This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH.D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
IQJS January. .COPYRIGHT. 8. July. Norwood. Reprinted 1913. 1910. May. Cushlng Co.' February. 1917. J. September. Published Set up and electrotyped. U. Berwick & Smith Co. August. Mass. May. 1915.. 1910 . 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. September. . .S. 1911.A. 1916. January.
not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. however. are omitted." this book. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules..PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. etc. manufactured for this purpose. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. owing has certain distinctive features. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Elementary Algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and conse . Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. specially 2. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.
enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. e. may be used to supplement the other. For the more ambitious student. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. as quadratic equations and graphs. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions .g. however. especially problems and factoring. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. hence either book 4. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. are placed early in the course. In regard to some other features of the book. two negative numbers. Moreover. etc. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . Topics of practical importance.
while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application." Applications taken from geometry. and commercial are numerous. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. such examples. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . elementary way. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. Moreover. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. By studying proportions during the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. based upon statistical abstracts. viz. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.
William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. .viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. edge of physics. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910. however. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
....... SUBTRACTION. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.... ...... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... Powers.
Type III. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type Polynomials.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type VI.. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . .114 . Type V. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. . Type II... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . . Type IV.. * .. /^ . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ..
.... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ....... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
c = 1. 4V3~6c.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 12. b = 3." EXERCISE If a 1.g. or 9 Vx. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). [6c] 3 . 17. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 5Vl6c. + 1]. 14. c f d). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. d 7. aVc^. 2 . since the parts are a . 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 9. some number is . A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 6. A binomial is 62 . are trinomials. + c). 3. 6. 16. Val \fi?. V2a. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 10. a polynomial of two terms. 15. V36". V3 . \/c. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 0. 4(a 6(6 + &). (cfd) 4. 11. 26. V^a6. x 9. A polynomial is an y. as in arithmetic. is 28. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. e. 13. !^f\/03 3 ft. find the numerical value of: Vff. v'Ta. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 2. 27. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 8. 7 = 2. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms.
a=4. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5. x=^.4 6^9 ad. 5c +d 2 . 14.9. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 6. 3 2 If 1. 4. c=l. * For additional examples see page 268. d = 0. __ E.e. b = 3. 4a6fVaV2^. 3. multiplication. Otherwise operations of addition. .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. i. 12.30 = 270 .19 = 6.g. 3a + 56 a 2 .810 + 150 = . c = 2.390.INTRODUCTION 29. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. l 13. = 32 + 4527 = 50. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . subtraction. . 2. a2 11. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. EXERCISE 8*  . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.99. find the numerical value of: 9.5 ax 50 a6cd. . . Ex. 2. 6.9 aWc + f a b . 5=3. Ex. 52 .. 3 4 . 10. 8. d=Q. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 1.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 16. 4 . (a (a f b) 7. 2 ). 5. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .2 + I126. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. a 2 6. + 26+3 c. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.
a =3. 6 = 5. 30. 28. if : a = 2. 33.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 7. 23. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6=2. 6.6 . . Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6 = 2. sible to state Ex. = 3. 30. 26 of the exercise. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4.c) (a . a. a = 4. 24. geometry. 35. 6 = 4. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 37. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 34. 6 = 1. 6 = 5. a = 3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 27. physics.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 3. a =4. 6. 6 = 6. 26. a = 2. 25. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). : 6. 6 = 6. 22. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 29. Six 2 . 6 = 3. and other sciences. Read the expressions of Exs. 38. a = 4. a a=3. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).
b 14. the area of the triangle equals feet. if v = 30 miles per hour. A train in 4 hours. i. c. 12. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 5 feet. then a 13. 4. 14. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.INTRODUCTION E. 2. An electric car in 40 seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (c) 4.g. if v : a. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.16 centimeters per second. (b) 5. and 15 feet. b. count the resistance of the atmosphere. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.16 1 = 84.e.seconds. if v . Find the height of the tree. and c 13 and 15 = = = . d. 15 therefore feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 84 square EXERCISE 1.) Assuming g . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. . 13. and 13 inches.
denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14d (square units).). then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 8000 miles. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. square units (square inches. : 8000 miles. (c) 5 F. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14 square meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. the 3. (c) 10 feet. meters. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. ~ 7n cubic feet.). (The number 3.14 4. the area etc. is H 2 units of length (inches. (c) 5 miles. 5. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 2 inches. If the (b) 1 inch. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. . $ = 3. 32 F. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.
but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In algebra. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or positive and negative numbers. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. however.
the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 4 is 3 J. '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. + (9). is 2. 19. 21. d = 0. of: 20. 5. is 0. lf(2). c = 4. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 2326. d = 5. 24. 5. (17) 15 + (14).16 32. = 5. 23. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 6 6 = 3. 18. 22. subtract their absolute values and . + 12. 10. 33. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. (_ In Exs. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. . of 2. c = = 5. 4. Thus. the one third their sum. 12. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.  0.3. if : a a = 2.
31. & = 15. = 23. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 32. sets of numbers: 13. 38. 74. 25. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. \\ Add 2 a. ' Find the average of the following 34. . . 27. . c=14. . Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 35. 10.4. $3000 gain.5. 7 a. : and 1. SUBTRACTION. $500 loss. 0. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. and 3 F. $7000 gain. 13. and 3 a.3. ^ ' 37. 33.5.. & 28. . }/ Add 2 a. 1. 34. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. and 8 F. 37. 6. and 3 yards. affected by the same exponents. 4 F. AND PARENTHESES d = l. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.7. : 34. and 4. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 4. which are not similar. = 22. . 29. 72. 3 and 25.13. 5 and 12. 12.7. 40. c = 0. = 13. 6. : 48. 36. 42. d= 3. 60. 2. 10. 6. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 30. 3. 55. .. 11 (Centigrade). $1000 loss. and $4500 gain. 66. 32.ADDITION. 7 a. 2. 10. or and . 43. ' 1? a 26. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. . 09. and 3 a. are similar terms. 39. 41. 7 yards..
9(af6). The sum x 2 and f x2 . 10. 3a . Vm f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b a f ( 6). 5l 3(af6). The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 7 rap2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 5Vm + w. 5 a2 .18 35. f 4 a2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2 a&. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12(af b) 12. 14 .sign. 12Vmfn. + 6 af . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. in algebra it may be considered b.ii. 2 .13 rap 25 rap 2. : 2 a2. 11. EXERCISE Add: 1. 12 2 wp2 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 13. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. Algebraic sum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. . or a 6. 2(af &).
l^S 25. c 2 ^24. 2 2 2 31. SUBTRACTION. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 32. 37. + y. 2 7 1 26. +m """ 20. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 30. 36. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . without finding the value of each term 34. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8.ADDITION. 33. 6 23. 2/ : Add. ra 19. is . and to add each column. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. a a8 ZL **. 21. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. + / + 3 Va. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. n x* 2 22. 17. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 35. 1 27.
4 = 7. = . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 . to show any error.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 5 . . V3. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.3 s.20 c 5 ab 4. f 110WS: 26 aft.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. NOTE. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.41 = 3. to add 26 ab . x of x.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. and J 2 s. 2 Sum. 9 q 4. a 4.15 abc . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 5. 4 2. 2c. e.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.g. therefore the answer is correct.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.7 2 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g.8 abc . .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. c = 1. 2 Thus.c= 2. ft any convenient and c. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.15 6c. and 2 .12 a& 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 2 025. 6=2. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . the erroneous answer equal 7.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 3 a f 4 1) 4. .o c and 4. 3. 7 4. of that letter. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 3a 2? . s. 46 4z 7 c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.
. . 4 ajy 17.a. + a + 1. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 19.5 cr& + 7 6 9.4:xy xz 6yz.12 6 ~5 a . .VS 4 2 Vc. a) y ^/.9(a + &) . 2 3(c f a). .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .12.1.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. xy3xz + yz. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.3 mn 2 2 n8 .ADDITION.7v/if. 2 a. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 3 2 2 3 9 . and . 2 ?ft ?/z. 2 and 9m 48m 4.a 4 a 4 1. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. a. d and / 3 ? 12. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .8 m 2m 12.and 6.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 4 8 3 4 4 . 18/+6y + d.a. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 11.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 4(a . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).2n 2 2 3 rz . .a . e a4 /. and and 13.6. . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. m 4 6. 16e + 17/90. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . and 8 3 . 2 2 . ^2 1 e.(b + c) 1. . d. 4. and v 15. a2 2 14. 7ar + 3B 5.1 a 4 1 0. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 2 2 and . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. ?/ . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. v/20. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . . 16. 8. a 4 a . 56 w. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.7m . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .10 Vc. + 50 + 62 . 2 ?/. . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. SUBTRACTION. 4 3 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. in 8 3 m n 4. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. a2 a. and 1 4 a . and 5 Vb 18.4 Va .Ga 43x45. 4 Vc. a 4 a .12(a 4.5a^6 f 6) .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .15 5. .
ra + m.9aj 2. f number may be added 3. . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 22. and e + 6y . f 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 6 f c 2 23. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. s .11 xy + 12. f 1. T8a. +d a. how 1. 8 . If you diminish a person's debts. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. many negative units re main ? from 2. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. .. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. is 2. and 2 24. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 12 xyz.4 2tn* Sic 2 . a 6 2 c.22 21.3^* 2n 2 . 13 1. 1/ . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. + 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 45a6 2 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5.17 + 4 ?nfy . + n*. The sum and ? 1. and 25. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.
Therefore any example in subtraction different . SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. if x Ex. From 5 subtract + 3. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. Ex. ab = x. 41. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 3. 2. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract to . State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. To subtract.g. NOTE. In addition. In subtraction. +b 3.ADDITION. . called the minvend. a. Or in symbols. from What 3. Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 6 (3) = 8. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.3. and their algebraic sum is required. 5 is 2. ( 6) ( = . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. and the required number the difference.2. This gives by the same method. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the other number is required. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. two numbers are given. 1. 7.
24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.f 8 . Check. If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o.3 x* . Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
From From x2 the sum sum 7. 43. SUBTRACTION.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 54.7 a . 49. 53. and 3 7/ . 2y 2 . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 48.4 a^ 4. 56. c f d. 50. 51. 57. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.ADDITION.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 2. 44. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 2 a take a & j. + a the 2 a. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .w>t.6)f. 6 4 a. 55. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. of a 4.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 52. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.2. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 6(af. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . check the answer. 41. tract 4 x 3.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. . 46. 45. 58.a 2 j.c. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a*& + 6 a & . 42. 47. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.
a + 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 2 m 21. 9. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.15. subtract # + 1. 19. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. a a + c. 20. + 2. + 6 + c. A is n years old. +a add the difference duce 13. 6. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6 17. a 2y + z.26 4. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 16.
