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Author
" Title
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This book should be returned on or before the date
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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA. . LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH.D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
U. Cushlng Co. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . September..A.S.' February.COPYRIGHT. IQJS January. 1916. 1915. September. Published Set up and electrotyped. July. August. . 1910. Reprinted 1913. January. 1917. 1911. May. Berwick & Smith Co. 8. J. May. 1910 . . Mass. 1910.
All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory." this book. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. owing has certain distinctive features.. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. are omitted. specially 2. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Such a large number of methods. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. chief : among These which are the following 1. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. etc. Elementary Algebra. however. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. manufactured for this purpose. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse .
g. Topics of practical importance. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. two negative numbers. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. as quadratic equations and graphs. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. hence either book 4. especially problems and factoring. however. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. In regard to some other features of the book. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". For the more ambitious student. Moreover.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. may be used to supplement the other. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. e. are placed early in the course. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.
to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. based upon statistical abstracts. in " geometry . the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. Moreover. By studying proportions during the first year's work. such examples. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. viz. and commercial are numerous." Applications taken from geometry. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. elementary way.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. is based principally upon the alge . But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.
NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 1910. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics. however. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. .
and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION....... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ........ 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .... . Powers. SUBTRACTION..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. .
X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type III. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type IV.. Type V. . . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... Type Polynomials. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. * .. Type VI. Type II. ..... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ..114 .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . /^ . .
148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... CHAPTER XIV 169 ..... .... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . . Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
16. a polynomial of two terms. (cfd) 4. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 4(a 6(6 + &). 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. since the parts are a . \/c. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. c f d). 11. some number is . Val \fi?. + 1].g. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. is 28. 27. V36". A polynomial is an y. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. 9. 8. V^a6. 7 = 2. e. + c). v'Ta. 4V3~6c. b = 3. 12. [6c] 3 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. V2a. 5Vl6c. V3 . c = 1." EXERCISE If a 1. 0. 2. 2 . d 7. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 6. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. or 9 Vx. 6. aVc^. A binomial is 62 . x 9. 3. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 10. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 17. 26. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 14. are trinomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 15. 13. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. as in arithmetic. find the numerical value of: Vff.
e. . 3 4 . 1. Otherwise operations of addition.810 + 150 = . 6.9 aWc + f a b . = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2. 4 . 5. c = 2. d = 0. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 5=3. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.30 = 270 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.. a2 11. 10.390. x=^. multiplication. 2. __ E. 3. 5c +d 2 . . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 16.2 + I126. Ex. find the numerical value of: 9.4 6^9 ad. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . c=l. 6. subtraction. 12. 3 2 If 1. 2 ). l 13. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. * For additional examples see page 268. 5. 14.99. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. . .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 4a6fVaV2^. b = 3.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 4. d=Q. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. a=4. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . (a (a f b) 7.INTRODUCTION 29. + 26+3 c.g.9. i. Ex. a 2 6. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 8. 52 .19 = 6. EXERCISE 8*  .
c) (a . a =4. Six 2 . Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 5. a = 4. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.6 f c) (6 a + c). 30. 38. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 2. a = 3. 23. 30. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). sible to state Ex. a = 4. 6 = 4. if : a = 2. 6 = 7. 29. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6. 27. = 3.6 . 26. 37. 6 = 6. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 34. 6 = 5. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. : 6. a. 6 = 6. geometry. 26 of the exercise. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 28. and other sciences.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 25. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 33. . 6 = 1. physics. 24. 6=2. 35. 6. 6 = 3. a =3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 2. a a=3. a = 3. 22.
and 5 feet. (b) 5. then a 13. (c) 4. A train in 4 hours. b 14. if v : a. An electric car in 40 seconds. 15 therefore feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 2. 13. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.16 1 = 84. count the resistance of the atmosphere. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.) Assuming g . if v = 30 miles per hour. 14. d. Find the height of the tree. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.INTRODUCTION E. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 4. 84 square EXERCISE 1. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. and 15 feet. 12. b. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 13 inches.g.e. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.16 centimeters per second. i.seconds. if v . c.
then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 10 feet.14d (square units).). on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14 square meters. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. : 8000 miles. square units (square inches. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 2 inches. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 32 F. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the 3. is H 2 units of length (inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 5. . meters.).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. ~ 7n cubic feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 5 F. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 5 miles. $ = 3. the area etc.14 4. If the (b) 1 inch. (The number 3. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. . Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. however. or positive and negative numbers. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra. SUBTRACTION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.CHAPTER II ADDITION.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).
of: 20. lf(2). 5. 10. '. 2326. 21. d = 0. (17) 15 + (14). 19. 23. 33. subtract their absolute values and . and the sum of the numbers divided by n. + 12. is 0. 18. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. Thus. c = = 5.3. 12. + (9). 5.  0. if : a a = 2. 4 is 3 J. the one third their sum. c = 4. 22. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 6 6 = 3. 24. is 2. . d = 5. (_ In Exs. of 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 4.16 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. = 5.
5.. 74. 1. . 10. 12. 31. 33. 3 and 25. 6. 66. 5 and 12. 55. are similar terms. 0. and 4. 7 a. = 22. $7000 gain. : and 1. affected by the same exponents. or and . = 23. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12.5. 32. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $3000 gain. 37. 7 yards. 6. and 3 a. 11 (Centigrade). . & 28. . 2. 39. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 4.ADDITION. 43. . 2. 35. and 3 F. and $4500 gain. ' 1? a 26. $500 loss. c=14. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. . \\ Add 2 a. . SUBTRACTION. 29.7. 41. $1000 loss. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 34. = 13. 4 F. . ^ ' 37. : 48.. 10. AND PARENTHESES d = l. and 3 a. : 34.4. 25. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. d= 3. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . 42. 7 a. 32. which are not similar.. & = 15. 6. c = 0. 60. 27. and 8 F. 36. 3. 13.3. sets of numbers: 13. }/ Add 2 a. and 3 yards. 10. 72. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 09. ' Find the average of the following 34. 30.13. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.7. 40. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 38.
EXERCISE Add: 1. + 6 af . The sum x 2 and f x2 . Vm f. 12 2 wp2 . Algebraic sum. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 2(af &). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 10.18 35. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2.sign. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 14 . 2 . 11. f 4 a2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2 a&. 13. 12Vmfn. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.13 rap 25 rap 2. or a 6. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 5Vm + w. 5l 3(af6). b a f ( 6). sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. in algebra it may be considered b. 3a . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term.ii. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 7 rap2. 5 a2 . : 2 a2. 9(af6). 12(af b) 12.
ADDITION. 6 23. 33. 2 2 2 31. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 21. c 2 ^24. without finding the value of each term 34. 35. is . SUBTRACTION. 2/ : Add. and to add each column. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 37. l^S 25. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 17. n x* 2 22. 2 7 1 26. 32. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. +m """ 20. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 30. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. a a8 ZL **. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. + y. 36. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 1 27. + / + 3 Va. ra 19.
3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 5 .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 9 q 4. e.c= 2. 3 a f 4 1) 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.12 a& 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 5. a 4. 2 Sum. c = 1.o c and 4. 2 .g. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. s. 4 2. to show any error. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. to add 26 ab . 6=2. and J 2 s. . 3.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 2c. 7 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.15 abc . = . and 2 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .15 6c. therefore the answer is correct. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. of that letter.20 c 5 ab 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 2 025.g. NOTE.3 s. 2 Thus. ft any convenient and c. 46 4z 7 c. f 110WS: 26 aft. .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .7 2 . x of x. . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . V3. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 3a 2? . 4 = 7.8 abc .41 = 3.
. and v 15. . . 2 3(c f a).3 mn 2 2 n8 .a.4:xy xz 6yz. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. SUBTRACTION.6.1 a 4 1 0. 2 a. e a4 /.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . a 4 a .Ga 43x45. + 50 + 62 .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .8 m 2m 12. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. and and 13. . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. and . and 8 3 . a 4 a . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . a2 a. 2 ?/. 3 2 2 3 9 .and 6. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 56 w. + a + 1.ADDITION.5a^6 f 6) .9(a + &) . a.15 5. 16e + 17/90. and 1 4 a . ^2 1 e. xy3xz + yz. 2 ?ft ?/z. 2 2 . 4 3 . 4. 4 ajy 17.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.5 cr& + 7 6 9. . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. ?/ .4 Va . 7ar + 3B 5.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . a) y ^/. 8.a.VS 4 2 Vc.12 6 ~5 a . m 4 6.12. . 4 Vc. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). d and / 3 ? 12.12(a 4. 11.(b + c) 1. 2 and 9m 48m 4.7v/if.a 4 a 4 1. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. in 8 3 m n 4. a2 2 14. . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 16.10 Vc. and 5 Vb 18.a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .7m .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 18/+6y + d. v/20. 2 2 and . d.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 4(a . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 19. 4 8 3 4 4 . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.2n 2 2 3 rz . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .1.
. 22. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. many negative units re main ? from 2.5< 3 2 s 4^4. and 2 24. 1. f number may be added 3.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 13 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 12 xyz. f 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. s . f 1.22 21.. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. how 1. + 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. . 1/ . is 2. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 8 . If you diminish a person's debts. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 8 f3f a n2<w +n .9aj 2.ra + m.4 2tn* Sic 2 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 45a6 2 .3^* 2n 2 . c 3 3 3 2 3 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . +d a.11 xy + 12. The sum and ? 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. and 25. and e + 6y . T8a. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. a 6 2 c. 6 f c 2 23. + n*. 1.
called the minvend. a. NOTE. In addition. from What 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. In subtraction. Or in symbols. 6 (3) = 8. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. To subtract. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. and the required number the difference. 41. This gives by the same method. ( 6) ( = . From 5 subtract to . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. +b 3. ab = x. 2. From 5 subtract + 3. SUBTRACTION. the other number is required.2. and their algebraic sum is required. two numbers are given. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence.3. the given number the subtrahend. 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . Ex. 5 is 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.g. if x Ex. . 1.ADDITION. 7. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.
Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check.3 r*5o. If x = l = 2 t .f 8 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8.
From 6(af. 45.a 2 j. 54. and 3 7/ . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 55. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 56. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.4 a^ 4. 48. 46. 47. of a 4. SUBTRACTION.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From From x2 the sum sum 7. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.c. 50.4 a*& + 6 a & . 6 6 2 2 ?/ .7 a . 2. 52. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 51. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .ADDITION.2.6)f. 2y 2 .w>t. From 2 a take a & j. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 6 4 a. 49. 53. check the answer.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 43. 44.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 41. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . c f d. 57.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 42. 58. + a the 2 a. tract 4 x 3.
~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . +a add the difference duce 13. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. a + 6. 2 m 21. a a + c. a 2y + z. 20. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.26 4. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 16. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 6. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. + 2. subtract # + 1. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. A is n years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 19. + 6 + c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. of # 2 8.15. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.
A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. a+(bc) = a +b . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.6 b f (.b c = a a & f f.g.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. I.2 b . SUBTRACTION. changed. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Ex. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. 46.c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.c. one occurring within the other. the sign is understood.a^6)]  } . 45. II.ADDITION.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. . & f c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.
9. 16. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].: Ex. Ex. 8. 2 2a. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 6.7i h jp) (m ?*. : x + (2yz). In the following expression inclose the second and third. 17. find the numerical value of { 1422 . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2 2 2 a(. 3. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. ? 11. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a (a + 6). a (a + 26 c ). 271 + (814 . may be inserted according to 43.(a + 6). 21.[271 47. 5.y (60. 18. + (2a 6 + c ). a f (a a .)]. 13. 6) 2.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 2a (4a 26 +c ). m f ft) a. 15.1422) J ] . 4. (m a2 f. 2. Signs of aggregation 1.) 5 . . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).+ 6)f (a2 b). 3 3 f 7. 14. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. By removing parentheses. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 19. [36+ (a 2c].
SUBTRACTION. ' NOTE. 9. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 6.ADDITION.7fa. )X 6. of the cubes of m and n. y f 8 .4 y* . The product The product m and n. 4. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. difference of the cubes of n and m. 6 diminished . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 3. The difference of a and 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5 a2 2. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. p + q + rs. and the subtrahend the second. a\l> > c + d. terms 5. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 12. 3. m and n. . 5^2 _ r . The square of the difference of a and b. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. m x 2 4. 10. z + d. 7. 13. 2mn + 2q3t. 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 8. II. The sum^)f m and n. 7.1. first. 5.2 tf .
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. (Let a and b represent the numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6.30 14.) . 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . d. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 16.
3. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 2. what force is produced by the Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 5. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads what What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 4. If the two loads balance. weights. force is produced therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads balance. two loads balance. therefore. A A A 1. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.
and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Thus. such as given in the preceding exercise. ( (. however. (. x 11. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. the multiplier is a negative number. 5x(4). .9) x 11. thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.4)(. becomes meaningless if definition. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. To take a number 7 times. 48. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. NOTE.32 8. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4 multiplied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4x(3)=12. 4 multi44444 12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 x ( 11). or plied by 3. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Practical examples^ it however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. (5)X4. 9 9. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.
6. z s 11 aWcx. 4. 3 aW. 15. b = 3. 8 4 .3.3) (1) 7 2 . 5. 24. 19. of Signs: TJie positive. (. . 8 31. X(5). the parenthesis frequently omitted. If a cal = 4a6c. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 12. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . x. Ua b 28. 17. 11. (2) 8 (. 1. c = 25.MULTIPLICATION 50. (4)X(15). 8. find the numeri values of: 21. 27. 2a6 c . 3.(a&c) 2 2 .2f 18. etc. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 10. 20. 7. 30. 3 a2?/2 . 32. 13. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 5x3. 29.7. 26. _2.2.4. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. is 6x7. 1.a)( =+ a&. tors is no misunderstanding possible. and y = 4. NOTE. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 14. .2 f+x 2 . (10) 4 . . 16. (c#) . (7) X (12). x= 0. 6. about fac (2)X If 6.(4J). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. . (4)'. . 2a 2 6c. 6 2. (2)x9. 23. _3. 4 a2 . 4 . _2^ 3. 9. 3. Law Thus. +5. 2. 22.
11.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 5 . = 2. 5(711. 2.3). 6 aWc x . . a= 1. By 3 definition. 6 = . 5 = 2. 100. 3. m*. a8 a=2. + 2/).(2. &*) c d*. 3 2 . 4. 6" 127 U . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 2 3 . fl*" integers.2). Ex. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 2(14. 5. 6 = 1. 50(112.  2 2. 4. 200. 2(7.2 2 23 + 5 . 9 .6 if 35. 17. 53.7. 5 3 5 3 2 . IB. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. . 14. 3. 2 2 3 6 .e. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. i. . & = 3.<?. . 13. a 2 2 . 6. 7. 127  127 9 7 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 16.  and 2 25 8 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . of the factors. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.m a 3  4 . 4. 12 U U . B. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. a = 3.(7).. 1. Ex. a = 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 36. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.(12) . 34. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 10.. 78 . (a6) (a5) 9. 2 2 2 . . =2 a *.503).35). 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . : 3a7abc. 2.257). or 2 . 3 3 4 . This 52.
17(10041042). . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. /). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. . 34. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.7pqt.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 7p*q r*. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). (. 2(5fl5f25). 28. 2 32. . by first multiplying. 5. 11(3.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .4a#. . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 2(645410).6.A). 4. 22. 6. ) 2 33. 12( + 1 4 i). 21. 20. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. This principle. and then adding : 1. 29. . . c(4a ftc ). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 3(124342). 25.3 win ) . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . multiply each by the monomial. 23(10004100420). (. 19. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 27. 3. 7. If results ft.7 w'W (8 n^W). 24.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 6(10420430). 35 4 7(6. _4aft.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . but we shall assume it for any number. 26. 31. 23. 35.2 3 aft ).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . called the distributive law.f 2). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.
. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 23. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 9. 30. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.5 w*V f 7 wn). 2 27. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 17. 19. 20. By what 25. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .3 aftc). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). : expression must 24. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. be multiplied to give 4o. f7a.2 mn(9 mV .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5).we b) (x law. 29.6 a6). 2 2 16. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).5 x 7).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 22. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.^ c + 2 . 3 ). ~2mn(m +n p ). 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 28. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .asa product. 11. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 21. Find the factors of 6 ary . 7 a 6 c(. . .60 a& 10 aft. . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 2 m(mhn \p). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 12. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 26.
1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Multiply 2 + a a. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Ex. Since errors. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 2 + a8 . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Check. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a . the student should apply this test to every example. a2 + a8 + 3 .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. however. To multiply two polynomials. 2. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 59.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 a .4.
(6a~7) 2 . (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.4) (mnp 4. 26. 2  37. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (4a 2 33.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. l)(raf 2). (a 2a + 2)(a3). a 5c)(2a6c). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 12. * For additional examples see page 261. 2) (3 A: 1).1 . 20. 6. 9. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4 2). 12)(a?^2l). (8r7*)(6r39. I (mfn)(m4. (2 x* x 2 . 29. 4. 16. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 8. 25.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 2. 36. 32. .4) (x + 1). 3. 17. 36). 15. 10. 36) I) 14. 18.2m)(l m). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 35. ^ 2 . 2 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (2w 19. 11. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (a^26) . (6p (2 f 21. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 13. . 31. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 3<7). 1). (13 A.2). 7. QQ O7. 24. 5. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 22. OQ OO. 30. 28. 7y). 41. 40. (6i7n)(llJn).
75 ab f 54 ft . plus the product of the two unequal terms. 8. _3)(a _4). 13.!!)( (a + 21). 7.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (6 12) (6 f. (a3)(a + 2).e. i. 2 a? 29. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 26. (a (a (a. 22. (J 23. 25. 10. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 24. 3. . 2) (1000 + 3).13). 12. 2 6) (a 3 6). i. 11. + 60)(f2). 20. X 102. 1005x1004. in of the two unequal terms.2 6) (a f 6). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 1) (10 + 2). (a 9) (a + 9). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 15. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. : 23 2. (10+ (1000 (2. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 14. . (a 102 x 103. 6. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (ra. (!)(* 5).25)(y+4). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 19. 21. (*. (p12)(p + ll). 27. + 3) (a 7). 17. 9. plus the product 62. 28. . The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.4). + 9)(m+9). + 2) (a f 3).n)(wf w). 18. ft 16. 25 a 2 . (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 5) (1000 + 4).e.
second. i. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.30.66 s. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. plus sum of two numbers the square II. .e. (a26) 2 . p 2 p. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 2 5. . 34. 7 a + 10. (x+3i/) 2 . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 63. : 24 (a 2. 33. w 2 ro . a2 2 w + 2 w . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. n2 10ii+16. 9. III.e. 49 y*. 37. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.15. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . III. 8. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . <J>7) J . 77ie square of the of the first. Ex. of the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 .15.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 6 a + 8. 35.e. + 3) 2 . 3. plus the square of the second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. (a2) (p a . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 31. 6. 32. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 7. i. . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. and the second. 4.
16aW25. 17. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 51. ( 27. 38. 44. 18. (1000 2 . 99x101. 46. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 33. 991 2 2 . 45. 2 . By actual multiplication. 35. I) 2 . 42. . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). (2x3yy. 31. 25 a 9. 15. 24. 23. (6afy 2 5) (a.998 39. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). (20 f 1) . 47. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 J ). 7& ) 25. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 49. n*6n+9. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). a2 9. m 2 16. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 21. + 5)(5+a). (^. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 22 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. 12. . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 104 2 37. 32. 9 a2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. n 2 f4n+4. 55. 4 53. . 2 . 2 2 . 34. 48. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. + 5). 14. 998x1002. 40. 52. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 41 16. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 . 22.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 29. 28.MULTIPLICATION 10. + 3z) 2 2 . . 103 36. ). 54. G> +5g)*.30 ab + 25 6 64. 62 25n 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (100 + 2) (100 2). 11. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . The product of 57. 41. 2 11 # ) 2 20.
9. (5a4)(4al). 11. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 14. 6. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ((5a? (10 12. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). plus the last terms. 2 10. 5. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). sum of the cross products. or The student should note minus signs. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 8. 7. 65. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (2a3)(a + 2). : 25 2. (3m + 2)(ml).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 13. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. ) (2 of a polynomial. (4s + y)(32y). 3. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.& + c) = a + tf + c . (100 + 3)(100 + 4). The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). (5a64)(5a&3). . 4. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.
Ex. 6(a 2.4) . 7. 3.39. 6~2(a + 7).3) .5).[a? . 5. 2)6. Hence. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).X2 + 2 x . 7.8 x + 15] . 3. 13. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 8. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.39. Check. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.(>. 4y sf n) 2 .29. (  2 4) =  20 a.(x . = . a. n).r _ 2 . 9. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.3) (x .(= [ Xa + 2 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 4. of z : 10. (xy+z)*. (u4& + 3c'. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. + 6)( . and check the answers !. after multiplying the factors of a term. If x = 1.4) .(m 2 6. Find the square root 11. (a (.y? + 8 . 2 2. 66. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.5) = (7 . 12.1 5 = 10 . + 65) .24] . 8. 4(aj2)h3(7). 6. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). = 10 x .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 4(* + 2)5(3). 5.3)(z. 4.i2&c) 2 .24 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
2). 51 15. 18. Division of the difference of two squares. .l. (81 m + 1 . 16.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . a I.DIVISION 14. 20.11 a + 9 a . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .e. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 19. . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). . v/17.
4 b.000. aW 12 a. 10. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 121a a 16 100 11. . : the following w a 4 !. 1. 16.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 9& 2 . 14. .49.0001. r/ 1. 100ry. 16 . 15. f 13. 12.
x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. the first member is 2 x + 4. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . (a + ft) (a b) and b. Thus. 82. 83. . . An identity is an equation of the letters involved.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. is said to satisfy an equation. =11. 81. in the equation 2 x 0. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. second member is x + 4 x 9. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.
If equals be multiplied by equals. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 89. one member to another by changing x + a=. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 5. the remainders are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . E. . 2. the sums are equal. If equals be divided by equals.54 84. NOTE. x I. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the quotients are equal. a. If equals be subtracted from equals.e. the products are equal. Transposition of terms.g. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be added to equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.b. 85. 4. A 2 a. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 3. 87. called axioms 1. 86. 90. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. To solve an equation to find its roots.2. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the divisor equals zero. 2 = 6#f7. but 4 does not equal 5. . A term may be transposed from its sign. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.
x = 93. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 2(11 . . 4x 1 + 6. if 55 x members.8.2 y= f .2. Transposing.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . a? Adding 5 to each term. b c. The first member. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. x = (Axiom 3) 92. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 3 y . x = 3. Unite similar terms. 2 x = 6. Check.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Dividing by Check. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.6 y f y\ .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 6a5 = 185 = 13. The first member. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Subtracting 4 x from each term. is correct. if a x = b. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. To solve a simple equation. Uniting similar terms. 91. and the known terms to the second. (4y)(6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Uniting. Ex. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Hence the answer. f If y 20 . The second member. b Adding a to both + a. a= a 6fc.
17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. a. etc. 4a + 5 = 29. 11 ?/ a? 18. 16. 7 (6 x 16). 2. . and check the answers 9. 7a? 5. Uniting. If x = 18. x x 1 . 8.17 + 4y = 36. 20. 247y = 68lly.. 14. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. x = 18. 15. 11. \x x 2^xfl.7. 7. 24. Solve the following equations by transposing. 13a? 3a?. 3 7 a. Transposing. 6. it NOTE. 50. a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 21. a? a?. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. + 22. 4.69. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 19. {(x (x The The member right member left . 13 y 99 = 7 y. J. 32 = 264. aj * See page 264. =2 = 3. 3. = 7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 9 9a? = 7 13. 3. = 5a?+18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 14y = 59(24y + 21). . = 3. 17 7 a. f Simplifying. : 5# = 15+2a. 17 + 5a.56 Ex. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 12.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. = 2 ?/. a?. 22. v23. 4y 10.. Dividing by Cfcecfc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).7a: = 394a.
3) + 14.5(2 u . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 25. 7) (a. 31. e. 41.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 5) (as (a. a? 28.3) + .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 42.1) (u . 36.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. + 7) (. 30. . (6 u =5 44. . a? 43. . 7(7 x y 26.g. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . or 70 a?.12) (2 + 5) . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 2 2 * Jaj.32. + 4). 39. is the other part.2) (M .5) = (a. find the other part. .5) + 199.3) .7. : One part is of 70 is 25 . (aj 37. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 27. . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. . 34.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 35. .7) (7 x + 4) . 38. 40. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. Evidently 45.4) + 4 w . 6(6a.1 0) = 0. (a.14 = 0. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 33. 29.(2 + 6) (4 . this question.
If 7 2. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. is a? 2 is c?. 33 2. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . Divide a into two parts. 9. is d. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 14. so that of c ? is p. and the smaller one parts. 1. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 17. greater one is g. one part equals is 10. Divide 100 into two 12. 7. 15. 10. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 6. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 4. EXERCISE 1. one yard will cost 100 dollars. find the cost of one yard. 11. smaller one 16.58 Ex. is b. a. Find the greater one. or 12 7. 13. 6. so that one part Divide a into two parts. so that one part The difference between is s. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. Ex.
amount each will then have. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 28. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. A dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many cents had he left ? 28. and spent 5 cents. numbers is x. Find 21. is A A is # years old. A man had a dollars. find the has ra dollars. sum If A's age is x years. 20. How many years A older than is B? old. 32. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. 33. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. ?/ 31. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 19. 34. and c cents. and B has n dollars. and B is y years old. 24. b dimes. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents has he ? 27. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and B's age is y years. 26.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. A feet wide. 22. find the of their ages 6 years hence. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex.
. The first pipe x minutes. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. m is the denominator. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. he walk each hour ? 39. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A cistern is filled 43. find the fraction. 49. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 46. 48. Find a 47. A was 20 years old. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. of 4. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. % % % of 100 of x.50. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find a. a. c a b =  9. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. of m. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find the number. . in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. Find x % % of 1000." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ).
of a and 10 equals 2 c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The double as 7. same result as 7 subtracted from . by one third of b equals 100. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. c. 4. a exceeds b by c. 80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The excess of a over b is c. 80. c. of x increased by 10 equals x. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 6. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. etc. 5. 2. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. double of a is 10. 9. 3. of a increased much 8. 8 b ) + 80 = a . a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words.
a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 11. A gains $20 and B loses $40. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's ages will be 100. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 12. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. #is5%of450. they have equal amounts. amounts. x 4 If A. they have equal of A's. B's. (c) If each man gains $500.. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 18. symbols B. 6 % of m. 14. is If A's age is 2 x. and C's age 4 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 3 1200 dollars. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 50 is x % of 15. a second sum. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. >.62 10. 16. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. In 10 years the sum of A's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. express in algebraic 3x : 10. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.000. B. as 17 is is above a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. m is x % of n. B's. . A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. of 30 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. pays to C $100. x is 100 x% is of 700. B's age 20. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. sum equals $20. 17.
In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. . NOTE. Ex. Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. much as 40 exceeds the number. denote the unknown 96. In 15 years 10. Check. 4 x = 80. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 2. number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. the required . number of yards. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In order to solve them. 1. the . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. x+16 = 3(35). Transposing. Dividing. Uniting. 15. Uniting. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). A will Check. x = 20. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Find A's present age. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. but 30 =3 x years. Three times a certain no. Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. etc. Let x = the number. Simplifying. be 30 . 23 =30. 6 years ago he was 10 . x= 15. 3z40:r:40z.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 4. 13. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *.64 Ex. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. A will be three times as old as toda3r . How long is the Suez Canal? 10. by as much as 135 ft. 3. How many miles per hour does it run ? . % of 120. exceeds the width of the bridge.2. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. EXERCISE 1. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 5. Hence 40 = 46f. . twice the number plus 7. Dividing. Forty years hence his present age. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 11. Find the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find 8. A number added number. 300 56. Find the number. 120. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Let x 3.
A and B have equal amounts of money. 65 A and B $200. F 8. Find the population of Maine in 1800. which gives the value of 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. 14. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and as 15. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. During the following 90 years. If A gains A have three times as much 16. times as much as A. statements are given directly. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. B How will loses $100. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Ex. . The problem consists of two statements I.000. The other verbal statement. 1. five If A gives B $200. x.000. How many dol A has A to $40. 97. the second one. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. written in algebraic symbols. and B has $00. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. Vermont's population increased by 180. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. two verbal statements must be given. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. B will have lars has A now? 17. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. is the equation. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.
Dividing. 25 marbles to B. . in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. If A gives are : A If II. has three times as many marbles as B. 8 = 11. A will lose. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Statement x in = the larger number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as many as A. 2x a? x j = 6. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the smaller number. Let x 14 I the smaller number. unknown quantity in Then. consider that by the exchange Hence. Uniting. = 3. The two statements I. the greater number. If we select the first one. 8 the greater number. . = 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. A has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles. / . 2. which leads ot Ex. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x = 8. x 3x 4 and B will gain. Then. x x =14 8. terms of the other. I. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Let x 3x express one many as A. < Transposing. . Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as viz. and Let x = the Then x +. + a f f 8 = 14. to Use the simpler statement. = A's number of marbles. = B's number of marbles. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method.
Dividing. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. dollars and dimes is $3.75. 45 . Uniting. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. and the Find the numbers. Dividing. B's number of marbles. w'3. then.$3. The sum of two numbers is 42.240. the number of dimes. Uniting. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). . x = the number of half dollars. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Check.5 x . etc. Simplifying. The number of coins II. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The value of the half : is 11. 1. 2. x = 6. Let 11 = the number of dimes.550 f 310. (Statement II) Qx . 11 x = 5.. the number of half dollars. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Find the numbers. Eleven coins.. Simplifying. 50. 15 + 25 = 40.25 = 20. Check. greater is . of dollars to the number of cents. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 3 x = 45. Two numbers the smaller. the price.10. * 98. is 70. 40 x . cents. x from I. 50 x Transposing. . by 44. 60. Find the numbers. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. x = 15. 3.10. consisting of half dollars and dimes. have a value of $3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. A's number of marbles. but 40 = 2 x 20. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. * ' . differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 6 times the smaller.10.
of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 7. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley. On December 21. one of which increased by 9. the number. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and twice the altitude of Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Twice 14. and four times the former equals five times the latter. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. United States. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance.. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 5. Find their ages.68 4. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 11. as the larger one.000 feet. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. A's age is four times B's. Two numbers The number differ by 39. 9. How many 14 years older than B. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many volcanoes are in the 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. tnree times the smaller by 65. 6. Everest by 11. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum.
try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. = 48. 8(8 + 19) to C. and B has three as A. are : C's The three statements A. original amount." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. and C together have $80. If A and B each gave $5 to C. bers is denoted by x. number had. The third verbal statement produces the equation. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. Ex. If A and B each gave $5 to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. B. II. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. . x = 8. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. If 4x = 24. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. has. III. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the money by I. has. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. I. and 68. number of dollars A had. B has three times as much as A. 19. Let x II. 1. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. they would have 3. B. and C together have $80. times as much as A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99.
The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 4 x f 8 = 28. + 8 90 x and. x j = the number of horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and each sheep $ 15. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. III. 1 1 Check. number of sheep. the third five times the first. 9 5 = 4 . The total cost equals $1185. Dividing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and. and Ex. 9 cows. sheep. Uniting. cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. + 35 x 4. 28 2 (9 5). 2. first.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. each cow $ 35. 185 a = 925. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. number of horses. x f 4 = 9. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. each horse costing $ 90. according to III. Let then. The I. 90 may be written. = the number of dollars spent for cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x = 5. = the number of dollars spent for horses. according to II. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. three statements are : IT. and the sum of the . number of cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. x Transposing. number of cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185.
13. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. how many children were present ? x 11. men.  4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. first. what is the population of each city ? 8. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. equals 49 inches. and the sum of the first and third is 36. what are the three angles ? 10. New York delphia. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. what is the length of each? has 3. v . 9.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and children together was 37.000. twice as old as B. and 2 more men than women.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A 12. "Find three is 4. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the third 2. twice the 6. increased by three times the second side. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 7. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000. The gold. women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the copper. If twice The sum the third side.
Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. First fill in all the numbers given directly. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. = 35.000.g. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 8 x = 15.000.000 more than that the copper. we obtain 3 a. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. The copper had twice the value of the gold. or time. 3 and 4.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Dividing. speed. Hence Simplifying. width. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of miles A x x walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. After how many hours will they meet and how E. but stops 2 hours on the way. and quantities area. A and B apart. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. = 5. 14. number of hours. . i.e. Find the value of each. of 3 or 4 different kinds. how many 100. Let x = number of hours A walks. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. 7 Uniting.000. such as length. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and distance. together.
were increased by 30 yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800. z = 20. l." gives (2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 2 a = 40. . .06 = $ 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.M(x . Check. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.01 = = . and the width decreased by 10 yards. 10 x = 200. x . Multiplying. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. or 700. $ 800 = 800. 2   and transpose. the second 100.053.04 8. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. 70x10 Ex. Find the dimensions of the field. $ 800 = required sum.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x + 200). original field has Check. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. + 8. But 700 certain = 800 2.04 = $ 40. $ 1000 x . the area would be 100 square yards less. x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.05 x x . Transposing and uniting.
Ten yards $ 42. A man bought 6 Ibs. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. the area would remain the same. A of each. What are the two sums 5. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. invested at 5 %. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. as a 4. Find the share of each. 2. sions of the field. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. of coffee for $ 1. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and a second sum. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. mobile. twice as large. Six persons bought an automobile. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. 1. together bring $ 78 interest. and its width decreased by 2 yards. were increased by 3 yards. but four men failed to pay their shares. A sets out later two hours B .55. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %. After how many hours will B overtake A. 3.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. but A has a start of 2 miles. After how many hours. and from the same point. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. A and B set out direction. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
expression is rational with respect to a letter. An after simplifying. at this 6 2 . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. irrational. consider 105. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. f db 6 to b. a. 6. as. if. stage of the work. a. vV . if it does contain some indicated root of . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a2 to 6. this letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. we shall not. + 62 is integral with respect to a. but fractional with respect 103. it is composite. it contains no indicated root of this letter . which multiplied together are considered factors. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. 104. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 76 . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 5. An expression is integral with respect to a letter.
55. 107. or that a = 6) (a = a . x.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 1. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . for this result is a sum. 109. in the form 4) +3. . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Divide 6 a% . 2. Ex.g. E. 2. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. Factor G ofy 2 .3 sy + 4 y8).) Ex. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. y. it follows that a 2 .3 6a + 1). 77 Factoring is into its factors.FACTORING 106. ?/. 8) (s1). Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 110. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).62 + &)(a 2 . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . . TYPE I. It (a. factors of 12 &V is are 3. x. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 01. 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.62 can be &).
7a & 10. obviously.5 + 2. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 14a 4 5.3.12 cdx. 2 Or. 11. ) 22  2. 13. : 6 abx . .2.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 20. 3 3 5 6. a6c. 12. (as 3) and (ccf5). 2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. a a 'Ja . 8. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 3.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 3x*6x*.g. 3 2 . e. 2 23.3. 5f 2 . 15 2 7. 14. 2 + q.5 + 13 8. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.4. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . Ilro8 9. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.45 afy . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. in general.4. .6. 7i 13. 4. 4 8 . 16.51 aW + 68 21. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 32 a *?/ . 15.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. + llm llm. q*q*q 2 a. 34 a^c 8 . 2 2 . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 17. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 19. 2 6. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.30 aty.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .8 c a 15 ofyV . 4 tfy f. TYPE IT. 18.
tfa2  3.4 . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.30 = (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x .. + 30 = 20. or 7 11.5) (a 6). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. can be factored. and (a . . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor + 10 ax . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. however. + 112. Factor a2 . . or 77 l. of this type. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. as p. 77 as the product of 1 77.a). 2. Therefore Check. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. m 5m + 6.1 1 a tf a 4.11 a 2 . If q is negative. . Ex. the two numbers have opposite signs. Ex. 3.11) (a + 7). a 2 . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Factor x? . 4. is The two numbers whose product and 6.FACTORING Ex.77 = (a.11. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.6 = 20. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). determine whether In solving any factoring example. 2 6.5) (a .4 x . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. If q is positive. 5.11 a + 30. 11 7. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. We may consider 1.G) = .
factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . a2 . + 4?/21. a? + 5 + 6 a. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 27.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . a 2 +11 a a? 16. ra + 25ra + 100. or . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 4 2 . . 8.180 a. . 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 2 2 a' 34. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 30. 2 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 2 . TYPE 113. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 16.500 x + 600. 25. + 5<y 24.6.70 x y . 33. x2 23. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 21 a 2 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 15. + 2xS.48 + + 446 200. 14. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 44. 2 . 35. 36. 2 ?/ 22. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 19. ay 11 ay +24. 29. 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 21. a 7 a 30.80 7. 12. 13. 24. 17. 2 ?/ 28. 16. 31. 20. 11. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ITT. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 32. 9. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 100 xr . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 18. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. and 5 x.17 + 30. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. . 26. 4 3 2 .
FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .5) (2 x . 9 x 6. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. sible 13 x negative. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 18 x 3. viz.83 x f 54. and that they must be negative. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. . and r is negative. X x 18.1). Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 27 x 2.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. then the second terms of have opposite signs. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. or G 114. a. Factor 3 x 2 . 3 x and x. but the opposite sign.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. the If p and r are positive. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.5 . 2 x 27. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 6 x 9. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 11 x 2x. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. If p is poxiliw. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. the signs of the second terms are minus. 3.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 2. Ex. 54 x 1.
22. 35. 30.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 144 x . . 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 9a.83 x . 18.y + 172/9. the expressions should be it.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . : 41 2.19 a f 6.260 xy . 7. 15. 12y 2/6. and the monomial factors should be removed. 10a2 G a2 2 . 14 a fa 4.30 y 6 4 . 2 28.83 x = (3 . 2 fc . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 3. 34. 9 y + 32^16. + 4.179.7. 16. 100^200^ + 100^.27). . 19. 10.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 4a2 9tt + 2. f go. 6. 17.2) (x . 13. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2m t7w + 3. 29. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 10a?2 2 33. 14. X 27 . 20.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 .163 x 2 . 11. 4. 25. 2x* + 9x5. 8. 12^17^16. since all others (II. 2 2 2 23. 24. 2. 2 2 2 . 12. 3x*Sx + 4. + 2/3. 3a + 13a.2 a 90 x*y . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2 26. 5. x54 a. . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 32. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 31. 90 a 8 2 . 10 a . 9. Sar' + SaG. 21. 6n + 5?i4. 5m 26m f 5.
of its terms are perfect squares. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.e. and a perfect square. . 2 9 10gf25. 14. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. x* . 12. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . it is more convenient for that type. square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 8. 2 . it is a perfect square.10 x f 16. form are special cases of the preceding type. 9 10a625. 13. 25 7. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 4. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.26 ab + 9 6 2 . however. . 10. 6. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 2. 2 2 . 116. 3. must have a positive sign.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. and factor whenever possible : 1. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 16 y? The student should note that a term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 5.20 xy f 4 y\ . i. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. To factor a trinomial which maining term. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 11. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 9.
Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 1. +( )f816 30.3 * ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. a. . V.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 29. 4 2 23. 9. 3. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 16&*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 9a2 .20 ab + 10 b a . 3. 25. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2 . aV . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. * 2 . 149 a 81 8. TYPE 117. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 6 2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). a. 2 . 17. 6.64 6 = 16(a .84 15.e. u2 6& + 2 ( ). + GO + 25. ). 48 a +( ). 2 .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 2. ^//c to the Ex. product i. 225 ofy . 2. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 27. 18. 4a2 l. 26. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . prime. 19. 5. 36 2 4. 16.60 a# + 4. ). According to 65. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 10 a 2 4 2 . a2 24. .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.6 m* + 9 m.2 ofy + ofy m . 7. 22.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2 20.
5. Ex. 11. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 14. 13. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . of polynomials. (m7?) y. 9.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . T. 4. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.d) 2 . Ex. a2 . a:) 12. 2. 2. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 8. Factor a 2 .(I) .c .(c 4. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 6. 16p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. One or both terms are squares 1. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 36> . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.
2. a? 11. 12. ive find that the new terms con common factor.VI. 9. . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.ab + bx. 2.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.1. 10. Ex.r. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. By grouping. a5 + ab 6 . x8 . 4 B. 1. + x + 2x + 2. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 6. a 26 2 2 3 . which may be factored according to types I. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 7. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 119. 5) .14.and trinomials.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.2 ) (3 x . 4:cx .a a .7 c + 2c .6z2 + 5 = z2 (.y + 2 2). polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. Ex. = (3 x + y . 8. A. ma ?*a + m& nb. After grouping tain a the terms. 5. 3.
12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. : 46 x* 2. 4 a2 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 2 7. = (a + 6)(a6). + 2xy + y*q*. 3. 8. 2a3/ 7. 4. . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2. Arranging the terms. 6.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. w m 2. 3. 4. 5.4 f . +c+ 2 2 2/ . II. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. . 8. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 aaj 4 6y.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6 6.l. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 36 9 m . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. IV. $ a8 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. l~a 2a56 2 2 .FACTORING Ex. 8ra 2 + 16. : m 2 2 16. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.
19. 22. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 28. a6 36. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 25. 2 ft . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . . + 6 aft + 3 . 27. 12.24.88 10. 4 8 tt 2 z . a + a + a + l. 30.310 x . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .40. 50^ + 45. 42 s 2 . 3 2 . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 42 x . 80 a 2 ft 38. 18. 32. a. (^ 34. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.13 c . 13 c . 5 a. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 a 128. 4 a. a3 156. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 5a' 20. 13. 35. 48. 3 a2 23. 29. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 3 41. 11. 14. 24. 25 a + 25 aft . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. + 14.156. 40. or 3 7#2 . (a. 2 17. 2 3#4 3a2 36.
F.) of two or more . 122. C. 2 2 . of : 48 4. aW. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 25 W. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 5 2 3 . The H. 5. .  23 3 . 24 s . The H. are prime can be found by inspection. Thus the H. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . 8 . F. The student should note H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 6. of aW. of the algebraic expressions. C. 5 7 34 2s . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 3 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . II 2 . F. 15 aW. 121. expressions which have no are prime to one another. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. EXERCISE Find the H. C. 5 s 7 2 5. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 89 . F. C. F. 12 tfifz. Two common factor except unity The H. 2. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. F. 3. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. F. of 6 sfyz. 54  32 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. F. The highest is common factor (IT. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .
2a f5af 2. = x 2 y. a3 16 a. aWd. 57 a>V.6 . ^707 + 12. of + 4 if. 10. 3. .90 7. . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 9. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 8. 2. of polynomials. 65 zfyV. 8(?/ifl) 14. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.?/ . 12. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 9.6 a&. (a7 ?/) . 52 oryz4. 15 3ao. 6(m+l) (m+2). 12 . 24 a 2 . 3). 14. Ex.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 9 aj*(a? . Find the H.# 4 afy f 4 . 10. F. 13.5 y).5 x3?/ 2 6.y) . a3 9a.^9. 12.6. C.12 as 66 . ^a + 5^ + 6. 4(m+l) 3 . 38 #y. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). C. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . of: . 6 mx .2 y) (a. 3 . F. To find the H.8 a + 16. C. 49 C. 1.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . F.y)\ O+ 0^(0. . 2 . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.y) 123. F. 16. ^2 2 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 11. 16 a . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. y + 3y64. 11. 13. 7. 12 w*nw 8.y + y42.2 ?/) (x . . 15. . a2 ar* 4. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 2 . 8. a2 + 2a3. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 6 a2 y? . 2 . 225 4a 9 . 4 ?io. ^f a. a 3a4. x* x2 Hence the H. 1. and apply the method of the preceding article. 8 6. 0^80:416. 5. 8 a 10 . 6 3 a.5 + 6. 95 2/V. a2 . 2 . 25 m27i. 3^ 2 4 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a2 + 7af!2. a. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.
2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C.6 3 ). L. C. NOTE. of several expressions which are not completely factored. A common remainder. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of 3 aW. Ex. of the general. . M. etc. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. ory is the L. To find the L. Ex. 1. C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. 60 x^y' 2 .6)2.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.M. C. 127. M.C. 2. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . thus. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. of tfy and xy*. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . but opposite . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 2 The The L. 126. L. C. 300 z 2 y.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. . M. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . &) 2 M. Find the L. M. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . M of the algebraic expressions. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. a^c8 3 . which also signs. The lowest common multiple (L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Hence the L.M. Common 125. C.C. 128. Find the L. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). two lowest common multiples. The L.
20. 5. M. 17. by. 3 ab. 14. b 2 . ic 23. afc'cd 2 . 6b 2 . or f 3 a 15 #. f b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. x* ~5a. 2 a . a2 4. 3 6 xif. 24. 4 a . ic 2 ?/. 18. 7. 4 a f 2. 2 . a^1. 40 abJ. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 6. 3 f2. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. x 2 5 a. 11. 5 a? 5 a? y. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 7ic+10. 16. a?b. . 3 . (a 4)(a2) 12. 8 d 5 . 8 afy. 1. + 2 7i) . 15. 21. 2(m 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 24 x. afy. 3. + 2.1. 22. a. 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a& 4 +& 2 .1. xy\ . a { a~b. + 6. 3(a + b). a !. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 13.f 6. 2 a. 6 y. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . 9. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. T a 3 a 2 . #. 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. 2. 4 a 5 6cd. Find the L. 8. 2 x \2 y. 2 a . of: 4. a. 20 9 a. a. 30 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 3. G a. a 1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a 2 fa6. x2 + 4 a f 4. 6 a. a f 3. a f 2 19. 2 10. ) . y*. a 2 a3 . 3 Z> . a2 ~ab 1.
successively all 2 j/' .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. but we In arithmetic. Ex. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. A f fraction is b. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. a?. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. etc. rni Thus 132. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. however. as 8. C. 130. F. and denominators are considered. an indicated quotient. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .ry ^ by their H. Remove tor. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. 131. a b = ma mb . Thus. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic.
and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.4) Ex. Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. cancel factors only. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.
~__ 9n _ 22 9. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . .. . .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 29. ^" a. 5^10 y 30. g J 21. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 11 ^ Mtr f . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 9x + "a" 10. LJZJ^JL. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*.' 32.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. """. ny 4 18. 16.7 . 23. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 19. ^+3*. ^' rt ^  31. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.10 a + 3 2 14. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ' ^ .
96 134. 2> . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . of the denominators for the common denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x.M.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .  by 4 6' . multiplying the terms of 22 . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.  of //* 2 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. and (a 8). 1. we have the quotients (x 1).D. M.r 2 2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Reduce ^. . and 135. TheL. we may extend this method to integral expressions. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . + 3).C. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. take the L. C.M. . . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. 1). we have M^. by the denominator of each fraction. and the terms of ***. Divide the L. mon T denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. Ex.1^22 ' . C.3) (!)' = .
3. If the given fractions have different denominators.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. JL. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. .^1.. 5?. a? 1 5 > ^* . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 8 i i. j y 3. 74). . 18. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2. 137. 22 a2 5a * .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . o o a.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. common denominator 6.. . . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 7i 2 ab* ".T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2aj ~ . 2 ay IB.oj o* or / . i. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).
(a 2 6).3 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .g. C.3 ft 2). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . 2. the student should remember that parentheses are .ft) (a ft ft)~.2 ' 2 _.ft)(a .aft) Ca2 .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.. The L. D. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. ^ is 2^JT) . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . and adding. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a . as 4 aft f.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .2 = a(a . D. (a ft)..3 ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. 4(2 a 3 ft). e.7 . T? Ex. L. ft). in the beginning. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.
1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 6 c 3a 7. 46 2a 4a 12. j>0 i> 21. 5a76 4a 106 9. 23. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 1 f w 16. 18 v 19. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1 f q * 1 m m . 2.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 24.5 18 ^4f25. a 36 ++. + a "" 2 6 ' . a+6 a 6 2 14. 2L + 2a 1 17. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 15. A+2_3.
_ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 4 31. a ?^ 40. _ + a? ?/ + y. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 3a 9 +. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 1 34.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ! n. 2 af1 32. 41. ic 1 + 1. a 30. 43. a. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9. af 1f /j. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 42.9 79 6 2 i.
17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.  . Reduce .FRACTIONS 139. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. T.6 + 4x 4 x2 .7 5a v Ex. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . . 1. 101 mixed expression. .
or. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. !. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. F J Simplify . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. integer. Since  = a. we may extend any e. fractions to integral numbers.g.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. (In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .) Ex. 2. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. 2 a Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.
. .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. 5# 56 / c& 4. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 . 2 f 5 a. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.6 12 d6 4. 14. aj 5 1 a? 18.
The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. : a 41 ab * See page 272. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Divide Xn?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 144. To divide an expression by a fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 1. 8 multiply the Ex.
a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .^c 2 2 .FRACTIONS 105 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.afr 4. Ex. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. ga2 4 8 5 a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a a2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. or both.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 s + 064.5 ??i 80 50 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . l.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.10 ?/ _. are fractional. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .
C. c +6. . & . . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. y X 4* 2 y 3. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. M. i. 7i+~ 7. 9. the answer is directly obtained. of their denominators. Ex. . 6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.a ^c c _^ a . a m "" . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Simplify x }. 2. 10.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . n a 8.y 32 . JL. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. .
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18. o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) .
.14 (a. Transposing. a. = 6. these Ex. 1. 2 3. Clearing of fractions.8 x = . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 9x x Check. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Bx 12 Qx.48. 108 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.9 x2 + 9. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.l)(z + 3) = . each member is reduced to Ex. 4 4)  x.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . each member is reduced to 1. = 6. If x 6.28 x + 42 = . Uniting. 2z2a. x = 6. 148. M. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). tions. If = 64. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .42 + 9. of the denominator. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 2.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 5(3 85 Check. 2x Transposing. + 1) (a + 3) .28 a = 5 x2 .1. C.
18. a. ^' 2. ^1 = 9. 1 *> = 2. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. . +4 14. . 16.= 2. 15. +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. a: 7 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a/  5 a/ = 12. '  4 13.1 _77 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.
and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.  38 = 40. 4a4l4* + l~. . . y+3~2 29. . . 3x 35.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 32 6 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only._ _ . 31 31. If two or more denominators are monomials. 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. J_.11_4 x 149. 26 26. ?_=_. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 27 . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 33.
Transposing and uniting.. 5# 10.29 50712' 9 18 . = 9. 1. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 60. 26 a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. the 1 5 L. M. 24 a. Dividing. Check. C. . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. If a. a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.2 42 9 43.2 3 ~  == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5x x : = 9. each member is reduced to ^.  5 = 20 x 45.
jr. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. It frequently occurs that the x. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. = = 6 6c 7 6c.m bx 2 mn) x.1. they are united by factoring. Uniting the Dividing. 4 ac 1. = l^ 9 b 4 .2 62 2 ab. = 2 f b 2 . Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. f ~ 5c.& . 2.be.3 6 2 = a' . fr Reducing lowest terms. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . = 6 a2 .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. If 3ac L= = a ? . . =a 2 151.2 ac + 3 aft . a. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Dividing. y. find a in terms of b and c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Thus. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 5> a. Uniting. ax f x f. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex.
12. . 14. r the number of $>. s = Vt solve for v. in terms of other quantities. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). If s If 16.= c a Z> . = vt. and n the number of years. denoting the interest. c. solve for . 17. 2 solve for y a. q solve for/. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. p the principal. _ 2. 11. = 8 4 #. 30. a. = rt. If * 33. co?. 34. f P =+!. 10. . 4. 29. iw 21. + 3a. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. The The i time. 4. Ex. t. 31. If ^^ = a 1 32. 9. If s (wi n) x =px + q. m a? x .a. 3(* 8. 13. mx = n. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 6.i l . 1 f. 15. f ^o. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . .= H. solve for a. . 3. = 5. + xx = 1. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. * Solve the same equation for^). = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 5) is t =^.= n. = 3 (6 a). c 18. rate.
12. Multiplying by Dividing.114 35. 2. 2 3 . = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. Ex. then = 2 TT#. and 12 = the number over. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.. is 36. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. . = 16^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 1. x Or Uniting. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. .20 C. Find R in terms of C and TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.180. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. A would do each day ^ and B j. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 100 C.
Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. and the statement. 32 x = . 180 Transposing. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day." gives the equation /I). fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train." : Let x  = the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J. Solving. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80. the required number of days. in Then Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 3. Clearing.
are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and one half the greater Find the numbers. length in the ground. fifth Two numbers differ 2. a man had How much money had he at first? . and J of the greater Find the numbers. which was $4000. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9.  Find their present ages. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. by 3. money and $10. Find A's 8. ceeds the smaller by 4. How did the much money man leave ? 11. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. of his present age. to his son. is oO. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. by 6.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and 9 feet above water. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. is equal 7. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and of the father's age. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. 3. to his daughand the remainder. ex What 5. make 21. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water.
A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A has invested capital at more 4%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B in 4 days. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. what is the 14.) 22. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ^ at 5%. and it B in 6 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. 1. investments. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. after rate of the latter ? 15. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. . Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 2. what is the rate of the express train? 152. How much money $500? 4%. 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. air. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.
is 42. and apply the method of 170. A in 6. they can both do in 2 days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 25. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Hence. 3. B in 16. Ex. B in 5. 26. . e.= . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. . 2. B in 30. we obtain the equation m m . make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.e. To and find the numerical answer. is 57. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.118 153. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Then ft i. . A in 4. m and n. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. and n = 3.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. A in 6. n x Solving.009 918. B in 12.414. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. if B in 3 days. The problem to be solved. therefore.
is ?n . and how many miles does each travel ? 32. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 4J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21.001. is (a) 51. 33. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. squares 29. The one: 31. (d) 1. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot.000. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. and the second 5 miles per hour. the rate of the first. Find the side of the square. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. After how many hours do they meet. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. respectively (a) 60 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 3J miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. respectively. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. squares 30. 3 miles per hour. the second at the apart. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (b) 149. . meet. same hour from two towns. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.721. if m and n are.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and the rate of the second are. 34. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (c) 16. Two men start at the first miles apart.
the antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. In the ratio a : ft. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the denominator The the 157. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. a ratio is not changed etc. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. " a Thus. The first 156. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. b. the symbol being a sign of division. etc. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division." we may write a : b = 6. E. b is the consequent. Ex. 1.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b.g. 158. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Simplify the ratio 21 3. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. : : 155. antecedent. 6 12 = . the second term the consequent.5. .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .
: ay . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. $24: $8. 12. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. Transform the following unity 15. and c is the third proportional to a and . : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3:4. : 1. J:l. b is the mean b. 3. 3 8. 10. equal 2. 16. and c. 7f:6J. 16a2 :24a&. 8^ hours. extremes. 3:1}. 9. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. proportional between a and c. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 18. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 4. 62:16. 17. 61 : ratios 72:18. 1. 7:4 T T 4 . either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms.RATIO Ex. 11. b and c the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. The last first three. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. terms. 159. 27 06: 18 a6. a and d are the extremes. 5 f hours : 2. In the proportion a b : = b : c. b. 6. Simplify the following ratios 7. two  ratios. 4:5f : 5.
122 162. 2 165. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the other pair the extremes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. are : : : inversely proportional. !. 3 4. ad = be. of iron weigh 45 grams. 163. If (Converse of nq. : c. 164. of iron weigh . ccm. 163. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. i.30 grams. pro portional. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 6 ccm. The mean proportional of their product. of a proportion. : : directly proportional may say. q~~ n . is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. briefly. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. " we " NOTE.e.) mn = pq.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. then G ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Clearing of fractions. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. In any proportion product of the extremes. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.__(163. = 30 grams 45 grams. and the time necessary to do it.
. d d.) II. bd bd. ad ( 163. (Composition. Or IV. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. if 6 : 7. (Division.) a + b:a = c + d:c. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) (Called Alternation. 166. (163. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is 4$ = 35. (Frequently called Inversion. 1. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. + b:b = c + d:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. then =d c.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. hence the proportion true. I. 12x Hence a? = 42.) = f f = 3 J. = 35 . Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. is Ex.PATIO Ex. a III. 2. I. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. ad = be.) d 167. V. a:c=b:d.
to simplify 48:21=32:7x. = 20:7. 120:42 2 2 7. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. x = 2. = 12 5ft. V. the consequents by 7. 10. . Or III. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. E.e.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 6 =4 : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. IV. 5 5. Simplify the following proportions. . 5.!=!*. = 2:3. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 180:125. : x. 8. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 7:2f 3J. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 9. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.g. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.124 IT. mx tin Apply composition and division. Apply composition. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. i. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 4. 3. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 2:x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.
= 2 + x: x. = 5 x 12. and 2/. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 31. Find the 37. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 6 x = y. 20. 4. 14. 2. 6x = 7y.:ff. = 15o. to: = 35:*. = l^:18. a?:15 15. 39. w. 4 and 16. a 2 and ab. 03:a?=135:20. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.8:1. 18. 3t. ra. 3. 5. : . : a2 . 3. 12.j>. to : 9 and 12. 44.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 9 x = 2 y. 13. to : a and 1. 51. 2. rag. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 22. ratio of y. + fyx = cy. 28. mx = ny. 2= 5 x x. a.  32. 6. 2 a and 18 a. x:5 = y:2. . if : 40. 47. 52. 27. 14 and 21. : 53. rap. (a : : 45. x m = y n. 21. 33. 23. 25. 34. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. b. f. 16. 43. 7iy = 2:x.x: 6:5 a : x. ra 2 .. 35. Find the mean proportional 30. 46.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 1 and a. 29. 112:42 = 10:a. 41. 17. terra 2:3 = 4. = 3 43 + x. 50. Find the third proportional 24. 26. 5= 18 a? : a?. 16 and 28. 1. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. ra + landra 1. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 42. 2 3 = y #. 38.
126 54. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. what 58. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the : total cost. the area of the larger? the same. and the time necessary for it. 56. and the speed of the train. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the area of the rectangle.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . A line 7^. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).
x = 6. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Let A B AC=1x. 2. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. x=2.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. . so that Find^K7and BO. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. : Ex. 11 x x 7 Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. Then Hence BG = 5 x. = the second number. is A line AB. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.000 168. produced to a point C. AB = 2 x. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 inches long. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 18 x = 108. 2 x Or = 4.
and 15 inches. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 7.) . Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 12. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 9. 11. 3. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 14. 13. How many gen.000 square miles. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 2. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 6. 12. and c inches. What are the parts ? 5. : 197. Gunmetal tin. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : 4. How The long are the parts ? 15.
which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence.y=. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 .L x If If = 0. x = 1. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. values of x and y. etc. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. y = 1. such as + = 10. 2 y = . if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. is x = 7. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. if . expressing a y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. a? (1) then I. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.e.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. However. =.
for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. viz. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .130 170. 6x . 172. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. cannot be reduced to the same form.24. y I 171. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.26. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. same relation. unknown quantity. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. By By Addition or Subtraction. 4y . 21 y . for they express the x f y 10. E. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. = . 174. Substitution. 26 y = 60. Therefore. y = 2.3 y = 80. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. are simultaneous equations. 3. and 3 x + 3 y =. to The two methods I. of elimination most frequently used II. the last set inconsistent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).X. ~ 50. The first set of equations is also called consistent.
are like. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 1.3 y = 47.3 1 = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 60 . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. = 406. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. Therefore Check. x = 10. 10 .2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 64 x = 040. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3. + 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 2. 3y = 3. 5 13 .2 = 6.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).14 =8. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 25 x . 3. 37. 8 2. Check. = 235. x = 10. whose coefficients In general. Transposing. add the equations. subtract the equations.
* + 3 y = 50.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 9 1 r 20. I ~ y~~> 22. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 19< I a. J I y = 1U. 13.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I oj 5y = 17. + 2/ 17. I i 3 a. f 3X 7x 14.4. 7 ' 1fi fl . x 11.9 *. i 3. [2o.3. ' 12. I .3.v 23. O t K 8. . = 6. v ^ = ll. ] ^ . = 24. _.f2/ ' = 50.5 y = 2. 13 61 l7a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. = 41. f 3# ?/ = 0.
This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 4#8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. . Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 8. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. and solve the resulting equation. = 2y + 10. = 2. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 60.
29 x = 29.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3 (1) Ex. however. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 4* + 3y = 19. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. \ \6(a. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 2 y = . 7 y = 6. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. Substituting in (6) . 21z6y=9. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. + 212y4 = 14. 3. (7) (7) (8) .3. (4). . From 9 = 36. simplified before elimination is possible. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7x_2y=3.6)7(y7)==18. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. x = l. the equation must be cleared of fractions and .
1) = 121. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a. .1) + 5(6 y . . +y 2 . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. a. yM a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. = 3.f2 2. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4 11. 10. 10 2a?5 17. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. J 9. 16. 14. 12.
<X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. * ((* (( .and x y . 180.Q ^ 4 21. 22. f y . and y. .#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. e. {. ?~y . but some expressions involving x. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.
x 2x(2). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. of this type. can also be solved Examples method. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. 33 = 11 x. Dividing by 11 3 = #. etc. Clearing of fractions. . (4) + (G). y.4 x = 4 xy. . (2) (3) a. Substituting x = 3 in (1). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 1. x 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. Therefore y=4. 15 y + 8 x . y 4. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).3 xy. however. 2* * x 2.
x 8.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 4 13. Ex. 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 331 9. = en. 253 7. . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 .= 5. 1. n.= o 6. x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).
amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ap. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. w. x f my = 1. ny = fy/ I sc 1.y = = 9a + 46. W . and I if 13. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 5. 14. d. ax + by = 2 a&.W. . Dividing.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. bmy bm}y ap cm. x a. x 12. Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 6. . fax f = l.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. . apan cm. and I. . s in 11. a Find a and terms of n.
3y = Hence Check.1+4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.3=4.8 = 1. 1.3 = 8. 3. 20. f 3y 12 =s 8. Ex. 4.12 y + 6 z = . l. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 6. by 3.13. etc. 4.by 2.25. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. . four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 182. 3. y =* 2.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). To solve equations containing By tions. (8) 2. 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.15z=12 Adding. = 30. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 8 x .2 + 3.lf> z . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).16. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.2 + 4. = 3. x + 12 y . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (4) (5). ties are Similarly.
y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 2 4. 10. 4 = 42. a? 11. 2z = 40. 12. 14. + y f z = 15. 2 . == 6. k 2/ f 2 x a. 8. a? + 709 = 26. ~6?/ 5. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 15 2 = 45. 49. x 13. f 2 i/ f z = 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 7.
^ = 2.42 = 2. = 5. 22. 4. . 1510 4 17. . 32. ? = llz. =s 20. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0.6 2.3 y + . 16.. 19. (3 _. . 60. 27. = 8*. 23.2 a. 84 21.
either directly or implied. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples. +2+ 6 = 8. Find the number. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Obviously of the other . 1 = 2. = l. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. # 4. + z = 2p. and if 396 be added to the number. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. y * z 30. = 2 m. .) it is advisable to represent a different letter. 2 = 6. the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Ex. 1. M=i. Check. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. . symbols: x + y +z 8. y 31. x : z =1 : 2. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. + 396 = 521. 2 = 1(1+6). unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 1 digit in the tens place. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. however.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. z + x = 2 n. ( 99.
Or (4)2x(3). Find the fraction. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. C. = Hence the fraction is f. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . Ex. 2. 5_ _4_ A. x 3x4y = 12. . direction. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3. B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. increased by one. 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. x y = the = the x denominator . 3+1 5+1 4_2. (1) (2) 12. Since the three men traveled the same distance. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.144 Ex. x 3 = 24. the distance traveled by A. = 8. = the fraction. y = 3. 4 x = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. we obtain. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 6 x 4 = 24. By expressing the two statements in symbols. (3) C4) = 24 miles. From (3) Hence xy Check.
Find the number. 1. to the number the digits will be interchanged. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the numbers. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 6. Find the numbers. ? What 9. If 9 be added to the number. the digits will be interchanged. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and the numerator increased by 4.}. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. the last two digits are interchanged. 7. fraction is reduced to \. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. part of their difference equals 4. Find the number. both terms. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 2. it is reduced to J. tion ? 8. the value of the fraction is fa. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. number by the first 3. If the denominator be doubled. If 27 is 10. 5. Find the fraction. . the number (See Ex. the fraction equals . 183. added to the numerator of a fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. the fraction is reduced fraction. the Find the fraction. its value added to the denominator. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and the fourth 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled.) added to a number of two digits. Find the numbers. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15.
Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. now. 12. 13. Find their present ages. and money and 17. the rate of interest? 18. Find the rates of interest. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. respectively ? 16. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.grams. 19. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. . What was the amount of each investment ? 15. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. A man invested $750. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. How 6 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. 5 %. partly at 5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. 14.000 is partly invested at 6%. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and partly at 4 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. in 8 years to $8500. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and in 5 years to $1125. and 4 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . If the rates of interwere exchanged. A sum of $10.
23. and angle BCA = 70. is the center of the circum scribed circle. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and e. B find angles a. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. the three sides of a triangle E. BD = HE. and $15 for each sheep. . and F '(see diagram). and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. $ 50 for each cow. . BC=7. 1 NOTE. but if A would double his pace. then AD = AF. Find their rates of walking. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. respectively. 25. what is that = OF. points. triangle Tf AD. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. receiving $ 100 for each horse. On /).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. BE. ED = BE. the length of NOTE. are taken so ABC. and their difference by GO . andCL4 = 8. An C touch ing the sides in D. 24. and CE If AB = G inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. c. and GE = CF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. angle c = angle d. and F. three AD = AF. and angle e angle/. BC = 7 inches. cows. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and AC = 5 inches. and sheep. E. for $ 740.
CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and point the origin. PN. 186. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. The of Coordinates. B. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). or its equal OM. PM. jr. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. PN are given. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. Thus the points A. YY' theyaxis. first 3). (2. (2. 3). and PN _L YY'. . It' Location of a point. is The point whose abscissa is a. ?/. (3. 2). and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. the ordinate of point P. and PJ/_L XX'. (7. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate by ?/. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and r or its equal OA is . is the abscissa. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive ..
What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 0). 4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 8. 12. (4. What is the locus of (a?. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (4. 2.2). Plot the points : (0. 2J). 3). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 1). 2). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 0). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 3). i. (1. 4). Plot the points (6. and measure their distance. . 4) from the origin ? 7. !). (4. (4. (5. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.) EXERCISE 1. 0). 6. 71 2). 11. 6. 0). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 1). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (2. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187.and(l. Plot the points: (4.4). (4.3). Plot the points: (4. 4). 2). (0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4) and (4. 3). 3. (3. which of its coordinates known ? 13.1).(!.e. . Graphs. (4. (See diagram on page 151. (0.
C. may be found on Jan. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. however. we meas1 . . B. or the curved line the temperature. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. from January 1 to December 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. By representing of points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 10 . D. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 188. 15. ure the ordinate of F. 1..
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (d) November 20. the matics. as the prices and production of commodities. the merchant. the rise and fall of wages. (b) July 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. etc. Whenever a clear. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. The engineer. (c) January 15. uses them. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. . the graph is applied.
1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1 to Oct. (1) 10 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C. 15. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. (freezing point) ? 7. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1? 11 0.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. ? 9. When the average temperature below C. is 10. How much. ?  3. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.152 2. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. on 1 to the average. (d) 9 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.
transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. NOTE. Draw . One meter equals 1. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw a graph for the 23. 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.
. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. A 10 wheels a day. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 26. 2 .50. the daily average expenses for rent. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 29. then C irJl. gas. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 28. x 7 to 9. 1 to 1200 copies. 190.g. etc. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. books from for printing. 3. x* x 19. etc. if each copy sells for $1. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.. 3. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . function If the value of a quantity changes. if he sells 0.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. x increases will change gradually from 13. 9. e. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 4.) T circumferences of 25. and $. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. .50. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.. 2.154 24. amount to $8.5 grams. to 27. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.inch. the value of a of this quantity will change. binding. represent his daily gain (or loss).
plot points which lie between those constructed above. 2 (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Q. x a variable. (1. 4).1).2 x may 4 from x = 4. 4). to x = 4. a*. Graph of a function. 2. as 1. 9).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. construct '. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. etc. (2.1). 3 50. and (3. while 7 is a constant. however. and join the points in order. E. 9). . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 2). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . may . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . J).e. If a more exact diagram is required. it is In the example of the preceding article. (1^. Ex. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.0). The values of func192. 1 the points (3. 3 (0. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. be also represented by a graph. is supposed to change.g. may. ( 2. for x=l. Draw the graph of x2 f.
4). (2. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. j/=3. 5). and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus 4x + 7... = 0. Thus in the above example. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. = 4. r */ +* 01 . Ex. straight line produces the required graph. 194. etc.4).) For brevity. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. y = 6. 7 . (To avoid very large ordinatcs..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 2. (3.20). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. . and join(0.2 x .. (4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 2 4 and if y = x f. 4J. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 1).. as y. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. rf 71 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.
1J. The values of a?. . (ft) (_ 1. + 4. 23x. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. = 4. a* 13. xl. if"a. a ar.5)2. 2 a. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. from x VlO'S". 2 or 2 20. 3 a 8. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. i. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2. 2 2. 3. ?/ a.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 4 a. (C ) (2. 9. 2J. 2x + 3x a?. 4a? I. 6.5)2. 8. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . The smallest value of the function. 18. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2J. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 21. 19.or. = The values of a*. if a. (7i) (c) 23. 15. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 5. 22. 1 8 10. (If) Va25.8)'. l. if y = 2. 14. a. a? 2 4. x+1. 3. The values of a*. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 16. the diagram find (a) (e) (3.e. if the function equals zero. 1. y = 2x = 4. Jar . 12. a? 1. xz + x. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 6 fa. 1J. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. . 2. 11. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. fa 17. 1J. 7. 2 a. J. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 2 2 a. a?. the function.
if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. the abscissas of 3.158 24.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. Show any convenient number). Therefore x = 1.where x c is a constant. then cXj where c is a constant. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 1 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional...e. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. then y = . it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. that graph with the o>axis.. Represent 26.24 or x = P and Q. C. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. i.24. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 14 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 9 F. 32 F. . From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 25. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. y= formula graphically.
de = termine the points where If the function is 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. + + = where a. 13. 2 and 1. 4. 8. or 5 2. 7. Such equations in general have two roots. 12. 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. a2 2a. 6. is called a quadratic equation. (0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. .f 9 = 0. (a) x2 = 0. 197. 11. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 10. 6.7 2 a 5 = 0. viz. = 0. crosssection paper is used. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (a) (6) 9. 3.
and join the required graph. i.2. first degree. because their graphs are straight lines. Hence if if x x  2. If x = 0. Hence. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . = 0. ?/. if y = is 0. Ex. ?/ =4 AB. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence we may join (0. (f .e. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 2). == 2. Ex. solve for ?/. y = l. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 3x _ 4 . 199. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.2 y ~ 2. . 0). that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. y y 2. locate points (0. fc = 3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 1) and 0). produces the 7* required locus.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. y= A and construct x (  graphically. T . NOTE. X'2 Locating the points (2. and joining by a straight line. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. unknown quantities.1. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 4) and (2.
The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 201.1=0. viz. and CD. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 202. P. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection.57. linear equations have only one pair of roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). we obtain the roots. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. To find the roots of the system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.15. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 203. Graphical solution of a linear system. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.
 4. 1. they are inconsistent. 5. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4.5. and . construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2 equation x 3).5. . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3. 4. (4. the graph of points roots. and + 3). The equations 2 4 = 0. In general. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. y equals 3. the point we obtain Ex. if x equals respectively 0.g. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Measuring the coordinates of P. 3). 3. 1. e. 2. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.0). (1) (2) C.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Solving (1) for y. 3x 2 y = 6.e. Using the method of the preceding para. Inconsistent equations.9. 2. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. we of the + y* = 25. (2. 4. V25 5. = 0. Locating two points of equation (2). 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. 3. 0. 0. AB the locus of (1). Locating the points (5. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.0. intersection. 4.y~ Therefore. 4. 5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. x2 . etc.. and joining by a straight line. 0) and (0. i. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. (4.
y = 4. 2. 16 23. and solve each If there are no solutions. the graphs of the following systems. \ 2x + 3^ . as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and. Draw system. y=x + 5. a+r/=6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 20. 17. 6. 9. vice versa. 16 22. state reasons. y 2 4. if possible. 8. 5. '163 Dependent equations. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 10. 19. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 4. 7. 3. x~y=0. y= a2 2x y6.. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. . a. 2x 3?/=6.
164 24.8.14 y = . 25. 4 a = 3(6 . 3 31. 26. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 30. CUBES.y). 29 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. Law of Signs. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. involution repeated multiplication. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.faa a a a Obviously 1. ( a) is positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. etc. on to in factors 4. According to 1. follows that 3. powers of a positive quantity are positive. fa. a special kind of product. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 52. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. is may be by 207.a2 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 8. 2. . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a = a3 .
the required power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. . 6.166 To find To To power. (^^) 2 . raise a fraction to a power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 24. 76 : (>y. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 16. 210. amVy) 3 . V V/ 13. (a ) 2 4  3. 4. 15. (277171 )*.6 (a 8 8 . a product to a given power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 5. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 3 2 2 8 . (a ) 2 5 .6) = a . 4 /2mV. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 2 11 (afc ) . (2ar). 2.
2. (3 x . (3af26) 8 . 3 8 . frequently called ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 8 (a??/) 3 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. nent of the binomial. 13.INVOLUTION Ex. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (aj7) . 3 . 3.) 14.y . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 211. (afl) . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 9. : a 20. 4. 2. 6. (a + &)8 . = s= (2s) 8 a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. The higher powers of binomials. pansions. a.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 15. Ex. (3 (l I) 2 8 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . + a 2 a. + 4aj) 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 7. +5a) 22. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 23. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 5. 18. 21. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . . 16. 1 f 3 2 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . An 1.y) = (3 y?y . 8. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. are obtained by multiplication.6 2 8 ft) . etc. 12. 1. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.3 y. 2 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .
8. 23.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 21. (tff1) (cfd) . 13. . . . (w 4 ?i) 4 . 9. Ex. The minus. (1 + 4 ?/) .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Ex. (la&) 4 12. 6. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . and the powers negative. 78 s .96 ^y f 216 o?y . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. ( &) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 1. (mJ) 4 11. . (mnp 5 I) 5 .2. (2 4. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 3. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (?>i?i f c)*. 4. (m 2 + n) 8 . is the coefficient of the next term. 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (l 8 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . .168 3. 14. 17. 3. (p + q) 4 * 7. 15. (3a f5) 5) 4. (af 5) . 10. . 5.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 5. (m fl) 2 20. (a~^) 5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (2 a 4 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Ex. 24. (?/i~w) : 16. 2.216 a^ 4. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 25.a) 3 19. 18. 4 (1for) 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212.
and ( v/o* = a. or 3 for (usually written 3) . a) 4 = a4 . V9 = + 3. Since even powers can never be negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. tity . and all other numbers are. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. numbers. which can be simplified no further. 2. or x &4 . 1. = x means = 6. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for distinction. etc. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. V \/P 214. 215. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 4 4 . called real numbers. (_3) = 27. \/"^27=3. or y ~ 3.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. 109 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0.
roots of the numerator \/18 . . To extract the root of a power. V5 v/2 7 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .4. Ex. 2. 7 .(. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 5. V?. Ex.9 = 136. Ex.125. 3 33 53 . EXERCISE 1. 10. 7 . 9. Ex. 6. Ex. 3i .  100 a 2 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = V26TIT81 = 53. 62 = V2* . v/2^. 2. = 19472.lL. 6 7 = 030. V25 9 16. = 199 + (_ 198) . 3/0** = am . extract the and denominator. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . . 4 v. 8. \/2 4 9 . 6. To extract a root of a fraction. V36 9 4. 3.200 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . 9. index. 82 . 7.64 5 4 . Ex 5 a" . Ex.1. 8. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 7. fy 5 3 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . for (a")" a = a mn 3. . v/^i2 = a*.201) = 2. 2 .
1. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 5. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . a* 4 8 2 . 30. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 29.75. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. a f2 l 2 + l.98. Find the square root of a2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 32. 3. V20 . 34. 6.6 tfif + 9 y = O . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 31. 2. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .) by inspection. 45 V5184. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V9216.4/./).EVOLUTION 171 28.3 y2) ( vV . ^40^4.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . V8. Ex. 33. 116.3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2 .3 . . 2 .
a2 + & + c + 2 a& . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 8 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 . let us consider the relation of a f. 2 2 218. and b. a\b is the root if In most cases. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. mV14m??2)f 49.2 &c. 14. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. the given expression is a perfect square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . i. a f.2 ab + b .e. + 6 + 4a&. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .172 7. 2ab . #2 a2  16.2 ac . The term a' first 2 . however. 12.72 aW + 81 & 4 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. . 11. and b (2 a f b). 15.> 13.b 2 2 to its square. 10.
By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 1. */'' . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. . 8 /. 8 a 2 2. of x. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 1. the first term of the answer.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . 2. 10 a 4 8 a. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 a 2 . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Explanation. First trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. The square . 219. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. .EVOLUTION Ex. Second trial divisor. by division we term of the root. is As there is no remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Ex. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . First complete divisor. . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. and so forth. As there is no remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 6 a.
l 4.24 or . 16x6 4. 20. a? 2 . 3. 9. 36it.25 x 4 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.16. 15.9. 5 4 16 4 iK . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 12.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 17.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .20 J or 2 16 x 4.20 o 4. 16.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.6 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 2 4. 10.73a4 440^436^460^. . 1 4. 436^?/469a.162 a2 60 a10 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 729 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.40 a 22 . 6 11. 18. > 7. 24. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 19.a 6 x*y 2 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 13#4 413ar 44a.12m 5 4.73 a8 .12 m 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 2 x2 3 2x. 6.V430^425^ 4m 4. 8. 5.42 a*& 4.25. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 4 .37 a ^ . 14.10 x2 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .4 x 4.
Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the square root of 7744 equals 88. two figures. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Therefore 6 = 8. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . a 2 = 6400. etc. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. = 80.000 is 100. etc. and the first remainder is. Ex.000 is 1000. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Find the square root of 524. and the complete divisor 168. the first of which is 8.000. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.1344. of a number between 100 and 10.176.EVOLUTION 220. Ex. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. which may contain one or two). the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 1. the first of which is 4. 2. The is trial divisor = 160. first .000.. of 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Find the square root of 7744. As 8 x 168 = 1344. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1. and the square root of the greatest square in units.
Find the square root of 6/.10. in . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places.0961 are '. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12. 3. The groups of 16724.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. annex a cipher. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .GO'61.70 6. places.1T6 221. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.
. feet.58 square 38. T\. whose area equals 48. 36. feet.53. 33. 31. JT .1410. 39.4 square when R = radius and 11. 1. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 30.) 40. 13. 34. 5. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .22. J. 32.01. 1.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 37. 35. = 3.
quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. = 7^ + 5. or incomplete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. or affected. This answer Check. The 7 equation. 6 y2 = 17. Transposing. = 4. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 224. Dividing. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. . ax 2 + bx + c = Q.. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. x 2 7. Ex. A pure. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or equation of the second degree. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2. but no higher power e. Extracting the square root of each member. 226. 225. 1. 178 . is 12. x = + 2 or x =2. 6#2 = x* 24. is A quadratic equation.g. 2)* + 5 = 33. 2 ic = a. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. complete.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6(2)=10(ajl). 10. 8. : 83 2. ' =: y? b* b . 4 ax. 16^393 = 7. . 3. 2. 7 = 162. o. Solve 179 . 15^5 = 6.25. ax Transposing and combining. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 5. Dividing by Extracting the square root. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a? 9. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 4fc 5' 18. or Therefore. 2 2 a. 7. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 4. 19 + 9 = 5500.2. .
is 5(5. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. solve for r. 25. may be considered one half of a rec square units. Find the numbers. and their product : 150. solve for d. 2a f 1 23. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. If G=m m g . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . r. 26. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 228.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2 : 3. 2. . 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .) of their squares 5. : 6. 28. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2 . If 22 = ~^. ' 4. find a in terms of 6 . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. EXERCISE 1. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. A right triangle is a triangle. 29. Find is the number. 108. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 3. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. solve for v. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 22 a. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 27. Find the side of each field.b 2 If s If =c . . 24.
the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. (b) 100 feet? = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. and the two smaller 11. add () Hence 2 . 9.7 x f 10 = 0. The area : sides are as 3 4. and the third side is 15 inches. . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. radii are as 3 14. 2m. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. A body falling from a state of rest.2 7 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . sides. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Find these 10. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Find the radii. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 8. Find the sides. of a right triangle Find these sides. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . we have of or m = .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.) 13. Solve Transposing. J = 12. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . (b) 44 square feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 4. . 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Method of completing the square. To find this term. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. x* 7 x= 10. Find the unknown sides and the area. is and the other two sides are equal.
2 a2 . Ex. . 62 x 5 = f. 2  . Transposing.e. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Simplifying. a. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.2. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2 a* a. (*~8) a = at . a Clearing of fractions. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Hence Therefore Check. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = 6. 230. or x = 2.1.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 7 5 + 10 = 0. = . adding member). = x\ = 2. or J.  \. Transposing. Ex. = \ # = ff.x(l = .. Therefore.a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Uniting. Extracting square roots. J.
183 Simplifying. Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x .
2x 3 4. x la 48. =8 r/io?. article. 49. \bx\.c = 0. and c in the general answer. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. . o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao. =0. 231.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solution by formula. = 12.
6.4 4 5 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. TIO. 26. 7^ + 9 x 90. 9. 6. 3. 8. Reducing to general form. 2. ?i 2 .. V^tT)* . = 12 . 17. 13. 1.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2or } 5o. 20. 15. 7. 6^+5^ 56. 21. 2 . 10.  . 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 2. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. c = 5. 6 Ex. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).15 x9 25x* = 21 . = 64120?. 16. 2 a. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. a. 12. 11. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 18. 5 x2 Transposing. 2 o. 2 a? = 44 x . : 86 + 2 = 0.25 x.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. c p. 19. 6 . 14. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 4.
5) = 0. Bx 1 1. 26. Eesolving into factors. Clearing for fractions. 2S3x 1 2 . = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . ar>8o. 3x?+x = 7. .x. = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. and 6. Factoring. = 14. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. (5 a? !)(. Solution by factoring. 23.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Transposing. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. transposing terms to one member. a=:i^^. 233. 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 24. all or. any degree. x(x <2 . 1. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 27 x== 42a. member can be Ex. if either of the uct is zero. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.2. x2 = 1 . factors Now. or # 5 is zero.4) = .5 Solving (1) and (2). 25. orz roots. 5 = 0.5) =0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. }.
Ex. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 5. a?. 3) Factoring. x2 f 2 x . 0^ ar> 11.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. aj( 15. and the equation thus formed be solved. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 16. a?10a=:24. 3^ = 0(1106). members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. ar'Sa^ 12.:=0. 3# y 5 = 0.6)) = 0. + 100.e. 4)(z3) = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2.= 24. Therefore x =3 = 2. 8. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 13. 4. 6. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 7.g.(. a* 10a=24.3)(x + 3 3. 2. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. The equation I. 0(02) = 7(02). + 9 f 20 x = 0. for a: . 2o3 f9a. is 5) = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. (aj4)(a. 2. 3 or 2 a. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 8=s: 7. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. : 87 = 0. 12. Or Hence the 234. 9. E. + 10 a = 24. } 2 2 (5 . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. we 9 obtain x 4. 3. 3) = 0. O roots are 2. 14. + 6)=0.24 = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 5 = 0.
25. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 22. 50. ara + ft + c*. 20. 2. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. a 2 =(x a)b. 27. uz + u 21. 18.188 17. (a + 1) (a. '3a!J  . 23. (2a? 3) (a 24. 19.3) = (s + l) (3 a).
The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. The difference of . 8. 2. 0. and whose sum is is 36. : 3. 5. 58.3. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3. and the difference Find the numbers. The 11. . Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 4. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Find the sides. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find the number. 6. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2. Find the numbers. 1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 57.0. Find the number. number by 10. EXERCISE 1.9. two numbers is 4. G. and equals 190 square inches.2. 1. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.0. 2. 2. 2.1. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 3. 5. 2. feet. 7. of their reciprocals is 4. and whose product 9. 56. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . and consequently many prob 235. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 52. 55.3. 54. is Find two numbers whose product 288. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.
15. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. sold a horse for $144. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 17. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. ABCD. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. dollars. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If he each horse ? . and Find the sides of the rectangle. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 19. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. watch for $ 24. 13.10. Find the rate of the train. What did he pay for 21.190 12. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. ply between the same two ports. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. other. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. as the 16. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. Two vessels. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. he would have received two horses more for the same money. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. . 14. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4.
A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 27. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. contains B 78 square inches. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Ex. a point taken. how wide is the walk ? 23. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 23 inches long. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.) 25. (tf. and working together. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. of the area of the basin. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 237. 1. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. so that the rectangle. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. constructed with and CB as sides. 24. or x = \/l = 1. . as 0. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. By formula. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. Find and CB.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. the two men can do it in 3 days. is On the prolongation of a line AC. ^3^ = 7.
^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a? 15 1=2*. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 6. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a 21or=100. y8)=0. 12. 2 16 a^40 11. Ex. 2. 19.T 2 2 .2 =4. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 8. = 1. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.)+72=0. a. 7. 10. >. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.192 238. 16. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 h9:=0. a4 5o. 4 : 89 10a. 4. Solving. Hence Le. = 13. 9. or y = 8. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 436 3. 4 6. T 17. 18. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 a. aV+9o 4 =0.
Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are rational. the roots are unequal. 241.2 z . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are imaginary. Relations between roots and coefficients. The discriminant =(. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.bx 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . b 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are real. and equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 240.2) 2 4 3 (. negative. .12 x + 9 = 0. 2. is 4ac not zero. Ex. ( 2a Hence 1. the roots are irrational. it 2a follows 2 : 2. Hence the roots are real. 3. Ex. c the roots are real. rational. a perfect square. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.f> = 0.5) = 04. and unequal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are equal. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. rational.
= 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. f 2 E. = Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5.19 # 20. = 5x. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 18 2 8. 24. ^12. + 2a. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. + 12 2  . If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 21. o. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2 a. 6. 5aj 9. 5oj aj + l = 0. 12. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. their product isf. 17. 14. 2a 4z5 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. + 2a15 = 0. : a 2 . lla. 60 2 = 0. x2 7 10. = 0. 18. 12~x = x 2 . 15. 3a. 2 7. 4. 2. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2 : 3.g..194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 22. 23. = 0. 9a3 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.
II.* III. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. The first of these laws is nition of power. and . provided w > n." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . while the second of the first. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (ab) .a" = a m n mn .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. no Fractional and negative exponents. Then the law of involution. > m therefore. that a an = a m+n . a m a" = a m+t1 . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . must be *The symbol smaller than. (a m ) w . for all values 1 of m and n. 244. It is. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. = a"" < . We assume. however. such as 2*. hence. ~ a m f. m IV. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.
m$. 29. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a . 28. 245. 25. 31. fractional. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. . as. laws. 30.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. n 2 a. a*. a?*. or zero exponent equal x. etc. (bed)*. 4~ . 0?=^. (xy$. 24.g. 3*. disappear. = a. a\ 26. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. ml. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 23.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. '&M A 27. e. at. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Assuming these two 8*.
is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 49. 50. hence is . If. ty?.g. a . e. : 197 33. 3* = 27. Solve the following equations 39. 7z* Find the values of 47. 246. 42. To find the meaning of zero exponent. however. 27* = 3. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. the base is zero. 44.\/n. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 2' 4* = 4. 48. \/xy \/m. 41. \fi?. 40. = 49.g. 38. 35. 37. 5 a* = 10. v/o&cT 34. a * a2 Or a=l. a* * = 3. 43. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. Vo5 . v'mT 36. 46. = 2. = 2. 45. equal to unity. Let a = a. e. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.
248. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .2 = a2 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. . or the exponent. cr n. vice versa.198 247. consider the following equations. by changing the sign of NOTE. an x = a. Or a"# = l.g. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. e. Let x= or".
a. 39. 3 a. : mi m~^. m . 2 . c 32. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 37. a^ 41. 27. ^?2 y' 34. . 2m~i 43. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . 2 . 22.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. * 24. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. ^L. rfS. 40. 3 a? * 42. 66 45."* 38. : or 5 . 25. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 44. f (2w)~i 1 . 36. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35.
001. 55. 250.9*.1. 61. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. z* = 1. Ex. 59.343)* + (. 53. 58. ar = i. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = ^. 52. + A_. (. . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 54.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 17' 2 51. 10* 5* = . = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.26)* 1 (I) 2 . z 5or*=10.(. 10* Find the values 56.008)* + A. 49. + 1~* f 21 . = l. 47. 1.6). 48.81 f (a . = 5. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. of: 3ll4~* 60. 57. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .
S'sS8. 7~ 5 27  . . 72 .5a. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. OA 20. 17. &.^/5^5.4 . 26.4 a8 ..3 aj" a. 6. 6a. 10. 95 ^9i 5**. remove the fractional exponents. . . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7. 16.$*.&.&.7W.7i. Perform the operation indicated. 18. 4 5. 7~ 6 . 7*.6 *' 6 *25. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. are performed.$". EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3 a. Remove the negative exponents. etc.7*. 16. 13. 79 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . / 7fv 7. 14. 8 ' 9. NOTE. (d) If required. 23. a. 3. 27  28. ' 11. 12. 4 x^. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. #* a. 6 *. 3sVS. V5.
The 252. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.2 d . 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 6 35. 34. 2. If powers of a?. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 40. 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. powers of x arranged are : Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
32. 38. 2\ 3*. s!/3. connect them by proper 1. ^4.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 40. Simplify V~ . V3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. A/2. V5. 29. </2. ^30. V2. \/7. ^6. ^2. ^3. v/4. \/5. Ex. 31. V3.e. 33. 28. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . if dissimilar. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. Arrange 35. 39. ^126. v/3. ^4. 3. Ex. Simplify V + 3 VlS.3\ . 34. 30. subtract surds. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. </20. (i. A/3. To add or form. ^5. 37. ^/IT. 26. v^S. 36. ^2. signs. v/3. in order of magnitude : \/7. + . I VJ + 3VT8 .10 V2 =  V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o .2 V50. 4^/4.2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 27. VS. ^2. V2. 5V2. </3. ^7.
3. 9. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V175V28+V634V7.3V20 + 6V5. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 6. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 8. + 3V835V2.J a6 V4 aft. 11. 14. 13. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 8VT8J2V32 7. . 6. V18+V32VT28+V2. 4. 4V805V45. 12.
1.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 2. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.6V35 106 460V35100 . 26^ . 3. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 23. Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. y* = Ex. 6*. . and then multiplied.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. .
(V2+V3+V4)V3. (Va Va 36. 37.VSS. 2. 6. (V6 + 1) 1 . \/3 \^). 28 . 13. 38. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (5V22V3CVS)V3. . 14.^/2. 10. 34. 4. 27. v/4. 9. 15. 8. V2aV8^. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 213 98 11. V3 Vl2. Vll. V42. + VB)(2V5). 41. V2 V50. (2V3) 8 . V3 V6. 3. 40 10 30. 39. aVa. 7. (3 20. 2 . 12. 25. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 19. 21. v/18 v"3. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). VlO V15. fWa 17. 18. 6 V4 5. 40. VTO. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. a?. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V20 V30.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 6.
(5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 44. V3 . a fraction. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 52. 43. 48. Va v/a. Ex. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). E. 268. 60. is 1 2.214 42. 49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 47. the quotient of the surds is If.y. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. Ex. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (2 45. 46. . 51. (5V2+V10)(2V51).
Divide VII by v7. by V7. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 3. . Evidently. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. metical problems afford the best illustrations. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. . arithTo find. . The 2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is illustrated by Ex. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.RADICALS This method. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 1.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. however.57735. e. /~ } Ex. we have V3 But if 1.g.by the usual arithmetical method.73205.
V8 JL. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. VffV?. 14. A. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.4142. 7. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 20. V5 = 2. 21. V8 12. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 271. Vn V7 ' * 8. V5 270. V3 = 1.2361. i. 23 . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. and Given V2 = 1. . V2 22 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V3 24 . 272. V48 25. A. Vll 212*.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.7320. ^/H . ..
RADICALS Ex. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex.= 18.1 xVtf a.Vs2 . . 1. .2. s Simplify a.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 3. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
218 6 .W3. 19.4142. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.7320. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . four places of decimals 23 . By the use of fractional exponents . . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. Given V2 1. V21 = 25 . Vo1 26. 27. 24. find to _!_. 6V7. V5V7 18> ^SVg. J?_. v 2V3 28.5 3 = 125. = V3 = 1.2361. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.
In other examples of involution and evolution. on the other hand. Simplify Ex. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. V255 . 8. v8f 2\/15. 3. V643 . According to G3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. . 11. it to this form. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 1. \/125" . 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 2. viz. 3 (V2~u)  7. \/l6*. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 9. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 5. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. the If. 4. 2 12.RADICALS 219 274.
Find V4 + VJ8. 12 and whose product is 20. Find Vl2 4.6 V2.A/2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 2. Find Vll . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6\/2 = ^9 . 2 \/18. is 11. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 3. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex. ^TT. +2 Ex. The Hence ^11 .220 Ex.
Radical equations are rationalized. 277. 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. r 22. Before performing the involution. 5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. The value x =2 reduces each . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.1. +=. V48 23. 19. 8. Transposing and uniting. member to 2. 4x x = 2.e.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.V48 4 20. Dividing by Check. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. are radical equations. x2 = x f 2. . = xa + 4 x f 4. by raising both members equal powers. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. a. Ex. Solve vVf!2a = 2. (2x xrf 1. : 221 Vl32V22. they are transto formed into rational equations.. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. VT . first involution. i.
V24~+~l = 0. Dividing by 24. a. tion which has two roots. Squaring both members. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 3. they may be extraneous roots. the first member = V2. viz. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Transposing and uniting. Therefore CftecAr. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (.1) = 0. Transposing and uniting. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Factoring. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.222 Ex. Extraneous roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.3. one root. 4#f 4 = 9. viz. f 25 = 12. a socalled extraneous root. 5. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 2. at . x = J. V4afT~l. . the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. It = 3 x . . Ex. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Squaring both members. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Therefore Check. 278. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Transposing.
If the signs of the roots were not restricted. the right member = V2. + 6~ieT~3 . ViTie 4 z2 . 4. (x x = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions.2 r. is x V. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. 223 x = 3. . or x *j. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.12 . equation it is an extraneous root.47) = 0. x root of the preceding equation. Check. Therefore. Hence x = the only root. If If x 3 = 3. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. and to 5. Hence there is only one root. Transposing.3) (2 x . .RADICALS Hence x If a.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Solve the following equations : = G. NOTE. for it satisfies the equation . Factoring. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . = 3. \ does not satisfy the given. . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. both members reduce to 5. Squaring.
Many 1. Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. Therefore . Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
y then x2 . x =6 or 3. some of the roots be extraneous.f40= 5. 412a* = 16. + 40 = 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Ex. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 3 6. 5. Vi 2 8a. _ 2 y . = 7.*2a. 2. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.i~24 = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49.8 z40 = 7. Let 8 x f 40 . 2Va. o.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. x Since both =9 or 1. members of the equation were squared. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. . 4. 45 14VJB = . Substituting. Q .35 = 0. x + Vx a? = 6. This can be seen without substituting. = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. 3. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. = 26. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.
a 440 = 35. 17. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 2. 19. 12. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 14. 16.226 11. +3= 6. +x . a. a^x2 5 2 13. 20. 15.f 18 = 24. 4 V SB* 4 a.
" Or. 2.2 + 80 = 12. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. Without actual division.2 x 5 by x 3. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. Without actual division. find the remainder when m.2 + 4. by dividing 3 x* f. does not contain a?. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . however.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. could. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. a? R = x* . even if Q is unknown. = 2. to x we # = 2 3.4 a.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. If x* . we make a? what the value of Q. then (x 2)Q 0.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). if Q was known. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 3 2 Ex. E = ax + &z + m) Q. Ex. 227 .360 = 244. Hence. ax4 4. no matter If.bx? + ex2 4. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R." transposing. 1. ^ = 381+2.2) Q .
the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x m is factor of the expression. fora?.g.8.4(. + 6. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 3. if 8 42  . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.949. + ^by x + b. 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. The Factor Theorem. 43 3 E. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.3)f 11 =.8'= 0. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. 5 (4x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x* s 2 4. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632. 5. If the remainder is zero. hence (x divided by x 4. } 2 by a1. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 2 j 7.228 282. of the division 3) is m in place of x.
24. a? 19. + 27 + 27. 11. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.7 x + 15 = 0.12. i. or x 4. or 5 4 + 3^ . 3 2 : 7. 15.e. 23. 106 division. a 2a + 4. Let x = . 3. 25. m f m n 14. 2 2. 8. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 21.1. 17. a. f 3.13m + 30 10. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. oj 5x2 f3a.9^ + 23^15. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 9.1. a^8^ + 19a. + ttt15 = 0. a + 32. The 5. Resolve into factors 4. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. f 5. is a factor.7 + 16 . 2m 5m . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.r6 = 0. 18. 2.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. + 15. 1. f 15 does not vanish.49 = 0. 6. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. Therefore x ( 1). 229 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. then x8 7 x'2 4. a 8a f 19 a 12.12 = 0. a 5x 6. 5. _ . ^10^429^20=0. 8. . & p*. are f 1.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. Factor a? 15. 7 46 = 0. factors of the absolute term. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 20.
if n is even. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. For substituting y for x. It y is not divisible by 287. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if w is odd. ar +p= z6 e. actual division n." .  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.230 285. If n is a Theorem that 1. : importance. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Ex. is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 Ex. By we obtain the other factors. 286. 2. 1. xn f.g.xy +/). and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.y n is divisible by x f ?/. x* f/ = (x +/)O . xn y n y n y n = 0.
27.i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . however.= . 26. 3. leads 231 is The first method. 28. x3 8=0. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. y 3 +8=0. a. since it more directly to the prime factors. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable.
of quadratics. = 6. x y. * A I. (5) Combining (5) with (1). + 6 a?V . 232 . 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. however. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xywe have 3.1. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.y4 is of the fifth degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. (4) Hence. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. If two of the quantities x f y. 290. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. in general. ==5 > 1^ = 4. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. xy are given.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. Squaring Solve (1). 4 xy = 16.
233 y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 3. The arranged in pairs. I I x + y=7. 1. ' 10. 108 2. b=3. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 12.g. x and xy are not given. EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ^. = . r (" 1 = 876.
 f J. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. Factoring.i/ = r 13. 6 "I 14. or JJ.?/ i = 6. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. la. 5. aj = 2. I* Jj ^ [.~ y = 5. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. r^ 2 as ] f.o 18. x " (3) 49 etc. one linear and ne quadratic. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. A system of simultaneous equations. . 19.a.20) = 0. 4 y = 20.  42 y + Transposing.. ' ' . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 7 . . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . I x+y = a. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 2 (1) From (1) we have. Ex. or y = 1 .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.  . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). + 29 = 0. 3.
9. ' x*. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve . quantities. 1. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4 f + 2 y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ':il e :) . 10. x2y. III. If of the preceding type. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.3 2x 2 Ex. 3y) : Factor (2). = 1 3 3.
If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (3) (4) Subtracting. 2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . } VI09. 15 x2 . j Substituting y in (2). 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) (2) x x 5.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex. 109 a.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. Solve 2.
3^42^=43. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. f 1 150 a?. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.125 ay = . " IV.175 ay = 12. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.6. . (4) (3). 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' ^ 15. can be solved by special devices. 298. and others not belonging to them. E.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).!. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).xy 4.y = 7. Division of one equation by the other. Bxy9. A. 150 */2 . y? a? f .
. x 2 . we obtain by squaring. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. = 12 J. = 189. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. x +y y etc.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we have from (1). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Therefore x = 16. y . Solve Ex. * ' 300. B. i ^ *>. (1 > (2) 1. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. 2. y = 3. from (2). at first it is unknown quantities. jc~ y = 9. Some simultaneous ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.
F+y+ . 36* 2. 6. I e. 2. M6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence = V or = 4. 4. [2x + : y= 17. 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
25. = y 1 y* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. + o5)(6hy) = 80. = 198. f 18. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 16.4 y = 47 a. * . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.21 ^ = 15. . . 27. 19 ' 26.
203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.of  According to the definition of division. . as a . hence may be any finite number. etc 302. finite  =x y if = x. 30. 25 34. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . y % 9 f*K 36. etc. Q 7. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. = 48201. 7' j/ 39. or ~ indeterminate. ~\ OK OO. 32. 3 a2 38. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 31. . ^ oo . Interpretation . 33. oo 301.
equation. i. x f 2. as + l. Or.e. Hence such an equation identity.000 a. it is an Ex. is satisfied by any number. . Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. Let 2. (a: Then Simplifying. 1. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. great. ToU" ^100 a.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. i.e.x'2 2 x = 1. = 10.increases if x de x creases.g. creases. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. without exception. (1) = 0. TO^UU" sufficiently small. be the numbers. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. I. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (1). 1. the answer is indeterminate. and becomes infinitely small. By making x any * assigned zero. cancel. and .242 303. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.decreases X if called infinity. 306. (1) is an identity. The ~~f fraction . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.can be If It is made larger than number. oo is = QQ. or that x may equal any finite number.
Solve . 1=0. is their 2. EXERCISE 1. and a. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. (2). Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum is of squares 2890.2 y = 4. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 3. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. * 6. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve x a. Hence /. . third and sixth parts. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. z = 1 Substituting. two numbers is 76. y finite QO. and the sum of Find the numbers. = oo.e.8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve  9 7. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.
) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the edges. two numbers Find the numbers. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the diago(Ex. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 8. 148 feet of fence are required. p. 190. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 255 and the sum of 5.quals 20 feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 13. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 6. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the side of each square. The area of a nal 41 feet. 146 yards. Find the sides. of a rectangular field feet. Find the other two sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 12. of a right triangle is 73. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the edge of one. Find the edge of each cube. equals 4 inches. and the sum of ( 228. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 14. 103. Find the dimensions of the field. Find these sides.244 3. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. increased by the edge of the other. Find the numbers. . and the hypotenuse is 37. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. is 6. the area becomes f% of the original area.) 53 yards. 9. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.
) 17.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. irR *. is 20 inches. Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. the quotient is 2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and if the digits will be interchanged. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. differ by 8 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. . Find the radii.
added to each term to obtain the next one..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.7. 10. a + 2 d. The common differences are respectively 4. 15 is 9 f. . The progression is a.. 11. The first is an ascending. a + d. To find the nth term / of an A. the second a descending. a.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the nth term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. the first term a and the common difference d being given. Since d is a f 3 d. 309. f . An arithmetic progression (A. P. of the following series is 3. of a series are its successive numbers. a 3d. 3 d must be added to a.. and d. 4. each term of which. 12. 19..1) d. + 2 d. 16. a f d. Hence / = a + (n . a 11. (n 1) d must be added to a. except the first. 3. progression.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. 2 d must be added to a. to produce the 4th term... 17.. . series 9. . to each term produces the next term.) is a series. P. . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. : 7. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to produce the 3d term.. P..
8. 5. 2J. Adding..' cZ == . Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. (a + + (a + l) l). of the series 10.PROGRESSIONS 310. = I + 49 = *({ + . if a = 5. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 6. P. 8.. 2. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 5. 5... 5. . 1. . . 8. . 5.3 a = l. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 19. (d) 1J.. d = 3. Find the 12th term of the 4.. ? (a) 1. the term a. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 1J. 7... d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 9. 2 EXERCISE 1. 99) = 2600. = 99.. 1.. 4. P. 3..4. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. . a = 2. .. 21.. Find the nth term of the series 2. P. 4^.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).16. 7.. = a + (a Reversing the order.. series 2. 8. 115. 7. 9. 3. 3. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A... series . 6. 6 we have Hence . 24. 3. 10. . 3. 2. Find the 5th term of the 4. = 2.
3. to 20 terms. 1. 1. 11. 19. to 8 terms. 4. . 12. 2J. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . rf. 12. .248 Find the 10. to 7 terms. 7.7 f to 12 terms. to 15 terms. strike for the first yard. > 2f 2. 20. Jive quantities are involved. 17.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. hence if any three of them are given. : 3. 33. 22. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 7. 7. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 29. to 20 terms. (i) (ii) . 1J.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 15. to 16 terms. Sum the following series 14. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 18. 31. . 11. . 15. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 2. . 13. 16. to 10 terms. to 20 terms. 16. 11. 6. .1 f 3. .. striking hours only. '. \n. 21. + 3. 23. P. . (x +"l) 4. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 15. and for each than for the preceding one. In most problems relating to A. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 8.
= a + (w. 2 (2) From Hence (2). I. 312. d = 6. Solving.~n~\ 408 6). 100. and b form an A. 122.1) . P. But evidently n cannot be fractional. s 24ft last term 144. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. the second one mean between the other two. 67.. . a = 49 6(71 . 6 n2 . 6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 12. Substituting in (2).PROGRESSIONS Ex. The series is. a = 12. 204 = ^ (a + 49).e. J = 49. = 1014. n d. if s = 204. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = 13. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 23. 111. 56. 204 = ^ (98 . Find the series. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 144. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 89. is 12. hence n = 6. 133. Findn.6. 45. The first term of an A. P. .104 w + 408 = 0.6 n). x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.. or if x Solving. 78. #. 34. = 144. I Substituting in (I) and (II). or 11 J. 78 n Substituting in (1). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. From (1). = 1014. Ex. l)e?.1). 2. 1. P. if a. = n(104 . n = 6.
74. n = 13. m and n 2. Find d. = ^ 3 = 1. 13. Given a = . 15. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . a x f b and a b. and s. n = 16. Given a = . 8. 14. = 83. ceding one. n. I Find I in terms of a. a+ and b a b 5. s == 440. n has the series ^ j . 4. Find a and Given s = 44. n = 4. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 3. 17. How much did he save the first month? 19.3. = 16. 78. Given a = 4. How much . Find w. = 17. s = 70. . 7. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. of 5 terms 6. 16. = 45. has the series 82. n = 17. 11. n = 20. Find a Given a = 7.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. d = 5. P. I. y and #f5y. Find?. Find d. f? . = 52. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find d and Given a = 1700. T? ^. produced. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 1870. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 6? 9. f J 1 1 / . Find n. 10. 12. Given a = 1.
PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. and To find the nth term / of a G. I..) is a series each term of which. 36. ar. . . If n is less : than unity.. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. 2 a. A geometric progression first. <zr .. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . of a G.arn ~ l .. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the first term a and the ratios r being given. or 81 315. ar8 r. +1. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. (I) of the series 16.. 36. 2. 12. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). .g.. . P. 4 (1) . is 16(f) 4 . or. rs = s 2 . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. P. ratios are respectively 3. r n~ l . The 314. 24. . P. . 36. NOTE. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 4. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given... E. The progression is a. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 108. 24. called the ratio. 4. is it (G.
. P. 18. first term 4. l. 0. volved . 144. Hence the or series is 0.. P. P. 72. 4.72. series 5. 10. is 3. first term is 125 and whose common . first 5. series 6.. 8.. i 288. 6. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. (it. 9. Hence n = 7. f. fa. . 9. . . \ t series . ? (c) 2.18. .288. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. whose and whose common ratio is 4...18.l. . . In most problems relating to G. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.. 80. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. whose . . 2 term 3. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. is 16.. series . f. 36. I = 670. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.54. 3. r^2. (d) 5.5. Find the 5th term of a G. . Jive quantities are in. if any three of them are given. whose and whose second term is 8.4. hence. 25. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. And the required means are 18. 144. 144. 7.. +f%9 % .. . 72. Ex._!=!>. . (b) 1. . . + 5. 1. 676. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 288. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. P.. P. .*. 20..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. Find the 6th term of the series J. 576.. 36. fa. 36.. 4.6. 9. or 7. a = I. EXERCISE 1.5.
the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 12 terms. n = 5.. 24. 54. 13.. >"> . Find a and n = 4. 21. 14. Find a and 4. 19. 22. is less than unity. 72. .... Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. M. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.J and 270. 14. Find the geometric mean between 7. == 160.nV> i*> !718. 81. s = 310. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 42. I. 81. 20. J. be written If the value of r of a G. 23. 16 . to 8 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. a^.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 48. to 6 terms. Z s. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.. P. of r n decreases. 4. . and hence ~ r . to G terms. to 5 terms. 1. may be than any assignable number. 243. 36. . . 25S series : 32.. r . J. Find a and Given r = 3. s = 605.i a9 . n = 5. 2. Given r = n Z 5. . to 7 terms. 15. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. = 3. = 3. 12. a. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. . + 4 . 126. 27. J. to 7 . J. 1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 5. 8. 7. 3.. 8.191919...= .. .555. . The sum r.Ql. (6) the sum of the perimeters..00072 f . 40. = .. I. 100. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.. .. 13.27777 .. . ratio 15.)7?7272 .. . 1 r = . 1. 4. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 9. .3727272 ... . Given an infinite series of squares. . . P. .. . of an infinite G.. 14... and the first term is Find 17. .254 Ex.. 16. 9. 4.717171. =A+ 10 i. 10. 5..37272 . Find the sum to infinity.1.072 + ... 16.. 66 Therefore ... = . is 16.. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.272727.. . 12. 6. of: 11. .. i. 1. = 990 . first and the common term.. is J. . ..01 ^ . .072. 2. of all squares ? . i i J. is 9. 250.. If a = 40. 12. Hence . P.3 + . 2. P. 1.. what is (a) the sum of the areas.. Find the value 9.3121212.99 . = a . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.72. 6. The sum Find the of an infinite G.= _4Z* .. r = j.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 1.
. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . a6 8 16 in . (a 100 . 15. coefficient of . (a + b) . 14. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. (s + i).6) .6) 20 . Find the 6th term of (x . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 22. 11.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 7 . . . 29. 26. 10. 5. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (xy) : 6 . l 2.b ). 17. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 13. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 25. 28. /2a+Y\ 8. 4. (a2) 6. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 16. : (1 + xy. 2 2 24. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 4 7. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (\ 9 . . 12. 21. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 20.b) w (a (a f (1 .
4. if x^l. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.  a)(a 1. 2. 3. 5. 3. 6. c if 7 . 3. 2. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . .a(a 4. 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. ^+^ 3. 1. 5. (c 3. 4. 6. 3. 3. l. 3. ft) . 3. = 2.  2.  2. 2. 4. 2. 3. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 4. 2. 24 4. 1. 3. 3. 2. 3. 4 2. 5. 2. 4. 1. 2. 4. 3. 3. 4. 2. 3. 1. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 2. 2. ft 4 ) 5. if a ft c = = = 4. 1. 1. 1. + c(a  c). 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. . 3. 4. 2 . 2. 2. if = = 2. + 1. if y=2j 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5. 6. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. y 3. 1. 7. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 4. 2. 3. 3. 5. 3. 2. 2. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3.f ac 1. 1. 2. 5. 4. 3. 4. 2.  8 ^ 2. c = = = 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. if = = = 2. 1. 2. + 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 3. 5.c )(fta) 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. aft 3 + 4. 5. 2. 6. 1. 1. 1. 4. 6. a ft c = = 2. + 2.
40. x 3 11.7 y 2* 4. + 1.2 x2 . c = 3. 2 . .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 6 a4 4 a8 . b(x (b 1.r 6 x  4 xy .x 5 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3. 6. 29. 41. 5. 8.a8 . 26. 15. 1. = 2.\ yz + xz. 7y 4 . . 4 x 4 .1. x = 4.  a) (c 2. . 2.2 z8 4 x. 12. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 20. 21. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 24. x C 4 4x y + . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 16. a 4 + 11 a . ' b) + 3.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . (5. 1. 5. c)(x a} .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. a. 2.c' 2 4 / . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . + 3 y 2* . x3 f 3 ax'2 .8 3 + 7 x4 .2. 2. + 4 ?y . 25. 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .4. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 3. 18. 21. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . or . + 2. 5. ~c)(b. 9. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 2. 17. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .2. .3 xyz.a 5 a . 9. 10. 4 z . 2 x 8. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.2 a?y + 3 aty . x3 2 a2 . 4 y 13. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . a /> 3. f 8. x 3 x' 14. 5. 8 . 4.7 ys.a 4 .8 + 2 // . + 4.259 x c) .8 y y 5 4 * 8y.a) . 15. 7 xy 3 .5. 4. r> . 3. 7.3 a?y . + 8 x4 *y .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .2 x?/.7 + . a: .10. a.5 xy 3 + + 4 .
x'2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4 2 x2 23.x 2 4. 34. (*) a  c. : a x . 5 10 + 7 .2 .4 Vl 4. = x y ft z. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . Simplify 31.6 x ] . c 4ft. . 542 x 2 and . 36.(5 y .{G * 2 . c 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft 25. ft. .[4 z 8 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 4vTT~y 3.2) . of a. 7 12 . . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . a  ft + c.{2 x 2 . 4 4 4.x2 .3. 4 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. f ft.a ft. 5 10 4 G 11 4.7.1). sum of .c 3 a. c =x y }~ z. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.4.x .8 3 4.3 x .3 .4) . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 35. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].(4 x 2 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 3 ft.2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.(x* . . Take the sum 4x 4.2 x 8y2 44 .(7 x 4.(5 c .c 4 3 a.4 ft) 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.[4 x 4.c. 5 4 7 12 . 0" 30. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .?> x 4 20. take the sum of G x 5 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .1)}] .#48.2 a . 33.x .27~~7)}].c.(4 * . x8 x2 2 a'2x.3 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].x 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 2 x 32.260 19. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. From of 2 the 4. 29.] 26. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .5. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .5 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. . . 4 3 5 y/ .2 3 ax 2 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2..6T . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.(a . and . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.
2x + 3).5 )}] + {4 c .(2 a 2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 2 53.2 2 + 1)(7.3)(*5)(* 7).3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). .(2 x2 .  2 a  {3 2x a .2a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). + *+!){> + 2).12). . 63. .6 xy .(7 i + 4 r:) .5)} + (3 a 2 .{2 a (ft .rf)} + a [.3 z 2 ).1). 51. . 59.2)(1 . 60.b (c .be) (a 58. (. .6)}]. 50.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 2 : 7e)a}].(4 d . 57. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (1 ar+a. )(lz a ).56. 68. 2 ft 41.(5 y .4 a .3c). (x . (1 55.0)} . 49. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(2 . . .2 zz . 67.(7 a.3 *). 2 2 x + !)(* .a~^~c)K]. a {. 2 52. 64.ab . (x. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (. 62.3 c)]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 4 + 2 2 + 1).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .{3 c .JT^T+1)} + (2 .96 [17 a.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).[2 .6c) (a + f c).c 2 . + 4x + 5)(j. (5 a 39. 13 a .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (/> 4 .& + {.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 45. a .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].(6 .3). 48.[4 x  5 . 65. 43. .r 2:c+ l)(ar.ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 2 f [3 c 7 a .7). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).c).Z . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .{2 a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 3 x 42. (4 + 3a 2 . 56.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 'J 44.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 54. (r (1 (a.2 2 . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 46.2c(V/ .(2 a + 5 a .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.
ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . .z) .v) 4. ft 78. ft 95.c) 2 . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 94. ar . 91. 74.{3 a . 77.2 ft}) f (3 a .r 2 .a) 2 . 85.<f(p . 82. 79. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .m np c .q).c . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .262 69. b 4.c) j.y)\x y).(4 . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . .6*y .z)(x y + z)(. 2 + a 2 ). xy y 2 ). 4 4 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.ft) 4 .2y)(. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .5 .c) . 89.z\x 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 86. 84.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 87.9y2).c . ft /. (p 2 .am&t 4 A 2 *). ft" l Simplify 80.(a 2) (s 4 ft. (x (x ( + *) . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(/>  3 v)^(.c) .2 (y 4.x + y + z). 71. 75. 73. . 70. 93.O (a 4(a 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.y + z)(x + y . 1). (. 4. Prove the following 8 4. 88.3 (ft .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(c 4.:y)( a. ft ft ft a}. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .y).3y) a (* 2 4.3 a .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).ft) + 4(2 . (a 2 ft 2n 4.(a 48 8 8 4.c)} . f 72.c) rr identities.c)].n pc). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).c) 4) (ft 4.b 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 92. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.2 (a . 1).(ft 4. 2 (x 2 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 76. 90. 83.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).
110. 10).y 4 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.40 />) . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 25 4 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 1).1). (8 x* 115. 3*. .4 aft . 122. 123.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 99 100.3 a"+ 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 113.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 120. 2 4 41 x 4a. a*.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).a". (2< 107.2y 2 4. 26 (a 4 c).2 2% 4. 103.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).r 4 4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.(2 a 2 .6 y 4 4.(x 2 .5 b*).) . 117. 118.y 2 4. (80 a 112. 114. 108.9 x 2 . r .y 4 ) . (.5 xy). 106.(a 1 2 8 .&).2 xy 8 . 109.b) 98. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 102. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 124. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).v/ ~ // = a: . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 105. 1O4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.35 x 2 2 ) . [10( 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 121.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.27 x* .*) (x 8 .(7 xi/ .16 a 6 4. 116. 2 (a+ .xy 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).
(4 x . 5(2 x .3) = 12 .G) .r>) .2) + 2(ar + 4).5) = 12(4 x . 138. y (* l x.5).(x f 9). 7(2 x . 149.(1 .r + 7[or .(x . 5 146. (*+ + .(x + 3) ] .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2 7^~5] + 1). 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 137. o o 140.4) .3 x).2(5 . .3(2 z . . 3(2 x 134.18 *&) (1 .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.4) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.4(0 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 139.27 a 3" .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 135.2) = 3 .(j a? 144.a:)]}.2(j: . . 129.3) (3 x 4.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .8 6 .9) + 3. 142. 2 4(ar .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 42(3ar 145.2) (a: + 3). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).264 125.22.12 M 132. 148. 1) = 2(* . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 136. 128.2(4 . 143.1) .2(10 x .5{.n . . x 147.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 127.3). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . (5a: 150.7(4 * .3(* + 4) + 9} . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.1) (a? . 1) .3).9) 4. 10(2 x 141. . 3) = x\x .19) + 5 = 4 .7) = 4 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 126.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .3 a:). .
5 x) = 45 x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. and the third twice as many as the first. (2 .4) (a . If the area of the frame inches. (a . 155.14) (a: + 3). + 2) + (5 . 161.r + 3) .29) 2 = 1.2 x) = (1 .T)O .3) (a: . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.l)(z .a:) + 229. 158.5(x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 153. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.3) = (3 x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.3) (j. 154. (x (x a. (a) If C.2). =  (F 32). 265 152. + 10) (ar .19) + 42. (a. (7 14 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. + 4) (2 x + 5). a: ar a. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 156. these two angles would be equal.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 162. How many 170. (3 O + . 2 4 .2) a + 7(x . + 5) = (9 . 157.z) (4 . find the value of F..(5 x . 164. f^ + ^sO.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.9) + (a. 160.5) = (3 .76.3) (3 . 166.5*) + 47. . . 165. sheep more than the 169. = 2 C.24.2) (j? + 1) + (x . 163.7) (1 x .7) (a. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .8) = (2 x 4. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2) (7 *) + (*.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.2 x) (4 . .1) (s + 3). . The second contains 3 first.17) 2 + (4 x .6 x) (3 . transformed into F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.? . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. .25) 2 . The sum What 171.5)(. = 15.3) (3 . will produce F. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 5(ar x . 159.
. A boy is father. 4 a 2 yy 42. 187. train. 179.56. . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. side were one foot longer. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 3 gives the 174. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. aW + llab2&. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. number divided by 3. 186. ll?/102. + a. z 2 92. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. and 5 h. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. . + 11 ~ 6. power one of the two Find the power of each. 181. 15 m. 190. two boys is twice that of the younger. How many are there in each window ? . Find the number.36. Find the dimensions of the floor. A each 177. same result as the number diminished by 175. 180. if each increased 2 feet. 2 2 + a _ no. 176. dimension 182. 13 a + 3. respectively. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. sister . the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 10x 2 192. was three times that of the younger. z 2 + x . +x 2. father. younger than his Find the age of the father. 7/ 191. 188. 12 m.266 173. 189. 178. x* 185. A house has 3 rows of windows.
(13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 213. 3 x V . x 219. .6. 201. 245. .10 xy. + 2 . a^a 226.12 * . a: .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a: 231. 7x 2 225. 207. 212. 239. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 206. 208. 3 ap 2 . x 5 .22 z + 48. xm+l 243. 2  5 xy 13 y a.1. 16x 4 81. a. 23 12.3 c/> + 6 cq. 211. 4 m +^.8 6 2.28. a: 236. 3y 248. 2 200. a.(b + rf) 2 . z + 5x 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . + 30 x.10 y a x* .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.3 xy.r?/f y 2 9. (a + . 8 a: ar. y 2 194. 238.20 z 8 a: 220. a. 224. 246. 233. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .x + 1. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . + 3a 196. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 267 199. 244. 4a 2& 2 241. 2 2 y f 1. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 232. # 2  29 y + 120. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a 2 .19 z 4 204. 2 . a a: a: 237. 2 x 2 . 202. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 222. .6 y2 + 4.14 2 . 210. 5 x 2. 235. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 24 2 + 2 .21 a:  54. 8 a.3 xf + 3 * 2y .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . a. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 8. 2 a 8 . 12 x +4.c) 2  (a . 229.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.19 a . 7a 228. 2a te 3% ly 247. + 198. 227. 3 x 2 . 221.6 2 ?/ .77 y + 150. . 230.c) 2 . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 195. x* + 8 2 + 15. z 2 2. ifWy+b. . *2 234. 3y 2 + ary . 2 a 2 . 6 197. x*y 223.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 215. 216. 209. . .64.6 aq . a+a* + o a +l. 203. wiy + la mx + aw. 217. 218. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .10.6s.
254. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 22x2 a. 3 a% 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271.48 afy 2 . 15 # 2 z/ /. a.120. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 7 ax 250.80.&z. x 2 + 2 x .13.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 257. F. 10 x 2 . 258.3.4 ab + 1. * 2 . 261. x 2 + 5 f . . z 2 267.16 x . a 3 a 2 2 . * a .18 xy + 5. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 + 7 r f 2. + 8. 6. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. + 23 x f 20. x 2 .14 bx a%% 8 .73 xy .23 + 12.9. 28 2 f 71 x .2 z .9 x + 14. of: 253.5 ab f 2. 18 x 2 .23 x f 20. I Find the II.10. x*y* 4.(55. ft a.36.ry . x* . 2 x2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.ry 21.2/ 2 . * 2 .1 9 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 252.11 x f 28.7 f 5. 30 ^ . 269. 10 a.10 a 4.91. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .M. 260. 264.a + 2 4.15 + 30.G7 x f 33.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 2 a. 265. z 2 268. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . + 3 x + 2. 3 ay 4.3 abc . x 2 4.3 x . 7 12 2 2 .2 aft*.9 x . * 2 . a? a: a: // 262. 2 .12.11 a 2 .8. 1 x ar Find the L. 3 #2 255.x .4. 2 8 .a 2 />c 2 f 3. 5 x 2 256.15. x 2 263.C.r .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . a: . of: 266. a 4. 251.6 by.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . C.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . + 20 x 4. + 8 x + 5. 270. 8 2 + 10 x . x* . 259.
z2 (a 2 + c)a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 289 ' .ar 1 279.. *2 " 2 + Oge.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . m 4.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 8 . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.!/. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . + ac . a.2* + 3 x* 280.rL.(y 2 z) * t (j.. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2c a: 282.
a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 4 3 301. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 6) _ ~ i 305. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^. Lnl + ar 2 a. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^_2*(m 308. * 19 23 19(23 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x 7. a (: a) (x 2. O(ca) 306. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .
ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 1 x2 + + a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. a: 1 313. _ x8 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (1 . 1a: + y a. } . . 2 + y 2 319. 1 _.(a .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .. (a? 4 2) 317. .
2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.ll.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 20 44 333.2 +lOar 2 a.7 xy + 12 x .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 lOx 5x. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. .15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 250 5 10 2 325. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 ..y20  2y + 4 2 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .5 a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. * 3a.V  + y  x 3y a .6* t 328.9 *// + 27 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. a: 2 x* . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . ..
REVIEW EXERCISE 336. xi 347. w \. 344. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.y. f V. 1 345. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. fl. 338. \x yj 340. (aWi + iJ.1V. ' 2 "l 5 . a>74 . ** i. (af2/. : 1+ i.. + ni + .r 5 2 . ?_2 ^ . ( 342. if a = 3.+ r . + l + IV.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 5 343. 352. 348. aj 339. \5yl 341. +^ a: y x . a: 349 _ o. (a \ + lV. (ar \ 346.) 2 . 7 ( ?f!?.
a2 4 . I  I f 366. y360. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (~ 364. 1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. + x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . . a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
379.*2 = 15. 4(* .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5*8. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. __4 2x 3_ = !. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 8  376. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. . <3 378. ^ . 5 {2 x 381. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. J !__7.
REVIEW EXERCISE 391.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. + 4 a. m x 398. 400.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 ^ ~ a: a. 396. ^ (a .1 . 40.  J).75 x f . b 404.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 399.25 x + . a.5 x =r f . 397. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). c . . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = .6  . u '2 a. 3* 177.25. 401. _____ . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. ..  8 9* x ~r.147.2 a:  1. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. f 1 1 + a 403.
(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 18 be subtracted from the number. 420. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. and was out 5 hours. In a if and 422. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. the order of the digits will be inverted.  a) 2 6 2a.(5 I2x ~r l a) . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo.278 410. hour. Tn 6 hours . (x . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 411. Find the number. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 421.c) . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. How long is each road ? 423. far did he walk all together ? A .
of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 3 and 1J. 432. y. 428. 430.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 433. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .49 63). find the angles of the triangle. Find the mean proportional to 429. a + 5. b. Solve 436. : If is one equal 434. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 2 2 8 2 . : i. 435. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . .a 2^ 8 + aft* . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.46 2): (15a 2 . wi* + y= ny. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). x 427. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the fourth proportional 426. if . a  t>.6 8 ). find : a : c. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. If a b : =5 n : 7.& 5 ) (a 8 . z 2 y.iand 22 22 I a . and : b : c = 14 : 15. Which ratio is greater. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. a. Find the length of the parts. 431. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . . d. 438. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.
5#+ 10 = 27 a. 3 a. ?/ 447. 453.59 = 3 z. 445. 42 = 15y + 137. a: 2y= = 1 . 456.. 9ar7# = 71. 448. . 8 x + y = 19. 443. 16. 56 + 10y = 7a. />(.*. The volumes If their diameters. 459. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 5z4:# = 3. 4 = 5 y + 29. ft. 458. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 8 . x + 17 # 53. /) ar a.(or l(*2y)=0. 454.11 7.11 y = 95. if 2 ft : 439.4 12 . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 9/> = 2 . 444. . 455. 451. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 7 a: .rf2# = l. 449. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 446. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 3 . .55 y = . 28 = 5 a . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 457.89 = q. 452. 5 2 = 7 .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. Find the value of a. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . c. 450. 5x+4y=lQ. ft.7 y = 25. 7a?y = 3. .35. 7 442. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 15ar = 20 + 8y. + 5y = 59. Solve the following systems: 441. a: a: + 5y). . a. 1(3  a. = 25. 7jr9y = 17.
. 465. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 475.c=563y. i = 5.7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. x y 474. 8 461. + eyn.2y) (2 = 2J. ^ + i^ = 7. 473.?/ + 1 . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 468. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax by = c \ 472. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.+ =2. (or . 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.  = 2. _ 469.
477. whose difference is 4. A spends \ of his. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. the Find their ages. to . If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. A number consists of two digits 4. age. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 485. 483. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. years. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find the fraction. fraction becomes equal to . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. How much money less 484. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the sum and the rate of interest. by 4. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and in 18 months to $2180. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 481. Find their ages. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the number. . 479. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the numbers. and in 20 months to $275. and the other number least. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 487.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 486. Find the numbers.
8. 2y + 2z = a: 2. + y 5 y = 101 . 5^ 9z = 10. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + # +z= 35. a number . z y x 25 . 7./ f z =a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 1. 5 + a. = 20. 498. 2y + 3a = ll. . ~ 507. x y f z = 13. y Solve : x +z= 5. . 4z+3z = 20. 493.z = 12. a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 494.5#+2z = $x a: G. a: 499. . 495. a: + // = 11. 4 497. 496. 4 506. a.? + 2y = 8.z = 20. 7 + 2 z . . 2a:f 7. x f y f z 29 . 489. 1+1 = 6. 492. and the difference of their Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers squares is b. z y ifi = z x 502. *i. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. : Solve the following systems 491. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 15. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 2 e. 3ar 503. 2/>3r = 4. \ . 3 a: + 5=84. . 2 2 = 41. 2 a. ifi = x a. * + 425  = . x s + y z = 18J . a: f z = 79. 490. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 3 x 500./ 504.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. = 209.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800. 517. z z =3a&c. 36 + c. + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. ll" . 523.
In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Find the numbers. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . touches and F respectively. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. . A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 527. it is filled in 35 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. CD. If they had walked toward each other. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. M. in 28 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. . AB=6. if L and Af in 20 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. N. 532. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. BC = 5. it separately ? 531. 530. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In circle A ABC. the first and second digits will change places. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. E 533. and CA=7. B and C and C and A in 4 days. AC in /). Find the present ages of his father and mother. and BE. if and L. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. When weighed in water. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Tf and run together. 90. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. What are their rates of travel? . L. they would have met in 2 hours.
GERMANY. formation of dollars into marks.  3 x. a. x 8 549. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 544. The values of y. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x*.10 marks. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. from x = 2 to x = 4. 547. .e.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 550. 545. + 3.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. 543. If to feet is the length of a seconds. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.  7. if x = f 1. d. The values of x if y = 2. e. to do the work? pendulum. 546. 2. The greatest value of the function. 548. x 2 + x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. then / = 3 and write = 3. 542. c. 2  x  x2 . x*  2 x. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2 541. z 2  x x  5. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 2. . b. One dollar equals 4. 536. the function. 540. FRANCE. 3 x 539. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2 x + 5. i. x *x + x + 1.
553. if y =m has three real roots. 2. 3 + 3 z .r .G . 563. and make the unit of the b. g. Represent meters.4 . Solve 552. J. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. . z 2 . . 566. x 2 ~ 2 . + 10 x .0. 558. \ to t = 5.9 = 0.3 . a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. // Solve y Solve y = 5. h. 555.  2 1 a: a. x* . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. + 5 . x 4 . 2 x 2 560. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.4 = 0. = 5. 3 . . x 5 . 2 a.1 = 0. 15. 2 554. e.3 x . a? 4 x . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.r 1 561. Solve// = 0. a. z 4 . 557. f.5 x . 568.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 2 567. 572.4 x 2 + 4 . a.= 0.7 = . 3 x* .6 + 3 . ' = 8. 556. 565. r?. c.3 x . 564. a: 559. 18 x  4 = 0.17 = 0. If y +5 10.r a: a: x a. j. c.11 x* + + 2 8 569.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 562. 3 x .15 = 0.3 = 0.11 = 0.= 0. 2 8 . i.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.13 = 0.
2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . + ^) + (air%)8. 593. 6 + 1) . 3 (f. xY. 582. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. (aiy. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.5 xy = 0. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. a. 609. . j^f = 3. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . (# 2) . 64 a 12 603. 579. : y* or 25.frf : 583. 596.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. (1 + x a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. x + z2) 8 . 592. a:. 608. + . 598. jj+. 2  2 aa: 2 . a 8 606.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a: . 3 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 589. 4 a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 588. x [ ?/ 577.4. 585 594.%) 4 (aa. a 2a.x + 2 )'2 601.2 6a: + 30 &c a. f ?>) 3 591.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. . + + 4 . 595. 9  4 fSb 607. 600. (a  8 ft) . [ y =10. (a. 599. 4 (1a:) 3. 2 611. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 604. 597.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.(1 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 1 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.2 2 + y.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a 612. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. (1 (1 (1 . 4 . 5 a*.
623.150.15174441. = . x 2 .448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. VOIOOD + V582T09. (x 9 x 646. + 24 a 2 4 . V 635. 651. 942841.49. 3a.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. Find the square root of 619. 639. + 2 21 x = 100. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 633. 637. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 9a. 8*' + 24* = 32. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 628. 624. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = 70. 2 + 21Ga. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 0090. : 5. 49042009. /. 622. 632. = 87.871844. *+* = 156. 625 : 621. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. Find the eighth root 617.2410. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 629. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 4370404. 7) 2. 40. 650. 644.2. + 112 a 8 . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 615. 4J. 210. 371240.53 x ~ .191209. 32 631. According to Kepler's law.12 a?y + y*. 626. 2. V950484 . 647t x 2 648 649. 620. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . find Jupiter's period.*. 494210400001. 614. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 638.\/4090. ft . x 2 641. 636. = 0. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 2 + 189 z = 900. 643.V250 .1024 x + a: 256. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.30. 9g. GGff. 634. 49. + 54 'x*y* . a 642. 25023844. 630. 44352. 035. 21. 645.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694. 2 2 697. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. = 0. 706. 708. 699. 707. . ax 2 698. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.a a )jr . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. .bx . 695. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. ex abc= fx 0.c = 0.ax . 692. a. 2 2 . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 696. 2 702. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 693. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 __ : )'*' _i.
What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. How shares did he buy ? if 726. in value. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find the price of an apple. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720.44#2 + 121 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 217 . a: 713. **13a: 2 710. 724.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 3or i 16 . 727. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. A equals CO feet. 717.292 709. sum is a and whose product equals J. . he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 16 x* . 721. Find two numbers whose 719. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 725. 723. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 722. 716. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 729. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 12 4*+  8. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.
2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .X . (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.l). 42. (v/x). .2? 50.1 + x.aft* 1 + a 2*.)(ai + &. 39. 38. 33. 34. 41.1 + c. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 35.1 f c" ). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 1 6. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 37. 46. n. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . . 31. 36.2)(x2 4. 43. 52. 40.2 ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 32. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).1 f ^ 2).
4\/50 4 SVlOOO. \/G86 v/lGv/128. ~ r* x .. [1r^ T 1 i . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.294 753. 2V2 2V3 . JU. 757. 768. 754. 759._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 758. 761. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.
. 92VI5. Va 809. . 794.4 V(j. 16 + 2V55. a 9442V5. 3812VIO. c 792. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 7512V21. 103 788. 783.12VIT. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 806. 793. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 790. x 782. 13 799. .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 14 791.VlO. 10 785.2 V30.2V3* ^ 807. 787. 786. 789. 3J . + 2V21. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.
829.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.g. 819. 3 x + 2 . 814. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.V? = 813. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. (x a: 2 ) 4 .\/2y  810.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 833. 818.V2 ar 10. 816. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .79. 812. + 103Var. Va: . + Vx . 836. 830. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. V14 a.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. = 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. 811. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .4 = 0. 831. x/aT+l . 815. \/12 a.Vc^lJ . + ViTli + V7 . V3 f 1 V4a. 820. /9ar a: = 17. VaT+lJ f ^l .13 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.
4o. a.1. 852. 6. a 18 4.10 = 118. 870. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a 8 869.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 5 a 4 7 a8 . + . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a. 8 860. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . a 8 850.3 x . 8^27^. 851. 275 8 l. 840. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 27 y 8. a 8 873.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a: 849.  3x a. . 846. 871. a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. a. 845. 863. . + 512 y8 874. 868. 4 a. f b**. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 853. x 4 + f 2 a. 64 a 866. a: . 9. f 12. 6 2 f 3 6 s. x 11 a^ J 13 854. z*y 8 l64a. 8 8  13 a. 27 862. 865. a. 729 867. a 872. . 8 a.3 Va: 2 . 856. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 2 a: 64 y*.x*y + 3x f 2. + 1. a. V4 x 2 . 19 x 14. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 8 8 848. a l0m . 876.ab9 ft*. 4 x 8 858. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 64. 844. 861. 4 a: 2 842.12. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. + 216 rt aty a 10 .1000 6.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 4a: 8 a. 864. 875.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. x 8 2 857. 855.a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 4 x* 847. 8 . 8 2a. +3 4 +  4. 839. . y 4. 16 859. 2 f" + a/ 15.3 a:. . a*" & 6n . 2 x 3.3 . f 841.
.1 = 2 a#. 3 x 2 . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 = 2 + 5.y 2 = 2 y + 2. . 886. 890. + 2y=\2. +y f y = 7. a. a. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 883.15. M1 891 1 . x*xy. y = 28. xy + y = 32. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.35.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. f ?/ a: a: . a: 884. a: 2 897. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 1 x 893. . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 896. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 + xy = 28. y 2 4. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 878. y y 2 y 2 1121. 901.y 2 + V(j. 2 . 2 . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. x 882. 887. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 + y 2 . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 900. a:y . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. z 2 898. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. x 8 3 = 13:3. a. 894. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.298 877. a: a. 2 + xy = 10. 5. 895.sy = 198. + ary + 2 = 37. a: 888. 885. y 2 2 8f. 2 2 = 16 y. .Vi' + 1 1_3. y*+ xy . .xy + y 2 = 19. . x a: lI = xz . 889. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 899.18. a# f + xy = 126.y 2) = 20.
# + xy + y = 7.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . a. x f 2 a:y = 32.6. + 2 a:y + = 243.3(* + y) = 6. + y = 9. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. . y 3 2 2 922. (a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. ^ 2 . 912. a: a. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 924.r a. 917. (3 x .y). + ?/) . Vary + y = 6.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + y)(a. 914. 4 (a. * + y = 444. 2 + y = 2 a 4. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y) = 33. + a. 23 x 2 .y = a(ar + y). 905. 7 y .23 = 200. xa 903. 920. 909. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.3) 2 f (y . 3 :r(3 . y # 2 2 f f y = 84. y + a:y = 180. (* 918. = 8. 910. x 4 299 xy z 904.y) (a? . + y 8 = 189. 2 915. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. a: * a: a: ar 928.16 y 3 8 = . 2 913.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + ary = a*.#y + 2 = 27. x + y}(x + y) = 273. or or a? a: a: . 921. 2 5 xy = 11. x 2 ry + y = 3. 906. (!) * . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x + y 2 = aar. a: y zx 12. 907. 911. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y2 = 22. 2 2 2 916.y) (3 y . y . ary y = 8. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y x 2 = by. (o. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 908. . 923. yz = 24. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 3 y 8 ) =1216. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. + 2 ary = 39. xy + x= 15.2 y) = 49 2 919. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.x) = 21. *y . a:y xy 929. 2 * 2 ~ g.3)2 = 34.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. two squares is 23 feet. Assuming = y. feet.square inches. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. find the radii of the two circles. and also contains 300 square feet. diagonal 940. 152. two squares equals 140 feet. and the difference of 936. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. + z)=18. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. (y + *) = . + z) =108. A is 938. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. is 3. 937. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A and B run a race round a twomile course. How many rows are there? 941. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 942. A plantation in rows consists of 10. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 944. s(y 932. 935. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet.000 trees. 34 939. a second rec8 feet shorter. In the second heat A . In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Find the numbers.102. is 3 . 931. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. is 20. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. *(* + #) =24. and the sum of their areas 78$. 943. . y( 934. z(* + y + 2) = 76.300 930. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 2240. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. rate each man ran in the first heat. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and 10 feet broader. If each side was increased by 2 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. two numbers Find the numbers.
triangle is 6. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. whose 946. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. is 407 cubic feet. . its area will be increased 100 square feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. A and B. P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. and its perim 948. unaltered. that B A 955. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. set out from two places. 953. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and travels in the same direction as A. Find the number. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. . Find the number. each block. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. at Find the his rate of traveling. sum Find an edge of 954. Find the eter 947. 952. the digits are reversed. 950. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. distance between P and Q. Find its length and breadth. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and if 594 be added to the number. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 949. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. and that B. . Two starts travelers. overtook miles. 951.
the terms being in A. P. (x 4 to n terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.>/) to infinity. = 4.3151515. 3 . to n terms.  2. 1G series . 5. .454.1 4 f j$V . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. + (iiven a +  4 d . Find n f (ft) . x(x to 8 terms. difference. 972. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Find n. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. to infinity. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 971. ^ Vfirst five 959. .. '. . *" 968.. to 7 terms.. fourth of the unity. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Sum Sum to infinity.141414... P. 3 + 5 7 + . P. \ . ^ 1 . 4 4 to 7 terms .. Find an A. 4. 966. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. s  88.. . n to n terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 975. P. 1 to n terms.. 964. (to 2 n terms).. 16 962. 958.V2 ..v 973. 18th terms of an A. 5.. 36 963.. !Ll^ + n .. f + 1 . Sura to 24 terms. are 29 and 53. 9th and llth terms of an A. and 976. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Sum to 20 terms.4142 .321? 965.302 956...x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Find the Find the common 977. Find the sum of 4..to infinity.. J. 970. 969. 957. 974. Evaluate (a) . 961.
. Find n. 2 grains on the 2d..REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. named Sheran. "(. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 992. 5 11. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The term. P.1 + 2. 986. : + 9   V2 + . P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. is 225. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find four numbers in A. P. 990.. 985. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . to infinity may be 8? . 303 979. and of the second and third 03.04 + .) the last term the series a perfect number. The 21st term of an A.001 + . Find four perfect numbers. 4 grains on the 3d. Find the sum of the series 988.+ lY L V. The sum 982. to oo.2 . 1.001 4. Find the first term. 989.. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 980. of n terms of an A...01 3. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to n terms. first 984. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount ... 0.3 ' Find the 8th 983. and the common difference. to 105? 981. 987. and so on. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .
In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. many days will the latter overtake the former? . in this circle a square. 1003. P. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. in this square a circle. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 999. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 512 996. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. ft. . 1000. find the series. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. ABC A A n same sides. P. P. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. inches. prove that they cannot be in A. Under the conditions of the preceding example. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and so forth to infinity. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. is 4. 995. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 998. of squares of four numbers in G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . If a. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 1001. are 28 and find the numbers. are unequal. c. AB = 1004. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. (6) the sum of the infinity. (a) after 5 strokes. The fifth term of a G. areas of all triangles. 997. and G. The sum and sum . at the same time.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. 994. Two travelers start on the same road. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second.
Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.o/) 14 .l) w f . 1009.iV 2i/ 5 . 1006. 1008. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . + lQ . (1 1018. . 2 ) 5.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1014. 1012. Find the middle term of ( . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Expand  2 a. . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1011. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . a: 8 7.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. x) 18 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. (12 #) 7 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . ) 1021.
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. . .. 8 . 232 169 807 . Checks Coefficient 20. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . quadratic .. ... . 232 mean progression . .. . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .178 Completing the square .130 . simple simultaneous . . . linear literal Common ** * difference . 9 ** . 112 54 54 251 .108 160 " .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. signs of Algebraic expression ...193 11 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 246 91 " multiple. ......... 158. . 123 . . 37. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15... 19... numerical . 129 54. . .] Abscissa Absolute term . .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. t 53 120 . graphic tion of representa . 160 in quadratic form 191 . lowest ratio " '* . .. . 54. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . 97. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 129.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES... Aggregation. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . .. . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . .. 9.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. .. .... .. . ...
. L. . directly... 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . P .. INDEX 8 . 114. 63. 34. . 91 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. inversely 122 numbers . 45. . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . arithmetic ..808 Exponent Exponents.. 189.108 Minuend . Insertion of parentheses . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . 143. 241 123 geometric . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 243 7 . . 45.. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . exponent . 17 65. . G. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. Imaginary numbers .. 180. . 184 54.. 212 . Negative exponents 11 . 253 28 70 1. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . 112 . Geometric progression . 84. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . first and second . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. . . law of Extraneous roots . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. addition of " square of .. . Like terms Linear equation . 195 33. Known numbers .154 Order of operations " of surds .. 23 10 91 102. . Inconsistent equations . 45 Laws of signs . . .. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.C Multiplication . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. 109 102 . . 227 geometric . . 9.31. 205 . . ... 227 . . Product '* 76 Infinite. Mathematical induction . .251 Graphic solution of simultane.. numbers . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 120 Member. . .
. . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. absolute 54 Variable ... algebraic Surds .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem...... 129. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. polynomial . 45 Trinomial 240 . . . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ... 4 155 9 " of ... .. . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . Sum... binomial Third proportional Transposition ...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76..... . . . 9.
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
1917. U. Published September. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. Reprinted April. Gushing Co. . Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. December. 8. 1913..COPYRIGHT.S. 1910. NorfoooS J. 1916. Mass.A. Berwick <fe Smith Co.
C. 13. Yes. 29. 4. 9. 18. 11. 3. 7. 16. 23. $160. Australia ft.00000001. 2. 7m. 1. Page 4. 25. loss. 5. 12. 7. 8 ft. 1. 6. 2. 1. 10g. 6. 3. 49. 2. 12. 4. 7. 3. in 12. 5. . . 24.150. 26. 13. 14. 22. x. 0. 9. 11. 12. 6. 2. 15. _ 32. 13. 8. 13 V. 5000. 1. 0. in. Page 13. 106. 16. 1 16. 5. 16 in. 16. 3. 19. 29. 8. ^. T . 18.000 negroes. is $10. 128. 3. 19 4. 13.2. 2. 1. westerly motion.000. in. 14. 17. A 38 mi. 7. 37.000. 3. 8 13. 150.. 16f 2. Page 8. C $ 16. 1.000. b. 17. 12. 576. 3. 13 S. 59. 10. 8. 126. 18. 9. i . 2.000.1. 8. 6. 27. 3* 7... 16. x. . 9.. 7. Multiplication. 1. 6. 3. 19. A . 5. 4. 14 11. 6. Page 1. 4.  2 p. 22. 18. 2 ~ 15. 5. 10. 32. 8. 15. 16. Ot 15.$9400. 5. 24. 3..ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 16. 32. 3. 7. 11. 25. }. 36. 4. 64. c. 6. 14. 12. $100. 3. 6. 32. (a) (/>) 1.000. 2. B $20. 512. 256. 1. 3.. 21. C $60. 1. 3. 6 yd. 18.8. 20. B $4700. 18. 85. sign. 210. 6* 16. V 23. 5. arithmetic. 10. 12. 25. 13 d. 6. A Bl 7. 10. 11. 3. B 10 mi. 2. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 12. 2. 14. A $90. 16. 28.21 24. 6. + 1. 4. 2. 2 5. 14. 16. 17. 16 in. 16. 20 B. 10. 15. 1.3. 1. 7. 10. 21. 30. 27. 4. 28.  22 20.000 Indians. 14. 1. 17. 11. 27.000. 19. 14. 9 16  larger than 7. 20. 9 = 4. 15. 2. Not 5. 6. 3 m. 20 \. 1. 32. 8. South America 46. 14. 10. 26z. 20 jo. . 49. 20. 72 = = 216. 15. 25. 12. 30?. B $ 128.  1. 9. 89. Page?. 3. 13.000. 20. 192. . 5. 12. 7.. 9. 9. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 2. ft.000. sign.. 21. = 5 81. B $80. 9. 8. 3. 3 below 0. $40. 24. 10. 6. 73. 1. 1. 9 m. per sec. 37 S. 7. 3. 48 ft. 9.  13. $ 1 50 10. 2. 12. 9 14. 115. 2  Page 8. 17. C $1(50. A 15.12.. 2. 144.  1.
