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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
U. Mass.A. 8. January. J. 1910. Reprinted 1913. September.' February. 1910. Cushlng Co. Published Set up and electrotyped. September.. July. May. . .S. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1917. Norwood. May. IQJS January. 1911. 1916. 1910 . 1915. August. . Berwick & Smith Co.COPYRIGHT.
All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method.. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. however. manufactured for this purpose. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. specially 2. Elementary Algebra. Such a large number of methods. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules." this book. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. and conse . etc. owing has certain distinctive features.
TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. two negative numbers. etc. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. especially problems and factoring. For the more ambitious student. Moreover.g. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. however. as quadratic equations and graphs. may be used to supplement the other. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Topics of practical importance. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. In regard to some other features of the book. hence either book 4. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. e. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.
' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and commercial are numerous. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. physics. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. such examples. By studying proportions during the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. viz. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. based upon statistical abstracts. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. Moreover." Applications taken from geometry.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. is based principally upon the alge . McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. elementary way. in " geometry .
1910. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. April. however. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. NEW YORK. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. edge of physics.
Powers... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ............ . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. SUBTRACTION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ..... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.
. .. Type III. .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Type VI... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. Type IV.. /^ ..114 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Type V..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type II.. .. . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Type Polynomials. * .
..... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . ... CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Monomials 170 ..... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ......CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
[6c] 3 . + 1]. b = 3. is 28. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 3. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 7 = 2. are trinomials. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. a polynomial of two terms. \/c. 0. v'Ta. or 9 Vx. A binomial is 62 . !^f\/03 3 ft. x 9. e. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 13. find the numerical value of: Vff. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial." EXERCISE If a 1. 2 . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 11. 17. 15. 4(a 6(6 + &). A polynomial is an y.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 4V3~6c. since the parts are a . 9. d 7. c = 1. some number is . V36". 5Vl6c. aVc^. 27. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 2. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. + c). V2a. 16. 26. 14. 8. as in arithmetic. 12. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 10. Val \fi?. (cfd) 4. c f d).g. 6. V^a6. V3 . 6. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25.
5 means 3 4 20 or 23. Otherwise operations of addition.9 aWc + f a b . d=Q. 4a6fVaV2^.390. 5=3.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 2 ). 4. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .g. + 26+3 c. multiplication. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 6. . (a (a f b) 7. 14. 16. 6.19 = 6. 3a + 56 a 2 . l 13. 3. Ex.e. 3 2 If 1. a2 11. 52 . 5c +d 2 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . . Ex. c = 2. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 4 . . i. 3 4 . __ E. . 5. b = 3. a 2 6..9. 2.99. 12. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. a=4. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 2.4 6^9 ad. 8. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. x=^. subtraction. EXERCISE 8*  . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 10.5 ax 50 a6cd.810 + 150 = .INTRODUCTION 29.30 = 270 . d = 0. * For additional examples see page 268.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 5. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. c=l. = 32 + 4527 = 50.2 + I126. 1. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . find the numerical value of: 9.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .
26. and other sciences. 22. 27. 6. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a = 4. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. geometry. 6. 6 = 7. 6 = 5. 6 = 4. : 6. 30. a =3. 33. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic.6 f c) (6 a + c). 35. 6 = 6. 30. 25. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. sible to state Ex. Read the expressions of Exs. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 37.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 6. 23. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 4.c) (a . Express in algebraic symbols 31. 26 of the exercise. 24. 6 = 5. if : a = 2. 6 = 3. a. Six 2 . 6 = 2. physics. 6 = 1. a = 3. 28. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). = 3. a = 3. 6=2. 34. . 38. 29.6 . a = 2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a =4. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. a a=3.
S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.16 1 = 84. and 15 feet. c.INTRODUCTION E.) Assuming g . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. (b) 5. and 5 feet. 4.g. and c 13 and 15 = = = . . 13. A train in 4 hours. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 12.e. b 14. 14. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v : a. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. Find the height of the tree. and 13 inches. count the resistance of the atmosphere.seconds. then a 13. if v . i. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 2. if v = 30 miles per hour.16 centimeters per second. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. b. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. An electric car in 40 seconds. d. the area of the triangle equals feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 15 therefore feet. (c) 4.
then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.14d (square units). ~ 7n cubic feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. (c) 5 miles. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. . fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.). (c) 8000 miles. 2 inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14 square meters. is H 2 units of length (inches. 5.14 4. (The number 3. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). the 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. square units (square inches. the area etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.). meters. 32 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 F. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. If the (b) 1 inch. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. : 8000 miles. $ = 3.
in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. however. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. or positive and negative numbers.CHAPTER II ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. . Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.
= 5. c = 4.16 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 4. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. lf(2). of: 20. 5. is 0. d = 5. 33. 2326. Thus. 18. 12. 23. 19. if : a a = 2.3. 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. the one third their sum. (_ In Exs. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 22. + 12. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 4 is 3 J. (17) 15 + (14). of 2. is 2. subtract their absolute values and .  0. 21. + (9). c = = 5. 6 6 = 3. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 24. . d = 0. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. '. 10.
c = 0. 29. 13. 60. 40. 4. 0. $500 loss. 55.7. 11 (Centigrade). 74. 6. 6. . 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 09. 43. and $4500 gain. 10. & 28. 1. $1000 loss. $7000 gain.3. 35. . and 3 F. and 3 yards. 3. and 4. or and . are similar terms. SUBTRACTION. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. . . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 38. 5 and 12. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 33. 7 a. = 23. 37. 7 a. 32. 7 yards. d= 3. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 72. 36. \\ Add 2 a.. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 3 and 25. ' Find the average of the following 34. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. $3000 gain. which are not similar. ' 1? a 26. : 48. 66.. AND PARENTHESES d = l.4. . 2.13. = 22. affected by the same exponents. and 8 F. : 34.5. . or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. . : and 1. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. c=14. 25. 30.5. 12. and 3 a. 2. 4 F. = 13. 34. 10. sets of numbers: 13. 41. 27.ADDITION. and 3 a. 42. 39. 31.. 10. }/ Add 2 a. 6. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. & = 15. 32.7. . ^ ' 37.
1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 5Vm + w. f 4 a2. 5l 3(af6). Vm f. 2 . Algebraic sum. 2 a&. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 10. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 13.ii. 12(af b) 12. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 7 rap2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. in algebra it may be considered b. 12 2 wp2 . 14 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. b a f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b wider sense than in arithmetic. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. + 6 af . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 11. 2(af &). EXERCISE Add: 1.sign. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. : 2 a2.18 35. 9(af6). 3a . or a 6. 5 a2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12Vmfn.13 rap 25 rap 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. .
"Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2 2 2 31. +m """ 20. c 2 ^24. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 30. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 17. 37. without finding the value of each term 34. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 35. 6 23. 1 27. n x* 2 22. 2 7 1 26. and to add each column. ra 19. + y. + / + 3 Va. 32. SUBTRACTION. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. l^S 25. is . 33. 2/ : Add.ADDITION. 36. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. a a8 ZL **. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 21. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms.
the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 4 = 7. c = 1. of that letter. 3 a f 4 1) 4. to show any error. f 110WS: 26 aft.15 6c. and J 2 s. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.g. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. and 2 . a 4.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. to add 26 ab . . 2 Sum. = . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 2c. 3. 46 4z 7 c.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.15 abc . 3a 2? . the erroneous answer equal 7. 2 025. therefore the answer is correct.3 s.g. 9 q 4.41 = 3.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. x of x.8 abc . 2 . V3.20 c 5 ab 4.c= 2. .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.7 2 . e. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5 . NOTE. . s. 5.o c and 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 4 2.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2 Thus.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 6=2.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. ft any convenient and c.12 a& 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 7 4.
a2 2 14. 4 8 3 4 4 . xy3xz + yz. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.(b + c) 1. d and / 3 ? 12.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 56 w.12.and 6. and v 15.7v/if.1. a 4 a . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.12(a 4.1 a 4 1 0. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). d. v/20.a.7m .ADDITION. 4 ajy 17.10 Vc. e a4 /.9(a + &) . a. and 12a 4 15& 20c . m 4 6. .2n 2 2 3 rz . . .12 6 ~5 a . 11. ?/ .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 4.4 Va . . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 16e + 17/90. 2 a. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 ?ft ?/z. 18/+6y + d.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .5a^6 f 6) . in 8 3 m n 4. + a + 1. 4 Vc.a 4 a 4 1. and and 13. 7ar + 3B 5. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. .4:xy xz 6yz. SUBTRACTION. a + 1> 8 2 2 . + 50 + 62 . a2 a. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.VS 4 2 Vc. ^2 1 e. and 5 Vb 18. 2 3(c f a). 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. . 19.a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and 8 3 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2 and 9m 48m 4. . . and . . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 ?/.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 16.6.15 5.8 m 2m 12. a 4 a . and 1 4 a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2 2 .a . 4 3 . 8. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 4(a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 2 2 and . . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.Ga 43x45. 3 2 2 3 9 . a) y ^/. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.
f 1. 1. how 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. . 1..m 4m ?/?/ d. The sum and ? 1. . . is 2. + 1. 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 12 xyz. 45a6 2 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . + n*. 1. If you diminish a person's debts.11 xy + 12. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. f 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.4 2tn* Sic 2 .3^* 2n 2 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. T8a. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. +d a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 22.17 + 4 ?nfy . 2fa 3 4 a +7a.22 21. f number may be added 3. and 25. s . 13 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.5< 3 2 s 4^4. and 2 24. 1/ . 8 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and e + 6y .9aj 2. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 6 f c 2 23.ra + m. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. a 6 2 c. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n .
may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. NOTE. In subtraction. two numbers are given. called the minvend. and their algebraic sum is required. SUBTRACTION. ab = x. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. if x Ex. From 5 subtract to . ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . This gives by the same method. . Ex. 7. 41. 3. Ex.ADDITION. 1. +b 3. a. ( 6) ( = . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. from What 3.2. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. In addition. Or in symbols.3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. To subtract. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract + 3. and the required number the difference. 5 is 2.g. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 2. the other number is required. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 6 (3) = 8.
Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t . Ex.3 r*5o.3 x* .
From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 45. 48. + a the 2 a. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From 2 a take a & j. 53. 47. 6 4 a. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . of a 4. From 6(af. 54. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.4 a*& + 6 a & . 44. 41.4 a^ 4.6)f. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 49. 43. 51. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .2. 52.ADDITION. From From x2 the sum sum 7. c f d. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 50. 58.w>t. 2y 2 . 46.c. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 2.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. tract 4 x 3.7 a . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 56. 42. .a 2 j. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. SUBTRACTION. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. and 3 7/ . check the answer.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 57. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 55.
+ 6 + c. + 2. +a add the difference duce 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a 2y + z. 16. 20. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 19. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . a + 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 9. A is n years old. 6 17. 6. subtract # + 1. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 2 m 21. of # 2 8. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.26 4. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a a + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12.15.
b c = a a & f f.2 b .& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 45. one occurring within the other. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. Ex.a^6)]  } .a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.ADDITION. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. the sign is understood. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. a+(bc) = a +b . 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. SUBTRACTION.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. . changed.6 b f (. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. & f c.g. II. I.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.
y (60. 17. 2 2a. 18. + (2a 6 + c ). 3 3 f 7. 2a (4a 26 +c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 .+ 6)f (a2 b). 9. 4. 6) 2. a f (a a . 5. 15. 19. 271 + (814 .1422) J ] .28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. . : x + (2yz). a (a + 26 c ).(a + 6). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). ? 11. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.) 5 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 21. By removing parentheses. 6. may be inserted according to 43.)]. (m a2 f. a (a + 6). 2. 8. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 3. [36+ (a 2c]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 13.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2 2 a(. m f ft) a. 16. 14.: Ex.[271 47. In the following expression inclose the second and third. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. Ex. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). Signs of aggregation 1.
6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b.1. The product The product m and n. 3. The sum^)f m and n. 4. 9. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 5. first. terms 5. difference of the cubes of n and m. and the subtrahend the second.2 tf . 7.4 y* . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 6 diminished . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 2. 10. m and n. of the cubes of m and n. 5 a2 2. 8. 13. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. SUBTRACTION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 7. p + q + rs. y f 8 . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. )X 6. 12. m x 2 4. The square of the difference of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. .7fa. a\l> > c + d. 3. The difference of a and 6. ' NOTE. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.ADDITION. z + d. 2mn + 2q3t. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 5^2 _ r . II. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6.
(Let a and b represent the numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6 is equal to the square of b. b. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. 18.) . The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 16. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. two loads balance. 4. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. force is produced therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. 3. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads what What. 5. 2. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
4)(4) = + 12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 multi44444 12. thus. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ( (. 48. becomes meaningless if definition. 4 multiplied by 3. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.9) x 11. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. such as given in the preceding exercise. x 11. 5x(4). 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. or plied by 3. however. Thus. 9 9. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. (. 9 x ( 11). To take a number 7 times. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. NOTE. the multiplier is a negative number. (5)X4. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.4)(. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. .32 8.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.
(7) X (12). 3 aW.3. (2)x9.MULTIPLICATION 50. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 2a6 c . . 3. 23. 5. 29. 27. 30. 10. .2.7. 3. 32. 12. . 4. 20. 8 31. 2. X(5). 6. 17. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. Ua b 28. 8. (10) 4 . 9. x= 0. is 6x7. +5. Law Thus.(4J). 1. etc. 8 4 . _2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 22. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . NOTE. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 26. 6. (2) 8 (. 4 . 11. 13. (. 16. _2^ 3. (4)X(15). (4)'. . tors is no misunderstanding possible. 1. of Signs: TJie positive.4. about fac (2)X If 6.2f 18. find the numeri values of: 21. c = 25. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 15. 3 a2?/2 .a)( =+ a&.(a&c) 2 2 . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 5x3.3) (1) 7 2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. . (c#) . If a cal = 4a6c. 2a 2 6c.2 f+x 2 . b = 3. 19. 24. _3. 4 a2 . x. 6 2. 14. z s 11 aWcx. and y = 4. 7.
.m a 3  4 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2 3 . 3 3 4 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . By 3 definition. Ex. Ex. 2. 10. = 2. 14.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 5(711. 127  127 9 7 . 50(112. . 4. &*) c d*.2). . 5 3 5 3 2 .(2.6 if 35. 3. i. 4. This 52.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 6 aWc x .2 2 23 + 5 . 1.. & = 3.e. a = 3. 5 = 2. a= 1. fl*" integers.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 = . B. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 2 2 3 6 . 3 2 . 16. 34. 2(14. 12 U U .(7). 6" 127 U . 11. 6.35). known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a8 a=2.7. a = 2.  and 2 25 8 . 6 = 1. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. IB. or 2 . 53. of the factors. 78 ..503). 5. : 3a7abc. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 3. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 7. 2(7. =2 a *.257). 2 2 2 . 36. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. + 2/).(12) . 9 . 2. . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .<?. 200. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 5 .3). 100.  2 2. m*. 13. (a6) (a5) 9. 4. 17. a 2 2 . . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .
) 2 33. 6.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 2 32. . (. 20.7 w'W (8 n^W). 27.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 17(10041042). 28. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).3 win ) . /). multiply each by the monomial. 31. 25. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 5. . 24. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . . c(4a ftc ).f 2). 3. 35 4 7(6. 23(10004100420). 2(5fl5f25). This principle. 26. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 21. . 34. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. (. 11(3.7pqt.A). 7p*q r*.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 2. called the distributive law.6. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. ax /) 2 4 1 (. but we shall assume it for any number. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).2 3 aft ). _4aft. 29. 22. . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. Thus we have in general a(b 56. . 3(124342). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 12( + 1 4 i). If results ft. and then adding : 1.4a#. 19. 6(10420430). 2(645410). 23. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. by first multiplying. 4 aft 5 aft 2 .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 35.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 7. 4.
22. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.we b) (x law.6 a6). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .asa product. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 28.5 x 7). .2 mn(9 mV .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. ~2mn(m +n p ). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .60 a& 10 aft. 5). 2 27. be multiplied to give 4o. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 3 ). 11. : expression must 24. 2 2 16.3 aftc). . 29. . 26. . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.5 w*V f 7 wn).^ c + 2 . By what 25. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. f7a. 19. 20. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 12. 7 a 6 c(. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 21. 2 m(mhn \p). Find the factors of 6 ary . 23.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 30. 17. 9.
3 a 2 + a8 .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Multiply 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Since all powers of 1 are 1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 59.4. 2.a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. a2 + a8 + 3 . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Check.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. however. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 + a a. Since errors. To multiply two polynomials.1. Ex. the student should apply this test to every example. 2a3b a66 2 a . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.
15. 12. 17. 9. OQ OO. 41. 30. 36. 29. 2. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).1 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 3. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).4) (mnp 4. (2w 19. 18. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). * For additional examples see page 261. 16. 36). 5. 36) I) 14. 35. (6p (2 f 21. 4. 28. 3<7). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 26. . 7. 31.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (6i7n)(llJn). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 13. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). . 2  37. (2 x* x 2 . I (mfn)(m4. QQ O7.2m)(l m). 10. 2) (3 A: 1). 12)(a?^2l). 22. (13 A.2). l)(raf 2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). (a^26) . 4 2). (8r7*)(6r39. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 20. 25.4) (x + 1). 11. a 5c)(2a6c). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 24. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). ^ 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (6a~7) 2 . 8. 6. 32. 7y). 1). (4a 2 33. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 . 40. 2 .
13.13). (J 23. (!)(* 5). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6).2 6) (a f 6). + 2) (a f 3). . 26.!!)( (a + 21). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 2) (1000 + 3). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 2 a? 29. . 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 11. 6. i. i. (ra. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.n)(wf w). 12. ft 16. 21. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . . 25. plus the product 62. 22. (*. 20. : 23 2. (a 9) (a + 9). (10+ (1000 (2. (p12)(p + ll). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2.e. + 60)(f2).4). 7. _3)(a _4). + 3) (a 7). 1) (10 + 2). (a 102 x 103. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 2 6) (a 3 6). 28. 27. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (6 12) (6 f. 14. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (a (a (a. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 15. + 9)(m+9). 10. 1005x1004. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 9. 25 a 2 . 75 ab f 54 ft . 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 18. (a3)(a + 2). + 5) (1000 + 4).25)(y+4). 17. 3. plus the product of the two unequal terms. X 102. 8. 19.e. in of the two unequal terms. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 24.
oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. III. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 32. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). second. 6. w 2 ro . and the second. 7 a + 10. 33. (x+3i/) 2 . (a2) (p a . p 2 p. III. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. <J>7) J . 35. 8.e. (a26) 2 . 63. + 3) 2 . i. 31. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. n2 10ii+16. 4. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. Ex. . plus sum of two numbers the square II. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .e. 2 5. + 6 a + 8. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. plus the square of the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 .30. a2 2 w + 2 w . of the second. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 37.15. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. plus twice the product of the first and the second. . 3. 7.e. 9. 77ie square of the of the first. : 24 (a 2. 49 y*. i. .66 s.15. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 34.
(3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 33. 41. 47. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 9 a2 . 17. 52. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 38. ). 2 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 51. 48. a2 9. 991 2 2 . 55. n 2 f4n+4. 11. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 .998 39. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . m 2 16. .30 ab + 25 6 64. G> +5g)*. 2 . 12. . 18. 104 2 37. . 4 53. 41 16. 29. 22. 99x101. 35. (1000 2 . 2 J ). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 16aW25. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 998x1002. 49. 32. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. (20 f 1) .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 46. 31. The product of 57. 2 11 # ) 2 20. I) 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 15. 54. 40. 14. By actual multiplication. + 5). 24. 44. 2 . (2x3yy. 22 2 . + 5)(5+a). (6afy 2 5) (a. 7& ) 25. 25 a 9. + 3z) 2 2 . 42. (^. 21. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 62 25n 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. n*6n+9. . 45. 23. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). ( 27. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 28. 2 9a 496 2 56. 34. 103 36. 2 (4a36) 2 13.
2 10. 4.& + c) = a + tf + c . The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ((5a? (10 12. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 8. . or The student should note minus signs. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 5.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 14. : 25 2. sum of the cross products. (5a4)(4al). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). The square 2 (a 4. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 9. 3. (5a64)(5a&3). 6. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. plus the last terms. 7. ) (2 of a polynomial. (4s + y)(32y). 13. (3m + 2)(ml). 11. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). (2a3)(a + 2). 65.
[a? . 6~2(a + 7). EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 4.y? + 8 .3) . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).X2 + 2 x . of z : 10. = . (  2 4) =  20 a. 4(* + 2)5(3). 2)6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.24] . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 6(a 2. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 5.4) .24 .3)(z. 4(aj2)h3(7). 3. 3.4) .29. 4. a. If x = 1. + 6)( . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 13. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). and check the answers !.8 x + 15] . Find the square root 11.r _ 2 . + 65) . 7. 8. (xy+z)*. n).5).(x . 4y sf n) 2 .(>. 66. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.1 5 = 10 .39.39. Hence. (u4& + 3c'. Simplify (x + 6) (a . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 12.i2&c) 2 . 9.(= [ Xa + 2 . after multiplying the factors of a term. 5.3) (x . 8. 7.(m 2 6.5) = (7 . = 10 x . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Check. (a (. . Ex. 6. 2 2.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
DIVISION 14. 18. 51 15. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). .l.11 a + 9 a . Division of the difference of two squares. 20. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 16. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 19. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . (81 m + 1 . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.e.2). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .2) (3 a . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. a I.
1. 12. 100ry. 9& 2 . 36 a4 ?/ 4 . r/ 1. 16 .49.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.0001. . 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. 15. 14. . 10. : the following w a 4 !.000. 16. f 13. aW 12 a.
y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in the equation 2 x 0. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. . x 20. second member is x + 4 x 9. is said to satisfy an equation. the 80. =11. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . (a + ft) (a b) and b.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 82. Thus. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 83. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the first member is 2 x + 4.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 81.
A 2 a. 3. x I. one member to another by changing x + a=.e. 90. 4. A term may be transposed from its sign. Transposition of terms. the sums are equal. the products are equal. 85. 89. the divisor equals zero. 2 = 6#f7. the remainders are equal. 5. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. called axioms 1.2. E. A numerical equation is one in which all . To solve an equation to find its roots. 86. If equals be divided by equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be subtracted from equals. but 4 does not equal 5. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. a. 2. If equals be multiplied by equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. NOTE.b. If equals be added to equals.g. the quotients are equal.54 84. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. . 87. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. . Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.
The first member. is correct. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Unite similar terms. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. a= a 6fc. and the known terms to the second. b c. Uniting similar terms. Dividing both members by 2. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = (Axiom 3) 92. 4x 1 + 6. f If y 20 . x = 93. The second member. Transposing. 91.2 y= f . Subtracting 4 x from each term. Hence the answer. . Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. x = 3. Ex. a? Adding 5 to each term. if a x = b. 2(11 .6 y f y\ . Check.2.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. To solve a simple equation. (4y)(6.9 y + y2 = 22 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Dividing by Check. b Adding a to both + a. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. 2 x = 6. 6a5 = 185 = 13. 3 y .8. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. The first member. if 55 x members.
17 7 a.7. 9 9a? = 7 13. a?. 21. \x x 2^xfl. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Uniting. . Solve the following equations by transposing.56 Ex. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 17 + 5a. 3 7 a. 24. . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 16.7a: = 394a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 8. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 32 = 264. + 16 = 16 + 17. etc. 4y 10. 7 (6 x 16). a. = 3. f Simplifying. x = 18. x x 1 . 2. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 50.69. 4. a. and check the answers 9. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 4a + 5 = 29. = 2 ?/. 3. {(x (x The The member right member left . v23. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Transposing. J. 19. 11. a? a?. 13a? 3a?.. 11 ?/ a? 18. + 22. 14. 20.17 + 4y = 36. 247y = 68lly. it NOTE. 15. =2 = 3.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 6. = 7.. If x = 18. 3. aj * See page 264. 7. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 12. = 5a?+18. : 5# = 15+2a. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 7a? 5.
. 34.5) + 199.32.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. .g. 5) (as (a. a? 28. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. or 70 a?. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 27.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.5) = (a.1) (u . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(2 + 6) (4 .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. e. is the other part. 39. 25.3) + 14. (aj 37. find the other part. 33. 40. 29. 36.3) . . 7(7 x y 26. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 31. . . a? 43.1) (a (a? + 3) = .12) (2 + 5) . 7) (a.5(2 u . .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . + 7) (. 6(6a. (6 u =5 44.14 = 0. . 35. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 42. + 4). 38. 41.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.4) + 4 w .3) + . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 30. . Evidently 45.2) (M .1 0) = 0. 2 2 * Jaj. : One part is of 70 is 25 . .7. this question.7) (7 x + 4) . (a.
9. is a? 2 is c?. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . EXERCISE 1. one part equals is 10. 10. so that of c ? is p. 4. 14. is d. is b. 17. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 15. so that one part The difference between is s.58 Ex. 6. Ex. 11. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 3. 1. 7. smaller one 16. or 12 7. 6. 13. a. Divide 100 into two 12. greater one is g. find the cost of one yard. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 33 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Find the greater one. If 7 2. Divide a into two parts. so that one part Divide a into two parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 5. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. and the smaller one parts. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one.
feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many cents has he ? 27. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and spent 5 cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. amount each will then have. 33. 24. sum If A's age is x years. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 20. numbers is x. 19. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 34. A dollars. 32. and B's age is y years. Find 21. A man had a dollars. and c cents. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. If B gave A 6 25. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 22. Find 35. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 28.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 26. b dimes. ?/ 31. find the has ra dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. is A A is # years old. 28. A feet wide. How many cents had he left ? 28. and B has n dollars. and B is y years old.
of 4. he walk each hour ? 39.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. m is the denominator. Find a 47. find the fraction.50. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find a. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. 49. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. 48. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. per Find 5 Find 6 45. Find the number. % % % of 100 of x. 46. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. A cistern is filled 43. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. Find x % % of 1000. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A was 20 years old. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. . A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). a. of m. The two digits of a number are x and y. The first pipe x minutes. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. c a b =  9. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.
80. 6. 4. 5. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. etc. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 80. a exceeds b by c. The excess of a over b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of x increased by 10 equals x. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 3. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. The double as 7. 2. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 9. of a increased much 8. by one third of b equals 100. c. c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. double of a is 10. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. same result as 7 subtracted from . of a and 10 equals 2 c.
and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. as 17 is is above a. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C's ages will be 100. a second sum. x is 100 x% is of 700. #is5%of450.000. amounts. B's age 20. In 10 years the sum of A's. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 12. sum equals $20. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 3 1200 dollars. m is x % of n. >. . the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. and C have respectively 2 a. 6 % of m. 50 is x % of 15. 16.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. pays to C $100. they have equal amounts. is If A's age is 2 x. a. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B's. 11. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 17.62 10. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a. (c) If each man gains $500. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 18. 14. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. symbols B. they have equal of A's. B's. and C's age 4 a. of 30 dollars. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. x 4 If A. express in algebraic symbols : 700. express in algebraic 3x : 10..
Ex. Simplifying. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. 3z40:r:40z. A will Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. the required . 4 x = 80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. x+16 = 3(35). much as 40 exceeds the number. x = 20. the . 15. number of yards. Check. etc. 2. Find A's present age. denote the unknown 96. Ex. 1. 23 =30. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. NOTE. 6 years ago he was 10 . Let x The (2) = A's present age. In 15 years 10. but 30 =3 x years. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Uniting. be 30 . Let x = the number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Three times a certain no. . Uniting. In order to solve them. number. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x= 15. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Dividing.
35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44.2. 11. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Forty years hence his present age. A will be three times as old as toda3r . . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 4. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 300 56. 5. Find the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. by as much as 135 ft. Six years hence a 12 years ago. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Hence 40 = 46f. % of 120. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 14. twice the number plus 7. Find the number. 13. exceeds the width of the bridge.64 Ex. Find 8. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. EXERCISE 1. 3. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Let x 3. A number added number. 120. Dividing.
During the following 90 years. B will have lars has A now? 17. two verbal statements must be given. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. F 8. . If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. written in algebraic symbols. 65 A and B $200. B How will loses $100. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. How many dol A has A to $40. 14.000. The other verbal statement. A and B have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. times as much as A. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. Maine's population increased by 510. and as 15. is the equation.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. 97. 1. statements are given directly. five If A gives B $200. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. which gives the value of 8.000. and B has $00. x. One number exceeds the other one by II. the second one. Vermont's population increased by 180. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If A gains A have three times as much 16. The problem consists of two statements I. Ex.
expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. A will lose. to Use the simpler statement. Let x 3x express one many as A. Statement x in = the larger number. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. B will have twice as viz. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. the greater number. which leads ot Ex. / . .= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. x = 8. A gives B 25 marbles. = 14. and Let x = the Then x +. Then. = B's number of marbles. = A's number of marbles. 2. has three times as many marbles as B. < Transposing. I.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. unknown quantity in Then. + a f f 8 = 14. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 2x a? x j = 6. terms of the other. . A has three times as many marbles as B. 25 marbles to B. the smaller number. Dividing. = 3. x x =14 8. The two statements I. the sum of the two numbers is 14. If A gives are : A If II. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. If we select the first one. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. Let x 14 I the smaller number. consider that by the exchange Hence. B will have twice as many as A. 8 the greater number. . 8 = 11. Uniting. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying.