A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.g.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.ADDITION. II. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. one occurring within the other. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. the sign is understood.2 b .a^6)]  } . 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. changed. Ex.b c = a a & f f. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c. & f c. SUBTRACTION.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. a+(bc) = a +b . 46.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. . 45. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. I.c. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.6 b f (.
)]. : x + (2yz). + (2a 6 + c ). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. may be inserted according to 43. 17. 271 + (814 . 15. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.7i h jp) (m ?*. 19. 2 2a. a f (a a . .(a + 6). a (a + 6). 6. ? 11.+ 6)f (a2 b). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2 2 2 a(. 14. 3. 13. Ex.) 5 . 2a (4a 26 +c ). 4. 9. 21.: Ex.y (60. 18. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 8. By removing parentheses. m f ft) a. 3 3 f 7. find the numerical value of { 1422 .[271 47. [36+ (a 2c]. 16. a (a + 26 c ). 6) 2. (m a2 f.1422) J ] . Signs of aggregation 1. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 5. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). In the following expression inclose the second and third. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.
ADDITION. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5 a2 2. p + q + rs. 7. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. y f 8 . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 13. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. a\l> > c + d. 4. 2mn + 2q3t. m x 2 4.7fa. II. m and n. first. 5. z + d. . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. ' NOTE. of the cubes of m and n. The product The product m and n. 9. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 3. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The sum^)f m and n. SUBTRACTION.4 y* . difference of the cubes of n and m. 10. )X 6. 5^2 _ r . and the subtrahend the second. The square of the difference of a and b. 8. 2. 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 12.1. terms 5.2 tf . 3. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 6 diminished . The difference of a and 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 7.
The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6 is equal to the square of b. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers.) . 18. d. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. b.30 14.
is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 4. let us consider the and JB. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. what force is produced by the Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. If the two loads balance. therefore. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads what What. 3. 5. A A A 1. force is produced therefore. two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 2.
becomes meaningless if definition. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 4 multiplied by 3. (5)X4. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. the multiplier is a negative number. Practical examples^ it however. To take a number 7 times. ( (. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 5x(4). In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 9 x ( 11). examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. . make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. however. thus.4)(.9) x 11. (.32 8. such as given in the preceding exercise. x 11.4)(4) = + 12. 4x(3)=12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 9 9. or plied by 3.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Thus. 4 multi44444 12. 48. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.
2a 2 6c. Law Thus. _2^ 3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. (. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (2) 8 (. etc. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. x. If a cal = 4a6c.2. 4.3) (1) 7 2 . 2. about fac (2)X If 6. 23. (4)'. 3 aW. 30. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 8. c = 25. 8 4 . 10. 6. 7. 6.4. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 3. z s 11 aWcx. (7) X (12).(4J). 24. (4)X(15). 5. is 6x7. 4 a2 . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.MULTIPLICATION 50. 22.3. (2)x9. 3 a2?/2 . 16. 11. 13. 4 .(a&c) 2 2 . . 1. 1. 27. 12.2f 18.a)( =+ a&. . Ua b 28. 19. 2a6 c . and y = 4. X(5). NOTE. 6 2. 5x3. _2.2 f+x 2 . 32. 9. 8 31. . x= 0. 17. b = 3. +5. 26. (10) 4 . _3. 15. 20. . 3. 29. (c#) . of Signs: TJie positive.7. 14. find the numeri values of: 21.
3). 78 . m*. 36.257). 6 = 1. 7. 6" 127 U . 3 2 . 127  127 9 7 . 9 . 3 3 4 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 50(112. 3.35). 10.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2... known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.e. &*) c d*. 4. = 2. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.2). 4. By 3 definition. 2 2 3 6 .(7). 12 U U . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 5(711.(12) .12 Perform the operation indicated 12.2 2 23 + 5 . 53. 2 3 . + 2/). a= 1. . 4.7.6 if 35. 6.503). a = 2. : 3a7abc. 2(14. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. fl*" integers. 2 2 2 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2. B. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. IB. (a6) (a5) 9. 5 = 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 6 = .  and 2 25 8 . or 2 . 3. 5 . i. . =2 a *. 16. 14. 5 3 5 3 2 . 2(7. 5. Ex. 6 aWc x . . This 52. 1. of the factors. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .m a 3  4 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . & = 3. a 2 2 . Ex. .(2.  2 2. 100. 200.<?. 2. 17. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . . a8 a=2. 13. 34. 11. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a = 3.
24. 31.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .7 w'W (8 n^W).3 win ) . 28. 2. 20. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 7p*q r*. 12( + 1 4 i). If results ft. 23. 2 32.f 2). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 11(3. . multiply each by the monomial. 22. 27. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2(645410). . . 17(10041042).A). /). 6. 35. Thus we have in general a(b 56.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . This principle. by first multiplying. 4. 2(5fl5f25). 7. (. . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . _4aft. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 6(10420430).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. . 25. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . and then adding : 1. c(4a ftc ). 5. 29. 3(124342). ax /) 2 4 1 (. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.4a#. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 35 4 7(6. 26. 34. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 23(10004100420).7pqt. (.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. called the distributive law. 19. but we shall assume it for any number.2 3 aft ).6. 21. 3. . ) 2 33. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.
4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 29. By what 25. 2 m(mhn \p). 3 ). . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 9.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.asa product. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 27. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 5). ~2mn(m +n p ). . 26. 30.we b) (x law. 20.3 aftc). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.5 x 7). 22.60 a& 10 aft. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Find the factors of 6 ary . 28. : expression must 24.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.6 a6). 12.^ c + 2 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. f7a. 11. . be multiplied to give 4o.5 w*V f 7 wn). 17. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 2 2 16. 7 a 6 c(. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 23. 21.2 mn(9 mV . 19. . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.
Since all powers of 1 are 1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 59.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Ex. .a .4. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 b by a 5 b.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since errors. Check. Multiply 2 a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example. however.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 2. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Multiply 2 + a a. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. To multiply two polynomials.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 2 + a8 .1.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. a2 + a8 + 3 . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .
2) (3 A: 1). (2w 19. .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 20. 22. 8. 6. a 5c)(2a6c). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (6a~7) 2 . 12)(a?^2l). I (mfn)(m4.4) (x + 1). 40. (13 A. 15. 28. 35. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 2 . 10. * For additional examples see page 261. (ajf6y)(aj 23.4) (mnp 4. 1). 7y). .2). 5. 29. 16. 3<7).2m)(l m). 24. ^ 2 . 26.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 36) I) 14. 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 9. 12. 41. 13. (2 x* x 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). 36). (4a 2 33. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). QQ O7. 3. 30. 11. 4 2). (6i7n)(llJn). 4. (8r7*)(6r39. 25. l)(raf 2). (6p (2 f 21. OQ OO. 36. 31. 2  37. 18. 7. 17.1 . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (a^26) . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 32.
X 102.e. (a 9) (a + 9). . (6 12) (6 f. 11. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (J 23. 19. ft 16. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 15. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 2) (1000 + 3). 28. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 75 ab f 54 ft . 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (10+ (1000 (2. (p12)(p + ll). (a 102 x 103. i. 7. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (ra.e. 6. + 9)(m+9). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . 21. in of the two unequal terms. 25. 2 a? 29. 13. (a (a (a. + 3) (a 7). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 14. 17. + 2) (a f 3). 26. 18. 27. 2 6) (a 3 6). plus the product of the two unequal terms.n)(wf w). _3)(a _4). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).25)(y+4). (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 60)(f2). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 8.2 6) (a f 6). . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 22. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. + 5) (1000 + 4). 3. 1005x1004. 9.!!)( (a + 21). 25 a 2 . 1) (10 + 2). 24. (*. 12. 10. 20.13). : 23 2. (a3)(a + 2). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. i.4). plus the product 62. (!)(* 5).
: 24 (a 2. + 6 a + 8.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. Ex. 34. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 33. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a26) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. <J>7) J . i. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. : ar'Sz + a 2 G.e. 37. 31. second. III. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 9. a2 2 w + 2 w . + 3) 2 . 32. (x+3i/) 2 . 7 a + 10. and the second. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. . p 2 p. 35.e. 7.30. i. 6. 8. 4. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). (a2) (p a . n2 10ii+16. 77ie square of the of the first. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.66 s. . 2 5.e. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . w 2 ro . plus the square of the second. .15. 63. 49 y*. of the second. plus twice the product of the first and the second.15. 2 (a (*5) 2 . III. 3.
I) 2 . a2 9. (^. (6afy 2 5) (a. 49. 48. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 4 53. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 12.998 39. 2 . . 40. (2x3yy. 31. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 33. 25 a 9. m 2 16. . 2 . 24. 16aW25. 51. 99x101. + 3z) 2 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 2 . 38. 22.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 11. + 5)(5+a). 32. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 55. 14. 34. 44. 2 9a 496 2 56. n*6n+9.MULTIPLICATION 10. (1000 2 . 991 2 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 52. 17. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 41. 62 25n 2 . 15. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. ). (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). The product of 57. 9 a2 . (20 f 1) . 35. 47. 998x1002. n 2 f4n+4. 54. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 21. 45. 7& ) 25. (a 3) 2 2 2 . G> +5g)*. 2 . ( 27. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). a 2 8a6+166 2 . + 5). 46. 41 16. 103 36. (100 + 2) (100 2). 28. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 18. 29. 23. 2 J ). 104 2 37. 22 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. By actual multiplication. 42. .
plus the last terms. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 14. (5a64)(5a&3). (3m + 2)(ml). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 11. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (4s + y)(32y). The square 2 (a 4. ) (2 of a polynomial. 6. ((5a? (10 12. 4. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 65. 7. 3. 13. : 25 2. 8. 5. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). sum of the cross products. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). or The student should note minus signs. 2 10.& + c) = a + tf + c . (2a3)(a + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 9. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). .f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (5a4)(4al).
