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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH.
1910. 1910. 1915.A. 1917.' February. . 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Reprinted 1913. J. August. January. . May. 1910 . July. IQJS January. Mass. Norwood.. 1911.S. September. Berwick & Smith Co. 8. May.COPYRIGHT. September. Published Set up and electrotyped. . U. Cushlng Co.
All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. however. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. specially 2. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. chief : among These which are the following 1. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. etc. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. and conse . giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Elementary Algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. owing has certain distinctive features." this book. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules..
especially problems and factoring. are placed early in the course. e. two negative numbers. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. For the more ambitious student.g. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . however. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. etc. hence either book 4.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. as quadratic equations and graphs. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. Moreover. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.
an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. viz. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. such examples. is based principally upon the alge . and commercial are numerous. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application." Applications taken from geometry. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. Moreover. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. based upon statistical abstracts. in " geometry . McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. By studying proportions during the first year's work. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. elementary way.
pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. however. 1910. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . NEW YORK. April. William P.
III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ....... Powers..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... SUBTRACTION.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. .........
The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..114 .. Type Polynomials. . /^ . * .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type V. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type IV.. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type III... Type II. .. Type VI... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ...
148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... .... Evolution of Monomials 170 ....... .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
4V3~6c. 9. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. c = 1. 2 . v'Ta. c f d). a polynomial of two terms. (cfd) 4. 17. since the parts are a . 6. aVc^. 7 = 2. \/c. e. 10.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 0. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. or 9 Vx. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. d 7. 26. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. V3 . some number is . as in arithmetic. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. V36". a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 8. is 28. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 15. 5Vl6c. x 9. + c). 27. 6. 12. Val \fi?. 14. 11. b = 3. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. find the numerical value of: Vff. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 13. + 1]. are trinomials. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 4(a 6(6 + &). A binomial is 62 . 16. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. V^a6.g. V2a. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. [6c] 3 . Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). !^f\/03 3 ft. 2. 3.
30 = 270 . . d=Q. b = 3. c=l. 5c +d 2 . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 10. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 14. 16.19 = 6. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 4 .390. Ex. 3a + 56 a 2 .g. EXERCISE 8*  . = 32 + 4527 = 50. 4. 2. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 6.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.9 aWc + f a b . x=^. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. . Otherwise operations of addition. 3 2 If 1.4 6^9 ad. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. a2 11. 3 4 .5 ax 50 a6cd. * For additional examples see page 268. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . (a (a f b) 7. __ E..INTRODUCTION 29. 2.99. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. d = 0. 8. multiplication. 3. 52 . c = 2. . 6. 1.810 + 150 = . a=4.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . + 26+3 c. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 12. i. 5=3.9. Ex. a 2 6. l 13. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 4a6fVaV2^. find the numerical value of: 9. subtraction. .e. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.2 + I126. 5. 2 ).
: 6. a = 4. 6. 22. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 5. 34. 33. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 2. a = 3. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 24. 28. 27. 38. 35. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a = 3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 30. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 26. a =4. 6. a = 4. 6 = 3. Read the expressions of Exs.6 f c) (6 a + c). geometry. and other sciences. 6 = 6. 30. a. 6 = 6. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 37. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 23. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. if : a = 2. = 3. physics. sible to state Ex. 6 = 5. . 25. a a=3. 6=2. 29. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a = 2.6 . 6 = 4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. Six 2 . 6 = 1. 6 = 7.c) (a . a =3. Express in algebraic symbols 31.
seconds. 13. .INTRODUCTION E. c. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v = 30 miles per hour. and 5 feet. b 14. the area of the triangle equals feet.e. then a 13. and 15 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 14. and 13 inches. (b) 5. (c) 4. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 12.16 centimeters per second. b. 84 square EXERCISE 1.g. i. An electric car in 40 seconds. count the resistance of the atmosphere. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 15 therefore feet. 2. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 4. and c 13 and 15 = = = .) Assuming g . Find the height of the tree. if v : a.16 1 = 84. A train in 4 hours. d.
If the (b) 1 inch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. ~ 7n cubic feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. meters.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 10 feet. (c) 8000 miles. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 5 miles.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (The number 3. .). (c) 5 F. square units (square inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. $ = 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. is H 2 units of length (inches.14 square meters. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 32 F. : 8000 miles. the area etc. the 3.14d (square units).14 4. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. 2 inches. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.). Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 5. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).
SUBTRACTION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In algebra. however. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. . the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. or positive and negative numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.
of: 20. 5. 5. '. 4. c = 4. 12. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. c = = 5. 6 6 = 3. is 2. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. . 24. 10. 18. lf(2). d = 5. + 12. if : a a = 2.3. 4 is 3 J. 23. 22.  0. 2326. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. the one third their sum. 33. subtract their absolute values and . (17) 15 + (14). (_ In Exs. 19. d = 0. + (9). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. is 0.16 32. of 2. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. Thus. = 5. 21. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.
c=14. 29. 2. ' 1? a 26. 1. 30. : 34.. = 13. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.7. . .. and 3 a. c = 0. and $4500 gain. 72. . 32. $500 loss. and 3 a. which are not similar. 12. . ' Find the average of the following 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. d= 3. 31. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 6. AND PARENTHESES d = l. : and 1. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.4.5. 09. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 5 and 12. 0. 41. 13. 25. 60. \\ Add 2 a. SUBTRACTION. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 3. ^ ' 37. 11 (Centigrade).ADDITION. 6. 37. & = 15. and 3 yards. 43. 10. . 55. & 28. or and . = 23. affected by the same exponents. 36. 10. 2. }/ Add 2 a. and 4. 10. 7 a. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 33.13. and 8 F. = 22. 7 yards. . 27. 35. 38. sets of numbers: 13. $7000 gain. 32. 7 a. 4 F. are similar terms.3.5. 3 and 25. 42. $1000 loss..7. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 39. : 48. . 4. and 3 F. 74. 40. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 34. 6. 66. $3000 gain. .
5 a2 . Algebraic sum. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b a f ( 6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.18 35. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .sign. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 2 . 12 2 wp2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 .ii. 12(af b) 12. 5l 3(af6). EXERCISE Add: 1. 11. . or a 6. 14 . 13. 2 a&. 7 rap2. + 6 af . 10. 12Vmfn. 2(af &). Vm f. in algebra it may be considered b. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. f 4 a2. 3a .13 rap 25 rap 2. 5Vm + w. : 2 a2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 9(af6).
ra 19. SUBTRACTION. c 2 ^24. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 36. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2 7 1 26. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 17.ADDITION. is . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 21. l^S 25. + y. n x* 2 22. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. + / + 3 Va. 30. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 37. 2 2 2 31. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. a a8 ZL **. 35. and to add each column. without finding the value of each term 34. +m """ 20. 33. 32. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 1 27. 6 23. 2/ : Add. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 .
2c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.o c and 4. therefore the answer is correct. of that letter.41 = 3.15 abc . .g.3 s.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 5 . 7 4. 9 q 4. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . a 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.g.c= 2. and J 2 s.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 3. f 110WS: 26 aft. V3. .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 46 4z 7 c. e. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.12 a& 4. ft any convenient and c. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 5. 4 2. 2 Thus.20 c 5 ab 4.15 6c.7 2 . to show any error. to add 26 ab . = . 4 = 7. 3 a f 4 1) 4.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 2 . 3a 2? . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 Sum. .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . NOTE.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . the erroneous answer equal 7. and 2 . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2 025. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 6=2. s. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. x of x.8 abc . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. c = 1.
4(a . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.9(a + &) . a. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 19. a) y ^/. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .1. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.4 Va .a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . and 1 4 a . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2 a.a. ?/ .12 6 ~5 a .10 Vc. and and 13.2n 2 2 3 rz . xy3xz + yz.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 3 2 2 3 9 .7v/if. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.5a^6 f 6) . and 8 3 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. + a + 1. 4 3 . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 16e + 17/90. 4 8 3 4 4 . and v 15.8 m 2m 12. 2 and 9m 48m 4. d.a. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.4:xy xz 6yz. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a2 a. 4 Vc.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a2 2 14.ADDITION.6.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. SUBTRACTION. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 4 ajy 17. ^2 1 e. e a4 /. 2 ?ft ?/z.7m . .a 4 a 4 1. and 5 Vb 18. and . 2 ?/. . v/20.1 a 4 1 0. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a 4 a . in 8 3 m n 4.Ga 43x45. 2 3(c f a). a 4 a . d and / 3 ? 12. m 4 6.15 5. . . . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . . 2 2 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2 2 and . .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .and 6.VS 4 2 Vc. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. . 11. . 4.12. 7ar + 3B 5. 8. 18/+6y + d. 56 w.5 cr& + 7 6 9.12(a 4. + 50 + 62 . 16. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).(b + c) 1. and 12a 4 15& 20c . .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .
s . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. +d a. and 2 24.5< 3 2 s 4^4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. and 25. is 2. If you diminish a person's debts. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 8 . f 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 45a6 2 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 2 8 n + <w 2 . f 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. how 1. 13 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. 22. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.3^* 2n 2 .4 2tn* Sic 2 . . 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. + 1.17 + 4 ?nfy .11 xy + 12. 12 xyz. 1/ . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . ..22 21. f number may be added 3. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. + n*. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1.ra + m. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.9aj 2. 6 f c 2 23. T8a. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. The sum and ? 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and e + 6y . 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. many negative units re main ? from 2. c 3 3 3 2 3 . a 6 2 c.
ADDITION. From 5 subtract to . . +b 3. ab = x. 41.g. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 2. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 6 (3) = 8. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. ( 6) ( = . two numbers are given. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number.2.3. This gives by the same method. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. called the minvend. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. if x Ex. 7. From 5 subtract + 3. a. Ex. Or in symbols. and their algebraic sum is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. To subtract. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. In addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 5 is 2. Therefore any example in subtraction different . the other number is required. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. In subtraction. the given number the subtrahend. NOTE. and the required number the difference. SUBTRACTION. 3. from What 3. 1. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.
If x = l = 2 t . Check.3 r*5o. Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .f 8 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8.
of a 4.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. c f d. 2y 2 .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.c. + a the 2 a. 51.a 2 j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .4 a*& + 6 a & . 44. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 41. 50. 43. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 58.7 a . 54. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 6 4 a. 2.ADDITION. 42. SUBTRACTION. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . check the answer. 47. From 2 a take a & j. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From 6(af. 57.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 55. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . and 3 7/ . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 48.2. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 53.6)f.w>t. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 56.4 a^ 4. 52. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 46. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . tract 4 x 3. 45. 49. .
What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 20. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 6. 19. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 6 17. + 6 + c. a 2y + z. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .26 4. 9. 16. a + 6. a a + c. subtract # + 1. A is n years old. of # 2 8.15. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 2 m 21. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. + 2. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.
46.2 b .g. 45. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. I. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.c. a+(bc) = a +b . SUBTRACTION.b c = a a & f f. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. II. the sign is understood. & f c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. Ex. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. changed. .a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4.ADDITION.6 b f (. one occurring within the other.
2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 15. [36+ (a 2c].1422) J ] . 5. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 8. 2 2 2 a(. 3 3 f 7. 16. 271 + (814 . : x + (2yz). 4.+ 6)f (a2 b). 6. . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. m f ft) a. ? 11. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.) 5 . + (2a 6 + c ). 2.(a + 6).)]. may be inserted according to 43. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. Ex. a f (a a . (m a2 f. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). By removing parentheses.[271 47. 9. 18. 13. a (a + 6).: Ex. 6) 2.y (60. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 2 2a. 3. 14.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 17. In the following expression inclose the second and third. Signs of aggregation 1. 21. 19. a (a + 26 c ).
The product The product m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 5. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. a\l> > c + d. 3. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. p + q + rs. 8.7fa. 7. )X 6. 2mn + 2q3t. 5 a2 2. 4. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.4 y* . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. m x 2 4. 9. 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 10. 12. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 13. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. terms 5. first. of the cubes of m and n. z + d. 6 diminished . m and n. II. 5^2 _ r . SUBTRACTION. The difference of a and 6. 3.ADDITION.2 tf . The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 2. 7. The square of the difference of a and b. and the subtrahend the second. y f 8 .1. ' NOTE. difference of the cubes of n and m.
16. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.) . b. 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 18. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6.30 14. d. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. A A A 1. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 3. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 4. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. two loads balance. 5. let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. therefore. If the two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 2.
( (. Practical examples^ it however. the multiplier is a negative number. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. x 11. Thus. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.9) x 11.32 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. however. NOTE. To take a number 7 times.4)(4) = + 12. 9 x ( 11). thus. 5x(4). Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4)(. becomes meaningless if definition. or plied by 3. 4 multiplied by 3. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 9 9. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. (5)X4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4x(3)=12. 4 multi44444 12. 48. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. (. . such as given in the preceding exercise.
23. 12. 4. 24. 3 aW. 19. If a cal = 4a6c. 1. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 6 2. x. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 29. 32. (4)'. _2. 22. 1. (7) X (12).(4J). 7. 6. (10) 4 . 3. (. 15.3. 27. Ua b 28. 10. 20. 11. tors is no misunderstanding possible.(a&c) 2 2 . 14. _2^ 3.2. 8 4 . c = 25. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. . X(5). 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 2a 2 6c. 8 31. +5. of Signs: TJie positive.2 f+x 2 . 5. 3 a2?/2 . (2) 8 (. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (c#) . 30. 26. 4 a2 . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. NOTE. 4 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.3) (1) 7 2 . 6. Law Thus. b = 3. 9.7. and y = 4. about fac (2)X If 6. z s 11 aWcx. is 6x7. 2. _3. x= 0. . (4)X(15). 17. 16. etc. . 8.MULTIPLICATION 50.4.2f 18. 2a6 c . . 3. find the numeri values of: 21. .a)( =+ a&. (2)x9. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 5x3. 13.
3 2 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 3. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 4. 5 . = 2. 2 3 . 1. a = 2.m a 3  4 .7. 2 2 3 6 . or 2 . =2 a *. Ex.  and 2 25 8 . 4. 2. : 3a7abc.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 9 . 50(112. a 2 2 . B. 5 = 2. 78 . i.<?.e.257).12 Perform the operation indicated 12. Ex. 6 = 1. 5(711. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. . 17. & = 3. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .6 if 35. 200. 3. 34. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.2 2 23 + 5 . 14. 2.(7). 6.(2. 7. . fl*" integers. 3 3 4 . 4. 16. a= 1. 2(7. 6" 127 U . IB.. 100. By 3 definition. (a6) (a5) 9. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . + 2/). 6 aWc x .2).35). if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 5 3 5 3 2 . 2 2 2 . &*) c d*. of the factors. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. . m*. 10.503). 4 x (2 25) =8 25.3). . 53.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .  2 2. 36. 2(14.(12) . 11. 127  127 9 7 . 13. a8 a=2. 6 = . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. This 52. 5. 12 U U . a = 3. ..
29. This principle.3 win ) . (. 27. multiply each by the monomial. 23. 22. 11(3.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .7 w'W (8 n^W). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.7pqt. 7p*q r*. 20. /). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 31. 25. 24. 35.2 3 aft ). . c(4a ftc ). by first multiplying. 21. 12( + 1 4 i). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 35 4 7(6.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. . 4 aft 5 aft 2 . Thus we have in general a(b 56. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 7. 5.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . but we shall assume it for any number. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 23(10004100420). 3(124342). 6.A). 26. ) 2 33. 2(645410).6. 17(10041042). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 28. . 2 32. 2.4a#.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. and then adding : 1. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. called the distributive law. 19. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 4. ax /) 2 4 1 (. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. If results ft. _4aft. 34. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. (.f 2). . 2(5fl5f25). 6(10420430).
29. 5).3 aftc). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 30. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.^ c + 2 . . . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). . 9. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.5 w*V f 7 wn).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 11. 22.asa product. f7a. 26.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 7 a 6 c(. 28. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 17. .60 a& 10 aft.5 x 7). 2 m(mhn \p).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 21. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. be multiplied to give 4o. : expression must 24.we b) (x law. ~2mn(m +n p ). By what 25.6 a6). 12. 20.2 mn(9 mV . 23. 19. 2 27. 3 ). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . Find the factors of 6 ary . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 2 2 16.
the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.4. Since all powers of 1 are 1. Ex. .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. To multiply two polynomials.1.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. the student should apply this test to every example. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 59. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. however. Check. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 b by a 5 b.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Since errors. a2 + a8 + 3 . 2a3b a66 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 a 2 + a8 . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a . 2.
OQ OO. I (mfn)(m4. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). QQ O7. (6a~7) 2 . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). . (4a 2 33. 2.2). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 5. 36). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 3. 10. 32. 13. a 5c)(2a6c). 28. (13 A. (6p (2 f 21. 36. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 12.4) (mnp 4. 4. 25. 1). (8r7*)(6r39. . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 20. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 16. 17. 2 . ^ 2 . (6i7n)(llJn).2m)(l m). 41. 11.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 36) I) 14. 2  37.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 2 . 24. 9. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 35. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 3<7). 15. (a^26) . (2w 19. 8. * For additional examples see page 261. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 26. 40. 6. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 12)(a?^2l). (2 x* x 2 . 31. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 7. 4 2). 7y).1 . 22. 30.4) (x + 1).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 18. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). l)(raf 2). 29. 2) (3 A: 1).
9. (J 23. 18. 21. 26. _3)(a _4). 1005x1004. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 17.n)(wf w). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 22.2 6) (a f 6). (*. 25. plus the product 62. (a (a (a. + 60)(f2). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 11. + 3) (a 7). i. 1) (10 + 2). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 20. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 2) (1000 + 3). ft 16. : 23 2.25)(y+4). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. X 102. (ra. 2 6) (a 3 6). 12. (a 102 x 103.e.e. 6. 28. . 19. 10. (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 5) (1000 + 4). + 9)(m+9). (10+ (1000 (2. (6 12) (6 f.13). 13. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (!)(* 5). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 25 a 2 . The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 75 ab f 54 ft . Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 7. in of the two unequal terms. (a3)(a + 2). 14. . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). i. (a 9) (a + 9).!!)( (a + 21).4). plus the product of the two unequal terms. . 27. 8. 24. 15. 2 a? 29. 3. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. + 2) (a f 3). (p12)(p + ll).
. (a26) 2 . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . . 35. a2 2 w + 2 w . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. n2 10ii+16. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. : 24 (a 2. second. of the second. 31. III. 9. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. (x+3i/) 2 . III.15. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 63. + 3) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first. 7. 3. 6.30. w 2 ro . (a2) (p a . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.66 s. 2 5.e. 32. 2 (a (*5) 2 . p 2 p. and the second. plus the square of the second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 4. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. i. . i. + 6 a + 8. 49 y*. 7 a + 10. plus twice the product of the first and the second.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 34. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 8. <J>7) J . plus sum of two numbers the square II.15. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 33.e. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 37.e. Ex. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36.
(^. 2 9a 496 2 56. 998x1002. . 29. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . The product of 57. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 2 . 103 36. a2 9. 23. 28. 47. 22 2 . 18. 2 . 31. 62 25n 2 . 54. . 45. 32. 52. 7& ) 25. 49. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. (a 3) 2 2 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (1000 2 . n 2 f4n+4. + 5). 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 991 2 2 .998 39. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 38. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 12. 17. n*6n+9. 41 16. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ).MULTIPLICATION 10. 14. 24. 44. 16aW25. + 5)(5+a). 11. ). 46. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 J ). 22. ( 27. 99x101. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). G> +5g)*.30 ab + 25 6 64. 34. 2 (4a36) 2 13. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 15. By actual multiplication. 42. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 21. . (2x3yy. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (20 f 1) . . 104 2 37. 51. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 35. m 2 16. 48. 55. 40.ll^X^+lly (100 30. I) 2 . 25 a 9. 41. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 9 a2 . 33. 4 53.
6. ((5a? (10 12. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. . and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). ) (2 of a polynomial. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 10. 13. (5a64)(5a&3). (5a4)(4al). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). The square 2 (a 4. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). or The student should note minus signs. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 65. 3. 4. 14. 8. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. : 25 2. plus the last terms. (3m + 2)(ml). (4s + y)(32y). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 7. 11. 5.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products.& + c) = a + tf + c . 9. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). sum of the cross products.
Find the square root 11. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 8. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).3)(z.r _ 2 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). .4) .3) (x . = .(= [ Xa + 2 .X2 + 2 x . 4(aj2)h3(7).8 x + 15] . = 10 x .24] . a. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 3. 13. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (xy+z)*. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 6~2(a + 7). If x = 1. n).29.(>. Hence.(m 2 6. 7.39.3) . (a (. 5. 3. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4y sf n) 2 . 2 2. 12.y? + 8 . 5. (  2 4) =  20 a. 7. 4. 8. (u4& + 3c'. 2)6.4) . of z : 10.i2&c) 2 . 6(a 2. after multiplying the factors of a term. and check the answers !. 4(* + 2)5(3). 6. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.24 .(x . + 6)( . Check.1 5 = 10 .[a? . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.39. 9. 66. + 65) . 4. Ex.5) = (7 .5). 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .2) (3 a . 19. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. . 20. 18. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .2).e. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).11 a + 9 a . (81 m + 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).l. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. a I. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 51 15. 16. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .DIVISION 14.
16 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !. 10. 15.49. 1. 16. f 13. 4 b. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14.0001. 121a a 16 100 11.000. 12. aW 12 a. 9& 2 . . . 100ry. r/ 1.
in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. hence it is an equation of condition. second member is x + 4 x 9. =11. is said to satisfy an equation. x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 82. . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 83. in the equation 2 x 0. the first member is 2 x + 4. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the 80. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 81. .
4. 89. the quotients are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 86. one member to another by changing x + a=. the sums are equal. 3.2.b.54 84. 5. a. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 2. called axioms 1. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be subtracted from equals.e. 90. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.g. 2 = 6#f7. Transposition of terms. To solve an equation to find its roots. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A term may be transposed from its sign. the remainders are equal. the products are equal. E. 87. 85. A 2 a. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be added to equals. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. . but 4 does not equal 5. x I. A numerical equation is one in which all . . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. NOTE. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the divisor equals zero.
2 x = 6.2 y= f . . 6a5 = 185 = 13. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Ex. Transposing.8. The first member.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 4x 1 + 6. x = (Axiom 3) 92. and the known terms to the second. x = 93. a= a 6fc. b Adding a to both + a. Uniting similar terms. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The second member. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Dividing by Check. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. The first member.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.6 y f y\ . (4y)(6. is correct. f If y 20 . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 91. Check. 2(11 .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Dividing both members by 2. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Hence the answer. a? Adding 5 to each term.2. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. if 55 x members. Uniting. x = 3. b c. if a x = b. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.9 y + y2 = 22 . 3 y . Unite similar terms. To solve a simple equation.
12. = 5a?+18. a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 247y = 68lly. aj * See page 264. 3 7 a. 4y 10. 11 ?/ a? 18. 24. 8. 7 (6 x 16). 15. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.. 16. 3. \x x 2^xfl. a?. J. : 5# = 15+2a. = 3.. Transposing. 17 7 a. 19. + 7(3 + 1) =63.56 Ex. 32 = 264. 7a? 5. it NOTE. 22. and check the answers 9.7. 11. x = 18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. . 14y = 59(24y + 21). 21. 3. Solve the following equations by transposing. 9 9a? = 7 13. 50. 2. a. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 7. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 4.7a: = 394a.69. {(x (x The The member right member left .17 + 4y = 36. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 4a + 5 = 29. etc.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. + 22. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. v23. Uniting. = 7. f Simplifying. =2 = 3. = 2 ?/. a? a?. . 13a? 3a?. 20. 6. + 16 = 16 + 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). x x 1 . 14. 17 + 5a. If x = 18.
38. or 70 a?. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .7) (7 x + 4) . 36. 31.1) (u . 41. . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.3) + .5) + 199. 40. 6(6a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. .1 0) = 0. 33.2) (M .5(2 u . 29. . + 7) (. . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 7(7 x y 26. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .3) + 14.32.14 = 0.7. 30. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . a? 43. (aj 37. 35. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. e. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 39. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .3) . this question. .g.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 27. : One part is of 70 is 25 . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. + 4). he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 34. (6 u =5 44. is the other part. 7) (a.4) + 4 w . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. a? 28.5) = (a. Evidently 45. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 5) (as (a. (a.(2 + 6) (4 . 2 2 * Jaj. 42. 25.12) (2 + 5) . find the other part.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.
or 12 7. a. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that of c ? is p. so that one part Divide a into two parts. is d. 11. and the smaller one parts. 7.58 Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 17. 14. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . smaller one 16. Divide 100 into two 12. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Find the greater one. 6. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. If 7 2. EXERCISE 1. is a? 2 is c?. 5. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 15. is b. 1. find the cost of one yard. 9. 4. Divide a into two parts. 33 2. so that one part The difference between is s. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. greater one is g. 3. Ex. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 10. 6.
b dimes. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 26. A dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 28. 22. and B's age is y years. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. Find 35. amount each will then have. How many cents had he left ? 28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. numbers is x. If B gave A 6 25. find the of their ages 6 years hence. sum If A's age is x years. ?/ 31. A man had a dollars. and B is y years old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and c cents. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. and spent 5 cents. Find 21. How many years A older than is B? old. 28. 34. is A A is # years old. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B has n dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . A feet wide. 24. 20. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents has he ? 27. 33. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 32. find the has ra dollars.
If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. . of 4. 48. A cistern is filled 43. Find a 47. The first pipe x minutes. 46. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. find the fraction. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. a. of m.50. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. c a b =  9. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . 49. he walk each hour ? 39. The two digits of a number are x and y. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A was 20 years old. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. Find the number." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). Find a. m is the denominator. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41.
c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a increased much 8. of x increased by 10 equals x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 5. 8 b ) + 80 = a . c. etc. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. The double as 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The excess of a over b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 80. 80. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a exceeds b by c. 6. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 3. double of a is 10. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 4. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 9. 2. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.
14.. pays to C $100. amounts. and C have respectively 2 a. B. and C's ages will be 100. of 30 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.62 10. B's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. and C's age 4 a. 16. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars.000. 17. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A gains $20 and B loses $40. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 3 1200 dollars. 11. a second sum. they have equal amounts. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 6 % of m. (c) If each man gains $500. 18. as 17 is is above a. 12. express in algebraic 3x : 10. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 50 is x % of 15. B's. they have equal of A's. symbols B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. >. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. x 4 If A. is If A's age is 2 x. sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. a. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. B's age 20. . #is5%of450. In 10 years the sum of A's. m is x % of n. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.
15. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Three times a certain no. number of yards. the . NOTE. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. In 15 years 10. the required . x = 20. Uniting. 1. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3z40:r:40z. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 4 x = 80. Simplifying. Ex. be 30 . Find A's present age. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 23 =30. denote the unknown 96. much as 40 exceeds the number. etc. x+16 = 3(35). 2. A will Check. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x= 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. In order to solve them. Let x = the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Check. . 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Transposing. Dividing. 6 years ago he was 10 . but 30 =3 x years. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Ex. number. Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Forty years hence his present age. 3. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. % of 120. 14. 300 56. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find 8. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 5. . by as much as 135 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 11. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 4. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 120. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. A number added number.64 Ex. twice the number plus 7. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. Let x 3. Dividing.2. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 13. Find the number. EXERCISE 1. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Hence 40 = 46f. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Six years hence a 12 years ago.
and B has $00. B How will loses $100. two verbal statements must be given. During the following 90 years. 97. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. x. Vermont's population increased by 180. The other verbal statement. Find the population of Maine in 1800. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. If A gains A have three times as much 16. five If A gives B $200. The problem consists of two statements I. the second one. B will have lars has A now? 17. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. written in algebraic symbols. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x.000. Ex. A and B have equal amounts of money. is the equation. How many dol A has A to $40. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. times as much as A. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. which gives the value of 8. 14. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. 65 A and B $200.000. F 8. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. Maine's population increased by 510. 1. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. statements are given directly. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. .
which leads ot Ex. 2x a? x j = 6. I. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as many as A. . x x =14 8. 25 marbles to B. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. < Transposing. terms of the other. The two statements I. Then. 8 the greater number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Statement x in = the larger number.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. A will lose. A has three times as many marbles as B. and Let x = the Then x +. the sum of the two numbers is 14. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. to Use the simpler statement. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. x = 8. although in general the simpler one should be selected. unknown quantity in Then. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If A gives are : A If II. . consider that by the exchange Hence. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. the greater number. Dividing. = A's number of marbles. the smaller number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. = 3. 8 = 11. Uniting. has three times as many marbles as B. + a f f 8 = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = B's number of marbles. 2. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. / . B will have twice as viz. = 14.
cents.550 f 310. by 44. 2. 50. Check. Let 11 = the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). dollars and dimes is $3. greater is .10. Eleven coins. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x from I. . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. have a value of $3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 15 + 25 = 40. Simplifying. Dividing.10. 3. Two numbers the smaller. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.. The number of coins II. and the Find the numbers. etc. of dollars to the number of cents. The value of the half : is 11. Uniting. w'3. then. * ' . x = 6.. Dividing. Find the numbers. consisting of half dollars and dimes. (Statement II) Qx .240. Uniting.$3. 60. but 40 = 2 x 20. * 98. B's number of marbles. Find the numbers.10. . 3 x = 45. The sum of two numbers is 42. the number of half dollars.. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.25 = 20. the number of dimes.75. 6 times the smaller.5 x . 45 . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. is 70. x = 15. 50 x Transposing. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Check. the price. Simplifying. 1. x = the number of half dollars. A's number of marbles. 11 x = 5. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 40 x .
Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Find their ages.000 feet. and four times the former equals five times the latter. On December 21. 6. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. tnree times the smaller by 65. the number. Twice 14. 7. McKinley. 11. Two numbers The number differ by 39. How many 14 years older than B. How many hours does the day last ? . 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. United States. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many volcanoes are in the 8. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. as the larger one. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number.68 4. 5. and twice the altitude of Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. one of which increased by 9. Everest by 11. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. A's age is four times B's. 9. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more.. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. How many inches are in each part ? 15.
sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. original amount. they would have 3. and C together have $80. = 48. B. II. . A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. times as much as A." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If 4x = 24. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. Let x II. bers is denoted by x. then three times the money by I. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. 1. are : C's The three statements A. 8(8 + 19) to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 19. I. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and B has three as A. number had. has. and C together have $80. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars A had. x = 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B has three times as much as A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. has. III. Ex. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and 68. The third verbal statement produces the equation. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check.
