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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
IQJS January. .. . 1915. August. U. Mass. September. 1917. J. January. 8. September. 1910 . 1911. Norwood. . 1910. 1916.' February.S. July. May. Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. Reprinted 1913. Published Set up and electrotyped. May.COPYRIGHT.A. Cushlng Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. chief : among These which are the following 1. Such a large number of methods. specially 2." this book. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. owing has certain distinctive features. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. manufactured for this purpose. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. however. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. etc. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Elementary Algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.. and conse . are omitted.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra.
all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . may be used to supplement the other. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. however. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. two negative numbers. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. etc.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. In regard to some other features of the book. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.g. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. hence either book 4. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. For the more ambitious student. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. especially problems and factoring. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . Topics of practical importance. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". e. are placed early in the course. Moreover. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. as quadratic equations and graphs.
But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. such examples. elementary way. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. By studying proportions during the first year's work. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. is based principally upon the alge . viz. and commercial are numerous. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods." Applications taken from geometry. Moreover. in " geometry . an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. physics. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. based upon statistical abstracts.
William P.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. however. NEW YORK. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.
..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ....... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. Powers.. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... SUBTRACTION......CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...
. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . .. /^ ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . . Type VI.. Type IV. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type III. Type Polynomials... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . * ... . Type V. Type II.. .114 .
. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .... . Evolution of Monomials 170 .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .... ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
c = 1. 14." EXERCISE If a 1. some number is . 7 = 2. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. since the parts are a . 8. d 7. 6. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 2. c f d). [6c] 3 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. Val \fi?. 5Vl6c. as in arithmetic. 10. V3 . + 1]. 2 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. or 9 Vx. !^f\/03 3 ft. 13. is 28. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. a polynomial of two terms. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. e. (cfd) 4. 16. + c). 12. A binomial is 62 . 4V3~6c. A polynomial is an y. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. b = 3. V2a. 9. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 4(a 6(6 + &). v'Ta. \/c. V36". ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). expression containing more than one and a 4 term. find the numerical value of: Vff. V^a6. 11. 6. 0. 15. 27.g. 17.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. x 9. aVc^. 26. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 3. are trinomials.
5 ax 50 a6cd. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. . (a (a f b) 7. 6.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . .2 + I126. 10. 1. 6.9 aWc + f a b . 14. a=4. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . . 2. 4. 4a6fVaV2^.99. 52 . 12. a 2 6. c=l. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 2 ). Otherwise operations of addition.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 3. Ex. multiplication. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 3a + 56 a 2 .9. + 26+3 c. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. EXERCISE 8*  . Ex. 5=3. 3 2 If 1.390. * For additional examples see page 268.810 + 150 = . find the numerical value of: 9. 8. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . __ E. d=Q.19 = 6. a2 11. x=^.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .4 6^9 ad. d = 0. 5. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. l 13. 4 .INTRODUCTION 29..30 = 270 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 3 4 . = 32 + 4527 = 50. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . subtraction. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.e. . 2. b = 3. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 5c +d 2 .g. 5. i. 16. c = 2.
26. 23.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 5. 28. geometry. 6 = 4. 27. 6 = 2. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Six 2 . 6. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. physics. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. . a = 4. 35. and other sciences. sible to state Ex. 38. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 37. 6=2. 25. 26 of the exercise. : 6. 24. 6 = 1. a =4. a = 3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3. 22. 29. 6. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a a=3. a.6 f c) (6 a + c). Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. Express in algebraic symbols 31.c) (a . 6 = 7. 6 = 5. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 3. a = 2. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. = 3. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 33. 30. a = 4.6 . a =3. if : a = 2. 6 = 6. 30. 34.
13. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. d. 15 therefore feet. A train in 4 hours.) Assuming g . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 12. and 13 inches. 2. (b) 5. b 14. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. i. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 4. c. if v . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. and c 13 and 15 = = = . An electric car in 40 seconds. and 15 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet.g. and 5 feet. if v : a. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v = 30 miles per hour.seconds.e.16 1 = 84. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. b.INTRODUCTION E. . Find the height of the tree. 14.16 centimeters per second. (c) 4. then a 13.
(c) 5 miles.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. $ = 3.14d (square units). is H 2 units of length (inches. 32 F. 2 inches. the 3. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (c) 5 F. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14 square meters. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. ~ 7n cubic feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 8000 miles. 5.). on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (The number 3. If the (b) 1 inch. : 8000 miles. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 4.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the area etc. meters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. square units (square inches. . then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 10 feet.).
$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). or positive and negative numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. however. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. SUBTRACTION.CHAPTER II ADDITION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. . we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.
(17) 15 + (14). 19. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 4. 12. (_ In Exs. = 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 23. 4 is 3 J.16 32. 10. c = 4. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. is 2. subtract their absolute values and . d = 5. . + (9). the one third their sum. 24. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 18. lf(2).3. of 2. is 0. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 6 6 = 3. if : a a = 2. 5. 33. 2326. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. of: 20. 22. Thus. '. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 21.  0. c = = 5. d = 0. + 12.
09. 6. . and $4500 gain. . 0. 35. 74. 12. 33. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.. 55.ADDITION. 66. AND PARENTHESES d = l. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. . $1000 loss. or and . 1. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. ' Find the average of the following 34. \\ Add 2 a.13. }/ Add 2 a. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.7. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 32. c = 0. . ' 1? a 26. & 28. 42. 36. : 48. 2. 10. c=14. 10.4. and 3 a. 7 yards. sets of numbers: 13. 32. 41. 72.7. are similar terms. 43. . : 34. 3.5.3. $500 loss.. 4 F. 5 and 12.. and 3 a. $7000 gain. 38. 60. ^ ' 37. 13. and 3 yards. 31. SUBTRACTION. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. affected by the same exponents. = 22.5. 29. 7 a. which are not similar. $3000 gain. = 23. 7 a. and 3 F. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. . 37. 2. 30. 6. and 8 F. 3 and 25. 11 (Centigrade). & = 15. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. = 13. . 34. 6. 39. 27. 40. 10. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. d= 3. and 4. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. : and 1. 4. 25.
either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.ii. 12Vmfn. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 2 . 5l 3(af6). 12 2 wp2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. EXERCISE Add: 1. f 4 a2. in algebra it may be considered b. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 2 a&. 7 rap2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. : 2 a2.13 rap 25 rap 2. 10.18 35. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 14 . 5Vm + w. Algebraic sum. or a 6. b a f ( 6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 5 a2 . 13. 9(af6). and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 2(af &). The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term.sign. + 6 af . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. Vm f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 11. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. . 12(af b) 12. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 3a .
without finding the value of each term 34. 2 2 2 31. +m """ 20. 1 27. 2/ : Add. n x* 2 22. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 17. 32. SUBTRACTION. + / + 3 Va.ADDITION. + y. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. is . 2 7 1 26. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. c 2 ^24. 33. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 36. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. ra 19. 30. 21. 35. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 37. 6 23. and to add each column. l^S 25. a a8 ZL **.
7 2 . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.41 = 3. a 4. 2 Thus.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .g. 4 2. c = 1.12 a& 4.8 abc .g.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 5. 7 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.c= 2. s. and J 2 s. ft any convenient and c.15 abc .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. = . therefore the answer is correct. V3. e. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. x of x. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2 Sum. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. . NOTE.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.15 6c.3 s. 6=2. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 46 4z 7 c. to show any error.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 5 . the erroneous answer equal 7. and 2 . 3.o c and 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. to add 26 ab . 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. .20 c 5 ab 4. . 3a 2? . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 9 q 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. f 110WS: 26 aft. 2 025. of that letter. 4 = 7. 2c.
. e a4 /. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.10 Vc. . 2 ?ft ?/z. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.1. . 4 3 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.4 Va . 4(a .12. . a 4 a . and v 15.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .9(a + &) . + 50 + 62 . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . ?/ .a. and 8 3 . 16e + 17/90. 8.a 4 a 4 1. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4 8 3 4 4 . .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .Ga 43x45. v/20. 2 2 and . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .12(a 4. + a + 1. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 56 w. 2 and 9m 48m 4.2n 2 2 3 rz . .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .1 a 4 1 0.8 m 2m 12. 4. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 16. and and 13. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. and 12a 4 15& 20c .12 6 ~5 a . m 4 6. a2 2 14.ADDITION. in 8 3 m n 4. d and / 3 ? 12.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.a. xy3xz + yz.VS 4 2 Vc. a) y ^/. d.and 6. 2 2 . 18/+6y + d. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. and .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .15 5. 11. 4 Vc.6. SUBTRACTION.3 mn 2 2 n8 . and 1 4 a .(b + c) 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.a .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 2 ?/.5 cr& + 7 6 9. ^2 1 e. and 5 Vb 18. . a. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 7ar + 3B 5. 2 a. 4 ajy 17. a 4 a .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.7m .5a^6 f 6) . 3 2 2 3 9 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a2 a.4:xy xz 6yz. 2 3(c f a). .7v/if. 19.
many negative units re main ? from 2. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. f 1. 1. + 1. a 6 2 c.9aj 2. f 1. 1. 1. +d a. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.3^* 2n 2 .. 1/ . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.11 xy + 12. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. T8a. . how 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 45a6 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . is 2. 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. + n*.5< 3 2 s 4^4. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.m 4m ?/?/ d.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .22 21. 8 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 2 8 n + <w 2 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.ra + m.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. 13 1. 12 xyz. . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. s . f number may be added 3. and 25. The sum and ? 1. 22.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 2 24. . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. and e + 6y .
called the minvend. 3. 6 (3) = 8. To subtract. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. two numbers are given. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.g. ( 6) ( = . from What 3. SUBTRACTION. In addition. if x Ex. Therefore any example in subtraction different . and their algebraic sum is required.3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence.2. . 1. 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. +b 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 7. 41. ab = x. 5 is 2. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of .ADDITION. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. and the required number the difference. the other number is required. In subtraction. NOTE. This gives by the same method. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. Ex. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract + 3. a. From 5 subtract to . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.
3 x* .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t . Check. Ex.
55.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 42. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 54.7 a .ADDITION. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. SUBTRACTION.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 44. 2y 2 . 6 6 2 2 ?/ .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 56. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 50. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 46. check the answer. 53.4 a*& + 6 a & .a 2 j. 57. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 47. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. c f d. + a the 2 a. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . tract 4 x 3. 6 4 a.6)f.4 a^ 4. 45. 48. 41. and 3 7/ . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. . 49. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 43. 52. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .c. 51. of a 4.2.w>t.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 2. From 2 a take a & j. 58. From 6(af. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.
to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a a + c. a 2y + z. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 6 17. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a + 6. A is n years old. 20. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 9. + 6 + c. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.15. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . +a add the difference duce 13. + 2. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.26 4. subtract # + 1. 19. 16. of # 2 8. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 2 m 21.
a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.c.6 b f (. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. & f c. II. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. the sign is understood. a+(bc) = a +b . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 46.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. SUBTRACTION. changed.g.b c = a a & f f. Ex.c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.a^6)]  } . 45.ADDITION. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.2 b . Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. one occurring within the other. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. I. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.
7i h jp) (m ?*.1422) J ] . 6) 2. 271 + (814 . 3 3 f 7. : x + (2yz). 2.) 5 . By removing parentheses. Ex.(a + 6). 9. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. may be inserted according to 43.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a f (a a . 14. 2 2 2 a(. [36+ (a 2c]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 19. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 4. a (a + 6). In the following expression inclose the second and third. (m a2 f. 15. 8. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). m f ft) a. 5.)].y (60. 21. 2 2a. + (2a 6 + c ). . ? 11.[271 47. 3.+ 6)f (a2 b). 6. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 13. find the numerical value of { 1422 .: Ex. Signs of aggregation 1. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 16. 17. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 18. a (a + 26 c ).
7. 5. 10. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 3. first. The difference of a and 6. m x 2 4. difference of the cubes of n and m. The square of the difference of a and b. 9. a\l> > c + d.1. 7. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. II. ' NOTE. and the subtrahend the second.4 y* . m and n. 2mn + 2q3t. 13. 3. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. y f 8 . The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. of the cubes of m and n. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. z + d. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. p + q + rs. 2. 8. The sum^)f m and n. 4. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. terms 5.2 tf . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 5^2 _ r . )X 6. 6 diminished . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 12.7fa. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5 a2 2. The product The product m and n. .
(Let a and b represent the numbers. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 18. b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. d. 6 is equal to the square of b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.30 14. 6.) .
3. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. If the two loads what What. weights. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 2. 4. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. force is produced therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. therefore. 5. two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. A A A 1. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
9 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. . make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. becomes meaningless if definition.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 48. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(. ( (. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 5x(4). and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. To take a number 7 times. Practical examples^ it however.9) x 11. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. or plied by 3. (. thus. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. the multiplier is a negative number. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. (5)X4. 4 multiplied by 3. 4x(3)=12.32 8. 4 multi44444 12. NOTE.4)(4) = + 12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Thus. x 11. 9 x ( 11). however.
2. 2. . 6. 12. x= 0. b = 3. and y = 4. 11. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (c#) . c = 25. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 1. 22. +5.MULTIPLICATION 50. 7. 2a 2 6c. 4. 10. (4)X(15). 4 a2 . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 8 4 . Law Thus. 14. If a cal = 4a6c. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 19. (2) 8 (. . 1. 3 aW. of Signs: TJie positive. NOTE. z s 11 aWcx. _3. 8. 29.(4J). . _2. 9. 2a6 c . _2^ 3. 5.2 f+x 2 . the parenthesis frequently omitted.4. x. 3.7. 4 . 30. 32. 15. 23. about fac (2)X If 6. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 16. . etc. Ua b 28. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 6 2. 24.3. . (. (2)x9. is 6x7. (7) X (12). tors is no misunderstanding possible. 13. 3. (10) 4 . find the numeri values of: 21.a)( =+ a&. 8 31. 17. 20. (4)'.(a&c) 2 2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 6.3) (1) 7 2 . 5x3. X(5). 3 a2?/2 .2f 18. 27. 26.
5 = 2. 11. 17. a = 2. 200.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. + 2/). By 3 definition.2). 5 3 5 3 2 . (a6) (a5) 9.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 34.e.257).35). a= 1. 5. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 36. 12 U U . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . =2 a *. 6" 127 U .(2.  2 2. &*) c d*. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .<?. 3. or 2 . Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. i. 3 2 . fl*" integers. 16. 4.(12) . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 2. 5 . 10. 2 2 3 6 .2 2 23 + 5 . 9 . 3. . 6 = 1. 127  127 9 7 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.(7). 53. 3 3 4 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.503). 2(14. 6. 2 2 2 . 78 . B. 6 aWc x . This 52.6 if 35. 14. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 1. . 50(112.  and 2 25 8 . IB. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. . = 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. & = 3.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 4.m a 3  4 . . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2. 100. 2 3 . a = 3. : 3a7abc. 13. a 2 2 . 2(7.7. 7. 4. a8 a=2.3).. of the factors. . m*.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 = . 5(711. Ex.. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.
2(5fl5f25). 22. 35 4 7(6. (.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 28. 6. but we shall assume it for any number. 12( + 1 4 i).3 win ) . . 11(3. 2(645410). c(4a ftc ). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 27. 25. . 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 35. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 3. 24.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. (. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 23. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 7p*q r*. .4a#.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 17(10041042). 29. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 34. 31. 21. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 7. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 2 32. 19.7 w'W (8 n^W). . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.6. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 4. 26. . .f 2). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.A). 3(124342). 20. 5. 23(10004100420). by first multiplying. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). and then adding : 1. /). multiply each by the monomial. If results ft. 6(10420430). called the distributive law. _4aft.2 3 aft ).7pqt. This principle. ) 2 33.
4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).5 x 7).we b) (x law.^ c + 2 .asa product. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . By what 25. 19. 20. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. . 26. 21. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 12. 9. : expression must 24. 17. 2 m(mhn \p).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 22. Find the factors of 6 ary . 30. 29. 23. 2 27. 28. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 3 ).6 a6).2 mn(9 mV . 2 2 16. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. be multiplied to give 4o. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).60 a& 10 aft.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.3 aftc). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 11. . 5). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 7 a 6 c(. f7a.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. ~2mn(m +n p ).5 w*V f 7 wn).
a2 + a8 + 3 . Check. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 2.4.3 b by a 5 b. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 59.a . Ex.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the student should apply this test to every example. 2a3b a66 2 a . Multiply 2 a . Since errors. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. To multiply two polynomials. however.3 a 2 + a8 .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. . Since all powers of 1 are 1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.
6. 17. 29. + & + 1f a^faj 1). ^ 2 . 12.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 25.1 . (ajf6y)(aj 23. I (mfn)(m4. 2 . (6p (2 f 21. OQ OO. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 7y). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 2) (3 A: 1). 2. 26. (6i7n)(llJn). 1). 5. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 20. 40. (2w 19. 30. (a^26) . 36) I) 14. 18.4) (x + 1). * For additional examples see page 261.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 31. a 5c)(2a6c). (2 x* x 2 . 3. 2 . 2  37. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .2m)(l m). (8r7*)(6r39. 10. 41. (13 A. (6a~7) 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 16. (4a 2 33. 8. 9.4) (mnp 4. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). QQ O7. 11. 36). 13. 3<7). . 22. 4 2). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 4. 7.2). 24. 15. 36. l)(raf 2). 28. 35. 32. 12)(a?^2l). . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).
20. 3. . plus the product 62. 18.25)(y+4).n)(wf w). 2 6) (a 3 6).e. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (100 +2) (100 + 3). 11. (a3)(a + 2). X 102. 14. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (p12)(p + ll).4). (*. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 9. 8. + 5) (1000 + 4). 22. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 19.13).2 6) (a f 6). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (a (a (a. 28. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 17. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 2) (a f 3). 2) (1000 + 3). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. _3)(a _4). + 9)(m+9). 15. 6. 27. i. + 3) (a 7). + 60)(f2). . i. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 26. : 23 2. (ra. 21.e. 25 a 2 . The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 24. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 7. (10+ (1000 (2. (!)(* 5). 1) (10 + 2). 13. 1005x1004. (a 102 x 103. ft 16. 2 a? 29. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 10. 25.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (J 23. 12. . (a 9) (a + 9).!!)( (a + 21). 75 ab f 54 ft . plus the product of the two unequal terms. in of the two unequal terms. (6 12) (6 f.
(II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). <J>7) J .15. p 2 p. 33. 9. i. 32. i. Ex. 7. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 3) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. : 24 (a 2. plus twice the product of the first and the second.66 s.15. . and the second. n2 10ii+16. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.e. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. plus sum of two numbers the square II. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 2 5. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 77ie square of the of the first. . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 49 y*. (a26) 2 . 2 (a (*5) 2 . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 34. 6. (a2) (p a . III. 4. plus the square of the second. 63. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. a2 2 w + 2 w . 7 a + 10. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. III. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.30. . of the second. (x+3i/) 2 . + 6 a + 8. 37. 3. second. 35. w 2 ro . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 8.e. 31.e.
2 . 21. n*6n+9. n 2 f4n+4. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 32. . 99x101. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . . 35. (20 f 1) . 2 J ). a2 9. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). The product of 57. 25 a 9. 15. 34. 22 2 . 52. 14. 22. + 3z) 2 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 23. 7& ) 25. ). + 5)(5+a). 51. 62 25n 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 44.30 ab + 25 6 64. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . ( 27. 41 16. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5). 40. 41. 991 2 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 . 31. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 49. 104 2 37. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 18. I) 2 . 2 2 . . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 4 53. 16aW25. 12. 24. 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 42. 2 9a 496 2 56. 9 a2 . 33. 47. 38. 55. 998x1002. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . (^. 48. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 11. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (1000 2 . 29. By actual multiplication. m 2 16. (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 11 # ) 2 20. (2x3yy. 28. G> +5g)*. 103 36.998 39. (6afy 2 5) (a. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 17. . 45. 46. 54.
4. . plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. or The student should note minus signs. The square 2 (a 4. ) (2 of a polynomial. (5a64)(5a&3). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 2 10. 8. sum of the cross products. 9. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (2a3)(a + 2). ((5a? (10 12. 3. 14. 65. 5. (3m + 2)(ml). 6.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 11.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 7. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. plus the last terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (5a4)(4al). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (4s + y)(32y). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 13. : 25 2.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).
1 5 = 10 . (xy+z)*.i2&c) 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).4) .24 . 2)6. and check the answers !. 6~2(a + 7).39.3) . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. of z : 10. (a (.(>.5). 4y sf n) 2 . 3.(m 2 6. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (u4& + 3c'. 5.24] . Hence. a. 5. Check. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .8 x + 15] . 2 2. after multiplying the factors of a term. 3. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 12. n). + 65) .3)(z.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. (  2 4) =  20 a.(x . = .r _ 2 .4) . 66. = 10 x .3) (x . 7. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 7.X2 + 2 x . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 8. Ex.5) = (7 . 6(a 2. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 4.(= [ Xa + 2 .y? + 8 . 13. Find the square root 11.29. 4. 4(aj2)h3(7). Simplify (x + 6) (a . + 6)( .[a? .39. . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 8. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. If x = 1. 4(* + 2)5(3). 9. 6.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
v/17.e. 18. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).11 a + 9 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . .2) (3 a . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).DIVISION 14. Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . a I. 20.l. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 16. (81 m + 1 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . . 51 15. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .2). 19.
36 a4 ?/ 4 . : the following w a 4 !.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 14. 9& 2 . 16. 15. 1. 12. aW 12 a. . 16 . 100ry.0001. r/ 1. f 13. . 10.000.49. 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11.
the first member is 2 x + 4. . 81. . x 20. in the equation 2 x 0. is said to satisfy an equation. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. the 80. . =11. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 82. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 83. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. (a + ft) (a b) and b. second member is x + 4 x 9. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79.
(Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. x I. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 2. called axioms 1. the products are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. If equals be subtracted from equals. . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A 2 a. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. If equals be added to equals. 85. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. but 4 does not equal 5. 86. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. Transposition of terms.54 84. 89. 5. If equals be divided by equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 2 = 6#f7. a.b. the divisor equals zero. NOTE. 4. A term may be transposed from its sign. A numerical equation is one in which all . . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the remainders are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. the quotients are equal. E. 87.g. 3. the sums are equal.e.2. one member to another by changing x + a=. 90. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.
(Axiom 4) When x = 3. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Uniting. The first member. 2 x = 6. The first member. Dividing by Check. Uniting similar terms.6 y f y\ . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Ex. is correct. Transposing. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.2 y= f . The second member. 3 y . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Unite similar terms. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.8. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. 91. x = 3. Hence the answer. a? Adding 5 to each term. x = 93. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.9 y + y2 = 22 . if a x = b. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 2(11 . and the known terms to the second. To solve a simple equation. Subtracting 4 x from each term. b Adding a to both + a. a= a 6fc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. b c. (4y)(6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.2. Dividing both members by 2.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . x = (Axiom 3) 92. if 55 x members. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Check. . 6a5 = 185 = 13. 4x 1 + 6. f If y 20 . y) (5 y) unknown Ex.
11 ?/ a? 18. 12. 3. 14. = 7. : 5# = 15+2a. 13 y 99 = 7 y. a. f Simplifying. 7 (6 x 16). . 2. + 7(3 + 1) =63. \x x 2^xfl.69. Solve the following equations by transposing. 24.7. Transposing. = 2 ?/. 21. 22. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. =2 = 3. a? a?. 17 7 a.56 Ex. .7a: = 394a. 3 7 a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). it NOTE. 4. 15. 4a + 5 = 29. Uniting. a.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3. 13a? 3a?. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63.. 17 + 5a. 4y 10. x x 1 . + 16 = 16 + 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). a?. 50. 7a? 5.17 + 4y = 36. 11. = 5a?+18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. and check the answers 9. 32 = 264. 247y = 68lly. J. x = 18. 20. 6. 19. + 22. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 7. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 8. If x = 18. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. aj * See page 264. = 3. etc. 9 9a? = 7 13. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). {(x (x The The member right member left . v23.. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 16.
. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 31.g. 35. 38. 7) (a. 7(7 x y 26. .3) . 39. . 27. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 36.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. is the other part. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 33.5) = (a.4) + 4 w . (a. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.5) + 199. 25. e. 30. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. . . 2 2 * Jaj. + 4). + 7) (.5(2 u . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). find the other part. 5) (as (a. 6(6a. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.14 = 0. 40.1) (a (a? + 3) = .7.3) + 14. . . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 29. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. (6 u =5 44.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .3) + . a? 28. a? 43.7) (7 x + 4) . 42.(2 + 6) (4 . (aj 37. 34. this question.1) (u .12) (2 + 5) .1 0) = 0. or 70 a?.2) (M . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. Evidently 45.32. 41.
15. 14. Find the greater one. Ex. 9. is b. Divide a into two parts. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is a? 2 is c?. Divide 100 into two 12. 5. so that one part The difference between is s. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 10. so that one part Divide a into two parts. is d. 7. so that of c ? is p. 3. 4. smaller one 16. greater one is g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 1.58 Ex. and the smaller one parts. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 13. one yard will cost 100 dollars. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. EXERCISE 1. 11. or 12 7. 17. 33 2. 6. find the cost of one yard. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. one part equals is 10. 6. x f y yards cost $ 100 . a. If 7 2.
find the of their ages 6 years hence. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 22. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and B is y years old. and B's age is y years. 28. 20. Find 21. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 33. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. is A A is # years old. Find 35. and spent 5 cents. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 34. 26. b dimes. and c cents. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. and B has n dollars. A dollars. sum If A's age is x years. ?/ 31. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. numbers is x. How many cents had he left ? 28. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A man had a dollars. find the has ra dollars. amount each will then have. 19. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 24. 28. How many years A older than is B? old. If B gave A 6 25. 32. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many cents has he ? 27. A feet wide.
A cistern is filled 43.50. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find a. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. Find a 47. of m. find the fraction. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. . The two digits of a number are x and y. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. . If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. The first pipe x minutes. Find x % % of 1000." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. m is the denominator. 48. % % % of 100 of x. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. he walk each hour ? 39. Find the number. per Find 5 Find 6 45. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. 49. A was 20 years old. 46. c a b =  9. a. of 4. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9.
etc. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of a increased much 8. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. c. 3. 5. 9. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 6. 80. 2. The excess of a over b is c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. double of a is 10. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 8 b ) + 80 = a . c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. a exceeds b by c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. of x increased by 10 equals x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. by one third of b equals 100. 80. The double as 7. same result as 7 subtracted from . 4.
first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. express in algebraic symbols : 700.62 10. pays to C $100.. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. In 10 years the sum of A's. 18. 11. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and C have respectively 2 a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 50 is x % of 15.000. they have equal of A's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. of 30 dollars. 6 % of m. 12. a. x 4 If A. express in algebraic 3x : 10. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. is If A's age is 2 x. as 17 is is above a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. x is 100 x% is of 700. B. 14. amounts. >. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. they have equal amounts. (c) If each man gains $500. and C's ages will be 100. 17. B's. 16.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. m is x % of n. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 3 1200 dollars. B's age 20. #is5%of450. a. . A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. symbols B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a second sum. and C's age 4 a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. sum equals $20. B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.
exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Uniting. Check. Transposing. Dividing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Simplifying. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. x= 15. much as 40 exceeds the number. Ex. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Ex. 4 x = 80. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 2. 3z40:r:40z. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. A will Check. Find A's present age. NOTE. the . Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Uniting. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. 6 years ago he was 10 . number of yards. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. . be 30 . Three times a certain no. 23 =30. denote the unknown 96. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In order to solve them. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. x+16 = 3(35). number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. the required . 1. x = 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. etc. In 15 years 10. but 30 =3 x years. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Let x = the number. 15.
300 56. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Dividing. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Hence 40 = 46f. % of 120. A will be three times as old as toda3r . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the number.2. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. twice the number plus 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 4. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number. Six years hence a 12 years ago. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 3. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. EXERCISE 1. . 13. Let x 3. by as much as 135 ft. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. exceeds the width of the bridge. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 120. Find 8. 14. 11. Forty years hence his present age. A number added number.64 Ex. 5.
During the following 90 years. F 8. How many dol A has A to $40. . Maine's population increased by 510. B How will loses $100. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. The other verbal statement. and B has $00. five If A gives B $200. the second one. statements are given directly. written in algebraic symbols. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. If A gains A have three times as much 16. 97. 14. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. Vermont's population increased by 180. The sum of the two numbers is 14.000. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money.000. A and B have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. The problem consists of two statements I. times as much as A. Ex. B will have lars has A now? 17. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. is the equation. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. x. One number exceeds the other one by II. 1. and as 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. two verbal statements must be given. which gives the value of 8. 65 A and B $200. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers.
Statement x in = the larger number. terms of the other. Dividing. = B's number of marbles. Then. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. < Transposing. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. A will lose.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. the smaller number. 2. to Use the simpler statement. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 8 = 11. although in general the simpler one should be selected. x x =14 8. 25 marbles to B.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = A's number of marbles. The two statements I. + a f f 8 = 14. 2x a? x j = 6. If A gives are : A If II. If we select the first one. / . consider that by the exchange Hence. . which leads ot Ex. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. and Let x = the Then x +. I. A gives B 25 marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. 8 the greater number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = 14. . Let x 3x express one many as A. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. A has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as viz. unknown quantity in Then. x = 8. . the greater number. Uniting. B will have twice as many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = 3. Let x 14 I the smaller number.