3. 9. 4(aj2)h3(7). If x = 1. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 4y sf n) 2 . a.24] . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (xy+z)*. 8.(= [ Xa + 2 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 6~2(a + 7). 8. 6. 3.5) = (7 . 13.3) . 2 2. Check. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).39. 66. n).4) .39.24 . Find the square root 11.(m 2 6.y? + 8 . = . = 10 x . + 6)( .3)(z.X2 + 2 x .1 5 = 10 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.3) (x .i2&c) 2 .[a? . 4. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). (  2 4) =  20 a. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.29. + 65) . and check the answers !.(x .4) . Ex.5). Hence. 7. 12. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).8 x + 15] . 5. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. after multiplying the factors of a term. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 2)6.(>.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.r _ 2 . 7. of z : 10. 6(a 2. (a (. 4. 5. (u4& + 3c'. 4(* + 2)5(3). .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . v/17. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.DIVISION 14. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).e. a I. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . 16. . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 19. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).2) (3 a . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 20. 18. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .11 a + 9 a .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 51 15.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . Division of the difference of two squares.2). (81 m + 1 .l.
12. 16 . 10. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. f 13. 15.0001. r/ 1. . : the following w a 4 !.000. 1. 14. aW 12 a.49. 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. 100ry. 9& 2 . 16.
82. the first member is 2 x + 4. . 81. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . is said to satisfy an equation. hence it is an equation of condition. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in the equation 2 x 0. . 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. .r f9 = 20 is true only when a.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. =11. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. second member is x + 4 x 9. the 80. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. x 20. (a + ft) (a b) and b. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus.
85. but 4 does not equal 5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. . 2 = 6#f7. a. the remainders are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots.g.e. 87. If equals be multiplied by equals. 89. the divisor equals zero. If equals be added to equals.54 84. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the quotients are equal. Transposition of terms. x I. E. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the sums are equal. the products are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. If equals be divided by equals. A numerical equation is one in which all . 5. . 3. A 2 a. A term may be transposed from its sign.2. 86. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 2. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.b. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. called axioms 1. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. one member to another by changing x + a=. 4. NOTE. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. If equals be subtracted from equals. 90. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.
To solve a simple equation.6 y f y\ . 2 x = 6. (4y)(6. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Hence the answer. Transposing. x = (Axiom 3) 92.2. Dividing by Check. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 2(11 . and the known terms to the second. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Check.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Uniting similar terms. a= a 6fc. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 3 y . x = 93. Uniting. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Unite similar terms. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. is correct.2 y= f . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 91. The first member. The second member. if a x = b. . Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 4x 1 + 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. b Adding a to both + a. f If y 20 .9 y + y2 = 22 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. b c. Dividing both members by 2. The first member. x = 3. if 55 x members.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.8. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.
= 5a?+18. 16. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3 7 a. = 7. 9 9a? = 7 13.17 + 4y = 36. + 16 = 16 + 17. 15. x = 18.7a: = 394a. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 21. 4.69. =2 = 3. : 5# = 15+2a. . aj * See page 264. = 3. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). a? a?. 12. and check the answers 9. 3. 247y = 68lly. J. 3. + 22. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 50. 11. Uniting. 17 7 a. 20. v23.7. = 2 ?/.. it NOTE. 4a + 5 = 29. etc. f Simplifying. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). . If x = 18. 4y 10. Dividing by Cfcecfc. x x 1 . 24. 13a? 3a?. 7a? 5. 19. + 7(3 + 1) =63. a?.. 14. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 7. 2.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 17 + 5a. 32 = 264. a. 6. 7 (6 x 16). Solve the following equations by transposing. 8. Transposing. \x x 2^xfl.56 Ex. 11 ?/ a? 18. 22. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.
+ 4).5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 7) (a.(2 + 6) (4 .12) (2 + 5) . find the other part. 36. 7(7 x y 26. a? 43. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. . e. 2 2 * Jaj.4) + 4 w . 42.3) + 14. 38. 40. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.3) . . (aj 37. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. : One part is of 70 is 25 . . a? 28. 30.7.7) (7 x + 4) . . 31. 5) (as (a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.5) = (a. this question.32. .5) + 199.14 = 0.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 6(6a. 39.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . . 35. Evidently 45.g.1) (u . or 70 a?.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. .2) (M .1 0) = 0. + 7) (. 25.5(2 u . 27. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 29. 34. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. is the other part. . (6 u =5 44. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 41.3) + . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. . (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 33. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.
Divide a into two parts. 5. or 12 7. 4. Ex. 6. Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one yard will cost 100 dollars. greater one is g. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . find the cost of one yard. 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 33 2. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. If 7 2. so that one part The difference between is s. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 3. and the smaller one parts. Divide 100 into two 12. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 1. so that of c ? is p. so that one part Divide a into two parts. a. 15.58 Ex. 17. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 13. smaller one 16. is b. is a? 2 is c?. 11. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 14. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 6. is d. EXERCISE 1. 10.
A dollars. ?/ 31. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find 35. and spent 5 cents. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 32. sum If A's age is x years. 28. and B's age is y years. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . b dimes. How many cents has he ? 27. is A A is # years old. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 33. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A feet wide. 22. and B is y years old. 24. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many years A older than is B? old. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. amount each will then have. and B has n dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. Find 21. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. numbers is x. A man had a dollars. find the has ra dollars. and c cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. 26. If B gave A 6 25. 34. 28. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 20. The greatest of three consecutive the other two.
. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . The two digits of a number are x and y. 46. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. A was 20 years old. Find x % % of 1000. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. 49. a. per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. m is the denominator.50. 48. of 4. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find the number. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. of m. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. The first pipe x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). he walk each hour ? 39. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find a. A cistern is filled 43. Find a 47. c a b =  9. find the fraction. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.
of a increased much 8. same result as 7 subtracted from . 8 b ) + 80 = a . a exceeds b by c. of x increased by 10 equals x. 9.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 3. 4. The double as 7. of a and 10 equals 2 c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 2. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The excess of a over b is c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. etc. c. 5. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 6. 80. by one third of b equals 100. 80. c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. double of a is 10.
11. pays to C $100. 12. B's. (c) If each man gains $500. amounts. 3 1200 dollars. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a.. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. express in algebraic symbols : 700. and C have respectively 2 a. #is5%of450. 16. 6 % of m. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and C's age 4 a. 14. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 50 is x % of 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 17. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's. A gains $20 and B loses $40. they have equal amounts. x is 100 x% is of 700. symbols B. sum equals $20. m is x % of n. 18.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. they have equal of A's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. as 17 is is above a. .62 10. a second sum. and C's ages will be 100. a. of 30 dollars. B's age 20. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B. In 10 years the sum of A's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. x 4 If A. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.000. >. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. is If A's age is 2 x.
NOTE. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Simplifying. Uniting. Ex. Transposing. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 1. etc. the required . denote the unknown 96. number of yards. Ex. Let x = the number. x= 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. A will Check. Check. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Three times a certain no. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 23 =30. 4 x = 80. the . 2. Uniting. be 30 . 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Find A's present age. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3z40:r:40z. In 15 years 10. much as 40 exceeds the number. . Write the sentence in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Dividing. 6 years ago he was 10 . number. x+16 = 3(35). x = 20. Let x The (2) = A's present age. but 30 =3 x years. In order to solve them. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. 15.
EXERCISE 1. Hence 40 = 46f. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 3. 14. Forty years hence his present age. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. by as much as 135 ft. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 11. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. twice the number plus 7. A number added number. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number. 4. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 120. Dividing. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 300 56. % of 120. Find 8. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.64 Ex. . 5. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Let x 3. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 13.2.
the second one. statements are given directly. and B has $00. How many dol A has A to $40. 65 A and B $200.000. . times as much as A. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. During the following 90 years. B will have lars has A now? 17. 97. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. 14. A and B have equal amounts of money. The problem consists of two statements I. five If A gives B $200. x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 1.000. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. The sum of the two numbers is 14. The other verbal statement. Vermont's population increased by 180. If A gains A have three times as much 16. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. and as 15. two verbal statements must be given. B How will loses $100. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. is the equation. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Find the population of Maine in 1800. which gives the value of 8. Maine's population increased by 510. written in algebraic symbols. One number exceeds the other one by II. Ex. F 8. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.
Uniting.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = 3. consider that by the exchange Hence. + a f f 8 = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 8 = 11. = A's number of marbles. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. 2x a? x j = 6. A gives B 25 marbles. Then. Let x 3x express one many as A. 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. < Transposing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. . has three times as many marbles as B. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If we select the first one. If A gives are : A If II. and Let x = the Then x +. A has three times as many marbles as B. = 14. 25 marbles to B. to Use the simpler statement. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. I. although in general the simpler one should be selected. the smaller number. = B's number of marbles. / . A will lose. . The two statements I. B will have twice as viz. x = 8. 2. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Statement x in = the larger number. the greater number. unknown quantity in Then. which leads ot Ex. Dividing. B will have twice as many as A. x x =14 8.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. terms of the other. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. the sum of the two numbers is 14.
x = 6. 3. dollars and dimes is $3.10.. cents. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 11 x = 5. Find the numbers. 6 times the smaller. the price. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Uniting. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x from I. Dividing. * 98. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 60.10. (Statement II) Qx . 50. 2. and the Find the numbers. but 40 = 2 x 20. greater is . 50 x Transposing.10.550 f 310.240. A's number of marbles. B's number of marbles. have a value of $3. Simplifying. 40 x . etc. 45 . 15 + 25 = 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. . Dividing.75. w'3. the number of half dollars. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. is 70. x = the number of half dollars. Let 11 = the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Two numbers the smaller. the number of dimes.. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Find the numbers. x = 15. Uniting.$3.25 = 20. then. Simplifying. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.. The value of the half : is 11. of dollars to the number of cents. The number of coins II. Eleven coins. by 44. .5 x . The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 3 x = 45. The sum of two numbers is 42. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 1. Check. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Check. * ' . consisting of half dollars and dimes.
How many 14 years older than B. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many hours does the day last ? . Twice 14.. United States. 7. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.000 feet.68 4. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 11. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Everest by 11. and four times the former equals five times the latter. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. How many volcanoes are in the 8. On December 21. How many inches are in each part ? 15. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 9. A's age is four times B's. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 5. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. one of which increased by 9. Find their ages. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. tnree times the smaller by 65. 6. McKinley. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. as the larger one. the number. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and twice the altitude of Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2.
and B has three as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = 48. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. . try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 1. number of dollars of dollars B C had. III. x = 8. 19. and C together have $80. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number had. B has three times as much as A. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. and 68. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. has. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. times as much as A. II. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. number of dollars A had. Ex. bers is denoted by x. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. then three times the money by I. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The third verbal statement produces the equation. they would have 3. has. B. Let x II. If 4x = 24." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. B. If A and B each gave $5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. original amount. I. and C together have $80. are : C's The three statements A.
