tin. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.000. 2. 6. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.
CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. such as + = 10. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3..L x If If = 0. values of x and y. Hence. there is only one solution. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. etc. The root of (4) if K 129 . If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. a? (1) then I. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. However.y=. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. is x = 7.e. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1. =. 2 y = . y = 1. if . expressing a y.
174. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 4y . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 26 y = 60. ~ 50.3 y = 80. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. y = 2. and 3 x + 3 y =. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. By By Addition or Subtraction.130 170. viz. Therefore. = . cannot be reduced to the same form. 3. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Substitution. 172. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.26. for they express the x f y 10. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .X. are simultaneous equations. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. unknown quantity. of elimination most frequently used II.24. the last set inconsistent. 21 y . E. to The two methods I. same relation. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x . y I 171.
Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.2 = 6.14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 60 .2 = 9 + 4 = 13. subtract the equations. whose coefficients In general. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. x = 10.3 1 = 47. y = 1. are like. 37. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 64 x = 040. 3y = 3. Transposing. Therefore Check. = 406. 10 . = 235. y = 2. 25 x . 3. Check.3 y = 47. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 10 + 5 1 = 135. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. x = 10. + 2. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). add the equations. 8 2. 5 13 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).
+ 2/ 17. [2o. I i 3 a.4. 19< I a. f 3# ?/ = 0. = 24.f2/ ' = 50. J I y = 1U.3. x 11. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I ~ y~~> 22.3. 13. = 6. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. v ^ = ll. * + 3 y = 50. f 3X 7x 14. I .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *. . 9 1 r 20. 13 61 l7a. ' 12. ] ^ . I oj 5y = 17. 7 ' 1fi fl . i 3.v 23.5 y = 2. O t K 8.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 41. _.
8. 3. and solve the resulting equation. = 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. x ) ^"" 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 2. = 4#8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. .
4* + 3y = 19. simplified before elimination is possible. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14.3. (7) (7) (8) . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (4). 2 y = . 29 x = 29.6)7(y7)==18. 7 y = 6. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. however. Substituting in (6) . x = l. 21z6y=9. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 3. From 9 = 36. 3 (1) Ex. 7x_2y=3. . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. + 212y4 = 14. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . \ \6(a.
14. . 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4 11. 10 2a?5 17. = 3. a.f2 2. . a.1) = 121. yM a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 12. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. J 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. +y 2 . 16. .
and x y . <X + 20. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 22. ?~y . 180. 3x\" 1 23 24. {. f y . e. and y.Q ^ 4 21.#. . * ((* (( . but some expressions involving x. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. . Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 1. etc. Therefore y=4. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Substituting x = 3 in (1). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . (2) (3) a. can also be solved Examples method. y 4.4 x = 4 xy. 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. 1. x 2x(2). x 3. however. of this type. (4) + (G). y. 15 y + 8 x . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.3 xy. 137 Solve y y (1) . Clearing of fractions.
138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . y MOi y a. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 21 9 . . Ex. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x 8. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7.= 5. n. x y 331 9. 1. = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 6. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= o 6. x y 5.
and I if 13. . d. . x 12. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ny = fy/ I sc 1. Uniting. fax f = l. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. bmy bm}y ap cm. apan cm. ax + by = 2 a&. . 14.W. W . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x f my = 1. . and I. x a. f 5. Dividing. s in 11. d.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ap. a Find a and terms of n.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c.y = = 9a + 46. w. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 6.
the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Ex.by 2. 4. 3. 20. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 182. (8) 2. (4) (5). 6.3 = 8. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.2 + 4. etc. = 30.lf> z . = 3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 4. f 3y 12 =s 8. l. 1. 1. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 3.15z=12 Adding.13. by 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.8 = 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. ties are Similarly. y =* 2. . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.2 + 3. 3y = Hence Check. 8 x . x + 12 y .12 y + 6 z = . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).25.1+4. To solve equations containing By tions. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.16.3=4.
8. a? + 709 = 26. 49. a? 11. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 15 2 = 45. x 13. 2z = 40. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 14. 7. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 12. 10. 4 = 42.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2 . 2 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. == 6. + y f z = 15. ~6?/ 5.
= 8*. ?/ 3x = 0.. 84 21. 16. . 1510 4 17. 60. 22. ? = llz. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 19. = 5.42 = 2. 23. (3 _. =s 20.3 y + .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.6 2. . 32. ^ = 2. 4.2 a. .
Find the number. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. either directly or implied. symbols: x + y +z 8. 2 = 1(1+6). 1 = 2. and if 396 be added to the number. +2+ 6 = 8.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. + z = 2p. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. . 2 = 6. Check. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. M=i. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . ( 99. y 31. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Obviously of the other . . y * z 30. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. however.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. the number. = l. Ex. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. z + x = 2 n. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. 1 digit in the tens place. = 2 m. # 4.) it is advisable to represent a different letter.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. and to express In complex examples. x : z =1 : 2. + 396 = 521.
we obtain. xy a: 2y 4y 2. . 2. = 8. x 3x4y = 12. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 3+1 5+1 4_2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 4 x = 24. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. From (3) Hence xy Check.144 Ex. x y = the = the x denominator . Since the three men traveled the same distance. direction. y = 3. increased by one. the distance traveled by A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. = Hence the fraction is f. C. 5_ _4_ A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. x 3 = 24. Ex. = the fraction. B. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (3) C4) = 24 miles. (1) (2) 12. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 2. Find the fraction. Or (4)2x(3).
the last two digits are interchanged. A fraction is reduced to J. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If 27 is 10. and its denomi nator diminished by one.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the numbers. its value added to the denominator. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the value of the fraction is fa. number by the first 3. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. ? What 9. . Find the number. 2. the digits will be interchanged. 1. 6. Find the number. 5. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. fraction is reduced to \. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. If the denominator be doubled.}. part of their difference equals 4. Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. and the fourth 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the fraction. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the fraction is reduced fraction. tion ? 8. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. 183. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the Find the fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the numbers. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction equals .) added to a number of two digits. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. it is reduced to J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. added to the numerator of a fraction. both terms. 7. and the numerator increased by 4.
Find the rates of interest. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. partly at 5 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. If the rates of interwere exchanged. A sum of $10. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.000 is partly invested at 6%. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. How 6 %. 12. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and money and 17. and 4 %. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. respectively ? 16. A man invested $750. 5 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. the rate of interest? 18. and partly at 4 %. now. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and in 5 years to $1125. the annual interest would be $ 195. . 19. 14. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. 13. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. in 8 years to $8500.grams. Find their present ages.
triangle Tf AD. and angle e angle/. the length of NOTE. the three sides of a triangle E. is the center of the circum scribed circle. receiving $ 100 for each horse. respectively. c. for $ 740. ED = BE. angle c = angle d. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and F. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. but if A would double his pace. 23. andCL4 = 8. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. B find angles a. BD = HE. . 1 NOTE. are taken so ABC. BC=7. $ 50 for each cow. A farmer sold a number of horses. and sheep. points. and CE If AB = G inches. and F. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. Find their rates of walking. then AD = AF. An C touch ing the sides in D. three AD = AF. and their difference by GO . Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. 25. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. . If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. BE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and $15 for each sheep. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and GE = CF. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 24. cows. and angle BCA = 70. BC = 7 inches. and AC = 5 inches. what is that = OF. and F '(see diagram). E. On /). and e.
It' Location of a point. (7. Thus the points A. and r or its equal OA is . the ordinate by ?/. or its equal OM. PM. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PN _L YY'. (2. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. PN are given. 3). .CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. The of Coordinates. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. YY' theyaxis. the ordinate of point P. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (3.. jr. is the abscissa. ?/. and PJ/_L XX'. PN. 2). first 3). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 186. B. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and point the origin. (2. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. is The point whose abscissa is a.
4). 2. 12. 6. 8. Plot the points (6. (0.3). What is the locus of (a?.2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (2. (1. 3). .1). 4) and (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 1). 1). and measure their distance. 4. Plot the points : (0. Plot the points: (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 0). 0). 11.e. (5. 3. (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2J). 0). 6.(!. 4). 71 2). which of its coordinates known ? 13. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4). i. . 3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3.) EXERCISE 1. 2). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (3. Graphs. Plot the points: (4. (4. (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 0). (See diagram on page 151.and(l. !). (0. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (4. (4. 4) from the origin ? 7. 3). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 2). whose coordinates are given NOTE.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point.
. . or the curved line the temperature. ure the ordinate of F. we meas1 . A. By representing of points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 10 . D.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the first table produces 12 points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 15. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . from January 1 to December 1. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. C. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 188. may be found on Jan. 1. B.
Whenever a clear. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the merchant.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (d) November 20. (c) January 15. (b) July 15. the graph is applied. and to deduce general laws therefrom. The engineer. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. uses them. physician. etc. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. . as the prices and production of commodities.
?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1? 11 0. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is 10. How much. 15. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1 to Oct. (d) 9 0. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.152 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (1) 10 C.. When the average temperature below C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. on 1 to the average. During what months above 18 C.. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.
153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw a graph for the 23. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. transformation of meters into yards. 20. NOTE. Hour Temperature .09 yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . 19. One meter equals 1.
) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 28. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . function If the value of a quantity changes. etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.50. e. 2. to 27.5 grams. A 10 wheels a day. books from for printing. if he sells 0.50. 3. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2 . +7 If will respec assume the values 7. then C irJl. . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 4. and $.inch. represent his daily gain (or loss). 26. amount to $8.. the value of a of this quantity will change. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. gas. x* x 19. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. x 7 to 9. 190. 1 to 1200 copies.. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.154 24. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. binding. 3. 29. the daily average expenses for rent.g. etc.) T circumferences of 25. 9.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if each copy sells for $1. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.
to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . a*. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. however.e. 9). J). may. be also represented by a graph. and join the points in order. x a variable. (1^. The values of func192. Ex. to x = 4. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. for x=l. may .1). plot points which lie between those constructed above. 2). ( 2. it is In the example of the preceding article.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 1 the points (3. (2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 4). 3 (0.1). Q. E. If a more exact diagram is required. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. construct '. 9). Graph of a function. and (3. . while 7 is a constant. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2. Draw the graph of x2 f. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.0). etc. (1. as 1. is supposed to change. 4). 2 (1. 3 50.g.
(To avoid very large ordinatcs..2 x . If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. etc. 194. 2. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. (3. 4). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. r */ +* 01 . rf 71 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.4).) For brevity. 4J.20). j/=3. (4. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. straight line produces the required graph. Thus in the above example. = 4.. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. = 0. y = 6.. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 2 4 and if y = x f. Ex. 5). 7 . as y. and join(0.. (2. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. Thus 4x + 7. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 1). .
23x. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 12. a? 2 4. from x VlO'S".5)2. 18. 2J. 15. 2 2 a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. a?.5)2. if the function equals zero. 2x + 3x a?. 1. xl. 2. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. fa 17. x+1. 3. a* 13. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. (C ) (2. = 4. The values of a*. 3 a 8. 21. The values of a?. 22. (ft) (_ 1. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.8)'.e. + 4. 9. J. 6 fa. y = 2x = 4. 1 8 10. 2 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. xz + x. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1J. 1J. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2 or 2 20. 8. l. 4a? I. . if"a. if a. = The values of a*. 1J. a. 11. 4 a. 2 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. a ar.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. The smallest value of the function. 3. 16. 6. 2J. the function. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (7i) (c) 23. ?/ a. 2 a. 19. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 14. a? 1. 5. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (If) Va25. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. . 7. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. i. Jar .or. if y = 2.
14 F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. i. 32 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. y= formula graphically. then y = .. that graph with the o>axis. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. the abscissas of 3. Therefore x = 1. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.24. then cXj where c is a constant.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 9 F. 25. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. C. Show any convenient number). Represent 26..158 24. .where x c is a constant.e. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 1 C.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F..24 or x = P and Q. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.
12. 197. 14. 6. a2 2a. is called a quadratic equation. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 0. 2 and 1. 13. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. . Such equations in general have two roots. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. (a) (6) 9. 8. 11. 3. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 7. 10. = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. crosssection paper is used. viz. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities.f 9 = 0. + + = where a. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (0. or 5 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.7 2 a 5 = 0. (a) x2 = 0. 6. 4. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.
represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). ?/.2 y ~ 2. NOTE. Hence we may join (0. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. solve for ?/. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. T . = 0. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Hence. i. because their graphs are straight lines. == 2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 199. y= A and construct x (  graphically. first degree. Ex.e. y = l. 1) and 0). Ex. produces the 7* required locus. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence if if x x  2. locate points (0. 4) and (2. fc = 3. (f . 3x _ 4 . . if y = is 0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. y y 2. ?/ =4 AB. 0). and join the required graph.2. and joining by a straight line. If x = 0. 2). X'2 Locating the points (2.1. unknown quantities.
we obtain the roots. parallel have only one point of intersection. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. viz. 203. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. P. Graphical solution of a linear system. 201. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). (2) . AB y = . To find the roots of the system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 202. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.15. equation x= By measuring 3. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. and CD.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.57.
4. 4. In general. if x equals respectively 0. Since the two  we obtain DE. intersection. There can be no point of and hence no roots. V25 5. 3x 2 y = 6.. they are inconsistent. and joining by a straight line. x2 .5. i. P graphs meet in two and $. (4. 1.0.g.e. 2 equation x 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. we of the + y* = 25. (1) (2) C.  4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). and + 3). 1. Measuring the coordinates of P. 3. (4. and .5. etc. 3. the point we obtain Ex. 0) and (0. 4. 2. Locating the points (5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. e.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 0. Using the method of the preceding para. the graph of points roots. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. . obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 5. (2.y~ Therefore. y equals 3. AB the locus of (1). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 3). The equations 2 4 = 0.9. 5. 4. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 4.0). = 0. 4. Inconsistent equations. 2. Solving (1) for y. 4. 3. Locating two points of equation (2).
7. y = 4. 2x 3?/=6. 20. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. \ 2x + 3^ . and solve each If there are no solutions. 17. a. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. if possible. '163 Dependent equations. state reasons. 19. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. and. y=x + 5. Draw system. 3. y= a2 2x y6. 9. vice versa. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 16 23.. the graphs of the following systems. y 2 4. 10. 16 22. 2. a+r/=6. 8. 5. . 6.
14 y = . 28. 3 31. 26.y). 4 a = 3(6 . TABLE OF SQUARES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. CUBES.164 24. 30. 25.8. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .
8. involution repeated multiplication. on to in factors 4. a special kind of product. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. powers of a positive quantity are positive. . According to 1.faa a a a Obviously 1.a2 . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . follows that 3.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 52. ( a) is positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . Law of Signs. ^4/? it According to 50. a = a3 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 2. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 3 f a = f a = +. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 2. fa. etc. is may be by 207.
2.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (2ar). raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 3 2 2 8 .6) = a . amVy) 3 . raise a fraction to a power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. .6 (a 8 8 . 210. a product to a given power. 4 /2mV. 76 : (>y. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.166 To find To To power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 5. 4. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 15. 2 11 (afc ) . (^^) 2 . 16. 6. the required power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (a ) 2 4  3. V V/ 13. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (277171 )*. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 24. (a ) 2 5 .
3 y. +5a) 22. . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 211. 3 8 .y . 13. (aj7) . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2. 3. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .) 14. 6. The higher powers of binomials. 12. 2 . (a + &)8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 16. + 4aj) 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 21. 8 (a??/) 3 . 23. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .y) = (3 y?y . : a 20. (afl) . 9. 3 . (3 x .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. Ex. (6m+2w) (3 8 . are obtained by multiplication. pansions. + a 2 a. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 8. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. An 1. nent of the binomial. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 5. etc. 18. (3af26) 8 .6 2 8 ft) . frequently called ex. 4. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 7. (5 (1 a) 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 15. 1 f 3 2 3 . . 1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 2. or*  Find the cube root of 19. a.INVOLUTION Ex.
23. 15. (?/i~w) : 16. and the powers negative.168 3. (m 2 + n) 8 . Ex. 3. 10. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 8. (2 4. . (3a f5) 5) 4. . . (l 8 .96 ^y f 216 o?y .216 a^ 4. 4 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 13. 21. . 6. (m fl) 2 20. 78 s . . 18. The minus. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.2. 4 (1for) 5 . 2. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . Ex. 4. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (2 a 4 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (1 + 4 ?/) . 5. ( &) 5 . 1. (mnp 5 I) 5 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (a~^) 5 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (?>i?i f c)*. 9. (m 5 I) 2 22. is the coefficient of the next term. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 5. .a) 3 19. Ex. 17. (mJ) 4 11. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 25. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 14. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . mn 5 2 5 ) . (la&) 4 12. (af 5) . 3. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . (p + q) 4 * 7. 24. (tff1) (cfd) . (w 4 ?i) 4 .
numbers.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. for distinction. 27 =y means r' = 27. 1. 215. or 3 for (usually written 3) . \/"^27=3. 2. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 109 . or x &4 . or y ~ 3. V9 = + 3. called real numbers. tity . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 4 4 . (_3) = 27. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. etc. V \/P 214. and ( v/o* = a. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. = x means = 6. Since even powers can never be negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and all other numbers are. a) 4 = a4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution.
5. 7. Ex. Ex. V?.lL.9 = 136. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3 33 53 .  100 a 2 . 79 2 v/2 5 . Ex. . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex 5 a" . 2.125. Ex. 8. . 9. 3/0** = am . 62 = V2* . for (a")" a = a mn 3. V36 9 4. To extract the root of a power. Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. v/2^. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.4.64 5 4 . EXERCISE 1. 3. \/2 4 9 . fy 5 3 . extract the and denominator. 3i . 6 7 = 030. 2 . = 199 + (_ 198) . index.201) = 2. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 6. 6.1. .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 10. = 19472. roots of the numerator \/18 . 7 . 82 . v/^i2 = a*. To extract a root of a fraction. 9.200 . Ex. 7 .(. 4 v. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 7. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V25 9 16. = V26TIT81 = 53.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 8. V5 v/2 7 2. 2.
3 y2) ( vV . V8. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.) by inspection. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 33. 31.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . V20 . Ex. 2 . 6.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. Find the square root of a2 . . 116. 32. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .75. ^40^4.3. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. a* 4 8 2 . V9216. 29. 2. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 5. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 2 f ( V240) 3 .EVOLUTION 171 28.3 ./). 34. 30.98. 1. 45 V5184. a f2 l 2 + l. 2 .
.> 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. however. i.72 aW + 81 & 4 .e. let us consider the relation of a f.2 ac . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 15. a f. 10. and b (2 a f b).2 ab + b .2 &c. and b. 2 2 218. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.b 2 2 to its square. #2 a2  16. + 6 + 4a&. 2ab . 8 . 2 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 11. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . the given expression is a perfect square. mV14m??2)f 49. 12. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.172 7. 14. The term a' first 2 . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a\b is the root if In most cases.
We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and consider Hence the their sum one term. Explanation. 6 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 1. by division we term of the root. First complete divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 219. 10 a 4 8 a. */'' . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . . and so forth. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Second trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. is As there is no remainder. First trial divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 8 a 2 2. 8 /. 2.24 afy* f 9 tf. 1. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Ex. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. of x. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. The square . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. the first term of the answer. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . .EVOLUTION Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .
a? 2 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 17.40 a 22 . . 13#4 413ar 44a. 16.25 x 4 4. 36it.20 J or 2 16 x 4.12m 5 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 4 .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 20.162 a2 60 a10 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 12. 436^?/469a. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .V430^425^ 4m 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 16x6 4.20 o 4.73 a8 . 5. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.37 a ^ . 6 11.73a4 440^436^460^.10 x2 4. l 4.16.25. 18. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. > 7. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .24 or . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 10. 5 4 16 4 iK . 1 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 19. 2 4.6 .42 a*& 4.12 m 4. 9. 24. 14. 729 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.a 6 x*y 2 . 8. 6. 15. 3.4 x 4.9.
of 10. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. two figures. a 2 = 6400. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Therefore 6 = 8. first . etc. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000.1344.000. 2.EVOLUTION 220.000 is 1000. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. = 80. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits..000 is 100. of 1. etc. and the first remainder is. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Ex. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the first of which is 8. the first of which is 4. Find the square root of 524. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. which may contain one or two). and the complete divisor 168. Ex. the square root of 7744 equals 88. 1. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . As 8 x 168 = 1344. The is trial divisor = 160. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. of a number between 100 and 10.176. Find the square root of 7744. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12.0961 are '. The groups of 16724. Find the square root of 6/.70 6. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. annex a cipher. 3.7 to three decimal places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221.1 are Ex. places.10.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . in . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.
35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 33. 1.1410.22. JT . 5. 1. J.58 square 38. 30. 36.) 40. = 3.4 square when R = radius and 11. .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.01. 31. feet. 32. 39. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 34. feet. whose area equals 48. 13. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 37.53.
quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Dividing. 2 ic = a. 6#2 = x* 24. or incomplete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. A pure. This answer Check. The 7 equation. but no higher power e. 2)* + 5 = 33. 6 y2 = 17. 1. is 12. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities.. Extracting the square root of each member. = 7^ + 5. Transposing. 224. 226. x = + 2 or x =2. 2. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227.g. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 225. or equation of the second degree. complete. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. or affected. . ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . x 2 7. = 4. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. Ex.
ax Transposing and combining. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 7 = 162.2. 4 ax. 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2. 8. 2 4fc 5' 18. 7. or Therefore. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 15^5 = 6. 19 + 9 = 5500. Solve 179 . . . 2 2 a.25. 0^ + 1 = 1. o. 16^393 = 7. 3. ' =: y? b* b . Dividing by Extracting the square root.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. (a? 9. 5. 10. : 83 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .
its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 2. 26. may be considered one half of a rec square units. . 2 : 3. ' 4. is 5(5. If G=m m g . 24. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for d. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2 . Find the numbers. 27. Find is the number. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 108. A right triangle is a triangle. 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find the side of each field. 25.) of their squares 5. and they con tain together 30G square feet. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). EXERCISE 1. If 22 = ~^. and their product : 150. : 6. solve for r. 228. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). find a in terms of 6 .b 2 If s If =c . 22 a. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. 4. If a 2 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. 28. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for v. . 3. r. Find the side of each field. 29.
