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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD. .
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. PH.D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
COPYRIGHT. 1915. 1910. 1910. January. 1916. 8. . July. 1917. IQJS January. May. 1910 .. Cushlng Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. 1911. Norwood. Reprinted 1913. . J. .S.' February. U. September. May. Berwick & Smith Co. Published Set up and electrotyped.A. Mass. September.
giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. owing has certain distinctive features. however.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. manufactured for this purpose. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. and conse . specially 2. Such a large number of methods. chief : among These which are the following 1. are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Elementary Algebra." this book. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.
all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. however. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . hence either book 4. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject.g. especially problems and factoring. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions .vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. as quadratic equations and graphs. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. e. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. two negative numbers. may be used to supplement the other. Topics of practical importance. In regard to some other features of the book. Moreover. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". are placed early in the course. etc.
nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. elementary way." Applications taken from geometry. in " geometry . McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. is based principally upon the alge . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. Moreover.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and commercial are numerous. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. physics. viz. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. such examples.
William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. 1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. NEW YORK. April. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. edge of physics. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. however. .
SUBTRACTION..... ..... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... Powers.... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .
. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . ..... /^ . Type III. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . * . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type IV. Type Polynomials. ... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .114 . Type V....63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type VI.. . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ... Type II. .
CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... ........ .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . Evolution of Monomials 170 .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
are trinomials. A binomial is 62 . V^a6. 12. 26. 15. some number is . V3 . v'Ta. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. x 9. is 28. 2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + c). expression containing more than one and a 4 term. e. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. a polynomial of two terms. 6. b = 3. 13. aVc^. V2a. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 17. 8.g. [6c] 3 . 27. since the parts are a . A polynomial is an y. 10. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. find the numerical value of: Vff. or 9 Vx. as in arithmetic. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. \/c. 5Vl6c." EXERCISE If a 1. 4(a 6(6 + &). 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. + 1]. 3. c f d). separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V36". 9. 2 . d 7. 0. 4V3~6c. (cfd) 4. 14. 16.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 6. c = 1. 7 = 2. !^f\/03 3 ft. Val \fi?. 11.
16. . . 8. a 2 6. __ E. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. + 26+3 c.4 6^9 ad. EXERCISE 8*  . 2 ).9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 12. l 13. 10.390. 3 4 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 52 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 5c +d 2 .9. find the numerical value of: 9. Ex. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. a2 11. = 32 + 4527 = 50.19 = 6.30 = 270 . * For additional examples see page 268. b = 3. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 4 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . c=l.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5.2 + I126. 14.e. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 3. multiplication. a=4. d=Q. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.INTRODUCTION 29. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 2. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.9 aWc + f a b .810 + 150 = . 3 2 If 1. 1.99. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. c = 2. 6. 6. i. . 3a + 56 a 2 . 5. subtraction.g. Ex.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 2. 5=3. (a (a f b) 7. 4. d = 0. x=^. 4a6fVaV2^.. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. Otherwise operations of addition. .
Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6 = 6. 6 = 5. sible to state Ex. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 26. 29. a = 4. 34. 6 = 2. a = 4. 28. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 37. = 3. 25. a =4. 6=2. a = 2. 26 of the exercise. Six 2 . . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 22. 6. 6 = 7. 30. a = 3.6 . if : a = 2. a. : 6. 33. 38. 27. geometry. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 24. 6 = 1. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 5. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 3. 6 = 4. 30. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 6.c) (a . a a=3. a =3. 35. and other sciences. Read the expressions of Exs. 23. physics.
How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 15 therefore feet.) Assuming g . 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 2. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 13. if v . c. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. b. 14. 12. the area of the triangle equals feet.seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. and 5 feet.16 1 = 84. (b) 5. d. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. . (c) 4. b 14.INTRODUCTION E. then a 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. Find the height of the tree. and 15 feet. i.g. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v : a. and 13 inches.16 centimeters per second. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. A train in 4 hours. count the resistance of the atmosphere. An electric car in 40 seconds. 4.e.
). 32 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 2 inches. meters.14d (square units). (The number 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. the area etc. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). : 8000 miles.14 square meters. (c) 5 miles. . If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. If the (b) 1 inch. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.). is H 2 units of length (inches. $ = 3. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 8000 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 5.14 4. square units (square inches. (c) 5 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 10 feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. the 3. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. however. . or positive and negative numbers.
16 32. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 6 6 = 3. 5. '. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 2326. (17) 15 + (14). 4 is 3 J. of 2. d = 0. the one third their sum. 12. + 12. 4. 33. c = = 5.  0. Thus. 5. . find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. of: 20. + (9). subtract their absolute values and . 18. = 5. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. c = 4. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 21. is 2. 23. is 0.3. d = 5. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. lf(2). 22. 10. (_ In Exs. 24. if : a a = 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs.
}/ Add 2 a.. and 3 a. 10. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 12. 32. and 3 yards. 29. 60. = 23.3. 30. 32. 35. AND PARENTHESES d = l. \\ Add 2 a. $500 loss. are similar terms. : 48. affected by the same exponents. . 74. 10. 37. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 7 a. and 3 F. 6. SUBTRACTION. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. d= 3. 55. & = 15. 3. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 0. . 42. & 28. . and 3 a.. which are not similar. 43. 2.13. 6. ' 1? a 26. 39. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. = 13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 7 a.7. 38. c = 0.5. $1000 loss.5. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 72. 7 yards. 33. 6. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. or and .. c=14. 36. 1. and $4500 gain. 66. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. . 34. ' Find the average of the following 34.7. sets of numbers: 13. : and 1. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. . 27. 40. 13. 31.4. . 2. 3 and 25. . and 4. 41. : 34. 10. 5 and 12. . 4. $7000 gain. = 22. ^ ' 37. $3000 gain. 25. 11 (Centigrade).ADDITION. 09. 4 F. and 8 F.
12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. f 4 a2. 11.ii. 7 rap2. b a f ( 6). 9(af6). : 2 a2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 3a . Algebraic sum. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 14 . 5 a2 .13 rap 25 rap 2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. + 6 af . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2 a&. Vm f. 12 2 wp2 . in algebra it may be considered b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 10. EXERCISE Add: 1. 12Vmfn. 13. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12(af b) 12. 5l 3(af6). 5Vm + w. The sum x 2 and f x2 . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . .18 35. or a 6. 2(af &).sign.
is . 33. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. and to add each column. l^S 25. 2 2 2 31. 21. without finding the value of each term 34. 32. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 1 27. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 6 23. +m """ 20. 2/ : Add. ra 19. 37. a a8 ZL **. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173.ADDITION. + / + 3 Va. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 2 7 1 26. + y. n x* 2 22. SUBTRACTION. c 2 ^24. 36. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 35. 17. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 30. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.
While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. c = 1.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 5 . 3. therefore the answer is correct. . 4 = 7. and J 2 s.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. . the erroneous answer equal 7.12 a& 4.o c and 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. e.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 4 2.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.41 = 3. V3. = .15 abc . NOTE.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. ft any convenient and c. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.15 6c. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . to show any error.3 s. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 025. 9 q 4.g. 2 Sum. 2 Thus.c= 2. f 110WS: 26 aft.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 6=2. 5. of that letter. 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. x of x. 3a 2? . . s. to add 26 ab .7 2 .g. 3 a f 4 1) 4. a 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2c. and 2 . 46 4z 7 c. 7 4.8 abc .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .20 c 5 ab 4.
and v 15. a. 7ar + 3B 5.12. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2 a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 2 ?/. 4 3 . 56 w. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .15 5.4 Va . 2 2 . 2 2 and . and . 4(a . . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a 4 a . . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.5a^6 f 6) . + a + 1. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. and and 13. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). a2 a.a 4 a 4 1. a 4 a . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 16e + 17/90. and 5 Vb 18.12(a 4. .Ga 43x45.4:xy xz 6yz.ADDITION.7v/if. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 3(c f a). 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. . 4 ajy 17. .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .6.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 4.1.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . + 50 + 62 . 2 ?ft ?/z. and 1 4 a .9(a + &) .8 m 2m 12. 18/+6y + d.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. ^2 1 e. SUBTRACTION.a. and 8 3 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. and 12a 4 15& 20c .(b + c) 1.12 6 ~5 a . 16.2n 2 2 3 rz .10 Vc. v/20. . d. m 4 6. e a4 /.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. d and / 3 ? 12. .a . . a) y ^/. xy3xz + yz. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .a.VS 4 2 Vc. . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 3 2 2 3 9 .and 6. 4 8 3 4 4 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 19. ?/ . a2 2 14. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. in 8 3 m n 4. 4 Vc.7m . 8. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.1 a 4 1 0. 11.
If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. s . T8a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 45a6 2 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 25. many negative units re main ? from 2. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .5< 3 2 s 4^4.22 21. 1. . .4 2tn* Sic 2 . is 2. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.11 xy + 12. If you diminish a person's debts. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.17 + 4 ?nfy .3^* 2n 2 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 22. f 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 6 f c 2 23.. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. a 6 2 c. how 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 13 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. The sum and ? 1. and e + 6y . + n*.m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1.9aj 2. 1. 1/ . and 2 24. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 8 .ra + m. f 1. 12 xyz. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. f number may be added 3. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. + 1. . +d a.
+b 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract + 3.g. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.2. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. In addition. . a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 41. ( 6) ( = . 7. In subtraction. Therefore any example in subtraction different . if x Ex. the other number is required. and the required number the difference. Ex. Ex. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.ADDITION. 1. NOTE. 5 is 2. SUBTRACTION. called the minvend. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ab = x. from What 3. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 6 (3) = 8. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract to . 2. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. This gives by the same method. 3. To subtract. two numbers are given. and their algebraic sum is required.
24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o.3 x* .5 x + 8. Check.f 8 . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Ex. If x = l = 2 t .
2. From 2 a take a & j. check the answer. 42. 2. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .c. From 6(af. of a 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 50. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 41. 2y 2 . tract 4 x 3. and 3 7/ . 51. 47. 46. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 53. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.7 a . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 6 4 a. 55. 49. 43. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 44.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 48. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 58.w>t.4 a^ 4. SUBTRACTION. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 56. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . . + a the 2 a.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. c f d. 45. 52. 57.6)f.4 a*& + 6 a & . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .ADDITION.a 2 j. 54.
sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 16. a 2y + z. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 9. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.15. +a add the difference duce 13. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. subtract # + 1. 6 17. a a + c. + 6 + c. 2 m 21. a + 6. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . A is n years old. 6. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 20.26 4. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. of # 2 8. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 2. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12.
changed.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. I.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.b c = a a & f f.2 b . 45. II.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.c.ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Ex. a+(bc) = a +b . 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.6 b f (. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. SUBTRACTION. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.a^6)]  } . the sign is understood. & f c. one occurring within the other. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.g.
a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. In the following expression inclose the second and third. + (2a 6 + c ). Ex. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.y (60. 2 2 2 a(. a (a + 6). 4. 2.7i h jp) (m ?*. 6. Signs of aggregation 1. 2 2a.) 5 . a f (a a .[271 47.: Ex. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 18. (m a2 f. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 2a (4a 26 +c ). may be inserted according to 43.(a + 6). 17. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).1422) J ] . 9.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.+ 6)f (a2 b). find the numerical value of { 1422 .)]. m f ft) a. 6) 2. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 21. 15. : x + (2yz). a (a + 26 c ). . 16. ? 11. By removing parentheses. 19. 13. 14. 271 + (814 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 3 3 f 7. [36+ (a 2c]. 3. 5. 8.
a\l> > c + d.1. difference of the cubes of n and m. m x 2 4. 2mn + 2q3t. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. SUBTRACTION.4 y* . m and n. 10. 7. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 2. 5. terms 5. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. and the subtrahend the second.ADDITION.7fa. z + d. 6 diminished . first. The square of the difference of a and b. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 13. 3. 8. 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. . p + q + rs.2 tf . of the cubes of m and n. ' NOTE. The sum^)f m and n. 9. The difference of a and 6. )X 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5^2 _ r . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 12. The product The product m and n. 7. 3. II. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 5 a2 2. y f 8 . 4. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.
b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 16. d. 6 is equal to the square of b. 6. (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.30 14.) . 18. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.
and forces produced at by 3 Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. let us consider the and JB. what force is produced by the Ib. 3. two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads what What. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 2. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. therefore. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 4. weights. A A A 1. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. force is produced therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. (5)X4. 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. ( (. becomes meaningless if definition.4)(4) = + 12. 4 multiplied by 3.4)(. Thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 4 multi44444 12.9) x 11. To take a number 7 times. x 11.32 8. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. however. . 5x(4). such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. the multiplier is a negative number. thus. NOTE. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 9 9. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 48. 9 x ( 11). times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. (. or plied by 3.
Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 20. 8. If a cal = 4a6c. 6. 26.4. 27. of Signs: TJie positive. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. b = 3. 1. 10. (. 7. (10) 4 . c = 25. . (2) 8 (. about fac (2)X If 6. 15. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (4)X(15). find the numeri values of: 21. is 6x7.2 f+x 2 . 5.(4J). 4 a2 .3) (1) 7 2 . 2a 2 6c. . 32. 13. tors is no misunderstanding possible.(a&c) 2 2 . (4)'. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (7) X (12). Law Thus. 3.a)( =+ a&. 8 31.7. and y = 4. _2^ 3. +5. 22. 19.3. 3 aW. 6 2. z s 11 aWcx. . 4. . 5x3.MULTIPLICATION 50.2. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 23. 24. 8 4 . the parenthesis frequently omitted. 9. X(5). 3. 6. 30. 17. 1. x= 0. Ua b 28. NOTE. 2a6 c .2f 18. 29. 2. 3 a2?/2 . 12. 11. 16. 14. _2. x. (c#) . . etc. _3. 4 . (2)x9.
B.  and 2 25 8 . 7.257). a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5 .6 if 35. 5 = 2. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. . 10.. 13. IB. 17. .(7). 16. 6 = 1. 5(711. 4. a = 3. 2 2 2 . 50(112. 9 .2 2 23 + 5 .(2. 127  127 9 7 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 11. 4. a 2 2 .7. 78 .e. 3. 6.(12) . 2 3 . 53. 3. 2. 100. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. a8 a=2.m a 3  4 . 2.. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 3 2 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2 2 3 6 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 6" 127 U . = 2. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . fl*" integers. This 52. + 2/). 5.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . i. Ex. By 3 definition. . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.  2 2. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. : 3a7abc. 12 U U . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 200. 34. 6 aWc x . &*) c d*. 1. (a6) (a5) 9. 14.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . . Ex. of the factors. 36.35). m*.2). . 2(7.3).503). or 2 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 = . =2 a *. 2(14. 4. 5 3 5 3 2 . & = 3.<?. a = 2. a= 1. 3 3 4 .
the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. and then adding : 1. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 34. called the distributive law. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 6. This principle. 26. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . 17(10041042). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 2(645410).4a#. (. /). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 3(124342). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.7 w'W (8 n^W). 35 4 7(6. 21. 19. 25.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 29. ) 2 33. 27. 7p*q r*. 3. . but we shall assume it for any number. 24. . _4aft. 35. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). .M UL TIPLICA TION 18.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 2. 2(5fl5f25).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 4 aft 5 aft 2 . .2 3 aft ). by first multiplying. multiply each by the monomial. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 2 32.A). c(4a ftc ). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 22. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . ax /) 2 4 1 (. 20. 7. If results ft. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 23(10004100420).7pqt.6.f 2). 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .3 win ) . 11(3. 6(10420430). (. 28. . 12( + 1 4 i). 31. 5. 23.
6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .we b) (x law. 2 27. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 21. 11. f7a. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 m(mhn \p). 3 ).5 x 7). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 17. 26. Find the factors of 5 a 6 .2 mn(9 mV . ~2mn(m +n p ). 29. be multiplied to give 4o. 28.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.3 aftc). By what 25. 12. 9. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 5).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 22. . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 23. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.5 w*V f 7 wn).^ c + 2 . 7 a 6 c(. Find the factors of 6 ary . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 19.asa product. . 2 2 16.60 a& 10 aft. 20.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . . 30. : expression must 24. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).6 a6).
2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. To multiply two polynomials. Ex.a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Multiply 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Since all powers of 1 are 1. Since errors. 2a3b a66 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. 2.3 a 2 + a8 . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. the student should apply this test to every example.4. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . however. a2 + a8 + 3 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 b by a 5 b. Check. 59. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.
4 2). 10. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 16. 12. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 24.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 1). . I (mfn)(m4. 7y). 35.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2. 7. (6i7n)(llJn). 26. 4. + & + 1f a^faj 1). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 12)(a?^2l). (13 A. 2 . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 22. 17.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. QQ O7. (6a~7) 2 . 41. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j.4) (x + 1). 5. 2) (3 A: 1). (2 x* x 2 . 2 . (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.4) (mnp 4. a 5c)(2a6c). 32. 15.1 . 36). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 6. 29. 31. (6p (2 f 21. 30. 28. 36. 13. (4a 2 33.2m)(l m). OQ OO. 2  37. (2w 19.2). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 20. 9. 8. ^ 2 . 40. 3. * For additional examples see page 261. 36) I) 14. (a^26) . 18. l)(raf 2). (8r7*)(6r39. . 25. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3<7). 11.
(!)(* 5). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (a 9) (a + 9). 1005x1004. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (ra. 10. . 1) (10 + 2). (6 12) (6 f. i. (*. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. : 23 2. . 18. 15. + 2) (a f 3). (10+ (1000 (2. 13. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 21.!!)( (a + 21). 9. plus the product 62. _3)(a _4).13). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.e. + 9)(m+9). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). ft 16.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (J 23. 20. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 7. (a (a (a. 11. X 102. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. i.25)(y+4).2 6) (a f 6). (p12)(p + ll). (a 102 x 103. 8. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 3. 12. 75 ab f 54 ft . plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. + 60)(f2). 25 a 2 . 27. 2 6) (a 3 6). . ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 6.e. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 2) (1000 + 3). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 2 a? 29. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. + 3) (a 7). 17.4). in of the two unequal terms. 25. 22. 14.n)(wf w). 26. 19. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (a3)(a + 2). + 5) (1000 + 4). 28. 24. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab.
(II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 77ie square of the of the first. (a26) 2 .e. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. plus sum of two numbers the square II. p 2 p. 49 y*. 35. 3. III. : 24 (a 2. 2 5. + 6 a + 8. (x+3i/) 2 . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. w 2 ro . 37. 31. 32. <J>7) J .66 s. 7 a + 10. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. and the second.15. 63. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. a2 2 w + 2 w . of the second. second. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . (a2) (p a . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .30. plus the square of the second. n2 10ii+16.e.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. . 2 (a (*5) 2 . + 3) 2 . plus twice the product of the first and the second. 9. 4. III.e. 6. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. i. 34. Ex. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 33. i. . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 8. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 7. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.
two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. I) 2 . 23. 34. n*6n+9. 998x1002. 2 11 # ) 2 20.998 39. ( 27. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 2 . 17. (2x3yy. 49. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 . 4 53. 15. + 3z) 2 2 . . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 11. 51. 104 2 37. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 24. 99x101. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 J ). 32. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 9a 496 2 56. 46. 38. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. By actual multiplication. 22 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 42. 9 a2 . 2 . + 5)(5+a). (1000 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2).ll^X^+lly (100 30. 16aW25. 28. 44. 25 a 9. 2 . n 2 f4n+4. + 5). 62 25n 2 . 991 2 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 45. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). . G> +5g)*. 52. 103 36. 41 16. (a 3) 2 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. . (^. 41. The product of 57. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 18. a2 9. 21. 29. 12. 47. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 22. 55. m 2 16. 33. 48. ). 14. 35. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (20 f 1) . 40. 31. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 54. 7& ) 25.
& + c) = a + tf + c . 5. : 25 2. The square 2 (a 4. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 14. 4. 65. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 6. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 7. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 9. plus the last terms. ) (2 of a polynomial. or The student should note minus signs. 8. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 10. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a64)(5a&3). 13.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 11. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (5a4)(4al). ((5a? (10 12.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. sum of the cross products. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. . (4s + y)(32y). (3m + 2)(ml). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 3. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).
13. 2 2. . 7. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. and check the answers !. (u4& + 3c'. (xy+z)*. + 65) . 9. Hence.39. Ex.(= [ Xa + 2 . n).(x .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.8 x + 15] . 8. a. 7. 8. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.4) . (  2 4) =  20 a.i2&c) 2 .[a? . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Check. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Find the square root 11. 6(a 2. = . 3. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 66. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. after multiplying the factors of a term. 4(aj2)h3(7).24] .4) . (a (. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. = 10 x . + 6)( . 5.X2 + 2 x . 3. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).(m 2 6. 4(* + 2)5(3).3)(z.r _ 2 . 6~2(a + 7). Simplify (x + 6) (a . 5. 12. If x = 1.29.5) = (7 .3) (x .39.1 5 = 10 .24 . 4y sf n) 2 .5). of z : 10. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 2)6.(>. 4. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 4.3) . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 6.y? + 8 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
+ 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 16.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .l.e.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 20.DIVISION 14. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (81 m + 1 .11 a + 9 a . . . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 51 15. v/17. Division of the difference of two squares. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .2). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). a I. .2) (3 a . 18. 19.
. 16.49. r/ 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . aW 12 a.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 1.0001. 14. 100ry. 10. . : the following w a 4 !. 121a a 16 100 11. 16 . 12. 9& 2 . 15.000. 4 b. f 13.
83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. hence it is an equation of condition. =11. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . x 20. 82. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. (a + ft) (a b) and b. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the 80. in the equation 2 x 0. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 81. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. . Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. second member is x + 4 x 9. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. the first member is 2 x + 4. An equation of condition is usually called an equation.
Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. A 2 a. one member to another by changing x + a=. 5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 2 = 6#f7. the divisor equals zero. A numerical equation is one in which all . the quotients are equal. 3. 2. the sums are equal. 87.e. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.2. x I. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 89. but 4 does not equal 5. 90. 86. If equals be multiplied by equals.54 84.g. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. If equals be subtracted from equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . called axioms 1. 4. A term may be transposed from its sign. 85. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.b. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be added to equals. the products are equal. the remainders are equal. NOTE. . Transposition of terms. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. a. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. E.
a? Adding 5 to each term. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Uniting. x = (Axiom 3) 92. x = 3. a= a 6fc. x = 93. is correct. The first member. Dividing by Check. 4x 1 + 6. f If y 20 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.2 y= f . 91. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Transposing. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.2.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . and the known terms to the second. 6a5 = 185 = 13. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. b c. if a x = b.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. b Adding a to both + a. To solve a simple equation. (4y)(6. Check. Ex. if 55 x members. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.9 y + y2 = 22 .6 y f y\ . The second member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. The first member. 3 y . 2(11 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Hence the answer. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 2 x = 6.8. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms.
Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. a. 24. 19. : 5# = 15+2a. \x x 2^xfl. 4. 7. 2. =2 = 3. 14y = 59(24y + 21). Transposing. + 16 = 16 + 17. x = 18. 17 + 5a. 11. 247y = 68lly. 4y 10. = 2 ?/. . = 7. and check the answers 9. 32 = 264. . 16. 6. 7 (6 x 16). f Simplifying. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.7a: = 394a. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). + 22. J. If x = 18. 9 9a? = 7 13. Dividing by Cfcecfc. Solve the following equations by transposing. it NOTE. 21. 14. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 50. {(x (x The The member right member left . a. = 3. Uniting.56 Ex. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 20. 17 7 a. 7a? 5. 12. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 13a? 3a?. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 3)= 9(3 7 a. 3. 11 ?/ a? 18. 8. = 5a?+18. 3.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.17 + 4y = 36. + 7(3 + 1) =63.. x x 1 . 22. v23.69. 15. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3 7 a. 4a + 5 = 29. aj * See page 264. a? a?.7.. a?. etc.
5(2 u . . 41. 33. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . a? 43. e.14 = 0.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 40. 7(7 x y 26. + 4).4) + 4 w .(2 + 6) (4 .3) + . is the other part. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. . 34. 35. . 38.1 0) = 0.g. (6 u =5 44. 2 2 * Jaj. 30.3) + 14.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . 39.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 6(6a. Evidently 45.3) .32. 25. 27.7) (7 x + 4) . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.5) + 199.7. or 70 a?. a? 28. . 5) (as (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 7) (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .1) (a (a? + 3) = . : One part is of 70 is 25 .2) (M . find the other part. 29. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 31. .12) (2 + 5) . . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. (a. 42.5) = (a. (aj 37. this question. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .1) (u . 36. + 7) (.
so that one part The difference between is s. greater one is g. 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 11. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 1.58 Ex. 5. a. Find the greater one. Divide 100 into two 12. so that of c ? is p. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 9. smaller one 16. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. EXERCISE 1. is a? 2 is c?. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 10. one yard will cost 100 dollars. is d. 33 2. and the smaller one parts. 15. 6. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 3. Divide a into two parts. If 7 2. or 12 7. 17. is b. 6. find the cost of one yard. one part equals is 10. Ex. 14. 13. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 4.
and B has n dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find 21. numbers is x. A man had a dollars. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. A feet wide. How many years A older than is B? old. and c cents. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. sum If A's age is x years. b dimes. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 19. Find 35. find the has ra dollars. 24. 32. How many cents has he ? 27.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. is A A is # years old. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 33. 26. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 20. 34. 28. ?/ 31. If B gave A 6 25. and B is y years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 28. How many cents had he left ? 28. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 22. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . A dollars. and B's age is y years. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and spent 5 cents. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. amount each will then have. find the of their ages 6 years hence.
as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The first pipe x minutes. m is the denominator. he walk each hour ? 39. of m. Find a 47. of 4. A was 20 years old. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. Find a. 48. A cistern is filled 43. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. c a b =  9.50. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. Find the number. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. % % % of 100 of x. The two digits of a number are x and y. a. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find x % % of 1000. . 46. 49. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. find the fraction.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. per Find 5 Find 6 45. .
equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 6. 80. etc. 3. 5. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. double of a is 10. 80. 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. of a increased much 8. of a and 10 equals 2 c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. c. by one third of b equals 100. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. a exceeds b by c. The double as 7. 8 b ) + 80 = a . the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of x increased by 10 equals x. The excess of a over b is c. 9. 4. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. same result as 7 subtracted from .
50 is x % of 15. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. m is x % of n. a second sum. pays to C $100. (c) If each man gains $500. 17. 3 1200 dollars. x 4 If A. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 6 % of m. 12. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000.. symbols B. sum equals $20. and C have respectively 2 a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. B's. 16. a. 14. In 10 years the sum of A's. >. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. of 30 dollars. as 17 is is above a.62 10. a. is If A's age is 2 x. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. A gains $20 and B loses $40. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. they have equal amounts. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. #is5%of450. amounts. x is 100 x% is of 700. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B.000. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. they have equal of A's.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. B's. 18. and C's ages will be 100. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. express in algebraic 3x : 10. B. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. B's age 20. and C's age 4 a. 11. .
the . x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Dividing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 6 years ago he was 10 . but 30 =3 x years. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Simplifying. denote the unknown 96. 23 =30. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. x+16 = 3(35). A will Check. number. 2. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Three times a certain no. Check. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Find A's present age. the required . be 30 . = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Let x = the number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Ex. Transposing. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 15. NOTE. Uniting. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. much as 40 exceeds the number. Uniting. 1. 4 x = 80. Ex. In 15 years 10. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. number of yards. 3z40:r:40z. x = 20. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. . In order to solve them. etc. Transposing. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. x= 15. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20.
13. 300 56. 5. How many miles per hour does it run ? . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.64 Ex. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 14. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Let x 3. % of 120. 120. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 4. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. by as much as 135 ft. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find the number. 3. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. twice the number plus 7. 11. . A number added number. Six years hence a 12 years ago. exceeds the width of the bridge. Forty years hence his present age. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find 8.2. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Dividing. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. EXERCISE 1.
five If A gives B $200. During the following 90 years. two verbal statements must be given. written in algebraic symbols. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. the second one. A and B have equal amounts of money. and as 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 97. B will have lars has A now? 17. x. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. If A gains A have three times as much 16. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. statements are given directly. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and B has $00. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. is the equation. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 14. The problem consists of two statements I. The other verbal statement. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. One number exceeds the other one by II. times as much as A. F 8. How many dol A has A to $40. 65 A and B $200. Maine's population increased by 510.000. . Vermont's population increased by 180. Ex. 1.000. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. B How will loses $100. Find the population of Maine in 1800. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.
8 the greater number. Uniting. terms of the other. and Let x = the Then x +. A will lose. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = A's number of marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. x x =14 8. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 8 = 11. . unknown quantity in Then. 2. Then. to Use the simpler statement. the greater number. If A gives are : A If II. A has three times as many marbles as B. although in general the simpler one should be selected. . Statement x in = the larger number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Dividing. Let x 3x express one many as A. the smaller number. = 14. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 2x a? x j = 6. If we select the first one. . + a f f 8 = 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Let x 14 I the smaller number. The two statements I. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = B's number of marbles. = 3. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. which leads ot Ex. B will have twice as many as A. I. 25 marbles to B. x = 8. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. consider that by the exchange Hence. < Transposing. / . B will have twice as viz. A gives B 25 marbles.
How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 1. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. . 6 dimes = 60 = 310.. 60. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.240. 3 x = 45. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.5 x . 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 40 x . 50.10. Find the numbers. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Uniting. The number of coins II. Check.10. Uniting. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 6 times the smaller. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. dollars and dimes is $3. * 98.. cents. the number of dimes. by 44.$3. x = 6. Simplifying. is 70. 3. have a value of $3. 15 + 25 = 40. the price. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). greater is . x from I. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Simplifying. (Statement II) Qx . 50 x Transposing. Dividing. of dollars to the number of cents. etc. and the Find the numbers.25 = 20. x = 15. Dividing. w'3.75. Check. but 40 = 2 x 20. The sum of two numbers is 42. the number of half dollars. then. x = the number of half dollars. Find the numbers. 11 x = 5. A's number of marbles. Eleven coins. B's number of marbles. The value of the half : is 11.. 2.550 f 310. Two numbers the smaller.10. 45 . . * ' .