= the number of dollars spent for cows. number of horses. and each sheep $ 15. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. x f 4 = 9. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 9 cows. + 35 x 4. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. number of cows. 9 5 = 4 . 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 2. sheep. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 28 2 (9 5). first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. Uniting. 90 may be written. III.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x Transposing. according to II. according to III. 185 a = 925.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x = 5. number of sheep. each cow $ 35. and Ex. three statements are : IT. each horse costing $ 90. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and the sum of the . 1 1 Check. Let then. x j = the number of horses. number of cows. The I. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. cows. + 8 90 x and. 4 x f 8 = 28. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first. Dividing. The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and. the third five times the first. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000. twice the 6. v . what is the population of each city ? 8. the second one is one inch longer than the first. New York delphia. twice as old as B. how many children were present ? x 11. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what are the three angles ? 10. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.000. what is the length of each? has 3. first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and children together was 37. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the third 2. 13. 7. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. "Find three is 4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.  4. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. women. equals 49 inches.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. the copper. If twice The sum the third side. men. 9. increased by three times the second side. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. A 12. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and 2 more men than women.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). The gold.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.
000. but stops 2 hours on the way. Hence Simplifying. = 5. or time.e. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 8 x = 15. i. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. together. . it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. of arid the value of the iron was $300.000 more than that the copper. A and B apart. 7 Uniting. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.g.000. Dividing. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. we obtain 3 a. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of hours. and distance.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. of 3 or 4 different kinds. = 35. After how many hours will they meet and how E. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. such as length. how many 100. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. number of miles A x x walks. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Find the value of each. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. 14. width. Let x = number of hours A walks. speed. The copper had twice the value of the gold. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and quantities area. 3 and 4.
.04 8. 70x10 Ex. z = 20. But 700 certain = 800 2. Check. were increased by 30 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. the second 100. $ 800 = required sum. x + 200). + 8.04 = $ 40. Multiplying. or 700.M(x . the area would be 100 square yards less. 10 x = 200.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.06 = $ 40. . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 2   and transpose. l. x . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. Find the dimensions of the field. and the width decreased by 10 yards.01 = = .05 x x .053. 2 a = 40. Transposing and uniting. $ 1000 x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. x . The an area 40 x 20 =800." gives (2. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. original field has Check. $ 800 = 800.
each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 3. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. After how many hours will B overtake A. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. mobile. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 2. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. and its width decreased by 2 yards. A of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A sets out later two hours B . 1. were increased by 3 yards. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. twice as large. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. together bring $ 78 interest. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and a second sum. A man bought 6 Ibs. A sum ? invested at 4 %. the area would remain the same. What are the two sums 5.55. of coffee for $ 1.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. Six persons bought an automobile. sions of the field. Find the share of each. but four men failed to pay their shares. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. invested at 5 %. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %.
traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.
f db 6 to b. 5. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. expression is rational with respect to a letter. it is composite. consider 105. we shall not. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a2 to 6. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. but fractional with respect 103. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if. irrational. vV . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An after simplifying. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . at this 6 2 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 76 . which multiplied together are considered factors. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. 6. a. this letter. as. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . stage of the work. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if it does contain some indicated root of .
Divide 6 a% .g. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 8) (s1). Factor G ofy 2 .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.3 sy + 4 y8). 1. for this result is a sum.FACTORING 106. it follows that a 2 . 109. in the form 4) +3.3 6a + 1). 2. or that a = 6) (a = a . 2. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. x. Ex. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . E. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.62 can be &). TYPE I. It (a.) Ex. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 110. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 01. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .62 + &)(a 2 . ?/. 55. . 107. y. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . x. 2. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. .
14a 4 5. a6c.4.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 34 a^c 8 . 4.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 2 + q. 15. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2 Or. 17. in general.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3x*6x*. 20. 7a & 10. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. . 2.3. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.8 c a 15 ofyV . 2 6. 3. 3 3 5 6. 5f 2 . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 4 8 . 12. q*q*q 2 a. TYPE IT.5 + 13 8. e. 32 a *?/ . . 2 2 . a a 'Ja . 13. : 6 abx . 4 tfy f.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.3. 19. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 11.45 afy .g. ) 22  2.30 aty. + llm llm.12 cdx. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 3 2 . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).2. 18. 15 2 7. 14.5 + 2. (as 3) and (ccf5). 7i 13.51 aW + 68 21. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. Ilro8 9.4. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 2 23. obviously. 16.6. 8.
If q is negative. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). can be factored. tfa2  3. . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.5) (a 6). Factor a2 .5) (a . or 7 11. however. + 112.6 = 20.77 = (a. determine whether In solving any factoring example.11 a 2 .1 1 a tf a 4. a 2 .4 x . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 4. 3. or 77 l. If q is positive.11. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Ex. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.G) = . Factor x? . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.11) (a + 7). 5. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. + 30 = 20. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 77 as the product of 1 77. of this type.4 . Therefore Check. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Ex. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. the two numbers have opposite signs.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 11 7. 79 Factor a2 4 x .30 = (a . m 5m + 6.a). Factor + 10 ax .11 a + 30. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.FACTORING Ex. 2. as p. and (a . 2 6. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. We may consider 1. . ..
6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 21 a 2 2 . 14.6. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. .17 + 30. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 24. 31. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. ay 11 ay +24. 32. 11. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 100 xr . 18. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. TYPE 113. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 16. and 5 x. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 27. a2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 19. 12. 21. 16. 4 3 2 . 26.48 + + 446 200. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 2 ?/ 22. 20. or . 35. . 9. 17. ra + 25ra + 100. 13. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . .80 7. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 2 .70 x y .500 x + 600.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 33. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 29. 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. ITT. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 36. 2 ?/ 28. 4 2 . 2 2 a' 34. 8. x2 23. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. a 7 a 30.180 a. + 44. a? + 5 + 6 a. + 30. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 2 . + 2xS. 15. a 2 +11 a a? 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 25. 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 5<y 24. + 4?/21. 2 2 .
all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. or G 114. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 3.5) (2 x . 6 x 9. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. Ex. 2 x 27. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. the signs of the second terms are minus. and that they must be negative. Factor 3 x 2 . a. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. viz. . 18 x 3. 2. the If p and r are positive. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 3 x and x. 9 x 6.83 x f 54. 54 x 1. then the second terms of have opposite signs. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .5 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. sible 13 x negative. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If p is poxiliw. and r is negative. but the opposite sign. 27 x 2. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.1). 11 x 2x. X x 18. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.13 x + 5 = (3 x .
2 28. X 27 .19 a f 6. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 2 2 . 2 26.7. 2. 25. 4a2 9tt + 2. 15. 8. 5. 10 a . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. x54 a.179.y + 172/9.83 x . 6n + 5?i4. 3a + 13a.27). + 4.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. : 41 2. 12y 2/6. 100^200^ + 100^. 12. 2m t7w + 3. 2 2 2 23. 34.2 a 90 x*y . 10a?2 2 33. 9. 9 y + 32^16. 5m 26m f 5. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.260 xy . and the monomial factors should be removed. 18. 19. 10a2 G a2 2 . 6. . 13. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 17.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . f go. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 90 a 8 2 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. Sar' + SaG. 7. 24. 2 . . . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 22. 2 ar* 2 i/ . the expressions should be it.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 21. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 11.163 x 2 . 10. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 3. 32.83 x = (3 . 4. 29. 12^17^16. 144 x . 2 31.2) (x .30 y 6 4 . 9a.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 30. 2 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 16. 20. 2x* + 9x5. 35. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. since all others (II. 14 a fa 4. + 2/3. 2 fc . 14.
must have a positive sign. 3. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.10 x f 16. 2 2 .e. and a perfect square. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 116. of its terms are perfect squares.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 9 10a625. .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 4. 10. 8.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2 9 10gf25. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. it is more convenient for that type. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 6. 11. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. and factor whenever possible : 1. however. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 . form are special cases of the preceding type. . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . 12. 5.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 14. 2. i. 16 y? The student should note that a term. it is a perfect square. 9. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . x* . 13. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 25 7. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .
17. 3. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 4 2 23. ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. ). 6. 7.20 ab + 10 b a . product i. 2 20. * 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . 22.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). ^//c to the Ex. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 16&*. a. prime. 2. 4a2 l. 26. Ex.64 6 = 16(a . 25. 6 2 . 2 . 5. 225 ofy .84 15.60 a# + 4. : 43 tfy\ a 9.6 m* + 9 m. a2 24. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 . 2 . 27. According to 65.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 9a2 . 3. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 9. 18. 1. !Gar 9 ( )+25. . 48 a +( ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 36 2 4.3 * ). 2. 19. aV . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 29. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. . + GO + 25. 16. u2 6& + 2 ( ). +( )f816 30.e.2 ofy + ofy m . TYPE 117. a. 149 a 81 8. . V.
(a x? f 6) 6 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 2. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 . 2. 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 9.FACTORING 85 118. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .d) 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 4. (m7?) y. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a2 . of polynomials.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 13.c . 11. 5. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 8. 36> . T. 6. 14. a:) 12.(c 4.(I) . 16p 2 . Ex. Factor a 2 . Ex.
ab + bx.2 ) (3 x . ive find that the new terms con common factor.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. a? 11. 5) . 8. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 3. A. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 4 B. 7. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. . By grouping.VI. 2. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. x8 . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. = (3 x + y .y + 2 2). + x + 2x + 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 119. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. . 4:cx . Ex. Ex.7 c + 2c .1.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 10. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 9. a5 + ab 6 .a a .14. 5. ma ?*a + m& nb. which may be factored according to types I. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. After grouping tain a the terms. a 26 2 2 3 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 2. 6. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 1.r. 12.and trinomials.
9 a2 4 v* 2 . IV.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.l. 8.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. : 46 x* 2. 6a4 12a2 + 6.4 f .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Arranging the terms. w m 2. 8. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 2 7. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 4. : m 2 2 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ . $ a8 . 4. II. 6. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.FACTORING Ex.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . . = (a + 6)(a6). EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 5.12 aaj 4 6y. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 3. 8ra 2 + 16. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 36 9 m . 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 4 a2 . 6 6. + 2xy + y*q*. 2a3/ 7. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.
4 a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 50^ + 45. 5a' 20. (a. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.88 10. 3 a2 23. 32. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . a3 156. 80 a 2 ft 38. 2 3#4 3a2 36.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 12. 2 a 128. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 5 a. 30. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 42 s 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 3 25. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 28. 40. 27. 13 c . 22. 24. 18. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 48. 3 41. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 19. 35. 2 17.156. (^ 34. . 2 ft .310 x .13 c . or 3 7#2 . 4 8 tt 2 z .40. + 14. a6 36. + 6 aft + 3 .24. 42 x . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a + a + a + l. 29. 14. 13. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 3 2 . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a5 a 1 4 2 39. a. 11.
25 W. 3. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of : 48 4. aW. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 5 s 7 2 5. 24 s . The H. F. F. C. 2 2 . C. Thus the H. expressions which have no are prime to one another. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. of 6 sfyz. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . . F. C. 2. C. C. of aW. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. C. EXERCISE Find the H. The student should note H. 5 7 34 2s . 5 2 3 . 89 . F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 122. C. 13 aty 39 afyV.) of two or more . The highest is common factor (IT. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 3 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. 6. The H.  23 3 . F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 15 aW. 5. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. 121. 12 tfifz. II 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. are prime can be found by inspection. F. of the algebraic expressions. F. C. of two or more monomials whose factors . 54  32 . 8 .
2 y) (a. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 2a f5af 2. Find the H. a3 9a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 12 w*nw 8. 6 a2 y? . F. 38 #y.y) . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 12 . 16 a . 3.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . . 1. 8(?/ifl) 14.12 as 66 . x* x2 Hence the H. 16.90 7.5 x3?/ 2 6. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 7. ^707 + 12. 8 6. and apply the method of the preceding article. 2. 24 a 2 . . 4(m+l) 3 . C. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 9. 2 . 49 C. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 52 oryz4. 11. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. of: . 9. aWd. . 15. 9 aj*(a? .6.6 a&. 6 mx . 5. 14. 13.y)\ O+ 0^(0. F. a2 ar* 4. 10. a2 + 2a3. . 5 a6 5^ 2 a.y) 123. 10.^9. 11. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .?/ . 1. 3 .5 + 6. of polynomials. 95 2/V. . 8 a 10 . 3). . 2 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 6 3 a.5 y). C. F. of + 4 if. 65 zfyV. 2 . (a7 ?/) .6 . 15 3ao. F. a3 16 a. 12.8 a + 16. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . ^a + 5^ + 6. 225 4a 9 . To find the H.# 4 afy f 4 . 6(m+l) (m+2). 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 4 ?io. a 3a4. ^f a.2 ?/) (x . 57 a>V. a2 + 7af!2. y + 3y64. 25 m27i. 3^ 2 4 . 13. 2 . 8.y + y42. Ex. C. ^2 2 . a2 . 8. = x 2 y. 0^80:416.
M. &) 2 M. Find the L. M. To find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 127. two lowest common multiples. ory is the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.6)2.6 3 ). find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 128. C. Find the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. The lowest common multiple (L. of tfy and xy*. . etc. M. A common remainder. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .M. 300 z 2 y. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 2 The The L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M. M. . C. but opposite . C. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. of the general. thus. a^c8 3 . 60 x^y' 2 . C. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Hence the L. 2. M of the algebraic expressions. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. NOTE. C. M. L. 126. 1.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Ex. of several expressions which are not completely factored. which also signs. C. each set of expressions has In example ft). of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . Common 125. C. C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .M. Ex.C. L. M.C. of 3 aW. M. The L.
3. 30 a. 20 9 a. 5. 2 7ic+10. Find the L. 2 a . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 16. 3(a + b). a f 2 19. x2 + 4 a f 4. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. of: 4. ic 23. a. (For additional examples see page 268. x 2 5 a. 2 . 2(m 2 . 21. 3 6 xif. 2 10. 22. 9. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . a !. 24. 3 Z> . 6. 14. 6 y. 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. xy\ . a 1. a2 ~ab 1. 6 a.1.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C.1. 13. 20. 11. afc'cd 2 . 40 abJ. 7. 17. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 6b 2 . #. 15. or f 3 a 15 #. f b. ) . x* ~5a. b 2 . a 2 fa6. a2 4. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2 a. a { a~b. 4 a 5 6cd. y*. a f 3. a^1. . G a. a. a. + 6. 18. afy. 2 x \2 y. 3 ab. T a 3 a 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 . a 2 f 4 a +4. a 2 a3 . a& 4 +& 2 . by. 24 x. 3. 8 afy. 1. a?b. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 3 . 4 a . + 2 7i) . 2. ic 2 ?/. M. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 4 a f 2. 2 a .f 6. 3 f2. 8 d 5 . 8. + 2.
common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a b = ma mb . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. a?. 131.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. etc. however. but we In arithmetic. Thus. Remove tor. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. an indicated quotient. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. A f fraction is b. 130. and denominators are considered. successively all 2 j/' .ry ^ by their H. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. rni Thus 132. as 8. F. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. Ex.
6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Ex.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . and cancel all factors that are common to both. .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 2. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. cancel factors only.
*. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^+3*. """. . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ' ^ . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.7 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 29. ny 4 18. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. nx 17. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.10 a + 3 2 14. _ 3 7i rt< 26.' 32. 16. . 5^10 y 30.. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 23. 19.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . . 9x + "a" 10. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^' rt ^  31. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . g J 21. LJZJ^JL. ^" a.
we have the quotients (x 1). M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z.C. Divide the L. Reduce ^. 1). ^ to their lowest com The L. of the denominators for the common denominator.M. . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. mon T denominator. by the denominator of each fraction.3) (!)' = . take the L.96 134. 2> . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x. and (a 8). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and the terms of ***.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. TheL. 1. and 135.r 2 2 .  of //* 2 . C. + 3). Ex.  by 4 6' . multiplying the terms of 22 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we have M^. C.C.1^22 ' .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.D.
2. . 2 ay IB. o o a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .oj o* or / . 8 i i. JL.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 22 a2 5a * . j y 3. 7i 2 ab* ". i. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 5?.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 18.. 137.^1. . . 3. If the given fractions have different denominators. 74). fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. .. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2aj ~ . . a? 1 5 > ^* .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . common denominator 6.
the student should remember that parentheses are . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). D. 4(2 a 3 ft).3 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft 2). 2. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .7 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. T? Ex. as 4 aft f. e.(a 2 6)..20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . D..aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. L. 2 ^.3 ft).g.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. and adding. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. ^ is 2^JT) . C.ft) (a ft ft)~.ft)(a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. The L.aft) Ca2 . in the beginning. ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. (a .2 ' 2 _.2 = a(a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .
a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 f q * 1 m m . A+2_3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 5a76 4a 106 9. 20. 18 v 19. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 46 2a 4a 12. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2. a 36 ++. j>0 i> 21. + . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 6 c 3a 7. 24.5 18 ^4f25. 2L + 2a 1 17. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 23. 1 1 f w 16. 15.
/ IIlNT: Let a 1  39. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 41. a ?^ 40. 43. af 1f /j. 1 34. a.9 79 6 2 i. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 4 31. 42. ic 1 + 1. 2 af1 32. ! n. 3a 9 +. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .9. a 30.
Reduce .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 101 mixed expression. 1.7 5a v Ex. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. T. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  . . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.6 + 4x 4 x2 .  4 or 3 2a. .
integer. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.) Ex.g. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. or.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Since  = a. !. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. 2 a Ex. fractions to integral numbers. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. (In order to cancel common factors. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2.
aj 5 1 a? 18. 5# 56 / c& 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 50 ..6 12 d6 4.. 2 f 5 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 14. .
To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. : a 41 ab * See page 272. . Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. 144.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.
or both.5 ??i 80 50 . ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.6 s + 064. a a2 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.^c 2 2 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. are fractional. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Ex.
7i+~ 7. C. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . a m "" . x* 4. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). .y 32 . Simplify x }. c +6. 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . Ex. n a 8.a ^c c _^ a . the answer is directly obtained. & . i. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . 9. y X 4* 2 y 3. of their denominators. 10. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. . 6.
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. o 15. m^n* n L a 17.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : . sy 18.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 .
9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. If = 64. Bx 12 Qx.9 x2 + 9. of the denominator. + 1) (a + 3) . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.1. a. 108 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. = 6.48. M. 4 4)  x. each member is reduced to Ex. 2 3. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 1. x = 6. = 6. Uniting. 2x Transposing. tions.14 (a. .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.28 x + 42 = .f3# + C:E=6f7212. If x 6. Uniting. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .42 + 9. 2. Transposing.8 x = . each member is reduced to 1. C. these Ex. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .28 a = 5 x2 . 5(3 85 Check. 148. Clearing of fractions. 2z2a. 9x x Check.l)(z + 3) = .
+1 = 5. a: 7 a. a. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +4 14. ^' 2. 15. '  4 13. 1 *> = 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 16. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.= 2. ^1 = 9. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. .1 _77 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 18.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10.
25. 2^12 = 2 = 34. . 3x 35. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 26 26._ _ . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 33.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . y+3~2 29. .  38 = 40. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 31 31. 32 6 .11_4 x 149. J_. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 27 . ?_=_. . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. If two or more denominators are monomials. . 4a4l4* + l~.
26 a.  5 = 20 x 45. If a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Transposing and uniting. M.. 24 a.2 42 9 43. Check. each member is reduced to ^. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.2 3 ~  == 7a. = 9. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Dividing. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 60.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 1. the 1 5 L. C. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. a. 5# 10.1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5x x : = 9.29 50712' 9 18 .
4 ac 1. Dividing.2 62 2 ab. f ~ 5c. find a in terms of b and c. It frequently occurs that the x. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. they are united by factoring. a. Thus.m bx 2 mn) x. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Ex. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Uniting. 5> a.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = 6 a2 .be.3 6 2 = a' . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = l^ 9 b 4 . Ex.2 ac + 3 aft .1.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting the Dividing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . If 3ac L= = a ? . y. jr. fr Reducing lowest terms. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. =a 2 151. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.& . 2. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. = 2 f b 2 . ax f x f.
r the number of $>.a. 11. . 4. solve for a. 12. 3. q solve for/.i l . . mx = n. _ 2. a. + 3a. 5) is t =^. solve for .= c a Z> . m a? x . and n the number of years. . 14. 6. . 10. = 8 4 #.= n. Ex. The The i time. 17. c 18. 2 solve for y a. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 29. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. If s (wi n) x =px + q. f P =+!. = vt. = 5. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .= H. 4. co?. 13. + xx = 1. iw 21. t. s = Vt solve for v. denoting the interest. c. 3(* 8. If * 33. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. = 3 (6 a). 34. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. rate. in terms of other quantities. If s If 16. 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 1 f. 31. If ^^ = a 1 32. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). * Solve the same equation for^). i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 15. p the principal. = rt. f ^o. 30.
x Or Uniting. Ex.180. Ex. . of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 100 C. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Multiplying by Dividing. Find R in terms of C and TT. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. and 12 = the number over. = 16^. then = 2 TT#. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.. .20 C. 2 3 . 1. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. is 36.114 35. 2.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. A would do each day ^ and B j.
or 1J. in Then Therefore. and the statement. Clearing. the rate of the express train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. = 100 + 4 x.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 180 Transposing. 4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 32 x = . 3. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.
116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and J of the greater Find the numbers. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 3. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. a man had How much money had he at first? . Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and 9 feet above water. ex What 5. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his son. of his present age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. and of the father's age. Find A's 8. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. length in the ground. is equal 7. and one half the greater Find the numbers. make 21. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. to his daughand the remainder. ceeds the smaller by 4. which was $4000. 3. by 6. money and $10. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. is oO.
How much money $500? 4%. air. Ex. Ex. 2. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 1. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. what is the rate of the express train? 152. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 3. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and it B in 6 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. ^ at 5%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) 22. and B in 4 days. . If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. investments. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 152. what is the 14. after rate of the latter ? 15. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.
it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 5. n x Solving. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. m and n. Then ft i. . 25. therefore. A in 6.414. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence. and n = 3. B in 30. To and find the numerical answer. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.118 153.009 918. A in 4.= . if B in 3 days. 3. B in 16. we obtain the equation m m . and apply the method of 170. . The problem to be solved. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. they can both do in 2 days. Ex.g. A in 6. 2. is 42. 26. B in 12.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. e. is 57. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.
is (a) 51. . 34. The one: 31. Two men start at the first miles apart. Find the side of the square. 3 miles per hour. 33. meet. 3J miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. the second at the apart. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. same hour from two towns. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (c) 16. respectively (a) 60 miles. the rate of the first. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet.001. respectively.000. (b) 149. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. : (c) 64 miles. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 30. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. squares 29.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28.721. and the rate of the second are. 2 miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 4J miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (d) 1. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. if m and n are. 5 miles per hour. is ?n . (b) 8 and 56 minutes.
is numerator of any fraction consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.5. the denominator The the 157. The first 156. the symbol being a sign of division. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the second term the consequent. b. . instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. E. 1. b is a Since a ratio a fraction." we may write a : b = 6. antecedent. In the ratio a : ft.g. etc. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. a ratio is not changed etc. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. 6 12 = . The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . Ex. b is the consequent. : : 155. the antecedent. " a Thus.
12. 17. 11. 3. 27 06: 18 a6. 10. Simplify the following ratios 7. 61 : ratios 72:18. 16a2 :24a&. 3 8. 3:4. b. 3:1}. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 7f:6J. : 1. a and d are the extremes. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and c is the third proportional to a and . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. The last first three. Transform the following unity 15. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 4. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 62:16. 9. extremes. b and c the means. 1. two  ratios. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. equal 2. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 159. : ay . proportional between a and c. In the proportion a b : = b : c. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 18. 6. 7:4 T T 4 . 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 16. $24: $8. b is the mean b. 4:5f : 5. and c. terms.RATIO Ex. 5 f hours : 2. 8^ hours. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. J:l.
In any proportion product of the extremes. " we " NOTE. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Clearing of fractions. ad = be. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. pro portional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 163. and the other pair the extremes. 163. !.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.122 162. of a proportion. and the time necessary to do it. of iron weigh . ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. 164. 3 4. i. of iron weigh 45 grams. If (Converse of nq. = 30 grams 45 grams.) mn = pq.30 grams. are : : : inversely proportional. 2 165. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. briefly.e. : : directly proportional may say. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 6 ccm.__(163. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : c. then G ccm. q~~ n . or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.
. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (Composition. if 6 : 7.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. a III. 1. (163.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. then =d c. (Frequently called Inversion. 2. + b:b = c + d:d. ad ( 163. I. 12x Hence a? = 42. hence the proportion true.) = f f = 3 J.) d 167. = 35 . Or IV. ad = be. bd bd. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) (Called Alternation. V. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a:c=b:d.) II. 166. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.PATIO Ex. (Division.) a + b:a = c + d:c. is 4$ = 35. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. d d. is Ex.
the consequents by 7. = 2:x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. x = 2. mx tin Apply composition and division. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.g. E. = 20:7. Simplify the following proportions. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 5. 4. 2. 5 5. 6 =4 : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 7:2f 3J. = 180:125. : 3 = 5 f x : x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. V. 120:42 2 2 7. = 2:3. = 12 5ft. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 10. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.!=!*. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 9. . Or III. i.124 IT. 3. . 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.e. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. Apply composition. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. IV.
2. 42. = 2 + x: x.8:1. 12.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.  32. to : a and 1. 5= 18 a? : a?. = 15o. Find the third proportional 24. 03:a?=135:20. 4 and 16. 6x = 7y. 21. ra. 6. 1 and a. 2 3 = y #. 25. 50. 46. = l^:18. 39. rag. to : 9 and 12. 28.:ff. 4. a. 112:42 = 10:a. = 3 43 + x. x m = y n. 51. 2. 43. 52. and 2/. 35. 47. : 53. 3. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. if : 40. 1. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. to: = 35:*.j>. x:5 = y:2. 23. 2= 5 x x. 14 and 21. 16. : . 13. 27. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra.. 3t. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. a 2 and ab. 34. 14. ra 2 . a?:15 15. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : a2 . ra + landra 1. 17. . 16 and 28. Find the mean proportional 30. rap. 31. 5. terra 2:3 = 4. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 6 x = y. ratio of y.x: 6:5 a : x. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 9 x = 2 y. 18. mx = ny. 29. (a : : 45. 41. 22. 7iy = 2:x. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 44. + fyx = cy. w. f. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. b. = 5 x 12. 26. Find the 37. 2 a and 18 a. 33. 3. 38. 20.
and the speed of the train. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the time necessary for it. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. what 58. and the : total cost. the squares of their radii (e) 55. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').126 54. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 56. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the area of the rectangle. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the time. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A").inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the area of the larger? the same. A line 7^.
11 x = 66 is the first number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2. = the second number. is A line AB. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. Let A B AC=1x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 18 x = 108. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 2 x Or = 4. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.000 168. 4 inches long. AB = 2 x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. so that Find^K7and BO. Then Hence BG = 5 x. produced to a point C. x = 6. x=2. . as 11 Let then : 1.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). : Ex. 11 x x 7 Ex.
000 square miles. 12. How The long are the parts ? 15. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.000. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many gen. 2. : 4. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 3. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 14. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. Gunmetal tin. 11. 12. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 13. 6. How many 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 7.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. and 15 inches. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b.) . How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. What are the parts ? 5. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 9. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : 197. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. and c inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.
if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. Hence.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. there is only one solution. etc. a? (1) then I. However. y = 1. if . values of x and y. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. is x = 7.e. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. such as + = 10. expressing a y.L x If If = 0. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6.. 2 y = . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. =. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. x = 1.y=. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. The root of (4) if K 129 . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.
130 170. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 4y . Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . are simultaneous equations. = . same relation. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. y = 2.26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.3 y = 80. of elimination most frequently used II. 174.X.24. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. E. By By Addition or Subtraction. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. to The two methods I. Therefore. the last set inconsistent. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6x . ~ 50. unknown quantity. 172. and 3 x + 3 y =. 3. 21 y . Substitution. y I 171. 26 y = 60. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). viz. cannot be reduced to the same form. for they express the x f y 10. The first set of equations is also called consistent. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.
eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Transposing. 8 2. 37. + 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.3 y = 47.3 1 = 47. 3y = 3.2 = 6. add the equations. 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 25 x . 10 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3. 64 x = 040. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .14 =8. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. are like. subtract the equations. whose coefficients In general.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. = 406. Check. y = 1. x = 10. x = 10. 10 + 5 1 = 135. = 235. 5 13 . 60 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Therefore Check. y = 2.
9 1 r 20. * + 3 y = 50. ' 12.f2/ ' = 50. I ~ y~~> 22. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.9 *. = 24. 13. v ^ = ll. f 3# ?/ = 0. = 41. ] ^ . x 11. + 2/ 17.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. f 3X 7x 14.v 23. O t K 8.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. i 3.4. 19< I a. J I y = 1U. 7 ' 1fi fl .3.3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 13 61 l7a. [2o. I oj 5y = 17. I i 3 a. = 6. . I . _.5 y = 2.
I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 4#8. 3. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. x ) ^"" 13. = 13. and solve the resulting equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 60. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 8. = 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2y + 10.
Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. the equation must be cleared of fractions and .3. From 9 = 36. 3 (1) Ex. (4). however. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7x_2y=3. 2 y = . 7 y = 6. + 212y4 = 14. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). \ \6(a. 3.6)7(y7)==18. 4* + 3y = 19. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. Substituting in (6) . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (7) (7) (8) . . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 29 x = 29. 21z6y=9.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. +y 2 . a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a.f2 2. 16. 14.1) + 5(6 y . 12.1) = 121. . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 10 2a?5 17. 10. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. yM a. 4 11. J 9. . = 3. . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.