Find the unknown sides and the area. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Find the radii. is and the other two sides are equal. (b) 44 square feet. and the third side is 15 inches. J = 12. x* 7 x= 10. 9. (b) 100 feet? = . of a right triangle Find these sides. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. we have of or m = . . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.7 x f 10 = 0. 2m. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Solve Transposing. add () Hence 2 .) 13. radii are as 3 14. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Find these 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 24. To find this term. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 8. and the two smaller 11. sides. A body falling from a state of rest. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find the sides. Method of completing the square.2 7 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The area $ /S of a circle 2 .
or x = 2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. (*~8) a = at . or J. Simplifying.1. Therefore. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. = \ # = ff. Hence Therefore Check. . = 6. Uniting. a Clearing of fractions. Ex.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.  \. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 a* a. 7 5 + 10 = 0.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 2  .x(l = . J. 62 x 5 = f.. Transposing. Extracting square roots. = . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Ex.a.e.2 a2 . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Transposing. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.2. adding member). = x\ = 2. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 230. a.
x .4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root.
2x 3 4. . =8 r/io?.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46.c = 0. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . = 12. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 49. 231. Solution by formula. article. and c in the general answer. x la 48. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =0. ao. \bx\. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.
2# 11 + 15 = 0. : 86 + 2 = 0. c p. 20. V^tT)* . 26. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 3. 21.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 1. 11.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 14. = 12 . 2 o. 12. 7. 6^+5^ 56. 15. c = 5. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2 . 8. TIO. = 64120?. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2 a? = 44 x . ?i 2 . 7^ + 9 x 90.. 2. 17. 5 x2 Transposing. b =  + 20 == = 0. 19. 2. 10. 18. 2or } 5o. 16. 4. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. Reducing to general form. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5.4 4 5 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.25 x. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.  . 6 Ex. 2 a. 9. 13. 6. 6 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). a. 6.
1. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . transposing terms to one member.x. = 0. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. if either of the uct is zero. . factors Now. all or. 24. = 14. member can be Ex. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. ar>8o. (5 a? !)(. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Transposing. 233. 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 27 x== 42a. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Factoring. 25. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Solution by factoring. Bx 1 1.5) =0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. any degree. 3x?+x = 7. x2 = 1 . or # 5 is zero. a=:i^^.5 Solving (1) and (2). Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2S3x 1 2 . 26. 5) = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. orz roots. = 0. Eesolving into factors. x(x <2 .2. = 0. 5 = 0. }. and 6. 23. Clearing for fractions.4) = .
a* 10a=24. Ex. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. and the equation thus formed be solved. 8. 4. 6. 3 or 2 a. 12. The equation I. E. a?. 16. 13. (aj4)(a. 2o3 f9a. 4)(z3) = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. } 2 2 (5 . 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. + 100. : 87 = 0. aj( 15. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. we 9 obtain x 4.:=0. 3^ = 0(1106). 14. + 8=s: 7. 3) = 0. + 6)=0.= 24. 3) Factoring. 5 = 0.(. 7. 3. + 9 f 20 x = 0. is 5) = 0.e.3)(x + 3 3. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. x2 f 2 x . members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 2. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 2. 3. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. Or Hence the 234.g. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. Therefore x =3 = 2. O roots are 2. 0(02) = 7(02). 4or + 18a f 8a. 5. ar'Sa^ 12.6)) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. a?10a=:24.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 0^ ar> 11. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3# y 5 = 0. + 10 a = 24. 9. evidently (x Or 4)(x .3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. for a: .24 = 0.
f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 50. 22.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 25. 27.188 17. 19. 2. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 23. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 18. uz + u 21. '3a!J  . 20. a 2 =(x a)b. (2a? 3) (a 24. ara + ft + c*. (a + 1) (a. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.
8. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and consequently many prob 235. 2. 57. Find the numbers. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the number. and the difference Find the numbers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 6. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.9. The difference of . 52. 54.3.0. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .0. 2. 58. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. and whose product 9. and equals 190 square inches. 4. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 1. feet. Find the number. 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. number by 10. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 56. and whose sum is is 36. : 3. 2.2. 3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. EXERCISE 1. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.3.3. 55. The 11. 1. G. . 5. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 0. Find the sides. of their reciprocals is 4. 2. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. two numbers is 4.1. 5. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.
a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and Find the sides of the rectangle. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. other. 13. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 14. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 17. 19. If he each horse ? . he would have received two horses more for the same money.10. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 15. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.190 12. Find the rate of the train. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. as the 16. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. What did he pay for 21. ply between the same two ports. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. . Two vessels. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. sold a horse for $144. ABCD. watch for $ 24.
EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 24. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. or x = \/l = 1. . 27. constructed with and CB as sides. Ex. 1. Find TT r (Area of a circle .I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9.) 25. is On the prolongation of a line AC. (tf. Find and CB. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. By formula. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. how wide is the walk ? 23. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 23 inches long. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. as 0. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. contains B 78 square inches. the two men can do it in 3 days. of the area of the basin. a point taken. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. ^3^ = 7. 237. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. so that the rectangle. and working together.
T 17. 4 : 89 10a. 2 16 a^40 11. 18. = 13. 4. 9. a. 8. Hence Le. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.192 238. 436 3. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a 21or=100. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. 16. = 1. a4 5o. 19. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.)+72=0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 a. 6. 2.2 =4. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a? 15 1=2*. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 12.T 2 2 . 2 h9:=0. y8)=0. >. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . or y = 8. 10. 4 6. 7. aV+9o 4 =0. Solving.
a perfect square.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are imaginary. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . and unequal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. rational. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 240.2) 2 4 3 (. is 4ac not zero.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are rational. Ex. and equal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Relations between roots and coefficients. the roots are irrational. c the roots are real.f> = 0. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are real. b 4. 2.5) = 04. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Hence the roots are real. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. ( 2a Hence 1.12 x + 9 = 0. Ex.bx 4. 241. the roots are unequal. the roots are equal. negative. 3. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. The discriminant =(.2 z .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . it 2a follows 2 : 2.
2a 4z5 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. = Q. 2. + 2a. lla. f 2 E. 60 2 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 14. + 18 2 8. tfmx+p^Q. = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. their product isf. : a 2 . 23. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 3a. 2 a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 2 7. 9a3 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 12. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. ^12. 2 : 3.g. 15. = 0. x2 7 10. o. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 6. + 12 2  . 18. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. = 5x. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16.19 # 20. 5aj 9. = 0. 4. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 21. 17.. 22. 24. 5oj aj + l = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 12~x = x 2 . 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0.
4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents.* III. however.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. Then the law of involution. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. provided w > n. and . while the second of the first. 244. The first of these laws is nition of power. such as 2*. must be *The symbol smaller than. It is. (a m ) w . (ab) . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. We assume. = a"" < . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. hence. m IV. a m a" = a m+t1 . ~ a m f. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. for all values 1 of m and n. > m therefore. that a an = a m+n .a" = a m n mn ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.
g. a . Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. etc. or zero exponent equal x. Assuming these two 8*. = a. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 245. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . fractional. as. 24. 4~ . '&M A 27. 25. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. ml. 0?=^. a\ 26. 29. m$. 31. (bed)*. a*. 3*. 30.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. disappear. a?*. 28. . n 2 a. 23. e. laws. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. (xy$.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. at. Hence Or Therefore Similarly.
= 2. \fi?. Solve the following equations 39. 48. To find the meaning of zero exponent. If. hence is . 49. a* * = 3. : 197 33. Let a = a. a. 37. 40. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. however. \/xy \/m. v/o&cT 34.g. 45. = 49. a . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. ty?. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 41. 7z* Find the values of 47. v'mT 36. : 2' 4* = 4. e. 38. Vo5 . 35. 46. 3* = 27.\/n. a * a2 Or a=l. 5 a* = 10. 50. 42. the base is zero. equal to unity. 27* = 3. e. 44.g. = 2.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 246. 43.
cr n.g.198 247. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. an x = a. e. by changing the sign of NOTE. Multiplying both members by a". Or a"# = l.2 = a2 . vice versa. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations. Let x= or". 248. etc. or the exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.
""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 66 45. 44. : or 5 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . . 25. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . rfS. 22. m . * 24. c 32. 40. ^L. f (2w)~i 1 . a."* 38. 27. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : mi m~^. 36. . a^ 41. 37.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ^?2 y' 34. 3 a. 2 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 2m~i 43. 3 a? * 42. 2 . 39.
52.6). (. 10* Find the values 56.001.(. 54.9*. = l. 59.008)* + A. 47. 49. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.343)* + (. 1. Ex. + 1~* f 21 . 55. z 5or*=10. 250.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. ar = i. 57. 17' 2 51.1. 10* 5* = .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .81 f (a . 48. of: 3ll4~* 60. = ^. = . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 61. = 5. z* = 1. 58. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + A_. 53.
17. 14.&. 8 ' 9. #* a. Remove the negative exponents. 6 *. &. a. 12. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.5a. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 4 x^. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 27  28.$". Perform the operation indicated. 23.$*. are performed. 18. S'sS8.^/5^5. 26.&. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 79 . 3sVS.7i. 72 . 4 5. 95 ^9i 5**. (d) If required.7*. 7*. 6.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7~ 6 . 7~ 5 27  . .6 *' 6 *25.4 .3 aj" a. 13. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3. 7. NOTE.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. OA 20. etc. . remove the fractional exponents. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 16. 10. / 7fv 7.4 a8 .. V5. 16. 3 a. 6a.5. ' 11. .7W.
1. Arrange in descending powers of Check. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 40. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 6 35. The 252. 34. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 2. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. powers of x arranged are : Ex.2 d . If powers of a?.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
Ex. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . To add or form. 30. V2. signs. 33. </2. 40. Ex. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . v/3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.3\ . V3. V5. ^/IT. ^4. 31. </3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. subtract surds. 32.2 V50. 5V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . \/7. 38. ^3. A/3. 34. v/3. ^6. ^2. 29. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. \/5. 36. 2\ 3*. ^126. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 28. ^2. connect them by proper 1. Simplify V~ .e. V3. Arrange 35. s!/3. ^2. A/2. VS. + . V2.10 V2 =  V2. if dissimilar. ^4. (i. v^S. 39. 4^/4. ^30. 27. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^7. V2. 26.2. 37. </20. 3. v/4. ^5.
8VT8J2V32 7. V175V28+V634V7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 3. 4V805V45. V18+V32VT28+V2. 10. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. 6. 11. .3V20 + 6V5. 4. 14. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. + 3V835V2. 13. 8. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2.J a6 V4 aft.
23. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6*. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. .2v/6 + IPV6 105.6V35 106 460V35100 . 3. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex. 1. y* = Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. and then multiplied. 26^ . . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .
13. 40 10 30. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 4. 14. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 19. (3 20. (5V22V3CVS)V3. . (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (2V3) 8 . 3. 18. V3 V6. \/3 \^). 2 . (V6 + 1) 1 . a?. V3 Vl2. v/18 v"3. Vll.VSS. + VB)(2V5). 38. V2aV8^. (Va Va 36. VlO V15. aVa. 28 . 8. 34. V20 V30. fWa 17. 2. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 21. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . v/4. (V2+V3+V4)V3. VTO. 9. 37. 213 98 11. 15.^/2. 39. 6. 7. 40. 41. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 27. 10. 6 V4 5. V42. V2 V50. 12. 25.
the quotient of the surds is If. 44. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 60.y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . a fraction. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 43. (2 45.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 46. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 49. 53. 51.214 42. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 47. . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. V3 . Ex. 268. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Ex. 52. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. is 1 2. Va v/a. 48. E. (5V2+V10)(2V51).
Evidently. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. The 2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.g. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.RADICALS This method. 3. by V7. however. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is illustrated by Ex. arithTo find.by the usual arithmetical method.73205. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. e..57735. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 1. /~ } Ex. . Divide VII by v7. we have V3 But if 1. . metical problems afford the best illustrations.
V48 25. V8 12. 23 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V3 = 1.. V2 22 . A. .7320.2361. and Given V2 = 1.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. Vll 212*. Vn V7 ' * 8. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . .4142. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 271. 14. ^/H . 272. i. V5 270. V3 24 . V5 = 2. 7. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8 JL. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 21. 20. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. A. VffV?.
1. 3. s Simplify a. V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18.RADICALS Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.Vs2 . Ex.2.1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .vffi^T _ . . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex.
2V5V18 mVm Va 22. find to _!_.7320. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. Given V2 1. V5V7 18> ^SVg.4142.2361. 6V7. 19. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. = V3 = 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.W3. v 2V3 28. . By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 . J?_. 24.218 6 . four places of decimals 23 . Vo1 26. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . : and V5 = 2. 27.5 3 = 125.
Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. V643 . V255 . on the other hand. 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. v8f 2\/15. viz. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. \/125" . 11. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 3 (V2~u)  7. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. it to this form. \/l6*. 3. 2 12. 5. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2. 8. . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. In other examples of involution and evolution. Simplify Ex.RADICALS 219 274. 4. According to G3. 2. 9. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. the If.
The Hence ^11 . is 11. and whose product is 18. +2 Ex.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .220 Ex. These Ex. ^TT. 2 \/18. 3.2 \/20. 2. Find Vll . 12 and whose product is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find V4 + VJ8.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6 V2.6\/2 = ^9 .A/2. Find Vl2 4. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.
RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. a. 5. Transposing and uniting. by raising both members equal powers.e. 8. (2x xrf 1. Solve vVf!2a = 2. = xa + 4 x f 4. Ex. x2 = x f 2. 19. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Radical equations are rationalized.. first involution. are radical equations. +=. they are transto formed into rational equations. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 277.1. 4x x = 2. . i. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.V48 4 20. The value x =2 reduces each . If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Dividing by Check. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Before performing the involution. 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. member to 2. V48 23. VT . r 22.
= 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. f 25 = 12. . tion which has two roots. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing and uniting.222 Ex. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. viz. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Dividing by 24. 5. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. one root. member =\/2 + jV2=v^.3. the first member = V2. V4afT~l. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. . 3. at . a socalled extraneous root. 2.1) = 0. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Ex. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 278. It = 3 x . Squaring both members. Transposing. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. a. x = J. Extraneous roots. they may be extraneous roots. . Therefore CftecAr. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore Check. viz. Factoring. V24~+~l = 0. 4#f 4 = 9.
V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. . equation it is an extraneous root. 4.2 r. Factoring. . Hence x = the only root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. If If x 3 = 3. = 3.12 . and to 5. for it satisfies the equation .RADICALS Hence x If a. \ does not satisfy the given. the right member = V2. x root of the preceding equation.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. is x V. Check. Transposing. ViTie 4 z2 . or x *j. 2 Clearing of fractions.3) (2 x . Squaring.47) = 0. + 6~ieT~3 . Therefore. both members reduce to 5. 223 x = 3. . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. (x x = 3. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. NOTE. Hence there is only one root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Solve the following equations : = G.
Many 1. Factoring.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. Therefore . Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 3 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 5. x + Vx a? = 6. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.*2a. x =6 or 3. 45 14VJB = . Let 8 x f 40 . Q . 412a* = 16. 2_8z 440 = 49. = 7.35 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. _ 2 y . 3. = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. 2. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.f40= 5. = 26. members of the equation were squared. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. o. Ex. Substituting. Vi 2 8a. 4. y then x2 . 2. some of the roots be extraneous. This can be seen without substituting. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x Since both =9 or 1. + 40 = 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2Va.i~24 = 0.8 z40 = 7.
a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.f 18 = 24.226 11. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 2. +x . 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .a 440 = 35. 15. 19. 16. 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 12. a. 14. 20. 17. +3= 6.
find the remainder when m. by dividing 3 x* f. E = ax + &z + m) Q. Without actual division.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . if Q was known. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.bx? + ex2 4. " Or.4 a. Ex.2 x 5 by x 3. no matter If. = 2. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ax4 4. however.2 + 4. 227 . Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.2 + 80 = 12. If x* .CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. could. we make a? what the value of Q. 1.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). a? R = x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. even if Q is unknown." transposing. Hence. then (x 2)Q 0. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. ^ = 381+2. does not contain a?.360 = 244.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. 2.2) Q . 3 2 Ex. Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3.
x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. fora?. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5. + 6. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 3. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.4(. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . } 2 by a1. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5 (4x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . If the remainder is zero. x* s 2 4.949. + 7 = 632.8. if 8 42  . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .228 282. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 2 j 7.8'= 0. 43 3 E. The Factor Theorem.g. 8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. + ^by x + b. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x m is factor of the expression.3)f 11 =. the remainder equals 8 2 x .g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. hence (x divided by x 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.
23. or 5 4 + 3^ . f 15 does not vanish.r6 = 0. then x8 7 x'2 4. or x 4.7 x + 15 = 0. 6. factors of the absolute term. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 18. 15. 1. are f 1. is a factor. a 5x 6. 3. 24. 25. 3 2 : 7. + ttt15 = 0. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 106 division.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. + 27 + 27. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . a^8^ + 19a. Let x = .12. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. i. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. Therefore x ( 1). _ . The 5. a? 19. a + 32. oj 5x2 f3a.13m + 30 10. 2. 229 1.1.49 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. a 2a + 4. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .1. 11. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 5. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. f 5.e. a 8a f 19 a 12. + 15. m f m n 14.9^ + 23^15. 9. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 7 46 = 0. 20.7 + 16 . ^10^429^20=0. 21.12 = 0. 8. 2 2. 17. Factor a? 15. 8. Resolve into factors 4. f 3. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2m 5m . 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. & p*. a.
2 Ex. : importance. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. if n is even. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 286. xn y n y n y n = 0." . The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 1. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. If n is a Theorem that 1. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2.xy +/). if w is odd. By we obtain the other factors. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.y n is divisible by x f ?/. It y is not divisible by 287. actual division n. Factor consider m m 6 n9 .230 285. Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 2. ar +p= z6 e. xn f. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. is odd.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. For substituting y for x.
since it more directly to the prime factors.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.= . 28. Hence = (m Ex. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . however. 3. y 3 +8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. x3 8=0. 27. a. 26. preferable. as 27=0. leads 231 is The first method.i mn f w 2).
xy are given. xywe have 3. Squaring Solve (1). = 6. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (4) Hence. 4 xy = 16. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. of quadratics. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. * A I. can be solved by the methods degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. however. in general. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. If two of the quantities x f y. x y. 232 .y4 is of the fifth degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. & + 2 xy + = 25. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 290. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. + 6 a?V . ==5 > 1^ = 4.1. (5) Combining (5) with (1).
233 y. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. = . ^. EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 108 2. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. The arranged in pairs. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 12.g. 3. ' 10. b=3. I I x + y=7. r (" 1 = 876. x and xy are not given. but can be found.
. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . . or JJ. I x+y = a. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. aj = 2.?/ i = 6.  . 19. one linear and ne quadratic. la. 5.20) = 0. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.  42 y + Transposing.i/ = r 13. 2 (1) From (1) we have. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. + 29 = 0. A system of simultaneous equations..o 18. Ex. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. I* Jj ^ [.~ y = 5.  f J. 4 y = 20. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.a. or y = 1 . ' ' . Factoring. x " (3) 49 etc. 3. 7 . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. r^ 2 as ] f. 6 "I 14.
one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). x2y. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). ':il e :) . 4 f + 2 y = 3. ' x*. 9. y* + 2y = 3. = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . III. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3y) : Factor (2). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 1. quantities. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. If of the preceding type. Solve .
(1) (2) x x 5. = Ex. 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. 2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . Solve 2. 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (3) (4) Subtracting. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 15 x2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. j Substituting y in (2). } VI09. 109 a. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.
' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.!.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.175 ay = 12. y? a? f . Bxy9. ' ^ 15. 298.125 ay = .6. and others not belonging to them.3^42^=43. (4) (3). can be solved by special devices. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. A. E. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. f 1 150 a?. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.y = 7. " IV.xy 4. 150 */2 . Division of one equation by the other.
considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . = 189. B. x +y y etc. xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. x 2 .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. from (2). Some simultaneous ?/.. jc~ y = 9. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. we obtain by squaring. quadratics can be solved by ?/. at first it is unknown quantities. Therefore x = 16. Solve Ex. y = 3. * ' 300. i ^ *>. y . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. (1 > (2) 1. 2. = 12 J. we have from (1).
4. I e. 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. F+y+ . 6. 2. 7. [2x + : y= 17. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .
19 ' 26. * .21 ^ = 15. . = y 1 y* . 25. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. f 18. 27. = 198. 16.4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. .
7' j/ 39. = 48201.of  According to the definition of division. . oo 301. or ~ indeterminate. ^ oo . 32. 3 a2 38. 25 34. 31.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 33. finite  =x y if = x. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . as a . . 30. y % 9 f*K 36. Interpretation . hence may be any finite number. ~\ OK OO. etc. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. Q 7. . etc 302.
(1) = 0.e. great.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. I. i. (1) is an identity. Let 2. The ~~f fraction . or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. without exception. is satisfied by any number. as + l. Or. and becomes infinitely small. .242 303.g. and . The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. or that x may equal any finite number. be the numbers.e.x'2 2 x = 1. oo is = QQ. it is an Ex. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. (1). = 10. 1. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. equation. .can be If It is made larger than number.000 a.increases if x de x creases. 1. cancel. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. By making x any * assigned zero. 306. the answer is indeterminate. ToU" ^100 a. i. x f 2. creases.decreases X if called infinity. TO^UU" sufficiently small. (a: Then Simplifying. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. Hence such an equation identity.
two numbers is 76. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve . is their 2. EXERCISE 1. (2). and the sum of Find the numbers. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.e. = oo. Solve x a. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum is of squares 2890. . Solve  9 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.8 x + 15 6. 3. 1=0. 4 3 x x5 a2 . EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 42 and' their product is 377. z = 1 Substituting. y finite QO. * 6. and a. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Hence /. third and sixth parts. 2.2 y = 4. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.