68 4. and twice the altitude of Mt.. 11. one of which increased by 9. 5. A's age is four times B's. How many hours does the day last ? . Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. the number. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Twice 14. On December 21. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Everest by 11. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 9.000 feet. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Two numbers The number differ by 39. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many inches are in each part ? 15. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 7. United States. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. as the larger one. 6. How many 14 years older than B. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. Find their ages. McKinley.
B. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and B has three as A. II. 1. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. III. number of dollars of dollars B C had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. original amount. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 19. If A and B each gave $5 to C. number had. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. If A and B each gave $5 to C. has. has. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. and C together have $80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. . try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. = 48. and C together have $80. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. Let x II. number of dollars A had. I. 8(8 + 19) to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. then three times the money by I. Ex. B has three times as much as A. x = 8. If 4x = 24. bers is denoted by x. and 68. times as much as A. they would have 3. The third verbal statement produces the equation.
28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first. = the number of dollars spent for horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 28 2 (9 5). + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 90 may be written. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. according to III. 4 x f 8 = 28. and Ex. Uniting. and each sheep $ 15. x = 5. The total cost equals $1185. + 35 x 4. 1 1 Check. Dividing. 2. number of cows. sheep.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and. 9 cows. + 8 90 x and. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. III. each cow $ 35. x f 4 = 9. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x Transposing. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. cows.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x j = the number of horses. and the sum of the . The I. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. = the number of dollars spent for cows. number of sheep. 185 a = 925. 9 5 = 4 . first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. number of horses. Let then. according to II. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of cows. the third five times the first. three statements are : IT. each horse costing $ 90.
v . first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. A 12. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. what is the length of each? has 3. 9.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. 7. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and the sum of the first and third is 36. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. The gold. what are the three angles ? 10. and children together was 37.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1.000. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. women. men. "Find three is 4.000. the copper. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. If twice The sum the third side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. twice as old as B. increased by three times the second side. how many children were present ? x 11.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 13. the second one is one inch longer than the first. first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.  4. and 2 more men than women. twice the 6. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. New York delphia. what is the population of each city ? 8. equals 49 inches. the third 2.
i.000 more than that the copper. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. = 35. speed. or time. number of miles A x x walks. and quantities area. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Dividing. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 3 and 4.e. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. of 3 or 4 different kinds. Hence Simplifying. After how many hours will they meet and how E. and distance.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. First fill in all the numbers given directly. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. together. = 5. . Let x = number of hours A walks.000. but stops 2 hours on the way. how many 100. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 14. 7 Uniting. we obtain 3 a. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. width. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. 8 x = 15. A and B apart. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.g. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. such as length. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of hours.000.000. Find the value of each.
$ 1000 x . Check.M(x . .06 = $ 40. original field has Check.04 8. . x . z = 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.053. the second 100. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.01 = = . 2 a = 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards. or 700. 70x10 Ex. But 700 certain = 800 2. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. x + 200).x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 10 x = 200. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Multiplying." gives (2. were increased by 30 yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800. l. 2   and transpose.04 = $ 40. + 8. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.05 x x . Find the dimensions of the field. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. $ 800 = 800. $ 800 = required sum. the area would be 100 square yards less. Transposing and uniting.
How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. What are the two sums 5.55. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 1. A of each. After how many hours will B overtake A. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. 2. were increased by 3 yards. the area would remain the same. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A man bought 6 Ibs. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Find the share of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and its width decreased by 2 yards. as a 4. sions of the field. A sets out later two hours B .74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 3. and a second sum. Six persons bought an automobile. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Ten yards $ 42. together bring $ 78 interest. twice as large. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. of coffee for $ 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. invested at 5 %. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth.
A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. After how many hours. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
An expression is integral with respect to a letter. we shall not. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. it is composite. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. irrational. it contains no indicated root of this letter . but fractional with respect 103. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. stage of the work. 5. which multiplied together are considered factors. if. as. this letter. 76 . vV . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . at this 6 2 . 104. f db 6 to b. a2 to 6. if it does contain some indicated root of . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. An after simplifying. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. + 62 is integral with respect to a. 6. consider 105. if it is integral to all letters contained in it.
3 6a + 1).62 can be &).FACTORING 106. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 2. x. 55. 109.62 + &)(a 2 . 110. x. 2. 1. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. in the form 4) +3. 107. it follows that a 2 . y. or that a = 6) (a = a . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 8) (s1). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.g.) Ex. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. Factor G ofy 2 . Ex. ?/. It (a. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). factors of 12 &V is are 3. Divide 6 a% . 77 Factoring is into its factors. E. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 01. TYPE I.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 2. .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . for this result is a sum.3 sy + 4 y8).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.
5 + 13 8. 3 3 5 6. 19. 2 6.3.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 7i 13. 32 a *?/ .51 aW + 68 21. a6c.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.5 x*y 2 17 a? . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 4. ) 22  2. 11. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. in general. 2 + q. 5f 2 .8 c a 15 ofyV .4. 18.g. . Ilro8 9.2.3.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 15 2 7. 34 a^c 8 . obviously. 20. 15. 3 2 . : 6 abx . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. + llm llm. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.6. 2 23. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). e. 14a 4 5. 4 tfy f. 2 Or. 16.4. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 14. q*q*q 2 a. 2. 3x*6x*. 3. 4 8 .5 + 2. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 7a & 10. 12. 2 2 . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). .12 cdx. TYPE IT. 8. 13. 17.45 afy . a a 'Ja . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. (as 3) and (ccf5).30 aty.
tfa2  3. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 30 = 20. Therefore Check. determine whether In solving any factoring example. of this type. 2. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. m 5m + 6.5) (a 6). Factor a2 . We may consider 1. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). If q is negative.11 a + 30. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. but of these only a: Hence 2 . .11) (a + 7). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2 6. 5. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. If q is positive. . Ex.4 . and (a . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. can be factored. or 77 l. Factor x? .30 = (a . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.77 = (a. .a). 79 Factor a2 4 x . 3. as p.FACTORING Ex. + 112. 11 7. Factor + 10 ax . a 2 .1 1 a tf a 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*..11.11 a 2 .4 x . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.5) (a . the two numbers have opposite signs. or 7 11. however. 77 as the product of 1 77.6 = 20. Ex.G) = . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 4.
13. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. a 2 +11 a a? 16.180 a. 35.500 x + 600.6. 2 . 33. . 100 xr . and 5 x. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 11. 15. 9. 20. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 44. or . 21 a 2 2 . 2 2 a' 34. 29. 12. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 16. 36. 2 ?/ 22. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 30. 2 . 2 . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. . 19. + 5<y 24. 24. 17. 2 ?/ 5?/14.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 27.17 + 30. 4 2 . ra + 25ra + 100. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 31. + 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.70 x y . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 16. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 18. 26. ITT. a? + 5 + 6 a. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 21. 8. . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 2xS. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 4 3 2 . a 7 a 30. a2 . + 4?/21. TYPE 113. 2 2 . 2 ?/ 28.48 + + 446 200. 32. ay 11 ay +24.80 7. x2 23. 25. 14.
5) (2 x . If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. or G 114. 9 x 6. the If p and r are positive. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 27 x 2. viz. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 2. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 6 x 9.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. sible 13 x negative.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If p is poxiliw. 2 x 27. 3 x and x. . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.83 x f 54. 54 x 1. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . . X x 18. and r is negative. a. the signs of the second terms are minus. 18 x 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . but the opposite sign. Ex. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 3. and that they must be negative. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.1). then the second terms of have opposite signs. Factor 3 x 2 . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 11 x 2x.5 . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.
2 2 2 23. 5. 9a. + 2/3. 2 2 2 . 2 31. 2m t7w + 3. 2 . 90 a 8 2 . 2 26. 15.30 y 6 4 . 18. 12. 3. since all others (II. 24. 21. . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.19 a f 6.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 5m 26m f 5. f go. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.2 a 90 x*y .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 4a2 9tt + 2. 6. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 35. 2 28. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 10a?2 2 33. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 10 a . 2 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 34. 14. X 27 . 144 x . 8.179. 25. : 41 2.7. 22.260 xy .y + 172/9. 29. 9 y + 32^16. 2.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 20. 10a2 G a2 2 . 19.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . + 4. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . Sar' + SaG. 9. 14 a fa 4. 17. 11.2) (x . 30. and the monomial factors should be removed. 3x*Sx + 4.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.83 x = (3 . 32. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 16. 6n + 5?i4.27).83 x . 4. 100^200^ + 100^. 2 fc . 10. 2x* + 9x5. 7. . 13.163 x 2 . 12y 2/6. x54 a. 12^17^16. 3a + 13a. the expressions should be it.
A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 4. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.e. 25 7. 2 .26 ab + 9 6 2 . 9. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. x* . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 11. of its terms are perfect squares. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 6. and a perfect square. must have a positive sign. 13. To factor a trinomial which maining term. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 3. 12. 8. .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 2. it is a perfect square. 10.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. form are special cases of the preceding type. 2 9 10gf25. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 14.10 x f 16. and factor whenever possible : 1. i. 16 y? The student should note that a term. however. square. it is more convenient for that type. 5.20 xy f 4 y\ . 116. 9 10a625.
u2 6& + 2 ( ). ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. ). a4 a2 2 f 6 is . product i. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. prime. . * 2 . 4 2 23. 22. 1. 19.84 15. a2 24. 2 . 2 . ^//c to the Ex. 3. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 225 ofy . 149 a 81 8. 6 2 .20 ab + 10 b a . + GO + 25. . 26. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 20. Ex. 9a2 . 36 2 4. 7. aV . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 2.2 ofy + ofy m . 18. According to 65. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.6 m* + 9 m.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). +( )f816 30.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).60 a# + 4. 16&*. 48 a +( ). !Gar 9 ( )+25. 9. 5. a. 3. TYPE 117. 29. a.3 * ). 16.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4a2 l.e. 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 17. 10 a 2 4 2 . 6. V. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.64 6 = 16(a . ). 25. 27. : 43 tfy\ a 9.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.
(2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 9.FACTORING 85 118. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Factor a 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. a:) 12.c . 16p 2 . (m7?) y. 8. Ex. a2 .d) 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 6. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 13. 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 . 5. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 4. of polynomials. 36> .(c 4. T. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 14.(I) . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 11.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 .
10. = (3 x + y .VI. ma ?*a + m& nb. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. A.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 12. ive find that the new terms con common factor. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 8. . By grouping. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. . x8 . which may be factored according to types I. After grouping tain a the terms.2 ) (3 x . a 26 2 2 3 . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 7. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. + x + 2x + 2.14.7 c + 2c . 3. 2.and trinomials.r.ab + bx. 9. Ex.a a .1. 4:cx . 119.y + 2 2). 2. 4 B. 5. a? 11. 1. Ex. 5) .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a5 + ab 6 . 6.
$ a8 .12 aaj 4 6y. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 2. w m 2. 2. 8. 36 9 m .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6. 4. : m 2 2 16.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . IV.l.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.FACTORING Ex. 8ra 2 + 16. 6 6. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. l~a 2a56 2 2 . = (a + 6)(a6). Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6a4 12a2 + 6. : 46 x* 2.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 3. 2 7. 4. . Arranging the terms. II.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 5. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 8. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. + 2xy + y*q*. 2a3/ 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 4 a2 . 3.4 f .
42 x . 27. 48.40. a6 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. or 3 7#2 .156. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 80 a 2 ft 38. 14. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 32. 2 17. + 6 aft + 3 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. a. 22. 3 25. 2 3#4 3a2 36.88 10. 4 8 tt 2 z . a + a + a + l. 4 a. (^ 34. 25 a + 25 aft . 3 a2 23.13 c . 2 ft . 13. 5 a.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 28. 2 a 128. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 42 s 2 .310 x . 12. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 30. 35. 3 2 . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . + 14. 50^ + 45. a3 156. 29. 24. 5a' 20. .24. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 40. 18. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 3 41. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 13 c . 19. 11. (a.
25 W. 8 . 5. . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 6. C. C. of 6 sfyz. EXERCISE Find the H. F. 5 7 34 2s . F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 89 .  23 3 . 3 . 3. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . The H. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. 5 s 7 2 5.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 5 2 3 . C. of the algebraic expressions. C. The student should note H. 15 aW. F. 2. of : 48 4. The highest is common factor (IT. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. of two or more monomials whose factors . of aW. Two common factor except unity The H. C. F.) of two or more . 122. 13 aty 39 afyV. 2 2 . F. 24 s . are prime can be found by inspection. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 121. Thus the H. F. C. 12 tfifz. F. The H. 54  32 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. aW. II 2 .
10.6. 24 a 2 . 6 mx . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 13. F. 11. 2a f5af 2. 1. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 1.?/ . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 4(m+l) 3 .^9.y) .5 + 6.2 ?/) (x . 6 a2 y? . 12. Ex. 15. 14. a2 + 2a3. 65 zfyV. y + 3y64. 9. . F. 8. 15 3ao. of + 4 if. 57 a>V. 52 oryz4. a. 12. 16 a . 3. . 3^ 2 4 . 8(?/ifl) 14. a2 . a3 16 a. 10. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. C. 38 #y. of: . a 3a4. 2 . 13. a3 9a. 9.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 7. 12 . aWd. C. Find the H. 2 . F. 225 4a 9 . 6 3 a.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). F. ^a + 5^ + 6. 8 6.90 7. 8 a 10 . and apply the method of the preceding article. C. To find the H. 2 . ^f a. 12 w*nw 8.# 4 afy f 4 . ^707 + 12.2 y) (a. . 4 ?io.5 x3?/ 2 6. 25 m27i. 3 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .12 as 66 . of polynomials. = x 2 y. 2.6 a&. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . a2 ar* 4. 11. a2 + 7af!2. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 95 2/V. 16.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . ^2 2 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . . 30 mu\ 39 afyV.y) 123. 3). 6(m+l) (m+2).8 a + 16. x* x2 Hence the H. 49 C. .y + y42.5 y). 0^80:416. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. . 9 aj*(a? . (a7 ?/) . 8. 5 a6 5^ 2 a.6 . 2 .
M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. C. M. . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.M. M.M. M. M. etc. of the general. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. ory is the L. C. of 3 aW. M of the algebraic expressions. a^c8 3 . 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. 2 The The L. L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . The L. Ex. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. Common 125. To find the L. 2. C. 60 x^y' 2 . two lowest common multiples. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Find the L.C. &) 2 M. C. C. L. 126. thus. Find the L. 1. which also signs.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of tfy and xy*. M.6 3 ). of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. 300 z 2 y. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. Ex.C.6)2. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. Hence the L. M. 127. 128.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. but opposite . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. each set of expressions has In example ft). NOTE. C. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . A common remainder. The lowest common multiple (L.
+ 6. or f 3 a 15 #. 30 a. a2 4. 3 6 xif. 15. 9. 4 a . 4 a f 2. 1. 5. a 2 fa6. y*. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3 Z> . 5 a? 5 a? y. 11. 2 . afc'cd 2 . a 2 a3 . ) . x 2 5 a. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a f 3. 6b 2 . . 24. 24 x. 14. 6 y. 6. a. ic 23. a. . + 2. 2 10. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 a . (For additional examples see page 268. 7. ic 2 ?/.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a& 4 +& 2 . 8. 3. xy\ .f 6. x* ~5a. b 2 . + 2 7i) . a^1. 40 abJ. 2 . x2 + 4 a f 4. a?b. a 2 f 4 a +4. 4 a 5 6cd. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. by. T a 3 a 2 . a 1. 13. a2 ~ab 1. 20 9 a. 3 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 7ic+10. a !. 16. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2(m 2 . 21. 3 f2. #. 18. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . Find the L. a { a~b. 8 afy. a f 2 19. G a. 20.1. 3(a + b). 2 x \2 y. 3. f b. 2 a . 3 ab. 2 . 22. afy. M. a. 8 d 5 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6 a.1. 2 a. 17. of: 4. 2.
a?. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Ex. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. as 8. 130. etc. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. A f fraction is b. F.ry ^ by their H. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . however. C. and denominators are considered. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 131. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. but we In arithmetic. rni Thus 132. Thus. successively all 2 j/' . Remove tor. an indicated quotient. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator.
cancel factors only. .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 3. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 2.4) Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Ex.
FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. """. 9x + "a" 10. 23. 11 ^ Mtr f . 5^10 y 30. ' ^ . ~__ 9n _ 22 9.*. g J 21. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 19.' 32.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . .. ny 4 18. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^+3*. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . LJZJ^JL.10 a + 3 2 14.7 . 16. ^' rt ^  31. ^" a. . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 29. nx 17. . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.
C.96 134. of the denominators for the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. 1). Ex.  of //* 2 . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . =(z (x + 3)(z. C. mon T denominator. M.C. 2> . + 3).~16 (a + 3) (x.1^22 ' . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and the terms of ***. we have M^. .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. and 135.3) (!)' = . Divide the L. C. . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. ^ to their lowest com The L. by the denominator of each fraction.M.r 2 2 . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. 1. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. TheL. we may extend this method to integral expressions. . take the L.D. Reduce ^. we have the quotients (x 1). and (a 8). multiplying the terms of 22 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.M.  by 4 6' .
18. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.^1. If the given fractions have different denominators.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.. . j y 3. . 2aj ~ . o o a. 137. . 22 a2 5a * .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. i.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2 ay IB. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 5?.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. common denominator 6. JL. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 74). 8 i i.oj o* or / . 3. 7i 2 ab* ". 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . a? 1 5 > ^* . 2. .
e.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ft).3 .g. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. in the beginning.3 ft). L. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 ' 2 _. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .aft) Ca2 . 4(2 a 3 ft). The L. as 4 aft f. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. and adding. T? Ex.3 ft 2).7 . C. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. the student should remember that parentheses are .. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.(a 2 6). (a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.ft)(a . ^ is 2^JT) . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . 2. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a ft).2 = a(a . D. D.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .
FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a+6 a 6 2 14. + . 1 f q * 1 m m . 1 1 f w 16.5 18 ^4f25. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. j>0 i> 21. 6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . 18 v 19. 5a76 4a 106 9. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 46 2a 4a 12. 15. 2L + 2a 1 17. 20. 24. 23. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. A+2_3. 2. a 36 ++.
3a 9 +. af 1f /j.9 79 6 2 i. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 4 31. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 43. a. a ?^ 40. 2 af1 32. 1 34. ! n. a 30. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y.9. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 42. 41. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ic 1 + 1. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.
 .FRACTIONS 139. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . . Reduce .  4 or 3 2a. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1. 101 mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. .7 5a v Ex. T.
multiply the 142. !. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Since  = a. integer. or.g. F J Simplify . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. 2.) Ex. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. (In order to cancel common factors. we may extend any e.
53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO..FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 5# 56 / c& 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. aj 5 1 a? 18.. . 50 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.6 12 d6 4. 14. 2 f 5 a. 4 8.
: a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Divide Xn?/ . 1. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 144. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . . To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.
Ex. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .10 ?/ _. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . ga2 4 8 5 a . a a2 4.FRACTIONS 105 . are fractional._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .^c 2 2 .6 s + 064.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. l.afr 4.5 ??i 80 50 . or both.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.
6. 9. of their denominators. Simplify x }. c +6. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. n a 8. a m "" . 7i+~ 7. .y 32 . JL. x* 4.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . Ex.a ^c c _^ a . i. M. & . 10. . the answer is directly obtained. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 2. C. y X 4* 2 y 3. .
~l (For additional examples see page 273. : . 1 i 1 2 5 . sy 18. m^n* n L a 17. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.
+ 1) (a + 3) . tions.9 x2 + 9. a.14 (a. 2x Transposing. of the denominator. 2 3. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 5(3 85 Check.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 1.28 a = 5 x2 . Bx 12 Qx. = 6. . 9x x Check. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 2z2a. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . C.f3# + C:E=6f7212. = 6. each member is reduced to Ex.28 x + 42 = . Clearing of fractions. If x 6.l)(z + 3) = . If = 64. Uniting.42 + 9.1. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.8 x = . x = 6. 4 4)  x. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 2. Uniting. 148.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. M. these Ex. Transposing.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. each member is reduced to 1. 108 .48. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).
1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 1 *> = 2.1 _77 a. +1 = 5.= 2. 16. 15. ^1 = 9. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +4 14. ^' 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. . '  4 13. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 18. a. a/  5 a/ = 12.
 2  13 _J_ = _J3 . If two or more denominators are monomials. 3x 35. 31 31. and" the remaining one a polynomial. J_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 32 6 ._ _ . . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. ?_=_. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. y+3~2 29. 25. 26 26. . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 4a4l4* + l~. .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24.  38 = 40. .11_4 x 149. 27 . 33.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. C.2 42 9 43. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.29 50712' 9 18 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. M. 60. If a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5# 10. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. . = 9.1. 1. a. 24 a. each member is reduced to ^. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.2 3 ~  == 7a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Transposing and uniting. 5x x : = 9. Check. Dividing.  5 = 20 x 45.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 26 a. the 1 5 L. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a..
Ex. Uniting. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Thus. Dividing.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = l^ 9 b 4 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. = = 6 6c 7 6c. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 5> a. = 2 f b 2 .2 62 2 ab. = 6 a2 . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. ax f x f. Uniting the Dividing.3 6 2 = a' . fr Reducing lowest terms.be. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.& . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.1. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Ex. jr. find a in terms of b and c. =a 2 151.2 ac + 3 aft . 4 ac 1.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 2.m bx 2 mn) x. y. a. they are united by factoring. f ~ 5c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. It frequently occurs that the x. If 3ac L= = a ? .
f P =+!. If s If 16. = 5. 6. 10. a. + 3a. The The i time.i l . denoting the interest. mx = n. = rt. ^ ax a^ 26. p the principal. 30. 31. 13. = 3 (6 a).= n. . t. * Solve the same equation for^). c 18. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.a. s = Vt solve for v. solve for a. = 8 4 #. . 12. 4. 3(* 8. = vt.= c a Z> . rate. r the number of $>. 2 solve for y a. _ 2. 29. 14. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 1 f. If * 33. 5) is t =^. If s (wi n) x =px + q. c. . 9. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 17. 11. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal.= H. 3. Ex. If ^^ = a 1 32. co?. iw 21. 34. and n the number of years. q solve for/. IIL n b + &o. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 4. f ^o. solve for . . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. m a? x . in terms of other quantities. + xx = 1. 15. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .
is 36. x Or Uniting.114 35. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. then = 2 TT#. . Find R in terms of C and TT. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 1. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. = 16^. 100 C.180. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 2 3 . Multiplying by Dividing... days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.20 C. and 12 = the number over. 2. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.
Solving. = the x part of the work both do one day. in Then Therefore. Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 180 Transposing. the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80." gives the equation /I). or 1J. the rate of the express train. Clearing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 32 x = . and the statement." : Let x  = the required number of days. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. is oO. 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and J of the greater Find the numbers. make 21. which was $4000. ceeds the smaller by 4. by 6. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. fifth Two numbers differ 2. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. money and $10. and of the father's age. Find A's 8. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. ex What 5.  Find their present ages. and one half the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. and 9 feet above water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. How did the much money man leave ? 11. is equal 7. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. to his son. a man had How much money had he at first? . by 3. length in the ground. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. of his present age. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other.
^ at 5%. 3. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 2. How much money $500? 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. . At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 1. what is the rate of the express train? 152. air. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. after rate of the latter ? 15.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and B in 4 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 152.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and it B in 6 days. what is the 14. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) 22. investments. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.
414. Ex. m and n.g. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.e.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. A in 6. B in 16. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. e. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.= . 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 5. and n = 3. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. . A in 4. is 42. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. 26. we obtain the equation m m . B in 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. therefore. Hence. they can both do in 2 days. . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. is 57. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.118 153. Then ft i. 3. n x Solving. and apply the method of 170. 2. The problem to be solved. B in 12. . if B in 3 days. 25. To and find the numerical answer. A in 6.009 918. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.
and the rate of the second are. (b) 149.000. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. meet. is (a) 51. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 5 miles per hour. 33. The one: 31. 4J miles per hour. .001. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance.721. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 2 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. if m and n are. 3 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the second at the apart. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (c) 16. 34. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. is ?n . the rate of the first. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. respectively (a) 60 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (d) 1. Find the side of the square. and the second 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 35 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. Two men start at the first miles apart. After how many hours do they meet. 3J miles per hour. same hour from two towns. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. respectively. squares 29. squares 30.
In the ratio a : ft. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. 1. b. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. the denominator The the 157.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 6 12 = . the symbol being a sign of division. a ratio is not changed etc. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the second term the consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. is numerator of any fraction consequent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. " a Thus. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. etc. Ex. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. E. 158. The first 156.5. ." we may write a : b = 6.g. : : 155. b. b is the consequent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3.
61 : ratios 72:18. two  ratios. 1. b. b is the mean b. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 4:5f : 5. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. equal 2. 10. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and c. 27 06: 18 a6. 7:4 T T 4 . : is If the means of a proportion are equal. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. a and d are the extremes. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 6. 5 f hours : 2. 62:16. Simplify the following ratios 7. 3. 3:4. terms. 4. 11. 16a2 :24a&. Transform the following unity 15. : ay . b and c the means. 9. 16. 7f:6J. 3:1}. The last first three. 8^ hours. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 17. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. $24: $8. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 159. J:l. 3 8.RATIO Ex. 12. and c is the third proportional to a and . : 1. extremes. proportional between a and c. 18.
= 30 grams 45 grams. 3 4. then G ccm. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. : c. q~~ n . and the other pair the extremes. and the time necessary to do it. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 2 165. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Clearing of fractions. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. of a proportion. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. pro portional. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. ad = be. !. i. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. are : : : inversely proportional.e. The mean proportional of their product.30 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes.) mn = pq.) b = Vac. ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. " we " NOTE. If (Converse of nq. 6 ccm. : : directly proportional may say. 164. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. Hence the number of men required to do some work. of iron weigh . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.122 162.__(163. of iron weigh 45 grams. briefly.
) a + b:a = c + d:c. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) = f f = 3 J.) II. is 4$ = 35. Or IV. 2. is Ex.) d 167.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 1. d d. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) (Called Alternation. = 35 . I. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. bd bd. (163. then =d c. (Composition. a III. if 6 : 7. . V. (Division. ad = be. a:c=b:d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166.PATIO Ex. 12x Hence a? = 42. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (Frequently called Inversion. + b:b = c + d:d. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. hence the proportion true.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. ad ( 163.
= 7:2f 3J. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 12 5ft. : 3 = 5 f x : x.g. .!=!*. 10. IV. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 8. E. i. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. mx tin Apply composition and division. the consequents by 7. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Apply composition. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.e. 6 =4 : x. 4. V. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.124 IT. Simplify the following proportions. = 20:7. = 2:x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 9. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 180:125. 5 5. : x. 120:42 2 2 7. 5. . 3.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. Or III. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 2. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 2:3. x = 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.
3. 2. 16. 13. rap. = 3 43 + x.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 21. x:5 = y:2. mx = ny. a. to : 9 and 12. 44. 50. a?:15 15.8:1.x: 6:5 a : x. 35. 3. 25. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 5= 18 a? : a?. 6. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 42. : . rag. 51. 2 3 = y #. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.. : 53. to : a and 1. f. 2 a and 18 a. 14. Find the third proportional 24. 33. 43. 34. 27. 03:a?=135:20. : a2 . 41. Find the 37. 14 and 21. 6x = 7y. 23. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 47. 4. if : 40. 112:42 = 10:a. ratio of y. Find the mean proportional 30. 46. 2= 5 x x.j>. 3t. 1. terra 2:3 = 4. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. ra 2 . ra + landra 1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 12. x m = y n. ra. 28. 16 and 28.:ff. to: = 35:*. + fyx = cy. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 52. a 2 and ab. 17. 9 x = 2 y. 39. = 15o. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. (a : : 45. 26. 31. 22. = l^:18. 20. w. 6 x = y. 29. 18. 4 and 16. . = 5 x 12. 38. 7iy = 2:x. 2. b. = 2 + x: x.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.  32. 1 and a. and 2/. 5.
56. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 7^. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches.126 54. and the speed of the train. and the area of the rectangle. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). what 58. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the : total cost. 57. the area of the larger? the same. and the time. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time necessary for it.
Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. as 11 Let then : 1. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. .RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Let A B AC=1x. Then Hence BG = 5 x. is A line AB. 2 x Or = 4. 11 x x 7 Ex. so that Find^K7and BO. 7 x = 42 is the second number. = the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number.000 168. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. produced to a point C. 2. 18 x = 108. x = 6. 4 inches long. : Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. AB = 2 x. x=2.
: Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. What are the parts ? 5. 3. 13. 6. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Gunmetal tin. : 4. 11. 14. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 7.000. and c inches. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many gen. How many 7. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.000 square miles. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 12. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 9. and 15 inches. How The long are the parts ? 15.) . 2. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : 197.
expressing a y. etc. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. is x = 7. Hence. The root of (4) if K 129 . the equations have the two values of y must be equal.. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.y=.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. 2 y = . However. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. a? (1) then I. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. values of x and y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. =. y = 1. if . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.L x If If = 0. there is only one solution. such as + = 10. x = 1.e. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.