25 = 20. then. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Find the numbers. dollars and dimes is $3.10.. Two numbers the smaller. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 3 x = 45. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.. Simplifying. Find the numbers. the number of half dollars. 3. but 40 = 2 x 20. greater is . of dollars to the number of cents. Eleven coins. have a value of $3. Let 11 = the number of dimes. The value of the half : is 11. * ' . by 44. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x = the number of half dollars. x from I.. 40 x . w'3. . x = 6.550 f 310. 45 . Uniting. . the price.10. 15 + 25 = 40. is 70. Dividing.240. Check. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. cents. Check. x = 15. Dividing.75. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. consisting of half dollars and dimes. * 98. and the Find the numbers. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.5 x . (Statement II) Qx . the number of dimes. 60. The number of coins II.10. B's number of marbles. The sum of two numbers is 42. 11 x = 5. Uniting. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 6 times the smaller. etc. Simplifying. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). A's number of marbles. 2. 50.$3. 1. 50 x Transposing.
McKinley. as the larger one. 7. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. A's age is four times B's. How many 14 years older than B. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Two numbers The number differ by 39. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Find their ages. Everest by 11. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 6. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.. and twice the altitude of Mt. one of which increased by 9. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. United States. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. On December 21. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 9. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 5. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Twice 14.000 feet. the number.68 4. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 11.
they would have 3. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. Let x II. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. times as much as A. and B has three as A. Ex. then three times the money by I. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 1. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. I. number of dollars A had. bers is denoted by x. 8(8 + 19) to C. and 68. are : C's The three statements A. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. number had. and C together have $80. x = 8. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B. has. = 48. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. B has three times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. The third verbal statement produces the equation. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. If 4x = 24. . has. original amount. II. B. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and C together have $80. 19. If A and B each gave $5 to C. III.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C.
90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. according to III. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 9 5 = 4 . + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. first. number of horses. + 8 90 x and. and each sheep $ 15. and the sum of the . 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for horses. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Uniting. sheep. x = 5. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. and Ex.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x j = the number of horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. Dividing. number of sheep. and. The total cost equals $1185. x Transposing. 1 1 Check. each horse costing $ 90. 9 cows. The I. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. each cow $ 35. the third five times the first. according to II. 185 a = 925. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 4 x f 8 = 28. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. + 35 x 4. 28 2 (9 5). first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 90 may be written. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. x f 4 = 9. three statements are : IT. 2. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Let then. cows. III.
13. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . what is the population of each city ? 8. and the sum of the first and third is 36.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. men. New York delphia. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.000. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. A 12. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v . and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and 2 more men than women. what are the three angles ? 10.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. the third 2. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. equals 49 inches. 7. twice the 6. If twice The sum the third side. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.  4. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. women. increased by three times the second side. 9. first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. how many children were present ? x 11. "Find three is 4. the copper. The gold. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and children together was 37. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice as old as B. what is the length of each? has 3.
The copper had twice the value of the gold. First fill in all the numbers given directly. Find the value of each. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Hence Simplifying. = 35. speed.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. of arid the value of the iron was $300.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. i. A and B apart.000. together. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. Dividing. . 7 Uniting.e. Let x = number of hours A walks. width. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 8 x = 15. number of miles A x x walks. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 14. such as length. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and quantities area. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E. or time. we obtain 3 a. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and distance. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. number of hours.000 more than that the copper. 3 and 4. how many 100. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. = 5.g.
06 = $ 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards. + 8. x + 200). the second 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. But 700 certain = 800 2. the area would be 100 square yards less. . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. Find the dimensions of the field.04 8. l. Multiplying. 70x10 Ex. $ 800 = 800.053. z = 20. or 700. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. . $ 800 = required sum. were increased by 30 yards. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.01 = = .04 = $ 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. $ 1000 x . 10 x = 200. Check. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.M(x . x . x . original field has Check." gives (2. Transposing and uniting.05 x x . 2 a = 40. 2   and transpose. The an area 40 x 20 =800.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.
How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A of each. mobile. A sets out later two hours B .74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. were increased by 3 yards. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and a second sum. invested at 5 %. the area would remain the same. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A man bought 6 Ibs. What are the two sums 5. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. 2. Six persons bought an automobile. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sions of the field. 3. of coffee for $ 1. After how many hours will B overtake A. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and its width decreased by 2 yards. Ten yards $ 42. 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. Find the share of each. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. as a 4. A sum ? invested at 4 %.55. together bring $ 78 interest. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. twice as large.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . A and B set out direction. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and from the same point. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.
a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. irrational. f db 6 to b. stage of the work. a. it contains no indicated root of this letter .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a2 to 6. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An after simplifying. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. at this 6 2 . if. if it does contain some indicated root of . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . which multiplied together are considered factors. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . as. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . but fractional with respect 103. we shall not. consider 105. vV . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 104. 76 . 6. a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. expression is rational with respect to a letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a. this letter. it is composite. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. 5.
3 sy + 4 y8). 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 01. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.) Ex. it follows that a 2 . TYPE I.62 + &)(a 2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). for this result is a sum.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 8) (s1). Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . . .g. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 55.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 109. Factor G ofy 2 . 110. y. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. x. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. or that a = 6) (a = a . ?/.FACTORING 106. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Divide 6 a% .62 can be &). It (a.3 6a + 1). 2. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2. E. 1. x. 107. Ex. in the form 4) +3. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. factors of 12 &V is are 3.
a a 'Ja . 2 + q. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.g. 2 23. 15. .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 19. + llm llm. 15 2 7.5 + 2.4. 14a 4 5. 3x*6x*. (as 3) and (ccf5). 5f 2 .3. 14. 8. TYPE IT. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.45 afy .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.2. Ilro8 9. : 6 abx . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 3 2 .12 cdx. 12. 2 2 . 11. in general. 13.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.4.6. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 7a & 10.5 + 13 8. 4 8 . 18. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. e.8 c a 15 ofyV . . x2 f2 x = 15 we have.51 aW + 68 21. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). ) 22  2. 4. q*q*q 2 a. 2. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). a6c. 20. 3. 7i 13. 16.3. 34 a^c 8 . obviously. 17. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.30 aty. 32 a *?/ . 3 3 5 6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 4 tfy f. 2 Or. 2 6.
but of these only a: Hence 2 . tfa2  3. Therefore Check. of this type. 2.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 5. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). can be factored. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.4 . If q is positive. Factor x? . 2 6. Factor + 10 ax . m 5m + 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 4.11 a 2 .. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.77 = (a. 77 as the product of 1 77. or 77 l.5) (a . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.1 1 a tf a 4. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.G) = .FACTORING Ex. + 112. Ex. Ex.6 = 20.11. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. is The two numbers whose product and 6. . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. .5) (a 6). or 7 11. Factor a2 . determine whether In solving any factoring example.30 = (a . If q is negative. 11 7. We may consider 1. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. however. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.a). 3. the two numbers have opposite signs. as p. + 30 = 20.4 x . and (a . a 2 . 79 Factor a2 4 x .11) (a + 7). .11 a + 30.
a 7 a 30. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 2 ?/ 22. 15. 2 2 a' 34. . 14. 29. 13. 32. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 25. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a? + 5 + 6 a. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 30. 26.500 x + 600. . ITT. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 2 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 2 . TYPE 113. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 4 3 2 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 31. 21. 12. 4 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.48 + + 446 200. ay 11 ay +24. 33. 20. ra + 25ra + 100. 100 xr . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 2 . and 5 x. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 30. 16. 8. + 44. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 ?/ 28. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. or . + 2xS. + 5<y 24. 21 a 2 2 . 19. a 2 +11 a a? 16. a2 . 9. 17. 36.70 x y .80 7. 11. + 4?/21.180 a. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .17 + 30. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 35. 18. x2 23. 2 . 16. 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.6. 24.
all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.83 x f 54. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and r is negative. the signs of the second terms are minus. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. or G 114. but the opposite sign.5) (2 x . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 2. Factor 3 x 2 . the If p and r are positive. 2 x 27.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.13 x + 5 = (3 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 27 x 2. If p is poxiliw.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 54 x 1. 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 11 x 2x. and that they must be negative. viz. then the second terms of have opposite signs. . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. .5 . X x 18. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 3 x and x. a. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.1). 6 x 9. 9 x 6. 18 x 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. sible 13 x negative. Ex.
29. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 24.83 x .83 x = (3 . 12^17^16. 30.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 90 a 8 2 . . 2 . 2 fc . 10 a . Sar' + SaG. f go. 2.260 xy . 10a?2 2 33. 21. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 12y 2/6. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 12. 32. 10a2 G a2 2 . 9 y + 32^16. 2 2 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. X 27 . 2 .163 x 2 . 34. 2x* + 9x5. 10. 2 31. : 41 2.27). 25.19 a f 6.2) (x . since all others (II. 16. 11.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2 ar* 2 i/ . the expressions should be it. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. + 4.179.30 y 6 4 . 7.7.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 22. 3. 17. 35. 20. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 28. 6n + 5?i4. 13. 144 x . 15. 6. 9a. .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 4. 9. .2 a 90 x*y . 19. 3a + 13a. 8. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 100^200^ + 100^. 14. 5.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 18. 5m 26m f 5. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 26. 2m t7w + 3. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. + 2/3. 14 a fa 4. and the monomial factors should be removed. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 2 2 23.y + 172/9. x54 a.
connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. however. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.20 xy f 4 y\ .10 x f 16. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. of its terms are perfect squares. . 6. 2 2 . 8. and a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . must have a positive sign. form are special cases of the preceding type. x* . . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 . 9 10a625. 25 7. 3. it is a perfect square. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 116. 5. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. square. i. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 11. 4. 10.e. To factor a trinomial which maining term.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. and factor whenever possible : 1. 9. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 13. 14. 12. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 9 10gf25. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . it is more convenient for that type.
Ex. 36 2 4. 26.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 . aV . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 17. ).3 * ). 3.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 16. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. a. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. + GO + 25.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 1. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2 .9& 2 3<> 4 2 .6 m* + 9 m. 19. 16&*.64 6 = 16(a . 25. 18. 4 2 23. 2.e. 2 20. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .2 ofy + ofy m . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. . TYPE 117. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 29. . product i. !Gar 9 ( )+25.84 15. . prime. According to 65. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 6 2 .20 ab + 10 b a . : 43 tfy\ a 9. * 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 7. V. 225 ofy . 9a2 . ).60 a# + 4. 22. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. ).  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3. +( )f816 30. 6. a2 24. a. 4a2 l. 2. 10 a 2 4 2 . 149 a 81 8. 2 . ^//c to the Ex. 48 a +( ). 27. 5.
14. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . a2 . Factor a 2 . 2. 2 .FACTORING 85 118. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 . 16p 2 . 9. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (m7?) y. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.(I) . of polynomials. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 36> .c . T. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 6. 5. Ex. 4. 2. 11.d) 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 13. a:) 12. Ex. 8. One or both terms are squares 1.(c 4. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.
6. 4:cx . ma ?*a + m& nb.a a . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 2. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.r. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. By grouping.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.7 c + 2c . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 5. a 26 2 2 3 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 119. 9. ive find that the new terms con common factor. + x + 2x + 2. 12.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Ex. a? 11. 8. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. A. Ex.VI. 7.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 3. a5 + ab 6 .y + 2 2).ab + bx. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 10.1.2 ) (3 x . which may be factored according to types I. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.14.and trinomials. 2. 5) . 1. x8 . 4 B. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. = (3 x + y . After grouping tain a the terms. . .
. II.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. : 46 x* 2. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 8ra 2 + 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 4.FACTORING Ex. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 3. : m 2 2 16. + 2xy + y*q*. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 4 a2 .12 aaj 4 6y. = (a + 6)(a6). Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. $ a8 . 4. Arranging the terms. 36 9 m . 3. 2. 5. IV.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . w m 2. 6a4 12a2 + 6.4 f .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. First find monomial factors common to all terms. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8. 8. 6 6. 2 7. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2a3/ 7.l. 2. 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.
20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. + 14. 32. 80 a 2 ft 38. 19. a6 36. a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 22. 28.13 c . . 2 ft . 48. 29. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 40. (^ 34. 2 17. 30. 4 a. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 42 s 2 . 3 41. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 11. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 3 a2 23. 13. 14. 35. + 6 aft + 3 . 5a' 20.24. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . or 3 7#2 . 13 c . 25 a + 25 aft . 4 8 tt 2 z . 10 a 2 4a 4 26.40. 2 a 128. a3 156. 27. 5 a. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 50^ + 45. (a. a + a + a + l.310 x .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 3 25. 12. 18. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 42 x . 24.156. 3 2 .88 10.
The H. 25 W. 3. C. 5 7 34 2s . of the algebraic expressions. 2. Two common factor except unity The H. C. 5 2 3 . aW. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 15 aW. C. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The student should note H. C. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . II 2 . of : 48 4. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . 5 s 7 2 5. 13 aty 39 afyV. 54  32 . F. The H. 24 s . of aW. 5.) of two or more . F. C. F. 12 tfifz. 8 . C. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. are prime can be found by inspection. F. 89 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. F. 2 2 . C. 6. C. C. 122. 121. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. EXERCISE Find the H. The highest is common factor (IT. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F. Thus the H. F.  23 3 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. of 6 sfyz. 3 .
95 2/V. 13. 65 zfyV. 13. 11. C. 52 oryz4.8 a + 16. . 6(m+l) (m+2). of polynomials. F.y) . 12 . 14. 9. 16.90 7. 1. 8(?/ifl) 14.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 57 a>V. 3. 10. C. 3 . 1. 24 a 2 . ^707 + 12.12 as 66 . F. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.y + y42. 8 6. (a7 ?/) .# 4 afy f 4 . 7. 9. 225 4a 9 .5 x3?/ 2 6. 16 a . a2 ar* 4. 5.6. 2a f5af 2. . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 9 aj*(a? . 49 C. of: . 12.6 . . ^a + 5^ + 6. 15. 2. a3 9a. 12 w*nw 8. a2 + 7af!2.5 y). 8 a 10 . 8.?/ . F. = x 2 y. ^2 2 .2 y) (a.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. ^f a. 11. 10. 6 a2 y? .6 a&. 4(m+l) 3 . C. 0^80:416. a2 . F. 3).y) 123. 38 #y. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 3^ 2 4 . Ex. 5 a6 5^ 2 a.^9. . 2 . a. . 12. y + 3y64.5 + 6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . Find the H. 4 ?io. a3 16 a. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 15 3ao. To find the H.2 ?/) (x . 2 . 6 mx . 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). x* x2 Hence the H. of + 4 if. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 25 m27i. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 6 3 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a2 + 2a3. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . and apply the method of the preceding article. 2 . aWd. . 8. a 3a4.
C. Hence the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. The lowest common multiple (L. ory is the L. etc. a^c8 3 .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. L. C. C. Common 125.M. 128. NOTE. M of the algebraic expressions. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 1. 2 The The L. The L.C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of several expressions which are not completely factored. &) 2 M.6 3 ). but opposite . M. C. Ex. 300 z 2 y.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. To find the L.C.M. C. A common remainder. two lowest common multiples. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. of the general. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Ex. . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. which also signs. Find the L. M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. M. of tfy and xy*. . M. Find the L. each set of expressions has In example ft). If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. L. 2. 126. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. =4 a2 62 (a2 . thus. M.6)2. M. 127. of 3 aW. 60 x^y' 2 . C.
4 a 5 6cd. 6. 40 abJ. afy. a 2 f 4 a +4. 21. 24. 2 a. 2 x \2 y. 8 d 5 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 13. afc'cd 2 . 1. . 14. x2 + 4 a f 4. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 3(a + b). 2(m 2 . . a& 4 +& 2 . + 6. 2 . 17. 2 7ic+10. T a 3 a 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 11. a f 3. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a !.1. a. 5. xy\ . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3. 3 Z> . 16. by. G a. 2. + 2. 20 9 a. 8 afy. of: 4. 30 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. f b. 20. a. 2 a . a2 4. 9.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 7. y*. a f 2 19. 6 y. 3 . 2 10. a 2 fa6. 6b 2 . or f 3 a 15 #. a^1. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. Find the L. a?b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a 1. 8. ic 23. 4 a . 3 6 xif. 4 a f 2. 2 a . x 2 5 a. a { a~b.1. 3 f2. + 2 7i) . #. ) . 3. 3 ab. M. (For additional examples see page 268. a. 18. ic 2 ?/. x* ~5a. 2 . 22. a2 ~ab 1. 2 .f 6. 24 x. 15. a 2 a3 . b 2 .
the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. an indicated quotient. rni Thus 132. successively all 2 j/' . If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Remove tor. and denominators are considered. a?.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 130. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. C. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. A f fraction is b. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. as 8.ry ^ by their H. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Ex. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. however. 131. a b = ma mb . F. but we In arithmetic. etc. Thus.
resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only. . 3. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.4) Ex.
' 32. ^" a. 9x + "a" 10. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.7 . _ 3 7i rt< 26. nx 17.10 a + 3 2 14. 16. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 29. 11 ^ Mtr f . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. LJZJ^JL. ' ^ . """. . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 19. 23.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ^' rt ^  31. g J 21. ny 4 18.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .*. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. .. ^+3*. 5^10 y 30.
~16 (a + 3) (x. 1). C. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. take the L. =(z (x + 3)(z. we have the quotients (x 1). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.  by 4 6' . we may extend this method to integral expressions.  of //* 2 . Reduce ^. TheL.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.r 2 2 .M.96 134.D. M.C. by the denominator of each fraction. Ex.C.3) (!)' = . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . multiplying the terms of 22 . and 135. of the denominators for the common denominator. 2> . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.M. . and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .1^22 ' . mon T denominator. we have M^. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. 1. . C. + 3). and the terms of ***. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Divide the L. .
^1. 18.oj o* or / . j y 3.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 7i 2 ab* ". 2aj ~ . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 2 ay IB. 2. 8 i i.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . o o a. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. i. If the given fractions have different denominators. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. JL.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 137. 74). bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. . 22 a2 5a * .. . common denominator 6.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 3. a? 1 5 > ^* . 5?. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ ..
D. T? Ex.7 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .. 2 ^.ft)(a .3 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . The L.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . ^ is 2^JT) .3 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).aft) Ca2 . (a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.ft) (a ft ft)~.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. the student should remember that parentheses are . and adding. as 4 aft f. L. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. C. D.3 ft 2). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. 2.g. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. e.2 = a(a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).2 ' 2 _.(a 2 6). in the beginning. (a ft).
5 18 ^4f25. 1 1 f w 16. 23. 15. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. + . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 6 c 3a 7. A+2_3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 24. 2L + 2a 1 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 2. a 36 ++. a+6 a 6 2 14. 46 2a 4a 12. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 5a76 4a 106 9. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 18 v 19. + a "" 2 6 ' . 20. j>0 i> 21.
a 30. 41. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 43. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ! n. 42. af 1f /j. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 1 34. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a ?^ 40. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32.9 79 6 2 i.9. a 4 31. ic 1 + 1. _ + a? ?/ + y.
7 5a v Ex.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. T.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1. . Reduce . 101 mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. . .
g. or. multiply the 142. 2 a Ex. integer.) Ex. (In order to cancel common factors. we may extend any e. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Since  = a. 2. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. F J Simplify . fractions to integral numbers. !.
_G x 7 a2 5a6 a.6 12 d6 4. 5# 56 / c& 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 f 5 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. . 50 . 4 8.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 14.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 144. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Divide Xn?/ . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 1. To divide an expression by a fraction.
l. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.afr 4.6 s + 064. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.5 ??i 80 50 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.^c 2 2 .10 ?/ _. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .FRACTIONS 105 . or both. Ex.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . ga2 4 8 5 a .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a a2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. are fractional.
Ex.a ^c c _^ a . JL. 9. Simplify x }.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . C. of their denominators. 6. & . a m "" . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.y 32 . c +6. 2. . M. . n a 8.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. y X 4* 2 y 3. . 10. the answer is directly obtained. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. i. 7i+~ 7. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. m^n* n L a 17.~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15.) . sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 . 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.
 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.42 + 9. Bx 12 Qx. a. of the denominator. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 9x x Check. + 1) (a + 3) . 108 . each member is reduced to Ex.48. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 5(3 85 Check. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . tions. C.1. 2. 2z2a. Uniting.8 x = . Transposing.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2 3. Uniting.l)(z + 3) = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. these Ex. 2x Transposing. = 6. each member is reduced to 1. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.f3# + C:E=6f7212. M. Clearing of fractions. If x 6. = 6. 1.28 a = 5 x2 .28 x + 42 = . . If = 64.9 x2 + 9.14 (a. x = 6. 4 4)  x. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 148.
a: 7 a. 16.= 2. '  4 13. ^' 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .1 _77 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 1 *> = 2. 15. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. . ^1 = 9. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. a. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +1 = 5.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. . +4 14. 18.
25. 4a4l4* + l~. If two or more denominators are monomials.  38 = 40.11_4 x 149.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 2^12 = 2 = 34.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 33. and" the remaining one a polynomial. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 32 6 . 3x 35. 26 26. 27 . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. ._ _ . ?_=_. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. J_. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. y+3~2 29. .
. Check. M.  5 = 20 x 45.. 5x x : = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. If a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.1. 26 a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and uniting. C. Dividing. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 60. 1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. each member is reduced to ^. 24 a. the 1 5 L. 5# 10. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.2 42 9 43. = 9.29 50712' 9 18 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.
Ex. find a in terms of b and c. a. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.be. ax f x f. .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). If 3ac L= = a ? . Uniting. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.& . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. 5> a. they are united by factoring.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. It frequently occurs that the x. = 6 a2 .2 62 2 ab. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .m bx 2 mn) x. = l^ 9 b 4 . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. y.2 ac + 3 aft . Dividing.1. = 2 f b 2 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.3 6 2 = a' . =a 2 151. Ex. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Thus. jr. = = 6 6c 7 6c. fr Reducing lowest terms. Uniting the Dividing. f ~ 5c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 4 ac 1. 2.
4.= c a Z> . = rt. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). If ^^ = a 1 32. solve for a. If * 33. . Ex. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. m a? x . c 18. 9. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 29. 31. iw 21. t. = 5. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. and n the number of years. in terms of other quantities.i l . 5) is t =^. a. = vt. ^ ax a^ 26. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. co?. 15. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. r the number of $>. solve for . 3(* 8. 13. s = Vt solve for v. 11. 14. _ 2. f P =+!. 4. = 8 4 #. denoting the interest. 1 f. * Solve the same equation for^).= n. If s If 16. . + xx = 1. c. 2 solve for y a. IIL n b + &o. q solve for/. 3.= H. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 17. 34. 12. The The i time.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.a. . + 3a. f ^o. rate. 10. = 3 (6 a). 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 6. p the principal. mx = n. . 30.
When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 2. x Or Uniting. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.20 C. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. then = 2 TT#. 100 C. 12.114 35.. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Ex.. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 2 3 . . C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A would do each day ^ and B j. . and 12 = the number over.180. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. is 36. = 16^. Multiplying by Dividing. Find R in terms of C and TT.
then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." : Let x  = the required number of days. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." gives the equation /I). the rate of the express train. Clearing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. and the statement. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. 3. in Then Therefore. Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Solving. 32 x = . 180 Transposing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. or 1J. the required number of days.
9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and of the father's age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. is equal 7. fifth Two numbers differ 2. to his daughand the remainder. money and $10. is oO. and 9 feet above water. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. ex What 5.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. to his son. length in the ground. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and J of the greater Find the numbers. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 3. Find A's 8. 3. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. which was $4000. by 6. a man had How much money had he at first? . and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. ceeds the smaller by 4. make 21. of his present age.
after rate of the latter ? 15. and B in 4 days. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. Ex. 3. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. . Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. ^ at 5%. investments. 1. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. what is the 14. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. How much money $500? 4%.) 22.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 2. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and it B in 6 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A has invested capital at more 4%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. 152. air. what is the rate of the express train? 152. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. e. therefore. B in 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. To and find the numerical answer. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 6. 26.414. n x Solving.009 918. A in 4. The problem to be solved. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.g. . . A in 6. they can both do in 2 days. Then ft i. is 57. m and n. and apply the method of 170. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.= . B in 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. if B in 3 days. 2. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. we obtain the equation m m . 25.118 153. . is 42. B in 5. Ex. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 3. and n = 3. Hence.e. B in 16.
the rate of the first. and the second 5 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. respectively (a) 60 miles. 5 miles per hour. is ?n . 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. Find the side of the square. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. Two men start at the first miles apart. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. squares 29. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. After how many hours do they meet. 3J miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. squares 30. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. The one: 31.001. 2 miles per hour. if m and n are. 3 miles per hour. the second at the apart. . 2 miles per hour.721. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. respectively. same hour from two towns. 33.000. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (d) 1. meet.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 4J miles per hour. 34. (c) 16. (b) 149. and the rate of the second are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. : (c) 64 miles. is (a) 51.
" we may write a : b = 6. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. " a Thus. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the denominator The the 157. b is the consequent. In the ratio a : ft. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 158. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 1. etc. Ex. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b is a Since a ratio a fraction. the second term the consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. a ratio is not changed etc. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. : : 155. Simplify the ratio 21 3. 6 12 = .g.5. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. E. antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. b. the symbol being a sign of division. . The first 156.
: ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. two  ratios. 7f:6J. terms. 159. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 27 06: 18 a6. and c is the third proportional to a and . 17. Simplify the following ratios 7. b and c the means. 12. 3:4. 8^ hours. 62:16. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 3. 18. 7:4 T T 4 .RATIO Ex. 6. proportional between a and c. and c. 4. b. 16a2 :24a&. J:l. 61 : ratios 72:18. 4:5f : 5. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 10. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 16. 1. extremes. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 11. 3 8. Transform the following unity 15. 5 f hours : 2. In the proportion a b : = b : c. $24: $8. 3:1}. a and d are the extremes. : ay . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 9. b is the mean b. The last first three. : 1. equal 2.
In any proportion product of the extremes. ad = be. of a proportion. If (Converse of nq. are : : : inversely proportional. then G ccm. : : directly proportional may say. 164. ccm.122 162. of iron weigh 45 grams. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 2 165. briefly. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. = 30 grams 45 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.) b = Vac.e. q~~ n . The mean proportional of their product. Hence the number of men required to do some work. " we " NOTE. i. !. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 6 ccm. 3 4. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.__(163. : c. 163. and the other pair the extremes. and the time necessary to do it. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. pro portional. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.30 grams.) mn = pq. of iron weigh . Clearing of fractions. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 163.
then =d c. I.) = f f = 3 J. 1. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) (Called Alternation. if 6 : 7. hence the proportion true. (Composition. Or IV. (163.PATIO Ex. I. is Ex. (Frequently called Inversion. 12x Hence a? = 42. d d. 2. a III. 166. ad = be. . = 35 . a:c=b:d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) d 167.) a + b:a = c + d:c. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (Division.) II. bd bd. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. ad ( 163. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is 4$ = 35.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. + b:b = c + d:d. V.
Simplify the following proportions. IV. 10. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. E. : 3 = 5 f x : x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 4. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 5 5. Or III. 8. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 5.e. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 9. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 180:125. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 3. . the consequents by 7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. i. = 20:7. x = 2. 120:42 2 2 7.124 IT. = 7:2f 3J.!=!*. = 12 5ft. = 2:3. 6 =4 : x. V. = 2:x. . To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 2. mx tin Apply composition and division.g. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Apply composition.
7iy = 2:x. 23. 1. 39. 29. w. mx = ny.x: 6:5 a : x. 17. (a : : 45. = 5 x 12. 35. : a2 . 6 x = y. 28. 34. rag. 3. .. 47. 2. 2 3 = y #. 31. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 13. ra. 112:42 = 10:a. 12. 5. : 53.  32. = 2 + x: x. a 2 and ab. 3.:ff. 38. Find the 37. 14. 1 and a. rap. ra 2 . ra + landra 1. 03:a?=135:20.8:1. 43. 4 and 16. = 15o. = l^:18. 51. 44. 41. 16. 52. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 18. 6. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. terra 2:3 = 4. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 33. 5= 18 a? : a?. 27.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. if : 40. = 3 43 + x. x:5 = y:2. b. 25. Find the third proportional 24. f. 22. ratio of y. : . 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 2 a and 18 a. a?:15 15. 16 and 28. to : a and 1. 9 x = 2 y. 26. 4. + fyx = cy. to : 9 and 12. 2. 3t.j>. 50.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. x m = y n. and 2/. 20. 21. 42. Find the mean proportional 30. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 14 and 21. to: = 35:*. 46. a. 2= 5 x x. 6x = 7y. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.
56. the area of the larger? the same. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the : total cost. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 7^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.126 54. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the time necessary for it. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the area of the rectangle. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. 57. what 58. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the speed of the train.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the time. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.
Then Hence BG = 5 x. 4 inches long. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. produced to a point C.000 168. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. : Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number. . 11 x f 7 x = 108. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x x 7 Ex. 18 x = 108. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 2. x = 6. AB = 2 x. x=2. 2 x Or = 4. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. is A line AB. so that Find^K7and BO. Let A B AC=1x. as 11 Let then : 1. = the second number. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.
12. 3. : 197. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 11. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279.000. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 13. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 2. How many 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 14. : 4. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 6. 12. Gunmetal tin. and c inches. How many gen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. What are the parts ? 5. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.) . How The long are the parts ? 15. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 7. and 15 inches. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 9.000 square miles. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.
such as + = 10. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.. However. The root of (4) if K 129 . =. etc. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.e.L x If If = 0. values of x and y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. y = 1. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.y=. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. if . there is only one solution. 2 y = . a? (1) then I. x = 1. expressing a y. is x = 7. Hence.