67 x f 25 25 Transposing. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 6 half dollars = 260 cents.$3. Eleven coins. 3. (Statement II) Qx . Dividing. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x = the number of half dollars. The sum of two numbers is 42. the number of half dollars. by 44. greater is . we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Uniting. Check. x = 6. but 40 = 2 x 20. * 98.5 x . have a value of $3. is 70. etc. 50.10. 15 + 25 = 40.10. 11 x = 5. 3 x = 45. of dollars to the number of cents. then. Find the numbers. B's number of marbles. The number of coins II. w'3.240. A's number of marbles. 45 . 1. 40 x . Check. . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Find the numbers. the number of dimes. 6 times the smaller. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Dividing. cents..25 = 20.. Uniting. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). the price. 50 x Transposing..550 f 310. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 60. Simplifying. * ' .75.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. dollars and dimes is $3. Let 11 = the number of dimes.10. consisting of half dollars and dimes. x from I. x = 15. and the Find the numbers. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. The value of the half : is 11. . Simplifying. 2. Two numbers the smaller.
A's age is four times B's. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Twice 14. one of which increased by 9. 7. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. tnree times the smaller by 65. Two numbers The number differ by 39.000 feet. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and four times the former equals five times the latter. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 11. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 9. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. On December 21. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. How many 14 years older than B.68 4.. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and twice the altitude of Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. as the larger one. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 6. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 5. Find their ages. the number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many hours does the day last ? . United States. How many inches are in each part ? 15. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. McKinley. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Everest by 11.
1. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. . has. Let x II. number of dollars A had. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. they would have 3. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. x = 8. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. I. times as much as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. B has three times as much as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. If 4x = 24. are : C's The three statements A. then three times the money by I. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. and C together have $80. 19. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. original amount." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. bers is denoted by x. = 48. has. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and 68. number had. B. II. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B. If A and B each gave $5 to C. and C together have $80. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. III. If A and B each gave $5 to C. The third verbal statement produces the equation. Ex. and B has three as A.
first. each cow $ 35. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. + 35 x 4. 2. 1 1 Check. each horse costing $ 90. The total cost equals $1185. 4 x f 8 = 28. three statements are : IT. III. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. = the number of dollars spent for horses. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 9 5 = 4 . and Ex. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. sheep. 9 cows. the third five times the first. x j = the number of horses. x f 4 = 9. 28 2 (9 5). and. number of cows. x Transposing. Dividing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The I. number of sheep. according to II. 90 may be written. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and each sheep $ 15. x = 5. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. according to III. number of horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 185 a = 925. number of cows. and the sum of the . Uniting. Let then. + 8 90 x and.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. cows.
000. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and children together was 37. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. women. 13. twice the 6. first. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. New York delphia. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the copper. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . what are the three angles ? 10. and 2 more men than women. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. The gold.  4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. 9. increased by three times the second side.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. how many children were present ? x 11. "Find three is 4. what is the length of each? has 3. first. 7.000. twice as old as B. men. what is the population of each city ? 8. A 12. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. the second one is one inch longer than the first. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. equals 49 inches. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. v . the third 2. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. If twice The sum the third side.
number of miles A x x walks.000 more than that the copper. 3 and 4. 8 x = 15. and distance. number of hours. such as length. . it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. A and B apart. we obtain 3 a. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. speed.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Hence Simplifying. of 3 or 4 different kinds. of arid the value of the iron was $300. Let x = number of hours A walks. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. = 5.000. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 14. 7 Uniting. = 35. how many 100. and quantities area. Dividing.000. Find the value of each. After how many hours will they meet and how E. but stops 2 hours on the way.e. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. together. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. or time.g. First fill in all the numbers given directly. width. i. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.
or 700. $ 800 = 800. 10 x = 200.04 8. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x . 70x10 Ex. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the second 100.053. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. were increased by 30 yards. + 8.05 x x ." gives (2.04 = $ 40. x . Multiplying. But 700 certain = 800 2. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. . Find the dimensions of the field. Check.M(x . . Transposing and uniting. $ 1000 x . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. original field has Check.01 = = .06 = $ 40. $ 800 = required sum. x + 200). l.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. the area would be 100 square yards less. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2   and transpose. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. z = 20. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. 2 a = 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.
invested at 5 %. 3. 2.55. twice as large. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. but four men failed to pay their shares. and its width decreased by 2 yards. What are the two sums 5. mobile. together bring $ 78 interest. A man bought 6 Ibs. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. the area would remain the same. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. were increased by 3 yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %. sions of the field. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. of coffee for $ 1. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. After how many hours will B overtake A. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Ten yards $ 42.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Find the share of each. and a second sum. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. 1. A sets out later two hours B . A of each. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Six persons bought an automobile. as a 4.
and from the same point. The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
but fractional with respect 103. expression is rational with respect to a letter. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. + 62 is integral with respect to a. vV . 5. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a. if. consider 105. as. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . at this 6 2 . An after simplifying. it is composite. irrational. we shall not. a2 to 6. 104. if it does contain some indicated root of . 6. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it contains no indicated root of this letter .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 76 . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . which multiplied together are considered factors. a. this letter. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. stage of the work.
3 6a + 1). 110. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .g. 1.62 + &)(a 2 .3 sy + 4 y8). Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. for this result is a sum. .62 can be &). Factor G ofy 2 . . in the form 4) +3. 55. 109. TYPE I. ?/. Divide 6 a% . 77 Factoring is into its factors. x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . It (a. Ex. it follows that a 2 . 107. 2. 2. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 01. 8) (s1). factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. E.) Ex. 2.FACTORING 106.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. y. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. or that a = 6) (a = a .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.
the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 7a & 10. e. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 34 a^c 8 . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.3. 3x*6x*.2. 2 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . in general.30 aty. TYPE IT. 2 + q. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. ) 22  2.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 4 tfy f.6.45 afy . 3. 14a 4 5. 3 3 5 6. 17. 2. 13.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 5f 2 . 15. 18.4. 20.5 + 2. 7i 13. . q*q*q 2 a. . 4. + llm llm. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 14. Ilro8 9. (as 3) and (ccf5). 32 a *?/ . a6c. 3 2 . 16. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.8 c a 15 ofyV . 19. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.3.4. a a 'Ja . 2 6. 2 Or.5 + 13 8. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).g. obviously. 8.12 cdx. 15 2 7. : 6 abx . 2 23. 11.51 aW + 68 21. 4 8 . 12.
Factor a2 .5) (a .a). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. determine whether In solving any factoring example.G) = . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. is The two numbers whose product and 6. We may consider 1. can be factored. or 77 l.77 = (a. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. but of these only a: Hence 2 . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. If q is positive. Factor + 10 ax . Therefore Check. 2.11) (a + 7). as p. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 3. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). + 112. Ex. Factor x? .1 1 a tf a 4. 77 as the product of 1 77. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.4 x . . 11 7. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. and (a . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. m 5m + 6.. or 7 11. 4. tfa2  3.30 = (a . + 30 = 20. 5. .6 = 20. of this type.11 a + 30. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.FACTORING Ex. however. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 79 Factor a2 4 x .11 a 2 . a 2 .11. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.5) (a 6). the two numbers have both the same sign as p.4 . If q is negative. the two numbers have opposite signs. Ex. 2 6. .
36. a2 . 25. 21. 2 . + 30. 12. 31. 2 2 a' 34. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 14. and 5 x. ITT. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 19. 6 8 8 4 2 a.6. a? + 5 + 6 a. 33. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 21 a 2 2 . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 18. 4 2 . . 2 ?/ 28. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 15. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. ay 11 ay +24. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 26.180 a. 4 3 2 . 2 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 13. + 5<y 24. + 4?/21. 10 x y 2 200 x2 .70 x y . 16. a 7 a 30. 20. 2 ?/ 22. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. . 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 30.80 7. 24. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 2xS. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 8. 11. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. .17 + 30.500 x + 600. 17. 2 . TYPE 113. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 2 . 35. x2 23. 100 xr .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 27. 9.48 + + 446 200. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 16. + 44. or . 29. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.
Ex. sible 13 x negative.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. . 27 x 2.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 2 x 27. . but the opposite sign.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. the If p and r are positive. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. a. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. and r is negative. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 2. 11 x 2x. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 3 x and x. viz. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.5) (2 x .5 . 9 x 6. If p is poxiliw.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. X x 18.83 x f 54. 3. 6 x 9. and that they must be negative. 54 x 1. or G 114. Factor 3 x 2 . then the second terms of have opposite signs. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.1). all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 18 x 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.
and the monomial factors should be removed. 13. x54 a. 9a. 14 a fa 4. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 25. X 27 . 22. 19. . 29. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.83 x . 10 a .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 3. 30.300 ab 2 f4 250 . . 2 2 2 23. 21. 2x* + 9x5. 24. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2 28. 2. f go. the expressions should be it. 3x*Sx + 4. 100^200^ + 100^. 2 fc . 15. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 7. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. Sar' + SaG.7. 2 . 17. 4. 2m t7w + 3.30 y 6 4 . 12. 5m 26m f 5.260 xy . 8. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 3a + 13a. 2 . 12y 2/6. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 9. 35. 10a2 G a2 2 . 11. since all others (II. 90 a 8 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 16.83 x = (3 .27). 10. 18. 5. 2 26.2 a 90 x*y .19 a f 6. + 2/3.y + 172/9. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 9 y + 32^16. + 4.2) (x . 6n + 5?i4.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 144 x . 2 31. 10a?2 2 33. 32. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 4a2 9tt + 2.179.163 x 2 . 12^17^16. : 41 2. 14. 6.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 2 2 . . 20. 34.
and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.20 xy f 4 y\ . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 16 y? The student should note that a term. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.10 x f 16. . 12. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. .e.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 9. 13. x* . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .26 ab + 9 6 2 . 4. 2 9 10gf25. 2 . must have a positive sign. 2. 11. i. 10. form are special cases of the preceding type. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . it is more convenient for that type. 3. of its terms are perfect squares. however. 14. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 25 7. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 8. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 5. 116. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. and factor whenever possible : 1. and a perfect square. 9 10a625. 6. it is a perfect square. To factor a trinomial which maining term.
6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 48 a +( ). . * 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). V. + GO + 25. 6 2 . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . TYPE 117. ). a.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). According to 65. 27. 19. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 . +( )f816 30. 16. 2.84 15. 2 20. ^//c to the Ex. Ex. 4 2 23. a2 24. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 6. aV .e.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 149 a 81 8. !Gar 9 ( )+25. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 18.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 9. 225 ofy . 3. a. 22. 25. 7. 10 a 2 4 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.3 * ). 29. 5. 2 . product i. 26. ).60 a# + 4. 36 2 4. 4a2 l. 17. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.6 m* + 9 m. ). 16&*. 1. 3. prime. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.64 6 = 16(a . .20 ab + 10 b a . u2 6& + 2 ( ). 2 .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 9a2 .
36> . 6. 2 .(c 4. 4. 2. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. Ex. 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 16p 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . of polynomials.c . T.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Ex. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 14. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .d) 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 5. a:) 12. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Factor a 2 . (m7?) y.(I) . 13. 9. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 11.FACTORING 85 118. a2 . 2. One or both terms are squares 1. 8. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .
8. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.VI. .14. 6. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a 26 2 2 3 .a a . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 5) . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.ab + bx.2 ) (3 x . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 10. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.r. 119. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a5 + ab 6 . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 2. 5. 9. 4 B. . 12. + x + 2x + 2. ma ?*a + m& nb. Ex. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 4:cx .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 3.7 c + 2c . After grouping tain a the terms. which may be factored according to types I. 1. 7. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a? 11.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. = (3 x + y .and trinomials. By grouping. Ex. ive find that the new terms con common factor.y + 2 2). 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.1. A. x8 .
87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : 46 x* 2. 2a3/ 7. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.FACTORING Ex. 2. 2. First find monomial factors common to all terms. $ a8 . 36 9 m . IV.12 aaj 4 6y. l~a 2a56 2 2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . . Arranging the terms. 2 7.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 6 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8. 8. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . II. 3. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 4 a2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 3. . 6. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.l. 8ra 2 + 16. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 4. + 2xy + y*q*.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 4.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. : m 2 2 16.4 f . w m 2. = (a + 6)(a6). 5.
42 s 2 . 2 ft . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 22. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 14. (^ 34. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. a3 156. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 19.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 40. 80 a 2 ft 38. a.24. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 4 a. 3 a2 23. 5a' 20. 18. or 3 7#2 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 5 a. + 6 aft + 3 .156. 13 c . 11. 28. 2 17. 13. a + a + a + l. 29. (a. a6 36. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 4 8 tt 2 z . 25 a + 25 aft . 30. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 24. 32. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .310 x .13 c . 2 a 128. 3 25.40. 35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. . 3 41. 27. 42 x . 12. 50^ + 45. + 14. 3 2 . 48.88 10.
F. 5. 2 2 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 12 tfifz. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. C.) of two or more . The H. C. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. 15 aW. 13 aty 39 afyV. 8 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 121. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 25 W. C. aW. C. Thus the H. The highest is common factor (IT. C. Two common factor except unity The H. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 89 . are prime can be found by inspection. 122.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. The H. F. of aW. C. II 2 . F. 24 s . F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. The student should note H. 2. of two or more monomials whose factors . F. 3 . 5 2 3 . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 54  32 . F.  23 3 . C. of 6 sfyz. 5 s 7 2 5. . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. of : 48 4. F. 5 7 34 2s . C. 6. 3. of the algebraic expressions. F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .
5 + 6. 9 aj*(a? . 7. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 2a f5af 2. a3 9a. ^a + 5^ + 6. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 13. . 6 a2 y? . 52 oryz4. 15. a3 16 a. of polynomials.6 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 38 #y. y + 3y64. 14. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. . F. a2 .y + y42. a2 ar* 4. = x 2 y. 6 mx . 9.8 a + 16. 13. a 3a4.y) . To find the H.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . Ex. 225 4a 9 . 12. 25 m27i. 3^ 2 4 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 9. 6 3 a. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 57 a>V. of: .?/ . 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. ^f a. 10.90 7. 24 a 2 . and apply the method of the preceding article. aWd. 3). 1. ^2 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. Find the H. 2 .12 as 66 . 10. ^707 + 12. 11. 49 C. 4(m+l) 3 . C. 8. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 16. (a7 ?/) . F. F. 2 . 2 . 12. F. 6(m+l) (m+2).^9.y) 123. . 16 a . 95 2/V. 15 3ao. 65 zfyV.5 x3?/ 2 6.2 ?/) (x .6 a&.5 y). . .6.2 y) (a. 12 w*nw 8.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 2 . 8(?/ifl) 14. 5. a2 + 2a3. 8. C. 0^80:416.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 8 a 10 . 12 . of + 4 if. 3 . C. 11.# 4 afy f 4 . 4 ?io. 8 6. 3. a. x* x2 Hence the H. 1. a2 + 7af!2.
A common remainder. 2 The The L. M. of 3 aW. Find the L. C. M. To find the L. of the general. Ex. Hence the L. NOTE. M. The L. ory is the L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. &) 2 M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . L.C. M. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . etc. C. of tfy and xy*. C. . 127. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 300 z 2 y. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M. M. each set of expressions has In example ft).) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. =4 a2 62 (a2 . of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. C. M. . Ex. 1. Common 125. L.M. two lowest common multiples. M. Find the L. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M of the algebraic expressions.6 3 ). thus. which also signs.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. 128. The lowest common multiple (L. 60 x^y' 2 . C. 2. C. but opposite .6)2. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 126.M. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. a^c8 3 . of several expressions which are not completely factored.
M. b 2 . by. x 2 5 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2 x \2 y. a. 3. a f 2 19. 20 9 a. 4 a f 2. 20. a2 ~ab 1. 24 x. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . 2 7ic+10. 15. a 2 f 4 a +4. ) .1. of: 4. (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 . 4 a . 7. 8 d 5 . 17. a f 3. a. xy\ . 13. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 16. a. 2 . + 2 7i) . 2.f 6. #. 2 a . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. x2 + 4 a f 4.1. G a. y*. a& 4 +& 2 . T a 3 a 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. 3(a + b). ic 2 ?/. a^1. 1. 40 abJ. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 30 a. 6b 2 . 3 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 . or f 3 a 15 #. . 21. 8. 2 a . 24. a 1. a 2 fa6. 22. 18. 2 a. 9. 5. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. x* ~5a. a 2 a3 . 8 afy. Find the L. (For additional examples see page 268. 3 ab. a2 4. 6 a. 5 a? 5 a? y. 6 y. afy. 3 6 xif. 3. + 2. 11. a { a~b. afc'cd 2 . ic 23. 6. 2 10. a?b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2(m 2 . 14. 3 f2. f b. a !. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 3 Z> . + 6.
F. 131. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. but we In arithmetic. rni Thus 132. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. successively all 2 j/' . a?. Thus. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. C. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Remove tor. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . and denominators are considered. however. A f fraction is b. an indicated quotient. Ex. 130.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers.ry ^ by their H. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . a b = ma mb . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. etc. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. as 8.
6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 3. cancel factors only.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Ex.4) Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both.
x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.*. . ny 4 18.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 29. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ^' rt ^  31. 19. 5^10 y 30. """. 11 ^ Mtr f .7 . . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. nx 17.. 9x + "a" 10. . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 16. LJZJ^JL.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. ' ^ . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 23. g J 21.' 32. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ^+3*.
+ 3). multiplying the terms of 22 . 1.~16 (a + 3) (x. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 1). To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.D. .C. and 135.96 134. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. we have the quotients (x 1).3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator.r 2 2 . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Ex. Reduce ^. TheL.  by 4 6' . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.  of //* 2 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. mon T denominator. and (a 8). we may extend this method to integral expressions. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and the terms of ***.1^22 ' .3) (!)' = . C.M.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . take the L. 2> . .C. M. Divide the L. we have M^. ^ to their lowest com The L.
oj o* or / .. 5?. JL. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 3.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . 137.. o o a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . i. . 8 i i. common denominator 6. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). j y 3. If the given fractions have different denominators. . a? 1 5 > ^* . . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 7i 2 ab* ". 18. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2aj ~ . 22 a2 5a * .Reduce the following to their lowest 1.^1. 2 ay IB.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 74).a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2.
understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. C. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. (a ft). D.3 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . the student should remember that parentheses are .2 = a(a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).2 ' 2 _.ft)(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. T? Ex. The L. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . L. and adding. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms..4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. 2 ^.3 ft). 4(2 a 3 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ft).3 ft 2). 2. (a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.ft) (a ft ft)~. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.(a 2 6). ^ is 2^JT) . e. as 4 aft f. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .aft) Ca2 ..7 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . D. in the beginning.g.
2. 15. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. j>0 i> 21. + . 18 v 19. 5a76 4a 106 9. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6 c 3a 7. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. a 36 ++. 1 1 f w 16. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.5 18 ^4f25. A+2_3. 2L + 2a 1 17. 24. + a "" 2 6 ' . 23.
^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 4 31. 42. af 1f /j.9 79 6 2 i.9. 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 43. _ + a? ?/ + y. ! n. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 2 af1 32. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 41. 3a 9 +. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 30. a. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ic 1 + 1.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a ?^ 40.
2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139. 101 mixed expression.7 5a v Ex.  . .  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . T. . 1.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .
fractions to integral numbers. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. multiply the 142. Since  = a. integer. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. or. 2 a Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. (In order to cancel common factors. F J Simplify . Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.g. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. !. we may extend any e. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2.) Ex.
aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.. 50 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o..6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a. 14. . 5# 56 / c& 4.
The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 1. 8 multiply the Ex. 144. Divide Xn?/ . . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.
mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . l.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .6 s + 064. Ex. a a2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .afr 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.FRACTIONS 105 . or both. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.5 ??i 80 50 .10 ?/ _.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. are fractional. ga2 4 8 5 a .
n a 8. of their denominators. M. 6. .a ^c c _^ a .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . c +6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. C. Ex. 2. JL. . the answer is directly obtained. y X 4* 2 y 3. 7i+~ 7. Simplify x }. 9. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). i. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.y 32 . & . 10.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . x* 4. a m "" .
2 & a 20  a46 13.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : . 1 i 1 2 5 .) . o 15. sy 18. m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.
tions. If x 6. C. 2. 5(3 85 Check. Uniting.9 x2 + 9. 1.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.14 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). a. 2x Transposing. x = 6.1. each member is reduced to 1. M. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 148. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 2z2a. If = 64. these Ex. 108 .8 x = . of the denominator. Transposing.48. = 6.42 + 9. = 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Clearing of fractions. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Uniting. + 1) (a + 3) . Bx 12 Qx.28 x + 42 = . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 2 3.f3# + C:E=6f7212. each member is reduced to Ex. 9x x Check.l)(z + 3) = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 4 4)  x.28 a = 5 x2 . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.
= 2. '  4 13. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 15. 1 *> = 2. ^1 = 9. +4 14. a/  5 a/ = 12. . . 18. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. +1 = 5. ^' 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.1 _77 a. 16. a: 7 a. a.
it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. .  38 = 40. 33. 2^12 = 2 = 34. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . 25. 3x 35. 26 26. 27 .11_4 x 149. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 32 6 . J_. y+3~2 29. . If two or more denominators are monomials._ _ . . 31 31. 4a4l4* + l~.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. and" the remaining one a polynomial. ?_=_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .
5x x : = 9. Dividing. = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex..29 50712' 9 18 . 60. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5# 10. C. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.2 42 9 43.  5 = 20 x 45.1.2 3 ~  == 7a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. the 1 5 L. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. each member is reduced to ^. If a. Check. 1. a. 24 a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . . Transposing and uniting. 26 a. M.
fr Reducing lowest terms. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. 2. =a 2 151. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. = 6 a2 . = = 6 6c 7 6c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.& . ax f x f. = l^ 9 b 4 . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.3 6 2 = a' .m bx 2 mn) x. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Thus. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. they are united by factoring. Uniting. a. y. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Ex. Uniting the Dividing.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. . 4 ac 1.1.be. = 2 f b 2 . Dividing. find a in terms of b and c. It frequently occurs that the x. 5> a. jr.2 ac + 3 aft . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Ex.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. If 3ac L= = a ? . f ~ 5c.2 62 2 ab.
4. = vt. p the principal. 13. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 5) is t =^. f ^o. 9.a. . s = Vt solve for v. c 18. 2 solve for y a. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. ^ ax a^ 26. 34. = rt. t.= n. 1 f. co?. + xx = 1. mx = n. . 30. = 3 (6 a). .i l . a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 3. m a? x . 3(* 8. If * 33. 11. 31. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . a. If ^^ = a 1 32. 12. The The i time. = 8 4 #. in terms of other quantities. r the number of $>. 10. c. 14. * Solve the same equation for^). 17. solve for . 29. q solve for/. denoting the interest. 15. = 5. If s (wi n) x =px + q. _ 2. 4. iw 21. Ex. solve for a. rate. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. IIL n b + &o. f P =+!. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). and n the number of years. . + 3a. If s If 16.= H. 6. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.= c a Z> .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.
1. . C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.180.. Find R in terms of C and TT. and 12 = the number over. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 100 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Ex. Ex. x Or Uniting. 2 3 . . A would do each day ^ and B j. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 2. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.114 35. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. = 16^. Multiplying by Dividing..20 C. then = 2 TT#.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 12. is 36.
or 1J. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." : Let x  = the required number of days. 4x = 80. But in uniform motion Time = Distance .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 180 Transposing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." gives the equation /I). = 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . the rate of the express train. 3. Clearing. and the statement. Solving. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days. in Then Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.
one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. and J of the greater Find the numbers. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. is oO. and 9 feet above water. length in the ground. money and $10. How did the much money man leave ? 11. to his daughand the remainder. by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . and of the father's age. by 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. which was $4000. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. make 21. and one half the greater Find the numbers. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. fifth Two numbers differ 2. ex What 5.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is equal 7. ceeds the smaller by 4. to his son. 3.  Find their present ages. Find A's 8. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other.
and it B in 6 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 2. 1. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and B in 4 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. How much money $500? 4%. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ^ at 5%. Ex. what is the 14. investments. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. A has invested capital at more 4%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. air. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. after rate of the latter ? 15. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. .) 22. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16.
2. if B in 3 days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 3. and n = 3. we obtain the equation m m . e. is 57. A in 6.e. is 42. Then ft i. 25. B in 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. they can both do in 2 days. B in 12. . A in 4. B in 16.009 918. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. . The problem to be solved. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.118 153. 26. n x Solving. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 5.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. To and find the numerical answer.g. A in 6. and apply the method of 170.414.= . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. m and n. . 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Hence. therefore.
000. Two men start at the first miles apart.001. The one: 31. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 30. (b) 149. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. is (a) 51. . Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 4J miles per hour. (c) 16. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. After how many hours do they meet. the rate of the first. the second at the apart. : (c) 64 miles. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. if m and n are. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 2 miles per hour. 34. meet. 33. is ?n . and the rate of the second are. squares 29. Find the side of the square. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. same hour from two towns.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and the second 5 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 3 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. (d) 1.721. respectively (a) 60 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. respectively. 5 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 3J miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.
antecedent. the antecedent.5.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. In the ratio a : ft. b is the consequent. . Simplify the ratio 21 3. 1. the symbol being a sign of division. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the second term the consequent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b. etc. Ex. E. a ratio is not changed etc." we may write a : b = 6. 158. b. " a Thus. The first 156. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. the denominator The the 157. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. 6 12 = . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. : : 155.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.g. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.
17. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and c is the third proportional to a and . 3:4. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. : 1. and c. extremes. $24: $8. Transform the following unity 15. 61 : ratios 72:18. 9. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 5 f hours : 2. The last first three. 159. 8^ hours. J:l. 6. 7:4 T T 4 . 7f:6J. 16. 4:5f : 5. 12. b and c the means. In the proportion a b : = b : c. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. two  ratios. b. 3 8. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. a and d are the extremes. proportional between a and c. b is the mean b. 62:16. terms. 10. Simplify the following ratios 7. 18. 4. 3:1}. : ay . 1. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3. equal 2.RATIO Ex. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 16a2 :24a&. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 11. 27 06: 18 a6. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160.
: : directly proportional may say.30 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams. : c. briefly. of iron weigh . If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. q~~ n . 6 ccm. 164. pro portional.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. of a proportion. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 3 4. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.__(163. 163. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. i. In any proportion product of the extremes.) mn = pq. " we " NOTE. 2 165. ccm. The mean proportional of their product. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. Hence the number of men required to do some work.) b = Vac.122 162. If (Converse of nq. are : : : inversely proportional. !. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. ad = be. of iron weigh 45 grams. then G ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. Clearing of fractions. and the time necessary to do it. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.e. and the other pair the extremes. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.
I.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) (Called Alternation. = 35 .) d 167. bd bd. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. 2. is 4$ = 35. V. I. d d. is Ex. hence the proportion true. then =d c. a:c=b:d. ad ( 163. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. 12x Hence a? = 42. 1. 166. (Composition.) II. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. Or IV. (Division. ad = be. .) = f f = 3 J. + b:b = c + d:d.PATIO Ex. if 6 : 7. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a III. (Frequently called Inversion. (163. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.
= 180:125. 4. 120:42 2 2 7. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. x = 2. IV. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. E. . mx tin Apply composition and division. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. i. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. the consequents by 7. = 2:x. = 12 5ft. 2. 6 =4 : x.g.!=!*. 5. 9. Or III. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. V. 3. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 2:3. : x.e. = 7:2f 3J. = 20:7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 10. Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion.124 IT. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. . To simplify m 3n ? = + *. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 8. Simplify the following proportions. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 5 5. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.
: 53. 2= 5 x x. terra 2:3 = 4.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 33. 16. 46. w.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 1. f. x m = y n. if : 40. b.:ff. 23. 6x = 7y. ratio of y. 50. 112:42 = 10:a. = 5 x 12. a. 4. and 2/. = l^:18. 51. 9 x = 2 y.  32. . 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 38. a 2 and ab. 22.j>. rap. 2. = 15o. Find the mean proportional 30. 52. 14 and 21. (a : : 45. a?:15 15. 34.. 03:a?=135:20. to : 9 and 12. 3t. 2. 28. 25. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. = 3 43 + x. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. to : a and 1. mx = ny. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x.8:1. 43. 2 3 = y #. 6 x = y. 2 a and 18 a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 35. 21. 4 and 16. 31. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 29. 18. 16 and 28. 47.x: 6:5 a : x. 12. 14. rag. 20. 7iy = 2:x. 26. to: = 35:*. Find the third proportional 24. 3. 41. ra 2 . : a2 . 27. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. ra + landra 1. ra. 3. + fyx = cy. 5= 18 a? : a?. 39. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 44. 1 and a. = 2 + x: x. Find the 37. 13. 6. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 42. 5. 17. x:5 = y:2. : .
the area of the larger? the same.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the area of the rectangle. 57. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). A line 7^. and the : total cost. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the time necessary for it.126 54. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the time. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the speed of the train. what 58. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the squares of their radii (e) 55. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. 56.