255 and the sum of 5. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the sides of the rectangle. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 13.244 3. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the sides. and the diago(Ex. increased by the edge of the other. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. the area becomes f% of the original area. p. 103. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the hypotenuse is 37. of a rectangular field feet.) 53 yards. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. of a right triangle is 73. 12. two numbers Find the numbers.quals 20 feet. 148 feet of fence are required. 146 yards. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 190. 14. 6. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the edge of one. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 9. equals 4 inches. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 8. Find the edges. . and the sum of ( 228.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the other two sides. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. is 6. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the side of each square. Find these sides. Find the numbers. 10. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the edge of each cube. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.
and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. . their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. Find the radii. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. differ by 8 inches. irR *.
Since d is a f 3 d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. Hence / = a + (n . added to each term to obtain the next one.. 3 d must be added to a. . (n 1) d must be added to a. . 17. 11. . except the first. + 2 d. 15 is 9 f. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. of the following series is 3. An arithmetic progression (A. 2 d must be added to a. of a series are its successive numbers. 3. a + d. P. . P. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. series 9. each term of which.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a 11. progression. 10. to produce the 3d term.7.. to produce the 4th term.) is a series. to produce the nth term. the first term a and the common difference d being given.1) d. The progression is a.. 4. f . a 3d.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. a f d.. the second a descending. a. To find the nth term / of an A. 19.. P. and d. 309. to each term produces the next term. The common differences are respectively 4. 16. : 7. a + 2 d. 12... The first is an ascending.
1. .. if a = 5. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5. the term a. 2.. . 4. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 24. 7. 7.. 2 EXERCISE 1.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 6. 99) = 2600. 6. ? (a) 1. (d) 1J. 4^.3 a = l. 6 we have Hence . series 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Find the 12th term of the 4.. 10. Adding.... 2J. a = 2.. P. 115.... 8. 19. 5.8. 3.. 3... . = I + 49 = *({ + . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 6. 5. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. of the series 10. 8. d . Find the 5th term of the 4. . 9. = 2. 5. 3. 3. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). = a + (a Reversing the order. 3. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.4. P. P. 5.' cZ == ..PROGRESSIONS 310. 7. = 99.. 1.16. 8. 9. . . Find the nth term of the series 2. 21. d = 3. 1J. (a + + (a + l) l). series .. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.
. + 3. 15. 11. 8. 16. . 15. 7. In most problems relating to A. 11. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11.1 f 3. 20. hence if any three of them are given. > 2f 2. 7. 1. . . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 23. 2J. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. P. to 20 terms. striking hours only. '. : 3. 1J. Jive quantities are involved. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 6. to 8 terms. 12. to 20 terms. 31. and for each than for the preceding one. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. strike for the first yard. 1. (i) (ii) .248 Find the 10.. 22. rf. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 1. (x +"l) 4. 13. . \n. Sum the following series 14. to 20 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 15 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. .(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 11. 33. 2. 17. 19. to 10 terms. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 21.7 f to 12 terms. 12. 16. 29. to 16 terms. 18. 7. . 4. 15. 3. to 7 terms.
or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P. 204 = ^ (98 . = 13. a = 49 6(71 . n = 6. I. 312. From (1). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.~n~\ 408 6). Ex.1) . 6 n2 . l)e?. Find the series.104 w + 408 = 0. 34. 12. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 78 n Substituting in (1). 122. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 45. hence n = 6. J = 49. or 11 J.6. if s = 204. #.. 1. . = 1014. 56. 23. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 144. = n(104 . is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. s 24ft last term 144. The series is. . and b form an A. 100. I Substituting in (I) and (II). = a + (w. Substituting in (2). 111. P.6 n). 2. the and the sum of all terms 1014. Findn. 89. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. d = 6. n d. a = 12. = 144. 133. is 12. = 1014. 67.e.1). P. or if x Solving. 204 = ^ (a + 49). The first term of an A. 78. if a..PROGRESSIONS Ex. Solving. the second one mean between the other two. 6. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. But evidently n cannot be fractional.
a+ and b a b 5. ceding one.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 10. n = 17. has the series 82. Find a and Given s = 44. = 83. 6? 9. Given a = . . 11. Given a = 4. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . P. Find a Given a = 7. 4. n = 16. d = 5. = 16. 14. Find d and Given a = 1700. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. I. f J 1 1 / . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = 45. 7.3. n has the series ^ j . Find w. Find d. = 17. n = 4. 13. 3. n. f? . 78. Find d. Given a = 1. s == 440. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = ^ 3 = 1. 16. Find?. n = 20. 74. T? ^. y and #f5y. 12. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. a x f b and a b. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. produced. I Find I in terms of a. = 52. and s. Given a = . m and n 2. 17. Find n. n = 13. = 1870. of 5 terms 6. s = 70. How much . 8. How much did he save the first month? 19. 15.
. P. 2. A geometric progression first. 36. . or.. or 81 315.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . 4 (1) . If n is less : than unity. P.. 24. I. The 314. .. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . +1. 108. the first term a and the ratios r being given. of a G.) is a series each term of which. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . (I) of the series 16. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . and To find the nth term / of a G.. 4. NOTE. <zr . rs = s 2 ..arn ~ l . is it (G. ratios are respectively 3. 36. . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 2 a. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . ar. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.g. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. r n~ l .. is 16(f) 4 .. called the ratio.. 4. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.. ar8 r. E. 36. The progression is a. 12. P. 24.
80. Ex. .54. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576... f.. is 16. or 7.. hence. 36. f. 1.. . first term is 125 and whose common . 9. (it. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 0. 288. . . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.. Find the 5th term of a G. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 2 term 3. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.6. 36. . 144. \ t series . first 5. . whose . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 4. 18. 576.4. 36. I = 670. 20. . r^2. a = I. if any three of them are given.72. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. (b) 1. P.. volved . 144._!=!>. 6.18. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.. +f%9 % .288. Hence n = 7. . And the required means are 18. 9.. whose and whose common ratio is 4. first term 4.. 3. Jive quantities are in.. P. 8. P. 72. is 3. 9.5. 676.l. whose and whose second term is 8. l. . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 10. 7. . 4.. . 144. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . 72. fa. i 288. + 5. 25.5. Find the 6th term of the series J. EXERCISE 1. In most problems relating to G. (d) 5..*.18. P. Hence the or series is 0. series 6. ? (c) 2. fa. series .. P. series 5.
19. s = 310. 72. 13. 36. Given r = n Z 5. n = 5. and hence ~ r .i a9 .nV> i*> !718. 42. r . 24.. 48. 14. 2. a^. J. J. 27. 243. Find a and 4. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2... Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. P. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 1. . 14. Z s. n = 5. be written If the value of r of a G. 23. . 12 terms. 15. to 6 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 7 . 25S series : 32.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. . = 3. s = 605. 1. to 5 terms. . == 160. 21. 54. J. 20.. to 6 terms. 4. >"> . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 22. to 7 terms. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 16 . Find a and n = 4. M. = 3.. 81. may be than any assignable number. + 4 . 12. . Find a and Given r = 3. to 8 terms.. J. 126. to 6 terms. is less than unity. 81.J and 270. I. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1.. a. . to G terms. of r n decreases. Find the geometric mean between 7.
.. 7.01 ^ ...272727. Find the sum to infinity. 5. ratio 15. . .072 + . 12...)7?7272 .3 + . 4. 9. I.191919. 12. is J.27777 .. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 9.3121212. 16. =A+ 10 i. P. . 2. 100.. P.254 Ex.99 . . 1. . Given an infinite series of squares. is 9.. i. 13.. is 16. = 990 ....00072 f .... . . 1. 8. The sum Find the of an infinite G.1. . 10. of an infinite G.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. P. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.555. .. 66 Therefore . = a . 14.. 2.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 6. = . The sum r..72. 1. Hence . 250. 1 r = . 3. 16.. . what is (a) the sum of the areas. = . i i J. 40.717171. first and the common term. r = j. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 8. .072. .. If a = 40. . 6... Find the value 9. 5.= _4Z* . ..Ql.. .... . of all squares ? . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.3727272 . 1.= . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. . of: 11.. and the first term is Find 17. 4.37272 ..
4. 14. 4 7.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 5. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. l 2. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 22. 21. 2 2 24. 29. . 28. 12. 15. coefficient of . 13. 17. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 11. (a2) 6. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 7 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.b) w (a (a f (1 .b ). 16. : (1 + xy. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (\ 9 . 20. 25. (s + i). a6 8 16 in . (a 100 . Find the 6th term of (x . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (xy) : 6 . /2a+Y\ 8. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a + b) . . 26. .6) 20 . 10. . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9.6) .
. aft 3 + 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 1. 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 2. a ft c = = 2. 3. 1. y 3. + 2. = 2. 2. 3.  2. 5. c if 7 . 6. if y=2j 2. 1. 5. 3. 1. 6. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 4. 1. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). if x^l. 4. (c 3. 6. 5. + c(a  c).  8 ^ 2. 4.  2. 3. 1. 3. 1. 2. 4. 1. + 1. 2. 1. 4. 2. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 5. 4 2. 4.f ac 1. 4. 1. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 2. 2. 6.a(a 4. 3. 2. 4. 2. 3. 3. 5. 4. 5.c )(fta) 1. if = = = 2. 2. 2. 1. 3. 1. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 2. 3. 5.  a)(a 1. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. 3. 2. 5. ^+^ 3. 3. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 1. 2 . 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 5. 2. 2. c = = = 2. 3. 1. 1. 6. 3. + 2. 1. 3. 24 4. 5. 2. l. 3. 4. 2. . 4. 3. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 7. ft) . if = = 2.
21. 4 y 13. 2 . 17. + 3 y 2* . 2.5 xy 3 + + 4 . x C 4 4x y + .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 3. 26. 12.7 + .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2 x2 .a 5 a . 15. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . x 3 x' 14. . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a. 7 xy 3 .a 4 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. . ' b) + 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.2 z8 4 x. (5.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . a 4 + 11 a . 11 z 4 x4 12 17.5. + 4 ?y . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 9. 2  + 12 a 8 . a /> 3. b(x (b 1.\ yz + xz.2 a?y + 3 aty .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .259 x c) .c' 2 4 / . 1.7 y 2* 4.a) . 25. 16. 2.8 3 + 7 x4 . + 8 x4 *y . ~c)(b. x3 2 a2 . 4. 4 z . c = 3.r 6 x  4 xy . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 5. 2 x 8. 8.2.x 5 4 . 9. 6. x = 4.  a) (c 2. 21. 29.10.1.4. 5. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. c)(x a} .2.8 + 2 // . 7. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x 3 11. 20. 6 a4 4 a8 . r> . = 2.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 4 x 4 . 5.7 ys. 8 . a: . or .3 xyz. if a 6 = = c = 3. 15. 2. 2. 4. 24. 1. . 41.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 7y 4 . 3.2 x?/. + 2. f 8. 40. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 18. x3 f 3 ax'2 .a8 . 10.3 a?y . a. + 4. + 1.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .
c 4 3 a.1)}] .(4 x 2 .7. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .{G * 2 .4 Vl 4..(7 x 4.(5 c . . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft 25. 33.] 26. ft.[4 x 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . .{2 x 2 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.6 x ] .c. From of 2 the 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . and . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.8 3 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .#48.4 ft) 4. f ft.3.x2 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 3 ft. 0" 30. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . x'2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.3 .(x 4.2 3 ax 2 . . Simplify 31.(5 y .2) . x8 x2 2 a'2x.5. Take the sum 4x 4. 5 10 + 7 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 4 2 x2 23. 542 x 2 and .?> x 4 20.(4 * .(x* . . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. = x y ft z.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.[4 z 8 . (*) a  c. 34.6T . c 4. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 5 4 7 12 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .x 2 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4.4. 36.1). c =x y }~ z.c.27~~7)}]. 35. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. of a. sum of . 4 . 4 4 4.4) . a  ft + c.c 3 a.3 . 7 12 .x . take the sum of G x 5 .260 19.x 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 29. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 4vTT~y 3. . : a x .2 a .2 .5 . 2 x 32.(a .a ft. c 4ft.2 x 8y2 44 .3 x .x . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. .2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 4 3 5 y/ .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.
. .(7 i + 4 r:) . 63. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 2 f [3 c 7 a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).96 [17 a.(2 a + 5 a . (. (r (1 (a.b (c .{2 a (ft .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (5 a 39.6 xy . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.JT^T+1)} + (2 .(2 .(7 a. (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 45.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (4 + 3a 2 .2 2 + 1)(7. .7).1).ac . 60. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .ab .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. . . 68. 56.r 2:c+ l)(ar. (x . 48. 57. 46. a .  2 a  {3 2x a .{2 a .0)} . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).3 c)].2 2 .(6 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).[2 .6c) (a + f c).a~^~c)K].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 53.c). . 62.{3 c .3)(*5)(* 7).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(4 d . 65. 2 : 7e)a}].2)(1 . 59. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 49.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2a . 67.be) (a 58.3 *).[4 x  5 .Z . .3 z 2 ). a {. 'J 44.6)}].3). + 4x + 5)(j.(2 a 2 .4 a . . 3 x 42. (1 ar+a. 43. 50.2 zz . 51.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (/> 4 . 13 a . 4 + 2 2 + 1).& + {.2c(V/ .rf)} + a [. 54. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .(5 y .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(2 x2 . 2 2 x + !)(* .3c).2x + 3).56. 64.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .4 a 2 + a 4 ). + *+!){> + 2). (x.5)} + (3 a 2 . 2 52. 2 ft 41.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].12).REVIEW EXERCISE 37. .5 )}] + {4 c . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. )(lz a ). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).c 2 . (1 55.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .
3y) a (* 2 4.c .n pc). (a 2 ft 2n 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.{3 a . 79.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).:y)( a.<f(p .6*y .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. xy y 2 ).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. (p 2 .(c 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 87.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c) 4) (ft 4.z\x 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). Prove the following 8 4. 90. ft /.O (a 4(a 4. 2 (x 2 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 84. 73. 1).x + y + z).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 89. 83.c)} . .c) . 91. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 86.262 69. (a (2 b)*(a 4.c . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. (.c)].am&t 4 A 2 *).ft) + 4(2 . 4 4 .5 .c) j.c) rr identities.2 (a .c) .ft) 4 . 76.3 a .2y)(.v) 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . ft 95. 71.b 4. (x (x ( + *) . ft ft ft a}.a) 2 .3 (ft . 2 + a 2 ). ar . 88.y)\x y).(a 48 8 8 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.z)(x y + z)(.r 2 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(ft 4. 75. 74. .2 (y 4.m np c .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c) 2 .9y2). . 1).2 ft}) f (3 a .(4 . 70.y + z)(x + y . 93.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 82. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .(/>  3 v)^(.(a 2) (s 4 ft.q). b 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 77.z) . ft" l Simplify 80. 92. 94. 85.y). 4. f 72. ft 78.
2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .b) 98.2y 2 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 105. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 116.3 a"+ 4.y 4 .9 x 2 . 110. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).2 xy 8 .xy 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .27 x* . 1).*) (x 8 . 121.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 113. a*. (80 a 112. 99 100. 106.(2 a 2 .5 xy).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 120.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).4 aft . 25 4 . (2< 107. r .5 b*). 102. 124.1). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(7 xi/ .16 a 6 4. 109. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 2 4 41 x 4a. (8 x* 115. 3*. 10). 114.&).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 108.y 4 ) . 117.2 2% 4. (a 8  8 68 8 4. 1O4. [10( 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.35 x 2 2 ) .6 y 4 4. 122.y 2 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 123. (. .) .(a 1 2 8 . 118. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.a".40 />) . 26 (a 4 c).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 103. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. .v/ ~ // = a: .r 4 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 2 (a+ .(x 2 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.
5 146.1) (a? . 129.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 3) = x\x . 135. 127.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).4(0 x . 143. (4 x . 148.2(j: .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).7(4 * .r + 7[or . 138.12 M 132.2(5 .2(4 .3 a:). .3).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). y (* l x. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).1) .3 x). 149.3(* + 4) + 9} . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.(x f 9). 7(2 x . o o 140. . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .a:)]}.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 10(2 x 141. .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .G) .4) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 2 4(ar .5).18 *&) (1 .(x + 3) ] .9) + 3. 126.2 7^~5] + 1).27 a 3" . 128.22.3). 142. . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 42(3ar 145. (*+ + .r>) .3) = 12 . 5(2 x . 137.264 125. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2) = 3 . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.(x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .9) 4.n . 139. . (5a: 150.7) = 4 .(1 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. . 1) . x 147.5{.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .(j a? 144.3(2 z . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 136.3) (3 x 4. 1) = 2(* .5) = 12(4 x . 3(2 x 134.2) (a: + 3).4) .2) + 2(ar + 4).2(10 x .8 6 .19) + 5 = 4 . .
j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.r + 3) .a:) + 229..3) (a: . 159. 157. (3 O + . The second contains 3 first. .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 163.3) = (3 x . =  (F 32). f^ + ^sO. = 15. will produce F. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. .4) (a . 164.1) O + 4) = (2 * . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.z) (4 . . (7 14 .24.19) + 42. 161.76. find the value of F. 5(ar x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.? . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. and the third twice as many as the first. (a.8) = (2 x 4. = 2 C. + 5) = (9 .3) (3 . a: ar a. 162. 166. 165. 153. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.2) (7 *) + (*. (a) If C.29) 2 = 1.7) (1 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. + 4) (2 x + 5).3) (3 .(5 x .5)(. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5(x . 265 152.2) a + 7(x . 2 4 . (x (x a. How many 170.5 x) = 45 x .2). 154.7) (a.2) (j? + 1) + (x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (2 .1) (s + 3). . transformed into F.5) = (3 . If the area of the frame inches.25) 2 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .9) + (a. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. + 2) + (5 .3) (j.l)(z . 160. 158. these two angles would be equal. . + 10) (ar .2 x) = (1 . (a .T)O . 155. sheep more than the 169.14) (a: + 3).2 x) (4 .17) 2 + (4 x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .6 x) (3 . The sum What 171. 156.5*) + 47. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.
186. A boy is father. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 3 gives the 174. was three times that of the younger. 188. . the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ll?/102. How many are there in each window ? . if each increased 2 feet. 4 a 2 yy 42. 176. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 7/ 191. 179. younger than his Find the age of the father. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. number divided by 3. father. A house has 3 rows of windows. . z 2 + x . and 5 h. z 2 92. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 13 a + 3. train.56. 189. 181. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. +x 2. A each 177. respectively. Find the number. side were one foot longer.266 173. + a. sister . 12 m. power one of the two Find the power of each. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. dimension 182. two boys is twice that of the younger. 15 m. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Find the dimensions of the floor. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 2 2 + a _ no. 178. x* 185. aW + llab2&. + 11 ~ 6.36. 187. 10x 2 192. same result as the number diminished by 175. 180. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 190.
203.21 a:  54. *2 234. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 218. 4a 2& 2 241.6 aq .6. 213. 2 x 2 . . 5 x 2. + 30 x. 238. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . x 219. .19 z 4 204. 2 a 8 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 3 x 2 . a: . a a: a: 237. wiy + la mx + aw. 245. 233. 217. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a: 231.77 y + 150. 8 a. a.c) 2  (a . 7x 2 225. 6 197. 229. 3y 248. . 4 m +^.(b + rf) 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq.10 y a x* . 208. .1. 206. a+a* + o a +l. 2  5 xy 13 y a.6 2 ?/ . 7a 228. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.x + 1. a. 215.6 y2 + 4. x*y 223. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . xm+l 243. 232. 60 a 2  a: // 205. x* + 8 2 + 15. . 202.3 xy. a. # 2  29 y + 120. 211. 2 a 2 . + 8. 2a te 3% ly 247. 24 2 + 2 . 16x 4 81. .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . y 2 194. 3y 2 + ary . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10. 8 a: ar. 2 200. x 5 .28. 209.64. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .22 z + 48. 239. + 3a 196. 212. 23 12. z + 5x 2 . 224. 244. 201. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.6s.8 6 2. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 235.3 xf + 3 * 2y . . a^a 226. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.12 * .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 222.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 221. (a + . 210. 195. 227. ifWy+b. a. a 2 . 216. 12 x +4.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. + 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.10 xy. 230. 3 x V .19 a . 207. 3 ap 2 .c) 2 .20 z 8 a: 220. 246. + 198. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .14 2 . a: 236.r?/f y 2 9. 267 199. 2 2 y f 1. 2 . z 2 2.
* 2 .10.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 10 x 2 . ft a. 1 x ar Find the L. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 257. z 2 267. 10 a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. + 8 x + 5. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 15 # 2 z/ /. 258.a 2 />c 2 f 3. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 252. 254.16 x . 7 ax 250. I Find the II. 269. 30 ^ . 3 ay 4. * 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. 264. 7 12 2 2 . 259.(55. x 2 + 4 + 3. + 20 x 4. x* .1 9 .36.3 x . F. + 3 x + 2. a 3 a 2 2 . of: 266.14 bx a%% 8 . z 2 268. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x* . C. 3 a% 2 . 251.18 xy + 5.120. 2 a. 5 x 2 256. 28 2 f 71 x . 3 #2 255.80. 270.15 + 30. 2 x2 .C.2 z .4 ab + 1.11 a 2 .&z. x 2 + 5 f .4.9.3 abc . a.G7 x f 33.3.2 aft*.M. 18 x 2 .11 x f 28.5 ab f 2. 261.a + 2 4.9 x + 14.48 afy 2 .r . + 8.9 x .91.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 265. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 . a 4.6 by. 6.10 a 4. of: 253.7 f 5. a: . a? a: a: // 262.x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 8 2 + 10 x .12.2/ 2 . x*y* 4.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .8.23 x f 20. x 2 + 2 x . 2 8 . + 23 x f 20. * a .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. * 2 .23 + 12.ry .ry 21.13. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. x 2 263. 260.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .15. 2 . x 2 4.73 xy . . 22x2 a.
*2 " 2 + Oge. m 4.2c a: 282. 8 .!/.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j. 289 ' . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.. + ac .rL.ar 1 279. 285 z4 n* + a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2* + 3 x* 280.J' 4 2 2 w mp .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .
^. a (: a) (x 2. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^_2*(m 308. O(ca) 306. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 6) _ ~ i 305. 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x 7. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. Lnl + ar 2 a.
. _ x8 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. } .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. (a? 4 2) 317. 1 _. 2 + y 2 319. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.ft) 2 322. . 1 x2 + + a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 1a: + y a. (1 . a: 1 313. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. .