26 y = 60. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. = . 21 y . 174.130 170. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous.X. Therefore. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 3. the last set inconsistent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.3 y = 80. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. y I 171. 4y . of elimination most frequently used II. y = 2. Substitution. to The two methods I. ~ 50. 6x . same relation. for they express the x f y 10. are simultaneous equations. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). E. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. unknown quantity. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. and 3 x + 3 y =. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2.26. 172. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . viz.24. By By Addition or Subtraction. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.
2 = 9 + 4 = 13. add the equations.14 =8. x = 10. whose coefficients In general. = 235. 10 + 5 1 = 135.3 1 = 47. 25 x . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. y = 1.3 y = 47. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). y = 2. subtract the equations. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 64 x = 040. 3y = 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 60 . Check. 3.2 = 6. = 406. are like. + 2. 8 2. Therefore Check. 5 13 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. x = 10. 10 . 37. Transposing.
3.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. + 2/ 17. * + 3 y = 50. 13 61 l7a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. I ~ y~~> 22. x 11. ' 12. 19< I a. O t K 8. i 3. I . ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 24. f 3X 7x 14. 9 1 r 20. [2o. ] ^ .3. v ^ = ll. = 6.5 y = 2. I i 3 a.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. f 3# ?/ = 0. . J I y = 1U.f2/ ' = 50.v 23. _. = 41. 13. I oj 5y = 17.9 *. 7 ' 1fi fl .4.
tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 60. = 2. x ) ^"" 13. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 2y + 10. and solve the resulting equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 4#8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 3. 8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.
7 y = 6. however. x = l. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. \ \6(a. (4). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 3 (1) Ex. 7x_2y=3. . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.3. + 212y4 = 14. 29 x = 29. 2 y = . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 4* + 3y = 19. (7) (7) (8) . 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). the equation must be cleared of fractions and . simplified before elimination is possible.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. Substituting in (6) . 21z6y=9.6)7(y7)==18. From 9 = 36. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 3.
4(5 x l2(315 8 8. .1) + 5(6 y . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4 11.f2 2. J 9. a. 14. a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. = 3. 16. +y 2 . 10. 12.1) = 121. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. . yM a. . 10 2a?5 17.
180.Q ^ 4 21. * ((* (( . and y. . ?~y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 3x\" 1 23 24. f y . but some expressions involving x.#.and x y . <X + 20. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. {. e. 22. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.
Therefore y=4. y 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. etc. 2* * x 2. 15 y + 8 x . . of this type. however. Clearing of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . Dividing by 11 3 = #. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . x 3. Substituting x = 3 in (1). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. can also be solved Examples method.4 x = 4 xy. y. 33 = 11 x. 1. y 4. x 2x(2). (4) + (G). (2) (3) a. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.3 xy.
bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= 5. . 1. 6. x y 331 9. Ex. 4 13. x y 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x 8. n. 21 9 . = en.= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. y MOi y a.
W. w. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. and I. ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I if 13. f 5. x a. x 12. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. Uniting. W . fax f = l. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. s in 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. 6. . . x f my = 1. d. ax + by = 2 a&. Dividing. . ap. bmy bm}y ap cm. 14. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. apan cm. a Find a and terms of n.y = = 9a + 46. From the same equations find s in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.
etc. = 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. l. 3.8 = 1.16. y =* 2.15z=12 Adding. ties are Similarly. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 3. To solve equations containing By tions. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 4.2 + 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3y = Hence Check. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. = 30. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 8 x . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).13. 20. 6. .12 y + 6 z = . 1. 4. Ex. 182.lf> z .2 + 4. by 3.3 = 8.by 2. (4) (5). x + 12 y .3=4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. f 3y 12 =s 8.1+4. (8) 2. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 1.25.
== 6. k 2/ f 2 x a. x 13. 8. 10. ~6?/ 5. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. + y f z = 15. 4 = 42.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 14. a? + 709 = 26. 2 . 2z = 40. 2 4. + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 7. a? 11. 15 2 = 45. 49. 12.
27. 32. 84 21.2 a. . ? = llz.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 1510 4 17. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 23. (3 _. 16. = 5.. =s 20. ^ = 2. 22.42 = 2. 4. .3 y + . ?/ 3x = 0.6 2. 19. = 8*. . 60.
and to express In complex examples. however. 2 = 6. symbols: x + y +z 8. . z + x = 2 n. Check. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . = 2 m. 1 digit in the tens place. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 1(1+6). and if 396 be added to the number. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. y 31. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. +2+ 6 = 8. + z = 2p. # 4. Ex. M=i. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. = l. x : z =1 : 2.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 = 2. 1. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. + 396 = 521. y * z 30. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Find the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. ( 99. Obviously of the other . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. either directly or implied. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number.
and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. = Hence the fraction is f. 4 x = 24. 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (1) (2) 12. y = 3. x 3x4y = 12. Find the fraction. x 3 = 24. = the fraction. Since the three men traveled the same distance. (3) C4) = 24 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . xy a: 2y 4y 2. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 6 x 4 = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x y = the = the x denominator . Ex. . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. = 8. 3+1 5+1 4_2.144 Ex. From (3) Hence xy Check. Or (4)2x(3). 5_ _4_ A. C. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. the distance traveled by A. increased by one. direction. 3. B. 2. we obtain.
Find the numbers. its value added to the denominator. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. number by the first 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction equals . The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 1. part of their difference equals 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. added to the numerator of a fraction. the number (See Ex. 2. 7. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If 9 be added to the number. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Find the number. the last two digits are interchanged. the fraction is reduced fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. . it is reduced to J. Find the number.}. If the denominator be doubled. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the numbers. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the numbers. the digits will be interchanged. and the fourth 3. If 27 is 10. fraction is reduced to \. and the numerator increased by 4. 183. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.) added to a number of two digits. A fraction is reduced to J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the value of the fraction is fa. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 6. the Find the fraction. ? What 9. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 5. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. tion ? 8. both terms. Find the fraction.
What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . partly at 5 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find their present ages. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. How 6 %. Find the rates of interest.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. now. and partly at 4 %.grams. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. the rate of interest? 18. the annual interest would be $ 195. and in 5 years to $1125. respectively ? 16. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. 19. and money and 17. 12. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. . A sum of $10. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 5 %. 13.000 is partly invested at 6%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. in 8 years to $8500. A man invested $750. 14. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.
BC = 7 inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and CE If AB = G inches. the three sides of a triangle E. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and sheep. triangle Tf AD. but if A would double his pace. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. On /). and F '(see diagram). what is that = OF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and AC = 5 inches. for $ 740. 23. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. BD = HE. points. and their difference by GO . E. cows. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. andCL4 = 8. BE. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. c.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. $ 50 for each cow. and GE = CF. BC=7. An C touch ing the sides in D. . A farmer sold a number of horses. angle c = angle d. ED = BE. 1 NOTE. and e. 24. Find their rates of walking. and $15 for each sheep. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and angle e angle/. and F. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and F. the length of NOTE. 25. . and angle BCA = 70. B find angles a. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. three AD = AF. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. are taken so ABC. then AD = AF. respectively.
The of Coordinates. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. the ordinate of point P. .. (7. and PN _L YY'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . the ordinate by ?/. 2). (2. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and point the origin. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. PN. B. is The point whose abscissa is a. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and PJ/_L XX'. and r or its equal OA is . It' Location of a point. PN are given. 3).CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. ?/. jr. (2. (3. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. Thus the points A. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. first 3). or its equal OM. is the abscissa. 186. PM. YY' theyaxis.
(0. Plot the points (6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 11.3).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 1). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (2. . whose coordinates are given NOTE.) EXERCISE 1. 2). (5. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points: (4. (4. 3). and measure their distance. . (1. 4. (4. 8. 2. (4. 12. 6. 2J). 4). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 0).1).and(l. 0). 0). (4. 4). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (3. 1).2). 0). Plot the points : (0. 3). 3. (See diagram on page 151. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. What is the locus of (a?. (4. (0. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 6.e.(!.4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 4) and (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. 2). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 71 2). !). Graphs. i. 3). 4) from the origin ? 7.
we meas1 . 15. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. however. 10 . 1. may be found on Jan.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . C. D. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the first table produces 12 points. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 188. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time.. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. or the curved line the temperature. . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. By representing of points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. B.
physician. the rise and fall of wages. and to deduce general laws therefrom. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. uses them. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the merchant. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. etc. the graph is applied. (d) November 20. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. Whenever a clear. as the prices and production of commodities. (b) July 15. The engineer. .
During what months above 18 C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 1 to Oct. is 10. on 1 to the average. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (1) 10 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6.. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1? 11 0.. ? 9.. (d) 9 0. 15. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . ?  3. (freezing point) ? 7. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.152 2. When the average temperature below C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.
One meter equals 1.09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. NOTE. Draw . 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Hour Temperature . in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 20.
e.. 1 to 1200 copies. the value of a of this quantity will change. amount to $8. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 26. binding. and $. books from for printing. 2 . if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if he sells 0. the daily average expenses for rent. x 7 to 9. etc. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 3. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. gas. 190. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 28. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 4. function If the value of a quantity changes. .inch.. x* x 19. to 27. if each copy sells for $1.) T circumferences of 25. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.50. 3. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2.5 grams.50. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2..50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.154 24.g. 29. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. then C irJl. 9. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . A 10 wheels a day. etc.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. x increases will change gradually from 13.
1). plot points which lie between those constructed above. 3 (0. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 2). 3 50. Ex. Draw the graph of x2 f. while 7 is a constant. and join the points in order.0). 2 (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 4).e. 9).1). (1. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.g. it is In the example of the preceding article. . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . If a more exact diagram is required. Q. as 1. a*. 2. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. E. Graph of a function. however. construct '. 1 the points (3. may . (1^. 9). J). and (3. ( 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. be also represented by a graph. The values of func192. 4). x a variable. for x=l. may. (2. is supposed to change. etc. to x = 4.2 x may 4 from x = 4.
r */ +* 01 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. y = 6. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. = 4. Thus 4x + 7..2 x .. Ex. . 5). = 0. (3. 2 4 and if y = x f.. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.4). or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. straight line produces the required graph. etc.. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 4). 4J. 2. rf 71 . Thus in the above example. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 1).. 7 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. (4. and join(0. as y. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (2. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 194. j/=3.20). and joining in order produces the graph ABC.) For brevity.
Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 12. 4a? I. Jar . The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. if"a. 21. 3 a 8. 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 8. 2J. xz + x. (If) Va25. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (C ) (2.e. the function. 2x + 3x a?. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 6 fa. + 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2. 1 8 10. 6.or. 16. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . a* 13. 2 or 2 20. 14. = 4. x+1.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2 2. i. 1J. (ft) (_ 1. a ar. 18. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 4 a. . = The values of a*. 15. (7i) (c) 23. from x VlO'S". (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2 a. The values of a*. 3. xl. 2. 9. a?. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. J. 2 a. 22. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a? 1. if a. The smallest value of the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. y = 2x = 4. a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 19. if y = 2. 1J. 23x. l. 7. if the function equals zero. 5.5)2. 1. 3. the diagram find (a) (e) (3.8)'. 2 2 a. ?/ a. .5)2. The values of a?. 2J. fa 17. 1J. a? 2 4.
it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. .) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.e. that graph with the o>axis.. the abscissas of 3. 14 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 9 F. then y = .158 24..where x c is a constant. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 25. Show any convenient number). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. then cXj where c is a constant. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 32 F. C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. i. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.24 or x = P and Q.. 1 C. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.24. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. Represent 26. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Therefore x = 1. y= formula graphically.
draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 8. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 3. 197. 7. or 5 2. 12. (a) x2 = 0. crosssection paper is used. + + = where a. viz. 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 2 and 1. 13. 14. 6. = 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. Such equations in general have two roots. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (a) (6) 9.f 9 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (0. 10. is called a quadratic equation.7 2 a 5 = 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 11. a2 2a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 4. .
solve for ?/. == 2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). fc = 3.e. and join the required graph. Ex. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. if y = is 0. If x = 0. (f . NOTE. unknown quantities.1. y = l. y y 2. y= A and construct x (  graphically.2. .2 y ~ 2. 3x _ 4 . because their graphs are straight lines. ?/ =4 AB.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. 199. = 0. ?/. and joining by a straight line. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. X'2 Locating the points (2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 4) and (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 0). Ex. Hence we may join (0. i. T . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. first degree. 1) and 0). Hence if if x x  2. produces the 7* required locus. locate points (0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence. 2).
15. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. viz. equation x= By measuring 3. and CD. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). To find the roots of the system. 202. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. AB y = . 3.57. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. we obtain the roots. 203. parallel have only one point of intersection. linear equations have only one pair of roots. (2) . By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.1=0. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 201. P. Graphical solution of a linear system.
0. 4. 3. 2. Locating two points of equation (2). . (4. Locating the points (5. 5. if x equals respectively 0. Using the method of the preceding para. intersection. Solving (1) for y. etc. P graphs meet in two and $. (4. 4. 5. we of the + y* = 25.0). 4. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.5. 3. x2 . 2 equation x 3). The equations 2 4 = 0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Since the two  we obtain DE.  4. the graph of points roots.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.0. 0. 4. AB the locus of (1). and . obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.9. = 0. 0) and (0. 4. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. the point we obtain Ex. 2. y equals 3. 3x 2 y = 6. V25 5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. and joining by a straight line. 4. and + 3).y~ Therefore. (1) (2) C. e. 3.. they are inconsistent. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.g.e. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Inconsistent equations. 1. (2. 1. 4.5. i. 3). Measuring the coordinates of P. In general.
'163 Dependent equations. 2x 3?/=6. and. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. a+r/=6. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. 8. \ 2x + 3^ . 6. 16 23. 10. 4. 19.. a. 16 22. y=x + 5. 9. y 2 4. x~y=0. 5. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. y= a2 2x y6. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and solve each If there are no solutions. Draw system. vice versa. . state reasons. y = 4. 7. if possible. 20. 17. 3.
TABLE OF SQUARES. 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 4 a = 3(6 . 28. 30. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.14 y = . 3 31. 26. 29 .8.164 24. CUBES.y).
( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 3 f a = f a = +. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.faa a a a Obviously 1. follows that 3. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. According to 1. 2. . fa. 8. on to in factors 4. powers of a positive quantity are positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . etc. 52. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. involution repeated multiplication. a = a3 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 2. is may be by 207. a special kind of product. ( a) is positive.a2 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. Law of Signs. ^4/? it According to 50.
15. (a ) 2 4  3. a product to a given power. 16. 4. raise a fraction to a power. 4 /2mV. (a ) 2 5 . 6. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 3 2 2 8 .6) = a . V V/ 13. 76 : (>y. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. the required power. . 2. (277171 )*. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. amVy) 3 .166 To find To To power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. 2 11 (afc ) . 5. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 210. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (^^) 2 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (2ar). 24.6 (a 8 8 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.
6 2 8 ft) . 18.y) = (3 y?y . 9. or*  Find the cube root of 19. Ex. nent of the binomial. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . pansions. 23. 8. (3 x . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 8 (a??/) 3 . .y . 21.INVOLUTION Ex. An 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 12. + a 2 a. (3af26) 8 . 1.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.) 14. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . + 4aj) 3 . 6. 5.3 y. . 211. (aj7) . (a + &)8 . The higher powers of binomials. etc. 2 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . a. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (afl) . 4. frequently called ex. 13. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . +5a) 22. 2. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . are obtained by multiplication. : a 20. 7. 16. 2. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. = s= (2s) 8 a. 3. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 3 8 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. (5 (1 a) 3 . 3 . 1 f 3 2 3 . 15.
is the coefficient of the next term. 25. 4.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (p + q) 4 * 7. 13. Ex. 15. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 10. 21. 18. ( &) 5 . 2. The minus. (2 4. 1.216 a^ 4.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . . Ex. (?>i?i f c)*. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (l 8 . (3a f5) 5) 4.a) 3 19. 5. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 14. 9. (la&) 4 12. . (af 5) . (mnp 5 I) 5 . . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 78 s . (mJ) 4 11. 24. (2 a 4 . 17. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.2. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 8. 3. 4 (1for) 5 . . (tff1) (cfd) . 6. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 3. 4 . and the powers negative. (m 5 I) 2 22. (1 + 4 ?/) . (w 4 ?i) 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (m fl) 2 20. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . . mn 5 2 5 ) . Ex. . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (m 2 + n) 8 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 23.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (a~^) 5 .168 3. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 5. (?/i~w) : 16.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.
or 3 for (usually written 3) . (_3) = 27. numbers. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. which can be simplified no further. tity . V9 = + 3. or y ~ 3. or x &4 . Since even powers can never be negative. 2. and ( v/o* = a. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 1. 215. = x means = 6. for distinction. 4 4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 109 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. a) 4 = a4 . V \/P 214. \/"^27=3. called real numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. and all other numbers are. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. etc.
v/2^. V?. 6. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. EXERCISE 1.9 = 136. 6 7 = 030. 82 . 9. 4 v.4.lL. roots of the numerator \/18 .(. 6. . . 2. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 7. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. for (a")" a = a mn 3.  100 a 2 .200 . index. 8. V5 v/2 7 2. To extract a root of a fraction. 62 = V2* . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. .1. 3i . 5. Ex 5 a" . 7.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. To extract the root of a power. 3/0** = am . 3 33 53 . 79 2 v/2 5 . Ex.125. fy 5 3 . Ex. 2. V36 9 4. Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = 199 + (_ 198) .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex.201) = 2.64 5 4 . 8. = V26TIT81 = 53. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 3. 7 . 2 . 7 . 9. = 19472. V25 9 16. 10. \/2 4 9 . extract the and denominator. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .
2 .3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. V20 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 33. 34. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 116. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 45 V5184. a f2 l 2 + l. 6. a* 4 8 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V9216. 3. Find the square root of a2 .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .3 y2) ( vV .) by inspection. ^40^4.3. 2 . 30.98. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 32. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 1.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .75./). 5. V8. . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 31.4/. 29. Ex.
+ 6 + 4a&. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2ab . 8 . and b (2 a f b).172 7. 14.b 2 2 to its square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. however.2 ac . 10. a f. and b. let us consider the relation of a f.2 &c. 2 2 218. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. mV14m??2)f 49. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . i.> 13. 2 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.e.2 ab + b . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 12. 11. #2 a2  16. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . the given expression is a perfect square. a\b is the root if In most cases.72 aW + 81 & 4 .
First trial divisor. . . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. First complete divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. The square . 8 /. As there is no remainder. 1. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 2. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . Ex. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. and so forth. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. the first term of the answer. 6 a. . is As there is no remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 219. 8 a 2 . */'' . of x. by division we term of the root.EVOLUTION Ex. 1. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .24 afy* f 9 tf. 10 a 4 8 a. Explanation.
24. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .16.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . > 7.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. a? 2 . 5 4 16 4 iK . 729 4. 16x6 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.V430^425^ 4m 4.25 x 4 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 6 11.9. 436^?/469a.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .10 x2 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. . 17. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 36it. 16.12m 5 4. 14.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. l 4. 18. x 6 4 4 0^4. 20.4 x 4.20 o 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81.a 6 x*y 2 . 9.6 . 2 4. 2 x2 3 2x.73 a8 .37 a ^ . 5.73a4 440^436^460^.42 a*& 4. 1 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .12 m 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.40 a 22 . 8. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 19. 15.25. 4 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.24 or . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 12. 6. 10. 13#4 413ar 44a. 3.
1344.EVOLUTION 220. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 1. and the complete divisor 168. which may contain one or two).000 is 1000.. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.000 is 100. etc.176. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. a 2 = 6400. Find the square root of 524. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 4. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. first .000. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Ex. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. etc. the first of which is 8. of 1. of a number between 100 and 10. The is trial divisor = 160. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Ex. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. = 80. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Find the square root of 7744. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Therefore 6 = 8. two figures. 2.000. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. of 10.
0961 are '. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.70 6. places.10.GO'61.7 to three decimal places.1 are Ex. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. annex a cipher. Find the square root of 6/. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.1T6 221. 3.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . The groups of 16724. 12. in .
feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .4 square when R = radius and 11. 1. 31. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 37. 39. JT . 5. = 3.01.53. T\. 13. 36.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.58 square 38. feet. 35. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 1. J. 33.) 40. 30.1410. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. .22. 34. whose area equals 48.
6#2 = x* 24. Ex. or incomplete. complete. 178 . This answer Check. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Solve 13 x2 19 etc. . 2. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. but no higher power e. x = + 2 or x =2.g. 6 y2 = 17. is A quadratic equation. or affected. A pure. x 2 7. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 224. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or equation of the second degree. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is 12. 2)* + 5 = 33. 225.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 226. Transposing. The 7 equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2 ic = a. = 7^ + 5. = 4. Dividing. 1. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Extracting the square root of each member. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number.
' =: y? b* b . 2. Solve 179 . 7. . 2 2 a. 4. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . or Therefore. . 15^5 = 6.25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. 16^393 = 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root. (a? 9. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 19 + 9 = 5500. 10. 2 4fc 5' 18. 4 ax. 8. 5. : 83 2.2. 3. ax Transposing and combining. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 6(2)=10(ajl).=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 7 = 162.
. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Find the side of each field. 27. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 29.b 2 If s If =c . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 24. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for v. If G=m m g . 3. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 4. r. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. . is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. EXERCISE 1. ' 4. 2 . Find the side of each field. solve for d. 228. find a in terms of 6 . 2. If 22 = ~^. Find is the number. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 22 a. may be considered one half of a rec square units. If a 2 4. : 6. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and their product : 150. 25. is 5(5. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 108. 28. 2 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2 : 3.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2a f 1 23. A right triangle is a triangle. solve for r. Find the numbers. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .) of their squares 5. 26. then Since such a triangle tangle.
To find this term. 8. radii are as 3 14. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. sides. 9. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. J = 12. and the third side is 15 inches. Find the unknown sides and the area. add () Hence 2 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. is and the other two sides are equal. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. x* 7 x= 10. 4. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . (b) 44 square feet. A body falling from a state of rest. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the sides. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) 13. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 24. Solve Transposing. Find the radii. and the other two sides are as 3 4. .7 x f 10 = 0. of a right triangle Find these sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find these 10.2 7 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. (b) 100 feet? = . we have of or m = . . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the two smaller 11. The area : sides are as 3 4. . 2m. Method of completing the square.
Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2.a. Simplifying. J. Therefore.. = 6. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 230. 62 x 5 = f. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. = x\ = 2.e. Transposing. adding member).x(l = . Ex. (*~8) a = at . = \ # = ff. . 2 a* a.2 a2 . Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Ex.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. or x = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .1. Uniting. = . Hence Therefore Check. a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. or J. Extracting square roots.  \. 2  . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. a Clearing of fractions.
183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*"   Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . ao. and c in the general answer. =8 r/io?.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. \bx\. 231. =0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.c = 0. x la 48. = 12. 49. Solution by formula. . 2x 3 4. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. article.
?i 2 . 5 x2 Transposing.  . a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 4. = 64120?. 16. 18. 17. 10. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6 Ex. : 86 + 2 = 0. V^tT)* . 6. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 11. 2. TIO. 9.25 x. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 19. 8. 26. 2 . 2 a. 3. c p. 15. = 12 . 2 a? = 44 x . 20. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6. 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.4 4 5 . 2or } 5o. 13. 14.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2 o. Reducing to general form. c = 5. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 7. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6 . 6^+5^ 56. 12.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 21.
2. = 0. Factoring. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. . 25. 23. or # 5 is zero.x. Clearing for fractions.4) = . Solution by factoring.5) =0. 24. Eesolving into factors. any degree. 26. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. if either of the uct is zero. all or. = 0. x2 = 1 . }. ar>8o. a=:i^^. transposing terms to one member. 3x?+x = 7.5 Solving (1) and (2). 27 x== 42a. = 14. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 5 = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 0. Transposing. orz roots. factors Now. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 233. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2S3x 1 2 . 1. = 0. 5) = 0. x(x <2 . (5 a? !)(. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. member can be Ex.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Bx 1 1. and 6.
the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. a* 10a=24. 2. Or Hence the 234. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. is 5) = 0. 3. E.:=0. 5 = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. O roots are 2. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 5. Ex. + 9 f 20 x = 0. The equation I. 12. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. } 2 2 (5 . 2. 3) = 0.= 24. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.e. 14.g. (aj4)(a. 3. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.6)) = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. + 100. 3) Factoring. 9. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 7. 6. 3^ = 0(1106). + 10 a = 24. 3# y 5 = 0. + 6)=0. 8. and the equation thus formed be solved. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. for a: . 4. 3 or 2 a. aj( 15.(.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.3)(x + 3 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. Therefore x =3 = 2. 2o3 f9a. : 87 = 0. a?. 0(02) = 7(02). a?10a=:24. we 9 obtain x 4. 16. 13. x2 f 2 x . 4or + 18a f 8a.24 = 0. + 8=s: 7. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 4)(z3) = 0.
188 17. a 2 =(x a)b. 25. (a + 1) (a. 23. 27. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. uz + u 21. 19. ara + ft + c*. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 2. '3a!J  . 18. 20. 50. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 22.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (2a? 3) (a 24.
2. EXERCISE 1. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.3. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. number by 10. 52. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.3. Find the numbers. two numbers is 4. 2. 56. G. 1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 8.2. 55. 2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. and the difference Find the numbers. 4.9. Find the number.0. feet. The 11. Find the sides. 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Find the number. of their reciprocals is 4.1. and whose sum is is 36. 7. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 0. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 6. 57. 5. . Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 54. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . and equals 190 square inches. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 3. and whose product 9.0. 2.3. 3. : 3. 58. 5. 2. 1. The difference of . and consequently many prob 235.
and Find the sides of the rectangle. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. . he would have received two horses more for the same money. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 14. What did he pay for 21. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 19. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. dollars. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. ABCD.10. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Two vessels. 17. 15. as the 16. Find the rate of the train. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. 13. ply between the same two ports. If he each horse ? . watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other.190 12. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. sold a horse for $144. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. other. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. watch for $ 24.
Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Ex. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 24. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. contains B 78 square inches. . of the area of the basin. how wide is the walk ? 23. ^3^ = 7. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. so that the rectangle. 23 inches long. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 1. or x = \/l = 1. Find and CB. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. a point taken. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. constructed with and CB as sides. and working together. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 27. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.) 25. 237. as 0. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. By formula. (tf. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find TT r (Area of a circle . the two men can do it in 3 days.
436 3. a. Hence Le. 16. a4 5o. 9. aV+9o 4 =0. = 1. 12. 18.)+72=0. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 7. 6. or y = 8. >. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.192 238. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 8. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2 16 a^40 11. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 : 89 10a. a 21or=100.2 =4. a? 15 1=2*. 2 h9:=0. y8)=0. = 13. 2. 19. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 10. 4 a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 6. T 17. 4.T 2 2 . Ex. Solving.
f> = 0. The discriminant =(. 1.bx 4. a perfect square. ( 2a Hence 1. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are rational. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. it 2a follows 2 : 2.5) = 04.12 x + 9 = 0. rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are equal. Ex. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 3. .2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are unequal. negative. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . is 4ac not zero. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. 240. rational. 2. the roots are irrational. and equal.2 z . Hence the roots are real. and unequal. Relations between roots and coefficients.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . b 4. 241. c the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are imaginary. Ex.
= 0. o. 14. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 9a3 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. : a 2 . 2 : 3. 2a 4z5 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 5aj 9. 21. lla.. = 5x.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. their product isf. = 0. 2. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 2a15 = 0. = Q. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 15. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 4. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. + 18 2 8.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. + 12 2  . EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 18. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2 7. ^12. 23. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2 a. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 2a. 22. 10 x = 25 x + 1.19 # 20. 6. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. f 2 E. 24. 3a. 17.g. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 12. x2 7 10. 60 2 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.
= a"" < .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. 244. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . (a m ) w . hence. II.a" = a m n mn . We assume. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . > m therefore. for all values 1 of m and n. (ab) . It is. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. while the second of the first. m IV. provided w > n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. ~ a m f. and . a m a" = a m+t1 . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. that a an = a m+n . such as 2*. no Fractional and negative exponents. must be *The symbol smaller than.* III. Then the law of involution. however. The first of these laws is nition of power. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.
m$. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 4~ . as. '&M A 27. n 2 a. (xy$.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a . a*. 24. 31. Assuming these two 8*. e. (bed)*. 30. 0?=^. 28. 25.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a?*. or zero exponent equal x. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 3*. disappear. fractional. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. at. ml. = a.g. . a\ 26. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. etc. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 245. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. laws. 29. 23.
7z* Find the values of 47. Vo5 . the base is zero. a. \/xy \/m. 35. Solve the following equations 39. = 2. a . 27* = 3. 38. ty?.g. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. however. a * a2 Or a=l. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 3* = 27. \fi?. hence is . 46. 48. If. v'mT 36. 41. : 197 33. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate.g. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4. 37. equal to unity. 45. 40.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 49. 5 a* = 10. 44. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. Let a = a. 43.\/n. 246. a* * = 3. v/o&cT 34. To find the meaning of zero exponent. e. 50. 42. = 49. e.
by changing the sign of NOTE. consider the following equations.198 247. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. or the exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. etc. vice versa.2 = a2 . cr n. Multiplying both members by a".g. an x = a. Or a"# = l. e. . 248. Let x= or". a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.
3 a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 25. 2 . 40. 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . : or 5 . 66 45. 2m~i 43. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 27. : mi m~^. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. rfS. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . a^ 41. m . 39. 3 a? * 42. 7~ l a 2b 2 ."* 38. 36. ^?2 y' 34. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 37. . 44. ^L. * 24. c 32. 22. a. .
