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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
1915. Mass. . September.A. May. 8. 1916. IQJS January.' February. Reprinted 1913. 1910. Cushlng Co.S. May. . January. 1910. J. U. 1911. 1910 . September.. Published Set up and electrotyped.COPYRIGHT. Berwick & Smith Co. 1917. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. July. .
. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. and conse . Elementary Algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Such a large number of methods. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. owing has certain distinctive features. etc. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study." this book. chief : among These which are the following 1. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. however.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. manufactured for this purpose. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. specially 2. are omitted.
all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. two negative numbers. especially problems and factoring. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions .g. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . hence either book 4. however. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". may be used to supplement the other. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. as quadratic equations and graphs. In regard to some other features of the book. e. etc. Moreover. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.
" Applications taken from geometry. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. such examples. physics. elementary way. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. viz. Moreover. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. By studying proportions during the first year's work. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. based upon statistical abstracts. in " geometry . but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and commercial are numerous. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. is based principally upon the alge . but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules.
however. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. edge of physics. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. April. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.
.... ...... SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ...... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... Powers.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ....
/^ . . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .114 . * . Type Polynomials.. Type III. Type V.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type II. Type IV.. . . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type VI....
.......... . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... CHAPTER XIV 169 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... Evolution of Monomials 170 ..... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
A binomial is 62 . V^a6. aVc^. v'Ta. d 7.g. as in arithmetic. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). a2 + and   \/a are binomials. e. 7 = 2. since the parts are a . [6c] 3 . A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 13. x 9. 6. V36". 5Vl6c. 14. !^f\/03 3 ft. a polynomial of two terms. 8. is 28." EXERCISE If a 1. are trinomials. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 2 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. or 9 Vx. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 9. A polynomial is an y. 4(a 6(6 + &). find the numerical value of: Vff. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 11.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. some number is . c = 1. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 17. c f d). A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 2. Val \fi?. 16. V3 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. V2a. (cfd) 4. 15. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. b = 3. 3. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 10. 0. \/c. + 1]. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 27. 6. 4V3~6c. 26. 12. + c).
EXERCISE 8*  .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . __ E. .g. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. a 2 6. find the numerical value of: 9.19 = 6. i.2 + I126.99. . . = 32 + 4527 = 50. 4 . 2 ). 5. Ex. subtraction.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . multiplication. a2 11. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 52 . d = 0. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 4..4 6^9 ad.5 ax 50 a6cd. 3 4 .9 aWc + f a b . c = 2. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 12.9. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 6. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. + 26+3 c.e. 2. Otherwise operations of addition. 16. 6. b = 3. 1. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . x=^. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 14.30 = 270 . 5. 5c +d 2 .390. 3. d=Q.INTRODUCTION 29. 5=3.810 + 150 = . . 2. Ex. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. a=4. * For additional examples see page 268. l 13. 8. c=l. 4a6fVaV2^. (a (a f b) 7. 3a + 56 a 2 . 3 2 If 1.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 10.
6 = 5. a = 4. 38. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 26 of the exercise. 6. 25. 6 = 4. 37. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 28. Six 2 . Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3. a = 2. 33. 6 = 2. a. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 3. 6 = 6. a a=3. 29.6 f c) (6 a + c). and other sciences. a = 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). .6 . a =3. Read the expressions of Exs. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 23. 26. Express in algebraic symbols 31. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6 = 1. : 6. geometry. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. physics. 6 = 5. 30. 24. a = 3. 6=2. 30. 27. 6 = 7. if : a = 2. = 3. 22. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 34. sible to state Ex. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).c) (a . 6 = 6. 6. a =4. 35.
if v . An electric car in 40 seconds. 14. (b) 5.seconds. if v : a. b 14. b. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 13.16 centimeters per second. i. d. 2. and 13 inches. c. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.INTRODUCTION E. 12. .16 1 = 84. 4. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. (c) 4.g. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. count the resistance of the atmosphere. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 5 feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. A train in 4 hours. and c 13 and 15 = = = . Find the height of the tree.) Assuming g .e. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and 15 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. if v = 30 miles per hour. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 15 therefore feet.
2 inches.14 square meters. If the (b) 1 inch. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the area etc. . denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. is H 2 units of length (inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 5 miles.14d (square units). (The number 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. square units (square inches. (c) 5 F. (c) 10 feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14 4. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. meters. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 8000 miles.). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).). 5. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 32 F. : 8000 miles. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. $ = 3.
While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. however. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. or positive and negative numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. . or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.
 0. = 5. c = 4. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 6 6 = 3. + (9). d = 5. Thus. of: 20. 18. + 12. 4.16 32. is 0. if : a a = 2. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 33. 23. 2326. the one third their sum.3. (_ In Exs. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. (17) 15 + (14). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. is 2. 4 is 3 J. '. 24. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. d = 0. c = = 5. 10. 5. 22. . EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. lf(2). of 2. 19. subtract their absolute values and . 5. 21. 12.
72. 32. 33. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 10. 5 and 12. 11 (Centigrade). & 28.. are similar terms. 39. and 3 a. 38. 09. 7 a. ' 1? a 26. . 12.13. . or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 74. 36. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 4 F. 42. 55. which are not similar. $1000 loss. }/ Add 2 a. 32. c = 0. 4. 35. and 3 F.3. $7000 gain. sets of numbers: 13. 6.5. . $500 loss. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 41. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. & = 15. . .. 3 and 25. 30. SUBTRACTION. c=14. ^ ' 37. 27. and 3 yards. 2. \\ Add 2 a. 34. 13. 10. 7 yards. d= 3. 66. 1. = 23.ADDITION. or and . 3. 43. : 48. 6. 0. 31.7. = 22. 2. . . and 4. AND PARENTHESES d = l. affected by the same exponents. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 37.5. and 3 a. 25. 60. 40. 10. 6. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 7 a.4. and $4500 gain. 29. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. ' Find the average of the following 34. : 34.. : and 1. and 8 F. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. = 13. $3000 gain.7.
11 2 a +3a 4o 2. EXERCISE Add: 1. Algebraic sum. or a 6. 12Vmfn. 12(af b) 12. f 4 a2. 7 rap2. 3a . 2 a&. in algebra it may be considered b. b a f ( 6). 13. 5 a2 . 5Vm + w. The sum x 2 and f x2 .13 rap 25 rap 2.18 35.ii. 2 . : 2 a2. 14 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 10. b wider sense than in arithmetic. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 11. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 2(af &).sign. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12 2 wp2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. + 6 af . Vm f. 5l 3(af6). 9(af6).
6 23. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. l^S 25. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2 2 2 31. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. c 2 ^24. 2 7 1 26. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 1 27. a a8 ZL **.ADDITION. 36. 37. 35. + / + 3 Va. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 33. 21. ra 19. +m """ 20. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 30. 17. 32. and to add each column. SUBTRACTION. is . 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2/ : Add. without finding the value of each term 34. + y. n x* 2 22.
41 = 3. 2 Thus.7 2 . .12 a& 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .o c and 4. NOTE. e. . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 3 a f 4 1) 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.15 6c. 5.3 s.15 abc .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 3a 2? . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 6=2. .c= 2. 2 Sum.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. and J 2 s.20 c 5 ab 4. a 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. to add 26 ab . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 4 = 7. 2 . 46 4z 7 c. 5 . 2c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. therefore the answer is correct. f 110WS: 26 aft. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.g.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . V3. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 3. 9 q 4. ft any convenient and c. = .g. 2 025. c = 1.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . x of x. the erroneous answer equal 7. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 4 2. s.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. and 2 .8 abc . to show any error. of that letter.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 7 4.
VS 4 2 Vc. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. .12. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. xy3xz + yz.12(a 4. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .15 5. 4 8 3 4 4 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.a 4 a 4 1.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .3 mn 2 2 n8 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 56 w. and 5 Vb 18. . d and / 3 ? 12.9(a + &) . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.(b + c) 1. . 16. 4.7m . a 4 a . . a2 a. 3 2 2 3 9 . and 1 4 a . . e a4 /. SUBTRACTION. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.7v/if. and 12a 4 15& 20c . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. ^2 1 e.Ga 43x45. ?/ . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 2 2 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.8 m 2m 12.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .ADDITION.a. + 50 + 62 . 11.1.a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .5a^6 f 6) .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2 ?ft ?/z. 4(a . a) y ^/. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2 ?/. 18/+6y + d.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . a 4 a . 2 2 and . 8.2n 2 2 3 rz . m 4 6.and 6. 2 3(c f a).a.10 Vc. 4 3 . and . . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . . .1 a 4 1 0. a. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 16e + 17/90. d. a2 2 14. and 8 3 . 4 Vc. 19. and v 15. 4 ajy 17.4:xy xz 6yz. .4 Va . 7ar + 3B 5. 2 a.12 6 ~5 a .6. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). v/20. 2 and 9m 48m 4. in 8 3 m n 4. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. and and 13. + a + 1.
4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1. + n*. 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f 1. is 2. . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.m 4m ?/?/ d.9aj 2.. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. a 6 2 c. The sum and ? 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 8 . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. f number may be added 3. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . . 1. 1/ . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. If you diminish a person's debts. s . 6 f c 2 23. and 25.3^* 2n 2 . how 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 22. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.17 + 4 ?nfy . 12 xyz. + 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. . and e + 6y .22 21. f 1. 45a6 2 . 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.ra + m. and 2 24. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . T8a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.5< 3 2 s 4^4. +d a. 13 1.11 xy + 12. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.
if x Ex. To subtract. 41. 7. 2. from What 3. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. In subtraction. Ex. SUBTRACTION. ( 6) ( = . +b 3. a. and the required number the difference.2. 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Or in symbols. ab = x. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. called the minvend. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. two numbers are given. the other number is required. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. This gives by the same method. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. From 5 subtract + 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. From 5 subtract to . State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Ex. Therefore any example in subtraction different .ADDITION.g.3. . 1. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. In addition. 6 (3) = 8. 5 is 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. and their algebraic sum is required. NOTE. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of .
Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o. Ex.5 x + 8.
54. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 51. of a 4. . 41. 45.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 57. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.7 a .4 a^ 4. SUBTRACTION. tract 4 x 3. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 53. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 6(af. 43.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. and 3 7/ . 46.4 a*& + 6 a & . 58. c f d. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 44. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.w>t. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.c. 55. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 49. From From x2 the sum sum 7.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 2 a take a & j. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 48. 6 4 a.2. 56. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 50. 47. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 2y 2 .ADDITION. check the answer. 52.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 42.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .a 2 j. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 2.6)f. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . + a the 2 a.
+4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 19. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 2 m 21. 6.15. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. + 2. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 20. 9. A is n years old.26 4. a + 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 16. +a add the difference duce 13. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. a a + c. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 6 17. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. a 2y + z. of # 2 8. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. subtract # + 1. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. + 6 + c.
a+(bc) = a +b .2 b .a^6)]  } . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. I. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.6 b f (.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.ADDITION.b c = a a & f f. changed. II. 46.c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. one occurring within the other. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. & f c. the sign is understood.g.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. . 45. Ex. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. SUBTRACTION.
a f (a a . 13.)]. 14. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 6) 2. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 8. 17.: Ex. 6. By removing parentheses. m f ft) a. 21. 271 + (814 . In the following expression inclose the second and third. 2.1422) J ] . ? 11.y (60. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. may be inserted according to 43. 9. (m a2 f. Ex. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 18. 3. 5. find the numerical value of { 1422 . a (a + 26 c ). 2 2a. 16.[271 47. : x + (2yz). 2a (4a 26 +c ). + (2a 6 + c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.) 5 . [36+ (a 2c]. 4.(a + 6). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.7i h jp) (m ?*. 3 3 f 7. 19. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. . Signs of aggregation 1. 2 2 2 a(. 15. a (a + 6). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.+ 6)f (a2 b).
a\l> > c + d. SUBTRACTION.2 tf . 7.ADDITION. 10. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. p + q + rs. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. and the subtrahend the second. terms 5. 2. 2mn + 2q3t.1. 7. 8. 12. first. z + d. )X 6.4 y* . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 13. 3. 5. 6 diminished . The square of the difference of a and b. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. m x 2 4. 4. The product The product m and n. 6. difference of the cubes of n and m. 9. . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. y f 8 . The sum^)f m and n.7fa. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. m and n. ' NOTE. The difference of a and 6. of the cubes of m and n. 5 a2 2. 5^2 _ r . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. II. 3.
18. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 16. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.30 14.) . 6 is equal to the square of b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . b. 6. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. (Let a and b represent the numbers.
weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 4. weights. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. two loads balance. If the two loads what What. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 5. 3. let us consider the and JB. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. force is produced therefore. what force is produced by the Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. 2.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore.
x 11. 4 multiplied by 3. 48.32 8. 5x(4). or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. . ( (. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(4) = + 12. 4 multi44444 12. Practical examples^ it however. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Thus. NOTE.4)(. such as given in the preceding exercise. becomes meaningless if definition. (5)X4.9) x 11. or plied by 3. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. however. To take a number 7 times. (. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. the multiplier is a negative number. 4x(3)=12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. thus. 9 9. 9 x ( 11). a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.
8 31. (7) X (12). 3 a2?/2 . .MULTIPLICATION 50. 2a6 c .3) (1) 7 2 . 12. 19. (4)'. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 16. x= 0. 6 2. 6.a)( =+ a&. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 15. 2a 2 6c. 32. z s 11 aWcx. 5.(a&c) 2 2 . (2) 8 (. 9. 7. 2. find the numeri values of: 21. c = 25. tors is no misunderstanding possible.2f 18.2. 3 aW. 5x3. 13.7. 10. 4. (4)X(15). NOTE. 24. 3. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 1. 26. 8.2 f+x 2 . +5. of Signs: TJie positive. 11. 1. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . _2^ 3. b = 3. 4 a2 . . _2. 22. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 27. 8 4 . (2)x9. 3. 4 . . x. about fac (2)X If 6. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.4. 20. . (. is 6x7.3. Law Thus. 6. (c#) . and y = 4. _3. (10) 4 . etc. Ua b 28. 30. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 23. . 29. 14. 17. If a cal = 4a6c.(4J). X(5). and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.
. m*. 5(711. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 34. 2 3 . =2 a *. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2 2 2 . 2. . 4. 2 2 3 6 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. &*) c d*. 100. a= 1. 11. 12 U U . 3. . . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 1.. 2(7. 6 aWc x .503). B. . Ex. 4.2 2 23 + 5 . 3 2 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 5 3 5 3 2 .257).  and 2 25 8 . 6 = 1. = 2. 14.. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . IB. 5 . 5 = 2. : 3a7abc. 3. + 2/). 13.2).3). 7.  2 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 6.7. a8 a=2. i.6 if 35. 50(112. 4. 2. fl*" integers. of the factors. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. a = 3. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2(14. a 2 2 .35). 6" 127 U . 127  127 9 7 . (a6) (a5) 9.(12) . a = 2. 200. 78 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 6 = .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . & = 3. 17. 9 .m a 3  4 . 10. By 3 definition. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Ex.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.(2. 3 3 4 .e. or 2 . 5.(7). 16. 53. This 52.<?. 36.
4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). . 4. 7.6. . 35 4 7(6.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. .4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 12( + 1 4 i). ) 2 33. If results ft. /). and then adding : 1. but we shall assume it for any number.7 w'W (8 n^W). by first multiplying. 23(10004100420). 35. 28. 3. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 3(124342). (. 24. (. 6(10420430). This principle. Thus we have in general a(b 56. multiply each by the monomial. 2(645410). called the distributive law.4a#. 2. _4aft. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 29. 20. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 31. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 2 32. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.f 2). 21.2 3 aft ). 22. 17(10041042). 6. . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 27. 23.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.A). 26. 11(3.3 win ) . 25.7pqt.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 19. 7p*q r*. ax /) 2 4 1 (. . c(4a ftc ). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . 2(5fl5f25). 5. 34. tet^m f c) = ab +ac.
6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Find the factors of 6 ary . 5). . be multiplied to give 4o. . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 21. 2 m(mhn \p). 12. 30. 7 a 6 c(. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.3 aftc).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 26. 11.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. f7a.5 w*V f 7 wn). 23. By what 25. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).60 a& 10 aft. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 9.^ c + 2 . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).asa product. . .6 a6). 20. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 28. : expression must 24. 19. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.5 x 7). 2 27. ~2mn(m +n p ). 3 ). 22. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 29. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.2 mn(9 mV . 2 2 16. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 17.we b) (x law.
this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Check. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. . Since all powers of 1 are 1. Multiply 2 + a a. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. the student should apply this test to every example. however.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. To multiply two polynomials.4.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since errors.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a . 59. a2 + a8 + 3 . 2a3b a66 2 a .1. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 2 + a8 .3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.
6. 36) I) 14. (6i7n)(llJn). 20. . (6a~7) 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). ^ 2 . 2  37. 30. 29. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 7y). . 26. 2 (a al)(2a?fl).2). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2) (3 A: 1). 22. (13 A. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). a 5c)(2a6c). QQ O7. + & + 1f a^faj 1). I (mfn)(m4. (2w 19. l)(raf 2).2m)(l m). 12)(a?^2l). 25. 2 . 11.4) (x + 1). 40. 7. (8r7*)(6r39. 8. 2. 13. (4a 2 33. (2 x* x 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. OQ OO. 16. 15.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 24. 10. 36). 9. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3<7). 28. 12. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 18. 17. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 1). 4. 4 2).4) (mnp 4. 35. 41. 31. 32. 3. 2 . * For additional examples see page 261. 36. (a^26) . (6p (2 f 21.1 . 5.
28. 2) (1000 + 3). 10. 19. (10+ (1000 (2. . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 6. (a3)(a + 2). 17.13). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6).2 6) (a f 6). 25. (J 23. i.!!)( (a + 21). . (*. 24. (p12)(p + ll). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 25 a 2 . (a (a (a.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 3. + 3) (a 7). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 26. (ra. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 14.4). i. 75 ab f 54 ft . 7.n)(wf w).e. 27. plus the product 62. 22. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. + 60)(f2). 21. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. _3)(a _4). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 6) (a 3 6). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 9. . X 102. ft 16. : 23 2. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 8. 20. + 2) (a f 3). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 13. + 9)(m+9). 12. (!)(* 5). 15.e. + 5) (1000 + 4). 1) (10 + 2). in of the two unequal terms. (a 9) (a + 9). (a 102 x 103. 11.25)(y+4). (6 12) (6 f. 18. 2 a? 29. 1005x1004. plus the product of the two unequal terms.
. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . i. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. .e. : 24 (a 2.e. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 6. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. . III.66 s. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 2 5. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. <J>7) J .15. plus the square of the second. 9. of the second. a2 2 w + 2 w . 31. 7 a + 10. 4. + 3) 2 . 37. 77ie square of the of the first. 63. 34. second. w 2 ro . 49 y*. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. 7. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (a2) (p a . 33. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (x+3i/) 2 . plus twice the product of the first and the second. and the second. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 35. 2 (a (*5) 2 .30. + 6 a + 8. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 32. i. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. III. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. n2 10ii+16. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. Ex. plus sum of two numbers the square II.15. 8. 3. (a26) 2 . p 2 p.
62 25n 2 . The product of 57. 46. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 51. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. . + 3z) 2 2 . + 5)(5+a). 22 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 2 . ( 27. 42. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (1000 2 . 45. 52. 24. n*6n+9. 25 a 9. (a 3) 2 2 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). (2x3yy. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43.30 ab + 25 6 64. . 2 . . 28. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 7& ) 25. 11. 41. 34. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 23. 998x1002. 44. (6afy 2 5) (a. a2 9.MULTIPLICATION 10. 991 2 2 . 49. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (20 f 1) . 41 16. 2 . G> +5g)*. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 104 2 37. ). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). n 2 f4n+4. 2 . 22. 12. 2 J ). m 2 16. 9 a2 . . 2 9a 496 2 56. By actual multiplication. 33. 40.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 14. 48. 15. 21. (^. 18. 38. 55. 2 11 # ) 2 20. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 16aW25. 32. + 5). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 31. 4 53. 17. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 99x101. 54.998 39. 29. I) 2 . 47. 103 36. 35. a 2 8a6+166 2 .
((5a? (10 12. 13. 2 10. 7. 9. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. . 14. plus the last terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (4s + y)(32y). 11. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 6. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 4. 5. ) (2 of a polynomial. (3m + 2)(ml).& + c) = a + tf + c .f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 3. (5a4)(4al). (5a64)(5a&3).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. The square 2 (a 4. 8. : 25 2. or The student should note minus signs. 65. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (2a3)(a + 2). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. sum of the cross products. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
7. 66. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.(m 2 6. 7. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 6~2(a + 7). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .4) . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.4) . 5. 2 2.3)(z.29. 6(a 2. = .39. 8.8 x + 15] . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. .3) . (  2 4) =  20 a.X2 + 2 x .(= [ Xa + 2 . and check the answers !. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).24] . 13. 4y sf n) 2 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).5). + 6)( . Hence. 4.(x . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 4(aj2)h3(7). a.(>. Ex. of z : 10. 3. (u4& + 3c'. 4.r _ 2 .5) = (7 . 3. 2)6. (a (. Check. (xy+z)*. 5.[a? .24 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.y? + 8 . = 10 x . 8. 4(* + 2)5(3). 6. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).3) (x . n).i2&c) 2 .39. If x = 1. Find the square root 11. after multiplying the factors of a term. 12. + 65) . 9.1 5 = 10 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 51 15.e. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (81 m + 1 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2) (3 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 19. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 20.DIVISION 14.l. v/17. 16. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. a I. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. .11 a + 9 a . . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). Division of the difference of two squares. 18. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.
16. 9& 2 .49. 12. 1. 4 b. 100ry. aW 12 a. 10.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. . 14.000.0001. . : the following w a 4 !. r/ 1. 121a a 16 100 11. 15. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16 . f 13.
is said to satisfy an equation. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. 81. 82. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . hence it is an equation of condition. (a + ft) (a b) and b. second member is x + 4 x 9. in the equation 2 x 0. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. x 20. 83. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. Thus. the 80. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . =11. the first member is 2 x + 4. . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79.
a. the quotients are equal. A numerical equation is one in which all .54 84. 3. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be subtracted from equals. 5. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the products are equal. E. .e. A term may be transposed from its sign. 2 = 6#f7. To solve an equation to find its roots. 4. 89. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. If equals be added to equals. NOTE.2. Transposition of terms.g. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. x I. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.b. If equals be divided by equals. 87. one member to another by changing x + a=. the divisor equals zero. 90. 2. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the sums are equal. A 2 a. 85. but 4 does not equal 5. called axioms 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 86. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the remainders are equal.
2(11 . and the known terms to the second. Uniting. Subtracting 4 x from each term.6 y f y\ . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Unite similar terms.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 2 x = 6. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 3 y . Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.8. Ex. The first member. b Adding a to both + a. a? Adding 5 to each term. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 91.2. Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Dividing both members by 2. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. x = 93. To solve a simple equation. if a x = b. x = (Axiom 3) 92.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . a= a 6fc. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Uniting similar terms. 4x 1 + 6. The first member.2 y= f .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. is correct. b c. Hence the answer. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Dividing by Check. if 55 x members. (4y)(6. . 6a5 = 185 = 13. x = 3.9 y + y2 = 22 . The second member. Transposing. f If y 20 . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.
17 + 5a. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7 (6 x 16). + 22. 3 7 a. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 15. 11 ?/ a? 18. 12. 11. 4.17 + 4y = 36. 16. = 3. = 2 ?/. 9 9a? = 7 13. a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). J.. 7. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 19. Solve the following equations by transposing. {(x (x The The member right member left . it NOTE. 247y = 68lly. + 7(3 + 1) =63.69. a?. 3. 21. = 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 32 = 264.. 4y 10. \x x 2^xfl. v23. 50.7a: = 394a. a. 20. 13a? 3a?. x x 1 . 2. 3. a? a?. 4a + 5 = 29. 24. If x = 18. . 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. : 5# = 15+2a. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 22. = 5a?+18. x = 18.7. + 16 = 16 + 17. . f Simplifying. 8. 17 7 a. 7a? 5.56 Ex. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. aj * See page 264. Uniting. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 6. =2 = 3. 14.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). etc. Transposing. and check the answers 9.
5(2 u . + 4). 7(7 x y 26. 40.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.3) . . 30. (aj 37. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .1) (a (a? + 3) = . 27.32.5) = (a. 25.3) + . . this question. . 33.3) + 14.1 0) = 0. 36.1) (u . . 5) (as (a. find the other part. (6 u =5 44. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. is the other part. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. (a.14 = 0. 34. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.g. 7) (a. 29.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. e. + 7) (.4) + 4 w . 39. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.12) (2 + 5) . 31.2) (M . 38. .7) (7 x + 4) .7.5) + 199. or 70 a?. 35. 6(6a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 2 2 * Jaj. 41.(2 + 6) (4 . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. a? 28. Evidently 45. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . 42. a? 43.
7. is b. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 9. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. and the smaller one parts. 1. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 33 2. a. If 7 2. one part equals is 10. 15. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one.58 Ex. Divide a into two parts. smaller one 16. EXERCISE 1. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. greater one is g. or 12 7. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. is a? 2 is c?. 14. 3. 13. 17. Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 5. so that one part The difference between is s. 6. 6. Divide 100 into two 12. 11. 4. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Find the greater one. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. find the cost of one yard. is d. so that of c ? is p. 10.
and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. 19. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and B has n dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 24. numbers is x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 20. 33. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents had he left ? 28. amount each will then have. and c cents. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. A feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A man had a dollars. Find 21. How many years A older than is B? old. A dollars. b dimes. ?/ 31. How many cents has he ? 27. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. 22. is A A is # years old. 26. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the has ra dollars. and B's age is y years. and spent 5 cents. 32. and B is y years old. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. 34. sum If A's age is x years. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two.
Find the number. per Find 5 Find 6 45. . he walk each hour ? 39. 49. 48. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. A was 20 years old. A cistern is filled 43." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). Find a. The two digits of a number are x and y. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. m is the denominator. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. Find x % % of 1000. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. find the fraction. . Find a 47. a. % % % of 100 of x. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.50. of 4. of m. c a b =  9. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. 46.
9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 6. 80. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 5. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of a increased much 8. by one third of b equals 100. c. of x increased by 10 equals x. 80. double of a is 10. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. etc. 2. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 3. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The double as 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . of a and 10 equals 2 c. c. The excess of a over b is c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. a exceeds b by c. 4.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.
the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. as 17 is is above a. symbols B. a. .. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 16. >. In 10 years the sum of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. and C's ages will be 100. they have equal of A's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 11. and C's age 4 a. B's. x is 100 x% is of 700. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. amounts. 3 1200 dollars. pays to C $100. a. 18. 6 % of m. A gains $20 and B loses $40. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.62 10. #is5%of450. a second sum. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. is If A's age is 2 x. 14. m is x % of n. 50 is x % of 15. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B's age 20. of 30 dollars. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. x 4 If A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. sum equals $20. (c) If each man gains $500. they have equal amounts. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 17. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.000. B.
x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. NOTE. Find A's present age. Simplifying. 15. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. much as 40 exceeds the number. Transposing. the required . Transposing. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. denote the unknown 96. . 1. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. x+16 = 3(35). Three times a certain no. 3z40:r:40z. Uniting. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. the . Let x = the number. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 6 years ago he was 10 . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 2. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In order to solve them. Ex. A will Check. but 30 =3 x years. x = 20. etc. 4 x = 80. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Check. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Ex. be 30 . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In 15 years 10. 23 =30. Dividing. Uniting. number of yards. number. x= 15.
A will be three times as old as toda3r .2. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 5. EXERCISE 1. twice the number plus 7. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Hence 40 = 46f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find 8. 14.64 Ex. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 300 56. Let x 3. by as much as 135 ft. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 4. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 3. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 11. Forty years hence his present age. 13. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. A number added number. Find the number. 120. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. % of 120.
Vermont's population increased by 180. If A gains A have three times as much 16. . 14. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. which gives the value of 8. Maine's population increased by 510. The problem consists of two statements I. 97. B How will loses $100. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. A and B have equal amounts of money. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. statements are given directly. times as much as A. and as 15. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. and B has $00.000. 1. written in algebraic symbols. F 8. Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B will have lars has A now? 17. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. How many dol A has A to $40. x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. The sum of the two numbers is 14. five If A gives B $200. The other verbal statement. is the equation. 65 A and B $200. During the following 90 years.000. One number exceeds the other one by II. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. the second one. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. two verbal statements must be given. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont.
Dividing. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. has three times as many marbles as B. A will lose. which leads ot Ex. If A gives are : A If II. = A's number of marbles. A gives B 25 marbles. x x =14 8. The two statements I. . terms of the other. B will have twice as many as A. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 25 marbles to B. / . < Transposing. consider that by the exchange Hence. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. unknown quantity in Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Then. = 3. 8 the greater number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Statement x in = the larger number. = B's number of marbles. B will have twice as viz. x = 8. . to Use the simpler statement. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. although in general the simpler one should be selected. and Let x = the Then x +. + a f f 8 = 14. 8 = 11. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = 14. Let x 14 I the smaller number. Let x 3x express one many as A. the smaller number. . I. the sum of the two numbers is 14. A has three times as many marbles as B. the greater number. 2x a? x j = 6. 2. If we select the first one. Uniting. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange.
3 x = 45. is 70. 15 + 25 = 40. 45 .. Two numbers the smaller. Find the numbers. then.10. 60. The number of coins II. 40 x . 50. and the Find the numbers. consisting of half dollars and dimes. * 98. 6 times the smaller.. the price. Uniting. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 11 x = 5. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Uniting. . differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Dividing. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Simplifying. etc. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Find the numbers. * ' . 6 half dollars = 260 cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Check. Let 11 = the number of dimes. the number of half dollars. x = 15. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x from I. of dollars to the number of cents. The value of the half : is 11. Eleven coins.25 = 20. 1.550 f 310. (Statement II) Qx .$3. by 44. dollars and dimes is $3. but 40 = 2 x 20. cents. have a value of $3.75.10.5 x . Dividing. greater is . Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. the number of dimes. The sum of two numbers is 42. x = the number of half dollars. 3. Simplifying. B's number of marbles. 50 x Transposing.240. w'3. A's number of marbles. x = 6. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. .10. 2. Check..