.#. ?~y . 22. 3x\" 1 23 24. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . * ((* (( . <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. f y . e. and y. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. {. but some expressions involving x. 180.Q ^ 4 21.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. of this type. can also be solved Examples method. y. 1. . Substituting x = 3 in (1). etc. 33 = 11 x. y 1.4 x = 4 xy. (4) + (G). 2* * x 2. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy. 15 y + 8 x . . however. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. x 3. 137 Solve y y (1) . (2) (3) a. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Therefore y=4. x 2x(2). Clearing of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 4.
Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 21 9 . x y 5. = en.= o 6. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 253 7. x y 331 9. 6. y MOi y a. 1. x 8. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 4 13. .138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= 5. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Ex.
. W . x f my = 1. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. bmy bm}y ap cm. apan cm. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ap.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. .y = = 9a + 46. Dividing.W. d.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. . 6. w. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. x 12. s in 11. ax + by = 2 a&. From the same equations find s in terms of a. and I. f 5. x a. fax f = l. ny = fy/ I sc 1. a Find a and terms of n. Uniting. 14. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. and I if 13.
To solve equations containing By tions. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). (8) 2. 6.1+4. y =* 2. . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 1. (4) (5). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.2 + 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.13. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. l. = 30.12 y + 6 z = . 4.3 = 8. 3. = 3. f 3y 12 =s 8.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 182.25. x + 12 y . 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). etc. by 3.3=4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 20. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 3.16.2 + 4. ties are Similarly. 4.15z=12 Adding. 8 x . 3y = Hence Check.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).by 2.lf> z .8 = 1. Ex.
x 13. + y f z = 15. a? + 709 = 26. ~6?/ 5. 14. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 2 . 8. 2z = 40.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 12. 49. 4 = 42. 15 2 = 45. 10. a? 11. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2 4. 7. + 2 y f 2 = 35. == 6.
22. (3 _.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 8*. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 4.. 23. 16. 19. . ^ = 2. 32. = 5. =s 20. ? = llz. . . ?/ 3x = 0. 1510 4 17.42 = 2.3 y + . 27. 84 21. 60.6 2.2 a.
= l. Ex.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. # 4. the number. 1. and to express In complex examples. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 2 = 1(1+6). the first and the last digits will be interchanged. y * z 30. y 31. + 396 = 521. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. symbols: x + y +z 8. Obviously of the other . and if 396 be added to the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. 2 = 6. M=i. . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. ( 99. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . x : z =1 : 2. Check. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. z + x = 2 n. 1 digit in the tens place. +2+ 6 = 8. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. either directly or implied. . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. however. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. = 2 m. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 1 = 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Find the number. + z = 2p.
= 8. 5_ _4_ A. we obtain. (3) C4) = 24 miles. = Hence the fraction is f. B. xy a: 2y 4y 2. . 2. 6 x 4 = 24. Since the three men traveled the same distance.144 Ex. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. x y = the = the x denominator . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. C. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. Find the fraction. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. y = 3. direction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the distance traveled by A. From (3) Hence xy Check. 4 x = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. x 3 = 24. = the fraction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Or (4)2x(3). (1) (2) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x 3x4y = 12. Ex. 3. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. increased by one. 2.
and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the fraction equals . 5. the fraction is reduced fraction. part of their difference equals 4. If 27 is 10. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the last two digits are interchanged. to the number the digits will be interchanged. tion ? 8. the Find the fraction. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 183. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. fraction is reduced to \. 2. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Find the fraction.) added to a number of two digits. 7. added to the numerator of a fraction. both terms. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and the fourth 3. the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. . A fraction is reduced to J. If the denominator be doubled. ? What 9. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3.}. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 6. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If 9 be added to the number. Find the numbers. and the numerator increased by 4. the value of the fraction is fa. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the number (See Ex. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. 1. it is reduced to J. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the number. its value added to the denominator. Find the number.
the rate of interest? 18. Find their present ages. How 6 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 19. and money and 17. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 5 %. A sum of $10. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 13. and in 5 years to $1125. . and partly at 4 %. partly at 5 %. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find the rates of interest. 14.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11.000 is partly invested at 6%. A man invested $750. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. now. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 12. in 8 years to $8500.grams. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. respectively ? 16. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 4 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains.
25. and AC = 5 inches. Find their rates of walking. E. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. . BC=7. and F '(see diagram). $ 50 for each cow. and F. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and e.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. what is that = OF. BC = 7 inches. B find angles a. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. the three sides of a triangle E. A farmer sold a number of horses. cows. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. 23. then AD = AF. 1 NOTE. and angle BCA = 70. three AD = AF. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. BD = HE. . receiving $ 100 for each horse. respectively. but if A would double his pace. for $ 740. BE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. triangle Tf AD. ED = BE. 24. angle c = angle d. the length of NOTE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and GE = CF. and CE If AB = G inches. and F. and angle e angle/. andCL4 = 8. and $15 for each sheep. are taken so ABC. On /). An C touch ing the sides in D. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and their difference by GO . c. and sheep. points. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D.
(2. the ordinate of point P. Thus the points A. 186. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PN _L YY'. (3. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. PN. jr. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and PJ/_L XX'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and r or its equal OA is . B. and point the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 2). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P.. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (7. (2. is The point whose abscissa is a. is the abscissa. The of Coordinates. PN are given. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. YY' theyaxis. It' Location of a point. first 3). the ordinate by ?/. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). or its equal OM. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. PM. 3). .
Graphs. (3. 2).3).1).and(l. 3). 12.2). 2J). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. 6. 0). (0. 4) and (4. (0. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (1. 3). 4). 3). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 0). (5. 3. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 0). (4. 71 2). 0). (4. (4. !).(!. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. i. 8. Plot the points (6.4). and measure their distance. 1). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (See diagram on page 151. 2. 2).e. (2. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 11. . (4.) EXERCISE 1. 1). 4). whose coordinates are given NOTE. . 4. 4) from the origin ? 7. (4. Plot the points : (0. What is the locus of (a?. 6. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points: (4.
C. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. A. . 188. or the curved line the temperature. B. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. may be found on Jan. 1.. D. from January 1 to December 1. 10 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. By representing of points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. however. we meas1 . 15. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ure the ordinate of F.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the first table produces 12 points.
uses them. (d) November 20. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (b) July 15. the matics. The engineer. physician. Whenever a clear. and to deduce general laws therefrom. (c) January 15. . as the prices and production of commodities. etc. the rise and fall of wages. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the merchant. the graph is applied.
152 2. is 10.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.. ? 9. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.. ?  3. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what months above 18 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 1? 11 0. 1 to Oct. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 15. (d) 9 0. When the average temperature below C.
Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Hour Temperature . 19. NOTE. Draw .09 yards. 20. a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. transformation of meters into yards.
2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 28. 1 to 1200 copies.5 grams. 2. if he sells 0.inch. function If the value of a quantity changes. 26. gas. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .. 190. 29.g. etc. x* x 19. the value of a of this quantity will change.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 3. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. x increases will change gradually from 13. . books from for printing. represent his daily gain (or loss). 4. amount to $8. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. etc. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 . and $. A 10 wheels a day. the daily average expenses for rent. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. to 27.50.154 24. then C irJl. if each copy sells for $1. x 7 to 9. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50. 3. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. e. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.) T circumferences of 25. 9. binding. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.
Ex. (2. while 7 is a constant. and join the points in order. If a more exact diagram is required. as 1. 3 50. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 1 the points (3. x a variable. (1. 9). 4). may . etc. Graph of a function. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. ( 2.1). a*. J).0). to x = 4. 3 (0. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 9).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. (1^. construct '. be also represented by a graph. E. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . The values of func192. however. is supposed to change. it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.e. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. may. 4). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2.2 x may 4 from x = 4. Q. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. for x=l.1). Draw the graph of x2 f. 2). 2 (1.g. and (3. .
or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. etc.. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.20). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 1). and join(0. Thus in the above example. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. as y. . = 4. (3. (4. 194. (2..2 x .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 2 4 and if y = x f. = 0.) For brevity. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. Thus 4x + 7. y = 6. r */ +* 01 . the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 2. rf 71 . straight line produces the required graph. j/=3..4). 5). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 7 .. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 4). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. Ex. 4J.
2 2 a. 3. Jar . The values of a*. l. 11. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. ?/ a. 2x + 3x a?. if the function equals zero. 2. 23x.5)2. 7. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a* 13. i. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (7i) (c) 23. 4 a. 21. 19. a? 1. The smallest value of the function. a? 2 4. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (If) Va25. if y = 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 15. 18. 2 a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 6 fa. . xl.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 1J. fa 17. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 12. a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 5. (C ) (2. (ft) (_ 1. 2J. 1 8 10. 16. if a. x+1. . 2. 1. y = 2x = 4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 1J. 1J. xz + x. from x VlO'S". 22. a?. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 3. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 2J. 6. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2 or 2 20. 4a? I. 3 a 8. 2 2. J.8)'.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.5)2. = The values of a*.or. + 4. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 8. 9.e. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of a?. = 4. the function. 14. if"a. 2 a. a ar.
1 C.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. Represent 26. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. C.24 or x = P and Q. 14 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. then y = .. 32 F. y= formula graphically.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 9 F. then cXj where c is a constant. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). that graph with the o>axis. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional..where x c is a constant. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F..e. .158 24. 25. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i.24. Therefore x = 1.. the abscissas of 3.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 6. 13. 0. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities.7 2 a 5 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 10. = 0. 197. viz.f 9 = 0. 6. 3. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. crosssection paper is used. Such equations in general have two roots. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. + + = where a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. is called a quadratic equation. a2 2a. 4. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 12. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 8. 2 and 1. . (a) (6) 9. 7. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 14. (a) x2 = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. or 5 2. 11. the points may be found otherwise by inspection.
Hence we may join (0. 4) and (2. and joining by a straight line. locate points (0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.e. NOTE. unknown quantities. . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 2). Hence. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Hence if if x x  2. solve for ?/. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Ex. 3x _ 4 . T . Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . because their graphs are straight lines.2. and join the required graph. y y 2. y = l. ?/ =4 AB. fc = 3. 199. If x = 0. Ex. i. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.1. X'2 Locating the points (2. if y = is 0. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. produces the 7* required locus. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. first degree. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 0). == 2. ?/.2 y ~ 2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 1) and 0). = 0. (f .
3. (2) . 203. Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. parallel have only one point of intersection. viz. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. AB y = . P.15. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. To find the roots of the system. linear equations have only one pair of roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).1=0. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. equation x= By measuring 3. and CD. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 202. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). 201.57. we obtain the roots.
4. V25 5. The equations 2 4 = 0.y~ Therefore. we of the + y* = 25. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. Locating the points (5. 4.. 3). 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Using the method of the preceding para. . and joining by a straight line.9. 0. 1. 4.0. Since the two  we obtain DE. 3. 2. (4. and + 3).5. P graphs meet in two and $. e. (4. 2 equation x 3). 1. = 0. x2 . 0) and (0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.  4. AB the locus of (1). Measuring the coordinates of P.e. Solving (1) for y. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 2. and . if x equals respectively 0. 4. 4. (2. the graph of points roots. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).g. Inconsistent equations. i.0). 0. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.5. 4. y equals 3. Locating two points of equation (2). which consist of a pair of parallel lines.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. In general. etc. intersection. (1) (2) C. 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. the point we obtain Ex. 5. 3x 2 y = 6. 4. they are inconsistent.
7. y = 4.. Draw system. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. \ 2x + 3^ . as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. a. y 2 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. a+r/=6. x~y=0. 2. and. 9. 10. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4. vice versa. state reasons. y= a2 2x y6. if possible. 2x 3?/=6. '163 Dependent equations. 6. 17. 8. . and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 5. y=x + 5. 20. the graphs of the following systems. 19. 16 22. 3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y).8.164 24. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. TABLE OF SQUARES. 25. 3 31. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 28.14 y = . 29 . 30. 26. CUBES.
faa a a a Obviously 1. 2. 2.a2 . Law of Signs. a = a3 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. on to in factors 4. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. etc.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 3 f a = f a = +. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . fa. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. . a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 8. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . follows that 3. is may be by 207. involution repeated multiplication. According to 1. 52.
3 2 2 8 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (^^) 2 . 15. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. the required power. (277171 )*. 6. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 16. 4.6) = a . (2ar). (a ) 2 5 . (a ) 2 4  3.166 To find To To power. amVy) 3 . \ 3 J '  MW 10.6 (a 8 8 . 2 11 (afc ) . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 76 : (>y. V V/ 13. 2. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise a fraction to a power. 24. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 5. 210. a product to a given power. 4 /2mV. .
) 14. (afl) . etc. are obtained by multiplication. pansions. 2. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . An 1. 9. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (5 (1 a) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3 (l I) 2 8 . nent of the binomial.3 y. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. . 6.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 23. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (3af26) 8 . 3 8 . + 4aj) 3 . 7. 13. 3.6 2 8 ft) . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 4.INVOLUTION Ex. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . +5a) 22. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (aj7) . 15.y) = (3 y?y . 16. + a 2 a. frequently called ex. 21. a. 2 . 8.y . (a + &)8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. The higher powers of binomials. (3 x . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 5. 1 f 3 2 3 . 1. 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 2. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 211. Ex. 18. (6m+2w) (3 8 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . : a 20.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. . 12.
( &) 5 . 78 s . mn 5 2 5 ) . (2 4. (l 8 . (m 5 I) 2 22. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 4. (3a f5) 5) 4. 23. Ex.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 3. (w 4 ?i) 4 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 5. 17. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. Ex. 18. 2. 24. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 10. (a~^) 5 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (m 2 + n) 8 .216 a^ 4. (?/i~w) : 16. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (?>i?i f c)*. and the powers negative. is the coefficient of the next term. 13. 6. (la&) 4 12. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (tff1) (cfd) . The minus. (1 + 4 ?/) . (2 a 4 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (mJ) 4 11. . . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . . 25. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 3.2.96 ^y f 216 o?y . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 8. .a) 3 19. 4 (1for) 5 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 21. 1. 5. 15. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .168 3. 9. . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (m fl) 2 20. 4 . . (af 5) . (p + q) 4 * 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. Ex. 14.
Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 27 =y means r' = 27. \/"^27=3. which can be simplified no further. V \/P 214. or x &4 . 4 4 . = x means = 6. and all other numbers are. 109 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. called real numbers. 1. (_3) = 27. 215. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. a) 4 = a4 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. tity . or 3 for (usually written 3) . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or y ~ 3. Since even powers can never be negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. for distinction. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. and ( v/o* = a. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 2. numbers. V9 = + 3.
v/^i2 = a*. index. 7 . = V26TIT81 = 53. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 8.lL. V5 v/2 7 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 9. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .9 = 136. 6. Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. Ex. 5. = 19472. v/2^. Ex.(.  100 a 2 . 6 7 = 030. Ex.4. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 7 . 3. 62 = V2* . 79 2 v/2 5 .125.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 9. roots of the numerator \/18 . To extract the root of a power. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. \/2 4 9 . 7.1. V?. extract the and denominator. 10. 3/0** = am . 6. 3i . To extract a root of a fraction. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 82 . 3 33 53 . fy 5 3 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . EXERCISE 1. Ex. . . 2 . V25 9 16. V36 9 4.64 5 4 .200 . 2. 4 v. Ex 5 a" . .201) = 2. 7. = 199 + (_ 198) . 2. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 8. Ex.
75.) by inspection.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 34.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Find the square root of a2 . V9216. 6. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .98. 3. 30.4/.3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .EVOLUTION 171 28. 32.3 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. Ex. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 1. 2 . ^40^4./). (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 33. 29. V20 . 31. 45 V5184.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. a f2 l 2 + l. V8. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 2. 2 . 116.3 y2) ( vV . a* 4 8 2 . 5.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . .
#2 a2  16.2 ab + b . 15.172 7. . + 6 + 4a&. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however.b 2 2 to its square.72 aW + 81 & 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 ac . 10. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 12. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2 . The term a' first 2 . the given expression is a perfect square. and b. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 11. 8 .> 13.2 &c. mV14m??2)f 49. 14. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.e. 2ab . a\b is the root if In most cases. i. a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . let us consider the relation of a f. and b (2 a f b). 2 2 218.
2.24 afy* f 9 tf. The square . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 6 a. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . 219. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. the first term of the answer. Second trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 .EVOLUTION Ex. and so forth. Explanation. First complete divisor. . 10 a 4 8 a. . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. . . 1. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. of x. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 1. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. First trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Ex. is As there is no remainder. by division we term of the root. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. */'' . and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 /. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.
12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 2 4.20 o 4. 729 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 8.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 12. x 6 4 4 0^4. 6 11. 16.V430^425^ 4m 4.73 a8 .25 x 4 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.25.16.73a4 440^436^460^.24 or . l 4. 9.12m 5 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. a? 2 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .12 m 4.42 a*& 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 36it.10 x2 4. 14.20 J or 2 16 x 4.6 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 436^?/469a.a 6 x*y 2 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 24. 6.4 x 4. 10. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.37 a ^ .162 a2 60 a10 4. 5. . > 7. 2 x2 3 2x. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 1 4. 20.40 a 22 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 19. 15.9. 5 4 16 4 iK . 18.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 16x6 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 4 . 17. 3.
and the complete divisor 168. Find the square root of 524. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of 10. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . which may contain one or two). Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. a 2 = 6400. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Therefore 6 = 8. first . 1. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Ex. Find the square root of 7744. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the first of which is 8. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1.. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.176. etc. the first of which is 4.000 is 1000. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.000 is 100. = 80. Ex.1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. and the first remainder is. 2.EVOLUTION 220. the square root of 7744 equals 88. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the square root of the greatest square in units. of a number between 100 and 10. two figures. The is trial divisor = 160. etc.000.
or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. in .7 to three decimal places. Find the square root of 6/.1 are Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61. The groups of 16724.0961 are '.10. 3.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. 12. places.1T6 221.70 6. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.
33.01. = 3. 31.22.) 40. 34. 36. 39. 37. 35. feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.1410. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . JT . 30. 13. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 5.4 square when R = radius and 11. J. feet. 1. .58 square 38. T\.53. 1.
. x = + 2 or x =2. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 224.g. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 4. is 12. 2 ic = a. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. A pure. 2)* + 5 = 33. x 2 7. Dividing. 1. 225. This answer Check. or incomplete.. 6#2 = x* 24. or equation of the second degree. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Extracting the square root of each member. 178 . but no higher power e. 6 y2 = 17. The 7 equation. 2. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Ex. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Transposing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation. complete. = 7^ + 5. 226. or affected.
19 + 9 = 5500. 2 2 a. 0^ + 1 = 1. 7 = 162. o. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ax Transposing and combining. 6(2)=10(ajl). 3. 7. .25. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 10. or Therefore. .2. 16^393 = 7. ' =: y? b* b . 2 4fc 5' 18. (a? 9. 4 ax. 2. Solve 179 . 4. : 83 2. 5. 15^5 = 6. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8.
The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 27. 22 a. Find the numbers. . . 2. Find the side of each field. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. If G=m m g . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. and their product : 150. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 25. 3. 2 .b 2 If s If =c . 28. 4. 26. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 2 . : 6. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2a f 1 23. If 22 = ~^. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 29. is 5(5. solve for r. 228. find a in terms of 6 . A right triangle is a triangle. and they con tain together 30G square feet. then Since such a triangle tangle. EXERCISE 1.) of their squares 5. may be considered one half of a rec square units. solve for v. If a 2 4. ' 4. r. 24. 108. Find is the number.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for d. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .
4. To find this term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Solve Transposing. 2m. Method of completing the square. (b) 44 square feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. A body falling from a state of rest. add () Hence 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 24. is and the other two sides are equal. we have of or m = .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.2 7 . of a right triangle Find these sides. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. Find the radii. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . sides. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. radii are as 3 14.7 x f 10 = 0. Find the sides. and the two smaller 11. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the third side is 15 inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. J = 12. . Find these 10.) 13. (b) 100 feet? = . x* 7 x= 10. . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 9. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4.
2 ax f 2 o) s a . Simplifying. (*~8) a = at . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.  \. = \ # = ff. J. Therefore. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. or J. = 6. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.2 a2 . Transposing.x(l = . a Clearing of fractions.2. adding member)..1. Ex. Ex.e.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. a. = . 230. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Uniting. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. or x = 2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 7 5 + 10 = 0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 2  . Extracting square roots.a. = x\ = 2. 62 x 5 = f. Hence Therefore Check. . 2 a* a. Transposing.
x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
article. 231. . o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. x la 48. \bx\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. 49. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. = 12.c = 0. =8 r/io?. ao. 2x 3 4. and c in the general answer. Solution by formula. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
2or } 5o. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. TIO.. 2 a? = 44 x .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2 . 15. ?i 2 . 6 Ex. 19. 2 o. 6. 14. 3. 16. 8. 2. 20. 13. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 18. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.  .25 x. 7^ + 9 x 90. a. = 64120?. 10. V^tT)* . 7. 1. 6^+5^ 56. = 12 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 5 x2 Transposing. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 21. 4. c p. 6. c = 5. 9. 12. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. Reducing to general form. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2 a. 17. 26. 11.4 4 5 . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 6 . 2.
=7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. (5 a? !)(. if either of the uct is zero. 5) = 0. x2 = 1 . orz roots.5 Solving (1) and (2). Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 0. 1. Solution by factoring. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.2. all or. ar>8o. 233. = 0. 3x?+x = 7. 24.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.4) = . 27 x== 42a. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. = 14. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. = 0. or # 5 is zero. a=:i^^. = 0. Transposing. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . }. 25.5) =0. member can be Ex. factors Now. transposing terms to one member. Clearing for fractions. .x. and 6. Factoring. 5 = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 23. Bx 1 1. any degree. 26. Eesolving into factors. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. x(x <2 .
Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3 or 2 a. } 2 2 (5 . members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. is 5) = 0. 14. 5. aj( 15. The equation I. ar'Sa^ 12.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. E. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. a* 10a=24. 5 = 0.3)(x + 3 3. 2. 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. a?. : 87 = 0. 13. a?10a=:24. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 3. 3) = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. + 100. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4or + 18a f 8a. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 6. 4.24 = 0. 12. + 10 a = 24. for a: . x2 f 2 x . Or Hence the 234. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 9. 16.g. 3# y 5 = 0.6)) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4.= 24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.(. Ex.e. 8. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 2o3 f9a. + 8=s: 7. 7. 3) Factoring. (aj4)(a. 3^ = 0(1106).:=0. 0^ ar> 11. 0(02) = 7(02). 4)(z3) = 0. + 6)=0. O roots are 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0.
uz + u 21. 25. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 20. 19. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 18. 27. 23. 22. a 2 =(x a)b. ara + ft + c*. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 2.188 17. '3a!J  . (2a? 3) (a 24. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a.
54. 2. 6. of their reciprocals is 4. 2. G. 58. 57.1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.2. : 3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 4. 2. 2. . feet. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. number by 10. Find the numbers. 56. and consequently many prob 235.0. and the difference Find the numbers. 3. EXERCISE 1. 7. 0. 1. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2. The difference of .3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. Find the sides. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 1. 5. and equals 190 square inches. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 5.0. and whose product 9. and whose sum is is 36. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 55.9. 3. 8. 52. two numbers is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. The 11. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3. Find the number. Find the number. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.
If he each horse ? . 17. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and Find the sides of the rectangle. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 15. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. watch for $ 24. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. Find the rate of the train. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money.190 12. sold a horse for $144.10. 14. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 13. . At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. ply between the same two ports. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. Two vessels. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ABCD. dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. as the 16. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 19. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. other. What did he pay for 21. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch.
as 0. how wide is the walk ? 23. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 24. a point taken. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. the two men can do it in 3 days. so that the rectangle. Find and CB. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. (tf. and working together. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 237. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 27. By formula. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 1. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. or x = \/l = 1.) 25. Ex. of the area of the basin. ^3^ = 7. constructed with and CB as sides. 23 inches long. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. contains B 78 square inches. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. . Find TT r (Area of a circle . and the area of the path the radius of the basin.
a 21or=100. 10. 8. a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 12. 19. = 1. 436 3. 4 : 89 10a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.)+72=0. 9. 2. T 17. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 6. 4 a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. Hence Le.2 =4.T 2 2 . 18. 2 16 a^40 11. 2 h9:=0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a4 5o. or y = 8.192 238. >. 4. = 13. 4 6. 16. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 7. Solving. aV+9o 4 =0. a? 15 1=2*. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Ex. y8)=0.
rational. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 3. Ex. 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Relations between roots and coefficients. rational. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. and unequal. 241.bx 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are rational. 240. The discriminant =(. a perfect square.f> = 0.2 z . the roots are unequal. ( 2a Hence 1.12 x + 9 = 0. is 4ac not zero.2) 2 4 3 (.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are real. 2. and equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are equal. Ex. the roots are imaginary. negative. the roots are irrational.5) = 04. c the roots are real. b 4.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Hence the roots are real.
17. x2 7 10. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. = 5x. = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2 a. + 2a15 = 0. + 18 2 8. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. o. 60 2 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 12 2  . x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. f 2 E. 3a. 24. 12. 2 7.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 9a3 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 12~x = x 2 . 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 21. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 23. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.19 # 20. their product isf.g. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 18.. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 22. 14. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. lla. tfmx+p^Q. 6. = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. ^12. 4. : a 2 . EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. = 0. 2. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 2 : 3. 5aj 9. = Q. 2a 4z5 = 0. + 2a. 5oj aj + l = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 15.
we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. Then the law of involution. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. provided w > n. m IV. II. (a m ) w .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. ~ a m f. The first of these laws is nition of power. while the second of the first. however. such as 2*. no Fractional and negative exponents. = a"" < . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. hence. We assume." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . a m a" = a m+t1 .* III. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. > m therefore. It is. that a an = a m+n . and . must be *The symbol smaller than.a" = a m n mn . for all values 1 of m and n. (ab) . 244.
Assuming these two 8*. 245. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . fractional. 29. (bed)*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a?*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. e. '&M A 27. 30. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. at. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 3*. etc. 25. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. disappear. a\ 26. laws. 28. (xy$. 24. n 2 a. 4~ . ml. as. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 31. = a. or zero exponent equal x. m$. a*. . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.g. a . 23. 0?=^.
If. : 2' 4* = 4. equal to unity.\/n. : 197 33. 27* = 3. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. = 49. \fi?. 38. Vo5 . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 35. 37. \/xy \/m. 246. 7z* Find the values of 47. ty?. 44. 3* = 27. = 2. v/o&cT 34. a . e.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. hence is .g. a * a2 Or a=l. v'mT 36. 46. 40. Let a = a. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. however. e. a. 45. 50. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. Solve the following equations 39.g. 41. 48. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a* * = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 49. 5 a* = 10. = 2. 42. 43. the base is zero.
each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. an x = a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.g. . Let x= or". etc.198 247. or the exponent. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . vice versa. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. cr n. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. e. Multiplying both members by a".2 = a2 . 248. consider the following equations. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.
"* 38. : mi m~^. . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 2 . a^ 41. a. 3 a. 22. 44. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. ^?2 y' 34. rfS. ^L. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 25. c 32. 36. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 66 45. 2 . 2m~i 43. 40. 39. f (2w)~i 1 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 7~ l a 2b 2 . . 27. 37. : or 5 . 3 a? * 42. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . m . * 24.
z* = 1. + A_. 49. 47. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = .1. + 1~* f 21 . 53. 52. = 5. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 54. 10* 5* = . 58. z 5or*=10. 59. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.(. 1. 57. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 48. ar = i. 10* Find the values 56. = ^. 17' 2 51.81 f (a .26)* 1 (I) 2 .008)* + A. 55. (. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .9*.343)* + (. of: 3ll4~* 60. = l.6).001. 61. Ex. 250.
3 aj" a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 6a. 26. Perform the operation indicated. S'sS8. NOTE. 16. 18. / 7fv 7.$". OA 20. 7~ 6 . (d) If required.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 72 . 4 5. 27  28. 17. 12. 8 ' 9. 6 *.4 a8 . 10. 13. &.6 *' 6 *25.4 . ' 11.5a.7*. 7. .^/5^5. 6. remove the fractional exponents. 79 . Remove the negative exponents. etc. 3sVS. V5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 16. a. 14. are performed. .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .7i.&. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. .&.$*. 4 x^.7W. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 95 ^9i 5**. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 23.5. 7~ 5 27  . 3. #* a. 3 a. 7*.
2. 34.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. If powers of a?. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 40. The 252. powers of x arranged are : Ex. Arrange in descending powers of Check. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 6 35.2 d .
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
I VJ + 3VT8 .2 V50.10 V2 =  V2.3\ . V3. </20. 31. 36. 27. 30. ^126. \/5. (i.e. To add or form. Simplify V~ . 5V2. ^6. v/3. ^/IT. signs. s!/3. v/4. connect them by proper 1. V2. ^3. </3. 26. in order of magnitude : \/7. V2. 2\ 3*. + . v^S. Simplify V + 3 VlS. VS. 34. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .2. V2. ^2. 28. 32. ^30. Arrange 35. 29. v/3. Ex. V3. A/3. 4^/4. Simplify/a35 ~ o . V5. ^4. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. subtract surds. 39. 38. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^4. if dissimilar. ^2. A/2. </2. \/7. ^2. 3. 40.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 37. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^7. ^5. Ex.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 33.
14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. 3. 11. . 6. 10. 13. 8VT8J2V32 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4.3V20 + 6V5. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. + 3V835V2. 4V805V45. V175V28+V634V7. 8.J a6 V4 aft. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V18+V32VT28+V2. 6.
y* = Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 3. 23. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Ex. . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 460V35100 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 1. and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. .2v/6 + IPV6 105. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 2. 6*. 26^ .
9. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 213 98 11. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V2 V50. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V42. . 34. 14. 40. V3 Vl2. V20 V30. 21. aVa. (2V3) 8 .RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 12. v/18 v"3. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 6. 2. 4. (5V22V3CVS)V3. a?. VlO V15. VTO. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 39. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. fWa 17. 38. 37. 41. v/4. 10. 25. 18. 2 . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 27. (V6 + 1) 1 . 6 V4 5. 15. V3 V6. 40 10 30. + VB)(2V5). 13. 6.^/2. (Va Va 36. 3. 8. \/3 \^). V2aV8^. 19. 28 . (3 20. Vll. 7.VSS.