343)* + (. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.(. (. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 47. 57.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . ar = i.6). 250. 52.001. 55. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.9*.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 54. = ^. = l. 49.81 f (a . . 59.008)* + A. z* = 1. 10* 5* = . 53. = 5. 58. 10* Find the values 56. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 17' 2 51. Ex. + 1~* f 21 . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. + A_. 48. 61. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . = .1. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 1. z 5or*=10. of: 3ll4~* 60.
. 27  28.&. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 4 x^. 16. a.6 *' 6 *25. 7.. 3. etc. 17.7W. 7*.7*.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . V5. 3sVS. Remove the negative exponents. NOTE. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 6. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 13.^/5^5. . 8 ' 9. 7~ 6 . 14. (d) If required.&.4 . 12. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.7i. .4 a8 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 26. #* a. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.5. 6a. 7~ 5 27  . 72 . 16. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.$*. ' 11. are performed. &. S'sS8. OA 20. / 7fv 7.3 aj" a. 3 a. 4 5. remove the fractional exponents. 18. 79 .5a. 95 ^9i 5**. 6 *. Perform the operation indicated. 10. 23.$".
we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 2. 34. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1. If powers of a?. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 40.2 d . V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
in order of magnitude : \/7. V3. 39. Arrange 35. 2\ 3*. subtract surds. </3. ^126. ^30. Ex. Simplify V~ . V2. connect them by proper 1. </2. 31. v/4. 32. \/5. VS. 28.10 V2 =  V2. V2. + . \/7. </20. signs. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^5. v/3. v/3. 4^/4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^2. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 36. ^4. ^3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 40. 37. s!/3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. (i.2 V50. ^/IT. 29. 3. V3. 26. 33. Ex. 27.3\ . ^2. 34. ^7. To add or form. ^2. 5V2. if dissimilar. V5. v^S.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^6. A/3. 38. ^4.e. 30. A/2.
2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 9. 8.3V20 + 6V5. . 14. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4V805V45. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4. 11. 8VT8J2V32 7. 3. 13. 12. V175V28+V634V7. VJ+V8V1 + V50. + 3V835V2.J a6 V4 aft. V18+V32VT28+V2. 6. 6.
6V35 106 460V35100 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . 1. Ex. 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 23. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. and then multiplied. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. y* = Ex. 6*. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 3. 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105.
Vll. 28 . 13. 41. 12. 9. V3 Vl2. 6. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). VlO V15. . a?. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). + VB)(2V5). v/4. 8. 27. 15.^/2. V2 V50. VTO. (V2+V3+V4)V3. V20 V30. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 6. 19. aVa. \/3 \^). 10. 4. 39. 21. (V6 + 1) 1 . (3 20. 3. 18. V42. 40 10 30. 6 V4 5. fWa 17. 34. 7. 2. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 2 .VSS. (Va Va 36. 40. 14. 213 98 11. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 37. V3 V6. 25. 38. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V2aV8^. v/18 v"3.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (2V3) 8 .
49. Va v/a. 268. 53. 48. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).y. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 47. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 52. 44. 46. the quotient of the surds is If. . Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 51. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . Ex. Ex. a fraction. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (2 45. V3 . E. 43.214 42. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 60. is 1 2.
we have V3 But if 1. however. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.. e.57735. . . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7. /~ } Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.g. 3. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.RADICALS This method. 1.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. The 2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. is illustrated by Ex. Divide VII by v7.73205. Evidently. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. arithTo find. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .
V2 22 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V3 24 . A.7320. V8 12. 7.. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. VffV?. V8 JL. 23 . i. ^/H . 21. 20. Vn V7 ' * 8. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. . 14. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V5 = 2. . 271. Vll 212*.2361.4142. 272. V3 = 1.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V5 270. V48 25. and Given V2 = 1. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .
1.Vs2 .= 18. V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a. Ex. 3.2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .RADICALS Ex. s Simplify a. . . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.vffi^T _ . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex.
24. 6V7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. J?_.W3. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. : and V5 = 2.2361. By the use of fractional exponents . = V3 = 1. find to _!_. Vo1 26.218 6 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 27. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. Given V2 1. V5V7 18> ^SVg. v 2V3 28.7320. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .4142. V21 = 25 . four places of decimals 23 . 19. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.5 3 = 125. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. .
11. \/125" . Simplify Ex. 1. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 2. . 9. 8. In other examples of involution and evolution. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. viz. V255 . on the other hand. \/l6*. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. 4. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1.RADICALS 219 274. 2 12. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V643 . 5. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. v8f 2\/15. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. the If. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. it to this form.
is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.220 Ex. is 11. The Hence ^11 .6\/2 = ^9 .A/2. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . These Ex. ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20. 2. Find Vll .2 \/20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6 V2. 3. Find V4 + VJ8. +2 Ex. and whose product is 18.
by raising both members equal powers.V48 4 20. 8. Dividing by Check. Ex. 19. 5. = xa + 4 x f 4.. VT . Before performing the involution. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Transposing and uniting. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. member to 2. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. . The value x =2 reduces each .RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. x2 = x f 2. : 221 Vl32V22. a. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. r 22. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. +=. first involution. they are transto formed into rational equations. 277. i. (2x xrf 1. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.1.e. 4. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Radical equations are rationalized. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. are radical equations. V48 23. 4x x = 2.
3. f 25 = 12. Ex. the first member = V2. Dividing by 24. Therefore Check. at . V24~+~l = 0. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 2. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. they may be extraneous roots. one root. . Therefore CftecAr. x = J. viz. . 3. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Transposing and uniting. 4#f 4 = 9. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 5.1) = 0. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (.222 Ex. a socalled extraneous root. 278. It = 3 x . viz. Squaring both members. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. tion which has two roots. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. a. Transposing. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. . Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Factoring. Transposing and uniting. V4afT~l. Squaring both members.
tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. x root of the preceding equation. ViTie 4 z2 . Hence x = the only root. . NOTE.47) = 0. 223 x = 3. both members reduce to 5. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. \ does not satisfy the given. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Squaring. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. (x x = 3.12 .3) (2 x .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. is x V.RADICALS Hence x If a. If If x 3 = 3. and to 5. equation it is an extraneous root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Hence there is only one root. for it satisfies the equation . . . 2 Clearing of fractions.2 r. + 6~ieT~3 . Solve the following equations : = G. = 3. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Factoring. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. the right member = V2. Check. Transposing. or x *j. 4. viz. Therefore.
Ex. Solve af*. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore .
Ex. 3 6. x Since both =9 or 1. Q . 5.8 z40 = 7. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. . o. Vi 2 8a. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.f40= 5. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.8 x + 40 = 36. 2Va. members of the equation were squared. 2. + 40 = 6.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.35 = 0. y then x2 .*2a. This can be seen without substituting. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 412a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 4. x =6 or 3. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Let 8 x f 40 . Substituting. = 7. = 26. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 2. x + Vx a? = 6. 45 14VJB = .i~24 = 0. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 3. _ 2 y . some of the roots be extraneous.
4 V SB* 4 a. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 12.a 440 = 35. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 17. 2. a. 19. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 14. 18. +x . 15. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 20. a^x2 5 2 13.226 11. +3= 6.f 18 = 24.
even if Q is unknown. If x* . Without actual division. no matter If.2 + 4. 1. 3 2 Ex. we make a? what the value of Q. a? R = x* . does not contain a?. " Or. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.bx? + ex2 4. however.4 a. E = ax + &z + m) Q. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. Ex.2 + 80 = 12.2) Q .2 x 5 by x 3. Hence. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. ^ = 381+2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . by dividing 3 x* f. then (x 2)Q 0.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. = 2. ax4 4. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. if Q was known.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 227 . Without actual division.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 2." transposing. could.360 = 244. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. find the remainder when m. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.
x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 5 (4x . + 7 = 632. x* s 2 4. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . If the remainder is zero. if 8 42  . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.228 282.3)f 11 =. x m is factor of the expression.g. fora?. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.4(. + ^by x + b. + 6. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 2 j 7. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 43 3 E.8. of the division 3) is m in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. } 2 by a1.949. 8. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. The Factor Theorem. 5. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.8'= 0.g. hence (x divided by x 4. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.
7 x + 15 = 0. 5. 3 2 : 7. or 5 4 + 3^ . f 5.7 + 16 . oj 5x2 f3a. 7 46 = 0. 20. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 8. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.1. 21. f 15 does not vanish. 8.9^ + 23^15. m f m n 14. 6. 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 2 2. a + 32. 23. f 3. Factor a? 15. a? 19. 24. i. a 5x 6. The 5. a. + 27 + 27. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. a 8a f 19 a 12.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. then x8 7 x'2 4. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. _ . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 106 division. Let x = .1. + 15. p 5^ + 8p 4.e. are f 1.12.49 = 0.13m + 30 10. a 2a + 4. Therefore x ( 1). f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. is a factor. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. + ttt15 = 0. or x 4. a^8^ + 19a. & p*. 17. 15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 11. . 9. 18. ^10^429^20=0. factors of the absolute term. 229 1.12 = 0. 2. Resolve into factors 4. 2m 5m . 25. 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 3.r6 = 0.
: importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Ex.y n is divisible by x f ?/. ar +p= z6 e. xn y n y n y n = 0. if n is even. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . For substituting y for x. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. 1. 286. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz." . x* f/ = (x +/)O . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. if w is odd. is odd.230 285. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2 Ex. If n is a Theorem that 1. 2. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 2. It y is not divisible by 287.g. By we obtain the other factors.xy +/). actual division n. xn f.
preferable. leads 231 is The first method. y 3 +8=0.i mn f w 2). 3. 26. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. a. 27. as 27=0. Hence = (m Ex. however. x3 8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 28.= .
*The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. ==5 > 1^ = 4. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. of quadratics. 290. (4) Hence. If two of the quantities x f y. can be solved by the methods degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. + 6 a?V . xy are given.y4 is of the fifth degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xywe have 3. = 6. 4 xy = 16. Squaring Solve (1). in general. * A I. x y. however. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 232 . 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.1. to equations of the fourth few cases. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. & + 2 xy + = 25.
r (" 1 = 876. 3. x and xy are not given. 108 2. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. but can be found. 12. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ' 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. " "' "' { r 8. 233 y. I I x + y=7. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ^. The arranged in pairs. = . F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 1.g. b=3.
4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. + 29 = 0. ' ' . x " (3) 49 etc. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. .  42 y + Transposing. Factoring. la. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). aj = 2. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.o 18. 6 "I 14. Ex. 3. r^ 2 as ] f.20) = 0. or y = 1 . 2 (1) From (1) we have. 19.~ y = 5.i/ = r 13. 5. or JJ. . A system of simultaneous equations. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 4 y = 20.. 7 . one linear and ne quadratic. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .  . I x+y = a. I* Jj ^ [. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.a.  f J. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.?/ i = 6. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.
10. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4 f + 2 y = 3. quantities. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . If of the preceding type. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3. Solve . 9. x2y. ' x*. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. III. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1.3 2x 2 Ex. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 3y) : Factor (2).
j Substituting y in (2). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2. Solve 2. = 0. = Ex. 2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (1) (2) x x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . } VI09.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. 15 x2 .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 109 a.
can be solved by special devices. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). and others not belonging to them.xy 4.3^42^=43.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. A. (4) (3). Division of one equation by the other.y = 7. 298. . Bxy9. 150 */2 . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.!. " IV. 2 xy + y2 = 10. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). y? a? f .175 ay = 12. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. ' ^ 15. E. f 1 150 a?.6. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
x +y y etc. we obtain by squaring.. i ^ *>. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. * ' 300. xy.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y = 3. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Some simultaneous ?/. quadratics can be solved by ?/. jc~ y = 9. = 189. we have from (1). = 12 J. at first it is unknown quantities. B. 2. x 2 . y . considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . (1 > (2) 1. Solve Ex. Therefore x = 16. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. from (2).
4. 6. I e. 239 Ex. 36* 2. F+y+ . [2x + : y= 17. M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2. . Hence = V or = 4. 7. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
27. = 198. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 19 ' 26. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.21 ^ = 15. 16. f 18.4 y = 47 a.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . * . = y 1 y* . 25. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. .
^ oo .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division. . Q 7. 25 34. . y % 9 f*K 36. or ~ indeterminate. 30. as a . 32. Interpretation . etc 302. = 48201. hence may be any finite number. ~\ OK OO. 31. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 7' j/ 39.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 33. . oo 301. finite  =x y if = x. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 3 a2 38. etc.
or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (a: Then Simplifying. ToU" ^100 a. or that x may equal any finite number. The ~~f fraction . i. without exception. x f 2. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. equation. (1) = 0.increases if x de x creases. I. great. Hence such an equation identity. 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.e. cancel. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. and . (1) is an identity. 1.242 303. Let 2. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. By making x any * assigned zero. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. and becomes infinitely small. i. (1).decreases X if called infinity. 306.x'2 2 x = 1. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . is satisfied by any number. oo is = QQ.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. TO^UU" sufficiently small. be the numbers. it is an Ex.e.can be If It is made larger than number. = 10. the answer is indeterminate. . Or. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. . creases. as + l.g.000 a. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.
8 x + 15 6. * 6. (2). third and sixth parts. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 42 and' their product is 377.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 2. = oo. 4 3 x x5 a2 . two numbers is 76. is their 2.e. and the sum of Find the numbers. y finite QO. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve . . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. z = 1 Substituting. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 1=0. and a. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve x a. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.2 y = 4. Solve  9 7. 3. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Hence /.
13. 10. equals 4 inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the edges. Find the dimensions of the field. . To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the hypotenuse is 37. 146 yards. 148 feet of fence are required. 190. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 9. 8.) 53 yards. of a right triangle is 73. two numbers Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find these sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. the area becomes f% of the original area.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. increased by the edge of the other. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 103. Find the edge of each cube. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the sum of ( 228. Find the sides. 6. Find the numbers. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the other two sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the diago(Ex.244 3. 14. 255 and the sum of 5. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. p. of a rectangular field feet. is 6. Find the side of each square. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 12. The area of a nal 41 feet.quals 20 feet. and the edge of one. Find the sides of the rectangle. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.
irR *. Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. . by the product of 27 be added to the number.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged. differ by 8 inches. the quotient is 2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.) 17. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. is 20 inches. Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
The common differences are respectively 4. of the following series is 3. the first term a and the common difference d being given. An arithmetic progression (A. series 9. except the first. a.. The first is an ascending... + 2 d. 2 d must be added to a. P.. a f d. 19. a + 2 d. a + d.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. 10. . 17..7. . f . 16. a 11. added to each term to obtain the next one. to produce the 4th term. Since d is a f 3 d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to each term produces the next term. 11. 12. a 3d. P..1) d. each term of which. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 3 d must be added to a.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. . to produce the 3d term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.) is a series. 309. The progression is a. progression. (n 1) d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. and d.. to produce the nth term. To find the nth term / of an A. the second a descending. . Hence / = a + (n . 3. : 7. of a series are its successive numbers. 4. 15 is 9 f.. P.
7. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 19. of the series 10. = 99.. . 2 EXERCISE 1.. 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. 9.. 2. (d) 1J.16. 1. 4^. = 2. the term a. P. 4. 3. 5.8. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).. 3. a = 2. Find the nth term of the series 2... = a + (a Reversing the order.3 a = l. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers... 24... 5. series . P. ? (a) 1. if a = 5. 7. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 6. d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 10. 6. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 8... 6.. 7. 5. series 2. 5. 8. . d = 3.. = I + 49 = *({ + . . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 3.' cZ == . Find the 12th term of the 4. 1J. 9. 8.. 3. . 3. 6 we have Hence ..PROGRESSIONS 310. 115.. 99) = 2600. 5. (a + + (a + l) l). 2J.4. Find the 5th term of the 4. 21. . . . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 2.. P. Adding. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.
1 f 3.7 f to 12 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 19. 15. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. . rf. 1. Sum the following series 14. 20. : 3. (x +"l) 4. Jive quantities are involved. 18. 7. 15. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 12. 2J. 21. to 10 terms. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 22. to 7 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 15. to 16 terms. > 2f 2. to 8 terms. 6. 11. 3. \n. strike for the first yard. 2. 7. to 20 terms. to 15 terms. + 3. 31. 13. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 20 terms. striking hours only. . 16. 17. P. 8. .. 1J. 23. 12. In most problems relating to A. (i) (ii) . 7. 11. 11. 33. 29. . . 16. . and for each than for the preceding one. . '. 11. hence if any three of them are given. 1. 4.248 Find the 10.5 H + if f to 10 terms.
. = 13. = a + (w. P. 67. 1. P. 144. or 11 J. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. and b form an A. 122. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.~n~\ 408 6). is 12.PROGRESSIONS Ex. J = 49. P. 204 = ^ (a + 49). if a. Ex. 56. 2. .1) . or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll.6 n). Find the series. a = 49 6(71 .e. Solving.. 12. I.6. = 1014. Findn. 111. 6 n2 . s 24ft last term 144. 23. = 144. From (1). the second one mean between the other two.104 w + 408 = 0. n d. = n(104 . The first term of an A. . 45. The series is. hence n = 6. a = 12. 78. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 34. the and the sum of all terms 1014. d = 6. 6.1). I Substituting in (I) and (II). 100. 133. if s = 204. 312. #. l)e?. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014. 89. n = 6. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. Substituting in (2). or if x Solving. 204 = ^ (98 . 2 (2) From Hence (2). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).
Find d. d = 5. y and #f5y. s == 440.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 17. n = 17. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A.3. 12. Find w. = ^ 3 = 1. = 17. 16. I Find I in terms of a. = 52. = 1870. Find d and Given a = 1700. P. 74. f J 1 1 / . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 13. a+ and b a b 5. Find n. = 45. n = 20. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 83. . I. = 16. n = 13. m and n 2. Given a = 1. and s. How much did he save the first month? 19. How much . 3. n = 16. Given a = 4. 6? 9. 11. of 5 terms 6. s = 70. 15. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Given a = . Find?. 4. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . T? ^. 14. Find a Given a = 7. n. 7. f? . Given a = . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. has the series 82. Find d. ceding one. 78. a x f b and a b. 8. Find a and Given s = 44. 10. n has the series ^ j . n = 4. produced.
. 4. The 314. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. .. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. . and To find the nth term / of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . . If n is less : than unity. or 81 315. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. P. is it (G. The progression is a. 4. +1. ratios are respectively 3. 2. 2 a. I.. ar8 r.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 24. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. or..arn ~ l .g. of a G. NOTE. (I) of the series 16. E. A geometric progression first. P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). rs = s 2 . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 4 (1) . <zr .) is a series each term of which.. ar. 108.. called the ratio. P.. r n~ l . 36. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 12. 36. is 16(f) 4 .. 36. 24. . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. ..
4. 36. And the required means are 18. (it. P. EXERCISE 1. is 16.. Hence the or series is 0... 80. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. Find the 5th term of a G. . 144. 288.72. 9.5. . f.. I = 670. . fa. ? (c) 2. Find the 6th term of the series J. (b) 1. 9. P.. . 4. volved . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 72.. 18. (d) 5. if any three of them are given. first term 4. 2 term 3. 36. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. first 5.288. . 10. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 8. 25. .. Hence n = 7. . whose and whose second term is 8... 1. series 6.4. Ex.18. Jive quantities are in. f. whose and whose common ratio is 4. + 5. r^2.18. 6. 7. first term is 125 and whose common .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.. In most problems relating to G. 576. a = I. 72.. 144. 144. or 7. . 9. P. 3.. P. 676. 0. .. hence. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.6.l. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. .*. +f%9 % .. fa. whose . 36.5. . l. .54. \ t series . series . is 3. 20. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. i 288. . series 5._!=!>.
to 8 terms. may be than any assignable number. to 7 . n = 5. . 1. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. >"> . 2. I. a.i a9 . == 160...nV> i*> !718. 19. 72. and hence ~ r . = 3. . 14. 4. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find a and n = 4.. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Given r = n Z 5. s = 310. 27. r . 21. 25S series : 32.J and 270. 48. + 4 . to G terms.. 12 terms. n = 5. . 243. Find a and 4. 12. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 5 terms. 14. to 6 terms. a^. be written If the value of r of a G. J. . 42. 81. 1. 15. = 3. 24. 16 . . Find the geometric mean between 7. is less than unity. s = 605. P. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. J. 54. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. J. 23. to 7 terms. J. 81. M. 20. 126. 36. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. of r n decreases.. 13.. 22. Z s. Find a and Given r = 3..
13. .717171.. 1 r = . . . . 5. The sum r. 40.. I.27777 . P.. of all squares ? . If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. 9... 1.. .. Find the value 9. 7.. first and the common term.Ql. = . The sum Find the of an infinite G. . 2.00072 f . 10... . 5. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 8. 2. =A+ 10 i..... 1.072 + ....... . (6) the sum of the perimeters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. Given an infinite series of squares.072.. is 16. 250.. 16. 12. . . and the first term is Find 17. is J. i i J. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. .3121212.37272 ..1. . Hence . 16..272727. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.99 . = . P.254 Ex. If a = 40.191919.. Find the sum to infinity. ratio 15. . 1. 3. r = j. 14. 8. 100.= _4Z* .= . P. 12. .01 ^ . of an infinite G. . ..3727272 .3 + . 1. 4.555.. = 990 . 6. 4. 66 Therefore . i.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. = a . of: 11.72.. 6. . is 9..)7?7272 . 9..
17.b ).b) w (a (a f (1 . 12. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a2) 6. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . /2a+Y\ 8. 5. 7 . . 4 7. 4. (a + b) . 15. 20. a6 8 16 in . Find the 6th term of (x . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (a 100 . l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 16. 14. . coefficient of .6) 20 . (\ 9 . (s + i). Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 29. . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9.6) . 26. 22. : (1 + xy. 11. 10. 21.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. (xy) : 6 . . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 25. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 28. 13. 2 2 24. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .
if = = = 2. (c 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 4 2. + 2. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 3. l. a ft c = = 2. 1. 2 . 5. 2. 1. 3. 2. 6. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3.  2. 6.  2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 5. 1. if a ft c = = = 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 2. 4. 6. 4. 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 24 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. ^+^ 3.f ac 1. if y=2j 2. 2. 1. 5. 3. 5. 4. . . 3. 7. 4. 2. 3. 5. 2. c = = = 2. + c(a  c). 3. ft 4 ) 5. 4. 6. aft 3 + 4. 1. + 2. 5. = 2. 1. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 4. 2. 2. + 1. 5. 1. c if 7 . 1. 2. 5. y 3. 6. 3.a(a 4. 3. 1.c )(fta) 1. 3. 3. ft) . 2. 2. 2. 5. 2. 2. 2. 4. 2. 4. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. if x^l. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 3. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. if = = 2. 2.  8 ^ 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2.  a)(a 1. 1. 2. 3.
5 xy 3 + + 4 . 1. c = 3.c' 2 4 / . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x3 2 a2 . 7 xy 3 . 7. 6.\ yz + xz. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. = 2. 29. 8 .2. 41. 2  + 12 a 8 . 4 z . ~c)(b.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . x = 4.a 5 a .2 a?y + 3 aty . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 5. 25.10. + 1.r 6 x  4 xy . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . + 3 y 2* .a8 . x 3 x' 14.7 + . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 2. 5. a 4 + 11 a . 15. + 8 x4 *y . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. c)(x a} . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .x 5 4 . 4.2 x?/. 9. b(x (b 1. 5. (5.8 3 + 7 x4 . 10.7 ys. 2. 21. 40. 2 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.2 z8 4 x. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . f 8.8 + 2 // . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. . ' b) + 3. x C 4 4x y + .  a) (c 2. 7y 4 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 17. .a 4 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 1. 4. 24. a: . 3. 18.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.3 xyz.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.1. x 3 11. or . a. 4 y 13. 4. 21. 8.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . . r> . 12.4. 6 a4 4 a8 .259 x c) . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2. 2 x 8. 2.a) .5. 9. a. 15. 2.7 y 2* 4. 20.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 3.3 a?y .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . + 4 ?y . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 16. 26. 4 x 4 . 5. + 4.2 x2 . a /> 3. . if a 6 = = c = 3. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .
33.2 3 ax 2 . 36.4 Vl 4.c.3 x . and . . 5 4 7 12 . 3 ft.?> x 4 20. take the sum of G x 5 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .1)}] .(4 x 2 . 7 12 .5. 29. 34. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .4) .3 . x'2 .[4 x 4.x 4.2 a . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 5 10 4 G 11 4.#48. . of a. ft 25.27~~7)}]. ft. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].c 3 a. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.(x* . 4 4 4. Simplify 31.] 26. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.2) . 4 3 5 y/ . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 0" 30. f ft.(5 c . c 4ft.(x 4. 5 10 + 7 .(7 x 4.7.{2 x 2 .(a . a  ft + c. : a x . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.(4 * .x .x .3 .4 ft) 4. . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4vTT~y 3. 4 2 x2 23. 2 x 32.a ft. c =x y }~ z. .4..x2 . 542 x 2 and . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .[4 z 8 . From of 2 the 4.1).2 .6 x ] .2 .260 19.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.2 x 8y2 44 . Take the sum 4x 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.(5 y .c.c 4 3 a. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . sum of . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 35. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 4 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .8 3 4.6T .3.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.x 2 4.5 . . c 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . = x y ft z.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. (*) a  c. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Take the sum of 3 x 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .{G * 2 . .
{2 a (ft .a~^~c)K].2c(V/ . 2 2 x + !)(* .(2 . 59. 51.6)}]. 63. .4 a .& + {.1). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 56. 2 52. 62.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .6c) (a + f c).(7 i + 4 r:) . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (4 + 3a 2 . a .2a . (x.3c). . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .c 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .(2 a 2 . 64.(2 x2 . 54.2x + 3). a {. (.[2 .c).5 )}] + {4 c . 60.  2 a  {3 2x a .ac . (5 a 39.96 [17 a. . (r (1 (a. )(lz a ). 46. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).rf)} + a [. 13 a .(4 d .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).56.(6 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3 *).2 zz . 2 ft 41.(5 y .(7 a. 2 : 7e)a}]. (1 ar+a.5)} + (3 a 2 . .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . .be) (a 58.{3 c .b (c . + *+!){> + 2). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 68.Z .2)(1 . . 45.0)} .3).(2 a + 5 a .12).3 z 2 ).2 2 + 1)(7. (. 50.6 xy .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 67. 48.3 c)]. 2 f [3 c 7 a .7). + 4x + 5)(j. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (1 55.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).[4 x  5 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].{2 a .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 57.2 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 65. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (/> 4 . . 'J 44.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.ab . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 3 x 42. 49. .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 43.3)(*5)(* 7).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 2 53.JT^T+1)} + (2 . (x . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. .
5 . 2 (x 2 .c)} .6*y .(4 . ft 78.c) 2 . 79.(ft 4. (p 2 .c . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 91. 92.c . f 72.{3 a . 2 + a 2 ).x + y + z).c)].c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 1). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.z)(x y + z)(.3y) a (* 2 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 76. Prove the following 8 4.2 (a . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.q). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ft ft ft a}.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).r 2 . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . .c) . xy y 2 ).c) 4) (ft 4.z\x 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.3 (ft . (.(a 48 8 8 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 73. ft 95.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). ft" l Simplify 80. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.am&t 4 A 2 *).262 69. 85. 93.v) 4. . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).9y2). 77. 75. 86.ft) + 4(2 .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).(c 4.(/>  3 v)^(. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 89.z) .:y)( a.a) 2 . 83. 87.2 ft}) f (3 a . (x (x ( + *) .3 a . 82.2y)(.O (a 4(a 4.m np c .(a 2) (s 4 ft.y). 94.<f(p . 70.n pc). 4.ft) 4 . 71.c) j.b 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 1).y + z)(x + y .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 74.c) .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 4 4 . (a 2 ft 2n 4. b 4.y)\x y). ar . (a (2 b)*(a 4.c) rr identities.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 90. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . ft /.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 84.2 (y 4. 88.
121.y 2 4.(7 xi/ .&).v/ ~ // = a: . 106.5 xy).2 xy 8 .*) (x 8 . 1).a".1). 10). 116.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 113.16 a 6 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). . 102. 25 4 .y 4 .2y 2 4.xy 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).5 b*). a*. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 118.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.35 x 2 2 ) .4 aft . 2 (a+ . 114. (80 a 112.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.27 x* . 105. 103.3 a"+ 4. (2< 107. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (8 x* 115.6 y 4 4.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 122. (. 117. 26 (a 4 c).y 4 ) .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.(2 a 2 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.40 />) . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(a 1 2 8 . 2 4 41 x 4a.(x 2 .9 x 2 . 120. 108.r 4 4.b) 98. 124. 109. . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 110. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 1O4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. [10( 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 123.2 2% 4. 3*. 99 100.) . r .
(1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .5).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).(x f 9).3(2 z .a:)]}.2(j: .2 7^~5] + 1). . 129.4) .1) . 7(2 x . x 147.18 *&) (1 .27 a 3" . 148.9) + 3.r + 7[or . (5a: 150.3 a:). 3) = x\x .2) (a: + 3).7(4 * . 42(3ar 145.7) = 4 .(1 .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 149. 142. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. . (4 x .8 6 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 143.2(5 . 3(2 x 134.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2(10 x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .3) = 12 .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).22. . .(j a? 144. 10(2 x 141.264 125. 137.2) = 3 . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2) + 2(ar + 4). 128.3 x).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 5(2 x .G) . 135. 2 4(ar . 1) .4) .1) (a? . o o 140. 1) = 2(* .(x + 3) ] . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(4 .3).9) 4.12 M 132.5) = 12(4 x . 136. 126. y (* l x.r>) . 138. (*+ + .(x . 127.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 139. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. .3) (3 x 4. . .5{. 5 146.n .4(0 x .19) + 5 = 4 .