24. 21. WIN + wiw. 2oVmf?i. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 28. (a} 100 1(5 cm. ^). 173. 39. c. 26. <i~ 26. 4. . o^ft. 3. ^.. 16. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 15. 12yd.4 ft. 5. 10. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 3(c4a). 17. 3 a* + 2 at*. 314 sq. 2. 19. 4. 35. 5. ft f 19. r/ \(\xyz. r:A 29. yyz+xyz*. Page 31. 14.ab. $80. 0. 13. 3 . 58. ]*. 20(. 13. 19. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 18. 20. 18.6) 38. 38 ab. 11. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .5 (ft) sq. 42. (59. 21. a ft c. 0. 4. 00 24 04 ft. 6. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 27. x^ 20. 5. .9?/2 8.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 3. 4. + ft). 5.'J.. //'. 3a. 8. 21 a 3 4 10. 12. 8. 1. 18.a . f  5e 35. (r) 2. 0. . 0. 35. Page 23.  1. a2 4 15^44. 1. 1. 33. 30. 12 a. . 49. 17. 21^. in. 16. 8.900. 1. 5. 22. (c) 8. (a) r>23ifcu. (ft) Page 2. 41. 28. 8. 23. 15. 28. 17. 17. 13. 2x' 2 5 . 10. (ft) mi. Trino inial. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 25. II. 22. 5. 8. m + 3(a. 35. 22. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 37. 9. 16. Polynomial. 22( 19. 31. 29.5f> sq. ft. 14:)..14 sq. in. 18. = 81. 21. (a) 200. 15. 31.. (c) S(i. 20. 9. 6<t. ??i??. :J!>r'. 27. 13. 3. 11. 14. 16. i:5. (b) 135 mi. 50. 1. 13 cu. 8.  11. 17. . 22..94(>. Binomial. ft n. jrif 4 9. Monomial. 30. 20. 2ftx. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 14. 18. 27. 237.  0. 8. (r) 78. Page 21. ft. 7. 31. 7. 51 f. 10.  2 4 13 ft 2 .r f 15. (r) 2000 m. 2. t. . y. Page 7.r~ f 34. arty 1 20. $3000 Page 6. = ()501.'JO ft. ft. 12. 13.GOG. 4 9/^/rl 2. 27. 26. 33. Polynomial. 19. 3. rt. 32 2 ftc. mi. in.32 c2 > ft 3 . 104. 25. 3. 0. 34. 15. 04.1. 6. a 32. (a) <> sq. _ 4 . 3. 0. 92. 57.. 43w//2 17. 13. m 24. 12. 240. 25. :. \'\ 4.<>Gq. (ft) $40.  xV 3 y. 29. 7. #1111. I. ft' 3 . in. 3rf 27. 9. . 4. ft. 38. 7 7. +/2(/. Pagel4r. r+l. 1. + 5. 4. 3. (ft) 12.. (<7) (a) 314 sq.. 9. 15. 12.  3. 2.. 6. 14. 8. ..ft) 4. 2. (ft) 7. (a) 50. 2.  40.x.ft. ft. 0. 15a. 23. 5x+3. vi 14.000 . 4 y/ . 24. 5. 7. 5. Page 18.. 0. 27.  12.. 32.4  2ft 2 33. 36. 14. 3. 14. sq. 32. .r 2 . 34.rty8. 30. 36. 1. (a 4 4.q 4.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 11. 15. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.~4. w. 16. It. 0. 12. 11. (r) 2G7. 2. 1.. 12.000 sq. 1. + v> 2 . 14. 27. 9. 7. 3.
a + a. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 1. a  ISjfat. Exercise 16. 14. lOrt 15w4. &. 4. (2n' 43p 47 ). 25.  17. 3 Ji 8 . 2 2 2 6. !  </ . \ :{ 2 a 48. a 10w. 2 17. s_r>a5. 20. 1. 4r 2 . 2. . 4ft ~. 37. 21.2 . 3. 3 m. x  + 3z. a  49. :5 41.4 d. . a 3a 4 2 &. . 2x 4 a 13. c. 14.5 z?/ + 3 y .11. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 56. 13. 51. + 8. 24 b 46.2. 7. 24. 2 6.  b. ?/i 13.4x. j)(g1.4. 29. 10. 26. 8. 2 . w 17. 1 + 45. 10.7. 32.a'2 . 6. 2 4. '  .2 a2 2m 2 4. 2 3. . . 2 2. 2. 16. 10 x. 31. 17. + 6. ^ <.2 ft 2 r2 10. 25.2 a. .ws 2 ft) . 2 a 37.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). . 14.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 11. _ Page 30.'U4j>. a2 9. 3 a3 & 41. . 2. c2 . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . a 3 .(2 x2 . 2m. 19. 20. ti. 18.4c 3 8 8 J.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 5. 4. . 16.r 2. 2 3x f z. 5 2 Page 29. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 1 4. 2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. . (mn} 11. 2m + 2w.  23. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . ft Exercise 17.. f 2 ?/  2. M + 10. Page 8. 5. 28.h. 20. a. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 25 47. 3. 2 a f 6 414. G. 2 y' 4 . 3 a . 2. 2. 1. 14. 34 39. Page 44. 4.  b* 4 r 1 . . (5x47 3.3x 2 2 tf. 2a: 2 4x. 6. 24.1. 31. ?/. 1. 0. 0. a + (ftc4df). 4wipg>' 27. . 4.3 6. ?>4tl 53. 5x 2 rt ft.  14 afy .  G J8 r  4 a <?. a f 2 f 2 9. a 4 + ft.a~. ( 7.a .8(c + a). 43. a2 24. G a bd. 21. 40. 10 m. 22.x f 1 2 . 19. . a a. 364c. 8 + 2 a . 25. 12. a 6 2 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 1.l. 32 w 2 w. a 3& .5. 7  # + 12.6 x + 0) 16. 11. 3. 2a. 18. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 8 . 0. 12. 5. r. . Page 28. 8 8 . 55. 11. f ft 9. ar. 26. Page 7. 6. 50. 2. + 2y. 36. 7  a + 2 + c. 24.a f 54.. mn. 2// 16.  1. 35. 7. _5a<>&43c. 18. 36. . m*  n*. 2 . 12. ri\ 18.  4 b 17 y*. n*.r.abc. 10. 58. 15.Oa: + 10. x a8 1. ?> 22.2 57. 8 b. 12. a). (w4w)(ww).a*.1 . 33. 17. 30. w* ( . 13. 1. . 59. 15.c. ii\ 22. 21. a' 4ab + ?/. 4. 7. c. 19. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 2. 2. 42. 2. + 4 c. t). 814. 4 21. 26. 2 + a4l).5 4 2 3 ?/ . 9. 8. 4.(7x2 Ox2). a4 4 4. 6. 15. 7. 22. (yz~d}. 38. 8. 34. 5.aft. ab a.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .  12. a 52.  a: 2. x3 . 7 a5 1 .
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2 1: 21. 35. 33. 2 +10s281. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 10. 2 a' y' . . 29.20.3. +  m' 1. 4 + 25 q*. 4 21. 37. 8. 2 fr . 27.5 ~ 81. 1. 1. a + 56. + 12. 10. 10. 16. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 30 /><.r . 44. 441. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 9. +   5). 36. 38. (n 2 5. I/).404. ^' J  7 f 12. 26. 37.500. (w4)(w + l). lflrt 2 8 + l. 4 . 7.14 jp + 49. 4 .r . 10. 2 6' . n2 a4 6. Page 39.r* 2 30. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).4 a&+ 4 &*. 25.712. 10. x4 28. . 31. ?/H)0. (p 2. 2. Page 12. 40. x 48. + 7 6)(3a~76>. . 2 (5 a 3). 6 x6 + 13 x3 .ANSWERS 28. 4 x2 13. +4 34. 3wi2 m Page 42. 24.2 y*. fo*.^V"' .54 p 2 + 81.15. 40. 8 38.001. 9999. 30. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 14.. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. ^V^4 . ft' 11. 6./ .10 35. 19. 39.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .6.606. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . a + 25. (a + 4) (a + 2).2 6 + 13. 1. 4x21. 36 a 4 . ab . G a6 2. a3 0. 11. x2 GiC+5. 31. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 33. 10 a 4 ?. + 2 9. 33. 39. 34. 4 2 //. 990.000. (w+4)(m4).008. m 2 .009. 10. (m + 6)(m3). 1). + 3)(3). 2 62 V2 132. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 10.ri 17. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 9801.810. . r.6 y4 10.16 a3 f 50. 15. 8. 31. ab. 53. 1. 4. 34.000. 12 x2 . 5. a2 ' + 48Z100. a + 25. x* . .6 xy .25. ~ 6 20 . . y. 4. 35. 10. 40. . 15. . x 4 ?/4 + ab .009.8. 41. . 14.^. 4. 2 .201. Om2 4 6m 6. 24. 32. 28. 484. 20a 2 21a + 4.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. V + o ft .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 30 x + 19 x3 . ' 46. 25 a 2 6 2 . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . 51. 55. 8 a W . 57.ab . . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 29. n + 2. 21 2 . 5.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .020.49. 19.2 x + 2 x.. 9 4 /> .994. 2 4 a + 4. a4 4 ?/ . a 2 . 999. + 4 t*. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 6. 27. 2 j3 Z . 32. . 1.84 a' 9. + 10 + 121 y*. 2 0)(p + 5). p4 + . 10. 9990.m 30 6 4 1.098. s rc 47.996. a' . 7> . 14. 2 4 2 2 64 . . 17. 3. ^/> 8 4 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 36.10 x + 25.6 x2 13. . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 26. 45. 11. 2 .35 ab 9. 6 2 + 6lf>0.00 + 37. 52. 3. 7. 56.1. .x2y22.p132. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 7 . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2. (a (3 54. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .4 n.020. 998. ) 4' 6/ 49. . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 7.4 12. m 3 j) 3 . 36. 18. 41. 1. 8. p 2 . 10. 166. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). + 4 a +4.^ + a? + 1.2. x*2^f I. 42. 10 a' 2 . 2). 2 a 2 + a . 10. 2 12. 9. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.004. 23. 25 25.
8 yn . . 9. 1. 2.10 xy*.1. 3. . 17. +w . 26.1. 5. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 <</. x 4. .r?/ j/. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 3. 5. 3. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np./ 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . x 2 + 2r f J. m L 4. 3*y2 w + 1.1. 13. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.+ 77 15. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 8. a 4 4 ft. /r . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2 ?/ 4. 7 r . r//.15. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.3 5. a 2 . 5.2. 4.30 ftc. 1. sr 11. 2 . 22. r/2 4. . G. 14 r 2 . 4.r'^ 15. 3.1. 10 ft. 12. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. c 12.24 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2. w . 12.25 c . 49.  3 c.n.3 3. ft. 18. 14.w. . 13.2 . 14. . 11. 5.2 ftc . 2 a 3 ft. 18.2 aft 4. Page 48. 2 4 2 x 4. 19. 11. m'2 3.25.29. 6. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 4 a 2 4. ft 17. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 13. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . Page 11. 46.rw f 8 . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. . r 7. Osy. c3. 4 a* 4 9 11. 4 ac. + 4.  .1. 6.2 ar. 2 1.  5 z* . 14. . 11 4. *3 y 4 . 8 ?/ .5 a . _ 2 a . 8. as _ 10 16. . i 2 tji. 13.5 n*. 4. :r !>. 2. 1000 1000 . '. 3 aft 20.rw. 13. Page 7. . 4 c m . 125.> 10.VI ANSWERS 43.r" 20 S? . 2 4 3 9. 4 d 2 4.x^. 01. 44. 2 12.9 4. 16. f>r* 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.2 2 2 8 .2 . 2. 5.10 2 + z 2 410. 1. 16. 5. 8.1. 4 x. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 2 4. 5. 6. j) . 4xy + 13 <) . 5 a  (5 ft. 47. 23.2 . 75 a 2 29. 21. 2 .3 a 41.4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 14. . 4. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 13. ti'jry1 7. 6x 3.2 ac . 3. ?/2.r?/. 8 x . 20 15.2 wZ 4. w 2 . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.12 aft 4 20 ac . 1.y3. 2 ? 14 . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 5 4 a Oft. Page 51. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2. // 19. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 21. 7a3ft.8. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. + 3.3 x 2 2 4.9 d.6 :rs 4.23. 135. 5^418(7. 1. z. aftc 52. 4. 1.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.3^V.r ?/ ??i ?).8 y. r ft.21 2 2 f + .000. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. y 7. 17. i 9. Page 22. 12. a 10. ??.1. 19. 50. 8. + x?/ 2 1. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 4.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .8. 10. 12.2 2 . 20. 10. l 4 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.  12 y 25. . 4x43?/. 5. x4. 4. 7. 2. 9. 24. . 16. 6.  10. 10. 9. 4.  11. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 9. 8.7. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4 pq. Exercise 27.1*5 2 r 2 . 14.r . 8 ?/ . 3.r' ~ 16. ft* ft / . .27 x 2 4. 15. 3 a. 2 2 + 2 a. 5. 1. .15 21. aft 12. 8. 15. 4ft. abc 7. . Page 13. a 8 4. 2 ?/' .lit x + 4.5 mp. 1/*. 17. yfl.2 1 //. 12.34. 6. aft. 9. a.3 ry.
 2\. 25. 4. 38. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 36. 2=10. X 60. a 10. 22. y ?>i x + 26. 4. = 5 ?i x 460. 11. 39. 47. vil 56. 19. 20. 19. }f. 18. y 100 a 24. 59. 4. x = m. ] 2 ri 42. "mi. 10 >_&.ANSWERS Page 9. . 100 d ct. . 50= L 100 15. .. f (I. lOx 10 + w. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 4.6 = *. 7.. 5. x 49. 41. I. Page 6. 100= ^. 2. xy ft. 100 14. 3 9. 13. 20. Page 61.(3x  700) = 5. 11. 1. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 27. ft.  6 10. 10. 12. 7. n M. 6.p+7. (> 27. 800 = x + 1300. fix. 2b 22.ab a. sq. 17. 34. 38. 44. " lir. . '^ . 24.. d + !. 2. 23. Page 40. 3. 29. x. 44. l.. r>?imi. 3x  1700) = 12. 5. + f + b 2. # + 20yr. 1. ? 43. 'nj 100 a 28. iL*. 6. 8. 6. 10 a. 2b. </ 20. 2. 22. 8. 2. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. rn mi. 12. b. % 4. Page 31.  1$. 13. a 8. y yr. 58. s. + 4x 3y 34. 7. f 6)(o 62. Jj12. 37. 33. ct. 16. 4^ = 100. 35. ( a f 4. 7. x y $ 6 yr. 33. y 2z p= 3 (a c. + 10 b + c ct. 0. 3.10) 100. lO. 25. 57. + 3x + 2y + 32.r ct. 17. 0. <>. 7. . d. y 50. v (6) 2x. Page 13. ft. 11. 60 25 1. 5. 10 x sq. 5. I. m +~m 3.  />) a = all. r tx mi.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 15. 4. 2x + 35. 10 yr. 42. 30. 43. 4 f 39. 36. ct. (d) 2a + 10 = n. b. ct. 2 ct. 14. 21 2. 6. 7. 3. 1. 32. 14. 4(a ft) c = 8. 13. 16. 1. (a) ' 12. + 3 = 2(3* . . (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. (c) 2x. 9.7). (A) 3 x f (4 x . x 2y 10 act. 17. . 46. 5. (</) 2a.100. 30. 45. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. x + 1=a. ^ 12 sq. 5. 2. 6. 15. !). / + y + a// 12 yr. 10. 2. 1&. 26. 41. 00. 7x 2 Page 21. 40. 3x2.(3x+ = rraxlO.000. 18. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 100 2. (2 a. 7. 23. m+ 11. 9. x 48. 31. 37. ft.x700.  9 = 17 a. 10. (>.r1. f = eZ 2 x.rr2. 28. 29. 10. 8 n  10 yr. 16. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 20. 1.
000 ft. 3. 10 yr. 4. 11. 1200. 15 mi. 3. 78. 15. Page 79. (e) i* + A. 15 yd. 7a*fe(2a & l). 8. 3 hr. 75. + 7)(y3). 13. 6.3. 6. 4. 2 3 6 7. 24J. (y8)(y + 2). 6.. (p + 7)(3a5&). ?(g ? g+ 1). 10. 67. 45 in.000.000. 82 mi. 5. Pace 65.000 gold.. 5. 6. 8.. 10. 6. 100. 1.3). 13. 18. Page 7. 11.. 25 yr. Page 5. 180. 5 lb.210^. 9. 13. 14. (a5)(a4). 7. 18. 25. 9. Ib.6).000 Berlin. 10. 4.000 copper. 1.11. 14.1).8. 20.13. 22. 20 yd. 150. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 7 hr. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). (a 4) (a. 13. 18. 7.. Page Page 4. (ro3)(w2). 6rt 2 11.y"). 12.411. 5.24.(5z . 4.. Page 7. 3. 20 yr.2). 9. 1200. (y + 8)(y2). 2. 74.5. (m + n)(a + 6). 10 yd. 10. 05. 30. 14. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.7.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.5p + 7 g ). 30 mi. ^ . 100 1. 78. ( + 4)(*2). (z5)(z2).. 85 ft. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 4pt.. w (/) 64. 6. 15. 14. 10 Cal. 12. = _?_(2ar + 1). 20.000. (y 13. 9 in.. 5$ hr... Oaj(o62cd). 3 (a +&)(*. 10 Mass.. 2.  PageSO. 2. 19. 2 2 2 5.16. . 4. . Page Page 4. 90. 2.. 6. 1. 1313. 12. 52. 12 mi. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 71. 21. 2. 14. 5. 8 12. Page Page 480 12.000. $40.000 pig iron. 23. 30. 10. 3.0.79. 70^. 4. 11. . 40 yr.22. 3. 2.000 N. 5 Col. 50. 55. (a + 6) (a + 3). 28yr. 9. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . (a + 5)(a + 6). 15. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.000. 8 in. (y7)(y + 2). 11 in. 8 2 19. 200. 8. 29. 300.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 1 lb. 5pt. 480. 20 yr. 1.10.21. a a (a 8 a+l). z?/(4^ + 5xy . 11 w(w' + wi . 3. 7.. (a + 4)(a + 8). 8. 10. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 15. (yll)(y4). 600. 12.0. a 12. 12. 80 A. ~=90. 13. 6. 2 2 ?/ 21. 20. 8. 8. 30 yr. 25.3. 15. 9. (*4)( + 11.000. 12. 11. 8.. 15 in. 68. (c) ^ v ' . 2). 8. Y. 2$.000. 16. 250. 14. 200. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 7. 1. 70. 10 yr. 3. 2. 1. 1250.3aftc + 4). by 12 yd. . 17. 7. 160 lb. 10. 5. 42yr. 11 pV (2 p8 .000 ft. 7. 9. 17.2. 72.. 90 mi. 9. 1.000 Phil.5. 3x (3r. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.
23. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). .6) 2 1. 14. (x + y4 )(x . .. 7. + 3). a(2u. (7 a + 4) (2 a . No. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 22. (a 6 6) (a 4. 12.   .c 2 ). (a a: 19. . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). (m7n) (a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 20. 13. 103x97. . 25. . (2xl)(x + f>). 2. 40 x.4. (3*2)(. 6. 7. 11. Page 83. (4y3)(3y + 2). 14. (10a + ft)(10aft). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). Yes. 2). 28. (15ay2) 2 . 10. 2. 29. 21. 33. . Yes. 11. (2o + l)(2l). . . 6. Yes. 13x(a + ft)(aft). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 1. x (z + 2)(x + 3). y(x.y) 2 aft. 25. 10(2 30. (w ~ n (x . (2 *+!)(* 9). 36. (y + 4)(yl). 7 6) (a 10 6). (m + w) 2 5. Yes. 4. (ft + ll)(aftll). (* + y)(zy). (9y4)(y + 4). 22. 9. 20. x\x 24. Oa 2 (a2)(al). y) 2 29. 26. + 9^)(oxy . 21. + 8)(g3). 12. 15. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 9. a . 22.7)(2z f 1). 100(x.3)(z2). 17. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 2. + 3)(c44). Yes. (13a +10)(13a 10).1). 17. 8. 1. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 10. 32. (2 a? 4. (w* (3a26). 26. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 23. 25. 7. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 11. 2 No 4. 2 17.1). . x(x +y)(x y). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 3. Yes. 9. 3. 3(x + 2)(zl). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 10(3 5 6) 2 .8). + 0(90 Page 85. 9. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (5x . Page 82. Yes. 18. 17. (15z2y)(x5y). No. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 34. 27. 27. (a + 8)(a3). Yes. Page 84. 13x7. Yes. 25. No. 10. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (:52y)(2a!3y). 16. 33. 15. (w + 20)(w + 5). 10(a + ft)(aft). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (<7 20. 34.1). 28. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 30. 22. 3. 2 3 by2 Yes. (ay8)(ay3). a. (y8) 2 2 . Yes. 27. 21. (a 3 + 10)(a. 2 2 15. 19. 3)(3a.1). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 16. (3#y)(+4y).11 6) (a 4. (5a +l)(5a l).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 31. 10(a .7) (a. .4p).5y)(3a. No.r2). 30.2). 4 (a . (2yl)(y + 9). (g . 25.+4 y)(3x4 y). (6n + l)(+2). (6 a. 8) (a.  x (5 a. 24. + 4) (a. Yes. 24. 10. 9. 8. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). No. 24. . (3a. 12. (4 18. (4al)(a2). 23. ( 2 4 19.2 by2 6. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . 16. f 2). 100 (a. 14. 35. 26.2 ft).6) 2 2 . 10 a 2 (4 . 3a. ix 18. 24 9. 5. 8.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. a*(5a f l)(flr . (a2 + 10) (a2 2).4 6). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). y) (a. 4. 20.* (2 y + 3)(y.ANSWERS 16.2). (4a. (a. 23. 19.2 y). 1. 21.3).11 ft)(a6). 18. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). + 2y). (5wl)(m5). 28.9*). 35. + y + . (0 + 6)(66). + 5) a. 32. 216 aft. 26. (4 13. 29. 5. .y4 ). 31. (az + 9)(ox2).
a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . . 37. 17. 28. 7. 12. 14. 4 a s &8 .8).4). x 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. b) (r 4.2 y). (2 a ~ f> b 4.2). y). . 2. (w4w) 2 1. y6. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (m  I)' 6.1). 4. n  r)(5a 10. (7/1 2) (m 41). 8. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 2 a 2 13x 3 y.9). 14. 5. 4. a 2 (a9). (^ 7. (x//. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 14. (w * . 13( 33. y )(.3. (5^4. 14. (* _ 2 )(a 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 6. 450. 19. a 4. 15 M.X 5. 2. 42a 3 x. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 16.b. a 4. 8.0+ 12). 13. (f> + fo 7.7)(^ {I 12. a + a b. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 6. (16 4  2(5 n .&). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). Page 87.2).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 7. y(2x?/). 6. x . 4. 3 x4 ..y. a x 3 10. 2 .y '2 2). 39. 32. 8). (a />. (a 9. 2 21.1). 15. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).  WIM. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 30. 4 6. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 7. 5. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 12. 27. 6 f c). Page 92. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 6. 5  (2 2 .  29. 5. (a 4. 8. 7. 12. ( (<> r4y3 . ( rt 23.?50)(xt/z. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).'J)(' .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (5a+l)(9a). 4 a8 .'})(c . 40. 2 1. ah}.2)(x 1. 2 2 10. 24. 6.3)(x 4. 4  9. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 35.^ 48.3. 24x sy s 9.8) ( (16.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 17(x43//)(x2y). (!__/>). (2x7)(x 2 2).'/)('< 4. (. 1. 4. 11. l. r x 2 */3 .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (5 31. 10. ( { &). .>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 1(V/ 88.?/).e 4. + 3.4. a (a + 2 6). 15.l)( a 25. ( a ^)(^3. ofc)( fid). 9. Exercise 47. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).n).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). . Page 86. 20. 7. 6. ( y).  (w' 4.4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. x43. x(x f y)(jr . 2. 41.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).) j). 2. (5 26.1) 3.4). (> 1. 16. 13. 5. 11. 38. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 2 8(w . 7. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (a &4. Page 89. 2 2 3 . a 41. 4. 3x(x?/) 4. 4. 2(m4l)' . 3(. 9.36).7s) (2 a. a8 . 8. 11. 13. x  1). 2. 3. 18.?>) H. Exercise 46.42 x 4.&). 22. Page 12. 10(2 (3 4.y). (14. fi(c426). . (r420(4 10.!) (x42)(x2). 2 (a 4. Gp). (^ + ?>_8). (c.5 m2 x2. Page 90. ?>). 2 + . 11. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 4.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). ?i(w 4y) . 13 x 8 2 . 8. 8. 4 3. 42). 4). 8. (x. ^ . 2 y) ^ . 5 x8 3.r(3x' 2 4 (14.))(x  ^OC 1 1). + 2 //). 36. 8x.8) n 43*). 2 k (wi 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). .y)(fi a . 4.
x 24. 2(2al) + l). 30(3 2 (a 15. 18. + &) 2 ( . 11. +5 1. 1). a 10 25.6). 6a2&(rt6). +8b a 4 3 / ^.ANSWERS 10. // m+1 !+*?. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . b ! 21. ?_!&. + &)(&) ( .  1). + y) (a: y). x 12. x 22. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 13. (a2)(a + 2)2. a 23.
+ lH + . 4c 10. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. i^. 28. c 8.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 0. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 7. 26. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. a 5. 4. 6. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . xy 43. Page 100.  **/* + 84 _. 30.. A^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6a5f^. .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ' 2 7. 2 a. w1 + ac w 4 7. _*^p5_^^_. 11. 1. 4 L 8 2 . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. + 2H 1 ^. 6.50 ~ 1/2 . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.
. 12 28. 5 be _J_. 12. 37. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 6. 0. 20. 40. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 3. 1. 7. (a + y) 2 Page 104. a2 2. Page 106. 42. . 11. 14. 32. 3. 16. f Page 107. 35. 6. ! 4 20. 16. an 18. 4. 38. 9. 1. f 7. 6. pf n 6 1. 4a3ft. 15. 4. x 1. 4. 4. 1. 4.L+ft. 34. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 36. x\. +3 ( + 15. 23. a 17. c 8. 26. 44. 0. 2ft a i m x. w^x 2 b Page 105. a. 7. 1. 21. . ' 6. 3. 1. 21. 9. I) 2 3z 1. 15. 1. 9. 6 . 24. 3. 5. 5. 21. 19. 12. 2 47. Page 110. 11. 41. 7. 8. 1. (y + (z 12. b a f +c 14. Of. n m a + 13. flf. 27. y(x + x ?/). 4. 14. 3. 11. x 05m ' 5.ft . 1. 33. 17. 4. J. ac mp lf> n 12.^U\WF### X<6. 5. . 8. Page 111. 45. 31. ?.  10 X + u. 1. ^i 11. 2) 19. j L . m 9. 29. 18. 13. 6.^_. 46. 7. 10. n . 3.y 7. A. n 16. 43. 11. 25. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 14. 30. 10. J. 1. ^_. Page 113. 6. 8j_m 7 3. J. 3 7 i o. 15. (>. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. ft. 5.  V o 4. + f. 17. b 2. ?+_!?>. 11. 39.
0. 31. 20. 9. 14. 23< &n b ' . 5. ~m . 14. 1. 20. 1. 3 da. 8. 212. 5. 10. $00. 300. f. a 4 ft. 7 . 8. 36.  + . 19. n 32. 4fl M_. 9ft. 8. 300. 3. () 2. 6. 14. 2. 34. 13. Yes. 10. 3. gold. 6. Page 125. f . 7T 2 Page 116. 40wn. 14. 20. #V ~~ 34. 10.  C . 8. (ft) 28. . 13.000.. 8.137. 26 30. (c) 8300. (d) 500. 2. 27./hr. 30 mi. 9. 00. J ^'. 26. Yes. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 19. 15. 33. 7. 28. min. 7. 7} 18.. (c) 2 hr.. Yes. 17. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 55 mi. nm. (ft) 104. P+ ^ 33. 300. 6.. 17. 24 mi. 9. IV s.003. 3:2.XIV '/ . Page 124. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 3. 18. 22. 1:1 = 1:1.. 9. 1. _JL. 17. 7. Yes. 500. 0. (a) 30. 12. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 3. 15. 21. 26 mi.. 2x:3y. 1^'. 16. ^?i min. 32. 1 : 12. after 20. 15. 4~r~ n . * 7:9.001.10. 3. 16. 5. 2:1. 11 hrs. Page 117. 21ft min. 5 25.138. 8301 hr. (ft) (r) 8 hr.  29. Page 121.11. ^m . 10. ^p^ r ~ 7. jj. 1 da. 30. 18. w 18. Yes. . 33. 275:108. . 7. 10 yrs. 1:1 = 1:1. 15. 12. 12.000 1 = 23. 38ft min. Yes. 10. 18.004. (r) 3^ da. 19. 15.2. 19. 1:1 = 1:1.000. 9J oz. 75 . 40 mi. (a) 12 hr. [>> ^ a . Yes. 30ft. ft. 15. w 21. 10^ oz. 11. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 24.002. 17. 13. 1:3. .139. . 15. :2. 10. = A's. (ft) 5 hr. 24. 10. 16. (ft) 5 da. after 18. 2 20. dn ~ mi.2. 7. Page 119. Page 118.} da. 4. 1:1=1:1.9. 40 yrs. 1: ~. (a) 4 min. 4. '"I 22.. 1:4. 4. $40. . 3. 10. $0. No. . No.000. ANSWERS 16. 11. Yes. 1. 4. (d) 4 da. 5ft 30mi. 81.x + y. $30. (a) 25.. 21.. xy. 4. 7. 9$.000 If da. silver. J. $45.000. 11.0 & . 13. 35. 5. 10. " 0. after $12. 74.15. 30 yrs. min. w 44./hr.. 5 2.
40. 7. 2. : XV 27.12. 29. 4. 53. 4. 49. 2. : .]. 12. . . 7. 4. l. 945 11 10 . 10. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. Page 135. 6. : 23.1. 2.57.36. 31. "lO. . 1.2. w. J pq. x:y a: b.20. jc:y = n:m. 3. 59.1. : : T 1' : /> : . 25. 6. 12. 30. 26. copper. x y y .x a. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 3. 27.5. 4. 14.3. 7. 17. tin. ~ 1. y :y =. 2. /. 11 w a 13. in n. Inversely. in.1. 4. 2. 11. 30. 3. 5. 7.2 x. 3. *. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 3. 3.7.2. 5. . 16. 1. 9..3.2. 1. . 16.r. 1 rt * vm^1. 2. 2. 13J.5. 48. 4. $. (b) Inversely. 7^. y 1. 8. 3. 9. 36. 15. 38.  ?. 2. 7. 5 2. 46. 20.3.22. 2. 12.. 2.9. Page 133.12. 5. .3. 2. w 8. ' 55. a~. mi. 17. 7. 54. + W. 1(5. 2. 2. 13. 7. \\. 7.000 sq. 7. 2. 7. 8. 26. . 15> 9. . . Page 136.3. 12. 3. 8. 24. 11. i. 2. 40. 5:3 = 4: x. 9. 57.. 3}.J. 44. (I. 21. . 2. 1. 127. 21. 2 n . y .^ 0?j ' gms. cu. 200 mi. 6 10 = 12.li. (</) ft.  28. 19 3 .5. 10. \.17. 19. 43. 4. 174+ Page 128. 2. t 5. 2. 19.4.840. . ini. 41. 16. 9. 6. 6. 22. 5. 1. 6. 2. 5. Of.J 3.46. 22. a 3.160. water. 19. y a y = 7 0.3. 11. 7. 5. x 42. 25. 13. 8.1. 35. OJ.7. 2.3. 2.5. 20.6. 3. 3  24. 9. 14. OJ. 7.15 x. Page 132. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . a f 2 2 = 5 x. Page 134. 50.ANSWERS 22. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2. 2. 5:0 = 10:12. x y = 1 = 3 2. lo mi. 23. 9. Page 131. 41. 1. 8. 56. = 7 b'.) 31. 9.5. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.3. 32+ mi. 24. 19 OJ. 8. 14. 7. 13. 23. 3. 7. land. 5. 55. 11.4. 4. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. Page 137. 31J.' : : : : <>. 36. 17.3.5. . (a) Directly. + b 7 . J. 9  15. 10. 45. J. 5.a. 9. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . : : . 11. 15.2 oz.3.*. 28.4. 20 cu. 141. 24 1 (e) Directly. Page 5. a +b 1. 4.5. 4. 3.3.8 oz." ^ 2. () Directly. 2. 1.5. 5. b x 37. 1. 52. J. (b) C C' = fi JR'.2. () 7 Page 126.000 sq. 4."2:1. 10. 39. 2. 4. 11 5 . 5.4. 1 18 = 3 51. 18. 1. 13.4. 4. s<i. x +y x + 74 7 \. 4. 3. I. 14. 47. 8. 3 2=3 x.  19. 32j. : />. . 4. Page 9. 2./':</ c a f :y=2:9. mi. 138. 7. ft. ig 6. 58. 1.5. 3.15. 25. 20 20 J ^. 6*. 3. .C ?/ a . 5.1. 7.