/  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. .15 33 .9 *// + 27 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 ..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.2 +lOar 2 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . * 3a.7 xy + 12 x .y20  2y + 4 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.ll.5 a . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 20 44 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 250 5 10 2 325.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . a: 2 x* .6* t 328. 2 lOx 5x.V  + y  x 3y a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.
' 2 "l 5 . (a \ + lV. 338. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.y. w \. 7 ( ?f!?.) 2 . + ni + . 1 345. (aWi + iJ. fl.1V. 352. aj 339. 5 343. if a = 3. \5yl 341. ** i. (ar \ 346. a>74 . xi 347. a: 349 _ o.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. \x yj 340. (af2/. + l + IV. f V.. ( 342. 344. ?_2 ^ .r 5 2 . +^ a: y x . 348. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.+ r .
274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. (~ 364. 1+2 362. ar xy + yl x* 358. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366. + x x a .
370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. .
20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 1) 45 O 377. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 8  376. ^ . 4(* .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. <3 378. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . 5 {2 x 381. __4 2x 3_ = !. 5*8. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 379. J !__7. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .*2 = 15. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .
396. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.6  .75 x f .. 400. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.  J). + 4 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. . 401. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.5 x =r f . _____ . a. c .147. 40.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.25. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. b 404.8 = .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .25 x + .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. m x 398. u '2 a.2 a:  1. 399.  8 9* x ~r. ^ (a .1 .5 ^ ~ a: a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 3* 177. . f 1 1 + a 403.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 397.
he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. and was out 5 hours. 418 ~jo. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.278 410. (x . the order of the digits will be inverted. 420.c) . 18 be subtracted from the number. In a if and 422. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. Find the number. How long is each road ? 423.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. Tn 6 hours . far did he walk all together ? A . hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 421. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 411. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.
a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 433. 432. y. a.49 63). Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Which ratio is greater. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .6 8 ). . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 3 and 1J. Solve 436. z 2 y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 435.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. ax is \ by  ex + dy. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . d. a + 5. find the angles of the triangle. wi* + y= ny. Find the mean proportional to 429. 428. find : a : c. : If is one equal 434. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 431. If a b : =5 n : 7. if . and : b : c = 14 : 15. 438. 2 2 8 2 . b. a  t>. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . x 427. 430. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the length of the parts.a 2^ 8 + aft* . z2  y\ x* xy + y*.iand 22 22 I a . : i.& 5 ) (a 8 . Find the fourth proportional 426.46 2): (15a 2 .
33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 16. 8 . . x + 5 y = 49 3 x .11 7.. if 2 ft : 439. 7a?y = 3. 8 x + y = 19. 448.7 y = 25. 1(3  a. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.89 = q. x + 17 # 53. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. a: 2y= = 1 . 42 = 15y + 137. 459. 446. 5x+4y=lQ. 3 . 5z4:# = 3. 15ar = 20 + 8y.4 12 . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). ft. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 4 = 5 y + 29. 445.55 y = . a. = 25. c.(or l(*2y)=0. 449. 451. 9/> = 2 . . . 454. 3 a.*.59 = 3 z. + 5y = 59. ?/ 447. 5 2 = 7 . 21 7 = 27 + Op. 457. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.rf2# = l. . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. The volumes If their diameters. Find the value of a. 458. />(. 452. 7 442. 444. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).35. Solve the following systems: 441. a: a: + 5y). 5j + 7 7 = = 2. ft. 443. 7jr9y = 17. /) ar a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 456. 450. 56 + 10y = 7a.11 y = 95. .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 453. 455. 28 = 5 a . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 7 a: . 9ar7# = 71.
' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. + eyn.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 8 461. _ 469. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax cx by = m. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.?/ + 1 .+ =2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ax by = c \ 472.  = 2. x y 474. i = 5.7. 468. 473. ^ + i^ = 7. 465. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.c=563y. 475. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .. (or .2y) (2 = 2J.
. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 483. How much money less 484. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. the Find their ages. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A spends \ of his. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 486. age. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 481. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 487. Find their ages. and in 20 months to $275. Find the fraction. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the number. years. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. whose difference is 4. to . Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the numbers. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. fraction becomes equal to . Find the numbers. by 4. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and in 18 months to $2180. A number consists of two digits 4. and the other number least. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 485. 479. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 477. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A.
: Solve the following systems 491. z y ifi = z x 502./ f z =a. + y 5 y = 101 . a: f z = 79. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2 e. 3ar 503. 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2 a. ifi = x a. 3 a: + 5=84. 2y + 3a = ll. 492. 4 506. = 209. 496. .z = 12. a: 499. 5^ 9z = 10. 2a:f 7. 3 x 500. . = 15. 498. a: + // = 11. 494. + # +z= 35. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a. *i. 7 4#+ 3z = 35./ 504. 493. . 5 + a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 1. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. x y f z = 13. 489.z = 20. 495. \ . 7 + 2 z . 490. * + 425  = . 4z+3z = 20. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2/>3r = 4. 4 497. 1+1 = 6. x f y f z 29 . . 8. 2 2 = 41. a number . = 20. a. .5#+2z = $x a: G. z y x 25 . y Solve : x +z= 5. ~ 507. x s + y z = 18J . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . of two the sum of the digits also if number. The sum of two numbers squares is b.? + 2y = 8. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.
+ : = 1472. 523. !f == 2800. 36 + c. i=a + 6 c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. 517. ll" . z z =3a&c.
if the number be increased by Find the number. M. . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 90. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. it is filled in 35 minutes. BC = 5. they would have met in 2 hours. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. In circle A ABC. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. AB=6. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. if and L. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. How long will B and C take to do . AC in /). If they had walked toward each other. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. Tf and run together. . 532. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . if L and Af in 20 minutes. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. the first and second digits will change places. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and BE. in 28 minutes. it separately ? 531. Find the numbers.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and CA=7. What are their rates of travel? . L. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. N. touches and F respectively. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. CD. When weighed in water. 530. E 533. B and C and C and A in 4 days. 527.
AND BRITISH ISLES 535.10 marks. The values of y. the function. 540. x 2 544. a. if x = f 1. to do the work? pendulum. then / = 3 and write = 3. x 2 + x. 542. 548. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. If to feet is the length of a seconds. b. z 2  x x  5. d. One dollar equals 4.  3 x. x*. 546. i. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 2 541. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2 x + 5. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . The values of x if y = 2. FRANCE. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x *x + x + 1. 2  x  x2 . . The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. formation of dollars into marks. 536.  7. 2.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x 8 549. 543. 547. The greatest value of the function. e. from x = 2 to x = 4. 2. 545. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 550.e. x*  2 x. 3 x 539.  3 x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. c. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. + 3. . GERMANY.
r?. a: 559. J. 2 554. h. x 2 ~ 2 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. + 10 x .6 + 3 .  2 1 a: a. = 5. x* . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.r 1 561.G . 2 567.4 x 2 + 4 . Represent meters.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. ' = 8. + 5 .15 = 0. 18 x  4 = 0.3 . c. 568. \ to t = 5.r a: a: x a. If y +5 10. x 4 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 565. 562. . 3 x . 2 a. 558. 2 x 2 560. e. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .11 = 0. 564.13 = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a. 15. 556.0.4 .1 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a. z 4 .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. z 2 . 553. 557.9 = 0. j. 566. 563. 2 8 . and make the unit of the b. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. Solve// = 0. 3 . x 5 . a.5 x . if y =m has three real roots.17 = 0. i. . 3 + 3 z . g. 2.3 x . c.3 = 0. 572. a? 4 x .11 x* + + 2 8 569. // Solve y Solve y = 5.= 0.4 = 0.= 0.3 x . .7 = .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 555. 3 x* . Solve 552.r . f. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.
%) 4 (aa. 597. 4 a. + . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. x [ ?/ 577.4. xY. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 2 611. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 6 + 1) . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. a 2a.x + 2 )'2 601. jj+. 582. (aiy. 1 . 588.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.frf : 583. + ^) + (air%)8. 604.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 579. .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. a: . [ y =10. 4 (1a:) 3. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 3 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (a  8 ft) .2 6a: + 30 &c a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. f ?>) 3 591. 609. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 585 594. 599. 9  4 fSb 607. 600. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. (# 2) .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a 612. .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 5 a*. x + z2) 8 . 598. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a. a:. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 608. (a. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 3 (f.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2  2 aa: 2 . 64 a 12 603. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 593. 589. 592. + %) (a* + *) 5 . j^f = 3. (1 + x a. 595.2 2 + y. a 8 606. (1 (1 (1 . 596. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 4 .(1 .5 xy = 0. : y* or 25.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + + 4 .
371240.15174441.V250 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . x 2 641. /. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 942841. ft .8 aft 6 + 8 21G.*.191209. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 2 + 21Ga. 614. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 25023844. 644. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. + 54 'x*y* . 8*' + 24* = 32. 4370404.1024 x + a: 256.2410.53 x ~ . + 2 21 x = 100. = 87. 49042009.12 a?y + y*. GGff. 49.150. 638.49. 7) 2. 4J. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.\/4090. 650. 9a. 620. 636.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 634.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 2 + 189 z = 900. According to Kepler's law. V950484 . 32 631. = 70. 615. 44352. 630. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 639. + 112 a 8 .2. 629. *+* = 156. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. Find the square root of 619. 035. 624. 21. 9g. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. + 24 a 2 4 . x 2 . 633. Find the eighth root 617. a 642. V 635. 643. 647t x 2 648 649. 40.30. 645. VOIOOD + V582T09. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.871844. 0090. 494210400001. 628. 626. 651. (x 9 x 646. 2. 623. 637. 210. : 5. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 625 : 621. 632. find Jupiter's period. 3a. = 0. = . 622.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
707. 692. . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.a a )jr . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 695. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 2 697. 708.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.ax .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. = 0. 699.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 694. ex abc= fx 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 696. a. ax 2 698. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 706. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 693.bx . 2 702. . 2 2 .c = 0.
a: 713.44#2 + 121 = 0. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 729. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 717. 716. . Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. A equals CO feet. 3or i 16 . 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 725. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 724. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 723. 12 4*+  8. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. Find the price of an apple. 16 x* .25 might have bought five more for the same money. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find two numbers whose 719. 217 . **13a: 2 710. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. in value.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 721. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.292 709. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 727. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 722. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. How shares did he buy ? if 726. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.
41. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). .1 + x. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).X . + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 52.2 ). 46.1 f c" ). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). . 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f ^ 2).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 1 6. 43. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 38. (v/x). 34.2? 50. 37. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 40. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 33. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .1 + c. 36. 31. 39.aft* 1 + a 2*. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2)(x2 4. 42. 32. n.)(ai + &.l). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 35. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).
2V2 2V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. 761. 768.294 753. [1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x .1+J 756. 758. JU. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. \/G86 v/lGv/128.. 754. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.
14 791. 3J . 786. 13 799.12VIT.VlO.4 V(j.2 V30. 793.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. Va 809. 92VI5. . 787. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 783. 790. 16 + 2V55. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. x 782. 10 785. 103 788. + 2V21. 3812VIO. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 7512V21. 806. . c 792. . a 9442V5. 794.2V3* ^ 807. 789.
\/2y  810.V? = 813. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 818.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.  5 + V3 f 12 817. Va: . = 1. 820. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/12 a.79. 814. 836. + 103Var. 3 x + 2 . V14 a. 830. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . + ViTli + V7 .V2 ar 10.f 5 = V5x + 4. /9ar a: = 17. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .Vc^lJ . (x a: 2 ) 4 . + Vx .4 = 0. V3 f 1 V4a. 831. 819.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 829. 815. 833. 816. 812.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 811.13 = 0.g. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.
853. 8 860. x 8 2 857. 8 . a 872. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.1.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a*" & 6n . 840. z*y 8 l64a. 8 8  13 a. 8 8 848. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 876.  3x a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a 8 850. 846. . 839.1000 6. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 8 4a: 8 a. 4o. a 8 869. 875. 4 x 8 858. 844.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a. +3 4 +  4. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 868. 855.3 x . 64. 19 x 14.a. 851. 865. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 8^27^. f 12. 863.ab9 ft*. + . 64 a 866. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. f 841. 861. a l0m . 864. a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 27 y 8. 729 867. a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 856. 8 2a. a: 849. 852.12. y 4. 845. a 8 873. 6. 4 x* 847.x*y + 3x f 2. 9. V4 x 2 .3 Va: 2 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 27 862.3 . 4 a. a: . . a. . x 11 a^ J 13 854.10 = 118. 4 a: 2 842. a. 2 a: 64 y*. f b**. 8 a. . 6 2 f 3 6 s. + 1. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 18 4. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 2 f" + a/ 15.3 a:. .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 871. 2 x 3. 275 8 l. 16 859. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. + 512 y8 874. x 4 + f 2 a. 870.
883. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.y 2 + V(j. 887. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y 2 = 2 y + 2. xy + y = 32. a. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 1 x 893. . 2 . 894. y*+ xy . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 + xy = 28. a: 884. 900.Vi' + 1 1_3. . . f ?/ a: a: . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. + 2y=\2. y 2 4. 2 + 2 f = 17. + ary + 2 = 37. . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.35. x 8 3 = 13:3. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.sy = 198. 2 + xy = 10. 2 + y 2 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 888. y 2 2 8f. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 2 = 2 + 5. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 886. a. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. a: + y 2 = 34.y 2) = 20. x 882. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 3 x 2 . a# f + xy = 126. 2 .15. 2 2 = 16 y. y = 28. M1 891 1 . x a: lI = xz . . a: 2 897.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a:y . a: a. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 889.298 877. 885. 5. 878. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 895. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. z 2 898. +y f y = 7.1 = 2 a#. 901. 896.xy + y 2 = 19. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 890. x*xy. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.18. 899.
2 * 2 ~ g. 2 913. 909. 906. (a. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. (o.y) (3 y . (3 x . a: * a: a: ar 928. 914. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 921. + y = 9. 911. 912. 2 915.#y + 2 = 27. (* 918. ^ 2 . y .y) = 33. 923. yz = 24. + 2 a:y + = 243.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 5 xy = 11.2 y) = 49 2 919. Vary + y = 6. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. *y . 905. 2 2 2 916. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. + 2 ary = 39. a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. + ary = a*. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x f 2 a:y = 32. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. (!) * .3(* + y) = 6. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. or or a? a: a: . . x + y 2 = aar. 910. + a.r a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). a: a. a:y xy 929. 23 x 2 .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. y + a:y = 180.y2 = 22. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 907. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.y) (a? . + ?/) . 3 :r(3 .3)2 = 34. xy + x= 15. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. x 2 ry + y = 3. y x 2 = by.y). + y)(a.y = a(ar + y).REVIEW EXERCISE 902. x 4 299 xy z 904. = 8. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. a: y zx 12. 4 (a. + y 8 = 189. # + xy + y = 7. 2 924. y 3 2 2 922. 3 y 8 ) =1216.6.23 = 200. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 917. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 908.3) 2 f (y . * + y = 444. 7 y . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. ary y = 8.16 y 3 8 = . . 920. .x) = 21. xa 903. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.
Find the sides of the rectangle. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet.102. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the difference of 936. y( 934. Find the numbers. and also contains 300 square feet. 942. 152. In the second heat A . Assuming = y. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. two squares equals 140 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. A is 938. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. + z)=18. and the sum of their areas 78$. 935. is 3. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 943. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. feet.000 trees. 931. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. is 20. (y + *) = . A plantation in rows consists of 10. + z) =108. If each side was increased by 2 feet. *(* + #) =24. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares is 23 feet.300 930. y(x + y + 2) = 133. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. How many rows are there? 941. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. A and B run a race round a twomile course. diagonal 940. z(* + y + 2) = 76.square inches. s(y 932. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. 2240. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. rate each man ran in the first heat. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. two numbers Find the numbers. 937. 34 939. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. 944. is 3 . Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and 10 feet broader.
951. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find the number. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. that B A 955. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find the number. distance between P and Q. P and Q. each block. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. . and if 594 be added to the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find in what time both will do it. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 949. Find its length and breadth. is 407 cubic feet. 952. . and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A and B. and its perim 948. . the digits are reversed. unaltered. What is its area? field is 182 yards. overtook miles. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. Two starts travelers. 953. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. set out from two places. sum Find an edge of 954. whose 946. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. triangle is 6. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and travels in the same direction as A. Find the eter 947. 950.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. its area will be increased 100 square feet. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and that B.
. n to n terms. Find n.. f + 1 .4142 . Find n f (ft) . ^ 1 . 5. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. to 7 terms.. P. 4. 5. '. ^ Vfirst five 959.... (to 2 n terms). P.  2. 957.1 4 f j$V . to n terms. 964. !Ll^ + n . Sum Sum to infinity. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Find the Find the common 977.. = 4.302 956. 18th terms of an A.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms... \ .. 3 + 5 7 + . Sura to 24 terms. 966. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. the terms being in A.141414. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 16 962.V2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. P. J. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. . 971. Sum to 20 terms..>/) to infinity..454. x(x to 8 terms. Find the sum of 4. 9th and llth terms of an A. fourth of the unity. . 12434+ j I 967. 969. 36 963. + (iiven a +  4 d . s  88. 1 to n terms. difference.. *" 968. and 976. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 958. (x 4 to n terms. 974. Evaluate (a) . P.. 972.to infinity.. 961.321? 965. . ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 4 4 to 7 terms . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.. 975. Find an A. .3151515. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 3 . are 29 and 53. 970.v 973. to infinity. 1G series ..
1 + 2. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 0. The term. The sum 982. : + 9   V2 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. of n terms of an A. Find four numbers in A. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. is 225. 4 grains on the 3d. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . and so on..) the last term the series a perfect number. to 105? 981. to oo. 992.. P. 2 grains on the 2d.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 980. 990. and of the second and third 03.01 3. 1. 986.04 + . named Sheran. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. P.+ lY L V. 987. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. The 21st term of an A. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 303 979. Find the sum of the series 988.001 + .2 . to n terms. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . .. first 984. Find the first term. Find n.. "(. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40... 989. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. P.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find four perfect numbers. 985.001 4. 5 11.. and the common difference. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. to infinity may be 8? . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .
The sum and product of three numbers in G. The fifth term of a G. 1000. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. ABC A A n same sides. 1001. of squares of four numbers in G. (6) the sum of the infinity. in this square a circle. at the same time. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. . 1003. inches. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ft. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. P. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 512 996. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. P. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. AB = 1004. 999. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. P. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The sum and sum . is 4. 997. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. 995. and G. areas of all triangles. are unequal. Two travelers start on the same road. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. prove that they cannot be in A.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (a) after 5 strokes. are 28 and find the numbers. P. and so forth to infinity. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. many days will the latter overtake the former? . If a. find the series. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. in this circle a square. 998. Under the conditions of the preceding example. c. 994.
1014. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1008. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.o/) 14 . 1009. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. a: 8 7. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. + lQ . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.l) w f . 1011. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1012. Find the middle term of ( .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 2 ) 5. ) 1021. 1006. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Write down the 1 5a  6 V . (1 1018. (12 #) 7 . Expand  2 a. .
.
. . Brace Bracket Character of roots . . .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . ... 8 .. . t 53 120 .. 9 ** .... .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. Aggregation. numerical ... 97.. lowest ratio " '* ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. 232 mean progression .. . .... 232 169 807 .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . 9. 246 91 " multiple. .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . .... . 129 54. ...130 .] Abscissa Absolute term .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 19. 129. ... . 158. . 37. . quadratic .. 123 .. 54. linear literal Common ** * difference . simple simultaneous .. . . 112 54 54 251 .. .. ..108 160 " . graphic tion of representa . . Checks Coefficient 20. . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.193 11 .. . . . .178 Completing the square . ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . signs of Algebraic expression .
..C Multiplication . 114.. Like terms Linear equation . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .. Geometric progression . Negative exponents 11 . 184 54. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 227 . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 63. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Product '* 76 Infinite. 109 102 . . 17 65. . 189. . . 243 7 .. . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . exponent . 205 . .. 195 33. . 227 geometric . L. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. .. numbers . Inconsistent equations . INDEX 8 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .808 Exponent Exponents. Insertion of parentheses . 120 Member. 212 . .. directly. ...105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 241 123 geometric . 84. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 45 Laws of signs . . first and second . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . .. . . 91 . addition of " square of . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. . law of Extraneous roots . . Known numbers . 143.31. .. . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 112 . . P . 180. Mathematical induction . . G. inversely 122 numbers . 23 10 91 102.108 Minuend .. Imaginary numbers . . 45. 45.. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 9. . 253 28 70 1. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 42 7 Independent equations Index . .. 34. arithmetic .
309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . polynomial .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. . .. absolute 54 Variable . 129.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. Sum.. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... . 4 155 9 " of . 45 Trinomial 240 .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... ..... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. ... 9... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... ... algebraic Surds ... 27 17 Unknown numbers .. .. .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
. 1916. Reprinted April.COPYRIGHT. Published September. 1917. 1910.A. 1910. 8. NorfoooS J. Gushing Co. U. Set up and electrotypcd. December. 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Norwood.S.. August. Mass.