Substitution. to The two methods I. are simultaneous equations. 3. y = 2. for they express the x f y 10. viz. cannot be reduced to the same form. 6x . the last set inconsistent. ~ 50. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. of elimination most frequently used II.3 y = 80. 26 y = 60. 172. 4y .24. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). y I 171. same relation.26. E.X. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. and 3 x + 3 y =. unknown quantity. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. = . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. Therefore. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 174. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.130 170. By By Addition or Subtraction. 21 y . The first set of equations is also called consistent.
x = 10.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 3. + 2. y = 2. 25 x . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 1. Transposing. = 406. x = 10. 10 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Check. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 64 x = 040. 60 . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. whose coefficients In general. subtract the equations. add the equations.14 =8. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 37. 8 2. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.2 = 6. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. = 235. 3. are like.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 3y = 3.3 y = 47. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 5 13 .3 1 = 47. Therefore Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).
v 23. 7 ' 1fi fl . v ^ = ll. = 6. I ~ y~~> 22. i 3.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I . . 13 61 l7a. _.f2/ ' = 50.9 *.4. 9 1 r 20.5 y = 2. ] ^ .3. x 11. f 3X 7x 14. I i 3 a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. [2o. = 41. 19< I a. J I y = 1U. + 2/ 17. O t K 8. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. I oj 5y = 17.3. = 24. 13. ' 12. f 3# ?/ = 0. * + 3 y = 50.
8. and solve the resulting equation. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 3. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 60. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2y + 10. . tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation.
3. From 9 = 36. (4). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 7 y = 6. 2 y = . however. + 212y4 = 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. x = l. 4* + 3y = 19. Substituting in (6) . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. simplified before elimination is possible. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.6)7(y7)==18. 7x_2y=3.3. 29 x = 29. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (7) (7) (8) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3 (1) Ex. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. \ \6(a. 21z6y=9. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. . the equation must be cleared of fractions and .
14. a. 4 11. = 3. 10. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 12. +y 2 . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17.f2 2. a. J 9. . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.1) = 121. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. yM a. . . 16. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
Q ^ 4 21. ?~y . <X + 20. 22.and x y . but some expressions involving x. 180. e. and y. {. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.#.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y . . 3x\" 1 23 24. * ((* (( .
can also be solved Examples method. however. etc. Dividing by 11 3 = #. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1).3 xy. y 1. y. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G).4 x = 4 xy. 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. . 15 y + 8 x . 2* * x 2. 33 = 11 x. of this type. 137 Solve y y (1) . Clearing of fractions. x 3. y 4. x 2x(2). (2) (3) a. Therefore y=4. .
Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 6. 253 7. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 4 13. . x 8. y MOi y a.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x y 5. x y 331 9. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). = en. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.= 5. 21 9 . 1. n.
. ap.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. d. Dividing. x 12. Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I if 13. w. and I.y = = 9a + 46. . a Find a and terms of n. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. W . 14. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. x f my = 1. bmy bm}y ap cm. fax f = l. ax + by = 2 a&. 6. apan cm. .W. . f 5. ny = fy/ I sc 1. s in 11.
140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. etc. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.3=4. x + 12 y . 182. 3y = Hence Check.3 = 8. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.25.by 2.1+4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). To solve equations containing By tions.2 + 4. Ex. ties are Similarly. = 30. 1. 1. 3.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 20. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).8 = 1. l. 4. y =* 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.12 y + 6 z = .16. 3.13. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.15z=12 Adding. by 3. (4) (5). (8) 2. = 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 8 x . 6. f 3y 12 =s 8. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. . 4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.2 + 3.lf> z .
12. 2 4. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 14. a? 11. 10. k 2/ f 2 x a. 15 2 = 45. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . x 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + y f z = 15. a? + 709 = 26. ~6?/ 5. 4 = 42. 8. == 6. 2z = 40. 49. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 7.
^ = 2. 23. . 4.42 = 2. = 5. ? = llz. 84 21. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. =s 20. . 60. 19. 32. = 8*.2 a. ?/ 3x = 0. (3 _. . 16. 1510 4 17.. 22. 27.6 2.3 y + .
1 = 2. Check. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. # 4. . however. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. +2+ 6 = 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. 2 = 6. + 396 = 521. Ex. 1 digit in the tens place. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . symbols: x + y +z 8. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Obviously of the other . either directly or implied. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. . y 31. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. M=i.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1. 2 = 1(1+6). the number. z + x = 2 n.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. ( 99. + z = 2p. = 2 m. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. Find the number. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. x : z =1 : 2. y * z 30. and to express In complex examples. = l. and if 396 be added to the number.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x 3x4y = 12. the distance traveled by A. x y = the = the x denominator . 6 x 4 = 24. Since the three men traveled the same distance. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. = 8. y = 3. 2. Find the fraction. . B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. By expressing the two statements in symbols. direction. (1) (2) 12. (3) C4) = 24 miles. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. xy a: 2y 4y 2. = the fraction. Ex. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. C. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. From (3) Hence xy Check. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. increased by one. 3. 5_ _4_ A. 2.144 Ex. Or (4)2x(3). = Hence the fraction is f. 4 x = 24. we obtain. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. x 3 = 24.
If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the number. ? What 9. . Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the number. the number (See Ex. and its denomi nator diminished by one. the fraction equals . If 9 be added to the number. number by the first 3. and the fourth 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the Find the fraction. If 27 is 10. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the value of the fraction is fa. it is reduced to J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the fraction is reduced fraction. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 7.) added to a number of two digits. 1. the last two digits are interchanged. Find the fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. its value added to the denominator. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. added to the numerator of a fraction. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 6. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 183. Find the numbers. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the numerator increased by 4. fraction is reduced to \. 5. the digits will be interchanged. A fraction is reduced to J. If the denominator be doubled. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. both terms. part of their difference equals 4.}. Find the numbers. tion ? 8. 2. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.
partly at 5 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 13. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and partly at 4 %. respectively ? 16. and money and 17. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. How 6 %. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. now. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. A sum of $10. . 14. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 5 %. 19. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and 4 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%.grams. and in 5 years to $1125. Find their present ages.000 is partly invested at 6%. A man invested $750. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find the rates of interest. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 12. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the annual interest would be $ 195. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. in 8 years to $8500. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. the rate of interest? 18.
BE. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. $ 50 for each cow. E. three AD = AF. 23. points. On /). the three sides of a triangle E. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 24. B find angles a. An C touch ing the sides in D. and angle BCA = 70. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and F. Find their rates of walking. cows. are taken so ABC. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. ED = BE. andCL4 = 8. 1 NOTE. c. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. but if A would double his pace. 25. and $15 for each sheep. A farmer sold a number of horses. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and e. triangle Tf AD. . he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F. and CE If AB = G inches. angle c = angle d. BC = 7 inches. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. the length of NOTE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and F '(see diagram). It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and AC = 5 inches. for $ 740. BD = HE. and angle e angle/. what is that = OF. and their difference by GO .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and GE = CF. respectively. BC=7. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. receiving $ 100 for each horse. then AD = AF. and sheep. .
then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. 2). The of Coordinates. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and point the origin. (2. 186. (3. or its equal OM. is the abscissa. PM. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and PN _L YY'. (2. first 3). 3). is The point whose abscissa is a. . (7.. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). ?/. and PJ/_L XX'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. Thus the points A. jr. B. PN. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate of point P. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN are given. and r or its equal OA is . It' Location of a point. YY' theyaxis.
(4. Plot the points (6. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4.1). 1). 0). . the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 6. 2J).4). 1). i. 71 2). (2. 2). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 0). . all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (3. !). 6. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points : (0. 2. 12. (4.) EXERCISE 1. 4) from the origin ? 7.and(l. 3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4).e. (4. 3). What is the locus of (a?. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 3). 4. (4. 0). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 8.(!. (0.2). 3. 2). 11. and measure their distance. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (See diagram on page 151. (1. (5. 4) and (4. (0.3). 4). Graphs. 0). Plot the points: (4.
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. D. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ure the ordinate of F. . A. 15. B. 10 . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . By representing of points. 1.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. C. may be found on Jan. we meas1 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa.. however. or the curved line the temperature. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 188. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. from January 1 to December 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.
Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. etc. and to deduce general laws therefrom. as the prices and production of commodities. . the rise and fall of wages. the graph is applied. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (b) July 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the matics. The engineer. (c) January 15. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. physician. uses them.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant.
Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 to Oct. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 15. (1) 10 C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.152 2.. (d) 9 0. on 1 to the average. 1? 11 0. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.. is 10.. (freezing point) ? 7. During what months above 18 C. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. ?  3. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. ? 9. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.
transformation of meters into yards.09 yards. One meter equals 1. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw a graph for the 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. 20. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. a temperature chart of a patient. NOTE. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Hour Temperature . Draw . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
binding. 9. e.154 24. etc. etc. 29. the value of a of this quantity will change.inch. books from for printing. 1 to 1200 copies. and $. 28. amount to $8. if each copy sells for $1. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 4. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.50. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2. represent his daily gain (or loss). to 27. x 7 to 9. 3.. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.) T circumferences of 25. then C irJl. 26. gas. . if he sells 0. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.g. 190. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2 .5 grams. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 3..50. function If the value of a quantity changes.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. A 10 wheels a day. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. x* x 19. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. the daily average expenses for rent. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189..
Draw the graph of x2 f. it is In the example of the preceding article. (1^. be also represented by a graph. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. E. 2 (1.g. x a variable.1). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. construct '.2 x may 4 from x = 4. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. J). Graph of a function. may. 2). as 1. and join the points in order. 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .1). while 7 is a constant. 1 the points (3. 3 50. 4). a*.e. may . 9). Q.0). is supposed to change. If a more exact diagram is required. Ex. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 3 (0. however. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. ( 2. . for x=l. to x = 4. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 4). (1. 9). (2. etc. and (3. The values of func192.
straight line produces the required graph. 4). rf 71 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (3. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. .) For brevity. (4.. 194. j/=3. as y. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. (2.. 1).156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.2 x . etc. Ex. 2.20). 5). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and join(0. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 2 4 and if y = x f. 7 . Thus 4x + 7. y = 6. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 4J. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. = 0.4).. = 4.. r */ +* 01 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. Thus in the above example.
15. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. Jar . a. 3.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2.5)2. 1J. 7. 2J. 4a? I. a? 2 4. y = 2x = 4. 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. the function. ?/ a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 11. if"a. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 2J.or. 2 a.8)'. a? 1. The values of a?. 1J. 1J. a* 13. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. if the function equals zero. from x VlO'S". . (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2x + 3x a?. 16. J. 18. (If) Va25. (ft) (_ 1. 1 8 10. if a. i. + 4. a?. x+1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 23x. 22. 4 a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. = The values of a*. 6. (7i) (c) 23. 3 a 8.5)2. 9. . 2 4 x f 2 = 0. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. The smallest value of the function. fa 17. xl. 3. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2 2 a.e. 8. 12. (C ) (2. 19. 6 fa. 14. 2 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. if y = 2. 21. = 4. The values of a*. 1. a ar. 5. 2 2. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. l. xz + x. 2 or 2 20.
. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. Represent 26.158 24. 9 F. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 25. 1 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. .) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.e. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. C..24. Show any convenient number). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.where x c is a constant. i. Therefore x = 1. 32 F. then cXj where c is a constant. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. the abscissas of 3.. 14 F.24 or x = P and Q. that graph with the o>axis. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. y= formula graphically. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. then y = . it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation..
f 9 = 0. Such equations in general have two roots. 3. (a) (6) 9. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. crosssection paper is used. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 7. 12. 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 14. a2 2a. 6. or 5 2. = 0. is called a quadratic equation. 197. . de = termine the points where If the function is 1. (0. 13. + + = where a. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. 2 and 1. 4. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 8.7 2 a 5 = 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (a) x2 = 0. 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. viz. 10.
we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. unknown quantities. locate points (0. y y 2. 3x _ 4 . ?/. first degree. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. X'2 Locating the points (2. if y = is 0. 4) and (2.2. Ex. 0). 199.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. ?/ =4 AB. 2). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.1. . and joining by a straight line. fc = 3. = 0. (f . Ex. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Hence we may join (0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s .e. If x = 0. solve for ?/. NOTE. Hence. and join the required graph. 1) and 0). If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. y = l. Hence if if x x  2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). produces the 7* required locus. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. because their graphs are straight lines. i. == 2.2 y ~ 2. T .
and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection. (2) .1=0. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. viz. equation x= By measuring 3. 201. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.15. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and CD. 203.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. P. we obtain the roots. To find the roots of the system.57. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB y = . 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 3.
which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 5. 4. and + 3). 3. 2. 0. 4. and . Locating the points (5. 4.0. AB the locus of (1). and joining by a straight line. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. (1) (2) C. if x equals respectively 0. P graphs meet in two and $. Locating two points of equation (2). (4. 5. they are inconsistent. V25 5. = 0. (2. (4. i. In general.. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2 equation x 3). Measuring the coordinates of P. Inconsistent equations.5. e. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Since the two  we obtain DE. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 1.  4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Using the method of the preceding para. we of the + y* = 25. 0) and (0.5. 4. y equals 3. intersection. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). . the point we obtain Ex. 3).e. x2 . etc. 1. 3. 4. 4. 0. 2. 4. the graph of points roots.9.0). 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3x 2 y = 6.g. Solving (1) for y.y~ Therefore.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3.
19. y = 4. y 2 4. '163 Dependent equations. and. x~y=0. 20. 16 23. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. y=x + 5. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1.. 2. \ 2x + 3^ . idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 10. 7. vice versa. 16 22. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 2x 3?/=6. a. 5. a+r/=6. 8. y= a2 2x y6. Draw system. 6. 17. 4. and solve each If there are no solutions. the graphs of the following systems. 3. . state reasons. if possible. 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205.
8. CUBES. 25.y). Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 3 31. 4 a = 3(6 . TABLE OF SQUARES. 29 . 30. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26.14 y = .164 24. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .
( a) is positive. 8. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .faa a a a Obviously 1. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. According to 1. involution repeated multiplication. a = a3 . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.a2 . . etc. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 2. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 52. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . follows that 3. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. is may be by 207. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 3 f a = f a = +. fa. on to in factors 4. 2.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a special kind of product. powers of a positive quantity are positive. Law of Signs.
' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 4 /2mV. amVy) 3 .6 (a 8 8 . raise a fraction to a power. 2. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 4. 24. . 2 11 (afc ) . (a ) 2 5 . 16. 3 2 2 8 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (a ) 2 4  3. (277171 )*. 15. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (2ar). raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 76 : (>y. the required power. 5. V V/ 13. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 6.6) = a . a product to a given power. (^^) 2 .166 To find To To power. 210. \ 3 J '  MW 10. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .
y . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .) 14. 16. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . = s= (2s) 8 a. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . + a 2 a. 7. (a + &)8 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 12. 2 . 9. (afl) . 13. 3 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8. . 3 . . 15. 1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (3af26) 8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2. (3 x . +5a) 22. pansions. : a 20.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. nent of the binomial. + 4aj) 3 . 3. (aj7) . 18. 211. are obtained by multiplication. 21.INVOLUTION Ex. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . The higher powers of binomials. 23. An 1. 2.6 2 8 ft) .y) = (3 y?y . 4.3 y. 1 f 3 2 3 . 5. Ex. 8 (a??/) 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 6. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (5 (1 a) 3 . frequently called ex. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. etc. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.
(2 a 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (p + q) 4 * 7.2. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 23. 2. (af 5) . (la&) 4 12. 4. 21. (mnp 5 I) 5 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 13.216 a^ 4. (?/i~w) : 16. .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 5. is the coefficient of the next term. 3. mn 5 2 5 ) . and the powers negative. 9. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 8. (m fl) 2 20.168 3. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 25. (m 2 + n) 8 . 14. 18. . 17. 78 s . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 3. 10. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. . (?>i?i f c)*. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (m 5 I) 2 22. (1 + 4 ?/) . (l 8 . 1. (tff1) (cfd) . . Ex. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 15.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 4 (1for) 5 . 4 . 5. (3a f5) 5) 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . ( &) 5 . (2 4. (a~^) 5 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Ex. The minus. Ex.a) 3 19. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 6. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 24. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. . (mJ) 4 11.
for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 27 =y means r' = 27. 215. called real numbers. 4 4 . V9 = + 3. for distinction. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. which can be simplified no further. a) 4 = a4 . \/"^27=3. or x &4 . 109 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . Since even powers can never be negative. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or y ~ 3. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. numbers. V \/P 214. 2. = x means = 6. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. and all other numbers are. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. and ( v/o* = a. 1. etc. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. (_3) = 27. tity .
Ex 5 a" . \/2 4 9 . 79 2 v/2 5 .9 = 136. = 199 + (_ 198) .  100 a 2 . roots of the numerator \/18 . 2. Ex. V36 9 4. extract the and denominator. 7. 8.(. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 4 v. 2. 9. 3.64 5 4 . = 19472. 2 . EXERCISE 1. 82 . 5. 8. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V?. 3i .1.lL. To extract the root of a power. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 7 . v/^i2 = a*. . VT8226 = V25 2 729 .201) = 2. 3 33 53 . Ex. Ex. 6. index.4. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. To extract a root of a fraction. . 3/0** = am . fy 5 3 . v/2^. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex.200 . 6 7 = 030. 9. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. = V26TIT81 = 53. 10. 7 . V25 9 16. 6. 7. 62 = V2* . .125.
3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V20 . Find the square root of a2 . a* 4 8 2 . 5. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. . 33. 34. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.3 y2) ( vV . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 3./). 45 V5184. a f2 l 2 + l. Ex. 2 . V9216.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . V8. 32. 6. 2. 116. ^40^4. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .6 tfif + 9 y = O . 30. 31.EVOLUTION 171 28.75.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/. 1. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 29.) by inspection.98. 2 f ( V240) 3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2 .3 .
term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . let us consider the relation of a f. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 12. . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a f. and b. mV14m??2)f 49. 8 .b 2 2 to its square.2 ab + b . and b (2 a f b). however. + 6 + 4a&. 10. 15. 2ab . 14.e. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2 . i.72 aW + 81 & 4 .2 ac . 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.172 7. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.2 &c.> 13. a\b is the root if In most cases. The term a' first 2 . 11. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. #2 a2  16.
and so forth. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 1. 8 a 2 .24 afy* f 9 tf. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 1. . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . The square . is As there is no remainder. 2. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. First trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 6 a. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Explanation. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. . . As there is no remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. of x. . 219. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. First complete divisor. */'' . 8 a 2 2. by division we term of the root. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Second trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the first term of the answer. Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 /. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .
42 a*& 4.12 m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 5. 16x6 4. 2 x2 3 2x. x 6 4 4 0^4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .37 a ^ .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 12. 36it. 3. 436^?/469a.73a4 440^436^460^. 16.9. 6. 17. 19.a 6 x*y 2 .10 x2 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 14.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 10.25. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. > 7. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 13#4 413ar 44a.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 8. 18.24 or .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 24. 2 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 729 4. 1 4.73 a8 . l 4. . 6 11. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .4 x 4. 9.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.25 x 4 4. a? 2 .12m 5 4. 15.40 a 22 .6 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 4 . 5 4 16 4 iK .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 20.20 o 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .16.
the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.000.000. a 2 = 6400. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the first of which is 8. etc. of 1. the square root of 7744 equals 88. = 80. which may contain one or two). 2. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. first . and the square root of the greatest square in units. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 524. As 8 x 168 = 1344. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the first of which is 4. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the first remainder is. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.EVOLUTION 220. 1.1344.000 is 1000.176. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. two figures. Ex. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Therefore 6 = 8. Ex.000 is 100. and the complete divisor 168. of 10. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. etc. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. of a number between 100 and 10.. Find the square root of 7744.
or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 12.10.0961 are '. places.1 are Ex.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. 3. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/.70 6. The groups of 16724.7 to three decimal places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. annex a cipher.
31. 39.01. 30. 1. 1. 5. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .) 40. = 3. 32. J.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 33. 37. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .4 square when R = radius and 11. 36.58 square 38. whose area equals 48. feet. T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 34. 13.22. 35.1410.53. feet. JT . .
+ bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. x = + 2 or x =2. 178 . x 2 7. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. Dividing. A pure. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. is A quadratic equation. Transposing. Extracting the square root of each member. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. = 4. This answer Check. 6#2 = x* 24. 2 ic = a.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.. or incomplete. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 1. or affected. = 7^ + 5. The 7 equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. 225. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Ex. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 226. 6 y2 = 17. 224. . but no higher power e. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2. complete.g. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is 12.
o. 16^393 = 7.25. 3. 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8. : 83 2. 15^5 = 6.2. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 4. 19 + 9 = 5500. 2 2 a. 7. . 10. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a? 9. ' =: y? b* b .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7 = 162. Solve 179 . 0^ + 1 = 1. 4 ax. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2 4fc 5' 18. or Therefore.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. ax Transposing and combining. . 5.
26. 27. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 228. 4. 3. 25. A right triangle is a triangle. and their product : 150.) of their squares 5. 22 a. Find the side of each field. Find the side of each field. . 2 . solve for d. is 5(5. Find the numbers. 2. If G=m m g . 24. solve for v. 28. . then Since such a triangle tangle.b 2 If s If =c . opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. may be considered one half of a rec square units. If 22 = ~^. ' 4. 108. If a 2 4. : 6. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find is the number. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . r. 2a f 1 23. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2 . solve for r. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 2 : 3. find a in terms of 6 . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 29. EXERCISE 1.
Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. To find this term. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. . is and the other two sides are equal. Method of completing the square. and the other two sides are as 3 4. and the third side is 15 inches. . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.2 7 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . Solve Transposing. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 8. 4. Find these 10. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 9. sides. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the two smaller 11. (b) 44 square feet. x* 7 x= 10. J = 12.7 x f 10 = 0. Find the unknown sides and the area. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. we have of or m = . radii are as 3 14.) 13. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. of a right triangle Find these sides. add () Hence 2 . Find the sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 24. 2m. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the radii.
Transposing. or J. or x = 2. Uniting.2 a2 . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Transposing. a Clearing of fractions.  \. 2  . = .e. 230. Therefore.2. J. adding member). 2 a* a. Hence Therefore Check. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.x(l = . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.1. a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = x\ = 2. Ex. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. (*~8) a = at . . Simplifying. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.a. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed..  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Extracting square roots. = \ # = ff. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 62 x 5 = f. Ex. = 6.
1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying.
231. =8 r/io?. . \bx\. Solution by formula. ao. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =0. and c in the general answer.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. article. 2x 3 4. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 49.c = 0. x la 48.
b =  + 20 == = 0. a. 6^+5^ 56. Reducing to general form. : 86 + 2 = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 12. 2. 2 a? = 44 x . V^tT)* . 1. 17. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. c = 5. 13. 2 o.25 x. 16. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 5 x2 Transposing. ?i 2 .  . 2or } 5o. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 10. 21. 6. 9. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 3. c p. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 2 . 6 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. TIO. 7. 15. = 12 . 14. 18. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.. 6. 2 a. 20. 4. 19.4 4 5 . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 26.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. 6 Ex. 11. = 64120?. 8.
= 0. ar>8o. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 233.5 Solving (1) and (2). =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 24. Clearing for fractions. (5 a? !)(.5) =0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . = 0. 26. Factoring. }. 5) = 0. factors Now. x2 = 1 . Transposing. transposing terms to one member. and 6. orz roots. or # 5 is zero.x. 3x?+x = 7. 1. = 0. all or. x(x <2 . any degree.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 23. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. a=:i^^. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 25.2. Eesolving into factors. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. . Solution by factoring. if either of the uct is zero. 5 = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . 0.4) = . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. member can be Ex. 27 x== 42a. = 14. Bx 1 1.
+ 100. 9. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 13. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. } 2 2 (5 . aj( 15. 7. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. for a: . a* 10a=24. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3. 0(02) = 7(02). 3) = 0. O roots are 2. 5 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.(. a?. x2 f 2 x . E. The equation I. 2. 0^ ar> 11.= 24. (aj4)(a. 3^ = 0(1106). is 5) = 0. + 8=s: 7.:=0. 4)(z3) = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.g. 16. 3) Factoring. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 4. 3. : 87 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. Ex.e. and the equation thus formed be solved. 14. 2. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.24 = 0. + 10 a = 24. Therefore x =3 = 2. 6. ar'Sa^ 12. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.3)(x + 3 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 9 f 20 x = 0. Or Hence the 234.6)) = 0. 12. + 6)=0. a?10a=:24. 3 or 2 a. 2o3 f9a. 5.
3) = (s + l) (3 a). 19. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 18. 23. a 2 =(x a)b. 20. 27. 2. (a + 1) (a. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 50. 22. '3a!J  . uz + u 21.188 17. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. ara + ft + c*. (2a? 3) (a 24. 25. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.
and equals 190 square inches. G. 7. 56. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 58. Find the number. is Find two numbers whose product 288.2. 1.0. EXERCISE 1.9. and consequently many prob 235. 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 55. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. : 3.3. feet. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .0. and whose sum is is 36. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 52. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the sides. 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 57. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 0. Find the number. and whose product 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 5. 3. 2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. The 11. 54. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 8.3. two numbers is 4. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. number by 10. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 5. 2. . The difference of . 2. 1. 4. 3. Find the numbers.1. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 2.
If he each horse ? . had paid $ 20 less for each horse. watch for $ 24. as the 16. . and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. 14. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 19. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. other. sold a horse for $144. Find the rate of the train.190 12. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 13. ABCD. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 17. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. ply between the same two ports. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. dollars. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. Two vessels. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and Find the sides of the rectangle.10. 15. What did he pay for 21.
Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 24. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 27. the two men can do it in 3 days. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. a point taken. Find TT r (Area of a circle . In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. so that the rectangle. or x = \/l = 1.) 25. as 0. (tf. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. By formula. 237. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. . is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 1. Ex. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. constructed with and CB as sides. is On the prolongation of a line AC. of the area of the basin. ^3^ = 7. Find and CB. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 23 inches long. contains B 78 square inches. and working together.
Ex. 12. 7. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4. a 21or=100.)+72=0. = 1. aV+9o 4 =0. 4 6. 2. 18. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 10.192 238. 8. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4 : 89 10a. 9. 2 16 a^40 11. 16.2 =4. = 13. Hence Le. 436 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Solving. 19. a? 15 1=2*. a4 5o. a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.T 2 2 . 6. 2 h9:=0. T 17. >. y8)=0. or y = 8.
1. and equal. rational.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 241. Ex.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 240. the roots are irrational. the roots are unequal. is 4ac not zero.2) 2 4 3 (. negative.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.5) = 04. rational. the roots are equal. the roots are rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. The discriminant =(. 3.f> = 0. a perfect square.bx 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 2. Relations between roots and coefficients. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.12 x + 9 = 0. .2 z . Ex. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. b 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . and unequal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. c the roots are real. Hence the roots are real. the roots are imaginary. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. ( 2a Hence 1.
If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 21. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 6. 18. = 5x. 24. 2 a. 10 x = 25 x + 1. = 0. 15. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 2a. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. + 12 2  . lla. 5oj aj + l = 0.19 # 20. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = Q. 60 2 = 0. 22. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 23. : a 2 .g. their product isf. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 17. 14. + 18 2 8. 5aj 9. tfmx+p^Q. = 0. f 2 E.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 3a. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. 12. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 9a3 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2 : 3. x2 7 10.. 2. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. o. ^12.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 4. 2 7.
We assume. while the second of the first. ~ a m f. Then the law of involution. must be *The symbol smaller than. that a an = a m+n . for all values 1 of m and n. (a m ) w . hence. II. > m therefore. however." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . provided w > n.* III.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. a m a" = a m+t1 . It is. and . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. m IV. (ab) . such as 2*. 244. = a"" < . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. The first of these laws is nition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. no Fractional and negative exponents.a" = a m n mn . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.
laws. (bed)*. 245. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. a\ 26. n 2 a. a*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a . or zero exponent equal x. disappear.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. etc. Assuming these two 8*. 4~ . 25.g. 3*. 28. 30. e. fractional. 24. 31. . = a. m$. ml. as. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . (xy$. a?*. 0?=^. at. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 29. 23.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. '&M A 27. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent.
27* = 3. 41.\/n. v/o&cT 34. 37. Let a = a. 35. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 43. : 2' 4* = 4. ty?. \fi?.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. a. e. 45. a* * = 3. equal to unity. 50.g. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 5 a* = 10. : 197 33. 46. Solve the following equations 39. If. 49. e. = 49. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. hence is . 246. v'mT 36.g. a . \/xy \/m. = 2. the base is zero. 40. 3* = 27. 7z* Find the values of 47. a * a2 Or a=l. 44. = 2. Vo5 . 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 42. 48. however. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 38. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.
e. by changing the sign of NOTE. vice versa.2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Let x= or".g. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. cr n. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Multiplying both members by a".198 247. consider the following equations. or the exponent. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. . Or a"# = l. 248. etc.
c 32. : or 5 . 2 . 37. 27. 7~ l a 2b 2 . ^?2 y' 34. 22. : mi m~^. 40. . a. rfS. 25. 3 a? * 42. m . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 2m~i 43. 39. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30."* 38. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 3 a. f (2w)~i 1 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2 . 44. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. * 24. 36. . 66 45. ^L. a^ 41.
= 5. 54. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 47. . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. ar = i.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 10* 5* = . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . z* = 1.(. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 61. of: 3ll4~* 60. 250. = l. 10* Find the values 56. = ^. 55. + A_.008)* + A.81 f (a . Ex. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 53. = . 52.9*. (.1.6). 57.001. 49. 1.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 59. 17' 2 51. 58. 48. + 1~* f 21 .343)* + (. z 5or*=10.