43. Va v/a. the quotient of the surds is If. E. .214 42. Ex. 46. (5V2+V10)(2V51). all monomial surds may be divided by method. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 49. 47. 60. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). a fraction.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . is 1 2. 48. V3 . 53. 268. 51. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 44. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (2 45. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 52.
g. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. . 1.73205. Divide VII by v7. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. e. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. . by V7. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.57735. however. arithTo find. The 2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.. 3. Evidently.RADICALS This method. we have V3 But if 1. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. metical problems afford the best illustrations. /~ } Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. is illustrated by Ex.
A. 14. 272.. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V8 12. i. . and Given V2 = 1. V3 = 1. A. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 23 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 7. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V5 270. VffV?.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. Vll 212*. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .2361. V8 JL. Vn V7 ' * 8.4142. 20. ^/H . 21.7320. 271. V3 24 . V2 22 . V5 = 2. . V48 25.
RADICALS Ex.vffi^T _ . 1. . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . s Simplify a.2.Vs2 .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. .= 18. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .
. 19.5 3 = 125. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.218 6 . : and V5 = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. Given V2 1.2361. Vo1 26. J?_. 6V7.7320. v 2V3 28. four places of decimals 23 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.4142.W3. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V21 = 25 . 24. 27. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. By the use of fractional exponents . = V3 = 1.
. \/l6*. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 8. 5. 11. v8f 2\/15. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. it to this form. V255 . In other examples of involution and evolution. viz. the If. 3 (V2~u)  7. 9. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V643 . 2. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. Simplify Ex. 1. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 2. 2 12. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.RADICALS 219 274. \/125" . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. According to G3. on the other hand.
These Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. and whose product is 18.A/2. 2 \/18. ^TT.6 V2. is 11.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 \/20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find V4 + VJ8. 2. 3. Find Vll .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . The Hence ^11 .220 Ex. +2 Ex. Find Vl2 4. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .
1. a. V48 23. VT . A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.e. = xa + 4 x f 4.. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 4x x = 2. member to 2. they are transto formed into rational equations. Transposing and uniting. are radical equations. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. . : 221 Vl32V22. 5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Dividing by Check.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Before performing the involution. Radical equations are rationalized. +=. i. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 8. x2 = x f 2. 19. (2x xrf 1. 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. first involution.V48 4 20. The value x =2 reduces each . by raising both members equal powers. r 22. 277. Ex.
f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Ex. . Dividing by 24. x = J. Therefore Check. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing and uniting. tion which has two roots. one root. 5. Therefore CftecAr. 4#f 4 = 9. Transposing. Squaring both members. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 278. Factoring. a socalled extraneous root. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.1) = 0. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Transposing and uniting. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.222 Ex. at . . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. f 25 = 12. a. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. It = 3 x . 2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. they may be extraneous roots.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. V24~+~l = 0. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 3. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Squaring both members. V4afT~l. viz. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. viz. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Extraneous roots. the first member = V2.
2 Clearing of fractions. Hence x = the only root. viz. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 223 x = 3.2 r. Transposing. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Factoring. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. \ does not satisfy the given. the right member = V2. Check. .3) (2 x . Solve the following equations : = G. equation it is an extraneous root. ViTie 4 z2 .47) = 0. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Squaring. 4. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. is x V. Therefore. NOTE. (x x = 3. for it satisfies the equation . Hence there is only one root. = 3. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. both members reduce to 5. . or x *j.RADICALS Hence x If a. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. + 6~ieT~3 . If If x 3 = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. and to 5.12 . x root of the preceding equation. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.
Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Many 1.
x Since both =9 or 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. Ex. 412a* = 16. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 x + 40 = 36. = 7. + 40 = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. _ 2 y .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.35 = 0.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. o. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. This can be seen without substituting. 3. Substituting. 3 6. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.i~24 = 0. x + Vx a? = 6.f40= 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 2_8z 440 = 49. x =6 or 3. . y then x2 . 2. = 0. members of the equation were squared. 4. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.8 z40 = 7. Vi 2 8a.*2a. 2Va. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Let 8 x f 40 . = 26. 5. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. some of the roots be extraneous. 2. Q . 45 14VJB = .
f 18 = 24. 2.226 11. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +3= 6. 15. 14. 16. 20. 18.a 440 = 35. a. 19. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 12. +x . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 4 V SB* 4 a. 17. a^x2 5 2 13.
3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Without actual division.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. a? R = x* . ax4 4.4 a. ^ = 381+2. we make a? what the value of Q.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division. 1. " Or. however. no matter If. could. does not contain a?.2) Q . we can find the value of R by making x = 2.2 x 5 by x 3.2 + 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 2. 3 2 Ex.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. by dividing 3 x* f. E = ax + &z + m) Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. find the remainder when m." transposing. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. to x we # = 2 3. even if Q is unknown. = 2. If x* . 227 . Hence. Ex.bx? + ex2 4. then (x 2)Q 0.360 = 244. if Q was known.
+ ^by x + b. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 2 j 7. hence (x divided by x 4. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x m is factor of the expression. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.g. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. The Factor Theorem. 8.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 43 3 E.3)f 11 =. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 5 (4x . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. + 6. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 3. + 7 = 632. the remainder equals 8 2 x .8'= 0. 5. } 2 by a1. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x* s 2 4.4(.8. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.228 282. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. fora?. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.949. if 8 42  .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . If the remainder is zero.
1. 23. a + 32. 9. 5. f 3. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 8. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. is a factor. + ttt15 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 24.7 + 16 .12 = 0. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . f 15 does not vanish.7 x + 15 = 0.12. & p*. + 27 + 27.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 2m 5m . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 229 1. 106 division.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. p 5^ + 8p 4. or x 4. Let x = . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.1. . 3. a 8a f 19 a 12. Resolve into factors 4. _ . a. 2. a^8^ + 19a. ^10^429^20=0. The 5. 17. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. oj 5x2 f3a. 11.r6 = 0. 6. 7 46 = 0. 3 2 : 7. 21. i. 8.49 = 0. + 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. or 5 4 + 3^ . then x8 7 x'2 4. f 5.e. a 2a + 4. 18. 15. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 1. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. Factor a? 15. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. are f 1.1. 2 2. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . Therefore x ( 1).9^ + 23^15. 20. m f m n 14. factors of the absolute term. a? 19. a 5x 6.13m + 30 10. 25.
if n is even.xy +/). xn f. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. If n is a Theorem that 1." . By we obtain the other factors. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. : importance. 286. 1. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2. xn y n y n y n = 0. Ex. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . actual division n. 2 Ex. 2. For substituting y for x. if w is odd.230 285. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.g. is odd. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. ar +p= z6 e. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.
Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . preferable. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. x3 8=0.i mn f w 2). 28. since it more directly to the prime factors.= . 27. a. 26. 3.
232 . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. to equations of the fourth few cases. 290. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. however. ==5 > 1^ = 4. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. & + 2 xy + = 25. 4 xy = 16. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. in general. xywe have 3.y4 is of the fifth degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). (5) Combining (5) with (1). (4) Hence. can be solved by the methods degree. = 6. x y. * A I. If two of the quantities x f y. xy are given. + 6 a?V . of quadratics.
^.g. r (" 1 = 876. 108 2. 233 y. 3. 1. " "' "' { r 8. The arranged in pairs. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. but can be found. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ' 10. x and xy are not given. b=3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 12. I I x + y=7. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.
' ' . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).~ y = 5. 7 . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. aj = 2. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 2 (1) From (1) we have. x " (3) 49 etc. + 29 = 0. Factoring. 5. A system of simultaneous equations.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.20) = 0. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.. . or JJ. la. or y = 1 . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. .  . 6 "I 14. r^ 2 as ] f. 3. I* Jj ^ [. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. Ex. I x+y = a.  f J. 4 y = 20.o 18. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .i/ = r 13. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  42 y + Transposing. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.a. 19.?/ i = 6. one linear and ne quadratic.
3y) : Factor (2). ':il e :) . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 1. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . quantities. ' x*. y* + 2y = 3. 10. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 4 f + 2 y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. III. 9. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. x2y. Solve .3 2x 2 Ex. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. = 1 3 3.
11 a2 Factoring. } VI09. = Ex. 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. (1) (2) x x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. Solve 2. j Substituting y in (2). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 2. 15 x2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 109 a.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.
2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). f 1 150 a?. E.6. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Division of one equation by the other. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.y = 7. A.!. . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Bxy9. (4) (3). 150 */2 . " IV. can be solved by special devices. y? a? f .125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 2 xy + y2 = 10. 298. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).175 ay = 12.3^42^=43. and others not belonging to them. ' ^ 15.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.
considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . * ' 300.. from (2). 2. y . (1 > (2) 1. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Therefore x = 16. y = 3. at first it is unknown quantities. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we obtain by squaring. we have from (1).238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Solve Ex. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. B. Some simultaneous ?/. x +y y etc. jc~ y = 9. i ^ *>. xy. = 12 J. = 189. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. x 2 .
4. 2. Hence = V or = 4. 7. I e. M6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. [2x + : y= 17. . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. 239 Ex. 36* 2. F+y+ . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.
* . = y 1 y* . 27.4 y = 47 a. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. f 18. .21 ^ = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 16.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 19 ' 26. + o5)(6hy) = 80. = 198. 25.
30. 32. . finite  =x y if = x. Interpretation . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . . 33. = 48201. ~\ OK OO. as a .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . etc 302. 25 34. oo 301. 31. hence may be any finite number. ^ oo . y % 9 f*K 36. or ~ indeterminate. Q 7.of  According to the definition of division.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 7' j/ 39. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 3 a2 38. etc.
customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. The ~~f fraction . cancel. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. be the numbers. i. it is an Ex. TO^UU" sufficiently small. i. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.e. (1) is an identity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. without exception. 306.000 a. x f 2. . or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1. oo is = QQ. . (a: Then Simplifying. and .e. 1. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . Or.g. creases. I. (1). or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.242 303. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.decreases X if called infinity. ToU" ^100 a. (1) = 0. By making x any * assigned zero. Let 2. great. Hence such an equation identity. and becomes infinitely small. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. = 10.can be If It is made larger than number. as + l. the answer is indeterminate. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. equation.increases if x de x creases. is satisfied by any number. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 1.
the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve . 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. EXERCISE 1. The sum is of squares 2890. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. third and sixth parts. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. z = 1 Substituting. and the sum of Find the numbers. * 6. 1=0.8 x + 15 6.2 y = 4. . 4 3 x x5 a2 . is their 2. two numbers is 76. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. = oo.e. Solve x a. Solve  9 7. and a. 42 and' their product is 377.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Hence /. (2). no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 3. y finite QO.
Find the edges. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 6. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the side of each square. Find the sides of the rectangle. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the sides. 146 yards. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 13.quals 20 feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328.) 53 yards. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 12.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 9. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the edge of each cube. is is 17 and the sum 4. is 6. and the sum of ( 228. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. p. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 148 feet of fence are required. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. equals 4 inches.244 3. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. of a right triangle is 73. . of a rectangular field feet. Find these sides. Find the numbers. and the hypotenuse is 37. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. increased by the edge of the other. 8. and the diago(Ex. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. two numbers Find the numbers. and the edge of one. 255 and the sum of 5. 10. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 14. 190. Find the other two sides. 103. The area of a nal 41 feet. the area becomes f% of the original area.
irR *. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged. Find the radii. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches. is 20 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. .) (Area of circle and = 1 16.) 17. Find the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.
16..) is a series.. except the first. 3. To find the nth term / of an A. to produce the 4th term. 15 is 9 f.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. of the following series is 3. 11. each term of which. 17. a + 2 d. progression. 10. . series 9.. a + d. f . of a series are its successive numbers. a 11. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. . 12. 19. the second a descending. a f d. The common differences are respectively 4.. a 3d. 4. added to each term to obtain the next one. 2 d must be added to a.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. Since d is a f 3 d. 309. . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. + 2 d.. to produce the 3d term..1) d. P. Hence / = a + (n . P. The first is an ascending. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.... An arithmetic progression (A. The progression is a. . P. 3 d must be added to a. (n 1) d must be added to a. to each term produces the next term. a. to produce the nth term. and d.7. : 7. the first term a and the common difference d being given.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.
PROGRESSIONS 310. 7. 1. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 8. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .3 a = l. ? (a) 1. 8. = 2. 9.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 6 we have Hence . 4. P. 2 EXERCISE 1. if a = 5.. 9.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 4^. 5. 2J. . 1. d = 3. series . 6. = 99.. 21. 5.. Find the 12th term of the 4. 3. = I + 49 = *({ + . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 99) = 2600. 5... = a + (a Reversing the order. 3. 6.. 5. 8. . Find the 5th term of the 4. 10. 3. (d) 1J. of the series 10.' cZ == ... 3. 2..8. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. . . d . 19. the last term and the common difference d being given. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 6. 7. a = 2. P. 2.. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. 1J.4. .... 3. (a + + (a + l) l). Adding. 115. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. .. P. .16. 5. 7.. series 2. Find the nth term of the series 2. the term a. 24..
'. . Jive quantities are involved. 1J.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . .7 f to 12 terms. 13. + 3. 16. 18. 1. P. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . (x +"l) 4. 6. In most problems relating to A. to 8 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. (i) (ii) . .1 f 3. to 20 terms. 15. 33.248 Find the 10. 8. 1. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 7 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. and for each than for the preceding one. 7. 17. 19. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. rf. 29. strike for the first yard. 1. to 20 terms. > 2f 2. 11. to 20 terms. to 15 terms. \n. 15. 11. 16. 22. to 16 terms. : 3. 31. 2J.. . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. to 10 terms. Sum the following series 14. hence if any three of them are given. striking hours only. 11. 20. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 7. 23. 7. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 12. . 2. 11. 3. 21. 12. 4. .
1). I. 67. 78. 204 = ^ (a + 49). J = 49. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). n d.1) . P. 6.104 w + 408 = 0. hence n = 6. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. Solving. From (1).6. P. = 144. 111. n = 6. 100. 34. 6 n2 .PROGRESSIONS Ex. 144. = 1014. if s = 204. 1. 133. = 1014. Findn.~n~\ 408 6). if a. 89. . #. = n(104 . 78 n Substituting in (1). 12. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. Ex. the and the sum of all terms 1014.6 n). . s 24ft last term 144. or 11 J. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. the second one mean between the other two. The series is. 2. = 13. Find the series. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 2 (2) From Hence (2).. 204 = ^ (98 . 122. a = 49 6(71 . l)e?. a = 12.e. I Substituting in (I) and (II). d = 6. P. 312. 23.. = a + (w. 45. 56. or if x Solving. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. is 12. and b form an A. Substituting in (2). The first term of an A. But evidently n cannot be fractional.
a x f b and a b. f J 1 1 / . P. 74. Find w. I Find I in terms of a. d = 5. y and #f5y. 17. has the series 82. a+ and b a b 5.3. Given a = . Given a = 4. s == 440. 12. 7. n = 13. = 83. I. = ^ 3 = 1. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n = 20. 11. 4. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 14. n = 17. n. ceding one. 8.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 3. 78. Find a Given a = 7. Given a = . m and n 2. n has the series ^ j . Find d and Given a = 1700. Find a and Given s = 44. Find n. 10. Find d. 16. s = 70. Find?. f? . = 1870. How much . How much did he save the first month? 19. = 17. 15. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find d. = 52. Given a = 1. produced. = 16. 6? 9. n = 16. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = 45. T? ^. n = 4. of 5 terms 6. 13. . and s.
. NOTE. . <zr . is it (G. r n~ l . . P. the first term a and the ratios r being given. . 2. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 108. 4 (1) . E... .. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . (I) of the series 16. The 314.) is a series each term of which. The progression is a. If n is less : than unity.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 2 a. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 24. and To find the nth term / of a G. P. A geometric progression first. 36. . ar8 r. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 4. or. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. rs = s 2 . . P. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD..g. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 24. ar. is 16(f) 4 .. 4.. 36... of a G. or 81 315.arn ~ l . I.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. ratios are respectively 3. 36. +1. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). called the ratio. 12.
(it. 7. P..5.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. .l. + 5. Ex. .. 144. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 20. . f. whose and whose common ratio is 4.4. 9. is 3. 9. . P. 18. 0. . 1. P. . first 5. Find the 5th term of a G. series 6..5.72. I = 670. hence. 576. And the required means are 18. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. i 288.. Hence the or series is 0. In most problems relating to G. r^2.6.18. . . series . 25. P. first term is 125 and whose common . 8. (b) 1._!=!>. 6. . first term 4.. 3. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. \ t series . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 36. f. 4. 144. 2 term 3. . whose and whose second term is 8. 4.. fa.*. a = I. is 16..288. 144. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. if any three of them are given. EXERCISE 1.. Jive quantities are in. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. P.. 36. . 288. Find the 6th term of the series J. or 7. l. 72. series 5.. 676. 72. 36. 80. +f%9 % . (d) 5.18. . whose ... .54. 10.. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . volved .. Hence n = 7. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. fa. 9. ? (c) 2.
Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 16 . r .J and 270. 22. 24. a^.. 54. M. 21. = 3.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 2. to 7 terms. 20. . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to 6 terms. P. = 3. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. s = 310. J. 243. 15. 126. Given r = n Z 5. J. Find a and Given r = 3. to 6 terms. . to 6 terms.nV> i*> !718. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 12.i a9 . to 8 terms. . to G terms. is less than unity. to 5 terms. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 25S series : 32. >"> . J. 4. 72. 27. 1. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. . Z s. == 160. may be than any assignable number.. n = 5. 42. 23. 14.. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 19... and hence ~ r . 1. 81. s = 605. be written If the value of r of a G.. Find a and n = 4. to 7 . Find the geometric mean between 7. I. 12 terms. a. + 4 . 81. 13. 14. 48. J.. 36. Find a and 4. of r n decreases. n = 5.
the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. P. what is (a) the sum of the areas.. first and the common term.. = a . 8..37272 .072.. .. 40.. . .3121212.. 9.. 1.Ql... .. 10.3 + .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . Find the value 9. i. = 990 . .= .254 Ex..)7?7272 . 6..3727272 . .= _4Z* . 9.272727. of: 11.. 12.. 1..555.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. . 250. 5. = . = . and the first term is Find 17.717171. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. P. .1.01 ^ . 16. 16.. . 4. is J. . The sum Find the of an infinite G. 1. of an infinite G.. . 1 r = . .072 + . 6. 2. . . 13. 8... 7. 12. 4. . 3. Hence . . r = j. 1. is 9.72.. is 16.. =A+ 10 i.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. If a = 40. 14.. I.. Find the sum to infinity. ratio 15. of all squares ? .191919.. P. 5. Given an infinite series of squares. i i J. The sum r.. 2... 100. 66 Therefore .27777 . (6) the sum of the perimeters. .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.99 .00072 f .
13. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . coefficient of . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.6) 20 . (\ 9 . . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . /2a+Y\ 8. 22. 25. 4. 2 2 24.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.b) w (a (a f (1 . (s + i). (xy) : 6 . (a2) 6. . 4 7. 12. 15. : (1 + xy. 7 . (a + b) . Find the 6th term of (x .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 11. 17. 26. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 16.6) . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . 29. a6 8 16 in . l 2. 5. 20. 21.b ). Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 14. 28. (a 100 . 10.
2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). if = = = 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 1. 1. 2. 1. + 1. 4. 4 ft  c) 2. + c(a  c). 2. if = = 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. 1. + 2. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.a(a 4. 1. 4. 2. 1. if x^l. 3. 1. 3. 4. 1.  2. 1. = 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. 2. 3. 5. c if 7 . 24 4. 6.f ac 1. 5. 2. + 2. 3. 5. ^+^ 3. 4. 3. (c 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 5. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. . 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 6. 5. 6. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 4. 1. 1. 7. aft 3 + 4. if y=2j 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3.  a)(a 1. 1. 3. 4. 3. 5. 2. 1. 3. 3. 2. 1. l. . 3. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 1. 1.c )(fta) 1. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4 2. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. c = = = 2. 2. 6. 2. 2. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 1. 2 . if a ft c = = = 4. 3. ft) . 2. 4. 2. 4. 6. 2. 3. 2. 2. 3.  2. 3. 2. 4.  8 ^ 2. 2. 3. y 3. 5. 4. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3.
r> . 16.4. 21.10.259 x c) . 17. b(x (b 1. 2.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . + 4. 4.8 + 2 // .  a) (c 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a 4 + 11 a . f 8.x 5 4 . a /> 3. 12.2. .2 a?y + 3 aty .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 3. x3 f 3 ax'2 .1. 5. 5.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 5. x = 4. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 3. 8 .7 y 2* 4. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 29. x3 2 a2 . 15.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . c = 3. 6. x 3 11. 18.2 z8 4 x.5. 7 xy 3 . x 3 x' 14.r 6 x  4 xy . 25.2. 15.a 4 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 9. 26. c)(x a} .a 5 a . 4 x 4 . + 4 ?y . 20. 9. 6 a4 4 a8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .c' 2 4 / . + 3 y 2* . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 40.3 a?y . 21.\ yz + xz. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . = 2.a8 . x C 4 4x y + . 4. 1. 24.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 2. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 2. 7. 10.5 xy 3 + + 4 .7 + . 4 y 13.8 3 + 7 x4 . a: .7 ys. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . + 8 x4 *y .2 x?/. 1.2 x2 . 8. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . if a 6 = = c = 3. a. + 1. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .3 xyz. ' b) + 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . . 4 z . 2.a) . ~c)(b. 41. (5. a. 2 x 8. 7y 4 . 5. . 4. 2. or . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.
.(4 * . sum of . 5 10 + 7 .(4 x 2 .3 . x8 x2 2 a'2x.6 x ] .4 Vl 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .#48. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.a ft.(7 x 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4) .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.1)}] .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. : a x .5 .{2 x 2 .5.c 3 a.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. of a.6T . . (*) a  c. c =x y }~ z. 5 10 4 G 11 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.x2 . 5 4 7 12 .(a . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. ft. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. = x y ft z. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.27~~7)}]. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]..x . c 4.x 2 4.260 19. c 4ft.2 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 35. 0" 30. a  ft + c.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 36.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . . 7 12 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.2) . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. f ft. and . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . . .] 26.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 33.4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 542 x 2 and .7. 4vTT~y 3. 29.1). 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.2 3 ax 2 . From of 2 the 4. Simplify 31. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft 25.{G * 2 .(x 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .3 x . x'2 .3 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].[4 x 4.c 4 3 a.2 x 8y2 44 . 3 ft.c. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .x 4.(5 y .[4 z 8 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 2 x 32.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(5 c . 4 2 x2 23. 4 3 5 y/ . . 4 .(x* .4 ft) 4. take the sum of G x 5 .3.2 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . Take the sum 4x 4.c. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.x .2 a .?> x 4 20. 34. 4 4 4.8 3 4.
3 *).(5 y . 50.2 2 . 48. + 4x + 5)(j. 51. 57. 2 53. 67.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .4 a 2 + a 4 ). .6 xy .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). )(lz a ).6)}]. + *+!){> + 2). 4 + 2 2 + 1). 3 x 42.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2)(1 .ac . a {.a~^~c)K].5 )}] + {4 c .{2 a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.0)} .[4 x  5 .1). 59.Z .b (c .2a . . 2 ft 41. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 46.2x + 3). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 56. .2c(V/ .6c) (a + f c). 2 2 x + !)(* .rf)} + a [.5)} + (3 a 2 .96 [17 a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 62. 49. (1 ar+a.3 c)]. (4 + 3a 2 .12).{3 c . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 43.(6 . . 45. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].{2 a (ft .(7 a.(2 x2 . .(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 65. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).ab . 63.c).r 2:c+ l)(ar.2 2 + 1)(7.[2 .(2 . .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 a + 5 a .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 'J 44.3c).4 a . 2 52. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).7). 13 a .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).3).c 2 . (1 55.56. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.  2 a  {3 2x a . 64. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.(4 d . a .2 zz . .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 2 : 7e)a}]. (/> 4 .3)(*5)(* 7). 68.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (5 a 39.(2 a 2 .3 z 2 ).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .be) (a 58. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.JT^T+1)} + (2 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].& + {.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 60. (. 54. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). . (. (r (1 (a. . (x . (x.
(a 48 8 8 4.(ft 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . . (p 2 .c) .2 (a . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 90.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 2 (x 2 . .y + z)(x + y .x + y + z).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .c . 85. 77.9y2).c)].ft) + 4(2 .b 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .2y)(. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).(a 2) (s 4 ft. (a 2 ft 2n 4. ar . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 76. 1).3y) a (* 2 4.ft) 4 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).n pc). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.z) .m np c .c) . 2 + a 2 ). (x (x ( + *) .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 1). 71. 79. ft 95. 92. 93.(c 4. 89. 91.:y)( a. .z\x 4.(4 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c) 4) (ft 4.262 69.6*y . b 4.5 .2 (y 4.q).<f(p . 86.c) 2 .3 (ft .2 ft}) f (3 a .O (a 4(a 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 83.y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 82.3 a .y)\x y).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). ft 78.z)(x y + z)(. 84. 4. xy y 2 ).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).r 2 . 87. 73.c)} . 4 4 . ft /. 74.v) 4.c . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . (a (2 b)*(a 4.c) rr identities.(/>  3 v)^(. f 72. 70.a) 2 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). ft" l Simplify 80. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 88.{3 a . Prove the following 8 4. 75. 94. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.am&t 4 A 2 *).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. ft ft ft a}. (.c) j.
117. 26 (a 4 c). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . r .(2 a 2 .) .9 x 2 . 2 (a+ . 109.y 2 4.*) (x 8 .16 a 6 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 108. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 25 4 .y 4 . 1).y 4 ) . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.r 4 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 116.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 99 100.5 b*). (80 a 112. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 121. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 118. .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 122. 10). a*.2 2% 4. (.b) 98.(x 2 . 114.35 x 2 2 ) .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .&). (a 8  8 68 8 4.40 />) .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.(a 1 2 8 . 120. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".3 a"+ 4. 3*.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 124. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 123.6 y 4 4. 2 4 41 x 4a.xy 4. 106.27 x* .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 105.2 xy 8 . 103.5 xy).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).1). 110. .4 aft . 113. [10( 4. (2< 107. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).a".(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 102. (8 x* 115.(7 xi/ .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.2y 2 4. 1O4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).v/ ~ // = a: .
2 4(ar .7) = 4 .3(* + 4) + 9} . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .12 M 132. 10(2 x 141. 129.3 a:).(x . 139. 135.8 6 .r>) .2(5 . . 138. (*+ + . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2(j: .3) (3 x 4. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).3). 1) . .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 7(2 x .2) + 2(ar + 4).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).22. 1) = 2(* .(j a? 144.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).a:)]}.1) .G) .2 7^~5] + 1). (4 x .5).3 x).264 125.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .n . 137.27 a 3" .4) .9) 4. . 136.(x + 3) ] . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 143.2) = 3 .2) (a: + 3). 3(2 x 134. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . .2(10 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.18 *&) (1 . 3) = x\x .4) .3). . 5 146. (5a: 150. o o 140.3(2 z . 142. x 147.(x f 9).4(0 x .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).1) (a? .7(4 * .9) + 3. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 126. .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 149.3) = 12 .2(4 . y (* l x.19) + 5 = 4 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 42(3ar 145.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 127. 148.5{.5) = 12(4 x .r + 7[or . .(1 . 5(2 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 128.
14) (a: + 3).2) a + 7(x .76. If the area of the frame inches.6 x) (3 . 158. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. + 4) (2 x + 5). 165.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.25) 2 . 265 152. (a. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 159. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. sheep more than the 169. (a . 162.1) (s + 3).3) (3 . The second contains 3 first. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.? . = 15. The sum What 171.2 x) (4 .T)O . transformed into F.l)(z . 153. 154. . (a) If C.3) (3 .17) 2 + (4 x . . (7 14 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.3) = (3 x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. How many 170. 156.r + 3) . 166. . 155.7) (1 x .4) (a .5 x) = 45 x .2) (j? + 1) + (x .5(x .3) (j. 161. (x (x a. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. + 2) + (5 . (3 O + . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .5) = (3 . = 2 C.5)(.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. =  (F 32). (2 .(5 x .. 160. .29) 2 = 1. these two angles would be equal. + 10) (ar . find the value of F.3) (a: . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.24. will produce F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .2). are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. a: ar a. 157.9) + (a. 164. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2) (7 *) + (*.z) (4 .7) (a.5*) + 47. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.19) + 42.2 x) = (1 . and the third twice as many as the first.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. + 5) = (9 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . f^ + ^sO. 163. 2 4 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.a:) + 229.8) = (2 x 4. 5(ar x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.
ll?/102. 176. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. dimension 182. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. sister . Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. respectively. 189. A each 177. number divided by 3. younger than his Find the age of the father. 178. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A boy is father. 190. side were one foot longer. . 15 m. same result as the number diminished by 175. . and 5 h. father. . 2 2 + a _ no. x* 185. 179. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 12 m. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 10x 2 192. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. How many are there in each window ? . 180. if each increased 2 feet. 181. +x 2. power one of the two Find the power of each. + 11 ~ 6. aW + llab2&. 4 a 2 yy 42. 13 a + 3. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. was three times that of the younger.266 173.56. two boys is twice that of the younger. z 2 92. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years.36. 3 gives the 174. 187. A house has 3 rows of windows. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 186. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. z 2 + x . 188. 7/ 191. + a. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Find the number. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. train. Find the dimensions of the floor.
2 x 2 . + 198.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .64.10 xy. a^a 226. . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . x 5 . 3 ap 2 . 206. 4 m +^.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 235. 2 . x*y 223. *2 234.10 y a x* . 2  5 xy 13 y a. a a: a: 237. 227. 2 200. 201. a: 236. 215. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 232. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a: 231.3 xy. . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 16x 4 81.6. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . a. 239. 195. 217. 245. # 2  29 y + 120.22 z + 48. 3 x V . 4a 2& 2 241. (a + . . 230. 209.3 c/> + 6 cq. 2 a 8 . a: .20 z 8 a: 220. 244. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 207. 203. y 2 194.x + 1. 5 x 2. 3 x 2 . xm+l 243. + 8. 2 2 y f 1. 218. .14 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 213. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.19 a .6s.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .(b + rf) 2 . 246. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . a.6 2 ?/ . 233. 2 a 2 .c) 2 . z + 5x 2 . 23 12.c) 2  (a . . a+a* + o a +l. 211. wiy + la mx + aw. 7a 228.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 6 197. 212. 8 a. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 222. 210. 3y 248. + 30 x.1.21 a:  54. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. x* + 8 2 + 15. x 219. 216.77 y + 150. .28. a. . 224. 24 2 + 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. + 3a 196. z 2 2.6 y2 + 4. a 2 . 3y 2 + ary .12 * . 208. 8 a: ar. 12 x +4. 238. 2a te 3% ly 247. + 2 .8 6 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 229. a.10. 267 199. 202. 7x 2 225. 221. ifWy+b.19 z 4 204.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .6 aq .