C $60. 2. 17. 85. 18. 256.000. 2 ~ 15. 7.000. _ 32. 19.3.  1. V 23. 1. 11. 22. 1. Australia ft. 25. 20.000 negroes. 7. 576. 11. 20 jo. 5. 25. 2 5. 6* 16. 6. 8 ft. }. 3. 28. 3. 10. 23. 48 ft. x. 17. 18. T . 15. 16.000. 1. 12. 2. 512. ^. 7m. $ 1 50 10. 2. 2. 27. Page 8. 0. 10. 1. 29. 9 = 4. 8. 21. 192. 7.  22 20. 6.. 12. 5.000. 7. 5. 11. 10. 2. is $10. x. 12. 4.. 6. 4.2. 14. 27. 13 d. C $ 16. Page 1. 16. 16 in.000. 14. 15. arithmetic. 1. 9. 32. 73. 30?. A Bl 7. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 2. 16. A 38 mi. 7. 20. 12. 10g. 49. 30. 3. 6. 18. 10. A .. 106. Multiplication. 25. 19 4. 13. 13. 16. 5. 10. 16 in. 9. 1. 14. 9.  2 p. 10. 3. 1. $100. 5. Page?.12. . 13. 3. 16. 6. 25.8. 12. 4. 18. 6 yd. 1. . 13 S. 6. per sec. 13..C. 20 B. 14. 36. B 10 mi. 2. 28. 16. 3. 16. 9. 3* 7. 8.000. 9. 11. 11. 4. . 24.000. 19. 3 below 0. Yes. + 1. 150.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 10. 1. 12. 2. B $80... 3. 14. A $90. 29. 6. 16. . 8. 3.150. 13 V. 22.. 3. 26. 6.. Page 13. 8 13. 18. 59. 6. 1. 1. 49. 4. 12. 1. b. 6. 17. 9. 9 16  larger than 7. 3. 27. 1 16. 32. 9 m. in 12. 14. 14. 6. 12. 5. 1. 18. 3. 21. . 8. 72 = = 216. 2. 15. 17. ft. (a) (/>) 1. 16. 2. 2. 3. 5. 5000. Ot 15. = 5 81.$9400. Page 4. 3. B $4700.1. 8. 20 \. 144. c. 9 14. 8. 89. sign. 19.000. 24. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 14 11. 16f 2. 3. 10. 4. loss. 210.. 24. 32.  1. 14. B $20. i . 12. 6. 2. A 15. 126.  13. 128. 9. 7. 3.00000001. 4. 3. 2. $40. 13. Not 5. 7. 37 S. South America 46. in. 64. sign. 12. 20. 3. 37.000 Indians. 115. in. 9. 8. 26z. 5. 7. 2  Page 8.21 24. 7. westerly motion. B $ 128. 3 m. C $1(50. 0. 15. 21. 1. 17. 20. 9. 32. 1. 15. 2. $160.
28. 3. 35.  11. 26.  3. (ft) Page 2. 8. 19. 34. 9. 15a.~4. 5. 13. 28. 2. w. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). It. 3rf 27. m 24.4 ft. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 38 ab.  0. 33. 12. (a) 50. 31. 12. 0. 17.'J.ab. x^ 20. . in. 17.9?/2 8. in.5 (ft) sq. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. Page 21. 17.94(>. 15. 14. 27. 8. Page 7. 7. (a) 200. 13. 9. 13.14 sq. 12. 15. ft. #1111. 314 sq. 14. Va'+Y2 8^2 .ii ANSWERS Page 11. 14.<>Gq. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 12. ft. 18. 27. 8. 0. 15. 39. (b) 135 mi.x. a2 4 15^44. 0.  40. 11. 5. t. 38. 31. 35. 18. i:5. 30. 0. (r) 2. Monomial.000 . ^. 19. ft f 19. 1. 50. 4 9/^/rl 2. 22.000 sq. II. 17. yyz+xyz*. 32. (r) 2G7.. 17. 30. 7. 8. 12yd. 3. 20. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. I. 20. 19.1. ft' 3 . 04. 13. + v> 2 . (r) 78. 4. 21. 14. 00 24 04 ft. _ 4 . 36. 16. $3000 Page 6. arty 1 20. 24. Page 31. 14:). m + 3(a. . + 5. mi. 11. 3a. ??i??. 8. 9. 1. sq. 6<t. 29. = 81. Binomial. 1. ft. <i~ 26. 1. 21^. $80. WIN + wiw. ft. 24. 2. 3(c4a). ^). +/2(/. 237.  1. 1.4  2ft 2 33. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 27. 4. 14. jrif 4 9. 2. 2oVmf?i. 29. 10. 25.r~ f 34. 13 cu.5f> sq. (a) <> sq. (a 4 4. (ft) 12. 5x+3.. 22. 16. 51 f. 5. 15. 41. 12. 22.. . 26.GOG. Polynomial. 23. 3 a* + 2 at*. 6. 3. 173. 22. ]*. 37. 33. (a} 100 1(5 cm.'JO ft.32 c2 > ft 3 .  12..ft. 0. 30. 20.ft) 4. 7 7. r+l. 11. 12. 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 10. r/ \(\xyz.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 28. 57. 2. 27. in. 21. 1.rty8. \'\ 4. 92. 3. 22( 19. 42. 3. (ft) mi. 27. 58. 8. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 4 y/ . . 21. 43w//2 17. y. 13. .. 3. 3. 9. 25. vi 14.r 2 . :J!>r'. 16. 7. 6. 3. 20(. 7. 1. 13. 14. 5. 27. 25. Trino inial.a . + ft). 0. . 104. 49. o^ft.6) 38. 2. (59. (ft) 7. (ft) $40. 9. 8. 6. 0. 36. (c) 8. . Pagel4r.. 16. 5. 2x' 2 5 . 2. c. 0. 0.900. :. 5. 32. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 4.. 3 . Page 18. ft n. 10. a ft c. 35. 21 a 3 4 10. 2ftx.. f  5e 35.. 31. 8. 15. 11. = ()501. 23.. 18. 5. 4.r f 15. 240. Polynomial. .  xV 3 y... 3. 7. 32 2 ftc. 5. 12 a. 16. a 32. 15. 4. in. (c) S(i. 14. 18. 1. 34. //'. r:A 29. (r) 2000 m.. 1.  2 4 13 ft 2 . Page 23. 4.q 4. (a) r>23ifcu. ft. rt. .
19. . 13. 16.. ?/i 13.h.4 d. 21. 28. G. 14.a'2 . 3 a3 & 41. 1. 3. 15. ?>4tl 53. 4.4x. 2. 7. 2 4. c. m*  n*. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 814. 18.1 . 2. 17. 2 2 2 6.8(c + a). 8 b. 1 + 45. . s_r>a5. 35. Page 28. 55. 34 39. :5 41. 7. . 20. a  49. a2 24. 2 a 37. &.. + 8. w* ( . 14. 1. '  . \ :{ 2 a 48. 10. . a + a. 5. 2 a f 6 414. 25. 2x 4 a 13. a2 9. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. j)(g1.2 . _5a<>&43c. c2 . a4 4 4.a~. . a 3a 4 2 &. 2. 6.x f 1 2 . 2 4 5 2 a3 1.c. 10.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .2 57. 2 y' 4 .(2 x2 .  G J8 r  4 a <?.1. 2 .abc. 0. a 4 + ft. 30.7. 38. 14. + 2y. 6. 2// 16. 25 47. 4wipg>' 27.  b. 1. .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.3x 2 2 tf. 12. 4. 4 21. 8.r 2. . 25. n*.a f 54. 2 17. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.2 a2 2m 2 4. 2. a a. 4. (w4w)(ww).  12. 8. 7  a + 2 + c. 10 m. a 3 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 12. ar. 7. ?> 22.2 a. ti. 2 3. 2.5. 31. (5x47 3. 5. . 2 + a4l).'U4j>. a 3& . a' 4ab + ?/. 29. 4ft ~. 2 2.  14 afy . ii\ 22. 5. 22.4c 3 8 8 J. 50. 11. 2. t).3 6. r. .11. . 25. x a8 1. _ Page 30. 3 m. 31. a 10w. 3 a . f ft 9. 15. 24.5 4 2 3 ?/ . M + 10.aft. 11. 36.  17. 43. 2 6. . 3. f 2 ?/  2. 20. 2m + 2w. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 17. Page 8. 51. 5 2 Page 29. 1 4.5 z?/ + 3 y . Page 44. 12. 21. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . .l. 37. 8. ( 7. 56.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. . 7. 2a: 2 4x. 5.r. 2a. 3. a 6 2 . 26.2. 24 b 46. 8 . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .a . 22. Page 7. 20.(7x2 Ox2). 14. 15. ft Exercise 17. 6. 9. 2. 16. 13. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 40. 36.a*. Exercise 16. a + (ftc4df).4.  23. .6 x + 0) 16. 0. 59.  1. 32 w 2 w. + 6. c. .2 ft 2 r2 10. + a 2 f 2 a 4.Oa: + 10. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 1. a. ^ <. 7  # + 12.  4 b 17 y*. 6. 0. 11. 2. 5x 2 rt ft. 24.  b* 4 r 1 . 2m. !  </ . 10. a f 2 f 2 9. a). 4. x3 . 8 8 . 26. 4r 2 . 32. x  + 3z. 42. lOrt 15w4. 34.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 4. 2 3x f z. 2. 2 . 21. 364c. ri\ 18. 4. 12. 26. 24. a  ISjfat. 19. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 19. a 52. 18. 18. 10 x. mn. + 4 c.ws 2 ft) . 33. G a bd. 7 a5 1 . 2. 3 Ji 8 . 8 + 2 a . ab a.  a: 2. (mn} 11. ?/. 58. (yz~d}. w 17. 1. . (2n' 43p 47 ). 1.
. 19.44 aWc 16 abxy.32 y s s G . 37. ll 2 i. 10. 1. 23. 4.19p" + 19^ 10 . ^^ = 20. . 30. 3. 29.19 + 2. 29. 16 lb. 22. 108. 24. 120. 24. 7. 19.2. Page 7.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 16. 13. (+3)x6=+16. 161b. 17. 24. 23. a*b*c. 20. 35. 2. . ?> 4 . 8. 17. 11. 6. 343. 2. 3. 2 ). 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 10. 15 lb. 27. 28. 18. . (x f ?/)  a 12 10.36 35.18 w w + 10 WI M . 7. 3. 2*8f x2 6x4. 18.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 9 13. 12 ^. 25 4 4. . 15. 11. 216.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 3300.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 16. x2 xy42^. 34. 25. 15. 1. 21..32. 34. 9.6) =a2 31.6 2 . 4 a2 . 27. 12. 42.20 xyz . 4 fc. +. 0. 5. 40 r 2 . 20. 17.64 190 p6. a. 3(*+0 + 2). 20. 2 w +2 2 . 22. + 7. 18. n (a6) 125. Ox a 5 . Page 5. 21. 31. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 30. 9 w 2 + 13 n .. 18.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 18a% y. 1904. 31. 770.. 33. 27. 22.11 xyz . 1400. Page 3. ! 2.15. 30. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 4 jcy*z*>. iSx8 . ISartyW e*f*tj.21. 15.8 12.12. m. ci 5 . 28. 8 . etc. 60. 34. . 66 39 k* . 4.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . +15. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 2 2 2 . 2 . 3 a 2 46. 19.:>/ . Page 38. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 13. 4aWy. 16. 18> ^* = a . + 58 . fa 2. 90. 127"'. Page 36. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. 32. 4200.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 6. 17.21 a 3 c2 21. 6 . 52 + 6s 12. 13. 15. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 10.26. 33. 38wiw. 2. a: . a. 32. 19. 11. 14. 14 m 2 . 2 ). 10. 102. 1. 23. 12 x2 2 . 2''. .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 0. 64. 26. 16. 15.69 rt + 21 132 + r . a 8 . 25. 16. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. f 26. 11.14 w 2 2 .>(/ r .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 2 7t A. 3 a 3 . a + ft. 28. 14. 16 51. 27. 14. 4. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. . 30 j9 jt?g j . 4 a8 .(3x2_4^+7). 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 20 aW. 24.7(50. 8. 2. 2 8 xy f 4 a. . 1. 13. 12.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 7G . 2 a2 (y 2 . 1. 22. . 1. 30. 84. 8. 30. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 108. 6. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 33. 216. 14. 36. 83 In + 1 n*. ft 17. 76 8 a' 1 . 60. . ?/ . 9. 26. + O4 66 . 13. 25. 5. 4. 42. 6. 1.28 p'^/.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . //.16 x2/ 5 4.25 + 14. . 360. 29. 38 a*b 6 : 24.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .12. 7.r% 2 2 ry. 20. 23. 2 * 80 . .16 a 2 + 32 a . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.. 9. Page 35. 6". 210. 4. 25. s 9 ww. 8. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 28. 14f 5. 18. 161b.1. 20. a. 27.000. 21 a'&c. 30 n?b*c*. 12. 5aft(a 126 2). 24. 18. 3. 21. 30. 04. 29. . 4. 66 8W 34. 2 ll9HH 2) + .14 . 15 q\ 6. 8.
10. 14. 34. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 56.009. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. .ab .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 23. 4 x2 13. 10. (n 2 5. 6.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 40. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 441. . Om2 4 6m 6. 2 a' y' .10 x + 25. 35. . . 2 12. 40.994. +4 34. 37. 14. 33. 3.606. 10.6 y4 10.020. 19. 2 0)(p + 5). 9990. y. x 4 ?/4 + ab . + 2 9. 44.^V"' . 2 (5 a 3). 42.m 30 6 4 1. 1. . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. n2 a4 6. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 1). a 2 .996. 30 x + 19 x3 . 10. 39.p132. 10.15. . 31. w'n 2 //^ + 25. x2 GiC+5.^ + a? + 1. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 8. 6. 30 /><. . 29. (a + 4) (a + 2).35 ab 9. + 4 a +4.001. Page 12.54 p 2 + 81. 36.5 ~ 81. .84 a' 9.. 10 a' 2 . 41. 3wi2 m Page 42. 1. (a (3 54. fo*. 55. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 41. p 2 . . 12 x2 .000. 20a 2 21a + 4. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).2. 2 4 2 2 64 . 29. 2 . . 2). + 7 6)(3a~76>. ft' 11. 2 fr .x2y22. 1.ANSWERS 28. +  m' 1. (w+4)(m4).5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 24. 2 62 V2 132. 8.8. 10.49. 40. G a6 2. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 10. x*2^f I. 53. 2 . 10. 166.r* 2 30. 45. 990. 7.00 + 37. Page 39. 7> . 35. 15.2 y*. + 10 + 121 y*. 11. 18. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 9999. .14 jp + 49. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2 1: 21.3. (p 2.r . 8 a W . m 3 j) 3 .6. 21 2 .020. 19. ~ 6 20 . 37. 27. 2. 33. 36 a 4 . 25 25.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 5. 34. 28. 4 + 25 q*.25. 999. 4x21. ^/> 8 4 . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 27. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. .201. . 5. 17. 998.000. 52. 16.4 a&+ 4 &*. 2 a 2 + a . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 57.10 35. 1. 14. (w4)(w + l). ab. 9801.009. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 24. 39. 1. 38. r. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 32. + 3)(3).^. x4 28. a + 25.r . 31.ri 17. 33. 10 a 4 ?. a4 4 ?/ .<* &2 + 106 + tt + .2 x + 2 x.6 xy . a + 56. a' . 2 +10s281. n + 2. a3 0. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. ) 4' 6/ 49. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 4 . 32. 7. 2 4 a + 4. 9. 4 21. 10. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 10. 30. 4.810. a + 25. 9. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 6' . 26.2 6 + 13. 36. 51.1. 9 4 /> .6 x2 13. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). + 12. 4. lflrt 2 8 + l.004.4 12. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 25.20. 7.008. V + o ft . a2 ' + 48Z100./ . .. 25 a 2 6 2 . +   5). ?/H)0. ab . 1. I/). . 4. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 4 . 4 2 //. 15. (m + 6)(m3). 11. 8 38. s rc 47. 10. ^' J  7 f 12.404. m 2 . 2.16 a3 f 50. 484. 3. x 48. 36. 26. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . ' 46. 2 j3 Z .4 n.712. 31. 8.500. x* . p4 + . ^V^4 . .098. + 4 t*. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. . 7 .
3. 2 . 3. 2 4 3 9.10 2 + z 2 410. Page 51.r?/.21 2 2 f + . 1. .rw.3 a 41.  5 z* . 2 12. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 12. 5. _ 2 a . 14.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.2 ftc . 8.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .1. 8. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.> 10. 1. y 7. ??.3 3.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 2 ? 14 . 1. // 19. a 4 4 ft. 2 ?/ 4. 16. ft* ft / . 75 a 2 29.9 d. 6. a 2 . 1. r 7. c 12.  10. 21.24 . 8 ?/ . 14 r 2 . 7 r . Page 22.1. 49. /r . ?/2.23. 2. 3 a. c3. ft ? ft' ft ft. abc 7.3 5. . + 3. .r?/ j/. 4. 8 x . 13. 4. . 18. ft 17. as _ 10 16. 13. 22. 5^418(7. 10. 8. 6.8 yn .8. . 5 a  (5 ft.  12 y 25. 12. 125. 12. i 9. . . 16. Exercise 27. 12. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 4.6 :rs 4.15 21.rw f 8 . 16. z. . 1/*.27 x 2 4.25. 4 c m . 8.x^. 26. . . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.2 ar.15. 5. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 11.VI ANSWERS 43. 4ft. 2 a 3 ft.000. 1.25 c . x 4.+ 77 15. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 24.2 wZ 4.y3. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. .30 ftc. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. aft. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 12. 4 d 2 4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 11 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 9.8 y. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 17.1. 7. + 4.2 aft 4. x 2 + 2r f J. 14. yfl. 2. Page 48. 4xy + 13 <) . 10. 3. 4 a* 4 9 11. '. w . 13. 2. Osy. 50. 46. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 20. 5. 9. 4 a 2 4. :r !>.2 ac .5 mp. 23. 21. aftc 52.n.r .2. 10 ft. 15. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .29. r/2 4. 8.3 ry. 8 r<ft 4 2 .1. 2. a 8 4. 44. 13. 47. 2 1. 4 x. 4. 5. 8 ?/ . 2 4 2 x 4.lit x + 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.2 2 . 6.r'^ 15.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. l 4 . 7a3ft. 1. . 15. 13. 2. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. m L 4. . 13. 4. 5. 10. 2.34. 9.5 a . .  3 c. 8. 11. 6.8. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 5 4 a Oft. a.w. 6. 4x43?/.2 . a 10.2 2 2 8 . 135. 19. + x?/ 2 1. ti'jry1 7. 19.2 . 4.9 4. x4.1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 4. 2 ?/' . 5. 1000 1000 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 3*y2 w + 1. r//.3 x 2 2 4. G. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 5. 2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 20 15.1*5 2 r 2 . 17. . 5. Page 11. 5. aft 12.3^V.  ./ 4.1. 3.2 . Page 7. i 2 tji. 01. 9.r" 20 S? . 1. 4. f>r* 4.r ?/ ??i ?).12 aft 4 20 ac . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 18.  11. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. .7.2 1 //. 3 aft 20. 4 ac. 2 .r' ~ 16. 17. w 2 . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.4. ft.10 xy*. 3. 3. m'2 3. 14. 14. 2 2 + 2 a. 9. j) . +w . 6x 3.1. 14.2 <</. *3 y 4 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . Page 13. sr 11. 4 pq.5 n*. r ft.
!). 20.  6 10. ct. 20. y 50. 3x2. 100 14. + f + b 2. 4. ? 43. 24. 22. I. 4 f 39. 16. 9. 47. 23. ( a f 4. rn mi. 0. Page 13. 4(a ft) c = 8. x y $ 6 yr. 10 >_&. + 3 = 2(3* . + 4x 3y 34. 39. (</) 2a. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 44. Page 61. v (6) 2x. 11.r ct. 60 25 1. Page 40. 43. 7.. 5. d.. 10. 37. 5. 1. 4. </ 20. 5. r>?imi.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 19. 2. Jj12. 3.(3x+ = rraxlO. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 28. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. d + !. 21 2. 46. 36. ft. ft. 100 d ct. }f. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 7. . x. 6. x 49. 11. 10. 00. 29. 17. 100= ^. 12. 30. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740.ab a. s. 2b 22. 25..(3x  700) = 5. (2 a. 100 2.r1. 2. "mi. 800 = x + 1300. ^ 12 sq. f = eZ 2 x. (a) ' 12. ct. y yr. 13. lOx 10 + w.000. 23. . 5. / + y + a// 12 yr. . 6. 32. iL*. 16. 33.ANSWERS Page 9. 8 n  10 yr. 2. 18. 2. 7. 44. 18. ft. sq. 7x 2 Page 21.  1$.  9 = 17 a. 35. 4^ = 100. 50= L 100 15. m+ 11.. m +~m 3. 38. 4. 57. 8. <>. I. 17.  />) a = all. (> 27. 12.7).x700.6 = *. 41. 13. X 60. 14. 11. 1. 2 ct. f 6)(o 62. 4. 6. 3. f (I. 4. # + 20yr. xy ft. 40.100. 6.p+7. vil 56. 3. 36. 17. 25. 10) + = (a) 2 x . Page 6. 42. 19. a 10. . 13. 34. r tx mi. 2=10. 58. 2b. fix. 5. 6. 0. 16. 37. 30. a 8. 1&. (c) 2x. .rr2. 26. 10. 15. 2x + 35. 8. 45.10) 100. lO. 59. . 10. % 4. '^ . x 48. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. x + 1=a. x = m. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 7. 10 yr. y 100 a 24. 2. 7. 1. 2. . 10 x sq. 38. 1. n M.  2\. 3 9. 22. x 2y 10 act. 33. 15. + 3x + 2y + 32. l. " lir. 5. (>. 3x  1700) = 12. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 7. ct. b. 14. y ?>i x + 26. 9. b. (d) 2a + 10 = n. + 10 b + c ct. 1. 7. Page 31. 41. 29. 10 a. 27. 20. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. ] 2 ri 42. 'nj 100 a 28. = 5 ?i x 460. 31.