4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7~ 6 . 3 a. 10.. 72 . / 7fv 7. 8 ' 9. 13. ' 11.5a.7*. 16.&. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. . 23. 4 x^. 3. Remove the negative exponents. 7~ 5 27  .7i. 26. 79 . (d) If required. 3sVS. V5. remove the fractional exponents. 6a. 14. . OA 20. 17. . 18. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.^/5^5. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. &. #* a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 27  28.3 aj" a. 7*. 4 5. 6 *. etc. NOTE. S'sS8. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 6.6 *' 6 *25. 12. a.7W. 95 ^9i 5**.$". are performed.4 a8 .4 . 16.5.$*. 7.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.&. Perform the operation indicated.
If powers of a?. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 34. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. The 252. 40. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 6 35. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 2.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
29. </20. signs. Ex. v/3. 28. ^4. subtract surds. 4^/4.2 V50. v/3. v/4.10 V2 =  V2. V3. V3. ^2. 38. 37. ^/IT. if dissimilar. A/3.2. 33. ^30. I VJ + 3VT8 . 31. 40.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^5. V5. V2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. To add or form. 2\ 3*. ^2. 3. ^126.e. </2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^2. 5V2.3\ . 27. 36. in order of magnitude : \/7. + . connect them by proper 1.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^4. ^7. V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 32. \/5. Ex. A/2. ^6. s!/3. (i. ^3. 39. 34. v^S. 30. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. Simplify V~ . \/7. 26. VS. </3. Arrange 35. V2.
3. 6. 4V805V45. 11. V18+V32VT28+V2. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 14. + 3V835V2. 4.3V20 + 6V5. 13. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V175V28+V634V7. .J a6 V4 aft. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 8VT8J2V32 7. 6. 9. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 12. 8.
23. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . y* = Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 26^ .2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex. 1. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .6V35 106 460V35100 . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. and then multiplied. 2. . 3. 6*. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.
fWa 17. 13. 40 10 30. VTO. V2aV8^. V3 Vl2. 213 98 11. 40. 3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). \/3 \^). (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V22V3CVS)V3. 41.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. v/18 v"3. 2. 12. V42. . 18. 21. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). (Va Va 36. 14. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V3 V6. + VB)(2V5). (2V3) 8 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. 15. 28 . aVa. 10. (3 20. 2 . 6 V4 5. 37. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). v/4. Vll. 25. 39. 27.VSS. 6. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V20 V30. a?. V2 V50.^/2. 6. 8. 4. 38. 19. 7. 9. VlO V15. 34.
268. is 1 2.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). Ex. 43. V3 . 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 44. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a fraction. 52. E. .y. 47. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Va v/a. (2 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).214 42. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 60. 46. 48. the quotient of the surds is If. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 49. 51. (5V2+V10)(2V51). Ex.
RADICALS This method.57735. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.73205. e. The 2. is illustrated by Ex. arithTo find.. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. however. 1. we have V3 But if 1. Divide VII by v7. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. /~ } Ex. . metical problems afford the best illustrations. Evidently.g. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .by the usual arithmetical method. 3.
271. V48 25. 14. . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. ^/H . i.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V5 270. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 20.4142.. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . VffV?. A. 23 . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V3 = 1. V8 JL.7320. 21. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V5 = 2. Vll 212*. and Given V2 = 1. V3 24 . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8 12. 7. V2 22 . 272. . A.2361.
RADICALS Ex.Vs2 .1 xVtf a. 1.2. V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18. .vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . . Ex. s Simplify a. 3. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex.
V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. J?_. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. Given V2 1. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.7320. Vo1 26. four places of decimals 23 . : and V5 = 2. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.W3. 27. By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 .2361. 19. = V3 = 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 6V7. find to _!_.5 3 = 125.218 6 .4142. v 2V3 28. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 24. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.
5. 2. v8f 2\/15. According to G3. 4. viz. it to this form. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. on the other hand. V643 . ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 3 (V2~u)  7. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . \/l6*. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 9. 2 12. 3. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.RADICALS 219 274. In other examples of involution and evolution. \/125" . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. . V255 . 2. Simplify Ex. the If. 8. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 1. 11. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.
EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . and whose product is 18. 3.6 V2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . The Hence ^11 . 12 and whose product is 20. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11. Find Vll . ^TT. +2 Ex. 2.2 \/20.A/2.220 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 2 \/18. These Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4.
VT . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.V48 4 20.. 19. r 22.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Transposing and uniting. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. +=. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. are radical equations. 277. The value x =2 reduces each . member to 2. 5. . Before performing the involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 4x x = 2. 8. Ex. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. x2 = x f 2. : 221 Vl32V22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. first involution. Solve vVf!2a = 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 4. a. Radical equations are rationalized. (2x xrf 1.e. Dividing by Check. = xa + 4 x f 4.1. by raising both members equal powers. V48 23. they are transto formed into rational equations.
member =\/2 + jV2=v^. one root. V24~+~l = 0. V4afT~l. at . tion which has two roots.1) = 0. viz. Ex. 278. viz. 5. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. . radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Squaring both members. 3. Therefore Check. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. . Dividing by 24. they may be extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore CftecAr. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. x = J.222 Ex. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 2. Transposing. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. the first member = V2. f 25 = 12. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . Factoring. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.3. a. Transposing and uniting. Squaring both members. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. a socalled extraneous root. Transposing and uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 4#f 4 = 9. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Extraneous roots. It = 3 x .
viz.RADICALS Hence x If a. Check. Therefore. is x V. x root of the preceding equation. If If x 3 = 3. both members reduce to 5. ViTie 4 z2 . = 3. + 6~ieT~3 . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Hence there is only one root. (x x = 3. and to 5.12 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . . 2 Clearing of fractions. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. . the right member = V2. NOTE. Solve the following equations : = G. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.47) = 0. Transposing. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. equation it is an extraneous root.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. \ does not satisfy the given. Hence x = the only root. or x *j.2 r. 4. Factoring. . for it satisfies the equation . 223 x = 3. Squaring.3) (2 x .
33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore . Ex.
or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 3.f40= 5.8 x + 40 = 36. 2. 4. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. = 26. 2Va. o.8 z40 = 7. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 2_8z 440 = 49. members of the equation were squared. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 412a* = 16. This can be seen without substituting. . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. + 40 = 6. x + Vx a? = 6. some of the roots be extraneous. = 7. 5. Q .*2a. x =6 or 3.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. y then x2 . 3 6.35 = 0. x Since both =9 or 1. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 45 14VJB = . _ 2 y . 2. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Let 8 x f 40 . = 0.i~24 = 0. Ex. Vi 2 8a. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Substituting.
20.a 440 = 35. 2. 17. a^x2 5 2 13. 19. +3= 6. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a. 16. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14.226 11.f 18 = 24. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 12. 18. +x . 15.
even if Q is unknown.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2 + 4. Ex. 227 . could. = 2. 1. we make a? what the value of Q.360 = 244. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. no matter If. by dividing 3 x* f.2) Q . Without actual division. find the remainder when m. E = ax + &z + m) Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). ax4 4.2 + 80 = 12.2 x 5 by x 3. however. 3 2 Ex. " Or. then (x 2)Q 0. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. Hence. ^ = 381+2.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. to x we # = 2 3." transposing. does not contain a?.4 a. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. If x* . 2.bx? + ex2 4. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Without actual division. if Q was known. a? R = x* .
+ 7 = 632. x* s 2 4. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . + ^by x + b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . If the remainder is zero. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.g. fora?. 8. hence (x divided by x 4. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. The Factor Theorem.4(. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.3)f 11 =. 3. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.8'= 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.228 282. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 5 (4x . } 2 by a1. x m is factor of the expression. 43 3 E. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. + 6. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.949. 2 j 7.8. 5. if 8 42  . the remainder equals 8 2 x .g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.
a 8a f 19 a 12. Factor a? 15.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. i.e. 15.12 = 0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 106 division. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. + 15. 9. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 1. 2m 5m .r6 = 0. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 8. + ttt15 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. a? 19.1.1.12. Let x = . 229 1.7 x + 15 = 0. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. factors of the absolute term. Therefore x ( 1). a. _ . 6. 11. & p*. f 5. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a 2a + 4. a 5x 6. 3 2 : 7. 2. The 5. 3.9^ + 23^15. m f m n 14. 7 46 = 0. oj 5x2 f3a. 23. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 25. or 5 4 + 3^ . 24. ^10^429^20=0. then x8 7 x'2 4. are f 1. Resolve into factors 4. . 1. + 27 + 27. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 21.7 + 16 .13m + 30 10. a + 32.49 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. f 15 does not vanish. 5. f 3. 2 2. or x 4. 8. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 17. 20. p 5^ + 8p 4. 18. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. is a factor. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a^8^ + 19a.
2. xn f. Ex. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . actual division n. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n is even. 2.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 1. By we obtain the other factors. For substituting y for x. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. xn y n y n y n = 0. If n is a Theorem that 1. It y is not divisible by 287. is odd. ar +p= z6 e. x* f/ = (x +/)O .230 285. 2 Ex. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.g. : importance.xy +/). if w is odd." . 286. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.
26. 3. 28. since it more directly to the prime factors. leads 231 is The first method. a. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex. x3 8=0.= . 27. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable. y 3 +8=0. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.
xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. can be solved by the methods degree. 290. 4 xy = 16. Squaring Solve (1). xywe have 3.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. If two of the quantities x f y. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. ==5 > 1^ = 4. of quadratics. however. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (4) Hence. 232 . + 6 a?V . Hence " /  X y = =} 4. x y. xy are given. = 6. (5) Combining (5) with (1).1. * A I. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. & + 2 xy + = 25.y4 is of the fifth degree. in general. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. to equations of the fourth few cases.
" "' "' { r 8. 1.g. The arranged in pairs. EXERCISE Solve: 1. but can be found. ^. 3. 12. r (" 1 = 876. ' 10. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. b=3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. x and xy are not given. 108 2. = .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.
 42 y + Transposing. I x+y = a. ' ' . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 7 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 3. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 5. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. Ex. Factoring. or y = 1 .  f J. 19. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 4 y = 20. + 29 = 0.~ y = 5. r^ 2 as ] f. 6 "I 14. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. aj = 2.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.o 18. A system of simultaneous equations.a.?/ i = 6. one linear and ne quadratic.. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.20) = 0. . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. x " (3) 49 etc. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). or JJ. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. la.  . I* Jj ^ [. .i/ = r 13.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3y) : Factor (2). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. = 1 3 3. 9. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 10. ':il e :) . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. x2y. 1. quantities. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. If of the preceding type. III. Solve .3 2x 2 Ex. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.
If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. Solve 2. 15 x2 .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 2 . = 0. 109 a. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 2. (1) (2) x x 5. 11 a2 Factoring.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). } VI09.
6.!. 298.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. . 2 xy + y2 = 10. E. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. can be solved by special devices. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). y? a? f . Bxy9.175 ay = 12. (4) (3). and others not belonging to them. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. A. 150 */2 . Division of one equation by the other. ' ^ 15.125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. " IV. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?.y = 7.xy 4.3^42^=43.
(1 > (2) 1. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1). we obtain by squaring. Some simultaneous ?/. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. jc~ y = 9. x +y y etc.. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i ^ *>. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Therefore x = 16. = 12 J. 2.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y . = 189. x 2 . * ' 300. B. Solve Ex. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. xy. y = 3.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. . Hence = V or = 4. M6. 2. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e. 6. [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ . 7. 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex.
= 198. .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . 19 ' 26. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. f 18. * . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. + o5)(6hy) = 80.4 y = 47 a. 27. 16. 25.21 ^ = 15.
y % 9 f*K 36. 31. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 25 34. . ~\ OK OO. finite  =x y if = x.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 32. . 33. = 48201. . etc.of  According to the definition of division. 3 a2 38. ^ oo .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. Q 7. hence may be any finite number. oo 301. 7' j/ 39. Interpretation . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . or ~ indeterminate. as a . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 30. etc 302.
000 a.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. without exception. Hence such an equation identity. it is an Ex. (a: Then Simplifying. oo is = QQ.increases if x de x creases. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . = 10. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. be the numbers. By making x any * assigned zero. and becomes infinitely small. The ~~f fraction . or that x may equal any finite number. (1) = 0. as + l. (1) is an identity. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. x f 2. cancel. the answer is indeterminate. TO^UU" sufficiently small. 306. (1). . creases. I. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. . equation.can be If It is made larger than number. and . 1.x'2 2 x = 1. Let 2. great.e. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. 1. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. Or. i. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.e. ToU" ^100 a. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. i. is satisfied by any number.decreases X if called infinity.g. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.242 303.
Hence /. 2. y finite QO. Solve  9 7. Solve x a. EXERCISE 1. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 3. two numbers is 76. = oo. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. . is their 2. Solve . and the sum of Find the numbers. * 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.e. z = 1 Substituting. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts. and a.8 x + 15 6. 1=0. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. (2). 42 and' their product is 377. The sum is of squares 2890. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.2 y = 4.
244 3. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 255 and the sum of 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 146 yards. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. the area becomes f% of the original area. Find the sides. is is 17 and the sum 4. 6. 8. Find these sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. equals 4 inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 13. is 6. Find the other two sides. of a right triangle is 73. p. two numbers Find the numbers. and the edge of one. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the sides of the rectangle. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find the side of each square. 10. increased by the edge of the other. 9. and the diago(Ex. 12. of a rectangular field feet. Find the edges. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. .quals 20 feet. 103. and the sum of ( 228. Find the dimensions of the field. 148 feet of fence are required. The area of a nal 41 feet.) 53 yards. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 190. 14. Find the edge of each cube. Find the numbers.
. Find the radii. Find the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. and if the digits will be interchanged. irR *. the quotient is 2. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
. to produce the nth term. 17.. 16. To find the nth term / of an A. 15 is 9 f. to produce the 4th term.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. and d. 10. a 11.. P. each term of which..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. except the first.. a.. . series 9. 3. 2 d must be added to a.. a 3d. + 2 d. 19.) is a series. . the second a descending. f .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. added to each term to obtain the next one. P. 11. a f d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to each term produces the next term. a + 2 d. The first is an ascending..1) d.7. (n 1) d must be added to a. progression. of the following series is 3. Hence / = a + (n . The common differences are respectively 4. 309. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 3 d must be added to a. . The progression is a. of a series are its successive numbers. 12. a + d. to produce the 3d term.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. An arithmetic progression (A. 4. : 7. P. Since d is a f 3 d. . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.
3. P. if a = 5. 6. 3. 10.. .. 7. 3. P.. 21. 1. 9. 2.. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 4. 1.. 6. 5. . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 3. Find the nth term of the series 2. (d) 1J. d .. 24. 9. of the series 10. 5. 5. (a + + (a + l) l).. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 99) = 2600. ..3 a = l.. = 2. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. series . Find the 5th term of the 4. 1J.. series 2. ..4. 115. 7. d = 3. ? (a) 1. 2 EXERCISE 1. 2J. the last term and the common difference d being given. = I + 49 = *({ + . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 4^. ... 6. = a + (a Reversing the order. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 7. 3. 5. a = 2. Adding.. P. 19. Find the 12th term of the 4... . 8.PROGRESSIONS 310. 2.' cZ == . = 99.16. the term a. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 8. 8.. 6 we have Hence .. 5.8.
11. 15. 4. 33. to 8 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 6. 1J. to 20 terms. 7. and for each than for the preceding one. Sum the following series 14.1 f 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 1. striking hours only. 13. to 20 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 12. to 10 terms. 23. > 2f 2. to 7 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. . . (x +"l) 4. 12. 7. . 19.248 Find the 10. 7.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 16. : 3. 11. . '. . and a yearly increase of $ 120. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 1. 8. to 15 terms. 15. strike for the first yard. (i) (ii) .7 f to 12 terms. 21. In most problems relating to A. . Jive quantities are involved. + 3. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. rf. 2. 15. 11. 29. to 16 terms. \n. . 17. to 20 terms. 18. hence if any three of them are given. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 20. 16. 1. P. 31. 2J. 3.. 22. 11. .
49 (1) (2) Substituting. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 111.e. = 1014. = a + (w. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. n d. 1. hence n = 6. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. Substituting in (2). 23. 45. = 13. . 56. P. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 78 n Substituting in (1). 12. 144. or 11 J. P. and b form an A. n = 6. s 24ft last term 144.6 n).1) . Solving. a = 49 6(71 . 34. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. the second one mean between the other two. 204 = ^ (98 . P.. 89. Findn. J = 49. 78.1). 67.PROGRESSIONS Ex.. d = 6.6. = 144. a = 12. 312. 6 n2 . 122. 100. is 12. Find the series. 133.104 w + 408 = 0.~n~\ 408 6). The first term of an A. . if s = 204. From (1). 2 (2) From Hence (2). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Ex. But evidently n cannot be fractional. I. I Substituting in (I) and (II). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. if a. the and the sum of all terms 1014. = n(104 . 2. The series is. or if x Solving. = 1014. l)e?. 6. #.
15. P. Find n. a+ and b a b 5. has the series 82. m and n 2. 6? 9. 78. y and #f5y. 13. n = 4.3. 8. 12. 3. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . and s. a x f b and a b. = 45. n has the series ^ j . produced. 17. Find d. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. s = 70. of 5 terms 6. 10. ceding one. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find a Given a = 7. f J 1 1 / . Find w. f? . Given a = 4. How much . Given a = . s == 440. 16. 7. n. Find a and Given s = 44. n = 13. I. n = 16. = 83. 11. . 4. = 1870. 74. d = 5. = 52. T? ^. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find d. Given a = 1. n = 17. = 17. n = 20. = 16. I Find I in terms of a. How much did he save the first month? 19.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Given a = . 14. Find?. = ^ 3 = 1.
The 314... is 16(f) 4 . 36. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. . 36. ar. A geometric progression first. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . +1. the first term a and the ratios r being given. .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 4 (1) . P. 2 a. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. ratios are respectively 3. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. 12.) is a series each term of which.g. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. of a G. . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). E.... P. NOTE. 4. . I. or. If n is less : than unity. 108. or 81 315. called the ratio. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 4. rs = s 2 . ar8 r. . r n~ l . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. The progression is a... the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . <zr . 24. 36. (I) of the series 16. is it (G. 2. P. 24..arn ~ l . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . and To find the nth term / of a G.
(b) 1. l. . is 16. 1. P. series 6. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 3. And the required means are 18. 288. P...l. Hence n = 7. 25. .. volved .. 4. In most problems relating to G. 0. 2 term 3. 4. r^2. 36. whose ....18.5. 72.. P. Find the 6th term of the series J. . series 5. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. a = I. if any three of them are given. 144.. 6. 144. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. first term is 125 and whose common . . 36. .72. \ t series .. 18.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. first term 4. + 5. ._!=!>. 72.18.6. 80. i 288. P. 7. series . Ex. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. 576.. 676. . 36. 9.288.. EXERCISE 1. 10. I = 670. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . Jive quantities are in. .54. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. is 3. fa. +f%9 % .. P. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.5. hence. 20. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.*. 8.4. 9. Find the 5th term of a G. fa. first 5. Hence the or series is 0. (it. . . whose and whose second term is 8. . f. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 144. or 7. f. . 9. ? (c) 2. (d) 5.
= 3. 48. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.. 1. to 7 . + 4 . Find the geometric mean between 7. 20. Find a and 4. 243. 16 . 4. 23. is less than unity. >"> . M. 42... 22. 13.nV> i*> !718.J and 270. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. of r n decreases. 12. . to G terms. 15. s = 605. to 7 terms. J. J. 126. 81. 54. and hence ~ r . to 6 terms. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. to 5 terms. Given r = n Z 5. r . to 6 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 1. == 160. Find a and n = 4. a. s = 310. . 25S series : 32. to 8 terms. 14. J. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 36. 21. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. J. 14. . 12 terms. 19. . 24. = 3. 2. n = 5. a^. 81. 72. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. . be written If the value of r of a G. 27. P. Find a and Given r = 3. . Z s... n = 5.i a9 .. may be than any assignable number. I.
. 9.3727272 ..37272 . 4.. of an infinite G. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.)7?7272 . 250.. . 6. 9.. r = j.72.... The sum r.. 2.. of: 11. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. P. 14.. 6... 16. of all squares ? . 4.. is 16. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 8. .072 + . . P. = . Hence . is J. 5... ..717171. = a . . . Find the value 9.272727.1.555. 12. 1. 13. = 990 .. 16. The sum Find the of an infinite G. = . 1. .3121212. and the first term is Find 17. 3. 8. 1.. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 1. . 118 : infinity of the following series 3.. 1 r = ...... .Ql. 100.= _4Z* .191919. 2. first and the common term. 12... I...= . i i J. 40. Find the sum to infinity. . 66 Therefore . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. Given an infinite series of squares.254 Ex.27777 . P. ... .3 + . ratio 15. =A+ 10 i. . 5. i.072.01 ^ . is 9. . what is (a) the sum of the areas. If a = 40..99 . .. 7.00072 f . 10.
13. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. l 2. /2a+Y\ 8.b ). 25. 2 2 24. 10. 28. 26. . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a + b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. . (a2) 6. 11. 29. 15.b) w (a (a f (1 . 14. (xy) : 6 . 22. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 21. . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 5. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) .6) 20 . : (1 + xy. coefficient of . (s + i). Find the 6th term of (x . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 16. .6) . a6 8 16 in . 4 7. 17. (\ 9 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 12. 7 . 20. 4. (a 100 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.
 2. 5. 3. 5. 3. 1. 2. 4.  2.f ac 1. 3. 4. + 2. 4. 4. 2. + c(a  c). . if = = 2. 2. 5. 6. 3. 2. 3. 4. 1. 1.  a)(a 1. 1. l. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 24 4. 3. + 1. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 2. if x^l. 3. 2. 2. 2 . 6. 2. 2. 2. 2. 5. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 2. 2. 4 2. 3. ft) . 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. . 2. 5. 1. 2. 1. 2. 4. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 2.a(a 4. 1. 2. 5. 4 ft  c) 2. 1. 4. 4. 3. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 3. 3. 1. 1. 1. (c 3. 3. 4. = 2. if y=2j 2. 2. 1. 5. 1. 3. + 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 4. c = = = 2. 1. 3. 3. 3. 1. 3. 2. 6. 6. 3. 1. c if 7 . 2. 2. 1. 7. 3. 5. if a ft c = = = 4. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2.c )(fta) 1. a ft c = = 2. ^+^ 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. 4. if = = = 2. 4. 6. ft 4 ) 5. 3. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. y 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3.  8 ^ 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . aft 3 + 4.
r 6 x  4 xy . c = 3. 3. + 3 y 2* .2 a?y + 3 aty . . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . .a 5 a . 40. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + 2. 7.c' 2 4 / . 20. (5. 4. a: . 41.4.x 5 4 . + 4 ?y . .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 17. 2. 9. 8. 4 y 13.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 9. or . + 8 x4 *y . 10. 5. 7 xy 3 . 4. x = 4. + 4.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 24. 2. 21. 7y 4 . + 1. c)(x a} . 4. x 3 11. x3 2 a2 . 4 z . x C 4 4x y + . 6. 6 a4 4 a8 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 15.a) . 5.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. a 4 + 11 a .2.2 x2 .\ yz + xz. 12. x3 f 3 ax'2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .7 + .a 4 . 8 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . = 2. r> .8 3 + 7 x4 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x 3 x' 14. 2 x 8. b(x (b 1. 15.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . a /> 3. if a 6 = = c = 3. 2. 25.259 x c) . 5. 5. 3.2.1. 21.2 z8 4 x. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 1. ~c)(b. 4 x 4 .7 ys. ' b) + 3. 29.8 + 2 // .  a) (c 2. 2 .3 a?y . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. a. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . f 8.5. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 18.2 x?/. . a. 2. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.3 xyz. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .7 y 2* 4. 26. 16.10.a8 .
. 4 3 5 y/ . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 542 x 2 and . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .c 3 a.(5 y .7. x8 x2 2 a'2x. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.] 26.[4 x 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 34. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .4 ft) 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. c 4ft. 5 10 + 7 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .{2 x 2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . . Take the sum of 3 x 4.8 3 4.3 .#48.(x* .c 4 3 a.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.4) . x'2 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 4 .260 19.6T . 36.c.2 a . 7 12 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 2 x2 23. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. of a..x 4.x 2 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 35.3 x . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .2 3 ax 2 . a  ft + c.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.4. : a x .2 .3 .3. 2 x 32. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].(5 c . = x y ft z.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. . 0" 30.(x 4.c.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 4 4 4. 3 ft. ft 25.5 .x .27~~7)}]. c =x y }~ z. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.?> x 4 20.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .{G * 2 .4 Vl 4.1).[4 z 8 .2 . From of 2 the 4. . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Take the sum 4x 4.(4 * . c 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. take the sum of G x 5 . . (*) a  c.1)}] . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.5. and . .6 x ] . Simplify 31.2 x 8y2 44 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 29.a ft. f ft. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 5 4 7 12 .2) . 4vTT~y 3.(a . sum of .(4 x 2 .x .x2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft.(7 x 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 33.
6 xy . 45.(7 a. . 2 2 x + !)(* . 2 ft 41.2 2 . .(2 .3).2 zz .& + {. 13 a .2c(V/ . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.0)} .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .96 [17 a.3 c)]. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 'J 44. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 54.[4 x  5 . .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. )(lz a ). 62.a~^~c)K].JT^T+1)} + (2 . 3 x 42. 51. 2 52. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a . a {.rf)} + a [.(5 y .(2 x2 .(7 i + 4 r:) . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).5 )}] + {4 c . . 49. 4 + 2 2 + 1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 43.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (1 ar+a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .{2 a (ft . + 4x + 5)(j.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).be) (a 58.{2 a .[2 . 63. 65. 46. 60.1).c).  2 a  {3 2x a . (.(4 d .ab .ac .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .2x + 3).3)(*5)(* 7). .2 2 + 1)(7.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (x . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 2 : 7e)a}].Z .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (4 + 3a 2 . + *+!){> + 2).b (c .r 2:c+ l)(ar.3 z 2 ). 2 f [3 c 7 a . (r (1 (a. . 56.12).6)}]. 64. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 48.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 50. (x. 59.(2 a 2 . a .2a .{3 c . 57.6c) (a + f c). (5 a 39. . (. .3c). 2 53. 67.c 2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .5)} + (3 a 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (1 55.(6 . 68. (/> 4 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.2)(1 .56. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).7).3 *).(2 a + 5 a .
O (a 4(a 4.b 4.y)\x y).2 (y 4. 82.(4 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 2 + a 2 ).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). xy y 2 ).(a 48 8 8 4.:y)( a.{3 a .c) 2 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. (.(/>  3 v)^(. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .3 (ft .z\x 4.c) .a) 2 .c) rr identities. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 2 (x 2 . 91.c)].<f(p .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 84. 92.c)} .y). ar .6*y . ft ft ft a}.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 74.3y) a (* 2 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 79.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 85. .c) 4) (ft 4.ft) 4 . 86. 88. ft 95.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(c 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 93.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .am&t 4 A 2 *).ft) + 4(2 .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 87.m np c . (p 2 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.2y)(. .5 .c . 75.c) j. b 4.n pc).y + z)(x + y . 77.z) . f 72.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). ft" l Simplify 80.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 1). (a (2 b)*(a 4.262 69.(ft 4.9y2).c . 70.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 89.v) 4. 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 4 4 . ft /. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 1). 76. 83.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 90. Prove the following 8 4.c) . 94. 71. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).3 a . 73.r 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).2 ft}) f (3 a . ft 78. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.2 (a .q). (x (x ( + *) .x + y + z).z)(x y + z)(.
r . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.y 4 ) . 1). 114.&). 117. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.5 xy). .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).40 />) .y 2 4. 109. (8 x* 115. 120. 99 100. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .r 4 4.16 a 6 4. a*.*) (x 8 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .y 4 .(2 a 2 .35 x 2 2 ) . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 108. (80 a 112.v/ ~ // = a: . 102.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.5 b*). [10( 4. 121.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 105. (. 113.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 123. 116.1). 2 4 41 x 4a. 25 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 110.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).27 x* .3 a"+ 4. 2 (a+ .b) 98.xy 4. .4 aft . 106. 26 (a 4 c).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 103. 122. (2< 107.2 xy 8 . 1O4.) .2y 2 4. 10).a". (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 118.(7 xi/ . (a 8  8 68 8 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 3*.(x 2 .6 y 4 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).2 2% 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".9 x 2 .(a 1 2 8 . 124.
with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 148.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .(1 .2(j: .4(0 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2) + 2(ar + 4). .4) . 129. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 127.a:)]}. 1) .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.r + 7[or .9) 4. 137.(j a? 144.5) = 12(4 x . 138. o o 140.4) .1) . 7(2 x . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .19) + 5 = 4 .264 125.18 *&) (1 . . .2 7^~5] + 1).3(* + 4) + 9} . 139. . . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2) = 3 . .3 x).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .9) + 3. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.n . 142. 5 146. y (* l x. (4 x .3) (3 x 4.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).12 M 132.3).3(2 z .2(10 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).22. 2 4(ar . 10(2 x 141. 3) = x\x . . x 147. 149. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.7) = 4 . 136.3 a:).3).G) .5{.8 6 . (5a: 150. (*+ + . 143.5).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2) (a: + 3). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(x + 3) ] .2(4 . 42(3ar 145. 5(2 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 3(2 x 134. 128.27 a 3" . 1) = 2(* .r>) .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2(5 .(x f 9).1) (a? .3) = 12 .7(4 * .(x . 135. 126.