9. of: 266.7 f 5.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. + 8 x + 5. F.(55.2 z . x 2 4.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 265. z 2 268. 28 2 f 71 x . a.r .11 x f 28.80. 7 ax 250. + 23 x f 20. 251.M. 5 x 2 256.3 x .ry .91. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 258. x 2 + 4 + 3. 252. ft a. x* . 2 .2/ 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 264.ry 21.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .8.11 a 2 .3. x* . 15 # 2 z/ /. x 2 .G7 x f 33. 261.120. * 2 . I Find the II.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. Reduce to lowest terms 271.2 aft*. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.23 x f 20. 3 ay 4.5 ab f 2.12. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a? a: a: // 262. a 3 a 2 2 .x . 2 + 7 r f 2.10 a 4. a: . 7 12 2 2 . x 2 + 5 f .4 ab + 1. 22x2 a. + 3 x + 2. 269.a 2 />c 2 f 3. + 20 x 4.73 xy . 2 8 .&z. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .15 + 30. 260.4.6 by. 2 x2 . 270. . * 2 .1 9 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .9 x . 30 ^ . x 2 263.C. 10 x 2 .36. 254. x 2 + 2 x .14 bx a%% 8 . * a .48 afy 2 . of: 253.a + 2 4. 6. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.3 abc .15.23 + 12.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 1 x ar Find the L. 259.9 x + 14. 10 a.10.13.18 xy + 5. 3 #2 255. 2 a. 8 2 + 10 x . x*y* 4.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 8 xf < 3 xy + a. z 2 267. a 4. + 8. 3 a% 2 . * 2 .16 x . C. 18 x 2 . 257.
y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .!/. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 285 z4 n* + a. 289 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . *2 " 2 + Oge. a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2c a: 282.ar 1 279..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . m 4. + ac .2* + 3 x* 280.rL.J' 4 2 2 w mp .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.(y 2 z) * t (j.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 8 ..
O(ca) 306. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a (: a) (x 2. Lnl + ar 2 a. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x 7. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23.
2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 _. . (1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. _ x8 . 1 x2 + + a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ..(a . 1a: + y a.ft) 2 322. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. a: 1 313.
2 lOx 5x.7 xy + 12 x . . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .ll.5 a . a: 2 x* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . * 3a.2 +lOar 2 a.V  + y  x 3y a .y20  2y + 4 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.9 *// + 27 .6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 20 44 333. 250 5 10 2 325.
338.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.1V. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. a: 349 _ o. f V. (af2/.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. fl. + ni + . : 1+ i.. (a \ + lV. xi 347. (aWi + iJ. \x yj 340.) 2 . 7 ( ?f!?. 344. ( 342. (ar \ 346. ** i. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. + l + IV. 348. \5yl 341. aj 339. 1 345. ' 2 "l 5 . a>74 .y. if a = 3. +^ a: y x . 352. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 5 343.r 5 2 .+ r . ?_2 ^ . w \.
a2 4 . 1+2 362.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. + x x a . y360. (a a b yx c yabc 361. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. I  I f 366. _ + l a 359. ar xy + yl x* 358.
b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .
8  376. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5*8. <3 378.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. ^ . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. .*2 = 15. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. J !__7.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 5 {2 x 381. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 379. 4(* . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . __4 2x 3_ = !.
"i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. m x 398.1 .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 40.5 x =r f . f 1 1 + a 403.  8 9* x ~r. 396.75 x f . a.. 397.5 ^ ~ a: a. b 404. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 399.25 x + .147.6  . 401. _____ . 400. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).8 = . + 4 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.2 a:  1. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. . ^ (a . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5)..  J). . 3* 177.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. c . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. u '2 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.25.
f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. In a if and 422. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 418 ~jo. far did he walk all together ? A .c) .278 410. 411. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . and was out 5 hours.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. (x . Tn 6 hours . 420.  a) 2 6 2a. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. hour. 421. the order of the digits will be inverted. How long is each road ? 423. 18 be subtracted from the number.(5 I2x ~r l a) . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .
430. 438. Solve 436. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. : If is one equal 434. d. 431. if . a. find : a : c. If a b : =5 n : 7.6 8 ).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. x 427. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Find the mean proportional to 429. z 2 y. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . ax is \ by  ex + dy.iand 22 22 I a . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Find the fourth proportional 426. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . and : b : c = 14 : 15.& 5 ) (a 8 . . a + 5. a  t>. y. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 428. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). find the angles of the triangle. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.49 63). .a 2^ 8 + aft* . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 435. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 3 and 1J. . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. wi* + y= ny. Which ratio is greater. 2 2 8 2 . Find the length of the parts. 432. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. : i. b.46 2): (15a 2 . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 433.
7 442. 5 2 = 7 . . 56 + 10y = 7a.7 y = 25. ft. . = 25. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 7jr9y = 17. 5z4:# = 3. 446.rf2# = l. a. + 5y = 59. 457. 4 = 5 y + 29. 7a?y = 3. ft. 9/> = 2 . /) ar a. 450. 9ar7# = 71. 8 . if 2 ft : 439. 455..11 y = 95. a: 2y= = 1 .(or l(*2y)=0. 452. 451.4 12 .11 7.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . The volumes If their diameters. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 8 x + y = 19. 15ar = 20 + 8y. x + 17 # 53.89 = q. 1(3  a. Solve the following systems: 441. 445. 16.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 459. . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 3 a. 42 = 15y + 137. 444. 443. . c.35. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. Find the value of a.59 = 3 z. 453. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 3 . 449. ?/ 447. . a: a: + 5y). 458. 5x+4y=lQ. 454. 28 = 5 a . 21 7 = 27 + Op. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).*. 456. 7 a: . />(.55 y = . 448.
ax by = c \ 472.. x y 474.  = 2. 468.7. (or . ax cx by = m. 8 461. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 475. + eyn. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.?/ + 1 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. _ 469. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.c=563y. ^ + i^ = 7.2y) (2 = 2J.+ =2. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 473. 465. i = 5.
486. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . fraction becomes equal to . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and in 20 months to $275. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 487. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. whose difference is 4. Find their ages. Find the numbers. A number consists of two digits 4. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. least The sum of three numbers is is 21.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the fraction. to . and in 18 months to $2180. by 4. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. age. . 479. 477. Find the numbers. Find the principal and the rate of interest. the Find their ages. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. A spends \ of his. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 485. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 483. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and the other number least. Find the sum and the rate of interest. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find the number. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. years. 481. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. How much money less 484. thrice that of his son and added to the father's.
498. ifi = x a.z = 12. a: f z = 79. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a number . . . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 4 506. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. a: + ?/ 2z = 15./ 504. a. 3ar 503. 494. + y 5 y = 101 . a: + // = 11. 1+1 = 6. 1. = 209.? + 2y = 8. 3 x 500. : Solve the following systems 491. 2y + 3a = ll. \ . 2a:f 7. x f y f z 29 . 2 a. 493. . = 15. .5#+2z = $x a: G. 5^ 9z = 10. 496. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a: 499. y Solve : x +z= 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. + # +z= 35. of two the sum of the digits also if number. z y ifi = z x 502.z = 20. 492. 5 + a. x y f z = 13. 4 497. 490. 3 a: + 5=84. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. ~ 507. 495. = 20. 2 2 = 41. * + 425  = . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. a. . 4z+3z = 20. x s + y z = 18J . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . *i. 7. 489. z y x 25 . 2 e. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 8./ f z =a. 7 + 2 z . 2/>3r = 4.
i=a + 6 c. 523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c. 517. + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . !f == 2800. 36 + c.
N. the first and second digits will change places. 90.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. E 533. What are their rates of travel? . When weighed in water. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. in 28 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. and BE. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. if the number be increased by Find the number. touches and F respectively. AC in /). 532. BC = 5. AB=6. Find the present ages of his father and mother. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. L. it is filled in 35 minutes. . his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. 527. If they had walked toward each other. M. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Tf and run together. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. if and L. and CA=7. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Find the numbers. 530. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. CD. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. In circle A ABC. they would have met in 2 hours. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. it separately ? 531. . B and C and C and A in 4 days.
How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . from x = 2 to x = 4. 547.10 marks. The greatest value of the function. a. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.e.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.  3 x. . 542. 2 541. e. the function. z 2  x x  5. 536. . 540. + 3. 546. x 8 549. b. GERMANY. x*. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x*  2 x.  7. The values of y.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. c. The values of x if y = 2. d. i. 2 x + 5. 2  x  x2 . x 2 + x. if x = f 1. 545. to do the work? pendulum. One dollar equals 4. 550. x 2 544. 543. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. FRANCE. 3 x 539. then / = 3 and write = 3. x *x + x + 1. 2. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 2. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. formation of dollars into marks.  3 x. 548. If to feet is the length of a seconds. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.
h.11 x* + + 2 8 569. a. 565. 2 8 .  2 1 a: a. Represent meters. 557.r 1 561. 558. 555. e. If y +5 10.3 .r . 2 554. 563. + 5 . . 564. x 4 .15 = 0. = 5. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 3 x . 3 . c.4 = 0.= 0.13 = 0. c. Solve// = 0. J. + 10 x . g. a: 559. 568.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.r a: a: x a. x 5 . 2 x 2 560. j.3 x . f. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. ' = 8.3 = 0.17 = 0.= 0. x 2 ~ 2 .0. 562. 553. \ to t = 5.4 . 2 567.1 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. . a. z 4 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.3 x . and make the unit of the b. r?. 18 x  4 = 0. 556. 572.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 a.5 x .9 = 0. 566. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 15.6 + 3 . x* . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. z 2 .G . Solve 552. i. 3 + 3 z .4 x 2 + 4 . a. .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. a? 4 x .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.7 = . 2. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 3 x* .11 = 0.
. jj+.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 4 a. (a.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 608. f ?>) 3 591. x [ ?/ 577. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . xY. 593. 2 943 ++ ~bx.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 5 a*. (# 2) .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 597. 588. (1 (1 (1 .(1 .%) 4 (aa. 609. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 9  4 fSb 607. a 2a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. [ y =10.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 3 . 585 594. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.x + 2 )'2 601.4. 595. 598. . + + 4 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . j^f = 3. a 8 606. 2 611. 64 a 12 603. 589.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. a: . + . (1 + x a. 604. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 3 (f.frf : 583. 1 . 579. (aiy. : y* or 25.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. a 612. 582. 2  2 aa: 2 . 592. 600. (a  8 ft) . 596. 4 . x + z2) 8 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 4 (1a:) 3. 599. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 6 + 1) . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. + ^) + (air%)8. + %) (a* + *) 5 .5 xy = 0. a:. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.2 2 + y.
49. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. = 0. 49042009. 371240. 634. 0090. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 633. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .191209. 494210400001. 2 + 21Ga. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 643. 623. 614. = 70.12 a?y + y*. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. a 642.1024 x + a: 256.15174441. 637. 25023844. *+* = 156.30. + 112 a 8 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. + 2 21 x = 100.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. Find the square root of 619. 3a. 644. 625 : 621. ft . : 5. 645. 4J.2410.\/4090.871844.150. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 4370404. 630. (x 9 x 646. GGff. 650. V 635. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 651. 21. 638. 32 631. 639. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . x 2 641. 622. 8*' + 24* = 32. 210. 2.49. VOIOOD + V582T09.53 x ~ . 9a. find Jupiter's period. 9g. x 2 . the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. = . 615. 942841.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 44352. 7) 2.V250 . + 54 'x*y* . Find the eighth root 617. 632. 636. 628. According to Kepler's law. V950484 .448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . = 87.*. 626. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 629. 40. 035. 624. 2 + 189 z = 900. /. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.2. 647t x 2 648 649. + 24 a 2 4 . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 620.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 2 . ex abc= fx 0. 695.bx . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 707. . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.c = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. = 0. 699.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 694. . a.a a )jr . 1 __ : )'*' _i. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 706. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 708.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 693. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.ax . 2 2 697. 2 702. 692. ax 2 698. 696.
l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 723.292 709. 722. 16 x* . Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find two numbers whose 719. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 217 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. **13a: 2 710. Find the price of an apple.44#2 + 121 = 0. . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. A equals CO feet.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 725. sum is a and whose product equals J. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 3or i 16 . in value. 717. a: 713. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 729. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 716. 727. and working together they can build it in 18 days. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 12 4*+  8. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.25 might have bought five more for the same money. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 724. 721.
1 6. .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.aft* 1 + a 2*. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2 ). (v/x). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 43. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 40. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .X .l).2)(x2 4. 34.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 37. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 36. 41. 39. 52. 33. 31.2? 50. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). . 38.1 + c. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 f c" ).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 42. 46.1 f ^ 2). 35.1 + x. n. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.)(ai + &. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 32.
768. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 758.294 753. 759. 2V2 2V3 . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. [1r^ T 1 i . JU.1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 761.. 757. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lGv/128.
Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. c 792. 3812VIO. 794. 783. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. . + 2V21. 103 788. . 786. 16 + 2V55. 7512V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 789.VlO.2 V30. Va 809. 92VI5. 793.2V3* ^ 807. 14 791. 3J .4 V(j. a 9442V5. 790. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 10 785. 13 799. 806. x 782. .12VIT. . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 787.
830. V14 a.f 5 = V5x + 4.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 833.V2 ar 10. 3 x + 2 .Vc^lJ . = 1. 831. + ViTli + V7 . 836. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .\/2y  810.g.79. + 103Var. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. /9ar a: = 17. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. VaT+lJ f ^l . 815.4 = 0. (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.V? = 813.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 816. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . + Vx .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.  5 + V3 f 12 817. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 814. 820. 819. 829. \/12 a. 811. 812. Va: .13 = 0. V3 f 1 V4a. 818. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.
+ 1. 851. y 4. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a 8 873. 4 a: 2 842. f b**. 853.a. 8 4a: 8 a. 852. a 18 4. 275 8 l. 4o. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .x*y + 3x f 2. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 864. 8 8 848.ab9 ft*. 19 x 14. 9. a 8 850. 64 a 866. 861. a*" & 6n . 4 a. 8 . a* * 1 + a8 8 a.1000 6. + . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 64. 2 f" + a/ 15. a 8 869.3 a:.10 = 118. 40 x 2 7 f 49.12. 845.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 871. 875. 8 + a: 5 8 a. V4 x 2 . 729 867.3 Va: 2 . 4 x* 847. 2 x 3. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.3 x . 8 8  13 a. z*y 8 l64a. 865. a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. . . 16 859.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . x 11 a^ J 13 854.3 . a. a. a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a: 849. 27 y 8. a: . 8^27^.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 863. 846. 27 862. a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. +3 4 +  4. a. 8 860. 855. 856. a 872. 8 a. 876. 840. x 8 2 857. 4 x 8 858. 6. . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 8 2a. f 12. . 2 a: 64 y*. + 512 y8 874. 868.1. 870.28 a 4 xy 8 80. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 844. 839. a l0m . 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. . f 841.  3x a. x 4 + f 2 a.
y y 2 y 2 1121. y*+ xy . xy + y = 32. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.sy = 198. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . a. x 882. 890. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 889. 2 + 2 f = 17. 899. 894. y 2 4. . 2 = 2 + 5. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x 8 3 = 13:3. + 2y=\2. 896. a. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 883.y 2 + V(j. 895.18. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. a# f + xy = 126. a: 2 897. 5. 878.xy + y 2 = 19. 901. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 + xy = 28. a: a.298 877. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. y = 28. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 . y 2 2 8f. 886. 2 . 2 2 = 16 y. 1 x 893. f ?/ a: a: . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 885.1 = 2 a#. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 900.Vi' + 1 1_3. .y 2) = 20. a: 888. a. a: + y 2 = 34. +y f y = 7. z 2 898. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 3 x 2 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. x*xy.5 xy + 4 f = 13. + ary + 2 = 37. . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. x a: lI = xz .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + y 2 . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a: 884. 887. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.15. 2 + xy = 10.y 2 = 2 y + 2.35. M1 891 1 . . a:y . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.
y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 923. yz = 24. 905. y 3 2 2 922. a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 * 2 ~ g. Vary + y = 6. or or a? a: a: . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.23 = 200. 906. *y . xa 903. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 2 + y = 2 a 4. x 2 ry + y = 3. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.r a. 921. 3 :r(3 . . xy + 2 y 2 = 65.#y + 2 = 27. 2 5 xy = 11. (!) * . + y)(a.2 y) = 49 2 919.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .16 y 3 8 = . 7 y . (o.3(* + y) = 6. 2 2 2 916.x) = 21. + 2 a:y + = 243. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 2 913. x f 2 a:y = 32. 907. 911.y). + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 910.y) = 33. 920. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. (* 918. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. * + y = 444.3)2 = 34. x + y 2 = aar. (3 x . 3 y 8 ) =1216.6. ^ 2 . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. + 2 ary = 39. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. a. y . 908. 2 924. 2 915. 917. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + a. (a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.y) (a? . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 23 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. a: y zx 12. + y = 9. y x 2 = by. 912. xy + x= 15. a:y xy 929. # + xy + y = 7. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. x 4 299 xy z 904.y = a(ar + y). . 914. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.3) 2 f (y .y) (3 y . y + a:y = 180. + ?/) . ary y = 8.y2 = 22. 909.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + ary = a*. = 8. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 4 (a. a: a. + y 8 = 189.
The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 943. 944. two squares is 23 feet. is 20. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 937. If each side was increased by 2 feet. is 3 . and 10 feet broader. + z)=18. A is 938. there would have been 25 more trees in a row.square inches.300 930. A plantation in rows consists of 10. How many rows are there? 941. A and B run a race round a twomile course. s(y 932. In the second heat A . 942. two numbers Find the numbers. and also contains 300 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$.000 trees. 931. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. feet. (y + *) = . + z) =108. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. rate each man ran in the first heat. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Assuming = y. z(* + y + 2) = 76. *(* + #) =24. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. 935. 34 939. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. Find the numbers. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. is 3. y( 934. Tf there had been 20 less rows. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.102. a second rec8 feet shorter. 152. Find the sides of the rectangle. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. . and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. two squares equals 140 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. feet. diagonal 940. and the difference of 936. 2240.
each block. overtook miles. distance between P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. . Find the number. and its perim 948. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. sum Find an edge of 954. its area will be increased 100 square feet. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 950. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Two starts travelers. unaltered. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. . When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. is 407 cubic feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. at Find the his rate of traveling. whose 946. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find the number. and that B. Find its length and breadth. and if 594 be added to the number. A and B. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. . The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. the digits are reversed. Find the eter 947. 953. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 952.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. What is its area? field is 182 yards. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. 949. triangle is 6. and travels in the same direction as A. set out from two places. that B A 955. 951. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet.
5. 4 4 to 7 terms . = 4. 964. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.141414.302 956... *" 968.. 969. Evaluate (a) .1 4 f j$V . (to 2 n terms). \ . s  88. Sura to 24 terms. 3 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. P. Find the Find the common 977. J.. the terms being in A.... . 18th terms of an A. 4. 36 963.. 974.  2. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 9th and llth terms of an A. P. 972... P. Find n f (ft) . Find the sum of 4. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Sum to 20 terms. . 16 962. 1G series .to infinity. ^ Vfirst five 959. '. 3 + 5 7 + .. !Ll^ + n . are 29 and 53. and 976.4142 . 1 to n terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. difference. . 958.454. Find n.321? 965..>/) to infinity.3151515.V2 . 970. Find an A. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 971.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. f + 1 . P. 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum to infinity.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. (x 4 to n terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 975. to 7 terms.. x(x to 8 terms. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. fourth of the unity. 957. to infinity. n to n terms. 966. ^ 1 . to n terms. . 5.v 973.. + (iiven a +  4 d . 961.
+ lY L V. 989. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 992. 303 979. Find four numbers in A.) the last term the series a perfect number. and the common difference. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 980. P. Find the first term. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.04 + . 985.001 4.1 + 2. to infinity may be 8? ... and of the second and third 03. "(. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. . is 225. 4 grains on the 3d. : + 9   V2 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. named Sheran. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . to n terms.. 0. 1. P. 2 grains on the 2d. 986. of n terms of an A.2 . 990. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . P. 987. first 984. Find the sum of the series 988. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 5 11. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. and so on.. The term. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. The 21st term of an A.01 3. Find four perfect numbers. to oo.001 + . Find n.3 ' Find the 8th 983. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid... Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . The sum 982. to 105? 981. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.
In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. and G. 512 996. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The sum and sum . P. 994. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The fifth term of a G. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (a) after 5 strokes. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. find the series. If a. 1001. in this circle a square. ABC A A n same sides. inches. 998. 995. (6) the sum of the infinity. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. is 4. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 999. AB = 1004. . 997. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. areas of all triangles. are unequal. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. 1003. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. at the same time. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. c. prove that they cannot be in A. are 28 and find the numbers. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Under the conditions of the preceding example. ft. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. of squares of four numbers in G. P. in this square a circle. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Two travelers start on the same road. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to infinity. P. 1000.
Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1011. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1009. Expand  2 a. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). (12 #) 7 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . + lQ . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 2 ) 5.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of 1013.ft) 19 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". . a: 8 7. (1 1018. 1008. Find the middle term of ( .o/) 14 . 1012. ) 1021. 1014.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.l) w f . 1006. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. x) 18 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .
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210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .108 160 " .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 19. quadratic .. . .. linear literal Common ** * difference .. . ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . numerical . . 129 54. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . graphic tion of representa . . signs of Algebraic expression . 246 91 " multiple. . . 8 . 112 54 54 251 .... Checks Coefficient 20..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ..... . . ...Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 160 in quadratic form 191 .130 . . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 158. 232 169 807 . 37. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. ....193 11 .. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 123 . ... simple simultaneous .. . 54. 97.. lowest ratio " '* . 232 mean progression .. .. . . . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .178 Completing the square .] Abscissa Absolute term . .. . 9 ** ... .. . Aggregation. t 53 120 . . ....... 129. 9...
.C Multiplication . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.808 Exponent Exponents. . 227 . . .. arithmetic . . . . 243 7 . 45. 195 33. G. 227 geometric . 189.. 184 54.154 Order of operations " of surds . law of Extraneous roots . Mathematical induction . . 180.. 45 Laws of signs . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. . addition of " square of . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Insertion of parentheses . 63.31. . .. . . . .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 34. inversely 122 numbers . 112 . Known numbers . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 205 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 23 10 91 102.. P . 120 Member. .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.108 Minuend . . L.. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . 212 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Negative exponents 11 .. . 17 65. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Imaginary numbers .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Like terms Linear equation .. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. 109 102 .. . . 253 28 70 1. . directly. Product '* 76 Infinite.. Geometric progression . 114. 91 . numbers . exponent . 84.. . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . INDEX 8 . . first and second . . . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 241 123 geometric . 45. 9. 143. Inconsistent equations .
. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... polynomial ... 4 155 9 " of . algebraic Surds .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . 129. . 9.. ..... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. 45 Trinomial 240 .. binomial Third proportional Transposition . absolute 54 Variable . ... . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. . .. Sum....
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
A. 1916. Reprinted April.S.COPYRIGHT. 8. U. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . Published September. 1910.. 1917. Gushing Co. Mass. NorfoooS J. August. December. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1913.
18. 2. 11. 7. 19. 512. (a) (/>) 1. 2. in. B $4700. sign. 3. 4. 144.. 14. 22. 30?. South America 46. 28.12. A Bl 7. 1. 1.000 Indians.  1. 5.000 negroes. 16. 9 = 4. Australia ft.00000001. 7. B $80. 3.. c. = 5 81. 128. 37. 18. 2. 9 16  larger than 7. 6. 126. 17. V 23. 89.. 1.000. Page?. 8. 16f 2. 12. 0. 17.3. 6 yd. 15. 3.$9400. 10. 27.000. 13. 3. Yes. x. 10g. 15. A 15. 8. 3. 7m. C $1(50. 25. loss. Not 5. 12. 25. 23. 10. 4. 12. 6. . 17. 18. 5. 5.  13. 5. 12. 28. 6. 36. 2. 9. 3. 576. 4. 2. A 38 mi. 13 S. 8. Page 4. 9. 4. 2. 14. 21. 12. 20. 20 \. 7. 3. 7. Multiplication. 13 d. 9. 4.. 26. 8. 3. 1. . arithmetic. 18. 21. 10. . 210. 24. sign. 3 below 0. 11. 12. 15. b.000. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. ft. 5000. 3. ^. 8 13. 20.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.2. 21. 7. 49. 7. 20 B. 1. 192. 9. 32.150. 16. 9. 20. B $ 128. 2 ~ 15. 6. 2. C $60. 4.. 6. 29. i . 4. 115. . 73. 10. is $10. 3. 5. 2. 1. in. 13.1. 7. 11. 3.. in 12. westerly motion. . + 1. 32. 48 ft. A $90. 2. 24. 1. T . 30. B $20. 7. 6. 3. _ 32. 10. 27. 6. 11. 10. 2  Page 8. 16. 16. 8. 20. 15. 12. 14. 12. 25. 5. 106. 150. C $ 16.21 24. $ 1 50 10. 1. 49. 26z.000. 8. 19. 9.8. 16. 2.C. 27. 2.. 17. 2. $100. 20 jo. 17. 64. Page 1.. x. 13. 6. 256. 5. 59. 9 14. 32. Page 13. 1. 16. 14. 8 ft. Ot 15. 9. 22. 14. 14. 15. 7. 3. 1. 3. 3 m. 6. 16. 2.  22 20. 2. 13. 10. }. 8. 6* 16.000. A . 32. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 16 in. 9. 85. 13 V. 37 S. 6. 12. 3. 72 = = 216. 0.  2 p. per sec. 3* 7. 19 4. 13. 1. 3. 5. Page 8. 25. 1 16. 10. 14 11. 14. $40. $160.000. 29. 24. 3. 1. 16 in.000. 1. 6.000.  1. 1. 1. B 10 mi. 18. 2 5. 18. 16. 19. 9. 9 m. 14. 12. 16. 6.. 11.
20(.5 (ft) sq. 1. //'. 21 a 3 4 10. (ft) mi. 31. (c) 8. mi. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 5. 2. 27. 04. 8.. 5. 14. ft n.1.  12. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 4. (ft) $40. I. 12. 1. 0. 41. 0. _ 4 . 7.. 00 24 04 ft. 49.r 2 . 2. . +/2(/. Monomial. 22. (59.r f 15. 9. (a 4 4. m + 3(a. 3a. 2oVmf?i. 14:). 21^. a2 4 15^44.. ft. 16. Page 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 92. 9. #1111. 1. 0. a ft c. 3. y. vi 14. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 36. 31. \'\ 4. 3rf 27. Page 23. ^. rt. ^). 51 f. . (V) (rf) (ft) 50.  3. 4. 17. 20. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 5. 14. 1. (c) S(i. . 18. ft. 27. 15. 38 ab. 8.  11. 27.rty8. 173. 33. ft. ??i??. 3. 14..900. 19. 7. Page 21.q 4.3 * 10 r5 <3 .. 13. 15a. Pagel4r. 10. 15... 23. . 30. 28. 4. arty 1 20. :J!>r'.5f> sq. 12. 25. + v> 2 . 23. 0. ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 9. 2. 11. 50. 18. 1. 13. 2. 18. 7. 32 2 ftc. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 14. ]*. 2. 31. 8. 240. 17.ab. 7. 1. 29. (a) 200. r:A 29. 104. 17. 22. 42. 18. 5. 7. (r) 78. 17. (ft) Page 2. 18. (ft) 7. 35.<>Gq.32 c2 > ft 3 . 13. w.. x^ 20. 12.'JO ft.  1. 26. 4 y/ . 30. 14. (r) 2000 m.  40. 12yd.9?/2 8. 2. 24. in. jrif 4 9. 6. 38. 0. It.x. 2x' 2 5 . m 24. 3. 314 sq. Page 31.ft. 21. 1. (ft) 12. 32. 24. . 7 7. 3. 11. 13. 22( 19. 25. 39. WIN + wiw. 26. 35. 4. o^ft. 4.'J.. 15. i:5. 15. 6<t.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 58.000 .. a 32. 0. 9. 57. 12. 34. 27.  0. + ft). 22. 9. 16. yyz+xyz*. 5. 5. 8. 35.r~ f 34. 20. (a) <> sq. c. ft. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 5x+3. 22. (a) 50. $3000 Page 6. 29. $80. ft f 19. 8. 0. 12. Polynomial. 15. 8. 33.. 20. <i~ 26. in.. 1. 8. 3 a* + 2 at*. II. r/ \(\xyz. (r) 2. 19. 3. 14. 10. 19. 21. 0.4  2ft 2 33. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 3. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . + 5. = ()501. 30. 11.GOG. 25. 3 .ft) 4.000 sq. 11. 4 9/^/rl 2. 3. r+l. (r) 2G7. Polynomial. (a) r>23ifcu. 13 cu. Binomial. Trino inial. 32. 28. 10.~4. . 13. . 0. 3. 3. 12 a.14 sq. 5. 3(c4a). 15. 27.  xV 3 y. t. 13. f  5e 35. 17. 4. sq. in. Page 7. 5. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.. 16. 6. in. = 81. 8. 14. (b) 135 mi. . 28. 16. 6. 34.4 ft. 2ftx. 36. 27. 16. :. 43w//2 17. 21.a .94(>. 37. 1. ft' 3 . 237. 12. .6) 38.