140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 4 x f 8 = 28. each cow $ 35. x = 5. 2. each horse costing $ 90. the third five times the first. number of horses. cows. Dividing. according to III. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x f 4 = 9. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. first. number of sheep. according to II. 185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 8 90 x and. and Ex. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 may be written. 1 1 Check. sheep. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. III. 28 2 (9 5). and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. and each sheep $ 15. 9 5 = 4 . + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Uniting. number of cows. x j = the number of horses. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. number of cows. and.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. Let then. 9 cows. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x Transposing. and the sum of the . The I. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. three statements are : IT.
twice as old as B. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the third 2. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. the copper. New York delphia. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.  4.000. A 12. what are the three angles ? 10. first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. The gold. men. the second one is one inch longer than the first. women. 7. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. how many children were present ? x 11. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. what is the length of each? has 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. 13. "Find three is 4. 9. what is the population of each city ? 8. twice the 6. If twice The sum the third side.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and 2 more men than women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. increased by three times the second side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. equals 49 inches. v .000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and children together was 37.
and quantities area.000. number of hours. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 3 and 4. speed.e. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 14. or time. After how many hours will they meet and how E. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. of arid the value of the iron was $300. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and distance. Find the value of each. A and B apart. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.g. such as length. . has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. width.000. Dividing. = 5. but stops 2 hours on the way. 8 x = 15. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. how many 100. First fill in all the numbers given directly. we obtain 3 a.000 more than that the copper. i. Let x = number of hours A walks. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. number of miles A x x walks. 7 Uniting. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. of 3 or 4 different kinds. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. = 35. Hence Simplifying. together.
. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. x + 200). l. Check. $ 1000 x . 2 a = 40.M(x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. z = 20. $ 800 = 800.05 x x . 70x10 Ex. original field has Check. x . But 700 certain = 800 2.06 = $ 40. Find the dimensions of the field. . 10 x = 200. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. $ 800 = required sum.01 = = . Transposing and uniting. the area would be 100 square yards less.04 8. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. or 700. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. were increased by 30 yards. + 8. Multiplying.04 = $ 40." gives (2.053. the second 100. x . The an area 40 x 20 =800.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 2   and transpose.
After how many hours will B overtake A. and its width decreased by 2 yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. sions of the field. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 2. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Six persons bought an automobile. were increased by 3 yards. 1. 3. What are the two sums 5. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. together bring $ 78 interest. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. twice as large. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sets out later two hours B . mobile. A of each. but four men failed to pay their shares.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Ten yards $ 42. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. the area would remain the same. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more.55. Find the share of each. as a 4. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and a second sum. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. invested at 5 %. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.
but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and from the same point. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.
+ 62 is integral with respect to a. f db 6 to b. a. vV . expression is rational with respect to a letter. it is composite. consider 105. a2 to 6. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it does contain some indicated root of . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. as. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a. which multiplied together are considered factors. we shall not. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. at this 6 2 . irrational. stage of the work. 104. if. 5. it contains no indicated root of this letter .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. this letter. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 6. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 76 . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An after simplifying. but fractional with respect 103.
The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Ex. 77 Factoring is into its factors. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. x. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.g. .62 can be &). 2. 55. Divide 6 a% .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. ?/.3 sy + 4 y8).FACTORING 106.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 107. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). in the form 4) +3. 8) (s1). 2. or that a = 6) (a = a .62 + &)(a 2 .3 6a + 1). since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. It (a. 110. Factor G ofy 2 . . y. 109. it follows that a 2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . for this result is a sum. 01. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 2. TYPE I. 1.) Ex. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. E.
f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.3. 17. 12. TYPE IT.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .8 c a 15 ofyV .6. .45 afy . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 2 2 . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 + q.2.12 cdx. 14a 4 5. 19. obviously. q*q*q 2 a.51 aW + 68 21. 4.30 aty. 7i 13. 34 a^c 8 .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 15 2 7. 11.51 x4 2 6 xy s . ) 22  2. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 3. a a 'Ja .5 + 2. : 6 abx . Ilro8 9.3. 3 3 5 6. e. 5f 2 . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 18. 3 2 . a6c.4. 2 6. 2 23. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 16. 4 tfy f. 2 Or. (as 3) and (ccf5). QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 14. 32 a *?/ . 20. + llm llm. 3x*6x*.5 + 13 8. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.g.4. 4 8 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 8. 15. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 7a & 10. . 2. in general. 13.
11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor + 10 ax . or 7 11.11. 3. . of this type. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. . . can be factored. Factor a2 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 11 7. however. or 77 l. 5.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. as p. 2 6. Factor x? . is The two numbers whose product and 6.30 = (a . but of these only a: Hence 2 .4 . + 30 = 20.11) (a + 7).1 1 a tf a 4. determine whether In solving any factoring example.6 = 20. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Therefore Check. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 4.11 a + 30. the two numbers have opposite signs. m 5m + 6. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. If q is negative. Ex.5) (a .77 = (a.5) (a 6). a 2 .G) = . 2. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. and (a .FACTORING Ex. 77 as the product of 1 77.4 x . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Ex.a). the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11 a 2 . tfa2  3. If q is positive.. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. We may consider 1. + 112.
80 7. 35. 2 2 a' 34. + 44. 13. 11. 2 . ay 11 ay +24. 27. TYPE 113. . 2 ?/ 28. + 5<y 24. ITT. . ra + 25ra + 100. 32.6. 25. . or . 2 ?/ 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 16. 4 2 . x2 23. 2 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 14. + 2xS. 33. 19. 6 8 8 4 2 a. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 24. and 5 x.17 + 30. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 20. a2 . 26. 17. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 30. + 4?/21. + 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 100 xr . 29. 36. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 16. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 12. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 4 3 2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 9. 8. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 15.48 + + 446 200.500 x + 600. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 21 a 2 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. a? + 5 + 6 a. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.70 x y .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 21. a 7 a 30. 18. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.180 a. 31.
Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 6 x 9. viz. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.5 . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 27 x 2.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 2 x 27. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. but the opposite sign. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 3 x and x.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. the signs of the second terms are minus. Factor 3 x 2 . 11 x 2x. . and r is negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. and that they must be negative. or G 114.5) (2 x . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.13 x + 5 = (3 x .83 x f 54. If p is poxiliw. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 54 x 1. a.1). the If p and r are positive. Ex. X x 18. 9 x 6. 2. sible 13 x negative. 18 x 3. .
163 x 2 . 2m t7w + 3. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 30. 10a?2 2 33. 11. 100^200^ + 100^. 16.300 ab 2 f4 250 . : 41 2. 2 .30 y 6 4 . 2 . f go. . 12^17^16.2 a 90 x*y . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 6n 2 f 13w + 2.260 xy . 21. 18. 35. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. + 2/3. 14.y + 172/9. since all others (II. 19.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 7. 34. 29.27). 2. Sar' + SaG. 8. . 32. and the monomial factors should be removed. 144 x .179. 17. 10a2 G a2 2 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 24. 2 2 2 23. 10. 4a2 9tt + 2. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 5. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 3x*Sx + 4. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.7. 9 y + 32^16. 12y 2/6. 2 28. 4. 2 fc .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 9. 2x* + 9x5. 2 2 2 . + 4. 10 a .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.19 a f 6.2) (x . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 2 ar* 2 i/ .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 15. 6n + 5?i4. 90 a 8 2 . 3. x54 a. 5m 26m f 5. 2 31. 6. 14 a fa 4. the expressions should be it. 3a + 13a. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 13.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 20. 12.83 x . 22. 25. X 27 . 9a. . 2 26.83 x = (3 . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.
4. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 13. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11. must have a positive sign. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.10 x f 16. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .e. 9 10a625.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2 9 10gf25. 116. 12. x* . 2. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . To factor a trinomial which maining term. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 10. i. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.26 ab + 9 6 2 . it is a perfect square. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. it is more convenient for that type. 3. form are special cases of the preceding type. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 9. . of its terms are perfect squares. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 25 7.20 xy f 4 y\ . however.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 6. 2 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 14. square. 5. . and a perfect square. 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and factor whenever possible : 1. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 8.
149 a 81 8. product i. TYPE 117. 16&*. ).20 ab + 10 b a . 48 a +( ). . + GO + 25. 36 2 4. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. aV . 1. ^//c to the Ex. 3.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 9. a2 24.6 m* + 9 m.60 a# + 4. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 19.3 * ). 27. 9a2 . 2 20. Ex. 25.e. 18. 22. . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 16.64 6 = 16(a . ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 29. 6.84 15. V. 2 . 6 2 . 2 . 4a2 l. According to 65. 225 ofy . !Gar 9 ( )+25. * 2 . ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 2 . 17. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 10 a 2 4 2 . . prime. 7. 3. 26. 5. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 4 2 23. +( )f816 30. 2.2 ofy + ofy m . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . a.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2. a.
36> . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2. 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 16p 2 . (m7?) y. Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 5. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2 .FACTORING 85 118. One or both terms are squares 1. of polynomials. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 6. 9. 13. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c 4.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 14. 4.c . Factor a 2 . T. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 8. 11.d) 2 . a2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. a:) 12. Ex.(I) .
4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.ab + bx. 5. . .VI. 4:cx . 2. x8 . 7. + x + 2x + 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.1. 12.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Ex. 4 B. 2. 8. ma ?*a + m& nb. A. 5) . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 6.a a . ive find that the new terms con common factor.r.y + 2 2). a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.7 c + 2c .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 9. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. = (3 x + y . 3. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a? 11. a 26 2 2 3 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. Ex. 119. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.14. 1.2 ) (3 x . By grouping. After grouping tain a the terms.and trinomials. a5 + ab 6 . 10.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. which may be factored according to types I.
SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. Arranging the terms.9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 2. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 4.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 3.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. w m 2. + 2xy + y*q*.4 f . 36 9 m . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 8ra 2 + 16. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.FACTORING Ex. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 4. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. $ a8 . 2 7.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . = (a + 6)(a6). . 6. : 46 x* 2. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. : m 2 2 16.l. 2a3/ 7.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. II. 4 a2 . IV. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 6 6.12 aaj 4 6y. l~a 2a56 2 2 . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 5. 8. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 2. 8. First find monomial factors common to all terms. .