. 6. 25. 3.. 2. 11. 29./hr. parallel to the x axis 0. Page 146. A a parallel to the x axis. 40.. . 72.0. Page 22.65. ' 6 3 a. 17. $900 5%. 4. 5. 20. ad AzA.4. 2. 3. 20. B's 40 yrs. $500. . 15. 3. m . 24.3. ft 3. 3). 24. 1. be 10. 2. 2. 7. 30. 9. 12. 0. 10. Jan. 23. 11. B's 15 yrs. 5. 22. 1. 3. Jan. 7. 5. On the x axis. 2. Apr. 2. 3. 2. A's 30 18. Aug. 9. (a) 12. 4. 6. 1. at 15. (ft) 20. 3.. 8. 1. 3.$2000. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 3. 3.n + p. 6. 147. 7. 28. 4. 2t2. Nov. u 2ft. 9. M 2. (ft) 23 J. 2. Page 143. 16 to July 20. 3. 10.3. 0. 24. 30. 6. A's 50 13..7. Jan. Apr.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=.10. 1 (d) Apr. 5%. 7.8. 20. through point (0. 10. 16. 15. 1. 3. 2 a. Page 145.1. 16. 423. J. . 8. $250. On 11. 7. 18. Nov. & part of Sept. Nov. 4. 3. 17. 4 ' q. 5. be 7.^. 1. 7. 5. a =J (n  1) rf. <*ft/ bd 1. 4. Page 149. 4 mi.  11. 2. a. 12. 26. . 4.2. 13. Page 153. 1 (c) Jan. SL=J o ft r^2. 2. m f 9. 6. 16. . 40.XVI Fagel39. 9. 11. C's 10 yrs. Feb. 19. 4.4. yrs. (5. 31. Jan. Page 152. $3000. 1. 8. . 6. 11. 6 cows. 1. 20 to Oct. 2. 3. . 5. 4. . 1.1J. 12. 20. 19 gms. Jan. 2. 4.  Zn  "(^ll 14. June. 14. 14. 7. 30. ad _(?jrJL. 20 & Oct. 18. 15. 5. ^. 0. 7. 3. $ 1000.  17. 18. . 13. 2. 18. m + n p. &. July.. 4. 10 sheep.l. 5.9. About 12f. 25. & part of Feb. 4. 2. Oct. 4. 90. . & May. $4000. The ordinate. 10. 6%. 4.2. May 5. July. 6. On the y axis. 25. 3. (c) .1. 17. (a) Apr. 5. 6. 1. (<f) 13. 20. 11. 9.4.0. 26. 3.. 10^ gms. = ^ a Page 141.33. 12. 10. 23f . 32. Page 151. 7. 16. 21. 27.3. 23. ' . . 4. 3. 100. 2.$5000. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 12. $6500at3Ji%. 19. 00. 1. C's 30 yrs. July 20. 2. 21. 3. . 1. 2. 16. Nov. 2. 13. 14. 25. 5. yrs. 2 horses. 11. 24. 16. 3. 9. 3. Apr. 4. Page 142. 8. 7. m f 8.
Page 158.79. Page 159. +3 4. \ft) 5. 9. 2. 3. 2. 3. 1. 15. 0. * 16. f12 wi 9. 10 C. 3. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. . 1. 125 16.  .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 1. . 12. . 5. 3.73. 3. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 10. . 5. 10. . 1. 8 1 f f g*. . 20. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.4. 81 ". (/) 3. 27. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .84. .34F.1. 1. 2ft4 Page 168. 3. .  1. 5 and 2.5. 3.25. 2.25. ft . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 2. 2. 28. f. 2. 4. 1. (/) 3.3. 2. 4 ) 21. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 14.24. 3.6. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 3. 4. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (ft) and (d) 2. 14. 3.41 and . 13. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. ft 2 4. 0C. . 3. (c) 2. 1. (ft) (d) 2.59.25. 2 l. 13. 3. . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.24.13. ' :=_!. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 15.75 (ci) 3^." 23.25. . 13 . (ft) 2. . 7.73. ImW. 5. 16. Page 164. Inconsistent. xW. (a) 4. (a) 5.5. 8. 9 and Page 166. 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 8. 19. 3. 4. . 21. 83. 11. jgiooyiio 17. 30. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 4. 2. + a 4 ft* . 2. 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 3. 22. 6. 5.. 4. (e) 3. 3.64. . 4}. . a + ft. 4.27. Indeterminate. 5. xy. (c) 14 F. . 19. a 29. 3. 2. 2 2 22. . 1. .75. 1. . 13C. 15 . H. .75. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 24. 24. 14. 9.25. 1 23..1.83. . 8mW.2 (ft)  1.41 and 23. a 10 ' a ll V&. 30. . 13. _ 9 x ^27 1 . Indeterminate. Inconsistent. 4. 20. .17 (ft) (c) 2. 3 . 125a 28. 32F. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 2. (c) 7.64. 3..5 (ft) 3. 11. 6. 1. 26. xg . f 10. 25. 3. Page 163. 2. (e) 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.  1. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. () (rt) 3. 1 4. 8. G. 14.7. . 8 a1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 5. 17. 1. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2. f. (a) 2.24 . (<?) 2.79. 22. 15.73 ami . 1. (a) 12. 125 a 8 12. (ft) (ft) 2. 3.73. 11. 2. 1. . 4wn8 + n4 5. 2. 2. 1. (gr) 21. 1.75.3..83.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 27 19. 18C. m. 1^. 27 27 81. SlstyW 7.67.59 . . 12. 18. H. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 2. 5. 10. 1.
2 49 . 1. 21.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. ? : 1 . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 28. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . Page 170. 25. 33.^). 00. 15. 22. (a + 2 +l).a b 22.  x. Page 171. 237. 10. 2. AN S WE no .XV111 7. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 9. 17. 6. 18. 35. . 7. 12. 2 2 7. ?7i 1 1 3 1.  +X '. 11.10 a~ + 5 a . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 10 x G a 4 . GOO 2 c 2 . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. m 13. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 31. . 16. 34. Page 176. 32. 21. (ab + c). 4. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 2. 20. 1 1 ?>). /> 4 ). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 5. 72. 19. 119. 8. 0. 2. 6. . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. . 16 6 w .5). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 2 2 4. 12. 1. 2. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 8. (a 2. 4. r> 4 : 1 . (2 a + ft). 16. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). . 9. 15. 40. (1 (x2y). Zll. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 2038. 14. 9. (x' l). 98.+3^ + 4. 11. . 1247.1. . 4. 5 5 8. 90. 99. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 70. fe *?>' ?> fi .6. 25 19. 26. . (4a2 9& 2 13. 6.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 763. ? . (x + y\ 90. (ly).x ). 2 12. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (48 + 6.94. 90. 10*. 15. 13. 64. 17. 4. 7. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 16.3 ab + 2 2 ).+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.037. 3. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 9. +3 + 5 4.y2 ). 6.r 2 + 6jt). 19. 14. 5.83. 13. 247. 3 6 23. 5. . 309. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.i c 6 15. 8. 18. 6 (\x 3. a 2 . + i)). 14. + (win . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. Page 172.1. 30. 978. 76.5. a ). 3. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 180 . a. 10. 23. + l). 8 /. 2 4 8 2 . 3M.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 10. 6. 5. 8. I 8x2). 3 2 ^. 24.f 1 m 9 16. 71. ). 1. 12. ( Page 174. 1. 101.2). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. a: l . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 9. + y). a. 27.7 /)). 20. 15. 2(> + ( 2 7>). c 10 6 :l 20. 30. 11. +35. 8. (Gx + (i + 2a. (3a. 3. . rt . 7. + 29. 2. ??i ?i . 9. 57. 17. + Z). 3. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 20. 18. 36. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 11. (l + x + . 420. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 14. 20. 84. ^i.GO a c + 23. 300. + + ?V 22. 3 2 8 3 12. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 5. (a + y+l). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.
or 3. 6.  f. 4.367. 10. 1. 3. 16.  f.  14. 12. 47. 4. 2. f. 16.. ^. 5. 5. >i 27.6. _ iVaft. 7. V2. 32. 17. 27. 14. 7. ii :J _7. V J l. i. 7.w 18.236. f. 35.  2. 14. 1. 25 J. V17. 37. /. 2. 6. Af^. (6) Vl4 3. vV'TA 24. 15. . 7. ZLlAiK 19. 9. V. (< + ?>). 31.690. 8. 9. 4. 5. 9 15 ft. 24. 1 38. 25. w. 20. 11. 39. 23. 48. 16. 20. ft. f 3. 46. 4. 9.469. 33. 36. 2. a + 61. 2. 12. 41. Page 181. Page 177. 14. 9. 1. 12. 8.}.798 yds. 11.13. 1. or 5. 4. 3.  3. 9.1.645. 27. 7. 10. 21 in. 8. 12.. .925 ft. 3. 9. f . 22. 33. 4J. 4 W**. 17. 3. 4 TT M 28.  43. 13. 1. 42. 2. v 17. 36. V2. 35. 14. }. 7. 16n. 39. 21 28 ft. 3. 15. 5. 44.6.4. ~ V^3. 36 in. 3. 6 f !. 7}. 20. 13. ft. a.. 5. 2.522 38. 1&. 28.916 yds.  1. 3. 28.6. 11. 12.i. If ^. 4. . 7. 16. 7563. 29. 7. 19.18.. 10. 7. 12. JJI. 10.. 21.935. 6. 29. 18. 34. 28 in.5. 6. 6. 10. 6J. 7 in. 5. . () 2.Sn. . J. 5. / 11.a. 31. 6V21. 19. 2. 2 sec. 3. 5f. 4. 270 sq. m. 3.  5. 6yds. 5. 50. 6561. . 15 1 10. 30. ^^7m. 1. 3J. ^. Page 183. >TT 26. 4.5. Page 185. 6. 21yds. 1 7. . 32. 5083. 1 f Vl3. 15. 23. (afl). 17. m. 1. 34. 15. 5.*. Page 179. 1.V 8j. 1. 8. vYb. 3. 18. 6. 21. xix 26. 4. 7. 30. \/3.1. 1. f f V. 25.. *. 2. 40.742 in. 24. i ^. 26. 9.4. . 13.005. 7. * 1. 2. 4 a. 6V'2J.4.60. 12.?. 4 n. > w ft. 4. 2. 8. 21. 9. 4. f ^ is.ANS WERS 22. 12.237. ft. V35 1. 13.6. 2. 5. . 5. 23. 1. 6. 4. 10. 2] see... 49.243. 10. Page 180. 39 in. 11. 10. 7 45. 5. 15. l~8. 14. 37. 29. 10. . " ^_ 22. . 3. {. 40. 2. 8. 3. Page 184. 11. 4. 5. 2... 5. 13. 3. . 3.6.
3. 0. 3.62. rational. 2 V3 in. V^~2.1.3. 31. x* 51. Real. 2.'. 12. 3. 4. V2. 5. 15.a 3 a. rational. 8 or 12 mi. . 52.23. 35. 4. 4 da. 43. 7. orf.41. Imaginary. 21. 2. 1. t is. 12. 1.2. 5. 6. Page 191. . 22.  2. Page 190. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.2. 27. 17.5 x + 6 = 0. 0.  2. unequal. 8. unequal. . 6. 27. 3if. 6. 6.  1. 1.  i. 19. V7.5^. 3. 6. _ 19. V^l.4. 1. Real. 2 . 120 ft. 4. 3. 24.7. 0. unequal. Real. 1. *'' 12.  6. 53. 6^2 in.4. . 24. 11. 12. 2. 47. 18. 1. unequal. 64c. a + 1. 3. 0.2. 39.0*8. 4. . 28. 16. 5. 42. V ~ 16 4 2. 19 in. 2. rational. 2. 18.59. Real. 14. #<7=3. Imaginary. rational. $30 or $70. 0. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 1. 3. .. 1. 15 ft. 2. 8. ..3. 50. 26.  1.7. If. VV11.2. . Page 187. 2. (5 10. f.10. unequal. %. 49. i.23. 8. 26. 2. 40.  Page 194. 3. 5. f 6 52 a.6 = 0. + 11 x.37.a. 35. 22. jr .  9x <). 0. 24. 4. s 11. 1 . 2. 2. 1 3. 7. 3. 41./hr. . 25. 6. 0. 0. 10 or 19. 6. r* i. 4. unequal.. 2. 4. 14.. V^l. . 16. Page 188.l. 1. in. 45.2. AB = 204 ft.12. 0. 1. 0. . 32. 58. Imaginary. 6. 3. 13.17. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 6. 56... 44.1. 3. 38. 3. 9. 2. 10. . ANSWERS 22.XX Page 186.Oa. 7. 1. 20. 19. 1. 21. . '  f 5. 0. $ 120. 5. H.2 x2 . V2. Imaginary. 28. 3.2. 3.12 = 0. unequal. . x 14. 2. 0. 29.02. 3. 7. irrational. 23. 1. 26.  1. 1).7. 3. 10. a. 7. 27. 23.70. 6V64.* 2. 10 mi. 18.  5. Real. 2. 3. Page 192. 8./hr. a8 .5. 1. equal. . 1.  5./hr. 3. 15.  13. 7. 1. . 2. 16.2. 2. 34. 4. 9. .2. $80.6. 2. Real. 20. 2. 2. 25. 1. 7. 25. 1. 8\/2 17. a + 6. equal. 2. 0.48 3. 20 nii. 2. . 0. 10 mi. 12. 3. Real. 4.  24. 5 ft. 2. 2. Real. 46. U. 10 in. 3. 28. 9. 36. Page 189. f. 12. 11. 4.].74. 33. 1.a. 1_^L ft 14. 10. 0.  1.  1. . 13. 55. x2 + B . 3. 15. 6. 25. 2 ft. 21. 20 eggs.1. 30.$40 or $60. irrational. v^^fcT"^./hr. ft. 3. . unequal. equal. i . 1. x*4x=0.3. ' 1. 3. 23. 20.2. 57. 70 ft.48. 0. 64. 48. AB = 3.4. 7. 9. unequal. 37. = 0.2.4. . .4. rational. a. 26.
13. 9. \/3. 5. Page 199. Page 196. J. 16. n\/* Page202. 2. 2.17. 7 . i. 45. 25. 16. ? . 6. 4. 1. Page 201. 16. z + 22. Vr. 3. 8. 12. 3. 17. 52. 16. 50. 10. Page 197. 14. ^49. JV37. 3. 1. 11. 32. x. Page 200. J. 38. 12. 18. ^Sf 3 38. 2. 57. 2. . 1V1. 27. I. 20. ). 50. V^ 34. 44. 3. 15. 3." 17.  f . 8. ) 2 >J i 10. 3 4 11. _! V3. : . 3. . 3. 7. 22.  f. 1. 1. 1 39.  5. 39. 125. 9. v'frc 18.1 5 15. p. Jb \. v. 9. 24. (m 26. 4. J 3. \. 29. J. 14. 3. 9. 4.. 'J. 14. 5. 7. 9. 19. 48. 35. 49. . v^T4 m. 10. 1. 2. 3. 0.6. . y. 15. 30. 23. 42. 24. 8. 25. 49. 59. 53. 21. 0. 18. a. 41. 8. 13. 51. 3. 7V7. 4. 19. 37. . 5. 0. .  a'2 . 7. 24. 49. jV 10. 29. 10. \/r\ 11. 1. 2. 33. r*. 29. 40. xxi 15. 4. 28. . 3. 60. 56. 3. 18. 243. 30. 26. 36. 58. 23. \ . vm. y . ifa. 4. 43. v/3. 2. x$. 2V a. 20. 31. 20. 1. 22. 2. aW\ 40. 1.  J j. 4.^7. 2 L ( V. 20. ar 1 . 55. $7. m. m'. 11. 84. a 18 . 5\/5. 2. 17. 33. wA 46. 1. 6. 49. 14. 1. 25. J. 30 a.32. 13. 47. 9. l  5 12. 8. 5. v'frW. . \. 17. 19. 4. 27. 5. 2. 6  AAf.2. 12*2 61. x/25. 33. 5. 31. 13. 21. 8. 32. 10. . 54. fx'^z'l 23. 1.ANtiWEUS rational. 47. &. \/. 28.  48. 8. 2. 19. 15. vV. 8.//^. \a\ \/^. 1. 46. 21. *V. . r.
2. 29. Vr 8. + 1. 135V6. 8.yl : . + 2 Vzy + y 1. l 5. 21. 3 4\/2. ). 23. 9. 45. x.XXii ANSWERS 1. 195V3. (o* 2. 11V3. ?tV?w. 2v (T 2aVf. + . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.rV:r. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). + 2). 25. 19. 2. 50. V63. . 03r* 7. x 25.'\ 14. + 2 V22. 11. 26. x 7  34. m* n*. 12. 19. 1 2 or 1 ?. 28. 2>X2. 3V5. 34.f. 51. 3 \ 39. 4aV^J 16. 3 x^y 33. 16. JIV6. ^: V2c.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 18. 3 a~ 3 (x (. k/2. ^88". y. 3^ + 2). 32. 40. 2. 3. a^ + 2^+1. (a 27. 10.2 VlO. 3. .707. 6. 9. 28. . 13 35.692. y (a + ft) V2. 20&V6. 31. yV35. 3.. 30. 37. 48. 3V^T. 49. 5. 62V(J. 17. 13 a. 21. 2 x* 15. 24. 17. 37. 2. Va 2 "ft. 16. Page 208. 1. 3 42.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 31. + + ft. V2 + 4 V22. r c . / V3. 2 '"V5. 1) 3V3. . Vz2 ?/ 2 44. V 5 47. 7. 43. V. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. a 4 +* + !. 7. 41. T. 20.  2 3:r.2 18. 22. 39.577. 5 ( . x + 5 x3 + 0. r 17  Page 204. 40. . 24. x%  3 ^+ 1. Page 203. 8V/) 15. .648. x^ . 8.x^y* + y%. 10. 4. 26. ^7 \AOx. abVab. + 2 ar 1 ). v/^r 5  A/^~.). 11. 4. + Vic + 25. 2\/7. . 34 r 6. 9. 33. 101 1. 30.632. (x' (l 1+x).3 + 40 3 . 6. 27. 2. 10. . ftV 46.r. v^. v'TM. 15. V80. 2 a?>V2 a. 5. V. 13.Vxy 35. 20. 2 4 z2 l 3. 36. 3^2. a 3. 5 22. 38. Page 207.  a Vft 2 121 b. 8a6V5. 9 . 2. x y. 32. 29. a2 4. 13.
a\/5c. Vdbc. 5. x/125. Vn. v 25^4714 V2"a. 5. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 36. / \/w/t 4 13. \^6. V5. 3. x/w^ 8. 43. 2. 6. 26. 2. 2 1. v^f. 31. . 2 V'3. 51. 4\/5. 34. 2. 0. 53. 9. 25. VT5. 9 VlO + 4. 49. 32m27n. \/a6c.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v"3. Vtf +3+ 33. 2yV2?/.. \/2. v/l2. \^6. 23. 5. 8  \/15. 5V2. 9. ab 4. x/27. v^a. Page 210. 19. xx 1. 15. 5V2. Page 216. 42. 1. 3. 6V2. 10. 13. : ^32. 25. 38. rtv/5. 13. 0. 48. 17. 34. Page 211. 44. 6. x/4. 18. D 45. 8V2. . 29. 26. 11. 2. 8V73\/IO. 6. v/lO. x/8. V/. 6 2\/0. v/9. x/8L v/27. 9. ^ 3 b 5 24. 30 Vl4. V2. 41.J Page 212. 37. 46. 16. x/8l. \^r^bVabc. 2 ate. v^lf. 14. 22. 35. \/128. v7^. 6. 3 V15  47. 21 23. 12. 7. 39. 74\/Jl 120 46. Vat. 16. ^v 7 15. 21. 6. 14. W). 4 >/3. V3.30 2. aVa. \XOfl6Vi5. 1V5. ^27. 8v2T 12. 20. 24. 39. 8. 4. w?i. v^4. 11. a2  b. 37. 17. 14c 4 V5. 10V(). 6aV2\^. 17. 2\/7. 38. 3 V2. 5 \/2. \/8. 19. 6x2?/. 11. 10. 30. 18. r)\/(l Vrtr. 3v^2. Page 214. 3\/15  6. fl^Vac. 18. 8. v"5. 27. 40. 1. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 6+2V5. 35. 3\/wi. 2. V8. . 15. 31. 13\/3.  3. 33. 52.r v/^ v^fr*. a^\/a7>. . 3. 3. % 29. 24. 2 28. v^O. 22. 10. 3\/2. b. 7. v/8. 27. x/3. 28. .T*. m ?i2Vm/t. 4 a*. 5v/2. vT). \V3. "v/wi ??. \/abc*. 36. 32. 4. v^30. '. 32. VJla. Page 213. + VlO  v y (5. 16. 1. V2. V3. V3"m. + 20. v/i). 3 Vl5 30. \/04a. ^9. . 7\/(l 7VTO. 40. 14. 21. "^8000. V5. 7. 12. 50. 23. . 2 \/2. 4VO. ^\/3. 3.
19. (2V2).81. 15. 20. 1. 24. A . 2. 5 f. 24. 30. 26. 5. 21. 2. Page 219. 10. 2.. 16. V. 25. 13. 4.  2. 25. 11.7083. 12. 7.4142. V6c. 64. 18. p 6 13. ~ Vac _c 0.3. 4. 7. 9.732. (V5f 5. 23. 32. 16.^ (\/22 4. 5. 23. 19. ANSWERS 8. 29. 34. 10. 31. 6. 4. 23.V3). _^JflJ?. 5. 9. 4. 6. 12. 1. * 3. 2V3. i^ ~ 1 v ^. V3 . (2f V"5). 4.5. j 15. 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. \. Va.389.732. 4 14. 9. 3. . 224. 5. 7 f 5 4.  f. 11. 11. 2.7071. f. 12. 37. 8. 11. xy 2. Page220. 33. 14. 17. 7. 15. 2. 22. 2!5_. 2x^2^. . 23. V3. 1. \/57t. 8. 1. 6 (V2 + 1). 3. . Vf6fVtf. 20. Page 223. . 9. {. 4.1805. 4.1.6. 7 Page221. 36.625 10. 14. 5. 20. 0. 8. 9. (a 1. V2. 5 V65. j. + 6) 2 . 21. Page217. (V51). . 2V3. 4. 2. 512. 27. V5.9. n*.4722. 3. (2Vll). 35. 4. 25. 8. (V8 + V2. Page 218. x 20. 5. 6. 4. 10. 28.2. fV2. 23. 16. 26. J. ^. 3(7+3V5). 100. (VaT^v a). 29. 1. ' 22 i . 1.w 6. (V21). (2. 25. 5. 24. 4. 18. 21 ' Vob 26. 24. 1.2828. 27. 2ajV2*.6 V3. i^Lzi. 5. 5.2.13. 7. 3. 13. 8.\/TO). 216. 13. 16. ^(VlO\/2). 20. . 7. 30. 19. 22. 3. 10. 6.64. 15. 21. 15.3535.3. J. 11. 18.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 4. V3. 14. . 10. 1. 27. (3+ v/2). 19.0606.  . 3. 9 mn. 16. 25. 1. Page 226. 16. 4. 12. K>/0 + \/2). 18. 16. 8 V3V2.XXIV 7. 18. i(Vf Vft). (\/5V2). 12. \/3). 9. 125.1547. . 22. 14. 3. 3V23. Page 28. 9. . 17. 4V3 + 6. (V6 + 2V2). 15. 6. 2. 2V2. 25. Va. 0. Page 225. +3 V2). nVTl. V3. 16. !^ 6 4. 1. 15 f 3 V2L 4. + 5V2.  13. 7.464. 81. 8. ^. V^TTfc. 7. 25. 81. ^\/2. m f. 17. (VllV2). ^r.601. 19. 9. 2 . 9. . 6 V. V35. (Vf + (4 V2). 17. 10. . 1. 4. 8. 12. (\/3f 1). 8. 10. 7. 11.5530.
1 . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 6. 4. 16.  4. 25. 5.4. 2 > 1. 4. & + 6 2 ). Page 234.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 19. 2.1. 13.8a 18. 14.3 2. 2. 2 . 4. 5. 3 5.7. 23.l)(m .4). XXV 4.3. 3. 0. 11.22. (pl)(p2)(p2). a(. 26. 4. 5. \/0. 2 &. 17. . 10. 3. (2 a. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. .  . 1. 3. 13. 2. 1.3. . . 3. 1 . 20. 0. 2. 20. 4. 56l). 5. 0.1.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 9. 6. y. 12. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). f>. . 21. 1 . 2 V^ . 1 3. 6. (a . 4. (a+&)( 2 14.3.4. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1 6. 11. 2. 2. . 3.nl^EI.l)(z 2 + z + 1). Page 233. 1. (+!)( 2) 10. 2 6. 8. 7. 7. 2. 0.w 4 + 1).  1. 5. 0. 1 (?> x/^3. b . 3. 5. 8. 20. 4 1. 2. 4.l)(a3)(a . 8. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 3. 2. 3.  2.4. 1. 3.  1. (a. .5 xy + 25) 22. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). (w . 8. 8.  16).2. . 19. 3. ~ f7. 2. J. 4. 2. (rt. 24. 14. 24. (63)(6' t 18. 2.2)(m. 1. . 12. 4 . 6 2 2a + 2). (8. V3. 8 6 & 0. 1. 10. . 2 . 10.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.r . 2. . 28. 3. J 24. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 1. 11. 9.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 1. 73. qpl. 10. 18. 3. ' J. 2. 5. 5. 16. 30 30. 0. 1 . 7. 87 .. 12.2. 0. 7. t/ 23. 5. 17. 30 . 3. 4. 3 . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 4. 2 6.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. 2 .0.  f . 2. 30.  3. . 1. o. 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 6. 25.5. 4. 2. =A^Z3. 3. 4 20. 12 24 y . (B43). 1. 14. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).2)(* . . 4. 2.  3. 22. 1. 4. 4.12. . J. 12. 1. (r.Y. 15. 7. 11. 1. .3). 1.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 21. f . 4. 2. J Page 235. . 2 <? 4a2 . 3 9. 12.3. 1. 1. 30.3. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). . 6. (m 4 + l)(ro. 0.10. 10. 7. (&y2a#H4). . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 25. 4. 3 . a  . 2. 17.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).2. 5. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 4. 2. 25. 7. P. 3. 1 . (a 4. 4 4. 15. 10. 3. 11. . 73. 3. 2 . 5. 3. ( 16.3. 1. (pl)(p3)(p6). 22. 3. 3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 100. 3. . 50. 3. a . (a. 8. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 13.ANSWERS Page 228. 6. 11. 4. 2. 19. 6. l. //. 13. 2. 3. 3 . 2. 18. 15. 5. 5. . 4 . 2.  3. 13. 1. 2. 2. Page 236. 4. 1. a: :} . (4 mn . 2.  5. 3. 9.  J. 7. 5.^a. .
15.. . i j. 1. 2 . 5. 3 2. 1. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1. 1J. 69. 5. 2 16. 10. 7. 5. 5. 24. 1 . (a) 5. Indeterminate.. 2. 4. 2. 8. $. 31. 2 1.. . 3. 8 3. 1. 2. 10. i. 1. no co . 12 ft. 3. in. 37. Page 239. 2. 36. 1. 1. ft. . . 8. 4. 55.6. (a) $3400. . 1. 9. 4. 2. . 4. i'ljVU. 14. 0. .5. 37. 2.  .0. 9. 9. V7. 4 . n. 3. 15.2. 18. 17. \. 1. 5. 1. oo . 4.. Exercise 113. Page 238. 0. 4. ^~2. 4. 6.1. 19. 3 . 1. Exercise 114. 4. 1. 5. 1. 1. 3. 15. 17. }. 6.3. 4. .6.. . 40 25 in.30. 5. . 1. 4. 3.  2 . 13. 3. 50. 1 2. ^ }. 11. _ 13 (0 6. 12. 6. (>. 5 4. 1. 2. 2 10. 12 d. 5.4. 3.. 5. in. 1 .3. (&) 2. 2 26. 5. 3. 12. 4. n . 1. 2. 20 in. . 4. Page 244. Page 245. 13.3. . . _ 7. } . 1.0. 5. 26. in. 3 . 5.200. 18. 3. in. 12. .xxvi Page 237. 11. 40. f*. 22. f. 1. 3 cm. $VO. 8. 1 . 12. 10.1. 4 6. 0. 2. 3 4. '>. 16.. 14. m27.. 11. 5. 1. 21. 11. 48. 14. 16. 2 ft. c. f>. GO . 8. 2V7. 1. . 12 1. 3. 17. . 1. 14. .18. 17. 2n. V3~. ' j. . 8ft. _ 10. 3V5. 5 . 11. x 4. Page 248. 24. 21. 7f solution. 1. 4. 3. 8 . 8.4. . 2 2. 78. . 2.020. 20. 2 . 30. 13. 23. 6.  1.13. 35. J. . 3. m + n. 22. 29. 28yd. 12ft. . +  n. 14. 40 in. .3. 3. 1. 2. 2. . 2. 3. 12. . 18. 2.4. 14. 38. (/>) "_. 9. ft. \/6. 2. tn 2. 30. Indeterminate. . 4. 3. 19.. ( 3. 41. 17. 2 . oo. 25. 8.3. ft. . $46. 2. 3. 4. 8. 2. 1 . 7. 4. 5. 1. 10. _ 5. 7 3. ri*. 2. 1. 2.3. 1. 4. 7. oo . 3. . 7. 15. . 2. 2 Y> V . jj. 5 cm. 7.5. 4. 4 8.. co . = QO 6. 3 3. 1.e.  11. Page 247. 11. 400. 900. . $.136. 2>/3. 17. i i i . 3. 1 . 9. 37. j. 3 . 15. 1. 512. 8. Page 243. . 23. 5. 84. 50. 35^ 5. 4. 15. 4. 15. 5050. . J. 3.3. 7. . 31. 39. 12. 3. 33. Page 241. 20. 45yd.1.3 .y. 125 125. 3. 35 a. Page 240. 2. 1. 6. 5. 288. 3. 20 7. 2. 35 ft. 7. 1. 32. 201.4. 5. m28. ANSWERS 2. J. . 3. 1. 30 13. 21 30. J. 3. 3. 2. 4 34. and _ 4. 3. 4. 5. 512. . in. 14. 9. 16. .