7) (1 x . 2 4 .2) (j? + 1) + (x . If the area of the frame inches. + 10) (ar .24.7) (a.T)O . . = 2 C. will produce F.5 x) = 45 x .8) = (2 x 4.4) (a .? . (7 14 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .17) 2 + (4 x . (x (x a.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 155. . 166.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.3) (a: . . The second contains 3 first. (3 O + . and the third twice as many as the first. transformed into F.25) 2 .l)(z .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.29) 2 = 1.3) = (3 x . find the value of F. 160.6 x) (3 . 165. 153.14) (a: + 3). The sum What 171. 162.19) + 42.2 x) = (1 . How many 170. + 4) (2 x + 5). 157.3) (3 .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.76. (a) If C. 5(ar x .. 163. + 5) = (9 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (j. these two angles would be equal. =  (F 32). (a.a:) + 229. + 2) + (5 .5*) + 47. sheep more than the 169. 161. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. = 15. .5)(. (a . a: ar a. 154.r + 3) . 265 152.1) (s + 3).3) (3 . 158.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 156. 159.2) a + 7(x .2). sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. f^ + ^sO. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.9) + (a.2) (7 *) + (*. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2 x) (4 . (2 .z) (4 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 164.(5 x . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.5(x . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. .5) = (3 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.
190. . ll?/102. 176. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each.56. . number divided by 3.36. dimension 182. sister . 188. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 180. 12 m. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A house has 3 rows of windows. + 11 ~ 6. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. + a. 3 gives the 174. if each increased 2 feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. younger than his Find the age of the father. 13 a + 3. 2 2 + a _ no. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 10x 2 192. +x 2. 186.266 173. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. Find the dimensions of the floor. A boy is father. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 15 m. and 5 h. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. z 2 92. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 178. 7/ 191. z 2 + x . was three times that of the younger. How many are there in each window ? . . 181. x* 185. power one of the two Find the power of each. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. respectively. 179. side were one foot longer. aW + llab2&. 4 a 2 yy 42. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 189. two boys is twice that of the younger. A each 177. train. Find the number. 187. father.
6 aq . 232. z 2 2.19 a . a+a* + o a +l.10.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 210. 24 2 + 2 . 2 a 8 . 212. a^a 226. ifWy+b. a. 246. 218. a. y 2 194. a. 3 ap 2 . 4a 2& 2 241. a a: a: 237.c) 2  (a . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 12 x +4.6 y2 + 4. 3 x 2 . . 244. . 235.10 xy.r?/f y 2 9.6s. .c) 2 .3 xy. . 207. + 198. a: 236. 2 x 2 . 230. a: . 213. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 222. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.3 xf + 3 * 2y .3 c/> + 6 cq. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 201.19 z 4 204. # 2  29 y + 120. 8 a: ar. x* + 8 2 + 15.(b + rf) 2 . 3y 248. 2 2 y f 1.6.x + 1. . 229. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 2  5 xy 13 y a. wiy + la mx + aw. 7a 228. a 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 3a 196. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 267 199. 4 m +^. 202.64. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3y 2 + ary . 215. a: 231.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 7x 2 225. + 30 x. 23 12. 245. x*y 223.28.20 z 8 a: 220. x 5 . 16x 4 81. 227. 2 .10 y a x* . 216. 5 x 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. + 2 . 239. 2 200.1.6 2 ?/ . + 8.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.12 * . *2 234. 6 197.77 y + 150. z + 5x 2 .22 z + 48. 2 a 2 . 217. 211. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .14 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.21 a:  54.8 6 2.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . (a + . 203. 206. . . a. 221. xm+l 243. 238. 195. 224. 8 a. 208. 2a te 3% ly 247. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 233. 3 x V . 209. x 219.
258. 3 #2 255.ry .4 ab + 1. x 2 f 9j: + 20.23 x f 20. z 2 267.3 x .2 aft*.10. x*y* 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . x 2 4.C.r . . 254.3 abc . 3 ay 4. 252.6 by.5 ab f 2. 5 x 2 256.18 xy + 5. * 2 .15 + 30.2/ 2 . 259. Reduce to lowest terms 271. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 30 ^ . 8 2 + 10 x . 257. 3 a% 2 .11 x f 28. I Find the II. of: 253.14 bx a%% 8 .M. a: . 265. + 23 x f 20.16 x . 6. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.13. + 8 x + 5. a 4.80. F.11 a 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.4.9. x 2 + 4 + 3. z 2 268.36. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 + 7 r f 2. 251.23 + 12.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 270.3. x 2 + 5 f . 2 a. ft a. + 20 x 4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . a. 261.7 f 5. of: 266. + 3 x + 2. * a .9 x + 14.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 2 x2 . 18 x 2 .1 9 . 2 8 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .8.G7 x f 33. 28 2 f 71 x . 7 12 2 2 . x* . * 2 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. a 3 a 2 2 .a + 2 4. x 2 + 2 x . 264.(55.x . 7 ax 250.48 afy 2 . x 2 263. 15 # 2 z/ /. x* . 10 x 2 . a? a: a: // 262. 22x2 a. x 2 . C. 1 x ar Find the L.10 a 4. * 2 .&z.ry 21.a 2 />c 2 f 3. + 8.12. 269.73 xy .2 z .15. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.9 x .91. 2 .120. 260. 10 a.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .
REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2c a: 282.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.rL. m 4. *2 " 2 + Oge. 8 . 285 z4 n* + a. 289 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .!/.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.J' 4 2 2 w mp .2* + 3 x* 280. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . z2 (a 2 + c)a.(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .ar 1 279... + ac .
x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. Lnl + ar 2 a. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x 7. 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^_2*(m 308. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. * 19 23 19(23 23. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. a (: a) (x 2.
i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. } . 1a: + y a. (1 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . (a? 4 2) 317. 1 _.ft) 2 322. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. a: 1 313. _ x8 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 x2 + + a.(a . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. . .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 2 + y 2 319.._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.
. * 3a.9 *// + 27 .7 xy + 12 x . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .ll...15 33 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .V  + y  x 3y a .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. a: 2 x* .6* t 328.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 20 44 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 lOx 5x. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .
13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. f V. ** i. (ar \ 346. 1 345.. 5 343. a: 349 _ o. if a = 3. +^ a: y x .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (af2/. ' 2 "l 5 .y. 344. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. w \. ( 342. 352.r 5 2 . 7 ( ?f!?. + l + IV. \5yl 341. (a \ + lV.+ r . : 1+ i. 348. xi 347. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.) 2 . a>74 . ?_2 ^ . (aWi + iJ. 338. + ni + . fl. \x yj 340.1V. aj 339.
274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. a2 4 . ar xy + yl x* 358. + x x a . 1+2 362. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360.
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . . b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 5 {2 x 381. + 1) 45 O 377. 8  376. 5*8. . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 4(* . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . __4 2x 3_ = !. 379. . <3 378. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.*2 = 15. ^ .
147. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.75 x f . 3* 177.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.2 a:  1. a. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. 400. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. b 404. m x 398. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).6  . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. ^ (a . 396.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. f 1 1 + a 403. + 4 a. 399.  J)... . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.5 ^ ~ a: a. _____ .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 397.  8 9* x ~r.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. u '2 a. 401.8 = .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 40. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.25. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). .1 . c .25 x + . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 x =r f .
and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. Tn 6 hours . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 411. far did he walk all together ? A .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) . the order of the digits will be inverted. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 421. 18 be subtracted from the number. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x . Find the number. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. and was out 5 hours. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. How long is each road ? 423. hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.c) .  a) 2 6 2a. 420.278 410. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. In a if and 422.
. 438. 431. 428. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . find : a : c.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . x 427.& 5 ) (a 8 . 435. If a b : =5 n : 7. a.a 2^ 8 + aft* . a + 5. 432. Solve 436. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.49 63). ax is \ by  ex + dy.iand 22 22 I a . z 2 y. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .46 2): (15a 2 . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Which ratio is greater. if .6 8 ). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Find the length of the parts. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. y. .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. d. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Find the fourth proportional 426. wi* + y= ny. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 433. 2 2 8 2 . 430. a  t>. 3 and 1J. and : b : c = 14 : 15. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Find the mean proportional to 429. : If is one equal 434. find the angles of the triangle. b. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. : i. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). .
4 12 . 9ar7# = 71. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 9/> = 2 . 42 = 15y + 137. 453. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 3 a.rf2# = l.35. 456. 8 . 459.*. 56 + 10y = 7a. if 2 ft : 439. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 455. 444. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. /) ar a.. . Solve the following systems: 441. 446. = 25. x + 17 # 53. 7jr9y = 17. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 7 442. 7 a: . 458.59 = 3 z. ft. . 5 2 = 7 . 28 = 5 a . 3 . a: 2y= = 1 . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).11 7. 15ar = 20 + 8y. a: a: + 5y). c. The volumes If their diameters.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 445. 1(3  a. .7 y = 25. 451. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . a. 449. 7a?y = 3. + 5y = 59. .11 y = 95. />(. 454. 452. 5x+4y=lQ. ?/ 447. Find the value of a. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 16. 5z4:# = 3. 450.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. .89 = q. 443. 457. 4 = 5 y + 29. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. ft. 8 x + y = 19. 448.(or l(*2y)=0.55 y = .
8 461. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ^ + i^ = 7. + eyn.  = 2. x y 474. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax by = c \ 472..+ =2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.?/ + 1 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.2y) (2 = 2J. i = 5. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.c=563y.7. 475. 473. (or . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax cx by = m. _ 469. 465.
had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A spends \ of his. 479. and the other number least. Find the fraction. to . 483. Find their ages. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the numbers. 487. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . years. Find the number. 477. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 18 months to $2180. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. A number consists of two digits 4. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. the Find their ages. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. whose difference is 4. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 486. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. . and in 20 months to $275. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the numbers. Find the sum and the rate of interest. Find the principal and the rate of interest. fraction becomes equal to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. age. 485. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. How much money less 484. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. by 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. least The sum of three numbers is is 21.
489. 2a:f 7. 4 497. 1+1 = 6. x y f z = 13. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 490.z = 12. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 7 + 2 z . a: f z = 79./ 504. . + y 5 y = 101 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 e. = 209. 7. z y ifi = z x 502. ~ 507. 2 2 = 41. 498.5#+2z = $x a: G. 493. 4 506.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 494. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 15. y Solve : x +z= 5. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. z y x 25 . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.z = 20. 5^ 9z = 10. a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 492. * + 425  = . 496. . The sum of two numbers squares is b. a number . x s + y z = 18J . . + # +z= 35. x f y f z 29 . . 8. 5 + a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. a: 499. a: + // = 11. ifi = x a. 3 a: + 5=84. *i. 2/>3r = 4. = 20. 2y + 3a = ll. : Solve the following systems 491. \ . 2 a. 495. 1. a. . 3ar 503.? + 2y = 8. of two the sum of the digits also if number./ f z =a. 4z+3z = 20. 3 x 500.
!f == 2800. 517. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. 523. + : = 1472. 36 + c. ll" .284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. z z =3a&c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Tf and run together. If they had walked toward each other. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. BC = 5. and CA=7. 90. L. if the number be increased by Find the number. E 533. How long will B and C take to do . Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. in 28 minutes. What are their rates of travel? . N. it separately ? 531. CD. it is filled in 35 minutes. and BE. When weighed in water. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. AB=6. AC in /). and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. M. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 530. the first and second digits will change places. Find the numbers. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. 527. touches and F respectively. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. if and L. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. In circle A ABC. they would have met in 2 hours. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. 532. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago.
Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. b. 550. formation of dollars into marks. x *x + x + 1. a. from x = 2 to x = 4. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 540. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2 541. x*. x 2 + x. 2. z 2  x x  5. 2  x  x2 . x*  2 x. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 547.e. GERMANY.  3 x. the function. 536.  3 x. The values of y. i. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The greatest value of the function. d. to do the work? pendulum. 546. then / = 3 and write = 3. . If to feet is the length of a seconds. x 8 549. 545.  7. c.10 marks. if x = f 1. FRANCE. The values of x if y = 2. . 543. One dollar equals 4. e. 2. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 542. + 3. 2 x + 5. 548. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. x 2 544. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 3 x 539.
4 = 0. f.1 = 0.3 x .r a: a: x a. = 5. x 5 . 3 .7 = .r . . // Solve y Solve y = 5.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . a? 4 x . Solve// = 0.6 + 3 . h. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2. 555. and make the unit of the b. 563.r 1 561. 2 8 . 566. 572. .3 . i. j. 15.11 = 0. 2 a. 568. g.3 x .= 0.0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 2 x 2 560. 564.17 = 0. 18 x  4 = 0. r?. a: 559.5 x . 3 + 3 z . If y +5 10.9 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. c.3 = 0. 557. 2 567. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. z 4 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . + 5 .4 . a.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. c.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x* . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. a. Solve 552. if y =m has three real roots. \ to t = 5.  2 1 a: a. ' = 8. Represent meters. z 2 .4 x 2 + 4 . 565. 562. a. 3 x . + 10 x . 558. . 2 554.= 0. e.15 = 0.13 = 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. x 4 . 556.G . 3 x* . J. 553.
(a  8 ft) . 1 . 589. 2  2 aa: 2 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 604. f ?>) 3 591. x + z2) 8 . (1 + x a. 596.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 585 594. + . : y* or 25. 588. 608.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 6 + 1) . a 2a. 3 .4. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . a: . 597. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 64 a 12 603. jj+. j^f = 3.2 2 + y. (1 (1 (1 .%) 4 (aa. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 4 . + ^) + (air%)8. [ y =10.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 600. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .frf : 583.(1 . 579. 598. a 612.5 xy = 0. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 5 a*. 609. 4 (1a:) 3. .x + 2 )'2 601. a:.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. (a.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. a. 593.2 6a: + 30 &c a.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. (aiy. 592. 2 611. . (# 2) . 3 (f. 9  4 fSb 607. a 8 606. <r)3  2 3 a:) . xY. 4 a. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 595. 582.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 599. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. + + 4 . x [ ?/ 577. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .
V250 . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 620. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. V950484 . 44352.\/4090. 624. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 942841. 639. 3a.1024 x + a: 256. 25023844. 650. 630. 32 631. = 70. 638. + 112 a 8 . 636. 4J. 622. 634.871844.191209. 647t x 2 648 649. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 54 'x*y* . According to Kepler's law. 9a. x 2 . ft . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .*. 625 : 621. 49. 9g. 651. + 24 a 2 4 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. a 642. 0090.12 a?y + y*. 643. Find the eighth root 617. x 2 641. 632. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 2 + 21Ga.49. VOIOOD + V582T09. 628. 615. V 635. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.30. 40. 623. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 7) 2. 614.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . = 87. 494210400001.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. = 0. 2. 645.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 035.150. 210. Find the square root of 619. 626. find Jupiter's period. 371240. 644. (x 9 x 646. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 629. 4370404.15174441. : 5. + 2 21 x = 100.2. 49042009. /. 21. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 2 + 189 z = 900. GGff. *+* = 156. 633. 637.2410. = . 8*' + 24* = 32.53 x ~ .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
c = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 706. 2 2 . 708.bx . a. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 695. 693. 699. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 702.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ax 2 698. 707. = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 692. 2 2 697.a a )jr . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . . 696. 694. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. ex abc= fx 0.ax . .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.
paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. and working together they can build it in 18 days. sum is a and whose product equals J. 722. 12 4*+  8. 724.44#2 + 121 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. **13a: 2 710. .40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 729. Find two numbers whose 719. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 721. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 723. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 725. 727. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. a: 713. Find the price of an apple. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. A equals CO feet. 717. 217 . 716. How shares did he buy ? if 726.292 709. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.25 might have bought five more for the same money. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 3or i 16 . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. in value. 16 x* .
1 + c. 1 6. 31. 36. 41.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 40. 34. 33. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 32.X . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (v/x).2? 50.aft* 1 + a 2*. 43. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).l).1 + x. 46. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f ^ 2). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 35. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 42. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2 ). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 52. . 39.)(ai + &. 38.1 f c" ).2)(x2 4. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. n. . 37. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.. 2V2 2V3 .294 753. 757.1+J 756. [1r^ T 1 i . JU. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 754. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 761. ~ r* x . 758._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 768. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 759.
14 791.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 103 788. 7512V21. a 9442V5. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 793. c 792.VlO. 3812VIO.4 V(j. 786. 790. 3J . 806. 10 785. 13 799.12VIT. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 16 + 2V55. 783. 794. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . . 787. 789. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.2V3* ^ 807. . Va 809. x 782. 92VI5.2 V30. + 2V21. .
+ 103Var. = 1. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .Vc^lJ . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 836.f 5 = V5x + 4. 819. 816.\/2y  810. Va: . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. VaT+lJ f ^l .g.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.  5 + V3 f 12 817. /9ar a: = 17.13 = 0. 818.79.V2 ar 10. 820. + ViTli + V7 . \/12 a. 833. 3 x + 2 . 829. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. + Vx . 815. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.4 = 0.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a. V14 a. x/aT+l .V? = 813. 812. 814. 830. 811. 831.
x 4 + f 2 a. a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 845. a*" & 6n . 851. +3 4 +  4. 8^27^. a: . . x 8 2 857. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 2 x 3. 729 867. a l0m . 4 x* 847. 8 2a. + . 6.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a. 6 2 f 3 6 s.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 853. 865.ab9 ft*. 864. a: 849. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. f 12. 840.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 9. 2 f" + a/ 15. 4o.3 Va: 2 . 855. f b**. + 512 y8 874.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 27 862. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8 860. z*y 8 l64a.1000 6. a 8 850. a 18 4. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 16 859.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876.a. 875. V4 x 2 .3 a:. 8 . 5 a 4 7 a8 .3 x . 852. . . . 846. 870. 8 + a: 5 8 a. + 1. 844. y 4. a. 275 8 l. 19 x 14. 871. 64 a 866. a 8 869. 8 8 848. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.x*y + 3x f 2. a. f 841. 64. 4 a: 2 842. 8 a. .  3x a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4 x 8 858. 863. 868. 8 8  13 a. 27 y 8. 4 a. 856. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 861.1.3 . a 872. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 2 a: 64 y*.12. 8 4a: 8 a. a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a.10 = 118. 839. a 8 873.
900. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. x 882. 2 + xy = 28. y y 2 y 2 1121. . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. . . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 886. y 2 4. 883. 2 + 2 f = 17. 1 x 893. y 2 2 8f. 894. 878. y = 28. a:y . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a. 885. 889. 2 2 = 16 y. .298 877. a: 884. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. a. a: + y 2 = 34. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x 8 3 = 13:3. f ?/ a: a: . . z 2 898. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.y 2 + V(j. 890.y 2 = 2 y + 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. M1 891 1 .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + y 2 . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 896. +y f y = 7.Vi' + 1 1_3.15. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 899.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 = 2 + 5.y 2) = 20. x*xy. + 2y=\2.35.sy = 198. a: a. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. y*+ xy . 895. 5.18. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 901. a. a: 2 897. . xy + y = 32. a# f + xy = 126. 887. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 . 2 . 3 x 2 . 2 + xy = 10. a: 888.1 = 2 a#. x a: lI = xz . + ary + 2 = 37.xy + y 2 = 19.
*y .y) (3 y . . 2 924. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x f 2 a:y = 32. 908. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.3(* + y) = 6.y) (a? . or or a? a: a: . * + y = 444. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y . xa 903. 923. + y 8 = 189. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. y x 2 = by. (a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. (3 x .x) = 21. + a. a: y zx 12. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.y). xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. x 4 299 xy z 904. 914. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 5 xy = 11. = 8. + ?/) .16 y 3 8 = . 909. 4 (a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 7 y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.3)2 = 34. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y) = 33.23 = 200. xy + x= 15.6. a. ^ 2 . 3 y 8 ) =1216. 906. + 2 ary = 39. 2 915. y + a:y = 180. 912. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. # + xy + y = 7. y 3 2 2 922.#y + 2 = 27. x 2 ry + y = 3. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 2 2 2 916. (* 918. 2 913.3) 2 f (y .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .2 y) = 49 2 919. . 920. Vary + y = 6. 23 x 2 . ary y = 8. a: a.y = a(ar + y). 921. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. (!) * . a:y xy 929. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. + 2 a:y + = 243. + y)(a. (o. . 911. x + y 2 = aar. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 * 2 ~ g.r a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. + y = 9. 917. + ary = a*. a: * a: a: ar 928.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 910. yz = 24. 3 :r(3 . 907. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 905.y2 = 22.
is 20. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 935. and 10 feet broader. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 944. two numbers Find the numbers. . 152. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. two squares equals 140 feet. 34 939. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. How many rows are there? 941. and also contains 300 square feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. *(* + #) =24. Tf there had been 20 less rows. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. In the second heat A . y(x + y + 2) = 133. Find the sides of the rectangle. 942. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. + z)=18. feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. find the radii of the two circles. 931. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.102. is 3. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. two squares is 23 feet.000 trees. is 3 . y( 934. diagonal 940. rate each man ran in the first heat. Assuming = y. + z) =108. and the difference of 936. Find the numbers. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares.300 930. A is 938. s(y 932. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 943. 937. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 2240. a second rec8 feet shorter. (y + *) = . A and B run a race round a twomile course. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. feet.square inches. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933.
The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. whose 946. Find in what time both will do it. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 950. and its perim 948. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. P and Q. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. triangle is 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. 952. unaltered. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. each block. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. the digits are reversed. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. . Find the number. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. and that B. 951. A and B. sum Find an edge of 954. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. that B A 955. . . distance between P and Q. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find the number. is 407 cubic feet. and travels in the same direction as A. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the eter 947. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. its area will be increased 100 square feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. overtook miles. 949. Find its length and breadth. set out from two places. and if 594 be added to the number. Two starts travelers. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. 953. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet.
. 969. .141414. to n terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 964. Evaluate (a) . Find the sum of 4.. 4 4 to 7 terms . How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. to infinity. 3 .>/) to infinity. Find n f (ft) . 12434+ j I 967. 974.v 973. (x 4 to n terms.454.1 4 f j$V . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. Find an A.. !Ll^ + n . ^1 + Vj 1 2  . ^ Vfirst five 959..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. . the terms being in A.302 956. (to 2 n terms).to infinity. 966. 961.321? 965. '.  2. \ . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 975. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 972. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 958. 1G series . Sum to 20 terms. to 7 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. P. x(x to 8 terms. and 976. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.3151515. P. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 970. 5. = 4. 1 to n terms..4142 . 4. f + 1 ....V2 .. difference. Find n.. . 957... are 29 and 53. 16 962. 5... Sum Sum to infinity. s  88. J. 971.. 18th terms of an A. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. n to n terms.. ^ 1 . *" 968. 3 + 5 7 + .. Sura to 24 terms. 36 963. Find the Find the common 977. fourth of the unity. + (iiven a +  4 d . P. P..
Find four perfect numbers. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.001 4.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .04 + . Find n.. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.+ lY L V.. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. named Sheran. "(. 5 11. 980. Find four numbers in A. and of the second and third 03.. 986.1 + 2. 985. Find the sum of the series 988. first 984. 992.01 3. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. is 225. and so on.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 2 grains on the 2d. : + 9   V2 + . 1. 987. The sum 982. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.001 + . . P. 4 grains on the 3d. 0. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 303 979. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 990... and the common difference. The term.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . P. of n terms of an A. 989. Find the first term. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .) the last term the series a perfect number. The 21st term of an A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.2 . to 105? 981. to n terms. to infinity may be 8? . to oo.
and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. and G. prove that they cannot be in A. 999. P. 997. are unequal. is 4. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. Two travelers start on the same road. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The fifth term of a G. inches. 1001. c. 1003. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. ft. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. in this square a circle. The sum and sum . areas of all triangles. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. P. many days will the latter overtake the former? . If a. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. find the series. are 28 and find the numbers. P. 998. in this circle a square. AB = 1004. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . at the same time. 995. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 1000. (6) the sum of the infinity. (a) after 5 strokes. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. ABC A A n same sides. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Under the conditions of the preceding example. . 994. 512 996. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to infinity. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. of squares of four numbers in G.
1006. Find the middle term of 1020. (12 #) 7 .ft) 19 .o/) 14 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1012. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Expand  2 a.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the middle term of ( . . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. (1 1018. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. . ) 1021. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. x) 18 .l) w f . 1011. 1009. a: 8 7. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1008. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1014.iV 2i/ 5 . 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of 1013. + lQ .
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49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. 123 . 232 169 807 . . simple simultaneous ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. ... lowest ratio " '* . . .. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average ... . Checks Coefficient 20.130 .. 9. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 246 91 " multiple... 37..108 160 " . . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. . ... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. . .. .. .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ..193 11 .. . Aggregation.. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . numerical .. 19.. 158. 129. . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. graphic tion of representa .178 Completing the square . . quadratic .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . . signs of Algebraic expression . .. 129 54. 97. . . 9 ** .. . t 53 120 ... ... linear literal Common ** * difference . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. ... ... 8 . . .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. .] Abscissa Absolute term .. 112 54 54 251 .. 54. 232 mean progression . .
.154 Order of operations " of surds . .C Multiplication . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.... . Imaginary numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . Insertion of parentheses ... 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . . 9... .. . Known numbers . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. . 120 Member. 243 7 . . 205 . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . Negative exponents 11 .. numbers . 91 . .808 Exponent Exponents. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . . 143. Inconsistent equations . 84.. . 17 65. 63. 45 Laws of signs . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 195 33. . 23 10 91 102. . . .. arithmetic . . . . 189. law of Extraneous roots . . 114. 227 . . 212 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 109 102 . 112 . . 45. G. P . 253 28 70 1. . inversely 122 numbers . directly. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 184 54. exponent . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 227 geometric . Mathematical induction . 180. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . Geometric progression . first and second . L.31.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 241 123 geometric .. . 34.. Product '* 76 Infinite. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. addition of " square of . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 45.. INDEX 8 ..108 Minuend . Like terms Linear equation . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.251 Graphic solution of simultane. .
... .... 4 155 9 " of . . . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . binomial Third proportional Transposition ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. algebraic Surds ...... . 129.. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... .. . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. polynomial .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 9. absolute 54 Variable . 45 Trinomial 240 .... .. .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. Sum..
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Reprinted April. 8. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. 1910. 1916. 1910. December. Mass.A.COPYRIGHT. Published September. Gushing Co. Set up and electrotypcd.S. 1913. 1917. Berwick <fe Smith Co. NorfoooS J.. U. Norwood.
5. 150. 8. 2 5.000. 14. 25. 17. 8 13. 18. 73. 7. 13. 4. 210. 2.  1. 27.  2 p. Page 13. 16. arithmetic. 15. loss. 6* 16. 29. 12. 13. 10. 24. 21. 6. 1. 2. 37. 19. 11. x. 22. V 23. 25. 2. 5. Not 5. 1. 16.150. 15.1. 30?.. 32. 7. 19 4. 8. 1. 10. 3 below 0. 25. C $60. 6. 16. 1. 32. . 11. $160. 25. 576. 28. 192. in 12.8. 3. 5000. . 3* 7. Ot 15. T . 7. 17. 14.000 Indians. 2. 2 ~ 15. 29. 49. . 16 in. 5. 10. Page Page Ilis expenditures. $40. in. 9. 11. 7m. 20. 8. 16 in. 1. 3. 3. 3. _ 32. 11. 8. 18.12. 4. 2. 8. 5. 7. 6. 10. 3. 19. 7.. 1. 9. x. 20.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 9. 16. 37 S. 59. 2. 89. 22. 32.000. 6. 1. 4. 1. A 15. 1 16. 4. 32. C $ 16. sign. 12. 13. b. 17. 2. 3.000 negroes. 9 14. i . 18.  1. 8. 0. 10g. 6. 12.. 6 yd. South America 46. 2. 6.000. = 5 81. 14. 24. 4. 1. 24. 3.. 0. 27.$9400. 1. 1. 10. c. Page?.000. 7. 1. ..000. 85. 20 jo. Page 8. 13.3. 4. C $1(50.00000001. 72 = = 216..000. 1. 12. per sec. sign. 9. 3. 12. 20 B. 12. 17. westerly motion. 6. 18. 21.000. 6. 16. Page 1. A 38 mi. in. (a) (/>) 1. 10. 1. 9. 12. 2. + 1. 2  Page 8. 9 16  larger than 7. 5. B 10 mi. 13 S. 128. 512. is $10. 21. 2. 9. 13 V. 106. 11. 20. 8. A $90. 7.000. 64. 3. 15. 14. 26. 14.  13. 14. 9. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.. 9.2. 17. 16. 27. . $100. 9. 20 \. B $ 128. 2. 14. 3. 14 11. 3. 2. 48 ft. A Bl 7. 18. 16f 2. 126.  22 20. 36. 8 ft. 15. 16. B $20. 23. 4. 16. Australia ft. 12. 15. 28. 3. $ 1 50 10. 6. 3. 115. 12. 3. }. 12. 13 d. 16. ^. 10. 2. 10. 6. 5. B $80. 9 m.C.. 20. 30. 9 = 4. Yes. 6. 7.21 24. 6. 3. 2. 5. 1. 19. A . 13. B $4700. 49. 14. 3. 18. 144. Multiplication. 5. ft.. 7. 3 m. 26z. 3. 256. Page 4.