6. (a + 4)(a + 8). 3x (3r.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 10.13.. 5 lb. 150. 3. 8. (y8)(y + 2). 7.. 90. ?(g ? g+ 1). 6. 8.22.000. 4. . 1. 8. 8 2 19. (y 13. 13. 11 pV (2 p8 . Ib. 14. 20.. 2. 10. 10. 10 Mass. 1200. = _?_(2ar + 1). 2 2 2 5. 72. 10. (y7)(y + 2). 25. 7. 10 yd. + 7)(y3).. 11. 6. 10. 7. 78. 4. 8 in. 5$ hr.. 6. . 13. 1. 50. 10 yr. 12. a 12. 68. 20 yr.6). ( + 4)(*2). 12.5p + 7 g ). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 24J. 55. 9. 5 Col. 10 Cal.000 ft. (a + 6) (a + 3). 40 yr.0. 7. 70^. 30. Y. 8.16. 2 3 6 7. 12.10. 3. 10. Pace 65.. 11 w(w' + wi . 30. 1 lb. w (/) 64. 6. 70. 5. (p + 7)(3a5&).000.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.24. 78. 12 mi. 1250.79. 14. 1313. 71. 15 yd. a a (a 8 a+l).000 Phil. 23. 13.. . 14. 480.(5z . $40. 25 yr. 74. 9. 100. 8 12.411. 8.. 29. 4. (a + 5)(a + 6). 2. 11 in.. 18. Page 7. 82 mi.2). (6) (6 a 30) =20. 4. 2. 14. 160 lb.210^.000 Berlin. 100 1. ^ . 13. 7a*fe(2a & l).000. 15 mi.  PageSO.000. 1. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.000 N. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 20. 15 in. (c) ^ v ' . 4. 2. 16. 6. 18. Oaj(o62cd). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 9.000. 17. 30 mi.5. 80 A. 7 hr. 05. (m + n)(a + 6).5. 9. 15.11. Page Page 480 12. 5.. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 5pt. 15. 5.2.3. 15. Page 79. Page 7. (ro3)(w2). 15.3aftc + 4). 7. 7. ~=90. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 1. 2 2 ?/ 21.1). 67. (a5)(a4). 6. Page 5.y"). 8. 1. 300. 3. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.8. (y + 8)(y2). 600. 2. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 20 yr. 5.. 45 in. 200. . 12. Page Page 4.000 ft. 1. 25. 4pt. 3. 30 yr... 22. 3 (a +&)(*. 90 mi. 200.000 gold. 2$. 9.. 9.000 pig iron.. 20 yd. 12. by 12 yd. (e) i* + A. 17. 13. (a 4) (a. 9. 9 in. 3. 18. 14. 2). 10 yr. 8. 2.000. 15. 3. 10. 11. 3 hr. (z5)(z2).000 copper. 21. 5. 250. (yll)(y4). 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). Page Page 4.. 2.0. 20.7. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 4. 85 ft. 75. 11.3). 6rt 2 11. (*4)( + 11. 11. 1200. 52. 19. 6.3. 14. 8. 42yr. 1. 3. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .21. 180.000. 28yr. 12.
+ 3). (a. x(x +y)(x y). Yes. (m + w) 2 5. 12.2). (15ay2) 2 . 26. 1. 3.2 by2 6. . 32. (a + 8)(a3).2 y). 3a. (az + 9)(ox2).c 2 ). No. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (9y4)(y + 4). (5x . (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 27. 9. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 34. (2yl)(y + 9). (a a: 19. 13x7. 25. 11. + 0(90 Page 85. 10. (a 6 6) (a 4. 11. . (4 13. 3. 35. Yes. 23. . (13a +10)(13a 10). 23. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 12.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (w ~ n (x . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 22. + 9^)(oxy . 17. (2w+l)(ro + 3).11 ft)(a6). No. . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).1). 31. (3a. (0 + 6)(66). 4. Yes. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (6n + l)(+2). 35. 19. (2o + l)(2l). (15z2y)(x5y). 29. 23. 29.7) (a. 8) (a. 9. (* + y)(zy). 10. 216 aft. . 2 17. 17. No. Yes. (4y3)(3y + 2).r2). y) 2 29. 2. 22. 9. (g . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 7. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 14. Yes. Yes. 27.. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 10(a . (m7n) (a. 20. 2 No 4. 18.9*). (y + 4)(yl). 2 2 15.5y)(3a. 26. 22. 24. Yes. + 4) (a. 7 6) (a 10 6). y(x. (4al)(a2). 34. 30. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 2). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). . 18. No. 8. + 3)(c44). 25. 8. 25. 40 x. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 21. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 100(x. 6. 2 3 by2 Yes. + 5) a. 23. Page 82. 31. (4a. 14. 24 9. a. (:52y)(2a!3y). 10.4 6). 14. (5a +l)(5a l). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 25. a(2u. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 3. f 2). 16. 20.3)(z2). (y8) 2 2 . (2 a? 4. 103x97. 10 a 2 (4 .2 ft). 8. ix 18. . (3#y)(+4y). a . (<7 20. 17. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 7. ( 2 4 19. 24. 33. 15. 30. 24.y) 2 aft. Yes. 28. 4. (3*2)(. 33. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 36. 28. (2xl)(x + f>). 11.  x (5 a. . (5wl)(m5). Page 83. (2 *+!)(* 9). . .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 28. 100 (a. (6 a. (10a + ft)(10aft). + 8)(g3). .1). 21.1). 3)(3a. (w + 20)(w + 5).1). 1. (ay8)(ay3). 6. 27. a*(5a f l)(flr . 5. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 12. Yes. 9. 21. x\x 24. 7. 1. 16.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 26.* (2 y + 3)(y.6) 2 2 . Yes.+4 y)(3x4 y). .11 6) (a 4.4p). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx).6) 2 1. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 25. 16. 19. 15. (w* (3a26). 2. 3(x + 2)(zl). . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 10(a + ft)(aft). 21.   . + y + .y4 ). (a (p8)0> + l). 9. Page 84. (m + n +p)(m + wp).3). y) (a. Yes.8). No. 13.7)(2z f 1). (ft + ll)(aftll). 32. 13x(a + ft)(aft).4. (7 a + 4) (2 a . + 2y). 5.ANSWERS 16. (x + y4 )(x . Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al). (4 18. 26. 10. 2. (a 3 + 10)(a. 4 (a . 20. 22. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 10(2 30.2).
2.4). l. ?i(w 4y) . 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4 a8 . 15 M. a 4. 28.3)(x 4. 4. 6. (a &4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). a + a b. .'})(c . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . Page 89. 27. 6. 14. 40. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (.?>) H.n). 3(. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (^ + ?>_8).y).4. 2. ( rt 23. (!__/>). 4 a s &8 .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). y(2x?/).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (x. 7. 6 f c). ( y). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (w4w) 2 1. 2. 6. 35. 8.4).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. x(x f y)(jr .&).1). (14. a8 . + 3. 8x. 2 2 10. Page 87. ( { &). 4 3. Page 90. (5^4. (^ 7. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 11..e 4. 3x(x?/) 4. + 2 //). . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). fi(c426).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 6.7)(^ {I 12. y). . ?>). (f> + fo 7. 5. 7. y6. (c.8) ( (16. (r420(4 10. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . x . 30.&). 2 . 2 + .) j). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).y)(fi a . y )(. 14. 9. 17(x43//)(x2y). 41.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 24x sy s 9. 2 2 3 . 2. ofc)( fid). 2 k (wi 4. (7/1 2) (m 41).8) n 43*). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).X 5.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (a 9.'J)(' . (m  I)' 6. 24. (5 26. 4. 8. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 4). 13.2). . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 15. 8.2).y '2 2). (x//. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 12. Gp).y. 1(V/ 88. 4. 36. 6.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). x  1). 2 21. a 4. a x 3 10. a 41. Exercise 46. 16.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 22.  (w' 4. 17. 3p (^9)(j) 4).'/)('< 4. 8. Page 92. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 16. 39. 8. 11. 13 x 8 2 . 1. 42a 3 x. 38. Page 86.7s) (2 a. a (a + 2 6).2)(x 1. (w * .^ 48. ^ .?50)(xt/z.!) (x42)(x2). x 4. 37. 11. 32.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 3 x4 . (5 31. 2. r x 2 */3 . 2 y) ^ . 7. 7. 4.5 m2 x2. a 2 (a9).36). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 11. 4.b.8). 4.l)( a 25. (5a+l)(9a). 14. 10(8x' 4l) 4.1). 3. 2 8(w . (a />. 5.1) 3. 2 1. 13. 5 x8 3. 13( 33. b) (r 4. 12. . 8. 18. 4. ( (<> r4y3 .3. 8. 5.9). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. .3. 10(2 (3 4. 42). ( a ^)(^3. 19.?/). 5  (2 2 . 10. 5. 14.4. 4  9. (> 1. 9. 8).42 x 4.2 y). 450. 2(m4l)' . 15. 13. (* _ 2 )(a 4.0+ 12). n  r)(5a 10. (2x7)(x 2 2).  29. (a 4. 4 6. 2 (a 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (16 4  2(5 n . 7. 20. 7. (2 a ~ f> b 4. Page 12. ah}. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 6. 12.  WIM. Exercise 47. 4. x43.
x 22.  1). b ! 21. 18. x 12. a 10 25. + &)(&) ( . ?_!&. a 23. +5 1.6). 6a2&(rt6). 13. + y) (a: y). 1).ANSWERS 10. x 24. 30(3 2 (a 15. + &) 2 ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . // m+1 !+*?. (a2)(a + 2)2. 11. 2(2al) + l). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. +8b a 4 3 / ^.
xy 43. 6a5f^. w1 + ac w 4 7. ^~ 29. . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. A^. 2 a. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . + lH + . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . Page 100. 1. + 2H 1 ^. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 4 L 8 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. c 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 26. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 28.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ' 2 7. 0.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. i^. 4.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . a 5. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.  **/* + 84 _. 30.50 ~ 1/2 . 7. 4c 10. i. 6. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 11.
 V o 4. 46. a 17. 1. pf n 6 1. 0. x\. 1. 33. 16. n m a + 13. 11. 0. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5. 41. J. 34. 42. 3. 3. 12. 26. 7.ft . ^_. Page 106. 9. ?. 21. 12 28. +3 ( + 15. n 16. 11.^U\WF### X<6. 6. 24. 7. (y + (z 12. 9. an 18. 21. + f. 21. 19. 1. 20. 8. ' 6. f Page 107. 6 . 15. 44. 6. 14. 17. 4. 2) 19. b a f +c 14. 12. 25. 8j_m 7 3. 4. 4. A. x 05m ' 5. 14. 10. Page 110. 15. x 1. 13. 7. 5. 43. f 7. 6. 15. 3. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109.y 7. c 8. 4. 3 7 i o. b 2. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 3. n . flf. 10. (>. ?+_!?>. 1. 4. 1. Page 111. 18. 11. 1. 35. 31. Of. 11. 9. 4a3ft. ^i 11. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. ac mp lf> n 12. 3. 4. 1. 1. . 11. 14. 23. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. m 9. a2 2. 1. . 6. 6. 38. 39. 30. 16. w^x 2 b Page 105.  10 X + u. 5. 8. 3. 5 be _J_. I) 2 3z 1. 29. J. 7. . a. 27. 40. 1. 17. 5. j L . Page 113.L+ft. . 4. 2 47. y(x + x ?/). ft. 32. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. J. 36. 37.^_. 45. ! 4 20. 2ft a i m x.
27. 7. '"I 22. 6. 5 2. (ft) 5 da. (d) 4 da. Page 118.000. 40 yrs. 1:1 = 1:1. 3 da.002. 5. 10.XIV '/ .. 3:2. after $12. (c) 8300. w 18.004. 8.. 7. 18.000. 3.. 15. 24. 7. 28. 21. ~m .000 If da. 32. (r) 3^ da. 20. No. 75 . 2. 21ft min./hr. nm. silver. 7. 14. 3. Yes. 5. 11 hrs. a 4 ft. 31. [>> ^ a . $0. f. 19. 30ft. 500. 300. f . 4. 24. 10. after 18. 15. 33. 17. 9J oz. min. 7.x + y. 1:1=1:1. Yes. w 44. 11. () 2. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 4. 10. gold. 17. 5. (a) 30. 9$. (ft) 28. (ft) 104. 74. .2. n 32. 8. Yes. 15. * 7:9. P+ ^ 33. 23< &n b ' . 9. . Yes. Page 119. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 12. 1.. 14. 5ft 30mi. 4~r~ n . Yes. 0. = A's. 20. (c) 2 hr. (ft) 5 hr.} da./hr. 30. " 0. 17.000. 4. Page 121. Yes. IV s.2. ^p^ r ~ 7. ^m .137. 4fl M_. . . (a) 25. ft. 14. 9ft. w 21. 10 yrs. 11. 8. 17. $30. 26 mi. 16. 10. 1^'.000 1 = 23. 7. 1. $40. 40wn. 300.  29.. 24 mi. _JL. Page 125. 1. 00. 10^ oz. 33. 1 : 12. 55 mi. 30 mi. 40 mi. 11. 7T 2 Page 116. 16. 10. 13. (a) 12 hr. 26.. min. dn ~ mi. 7} 18.15. Page 124. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 26 30. 1:1 = 1:1. $45. 12. 8. 36. #V ~~ 34.. 19. 16. 38ft min. 1 da. 6. xy.  + . 15. 5.0.138. 1:4. 300. 19. $00. 15. jj. 18. 7 . 4.0 & . 19.003. 2. 15. 81. Page 117. 4. 12. 14. 1:3. 9. 2 20. 18. Yes. 2x:3y. 1. ANSWERS 16.. . ^?i min. . 10. 3. 275:108. after 20. 15.  C . 13. 2:1. No. 10.9. 8. 5 25. 8301 hr.11. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 212. 13. 3. 3. 10. 9.139. 9. 35. 22. :2. (a) 4 min. Yes. 30 yrs. 6. . 21. 3. J ^'. 1:1 = 1:1.10. 34. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . (d) 500. 10. 13.. (ft) (r) 8 hr..000. 20.001. 1: ~. J.
22. ini. l. 5. 7. 24.." ^ 2. cu. 5 2. 4. 13. 16.x a. 2. : 23. 2. 43. 174+ Page 128. 5. 4. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 1. 52. 1. 22. 5. ig 6.' : : : : <>. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 10. in. 6 10 = 12. 12. 2. 7. 24. 7. 3  24. 1. : />.*.  19. 3 2=3 x. 16. 9. b x 37. (b) C C' = fi JR'.3.3. water. 4. 2. 20 cu. 1 rt * vm^1. "lO.160.8 oz. 6. () 7 Page 126.  ?. 7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 2.7. 2. . 7.1. tin. : .5. 6. + 7>i//  ft 1 . + b 7 . 15. 8.3. 945 11 10 . + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 4. (a) Directly.  28. x:y a: b.2 oz. 8.000 sq. 6*.2 x. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. $. . : XV 27. 11.1.3. y . 1(5. Page 5.15 x.1. 19. 32j.36.4. 8.C ?/ a . \\. 58. 21. 11 5 . 44. 1 18 = 3 51. 4. t 5. (</) ft. 7.4. 2.a. 14. : : T 1' : /> : . 3. 19 OJ. 4. OJ. 25. J. 36. 29. 2. . 36. 22.3.J. x +y x + 74 7 \.3. copper. 9. 4.000 sq. . 1.5. a 3. 7.15.57. 48. 23. 12. 5.5. 4. 3. 3. 8. 7. y :y =.4. 1. 9. J. 13. 2 n . 15> 9. 39. a +b 1. 11. a~. x 42. 3. 19. 9. 24 1 (e) Directly.3.5.r.4.3.46.2. 7. 2. mi. 3. 5. 30. 6.840. 53. 141./':</ c a f :y=2:9. . jc:y = n:m. .17. 7. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 38.2. 3.12. y 1. 57. 9. 46. w 8. 2. 12.) 31. 2. Page 9. 2. 13. 17.1. 18. 49. 1. 4. 20."2:1. *. 4.5. 10. OJ. 55. 1. 3. 5. 20 20 J ^. . 4. Page 135. (I. 7^. w. 7. 3. (b) Inversely. 3.ANSWERS 22. 2. 3.20. 7. 2. 2. 6. 6.li. 13J. 5. 2. \. 59. 17. 5. . 19. 10.1. 5:0 = 10:12. I.4. ~ 1. 41. 4. 41. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 9  15. 3. 138. () Directly. 7. Page 137.3. 7. land. 11. 21. 12. 8. 35.J 3. 40.12. 3. 2. 2. 9.. 54. x y y .7. 2.].. . . 25.6. 8. 7. 2. Inversely. 14. 3.3. 45. i. y a y = 7 0. 10.2. 5. Page 131. 26. . 5:3 = 4: x. x y = 1 = 3 2. Of. 2. 30. Page 133. 5. + W. s<i. lo mi.2. 8. 19 3 . 32+ mi. 11 w a 13. in n. 50. 31. 26. 11. 25. . 127. 4. Page 132. J. 13. 1. 7. 200 mi. 16.5.9.3. .5. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2. . 1. 2. 1.5. 14. 20. = 7 b'. 2. 17. : : . 4. 56. ft. 3. 2. 27. mi. 5.5. 11. 47. 2. 28. 23. 3}. ' 55. /. Page 136. 14. 4. J pq. 40. 9. 31J. 15. Page 134.^ 0?j ' gms. 9.
1.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=.  17. a.^. (5. 11. 3. & part of Feb. 1. 16 to July 20. 4. 1 (c) Jan. 11. 2. 16. 12. 2. m f 8. yrs. 25. . Nov. 6 cows. 4. C's 30 yrs.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 2. C's 10 yrs. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. 3.. & part of Sept.$5000.3. 10 sheep. $250. 16. (<f) 13. June. 17. 2t2. 18. Jan. 25. 10^ gms. 1. = ^ a Page 141. 2 horses. 2. 23. 6. ^. 18. 23f . Feb. Page 151.XVI Fagel39. 2. Apr.4. 1. 25. 4. <*ft/ bd 1. 30. On the x axis. 16. 3.. 19.2. 3. 6. 3. Page 146. July 20. July. 30. 10. Aug. 4. 2. 14. 5. M 2. 7. 13.l. 3). 5. 4. 3. 2.2. 3. 7. 9. 0. 7. 1. . Apr. &. 5.0. 1. Oct. 29. 2 a. 20. through point (0. 18. 5. 19 gms. ' 6 3 a. Jan. 22.n + p. & May. 7. 3. 5. . B's 40 yrs.1J. . $900 5%.. Nov.$2000. 27. July. 14. 1. 4. 12.3. 40. 7. 4 ' q. 5%. Page 145. Page 142. 21. 24. 6%. a =J (n  1) rf. 4./hr. 12. 1. 7. . . 24. 23. 2. 4. . 4. Jan. 2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. ad AzA. A's 30 18. 7. 2. $4000. The ordinate. 25. ft 3. 3. 24. 2. (ft) 23 J. Page 149. Jan. 0.33. 13. 9. 3. 4. m . 147. 26. J. 5. 20. 3. 3. 5. 20 to Oct. 3. 18. B's 15 yrs.4. 4 mi. Page 153. 19. 9. 15. 20. Apr. ' . 00. 17. 90. 14. 2. . Nov.1.. 2. 7. About 12f.3. 5. 24. 423. 40. 10. Nov. On the y axis. . be 7. ad _(?jrJL. . ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . m f 9. 6. 16. 6. May 5.. 3. 1. 3. On 11. 20. 6. (c) . yrs. 1. 11. 3. 15. (a) 12. 3. . 30.0. 0. 5. 15. 8. 3. Page 152. 26.7. 8. 9. be 10. . 16. (a) Apr. Page 143.10. 4. 10. 1. 6. 16. 13. m + n p. parallel to the x axis 0. 100.1. A's 50 13. Jan.. $3000. 6. 20. 3. 21. 12. 2. SL=J o ft r^2. $ 1000. 72. 4. 17. 2. 28. 11. 7.9. 3. 7.4. 20 & Oct. Page 22. at 15. 2. 32. 10.8.65. 9.  11. (ft) 20. 9. 11. $6500at3Ji%. 2. 4. 8. u 2ft. 4. 1 (d) Apr. 31. 5. 12. 1. 8. . 11. 6. $500. 10. 2.
1. (ft) (d) 2.13. Indeterminate. 19. (c) 7. . 7. 19. 18C. 2. 5. 10. + a 4 ft* . 3 .73 ami . . 3. 3. 12. 6. \ft) 5.64. 9 and Page 166.67. G. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . _ 9 x ^27 1 . .17 (ft) (c) 2. .. 1. 14.64. (ft) (ft) 2.25. f12 wi 9. 11.25. 1. 2 l. 3. 27 19. 2. +3 4.84.75. 125 a 8 12. 30. ft 2 4. (<?) 2. 25.. xg . 1.75.24 . 13. 2 a&m Page 167. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. . 13 . (gr) 21. 3. 81 ". 4. 15.25.73.. 2. a + ft. 3.24. 13C. () (rt) 3.25. . 5. (a) 12. f 10. . 14. a 29. H. 22. 13. 4. . a 10 ' a ll V&. 3. (e) 3. 1.24. 6.1. (e) 2. 3. ft . 2. 3. 3. 11. 2.59 . 1 4. 32F. ' :=_!. 4. 4. 1.75.. 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.5. (a) 2. 125a 28.79. 2. 27 27 81. 2. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 11. 8. 3. Page 158. 3. (c) 14 F. 4. 18. 125 16. 3. 1. 2. 2.3. 5 and 2. 21. 1 23. 10. 1. 27. 4}.5 (ft) 3. 8 1 f f g*. 14. a 6o&i85 c i5o . . 5. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 4wn8 + n4 5.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. 5. * 16. 1. xW.79. H.59. ImW. 3. 3.83. 30. . 12. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 10 C.7. . m. 15. .  12 ft xW  26 31. 2. (/) 3. 83. (a) 4. 2.83. 22. 2. Inconsistent. 24." 23.4. 1. Inconsistent. 16. 1. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. . 17. 1. 4. 13.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 4 ) 21. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 2. 2.41 and 23. 1.25. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 26. 2.  1.1. 8. . . (ft) 2. (ft) and (d) 2.  . 0. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. Page 164. . 3. Page 163. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1.  1.73. 2. 3. . 2 2 22. 1.41 and . 9. 4. 1. 3. 3.2 (ft)  1. (a) 5. (c) 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.34F. . 8. Page 159. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. . 8mW. . 15. 14. 20. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 8 a1. 3. 2ft4 Page 168.3. 10. 5. 0C. 5. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . f.27. 24. . 5. . 1^. 2.5. 28. 9. (/) 3. Indeterminate. 2. xy.75 (ci) 3^. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 1. 15 . 1. f. 20. jgiooyiio 17.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. SlstyW 7.73.6.