4. x a8 1.2 . 7 a5 1 . + 2y. t). 7. 2. . 58. a 6 2 . 36. ?> 22. 56. 5. a 3 . 21. .3 6. w 17. 7. G. 2m + 2w. (2n' 43p 47 ). a2 9. 8 . a a.2 a. 8 + 2 a .a f 54. Exercise 16.a'2 . 3. a 52.8(c + a). Page 44. 3 a . 3 m. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 24. 14. a' 4ab + ?/.x f 1 2 . a  ISjfat. a + (ftc4df). ft Exercise 17. (mn} 11. 12. Page 7.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2. 2m.a~. 17. Page 8. ab a. 4wipg>' 27.aft. a2 24. 2. 31. 24. 6.  b.h. 28. 7. 13. 1. 4. 26.'U4j>.  14 afy .  23. !  </ . n*.4c 3 8 8 J. 3 Ji 8 .5. . c2 . 32 w 2 w.(7x2 Ox2). ?/. 2 4. ri\ 18. (yz~d}.  12. 26. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 4. x  + 3z. 12. a 4 + ft. 19.1. . 24 b 46. 16. 25 47. 22. 18. 5. 40. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. :5 41. 364c. . 20. 43. 2.  G J8 r  4 a <?.2. Page 28.  a: 2. r. s_r>a5. 15. 11. 8. 8 8 . 22. 2 2 2 6. f 2 ?/  2. 10 m. a + a.1 . 12. 2// 16.a*. 6. 29. + 6. 8 b. 14. . + 8. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 1 + 45. . (5x47 3. 8. .  1. . 7  a + 2 + c. 2 a 37. 814. &. 25. 10 x. 32. ^ <.5 z?/ + 3 y . 10. 19. a 3a 4 2 &.2 57. 5x 2 rt ft. . 5 2 Page 29. 8. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.  b* 4 r 1 . 4 21. 4r 2 . . ar. a4 4 4.r 2.11. M + 10. 50. 2 y' 4 . 21.3x 2 2 tf. 16. 2. 14. a. 25.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 31. _5a<>&43c. 12. 1. 34 39.4 d.. 37. 17. 19. 2. lOrt 15w4. (w4w)(ww). 7. 2 2. 3.a .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). j)(g1. ( 7. 2x 4 a 13.r. 1 4.6 x + 0) 16.4. ?/i 13. 20. 13. _ Page 30. ti. 2 3. 4. 2 a f 6 414. a 10w. . 10. x3 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. ?>4tl 53. 2. . 35. 15. 6. 42. 2a. 0. 34. w* ( . c. .5 4 2 3 ?/ .7.2 ft 2 r2 10. m*  n*. 33. 1. 4ft ~. 11. 4. G a bd. 1. 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 18.c. 14.4x. a). f ft 9. 10. 30. \ :{ 2 a 48. 24. 4. 25. 15. mn. 18. 0. 2 + a4l). 2 3x f z. 36.. 2 6. 1. 2a: 2 4x. '  . 2 . 20. 5. 3.  4 b 17 y*. 2 17. c. 1. 7  # + 12. . 6.abc. a  49.(2 x2 .ws 2 ft) . 59. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 9. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . a f 2 f 2 9.l. 5. 11. 26. + 4 c.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 38. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2. 0. 2 . ii\ 22. 2.  17.Oa: + 10. 21.2 a2 2m 2 4. a 3& . . 3 a3 & 41. 51. 55.
15. 2. 16. 40 r 2 . 90. 210. 2 7t A.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 8. 4. + 7. 20. 38 a*b 6 : 24.r% 2 2 ry. 1.11 xyz . . 33. 60.14 . 3 a 2 46. ft 17. 18. + O4 66 . 8. 7. 20. 3. 4. 83 In + 1 n*.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 4 fc. a: . 2 a2 (y 2 . 3.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 15 lb. 7. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 5. 20. 343. 34. 2''. Page 3. f 26. 20 aW. + 58 . 161b. 2 2 2 . 37. 11. Page 38. +. 23. 18. 29. 6.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 2 n8 29 a + 30. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.:>/ . 66 39 k* . 4 jcy*z*>.14 w 2 2 .1. Page 7. 6. . 25 4 4. 11. 30 j9 jt?g j . 30. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.19 + 2. 24.. 17. 9. 2 w +2 2 . . 66 8W 34.12. 30. 13. s 9 ww. 26. 120. 3. 25. 31. 17. 16. a 8 .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. iSx8 . 1. 14f 5. 4 a2 .6) =a2 31. a. 4. ?/ . 24. 6. 9 13. . 8. 13.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 16. 12. Page 5. 216. 5aft(a 126 2). 15. 7. 29.32. 23. 2*8f x2 6x4. 6 . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 3. ISartyW e*f*tj.57 p6 3 2 4 25.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 18> ^* = a . 23. 770.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 10. 15. 2. 3 a 3 . 10. 36. 102.21 a 3 c2 21. 19. 24. 30 n?b*c*. 16. 27. 23. ?> 4 . 13. x2 xy42^. 04.12.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 64. 127"'. 35. 30. 12 x2 2 . 42. 8. 33. 216. 22.16 x2/ 5 4. 21. 22. 34. 30. 2. 12. 8 . Page 35. 13. . 38wiw. 25. 27. 20.8 12.000. Ox a 5 . 9. 0. 14.>(/ r . 28. 33. 60. a. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 19. 21. 2 ).26. fa 2. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 17. 20. 12 ^. 3300. 108. 1. Page 36.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 30. 14. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . //.15. 4200. 11. n (a6) 125. . 76 8 a' 1 . .2. . 6". 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 17. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .. 2 ).20 xyz . 34.64 190 p6. (+3)x6=+16. 18a% y. 84. 14. 12. 42. 0. 19. a. . 4. 2. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 1.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 4 a8 . 28. 21. 18. 16. 27. 15.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 18.. 29. 8. 32. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 10. 25. 1. 4aWy. 2 . 360. 4. 5. 10. ci 5 . 21 a'&c. 7.25 + 14.28 p'^/. 161b. 16 51. 15 q\ 6. 28.6 2 . 9. 20. 1. 15. 26. 1400. ^^ = 20. . 11. 14.19p" + 19^ 10 . 4. 14 m 2 . 28. 1904. 6. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 31. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 22.iv ANSWERS + &)(.32 y s s G . 25.. 3(*+0 + 2). . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.18 w w + 10 WI M . 2 * 80 .36 35. 108. 18. 29.(3x2_4^+7). 16 lb. 30. m. . etc. 24. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 52 + 6s 12. a + ft.16 a 2 + 32 a . a*b*c. +15. 13. 7G . ! 2. .21. 27. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 27. 22. . 32. 19.7(50. 18. ll 2 i.44 aWc 16 abxy. 1. 24.
+  m' 1. ab. I/). 6 2 + 6lf>0./ .201.000. 990. y. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 6. 36. (a (3 54. p 2 .. 25. . 1. 8 a W . 10 a' 2 . 2 fr . 14. 26. a 2 .020. 39.84 a' 9. + 2 9. +4 34. 484. 4. ab . m 2 .3. 2 0)(p + 5). . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. ft' 11. 9 4 /> .2 y*. x 48. 2 . 10. 44. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.008. .500. 7 . . 37. 2 62 V2 132. 1. .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. x2 GiC+5. + 7 6)(3a~76>.x2y22. 24. 10. Page 39. 1.994. 9990. 25 a 2 6 2 . r. 2. 8. 4. n2 a4 6. 5. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.15. . 10. + 10 + 121 y*. 28. 2 4 a + 4. 2 1: 21. (w4)(w + l).^ + a? + 1.810. 38.ri 17. 10. 14. 40. . 7. 10. 10. n + 2.5 ~ 81. 40. 39. ^' J  7 f 12. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 18. 7> . 42. 2.10 35. 4 .606. 8.2 6 + 13.. x 2 f xy + 9 41. . 4x21.1. x*2^f I. 31. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . 34. + 3)(3). 19. 10 a 4 ?. x* . .r* 2 30.r . 4 + 25 q*. 3. (m + 6)(m3).p132. 4 x2 13. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 3. 36. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 8. a' . 2 6' . 1. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.54 p 2 + 81.4 a&+ 4 &*. x4 28. 2). 9. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. + 4 t*. 56. 57. 12 x2 .6 xy . 4 2 //. 14.6. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 41. ' 46. 10. ?/H)0. 10. 30. 2 j3 Z . . 19. 27. 30 x + 19 x3 . 8 38. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 20a 2 21a + 4.020. m 3 j) 3 . 4 21. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .009.8. 31. 41. + 12. 10. 7. 3wi2 m Page 42. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). ^V^4 . 9. 40.^V"' . a2 ' + 48Z100. 33. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 2 +10s281.r . 17. G a6 2.ANSWERS 28. 4. 11. Om2 4 6m 6.996. w'n 2 //^ + 25. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . fo*. 36 a 4 . 33.009.m 30 6 4 1.4 n. 29.000. 52. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.49. 9999. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . s rc 47.10 x + 25. 21 2 . 35. . 15. 34. 30 /><. + 4 a +4. p4 + . 2 m3 + 4m2 . V + o ft . 25 25.14 jp + 49. 1. ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 4 2 2 64 . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 53. 32. 29. ~ 6 20 . lflrt 2 8 + l. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.6 y4 10. (n 2 5. (w+4)(m4). 15. 10.404. +   5). 24.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 a' y' . 26.00 + 37. 1).ab . 4 .20.712. 2 a 2 + a .35 ab 9. (a + 4) (a + 2).16 a3 f 50.6 x2 13. 35.2. a + 56. 10.001. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 23. 999. 2 (5 a 3). 441. 5.4 12. 37. 33. 36. 9801. 55. 7. a + 25. . 166. 11. a4 4 ?/ . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 27. a3 0. .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 12. 2 . 51. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 16. Page 12. 998.2 x + 2 x.098. 31. 45. . ^/> 8 4 .004. 32. (p 2. a + 25.25.^. 1. 6. .
5 n*. x 4. w . 14. 4. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. ft* ft / . 3*y2 w + 1.10 xy*. 9. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 2 . 6.r?/ j/.8 y.r ?/ ??i ?). 4. . 2. . 9.8. 2.rw. 5. 4 a* 4 9 11. aftc 52. Osy. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 2 .w.2 wZ 4.1. 3. 17.lit x + 4. 3 aft 20. 5^418(7. m'2 3. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .r'^ 15. c 12. 4 c m . 2 4 2 x 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. ft. f>r* 4./ 4. 1/*. x 2 + 2r f J. 4. 6. 1. 4 a 2 4. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.1. 21. 21. 44. ft ? ft' ft ft. 5. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 17. 1. aft. 13. z.7. 5.8 yn .3 5.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .1. y 7. 14. + 4. a 4 4 ft. .3^V. + 3. a. + x?/ 2 1.3 a 41.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 16. ft 17. 47. ??. 12. 1.3 3. Page 11.2 2 . 2 2 + 2 a. 4 d 2 4.  3 c. 1000 1000 . Page 48.y3.1. 8 x .1. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 4. 1.1. 22. . 4ft.25. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 10. 19. 4 ac. 3. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 17. 4x43?/. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 8 ?/ . . 2 ? 14 . Page 51.6 :rs 4. 4xy + 13 <) . 6x 3. 3. 3 a. 24.n. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. .  10. Page 13.  . 5 a  (5 ft. 9. 01. 11 4.34.25 c . 3.2 . + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .  12 y 25. 3. .r' ~ 16. abc 7. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 20 15. a 8 4.27 x 2 4.10 2 + z 2 410. 5.2 .9 d. 16. 4. 4 pq. 8. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 1. 5 4 a Oft.2 .5 a . 14 r 2 . . 13. 6. 15. *3 y 4 . 6.r?/. _ 2 a . r/2 4. 125.24 . yfl. 8. 5. 9. 18. 12. 15.3 ry. 5. 7.  11.r .5 mp. 7 r . i 2 tji. +w . 2 12.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 2 a 3 ft. Page 22. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 5. 12. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. G.29.x^.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 10. .2 aft 4. 8. 14.1*5 2 r 2 .2 ar.r" 20 S? . 5. 3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .+ 77 15.2. .rw f 8 . Page 7. 10 ft. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.8. 2. .12 aft 4 20 ac .2 ftc . 2. 2. aft 12. 14. 2 4. 19.2 <</.  5 z* . 8. m L 4. 12. 2 ?/ 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 2.21 2 2 f + . c3. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 8 ?/ . 11. 49.2 2 2 8 . 46. 75 a 2 29. 9. 13. 18. 50. . as _ 10 16.15 21. 135.2 1 //. '. 4. 26.4. 5. 2 1. l 4 . . 2 ?/' . . 13. 10. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.VI ANSWERS 43. . 7a3ft. Exercise 27. ti'jry1 7. ?/2. 11. 1.1. 16. 8. 2 4 3 9. r 7. 1.15.30 ftc. :r !>. x4. 6. w 2 .9 4. // 19. 4. 4 x.23. 20. .3 x 2 2 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. r//. 13. j) . a 10. 14. 4. i 9.000. 8. 23. 12.2 ac . r ft. sr 11.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.> 10. 13. a 2 . /r .
57. 45. 2. (2 a. 2 ct. 1. v (6) 2x. 20. 10 >_&.rr2. 5. 13. f (I. 8. 2b 22.(3x  700) = 5. x 49. 10. 1. x. 10. y ?>i x + 26. 40. 22. 5. 16. 100 14. y yr. (> 27. y 2z p= 3 (a c. r>?imi. Jj12. 41. 4. 2=10. 12. rn mi. 5. 9. .  6 10.ANSWERS Page 9. Page 6. 29. 30. ] 2 ri 42.r ct. 36. 43. (a) ' 12. y 50. 11. 4. 28.p+7.  9 = 17 a. (d) 2a + 10 = n. x 2y 10 act. 46. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 18. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. ct. 3x  1700) = 12. 4.ab a. 34. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 7. ^ 12 sq. 100 d ct. d + !. 7. 2. + f + b 2.. 7. 3x2. 44.  />) a = all. b. 'nj 100 a 28. ct. !). <>. b. ft. }f.100. 4. 1&. . </ 20. 18. 14. # + 20yr. 42. 00. 25. 37. f = eZ 2 x. .x700. 7. (</) 2a. + 10 b + c ct. 2x + 35. 1. 4 f 39. .200) f(^ + (e) 200. f 6)(o 62. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. a 8. x + 1=a. "mi. 0. 2. 39. Page 13. 13.6 = *. Page 40. l. m+ 11. 33. 4(a ft) c = 8. 60 25 1.000. (>. 4^ = 100. 24. 38. 23.  2\.(3x+ = rraxlO. 36. 10 x sq. 7. 4. y 100 a 24. 59. 16. 9. 44. x 48. ft. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 33. 10. 5. Page 61. lOx 10 + w. 35. lO. sq. fix. 1. 50= L 100 15. d. 38.  1$. 11. ? 43. Page 31. I. vil 56. 19. = 5 ?i x 460. 23. " lir. 100= ^. + 3 = 2(3* . (A) 3 x f (4 x .. 7. 21 2. 12. / + y + a// 12 yr. 13. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 3. 8. 16.. 20. (c) 2x. 17. 47. 3. 27. xy ft. 30. 19. 22. iL*. 7. ( a f 4. 10. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 6. 3. ft. 8 n  10 yr. 10 a. m +~m 3. x y $ 6 yr. 58. 1. x = m. 25. 6. s. 10) + = (a) 2 x . . 2b. 3 9. X 60. 2. 6. 2. 29.r1. . n M. 2. 17. 5. 15. I.10) 100. a 10. 14. 37. 0.. r tx mi. + 4x 3y 34. '^ . 15. ct. 11. 6. 17. 800 = x + 1300. 32. + 3x + 2y + 32.7). . 31. 100 2. 6. 7x 2 Page 21. 41. 10 yr. 20. 5. % 4. 26.
(y7)(y + 2). 3. (a5)(a4). ?(g ? g+ 1). 480. 20 yd. 100 1. 5$ hr.11.. 6. w (/) 64.8. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 18.0. 11. 18. 68. 14. 85 ft. 6. ^ . 8. ~=90. Page Page 4. 30 mi. 200. 11. (ro3)(w2). 19. 100.y"). 20. 14. 12 mi. 8 2 19. (z5)(z2). 17. 2. 10. 8 in. 2. 3 hr. Page 7. Y.000 Berlin. 7. 15 yd. 4.3.. 29. 3. 8.. 6rt 2 11.16. (c) ^ v ' . (yll)(y4).. 10. (p + 7)(3a5&).  PageSO. 05.5. 15 mi. 9 in.3aftc + 4). 55. 15 in. 4pt.79.3. 13. 18. .. 3. 21. 8.. 2. 4. 2. Page Page 4. 4. 1 lb. (y + 8)(y2).5p + 7 g ). 30. 15. 1200.411. 17. 40 yr. 6. 15. 8.000. 9. 24J. 75. 10.2). 1. 25 yr. 7. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 150. (a + 5)(a + 6).2.. 4. 14. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).21.000. 7. 1200. 12. 10. 9. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 160 lb. 11 in. 8. 10 yr. 8 12. = _?_(2ar + 1). 25. 42yr. 74. 2 2 ?/ 21. 5 Col. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 15. 6. 3 (a +&)(*. 7 hr. 20 yr. + 7)(y3). a a (a 8 a+l).. 10. $40. 5. 12. 3.000. 82 mi. 25. 3x (3r.000 N. 14. 2 3 6 7. 15. 15. Page Page 480 12. 13. 22. 90 mi. 13.. 7.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 70. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 45 in. 9. 10. 7. Page 7.. 16. 1. 78..000. 14. 1.1). . 10 Mass.000 ft. 6. (y 13.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 4.0. Page 5.. (*4)( + 11. Pace 65.000. 6. 13. 30 yr. (y8)(y + 2). 80 A. 71. 3. 1. 250. Oaj(o62cd). 12. 6. 1250. 67. 78.000.000 copper. 11. 600. 7. 3. 2. 12. 52. 9. 9. 3.000 Phil. 11 w(w' + wi .(5z . .22.7. 2).3). (a + 4)(a + 8). (a + 6) (a + 3). 23. 11. 70^. 8. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 28yr.. 5pt. 180.210^. (e) i* + A. by 12 yd. 9. 8. 9. 200.10.24. 2 2 2 5. 8. 13. 10 Cal. 11 pV (2 p8 . 2. 50. 5.13. 6. 5.000 pig iron. 7a*fe(2a & l). z?/(4^ + 5xy . 20. 2$. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 4.5. 2. 300. 14. 30.000. 1313. 10 yr. (m + n)(a + 6). 1.000 gold... 5 lb. Page 79. 1. 20 yr. 10 yd. 5. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 10. ( + 4)(*2). . (a 4) (a. 90. 20.000 ft. 5.6). 72. 12. 12. Ib. a 12. 1..
( 2 4 19. (a (p8)0> + l). . 11.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (4a. 2 3 by2 Yes.9*). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 26. 10(2 30. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (2 *+!)(* 9). 31. + 4) (a. 100(x. . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 10. Yes. 4.2 by2 6. + 3)(c44). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 30.3)(z2). 8. 24 9. 27.7)(2z f 1). (w ~ n (x . 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 19. (7 a + 4) (2 a . Oa 2 (a2)(al). 20. Yes. 31. 12. 3)(3a. (2o + l)(2l). (az + 9)(ox2). 4. 23. 12. Page 82. Page 83. (y8) 2 2 . (15z2y)(x5y). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. 7.2 y). 2 17. 1.y4 ).3). 7 6) (a 10 6). 33. 15.1). + y + . (m + w) 2 5. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3)..5y)(3a. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 26. (x + y4 )(x . No. . (15ay2) 2 . 13. 3. Yes. (2 a? 4. 21. 10. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). a. (a 6 6) (a 4. 7. 2 2 15. y(x. 28. . (:52y)(2a!3y). 16. 2. 22. 16. 29. Yes. 4 (a . (ay8)(ay3). (y + 4)(yl). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (a 3 + 10)(a. 32. + 3). + 5) a. 22. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 5. 216 aft. (a. (a + 8)(a3). a .11 6) (a 4. 24. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).1).2 ft). 29.7) (a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).1). 6.c 2 ). 32. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (3*2)(. 33. x(x +y)(x y). 10. 11. Yes. 10(a . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 9. 10(a + ft)(aft). (10a + ft)(10aft). 6. 13x7. 16.6) 2 1. 8. 30. ix 18.8). (ft + ll)(aftll). (2yl)(y + 9). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 20. . 2. Yes. 8) (a. 34. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 35. 21.4p). (g . 5. 40 x. 9. 24. (3#y)(+4y). Yes. 25. (0 + 6)(66). (4 13. 100 (a.6) 2 2 . 3. (5wl)(m5). 103x97.y) 2 aft. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (6 a. (3a. No. 2). + 9^)(oxy .r2). (4y3)(3y + 2). . 18.+4 y)(3x4 y). (6n + l)(+2). 21. (2xl)(x + f>). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 1.ANSWERS 16. 19. (4 18. 22. 8. 17.* (2 y + 3)(y. 1. (5a +l)(5a l). Yes. . 20. 9. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 23. 26. 26. + 8)(g3). 27. No. 25. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. y) 2 29. 22. 17.4 6). 35. No. Yes. 14.2). . 34. a(2u. 28. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 23. 18. 7. 3(x + 2)(zl). a*(5a f l)(flr . (w + 20)(w + 5). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 28. 9. 12. + 0(90 Page 85. 14. No.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 25. 24. (a a: 19.4. (13a +10)(13a 10). Yes. . (15a + 46*)(16a46). Page 84. 25.  x (5 a. (w* (3a26). 10. + 2y). 21. 23. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). . (* + y)(zy).1).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 11. 2 No 4. (5x . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 3. 10 a 2 (4 . 17. . Yes. 2. 25. 36. 15. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 14. (m7n) (a. . (<7 20.   .11 ft)(a6). 3a. 27. x\x 24. f 2). (9y4)(y + 4). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 9. .2). (4al)(a2). y) (a.
14. a8 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. . (16 4  2(5 n . 11. l. r x 2 */3 . 10(8x' 4l) 4.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (7/1 2) (m 41). (f> + fo 7. 20. 1.8) ( (16.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 15 M. 4 6. 5 x8 3.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ?i(w 4y) . 12. (m  I)' 6. 7. (5a+l)(9a). 22. 5  (2 2 . 38. 6. y(2x?/). 40.l)( a 25. ofc)( fid).3.2 y). (a 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 4. 9. 7. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 13. (^ + ?>_8). 27. a 41. 2(m4l)' . 39. 2 2 3 .4.2). Page 86. 2 8(w .n). 14. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (!__/>). 8. 450. (2x7)(x 2 2). 8. 16. 15. 3.?>) H.4)..3. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 10. 5.y '2 2). 2 y) ^ . 17. 5. 7. 9. 4. (w * . 13 x 8 2 . 2. y).1) 3. ah}. 6. 6. 8. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 4). (> 1. a + a b.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).?/). (5 26. 37.2)(x 1. Page 89. ( a ^)(^3. (5^4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 2.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 4 a s &8 . 24. 6. 8x. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 2 k (wi 4. Exercise 46. 2 21. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (c.4. a 4.2).  WIM. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. .8) n 43*). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 42). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 3 x4 . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. .y. 13. 4. 2. (w4w) 2 1. 8. 4 3. (a 9.&). 2 1. 14. 2. (14.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 11. 4 a8 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 42a 3 x. 6.36). ( (<> r4y3 . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . + 3. 2 . 8. 11. Page 90. a x 3 10. (a &4. a (a + 2 6). (5 31.5 m2 x2. 14. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).0+ 12). (x.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 19.1). y )(. 17(x43//)(x2y).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .'/)('< 4. 4. Gp). y6.?50)(xt/z. Page 92. 6 f c). 16. 18.!) (x42)(x2). b) (r 4. 4. 2. 3(. 11. . 10(2 (3 4. x(x f y)(jr . 5. x43.42 x 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). ?>).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 2 2 10. 41. 35. . Exercise 47. 4. 32.&).y). 3x(x?/) 4.8). (* _ 2 )(a 4. 15. 36. (x//. 24x sy s 9.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (r420(4 10. 1(V/ 88. 4. 2 + .7s) (2 a. (. 7.  (w' 4. ( rt 23. Page 12. 8).'J)(' .  29. 7.e 4.^ 48. 8. x  1). 8. n  r)(5a 10. . 4. (a />.X 5. 28.1). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 30. 12. ( { &). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.b. 13.'})(c . ( y).3)(x 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). (^ 7. x . a 2 (a9). fi(c426). a 4. 4  9.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. x 4. Page 87. ^ . 5. 13( 33. 12. 6.y)(fi a . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.) j). 7. + 2 //). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 2 (a 4.9).7)(^ {I 12.4).
// m+1 !+*?. 6a2&(rt6).6).ANSWERS 10. x 12. 2(2al) + l). (a2)(a + 2)2.  1). b ! 21. + &)(&) ( . a 23. + &) 2 ( . +5 1. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 24. 11. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . x 22. + y) (a: y). 18. ?_!&. 1). 13. a 10 25. 30(3 2 (a 15. +8b a 4 3 / ^.
0. 11. 2 a. 6.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 4 L 8 2 . + lH + . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. xy 43.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.  **/* + 84 _. 26. A^. i^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. .50 ~ 1/2 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. Page 101. 7. c 8. 4c 10. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. a 5. 4. 1. 6. 6. i. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. _*^p5_^^_. 6a5f^. ^~ 29.. 28. w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. Page 100. ' 2 7. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . + 2H 1 ^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.
3. 21. 4. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 20. 5. 0.ft . 11. 21. 12 28. f Page 107. 27. a. ' 6. 3. 11. 9. x 05m ' 5. 5 be _J_.y 7. 14. 1. 13. a2 2. an 18. 1. J. . 17. 21. 6. 42. 4. 8. 36.  V o 4.  10 X + u. 15. 4. n m a + 13. 10. 3. 1. 14. 3 7 i o. pf n 6 1. 1. . ! 4 20. 5. +3 ( + 15. ac mp lf> n 12. Page 111. + f. .L+ft. w^x 2 b Page 105. 29. ^i 11. 8j_m 7 3. a 17. 1. 15. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 11. m 9. b 2. . 5. ft. 25.^_. 6. Page 106. 45. 18. n 16. 4. 2) 19. x 1. 6. 4. 30. 23. 39. 40. 3. 9. 34. 3. 16. ?+_!?>. 7. 4. 15. 35. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. Of. f 7. 9. Page 113. y(x + x ?/). 24. c 8. 7. 46. j L . 32. 6. 14. 41. 1. 33. 11. 4. 11. 7. I) 2 3z 1. flf. 2 47. 5. 1. x\. 1. 26. b a f +c 14. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 16. (y + (z 12. 12. 31. 2ft a i m x. 44. 17. 7.^U\WF### X<6. 6 . 43. ?. 12. A. 37. Page 110. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 8. 4a3ft. 1. (>. 0. 3. 10. 1. J. 38. J. 19. ^_. (a + y) 2 Page 104. n . 6.
11. 10. 7.. 10.000 1 = 23.. Yes. 81. 30 mi.139. Yes. P+ ^ 33. 1:1=1:1. ANSWERS 16. 1^'. 10. 33. (r) 3^ da. 13. . 6.  C . 7. 5 25. Page 125. f . No. 4~r~ n . 9J oz. min. 14.2. ^m . (a) 30. 15. 9. (a) 25.137. 11 hrs. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 1:4. ^p^ r ~ 7. (ft) 104. 19. 17. 36. 3. 2. 1. 40 mi. . (c) 2 hr. 3.000 If da. 33. 1:3. 8. 74.000.2. 2. 18. 9. 55 mi. Page 121. 12. 2:1. 4. No. gold. 275:108. 19. Yes. Yes. 10^ oz. (ft) 28.  + . (d) 500. . 4. 34. Page 118. 19. 18. 3. . 13. w 44./hr. f. 6. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 12. 00. after $12. 24 mi. 5. 17. ^?i min. J ^'. 8. 15. IV s. * 7:9. 32. _JL. 12.000.004. silver. 16. 300. 1 da. nm. 30. 4. (d) 4 da. 3. Yes. 10. w 18.. 500. 30ft. 5ft 30mi.} da.. 9$. xy. 15. 3 da. 28. . () 2. 1. #V ~~ 34. 10. 35. 13. 15. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 4fl M_. 9. 16. 13. 9ft. Yes. after 18. 30 yrs. . = A's.15. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.. $40.0 & . 10. 5. Yes. 5 2. 38ft min. 7. 6.9. 2x:3y. 3. 21. (c) 8300. 17. 19. 26. 21. '"I 22. 22. (ft) 5 da.0.000.. 7T 2 Page 116. 10 yrs. " 0. 14. 1. jj. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 10. 8.138. 1: ~. 18. Page 119. $30. 3:2. Page 117. 7 . 31. ~m . 20..003. 8. 4. 300.. 16. $0. n 32.000. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. 27. min. [>> ^ a . 40wn. 14. 20. :2. (a) 12 hr. 24. 9. J. 1:1 = 1:1. 1 : 12. 40 yrs. 7.  29. 26 30. 8. 8301 hr. a 4 ft. 4. 15.XIV '/ . 75 . Page 124. 17. 300. 15. dn ~ mi. 11. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. 5. $00.10. 11. ft. 1.x + y.001. 3. (ft) 5 hr. after 20.002.. 7} 18. 23< &n b ' . 14. 21ft min. Yes. (a) 4 min. 20.. $45. 10. 212. 15. 24. 7. w 21. 26 mi./hr. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . . 0. 11. 2 20.