2. 11 x f 7 x = 108. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x x 7 Ex. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. so that Find^K7and BO.000 168. = the second number. x = 6. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 7 x = 42 is the second number. AB = 2 x. : Ex. 2 x Or = 4. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. . produced to a point C. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. x=2. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 18 x = 108. 4 inches long. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. is A line AB. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Let A B AC=1x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20.
What are the parts ? 5. 6. 14. Gunmetal tin. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 3.000 square miles.) . A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 9. How many gen. and 15 inches. How The long are the parts ? 15. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 13.000. : 4. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : 197. 12. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many 7. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 2. 7. and c inches. 11.
y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. 2 y = . values of x and y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. x = 1. Hence.L x If If = 0. expressing a y.e. However. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. such as + = 10. a? (1) then I. there is only one solution. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. if . is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 .y=. =. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. etc. y = 1. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.
Therefore. 172. the last set inconsistent. 3. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). y = 2. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 21 y . By By Addition or Subtraction.26. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. cannot be reduced to the same form. 6x . 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. and 3 x + 3 y =. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.3 y = 80. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. same relation. y I 171. 26 y = 60. are simultaneous equations. ~ 50.24. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. Substitution. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they express the x f y 10. viz.X. to The two methods I. unknown quantity. of elimination most frequently used II. E. 4y . The first set of equations is also called consistent. 174.130 170. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . = .
Therefore Check. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. = 406.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 10 . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 1. 10 + 5 1 = 135. + 2.3 1 = 47. 25 x . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 64 x = 040. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 8 2. 3y = 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. x = 10. Transposing. x = 10. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.3 y = 47. 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Check. = 235.2 = 6. 37. are like. add the equations. 3. subtract the equations. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 5 13 . y = 2. whose coefficients In general. 60 .
+ 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3. I ~ y~~> 22. 13 61 l7a. I oj 5y = 17.4.v 23. x 11.5 y = 2. + 2/ 17. = 24. 9 1 r 20.9 *. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. _. J I y = 1U. f 3# ?/ = 0.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. v ^ = ll.3. f 3X 7x 14. I . i 3. I i 3 a.f2/ ' = 50. 13. * + 3 y = 50. 7 ' 1fi fl . O t K 8. ' 12. . [2o. = 41. 19< I a. ] ^ . = 6.
21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 4#8. = 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 13. . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 60.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 3. 8. and solve the resulting equation.
(3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. .6)7(y7)==18. 29 x = 29. (4).3. From 9 = 36. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 3 (1) Ex. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. x = l. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (7) (7) (8) . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. + 212y4 = 14. 4* + 3y = 19. however. simplified before elimination is possible. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7 y = 6. \ \6(a. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 2 y = . 21z6y=9. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 7x_2y=3. 3.
= 3. 16. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) = 121.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) + 5(6 y . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . yM a. 12. a. 14. 10 2a?5 17. a.f2 2. J 9. +y 2 . . 4 11. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. .
e. 22. . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 3x\" 1 23 24. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. <X + 20. f y .and x y . but some expressions involving x. * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21. 180. {. and y. ?~y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.#.
etc. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.4 x = 4 xy. . 1.3 xy. 137 Solve y y (1) . 33 = 11 x.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) + (G). can also be solved Examples method. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. however. x 3. . y 4. 15 y + 8 x . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Clearing of fractions. y 1. (2) (3) a. Therefore y=4. 2* * x 2. of this type. y. Substituting x = 3 in (1). x 2x(2). Dividing by 11 3 = #.
6w3 + bny = 6p. 6. = en. x y 5. . 21 9 . 1.= 5. Ex. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. y MOi y a. x y 331 9.= o 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x 8.
y = = 9a + 46.W. . and I if 13. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. . Uniting. 6. ny = fy/ I sc 1. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 5. apan cm. w. x f my = 1. . x 12. a Find a and terms of n. x a. 14. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . bmy bm}y ap cm. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. fax f = l. ap. s in 11. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. ax + by = 2 a&. W . and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. Dividing. d.
140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.by 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). Ex. 3. 1.25. 1. = 3.3=4.2 + 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). To solve equations containing By tions. 3.16. ties are Similarly. 6. f 3y 12 =s 8. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. = 30.13. 4.2 + 3. 4. 3y = Hence Check. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. . the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. y =* 2. (4) (5). x + 12 y . 20. by 3.8 = 1. 182.15z=12 Adding. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.3 = 8. (8) 2.1+4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. etc. 8 x . l. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).lf> z . four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.12 y + 6 z = .
4 = 42. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 2z = 40. == 6. 49. k 2/ f 2 x a. x 13. + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + y f z = 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. ~6?/ 5. 2 . 12. 15 2 = 45. a? + 709 = 26. 2 4. 8. 7. a? 11. 10. 14.
19. ^ = 2.2 a.42 = 2. . 22. 27.3 y + . . (3 _. = 8*.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 16. 32.6 2. 4. =s 20. = 5. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 23. 84 21. 60. . 1510 4 17. ? = llz.. ?/ 3x = 0.
to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. the number. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 1. symbols: x + y +z 8. z + x = 2 n. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 6. + 396 = 521. . 1 digit in the tens place. M=i. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. either directly or implied. Ex. however. = 2 m. y * z 30. Check. and to express In complex examples. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. y 31. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. ( 99. x : z =1 : 2. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. + z = 2p. . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 2 = 1(1+6). and if 396 be added to the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 = 2.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. +2+ 6 = 8. # 4. Obviously of the other . The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . = l.
8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 5_ _4_ A. . starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. From (3) Hence xy Check. x 3x4y = 12. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 6 x 4 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 2.144 Ex. = 8. Ex. xy a: 2y 4y 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 2. C. increased by one. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 3+1 5+1 4_2. = the fraction. the distance traveled by A. x y = the = the x denominator . we obtain. x 3 = 24. Find the fraction. B. = Hence the fraction is f. Or (4)2x(3). who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. (1) (2) 12. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 4 x = 24. direction. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. y = 3.
If the denominator be doubled. 5. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. ? What 9. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the number.) added to a number of two digits. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 2. its value added to the denominator. the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. it is reduced to J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 7. 183. Find the fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the last two digits are interchanged. and its denomi nator diminished by one. 6. both terms. Find the numbers. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. added to the numerator of a fraction. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Find the number. If 27 is 10. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction is reduced fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. fraction is reduced to \.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. A fraction is reduced to J.}. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the number (See Ex. 1. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. tion ? 8. part of their difference equals 4. the Find the fraction. the fraction equals . . the value of the fraction is fa. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and the fourth 3. Find the numbers.
and 5 years ago their ages is 55. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. A sum of $10. the rate of interest? 18. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 19. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. . and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. A man invested $750.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. 13. the annual interest would be $ 195. and in 5 years to $1125. in 8 years to $8500. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. respectively ? 16. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 12. now. and 4 %. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the rates of interest. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530.000 is partly invested at 6%. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. How 6 %. 5 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and money and 17. 14. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Find their present ages. and partly at 4 %.grams. partly at 5 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.
and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. for $ 740. triangle Tf AD. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. An C touch ing the sides in D. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. BD = HE. BC=7. and AC = 5 inches. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. but if A would double his pace. respectively. $ 50 for each cow. ED = BE. and F. and sheep. receiving $ 100 for each horse. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. the three sides of a triangle E. 1 NOTE. and e. 25. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. c. angle c = angle d. and F '(see diagram). he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. . . and angle e angle/. B find angles a. A farmer sold a number of horses. 24.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. are taken so ABC. the length of NOTE. BE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. On /). and their difference by GO . cows. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and CE If AB = G inches. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. then AD = AF. Find their rates of walking. is the center of the circum scribed circle. BC = 7 inches. three AD = AF. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. points. and F. and GE = CF. and $15 for each sheep. 23. and angle BCA = 70. E. andCL4 = 8. what is that = OF.
and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). . (3. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and PJ/_L XX'. and point the origin. is the abscissa. 2). (7. the ordinate of point P. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. YY' theyaxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). B. 186. The of Coordinates. the ordinate by ?/. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (2. 3). first 3). Thus the points A. is The point whose abscissa is a. PM. or its equal OM. and PN _L YY'. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. PN are given. PN. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. It' Location of a point. jr. ?/. and r or its equal OA is . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading..
(4. 0).4). 3).e. (0. 6. 2J). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points (6. (4. What is the locus of (a?. 1). !). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 4) from the origin ? 7. 8. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (5. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. 0). 2). Graphs. and measure their distance.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (2. Plot the points: (4.2). (3. (1. i. . 4) and (4. 4). 12. 6. Plot the points: (4.1). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 2. (0. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.) EXERCISE 1. 71 2). 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. . (4.(!. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 3).and(l.3). 1). Plot the points : (0. 3. 11. (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 2). (4. (See diagram on page 151. 3). 0).
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. . or the curved line the temperature. 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. B. from January 1 to December 1. however.. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. we meas1 . A. may be found on Jan. D. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 10 . 188. 15. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . Thus the first table produces 12 points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. C.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds.
and to deduce general laws therefrom. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (d) November 20. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (b) July 15. the matics. Whenever a clear. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (c) January 15. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the merchant. uses them. the rise and fall of wages. . etc. the graph is applied. physician.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 15. ?  3. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 to Oct. When the average temperature below C.. is 10. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. How much.. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (1) 10 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. on 1 to the average. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.152 2. During what months above 18 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (d) 9 0. 1? 11 0.
in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.09 yards. Draw . a temperature chart of a patient. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. NOTE. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 19. 20. Draw a graph for the 23. Hour Temperature .
5 grams. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. then C irJl.. and $. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.154 24. 1 to 1200 copies. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. to 27. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 3.inch. x increases will change gradually from 13. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 190. amount to $8. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.. A 10 wheels a day.50. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. the daily average expenses for rent.) T circumferences of 25. if he sells 0.g. the value of a of this quantity will change.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 26. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 29. gas. x* x 19. x 7 to 9. 2 . If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 2. represent his daily gain (or loss). . if each copy sells for $1.. etc. e. etc. binding. 4. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 28. 9.50. books from for printing. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. function If the value of a quantity changes. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.
The values of func192. E. it is In the example of the preceding article. plot points which lie between those constructed above. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 3 (0. and (3. 4). 9). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . Q.0). Ex.2 x may 4 from x = 4. as 1. Draw the graph of x2 f. while 7 is a constant. 2 (1. be also represented by a graph. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. a*.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. is supposed to change. etc.e. (2. may. 2. Graph of a function. may . J). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 3 50. (1^.g. and join the points in order. for x=l. however. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 4). .1). ( 2. 9). (1. to x = 4.1). 1 the points (3. 2). x a variable. construct '. If a more exact diagram is required.
.4). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 2. 7 . (3. (2. etc. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.) For brevity.. = 4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.20).156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 1). = 0. 4). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. rf 71 . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. j/=3. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. Thus 4x + 7. as y.2 x . hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. y = 6. r */ +* 01 .. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. 5). 2 4 and if y = x f.. Ex. Thus in the above example. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. straight line produces the required graph. 4J. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.. and join(0. (4. 194.
.or. 3. 3 a 8. a? 1. 2 2. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. from x VlO'S". 1. a ar. = 4. 1 8 10. 2 or 2 20. a* 13. fa 17. 8. (ft) (_ 1. 23x. (7i) (c) 23. 2x + 3x a?. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 6. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 5. 2. 18. xl. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2J. l. . J. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 6 fa. 2.e. (C ) (2. 16. if the function equals zero. The values of a*. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.8)'.5)2. 2 a. ?/ a. 15. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a?. 12. 4a? I. a? 2 4. if y = 2. 2 a. 4 a. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. The values of a?. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 9. The smallest value of the function. the function.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 7. y = 2x = 4. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. (If) Va25. 14. 21. 19. 2 2 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a. 22.5)2. 3. 1J. + 4. 1J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 11. 1J. xz + x. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. if a. Jar .2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2J. x+1. = The values of a*. if"a. i.
we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.where x c is a constant. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.. 1 C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.e. i. 9 F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. . GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). Therefore x = 1. 25.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 14 F..24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). then cXj where c is a constant. y= formula graphically. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. then y = . Represent 26. the abscissas of 3.158 24.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.24 or x = P and Q. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. that graph with the o>axis.. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 32 F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.
and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 3. or 5 2. 14. 12. a2 2a. Such equations in general have two roots. 10. 2 and 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 6. is called a quadratic equation. . (a) (6) 9.f 9 = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. + + = where a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 11. (0. 0. 8. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. (a) x2 = 0. viz.7 2 a 5 = 0. 4. crosssection paper is used. 13. 6. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 197. 7.
represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. y = l. Ex. produces the 7* required locus. because their graphs are straight lines. Ex. if y = is 0. . fc = 3. 2). = 0.e. 0). ?/ =4 AB. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y.2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. i. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. solve for ?/. locate points (0. y y 2. X'2 Locating the points (2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. T .1. Hence. unknown quantities. ?/. 4) and (2. Hence we may join (0. NOTE. 3x _ 4 . first degree. If x = 0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. and joining by a straight line. Hence if if x x  2. 199.2 y ~ 2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. (f . we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . == 2. 1) and 0). and join the required graph.
P. viz. linear equations have only one pair of roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. we obtain the roots. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). 203. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 201. Graphical solution of a linear system. and CD. To find the roots of the system. parallel have only one point of intersection. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.1=0.57. AB y = . 202. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).15. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
V25 5. (2. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. In general. 1.e.y~ Therefore. The equations 2 4 = 0. they are inconsistent. 5. if x equals respectively 0. 3). 4.9. 2 equation x 3). Solving (1) for y. 2. intersection. 0) and (0. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Measuring the coordinates of P. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 5.g. 1. we of the + y* = 25. Locating the points (5. etc. 4.5. 0.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4.0). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. P graphs meet in two and $. 4. and joining by a straight line. 3. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). e. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.. (1) (2) C. the point we obtain Ex.5. (4. . x2 . Locating two points of equation (2). 3.0. (4. 2. the graph of points roots. y equals 3. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. Inconsistent equations. and + 3). AB the locus of (1). 3x 2 y = 6. There can be no point of and hence no roots. = 0. 3. i. Using the method of the preceding para.  4. 0. and .
Draw system. 5. 2x 3?/=6. vice versa. 17. 16 23. 6. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 16 22. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 4. '163 Dependent equations. x~y=0. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 20. a+r/=6. and. 2. \ 2x + 3^ . . y 2 4. 9. 7. 3. state reasons.. the graphs of the following systems. if possible. and solve each If there are no solutions. 8. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. y= a2 2x y6. a. 10. y = 4. y=x + 5.
3 31. AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = . 29 . 25. 28.y). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .8.164 24. 30. TABLE OF SQUARES. 26.
CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 2. is may be by 207. 2. fa. Law of Signs. a special kind of product. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. . on to in factors 4. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. 3 f a = f a = +. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. involution repeated multiplication. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a = a3 . 52. powers of a positive quantity are positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 8. According to 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( a) is positive. etc. follows that 3.a2 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.faa a a a Obviously 1. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.
^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 2.6 (a 8 8 . 16. raise a fraction to a power. . 6. the required power. 76 : (>y. 24. (2ar). multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (a ) 2 5 . 4 /2mV. V V/ 13. 15. 5. 2 11 (afc ) . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .166 To find To To power. 3 2 2 8 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . a product to a given power. 210. 4. (^^) 2 . amVy) 3 . (a ) 2 4  3. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (277171 )*.6) = a .
3 y. are obtained by multiplication. 15. 2. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 3 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (a + &)8 . 23. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. Ex. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . + a 2 a. etc. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 5. 13. +5a) 22.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 4. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 2. 6.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . pansions. . (3 x . (3 (l I) 2 8 . (afl) . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 21. 8. 1.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .y) = (3 y?y . An 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . : a 20. The higher powers of binomials.6 2 8 ft) . a. 3. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . + 4aj) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . (aj7) . 2 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . nent of the binomial.y . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 12. 18. 1 f 3 2 3 . 3 8 .) 14. (3af26) 8 . 9. 7.INVOLUTION Ex. 211. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. . frequently called ex. 16. (5 (1 a) 3 .
23. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (m 2 + n) 8 . (2 4. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (mJ) 4 11. . (l 8 . 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 78 s . 3. . 25. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (la&) 4 12. . 13. 10. and the powers negative. 9. 18. 17. ( &) 5 . 14. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 4 . (m fl) 2 20. (af 5) . (?>i?i f c)*. . (1 + 4 ?/) . 24. .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .168 3. The minus. (a~^) 5 . 1. Ex. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 2. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 5. 15.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 4 (1for) 5 . Ex.2. 8. Ex. . 3. is the coefficient of the next term. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .a) 3 19. 21. (2 a 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. (?/i~w) : 16. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 5. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 4. (3a f5) 5) 4.216 a^ 4. (tff1) (cfd) . mn 5 2 5 ) . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .
it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 4 4 . or y ~ 3. 2. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. V9 = + 3. for distinction. a) 4 = a4 . = x means = 6. which can be simplified no further. numbers. and all other numbers are. V \/P 214. (_3) = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 27 =y means r' = 27. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or 3 for (usually written 3) . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. tity . called real numbers. 215. 109 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. etc. and ( v/o* = a.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Since even powers can never be negative. \/"^27=3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 1. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. or x &4 .
2. 3. Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 5. v/2^. V25 9 16. EXERCISE 1. . 6 7 = 030. 7. v/^i2 = a*. . 2 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. Ex. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex.9 = 136. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .1. 10. = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex 5 a" . . 6. 4 v.200 . 62 = V2* . 7.4. 8. = 19472. V?. 9. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 8. = V26TIT81 = 53. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex.lL.201) = 2. Ex.(. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .125. To extract the root of a power. fy 5 3 . extract the and denominator. index. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 7 . \/2 4 9 . 82 . 3/0** = am . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. roots of the numerator \/18 . 79 2 v/2 5 . 3i . V36 9 4. Ex. 9. 7 . 2. for (a")" a = a mn 3.  100 a 2 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.64 5 4 . 6. To extract a root of a fraction. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3 33 53 .
V9216. 2 ./). 2 .3 . Find the square root of a2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . a* 4 8 2 .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 31. V20 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Ex. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . V8. 1. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .3 y2) ( vV .) by inspection. 30. 34. 3. ^40^4.EVOLUTION 171 28. 6. 116. 33.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.98.4/. 29. 32. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 2.75. a f2 l 2 + l. 45 V5184. 5. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3.6 tfif + 9 y = O .
mV14m??2)f 49.2 ab + b . the given expression is a perfect square. 2 . 8 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.b 2 2 to its square. . let us consider the relation of a f. and b (2 a f b). The term a' first 2 .172 7. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .2 ac . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .72 aW + 81 & 4 . however. 2 2 218. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.e. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.> 13. a f. 12. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 10. and b. #2 a2  16. + 6 + 4a&. 15. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.2 &c. 11. 2ab . a\b is the root if In most cases. i. 14.
8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. Second trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 8 a 2 . the first term of the answer. .EVOLUTION Ex. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . . 2. Explanation. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. of x. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. is As there is no remainder. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Ex. 1. . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. and so forth. As there is no remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. The square . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. First complete divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 219. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. First trial divisor. . 8 /. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 10 a 4 8 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .24 afy* f 9 tf. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. by division we term of the root. */'' . 6 a.
73 a8 . 12.40 a 22 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . + 81 a 454 a + 81.25 x 4 4.16. 9. 5 4 16 4 iK . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .42 a*& 4.10 x2 4. 15. 14. 18.37 a ^ . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . > 7.4 x 4.9.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 20. 5.20 o 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 2 4. 6.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.V430^425^ 4m 4. . 3.12m 5 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .25. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 10. 436^?/469a. 16x6 4.24 or . a? 2 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.73a4 440^436^460^. 4 . 19. 13#4 413ar 44a. l 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 6 11. 36it.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 16. 729 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 24. x 6 4 4 0^4. 1 4.12 m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 8.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 17.6 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .
the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. which may contain one or two). of 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000. 2. and the complete divisor 168. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups.000. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Ex. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Therefore 6 = 8. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.000 is 100. = 80. and the first remainder is. Ex.176. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Find the square root of 7744. the first of which is 4.1344. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.. of 1. etc.000 is 1000. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. first .EVOLUTION 220. Find the square root of 524. the first of which is 8. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. 1. two figures. a 2 = 6400. etc. of a number between 100 and 10. The is trial divisor = 160.
7 to three decimal places.1T6 221. 12. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 3.10.70 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1 are Ex.GO'61. places. Find the square root of 6/.0961 are '.
33. 13. 5. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 31.22. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . T\.) 40. feet. 36. 32. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .4 square when R = radius and 11. 34. feet. 30. = 3. 1.01. 35.58 square 38. whose area equals 48.53. JT . 39. .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.1410. 1. J.
2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Extracting the square root of each member. Dividing. is 12. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 225. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. x 2 7. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. is A quadratic equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc.. The 7 equation. = 4. or affected. complete. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. x = + 2 or x =2.g. or incomplete. 1. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 6#2 = x* 24. or equation of the second degree. 226. This answer Check. . is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5. 2 ic = a.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 2)* + 5 = 33. A pure. but no higher power e. Ex. 224. 178 . Transposing. 6 y2 = 17.
3. 16^393 = 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root. ax Transposing and combining. . 7 = 162. 6(2)=10(ajl). 5. : 83 2. ' =: y? b* b .25. 2. 4 ax. 19 + 9 = 5500. 8. 7. o. (a? 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. or Therefore. 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 4fc 5' 18. 15^5 = 6. Solve 179 . . 2 2 a. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 10. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.2.
solve for v. 29. 22 a. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 3. find a in terms of 6 . If G=m m g . A right triangle is a triangle. 2a f 1 23. 25. ' 4. r. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. is 5(5. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 108.) of their squares 5. If a 2 4. Find is the number. If 22 = ~^. . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 26. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. solve for r. may be considered one half of a rec square units. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2. . solve for d. 24. Find the side of each field. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. is one of _____ b The side right angle. Find the numbers. 2 : 3. 4. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . EXERCISE 1. and their product : 150.b 2 If s If =c . 228. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . : 6. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find the side of each field. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 28. 27. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .
is and the other two sides are equal. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. x* 7 x= 10. Find these 10. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 9. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.2 7 . 8. we have of or m = . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. The area : sides are as 3 4.7 x f 10 = 0. 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. J = 12. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the two smaller 11. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. To find this term. Solve Transposing. add () Hence 2 . 2m. . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . radii are as 3 14. A body falling from a state of rest. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.) 13. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . sides. Method of completing the square. Find the radii. and the other two sides are as 3 4. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 44 square feet. 24.
 \. Transposing.x(l = . Simplifying. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Ex. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.. Ex. or J.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.1. = \ # = ff.2. J. = . Transposing. = 6. 62 x 5 = f. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. adding member). (*~8) a = at . a Clearing of fractions. or x = 2. Extracting square roots. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.a. .e. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2 a* a. a. Therefore. 2  . = x\ = 2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 230. 7 5 + 10 = 0.2 a2 . Hence Therefore Check. Uniting.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
x la 48. article.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =0. 231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . ao. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. = 12. and c in the general answer. \bx\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4.c = 0. 49. Solution by formula. =8 r/io?. .
20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 19. ?i 2 . 6 Ex. 2 . 3. c = 5. 2or } 5o. 12. TIO. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). = 12 . 11.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. : 86 + 2 = 0. 5 x2 Transposing. 16. 20. 2 a? = 44 x .  . 7. = 64120?. 4. 14. b =  + 20 == = 0. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 10. 6. 21. 1. 6 . 13. 2 a.4 4 5 . 9. 2. 7^ + 9 x 90. 8. 6^+5^ 56. 26. 6. 2 o. a. c p. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 18. 2. 17. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.25 x. Reducing to general form. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 15. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . V^tT)* .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.
Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 24.x. 27 x== 42a. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. = 0.2. . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . orz roots. 26. (5 a? !)(. all or. 1. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. factors Now. }. a=:i^^.5 Solving (1) and (2). 2S3x 1 2 . Clearing for fractions. 5 = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Factoring. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. ar>8o. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 3x?+x = 7. = 0. member can be Ex.5) =0.4) = . transposing terms to one member.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. or # 5 is zero. Solution by factoring. x(x <2 . any degree. = 14. x2 = 1 . = 0. Bx 1 1. 0. 5) = 0. if either of the uct is zero. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 233. Transposing. 23. and 6. Eesolving into factors. 25.
0^ + 21 = 10 10. Ex.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. we 9 obtain x 4. (aj4)(a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7. a?10a=:24. 2. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 6)=0. 9. + 100. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. } 2 2 (5 .24 = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. x2 f 2 x . E. 13.g. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. Therefore x =3 = 2. 14. 12. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. O roots are 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3^ = 0(1106).(. : 87 = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. + 8=s: 7. + 10 a = 24. 0^ ar> 11. ar'Sa^ 12. 2o3 f9a. 5. 4)(z3) = 0. 3# y 5 = 0.6)) = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3. 16. 3) Factoring. 2. The equation I.3)(x + 3 3. 8. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.= 24. is 5) = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3 or 2 a. Or Hence the 234. 3. 4or + 18a f 8a. 4. 6. 0(02) = 7(02). aj( 15. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3) = 0. a?. and the equation thus formed be solved. 5 = 0. a* 10a=24.:=0. for a: .e.
ara + ft + c*.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (a + 1) (a. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. 2. 18. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 27. 50. 22. 25. 20. '3a!J  . (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19. 23. uz + u 21. a 2 =(x a)b. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.
9. 3. 2. Find the number. and consequently many prob 235. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 4. of their reciprocals is 4. 1. 3. 2. The difference of . and the difference Find the numbers. 52. EXERCISE 1. and equals 190 square inches. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. two numbers is 4. 54. 56. 5.3. The 11. number by 10. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 1. 8.1. 2. 2. and whose product 9. 57. . 6. Find the number.0. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 5. : 3. feet. and whose sum is is 36. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 0. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. Find the sides. G. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 55.0. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.3. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.2. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find the numbers. 7. 58. 2.
other. watch for $ 24. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and Find the sides of the rectangle. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200.190 12. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. sold a horse for $144. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. 15. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. If he each horse ? . ply between the same two ports. as the 16. What did he pay for 21. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 19. dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 14. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 13. ABCD. Two vessels.10. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 17. Find the rate of the train. . A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.
How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. a point taken.) 25. as 0. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. so that the rectangle. Ex. contains B 78 square inches. 23 inches long. how wide is the walk ? 23. (tf. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. constructed with and CB as sides. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. of the area of the basin.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. . A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find and CB. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 237. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days. By formula. 24. or x = \/l = 1. 1. ^3^ = 7. 27. and working together.
192 238. 19. Solving. 4 : 89 10a. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.)+72=0. 9. = 1.2 =4. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 16. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4 a. 2 h9:=0. Hence Le. 6. 10. T 17. 2. Ex. 18. a. >. a 21or=100. 4 6. 7. a? 15 1=2*. aV+9o 4 =0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 8. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 436 3. 4. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. 12. y8)=0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. = 13. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.T 2 2 . a4 5o.
the roots are irrational.2) 2 4 3 (. rational. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . rational. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. 3. 241. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 1.5) = 04.2 z . 2. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.f> = 0.bx 4. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. a perfect square. c the roots are real. the roots are imaginary.12 x + 9 = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are rational. Hence the roots are real.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are unequal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . The discriminant =(. Relations between roots and coefficients. and equal. ( 2a Hence 1. 240. Ex. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Ex. the roots are real. is 4ac not zero. and unequal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. b 4. .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . negative. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are equal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.
2 : 3. + 2a.g. 24. lla.. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 21. : a 2 . 9a3 = 0. 2. = 5x. 5aj 9. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 15. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 2 7. 5oj aj + l = 0. their product isf. = 0. 22. + 12 2  . x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 14. tfmx+p^Q. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 12. = 0. ^12. + 2a15 = 0. = Q. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 60 2 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. o.19 # 20. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. x2 7 10. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 12~x = x 2 . 17. 2 a. f 2 E. 23. 18. + 18 2 8. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 6. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 2a 4z5 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 3a. 4. = 0.
the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work.a" = a m n mn . ~ a m f. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. however. = a"" < .* III. The first of these laws is nition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . > m therefore. II. hence. that a an = a m+n . We assume. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. while the second of the first. must be *The symbol smaller than. for all values 1 of m and n. (a m ) w . a m a" = a m+t1 . (ab) . such as 2*. and . provided w > n. It is. Then the law of involution. m IV. 244.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.
3*. 31. 245. 28. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 24. 30. laws. fractional. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. e. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. or zero exponent equal x.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.g. a\ 26. Assuming these two 8*. 0?=^. a?*. 4~ .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. (xy$. '&M A 27. at. 29. . m$. a . 25. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. etc. 23. n 2 a. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. = a. (bed)*. disappear. as. a*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . ml.
a .g. v'mT 36. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 44. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. a * a2 Or a=l. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 43. 3* = 27. hence is . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. Let a = a. 5 a* = 10. 48. Vo5 . equal to unity. = 2. a* * = 3. 41.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 27* = 3. = 49. the base is zero. 46. \fi?. Solve the following equations 39. 50. If. 35. e.\/n.g. : 197 33. 40. a. 37. 246. 45. : 2' 4* = 4. 42. = 2. 38. 49. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. e. \/xy \/m. 7z* Find the values of 47. ty?. To find the meaning of zero exponent. however. v/o&cT 34.
each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. by changing the sign of NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.2 = a2 . 248. etc.g. an x = a. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . . Or a"# = l. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. cr n. Multiplying both members by a". vice versa. e. or the exponent. consider the following equations.198 247. Let x= or".
. 36. 66 45. c 32. 7~ l a 2b 2 . a."* 38. 39. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . : or 5 . 3 a. * 24. rfS. a^ 41. 3 a? * 42. 27. 37. 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 40. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 25. 2 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 22. ^?2 y' 34. : mi m~^. ^L. 2m~i 43. m . 44. 6 or 2 ^^ ^.
55. 49.343)* + (. Ex.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 58. 52.1. 48. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.6). 54.26)* 1 (I) 2 . + A_. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . = l.9*.(. 57. 10* 5* = .81 f (a . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. (. 1. 10* Find the values 56. of: 3ll4~* 60. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 59. = ^. 17' 2 51. . = 5. = . ar = i.001. 53. 61. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 47. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. z 5or*=10. 250. + 1~* f 21 . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.008)* + A. z* = 1.
201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 13. 18. . ' 11.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.6 *' 6 *25. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 7~ 5 27  . 26. a.&. NOTE. 3 a.5. remove the fractional exponents.3 aj" a. . 7. 23. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 17. OA 20. . 3sVS. (d) If required. Perform the operation indicated. 14. 7~ 6 . 79 . 6 *.^/5^5. 16. 4 x^.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 6. &. Remove the negative exponents.4 . 6a.$*.$". S'sS8. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 4 5.7W. 10.5a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.&..7i. V5. 12. are performed.7*. 7*. 72 . #* a. etc. / 7fv 7. 8 ' 9. 27  28.4 a8 . 95 ^9i 5**. 16. 3.
lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. If powers of a?.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252.2 d . 2. 40. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. Ex. signs. ^6. V2. (i. if dissimilar. I VJ + 3VT8 .3\ .e. A/2. 3. 2\ 3*.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^2.10 V2 =  V2. 33. ^30. ^/IT. v/3. V3. subtract surds. ^5. 34. \/7. ^126. 40. 37. 28. in order of magnitude : \/7. To add or form. </20. v/3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . A/3. </2. ^2. 4^/4. ^4. 31. VS. connect them by proper 1. Simplify/a35 ~ o . v^S. 5V2. v/4. ^3. 30. \/5. V3. </3. ^2. 38. 26. 27. ^7. + . s!/3. 32. V5. 39. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. V2. ^4. Arrange 35. 29. Ex. 36.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. Simplify V + 3 VlS. V2.2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.2 V50. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. Simplify V~ .
V18+V32VT28+V2. 3. 12. 9. 4. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 6. 8VT8J2V32 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. . 10. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 13.3V20 + 6V5. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . V175V28+V634V7. 8. 6. 11.J a6 V4 aft. 14. + 3V835V2.
Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 6*. and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.6V35 106 460V35100 . 26^ . 2. y* = Ex. 23.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 3. 1.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
(VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 41. 6. 19. 38. (V6 + 1) 1 . V20 V30. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). + VB)(2V5). a?. 39. 14. (2V3) 8 . 9. v/4. 37. fWa 17. V2aV8^. 25. 7. 28 . V3 V6. 6. VTO. 2 . V3 Vl2.^/2. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 27. 40. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. VlO V15. 18. 34. Vll. V2 V50. . 213 98 11. 10. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). \/3 \^). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 21. (V2+V3+V4)V3. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 15.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (3 20. 8.VSS. 12. v/18 v"3. 13. 3. 2. (Va Va 36. V42. aVa. 40 10 30. 6 V4 5. 4.
Va v/a. 47. Ex. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 48. .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). all monomial surds may be divided by method. 52. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. Ex. a fraction. 60. 43. V3 . (2 45. 49. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 53. 46. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 268. is 1 2. the quotient of the surds is If.y. E. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 44. 51.214 42.
we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.. is illustrated by Ex. /~ } Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.57735. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. by V7. e. . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . metical problems afford the best illustrations. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.73205. however. arithTo find. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have V3 But if 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.by the usual arithmetical method.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Evidently.RADICALS This method. Divide VII by v7. The 2. .g. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 3. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1.
multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. and Given V2 = 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. Vn V7 ' * 8. V3 24 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 271.2361. 272. 7.7320. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 21. . V5 = 2. V8 JL.4142. V5 270. 14. 20. ^/H . V8 12. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V48 25. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. i. A. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V2 22 . 23 .. VffV?. Vll 212*. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V3 = 1.
2. Ex.1 xVtf a. s Simplify a. 1. V82 2V3 1fVS .vffi^T _ . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .RADICALS Ex.= 18.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 3. . .Vs2 .
6V7.7320.2361. 19. V5V7 18> ^SVg. four places of decimals 23 . . J?_. : and V5 = 2.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. v 2V3 28. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V21 = 25 .W3.5 3 = 125. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. find to _!_. 27. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. Given V2 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 24. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. Vo1 26. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . By the use of fractional exponents . = V3 = 1.218 6 .
8. 2. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 4. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 9. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. v8f 2\/15. . \/l6*. 5. In other examples of involution and evolution. viz. 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. it to this form. \/125" . 3 (V2~u)  7. 2. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.RADICALS 219 274. Simplify Ex. 2 12. the If. on the other hand. V255 . 11. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V643 . 1. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. According to G3. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 2 \/18. is 11.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT. and whose product is 18. Find V4 + VJ8.220 Ex. The Hence ^11 .A/2. +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. These Ex.6 V2. Find Vll .6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20. 2.2 \/20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 3. Find Vl2 4.
4x x = 2. Before performing the involution. The value x =2 reduces each . i. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Transposing and uniting. first involution. 19. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Dividing by Check. 4. +=. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 8. are radical equations. r 22. Ex. VT . by raising both members equal powers.e. a. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.1. Radical equations are rationalized. V48 23. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. they are transto formed into rational equations. (2x xrf 1. 5.. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.V48 4 20. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. = xa + 4 x f 4. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. : 221 Vl32V22. 277. member to 2. x2 = x f 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. .
viz. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Transposing and uniting. a. 2. Dividing by 24. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.222 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Squaring both members. 4#f 4 = 9. 5. 3. Transposing. Ex. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Extraneous roots. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0. 278. a socalled extraneous root. at . Therefore CftecAr. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. x = J. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. tion which has two roots. (x 3) (8 x x = 3.1) = 0. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. . one root. viz. Transposing and uniting. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. the first member = V2. V4afT~l. Factoring. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Therefore Check. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. . It = 3 x .3.
If If x 3 = 3. both members reduce to 5. ViTie 4 z2 .12 .RADICALS Hence x If a.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 223 x = 3. 4. Solve the following equations : = G. . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . viz. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Therefore. Factoring. x root of the preceding equation. \ does not satisfy the given. is x V. (x x = 3. .3) (2 x . Transposing. 2 Clearing of fractions. + 6~ieT~3 . the right member = V2. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. for it satisfies the equation . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Hence x = the only root. equation it is an extraneous root. and to 5. Check. Hence there is only one root. = 3. or x *j.2 r. Squaring. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.47) = 0. NOTE.
Factoring. Therefore . Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
5. 3.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. Q . = 0. = 26.f40= 5. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. = 7. . 4. This can be seen without substituting. 2. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 z40 = 7. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 45 14VJB = .35 = 0. 2. x =6 or 3. some of the roots be extraneous. y then x2 .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 412a* = 16.8 x + 40 = 36. 3 6. _ 2 y . 2Va.*2a. Vi 2 8a.i~24 = 0. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2_8z 440 = 49. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x Since both =9 or 1. Substituting. + 40 = 6. o. x + Vx a? = 6. Ex. members of the equation were squared. Let 8 x f 40 .
14. 12. a. +3= 6.226 11. 17. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 16. +x . 15.a 440 = 35. 2. 19.f 18 = 24. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a^x2 5 2 13. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 20. 18. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.
If x* .bx? + ex2 4.2 + 80 = 12. by dividing 3 x* f. ax4 4. Hence.2 + 4. ^ = 381+2. 3 2 Ex." transposing. 1. then (x 2)Q 0. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Ex. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 2.2) Q .2 x 5 by x 3.4 a. no matter If.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . = 2.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). however. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. to x we # = 2 3. even if Q is unknown. E = ax + &z + m) Q.360 = 244. a? R = x* .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. we make a? what the value of Q. does not contain a?. if Q was known. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. could. Without actual division. Without actual division. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. " Or. find the remainder when m. 227 .
2 j 7. + 7 = 632. } 2 by a1.g. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. hence (x divided by x 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 43 3 E. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 6. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.8'= 0. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 5 (4x . 8. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. If the remainder is zero. if 8 42  . x* s 2 4. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.8.g. 3.4(.949. + ^by x + b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 5. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .3)f 11 =. of the division 3) is m in place of x. fora?. The Factor Theorem. x m is factor of the expression.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .228 282. the remainder equals 8 2 x .
or 5 4 + 3^ . p 5^ + 8p 4.e. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2. + ttt15 = 0. then x8 7 x'2 4. a 8a f 19 a 12. & p*. is a factor. 21. 25. 17. a + 32. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 106 division. a^8^ + 19a. or x 4. 1. f 5. 9. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. . x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a? 19. The 5. 20. a 5x 6.13m + 30 10. Factor a? 15. 24. m f m n 14. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 8. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 3. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 11. f 15 does not vanish. 23. _ . Therefore x ( 1). oj 5x2 f3a. 1. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.1.12 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.9^ + 23^15.49 = 0. Let x = . 3 2 : 7.12. f 3.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. i. 2 2. 18. a 2a + 4. are f 1.1. 8. + 15.r6 = 0. Resolve into factors 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.7 + 16 . a. + 27 + 27. 15. 5. 229 1. 6. 7 46 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2m 5m . 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.7 x + 15 = 0. factors of the absolute term. ^10^429^20=0.
By we obtain the other factors. If n is a Theorem that 1. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.g. 2. if n is even.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. : importance. 2. For substituting y for x.xy +/). 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . if w is odd. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 Ex. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. ar +p= z6 e. xn y n y n y n = 0.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. It y is not divisible by 287. is odd. Ex." .230 285. x* f/ = (x +/)O . actual division n. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 286. xn f. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.
preferable. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 27. since it more directly to the prime factors. 26. y 3 +8=0. a.= . x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. as 27=0. Hence = (m Ex. 3.i mn f w 2). Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 28.
however. of quadratics. 4 xy = 16. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. xywe have 3. Squaring Solve (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.1. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. xy are given.y4 is of the fifth degree. x y. in general. (5) Combining (5) with (1). can be solved by the methods degree. 290.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. = 6. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 232 . & + 2 xy + = 25. ==5 > 1^ = 4. * A I. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. (4) Hence. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. If two of the quantities x f y. to equations of the fourth few cases. + 6 a?V .
1. r (" 1 = 876. 12. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7. b=3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 108 2. ' 10. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. = . 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2.g. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. 3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. The arranged in pairs. x and xy are not given.
aj = 2. .?/ i = 6..o 18. 5. or y = 1 . 7 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. one linear and ne quadratic.  . I x+y = a. A system of simultaneous equations. x " (3) 49 etc. Factoring. . 3. la. + 29 = 0.i/ = r 13.~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. r^ 2 as ] f. 19. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.  f J. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Ex.a. ' ' .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.  42 y + Transposing. 4 y = 20. or JJ. 6 "I 14. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 2 (1) From (1) we have. I* Jj ^ [.20) = 0. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.
III. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. If of the preceding type. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. = 1 3 3. ' x*. 9. Solve . quantities. 10. x2y. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. ':il e :) . 3y) : Factor (2). 1. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4 f + 2 y = 3.
y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 2 . 109 a. 15 x2 . 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. (1) (2) x x 5. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. Solve 2. } VI09. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 2. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex.
can be solved by special devices. 150 */2 . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Division of one equation by the other.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. 298.xy 4.6.3^42^=43. " IV. and others not belonging to them. Bxy9.!.y = 7.175 ay = 12. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). ' ^ 15. A. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). y? a? f .125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. . E. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. f 1 150 a?. (4) (3). which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.
from (2). B. y . quadratics can be solved by ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. * ' 300. Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. x +y y etc. 2. we have from (1). x 2 .. y = 3.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. we obtain by squaring. xy. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i ^ *>. = 12 J. Some simultaneous ?/. jc~ y = 9. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 189. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Solve Ex. (1 > (2) 1. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x .
[2x + : y= 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. F+y+ . 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence = V or = 4. M6. 6. 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . 36* 2. 2. 7.
' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.21 ^ = 15. . 27. 19 ' 26. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. f 18. 16. . = y 1 y* . = 198. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 25.
Q 7. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . ~\ OK OO.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. etc 302. finite  =x y if = x. etc. . y % 9 f*K 36. 25 34. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 32. hence may be any finite number. 3 a2 38. . 7' j/ 39.of  According to the definition of division. = 48201. . or ~ indeterminate. 33. as a . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 31. ^ oo . oo 301. Interpretation .
By making x any * assigned zero. = 10. i. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.g. I. Or.decreases X if called infinity. (1) is an identity.increases if x de x creases. Hence such an equation identity. great.242 303.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.x'2 2 x = 1. The ~~f fraction . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.e. ToU" ^100 a. without exception. (1) = 0. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. . (a: Then Simplifying. equation. it is an Ex. .can be If It is made larger than number. the answer is indeterminate. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. 1. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. x f 2. oo is = QQ.000 a. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . 1. (1). Let 2. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. and becomes infinitely small. cancel. and . be the numbers.e. 306. as + l. creases. or that x may equal any finite number. is satisfied by any number. TO^UU" sufficiently small. i.
The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. (2). Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve . Hence /. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.e. Solve  9 7.8 x + 15 6. and the sum of Find the numbers. * 6. and a. Solve x a. 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. two numbers is 76. EXERCISE 1. 1=0. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. = oo.2 y = 4. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. . z = 1 Substituting. y finite QO. 42 and' their product is 377. 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum is of squares 2890. third and sixth parts. is their 2.
The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 10. Find the numbers. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find these sides.244 3. 14. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. equals 4 inches. 12. p. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the edge of each cube. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. two numbers Find the numbers. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. The area of a nal 41 feet.quals 20 feet. Find the edges. of a right triangle is 73. and the diago(Ex.) 53 yards. . the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. is 6. 8. and the hypotenuse is 37. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 9. increased by the edge of the other. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 6. 255 and the sum of 5. of a rectangular field feet. Find the sides. and the edge of one. 103. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 146 yards. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the side of each square.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 190. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the other two sides. 148 feet of fence are required. and the sum of ( 228. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 13. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the sides of the rectangle.
the quotient is 2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. irR *.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) 17. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. is 20 inches. Find the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.
. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. 2 d must be added to a. (n 1) d must be added to a. 11. . . to produce the 3d term.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. 4.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308..) is a series. a.7. P. series 9.. to produce the nth term.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 16. 10. f .. to each term produces the next term. The common differences are respectively 4. An arithmetic progression (A. P. 12. 3 d must be added to a. : 7. . 19. of a series are its successive numbers. The progression is a. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. a 3d. of the following series is 3. The first is an ascending. the second a descending. except the first... 3. added to each term to obtain the next one. P. 17. 309. To find the nth term / of an A. a + 2 d.1) d.. Since d is a f 3 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. + 2 d. Hence / = a + (n . and d. each term of which.. progression. a f d. a 11. to produce the 4th term. 15 is 9 f. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a + d.
Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5. 6. = I + 49 = *({ + .. 3.. (a + + (a + l) l). 5. Find the nth term of the series 2. d = 3..4. 7. 10. 3.8. 1. 3. the term a. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). . 19. 2. 8. 4. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 5. 7. 21.3 a = l. 5. a = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. P. 99) = 2600. 9. = 99... Find the 12th term of the 4. . 2J. ? (a) 1. 4^. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6.. 1. d . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 3. .. of the series 10.. 9. 2 EXERCISE 1..PROGRESSIONS 310.. = 2. Find the 5th term of the 4.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 1J. 6 we have Hence . 6. P. 24. 115. . 5. series .. P.' cZ == .. . the last term and the common difference d being given... .. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 7. = a + (a Reversing the order. 8. Adding... series 2. (d) 1J. if a = 5. 2. 3. .16. 8.
to 16 terms. to 20 terms. + 3. to 7 terms. 1. 12. 31. to 20 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. : 3.248 Find the 10. . '. 20. 11. striking hours only. . 15.5 H + if f to 10 terms.1 f 3.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. strike for the first yard. 7.7 f to 12 terms. 6. 1. 3. . 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 15. 21. . (x +"l) 4. and for each than for the preceding one. 18. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 13. 22. to 10 terms. Jive quantities are involved. hence if any three of them are given. to 20 terms. 1J. 11. 2J. rf. 29. Sum the following series 14. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . . 16. P. 12. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. > 2f 2. 1. 11. (i) (ii) . to 15 terms. 17. 23. 11. In most problems relating to A. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 19. 7. . 4. 15. 33. 2. to 8 terms. 7. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000.. . \n. 8. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.
#. 133. 89. 78. 6 n2 . 34.~n~\ 408 6).6 n). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = a + (w.6. if a. or if x Solving. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 56. = n(104 . . 111. Findn.104 w + 408 = 0. n d. 2 (2) From Hence (2). But evidently n cannot be fractional. 100. . = 13. Find the series. 78 n Substituting in (1). 1. or 11 J. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 23. 312. if s = 204. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the second one mean between the other two. P. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 144. Ex.PROGRESSIONS Ex. J = 49. = 1014. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.e. P. Solving. a = 49 6(71 . I Substituting in (I) and (II). P. 204 = ^ (98 . l)e?. is 12. s 24ft last term 144. The first term of an A. d = 6. 2. = 1014. and b form an A. 67. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). hence n = 6. I.1) . 204 = ^ (a + 49). The series is. 122. Substituting in (2). From (1)... the and the sum of all terms 1014. 45. 6. = 144. 12.1). n = 6. a = 12.
11. s == 440. 14. a+ and b a b 5. Find n. I. n = 20. How much did he save the first month? 19. Find d and Given a = 1700. 4. y and #f5y. Given a = 1. = 1870. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n has the series ^ j . of 5 terms 6. Find d. a x f b and a b. Given a = . Given a = . m and n 2. n = 16. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = ^ 3 = 1. = 16. n = 4. d = 5. n. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 17.3. 12. and s. has the series 82. P. Find a and Given s = 44. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Find a Given a = 7. s = 70. f? . 15. 78. f J 1 1 / . T? ^. Find w. = 83. 16. produced. 74. = 17. . Find?. = 52. 17. 6? 9. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 13.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Find d. How much . n = 13. 8. I Find I in terms of a. 3. Given a = 4. 10. = 45. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. ceding one. 7.
is it (G.) is a series each term of which. NOTE. I. ratios are respectively 3. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 2. <zr . . ar. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. 36. 4. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 108.. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. The 314. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . r n~ l . . . or 81 315. 12. 36. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. P. . or. . 4 (1) .. P. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. of a G.. 36. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. The progression is a. E.g. 4. called the ratio.. (I) of the series 16. and To find the nth term / of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 24. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. +1. A geometric progression first.. If n is less : than unity. ar8 r. 2 a. . 24. P.. is 16(f) 4 . rs = s 2 .arn ~ l .
Ex. P. series 6.l. 144. 288. 9. volved . +f%9 % . 144. Find the 6th term of the series J. 8. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G... 576... 10. 7. if any three of them are given. series . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. . or 7.18.54. fa. . 0. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'._!=!>. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 4. \ t series . 80. 9. 2 term 3. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 36. 1. + 5. 4. Hence the or series is 0. 6. . whose and whose second term is 8. r^2. f. 676. EXERCISE 1. In most problems relating to G. ? (c) 2. first 5. (b) 1. 20. P. whose and whose common ratio is 4.5.. series 5.18.5. 36. Jive quantities are in.*.. Hence n = 7. 72. first term is 125 and whose common . . .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. fa. l. a = I. i 288.. 144.288. .72. And the required means are 18. first term 4. 9. (it. . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. (d) 5.6.. . f. I = 670. 72... 36. Find the 5th term of a G. is 3. 25. is 16. P. 18. whose .. hence. . . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. P. 3....4. .
. n = 5. r . to 7 terms. 22. J. Find a and Given r = 3.. 23. to 6 terms. a. == 160. . 19. 25S series : 32.nV> i*> !718. of r n decreases. 20. 243. I.i a9 . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 1. 14. s = 605. 2. >"> . Z s. 24. to 7 . 126. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. may be than any assignable number.. 48. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 8 terms. P. 4. 81. to G terms. 12 terms. Find a and n = 4. 16 . is less than unity. 54. a^. s = 310. = 3. 36. . . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 72. to 5 terms. .. 81. 1. M. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 6 terms.. + 4 . 12.. and hence ~ r . 21. J. n = 5. . J. J.. 14. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 15. Find the geometric mean between 7. 27. = 3. 13. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 42. Find a and 4. be written If the value of r of a G.J and 270. . Given r = n Z 5.
. The sum Find the of an infinite G. and the first term is Find 17. Hence . Find the value 9. . 5. Find the sum to infinity.27777 . 13. is 9.37272 ... 1. 66 Therefore . 3. . Given an infinite series of squares. 100. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.. . 10.)7?7272 .555.191919.. . . r = j.= _4Z* . 9. 16. i i J...= . 1 r = .3727272 .72. =A+ 10 i... of all squares ? .717171. i.3121212.. The sum r. 4.00072 f . 1.. If a = 40. 40. 8.. = . 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. first and the common term. 4. ratio 15. .. .. (6) the sum of the perimeters. ... 8. 9. . = 990 . 1. P. = . 5. ...... what is (a) the sum of the areas.. . 6.254 Ex.... of: 11. .3 + .01 ^ ... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. . 2.072. is 16. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 16. 2. ..99 . 7. of an infinite G. is J. P.. . = a . I. 6. . . 12. 12. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.072 + .272727. 14.1.. P.Ql... 250.
16. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. .b ). 4. 13. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . : (1 + xy. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (s + i). 10. Find the 6th term of (x . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 2 2 24. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . . 12. 7 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 20. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (a 100 . coefficient of . 28. . a6 8 16 in . 29. 22. l 2. 26. 15. (a + b) .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a2) 6. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.6) . . 25.b) w (a (a f (1 . 4 7. 11. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. (\ 9 . 21.6) 20 . 5. (xy) : 6 . 17. /2a+Y\ 8. 14. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .
6. 4. 2. 2. + c(a  c). 4 2. 2. if x^l. 1. 5. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 1. c if 7 . l. 2.  2. ft) . 2. 3. . 5. 6. 2 . 2.  a)(a 1. ft 4 ) 5. 4. 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 3. 2. 5. 5. 3. 3.  8 ^ 2. 3. 1. 1. 4. 2. 5. 6. 1.a(a 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. aft 3 + 4. 4. 2. 1. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.  2. 3. ^+^ 3. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. y 3. (c 3. 1. = 2. 2. 4. . 2. 3. 2. 1. 7. + 1. 2. + 2. 2. 3. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. a ft c = = 2. 3. 2. if = = = 2. + 2. 2. 5. 2. 1. 4. 1. 3. 5. 2. 4. 5. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4.c )(fta) 1. 1. 1. if a ft c = = = 4.f ac 1. 3. 2. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 4. if y=2j 2. 2. 3. 1. 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. 2. c = = = 2. 2. 4. 4. 1. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 3. 3. 5. if = = 2. 3. 2. 24 4. 4. 2. 3. 6. 1. 1. 3. 6. 2.
5. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . + 3 y 2* .a 5 a . 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2. 5.7 y 2* 4.  a) (c 2.3 a?y . 1.2.3 xyz. . r> .8 y y 5 4 * 8y.8 3 + 7 x4 . or . 41. 15. 40. + 8 x4 *y . 8. 2 . + 1. 26.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 5.259 x c) . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . (5.c' 2 4 / .2 x2 . 8 . 4 y 13.1.2 a?y + 3 aty . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. c = 3.4. 4 z . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . + 2.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . .7 ys. 20.5. 7y 4 . 15. 2 x 8. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 21. 2. 29.8 + 2 // .2 x?/. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .a 4 . 12.a) .x 5 4 . 24. x = 4. x C 4 4x y + . ' b) + 3.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2. 5. 17. b(x (b 1. 16. + 4 ?y .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4.2. 4. . 2  + 12 a 8 . 6. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 3. ~c)(b.r 6 x  4 xy . x3 2 a2 . 7 xy 3 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 4. 10. 21. x 3 x' 14. a 4 + 11 a . f 8.a8 . = 2. 1. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 3. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a /> 3. 4 x 4 . 25. if a 6 = = c = 3. 9. a: .2 z8 4 x. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. + 4.10. 9. 18. . x 3 11. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .\ yz + xz.7 + . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . c)(x a} . 7.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . a. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . a.
3 .(x* .4 Vl 4.1).(4 x 2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4\/i + x 3Vl 4.{G * 2 .2 . 5 10 + 7 . 3 ft. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 4 .5. From of 2 the 4. and . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .{2 x 2 .c 3 a. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.[4 z 8 . 34. Simplify 31.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . f ft. 542 x 2 and . take the sum of G x 5 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 33. Take the sum of 3 x 4. c 4ft.6T . 29.5 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 4vTT~y 3. 35.] 26.4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.3.(a .8 3 4. c =x y }~ z. Take the sum 4x 4. (*) a  c. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. c 4. .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . = x y ft z.2) .2 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . ft. 5 4 7 12 .c 4 3 a.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.4) .(x 4.27~~7)}].1)}] . . sum of . .(5 y .3 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . a  ft + c.(5 c . ft 25. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. of a.x .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.6 x ] . 4 2 x2 23. 5 10 4 G 11 4.a ft. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. x'2 .(7 x 4. 36.2 3 ax 2 . 0" 30.#48.2 a . 2 x 32. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.x . x8 x2 2 a'2x.x2 . 4 4 4.?> x 4 20.(4 * .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .x 4.. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . : a x . 7 12 .260 19. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.7.3 x .c. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.x 2 4.4 ft) 4. .2 x 8y2 44 .c. 4 3 5 y/ .[4 x 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .
2 f [3 c 7 a . (x .(7 i + 4 r:) . + 4x + 5)(j.(2 x2 .Z .(2 a 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . . a {. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (. 62. 68.(7 a. 63. .(6 .3 c)].0)} .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 13 a . (1 ar+a.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 59.c). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 45.3 *).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(5 y .r 2:c+ l)(ar. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (r (1 (a.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.12).be) (a 58.5)} + (3 a 2 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 2 52. 54. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .56. 2 53.[2 .6c) (a + f c).(2 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 4 + 2 2 + 1). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .2)(1 .(4 d . 2 ft 41. .2a .  2 a  {3 2x a .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .{3 c . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 43. a .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .{2 a . 57.4 a . . 51.& + {.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].3c).7). (/> 4 .3)(*5)(* 7).2 2 .c 2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . )(lz a ). 2 : 7e)a}].JT^T+1)} + (2 . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 50.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.2 2 + 1)(7. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 3 x 42. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).2c(V/ .[4 x  5 . 60.b (c . (x. . 48.3 z 2 ). 2 2 x + !)(* . .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 65. 'J 44. . 64.2x + 3). (1 55. + *+!){> + 2). 49. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.6 xy .4 a 2 + a 4 ).2 zz .rf)} + a [.6)}].1).ab . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.ac . 56.5 )}] + {4 c .{2 a (ft . (4 + 3a 2 . (5 a 39. . . (.3).a~^~c)K].96 [17 a. 67.(2 a + 5 a . 46.
Prove the following 8 4. 4 4 . 75. 74.(c 4. f 72.(4 . b 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 87. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .y + z)(x + y .r 2 .a) 2 .6*y . (x (x ( + *) . 77.am&t 4 A 2 *).c)].x + y + z). ft 78.c) 4) (ft 4.3 (ft .c) . .c) j. 73.2 ft}) f (3 a .ft) 4 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).2y)(.:y)( a. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c)} . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 90. 70.5 . ft 95. ft ft ft a}.z) . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 2 (x 2 . 85. 86.3y) a (* 2 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 76.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).m np c .v) 4.c) rr identities.c) . 79.z)(x y + z)(.(ft 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c . .262 69. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 2 + a 2 ). 84. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 82.O (a 4(a 4.(/>  3 v)^(.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (a (2 b)*(a 4. 71.y). (.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).n pc). 1).y)\x y).ft) + 4(2 .c . 93. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ft" l Simplify 80. ar . 1). 91. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 94.2 (a .(a 48 8 8 4.3 a . 88. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 89. xy y 2 ).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) 2 .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .z\x 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.2 (y 4. 92. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .b 4. 83.<f(p .q). ft /. .9y2). 4.{3 a . (p 2 .(a 2) (s 4 ft.
(a 1 2 8 . [10( 4.*) (x 8 . . 108.6 y 4 4. 118. (8 x* 115. (2< 107.b) 98.3 a"+ 4.16 a 6 4. 105.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 106.y 4 . 2 (a+ . r . 1).(x 2 . 10).5 xy).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).2 xy 8 . 116.&). 109. 2 4 41 x 4a. 117.(7 xi/ .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 103.4 aft .) . 113.35 x 2 2 ) . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 123. 124. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 26 (a 4 c).27 x* . (80 a 112. 121.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.40 />) . 3*. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.y 2 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). a*.y 4 ) . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.9 x 2 .(2 a 2 .1).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.5 b*).a". 1O4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 114. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 122. . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).r 4 4. 99 100. 25 4 . 102.2y 2 4. 110.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).2 2% 4.v/ ~ // = a: . (.xy 4. 120.
2 7^~5] + 1). 142.3) = 12 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 42(3ar 145.n .9) + 3.3) (3 x 4.4) . x 147.18 *&) (1 . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2) + 2(ar + 4). . .264 125. 1) . y (* l x.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(1 . . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.19) + 5 = 4 . 136. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2(4 .3).2(10 x .2) = 3 . (*+ + .3 x).3(* + 4) + 9} .(j a? 144.5{. . 148. 143.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 127.5) = 12(4 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.r>) . 139.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .G) .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2(5 .27 a 3" .4) . 149.(x . . 126.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.3(2 z .7) = 4 .1) (a? .4(0 x . (4 x . 5 146.r + 7[or . 1) = 2(* .5).2) (a: + 3).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 129.8 6 .12 M 132.9) 4. o o 140. 137.1) . 135. 3(2 x 134. 7(2 x . .2(j: . . (5a: 150. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 5(2 x .a:)]}. 10(2 x 141. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.3 a:).(x f 9). 2 4(ar .7(4 * .3). 138.(x + 3) ] .22. 128. 3) = x\x .
+ 2) + (5 . f^ + ^sO. and the third twice as many as the first.2) (j? + 1) + (x . = 15.14) (a: + 3). 159.8) = (2 x 4. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.? . 160. + 10) (ar .1) O + 4) = (2 * .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. The second contains 3 first. 158. (7 14 .(5 x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. If the area of the frame inches. . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .9) + (a.5 x) = 45 x .3) (a: .r + 3) . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (2 . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. .1) (s + 3). How many 170.5*) + 47. + 4) (2 x + 5). (a .2) a + 7(x . 157. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.a:) + 229. .3) (3 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.3) (3 . (x (x a. = 2 C. 164.T)O . 5(ar x .3) (j. =  (F 32). transformed into F.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (a) If C. sheep more than the 169.3) = (3 x .5)(.6 x) (3 . these two angles would be equal.2 x) (4 . find the value of F.17) 2 + (4 x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.2). + 5) = (9 .z) (4 . 156. 265 152. (3 O + .l)(z . . 163. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. .25) 2 .7) (a. 165. 2 4 . will produce F.5) = (3 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 166. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5(x . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .. 162.2 x) = (1 . 161.29) 2 = 1.19) + 42.7) (1 x . The sum What 171.2) (7 *) + (*.76. 154. 155. (a.4) (a .24. 153. a: ar a.
12 m. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. . was three times that of the younger. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. + a. if each increased 2 feet.266 173. two boys is twice that of the younger. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 178. 187. 190.36. power one of the two Find the power of each. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. + 11 ~ 6.56. 176. train. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A boy is father. 180. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. father. z 2 + x . 3 gives the 174. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. A each 177. sister . x* 185. ll?/102. 7/ 191. 10x 2 192. number divided by 3. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 15 m. and 5 h. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 181. 4 a 2 yy 42. respectively. 179. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. Find the dimensions of the floor. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. How many are there in each window ? . 13 a + 3. aW + llab2&. 186. side were one foot longer. 2 2 + a _ no. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 188. A house has 3 rows of windows. +x 2. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. Find the number. same result as the number diminished by 175. . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. dimension 182. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. . 189. z 2 92. younger than his Find the age of the father.
15 x 2 + 26 x a . 12 x +4.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.x + 1. a 2 . 8 a: ar. 212.6 aq . 211. ifWy+b.64. 3y 248. a.19 a . *2 234. 202. 3 ap 2 .21 a:  54. 239. 218. a^a 226. 217. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . xm+l 243.1. 8 a.22 z + 48.12 * . # 2  29 y + 120.6 y2 + 4. 213. 233. 2 200. 3 x 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 3 x V . x* + 8 2 + 15. 208. 227. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 221. 2 2 y f 1. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 201. 2 a 8 . 24 2 + 2 .10 y a x* . 215.6 2 ?/ . 2 a 2 . 216.c) 2 . x 219. 238. + 198. z 2 2. a. 5 x 2.(b + rf) 2 . 203. + 8. 2 . wiy + la mx + aw. 222. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 3y 2 + ary . . x 5 .c) 2  (a . a: 231. 224. 7a 228. 6 197. . 235. 4a 2& 2 241. 267 199. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 2  5 xy 13 y a.10.3 xf + 3 * 2y . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10 xy. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 207. x*y 223.20 z 8 a: 220. 210. 195. 2a te 3% ly 247.3 c/> + 6 cq. 206.28. a. + 3a 196. 232.6s. 7x 2 225.19 z 4 204.r?/f y 2 9. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . a: 236.3 xy. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 23 12. + 30 x.8 6 2. .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 2 x 2 .6. a+a* + o a +l. 4 m +^. a: . 246. y 2 194. 209. 229.77 y + 150. 244. . . 245.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. + 2 . a. (a + . . z + 5x 2 . 230.14 2 . 16x 4 81. a a: a: 237.
G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).a + 2 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 263. of: 253.7 f 5. F. * 2 . 261. 254. 259.r . 2 + 7 r f 2.2 z .10.15 + 30.23 + 12. 6.4.12. . a. a? a: a: // 262.11 a 2 . 3 a% 2 .3 x . x*y* 4. a: . 270.9 x . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 8 . * a . 269. 10 a. z 2 267.14 bx a%% 8 . x 2 .x .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.9 x + 14. x 2 + 4 + 3. 260. C. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. + 23 x f 20.48 afy 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . + 20 x 4.18 xy + 5. I Find the II.4 ab + 1. 252. 265.16 x .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 30 ^ .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .C.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 10 x 2 . 2 a. 7 ax 250. x 2 4. ft a.2 aft*.1 9 . x* . 15 # 2 z/ /.23 x f 20. a 3 a 2 2 .&z.(55. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .9. 3 ay 4. 264. z 2 268.5 ab f 2. of: 266.91.M. 1 x ar Find the L.120. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 258. x 2 + 2 x . 8 2 + 10 x .11 x f 28. 251. a 4. 257. 22x2 a.6 by. 7 12 2 2 . 18 x 2 . * 2 .ry 21.8.13.ry . 2 x2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.80.3 abc .G7 x f 33.15. 3 #2 255.73 xy . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. x* .10 a 4. 28 2 f 71 x .2/ 2 . 5 x 2 256.3. 2 . x 2 + 5 f . + 3 x + 2. + 8. + 8 x + 5.a 2 />c 2 f 3. * 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .36.
J' 4 2 2 w mp . z2 (a 2 + c)a.(y 2 z) * t (j.!/.. + ac . a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2c a: 282.2* + 3 x* 280. 8 . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . *2 " 2 + Oge.rL. 285 z4 n* + a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. 289 ' .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .ar 1 279.
2 + 7 _ 44 3. 4 3 301. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . O(ca) 306. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . * 19 23 19(23 23. x 7. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. Lnl + ar 2 a.
 1 x2 + + a.. } . 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317. (1 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. _ x8 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1a: + y a.ft) 2 322. a: 1 313. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1 _. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. . . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.(a .
. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .ll./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. * 3a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.7 xy + 12 x .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.2 +lOar 2 a. a: 2 x* . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. . .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.y20  2y + 4 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 250 5 10 2 325.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .V  + y  x 3y a .6* t 328. 20 44 333.9 *// + 27 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 lOx 5x.5 a ..15 33 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.
1V. aj 339. w \.+ r . (a \ + lV.r 5 2 . 348. +^ a: y x . \5yl 341. ** i. (aWi + iJ. 352. \x yj 340. (ar \ 346. xi 347. ' 2 "l 5 . (af2/. a>74 . 5 343. f V. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. : 1+ i. + ni + ..) 2 . 7 ( ?f!?.y. + l + IV. ( 342. 338. 344.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ?_2 ^ . a: 349 _ o. if a = 3. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 1 345. fl. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.REVIEW EXERCISE 336.
(~ 364. + x x a . I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. _ + l a 359. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. . b c 368. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .
*2 = 15. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 379. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. __4 2x 3_ = !. J !__7. 4(* . <3 378. ^ . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. . 5 {2 x 381. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 8  376. .
 J). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 399. ^ (a . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 397.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 396.25. b 404. f 1 1 + a 403.25 x + .2 a:  1. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 x =r f . u '2 a. 40. . 400.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.  8 9* x ~r. 401. _____ .5 ^ ~ a: a.. c . 3* 177. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391..6  . a.75 x f .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.1 .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .147. m x 398. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. + 4 a.
418 ~jo.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 18 be subtracted from the number. Find the number. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.  a) 2 6 2a. Tn 6 hours . (x .(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. the order of the digits will be inverted. 411. How long is each road ? 423. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . and was out 5 hours. 421. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . In a if and 422.c) . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.278 410. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 420. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. far did he walk all together ? A .
of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 433. 428. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. x 427. a + 5.6 8 ). if .49 63).a 2^ 8 + aft* . and : b : c = 14 : 15. y. Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the fourth proportional 426. 430. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). : If is one equal 434. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 431. 435. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.& 5 ) (a 8 .46 2): (15a 2 . a. wi* + y= ny. z 2 y. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. z2  y\ x* xy + y*.iand 22 22 I a . . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . If a b : =5 n : 7. ax is \ by  ex + dy. b. : i. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 2 2 8 2 . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). find the angles of the triangle. d. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Which ratio is greater.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 432. a  t>. 3 and 1J. Find the length of the parts. 438. find : a : c. . Solve 436. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.
what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. Solve the following systems: 441. 5j + 7 7 = = 2.4 12 . 9/> = 2 . />(. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . /) ar a. 4 = 5 y + 29. 56 + 10y = 7a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 449. 459.(or l(*2y)=0. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 1(3  a. 3 .7 y = 25. 5 2 = 7 . 445. 7 442. ?/ 447. 5z4:# = 3. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 451. Find the value of a.*. 444. 446. a. 443. c. 8 x + y = 19. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. a: a: + 5y). 16.59 = 3 z.rf2# = l. 7 a: . = 25. 7a?y = 3. The volumes If their diameters. 457. 3 a. 450. a: 2y= = 1 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 8 . ft. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 28 = 5 a .. . 458.55 y = . ft. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). x + 17 # 53. 5x+4y=lQ. . 7jr9y = 17.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . .11 7. 452. 454. 456.11 y = 95. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 455. . + 5y = 59. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). if 2 ft : 439. 453. 42 = 15y + 137.35. 448.89 = q. 9ar7# = 71. .
4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.2y) (2 = 2J. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.7. 473.+ =2. 475. ^ + i^ = 7. 8 461. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468. + eyn. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. i = 5. _ 469. (or . x y 474.c=563y..  = 2. ax cx by = m. ax by = c \ 472. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.?/ + 1 .
A number consists of two digits 4. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. How much money less 484. years. and the other number least. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 479. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 485. 481. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 487. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. to . least The sum of three numbers is is 21. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find the numbers. Find the numbers. the Find their ages. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the fraction. . and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find the principal and the rate of interest. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 483. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. whose difference is 4. fraction becomes equal to . if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A spends \ of his. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. by 4. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the number. Find their ages. and in 20 months to $275. age. and in 18 months to $2180. 477.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 486. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100.
2 2 = 41. .? + 2y = 8. 2y + 3a = ll. a: 499. z y ifi = z x 502. = 20. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. a. y Solve : x +z= 5. 3 a: + 5=84. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 489.z = 12. x f y f z 29 . . and the difference of their Find the numbers./ 504. 494. 2/>3r = 4. 1+1 = 6. 2a:f 7. 3ar 503. = 15. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 8. 2 a. a number . \ . : Solve the following systems 491. 498. 4 506. + y 5 y = 101 . x s + y z = 18J ./ f z =a. a: + // = 11. + # +z= 35. 7 + 2 z . = 209. 3 x 500. 1. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 490.REVIEW EXERCISE 488.5#+2z = $x a: G. . 492. x y f z = 13. 7. ~ 507. ifi = x a. 493. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . * + 425  = .z = 20. 5^ 9z = 10. 2y + 2z = a: 2. . 4 497. 495. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a. *i. a. z y x 25 . 2 e. a: f z = 79. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 496.
ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. z z =3a&c. !f == 2800. 523. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. 36 + c. + + 3579 2+?. 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.
An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. if and L. 90. AC in /). they would have met in 2 hours. it separately ? 531. E 533. When weighed in water. it is filled in 35 minutes. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. . M. CD. touches and F respectively. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. L. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . In circle A ABC. 532. if L and Af in 20 minutes. and BE. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 527. and CA=7. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Tf and run together. . the first and second digits will change places. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Find the present ages of his father and mother. AB=6. B and C and C and A in 4 days. How long will B and C take to do . and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 530. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. in 28 minutes. BC = 5. if the number be increased by Find the number.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. If they had walked toward each other. Find the numbers. N. What are their rates of travel? . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born.
The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. x*. to do the work? pendulum.  3 x. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 547. If to feet is the length of a seconds. . x 2 + x. The greatest value of the function. 2  x  x2 . a.  7. from x = 2 to x = 4. x 2 544.e. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. FRANCE. 546. The values of x if y = 2. 545. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.10 marks. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. . 550. formation of dollars into marks. 543. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . + 3. the function. 540. c. e.  3 x. 548. x*  2 x. then / = 3 and write = 3. x 8 549. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 x + 5. 2 541. d. 542. i. 2. b. if x = f 1. z 2  x x  5. 3 x 539. One dollar equals 4. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The values of y. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. GERMANY.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 536. 2. x *x + x + 1.
3 = 0.6 + 3 . c. if y =m has three real roots. z 4 .9 = 0.r 1 561.3 x . . 553.= 0.4 . Solve// = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 556. If y +5 10. e. 2 8 .= 0.  2 1 a: a.17 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. x 4 .4 = 0. . 568. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. . a.7 = .15 = 0.5 x . \ to t = 5. 2 a. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 3 x . 2 554. 558. i.3 x . 572.1 = 0.11 = 0. 563. 2. a. and make the unit of the b. g. a? 4 x . Represent meters. + 10 x . 3 . ' = 8. 566. 2 567.r . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 15. x* . 565. f. j.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. + 5 . Solve 552. x 2 ~ 2 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 564. a. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. r?. = 5. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.3 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 18 x  4 = 0. a: 559. 562. 3 x* . z 2 .13 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 557.4 x 2 + 4 .r a: a: x a. x 5 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 2 x 2 560. 555. J.0.G . h. 3 + 3 z . c.
+ . 1 . 600. x [ ?/ 577. 595. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.2 6a: + 30 &c a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . xY. 585 594.4. 6 + 1) . j^f = 3. a:. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . a 612. 588. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 592. 597. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 582.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 4 (1a:) 3. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .(1 . 5 a*. 598. 593. 3 (f.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 604.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . (1 + x a. 64 a 12 603. (# 2) . 609. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. jj+. a: . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.5 xy = 0. (a  8 ft) . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 3 . x + z2) 8 . 2 611. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + ^) + (air%)8.frf : 583. 2  2 aa: 2 . (1 (1 (1 .x + 2 )'2 601.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 589. + + 4 . 599. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. a 2a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a. a 8 606. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 4 a.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. . (aiy. 4 . 579. : y* or 25. 608. (a. [ y =10.2 2 + y. 596.%) 4 (aa. f ?>) 3 591. 9  4 fSb 607.
650. 40.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 2. 651. 0090. /.1024 x + a: 256. 25023844. Find the eighth root 617. 32 631. 210.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 2 21 x = 100. 637. 625 : 621. 632. 494210400001.12 a?y + y*. V 635. VOIOOD + V582T09. *+* = 156. x 2 . f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 21. 942841. 644. 620. According to Kepler's law. 371240.*. 44352.49.2.871844. = 0.191209. 622. V950484 . 2 + 189 z = 900. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 626. 49042009. 643. 3a. 624. + 24 a 2 4 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 639. 634. 49.\/4090. 628. 647t x 2 648 649. x 2 641. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.53 x ~ . Find the square root of 619. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 615. = . = 70. + 54 'x*y* .V250 . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .150. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 645. + 112 a 8 . 614. 7) 2.15174441.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.30. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 4370404. 8*' + 24* = 32. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 636. (x 9 x 646. = 87. 4J. 630. 2 + 21Ga. 9g. find Jupiter's period. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 633. 9a. 035. 623. GGff. ft . 638. : 5. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 629. a 642.2410. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
707. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.c = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 702. ax 2 698.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 699. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 695. 693.a a )jr . = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 706. 2 2 697.ax . a. 694. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ex abc= fx 0. . 692. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 708. 2 2 .bx . 696. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.
40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 729. Find two numbers whose 719. 716. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. .292 709. in value. 725. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. a: 713. 723. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 12 4*+  8. sum is a and whose product equals J. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.25 might have bought five more for the same money. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. A equals CO feet. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. and working together they can build it in 18 days. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 717. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 721. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 3or i 16 . If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.44#2 + 121 = 0. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. **13a: 2 710. Find the price of an apple. 16 x* . 217 . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 727. 722. 724.
40. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 39.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). . 37. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . .2 ). 52. 41. (v/x). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 33. 38. 46. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 34. 42.1 + c.l). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 43.)(ai + &.aft* 1 + a 2*.1 f c" ). 35. 36. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).X . 32.1 f ^ 2).2? 50.1 + x. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. n. 1 6. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).2)(x2 4. 31.
JU. [1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.1+J 756. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 758. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 2V2 2V3 ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 754.. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 761. 768. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.294 753. 757. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759.
f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 7512V21. a 9442V5. 10 785. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 783. x 782. 786. 789.VlO. 16 + 2V55. .12VIT.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 103 788. 3812VIO.2 V30. 3J . 806. 794. c 792. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 92VI5. 787.4 V(j. . 14 791. 793. + 2V21.2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. 13 799. . 790. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.
f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 830. 816. + 103Var. Va: .g. 819. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 820.V? = 813.13 = 0. VaT+lJ f ^l . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 811. /9ar a: = 17. + ViTli + V7 . V3 f 1 V4a. 818. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 3 x + 2 . V14 a. 836. 812. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . = 1.f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.  5 + V3 f 12 817.Vc^lJ . 814.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 831. 815. + Vx . x/aT+l . 833.V2 ar 10.4 = 0.\/2y  810.79. 829. \/12 a.
8 . 8 860. f b**. V4 x 2 . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a 872. z*y 8 l64a.12.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 2 f" + a/ 15.ab9 ft*. a 18 4. 27 862. + . 2 x 3. 844. 8 a.1. a. a. 4 x 8 858. 8^27^.a. + 512 y8 874. 4 x* 847. 4o.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a.3 . 16 859. 875. a 8 850. 4 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 868. 846. . 5 a 4 7 a8 . . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 839. x 4 + f 2 a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 275 8 l.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 8 848.10 = 118. a. 845. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 863. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a l0m . 856. 8 2a. f 12. a 8 869.3 x .3 Va: 2 . . 8 8  13 a. a*" & 6n .  3x a. 27 y 8. 4 a: 2 842.x*y + 3x f 2. 2 a: 64 y*. 64 a 866. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 852. a: . +3 4 +  4. 19 x 14. 8 4a: 8 a. 64. 9. . a: 849. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 855. y 4. a. 864. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 6. f 841. .3 a:. 853. + 1.28 a 4 xy 8 80.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 865. a 8 873. 861. 871. 876.1000 6. x 8 2 857. 729 867. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 851. 840. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 870.
y = 28. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 2 = 16 y. . a: 1 1 _ 5 892.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.y 2) = 20. y*+ xy . 3 x 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. xy + y = 32.15. 1 x 893. 886. +y f y = 7. . . f ?/ a: a: . 889. 2 . a: a. 2 = 2 + 5. . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 885. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a: 888. 890. 2 + 2 f = 17. a: 884.35. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. x 8 3 = 13:3. y 2 2 8f.y 2 + V(j. . a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 + y 2 . 894. a: + y 2 = 34. M1 891 1 . 901. x*xy. 883.Vi' + 1 1_3.xy + y 2 = 19. x 882.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 + xy = 10. x a: lI = xz . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 895. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 896.sy = 198. a:y . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. + 2y=\2. 887. y 2 4. a# f + xy = 126. .1 = 2 a#. a: 2 897. a.298 877. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 878. 899. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.18. 900. y y 2 y 2 1121. 5. 2 + xy = 28. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. z 2 898.
3)2 = 34.r a. 2 915.6. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 913. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. x 4 299 xy z 904. 4 (a. + 2 ary = 39. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 917. a: y zx 12. 2 924. a: a. y 3 2 2 922. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.y) (a? .3) 2 f (y . + y)(a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. = 8. 914. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 23 x 2 .y2 = 22. (!) * .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. (a. 909. + ary = a*. .23 = 200. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + 2 a:y + = 243. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 921. * + y = 444. 905.16 y 3 8 = . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 7 y . 923. (o. xy + x= 15. ary y = 8. + y 8 = 189. (3 x . Vary + y = 6. 3 :r(3 . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. y + a:y = 180. 920. x 2 ry + y = 3. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. xa 903.y) (3 y . 2 + y = 2 a 4. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x f 2 a:y = 32.y). y 2 + xy = b 2 925. ^ 2 . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. . # + xy + y = 7. yz = 24. x + y 2 = aar. (* 918. 911. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). or or a? a: a: . 907. 2 2 2 916.3(* + y) = 6. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.2 y) = 49 2 919. + y = 9. 910.#y + 2 = 27.y) = 33. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 906.x) = 21. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 5 xy = 11. y x 2 = by. + ?/) . + a. 908. *y . 2 * 2 ~ g. . a:y xy 929. 912. a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y = a(ar + y).
In the second heat A . is 20. 944. and 10 feet broader. find the radii of the two circles.102. 152. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 2240. rate each man ran in the first heat. z(* + y + 2) = 76.000 trees. diagonal 940. 931. (y + *) = . feet. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. 943. + z)=18. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 935. feet. 942. Find the numbers. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. + z) =108. y( 934. 937. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 3 . If each side was increased by 2 feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. s(y 932. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Assuming = y. and also contains 300 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 34 939. . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. is 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. A is 938. a second rec8 feet shorter. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. two squares is 23 feet. *(* + #) =24. How many rows are there? 941. and the difference of 936. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Tf there had been 20 less rows.square inches.300 930. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.
that B A 955. is 407 cubic feet. and if 594 be added to the number. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. unaltered. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. and travels in the same direction as A. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Two starts travelers. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. triangle is 6. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 950. set out from two places. . Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. at Find the his rate of traveling. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. distance between P and Q. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. . sum Find an edge of 954. Find the eter 947. 953. its area will be increased 100 square feet. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. the digits are reversed. overtook miles. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and its perim 948. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and that B. each block. 949. P and Q. Find its length and breadth. 951. Find in what time both will do it. Find the number. 952. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. whose 946. A and B.
and 976.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. the first term being Find the sums of the 960..3151515.141414. . 974. 975. f + 1 . P.. 961. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. J. are 29 and 53.. 4. 36 963. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 1 to n terms. . P. x(x to 8 terms. 1G series .302 956. Sum to 20 terms..  2. 12434+ j I 967.. 958. the terms being in A. ^ 1 .321? 965. 4 4 to 7 terms .. \ .. 18th terms of an A. 3 + 5 7 + . P. Sum Sum to infinity. Evaluate (a) .454.. (x 4 to n terms.... . 972. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4...v 973. to infinity. s  88. *" 968. 5. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. + (iiven a +  4 d . Find the Find the common 977. 16 962. 970. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. Find the sum of 4.. Find an A.V2 . P. fourth of the unity.1 4 f j$V . Sura to 24 terms.. Find n.. 966. difference. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. 9th and llth terms of an A. 3 . ^ Vfirst five 959. '. to 7 terms. 969.>/) to infinity. 964.4142 . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 5. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. to n terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. !Ll^ + n . 957. n to n terms. (to 2 n terms). 971. Find n f (ft) .to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. = 4.
"(. : + 9   V2 + . to n terms.) the last term the series a perfect number. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 1. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find four numbers in A. to infinity may be 8? . The sum 982.+ lY L V. named Sheran. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 990. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .01 3. to 105? 981. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 985. 303 979... Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . of n terms of an A. and so on. Find the first term.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 989. is 225. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. and of the second and third 03. 987. 0. 992. P.3 ' Find the 8th 983. and the common difference. 4 grains on the 3d.04 + .1 + 2.. ... Find n.2 . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.001 4. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.001 + . Find four perfect numbers. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The term. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the sum of the series 988. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. first 984.. 986. P.. 980. The 21st term of an A. 2 grains on the 2d. to oo. 5 11. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. P..
(I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 1000. (a) after 5 strokes. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. is 4. are unequal. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 512 996. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. prove that they cannot be in A. and G. many days will the latter overtake the former? . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. ft. c. find the series. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. are 28 and find the numbers. inches. The sum and sum . 1003. Two travelers start on the same road. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 997. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. areas of all triangles. P. 994. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. (6) the sum of the infinity. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. of squares of four numbers in G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . Under the conditions of the preceding example. and so forth to infinity. 995. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 999.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 998. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 1001. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. in this square a circle. The sum and product of three numbers in G. P. in this circle a square. ABC A A n same sides. If a. . P. P. The fifth term of a G. AB = 1004. at the same time.
Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. + lQ . (12 #) 7 . ) 1021. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1012.ft) 19 . 1011. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of 1013. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .o/) 14 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the middle term of 1020. a: 8 7. . . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1009.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1014.l) w f . 1006. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Expand  2 a. 1008.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). x) 18 . 2 ) 5. (1 1018.
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.. 246 91 " multiple.. . ... .. Checks Coefficient 20.210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. . t 53 120 .. 37. . numerical ....181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . simple simultaneous .. .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .... 8 . . 54. . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. 9 ** .... graphic tion of representa .. ..] Abscissa Absolute term . . 97.193 11 . 123 . .130 . 232 mean progression . linear literal Common ** * difference .. quadratic .. lowest ratio " '* . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ..178 Completing the square . .... 9. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . 129. signs of Algebraic expression . .108 160 " . .. . . .. 232 169 807 . . 158. 19... ... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. 129 54. .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . Aggregation. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 112 54 54 251 . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .
.. 253 28 70 1. exponent . 112 .. 195 33. P . . ... numbers . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. law of Extraneous roots . . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.251 Graphic solution of simultane. directly. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 143. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. Like terms Linear equation . . 23 10 91 102. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .108 Minuend . 184 54.31.. .808 Exponent Exponents. 45. 205 . .. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . . . 34. . Insertion of parentheses . 45.. . Geometric progression .. 243 7 .. INDEX 8 . 212 . 227 . 63. Mathematical induction . 42 7 Independent equations Index . arithmetic . 189. . ..C Multiplication . 180. first and second . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 9. Negative exponents 11 . .. . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . . 227 geometric ... Imaginary numbers . 17 65. 45 Laws of signs . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . inversely 122 numbers . G. addition of " square of . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 91 . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . Inconsistent equations . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . L. 241 123 geometric .. Product '* 76 Infinite. . .. 84. . 109 102 . . Known numbers . 114. 120 Member.
.... Sum.. binomial Third proportional Transposition . . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ....... algebraic Surds . ... 27 17 Unknown numbers .... . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . 9... 4 155 9 " of .. . absolute 54 Variable . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... . polynomial . 45 Trinomial 240 . . 129..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
. 1910. 1913. U. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Reprinted April.A.COPYRIGHT. Set up and electrotypcd. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. December. 1917. 1916. Norwood. 8. 1910. Gushing Co. Published September. NorfoooS J.S.. August.
3. 15. 6.$9400. 7. sign. 2  Page 8. B 10 mi. 6. 9.  1.000. i .  13. B $20. 3* 7. $ 1 50 10. 10. 3. 36. 13.. B $4700. 7m. 14. Multiplication. 14. 0. 26z. 21. Yes. 3. 11. 8 ft. 16 in. 15. 20 \. 14. 32. 5. 24. 2. 16. 20 jo. 6. 18. 19 4. 8. 6.. 15. 12. 8 13. 2. per sec. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 49. 12. 12. 21. 3 below 0. 22. 1. 6. 2. 1. 17. $40. 2. 7. 20. 1. sign. 10. 17. 4.150. 4. 3. 6. 13 S. 1. 9. 3. 7. 23.. 11. 150. 2. 1. 9. 18. V 23. 29. 16. 9 = 4. 5. 64. ft. 10.  1. 11. 7. 22. 7.  22 20. 6 yd. 27. 12. 32. 144. 24. 9. 16. 32.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 16 in. 3.2. ^. B $ 128. 12. 9 16  larger than 7. 9. (a) (/>) 1. 9. 18. Page 4. 10. 106. 13. 256. 210. westerly motion. is $10. 2. .C. 2. loss. 17. 10. 14. 13 V. 16. Australia ft. 37 S. 21. c. 5. 4. x.. _ 32. 3. 5. 6. 1.. in 12. 8. 1 16. Page?. = 5 81. 16. 6. 18. 27. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 49. 3. 3. .000. A Bl 7. 512. 2. 25.00000001. A $90.8. 16f 2. 1. South America 46. 1. 1. 10. 19. 9 m. 24. 13 d. 2. 20 B. 4. 3. 25. 19. 13. A 15. 1. 6. 73. 2.. 8. 5000. 10g. 16. 14 11. 2 5. 14. Not 5. 3. 13. 1. Page 8. 2 ~ 15. A 38 mi.000. 17. 14. 8.000.1. 28. .000. 28. B $80.  2 p. 1. 2. 576. 115. in. 16. . 20. 32.000. 1. 8. 6* 16. 128. 48 ft. 6. 4. 59. 2. 17. 7. 26. 25. . 18.12. + 1. x. 3. 4. 20. 16. 72 = = 216. T . Page 13. 192. 5. 15. 3. 0. 12. 8. 13. 16. 12. 7. 11. 37. 9.000 Indians. 2. Ot 15. $160. C $60.. 19. b. 12. 20. Page 1. 4. 3. 9. 3. $100. 30?. 11. C $1(50. 12. 126. 5. 9. A . 10. 89. 9 14. 85.. }. 29. 2. 14. 8. C $ 16. 18. 10. 3.3. 27.000 negroes. in.21 24. 3. 1. 5. 5. 30.000..000. 15. arithmetic. 6. 12. 14. 7. 25. 1. 3 m. 7. 6.
(V) (rf) (ft) 50. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. ft. 16. 51 f. 0. 3. 16. 3 . 13. 1.ab. 13. 0.5 (ft) sq. 20(. 29. ft. (ft) 7. 9. 1. 2. 13. 35. 92. 5. 27. w. a 32. (ft) $40.  0. 3rf 27. 8. 5. 22. 314 sq. 1. 4 y/ .rty8. 13 cu.900. 0. 22.  1. 33. 30. 27. 4 9/^/rl 2. 9.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 5. Polynomial. . 7 7.6) 38. r+l.1. 17. 35. 4. 21^. in..94(>. 41. 1.5f> sq. 11. 36. 15a. 27. 34.r 2 . 2x' 2 5 . sq. $3000 Page 6. 3. ??i??. 7. 58. 39. 1. 21 a 3 4 10. 1. ft.ii ANSWERS Page 11. . 28. 11. 3(c4a). 14. 1. $80. ft. 0.<>Gq. 240. 3. 29. (ft) 12. :J!>r'. 14. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 13. 27. (a) 200. mi. 8. 7. yyz+xyz*.GOG.. 3. 17. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 4. vi 14. arty 1 20. 9. 15. 6. 7. + 5. 22. 17. = ()501.14 sq.'JO ft. 4. 7. 14. in. 43w//2 17. 12. 12 a. 25. 15. 9.. x^ 20. 23. 00 24 04 ft. 20. 11. 3. ^). ^. WIN + wiw. 21.  40. a2 4 15^44. (r) 2000 m. (r) 2. 8. 19. 28. ft n. 57.~4.ft.a . 04. 25. (r) 2G7. ft' 3 . 19. 20. \'\ 4. +/2(/. 31. <i~ 26. . 2.x. 14. 10. 22. jrif 4 9. (b) 135 mi.  11. 23. 5x+3. 5. m 24. 22( 19. ..3 * 10 r5 <3 . (59. 30. Pagel4r. 19. 2. (ft) mi.000 sq. #1111. 16. 8. o^ft. 6. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 31. (a) 50. 9. Page 31. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (a} 100 1(5 cm. y. 18. 15. ft. 5. 21. 15. 38. 14. 2. Binomial. 4.  3. 28. . 3 a* + 2 at*. 12yd.. 10. 0. 1.9?/2 8.. _ 4 . 12. 12.. 7. 32. (c) 8.q 4. 35. :. I. 30. r:A 29. 15. 3. 37. 4. . Page 18. 26. It. 3a. = 81. (r) 78. 13. 16. 24. 12.32 c2 > ft 3 . 17. a ft c.4  2ft 2 33. 3. c. 2. 27. 0* Page 3 w" 0. rt. ft f 19. 3. 34. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 237. 4. r/ \(\xyz. 104. 2oVmf?i. 38 ab. Polynomial. 32.r~ f 34. 2.  xV 3 y. 13. . f  5e 35. 26. 18. 173. in. a3 a2 4 a 4 1.. 25. (a 4 4.. 0.  12.. in. 11. //'. . 18.. Page 21. 8.. 36. ]*. Monomial. (a) <> sq. 5. Page 23. 32 2 ftc. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 12. 21. 14. 6. 2ftx. 12. 14. 24. Page 7. 42. 8.4 ft. 20. 0. (c) S(i. 5. m + 3(a. . 3.ft) 4. 27.000 . 5. 14:). 49. 18. II. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. + ft). 15. 8.'J. 0. i:5. 33. 18.. 6<t. t. 0. 50.r f 15. 16. (ft) Page 2. + v> 2 . 17. 31. 1. Trino inial. (a) r>23ifcu. 10. 8.
24. 15. c. w* ( . 10. 26. 2 2 2 6. 1 + 45. 59. x a8 1. 25 47. 1. 3.(2 x2 . f ft 9. 13.h. 25. 0. 3 m. .  23. 6. 24. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 20. 0. 28. 12. (mn} 11.x f 1 2 . \ :{ 2 a 48. 4. 4.  4 b 17 y*. a  ISjfat. ti. 7 a5 1 . 1.2. 25. . a2 24. 56. mn. 26. 9.  1.  a: 2.  b. w 17. . a 3& . 33.2 a2 2m 2 4. (5x47 3. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ab a. . .2 a. 6. &. 24. (w4w)(ww). 814. 7. 32 w 2 w. 2. 6. 5x 2 rt ft. r.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . ( 7. 18. 1. 15. 5.a'2 . 20. a). 5. 2m + 2w. Page 7. 2// 16. j)(g1. ^ <.3x 2 2 tf. ri\ 18. 13.a . 14. 2m. a2 9.l. 12. 2 . a f 2 f 2 9.  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 3.5 z?/ + 3 y . 10 x. m*  n*. 10. + 6. 11. + 8. 36. .4c 3 8 8 J. c. 22. 21. 22. 1.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). ?/i 13. 17. 43. 36. . 14. 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . a a. a 4 + ft. 21. 8.2 ft 2 r2 10. 8 b. 51. 5. 0. 11. 26. a + (ftc4df). 7. 2 4. + 4 c. 8 .a*.'U4j>. (yz~d}.4x.  b* 4 r 1 . ar.2 57. '  . ii\ 22. 2. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2 + a4l). 19. Exercise 16. 31.8(c + a). 14. 18. 2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 1 4. a 10w. Page 28.7. 19. . + c 4 d x + 6 e.4 d. :5 41. 5 2 Page 29.(7x2 Ox2). _ Page 30.2 . 7  a + 2 + c. 10 m. 5. f 2 ?/  2. 16. 24 b 46. G a bd. 14. 8 + 2 a . ?> 22. 2 a 37. x  + 3z. . 2. a. 34.4. 7. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. c2 . a  49. 42. 20. 4. 7  # + 12.c. 2 3x f z. _5a<>&43c. 2 17. 4. 34 39. 1. 4wipg>' 27. . 364c. 32. Page 44. 1. 4. M + 10.5. 29.11. 7. 2a.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. ?>4tl 53.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2a: 2 4x. 3 Ji 8 . 6. 2 6. s_r>a5. 17. 4ft ~. a 3a 4 2 &. 2 .  14 afy . 2x 4 a 13. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 11.a~. 10. 2 3. 2. . 4r 2 . 19. 4. 2 2. 58.  12. t). 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2. 31. 50. 8. 38.ws 2 ft) . a4 4 4.3 6. . 40. 12. 15. a' 4ab + ?/.  17. .. Page 8. a 6 2 . 3. 8 8 . a 3 .a f 54. 3 a .Oa: + 10. n*. 2.r. + 2y. 21. G. a + a. 18.1 . 30. a 52.6 x + 0) 16. x3 . lOrt 15w4. 12.aft. 37. 35. 3 a3 & 41. ft Exercise 17. !  </ . . 25. 2. 2 y' 4 . 55.r 2. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. ?/.abc. 2 a f 6 414. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2. 16. 8. . 4 21..1.
29. 60. 26. 770.11 xyz . 4 jcy*z*>. Page 35. s 9 ww. 34.15. 18> ^* = a . + 7. 6. 83 In + 1 n*. 1. 6 . 10. 15. . 4.000. f 26. 90. . 120. 7.6 2 . 2 7t A. n (a6) 125. 29. 14 m 2 . 22. 25 4 4. Page 7. 28.44 aWc 16 abxy. 24. 7G . 12. 8. (+3)x6=+16. 16. 34. 31. 30. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . iSx8 . a 8 . 8. etc. 18.26. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 15. 76 8 a' 1 . 33. 2*8f x2 6x4. ^^ = 20. 108.21. 16 51. 21. 3.>(/ r . 27. 15 q\ 6. 8. 10. 29. ISartyW e*f*tj. ci 5 . 24. 20. 2. . 4. 23. 24. 3 a 2 46. 102. 161b. 6. 1. 13. 4. 20.18 w w + 10 WI M . 36. +. 14.19 + 2. 19. 14. 3. 32. 19. . 3(*+0 + 2). 35..14 . 4. 64. 210. 4. 4 fc. 15. 27. 14. 18. 3. 23. 30 j9 jt?g j . 18. 42. 84.:>/ . 1. . a. + O4 66 . 13. 18. 3300. 17. 2 2 2 .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 13. 2 a2 (y 2 .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 17. fa 2. 20. //. 4. Page 38. 30 n?b*c*. 3. 0. 4 a2 . a*b*c. Page 3. 5. 8.14 w 2 2 . 32. 16. 24. 20.25 + 14. 42. 18. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 28. 25. 3 a 3 . 7. 1. 108. 52 + 6s 12. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 30. 25. 23. 1. 14. 4aWy.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 0. 37. 161b.20 xyz . 13. 10.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 9 13. 28.6) =a2 31. . 21. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .28 p'^/. 40 r 2 . 16. . 9.8 12. ! 2. 34. 7. 25. 127"'. 2 w +2 2 .12. 343. 5aft(a 126 2). 10. 12. . 27. 6. . 7. Page 5. 11.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 27. 30. 16. Page 36. 2 n8 29 a + 30. + 58 . ?> 4 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 38wiw. . 2z 8 s 2 3zl.2. 22.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 23. 17.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 22. 13.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . ?/ . 2''. 21.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 2. 66 39 k* . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 26. 33. 12. 1400.16 x2/ 5 4.16 a 2 + 32 a . 9 w 2 + 13 n . +15. 216. 15. 22.32. . 16 lb.7(50. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 19.19p" + 19^ 10 .iv ANSWERS + &)(.21 a 3 c2 21. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . a. 60. 24. 27. 15. 1. 16.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 6. 9. 2 ). 04.(3x2_4^+7). 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. m.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. ft 17. 28.64 190 p6. 66 8W 34. . 9. 20. 19. 18a% y. 21 a'&c.. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 11. . 25. 216. 20. a: .32 y s s G . 8. 4200. Ox a 5 . x2 xy42^. 4 a8 . 8 . 2 ).r% 2 2 ry. 29. 360. 12 x2 2 . 31. 30. 17. 30..57 p6 3 2 4 25.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 11. ll 2 i. a + ft. 6". 12 ^. 15 lb. 11.. a.12. 2. 2. 33. 2 * 80 . 5. 14f 5.36 35.1. 1904. 20 aW. 2 . 18. 30. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.
10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. a + 25. 1. fo*. 441. . + 4 t*. + 10 + 121 y*. 2 a' y' .004. 34. 8. 990.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 14. . n + 2. 7. 26. . 32.5 ~ 81. (m + 6)(m3). 55. 24. 10. 53. ab.10 35.^ + a? + 1.m 30 6 4 1. + 4 a +4. +4 34. 4.2 x + 2 x. 30 /><.8. 26. . 11. 57.2. 32. x 4 ?/4 + ab .^. . 52.6 x2 13. + 3)(3)./ . 3. 2 fr . x2 GiC+5. 30 x + 19 x3 . . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. ab .r . 31. 25 a 2 6 2 . 36.000. 41. 2 6' .201. (a + 4) (a + 2). 4 x2 13. Om2 4 6m 6. 36. 15. 10. 35. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 17. 2 a 2 + a . V + o ft . 4. 41. +  m' 1.ab . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 4.15.6 xy .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.35 ab 9.2 6 + 13. 1). 7.009. 19. 11. 9990. . a 2 . 45. a + 25. 4x21. 10. (p 2. 2 m3 + 4m2 .020. Page 12. ft' 11. + 12. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 19. m 3 j) 3 . 1.54 p 2 + 81. ~ 6 20 . 36.001. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 56. 35. 29. 40. 9801. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 42. ^/> 8 4 . 3wi2 m Page 42. 10. n2 a4 6. 2 . 5.6 y4 10.606. 33. 34. 10. 15.6. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. . . . 2 . 3.4 a&+ 4 &*. y. 7 . 7. 27. x* . 27.x2y22. . a + 56. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 1. 4 2 //. 4 .ri 17. 2 12. a2 ' + 48Z100. 166. 2 62 V2 132. 6.009. 12 x2 . + 2 9. . 10 a' 2 . . 33. 8. a' . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. p 2 .996. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 1. 8 a W . 2 0)(p + 5).p132. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).r* 2 30. 40.14 jp + 49. x4 28. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 10. + 7 6)(3a~76>.ANSWERS 28. x*2^f I.810. 2. 2. 21 2 . ) 4' 6/ 49. 5. a4 4 ?/ . 31.. x 48. 18.10 x + 25. 36 a 4 . +   5). 2 1: 21. ^' J  7 f 12. r.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 29. 9999.2 y*. ^V^4 . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .20. 484. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. p4 + .00 + 37. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10.4 12.020. 10. 4 .84 a' 9. 2 j3 Z .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 6. w'n 2 //^ + 25.000. Page 39. (w+4)(m4). 28. 8. 14. 24. 10. a3 0. 9. 9. 10. 23. 44. 4 + 25 q*. s rc 47.404. ?/H)0.3.712. 37. (n 2 5. 7> . 39. 2 (5 a 3).008. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 51. 25 25.500. . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . lflrt 2 8 + l. m 2 . 10.4 n.16 a3 f 50.r .49. 33.1.994. 30. 10 a 4 ?.25.^V"' . 39. 2 4 2 2 64 . 8 38. 40. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 4 21. 14.. 9 4 /> .098. ' 46. 2). 31. G a6 2. 2 +10s281. 38. . 37. 16. . (w4)(w + l). 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 1. 999. . 1. (a (3 54. 25. I/). 998. 2 4 a + 4. 20a 2 21a + 4. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.
3 ry. .34. + x?/ 2 1. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 3 aft 20.> 10. ft* ft / . 2 ?/ 4. 8 ?/ . 17. a 8 4. +w .1. 5^418(7. 1/*.2 1 //. 15. 6. 1. . 13. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 49. 16.  5 z* . 4xy + 13 <) . ti'jry1 7. 3.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.  12 y 25. 8 x . 2 a 3 ft.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 4. . 26. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.lit x + 4. Exercise 27. 4. r 7.2 ar.2 .2. abc 7. Page 48.2 ftc .2 <</. 4 pq. 14. 2. y 7. 13. 6. x 2 + 2r f J.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . . 14./ 4.1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 2. 5. 6x 3. 8 r<ft 4 2 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 4. 47. 14 r 2 . 2 1.3 3.3 a 41. 5. 7 r . f>r* 4. 6. w 2 .1. 2 4 3 9. a 2 . m'2 3.24 . 3. 9. 7a3ft.2 2 .x^. 5. 50.2 ac .30 ftc. 13.5 a .1*5 2 r 2 . j) . 7. ft.3 x 2 2 4. 4.2 wZ 4.  3 c.r ?/ ??i ?). 20. a 4 4 ft. 17. 2 4. :r !>. 01.8 y. 2 ?/' . 12. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 1. 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. _ 2 a . 9.3^V.4. 5 4 a Oft.5 mp. 13.23.r' ~ 16. as _ 10 16. 13. c3. . 3 a. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .15 21.7. 2. 21. 4 d 2 4. 18. 3. + 3. m L 4.5 n*.12 aft 4 20 ac . 20 15. 4 a* 4 9 11.25 c . 4 a 2 4.n. 14. r//. 6. 4x43?/. 16. 9.2 . 1. Osy. + 4.10 xy*. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.29. 5 a  (5 ft. 18. 11. 5.+ 77 15. . 11 4. aft 12. 17. 8.w. 21.6 :rs 4.2 aft 4. 19. . i 9. 1. z.27 x 2 4. 5.y3.25.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .  .9 4. // 19. . 12. 23.1. sr 11. 3. 10.2 . . 14. 12.10 2 + z 2 410. 9. a.1. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.r'^ 15. 8. Page 7. w . 11. ??. c 12. 12. 5. 2 ? 14 . i 2 tji. Page 51. 9.rw f 8 .2 2 2 8 .9 d.  11. 22. 8. 3. 15. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 6. .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. G. 135. 24. *3 y 4 . 1. aftc 52.000. 5. Page 22. 12.3 5. aft. '. 3. . 8. 19.1. 13. 2. 8. x4. r ft. Page 11. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 14.r?/. . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.r?/ j/. . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 1. 8. r/2 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 2 12. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 4ft. 10. 2 ^r ???' 2 .  10. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.VI ANSWERS 43. 4. 2.15. 10. a 10. 44. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. Page 13. 2 . /r . l 4 . 4. 1000 1000 . 10 ft.rw. . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 16. ft ? ft' ft ft. . ft 17. 4. 5. 2 2 + 2 a. 2.8 yn . 2 . 5. 1. ?/2. 46. yfl. 8 ?/ .8. 125. 2 4 2 x 4. x 4.r .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 4 ac. 75 a 2 29.r" 20 S? . 4 x.1. . 4 c m .8.21 2 2 f + .
45. 4^ = 100. 5. y ?>i x + 26. 26. 5. 8 n  10 yr. 4 f 39. 6. b. Page 13.rr2. / + y + a// 12 yr. 4(a ft) c = 8. </ 20. ct. 7x 2 Page 21. Jj12. 10. 16. 0. 19. 100 14. 5. 22. I. 20. 800 = x + 1300. 9. 16. 1&. '^ . 21 2.6 = *. 2. 100= ^. s. 'nj 100 a 28. + f + b 2. 29.. 18.p+7. (> 27. + 3 = 2(3* . 37. 13. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. = 5 ?i x 460.r ct. 40. . 3x2. 60 25 1. ft. y yr. . 15. l. 1. 11. 1. 6. a 8. x.000.  2\. 59. 6. 2 ct. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 37. a 10. 34. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 58. 4.x700. 36. 10 yr.10) 100. 00. 4. 39. 33. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 3x  1700) = 12. 2x + 35. Page 40. 12. I. 6. vil 56. 8. 27.7). 2. 10. v (6) 2x. r>?imi. d + !. 38. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 22. 8. x 48. iL*. b. 7. 7. 2. x 49. 7. x 2y 10 act. 7. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. lOx 10 + w. ct. 41. % 4. 10 >_&. 9. 5.  6 10. y 2z p= 3 (a c. <>. 38.(3x+ = rraxlO. 13.  />) a = all. X 60. 1. 1. 14. 17. 50= L 100 15. 4. x y $ 6 yr. ft. ? 43. f (I. "mi. 16. 25.  9 = 17 a. ^ 12 sq. x = m.  1$.(3x  700) = 5. 12. 18. 31. . 30. 42. ft.r1. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 24. 10 x sq. . n M. 2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. xy ft. d. (>. ] 2 ri 42. y 50. m+ 11. lO. 44. (</) 2a. 11. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 46. 15. !). 17. f 6)(o 62. 2. Page 6. 36. 35. m +~m 3. Page 31. fix. 20. f = eZ 2 x. }f. 100 d ct. rn mi. . 23. 5. 19. 11. 3. 44. 2b 22. 20. r tx mi. 100 2. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 1. 30.. 17. 7. 32. # + 20yr. 10 a. 2=10. 4. 3. 13.. 5. 10. (c) 2x. 2. 23. 14. 4. x + 1=a. 6. (2 a.. 33. 3 9. Page 61. ct. + 10 b + c ct.100. . 57. 10. y 100 a 24. 47.ab a. + 4x 3y 34. 25. 29. 41. sq. 7. 3. " lir. 43.ANSWERS Page 9. 2b. 28. + 3x + 2y + 32. ( a f 4. . 0. (a) ' 12. 7.
5 Col. 5. (y8)(y + 2). 74. 2. 10. 3 (a +&)(*. 30 mi. (y 13. 6. (ro3)(w2). 75. Pace 65. $40.10.13. 13.  PageSO.22. 3. 13. 11. 14. 4. . 7 hr. (a5)(a4). Y. 2$. 30. 15.y"). ( + 4)(*2). 6.11. . 480. 40 yr. 5pt. 7. 30 yr.2). (*4)( + 11. ^ .000 Phil.210^. 1. 8 2 19.. 7. a a (a 8 a+l). 12. 6. 70^. 5. 5. (c) ^ v ' . .. 11. 8 in.5. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 1. 18. 52. 16. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 90 mi.21. 1250. (y + 8)(y2). 19. 15. 28yr. 72. Ib. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 4.6). 1200. 25 yr.000 N.2. 10. 11 pV (2 p8 . 8. 20. 71. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 7. 11 w(w' + wi . 100 1. ?(g ? g+ 1). 21. 160 lb. 200.0. (a + 5)(a + 6). w (/) 64. 15 in. 2 3 6 7.000 copper. 55.. 150. 3. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). (e) i* + A. 4pt. 10. Page 5. 12.79. 4. 13.3. 2. 9. (y7)(y + 2). 12.16. 8. 6. 90. 9. 8. 82 mi. 7.3).1). 250. 11. Oaj(o62cd). 2.. 8. 4. 1. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 12. 20 yr. 68. Page Page 480 12. 85 ft. 15. 24J. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 1..411. 9. 70.000. (z5)(z2). 29. 2 2 ?/ 21. 20 yr. 14. ~=90. Page 7. 20. 8. 6. 7. Page Page 4. 25. 15 yd. . 3. 8.000 gold. 22. 05. 10 Mass. (p + 7)(3a5&). ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 45 in. = _?_(2ar + 1). 18. 3. 15. 5$ hr. 2.7. 10..3aftc + 4). 4. 3 hr. 23. 1.000 ft. 42yr.3. 13. 10 yr. 3x (3r.000. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 10 yr. (a + 4)(a + 8). 80 A. 15. (a 4) (a. 9.000 pig iron..000. (m + n)(a + 6). 9 in.. 10 yd.000. a 12. 14. 10. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. + 7)(y3). 300. 5. 15 mi. 12. 11. 1313.. Page 79. 67. 180. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 2 2 2 5. 12 mi. Page 7. 1. 9.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 7a*fe(2a & l). 6.. 2.5. 17.000. 6. 6. 8. 14. 14. 2). (a + 6) (a + 3). 1.0. 3. 10.000 Berlin. 2. 10.(5z .8. 4. 100. by 12 yd. 2. 20 yd. 50.. 18. 10 Cal. 5. 7.. 8.000. 30. 200.. 8 12.. Page Page 4. 9. 3. 1 lb. 13.. 78. 25. 78..000. 5 lb. 20. (yll)(y4).24. 14. 600. 17. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 12. 1200.000 ft. 3.5p + 7 g ). 6rt 2 11. 11 in. 9.
25. 4. 14.4p). (0 + 6)(66). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (15z2y)(x5y).1). (a 6 6) (a 4. 100(x. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 8. 28. 24 9. + 0(90 Page 85. (3*2)(. 3.2 ft). 23. x\x 24. 21.r2). (6n + l)(+2). 22. 19. (5x . 2). 32. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 11. (m + w) 2 5.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 13.1).6) 2 2 . 11. 27. + 8)(g3). (x + y4 )(x . 16. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). ( 2 4 19. 27.11 6) (a 4. 31.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 10(2 30. ix 18. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 26. 23.+4 y)(3x4 y). 10.  x (5 a. 26. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). Yes. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 32.2 y). Yes. 3)(3a. 2.7) (a. 40 x. 28. (a 3 + 10)(a. 14. 14. 25. 27. (<7 20. 3. 16. 33. + 2y). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 7. Yes. . 9. 16. 8. 20. 3. . 10(3 5 6) 2 . 12. No. (4y3)(3y + 2). 24. (2 a? 4. 25. 33. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 1.c 2 ). (10a + ft)(10aft). 2 3 by2 Yes.y) 2 aft.* (2 y + 3)(y. 6. 22. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 7. (4al)(a2). 9. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 24. (a (p8)0> + l). 6. (ft + ll)(aftll). 17. a(2u. 18. a. 9. 22. (5a +l)(5a l). 25. . (w* (3a26). 35. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). Yes. 17. Yes.3)(z2). 25. (:52y)(2a!3y). . 100 (a. 20. (5wl)(m5).6) 2 1. (13a +10)(13a 10). 2 17. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 5. Yes. (a a: 19. 2. . (g . . y(x. No. (4 18. 2 2 15. 5. 19. . 9. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 29. (m + n + 4p)(w + .   . . a 2 (w7)(w + 3). x(x +y)(x y).8). 8) (a.11 ft)(a6). + y + . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 20. 7 6) (a 10 6).. 10. 3a. . Oa 2 (a2)(al). 4 (a . + 3)(c44).4 6). Page 83. No. 7. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 12. 4.5y)(3a. y) (a. (2o + l)(2l). No. + 5) a. . 10. . 22.4. (w + 20)(w + 5).ANSWERS 16. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 30. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). y) 2 29. (a2 + 10) (a2 2).2). 31.y4 ). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 3(x + 2)(zl). (2yl)(y + 9). (4 13. Yes. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (9y4)(y + 4).3). 103x97. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. + 9^)(oxy . 2. 15. Yes. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (15ay2) 2 . 17. (6 a. 36. 10(a . 30. 1. (w ~ n (x . 23. 13x7. 1. . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 26.y (6x + 4)(5x4). Yes. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (a + 8)(a3). 216 aft. 10(a + ft)(aft). (* + y)(zy). 28. 34. 15. Page 82. 10 a 2 (4 . a*(5a f l)(flr . 11.7)(2z f 1).1). (az + 9)(ox2). 23. 21. 29. (3#y)(+4y). + 4) (a. (y + 4)(yl). (a. (y8) 2 2 . 10. + 3). a . 35. Yes. Yes. Yes. 26.9*). (m7n) (a. (ay8)(ay3). 21. 2 No 4. 24. (3a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . (2 *+!)(* 9). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 21.2 by2 6. 34. Page 84.2). 12. No. 18. (4a. 8. (2xl)(x + f>). 9. f 2).1).
16. 5. Exercise 47. 14. 12. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). Page 86.1) 3. (^ 7. 13. ( (<> r4y3 . 22.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 8.^ 48. 4. 11. 4. 2 k (wi 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 8. 2 21. x(x f y)(jr . 3p (^9)(j) 4).5 m2 x2. x . 2(m4l)' . Gp). 2.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (2x7)(x 2 2). 8. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. y). . 5. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). r x 2 */3 . 37. n  r)(5a 10. Page 90. 7. (14. 6 f c). 2 1. (r420(4 10.  WIM. 2 8(w . x43. 1.l)( a 25.. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).?/). 450. (16 4  2(5 n . 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).2).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. a 4. 15 M.2). a 41.b. 9. a8 . 13. (^ + ?>_8). 11. 11. ( { &). a (a + 2 6). Page 92.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 4 a8 . 27. l. (5 26. 12.4). 40. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. a 4. 4.) j). ah}. 13( 33.42 x 4. (f> + fo 7.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (w4w) 2 1. 5 x8 3. (a />.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 9. 10. 4. Page 87.4. fi(c426). 5  (2 2 . 6. 42). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 18. 4). 4 6. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). ( rt 23. (7/1 2) (m 41). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 2 2 3 . 7. 1(V/ 88. 20. y )(. 41. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.e 4. 4. 13 x 8 2 .y).9).0+ 12). 2 + . 17(x43//)(x2y). Page 12. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 4 3. 8. (a 4.2)(x 1. 3 x4 . (a &4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (2 a ~ f> b 4.1). ( a ^)(^3. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). Page 89. + 3. . 7. a x 3 10. (x. 2.X 5. (> 1. 24x sy s 9. 5.!) (x42)(x2).3. ?>). 4. 7. 24.?>) H. 14. 15. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 2 . 12. 6. 28. 15. 13. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 3x(x?/) 4.8) ( (16. . (5^4.8). 8x. 7.4. a 2 (a9). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).2 y). 19.'/)('< 4. 17. (5a+l)(9a).8) n 43*). 35. y6.7)(^ {I 12.y '2 2). 8.n).4). 10(8x' 4l) 4. 2 y) ^ . 32. 14. 36. ^ . 4. a + a b. 2 (a 4. 39. 6. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (c. 16.7s) (2 a. (a 9. 11.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.  (w' 4.&). + 2 //). 8. x 4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 2. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (w * . (5 31. b) (r 4. 2 2 10.  29. Exercise 46. (!__/>). .'J)(' .?50)(xt/z. ?i(w 4y) . x  1). 30. 42a 3 x. ofc)( fid).36). 3.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .3. ( y). 38. .3)(x 4. 6. 10(2 (3 4. 6. 5. y(2x?/). 2.&). 3(. 14.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 4 a s &8 . 2. (x//. (m  I)' 6.y)(fi a . 7. .y. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .1). 8.'})(c . (. 8). 4  9. 6.
11. + &) 2 ( . 1). 30(3 2 (a 15. b ! 21. ?_!&. x 22. 13. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 2(2al) + l).ANSWERS 10. a 10 25. + y) (a: y). 6a2&(rt6).  1). (a2)(a + 2)2.6). + &)(&) ( . x 12. +5 1. 18. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . // m+1 !+*?. a 23.
6.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. w1 + ac w 4 7. A^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 26. ' 2 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + 2H 1 ^. 4c 10.50 ~ 1/2 . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. xy 43. 7. Page 100. . 28. i. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 ..  **/* + 84 _. 4 L 8 2 . 6. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 11.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 1. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. c 8. i^. Page 101. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 0. 30. + lH + . _*^p5_^^_. a 5. 6a5f^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 2 a. ^~ 29.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.
4a3ft. 39. m 9. 11. 41. (>. 5. c 8. 4. 15. ! 4 20. an 18.ft . 4. 11. 6. . 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 1. 33. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 18. Page 113. 31. Page 111. 42. Of. 0. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 7.  V o 4. j L . 35. 37. 4. ?+_!?>. 1. 5. 7. 16. 3. 43. 5 be _J_. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. A. 5. ^_.^_. I) 2 3z 1. 1. 6. 0. 24. J. 6. 3. b a f +c 14. 9. 1. Page 106.y 7. 29. 45.^U\WF### X<6. 4. 5. a. x 1. n 16. 7. 10. ' 6. 11. 23. f Page 107. ^i 11. 1. 3. 10. 44. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. 3. 8. 17. 26. 1. 3. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 19. ?. 6. x\. n m a + 13. . 1. x 05m ' 5. 46. 9. 9. 2) 19. 4. J. (a + y) 2 Page 104. n . . + f. . y(x + x ?/). 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. 8j_m 7 3. 14. Page 110. 4. 21. J. 4. 12. 2ft a i m x. 1. (y + (z 12. 32. 13. 36. 40. 6. 15. 2 47. 34. 8. 6 . ft. 21. 12. 11. 14. 38. 27. 15.L+ft. 1. a 17. 21. a2 2. flf. 16. b 2. 30. 3 7 i o. 3. 7. pf n 6 1. 12 28.  10 X + u. +3 ( + 15. 17. f 7. 14. 20. 25.
1 da. 3. 21. Page 124. 7. Yes. 1 : 12. 15. 7. P+ ^ 33. 7. (ft) 28.000. (d) 500. " 0. 15.. 33. $30. after 20. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.  29. 9. 24. 9. 20. 27. 3 da. f. 8. 26 mi. $45. 2. 8301 hr. 13. Page 117. 13. 1:1 = 1:1. 14. 35.} da. 10.. 14.000.15.. 40 yrs. 5.0. 12. 30ft. n 32. [>> ^ a . 2:1. 300. 1:1 = 1:1. J ^'. after $12. 7. 15.. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 17. 275:108.9.10. 4. 11.004. . 14. silver. 1. 2 20. 10. 1. 10. 10 yrs. 19. No. = A's. 18. xy. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . a 4 ft. 3. 34. 1:4. 500.XIV '/ . (a) 4 min. f . 11. No. 12. 15. 15. :2. (c) 2 hr. 5.. 4. 10. min. Yes. 4~r~ n . $00. 9. 7. ~m . . 16.000 If da. 23< &n b ' . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 6. 4. 9. 212. 40 mi. #V ~~ 34. 5. Yes. 36. 1. 15.2. (a) 12 hr. 8. . (a) 30. 30 mi.0 & . 8. . Yes. 3. 11. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. gold./hr. 9$. 3:2. 31.137. 15. Page 118. _JL. Page 125. Yes. (ft) 104.11. 20.001. 9J oz. . 10. $0. 1:1=1:1. 13. 3. 74.. 32. 20. . IV s. ft. 12.002. 2x:3y. ^p^ r ~ 7. 81. 18.000 1 = 23. 19. dn ~ mi. 6.2. '"I 22. 33. Yes. 10^ oz. 6. 16. 22. w 18. 21. 75 . 28..000. 0. $40./hr. 26. after 18.138. 3. 24. 4fl M_. () 2. (ft) 5 hr. 4. 14. 7 . (ft) 5 da. 5 25. 19.. 1. 26 30. 8.000. 30 yrs. Yes. 19. 300.. 10. 10. ^m .  + . w 21. (c) 8300. 00. 1:3. 1:1 = 1:1. 5 2. Page 119. Yes.x + y. 5ft 30mi. (a) 25. 300. 24 mi. 18. jj. 4. (d) 4 da. 16. Page 121. 40wn. J. 1^'. ANSWERS 16. 30. 7T 2 Page 116. 13. . 17. 11 hrs. (r) 3^ da.003.139. 10. ^?i min.  C . 8. 21ft min. 5. nm. 1: ~. 9ft. 10.. 38ft min. 17. 7} 18. w 44. min. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 17. * 7:9. 55 mi. 7. 2. 3.
3. \\.000 sq. 4.2. 5. 5. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 57.3. (</) ft. Page 136.3. 8.17. 7^. 174+ Page 128. 16.^ 0?j ' gms. Page 133. 20 20 J ^. .3. 5. 11. 5.3. ~ 1. 4.2 oz. 40. 24. 13. 9. 25. 3. 200 mi. 31. = 7 b'. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 2. cu. 2.840. 11. 1. J.3. 2. 13. . 2. 10. Page 137. 2.160. . 3.r. 3. 945 11 10 .3.C ?/ a . 25.  19. $. 13J.2. 2 n . 46. . 22. 7. x +y x + 74 7 \. Page 135.' : : : : <>. 18. . 21. a 3. \. . 4. 39.3. 3. : 23.4. 11. .a. 4."2:1. 5. 36. 1. : />. 1. 54. 7. 4. y . 2. ' 55. 21.. x:y a: b. 2. 8. in n. 52. 2. Page 132. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 9. 6 10 = 12.3. 2. Page 134. 3. ig 6. 11 w a 13. 24. 2. 2.J 3. Page 131. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 6. y a y = 7 0. 4. ini. 1. 36. 9. 27. 43. 4. 56. 4. 4. 8. *. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 3. x y y .5. 55. 3. land.1. a +b 1. J. 4. + W. 3. 8. t 5. 7. 12. 8. Inversely. 7.5. 2. 16. 2. y :y =. 138. 4. 1 18 = 3 51. () Directly. OJ.5. 17. 7. (I. 3. 1. 5. 7. 2.22. 53. + b 7 . 15> 9. 7. 26. b x 37. y 1. /. 16.5. 23. water. 41.7. 6. 2. OJ.4. 12. 7. 7. 32j.12. 1. mi. 13.]. 12. Of. : : .4. x 42.J. 29. (a) Directly.li. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 2. 25. 1. 38.3. 19. 9. 10.4.7. 26. 2. 5. 19. 14. 19. () 7 Page 126. 45. 14.ANSWERS 22.) 31. 49. 2. : : T 1' : /> : . 32+ mi. 17.5.15 x. 2. 5. 7. 40.5. 6. 5:3 = 4: x. 1. 9. 10. 41. 9. 13. 3. 31J. Page 5. 12. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .57. "lO. 3}. .2. . 6*. : XV 27. 3 2=3 x.. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. tin.2 x. 5. 5. w 8. 22.  ?. 3  24. 2. 20 cu. a~.3. i. 11. 59. 23. Page 9. 19 OJ. 2. 4. (b) Inversely. 19 3 . : . . 6.5. 7. 5 2. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2. 7. 9  15.5. .1.4. J. 20. . 20. 15.15. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 11 5 . 8./':</ c a f :y=2:9.8 oz. 5. .1. 1.x a. 3.1.20. in. 4. l. 3. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 2..2. 6.  28. 2.12. jc:y = n:m. 47.9. 7. 28. ft. 127. I. 3. mi. s<i. 141. 3. . copper.000 sq. 30. 15. 48.1. 1. 7. 11. 50. 24 1 (e) Directly. J pq.46. 4. 58.36. 35." ^ 2. 2. 8. 30. 4.6. w. 7.5. 9. 14. 9.*. 5:0 = 10:12. lo mi. 14. 17. 1(5. 1 rt * vm^1. 44. 10. 7.
20. 0. 30. July. 22. 32. 1. 5. Jan. 16. 3. 9. 7. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.  11.10. 5. 19. $6500at3Ji%. 1. On the x axis. ft 3. 23. parallel to the x axis 0. 10. 21. 21.4. 3. Aug. 20. 24. 00. 26. Jan. 3. 3. 14. .$2000. 1. . $ 1000. 4 mi. 10.2. 23f .. 2 a. yrs. m f 9. 4. 9. 4. 7. 5. 3. 2t2. M 2. 1. Page 145. ^. 10^ gms. .. 147. 5. 3. 10. . About 12f. 1. 4. 6 cows. 4. . (c) . 20. 10. 2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . = ^ a Page 141. 14. Nov. Page 143. 9. 29.$5000. a. . 17. 25. 1 (c) Jan. 16. 2. 20 to Oct. 25. u 2ft. 3. 13. 6. 3. (<f) 13. May 5. 24. Nov. . 10 sheep. 15. 4. 8.n + p. 5. 1. 13. 5.  17. m . . 6. Page 146. . 30. Apr.XVI Fagel39. $250. Page 151. 0. 5%. 18. 18. Feb. A's 50 13. (a) 12. Nov. 5. 72. 4. 12. 6. 4. 2. ' . 3). & part of Feb. 2. C's 10 yrs.4. ad AzA. 1. Jan. 15. (a) Apr.8. 2. . 8. 15. 13. 2 horses.2. Page 152./hr. . 6. Page 153.. 17.1.9. 18. $900 5%. yrs. ad _(?jrJL. 8. B's 15 yrs. 12. J. SL=J o ft r^2. 2. <*ft/ bd 1. 24. 27. 7.  Zn  "(^ll 14.. 1. 5. 19 gms. 3. &. 16 to July 20. 16.3. 6. 3. 11. 1. & part of Sept. 9. A's 30 18. 7.0. 12..65.33. 3.3. 2. 1. 6.0. 12. 2. (ft) 20. through point (0. 0. m f 8. 25. 20. 7. 16.3. . Page 149. C's 30 yrs. 25. 423. 4. at 15. 7. 2. June. July. 11. 7. 40. A a parallel to the x axis. 6%. 24. 16. $4000. 4. be 10. 7. 2. 1. Nov. 3. 4. 2. 3. 19. 2. 6. 11. 11. 18.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 3. ' 6 3 a. 2. On 11. 90. 2. 11.^. 12. Jan. 14. 9. $500. (ft) 23 J.l. be 7. 4. 5. 9. 26. 23. & May. 3. 4. 100. Jan. 8.1.1J. 4 ' q. .4. 2. July 20. 10. 7. 3. 3. 3. B's 40 yrs. 40. $3000. 6. On the y axis. 3.. Apr. 1. 4. (5. The ordinate. Page 142. Oct. 28. 1 (d) Apr. a =J (n  1) rf. m + n p.7. 17. 16. 2. 20 & Oct. 3. 5. 7. 2. 4. 2. 31. 11. Page 22. 20. Apr. 30. 4.
5 and 2. f 10. 3. (ft) 2. 25. f. 9 and Page 166. ImW. 3. H. .25. 9.25. 125a 28. 3. 13.75.64. 3. 1. 3. 10 C. 4wn8 + n4 5.  1. 1 4. 5. 125 a 8 12. 2. 1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.6. 2. . 2ft4 Page 168.  . (e) 2. 14. 2. 11. 12. 3. 1. 3. 8. 1. 8mW. 3 .83. 13C.2 (ft)  1. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. . 2. 2 l. . (e) 3.25. 4. 18C. 8 a1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. Page 158. . 2.84. 83. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. ft 2 4. \ft) 5. . 5. 21. 27. 5.3. . (c) 7. * 16.25. 13. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 9. (a) 12. m. 4. 3. 13 . SlstyW 7. 22. 15. a + ft.25. 1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 2. . 15 . (gr) 21. 14. 24. 26.24. 3.13. . 2. 5. 3. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 32F. 81 ". 1. 12. Page 163. 14. 3. + a 4 ft* . (<?) 2. 3.  12 ft xW  26 31.24 . 3.34F. (a) 5.1. 15. 2.75 (ci) 3^. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 24. 13. a 10 ' a ll V&. xW. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 6. .5. Indeterminate.41 and 23.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 4. 6.. (a) 2.73 ami . 1 23. 5. 1. Page 159. 1. . H. (c) 14 F. 5. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 2.59 . 18.73. () (rt) 3.  1. 3. Indeterminate. 27 19. (/) 3. 1.. 19. (ft) (d) 2. 2 2 22.4.7. 3." 23. 5. 1. 20.5. 30. 28.1. a 29. xy. . Inconsistent. ft . f. 2.73. ' :=_!. (ft) and (d) 2. . 16.73. 3. G.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 10. . Page 164. 17. 0.27.. 11. 3. . . 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.3. 2. 4. 10. 4 ) 21.5 (ft) 3.59. 10. . 2. 14. . 2.41 and . 0C. 8 1 f f g*. 19. 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (a) 4. 8. . . 1. 4. 2. 20. +3 4. 125 16. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. (ft) (ft) 2. .64. 27 27 81.79.67. 2. 8. 1.. 2. 2. 1. 1. jgiooyiio 17. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . (c) 2. 3.83. 22. 1. xg . 4. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 3.79. 7.17 (ft) (c) 2. 4.24. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. 30. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1. f12 wi 9. 4}.75. (/) 3. 11.75. . 1. Inconsistent. 15. _ 9 x ^27 1 . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. . . 1^. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.
?7i 1 1 3 1. 119. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (a + y+l). 16 6 w . + y). 25. 3. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . (l + x + . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 4. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. (4a2 9& 2 13. 12. 21. 180 . Page 172. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 64. 2 2 4. Page 170. 19. 247. 16. 30. 19. a ). a: l . (a + 2 +l). 978. + i)). 16. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.2). 2. . ( Page 174. (2 a + ft). 2. 3 2 ^. a 2 . 90.+3^ + 4. .10 a~ + 5 a . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 8. 5. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. (1 (x2y). 420. 5 5 8.5).5. + + ?V 22.83. 2. 11. . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 10. 11. 40. 00. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 36. 4. 13. 2 12. a. 14. ? . rt .y2 ). 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. +35. 27. 6. 35. 8.1. 15. 309. (48 + 6. 90. 57. 6 (\x 3. 3M. 10 x G a 4 . 6. 12. 17. 72. 2 4 8 2 .i c 6 15. 3. 7. 1. 10*.3 ab + 2 2 ).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. fe *?>' ?> fi . + Z). AN S WE no . (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 15. 17. .  x. +3 + 5 4. /> 4 ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 8. 101. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). . 1. 763. 15. 0. 5. GOO 2 c 2 . 3. 18. 6. c 10 6 :l 20. 14. 26. 2(> + ( 2 7>).^). 32. 15. 5.6. 76. 9.XV111 7. 6. .  +X '. 10. 24. 3 2 8 3 12. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.GO a c + 23. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).94. 22. 20. 33. 1. 20. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (a 2. 8. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 28. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 300. 70. 8 /. ).r 2 + 6jt). 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 8. Page 171. 9. m 13. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 10.f 1 m 9 16. ??i ?i . Page 176. (x + y\ 90. 21. + (win . (3a. 11. Zll. 1. 30.a b 22. 7. 25 19. 9.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 18. . (x' l). 5. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (ly). (ab + c). 1 1 ?>). 18. 3. 9. 4. 2 2 7. 9.7 /)). 13. ^i. 237. 12. . r> 4 : 1 . 16. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 34. 2038. 7. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18.x ). 1247. . 20. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. a. 2 49 . 9. 99. ? : 1 . 31. 4. 20. 2. 11. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . + 29. I 8x2). 98.037. 23.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2. 71.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 14. 17. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . . 5. 14.1. 84. 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. + l). 3 6 23.
21. 8. 12. Page 179.. 1 38. 13. 31. . 32. 28. 1. 11.6. (afl). ft. 3. 7.13. 9. 16. 8. (6) Vl4 3. >TT 26. . 41. 29. . 10. 4. 23. 6.243. . Page 183. 10. 1 f Vl3. Page 180. 8. f . a + 61. 20. 4. ft.4. ^. 5.ANS WERS 22. 5. 7 in. 35.60. 27. 4 n. 24. 1. 9. 4 W**. 32. 15. 14. 2 sec. vV'TA 24. 13. 10.4. 3. V2. 4. 2. 7. 9.1.6. 13. 49. ii :J _7. 15. 15. 5. 2.V 8j. 47. 36. 7. 14. 48. 15. >i 27. 34. 8. 25. 4 TT M 28.  43.  5. 14. 5. 25. 21. 29. _ iVaft.  3. Page 181. * 1. f 3.  f. 4. 42. 2.522 38. 5. }. 6J. 1&. 2. 2. 2. 13.925 ft. 34. 7}. 19.?. l~8. 40. 11.367.w 18. 7563. f. xix 26. 40. > w ft. 6V21. 6yds. 5f. 20. 5. 3. 17. 10. V2. 50. 7.6. 7. 5083.. \/3. 7. 6. Page 177. 30. 10. 3. . v 17. 4. 270 sq. 1.. 7. 6. ~ V^3. 7 45. 4. . 12. 3. 12. 20. 3. 9. 14. V J l.469.5. 3. 39. 2.690. 1. 1. 4. 6. 24. 6 f !. 3. 3. 12.. 10. 2.Sn.005. 6561. 4. 19.1. 23. 10. 4J. 8..  1. ft.a.798 yds. . . V17. 1. 9. 1. 5. V35 1.  f.  2. 22. 2. 37.18. 5. 5. f ^ is.6. or 5. . 44. 33. 3.. i ^.742 in.. m. 15. 2. a. 10.916 yds.237. (< + ?>). 7. 12. 4. JJI. 3. i. 5. J. 5. *. 16. 7.. m. Page 184. 11. 1. 35. 21 28 ft.*. 8.  14. 1 7. 5. 3. Af^. 5. 46. 6. /.935. f f V. 12. 5. 4. w. 2] see. ^. 15 1 10. 14. 26. 17. 1. 4. 18. 12. 37. 16. ZLlAiK 19. .4. 31. 9. 12. 4 a. 7. V. / 11. 30. 7. 13. 21yds. {. 21. 36 in.645. " ^_ 22.i. 6.. 6V'2J.}. 27. 36. or 3. If ^. 3. 9 15 ft. 9. 17. 6. vYb. . 16. 11. 28 in.5. 11. 39 in. 33. 3J. 2. 18. 4. . 28. 2.. 21 in. () 2. 2. ^^7m. 16n. Page 185. 23. 1. 4. 6. f. 39. 29. 9.236. 1. 3. 25 J.6. 10.
18. 35. 0.. Real. 1.59. 2. unequal.  2. 3. 1).4. Imaginary.  1.* 2. 2 . unequal. 1. 10 in. 33.2.37. . Imaginary. 28. f. 22. 7.3.0*8. 6^2 in. 20 eggs.  i.'.02. 28.Oa. V^l. 4. 25. 19. a. 29. 1. 5 ft.2. ' 1. 7. 2. AB = 3. 16. 4. 3. v^^fcT"^. %. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 19 in. 4. VV11. Page 188.10. 28. 4. 2. 48. 8. 43. Page 189.  6. 4. 3. 8..7. Real. rational. 3. 3. 120 ft. 3. Page 191. 56. 0. . . 0. 21. Real. 2. 13.l. 3. 1. 2. 7. 3. 1. 27. 41.a. 53. unequal. 6.3./hr. 27. 20. 24. . 45. 20.48.7. 35. 6. 15. f 6 52 a. Real. 6V64. Real.1.XX Page 186.48 3.5 x + 6 = 0. 3. 22. 3.  1. 0. $80. r* i. 10. 19. 47. 23. 3if. 18. 26. orf. 1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 0.2. 11. 6. 52. . 30. rational. irrational. 0. 10 mi. 2 V3 in.1. 26. ft. 0. ANSWERS 22.  1. 9. 0. 36. 50. 3. 2.  2.  24. 1. 2. 1. AB = 204 ft./hr. 12. U. unequal. 1.  1. Page 192.. 0. 2.4. 38. 31.. 7. If. 3. 6. 12. 10 or 19. = 0. i . 1. 25. t is. V^~2. 12. 23. 10 mi.a 3 a. 20. . rational. equal. 0. 8. 34. equal. 1. 24. 7. 15 ft.a. 49. 21.74. 9. . 0.5^.6.7. $ 120. V ~ 16 4 2. 0. 17. *'' 12. . $30 or $70.2. 7. _ 19. 6. V7. 2. 15. 3. 5.12. x 14.4. 2. 6. 70 ft. 25. '  f 5.5. 2. unequal. 2. 1. 8\/2 17. 0.  5. . 1_^L ft 14.  1.6 = 0. Imaginary. 1. . f. a. 3.  5. + 11 x. in.4. 1. 7. 37. 3. 42. 3. 23. . jr .  9x <). 10. . 1. 2. 44. 1.2. 16. 14. unequal. 32. Real. .2. 25.2.  13./hr. 7. 27. 2. 1. a + 6. 2. a + 1. unequal. 4. 39. 21. (5 10. V2. 2. unequal.2. 2. 4. a8 . H. 5.41. 4..17. 1. 5. 3. 0. 4 da. 16. V2. 2. 3. 6. x2 + B . rational. i. 1. 15. 14. .2 x2 . Real. 24. rational.]. 3. 40.2. 8. x* 51. Imaginary. . 2. 3. 2.70. 2 ft. 18. 8 or 12 mi./hr.2. #<7=3.4. 5. 64c.$40 or $60. Page 187.23.. . 55. 9. 6. 12. 10. 26. 11. .1. 6. . . 5. x*4x=0. 9. 12. 4. irrational. Real. .62. 0. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. 46. 64. 1. 3. 3. 1 . 3. .23. V^l. 6. 58. unequal. Page 190. 4. 2. 13. 2. 1 3. 2. 26. 57.  Page 194.3. 20 nii. s 11. 0.12 = 0. equal.
6. 3. 2. 2. Page 197. 9. J. 9. 14. $7. : . 4.ANtiWEUS rational. v'frW. J. 1. 20. (m 26. 2. ar 1 . 24. 33. 58. 5. J 3. 3. 16. 59. 29. 14. 20. vV. . 30 a. 14. 6. 29. 55. 3. 14. 4. x/25. l  5 12. 33. 11. 5. 49. . 21. 8. 6  AAf. 15. 1. 19. 3. 35. &. 38. 15. 30. 32. 21. v'frc 18. 10. 2. 45. 43. 33. 3. 17. 53. 3. 50. 48. 22. Page 199. 46. 84. V^ 34. 25. 1. \a\ \/^. 10. 36. 8.. 4. 27. 8. v/3.  J j. 26. 1. ^Sf 3 38. y . 56. 19. 16. 5. 8. Page 196. 10. 47. ) 2 >J i 10. v^T4 m. 57. 39. 49. 42. 2. 2. 8. . 2V a. 24. xxi 15. m'.  f . 125. 2.//^. 16. 'J. 3. 21. a. 13. 3. 25. 5. \. 20. 19. 51. 1. 17. r. \.  5. 2. 0.  f. \/r\ 11. 7. 13. 30. Page 201. 10. . jV 10. z + 22. 1 39. \/. . \ . 24. n\/* Page202. ). 5\/5. Jb \. 50.2. 60. 8. 23. 1.32. 32. 3. 16. 2. 2. 3. 12. 27. x$. 7V7. aW\ 40. *V. x. m. 28. 4." 17. i. 1V1. 7 .6. 4. 8. 0. . 11. 40. 9. 18.1 5 15. v. 31.^7. 3 4 11. 20. J. 28. 23. 17. 31. Vr. 5.  a'2 . . 41.17. 1. fx'^z'l 23. vm. a 18 . 18. ifa. 8. 5. 29. 1. 37. . . 1. 2. 12*2 61. 15. wA 46. 3. 22. \/3. 12. 7. 3. 4. p. I. ? . 13. 4. 9. _! V3. 49. ^49. J. 1. 52. 25. 9. 0. y. 9. 2 L ( V. JV37. 243. 1. 1. Page 200. 49. r*. 7. 4.  48. 47. . 54. 13. 19. 18. 44.
r 17  Page 204.692. Vr 8. (o* 2. 3. 5.  2 3:r. 3.. 25. 2\/7.rV:r. 16. 3 4\/2. 3^2. 34 r 6. 13 35. 16. 2 4 z2 l 3. V2 + 4 V22. T. 4aV^J 16. 20&V6. 23. 4.XXii ANSWERS 1. 32. 31. 3 a~ 3 (x (. x%  3 ^+ 1. 2. m* n*. r c . + 2).2 VlO. . ^7 \AOx.). + + ft. ). v^. ^: V2c. 03r* 7. 45. 48. 30. 3 x^y 33.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . 9. + 2 V22. y (a + ft) V2. 26. 39. 2v (T 2aVf. a^ + 2^+1. ?tV?w. 19. 27. 10. 4. 18. 36. 38. 33. 5 ( . Page 207. Page 208. 7. 2 x* 15. + . a 4 +* + !. 3V5. + 1. 5.577. 50. 34. 3V^T. 2. 31. 29. / V3. 22.'\ 14.3 + 40 3 . 11. V80. 1) 3V3. Va 2 "ft. 28. 41. 1 2 or 1 ?. 17. . 11V3. (a 27. x + 5 x3 + 0. ^88". 40. + 2 Vzy + y 1. a2 4. x^ . 20. 29. 2. 3 42. x 7  34. 32. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V. 12. 2 '"V5. V 5 47. 13. 2. v'TM. V63. 40. + 2 ar 1 ). . 17. 24.yl : . JIV6. 24. 8a6V5. 28. 13 a. 6. x 25. 10. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 9 . y. 3. 9. yV35. Page 203. 30. 2. + Vic + 25. 195V3. 2 a?>V2 a.  a Vft 2 121 b. 20. 9. 21. x y. V. x.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 3 \ 39. 13. 5 22.648. 6. 10. . 62V(J. 37.2 18. 3^ + 2). 8. 135V6. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.Vxy 35. 8V/) 15. (x' (l 1+x). 11. 19. ftV 46. 1.632. 2>X2. 7.707. k/2. 49. . 37. 26. 2. 101 1. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. .f. 8. 43. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).x^y* + y%. 21. 51. . a 3. v/^r 5  A/^~.r. l 5. abVab. 15.