25) 2 . 2 4 . If the area of the frame inches. (7 14 .5*) + 47.5 x) = 45 x . = 15. (a) If C. 153.7) (1 x .(5 x . (a .3) (3 . + 5) = (9 . (x (x a. 166.14) (a: + 3).(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.7) (a.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. find the value of F.r + 3) .3) (j. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 164. will produce F. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. . = 2 C. =  (F 32). sheep more than the 169. . 158. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.29) 2 = 1. a: ar a. + 4) (2 x + 5). The second contains 3 first.5) = (3 .2 x) (4 . . 163.17) 2 + (4 x . .9) + (a.2) (7 *) + (*.76.1) (s + 3). these two angles would be equal..2) a + 7(x .8) = (2 x 4.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (3 O + .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. .3) (3 . f^ + ^sO. and the third twice as many as the first. 265 152. 157. + 10) (ar . + 2) + (5 .3) = (3 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 162.2). sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. (2 .2 x) = (1 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. (a. 156. 159.z) (4 .l)(z . How many 170.6 x) (3 . 154. transformed into F.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.T)O . 161. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.4) (a .5(x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.3) (a: .a:) + 229. 160. 155. 165.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 5(ar x .19) + 42. The sum What 171.? .2) (j? + 1) + (x .5)(.24.
266 173. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 2 2 + a _ no. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. z 2 + x . 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. How many are there in each window ? . . 10x 2 192. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A each 177. 4 a 2 yy 42. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. dimension 182. 15 m. 190. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 181. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. aW + llab2&. number divided by 3. Find the dimensions of the floor. . and 5 h. was three times that of the younger. 180. x* 185. respectively. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 3 gives the 174.56. 176. two boys is twice that of the younger. 186. .36. side were one foot longer. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Find the number. + a. 178. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. if each increased 2 feet. + 11 ~ 6. 189. ll?/102. power one of the two Find the power of each. father. A boy is father. same result as the number diminished by 175. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 188. 13 a + 3. 7/ 191. 187. sister . A house has 3 rows of windows. +x 2. 12 m. 179. z 2 92. younger than his Find the age of the father. train.
z 2 2.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 12 x +4. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . x 5 . + 30 x. a: . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 8 a: ar. 3y 248. 2 x 2 . 24 2 + 2 . . 221. 224. 202. 2 a 2 . 211.r?/f y 2 9. 227. 3y 2 + ary .20 z 8 a: 220. a. 7x 2 225. 7a 228. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . ifWy+b. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2a te 3% ly 247. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6 y2 + 4. xm+l 243. a+a* + o a +l.12 * .19 z 4 204.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . a 2 . 16x 4 81. . 8 a. 238.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 267 199. z + 5x 2 . . 4a 2& 2 241. 2 200. 239. 201. x*y 223. 213.6 aq .10 xy.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 209.6s. 233.21 a:  54. 203. 232.10. 215. 207.c) 2 . 195. 3 ap 2 . + 3a 196. 208. a: 236. # 2  29 y + 120. 4 m +^. + 198. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 212.22 z + 48.c) 2  (a . a^a 226. 3 x 2 . a a: a: 237.28.6 2 ?/ . + 8. (a + . y 2 194. 246.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. a. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.8 6 2. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 230.19 a . 244.(b + rf) 2 . 222. 5 x 2.10 y a x* . *2 234. 206. 216. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . . 229. . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 245.64.3 c/> + 6 cq. a: 231. wiy + la mx + aw. . 2  5 xy 13 y a.77 y + 150. a. 217.3 xy. 235. 2 2 y f 1. a.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 2 . 23 12.1. 3 x V .x + 1. 210. x 219. . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. x* + 8 2 + 15. 6 197.14 2 . + 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 a 8 .6. 218. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .
17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * 2 . 28 2 f 71 x .91. x 2 4.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . F. x 2 + 4 + 3. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. * 2 .M.3 x . 22x2 a.(55. 254.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. a. 2 + 7 r f 2. a 4.ry 21.4 ab + 1.10 a 4. + 3 x + 2.3. 7 ax 250. x* .80. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.7 f 5.&z.13. ft a.6 by. x 2 + 5 f . 2 2 + 39 xy 4.9 x + 14.15.C.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 1 x ar Find the L. 257. 259.11 x f 28. 264. 261. 15 # 2 z/ /.a + 2 4.9 x .14 bx a%% 8 . a: . 270. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.11 a 2 . C.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . of: 253.48 afy 2 . 251. + 8 x + 5.2 aft*. 265. 252.36. 258. 8 2 + 10 x .ry .120.23 x f 20.5 ab f 2.3 abc . 260. x*y* 4.9. 30 ^ .12.10.18 xy + 5. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . Reduce to lowest terms 271.15 + 30.4. x 2 f 9j: + 20. + 23 x f 20.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 2 8 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .73 xy . + 8. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). I Find the II.23 + 12. 3 a% 2 .8. a 3 a 2 2 . 2 x2 .2 z . x* .16 x . z 2 267. * a . a? a: a: // 262. x 2 + 2 x .a 2 />c 2 f 3. 18 x 2 . 6. 269.1 9 . 2 a.2/ 2 .x . z 2 268. + 20 x 4. 2 . 10 a. 3 #2 255. of: 266. 5 x 2 256. .G7 x f 33. x 2 263. 3 ay 4. x 2 . * 2 .r . 7 12 2 2 . 10 x 2 .
m 4. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.2c a: 282. 289 ' .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280.. + ac . 285 z4 n* + a. *2 " 2 + Oge.!/. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .ar 1 279.rL.(y 2 z) * t (j..J' 4 2 2 w mp .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 8 .
x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. * 19 23 19(23 23. 2 + 7 _ 44 3.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a (: a) (x 2. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. O(ca) 306. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x 7. Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.
( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.(a . (a? 4 2) 317.ft) 2 322. . a: 1 313. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1 x2 + + a.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. . (1 . 1 _. } .. 1a: + y a. 2 + y 2 319. _ x8 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.
5 a . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x . 2 lOx 5x.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 ..V  + y  x 3y a .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. . 250 5 10 2 325.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.ll.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.9 *// + 27 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . * 3a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. .15 33 .6* t 328.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .. a: 2 x* . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 20 44 333. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.
w \.r 5 2 . xi 347. 344.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (af2/.+ r . : 1+ i. 7 ( ?f!?. + l + IV. 352. a: 349 _ o. if a = 3. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.. a>74 . f V. ** i. ?_2 ^ . ' 2 "l 5 . aj 339. ( 342. 348. fl.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (ar \ 346. (a \ + lV.y. 5 343. \x yj 340. \5yl 341.) 2 . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 338.1V. + ni + . 1 345. +^ a: y x .
_ + l a 359. a2 4 . (~ 364. ar xy + yl x* 358. y360. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (a a b yx c yabc 361. 1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366.
a + . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
*2 = 15. . <3 378. 8  376. 5*8. . 4(* . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !. + 1) 45 O 377. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 {2 x 381.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7. 379. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. ^ .
5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).. 401. .75 x f .8 = . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. b 404..6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. ^ (a . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. a.5 x =r f . c . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).  J).  8 9* x ~r. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 399. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. m x 398.2 a:  1. f 1 1 + a 403.1 . 397. 3* 177.147.5 ^ ~ a: a. 40.25.6  . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. + 4 a. . 400. _____ .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. u '2 a. 396.25 x + .
4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. In a if and 422. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 18 be subtracted from the number. and was out 5 hours.278 410. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 411. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Tn 6 hours . 420. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 418 ~jo. How long is each road ? 423. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.c) . far did he walk all together ? A . 421. Find the number.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.
Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. If a b : =5 n : 7. wi* + y= ny. find the angles of the triangle.46 2): (15a 2 . Which ratio is greater. : If is one equal 434.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 432.6 8 ). if . find : a : c. 435. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the fourth proportional 426. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. a + 5. . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.49 63). 2 2 8 2 . 428. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . x 427. 430. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. a. 433. 438. : i. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. and : b : c = 14 : 15. d. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Find the length of the parts. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.& 5 ) (a 8 . ax is \ by  ex + dy. y. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. a  t>.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Find the mean proportional to 429. . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Solve 436. z 2 y. 431.a 2^ 8 + aft* .iand 22 22 I a . b. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.
449. ft. a: 2y= = 1 . 7 a: . 5z4:# = 3. 450. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. if 2 ft : 439. 5x+4y=lQ. . 8 x + y = 19. 444.7 y = 25.rf2# = l. The volumes If their diameters. Find the value of a. 1(3  a. .11 7. 3 . 451. 7 442. 8 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). . 459. 28 = 5 a .89 = q. a: a: + 5y). + 5y = 59. /) ar a.(or l(*2y)=0. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 42 = 15y + 137. 446. 443. 4 = 5 y + 29. ft.. c.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 452. />(. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 457.4 12 . 456. 455. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .11 y = 95. 448.59 = 3 z. 56 + 10y = 7a. 9/> = 2 . 9ar7# = 71. a. 453. 3 a. 7a?y = 3. x + 17 # 53. 445.55 y = . . .*.35. 7jr9y = 17. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 5 2 = 7 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 16. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 458. 21 7 = 27 + Op. = 25. ?/ 447. 454. Solve the following systems: 441.
car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 473.?/ + 1 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 465. i = 5. + eyn. ax cx by = m.+ =2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .  = 2. _ 469.. 468.7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 8 461. ax by = c \ 472.2y) (2 = 2J. ^ + i^ = 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. x y 474. 475.c=563y. (or . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .
and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 477. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the number. A number consists of two digits 4. 485. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. to . Find the sum and the rate of interest.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and the other number least. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. the Find their ages. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 487. How much money less 484. Find their ages. age. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. whose difference is 4. 479. 486. and in 18 months to $2180. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the numbers. years. A spends \ of his. Find the fraction. and in 20 months to $275. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the principal and the rate of interest. . latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 483. by 4. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . Find the numbers.
a. 492. * + 425  = . = 20.5#+2z = $x a: G. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 493. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. . y Solve : x +z= 5. 5 + a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 4z+3z = 20. = 209.z = 12. 490. 2 a./ 504. x f y f z 29 . and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: 499. 4 497. 2 e. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2y + 2z = a: 2. 495. 1+1 = 6. 489. 2a:f 7. 496. = 15. 4 506. 2 2 = 41.z = 20. 3ar 503. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 3 x 500. 5^ 9z = 10. . . x s + y z = 18J . a: f z = 79. \ . z y ifi = z x 502. 2/>3r = 4. 2y + 3a = ll. 8. a: + // = 11. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 1. ifi = x a. + # +z= 35. 498. 7. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x y f z = 13.? + 2y = 8. The sum of two numbers squares is b. + y 5 y = 101 ./ f z =a. a number . z y x 25 . 494. . a. ~ 507. : Solve the following systems 491. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 3 a: + 5=84. . *i. 7 + 2 z .
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. ll" . 523. 36 + c. z z =3a&c. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800. + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. i=a + 6 c.
An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 532. Find the present ages of his father and mother. it separately ? 531. AC in /). and BE. 530. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it is filled in 35 minutes. Find the numbers. the first and second digits will change places. L. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. M. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. in 28 minutes.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. When weighed in water. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. N. BC = 5. Tf and run together. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. CD. if the number be increased by Find the number. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. if and L. 527. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. . In circle A ABC. E 533. If they had walked toward each other. What are their rates of travel? . Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . they would have met in 2 hours. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. . and CA=7. B and C and C and A in 4 days. How long will B and C take to do . 90. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. AB=6. touches and F respectively. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago.
the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 2. 3 x 539. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.  3 x. 2 541. 536. 548. . the function.e. 542. z 2  x x  5. 2 x + 5. formation of dollars into marks. c. The values of x if y = 2. 2. FRANCE. One dollar equals 4. e.  7. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. GERMANY. 546. 540. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. . x 2 + x. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. a. x 2 544. i.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. b. The values of y. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. x 8 549. if x = f 1. 543. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. then / = 3 and write = 3.10 marks. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2  x  x2 . from x = 2 to x = 4. x*  2 x.  3 x. The greatest value of the function. 547. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x *x + x + 1. + 3. 550. If to feet is the length of a seconds. d. to do the work? pendulum. 545.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x*.
\ to t = 5. z 4 . 566.r 1 561. 568.9 = 0.= 0.  2 1 a: a. 2 554. 15. 2 567. x* .G . a: 559. h.7 = . 572. If y +5 10. and make the unit of the b. f.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. Represent meters.6 + 3 . Solve 552.= 0. a. x 2 ~ 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. a? 4 x . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.1 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 3 . Solve// = 0. .3 x . 553. a.3 . c. ' = 8. 555. j.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. 2. a.4 .11 = 0.3 x .5 x .r a: a: x a. 2 x 2 560. 2 a. = 5. c. 3 x* .15 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.17 = 0. J. x 5 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 556. .4 = 0. 565. 564. 3 x .0. 558. + 5 . i.13 = 0. 2 8 . r?. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. e. + 10 x .11 x* + + 2 8 569. g.3 = 0. . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. z 2 . x 4 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 3 + 3 z . 563. 557. 18 x  4 = 0. 562.4 x 2 + 4 .r .
. [ y =10.5 xy = 0. a. 4 (1a:) 3. 596.frf : 583. 593.4.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . + ^) + (air%)8. (1 (1 (1 . 600. a:. 4 a. 5 a*. 588. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 6 + 1) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 3 . 3 (f. 579. 592. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. x [ ?/ 577.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. x + z2) 8 . 64 a 12 603. jj+. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 609. (a. 597. 598. 595. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . a 8 606. (aiy. 9  4 fSb 607. 582.%) 4 (aa. + + 4 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . (a  8 ft) . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 4 . 604. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 1 . xY. : y* or 25.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2  2 aa: 2 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. a 2a. 599. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a 612. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2 611.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 608.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. j^f = 3. 589. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. a: .2 2 + y.x + 2 )'2 601. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . + . (# 2) . f ?>) 3 591.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.(1 . (1 + x a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 585 594. .
448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . x 2 641. + 112 a 8 . 638.2. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 49. (x 9 x 646.12 a?y + y*.49. 942841. 210.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. ft . 4370404. VOIOOD + V582T09. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 651. 636. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 25023844. + 24 a 2 4 .\/4090. + 2 21 x = 100. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.1024 x + a: 256. 7) 2. 625 : 621.53 x ~ . 624. 2. 623. 614. 4J. 629. /. : 5. 628. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 626. 633. 622. 645. 643. GGff. 494210400001. = . 632.150. 44352. 8*' + 24* = 32.871844. *+* = 156.191209. = 70. V 635. 644. 0090. x 2 .15174441. 035. V950484 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 371240. 637. Find the square root of 619.*. = 0. 639. 9g.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.V250 . 2 + 189 z = 900. 40. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 647t x 2 648 649. 9a. 615. 634. + 54 'x*y* . 2 + 21Ga. 620. Find the eighth root 617. = 87. 32 631.2410. a 642. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 49042009. find Jupiter's period. 650.30. 21. According to Kepler's law. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 630. 3a.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 2 697. 694. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. a. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 692.c = 0. 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 702. ax 2 698.bx . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 708. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 699.ax . 696. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. ex abc= fx 0. . 695. 1 __ : )'*' _i. . = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 707. 706. 2 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.a a )jr . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.
If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find the price of an apple. Find two numbers whose 719. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 725.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 716. **13a: 2 710. .25 might have bought five more for the same money. 724. 723. 717. 721. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. a: 713. in value. sum is a and whose product equals J. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 16 x* . 727. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 3or i 16 . A equals CO feet.292 709. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 12 4*+  8. 217 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 729.44#2 + 121 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 722. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.
(v/x). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 41. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 52.X . 38. 42.2? 50. 1 6. 39. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).1 f ^ 2).l).1 f c" ). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aft* 1 + a 2*. 33. . . 37. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 + c. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . n.2)(x2 4.1 + x. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 31.2 ).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 43. 36.)(ai + &. 34. 46. 35. 32. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 40. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).
_ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. \/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753. 2V2 2V3 . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 761.. 759. 754. JU. 758. ~ r* x . [1r^ T 1 i . 757. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768.
7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . . . 794. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.2V3* ^ 807. 7512V21. 16 + 2V55. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. a 9442V5. 787. 92VI5.4 V(j. 783. 14 791. x 782. 13 799. c 792. 786. Va 809. 3812VIO.2 V30. 10 785. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 790.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 3J . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 806.12VIT.VlO. + 2V21. . 793. . 789. 103 788.
= 1.V? = 813. 818. 830. VaT+lJ f ^l . 811. 815. 3 x + 2 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 812. /9ar a: = 17. \/12 a. Va: . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . + 103Var.79.13 = 0. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. + Vx . 816.\/2y  810. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 819. V3 f 1 V4a.4 = 0. 829. (x a: 2 ) 4 .V2 ar 10. 836.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.  5 + V3 f 12 817.f 5 = V5x + 4.g.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .Vc^lJ .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 820. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 833. x/aT+l . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. V14 a. 831. 814. + ViTli + V7 .
 3x a. 64. 27 y 8. 2 a: 64 y*. 27 862. + 1.3 a:. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 40 x 2 7 f 49.1000 6. . 844. 863.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .10 = 118.x*y + 3x f 2. 6. 19 x 14. a l0m .a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 8 . 870. 2 f" + a/ 15. . 845. a. 868. + 512 y8 874. 864. V4 x 2 . a 872.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 275 8 l. 8 860. f 12. a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. y 4.12. 16 859. . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 9. 8 8  13 a. a. 4 x* 847. 856. . a*" & 6n . 861. f b**. 4 a. f 841. x 4 + f 2 a. 839. z*y 8 l64a. a 8 850.1. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 851. 4 x 8 858. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 2 x 3.ab9 ft*. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a.3 . 871. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 729 867. . a. 846. a 8 873. 8 2a. 852. 855. 876. +3 4 +  4. 8 4a: 8 a. + . a 18 4. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 5 a 4 7 a8 .3 Va: 2 . 4 a: 2 842. a: . 865.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. x 8 2 857. 64 a 866. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 875. 8^27^.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 840. a: 849. 4o.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 8 8 848. a.3 x . a 8 869. 853. x 11 a^ J 13 854.
ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . a: a. 895. a# f + xy = 126. y = 28.sy = 198. f ?/ a: a: . x 8 3 = 13:3.Vi' + 1 1_3. 883. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 894. 899. 885. xy + y = 32. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. . 890. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 901. x 882. 2 + xy = 10. + 2y=\2. 900. a: 884. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y*+ xy . 3 x 2 . . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a. M1 891 1 . z 2 898. y 2 4. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y 2 2 8f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 5.15. 2 = 2 + 5. 878.298 877. 2 + y 2 . . 887.y 2 + V(j. a.xy + y 2 = 19. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . x*xy. a: 2 897. . 889. 1 x 893.1 = 2 a#. 2 2 = 16 y.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a:y .18.35. a: + y 2 = 34. a. +y f y = 7. a: 888. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 + xy = 28.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 . . + ary + 2 = 37. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 886. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. x a: lI = xz .y 2) = 20. 896.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 + 2 f = 17.
+ ?/) .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 3 :r(3 . x 2 ry + y = 3. ary y = 8. or or a? a: a: . . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.y). (* 918. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).r a. y 3 2 2 922. + y = 9. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 5 xy = 11. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x f 2 a:y = 32. 7 y . a:y xy 929. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 * 2 ~ g. a: a. 920. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. (a. = 8. 2 913. . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 909. # + xy + y = 7. xa 903. 908.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 907.y) (3 y . 910. x 4 299 xy z 904. 905.y) = 33.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.x) = 21.y) (a? . + ary = a*. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. Vary + y = 6. (o. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x + y 2 = aar. xy + x= 15. a: * a: a: ar 928. 921. (3 x . a: y zx 12.6.23 = 200. y . 4 (a. 912. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 914.y = a(ar + y).y2 = 22. . * + y = 444. (!) * . *y . + 2 ary = 39. 2 915.3) 2 f (y . 917.2 y) = 49 2 919. 2 924. + y 8 = 189. 911. 23 x 2 . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. y x 2 = by.3(* + y) = 6.3)2 = 34. + a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 906. y + a:y = 180. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.#y + 2 = 27. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. ^ 2 . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.16 y 3 8 = . + 2 a:y + = 243. 923. + y)(a. 2 2 2 916. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. yz = 24. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.
935. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. Find the numbers. and the sum of their areas 78$. 937. Assuming = y. . the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 152. Find the sides of the rectangle. s(y 932. find the radii of the two circles. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 3. y( 934. and the difference of 936. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.102. If each side was increased by 2 feet. How many rows are there? 941. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. + z)=18. and 10 feet broader. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96.square inches. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. is 3 . = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. In the second heat A . 931. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 943. a second rec8 feet shorter. (y + *) = . + z) =108.000 trees. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. *(* + #) =24.300 930. two squares is 23 feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 2240. and also contains 300 square feet. is 20. rate each man ran in the first heat. feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. two squares equals 140 feet. 944. y(x + y + 2) = 133. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 942. diagonal 940. 34 939. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. A is 938. feet. two numbers Find the numbers.
The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. 951. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and that B. . . each block. P and Q. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the eter 947. at Find the his rate of traveling. 952. set out from two places. unaltered. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and travels in the same direction as A. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . Find the number. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Two starts travelers. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. its area will be increased 100 square feet. that B A 955. distance between P and Q. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. sum Find an edge of 954. Find in what time both will do it. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. A and B. and if 594 be added to the number. triangle is 6. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find its length and breadth. What is its area? field is 182 yards. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. 949. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the digits are reversed. whose 946. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 953. is 407 cubic feet. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the number. 950. and its perim 948. overtook miles.
Find the sum of 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.302 956. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 4 4 to 7 terms ... ^1 + Vj 1 2  . '.V2 . 5. difference. 3 + 5 7 + . 4. . the terms being in A. s  88. .. f + 1 .>/) to infinity. to n terms.. . 964.. n to n terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 3 . P. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.454. (to 2 n terms).321? 965. 36 963.141414. !Ll^ + n . 1 to n terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 1G series .. 971. 12434+ j I 967. 969. = 4.. ^ 1 .. P. 974. ^ Vfirst five 959.4142 . *" 968. Evaluate (a) .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. (x 4 to n terms. 975. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Sum Sum to infinity.  2. 5. + (iiven a +  4 d .to infinity.. P. and 976. 970. are 29 and 53. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Sura to 24 terms. . 972.1 4 f j$V . Find n f (ft) .. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. to infinity.. 9th and llth terms of an A. Find an A. J. Sum to 20 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. fourth of the unity. Find n...v 973. x(x to 8 terms. 961. 958.. 16 962. 18th terms of an A.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Find the Find the common 977.. to 7 terms. P.. 966. \ .3151515.. 957.
Find four numbers in A.001 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978... 990. 303 979. named Sheran. P.1 + 2. is 225. 0. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 985. to 105? 981. 980... to oo.+ lY L V. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. P. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The sum 982. 987. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 1. and so on. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.. to n terms. 989. Find four perfect numbers.. and the common difference. 4 grains on the 3d. 992. 5 11. 2 grains on the 2d.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. Find the first term. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. Find the sum of the series 988. : + 9   V2 + .04 + . P.01 3. The 21st term of an A. The term. and of the second and third 03. to infinity may be 8? . of n terms of an A. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .) the last term the series a perfect number. "(. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. .001 4.3 ' Find the 8th 983.2 . Find n. first 984.. 986.
Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. find the series. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. at the same time. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. in this square a circle. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. The fifth term of a G. and G. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. are 28 and find the numbers. 994. (6) the sum of the infinity. 1000. and so forth to infinity. of squares of four numbers in G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. If a. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (a) after 5 strokes. 995. inches. . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 998. Two travelers start on the same road.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 999. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The sum and sum . 1001. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. many days will the latter overtake the former? . P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 1003. 512 996. are unequal. P. ft. in this circle a square. prove that they cannot be in A. c. 997. is 4. areas of all triangles. P. AB = 1004. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. ABC A A n same sides. The sum and product of three numbers in G.
(12 #) 7 . 1008. 1014. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1012. + lQ . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. . 1009.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 2 ) 5. . (1 1018. Find the middle term of ( . a: 8 7. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.iV 2i/ 5 .o/) 14 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. ) 1021. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). x) 18 .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of 1020. 1011. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Expand  2 a.l) w f . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1006. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.
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37. 232 mean progression ... .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. .. . graphic tion of representa . . .178 Completing the square ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ... .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . ........ . .. linear literal Common ** * difference .... signs of Algebraic expression . . 8 . 9 ** . .130 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .] Abscissa Absolute term . . numerical . .. 123 . ... Aggregation..210 130 " Addition value 4 15.108 160 " . . . . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ... t 53 120 . 158.. . 129 54. 19. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 232 169 807 .... . Checks Coefficient 20. 9. ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 246 91 " multiple. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 112 54 54 251 ... . 129. . . simple simultaneous . . . 97.193 11 . lowest ratio " '* . quadratic .. 54.. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .
. G.808 Exponent Exponents. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 227 . . addition of " square of .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 114. Known numbers . Like terms Linear equation . 45 Laws of signs . . Inconsistent equations .. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . . Imaginary numbers . 253 28 70 1. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. numbers . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 34. 241 123 geometric . 109 102 . 91 .. 243 7 . directly. . 143. 45. first and second . Product '* 76 Infinite. .108 Minuend . . Geometric progression ... . 180. 212 . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. exponent . .. 189. 23 10 91 102. . INDEX 8 . . 17 65. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 205 . arithmetic . 112 . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 195 33. . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Insertion of parentheses .C Multiplication . . . 42 7 Independent equations Index .. 227 geometric .. .154 Order of operations " of surds . 184 54. 9. . . . .31. 63. . Negative exponents 11 . . law of Extraneous roots . 84. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . L. C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. inversely 122 numbers . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. P .. 45... Mathematical induction . . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 120 Member.105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . ..
... binomial Third proportional Transposition ...... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . Sum. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 9.... . ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. polynomial .. . algebraic Surds . absolute 54 Variable .. ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 129. .... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. 4 155 9 " of . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... . 45 Trinomial 240 .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
1910.. 8. December. 1917. August. Mass. 1913. Set up and electrotypcd. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . Norwood.S. 1916.A. Published September. U. 1910. Reprinted April.COPYRIGHT. Gushing Co. NorfoooS J. Berwick <fe Smith Co.