12. 6. 17.22.r. 21. 2. 32+ mi.46.7. 47. 9. 2. Page 5. 2. 4. 3. 1. . 5. . x y y . 41.000 sq. \. 3. s<i. 2. 17. 5. : . 16. 3. 5. 1. 7.5. 8. () Directly. 3 2=3 x. 13J. t 5. 6*. 36.5. in. 30.5. . 7. 2. 26. 4. ini. 7.3. 45. 1.57. 11. 6. 4. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 3.160. 174+ Page 128. 10. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 138. in n. 3}. 9. 10. 29. 16. 3. 32j./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 14.^ 0?j ' gms. 2. b x 37. 24. 3. (b) Inversely. 4. a f 2 2 = 5 x. . 4. 3.. 20. : />. 9. + b 7 .ANSWERS 22. 41.4. 12. 5 2. + 7>i//  ft 1 . = 7 b'.1. 28. \\. 19 3 . 9.4. 19. ft. 58. Page 135. y :y =. 2. 17. 2. 3. 21.8 oz. 9  15. 2 n . /. 49. J. 39. 7.a. 127. 40. 1 18 = 3 51. Page 134. 11. x +y x + 74 7 \. 18. : : . l.J. 3.4. 50.15. J. 5:3 = 4: x. 20 20 J ^. land. 1. 31. y 1. 2. 1(5. .' : : : : <>. 19. 31J. 46. 56. 22. 12. 24 1 (e) Directly.1. OJ. 3. 13. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 7. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. . Page 132. 11. 2.5. 1. 5. 25. 7.2. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2. ..1.1. 15. 5. 11. 9.7.  28. (</) ft. 11 w a 13. : 23. 3. 2. 1. 4. 59.) 31. 4. a~. 9. 22. copper. $. 2. 8. : : T 1' : /> : . y . y a y = 7 0.3. 14. 7.6. 23.2. Page 9.9. 7. 11. 5. 7. 2. 24. Inversely.  19. 7. 2. 7^. 2. 1. 30. .2. 13. ig 6. 23.3. .3. w 8. ~ 1.3. 7. mi. 12. 44. 2. 40. 11 5 .x a. 36. 2. 3. 6.20." ^ 2. 57. i. 2. 25. 19 OJ.000 sq. 1. x y = 1 = 3 2.J 3.3. 20. x 42. 5. 2.2 oz. mi. 5. water. 3.. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.3. 4. 945 11 10 . 5.36. (I. () 7 Page 126. 4. 48. w. Of. 8.5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5. 6 10 = 12.li.840. 53.3. 5. 4. "lO. 27. 4. Page 137. 8. 3  24.3. 2. . 4. 7. 52. tin. . 10. Page 133. 15.5. 15> 9. 7. J pq. 4. 6. ' 55.3. 4. 38. (b) C C' = fi JR'. + W. x:y a: b.2. 10. 4. a +b 1. J. 20 cu. 25. Page 136. 54. 2.  ?.12. cu.*. 1 rt * vm^1.5. 55. lo mi. . 35. 1. 13. 2. 5:0 = 10:12.15 x. jc:y = n:m. 7.]. 14. 12.4. 13. 2. a 3. 1. 7. 26.1. 2. 19. *. 8. .17. I.5. 16. : XV 27. 141. 6. 43. 7. 3.4. 8.5. Page 131.2 x. 9.3. 8. 2. 14. . OJ."2:1. 9. (a) Directly.C ?/ a . 200 mi.
About 12f.XVI Fagel39. 2. 2 a. 147. ad _(?jrJL. 16 to July 20. 1. 25. 4 ' q. 13. 1. 11. 2.. through point (0. 4 mi. SL=J o ft r^2. 4.0. 12. . 1. Jan. = ^ a Page 141. 11. 20. u 2ft. 31. . 7. Page 145.l. 22. 16. ' . 5. 13. ft 3. . 4. 8. July 20. $3000. . 1. 15. 40. 9. 24. 30. 1. 30. Jan. 4. 3).10. $6500at3Ji%. June. 8. 8. 1. 17. 2 horses. 3. 9. ' 6 3 a. 2. Aug.65. 6%. 20 & Oct. On 11.4. . 3. 16. 2. 8. ^. 4. 21. Page 152. July. 3. 7. B's 15 yrs. (ft) 20. . 4. 5. 4.^. 21.. 10 sheep. 3. Apr. $500. yrs. 5%.3. 2. 1. 00. The ordinate. 25. 5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . . at 15. J. 24. 32. Page 153. 3. 10.. 7. (a) 12. a =J (n  1) rf. 11. 3. 25. 2. 3. . 10. 24. 3. Page 142. 24. 19. 40. A's 30 18. 18. 7.  11. July. 3. 12. 5. parallel to the x axis 0. 100. & part of Feb. B's 40 yrs. yrs. 3. .  Zn  "(^ll 14.n + p. 6. 10. 423. 11. 2. 6.1. m f 8. 7. be 10. 28. 4. 1. 15. m + n p. Nov. 6. Apr. Page 143. 3.4. 6. 20. 1. 0. (a) Apr. 18. On the x axis.3. 18. 20. 29. Page 146. 30. (ft) 23 J. 11. 1 (c) Jan. 12. . 6. Page 149. 10. 9.1J. 16. 19 gms. 23. 13. 6. 14. 20. 1. 17. 15. m f 9. 4. 72. 2. 4. 90.. Page 151. Nov. 6 cows. 16. 2.9. 3. 3. A a parallel to the x axis.3. Feb. 3. 18. & May. Nov. 2. 1. 26. $ 1000.  17. 19. 12. be 7. 1 (d) Apr. 4. 16.1. 5.8.33.2. 11. 2. 2. C's 30 yrs. m . 4. Jan. 16. 0. $900 5%. A's 50 13. (<f) 13. 7. <*ft/ bd 1. Oct. 10^ gms. 6.. a. 23f . 2. & part of Sept. 5. C's 10 yrs. 2. 0.0. 25. 1. 6. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.4. ad AzA. 14. 5.$2000. 3. 26. 20 to Oct. 3. 2t2. 7. 3. Nov. 5. 5. (5. . Jan. . 5. 7. Apr. 20. 10. 2. 9. Jan./hr. 7. 4.$5000. $250. 2. 17. 9. On the y axis. 14.7. 7. 27. May 5. &. . Page 22. 12. 2. M 2. 3. 4. 9. $4000.2. (c) . 3.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2.. 3. 23. 4. 4.
3. (a) 12. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 5. () (rt) 3. 11. 3. . 3. 4. 8 1 f f g*.5 (ft) 3. H. 1. 25.24 . 3. 2.73. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 15. 13 . . 1. .73. 4}. 83.67.59. 4. 2. 2.79. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. 10. (e) 2.73 ami . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. f12 wi 9. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 1. 3. . 2.75. 18. 2. (ft) (d) 2. . 13C. 1. (e) 3.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .4. 125 16.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 10. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.84. 5.  1. (c) 14 F.59 . 4wn8 + n4 5. xW.5. 1. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.75.. 4 ) 21. 15.25.1. 24. Indeterminate. 9 and Page 166. 5 and 2. Page 164. (c) 7.73. (/) 3. (ft) and (d) 2. 2. 2ft4 Page 168. 13. (a) 5. 3. 15 . . (/) 3. 8.25.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . . 1. 4. xy. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 0. 8mW.7. 5. 2.64. . 3. . (a) 4. 11.27. 24. 3. xg . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.  1.25. 1. + a 4 ft* . .  . 1. 13.25.  12 ft xW  26 31. .41 and 23. 32F. 3.. a + ft. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. a 29. (gr) 21. . 5. a 6o&i85 c i5o . Page 163. 1.3. Page 158. 2. 2. jgiooyiio 17. 125 a 8 12. Inconsistent. 3. 3 . 3. \ft) 5. ' :=_!. . 20. 2. 1 4. 14. 4. 2. 8. Inconsistent. 14. 2. 27 19. +3 4.79.. . Page 159. 17. Indeterminate. 15. 2. ft 2 4. 8. 18C.75.1. 6. f. 11. f. 1 23.24. 21. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 27.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 20. . 14. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 3. . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 125a 28. 12. 3. 3. 1. 16. 5.83.64. 3. 22. 1. 1. 2. 13. 1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 30. (<?) 2. 1. 5. 81 ". 28." 23. 4. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.. 4. . G. 30. f 10. 14. m. 2 2 22. 1^. 9. 19. . 3.5. . 2. (ft) 2. 26. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 7. 0C. 2. (ft) (ft) 2.34F. . 5. 19.41 and . 2.75 (ci) 3^.83. 4. 3. (c) 2. 2. H. ImW. 1. ft . 2. SlstyW 7. 12. 2 l. * 16.2 (ft)  1. . 8 a1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.6. 22. 9. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.24. 27 27 81. 10 C. 1. 1. . 10.17 (ft) (c) 2.25. . (a) 2. 3. . a 10 ' a ll V&.13.3. 6.
wi 8 + 3m 2 . 12. . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 978. ( Page 174. 28. + i)). 98. 25 19. 76. 3. 17. 3M. 247. 19.i c 6 15. 11. 3. 2. 9.83. 8. 180 . 24. 16. 64. 71. 2038. 14. . . 5. (48 + 6. 6. 26. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 9. 57.f 1 m 9 16. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 2 4. 15. 3 6 23. fe *?>' ?> fi . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. r> 4 : 1 . 10*. 3. 6. 7. 20. 4. 8 /.XV111 7. 18.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. + (win . ?7i 1 1 3 1. . Page 176.2). 23. (2 a + ft).  +X '. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 5. a ). (3a. c 10 6 :l 20. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 00. + + ?V 22. a 2 . 237. + l). 21. 20. /> 4 ). 10. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 2 49 . 19. 34. 14. Page 170. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .a b 22. 1. 4.x ). 5 5 8. ? . 7. + y). ^i. 30. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 309.10 a~ + 5 a . 70. 15. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (a + 2 +l). 21.1. 27. 1247. GOO 2 c 2 . 2. 22. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 11. 8. 10 x G a 4 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 5. 7. 4. 16. 9. 6. +3 + 5 4. 13. . + Z). 35.5). 16 6 w . ). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 4. 72. 84. 1 1 ?>). 1. 8. a. 11. 6.y2 ). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). ? : 1 . 420. 9. 33. 16. (1 (x2y). 763.1. 14. AN S WE no . rt . 10. 40. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 90. 15. 5. 5. 11.7 /)). m 13.  x. (ab + c). (x' l). 12. 1. . 15. 18. 6 (\x 3. 17. 6. (ly). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. Page 172. 17. 9. 9. 3 2 8 3 12. 10. 1. 2(> + ( 2 7>). (l + x + . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. (4a2 9& 2 13. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). Page 171.94. 3. ??i ?i . f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13.6. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 119. 2 2 7. 2 12. 99.3 ab + 2 2 ). (a + y+l).r 2 + 6jt). (x + y\ 90. 8. (a 2. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. . + 29.+3^ + 4.^). 0. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 13. 18.5. 20. a.037. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 2. 31. 3 2 ^. I 8x2). +35. 36. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 32.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 30. 300. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 2. 14. 2 4 8 2 . (Gx + (i + 2a. 101. . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 2. . Zll. 90. a: l . 20. (7 (2 2 3 2 16.GO a c + 23. 8. 25. 12. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).
15 1 10. 25. 7 in. /. 6561. 2. V17. 4. (< + ?>). 10.i. 3.. 4. 50. 15.742 in.}. 3. 29. ft. 14. 27. 1. 12.  14. 14. 8. 6. 35. Af^. 9. 28.6. (afl). 5.522 38. 9 15 ft. 46. 8. 2.. f . 7. 13. 4. 3.. 7 45. \/3. Page 184. 7. 25. 12. 10. w.  f. 3. 42. 23. 20. 35. 6J.1. 26.690. 7.367. 2] see. 44.6. 6V'2J. 5.935. f. V2.. 7. 14. 4. . 9. 39 in. 24. 15. 6. 17. 1 f Vl3. 36. 11.ANS WERS 22. 1. or 5. 33. 12. 20.4. i ^. 3. 22. 4. 23. 5.13. . 39. / 11. .?. ZLlAiK 19. 11.  3. }.237. ft. 25 J. vYb. {. 2. 17. J. 21yds. 12. 2. ^. >TT 26.a.. 6.925 ft. 10. 16. 1 38. *.6. JJI. 29. 5. 6 f !. .. 34. 6yds. 8. 2. 6. 9. Page 181. 5. 3.236. 24. 17. 270 sq. 7.. l~8.. 10. ft. 3. 21. _ iVaft. 1. 5. 1. 10. 29. V J l. V35 1. 9. 13. 16. V2.. 1&. 16n. 16. 12. 4. 9. 47. f 3. 21. or 3. 1.  2. Page 180. 5. 6. 39. 5. 8. 14. f ^ is.18. xix 26. 8. . 49.5. 41.1. 2. . 32. 13.5. 19.469. 4. Page 177. V.798 yds. Page 185. 30. 7. > w ft. 5. 18. m. 18. m.60. 6V21. 5. 21 in. 3. . i. 7. 28 in. 4.V 8j. >i 27. 12. 6.6. 4 W**.4. (6) Vl4 3. 10. 3. 7}. 32. 1. 4. If ^. 15. 1. 11. 36 in.w 18.  43. 21 28 ft.  f. 1. 13. Page 179.4. 3. 2.6.*.  5. 3.243. 4 TT M 28. 2. . () 2.Sn. 31. 30. 9. 36. 37. 3. 20. 6. 28. " ^_ 22. 12. . f f V. 8. 15. 4. ii :J _7. 10. 11.. 2. 9. 7.916 yds. 12. 21. vV'TA 24. ^^7m. 5. 4.005. 2. 5f. 31. 2 sec. 34. 15. a. 10. f. 48. 33. 5083. 9. 23. 4 a. 7. . v 17. 2. ~ V^3.  1. * 1. 1. 2. a + 61. 7563. . 40. 4 n. 37. 4J. 1. 13. 10. 7. . 3. 3. 16. ^. 1 7. 2. 27. 4. 7. 40.645. 14. 4. 6. 1. Page 183. 19. 3J. 5. 5. 5. 11.
 24. 1. 22. 3if. orf. 16. 2. 2.  2. Real. 6. 5. 4. 1.  i. 1. 3. 18. unequal.70. 7.2. rational. 0.* 2.l.. 56. 2.7. unequal.7. 6. 120 ft. 2.. . 16. Page 189. 36. 41. equal. 22. a. 2. Real. 1 .2. 28. x*4x=0. t is. 19. 0. unequal. 5. 8\/2 17. 10.a. . Page 187.48. Page 188. _ 19. 12. 12. 2. 2.7.  1. 1). . unequal. 4. i . 34. 23. 7. 12. 1. 52. 10 in. 15. 9.59. 6. 2. 20 nii. 8 or 12 mi. 1. 3. . r* i.12. 3. 14. x 14. 57.  2. . 0. 11. unequal. 3. 1.5. Page 191. 7. unequal. 1. 3. 4. 27. 13. 0.4.  5. 3.  13. 1. 3.a. 11.3. 10. 0.1. 24. U. rational. 0. 2 . 2 ft. 4. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 2. . 10 mi. 6. 28. rational. 39. 6.. 4. 44. 6. . 3. 7.2. 5. Real. 28. . .  1. 2. Real. 0. 1_^L ft 14.2. 25. a + 1. AB = 204 ft. i. unequal. 6^2 in.4. unequal. 1. . 2. . 1. in.  6. VV11. irrational. Imaginary.  9x <).23. 18. 9. 7. 53.2. 13. .  1. 3. 33. f 6 52 a. 6.4. 64. $ 120. 14. 8. ft.41. 3.4. 20 eggs. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 3. 15. AB = 3. 26. . 26. 32. 0.  1. equal. 25. x* 51.  5. equal. 0. 20. 1.5 x + 6 = 0.. 23. = 0. + 11 x. 5.5^. rational. 3. 3. 21. 1.1. 21. 5. V^l. 37.a 3 a. 8. 6V64. . 1.0*8.  Page 194.Oa. %.17. 55. a + 6. 47. 20./hr. 26. 2 V3 in.2. 0. 35. s 11. 3. unequal. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. 27. 16.37. 2. Real. V2. 7. 1. 3. Imaginary. 2.62./hr.2. . 4. 40. 27. 58. $30 or $70. 1. 17. '  f 5. 0. 1. 15. H. V2. 2. 0. Page 190. 4 da. x2 + B . 24. 4. 3.12 = 0. 9. 38.2. 6. 23. 48. Imaginary. 3. V7. 42. V^~2. 2. 0. 1. 0. 1 3.23. 46. 2. ' 1. Page 192. Real. 12. 10. 31.'. 64c.6 = 0. 1. 2.2 x2 . 12. .74. 2. 19 in. irrational.48 3. 0. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. ANSWERS 22. 10 mi. 1. a. 8. 25. . 3.1.4. #<7=3. $80. 4. 5 ft. 25. 6.. 0. V^l. 7. rational.XX Page 186. If.3.2. 18. 2. v^^fcT"^. 45. f. 4. 20. 30. a8 .  1. jr . 7.3. 2.10.6.$40 or $60. 43.02. 21. 9. 1. 2.]. (5 10. 6. . 24. 29. 3. 3. 2. 8.. Real. 4. 19. 15 ft. 35. 26. . 50.2. 10 or 19. f. Imaginary./hr. 2. 70 ft. Real. . . . *'' 12. 3. 49./hr.
37. 18. 27. 1. 45. _! V3. 14. 8. J 3. 9. 10. 9. I. 6. 12. 3. $7. 18. z + 22. .  a'2 . vm. 48. 4. 4. *V. 54. n\/* Page202. 9. 6  AAf. 2. 10. 'J. 2. i. 10. v'frc 18. 35. 2. 49. 1. 39. 2.//^. 22. r. 25. 1. 1. 7. 19. 8. 53. 5. 2. 42. 30 a. 84. 7. 5. 25. 33. 55. 13. 18. 17. 1. 47. 2. (m 26. 33. 52. 13. 125. v/3. vV. x. 5. 20. 29. ). . 0. 19. . 19. 17.  J j." 17. 3. 11. 49. 5. 9. 19. 15. 13. 21. aW\ 40. Page 196. 22. 1.  5. l  5 12. 2. 2. 4. 29. 57. 59. 36. jV 10. 7 . 9. Page 200. 4. J. a. 3. . 24. 14. 56. 20. 7. 1. 4. 26. 28. 16. . fx'^z'l 23. 14. 40. Page 201. 1. 49. 58. ar 1 . 49. 2V a. 6. 51. 243. 8. y . \ . 23. 44. 31. 8. 38. . Page 197. \/3. 9.32. v'frW. 50. 4. 7V7. r*. 1V1. 1. 30. 8. 14. 1 39. 11. 0.. 2.2. y.^7. 5. 1. . 10. 33.  f. &.6. 0. \/r\ 11. .1 5 15. 8. 30. ifa. \. 28. \/. ^49. p. J. Jb \. 31. 15. 3. 24. xxi 15. 16. 3. 43.  48. 15. 12. 50. 3. 5\/5. Vr. m. 3. x$. 8. 16. 4. 2. x/25. JV37. 3. J. 21. a 18 . 1.  f . 60. 47. 29. . 8. 5. 3. wA 46. v. 23. 17. v^T4 m. m'. 32. 13. 12*2 61. 20.ANtiWEUS rational. 3. 20. ^Sf 3 38. 24. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 3. \. 4. 2 L ( V. 41. ? . V^ 34. 46. 21. 32. \a\ \/^. 3. 27. Page 199. . 16. 25. : . J.17. 3 4 11. 2.
18. 13 a.3 + 40 3 . 3 x^y 33. 135V6. 37. 9. x.2 18. + + ft.Vxy 35. 11. 13. / V3. 2. 32. ). 1) 3V3. 8. Page 207. . y. 15. + Vic + 25. x%  3 ^+ 1. T. 30. l 5. + . 3. ^7 \AOx. 8V/) 15. v'TM. 12. Va 2 "ft. V. 17. + 2 V22. 41. a 4 +* + !.'\ 14.707. a 3. 7.yl : . 2. ^: V2c. . abVab. 3V^T. x 7  34. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 10. 38. 27. 101 1. + 2 ar 1 ). 1. 37. 2. 10. 2. 4. 3. 11V3. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). .632. 21. 2 4 z2 l 3.rV:r. 49. 195V3. 28. 43. . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. V63. . y (a + ft) V2. 40. 31. 5 22.r. 26.x^y* + y%. 31. 26.XXii ANSWERS 1.). 3V5. 9 . 3. 2. (o* 2. Vr 8. 28. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1.2 VlO.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 19. 48. 3 4\/2. 20. r c . 17.  a Vft 2 121 b. 19. 2 '"V5. 5. 03r* 7. 39. 3 \ 39. x^ . 2 x* 15. 9. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. ^88". 9. 13. 45. k/2. ?tV?w. 21.  2 3:r. V80. 13 35. 20. 23. Page 203. 3^2. 1 2 or 1 ?. a2 4. 5 ( . x 25. 36. (x' (l 1+x). a^ + 2^+1. ftV 46. + 2). . 32. V 5 47. 8a6V5. 11. x y. 2>X2. 6.577. 10. 8. 4. 2v (T 2aVf. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. x + 5 x3 + 0. . (a 27. r 17  Page 204. 2\/7. 29.648. 25. 50. 16. 51. 3 42. 4aV^J 16. 34. yV35. 22. 7. m* n*. 16. v^. 30.f. 29. 62V(J. 6. 33. 24. 5.692. + 1. 20&V6. + 2 Vzy + y 1. Page 208.. JIV6. 40. 34 r 6. v/^r 5  A/^~. . 24. V2 + 4 V22. 2 a?>V2 a. 3^ + 2). 2. V.
15. 14.  3. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 11. 50. 18. / \/w/t 4 13. V3. 15. v"5. Vat. 29. 2 28. 2yV2?/. Vdbc. 35. 8. 6. 21. V5. . 8. 46. 10. 8v2T 12. v/8. V3. 14c 4 V5. \/2. 33. 20. 8  \/15. 3. a2  b. V8. v^f. 9. 34. x/3. 27. 5V2. 19. a^\/a7>. 16. 2 1. 40. \/abc*. 27. V2. 16. 42. . 28. 1. 10. 38. 23. 6. 2\/7. 8V2. 32m27n. 3 Vl5 30. 13. Page 210. \XOfl6Vi5. 2. 14. 4 >/3. 52. 21 23. 31. 12. 9 VlO + 4. 3\/2. 2 V'3. 36. 44. 23. Page 214. x/27. aVa. 11. 30. 9. 5. : ^32. Vn. 25. 4. 9. % 29. 7. 5. 16. 17. 48. 5 \/2. ^v 7 15. 5V2.r v/^ v^fr*. 26. . 0. 32. v^O. 24. . \^6. + VlO  v y (5. 8V73\/IO. 39. 3. 3\/wi. \/128. \/8. ^27. x/w^ 8. 7. x/125. ^9. 2. 74\/Jl 120 46. v/i). V3"m. 1V5. . 25. 17. v/9. 18. 36. VJla. Page 216. x/4. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 3 V2. 35. 10. b. + 20. 21. 2. 3. 12. 6. 32. V/. v/l2. fl^Vac. . x/8l. 3\/15  6. V2. r)\/(l Vrtr. v^4. 31. x/8. 51.30 2. 2. m ?i2Vm/t. 38. 0. 5v/2. 22. \V3. 37. VT5. Page 211. 3. 13\/3. 4VO. 19. 49. 2. 7. D 45. . 22. 11. 41. 5. V5. 18. 6+2V5. 7\/(l 7VTO. v^lf. \/a6c. 39. a\/5c. 3.. '. \^r^bVabc. 40. 14. "v/wi ??. 6aV2\^.J Page 212. ^\/3. 1. ^ 3 b 5 24. 37. 4. 4\/5. 30 Vl4. v/lO. w?i. v 25^4714 V2"a. 43. ab 4. 2 \/2. W). v"3. 26. vT). 17.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 1. 6. Page 213. v7^. 3v^2. 24. x/8L v/27. 34. 2 ate. v^a. 53. 10V(). v^30. rtv/5. 6 2\/0. 6V2. 13. 3 V15  47. Vtf +3+ 33. 6x2?/. \^6. 4 a*. "^8000.T*. \/04a. 6. xx 1.
4. 8. 17. ^. (Vf + (4 V2). 21. 4. 1. Va. (VllV2).7083. . ANSWERS 8. 224. (V5f 5. 10. . . 28.^ (\/22 4.3. 13. 17. 16. 8. 81. 37. 2.601. 11. 24.732. 100. 4. (V21). 10. 11. 27. 1. 5 + 2 vU 17.1547. V5.7071. 23. 31. .9. 6. 3. 19. 7 Page221. 7. + 5V2. !^ 6 4.XXIV 7. 25. 3. Page 226. V.w 6. V3. 10. . xy 2. (V8 + V2.0606. 3. V2. 24. 32. 6 (V2 + 1). 7. 25. 3. J. (V6 + 2V2).464. 36.732. 5 f. 14. 7. 5. V3. 10. 4. 16. 14. 7. 10. 15. Page 219. 15. (\/3f 1). (2f V"5). 5.  f.  13.625 10. 21. 4. 9. 2. 7 f 5 4. _^JflJ?. 6. 15. 1. Page217. 25. 25.2828.1805. 26. 512. 16. (2Vll). 9. 6.13. 13. 3V23. 2V2. . 5. 2V3.\/TO). 8. 16. 9. 30. V3 . 14. 5. 22. 19. 3. 4. 8. 7. Vf6fVtf. (a 1.81. Page 218. 5. 81. 8 V3V2. 9. 4. . 11. 11. 21. 8. ~ Vac _c 0. j. 24. n*. +3 V2).2. 7. 9. 30. J. 25. f. 34. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 24. 2. 6 V. 29. 1.6 V3. (2V2). ^r.1.2. ^(VlO\/2). 16. 216. 8. 19. p 6 13. . 23. nVTl. 7. 4 14. 27. (VaT^v a). + 6) 2 . 15 f 3 V2L 4. 1. 14. 4. ' 22 i . ^. 15. \/57t. 2. 33. Va. 7. 18. 18. 13.4722.5. . 4. K>/0 + \/2). 2. ^\/2. 12. {. 9.  . 2. 2V3. 3. 12. 20. 8. 12. 21 ' Vob 26. * 3. Page 28. 2 .5530. 1. 5. 1. 35. 1. \/3). 23. V6c. 10. 5 V65. i^Lzi. 6. x 20.4142. 6. 2ajV2*. 9. 12. 2. (3+ v/2). (\/5V2).3. 4V3 + 6. 9. 16. 8. fV2. . 4. i(Vf Vft). 125. 23. Page 223. 0. 18. 26. 25. 11.V3). 1. 17. 22. Page 225.389. 4. j 15. (V51). (2. 16. 20. m f. 2x^2^. 4. 22. 5. 5. 16. 17. 12.3535. 5.64. 19. 0. 10. V3. V35. 18. \. 4. 15. 64. 9. 20. 20. V^TTfc. 18. 1. 19. 9 mn. 23. 11. 1. . 12.6. 27. 3. 25.. 4.  2. A . Page220. 4. 2!5_. 29.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 3(7+3V5).
7. b . 4. (a. l. 2. (a .10. 3.l)(a 2 + a f 1). (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). .  2. 4. (a 4. J. 11. 4 . 1. 2. . 4 . 3. 2. 1 3. 4. 3 9.l)(m . 4. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 56l).22. 3. . 87 . 1. 28. ~ f7. . \/0. . .2)(* . 3. . 15. 14. 10. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).  1. & + 6 2 ).w 4 + 1). 3. 3.3. 2. 4 20.7. . 2 6. a  . 1.2. 8. 3. (r. 1. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 6. . 2. 12.2. 2. o. 2 . 5.  1. 7.2)(m. 18. 3. 5. 20. 10. 0. 1. 1. 13. 2. 1.^a. 12. 3. 3. 5. 2. 4. .2. 13. 2 V^ . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. P. 0. 2. 13. 30. 8. qpl. 2 . 24. (2 a. 4. 19. . 24. 13. 17. 2 . 5.. 2.3).0. 22. 5. . 18. 3.r . 16. (w . . 8. 6 2 2a + 2).+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 2. 19.3. 17.  3. 2. ( 16. 3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).1. 3. 5. t/ 23. 5.3. (pl)(p3)(p6). (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 11. 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3 . 1.  4. (+!)( 2) 10. 4. 7. (8. 21. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 0. 3. 7. y. . 4. 11. a . 2. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).4). 3. 11. 2. 16. 14.  3. 1 (?> x/^3. 4. 11.  f . 8 6 & 0. (m 4 + l)(ro. 25. XXV 4.nl^EI.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).4. a(.3. 2 <? 4a2 . 3. 1 . 6. 2. 7. 3. 30 . 23. 1 . (B43). 7. 4. 12.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. . 1. 10.  3. 11. 6. 5. 5. 1. =A^Z3. 4. 3. 9. 14. 6. 9.4. 17. 2.12. V3. 1 6. 4. (&y2a#H4). 30 30. 4. 13. .  J. //. 2 . 4. J 24. 25.5. 15. 1. 4. 4. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 0. 0. 2 > 1. 30. 2. 25. 8. 10. ' J.8a 18. 15. J. 2. Page 233. 3. 21. 19. 6. 3 . 4. 7.3. 12 24 y . 26. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 3. f>. 10. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). . 3. 4. 73. 1. 73. 4 1.3 2. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 22. 0. 3. 2. 3 5. 50. 2. 0.ANSWERS Page 228. . 2. Page 234. 2. 1 .Y. 1. 1. 4.4. 1. 7.  16). f . 25. 12. 5.l)(z 2 + z + 1). (a + 2) (a Page 229.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).1. 2 &. 9.3. 1. 20. 5. (a. 2. (a+&)( 2 14.l)(a3)(a . (rt. 1. 2. 8. . 5. 0. Page 236. 12. 1 . 1. 2.  . 5. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).5 xy + 25) 22. 3. . 6. 3. 20. 1. 1. . 5. 10. a: :} . 3 .  5. . 2 6. (pl)(p2)(p2). 6. 100. 4 4. 2. (63)(6' t 18. 8. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (4 mn . . J Page 235. 1 .