84. 31. 247.f 1 m 9 16. 8. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 25. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. (48 + 6. 5 5 8. 9. 10. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 3 6 23. wi 8 + 3m 2 .94.5). c 10 6 :l 20. (2 a + ft). 11.5.XV111 7. 0. 8. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 8. 18. 24. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 119. 12. 180 . 27. 6. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).2). +3 + 5 4.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 15. 2(> + ( 2 7>). ). 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. /> 4 ). 15. 5. 300. . + (win . + y). . 9. . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 13. 5. 70. (1 (x2y). 00. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 98. 26. 21.x ). 33. 12. 10. 9. 32. 10 x G a 4 . 36. 9. 13. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (4a2 9& 2 13. 34. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 18. 12. 101. 4. (x + y\ 90. 19. . 6. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (ab + c).i c 6 15. 16. 6. rt . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (Gx + (i + 2a.a b 22. 14.10 a~ + 5 a . . ( Page 174. 978. 7. 3 2 ^. 14. 1.7 /)). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 8. 23. 90.+3^ + 4. 3. GOO 2 c 2 . 2. 2. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 11. 11. 90. 2 12. 237. a 2 . 6. 8 /. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. +35. 21. (3a. 2 2 7. m 13. 20. 6 (\x 3. 3. 35. 20. (a 2. 14. r> 4 : 1 . a. + + ?V 22. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 763. ^i. ? : 1 . 3. 3 2 8 3 12. 16. 3. 30. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. . 2.GO a c + 23. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5.y2 ). (ly). + Z). 5. (l + x + . 2 2 4. 99. 14. 1 1 ?>).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 19. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 15. I 8x2). + i)).6. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. Zll. 420. 17. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 4. 309. a: l . . 6. a ). 1. 76. 20.037. 30. Page 172. fe *?>' ?> fi . (a + y+l). 4. 1. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 2 49 . 17. 20.  x. . 17. 64. 7. 10*. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 7.3 ab + 2 2 ). 3M. a. 4. ? . Page 170. 2. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 2038. + l).83. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 9. . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. AN S WE no . 8. + 29. Page 171. 71. 15. 2. 22. 11.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 1247.1. .^). ??i ?i . Page 176. 1. (x' l).  +X '. 25 19. (a + 2 +l).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 16 6 w . 5. 10. 40. 28. 9. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 18. 2 4 8 2 . 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 8 4 se 1 1 :J .1. 72. 16. 57.r 2 + 6jt).
> w ft. /. 28 in. 1 f Vl3. 270 sq. 6V21. 21yds.5. 5.237. J. V J l. (6) Vl4 3. * 1. 8.*. 9. 5. 4. 7. . 4. 10. 1 38. 32. 2.  1. f 3. f ^ is. 4. 4.6. 15 1 10. 14.005. ^^7m. 9. ZLlAiK 19. f f V. 3. 3. v 17. xix 26.. 2. f . 2] see.1.916 yds. .  5. 6.. . 7. Page 183. 6. () 2. . 30. 3. 11.935. 20. 7. 10. 21 in. 4 TT M 28. 5. 6.236. 7}. 9. 4. 27. 24. 19. JJI. 3. 8.1. 4J. 21.a. V2. 10. 2. 8.367.}. 4. 9. 12. 2. 17.13.. 2. (< + ?>). 1. 12. 16. 39 in. 22. 3.w 18. 21. V17. . >i 27. 13. 19. Page 181. 4. 10. . 12. 7 in. 6561. a + 61. V2. 3. 6. 14. 2. 6. ft. 3. " ^_ 22. 1. .. 7. 10. ft. 7. . >TT 26. 13. 2.243. 27. 4. 9. 5f..4. 33. 35. l~8. 2. 35. 34. 2. 17. 4. 16. 36. 7 45.  f. Page 177.i. 31. 46.  43. 17. 4 a. / 11. 4. 29.6.  2. If ^. a. .742 in. 23. 7. 34. ^. 29.645. 15. 2. 15. 14. 23. 13. 21 28 ft. 4. 8. . 16. ^. 12. 49. vYb. 1&. 12. 24.798 yds. 30. 26. 5083. 5. 7. 9 15 ft. V35 1. 5. 33. ii :J _7. _ iVaft. 28. Page 184.4. or 5. 5. }. 15. 48. 8. 7563. 6. 40. 2.18. 3. 11. 1. 6. 7.V 8j. 11. 37. ~ V^3. 5. w. 3. 5.Sn. 44. 25. 9. 20. 25 J. 15. 40. {. 5. 8. 5. 13. 3. 1. 18. 6J.925 ft. 1. 36 in. 6V'2J. f. (afl). 10. 3. 39. 18. 3J.6. 5. ft. 29. 11. Page 185. 23. 1. 11. 47. 12. 28. 21. 1. f.. 1 7. 4 W**. 5. 5. 6. 10. or 3. 2 sec. 41. Page 180. .5. 39. m. 7. 1. 25. 9.469.?. 36. *. V. 7. 6yds. 1.690. 3. 14. 31. 3.6. 2. 14. 4. 16. 5.  14... 37. 4 n. 12. 2. 42. 13.ANS WERS 22. \/3. 1. 10. 16n. 4. vV'TA 24. i ^.  f. 32. Page 179. i. 12. 6 f !.60.4. 3.6. 50.  3.. .. 15.522 38. 1. 9. 10. 20. 7. m. Af^.
6..a 3 a. + 11 x.  i.'. 3.1. 20. 6.02. 9. 2. . 70 ft. . 22. . . 20 eggs.6. . 27. 3. V^l. 2. Real. AB = 204 ft. 2.4. 12. 37. f. 2. a8 .12.2..2. 29. 3. 1 . . rational. 2. 0.2. 6. 12. 26. 120 ft. ./hr. 58.4. 0. equal. 1. 0. 22.l.  1. $ 120.2. 35. r* i. 1. 19.2.3. 4. 4. Page 191.1. equal. 2. $80. 10 or 19. . 10 mi.4. V2. x 14. 15. %. 3. 24. . 7. 4. 25. ft.3.10. 3.a. f 6 52 a. . Page 189.1. V2. 31. 52. 3. 2. 44. 3.* 2.48. Real. = 0. v^^fcT"^. ' 1. 3. 7. 11. . 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 27. 7.$40 or $60. 5. V^l. jr . 23. 5. 2. i . 8. 2 V3 in. 18. 2. 6^2 in. 1). 8. 14. 3. 3. '  f 5. 26.7. 9. equal. 47. 2. 0. x*4x=0. 26. . 32./hr.  6. .23. 2. rational. 12. *'' 12. 55. 2. 6. 5. Page 192. 8 or 12 mi. 7. 1. .  Page 194. 1. 30. a + 1. 2.. 3. 12. 5. . .74. 2. 3if. 14.  2. 21. 3.2. 28. rational. 1. s 11. 12.]. 57.5. 6. 24.2 x2 . AB = 3. 23.17. 18. rational. Page 188. 16. 9. 28. 1. 24. 1. 6V64.5 x + 6 = 0. 2 ft.37. 16. 21.  9x <). 2. 27. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . ANSWERS 22. . 1. 1.12 = 0. 2. 20. 3.7. unequal. 2. irrational. 10 in. 3. 4 da. 18. 15.2.Oa. . 6. 3. Imaginary.a. If. 5. 25. 10. 0. a + 6. 6. Real.2. 2.4. 64. x2 + B . 2. unequal. 1. Imaginary. 7. 42. 34.  1. . 53. 15. 8\/2 17. 1.XX Page 186. a. Page 187.  24. 28. 4. 7.2.62.5^.  5.  1. i. 3. 3. 64c./hr. 1. Page 190. 41. H. 9. 11. 4.. 56. 4. 3. 49. 13. 3. 45. orf. 1.23. 25. Real.2. 3. 20. 23. a. 1. V7. 6. 16. irrational. 4.  1. 33. 7. 35./hr. #<7=3. V^~2. 1 3. x* 51. 0. 0.3.48 3. 21. unequal. 10. 8. 0. 46. 5 ft. 13. 0.70. 4. Real. 8. 1. 1. VV11. 10 mi. 17. 0. Real. $30 or $70. 4. Imaginary. U. 38. rational. 0. 19 in.4. 1.  13. unequal. 6. in. 10. 36. 20 nii. 1.6 = 0. f. unequal. 4. t is. .  1.  2. 6. . unequal. 2. 7. Real..59. 0. 26. Imaginary. unequal. unequal. 25. 0. 39. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 3. unequal. 1. 0. 0.41. 48. 15 ft. Real. 43. 40. (5 10. 2. 2 . 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. .0*8. 1_^L ft 14. 3. 19. 3. 1..  5.7. _ 19. 2. 50. 2.
y. 18. 25. 23. . 17. 3. 5. 1. 2. 1. m. 7. z + 22. 29. 41. 4. 51. 1. 6. : . 14. \/3. . 18. 13. 22. x/25. 1. 16. 52. 3. 1 39. 15. m'. 47. 29. V^ 34. ar 1 . 2. 30.17. 12. 4. 10. 2V a. wA 46. 56. 0. 2 L ( V. 8. 44. ? . 10. 3. 3. 30 a. 3. J. xxi 15. 125. 48. r. 5. a 18 . 2. 3. 14. 5. 6. 9. 4. 15. 2. fx'^z'l 23. 25. . Page 200. 49. 6  AAf. *V. 17. 38. 5\/5. 2. 1. 33. 53. aW\ 40. 1. 3. n\/* Page202. 11. 2. 5. 20. 13. 3. JV37.6. \. 43. y . $7. ^49. 3. 1. Page 196. 5. 9. 5.  5.1 5 15. 1. v'frW. 19. jV 10.^7. 4. 8. 32. 'J. 13.ANtiWEUS rational. 4. 7.. l  5 12. . 13. 46. 10. I. 12. 36. vV. v. 54. \/. \a\ \/^. 21. 3. 19. 49. 50. 49. 2. 8. . 28. 8. 28. J 3. 7 . 16. \ . 20. 40. . 30. 1V1. 243. J. 37. 4.2. . 1. J. 17. J.  J j. 7V7. 14.//^. Page 197. 21. . Jb \. &. 9. 59. 21. 4. ifa. 39. . 1. 15. a. 9. \/r\ 11. 42. 1. v/3. 16. 55. _! V3. 58. 12*2 61. 8. 8. 84. 2. 9. . 47. 1. x. 7. 0. 2. 24. 57. v^T4 m.  f.  48. 20. 10. 19. 31. 3. 2. 8.  f . 16. v'frc 18. 50." 17. ). p. 2. 20. 8. 27. 19. Page 201.  a'2 . 3. 4. \. 24. 9. 11. 14. i. vm. r*. 27. (m 26. 3 4 11. Page 199.32. 49. 33. ^Sf 3 38. 26. 18. 22. Vr. 60. 32. 23. 35. 31. 0. 24. 45. x$. 29. 33. ) 2 >J i 10. 25.
. 27. 19. 3. 2 x* 15.577. 5. 6. + + ft. 2. 21. 3 \ 39. + . x y. 11.2 18. 16. a 4 +* + !. 1. 1 2 or 1 ?.x^y* + y%. 43. ?tV?w. x 25. v^. 7. abVab. 50. 20. r 17  Page 204. 195V3. V2 + 4 V22. 5.3 + 40 3 . 2v (T 2aVf. + 2). . 9. a2 4. 25. . 5 ( . 4. 40. 38. 36. (a 27. 8. 26. m* n*. 45.. 19. 4. 28. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 8.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . 8V/) 15. 4aV^J 16.'\ 14. 9. 2. 62V(J. x^ . Page 207. 15. V. 3 42. 2\/7.f. ^88". r c . Vz2 ?/ 2 44.692. ). 17. k/2. v/^r 5  A/^~. a 3.r. 18. x.).r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . + 2 V22. 29. V80.XXii ANSWERS 1. 7. . yV35. 101 1. ^: V2c. 135V6. 3. ftV 46. 12. Va 2 "ft. y (a + ft) V2. 9. 20&V6. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. V 5 47. 37. 3 4\/2. 6.Vxy 35. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 2. 30. / V3.648. 3V5. 2 '"V5. 9 . 13 35. 8a6V5. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 28. (o* 2. 2 4 z2 l 3. 32. 3 x^y 33.  a Vft 2 121 b. 41. 29. 48. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.707. + Vic + 25. 34 r 6. 24. 10. 10. 11. 3^ + 2). a^ + 2^+1. 51. Page 203. 26. 13. y. JIV6. 30. + 2 ar 1 ). 03r* 7. + 2 Vzy + y 1. V63. 37. V.rV:r. 31. 13 a. 39.632. 11V3.2 VlO.yl : . 10. . x%  3 ^+ 1. 2. 13. 21. 16. . 3^2. Vr 8. 2. 2>X2. 2. 3. 22. 49. 5 22. 40. 31. 17. 24. 1) 3V3. 3V^T. T. 33. l 5. 20.  2 3:r. x 7  34. + 1. 2 a?>V2 a. (x' (l 1+x). x + 5 x3 + 0. 34. Page 208. 23. ^7 \AOx. 32. v'TM.
. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 11. 5 \/2. 9. 0. 7\/(l 7VTO. 20. v/i). 2 V'3. 11. \V3. V3. 21 23. v^4. 46. V5. . ^27. 18. 10. v"5. \XOfl6Vi5. 15. : ^32. 10. v^lf. 35. 15. 27. % 29. 22. 11. ^v 7 15. . 52. 3 V2. . 31. 14. 3 Vl5 30. x/w^ 8. Page 210.r v/^ v^fr*. rtv/5. 38. m ?i2Vm/t. ^9. V3. 25. \/128. . 2 ate. 34. 3. x/8. 8. vT). \^6. 6. v 25^4714 V2"a. 8v2T 12. 12. 5v/2. . 10. 8V2. xx 1. 18. \/04a. b. + 20. 38. 4\/5. 49. 34. 5V2. 13. 2. \^r^bVabc. 3. w?i. 40. 6x2?/. 3. 6aV2\^.  3. 3v^2. VT5. 33. a^\/a7>. ab 4. \^6. . 3\/2. v^a. D 45. 19. 7. 4VO. 5. r)\/(l Vrtr. Page 214. 8V73\/IO. 9 VlO + 4. 4 a*. 3 V15  47. 13\/3. 7. 17. 8  \/15. 2. 4. 14. V5. v"3. 19. 3\/wi.J Page 212. 31. 39. 53. 18. \/abc*. 0. 6. 7. a2  b. ^\/3. 22. 16. a\/5c. 17. 13.30 2. 3\/15  6. 4 >/3. 14c 4 V5. 36. 6. 3. Page 213. 26. 5. Page 211. 25. 27. 50. \/a6c. 2 \/2. 23. '. 2.T*.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 1V5. 37. 6 2\/0. 39. Vdbc. 43. 74\/Jl 120 46. x/3. "v/wi ??. 32. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 1. x/27. VJla. 2\/7. V8.. 8. 2yV2?/. W). ^ 3 b 5 24. 6+2V5. 32. Page 216. "^8000. 48. Vat. v7^. 3. 40. 2 28. v/9. Vn. 26. \/8. + VlO  v y (5. 41. v^O. V2. 1. 35. \/2. 29. aVa. 14. 24. v/lO. 5. 36. 23. 28. 44. 42. 9. 17. 9. 1. / \/w/t 4 13. 12. x/8l. 30. 4. x/4. 16. V3"m. 6. 10V(). 2. 32m27n. 2 1. v^f. V2. v/8. 16. fl^Vac. 51. V/. 30 Vl4. 21. Vtf +3+ 33. x/8L v/27. v^30. 24. 37. 21. x/125. 5V2. 2. v/l2. 6V2. 6.
\. (\/5V2). 3(7+3V5). 3. 4. 14. 5. 1. _^JflJ?. . 4. 1. 32. 3. 3.625 10. 25. f. 8 V3V2. 21 ' Vob 26. 2.1. 17. 10. 23. (2.\/TO).464. 7.7083. (V8 + V2. . 21. 25.. 29. 13. 21. 7. 4. 15. . p 6 13. Page220. V3. 11. 9. 2V2. xy 2. 7.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 13.732. (Vf + (4 V2). ^. (VaT^v a). ~ Vac _c 0. 5 + 2 vU 17. 8.2. 4.1805. 20.3535. 3V23. 8. 25. 2x^2^. ^(VlO\/2). 22. 16. V^TTfc. 9. 4. 7. 27. 25. 16. 4V3 + 6.389. (V5f 5. 1.6. 1. 17. 8. nVTl. V2. 5 f. . 20. 2!5_.5.  13. 22. 4. 1. V6c. 2. 33. J. V3. \/3). 5. {. i(Vf Vft). 4. (a 1. 27. 64. fV2. 2. 11. 10. 12. 16. 5.  . + 5V2.  2. 7. 18. Page 219. 27. 23. 2 . 7 f 5 4. 13. 1. 23. 11. 35. 6.3. 2. .^ (\/22 4. 4. 9. 6. 19. (2f V"5). 9. 25. 4. 6 (V2 + 1). 81. 3. ' 22 i . 512. Page 225. 9. 4. 28. 19. 18. 12. K>/0 + \/2). 21. 12. 8. 25. Page 223. 4. (2Vll).601. 5. 29. 125. 14. 30. . 4. 20.3. 3. 36. + 6) 2 . .  f. 5. 10.0606. 8. 6.6 V3. Page217. 17. 7. 15. 4. 15. 24. 4 14. V35. i^Lzi. 11. 9.732. (\/3f 1). (V21). 34.4722. 15. 7.2.13. 1. 10. 10. i^ ~ 1 v ^. . 16. 19. Page 218. 5. 2V3. 7. 8. 2V3. ^\/2. 9 mn. 18. 6. 5. 19. 0. \/57t.5530. 26. . 16. ^.64. 10. V. 9. Va. 22. 5. 224.1547. 25. 14. V3 . 11. (V51). Vf6fVtf. 0. 23. 1. 9. 20.4142. 30. 10. 5. 100. (VllV2). m f. n*. 24. ANSWERS 8. 8. 3. Page 28. 12. 18. ^r. 24. 26. +3 V2). V5. 15. 4. 81. * 3. 2. 23.9. (2V2). 11. j 15. 216. !^ 6 4. 31. 37. (3+ v/2). 16. .81. . Va. 2ajV2*. 1. 1. 12. 17. 2. (V6 + 2V2). 16. 7 Page221. 1. 14. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 2. 4. 3. 12.2828. Page 226. V3.7071. J. 18. 5 V65.w 6.V3).XXIV 7. j. 19. 16. 24. 9. x 20. 6. A . 6 V. 8.
2 > 1. 10. 0. a . 11.  f . .4.3. 4. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 14. 3. 12.2)(m.^a. 0.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 7. 5. 4. 1. 11. 2 . 8.  3. 4. 3. 2 &. J 24. 25. . 12. 6. 1. 1.3. 7. 2. 12. 2. (8. 4 20. (a . 18. 1. 25. 8. 2. . 19. 0. 4. 2. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44).l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 73. 2. 2 . 1. (r. 5. 7.  3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 4. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 8. 3. 16. 3. 2. 3. 3. 5. 10. 4. 15. 4. 1. (2 a. 2. P. 1. . Page 236. 3 5. 4.3. . 6. \/0. 9. 2. 13.r . 5. 73.2)(* .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 3. 20. 9. y. 1 . a(. 1.4).4. 25.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 1. 4. 2. 19.3.l)(a3)(a . 1. 2.2. 13. 11. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 5. 30. 3 . Page 233. 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).2. (a 4. 7. 2. 15.  1. 2. 2 6.2. 16. 0. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).12.0. 5. 2. 10. 2 . 1. 56l). 4. (a+&)( 2 14.3). 6. .3. a  . 12. 2. 18. 3. . 3. 2 <? 4a2 . (w . 26. 6.7. . (&y2a#H4). 1 3. (63)(6' t 18. ' J. 11. 14.8a 18. . 22.1.22. 2. 7.3 2. 5.5. 2 V^ . 5. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). J. 11. Page 234. 4. 24.5 xy + 25) 22. 2. J. b . l. . 4 4. 3.  16). 2.4. 4. (a. 12. 13. t/ 23.  J. 13. 1. 3 9. 50. . 5. 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 20. 4. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2. . 0. 9.  2. 100. 17. 2.1. 3. 6 2 2a + 2). 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 4. & + 6 2 ). 22. 13. (m 4 + l)(ro.10. 1 (?> x/^3. qpl. 2 . a: :} . 4. ~ f7. 4. 1. 3. 1. 5.l)(m . 5.w 4 + 1). 30 . 4.  . 11. 3. 4. 3. //. . (+!)( 2) 10. 7.3. V3. (rt. 30 30. . =A^Z3. 10. 5.  4. 3. 1 . (xy + 5) (x*y* . J Page 235. 10.Y. 3. 3. 3 . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 8. (pl)(p2)(p2). XXV 4. 3. 87 . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). f>. 12 24 y . 3. 8. 1. 19. 0. 2. 1. 17. 1 . 5. 6. . 1 . 21. 1.  1. 1. 7. (4 mn . 2. 3. 1 . 4 . 2. f .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 15. 14.nl^EI. 0. . 5. 25.ANSWERS Page 228. . 28. . 2.. 3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1. 2. 4 . 3. 3 . 1. (B43).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 20.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). . 4 1. 2 6. . 6. . 4. 8 6 & 0. 8. 23. 30. ( 16.  5. (a. 3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). . 6. 10. 1 6.  3. (pl)(p3)(p6). 7. 0. o. 2. 17. 21. . 24. 2.
15. 6. 16. .. . 1. _ 10.. 31. . 1 . 4. oo . 21. n. 4. 1. 0.6. 1. '>. 4. 9. 13.18. Page 239.y..4. 3 . . 3V5. 4. 15. 35 ft. 20 7. 5. 1 .  . 14.1. 5. 1. 20. 48. 4. 8. 8. jj. . 1. 78. . 1. 1. }. 9. 3. 5. 2V7. . 8. 0. 3. 35. 25. 1. 4 8. 3. 2. . 3. 14. 3 .4. 3. m28. 10. c. no co . 24. 5 4. 15. 11. 2. Exercise 113. 4. 2 . _ 7.xxvi Page 237. 5. 2. 3. 22.. 29.e. 7f solution. 288. f. 4. 2.3. . } . 8ft. 7. 9. 31. ^ }. 1. 17. 15. . 12. Exercise 114. 14. 7. 1 2.5. 1.. 2 2.  11. 11. 19. (a) 5. 4. 12. 20. V7. 14.136. 4. . 7. _ 5. 9. 1. 18. V3~. 512. 21. 21 30. $. i'ljVU. 4. 4. 12. 900. 4. 17. 3. 39. . 2. 18. . 22. 3. 5. (a) $3400. Page 238. ri*. 7. 69. . 2>/3. 16. 512. 12 ft. 38. Page 241. 8.3. 14. 2 10. oo. oo . . and _ 4. . 55. co .. 5. 2. Indeterminate. . 5. 12 d. 9. . Page 243. +  n. 1. . 12. 2 Y> V . 15. 1. . . 45yd. (&) 2. 2.020. 3. 12ft. $VO. 4. 2. 17. (/>) "_. 3. 12 1.. 2. 3. 4. 20 in. 7. 8. 3 cm. 10. 4. \/6.  2 . 1. 1. 3. in. f*. $. 2. 37. 1. 19. 0. 8 . 30.2. 23. ANSWERS 2. . 5. 17. 1. . 8. _ 13 (0 6. 1. 13. in.. . . 1. 1. 2 . Page 248. ^~2. i i i . 3. 3. 3 2. J. . 3. tn 2. 24.4. 400. 4. 1. 8. $46. 14. 1. 4. 15. ' j. Page 240. 11. 1. 7.0. 5. 4. 11. 3. 32. 36. ft. 4. 14. 8 3. 2. 1.3 . 3. 3. 1 . 5 cm. i j. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 11. m + n. \. 5. 1. n . in. 2. GO . 3 3.. 9. 5. 2 26. 2 ft. (>. J. 23. . 4. 10. 5. 16.4. . 17. 35 a. 26. 3. .5. 2. Page 247. 2.  1. 5. 17. 15. 35^ 5.3. 40. 11. 2. 6. 3.13. 2 . 5. j. 50. x 4. ft. 5050. 1.3. 1. f>. 1. 28yd. 2. 1 .30. 33. 40 25 in.200. 2 1. 1 . = QO 6. .3. in. 13.1. 40 in. 10. 7. J. 2. 4. 3. 3. 2. . 2. 6. 4. 1J. 3.0. 3. 1. 201. 2. . 37.6. 4 . 1. m27. 6. Page 244. . 5.3.3. 84. 5. 1. 5 . 1. 4 34. 5. . ( 3. 2. 2n. 50. 18. 41. Indeterminate. J. . 3 4. Page 245. 8.. 12. 3. 2. 125 125. 4 6. 37. 3. 6. 30. 2 16.1. 7 3. . in. 5. 3 . 30 13. 12. ft. 2. i.
8. 4. 20. Ja.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 495. r r j. 3. <. 343. 0.x' 10 . i 10. 1. 4. 6. 1.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 11.  20 flW. 23. 6. 10. Page 258. 70. 4.r x>/ 7 3.5 x. 4.170. 10. />*. '23. 7. 3.5y 4 . 10.ANSWERS Page 250.5. 21. 405. &' 14. 4. a4 4 14. ~v 9. 0. 70. . . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 35. vy. 8. 7. JSg. } $ 50. 2. 6. 9. 81. 3. 43. 4. 0. 0. 8. 27. 1. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 45.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 5.53. 5. ' 1. 10. 19. d. Page 254. 1. 27. 5. 14. 4. 1. 005. 4. 13. 4 0. x4 .4 &z x>&. 15. 2. 26.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .8. 2. 1JH. Page 252. 6. 04. 8. 120 aW. 18.12 x*y 16. 7. 27. 16 11. 9. 4. 75. 16.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 1.920. ~ an .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 9.419.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. w9  8. 15. 2. in. 16. 7. . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 55. 0. ?/i 6 x llj .0. 20. 2. B . 8J. 22. 1820. 18. 8 1. 2. . 28. 105. 4950 M 2 b y *. 22. 19. . 9. 15. 125. REVIEW EXERCISE . 2i* 7f. 10 14. 3. c. 6. 9. 2. 48. r 5 4. . 2.504. 21.210. 304.870 m*n*. 4. .  101.r* 4 70 . 35. .3 ays. 1. 1. 45 Page 257. 0. .2 9. 3. 44. 100.4. 15. 53. 19. 12. 5. 7 x4 17. 3. 6.470. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .r 4. 17. Page 259. 70. 3.6. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 17. \ w 4 . . 220 .<2 4. 18. 8. G. 1000 aW. f y 8 + z* . 3. 10.v Page 253. 18. 0. 6. 5. 16. **+. 8 4x' 2 . . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 4. sq. x + Vy. 8. 7. 5 13. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8. 5. 45. 5. . 04. 12. 4. 3. . 4.680. 128. 05. 8. 12. 5. Jj? 45. 1 14. 16. A. 2.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 910. 50. 3. 3. 8. 11.2 45 a 8 /). 16. 12. 1. 0. 10. 3. 2. 12. 4. ^a 8. 17. 1. 12.^ ?>i 2412x4. 27. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 13. 20. 16. and 1. a. 11. 4. 327.13. 0. 5. 3. (). 32. 4. 192. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 708. 29. 2. 12. xxvii 1.120. Y11.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 6.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . . 2.  17. 8 . 125. 5. J 2 //2 25. 25. 8. 7.192.130 x30 189 a 4 24.5. 1 7 4. 6i. 7.1. 13. 7.7 10. 1. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 12. 280 53.6 .384. x r 4.700. 9. 16. 410. I. 5. 343. . 6. 4. 2. . 15.
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2. 446. c 6fc 10. 436. *+. Page 280. 10. 42. 2. 463. 3 . 467.0.3. not true. 483. 494. 18. c. 2. 423. 506. . 0.7. Page 278. 33.. 2. . Page 281. 7 : .XXX11 ANSWERS ab.vz in. 455. 5. 0. 458.  7. 418. A $ 3500.  505. 7. 1.. (c) not true. . <L+ 6 (. 462.3.4. L2 a  6 . b 449. . 485. . . 1. 486. 2. 0. 496. 442. 427. 440.7. 6. 2. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 32 yr. 411. 454.. 508.5. 478. 20 yr. 7. . 6. 9. 410..12. . 503. 459. 51. 457. 476. 2 a 2. 2 438. (d) true.  2f 504. 10. 429. 90. ^r?i 434. fj. & 491.1.  f>. 2.te + . 3. 11. . ^.0. 5. 472. 24 days. A 5 mi . 482. 439. 479. 465. 480. 4. !L=4. (&) 443. 1. z8 +?/ 3 431.7. a* 424. 450. 493. 412. (&) true. * . B 4 mi.  2. 6. 502. 452. 420.7. . 12.  453. 20. 53 yr.55. 421.  1. $2000 at 0%.489. m 1 : wi. 84. 14 miles. 498. fc. 1 a /?$+&?. (a  c). 499. 413. 4.. i a b 451.  2. .  . 50. 477. 2.2. 461. 28 yr. 40. Page 282. 1. 422. 4.  7. 10. 495. . ft 5. 507. . Page283. 456. 10.488.. 500. 6. 8. . 63. . 425. 441. + () 433. 10. (a) 1. 40 oz. 3a 4 5. 10. 432. \. 6. . 5J.  2. 466.  1. 10. 484.2.rz Page 279. 419. (d  6) f. 8. 435. 8. 17. ISJini. 430. 1$. 7. 7. 0.}. .}. 501. 5. 445. 487. 6. '. ' $260 at 0%. ^V.m  m+ M in. 492. 428. />c c(f be. 2$. m. . 481. I.7. B $ 2500. 460. 448. 0.46. 2. 0. 4. 21. 32.  10. 5. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 5. i. 10$. 447. 464. a + + ft c. L (c) I. : />a. 444. 497. 22. 17. 3. \ 1. 7. 8. a 22 . 468. 426. ISjmi. 2.4. . 0.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 6. 490. 5. 3. 1.
568. 573.02.1. 5. 3.38. 1.ANSWERS Page 284.24. 509.75. 552. .5.54.55. 579. 565. 7. lead. 0. (gr) 10 1. 2 1.78.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. f ? a f ft __ + c C).6 2.02. 3.8. 533.3. 4. Page 287. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.31. 583.3.54. 4 mi. 2 imag.75.  2. 598. H. 525.1. 5. (e) (c) 2. 2. <z ft 1. 0000.7. ^ ft 4. . tin. 518. 3.0.  7. 2. 3. . 6.31. . 14. 591. Page 285. 3.5._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.3.4. 1. 2(6 597.4. ft 584.  J(a f + 2c). . 531. (6) 3. 7^ da. 1. 1. y% Z * 586. 21*_.xj/ f xV . + 26 + . 553.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .20.83.1. 8. .  + + c.  4. 2 2. 3f 4f. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . per hour. 1J.25. 115 Ib. 593..04.6. 1. 550. 1.5.1.8.56 sec. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 8 mi. 3. 4 0.03. 4. 4.  (a) 2. 5. a+ Page 286.3. 1. 24 da. 1. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 4.% rr\* 585. 1. 1. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 562.  ft*. 1. 4.. . If 572. 3. 3. 1. (a) 74 Ib. (c) 4. .73. (/)  10 to 8.6. 561.02. . 2. 1$.14. f.24. 1 600.33.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 3. 551. . 3. (d) 537. (e) 570. tin.53. (ft) 4. 1. 1.88. 515. 1. 3 da. 529. 5. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 40 Ib. 513. 536. 3.52. 24.21. 1 580. 1. 2 . . . 530. . 3. .10. a + ft  a  f c. . .4. 566.62. 2. 554.6.4. > ^ . per hr. 564. 1 .05.   (h) 8. 556. 599.3. 3. 4.0.0.25m.83. 2(4 602. o> . 560. 603. S82 c. 3. a f ft + c. 31.. 3 . .. 1. .  imag.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 1. + 6 tf f 3 . 576. J7] min.35. + 12 x . (6) . .15.8.02. 1. .04. 526. lead. f.3.00. 527. 4. 1.15. 4.1.. 569. g(rc+ 6c).8 x3^.4. 2 10. 516.5 f. (ft) Ill Ib. imag. 512. 532. 582.0. f36a28x8 592.  (a) (d) 1. 2 . 1 . 2.  2ft da.10.r8 596.78. 514.24 sec.  1.2. 571. T . 578. 6.16. 27 y* f\4 . 6435.5.3. 1. (i) 3. (c) 3. 574. 577. x8 .  3.8.15. 2.5+. 2.4. Roots imaginary.6. 510.7. 558. 581. .9.  557.37.3. 2 1. da. or 8.37. 2$.1.5. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. _^ 2754x .f 1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .4 x + .7. 2. .12.62. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 4. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.03. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 528. 567. 559. 232. xxxin 511. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). . 575. Page 288.51. 4* da. y 4.  . . 563. 555. . 1.30. _ 3. . 2. . _ 4.
630. 701. 7003.702. ix 2 .. 0.  13. . 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). . 2f. 1 V5 1. 621. 4 V 0. 8. ' fe 2 ). 12.203. 700. V^~3). 657. 626. 1. a 4. 629. 616. If . 634.14 If 1. 2 ab + a  &. If f 667. 210. I}'/. 648. 703. .  1. ab 689. 612.  . 4. 4 676. 25.f 3 V^3). . .  6.3. 2 x 44 ^/. 9*. 009. 672. 1m*. 971. 0.XX XIV 606. . 608.04. (*_ + a: 611. a + b.  684. a 1J. 6. 1.303. ^. 2. ft). fta a/> ^A. 625. 636. 653. ^ 1. 662.3. 644. 2 a  6*. 652. 14.. 614. 5. 1. la6 2. 632. ^^ 695.b. 631. 677 680. 2. . 655. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 698. 647. 618. a ' 2 + . 661. 628.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 669. 691. ab. 0. 656. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 613. 708. 660. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 6 685.0. 627. 2. 6. if 4/> 671. 11. 666.3f l 668. 650. 9. 1 2. n^l +^.002. 5 3. 2. ^.2f Page 290. 2 a: 4.43^4. 4$. 3.  3. (a3&45rj. 50.  a2  a (ab). 2. 8 f 3. 4. 2 a 688. 0. If. 615. 1. i.2f (5 4.3. 641. 692. <T! . 607. 622. + ~^'2 + a 1. 638. K 5 2 V2. fe + a. \.25. 705. 4. 3. 623. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 654.001. 7. 702. 703. 679. 5. y  619. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 678< 682. . 649. 2092. 0. 2. 8 6 fo . a 2. c. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 4330 da. . 2f. . 2&). / V^+lO^M"^. ' 674.a~ {Z 663. .001.  2f r 659. 4. 670. 642. \+ab 699. V2. 690. 10. . 683. 696. 3 a. 640. . 1010. /> 4.049. 2.  ft. o. 637. 643. . 620. b 664. 11. 2. 617. 3 681. If 658. b .y. a 673. a. b. 624.>A 610. 1$ 639. 1 ~a . z  1. 5002. 0. 646. 3. 2 / 2 4.  4. be ac \. 633. 78.  4. V"^TJ. 898. J^^. 706. 5. 3 x2 . 635. 5. 13. V7. 25. If b. 2. If 665. Page 289.c ) 697. V2.b 686. 651. 7. 645. 1 704.3. l/'3.
342V3. 726. 15 shares. 768.^ 743. 789. 3^. 711. > 748. 725. 714. 47. v/7 / .8. 24. 733.V/^ 741. 3V52V3.257. 729.1 . 756.r. 721.10. ^7xy.rJ w L 754. mn. 33^2. r. 3V7. 3 VlT 795. 788. 3V72V3. 716. 39. a". ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 776. 24V2. 763. 722. VT14V5. 755. 712.. x i f^' . 2\/53V2. 793. 709.9. 713. 1 747. 4 104 v/2. iv/Jj. 3. 7  3V5. J(v'lO2V 791.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 1. rt3 2 ^i^. / 787. 1. 794. 1 [ + '> J.11. 719. . 34. 734. 736. 738. 2 V2 . 753. 749. VIO\/3. 740. T%. 59.. 29\/3. 1 I .^.9. a 2  x2 . 782 785. 1^ _ 760. .. 8. 724. 718. VV> L4V34. Page 294. "V313. 32>/2. 790 2v 3v 2. 710. Page 293. a db Va^T < 45da. . 767. 731.. 5. 300. 751. j 742. cr*lr*. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.4 . i 2. i^. Hi a. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. v'll.r+y> 759. 24 4 . a 5 . 25. 17ft. 737. 796. + 6 2 tf'c. ^ .12 af V^ 4 744.ANSWMHti Page 292. 2x3^ a. 750. 1. 3V72VO. 732. a 2 6^. 717. x\y. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 739. . 13ft. fyaw&cu. 30\/10 764.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 715. 1 752. a:* . 778.V2. + < 735. 00. 728. 8. 773.2. 758. 746. 792. 5. y  1. 777. 769. ^ ?>.~ . 727.4 . 3 720. 723. . 730.
1. (  ?>) (a + ^> . $. ^. 880. Va 803. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 3. 817. 879. 847. 858. x. m = 2. 825.l)(x .2w . 849. 7. 3.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. . 4. 5). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 j 889. m 875. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 833. 3. a* 4. 2. a2 ^E*!.5) (x + * 853. 891.1). 1.r . ^ V}. 2. 836. \/5. 814. n =  29. 816. . 884. 7. 2 . Va. 857. 3. 2 *x 807. 4.. 844. (x*y*ryz + z*). 4. .3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . **. 14. 829. ) (a' 874. Page 297.3)(x + 4). 813. X4 1). . 7. 2 806.XXXVI 797.7).7). 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 5.. 6+V7. are extraneous. 3. 2. 867. 17. 2. (2 x + 3 y} . 3. 4. f. 834. 2  2. 824. . 4. 2 (x 4*4. 868. 5. x .1)(0 865. 848.1) (a 8 . . 3. . + d)*. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 3. 810. 11. 0.f. 830. 896.25 ?>2). 893. 883. 17. 5. H. 2 . 804. 4. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). o 828.rae) (4 . 892. 0. 832. 10.2) (x 4 2). 822. 859.2 ax 4. 826.1) . . 6 $. 19. (xl)(^~3)(. . 808. 2 m . 886. o. 887. db 7. 1. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 8 09. 812. 861.a 3 " 4. 4 885.. 20). 4. 837. 897.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 8.  1. 7. Hoots . ^VG. 831. 3. (2x (r. 1 . 800. 842. 799. (x . 2 854. 1. 1.0. 894. V 3. +j!>. 890.l)(x . (x . 811. (x 845. jV3 f 3. 872. 888. . J V. Hoots are extraneous. 8. 2. (1 . 899. 2/ 856. (x + 0X024.  tt 815. 23.4. . (2 a . 2. 2.l)(x + 2).3. (a 4 871. a(ry + 864. . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 6(a6)(o a + + &). (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .a 2 2 ). (3 b . (x 4. 820. 895. 4. b' 2 821. 1.om 441) (a 855./>") (a'. 882. 2. Page 296. 1C. 841. 823.4) 860.  ' . 863. 4 818. 4.a 4 + 1).6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 6. 3 . 4 . 900. 2 . 4. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 801. ( 4 4.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (a 1) (x 4.4. 898. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 2. 1 1. 876.y) 852. (2 4. 851. (a m . a 42)(x .  + l(l^). (:r 11. 6. 6. 843. 4.1)(V 2 . 2. ( 869. 838. \/2. 11. 0. a(ft)( 873.7)(4 x. $.r4).7 4 1) 846.7. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.  839. 827. . 0. 25. (.+ m f ") (a* ). (x 2 . 2 2 .5 b) 4 1). (3 862. 881. 5. 3. (4 c 4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).10 ab 4. ANSWERS 798. (x 2 f r . 13. (x3). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 48. 819. 840. 835. 5. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). ((' 1).
0. 959. 3 . 945. 8.0. 2.V~~3). 18.  26j. 5l4f. 1). 979. 8. . 911. J. 987. i 8. 941. 8. 12. i1" 913.. Page 303. 28. 5. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.. 6. ft.1 = 9. 908. 5 . 5.. 2 w 914. 2. 8. f. 944. 4. .  1. i>.. 962. . . J(_ ft. 921. 981.. 952. 56. 930. w. 73.760 sq. 958. V^3).01. 917. 0. 28. 8.1. a.. S07. 1 + V953. 951. 978. 280. Va926. . 8. ft.  1 .. 933. 948.. 80. ?/i 6. 248. . $(l 4. 4. 4. 3 4 . 15 946. 329. 11. 8. dL 4. . 496. 10. 15 16 ft. Z ^. '3 3 in. i(6 in.. 6. 961. 2 i ' a V. 100 rows. 939. 1 1. 6 a 915. 932.I. 6. 60 949. 4. . 8128.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 956. 6 1 1. 977.. 12 mi. 4. ft. 4. w 3. 5. . 1.2. ft. 964. 2. 954. 906.446. ^y. 7. 986. 927. 1 _2 . 4. 2. 6. 2. .. 333.073. 980.111. 5. 2 1. 940. . 912. 11. . 3. 909. 20 19 ft. 947. 5. J. 2. 935. a + . T 6. . 925. 480 8 sq. 982. 942.. 1. 7. ft. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 938. 2. 6 . 4. 7 or 30. Y. . . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 2. 904. 923. . 7. f ft 4 . 11.. T 6. 963. 12. ft. 3. 902. 8 . Page 301. 7. 9 in. 28. 10. 934. 916. 960. 936. 7 ft. 4. 11. 4 6 mi. 14 . i 3. 40 16 in. 4 . 2 ft. 922. 111. 985. ft. ft. V5 T 2 . 0. 955. 4 in. Page 300. T3. 1 . 903. 108. yd. 66 924. 6. 3. 957./hr. 3. 937. v/(ai !)(&910.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 3).651. 2. V5 fj. 3. . Page 302. 115. 931. 6. 0.. 920. 905.615. 950. 943.744. 6 da. . 2. 6.. 3. 4. . tt2 19. 984. 983. 2 yd. 12. 1 2. 919. 3. 333. 12 in. . r ft ' < Page 299. 918.709. 8. =F J.2. 1. %* .1.
996. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1 1004.92. 108. in. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.18.870 z8 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 48. + v 2). . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1019. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 12. 997. (Z>) 999. (6) 8(1 . r = 2. 1017. X. 1 8 8 2.'^^ } ( . 1(5. . 1008.. 0. 0. 6 70 . + 448 . 1014. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (J. 120 i^l^.128 I. 1005. (5. 993. 4. Page 304. 2 . 192. 1000. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . ^Trsq. 995. 992. Page 305.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.192rt?)r 120 *. 120 a. 162. 994. 988. . 24. 1007. () 12(2+V3).870 a 6 1011. 72.. 1003.378 <W and 92.  5&7 1021.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 990. 1013.51. 8. 4 and 1020. 1009. 1018.378 1015. 3003. 12. 1010. ^f (2f3V2). 1016. 1001. 2(2 v/2). 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1006. 9 da. ~ \. 991. 1012. 32 13 (tx 4V3.
All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW TOSS . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. save Inequalities. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. comparatively few methods are heretofore. so that the Logarithms. i2mo. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. given. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. xiv+563 pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.25 lamo.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. etc. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. physics. xi 4 373 pages. than by the . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. $1. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. A examples are taken from geometry. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. great many work.D. The more important subjects tions. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Ph. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. $1. and commercial life.
Half leather. xiv+56a pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. In Factoring. Logarithms. $1. so that the tions. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. save Inequalities. and commercial life.25 i2mo. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. xi f 373 pages. $1. comparatively few methods are given. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. 12010. Ph. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.D. The author grade. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. etc.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. HatF leather. physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW YOKE . The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.
D. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Cloth. 4. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 7 he . Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. SCHULTZE. SEVENOAK. State: . 10. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. aoo pages. more than 1200 in number in 2. 6. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .10 L. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. under the heading Remarks". Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. NEW YORK . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.. izmo. .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. lines. These are introduced from the beginning 3. $1. 9. Cloth. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Half leather. wor. iamo.r and. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. xii + 233 pages. Ph.
New York City. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. $1. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. and not from the information that it imparts. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. of these theoretical views. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. 370 pages. 12mo. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA .
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. " This volume etc. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps. i2mo.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. photographs. and a full index are provided. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. diagrams. Cloth. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Topics. diagrams. An exhaustive system of marginal references. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.