33. 13.94(>. #1111. 12. (ft) 7. 23. I. 15. 27. 27. 21 a 3 4 10. 13. 4. . 13. 1. 8. 9.. (c) S(i. arty 1 20. x^ 20. 9. 27. $3000 Page 6. 1. Monomial. (a) 50. 314 sq. 16. 7. in. 21. WIN + wiw. //'. 6. 1. 3rf 27. 14. 27. 7. in. a2 4 15^44. 16. 35. 17. (c) 8.000 . 20. 12. . 17. ^). 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.'J. 0. 33. . ft.~4. Page 31. 104. 8. 21. 30. in. 12 a. 10. (a) <> sq.3 * 10 r5 <3 . m 24. 11. :. Trino inial. II. 37. 8. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. r+l. 14. 1. 0. 58. 3.  40... 35. 1. in. 2.. 3. 21^. + 5. 32. 31.ft. Binomial. 3. Page 21. 15a.rty8. <i~ 26. 8. 6<t. 9. (b) 135 mi. 22( 19. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 0. 5.  0. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . yyz+xyz*. i:5. 19. y. 12. 12.. 42. _ 4 . 11. + ft). 4. (a) 200. \'\ 4. 29. 25. 5..x. 32. o^ft. (ft) Page 2. 21. rt. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 0. 2ftx.9?/2 8. 2. a ft c.. r:A 29. 3. 8. 1. . 25. sq.32 c2 > ft 3 .900. Pagel4r. 18. 18. 8. 4 y/ . 5. (r) 2.. 17.  12. 22. 31. 0. 3. 240. Polynomial. .<>Gq..4  2ft 2 33. 5. vi 14. ft. 10. c. 13. 5. 20. 34.. 16.14 sq. 43w//2 17. 3a. 3.6) 38. ft. 16. 17.000 sq.ab.GOG. ??i??. 1. 4. 7. 20. 27. 237. 15. 14.  11. 3 a* + 2 at*. 14. 2. ft f 19. 22. :J!>r'. f  5e 35. 41.. 18. 36. 1. 23. 39. 25. 6. 3. 5. 14. 5. 18. 19. Polynomial. 38. . 15. 9. 15. Page 23. 28.r~ f 34.q 4. 15. 2.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 0. 29. 2.r f 15. jrif 4 9. m + 3(a. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). a 32. 4. Page 18. 35. (a 4 4. 11. = ()501.4 ft. 13. 4 9/^/rl 2. 24. 0. 27. 30. 92. (<7) (a) 314 sq.  3. 7. 13 cu. 15. 14. 26. 2oVmf?i. 19. r/ \(\xyz. ft. 2x' 2 5 . 49. 16. 36. (ft) mi. 04. 5. (r) 2000 m. 14. (59. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 7 7. mi. ft n. 0. 3.5f> sq.ii ANSWERS Page 11. ft' 3 . 00 24 04 ft. 4. 7. 18. ft. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 31. 3.ft) 4. 173. 8. 38 ab. (r) 2G7. 34. (ft) 12. 24. = 81. 4. 5x+3. + v> 2 . 32 2 ftc.'JO ft. 1. 12yd. 12.  xV 3 y. 13. 12. 3 . 50. It. w. 9.a . 0.. 28.r 2 . (a) r>23ifcu. 30. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.5 (ft) sq. 6. $80. 8. 11. (r) 78. 28. . 22. 3(c4a). . (a} 100 1(5 cm. 57. . 26.1. +/2(/. ^. t. 51 f. 2. 20(. 10. Page 7. (ft) $40. 22.. 17. ]*. 14:).  1.
?>4tl 53. 2 4. 7  # + 12.3x 2 2 tf. 16.  17. 32. 42.a*. 0. lOrt 15w4. 21. _ Page 30. mn. . a' 4ab + ?/. n*. ft Exercise 17. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. a2 9. a). 5. . 2. m*  n*. 4. 21. 4. 10. . 12. 20. 10. Page 8. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 14. .r.1 . Page 7. 11. (5x47 3. a a. 4. 26. 4 21. 3. 20. j)(g1. 43. 30. 16. 4ft ~.h.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. a + (ftc4df).4c 3 8 8 J. 3 a . a 6 2 .a~. 59. a. 17.2 . f 2 ?/  2. G a bd. 19. 5. 10. + 2y. 18. 13. s_r>a5.2 ft 2 r2 10. 19. + a 2 f 2 a 4.  G J8 r  4 a <?.Oa: + 10. 2 . . 10 x.4 d. + 4 c. 22.4x. w* ( . 18. 2m + 2w. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 3 m.11. 2. 14. 2a. 7. a  49.  b* 4 r 1 . a f 2 f 2 9. 24. 6. 56. 55. 22. (yz~d}.6 x + 0) 16.2. ti. 2. 5x 2 rt ft. 5 2 Page 29. 8. a 3& . 1 4.2 57. x3 .(2 x2 . f ft 9. 40. 25. 18. 15. 15. a 52. 4. \ :{ 2 a 48. 50. 24. + 6. _5a<>&43c. 20. 1.1. . Page 44.2 a. 4r 2 . 51. a 3a 4 2 &.2 a2 2m 2 4. 25. 7  a + 2 + c. 10 m.  12. (mn} 11. 25. Page 28. 2x 4 a 13. c. 1.5.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.(7x2 Ox2). .3 6. . 3 Ji 8 .  23. 2 3. 2 2.x f 1 2 . 11.7. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 814. ar. 8 8 . 13. 5. 2. ri\ 18. 2 17.a f 54. 7 a5 1 . 3. 14. ?/. 2m. !  </ .5 z?/ + 3 y . ?> 22. ' 12 m?/'2 27. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.c. 2 y' 4 . 36.l. 14. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.  1.r 2. '  . 34. 2 a 37. 6. 8 + 2 a . 37. 32 w 2 w. 35. a + a. 2 + a4l). :5 41. G. 2. 24 b 46. 7. ^ <. 31.  14 afy . ( 7. 2.  4 b 17 y*. 1. 5. a2 24. 29. 24. 9. .aft. 25 47. 4. 3. 8. a 10w. 2. ii\ 22. 1. a 4 + ft. 2 2 2 6. 19. x  + 3z. 12. 8. M + 10. (2n' 43p 47 ). 6. 8 b. 58. 15.8(c + a). + 8. 31.'U4j>. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .abc. 8 .  b. 2. ?/i 13. . 12. x a8 1. 2a: 2 4x. 7. 2 3x f z. 1. 36.4. 4. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. .. 2// 16. &.. . 2 a f 6 414. 0. c2 .ws 2 ft) . 11. 17. 0. 3 a3 & 41.  a: 2. 33. 364c. Exercise 16. 2. 12. 7. a 3 . 26. . (w4w)(ww). 1 + 45. c. 38. 2. ab a. 6. 2 6. 21. 2 . 34 39. 1.a .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). r.a'2 . . a4 4 4. 28.5 4 2 3 ?/ . + c 4 d x + 6 e. . t). 4wipg>' 27. 26. . w 17. a  ISjfat.
Ox a 5 . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 9. 4. . 29. 161b. 17. + O4 66 . 21.12. 5. 9. 22. Page 38. 23. . 360. 20. +15. .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 18> ^* = a .6) =a2 31. 28. 21. 24.28 p'^/. 18. 216. 8.11 xyz . 18. ?> 4 . 84. 28. a + ft.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 1. 32. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 11. 15.. + 7. 17. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 38wiw. . 108.21 a 3 c2 21. . 32. 343. 6.14 w 2 2 . 6". 8. 2*8f x2 6x4. 10. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 27. (+3)x6=+16. 8. 21. 19. 36.14 . 18a% y. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 16. 33. 14. 24. f 26. 216. 9 13. 5aft(a 126 2). 127"'.. 42. 13.19 + 2. 34. ft 17.19p" + 19^ 10 . 3 a 3 . 20. 2. 23.36 35. 25. 11. 1400. 7. 11.44 aWc 16 abxy. 7G .8 12. 24. Page 3. 20.16 a 2 + 32 a . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4 fc. 31.6 2 . a. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 30. 60. 0. 10. 4 a2 . a: . 12. 3300.18 w w + 10 WI M . 7. 1. 16 lb. 12 x2 2 . . 4aWy. Page 35.:>/ . 22. a. a 8 .12. 18. 33. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 4.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 10. 770. 210. 2''. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 16. 15. 27. 14. 24. 40 r 2 . ci 5 . 60.25 + 14. 13. + 58 .7(50. 1. Page 7. 120. 19. 14 m 2 . 14. 15 lb. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 29. 23. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 28. 14. . 4.20 xyz . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 5. 7. 13. ^^ = 20.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 17. m. 2 a2 (y 2 . 20 aW. 3 a 2 46. 24. 27. 30. 30. 2. +.r + 7 1S + 2 mp.64 190 p6. 17.15.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 19. 29. 2 ). 6. 108. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . . . 2 w +2 2 . a*b*c.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.1. 20. 161b. 19. Page 36.2. . 52 + 6s 12.26. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . s 9 ww. 28. 22. x2 xy42^. 14f 5. 15. Page 5. 26. 42. 15. 34. 25 4 4. 30.r% 2 2 ry. etc. 30 n?b*c*. 2 2 2 . ISartyW e*f*tj. 04.16 x2/ 5 4. //. 30. 12 ^.. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 102. 11. 4200. 3. 2.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 6. 90. 83 In + 1 n*. . 20. . 10. 4. 7. 22. 0. 30 j9 jt?g j . 12. 18. 25.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . ! 2. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 25. 3(*+0 + 2). 33. 8. 2 ). n (a6) 125. 15.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 18. 25.32. 16 51. iSx8 . 13. 37. 1. a. 76 8 a' 1 . 2. 13.(3x2_4^+7). 31. 3. 6. fa 2.. 4.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 30. 20.32 y s s G .000.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 16. . 3.>(/ r . 2 . 27. 15 q\ 6. 4 jcy*z*>. 34. 4. 16. 27. 8. 2 * 80 . 21 a'&c. 16. 6 . 1. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 1904. 64. 66 39 k* . ll 2 i. 2 7t A. 12. 8 . 3. 1. 4 a8 . ?/ . 23.21. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 1. . 66 8W 34. 26. 18. 29. 35. 9.
^.2. . 8 38. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 9990.4 12. 31. 14.14 jp + 49. . .2 6 + 13. x 4 ?/4 + ab .. 31.6 y4 10.^V"' . 1. Page 12.r . 2 4 a + 4.m 30 6 4 1. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 9.15. 2 12. 17. a2 ' + 48Z100. 2 j3 Z . 2 1: 21. 4 21. Page 39. 2. 166. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). +   5). 9. 41. 2 +10s281. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.00 + 37. 37. 45. m 2 . 8 a W . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. lflrt 2 8 + l. 10. p 2 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 1.8. 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 fr . x 48. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.r* 2 30. 27. 7 . 29. a3 0. (a + 4) (a + 2). 30 x + 19 x3 . 36. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. (p 2. 1). 24. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 2 62 V2 132.49. 25. 10.712. 2 . .008. r.2 y*. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 23. 32. I/). 4 + 25 q*. 15.4 a&+ 4 &*. a + 25. ~ 6 20 . 998. 35. 12 x2 . 2 4 2 2 64 . 14.6. G a6 2. 2). ^' J  7 f 12. a + 56. Om2 4 6m 6. y. 8.606. +  m' 1. 8. 10. 2 a' y' . a + 25. x* . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .001.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 999. +4 34. ^/> 8 4 . .r .x2y22.6 xy . 35. + 3)(3). . 20a 2 21a + 4. 39. 4 x2 13. 56. 14. 30 /><. 6.500. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2 (5 a 3).54 p 2 + 81. 40. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 7. 39. 7. 38.3. 1. V + o ft . 7. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 28. 5. (w+4)(m4). a4 4 ?/ . 2 6' . 37. (w4)(w + l).ANSWERS 28. n2 a4 6. (n 2 5.20.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 42.994.404. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.25.020. 41. 10 a' 2 . ft' 11. 3wi2 m Page 42. + 2 9.201..000. 10.996. a' . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 32.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .009. 52. ab. 10. 11. 29. 9999. m 3 j) 3 . 4.16 a3 f 50. 33. + 4 t*. 24.000. 2 a 2 + a . 10. 10. 441.009. + 7 6)(3a~76>.ab . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. (a (3 54. 36. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).p132. 36 a 4 . . 11. 53. 26. .^ + a? + 1. 1. 10. 18. 2. 4. a 2 . 990. x4 28. 4. 7> . . + 4 a +4. 2 0)(p + 5). . 10. ?/H)0. 4 . 30.84 a' 9. 34. 57. x*2^f I. 9 4 /> . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 5. 31.810. 6. 1.5 ~ 81. ' 46. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 33. 15. (m + 6)(m3). 10.004. 3. s rc 47. 51. 36. . 55.ri 17. + 12. .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.35 ab 9.6 x2 13.1. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. ) 4' 6/ 49. 10. . 34. 4x21.10 x + 25. + 10 + 121 y*. ^V^4 . fo*.4 n. 21 2 . 4 2 //. 44. 40. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 19.2 x + 2 x. 4 . ab . 16.10 35. 1. 26. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 10 a 4 ?. 27. 25 25. p4 + . 484. w'n 2 //^ + 25./ . 3. n + 2. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. x2 GiC+5. 33. . . 2 . 19. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 8. . .020. 9801. 40.098.
yfl. 2. 11.8 yn . 6. 135. 20.3 a 41.> 10. 12. 2 4 3 9. 9. . aftc 52.x^. . 2 12. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. . 14. // 19. /r . 9. 2. 4. a. 15. aft. 2. i 9. 4. 16.25 c .r?/ j/. 1. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 6. 49. 8. 01. 5.n. 6x 3.  12 y 25. 3. '. Osy. 125.9 4. sr 11.  10.1. 50.30 ftc. 2 ?/' . x 2 + 2r f J. ft 17.VI ANSWERS 43.12 aft 4 20 ac . 7 r .rw f 8 .15 21.1.2 ac . 8 ?/ . r 7. 13. 1000 1000 . 14. Page 11. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . w 2 .5 mp.3 ry.27 x 2 4.2 ar. 2 .34.lit x + 4. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 10 ft. 2 2 + 2 a. 1. 12. ??. w .24 . + 4. aft 12.10 2 + z 2 410. 3 aft 20.3 3. 1. 19. c 12. Page 7. 5.5 a . . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 75 a 2 29.r . 1. 7. *3 y 4 . + 3. 3 a. a 2 . . 5^418(7. 3.3^V. 4.+ 77 15. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.r" 20 S? .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.1. 8. 24. 3. . 2. 12.r ?/ ??i ?). 12. 5.2 . 2 ?/ 4. j) .1*5 2 r 2 . . .  3 c. 14. x 4. 9. as _ 10 16. c3. 1/*. 5. a 8 4. 23. 3.7. 13. 4 pq. 3. Page 13. 22.8.2 aft 4. 19.r' ~ 16.2 wZ 4. Page 48. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. .2 ftc . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 5.6 :rs 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . .9 d. .000. 12.2 2 2 8 .1. y 7.r'^ 15. ti'jry1 7. 8 ?/ . 13. 4 x. . 13. 6. 4ft. 5. 6.2 <</. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 1. 10.1. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.15. 46. 47. 14.5 n*.23. 1. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .  5 z* . 4 ac. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 26.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 2 ? 14 . +w . 4xy + 13 <) . f>r* 4.2 . 4. 2 4./ 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 13. 20 15. 4 a* 4 9 11. 17. 16. 14. 5 a  (5 ft. 5 4 a Oft. 2.29.  . . 44. 2 1.y3.21 2 2 f + . 17. 17.w.8. abc 7. i 2 tji. r//.2 2 . 21. 18. 9. 8. 8. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 15. 2 . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 7a3ft.r?/. 8 r<ft 4 2 .1. + x?/ 2 1.1. 4 a 2 4. a 10. 4. 4x43?/. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 10. 5.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 16. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 8. m L 4. . z. Page 51. _ 2 a . x4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. G. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 11. Exercise 27. 11 4. :r !>. 10.10 xy*. 18.8 y.25. ft ? ft' ft ft. 9. 2 4 2 x 4.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. l 4 . 5. 21. 6. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4 d 2 4. 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 2 a 3 ft. r/2 4. ft.3 x 2 2 4.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4. 8 x .3 5. 2. a 4 4 ft.  11. 14 r 2 . . ?/2. . Page 22. 1. r ft.2 .rw. 8. 4 c m . m'2 3.2. 4.2 1 //. 5. 3.4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 13. ft* ft / .
x 49.r1. 5. 2=10. <>. x 48. 41. (> 27. 5. 3. iL*. s. 27. 10. v (6) 2x.. 45. = 5 ?i x 460. 21 2. rn mi.  2\.. + 3 = 2(3* . 1. 4. 29. 30. 16. 10. f 6)(o 62. 100 2. 37. 4. 4. . 44.p+7. I. 6. a 8. 7. 1. m+ 11. '^ .  6 10. 100 14. 11. sq. 22. 6.ANSWERS Page 9. 5. Jj12. 3x  1700) = 12. lOx 10 + w. 2.7). 22. 3. 7. 29. xy ft.rr2. 34. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 10 >_&. 6. 10. . 11. 'nj 100 a 28. 12. ft.. 20. 7. lO. ct. vil 56. # + 20yr. ft. 24. 39. 100= ^. 26. 7.  9 = 17 a. 23. 35. 1. x = m. b. (>. 10 a. 1. . 25. 2b. 17. x y $ 6 yr. 2. 00. 33. . 800 = x + 1300. 40. 38. 6. 36. y 100 a 24. 44.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 2.10) 100.  />) a = all.000. 36. 16..6 = *. !). 59. . 14. m +~m 3. 5. 4.r ct. Page 6. 8. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. fix. 7x 2 Page 21. 10. 18. d + !. ? 43. 5. 57. (</) 2a. 2 ct. 7.(3x  700) = 5. 13. (a) ' 12. (2 a. 9. 31. 32. 33. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 50= L 100 15. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 47. </ 20. b. 15. 13. x 2y 10 act. y ?>i x + 26. 14. . a 10. 58. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 42. d. n M. 10 yr. ^ 12 sq. 15. 46. f = eZ 2 x. 23. 8 n  10 yr. 9. 19. / + y + a// 12 yr. 3. 3x2. y 50. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 1&. % 4. + 10 b + c ct.(3x+ = rraxlO. 28. 20. 12. 60 25 1. Page 40. 2x + 35. (d) 2a + 10 = n. + 4x 3y 34. r tx mi. Page 13. r>?imi. 7. 2. + 3x + 2y + 32. 10 x sq. 30. 19. " lir.  1$. 20. ft. 41. 4 f 39. X 60. 5. 0.ab a. 2b 22. 4. 3 9. 43. 17. "mi. 17. 4^ = 100. y yr. f (I. 0. ct.x700. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 100 d ct. }f. 8. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. x. 6. 2. 11. l. 13. 16. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 1. 2. 18. (c) 2x. ] 2 ri 42. ct. 7.100. + f + b 2. 38. . Page 31. 37. I. ( a f 4. Page 61. x + 1=a. 4(a ft) c = 8. 25.
Y. 150. 13. z?/(4^ + 5xy .. 15. 5. Pace 65. 2 3 6 7. 4.(5z .000 gold. 9. (a5)(a4). 11 pV (2 p8 ..1). (a 4) (a.10. 4. 72. 10 Mass. 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).6). 8. 14.8. 9. 9. 7. 5 Col. 8. 2). 7.22. 5. 1200. 5. 71. 2$. 2 2 2 5. + 7)(y3). (y7)(y + 2). 30. 15. 10. w (/) 64. 40 yr. 2. 2. . 2. 15 yd. a 12. 3 (a +&)(*.411. 9. 3. 8. 6rt 2 11. Page 7. 7 hr. Page 79. 11 in. 18. 30 mi. 10. Oaj(o62cd). 1.000. 1200. (c) ^ v ' . 1. (a + 4)(a + 8). 250.000 Phil.. 10. 8. 8. 3. 25.3. 6.2). 20. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. (*4)( + 11. 1250. 7.3aftc + 4).0... 2 2 ?/ 21. 160 lb.. 6. 67... 12..0. 5. 3. 15. 8. 4.000 pig iron. 300. 78. 7. 15.13.11. 7. 42yr. 80 A. 3 hr. 1313. 480. 11. 85 ft. . 8 in.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 10 yd. 12. 28yr. (yll)(y4). 12. Page Page 480 12. 14.000. 20. 23. 70^. Page 7. 11. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 18.000 ft. 6. 10.000 ft.. 50. 75. 52. 1 lb. 55. 1. 100 1.000. 3. 70.3). (ro3)(w2). 6. 21. 11 w(w' + wi . 10 Cal. 4pt.000 copper. 9. 100. 3.000.3. 68. 24J.y"). 10.16. (e) i* + A. 4. 8. 15.5. 6. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). ~=90. 8 2 19. 1. 82 mi. 15 in...24. 16. 8 12. 12. Page Page 4. 5 lb. 600. 05.. 3. ?(g ? g+ 1). 13. 14. 25. 30 yr. = _?_(2ar + 1). $40. 10. 10 yr. 2. 90. 200. Page 5. 13. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 15 mi. 13. . 7. (y + 8)(y2). a a (a 8 a+l). 5pt. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').7. 7a*fe(2a & l). 1. (y 13. 12. 90 mi.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 20 yr.000.5. 2. 4. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 9. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000 Berlin. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 2.21. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 30. 12. 14. 9 in. 10 yr. 6. Page Page 4. 180.2. 18.000.210^. (a + 5)(a + 6). ^ . 13. (z5)(z2). 12 mi.000 N. Ib.  PageSO. 22.79. 5. 6.. 19. 11. 78. 1. (p + 7)(3a5&). 17. (a + 6) (a + 3). MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 5$ hr. 14. 74. .5p + 7 g ). 3x (3r. 20 yd. 1. 11. 10. 45 in. 4. 14. 3. 29. 20 yr. 2. (y8)(y + 2). 17. ( + 4)(*2).000.. 20. by 12 yd. 200. 6. 25 yr. 9. (m + n)(a + 6).
2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 6. (0 + 6)(66). 16. 9. Yes.* (2 y + 3)(y. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 12. (a (p8)0> + l). 24 9.2 by2 6. Yes. 9. (w* (3a26). (10a + ft)(10aft).11 6) (a 4. No. 18. 21. 100(x. 25. 3a. 10(2 30. (w + 20)(w + 5). 3)(3a. (y + 4)(yl). (6n + l)(+2). 21. . 35. 2. (2 a? 4. (3a. 23. (y8) 2 2 . + 8)(g3). 10. 23.+4 y)(3x4 y). 24.8). 8) (a. 6. 18. No. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). + 0(90 Page 85. 3(x + 2)(zl). 103x97. (w ~ n (x . 19. 17. (13a +10)(13a 10). 14.   . . (4 13.c 2 ). 20. (a + 8)(a3). . 32. 33. + 2y). 7. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). No. . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 10(a + ft)(aft). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 3.y4 ). 27. 2 No 4. 13x7. . 19. 25. . (15a + 46*)(16a46). 26. Yes.4. 100 (a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 10. 20. 4 (a .6) 2 2 . (2o + l)(2l).1). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (az + 9)(ox2). (m + w) 2 5. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 14. 10. 31. 11. 3. 7 6) (a 10 6). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 5. (:52y)(2a!3y).y (6x + 4)(5x4). (4al)(a2). (<7 20. (m7n) (a. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (a 3 + 10)(a. 5. 27.9*). 22. . (3#y)(+4y). Page 84. + 3). 15. (5wl)(m5).2 ft). Yes. 4. 8. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (ay8)(ay3). 30. (5x . (m + n + 4p)(w + . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). Yes. 26. 9. 8. 36. 31. 28. (4 18.4 6). (a 6 6) (a 4. 21. Yes. (a a: 19. Yes. 26. (9y4)(y + 4). 12. 7. 1. 21. . (15ay2) 2 . . 22. 11.3)(z2). 34. 10. (15z2y)(x5y). 22. (6 a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 11. . (3*2)(. (a. 22. 33.7)(2z f 1). 25. 16. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (4a. (5a +l)(5a l). Oa 2 (a2)(al). ix 18. Yes. 2. a(2u. . (7 a + 4) (2 a . + 9^)(oxy . + 3)(c44). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 4. 1. 20. Yes. y(x. (m + n +p)(m + wp).2). x\x 24. (2 *+!)(* 9). (2w+l)(ro + 3).. 2 2 15.1). ( 2 4 19. 15. (ft + ll)(aftll). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). . 28. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).11 ft)(a6). a*(5a f l)(flr . 216 aft.  x (5 a. y) 2 29. 30. 24. 9.1). (g . 16. 17. 2). Yes. 1.6) 2 1. f 2). 8. Yes. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 25. Page 83. 14.2 y). 2 17. 12. 3. . 24.y) 2 aft.ANSWERS 16. 29. (* + y)(zy). y) (a.7) (a. 23.r2).3). 17. 28. 26. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 10(a . 10 a 2 (4 . 7. + y + . No. 40 x. 29. + 4) (a. 34. Page 82.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).1). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 9. + 5) a. 32.4p). (4y3)(3y + 2). (2xl)(x + f>). (x + y4 )(x . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (2yl)(y + 9). Yes. x(x +y)(x y).2). 25. 2 3 by2 Yes.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.5y)(3a. 23. 35. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). No. 27. 2. 13. a. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). a .
17.3)(x 4. (w4w) 2 1. 39. 19. (x. . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 3x(x?/) 4. 2. (a &4. ah}. 12.3. a 4. 12. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 450. 30. 17(x43//)(x2y). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 8. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 5. .7)(^ {I 12.'/)('< 4. 4. 37. a (a + 2 6).X 5. (7/1 2) (m 41).?>) H. 2 . 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).r(3x' 2 4 (14. (> 1. 7. x 4.8) ( (16. x . 8. 4. x43.y). 41. 8. 11.1). 24.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 4 6. 10(2 (3 4. fi(c426).b. 7.!) (x42)(x2). ( y). a8 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.?50)(xt/z. 6.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). ^ . 28. 32. 8x. 5 x8 3. a + a b. ofc)( fid).  29.y. 2 y) ^ . 7. ( { &). 11.4). Gp). 4 a s &8 . 5. 2.'})(c . x  1). 2 + .&). 4 3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (14. 22. 40. 11. .&). a 4. 7. 27.9). (2x7)(x 2 2). 5  (2 2 . 13 x 8 2 . + 3.7s) (2 a. y6.42 x 4. Page 90. 5. 6. n  r)(5a 10. 14. . a x 3 10. x(x f y)(jr . ( (<> r4y3 . 4. 7. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (f> + fo 7. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 5. 8. 18. (. 15. (r420(4 10. 16.2).2)(x 1. (16 4  2(5 n . (c.1).8). (w * .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.8) n 43*). 4  9. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 9. 2 8(w . a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (5 31. ?>). 8. 6. 4. 6.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). Exercise 46. 13. Page 87. (* _ 2 )(a 4.'J)(' . 6. 1.n). 8. 14. 11. 15 M. Exercise 47. 2 k (wi 4. 42).5 m2 x2.e 4. 12. (5a+l)(9a). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.2 y). 10. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (a 9. (^ 7. 4. 2 (a 4. 2 2 10. 2 21. (5^4. a 41. 14. 2. 4. 2 2 3 .0+ 12).y)(fi a . 38. y )(. 13. Page 92. 16.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ( a ^)(^3.l)( a 25.y '2 2). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. + 2 //). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 20. 36. 8.^ 48. 4). 6. y(2x?/). 4. ?i(w 4y) . 2 1.4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>)..?/). (5 26. 2. 13( 33. y).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 1(V/ 88.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 15.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. r x 2 */3 . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . l. 8). 3 x4 . 4 a8 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 35.36).4. ( rt 23. 2.) j). (x//. 3(. b) (r 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (a />.1) 3. 9. 42a 3 x. Page 89. 13. (!__/>). a 2 (a9).3. 2(m4l)' . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 7. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 14. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).4).  (w' 4. 24x sy s 9. . (^ + ?>_8). Page 86. 4. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). (m  I)' 6. 6 f c). Page 12. (a 4.2).  WIM. . 3.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .
(a2)(a + 2)2. +5 1. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. a 10 25. 18. 11. + &)(&) ( . ?_!&. 1). x 22.  1). 6a2&(rt6). + &) 2 ( . 13.6). a 23. // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. +8b a 4 3 / ^. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 30(3 2 (a 15. + y) (a: y). x 12. b ! 21. 2(2al) + l).
' 2 7. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42..y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 30. 0. 26. c 8. 28. 6. 2 a. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6. xy 43. i^. 4 L 8 2 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . + lH + . 11. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .  **/* + 84 _. Page 101. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 7. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4c 10. 6. 4.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i.50 ~ 1/2 . _*^p5_^^_. A^. 1. Page 100. w1 + ac w 4 7. + 2H 1 ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 6a5f^. a 5. ^~ 29.
. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 27. 5. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 2ft a i m x. a 17. 4. 1. n . c 8. f 7. ft. 45. 32.ft . 10. w^x 2 b Page 105. 16. 42. 6 . 0. 10. a. x 05m ' 5. 4. 3. 24. 3. 36. ac mp lf> n 12. 11. b 2. 9. 0. 12 28. 1. 3. x 1. . 34. 7. ?. 5 be _J_. 21. 15. 9. pf n 6 1. ' 6. ! 4 20. Page 110. 1. 41. 9. + f. 4a3ft. b a f +c 14. 3 7 i o. n m a + 13.^_. 2 47. 14. 14. 17. 7. 8j_m 7 3. ^_.  10 X + u. Page 111. 1. 20. 11. 6. flf. 39. 11. 1. f Page 107. 46. 12. n 16. 4. 5. 29. 14. J. j L . 21. 2) 19. 5. 3. . 40. Page 113. 31. 4. an 18. 38. (y + (z 12. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 17. (>. 26. 15. 15. ^i 11. 19. J. Of. 1. A. 8. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 8. 25. 4. 11. +3 ( + 15. 44. 5. 23. 4. 1. 21. 3. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 43. Page 106. J. 4. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 37. ?+_!?>. x\. 7. 1. 6. I) 2 3z 1. 16. 33.y 7. . 7. 6.^U\WF### X<6. 35. 13. 30. 11.L+ft. 1. 6. 3. 18. a2 2. 1.  V o 4. y(x + x ?/). m 9. 12. 6.