. 11. 25. 73. 19. 3. $40. Page?. 0. . 576. 6 yd. 7. 27. V 23. 14. 2. 25. $160. 25. 2. 16. 17. 14. 13. 5. 6.000. 8. 1. 2. 6. is $10. 7. 72 = = 216. 5.150.8.  22 20.1. 14.  1. 18. westerly motion. 37.000.. 2. 13 S. c. 48 ft. 2. 1. 0. 10. 25. 9 14. A $90. 12. 16. 15. 14. in 12. 2. 13 d. 16 in. Yes.2. 10. 20. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 5. 3. 24. 3* 7. 8. A 38 mi. 20. 6. 27. 2. 85.  1. 3. 20 B. 12. 19. sign.000. 6. 6. 1. 3. 9. 4. 1. 6. 1. 11.000. Page 13. 7. loss. Page 4.000. 14. 12. 16. 20. 16. 13. 8 13. 1. 17. 21. 11. 9. 12. + 1. 8.  2 p. 24. 8. 2 5. 10. 9. 28. . 15. 8. Not 5. 19 4. 7. 10g. 16f 2. 20 \. ^. 22. 13. 8. 3. 18. 3. Page 8. b. 150.. 6. 3 below 0. 5.00000001. 20 jo. 10. 21. 10. }. 12. x. 89. 9. . 6* 16. 6. 7. 8 ft. 6. arithmetic. 12. 49. 18. $ 1 50 10. 2.000. 3. 256. 5000. B 10 mi. Ot 15. 5. 32. C $ 16. 7.000. 5. 9. 1.000 negroes. 3. ft. 19. 13 V. T . 9. B $4700. 1. 23. 1. (a) (/>) 1. in.. 7. 4. . 13. B $20. 2. 128. A 15. 26. 512.C. 9 m. 49. 3. x. 30?.. 7. A Bl 7. 14. 2. 15. A . 3. $100. 3. 5. 32. B $80. C $60. 4. 2. 18. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.000 Indians. 3. 16 in. 6. 12. 16. 14 11. 1. 2. 106. 1. 4. Multiplication.000. 1 16.. 144. 24. South America 46. = 5 81. 7m. 9. 17. 9. 12. 29. 59. 15. 27. 1. _ 32. 17. 20. 29. 2  Page 8. 7. 2 ~ 15. 10. 115.12. 126. 8. 11. 18. Page 1. Australia ft. 12. sign. 3. B $ 128. 16. 3. 2. 15. 14. 32. 13. 37 S. 32. 9 16  larger than 7. i .  13. per sec. 9 = 4. 14. 4. 3. 2. 30. 4. 10. 26z. 10. 5.21 24. 28. . 16.. 11. C $1(50. 6. 21. 210. 192. 4. 3. 16. 17.. 1. in.3..$9400. 64. 6. 22. 1. 12. 36. 9. 3 m. 3. 1. 18.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 16.
ft. 8. 16. 0. 33. Pagel4r. 104. 11. 10. o^ft. 36. 38. 173. . 0. (c) S(i. \'\ 4. (r) 2G7. :J!>r'. ft. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. + ft). 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (ft) 12. 38 ab. 04.900. //'. 26. 28.  xV 3 y. 13 cu.. 3. ??i??. 6<t.q 4.. 58. 27. 20. 15. a ft c. x^ 20. 12. ^. 17. 12 a. 5. 5. t. (r) 78. 9. 3. 1. 4.'J. 13. y. 2x' 2 5 . 14. m + 3(a. 18.~4. 9.  1. 3a. 5. 13. 5x+3. 14. Page 23. 4. 14:).. 15. + 5. r+l. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). = ()501.32 c2 > ft 3 . . 41.ft. (ft) $40. w. 0. 18. Page 7. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 16.94(>. 0. Binomial.. 3. 2. 7. Va'+Y2 8^2 .rty8. mi. 31. 39. 9.3 * 10 r5 <3 .x. 31. 0. 00 24 04 ft. 17. 22( 19.6) 38. 1. 29. 3. 18. 22. r/ \(\xyz. +/2(/. 30.r~ f 34. r:A 29. 1. II. (ft) 7. 1. 8. 14. ft n. m 24. 27. 1. = 81. 11. 8. 7. 14. in.9?/2 8.. (<7) (a) 314 sq.  11. . 3. 35. 21^. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 51 f. 24..'JO ft. 8. $80. 10. (c) 8. 28. 4. 8.4  2ft 2 33. Trino inial. 2. 1. 6. 7 7. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 15. 12. f  5e 35. 5. .ft) 4. 15. 57.  0. 20. 20. 237. 14. 3rf 27. jrif 4 9. 22. 3.5f> sq. 2. 37. 21 a 3 4 10. arty 1 20.  12. 8.. 11. 15. . 27. 23. 4 y/ . (r) 2000 m. vi 14.GOG. 92. 16.ab.. 15a.. Page 18. ]*. 36. yyz+xyz*. 11. 25. (a) <> sq. Page 31. 5. 19.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 4. 12. + v> 2 . 2. 3. 13. 31. 19.  40. 23. c. 12yd. <i~ 26. (59. (a) 200. 25. 17.14 sq. 12. 314 sq. ft' 3 . 2. 13. 5. 22. (ft) Page 2. (a) r>23ifcu. sq. i:5. 33. a2 4 15^44.r f 15. 2ftx. 0. 240. 16. 32. Page 21. 13. ^). in. _ 4 . 29. 14. 19. 43w//2 17. 3 a* + 2 at*. 14. 50. 21. 9. 13.000 . $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . I. 35. 35. 7. (a 4 4.000 sq. 27. (ft) mi. 25. 5. 22. 5. 34. rt. 7. 3(c4a). 3. 32.r 2 . (r) 2. (b) 135 mi. 21. in.. 6. It. WIN + wiw. 30. ft. (a} 100 1(5 cm.4 ft. 2. 18. 17. 16. 0. :. 7. 27. 34. 0. 12. 2oVmf?i. 32 2 ftc. 4 9/^/rl 2. $3000 Page 6. 8. 49.5 (ft) sq. 26. 21. 0. #1111. Monomial.<>Gq. 30. ft. 12. 8. 3. 18. a 32. 3 .a . (a) 50. 1.  3.. 1. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 4. . 20(. Polynomial. 42. in. ft. 28. . . 24. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. .1. 1. 9. 6. 4. 10. 27. 15.. Polynomial.. 17. ft f 19.
n*. Page 7. 3. ( 7. \ :{ 2 a 48. _ Page 30. ab a. 3. 29. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.4 d. . 31. 9.4.7. 4. 10. _5a<>&43c. Exercise 16. 2 y' 4 . M + 10. 20. a f 2 f 2 9.1. a 3& .  4 b 17 y*. 6. 7. 10. 6. 2x 4 a 13. c. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. m*  n*.a~.  b* 4 r 1 . 3. 25. 5.6 x + 0) 16. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 26. 12. 5x 2 rt ft. . f ft 9. . a4 4 4. 26. 1. 24. 35.5 z?/ + 3 y . ti.h. ?/.  12.(7x2 Ox2).abc. 0. ^ <.l. 51. 56. 2a. + a 2 f 2 a 4. c. 17. c2 . 4 21.aft. 59. 21. 4r 2 .1 . 32 w 2 w.11. 8 + 2 a . 0. 1. 2. :5 41. 21. 30. + 4 c. a. Page 28. 12. 34 39. 8 b. !  </ . . 11. . + 2y. 19.5 4 2 3 ?/ . a 6 2 . 15. 22. . 42. 18. w 17. 7. ii\ 22. 7  # + 12. 2m. 7. 2. 14. 4. 4. 364c. 1 + 45. 2 3x f z. 1. 8 8 . 2a: 2 4x. 2 6. . ' 12 m?/'2 27.5. (5x47 3. 13. 19. . 814.  1.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 8 . 2 + a4l). 0. 2m + 2w. 11.a f 54. 2 a f 6 414.  b. 2 . 3 m. 11. 31. mn. + 8. 7  a + 2 + c. 55. . 40. 14. ?>4tl 53. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. G. 12. 34. 3 a .  a: 2. 24. 4wipg>' 27. 7 a5 1 .3 6. 2 2. 8. a 3 . s_r>a5. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2. 2. 4. ft Exercise 17. 5 2 Page 29.4c 3 8 8 J. 6. 6. 17. ?> 22. . 1. 26.Oa: + 10. 14.2 a2 2m 2 4. 2 . 2// 16. 4.. 15. j)(g1. 3 a3 & 41. 25. 2. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .  14 afy . . a 52. ri\ 18. 1. 15.x f 1 2 . r. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. (yz~d}. 12. 2. . 1 4.  17. 25.r 2. 2 2 2 6. 3 Ji 8 . 2. 14. Page 44. 33.2 57. (mn} 11.a*.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). a + (ftc4df). 10 m. ?/i 13. 58.  G J8 r  4 a <?. a' 4ab + ?/. 1. 18. G a bd.ws 2 ft) . lOrt 15w4. 37. 24 b 46. a a. 5. 10 x. 2 a 37. 4. 8. 5. 28. 18. 2 4. . 8. 36. + 6. w* ( . a  49. a2 9.(2 x2 . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 43. f 2 ?/  2. 50. 36. 24. a2 24. a 3a 4 2 &. 13.r. a  ISjfat.3x 2 2 tf. 16. 20. 2. 16.2 a. a + a. a). _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 32.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. t).2 . x a8 1. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 4ft ~.a'2 . x  + 3z. 5. . .a .2 ft 2 r2 10. ar. 25 47.4x. 2. .c.  23. 2 3. '  . 2. a 10w. 19.'U4j>. a 4 + ft. 38.. 7.8(c + a). &. 10. 20. Page 8. (2n' 43p 47 ). x3 . 21.2. (w4w)(ww). 22. 2 17.
+ O4 66 . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 216. 18. 23. 10. 108. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.64 190 p6. 17.18 w w + 10 WI M . + 7. 23.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . ?> 4 . ll 2 i. 13. . etc. 20. 7. . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 84. 12 ^. 30. 2*8f x2 6x4. 8. x2 xy42^. 13. 34. 2 * 80 . Page 36. 34. 25. 3300. 2 ). . 12. 4. 25..15. 14f 5. 30. 27. 14.32. 28. a. 17. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 33. 1400. 13.20 xyz .16 x2/ 5 4. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . ! 2. 31. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 9 13. 3. 26. 29. (+3)x6=+16.69 rt + 21 132 + r .(3x2_4^+7). 18. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 5aft(a 126 2). . 27. 52 + 6s 12. 25. 66 8W 34.. 31. s 9 ww. 11..25 + 14. 2. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 30. 4.14 .44 aWc 16 abxy. 127"'. Ox a 5 . 2 7t A. 15. 3 a 2 46. 60. 8. . 6". 14 m 2 . 360. 37. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 27. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 9.19 + 2. Page 3. 19. 21.36 35. 3. +. 18. 30. 38wiw.12. m.1. 1. 7.21 a 3 c2 21. 4 jcy*z*>. 26. 4 a8 . 15 lb. 6. 19. a: . ci 5 .26. 32.6 2 . 29. 1. 4 fc. 9 w 2 + 13 n . ^^ = 20. 7. . . 15 q\ 6. 8. 2. 12 x2 2 . 25. a*b*c.32 y s s G . 1904. 4aWy. 29. 40 r 2 . 14. 18. 90. 15. 11. 22.:>/ . 04. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 21 a'&c. 29. 27. 4. 7. . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 0. 24. 2. 8 . ft 17.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 108. + 58 . . 3(*+0 + 2). 16. 12. 20. iSx8 . 5. 20. 30 n?b*c*. 14. 32. . 4. //. 3 a 3 . 15.11 xyz . 8. 66 39 k* . a. 24. . 36. 17. 343.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .14 w 2 2 . 7G . 60. 76 8 a' 1 . 27.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 3.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 12. 2''. 770. 4. 24. n (a6) 125. 28. fa 2. 83 In + 1 n*. 15. 4200. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 18a% y.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 22. 6. 16. a. 25 4 4.6) =a2 31. 30. 21. . 16. 11. 216.7(50. 20. 15. 42.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 210. 19..57 p6 3 2 4 25. a + ft. 8. 35. 9. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 2. 16 lb. f 26. 6. 33. 11. 13. 16 51. 21. 24.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 20. 161b. 18> ^* = a . 6 . 30 j9 jt?g j . 9.12. 23. Page 38. Page 7. 4.2.21. 28. 22.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 0.>(/ r . Page 35. 13. 18. 120. 34. 19. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 161b. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 30.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. Page 5. ?/ . 3. 28.19p" + 19^ 10 . 23. 20. 18. 2 a2 (y 2 . 24. 10. 1. 64. a 8 . 2 2 2 . 22. 16. 10. 14. . 17. 20 aW.8 12. 102.28 p'^/. .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 5. 33. 4 a2 . ISartyW e*f*tj. 1. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 2 . 10.16 a 2 + 32 a . 2 w +2 2 . 6. 1. 42. 1. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .000. +15. 1. 16.r% 2 2 ry. 2 ).
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3 a. r//.r" 20 S? . 50.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .8.w.1. 9. 1. 7a3ft.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 8. 3. 7 r . 18. ft 17. 8. + x?/ 2 1.> 10. 1. 2 12. :r !>. 4. 4 ac. // 19. y 7. 8 ?/ . 2 4 2 x 4. 6. 19. as _ 10 16.  12 y 25. 9. Page 7. 14. 11 4. a.21 2 2 f + . a 4 4 ft. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.  10. 4. 5 4 a Oft.2. r 7.2 2 2 8 .2 <</. 22. 13. i 9. Page 22. m'2 3. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 6x 3.25 c . ?/2. 4 c m . 4 d 2 4. 125. a 10. l 4 .2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.10 xy*.2 .1*5 2 r 2 . 15. 11. 14. 5. 6.2 ftc . f>r* 4. 21. 2 ?/ 4. . 17. 4. 3.34. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. ??. r ft. 24. ft ? ft' ft ft.25. 2 4 3 9. x 2 + 2r f J.8 yn . 49. + 3. 2. 6. 5^418(7. 2 1. Osy. 5 a  (5 ft.r ?/ ??i ?).8 y. 2. _ 2 a . 5.3 5. ft* ft / . 1.2 2 .r?/. 16. Page 11.  5 z* . c 12. '. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 14. aft. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 4 pq.7. 2 ^r ???' 2 . +w . w 2 . 10 ft.15 21. 5. . 4 a 2 4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . . a 2 .lit x + 4. 2 a 3 ft. 2. .3 a 41. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. /r .5 n*. 9. 3. 5. 2 ?/' . i 2 tji. . Page 51. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.r'^ 15. 26. 2 ? 14 .2 wZ 4.5 mp. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.VI ANSWERS 43. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. Page 48. 16. 8 x .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.y3.rw. ti'jry1 7.8.2 ar.1.2 ac . 8 ?/ . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 2 . 44.1. Exercise 27. 3. 16.4. + 4. 1/*./ 4. 12. 2.23. 3.9 d. 14. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 11. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4 x.1.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 01. 13. 5. ft. . 8. 20 15. *3 y 4 . r/2 4. 3 aft 20. 9. j) . .  3 c. . .3 3. 13.r .2 aft 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .6 :rs 4. 7. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 4 a* 4 9 11. 5. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 4xy + 13 <) . 10. 5.10 2 + z 2 410. 2 4. 12. 20. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.  .27 x 2 4.3 x 2 2 4.30 ftc.n.x^. 47. 4.2 1 //.3 ry. 23. 21.15.000. 13. 2. .+ 77 15. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.rw f 8 . 10. 4. w . 1. 8. 46. 14 r 2 . 19. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 14. aft 12. 5.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 6.29.1. . .24 . m L 4. 4. 6. z. 17. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 4x43?/. x4. 12. 17.9 4. 12. 4.1.3^V. 75 a 2 29. c3. . 18. yfl.r' ~ 16. 1000 1000 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.2 .1. 2 . . . 12. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 135. 8.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . . G. 13. x 4. 3*y2 w + 1. 13. 5. a 8 4. 9. 1.  11. 15.5 a . 4. Page 13.r?/ j/. sr 11. 2. 1. 8. abc 7. 2 2 + 2 a. 10.12 aft 4 20 ac . 1. 4ft. aftc 52. 3.
rn mi. 16. 13. 5. d + !. 8.. 3x  1700) = 12. = 5 ?i x 460. 16. 21 2. 24. 7. 100 14. 41. (>. 3x2. + 10 b + c ct. 6. fix. 13. " lir. 0. 2. 6. ct. 17. 14. 10. 7. 30.ab a. . 4. 'nj 100 a 28. 4^ = 100. 8 n  10 yr. (A) 3 x f (4 x .(3x  700) = 5. 45. 42. 5. 7. + f + b 2. v (6) 2x. x 2y 10 act. y yr. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 1. + 3 = 2(3* . 7. 38. 6. 25. 7. 4(a ft) c = 8.r ct. m+ 11. 39. 0. 4. "mi.x700. 23. 1. 15. 4.000. 13. 10 a.  6 10. 8. 33. 11. x. 31. f = eZ 2 x.10) 100.(3x+ = rraxlO. 43. f (I. d. 57.. I. y 50. xy ft. }f. . ( a f 4. 46. 38. 100 2. 20. 22. 12. ft. . 10. x 49. 9. 20. '^ . 1.200) f(^ + (e) 200.100.  1$. (c) 2x. 15. x y $ 6 yr. 3. 59. 36. 1. iL*. # + 20yr. 4. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 4. 12. (</) 2a.r1. 11. y 2z p= 3 (a c. (a) ' 12. 5. 1&. a 10. 11. 2.. 22. <>.7). 10 x sq. 29. 7. 4 f 39. 14. l. 34. 27.  9 = 17 a. Jj12. ft. 3. 9. ct. 10 >_&. / + y + a// 12 yr. 60 25 1. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 5. 30.. ft. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 2. 17. 2 ct. Page 40. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 44. 44. 19.p+7. I. 35. ? 43. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. a 8. ^ 12 sq. 36. 3 9. 2. y ?>i x + 26. 18. 29. ct. !). x = m. 58. 2x + 35. 1. Page 6. 25. 23.  2\. 2. 37. 41. b. 28. 6. X 60. r tx mi. 2b. 3. 10 yr. x + 1=a. 2b 22. 50= L 100 15. </ 20. 40. . 100 d ct. 26. Page 13. 18. 800 = x + 1300. 10. + 3x + 2y + 32. 33. + 4x 3y 34. f 6)(o 62. ] 2 ri 42. r>?imi. 00. 5. 10) + = (a) 2 x . n M. . 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 17. . lOx 10 + w. s. 19. y 100 a 24. b. m +~m 3. 16. % 4. (d) 2a + 10 = n. x 48. 20. 37. 2. lO. . 100= ^. 2=10. sq. (2 a. 32. 6. 47. Page 31.6 = *. 10.rr2.ANSWERS Page 9. (> 27. 5. 7x 2 Page 21.  />) a = all. 7. vil 56. Page 61.
? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 20 yr. (z5)(z2).3aftc + 4). 6. 22. 1. 5$ hr. 9. 13.5p + 7 g ). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).000.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.. 25. 30 mi. 8. 2. 7. 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 13. 6. (p + 7)(3a5&).000 gold. 10. 67. 15. (y 13. Page Page 4. (a5)(a4).10.000. 17. 7 hr..6). 7. Page Page 480 12. $40. 5. 11. 6. 7. 13. 12. 9.. 5pt. 30. 11 w(w' + wi .5. 8 2 19. 12. 200. 18. 1. 6. 19. (c) ^ v ' .210^. 15. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 11. 1200. 16. 2. 6rt 2 11. (a + 5)(a + 6). 9. 100. 2. ^ . (m + n)(a + 6).3). 9. 3x (3r.000 N. 4. 20.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 15 in.000. 3 (a +&)(*. 480. (y7)(y + 2). 200.16. 160 lb. 25. 8. (a + 4)(a + 8). 74. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 30 yr. ?(g ? g+ 1). Page Page 4. 5. 11.000 Berlin. (y8)(y + 2).22. (*4)( + 11. 14. Ib. 10 Mass. . 30. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 24J. 10. Y. 18. 1. 8.000 pig iron.000 copper.000. 2). 10. 15 yd. 1250. 80 A. 70. 10 yr. 40 yr.. 12. 2 2 ?/ 21. 70^. 17. 180. 3. 29. 14. . (y + 8)(y2). 1. 9 in. 1.000 ft.. 2. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 52. 4.79. 75. 11 pV (2 p8 .. 3. Pace 65.000 ft. 4.8. 12.2). 5. (a 4) (a. 7. 3. 1313. (yll)(y4). 85 ft. 6.. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 4. 1. 13.. 10. 68. Page 7.7. Page 79. 50. 13. 10 Cal. 6. 1 lb.. 8. (a + 6) (a + 3).24. 15.  PageSO. a a (a 8 a+l). 8 in.. 11 in.0.y").. ( + 4)(*2). 2. 9. 150. 55.000 Phil. 15. 8. w (/) 64.2. 71. 1200. 11. 8 12. 45 in. 7. Page 5.11. 8.. 7a*fe(2a & l). 2.13. 10. (ro3)(w2). 3. 2 2 2 5. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 90 mi. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 14.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).000. 14. 7. 21.000. 300. 4pt. = _?_(2ar + 1). Page 7. 3. 20. 90. 20. 05. by 12 yd. 3 hr. 12. 14. . 78. 78. 3. 72. 3. 14. 42yr.411. 9.000. 10 yr. 5. 28yr. 12 mi. 5.0. ~=90. 20 yr. 18. 6. 2 3 6 7. 5 Col. (e) i* + A.(5z . 23..21. 5 lb. 4. 6. 10. 600.1).. 82 mi. 250. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. 2$. + 7)(y3). 20 yd. .3. 4.5. 1. 2. a 12. 8. Oaj(o62cd). 15. 25 yr. 10. 100 1. 9. 12. 15 mi. 10 yd.3.
3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 3. 30. (m7n) (a.y) 2 aft. . (a 3 + 10)(a. 18. Page 82. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). + 4) (a. Yes. Page 83. 100(x. 17. 10. 10(a . 14. (ft + ll)(aftll). 21. 14.7) (a. (15ay2) 2 . (2 *+!)(* 9). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (2o + l)(2l).4 6). 6. 18. 15.   . 13x(a + ft)(aft). ( 2 4 19. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). No. 11. 12. (4al)(a2). 5. 27. (w ~ n (x . . 9. f 2). 16. 31. 12. 22. 8. 36.8). 3. 2). y(x. 4. 28. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 8) (a. (15z2y)(x5y). 26. (10a + ft)(10aft). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 25. 2.  x (5 a. 26. a . Yes. . 40 x. (0 + 6)(66). 4.4. (m + n +p)(m + wp). ix 18. + 2y). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 3)(3a. . (a a: 19. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 14. 6.2 y). 26. Yes. 23. 9. (6 a. (a + 8)(a3). 21. (x + y4 )(x . 25. 29. (ay8)(ay3). . 2. 12. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.1). No. + 8)(g3). 16. 10. Yes. + 3). 32. 27. 7. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). No. 4 (a . 1. 2 3 by2 Yes. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). + y + . Yes. 26. 25. Yes. 17. (a 6 6) (a 4. 24. (* + y)(zy). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 5. 10(2 30. 3. (y + 4)(yl).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 11. 9. .2 by2 6. 11.11 ft)(a6). 9. 31. 22. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 216 aft. + 9^)(oxy . 10(a + ft)(aft).c 2 ). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 10(3 5 6) 2 . (3*2)(. 100 (a.4p).1).1). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (0 (l+7a)(l7a).y (6x + 4)(5x4). x(x +y)(x y). 28. . y) (a. 16. 3a. 33. Yes. 17.y4 ). 21. 13x7. 7 6) (a 10 6).5y)(3a. (3a. 32. 2 2 15. (a (p8)0> + l). 10. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .6) 2 2 .9*). (4 18. + 3)(c44). 22. (9y4)(y + 4).. 1. 25. (w + 20)(w + 5). 33. Yes. 19. 27.ANSWERS 16. 23. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (5x .7)(2z f 1). 22. 2 No 4. (6n + l)(+2). 23. 35.* (2 y + 3)(y. 8. 8. 7. + 5) a.2). 15. 24. a. (2yl)(y + 9). (13a +10)(13a 10).3). (5wl)(m5). (5a +l)(5a l). 1. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (a. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 24. Yes. 9. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 29. 19.11 6) (a 4. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).+4 y)(3x4 y). a*(5a f l)(flr . (g . 34. No. a(2u. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).3)(z2). 2. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). y) 2 29. Yes. 7. 2 17. Yes. 20. 34. . (2 a? 4. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 10. (w* (3a26). 24 9. 3(x + 2)(zl). + 0(90 Page 85. 23. (4a. (2xl)(x + f>). .6) 2 1.1). (m + w) 2 5. Yes. 28. x\x 24. (y8) 2 2 . . 20. (4 13.2). (4y3)(3y + 2). .r2).2 ft). . Page 84. (3#y)(+4y). (az + 9)(ox2). No. 35. (:52y)(2a!3y). (<7 20. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 20. 10 a 2 (4 . 13. 25. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 30. 103x97. 21.
a (a + 2 6). 12. . 4). (16 4  2(5 n . 12. y6.?50)(xt/z. 14. + 3. ( { &). 30. 17(x43//)(x2y). . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).2)(x 1. a 4. . 2 y) ^ . (5a+l)(9a). 8). ( y). (5^4. a8 .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).'})(c .'/)('< 4. 3 x4 .7s) (2 a. ofc)( fid). Page 87. 2 . 7. (c.3)(x 4. 4 a s &8 .3. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 11. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4 a8 . 12.2).b. 2. y )(.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.&). 24x sy s 9. 2. x 4.?>) H. 10(2 (3 4. r x 2 */3 . a 41. (5 31. 11. 5.))(x  ^OC 1 1).^ 48. y). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 14. 13.  WIM. 13. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). (* _ 2 )(a 4.y)(fi a . 32. .8) ( (16.. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . ( rt 23. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.4. Exercise 47. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 20.n). 2 2 3 . (> 1. 38. 5.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 3(. (2 a ~ f> b 4. + 2 //). 8. 27. a 2 (a9).42 x 4. Page 90.  29. 4. 2.y.36). n  r)(5a 10. 8.8) n 43*). Page 89. 6. (r420(4 10.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 8.8). x43.2). ?>). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 11.3. 7. ah}. 7. 4. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 36. 13( 33. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (x//. (2x7)(x 2 2). 19. 2 k (wi 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 4 3. 450. 18. 6. b) (r 4. 8.1). 6 f c).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (a 4. 15. 4 6. 6. 39. 6. 7. 2 21. 22. 2 (a 4. 24. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.X 5. 10.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 3x(x?/) 4. y(2x?/).7)(^ {I 12.) j). a x 3 10. (5 26. 6.1). 17. x .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). ( (<> r4y3 . Page 92. 6. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 4. 8.e 4. (a />. 37. ^ .2 y). 2 + . . 16. a 4. 1. 13. 9. . l. 2.0+ 12). ( a ^)(^3. 14. (!__/>). x(x f y)(jr . 28. 2 1. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 13 x 8 2 . 16. Gp).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 41.y '2 2).y).4). a + a b. 2.5 m2 x2.1) 3. (x. 11.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).4). (m  I)' 6. (a 9. 42).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).  (w' 4. 8x. 4.9). 15 M. 14. 1(V/ 88. (. 5.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. Page 12. (14.?/). fi(c426). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (a &4. (w * . x  1). 4. 5. (f> + fo 7. 8. 4.!) (x42)(x2).4. 3. (^ 7. (^ + ?>_8). Page 86. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).l)( a 25. 40. 9. 5  (2 2 . 4  9. 15.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).'J)(' . 10(8x' 4l) 4. 2 8(w . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 7. (7/1 2) (m 41). 35.&). 4. ?i(w 4y) . 42a 3 x. 2(m4l)' . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 7. 2 2 10. 4. (w4w) 2 1. Exercise 46. 5 x8 3. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 8.
(a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15. 11. // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. 13. 6a2&(rt6).6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . ?_!&. +5 1.  1). + &) 2 ( . a 10 25. x 22. 1). x 12. a 23. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 2(2al) + l). 18. x 24. + y) (a: y). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. b ! 21. + &)(&) ( .
2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 6a5f^. 4 L 8 2 .  **/* + 84 _. c 8. 1. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . + 2H 1 ^. Page 100.. 2 a. 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w1 + ac w 4 7. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 30. _*^p5_^^_. 6. + lH + .50 ~ 1/2 . A^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 26. 4. a 5. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 6. i. . 0. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. xy 43. 4c 10. 28. Page 101. 6. ' 2 7. ^~ 29.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 11.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15.
Page 111. 3. 1. 12. 1. Page 113. 21. c 8. 4. 10. 8. 14. 23. 20. ?. . 7. 6. 10. ac mp lf> n 12. Page 110. 3. 21. 6 . 2 47. 14. ^_. 3. 3. f Page 107. y(x + x ?/). 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 41. f 7. 15. 1.  V o 4. 16. m 9. 9. 7. 46. 3. 12. 13. 4.ft . 15. 26. 21. 36. . 4. Page 106. J. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. flf. 6. a 17. x 1. a2 2. 1.L+ft. I) 2 3z 1. 3. 38. 5. b 2. 14. 1. 1. n 16. 16. j L . Of. 7. 42. n .y 7. 19. 0. (>. 18. 11. 5 be _J_. A. J. 8j_m 7 3. 6. 15. 5. 44. 2ft a i m x. 9. 24. 29. 4. 4a3ft. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. ^i 11. 5. ! 4 20. 33. 45. 1. 25. (y + (z 12. 1. 27. . 6.  10 X + u. J. 5. a. an 18. 11. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo.^_. 31. 0. 17. x 05m ' 5. 7. +3 ( + 15. ' 6. 8. 9. 35. 3 7 i o. 43. ft. 39. 11. 1. 4. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 4. b a f +c 14. 34. 11. . pf n 6 1. 6. 11. 37. 1. + f. 12 28. 32.^U\WF### X<6. 17. ?+_!?>. n m a + 13. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 2) 19. x\. 40. 30. w^x 2 b Page 105. 4.
1. 7. Page 118. $0. 10 yrs. 7.002.x + y.  29.. 12. 00. 6. (c) 2 hr. 18. 3:2. 3. 13. " 0. 0. xy. 1:1 = 1:1..10. 30 mi. 11 hrs. 5. 6. ~m . 500. 9. 1^'. after $12. 24. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 30 yrs. 21. 7. 38ft min. (ft) 5 hr.. 1. n 32. 13. 5. 24. Page 121. ^?i min. f . 15./hr. 9.000. (a) 25. f.001.15. 8. 10. 1. $45. 26 mi. 40wn. 26 30.XIV '/ . 16. 19. 10. 3. ^m . 8. [>> ^ a . 26. 1 : 12. jj. (ft) 104. No. 19.0. 3. 15. 7T 2 Page 116. 2x:3y. 35. 2. 21ft min. ^p^ r ~ 7. 7 . Yes. 11.2. 1: ~. J. 40 mi.138. $40. IV s. $30. 15. 14. 4fl M_.. 8..137. w 21. 5. .  C . 14. 30. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . (a) 4 min. 10. 10. #V ~~ 34. 15. (c) 8300. Yes. . min. 20. 40 yrs.000. 33. 14. 4. dn ~ mi. 13. Page 117.  + . * 7:9. 12. . 2. w 44. 10. 17. 8. Yes.. 14. 4~r~ n . (ft) 5 da. 15. No.2. (r) 3^ da. 9. 74. 9$. 7. 13... 8. 300. 30ft. 18. 5 2. 33. 2:1. 10. 5. Yes. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 6. 19. nm. 15. 17. J ^'. Yes. 12. ft. 18. . 21. 31. 10. 16. 1:1=1:1. 1:4. 10^ oz. Yes. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 32. 4. 1:1 = 1:1. 11. Yes. 17. Page 119. . 275:108.. 10. 22. 15. :2. 9ft. 20.9. 34.003. 7. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. $00. 1.139.0 & . 23< &n b ' . 2 20. 20. 300. 10. 81. . Page 124.000. a 4 ft./hr. 8301 hr. 7} 18. 4.000 1 = 23. min. (a) 12 hr. 55 mi. 11.} da. 4. . 27. 19. 1:1 = 1:1. 212. 24 mi. 5ft 30mi. (ft) 28. 16. () 2. _JL. '"I 22. 28. P+ ^ 33. 5 25. 7. Page 125. w 18. silver. (a) 30. = A's.11.004. 36.. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . after 18. ANSWERS 16. (d) 500. 3 da. 3. 4. 1:3. 300. 3. gold. 75 . 1 da. 17. after 20. 3. 9. (d) 4 da. Yes. 9J oz.000 If da.000.