2. 1. 17. 41. 78. 1 . . Indeterminate. . 55. ( 3. 1. 5. 19. 20 7. 5. \/6. 1. 26. f. 1. 1. 16. 2. 2. 4 34. 14. 1 . 7. 40 25 in. 15..  1. 50. 5. 1. 2V7.13. 0. 2. 12.1.3. 2. 12 d. 8 . . = QO 6. 3. 15. ^ }. . $. 2 26. $. (a) 5. x 4. _ 7. 84. .  . 4. 10. 3. 6. 400. 14. 8. 2.. 8. 8ft. 2. . 4. 38.. .3. oo .xxvi Page 237. J. i'ljVU. 2. 1. . 6. 4. J. 2 . 4. 7 3. 37. 1.5. Exercise 114. 1.. 5. 7. 19. 5 4. .6. 8. 18. 2 . 3 2. J. 2. . 15. 12 ft. 201. 5. 2 2. 17. 14. . 8. 5. 5. 1. 2. jj. 1. 2.4. m27. 3. n . 3 3. _ 5. 4. $VO. oo. 3. 7. 6. 3. 10. 1.3.1. Exercise 113. 15. 35^ 5. 3. 9. 3. 17. in. 31. 1. 3. 12. 4. 9. 21 30. . 1. 8 3.y. . 31. 2. 1. ^~2. 32.. 7. f*. 1. 3 . 4. 3. \. . 1. j. } . 2. n. . 11.. Page 241. i j.2. 23. 1. 21. 37. 1. i. in.3. and _ 4. 3.. Page 239. oo . J. co . 7. 3. V3~. 13. 10. 8. 14. . 45yd. 1. 1 . 16. 1. 10.e. }. 3. 4. . 4. 2.0. . ANSWERS 2. . 2 . 5050. 8. 3. 2. 1. 15. 7.. Page 244. 24. 12. '>.0. . 0. 4. 3. (>. 16. 4. . 50. . 2n. 24. 11. 5. 7. 3. 4. 2. i i i . Indeterminate. 9. 11. 8. 4. . (&) 2. 3V5. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2 ft. ft. 3. 3. 9. 4.4. 12. 35.4. 4 8. 1. Page 248. 1. 2. ft. 2 Y> V . 4. 39.136. 5 . 4.  11. 3. 5. 4. 6. 1. 36. . 5. 14. in.1. 14. +  n.30. 3. m + n. 512. 1. 12. 35 ft. 3 4. 5. 4. 23. 30. Page 245. 35 a. 2. . 22. 6.5. 17. 17.020. 15.. Page 240. 14.3 . 20 in. 2. 1 . 28yd. . 2. 18. 1. . 2 1. 4 6.18.3. ' j. 1. 3. 30 13. 2. 1J. 3. 3. 13. m28. 12 1. Page 247.. 11. 4. in. 48. 1. 1. 13. 5. 2 10. 5. 2 16. 4. 4 . (a) $3400. . . 37. 9. 125 125. 512. 4. . 21. tn 2. no co . 29. . 2. 12. 1. 3. 2>/3. 3 . 7f solution. 5. _ 10. in. 8.6. GO . 288. 33. 5. 3. 1. f>. 40. 17. 11.200. $46. 5. ft. 9. 3 cm. 30. 69. 18. ri*.3. 0. 1 2. 900. 22. 1 . (/>) "_. 4. Page 243. 5. . c. 15. 3. 2. _ 13 (0 6. Page 238.4. 3. 40 in. 5. 5 cm. V7. 25. 11.  2 . .3. . . . 20. 20. 12ft. 3 .
53. 1. a. 35. 4. . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 26. 708. 405. 6. 12.12 x*y 16. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 8. . 2. 2. I.^ ?>i 2412x4.5. 15.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.  17. 4. 3. 1. 04.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 0. 5. 2.5. 005. 120 aW.2 45 a 8 /). 27. 343. 7. 5. 16. 100. 21. r 5 4. d. 4. 2. 3.419. . w9  8. sq. 22. 04. 16. 5. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 9. 32.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. . 2. 2. .r 4. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 8 1. 27. 45. A. 5. 8 . 12. 8 4x' 2 . . 4. 1 7 4. 44. 11. ~v 9. (). 6. 2.680. 7.5y 4 . Page 259. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 16. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .6. 1. 12. 19. . 70.7 10. 6.920. 7. Page 258. 6i. 2. 20. 6. 1JH. 21. 25. 3. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .53. 3. 70. 8. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. 9. . 45 Page 257. JSg. 5. . 8J.2 9. Jj? 45.170. 0. i 10. 10. <.6 . 9. 4. 55. 5 13.192. **+. 128. 6. 12. 5. 15. 1. 16. 17. 1.504. 3. 3. 192.210. r r j. 12. a4 4 14. 1. 5.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 5. 280 53. 10. 16 11. 7. 10. 9. 12. G. 8. 7.  20 flW. 11. 8. 4.4 &z x>&. 0. 43.0. 4.700. 8. 343. 3. 125. . 3. c. 1. 17. Ja. 45. 2. 28. 105. Page 254. 1 14. 7 x4 17. REVIEW EXERCISE .x' 10 .4. 8. 81. 9. 15. 27. 4. 19.r* 4 70 . 4. . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 48. 4. '23. 0. 70. vy. 7. 0. 8. 495. 2. 6. 9. ~ an . J 2 //2 25. 125. 1. 4. 23. 50. 13. 5. B . ^a 8. 10.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 22. .^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 6. 18. 20. 8. 7. and 1. 410.3 ays. 0. x4 . } $ 50. 2. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 11. 4.<2 4.870 m*n*. 3. f y 8 + z* . 18. 220 . 6. . 20. 4. 13. />*. 7. 4. 4.384.  101. 05. 18. .r x>/ 7 3.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 29. 27. 2i* 7f.8. 8. 4. 0. 16. 10 14. ?/i 6 x llj . in.ANSWERS Page 250. . 3. \ w 4 . 13. 18. 15. 3. 910. x r 4. 8. 2. 12. 10. 4 0. ' 1. . 1. 10. 17. 1.470.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. xxvii 1. Y11. 0. 19.13. 16.120. 1.5 x. 0. 6. 12. 35.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 3. 14. 15. Page 252. 304. 1820.1. x + Vy. &' 14.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 1000 aW.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 5. 2. 75. 3.v Page 253. 5. 327. 16.
a*ft 2 126. 4 fee 4.7 x   15.5 3n 4.x 51. .  e +/.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 5x + 2y~z.1.4. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.9 b. . ft /> 78. . 2 53. (a + ft)" 98. 62. a* a 8 a aftc. 61. x* . a 3m 4. x 3 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 86. a 4 . 2 2a 2 2 2(a.4.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. . 94. 127.2.a'2 c.. . + a 4. 124. 4 ! . 76. 91. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 24.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. . 35. Page 260. 4 Page 264.  4 a3 85. 38. 133. 50. 80. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 82. 9 2w 128. 102.  3 x2 .15 4 62 x  72. * 60. x' . 66. 5x 2 2x43. 27.2 x 4. 109. x2 a2 1 . 21.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 113. a' 111. 4 15 x 5 . 40. x2 471x4.a. 107. 4 . m " + n + P3c . 96.rty x2 4 123. 3 a . 0. xyxzyz.105. 13 + 2 s.2 c . 0. ?/ 3. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. ft n . + z. 2 x'V2 90.3 aftc. 7 + 3 xf 2. 64. 4 69.ac 44 aft. . x 8 + x 4 y* 67.x 2 4. 2 2/' .c. !! 71. 1 + 4 xy. 16t/. 2 q. &p 84. 105.x x*  f 2 ax 4.9 x . df. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. x 3 41. I 57. 2 x2 4. 1 121. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.1w 77.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 25. 104. ?> . 5 4 4. c3 4 58.x.a6 2 4. 1 . 88. 52. t 81. 2 x2 108. 2 . 1 a"* 4 an . 131.6 am b\ 129. 132. x2 5r*x ft 5 . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 5 42. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x } 4. +^ + ft W.3 a'ft. 10 a 12 b. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.4. 6 c 47. 3 36 b c .6 b.3 x 2 + 3 x . . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. as 20. 118. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .  . 12 x. 23. 49.3 103.7. + 3 a?. 2 . 16. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x 4. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 70. 36.x4 + y'2 z 4.1. 3 a 44.  + 3 x2 . 99. 6a6c. () 2 x 33. .1. 100. 39. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.3 y. .4 x?/2 3 4. .2 x^. 2 a. 4 2 . . 12 a/. a~b 89. .4 x y 87. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.y*. x' 79. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.4 x 2 . 122. 4ft y3. 4.4 ac. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .5x4. Page 263. 1 x 45. y 4 z* 0. _55_7c 48. 4 65. . x .2. 28. 6 a2 97. 0.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 243x4729. 37. 125. 32. x 8 + x 4 68. 8x3 8x.1 4 jry 4 x . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. ft2ft 4 4l. .2.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . x 8  a8 . a J . 2 30 .18 x?/0. 2 . ?/ . 130.41. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 110. az 4.3 b . 63. 3~ n 4. a* 4.4. 3a~2c.^a .fee 2 4.18 ?/ 5x4.4 2 4 c2 42 . . 30. x 2 . 29. 120. 14 x .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 31. 9x. 114. f5+7.  12 a. 22.ft). 4. 93. a4 x. 4. .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.5 b + c .5. ^ . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .a' 'ft 4. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 3a'2 Page 261. 72. /> 4 83.1. 43.x24 73.a 2 x 2a . .3 . 3 c .c 3 4. 3 a 5 a 5. x4 f + 23 . x2 2 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 4 115. .c. 26.{ 54. a2 2 aft 2 2. 8 . . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 10 4. x8 x2 55. . . 46.
4. 2. (a& 192. 244.3 y)(a .2) (3 x . . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 239. . r>x 2 (4x. 8(ar}(/)27). 137.y) (\r3y). 171. y3. yr. 154. 2. 2 2 (a. 2. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 12 yr. 206.9)(xf 2).y)(jc + 7 y).. 15. 138. 184. 18. (ab + 8) ( 7).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ).r + 4). 155. 3(x . . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 142. 182. xxix 139. 187. Page 266.1). 24. . (x . (?/+l)(yl). 214. (c) 160 C. (xyX^+y" )1 243./_4). (5 x . 168. 189. 162. 237. 217.. 216.y). 15. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 152. (7x2//) 203. 12 yr.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 2. 156. 6. 164. 158.. (3x2?/)(2.r . 10). 201. 186. 240. 230. C3 y _l)(. 12. p. (x + 6)(x6). 202. + 7)(rt4). 149. 7. ( + 2y)(2x3y). +)(x2 x^+2. 2^. y. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 220. 241. 183. + 11) (a 10). 161. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 75. p. 195. 185. (a 2 + 2a6. (y _ ft)(y 4. (2a + l)(a . 40 yr. 12. 144. G7. 12 6 panes.y + 3)(r (. (8x + 3)(3x4). (6) 40.. 148. 167. (x + 2)(x . a. 176. 166. 20. 12) (j.ANSWEKti 135.3 y). 211. + 3). 1. 226. fc'2a+62c). (x^ + x1) 234.3. aft. + 22). 147.  1. 146. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). HI. 153. 238. . 174. 20. a(a. 232. (y 7f))(y 196. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 30 yr. 147 mi. 235. 19. . 2(x8)(x3). 212. 8 204. 208. 205. (/ 246. (. 1. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 37 1. 10). + 3) (x f f>) . 1.I2y).6) (2 x + 1). 170. 6). 2a(42ft)(2fo).2). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 160.1(5) 200. ?.2). (r7y)(ai. 236. y  y 165.6 .l)(x8 + x2 . (x  42 yr. 209. (y_24)(y5).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 10. 210. 2 xy(3 x .l)(y + 1). 2. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft).3). 178. 215. 193. 1.6)(4 + 6). 247. 231. (7 c 2 ). 172. 179. 6. 4.3) (2/3y). (a} 59. as 194. 207.2ac + 229. 191. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 159. (JT y 225. 10 ft. 22. 218. 140. (3x  . 15  a. 218. 224. + 2) + 9a. Or (a + 2)0el). (233).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 219. Iff 145. 190. 1. x(x + 6) 213. 23 18. 157. 180.2 )(x+y) 228. (y7)(y + 188. + y.y)(z . 5. m. 197. 32 h. y 245. 175. Page 265.y2 ). 1. 169. 10 in. 199. 30 + xyr. 1. ft. 173. 48 h. (2 198. 2 (4 x . (x 227. 222. Page 267. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. .2.4xl). 177. 136. 30. 36ft. 21.m)(x + a). z(x10)(xl). 233. 163.l)(a 2 +3). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (r^x + 1). 3. (y  17)(y + (>). a + 2x2 ). k. a 2 (15. 143. 150. 1. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 181. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 3.1). 50.1). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 151.
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* 357. 9^. 404.XXXI Page 272. 401. 387. ?/ + 3 332.(5 a . L . 377. 385. ab. 12. x 54 359. l . 0. j 328. " 4 378.  1 356. 2(q. 394. 3. + 4 & 4 \ b. 324. 405. 0. 326. T\. 1. 2. 383. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). _*L'L+. 334. 2 r36 384. 3. + x 362. a) A^_. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. 396.J . l'j. ^_:r f> 331. 2 ). a 2 . 386. Page 274. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 0. 389. 388. 4. 6 ?/+:>. 339. ?=. .)Cr4)__ .3. 329. 365. 13 391. a +6.H ' 2wi ^' /' . ^"" 4 s . 408. m. 392. 379. (a + b + c\ . . 336. 364. 370. 361. . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 0. 406. 366. 390. 407. . 4 A. ^ 3 // . 382. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.!. 6a. 11. 1. T+^. 395. 1. 375. 397... 4 rw. 380. 398. 20. 7/i ^ _ . f. S. 7. If. Page 277. .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 355. .1. y 4 I 340. 343 00 351. 3. A^L5L. 399. 393. 360.  1. 333. 376.vin a /r " 337. 4. 2 327. a + b + 6). 2. 1 i 2 ^. 400. 1.7. 2 ?/ 363. 325. c 402. + 335. 2(a i 403.". 2 ab  a Page 276. <L 409. ?>*.
ISjmi. . 411. . 410. 419. 507. 460. 40 oz. 472. 430. m 1 : wi. 8. 461. fc.vz in. 11. ^V.489. 2.rz Page 279.1. 498. 10..7. 4. />c c(f be.  2f 504. 10$. 8. .0. A $ 3500. 10.  f>. L2 a  6 . 20 yr. ^r?i 434. a 22 . 456. 5J. 0.7. (d  6) f. 428. 429. 421. 51. . 0. 481. B $ 2500.  .  2.4. 10. 497. 484. \.  1. a + + ft c.  10. 5. b 449. 5. Page283. Page 282. 0. 20. 439. 468. 2. 2. 0. 432. 21. (d) true. !L=4.2. A 5 mi . & 491. ^. 464. *+. 9. z8 +?/ 3 431. 1.7. 1. * . 485. .4. 445. '. 2.}. 502. Page 280. L (c) I. 450.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.  505. 2. 7. 457. 466. B 4 mi. 8.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. m. 422. . 5. 435. 14 miles. 427. 63. 506. 2$. 40. 477. 2. (&) true.. 467. 3 . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 3. 6. 490.}.2. 1$. 5.. (a  c). 482. 454. 24 days. 459. . . 493. Page 281. ISJini.5. 6.te + .  7. 418..  453. 53 yr. 462. . . 0.  1. (&) 443. not true. 7 : . <L+ 6 (. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 436. 33.0. 12. 465. I. 483. 480. 478. 10. 17.12.55. 42. ft 5. 7. 486. i a b 451. c 6fc 10. 413. 425. 10.46. 8. 500.m  m+ M in. 1. 6. 487.3. 6. 32 yr.  7. 32. 2 a 2. 90. 479. 4. 84. 499. 10. 1 a /?$+&?. 4. : />a. a* 424. . 5. 440. 2. 0. 17. 426. 452. 496. 1. 420. 494. . 1. 448. $2000 at 0%. (c) not true. 458. 22. 50. 6. . 28 yr.. (a) 1. 5. 446.488. . 476. 508. 10. 3. 7.  2. + () 433. ' $260 at 0%.7. 4. 444. Page 278. . 463. 2 438. 503. fj. 455. 6. 0. 7. 495. . 412. 3a 4 5. 18. . 442. 423. 447. \ 1. 492.7.3.. 6. 7. . c. i.  2. 501. 3. . 2. 2. 441. 2.
6 2. + 26 + . 3 . 1. 514.. If 572.3. J7] min. 2. 2(4 602. Page 285.21. 8.5. 554.1.10. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. Page 288.02. 575.  J(a f + 2c).1. g(rc+ 6c). 2. 2. ^ ft 4. .1.1.24. . 558.83. 1. y% Z * 586. 528. 552.88. 4. 1. 1. a + ft  a  f c. lead. 573. S82 c. 6. 566.55. a+ Page 286. lead.8. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. + 6 tf f 3 .4. . 1. Roots imaginary. 3.4. 3. 3. 532. 3. 576. o> . 4* da. 6. 1. y 4.15.51.6.37. 7. f. 4. 560. <z ft 1. . 3. 1 580.53. _ 4. 4. 3f 4f.3. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 529. _ 3. . . 563. 598.8 x3^.  2.03. 512. 0. 510. 1. 593. f36a28x8 592.  3. 1J. .1.15. a f ft + c.. 530. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 1 600. 516. . 562. tin.  (a) 2. 1. 559. 1. 579. . T .75. 1. 3. . 2.38.00. 5. (ft) Ill Ib.3. . 564.6.r8 596. . (e) 570. . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .37. 6435.5. 5.05. 1. . .25m. 591. 525. 3. 578. 556. > ^ .3. (e) (c) 2. 40 Ib.20.5.7.0. 3.14.7. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .6. 1 . 14. 8 mi.1.  2ft da.8. per hour._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. (6) 3. 2 . (a) 74 Ib. . 4.54. + 12 x .24. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 531.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. . (c) 3.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 1. .83. . . 1.   (h) 8.2.3.73. 533. 2.54.4. 536.  . 4.  7.4 x + .62. xxxin 511.8.78. (c) 4. 3.02.35. 4. 527. 2(6 597. 5.5+. 509. 1.02. 2. 582. 2$.3.24 sec. 3. 603.56 sec. 4. 565. 2 1. 1.7. 581. 24.75. 2. 567.3.  imag.  (a) (d) 1.0.5. 583. 2 10. 1.16. 526. f. 115 Ib. _^ 2754x . 1. da.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. H.04. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 2 . 3 da.8.10.6. 2. 518. per hr. . .4.0. 574. 2 imag.4. (ft) 4. 4 0. 7^ da. (i) 3. 551.31. 2.30. 515.5.  4. 550.31.4. 1.  ft*. imag.12. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 555.% rr\* 585.15.04.f 1. .  557. (6) . 1. (gr) 10 1. 31. ..ANSWERS Page 284. 3. Page 287. x8 .78.33. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 569. tin. 568. 2 2. 4. (d) 537.25. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).  1.62. . ft 584.03. 1$.0. 5. 3.. 4 mi. 0000. 232.52. 553.5 f.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 561. 1 . 577. 4. 27 y* f\4 . . (/)  10 to 8. . 1. 571. 3.  + + c. 24 da. 599. 1.3. 3. or 8. 21*_. 2 1. 513. .02. 1.9.xj/ f xV . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.
b.  3.001. 652. 11.25. If 658.3. 8 6 fo . 616. 1$ 639. ^^ 695. 692. 2 a 688. 7003. 698. 690. \+ab 699. 6. K 5 2 V2. 706. 701. V2. 1. 696. I}'/. 620. . 1 V5 1.c ) 697. 625. 2. 662. 2f. 2. ^ 1. 628. 4.2f (5 4. 635. 651. 645. 656. 617. (a3&45rj. 0. 607. . be ac \. If 665. 650. 971. 669.3. ' 674. 25. 683. 657.203. ^. la6 2. 642. 636. 5. 646.3. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . If f 667. 9. .a~ {Z 663.049. 898. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 2. 3 a. (*_ + a: 611. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. i. . 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). fe + a.  4. 14. 615. 10. ab 689. . Page 289. if 4/> 671. 700. 3. a + b.14 If 1. . 12. 703. 2 ab + a  &. ix 2 . z  1. 670. 5. 622. 637.>A 610. 25. .. . <T! . 4 V 0. 4. /> 4. 634. 0. 5002. 643. 4. 661.0. 626. 3 x2 . 677 680. 631. 691.001. V7. 0.002. 4 676. 618. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 6 685.  13. 613. 210. 5 3. 612. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. If. + ~^'2 + a 1. 7. 2.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. . 7. 5. 621. 632. 679. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.04. 640.  2f r 659. 4. l/'3.43^4.  6. 6. ft). 1 2. c. y  619. 3.  . 1m*. . 0. 2. 3. V"^TJ. 009. 1 ~a . b 664. . J^^. 614.  4. 11. a. 0. fta a/> ^A.y. 655. 3 681.  a2  a (ab).3. 50. 630. 703. / V^+lO^M"^. o.3f l 668. 653. 633. 1. a ' 2 + . n^l +^. 2. 702. a 1J. . a 4. 2&). 5. \. 623.f 3 V^3).XX XIV 606.  684. a 673. ab. 672.  1.b 686. 647. 629. 644. 654. If . 2 / 2 4. 638. 2 a: 4. 2 a  6*. 2. b. 2 x 44 ^/. a 2.  ft. 9*. 660. 2.303. 708. b . 705. 1010. 1 704. 624. 13. 8. 2092. 78. 8 f 3. 1. 641. If b. 4330 da. 4$. . 0. 608..2f Page 290. 649. 1. 2f. 2. 627. ^. 678< 682. V2. V^~3). . 648. 666. ' fe 2 ).702.
^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 790 2v 3v 2. v'll. 3 720. 1. 710. 788. 773. 1 747.. 300. 753. 736. 24V2. Hi a. a 2 6^. 728.8. 776. 756. i 2. 709.10. 15 shares.4 . Page 293. 1^ _ 760. 738. rt3 2 ^i^.12 af V^ 4 744. 749.9. 722. 2x3^ a. 733. 769. mn. "V313. T%.. Page 294. j 742.^ 743.^. 721.V2. 713. 796. 24. 17ft. VIO\/3. 1. 767. > 748.rJ w L 754. 763. 3. 5. cr*lr*. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 3V72V3. .2. ^ . 740. 755. 5. 782 785. 739. 3V72VO. iv/Jj. 1 752. 714. 737. 3V7.r+y> 759. VT14V5. 13ft. 734. + < 735. + 6 2 tf'c. 732. 3V52V3.~ . 4 104 v/2. 751. 33^2. 724. a:* . VV> L4V34. 794. 59. ^ ?>. 717.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 29\/3. ..257. 1 [ + '> J. 3 VlT 795. 750.ANSWMHti Page 292. 00. v/7 / . r. . 3^. 768. . 2\/53V2.. 712. 8. 758. 719. 25. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 789. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.r. 7  3V5. 725. a". 1 I .4 . 746. 729. 342V3. 24 4 . i^. 8. 1. 711. 716. 39. J(v'lO2V 791.9.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. x\y. 727. 730. 718.V/^ 741.1 . 731. 793. 32>/2. 2 V2 . 792. 777. 726. 778. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 30\/10 764. / 787. 723. y  1. a 5 . fyaw&cu. . x i f^' . 34. a db Va^T < 45da. ^7xy. a 2  x2 . 715. 47.11.
880. 23.r . 822. 819. 6. n =  29. 0. +j!>. 5.5 b) 4 1). 2. 2. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 820. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). jV3 f 3. 2 2 . 823. (. (x + 0X024. 840. 4. 5.7). (x 4. 10. m = 2. 888. 8 09. 3.a 2 2 ).XXXVI 797. 2 . 19.1) (a 8 . a(ry + 864. . 2 806. 851. 881. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.2) (x 4 2). 817. 883.a 3 " 4. 7. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 884. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . (x*y*ryz + z*). a 42)(x . 847. 804. 899. 863. are extraneous. 3. 1.7). 8. . **. 887. 867. Va. $.  ' .. 6. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 849. 4. 2/ 856. 832. 3.10 ab 4. 2. 838. 813.7)(4 x. . 25. 858. 2. 2 (x 4*4. 3. 824. 825. 827. 5.7. 837. (x . b' 2 821. 6 $. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 841. 6+V7. 20). 4.25 ?>2). 7. (1 . 872.  tt 815. $. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 799. 2. 830. 859. (x 2 . \/2. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 816.2w . o 828. Hoots are extraneous. 848.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 1 1. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 3. 861. 829. 6. 2. 1. 868.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ANSWERS 798. J V.4) 860. 876. H. 1 .om 441) (a 855. Va 803. (xl)(^~3)(. 891. 11. (3 b .3)(x + 4). (x 2 f r .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 1.a 4 + 1). 2 . . ^.rae) (4 . 4./>") (a'. 2 m . x . (x3). 879. 1. 1. 2 *x 807. 13. . 8. db 7.y) 852. (:r 11. ( 4 4. 2.  + l(l^). 4. V 3. 842.1)(V 2 .5) (x + * 853. 17. 836. 3. (2x (r.1) . 808. f. 897. (2 x + 3 y} . 17. 900. 896. . 3. 7.4. 7. 5). m 875. 857. 843. 4. 835. (a m . 833. (x 845. 801. 800. 834. 0. (x . 2  2. 14. (3 862. ^VG. 810.0. (a 1) (x 4. 894. 4 .4.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04.r4). 4 885. a(ft)( 873. Page 297. 892. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 3 . . Hoots . 4. 898. 4 818. . 890. 0.l)(x . . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).1. . 4. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (2 4. 2.l)(x + 2).. a* 4. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4. (4 c 4.l)(x .+ m f ") (a* ).3. 3. (2 a . _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 3. a2 ^E*!. (a 4 871. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 5. ((' 1).3.f. 2 j 889. X4 1).  1. 2. 814. ^ V}. 895. 3.2 ax 4. 893. Page 296. 886.1)(0 865. 0. . x. .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 812..1). 831. o. 882. 2. 48. ) (a' 874. \/5.  839. 2 854. 4. 1C.7 4 1) 846. 811. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 2 . ( 869. 4. 5. . 844. + d)*. 11. 826.
912.. 0. 3 . .0. 3. 5.1.1. 5.. a. w. 930. 496.I. 977. J(_ ft.. 14 . 333. 921. 4. f ft 4 . 1). 4. 7. 28.. 2.01. 939. 4. 8. ft. 12. 2 1. 904. 8128.. ft. ft. a + . 10.. 2. 8. . 1 XXXVll ' a 1.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. .. 12 in. 985. 15 16 ft. 2. 5. . 943. 984. 3.651. V5 fj. 480 8 sq. 942. ?/i 6. 7. 1 2. .V~~3). 1 1. $(l 4. '3 3 in. ft. .. dL 4. 6. 11. 15 946. 4. 2 w 914. 6.  26j. 66 924. 280. 8 . 903. 3. 6 . 12 mi. 906. J. i 8. 932. 6. 955. 5l4f.. yd. ^y. 4. 7. 986.. 4 6 mi. 108. 8. f. 4 in.2. 981. 5 . . 940. 3. v/(ai !)(&910. 12. 963. tt2 19. 12. =F J. 11. ft. 987.. .111. 0. 333. 3 4 . 8. 18. 919. 2 i ' a V. i(6 in. . ft. 56. 3). 931. 6 da.446. 952. 5. 922.. ft. 1 _2 . 4. w 3. 0. 935. 60 949. 918. . 902. 948. 917. 947. 3. Z ^. 40 16 in.. 2 ft. 10. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. .744. 937. Va926. . 73. 329. 115. . . J. 954. 0. %* . 100 rows. 911. 905. 909. 962. 5. 951.  1.615. Page 301. 2. 957. 933. . 11. 944. 6 a 915. 2. 8. 1. 1. 1 .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 9 in. 7. 20 19 ft. 916. 4. 6. . 1. 8. . V^3). . 934. . T 6. 925. 6 1 1. 4. 923./hr. 961. 4. 2. 6. 927. 959.  1 . 956. ft.760 sq. Y. 2. 80. 3.. 7 ft. 983.1 = 9. 111. 2. 980. . 4 . 7 or 30. 2. 978. 936. i1" 913. 8. 964. 2. 4. 958. 941. 6. 982.073. i>. S07. 3. 1 + V953. V5 T 2 . 938. 6. T 6. r ft ' < Page 299. i 3. 11. T3. 945. 248. 979. 8.2. Page 302. 908.. 2 yd. Page 303. 960. 28.709. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. Page 300. 950. 28. 920.
48. . X. 1003. 24. 120 i^l^. 1007. Page 305. 1016. 991. ^Trsq. 1017. (J. 162. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . ~ \. 995. 1012.  5&7 1021. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (6) 8(1 . 9 da. 3003. 12.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 990.192rt?)r 120 *. 0. 108. r = 2. 1010. 1018. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 988. 8. 4 and 1020. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 6 70 . 2(2 v/2). () 12(2+V3). 1006. 1 8 8 2. 993.18. 0. Page 304. (a) (6) ^ 1002.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . (Z>) 999. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 120 a.'^^ } ( .51. 997. 1009. + v 2). 1(5. 192.378 <W and 92. 1005.378 1015. 1000. in. 1013.92.870 z8 .128 I. (5. + 448 . 1 1004. 72. 992. 996. 2 . 12. 1001. 1019. 1014. . 1008. 994.. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . ^f (2f3V2).870 a 6 1011. . 4. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2)..
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xi 4 373 pages. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. save Inequalities. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1.D. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. than by the . HEW TOSS . xiv+563 pages. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. etc. A examples are taken from geometry. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. Ph. physics. so that the Logarithms. The more important subjects tions. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. i2mo.25 lamo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. comparatively few methods are heretofore. great many work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. given.
In Factoring. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. HEW YOKE . $1. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. comparatively few methods are given. Logarithms. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. save Inequalities.25 i2mo.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. xiv+56a pages. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xi f 373 pages. etc.D. 12010.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. physics. Half leather. and commercial life. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. $1. The author grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. HatF leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. so that the tions.
and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. $1. i2mo. 6. 9. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 10. 7 he . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Attention is invited to the following important features I. $1.r and.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Ph. State: . lines. wor. under the heading Remarks". Half leather. aoo pages. more than 1200 in number in 2. NEW YORK . SEVENOAK. Cloth. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . xii + 233 pages. 4. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book..10 L. izmo. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Cloth. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . iamo. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. . SCHULTZE. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book.D. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.
Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. New York City. . of these theoretical views. . and not from the information that it imparts. . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. 12mo. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. $1. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view.
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Cloth. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. diagrams. i2mo. An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. " This volume etc. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. $1. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. photographs. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Topics. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Maps.
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