17. 2.x + y. 1:4. 13. '"I 22. 32.0 & . 3. $0. 6. 300. 20. min. 26 mi. 8. 1:1 = 1:1. after 20. (c) 8300. 40 mi. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. 34. 4. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .9. 38ft min. ANSWERS 16. . 5.} da..  C . 8. Yes. 14. after 18. 12. 15. 275:108. (ft) 5 da. 12.. ~m . 2x:3y. 1. 30 yrs. 500. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .0. 30 mi. 9J oz. 10. 1 da. 4. 15. 10. after $12. 4. ./hr. 3:2. 13. 7} 18. ft. 13.. . 23< &n b ' . a 4 ft.. 16. 1. 1. 19. (d) 4 da. Page 119. 5ft 30mi. 2. 3 da. Page 118. 33. Yes. " 0. (ft) 5 hr. 11. 8301 hr. Page 121. Yes. n 32. 15. 26. 74. 30ft. 15. P+ ^ 33. 24.. 7. 10. 7. 75 . Yes. (a) 4 min..003. 7. 15.000. 10. 3. 300.XIV '/ . 21.000 If da. 16. silver. 212. 5 25.004. 17. 21ft min. $40. 27. 11. 1:3. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 3. #V ~~ 34. 3. 14. 300. 8.000 1 = 23. nm. * 7:9. dn ~ mi. 10. $30. 19.10. 9ft. 2 20.000. jj. [>> ^ a . w 18.001. Page 117. Page 124.000.2. Yes. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. No. 18. f. 12. 10. 11 hrs. 10 yrs. w 44. IV s. (d) 500. Yes. 28. 15. 18. 9.. 24. 0. 40 yrs. (ft) 104. 9$. _JL. 8. 9. . 4.15. 21. 24 mi. 1: ~. 81. 16. No. 9..002. 26 30. 4~r~ n . 5. Page 125. w 21. 13. 1^'. 33. (c) 2 hr. $45. 35. (r) 3^ da. 7 .137. 8.. 20. f . 1:1=1:1. 9.2. Yes. 19. . = A's. 00.  29. Yes. (ft) 28. 14. 3. $00. 15. (a) 30. 31. . 10. J ^'. 30. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. J. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 4. 1. 7.000. 19.11. 2:1. 40wn. () 2. gold. 11. 6. (a) 12 hr.138. 7. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 4fl M_. 55 mi. :2. 14. 17.  + . ^?i min. 10^ oz. 5. . 1 : 12. 17./hr. 5 2. 7T 2 Page 116.139. 20. (a) 25. 36. 10. ^m . 6. ^p^ r ~ 7. 7. 3.. 22. xy. 18. min.
+ m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. ft. 40. in.15 x. 2. mi. Page 5. 12. 3. 2. 6.5. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 17. 45. 10. Inversely. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. a 3. : XV 27. 5. 24 1 (e) Directly.6. 7. 19 OJ. 12. 49. x y = 1 = 3 2. w 8. ig 6. . 14. *. 7.3. (b) Inversely. 2 n . + W. "lO. b x 37. 2. 13.1. 3. J pq. 56. 7. 5.5. 5. J. (a) Directly. 25. 1. 3. 7. . I. 20. 13J."2:1. Page 132. 3. 2. (</) ft. 2. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 8. x:y a: b. 7.840. 14. 23. + b 7 . 1. l. 19.7.3. 3 2=3 x.1. 29. 9. 4. 20. 9. . w. 2. Of. Page 134. 2. 12. OJ. 59. 3. 36. 6.17. 9.2. 10. 2. 21. 4. 5. 1. 8.3. t 5. 16.J./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 5 2. 5. 3. 13. 13. 57.1. 22. 27.ANSWERS 22. Page 135." ^ 2.r. 20 cu. 19 3 . 41. 50. 19. 2. 7. 4. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.' : : : : <>. 1. 5. 16. 7. 3. 12. 2.4.. 3.12. 945 11 10 . 1. () Directly. 2. 30. 14. 4. 31. 141.5.4. 127. . 3}. y 1. . 6. 2. 7. 1(5. 3  24. 3.  28. 1 18 = 3 51.46. Page 9.000 sq. 2. 5.4. 25. 7. 11. ini. 15. 1. x 42.4. 3. : 23.3. y :y =. 2. 4. 4. 9. 6*. 8. 16.3. Page 133.22. 41. .li. 4. 20 20 J ^. jc:y = n:m. 24. 3. : .2 x. 36. 14. J. 2. OJ. 19.) 31.C ?/ a . a +b 1.20. .15. 4. 1. 11. 6 10 = 12. Page 136.3. 1. 48. \\. 11 w a 13. i.5. /. : />. 52. 4. .12. 26.57.7. 44.J 3. 3. 4. 11. a~. 26..5. 8. ~ 1. . 28. 5:3 = 4: x. 2.  ?. 32+ mi. 35. ' 55. 5:0 = 10:12. cu. 2.3. 2. . 31J. : : T 1' : /> : . 2. \. = 7 b'. 24.x a. 13. mi. in n.36. 4.3.]. $. . 46. 53.3. 138. 5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 8. y a y = 7 0.. 1. 7^. 3. . 18. 174+ Page 128. 21. 5. (I. . tin.^ 0?j ' gms.1. Page 137.4. 10. 4. x +y x + 74 7 \. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 9.2.3. . 15. 9  15. 58.2.160. 6. lo mi. 1. y . water. 9. 3.000 sq. 38. 1 rt * vm^1. 11. 55. 4. 2. 17. 25. 7. 2. 22. 9. J. 11 5 . () 7 Page 126. 39. 2. 5. land.1.*.5.3. 200 mi.a. 32j.5.8 oz. 2. 2.5. 15> 9. 7. 4. 7. 40. 17.9. 11.  19. 2. : : . 9. 8. 5.2. x y y . 6.5.2 oz. Page 131. 7. 4. 7. 54. copper. 7. 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 8. 10. 47. 30. 2. 23. 43. s<i. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .
7. 9. 1 (c) Jan. a =J (n  1) rf. 1. Page 143. 5. . m f 9. 2. 40. 21. Page 146. 6. 3. C's 10 yrs. 5. $6500at3Ji%. yrs. 2. m f 8. 11. 23. 4. & part of Feb. 22. 15. Feb. 3. 14. Nov. On 11. 3. Jan. 16. About 12f.l. 16. ad _(?jrJL. 4. 147. 1. 10. 20. 16 to July 20. 11. 12. 3. B's 40 yrs. 0. 2. 13. 25. u 2ft.$2000. Jan. 9.3. 5%. 8. 5.^. (a) 12. 10. 2 a. Page 153. 3. 3. 2. 3).33. ft 3. Page 149. 31. ' . $900 5%. be 10. Page 152. 11.65. 24. 3. 3. 25.0. 4 ' q. 20. 25./hr. 1. 27. 17. 72.1. 19. 20. 4. 9. 20. 16. 14. . 3. 7.3.. 23. 6. SL=J o ft r^2. 5. 13. 3. 6 cows. 3. 19 gms. Aug. 1.XVI Fagel39. A's 30 18. 32. 13. 4. 24. 28. 4. 5. 9. B's 15 yrs. . 24. 15. 4. Page 145.$5000. 4. 14.4. (<f) 13. J. 20. 2. 3. . Page 151. 2 horses. . 30. 3. On the y axis. On the x axis. 10 sheep. July. 20 & Oct. 90. 12. 6. 1. 4. 1. & May.1. 1. 16. 17. 6. The ordinate. 1. 26. ad AzA. 20 to Oct. 2. 16. <*ft/ bd 1. 3. 4..1J. 423. Page 142. 24. 9. 21. 1. 8.0.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 9. 26. 10. 8. ^. . . afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 30. 2. 11. yrs. . 4. 5. Nov. 12. Apr. 2. 6. 2.10.2. 1. $3000. 18. Nov. Nov. Jan. 2. 25.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. . 2. 8. 7... 6. 18. 11. 23f . (5. 11.7. 7. Apr. 0. July 20. 18. Jan. 5. July. 7. 17.. 4. 3. 4. 2. . 16. 10. .2. through point (0. a.  11. $4000. C's 30 yrs. 5. &.4. 3. m + n p. (a) Apr. May 5. Jan. 40. 7. A a parallel to the x axis.  17.8. parallel to the x axis 0. 2. 4. 7. . 2. 6. 4 mi. 5. A's 50 13. 7. 2. (ft) 20. 0. 5. be 7. 18. 30. Apr.4. 10. (ft) 23 J. m . (c) . Oct. M 2. 1 (d) Apr. 29.n + p. 1. & part of Sept. $250. 2t2. 100. = ^ a Page 141. 2. 7. 6%. 2. 6. 2. 12. 3. Page 22. $ 1000. 4. June. 12. at 15. 4. 3.3. 15. 19.. 00. 3. ' 6 3 a. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . $500. 3. 10^ gms. 7.9. . 1.
1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 12. 1. a 10 ' a ll V&.  12 ft xW  26 31.75. 20. 3. Indeterminate. 2. . (/) 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 11.1. 8. . (a) 2. 11. 32F. 27 27 81. .25. .4. xg . 24. 1. 18. (e) 3. 2." 23. 15. 5. 83. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 2 2 22.  1.64. 21. (ft) and (d) 2.. 14. 4. 2. 1. 6. 4. 7. 4. 13C. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.67. 3. 15. Inconsistent. 9. 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. m. + a 4 ft* . 28. 2. 1 4. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. f 10. 11. 2. 15 . 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 17.2 (ft)  1. 1 23. 2. 3 . . . 8mW. Page 163. 9. 5.79. 5. 3. 3. 13. . (a) 4. 125 16. 26. 81 ". 3. . 5.83. (ft) (d) 2. ' :=_!.3. 3. 10. . . 4..1. 1. ft . 8. 5 and 2. 10 C. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 0C. 1.3. (ft) 2. 2. +3 4. 24.. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 10. xy. 8 a1. . . 18C. 25. 2ft4 Page 168.75. * 16.73. xW. . 1. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 22.75.34F. H.5 (ft) 3. 2. . 2. Inconsistent. 2. 4 ) 21. f. 2.5.79. 2.75 (ci) 3^. 1. 14. 13. 1^. 19. 125 a 8 12. 2. 3. 1.25. 14. 19. 1. 1. 4.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 125a 28. (c) 14 F.84.25. 0.25. . f12 wi 9.59 .13. 30. 4}. 8 1 f f g*.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.83. 4. 5. 1. 2 l. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 3. 3. 22.73. 1. 4. 15.64. 3. 13 . . (/) 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 2. () (rt) 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. . 27 19. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 10. 20. . 5.41 and 23. 3. 1.73 ami . Indeterminate. 2. 9 and Page 166. 27.5. ft 2 4. a 29. 8. 3.24 .24. 4wn8 + n4 5.  1. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. . . ImW.41 and . . (gr) 21. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.  . jgiooyiio 17.6. (c) 2. (a) 5. 12.27.24. G. (e) 2. 1. . 13. Page 158.59.7. 5.25. Page 159. 3. (c) 7. \ft) 5. 1. a + ft. 1. 30. 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.73. 3. 2. 6. 3. 1. 16. (ft) (ft) 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 14. (a) 12. . 3. (<?) 2. . . . 2. SlstyW 7. f.. 3. H. Page 164. 2 a&m Page 167.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .
3. 2. 1 1 ?>). 3.3 ab + 2 2 ). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.1. (a 2. 11. 978. (a + y+l). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 26. 13.+3^ + 4. 10. (Gx + (i + 2a. 3 6 23. . (48 + 6. 98. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . r> 4 : 1 .f 1 m 9 16.y2 ).i c 6 15. 2 49 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 7. 00.7 /)). 6. 28. + Z). 8. . Zll. 8.83. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 32. 1. 22. 12. ? . AN S WE no . 20. 4. 19. 14. a 2 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 7. rt . 25 19. 2. 3 2 8 3 12. wi 8 + 3m 2 . m 13.5. 57. 16 6 w . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 2 4. 9. 6. 12. 13. 11. 72. 18. 6 (\x 3. 16. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 17. 16. a. 35. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. GOO 2 c 2 .x ). 300. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 763.6. Page 170. (ly). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 9. a: l . . 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.5). 101. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. . (1 (x2y). 20. 20. /> 4 ). 84. 10. ).037. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2. + y). Page 172. 18. 17. 420. 90. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 30. 99. 14. 2. a. + (win . 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 25. 3M. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. +35. 4. + 29.10 a~ + 5 a . 9. 2 2 7. (2 a + ft). 5.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 70. 34. 6.  x. 10 x G a 4 . 20. 4.GO a c + 23.2). 23. a ). ( Page 174. Page 176. Page 171. 71. 5. +3 + 5 4. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. + l). 2 12. 2038. 1247. 8. 3 2 ^. 2. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 3.a b 22. (4a2 9& 2 13. 17. 10. 2 4 8 2 . 40. (3a. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). . 8 /. (a + 2 +l). 180 . 24. 8. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 76. 21. 15. 15. 12. 15.1. 119. 9. (x' l). ??i ?i . + i)). I 8x2). . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 30. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 31. 1. 9. 5. 11. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 237. 64. 5 5 8. (x + y\ 90. 5. 1. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). (l + x + . fe *?>' ?> fi . 4.XV111 7. 1. 8. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip.  +X '. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 36. 27. 18. 16. 14. 6. 21. 14. + + ?V 22. 7. 5.94. 19. 6. (ab + c). ? : 1 . 11. . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .r 2 + 6jt). (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 309. 10*. 33. . 15. . 3. 247.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. c 10 6 :l 20. 90. ^i.^). 9. 0. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .
39.13. 6. 6. . 16. 28. 31. 3. 9.. 10. 30. 3. Page 177. 14. f. 5. m. 3. 34. Page 180. a + 61. 1&. 2. 49. 10. > w ft. 20. 1. 5. 39. . 7. 7. 16n. 6. (< + ?>).935. Page 183. 3.236. . 1. f . 6. 2. 1.645.. J. 2.. / 11. 7 45. 5. 14. or 5. f 3. . 4. 20. 5.6. ~ V^3. 13. 8. 2. 10. 46. 18.4. 33.243. 9 15 ft. 29. 15. 7563. 25. 9. f. 19. .  1.6. 5. xix 26. (6) Vl4 3. >i 27. 4. 7}.  14. 1. 36. 21yds. 5083. 32.18. 2 sec. w. 8. ZLlAiK 19. 37. ft. . ^.798 yds. 13. 15.005. 1 f Vl3. l~8. 2.  2. 6V21. 21 28 ft. 6. 31. . 11. 20. 5f. /. 1.i.367. 29. 1 38.469.?.. . 6. 11. 35. 2.. 2. 9. 25. 6J. {. 12. 50. 3.  3. 10.. 28. 28 in. " ^_ 22. 2.*. 5. If ^.60. ^^7m. 1. 4. 6 f !. 39 in. 4. i ^.742 in. 36 in.5.ANS WERS 22. 5. 12. 21 in. Page 184. f f V. 4 n. 13. 3. 6561. 5. 4. a. 17. 9. 35. 7 in. 5. 1. 4 TT M 28. 33. 1. 13. or 3. vYb.Sn. 3. Page 185. 9. 11. 12. 4. (afl). 42. ft.w 18. _ iVaft. 7. 16. 27. V. () 2. 3J.  f.1.4. vV'TA 24. . 3. 1.. 4. 14.6.  f.690. V2. 4 W**. 4.  5. 24. ii :J _7. 7. 7.916 yds. 29. 3.. 10. 11. 7. 6V'2J. 4J. 7. 48. 270 sq. ^. 18.6. 1 7. 17. 3.237. 13. 8. 41. JJI. 30. 11. 23. 4. 14. 15. 44. *. 2] see. 21. 4. 19.522 38. 16. 3.4. 22. 3. 27. 12. 34. 9. 10. 25 J.V 8j. Page 179. 2. 5. Af^. 7.1.. 10.. 5. 12. 7. 21. 3. 36. m. 7. 15 1 10. 15. 3. V J l. 14. 40. 17. 1. 12. v 17. 1. 10. 24. . 9. 5. 26. 2. 4. 6.5. 4.a. 5. 2. * 1.925 ft. \/3. 4. >TT 26. . 32. ft. 8. 23. . 6. 4 a. 5. V35 1. 23. 16. 8.6. 47. 6yds. 2. 12. 8. V17.}. 7. 21. 2. Page 181. 37. 12. 10. 40.  43. f ^ is. V2. i. }. 15. 9.
41.1. 58.10.4. 15. $ 120. 3. ' 1. 7.3. 1. 4. 64. 27. 1.4. 3. in. 13. 120 ft. 28. 20 eggs. 18.1. 7. 2.4. ^l/>> = 85 ft.02.6. 10 mi. 0. 25. Page 192. 40. 6.23. 1. Real. rational.. 46. 20. 6^2 in. 1. equal. 13. 28. unequal. Real. 3. 2. 4.41. 7. Page 190.4. 32. unequal. 12. r* i. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. x 14. ANSWERS 22.2.62. 4.5 x + 6 = 0. 2. 3. AB = 3.1. 6. i . x*4x=0. f. Imaginary. 35. 4.a. 2. 3. Page 191. 47.2. 25. 2. 8. f. 6. f 6 52 a. *'' 12. 7. Real. 2. 43. 24. 4. 10.74. 26. 42.17. 22.7. Real. unequal.  24. 1./hr. . 27. 6. 23. Real. 3. V^l. If. Real. 64c. 4. 5. 10. . 20. 8 or 12 mi.Oa. 52. . 5. 21. 20. 1. 21.0*8. 25. rational. $30 or $70. 2. 3. 70 ft.2. 49. 1.2. 5. rational. 1. 1. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 1. 11.  9x <). 6. . 6V64. Page 187. VV11. unequal. 16.  2. 3.3. 50. 26. 0. 4. 1. 3. 2. (5 10. 7. rational. 44. 9. 1.  6. 3.37. . 24. unequal. equal. 4.59. 3. 18. . = 0. 4 da. 0. V2. 19. 28. 2. 0. 11. AB = 204 ft. . irrational. V^~2. 19.]. 8.  1. 0. . 3. 0. 2. . 3. . x2 + B . 2.7. 7. Real. 9.l. 29. H. i. 1). v^^fcT"^. 48. V2.  13. 14. 4. 57. 23. . Imaginary. 3. 1_^L ft 14. . 20 nii. 2 .a. Imaginary. 55. 9. 6. $80.  i.12. x* 51. 30. 2. 0.  1. 2. 10 in.23. . 2. 17. 2.  5. 15 ft. 4.12 = 0. 2 ft. 0. 38. 53.6 = 0. 39. 31. 1. 3.2.4. Imaginary. 1. V ~ 16 4 2.2.'.  Page 194. . 34. 2.$40 or $60. 33. . 0. . Real. V7. 21.* 2. . . 23. 2 V3 in. 25. 6. 2. 6. irrational. 0. 3. equal. 6.  1.2 x2 ./hr. 8.5. 22.. 0. 45.2. a8 . 56. 3if. 16. 0. 1. + 11 x. 2. 2. unequal. 0. 37.  1. s 11. Page 188. orf./hr. 0. 6. 8\/2 17. 3. 12. 18.. a + 1. 12. 16.  1.. 7.XX Page 186. rational. 10 mi. 9. 0. 3. 15. 1 3. 24. t is. 3. V^l. . ft.3. 12. 2. 1 .48 3. 3. 5 ft.a 3 a. 35.2. 1. U.  2.70. unequal. 10.5^. _ 19. . 12. 3. #<7=3. .  5. %. 2. jr .. 26. 8./hr. 27. 1. . a.. a + 6. 3. 7. 0. 26. 1. 5. a. 10 or 19. 1. 2. 1. 5.2. 19 in.48.7. 14. 36. unequal. unequal.2. '  f 5. Page 189. 15. 3.
0. 10. 15. 17. 19. 1. 20. 7. 2V a. 9. 17. J. Page 200. 38. 2. 13. 4. 20. 6. . 6. $7.  5. 9. J. 50. 41. Vr. 2. 19. 5\/5. 6  AAf. 29. 16. J. 4. n\/* Page202. 7. 49. 3. 8. \/r\ 11. 20. 84. 2. 3. ^49.  a'2 . 4. . 0. v^T4 m. 9. 1. 1. 125. x$. ). y . 13. 54. 29.  J j. p. 7. 1. r*. 2. 14. 15. 47. 3 4 11.32. 1V1. 1. 3. 43. 4. 2. 4. r. 59. Page 201. 18. 1. v/3. 15. 'J. 3. 8. 5. 8. 9. 28. 1. V^ 34. 21. . x/25. 12*2 61. 18. 19.. 36. 51. Page 197. 9. fx'^z'l 23. 44. 40. 3. \/3. 23. 12. : . 5. 33. ) 2 >J i 10. 30. 42.^7.2. 8. 3. I. J. \ . 17. 1. *V. 16. 12. 21. 3. \.6.  48. 2. 19. 20. 2. 50. 2 L ( V. 7V7. xxi 15. Jb \.  f . . 7 . 2. 39. &. 13. 10. 37. 32. 10. 14. 28. m. 243. 2. 9. 8. i. ^Sf 3 38. 2. 48. v'frc 18. 5. y. 1. 47. . a. 33. 23. 13. 53. 11. 8. JV37. J 3. 24. 52. 1. 3. 4. 2. 11. ifa. 16. 57. 5. 35. 1. 55. 32. jV 10. 22. \a\ \/^. m'. 29. ? . 22. 56. 5. . \. 31. 4.  f. 3. 3.1 5 15. vV. v. l  5 12. vm." 17. 3. . 4. 0. 18. Page 196. 26. x. _! V3. 46. 16. z + 22. . 8. 14. 45. 49. 31. 27. 49. 25.17. 3. 27. 24. 8. 1. 58. Page 199. v'frW. a 18 . 10. wA 46. \/. 30 a. 21. 5. . . 25. 49. aW\ 40. 60.ANtiWEUS rational. ar 1 . 33.//^. (m 26. 30. 24. 14. 1 39. 25.
36. 19. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 37. 41. 3. ). 16. 3. Va 2 "ft. 13 35. 5. k/2. 13. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 40. 03r* 7. 9. . 27. v'TM. V2 + 4 V22. 26. 2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 3^2. 23. . 50. 2.  a Vft 2 121 b. l 5. 31. + . r 17  Page 204. 10. 2v (T 2aVf. 6. 2. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. a^ + 2^+1. 2 4 z2 l 3. 1) 3V3. 48. 37. 2 a?>V2 a. 5 ( . x%  3 ^+ 1.577. 29.. yV35. 8a6V5. m* n*. v^. 13. 21. + Vic + 25. V63. 20. x y. Page 207.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 20&V6. JIV6.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 5 22.648.632. 10. 3V^T. . x 25. 8. ^7 \AOx. y (a + ft) V2. 2>X2. 7. 29. ^: V2c. 7. 24. 1 2 or 1 ?. V 5 47.x^y* + y%. 51. + 2). 34. 12. Page 208. 22. 28. 31. 2 '"V5. + 2 V22. 6. ?tV?w. 25. 19. . 8V/) 15. 11. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 32. 11. a2 4. 2. Page 203. V80. (o* 2. 43.r. + + ft.f. + 2 ar 1 ). .rV:r. 40. 13 a. + 1. v/^r 5  A/^~.).707. (x' (l 1+x). Vr 8. / V3. 4. r c . 9 . 30. 4. 33. 24. 34 r 6. . 28. 26. 195V3.Vxy 35. 3. 49. 9. 39. (a 27. x 7  34. 45.3 + 40 3 . 62V(J. 20. 2. 9. . 10. 3 4\/2. 11V3. T.'\ 14. a 4 +* + !. x. x^ . 3^ + 2). 1. 18. 32. V.XXii ANSWERS 1. y.yl : .2 18. 15.2 VlO. 101 1. 38. 8. ftV 46. 3 \ 39. a 3. 3 42. 5. 16. . 30. 135V6. 17. abVab. 17. 2 x* 15. 3 x^y 33. 2.  2 3:r. + 2 Vzy + y 1. x + 5 x3 + 0. V. 4aV^J 16. 2\/7. 21. 3V5. ^88".692.
3. 8. x/8L v/27. 0. \/8. x/8. 5. 3. Page 213. 3 V15  47. 4\/5. + VlO  v y (5. 5. / \/w/t 4 13. 3\/wi. 25. 9. 2\/7. 23. 2 ate. Page 216. "v/wi ??. 13. 6V2. 22. V8. 12. x/3. x/4. 37. 38. 48. 35. \/a6c. 6. 5V2. % 29.J Page 212. 33. 14c 4 V5. 74\/Jl 120 46. Vat. 2 28. \/04a. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 36. a^\/a7>. 21. . 1. 16. ^\/3. 26. . 13\/3. v/i). 5V2. 5. 11. ab 4. 41. VJla. 30. . 49.T*. v^4. ^v 7 15. 52. 35. 16. 2. 9. 8. vT). 10. 36. 3\/15  6. 6 2\/0. \/2. 17. 3 Vl5 30. v/lO. 18. 23. Vn. Vtf +3+ 33. 19. 2. 4. 1V5. v^f. 27. \XOfl6Vi5.. 10V(). 4 a*. ^27. 10. m ?i2Vm/t. 2 1. 3v^2. v^30. "^8000. 21 23. V2. x/w^ 8. 11. 7. 21. 32. 46. v"3. w?i.  3. 7. 8v2T 12. x/8l. 16. 24. \/128. x/27. v/l2. v/9. 8  \/15. Page 210. 0. 40. 43. 6aV2\^. V5. 1. 51. 6x2?/. 6. 4VO. 34. ^9. V3"m. . 28. 5v/2. 14. v^a. 2. 39. 6. 15. 5 \/2. . 40. 26. 2. VT5. 3 V2. 39.30 2. 38. a\/5c. 2 \/2.r v/^ v^fr*. 7. v^lf. \^6. 17. 30 Vl4. 25. 2 V'3. 3. 2yV2?/. 14. 22. V2. \^r^bVabc. v7^. 19. V5. : ^32. V3. 7\/(l 7VTO. \V3. 13. v^O. aVa. fl^Vac. x/125. 9 VlO + 4. 37. 12. 6+2V5. 8V2. v/8. 42. . 18. v 25^4714 V2"a. 9. 3\/2. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 3. '. 32.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 17. 24. 32m27n. \^6. 27. W). 20. b. 50. 18. 8V73\/IO. ^ 3 b 5 24. rtv/5. V3. Page 211. 11. r)\/(l Vrtr. 6. \/abc*. 31. 14. Page 214. D 45. 4 >/3. . 4. a2  b. Vdbc. 1. 44. 3. 6. 2. V/. 29. 15. xx 1. 10. 34. 53. 31. + 20. v"5.