5. y . 25. w 8. 2. 48. 19. 12. 3. 2.2 x. 8. 27. 9. 2. 3. 40.5. 14. (b) C C' = fi JR'. . 1 1 : : : : : : (I. ~ 1. 41. 4. 7. 2. 2. 2. land. 2. 14. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. 14. 11. 9. 8. Page 133. 9. 11. 1 rt * vm^1. 19.57.5. 4. 7. y :y =. 17. a~. tin. 1. 7. 59.1. 3. y a y = 7 0. 3. 3 2=3 x. 6. 25. Inversely. \. 945 11 10 . 1. 36. : XV 27. . 11 w a 13. 3}. 20. 44. 46. 29.6. 2.  28. 18. 10. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 35. . 17. 41. 32+ mi. 36. x y y . . 4.5. 4. 11. 9.7.15. Page 136. 8.3. 7. 50. 5:0 = 10:12. i. s<i. 4.2. ig 6.3. l.3. 1. 32j. 138. 17. 15. 5. : . 1 18 = 3 51. 14. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . *. 5 2. 7. 1.46. 21.C ?/ a . 15. 10. ' 55. 30. 19. 2 n . 39. + W. 3.3. 2. 56. 13. 7. 16. 12. 31.12. 16. J. mi. 5. 4. 5. 45.3. 8.]. : : T 1' : /> : . 2. 5. ft. 10. 5:3 = 4: x. 2. OJ. 30. Page 9.2. Page 132. 7. 20.5.3. 2..1. 4. 2.x a.17. 2.1. 3  24. = 7 b'. 2. . 58. x:y a: b. () 7 Page 126. .ANSWERS 22. 20 cu.*.4. 19 OJ. 7. 2.3. w.5.) 31. mi. 1(5. 16.  ?. 3./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 55.r. + b 7 . 141. x 42. 57. 7.3. 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x.22. $. 7. (I.2. 3. 13.li. Page 137. 7^. 1. 4. 3.4. . J pq.5. 13J. 4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 9. 49. 38. 3. J. () Directly. ini. 5. 5. 40.1. 25.9.000 sq. 7." ^ 2.^ 0?j ' gms. 2. 11 5 .12. 7. "lO.20. 4. 15> 9. 5. 12. 3.36.15 x.. 47. 6. 4. 13.2 oz. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 6. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.J 3. 28.3. 22. 3. 24 1 (e) Directly. 20 20 J ^. 26. 24. 10. . 7. 8. 2. 1. . \\.5. 2. in. 31J. 127. 2. 43.3. 2.  19.4. Page 134. 23. 9."2:1. 7.3. 2.8 oz. a +b 1. 3. b x 37.7. 26. 52. 9. 19 3 . 12. 24. 1.160. .1. 21. 23. 53. lo mi. 6. 2. 1. J.5. x y = 1 = 3 2. 6. jc:y = n:m. 13. Of. 200 mi.4.840. 22. 11. 5. 2. 4. 5. 8. : : . 6 10 = 12.4. . 7. 9  15. a 3. 174+ Page 128. in n. 3.a. 4. + 7>i//  ft 1 . OJ. 6*. 8. cu. . 3. water. (a) Directly. (</) ft.' : : : : <>. 1. 5. y 1.J.000 sq. /. t 5. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 5. Page 5. 11. 54. : 23. (b) Inversely. I. copper. 9.2. 7. .. : />. Page 135. Page 131. 1. 4. 4. .
6. . 20. 3.65. 7. SL=J o ft r^2. 4.8. 10.9. 1. .4. . 3. 13. 6. Page 143. 17. 16 to July 20.. 14. Jan. 3. 3. Nov. $250. 10 sheep. On the y axis. 5. 3.4.4. 3. 4. 16. 100. 9. 25. 4 ' q. m + n p. A's 30 18. Page 151. 7. Apr. The ordinate. 4. 9. 9. Jan. . Jan. u 2ft. 24. Jan. 6. ad _(?jrJL. 1. ft 3. . 3.3. & part of Sept. 4. 1. 20. Page 146. 6%. 3. . 16. 20 & Oct. 10. 3. 12. 5.10. 40. 22. 5. . m f 9. 27. 3. 6 cows. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 7. 147. 8. 4. 21. Page 145. July. 11. 5. 20 to Oct. m .  Zn  "(^ll 14. 14. parallel to the x axis 0. 25. A a parallel to the x axis. 6. 8. & part of Feb. 2. (a) Apr. 7. 21. 10. &. 26. 2. 4. Nov. 90. Apr.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2. 2. B's 15 yrs..0. 19. 14. 20. 2.  11. $6500at3Ji%. 18. 15. 1. 4. 7. 12. 4. 5. 2. 24. . 19. 30. . be 10. 4.2. 7.$5000. 00. J. 30. 4. 18.0... 4. Page 149.3. Page 152. 11. 5%. $3000. 15. ad AzA. 423. 7. 5. 3. 17. 5. 72. About 12f. 3. 2t2.  17. 16. at 15. ' 6 3 a. Page 142. July. 31. 4. 26. 2. ^. 24. 16.. 4. . yrs. = ^ a Page 141. 2. a =J (n  1) rf. 23f . 3). July 20. 8. 2. 30. 40. 1. 4 mi. (ft) 23 J. 28. 2.7. Page 22. $500.$2000. June. 17. A's 50 13. Nov. 7. 13. . (c) . . & May. 3. 2. 7. 2. . 5.3.2. 3. On 11. 10.33. ' . 29. 20. C's 10 yrs. 10^ gms. $900 5%. 2. $ 1000. Feb. 1. 3. (<f) 13. On the x axis. 3. 11. 3. 1 (d) Apr.l. M 2.XVI Fagel39. (5. 2 a. C's 30 yrs. Jan. 16.1. 0. 2 horses.1. 12. Aug. be 7. <*ft/ bd 1. 3. 1. Oct. 6. 16. 3. 1. 1. 1. 3. 18. 6.^./hr. 32. 1. 12. 11. 6. 18. a. 0. 23.1J. (a) 12. 4. 9. 2. B's 40 yrs. 2. Page 153. 11. 5. 15.. 12. 25. 0. (ft) 20. 11. 1. 1 (c) Jan. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 8. 2. $4000. 10. 23.n + p. 9. 24. Apr. 13. 20. m f 8. May 5. 9. Nov. 4. 6. through point (0. 5. 2. 19 gms. 2. 7. 25. yrs.
6. 13C. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 11. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. (ft) and (d) 2.79. . xW.25. .25. Indeterminate. xg . 1 4. \ft) 5. 14. 5. 5. 2. 4. Inconsistent. 24. 2. 1^. Inconsistent. 7. . .84. 1. 19. 3. (e) 2. 81 ". 8. 2 a&m Page 167. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. ImW. 1. 1. 10 C. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 13. 21. 1. 20. Page 158.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. (c) 2. (a) 5. Page 164. 24. 2. . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 3. 3.. 12. 1 23. f12 wi 9. 8 1 f f g*. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2. 2.27. 3. 16.59. 30. 2. . 2. (a) 12.64. 4. 1. 12.1.34F.75. 28. . G. a 10 ' a ll V&.. 83. 4 ) 21.24. 9.73. 3. 125 a 8 12. 1. 3. 2 l. +3 4. (ft) (d) 2.  . 1. SlstyW 7.75. 4. 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 26.64. . + a 4 ft* . a + ft.13. 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 18C.83. 9. 30. 3. 1.75. (e) 3. 1. 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 3. 2ft4 Page 168. 3. 5. 3. 4wn8 + n4 5. 2.73 ami . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.25. H. 11. 2. 5.17 (ft) (c) 2. 3. 9 and Page 166. 27. f. 4. 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 10. 1. 125a 28. 14. (/) 3.67. 13. 2. 18. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 15 . 1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. . 22..83. 8.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 20. 8mW. (/) 3. 2. m. 0. 6.5 (ft) 3. a 29. (<?) 2. 1. .7. ' :=_!. . 10.3. . . 22. . 4}. .24 . 4. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. Page 163. (c) 7. 17. (a) 2.73. 13 . .73. xy. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. .4. 15.59 . 8. 3. . 125 16. (c) 14 F.1. 3.75 (ci) 3^. 5. jgiooyiio 17. () (rt) 3. .  12 ft xW  26 31. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . .41 and . 27 19. 2. 32F.24. .5. 8 a1. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 0C. 1. f. 14. 19.3. 1. 1. 2. 5 and 2. 3 . 2. 4.25. (a) 4. 5. 1.. . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 5.2 (ft)  1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. 6. (ft) (ft) 2. ft 2 4.  1. ft . 1. 2. H. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 1. 10. f 10. (gr) 21. . 13. Indeterminate. 11. 27 27 81.5.41 and 23. (ft) 2. 2. 4. 2.  1. 15. Page 159." 23. 3.79. 2 2 22. * 16. 3. 25. 2. 14.25. . . 15.
3. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .x ). (Gx + (i + 2a. ??i ?i .037. 4. 8.2).  x. 3 6 23. 420. a 2 . 10 x G a 4 . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 20. 0. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 6.1. 10.a b 22. 30. 2 49 .XV111 7. 18. 8 /. 20. 64. 2 12. GOO 2 c 2 . (l + x + . 978. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 763. 13. 9. 3. 5. 5. 25. 2(> + ( 2 7>). /> 4 ). (3a. 57. 14. . 2. I 8x2). . 76. a. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 3. 3 2 8 3 12.5). 10*. . 8. 16. r> 4 : 1 . 2038. 15. 2. 21. 9. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 14. ). 19. 23. Page 172. 32. Page 171. 27. 34. ( Page 174. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4).GO a c + 23. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (ab + c). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 36. 20. 15. 11. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (48 + 6. 1247. 33. Page 170. 180 . ? . 119. 35. 6. a. 2 2 7. 9. + + ?V 22. 7. 300. + Z). Zll.1. + i)). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 14. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 1. 2. 25 19. 9. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 6. +35.i c 6 15. 2. m 13. 18. 8. AN S WE no . 20.6. (1 (x2y). 16. 17. Page 176. (ly). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 1 1 ?>). 10. 12. 16. 16 6 w . ?7i 1 1 3 1. 247.10 a~ + 5 a . 28. . 14.^). (a + 2 +l).r 2 + 6jt). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 30. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l.5. (x' l). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 18.83. 2 2 4. 26.y2 ). 84. 12. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 70. . 3.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 12. (a 2. a: l . 1.f 1 m 9 16. 6. 00. 13. 101. 7. rt . 9.+3^ + 4. fe *?>' ?> fi . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. . 24.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). ? : 1 . 6 (\x 3. 2 4 8 2 . 90. 71. ^i. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 22. . (a + y+l). 1. 4. (4a2 9& 2 13. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. . + y). 11. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.3 ab + 2 2 ). + 29. 72. 90.  +X '. + (win . 17. 4. (x + y\ 90. 8. + l). 9. 10. 309. 11.7 /)). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (2 a + ft). 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 3 2 ^. . 5. 5. 5. 99. 2. 21. 8. 15. 17. 6. 98. 3M.94. 5 5 8. 1.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. a ). 4. 19. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. . 237. 7. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 31. c 10 6 :l 20. 15. +3 + 5 4. 11. 40.
7. 5. i. 9 15 ft.Sn. 27. 4 n. 5. 15. 6. 41. 15 1 10. 4.  43. f ^ is. 10. JJI. 22. Af^. " ^_ 22. 4. 4. . 19. 7. 18.  14. 21 in. 1. 2. 6V'2J.6.5. ft. xix 26. 10. 15. 14. 8. 20.005. 23. 15. 10. 2. 4. 49. (6) Vl4 3. ii :J _7.645.522 38. V2. _ iVaft. 1 7. 14. 10. 5.}. 9.. 31. 17. 5. 5. 35. . 8. 5. 5. 4. 1. 10. 12. 17. Page 183. 2] see. 5083. 12.4. vV'TA 24. 4 TT M 28. 10. 23. 5f. 4. 33. }. 11. 2. i ^. 4. f . 14.1. 3. 25. (afl). 7 in.469. Page 177. 17. 39. 2.. V35 1. 40. 12. . 21yds. 5. . 1.. . 25 J. 6. 24. 3. ft. 16.. 28. 7. 1. 3. 8. 2. or 3. 29. 13.. 9. 2. 7. 9. 3.13. 2. 7}. 2.?. 24. 12.236.. a. V2. 1. 28 in. f. f. 31. / 11. 9. 13. 5. /. 30. 7. 50. 4. 18. 1. 32. f 3. 7563.  f. 5.ANS WERS 22. 6. 3. 30. 12. (< + ?>). 21 28 ft. 26. If ^. 1 38. 6. 36 in. V17. 1. ZLlAiK 19. 21. 3. 6561. 6. .6. 39 in. 2. J. 48.  5. 4J. 14. 5. . 4. 3. Page 184..*. {. .a.1. 270 sq.243. vYb. 3. 8. 20.  3. 9. 16.. 2 sec. 13. m. v 17. 44..6. 5. 2. \/3. m.916 yds. . 10. 36.4. 10. Page 179. 3. V J l. ^. 35. 6 f !. () 2. 3. w. 11. 6. 40. 11. 9. 28. 7. V. 23.5. 5. 11. 6. 1 f Vl3. 46. 7.742 in. ft. 21. l~8. 3. 36. 10. 20.  f. .w 18. 7. >i 27.60. 7.6. 16n.798 yds. 8. 19. 1&. 11. 6yds. 1.i. 6V21. 37. 4. Page 185. Page 180. 14. 7 45. Page 181.6. 13. 4. . 32. 47. ^^7m. 4. 1.690. 9.V 8j. 3. 6J. 2. 2. ^. 4 W**.18. 7.367. 34.925 ft.  1. . 1. 1. 7. 39. 12. 12. 6. 13. 4 a. *. 9. 3. > w ft.237.4. * 1. 12. or 5. 34. 3J. 25. 2.  2. a + 61. 27.. 8. f f V. ~ V^3. 5. 29. 15. 4. 21. 3. >TT 26. 15. 37. 33. 16. 29. 16.935. 42.
/hr.1. 1. Page 188./hr. Real. 6. 36. 8 or 12 mi.4. 57. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. = 0. (5 10. 6. 0. 2. 1.2. 30. unequal. equal. 1 3.  2. 5. 20 nii. 3. 4. 17. 6^2 in.. x*4x=0. 4. . 23. 49. 2. . $30 or $70.5 x + 6 = 0. 1. .37. 20. V7. 0.4.5^. 0. 3if. V2. 1. 3. 0. *'' 12. 8\/2 17. 19 in. V^~2. ANSWERS 22. . $80. a. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 3. 47. unequal. 7. . 10 or 19. 3. r* i. 3. . 27.2.2. 12. 4. 14. 4.17. 8. 45. Real. 10 in.7. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 4. 10. 1. 2.  1. 2. . 2. 56. 0.1. 11. 1. 12. 35. 3. 2 ft. 15. . 3. 7. . 0.a. 18.  i./hr. 2. s 11. rational.  5. If. 13. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. 1. 8.6 = 0. 27. orf. Imaginary. .Oa.74. unequal. 3. 1.  Page 194. 8. 58. 0. 1. 5. 6. 4. 3.  13. . 43. 7.a 3 a.2. 0. 3. . #<7=3. 25.12. . 2.3./hr. . 19.48 3. 1. 19. 9. 1. i . 6. 25. 53.XX Page 186. 2. 3. 48. 7. Page 191. 2. 2. 4.1. 2. Page 192. t is.. Imaginary.4. v^^fcT"^. $ 120. 6. 16. 10 mi.6. Imaginary. 3.4. 50. 3.* 2. 12. 2. a + 1. 42. 9. Page 189.. 1.41. 46.. 7. 18. a.70. 2. 24. 25. 3. 4. 1. 0. 7. 11. 22. . 41. 6. 20.  5. V^l.2. 13. 15 ft.5.  1. 0. 5. 23. 29. 2. 21. 0. 33. 3. 12. 8. unequal. . H. 28. rational.$40 or $60. 2. 3. f 6 52 a. 10 mi. 26. 21.]. _ 19. AB = 204 ft.'. a + 6. 27. AB = 3. i. 28. x2 + B . 40.  1. 70 ft. unequal. 15. 3.  2.2. 37. x* 51. Page 190. 16. 0. unequal. 2. Real. 6. + 11 x. V2. 3.2. equal. 18. 3. 16. 55.3. Real.4. ft. unequal.  1. 35. 1. Real. Page 187. 12. 2. 3.a. 4. 1). 1. 26. Real. in.2. 6. Imaginary.0*8. jr . 9.2.10. 15. rational.23. V^l. 64c. 24. 0.59. 6. 38. 0. 52. 1 . 6. 44..  9x <). . 2. 26. 64. 2. 2 . rational. 25..7.23. 6V64. 14. '  f 5. a8 . 10. 24. 1.  24.48. U. 3. 4.3.7. 1. 0. 7.2.62.02. 31. 28. 1. 1_^L ft 14. unequal. 26. 1. 23. f. x 14. equal. 2. ' 1. 2 V3 in. 2. rational. irrational. . 5.12 = 0. f. 10. . irrational. 1.  6. 2. . unequal. 21. 4 da. 5. 20.l. 22. . 32. 20 eggs. Real. . 0. 39. Real. 5 ft. 9. %. VV11. 7. 120 ft.  1. 2.2 x2 . 3. 34.
^7. \. J. 29. 125. 1. 8. 47. 12. 0. 39. 5. 19. 32. J. 30. 14. 0. wA 46. &. 7 . ? . 16. 12. 10. 3. 30 a. 1. 13. 45. 1. 36.  J j. 50. 7. 35. 21.2. 49. 243. m'. 3. 10. 2V a. 22. I. 46. 3. 31. 42. 6. Page 197. . 4.. _! V3. 7. 24. 18. jV 10. . : . 8. 30. 5. v. Vr. 23. 49. 38. 20. y . 17. . 7. 9. 49. 20. 4. V^ 34. x/25. 48. 3. 1. 1. J 3. 5. 37. *V. 13. $7.//^. 2. \/r\ 11. ifa. 47. r*. 23. J. . 1. 16. 24. 31.  f . 24. 18. 10.ANtiWEUS rational. 6  AAf. 41. 17. 3. z + 22. 8. v'frc 18. 20. 25. 11. 3. 4. vm. 18. 3. 9. J.6. 3. 14. 8. 1. JV37. 19. xxi 15. 25. 60. . 12*2 61. 9. 52. 5. 8. 84. 3. 2. . 1. 15. 4. Jb \. 0. 19. 5. fx'^z'l 23. 28. l  5 12. 15. 8. ar 1 . v'frW. 55. 2." 17. 3.  48. \/3. m. 10. 29. 4. 32. vV. 1.  5. . Page 200. 25. 1V1. i. 51. 4. v/3. ). aW\ 40. (m 26. 57. \/. 33. 2. 2 L ( V. \ . 14. 9. 53. 28. 15. 29. Page 201. 13. 27. 3. Page 199. x. 54. 40. ^49. 2.32. 27. 'J.17. 2. 44. 1. . \a\ \/^.1 5 15. n\/* Page202. 43. 49. 33. 8. 9. 2. 56. 1. 8. 9. 4. 3. 16. y. Page 196. 6. 4. 21. 2. ^Sf 3 38. \.  a'2 . 2. a. 50. 58. a 18 . 33. p. 2. 7V7. 11. 1. v^T4 m. . . 21. 26. 14.  f. 17. 5. 13. 19. 16. 5\/5. 1 39. ) 2 >J i 10. 3 4 11. x$. 59. 22. 2. 20. r.
195V3. Va 2 "ft.rV:r. x y. JIV6. 45. 38. k/2. 19. yV35. 03r* 7.648. . 1) 3V3. 36. + + ft. y (a + ft) V2. 9. v'TM. 24. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3. 2\/7. x 7  34. 20&V6. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. ?tV?w. 24. 39. (o* 2.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 43. 8. + . 4aV^J 16. 51. 8a6V5. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 6. 27. v/^r 5  A/^~. V. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 2 4 z2 l 3. 13. 20.632.'\ 14. 3^2. 21. 5. . 3^ + 2). 10. 2. 2 x* 15. 2 '"V5. 2. V2 + 4 V22. 49.  2 3:r. Page 208. . V 5 47.577. 32.2 VlO. x 25. 3. ^88". ). 16. T. 19. 6. 40. 2. Page 207. 2>X2.). 17. 13. 9 . l 5. a^ + 2^+1.XXii ANSWERS 1. x^ .3 + 40 3 . 4. V. 31. 3 \ 39. 33. . 11.2 18. . 3 x^y 33. 5 ( . 21. 2v (T 2aVf. 22. 32. Vr 8. . 34 r 6.  a Vft 2 121 b. ftV 46. 8. 2. v^.707. 48. V80. + 2 ar 1 ). 29. 20. . r 17  Page 204. 13 35. 15. 2 a?>V2 a. x. 10. 3. 26. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 7. 3V^T. 3 4\/2. V63. 30. / V3. (x' (l 1+x). 11.692. y. 29. + 1. 101 1.Vxy 35. 41. 9. 8V/) 15. 13 a. Vz2 ?/ 2 44.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 30. x + 5 x3 + 0. 3 42. + 2). 135V6. 16. 7. 4.. 62V(J. Page 203. 25. 2. 31. 1. 26. 18. 37.x^y* + y%. 37. (a 27. 3V5. + 2 V22. 28. 23. 11V3. ^7 \AOx. ^: V2c. 1 2 or 1 ?. 40.f. abVab. 34. .yl : . 10.r. 5 22. 9. 12. 50. 28. 17. + Vic + 25. x%  3 ^+ 1. 5. r c . a 4 +* + !. m* n*. a2 4. a 3. 2.
24. 1. 8. V3. 25. Page 213. rtv/5. 2 ate. 3. V8. 3v^2. 18. 35. 16. 23. ^\/3. ab 4. 21. 27. 3 V2. 5v/2. v7^. V3"m. Page 216. 12. 35. 6x2?/. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 6. 18. 36. 4VO. V5. 30 Vl4. v^4. v^a. 2\/7. 17. V2. 5. 6+2V5. 11. D 45. 3 Vl5 30. v^f. 50. 4. \^6. 21 23. 10. 10V(). 2 V'3. Vtf +3+ 33. 34. 2. 31. v 25^4714 V2"a. ^27. ^9. 1. 2. 11. 3 V15  47. 33. % 29. 24. 32m27n. 12. 6aV2\^. 8. x/w^ 8. a\/5c. 32. 1. 25. 3\/2. x/8L v/27. v^30. 6V2. 10. 14. 8V2. v^O. . 31. 2 \/2. 4\/5. 2. . 38. v/lO. 27. Page 211. 51. 32. 19. . \/2. 3\/wi.30 2. 26. 2 1. 38. 34. V/. 30. 6. 13. \^r^bVabc. 36. 9 VlO + 4. 2. 9. 74\/Jl 120 46. \/a6c. 40. 48. VJla. W). r)\/(l Vrtr. 18. 5. 5V2. a^\/a7>. 0. 13\/3. 42. . 16. 19. 1V5. v/i). 3. 44. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 7. x/125. 4. 0. m ?i2Vm/t. v/9.r v/^ v^fr*. "^8000. 5 \/2. 41. v^lf. 14.J Page 212. : ^32. 14c 4 V5. \/abc*. x/4. 39. 22. fl^Vac. x/8. 13. '. + 20. 39. 2. \XOfl6Vi5. . ^v 7 15.T*. Page 214. w?i. 5V2. 22. 8  \/15. vT). 3\/15  6. 23. ^ 3 b 5 24. 43. v/l2. aVa. 49. 2yV2?/. "v/wi ??. v"3.. VT5. 6. 8V73\/IO. 37. 11. 3. 15. 4 >/3. V3. . \/128.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 52. \V3. 40. 20. 15. Vat. 17. 14. + VlO  v y (5. 8v2T 12. v"5. 6. . 6. / \/w/t 4 13. V2. \^6. 26. 3. 29. 53. Vn. 6 2\/0. 9. 17. Page 210.  3. 7. xx 1. 5. 10. x/8l. 16. \/8. V5. v/8. 2 28. 37. x/3. 7\/(l 7VTO. 21. x/27. Vdbc. 7. 4 a*. 9. 3. a2  b. 46. \/04a. 28. b.
7 Page221. 100. 2. Vf6fVtf. 10. 8. 23. 27. 9. 11. (Vf + (4 V2). 25. 512. 16.7083. 3(7+3V5). 5. 8. \/3). 7 f 5 4. 216. 5. 10. 12. 3. (V21). 18.  13. m f.^ (\/22 4. Page 219. .w 6. ' 22 i . (\/5V2). 24. (V6 + 2V2). 22. 12.732. 24.601. 21. 15. J. 6. ^. J. 18. 31.1805. . 34. 18. 8. j 15. Page 218. 11. p 6 13. V3 . 14. . Page 223. 16. +3 V2). 18.389.2. i(Vf Vft).3535. 25. {. 6. 8. ^. 3. 23. 9. 30. nVTl. 20. 8. 2. 16. 3. 22. 9. (V5f 5. (2V2). 1. 18. Page 226. V35. 10. 7. 3.64. 15.  . 8. 17. Page 225. 6. 9. 2. 25. 2. 27. ANSWERS 8. 24. 25. 5. 1. . 2!5_. * 3. 22. 6.464. Page220. V6c.V3). 5.. ^\/2. (a 1. V. .1547. . 5. V3. 16. 14. Page217. 21. 81. 1. 16. 1.625 10. 4. 3. 16. 1. 19.5. 224. 13. 35. 3V23. 3.81. 16. 26. 12. 4. 33.13. 25. 5 f. 4. 17. 13.9. n*. ^r. 14.XXIV 7. 1. 2x^2^. K>/0 + \/2). Va. f. 6 V. \.2828. 15. 32. 12. 24. 17. 25.4722. 19. 26. 2V2. 1. ^(VlO\/2). 4. 29. 9. A . 3. 14. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 64. 19. 29. 10. 4V3 + 6. 15.6 V3. 11. j.2. 23. 1. 11. 9. (\/3f 1).4142. (V8 + V2.3. 7. 30. 6 (V2 + 1). 27. 21 ' Vob 26. 4. 0. 2 . . 4. 9. 19. 19. 4 14. 10. 8 V3V2. 9. V3. 23. \/57t. 81. 8. 16.\/TO). 7. 5.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 37.3. (3+ v/2). V2. 5.1. 4. 20. 2. !^ 6 4. V3.6. 4. (V51). 12. (2. 20. (2Vll). 7. 4. 10. (VllV2). 5 V65. 23. 5. 7. 7. fV2. 17.  f. 9 mn. Page 28. + 5V2. Va.  2.0606. 2ajV2*. ~ Vac _c 0. . 13. 4. 4. 2. xy 2. 7. 2V3. V^TTfc. 25. 0.7071. 6. 1. 1. (VaT^v a). (2f V"5).732. 9. 12.5530. 36. 28. 2. 11. . . i^ ~ 1 v ^. 11. 15. i^Lzi. x 20. 4. 7. 8. 4. V5. + 6) 2 . _^JflJ?. . 21. 2V3. 4. 20. 10. 5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 125. 4. 1.
1 3. 12 24 y . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 24. 4. (4 mn . 13. 1 . 28. 15. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (a . 100. 3. 2. 18. 3. 21.3). 2.^a. 22. 1. 2.3 2. 30 . 30. 14. 3 . J Page 235. 9. 3. Page 236.  f . V3. P. 14. 87 . ~ f7. 2 . y. 1 6. 10. 5. 2. 4. 3. b . 4. 2 > 1. 5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 13. (rt. =A^Z3. 6. f .2. & + 6 2 ).4. . . 6. 2. 3. 12. 2. 4. 0. 5.  J. 4. (63)(6' t 18. 1. (a. 1.  5. 3. (w . 4. 3 9.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 11. 4. 3.3. qpl. 7. 2. 8.22. 0. Page 233. . 1.3. 2 . a . 4. . 1. 13. 20. 5. (pl)(p3)(p6). 8.4). 2.  . 4 . 4.3.2)(m. 2 6. 1. 1 . 17. . 1 .  3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 5. 5. J. 2. 3. 1. 2. . o. . 3 . .r . 8 6 & 0. 3. 25. J. 4. . 20. 15. 19. 4. 3. 10. f>. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 4. \/0. 6. 3. 17. ( 16. 4. (a. 3. 5. 4 20. //. . 25.  3. 1. . 10. a  . 50. 8. 8. 1. 2. 5. 2 <? 4a2 . 1. (+!)( 2) 10.0.. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 9. 9.ANSWERS Page 228. 16. 1.1. a: :} .Y.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 13. 3. 0. 3. 7. 11. 2. 3.7. 4 1. 10. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).l)(a3)(a . (r. 5. . 3. . 2.3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 4. 7. 2 . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 26. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 2 V^ .5 xy + 25) 22. 2. 19. 25. 73. 0. .2.  1. 5. (&y2a#H4). 2.  16). l.l)(z 2 + z + 1). .  1. 12. 30 30. 2.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 15. 1. 11. . 2.2)(* . 18.nl^EI. 3 5. 3. . 3.  4. 4. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1.3. 1. 2. 2. 1. 6. a(. 11. (8.4.  3. 4. 2. 0. 10. ' J. 4. . 5. 1 . (a 4. 5. 3.8a 18. 11. 2. 2 &. 23. . 14. 7. 4 . 4 4. 6 2 2a + 2). (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 13. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 12. (B43). 7. 17. 22. 3. 1. 2. 7. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 21. 3. .l)(m . (a+&)( 2 14. 1 .3.12. 1. 6. 3. 3. 0. 0. 30. 1 (?> x/^3. Page 234. 3 . 5. 5. 16. (2 a. 12. 2 6. 20. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).5. 6. 12. 24. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 56l). 4.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. (pl)(p2)(p2). 2. 2 . (m 4 + l)(ro.10.w 4 + 1). 3.2. 25. 7. 10. 3. 6. 7. 11. 2. 19. 1. 2. 8.1. . 1.  2. 2. J 24.4. 4. .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). XXV 4. 73. 0. t/ 23. 2. 8.