29. . + 6 aft + 3 . 3 2 .310 x . 42 s 2 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 32. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. a6 36.13 c . 14. 25 a + 25 aft . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. a3 156. 28. 2 17. 2 a 128. 5a' 20. 3 25. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 3 41. 50^ + 45. 2 3#4 3a2 36.24. a. 12. 80 a 2 ft 38. 18. 19. 2 ft . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 40.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 42 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif.156. 13 c . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . or 3 7#2 . 48. 13. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 5 a. + 14. 4 a. a + a + a + l. (a. 35. 27. 24. 3 a2 23. 22.40. 11. 30. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.88 10. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. (^ 34. 4 8 tt 2 z .
aW. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 5 7 34 2s . 24 s . F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F.) of two or more . 89 . 12 tfifz. 121. 8 . II 2 . Thus the H. C. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. The H. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 15 aW. C. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 3 . The highest is common factor (IT.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. of the algebraic expressions. 54  32 . F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 5 2 3 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . are prime can be found by inspection. F.  23 3 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . Two common factor except unity The H. 122. 5. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. EXERCISE Find the H. of two or more monomials whose factors . 2 2 . F. C. 2. 13 aty 39 afyV. . The H. 3. of 6 sfyz. C. 6. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. F. The student should note H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of : 48 4. F. C. 25 W. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 5 s 7 2 5. of aW. C. C.
y) . 0^80:416. 57 a>V. . of polynomials. F. aWd. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 65 zfyV. . 10. 8. C. 4 ?io. 8. ^a + 5^ + 6. 9. a2 + 2a3. 2. 16 a . a3 16 a.6 .5 x3?/ 2 6. y + 3y64. 8 a 10 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .y) 123. C. ^f a. a2 + 7af!2. 25 m27i.5 + 6. 8 6.6. . .90 7. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 225 4a 9 .2 y) (a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .y)\ O+ 0^(0. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a3 9a. 2 .5 y). F. 14. 95 2/V. 16. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 9 aj*(a? . To find the H. 12. 6 mx . 15 3ao. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . (a7 ?/) . 3 . .2 ?/) (x . 12. 6(m+l) (m+2). a2 ar* 4. 1. 1. 15. 2 . x* x2 Hence the H. = x 2 y. F. ^2 2 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 52 oryz4. 6 3 a. 9.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 49 C. ^707 + 12. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a. 5.^9. 4(m+l) 3 . 3^ 2 4 . 3). a2 .# 4 afy f 4 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 7.6 a&. C. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. and apply the method of the preceding article. 10. 24 a 2 .y + y42. 13. Find the H. . 2a f5af 2. 11.12 as 66 . 38 #y. 2 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . of: .8 a + 16. of + 4 if. 6 a2 y? . 2 . a 3a4. 11. 8(?/ifl) 14.?/ . 3. 12 w*nw 8. 13. 12 . F.
Find the L. L. of 3 aW. A common remainder. M.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 300 z 2 y. 128. M. C. C.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. &) 2 M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C. M. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. M of the algebraic expressions.6 3 ). L. NOTE. 60 x^y' 2 . Common 125. The L. Ex. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of tfy and xy*.C. Find the L. but opposite . The lowest common multiple (L.C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 2. 2 The The L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. thus. M. C. Ex.M. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. a^c8 3 . M. C. etc. ory is the L. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . M. . of the general.M. each set of expressions has In example ft). M. To find the L. two lowest common multiples.6)2. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 1. C. 127. which also signs. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. Hence the L. 126.
) . 7. 13. T a 3 a 2 . 3(a + b). + 2. a2 ~ab 1. f b. 2 a. a 2 fa6. 2 x \2 y. a 2 a3 . a 2 f 4 a +4. G a. x2 + 4 a f 4. 8. 15. 2 . 8 afy. 3. (a 4)(a2) 12. a& 4 +& 2 . afc'cd 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a { a~b. a2 4. 20. a^1. 3 6 xif. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 5. a?b. 40 abJ. 2 . x 2 5 a. 24 x. 16. a. 18. 4 a 5 6cd. 20 9 a. #. 2 10. 6 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. Find the L. x* ~5a. 21. a f 3. a. 2 a . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 6 y. 2 . b 2 . by. ic 2 ?/. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 7ic+10. + 6. 11. a f 2 19. . 4 a . a 1. 6. 9. 2. 17. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 . 14. 3 ab. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b.f 6. 3. 4 a f 2. ic 23. 8 d 5 . 6b 2 . 3 f2. afy. 2(m 2 . + 2 7i) . 30 a. 22. 2 a . a !. y*. (For additional examples see page 268. a. of: 4. . x2 2 + 5 a + 6.1. 24. or f 3 a 15 #. xy\ . M. 3 Z> . 1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a.1.
the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. rni Thus 132. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 130. however. as 8. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .ry ^ by their H. etc. F. and denominators are considered. A f fraction is b. a?. Remove tor. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. successively all 2 j/' . an indicated quotient. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Thus.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 131. but we In arithmetic. Ex. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a b = ma mb . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex. 3. cancel factors only. Ex. 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .
n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.. g J 21.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 23. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ^" a. ^' rt ^  31. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . . 11 ^ Mtr f . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.' 32. nx 17. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. . ny 4 18. ^+3*. 19. . """. 29.*. LJZJ^JL. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.10 a + 3 2 14. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 5^10 y 30. 16. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 9x + "a" 10. ' ^ . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.7 .
2> . Ex. + 3).M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. M. mon T denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Divide the L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we may extend this method to integral expressions.D. and 135. Reduce ^.96 134. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and (a 8). 1). ^ to their lowest com The L. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. C.3) (!)' = . =(z (x + 3)(z. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . by the denominator of each fraction.C. and the terms of ***. C.M. of the denominators for the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. .~16 (a + 3) (x. multiplying the terms of 22 . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. we have M^. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.  of //* 2 . 1. .r 2 2 .by 3 ^ A 2 ' .1^22 ' . take the L. TheL.  by 4 6' .
i. a? 1 5 > ^* . JL. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . If the given fractions have different denominators..FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . j y 3. o o a.^1. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 3.oj o* or / .. . . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 137. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2aj ~ . 5?. . 7i 2 ab* ". 2 ay IB. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . common denominator 6. . . 22 a2 5a * . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 18.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 74). 8 i i. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.
a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .g. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. e.3 ft 2).ft) (a ft ft)~.aft) Ca2 .. L.7 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. ft).ft)(a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .2 ' 2 _.3 . in the beginning. (a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. The L.2 = a(a . D.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). C. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). D. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. as 4 aft f. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . and adding. 2. T? Ex. 2 ^. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . ^ is 2^JT) .. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .(a 2 6). (a ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . the student should remember that parentheses are . 4(2 a 3 ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.
46 2a 4a 12.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17. 2. 23. + .5 18 ^4f25. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a 36 ++. 1 1 f w 16. 24. A+2_3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 6 c 3a 7. 20. 18 v 19. a+6 a 6 2 14. 15. + a "" 2 6 ' . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 1 f q * 1 m m . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.
9. ! n. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ic 1 + 1. 2 af1 32. 42.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 41. 3a 9 +. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .9 79 6 2 i. a 30. a ?^ 40. a. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 1 34. a 4 31. 43. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. _ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j.
6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 1.  4 or 3 2a.  . 101 mixed expression. . .6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. Reduce . . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . T.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.
each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. (In order to cancel common factors. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Since  = a. integer. 2. F J Simplify . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.) Ex.g. or. 2 a Ex. !. we may extend any e. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. multiply the 142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. fractions to integral numbers. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.
50 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 5# 56 / c& 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 f 5 a.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 4 8. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 14. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15..FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .6 12 d6 4.
Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . : a 41 ab * See page 272. Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.
a a2 4. l. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. ga2 4 8 5 a .afr 4. or both. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.FRACTIONS 105 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Ex. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. are fractional._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 .^c 2 2 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .10 ?/ _.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064.
7i+~ 7. the answer is directly obtained. a m "" . of their denominators. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. i. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). c +6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . 2. n a 8. 6. x* 4.a ^c c _^ a . & .y 32 .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 9. M. . y X 4* 2 y 3. Ex. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 10. . Simplify x }. C. JL. .
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. sy 18. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 2 & a 20  a46 13. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17. : .) .
tions. a. 2 3. = 6. each member is reduced to Ex. Uniting.48.28 a = 5 x2 . 2.l)(z + 3) = . 4 4)  x. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). .1. 2z2a. 9x x Check. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 148. M. 108 . + 1) (a + 3) . C. these Ex. each member is reduced to 1. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Clearing of fractions. 5(3 85 Check. If = 64. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Uniting.28 x + 42 = .f3# + C:E=6f7212.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Transposing. If x 6.14 (a.42 + 9. = 6. 1. 2x Transposing.9 x2 + 9.8 x = . of the denominator. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. x = 6. Bx 12 Qx. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).
a: 7 a. ^' 2. 15.1 _77 a. 18. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. '  4 13. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1 *> = 2. . +1 = 5.= 2. . 16. ^1 = 9. a/  5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a. +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .
2^12 = 2 = 34. and" the remaining one a polynomial._ _ . . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 4a4l4* + l~. 32 6 . ?_=_. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 33.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. y+3~2 29.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . . If two or more denominators are monomials. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . 27 . 26 26. 25. 31 31.11_4 x 149. J_.  38 = 40. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3x 35. .
10 x f 6 __ 4a. Dividing.29 50712' 9 18 . a. 5x x : = 9. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. C. Transposing and uniting. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 1. 26 a.. . 24 a. If a.  5 = 20 x 45.1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. the 1 5 L. each member is reduced to ^. 60.2 42 9 43. Check.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. = 9. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5# 10. M.
If 3ac L= = a ? . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. f ~ 5c. find a in terms of b and c.& .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. y. fr Reducing lowest terms. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. =a 2 151. jr. Dividing. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). b a a a z Clearing of fractions. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.2 62 2 ab.be. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. It frequently occurs that the x. Thus. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Ex. = 6 a2 .2 ac + 3 aft .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Uniting the Dividing. = l^ 9 b 4 . Uniting. 4 ac 1.m bx 2 mn) x. = = 6 6c 7 6c. they are united by factoring. 5> a. Ex. . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.1.3 6 2 = a' . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . a. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. ax f x f. 2. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. = 2 f b 2 .
4. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).= n. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . in terms of other quantities. q solve for/. The The i time. solve for . a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 34. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. _ 2. = 3 (6 a). + xx = 1. t. m a? x . iw 21. p the principal. a. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 10. mx = n. rate.= H. If ^^ = a 1 32. = 5. 9. + 3a. . .= c a Z> . denoting the interest. 3. 17. and n the number of years. 1 f.a. = rt. 31. 13. 6.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 2 solve for y a. If s If 16. 15. * Solve the same equation for^). 5) is t =^. solve for a. f ^o. If * 33. 3(* 8. 14. c. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = vt. co?. 4. 29. 12. = 8 4 #. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 11. r the number of $>. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 30. c 18. s = Vt solve for v. Ex.i l . . f P =+!.
A would do each day ^ and B j.. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. Ex.180. 100 C.. 2. 12. 2 3 . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over. x Or Uniting. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. is 36. Multiplying by Dividing. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 1. . of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.20 C. Find R in terms of C and TT. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . = 16^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.114 35. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. then = 2 TT#.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. the rate of the express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Clearing. or 1J. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Ex. 4x = 80. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . = the x part of the work both do one day. in Then Therefore. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 3. 180 Transposing. and the statement. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." gives the equation /I). the required number of days.
and one half the greater Find the numbers.  Find their present ages. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. length in the ground. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. a man had How much money had he at first? . fifth Two numbers differ 2. is oO. which was $4000. to his son. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 6. is equal 7. make 21. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and of the father's age. of his present age. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and 9 feet above water. by 3. ceeds the smaller by 4.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. money and $10. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Find A's 8. ex What 5. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.
at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. . ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and it B in 6 days. 2. A has invested capital at more 4%. and B in 4 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. air. ^ at 5%. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 3. Ex. How much money $500? 4%. 152. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. investments.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13.) 22.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. what is the 14.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 1.
The problem to be solved.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. is 42. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. B in 16. B in 12. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m . e. . m and n. therefore. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 26.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. A in 6.414.118 153. and n = 3. B in 5. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. To and find the numerical answer. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence. 2. and apply the method of 170. they can both do in 2 days.009 918. is 57. B in 30. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Ex. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. A in 4. . 3. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 25. Then ft i. A in 6.e.= . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. if B in 3 days.
88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart.001. (d) 1. : (c) 64 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. 34.000. respectively (a) 60 miles. 5 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. and the second 5 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. the Two men start at the same time from two towns.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. Find the side of the square. the second at the apart. squares 29. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. is ?n . the rate of the first. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 4J miles per hour. squares 30. respectively. and the rate of the second are. (c) 16. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.721. same hour from two towns. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. meet. 33. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 149. 2 miles per hour. is (a) 51. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. . The one: 31. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. if m and n are. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 2 miles per hour.
The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. the second term the consequent. b." we may write a : b = 6.g.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. . : : 155. The first 156. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. 6 12 = .5. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b is the consequent. the symbol being a sign of division. Ex. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. 1. 158. " a Thus. E.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. the antecedent. etc. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. a ratio is not changed etc. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the denominator The the 157.
terms. 62:16. 7:4 T T 4 . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. two  ratios. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 16a2 :24a&. 9. $24: $8. 10. 6. 3 8. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 5 f hours : 2. 61 : ratios 72:18. 7f:6J. 3:4. J:l. 8^ hours. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. and c is the third proportional to a and . 27 06: 18 a6. b and c the means. 11. 12. : ay . equal 2. Transform the following unity 15. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. Simplify the following ratios 7. b. extremes. 18. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. 16. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b is the mean b. : 1. 4:5f : 5. 159. The last first three. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 3. a and d are the extremes. 4. 17. and c. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. proportional between a and c. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 1. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1.
a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.122 162.) mn = pq. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. pro portional.) b = Vac. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of a proportion. q~~ n . of iron weigh 45 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes. Clearing of fractions. !. 3 4. : : directly proportional may say. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. : c. and the time necessary to do it.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 164. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ccm.__(163. and the other pair the extremes.30 grams. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. of iron weigh . briefly. 163. " we " NOTE. 2 165. Hence the number of men required to do some work.e. then G ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. ad = be. The mean proportional of their product. = 30 grams 45 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. are : : : inversely proportional. 163. If (Converse of nq. 6 ccm. i.
is Ex. 2.PATIO Ex. ad ( 163. a III. a:c=b:d. = 35 . (Composition. 12x Hence a? = 42. .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. + b:b = c + d:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) II. 1. (Frequently called Inversion. I. ad = be. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) = f f = 3 J. hence the proportion true. (Division. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. d d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. if 6 : 7. bd bd. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. I.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c. is 4$ = 35. (163. then =d c.) d 167. 166. V. Or IV.
120:42 2 2 7. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. Or III. = 7:2f 3J. . i. = 2:3. 6 =4 : x. 4. 10. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. : 3 = 5 f x : x.124 IT. 5 5.e.!=!*. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. V. x = 2. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. mx tin Apply composition and division. E. = 180:125. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. IV. 5. Apply composition.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:x. = 12 5ft. . 8. 2. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. : x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.g. the consequents by 7. 3. 9. Simplify the following proportions. = 20:7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.
a?:15 15. Find the 37. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 3. 34. 7iy = 2:x. (a : : 45. 16. 12. 6. 33. a 2 and ab.x: 6:5 a : x. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. if : 40. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 31. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 4. a. to: = 35:*. 42. 29. 39. x:5 = y:2.8:1. 27.:ff. 3. Find the mean proportional 30. to : a and 1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. b. rap. = 5 x 12. to : 9 and 12. 6x = 7y.. 2 a and 18 a. x m = y n. 5= 18 a? : a?. = l^:18. 22. 14. 21. 38. 2. 26. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. ra. 2= 5 x x. mx = ny. : 53. ratio of y. = 15o. 4 and 16.  32. 43.j>. 13. 51.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. ra + landra 1. 18. 44. 52. 47. 1 and a. 50. 5. 20. and 2/. 25. 2 3 = y #. 1. w. 03:a?=135:20. + fyx = cy. 112:42 = 10:a. 9 x = 2 y. 3t. 35. = 3 43 + x. 16 and 28. Find the third proportional 24. f. = 2 + x: x. ra 2 . terra 2:3 = 4. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. : . 28. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 2. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. . 46. rag. 17.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. : a2 . 14 and 21. 41. 23. 6 x = y.
(e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii.126 54. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the speed of the train. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time necessary for it. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. what 58. the area of the larger? the same. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 56. and the : total cost. 57. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 7^. and the time. and the area of the rectangle.
Let A B AC=1x. . so that Find^K7and BO.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.000 168. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 18 x = 108. : Ex. x=2. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. is A line AB. 4 inches long. 2 x Or = 4. 11 x = 66 is the first number. x = 6. 2. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. = the second number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x x 7 Ex. AB = 2 x. as 11 Let then : 1. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. produced to a point C. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).
How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 9. 2. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 14. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 3. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and c inches. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279.000 square miles. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. How many 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.000. 12. : 4. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. and 15 inches. What are the parts ? 5. 11. How many gen. 13. 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 6. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a.) . : 197. How The long are the parts ? 15. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Gunmetal tin. 12.
y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. is x = 7. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. such as + = 10. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. 2 y = . expressing a y.e. etc. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. a? (1) then I. x = 1. The root of (4) if K 129 .L x If If = 0. =. y = 1.y=.. However. values of x and y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. Hence. there is only one solution. if . y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.
30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.24.26. viz.3 y = 80.X. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ~ 50. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. cannot be reduced to the same form. y = 2. y I 171. 6x . for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. to The two methods I. Substitution. = . same relation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Therefore.130 170. are simultaneous equations. 172. 4y . for they express the x f y 10. and 3 x + 3 y =. By By Addition or Subtraction. E. unknown quantity. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. the last set inconsistent. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 3. 26 y = 60. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. of elimination most frequently used II. 174. 21 y .
131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 1. + 2. Therefore Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).14 =8. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. whose coefficients In general.3 y = 47. y = 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 8 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Transposing. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 406. 3. 3y = 3. Check. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 60 .3 1 = 47. x = 10. x = 10. 10 . 5 13 . subtract the equations.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 64 x = 040.2 = 6. add the equations. 25 x . = 235. are like. 37. 3.
I ~ y~~> 22. x 11. = 24.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *.3. = 6. f 3# ?/ = 0. + 2/ 17.f2/ ' = 50.5 y = 2. i 3. O t K 8. f 3X 7x 14. .4. 9 1 r 20. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. v ^ = ll.v 23. = 41. 7 ' 1fi fl . I i 3 a. * + 3 y = 50. I oj 5y = 17. J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 13. ] ^ . 13 61 l7a. [2o.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.3. 19< I a. ' 12. _. I .
= 13. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. . 3. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation. = 2. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2y + 10. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 60.
3. 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. x = l. 21z6y=9. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7x_2y=3. however. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (4). . 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 29 x = 29. + 212y4 = 14. 3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. Substituting in (6) . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 2 y = . \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 3 (1) Ex.6)7(y7)==18. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (7) (7) (8) . simplified before elimination is possible.
1) = 121. 14. . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. = 3. 10. 16. +y 2 . yM a. 4 11. J 9. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y .f2 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . a. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 10 2a?5 17. a. 12.
In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. {. 180. f y . 3x\" 1 23 24. 22. * ((* (( . . ?~y . but some expressions involving x. e. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.and x y . and y.Q ^ 4 21.#.
2* * x 2. . however.4 x = 4 xy. Therefore y=4. etc. (4) + (G). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y 1. 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 15 y + 8 x . can also be solved Examples method.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. Clearing of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. . x 2x(2). y 4. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 137 Solve y y (1) . y. x 3. (2) (3) a.3 xy. 33 = 11 x. of this type.
x y 331 9. 6. 1. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 21 9 . x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. = en.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. Ex. 4 13.= o 6. x 8. n. y MOi y a. .
x a. s in 11. and I. ap. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5.W. apan cm. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 14. ax + by = 2 a&. d. fax f = l. .y = = 9a + 46. 6. Dividing. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x f my = 1. . W . Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . d. bmy bm}y ap cm. x 12. and I if 13. w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. ny = fy/ I sc 1. a Find a and terms of n.
3.16. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). x + 12 y . the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 182. 8 x .3 = 8. Ex. 1.12 y + 6 z = .2 + 3.15z=12 Adding.by 2. ties are Similarly. 4. = 3. f 3y 12 =s 8. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. = 30.8 = 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).25. by 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).lf> z . y =* 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 3y = Hence Check. .13. 6. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.1+4.3=4. (4) (5). (8) 2. To solve equations containing By tions. 4. etc. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3. 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. l.2 + 4. 20.
x 13. a? + 709 = 26. 2z = 40. 14. 2 4. 10. 12. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + y f z = 15. 49. ~6?/ 5. 8. + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 4 = 42. == 6. 2 . 7. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 15 2 = 45.