How many 14 years older than B. A's age is four times B's. 9.000 feet. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. On December 21. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. as the larger one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 5. one of which increased by 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Everest by 11. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. United States. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. tnree times the smaller by 65. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and four times the former equals five times the latter.. and twice the altitude of Mt. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 6. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Two numbers The number differ by 39. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.68 4. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many hours does the day last ? . would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the number. McKinley. Twice 14. 7. Find their ages. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 11. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.
1. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. they would have 3. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and B has three as A. = 48. III. Let x II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. bers is denoted by x. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. and C together have $80. has. x = 8. has.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. I. and 68. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B has three times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. . B. If 4x = 24." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. II. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. 19. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. B. then three times the money by I. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. number had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. times as much as A. original amount. number of dollars A had. Ex. = number of dollars B had after giving $5.
+ 35 x 4. 4 x f 8 = 28. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 1 1 Check. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. according to III. x j = the number of horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Uniting. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. number of sheep.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. first. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. and Ex. each cow $ 35. each horse costing $ 90. the third five times the first. Let then. sheep. according to II. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The I. cows. + 8 90 x and. 9 5 = 4 . 2. and. x = 5. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. Dividing. 90 may be written. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x Transposing. III. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x f 4 = 9. 28 2 (9 5). x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. number of horses. three statements are : IT. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 9 cows. and each sheep $ 15. and the sum of the . 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. number of cows. The total cost equals $1185. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore.
and 2 more men than women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. "Find three is 4.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the third exceeds the is second by 5. how many children were present ? x 11. women.  4. what are the three angles ? 10. The gold. twice the 6. twice as old as B.000. first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. the copper. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. men. New York delphia. A 12. first.000. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. the third 2.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. what is the population of each city ? 8. If twice The sum the third side. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 9. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 7. v . 13. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. what is the length of each? has 3. and children together was 37.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. equals 49 inches. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. increased by three times the second side. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.
The copper had twice the value of the gold. of 3 or 4 different kinds. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and distance. how many 100. i. = 35. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of miles A x x walks.000. or time. . First fill in all the numbers given directly. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. Dividing. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. width. speed. we obtain 3 a. together.e. Find the value of each. such as length. 14. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. but stops 2 hours on the way. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Let x = number of hours A walks. 7 Uniting. = 5. A and B apart.000. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Hence Simplifying.000.000 more than that the copper. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. number of hours.g. and quantities area. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 3 and 4. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. 8 x = 15. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. and the width decreased by 10 yards. Multiplying. original field has Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. . z = 20. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. $ 800 = 800.04 8. were increased by 30 yards. + 8. x + 200). 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Transposing and uniting. x . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 70x10 Ex. the area would be 100 square yards less. $ 800 = required sum. 10 x = 200.053. l. $ 1000 x . 2   and transpose. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. the second 100. .01 = = . Find the dimensions of the field. Check. But 700 certain = 800 2. or 700. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.06 = $ 40." gives (2. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.M(x .05 x x . 2 a = 40. x .04 = $ 40.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. The an area 40 x 20 =800.
invested at 5 %. were increased by 3 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A of each. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. the area would remain the same. Ten yards $ 42. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards.55. together bring $ 78 interest. twice as large. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and a second sum. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sets out later two hours B . 3. Six persons bought an automobile. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. What are the two sums 5. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. of coffee for $ 1. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. mobile. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. but four men failed to pay their shares. 1. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Find the share of each. as a 4. A sum ? invested at 4 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. sions of the field. A man bought 6 Ibs. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. 2. After how many hours will B overtake A.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
104. f db 6 to b. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . vV . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . stage of the work. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. it is composite. consider 105. we shall not. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 76 . this letter. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it does contain some indicated root of . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. as. An after simplifying. 5. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 6. which multiplied together are considered factors. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. irrational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a. but fractional with respect 103. at this 6 2 . + 62 is integral with respect to a. a2 to 6. expression is rational with respect to a letter.
since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.3 sy + 4 y8).g. it follows that a 2 . 109. 2. Factor G ofy 2 . y. It (a. ?/.3 6a + 1). Ex. for this result is a sum. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. x. E. 1. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. or that a = 6) (a = a . in the form 4) +3. 55. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 8) (s1). TYPE I. Divide 6 a% .62 can be &). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 + &)(a 2 . 110. 2. 77 Factoring is into its factors. . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 01. 107. 2. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).) Ex. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. factors of 12 &V is are 3.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .FACTORING 106. .
in general.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 2 23. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 32 a *?/ . 14. 3.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.g. 3 2 .5 + 2. q*q*q 2 a. 2 6. 7a & 10. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). a6c. 4 8 . : 6 abx .6. 18. 20. 19.4. 4 tfy f. 5f 2 . a a 'Ja . 2. obviously. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. . 14a 4 5. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 7i 13. 34 a^c 8 .3.2. 13. 12. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.30 aty. (as 3) and (ccf5). and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 3x*6x*.3. + llm llm. 4.45 afy .12 cdx. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.8 c a 15 ofyV . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 16.4.51 aW + 68 21. TYPE IT. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 11. 3 3 5 6. 15 2 7. 17. Ilro8 9. 15.5 + 13 8. . 2 2 . 8. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. ) 22  2. e. 2 + q. 2 Or.
determine whether In solving any factoring example. as p.. of this type. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.11 a + 30. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 77 as the product of 1 77. a 2 . Factor x? .77 = (a. the two numbers have opposite signs. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. + 112. 5.4 . If q is positive. 11 7. can be factored. 3. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 4.4 x . + 30 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. tfa2  3. however. .1 1 a tf a 4. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. or 7 11. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. m 5m + 6.6 = 20. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 2.11) (a + 7). We may consider 1. If q is negative. Ex.FACTORING Ex. 79 Factor a2 4 x .5) (a . Factor a2 . and (a .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Factor + 10 ax . 2 6. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Therefore Check.G) = .a). . .11 a 2 . Ex. or 77 l.5) (a 6).11. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.30 = (a .
2 ?/ 28. 8. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 100 xr . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. a? + 5 + 6 a. 2 ?/ 22. or . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 17. 31. 6 8 8 4 2 a. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. + 4?/21. 12.17 + 30. 24. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. . 2 . a 7 a 30. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 30. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ay 11 ay +24. 2 . TYPE 113. + 30. 35. 15. ra + 25ra + 100. 4 3 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 5<y 24. 26. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. x2 23. 33. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 11. 29. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ITT. 21. 16.48 + + 446 200. 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 21 a 2 2 . 19. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 9.6.70 x y . 2 2 . 20. + 44. 13. . 16. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 32. 2 2 a' 34. 25. + 2xS. 14. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 18.500 x + 600. 4 2 . 36. 27. and 5 x. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products.80 7. a 2 +11 a a? 16. .180 a.
FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. but the opposite sign. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.83 x f 54. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. and that they must be negative. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. viz. 3. . 2. the signs of the second terms are minus. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. the If p and r are positive. sible 13 x negative. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 9 x 6. then the second terms of have opposite signs. a. If p is poxiliw.5 . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and r is negative. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. Ex. or G 114. 54 x 1. Factor 3 x 2 . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 3 x and x. 18 x 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 11 x 2x.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 27 x 2.1).5) (2 x .17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 2 x 27. X x 18. 6 x 9.13 x + 5 = (3 x .
5. 9. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.163 x 2 . 6n + 5?i4. 6.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 10a2 G a2 2 . 18. 2. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 16. 4.19 a f 6. 34. 3x*Sx + 4. 14. 2m t7w + 3. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 20.260 xy . 24. : 41 2. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 8.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .83 x = (3 . 30. 100^200^ + 100^. 12y 2/6. since all others (II. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.83 x .7. 12^17^16. 32. and the monomial factors should be removed.179. 13.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 11. 5m 26m f 5. 22. 9 y + 32^16. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. + 4. 2 26. 10a?2 2 33. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 10.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. Sar' + SaG. 3. 17. x54 a.27). 15. + 2/3. 2 .30 y 6 4 . X 27 .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 35. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 2 fc . 90 a 8 2 . 9a. 19. 12. . 29.2 a 90 x*y . 7. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 2 2 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 2 2 23. 14 a fa 4. 21. 25. 3a + 13a. 2 31.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 2 . 2 28.y + 172/9. the expressions should be it.2) (x . 2x* + 9x5. 10 a . . . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 144 x . f go. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.
.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. To factor a trinomial which maining term.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 11. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. must have a positive sign. 14. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . square. 6. 116. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 2 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 25 7. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 4. and a perfect square. form are special cases of the preceding type. x* . however. 2.26 ab + 9 6 2 .20 xy f 4 y\ . 2 . i. 9 10a625. and factor whenever possible : 1. it is a perfect square. 13. 9. 3. of its terms are perfect squares. 5. .10 x f 16. 2 9 10gf25. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. it is more convenient for that type. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 12.e. 10. 8. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a .
6 2 . 4a2 l. ). 36 2 4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2. 25. 9a2 . 17. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 4 2 23. 16&*.6 m* + 9 m. . 5. V. Ex.20 ab + 10 b a . . According to 65. . + GO + 25. TYPE 117. 26. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 22. 2. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 225 ofy . ^//c to the Ex. a. 18. 149 a 81 8. 2 20. product i. 9. 1.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . u2 6& + 2 ( ). 3.60 a# + 4. 10 a 2 4 2 . 3. 16. a. 48 a +( ).3 * ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.64 6 = 16(a .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). aV .e. 2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. a2 24.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . * 2 . 7. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. prime. 19.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 .84 15. 27. ). 29. 6. +( )f816 30. 2 . : 43 tfy\ a 9.
a:) 12. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 14. One or both terms are squares 1. 8. 13. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 6. a2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 9. Ex. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .(c 4. T. 4. Factor a 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.c . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 36> . 2 . (m7?) y. 11.d) 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 5.(I) . Ex. 16p 2 . 2. of polynomials. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.
3. 2. 12. 2. a? 11. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 8. 5. a 26 2 2 3 .y + 2 2).14. which may be factored according to types I. 7.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. + x + 2x + 2.2 ) (3 x .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. ma ?*a + m& nb. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.ab + bx. x8 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. By grouping.a a .VI. 6.7 c + 2c . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 9.and trinomials. 4 B. 1.1. A. Ex. After grouping tain a the terms. ive find that the new terms con common factor. .r. Ex. 10. 119. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a5 + ab 6 . = (3 x + y . 4:cx . 5) .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.
2a3/ 7. . l~a 2a56 2 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 3. 8. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 8. 6a4 12a2 + 6. +c+ 2 2 2/ .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. + 2xy + y*q*. w m 2.12 aaj 4 6y. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.FACTORING Ex. 2. 2 7. = (a + 6)(a6). 6 6.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 5. II.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 2. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 36 9 m . : 46 x* 2. 4 a2 . : m 2 2 16.l. . 8ra 2 + 16. 3. 4.4 f . 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. IV. Arranging the terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 4. $ a8 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.
a. 22. 42 s 2 . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 14.88 10. 24. . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. or 3 7#2 . 3 25. 4 a. 12. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a + a + a + l. 30. 13 c . 5 a. 4 8 tt 2 z . 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 42 x . 80 a 2 ft 38. 2 3#4 3a2 36. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. a3 156. + 14.24. 32. (a. 3 a2 23.13 c . 2 a 128. a6 36. 2 ft . 28. 50^ + 45. 48. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .40. 3 2 . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 27. 25 a + 25 aft . a5 a 1 4 2 39. + 6 aft + 3 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 35.310 x . 2 17. 18. 3 41. 40. (^ 34. 19. 5a' 20. 29.156. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 13. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.
F. F. 15 aW. of two or more monomials whose factors . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 2. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. F. 8 . EXERCISE Find the H. The student should note H. 89 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 5 s 7 2 5. . are prime can be found by inspection. 12 tfifz. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 5 2 3 . 5 7 34 2s . The H. The highest is common factor (IT. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F. 2 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. C. 24 s . C. Thus the H. C.) of two or more . of the algebraic expressions. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. aW. F. C. 54  32 . 3 . The H. F. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. II 2 . C. C. 121. 5. of : 48 4. 3.  23 3 . 25 W. C. F. F. of 6 sfyz. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . of a 7 and a e b 7 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 122. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of aW. 6.
7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 15 3ao.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . of: . 11. 3). 3 . 57 a>V.5 x3?/ 2 6. a.6.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . a 3a4.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 13. C. C. . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 9. 1. 6 3 a. 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 0^80:416. 9. 6(m+l) (m+2). 8. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.2 ?/) (x .6 . 6 a2 y? . 2 . 2a f5af 2. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a3 9a. of polynomials. a2 + 7af!2. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 11. F. 8 6.8 a + 16. 9 aj*(a? . C. 8 a 10 .^9. a2 . 12. 2 . ^707 + 12. F. 25 m27i. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . ^2 2 . 12 w*nw 8. 13. a3 16 a. 10.5 + 6. a2 + 2a3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 2 .2 y) (a. 24 a 2 . x* x2 Hence the H. ^f a. F. 12. 7. 12 . 49 C. 38 #y. 15. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .90 7. 8. 14. 16. 1. 225 4a 9 . . 95 2/V. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .12 as 66 . . 5. aWd. (a7 ?/) .5 y). 10. 3^ 2 4 .y) . 4(m+l) 3 . 6 mx . 16 a . 65 zfyV. 52 oryz4. = x 2 y. and apply the method of the preceding article. 2. Ex. Find the H. 3. .?/ .y + y42.# 4 afy f 4 . .y) 123. 8(?/ifl) 14. F. of + 4 if. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. y + 3y64. a2 ar* 4.6 a&. 4 ?io. To find the H. . ^a + 5^ + 6.
find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C.6 3 ). C. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M of the algebraic expressions. M. The lowest common multiple (L. M.C. NOTE. L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C. of the general. but opposite . To find the L. 2 The The L.M. each set of expressions has In example ft). 126. M. a^c8 3 . etc. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Ex. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. 1. M. of several expressions which are not completely factored. of 3 aW. 60 x^y' 2 . .6)2. thus. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. ory is the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 300 z 2 y. 127. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . M. The L. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. Hence the L. 128.C. Find the L. 2. &) 2 M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of tfy and xy*. L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. two lowest common multiples. C. M. =4 a2 62 (a2 .M. . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . A common remainder. Find the L. Common 125. Ex. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. C. which also signs. M.
2 . 4 a . Find the L. 5. 2 7ic+10. a. 3 6 xif. a^1. + 2. by. 24. 40 abJ. x* ~5a. 6 y. a f 2 19. (a 4)(a2) 12. a 1. ) . 2 a. ic 2 ?/. a?b. y*.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. T a 3 a 2 . 7. . 2. x 2 5 a. a 2 f 4 a +4. a2 4. 8 d 5 . 21. 3(a + b). a { a~b. 3 . 2(m 2 . 24 x. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 11. xy\ . 6b 2 . 2 a . a !. or f 3 a 15 #. 6. . a 2 fa6. 4 a 5 6cd. a. 2 x \2 y. M. 20 9 a. a 2 a3 . a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. b 2 . f b. 20. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. + 6. 13. 2 a . 30 a.1. of: 4. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. G a. 3. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 16. 1. 6 a. afy. afc'cd 2 . 15. 8 afy. 8. ic 23. 2 . 3 Z> . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi.f 6. 2 . 9. a& 4 +& 2 . + 2 7i) . 14. 3 f2. 3. 18. x2 + 4 a f 4. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 10. a2 ~ab 1. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. #. 4 a f 2.1. a f 3. 17. 22. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 ab.
The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. but we In arithmetic. a b = ma mb . A f fraction is b. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. a?. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. an indicated quotient. however. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. F. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Thus. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. as 8. Ex. 131. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. and denominators are considered. rni Thus 132. 130. Remove tor. C. etc.ry ^ by their H. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. successively all 2 j/' . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic.
resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Ex. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. cancel factors only. 3.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both.4) Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.
. ' ^ . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. . 5^10 y 30.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^+3*. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. LJZJ^JL. 9x + "a" 10. 11 ^ Mtr f .*. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^" a.10 a + 3 2 14. . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. g J 21. ny 4 18.' 32. 16. ^' rt ^  31. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 23. 29. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 19. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. """. _ 3 7i rt< 26.7 .
Divide the L. . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Ex. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.D. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and 135.C. C. and (a 8). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.r 2 2 . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. . + 3).3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. =(z (x + 3)(z.1^22 ' .3) (!)' = . 1. mon T denominator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. multiplying the terms of 22 . 2> .M. M. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . ^ to their lowest com The L.  of //* 2 . take the L. 1). by the denominator of each fraction. Reduce ^. and the terms of ***. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . C. we have M^. we may extend this method to integral expressions.~16 (a + 3) (x.M.96 134.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .  by 4 6' . we have the quotients (x 1). of the denominators for the common denominator. TheL.
22 a2 5a * .oj o* or / . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 18. 2aj ~ .^1. If the given fractions have different denominators.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 3. 74).a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 137. 5?.. 8 i i. i. .. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . j y 3. . . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. a? 1 5 > ^* . o o a. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . JL. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 7i 2 ab* ". common denominator 6.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2 ay IB.
. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. in the beginning. 4(2 a 3 ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .(a 2 6). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . D.aft) Ca2 . L. ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . The L. e. C. and adding.ft)(a .2 = a(a . (a ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 2 ^. as 4 aft f. D.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 . T? Ex. the student should remember that parentheses are . ^ is 2^JT) .g.ft) (a ft ft)~.3 ft 2). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.2 ' 2 _. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.7 .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .. 2. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .
9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 1 f q * 1 m m . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. A+2_3. a+6 a 6 2 14. + a "" 2 6 ' . 46 2a 4a 12. 20. 24.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 5a76 4a 106 9. 15. a 36 ++. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 2. + . 23. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 6 c 3a 7.5 18 ^4f25. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 18 v 19. j>0 i> 21. 2L + 2a 1 17. 1 1 f w 16. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.
43. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 3a 9 +. 1 34. a. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. af 1f /j. _ + a? ?/ + y.9 79 6 2 i. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ! n. 42. a 30. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9. a ?^ 40. a 4 31. 2 af1 32. 41. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . ic 1 + 1.
1. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . . T.7 5a v Ex.  .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 + 4x 4 x2 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 101 mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . Reduce .FRACTIONS 139.
) Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. !. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.g. integer. we may extend any e. multiply the 142. fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Since  = a. F J Simplify . (In order to cancel common factors. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. or. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.
. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 14. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.6 12 d6 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 f 5 a. 4 8. 50 . 5# 56 / c& 4.
* x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 8 multiply the Ex. 144. Divide Xn?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 1. To divide an expression by a fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . To divide an expression by a fraction.
a a2 4.10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. l.FRACTIONS 105 . Ex.6 s + 064. ga2 4 8 5 a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . or both.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.^c 2 2 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. are fractional.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.5 ??i 80 50 .afr 4.
2. the answer is directly obtained. x* 4. C. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. n a 8. 9. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. a m "" . i. of their denominators. c +6. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). Ex. . . .y 32 . 7i+~ 7.a ^c c _^ a . y X 4* 2 y 3. Simplify x }. & . JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. M. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 6.
sy 18. : . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. m^n* n L a 17. 2 & a 20  a46 13.) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.
C. each member is reduced to Ex.f3# + C:E=6f7212.8 x = . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2 3. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. these Ex. M.l)(z + 3) = .28 a = 5 x2 . a. 148. Bx 12 Qx.48. 2x Transposing.42 + 9.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Uniting. 5(3 85 Check.14 (a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). If = 64. of the denominator.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 4 4)  x. If x 6.28 x + 42 = . Transposing. = 6. 2z2a. each member is reduced to 1. 2. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 108 . tions. Clearing of fractions. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . . = 6. x = 6. + 1) (a + 3) .1.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 1. Uniting. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).9 x2 + 9. 9x x Check.
1 _77 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . . +4 14. 16. 1 *> = 2. ^1 = 9. 18. '  4 13.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +1 = 5. 15. ^' 2.= 2. a/  5 a/ = 12. a. .
_ _ . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 31 31. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. . 4a4l4* + l~. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. If two or more denominators are monomials. 32 6 . 27 .11_4 x 149. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . J_.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. y+3~2 29. ?_=_. 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. .  38 = 40. . 3x 35. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 33. 26 26.
f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5# 10. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 ..  5 = 20 x 45. 60. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. .29 50712' 9 18 .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing. each member is reduced to ^.2 42 9 43. If a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.2 3 ~  == 7a. M. = 9. the 1 5 L.1. 24 a. Transposing and uniting. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C. Check. 1. 5x x : = 9. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. a. 26 a.
Thus.be. find a in terms of b and c. fr Reducing lowest terms. 2. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. jr.& .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). . Ex. they are united by factoring.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.1. = 2 f b 2 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Uniting the Dividing. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = l^ 9 b 4 . 4 ac 1. Ex. a. =a 2 151. y. ax f x f.3 6 2 = a' . Dividing. It frequently occurs that the x. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting. = 6 a2 . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.m bx 2 mn) x.2 ac + 3 aft . f ~ 5c. 5> a. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = = 6 6c 7 6c.2 62 2 ab. If 3ac L= = a ? .
3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 2 solve for y a. r the number of $>. solve for . s = Vt solve for v. If s If 16. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). f ^o. c 18. mx = n. If * 33. 9. = 5. . 11. 1 f. . _ 2. p the principal. 29. Ex. * Solve the same equation for^). . . IIL n b + &o. If ^^ = a 1 32.i l .a. 10. t. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 14. = 3 (6 a). 12. iw 21. 5) is t =^. 3(* 8. co?.= c a Z> . 6. m a? x . 15. + xx = 1. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . solve for a. in terms of other quantities. ^ ax a^ 26. 4. = vt. q solve for/. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. = 8 4 #. f P =+!. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. a. 34. 17.= n. + 3a.= H. denoting the interest. The The i time. 4. 13. = rt. 31. and n the number of years. c. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. rate. 30. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.
Ex. = 16^. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j.114 35. 2 3 . . Multiplying by Dividing. .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. is 36.180. and 12 = the number over. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. then = 2 TT#.20 C. Find R in terms of C and TT. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 1.. 100 C. x Or Uniting. 2. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 12.
and the statement. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 180 Transposing. Solving. 4x = 80. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . in Then Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Ex. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days." : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the rate of the express train. 3." gives the equation /I).
J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and J of the greater Find the numbers. by 6. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. ex What 5. and one half the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. money and $10. by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. make 21. and of the father's age. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How did the much money man leave ? 11. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. of his present age. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. ceeds the smaller by 4. and 9 feet above water. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. is equal 7. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. fifth Two numbers differ 2. a man had How much money had he at first? . one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. which was $4000. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. 3. to his son. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. is oO.  Find their present ages. length in the ground. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1.
3. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. How much money $500? 4%. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. air. 1. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ^ at 5%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. investments. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 2. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and B in 4 days. and it B in 6 days. what is the 14. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.) 22.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 152. A has invested capital at more 4%. .
e. and apply the method of 170. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. 25. 3. Ex. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. B in 12. . if B in 3 days. e.118 153. To and find the numerical answer. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 5.414. and n = 3. therefore.009 918. The problem to be solved. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. is 57. n x Solving. m and n.g. Hence. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. B in 16.= . they can both do in 2 days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. A in 4.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. . Find the numbers if m = 24 30. is 42. A in 6. Then ft i. we obtain the equation m m . A in 6. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. 2. 26. B in 30.
(b) 35 miles. is (a) 51.721. (b) 149. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. respectively. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Find the side of the square. After how many hours do they meet. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. squares 29. the second at the apart.000. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. . by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. (c) 16. 3 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. the rate of the first.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 33. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. Two men start at the first miles apart. 4J miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. if m and n are. squares 30. 2 miles per hour. is ?n . and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 2 miles per hour. 34. meet. (d) 1.001. : (c) 64 miles. The one: 31. and the rate of the second are. and the second 5 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. same hour from two towns. the area would be increased by 19 square feet.
6 12 = . terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the symbol being a sign of division. Simplify the ratio 21 3. " a Thus. : : 155. is numerator of any fraction consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 1. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. The first 156. Ex. a ratio is not changed etc. . b.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the denominator The the 157. b is the consequent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . E. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers." we may write a : b = 6. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. the antecedent. antecedent. etc. the second term the consequent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. b. 158.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.g.5. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .
equal 2. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and c. 3:4. 4:5f : 5. 1. Transform the following unity 15. terms.RATIO Ex. 6. two  ratios. 3 8. 7:4 T T 4 . 11. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 159. b. J:l. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. : 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. : ay . In the proportion a b : = b : c. 12. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 61 : ratios 72:18. 10. 18. The last first three. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. a and d are the extremes. 62:16. 7f:6J. proportional between a and c. 16. Simplify the following ratios 7. 4. and c is the third proportional to a and . $24: $8. 3:1}. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 9. 8^ hours. 17. extremes. b and c the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b is the mean b. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 3. 27 06: 18 a6. 5 f hours : 2. 16a2 :24a&.
if the ratio of any two of the first kind.e.) b = Vac.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 2 165. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. : : directly proportional may say. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. are : : : inversely proportional.__(163. of iron weigh 45 grams. briefly.122 162. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. 6 ccm. ad = be. of iron weigh . and the other pair the extremes. q~~ n . Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.) mn = pq. !. and the time necessary to do it.30 grams. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of a proportion. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Hence the number of men required to do some work. then G ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. : c. Clearing of fractions. i. 163. " we " NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. ccm. In any proportion product of the extremes. 3 4. pro portional. = 30 grams 45 grams. 164. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. If (Converse of nq. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.
I. (Frequently called Inversion. 166. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 2.) II. a:c=b:d. = 35 . Or IV. is 4$ = 35. (163. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.PATIO Ex. d d. bd bd. ad = be.) d 167. if 6 : 7. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. + b:b = c + d:d.) (Called Alternation.) = f f = 3 J. is Ex. ad ( 163. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. then =d c. 12x Hence a? = 42. (Composition. I. hence the proportion true. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a III. .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. V. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (Division. 1.
= 7:2f 3J. 9. Simplify the following proportions. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 5. . 6 =4 : x. 8. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. E.g.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. IV. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. : 3 = 5 f x : x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 4. 3. i. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 5 5. x = 2. = 20:7.124 IT.e. Apply composition. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. the consequents by 7. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 12 5ft. 2. 120:42 2 2 7. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 10. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. mx tin Apply composition and division. : x.!=!*. = 2:x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 2:3. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 180:125. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. . V. Or III.
43. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 6. 2= 5 x x. 3. 50. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3. 42. x m = y n. rag. : . 39.8:1.:ff.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. a 2 and ab. 38. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 2 3 = y #. 35. b.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 6 x = y. to : 9 and 12. 21. 7iy = 2:x. 16 and 28. 17. 46.  32. = 3 43 + x. (a : : 45. 12. and 2/. 31.. 14 and 21. : 53. 03:a?=135:20. : a2 . if : 40. 16. 14. 33. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. w. a?:15 15. 52. 112:42 = 10:a. 25. 47. = 5 x 12. mx = ny. terra 2:3 = 4. 5= 18 a? : a?. 29. 27. f. 51. 34. 4. 2. 5. 41. a. Find the mean proportional 30. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 3t. 26. ratio of y. 4 and 16. 22. 1 and a.j>. Find the third proportional 24. 6x = 7y. = l^:18. . Find the 37. 9 x = 2 y. 20. x:5 = y:2. 2. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36.x: 6:5 a : x. 28. = 15o. to : a and 1. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. ra 2 . rap. 18. 13. 23. 2 a and 18 a. ra + landra 1. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 1. 44. + fyx = cy. to: = 35:*. = 2 + x: x. ra.
and the time necessary for it. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. 57.126 54. what 58. and the speed of the train. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. A line 7^. and the : total cost. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the rectangle. 56. and the time. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. the area of the larger? the same. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk.
11 x x 7 Ex. 2 x Or = 4. . When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. = the second number. Then Hence BG = 5 x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69.000 168. 4 inches long. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. so that Find^K7and BO. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 18 x = 108. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. produced to a point C. as 11 Let then : 1. is A line AB. AB = 2 x. 2. x=2. : Ex.
and 15 inches. 6. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : 197. 9. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. How many 7. What are the parts ? 5. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 3. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How The long are the parts ? 15.000.000 square miles. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 2. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 11. 7. 14. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 13. : 4. and c inches.) . 12. Gunmetal tin. How many gen. 12. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.
y = 1. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. there is only one solution. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. values of x and y. =. etc. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. The root of (4) if K 129 . Hence. such as + = 10. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. expressing a y. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. is x = 7. if .y=. However. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. 2 y = . x = 1. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.L x If If = 0. a? (1) then I.. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.e.
(3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). unknown quantity. Substitution. for they express the x f y 10. 21 y . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Therefore. 4y . = . 6x .26. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. are simultaneous equations. of elimination most frequently used II. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. By By Addition or Subtraction. 3. 174. cannot be reduced to the same form.24.130 170. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. and 3 x + 3 y =. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. the last set inconsistent. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 26 y = 60. y = 2. same relation.X. 172. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. to The two methods I. viz. E.3 y = 80. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . ~ 50. y I 171.
by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 64 x = 040. + 2.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.3 1 = 47. 25 x . whose coefficients In general. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). Therefore Check. Transposing. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 10 . 60 . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. x = 10. y = 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 37. y = 1.2 = 6. 3. 3y = 3. add the equations. are like.14 =8. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Check. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 235. = 406. subtract the equations. 5 13 .3 y = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 8 2.
f 3X 7x 14.f2/ ' = 50. I . I i 3 a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.3. 13. J I y = 1U.v 23. O t K 8.5 y = 2. + 2/ 17. _. [2o. 13 61 l7a.9 *. x 11.4. v ^ = ll. 9 1 r 20.3. ' 12. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. = 24. ] ^ . ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 19< I a. 7 ' 1fi fl . . * + 3 y = 50. = 6. I ~ y~~> 22.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 41. i 3. f 3# ?/ = 0. I oj 5y = 17.
and solve the resulting equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 60. . Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 13. 3. 8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 2. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.
43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 4* + 3y = 19. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. x = l. 3 (1) Ex.3. + 212y4 = 14. Substituting in (6) . 21z6y=9. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.6)7(y7)==18. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. however.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 29 x = 29. simplified before elimination is possible. (4). (7) (7) (8) . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. \ \6(a. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7 y = 6. 7x_2y=3. From 9 = 36. 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 2 y = . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26.
= 3. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . yM a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.f2 2. a. 4 11. . 14. 10 2a?5 17. 12. J 9. +y 2 .1) = 121. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) + 5(6 y . . 16.
22. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 3x\" 1 23 24.and x y . . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.Q ^ 4 21. 180. <X + 20. e. but some expressions involving x.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. ?~y . * ((* (( . and y. f y .#. {.
(4) + (G). 15 y + 8 x . x 2x(2). x 3. however. (2) (3) a.4 x = 4 xy. y 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y. 2* * x 2. can also be solved Examples method.3 xy. 33 = 11 x. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . Therefore y=4. 137 Solve y y (1) . Clearing of fractions. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. 1. etc. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). of this type. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.
1. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 6. 253 7. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). . 4 13. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 5. = en.= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . y MOi y a. x 8. Ex. x y 331 9. n.= 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 .
139 (an bm)x = en bp. a Find a and terms of n. W . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x a. and I.W. 14. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . d. d. s in 11. w. apan cm. Uniting. x 12. ny = fy/ I sc 1. ax + by = 2 a&. . bmy bm}y ap cm. Dividing. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. ap. x f my = 1. 6. . fax f = l. .y = = 9a + 46.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. and I if 13. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.
17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 1.3=4.15z=12 Adding. (8) 2. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 1. etc.2 + 3. by 3.by 2. 20. To solve equations containing By tions. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. l. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. = 30.8 = 1.3 = 8. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. ties are Similarly.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 3. x + 12 y .12 y + 6 z = . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. = 3. 4. f 3y 12 =s 8. 6.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 8 x . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 182. 3y = Hence Check.2 + 4. . 4. (4) (5).25. 3. y =* 2.lf> z .16. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Ex.13.1+4.
7. 2 . a? 11. == 6. 49. + y f z = 15. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 2z = 40. 12. 10. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. ~6?/ 5. a? + 709 = 26. 4 = 42. 14. k 2/ f 2 x a. + 2 y f 2 = 35.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2 4. x 13. 8. 15 2 = 45.
= 5. 4. 1510 4 17. 16.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. .6 2. =s 20. ^ = 2. (3 _.2 a.42 = 2. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 23. . ?/ 3x = 0.. 84 21. = 8*. 60. 32. 19. 22. ? = llz. .3 y + .
the first and the last digits will be interchanged. y * z 30. 2 = 1(1+6).2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. . either directly or implied. z + x = 2 n. x : z =1 : 2. = l. M=i. . 2 = 6. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . ( 99. Check.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + z = 2p.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 = 2. 1 digit in the tens place. Obviously of the other . y 31. # 4. = 2 m. however. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. and to express In complex examples. Ex. +2+ 6 = 8. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. and if 396 be added to the number. Find the number. the number. + 396 = 521. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.
x y = the = the x denominator . the distance traveled by A. B. Find the fraction. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Or (4)2x(3). 2. From (3) Hence xy Check. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 4 x = 24. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. direction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. y = 3. 6 x 4 = 24. x 3x4y = 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator.144 Ex. 3+1 5+1 4_2. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. = Hence the fraction is f. Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. = the fraction. 5_ _4_ A. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 2. = 8. Since the three men traveled the same distance. we obtain. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (1) (2) 12. C. increased by one. 3. (3) C4) = 24 miles. x 3 = 24. . ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be .
and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the numbers. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. 1. number by the first 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 7. Find the number. the fraction equals . If the denominator be doubled. and the numerator increased by 4. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the numbers.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the last two digits are interchanged. part of their difference equals 4. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.) added to a number of two digits. 6. Find the number. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the fourth 3. its value added to the denominator. the Find the fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 2. 183. Find the fraction. both terms. tion ? 8. If 9 be added to the number. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the number (See Ex. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. 5. . fraction is reduced to \.}. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. added to the numerator of a fraction. ? What 9. it is reduced to J. If 27 is 10. the digits will be interchanged.
in 8 years to $8500. partly at 5% and partly at 4%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. A sum of $10. A man invested $750. the annual interest would be $ 195. partly at 5 %. . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. How 6 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.grams. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the amount of each investment ? 15. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 5 %. and partly at 4 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 19. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Find their present ages. and in 5 years to $1125. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 12. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find the rates of interest. respectively ? 16. 14. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.000 is partly invested at 6%. 13. and money and 17. now. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. the rate of interest? 18.
The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. BC=7. cows. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. On /).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. . then AD = AF. . B find angles a. 1 NOTE. BC = 7 inches. BE. and sheep. Find their rates of walking. ED = BE. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and F. points. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. 24. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and CE If AB = G inches. but if A would double his pace. and F. respectively. and angle e angle/. A farmer sold a number of horses. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. three AD = AF. receiving $ 100 for each horse. BD = HE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. the three sides of a triangle E. E. angle c = angle d. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. An C touch ing the sides in D. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 25. is the center of the circum scribed circle. triangle Tf AD. for $ 740. and GE = CF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and AC = 5 inches. and F '(see diagram). If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. are taken so ABC. what is that = OF. and e. and $15 for each sheep. and angle BCA = 70. c. and their difference by GO . the length of NOTE. 23. andCL4 = 8. $ 50 for each cow.
or its equal OM. (7. 3). The of Coordinates. . 186. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. the ordinate by ?/. (2. and point the origin. B. is The point whose abscissa is a. and r or its equal OA is . The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. It' Location of a point. and PN _L YY'. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). 2). is the abscissa. ?/. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. first 3). PM.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184.. (3. PN. jr. the ordinate of point P. (2. and PJ/_L XX'. PN are given. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. YY' theyaxis. Thus the points A.
3). 0). 4) and (4. 4).3). (See diagram on page 151. (4. (0. 11. 1). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 4. Plot the points: (4. What is the locus of (a?. (4. (5.2). 1). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. !). 0). and measure their distance. 2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 71 2).e. . 8.and(l. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4. 3). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Graphs. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. which of its coordinates known ? 13.) EXERCISE 1. (1. 0). 6. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. i. 4). (4.4). (3. 6. 3. (4. (0. Plot the points : (0. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 2. 0). . 4) from the origin ? 7. 2). Plot the points: (4. (4. (2.1). 12. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 2J). Plot the points (6.(!. 3).
. we meas1 . C. By representing of points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .. D. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ure the ordinate of F. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 1.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 188. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. B. Thus the first table produces 12 points. from January 1 to December 1. A. may be found on Jan. or the curved line the temperature. 10 . however. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 15. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time.
the matics.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. uses them. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (b) July 15. Whenever a clear. the rise and fall of wages. the merchant. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. etc. The engineer. the graph is applied. as the prices and production of commodities. . (d) November 20. (c) January 15. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
1? 11 0. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ?  3. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season... 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ? 9. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. (freezing point) ? 7. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When the average temperature below C. 1 to Oct. How much. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is 10. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. (d) 9 0.152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 15. During what months above 18 C. on 1 to the average.? is is the average temperature of New York 6.
20. NOTE. One meter equals 1. Hour Temperature . transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw a graph for the 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. a temperature chart of a patient.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw .
26. gas.inch. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 3. A 10 wheels a day.) T circumferences of 25.. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. and $. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. amount to $8. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. binding. .50.. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. books from for printing.154 24.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. to 27. 2. etc. function If the value of a quantity changes. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. x* x 19. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 9. x increases will change gradually from 13..5 grams. then C irJl. if he sells 0. if each copy sells for $1. represent his daily gain (or loss). 3.g. 1 to 1200 copies. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 . 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 4. the daily average expenses for rent. x 7 to 9.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 29. e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. the value of a of this quantity will change. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.50. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 28. 190.
Ex. (1^. . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . while 7 is a constant. J).2 x may 4 from x = 4. E. for x=l. If a more exact diagram is required. Draw the graph of x2 f.g. etc. 9).1). 3 (0. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. however. (2. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. The values of func192. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 9). be also represented by a graph. 2 (1. ( 2. it is In the example of the preceding article. and join the points in order. 3 50.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. plot points which lie between those constructed above.0). construct '. 4). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . x a variable. 4). as 1. to x = 4.e. Q. Graph of a function. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 1 the points (3. (1. and (3. 2). may . a*. may.1). is supposed to change.
Thus in the above example. 194. (4. (3. etc. rf 71 .20).) For brevity. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. and join(0. Ex. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.. y = 6. r */ +* 01 . . 1). 4J.. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. (2. j/=3.2 x . = 4. 5). 2 4 and if y = x f. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.4). or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. 2. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 4). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. straight line produces the required graph. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. as y.. 7 . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. = 0. Thus 4x + 7.
14. a?.5)2.5)2. 1J. if y = 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The values of a*. a? 2 4. 18. xl. a* 13. x+1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 4 a. 9. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 5. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 2 a. Jar . J. 11. 15.8)'. = The values of a*. 23x. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. y = 2x = 4. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a. 12. . 2. 2J. 19. 1 8 10. ?/ a.or. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . from x VlO'S". i.e. = 4. The values of a?. The smallest value of the function. 2x + 3x a?. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 6. 22. 2 or 2 20. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. a? 1. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 16. + 4. 2J. if the function equals zero. (C ) (2. 1. 2 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 8. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 21. if a. 3. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2 a. 2. l. (ft) (_ 1. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 1J. the function. (If) Va25. a ar. 1J. if"a. 3. 2 2 a. 4a? I. 3 a 8. 7. fa 17. . (7i) (c) 23. 6 fa. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. xz + x.
i.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 1 C. that graph with the o>axis. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Show any convenient number). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 9 F. C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.158 24. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. Therefore x = 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.24.. then y = . 14 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.... that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.24 or x = P and Q. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 25. y= formula graphically. then cXj where c is a constant. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.e. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.where x c is a constant. .. Represent 26. the abscissas of 3. 32 F.
crosssection paper is used. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 6. 14. (a) x2 = 0. 7. 10. + + = where a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 12. 13. a2 2a. . (0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 4. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. viz. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (a) (6) 9. 197. 2 and 1.f 9 = 0. 6. 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. 3. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. or 5 2. is called a quadratic equation. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. Such equations in general have two roots. = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 8. 11.
y= A and construct x (  graphically. T . produces the 7* required locus. y = l. 199. == 2. unknown quantities. . Hence.2 y ~ 2.2. y y 2. Ex. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. and join the required graph. (f .e. Hence if if x x  2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. if y = is 0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. = 0. Ex. solve for ?/. fc = 3. 1) and 0). 4) and (2. and joining by a straight line. X'2 Locating the points (2. If x = 0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 3x _ 4 . i. 4) and them by straight line AB (3.1. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 0). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. first degree. NOTE. ?/. because their graphs are straight lines. Hence we may join (0. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. ?/ =4 AB. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 2). that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. locate points (0.
viz. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.57. we obtain the roots. P. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 3.15. 203. (2) . parallel have only one point of intersection.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).1=0. 201. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. and CD. 202. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. AB y = . Graphical solution of a linear system. To find the roots of the system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots.
2.g. 2.e. 3. 1. the point we obtain Ex. y equals 3. 1. i. . Measuring the coordinates of P. we of the + y* = 25. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. if x equals respectively 0. 0) and (0. etc. 3). Using the method of the preceding para. Locating two points of equation (2). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. intersection. 3. 4. 3. P graphs meet in two and $.5. 4. Inconsistent equations. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. = 0. e. 4. 4. and joining by a straight line. 2 equation x 3).162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 5. Solving (1) for y.9. and . the graph of points roots. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).  4. they are inconsistent.5. 5. and + 3). 0. (4..0). V25 5. x2 . 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. There can be no point of and hence no roots. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.0. 0. (1) (2) C. 3x 2 y = 6. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. (4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4.y~ Therefore. The equations 2 4 = 0. 4. In general. Locating the points (5. (2. 4. AB the locus of (1).
if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. 9. 7. vice versa. x~y=0. 8. 6. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y 2 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. and solve each If there are no solutions. Draw system. 4. \ 2x + 3^ . 2x 3?/=6. y = 4. '163 Dependent equations. 2.. 3. 17. and. 19. 20. state reasons. 5. a. 10. y=x + 5. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. a+r/=6. 16 22. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 23. . y= a2 2x y6.
25.164 24.y). 4 a = 3(6 .8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 28. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 30. 3 31. 29 . 26. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.14 y = . CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES.
( a) is positive. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs.faa a a a Obviously 1. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 2. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. etc. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. follows that 3. According to 1. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . a special kind of product. on to in factors 4. powers of a positive quantity are positive. is may be by 207. a = a3 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. fa. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 52. 8. involution repeated multiplication. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.a2 . .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206.
6. raise a fraction to a power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 5. 3 2 2 8 . 15. (a ) 2 4  3. 76 : (>y. (^^) 2 .6 (a 8 8 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2. 16. a product to a given power. 210. (a ) 2 5 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. V V/ 13. amVy) 3 . 4 /2mV. \ 3 J '  MW 10. (2ar). ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 24. 4.166 To find To To power. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.6) = a . the required power. . (277171 )*. 2 11 (afc ) .
6.) 14. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 4. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L .INVOLUTION Ex. The higher powers of binomials. + a 2 a. (3 x . = s= (2s) 8 a. (6m+2w) (3 8 . An 1. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 15. 9. 3 8 . 13. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .y) = (3 y?y . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . Ex. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . : a 20. (afl) . 2. 1 f 3 2 3 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. a. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. nent of the binomial. . (aj7) . +5a) 22. 211. frequently called ex. are obtained by multiplication. 2 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 8 (a??/) 3 . 1. 12. pansions. . (3af26) 8 . 5. + 4aj) 3 . 23. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (a + &)8 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 3 .y . 3. 7.3 y. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 21. 8. (5 (1 a) 3 . 16. 18. etc. 2.6 2 8 ft) .
Ex. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 17. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 13. 2.a) 3 19. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (a~^) 5 . 4 . Ex. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 5. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (l 8 .168 3. (p + q) 4 * 7. . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (m fl) 2 20. 3. (1 + 4 ?/) .216 a^ 4. (2 a 4 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (mJ) 4 11.2. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . . (m 2 + n) 8 . mn 5 2 5 ) . and the powers negative. 21. 23. 4 (1for) 5 . 1. 78 s . 15. . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. . 14. (mnp 5 I) 5 . ( &) 5 . 18. 9. 25. The minus. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (?>i?i f c)*.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (?/i~w) : 16.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 3. 10. (la&) 4 12. 24. (2 4. 6. (af 5) . 8. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (m 5 I) 2 22. (tff1) (cfd) . is the coefficient of the next term.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 4. 5. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. . (3a f5) 5) 4. . . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1.
V9 = + 3. called real numbers. a) 4 = a4 . tity . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. Since even powers can never be negative. 109 . = x means = 6. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 27 =y means r' = 27. V \/P 214. 2. 4 4 . and all other numbers are. (_3) = 27. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for distinction. or 3 for (usually written 3) . etc. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. or y ~ 3. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. which can be simplified no further. 215. numbers. and ( v/o* = a. \/"^27=3. 1. or x &4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213.
= V26TIT81 = 53. 6. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. extract the and denominator. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex. = 19472.9 = 136. 9. Ex. 9. Ex. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V?. 2.lL. 3 33 53 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.(. Ex 5 a" . 7 . index. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 2 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 7 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 4 v. 62 = V2* . 8. v/2^. V36 9 4. Ex.201) = 2. To extract a root of a fraction.4. To extract the root of a power. 79 2 v/2 5 . 2. . 6.200 . 6 7 = 030. V25 9 16. . 3/0** = am . EXERCISE 1.  100 a 2 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 5. V5 v/2 7 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 7. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 82 . = 199 + (_ 198) .64 5 4 .1. 7. 3i . 8. 3. Ex. \/2 4 9 .125. fy 5 3 . 10. . for (a")" a = a mn 3.
) by inspection. V9216. a f2 l 2 + l. 34. 33. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ^40^4. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. Find the square root of a2 .3 y2) ( vV .75. 2 . 2 . 116.EVOLUTION 171 28.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 45 V5184. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 30. 31.98. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . a* 4 8 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 32.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 5. 3.3.4/. V20 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 29. Ex. V8. 2./). . 6. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .3 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.
b 2 2 to its square.2 &c. and b. mV14m??2)f 49. 2ab . 11.172 7. 14. 15. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. #2 a2  16. a\b is the root if In most cases. let us consider the relation of a f. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.2 ab + b . 12. i.72 aW + 81 & 4 .> 13. a f. 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .e. however. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 2 2 218. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 8 . + 6 + 4a&. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . and b (2 a f b).2 ac . 10. .
8 a 2 . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 6 a. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 219. . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. . 8 a 2 2. and so forth. Ex. */'' . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. the first term of the answer. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 1. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . by division we term of the root.24 afy* f 9 tf. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. The square . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Explanation. is As there is no remainder. 10 a 4 8 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . of x. . As there is no remainder. First trial divisor. 2. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.EVOLUTION Ex.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Second trial divisor. First complete divisor. 8 /. . 1.
14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.40 a 22 .24 or . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 24. 729 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 436^?/469a.73a4 440^436^460^. 18. 5. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .25 x 4 4. 15. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 2 4. 16. 12.73 a8 .20 o 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 9. 3.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.4 x 4. a? 2 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.37 a ^ . 14. 20.16. 1 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81.42 a*& 4. 8. 2 x2 3 2x.V430^425^ 4m 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .12m 5 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. l 4. 6.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . > 7. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.162 a2 60 a10 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 4 . 17.10 x2 4. 10. 13#4 413ar 44a.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. . x 6 4 4 0^4. 6 11. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 16x6 4.9.12 m 4.6 . 36it.25. 19.a 6 x*y 2 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.
176. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process..1344. the first of which is 8. Ex. of 1. Therefore 6 = 8.EVOLUTION 220.000 is 1000. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000 is 100. the first of which is 4. the square root of 7744 equals 88. etc. = 80. a 2 = 6400. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the first remainder is. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000. 2. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. first . etc. two figures. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the complete divisor 168. The is trial divisor = 160. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 1. of 10. Find the square root of 524. which may contain one or two).000. Ex. of a number between 100 and 10. Find the square root of 7744. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.1T6 221. 12. annex a cipher.10.7 to three decimal places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1 are Ex.GO'61.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in . or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. places. 3. Find the square root of 6/. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .70 6.0961 are '.
36.4 square when R = radius and 11. 33. 32. JT . 34.) 40.53. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 5.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. = 3.01. 1. feet. 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 31.1410.22. 13. J.58 square 38. 35. . T\. 30. feet. 1. whose area equals 48. 39.
x = + 2 or x =2. 1. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 4. but no higher power e. The 7 equation. A pure. . or affected. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 178 . x 2 7. 226. 225. is A quadratic equation. Transposing.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. = 7^ + 5. complete. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 2. is 12. 6 y2 = 17. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2 ic = a. or incomplete. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Ex. 6#2 = x* 24. 224. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.g. 2)* + 5 = 33. Dividing.. Extracting the square root of each member. This answer Check. or equation of the second degree.
7 = 162. 15^5 = 6. 8. : 83 2.2. 5. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). 4 ax.25. 4. . 10. (a? 9. . 19 + 9 = 5500. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ' =: y? b* b .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. 3. ax Transposing and combining. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. or Therefore. 16^393 = 7. 2 4fc 5' 18. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 2 2 a. 2. Solve 179 . 7.
is one of _____ b The side right angle.b 2 If s If =c . . : 6. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 4. solve for r. 228. If 22 = ~^. solve for d. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 24. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2 . . 2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for v. 25. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 3. and their product : 150. A right triangle is a triangle. Find the side of each field. 27. Find is the number. 2 : 3. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 29. If G=m m g . 108. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . EXERCISE 1. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and they con tain together 30G square feet. 2. is 5(5. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 22 a. Find the numbers.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a.) of their squares 5. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 26. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). ' 4. If a 2 4. r. 28. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. find a in terms of 6 . Find the side of each field. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2a f 1 23.
Find the unknown sides and the area. 4. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Find the sides.) 13. . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. To find this term. Solve Transposing. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The area : sides are as 3 4. and the two smaller 11. Find the radii. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . we have of or m = . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. Find these 10. 2m.2 7 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. of a right triangle Find these sides. . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. sides. radii are as 3 14. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. J = 12. 8.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. (b) 100 feet? = . x* 7 x= 10. Method of completing the square. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. add () Hence 2 . 9. .7 x f 10 = 0. 24. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. and the third side is 15 inches. is and the other two sides are equal. (b) 44 square feet.
= . Hence Therefore Check.  \.1. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.a.2 a2 . 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. J.2. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .e. Uniting. or x = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 62 x 5 = f. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. or J. (*~8) a = at . Ex. . Transposing. Therefore. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 230. Transposing. Ex. = \ # = ff. a. Extracting square roots.x(l = .. adding member).  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Simplifying. a Clearing of fractions. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 2 a* a. 2  . = x\ = 2. = 6.
183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing.
184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. x la 48. = 12. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. ao. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. =8 r/io?. =0.c = 0. 231. 49. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . \bx\. 2x 3 4. .
185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 5 x2 Transposing. 17. 6. 2. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2 a? = 44 x . a. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 3. 20. 26. Reducing to general form. 18. 6 . 16. 7. 12. 2or } 5o.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. V^tT)* . 7^ + 9 x 90. 6^+5^ 56. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 6 Ex. 11. c = 5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2 . 4. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6. c p.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 9. 8. 15. 10. ?i 2 . 14.25 x. 13. 21. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. TIO.. 2 a.4 4 5 . 2 o. 19. = 12 . = 64120?.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 1. 2.  .
factors Now. Bx 1 1. 233. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. any degree. 24. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Clearing for fractions. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Solution by factoring. 3x?+x = 7. = 0. orz roots. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Factoring. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 5) = 0. 26. 2S3x 1 2 . }. = 14. 1. x(x <2 . Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. member can be Ex.4) = .x. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. . Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.5) =0. if either of the uct is zero. = 0. 25. 27 x== 42a. x2 = 1 . transposing terms to one member.5 Solving (1) and (2). 23. all or. 5 = 0. 0. a=:i^^. and 6. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Transposing. ar>8o.2. (5 a? !)(. Eesolving into factors. or # 5 is zero.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* .
7. O roots are 2. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 3) = 0. 2. x2 f 2 x . aj( 15. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3# y 5 = 0. + 100.= 24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. : 87 = 0. a* 10a=24. 12. + 9 f 20 x = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 0^ ar> 11. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.3)(x + 3 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 14. a?10a=:24. 3 or 2 a.24 = 0. 3. 2. } 2 2 (5 . 5. 3. E. + 6)=0. 4)(z3) = 0. 5 = 0. a?. + 10 a = 24. Or Hence the 234.(. 13.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3) Factoring. for a: .e. Ex. 6. ar'Sa^ 12. 2o3 f9a. 4or + 18a f 8a. The equation I. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. we 9 obtain x 4.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.g. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.:=0.6)) = 0. 16. 4. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. (aj4)(a. 8. 3^ = 0(1106). 9. 0(02) = 7(02). is 5) = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 8=s: 7. Therefore x =3 = 2. and the equation thus formed be solved.
+ 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 50.188 17. 2. 20. (a + 1) (a. 18. a 2 =(x a)b. 27. 25.3) = (s + l) (3 a). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. 19. 22. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. ara + ft + c*. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. '3a!J  . 23.
57. two numbers is 4. EXERCISE 1. and whose product 9. . 189 the equations whose roots are 53.2. 56.3. 0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.3. Find the sides. and the difference Find the numbers. of their reciprocals is 4. The difference of . but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 1. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 2. and consequently many prob 235.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 6. 2. 8. 58. 7.3. 52. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 4. and equals 190 square inches. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 2. 3. 55. 2. 1. 5.0. is Find two numbers whose product 288. Find the numbers. feet. 3. number by 10. 2. 54. Find the number. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 5.9.1. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. G. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. : 3. 2. and whose sum is is 36. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. The 11.
What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. he would have received two horses more for the same money. ply between the same two ports. 13. 14. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. 17. 15. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch for $ 24. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. as the 16. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. Two vessels. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. Find the rate of the train. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. If he each horse ? . and Find the sides of the rectangle. What did he pay for 21. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. sold a horse for $144. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. other. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 19. ABCD. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21.10. dollars. .190 12. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.
If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 237. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. or x = \/l = 1. the two men can do it in 3 days. By formula.) 25. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. how wide is the walk ? 23. . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. as 0. Find and CB. 1. (tf. and working together. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 24. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. ^3^ = 7. contains B 78 square inches. Find TT r (Area of a circle . A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. is On the prolongation of a line AC. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Ex. 23 inches long. a point taken.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. constructed with and CB as sides. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. of the area of the basin. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. so that the rectangle. 27.
Ex. Hence Le.2 =4.)+72=0. 10.T 2 2 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. >. 7. 8. 436 3. 4 : 89 10a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a 21or=100. a? 15 1=2*. 18. 16. 9. = 13. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 2. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. aV+9o 4 =0. a.192 238. 4. 4 a. Solving. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a4 5o. 2 h9:=0. 19. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. y8)=0. = 1. T 17. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 6. 4 6. 12. 4 8 = 2 a* 2.
the roots are equal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.2 z . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. rational. and equal. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Relations between roots and coefficients. negative. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . it 2a follows 2 : 2.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .f> = 0. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Ex. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 240. a perfect square. the roots are unequal. Hence the roots are real. Ex. c the roots are real.2) 2 4 3 (. 3. the roots are rational.bx 4. 2. b 4. the roots are imaginary. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 1. rational. and unequal. ( 2a Hence 1. 241. the roots are irrational.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.5) = 04.12 x + 9 = 0. The discriminant =(. is 4ac not zero. the roots are real.
ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 12 2  . lla. 2. 5aj 9. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 14. 60 2 = 0. ^12. o. 18.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2 a. = 0. 22. tfmx+p^Q. = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. + 2a. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. : a 2 . 4. 21.. 2 : 3. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. x2 7 10. + 2a15 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. + 18 2 8. 15. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 3a.g. 24. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1.19 # 20. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 9a3 = 0. = 5x. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = 0. their product isf. 23. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 12~x = x 2 . 6. 2 7. 17. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. f 2 E. = Q. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 12.
while the second of the first. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. for all values 1 of m and n. The first of these laws is nition of power. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. We assume. however. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . It is. (ab) . 244. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. hence. a m a" = a m+t1 . such as 2*. = a"" < .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. must be *The symbol smaller than.a" = a m n mn . provided w > n.* III. > m therefore. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (a m ) w . that a an = a m+n . Then the law of involution. m IV. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. ~ a m f. and ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. no Fractional and negative exponents.
^=(a^) 3* 3 . etc. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. fractional. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. '&M A 27. a?*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.g. 245. m$. 30. 3*. laws. n 2 a. (xy$. a\ 26. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. ml. 28. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 31. e. = a. 24.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. (bed)*. Assuming these two 8*. 0?=^. . as. 29. 23. a*. at. disappear. a . or zero exponent equal x. 4~ .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 25.
: 197 33. 7z* Find the values of 47. 37. a. 40.\/n. 49.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. e. however. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. \/xy \/m. 45. v/o&cT 34.g. = 2. 46. 43. a* * = 3. If. v'mT 36. equal to unity. 50. Vo5 . 42. 246. 3* = 27. 41. = 49. 48. 38. : 2' 4* = 4. a . hence is . 35. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a * a2 Or a=l. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 44. Let a = a. 5 a* = 10. Solve the following equations 39.g. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. \fi?. the base is zero. e. = 2. 27* = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. ty?.
each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations. or the exponent. Or a"# = l.2 = a2 . . e. Let x= or". in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. by changing the sign of NOTE. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . an x = a. 248. vice versa. Multiplying both members by a". ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.g. cr n. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. etc. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.198 247.
c 32. 39. rfS. 2m~i 43. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 25. a. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a. 3 a? * 42. f (2w)~i 1 . . 66 45. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. ."* 38. 22. 27. : or 5 . 36. 2 . * 24. : mi m~^. 37. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 40.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. m . 7~ l a 2b 2 . 44. ^L.
= l. 54. 53. + A_. 58. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. . of: 3ll4~* 60. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 10* 5* = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. (. Ex.(.1. z* = 1.6). 52. = . z 5or*=10.9*. 10* Find the values 56.81 f (a . 250. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . = 5.001. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.008)* + A. ar = i. 1.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 61. 59. 49.343)* + (. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. = ^. 47. 17' 2 51. 48. + 1~* f 21 . 57.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 55.
7i. 27  28. 18.&. S'sS8.^/5^5. 6a.$". 8 ' 9. 6. are performed.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . Remove the negative exponents.6 *' 6 *25.5. V5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 7~ 6 . 7~ 5 27  .$*. 16. Perform the operation indicated. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 3 a.3 aj" a. 72 .7*. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.&. 17. etc.7W. / 7fv 7. 13. 12. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. . #* a. 3. 7. 4 x^.. 79 . 16. 10. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .4 . . . 6 *. 23. remove the fractional exponents. 4 5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. ' 11.5a. 95 ^9i 5**. 7*. 26. NOTE. OA 20. 14. &. (d) If required. a. 3sVS.4 a8 .
Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. If powers of a?.2 d . 34. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 40.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^7.3\ . subtract surds. 40. 28. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^5. ^4. 37. V3. Ex. A/2. v/3. ^6. Arrange 35. 3. V2. 27. V5. V3. 2\ 3*.10 V2 =  V2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^4. 4^/4. ^126. 31. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 5V2. 39. V2. v^S. signs. 34. v/3. ^2. Simplify V~ . Ex. + . (i. 29. s!/3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 38. ^/IT. v/4. I VJ + 3VT8 . 26. \/7. ^30. 32. ^2. ^2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. VS. 33. Simplify V + 3 VlS. </3.2. To add or form. A/3. 36. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^3. in order of magnitude : \/7. \/5.2 V50. </20.e. if dissimilar. V2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . connect them by proper 1. 30. Simplify/a35 ~ o . </2.
3V20 + 6V5. 8VT8J2V32 7. + 3V835V2. 4V805V45. 6. 11. V18+V32VT28+V2. V175V28+V634V7. 8. 9. 14. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 3. 13. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.J a6 V4 aft. 12.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 10. 4. .
6V35 106 460V35100 . Ex. Ex.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 2. 26^ . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . 1. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 23. 3. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. y* = Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. and then multiplied. . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 6*.
RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 6. 8. VlO V15. Vll. 3. 27. fWa 17. v/4. 40. 13. 2. 40 10 30. v/18 v"3. (3 20. V2aV8^. (V6 + 1) 1 . a?. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). . 213 98 11. 19. 37. (Va Va 36. 9. V3 V6. 38. 18. 14.VSS. 39. (2V3) 8 . 6 V4 5. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. \/3 \^). 28 . 4. 7. 25. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 2 . V2 V50. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V42. 41. + VB)(2V5). 21. aVa. VTO. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V3 Vl2.^/2. 10. 34. 15. V20 V30. 12.
60. 53. a fraction. 48. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 44. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 46. 47. 43. Ex. Ex. (2 45. Va v/a. 268. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . all monomial surds may be divided by method. V3 . Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.y. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. . 51. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. the quotient of the surds is If. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. is 1 2.214 42.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 52. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). E. 49.
Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. e. .RADICALS This method. we have V3 But if 1. however.g. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .73205. Evidently. 3. metical problems afford the best illustrations. 1. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .57735. arithTo find. is illustrated by Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. The 2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. . /~ } Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide VII by v7. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.. by V7.
A. 272. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. A.4142.. Vll 212*. V8 JL. 14. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 271. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.2361. and Given V2 = 1. 7. i. . V3 24 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V8 12. 23 . VffV?. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V2 22 . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V48 25.7320. 20. 21. V5 270. . V5 = 2. V3 = 1.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. ^/H .
Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 3.1 xVtf a.Vs2 .vffi^T _ . .RADICALS Ex.2. 1.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. . V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. s Simplify a.= 18. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .
19. Vo1 26.4142.5 3 = 125. v 2V3 28. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 24.W3. : and V5 = 2. = V3 = 1. V21 = 25 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. find to _!_. Given V2 1.2361. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. four places of decimals 23 . . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. J?_. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . By the use of fractional exponents .218 6 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 27. 6V7. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.
SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 8. 2. 1. . \/l6*. v8f 2\/15. it to this form. V255 . According to G3. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. In other examples of involution and evolution. V643 . 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 2 12.RADICALS 219 274. 4. viz. Simplify Ex. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. on the other hand. 3. \/125" . 3 (V2~u)  7. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. the If. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 11. 5. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3.
2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT.6\/2 = ^9 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. The Hence ^11 .220 Ex.6 V2. Find Vll . These Ex. 2. Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 3. +2 Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find V4 + VJ8. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. is 11.A/2. and whose product is 18.2 \/20.
+=. 4x x = 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.e. a. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. x2 = x f 2.1.. Dividing by Check. (2x xrf 1. = xa + 4 x f 4. : 221 Vl32V22. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Before performing the involution. 277. member to 2. i. they are transto formed into rational equations. 4. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Ex. 8. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.V48 4 20. r 22. V48 23. 19. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. are radical equations. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Transposing and uniting. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. The value x =2 reduces each . Radical equations are rationalized. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. . by raising both members equal powers. 5. VT . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. first involution.
or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Squaring both members. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Ex. viz. x = J. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. V4afT~l. Dividing by 24. a socalled extraneous root. a. 2. Factoring. It = 3 x . 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 .3. . tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Extraneous roots. at . tion which has two roots. one root. 5. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 3. Transposing and uniting. V24~+~l = 0. Squaring both members. . 278. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279.222 Ex. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. the first member = V2. . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. viz. f 25 = 12. Therefore Check. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 4#f 4 = 9.1) = 0. Therefore CftecAr. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Transposing. Transposing and uniting.
3) (2 x . 223 x = 3. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. the right member = V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Squaring. is x V. 2 Clearing of fractions. and to 5. Solve the following equations : = G.2 r. (x x = 3. Hence there is only one root. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Therefore. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Transposing. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. ViTie 4 z2 . for it satisfies the equation . + 6~ieT~3 . Hence x = the only root. = 3. both members reduce to 5.47) = 0. .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. If If x 3 = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a. equation it is an extraneous root. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. \ does not satisfy the given.12 . NOTE. viz. or x *j. Check. Factoring. 4. x root of the preceding equation. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . .
224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Ex. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Solve af*.
o. 3. 4.*2a. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 3 6. . some of the roots be extraneous. Vi 2 8a.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Let 8 x f 40 . 2. y then x2 . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.8 x + 40 = 36. _ 2 y . 5. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. = 7. 45 14VJB = .f40= 5. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2_8z 440 = 49. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. x Since both =9 or 1.i~24 = 0. 2Va. = 26. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.8 z40 = 7. + 40 = 6. 2. Ex. = 0. Q . Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. This can be seen without substituting. x =6 or 3. x + Vx a? = 6.35 = 0. Substituting. 412a* = 16. members of the equation were squared.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.
f 18 = 24.226 11. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 19. 4 V SB* 4 a. 17. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 12. +x . 16. 15. 20. 14. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. 2. 18. a. +3= 6.
3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2 + 80 = 12. however.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . then (x 2)Q 0. " Or. we make a? what the value of Q. ^ = 381+2.2 x 5 by x 3.2 + 4. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. even if Q is unknown. Ex.bx? + ex2 4. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder." transposing. if Q was known. Without actual division. Without actual division. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 227 . find the remainder when m. ax4 4. by dividing 3 x* f. 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. E = ax + &z + m) Q. to x we # = 2 3. 1.360 = 244. If x* .2) Q . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. = 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. 3 2 Ex.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. does not contain a?. a? R = x* . no matter If.4 a. could. Hence.
+ 7 = 632. fora?. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.228 282.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 5 (4x . x m is factor of the expression. The Factor Theorem. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 6. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 8. 3. 2 j 7.4(.g. 43 3 E. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. } 2 by a1.8. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . the divisor is a factor of the dividend.3)f 11 =. of the division 3) is m in place of x. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.949. hence (x divided by x 4.g. x* s 2 4. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.8'= 0. + ^by x + b. 5. the remainder equals 8 2 x . If the remainder is zero. if 8 42  .
e. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 5. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.12. or 5 4 + 3^ .12 = 0. + 15. a 5x 6. or x 4. 6. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. are f 1. i. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. + ttt15 = 0. 9. 1. 7 46 = 0. a 8a f 19 a 12. Therefore x ( 1). a^8^ + 19a. 15. 8. then x8 7 x'2 4. m f m n 14. 23.13m + 30 10. a. 3 2 : 7.1. 1. 17.r6 = 0. 229 1. 2. 20.7 x + 15 = 0. 18. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. f 15 does not vanish. is a factor. Resolve into factors 4.9^ + 23^15. 8. . f 3. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. & p*. f 5. Let x = . a + 32. factors of the absolute term. 106 division. 2m 5m .1.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .49 = 0. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. The 5. oj 5x2 f3a. 24. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. ^10^429^20=0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.7 + 16 . Factor a? 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 11. _ .TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. + 27 + 27. 21. 2 2. 3. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 25. a 2a + 4. a? 19. p 5^ + 8p 4. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.
2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. If n is a Theorem that 1. For substituting y for x. It y is not divisible by 287.xy +/). and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd." . Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 1. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . actual division n.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 286. Ex.g. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. x* f/ = (x +/)O .230 285. By we obtain the other factors. xn f. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. if n is even. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if w is odd. 2 Ex. xn y n y n y n = 0. 2. is odd. ar +p= z6 e.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. : importance. 2. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.
THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.= . a. 3. as 27=0. 27. 26. y 3 +8=0. preferable. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . x3 8=0. 28. Hence = (m Ex. leads 231 is The first method. however. since it more directly to the prime factors.i mn f w 2). Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.
of quadratics. If two of the quantities x f y. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. + 6 a?V . (5) Combining (5) with (1). 290. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. x y. xywe have 3. to equations of the fourth few cases. = 6. & + 2 xy + = 25. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general. (4) Hence.1. 232 . can be solved by the methods degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 4 xy = 16. xy are given. Squaring Solve (1). Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. however. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree.y4 is of the fifth degree. * A I. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
r (" 1 = 876.g. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 3. 1. EXERCISE Solve: 1. = . ' 10. 12.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. but can be found. b=3. The arranged in pairs. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. I I x + y=7. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. x and xy are not given. ^. 108 2. " "' "' { r 8. 233 y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.
o 18.  f J. I* Jj ^ [.  .20) = 0. or JJ. 19.a. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 3.. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 4 y = 20.  42 y + Transposing. A system of simultaneous equations. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Substituting in (2) Simplifying. or y = 1 . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 7 . 5. I x+y = a.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. aj = 2. 6 "I 14. x " (3) 49 etc. la. 2 (1) From (1) we have. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Factoring. . . one linear and ne quadratic. Ex.?/ i = 6. + 29 = 0. r^ 2 as ] f. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.~ y = 5. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.i/ = r 13. ' ' . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.
quantities.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. x2y. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10. Solve . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. y* + 2y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4 f + 2 y = 3. If of the preceding type. ' x*. 9. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 1. III. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 3y) : Factor (2). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.
(rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). j Substituting y in (2). 11 a2 Factoring. = Ex. = 0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 15 x2 . (3) (4) Subtracting. Solve 2. (1) (2) x x 5.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 2 . 109 a. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. } VI09. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ .
y? a? f . f 1 150 a?. " IV. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.6. (4) (3).3^42^=43. and others not belonging to them. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A.y = 7. 298. 2 xy + y2 = 10. Division of one equation by the other. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).125 ay = . can be solved by special devices. Bxy9. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.xy 4. ' ^ 15.!. E.175 ay = 12. 150 */2 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).
Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we obtain by squaring. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 189. Solve Ex. Some simultaneous ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. jc~ y = 9. Therefore x = 16. 2. at first it is unknown quantities. y = 3.. (1 > (2) 1. x 2 . y . i ^ *>.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. x +y y etc. = 12 J. B. from (2). i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. xy. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . * ' 300. we have from (1).
2. M6. 239 Ex. . [2x + : y= 17. 7. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4. F+y+ . Hence = V or = 4. 6. I e. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 36* 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .
4 y = 47 a. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . . . 16. 25.21 ^ = 15. * . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = y 1 y* . 19 ' 26. 27. = 198. f 18. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. + o5)(6hy) = 80.
as a .of  According to the definition of division. 25 34. ^ oo . etc. 30. 32. oo 301. Q 7. 31. . ~\ OK OO. . . 3 a2 38.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . finite  =x y if = x. 7' j/ 39. . y % 9 f*K 36. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. hence may be any finite number. 33. etc 302. Interpretation . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . or ~ indeterminate. = 48201.
is satisfied by any number.000 a.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Hence such an equation identity. or that x may equal any finite number. . TO^UU" sufficiently small. creases. the answer is indeterminate. = 10. Or. as + l. ToU" ^100 a. . The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. it is an Ex.e.g. (1). i. 306. cancel. I. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. The ~~f fraction . (a: Then Simplifying. oo is = QQ. 1. (1) is an identity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. without exception. be the numbers. and .decreases X if called infinity. and becomes infinitely small. i. great. 1.e. Let 2.242 303. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.x'2 2 x = 1. (1) = 0.increases if x de x creases. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . By making x any * assigned zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. x f 2. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. equation.can be If It is made larger than number.
and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. . 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. z = 1 Substituting.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 1=0. no numbers can satisfy the given system.e. The sum is of squares 2890. two numbers is 76. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve  9 7. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). * 6. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. (2). Solve x a. y finite QO. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 3. third and sixth parts.8 x + 15 6. EXERCISE 1. 42 and' their product is 377. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Solve . is their 2.2 y = 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 2. = oo. and a. Hence /.
103.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. p. . and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. the area becomes f% of the original area. Find the dimensions of the field. increased by the edge of the other. 190. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the sides. Find the edge of each cube. of a rectangular field feet. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the hypotenuse is 37. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the edges. 255 and the sum of 5. of a right triangle is 73. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 13. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 148 feet of fence are required. equals 4 inches. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 10. 146 yards.quals 20 feet. and the edge of one. Find these sides. and the diago(Ex. 8. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the sides of the rectangle. The area of a nal 41 feet. 12. 9.244 3. 14. and the sum of ( 228. Find the numbers. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the side of each square. is 6. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the other two sides. two numbers Find the numbers.) 53 yards. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 6.
. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. differ by 8 inches. the quotient is 2. Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. irR *. Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and if the digits will be interchanged. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. by the product of 27 be added to the number. is 20 inches.
3. 4. . Since d is a f 3 d. 17. added to each term to obtain the next one. to produce the 3d term. f .CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The common differences are respectively 4. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. progression.1) d. The progression is a. 11. of a series are its successive numbers.. 309. . a f d.. 16.. P.. to produce the nth term. : 7..) is a series. 3 d must be added to a. each term of which. To find the nth term / of an A. 12. a + d. to produce the 4th term. series 9. 2 d must be added to a. and d. 19. 15 is 9 f.. + 2 d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. a. except the first. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. a + 2 d. to each term produces the next term.7.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. P. a 11.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. (n 1) d must be added to a. The first is an ascending. . the second a descending. . P. a 3d. of the following series is 3. Hence / = a + (n . 10. An arithmetic progression (A.
first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. . 8. of the series 10. . = I + 49 = *({ + . 115. 1J. 5. 6. 7. .. 6. the term a. 3... = a + (a Reversing the order. d . Find the 12th term of the 4. P... 21. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6 we have Hence .4. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. = 99... Find the 5th term of the 4. 4^. (d) 1J. 3... if a = 5. 24. 5. 3.16. 4..' cZ == . 10. 2J. 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. series . the last term and the common difference d being given. 7. P. 3.3 a = l. d = 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . = 2.. . 5.. . 19. series 2. 2.8. 2.. 1. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 9. 1. 6. 5. a = 2. 9. 99) = 2600. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. ..PROGRESSIONS 310. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . . 8. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3.. 7.. (a + + (a + l) l). P. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). Adding. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 8. ? (a) 1.
15. to 15 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . In most problems relating to A. (x +"l) 4. 21.248 Find the 10. 11. 29. \n. 13. 2. and for each than for the preceding one. rf. 16. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. to 16 terms. 20. to 7 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. to 20 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . 15.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . 15. 12. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. '. 1J. 2J. to 20 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 6. (i) (ii) . 1. 7. Sum the following series 14. 1. 1. 31. 8. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 11. P. 23. . : 3. 33.7 f to 12 terms. > 2f 2. 7. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 3.1 f 3. . . 18. to 10 terms. strike for the first yard. 22. 16. + 3. striking hours only. 12.. . to 20 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . hence if any three of them are given. 7. to 8 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 11. 17. 4. 19. . . 11.
67. 89.e. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 100. 12. #. 2.. Find the series. The first term of an A. 144. a = 12. or if x Solving. . 49 (1) (2) Substituting. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. P. I Substituting in (I) and (II). if s = 204. J = 49. the second one mean between the other two. 133. 23. = 144. if a. and b form an A. 111. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. I. = 1014.. l)e?. The series is.6 n). 2 (2) From Hence (2). Findn. P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. n d.1) . 78 n Substituting in (1). 56. s 24ft last term 144. hence n = 6. .6. = a + (w. 45.1).104 w + 408 = 0. 78. = 1014. From (1). P. Substituting in (2).PROGRESSIONS Ex. Solving. = n(104 . or 11 J. n = 6. a = 49 6(71 . 312. 1. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. is 12. the and the sum of all terms 1014.~n~\ 408 6). = 13. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. d = 6. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 34. 6 n2 . 204 = ^ (98 . Ex. 6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 122.
Find d and Given a = 1700. 11. f? . . and s. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 16. a+ and b a b 5. 74. 15. 14. a x f b and a b. has the series 82. 6? 9. 8. produced. = ^ 3 = 1. 3. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. How much . ceding one. Find a and Given s = 44. n = 13. 4. P. Given a = 1. Find d. Find n. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 17. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. of 5 terms 6. = 45. How much did he save the first month? 19. I. 17. = 16. f J 1 1 / . n has the series ^ j . n = 4. Given a = 4. 78. Find?. I Find I in terms of a. Find w. = 52.3. n = 17. n = 16. s == 440. 13. s = 70. = 1870. 12. 10. m and n 2. d = 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Find d. Given a = . Find a Given a = 7. 7. n. = 83. y and #f5y.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . T? ^. Given a = . n = 20.
ar8 r. 24.. ratios are respectively 3.. 108.. The progression is a. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 36.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. +1. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. of a G. If n is less : than unity. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. E. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . . is it (G. A geometric progression first. . or 81 315. <zr . rs = s 2 .) is a series each term of which. P. (I) of the series 16.. 36. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . The 314. . called the ratio. NOTE. 24. r n~ l .g. 2. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. P. 12.. ar. is 16(f) 4 . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 4... 4.arn ~ l .. 36. . and To find the nth term / of a G.. I. P. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 2 a.. 4 (1) . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . or. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .
series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 10. 72. EXERCISE 1. 4. 9. 72. (b) 1.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. Find the 5th term of a G. 6. 18. whose .. hence.. first 5.. series 5.*. 2 term 3. 80. 36.. whose and whose common ratio is 4. is 16. P.288. 144.54. a = I. 8.. Jive quantities are in.4. fa. . I = 670. In most problems relating to G. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. . ... 9. P. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. first term 4. . .5. 288. f.. .. first term is 125 and whose common . . is 3. volved . 7. 36. 676. Hence the or series is 0. l. 20. 144. or 7. 1. fa. (it. 25. ._!=!>. . series 6.. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.72. Ex. P. if any three of them are given. (d) 5.6.. 144. . 36. Hence n = 7..l. ? (c) 2. r^2. 3. .. + 5. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 576. P.. i 288. Find the 6th term of the series J. \ t series . .18. series .5. P. whose and whose second term is 8. And the required means are 18.18. f. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 0. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . 9. 4. +f%9 % . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.
= 3. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. be written If the value of r of a G. 15. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.i a9 .. 48. = 3. a^. and hence ~ r . J. 81. 16 . == 160. 126. .. Find the geometric mean between 7.J and 270. . of r n decreases. may be than any assignable number. to 6 terms. 4. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Find a and n = 4. a. 23. 25S series : 32.. . 13. 14. to 7 . 22. 1. 14. 2. 19.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 42. to 7 terms. 12. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. s = 605. 24. 81.. to 8 terms. Given r = n Z 5. 12 terms.. 36. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 54.nV> i*> !718. Find a and Given r = 3. r . I. Find a and 4. J. n = 5. 20.. s = 310. 243. >"> . to 5 terms. . . 1. 27. 72. P. 21. n = 5. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. J. . M. Z s. to G terms. is less than unity.. J. + 4 . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1.
. . 5. 6. 250. i i J.. of: 11. I. The sum r. 9.72. . 4. 2. Given an infinite series of squares.Ql. 1. .. r = j.37272 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . ratio 15. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 14. . i. 8.. .. is J.01 ^ . what is (a) the sum of the areas..191919. of an infinite G... 66 Therefore .27777 . . 9.555.. 12.= _4Z* . . 6. .072. =A+ 10 i... 40.. .717171. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 4. 1. Find the sum to infinity.= .272727. . 1 r = .)7?7272 .. is 16. = a . 2. 1... is 9. 16. If a = 40. 7. . 1. The sum Find the of an infinite G....1.. first and the common term.. 8. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. and the first term is Find 17.254 Ex..3 + . 5... = 990 . = . .00072 f .99 . of all squares ? .. Hence . . . P.. = . 118 : infinity of the following series 3.3121212.... P. 10. 3. 16. P. 100. 12.3727272 .. ... 13.072 + .. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. (6) the sum of the perimeters. . Find the value 9..
29. 7 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (a2) 6. 25. 14. 16. : (1 + xy. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (xy) : 6 . a6 8 16 in . 5.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . .6) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 26. coefficient of . . 22. (a + b) . (a 100 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.b ). Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 20. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 21. (\ 9 . l 2. 28. . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 2 2 24. 10. 4. 17.b) w (a (a f (1 . 12. 15. 11. /2a+Y\ 8. (s + i). 4 7. .6) 20 . Find the 6th term of (x . 13. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .
4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. c = = = 2. 2. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3.  2. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 3. 1. 3. 1. 4. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3. 4. + 2. 1. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4. + c(a  c). if y=2j 2. l. 3. 1. 1. 4. 2. 1. 2. 3. 2. 2. 3. 1. 1.  2. 1. ^+^ 3. 6. 2. + 2. 4. . 3. 1. 4. 3. 2. ft 4 ) 5.c )(fta) 1. . 3. (c 3. 2. 2. aft 3 + 4. 1. 6. 2. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 6. 7. 3. 5. 4. = 2. 5. 1.  8 ^ 2. ft) . 5. if = = = 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. 2. 3. 6. 2. 1. 5. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5. c if 7 . 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 2. 2. + 1. 1. 3. 2. if x^l. 3. 2 . 4. 24 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. if = = 2. 2. 2. 1. 1. 6. 1. 2. 4 2. 3. 2. a ft c = = 2. 3. 3. 2. 2. 3. 1. 5.a(a 4. 3.  a)(a 1. y 3.f ac 1. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 2.
1. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 6 a4 4 a8 .7 y 2* 4. 17. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.2 x?/. 4. 9.2 a?y + 3 aty . + 3 y 2* .c' 2 4 / . .3 a?y . 7 xy 3 . . 1. 2. ' b) + 3. a 4 + 11 a . 24. 2  + 12 a 8 .a) . 16. 9. 29. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.2.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2 .259 x c) . 7y 4 . a: .a8 . x = 4. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5. x 3 x' 14. 20. 21. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 10. 5. + 2. 1. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .2 z8 4 x. 4 y 13. 15. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 8 .8 3 + 7 x4 . x C 4 4x y + . 7.r 6 x  4 xy . 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.5. 40. a.\ yz + xz. 4 x 4 . c)(x a} . 2. a. + 8 x4 *y . 4. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .x 5 4 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 6.  a) (c 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 26. 2 x 8.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .2 x2 . 15.a 5 a . 4. 4 z . + 1.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + 4 ?y . 5. = 2. 3.a 4 . c = 3.8 + 2 // .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . + 4. a /> 3. 5.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. x3 2 a2 . if a 6 = = c = 3. x 3 11. 8. 25. b(x (b 1. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 12.7 ys. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2.3 xyz.10.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . or . ~c)(b. (5. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .2. . r> . 18.4.7 + . 41. . f 8. 21.
{G * 2 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.4.7.(4 x 2 .c 4 3 a. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.?> x 4 20.1)}] . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 4 3 5 y/ .c.5.(5 y .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. a  ft + c. . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Simplify 31. 29.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.6T .x . : a x .{2 x 2 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. . 3 ft. . 7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 5 10 + 7 .x 2 4. From of 2 the 4.c 3 a. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 ..[4 x 4.(x* . . 4 .(7 x 4. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 4vTT~y 3.a ft.(4 * . 34. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . ft. f ft. . Take the sum 4x 4.2 x 8y2 44 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. c 4. (*) a  c.27~~7)}].2 .(a . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.x2 .(x 4. 4 4 4. .] 26.3.4 Vl 4.x 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.1). 2 x 32. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .#48. 35. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.c. of a.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. take the sum of G x 5 . 5 10 4 G 11 4. c 4ft. 36. 4 2 x2 23. 0" 30.260 19.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . and . sum of . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .8 3 4.3 . 5 4 7 12 . ft 25.2 3 ax 2 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .6 x ] .[4 z 8 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. = x y ft z. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .2 a . x'2 .5 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.(5 c . 542 x 2 and . c =x y }~ z. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.3 x . 33.4 ft) 4.2) .4) .3 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.
3 *). 56.3 c)]. 2 52.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 3 x 42.b (c .(7 a. 64.[2 .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. + 4x + 5)(j.6c) (a + f c). 2 : 7e)a}].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . . 59.(2 a + 5 a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. .{2 a (ft .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (5 a 39.3).(2 . 45. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.2a . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 63. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 65. )(lz a ).4 a 2 + a 4 ). (.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 13 a . 43.2 2 + 1)(7. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).r 2:c+ l)(ar.Z . . (/> 4 .{3 c .c).(7 i + 4 r:) .7). 60. 2 53. (x . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).5 )}] + {4 c .c 2 .(5 y .2 zz . + *+!){> + 2).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .a~^~c)K].{2 a . (.JT^T+1)} + (2 .2x + 3). 2 ft 41.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.5)} + (3 a 2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .0)} .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.6)}].3c).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . . (x.2 2 . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .[4 x  5 .  2 a  {3 2x a .96 [17 a.& + {. 49. a {. 68. (1 55.(4 d . (1 ar+a.56.4 a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).(2 a 2 .3)(*5)(* 7).be) (a 58. 57. 4 + 2 2 + 1).2c(V/ . . 46.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).1). . (r (1 (a. 50. a . 48.ac . 62. 2 2 x + !)(* .(2 x2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .2)(1 . 'J 44. 51. .rf)} + a [.6 xy .(6 .12). . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (4 + 3a 2 .ab . 67.3 z 2 ). 54.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.
76. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ar .5 . 91. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 2 + a 2 ). (a 2 ft 2n 4.z) . ft ft ft a}.z\x 4.c) rr identities.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 83.c) . . (x (x ( + *) .262 69. 82.(a 48 8 8 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .y + z)(x + y . 73. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .v) 4.c) 2 . 94.9y2). 1).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 74.r 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).y)\x y). 87.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).(4 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c) 4) (ft 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.x + y + z). 85.z)(x y + z)(. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .6*y .b 4. (p 2 .c) .m np c . 70.3 a .{3 a . 93. b 4.c)].ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).n pc). ft" l Simplify 80. . xy y 2 ).(c 4. 75. 4 4 . 71.2 (y 4.2y)(. 88.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 79.(ft 4. Prove the following 8 4.q).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).2 (a .:y)( a.c . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.O (a 4(a 4. 92.c) j. 89. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). ft 95.am&t 4 A 2 *).3y) a (* 2 4.a) 2 .c)} .ft) 4 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 77. 2 (x 2 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).c .<f(p .y). 84. (a (2 b)*(a 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).ft) + 4(2 .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .2 ft}) f (3 a . f 72.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 86.(/>  3 v)^(. 4. 90. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . . 1). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. ft 78. ft /.3 (ft .
40 />) . 116. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. r . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).16 a 6 4.9 x 2 .27 x* . (2< 107. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .&). 109.*) (x 8 . 113.(2 a 2 . [10( 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 103. 1).y 4 ) . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.r 4 4.(7 xi/ . 26 (a 4 c). 3*. 124. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 108.2 xy 8 . . 106. 121. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".3 a"+ 4. 2 4 41 x 4a.4 aft .1).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 102. 122.6 y 4 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 117.(a 1 2 8 .35 x 2 2 ) . 123.y 4 . a*.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (. 120. 1O4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.v/ ~ // = a: . 114.y 2 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (8 x* 115. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). . 105. 2 (a+ .2 2% 4.2y 2 4.a".b) 98. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (80 a 112.5 b*).) .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 25 4 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.xy 4. 10). 99 100.5 xy).(x 2 . 118. 110.
4) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .r>) . 135. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 129. 5 146. 5(2 x . 42(3ar 145. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.4) .G) . 128. 138. 1) .1) (a? . .n .2) = 3 .a:)]}. (5a: 150.5{.r + 7[or .2(10 x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .(x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2 7^~5] + 1).(x f 9). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 3) = x\x .3) = 12 .3). . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 7(2 x .2(4 . . 137. y (* l x.18 *&) (1 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 142.(j a? 144. 126.3 a:). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.12 M 132. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).1) .19) + 5 = 4 . 3(2 x 134.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).5).3) (3 x 4. 143. . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). .7) = 4 .8 6 .3 x). (4 x . 139. 1) = 2(* . .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 136.3(2 z .2(j: .9) 4. 149.2(5 .2) + 2(ar + 4). 127. x 147.3).9) + 3.4(0 x .(1 . 2 4(ar .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. . (*+ + . 10(2 x 141.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).22. 148.27 a 3" .5) = 12(4 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .2) (a: + 3). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.7(4 * . o o 140.(x + 3) ] .264 125.
+ 10) (ar . will produce F.l)(z .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.2 x) (4 .8) = (2 x 4. + 5) = (9 .r + 3) .2 x) = (1 . + 4) (2 x + 5). . 5(ar x . (a. =  (F 32). 154.6 x) (3 .1) (s + 3).(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .5)(. 164. transformed into F. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.a:) + 229. these two angles would be equal. (7 14 . 155. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 156.3) (a: .29) 2 = 1. The second contains 3 first. 163.T)O .? . 159.76. + 2) + (5 . . a: ar a. and the third twice as many as the first. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . (x (x a.z) (4 .1) O + 4) = (2 * .2). (2 . (a . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 2 4 .3) (3 . 153.9) + (a. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 166.19) + 42. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. find the value of F. If the area of the frame inches. 265 152.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. = 15.17) 2 + (4 x . 158.24.5 x) = 45 x . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.(5 x .7) (1 x .25) 2 . (a) If C. 160. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 162. .7) (a.5*) + 47.3) = (3 x . How many 170.3) (j. The sum What 171. 161.2) a + 7(x .5(x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . sheep more than the 169.3) (3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 157.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. f^ + ^sO..5) = (3 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. = 2 C. .14) (a: + 3). (3 O + . 165. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.4) (a . . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2) (7 *) + (*.
A house has 3 rows of windows.36. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. if each increased 2 feet. 13 a + 3. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. A boy is father. Find the dimensions of the floor. younger than his Find the age of the father. power one of the two Find the power of each. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. How many are there in each window ? . 188. Find the number. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 181. z 2 + x . 15 m. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 2 2 + a _ no. train. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 186. father. . . 176. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. two boys is twice that of the younger. ll?/102. x* 185. 3 gives the 174. same result as the number diminished by 175. 179. respectively. z 2 92. 10x 2 192. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 4 a 2 yy 42. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. aW + llab2&. 187. +x 2. sister . + 11 ~ 6. 189. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 178. 7/ 191. A each 177. . and 5 h. was three times that of the younger. side were one foot longer. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 190. + a.56. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. dimension 182. 180.266 173. 12 m. number divided by 3. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number.
6 y2 + 4. + 8. 244. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 215. 222. 203. 218. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. a: 231. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.3 c/> + 6 cq. 212.22 z + 48. 2 2 y f 1. 3 x V . 202. 3 x 2 . y 2 194. 8 a: ar. z 2 2. 2 a 8 . + 3a 196. 208. 195. 224.c) 2  (a . a: . 2 . .6.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 239. x* + 8 2 + 15. 221. 206.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.6s. # 2  29 y + 120. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 233.19 z 4 204.1. z + 5x 2 .28.6 2 ?/ . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2 200. 201. 230. 6 197. a^a 226. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.14 2 . a. .(b + rf) 2 . 245. 7x 2 225. 213. 217. a.10 xy.64. 229. a 2 . + 198. 5 x 2.10 y a x* .a 2/A 214 12 x*y .12 * . 3 ap 2 . 2 x 2 . 3y 248. 238. . . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. xm+l 243. a.21 a:  54. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2a te 3% ly 247. 4a 2& 2 241. 267 199. 227. (a + . + 30 x. 7a 228. 210.10. 8 a. + 2 . ifWy+b. 216. 2 a 2 .8 6 2. a a: a: 237. a. 235. a+a* + o a +l. wiy + la mx + aw.r?/f y 2 9.20 z 8 a: 220.3 xy. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 211.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 23 12. 2  5 xy 13 y a.c) 2 . 246. 24 2 + 2 . x*y 223. 60 a 2  a: // 205.19 a . 207.3 xf + 3 * 2y . .x + 1. *2 234.6 aq . 232. 12 x +4. . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 209.77 y + 150. a: 236. 3y 2 + ary . 16x 4 81. x 5 . x 219. 4 m +^.
269. 264. 7 ax 250.12.13. x 2 f 9j: + 20.80.(55. 28 2 f 71 x . 265.15 + 30.11 a 2 . F. + 8. 3 #2 255. 257. 2 + 7 r f 2. + 23 x f 20. a 4. x 2 + 4 + 3. 8 2 + 10 x .9 x . 7 12 2 2 . a. 30 ^ .10. * a .a + 2 4.16 x . of: 266.3.1 9 . a: .4 ab + 1. 6. * 2 . 251.3 abc . x 2 4.91. 5 x 2 256.ry 21.9 x + 14. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.18 xy + 5.G7 x f 33. 2 a.6 by. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x*y* 4. I Find the II. 3 a% 2 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 . C. 261.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . + 20 x 4.11 x f 28.2 z . 259.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. z 2 267.ry .2/ 2 . . + 8 x + 5. + 3 x + 2. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.15. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.120. * 2 .73 xy .C. x* . 270. 10 x 2 .5 ab f 2.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 2 8 .48 afy 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. a? a: a: // 262. 22x2 a. 15 # 2 z/ /.x . 3 ay 4.M. 252. x 2 + 5 f . x 2 + 2 x . 2 x2 .23 + 12.23 x f 20.&z. 10 a.4. x* . * 2 . z 2 268.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 254.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 18 x 2 .9. ft a. 1 x ar Find the L.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . a 3 a 2 2 .8.10 a 4.7 f 5.36.r .14 bx a%% 8 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. of: 253. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 2 . 260. x 2 263.3 x . 258.2 aft*. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).
2c a: 282.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 289 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j.rL. a..J' 4 2 2 w mp . *2 " 2 + Oge. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 8 .!/. z2 (a 2 + c)a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280. + ac . 285 z4 n* + a.ar 1 279. m 4.
x 7. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^_2*(m 308. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . Lnl + ar 2 a. ^. 4 3 301. O(ca) 306. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
ft) 2 322. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .(a .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1a: + y a.. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. _ x8 . } . 1 x2 + + a. a: 1 313. 2 + y 2 319. (1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. . 1 _. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.
.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.9 *// + 27 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .y20  2y + 4 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 lOx 5x./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.6* t 328. 250 5 10 2 325. a: 2 x* . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . * 3a.15 33 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.ll. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 20 44 333. . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .V  + y  x 3y a .5 a ... 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.2 +lOar 2 a.7 xy + 12 x .
?_2 ^ . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 1 345. + l + IV.y. a: 349 _ o. \x yj 340. w \. 348. aj 339. 7 ( ?f!?.. ( 342.1V. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. + ni + . (af2/.) 2 . if a = 3. (ar \ 346. ** i.+ r . 338. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. f V.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. xi 347. +^ a: y x .r 5 2 . \5yl 341. fl. (aWi + iJ. ' 2 "l 5 . 352. 5 343. 344. (a \ + lV. a>74 .
1+2 362. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. + x x a . y360. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368.
+ 1) 45 O 377. . __4 2x 3_ = !. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 379. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 {2 x 381. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. ^ . <3 378.*2 = 15. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. . J !__7. 4(* . 8  376.
3* 177.1 . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. u '2 a.25 x + . 399. . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).  J). _____ .5 x =r f . b 404. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. m x 398.8 = .75 x f .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 400.  8 9* x ~r. + 4 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. ^ (a . 40.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. f 1 1 + a 403. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 396.2 a:  1.25. 401.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H..147. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.6  .5 ^ ~ a: a. a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).. 397. . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. c .
421. 18 be subtracted from the number. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 418 ~jo.  a) 2 6 2a. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. the order of the digits will be inverted. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. In a if and 422.c) .278 410. and was out 5 hours.(5 I2x ~r l a) . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Find the number. Tn 6 hours . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. far did he walk all together ? A . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 420. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 411. hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .
a 2^ 8 + aft* . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. find : a : c. . wi* + y= ny.& 5 ) (a 8 . x 427. 438. : i.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. . b.6 8 ). ax is \ by  ex + dy. If a b : =5 n : 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 3 and 1J. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. z 2 y. if .iand 22 22 I a . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 432. a  t>. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.46 2): (15a 2 . 428. find the angles of the triangle. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Which ratio is greater. 433. Find the length of the parts. a. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. y. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 430. Find the fourth proportional 426. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. : If is one equal 434. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Find the mean proportional to 429. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 435. 431.49 63). z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Solve 436. d. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 2 2 8 2 . a + 5.
7jr9y = 17.35. 449. Solve the following systems: 441. 5x+4y=lQ. The volumes If their diameters. 9/> = 2 . 28 = 5 a . 453. 443. . 457. c. 446. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 4 = 5 y + 29. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). . 8 . + 5y = 59. if 2 ft : 439. 8 x + y = 19. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 455. x + 17 # 53. 445.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 459. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. a: 2y= = 1 . 42 = 15y + 137.4 12 .rf2# = l. 450. 456. .*. a: a: + 5y). 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 458. = 25. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 3 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.(or l(*2y)=0. 3 a. /) ar a.7 y = 25.. . 21 7 = 27 + Op. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 1(3  a. 7 442. 7 a: . 448. a. 9ar7# = 71.11 7.59 = 3 z. 7a?y = 3. ?/ 447. 5 2 = 7 .55 y = . Find the value of a. 454. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5z4:# = 3.11 y = 95. 16. . 451. />(. 452. ft. 444.89 = q. ft. 56 + 10y = 7a. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .
468. (or . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . _ 469. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. i = 5. ^ + i^ = 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.  = 2.2y) (2 = 2J.. 8 461.+ =2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 473. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 465.7. ax by = c \ 472. ax cx by = m. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.?/ + 1 . + eyn. x y 474.c=563y. 475.
A spends \ of his. whose difference is 4. 481. 477. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. 479. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. How much money less 484. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the principal and the rate of interest. by 4. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 483. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the numbers. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and in 20 months to $275. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . the Find their ages. Find their ages. fraction becomes equal to . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and the other number least. to . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. years. age. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 485. Find the fraction. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and in 18 months to $2180. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. . Find the number. 487. 486.
? + 2y = 8. 1. 495. 1+1 = 6. 3ar 503. = 209. 492. * + 425  = ./ 504. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 3 a: + 5=84. 5 + a. 5^ 9z = 10. 2/>3r = 4. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . ifi = x a. 2a:f 7. = 20. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. + y 5 y = 101 . z y x 25 . z y ifi = z x 502. 4 497. 2 e. ~ 507. 490.z = 12. a: + // = 11. 7 + 2 z . x f y f z 29 . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. = 15. + # +z= 35. . 2 a. x s + y z = 18J ./ f z =a. . . a. 4 506. 2y + 3a = ll. x y f z = 13. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 3 x 500. y Solve : x +z= 5.z = 20. 496. *i. 4z+3z = 20. . 489. 2 2 = 41. 8. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a number . : Solve the following systems 491. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.5#+2z = $x a: G. and the difference of their Find the numbers.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. \ . a: f z = 79. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. . 494. 493. 2y + 2z = a: 2. a. 498. a: 499. 7. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.
36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c. ll" . 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523. + + 3579 2+?. + : = 1472.
Find the numbers. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and CA=7. if the number be increased by Find the number. Tf and run together. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. N. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. In circle A ABC. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. M. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. . his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. in 28 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. AB=6. BC = 5. they would have met in 2 hours. CD. 527. E 533.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it is filled in 35 minutes. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. if and L. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. What are their rates of travel? . 530. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. the first and second digits will change places. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and BE. 532. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. it separately ? 531. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. AC in /). . touches and F respectively. If they had walked toward each other. L. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. How long will B and C take to do . and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . if L and Af in 20 minutes. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 90. When weighed in water.
x 2 544. x 2 + x. . i. if x = f 1. z 2  x x  5. 3 x 539. 550. 2. 547. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 2 541. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.  7. x 8 549. formation of dollars into marks. e. + 3. to do the work? pendulum. x*. c. a. FRANCE.  3 x. 540. 542. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. d. 2 x + 5.10 marks. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 543. 2. If to feet is the length of a seconds.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x*  2 x. One dollar equals 4.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. b.  3 x. . The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. from x = 2 to x = 4. 2  x  x2 . 546.e. The values of y. x *x + x + 1. GERMANY. 548. 545. The values of x if y = 2. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. then / = 3 and write = 3. 536. the function. The greatest value of the function.
553.1 = 0. z 2 . 566. 557.11 = 0.  2 1 a: a. // Solve y Solve y = 5.9 = 0. a: 559. z 4 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .r 1 561. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 2 8 . 2 567. Solve 552.r a: a: x a. + 5 . 18 x  4 = 0. 563. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.4 x 2 + 4 . and make the unit of the b. Solve// = 0. 3 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. x 4 . a? 4 x . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 2 x 2 560.13 = 0. a. x 2 ~ 2 .17 = 0. Represent meters.G . 558. J.= 0. c. 15.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. f.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. g. 565.4 . 3 x* . c. ' = 8. x 5 .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. = 5. 568. . a. a. 562. 555. r?. e. 564.6 + 3 . 2.3 = 0. 2 a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.7 = .11 x* + + 2 8 569. j.3 x . .5 x . 3 + 3 z .3 . i.15 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. \ to t = 5.4 = 0. 3 . 556.r . 572. + 10 x .3 x . x* . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. .0. h. If y +5 10. 2 554.= 0.
596. 2 611. a 2a. 609. 588.frf : 583. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. [ y =10. 608.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 604.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.%) 4 (aa. 600. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 598. x [ ?/ 577. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a 612. (# 2) .2 2 + y. + %) (a* + *) 5 . (a  8 ft) . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 9  4 fSb 607.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 597. 585 594. a: .x + 2 )'2 601. (1 + x a. x + z2) 8 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + + 4 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4. 4 (1a:) 3. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 1 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 3 . jj+. (1 (1 (1 . (a. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. a 8 606. 589. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2  2 aa: 2 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 4 . 595.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.5 xy = 0.(1 . : y* or 25. a. 599. (aiy. . 592. f ?>) 3 591. 593. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + ^) + (air%)8. . + . j^f = 3. 64 a 12 603.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 4 a.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 6 + 1) . 3 (f. a:. 582.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 5 a*. xY. 579.
the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 620. + 2 21 x = 100. Find the square root of 619. VOIOOD + V582T09. 630. 2. Find the eighth root 617. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 634. 2 + 21Ga. 622. 636.2. + 24 a 2 4 . V950484 . 651. 7) 2. 4370404. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .871844. 615. 49042009. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = 0. 623. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. find Jupiter's period. 25023844.12 a?y + y*.30. (x 9 x 646. GGff. : 5.150.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 628.2410. 210. 40. + 112 a 8 . ft . 639. 4J. 0090. 8*' + 24* = 32. 629. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.1024 x + a: 256. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 643. 625 : 621. 638. *+* = 156. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .*. = . According to Kepler's law. /. V 635. 371240. 644. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 624.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 9a. 645. 21. + 54 'x*y* . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 637. 035. 3a. 2 + 189 z = 900. 633. a 642.V250 .\/4090.49.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 32 631. = 70. 494210400001. x 2 . 942841. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. x 2 641. 632. 9g. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 650.15174441. 626. 647t x 2 648 649.53 x ~ . = 87. 614. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 44352.191209. 49.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. = 0.c = 0.a a )jr . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 693. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 706. 2 2 . 2 702. 2 2 697. a.ax . . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ax 2 698. 699. 694. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. ex abc= fx 0. 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 707.bx . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 696. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 695. 708.
3or i 16 . in value. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720.44#2 + 121 = 0. 729. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 724. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 716. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. Find two numbers whose 719. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. **13a: 2 710. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 16 x* .25 might have bought five more for the same money. a: 713. 721. 725. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. sum is a and whose product equals J. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 727. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 217 . The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 722. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. A equals CO feet. 12 4*+  8. Find the price of an apple. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. . 723.292 709. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 717.
293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 38.2? 50.X . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.2 ). 31.1 f ^ 2). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 52. 40. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .l). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 36.1 + x.1 f c" ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 41. 32. 39. 37. 43.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 46. . + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).aft* 1 + a 2*. 1 6. (v/x). . 33. 34. 42. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 + c. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 35.2)(x2 4. n. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.)(ai + &.
+ V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ~ r* x .294 753. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. 757. 768. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.1+J 756. JU. 754. [1r^ T 1 i . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758.. 761.
. 92VI5. 13 799.12VIT.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. + 2V21. a 9442V5. .2V3* ^ 807.VlO.2 V30. 7512V21. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. . Va 809. 3812VIO. 806. 103 788. 10 785. 787. c 792. 3J . 14 791. 783. 16 + 2V55. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 790.4 V(j. 793. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 786. 794. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. x 782. 789.
V14 a.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.Vc^lJ . 814. (x a: 2 ) 4 .g.V2 ar 10. 833. \/12 a. 836.\/2y  810. 3 x + 2 . = 1. 815. 830. 831. + Vx . 811. 816. 819. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . /9ar a: = 17.V? = 813. 812. 820. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .4 = 0. + ViTli + V7 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.f 5 = V5x + 4.79. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. + 103Var. 829.13 = 0.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. Va: . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.  5 + V3 f 12 817. x/aT+l . 818. VaT+lJ f ^l .
876.10 = 118. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 845. a. z*y 8 l64a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 2 x 3. 871. 875.a. . 840. 846. 864.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 844. f 12.3 Va: 2 . 4 x* 847. y 4. a 8 873. 16 859. a 872. 8^27^. x 8 2 857. 870.3 .3 a:. a. a. 9. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a: . 839. 4 a: 2 842. 2 a: 64 y*. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 8 a. 4 x 8 858. 729 867. 4 a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 861. 64. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a 18 4. +3 4 +  4. . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 40 x 2 7 f 49.  3x a. a. x 4 + f 2 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.ab9 ft*. 8 8 848. 852. + 1. a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . f b**. 865. f 841. 851. 4o. 5 a 4 7 a8 . . + . . . 855. 64 a 866. 868. 853. a 8 869. + 512 y8 874. 19 x 14.3 x .1.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 863.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 27 y 8. 856. a*" & 6n . V4 x 2 . 2 f" + a/ 15. 275 8 l.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a 8 850. 8 2a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.1000 6. 8 4a: 8 a. 6. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.x*y + 3x f 2. a l0m .12. 27 862. 8 860. 8 8  13 a. 8 . a: 849. 8 + a: 5 8 a.
901. a. 2 2 = 16 y. 900. a: 884. 885. a: 888.298 877. 895. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.5 xy + 4 f = 13. x a: lI = xz . 2 = 2 + 5. 886. f ?/ a: a: . M1 891 1 . z 2 898. a: a. 899. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 883.sy = 198. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 878.35. 1 x 893.1 = 2 a#.y 2) = 20. 2 + 2 f = 17.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 + y 2 . . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 894. . x 8 3 = 13:3. 896.y 2 + V(j. x 882. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.15. 2 . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. + ary + 2 = 37. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . xy + y = 32. +y f y = 7.18. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. y y 2 y 2 1121. . y 2 4. 887. . a. y*+ xy . a# f + xy = 126. 889. a: 2 897. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . y = 28. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 . a: + y 2 = 34. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.Vi' + 1 1_3. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 + xy = 28. 2 + xy = 10.xy + y 2 = 19. x*xy. 890. 3 x 2 . + 2y=\2. y 2 2 8f. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. a. a:y .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 5.
y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). x 2 ry + y = 3. = 8.y = a(ar + y).r a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. . 923. + y 8 = 189.16 y 3 8 = . xa 903. # + xy + y = 7. 3 :r(3 . a: y zx 12. . 912.3) 2 f (y .2 y) = 49 2 919. + 2 ary = 39. + y = 9. (3 x .x) = 21. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. ^ 2 .3)2 = 34.23 = 200. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. *y . 910. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. or or a? a: a: .y) (a? .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y). xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. + y)(a. 2 * 2 ~ g.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 2 2 916. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. (* 918. Vary + y = 6. y + a:y = 180.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y2 = 22. + 2 a:y + = 243. (a. 914. 920. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. (o. + ?/) . . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.#y + 2 = 27.3(* + y) = 6. x + y 2 = aar. 2 + y = 2 a 4. yz = 24. ary y = 8. 909. 917. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 5 xy = 11.y) (3 y . 911. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 3 y 8 ) =1216. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. y . 7 y . xy + x= 15.6. a:y xy 929. 921. * + y = 444. + ary = a*. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 23 x 2 . a: a. 2 924. x f 2 a:y = 32. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. (!) * . a: * a: a: ar 928. 907. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. x 4 299 xy z 904. y 3 2 2 922. 4 (a. 908. y x 2 = by.y) = 33. 905. 2 913. 2 915. a. + a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 906.
find the radii of the two circles. 2240. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 34 939. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.000 trees. diagonal 940. two numbers Find the numbers. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.300 930. two squares equals 140 feet. 944. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Assuming = y. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. + z) =108. If each side was increased by 2 feet. y( 934. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. In the second heat A . Tf there had been 20 less rows. Find the numbers. two squares is 23 feet. and 10 feet broader. (y + *) = . The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. feet.102. . 942. 943. is 3 . 935. and also contains 300 square feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. and the sum of their areas 78$. s(y 932. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. + z)=18. y(x + y + 2) = 133. A is 938. 152. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. is 3. a second rec8 feet shorter. *(* + #) =24. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. 937.square inches. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. z(* + y + 2) = 76. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 931. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. How many rows are there? 941. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Find the sides of the rectangle. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. is 20. and the difference of 936.
the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. . Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. . When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 953. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find its length and breadth. and its perim 948. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 950. is 407 cubic feet. . triangle is 6. and if 594 be added to the number. set out from two places. at Find the his rate of traveling. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and travels in the same direction as A. overtook miles. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find the number. Find the number. and that B. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. each block. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. P and Q. 952. the digits are reversed. that B A 955. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. whose 946. 949. distance between P and Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. A and B. sum Find an edge of 954. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 951. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two starts travelers. unaltered. Find the eter 947. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find in what time both will do it. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle.
12434+ j I 967. P. 3 . s  88. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. .. difference. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. (x 4 to n terms.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. and 976. P. are 29 and 53. *" 968. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).  2.. + (iiven a +  4 d . 958. 18th terms of an A.. 974. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. the terms being in A. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. . 964. 4 4 to 7 terms . Find the Find the common 977. 16 962. Find n f (ft) . Sum Sum to infinity. ^ 1 . 975. 961. 9th and llth terms of an A. 5. 966. Sum to 20 terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 972.. P. 970. Sura to 24 terms. '. to n terms.to infinity. f + 1 .321? 965. \ .454. 957.4142 . !Ll^ + n . P. ^ Vfirst five 959.. 4.v 973.. 1G series ... .3151515. Find n. 36 963. to infinity. 1 to n terms..... .302 956. 5. 3 + 5 7 + . x(x to 8 terms. to 7 terms..141414. Evaluate (a) . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. (to 2 n terms).. 969. Find the sum of 4.. J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. n to n terms. Find an A.1 4 f j$V . How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .. fourth of the unity.>/) to infinity..V2 . 971. = 4.
2 ..REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. 303 979.) the last term the series a perfect number. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 990. 2 grains on the 2d. and the common difference.. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 1. The sum 982. to n terms. P. of n terms of an A. 989. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. is 225.. named Sheran.. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 985. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 5 11. : + 9   V2 + .. Find four numbers in A. 980. and of the second and third 03. to oo. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . Find four perfect numbers.1 + 2.001 + .001 4. first 984. 0. Find the sum of the series 988. The term. P. 4 grains on the 3d. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 992.. Find the first term. and so on. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.3 ' Find the 8th 983. Find n. . to 105? 981. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.04 + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.+ lY L V. P. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . The 21st term of an A. 987. "(. 986. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. to infinity may be 8? .01 3..
at the same time. P. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. c. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Under the conditions of the preceding example. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. in this square a circle. 994. areas of all triangles. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. many days will the latter overtake the former? . P. 1000. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Two travelers start on the same road. ft. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 998. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. ABC A A n same sides. 512 996. 1001. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. . Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and so forth to infinity. are 28 and find the numbers. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 1003. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 999. prove that they cannot be in A. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. and G. The sum and product of three numbers in G. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 995. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. of squares of four numbers in G.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. (a) after 5 strokes. P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. If a. are unequal. 997. in this circle a square. The sum and sum . AB = 1004. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. inches. The fifth term of a G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. find the series. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. is 4.
1009. x) 18 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". + lQ . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. a: 8 7. Find the middle term of 1020. ) 1021. . (1 1018. 1008. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the two middle terms of 1013. . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). (12 #) 7 . 1012.o/) 14 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Expand  2 a.l) w f . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1006. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1011. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 2 ) 5.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.iV 2i/ 5 . 1014.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .
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123 . . Checks Coefficient 20. Aggregation.. signs of Algebraic expression . 19. .. . 9 ** .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. .. ... . lowest ratio " '* . . linear literal Common ** * difference .. . numerical .. . .. . . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . .178 Completing the square .....130 . 129 54.. ..193 11 . 158. . .] Abscissa Absolute term .108 160 " .. 37. . .. . 8 ....... . 232 169 807 .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .. 129. . 54. 232 mean progression ... simple simultaneous .. . ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . .... 246 91 " multiple. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 97. graphic tion of representa ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. quadratic . 9. t 53 120 . 112 54 54 251 .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 160 in quadratic form 191 . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. .
. L. . . INDEX 8 . . 184 54. Imaginary numbers .31. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . . inversely 122 numbers . 189. G.. . . 63.. Known numbers . 195 33. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.108 Minuend . 109 102 . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 253 28 70 1.. 17 65. Inconsistent equations . first and second . directly.. P . . . . 205 . 34. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 212 .808 Exponent Exponents. addition of " square of . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . . 120 Member. Insertion of parentheses .C Multiplication .... . . 23 10 91 102. Geometric progression . . Mathematical induction . 84. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. 45 Laws of signs . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Negative exponents 11 . . .251 Graphic solution of simultane.. 112 . 114. exponent . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . numbers . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . law of Extraneous roots .. 45.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . ... ..154 Order of operations " of surds . . 227 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . 91 . . Product '* 76 Infinite. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . arithmetic . 241 123 geometric . 227 geometric ... 243 7 . . 9. Like terms Linear equation . 180.. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 143. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 45. .
. .... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . ...... binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 9.... ... ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 129.. absolute 54 Variable . . algebraic Surds . 4 155 9 " of ... polynomial .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. . . Sum. 45 Trinomial 240 . . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 27 17 Unknown numbers ..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Gushing Co. Reprinted April. Norwood. Mass.A. December. .COPYRIGHT. 1910. Published September. 8.. 1910.S. 1917. U. August. 1913. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916. NorfoooS J. Set up and electrotypcd.
sign. 10.. 5000. 1. 3. 10. 6. 9 14. 73. 26z. 25. 16. 3 m. Multiplication.. (a) (/>) 1. 25. b. 8 ft. 13. 9 = 4. 19. 20 jo. 16 in. 15. 2. 16. 16. 8. 6. 192. B 10 mi. 3. = 5 81. 22. 512. 20 B. 3. is $10. 2 5. 11. 32. 7m. 37. 2. 24. _ 32. 12. 15. 30. 32.00000001. 7. 2.000. 1. ft. 5. 6. 13. x. 10. 3. 8. 106. 3* 7. 5. 11. 2. 21. 2  Page 8. 8.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 5. V 23. 2. 22. 23. 17. 18. 14 11. 10. 1. 256. 15. 17. Not 5. 7. 12. 2. 14. 26. 11. 14. 7. 1. 5. 12. 49. 2. 10. 9.1. in. 2. 1. 9. 49. 48 ft. A 38 mi. $100. 13 d.. 13. 5. 14. B $4700. 21. 4. 144.000. 128. 9. C $ 16. loss. 27. 13. 8 13.C. 3. 210. 10. 28. 9. 3. Page 8. Page 4. 59. 29. arithmetic. }. 150. 4. + 1. $ 1 50 10. T . 16.21 24.2. 1. 12. .000. 7. c. 16. 1. A . 1. 2. 17. Ot 15. 6. 7. 6. 20. 3.. 13 S. 6. 8. 14. 25.  1. ^. 16. 14. 20 \. . 6* 16. 11. 7. 3. 12. C $1(50.  22 20. A 15. 6. 18.. 3. 16. 6 yd. 15. x. 6. 9 m. . . 7. 19 4. 19. 27. 28. . 72 = = 216. 10. 2. westerly motion. B $20. 1. 17. 6..8. Page 13. 12. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 9. 2. 2. 1. 10g. 3. 9. Page?. 7. 4. 3.150. 5. 37 S. 4. 1. 20. 15. 29. 1.. 5. 20. 64. 115. 3. 3. 16. 5. 9.000. 6. 27. 30?. 16f 2. 24.000 negroes. Yes. i . 18. South America 46. 8. 13. 11. 10. B $ 128. 1. in 12. 3. 25. sign. 24. 3 below 0. 17. in. 12. $40. 0.000 Indians. 8.3. 126. 8. 14. 12.$9400. 0. 1. 6. 576. 21. $160. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.. 4. 3. 16. 32. 1 16. 9 16  larger than 7. B $80.  2 p.  13.000. 13 V. 18.000. 9. 85. 12. 2. Australia ft.  1.000. 4. 3. 2. Page 1. per sec.000. 12. 6. 3. 9. 14. 7.. C $60. 19. 32. 36. 2 ~ 15. 1. A Bl 7.12. 4. A $90. 16 in. 20. 18. 14. 89. 18.
58. 4.  40. a ft c. (ft) 7.000 . 21^. ft.5 (ft) sq. I. 0. 9. 5. Page 7. (b) 135 mi. Page 18. 3 a* + 2 at*. 11. 14. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. WIN + wiw. 10. r:A 29. (r) 2. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 1. 18. ft n. ]*. . 18.5f> sq.ab. 0. Trino inial. jrif 4 9. (a) <> sq. $3000 Page 6. 15. 0. (r) 2000 m.32 c2 > ft 3 . <i~ 26. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 6. m + 3(a. . (c) 8. 38. 39. 13. 8. 41. 50. 20. 28. 5. x^ 20. 36. in. 34. 0. 1. 7.3 * 10 r5 <3 .ft. 15. ft. 8.'J. 19. 34. 4 9/^/rl 2. 92. 13 cu. 4. 13. 30. ft. 12. 32 2 ftc.. ^.  2 4 13 ft 2 .q 4. 12yd. 2. r/ \(\xyz. 10. 14. 29.. 104. in. (a 4 4. 14. 3. (ft) mi. 7 7. i:5. 14. 17. 3. 16. 3a. + ft). r+l. 28. Monomial. 11. 14. 0. 7.rty8. (ft) Page 2. 22( 19. = ()501. 42. 3.GOG. . 16. w. 2. = 81. (a) 50. sq. Pagel4r. + 5. 5. $80.. 27. (59. 14. 16. 20. 2. 19. \'\ 4. y. 18. in. 25.r 2 . 37. 240. 19. 5.  12. 12. Page 23.. 32. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. //'.14 sq.ft) 4. 9. . 10. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 12. 9. 12. + v> 2 .94(>.. 15. 3(c4a). 30.000 sq. ft f 19. m 24. 4. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. (c) S(i. 15. a 32. 31. (a) r>23ifcu. 2ftx. 36. 21. 4. (r) 78. 5. 3. 28. 21. (r) 2G7. 3rf 27. 17. vi 14. 11. 27. 2. t.. in. 27. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 51 f. 22. 18. 24. 1. 4.r~ f 34. 173. 6..  11. 25. 6<t.a .1. 3. 33. 27. 49. 5. a2 4 15^44. 6.900. 14:). 13. 0.  3. 8.~4. 2oVmf?i. 26. 35. (a} 100 1(5 cm.r f 15. Polynomial. 13. 7. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 26. It. ??i??. 4 y/ . II. 8. 23. c. 20. rt.6) 38. 8. f  5e 35.. 13. 0. Page 21. 33. 0.9?/2 8. arty 1 20. 12 a. . . 11. o^ft.. 7. 21. 25. 15.  0. ft' 3 . 20(. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 1. . 5x+3.. 8.. 17. 17.. 237. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 7. 32. 14. 31. #1111. 5. 24. 35. 5. 38 ab. 17. (a) 200. ft. 1. 8. 2. Page 31. 2. . 3. 314 sq. 12. 0. 15a. 04. ^). 8. ft. 21 a 3 4 10. 00 24 04 ft.. Polynomial. Va'+Y2 8^2 .x. 57. yyz+xyz*. 13. (ft) 12. 1. . 16. 3. 3 . 27. 31. 9. (ft) $40. 43w//2 17.4  2ft 2 33. 3. Binomial.4 ft. 2x' 2 5 .  xV 3 y. +/2(/. 1. 9.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 22. _ 4 . :J!>r'. :.<>Gq. 30. 1. 22. 16. 15.  1. 22. mi. 29. 4. 23. 18. 35.'JO ft. 1. 3. 27. 12.
5. ' 12 m?/'2 27.. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.x f 1 2 .. + 6. 16. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 7.r. 12. 2 . 2m + 2w.(2 x2 .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 10 x. m*  n*. . 30. s_r>a5. ( 7. ?/.2 a.a*.2 ft 2 r2 10.aft. a2 9. 4. 5. 4. 50. a). ?>4tl 53. 58. 1. 19. 0. + 8. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 21. G a bd. c. ab a.4c 3 8 8 J. Exercise 16.3 6. 2. . 6. . ti. x3 . 5. 34. 12. a2 24. 0. 2 3x f z. 2// 16. 42. 26.  a: 2. 1. a  ISjfat. Page 8. ii\ 22. 25. a a. 0. 18. 1. x a8 1. a. 2 .  14 afy . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 8. . . 4r 2 . n*. 11.1 . 2 a f 6 414. 2 2. 40. 8 b. 7. 34 39. 17.r 2. 2. ft Exercise 17. 2 2 2 6. 18. 25. a  49.a f 54. Page 28.  G J8 r  4 a <?.2 a2 2m 2 4. 4.8(c + a). 14. 20.'U4j>. 4. \ :{ 2 a 48. 19. (2n' 43p 47 ). 10. 51. 7  # + 12. 24. 43. 8 8 . 7. f ft 9. 35. a' 4ab + ?/.7. 8 . '  . a 3& .2 57. 21. 18. Page 44. 2. 2a: 2 4x. 7. M + 10. w* ( . 19.  b* 4 r 1 . 21. 2. 25 47.2. c2 .Oa: + 10. 3 a3 & 41. 3 Ji 8 . 31.  17. 2. a4 4 4. 16. 2.5. 5 2 Page 29. 24. . 29. 11.a'2 . ri\ 18. 20. 13. a 3 . + 2y. 6. 2 a 37. 56. !  </ . ar. 10 m. w 17. 59. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 7  a + 2 + c. a 4 + ft. 6. 26.5 z?/ + 3 y . . ^ <. 10. j)(g1. mn. 36. 1 + 45. _ Page 30. t). 25. . 2.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 26. + a 2 f 2 a 4. f 2 ?/  2.ws 2 ft) . 1. 4 21. 11. 28. Page 7. 15.1. 15. ?> 22. a 52.(7x2 Ox2). 4ft ~.abc. r.a~. 10. . + 4 c. 1 4. . 8 + 2 a . 22. a + (ftc4df). 12. (w4w)(ww).  23. . 24 b 46.  12. 6.c. 5. (mn} 11. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 3. 32. 364c. 2x 4 a 13. 24. . 4. . 2 + a4l). x  + 3z. _5a<>&43c. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 1. 4wipg>' 27.l.5 4 2 3 ?/ . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 38. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 15. lOrt 15w4. 2. :5 41. 14. 2. 32 w 2 w. 2 17. 14. 55. 2 y' 4 . 2 3. + c 4 d x + 6 e. &.11. 14. . c. a 3a 4 2 &. a f 2 f 2 9. 9. 814. 2 4. 3. (yz~d}. 8. 2. 3 m. 3.3x 2 2 tf. 4. . a + a. 1. G. 12. 33. 22.6 x + 0) 16. 37. . 3 a . 31. 13. 20. (5x47 3. 2m.  1. 8.2 . 2a. 5x 2 rt ft.  b. a 10w. a 6 2 .h. 36. 2 6. ?/i 13.a .4 d.4x.4. 17. 7 a5 1 .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.  4 b 17 y*.
21 a'&c. a*b*c.000. 29. . 14. 31. 26. . 161b. 2 2 2 . 23. 2 w +2 2 . 12 x2 2 . ft 17. 2 * 80 . a: . 16.15. 22.64 190 p6. 6. 12. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.. 1. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 20 aW. x2 xy42^. 42. 28. 1904.21.69 rt + 21 132 + r .:>/ . 7. iSx8 . 36. .18 w w + 10 WI M . 24.19p" + 19^ 10 . 27. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .1. 102. 14. . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. . 20.16 x2/ 5 4. 20. 11. 10. 3. 7.r% 2 2 ry. . 5. a + ft. 16 51. 30.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 4. 28. Page 3.6) =a2 31. 2 . 14 m 2 . 30. 3 a 3 . 3. 52 + 6s 12. 8. 161b. 127"'. Page 38. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 9 w 2 + 13 n .6 2 . 22. 18. 2 a2 (y 2 . 22. 27. fa 2.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 18. 1. 13. 18.14 . 4. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 6. ?/ . 76 8 a' 1 . 21. 216. n (a6) 125. 7.57 p6 3 2 4 25. ^^ = 20. 15. +. . 2''.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 16.20 xyz . 83 In + 1 n*. m. 6". 10. + O4 66 . a 8 . 5. 216. 13. 4 jcy*z*>. Page 5. 21. 18. etc. 11. 40 r 2 . 23. 60. 24. . 29. 15 q\ 6. + 58 .19 + 2. 04. 16 lb. 38wiw. a. 27. 2*8f x2 6x4. 360. 18a% y. Ox a 5 . 25. 4. s 9 ww. 66 39 k* . ll 2 i.(3x2_4^+7). ci 5 . 32. 0. 2. 7G . 20. 34. 3300. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 28. 9.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 4.16 a 2 + 32 a .. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 108. 13. 210. 11. 24. 8. 20. 4 a8 . 3(*+0 + 2).25 + 14. 37. 6. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 64. 7. 60. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a.32. 8. 30 n?b*c*. 19. 11.14 w 2 2 . .22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 15. 13. 2. 26. 9.28 p'^/. 29. 12 ^. 2 ). 1.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 18. 15. 20.21 a 3 c2 21. 15 lb. 17. 6 . 8 . //. 12. 24. 27. (+3)x6=+16. 31.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 770. 2.>(/ r . 1.12. 32.44 aWc 16 abxy. ?> 4 . 3.7(50. 120. 27. 4 a2 . 84. 25 4 4. 3 a 2 46.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 2z 8 s 2 3zl.. Page 35. . 33. f 26. 15. Page 7. 4. 21. 18. 66 8W 34. 4 fc.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 9. 2 ). 16. 1400. 17. . 13. 33. 2 7t A. + 7. 90. 34. . +15. 4200. a. 30. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 19. 3. 29.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 16. 25. 22.8 12. 9 13. 8. . 42. 25. 10. 5aft(a 126 2). 20. 30 j9 jt?g j . 17.12. . 24. 23. 28. 18> ^* = a . 12. 19.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 14. 1. ! 2. 2.36 35. 1. 30. 30.2. 25. 343. 33. 6. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 16. ISartyW e*f*tj. 4. 1. 108. 10.11 xyz . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 34. 19. 14. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . Page 36. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 4aWy. 35..26. 30. 14f 5. 17. 15. 0. 8. 23.32 y s s G .
26. . 32. 5. 4 . Page 12. ft' 11. 25.ri 17. 2 j3 Z . lflrt 2 8 + l. 29. 39. n2 a4 6. 31. 10. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 166. 9801. x 4 ?/4 + ab . . ) 4' 6/ 49. 31. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). a' .p132. + 2 9. p 2 .r . (a + 4) (a + 2).6 x2 13. 55. r.r* 2 30. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2 .. 1. 8 a W .ab . 2 1: 21. 10. 52. 29.5 ~ 81. 34. a + 56.84 a' 9. x4 28.x2y22. 33.10 35. 7. .35 ab 9. ^V^4 .ANSWERS 28. x*2^f I. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 2 12.996. 57. +4 34. . + 7 6)(3a~76>. Om2 4 6m 6. . V + o ft . 39. m 3 j) 3 . 7 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 2). 1.4 n. 6. 10. 51.15. 14. 9.009. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). ^/> 8 4 . 20a 2 21a + 4. a3 0. 35. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . p4 + . 24. 10 a' 2 .10 x + 25. 4 . 9.^. . . . 999. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 9990. 10. 2 0)(p + 5). 4. 45. .00 + 37. 1. 7.^ + a? + 1. 16. a + 25. . 4 + 25 q*. 1.001.994. 27. 2 6' . a4 4 ?/ . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 14. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 4 21. 30 /><. 6.3. 44. 28. 17. n + 2. 8.000. + 10 + 121 y*.. 38. 4 x2 13. + 12. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 4. 10. 36. 32.6. 30 x + 19 x3 . 2 a 2 + a . ab.098. 8. 9999. +   5). 41. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). x2 GiC+5. 35. 2 62 V2 132. 40. 441. 2 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. + 4 a +4.004. .4 a&+ 4 &*.000. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 37. 8 38. Page 39.404. 2 a' y' .2 y*. 3.r .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 2 4 2 2 64 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 23. ^' J  7 f 12.009. 4x21. 10 a 4 ?.20.008. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 56.201. y. 40. 2. 998. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 33. 15. 10. 40. 4 2 //. 3wi2 m Page 42. + 3)(3). 8. 18. . 36. 25 25.810.14 jp + 49.020. 42. x* . (n 2 5.712. 5. s rc 47. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.16 a3 f 50. 7. 484.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2./ . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 990. 10. 9 4 /> . 36. G a6 2. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 1.8. 31.25.^V"' .6 xy . 12 x2 . 2.49. 25 a 2 6 2 . 21 2 .2 x + 2 x. 27.1. 2 fr . 15. .2 6 + 13.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 24.606. (w+4)(m4). 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 11. 1. 2 4 a + 4. ~ 6 20 . 4. 11. 34. a2 ' + 48Z100. 19. I/). ?/H)0. 2 +10s281. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. ab . +  m' 1. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. (m + 6)(m3). 19.m 30 6 4 1. 3. a 2 . . 30. . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.2. 10. 2 (5 a 3). 1). (a (3 54. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . . 7> . (p 2.6 y4 10. 26.4 12.020. ' 46.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . a + 25. + 4 t*. 10. x 48. 41. 14. 2 m3 + 4m2 . m 2 . fo*. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 53. 33. 10. 10. (w4)(w + l).500. . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 36 a 4 . 37.54 p 2 + 81.
10 xy*. . 2 ?/ 4. ft 17. 17.3 ry. r/2 4.2 2 2 8 . 6. 23. 14.29. 6x 3. 16./ 4. 20 15.10 2 + z 2 410. 3.8 yn .2 .3 5. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.1. 1/*.000. 13. j) . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 6. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 01. 5 4 a Oft. :r !>. /r . 4 c m .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 1. y 7. Page 22.2 ar.  . 8. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 10. 19. 14. 135. w 2 . 22. 1. 2. a 10. + 3. 4 d 2 4. 2 . 18. 8. 2. 16.3 a 41. 5. 8. c 12. . .8 y. . i 9. 6. 2. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.34. 26. +w . l 4 . 125. 2 ?/' .2 ftc . *3 y 4 .2 aft 4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 10 ft.3 x 2 2 4.12 aft 4 20 ac . 13. 9.21 2 2 f + .w. 5. 75 a 2 29. 1.2 1 //. 50. ??. a. 17. . 5. 7. 14. 4.> 10. 2 2 + 2 a. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 3. w . 15.25. 1. 2 ? 14 . r//. 46.9 d. c3. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 4 a 2 4.9 4. 2 4 2 x 4. 4ft.1*5 2 r 2 . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.30 ftc. Page 48. x 2 + 2r f J. 4 a* 4 9 11.4. 21.3 3.27 x 2 4. 5 a  (5 ft.1. ft* ft / . 5. 8 x .2 <</.y3. 4. + x?/ 2 1. 7 r . ?/2. '. 1. 2 4. 4.r'^ 15.2 ac . m'2 3.r ?/ ??i ?). 8. 11. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 4 3 9.15. . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4xy + 13 <) . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 13. 4.6 :rs 4.7. f>r* 4. a 4 4 ft. 9. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 5. 4. 4 pq. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 12.1.  12 y 25. 5. . 18. 3. aftc 52. ft. 2 . sr 11. // 19. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.1. 14 r 2 . aft 12. 4. 9.x^. abc 7. 13.5 n*. z. 4.24 .  10.23. 16. 19.r' ~ 16. 8 ?/ . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 2. 5.5 a . 2 1. 5^418(7.25 c . 2 12.rw.  11.rw f 8 . 13. r ft. Page 7. + 4. x4. _ 2 a . Page 11.2 2 . 49. 9.1. Page 51. 5. 4x43?/. 10. G. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.2 wZ 4.VI ANSWERS 43.5 mp. a 2 . 14. 3. 12. 9. 8. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2. 17. 4 ac. Page 13. 14.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. . aft.2 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2 a 3 ft.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.  5 z* .8. ft ? ft' ft ft. 15. 12. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .r?/ j/.r?/.1. 6. 6. as _ 10 16. 7a3ft. 20. Exercise 27. a 8 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. . 8 ?/ .15 21.lit x + 4. r 7. . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 21.2. 13. 47. .8.1. 2. 44. i 2 tji. 11 4. 24. . 4 x. . 12.r" 20 S? . 1. .  3 c.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. x 4. 3. 3.n. yfl. Osy. 10. 1000 1000 .+ 77 15. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 3 aft 20. 8. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4. 12.3^V.2 . 11. 3*y2 w + 1. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .r . 5. . 3 a. 1. Exercise 2 a:// 26. ti'jry1 7. m L 4.
fix. 18. 2. 7. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. s.r ct. 23. 7x 2 Page 21. 30.200) f(^ + (e) 200. lO. 0. !). 2. </ 20. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 11. 2 ct. ft. r>?imi. 60 25 1. <>. X 60. = 5 ?i x 460. 24. ^ 12 sq. Page 6.  1$. 44. b. 30. 4^ = 100. 12. f = eZ 2 x. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. ct. 4. iL*. 7. x y $ 6 yr. x = m. xy ft. x + 1=a.. ct. 21 2. 36. 6. d + !. 36. 5. sq. 2. 13. . 10 yr. 7.ab a. Page 31. + 3 = 2(3* . 3x  1700) = 12. 2. 22. 'nj 100 a 28. d. + 3x + 2y + 32. Page 61. 100= ^. 1. (a) ' 12. 19. 42. 1. a 8. 100 14. m+ 11. 13. 14. 22. 5. 4.6 = *. 1. 13. ? 43. 17. 20.(3x+ = rraxlO. . ft. 4. # + 20yr. 9. 15. 34. 27.10) 100. 43. f 6)(o 62.. 10. 7.. 3. 4 f 39. 1. 6. b.x700. 44. (</) 2a. v (6) 2x. I. 3x2. 10 x sq. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. x 2y 10 act. }f. 32. 5. 100 2. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 8. 10.(3x  700) = 5. vil 56. 37. 57. x. n M. 3. 23. 50= L 100 15. 2=10. 20. 00. 59. 16. / + y + a// 12 yr. l. 2x + 35. 58.p+7. r tx mi. 18. 33. ] 2 ri 42.. I. 28. 12. (> 27. 16. ft. a 10. 35.ANSWERS Page 9. 10 a. f (I. m +~m 3. 4. 1. 2. % 4. 3 9. (2 a. 41. + f + b 2. 40. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 46. 6. 5. 1&. 25. 2b. y yr. 10. 10 >_&.rr2. 26. ( a f 4. 15. 20. 19. 7. . Page 40. 5. (>.  6 10. (c) 2x. ct.  />) a = all. 31. 8. 11. 11. 6. x 49. 39.  9 = 17 a. 25. 4(a ft) c = 8.100. lOx 10 + w. 3. 16.r1. rn mi. (d) 2a + 10 = n. . y 50. 14. 41. 10) + = (a) 2 x . " lir. 17. 800 = x + 1300. . 17.  2\. 37. 8 n  10 yr. 0. y ?>i x + 26. 38. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 4. 2. 38. 29. x 48. 6. Page 13. 2b 22. . y 100 a 24. 10. 5. 45. 33. '^ . "mi. . 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740.7). 29. 9.000. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 100 d ct. 7. + 10 b + c ct. Jj12. 47. 7. + 4x 3y 34.
2$. 3. 480. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 3 (a +&)(*. 2 3 6 7.8. 6. 10 yr. (*4)( + 11. (y8)(y + 2). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 7. a 12. 9. 10. 13. 28yr. 1250. ( + 4)(*2). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 19. 3. 12.. 18. = _?_(2ar + 1). 1313. 2). 8 in.000 Berlin. 1. 55. 30. (y 13. Pace 65. 13. 6. 11. 20 yd. 22. 2. 2 2 ?/ 21.1). 18.. 1. (y + 8)(y2). 7. 2. 9. 4. 8 12.000. 9. 12.10. Oaj(o62cd). 10 yd. 4pt.000 ft. Page 79. 30 yr. 42yr. Page Page 480 12. 5. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').0. (z5)(z2). 1200.y").6). 5pt. 3x (3r. (ro3)(w2).000 copper. 25.411. 7.000. 15. (c) ^ v ' . 11 pV (2 p8 . 45 in. 15. (a 4) (a. (y7)(y + 2).000 pig iron. 9. 75. 50. Page 7. 6. 1. 2. 30 mi.. 2.0.. 14. (m + n)(a + 6). (a + 6) (a + 3). 1200. 5$ hr. 8. Page 5. 1. 14. 52.000.(5z .5. 4. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .000. 14. 4. 12. by 12 yd. 3. (p + 7)(3a5&). 6. 11. 10. 10 Mass. 5.000 ft. 78. 5 Col. a a (a 8 a+l).16. 3... 10. 20 yr.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. (yll)(y4). ?(g ? g+ 1). 15 mi. 78. (a5)(a4).000 N. 8. 3.. Page Page 4. 10 yr. 3 hr. 15.22. 5. 72. 25 yr. 2. (a + 4)(a + 8). 29. 100 1. 16.. 13.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 21. 7. Y. 4. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.. 7 hr. 24J. 7a*fe(2a & l). 3.000. . 180.2).. + 7)(y3). 11. 20. 25. 12. 12 mi.24. . 3. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 160 lb. . 2. 5. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10. 13. 40 yr. 2. 14.11. 7. 9. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 11 w(w' + wi .. 70. (a + 5)(a + 6). 150. 1.21. 17. 100.000 gold. 17. 8. 12. 6. 23. (e) i* + A. 10. 80 A. w (/) 64. 1.3. 8.. 20. 9.13. 2 2 2 5. 13. 82 mi. 15 yd. 600. 18. 6. 6rt 2 11. 20. 70^. $40. 200. 10. 8. 6.000. 8.. 30. 11 in. 5 lb. 67. 8 2 19.3). 15 in. 1 lb. 14. 6.5. 11. 71.3aftc + 4). ^ . ~=90. 05. 10 Cal. 1.  PageSO. 85 ft. 68. 9. 12. 200.7. . 7. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 9 in.79. 8. 90. 5.3. 14.210^.. 15. 8. 90 mi. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.000 Phil.000.5p + 7 g ). 15. Ib. 4. 4.2.. 10. 250.. 74. Page 7. 300. 20 yr. z?/(4^ + 5xy . Page Page 4.
x\x 24. (6 a. 22.11 ft)(a6). (3*2)(. 13x7. 23. 26. 2 17. 13. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (5wl)(m5). 15. . 23.11 6) (a 4. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13.2). 28. 22. 27. 5. (6n + l)(+2). (2o + l)(2l).2).1).. 2). (15a + 46*)(16a46). y) (a. 1.3). 103x97. 14. 26. (4y3)(3y + 2).4p).4. 10.4 6). 9. 7. 216 aft. 25. 9. 20. Yes. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (w + 20)(w + 5).r2). 16. 25. (2yl)(y + 9). 10 a 2 (4 .3)(z2).5y)(3a. 3)(3a. 1. (a 3 + 10)(a. 21. 24.y4 ). 3. . 27. 30. y) 2 29. (5a +l)(5a l). (a. f 2). 17. 10. (9y4)(y + 4). 31. 12. 27. . 21. + 4) (a.1). a. 12. 8. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (5x . (4 13. 7. 1. 29. 40 x.8). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 34. Yes. . 28.2 y).2 ft).1). . + 9^)(oxy .y (6x + 4)(5x4). (:52y)(2a!3y). 29. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). Page 82. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 22. + 5) a. 3a. Yes. 17. + y + . (4al)(a2). Yes.  x (5 a. 8. (13a +10)(13a 10). y(x. . 15.c 2 ). 18. 35. (<7 20. 9. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). x(x +y)(x y). 11. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . Yes. . (15z2y)(x5y). Yes. (az + 9)(ox2).ANSWERS 16. Page 84. 4. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 7 6) (a 10 6). 16. 10.9*). (m + w) 2 5. 28. 2 2 15. 19. x (z + 2)(x + 3). (a + 8)(a3). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 32. 10(a . 35. 10. 20. No. + 8)(g3). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 24 9. 3. 100(x. . 25. 8. . Yes. 3. (4a. 11.   . 21. (2 *+!)(* 9). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). No. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). No. (2 a? 4. Page 83. . 32. (a 6 6) (a 4. 9. 5. 25. .1). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). + 2y). 18. 24. a(2u. 100 (a. (g . 26. 3(x + 2)(zl). (m7n) (a.* (2 y + 3)(y. 6. 20. 25. 17. (a a: 19. 10(a + ft)(aft). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). a . 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). + 3)(c44). 36. 10(3 5 6) 2 . (4 18. 26. (3a. (10a + ft)(10aft). 23. 33. 2 No 4. Yes. No. ( 2 4 19.6) 2 1. (15ay2) 2 . (2xl)(x + f>). 30. 2. 4. (y8) 2 2 . (y + 4)(yl). (* + y)(zy). 6. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . + 0(90 Page 85. 31. Yes. 22. Yes. 14. 24. (ft + ll)(aftll). 7. (3#y)(+4y). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). Yes.2 by2 6. 21. ix 18. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 2 3 by2 Yes. 33. 11. 12. 8) (a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).y) 2 aft. 19. 2. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 10(2 30. (0 + 6)(66). (w* (3a26). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 2. (w ~ n (x . 14. + 3).6) 2 2 . a*(5a f l)(flr . 16. 4 (a .+4 y)(3x4 y).7)(2z f 1). . (ay8)(ay3). (x + y4 )(x . . 9. Yes.7) (a.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). No. 34.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 23.
8. ( (<> r4y3 .2 y). a 4. 2. ( { &).4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 11. (m  I)' 6. 4 a8 . ?i(w 4y) . Exercise 46. 9. 3(.5 m2 x2. 13.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (c. 2. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 1. (a 9.  (w' 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (* _ 2 )(a 4. 24. 8. 15 M. 2. 8. (2 a ~ f> b 4.4.b. 7. 6. 6. 4.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 24x sy s 9. a + a b. 37. (r420(4 10. 42a 3 x.4). 16.  WIM. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).3)(x 4. 2 . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . Page 90.7)(^ {I 12.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 11. 2.. 450. (2x7)(x 2 2). y).?/). (7/1 2) (m 41). (x. a 2 (a9).1).7s) (2 a. 12. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).1) 3.?50)(xt/z. (w4w) 2 1. (5a+l)(9a). 18. 14. 6 f c).4). 8.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). (f> + fo 7. (^ 7. 30. + 2 //).&). 2 8(w . 12. x(x f y)(jr . . (w * . 6. 2 y) ^ .>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 10. . ^ . x 4. x . a 41. 20. 15. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (5 31. 7. 15.1).36). (^ + ?>_8). l. 8.y)(fi a . a (a + 2 6).2). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 36.3. r x 2 */3 . 2 (a 4. (. 4 a s &8 .'})(c .//)(5y x(x4ti<0. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .?>) H.&). 3. 4.'J)(' . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 14. Page 87. x43. y )(. . 13 x 8 2 . 13.e 4. + 3. 4 3. (5^4. 12. a8 . 2.n). 10(8x' 4l) 4. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 17. 13. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).l)( a 25.!) (x42)(x2).'/)('< 4. 4. ( y). 2 + . 7. 42). 2 k (wi 4. a 4. 5  (2 2 . (a 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). (5 26.^ 48. 8. 39. (16 4  2(5 n . 32. 19. . 13( 33. 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 11.8). ( rt 23. 5.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 40. y6.42 x 4. 7. (14. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. ah}. 2 2 10. n  r)(5a 10. 14. Page 86.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).8) ( (16. . Page 89. 17(x43//)(x2y). 27. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 4. 2 1. 4 6. 6.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 35. (x//. 38. fi(c426). Page 12. 5 x8 3. ( a ^)(^3. 5.  29. 4. 7. 14. 16. b) (r 4. Gp).2)(x 1. 6. (!__/>). 8x. 5. ?>). 8). 3x(x?/) 4. 2 21. 8.2). ofc)( fid).) j). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 2(m4l)' . 9. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .8) n 43*). 6.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). x  1). 2 2 3 .y. 10(2 (3 4.0+ 12). 11. 1(V/ 88. 41. 4.9). 4). 28. 3 x4 . a x 3 10.X 5. 5.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 4  9. (a />. (a &4.y). y(2x?/). (> 1.y '2 2). Exercise 47.3. 7. 4. Page 92. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 22.
1). 13. + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 11. 2(2al) + l). +8b a 4 3 / ^.6). x 24. ?_!&.  1). x 12. x 22. +5 1. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . a 23.ANSWERS 10. // m+1 !+*?. + &) 2 ( . a 10 25. b ! 21. (a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15. 18. + y) (a: y).
26. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. + lH + .  **/* + 84 _. + 2H 1 ^..2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ' 2 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 30. i^. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 4 L 8 2 . 7. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. _*^p5_^^_. 6a5f^. 0. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. 4c 10. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. a 5. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . A^. ^~ 29. i. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 1. Page 100.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 2 a. c 8. w1 + ac w 4 7. 11. 28. .50 ~ 1/2 . Page 101. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 4. xy 43. 6.
6. 40. 6. 16. . 14.ft . 1. 11. 11. 3. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 5. 45. (y + (z 12. x\. pf n 6 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. Page 106. a. 37. 3. 9. n 16. 43. 4a3ft. 1. 2) 19. . J. + f. 14. 5. 8. 10.L+ft. 42. 12 28. 16. 25. 12. ?. ^_. w^x 2 b Page 105. an 18. 6.y 7. 3. 4. 5. Of. 1. 29. (a + y) 2 Page 104. ^i 11. 4. 32. . I) 2 3z 1.^_. 30. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 1. 1. 24. 20. 44. 17. 31. 7. 11. +3 ( + 15. 11. 21. 38. 1. 6. a2 2. 41. 4. 33. 19. n . 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 26. j L . flf. 9. x 1. b 2. 6 . ac mp lf> n 12. 8j_m 7 3. Page 111. J. 4. Page 110. 18. ' 6.^U\WF### X<6. 0. 7. 8. ft. (>. a 17. 6. 4. 13. 3. 11. 0. f 7. 5. f Page 107. 1. 15. c 8. x 05m ' 5. 36. 2 47. 1. J. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 4. 7. 23. 21. 7. 9. 5 be _J_.  10 X + u. 14. 12. 4. Page 113. 46. 15. ! 4 20. b a f +c 14. 35. 15. 2ft a i m x. 3. 21. ?+_!?>. m 9. y(x + x ?/). 3 7 i o. A. 1. 17. 10. 27. 34. 1. . 3. n m a + 13. 39.  V o 4.
14. (d) 4 da. 2 20. 7. 9.. (a) 4 min. _JL. Yes. 1 da. 22.9. 13. [>> ^ a .10. 7 . 2x:3y. 7.003. 10. 10 yrs.  29. 300. ^m . 26. Page 124. w 44. f.x + y. 19. 40 mi. 24 mi. 20./hr. 13. $30. 3 da.139. '"I 22. 2.  C . a 4 ft.. 4. . 9. 28. $40. * 7:9. nm. Yes. 7T 2 Page 116. .. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 10. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 1:1 = 1:1. #V ~~ 34. 12. $00.. (r) 3^ da. 5. ^?i min.002. (ft) (r) 8 hr. . :2. 14. 40 yrs. Page 119. 11. 5 25.} da. 8. (c) 8300. 7.0. 12. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . xy. Page 117. 8. w 18. 20. Yes. 15.. 212. ^p^ r ~ 7.11.0 & .2. 10^ oz. ANSWERS 16. 5. 4~r~ n . 7. 24. 9J oz. 4. 1:4. 17. 1^'. 6.138. 9. 7. 1:1=1:1. 7.. 3.000. 1:1 = 1:1. 33. 16. .15. 3. (a) 12 hr. 55 mi.004. 7} 18. 1 : 12. 3:2.001. 13. 4fl M_. 15. Page 118. f .. 26 mi. 1:1 = 1:1. 75 . (a) 25. 9. 4. 35. 34. 31. 00. 30ft. jj. 20. = A's. No. IV s. Page 125. 8301 hr. 21ft min. silver.  + . Yes. 13. 16. 81. 15. 19. Yes. 21. No. after 20. (c) 2 hr. (a) 30. 3. 30. 15. 23< &n b ' . 8. (ft) 104. 19. 9$. min. 275:108. 10. 5. Yes. . () 2. 32.XIV '/ . 17.000 1 = 23. (ft) 28. 15.000. 26 30. 1. Yes. 1. 3. after $12. J. 11. ft. dn ~ mi. ~m . J ^'.2. Yes.000. 17. after 18. 16. 24. 14. 74. 12. min. 17. 4./hr. 0. w 21.137. n 32. 27. 18. 33. . 10. 8. 15. 18. 3. 36. gold. 30 yrs. 19. 11. 6. (ft) 5 hr. 10. 40wn. 1. P+ ^ 33. 6. 300. $45. 2:1. 300. 21. 9ft. 18. (d) 500. 15. 10. 1: ~. 10. 5. 30 mi. $0. 5ft 30mi.. 1:3. 11 hrs. 10.. 5 2. 8. 14.000 If da. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. " 0. 4. 2. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 3. 38ft min. Page 121. 10. 500.000.. . 1. (ft) 5 da.
5.3. 4.3. 4. 5. 13J. 2. 2. 5 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 17. 8. 4. Of.46. (</) ft.5. 2. 1. 9. 3. $. 7. 36.22.5. 19 OJ. 30.4.1.ANSWERS 22. 7. . 3. 56. 21. 2. 5. 5. 6. 31. 49. 7. 22. ft. y a y = 7 0.J. 53.' : : : : <>.. x:y a: b." ^ 2.2. 2.17. Page 133.3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . s<i. 8. \.*.]. 6. 10. ~ 1. Page 5. 1. .57. 8. 7. 39.3. Page 9. OJ. 12. 4. 127. 40.000 sq. 7. \\. + b 7 . 141. i. 4. Inversely. 2. 41. 26. l. : . tin. 38. 20. 23. 7^.15.4.3. 1. 2. = 7 b'. 2.2 x. 7. 5. 50. 1.12. w 8. 9. . 17. 9. .5.1. 7. in. 2. copper. 13. a~.5.3. 25. 24 1 (e) Directly. 1(5. 2. 24. 7. 47. 3. 5. 174+ Page 128. + W. 2 n . 5. 13. 3. 4. mi. 1.15 x. 8. 11. 11 5 .5. 12. 3. 2. 11. 3. 29.x a. 3. 16. 15> 9. 138. 3.8 oz.1. 7. (a) Directly. 10.3. 11. 14. . 8. 20 20 J ^. 19.3. ' 55. water. 3. 32+ mi. 19 3 . 945 11 10 . 21. x 42. Page 137. 15.9. . . 12. 14. 7. 9. /. 1. y :y =.4. 4. 5.) 31.3. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 25. 19. 3.a. 2. (I. lo mi. 1. 5. (b) Inversely.000 sq. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 1. land. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. w. 2. 5./':</ c a f :y=2:9. y 1.2 oz. 1 18 = 3 51.r. 23.3. in n. 2. 18. 6 10 = 12. 3. cu. : : T 1' : /> : . 9  15. 12. 13. 10. . 22. J. 2. 2. 16. 32j.5. 2.C ?/ a . x +y x + 74 7 \.6.^ 0?j ' gms. 59. J. 2. 2. 7. 13. () Directly. 8. OJ.4. 7. 30. 6*. a f 2 2 = 5 x. y . 3}. 43.li. 7. *. 2. 36. 7. t 5. 57.5. jc:y = n:m.1. 19. . 4. 17. 4."2:1. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 9.20. 40. a +b 1. ini.7. . 28. "lO. : : .12. 20. 5. 1. 2. 3. 6. 24. J. 20 cu. : XV 27.36. Page 131. 7. mi. 52. 27. . 58.  28. 26. 14. 9. 15. .4. 3  24. : 23. 4. 7. 9. I. 10. 55. 2.5. 8.. Page 132.2. 25. 14.J 3. 4.5. (b) C C' = fi JR'. Page 134. 2. 3 2=3 x.2. 200 mi. 3. x y = 1 = 3 2. 2. Page 135. 45. 3.  ?. 35. x y y . 5:0 = 10:12. 16. ig 6.  19.840. 2. () 7 Page 126. 48. 4. J pq.1. 1. 6. 4. 9. Page 136. 31J. 2. 1 1 : : : : : : (I..3. 5:3 = 4: x. 1 rt * vm^1. . 54. a 3. 11. . 41. : />. b x 37. 11. 6. 4. 4.160.2. 44. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 .7. 46. 11 w a 13.
0. 20 & Oct. m f 8. 4. through point (0. 31. 13.. 16. 9. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 2. 4. 30. Nov. $3000. Jan. A a parallel to the x axis.  11. 2. 10. SL=J o ft r^2. 22. 1 (d) Apr. 10. (<f) 13.7. 4. 18. 24. 16. Apr. 2. M 2. 2. 2. A's 50 13. Oct. 3. 32. = ^ a Page 141. 9. $900 5%.8. July. 3. 24. $500. 18. ad _(?jrJL. ad AzA. Nov. 20. 15. 9. 7. 3. 72. 4. 8. 13.1. 1. Page 149. 25.. 17. 16. 4. (ft) 20.l. & May. 2. On the y axis. 8.  17. $6500at3Ji%. 5%. ft 3. 4.3. <*ft/ bd 1. 3. 4.$5000. 6. yrs. 0. Page 143. 19.2. 5.2.1. 2 horses. (a) 12. 16. &. 13. 4. 7. 12. 12. Page 151. 1 (c) Jan. 10. . 3. 6. Jan. 5. ' .9. Nov. About 12f. 147. 18. be 10. Nov. Page 153. 29. 6. Jan. (a) Apr. 4. m + n p. J. Jan. 25. 10. 26. 2. 15. 2 a. 3. 19 gms. 3. 11. 2. 3. parallel to the x axis 0. 7. & part of Feb. 20. 3. 100. 23. 1.  Zn  "(^ll 14. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 7. Page 152. 3. 7.33. 4. 6. 11. 14. 10^ gms. 9. $ 1000. 10 sheep. be 7. Apr. . . Apr. . . May 5. .. 2. On 11./hr. 3. 1. 20. 2. 90. 3. 24. 2. June. 1. (c) .n + p. 6. a =J (n  1) rf. 2. B's 40 yrs. u 2ft. 12. . 2. 16 to July 20. 27. $250.65.1J. . 6. 4. 11.3. July. 40. 3.. B's 15 yrs. C's 30 yrs. Page 145. 14. 11. ^. 1.10. 6%. .4. 24. 2t2. & part of Sept. The ordinate. (ft) 23 J. 2. . Page 142. 3. 4. 4 mi. 18. 5. A's 30 18. $4000. 3. 1. 3. at 15. . 3. 23f . 5.XVI Fagel39. 25.$2000.4. 2. Aug. 30. 20 to Oct. . . 6. 20. 2.0. 4 ' q. 21. 5. 1. 2. 7.3. 5. 4. 12. Feb. 23. 0. 423. 16. 00. 20. ' 6 3 a. On the x axis. 3). 16. 3. a. yrs. 12. 7. 21. 7. 6. 5. 19. 30. 1. 17. 25.. 26. 9. 1. Page 22. 3. 11. 10. 2. 4. 28. 7. 15. 11. 5. 7. 3. 4. 6 cows. C's 10 yrs. 9. 1. 40. 1.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. July 20. m . m f 9. 8. 8.. 5. Jan. (5. 14. 5. 17.^.0.4. Page 146. 1.
79.5. 4wn8 + n4 5. + a 4 ft* . 5. 15 . 125 a 8 12. 3. 3. 0C." 23. 30. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 28. f12 wi 9. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3 . xg . 3.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 13. xW. . 10. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 3. (a) 5. 8 a1. . Page 158.64.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1. 4. +3 4. f 10. 1. 11. 3. 13. 8 1 f f g*. 13. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. 20.75. 81 ". 1. 5.84. 2.73. 18C.73 ami . .3. 17. (a) 12. (c) 2. ft 2 4. () (rt) 3. 8. jgiooyiio 17. 3. m. . 9. 19. 11.4. 1. 15. 1. 2. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . 27 19. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3. 30. H.  12 ft xW  26 31.59 . 1. 2. 125a 28. 13C. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (gr) 21.13.1. 9. H. . 10 C. \ft) 5. ImW. 3. 4 ) 21. 14. 1.67. . 3.. 1 23.24. 27 27 81. . 2.75. (ft) 2. G.41 and . 22. 11. 2. (a) 2. 8. 4. 5. . 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. 13 . . 2. 2 a&m Page 167.41 and 23.79. (c) 7. . 26.5 (ft) 3. 3. 2. (<?) 2. . 125 16.24 . 32F.83. a 6o&i85 c i5o . .  1. 1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 8. .59. . 1. 3. 2ft4 Page 168. 19. 6.25. Inconsistent. 8mW.24. 27. 9 and Page 166.83.7. 1.. 3. . 2 2 22. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 10. 1 4. 2. 4. (ft) and (d) 2. 1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4. 25. 3. 1. (/) 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. .34F. 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 2. 20. 22. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.5. SlstyW 7. 2. 24. 4. Indeterminate. Inconsistent.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.64.73. 7.25. 2. 2. 3. 1. 10.1. 1. 1^. xy.27.. 2. Page 164. (e) 2. 2. 12. 1. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 83. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 5.25. Page 163. 3. 16. f.  1. 4}.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .75 (ci) 3^. 2.6. 5. 14. 2 l. 15. . 14. (a) 4. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. Indeterminate. . (/) 3. . a + ft. 21. 18.75.3. 15. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. ..3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 5 and 2. 12. ' :=_!. 5. .25.  . a 29. . (e) 3. 24. ft . 3. (c) 14 F. 4.25. 0. Page 159. 2. (ft) (ft) 2. 6. .73. 5.2 (ft)  1. . . (ft) (d) 2. * 16. 1. 3. f. 4. 14. 2.
4. 20. 15. a.XV111 7. 19. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 98.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 17. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).037. 3. 35. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 17. 9.x ). wi 8 + 3m 2 . c 10 6 :l 20. 3 2 8 3 12. GOO 2 c 2 . 7. 7. I 8x2). 2. 21. 2 49 . 90. 16. 19. 2. 25. 9. 9. Page 176. 76. 18. 23. 5. 3. 2. 33.a b 22. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 12. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 763. ^i. 309. 14. (l + x + . ?7i 1 1 3 1. 14. Zll. 14.83. ( Page 174. 4. 1247.  x. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 5. 1. . 5. 180 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14.1. m 13. 16.7 /)). 978. ). 9. 21. 3M. 15.i c 6 15. (a 2. a ). . ? : 1 . 8. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . r> 4 : 1 . 10. 72. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18.GO a c + 23. 6. 2. 20. rt .f 1 m 9 16.2). 22. 2 12. 12. AN S WE no . 2038. + (win .y2 ). 64. (3a. 20. . 70. Page 170. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 15. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. + 29. a: l . 36. 8 /.r 2 + 6jt). 2 2 4. 18. 8. (48 + 6. (4a2 9& 2 13. 2 4 8 2 . +(^ 2 3^ + 2).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.3 ab + 2 2 ). 11.1. 237. 8.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 3. 6 (\x 3. .  +X '. + i)). Page 171. 27. 10. 101. 6. 247. 90. 3 6 23.6. 00. +3 + 5 4. 6. 1. ??i ?i . 4. (ab + c). (2 a + ft). (x + y\ 90. . 1. + Z). 20. 12. 1. 15. a 2 .+3^ + 4. . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 16 6 w . 14. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 31. +35. 1 1 ?>). 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 11. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 300. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 3. 13. 6.5. (a + 2 +l). 17. 71. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l.10 a~ + 5 a . 13. 99.5). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 40. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 0. + y). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (ly). + l). 28. /> 4 ). 10 x G a 4 . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 5. + + ?V 22. 420. 30. (1 (x2y). (x' l). 4. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 32. 11. 2. a. . 34. 26. 9. 10*. 18. (a + y+l).^). 11. . 8. 24. ? . 30. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 8. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 119.94. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (Gx + (i + 2a. 6. fe *?>' ?> fi . . 2 2 7. 57. 16. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 5. 10. 7. 84. Page 172. 5 5 8. 9. 3 2 ^. 25 19.
19. 33. ^^7m. a + 61. 1. 8. 2. JJI. 7. 2.916 yds. 17. 2. 23. 21 28 ft. m. 21. ^. 9 15 ft.  43. 34. 4.6. 29. 11. f.. 21 in. " ^_ 22. 9. 28. 9.935. 9. 7. 19. 28. 1&. 13. 3J. 11. . 7 45.. 9. V.  3. 16. 5. 3. 270 sq. 37. 12.005. J. 4. 14. 14.. . 2. 39 in. 7. 3. 10. 5.?. 6. 4 n. 20. 15. 1. 12. 5.522 38. 8. 6yds. 3. 7. 6. 4. f ^ is.V 8j. 7 in. . 2. . Page 180. 4. 3. 1 7. 7}. 3. Page 185. 12. 1. 4J. 30. f. If ^. 40. 5. 8. 30. . 27. () 2. 5.. 5.243. 50. 24. 9.237.ANS WERS 22.925 ft. . 25. 9. 6. 36 in. 5. Page 183. . 37.645.6. 2. 5. i ^. ft. 46. V2. 44. 7.  2. 6. 1. 16. 12. . 39. 6 f !. ft. . > w ft. (afl). 14. 20. V J l. 8. \/3. 13. / 11. ft. >TT 26. 29.13. 27. V17. 1. 6J. 15. 5. 3. 1 f Vl3. 18. }. 4. 7. m.*.5. 42.4. 5. 5. Af^. 10. 13. (< + ?>).1. 3. f 3. 2. vYb. 11.w 18.18. /. 24. 21. 6. 4. 1. 39.6. 26. 17. 1. 4.a. (6) Vl4 3. V35 1. 9. 3.742 in. 25 J. 23. w. 7.4. 4. 17. 36. 10. 16. 47. 5083. xix 26. ZLlAiK 19.60. 5. . >i 27. 3. 2. l~8. 40. 9. 10.6. 1 38.  f. 12. 2. Page 181. 41. 12. 13. ^. 4 W**. 2. 10. 15. 10.1. 21. 4. 3. 12. 4. a. ~ V^3. 6561. 35. f f V. 2 sec. 32. 7. Page 179. 36.  5.  f. 28 in. 15 1 10.469. 1.}. 15. 6... 33. 10. 2] see. 31. 15.Sn. or 3. 2. 11. 10. 29. _ iVaft. 5. or 5.  14.  1. 5.236. 16. f .. 3. 7. 35. *. 2. V2.6. 4 a. 25.690. 5f. 4 TT M 28. 16n. 48.. Page 177. 6V'2J. 1. 3. 32. 7.5. 14. 22. 12. 21yds. 18. vV'TA 24. 23. 13. * 1. v 17.. 7563. 6V21.798 yds. 11. 7. i. 1. 49. 3.367. 4. 2. 4.4. 31. 8. 8. 6. .i. 3. 14. 6. {. ii :J _7. 10. 20. Page 184. 34. 4. .. 1.
23.  1. 3. 9. unequal.3. 0. Real.2. rational. AB = 3. 2 V3 in. 2.7.a. ft. 3. Page 189.2.0*8. rational. x 14. 7. Imaginary. 2.  2. 7. V^l. 18. 0. 35. 41. orf.  2. 3. . AB = 204 ft.2. 12. Imaginary.  5.4. 17. 48.  1. 5. 3. 36. 9. 4. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 0. 2. 3. Page 190. 2.74. Real. 1.  24. 23. 0. 3. Real. 27. 120 ft. 1. 1. 25. 6. . 4. 22. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 15 ft. unequal. . 2 ft. 1_^L ft 14. 4. 28. 8. 7. 22. 0.4. 1. irrational. 12.  9x <).12 = 0. 10 mi. f. 58./hr.2 x2 . 26. 1.. ./hr. 1. 26.5 x + 6 = 0.. 10. 1. 6. Imaginary. 43./hr. 19. 3. 7. . 3. 38. x* 51. 3. 16. 20 eggs. 2. 19 in.7. 1. 2 . 31. 20. 64c.4. t is.  i. 5.4. 8. 46. 21. = 0. 3if. . 16. ' 1. %. . 11. 12. . 1. 1.48. 6. . 10 or 19. 6. Imaginary. 10 in. 5. 21. 57. 18. i. . Real. _ 19. 6. ANSWERS 22. 1. 1 3.2. 10 mi. 3. 40.1.* 2. in. 39. f. 1). 53. 3.. 15.1. 6V64.a 3 a. 26. 5 ft. 0.XX Page 186. 9. H. 0.2. x2 + B . V7. 6^2 in. 4. 4.17. $ 120. 23. 50. 1.2. rational.l. unequal. . 3. 37. 12.  5.5. 4. 20. 1. 2. 13.  1. x*4x=0. 2. 7.02. 28. *'' 12. a. 20. 15. r* i. 14. 2. (5 10. 34. 29. 1. 19.48 3. #<7=3.. a8 . V2. Real.6. 2. 8. 1 . 2. Page 191.59. 2. 15. 18. VV11. 2. 3. 21. 27. 3.  1. Page 188. 5. + 11 x.23.5^. V^l. 16. 3. $30 or $70. rational. unequal. 0. 44. 1.2. 14. Real. . i ./hr. 7.70.37. V2. 1. 11.. 2. . 8 or 12 mi. . 6. '  f 5.7. Real. 0. 8. 35. 6. 9. 32. s 11. 30.3. 5. V^~2. 25. f 6 52 a. equal. 0. 3. 45. 2. U.  Page 194. a + 1. 4. 6. 3. 23. If. v^^fcT"^. a + 6.  6.'. 2. 20 nii. 49. 25. Page 187. jr . 55. 2. 64. unequal. 1. 3.].10.41. Page 192. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . equal. 13. 2. 2. 0. unequal.12. a. 2.2. unequal.4. 0. 10. . . 42. 8\/2 17. unequal. 7.1. 28. irrational. 4. 6.62. 26. 70 ft. 52. equal. $80. .$40 or $60.6 = 0. 3. 0. 6. 47. 1. 33. 0. 4. unequal. 1. V ~ 16 4 2. Real. . 3. 0. 27. 3. .a.2.2. 25. rational. 2. 4.. . 4 da. . 56. 3.Oa.  1. 24. 0.3. 10. 2.  13. 1. . 7. 24. 2. 12. 24. 2. 3.
). 60. 32. 25. 2. 3. 33. 49. 16. 7. 22. 47. 18. 3. 49. 9. 8. 7 . 0. 22. 9. 27. 19. ? . a 18 . 15. 1. 1. y. xxi 15. \/3. 2. 2. 56. 7. l  5 12. ^49. 31. fx'^z'l 23. 41. v'frc 18. 28. 10. 3. 4. 16. 3.ANtiWEUS rational. 3. . \/. 4. 30 a. \a\ \/^. 2. 14. J. 1. : . x. . 13. 1V1. wA 46. 19.6. 1 39. 2V a. 15. 5. 26. 14. 9. 12*2 61. Page 197. I.  J j. 24. 1. 5. 7V7. 36. 16. Page 196. v^T4 m. 10. 12. 8. 21. 52. 31. 17. v'frW. 2. i. 8. 4. 23. 2. J. 18.  5. 53. 19.  f. 55. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 4. 12. 49. 21. . &. 28. 5. 15. 37. \/r\ 11. 17.  f . 11. 5. 4. y . 6. 9. 23.32. 27. 2. 50. 59. 6. J. 0. 16. 8. 35. *V. 9. 44. 13. Page 201. . J. $7. 84. 50. 45. 10. n\/* Page202. 4. 3. 46. r*. 29.. (m 26. V^ 34. 2. 5. 20. 1. x$. 7. 8. 4. JV37. . \ .^7.17. 33. a. z + 22. \. m'. 1. 20. 57. aW\ 40. 'J. 14. 54. 1. 20. 9. J 3. ifa. 49. x/25. . . Page 200. 47. . ar 1 .//^. Jb \. 14. 125. jV 10. . . 3. \. 40. 1. 5. 30. 3. 18. 2. 3 4 11. 24. 2 L ( V.  48. ^Sf 3 38. 243. 17. 3. 25. 42. 58. 43. 4. Page 199. 24. 32. r. 33. 2. 1. _! V3. 1. 1. 25. vV. 48. vm. 21. 19. 6  AAf. v. 8. 39. 5\/5. Vr. 8. p. 8. 3. v/3.2. 30." 17. 20. 10. 38. 29. 11. 2. 29. 0. 13.1 5 15. 3. 3.  a'2 . 13. 51. m.
3 + 40 3 . 9. T. r 17  Page 204. 50.r. Vr 8. 30. 2 x* 15. . 3.707. . 3 4\/2. 31. (a 27. 15. 26. 62V(J. + 2 ar 1 ). 51.x^y* + y%. a 3. m* n*.'\ 14. 21.692. 9. (x' (l 1+x). 11V3. 19. Page 207. 40. . V2 + 4 V22. 39.577. + . 2. y. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 1 2 or 1 ?. 17. v/^r 5  A/^~. a 4 +* + !. 2>X2. 3^ + 2). 29. 20. x^ . ftV 46. 33. 9.yl : . 48. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 23. x%  3 ^+ 1. 36. 2. 5. 03r* 7. 24. 21. (o* 2. 34 r 6. v'TM. 31. 17. 20&V6. Va 2 "ft.2 18. l 5. 37. 2v (T 2aVf. 3V5.XXii ANSWERS 1.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 13 35.f. 38. 3 a~ 3 (x (. yV35.rV:r.  2 3:r. + 1. x y. 27. ^7 \AOx.  a Vft 2 121 b. 8. 13. 37.). 30. 5 ( . ). Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 3. . x 25. 195V3. + Vic + 25. + 2). 16. Page 208. 28. ^88". 25. V63. . . 16. 10. 2.. 13 a. 1) 3V3. 2. 7. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 4. 13. a2 4. abVab. a^ + 2^+1. V. 135V6. 2 '"V5. 45. V. x + 5 x3 + 0. + 2 V22. ?tV?w. 5 22. y (a + ft) V2. 3 42. Page 203. 3V^T. 8. 19. 49. V80. + + ft. 32. . 26. 6. 29. 3. 2\/7. V 5 47. 8V/) 15. 18. x. 10. 2. 3^2. 7. 8a6V5. 2 4 z2 l 3. x 7  34. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 32. 3 x^y 33.Vxy 35. 4aV^J 16. 10.648. 24. 11.632. 22. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 4.2 VlO. / V3. r c . 5. JIV6. 11. 101 1. 2 a?>V2 a. 43. ^: V2c. 41.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 40. 9 . 1. 20. 28. 2. 34. . 12. v^. 6. k/2. 3 \ 39.
11.30 2. V3"m. 34. ^ 3 b 5 24. . '. 14c 4 V5. 18. . 3\/wi. 7. \/04a. 8. x/8l. r)\/(l Vrtr. 5V2. v^f. 3v^2. 4. Page 210. 15. 13\/3. xx 1. v^30. 23. 6+2V5. 21. 6. "v/wi ??. 74\/Jl 120 46. 16. V5. \/2. 24. 3\/2. fl^Vac. x/8. 16. 27. v 25^4714 V2"a. \/8. Page 213. 4\/5. 32m27n. x/125. vT). 20. 24. 48. v"3. 37. b. 3. : ^32. V3. W). 2. 6. 18. 53. v/9. 51. 16. 10V(). 3. 23. a^\/a7>. 40. 26. a\/5c. 2 V'3. 34. \/a6c. x/4.. 18. 2. Page 214. 19. 10. 15. 19. 7. 7\/(l 7VTO. 44. 1. Vat. rtv/5. ^27. x/8L v/27. "^8000. \^r^bVabc. ^\/3. 22. 8V73\/IO. . Vn. ^9. 6. D 45. % 29. 12. 2\/7. + VlO  v y (5. 4VO. m ?i2Vm/t. 3 V2. 11. \XOfl6Vi5. . 30. 14. 3 V15  47. \V3. aVa. 5 \/2. 9. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 5v/2. 2 28. 39. 13. 33. 3. V2. v^4. 35. / \/w/t 4 13. 37.r v/^ v^fr*. 39. 9. v^lf. 3. 14. 8  \/15. . VT5. 2 \/2. + 20. w?i. 28. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 49. Page 216. \/abc*. v"5. a2  b. 4 >/3. 2 1. V2. 2yV2?/. 36. 5V2. V3. 6.T*. 22. 5. 8V2.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 29. 41. 21 23. 0. 11. 31. v/8. \^6. 3. 27. 9 VlO + 4. x/w^ 8. 52. 36. 30 Vl4. V5. 25. 10. v/lO. 50. 8v2T 12. 2. v/l2. 9. 32. VJla. 5. 1V5. 6 2\/0.  3. Vtf +3+ 33. v^O. 17. 12. V8. 17. 2. 26. 4. 13. Vdbc. 3\/15  6. 1. 38. 14. v^a. 31. x/3. 6V2. 17. V/. 0. 6aV2\^. 35. 2 ate. .J Page 212. 3 Vl5 30. Page 211. v7^. 6x2?/. ^v 7 15. 10. x/27. \^6. v/i). 21. 38. 25. 6. 7. 32. 42. 5. 8. 46. 1. 4 a*. 2. ab 4. . 40. 43. \/128.
601. 9. 4. Page 218. 34. 10. . 2. (3+ v/2). 4. 25.13. 4. 2. 4. 5 V65. 30. Page 28. 5 f. 4V3 + 6. (V5f 5. 19. Vf6fVtf. 19. 7. (Vf + (4 V2). j. 12. 10. (V21). . 1. 29. 12.1. 9.9. 1. 14. 2. !^ 6 4. 16.5530. 13. 3. 2ajV2*. 27. (2. m f. 7. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 35. 3. 16. 16. 9. 18.732. 23. 4. 11. . 4. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). 8. V3.0606. 11. V6c.  2. 15. 224. 9. 23. 18. (V6 + 2V2). 10. \/57t. 23. J. 8. ^. n*. 6. 7. i^Lzi. 14. 7. fV2. 3V23. 5. 23. V3.4722. 8. 5.1547. 5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 8. 26. 10.  . (V8 + V2.3535. 1. 19.^ (\/22 4. 18. . xy 2. V5. 1. 2V3.625 10. (V51). 22. (\/3f 1). 2. 15. nVTl. + 6) 2 . 17. (VllV2). +3 V2).64. (2V2). .w 6. 2. . 9. J. 1. 10. 4. 4 14. 25. 81.2.389. V35. 25. 7. 23. 26. ^r. 20. 4. f. 19. 2!5_. 16. 125. 11. 27. 5. Page217. 1. 6. 3(7+3V5). 24. 25. 2V2. p 6 13. 10.3. . 21 ' Vob 26. ' 22 i .2. 9. 5. (2f V"5). 4. ANSWERS 8. 512. (VaT^v a). j 15.2828. 1. 22. Page 226. 3. \/3). .464. 2. ^. 20. 14. 22. 4. 6. 16. 15. (\/5V2). . 25.6 V3. 15. 13. V^TTfc. 1. (a 1. 3. 21. 9. + 5V2.6. 17. 1. 24. 36. 7. . ^\/2. 81. 9. 24. * 3. 11. 8 V3V2. 25. 9 mn. 20. 4. 0.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . _^JflJ?. 17. 30. 24. 37. 13. 2 . 1. 10. 5. 5.5. 216.\/TO). 4. 3. \. V2. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 1. 21. V3 . 4. Va.1805. i(Vf Vft).XXIV 7. 14.7071. 4. 19. 20.732.. 18. 25. 5.  13. 8. 9. 11. 8. 27.4142. 2V3. 5. 8. 6. .7083. V. 0. 12. 17. K>/0 + \/2).3. 32. Va. Page220. 21. 3. 11. 28. 18. 4. x 20. Page 219. 100. 12. 29. 2x^2^. 7. Page 225. Page 223. 12. 15. 33. 16. 7 f 5 4. 6.81. A . V3. ~ Vac _c 0. 7 Page221. 31. 3. 12. 64. ^(VlO\/2). 6 V. {.V3). 8. 2. (2Vll). 7. 16.  f.
3 9.  3. 7. 3.  4. 4. 2. 1 6. Page 236. 1. 1 . 5. 28.l)(m . 11. 4. 4. 2.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). P. 30 . 2. 0. 12. 2. 1 . 3. 3. 3. 7.7. 17. 0. (a . t/ 23.^a. 4. 6. 2. 14. 1. 3. . 0. (4 mn . 1.3. (&y2a#H4). 2 V^ . 10.  1. 3 5. ~ f7. a  . 14. 19.  5.12. 1. 0. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1 . 4.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1. (w . 1. 6.l)(a3)(a . 5. 100. (xy + 5) (x*y* . .5. . 16.2. 8 6 & 0. 10. 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 30. 5.22.r .2. 2 . 8. 10. 2. 7. 1. b . 12 24 y . 13. 5. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1. 2. 8.3). 1 (?> x/^3. 2. 8. 21.3. 2 . 3. J. 7. 2. 3. Page 234.4. 9. 8. 1.3 2. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 6. 22. 2. .4. . . 11. 1 . qpl. y. 6. 10. 2 6. & + 6 2 ). 16. 11.3. (2 a. 4 . (a 4. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 5. f . 22. 3 . 2. 1. . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). (pl)(p2)(p2). (a. 4. 4 4. 26. 7. 30 30. 2. 25. . 23. V3. 13. 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). a(. . 18.4. 13. 50.5 xy + 25) 22. 5. 1. 30. 2. 14. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 6. 73.  2. 73. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).3. 13.  J. 3. 12. 1. 3 . 17. 0.3. 6 2 2a + 2). 12. . (63)(6' t 18. 3. 4. a . 2. 18. 25. 4 1. 19.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1. 1. ( 16.4). . 9.2)(* . 0. 8.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).0.10. 7. . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 5. 3. 1 . . 2. 19. 20. 4. 4.  16). 3. (a. 1. 4. 1. J Page 235. 2.8a 18. 20. 2 6. J. 15. 3. 5.  . 24. 2. 17. 10. 6. 5. 4. 12. 15.nl^EI. . 1. 3. 2 &. 2. (8. 2.2)(m. 20. 11. (pl)(p3)(p6). 2 . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 24.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 11. 12. 7. 2. ' J. 0. 5. (r. . 56l). 2. 1. . 2 > 1. 3. . . 1 3. 3. Page 233. 25. 6.1. =A^Z3. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 13. 4. (rt. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).  1. 3. o. 4 . //. 1. 9. 2 <? 4a2 . 1. 3. .2. 10. (m 4 + l)(ro. 15. 7.ANSWERS Page 228. 2 . 4 20.  3. 2.  3. 4. 2. 3. . . 5. 2. . 3. 25.Y. 5. 0. 21. 4. 2. 3. J 24. (a+&)( 2 14. a: :} . 2. 4. . 8. 3. 3. 5. (B43).3. 4. (+!)( 2) 10. 4. 87 .1.. 4. XXV 4. \/0.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 3 .  f . 3. 5. 11. f>. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).w 4 + 1). l. 3.
11. 6.3. 4 8. 2. 1 2.1. 8 . 3. 3. 3. (a) 5. V3~. 50. 3. 4. 5. 2. 8. . 3 . 4. 4. 3. 9.. 3 . . 7f solution. 3. 7. +  n. 1. 33. 1. 4. 5. 3. (&) 2. 2. 55. 12. 2 1. 16. 3. 11. 21. ri*. . 2n. 50. Page 247. 512. 3 cm. 2 . 1. Indeterminate. 5. 17. Page 243.. Page 244.1. 14. c. ' j. 3. 8. 4. _ 13 (0 6. 40. 1. 1 . 15. 1. 1. in. 2 . 0. 9. 1. 5. 2. . $VO. 18.4.13. Page 248. 2. ft. f. 2. 35 ft. Page 239. 4. 16. ^ }.18. 1. 8. . 1J. 2. oo . ( 3. 3. 6. (/>) "_. 3. 9. .4. 5. 2. 1. '>. 1. 1. 7. 13. 19. 3. 14. 3.3. 21. 20 in. 5. 2. 22. (a) $3400. 12.  11. 39. \.0. J. oo. 10. 25. 45yd. 5. 288. ft. 38. 14. 1 . 1 . 21 30.4. 5.4.3. 2. 1. 2. 15. 40 25 in. 4. \/6. 2. 12.3 . 1. 3. 5. tn 2. 36. 512. . 24. . 8ft. Page 245. 4. 15. i i i . . 7. . 10.. 3. 1. 5. . 1. 8. x 4. . . . f>. 4.3. _ 5. 6. 1. 37. Page 240.136. 8. 12. 12ft. . ^~2. 4. 14. 2. i.y. 3V5. 14. 15. 3.. 35 a.1. Exercise 113. 5050..3. and _ 4. 12 ft. 4 34. Indeterminate.0. 13. . 69. 7. 2 . 5. 2 ft. 4. i'ljVU. 4. 10. 5. 12 1. J. 1. 2V7. 1. m27. 5 cm. 1. 1. j. . .. 3. 30. i j. no co . 3 4. in.. 2 10. 16. 35. . 4. 3.020. 4 6. 31. . ft. 26. Exercise 114. 125 125. 31. 20. 2. 5. 37. 1. 2. 3. 3. 1. 11. 4 . 20 7. 1. 0. 2. . m28. 1. 11. 11. ANSWERS 2. 3 .  . 2. 12..  1. 19. jj. 9. 15. 2 16. 6. . 9. 2. 17. 3. 8. co . 5 4. 84. 5. 201. Page 238. 78. 5.6. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1 . in. 24.3. 2. 17. . 3 3. = QO 6. f*. . 1.xxvi Page 237. 4. 7. 3. 10. 12. $. 900. . 7. V7. 5. 40 in. 30.5. 37. 1.. in. 1. 4. 17. 22. 20. . .30. 3.200. in. 8. 7 3. } . 2. 2 Y> V . 41. . 4. m + n. 0. 12 d.5. 11. . GO . 5. 3.6. 2. 4. n. 5. 1 . }. 9.  2 . 1. J. . 1. 400. Page 241. 2. 14. 3. 23. $46. (>.2. 7. oo . 29. 3. 15. . 13. 18. . . 4. 2. 1.e. 28yd. _ 7. J. 5 . 6. 48. $. . 1. . 1. 32. 2>/3. . 8. 14. 17. 8 3. 15. 4. 17. 2 26.. 2 2. 30 13. 4. 4.3. 35^ 5. 18. 3 2. n . _ 10. 4. 23.
3. 48. 9. . 3. 405.504. G. 6. 2. 6. . 22.  17. 23. 45 Page 257. 5. 10. 3. 16.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 7.8.680. 4. 128. 4. Page 254. 6.1. 8. 29. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.x' 10 .  101. 2. 04. a4 4 14. 15. 7. 5.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 0. 1000 aW. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 28. .384. 27. 16.700. 2. 12. 5. 343. 5. 3.7 10. x + Vy. 410. 1. 8. 11. 14. a. ~ an . 0. 55. 12. 16. 1. } $ 50. 4. Ja. 9. 11.r 4. 3. 16. 0. 5. J 2 //2 25. 1. 125. 0. 4. 0. . 13. 10 14.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 21. . 1. i 10. 75. 3.5. 4. 4. B . 12. in.920. 21. 7. 304. 4. 18. 120 aW. 5. 220 . 22.170. . 81. 6. x4 .  20 flW. 3. 4.470. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 7. 8 . 4. 11.13. 4.5 x.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 9. ?/i 6 x llj . . 10. xxvii 1. 45. 3. 280 53. 6. 7. 8. 4. ~v 9. 005. 2. 4. 5. vy. .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 5. 27. 4.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.419. 19. (). />*. . 9. . 1. 50. 3. 343. Page 252. x r 4. 26. 8 4x' 2 . 2.5y 4 . REVIEW EXERCISE .^ ?>i 2412x4. 4. '23. 8. 10. **+. 20. 12.192. 10. 125. 70.870 m*n*. 2. 20. 32. 25. 1820. 70. 3. 5.53. 6. 1. 16.120. r 5 4. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 20. 8. 4 0. . 7. 7 x4 17. 3. 8 1.6.0. 1. 2. d.4. 05. 0. 12. JSg. 9.2 45 a 8 /). 12. 15. 19. 27. 13. Jj? 45.12 x*y 16. 44. 19. 192. \ w 4 . y ^ 5  ^\ ). A. 0. 5.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 13. Page 258. 2. 10.6 . 8. . 100. . 8. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 18. 18. 04. 910. 15. 12. 17. ^a 8. 2. 17.3 ays. 4. 1 7 4. w9  8. 35. 1.4 &z x>&. 1JH. 1. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 0. 9.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 16 11. . 0. 15. 5. 16. Y11. 15. f y 8 + z* .ANSWERS Page 250. r r j. 18. 3. 1 14.v Page 253. 2. 53. 70. I. <. 2. 6i.<2 4. 3.210. 16. 7 2 x 4 x8 .r x>/ 7 3. 6. 10. 6. and 1. 1. 7.r* 4 70 . 12. ' 1. 45. . 6. 43. 4. 8. 7. c. Page 259. 8. 495. 5 13.2 9. 4.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 2. 35. 2i* 7f.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 708. . 2.5. 27. 8J. 327. 1. 4950 M 2 b y *. sq. 8. &' 14. 17. 105.
x . 88. 2 x2 108.105. x' . 114. 24. 21.18 x?/0. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 3 a 44. 13 + 2 s. x 2 .5x4. . 2 x'V2 90.x 2 4.  4 a3 85. a4 x. 1 121. x 8  a8 . a2 2 aft 2 2.1. as 20. x4 f + 23 . 2 30 . 4 15 x 5 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. ^ . x2 5r*x ft 5 .y*.4. a' 111. 5 42. x2 2 . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. a~b 89. 4 2 . x 8 + x 4 68. 5x + 2y~z. 1 a"* 4 an .1w 77. 4 69. . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. Page 263. x 4. 76. 100. 4 ! . .2 x^. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.2. 46. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . f5+7. 8x3 8x.4 x?/2 3 4. . 16. x2 471x4. 122. 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 28.a6 2 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 53. 93. m " + n + P3c .3 . 6a6c. 120. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  e +/. 37. 9x. .6 am b\ 129.2 c .3 aftc.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.x24 73. y 4 z* 0. 16t/. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 6 c 47.c. 62. Page 260.  .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 2/' .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . x } 4. +^ + ft W. !! 71. 109. ft /> 78. 35. .4 ac. (a + ft)" 98.^a . &p 84. 110. t 81. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.a. x* .rty x2 4 123. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .  12 a.18 ?/ 5x4. 31. 3a'2 Page 261. 3 a . 9 2w 128. 3 36 b c .4 x 2 .2.4 2 4 c2 42 . 4 Page 264. ft2ft 4 4l. ?/ 3. .a'2 c. 63. . 6 a2 97. . 105. .4. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 7 + 3 xf 2. 43.1 4 jry 4 x .5.. 4 115. .xxviii ANSWERS 19.5 3n 4. _55_7c 48.x 51. .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. ?/ .15 4 62 x  72. 22. x' 79. 4 fee 4.fee 2 4.ac 44 aft. 4 . c3 4 58. .3 a'ft.2 x 4. 96. 4ft y3. 80. 38. /> 4 83. ?> . * 60. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. x2 a2 1 . 12 x. a* 4. 124.a*ft 2 126. + 3 a?. 23.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.5 b + c . 82. . 12 a/. 2 x2 4. df. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .2. a J .6 b.3 y.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 61. 4 65. 91. () 2 x 33. 127.  3 x2 .1.a 2 x 2a . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 26. 131. az 4. + z.7 x   15. 1 + 4 xy. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 113.ft).c. I 57. 5x 2 2x43. 5 4 4. a 4 . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 10 a 12 b. 99. 8 . 86. 30.4. 1 . ft n . 94. 0.41. 70. x 3 41. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 3 a 5 a 5. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 2 q. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 36. + a 4. 118.x4 + y'2 z 4. . 3 c . . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 243x4729. 39. 29. 133. x 3 4. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 4. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 50. 130.{ 54. 2 . 3~ n 4.1. .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 104.3 b . x8 x2 55. 3a~2c. 52. 125. . 4.3 103. 32.4 x y 87.c 3 4. a 3m 4. 2 a. 64. a* a 8 a aftc. xyxzyz. 0.a' 'ft 4. . 27. . .x x*  f 2 ax 4.x. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. .7. 2 . 72. 49.3 x 2 + 3 x . x 8 + x 4 y* 67.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 25. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 102. 66. 0.9 b.2 xy + 4 y2 106.4. 40. .  + 3 x2 . 14 x . 4. 10 4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.1. 1 x 45.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 107.9 x . 132.
2. 6. 160. Page 267. 202.  1.. (6) 40. 244. 37 1. x(x + 6) 213. a. 220. (x + 6)(x6). 1. 247. 205. 75. 138. 1. 12 yr. ?. 30. 157. 136. 2 (4 x . (a} 59. a(a. 150. 4. 189. 149.r + 4). (y7)(y + 188. C3 y _l)(.3. .2. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).2 )(x+y) 228.2) (3 x . (?/+l)(yl).6)(4 + 6). 154. (x  42 yr.2). 163. . 2. a 2 (15. (8x + 3)(3x4). (233).ANSWEKti 135. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. + 3) (x f f>) . 18. (7x2//) 203. 151. 156. 1. (/ 246.4xl). 8(ar}(/)27).3).y). 140. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 3. 239. 4. 6. 207. Page 265.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). . 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 193. 20. 161.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).l)(y + 1). 19. (2a + l)(a . 2 2 (a. y  y 165. 15. 177.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 186. 230.2ac + 229. Iff 145. +)(x2 x^+2. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). + 11) (a 10). 212. 153. (y 7f))(y 196. (. 171. 23 18.l)(x8 + x2 . 187.3) (2/3y). (x + 2)(x . 6). y3. yr. 30 yr.1(5) 200. + 3). + 22). 10 ft. 168. 208. (x 227. 137.. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). ( jc // a 2 (a1). 195. 241. 32 h. 162. 21. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 172. p./_4). 176. 2 xy(3 x . y.y)(z . 24. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 182. 209. 231. 5. 232. 199. 1. (ab + 8) ( 7).2). 3(x . 15  a.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). y 245. 3. 183. (5 x . 179. r>x 2 (4x. . (xyX^+y" )1 243. z(x10)(xl). (a& 192. 185. 237. 22. 164. Page 266. 12. 226. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 224. (y  17)(y + (>). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). fc'2a+62c). 144. 146. + 6 y) (x 2 y) .9)(xf 2). (2 198. m. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 1. 143. 240. 191. (r7y)(ai.1). 2(x8)(x3).3 y)(a . (x^ + x1) 234.. p.6 . 12 6 panes.y + 3)(r (. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (JT y 225. 218.1). + 2) + 9a. 211. (3x2?/)(2. xxix 139.y)(jc + 7 y). (y_24)(y5). 215. 216.m)(x + a). Or (a + 2)0el). 201. (a 2 + 2a6. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 10). 210. 174. 236. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 166. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 235. (x . 233. 50. a + 2x2 ). 1. (r^x + 1). HI. (7 c 2 ). 169. (3x  . 10 in. 214. (y _ ft)(y 4. 155.6) (2 x + 1). ft. 158. 15. 12) (j. 12. 184. 40 yr. 142. G7. + 7)(rt4). 190. 48 h. 222. 7. 152. 2. 147 mi.1). + y. as 194.y) (\r3y).I2y). . 12 yr. 217. 238. 173. .y2 ). 1. 218. 1. 219. 147. 175. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 197.. 167. 2. 20. aft. 30 + xyr. 2. 206.l)(a 2 +3). 159. 178. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 181. 8 204. 2^. 10). (c) 160 C. 180. .3 y). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 36ft. 148. k.r . 170. 10.
4 5.2* i^^ !^. *.(x  4) (x4 304.^ ^^. x . 249. ^ 299. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 306. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 0. x 283. 307. 266. ? 1) 302. 3. 0. 269.4) 1) (3 x .1. 2 x  3.  3xyf x// 257.   . 303. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .. 10. 256. 7. ^/>J. 251. 3).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 3  262. o. 2. a.^^^^^^^^. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. x12. 261. 258. &). 250. 301. 43 '^rJ'. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 5. 2 4 300. a~ ' b*). \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . ?^ZLiZ 308. 298. 268. 310. 305. 259. 7 x 265. 254. x 267. + f. 263. 264. 279. (7 255.  7. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. o(x4l).4). 3). 260. 7^T 2 . x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. *>). > 4. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 295. x ?/ z 1.
2(q. 388. 395. 0. c 402. 386. 393. 2 ). <L 409.(5 a . 0. 0.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 398. 406. 4. ab. 405. . ^ 3 // . 6 ?/+:>. T+^. T\.vin a /r " 337. ?/ + 3 332. If. 325. 401. 326. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. + 335.  1 356. 2. 361. 1.!. . _*L'L+. 6a. 377. + x 362. 355. 324. 3. L . 334. 0. 13 391. j 328. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 380. 407. a + b + 6). 1. a +6. " 4 378. ?>*. 408. 343 00 351.)Cr4)__ . 2 327. 396. 389. 382. * 357. Page 277. 11. 383. 4 A. y 4 I 340. ?=. 1 i 2 ^. l . . 376. 336. 4 rw. 394.3. 365. 366. A^L5L. 399.. 1. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?).J .7.". 364. 20. . 2 r36 384. a 2 . 379. 333. 3. 329.. 9^.  1. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. f. S.1. 2(a i 403. 339. 2 ?/ 363. . 392. m. 12. + 4 & 4 \ b. 387. 7. a) A^_. 1. 2 ab  a Page 276. 404. 2. 4. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 3. 390. x 54 359. 397. 360. (a + b + c\ . l'j. 370.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 1.XXXI Page 272. . 375. 400. ^_:r f> 331. Page 274. ^"" 4 s . 7/i ^ _ . 385.
7. 3. 6. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 492. 435. 444. .  1. Page 281. ft 5.  2f 504.1. . 14 miles. B $ 2500. 22. c. 10. 501. 458. 412. 481. & 491. .  7. 5. 3 .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 495.. 32 yr. 459. 500. 441. 3a 4 5. 33. 3. 464. 472. 1.7.}.  f>.4. 17.0. 7.  1. 10.7. 466. L2 a  6 . 8. 1. 8.12. i a b 451. .te + . + () 433.  2. Page 280. 1$. 411. 0. (c) not true. 17. 6. fc. 2. 507. 40. 10. 8. . 506. 10. 442. 421. 410. 462. . 440. 418. . 478. 450. 497. 1. 465. 24 days. 7 : ..  7. 1. 2. a 22 . a + + ft c.488. ^V. 499. 8. 0. . not true. 7.489. (a  c). 2. I. . . 3. fj. 11. 6. 439. 463. 2. (&) 443. (d  6) f. A $ 3500. * .0. ISjmi. 477. 502. 2. 487. 426. ISJini. : />a. 455. 413. . B 4 mi.5.3..rz Page 279. 454. 6. 508. 467.7. (&) true. 20 yr. 0. />c c(f be. 5. 496.4. !L=4. 12. 10$. 429. 7. ^. . 18. 51. (d) true. m 1 : wi. 53 yr. A 5 mi . 6. 480. 2. . L (c) I. 4. Page 282. ^r?i 434. 425. 482. 63. 430. 432. . 468. b 449. 0. .  . i. 1. z8 +?/ 3 431. \. <L+ 6 (. 490. 485. 456. 32.  10. . 427. 445. 448. 90. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 479.2. 503. 10. 50. c 6fc 10. 4. 452. 9. 436. 2. 40 oz. 6. 10. 2.  505. 447. 0.}. 5. 42... 486.2. 483. 494. '. 461. 460. 20. 2 a 2. 420. 422. 423. 457. 4.7.3. $2000 at 0%.7. m. Page 278. 5.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 419. (a) 1. 0. ' $260 at 0%. . 0. 2$. . 484. 5. *+. 7. 493. 5J.vz in. 2. a* 424. 10.m  m+ M in. \ 1. 6.46.  453. 5. 428. 2 438.  2. 4. 498.. 2. 21. . 84. 476. 28 yr.55. 446. Page283.  2. 1 a /?$+&?.
1. 1.8 x3^. 1. . 1. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. Page 288. 568. y% Z * 586. If 572. 4.15.03.6.62. 4 0. (6) . 2. Roots imaginary. 1.03.54. 7. 1.6.  imag.4. 509. 21*_.0. (6) 3.15. . 565. 529. 2. (ft) Ill Ib.54.6 2.5. 1. 5.14.8. <z ft 1. Page 285.56 sec.35. 552. 1.8.  2. 510. 3. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 1. .75.16.31. 2 1. 553.. . 556. 8 mi. . . (e) (c) 2.3. + 26 + . 518.0.02.. or 8.37. 574.r8 596.3.. 526.  . + 12 x . 554. .20.4. per hour. . 3.83. 1. f36a28x8 592. . 1. 4. a+ Page 286. 24. da. 593. 3.  (a) (d) 1.33.7. 4.  1. 1. f. (c) 3. 4. 2$.02.12. 2. 1.0. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.52. . 2 10. 2.53. S82 c. 1. 2.  + + c. 3 . . 525. . 571. 1. 27 y* f\4 .  557.   (h) 8..24. 579. 2 .5.62.3. lead.5. 528. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 2. 8. 573. 0000. 512.5. . J7] min. ^ ft 4. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).1.88. + 6 tf f 3 . 560.4. (d) 537.55.4. imag.25m.4.3. 1. (c) 4. 3. (ft) 4.2.38.1.7. per hr.8. 0. 1J. 558. . 515. 3. _^ 2754x . a*8a + 24tf 82a. 581. f. 578.5.04. . 14. 2(4 602. > ^ . 1$. (e) 570. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.  (a) 2. 3.. 564. (gr) 10 1. ft 584.3.78.5+. . . 562. 567. . 3.1.5 f. 3 da. 555. 1. . 1. 1. 2 2. 559.78. 513. tin. xxxin 511.15. . . 4. 531.24.21.10.51. 4. 2.3. 532. 550. 591. f ? a f ft __ + c C).0.3.f 1. T . . 527.ANSWERS Page 284. 1. H. (/)  10 to 8.04. 566. 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 1 600. 5.4 x + . 3.30.25.00.05. 6435.4. 1. Page 287. . 1 . a + ft  a  f c. 1. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.9.31.02. 4 mi. 2 1. 536.75.3.6. 576. 575. 603. _ 3. (a) 74 Ib.  7.10.  4. 3.  ft*. _ 4. 569. 4. 3. 599. a f ft + c. lead.24 sec. 516. . ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.83. tin. 115 Ib. 563.  3. 2 imag. 40 Ib. . 514.02. 533. 4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 7^ da.73.37. 31. 1 .  J(a f + 2c).1. 4* da.% rr\* 585. 2 .6. 3. 1 580.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. y 4. 3. . 232. 561.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4. 2. M ft c 2 ft 3465.8. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 577. 582. o> . . 6. 2. 551.7. 3f 4f. 5.1. 583. x8 . 24 da. 5. 1. 598. 2(6 597. (i) 3. 530. g(rc+ 6c).xj/ f xV .  2ft da. 3. 6.
b 664. If f 667. 10. 657. / V^+lO^M"^. . 630.001.  . ^^ 695. 654.04. 691. J^^. 645. 2.001. ft). 700. 6. b .f 3 V^3).>A 610. 620. 670. 2 a: 4. If 658.002. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.0. I}'/. 4. 648. 2. 652. 1m*. 2 / 2 4. . a 1J. 3. V2. 0. 612. 2092. 2 ab + a  &.303. 613. 703. a. 4 V 0.14 If 1. ^. ' fe 2 ). 9.203. 679. ab 689. 677 680.c ) 697. 0. 666. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 1 704. 706. fe + a. 6. 632. 7003. 692.43^4. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 642. 651. 702. 641. 614. 705. 2. 1. 009. 1 2. . . <T! . c. . 25. i. 2 x 44 ^/. . a 4. 2&).XX XIV 606. 653. 11. 655.  6. 0. 7.3.  ft.  2f r 659. 672. y  619. K 5 2 V2. 898. 636. 625. 7.  a2  a (ab). 662. 615. 1010. 971. .. (*_ + a: 611. 3 681. 2. 656. .  13. 2 a 688.  4. 622. 628.3. 617.. 50. 1.  684. 2. 210. 646. 678< 682. o. l/'3. 647. V2. 669. z  1.3f l 668. (a3&45rj. 3 a.3. 6 685. 629. V7. 3 x2 . 640. 2. 4 676. ab. 5. 4. 11. \+ab 699. 643. 14. If . a ' 2 + . 25. b. 4. 1. 4330 da. 1.  4. + ~^'2 + a 1. 1$ 639. 3.049. 4$. 624. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 661. 644. 0. a 673. fta a/> ^A. 5. If b. . 660. 683.a~ {Z 663. 701. a 2. 623. V^~3).702. n^l +^. 696. ' 674. 5 3. 638. 649. V"^TJ. If. 703. . 3.2f (5 4. 2 a  6*.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 1 ~a . ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 634. 635. 626. 8 6 fo .b 686.y. \. 607. ^ 1. . . 5. 621. 12. 650. 2. a + b. 5002.  1. . ix 2 . 0. . 9*. 2f.  3. 690. 2. 618. if 4/> 671. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 708. ^. 637. 1 V5 1. 13. /> 4.2f Page 290. 627. 2f.3. Page 289. 608.25. 616. 698. 8. 2. 8 f 3. la6 2. 78. If 665. 0. 631. 633. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 4.b. 5. be ac \.
Hi a. 3 720. 749. 746.11. 3V72VO. v'll. 709. / 787. 3V52V3. mn. 1^ _ 760. 1 747. 30\/10 764. 782 785. . 1. iv/Jj. 767. 711. 5. 729. 721. 3V7. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 8. fyaw&cu. Page 294. i^. 733. 5. ^7xy.9. 736. 792.1 . 769. . 3. a". 731.ANSWMHti Page 292. 725. 722. 732. 1. 778. 15 shares. j 742. 713. VT14V5. 7  3V5. 753. 17ft. 716. a db Va^T < 45da.V2. .r. 777. 00.12 af V^ 4 744.r+y> 759. 726. 788. a:* . 1 I . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 32>/2. v/7 / . . 723. r. ^ . x i f^' . . 1 [ + '> J. a 5 . 756.8. VIO\/3. 47. 738. Page 293. 719..V/^ 741. 34. 39. 758. 3 VlT 795. x\y. 714. 750..rJ w L 754. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.9. 2\/53V2.10.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 1.~ . 3^. VV> L4V34. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 3V72V3.. "V313. 59. 739. 763. 13ft. + 6 2 tf'c. 768.2. cr*lr*. 790 2v 3v 2. 755.4 . 728. 794. 24. rt3 2 ^i^. 2 V2 . + < 735. 342V3. 751. 796. y  1.. 724. 33^2.257. 730. 2x3^ a. 29\/3. 715. 8. 737. 740. 4 104 v/2. 734.^.^ 743. > 748. 1 752. 727. ^ ?>. J(v'lO2V 791. 717. 25. 710.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 24V2. i 2. 24 4 . 712. 718. 773. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 793. a 2  x2 . 776. T%. 789.4 . 300. a 2 6^.
879. n =  29.7 4 1) 846. a* 4. 858. 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 7. 3. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 816. 2 854. ^.  839. (:r 11. 837. 23. 3. (2x (r. . 4. 0. (x + 0X024. 900.7). 6. . $. 6+V7. (x . 2. 861. 13. 842. x. 7. 840.  1.1)(0 865. (x 845. 1. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 4. 894.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 810.1. 1. a2 ^E*!. 830. Hoots are extraneous. 3. 899. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).7). 847. (2 x + 3 y} . 804. 2 . 833. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 3./>") (a'. 0. (2 a . 0.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 812. 2 . (3 862. 10.1) . ( 869. are extraneous. 14. a(ft)( 873. (a 1) (x 4. a(ry + 864. 4. 2/ 856. 2 806.r .2) (x 4 2). 831. 5.4) 860. 8 09. 876. 3. 3. 822. 8. 2 *x 807.. 813. 11. 2. 48. 887.7. 2  2. 6. 1 . 893. (a 4 871. ( 4 4. (x 2 f r . 6(a6)(o a + + &). 817. . 11.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 4 818. 4.  ' .2w .om 441) (a 855. 857. 897. 19. ) (a' 874.l)(x + 2). 836. m 875. 1 1. 892. (4 c 4. 2 2 . 2 m . 872. b' 2 821. H. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 825. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).3. 7. 2. 819.10 ab 4.1) (a 8 . 886. 5. 17. 2. (1 . ((' 1). 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 824. 898. Page 296.1)(V 2 .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2 j 889. 829. 820. . **.  + l(l^). 3.3)(x + 4). 832. 2. 4.4. X4 1). jV3 f 3. 1C. Va. 5).l)(x + 3)(2x43). x . 3 . 1. 841. 2. (xl)(^~3)(. 851. 890.a 4 + 1). . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).f. 859. 848. 3.XXXVI 797. 4. 843. 880. ^VG.rae) (4 . 2. 5. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. a 42)(x .. 823. 3. o.4. 25. 868. 811. 5. 881. 3. (.1). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).3.25 ?>2). 17. 895. 827. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).l)(x . (x*y*ryz + z*). . 844. 800. 1. \/5. . 835. 882. Page 297. ^ V}. . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 826. 801. (x 2 . 883. 799. m = 2. 6 $. 2. J V. 808. (2 4.0. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 0. db 7. 863. + d)*. (x 4. 6.+ m f ") (a* ).2 ax 4. 4 . 888. 884.  tt 815. $. 4. 1. 2 . Hoots .7)(4 x. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . Va 803. 4.5) (x + * 853.r4). f.l)(x . \/2. 5. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). .a 2 2 ). 891. 7. 867. o 828. 896. 2. (x . . (3 b . 814. 4 885. ANSWERS 798. V 3. 834.a 3 " 4. . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. . 8. (a m . 838. 4. 2. 2 (x 4*4. (x3). 20). 849.y) 852. . 4. +j!>..5 b) 4 1).
933. 100 rows. V5 fj. 947. 937. Page 300. 1 2. 12. . f ft 4 . 3 . .1.. 18. 2. 922. 3. J.. 934. r ft ' < Page 299. 918. V5 T 2 . 980. 2. 962. 4. 944. 916. Z ^. 936. 2 yd. 329. 4.0.1 = 9. 925. 987.. 6. 945. =F J. 1). 2. V^3). . . 942. 15 946. 923. 11. . 28.. ft. J. Page 301. 8. 111.1. ft. 4 6 mi.V~~3).446. 15 16 ft. 56. 7. 943. 6. S07. 6 da. Y. J(_ ft. ft.. 5. 6. 14 . 911.01. 938. 0. 0. 921. v/(ai !)(&910. 5l4f. 6 . 8.615.  1 . 954. 6 1 1. 4. 11.. 11.. 3. 4. 12 in. . 6..I. . 8. 963.073.760 sq. 6. . 2. 12./hr. dL 4. 7. 906. 2. i 8. 909. f.. 496. 2. 1 1. 73. 9 in. %* . 982. 902. 952. . 951. 248. 981. 3. 4 in. 3 4 . 2 ft. i>. 930.. 2. 8. T3. w.. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 950. . 905. 927. Page 303. 10. . ft. 984. 2. 4.111. 4. ft. a.2. . 912. 2. 20 19 ft. 12. . 935. 1. 480 8 sq. a + .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 1 _2 . 5 . 920. 5. . 960. 5. 80. 1. ft. 66 924. 948. 956. ft. i(6 in. 28. 8. 12 mi. . 961. 940. 8128. 40 16 in. . . 4. ?/i 6. 3. 941. 3.. Va926. 10.. 3. 931. 8. 6 a 915. 4. 919. 2 1.  1. 955. 8 .2. 7. 964. 904. 7 or 30.651. 985.. 957.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 4.709. i1" 913. . ^y. 7 ft. 5. '3 3 in. 939. w 3. 1 + V953. tt2 19. 11. T 6. 6. 3). 2. 5. i 3. 60 949. 0. yd. 0. 108. 983. 4. 908. $(l 4. 986. 333. ft. 959. 4 . 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 1 . 280. 333. 8. 6. 2 i ' a V. 977.. T 6. 1. 8. 903.  26j.744. 932. . 917. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 979. 2 w 914. . 115. 3. 978. 7. 958. Page 302. 28.
991. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1016. (J. Page 304. 9 da. 3003. 72. ^f (2f3V2). " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 2(2 v/2). (6) 8(1 . Page 305. 108. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . ^Trsq. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1018. 1007..92. r = 2.378 1015. 992. 1014. 1(5. 988.378 <W and 92.128 I.870 a 6 1011.. 4 and 1020. 994. 120 a. 1009. 995. in. 1012. (5. 2 . 1 1004. 1019. 0. . 993. 12. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 192. 1 8 8 2.51. 0. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 8.  5&7 1021.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1000. 1006. 120 i^l^. 4. X. 1013. ~ \. 12. 162. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1010. 6 70 .192rt?)r 120 *. 48.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 990. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). . 1017.18. 996. . 1005. (Z>) 999. 24. + v 2). 1008.'^^ } ( . + 448 . 1001.870 z8 . 997. () 12(2+V3). 1003.
Half leather. Ph. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. physics. $1. i2mo. xi 4 373 pages. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. comparatively few methods are heretofore. than by the . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.25 lamo. save Inequalities. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. and commercial life. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+563 pages. A examples are taken from geometry. given. so that the Logarithms. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. HEW TOSS . which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The more important subjects tions. great many work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1.D.
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. xiv+56a pages.25 i2mo. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. HatF leather. xi f 373 pages.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.D. Ph. physics. great many A examples are taken from geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. and commercial life. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. In Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. comparatively few methods are given. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. 12010. save Inequalities. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Logarithms. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. etc. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The author grade. HEW YOKE . so that the tions. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.
NEW YORK . 6. more than 1200 in number in 2. Cloth. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. xii + 233 pages. SEVENOAK. izmo. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . .. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.r and. $1. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Ph. under the heading Remarks". Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 9. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: . lines. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. i2mo. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. SCHULTZE.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook.10 L. Cloth. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.D. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Half leather. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . 7 he . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. wor. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 10. iamo. aoo pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 4. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . $1.
. 12mo. and not from the information that it imparts. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York City. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . $1. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. of these theoretical views. 370 pages.
photographs. Topics. " This volume etc. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. i2mo. diagrams. and a full index are provided. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Maps. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. An exhaustive system of marginal references. diagrams.
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