(&) 2. 4. . 1. 4. . 14.4. 12. f*.3.3. . (/>) "_. i i i . 2. 7. 55. 6.4. (>. oo . 2 . 1. 6. i.  1.4. ANSWERS 2. 11. in. 3. 15. 2.. 24. 17. 17. 1. 23. co . 3. 1. 3. 22.. 3. . 1. 15. 40. . 1. 78. = QO 6.020. 4. 8 3. 30 13. 3. 3.136. Page 247. 5. 1. 5. Exercise 113. Page 248.6. J. J. 8. (a) $3400. 5. Page 244. in. 3. 20. . 2. 7. \. 16. 3. 22. f>. Exercise 114. 1. 12 d. 4. 3. oo . }. j. m27. 5. 5. 1. 201. 3 4. 1 . 32. 3. 12. 17. ft. 16. . 4. 69.18. _ 7. 21. 11.3. 11. 13. 0. 15. 12. . 5. 3 2. (a) 5. 5. 2.200. 14. 512. 8. '>. 3. Page 243. 10. 37. 9. 512. 1J. 14. . 7 3.e. 4 6. 3. Indeterminate. 5. 7.. 2. 7.0. . 6. 2. 24. 2. m28. 2 . $. 3 . $46. 1. 10. 14. . 4. 4 . 5. 5. 1. ri*. jj. 3. i'ljVU. 26. 8. 16. 8. 18. 2 2. 17.13. 31. 2 16. 2 1. 5 . 5.3. } . 1.xxvi Page 237. 1..3. 2 Y> V . 5. 4 34. 2. 3. 1. 4. . Page 241. 5. 38. 35. ^ }. 21. 1 . 9. oo. 15. 125 125. 50. 2. J. 2. 12. ' j. 5. 4. 1 . 3. 28yd.3 . 40 in. . 1. 9. . 2V7.  11. 6. Page 239. 1. 84. 3. \/6. 900. 1. 29. . 4. 13. no co . 4. 4. 6. . 15. 5. 3. 18. 5 cm. 2. 40 25 in.y. . 9. 1 . 39. 8. 4. ( 3. 400. . 12 1. 5.2. 4. 8ft. 4 8. 3. 5. $. 1. _ 5. n. . 2>/3. 5050. 1 . 3. 12 ft. in. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2. 3. 1. 19. 3. 20 in. 2. 35 ft. f. . . 3. 37. 1. 2. 2 26.5. 288. 1. 2. 33. 14. 2. 1.6. 0. $VO. 23. n . in.0.. in. 3 . 3V5. 7. 2. Indeterminate. 4. 1.  2 . 4. 4. . . 11. 8 . 1. 11.. 14. 11. 2 ft. 13. . 3. 1. 7f solution. 1. 9. 2. 7. 25. 1. 12. 2n. 5. . . 4. ^~2. 1. 3 cm. 36. Page 240. 10. 12.1. 4. 0. 2 10. .. 2 . ft. 17. x 4. 4. 20.5. GO .. 17. 5 4. 3. 10.3. 35 a. 1 2. m + n.3. . tn 2. 2. 4. 50. 30. 2. 9. Page 245. 1. _ 10. . 19. . 8. 3 .. 7. . 15. 1. 45yd. 8. 4. 2. 48.30. ft. 3 3. c. 2. . 12ft. . and _ 4. 1. . 4. 8. _ 13 (0 6.1. 30. 15. i j. Page 238.  . 14. 20 7. V7. 1. . +  n. 37. 35^ 5. 3. 41. J. 21 30. 3.1. . V3~. 18. 2. 31..4.
v Page 253. Page 259. 6. c. . 1. xxvii 1. 70. 5. **+.6 . 11. r 5 4. 8. Ja. 18. 5. 4.  101. .0. 6. 9. 7. 53. 8 . 7 x4 17. 5. 6.1. REVIEW EXERCISE .5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 2.2 9. 5. 2. 12. 0. 4. 100. 10. 9. 16. 3. Page 254. 12. \ w 4 . 45 Page 257. . 16. 8J. 20. 12. Jj? 45. 2.53. . 16. 43. 21. 19. 17. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 495. 125. 5. 8. 18. 4. f y 8 + z* . 4. 6. 15. . 10. 1. Page 258.12 x*y 16. 10.13. 7. 26. ?/i 6 x llj . 16. ' 1. 27. 4. 8. x4 . a. ^a 8.419. 2. 18. 45. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 4. 10.5y 4 . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.170.r 4. 48. 23. 5. Y11. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 11. 15. 304. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.8. G. 9. . 2.4 &z x>&. 3. i 10. 19. 12. . 120 aW. ~ an .  20 flW. . 2. 3. 04. 1. 3. 1. 35. 12. 4. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 13. 5. />*. ~v 9. 0. I. 12. . 4. 05. . w9  8. 8.384. . a4 4 14. 5 13. 4. 0. 15. 16 11.5. 4. 6.470. 16.120. } $ 50. 4. 7. 9.680. 2. vy. 16.870 m*n*. 3. . 18.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 2.2 45 a 8 /). 20. 5. 128. 28.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . and 1.^ ?>i 2412x4. 910.4.700. 0. 1. d. 005. 15. 32. '23. 1.192. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 7. 22. 8 4x' 2 . 4. 7. 3. 1 7 4. Page 252.504. 11. 0.6. 27. 4 0.ANSWERS Page 250.920. 7. 1. 4.r* 4 70 . 19. 29. 2. 27. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 6. 1820. 16. 1JH. 3.5. 81.x' 10 .3 ays. 708. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 343. 1. 6. 3. 4. 45. 04. 6i. 27. 14. 8. 2. . 3. 280 53. 0. 1. 4. 0.<2 4. 220 . x + Vy. 0. in. 10 14. 17. 0. 105. . 405. 6. JSg. <. 4950 M 2 b y *.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 3. 1 14. 22. 8. 327. 7. 8. 2. 8. . 10. x r 4. 5. 15.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .5 M ' 41 fc 5 .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 5. 1000 aW. 8. 70. J 2 //2 25. 2. 8. 50. 13. 13.7 10. B . 20. 343. sq. 410. 75. 125. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . A.r x>/ 7 3. 12.210. 55. 21. 3. &' 14.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 10. 9. 7. 17. 1.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 44. 4. 1. 12. (). 2. 25. 2i* 7f.  17. r r j. 3. 4. 8 1. 192. 6. 9. 70. 3. 35.5 x. .^ 448 x a' 3 /') .
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136. + 22). 149. 18. 231. (c) 160 C. 191.3) (2/3y). 183. 182.1).y)(z . 178. (y 7f))(y 196. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (y _ ft)(y 4. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).3). 12. (2 198. (x + 2)(x . 138. (. 3(x . 7.1).3. 146.2ac + 229. 158. 236. + 2) + 9a. (6) 40. 218. 222. (x  42 yr. 157. (a& 192.4xl). 10). 1. (3x  . 10 ft. 2 xy(3 x . 209. xxix 139. 10 in. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 238. 162. 187. 154. 217. 207. (x^ + x1) 234. y 245. 180. + y. 185. 219. 208. 156. 244.. 21. 170. (y_24)(y5).2). (JT y 225. 142.2 )(x+y) 228.3 y)(a .r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 12. r>x 2 (4x.. 164.y). HI. + 3). (x 227. 216. 137. 176. as 194. (5 x . 215.ANSWEKti 135.y2 ). 239. 2. a. 140. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 155. 12 yr. 15.m)(x + a). y  y 165. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 214. 1. 171. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). (8x + 3)(3x4). + 3) (x f f>) . 2^. 15  a. C3 y _l)(.y)(jc + 7 y).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 226. 152. 230.3 y). 189.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 2. p.1). 172.2) (3 x . 241. 211. 10. 30 yr. 12 yr. 167. 233. aft. 181. 8 204. 10).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 5. Or (a + 2)0el). . 50. a + 2x2 ). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. y3.r . 237. x(x + 6) 213. 2. 6. 1. (7x2//) 203. 19. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). Page 265. +)(x2 x^+2. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 23 18. 224. 24.I2y). 12) (j. . 40 yr. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 159. 173. 195.2. 218. . 202. (r7y)(ai. 174. 166. z(x10)(xl). 4. 1. 205. 232. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 20. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).1(5) 200. (x . 235. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). ( jc // a 2 (a1).6) (2 x + 1). 163. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 3. 150. 32 h.2). 151. (y7)(y + 188. 153. (3x2?/)(2. (a} 59. (7 c 2 ). 37 1. 148. (/ 246. fc'2a+62c). 6). 1. G7. 22. 15. + 7)(rt4). Page 267. 147. 1. 199. 210. 220. 240. 143. 168. ?. 197. 12 6 panes.9)(xf 2). 212. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 186. 190. 36ft. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . ft. 1. p. 169. Iff 145. Page 266. (ab + 8) ( 7). 2(x8)(x3). 8(ar}(/)27). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 161.l)(y + 1). 30 + xyr. 193.. 3. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 1. 2 2 (a. 144.y + 3)(r (. a 2 (15. (x + 6)(x6). 206.l)(x8 + x2 . . + 11) (a 10).y) (\r3y). 184. (a 2 + 2a6.6)(4 + 6).l)(a 2 +3). 175. ( + 2y)(2x3y). y.  1. (233). 48 h. 4. 247. 177.6 . (2a + l)(a . a(a. (?/+l)(yl). k.. 179. (y  17)(y + (>). 2. 6./_4). 2 (4 x . yr. 75. 160. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 20. .r + 4). (r^x + 1). 147 mi. 2. 201. 30. . . m.
x12. 3). 279. 303. > 4. 249. 0. 305. 7^T 2 . 260. 250. 306. 268. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 256.4) 1) (3 x . 10.  7. 0. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .. ?^ZLiZ 308. o. 295. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 3). a. 2 x  3. 254. ^ 299. ? 1) 302. x 267. + f. 3  262. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 266. x . Ca&c 1)(M 253. *. x 283.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. o(x4l).  3xyf x// 257. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. *>). 7. &). ^/>J. 7 x 265.^ ^^. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 298. 5. 310. 2. 258. (7 255. a~ ' b*). 263. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.1.   . 4 5. x ?/ z 1. 43 '^rJ'.^^^^^^^^. 2 4 300. 301. 307. 251. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.2* i^^ !^. 259.(x  4) (x4 304.4). 3. 261. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 264. 269.
)Cr4)__ . j 328. 1. 2 r36 384. 366. L . S. 397. 3. a +6. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 401. + 4 & 4 \ b. 388. 406. 390. 405. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. l'j. 11. 360. 324. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330.". 2 ). 2. a 2 . 404. ?>*. a) A^_. m. 4 A. 1. * 357. x 54 359. 389. 339. 394. 2(a i 403. 334. 386. . 2.3. 398. 361. 392. 329. 0.vin a /r " 337. 336.  1 356. ^"" 4 s . 383. 1. 9^. 377. 2(q. 7. 393. . 0. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 1.1. a + b + 6). 7/i ^ _ . 365.. 2 ab  a Page 276. Page 274. 379. 387. 1. 0. 343 00 351. 6 ?/+:>. 382.J . 364. . 2 327. <L 409. . 2 ?/ 363. Page 277. ab. 376.XXXI Page 272. T+^. 370. 399. 325.7. 3.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 333. l . . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. y 4 I 340. 13 391. + 335. 408.. (a + b + c\ . 400. 407. 326.  1. f. _*L'L+. 20. 395. If. 4 rw.!. ^ 3 // . " 4 378. 355. 12. 6a. 0. + x 362. 375. 385. 380. 396. ^_:r f> 331. T\. .H ' 2wi ^' /' . A^L5L. 4. 3.(5 a . 1 i 2 ^. c 402. 4. ?=. ?/ + 3 332.
1$.5. 9. 481.2. 507. 3. 426. 476. L2 a  6 . 495. 419. 484.m  m+ M in. 483. 1.3. 18. 436. 413. 0.55. 24 days. ..  2. 418. . i. 425. 63. 478. . 32. 5. 490. m. 4. Page283. ISjmi.  10. 3 . <L+ 6 (. A $ 3500. (d) true. 450. 485. 6. 430. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 492. 503. not true. $2000 at 0%. 17. 2. . . 7. I. .}. 84.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. B 4 mi.488.  1. ^V. 10. 435.  1. 7 : .. 90. 423. . 412. * . 22. 2. 40 oz. '. 28 yr. 493. L (c) I. ft 5.rz Page 279. B $ 2500. 479. 432.3. . . 53 yr. 429. c. : />a. 456. 463. 2 438. 4. 11. 500.12. 2.46. 20. 439. + () 433. 448. 497.  f>. 0. . 441. . *+. 3a 4 5. . a 22 . 2. 10. .}.  2. 6. 458. 5J.  7. 452. Page 282. 40. 7. 2$. 14 miles. Page 281. . 21.4. 12. 454.  505. ^. 1.  2f 504. 5.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.7. 10. 0. 442. 8. 0. 5. 444. 427. 457. (&) true. 8. 410. 10$. 496.7.vz in. 7.  2. ISJini. 421. 465. 462. 17. 0. 466. 446. 420. b 449. 422. 477. 460. 0.4. 51. 1. 1. 10. 506. 5. fc. (d  6) f. fj. 508. 498. 487.. 486.. 499. 501.  .489.7. 33. m 1 : wi. \.7. 32 yr. 6.7. 6. 459. 455. (&) 443. 20 yr. 447. Page 278. . 1 a /?$+&?. 5. 472. 3. 502. a* 424. 440. z8 +?/ 3 431.2. 3. . !L=4. 2. . 2. 445.  7. 7. 6.  453. 7. 480. \ 1. 6. 10. 2. (a  c). 2. />c c(f be. i a b 451. 2 a 2. 5. 1. 482. 10. 2. (a) 1. 428. & 491. 468. 50. 461. 4.0. 464. 2. 4. ' $260 at 0%. . . 0. ^r?i 434.0.te + . 467. 8. 10.. a + + ft c..1. 42. 6. (c) not true. 411. 494. 8. A 5 mi . c 6fc 10. Page 280.
+ 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. ft 584.38. 3. 3.3. 1. 518. 581. 551. 1. 2.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.4. (e) 570. 1. 232. . M ft c 2 ft 3465. (c) 3. (c) 4. y 4.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. _ 4. Page 287.4 x + .f 1. 2. > ^ . 556.4. 4.24. _^ 2754x . _ 3.3. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 1 . 3. 3. 2(6 597.25. 515. 1 580. 3 da.51. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 509. a + ft  a  f c.8.  ft*. 2 imag.5 f. (i) 3. 2 . 4.8 x3^. 510. 571.8. 563. 24.83. a+ Page 286. (/)  10 to 8.30.. 31. 3. 3._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 4. 3f 4f. 4. 528. 6. 3.04. 4. y% Z * 586.  imag.02. 7^ da.% rr\* 585. 5. 552. 2. 0000. 3. 3. 3. .62.03.05.7. 5. + 26 + . <z ft 1. 529.10.2. 2 1.75. f36a28x8 592.33. .  1.3. 2 10. . 4.3. 1. 1. f.3. 3.6 2. 2.  . 575. . 560.00.31. 562.1. 1$. 564. 512. . (gr) 10 1.9.62. .3.1.16.6.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . imag.0. 1 600.54. 568. 555. 4 0. 532.4. H.8.14. 5. .25m.78. 8. 582.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.ANSWERS Page 284.  + + c. 593. . 5. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 536. 553. 2.1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. If 572. 27 y* f\4 . .37. 4.0. 1. .10. 527.5.  557. 573.0.12.  (a) (d) 1.7. tin. 24 da. 7. lead.r8 596. 0. 550. 2$.15. .  2. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). (6) 3.8.1. 526. 1. 14.56 sec. 2. Page 285.6. 599. 1. 1 . 531.20.04. T . (ft) Ill Ib.24.1. x8 .3. 530.7.52. 533. 514. 3. 4. per hour. 583. .4. o> . + 6 tf f 3 .73. 1. g(rc+ 6c). 115 Ib. 1. or 8.31. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. xxxin 511. 574. 2 2. 513. 2 1. Roots imaginary. J7] min. . .  7.. 569.5.4.15. ^ ft 4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 6435. 565. 576.37. 516.78.0.5.21. 598. . 1. 591. 2.3. 21*_. . 1. Page 288. . 558.. . .5. (ft) 4.  2ft da.xj/ f xV . 1J. 566. 2. da. 554.4. . . 1.5. 3. . 3. 4.1. tin. 1.53. 579. + 12 x . 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.15.. .88. 3 . (6) . 2. f. (a) 74 Ib.02. per hr. 1. S82 c. lead. 1.. 4 mi.6. 1. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . 561.5+.54. 567. 1. (e) (c) 2. 577.   (h) 8.  (a) 2. 1. 578. 4* da.02. (d) 537.6. .02. 40 Ib. 6.  3.03.55. 525.35.75. 603. 1. 559.  4. . a f ft + c.24 sec. 8 mi. 2 . 2(4 602.83. 1.  J(a f + 2c). a*8a + 24tf 82a. 1.
10. 2f. z  1. 1 704. o. . 640. 666. 6. 9. 5. 2. 971. ^^ 695. 3 a. <T! . 8 6 fo . 7003. . . 660. 4$. . a 1J. 624. 2. 654. ix 2 .14 If 1. a 4. V2. ab 689. 661. 7. 613. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. . 2 / 2 4. la6 2. fta a/> ^A. 12.3f l 668. V^~3). 700. 650. 0. If f 667. 2. 2&). b . i. I}'/.y. 646.0.25. 706. 703.  a2  a (ab). 1$ 639. 3 681. 1010.2f (5 4. a 673.  ft. 1 2. a ' 2 + . c. 705. 4 676. 617.702. ft).  . 898. 0. 662.049. 1m*. 683. n^l +^. 3 x2 . If 665. 643. 677 680. 696. if 4/> 671.. 625. 615.43^4. 670. 679. ' fe 2 ). 0. 691.  6. 678< 682. 2 x 44 ^/. . 653. 703. J^^. 4. 1. 635. 645. fe + a. 2f. 618. 702. 5002. \+ab 699.c ) 697. 2. 620. 3. 4 V 0.>A 610. .. 5 3. 630. 25. ab. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. V2. . 1.3.a~ {Z 663. 6 685. Page 289. If. 612. 692. 656.303. 608.3.001. 708. y  619.  13. 631. a + b. 690.XX XIV 606. ^. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 632. (*_ + a: 611. 78. ' 674. 651. / V^+lO^M"^. 641. K 5 2 V2.  4. 647. 637. 0. 8. 11.  1. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 638. 6. 2 a  6*. 5. 649. l/'3.3. 2092.04.203.f 3 V^3).3. 626. If . ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. a 2.002. 627. 2. (a3&45rj. V7. . 009. 3. a. 634. 622. 2 ab + a  &. 701. 1. 0. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 652. b. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 3. 2. . 655. 607. 2. 2. 648. 633. 623. 4. 11. 672. ^ 1.  2f r 659. 642. \. 636. If b. be ac \. 4. 628. 644.2f Page 290. 0. . 2 a: 4. 8 f 3. 698. . 1 ~a . + ~^'2 + a 1.001.  3. 669. V"^TJ. 4330 da. /> 4. 7.b 686. 629. 614. 4. 50.  684. . 14. 2 a 688. 2. 25. If 658. 621. 657. 9*. 13.b. ^. 210. b 664.  4. 5. 1 V5 1. 5. 616. 1. .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.
718.r+y> 759. 790 2v 3v 2. 782 785.. 724.257. 738. 776.^ 743. 789. 796. 714. 773. 750. 1. 8. 3V72V3. 24 4 . 733. 732. 729. a db Va^T < 45da. 719. 300. a:* . 1 [ + '> J. 713. 30\/10 764. 39. cr*lr*. Hi a. 710. i 2.8. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.2.rJ w L 754. "V313. x\y. a 2  x2 . 13ft. 3^. 778. 4 104 v/2. j 742. 755.~ . . 777. 3 720. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.r. 726. 1. i^. 721. 342V3. 2 V2 . 3V7. 746. + 6 2 tf'c..10. 727. VT14V5. 728. 7  3V5. Page 294. . 794. 767. / 787. iv/Jj.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 2x3^ a. 730. 1 I .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.V2. 756. a 5 . 717. 29\/3. 716. > 748. 763. 751. J(v'lO2V 791. v/7 / . x i f^' . rt3 2 ^i^. 24. VV> L4V34. ^ . 788. 758. 2\/53V2. Page 293. 1 752. . . a". . 709. VIO\/3. 1. 753. 749.11. 33^2. 17ft. 3 VlT 795. 736. 769. 768. 8. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 711. 3.1 . 792. 1^ _ 760. a 2 6^. 24V2.^. 32>/2. ^7xy. 723. 715. y  1. 34. r.. 725. 737. 740. 5. 59. 1 747.9. 00. T%. ^ ?>. 712. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .9. 739. 47. 793. 3V52V3. 731.4 . 734.ANSWMHti Page 292. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. fyaw&cu. 3V72VO. 25. + < 735.4 .. mn. 5. 722.V/^ 741. 15 shares.12 af V^ 4 744. v'll.
n =  29. (x + 0X024. 5. 7. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 819.f. (a 4 871. 13.2w .1)(0 865.a 4 + 1).a 3 " 4. 4. ^ V}. 831.l)(x + 2). 6.. 891. 832. . 0. 2 . m 875. 5. 884. 843. 2 806. 4. 3.10 ab 4. . 876. (1 . (x 845. 812. $. 848. 7. (x 2 f r . 2 2 . . 48. 3. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 892. 5.1) (a 8 . \/2. 2. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 813. 8. f. ) (a' 874. 4. a 42)(x .7)(4 x. 4 885.. 895. 896. 2 854. . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. (:r 11. 1. 4 818. 833. 17. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 2. 893.3)(x + 4).3. (x 4.y) 852. 816. 2/ 856. 6 $. (x*y*ryz + z*)./>") (a'. 2 j 889. 5. 8.5) (x + * 853. (2 4. 4. m = 2.7). 2. 835. 882. $. 20). 838. (a m . 7. (x3). 801. x.l)(x . 23. db 7. 851. 863. 867. (x . 0. 4. 814. 804.  ' . 1. 836. 2 (x 4*4.r4). 25. 847. (a 1) (x 4. 1. a* 4. 2  2. 3. (3 862. . 890. 2 . 8 09. 11.  + l(l^).1).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 824.7). 886. 829. 1 1. 872. o 828. 822. .7. (2x (r. 827. 810. jV3 f 3. 10. +j!>. 800. 0. . (2 a .  839. 858. + d)*. ^VG. (4 c 4. H. 799. . 899. 3 . 879. ((' 1). 2. 881. (3 b . 2. 817. o. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).2) (x 4 2). 4. 5. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2 *x 807. 1. a(ry + 864. 4. 888. (. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 4. 3. 2. \/5. ( 869.  tt 815.a 2 2 ). 834. J V. X4 1). 894. 3. .r .. ANSWERS 798. 19. 880.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 844.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.XXXVI 797. 3. 1. . (x . 861.1) . 1C.4) 860. 897.2 ax 4. 887.0.25 ?>2). 3.rae) (4 . 7.  1. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. V 3. 6.1. (x 2 . 2. 4. 840. x . 4. 857. are extraneous.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 2. 2. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (xl)(^~3)(. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 6. 4 . 11. 2 m . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 823. 3. a(ft)( 873. 826. 808.3. Va 803. 837. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 898. b' 2 821. 2 .7 4 1) 846. 811. 868.5 b) 4 1). 0. **.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). (  ?>) (a + ^> . 830. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . ( 4 4. 883.4. 3. 841. 842.+ m f ") (a* ). Hoots . . 6(a6)(o a + + &). Hoots are extraneous. Page 297. 4. (2 x + 3 y} . ^. Page 296. 17. 859.om 441) (a 855. Va. 900. 820. 849. . 825. 6+V7.l)(x . a2 ^E*!. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 1 .4. 14. 2. 5).1)(V 2 . 3.
1. 4. 4. 2 yd. 964. 963. 6 da.' ifcVira^ 2 3. V^3).446. 3. 10. . 5.. . i>. 978. yd. 12 mi.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 7 or 30.. ft. 6. 916.. 1 2. 950. 248. 8. 903. 2. 2 ft. 4. ?/i 6. 9 in. 2./hr.01. 961. a + . 8. Page 300. 73. 4. 4. 940. 7. 959. 983. 10. . V5 fj. T 6. 2. 2. 987.. ft. . 4. 908. 0. %* . 935. 7. V5 T 2 . v/(ai !)(&910. 904.760 sq.. 4. 40 16 in. 5l4f. 962. 2.1. T3. 921.0. 6. 12. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. . 2. 2. 8. 982. 4. Y. a. . 8. 6 . 954. 333. . 7. 957. 923.. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.. w 3. 955. ft. 3. 925. 941. 905.651. 11. 115. 0.2. 18. i 3.V~~3).1.. . 948. 0. 951. 912. J.2. J(_ ft. . 942.. 922.. f. $(l 4. 4 . 1 . 6. 6 1 1.. .615. 939. 1. 8.111. 902. 1 _2 . 984. 985. 945. 12 in. 2. tt2 19. 28. i 8. 14 .. . 60 949. r ft ' < Page 299. 6. 8. 944. 3. 5. 3. 12.1 = 9.  26j. S07. 8. 5. 11. 933. 906. 3. 6.744. . 932. 4 in. 1. 960. 480 8 sq. 943.  1 . 80. ^y. i(6 in. .  1. 8. Z ^. 930.. 7 ft. 5. Page 302. 100 rows. 931. ft. 981. 2 1. 980. i1" 913. 3 . ft. 15 16 ft. . '3 3 in. =F J. 947. 8 . 5. 15 946. . w. T 6. Va926. 937. 20 19 ft. 66 924. J. Page 303. 979. 28. 952.709. 8128. 3 4 . 927. 909. f ft 4 . Page 301. 111. 911. 5 .. 1 + V953. . ft.I. 56. 4. 1). 2 w 914. 3).. 12. 28. ft. 934. 3. 4 6 mi. 11. 108. 920. 977. 3. . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 333. 2. 958. 918. 6. 6 a 915. 2. 986. 496. 329. 4. 280. 7. 938. . 0. 917. ft.073. 936. . 2 i ' a V. dL 4. 6. 919. 1 1. 11. . 956.
994. X. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 4 and 1020. + 448 . 1013. 1000. (5. ~ \.18. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (Z>) 999. 1016. 6 70 . r = 2. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 996. () 12(2+V3). 988. 991. 1(5. 162.'^^ } ( . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 12. in. (a) (6) ^ 1002. (6) 8(1 . ^Trsq.  5&7 1021. 1018. 2 .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . Page 304. 997. 1017.. . ^f (2f3V2). 1 1004. 1019. 1012. 24.870 a 6 1011. 3003. 192. 4.128 I.51. + v 2). . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 9 da. 0. 1005. 1001. Page 305. 2(2 v/2).. 1007.870 z8 . 990. (J.92.378 1015. 0. 1014. 72. 8. 1010. 12. 120 a. 1009. 995. 1 8 8 2. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 993. . 108. 120 i^l^. 1006. 48. 1008.192rt?)r 120 *.378 <W and 92. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 992.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1003.
Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xi 4 373 pages. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Half leather. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. and commercial life. The more important subjects tions. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. $1. great many work. given. Half leather. Ph. HEW TOSS . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.25 lamo. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. than by the . save Inequalities. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. i2mo. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. so that the Logarithms. xiv+563 pages. physics. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. A examples are taken from geometry. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. etc.
6466 7HTH AVENUE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. save Inequalities. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Ph. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. In Factoring. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 12010. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xiv+56a pages. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. so that the tions. and commercial life. Logarithms.D. The author grade. $1. physics. HatF leather. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.25 i2mo. comparatively few methods are given. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. great many A examples are taken from geometry. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xi f 373 pages. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. HEW YOKE .ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.
. xii + 233 pages. These are introduced from the beginning 3. i2mo. 9. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . under the heading Remarks". Ph. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.. SEVENOAK. 10. izmo. Cloth. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.r and. iamo. NEW YORK . Half leather. more than 1200 in number in 2. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.D. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. wor. Cloth. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 6. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. SCHULTZE. aoo pages. 4.10 L. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. $1. lines.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. $1. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. State: . 7 he . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.
making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . 370 pages. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 12mo. and not from the information that it imparts. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York City. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. of these theoretical views. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . . . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords.
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " This volume etc. Topics. Cloth. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. An exhaustive system of marginal references. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. and a full index are provided. photographs. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. $1. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. i2mo. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Maps. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams.