Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD. . OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH.
September. January. 1911. 1917. May. Reprinted 1913. J. 1915. July.A. May. 1916. September. Norwood. Published Set up and electrotyped.. U. 1910.' February. Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. . . Cushlng Co. . August.COPYRIGHT. IQJS January. 1910 . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 8. Mass.S.
" this book. specially 2. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Elementary Algebra. are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. however. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. etc. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. and conse .. Such a large number of methods. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. owing has certain distinctive features.
may be used to supplement the other. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. etc. two negative numbers. Topics of practical importance. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra.g. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. Moreover. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. e. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". especially problems and factoring. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . however. as quadratic equations and graphs. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. For the more ambitious student. In regard to some other features of the book. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . are placed early in the course.
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. based upon statistical abstracts.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. By studying proportions during the first year's work. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles." Applications taken from geometry. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics. viz. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . such examples. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. elementary way. and commercial are numerous. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. Moreover. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.
edge of physics. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. 1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. April. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. however. William P. NEW YORK.
. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ......... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... .... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. Powers. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . SUBTRACTION... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ......
Type VI.114 ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type Polynomials. Type II. ... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type IV. /^ .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ... . Type V.. Type III.. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . * . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ...
.. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . . CHAPTER XIV 169 . ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. Evolution of Monomials 170 ....... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
17. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. V3 . c f d). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 6. or 9 Vx. !^f\/03 3 ft. 9. 27. 4V3~6c. \/c. are trinomials. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. Val \fi?. (cfd) 4. 4(a 6(6 + &). 14. V^a6. a polynomial of two terms. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 3. 7 = 2. aVc^. v'Ta. e. is 28. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. [6c] 3 . find the numerical value of: Vff. 0. A binomial is 62 . A polynomial is an y. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 16. 12. since the parts are a . b = 3. some number is . + 1]. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). x 9. 5Vl6c. V2a. 6. as in arithmetic. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 13. 2. + c). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 26. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. V36". A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 15. d 7. 11." EXERCISE If a 1. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 2 .g. c = 1. 8. 10.
5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.. 5. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 4. multiplication. i. c = 2.30 = 270 .g. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.2 + I126. + 26+3 c. d=Q. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5=3. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. (a (a f b) 7. 3 2 If 1. 6. 52 . 5c +d 2 . 5.4 6^9 ad. 1. .9 aWc + f a b . subtraction. a=4. 3 4 . . . EXERCISE 8*  . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 16. 2. 6. 12. Ex. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . .5 ax 50 a6cd. b = 3. 3. find the numerical value of: 9. Ex.390.99.9.INTRODUCTION 29. * For additional examples see page 268. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 8.19 = 6. a 2 6. c=l. l 13. 14. 2. x=^.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .e. __ E. 4 . 10. a2 11. 2 ).19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 3a + 56 a 2 . Otherwise operations of addition. d = 0. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 4a6fVaV2^.810 + 150 = . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.
6 = 5. 6 = 5. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. sible to state Ex. = 3. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 26. 6 = 6. . of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 24. 6 = 7. if : a = 2. 33. 28. 23. and other sciences. a = 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. physics. 38. 26 of the exercise. 6. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. geometry. a = 3. 35.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 4.6 . 22. 27. 34. a =3. Six 2 . 30. a = 2. a a=3.6 f c) (6 a + c). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. a. 6 = 1. 25. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 2. a = 3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6. 6 = 4. 37. a =4. 6=2. : 6. 30.c) (a . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 29.
S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and 5 feet.16 centimeters per second. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v . b 14. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. .g.INTRODUCTION E.) Assuming g . 14. 4. c. if v : a. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. A train in 4 hours. (b) 5. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 15 therefore feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. and 13 inches. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 13. 12. b. and c 13 and 15 = = = . d. An electric car in 40 seconds. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v = 30 miles per hour. Find the height of the tree. and 15 feet.seconds. the area of the triangle equals feet. (c) 4. i. 2.e.16 1 = 84. then a 13.
If the (b) 1 inch.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. . 5. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. is H 2 units of length (inches. (c) 5 F. (c) 5 miles. 32 F. ~ 7n cubic feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. : 8000 miles. $ = 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14 square meters. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (c) 10 feet. square units (square inches.14 4. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 2 inches. the 3.). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14d (square units). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.). (The number 3. meters. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 8000 miles. the area etc.
however. SUBTRACTION.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. . In algebra. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. or positive and negative numbers. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 4 is 3 J. 18. 33. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. . 24. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. if : a a = 2. c = = 5. of: 20. d = 0. of 2. (_ In Exs. is 0. 19. is 2. + 12. Thus. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 10. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 5. c = 4. '. the one third their sum. 4. 23.  0. 6 6 = 3.3. lf(2). 22. = 5. + (9). 21. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 2326. 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs.16 32. 5. (17) 15 + (14). subtract their absolute values and . EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 12.
Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 5 and 12. \\ Add 2 a.3. ' 1? a 26. and 3 yards. 36. }/ Add 2 a. ' Find the average of the following 34. . 12. 6. 4. . c = 0. . : 34. 39. 6. 4 F. 6. and 3 a.7. 34. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 66. and 3 a. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. $500 loss.5. 37. 10. 42.7. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 35. and 8 F. : and 1. 7 a. 41. : 48. AND PARENTHESES d = l. and $4500 gain. $1000 loss. and 3 F. 13. & = 15. 27. d= 3. 2. ^ ' 37. 72. 3 and 25.. 38. .13. 32. 1. or and . 10. = 13.. are similar terms. . and 4.4. 7 a. .ADDITION. 31. c=14. 32. 40. = 23. 29. = 22. 11 (Centigrade). What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 0.. 33. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 3. 2. 7 yards. which are not similar. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 60. 43. $3000 gain.5. 25. affected by the same exponents. sets of numbers: 13. 09. 74. . or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. $7000 gain. 10. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. SUBTRACTION. 30. 55. & 28.
5 a2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 12 2 wp2 . 11. 2 . b a f ( 6). 10. 13. 7 rap2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. EXERCISE Add: 1. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 9(af6). either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2(af &). 3a . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The sum x 2 and f x2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.13 rap 25 rap 2.18 35. or a 6. : 2 a2.sign. + 6 af . Algebraic sum. 12Vmfn. 2 a&. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 5l 3(af6). Vm f. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 14 . f 4 a2. 5Vm + w. in algebra it may be considered b.ii. 12(af b) 12. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9.
2 2 2 31. and to add each column. c 2 ^24. 2/ : Add. 1 27.ADDITION. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. SUBTRACTION. 17. + y. 21. l^S 25. 37. ra 19. 30. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 35. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. n x* 2 22. is . + / + 3 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. a a8 ZL **. +m """ 20. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2 7 1 26. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 36. 6 23. 32. 33. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. without finding the value of each term 34.
2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .g.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 2 Thus. .c= 2. 2 Sum. to show any error. s. 3a 2? . .15 abc . 3 a f 4 1) 4. 5 .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2 . V3.41 = 3.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.20 c 5 ab 4. c = 1.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5. and J 2 s. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 46 4z 7 c. 6=2. NOTE. . x of x.12 a& 4.15 6c.3 s. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 3.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . a 4. ft any convenient and c. to add 26 ab . 7 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 2c. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. e.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 2 025. 4 = 7. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. = .o c and 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 9 q 4. therefore the answer is correct.g. 4 2. f 110WS: 26 aft.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. of that letter. and 2 .7 2 .8 abc .
9(a + &) . . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 4 ajy 17. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. a + 1> 8 2 2 . and . d. . and 1 4 a . and 8 3 . 56 w. 16e + 17/90.7v/if. d and / 3 ? 12. 4. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. .4 Va . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . and v 15. 4(a . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. .12. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.5 cr& + 7 6 9. v/20.4:xy xz 6yz. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.a 4 a 4 1.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 11.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. a2 2 14. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 2 2 and .a. SUBTRACTION. e a4 /. a2 a.15 5. .5a^6 f 6) .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 4 8 3 4 4 . xy3xz + yz. a. 7ar + 3B 5. + a + 1.10 Vc. a 4 a . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .8 m 2m 12. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2 3(c f a). a 4 a . in 8 3 m n 4. 4 3 . m 4 6. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 16.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .2n 2 2 3 rz .ADDITION. and 5 Vb 18.a . 4 Vc. 2 a.a. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.6.1. 3 2 2 3 9 . 2 ?/. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). . . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. + 50 + 62 . ^2 1 e.7m .12 6 ~5 a .VS 4 2 Vc. . . and 12a 4 15& 20c . and and 13.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . ?/ . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 8. 18/+6y + d. 19.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 2 ?ft ?/z. .3 mn 2 2 n8 .1 a 4 1 0.Ga 43x45. a) y ^/. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .(b + c) 1.and 6. 2 2 .12(a 4.
.3^* 2n 2 . 45a6 2 . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. and 25. If you diminish a person's debts. 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.11 xy + 12. 8 . f 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1/ . 22.m 4m ?/?/ d. . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 13 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. T8a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. how 1. The sum and ? 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. a 6 2 c. s . 6 f c 2 23. f number may be added 3. is 2.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . . and 2 24. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .9aj 2. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.ra + m. and e + 6y . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. +d a.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . + n*. . c 3 3 3 2 3 . f 1. 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .4 2tn* Sic 2 . + 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.22 21. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 12 xyz. 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. many negative units re main ? from 2.
. and the required number the difference. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. called the minvend. a. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. and their algebraic sum is required. ( 6) ( = . In addition. 6 (3) = 8.g. 1. 41. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. SUBTRACTION. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 3. two numbers are given. This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract + 3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. From 5 subtract to . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . To subtract.ADDITION. from What 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. NOTE. +b 3. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 5 is 2. Ex. if x Ex. the given number the subtrahend. ab = x. the other number is required. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence.2.3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 7. In subtraction.
Check.3 x* .3 r*5o. Ex.5 x + 8.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .
2. 2y 2 . c f d. 43. 41.c. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 51. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.4 a*& + 6 a & . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 46. 44.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 50.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 57. of a 4. 49. 6 4 a. and 3 7/ . From 6(af. 56. 55. 53. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 54.w>t. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2.a 2 j. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 48. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.ADDITION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . + a the 2 a.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 42. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . check the answer. SUBTRACTION.6)f.4 a^ 4. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 52. 45. 58. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.7 a . From 2 a take a & j. tract 4 x 3. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 47.
What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a + 6. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.26 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +a add the difference duce 13. 16. of # 2 8. subtract # + 1. a 2y + z. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 20. 6 17. + 2. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 19. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12.15. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 2 m 21. A is n years old. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a a + c. 9. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.
a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. one occurring within the other. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.b c = a a & f f. Ex. 46. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.2 b .a^6)]  } . .6 b f (.g. a+(bc) = a +b . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.ADDITION. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. II.c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. I.c. the sign is understood. SUBTRACTION. changed. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. & f c. 45. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.
By removing parentheses. 3 3 f 7. 2 2a. 6.: Ex. In the following expression inclose the second and third. may be inserted according to 43. 2. m f ft) a.1422) J ] . 2a (4a 26 +c ).(a + 6).7i h jp) (m ?*. 16. 15.) 5 .y (60. 2 2 2 a(.[271 47. 4. a (a + 6). (m a2 f. 5. 13. + (2a 6 + c ). 8. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.+ 6)f (a2 b). Ex.)]. 14. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). a (a + 26 c ). a f (a a . 3. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 271 + (814 . 9. 17. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. Signs of aggregation 1. 18. 21. 19. [36+ (a 2c]. : x + (2yz). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). . find the numerical value of { 1422 . ? 11.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 6) 2.
In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. ' NOTE. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.4 y* . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. .ADDITION. 3. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 3. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 5 a2 2. 6 diminished . y f 8 . 9. 12. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. and the subtrahend the second. The square of the difference of a and b.2 tf . The product The product m and n. m x 2 4. The sum^)f m and n.7fa. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. z + d. SUBTRACTION. terms 5. first. 13. 7. 5. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. of the cubes of m and n. 7. The difference of a and 6. 5^2 _ r . 2. )X 6. 10. II. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. p + q + rs. difference of the cubes of n and m. 2mn + 2q3t. 6.1. m and n. a\l> > c + d. 4. 8. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
d. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. b.30 14.
and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 3. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? .CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 5. weights. If the two loads balance. If the two loads what What. 4. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. therefore. force is produced therefore. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 2. let us consider the and JB.
times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 multiplied by 3. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. . however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Practical examples^ it however. the multiplier is a negative number. or plied by 3. (5)X4. NOTE. To take a number 7 times.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.4)(. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4x(3)=12.32 8. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.9) x 11. x 11. 4 multi44444 12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. ( (.4)(4) = + 12. 9 9. 5x(4). or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 9 x ( 11). thus. 48. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. becomes meaningless if definition. Thus. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.
29. 6. x. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. z s 11 aWcx. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 3 aW.(4J). +5. 4 . 10. 3 a2?/2 . 12. 23. and y = 4. 3.a)( =+ a&. 8. 14. 2a6 c .7. 2a 2 6c.2. 27. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. x= 0. 22.4. 6 2. 24. _3. .(a&c) 2 2 . 4. 19. 1. (2)x9. (c#) . X(5). Law Thus. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. Ua b 28. 8 4 . b = 3. 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 30. 8 31. (. 26. 20. . 4 a2 . c = 25. 17. 11. etc.MULTIPLICATION 50. 6. (2) 8 (. of Signs: TJie positive.3. (4)X(15). NOTE. . 5x3. . tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)'. 9. 3. 7. 16. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.2 f+x 2 . 32. _2^ 3.2f 18.3) (1) 7 2 . 13. about fac (2)X If 6. 5. If a cal = 4a6c. is 6x7. . 15. _2. (7) X (12). (10) 4 . 2. find the numeri values of: 21.
. 4. m*. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. This 52. & = 3. 1.<?. Ex. 6 aWc x . a = 2. 3 2 .(2. 2(7.6 if 35. 5(711.257). . 12 U U .  and 2 25 8 . 4.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.2 2 23 + 5 . 13. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 6. B. .. a = 3. 5 = 2. 5 . = 2.(12) . 6" 127 U .2). MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 78 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2 2 2 . of the factors. . 10. 17. 2. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 14. 3. 100.e. 7.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a 2 2 . . 53. 3 3 4 . fl*" integers. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 127  127 9 7 . 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .(7).35). 50(112. 11. 6 = 1. 2 3 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . a8 a=2. : 3a7abc. or 2 . 5 3 5 3 2 .503). IB. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 3. 16. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 200. 6 = . 36. 4. &*) c d*.. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.  2 2.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . a= 1. 9 . + 2/).7.3). 34. 2(14. By 3 definition. i. (a6) (a5) 9. 5. Ex. 2 2 3 6 . =2 a *. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.m a 3  4 .
4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). by first multiplying. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 20. . . (.3 win ) . 22. . 21. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. . 2 32.A). 24. 11(3. 26.7 w'W (8 n^W). This principle. _4aft. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 28. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . . 27. . 2. called the distributive law.f 2). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 4.7pqt. 25. If results ft. 3(124342).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 12( + 1 4 i). ax /) 2 4 1 (.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. but we shall assume it for any number. 7p*q r*. 7.4a#. 2(5fl5f25).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2(645410). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . /). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 19.6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). and then adding : 1. 35 4 7(6. 34.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. multiply each by the monomial. 23(10004100420). (.2 3 aft ). 29. 23. 3. ) 2 33. 35. c(4a ftc ). 31. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 5. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 6. 17(10041042). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 6(10420430).
5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).5 w*V f 7 wn). 17. f7a. 3 ). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 20. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).^ c + 2 .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.2 mn(9 mV .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.60 a& 10 aft. 9. 2 2 16.6 a6). 2 m(mhn \p).3 aftc). . : expression must 24. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 26. Find the factors of 6 ary . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . By what 25. .we b) (x law. 2 27. 30. . 29. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 11. 21. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). .5 x 7). ~2mn(m +n p ). be multiplied to give 4o.asa product. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 5). 7 a 6 c(. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 22. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 28. 12. 19.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 23. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.
a2 + a8 + 3 .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 2 + a8 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Ex. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.1. the student should apply this test to every example.3 b by a 5 b. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 2. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Multiply 2 + a a. Multiply 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. however. Check. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Since all powers of 1 are 1. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.4. . To multiply two polynomials. Since errors.a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 59. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.
8. (13 A. (6i7n)(llJn). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 7y). . 7. 2 . (6a~7) 2 . 40. 36). 32. (2 x* x 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). I (mfn)(m4. ^ 2 . 3. 25.1 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.4) (mnp 4. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). a 5c)(2a6c). 12. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (a^26) . (6p (2 f 21. QQ O7. 12)(a?^2l). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 17.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 36. (8r7*)(6r39. 11. OQ OO. 31. 29. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 24. 36) I) 14. 6. 3<7). 41. l)(raf 2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 5. .2m)(l m). 13. 20. 18. 4. 2) (3 A: 1). * For additional examples see page 261. (2w 19. 2.2). 22. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 10.4) (x + 1). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2 . 28. 2  37. 35. 9. 15. 26. (4a 2 33. 4 2). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 16. 30. 1).
in of the two unequal terms. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 28. + 5) (1000 + 4). 6. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (J 23. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 8. 27. 15. 12. i. (6 12) (6 f.e. (*. (100 +2) (100 + 3). .4). + 9)(m+9). ft 16. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (a3)(a + 2). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 14.13). (10+ (1000 (2. 18. 17. X 102. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 25 a 2 . _3)(a _4). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 20. .!!)( (a + 21). 2 6) (a 3 6). 7. plus the product of the two unequal terms. . 1005x1004. 3.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (a 102 x 103. (a (a (a. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 1) (10 + 2). 26. 2 a? 29. 11. + 2) (a f 3). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. + 3) (a 7). (!)(* 5). + 60)(f2). (p12)(p + ll). plus the product 62.e. 75 ab f 54 ft .25)(y+4). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (ra. 13.2 6) (a f 6). i. 19. 22. 25. : 23 2. 2) (1000 + 3). 10. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 21. 9. (a 9) (a + 9).n)(wf w). 24.
33. Ex. of the second. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. .66 s. <J>7) J . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 77ie square of the of the first. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 7. i. + 6 a + 8. 9. 31.e. 2 5. (a2) (p a . 37. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (a26) 2 . second.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 6. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (x+3i/) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 32. plus sum of two numbers the square II. plus the square of the second. and the second. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.e. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. III. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.e. w 2 ro . plus twice the product of the first and the second. n2 10ii+16. . 35. : 24 (a 2. 8. 63. . 34. 49 y*. 7 a + 10. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). III. a2 2 w + 2 w . i. 4.15. + 3) 2 . 3. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .15. p 2 p. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.30. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.
2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 .998 39. 99x101. n 2 f4n+4. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 23. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43.30 ab + 25 6 64. 104 2 37. 103 36. + 3z) 2 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 62 25n 2 . . 47. . 46. (20 f 1) . 44. 49. 2 . I) 2 . 7& ) 25. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 . 2 2 . 55. 52. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (2x3yy. 29. 2 J ). G> +5g)*. 32. 9 a2 . 22 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. By actual multiplication. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 4 53. 41. 48. 22. 16aW25. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 21. (^. a2 9. 28. 991 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 40. . 25 a 9. 31. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). a 2 8a6+166 2 . . ). 2 9a 496 2 56. m 2 16. 33. 14. 42. 17. ( 27. + 5)(5+a). (6afy 2 5) (a. 24. 45. 11. 51. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 38. (a 3) 2 2 2 . n*6n+9. 35. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 54. 18. 41 16. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 . 12. 998x1002. + 5).MULTIPLICATION 10. 34. 15. The product of 57. (1000 2 .
8. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (5a64)(5a&3). 2 10. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (5a4)(4al). ((5a? (10 12. 7. or The student should note minus signs. 3. 4. (2a3)(a + 2). plus the last terms. 13. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. The square 2 (a 4. : 25 2. 14. .f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 5. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 11. sum of the cross products. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (4s + y)(32y). 2 2 + 2) (10 43).& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 65. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (3m + 2)(ml). ) (2 of a polynomial. 9.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 6. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.
In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 9. 13. = . 7.(= [ Xa + 2 . 66. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (  2 4) =  20 a. 2 2. 4. (a (. 3. after multiplying the factors of a term. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). Simplify (x + 6) (a . 2)6. and check the answers !.i2&c) 2 . Ex. 4(aj2)h3(7).1 5 = 10 . 7. 4. a. 5.24] . 8.y? + 8 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 5.X2 + 2 x .(x . + 65) . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. n). Find the square root 11. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. = 10 x . + 6)( . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.3)(z.3) .39.4) . 6(a 2.3) (x . If x = 1. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). of z : 10. 6~2(a + 7). (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.5) = (7 . (xy+z)*.24 . 4(* + 2)5(3). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 3.(m 2 6. (u4& + 3c'. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). .5).39.29. 12. Check. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.4) .8 x + 15] . 6.(>.[a? . Hence.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4y sf n) 2 . 8.r _ 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
e.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). a I.2). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 20. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .l. . 51 15. 16. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . .2) (3 a . 19. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . Division of the difference of two squares.DIVISION 14.11 a + 9 a . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (81 m + 1 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18.
16 . 10.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !. 121a a 16 100 11. . 9& 2 .49. . 12. f 13. r/ 1. aW 12 a. 14. 15. 1.000. 16. 100ry. 4 b.0001. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .
Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . 83. 82. the 80. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. . =11. second member is x + 4 x 9.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. the first member is 2 x + 4. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . in the equation 2 x 0. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. is said to satisfy an equation. (a + ft) (a b) and b. hence it is an equation of condition. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. 81.
If equals be added to equals. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 2 = 6#f7. the remainders are equal. A numerical equation is one in which all . 85. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 5.e. one member to another by changing x + a=. 90. 3. If equals be divided by equals. A 2 a. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .g. called axioms 1. NOTE. 89. x I. To solve an equation to find its roots. If equals be subtracted from equals. E. 4. the sums are equal. A term may be transposed from its sign. the divisor equals zero. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2. Transposition of terms.2. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. . 87. a. the quotients are equal. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.54 84. If equals be multiplied by equals. . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 86.b. the products are equal. but 4 does not equal 5.
6 y f y\ .2. (4y)(6. Ex. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Transposing. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Uniting similar terms. f If y 20 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Unite similar terms.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. x = 3. if 55 x members. Dividing both members by 2. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Subtracting 4 x from each term.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. To solve a simple equation. b c. Check. 91. a? Adding 5 to each term. The first member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. x = (Axiom 3) 92.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . if a x = b. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = 93. 2(11 . Dividing by Check. The first member. Uniting.8. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 4x 1 + 6. 3 y .9 y + y2 = 22 . Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. a= a 6fc. and the known terms to the second. is correct. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 6a5 = 185 = 13. b Adding a to both + a. 2 x = 6. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Hence the answer. The second member.2 y= f . .
4. 2. 16. 13a? 3a?. 8. + 22. x x 1 . 14y = 59(24y + 21). {(x (x The The member right member left . a? a?. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. etc. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 7. = 3.69. 3)= 9(3 7 a.17 + 4y = 36. J. 17 + 5a. Transposing. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 247y = 68lly. it NOTE. a. 3. 7 (6 x 16). 24. a?. Dividing by Cfcecfc. x = 18. 22. + 16 = 16 + 17. 21. 19. and check the answers 9. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. = 2 ?/. If x = 18. f Simplifying. \x x 2^xfl.56 Ex. 9 9a? = 7 13.7a: = 394a. 50. 32 = 264. Uniting. 4y 10. =2 = 3. . Solve the following equations by transposing. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 13 y 99 = 7 y. aj * See page 264. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 4a + 5 = 29. 17 7 a. . v23. : 5# = 15+2a. 7a? 5. = 7. 3 7 a. 3. 15. a. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 6. 14. 20..4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.7. 11 ?/ a? 18. = 5a?+18. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).. 12.
 +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 42.5) + 199. a? 28. find the other part. . 6(6a. 2 2 * Jaj. 39. 29.3) + 14.1) (a (a? + 3) = .1) (u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.7. . 7) (a. .(2 + 6) (4 .3) + . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 34.1 0) = 0.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 27. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. this question. 35. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.12) (2 + 5) .4) + 4 w . 5) (as (a. Evidently 45. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. is the other part. . .5(2 u . + 4). 30.14 = 0.32. (aj 37.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. + 7) (. . 41.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 31. e. a? 43.7) (7 x + 4) . 36.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . . 25. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 7(7 x y 26. (6 u =5 44. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.5) = (a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 33. (a. or 70 a?. 38.2) (M . . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.g. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 40.3) .
two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. or 12 7. 6. If 7 2. 3. so that of c ? is p. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. smaller one 16. 1. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 13. Divide 100 into two 12. 14. 9. 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. greater one is g. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . x f y yards cost $ 100 . so that one part Divide a into two parts. Divide a into two parts. is a? 2 is c?. find the cost of one yard. is d. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. a. is b. one part equals is 10. Find the greater one. Ex. so that one part The difference between is s. 6.58 Ex. and the smaller one parts. 33 2. 4. 15. EXERCISE 1. 7. 11. 10.
How many years A older than is B? old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. amount each will then have. 28. ?/ 31. 28. 24. b dimes. and B's age is y years. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 33. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. sum If A's age is x years. is A A is # years old. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. numbers is x. Find 35. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and c cents. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents has he ? 27. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find 21. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents had he left ? 28. and spent 5 cents. 34. 22. 19. find the has ra dollars. and B is y years old. A man had a dollars. A dollars. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 32. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. If B gave A 6 25. 20. 26. A feet wide.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18.
b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. c a b =  9.50. find the fraction. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. 48. 49. a. per Find 5 Find 6 45. m is the denominator. he walk each hour ? 39. Find a 47." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 46. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. of m. . Find x % % of 1000. of 4. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find a. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A was 20 years old. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. . The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. The two digits of a number are x and y.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The first pipe x minutes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern is filled 43. Find the number. % % % of 100 of x. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41.
3. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. a exceeds b by c. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. of a and 10 equals 2 c. etc. double of a is 10. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 2. 80. of a increased much 8. 9. 6. c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 5. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. by one third of b equals 100. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 4. of x increased by 10 equals x. The double as 7. The excess of a over b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. as 17 is is above a. a. 50 is x % of 15. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 18.62 10. they have equal amounts. they have equal of A's. x 4 If A.. symbols B. is If A's age is 2 x. a. 6 % of m. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. >. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. express in algebraic 3x : 10. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. (c) If each man gains $500. 17. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C have respectively 2 a. 3 1200 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 16. m is x % of n. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. of 30 dollars. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. B's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's ages will be 100. x is 100 x% is of 700. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. a second sum. sum equals $20. #is5%of450. pays to C $100. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 11. 14. and C's age 4 a.000. B's age 20. In 10 years the sum of A's. 12. . (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B. B's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. amounts.
The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. much as 40 exceeds the number. but 30 =3 x years. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). etc. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Uniting. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. x= 15. Three times a certain no. Find A's present age. 23 =30. A will Check. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Transposing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 6 years ago he was 10 . . 15. 4 x = 80. number of yards. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x The (2) = A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Ex. x+16 = 3(35). The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. the . denote the unknown 96. be 30 . Ex. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 2. In 15 years 10. Simplifying. Uniting. NOTE. the required . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3z40:r:40z.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. number. Dividing. Check. Transposing. In order to solve them. x = 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 1. Let x = the number.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44.2. Hence 40 = 46f. 300 56. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 4. . A number added number. exceeds the width of the bridge. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. twice the number plus 7. Find the number. 120.64 Ex. 5. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Let x 3. % of 120. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Dividing. EXERCISE 1. Find 8. Six years hence a 12 years ago. How many miles per hour does it run ? . to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14. 13. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 3. 11. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. by as much as 135 ft.
One number exceeds the other one by II.000. the second one. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. Ex. A and B have equal amounts of money. five If A gives B $200. 97. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. two verbal statements must be given. Maine's population increased by 510. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 65 A and B $200. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. 14. The other verbal statement. times as much as A. If A gains A have three times as much 16.000. . How many dol A has A to $40. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Vermont's population increased by 180. Find the population of Maine in 1800. statements are given directly. and as 15. B will have lars has A now? 17. B How will loses $100. written in algebraic symbols. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The problem consists of two statements I. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. is the equation. During the following 90 years. and B has $00. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. F 8. x. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 1.
< Transposing. 8 = 11. B will have twice as viz. terms of the other. x x =14 8. = 3. + a f f 8 = 14. Dividing. 2. Uniting. the smaller number. The two statements I. = A's number of marbles. consider that by the exchange Hence. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 25 marbles to B. Statement x in = the larger number. B will have twice as many as A. unknown quantity in Then. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Let x 3x express one many as A.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. to Use the simpler statement. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = B's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Then. / . Let x 14 I the smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. x = 8. 2x a? x j = 6. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. the greater number. 8 the greater number. A will lose. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. If A gives are : A If II.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. A has three times as many marbles as B. = 14. A gives B 25 marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. If we select the first one. I. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. . . which leads ot Ex.
x = 6.10. 2. Eleven coins.25 = 20. 50 x Transposing. Simplifying. (Statement II) Qx . Find the numbers. the price.. dollars and dimes is $3. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. of dollars to the number of cents. 11 x = 5. Dividing. but 40 = 2 x 20.10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Two numbers the smaller. cents. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. A's number of marbles. the number of dimes. * 98. Check. 45 .10. x = the number of half dollars. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Uniting. . How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Find the numbers.240. Simplifying.5 x . w'3. The value of the half : is 11..550 f 310. Let 11 = the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. B's number of marbles. x = 15. Dividing. 15 + 25 = 40. and the Find the numbers. have a value of $3. .75. 3. The number of coins II. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). by 44. then. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Uniting.. 1. greater is . 40 x . 6 times the smaller. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. the number of half dollars. 60. consisting of half dollars and dimes. * ' . x from I. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). etc. The sum of two numbers is 42. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 50. 3 x = 45. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Check.$3. is 70.
How many 14 years older than B. tnree times the smaller by 65. as the larger one. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Twice 14. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 11.. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.000 feet. On December 21. and four times the former equals five times the latter. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. one of which increased by 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. A's age is four times B's. Two numbers The number differ by 39. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.68 4. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 5. 9. 6. the number. How many hours does the day last ? . United States. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find their ages. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 7. Everest by 11. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40.
Ex. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. B has three times as much as A. I. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. number of dollars of dollars B C had." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. . If 4x = 24. Let x II. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. then three times the money by I. original amount. bers is denoted by x. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. has. and 68. B. they would have 3. B. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and C together have $80. x = 8. III. and C together have $80. 8(8 + 19) to C. times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number of dollars A had. The third verbal statement produces the equation. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = 48. 19. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and B has three as A. has. number had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. II. 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99.
according to III. number of sheep. III. x Transposing. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. and.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The total cost equals $1185.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. Uniting. three statements are : IT. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to II. x f 4 = 9. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x j = the number of horses. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x = 5. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and Ex. 9 5 = 4 . = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 9 cows. and the sum of the . 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 1 1 Check. + 35 x 4. + 8 90 x and. each cow $ 35. first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. = the number of dollars spent for cows. each horse costing $ 90. the third five times the first. 90 may be written. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 185 a = 925. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. The I. 2. 4 x f 8 = 28. number of horses. Let then. 28 2 (9 5). sheep. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. cows. Dividing. number of cows. and each sheep $ 15. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. number of cows.
and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000. what is the length of each? has 3. women.000. what is the population of each city ? 8. the third 2. first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. first. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. men. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value .  4. v .000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). The gold. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. twice as old as B. and 2 more men than women. 7.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. equals 49 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. If twice The sum the third side. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the copper. "Find three is 4. how many children were present ? x 11. and children together was 37. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. 13. the second one is one inch longer than the first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. increased by three times the second side. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what are the three angles ? 10. twice the 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. New York delphia. A 12. 9. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the sum of the first and third is 36.
000. First fill in all the numbers given directly. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. of 3 or 4 different kinds. . number of miles A x x walks. how many 100.g. and distance. number of hours. 7 Uniting. Dividing. or time. 8 x = 15. Hence Simplifying.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and quantities area. = 35. together. width. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. of arid the value of the iron was $300. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000 more than that the copper. 14.000. we obtain 3 a. Let x = number of hours A walks. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 5. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. speed. but stops 2 hours on the way.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.e. Find the value of each. 3 and 4. i. The copper had twice the value of the gold. such as length. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. After how many hours will they meet and how E. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. A and B apart. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.
06 = $ 40. were increased by 30 yards.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 70x10 Ex.M(x . $ 800 = required sum. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. z = 20. But 700 certain = 800 2. l. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Check. $ 1000 x . $ 800 = 800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. . Multiplying. or 700." gives (2.01 = = . x + 200).05 x x . Find the dimensions of the field. + 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. the second 100.04 8. . and the width decreased by 10 yards. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 2   and transpose. 10 x = 200. 2 a = 40. Transposing and uniting. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. x .053.04 = $ 40. original field has Check. The an area 40 x 20 =800. the area would be 100 square yards less.
but four men failed to pay their shares. After how many hours will B overtake A. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. sions of the field. 3. invested at 5 %. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. twice as large. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. and a second sum. Six persons bought an automobile. together bring $ 78 interest. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and its width decreased by 2 yards. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. 2. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. mobile. A of each. A man bought 6 Ibs. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. the area would remain the same. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A sets out later two hours B . of coffee for $ 1. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. 1. What are the two sums 5. Find the share of each.55.
how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and from the same point. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.
An expression is integral with respect to a letter. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. at this 6 2 . expression is rational with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. f db 6 to b. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . 76 . if it does contain some indicated root of . as. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 5. stage of the work. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. vV .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. which multiplied together are considered factors. we shall not. but fractional with respect 103. this letter. An after simplifying. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it is composite. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a. a2 to 6. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. consider 105. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. 6. if. + 62 is integral with respect to a. irrational.
9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. E. It (a. 01.3 sy + 4 y8).FACTORING 106. 109. 55. Ex. 1. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . ?/. 2. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 107. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). it follows that a 2 .62 + &)(a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 8) (s1).9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . in the form 4) +3. y. 110.g. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. .62 can be &). x. Factor G ofy 2 . Divide 6 a% . for this result is a sum. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.) Ex. . TYPE I. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. or that a = 6) (a = a . factors of 12 &V is are 3.3 6a + 1). x.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .
14a 4 5.6. a a 'Ja . 5f 2 . .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . (as 3) and (ccf5). 2. 14. obviously. 2 23.5 + 13 8. Ilro8 9. a6c. ) 22  2.51 x4 2 6 xy s .3. 11.8 c a 15 ofyV . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 17.45 afy . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 2 6. 2 2 . 2 + q.g.4. 15 2 7. 15. e. in general. 18. 4 8 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 19. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 4 tfy f. 4.4. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. : 6 abx .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 32 a *?/ . TYPE IT. 16. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.2. 3x*6x*.3. 7a & 10. 2 Or. .51 aW + 68 21. 34 a^c 8 .12 cdx.5 + 2. 3. 3 3 5 6. + llm llm. 20. 13. 7i 13. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 12.30 aty. 3 2 .5 x*y 2 17 a? . q*q*q 2 a. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 8. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).
is The two numbers whose product and 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).G) = . of this type. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.30 = (a .4 x . 4. Factor a2 . 11 7. the two numbers have opposite signs. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. .77 = (a. Ex. a 2 . 79 Factor a2 4 x . as p. however. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. m 5m + 6. . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.11 a + 30. 77 as the product of 1 77.11. but of these only a: Hence 2 .FACTORING Ex. If q is positive. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.5) (a 6). Therefore Check. We may consider 1. 2 6. 2.11) (a + 7). Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. tfa2  3. or 7 11. 3. + 112. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Factor x? . or 77 l. . + 30 = 20. If q is negative. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 5.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.6 = 20. Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example.a). Factor + 10 ax .11 a 2 .. can be factored. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.5) (a .1 1 a tf a 4.4 . and (a .
18. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. TYPE 113. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ra + 25ra + 100. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. + 4?/21.48 + + 446 200. a2 . 36. 2 2 a' 34. 29. 16. x2 23. 13. 26. . 24. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. and 5 x. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 15. 11. 27. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.80 7. or . 2 . 2 . 30.500 x + 600. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 17. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 4 3 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 2 ?/ 22. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 32. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 8. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 33. 2 . + 44. . 2 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ITT. 14. a? + 5 + 6 a. 25.17 + 30. . 2 ?/ 28. 19. a 7 a 30. ay 11 ay +24. 21 a 2 2 . 100 xr .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .6. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. + 5<y 24. 21. 12. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 2xS. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 30. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 9. 35.70 x y . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.180 a. 20. 4 2 . 31. 2 ?/ 5?/14.
. and that they must be negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 18 x 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . a. 2 x 27. the signs of the second terms are minus. sible 13 x negative. 3 x and x.13 x + 5 = (3 x . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. the If p and r are positive. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. X x 18. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 54 x 1. 3.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. Ex.1). and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.83 x f 54. then the second terms of have opposite signs.5) (2 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx.5 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. or G 114. If p is poxiliw. and r is negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2. 11 x 2x.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. viz. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 9 x 6. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 6 x 9. but the opposite sign. Factor 3 x 2 . 27 x 2. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. .
18. 20.2 a 90 x*y .27).19 a f 6. 2x* + 9x5. 22. 5. 9. 32. 90 a 8 2 . X 27 . 16. 2 ar* 2 i/ .260 xy . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. since all others (II. 2m t7w + 3. 12y 2/6. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 10 a .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 8. .30 y 6 4 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.179. 2 2 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 3x*Sx + 4. the expressions should be it. 2 . 2 26.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 35. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.163 x 2 . 3. 5m 26m f 5. 14. 9a.y + 172/9. 2 31. 100^200^ + 100^. 30.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 9 y + 32^16. 2 2 2 23. 2 . 19.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 10a?2 2 33. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. + 2/3.83 x = (3 . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 144 x . 11. 21. 4. 34. 2 28. 7. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 12^17^16. 17. 2 fc . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 6. 24. . x54 a. + 4. and the monomial factors should be removed. 2. .2) (x .7. 14 a fa 4. 6n + 5?i4. 29. f go.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 12. 13.83 x . 25. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 10. : 41 2. 3a + 13a. Sar' + SaG. 15.
x* .20 xy f 4 y\ . 12. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and a perfect square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 9 10a625. and factor whenever possible : 1.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. form are special cases of the preceding type. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . . 8. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 9. square. 13.10 x f 16. however. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. To factor a trinomial which maining term. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 16 y? The student should note that a term. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 3. 10. 14. of its terms are perfect squares. 4. must have a positive sign. it is more convenient for that type. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 11.e. 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. 6. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 2 . 116. 5. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. i. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. it is a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . . 25 7. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.
product i. 16. 6. 149 a 81 8. 2 . prime. 6 2 . 36 2 4.20 ab + 10 b a . 2. 18.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 9. 2. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. +( )f816 30. 27. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 48 a +( ). ).4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). a. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 2 . 5. 10 a 2 4 2 . 19. 9a2 . 225 ofy . 1. ).6 m* + 9 m. 29.84 15.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. . ^//c to the Ex. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 4 2 23. 2 20.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . : 43 tfy\ a 9.64 6 = 16(a . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. u2 6& + 2 ( ). aV . 25. * 2 . ). + GO + 25. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 26. a. TYPE 117.e. Ex. 2 . 3. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . V.9& 2 3<> 4 2 .60 a# + 4. a2 24. According to 65.2 ofy + ofy m . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 17. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 4a2 l. . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. . 7. 16&*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 3.3 * ). 22.
11. 36> . 13. One or both terms are squares 1.(c 4. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2. 5. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2. 4. 2 . Ex. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 . Ex. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. a:) 12. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 14. of polynomials. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) .c . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 16p 2 . (m7?) y.FACTORING 85 118. Factor a 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .d) 2 . 6. 9. T. a2 . 8.
6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 1. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.1. 7. = (3 x + y .14.y + 2 2). + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 5) .ab + bx. 4:cx . ive find that the new terms con common factor. 12. 2.VI. a 26 2 2 3 . ma ?*a + m& nb. 4 B. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a5 + ab 6 . Ex. 10. x8 . + x + 2x + 2. Ex. .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.r. 5. A. 6. 3.7 c + 2c .and trinomials. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. a? 11. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 119.a a . 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. By grouping. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 9. .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. which may be factored according to types I.2 ) (3 x . After grouping tain a the terms. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 8.
6a4 12a2 + 6.4 f .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 4. 3.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. $ a8 . 6. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.l. 36 9 m .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8. 2a3/ 7. : 46 x* 2. 4. 6 6.12 aaj 4 6y. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. IV. 2.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. II. . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 5.FACTORING Ex. 2 7. First find monomial factors common to all terms. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. + 2xy + y*q*. l~a 2a56 2 2 . Arranging the terms. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 3. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 8ra 2 + 16.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . = (a + 6)(a6). w m 2. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. : m 2 2 16. 8. 4 a2 .
32. a5 a 1 4 2 39.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 35. 5 a. + 6 aft + 3 . 29.88 10. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 19. . 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 18. (a. a. 30. 25 a + 25 aft . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 13 c . 3 a2 23. 42 s 2 . 4 a. 22. (^ 34. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 42 x . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a + a + a + l. a3 156. 2 17.24. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 50^ + 45.310 x . + 14. or 3 7#2 . 3 2 . 14. 48. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .156. 28. 27. 5a' 20. 80 a 2 ft 38. 2 a 128. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 12. 2 ft . a6 36.40. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 3 25. 40.13 c . 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 24. 11. 3 41.
EXERCISE Find the H. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 3. 5 s 7 2 5. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. F.  23 3 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. 2 2 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 6. C. Two common factor except unity The H. F. 54  32 . 2. C. of the algebraic expressions. of aW. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 5 7 34 2s . C. are prime can be found by inspection. 8 . The H. II 2 . 3 . C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The highest is common factor (IT. F. 89 . C. Thus the H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 12 tfifz. 15 aW. F. F. of 6 sfyz. 5. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of two or more monomials whose factors . 24 s . C. 25 W.) of two or more . 122. of : 48 4. expressions which have no are prime to one another. . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. C. C. The H. 121. F. The student should note H. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. aW. F. F. 5 2 3 .
resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 8 6. (a7 ?/) . 9. 12. 95 2/V.y) .90 7. a2 + 2a3. 65 zfyV. 12. 13. 12 . 10. . ^707 + 12. .# 4 afy f 4 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. aWd. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 16 a . 3). 14. 11. a2 + 7af!2. = x 2 y. To find the H. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 10. 11. 7.^9.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 8. of + 4 if.8 a + 16. 3^ 2 4 .2 y) (a.6. 2 . a.?/ . 1. y + 3y64. 2 . C. 225 4a 9 . 13. of polynomials. a2 . and apply the method of the preceding article.6 . F.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 0^80:416. F.5 y). 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 15 3ao. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 49 C. Ex. 8(?/ifl) 14. of: .12 as 66 . 1. ^f a. 5. 24 a 2 . C.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . Find the H.2 ?/) (x . C.5 + 6. . F. 8 a 10 . F. 52 oryz4. a 3a4. 2 . a3 16 a.5 x3?/ 2 6. 57 a>V. . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 6 a2 y? . x* x2 Hence the H. 9 aj*(a? . 3. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . a2 ar* 4. 16. ^a + 5^ + 6. .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 6 mx . 2 . 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 25 m27i. 6 3 a.y) 123. 2. ^2 2 . 8. 38 #y. 4(m+l) 3 . 12 w*nw 8.6 a&. a3 9a.y + y42. 2a f5af 2. 9. 4 ?io. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . . 6(m+l) (m+2). 15.
M. each set of expressions has In example ft). C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 1. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. The lowest common multiple (L. C. 127. 2 The The L. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. but opposite . M. M of the algebraic expressions. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 128. To find the L. a^c8 3 . 126. =4 a2 62 (a2 . L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. Hence the L. M. C. . ory is the L. 60 x^y' 2 . Find the L. thus. which also signs. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.C. C. Common 125. C. M. 2. Find the L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. 300 z 2 y. M. C. of 3 aW. . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . Ex. of tfy and xy*. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. of the general. L. M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. &) 2 M.6 3 ). A common remainder. Ex. M.M. two lowest common multiples. The L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.C. NOTE. C. M.6)2. etc.
of: 4. 16. 20. a& 4 +& 2 . 3 Z> . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 24. a 2 a3 . 9. 18. or f 3 a 15 #. a^1. a !. afy. 3 . 6 a. . 4 a f 2. 2 10. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 13. afc'cd 2 . f b. 6 y. a?b. + 2. x2 + 4 a f 4.1. 5 a? 5 a? y. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a2 ~ab 1. 3. (For additional examples see page 268. ) . 2 7ic+10. 21. 8 afy. 3 6 xif. 3 f2. 17. 15. 6b 2 . 8. a { a~b. 2 x \2 y. #. b 2 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. by. y*. + 6. 2 a . a. 2 . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 a . 1. 2(m 2 . 24 x. 7. T a 3 a 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 3(a + b). a 2 fa6. 2.1. 3 ab. 4 a 5 6cd. ic 2 ?/. a. G a. 5. (a 4)(a2) 12. a f 2 19. x 2 5 a.f 6. ic 23. 22. a 1. a2 4. 4 a . 8 d 5 . 6. 3. xy\ . x* ~5a. 14. 2 . a f 3. 2 a. Find the L. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 11. 20 9 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. . 40 abJ. M. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 30 a. 2 . a. + 2 7i) . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 .
If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . successively all 2 j/' . 130. Remove tor. as 8. rni Thus 132. A f fraction is b. F. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Thus. Ex. a?. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. 131. and denominators are considered. etc. C. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. an indicated quotient. but we In arithmetic. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic.ry ^ by their H.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. however. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a b = ma mb .
Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. cancel factors only.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 2. Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex.
^" a. 19. """. 9x + "a" 10. . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 16. nx 17. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.' 32. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 23. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 29. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ' ^ . ny 4 18.. .*. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ^+3*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 11 ^ Mtr f . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. g J 21.7 . ^' rt ^  31. . LJZJ^JL.10 a + 3 2 14.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 5^10 y 30.
Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.D. and 135. 1.C.  of //* 2 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. + 3).3) (!)' = .96 134. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.  by 4 6' . . and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. . =(z (x + 3)(z. . Divide the L. of the denominators for the common denominator. we have M^. ^ to their lowest com The L. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. C. and the terms of ***. TheL. Ex.M.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . C.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.~16 (a + 3) (x. take the L. by the denominator of each fraction. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we have the quotients (x 1). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.r 2 2 . 1). multiplying the terms of 22 .C.1^22 ' .M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. M. 2> . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. Reduce ^. mon T denominator.
they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 137. 2aj ~ . If the given fractions have different denominators.^1. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 22 a2 5a * .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. a? 1 5 > ^* . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . .. 18. j y 3. i. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. JL. .. 2 ay IB. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 5?.oj o* or / .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . 3. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 74). 8 i i.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . common denominator 6. 7i 2 ab* ". . o o a.
^ _ ^ a3b ft).7 . and adding. the student should remember that parentheses are .2 = a(a . (a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ft). ^ is 2^JT) . e. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.g. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C..aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. (a ft). C.3 ft)..4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . L. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . The L.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. D. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).3 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 4(2 a 3 ft). D.3 ft 2). T? Ex. in the beginning. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .(a 2 6). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.2 ' 2 _. 2. as 4 aft f.aft) Ca2 .ft)(a . 2 ^.
6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 5a76 4a 106 9. 1 1 f w 16.5 18 ^4f25. 23. a 36 ++. 6 c 3a 7. 1 f q * 1 m m . a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. j>0 i> 21. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. a+6 a 6 2 14. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2. A+2_3. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 20. + . 18 v 19. 24. 2L + 2a 1 17. 15.
9 79 6 2 i.9. af 1f /j. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 43. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 30. 41. ic 1 + 1. _ + a? ?/ + y. 2 af1 32. a 4 31. ! n. a ?^ 40.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 42. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 1 34. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a. 3a 9 +.
Reduce . . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.7 5a v Ex. 1.  . . 101 mixed expression. .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  4 or 3 2a. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 + 4x 4 x2 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . T.
Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2 a Ex. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.) Ex. or. F J Simplify . integer.g. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. (In order to cancel common factors. fractions to integral numbers. we may extend any e. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. 2. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . multiply the 142. Since  = a. !.
aj 5 1 a? 18.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.6 12 d6 4. 50 . 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. . 14. 5# 56 / c& 4.. 4 8.
y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . : a 41 ab * See page 272. . To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Divide Xn?/ . 1. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a a2 4.afr 4. are fractional.5 ??i 80 50 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. l. ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Ex.6 s + 064. or both.FRACTIONS 105 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.^c 2 2 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.10 ?/ _.
. the answer is directly obtained. 9.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . n a 8. M. c +6.y 32 . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 10. & . 7i+~ 7. .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. x* 4. of their denominators. 2. a m "" . i. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). y X 4* 2 y 3. Ex.a ^c c _^ a . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. C. JL. . Simplify x }. 6. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.
o 15. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13.) . sy 18. m^n* n L a 17. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
1. C. 2 3.28 x + 42 = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.42 + 9. x = 6. each member is reduced to Ex. = 6. of the denominator. a. 2. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 9x x Check. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).28 a = 5 x2 . Bx 12 Qx.8 x = . 108 . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.9 x2 + 9. 5(3 85 Check. = 6. 1. each member is reduced to 1. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Clearing of fractions. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 2z2a. Uniting. Uniting. + 1) (a + 3) . tions. these Ex.l)(z + 3) = . . If x 6. If = 64. 2x Transposing.14 (a. Transposing. 148. 4 4)  x.f3# + C:E=6f7212.48. M. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.
= 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.1 _77 a. 18. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +4 14. a: 7 a. ^1 = 9. ^' 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 16. '  4 13. a. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 15. 1 *> = 2. a/  5 a/ = 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . .
4a4l4* + l~.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. y+3~2 29. 31 31. If two or more denominators are monomials. . . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 25.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . . 3x 35. . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ?_=_. 32 6 . 27 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 26 26. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37._ _ .  38 = 40. 2^12 = 2 = 34. and" the remaining one a polynomial. J_. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.11_4 x 149. 33. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .
Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. the 1 5 L.  5 = 20 x 45. Check.29 50712' 9 18 .r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. a. M. 1.2 42 9 43. Transposing and uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.. 26 a. 24 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. If a.1. 5# 10.2 3 ~  == 7a. each member is reduced to ^. 5x x : = 9. 60. C. = 9. . Dividing. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a.
Ex.1. Uniting. f ~ 5c. Uniting the Dividing. =a 2 151. a. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. If 3ac L= = a ? . fr Reducing lowest terms. = 2 f b 2 . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = 6 a2 .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 5> a. = = 6 6c 7 6c. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Ex.3 6 2 = a' . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Dividing. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. y. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.2 ac + 3 aft .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). find a in terms of b and c. 4 ac 1.be. It frequently occurs that the x. jr. = l^ 9 b 4 .m bx 2 mn) x. they are united by factoring. 2. ax f x f.& .2 62 2 ab. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Thus.
= n. IIL n b + &o. * Solve the same equation for^). f ^o. _ 2. iw 21. .a. If * 33. 34. and n the number of years. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . m a? x . c. 14. mx = n. + xx = 1. co?. 15. 31. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. = vt. f P =+!. . If s If 16. ^ ax a^ 26. solve for a. 9. t. q solve for/. 4. 10. = rt. in terms of other quantities. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 12. c 18. denoting the interest. Ex. 1 f. 5) is t =^. a. = 5. = 8 4 #. . s = Vt solve for v. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. rate. 11. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 17.= H. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 4. If ^^ = a 1 32. 30. . 6. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 29. solve for . 3(* 8. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.= c a Z> . + 3a. 2 solve for y a. The The i time. = 3 (6 a).i l .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. p the principal. r the number of $>. 3. 13.
100 C. A would do each day ^ and B j.20 C.. Find R in terms of C and TT. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2 3 . . Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 1. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.180. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. and 12 = the number over. . x Or Uniting. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. = 16^. 2. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 12. Ex.114 35. then = 2 TT#.. Multiplying by Dividing.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. is 36.
Ex. 4x = 80. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 32 x = . hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles." gives the equation /I). The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the rate of the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Solving. and the statement. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Clearing. 3. = 100 + 4 x. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. in Then Therefore. 180 Transposing." : Let x  = the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. or 1J.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the required number of days.
The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is equal 7. ceeds the smaller by 4. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Find A's 8. ex What 5. a man had How much money had he at first? . length in the ground.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. money and $10. which was $4000. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. to his son. of his present age. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and of the father's age. by 3. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. is oO. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 6. and one half the greater Find the numbers. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. to his daughand the remainder. make 21. 3. and 9 feet above water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. fifth Two numbers differ 2.  Find their present ages. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers.
and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. . what is the rate of the express train? 152. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. Ex. and B in 4 days. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex.) 22. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. How much money $500? 4%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. 3. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 1. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and it B in 6 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. A has invested capital at more 4%. after rate of the latter ? 15.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 152. air. Ex. 2. investments. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. ^ at 5%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.
In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. A in 6. 26. . Hence. therefore. B in 12. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.009 918. they can both do in 2 days. To and find the numerical answer. is 42. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. we obtain the equation m m . . e. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. is 57.118 153. B in 30. 3. Then ft i. 25. .e. B in 5.= . B in 16.414. and n = 3. and apply the method of 170. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 6. m and n. A in 4. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. if B in 3 days. 2. n x Solving. The problem to be solved. Ex.
is ?n . two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.001. same hour from two towns. . 3J miles per hour. the rate of the first. 4J miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 33. : (c) 64 miles. and the rate of the second are. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 3 miles per hour. meet. 5 miles per hour. squares 29. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 149. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.000. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.721. Find the side of the square. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. respectively. is (a) 51. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (c) 16. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. the second at the apart. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. The one: 31. 2 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. 34. if m and n are. 2 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. squares 30. After how many hours do they meet.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (d) 1. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. respectively (a) 60 miles.
CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. 1." we may write a : b = 6.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . . 158.5. the denominator The the 157. b. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b. " a Thus. : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.g. Ex. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. etc. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b is the consequent. The first 156. E. 6 12 = . a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent.
terms. 12. 8^ hours. b and c the means.RATIO Ex. 61 : ratios 72:18. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 7f:6J. 4. 159. Transform the following unity 15. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. extremes. 11. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. The last first three. 7:4 T T 4 . and c. 3. : 1. equal 2. 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. J:l. 9. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. proportional between a and c. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 3:4. 27 06: 18 a6. 3:1}. 16. two  ratios. 62:16. 17. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and c is the third proportional to a and . 18. 5 f hours : 2. 3 8. 6. 16a2 :24a&. In the proportion a b : = b : c. : ay . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 10. 4:5f : 5. $24: $8. b is the mean b. Simplify the following ratios 7. a and d are the extremes. b.
of iron weigh . and the time necessary to do it. Hence the number of men required to do some work. then G ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. pro portional.122 162. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. Clearing of fractions. The mean proportional of their product. of iron weigh 45 grams. !. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. " we " NOTE. ad = be.30 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. are : : : inversely proportional. = 30 grams 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 6 ccm. 164. 163.) b = Vac. In any proportion product of the extremes.e. i. : : directly proportional may say. : c. and the other pair the extremes. of a proportion. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. q~~ n . 2 165. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 3 4.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.) mn = pq. ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.__(163. briefly. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If (Converse of nq. 163. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.
ad ( 163.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. (Frequently called Inversion. (Composition. . + b:b = c + d:d.) II. then =d c. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. 1.) = f f = 3 J. hence the proportion true. 166. ad = be.) (Called Alternation. a III. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. a:c=b:d. d d. is Ex.) a + b:a = c + d:c. 12x Hence a? = 42. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. = 35 . V. I. bd bd. is 4$ = 35.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. if 6 : 7. (Division.PATIO Ex. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. I.) d 167. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 2. Or IV. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (163. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.
: x. the consequents by 7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. V. x = 2. Simplify the following proportions.g. .e. 2. E. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 120:42 2 2 7. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. = 20:7. mx tin Apply composition and division. Apply composition. i. = 7:2f 3J. 5 5.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 10. 8. IV. = 2:x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Or III. = 12 5ft. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 180:125.!=!*. : 3 = 5 f x : x. .124 IT. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 5. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 6 =4 : x. = 2:3. 9. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 4. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.
23. 21. 12.j>. 17. 16 and 28. rap. f. 2 a and 18 a. Find the third proportional 24. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. rag.:ff.8:1. ra 2 . 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 35. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. mx = ny. terra 2:3 = 4. 4 and 16. 33.. 112:42 = 10:a. 2.  32. Find the mean proportional 30. 3. x:5 = y:2. 18. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. a?:15 15. 7iy = 2:x. : a2 . ra. to : a and 1. 13. 9 x = 2 y. 44. + fyx = cy. b. a 2 and ab. 6x = 7y. (a : : 45. 3. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 2 3 = y #. 2= 5 x x. : 53. 29.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 16. : . ratio of y. a. 50. 2. 14. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. = 3 43 + x. 26. 22. 6 x = y. 03:a?=135:20. 34. 28. 52. 5. 20. 25. Find the 37. 14 and 21. x m = y n. 31.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. . 3t. = 5 x 12. 1. 41. 47. = l^:18. w.x: 6:5 a : x. 4. = 2 + x: x. to : 9 and 12. 46. if : 40. 39. 38. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. ra + landra 1. 43. 6. 27. 1 and a. and 2/. 42. 5= 18 a? : a?. to: = 35:*. = 15o. 51.
inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 7^. the squares of their radii (e) 55. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. what 58. and the time necessary for it. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 57. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. and the speed of the train.126 54. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the area of the rectangle. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 56. and the : total cost. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).
AB = 2 x. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Then Hence BG = 5 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 18 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. as 11 Let then : 1. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x f 7 x = 108. produced to a point C. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. : Ex. 2. x=2.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. . 11 x x 7 Ex. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. x = 6. Let A B AC=1x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 4 inches long.000 168. = the second number. 2 x Or = 4. so that Find^K7and BO. is A line AB. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 11 x = 66 is the first number.
3. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 7. 12. 6.) . The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000 square miles. : 197. 11. How The long are the parts ? 15. 14. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. What are the parts ? 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 13. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. Gunmetal tin.000. 2. and c inches. 12.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many 7. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. and 15 inches. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. : 4. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many gen. 9.
y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. The root of (4) if K 129 . However. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.y=. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. etc. values of x and y. is x = 7. there is only one solution.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.L x If If = 0.e. 2 y = . if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. expressing a y. y = 1. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. Hence. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. x = 1. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. =. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if . such as + = 10. a? (1) then I.. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.
(3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 3. same relation. 26 y = 60.24. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. Substitution. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. and 3 x + 3 y =. the last set inconsistent. The first set of equations is also called consistent. viz. to The two methods I. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. y = 2. 172.3 y = 80. = . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. cannot be reduced to the same form. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 4y .26. for they express the x f y 10. are simultaneous equations. ~ 50. unknown quantity. 174. By By Addition or Subtraction. Therefore. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.130 170. 21 y . y I 171. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.X. 6x . of elimination most frequently used II. E. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent.
Therefore Check. Transposing. whose coefficients In general. x = 10.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3. y = 2. 8 2. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. x = 10. 37.3 1 = 47. 25 x . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. = 406. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 3y = 3. subtract the equations. 10 + 5 1 = 135.3 y = 47. 60 . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.14 =8. 10 . 3.2 = 6. are like. y = 1. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. + 2. 5 13 . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). add the equations. 64 x = 040. = 235.
19< I a. f 3X 7x 14. I . J I y = 1U. 13 61 l7a.f2/ ' = 50. x 11.3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. = 6.5 y = 2. f 3# ?/ = 0.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 9 1 r 20. _. [2o. * + 3 y = 50. v ^ = ll. = 24. 7 ' 1fi fl . I ~ y~~> 22. I oj 5y = 17. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.v 23. O t K 8. I i 3 a. ' 12. + 2/ 17.3. = 41.9 *. ] ^ . 13. i 3. .
3. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2y + 10. = 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . and solve the resulting equation. . = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. = 60.
7x_2y=3. however. 3 (1) Ex. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Substituting in (6) . \ \6(a. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.3. (4). . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3. 29 x = 29. 21z6y=9. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . x = l. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.6)7(y7)==18. 2 y = . simplified before elimination is possible. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19. (7) (7) (8) . + 212y4 = 14. 7 y = 6.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. From 9 = 36. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.
. 16. a. 4 11. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a. 12. J 9. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. +y 2 . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.f2 2. 10. 10 2a?5 17. yM a. .1) = 121.1) + 5(6 y . 14. = 3.
but some expressions involving x. e. 3x\" 1 23 24. {. and y. * ((* (( . ?~y . . 180.#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 22. <X + 20.Q ^ 4 21. f y .and x y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. . etc. 137 Solve y y (1) . y.4 x = 4 xy. 33 = 11 x. y 1.3 xy. of this type. x 3. . Dividing by 11 3 = #. Substituting x = 3 in (1). can also be solved Examples method. however. x 2x(2). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 1. Clearing of fractions. Therefore y=4. 15 y + 8 x . 2* * x 2. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y 4. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. (4) + (G). (2) (3) a.
Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). n. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13. 21 9 .= 5.= o 6. 6. x y 5. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x 8. 253 7. y MOi y a. x y 331 9. Ex. 1.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. 6w3 + bny = 6p. .
x 12.W. From the same equations find s in terms of a. W . 6. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. Uniting. a Find a and terms of n. ny = fy/ I sc 1. . . ax + by = 2 a&. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d.y = = 9a + 46. . w. 14. apan cm. and I. fax f = l. Dividing. d. x f my = 1. x a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. . bmy bm}y ap cm. s in 11. ap. f 5.
3. 1. 4. 8 x .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). = 3. 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).12 y + 6 z = . 3y = Hence Check. . 182.by 2. l. 1.16. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.lf> z . (8) 2. Ex. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. x + 12 y . etc. = 30.13. by 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.15z=12 Adding. 20.3=4. (4) (5). 6. f 3y 12 =s 8. ties are Similarly.2 + 3.1+4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.2 + 4. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 4. To solve equations containing By tions. y =* 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.25.8 = 1. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.3 = 8.
k 2/ f 2 x a. 7. 10. a? + 709 = 26. == 6. 2 . 2z = 40. x 13. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 12. 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 15 2 = 45. + y f z = 15. 2 4. a? 11. 49. 14. ~6?/ 5. + 2 y f 2 = 35. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 4 = 42.
142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 5.. 4. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 84 21. . 60. 23. 19. ^ = 2. 27. 16. ? = llz. (3 _. . 22.42 = 2.3 y + . = 8*. =s 20.6 2. ?/ 3x = 0. . 32.2 a. 1510 4 17.
x : z =1 : 2. symbols: x + y +z 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. and to express In complex examples. Obviously of the other . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Find the number. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. M=i. z + x = 2 n. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1. . 1 = 2. # 4. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. y * z 30. 2 = 6. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. +2+ 6 = 8. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = 2 m. = l. + z = 2p.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. . Ex. y 31. either directly or implied. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. and if 396 be added to the number. Check. however. 2 = 1(1+6). 1 digit in the tens place. ( 99. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. the number. + 396 = 521.
2. the distance traveled by A. 5_ _4_ A. . increased by one. C. Find the fraction. x y = the = the x denominator . the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. x 3 = 24. Ex. (1) (2) 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 6 x 4 = 24.144 Ex. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. direction. From (3) Hence xy Check. By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. = the fraction. = 8. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. x 3x4y = 12. 3. xy a: 2y 4y 2. we obtain. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Since the three men traveled the same distance. Or (4)2x(3). = Hence the fraction is f. B. 4 x = 24. 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be .
fraction is reduced to \. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the number. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the numbers. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. number by the first 3. the digits will be interchanged. 6. If the denominator be doubled. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the fraction. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the last two digits are interchanged. the number (See Ex. the fraction equals . 7. both terms. it is reduced to J. Find the numbers.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.}. 183. part of their difference equals 4. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If 27 is 10. A fraction is reduced to J. ? What 9. tion ? 8. If 9 be added to the number. and the numerator increased by 4. 5.) added to a number of two digits. and the fourth 3. 2. the Find the fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 1. . and its denomi nator diminished by one.
How 6 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Find the rates of interest. If the rates of interwere exchanged. in 8 years to $8500. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. partly at 5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. the rate of interest? 18.000 is partly invested at 6%. 19. Find their present ages. 13. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. 5 %. now. . and money and 17. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. respectively ? 16. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. A man invested $750. 14. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and in 5 years to $1125. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. the annual interest would be $ 195. A sum of $10. and partly at 4 %. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 12. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and 4 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260.grams. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.
and GE = CF. and $15 for each sheep. On /). BC = 7 inches. but if A would double his pace. is the center of the circum scribed circle. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. 1 NOTE. An C touch ing the sides in D. ED = BE. 24. andCL4 = 8. and angle e angle/. $ 50 for each cow. three AD = AF. . he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. respectively. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. B find angles a. the length of NOTE. what is that = OF. BE. and sheep. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. points. the three sides of a triangle E. cows. 25. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and AC = 5 inches. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and e. and their difference by GO .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and CE If AB = G inches. and F. receiving $ 100 for each horse. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. for $ 740. . Find their rates of walking. 23. are taken so ABC. E. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. c. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and angle BCA = 70. then AD = AF. and F. and F '(see diagram). BC=7. angle c = angle d. triangle Tf AD. A farmer sold a number of horses. BD = HE. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50.
is the abscissa. PN are given. 2). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. 3). the ordinate by ?/. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. the ordinate of point P. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and r or its equal OA is . and PJ/_L XX'. first 3). Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. 186. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and PN _L YY'. The of Coordinates. or its equal OM. is The point whose abscissa is a. YY' theyaxis. It' Location of a point. (7. (3. . The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. ?/. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). PM.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. B.. Thus the points A. (2. jr. and point the origin. (2. PN. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive .
and(l. (5. 2). 0). (3. Plot the points: (4. 0).(!. What is the locus of (a?. 4) from the origin ? 7. 4. Graphs. 71 2). Plot the points : (0. 4) and (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (4. i. 8. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 11. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. Plot the points (6. (See diagram on page 151. (4. (0. 1). !). (0. 3. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (2.1). 6. (4. 2. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (1.) EXERCISE 1. 6. 3).e.4). 0). 0). 2J).2). Plot the points: (4. (4. 2). 4). 1). 3). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.3). which of its coordinates known ? 13. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. . . 3). 4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. and measure their distance. 12. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.
and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. or the curved line the temperature. however.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. B. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. . we meas1 .. C. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. By representing of points. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 15. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. from January 1 to December 1. ure the ordinate of F. 188. A. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the first table produces 12 points. D. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 10 . may be found on Jan. 1.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Whenever a clear. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. uses them. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. . Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. the graph is applied. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities. (b) July 15. etc. (d) November 20.
15. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1? 11 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. on 1 to the average. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. (d) 9 0. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. During what months above 18 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. When the average temperature below C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. ? 9. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is 10. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ?  3..152 2. (freezing point) ? 7. 1 to Oct. How much. (1) 10 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8..
NOTE. 20. a temperature chart of a patient. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw a graph for the 23. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Draw . 19. Hour Temperature .09 yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. One meter equals 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. binding. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.inch. to 27. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.) T circumferences of 25.. e. 9. 190. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 3. the value of a of this quantity will change. 29. amount to $8. 4. and $.5 grams. represent his daily gain (or loss). etc. 1 to 1200 copies. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. x* x 19. x 7 to 9. 2. function If the value of a quantity changes. etc.. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.g. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. A 10 wheels a day. . the daily average expenses for rent. 26. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. gas. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 28. then C irJl.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2 .154 24.50. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. books from for printing.50. x increases will change gradually from 13. if he sells 0. if each copy sells for $1. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.
0). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.1). 2). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 4). may. is supposed to change. be also represented by a graph. and (3. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Ex. .1). x a variable. construct '. 3 (0. as 1. (2. and join the points in order. plot points which lie between those constructed above.e. Q. 9). ( 2. 2. however. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . Draw the graph of x2 f. If a more exact diagram is required. while 7 is a constant. 2 (1. a*. 4). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.g. 3 50. may . Graph of a function. E. for x=l.2 x may 4 from x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article. J). (1^. The values of func192. 9). etc. 1 the points (3. to x = 4. (1. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.
straight line produces the required graph. Thus 4x + 7.. y = 6.4). .20). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. 5). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.) For brevity. and join(0. = 4. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. Ex. 2 4 and if y = x f. 7 . etc. rf 71 . 1). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.2 x . (4.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (3.. = 0. 194. 4J. 4). j/=3. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. (2.. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. as y. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.. Thus in the above example. r */ +* 01 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter.
a* 13. 22. if y = 2. 23x. 2J. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. = 4.5)2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if the function equals zero. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. x+1. 2. i. the function. 2 a. a? 2 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2 or 2 20. (7i) (c) 23. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. . = The values of a*. if"a. 2J. Jar . the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2 a. a?. 1. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 1J. . 3 a 8. 1J. 9. 19. 21. (ft) (_ 1. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. J. fa 17.e. 6 fa. 12.5)2. The values of a*.8)'. 2 2. 8. 1J. 5. + 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (If) Va25. y = 2x = 4. 11. xz + x. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 4 a. 2 2 a. 15. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 3. 7. if a. a? 1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . xl. from x VlO'S". 16. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 2x + 3x a?. The values of a?. 3. 1 8 10. 4a? I. The smallest value of the function. 18. 2. l.or. a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (C ) (2. 14. ?/ a. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 6. a ar.
) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.24 or x = P and Q.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.158 24. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. y= formula graphically. i. C. the abscissas of 3. 1 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero..e. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. then y = . 9 F.. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. 14 F. 32 F. that graph with the o>axis.24. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. Represent 26. . If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. Show any convenient number)..where x c is a constant. Therefore x = 1. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 25. then cXj where c is a constant.
crosssection paper is used. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. (a) x2 = 0. 6. + + = where a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 7. 4. 12. = 0. . 13. (a) (6) 9.7 2 a 5 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (0. 2 and 1. 8. 3. is called a quadratic equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. or 5 2. Such equations in general have two roots. 197. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a2 2a. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 14. 11. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 10. 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6.f 9 = 0. 0. viz.
0). If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence if if x x  2. 3x _ 4 .2.1.e. fc = 3.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. unknown quantities. because their graphs are straight lines. if y = is 0. If x = 0. 199. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). ?/.2 y ~ 2. Hence we may join (0. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. locate points (0. i. and joining by a straight line. first degree. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Ex. y= A and construct x (  graphically. T . X'2 Locating the points (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . = 0. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. y y 2. . Ex. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. ?/ =4 AB. Hence. and join the required graph. == 2. 1) and 0). NOTE. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. produces the 7* required locus. solve for ?/. 2). that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. (f . y = l. 4) and (2.
By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). P. and CD. To find the roots of the system. Graphical solution of a linear system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. linear equations have only one pair of roots.57. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. parallel have only one point of intersection.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). AB y = . and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. (2) . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 201.15. 203.1=0. we obtain the roots. viz. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. 202.
0). obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. i. V25 5. 4. e. and joining by a straight line. 0) and (0.. Solving (1) for y. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. we of the + y* = 25.5. 3. 5. 4. The equations 2 4 = 0. 4. In general. Since the two  we obtain DE. they are inconsistent.5. 3x 2 y = 6. y equals 3. 3. (4. Locating the points (5. 4. and + 3). There can be no point of and hence no roots. Using the method of the preceding para. = 0. the point we obtain Ex. (4.y~ Therefore. the graph of points roots. intersection. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2. 4. x2 . 0. 4. (2. P graphs meet in two and $. etc. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. which consist of a pair of parallel lines.g. 2. AB the locus of (1). 3. Inconsistent equations. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. (1) (2) C. 5. 4. Locating two points of equation (2). 1. 3).0.9. 1.e. 0. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 2 equation x 3). . if x equals respectively 0. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. and .  4.
Draw system. 6. \ 2x + 3^ . 19. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. '163 Dependent equations. 7.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2. the graphs of the following systems. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y = 4. 2x 3?/=6.. 3. y 2 4. 5. if possible. vice versa. 4. state reasons. y= a2 2x y6. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. a. x~y=0. 10. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 16 22. 17. 20. 9. y=x + 5. 8. and. a+r/=6. and solve each If there are no solutions. . 16 23.
29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26. 28. 3 31. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.14 y = . CUBES.8.y). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . TABLE OF SQUARES. 25.164 24. 30.
Law of Signs. fa. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. According to 1. 2. . 2. 52. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ^4/? it According to 50. is may be by 207. follows that 3. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a = a3 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.faa a a a Obviously 1. 3 f a = f a = +. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . involution repeated multiplication. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 8. etc. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . on to in factors 4. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a special kind of product.a2 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206.
V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (a ) 2 4  3. (^^) 2 . 16.6) = a . the required power. . raise a fraction to a power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 2. V V/ 13. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 210. 15. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . (2ar). The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 4.6 (a 8 8 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. 3 2 2 8 . 24. (277171 )*. 5. 4 /2mV. 2 11 (afc ) . amVy) 3 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 76 : (>y. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 5 . 6. a product to a given power.166 To find To To power.
are obtained by multiplication. . (3 x . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 2. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. frequently called ex. 3 8 . 21. 211. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .y) = (3 y?y . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. : a 20. (a + &)8 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.INVOLUTION Ex. 12. 1 f 3 2 3 . An 1. pansions. 1. (aj7) . 8. (6m+2w) (3 8 . Ex. 15. 3. = s= (2s) 8 a. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . The higher powers of binomials. 9. nent of the binomial. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. etc. . 7.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. (5 (1 a) 3 .) 14. 8 (a??/) 3 . + 4aj) 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . + a 2 a. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (afl) . 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.y . 2 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .6 2 8 ft) . +5a) 22. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 2. 16. (3af26) 8 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 6. 4. a. 5. 13. 23. 18.3 y.
5. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (l 8 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. Ex. 4. 15.216 a^ 4. (m 5 I) 2 22. 23. (m 2 + n) 8 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (2 4. mn 5 2 5 ) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 4 (1for) 5 . . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (a~^) 5 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . ( &) 5 . 25. (3a f5) 5) 4. (la&) 4 12. . Ex. 3. 21. 1.a) 3 19. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5.168 3. (mJ) 4 11. 18. 4 . 14. 3. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 5. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (?>i?i f c)*. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 9. (1 + 4 ?/) .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 17. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . 2. 8.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . 10. . (2 a 4 . . Ex. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (?/i~w) : 16. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (tff1) (cfd) . (p + q) 4 * 7. The minus. (m fl) 2 20. (af 5) .2. 6. 13. is the coefficient of the next term. and the powers negative. 24. 78 s .
it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. etc. 27 =y means r' = 27. 2. = x means = 6. or y ~ 3. or x &4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 109 . 1. for distinction. tity . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and all other numbers are. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 4 4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 215. V9 = + 3. V \/P 214. \/"^27=3. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. numbers.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. (_3) = 27. a) 4 = a4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. and ( v/o* = a. called real numbers. which can be simplified no further. Since even powers can never be negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution.
2. To extract a root of a fraction.lL. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex 5 a" . extract the and denominator. 7.(. . 6. Ex. Ex. 4 v. 9. Ex. 8. 82 . Ex. 7.200 . v/^i2 = a*. 3 33 53 . 9. To extract the root of a power. 6 7 = 030.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . V?. 10.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.201) = 2. index. 62 = V2* . V25 9 16. EXERCISE 1. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 5. v/2^.64 5 4 .125.1. \/2 4 9 . 6. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = V26TIT81 = 53. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 7 .9 = 136. .4. Ex. fy 5 3 .  100 a 2 . 7 . 79 2 v/2 5 . . 3. Ex. 8. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. = 19472. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3i . = 199 + (_ 198) . 3/0** = am . V5 v/2 7 2. roots of the numerator \/18 . V36 9 4. 2 .
6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 31. ^40^4. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .) by inspection. a f2 l 2 + l. V9216.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .EVOLUTION 171 28. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.3 y2) ( vV . 116. 33.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.3. Ex. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2. 30.4/. . 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 29. 32. 2 . 34. a* 4 8 2 .98. 45 V5184. V20 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 5.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 1.75./). V8. Find the square root of a2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 6.
The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . and b. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. a\b is the root if In most cases. 8 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however. 10. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. the given expression is a perfect square. 2 .2 ab + b . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.e.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2ab . #2 a2  16. a f. 2 2 218. mV14m??2)f 49. The term a' first 2 . and b (2 a f b).172 7.> 13. 15. + 6 + 4a&. . let us consider the relation of a f. 12.b 2 2 to its square.2 &c. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.2 ac . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. i. 14.
 24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . . As there is no remainder. */'' . Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . of x. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.24 afy* f 9 tf. 1. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. and consider Hence the their sum one term. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 219. 1. The square . 10 a 4 8 a. First trial divisor. . 8 a 2 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 6 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 /. and so forth. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. First complete divisor. the first term of the answer.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . is As there is no remainder. . by division we term of the root. Explanation. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. 8 a 2 .
5 4 16 4 iK . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 5. 3.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 6 11.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .4 x 4.37 a ^ . 1 4.12 m 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.40 a 22 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .25. 6. 20. 729 4. 16. 12. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 16x6 4. a? 2 .42 a*& 4. 36it.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 17. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. . 18. > 7.V430^425^ 4m 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.24 or .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .73 a8 .6 . 14. 10. 4 .12m 5 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.73a4 440^436^460^.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 19. 8. 9.a 6 x*y 2 . x 6 4 4 0^4.9.20 o 4.16. 24. 2 4.10 x2 4. 436^?/469a. l 4. 15.20 J or 2 16 x 4.25 x 4 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 13#4 413ar 44a.
Ex. a 2 = 6400. etc. 1. and the first remainder is. etc. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. and the complete divisor 168. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 2. of 1. the first of which is 8.000 is 1000. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Ex. Find the square root of 7744. first .EVOLUTION 220. of a number between 100 and 10. Find the square root of 524. = 80.000. Therefore 6 = 8. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.. The is trial divisor = 160. two figures. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the first of which is 4. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 100.000. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.1344. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.176. of 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. which may contain one or two).
and if the righthand group contains only one digit.10.0961 are '. places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. Find the square root of 6/.70 6.1 are Ex. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 3. annex a cipher. The groups of 16724. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.1T6 221. in .7 to three decimal places.
58 square 38. 5. 35. 39. 1. 31. = 3. 34. whose area equals 48. 32. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . feet. T\.1410. feet.22. 33. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.4 square when R = radius and 11. 30.53. 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 13. J. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.01. JT . 36. 1.) 40.
x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is A quadratic equation. The 7 equation. x 2 7. This answer Check. complete. 178 . = 4. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Ex. or equation of the second degree. or incomplete. but no higher power e. Extracting the square root of each member. 225. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 6 y2 = 17. A pure. 2 ic = a. is 12. 6#2 = x* 24. Dividing.g. x = + 2 or x =2. 226. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. . 224. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. Transposing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. = 7^ + 5. 2. or affected. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 1. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2)* + 5 = 33.
8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 10.2. 7 = 162. 4 ax. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. . 5.25.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 15^5 = 6. 2 2 a. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 0^ + 1 = 1. o. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 4. or Therefore. . 19 + 9 = 5500. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . ax Transposing and combining. 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). 7. Solve 179 . 2 4fc 5' 18. : 83 2. 3. 16^393 = 7. (a? 9. ' =: y? b* b .
and their product : 150. 2 . 2 : 3. 26. may be considered one half of a rec square units. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. EXERCISE 1. 3. 108. ' 4.) of their squares 5. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is one of _____ b The side right angle. find a in terms of 6 .b 2 If s If =c . Find is the number. r. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 25. 22 a.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If G=m m g . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. If 22 = ~^. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If a 2 4. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for d. . A right triangle is a triangle. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 29. : 6. solve for v. 2a f 1 23. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 2 . Find the numbers. . Find the side of each field. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. is 5(5. then Since such a triangle tangle. solve for r. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 24. 28. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 2. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 4. Find the side of each field. 228. 27. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .
Solve Transposing. 8. and the third side is 15 inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. we have of or m = . Find the sides. of a right triangle Find these sides. Find these 10. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 24.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. add () Hence 2 . x* 7 x= 10. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . To find this term. . is and the other two sides are equal. (b) 44 square feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 2m. Find the unknown sides and the area. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. (b) 100 feet? = .) 13. Method of completing the square.7 x f 10 = 0.2 7 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the radii. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 4. 9. . radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. J = 12. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. and the two smaller 11. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. sides. A body falling from a state of rest.
62 x 5 = f. Transposing. = .2 a2 . .x(l = . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.  \. = \ # = ff.1. Ex. Hence Therefore Check. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Uniting. = x\ = 2. J. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .. Transposing. Extracting square roots. Simplifying. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 230.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Ex.a. or J. a Clearing of fractions. 2 a* a. 2  . or x = 2. Therefore. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. adding member). Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. = 6. a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 7 5 + 10 = 0.e. (*~8) a = at . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2.
183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x . Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
=0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.c = 0. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =8 r/io?. article. 2x 3 4. 231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . . any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 49. = 12.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. ao. x la 48. \bx\.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2 . 4.25 x. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 10. 9. 16. 2or } 5o. 2.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. V^tT)* . 12. 6 Ex. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 7.4 4 5 . ?i 2 . 7^ + 9 x 90.  . 2 a? = 44 x . 2 o. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 21. TIO. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. Reducing to general form. a. c p. = 12 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. c = 5. 20. 6^+5^ 56. 26. 1. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. : 86 + 2 = 0. 17. 18. 11. 15. 6 . 13. 6. 5 x2 Transposing. 8. 14.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2 a. 2. = 64120?. 19. 6. 3.
Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 27 x== 42a. 26.5) =0. 24. or # 5 is zero. Bx 1 1. if either of the uct is zero. x2 = 1 . Clearing for fractions. and 6.2. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . Transposing. 25. 23. 233. . 5) = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. factors Now. 1.x. orz roots. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. x(x <2 . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. a=:i^^. Eesolving into factors. 3x?+x = 7. ar>8o. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. = 14. any degree.4) = . (5 a? !)(. Factoring. }. member can be Ex. all or. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. transposing terms to one member. 5 = 0. Solution by factoring. = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. 0.
3# y 5 = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 2o3 f9a. 4. is 5) = 0. 2. Therefore x =3 = 2. 13.e. 9. + 6)=0. 8. 0(02) = 7(02). a?. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. Ex. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.= 24. for a: .:=0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 5 = 0. 2. a* 10a=24. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 4)(z3) = 0. a?10a=:24. 6. 4or + 18a f 8a.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 14. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. we 9 obtain x 4. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. } 2 2 (5 . O roots are 2. Or Hence the 234.g. The equation I.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 100.24 = 0. aj( 15. 0^ ar> 11. 3 or 2 a. (aj4)(a.(. : 87 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 0^ + 21 = 10 10. E. x2 f 2 x . 5.3)(x + 3 3. 3) = 0. 3. 7.6)) = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3) Factoring. 3. 16. + 10 a = 24. and the equation thus formed be solved. + 8=s: 7. 12.
27.188 17. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 25. 19. ara + ft + c*. (a + 1) (a. 23. 2. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. '3a!J  . 18. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. uz + u 21. 22. a 2 =(x a)b. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 20. (2a? 3) (a 24.
2. feet. 1.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 58. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 5. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.9. Find the numbers. . EXERCISE 1.3. 5. and whose product 9. 2. 52. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 6. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the sides. two numbers is 4.0. 56.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. : 3. 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. 2. 2. G. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 55. 54. and equals 190 square inches. The difference of . and whose sum is is 36.3. 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 4. Find the number. The 11. 3. 8.1. and the difference Find the numbers. number by 10. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 7. 57. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Find the number. and consequently many prob 235. 1.
he would have received two horses more for the same money. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 17. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. What did he pay for 21. If he each horse ? . sold a horse for $144. as the 16. 14. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch for $ 24. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. 13. Two vessels. ABCD. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 15. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.190 12. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. 19. Find the rate of the train. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. . ply between the same two ports. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money.10.
and working together. By formula. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.) 25. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. or x = \/l = 1. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. constructed with and CB as sides. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. a point taken. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. contains B 78 square inches. 27. 24. the two men can do it in 3 days. . In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. of the area of the basin. as 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 1. ^3^ = 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. (tf. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find and CB. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. so that the rectangle. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 237. Ex. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. how wide is the walk ? 23. 23 inches long. Find TT r (Area of a circle . The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide.
^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . y8)=0. 7. 6.2 =4. 2. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 12. 4. Hence Le. 16.)+72=0. 10. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 a. 2 16 a^40 11. 8. a 21or=100. or y = 8. Solving. 436 3. a4 5o. 2 h9:=0. 19. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 6. >. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. T 17. = 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. = 13.192 238. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. Ex. a. a? 15 1=2*.T 2 2 . 18. 9. 4 : 89 10a. aV+9o 4 =0.
2. the roots are irrational. 3. 240. The discriminant =(. ( 2a Hence 1. c the roots are real. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are rational. Ex.2 z . negative. and unequal. the roots are real.5) = 04. rational. Hence the roots are real. Relations between roots and coefficients.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . a perfect square. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . and equal. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are unequal. 1. is 4ac not zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .12 x + 9 = 0. b 4. the roots are imaginary.f> = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.bx 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 241. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. the roots are equal. rational. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Ex.2) 2 4 3 (. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.
+ 18 2 8. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 18. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. = 0. 2 : 3. 3a. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2a 4z5 = 0. x2 7 10. 14. 2. = 0. 2 7. 23. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. o. + 2a. 15. 9a3 = 0. 12. 4. : a 2 . 22. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. lla.19 # 20. 24.g. = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 6. 5aj 9.. 2 a. = Q. 17. 5oj aj + l = 0. tfmx+p^Q. f 2 E. + 12 2  .194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 21. ^12. + 2a15 = 0. their product isf. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 60 2 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. = 5x.
* III. while the second of the first. hence. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The first of these laws is nition of power. 244. m IV. however. such as 2*. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. (ab) . > m therefore. provided w > n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. a m a" = a m+t1 . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . We assume. must be *The symbol smaller than.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. ~ a m f. and .a" = a m n mn . that a an = a m+n . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. (a m ) w . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. Then the law of involution. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. for all values 1 of m and n. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. = a"" < . no Fractional and negative exponents. It is." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .
31. 4~ . 23. at. (xy$. ml. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 24. 245. Assuming these two 8*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 30. 3*. n 2 a. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 0?=^. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.g. a . a*. e. m$. etc. 28. laws. a?*. (bed)*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. or zero exponent equal x. disappear. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . fractional. a\ 26. . = a. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 29. as. 25. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. '&M A 27.
: 2' 4* = 4. 45. a* * = 3. 44. = 2. 50. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 48. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 41. = 49. 40. the base is zero.\/n.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. hence is . 3* = 27. ty?. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a * a2 Or a=l. If. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. \/xy \/m. 46. = 2. a.g. equal to unity. e. 27* = 3. a . e. 35. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. however. 7z* Find the values of 47. v'mT 36. 42. : 197 33. \fi?.g. v/o&cT 34. Let a = a. 37. 43. 49. Vo5 . Solve the following equations 39. 246. 38. 5 a* = 10.
198 247. an x = a. Or a"# = l. cr n. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. 248.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. etc. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. vice versa. . consider the following equations. or the exponent. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. by changing the sign of NOTE. Multiplying both members by a".2 = a2 . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. e.
a. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . m . a^ 41. ^L. 2m~i 43."* 38. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 44. rfS. . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 36. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 27. 25. 3 a. 3 a? * 42. 40. 2 . 39. . c 32. 22.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : or 5 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . : mi m~^. 2 . * 24. f (2w)~i 1 . 66 45. 37. ^?2 y' 34.
17' 2 51. 58. 57.001.9*. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.1. z* = 1. 250. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.81 f (a . + 1~* f 21 . + A_. 48. 55.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. Ex.(. 54. 61. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.008)* + A. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 10* 5* = .343)* + (. 1. = ^. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . (.6). of: 3ll4~* 60. 49. = . z 5or*=10. 52. 10* Find the values 56. . = 5.26)* 1 (I) 2 . ar = i. 59. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 47. = l. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 53.
3sVS. 6 *.7*.7W. 6a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 23. are performed. Perform the operation indicated. V5.&. (d) If required. 18. #* a.6 *' 6 *25. 7. 14. 27  28. 7*. . remove the fractional exponents. 12. 4 5. 3 a. OA 20. &. 16. 13. .4 ..4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . etc. 10.&. 95 ^9i 5**.5a. a. 7~ 5 27  . Remove the negative exponents. 6. .$". 3. 7~ 6 . 72 .5. 17. S'sS8.3 aj" a.$*. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 16.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 8 ' 9.^/5^5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.4 a8 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. ' 11. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 79 . 26.7i. NOTE. / 7fv 7. 4 x^.
the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?.2 d . 40. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 34.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 2. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 6 35. 1. 1. The 252.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
27. ^30.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. </3. v^S. 32. s!/3. Arrange 35. \/5. 40. (i. V2. 39. 33. A/3. subtract surds. \/7. ^2. 26. V3. v/3.3\ . V2. 34. V5. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^7. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. Ex. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^4.2. ^126. 4^/4. To add or form. 31. 36. v/4. Ex. 5V2. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^4. VS. I VJ + 3VT8 . 37. ^5.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 30. 2\ 3*. v/3. if dissimilar.2 V50. connect them by proper 1. 3. 28. ^2. </20. A/2.e. V2. ^3. ^2. 38. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^/IT. signs. + .10 V2 =  V2. Simplify V~ . ^6. 29. </2.
RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 9.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. + 3V835V2. 6. 6. V175V28+V634V7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 3. 8VT8J2V32 7. 13. 12. 11. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 8. V18+V32VT28+V2. 4. . 14. 10.
6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . . 1. 2. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 6*.2v/6 + IPV6 105. y* = Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 26^ . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex. and then multiplied.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 3. 23. .
(V2+V3+V4)V3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V2 V50. 37. V42. Vll. V3 Vl2. 28 . 13. 6 V4 5.^/2. 6. 18. VTO. 25. 41. 6. 19. 8. (3 20. V20 V30. . 21. 2. 10. 34.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 15. 40. (V6 + 1) 1 . V3 V6. 3. aVa. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V2aV8^. (2V3) 8 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). v/4. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 213 98 11. 9. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 38. 27. VlO V15. 12. fWa 17. 14. 40 10 30. 4. (Va Va 36. 39. a?. + VB)(2V5).VSS. v/18 v"3. \/3 \^). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 2 . 7.
51. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (3V52V3)(2V3V3).214 42. Ex. E. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a fraction. all monomial surds may be divided by method. the quotient of the surds is If. 46.y. . (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Ex. V3 . 53.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 52. is 1 2. 60. (2 45. Va v/a. 268. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (5V2+V10)(2V51). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 49. 48. 47. 43. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 44.
Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.RADICALS This method. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . by V7. . 3. e. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide VII by v7. arithTo find. however.g. we have V3 But if 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Evidently.by the usual arithmetical method. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 1. is illustrated by Ex. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.73205.57735. /~ } Ex.. The 2. .
V5 270.4142. . A. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. A.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V8 JL. 14. Vn V7 ' * 8. 23 . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V3 24 . V3 = 1. V48 25. Vll 212*. V2 22 .. V5 = 2.7320. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. i. and Given V2 = 1. . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 20. 7. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. ^/H . 271. V8 12. 21. VffV?. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.2361. 272. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.
Vs2 . V82 2V3 1fVS . . 3.2. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . . Ex. 1.1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex.= 18. Ex.vffi^T _ . s Simplify a.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .
it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . Given V2 1. four places of decimals 23 . v 2V3 28. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. Vo1 26.5 3 = 125. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 6V7. = V3 = 1. . : and V5 = 2. V21 = 25 .4142.7320. J?_. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 19.218 6 . 27. By the use of fractional exponents . 24.2361.W3. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V5V7 18> ^SVg.
8. 9. In other examples of involution and evolution. . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2 12. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS.RADICALS 219 274. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 4. viz. 3. 2. V643 . 11. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. v8f 2\/15. 1. 2. on the other hand. \/125" . Simplify Ex. it to this form. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/l6*. 5. the If. V255 .
2 \/20. 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6 V2. +2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is 11.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . and whose product is 18. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. 3.A/2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20. 2 \/18.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find Vll . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. The Hence ^11 . ^TT. Find V4 + VJ8.220 Ex.
\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Before performing the involution. by raising both members equal powers. . Transposing and uniting. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. a. x2 = x f 2. V48 23. VT . 19. member to 2. Radical equations are rationalized. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. first involution. 277. Ex.e. 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. they are transto formed into rational equations. r 22. +=. : 221 Vl32V22. Dividing by Check. i. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 8.. 4x x = 2.1. = xa + 4 x f 4.V48 4 20. Solve vVf!2a = 2. (2x xrf 1. The value x =2 reduces each . 5. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. are radical equations.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.
4#f 4 = 9. Factoring. Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. Transposing and uniting. the first member = V2. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . . .3. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 278.222 Ex. Transposing. 3. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Therefore CftecAr. Therefore Check. a socalled extraneous root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. V4afT~l. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. V24~+~l = 0. Ex. tion which has two roots. x = J. Transposing and uniting. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 2. they may be extraneous roots. viz. It = 3 x . Extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. one root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Dividing by 24. a. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.1) = 0. Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 5. viz. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. at .
RADICALS Hence x If a. and to 5. . (x x = 3. Hence there is only one root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 223 x = 3. . Factoring. for it satisfies the equation . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.3) (2 x . . Transposing. both members reduce to 5. \ does not satisfy the given. + 6~ieT~3 . or x *j.2 r. viz. Solve the following equations : = G. Hence x = the only root. is x V. = 3. x root of the preceding equation. NOTE. 2 Clearing of fractions. If If x 3 = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0.12 . 4. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Check. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . equation it is an extraneous root. the right member = V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Squaring. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. ViTie 4 z2 .47) = 0. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Therefore.
Solve af*. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Many 1. Therefore .
8 x + 40 = 36. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x =6 or 3. y then x2 . 2_8z 440 = 49. Let 8 x f 40 . 2. . 4. members of the equation were squared.i~24 = 0.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 45 14VJB = . Substituting. = 7. 3. x Since both =9 or 1. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. This can be seen without substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. x + Vx a? = 6. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.8 z40 = 7. o. some of the roots be extraneous. = 26. _ 2 y . 2. 2Va. 5. = 0. 3 6.35 = 0.*2a. 412a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Ex. Q . Vi 2 8a. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.f40= 5. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. + 40 = 6.
19. 2. 17. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14.226 11.f 18 = 24. 15. 20. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 18. +3= 6. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. a. 16. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 4 V SB* 4 a. +x .
Without actual division. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.bx? + ex2 4. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 2. = 2. Hence. ^ = 381+2. does not contain a?.2 + 80 = 12. no matter If. however. If x* . ax4 4. a? R = x* . even if Q is unknown.4 a. Ex. " Or.2) Q ." transposing. if Q was known. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. we make a? what the value of Q. 227 .2 + 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. to x we # = 2 3.360 = 244.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). by dividing 3 x* f.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. find the remainder when m. then (x 2)Q 0. could. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division. E = ax + &z + m) Q.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. 3 2 Ex. 1. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.
ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x* s 2 4. if 8 42  . 43 3 E. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 3. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x m is factor of the expression.3)f 11 =.8'= 0.228 282. 5 (4x . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.4(.g. 2 j 7. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. } 2 by a1. 8. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the remainder equals 8 2 x . + ^by x + b. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632.8. + 6. fora?. of the division 3) is m in place of x.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . If the remainder is zero. The Factor Theorem. 5. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. hence (x divided by x 4.949. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.
x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. The 5. 20. + 27 + 27. 8.r6 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 2. i. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 1. a^8^ + 19a.9^ + 23^15. 2m 5m . a? 19. are f 1.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 9. Therefore x ( 1). ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. . or x 4. is a factor. a 5x 6. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. ^10^429^20=0. 11. factors of the absolute term. a 2a + 4. 2 2. + 15. 1. oj 5x2 f3a. 21. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 23. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. m f m n 14. a. 15. then x8 7 x'2 4.1. 5. a + 32. Resolve into factors 4. a 8a f 19 a 12.12.e. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 3 2 : 7. & p*. 106 division. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. Factor a? 15. 17. Let x = .49 = 0. f 3. _ . 6. 8. 18. f 15 does not vanish.13m + 30 10.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 25. + ttt15 = 0.1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 229 1. or 5 4 + 3^ .7 x + 15 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 3.7 + 16 . 24. f 5. p 5^ + 8p 4. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.12 = 0. 7 46 = 0.
2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 286. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2. xn f. if w is odd. actual division n. 2 Ex. 1. xn y n y n y n = 0. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . It y is not divisible by 287. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/). if n is even. x* f/ = (x +/)O . ar +p= z6 e. By we obtain the other factors. If n is a Theorem that 1.g. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. : importance. For substituting y for x. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . is odd. 2. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.230 285. Ex.
Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 27. however. preferable. 26.= . as 27=0. leads 231 is The first method. x3 8=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. a. 3. 28.i mn f w 2).THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.
can be solved by the methods degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. to equations of the fourth few cases. + 6 a?V . of quadratics. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). xywe have 3. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. x y. 232 . in general. (4) Hence. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. Squaring Solve (1). however.y4 is of the fifth degree. If two of the quantities x f y. 290. & + 2 xy + = 25. xy are given.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. * A I. 4 xy = 16. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.1. = 6.
the answers of the last example are : r*=2. but can be found. b=3.g. r (" 1 = 876. 12. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 3. " "' "' { r 8. 1. 233 y. I I x + y=7. The arranged in pairs. ' 10. x and xy are not given. EXERCISE Solve: 1. = . ^. 108 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.
19.?/ i = 6.20) = 0. or JJ. 5.  42 y + Transposing. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.  . A system of simultaneous equations.  f J. aj = 2. x " (3) 49 etc. I x+y = a. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 6 "I 14. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.a. one linear and ne quadratic. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. r^ 2 as ] f. I* Jj ^ [. 7 . Ex.i/ = r 13. or y = 1 . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.o 18. 3. . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. Factoring. ' ' . + 29 = 0. la.. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 4 y = 20.~ y = 5. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. .
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 4 f + 2 y = 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. x2y. 9. ' x*. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3 y2 Substituting in (1).3 2x 2 Ex. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 10. quantities. Solve . 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 1. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. III. = 1 3 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3y) : Factor (2). ':il e :) .
} VI09. 11 a2 Factoring. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. j Substituting y in (2). 2 . (1) (2) x x 5. Solve 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. 2.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 109 a. 15 x2 .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 298.!. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).xy 4. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).y = 7. ' ^ 15. E.6. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.3^42^=43. " IV. . Bxy9. can be solved by special devices. (4) (3). A. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. f 1 150 a?. and others not belonging to them. 150 */2 .175 ay = 12. Division of one equation by the other. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.
i ^ *>. x +y y etc. at first it is unknown quantities. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y . = 12 J. y = 3.. Solve Ex. from (2). 2. Therefore x = 16. we have from (1). (1 > (2) 1. x 2 . Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. B. = 189. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we obtain by squaring. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Some simultaneous ?/. * ' 300. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . jc~ y = 9. xy.
Hence = V or = 4. 2. 7. 239 Ex. M6. 4. [2x + : y= 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. F+y+ . . 6. 36* 2. I e. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.
. 25. * . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. = 198. 19 ' 26. . f 18. ( xy (7 m 2 n*.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 27.21 ^ = 15. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = y 1 y* . 16.4 y = 47 a.
. . etc 302. . hence may be any finite number. Interpretation . 31.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. finite  =x y if = x. or ~ indeterminate. 32.of  According to the definition of division. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . oo 301. 25 34. as a . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 30. ^ oo . etc. y % 9 f*K 36. ~\ OK OO.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Q 7. = 48201. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 3 a2 38. . 33. 7' j/ 39.
of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.x'2 2 x = 1. be the numbers. 1. oo is = QQ. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. . Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. the answer is indeterminate. 306. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.increases if x de x creases. is satisfied by any number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. or that x may equal any finite number. The ~~f fraction . (a: Then Simplifying.000 a. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. as + l. and . I.g.can be If It is made larger than number. i. Or. Let 2. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. without exception.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1.e. it is an Ex. (1). the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. By making x any * assigned zero.decreases X if called infinity. (1) = 0. . Hence such an equation identity. = 10. great. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . equation.242 303. ToU" ^100 a. TO^UU" sufficiently small. and becomes infinitely small. cancel. (1) is an identity. i.e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. x f 2. creases.
2 y = 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and a. Solve  9 7. . 4 3 x x5 a2 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. third and sixth parts. Solve x a.8 x + 15 6. is their 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. two numbers is 76. = oo. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. * 6. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Hence /. z = 1 Substituting.e. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). no numbers can satisfy the given system. 3. Solve . EXERCISE 1. y finite QO. (2). 42 and' their product is 377. and the sum of Find the numbers. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum is of squares 2890. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 2. 1=0.
and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the sides. the area becomes f% of the original area. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find these sides. Find the side of each square. . and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 103. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. of a rectangular field feet. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.quals 20 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. increased by the edge of the other. 10. 190. 14. of a right triangle is 73. and the diago(Ex. Find the sides of the rectangle.244 3. and the hypotenuse is 37. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 146 yards. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 8. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the edge of each cube. equals 4 inches. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the dimensions of the field.) 53 yards. 12. is 6. 6. and the edge of one. Find the edges. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the other two sides. p. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the numbers. and the sum of ( 228. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 255 and the sum of 5.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 9. 13.
) (Area of circle and = 1 16. Find the radii. . and if the digits will be interchanged. the quotient is 2.) 17. Find the number. irR *. is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.
11. series 9. 3 d must be added to a. added to each term to obtain the next one. the second a descending. 309... a 3d.. 19.7.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. + 2 d. a 11. 2 d must be added to a. 12.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. P.. to produce the 4th term.1) d. (n 1) d must be added to a. to produce the 3d term.. a f d. The common differences are respectively 4. and d. 15 is 9 f. 3. . to produce the nth term.. The progression is a. each term of which. except the first. An arithmetic progression (A. To find the nth term / of an A. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. progression. Hence / = a + (n .. 17. 16. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.. of the following series is 3. 10. The first is an ascending. f . of a series are its successive numbers. . a + 2 d. P. : 7. P. a + d. . to each term produces the next term. Since d is a f 3 d. a.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. . 4.) is a series.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.
. d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 2 EXERCISE 1. 2. . . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 8.' cZ == . 4.. d = 3. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 6. Adding. 10... 5.4.. = 99. (a + + (a + l) l)... 7. of the series 10.. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 3.. P.PROGRESSIONS 310. . . if a = 5.. 99) = 2600.. 21.8. .. series . 24. 1J. 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. = 2. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 6 we have Hence . 5.3 a = l. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 1. Find the 5th term of the 4. 6.. 5. 4^. 1. Find the nth term of the series 2. the term a. 2J. P. P. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. series 2.. a = 2. (d) 1J. 115. 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 7. 3. 5. 19. 8. 3. ? (a) 1.. 9. = I + 49 = *({ + . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 3. 8.16. 2.. 6.. 9. 7.
21. 22.5 H + if f to 10 terms. Jive quantities are involved. hence if any three of them are given. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . . . 33. . 11.248 Find the 10. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. '. to 20 terms. 7. 18. . 15. 12. 7. and a yearly increase of $ 120. striking hours only. . . (x +"l) 4. 8. 3. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 1. . to 20 terms. rf. 23. 6. 31. 29. to 16 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 1. \n. 17. to 10 terms.7 f to 12 terms. 2. 16. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 7.. 4. to 7 terms. 13. In most problems relating to A. strike for the first yard. + 3. 1J. Sum the following series 14. 2J. (i) (ii) . 1. : 3. to 20 terms.1 f 3. 12. > 2f 2. 11. 11. to 15 terms. P. 15. 20. to 8 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . and for each than for the preceding one. 16. 15.
45. = 1014. I. Find the series. From (1). = a + (w. 78 n Substituting in (1). 1. the and the sum of all terms 1014. But evidently n cannot be fractional. = 1014. I Substituting in (I) and (II). a = 49 6(71 . if s = 204. 122. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. l)e?. 89. if a. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 6 n2 . and b form an A. a = 12. . 2. P. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 34.PROGRESSIONS Ex. Substituting in (2). is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = n(104 . P. Findn. n = 6. 23. P. 78. . or if x Solving. 144. = 144. 111.. 67. The first term of an A.6 n). Ex.~n~\ 408 6). or 11 J.104 w + 408 = 0. n d. J = 49. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = 13. 312. 100.1) . Solving. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). d = 6.. 2 (2) From Hence (2). hence n = 6. the second one mean between the other two. is 12. The series is. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. s 24ft last term 144. 204 = ^ (a + 49).e. 204 = ^ (98 . 133. #.6.1). 6. 12. 56.
y and #f5y. Find a and Given s = 44. and s. Given a = 4. f J 1 1 / . a x f b and a b. How much did he save the first month? 19. m and n 2. 6? 9. Find d. Given a = . 14. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. n = 17. 3. = 17. T? ^. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 74. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n = 13. of 5 terms 6. Find w. n. = 52.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 45. produced. n = 20. s == 440. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 16. 13. 8. s = 70. 78. I. Given a = 1. 10. Find d. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 15. has the series 82. 7. Find d and Given a = 1700. f? . n = 16. How much . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 16. n = 4. = 1870. P. = ^ 3 = 1. Find a Given a = 7. n has the series ^ j . = 83. Given a = . ceding one. 17. 11. a+ and b a b 5. d = 5.3. 12. I Find I in terms of a. Find?. 4. Find n. .
and To find the nth term / of a G. NOTE. 36. is it (G. 2. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. r n~ l .. I. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . If n is less : than unity. 4 (1) . is 16(f) 4 . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. rs = s 2 . . A geometric progression first. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 4. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. +1. E.) is a series each term of which. of a G. 2 a. 24..g. <zr . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 12. 36.. or 81 315... ar. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . P. The progression is a. 24. P. ar8 r. 108. 4. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .. The 314. P. or. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.. . called the ratio. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. ... .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. .arn ~ l . (I) of the series 16. ratios are respectively 3. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 36. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).
Find the 5th term of a G. 20. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. series 6.. whose . And the required means are 18. 80. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.72. (it. . I = 670. . 0._!=!>. Hence n = 7.l. f. P. 676.54. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. if any three of them are given. 4. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. P. is 16. P. is 3.. \ t series . 72. series 5. . first 5. 7. series . Hence the or series is 0. 144. 144. Ex. 36. In most problems relating to G. 9. first term 4.288. P. volved .5.*.18.... r^2. . . .18. f. 72... ? (c) 2. fa. +f%9 % . 25. . 2 term 3.. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.. Find the 6th term of the series J. a = I. 3. 6. EXERCISE 1. . 36. Jive quantities are in. 9. .5. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. i 288. P. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. (b) 1. ... 576. (d) 5. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. fa. hence. 144.6. whose and whose second term is 8. + 5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 8.. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 18. 4. . 36. 288. l... 10. 9. first term is 125 and whose common . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. or 7.4. 1.
Find the geometric mean between 7. 23. 2. be written If the value of r of a G. . to 6 terms. 16 . Find a and n = 4. 19. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to G terms. J. s = 605. . to 6 terms. may be than any assignable number. Z s. 13. 36.. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 243. 1. 14.. r . . to 5 terms.. 15. to 7 terms. 81. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. to 7 . Find a and Given r = 3. 14.i a9 . 27.. 25S series : 32. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. n = 5. 24. . 4. J. to 8 terms. 12.J and 270. 1. 22. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 42. is less than unity. 20. 54. P.nV> i*> !718. = 3. 72. 48. 21. >"> . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. and hence ~ r . J. M. Given r = n Z 5. = 3. n = 5. a^. 126. to 6 terms. == 160. 12 terms. s = 310. 81. Find a and 4.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. + 4 . J. of r n decreases. I... . .. a.
...254 Ex.272727. 5. = 990 .. P. = . . 1. 8. 9.= _4Z* .... .. .... . 16. ..= .. 5. is 9. 100. Hence . I.. 12. of an infinite G.. The sum r. 16. 13.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 1. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. = a . P. ratio 15.3121212... P.. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.37272 . 2.. what is (a) the sum of the areas.555.717171. first and the common term. 4. 250. 1.3727272 .Ql. 1 r = . 6. 7. 3.)7?7272 .. is 16. 10. . Find the value 9. . 4. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . The sum Find the of an infinite G. .191919. Find the sum to infinity. 66 Therefore . 14.00072 f . 2. is J. r = j.1...99 . of: 11. .. .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. = .072 + . . ... the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. i..3 + . Given an infinite series of squares. of all squares ? . .01 ^ . . . and the first term is Find 17.072. (6) the sum of the perimeters.. . 9...27777 . .72. =A+ 10 i.. 8. If a = 40.. 40. 12. 6. i i J.
Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 28. 5. 21. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 6th term of (x . 22. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 29. coefficient of .6) . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 11. 7 . 13. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 10. a6 8 16 in . (xy) : 6 . . 25. 14. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (\ 9 . (s + i). Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (a + b) . 15. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 17. 2 2 24.b ). .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. : (1 + xy. (a 100 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 12. 4. 4 7.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. l 2. 20. .6) 20 . /2a+Y\ 8. (a2) 6. 16. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 26. .
2. + 1. l. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 3. 6.  8 ^ 2. 5. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 3. + 2. y 3. ft 4 ) 5. 5. 2. 5. 2. 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. + 2. 3. 5. 6. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 2. 3. 24 4. 1.f ac 1. 5. . 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. (c 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2 . 2.  2. 2. 2. 3. 1. 3. 1. 2. 1. 5. 3. 3. 3. . 1. 2. 2. 6. 5. 2.a(a 4. + c(a  c). 2. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 4 2.  2. 6. = 2.  a)(a 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 6. 1. 1. if = = = 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5. 7. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4. 1. if x^l. 4.c )(fta) 1. 3. 2. 2. 2. 4. 1. 4. 4. 1. if y=2j 2. 5. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. c = = = 2. 1. 5. 3. 1. 2. 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 4. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 4. a ft c = = 2. 1. 2. aft 3 + 4. 3. 2. 3. 2. ^+^ 3. 3. 4. 3. 2. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. ft) . if = = 2. c if 7 . 2. 3.
7.  a) (c 2. .7 + . a 4 + 11 a . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . ~c)(b. 4. 9. 15.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2. (5.3 xyz. 10. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 2 .2. . or .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 12. 20. + 2.x 5 4 . 26. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . c)(x a} .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 1. 8 . . x3 2 a2 . + 4 ?y . r> .5.3 a?y . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 8. 2.a) . + 4. 5.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .r 6 x  4 xy . 4.1.5 xy 3 + + 4 . a /> 3. x 3 11. 6. 2.4. 6 a4 4 a8 . x 3 x' 14. 7 xy 3 . 5.a 4 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 25. 1.259 x c) .8 + 2 // . 4. = 2. + 1. x3 f 3 ax'2 .10. ' b) + 3. 2. c = 3.2 x2 . a.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.a8 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 x 8. if a 6 = = c = 3.c' 2 4 / . 9.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x = 4.2.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 24. 4 z .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 4 x 4 . b(x (b 1. 3. + 3 y 2* . 29. 7y 4 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 15. + 8 x4 *y . . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .2 x?/. 17.2 a?y + 3 aty .8 3 + 7 x4 . 2  + 12 a 8 . f 8.7 y 2* 4. 3.\ yz + xz. 4 y 13. x C 4 4x y + . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .a 5 a . 5. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.2 z8 4 x. 18.7 ys. 21. 21. a. 41. 5. a: . 40. 16. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .
a ft. .3 x . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 542 x 2 and . c 4.4.2 x 8y2 44 .c. (*) a  c.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 33.c 3 a.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.x . .5 . 34.1). = x y ft z.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. From of 2 the 4.#48.c 4 3 a.x 2 4.?> x 4 20. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .2 3 ax 2 . 4 2 x2 23. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.c.27~~7)}]. a  ft + c. ft 25. 5 4 7 12 .6T . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4) . 3 ft. x8 x2 2 a'2x.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(5 y . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 0" 30. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.3 .2 a .2 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.2 . 35. 4vTT~y 3. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.[4 x 4.{G * 2 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 5 10 + 7 .x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(x* . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. . x'2 .[4 z 8 .(4 x 2 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 2 x 32. of a.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 7 12 . 5 10 4 G 11 4.3 .4 ft) 4. 4 .7. and . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. c 4ft.(4 * . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.] 26. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . ..1)}] .8 3 4. : a x .3. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .(7 x 4. c =x y }~ z.260 19. f ft. Take the sum 4x 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . sum of .x2 . .2) . 36. 4 4 4. 4 3 5 y/ .6 x ] . Simplify 31.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(a .5.{2 x 2 . . take the sum of G x 5 . ft.(5 c .4 Vl 4. 29.x . Take the sum of 3 x 4.(x 4.
+ *+!){> + 2). 59.{2 a . 4 + 2 2 + 1). .  2 a  {3 2x a .56.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .4 a 2 + a 4 ).e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (1 ar+a. 65.{3 c .12).c 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 45. 2 53.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 2 ft 41. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .7). . 2 : 7e)a}]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 2 52.96 [17 a. 63.5)} + (3 a 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.r 2:c+ l)(ar.5 )}] + {4 c . (.2x + 3).(2 a + 5 a .6)}]. 2 f [3 c 7 a . (/> 4 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 43. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3c).(2 . )(lz a ).c).2 2 .(6 .2 2 + 1)(7. 'J 44.be) (a 58.(5 y . + 4x + 5)(j.b (c .Z .2c(V/ .2)(1 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.4 a . . 67. 51.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). a {. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 49.& + {. (r (1 (a.(4 d .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (4 + 3a 2 . 56. (.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 57.a~^~c)K].ab . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (x. 62.(7 a. 13 a .3). 3 x 42.{2 a (ft .JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 2 x + !)(* .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 68.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).(2 a 2 . .1). 64. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 60. 46.2 zz .(7 i + 4 r:) . 48. 50.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (5 a 39.3)(*5)(* 7).[4 x  5 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.6 xy .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .0)} .[2 .3 *). .3 z 2 ). a .ac .(2 x2 . .6c) (a + f c). 54. (1 55. (x .rf)} + a [.3 c)].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .2a . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. .
(a 2 ft 2n 4.b 4. 1).2 ft}) f (3 a .v) 4. 4 4 .ft) 4 .2 (a .x + y + z).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 93. 73. b 4. .c) 4) (ft 4.y)\x y).c)} .c) . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. (p 2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 74. ft 95. 82.9y2). 75.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 87.m np c .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 86. . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.(/>  3 v)^(. 70.5 .n pc). ft /.y + z)(x + y . 76.c .z)(x y + z)(. f 72. 92. ft" l Simplify 80. .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft 78.3 (ft . 88.y).z) .(c 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4. ft ft ft a}.(4 .am&t 4 A 2 *).c) rr identities. 77. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .ft) + 4(2 .c) 2 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . (x (x ( + *) .c) j.3y) a (* 2 4. 84.6*y .O (a 4(a 4. 83.(a 48 8 8 4.z\x 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).q). ar .<f(p .(ft 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 91. (. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 85.:y)( a.r 2 . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .a) 2 .c . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). Prove the following 8 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 4.262 69. 90. 71.3 a . 2 + a 2 ). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(a 2) (s 4 ft. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.c)].2 (y 4. xy y 2 ).2y)(. 79. 94.{3 a . 89. 1).c) . 2 (x 2 .
5 xy).xy 4. 1).27 x* . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 122. 113. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .3 a"+ 4. 116. 1O4.b) 98. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 102.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 110.r 4 4. 99 100. (80 a 112.16 a 6 4. 2 (a+ . 103. 108.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. . (a 8  8 68 8 4. [10( 4. (8 x* 115.40 />) . 120.y 4 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 10).1). 2 4 41 x 4a.y 2 4.9 x 2 . r . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).(2 a 2 . 105.(7 xi/ .*) (x 8 .v/ ~ // = a: . (. 26 (a 4 c).4 aft .2 xy 8 . 123.(x 2 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.5 b*).c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 25 4 . (2< 107.6 y 4 4.a". 121. . 117.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 124. 106.2 2% 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). a*. 118.&). 114.35 x 2 2 ) . 3*. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(a 1 2 8 .y 4 ) . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).) . 109. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.2y 2 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.
128.2(4 .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.a:)]}.3(* + 4) + 9} .7(4 * . 1) . .5{. .4(0 x .2) = 3 . 42(3ar 145. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 135.2) + 2(ar + 4). 148.3) = 12 .8 6 .2(10 x .22. o o 140. 137. 129.r + 7[or .27 a 3" .1) .9) + 3.4) .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 149.2(j: .r>) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. (*+ + . . 138.(j a? 144. 142. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 143.G) .(x f 9).18 *&) (1 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).n .3 x). (4 x .7) = 4 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 2 4(ar .3) (3 x 4.4) .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 5(2 x .(1 .2 7^~5] + 1).2) (a: + 3). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 7(2 x . .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.(x + 3) ] . 1) = 2(* .1) (a? . 3) = x\x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. . (5a: 150.264 125.(x .9) 4.3).19) + 5 = 4 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 139.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .5) = 12(4 x .3(2 z . 10(2 x 141. 127.3 a:).12 M 132. . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 3(2 x 134.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3). 126. 136.2(5 . . x 147.5). y (* l x. 5 146.
3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.3) (j.2 x) = (1 . 164. 159. If the area of the frame inches. (2 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 158.5)(.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.(5 x . =  (F 32). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.1) O + 4) = (2 * . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (3 .19) + 42. transformed into F. 165.5(x . 166. + 5) = (9 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.24. .3) = (3 x .2). these two angles would be equal.l)(z .2) (j? + 1) + (x .2) (7 *) + (*.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (a. 153.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . and the third twice as many as the first.z) (4 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2 x) (4 . = 2 C.a:) + 229.? . The second contains 3 first. 265 152. a: ar a. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.r + 3) ..76. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.6 x) (3 .2) a + 7(x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. + 2) + (5 .1) (s + 3). There are 63 sheep in three flocks. will produce F. (7 14 . sheep more than the 169. . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.7) (1 x . (a . . + 10) (ar .5) = (3 .8) = (2 x 4. The sum What 171.7) (a. + 4) (2 x + 5). 5(ar x .3) (a: .3) (3 . 160. 161. How many 170.17) 2 + (4 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (a) If C. 155. 163.14) (a: + 3).) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 157. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.29) 2 = 1. (x (x a.25) 2 . find the value of F. f^ + ^sO.4) (a . 2 4 . (3 O + . . 162. 154.5 x) = 45 x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.5*) + 47. 156.T)O . .9) + (a. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. = 15.
2 2 + a _ no. . Find the dimensions of the floor. + 11 ~ 6. 179.36. same result as the number diminished by 175. aW + llab2&. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. two boys is twice that of the younger.266 173. 178. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 189. 15 m. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ll?/102. z 2 + x . 4 a 2 yy 42. 190. was three times that of the younger. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 7/ 191. 186. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. and 5 h. 188. side were one foot longer. How many are there in each window ? . A each 177. x* 185. z 2 92. + a. 181. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. train. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. . 10x 2 192. 3 gives the 174. 187. if each increased 2 feet. 12 m. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 180. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. . sister . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. A house has 3 rows of windows. A boy is father. +x 2. younger than his Find the age of the father. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. power one of the two Find the power of each. number divided by 3. dimension 182. 13 a + 3.56. father. respectively. 176. Find the number.
22 z + 48. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . x 5 .10 xy. 195. (a + . 2a te 3% ly 247. 4 m +^.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. x* + 8 2 + 15. 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . a.64. . 222.6s.c) 2  (a . 2 a 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . a^a 226. a: 236.r?/f y 2 9. z 2 2. x 219. a+a* + o a +l. . 235. + 8.3 xy. x*y 223. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. xm+l 243. 60 a 2  a: // 205.10 y a x* . a a: a: 237. z + 5x 2 . 3 x 2 . 210. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .x + 1. 267 199. 217.3 c/> + 6 cq. 4a 2& 2 241. 244. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. + 2 . a: 231. 24 2 + 2 . 232.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 215. 3y 248. . # 2  29 y + 120. 221. 207. 5 x 2. 201. a 2 . 8 a. 3 x V . 211. a. 213. + 3a 196.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 2 x 2 . 206. 230. 229. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. y 2 194. 238.20 z 8 a: 220. a: . 2 200. 227. 16x 4 81. 8 a: ar. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .(b + rf) 2 . . a. 7x 2 225.c) 2 . + 198.28. + 30 x. 233.3 xf + 3 * 2y . .6 y2 + 4. 2 2 y f 1. 202. 208.10. 224. 245.21 a:  54. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .6.1.77 y + 150.14 2 .6 aq . 6 197. . 7a 228. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 203. 12 x +4. *2 234. 216. 212. 218.6 2 ?/ . 3y 2 + ary .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.19 z 4 204.8 6 2. 209. 2 a 8 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a. 239. 246.12 * . wiy + la mx + aw.19 a . . 23 12. 3 ap 2 . ifWy+b.
: x2 4 a: ~ + a.(55. x* . + 8. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .18 xy + 5. a: .a 2 />c 2 f 3. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.10 a 4.11 a 2 . C. + 3 x + 2. 3 a% 2 .4 ab + 1.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 3 #2 255. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x 2 + 4 + 3. 258. 30 ^ . x 2 263.7 f 5. a 4.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .3 x .11 x f 28.8. z 2 267. 3 ay 4.ry 21. F. 15 # 2 z/ /.r . + 23 x f 20. 265. 2 a. 270. I Find the II. x 2 . 1 x ar Find the L.6 by. ft a. 10 a. 259. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.x .2 aft*. 2 + 7 r f 2.23 x f 20. a? a: a: // 262. 254.1 9 . 260.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.12. * 2 . . a.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). x 2 4. 264.9 x . 5 x 2 256. * a .16 x .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.48 afy 2 .9. x 2 f 9j: + 20. x 2 + 2 x . x* .91. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 2 x2 . 257. x*y* 4.14 bx a%% 8 . * 2 .4. 18 x 2 . 8 2 + 10 x .15 + 30. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .a + 2 4. 6.2 z .73 xy .13. 252. 7 12 2 2 . of: 253. 2 8 .G7 x f 33. 10 x 2 .10. 7 ax 250.3.9 x + 14. 2 . + 8 x + 5.120. 251.3 abc .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.C.80. z 2 268. 22x2 a. a 3 a 2 2 .23 + 12. 261.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .ry . of: 266. 269. * 2 .36.&z.5 ab f 2. x 2 + 5 f . + 20 x 4.15. 28 2 f 71 x .2/ 2 .M.
.2c a: 282. *2 " 2 + Oge.J' 4 2 2 w mp .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. + ac . m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .rL. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.!/. 289 ' .ar 1 279. 285 z4 n* + a.(y 2 z) * t (j.2* + 3 x* 280. a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 8 .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. z2 (a 2 + c)a.
_L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. * 19 23 19(23 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 4 3 301. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . 6) _ ~ i 305. ^. Lnl + ar 2 a. O(ca) 306. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^_2*(m 308. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.
. 1 _. 2 + y 2 319._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. (1 . 1a: + y a. 1 x2 + + a. } .(a . _ x8 . (a? 4 2) 317.ft) 2 322. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315..
6* t 328. 20 44 333.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 lOx 5x. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. a: 2 x* .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . * 3a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.ll.7 xy + 12 x .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .15 33 .y20  2y + 4 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.5 a .. .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .V  + y  x 3y a . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 250 5 10 2 325.9 *// + 27 ..
) 2 . ?_2 ^ . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. a>74 . \x yj 340.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (ar \ 346. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. fl. 5 343. \5yl 341. 338. 352. ' 2 "l 5 . f V.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. aj 339. (a \ + lV. 344. a: 349 _ o.. w \. +^ a: y x . 7 ( ?f!?. ** i. 1 345. 348. ( 342.1V. xi 347. (af2/. : 1+ i. + ni + . if a = 3. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (aWi + iJ. + l + IV.r 5 2 .y.+ r .
ar xy + yl x* 358. (~ 364. (a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. a2 4 . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. _ + l a 359. + x x a .
a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. J !__7.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 4(* . . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 379. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. __4 2x 3_ = !. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 {2 x 381.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.*2 = 15. . ^ . 8  376. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.
n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. c .147.5 ^ ~ a: a. .. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). f 1 1 + a 403. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).  8 9* x ~r.25. 400.  J).25 x + .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. b 404. . 396.6  . 397.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.5 x =r f . 401.8 = .1 .2 a:  1. + 4 a.75 x f . 3* 177. a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. _____ . m x 398. ^ (a . 399. 40. u '2 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.
the order of the digits will be inverted. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. far did he walk all together ? A . In a if and 422.278 410. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo.  a) 2 6 2a.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 421. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. Tn 6 hours .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.c) . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. and was out 5 hours. 411. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. How long is each road ? 423.(5 I2x ~r l a) . hour. 420. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Find the number.
2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 430.46 2): (15a 2 . 433. Find the fourth proportional 426. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 432. Find the mean proportional to 429. 438. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.& 5 ) (a 8 .a 2^ 8 + aft* . b. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.iand 22 22 I a . Solve 436. ax is \ by  ex + dy. 2 2 8 2 . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : If is one equal 434. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . x 427. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 428. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Find the length of the parts. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : i. wi* + y= ny. if . find the angles of the triangle. find : a : c.6 8 ). and : b : c = 14 : 15. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.49 63). . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 435. d. 431. 3 and 1J. z 2 y. If a b : =5 n : 7. y. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). a + 5. a  t>. . Which ratio is greater. a.
457. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 8 x + y = 19. 450. 7 442. x + 17 # 53. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 16. ?/ 447. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7jr9y = 17. if 2 ft : 439. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 5z4:# = 3. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 451. 9/> = 2 . 4 = 5 y + 29. 56 + 10y = 7a. 8 .. a: 2y= = 1 . /) ar a. 5 2 = 7 . 454. 443. 7a?y = 3. a: a: + 5y).35.89 = q. The volumes If their diameters. 42 = 15y + 137.rf2# = l.11 y = 95. 3 . 459. 453. 7 a: . 445. = 25. 1(3  a. Find the value of a. a. 456. ft. 455. 3 a. Solve the following systems: 441. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.11 7. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .7 y = 25.*.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 448. 446. ft. />(.55 y = . . . 28 = 5 a . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 458. 5x+4y=lQ.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . 449.4 12 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x .(or l(*2y)=0. 9ar7# = 71. + 5y = 59. 444. c. 452. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.59 = 3 z.
_ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i = 5. ax by = c \ 472. + eyn. (or . 468.2y) (2 = 2J. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.  = 2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax cx by = m. 8 461.+ =2. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. x y 474. 475..c=563y. ^ + i^ = 7. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 473.?/ + 1 .7. _ 469. 465.
Find the fraction. Find the numbers. and the other number least. A spends \ of his. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. whose difference is 4. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 486. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 487. 483. and in 18 months to $2180. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. years. . Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find their ages. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 485. 479. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 481. 477. How much money less 484. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. the Find their ages. A number consists of two digits 4. and in 20 months to $275. age. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. by 4. Find the numbers. fraction becomes equal to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the number. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. to . Find the sum and the rate of interest.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3.
495. a: 499. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . .? + 2y = 8. x s + y z = 18J . . x y f z = 13. a: f z = 79. 7 + 2 z . 492. . 496.5#+2z = $x a: G. x f y f z 29 . of two the sum of the digits also if number. 1+1 = 6. a. 4 506.z = 20. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. ~ 507. * + 425  = . 3 x 500. = 20. 5 + a. y Solve : x +z= 5. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a: + // = 11. 3ar 503. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 7. 2 a. 490. 3 a: + 5=84. 1. z y ifi = z x 502. 2y + 3a = ll. z y x 25 . ifi = x a. + # +z= 35. = 209. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 4z+3z = 20. 498./ 504. 2 e. 2 2 = 41. *i.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2/>3r = 4. 494. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 4 497. and the difference of their Find the numbers. : Solve the following systems 491. = 15. 493. a number . 8. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.z = 12. + y 5 y = 101 . a. \ . . 7 4#+ 3z = 35./ f z =a. 489. 5^ 9z = 10. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2a:f 7.
ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. 36 + c. z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. + + 3579 2+?. 523. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c.
. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 90. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. 530. and BE. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Find the present ages of his father and mother. E 533. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. If they had walked toward each other. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. AB=6. if and L. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. B and C and C and A in 4 days. How long will B and C take to do . AC in /). M. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . Tf and run together. When weighed in water. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. they would have met in 2 hours. . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. 527. touches and F respectively. if L and Af in 20 minutes.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it separately ? 531. the first and second digits will change places. L. In circle A ABC. if the number be increased by Find the number. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. CD. it is filled in 35 minutes. N. in 28 minutes. What are their rates of travel? . his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the numbers. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. 532. and CA=7. BC = 5.
i. x*.  3 x. x 8 549. x 2 + x. 2  x  x2 . a.  3 x. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x*  2 x. to do the work? pendulum. 548. 547. formation of dollars into marks. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. if x = f 1. 540. x 2 544.e. c. x *x + x + 1. 3 x 539. z 2  x x  5. GERMANY. 2. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2 x + 5. . 543. b. 546. 542. then / = 3 and write = 3. 2. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 536. The greatest value of the function. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. the function. FRANCE.10 marks. 550.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. . the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. One dollar equals 4. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. e.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. 545. from x = 2 to x = 4. The values of x if y = 2.  7. d. + 3. The values of y. If to feet is the length of a seconds. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.
10 x 2 + 8 = 0. + 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . a. a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 564. 2. z 4 . 568.5 x . 18 x  4 = 0. + 10 x . a: 559. a. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. h. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 563. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. Solve// = 0. J.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 3 x .4 . ' = 8. 3 . 556. = 5.0.r a: a: x a.r . .REVIEW EXERCISE 551.3 x . 2 554. 2 8 . x 5 . i.13 = 0. z 2 . j.r 1 561.  2 1 a: a.1 = 0.3 = 0. Solve 552. 553.7 = . // Solve y Solve y = 5. if y =m has three real roots. 3 x* . 566. 3 + 3 z . Represent meters. . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.6 + 3 . r?. 565.= 0. 2 a. 555. a? 4 x . f. 557. 558. g.15 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.17 = 0. \ to t = 5. .9 = 0. 572. If y +5 10.4 = 0. and make the unit of the b. c.3 x .11 = 0. 15. x* . e. x 4 . c.= 0. x 2 ~ 2 .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.G . 2 567. 2 x 2 560.4 x 2 + 4 . 562.3 .
582. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. a:. 4 a.x + 2 )'2 601. 604. a 612. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.frf : 583.2 2 + y. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . + .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 589. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 6 + 1) .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 588. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 5 a*. + ^) + (air%)8.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 1 . (# 2) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .%) 4 (aa. 4 (1a:) 3. <r)3  2 3 a:) .4. 3 (f.(1 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.5 xy = 0. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 608.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . . j^f = 3.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 595. (aiy. 579. 4 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . : y* or 25. 2  2 aa: 2 . 593. (1 + x a. 64 a 12 603. a 2a. [ y =10. 599. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 600. + + 4 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a 8 606. 2 611. 609. (a. 592. 598. a: . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. jj+. f ?>) 3 591. (a  8 ft) . . x [ ?/ 577. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 596. 585 594. a. 597. xY. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 9  4 fSb 607. 3 . (1 (1 (1 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. x + z2) 8 .
*. 632. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 371240. 614. /. 9g. x 2 641. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 494210400001. : 5. 3a. 615.30. + 24 a 2 4 . 4370404. 643. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. VOIOOD + V582T09.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 49. + 2 21 x = 100. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . + 54 'x*y* . V 635. 40. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. + 112 a 8 . 4J. 7) 2.2410. 2. 651. 25023844. 49042009. 630. 620.871844.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 647t x 2 648 649. a 642. 035. 21. 626. 636. = 70.15174441. 639. ft . 633. 628.12 a?y + y*. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. V950484 . 32 631. = 0. find Jupiter's period. 625 : 621. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. (x 9 x 646. x 2 . 638. 0090. 650.2. 210.49. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 623. 8*' + 24* = 32. GGff. 645. Find the eighth root 617. = . 9a.53 x ~ . 44352.150. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 2 + 189 z = 900. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. Find the square root of 619. 637. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. = 87. 634.191209. 644.\/4090. 622.V250 . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 629. 2 + 21Ga. 942841. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 624. According to Kepler's law. *+* = 156.1024 x + a: 256. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
693. 699. 707. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 708. 2 702. 696.ax .a a )jr . 2 2 . 2 2 697.bx .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694.c = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. a. 706.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. ax 2 698. . 695. ex abc= fx 0. . 692.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .
sum is a and whose product equals J. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 3or i 16 . and working together they can build it in 18 days. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 729. 716. 724. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 217 . Find the price of an apple. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. . 721. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. a: 713. 725. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 722. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 16 x* .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find two numbers whose 719. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.44#2 + 121 = 0. A equals CO feet. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. **13a: 2 710. in value.292 709. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 727. 12 4*+  8. 723. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 717.
X . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 31.2? 50. 39. 52. 46.aft* 1 + a 2*. (v/x). 1 6.1 + x. 38. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 43. n. . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 32.1 f ^ 2). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 42.2)(x2 4. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.l). 36. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 34.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2 ).1 + c. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 37.)(ai + &.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 35.1 f c" ). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 41. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 33. 40.
vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. 761. 757. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 758. 2V2 2V3 .1+J 756. 754. 768. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. \/G86 v/lGv/128. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.. ~ r* x . [1r^ T 1 i .294 753.
790. 92VI5. . .VlO. 786. 10 785. a 9442V5. 3J . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 806. 3812VIO.12VIT. + 2V21. x 782. 13 799. 7512V21. 14 791. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 103 788. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.2 V30. c 792. . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 16 + 2V55. 789. 794. 787. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 783.4 V(j. Va 809.2V3* ^ 807. 793. .
Vc^lJ .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Va: . 818. = 1. \/12 a. 833. /9ar a: = 17. V3 f 1 V4a.g. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. VaT+lJ f ^l .79.V? = 813. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 831. 836.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 816.13 = 0. 811. x/aT+l . 815. + 103Var.V2 ar 10. + Vx . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 819.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 814.f 5 = V5x + 4. 829. 812. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.\/2y  810. + ViTli + V7 .4 = 0. 830. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. V14 a.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 820. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 3 x + 2 .
8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a.3 x . a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 19 x 14.1. 876.ab9 ft*. 8 2a. 27 y 8. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . V4 x 2 . 846. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 864. 4 x 8 858. 856. a.a. a 18 4.  3x a. a*" & 6n . 2 a: 64 y*. 4 a. 839.10 = 118. +3 4 +  4. x 8 2 857. 275 8 l.3 . 16 859. 8 8 848.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. . a 8 869. 870. 853. 851.12. . 8 860. 868. a: 849. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a 8 873. 9. f b**.x*y + 3x f 2.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 64. 8^27^. 8 8  13 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.3 a:. a 8 850. a.3 Va: 2 .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . + . a: . . 855. f 12. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a l0m . 6. 8 4a: 8 a. 852. 64 a 866. 27 862. 2 f" + a/ 15. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 871. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. z*y 8 l64a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. + 512 y8 874. 840. 875. 861.1000 6. 8 . . 2 x 3. 5 a 4 7 a8 . y 4.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 865. a. . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 4o. 4 a: 2 842. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. f 841. 845. 4 x* 847. 863. 8 a. 729 867. 844. x 4 + f 2 a. a 872. + 1.
For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. . 2 + xy = 10. a: + y 2 = 34. xy + y = 32.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 + xy = 28. a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. x 8 3 = 13:3. . 2 . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 886. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x*xy. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 890. a: 2 897. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.y 2) = 20.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. y 2 2 8f. . f ?/ a: a: . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 901. M1 891 1 . + ary + 2 = 37.xy + y 2 = 19. 900.15. 5.298 877. 2 = 2 + 5. y = 28.y 2 + V(j. . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. y*+ xy . +y f y = 7.35. a: 888. 878. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 883. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.sy = 198. 894. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 3 x 2 . 2 + 2 f = 17.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 2 = 16 y. 899. a: a. a:y . 895. 896. 889. x a: lI = xz . a. y 2 4. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. a. z 2 898. y y 2 y 2 1121.1 = 2 a#. 885. 2 . 1 x 893. + 2y=\2. . a: 884. 887. a# f + xy = 126.18. 2 + y 2 . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. x 882. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.
3 y 2 + xy = 1. . + a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 921. 23 x 2 . 2 * 2 ~ g. 923. 3 y 8 ) =1216. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 2 2 2 916. ary y = 8.#y + 2 = 27.16 y 3 8 = . + y)(a. + y = 9. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. a. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 912. (o. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 911. x 2 ry + y = 3.y) (3 y . y 3 2 2 922.y). + ary = a*. x 4 299 xy z 904. a: * a: a: ar 928.3(* + y) = 6. (* 918. x + y}(x + y) = 273. = 8. 3 :r(3 . + y 8 = 189. + 2 a:y + = 243.x) = 21. 906.y2 = 22. or or a? a: a: . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y x 2 = by. 907. . + ?/) .23 = 200. + 2 ary = 39. 914. 908. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.y) (a? . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 913.y) = 33. x f 2 a:y = 32. a:y xy 929.y = a(ar + y). xy + x= 15. * + y = 444. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).3)2 = 34. ^ 2 . y + a:y = 180. 910. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. xa 903. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. a: y zx 12. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 905. a: a.r a.3) 2 f (y .2 y) = 49 2 919. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 909. yz = 24. 2 924. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. y . # + xy + y = 7. *y . 917. 7 y . y 2 + xy = b 2 925.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. Vary + y = 6. (!) * . 2 915. 4 (a. . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 920.6. (a. (3 x . x + y 2 = aar. 2 5 xy = 11.
+ z)=18. rate each man ran in the first heat. feet. two numbers Find the numbers. + z) =108. is 3. and the sum of their areas 78$. 944. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. A is 938. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. A plantation in rows consists of 10. Assuming = y. 935. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. is 3 . 152. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. two squares is 23 feet. 34 939. Find the numbers. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. y( 934. and 10 feet broader. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. diagonal 940. is 20. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. How many rows are there? 941. 943. a second rec8 feet shorter. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. In the second heat A . two squares equals 140 feet.000 trees. feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. 937.300 930. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. 931.102. z(* + y + 2) = 76. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 942. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A and B run a race round a twomile course. and the difference of 936. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. y(x + y + 2) = 133. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. and also contains 300 square feet. s(y 932. *(* + #) =24. . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. find the radii of the two circles. (y + *) = .square inches. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 2240.
The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. P and Q. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. distance between P and Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find the number. 952. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and if 594 be added to the number. 953. . What is its area? field is 182 yards. Two starts travelers. and its perim 948. and travels in the same direction as A. 949. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 950. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 951. the digits are reversed. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find in what time both will do it. Find its length and breadth. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. overtook miles. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. whose 946. set out from two places. . is 407 cubic feet. A and B. unaltered. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. that B A 955. triangle is 6. each block. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the eter 947. and that B. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. sum Find an edge of 954.
are 29 and 53.V2 . 4 4 to 7 terms . 958. Sura to 24 terms.. 5.302 956. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . + (iiven a +  4 d . 4. Find the sum of 4. . 9th and llth terms of an A.>/) to infinity. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. P... 957.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Find the Find the common 977.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 975. P.. 1G series . 18th terms of an A. to 7 terms.. Find n f (ft) . and 976. = 4. 971. !Ll^ + n . 5. 972. Sum to 20 terms. 969.. f + 1 ... 966. Evaluate (a) . fourth of the unity. ^ Vfirst five 959. . . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. J. P.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.454.321? 965. to n terms.  2. P. 3 . ^ 1 . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. \ . s  88. (to 2 n terms). 12434+ j I 967. to infinity. 974. (x 4 to n terms. Find n. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. the terms being in A. 36 963.to infinity. 964.1 4 f j$V . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 970. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.3151515. x(x to 8 terms. 3 + 5 7 + .141414... 16 962.. 961.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. difference.v 973.. n to n terms. Sum Sum to infinity.4142 . '. Find an A. 1 to n terms. .. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. *" 968.
986. 987. Find the first term. 990. Find n. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. .001 + ..REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 992.. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . and the common difference.3 ' Find the 8th 983. "(.001 4. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .2 . to oo. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . first 984. The term.+ lY L V. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.. The 21st term of an A. 2 grains on the 2d. Find four perfect numbers. P. named Sheran. to n terms. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 980. 303 979. of n terms of an A. and of the second and third 03. 989.. P. P.. and so on. 5 11. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .) the last term the series a perfect number. 985. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .1 + 2.01 3. 0.04 + . 1. is 225. to infinity may be 8? . 4 grains on the 3d. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.. Find the sum of the series 988. to 105? 981. The sum 982. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. : + 9   V2 + . doubling the number for each successive square on the board.. Find four numbers in A.
P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 512 996. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 995. prove that they cannot be in A. are unequal. 997. c. ft. AB = 1004. 998. The sum and sum . Two travelers start on the same road. are 28 and find the numbers. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. at the same time. inches. in this circle a square. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 999. P. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 1003. ABC A A n same sides. 994. and G. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Under the conditions of the preceding example. 1000. is 4. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. . P. and so forth to infinity. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. If a. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. find the series. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1001. of squares of four numbers in G. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. (a) after 5 strokes. The fifth term of a G. in this square a circle. The sum and product of three numbers in G.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. areas of all triangles.
. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.o/) 14 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. (1 1018.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . ) 1021. 1008. Expand  2 a. 1009. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1012. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1011. a: 8 7. 1006. . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the 1 5a  6 V . (12 #) 7 .iV 2i/ 5 . 1014.l) w f . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". x) 18 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. + lQ .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of ( .
.
129 54. signs of Algebraic expression .. 232 mean progression . .. simple simultaneous . ... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . . . 246 91 " multiple.. . . 160 in quadratic form 191 ... linear literal Common ** * difference . . 8 . .... 9. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . numerical . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . . graphic tion of representa ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .. 129. ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . . lowest ratio " '* .. .. .178 Completing the square .] Abscissa Absolute term . . . 158. 37.. .. Aggregation.....181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . t 53 120 . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 54.. 9 ** . quadratic . 97. . .193 11 . ...Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ... 112 54 54 251 .. . 19..130 ... . . 123 ... Brace Bracket Character of roots .. Checks Coefficient 20. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .108 160 " .. 232 169 807 . ..
195 33. arithmetic . Negative exponents 11 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. first and second . 227 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Imaginary numbers .108 Minuend . 205 . . . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 34. 109 102 ... 243 7 . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . numbers . . . 253 28 70 1. .. Product '* 76 Infinite. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .808 Exponent Exponents. 45 Laws of signs . addition of " square of . Known numbers . 180..31. L. 184 54. . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 17 65. 9. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . . . Inconsistent equations . . 45. . . 227 geometric .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 241 123 geometric . INDEX 8 . 120 Member. . Insertion of parentheses .. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Geometric progression . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. directly. . .. 45... law of Extraneous roots . Like terms Linear equation . 42 7 Independent equations Index .. 84.. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 212 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean.C Multiplication .. exponent . inversely 122 numbers .. . 91 . 114. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. P . 189. 63. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. . . . 23 10 91 102. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . G.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. .154 Order of operations " of surds .. . Mathematical induction . . . 112 . 143.
. .. Sum.. 129... 4 155 9 " of ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . binomial Third proportional Transposition . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 27 17 Unknown numbers ..... 45 Trinomial 240 . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. polynomial . .. absolute 54 Variable .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 9. .. . . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. algebraic Surds ... .. . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value....... .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.
.
MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
A. December. Reprinted April. 1913. 1917. August.. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1910. Published September. 1916. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. Norwood. 1910. 8. Mass. U.COPYRIGHT.S. NorfoooS J. Set up and electrotypcd.
18. arithmetic. 9.2. loss. 3. 8. 48 ft. 106. B $ 128. C $60. 59. 6* 16. 8 ft. 3. 2 ~ 15. 2. 15. in 12. 15. 4. 12.  1. ^. B 10 mi. 2. c. 28. 13.21 24. 3. 2. 19. B $20.3. 89. 27.00000001. 19 4. 14. A 15. 3. 32.. 11. 6 yd. 25. 6. 10. 1. 6. 8. sign. ft. 17.. westerly motion. 2  Page 8. 7. 9. 13 S.  1. 12. per sec. 1. Not 5. Page?. V 23. 7. 11. + 1. 9. 6. $100. Page Page Ilis expenditures. $160. 13. 15. 5000. Ot 15. Australia ft.. 150. Page 8. T . . 3. 5. 7. 3. 13. 13 d. 7. 6. 2. 14. 25. 2. 4. 1. 14. 8 13. 3. 2. 1. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 16. 8. 16. 13. 10. i . 20 \. 1. (a) (/>) 1. 4. 24. 192. 4. 37 S. 16. 85. 17. 10. 3. 3. 7. 11. 9. 12.  22 20. 16. 49. 32. 5. 16f 2. 30?.000 negroes. 23. 3. 3* 7.000. A Bl 7. A 38 mi. 9. 7m. 17. 18. 2. 20. 144. 19. 20 B. 21. 115. 12. 1. 10. x. 3. 72 = = 216. }. 9 16  larger than 7. 1. 2. 7. 6. 36. 9 = 4. 1 16. 1. _ 32. 12. C $1(50. 128. 25.. 1. 3. 15. 25. 3 below 0.150. 6. 3. B $4700. . 28.C. 8. Yes. 2. 210.. 21.. 13 V. . 49. 6. $ 1 50 10. 29. 9. 10g.1. 16 in. 256. in. 5. 14 11. 20 jo. 11. 10. 3. 8. 12. Page 4. 5.12. 22. 1. 1. 20.. 2 5. 16.  2 p. 14. 1. Multiplication. A $90. 5. 12. in. 2. $40. 17.000. 3. 14. x.000 Indians. 18. A . 3. 7. 0. 8. = 5 81. 8. 16. 512. 21. 20. is $10. 24. 18. . 27.000.000.000. 9. Page 1. 37. 6. 18. 4.. 26z. 6. 2. 17. 12. 16. 19. 22. 3 m. 126. 27. 1. 4. 20. C $ 16.  13. 7. 5. 16 in. 7. sign. 1. 15. 16.$9400. 26. 1. 9.000. 32. 6. b. 9 m. 6. 0. 5. 9 14. 64. 10.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 10. 32. 30. B $80. 29. 18. 10. 24. 2. 14. 6. 4. 576. 9. 14. 12.8. 16. 13. 14. . 2. South America 46.. 12. 73. 2. 5. Page 13.000.000. 11. 3.
20. 31. 04.ft) 4. a2 4 15^44. 2oVmf?i. Page 7. 1. 15. 3 a* + 2 at*. 2. 32 2 ftc. 12. r+l. yyz+xyz*. 1. 3. 30. 10. 7. (c) 8. (ft) mi. x^ 20. 14. 5. 16. 30. 23. 2. 4. 27. (ft) 12. 10. 16. 38 ab. 9. (ft) $40. 34.  3. 12. 13. Page 31. 12. 3. Pagel4r. :J!>r'.'J. 41. m 24. (r) 2.ab. 30. 39. 237. 14. 35. 58. $80.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 13. 3rf 27. . r/ \(\xyz. 22.6) 38. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 4 9/^/rl 2. 1. 1. 4.a . 14. 14. 92. 36. 6. sq. 4 y/ . $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 20. 12yd. 13. 9. 7. 1. ]*. . 20. 17. ft. 26. 21 a 3 4 10. 29. ft. 18. 10. 11. +/2(/. (r) 2000 m.4 ft. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 8. 0. ft. 12. Trino inial. 11. 0. 0. 57. 22. o^ft. _ 4 .rty8. (c) S(i. 24. 28. 12. 0. It. mi. Va'+Y2 8^2 . Binomial. 0. 2. (a) 50.. 15.  11. 31. <i~ 26. 50. 31. 2x' 2 5 . 13. 28. Monomial. 3. 13. 23. (b) 135 mi. 16. ^). . 8. 6<t. 0. 14. (r) 78. (a) 200. . vi 14.  40. 14. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 4. (r) 2G7. 4. 3(c4a). 26. (ft) Page 2. \'\ 4. 1. 9. .q 4. 15. 8. ft f 19. 8. ft' 3 . in.900. 3. in. 15a. 0* Page 3 w" 0.14 sq. 13. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 17. 27. 32. 0. 5. 1.000 . 00 24 04 ft. 25. Polynomial. ??i??.. 18. 15. 3a. 12. 11. 8. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 19. c. 5.  2 4 13 ft 2 . in. 19. 7. 8. . 16.5 (ft) sq. I. 29. ^. 32. II. 49. 3. 21^. 25. 12 a. (ft) 7. 27.. 3.'JO ft. 17. 3. 5x+3. y. .. . a ft c. 35.. (<7) (a) 314 sq. w. 25. 16.. 5. 14:)..ft. :. 3 . t. 28.94(>. 22.  xV 3 y. 22( 19. 6. 104.r 2 . 7 7. Page 21. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. m + 3(a.32 c2 > ft 3 . 21. WIN + wiw.. 9. 15. 3.r~ f 34. 18. 7. + ft).  0. 8. 0. 7. #1111. 5. 34. 15. (a 4 4. + v> 2 . 314 sq. 37. 22. 17. in. 4. 5. (59. 17.GOG. 2ftx. 18.. 38. $3000 Page 6.1. 19. 27. 2. jrif 4 9. 27. 1. Page 18. 24.x. 20(.  12. 0. 13 cu. 14. 9.. arty 1 20. 33. = 81. 35. 2. 4. f  5e 35. 3. ft. 240. + 5. 18.~4. 33. .<>Gq. i:5. Polynomial. 42. (a} 100 1(5 cm.r f 15.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 2. r:A 29. (a) <> sq.. (a) r>23ifcu. ft. 27.9?/2 8. 51 f. = ()501.5f> sq. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.4  2ft 2 33. 173. a 32. 21. 8. 1. rt. 43w//2 17.000 sq. //'. ft n. 6.. 36.. 5. Page 23. 11. 5.  1. 21.
:5 41. 36. 10 m. 2x 4 a 13. ?>4tl 53. 59. 2// 16. + 2y.1. . 17. c2 . 8 8 . 11. 5 2 Page 29. '  . a 52. 25 47. 6. 4 21. a + a. M + 10. c. 2 3x f z.8(c + a). . G a bd. (yz~d}. ?/. 24. 3. 3 m. + 8. 5. w 17.(2 x2 . ?> 22. a  49. . . 7 a5 1 . 4. 25.4x. 14. Exercise 16.2 57. 40. 1.a f 54. r. 4. 364c. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .4c 3 8 8 J. 21. . .a . _5a<>&43c. 4wipg>' 27. 2. 15. 1. 10. 34. 2. a. 14. 8 b.(7x2 Ox2). .2 . . 3. 4.  a: 2. j)(g1.  23. 12. 18. 50. 26.a~. 10 x. 2a: 2 4x. 814.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . a f 2 f 2 9. 16. 4. c. _ Page 30.h. 8 . w* ( .2 a2 2m 2 4. 5.ws 2 ft) .a'2 . 3. ii\ 22. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.5. a 3 .. 2.4. 2m + 2w. 32. 43. 2 . &. ?/i 13. 11. 25. . 2m.  G J8 r  4 a <?. a4 4 4. + 6.  4 b 17 y*. 7  a + 2 + c.7. 18. 17. 8. 18. 26. 3 a3 & 41. Page 28. a 3& . 58. 12. mn. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 3 Ji 8 . ( 7. G. 24.aft. 4.11. a 3a 4 2 &. 12. a 10w. ri\ 18. ab a.l. f ft 9. ar. . 24 b 46. 22. 8. x a8 1. 10. 13. 14. 2 a 37. 2 4. 2a. a2 9. 4ft ~.r 2. 14. 7. 26.c. 8 + 2 a . 3 a . 51. lOrt 15w4. 9. 21.  b.2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 1. 25. (5x47 3. . 2 3.'U4j>. 0.a*. 2 17. 2 6. 4r 2 . a 6 2 . 20.Oa: + 10. . 16. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. a + (ftc4df). _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 13. 1 4. a a. (mn} 11. 2 2. 5. + c 4 d x + 6 e. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . x3 .6 x + 0) 16. 2. + 4 c. 2. 5. (w4w)(ww). 8.2 ft 2 r2 10. 32 w 2 w.  1. 28. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. . 2 a f 6 414. Page 7. 2. Page 44. 19. 55. a  ISjfat. \ :{ 2 a 48. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 31. 2. 6.1 . . 20. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 2 y' 4 .5 z?/ + 3 y .  17. 11. 2.r. (2n' 43p 47 ). 15.3 6. 0. 21. . f 2 ?/  2. 12. 2 + a4l). 2. 2 2 2 6. 5x 2 rt ft. 1. 15. t). 34 39. 35. 7.  12. 33. a). s_r>a5. Page 8. ti.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 30. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 1 + 45. x  + 3z. 7. 6. 0. 38. a' 4ab + ?/.abc. !  </ . ft Exercise 17.  14 afy . 10. 1. 2. 29. 7  # + 12. . ^ <. a2 24. n*. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 4. a 4 + ft.  b* 4 r 1 . 19. 20. 24. 7. 42.3x 2 2 tf. 2 .2 a. 19. 1.x f 1 2 . 22. 6. 56. 37.. m*  n*. 36.4 d. 31.
24. 30. 28. 1. 24. . 23.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 30 n?b*c*. 3. 18a% y. . Page 3. 14. 13. 33. 0.25 + 14.26. 29. 15 lb. 90. 15. + 58 . . 12 ^. x2 xy42^. 8. .28 p'^/. 66 39 k* .(3x2_4^+7).15.19 + 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 34.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 216. 2 2 2 .. 38 a*b 6 : 24. Page 7.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 8 . . 11. 2 ). 6. 19. 40 r 2 . fa 2. 343. 19. a. 22.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 102. 7. 2 7t A. 76 8 a' 1 .:>/ . 14. 21.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 30. ^^ = 20. ft 17.11 xyz . 2*8f x2 6x4. 27. 4 a2 . 19. 9 13. 18> ^* = a . 84. 30. a*b*c.21. 2 w +2 2 . 83 In + 1 n*. 2 a2 (y 2 . . 12 x2 2 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 8. 20. 127"'. 21. 60. a + ft.7(50. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 64.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 30. . (x f ?/)  a 12 10.19p" + 19^ 10 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. ! 2. 31.>(/ r . 14 m 2 . 10. 17. 14f 5. 32. 4. 2. 13. 29. 60. + O4 66 . 4 fc. 27. 24. 16. 9. 2. . 17.r% 2 2 ry. 161b. 18. 20. 16 51.6) =a2 31. 2 ). 9 w 2 + 13 n .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 28. 23.64 190 p6. 32. 1. 27.14 . 16 lb. 20. 4 a8 . 6. 42. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 20 aW. 216. 6. 42. iSx8 . 5.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 22. 28. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4aWy. 12. 3 a 3 . 11. //. 7G . Ox a 5 . Page 36. 4200. 27. 10.36 35. 30. 15. 2 * 80 . 29. 17. 18.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 16. Page 5. . 24. 7. 18. 25. 3. 28. . 3 a 2 46. etc. 5aft(a 126 2). 26. m. 21 a'&c. 1400. ?> 4 . (+3)x6=+16. 15. 13. 52 + 6s 12. 6.20 xyz . 27. 23. 10. 33. 15. 120. 15. ?/ . 20. 1.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 8. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 22. 360. 21. 108. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .12. 34.18 w w + 10 WI M . 2 . 23. 8. 2 8 xy f 4 a.8 12. Page 38.21 a 3 c2 21. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 13. 30 j9 jt?g j . 7. a 8 . 18. 17.44 aWc 16 abxy. 20.2.16 x2/ 5 4. 2. +15. + 7.32 y s s G . 9. 11.14 w 2 2 . 6 .32.. 0. a. 18. a: . 2.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 38wiw. Page 35. 34.12. s 9 ww. 4. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . ci 5 . 108. f 26. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 10. 16. 1904. a.1. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 1. 3. . 25. 15 q\ 6. ll 2 i. 4 jcy*z*>. 13. 4. 8.. 18. . 5.16 a 2 + 32 a . 26. 66 8W 34. 3. 1. 16. . 1. 16. +. 29. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. ISartyW e*f*tj. 11. 770. 31. 14. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 161b. 4.000. 25. . 37. n (a6) 125. 24. 210. 4. 3(*+0 + 2). 2''. 12. 19. 25 4 4. 7. 04.. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 3300. 22. 12.6 2 . 1. 25. 4. 30. 9. 35. 14. 36. 6". 33.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .
3. ~ 6 20 .2 6 + 13. 10. .201. 17.^V"' . 2 0)(p + 5).6 x2 13. 11. 10. a + 56. 45. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 166.x2y22. ' 46.994. . . +   5). 25 r 4 ?/i 30.000.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . x*2^f I. 55. . 990. 8. 2 j3 Z . 6. 9. (n 2 5. G a6 2. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.098. ab . (m + 6)(m3). 39. 24. 2 6' . a + 25. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.4 n.500. x 2 f xy + 9 41. . . . 15.009. 36. ab. 56. lflrt 2 8 + l. 33. 35. p4 + . 36. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 29. 28. (p 2. 33. 10.009. 2 4 a + 4.m 30 6 4 1.r . 9 4 /> .ri 17.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 30 /><. s rc 47. 8. I/). 10 a' 2 .10 x + 25. (w4)(w + l). 12 x2 . 26. 999. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.54 p 2 + 81. 8)(?i (x2)(x3).49. ^V^4 .020. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. a' . n2 a4 6. 10. 7. 10. 35. 1. ft' 11. (w+4)(m4). x 4 ?/4 + ab . 15. 53.000. r. 36. V + o ft . 16.001. 9. x4 28. ^/> 8 4 . (a (3 54. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.2 x + 2 x. 4 2 //. 4 + 25 q*. 7.6 xy . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 8 38. y. 7> . +4 34. 2). 4 x2 13. 14. 32. 32. 998. .35 ab 9. 10.008.4 12. a + 25.1. .r .8.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 10. 41. 1). 11.6. p 2 . ?/H)0.712. 9999. . + 2 9. 25 25. 7.606. 37. (a + 4) (a + 2). .25. 2 62 V2 132. 10. 1. 14. +  m' 1. 1. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.^.004. 1.p132. Page 39. 21 2 . . 2 4 2 2 64 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 31. w'n 2 //^ + 25. . 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 a' y' . a2 ' + 48Z100. 4. 2. + 12.. 31. 34. n + 2. 7 . 10. a4 4 ?/ .. 6. 19. 29. 33. . 5. 1.r* 2 30. 3.10 35. 9801. 51. 40. 27. 52.15. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. + 4 a +4. 30 x + 19 x3 . 2 fr . 3wi2 m Page 42.810.6 y4 10. ) 4' 6/ 49. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. + 4 t*. 31.404. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 8 a W . a3 0. ^' J  7 f 12. 24. 39. . 1. 4 .2 y*.996. 40. 4x21. 20a 2 21a + 4. 27.^ + a? + 1. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.14 jp + 49. 4. 484. 36 a 4 . 37. + 10 + 121 y*. 2 a 2 + a . 10. 4 .5 ~ 81. 23.2. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 44. 2 +10s281. 30. 2 .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . x2 GiC+5. . 10. 441. 4./ . 38. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . x 48. 8. 2 .00 + 37. 10 a 4 ?. . m 2 .84 a' 9.020. x* . 2. 19. fo*. 4 21. a 2 . 14. 25. 2 12. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .16 a3 f 50. 2 1: 21. 5. 41.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.4 a&+ 4 &*. 26. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 57. + 3)(3).3. 9990.ab . 42. 18.ANSWERS 28. 34. 2 (5 a 3). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). ( 5) O5)(w + 3). Om2 4 6m 6. 40. m 3 j) 3 .20. 6 2 + 6lf>0. Page 12.
c 12. 4. 2 a 3 ft. 5. 13.3 ry. 2 2 + 2 a. 11 4.+ 77 15. 3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 12. 1. 10. 4 a* 4 9 11. . a 4 4 ft. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 16. 4. 15.r" 20 S? .23. . 2. l 4 . ??. 2 ?/' . 9.10 2 + z 2 410. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 5^418(7. 6. Page 11. 2 4 2 x 4. 12. 13. abc 7. 9. 49.r ?/ ??i ?). 12. . 44.15. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 15. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 1. 6. . yfl. 8 x .000. 11. 50. 2. . 4. 2 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 17.3 3. 2.2 ftc . 4xy + 13 <) .2 . 9. 21.21 2 2 f + . G. x 2 + 2r f J.8. . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.r' ~ 16. a 10. y 7. + x?/ 2 1. 20.24 . .x^.4. 26.2 . 2 4 3 9. 1. aftc 52.5 mp. Page 51. 1. Osy. 3*y2 w + 1. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 21.2 1 //. 5 4 a Oft. ft. 11. 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. ft* ft / . ?/2.1. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4 pq. 2 .1.r?/ j/. 8.2 2 . 13.8 yn . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 19. :r !>. w . 19. . 17. 14. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.2. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .n. 7. + 3. *3 y 4 .10 xy*. 22. 8 ?/ .lit x + 4.15 21. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5. x4. i 9.9 4.3 a 41. 14. 23. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 13.7. 18. 125. 2 12. Page 13. ft 17. f>r* 4.12 aft 4 20 ac .  11.1. 14. a 8 4. 4 c m .  . 12. 2 ? 14 ./ 4. 12. 6. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 75 a 2 29. i 2 tji. 14 r 2 . 8. 3 aft 20. 5. . '. 16. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 2 1. 2.VI ANSWERS 43.r?/. .2 ar. 7a3ft. 46.2 2 2 8 . aft. 9.2 <</. 1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. a 2 . ft ? ft' ft ft. 10. 5.6 :rs 4. . 4 a 2 4.2 . 10. 9. 6x 3. aft 12. Page 22. 4ft. 17.  12 y 25.  10. 4 x. 3 a.9 d. m'2 3. 5. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 135.  3 c. 5. 4 ac. 20 15. 14.rw f 8 .34.2 aft 4. . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 1000 1000 . Exercise 27. 5. c3. 4 d 2 4.5 a .1.w. 2 ?/ 4.1.29.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .5 n*. . 13. j) . 16. 8 ?/ .8 y. 8. 3. 5.1*5 2 r 2 .3 x 2 2 4. r 7. 4x43?/. . 4.1. 7 r . 8. // 19. a. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.  5 z* .y3. 01. 4.25. 6. . 24.3^V.2 ac . 8. 3. 3. Page 48.30 ftc. r//. 5.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . w 2 . 10 ft. 1. 6. + 4. r/2 4. 14. 3. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.27 x 2 4. 2. 47.25 c . r ft.2 wZ 4. . 2. sr 11.1. 18. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 13. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . Page 7. x 4.8. 1.r . 2 ^r ???' 2 . z. 3. 1/*.rw. as _ 10 16.r'^ 15. 8. 5 a  (5 ft. 4. _ 2 a . 4. m L 4.3 5. +w . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.> 10. ti'jry1 7. /r .
2. 8. 10 >_&. y yr. 2. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. ] 2 ri 42. % 4. . 2b. 100 2. 11. 7. 30. 100= ^. 0. 2x + 35. 44. 43. Page 6. 22. y 2z p= 3 (a c.. 37.000. 10. 32. '^ . + f + b 2. 20.rr2. d + !. ft. 23. 22. 0. iL*. 4. x 49. 7x 2 Page 21. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 13.100.  2\. 3x  1700) = 12. x + 1=a. 1.. 10. l. + 10 b + c ct. 100 d ct. a 8. xy ft. 1&. 17. . ct.  9 = 17 a. 36. f 6)(o 62. X 60. 00. 1. "mi. 'nj 100 a 28. a 10.(3x  700) = 5. (> 27. 41. 17. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. }f. s. . 3 9. + 3x + 2y + 32. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 2. 40. 1. 1. Page 61. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 45. 1. + 3 = 2(3* . 5. 19. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 24. 20.10) 100. !). 100 14. <>. rn mi. 10. 2b 22. 23.x700. ? 43. 9. 13. 5. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 2.  />) a = all. 16. 16. 7.(3x+ = rraxlO. . b.6 = *. ft. n M. 33. 10 yr. 31. 14. 2 ct. 60 25 1. 6. 27.p+7. ( a f 4. f = eZ 2 x. ft. 10. 33. 57. 6. 44. 30. 4.r1. 29.7). " lir. m +~m 3. 3. x 2y 10 act. 12. 14. 37. 3x2. ct. # + 20yr. Jj12. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). r tx mi. 46. f (I. y ?>i x + 26. 3. 6. 5. 8 n  10 yr. 4^ = 100. 800 = x + 1300. lOx 10 + w. Page 40. + 4x 3y 34. I. (2 a. (</) 2a. = 5 ?i x 460. 4. 18. 4. r>?imi. 26. 59. Page 13. ct. 58. (c) 2x. 11. 2=10. 9. 2. 7. ^ 12 sq. 38. 12. 25.. 36. . 10 a. lO. 5. 7. 10 x sq. 7. </ 20. 16. (a) ' 12. 47. d. 15. 6. 2. 41. 13. 4(a ft) c = 8. 17. 19. 5. 18. 50= L 100 15. 6.ANSWERS Page 9.  1$. 4. 4 f 39. b. 15. x. 11. x y $ 6 yr. 29. 28. 21 2. 25. sq. x = m. 3. 20.. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. .r ct.ab a. 8.  6 10. 38. . 42. v (6) 2x. m+ 11. 10) + = (a) 2 x . fix. I. Page 31. vil 56. 5. 7. 34. y 100 a 24. / + y + a// 12 yr. x 48. (>.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 35. y 50. 7. 39.
Ib. . 18. 14. 7. 3. 5. 20 yr. 15. 20. 13.. 11. (a 4) (a. 7..16. 85 ft. 11. (yll)(y4). Page 79. 100 1. 8. 72.y"). .2). 90 mi. 40 yr.8. 4. 100. 1. 25 yr. ~=90. Page Page 480 12. ( + 4)(*2). 8 in. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.22. 5. 6. 6. 12.3aftc + 4). 9. 10. 7. 7 hr. 250. 11. 1 lb. (y 13.000. w (/) 64. 1. 11 w(w' + wi .(5z . 15. 2. 4pt. 19. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 5. $40. a a (a 8 a+l). 14. 52. 6..3). 6.. (y7)(y + 2). 7. 74.5p + 7 g ). 2. 200. 30..000 copper. 10 yr. 6. 20. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).2. 20. 8. 15 yd. 05. 3. 2. 2.000 gold.7.24. 10 Mass.5. 12.000. 3. 5. (a + 6) (a + 3). 30 yr.. (c) ^ v ' . 28yr. 2). 10.. (p + 7)(3a5&). Page 7. Pace 65. 21. ^ . 8. 9. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').. 9. 23. 11 in. 1250. 90.000 N. 10. 1200.000 Berlin. Y. 2. 70^. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000. 6. . 300.411. 5. 1. 160 lb.000. ?(g ? g+ 1). 8. + 7)(y3). 10. 20 yd. 55. Oaj(o62cd).21. 4. by 12 yd. 14. 75. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 14. 12. 12. 2 2 ?/ 21. 8. 4.. 8 12. 6. 2 2 2 5. (m + n)(a + 6). 9. 82 mi. 1200.6). 4. 11. 8.0. 13. 9. 71. 30. 3. 29..vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.000.5. = _?_(2ar + 1).000 ft. 10 yr. 5 lb.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 3. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 2$. 7. 80 A. 1. 20 yr. 3. 7. a 12. Page 5. 12. (a + 5)(a + 6). Page Page 4. 10. . (*4)( + 11. 12.000 Phil. 30 mi. 68. 10. 2 3 6 7. 5pt. 1.. 8. 180. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 25. 18. 13. (y + 8)(y2). 22.000.79. 17. 15. 150. 480. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 18. 13. 70. 5$ hr. 9 in. Page 7. 78. 17. 3 (a +&)(*. 200. 4. 15. 15 in.1).  PageSO. (e) i* + A.10. 42yr. 1313. 15. 24J. 1. 3x (3r. 2. 14. 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy . MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 15 mi.11.. 9..000. (a5)(a4). 14.. (ro3)(w2). 10 Cal. (a + 4)(a + 8). 10. 11 pV (2 p8 . 50. 8.. (z5)(z2).0. 78. 4.13. 12 mi. 10 yd. 5 Col.. 9. 8 2 19. (y8)(y + 2). Page Page 4. 6rt 2 11. 600. 13. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000 pig iron.210^. 25. 45 in.000 ft. 7a*fe(2a & l). 67. 2.3.3. 3 hr. 3. 16. 1.
a. 25. (2o + l)(2l). Yes. 22. 10. 100(x. 23. (5x . 7. 23. 11. (y + 4)(yl). 4. (* + y)(zy). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 9. 21. 3. 25. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 32. y) (a. 30. (2 *+!)(* 9). Yes.r2). . (7 a + 4) (2 a . 26. 22. (4 18. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).2 y). (2xl)(x + f>). (4y3)(3y + 2). 10 a 2 (4 . (4al)(a2). (3#y)(+4y). Yes. + 3)(c44). 23. 10(a + ft)(aft).6) 2 1.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 24 9. (2w+l)(ro + 3). f 2). .2 ft). 2 No 4.y) 2 aft. 2 3 by2 Yes. (4a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 7. 4. 12. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .4 6). 6. Yes.5y)(3a. 34.c 2 ). 14. 20. 17. 3)(3a. 32. No. 3. 9. 24. 2. (m7n) (a. y) 2 29.1). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (a 3 + 10)(a.4p). Yes. 13x7. 12. (10a + ft)(10aft). 5. . 24. 14. 10(a .* (2 y + 3)(y.1). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 1. 103x97. 8. 2). (6n + l)(+2). 27. (a a: 19. Page 82. (6 a.. + 9^)(oxy . Yes. 5. Yes. (2 a? 4. 21. Page 83. (5wl)(m5).3)(z2). (0 (l+7a)(l7a).   . 33. No. (m + w) 2 5.6) 2 2 . . a*(5a f l)(flr . (15ay2) 2 . 25. 17. Page 84.1).3). 3(x + 2)(zl). .  x (5 a. 6. + 2y). (g . 30. 11. .2 by2 6. 40 x. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 28. a . (y8) 2 2 . a(2u. 8) (a. 10. 34. 16. 22. 15. 10. 20. 18. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 4 (a . Oa 2 (a2)(al). 20. 15. 7 6) (a 10 6). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). x(x +y)(x y). (13a +10)(13a 10). 31. Yes. (15z2y)(x5y). 36. 29. 14. . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (a (p8)0> + l). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). Yes.2). 2.1). (a + 8)(a3). 100 (a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). x\x 24. 13. 10(2 30.+4 y)(3x4 y). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .11 6) (a 4. (:52y)(2a!3y).2). . (w ~ n (x . 19. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 19. Yes. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 28. (<7 20. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 29. . a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (9y4)(y + 4). 33.7) (a. + 4) (a. 10(3 5 6) 2 .7)(2z f 1). x (z + 2)(x + 3). y(x. (ay8)(ay3). . (3a. 216 aft. . 23. No. Yes. 31. 17. . (m + n +p)(m + wp). 24. 8.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).8).9*). 25. . (2yl)(y + 9). Yes. 3. (w* (3a26). 12. 2.4. 3a. (3*2)(. 26.ANSWERS 16. + y + . 35. (w + 20)(w + 5). ( 2 4 19. 8. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 27. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 1.y4 ). (az + 9)(ox2). 21. 26. (5a +l)(5a l). (0 + 6)(66). (a 6 6) (a 4. 10. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 27. 21. (a. 26. No. 2 17. 9. No.11 ft)(a6). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 9. + 3). 35. (4 13. + 0(90 Page 85. (ft + ll)(aftll). 2 2 15. 28. 9. + 5) a. (x + y4 )(x . 16. 7. ix 18. 25. 11. 22. 1. 16.y (6x + 4)(5x4). + 8)(g3). 18. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.
2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. y). b) (r 4. 2. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 13( 33.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). a 4. 4).>*)(:> 4 lj 4.l)( a 25. Page 87. 11. 36.8). 8.'J)(' .&).))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 21. 11. 11. (5^4. 38. x  1). 7. x(x f y)(jr . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4.y '2 2). ( rt 23.y). 5. 13 x 8 2 .  (w' 4.  WIM. 37. 6 f c).1).0+ 12).X 5.4). 12. 14. 12. Page 12. 17. (w * . 2.2). y(2x?/). 42). 4  9. 4. 8. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 2 2 3 . ^ . (> 1.5 m2 x2.'/)('< 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). (5a+l)(9a). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 7. 6.2).7s) (2 a.r(3x' 2 4 (14.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. ah}. 24x sy s 9..w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . Page 92.y.9). 32. ( { &). 2 8(w . 7. 13.?50)(xt/z. 4. (5 26. a 4. (a &4. 14. 5.1). 4.3. 18.) j). 5. . 1. 3(. 8). (r420(4 10.!) (x42)(x2). 4. + 3. (m  I)' 6.36). 39. Page 86.e 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). a (a + 2 6). 8.  29. x 4.8) ( (16. 2 + . (x. 20. 4. ( y). . 30. ?i(w 4y) . (w4w) 2 1.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).4. Gp). y6. ( (<> r4y3 . (2x7)(x 2 2). y )(. 8.42 x 4. 6. r x 2 */3 . 16. 19. 42a 3 x. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).^ 48. (a 4. (^ + ?>_8). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 2 (a 4. x . 5 x8 3. (x//. 11. 28. 2(m4l)' . Exercise 47.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 15. 22. Exercise 46. 24.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 8x. (^ 7. 2. 6.7)(^ {I 12. 7. 16. (* _ 2 )(a 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 9. (a 9.b.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 2 . 15. a x 3 10.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 4.?/). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (c.n). a 2 (a9). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).y)(fi a . ?>). 4 a s &8 .&). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4 a8 . 2 1. ofc)( fid). 450. 2 2 10. 5  (2 2 . Page 89. ( a ^)(^3. fi(c426). 3. 17(x43//)(x2y). 40. 1(V/ 88. 14. (. 13. 2. a8 . 2. 14. 2 y) ^ . Page 90. 12. + 2 //). 10.3. 27. .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 2 k (wi 4. 4 6. 6. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .?>) H. . 13. .2 y). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 8. 10(2 (3 4. 9.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 15 M. (16 4  2(5 n . a + a b.4.4).'})(c . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). (f> + fo 7. 8. a 41. . 7.8) n 43*). 41. 4. (14. 6. 3x(x?/) 4. 4. 3 x4 .2)(x 1. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).3)(x 4. n  r)(5a 10. 35. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4 3. 5. x43. (!__/>). 6. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (5 31. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 8.1) 3. (a />. l. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 7.
(a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. + y) (a: y).  1). (a2)(a + 2)2. // m+1 !+*?. 18. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +8b a 4 3 / ^. x 22. x 24. 2(2al) + l).ANSWERS 10. ?_!&. + &)(&) ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. b ! 21. x 12.6). a 23. 6a2&(rt6). + &) 2 ( . 1). 11. a 10 25. +5 1. 13.
' 2 7. A^.50 ~ 1/2 . 6. 6. . 4c 10. 4 L 8 2 . ^~ 29. Page 101. 26. Page 100. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. i. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 28. 30.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . xy 43. _*^p5_^^_. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. a 5. 11. i^. + 2H 1 ^.. 0. 6a5f^.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . w1 + ac w 4 7. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 7. 1. 2 a. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6. c 8. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + lH + .  **/* + 84 _. 4. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15.
J. I) 2 3z 1. pf n 6 1. (y + (z 12. 12. . 41. 33. 14.  10 X + u. 6. 30. 3 7 i o. 29. 13. . 0. 8j_m 7 3. 5. 10. 15. 6. n 16. 3. 5. m 9. x\. ?. 4. a2 2. 11. 6.ft . 3. 1. n . 5. 7. + f. Page 110. y(x + x ?/). 5 be _J_. 1. ' 6. Page 106. f 7. . n m a + 13. J. Page 113. 7. 23. ! 4 20. 8.y 7.^U\WF### X<6. b 2. 36. 11. 3. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. (>. 6 . 4. 35. w^x 2 b Page 105. 3. 27. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 9. 44. 21. 21. 34. 18. 20. 6. 31. 21. 4. 1. a. A. 17. 17. 1. 38. 19. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 39. a 17. 32. 24. ac mp lf> n 12. 37. 43. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 16. 1. 4. 45. 2 47. 3. 0. x 05m ' 5. 14. flf. 1. Of. j L . 5. c 8. x 1. 11. 1. 4a3ft. f Page 107. 1. 42. J. 8. b a f +c 14. 2ft a i m x. 11. Page 111. 40. 11. 25. an 18. . 12 28. 6. 9. 15. +3 ( + 15. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. 1.  V o 4.L+ft. 16.^_. ^_. 4. 2) 19. 4. 12. 4. ^i 11. ft. ?+_!?>. 1. 46. 9. 26. 10. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 7. 14. 15. 7.
silver. 9J oz. 10 yrs. w 18. 18. n 32. 10.. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. . 20. 34. 9. 00. 10. 4fl M_. 3. (ft) 104. 19. (c) 2 hr. 5ft 30mi.15. 40 yrs. 24. (a) 4 min. No. 15. 81. 17. 4. 32. 300. 7. Page 121. .XIV '/ . * 7:9. min. 7. 15. 1:3.0. 11. 14. 9. = A's. (ft) 5 da. 10. 19. 16. 12. (r) 3^ da. 2. 4. gold. 2:1. $40. 11. ~m . 16. Yes. 8. 7. 15. Yes. dn ~ mi.000. 16. . 24 mi. 3. 10. 38ft min. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. 17. 15. 11. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 212. 15. 22.2. (a) 25. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 6. 5./hr. 1. 12. 9.139. 21. 15. 0. 21ft min. 1^'. 1 : 12. ^m . (c) 8300. 17. 7 . 500. 40 mi. 10.  + . 3. 75 .000. after $12.11. 14. 15. 74. . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . ft. jj. 10.137./hr. 11 hrs. J. _JL. 23< &n b ' . w 44. 10. 27. 8. 7} 18.} da. 20. 30 mi.. 5 25. after 18. [>> ^ a . 18. 17.  C .000. Yes. 3. 3.. 13. ANSWERS 16. 5.. 19. 1. 7.10. 1. 30ft. 4. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.2. 10^ oz. IV s. ^p^ r ~ 7. 40wn. 19.  29.000 If da. $0. f ..003.. a 4 ft. 30 yrs. 26. 5 2. $00. 3:2.004. 8. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . No. 30. (a) 30. (ft) 28. 7. 18. 10. 1: ~. 26 30. 14.000 1 = 23. Yes.. 31. '"I 22. 3 da.002. 20. (d) 500. 300. () 2. J ^'. 8. 26 mi. 6. Page 124. ^?i min. 12.0 & . 300. 1:1=1:1. . Page 125. 6.138. 5. 24. 35. 13. 36. 2x:3y. " 0. $45. nm. Page 119. 4~r~ n . f. 4. Page 118. 7T 2 Page 116.000. 9$. 9ft. Yes. 13. w 21. 1:1 = 1:1. 21.. 9. :2. Yes..001. $30. 1:4. Yes. 1.9. 1:1 = 1:1. (a) 12 hr. 14. Yes. 7. P+ ^ 33. 55 mi. . 10. 8. xy.. after 20. 33. 1 da. (ft) 5 hr. 33. 2 20. 2. 28. . 8301 hr. #V ~~ 34. 275:108. 4. Page 117. min. 3. (d) 4 da.x + y. 13.
2. 32j.2. 9  15. 29.7. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 3." ^ 2.12.1. 44. 14. . 5. 4. ft."2:1. 13.^ 0?j ' gms. 3.8 oz. 9. a 3. 32+ mi. 25. I. 7. 1. 5. 6*.  19. . 31J. . 15.5. 1. 2.5. 7. 8. 7. 26. 3. 2. 4. 2. 4. y :y =. (I. copper. 5. 3}. 138. + W.5. 4. () 7 Page 126. 25. \. 23. s<i. 9. 1 18 = 3 51. 6. 11. 9. 40. 7.J 3. 9. /. 2. 30.) 31. 39. ' 55. 5. 4. 5. 12. + b 7 . 2. . 174+ Page 128. Page 5. 11. 11. 59. 5.5. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 8. 48. 19 OJ. 2. 18.5. 5. 4.4. 9. 7^. 14. 4. J pq.840. Page 134.4. 9. 7. : : T 1' : /> : .3. 14. 2. 3  24.]. 20 cu. 5:3 = 4: x. 3. J. 10. 24. OJ. 2.li. 16. lo mi. (b) Inversely. 1.2. 8. a~.3. 15.r. w 8. y 1. 17.4. 2. (b) C C' = fi JR'.3. 19. 11 5 . 56. 4. 5. 22. 2. ig 6.ANSWERS 22. 7. 200 mi. 3. 40. 9.2. 7. 19. x:y a: b. land.3.160. 5. 3.  ?. 945 11 10 . water.46. 2.2 oz.15. 6. t 5. 2. 12. Page 133. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 1.3. 3. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 2. jc:y = n:m. 7. 4.5. 36. 3. 20 20 J ^. x 42. 2. 10. 2. 1.000 sq. . 2 n . +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5 2. 2. 3. mi.12. 1.. 17. 4. Page 136.6. 15> 9. : XV 27. 10.1. (</) ft. OJ. 16. 13.1.000 sq. \\. ~ 1. 1(5. 7.5. 2. 9. 21. . b x 37. 7. 24. 45. 1 rt * vm^1.4. 52. 3 2=3 x. mi. J. 1. *.5.22. . 6. "lO. 7. 5:0 = 10:12. 6.3.4. 11. 6 10 = 12. 5.2 x. 1.' : : : : <>. 3. 2. 8. 43. 20.3.*. 4. 8. 6. $. tin. 54. . Page 9. 28.3.J. 8. 22. 10. 3. . 12. Page 137. 49.7. 7.5. 31. 46. 19 3 .9. 127. 57. 47.3. 4. 35.17. 2.36. Page 135. 16. 3. = 7 b'. 23. y . i. 30. 14. 24 1 (e) Directly.20./':</ c a f :y=2:9. .3. in n. 7.C ?/ a . 41. 7.1. l. 58. 2. 13. 27. (a) Directly. in. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.a. 5. . 3. 38. 4. Page 132. 4. 7.x a.2. Of. 17. 4. 2. . cu. . ini. : : . 11 w a 13. a f 2 2 = 5 x. : 23. 55. a +b 1. 13J. : . 20. x y y ...  28. . 8. Inversely. 3. Page 131. 11. 2. 41.57. 13. 19. : />. 1. 141. () Directly. x y = 1 = 3 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.3. 7. y a y = 7 0. 2. J. 12. 2.1. 25. 50. 36.15 x. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2. 21. 53. w. 1. 26. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.
7. yrs. 5. Apr.7. 5. 3. 17. 1. 16. 6%. 6. 17. 5. (a) 12. 9. 24. $3000. 3. 2 a. 3. Page 145. 147. (ft) 20. 8. . 3. 24. 25. 3. 7. 4. 9. 25.3. a. (<f) 13. 2. 9. & May. 7. 1. 90. Page 146. 2. C's 30 yrs.4. 18. 4. 10.$5000. . 20. 28.XVI Fagel39. . 3.. m f 8.. Page 143. 2. Jan. About 12f. 23f . 10 sheep.1. 20 & Oct. Page 153. 7. A's 30 18. 20. 5. 2. . afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 3. 11. 3. 13. 423. at 15. 1.l. 0.8. . J. 31. 7. 12. May 5. 10. The ordinate. 13. 2.2. Nov. 7.65. Page 142. 12. 6. $250. yrs. Page 152.. On 11. = ^ a Page 141. 2. July 20. 6. 6. 5. Feb. 3. .1J. 3. 2. 26. 3. 2 horses. 4. Aug. 7. M 2. 4. 27. 8. 12. u 2ft. 4. 1. Jan. 16. 7. m . 10^ gms. 2. 8.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 5. 2. 1. . 0. 24. 3). 32. 9. 1 (d) Apr. July. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . ad AzA. Apr. &.^. 30. 4. ^.10. 6. 21. 2. 5. 19 gms. 11.3. 18. 40. 5%. ' 6 3 a. . 16 to July 20. 24. a =J (n  1) rf.2. be 7. On the y axis. 2t2. 5.n + p. 14. 14. (c) . 4. 4 mi. 10. 4. 22. . 4. $ 1000. 6 cows. 10..4. Apr. . 1 (c) Jan. Jan. 20 to Oct. 4. Nov. 26.9. Nov. 3. 30. ' .3.. 23.0. Jan. 25. 11. & part of Sept. 00. 2. 2. 21. 1. SL=J o ft r^2. (ft) 23 J. $6500at3Ji%. 15. 0. (5. <*ft/ bd 1. Nov. A's 50 13. 6. 20. 14. 5. 16. 16. 20. Jan. 9. 16. $500.. 2. 4. 1. ft 3.$2000. 16. 2. B's 40 yrs. 72. 6. ad _(?jrJL. 1. parallel to the x axis 0. 1. 13. m f 9.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 12. 10. m + n p. be 10. 11. 12. 2. 7. 18. 3. 3. 15. . 15. June. 2. 3. 3. 19. 4. 5. & part of Feb. 4. 3. 40. 6. B's 15 yrs. Page 149.0. 25. 2. July. 1. 3. 3. On the x axis. 4. C's 10 yrs. 20. 19. 17. 11. $4000.33. 4. 18. . 9.  11.1. 8. A a parallel to the x axis. 1. 23. 29. 11. Page 22. (a) Apr. .4./hr. Page 151. 3. 4 ' q. 7.  17. 2. through point (0. $900 5%. 100. 30. 1. Oct.
5.3. 9.. Inconsistent. 11. 13. 8. .79. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. H. 4wn8 + n4 5. 5. 2 l. 1. Inconsistent. 1. 17. f. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. f 10. 18C. 3. f12 wi 9. 8 1 f f g*. 6. 12.73. 4 ) 21. 2. 24. (a) 12. 125 a 8 12.  12 ft xW  26 31. 2. a 29. 4. 2. 1. . 10. Indeterminate. . (/) 3. . .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 10. 3. 5. 10.17 (ft) (c) 2.79. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. ft 2 4. 25. 2 2 22. 13. ImW. a 10 ' a ll V&.13. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. a + ft.2 (ft)  1. 1. 3. 3." 23. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.7. 8.59.3. . 9 and Page 166. (c) 7. 15 .. 2. . 20. 27 19. 15. ' :=_!. xy. 1 4. 1. (a) 4. xg . 8mW. . (ft) 2. 2. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. . 3. 2. 2 a&m Page 167. 4. Page 163. 7.1. 9. 14. 3. + a 4 ft* . 22. . 2. 3. (gr) 21. 1. 4. 27.4.  1. 2. 14. 3. 3. 1^.64. 5. 10 C. 22.75. . 1 23. . 6. . 5 and 2. 30.73 ami . \ft) 5.59 . 1.  1. 4. (<?) 2.75 (ci) 3^. Page 158. . 1.75.67. 19. 1. () (rt) 3. 3.83. .AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (c) 14 F.. . 0C.73. 2. 125 16. 30. 8. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 11. 20. xW. 2. SlstyW 7. 3.41 and .25.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . 15.75. 27 27 81. 3. Page 159.5. 16. 8 a1. * 16. 1. 4}. 5. (ft) and (d) 2. . (a) 2. 26. (ft) (d) 2. 14.25. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 3. .83. 3. 14.25. 1. 3. 11. (c) 2. ft . 3. 4. 5. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1. 3.5. f. 1. . 2. 13.25. 125a 28. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . _ 9 x ^27 1 .24. 18. 2ft4 Page 168. 1. 3. 24. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.  .27. 1. 12. Page 164.24 . . 1. 28. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2. G. .25. 1.1. . 2. (/) 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . H. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. (e) 3. .64. 2. . 2. 13C. (e) 2. 13 . Indeterminate. 4. m. jgiooyiio 17. +3 4. 2. 32F. 81 ". 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.41 and 23. 1. 2. 4.24. 0. 21. 15.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.6.34F.84.73..5 (ft) 3. 83. 1. 5. (a) 5. 19. 3 .
037. a.3 ab + 2 2 ). 90. 8. . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 3. a 2 . 57.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 7. (3a. 23. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 6. 12. 9. 3. 20. 13.6. 2. (x' l). 5. 3 2 8 3 12. (48 + 6. 101. 5 5 8. 2038. 6. .f 1 m 9 16. 20. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 11. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. a: l . 247.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 2. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 2 7. 5. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 21. I 8x2). (1 (x2y).94. 420. 8. +35. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 35. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . a ). ? : 1 . 18. + Z). 15. 6. 7. + y). 19. fe *?>' ?> fi . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 36. (ly).1. 8. 25 19. 27. + i)). 978. 9. 0. 1. 11.2). 10 x G a 4 . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 20. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. AN S WE no . 2. Page 176. 180 . 33. .y2 ). (l + x + . 11. +3 + 5 4. 2. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .r 2 + 6jt). 15. 19. 10.x ). 34. 22. . 31. 28. 1247. 72.5). Page 172. 70. Page 170. 8 /. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 3M. (4a2 9& 2 13. 16. 8. 90. + + ?V 22. + 29. 3 6 23. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 30. 18.1.i c 6 15. 30. 10. 5. /> 4 ). 16. 98. . ^i. Zll.  +X '. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 71. 4. r> 4 : 1 . Page 171.7 /)). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 763. 14. 14.GO a c + 23. 4. 237. 11. 13. 2 4 8 2 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 3. 26.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). rt . ). 84. GOO 2 c 2 .a b 22. 76. 10*. 2 2 4. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 5.83. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 99. 64. 18. . ( Page 174. 20. . + l). 12. 309. (ab + c). (a + y+l). 2 49 . 300. 9.+3^ + 4. c 10 6 :l 20. . 5. ? .10 a~ + 5 a . 32. (a 2. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 1 1 ?>). 12. 1. 6. 17. 3 2 ^. 24. (a + 2 +l). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 10. 4. 7. 4. 6.5. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (Gx + (i + 2a. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 8. 119. 21. 2 12. 9. m 13. 00. 15. + (win .  x. 14. 40. (2 a + ft). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 17. . 9. 1. a. 2. 15. 14.^). 9. 16 6 w .XV111 7. 17. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. (x + y\ 90.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 3. 16. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. ??i ?i . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 1. 6 (\x 3. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 25.
13. 11. 9. . 6 f !. (< + ?>). 25 J.925 ft. 9. ii :J _7. 3. 21. 4.  5. 7. . 2 sec. 13. 5. 5f. 7. 4. " ^_ 22.935. m. Af^..367. 15. 3. . 7. 5. f.. 11.6. 3. 44. 40. 4. 6V'2J. 270 sq. 10.}. 15. .  2.60. 12. 24. 7. 15 1 10.243. 5. 6V21. Page 180. . 9 15 ft. . 34. V. 2. 30. 5. 10. 23. 7 45. 6.  f.798 yds. 23. 2.4. 6. 35. 1. 16. f ^ is. 9. 2. 3. 1. 17. 28 in. 2.690. . > w ft. 2] see. 40.5. 4. 6. 5083. 6. i ^. 34. 5. 15. .18. 9. 12. >i 27. 1. 11.005. ZLlAiK 19. 3. 20. f f V. 25. 3. . 13. 21yds. Page 181. 9. 4. 25.. 12... 4. 18. 1. 12. or 3. f . }. 2. V35 1.1. 17. 8. 3. 50. 49. 2. 32. 13. 16. a. 6J. 3J. 14. 16. 27. 22. {. 1 38. . 4.a. 47. 4.6. 6. 7. 4..Sn.6.*. 5. 39. vYb. 19. 31. 3. 1. Page 184.469. 2. () 2. i.  1. 14. 4 n. 1 7. f 3. ^. 7.. Page 183. ~ V^3. 12.w 18. 6. . 31. 17. 3.236. 5. 39 in.V 8j. 36.  14. 10.4. V J l. 4 TT M 28. 15. 48.916 yds. 5. ft. 30. 27. 2. 20. 39. 20. 4J. 7. 37. 3. 14. 8. /.. 4.?. 9. 6. w. Page 179. 1.ANS WERS 22. 24. m.5. *. _ iVaft. J. * 1. 4. 7. 14. 4. f. 2. 3. >TT 26. 8. 41.6. 5. 23. 2. 21 in. 46. 12.  43. / 11. (6) Vl4 3. 1. v 17. 33. 10. a + 61. 10. 36. V2. 7. 1.742 in. 12.i. . 36 in. 35. 8.4. 28. 7. 5. 26. 29. 2. 28. 3. 4. 13. Page 185. xix 26.237. 33. 21. 5. 10. 11. 5. 37. ft.522 38. 8. 21. vV'TA 24. V2. 21 28 ft. 12. 4 W**. 10. ^. 1 f Vl3. 5. (afl). 19. 7. 15. 3. 1. 10. 16n.  f. 29. 8. 2. V17. 1.6. 5. 4 a. 13. 7 in. ^^7m. 16. 2. 32. or 5. 9. 1. \/3. 11. 7563.1. 42. l~8. 1&. JJI. 29. 6yds. 6561. ft. 14.  3. 7}. 18.. 3. If ^. 9. 6. Page 177.645.. 10.
23.  1. 0. i . . 1. rational. 7. 31. 8. Imaginary. 36. 4.23.70.  1. x* 51. unequal. V2.. 57. 42. 2.17. 0. 2. 1. 1. 19. . x*4x=0. 3. 2.02. 12. . jr . 3. 1. . V2. 1. 24. i. 18. V ~ 16 4 2. 1 3. 30. Page 192. 1. 45. 16. 3. 1. .1.3. unequal./hr. Real. If. 3. 64c. 35. 7. 8. Real. 58. 3. . 47. 0.  1. 4.  5.4. (5 10. 12. 2. 22. 7. 0. 120 ft. 3. 20. 2 ft. 41.$40 or $60. unequal. 1. 1.2. 2. 2. 1. 35. 3. 28. 6. 2. 2. 9. unequal. Page 188. unequal. 20. .2.3. 15. 7. V7. *'' 12. 10. . orf. _ 19. 1. #<7=3. 5.. 28. rational. 3. 1_^L ft 14. $ 120. v^^fcT"^. 0./hr. $30 or $70.0*8.37.1. 24. 32. . 8. 27. 33. 6^2 in.4.  i.4. Real. in. 56. 2. 3if. ' 1. 1. 64.6. 12. unequal. rational.2. '  f 5. 1. 1. AB = 3. 8\/2 17. Real. 9. Real. 13. 3. 4. 29. 8 or 12 mi.59. .5. 6V64. Page 187. 2.Oa. 3. 21. unequal. 0. VV11. 25. 5. 50. 2. 10 mi. 20 eggs. 13. 4. 2. %. .  5. 14. .48. U. V^l. 5 ft. 0. Imaginary. 5. 6.  2. 39. 2. 9.2. 2. a + 1. 3. 6.62. equal. 0.2 x2 . 12. . 7. 70 ft. 1. 44. 34. 27.2. rational.6 = 0.5 x + 6 = 0. 6. 0. . 10. 3. 3. rational. 2.  Page 194. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.48 3. 20 nii. 4. 21. 3. 2. . 1. 1. irrational. 25. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 23. 3. 6.10. 15. 4. . 55. 10 mi. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 52. 7. 14. 46.. .74.. 26. . Real. ft. 8.12 = 0. V^~2. t is. 2. 3. 4. 19 in.l.  6.  1. 19. 2. 0. r* i. 22. unequal.2. 11. 11. 5. 5. 1 . 6. 2.. Real. 3. 17.2. 12. 0. . 20.* 2. Page 190.7. f. 4. 0. f. 16. 10 or 19. 37. 38.a. 2 V3 in.  24. 0. 4. Imaginary. 3.7. H. 4 da. a.5^.7. 4. 48.41. 23. 3. 3.4. Real. 28. 9. 27. 18. AB = 204 ft. 49. + 11 x. 18. 3.XX Page 186. 6.3.1. 21. 10 in. 7. V^l. 15 ft. 3. 2. 0. f 6 52 a.'.a. 0.2. 1. 3. $80. 1. 0. 6. Imaginary./hr. 53. 6. 1).  9x <). 26. . 25. 16.. 1. unequal.4.2.2. 43.].a 3 a. equal. . = 0. 26. a8 . a + 6. x2 + B .  1. a. 24. 2. 25. 7. 15.  13. . 26. 2.  2. Page 191. x 14. 10. 6. s 11. ANSWERS 22./hr. irrational.23. Page 189. equal. 2 .12. 40. 2.
55. 13. ar 1 . Page 200. J. 26. 14. 28. wA 46. 42. 13. 9. 3. 7 . 8. 40. 12*2 61. v'frc 18. 5. 7. \/. m'. &. _! V3. \a\ \/^. 2. 8. 11. *V. 35. 4. 3. Page 196. 12. 53. 8. 33. 20. 19. 3. 17. \/3. 2. \. 10. 1. $7. 4. ). 20. 3. 0. 49.  f. 30. 8. 50. 2. 2. Page 199. 10. 22. 9. ifa. 16. Vr. 5. 25. 16.1 5 15. fx'^z'l 23. 49. 7. 3. 3. 8. 11. 3. 1. 8.6. 4. 14. \.  5. 13. 7V7. 14. 29. 2. 2. 3 4 11. 243. 19. xxi 15. 1.ANtiWEUS rational. : . v/3. 18. 27. i. l  5 12. 6. 21. 60. 15. 30 a. 5. 17. r*. J. 57. 33. 25. 2 L ( V. ? .  48. 29. 5. 3. 44. . 38. 49. ) 2 >J i 10. . 6. 9. aW\ 40. 15. 0. v'frW. 5. 52. 47. Page 201. 43. 47. 84." 17. 12. 2. 3.  a'2 .2. 39. 7.//^. 5. 10. 18. 31. 30. 51. 2. 24. V^ 34. 14. 17. 54. y . 45. 41. 2V a. J. . . \/r\ 11. 9. ^49. 1. 49. m. 3. vm. 21. 1. 'J. 4. 1. 19. 3. 36. 16. a 18 . 15. 20. 4. 32. 1. 4. a.17. 4. 1 39. x/25. 23. 48. .32. 24. JV37. 59. 32. 50. x.  J j. 5\/5. p. \ . 27. 3. (m 26. 16.^7. 13. 2. 24. 28. 37. 33. 9. 20. I. 1. 125. v^T4 m. 1. 1V1. x$. 29. 1. 1. 46. . jV 10. 4. 1.. 8. 19. . z + 22. 0. 58. J. vV.  f . 2. 10. 31. n\/* Page202. 6  AAf. 9. 22. 21. . v. 2. . ^Sf 3 38. 18. J 3. . y. 8. 23. Jb \. Page 197. 25. 56. r.
4.648. 9 . 2. V 5 47. 40. r c . 8V/) 15.707. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 39. 195V3. 10. 12. x^ . 8. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). (a 27. ^: V2c. 30. 03r* 7. 18. 48. 135V6. 29. 17. (x' (l 1+x). 7. 25.577.r. 20&V6. x. 2v (T 2aVf. k/2. 19. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . 28. + . + 2 V22. + 2 ar 1 ). 2 4 z2 l 3. y (a + ft) V2. 3 \ 39. 37. .632.2 18. 45. x y.rV:r. a 4 +* + !. 3. 7. V. 1. 3 x^y 33. 34. 27. V80. 21. v/^r 5  A/^~. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 28. 3^2. 13 a. 3^ + 2).2 VlO. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. ^88". 34 r 6. V2 + 4 V22. 37. 3V5. 13. x 25. 2>X2. 2. 26. ?tV?w. yV35. 24. 11.. V. 43. r 17  Page 204. Page 203. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. + 2). 2 a?>V2 a.f. a^ + 2^+1. 2 x* 15. abVab. 5 22. 13 35. Va 2 "ft. 6. T. 16. 1 2 or 1 ?. Page 208.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1.'\ 14. ^7 \AOx. a 3. 2. v^.x^y* + y%. x%  3 ^+ 1. y. 19. 33. + Vic + 25. x 7  34. 10. 5 ( . 13.XXii ANSWERS 1.). 8. Vr 8.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 2.  a Vft 2 121 b. v'TM. 9. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. ftV 46. 31. 11V3. 2 '"V5. (o* 2. 36. 2. 21. 8a6V5. Page 207. l 5. 5. 9. . 40. . . 26. + + ft. m* n*. . 9. 4. 5. a2 4. 17. 24. JIV6. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 2\/7. 23. 6.yl : . / V3. 38. 32. 10. + 1. 101 1. 11. 49. 3. 31. 22.692. 20. 30. 1) 3V3. . 3V^T. 4aV^J 16. 20. 3 4\/2. 16. 51. 32.3 + 40 3 . 29. 2. 41. ). 3 42.  2 3:r. 15. V63. 50. 3.Vxy 35. 62V(J.
4. 49. 2 V'3. \/a6c. 33. 8. 15. 24. 5 \/2. 3. v^O. % 29. 31. 10. 4 a*. 10V(). VJla. 9. 15. 31. x/3. 6. V5. . 48. 3. 6x2?/. w?i. 44. 13. 36. V3"m. 11. Page 210. . v"5. 4 >/3. ^ 3 b 5 24. 3. \^r^bVabc. Vat. fl^Vac. 3v^2. v^f. x/8L v/27. 27. v^30. ^v 7 15. 4VO. a2  b. + VlO  v y (5. \^6. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 8V73\/IO. "^8000. . 17. V3. 25. + 20. 2. x/27. 1. 6. Page 216. 2. 37. 8. 26. \^6. 39. 50. 53. b. 17. \/abc*. x/4. V5. V/. . 10.J Page 212. x/8l. 17. "v/wi ??. ^27. 13\/3. 1V5.r v/^ v^fr*. 22. 8  \/15. rtv/5. 3\/15  6. 2 1. 2\/7. 2 \/2. \V3. 18. v/l2. 12. a\/5c.. r)\/(l Vrtr. 34. 32. \/2. 21. v/8. 14. 35. 16. 7\/(l 7VTO. 38. 40. 9. 21 23. 4. v"3. v/lO. 14. 22. 3 Vl5 30. 7. . 43. 5v/2. : ^32. 20. 1. \XOfl6Vi5. 14c 4 V5. 5. 1. ^9. 2. v^a. v/i). Vn. . 37. 5. 24. 6aV2\^. 13. aVa. 34. 39. \/8. v^4. D 45. VT5. 14. x/w^ 8. m ?i2Vm/t. 26. 52. W). 46. 51.30 2. 2. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 4\/5. 2yV2?/. ^\/3. 6+2V5. 36. 23. V8. 23. 3 V2. Vtf +3+ 33. v 25^4714 V2"a. '. 27. 5V2. 9 VlO + 4. 25. Page 214. 10. a^\/a7>. 6 2\/0. 6. 3. V2. v^lf. 3 V15  47.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 2 28. 28. 16. 8v2T 12. 0. 6V2. 38. 19. 21. 32m27n. V2. 6. 3\/wi. 42.T*. 5V2. x/125. 18. 2 ate. 12. 6. 40. 30. 3. 41. Vdbc. 74\/Jl 120 46. 2. 9. 8V2. Page 211. v7^. \/128. \/04a. 35. Page 213. v/9. ab 4. 16. 30 Vl4. 3\/2. 11. x/8. 5. xx 1. 18. 19. 7. . / \/w/t 4 13. vT). 29.  3. 11. V3. 0. 7. 32.
Page 223. 19. V35. 2!5_. 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. 11. Va. 9. 9 mn. 512. 12. 4. . ^. 9. 3. 25. xy 2. 11. 8. 5. V^TTfc. 1. 81. 4 14. 35. 3V23. (VaT^v a). . 9. (V6 + 2V2). 64. 224. . 26. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 27. 125. 17. 6. 4. 4. 2x^2^. 36. i^Lzi. 11. 8. Page217. (V21). Page 225. 1. Page 219. 10. ^r. 4.0606. 33. 27. i(Vf Vft). n*. 2. 20. 5. 32. 17.732. 20. 7. 19. 3. 37. \/3). 10. (2V2). 5. 3. 16. V2. 22. 11.1. 7. 5. V3.w 6. 1. J. + 6) 2 . Vf6fVtf. 23. . 4. 5. 1. 4. fV2. 1. 18. 21. 27. . 5. ~ Vac _c 0. (V51). 81. 15.5530. 13. Page 218.^ (\/22 4.625 10.  13. 2. _^JflJ?. 15. 7. 21. 10. 2. 25. 1. (2Vll). j. 25.. 18. 19. 2. 29. 16. 6. 7 Page221. ^. 4. 6 V. 7. 2V3. 25.64.389. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 22. 6 (V2 + 1). ^(VlO\/2). 7. 17. .6. 8. p 6 13. 2V3. 9. 13. . 29. + 5V2.V3). 4. 0. f.81.4142.3535. 9. 25. 16.\/TO). 4. 8. 14.3.1805. 8. 14. 9. \. K>/0 + \/2). 19.601. 7. 16. 5 V65.732. 1. 8. (V8 + V2. 23. 1. 3. (a 1.464. 3. 15. 16. 23. 25. 7 f 5 4. x 20. 4V3 + 6. 34. (VllV2). 15. (3+ v/2). 30. V. 16. 2. 12. 11.9. Page220. 14. 10. 25. 6. 7. 12. 0. 6. 216. 24. 5. ANSWERS 8. 2. 1. 4. J. 3(7+3V5). \/57t. 21 ' Vob 26. 11. 17.4722. 1. 8. 4. 18. . 22. 12. +3 V2). 20.6 V3. Page 226. 9. 16. 5.2. 7. V3 . 2.2. 5 f. !^ 6 4. 23. 12. 13. Page 28.3. ^\/2. (V5f 5. 31. (\/3f 1). 3.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .5. 2V2.  . * 3. . 4. V3. 24. 9. 15. ' 22 i . 100. 14. 24. 10. 2 .2828. 20. 18.  2. 23. A .7083. (\/5V2). . V3. 28. (2. 18. m f. 9. 8. 3. 10. 26. (Vf + (4 V2). 19. V6c. . 8 V3V2. 30. 12. nVTl. 2ajV2*.13. j 15. (2f V"5).  f. Va. {. 5. 6. 4. 4. 21.7071. 16. 1.XXIV 7. 24. 10.1547. V5.
1 . 1. 5. . 3 9. . 6.  1. 3.10. 2. 2. 2 > 1.  J. 7. 8. 3. 3. 4. 15. . 21. l. 13. 4.l)(m . (B43). 2. 4. (8. 6.  5. 2 &.12. 18. 3 .4). 19. t/ 23.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.^a. 4. 5. 2. 20. 2. 15. 24. 12. 3. V3. 7. 1. 0.3. 1. . J. (a 4. 16. 14.2. qpl.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 3. 2 . 4. 0. 2. . 3. 8. XXV 4. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 12..2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 22. . a . 14. (63)(6' t 18. (4 mn . 25. 11. f>. 10. 7. (a+&)( 2 14. 4. 3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 15. 2. 24. 6. 2. 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).3. 11. 5. 2. 30 . 14. 3 . 1 . 3. 0. 3. 2 V^ . 1. 11. . 10. 2. 30 30. 2. 3. 1. 4. =A^Z3. 3.ANSWERS Page 228. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).3 2. 5. . 2. 1.1. .2)(* . 28. 13. . 1. 12. 2.5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 7.  . y. ' J.  3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). . 2 6. a(. 1. 56l). 8.  3. . 0. 4. 19. 2. (r. 17. 3. 4. 1. 2. 87 . 5. 1. 13. 13.l)(a3)(a . .4. 3. 25.0. Page 234. 2.  f . (a . 2.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). ~ f7. 3. .22. 2. 3. J 24. 2. 10. 5. 1. 1.3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 7. 2. . 100. . . f . & + 6 2 ). . 3. 10. 3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 8. 4. 1 3. 1 6. 0. 3. 17. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. 3. 20. 4 4. 3. 9. (pl)(p2)(p2). 0. (a. 12. 0. 11. 7. 8 6 & 0. 3. 73. (w . 4. ( 16. 1 (?> x/^3. 4.8a 18. 3. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 12.  3. (a. 17. 6. 1. 2. 1. 4. 4 1. 13. 4. 25. 4. 30.Y. 2. (&y2a#H4). J Page 235.3. (+!)( 2) 10. 6 2 2a + 2). 5.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).r . . Page 236. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 2. 5. 4 20. (m 4 + l)(ro. 7. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).3. 1.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).  16). 3. 0.4. 9. 6. 22.3. . 12 24 y . 73. 30. 11. 5. 4. 1 . J. . 11. . (a + 2) (a Page 229. (pl)(p3)(p6). a  . \/0. 1. 18. 20. . 1.2. 2 .w 4 + 1). 5. 50. 21. 10. 25. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 19. 4. 7. 2. 4 . 1. 2. 10. b .1. o.2.5 xy + 25) 22. 23. 9.4. 2. 1 . 4. 4 . 6. 16. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 5. 2.2)(m. 1. 2 6. 5. (rt. 2 . 8. 8. 5.  1. 1 . 3 5.  2. 5.3). (2 a. 2 <? 4a2 . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2 . 26. //. 4. 6. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). Page 233. a: :} .7.nl^EI. 1. 3 . P.  4.
7. 4. 17. 1 2. 2. +  n. Page 240. . 1. GO . = QO 6. 2. 28yd. 4. 9.. 50. 4 6. 4. 21. 18.136. 50. 2.4. 19. 2.18. 13.0. 4. 1. . .3. 9. J. _ 10. 5. 12 ft. ft. 11. 30 13. c. 84. (/>) "_. 9. 1. 2. . 7 3. 2>/3. 2 Y> V . Indeterminate. 35^ 5. 3. 5. 1.6. 2. 1.5.3. 2. tn 2. 3. 5. 900.  1. 3.e. 3 4. 4. in. Exercise 113. m27. 4. in. ft. . in. 2. 1. 20. 14. 20. 8. Page 238. 4. 4 . 1. 11. 1 . ri*. 1. 6. 1. 4. 4. $46. 31. Indeterminate. 22. 25. 15. 3. 512. 3. 7. 2. 32. 3 2. 1. 5 4. 4.1. . 4 8. 0. . 7. 7. 5. . . 4. 1. 3 3. _ 13 (0 6. 1.1. ^ }. 8. 23. 3. 15. 5. 8. 9. 2. 2. .020. 36. . 5. 19. 1. 5 cm. 1 . 14. 9. 2 . 31. 21. 37. m + n. oo . 1.3. . . 5. 4. 10. 24. 12. 3. 17.30. 1. 7. 2 . 9. ANSWERS 2. 14. 21 30. 11. 15. 2. 17. 8. 2. 11. 2 26. 2 . 4 34. 3. 512. Page 241. 2 2. J.  2 . 15. ( 3. (a) 5.3. 3. no co . . 20 7. 288. 37. 2n. . 3. Page 247. $. 8ft. 2.. 3. (>. 3 . . 40 in. 5.13. 1. 17. 3. } . 23.  . 1J. 3. 4. . 1. V3~.. 6. . 4. j. 1. 1. 8 3. 1 . 11. f*. 1 . i j. . 24. \/6. . 3 cm. 5. V7. 16. 17. 1. 4.200. 33. 3. 2. . 6. Page 244. i'ljVU. x 4. 40. 45yd. 5.6. . 2. 0. 1. 1. f>. 7.y.3. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 12 d. 3.4. 1. 5. 2 1. 3V5.3. 2. 20 in.. 2V7. 2. 78.. 2. 8. 5. 13. _ 7. 4. 16. 3. 5. 48. 3. 30. 10. 26. 12. 3. .. co . 3 . (&) 2. 13. 40 25 in. 39. 0. \. 38. 5. 125 125. 16. (a) $3400. 29. . 6. 12. 17. 12 1. J. 14. 35.3 . . i. 1. $VO. 35 a. 1. . 3. 4. in. 8. 3. 201.4. jj. n.1. . . Page 239. n . in. 2. f. 2. 4. 4.. 4. . 7. 8. 1. . 2 10. 69.3. and _ 4. 3. J. 12. 30. Page 245. 1. 10. oo . 15. 4. 2. 14. 4. 1. 5. 41.5. Exercise 114. 3. 11. . 10. 15. 7f solution. .2. 35 ft.4. 2. 18. ft. 12. 22. 1 . 15. 400. '>. 37.. 1.. 5 . 5. 3. $. 1. 12ft. 6. 3. 12. . oo. . 1.. _ 5. 3. 5050. 14. 2 16. }. 3 . . i i i . Page 248. 2 ft.0. 1. 55. 8 .  11. 5. . 14. m28. 3. ^~2.xxvi Page 237. 5. ' j. 8. Page 243. 18.
19. 105. 4. &' 14. 7.r 4. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 343. 11. ' 1. 1. 8.r x>/ 7 3. 0. 1. 35. 21.12 x*y 16. 8. 27.53.8.6. 405.  101. 2. . . 4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. .2 45 a 8 /).170. 2. a. 4. 910. . 327. 1. '23. 7. 3. 04. 13. 27. 1820. 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. Ja. 8 1. Jj? 45.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 3. 280 53. 4.  20 flW. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 18. 410. 4. 8.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .3 ays. 16. 13. 10. ?/i 6 x llj .700. 8. 23. 15. 7 2 x 4 x8 . r r j. x4 . 70. 15. 3. 3.ANSWERS Page 250.v Page 253. } $ 50. 2.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 5.470. 5. 3. . 7. 16. REVIEW EXERCISE . 708. 70. 192.419. 16. 20. x r 4. 2. 5 13. 120 aW. 3. 3. 6. 125. 16. 15. 4. 04. 5. 2. 8 . 9.x' 10 . d.680. 12. 70. 81. 7. 2. 1. 1000 aW. . 8J. 125. 13. 25.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 0. 44. \ w 4 . 3. 11. 7.192. sq. 10. Page 252.6 . 55. 4. . 3. 0. and 1. 6i.920. 11. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 10. 21. 17. . 9. 6. 26. B .504. 5.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.1.5 x. 45.210. 9. 495. 3. 6. . f y 8 + z* . 2. xxvii 1. 2. . 16. 15. 75. 18.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 304. 45. . i 10. 4. 5. 18. a4 4 14. ~ an . 2.2 9. 6. 10.  17.^ ?>i 2412x4.5y 4 . 27. 35. . 7.4 &z x>&. />*. 12. 1. 8 4x' 2 . 3. 2i* 7f. I. 20. 27. 29. 8. 8. 5. 4950 M 2 b y *. 5. 8. 4. . 8. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . r 5 4. 0. 9. 0. 4. (). (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 12. G. . 1. 14. in. 1 14. 9. 7. 8. 28. J 2 //2 25. 2. 1. Page 258. **+. Page 259. 1. 5. Y11. 4.5.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 6. ~v 9. 9.r* 4 70 . 7 x4 17. <.120. 12. 1JH. w9  8. 16 11. 2. 4. 5. 16. 0. ^a 8.4. 17. 6. 3. 220 . 1 7 4. 0.13. 2. 5. 17.7 10. 4. 10. 0. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. vy. 005. 2. 20. 43. 6. 6. 22. 32. 4. 6. 4. 18. 1. 10. A. 19. 8.0. 100. 22.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . c. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 7.384. 48. x + Vy. 0. 4. 3. 05. Page 254. 1. .5. . 15. 10 14. 12. 5. 128. 1. 12.870 m*n*. 19. 343. 4 0. 50. 12. 16. 45 Page 257. 12. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .<2 4.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 53. JSg.
27. 7 + 3 xf 2. x . x 8  a8 . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. y 4 z* 0. x 4. 5x 2 2x43. 2 x'V2 90. 76.c. 14 x . 49. 4 65. 39.3 b . 0. 32. . . c3 4 58.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 0. Page 260. . a2 2 aft 2 2. 3 a 5 a 5.5x4. 88.4 x y 87. . . Page 263.a.a' 'ft 4. ft /> 78.6 am b\ 129.1 4 jry 4 x . 0.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .1. 9 2w 128. a J . x 3 41. 4 115. 6a6c. 114. 10 4. 4 Page 264. . 31.7. 61. 2 . /> 4 83.  e +/. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.x24 73. . x' . a 4 . x2 a2 1 . 28. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.5 b + c . 23.7 x   15.1w 77. 118. x2 471x4.x4 + y'2 z 4. 22. 12 a/.6 b.2 x^. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 82. 127. 2 q. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .5. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 62. 3a~2c.2 xy + 4 y2 106. x4 f + 23 . 26. _55_7c 48. x } 4. 4. () 2 x 33.4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. x 2 . 3 a 44. 4ft y3. 2 x2 4. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 4 ! . 120. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. !! 71. 12 x.3 103.1.  . 5 4 4.18 ?/ 5x4.3 x 2 + 3 x .a" xy 2 2/' 3 .4. 4 . 133.a'2 c.rty x2 4 123. 36. 72. 93. . 131. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 29. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 63. 8 . 4 15 x 5 . &p 84. a 3m 4.{ 54. 35.  4 a3 85. 1 + 4 xy. 122. .3 a 2 '6 w 4.4. . 4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.xxviii ANSWERS 19. . 25.5 3n 4. 37. 5x + 2y~z. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. * 60. . + 3 a?. 52.  12 a. 2 a. 86. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 6 a2 97. as 20. a4 x. 102. 3~ n 4. . + z.3 aftc.x. 4. .x 51. 8x3 8x. m " + n + P3c .y*.2 c .2 x 4. x* .4 x 2 .9 b. xyxzyz. . 4 69.c. 2 113. 3 c . . 40. I 57. . 109. a' 111. 30. x 8 + x 4 68. df. f5+7. 38. 105. 1 121.2. ?> . a~b 89. .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 6 c 47.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. ft2ft 4 4l.ac 44 aft. +^ + ft W. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 124. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.15 4 62 x  72.a*ft 2 126. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . . 3 36 b c .x 2 4.ft). 99. 64. . az 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.3 . 13 + 2 s.4 ac. 91. 1 a"* 4 an . t 81.2. 107. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 130. 2 30 . ?/ 3. x2 2 .18 x?/0. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 100. 2 x2 108. 50. ft n . 24.1. 21. 9x.a6 2 4.4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 16t/.41.c 3 4. a* a 8 a aftc. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.4 2 4 c2 42 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.  3 x2 . 2 2/' .fee 2 4. 2 . 3a'2 Page 261. 80.3 a'ft. 132. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 70. 46. x8 x2 55. 243x4729. 96.a 2 x 2a . (a + ft)" 98. 110.^a .  + 3 x2 . 1 x 45. 104. 94. + a 4. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 . 2 53.. 4 2 .3 y.4 x?/2 3 4. . 1 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 66.2.9 x . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 10 a 12 b. 125. 4 fee 4. ?/ . 16. x 3 4. 3 a . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). .105.1. . 5 42.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 6 8 j27 40 ab. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . ^ . a* 4. x' 79. 43.
148.r + 4).. 239. as 194. 232. 48 h. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 205. (c) 160 C. ft. 159. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 138. 218. (x + 6)(x6). p. (a& 192. 36ft. 8 204.9)(xf 2). (y _ ft)(y 4. 208. 1. (x 227. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.y2 ). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 147. . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).2) (3 x . 154.l)(a 2 +3). 3. m. 2 2 (a. 193. 3. . 174. 136. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 6. 1.6) (2 x + 1). fc'2a+62c). ?. 186. 5. 22. 182. 210. 2. 40 yr.6)(4 + 6). 164. 230. (y  17)(y + (>). 2. 10). Iff 145.  1. 238.3. 183. 2(x8)(x3). 75. 217. Page 265. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.y + 3)(r (. + y. 2. 181. (8x + 3)(3x4). 2. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 231. 24. a + 2x2 ). (x + 2)(x .1). 19. (y 7f))(y 196. 10 in. (r7y)(ai.l)(x8 + x2 . + 2) + 9a. 1. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 10. 20. . (xyX^+y" )1 243. 201.2). 1. 2 xy(3 x . 191. 12. 12) (j. 189. (3x  . 195. 137. 187. 179. 190. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 207. Page 267.. y3.. 152. 220.r . y  y 165. 150. (7 c 2 ).2ac + 229. (y_24)(y5). 158. 15  a. 166. 170.2). 147 mi. 18. + 3). 172. C3 y _l)(. Or (a + 2)0el). (at (4 a +!)( + 3).1). 32 h. + 3) (x f f>) . 160. 1. 216.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).I2y). 12 6 panes. (6) 40. (7x2//) 203. Page 266. 1. 236. 151. p. 2. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. . 222. 247. 4. (5 x . 178. . 212. 153. 2 (4 x . 30 + xyr. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 209. 157.3). r>x 2 (4x. (3x2?/)(2. 1. a 2 (15. 8(ar}(/)27). 10 ft. k. HI. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 6). 146. 1. + 11) (a 10). 226.3 y)(a . (233).y). (a 2 + 2a6. 219. (/ 246. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft).m)(x + a). 177.3) (2/3y). 10). 215. 155. +)(x2 x^+2. 50. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 20. 163. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 6. (2a + l)(a . xxix 139. 12 yr. 12 yr. + 7)(rt4).6 .. 197. 199. 15.2 )(x+y) 228. 168.y)(jc + 7 y)./_4). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 185.y)(z .l)(y + 1). (a} 59. 21.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 244. a(a. (?/+l)(yl). a. 7. 176. 218. 206. 2a(42ft)(2fo). + 22). 180. 237. 30. (JT y 225. yr. 143.ANSWEKti 135.1(5) 200. 211. 23 18.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 202. x(x + 6) 213. 184. 2^.y) (\r3y). (ab + 8) ( 7).1). 235. 233. 149. 161. 142.4xl). 144.2. 12. 169. 156. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 241. (x^ + x1) 234. 37 1. (2 198. (. 175. . 30 yr. (r^x + 1). . y. z(x10)(xl). 140. 167. aft. 240. 3(x . (x . 4. G7. 171. 173. y 245. 224. (x  42 yr. (y7)(y + 188. 214. 15. 162.3 y).
\')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . a. 3). o(x4l). 307. x12. 256. 263. 43 '^rJ'. x 267. 303. ?^ZLiZ 308. 310. 2. (7 255. &). (a 4 A)(2 x 5.(x  4) (x4 304. 3  262. 2 4 300. 266. 0.4). 250. 2 x  3. 264. 7^T 2 . 5. x ?/ z 1. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.  7.. 268. o. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 279. 7. 258. 0. 254. 298. x 283. a~ ' b*).  3xyf x// 257. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.^ ^^. 295. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 259.2* i^^ !^. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ? 1) 302. 3. 306. 261.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.^^^^^^^^. 249. 260. 7 x 265. 301. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . + f. ^/>J. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.   . x . 10. 269. > 4. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 3). *>). ^ 299.1.4) 1) (3 x . *. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 4 5. 305. 251.
389. . 380. 405. 0. 9^. 375. c 402. 2(a i 403. T+^.XXXI Page 272. S. 1. 355. 3. + 4 & 4 \ b. 407. 398. a +6. 2 ab  a Page 276. 2 ). a + b + 6). l'j.)Cr4)__ . 3.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. + x 362. . 404. a) A^_. 377. 1. 390. 360. l . 2 r36 384. 7. . T\. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.. 395. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. * 357. 396. 364. L . j 328. 400. ?=. 2(q. f. 1. 325. 1. If. 379. 1. ab. 339. 7/i ^ _ . . 334. 392. 397. 386. 406. 2 ?/ 363. 329. ^_:r f> 331. (a + b + c\ . 385. . . m. 12. ?>*. ^"" 4 s .1. 366. x 54 359.  1 356. 343 00 351. 387. _*L'L+. 393. 365. <L 409. 0. 4 rw. ?/ + 3 332.J . 0. + 335.!. Page 277.  1. 13 391. 324. 376. 4. 361. Page 274. 333. 2 327.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 3. 401. 4. a 2 . 408. A^L5L. 370. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 11.(5 a . ^ 3 // . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 6 ?/+:>. y 4 I 340. 1 i 2 ^. 388.vin a /r " 337.7. 383.. 382. 4 A.". 399.3. " 4 378. 326. 2. 336. 20. 2. 6a. 0. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 394.
6. fj. 6. $2000 at 0%. not true. 40. 5.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 17. 476. A 5 mi . ^r?i 434. 410. 7.7. (a) 1. z8 +?/ 3 431. 1. c. 18. 459. 484. ^. 432. Page283. 10. \.5.}. 14 miles. * . . 7. '. 5. 495. 439.7. 503. 0. . 462. 423. 452. 507. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 430. 0. 0. 0. 446. />c c(f be. 463. L2 a  6 .3.46... 51. 422. 90. 6. 420. 479.1. . 21. Page 282. 506. I. (&) true. 12. 0. . 2. 2$. m 1 : wi. 2. 2. a* 424. & 491. 10.55. (&) 443.vz in. 10$. .  505. B 4 mi. 508. 427. 498.2. 6.  453. !L=4.  2. 450.  f>. (d) true.  2. .3. 10. . 478.488. a 22 .. 2. 483.}. i. 4. .4. 421. 50. 1$. 2. 492. .m  m+ M in. 447.0. 500. . ^V.  7. 455.rz Page 279. *+. 429. 1. 493. 472. Page 278. 454. 33. 17. 22. 5.7. 496.489. fc. 485.  2. 6.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 482. 1. ft 5. 7.7. 5. 3a 4 5. i a b 451. 5. 2 a 2. . 490. 7. . 10. 4. 28 yr.2. 4. 32. 8. 467. 7. . 499.. 1 a /?$+&?. 11. 8. . 0. 419. 2 438. 440. 477. 10. 0. 42. 442. 5. a + + ft c. . ' $260 at 0%. ISJini. 457. + () 433. 40 oz.4. <L+ 6 (. c 6fc 10.12. 63. (d  6) f. 10. 460. 436. 2. 461. 10. 444. m. 441. 481. 53 yr. b 449. 9. 445.  1.te + . 468. 502. 487. 24 days. 3 .0. 418.7. 84. 412. Page 281. 425. 32 yr. (a  c).  2f 504. 486. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. . 494. 456. 3. 448. 4. 480. 2. ISjmi. 3. 6. 20 yr. 8. 1. 465. 5J.  7. 435. 1. 466. 20. 2.  1. 428.. 413.  . . \ 1. 464. .  10. 2. 411. (c) not true. 501. 7 : . 2. . : />a. Page 280. 3.. A $ 3500. B $ 2500. 426. L (c) I. 458. 6. 8. 497.
+ 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 1. 510.12. 40 Ib.7. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4. 530. . 3.54. lead. 560. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.15.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. . 2. Page 287.83. tin. f. 3. 5.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .4.xj/ f xV . 515. .10. 526.  7. 3.  .31. 2(6 597.5. _^ 2754x . (e) (c) 2.  J(a f + 2c). . . 599. (a) 74 Ib.7. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 24 da. 0000.5. + 26 + . . 603.38. 3 . 4. 1.  2. 4 0. .35. 1.0. If 572. 531._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. . 31. .5 f. Page 285. 551. 21*_.16. f36a28x8 592.00. 2 2. 3.r8 596.f 1. 14.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.1. 1. 513. y% Z * 586.9. 579. 1. Roots imaginary.  2ft da. 4 mi. y 4. 575. . . 1. 565. 1. 1 600. 563. 571. <z ft 1.8. 5.05. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).  imag.1.88.3. 2.10. 6.5. . 4. (e) 570.25. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 2.04.15. 532. a f ft + c.53. 576. 574.6. 553. 2.02. 1. 3.4.4. 8. f ? a f ft __ + c C). per hr.  ft*.1. . 512.1. 2 . (c) 4.5.0. 561.3. . (gr) 10 1. (/)  10 to 8.0. 582.3. 7^ da.4. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .20..15. 4..03. lead.03. 509. 2 imag. 1 580. 6. 555. 556.  3. 3.ANSWERS Page 284. . 3 da. xxxin 511. J7] min.75.3. 567.  (a) (d) 1. . 598.8. 3f 4f. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.6.04.0.75. 4. .73. 2. imag.3. 527. 1 .62. . 24. T . + 6 tf f 3 .. 3. or 8. M ft c 2 ft 3465.  (a) 2. 115 Ib.4 x + .02.30. 514.   (h) 8. 1. 1. 1. (6) 3. 0. 1.3. 1. . 1. 1$. a+ Page 286. . 1.5. 232. 4.5+.24 sec.  4. 4. 1. _ 3.37.51. 2(4 602. + 12 x . Page 288. 577.4.31. f. S82 c. . 3. 4. 583. 3. 4. > ^ . . _ 4. 3. 518.  557. 27 y* f\4 . 2. 8 mi.25m.. ft 584. 516.52.7. .2. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. per hour. 593. 2$. (6) . 569. da.6. 5.33.4. .8 x3^. 1. 1.14. 578. 568. 558. 7..1.55.  1. 2. 559.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. x8 .1. 536. o> . . 4* da. 1. 564. 525. a + ft  a  f c.56 sec. 1. ^ ft 4. 2 1. g(rc+ 6c). 1. 2.78.02. (ft) Ill Ib.8. 6435.02. (d) 537. 3. 550. H. 552. 562. 529. 554. 2 1. 591. 1.24.21.24. 573. 581.83. 2 10.8.3. 533.37.3. 566. . (ft) 4. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 3. 3.% rr\* 585.6 2. . 3. tin. 2. (i) 3. 1 . .62.54.6. 1J. 5.78. 528. (c) 3. 2 .  + + c. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.
614. /> 4. 4$. (a3&45rj. 642. 5 3. (*_ + a: 611. + ~^'2 + a 1. 2.  13.702. 1. fe + a.303. 1 V5 1. 25. 0. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15).  1. fta a/> ^A. 655. If b. 698. a 1J. 1 2.  . 705.  6. 677 680. 628. . + 2 A (i f Page 291. 78. J^^. 706. 615. 666. . 635. 616.04. 0. 971. a ' 2 + . 2. 703. 2. V^~3). 9*. 3. ab 689. 5. 622. 4. a 673. 669. . l/'3. 5002. ' 674. 11. b. 5. 692.002. If . 643. 0. \.  a2  a (ab).001.0. 653. ^^ 695. ft). . 661. ^ 1. / V^+lO^M"^. 618. 672.. af6fc __ __ ( a 4.b. y  619.3.14 If 1.43^4. 2f. 7. 652. V7. 640. 649. 634. ' fe 2 ).  3.c ) 697. 2f. 629. 607. 898. 3 a. 7003. b .  4. V2. I}'/. 637.XX XIV 606. 631. 8. 4.3f l 668. 656. n^l +^. b 664. 1 ~a . 651. 10. 654. 646. 11. 2 x 44 ^/. 703. 210. V2. . 696. 9. 0. 0. a. 3 681. 1$ 639. 6.049. 2 a: 4. 6. . 5. 2. . 700. 1 704. 624. If 665. 1010.2f Page 290. 2&). z  1. . 701. 14. 009. If 658.>A 610. 2.y. 2. 25. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 644. 660.2f (5 4. 12. 4. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 3. ^.. 645. 633. 1m*. V"^TJ. 625. ^. 3 x2 . . <T! . la6 2. o. 638. 613. 2 ab + a  &. 657. ix 2 . 648. .f 3 V^3). 679. 670.3. be ac \. 621. 650. 662. 608. a + b. 617.001. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 632. 2 / 2 4. 690.3.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 683. Page 289. 678< 682. 4330 da. if 4/> 671. 2. 691. 647. 2. 8 6 fo . .  2f r 659.  ft. i. 0. 708. 630. If f 667. 2. 620. 4 676. 1. 4 V 0.203. 8 f 3.3.25. K 5 2 V2.a~ {Z 663. 7. 636. . 2 a  6*. 13. a 4. 627. 50.b 686. 626. 702. \+ab 699. 612. c. 623.  4.  684. 6 685. a 2. . 3. . 1. 2092. 641. 1. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 4. If. 5. 2 a 688. ab.
24V2. ^ . 00. "V313. + < 735.8. y  1. 729. VV> L4V34. iv/Jj.. 30\/10 764. 17ft. 773. mn. 24 4 . 758. 796.11. 725.. 1^ _ 760. cr*lr*. 32>/2. x i f^' .^. .~ . 3 VlT 795. 8. 778. 790 2v 3v 2.257. + 6 2 tf'c. 4 104 v/2. 24.r+y> 759.. r. T%. 733. 712. 753.. 794. 2\/53V2. 756. 715. 723. 33^2. 746. 342V3. 13ft. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 2 V2 . 726. 722. a db Va^T < 45da. Hi a. 34. 777. 719. 717. 710. 3 720. 730. 737. 3V52V3. 1 752. 731. / 787. VIO\/3. rt3 2 ^i^. 728.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 724. 25.4 . 29\/3. 15 shares. 1 [ + '> J.V2. fyaw&cu. a 5 . 721. 3V72VO. a". 59. 792. 732. 1. 763.ANSWMHti Page 292. 769. 7  3V5. 755. 5. 8. 738. x\y. 3.V/^ 741. 750. 788. 5.12 af V^ 4 744.rJ w L 754. 3V72V3. 1 747. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 768.2. Page 293. 734. 3^. i^. v'll. 767. . . 1. 711. 2x3^ a. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. . 749. 300. 709. . 1 I . 789.r.4 . a:* . 793.1 .^ 743. 718. ^7xy. a 2 6^. J(v'lO2V 791.10. 782 785. > 748.9. ^ ?>. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . i 2. 739.9. Page 294. 39. VT14V5. 3V7. 727. v/7 / . 736. a 2  x2 . 47. 1. 713. 716. 740. 714.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 751. 776. j 742.
25. 1. Va 803. (3 862. 837. 6. . J V. 813.3. 3. 824. a2 ^E*!. 801. 900. ((' 1). ( 869. (1 . 2. 48. Hoots are extraneous. 3. . $. 2 806. 2 *x 807. 17. 882. 810.rae) (4 . 808. 1. (x + 0X024. 890. 2 . . 8. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. H. o 828.3)(x + 4). a* 4. 884. 7. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 5. 842. \/5.5 b) 4 1). 840. $. Hoots . 5. + d)*.y) 852. 4. m 875. 887. db 7. 13. . 4. 4 .  1. 868. 827. 6 $.4) 860. 833. .  tt 815. 849. . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 886. 814. 892. 861.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).10 ab 4..l)(x + 2). 0. 3. 8. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 4. . f. 10.5) (x + * 853.. 7. 4. 3. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . ^ V}. 2. are extraneous. 863. 1.+ m f ") (a* ). 2. 835. (2x (r. (:r 11. Page 297. 2 (x 4*4. 826. 896. V 3. 4. a(ft)( 873.  ' . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. jV3 f 3. m = 2.f. 7. 19. ^VG. 11. 799. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 841. 895. 3. (  ?>) (a + ^> .7 4 1) 846. 2.l)(x .r4). 2 854. (x 4. 0. 832.l)(x . 898. 3. 1 ..4. 829. 897. 888.7). (2 a . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . . 4. 3. 4 885.1)(V 2 . 857. 2 m .  + l(l^).  839. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 836. **.a 4 + 1). 1 1. 5).0. (a 4 871. . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 20). 872.2) (x 4 2). 4. 823. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 0. (x 2 . (2 4. 2 2 . . \/2. 876. 817. 8 09. Va. (4 c 4. 880. (x 845. (x*y*ryz + z*). 867. .3. 17. 894.1.XXXVI 797. x .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (3 b . X4 1). a(ry + 864. o. (x .7)(4 x. 0. 2. (2 x + 3 y} . ( 4 4. 834. 3. 879. 847. (xl)(^~3)(. (.a 3 " 4. 812.a 2 2 ).1) . 2. 11. 5.r . ANSWERS 798. . 893. 859. 816. n =  29. 848. 881. . 831. (x 2 f r . 2. (x3).4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 800. 2. 4. 899. (x . 14. (a 1) (x 4. 825. 830. 6. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 6+V7. b' 2 821. ) (a' 874.7. 4.1) (a 8 . 3 . (a m . 1C.2w . ^. 23./>") (a'. 3. 2 . 4. 4 818. 6(a6)(o a + + &).1). 851. 891. 2. 2  2. 819.4. 5. 804. 883.25 ?>2). 3. 820. 7. 2 . 822. 6. 4. 2 j 889.1)(0 865. 5. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 811. a 42)(x .om 441) (a 855.7).2 ax 4. 1. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 838. 844. 843. 858. +j!>. 2/ 856. Page 296. 1.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.l)(x + 3)(2x43). x. 2.
982. 100 rows. 2 ft. Z ^.. 952. 6 a 915. 962. 986. 1 .2. 7.1. 4.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 6.  1. 985. 2. 7. 947. Page 302. 978. 1. 921. 2 1. r ft ' < Page 299. 1. 2.073. 3. 911. 6. =F J. 919. 908. . 938. . 5. i(6 in. 2. 3 4 . 2 yd.I. 329. 10. 1 2. i>. 942. '3 3 in. 963.' ifcVira^ 2 3. Page 300. .01. 4. 12 in.651. 937. 6. 4. 2. 984. 73. 1 1. .. 66 924. 980. 11. 5 . w 3. ft. . 912. 14 . i 8. 943. 10. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 12 mi. 111. 981. 3. 2. V5 T 2 . 28.0.. Va926..1 = 9... 1. 6. S07. 3). 932. 7 or 30. 1 _2 . 987. 333. Y. 927. 0. .2. 8. 4. 8 . 7. ft. ^y. 7. 5. 940. .. J. 948. 60 949. %* . . 958. . 6. ?/i 6. a. 960. 3. 955. 5l4f. f. 944. 2. V^3). 939. . 945.1. 8. 20 19 ft. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. tt2 19. 977.. 941. 248..446. 18. 6 1 1. 4. ft. $(l 4.  26j. 931. 3 . 3. 6 da. ft. 12. 0. a + .. 108. 2. 8128. 15 16 ft. ft. 4. 15 946./hr. 2 w 914. 333. yd.760 sq. 905. 959. Page 303. 8. dL 4. 935. 8. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 1). 979. 4.. 2. . 11. 12. 3. 936. 11. . 903.. 951. 956. 923. 2. 6. 9 in. 4. T3. 496. 961. 28.744. 2. 916.  1 . 964. 4. 4 . 12. 8. 480 8 sq. V5 fj.111. i 3. 909. 8. w.709. 6 . 918. 8. 925. 902. 28. 3. 957. . 983. . 8. T 6. 115. 1 + V953. 3. 906. 40 16 in. 5. 2 i ' a V. 5. J(_ ft. 7 ft. i1" 913. 904. 4 in. 933. 917. 4. J. f ft 4 . . 954. 5. . 922.615. 930. 0..V~~3). . 80. Page 301.. 56. T 6. ft. 11. 920. 6. 934. . ft. ft. . 4 6 mi. 280. 950. 0.. . v/(ai !)(&910.
 W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 0. Page 304. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .51.18. 120 a. 1 8 8 2.. 12. ^f (2f3V2). (Z>) 999. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).192rt?)r 120 *. 1005. 1000. 1013. 1019. 72. 991.870 z8 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 992. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (5. 1003. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1007. 4.870 a 6 1011. 1009. ^Trsq. in. 1(5. 1 1004. Page 305. (J.128 I. 2(2 v/2). 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .  5&7 1021. 192. . . 24. 997. 9 da. 1001. 162. 6 70 . 993.378 <W and 92.378 1015. 1010. . ~ \. 1018. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 994. 2 . 1008. 0.'^^ } ( . 3003. 990. + 448 . () 12(2+V3). (6) 8(1 . r = 2. + v 2). 4 and 1020. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 996. 120 i^l^. 1014.. 1017. 1016. 12. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1006. 8. 48. 988. 995. 1012. 108.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. X.92.
given. physics. xi 4 373 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Half leather. HEW TOSS . i2mo. $1. etc. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The more important subjects tions. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Half leather. and commercial life. Ph. save Inequalities. than by the . but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. A examples are taken from geometry. $1. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xiv+563 pages. great many work.D.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. so that the Logarithms.25 lamo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. comparatively few methods are heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
6466 7HTH AVENUE. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. comparatively few methods are given. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. In Factoring. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. physics. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. Logarithms. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. etc. HatF leather. and commercial life. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Ph. Half leather. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. HEW YOKE . bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xiv+56a pages. 12010.25 i2mo. xi f 373 pages. The author grade. so that the tions. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. great many A examples are taken from geometry.D.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.
These are introduced from the beginning 3. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Cloth.. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.r and. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. iamo. izmo. under the heading Remarks". $1. aoo pages. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 7 he . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Half leather. Cloth. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.D. NEW YORK .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 6. . Ph. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SEVENOAK. wor. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 10. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. i2mo. lines. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 4. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. State: . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . xii + 233 pages. $1. Attention is invited to the following important features I. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. SCHULTZE. 9.10 L.
Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. of these theoretical views. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. 370 pages. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. and not from the information that it imparts. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 12mo. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . . $1.
which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Topics. photographs. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. i2mo. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Cloth. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. and a full index are provided. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. diagrams.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " This volume etc. $1.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?