3v^2. VT5. \XOfl6Vi5. 35. 28. xx 1. v^f. 2. 12. 18. 6. 44. 2. Page 213. 3\/15  6.J Page 212. 18. 27. ^27. V8. 7\/(l 7VTO. 34. 4. Vtf +3+ 33. rtv/5. 19. 7. 2yV2?/. 36. 31. V5. 5V2. 4 a*. 17. 14. 22. 50. x/3. v^lf. 31. 38.  3. 33. 1. 6x2?/. Vdbc. 25. vT). 6. 11. 8. v"3. 9. 10. 53. . V2. x/125. V3. Page 210. 26. 3\/2. v/i). 22. aVa. v/8. v"5. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . V/. + 20.ANSWERS _ Page 209. ab 4. 74\/Jl 120 46. 40. 37. 9 VlO + 4. v^O. 1. 8V2. \V3. 42. 3.r v/^ v^fr*. 52. \^r^bVabc. Page 211. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 46. ^\/3. r)\/(l Vrtr. \^6. 9. 49. 48. v^30. 6. 5 \/2. 13. 10. v/9. m ?i2Vm/t. 5V2. 29. 24. 20. v 25^4714 V2"a. D 45. v/lO. 0. 24. VJla. \/a6c. 2\/7. 5v/2. fl^Vac. 6. 6+2V5.T*. 26. Vat. 8. x/8. 43. 38. b. Page 214. 2 ate. V2.30 2. 41. 2 \/2. 16. 14. 2. 1. 4 >/3. 13. 6 2\/0. 8v2T 12. 3. 32. ^9. 3\/wi. 2 1. v^4. v/l2. 2. 27. 9. 8V73\/IO. a2  b. a\/5c. 21. x/27. 51. 12. 2 V'3. 0. 7. 2 28. 16. 6. 6V2. 18. v^a. x/w^ 8. 5. 11. 7. \/2. 11. V3. 4\/5. 32m27n. V3"m. x/4. 30. 35. \/abc*. ^ 3 b 5 24. 5. 17. V5. '. 6aV2\^. . 16. 36. x/8L v/27. 10. 23. 39. x/8l. W). 39. Vn. "v/wi ??. 3 V15  47. 32. 21 23. % 29. 14c 4 V5. \/04a. "^8000. . 4. 15. 3. 40. \/128. 25.. . Page 216. 34. 17. w?i. 1V5. . + VlO  v y (5. : ^32. ^v 7 15. 8  \/15. 23. 3. 3. . 5. \/8. 14. 15. 21. 4VO. a^\/a7>. v7^. 30 Vl4. / \/w/t 4 13. 3 Vl5 30. 2. 13\/3. 3 V2. 37. . \^6. 19. 10V().
5. 8. (\/5V2). 6. 7. Vf6fVtf.1. 19. 4. \/57t. 12. 16. 18. 7 Page221. 8. 5 + 2 vU 17. 13. (2V2). 15. 16. 37. . 4. 26. 12. 11. 9. 7. 16. .2. Page 225. 21 ' Vob 26. 1. 4. 5. 17. 4. (Vf + (4 V2). (V5f 5. . 3V23. V2. 7. 4. V35. 8.3535. 6. Page 219. 3. 11. 16. 27. 10. 2V2. 4 14. (V21). 7. 23. 30. 7 f 5 4. 6 (V2 + 1).732. ~ Vac _c 0. 81. 5. 28.1547. V3 . !^ 6 4. 64. 4. . 22. 26.3. 10. +3 V2).  f. V^TTfc. 18. 25. . m f. 5. 8. 15. 10. . 2 . 4. 14. 12. 25.XXIV 7. 19. ^r. 16.4722. 13. 19. 19.13. ^. 18. 7. 2. p 6 13. (2Vll).389. 2!5_. J. V6c. 4. f. 0. Page217. (VaT^v a). 25. 21. 5 V65. 9. 1. 15. 31. 125. 35.1805. 3. 32.4142.  . 9. (V51). 9. 24. 4. V5. 2ajV2*. 25. 12. 216. 25. 15. 20. 23. ^\/2. 27. 24. .. 1. + 6) 2 . 19.6 V3. 30. 11. 34. 21. 224. 16. V3. 2x^2^. 3. 5. . + 5V2.2. 1. 5. 17. Page 218. 10. 23. Va. 20. j 15. J. ' 22 i .\/TO). V. 10. (a 1. 100. 5. 24. 3. 9 mn. 16. K>/0 + \/2). 11. 1. 7. 20. Va.7083. 2.3. 17. 4. 6 V. 2. 8. 6. 4. 17. 22. 11. (VllV2). 7. nVTl. 3. . 9. \/3). 12.81. 512. 6. 25. i^Lzi. (2f V"5). 14. Page220. (2.  13. 3. 12. 22. 8.6.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 29. 8.0606.732. 14. (V8 + V2. i(Vf Vft). 23. 4. 33. 36.5530. Page 28. 9. 1. xy 2. ANSWERS 8. * 3. 2. Page 226. _^JflJ?. 29.625 10. 20. Page 223. 3(7+3V5). 2. 4V3 + 6. 2V3. 27.V3). 81.7071.w 6. 1. 2. 4. \. 4. 25. 8. 23.64. 16. 9. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 10. j. (3+ v/2). 21. 5. 15. 5. . 2. 13. . 3.601. 24. A . V3.  2. 6. ^. 1. x 20. V3. 9. (V6 + 2V2).5. n*. 18. 10. 18.^ (\/22 4.2828. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 7. ^(VlO\/2). fV2. 4. 11. 8 V3V2. 0. 1. 1. (\/3f 1). 5 f. 2V3. {.464.9. 9. 1. 14.
0.w 4 + 1). 3 5. 9.Y. 14. 6. 7.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 13. 8. .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2. 6. 1. (w . 16.r . 10. 6. . //. 3. 2. 4.8a 18. 2. 21.^a. 1 . o. 19. 0. 1. 16.4. . 3.  16). 8. 5. 5. . 2. 4.5 xy + 25) 22. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 9. (a. 7. (&y2a#H4). 4. 3. 1 . 0. 14. 0.2. 2.3. 4. 20. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1 6. 4. 7. 11. 10.2)(* . 8. 4. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. . Page 233. J 24. ' J. 6. 0. 12. 3. 2 > 1. 6 2 2a + 2). 2. (m 4 + l)(ro. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).l)(a3)(a . 28. f . 5. 3. & + 6 2 ). 3. . 3.  1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 19. 2. 2 . 1 (?> x/^3. 1. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 2 6. 1. 1. (a+&)( 2 14. 8. 5.2. 25. 1. . 5. 23. f>. 1 . . 3.  1. =A^Z3. 1. 4. (pl)(p2)(p2). 2. 26. 10.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).1. b . 5.  5.3. 25. 1 . 4. 3. 2. . 1. 7. (2 a. J Page 235. 4. . P. 24. 1. 7. 15. (63)(6' t 18. 13. V3. 2.  f . 25. 5. 7. (pl)(p3)(p6). 11. .7. 12. 5. 3. J. 2. 11. 17.3. 1. 15. Page 234. 1. 22. 5. 30.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1 . . 100. 73. 2. . 22.  4. J. . t/ 23. y.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 7. 0. 4. 7.2)(m. 2 V^ . a  . . . 2 <? 4a2 . 5.3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3. 1. 3.3. a(. 1. 17. 2.  J. 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1.4. 2. 56l).10. 4. 8. 20. 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). ~ f7. ( 16. 6. 19. (rt. 18.l)(a 2 + a f 1).  3. 3 9. 4. (a. a: :} . 2 6. 4 1. 2 &. 3. 2. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).3. 2. 3 . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 11. 3. 0. (8. . XXV 4. 2. 30 30. 3 . 5. (a .22. 8 6 & 0. 2. Page 236.1. 30 . 3.12. 3. 2. 13. (+!)( 2) 10. 1. 0. 12. . 10. . 20.l)(m . 11. qpl. \/0. 12 24 y . 2. 87 . 4 4. 12. 30.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 13. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). (4 mn .5. 1. 11. 4. 2. 21. 50. 2 . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 9. 2. 24. (r. 2. 4. 1.  . . 18.nl^EI. 3.4). . 4. 1. 6. 25. 4 .2. 4. 4. 12. 8. 3.  3. (a 4.ANSWERS Page 228.3). 6. a . 3. 4.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3.3 2. 3 . l. 4. 10. 4 20. 3.  2. 5. 2.  3. 5. 2. 10.4. 2 . (B43).0. 15. 1 3. 3. 13. . 2. 14. 2 . 2. 5. 4 .. 17. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1. . 3. 73.
. 1. 20 in. 12. 3. 2. 3. }. . i'ljVU. 8. 31. (&) 2. 0. m + n. J. oo . 40 in. 14. 40. 3. 11. 11. 22. 14. 2. 12. 3. 5. 23. oo. 6. n . 1. 8. _ 13 (0 6.3. 1. 1. 3 cm. 1 2. j. 3. 3. 10. 4. 41.4. 1. } . 45yd. 3 4. ^ }. 4.6.3. Page 241. 37. 5. . 1. f*. i j. 900. 18. 7. 5.3. 2 1. 7 3. 2. 15. 1. 3. 1. 3. 3. 2n. $. 1. no co . 8ft. 1. 1. 23. . 22. 5. 2. 9. 14. 7f solution. 12. 4. 5. 4. in. 5 . .1. 2 2. . 2. 4. 2.3. . 1 . 4. 3 .. Page 239. 8 3. 9. 2 26.6.5. f>. . 35 a. ( 3.3. 16. 8 . 2. 15.4. . 2.13. in. 6. 3. 5..  2 .  1. J. 15. 4 34. 5. . 7.. 512. 15. 12. 1. . ft. 13. 3. Page 244. 4. J. 14. 6. 14. +  n. 4. 1. 78. 1 . 1. 10. 2 16.. 3. 14. and _ 4. 4. 1 . 2V7. 16. 8. 37. ri*. 4. 3. 40 1} 9 3 ft. f. 201.020. 17. J. 2. 30. 4. 2 . 4. 2. 5.. 4 6. = QO 6. 9. Indeterminate. tn 2. 8. . _ 10. 11. co . 30. 8. 12 1. 5 cm. 4. 2 . ANSWERS 2.136. 25. 10. . 37. 3 . 2. ft. 1.5. 17. 30 13. 6. 69. \. 36. 20. 28yd..200. _ 7. 4.3. 1. 40 25 in. 3V5. 5. 5.30. 21. V3~. 11. 2. 2 ft. 55. 0. 9. 0. 3 . 2. 1. 1. in. 2. \/6. 4. 18. 1. 1. Page 240. . . 4. 5. 2. 17. 288. 12 d. c. _ 5. V7. 26. Exercise 113. 2 . . 3. . 11. 21. 9. i. 3. 84. 4. 3 3.0. 3.y. 2. 3.. 3 2.xxvi Page 237. 8. 1 . 12ft. 20 7. . . 4. 1.4. 8. 4. 33. 400. $. 12. . 7. (a) 5. 2 10. . 20. . 7. i i i . 3. 1 . 35^ 5. . 14. 50. 7. 3. .2. 8. 4. 35 ft. 13. 1. 4. 4 8. 5. 2. m27. 5. 5. . 1. Page 238.18. (>. jj. 15. (/>) "_. 1. 5 4. 9. 15. 48. n. . .0. 2. oo . 1. 31. 17. Indeterminate.4. Page 243. . x 4. . . 3. 2>/3. 4. 29. ' j. '>. 2. 4 .3 . 24. 2. (a) $3400. 11. Page 248. ft. 16. . 12 ft. 35. 17. 13.. 39. 10. 19.1.3. . m28. . 15. Page 245. 1J. 3. 1. 24. Exercise 114. 5. 2.  . 7. 5. 21 30. 5. 12. 3. 38. 3. 1. 18. 3... . 19. 2 Y> V . GO . 17. $VO. in. 1. . 6. 1. 2.1. $46. 512. 5050. 2. Page 247. 3. 1. in. 5. 125 125. 7. 1. 3.e. . 50. ^~2.  11. 1. 32.
53. 45. 220 .2 9. 8. 22. ?/i 6 x llj . 8. 8. . 16. . 2. 18. 1 7 4. 17. **+.12 x*y 16. 7. 29.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 11. 6.4 &z x>&. 27. 304. 16. 343. 11. 81. 4. 125. \ w 4 . x r 4. 10.<2 4. 16. 21. . Jj? 45. 4.8. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 6. xxvii 1. 280 53. 17. 005. 20. 4. 5 13. 0. 3. 23. 405. 4. A. 8. 4. 6. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 192. r 5 4. . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .5y 4 . '23. 7. . 6.  20 flW.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 343. 2i* 7f. . 15.920. 12. 410. 4950 M 2 b y *. 495. 5. 3. 4. 16. 8. 12. 1. sq. 15.13. 8. 13. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 55. 3. 18. 8.419. 2. REVIEW EXERCISE .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . Page 258. 2. Page 252. 04. 1. 1.192. 12.r x>/ 7 3. 20.5 x. 2.x' 10 . . Page 254. 13. 125. 12. 6. 14. 3. ^a 8. 45. 27. 9. 10.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 0. 2. 12. 4. 3. 11. 9. 1. . 16. 4. 3. 8. 70. 0.3 ays. 708.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. vy. 26. 1. 1. 1JH.r* 4 70 . 7.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 1820. in. 20. 5.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 15.^ ?>i 2412x4. 1. 0. 12.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . JSg. 5. 3. Ja. 8 1. 18. 10.r 4. 27. 2. 4. . 0. 15. 2. <. Page 259. 105. 35. 2.4.ANSWERS Page 250. 9.1. 7 x4 17. 43. 8 4x' 2 . 12. . 2. 16. f y 8 + z* . a. 6.7 10. 10. 5.v Page 253. 9. 1. Y11. />*. 5. a4 4 14.870 m*n*.680. . 7. r r j. 45 Page 257. 6.53.5. 5. 6. 7.  101. 10. 0. 6i. ~ an . 21. 70. . 16. 4.2 45 a 8 /).6. 327.5. J 2 //2 25. 19. 27. 4. 4. 22. &' 14. ~v 9. 3. 128. . 17. . 5. 35. 2.120. G. 1. 3. . 19. 8J. w9  8. 5.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. i 10. 2. 2. 1. 6. x4 . 3. 4. 8 . 32. (). } $ 50. 12. 4. . 5. x + Vy. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.210. and 1.700. 3. 18. 44. 3.0. 4. 28. 5. 04. 0. c. 9. 0. 2. I. d. 3. 1 14. 48. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 25. 5. 7. 1.504. 16 11.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 120 aW. 1000 aW. 910. 0. 4. 75.  17.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.470. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . ' 1. 9. 4. 4 0. 50.6 . 8.384. 7. 100.170. 15. 13. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 10 14. B . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 05. 70. 10. 8. 7. 19.
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156./_4).y2 ).4xl). a. 155. r>x 2 (4x. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 7. 174. Iff 145. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. (JT y 225. 183. . 177. 236. 211. ?. 2. . ( jc // a 2 (a1). 172.l)(x8 + x2 . (x  42 yr. 179. 8 204. (y  17)(y + (>). (x + 2)(x . 185. 217. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 12 6 panes. ft. 3(x . 241. 1.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 15. 2 (4 x . 240. 2(x8)(x3).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).. 218. 37 1. 218. 6. (y7)(y + 188. (x 227. Page 267. 5. 187. 140. 154. 12.3. (. 202.3) (2/3y). (r^x + 1). 226. 2 xy(3 x . as 194. 212. 12) (j. 19. (y 7f))(y 196. 22. (x . 40 yr. (xyX^+y" )1 243. . C3 y _l)(. ( + 2y)(2x3y).y). G7. 230. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 167. yr. 209. 1. 219. 232. 197.y)(z . 153. 137. 2a(42ft)(2fo).6) (2 x + 1). 210. 239. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 20. 142. 220. 168. (2a + l)(a . 143. y3.9)(xf 2).1). p. (ab + 8) ( 7).. 4. 224. (7 c 2 ). xxix 139. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). + 11) (a 10). 180.2). 181. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 30 yr. 206. (233). 162. 50.m)(x + a). fc'2a+62c). Or (a + 2)0el). (r7y)(ai. 189. (6) 40. 176. + 3).r + 4).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).1). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 30 + xyr. 148. 12. 147 mi. . 1. (2 198. (a& 192. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 136.y)(jc + 7 y). (a 2 + 2a6. 178. 1. . + y. 235. 166. 149. 216. 21. a + 2x2 ). 205. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 2 2 (a. 244. 231. 3. y 245. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (c) 160 C. 160. 161. 2^. 75. .6)(4 + 6).ANSWEKti 135. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 199. + 22). 207.. 10 ft. 138. 158. (y _ ft)(y 4. a 2 (15.l)(y + 1). 8(ar}(/)27). 36ft. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (x^ + x1) 234. 12 yr. 30. m. p. (8x + 3)(3x4). 191. 222. 32 h. 10). 159. (?/+l)(yl).1(5) 200.. 247.  1. 10 in.2. 24.3). 23 18. 1. 193. 152. z(x10)(xl).2ac + 229. 151.3 y)(a .y + 3)(r (. 215.6 . Page 266. 1. 238. 163. 214. 237. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . k. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 10). 190. Page 265. + 7)(rt4). 3. HI. +)(x2 x^+2. + 3) (x f f>) . 20. (/ 246. 48 h.3 y). 175. 2. 157. 208. (3x  . (a} 59. 6). (x + 6)(x6). 173. 184.2) (3 x . 4. aft.r . (y_24)(y5). 2.l)(a 2 +3). (3x2?/)(2. 182. 2.1). + 2) + 9a. x(x + 6) 213.y) (\r3y). 195. (5 x . 1.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 170. 169. . 164.I2y).2). 18. 171. 144. 147. a(a. y  y 165. y. 146. 201. 12 yr. 233. 6. (7x2//) 203. 10. 150. 15  a. 15.2 )(x+y) 228. 2. 1. 186.
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^. Page 289. a 4. 5. 1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2 ab + a  &. 2f. 0. ft). 702. 2 a  6*. 1$ 639. 703. 11.c ) 697. a ' 2 + . 638. be ac \. 666. 6.XX XIV 606. 5 3. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.  . 657. 653. . 8.25. 2. \. 617. 9. 701. 2. 623. 1 704. ab. 679. 703. 625. 7003.  a2  a (ab). 618. 78. K 5 2 V2. 616. If 665. 649. 678< 682.  ft. 12.203. 669.3. la6 2. 622.2f Page 290. . l/'3. 7. 608.001.3. . 3 x2 . . 651. / V^+lO^M"^. 14. ab 689. a 673. ^ 1. b 664. 640. 629. af6fc __ __ ( a 4.  4. 1 2.  6. 626. a + b. \+ab 699. 1 V5 1. 2. . 700. 2. 696. 3. 1.. 2 / 2 4. 25.049. 13. 3 681. 708. 613. 621. 210. c. 5. 612. 650. 632. 971.14 If 1. y  619. 898. 25. 5. 634.b 686.a~ {Z 663. 4$. 670. 3. If 658. + ~^'2 + a 1. 0. 677 680. 11. 4. ^^ 695. 672. ix 2 . 10. 2&). 8 f 3. V2. 646. b . 706. 636. . V7. i.  3. 647. 009. V^~3). 1. 0. 2. 4 V 0. If b. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 1m*. 692.>A 610. 6. 643. b. 637. 691. 2 a: 4. 3. 7. . fta a/> ^A. /> 4. If.  2f r 659. 2f.  1. 628. fe + a. 4 676. 631.001. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. If f 667. (a3&45rj. 705.y. 662. 660. 9*. 630. 2 a 688.2f (5 4. 624. 5. 633. 2. I}'/. 683. 690. 642.  684.002. 1. J^^. 2. 1 ~a .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.0. V"^TJ. 654.3. 6 685. n^l +^.04. 641. . . 644. .43^4. ' fe 2 ). 2. 615. 0. 2 x 44 ^/. 8 6 fo . 698.702.303. 648.3. . If . 2092.3f l 668. 656. 3 a.  4. 607. 4. . 4330 da. 614. 661.b. a. if 4/> 671. 1010. 652. . ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . ^. 2.f 3 V^3). 0. 620. . 645. <T! . 627. 4. ' 674. 4. 50. o. 0. z  1. (*_ + a: 611. a 1J.  13. a 2. 635. 655. + 2 A (i f Page 291.. V2. 5002.
 711. 300. VIO\/3. . Page 294. .4 . 00.r+y> 759. j 742.1 . ^ ?>. 713. 29\/3. VT14V5. > 748. 715. 5.^. 724. 758. 17ft. T%.. 732. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.2. Hi a. a db Va^T < 45da. 734. 1 I . 782 785. 2x3^ a.. 722. 751. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 796. 794. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. cr*lr*. 790 2v 3v 2. VV> L4V34. 740. 3 720. 728. ^7xy. x i f^' . 30\/10 764. 769.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 776. 733. v/7 / . 749. 773. 717. 3^. 8. 47. 729.10.257. fyaw&cu. 1 [ + '> J. / 787. 767. J(v'lO2V 791.V2.r. a 5 . 24. 3. 24 4 . 3V72V3. 731.12 af V^ 4 744.8. 39. iv/Jj. 738. 788. v'll.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.^ 743. 756. a". 718. 750. + < 735. 13ft. a 2  x2 . 7  3V5. rt3 2 ^i^.rJ w L 754. . 2 V2 . 727. 33^2. i^. 789. 719. 2\/53V2. 3 VlT 795. 342V3. 32>/2. 737. 4 104 v/2. 1.4 . 778. 15 shares. + 6 2 tf'c.. 709. 1. 59. "V313. . 725.ANSWMHti Page 292. 716. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 3V72VO. 3V52V3. 768. mn. 34. 714. . 24V2. 8.11.. 25. 712. r. 723. 792. 721. 777. 3V7.V/^ 741. 736. Page 293. 710. ^ . 730. 746. 753. i 2. 726.9. 739. 1 747. y  1. 763. 1. 5. a 2 6^. 793. 1 752. x\y. a:* . 1^ _ 760.9. 755. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.~ .
7.1)(0 865. 837. 2. . 1C.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 896. x . (x3). Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. db 7. 5. 13. (x . 6.3. 892. 3. 4. Page 297. 893. b' 2 821.4. 900. o.. 867. 842. 868. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 2 m . 890. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). Va. a2 ^E*!. 826. 833. 8.1). 14.7)(4 x. $. 2. (3 862. 4. 1 1. 17. 3 . 8. 851. 7. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . ^ V}. 4 885.1.25 ?>2). 3. (1 . 863.. (a 4 871. 4 818. $. 4 . 4. 847. Hoots are extraneous. 891. 861.om 441) (a 855. . 11. 1 . 8 09. . 888.7. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 816. 883. 4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). x. 897. 840. Page 296. 2 j 889.  tt 815. 804. (2 a . . 2. X4 1). 0. 3. 872. . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. (x + 0X024.7 4 1) 846. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . n =  29. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .rae) (4 . 1. 5. 2/ 856. 895. (:r 11.0. \/5. 48./>") (a'.y) 852. 801. 2 (x 4*4. 5. 858. 6+V7. 814.  + l(l^).l)(x . 880. 4. ^VG.r4). 7. a 42)(x . 887.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 25. 0. (x 2 .3. 2. 17. J V. 832. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 5. 838.f. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 834.  839. 848. \/2. (2x (r. 2 806. m = 2. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . H. 899. ^. 0. 20). ) (a' 874. 894. . ANSWERS 798. (a m . 857. 836. 5. 799. 3.1) (a 8 .XXXVI 797. 829. 10. ((' 1).1) .a 4 + 1). +j!>. 881.10 ab 4. 6 $. . 23. 811. 823. 825.2) (x 4 2). o 828. . . 808. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 2  2. 827. (2 x + 3 y} . 859. Hoots . 843..r . 4. 882. (xl)(^~3)(. (. 810. 2 2 . 841. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 2. 800. 849. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (2 4. 2 . 3. a(ft)( 873. 812. a(ry + 864.5 b) 4 1). 1. 876. 3. jV3 f 3. 1. (3 b . m 875. 5). 817.+ m f ") (a* ). 0.l)(x + 2). . 820. V 3. . 11.2w . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).  1. 2 854. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. (x 845.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2 *x 807. 835. are extraneous. 4.a 2 2 ). 879.4. 4. 844. 3. 19. 2. f. 2. 6.1)(V 2 . 819. 884. 4. (4 c 4.5) (x + * 853. 1. ( 4 4.  ' . 7. (x*y*ryz + z*). + d)*. 831. Va 803.7). 2. (x 2 f r . 2 . (a 1) (x 4. (x 4. **. (x .4) 860. . 2.7).2 ax 4. 3. 2 . 2.a 3 " 4. 898. 813. a* 4. 822. 886. ( 869. 1. 4. 824. . 6. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 4. 3.3)(x + 4).l)(x . 830. 3.
ft. .1. 10. i(6 in. 2.2. 18. 0. 2 yd. 938. . dL 4. i>.073. Page 301. 981. tt2 19. V^3). . 73.615. 2.760 sq. ft. 11. 979. 7 or 30. i 3. ft. 12 in. 909.V~~3). 977.  1 . 8 . 8.. 6 . . J. ft. 5 . 905. 7. 111. ft. 4 . 6. 1. 912. 3). yd. 496. . 28. 4. 11. 0. . 100 rows. 950. J(_ ft. 5. 11. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. Y. 927. Z ^. 2 1. 951. 3. 3. 908. 1 . 7. . 934. =F J. r ft ' < Page 299. . 480 8 sq. 6 da. 918. 903. 1. Page 302.2.446. 5l4f.. 3. a. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.1. w. 986. 902. 1. f ft 4 . 943. 12 mi. 2 w 914. 0. 4. 937. 8. 935. 947.111. 911. 983. 957. 919. 4. 939. T3.651. T 6. 10. Page 303. . i 8. 948. 2 i ' a V. 108. 15 16 ft. 6. 0. T 6. 952. . 980. 6 a 915.. 2. 961.  26j. 5. 932. . 921.I. . 66 924. 4 in. J. a + . 922. 11. 960. 958. 978.. . 3 . 7.744. 5. 28.  1. 1 + V953. 920. 6. 3. 5. %* . 6. 4. 1 _2 . 984. 936. 962. . 4 6 mi. 8. 956. 6. 80. . 982. 955. 954.. ?/i 6. 931. 2 ft.. 28. 6. 60 949. 2. 925.. 329. 115. 906. 15 946. 4. 248. 5. 985.709. ft. 3. 6 1 1. 56.01.. 2. 7 ft. 964. '3 3 in. 3. . 8. 333.. ft. 9 in. w 3..0. 930. f. 933. ^y. 941. 8128. 12. S07. 8. ft. 280. 8.1 = 9. 923.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 12. 2. 1 2. 945. 8. . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 7. V5 T 2 . V5 fj. 20 19 ft. 4. 4.. 940. 2. 14 .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 4. 917. 987. Page 300. 6. 40 16 in. 959. 1)./hr. $(l 4. . 916. 904. . 3 4 . Va926. 963. 1 1. 2. 3.. 8. 333... 944. 4. v/(ai !)(&910. 2.. i1" 913. 12. 2. 4. . 942.
192.378 <W and 92. 12. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1012. 990. 1000. . 162. (Z>) 999. 1018. 997. 1(5.128 I. + v 2).xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 9 da. 1014. () 12(2+V3). X. ~ \. 32 13 (tx 4V3.. (5. 6 70 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .51. (J. 1006.. 996. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .92. ^f (2f3V2). 12. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . r = 2. 120 i^l^. 1001. 120 a. 991. 72. 1010. 994. 1016. 992. 1 1004. 1019. 988. 4. in. 24.192rt?)r 120 *. Page 305.18.  5&7 1021. 1008. 3003. 0. 1017. 2 .870 a 6 1011. . 1003. 1007. 0.378 1015. 1009. 993. 1 8 8 2. 1013.'^^ } ( .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 8. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1005. 2(2 v/2). ^Trsq. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 48. (6) 8(1 . Page 304. + 448 . 4 and 1020. 108.870 z8 . 995. (a) (6) ^ 1002.
very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. and commercial life. xiv+563 pages.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The more important subjects tions. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Half leather. than by the .ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW TOSS . physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. comparatively few methods are heretofore. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. given. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. Half leather.25 lamo. great many work.D. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. i2mo. save Inequalities. xi 4 373 pages. A examples are taken from geometry. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. so that the Logarithms. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Ph. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.
xiv+56a pages. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. HEW YOKE .25 i2mo. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.D. The author grade. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xi f 373 pages. HatF leather. Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. so that the tions. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. save Inequalities. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph. etc. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. 12010. $1. comparatively few methods are given. In Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. physics. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.
By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. more than 1200 in number in 2. Cloth.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. State: . aoo pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Cloth. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . $1. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. 7 he . 9. SEVENOAK. $1. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. lines. SCHULTZE. 10. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.r and. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . iamo. 6. izmo.. Half leather.10 L. xii + 233 pages. Ph. . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. under the heading Remarks".D. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 4. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. These are introduced from the beginning 3. wor. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. i2mo. NEW YORK . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7.
.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York City. . . 370 pages. and not from the information that it imparts. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . of these theoretical views. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 12mo. . $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view.
Maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. i2mo. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Cloth. diagrams. photographs. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Topics. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . and a full index are provided. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. " This volume etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.
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