ANSWERS Page 250. 4. Jj? 45. 0. 100.  101. 410. 1000 aW.r x>/ 7 3. 10. 35. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 4.53. 1. 2.x' 10 .6. 75. 7. 18. 3.5. a. 12. 7 2 x 4 x8 .12 x*y 16. 7. ^a 8. 343. 53. 10.v Page 253. 11. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 70. 19.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .  17. G. 23.r* 4 70 . 27.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 43. 4. 8 . 7.210. 3. . 13. 8. 5. 3. 45.870 m*n*. 2. 0. 16. 2. 22. 6. 10. in.680. 10 14. xxvii 1. 12. 15.5y 4 . 5. 4. 4. 10. . 17. 20. 128. 1. 18. 20. 2. 4950 M 2 b y *. 7. 4. i 10. 2. 10. 13. 0. 1820. 7. 3. 1 7 4. 16 11. 45 Page 257. 15.504. 120 aW. (). 192. 13. 3. ?/i 6 x llj .2 45 a 8 /). 35. 8. 343. 2. Page 258. 4. 1.419. 21. . 05. 5. 9. 55. 18. 19. .5. 2i* 7f. 3. 70. 6. 4. 2. 2. 22.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . x r 4. 5. 1. 3. 7. 6i. 6. ' 1. 6. 4 0. 3. 1. 4.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 45.7 10. 48. . 125.^ ?>i 2412x4. 3. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 2. JSg. 16.4 &z x>&. 0. <.3 ays.470.4. . 280 53. 327. f y 8 + z* .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 19. . . 6. 3. 12. 20. 5. 1 14. 16. 304. 8. 5 13. />*. 0. 6. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).170. 9. ~v 9. 4. 21. 16. 11. **+. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . A. 44.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 5. 25. r r j. 26. 3. 12. 2.r 4. ~ an . 17. 7.13. 6. 16. 12. 8. 12. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . . 8. } $ 50. 8. 1. 5. . 5.0. r 5 4.920. Ja. 04. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 28. 9. . . 6. 4. 15.5 x. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. REVIEW EXERCISE . 105. 16. 8. 27. 27. 0. . 0. 405. c. Page 254. 9. 910. 8 1. 1.  20 flW. 220 .192. . 8. 3. 125. 29. x + Vy. 04. 12. 17. 8. w9  8.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 1. vy. 32. 6. 2. 14. 9. 3. 15. 16. 9. 5.8.<2 4. 8.120. &' 14. x4 . 1JH.700. 4.6 . 4. 15. 1. Page 259. 12. 27. 4.1. 5. 7. 708.384. B . 2. 50. 8 4x' 2 . . Y11.2 9. J 2 //2 25. . 005. a4 4 14. and 1. 4. sq. d. 18. 0. 1. 7 x4 17. 0. 5.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. Page 252. 10. 8J. '23. 4. 81.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 495.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. \ w 4 . 2. 11. 4. 70. 1. I. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .
c 3 4.1. 120.1w 77. as 20.105. x 3 41. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 1 a"* 4 an .4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 6 8 j27 40 ab.xxviii ANSWERS 19. . a2 2 aft 2 2. 91.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 110. I 57. . x' . . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 132.5 3n 4. 9x.2 x 4. Page 260. . . 46. x* . 8 . 99. 64.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.a. x } 4. !! 71. x 8  a8 . 16. . + z. 4 fee 4. . 4.ac 44 aft.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 x2 108. 4. ?> .  + 3 x2 .  . 131. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.  12 a. 94.4. 4 69. + 3 a?. 1 + 4 xy. 36. /> 4 83.7. 6a6c. 130.2. 2 2/' .4 x?/2 3 4. 62. a J . 10 4. 1 x 45. 2 x2 4. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 107.{ 54.15 4 62 x  72. 6 a2 97. 29. 0. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 80. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. . 52. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 .2 c . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.7 x   15. 2 53. 3 c . 4 15 x 5 . x 4. 14 x . xyxzyz. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 28. 25. 22.3 . 118. 4 . 105. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 6 c 47. 13 + 2 s.4.6 am b\ 129. 93. 4ft y3. 9 2w 128.3 b . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .3 a 2 '6 w 4. +^ + ft W. 2 . . a4 x. 70.  4 a3 85. x . 43. 10 a 12 b. . 31. _55_7c 48. x 2 . .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. . 4 Page 264.5x4. f5+7.6 b.9 b.2. 1 121. 4 2 . 76.x24 73. ?/ . 4 65. t 81. 2 113. ^ . . 125.ft). x' 79.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 109. 1 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.3 y.  e +/.4 x y 87. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 50. 102. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .3 x 2 + 3 x . . a* 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 63.2 xy + 4 y2 106.x4 + y'2 z 4.1. . 37. 21.  3 x2 .c. 39.9 x . 104. 38. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). ft2ft 4 4l. ?/ 3. . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 3a'2 Page 261. x8 x2 55.4. 122.18 ?/ 5x4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . x4 f + 23 .3 a'ft. 133. 82. + a 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. x2 471x4. 61. y 4 z* 0.a'2 c. . 2 q.^a .fee 2 4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.5 b + c .x 2 4.18 x?/0. 3a~2c. c3 4 58. . a 4 .4 2 4 c2 42 . a* a 8 a aftc. 86. 27.rty x2 4 123.1. 49.41.a 2 x 2a . 5x + 2y~z.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 88. .c. 26. 40. az 4. 2 a.. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 5 4 4. 4 115.a' 'ft 4. Page 263. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. () 2 x 33. 30. 66. 5 42.3 aftc. 8x3 8x. x 8 + x 4 68. 3 a 5 a 5. 24.1. ft n . 96. 3 36 b c . 0. 114. x2 a2 1 . 23. 2 x'V2 90.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 32. 16t/. 3 a 44. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 35. (a + ft)" 98.2 x^. 3~ n 4. x2 2 . 7 + 3 xf 2.1 4 jry 4 x .a6 2 4. 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 4 ! . &p 84. * 60.x 51. 243x4729. .x. m " + n + P3c . a' 111.3 103. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.a*ft 2 126. 124. . . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 5x 2 2x43. x 3 4. 12 x. 100. 12 a/.4 ac.5.4 x 2 . ft /> 78. 3 a .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 4. 72. df. . . 2 30 .x x*  f 2 ax 4.2. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 0.y*. a~b 89. a 3m 4. 127. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .
3 y)(a . 173. 4. (c) 160 C. 1. + 2) + 9a. z(x10)(xl). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2)./_4). 179. 231. k. 148.9)(xf 2). (. 156. (7x2//) 203. a + 2x2 ). 30 + xyr. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 217.r + 4). 190. (y7)(y + 188. 185. 232. 22. . 10). . 152.1(5) 200. 40 yr. 216. (x  42 yr. 3. 144. 3. + 22). 189. p. 235. .2 )(x+y) 228. 7. (y  17)(y + (>). 158. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). Or (a + 2)0el). 211. 233. . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). ft. 164. 238. 12. (6) 40. 201. 207. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 2. 1. 19. (y 7f))(y 196.y)(jc + 7 y). 186. 24.. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl).1). (x + 6)(x6). 181. 170. 151.r . a. 32 h. 178. 15  a. 50. y  y 165. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 222.y2 ). . 2(x8)(x3). 163.y). (3x  . 175. +)(x2 x^+2. (3x2?/)(2.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). + y. 209. (a& 192. 140. 240. 23 18. 195. a(a.2. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (?/+l)(yl). 12 6 panes. 2. 147.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 2a(42ft)(2fo). 220. 75..l)(y + 1). (/ 246. 154.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 210. (y_24)(y5). . 18. 147 mi. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (ab + 8) ( 7). 180. 187.I2y). (y _ ft)(y 4.3. 191. (r^x + 1). 2. r>x 2 (4x. 5. 8 204. 169. a 2 (15.6) (2 x + 1).6 .1). 182. 172.l)(a 2 +3). 12 yr. 48 h. xxix 139. 1. (r7y)(ai.y) (\r3y). (8x + 3)(3x4). 174. y 245.2ac + 229. yr. 8(ar}(/)27). 2. 244.y)(z . 6. 224. 161. (x + 2)(x . 236. 166.y + 3)(r (.2) (3 x . + 11) (a 10). ?. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. x(x + 6) 213.4xl). aft. 10 in. 1. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). Page 267.ANSWEKti 135. HI.6)(4 + 6). (a 2 + 2a6. 176. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 1. 160. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 2^. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 208. (7 c 2 ). 155. (xyX^+y" )1 243. (x^ + x1) 234. 20. 183. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . as 194.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (233). 2 xy(3 x . (a} 59. 171. . Page 265. p.l)(x8 + x2 .3). 167. 10. 12) (j. ( + 2y)(2x3y).m)(x + a). (2 198. 212. (5 x . 37 1.  1. C3 y _l)(. 205. 237. 153.2). G7. 10 ft. (JT y 225. 136.1). 193. (x . 197. 177. y3. 12 yr. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . + 3) (x f f>) . 20. 137. 142. 15.. 199. 12. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). fc'2a+62c). 218. y. 1. 230.3 y). 10). (2a + l)(a . 36ft. 219. 1. 226. 1. 30 yr. 202. 159. 241. 149. 247. 150. 184. 21.2). 214. 6). Iff 145. 3(x . 30. + 3). 2. + 7)(rt4). 2 (4 x . 239. 143. 4. 15. 157. 215. Page 266. 2 2 (a. 218. 146. (x 227. m.3) (2/3y). 162.. 6. 206. 168. 138.
*>). a~ ' b*). (7 255. 261. 301. 306. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.  7.^^^^^^^^. 4 5. 3). 2 x  3. 256. 7. 310. 264. x .   . ^/>J. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .  3xyf x// 257. a. 2. ?^ZLiZ 308. 3. 5. 303. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.(x  4) (x4 304. x12. 3). 250. 43 '^rJ'. 259. 254.^ ^^.. x 267. 2 4 300. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 251. 3  262.4). *.4) 1) (3 x . 295. o. 269.1. 298. &). 279.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 258. ? 1) 302. 7^T 2 . 249. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. > 4. 0. 260. 266. 268. 305. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 0. x ?/ z 1. 263. ^ 299. o(x4l). + f. 10. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 307. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x 283. 7 x 265. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.2* i^^ !^. Ca&c 1)(M 253.
a) A^_. 360. 389. T\. 13 391. 366. . 20. <L 409. 2 r36 384. + 335. ab. y 4 I 340. 407. j 328. 408. 379. l'j. 2.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 404. ^_:r f> 331. ^"" 4 s . Page 274. 0. + x 362. 2(a i 403. x 54 359. 375. 394. 6 ?/+:>. 385. 361. + 4 & 4 \ b. 2. f. 343 00 351. 0. 396. 383. (a + b + c\ . 3. 406.. 324. 2 327. 370. 365. . . 0. a + b + 6). _*L'L+. . 3. a +6. ?=. 395. .  1 356. 400. 336.7. 1. A^L5L. a 2 . 1. 11.". 329.  1. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 4 rw. 339. 7/i ^ _ . 380. ?/ + 3 332. * 357. m. 386. 1. 392. ?>*. 1 i 2 ^.3. 388. 3.1. 325. 382.(5 a . 398. 4.XXXI Page 272. 397. If. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 9^. . 333. 12.)Cr4)__ . 4 A. S. 1. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 377. " 4 378. 399. 0. 326. 390. T+^.vin a /r " 337.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 401. 393. 4. 6a. L .. 7.J . 364. 2 ). 2 ab  a Page 276. 387. 2 ?/ 363. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 405. 334. 1. 376. 355. 2(q. ^ 3 // . l . c 402.!. Page 277. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.
. 4. ISjmi. 502. 477. 7.7. 1.4. 478.}. 435. 426. 492. \.46. 442.  2.1. . i a b 451.55. <L+ 6 (. 503. I. 10.. 2. 2. 0. 40 oz.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. . 3. . (&) true.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 7. 483.2. B 4 mi. 441. 28 yr. 2.  505. '. 3.. 439. a 22 . (a) 1. 467. 6. 466. 458. i.vz in. $2000 at 0%. 8. 3a 4 5. 425.  10. not true. 5. 18. 6. 10. L (c) I.3.  2f 504. (d  6) f. 10. 422. 51. 22.5. 11. 7. 472.7. 421. 10. 2. 2$. 507. 7 : . 412. 485. 42. A $ 3500. 7. 0.  7. 2 438. fc. 6.  2. 4. 464. 0. 465. 40. * . 497. ^r?i 434. 490. c 6fc 10. . . *+. 50. 20. 5. 2. 6. 419. 24 days. 479. !L=4. 413.4. . \ 1. 3.0. m 1 : wi. 1 a /?$+&?.. 10.  f>. 428. 484. 445. (c) not true. 0. a + + ft c. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 4. 436. 463. 495. 0. Page 282. 450. 476. : />a. 4. 5. 32 yr. 494. 10$. A 5 mi .. 90.  453. 498.. 2 a 2. . 17.7. . B $ 2500. 2. . 410. z8 +?/ 3 431. 8.. & 491. 3 .7. ^V. . 2. + () 433. . 447. . 448. 487. 9. 1.3. 1.rz Page 279. 486. fj. 5. 14 miles. 32.2. 454. 429. 446. 10. 2. Page 280. b 449. 8. 1. 452.12. 20 yr. 506.te + . 17. 444. 5. 411. 457. . 440. 21. 430. (&) 443. L2 a  6 . 459. (d) true. 420. />c c(f be.7. c. 418. ft 5. . 496. ' $260 at 0%. Page283. 8. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. (a  c). 0. ISJini. ^. 1. Page 278.  2. 493. 468. 482. 12. 1$.488.489. a* 424. 500. 2. 508. 5. 462. 455. 6. Page 281. 423. 6. 63. 432. 481. 499. 53 yr.  .  1. . 460. 10. 5J.  7. 6.m  m+ M in. 480. 0. 7. . 461. 33. . 501. . 427. 84.  1. m. 2.}.0. 456.
ft 584.30. g(rc+ 6c). (a) 74 Ib. 1 580.6. 575. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.5. 4 0. . 3. f. (/)  10 to 8. 2. 7^ da. 2. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. Roots imaginary. (e) (c) 2. 562.62. 2 imag. 574. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.1.2. J7] min. 571. tin..37. 27 y* f\4 . Page 285. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .00.24.03.1.3.  557.1. lead. 3 da.31. 1$. 591.02. 4. . (ft) 4.  3. 1 .54.75. 566. 593. 6435. 21*_.1.83.35.8. . 512. 599.5.  .8. 1. . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 528.04. 8. If 572. . _ 4. 550.0. . 4* da.37.15. tin..4. 564.3.4. f.. 2 1.62. 2 2. 24 da. or 8. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 40 Ib. 1.6. 558.3.55.  J(a f + 2c). ^ ft 4. . .02.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 5. 3. 1. .1. 3. 0000.04. 1. 4.56 sec.02. 1. 4.% rr\* 585. Page 288. _^ 2754x . 232. 3 . 3.3. 509. 4. 577. (d) 537. 8 mi. H. 569.7. . 4.1.4. (gr) 10 1. 1 600. . 576. o> . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 2.78.4 x + . Page 287. (i) 3.  4. . 1.0. 2. > ^ . 0.5. 532. 1. 1.88. . (6) . 2(4 602.54.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 1J. 530.  2ft da. . 561. 3. 1.75. y 4.24 sec. 568. 579. 3. 3. 3. 518. da.10. (ft) Ill Ib. .4.   (h) 8.5+. 552. + 6 tf f 3 . 510. <z ft 1.5. 554. a + ft  a  f c. 1. 5. . 2.53.0. (e) 570. 559. 603. 4. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.8 x3^.9.12. 598.f 1.24. .6 2. 3. 567. 1. 1. imag.25. 531.  imag. 5.7.73. 536. . f36a28x8 592. 1. + 12 x . 529.16. 2. 3.52. 3. 533. 516. 578. 1. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.  2.3. 4. 1. 2 10. + 26 + . f ? a f ft __ + c C). 4. 2. 551. 6.03. 4. 1. 2. 3.15. (c) 4. 555. 525. 115 Ib. 1. .33.51. .6. 3.6. 1. M ft c 2 ft 3465. per hr. 553. 556. y% Z * 586. 582.7. a*8a + 24tf 82a.. 3..78.4. S82 c.  (a) (d) 1. 6. 560. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 583. 2.05.4. per hour.5 f.5. . 5. .3. 1.38. 573.  (a) 2.15. 1. 3f 4f.20. 7. . 581.xj/ f xV . 565. _ 3. 526.0.  7.83. lead. a f ft + c.  + + c. 513.3.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 2 1.8. . 1. 1 . 24. (6) 3.21. 514. 2 . .10. a+ Page 286. 2 . 2(6 597. . . 515.ANSWERS Page 284. 1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 4 mi. x8 .r8 596.02.14. (c) 3. 2$. 14.8.  1.  ft*. 527.3. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. T . xxxin 511. 563.25m.31. 31.
^ 1. . fta a/> ^A. 2 ab + a  &. 624. 608. y  619. 634. 660. 645. ft). la6 2. 637. 647.  4. 636.2f Page 290. 644. a 673. 701. 614. l/'3. 1 ~a .f 3 V^3). ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 2. 2&). If f 667.001. 1. 632.14 If 1. \. If. 4 676.2f (5 4. c. 2. 2.001.  13. b 664.  . . 0. 10. 4 V 0.3.3.b. 678< 682. 0. 656. 683. If b. 706. V2. ^. 2 x 44 ^/. 5002. 009. 8. 1 V5 1. 2f. 2092.3. fe + a. 626. 210. 3 a. o. 1010. 692. .049. 649. 5 3. .y. If . 622. 1 2.  6. ab. I}'/. b . 4.b 686. 7.  1. 14. 78. 9.3f l 668.  684. z  1. 3 x2 . 2 / 2 4. 708. 6. a + b. 2. 4330 da. 8 f 3. 620. 690. <T! . 5. 628. 50.a~ {Z 663. . 640.3. 6. 2 a  6*.0. 4. 0. .002. 643. 0. i. 618. 662. 623. / V^+lO^M"^.303. a 2. 657. 630. . 2. 653. 7..c ) 697. 4. 0. 641. 629. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . . ^. 0. 1$ 639. 612. 1m*. 5. (*_ + a: 611. . 5. 669. 9*. 7003. 654. 2. . 650. a 4. 3 681. 648. 25. V7. 2.. 670. 679. ix 2 . V"^TJ. 2. 646. 661. Page 289. 4. 1 704. ' 674. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 627. 700. 2. . V^~3). 631. 4$. /> 4.203. If 665. + 2 A (i f Page 291.  3. + ~^'2 + a 1.  2f r 659.43^4.>A 610.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 698. 638. 705. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). a. 652. 3. 651. be ac \.  a2  a (ab). 8 6 fo . 898. 642.25. 615. 1. a ' 2 + . 677 680. 2 a: 4. 702. K 5 2 V2. 691.  ft. 696. 11. 703. 672. 25. b. 12. 3. 703.04. 635. 13. 1. 666. if 4/> 671.  4. \+ab 699. ' fe 2 ). 655. J^^.XX XIV 606. 5. 613. ab 689. 1. ^^ 695. 617. 2 a 688. (a3&45rj. V2. 11. 616. 3. . a 1J. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 971. 621. n^l +^. 6 685. 607.702. 2f. 633. . 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. If 658. . 625.
1. 763. ^ ?>. a 2  x2 . 3 VlT 795. 751. "V313. 1 747.9. 24 4 . j 742. 782 785. 3V7. 59.2. 725. 25. Hi a. i 2. iv/Jj. y  1.. 32>/2. VV> L4V34. 731. 5. > 748. 736. 1^ _ 760. 792.11. 790 2v 3v 2. 3^. a db Va^T < 45da. 729. 714. Page 293. i^.4 .rJ w L 754. 710.ANSWMHti Page 292. 30\/10 764. 734.^ 743.. a 5 . 727. a 2 6^. 17ft. 721. 750. 758. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .~ . 794. 777. 796. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 732. 713. 737. 29\/3. 730. 2 V2 . a:* .8. 3V52V3. 778. 5. mn. cr*lr*. 13ft. 724. / 787. rt3 2 ^i^. x i f^' .12 af V^ 4 744. 3V72VO. ^ . 718. 3V72V3. 300. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 722. 769. + 6 2 tf'c. 717. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 342V3. 719. 00. fyaw&cu. 47. 768. 3. 755. 753.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 3 720. T%. 788. v/7 / . VIO\/3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 715. 776. 24V2. x\y. 7  3V5. J(v'lO2V 791. 711. 1.257. . . r. ^7xy. 793. 756. . 15 shares. 767. 712..^. 24. 746. 709. 740. Page 294. 726. 749. VT14V5. 716. + < 735. 733. 8.10.4 .r+y> 759. 1. .. 4 104 v/2. 723. 2x3^ a. 2\/53V2.r.V2.1 . 1 I . 773. 1 [ + '> J.V/^ 741. 738. v'll. 728. 39. 739. 34. 789. .9. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 33^2. 8. a". 1 752.
2.3. 2 806. 6(a6)(o a + + &). (3 b . Va. 17. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 3.r . 25.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 6 $. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.25 ?>2).1). H. . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.y) 852. 5. Page 296. 3. 2. .1. 811. 19. 10.4. 812. + d)*.3)(x + 4). 7. 13. 6. a* 4. $. 1. 813.a 3 " 4. m = 2. 851. 2. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . ( 869. 4. 2 854. .+ m f ") (a* ). 843. 2. 849. 14. ^.4) 860. 831. 888. 2. (x + 0X024. 2 m . 848. 17. ^VG. 4. 3. 890. 834. 4 885. .7)(4 x. a2 ^E*!. (a 4 871. a(ft)( 873. (x 845. 820. (x*y*ryz + z*). 801. (x 2 f r . 892. (x . 1. Page 297.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 4 818. 837.2) (x 4 2). Hoots . \/2. o. (2 a . 825. 896. +j!>. 4 . 2 *x 807. 824.1) (a 8 . 804. 3. x.l)(x . m 875. (:r 11. 899. 879. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 898.  1. 5. 4. 6. 2.a 2 2 ). 48.XXXVI 797. .7).l)(x . 5. (1 .  tt 815. . 6. 3. 2 2 . .2w . . 814. 11. 2/ 856. 4. 0./>") (a'.3.. 3 . 822. V 3. 863.7.  839.1)(0 865.om 441) (a 855. 1. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 20). 867. 810. 8. db 7. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 7. 2. 841. 876.. . 2 . 4.7). ^ V}. 847.10 ab 4. 8. (x . (2 x + 3 y} .. 884. 833.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 800. 4. 4. 5). 900. 8 09. 883. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).5) (x + * 853. 7. 0. (xl)(^~3)(. J V. 808. 1. 858. 827. 823. . 882. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. **. 861. 1. 842. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 859. (x3). jV3 f 3.r4). 836. 819. 857. (x 4. 872. (2 4. 829. 2 j 889. n =  29. 3. $. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 4. 3. (3 862. 23. 838.a 4 + 1). 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 4.  + l(l^). 2 . 3. 11. 868.f.5 b) 4 1). \/5. 891. 5.1)(V 2 . 881.4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .2 ax 4. 826. x . 0. 1 . 840. 2 (x 4*4.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). o 828. ANSWERS 798. 895. . a 42)(x . (4 c 4. 5. 2. 817. 4. 0. (a 1) (x 4.7 4 1) 846. 2. X4 1).0. ( 4 4. 4. (.rae) (4 . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). (2x (r. (a m .1) . 880. 886. Va 803.l)(x + 2). 3. . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .  ' . 893. 887. 816. (x 2 . ((' 1). ) (a' 874. 1C. 799. 830. 2  2. a(ry + 864. 2 . 2. f. b' 2 821. 3. 835. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 897. . 1 1. 7. Hoots are extraneous. 832. 6+V7. 844. 894. are extraneous.
. . 983. 934. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 952.446. 925. 6. 0. 923. 958.  26j.. 5. w 3. .709. 7. 9 in. yd. 4. 1.. i(6 in. .651.073. 5. 333. i1" 913. . i 3.01. 28. 2. 40 16 in. ?/i 6. J. ft. 3. 930.. 7. V^3). 951. 15 16 ft. ft.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 964. 980. 1 . 2. 963. . 909. 7. 2. f..1. 6. r ft ' < Page 299. . 3. i>. 6 da. 906. 937. 480 8 sq. 3). S07. 981. 333.1 = 9.. 948. 920. 280. '3 3 in. 4 . 984. 917. 977. . 10. 18. 916.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 911. ^y. 10. 11. 6 . 8. 938.. 905. . T 6. ft. 943. 12 mi. 2 i ' a V. 73.. 982. 4. 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 904. 2.. 4 6 mi. 5.. 950. 28. J. 6. 921. 11. 945. 979.  1. 2. 4. 6. 3 4 ./hr.. 6. ft. 7 ft. i 8. . a + . .1.760 sq. 108. 8. =F J. 986. 2 ft. ft. %* .744. 3. 912. 941. 5.0. 2. 987. 8 . T 6. 5.. 2 1. 80. 329. 5l4f. Page 302. 496. 985. 2 yd. 4. 4 in. .2. 248. 11. 1. 902. 4. 56. 12. 931. 957. 6 a 915.V~~3). ft. 6. 2. 111. 12 in. .  1 . 908. . 7. $(l 4. 4. 0. a. 28. Page 303. 8. 918. 8. V5 T 2 . 960. 1 _2 . 3 . 66 924. 2 w 914.111. . 956. 927. 8. 942. . 3. 2. 8. . Z ^. 3. 919. 8. 935. 20 19 ft. 15 946. 7 or 30. . 2. ft. 954. 933. V5 fj. 14 . 939. Va926. 961. J(_ ft. 4. 6. 12.I. dL 4.. 12. 922. 4. 944. 100 rows. 11. 8. 932. 1. 3. 962. 903. 1). . v/(ai !)(&910. 955. tt2 19. 5 . 1 1. Y.2.615. 60 949. 947. f ft 4 .. 0. T3. 936. 4. 978. 1 2. 8128. 959. 940. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. ft. Page 301. Page 300. 0.. 115. w. 2. 1 + V953. 6 1 1. 4. .
120 a. 991. . ^f (2f3V2).92. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 997. 192. 1 1004. (Z>) 999. 3003.192rt?)r 120 *.378 <W and 92. 1012. 1009. 988.128 I. 996. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 994. 1014. 2 . r = 2. 1(5. 4 and 1020. (5. 995. 1003. 992. 1005. 0. (J. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .51. 1006. 1010.870 z8 . . 1001. 108. X. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . in. () 12(2+V3). 0.18. 990. 2(2 v/2).  5&7 1021. + v 2). Page 304. 6 70 . 1017. + 448 .378 1015. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 8. 4. . 1016.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1013. (6) 8(1 . 1008. 120 i^l^.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .870 a 6 1011. ~ \. 1000.'^^ } ( .. 48. 1019. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 162. 12. ^Trsq. 24. Page 305. 72.. 1018. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 12. 1 8 8 2. 9 da. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 993. 1007. (a) (6) ^ 1002.
especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. $1. physics. given. HEW TOSS . but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.25 lamo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Half leather.D. comparatively few methods are heretofore. The more important subjects tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and commercial life. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. so that the Logarithms. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. A examples are taken from geometry. Half leather. xi 4 373 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. than by the . xiv+563 pages. $1. save Inequalities. etc. Ph. great many work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. i2mo.
To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. xiv+56a pages. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. Half leather. 12010. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. save Inequalities. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. HatF leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. comparatively few methods are given. etc. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.D. xi f 373 pages. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Logarithms. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. HEW YOKE . without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.25 i2mo. great many A examples are taken from geometry. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Ph.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. In Factoring. The author grade. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. so that the tions. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. and commercial life. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work.
aoo pages. . iamo. Attention is invited to the following important features I.. Half leather. 4. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. SEVENOAK. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. lines. under the heading Remarks". NEW YORK . 6.10 L. Cloth. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 9. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. $1. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. 10.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. These are introduced from the beginning 3.r and. more than 1200 in number in 2. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Cloth. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. xii + 233 pages. i2mo. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 7 he . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . $1. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .D. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. State: . SCHULTZE. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. wor. Ph. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. izmo. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.
" is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York City. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 12mo. . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. 370 pages. and not from the information that it imparts. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . $1.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . of these theoretical views. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.
The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Cloth. $1. " This volume etc. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. diagrams. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. photographs.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Topics. and a full index are provided. i2mo.