9. 23. 13. Va. K>/0 + \/2).. 16. 11. 4. 22. x 20. 216. 16.V3). 20. 17. (3+ v/2). 18. 36. 10. 2. ~ Vac _c 0.  2.  13. 25. !^ 6 4. 24.0606.601. . ^(VlO\/2). 81. (V51). 2. ^. 26. 1. 15. 4. Page 225. 27. 10. 4. 18. 2!5_. 33. 5. 6. 2 . (2. . * 3. V^TTfc. 17. 4. 5. 1. i(Vf Vft). 3(7+3V5). m f. Page 226. 12. 7. 22. 1.w 6. 5. 19. 3. 7 Page221. 18. 64. Page 219. 12. 23. 81. 12. 3. 0. Page 28. 9. (VllV2). 3. 24. 26.732. 100. f. 14.6 V3. 5. 5 f. 2x^2^. (Vf + (4 V2).464. ' 22 i . ^\/2. . 10. 30. 4.64. 6 V.9. i^Lzi. 21 ' Vob 26. 12. 16. Page220. 2V3.7083. 7. 4 14. 29. 6. \/57t.389. (a 1. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 5. 125. 1. 8. 19.XXIV 7. V3. 3. 18. 18. 20. 5. (V6 + 2V2). 23. fV2. 4. 9. 7. 4.1805. 15. 1. (2Vll). 23. 11. 3. 0. 14. 2V3. 27. . 25.  f.625 10.\/TO). 31. 10.1. 6. 2. 27. 5 + 2 vU 17. 4. .13. 1. 25. 4V3 + 6. 15. 24. . 9. 19. \/3). 5. 12. 9 mn. 6. 37. n*. 4. + 5V2.5530. 1. V35. 32. j. 9. 8. 6 (V2 + 1). 4. 16. 5 V65. Page 223.2. 4.7071. A .5. 28. 17. 3V23. 512.3. 224. 20. 6. 2. 24. j 15. (VaT^v a). 7. 22. 34. 16. 13. 9.1547. . nVTl. 4. 1. 10. 13. (V5f 5. 5. {. ^. 29. 2. 11. V5. \. 11. (V21). 7 f 5 4. 11. 8. 2. 7. 2V2. 9.4142.2828. V3.4722. 23. 25. 14.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . (\/5V2). 1. V. (V8 + V2.3. . 21.2. 25. 16. 4. _^JflJ?. 7.6. 1. + 6) 2 . 8. (2f V"5). 15.^ (\/22 4. 4. 8. .732. 3. 2. 8. Page217. 16. 11. 3. 25. 4. 10. +3 V2). 25. ANSWERS 8. J. 30. 12. 1. . 16. 8 V3V2. 5. 7.3535. 9. V6c. 15 f 3 V2L 4. ^r. p 6 13. (\/3f 1). 14. 2ajV2*. 8. 7. 21. (2V2). J. . V3. 19. 8. V2. V3 . Va. 9.  . 21. 20. Vf6fVtf. 35. xy 2. 10.81. Page 218. 17. 15. 19.
l)(z 2 + z + 1). 22. 21. Page 236. 3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 6. 3 . 4 . 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 4. Page 234.2)(* . //. 10. J Page 235. 0.3).l)(m . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1. 3 9. 1. 10. 7.3.10. (a.8a 18.5 xy + 25) 22. 13. 73.3. 0. 3. (a. (+!)( 2) 10.4. 9. 13. 5. 12.12. 4. 1 (?> x/^3. (a .2)(m. 2 &. 8 6 & 0. 2 <? 4a2 . 7.  5. 1. a . . 11. 18. 19. (a+&)( 2 14. 8. 5. (pl)(p2)(p2).+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).  4. 12. 2 V^ . a(. 2. 2. (pl)(p3)(p6). 20. 2.3. 3.  f .w 4 + 1). 2. 2 . 2 > 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).1. y. 73. 17.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 11. J. 20. 5. 4 4. J. 10. (rt. b . 13. 1. 2. . 17. 4. 3.3. 21. 15. 11. 7. 5. 4. 3. (8. . . 3 . 4. 15. P. 4. 13. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 3. 1. & + 6 2 ).  1. f>. 2 . 1 .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 17.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 12. 6.  3. J 24. 1 6. 2. V3. 6. 8. 9. 2. 1. 1 3. . 5. 20. 1. 4. ~ f7. . 8. 9. 2. 30.  3. 0. 11. . 2.  2. 6 2 2a + 2). 12. 3. 25. 11. 3.^a. . . 2.2. 1 . 8. 13.2. 5. 2. 4. 2. (a 4. 3. 24.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 14. . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 28. 3. 30 . 4. 1. 5.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 14. 2. . t/ 23.7. 2. 25.  16). l. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 12 24 y . 1.4. 4 1. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 7. qpl. 3. 4.2.4).. (63)(6' t 18. Page 233. a  . XXV 4. 15. (r. 4. 1 . 24.l)(a 2 + a f 1).  3. 1. 4. 12.3 2. 56l). 3. 0.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. . 11.l)(a3)(a . 50. 22. 3. . 19.r . 0. 3. 6. f . 3. 10. 7. 5. 4. 2. 2 . (w . o. 2. 2. 2.ANSWERS Page 228. . 3. 19. 4 20. 25. 2.0. 3 5. 26. . 8. (B43). . 10. 7. . 30. . 3.  . 100. 3.  J. ' J. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1. 5. 3.5. 25. 1 . 4.3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 6. . 4 . 1 . 7. 0. 2.22.4. 1. 1. 2. 14. 4. 0. 3. 1. 87 . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 4.  1. 3. . 2 6. (4 mn . 3 . 4. 2. 1. =A^Z3. a: :} . 2. 5. . 5. 16. 5.Y. 0. \/0. 1. 2. 3. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2 6. 3. 2 . 6. 6. 2. 8. 1.nl^EI. 30 30. 3. . ( 16. 16. 5. 1.3. 10. 23. 4.1. . (&y2a#H4). (m 4 + l)(ro. 7. 4. (2 a. 5. 2. 18.
n . Page 238. 4.13.6. 1. ft. 1. 4 34. 3. 4 . . in. 1.3. Page 240. 10. (&) 2. 5. 12. 0. 12 ft. . 40 25 in. 29. f>. 26. 8. $. 35 a. 21.200. 25. 9. 2 . 10. 1. 35 ft.4. 9. 1.3. . 2. 14. 2 2. 4. 1. 1. 8. 3. . _ 7. 8. 84. 3. 1. 4. Indeterminate. in.4. 2. 1. 40 in. 3 cm. 4.3. 3. 20.xxvi Page 237. $VO. 50. 3 2. 15. 11. m27. '>. 1. 40. Page 244. Exercise 114. 8. 1. . 4. 11.  11. . 20 7. 1 . . . .30. 9. 5 cm. 2. . 37. 36. 22. 5 4. 7. 37.. 4. 1. . 1 . . 19. 1 .4. 17. 31. 3.0.. 4. 3. 5. 7.4. . 4. x 4. 3. 24.020. 201. 4. 3. f*.1. 2V7. 55.  1. 3 . 900. 4. 400. 13. (a) 5. } . oo. 11. 3. 3. 4. 7. 2. 18. 5. 10. 3. 5. 2. 2 10. 4. 14. 23. 125 125. 4.. 37. ^~2. (>. . 512. . 5. 4. no co . 69. 78. . tn 2. 39. 5. n. 33. 4. ' j. ft. ft. 8. = QO 6. 1. 4. 8 3. 1. Page 241. 2 1. . 15. 7f solution. 8. in. 10. +  n.. 4. .1. . 32. 11. 4.e. . 2. 1. 5. 2. 14. 15.5.18. 12ft. 8. 30. 2 ft. 9. 5. f. Page 247. 5.3. 16. 2. 4. jj. V3~. . 45yd. . 3. 3. 8. 0. Page 245. 2 . GO . \. ^ }. 3. 3. 3. 17. 7. 0. and _ 4. 5. Exercise 113. 1. 15. 16. 1 2. 1. . m + n. 1. 5. 11. $.2.3. 14. 3. m28. 20. 2 Y> V . 3. 40 1} 9 3 ft.. 18. 13. 2. 2. ANSWERS 2. 3. 1. 2. _ 13 (0 6. 15. 5 . 16. 1 . j. 21. \/6.3 .1. 28yd. 21 30. 4 6. 6. 4. 14. 3 4. 12. in. 19. 7 3. 31. 3 . J. 6. 12. 5050. . 3.. 5. 12 1. 2 . 5. 1. 15. 1. 288. V7. i i i . 1J. 12 d. Page 248. 2. 23. 3. . (/>) "_. 20 in. J. 1. 1. 3 . i j.3. 2. .. 3. co . 1. c. . 1. oo . ( 3. 18. 35^ 5.5. 512. J. 9. 1. 3V5. 48. 7.. 4 8. 12.y.6. 7. }. . . _ 10. J. 3. i. 2n. 4. 1. 4. 2>/3. 3. 2.136. in. 1. 5. Page 243. 14. 5. 12. 30. 17. 11. 17. 2. . 12. 6. . 5.. 7. (a) $3400. 2. $46. 2 26. 9. 1. ri*. . 22. i'ljVU.  2 . 2 16. 6. oo . Indeterminate. 3 3. 1 . 2. 17.0. 38. 2.  . Page 239. 15. 5. 5. 8 . 1. 6. 50. 8ft. 2. 24. 1. 35. 3. . 2. .3. 17. . 1. . _ 5. 2. 14.. 2. 13. 41. 30 13. 2. 3.
5. 19. 29. 6. 3. 04. 20. 1. 1. 5. 8. 1820. 50. 6. . 9. 2. 2. 9. 2. 2. 2. 55. 125. 10. 13. 12. Ja. 9. . 4. Y11.384.v Page 253. \ w 4 . ^a 8. 2. REVIEW EXERCISE . 343. 3. 75. 5.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 10. x + Vy. 11. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . Page 254. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. 81. G. 7. r 5 4. 2.  101.5y 4 . .5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 5.419. 9. 8. ().210.2 45 a 8 /). 70. 25.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 10 14. 6. 7. 11. A. 1. 6. 53.5. 8. 1. 35. 16. ?/i 6 x llj . 4. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 4. 10. 18.0. &' 14. 4. 280 53. 1. 45. 15. 12.870 m*n*. 45 Page 257.13. 16.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 16. 27. 45.<2 4. 43. 327. JSg. 7. . 4. 21. 5 13. . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 8. 15. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . } $ 50. a4 4 14. 5. . 05. 8J. 7 x4 17.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 1000 aW. 12. 192. <. 343. 19. 27.12 x*y 16. 100. 9. 13. 27. 8 4x' 2 . 20. 3.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. vy. 6.6 . a.6. 16. 125. . 16. 1. . 4. 0.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 4. 5. 304. 0. 6. 21. f y 8 + z* . 3. 7. ~ an .7 10. 8 . 11.470. J 2 //2 25. 1.192. 8. 15. 17.120. 7.3 ays.5 x. 4. 220 . Page 258. d. . 4. x r 4. 1. 0. 17. 35. i 10. 2. 70. x4 . w9  8. **+. 8. 4. 2.  17. 0. 12.1. 7. 410. 3. 5. 1. Page 259. c. and 1. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 8. 120 aW. .r x>/ 7 3. ~v 9. 0.r 4. 1JH. 6. 4. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 10. . xxvii 1. 70. 18. in. />*. 13. 2. 14. 910. 1 7 4.4. 3. . 5. 8. 7.^ ?>i 2412x4.2 9. sq. '23. 2. 105. 48. 6. 1 14. 26. 16.x' 10 . 6i. 4 0. 04. 3.170. 0.  20 flW. 495. 3. 405. ' 1. 4. 4. Page 252. 4. 17. 2i* 7f.r* 4 70 . 15. 7. 15. 3. 3.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .53. 10. 4. 4. 16 11. 3.920. 1.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.ANSWERS Page 250. 32.8. 0. 3. 19. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 12. 18. 22.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 0. 6. 18. r r j. 2. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 128. 10. 1. 5. 23. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 2. 5. 27.700.504. . . 005. 708. 20. 12. 44. . 28. 5. 8 1. 9. 22.680. 8. 8. 12. B . 5. 0.4 &z x>&. . 3. 12. 16. I. Jj? 45.
4. 66. x2 2 . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 4 Page 264. 0. 2 x2 108. 7 + 3 xf 2. df. 76. 4ft y3. m " + n + P3c . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 26. +^ + ft W.6 am b\ 129. 125. .3 aftc.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .3 . 0. 50. 4 15 x 5 . ?> . . x8 x2 55. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. x } 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.6 b.2. 30. a* 4. . 10 4. 29.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 4 fee 4. f5+7. 38. 9 2w 128. t 81. ?/ . 2 2/' . 80. 82. 16. 40.4 2 4 c2 42 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. a2 2 aft 2 2. . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 132. 1 121.5 b + c .a. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 49. 52. 21. ^ . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.c.  3 x2 . 16t/.2 x 4. a~b 89. 96. x 2 . 2 53. 43.3 b . /> 4 83.a*ft 2 126.1w 77. 99.ac 44 aft. x 8 + x 4 68. 2 q. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 2 . 13 + 2 s. x .105. * 60. x 3 41. &p 84. 4 65.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3 a 5 a 5.x4 + y'2 z 4. . 0.  e +/. a J .4 x y 87. 36. 5 42.1 4 jry 4 x . 62.2 x^. 120. 104.7 x   15..c 3 4. 6 c 47. x' 79. 110.a 2 x 2a . 32. x' . 243x4729. 9x. + 3 a?. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. ?/ 3. x4 f + 23 .x x*  f 2 ax 4. . .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 131. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.  + 3 x2 .9 x . 3a'2 Page 261.1.5. 4 . 46. 100. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .3 y. x 8  a8 . 1 x 45.rty x2 4 123. 39.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. a 3m 4. 1 .{ 54.a'2 c. 4 2 . 31. 61. . az 4. c3 4 58.  4 a3 85. 122.3 103. 2 . x2 471x4. 2 x'V2 90. 2 30 . 3a~2c.x. . 2 113. 22.x 2 4. . 6 a2 97. 3 c . 124.4. 4. 35.^a . 1 a"* 4 an .a6 2 4. 127. 4. . .4.fee 2 4. 8x3 8x.41. . .4. . a4 x. 5 4 4. 3~ n 4. ft n .1.2. .1. 118.y*.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 28.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 114. Page 263. 12 x. ft2ft 4 4l.2 c . 2 . 70. x2 5r*x ft 5 .  12 a. + a 4. . 3 a . 2 a. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 130. 72.c.4. 14 x . 107. 86.7. 10 a 12 b. (a + ft)" 98. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 6a6c. 93. 102. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 3 36 b c . x 3 4.3 a'ft. 37. .ft). Page 260.4 ac. x* . y 4 z* 0. a 4 . 23. 4 69. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . . 8 . 91.5 a 2x8 x 3 .9 b. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 5x 2 2x43.4 x 2 . . . !! 71. a* a 8 a aftc. 12 a/. 25. _55_7c 48. 63.x24 73.18 x?/0. 27. 24. . 64.5x4. 109.a' 'ft 4. 105. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.3 x 2 + 3 x . x 4.1. xyxzyz. 94. . 3 a 44. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.  . () 2 x 33. 88.2.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 4 115.3 a 2 '6 w 4. ft /> 78. + z.15 4 62 x  72. .18 ?/ 5x4. 4 ! . 1 + 4 xy. I 57. 2 x2 4. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. a' 111.5 3n 4. as 20. x2 a2 1 .x 51.4 x?/2 3 4. 133. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 5x + 2y~z. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.
y  y 165. aft. xxix 139. (x^ + x1) 234. 163. y. 15. 36ft. (c) 160 C. 244. (JT y 225. (y _ ft)(y 4. 147 mi. (x + 6)(x6).3. (at (4 a +!)( + 3).. 12 6 panes. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 193.ANSWEKti 135. 6. 12 yr.3) (2/3y). 216. . 205. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 10. (6) 40. + 3). 1. 230.m)(x + a). 239. 1. Or (a + 2)0el). y3. r>x 2 (4x. 215. 171. 144. (x . 2 xy(3 x . 12. 12. 140. ?. 219. 22. 178. 199. Page 267. 137. 4. 8 204. y 245. 202. ft. 12) (j. 189. (?/+l)(yl). a. 3. 190. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 2(x8)(x3). 6.2).3 y)(a . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 195. 150. 2 (4 x . 157. + 2) + 9a. 19. 20. 155.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ).l)(x8 + x2 .y)(z . a(a. . 2^. (5 x . 151. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 214. 210. (y_24)(y5).2. 24. (y  17)(y + (>). 156. 48 h. . 235. 179. (2 198. 176. 10 ft. (a 2 + 2a6.y2 ).y + 3)(r (. + 11) (a 10). 4. 222.y)(jc + 7 y). 154. 1.6) (2 x + 1). 173. 247. +)(x2 x^+2. 15  a. 177.I2y). 136. as 194. 2 2 (a.l)(a 2 +3). p. (a} 59.l)(y + 1). (3x  . 158.. (r7y)(ai. 233. 10 in. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 3(x .y). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (3x2?/)(2. (2a + l)(a . (233). m. (/ 246. Page 265. 169. 153. 237.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 241. 212. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. yr. (x 227. (x + 2)(x .6)(4 + 6). 2. 187. 174. x(x + 6) 213. 1. 181. 23 18. 232. 218. .2). 1. 142.4xl). (xyX^+y" )1 243. 138. HI.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 175. 201.1). + 3) (x f f>) . C3 y _l)(. Page 266. (7x2//) 203. 75. 236.6 . k.2 )(x+y) 228. 50. 184. 185. 208. 21. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 2. Iff 145. 211. 168. .3 y). 240. 18. 6).2) (3 x . 2. 149. G7.. 220. 172. 238. 166.9)(xf 2). 146. 206. p.  1. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y)./_4). ( + 2y)(2x3y). 20. + y. 160. 209. fc'2a+62c). 5. 224. z(x10)(xl). 15. 1. (ab + 8) ( 7). 7. 182. 32 h. (r^x + 1). 191. (7 c 2 ).1).y) (\r3y). a + 2x2 ). + 7)(rt4). (a& 192.r + 4). (x  42 yr. (. (8x + 3)(3x4). 1. 2. 207. 37 1. ( jc // a 2 (a1). . 197. 12 yr.2ac + 229. 164. 30 yr. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 231. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 30. 161.r .. 159. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 218. 8(ar}(/)27). 167. a 2 (15.1(5) 200. 217. 226. 180. 2. 183. 147. 148. (y 7f))(y 196.1). 143. 170.3). (y7)(y + 188. 152. 162. 1. . 30 + xyr. 40 yr. + 22). 10). 186. 3. 10). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl).
7. 5. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 298. 306. &). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 303. 3. 0. 0. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 279. 3  262. 266. a.1. 43 '^rJ'. x 283. 7^T 2 . ^/>J. x 267. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 3). + f.  7. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. a~ ' b*). 249. 3). 264. 268. ? 1) 302. 261. x12. (7 255.2* i^^ !^. 305..(x  4) (x4 304. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 263. 250. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o(x4l). 310.   .  3xyf x// 257. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275.^ ^^. ?^ZLiZ 308. 259. 4 5. *. 295.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. o.^^^^^^^^. *>). 2 4 300. 269. 260. 254. x ?/ z 1. 301. 2 x  3.4) 1) (3 x . (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 251. 258. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 2. 10. 307. 256.4). > 4. ^ 299. x . 7 x 265.
?>*. 7.(5 a . 370. 379. 375.". " 4 378. <L 409. ab. ^_:r f> 331.  1 356.. 380. 20. 6a. f. L . + 4 & 4 \ b. 1.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 2.vin a /r " 337. If.3.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 377.. 393. 0. + x 362. 389. 395. . j 328. ?/ + 3 332. ^"" 4 s . 400. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 406. 1. x 54 359. y 4 I 340. 2. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 361. l . 1.7. 324. 383. 1 i 2 ^. 9^. _*L'L+. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 386. 3. S. .  1. a) A^_. .1. * 357. 0. 355. a +6. 13 391. 398. 407. 7/i ^ _ . 364. A^L5L. 365. 399. m. + 335. 382. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. T\. 1. .!. 392. 2 ). ?=. 12. 387.XXXI Page 272. 336. Page 277.J . 2 327. 3. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 0. 397. 3. 385. 2 ab  a Page 276. ^ 3 // . 2(a i 403.)Cr4)__ . 2 ?/ 363. 325. 6 ?/+:>. 401. 334. 396. 2 r36 384. 360. 394. c 402. 4. 1. 405. 388. 333. 390. . 0. Page 274. 2(q. 4 A. 329. 366. 404. 376. 11. T+^. a 2 . 408. 343 00 351. . l'j. 339. 4 rw. 4. a + b + 6). 326. (a + b + c\ .
0. 452. m 1 : wi. 2. B $ 2500.0. 7. 6. 502. 442. c 6fc 10. 496. . 2$. 10. 440. 479. 2. 7. (c) not true. 21. 10. 493. 5. 2. 42. />c c(f be. 33. 2. 7 : . ISjmi.5.3.2.489. (&) 443. 8. 2. 456. 439. 51. 7. . 5. * .46. + () 433. 3a 4 5. 460.  453. 0. 454. Page 278. . 448.12. 3. 8.  2f 504. 410. 419. Page283. 5J.1. 10. 32.  505. 6.7. 90. 508. \. .7. 455.  2. 501. 494. 441. 468. *+. 53 yr. 12. 432. m. 3 . 476. 5. A 5 mi .4. 6. 477. 499.  2. ft 5. 8. 0. . 457.4.vz in. 459.. 467. (&) true. 427. (d) true. 63. c. 40.m  m+ M in.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. i. 413. (a  c).2..}. A $ 3500. fc.}. 0. 6. 20 yr. 24 days. ^. . 492. 1. 4. 461.  7. 50. Page 281. 485. . . 4. 4. L2 a  6 . 446. (d  6) f. (a) 1. fj.  1. 450. & 491. 430. 435. 2. 1. 17. 1 a /?$+&?. 482. 8. 486. 7. 7. ISJini. 411. a 22 . !L=4. ^r?i 434.. 423. a* 424. . 462. Page 282. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 9. 5. 2. . 2. 11. 478. 3. 426. 40 oz. 10$. 490. 436. Page 280. 465. 5. 458. 10. 503. 421.. . 10. 2 438. B 4 mi. 1. . 429.  1.  2. 483.7. 14 miles. \ 1. 0. 472.. 445.7. 1$.0.  .7. 495. . ' $260 at 0%. 18. 6. 84. 32 yr. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 466. 444. 3. 1. not true. 412. 28 yr. b 449. L (c) I. 498. 500. <L+ 6 (. 422. 0. 425. 481. 2 a 2. 487. i a b 451. 0. ^V. 1. . 497. .rz Page 279. 480. 420. 506.te + . 6. 20. $2000 at 0%. 463. 428.. 6. : />a. 464. 5. '. . . 484. I. z8 +?/ 3 431. .  7. 10. 2. 418. 507. 17.  10. a + + ft c. 10. 447. 2.3.  f>. 4.55. 22.488.
1. 3. . 558. f. . . (6) 3.78. 578. 2(6 597.3. 14.03. 582. 598. 7. 3 da. f36a28x8 592.78.4. ^ ft 4.3.1. _^ 2754x .0. (i) 3.3.35. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 2.3.4 x + . 6.24.  2. per hr.0. 550. 3 .38. . 593. . 527. 583. . (/)  10 to 8. lead. 533. 554. 565. . 40 Ib.10. 4.  ft*. 1.8. 561. ft 584. a f ft + c.5.25. 1J.8. . 1.. . . 2. . 564. Page 287. 509. + 26 + .2. 532. per hour. 1.3.4. 574. 2. . 3. . + 12 x . 528.1.04. 4.51.5 f. 577.  + + c. 552. 512. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 530.  imag. 2 1. 2 1. 5. 4. . If 572. 2..ANSWERS Page 284.62. .1.5.% rr\* 585.15. 2 .54.  4. 1. 1. 2(4 602.10.55.5.03. 8. 3.16.15. 2 10.02. 1. 27 y* f\4 .3. 1.75. 1 600.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 562. 3. 3. 510. tin. 232. (c) 4.24. 5.  2ft da.73. 4. 513. (6) . 2$. 0. 3. S82 c.3. tin. T . f.83.14. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 0000. g(rc+ 6c).r8 596.6.4. (a) 74 Ib. > ^ .1. 559.33.  3. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 115 Ib.7.56 sec. 3. .. 525. 3f 4f. 2.9. 571. 516. 4. 536.6 2.37. 4 0.6. 1. 1$. 3. 569. 2. 1. . y 4. 6435.1.54.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. .. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. . 1.02. Page 285. 4. (ft) Ill Ib. da. a+ Page 286.53. Roots imaginary. 1 580. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 575. 2 . 8 mi. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. (ft) 4. 566. 4. H.5. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 7^ da. . 515.4.6. 529. + 6 tf f 3 . imag. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . . (c) 3.  1. 3.7.88.f 1.83.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. (e) 570. 531. 6.8. x8 .  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 1.05. 1 .7.15. 579. 563. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .62.  J(a f + 2c). _ 3. 31. 581. 1. 551. a + ft  a  f c.30. J7] min.  (a) 2.0. 1.6.3. 4. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 1. 526. 1.20. 2 imag. lead.  557. 576. 21*_. 3. . <z ft 1. 5. 560. 2. 567.31.  . 603. 553.02. 555. o> .4. 573.5. .00.75. 1.  (a) (d) 1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. . (gr) 10 1. a*8a + 24tf 82a. xxxin 511.21. 591.04. (e) (c) 2. .24 sec. 3. . (d) 537. 1..0. 1 .4. 3.   (h) 8. 4* da. _ 4. 3. 5.8.xj/ f xV .52. 1. Page 288. 1. 24 da.8 x3^. 514. 2. 2 2.25m.37. 24.12. y% Z * 586. 556. .31. 518. 1. 1. 568. 599. 1.02. .5+. or 8. 4.  7. 4 mi. 3. 2.
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x i f^' . 714. 726. 29\/3. 3V72VO. 00. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 8. 3V52V3. 740. . 3 VlT 795. 753. 778. 17ft.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. . 768. 756.r+y> 759.11. 763. 722. 24. 24 4 . 300. 790 2v 3v 2. 734.4 . 30\/10 764.~ . > 748. i^. 750. ^ . 731. 3^. VT14V5. v'll.4 . J(v'lO2V 791. 13ft. 3 720. 777. 8. a db Va^T < 45da. 33^2. 732. 776. .^.9. 34.^ 743. 788.rJ w L 754. v/7 / .ANSWMHti Page 292. 711.8. 751. 727. 738.12 af V^ 4 744. 2 V2 . 792. T%. ^ ?>. 796. fyaw&cu. a 5 . 730. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 725. 39.. Hi a.10. 24V2. 712.257. 716. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 767. y  1. 755. j 742. rt3 2 ^i^. 789. a". 32>/2.V/^ 741. 25. r. i 2. 719. 342V3. 769. 1 I . 1. cr*lr*. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 1 747. 715. 2x3^ a. ^7xy. . mn. 1 [ + '> J. 773. 739. 1. 1 752. 3V7.. 59. 749.V2. 1^ _ 760. "V313. 737. VIO\/3. Page 294. / 787. 709. iv/Jj. a 2  x2 .1 . a 2 6^. 5.9.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 713. 718.2. 2\/53V2.. 782 785. 1. 15 shares. VV> L4V34. 729. 794. 723. 3. a:* . 724. + < 735. Page 293. 47. + 6 2 tf'c. 736. 710. x\y. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 721. 4 104 v/2.. 793. . 3V72V3. 758. 733. 7  3V5. 746.r. 5. 728. 717.
2 . 0. 2.XXXVI 797. f./>") (a'. 4.1). 896. 892. (a m . 867. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 2. 884.4. 814. 2 . ((' 1). 7. 829. 799. 812. (x 2 f r . (3 862. a 42)(x .1)(V 2 . ( 869. 808. 895. +j!>. 4. 4. (4 c 4. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . o 828. jV3 f 3. 5. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). a(ft)( 873.1) (a 8 . 2. 4 818. 817. 4. 10. 3. 5). 810. 4. 0. 3. 847.1) . 824. 880. X4 1). 2 m . 1. o. (2 x + 3 y} . 2. 2. 48. 833. 5. 2 806. (1 . are extraneous. H. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.l)(x + 3)(2x43). Page 297. 6+V7. 3 . 816. 1. a(ry + 864. 887.1. 4. (x 4. + d)*. . 11. (x3). ^. 7. 898. .7. . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .7). 2 854. 813. 1. 0. 897. 801. 1 . 861. 879. 857. 822. **. 836. 3. 6. 893. 883. 2. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).4) 860. 13. 876. m 875.+ m f ") (a* ). 23. (x*y*ryz + z*).. 5. (x 845. 841.3.  + l(l^).4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). Hoots .4.10 ab 4.l)(x + 2). ) (a' 874.f.3)(x + 4). 8 09. db 7.y) 852. 14.7 4 1) 846. 17. 2 . 6. 899. 800. 894. J V. 819. 844. n =  29. 851. 811. 4. 2  2. .. (x . 4. 4 . 2 j 889. 900. 19. (. $. 837. 11. 4. 1.  ' . 2. (x + 0X024. 820.7)(4 x. 868. 838. 890. 830. 1. 858. m = 2. (a 1) (x 4.. 8. 2/ 856. Va 803. . 834. (x . 3. 804.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04.r4). \/5. 2. 849. ^ V}. (a 4 871.7). 16xyV2*/^~x2 . . (2x (r. 3. (xl)(^~3)(.1)(0 865. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 3. \/2. 4. (:r 11. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 3. 0.25 ?>2). 826. 843. . 842.5 b) 4 1). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 6(a6)(o a + + &). Hoots are extraneous. 823. ANSWERS 798. 2 (x 4*4. ^VG. 5. x. 891.5) (x + * 853. 881. a* 4. 3.a 4 + 1). 6. 825.  839. 2. 5. 7. b' 2 821.2w . .l)(x . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . (2 a . (2 4. 17. Page 296.2 ax 4.3. 848. 25. $. 888. . x . 4. 835.om 441) (a 855. ( 4 4. 20). 840. . 827. 859. 6 $. 886. 3.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. Va. 863. V 3.  tt 815. 2. 1 1. 831. 8. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . (3 b . 882.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 872. . 2 *x 807. 2 2 . 7. 3.  1. 4 885. 1C.rae) (4 . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 832.a 3 " 4.l)(x .r . (x 2 .0. . .2) (x 4 2).a 2 2 ). a2 ^E*!.
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2 .. 1014. 4. 120 a. (J. () 12(2+V3).'^^ } ( . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1017. 991. X. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 72. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 8. 120 i^l^. 993. 0. 24.92. 192. 1005. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1012. 9 da.192rt?)r 120 *.51. 1001. 995. . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 12. (6) 8(1 . .  5&7 1021. 12. 1008. 1003.128 I. Page 305. 2(2 v/2). 1(5. 996. ^f (2f3V2). 988. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . in. 1006. 994.378 <W and 92. 1000. (Z>) 999. (5.18. 1019. 1018. 108. ^Trsq. 0. 1 1004. 48. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1007. 6 70 . r = 2.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . Page 304. + 448 . 997. 990. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .870 z8 . 3003. . 4 and 1020. 1013.378 1015.. + v 2).870 a 6 1011. 1009. 162. 992. 1016. 1 8 8 2. ~ \. 1010.
proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.25 lamo. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. so that the Logarithms. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. xiv+563 pages.D. $1. A examples are taken from geometry. than by the . which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Ph. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The more important subjects tions. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. i2mo. HEW TOSS . save Inequalities. great many work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. given. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. comparatively few methods are heretofore. physics. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xi 4 373 pages. etc. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and commercial life. Half leather. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.
Half leather. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. comparatively few methods are given. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. save Inequalities.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. etc.25 i2mo. $1. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. and commercial life. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Ph. Logarithms. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. HatF leather. xi f 373 pages. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. In Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. so that the tions. xiv+56a pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. HEW YOKE . The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The author grade. great many A examples are taken from geometry. 12010. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
xii + 233 pages. iamo. 7 he . 10. Cloth. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Cloth. aoo pages. 9. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 6. more than 1200 in number in 2. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .r and. . State: .10 L. 4. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Ph. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Half leather. SCHULTZE. under the heading Remarks". izmo. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. wor.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . NEW YORK . $1. i2mo. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . $1.. lines. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. SEVENOAK.D. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.
12mo. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York City. of these theoretical views. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. and not from the information that it imparts. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . $1. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . 370 pages. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.
photographs. Topics. An exhaustive system of marginal references. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. i2mo. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. and a full index are provided.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. diagrams. " This volume etc. Maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Cloth. diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. $1. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.
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