27. ?/ 3x = 0. 1510 4 17. . 19. 22. 4. ? = llz. ^ = 2. 23. = 5.3 y + .. =s 20. . (3 _. 60. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 84 21.2 a. 16.42 = 2.6 2. . = 8*. 32.
however. = 2 m. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 1 = 2. Find the number. M=i.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. ( 99. 1. x : z =1 : 2. . 1 digit in the tens place. symbols: x + y +z 8. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Obviously of the other .) it is advisable to represent a different letter. +2+ 6 = 8. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. y 31. . y * z 30. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Ex. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . and to express In complex examples. 2 = 6. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. and if 396 be added to the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number. z + x = 2 n. + z = 2p. either directly or implied. 2 = 1(1+6). Check. # 4. + 396 = 521. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. = l. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.
= 8. 5_ _4_ A. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 4 x = 24. B. Since the three men traveled the same distance. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Or (4)2x(3). the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. C. Find the fraction. = Hence the fraction is f. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. direction. (3) C4) = 24 miles. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. (1) (2) 12. From (3) Hence xy Check. we obtain. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. the distance traveled by A. 2. 6 x 4 = 24. Ex. 2. x y = the = the x denominator . y = 3. x 3 = 24. increased by one. x 3x4y = 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. .144 Ex. = the fraction.
to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. If 9 be added to the number. fraction is reduced to \. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. tion ? 8. If 27 is 10. its value added to the denominator. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. Find the number. it is reduced to J. and the numerator increased by 4. the Find the fraction. 2. the number (See Ex. Find the fraction. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. to the number the digits will be interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. ? What 9. and the fourth 3. A fraction is reduced to J.}. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 183. both terms. part of their difference equals 4. the fraction equals . the digits will be interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. 6. Find the number. 7. Find the numbers. . Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. added to the numerator of a fraction. and its denomi nator diminished by one. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 5. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 1. Find the numbers. number by the first 3. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.
A man invested $750. the annual interest would be $ 195. and in 5 years to $1125. respectively ? 16. in 8 years to $8500.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. 14. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 13. If the rates of interwere exchanged. How 6 %. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. now.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest? 18. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. . Find their present ages. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. 12. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Find the rates of interest. 19. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. partly at 5 %. A sum of $10. 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and partly at 4 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and 4 %. and money and 17.grams. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000.
An C touch ing the sides in D. 24. three AD = AF. but if A would double his pace. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. what is that = OF. triangle Tf AD. . and AC = 5 inches. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and F. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. are taken so ABC. cows. A farmer sold a number of horses. and CE If AB = G inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. respectively. B find angles a. and angle e angle/. the three sides of a triangle E. 25. 23. BC = 7 inches. Find their rates of walking. 1 NOTE.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. points. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. E. and F. and GE = CF. On /). BD = HE. and e. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. . and their difference by GO . BE. and sheep. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. ED = BE. the length of NOTE. and $15 for each sheep. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. angle c = angle d. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. is the center of the circum scribed circle. for $ 740. receiving $ 100 for each horse. BC=7. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and F '(see diagram). and angle BCA = 70. then AD = AF. c. andCL4 = 8. $ 50 for each cow.
first 3). 2). B. jr. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. PM. Thus the points A.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PN are given. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and r or its equal OA is . (2. is The point whose abscissa is a. the ordinate of point P. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). 3). or its equal OM. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. is the abscissa. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. ?/. 186. It' Location of a point. the ordinate by ?/. and PJ/_L XX'. and PN _L YY'. (2. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. PN. YY' theyaxis. . lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. (3. (7. The of Coordinates. and point the origin..
the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 12. 1). . 4. (4. !). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 11. Graphs. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 3. 2). 2. 6.(!. (4. (0. 3). (5. . What is the locus of (a?. 1). 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.e. (4. Plot the points: (4. i. 2J).) EXERCISE 1. (0. 0).1). (4. 4). 3).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (See diagram on page 151. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4). Plot the points : (0. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (1. (2. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. and measure their distance.3). (3. 6. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4.2). 0). 2). 4) from the origin ? 7. 3). Plot the points (6.and(l.4). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4) and (4. Plot the points: (4. 71 2). which of its coordinates known ? 13. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 0). 8. (4.
B. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. . D. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. from January 1 to December 1. 188. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. By representing of points. or the curved line the temperature. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. C. however. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . ure the ordinate of F. A. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 10 . may be found on Jan. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 1. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the first table produces 12 points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. 15. we meas1 .
the merchant. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. uses them. (b) July 15. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. etc. (c) January 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the rise and fall of wages. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (d) November 20. the graph is applied. the matics. Whenever a clear. .
. 1 to Oct. (d) 9 0. When the average temperature below C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (1) 10 C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.152 2. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. How much. ? 9. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 1? 11 0. 15. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ?  3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. is 10.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. on 1 to the average. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C..
in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 20. a temperature chart of a patient. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. NOTE. Hour Temperature . Draw . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. One meter equals 1.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. transformation of meters into yards. 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.
amount to $8.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. binding. 2 .154 24. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2. books from for printing. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 9.. x 7 to 9. represent his daily gain (or loss). If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 3. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.inch. the daily average expenses for rent. . the value of a of this quantity will change. 1 to 1200 copies. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. if he sells 0.5 grams. 28. etc. if each copy sells for $1.g. 3. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.50.50. function If the value of a quantity changes. etc. gas. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. A 10 wheels a day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. and $. 4. e. 26. x increases will change gradually from 13. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 190. x* x 19.. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .) T circumferences of 25. then C irJl.. to 27. 29. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.
and (3. is supposed to change. 3 50.g.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 4). to x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article. Graph of a function. Q. may. E. however. 4). be also represented by a graph. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. . If a more exact diagram is required.e. construct '. (1^. ( 2. x a variable.0). 2 (1. and join the points in order. while 7 is a constant. 3 (0. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . a*. as 1. 9). 9).1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. (1. Draw the graph of x2 f. The values of func192. Ex. etc. may . plot points which lie between those constructed above. for x=l.1). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 2). (2. 2. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 1 the points (3. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. J).
rf 71 . Thus 4x + 7. as y..4). (3. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 2. 194. etc. 1).. y = 6. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 0. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 5). 2 4 and if y = x f. r */ +* 01 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. .20).2 x . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. and joining in order produces the graph ABC..) For brevity.. 4). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. = 4. and join(0. (4. 4J. 7 . j/=3. straight line produces the required graph. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (2. Ex.. Thus in the above example.
11. (7i) (c) 23. The values of a*. 6 fa. 19. The smallest value of the function. 6. 14. 2 or 2 20. 1J. 2J. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 1J. a ar. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. = 4. xl. The values of a?. 15. xz + x. a. (ft) (_ 1. 16. ?/ a. (If) Va25. 18. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (C ) (2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a? 2 4. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 3 a 8. y = 2x = 4. a* 13. 23x. fa 17. 1 8 10. a?. 2. a? 1. 2x + 3x a?. 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. . Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0.5)2. 2. 21. + 4. 4a? I.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. i. 22. if y = 2. 2 a.5)2. x+1. if the function equals zero. 2 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 5. Jar . from x VlO'S". the function. 8.8)'. 2J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. J. 2 a. 2 2 a. if a. 3. 1J. 9. . = The values of a*.e. if"a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .or. 4 a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 3. l. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 7. 12.
.. i.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.e. 32 F. 14 F. Therefore x = 1.158 24. . then y = .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.24. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.where x c is a constant. 25. 9 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that graph with the o>axis. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. Represent 26. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. C. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).24 or x = P and Q. Show any convenient number). then cXj where c is a constant.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 1 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. the abscissas of 3. y= formula graphically. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.
Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. . 14. 8.7 2 a 5 = 0. 13. 4. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 2 and 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. Such equations in general have two roots. is called a quadratic equation. 6. 10. (a) (6) 9. 12. a2 2a. 7. crosssection paper is used. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.f 9 = 0. 0. (a) x2 = 0. 3. 11. viz. 6. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. or 5 2. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. + + = where a. 197. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. (0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities.
Ex. Hence. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. X'2 Locating the points (2. (f . Ex. if y = is 0. 1) and 0). and joining by a straight line.e. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 3x _ 4 . 199. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 4) and them by straight line AB (3. ?/. 2). and join the required graph. Hence we may join (0. 4) and (2. i. y = l.2. solve for ?/. NOTE. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. unknown quantities. first degree. Hence if if x x  2. fc = 3. 0). T . y= A and construct x (  graphically. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. produces the 7* required locus. == 2. because their graphs are straight lines.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.2 y ~ 2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. = 0. If x = 0. locate points (0. ?/ =4 AB. y y 2. .1.
57. AB y = . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. (2) . The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).1=0. and CD.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. linear equations have only one pair of roots. P. equation x= By measuring 3. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. viz.15. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). Graphical solution of a linear system. 201. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. To find the roots of the system. 202. 203.
5. 2 equation x 3). obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. V25 5. = 0.5. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Inconsistent equations. 4. 0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 3). (2. and joining by a straight line. intersection. the point we obtain Ex. The equations 2 4 = 0. 1. 5. Locating the points (5. Locating two points of equation (2). i. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 3. they are inconsistent. we of the + y* = 25. 2. There can be no point of and hence no roots.e. 3x 2 y = 6. 3. e. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. Using the method of the preceding para. x2 .g. In general. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 1. Solving (1) for y. y equals 3. P graphs meet in two and $. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.9. Since the two  we obtain DE. and + 3). 5. 4.0. . the graph of points roots. (1) (2) C. etc. 0) and (0. 4. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.. 3. 4. 2. and . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 4. (4.  4.y~ Therefore. 0.0). AB the locus of (1). 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. if x equals respectively 0. (4.
'163 Dependent equations. a. if possible. y= a2 2x y6. a+r/=6. 7. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. and solve each If there are no solutions. 17. 19. 3. 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 10. and. vice versa. y=x + 5. 6. 9. 2x 3?/=6. 16 23. \ 2x + 3^ . y = 4. state reasons. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 8. . x~y=0. Draw system. 20. 16 22. y 2 4.. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 4. 5.
TABLE OF SQUARES. 3 31. 25.14 y = .8. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 . CUBES. 26. 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y).164 24. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 4 a = 3(6 . 28.
( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a special kind of product. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. involution repeated multiplication. etc. is may be by 207. 52. According to 1. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. fa. . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .faa a a a Obviously 1. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. a = a3 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 3 f a = f a = +. 8.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. powers of a positive quantity are positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.a2 . on to in factors 4. follows that 3. 2. Law of Signs. ^4/? it According to 50.
a product to a given power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. \ 3 J '  MW 10. amVy) 3 . 3 2 2 8 . 15. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. . 2 11 (afc ) . the required power. 210. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 76 : (>y. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (277171 )*.166 To find To To power. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.6 (a 8 8 . 5. 4 /2mV. 6. V V/ 13. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (a ) 2 5 . 16. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 4. (^^) 2 . 24.6) = a . (2ar).3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (a ) 2 4  3. raise a fraction to a power.
18. (a + &)8 .6 2 8 ft) . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . An 1. 3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 21. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . : a 20. etc. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 8. frequently called ex. 12. 23. (3 x . (3af26) 8 . 2 . + a 2 a. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 7.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 16.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . +5a) 22. . 2. 5. nent of the binomial.3 y.INVOLUTION Ex. . 8 (a??/) 3 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 1.) 14. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . pansions. 6. = s= (2s) 8 a. 211. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (5 (1 a) 3 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. a. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. are obtained by multiplication. 3 8 . 1 f 3 2 3 .y) = (3 y?y . + 4aj) 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (afl) . (aj7) . The higher powers of binomials. 9. 2. or*  Find the cube root of 19. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.y . 4. 13. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 3. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. Ex. 15.
(af 5) . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . Ex. 4. 3. Ex. (p + q) 4 * 7. 5. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 2.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .a) 3 19. . 4 . (m 2 + n) 8 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 18. Ex.96 ^y f 216 o?y . The minus. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (3a f5) 5) 4. mn 5 2 5 ) . 25. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . . (tff1) (cfd) . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 8. (la&) 4 12. (mJ) 4 11. . 5.2.168 3. 13. (m fl) 2 20. 10. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (2 4. and the powers negative. 21. ( &) 5 . 23.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 9. 17. . (?>i?i f c)*. 4 (1for) 5 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 3. is the coefficient of the next term. 24. 14. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (1 + 4 ?/) . (l 8 .216 a^ 4. . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 78 s . . 1. 6. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (a~^) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 15. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . (m 5 I) 2 22. (?/i~w) : 16. (2 a 4 .
Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. etc. 1. V \/P 214. or y ~ 3. called real numbers. a) 4 = a4 . tity . 215. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. and all other numbers are. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 109 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. \/"^27=3. V9 = + 3. numbers. Since even powers can never be negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. which can be simplified no further.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 2. = x means = 6. and ( v/o* = a. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or x &4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 4 4 . for distinction. 27 =y means r' = 27.
170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . roots of the numerator \/18 .64 5 4 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. fy 5 3 . . 6. 2. 7 . 7. 82 .(. 10. 3/0** = am . 79 2 v/2 5 .201) = 2. 7. 62 = V2* . 8. Ex. v/2^. V5 v/2 7 2. 4 v. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 2. 6. . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. To extract a root of a fraction.  100 a 2 . Ex.4.1. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . To extract the root of a power. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. \/2 4 9 . V?. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.200 . 3i . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex.125. Ex. V25 9 16. index. = 19472. 2 . 9. = V26TIT81 = 53. 8. = 199 + (_ 198) . 3. v/^i2 = a*. V36 9 4. 5. extract the and denominator.9 = 136. 7 . Ex 5 a" . 6 7 = 030. .lL. 9.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. EXERCISE 1. 3 33 53 . Ex.
75. 2 . 30. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. 33. 34. 31.) by inspection. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Find the square root of a2 .4/. 116. V9216. V8. 5. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 6./). ^40^4. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 45 V5184. 2.3 . . 29. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.3.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .3 y2) ( vV . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.98. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Ex. 2 f ( V240) 3 .EVOLUTION 171 28. 2 . 3. 32. V20 . a* 4 8 2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 1.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.
The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 &c. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.e.> 13. 2ab .2 ab + b . and b (2 a f b). mV14m??2)f 49. + 6 + 4a&. and b. .2 ac .b 2 2 to its square. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a\b is the root if In most cases. however. let us consider the relation of a f. i. 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a f.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 14. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 11. 8 . 10. The term a' first 2 . 15. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .172 7. 12. #2 a2  16.
219. Explanation. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 6 a. . First trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. the first term of the answer. and so forth. 8 /. 1. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 1. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . The square . Second trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. */'' . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. and consider Hence the their sum one term. As there is no remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. First complete divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot.EVOLUTION Ex.24 afy* f 9 tf. of x. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Ex. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 . . by division we term of the root. .
16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.42 a*& 4. . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 6.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.20 o 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 16.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 9. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 24. 1 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.73 a8 . 436^?/469a. 5 4 16 4 iK .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.25 x 4 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . x 6 4 4 0^4.73a4 440^436^460^. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 17. 13#4 413ar 44a. 8. 2 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .24 or . 16x6 4.25. 2 x2 3 2x.6 .40 a 22 . 10.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.9. a? 2 .a 6 x*y 2 . 19.4 x 4. 20.V430^425^ 4m 4.12m 5 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . l 4. 729 4. 12. 5.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 6 11.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 4 .16. 18. 14.12 m 4. 36it. 3. 15. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .10 x2 4. > 7.37 a ^ .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.
of 10. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. the square root of 7744 equals 88.. the first of which is 4. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. etc. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. The is trial divisor = 160. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 524. Therefore 6 = 8.1344. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 1000. = 80. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the first of which is 8. first . two figures.000. of 1. Find the square root of 7744. and the complete divisor 168. 1. and the first remainder is. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. a 2 = 6400. of a number between 100 and 10. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.EVOLUTION 220. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000 is 100. and the square root of the greatest square in units. etc. which may contain one or two). Ex.000. As 8 x 168 = 1344.176. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 2. Ex.
or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.0961 are '. annex a cipher.1T6 221.1 are Ex. The groups of 16724. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3.7 to three decimal places.GO'61.70 6.10.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 12. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places.
) 40.53. feet.22. 30. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 34. . feet.58 square 38. JT . 36. T\.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 39. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 35. 1. 37. 13. 5.01. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .1410. 1. = 3. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 33. 32.4 square when R = radius and 11. J. whose area equals 48. 31.
x = + 2 or x =2. = 4. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. A pure. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or incomplete. x 2 7. complete. . 226. 2 ic = a. This answer Check. Transposing. 6#2 = x* 24. = 7^ + 5. 2. 225. or equation of the second degree. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . is A quadratic equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 6 y2 = 17. Dividing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or affected. Extracting the square root of each member. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Ex. 178 . 2)* + 5 = 33. 224. The 7 equation. is 12. but no higher power e. 1..g.
6(2)=10(ajl). or Therefore. 4 ax. 7 = 162. (a? 9. 8. 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. . 10. 5. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 19 + 9 = 5500. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 2 a.2. ' =: y? b* b . 2. Solve 179 . 7. 3. ax Transposing and combining. o. 2 4fc 5' 18.25. 15^5 = 6. 16^393 = 7. . : 83 2.
. 2a f 1 23. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. If G=m m g . solve for d. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2 . 26. : 6. 25. If 22 = ~^. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. ' 4. Find the side of each field. 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 22 a. 2 . 28. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . solve for v. 2. find a in terms of 6 . . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 24. solve for r. Find is the number. 108. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. r. EXERCISE 1.b 2 If s If =c . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 2 : 3. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and their product : 150. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 228.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If a 2 4.) of their squares 5. 3. may be considered one half of a rec square units. then Since such a triangle tangle. is 5(5. A right triangle is a triangle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find the numbers. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 29. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 27. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find the side of each field. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5.
The area $ /S of a circle 2 . . Find these 10. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) 13. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . J = 12.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Find the radii. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 2m. Method of completing the square. . is and the other two sides are equal.7 x f 10 = 0. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The area : sides are as 3 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. . we have of or m = . Find the unknown sides and the area. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. A body falling from a state of rest. 9. 24. Find the sides. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . x* 7 x= 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the other two sides are as 3 4. radii are as 3 14. sides. and the two smaller 11. 4. (b) 44 square feet. To find this term. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. and the third side is 15 inches.2 7 . 8. add () Hence 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . Solve Transposing. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square.
Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Uniting. 2  . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 7 5 + 10 = 0.2 a2 .1.2. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. adding member). 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.x(l = . Ex. a. 2 a* a. or x = 2. 230.  \. Transposing. Hence Therefore Check. a Clearing of fractions.e. . (*~8) a = at . J. = \ # = ff. Extracting square roots. Therefore.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.a. 62 x 5 = f. Transposing. Simplifying. = x\ = 2.. = 6. or J. = . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Ex.
4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl . Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
231.c = 0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4. ao. =0. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. . article.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. =8 r/io?. \bx\. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. x la 48. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .
Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 19. 2 a? = 44 x . 17. 7^ + 9 x 90. 20. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 14. 2. 2 . 6. : 86 + 2 = 0. 11. 15. 21. 12. 5 x2 Transposing. 6^+5^ 56. 2or } 5o. TIO. 3. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. b =  + 20 == = 0.4 4 5 . 10. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 4. 6 Ex. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. = 12 . 2.25 x. c p. 16. 6 . 8. ?i 2 . 2 a.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 7. Reducing to general form. 18. 26.. a.  . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 1. = 64120?.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. V^tT)* . 13. c = 5. 9. 2 o. 6.
x(x <2 . = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. a=:i^^. 233. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Bx 1 1.5 Solving (1) and (2). 2S3x 1 2 . }. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. or # 5 is zero. all or. Solution by factoring. 23. Factoring. orz roots. 1. ar>8o. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.2. Transposing. .x. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Eesolving into factors. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Clearing for fractions. (5 a? !)(. = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 25. 26. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 0. transposing terms to one member.5) =0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. if either of the uct is zero.4) = . 24. and 6. = 14. 27 x== 42a. 5) = 0. = 0. 3x?+x = 7. any degree. x2 = 1 . 5 = 0. member can be Ex. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. factors Now. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.
187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02).6)) = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. : 87 = 0. (aj4)(a. a* 10a=24. 4. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.g. 7.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. Therefore x =3 = 2. 6. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3 or 2 a. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. we 9 obtain x 4. } 2 2 (5 .(. 8. a?10a=:24. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4)(z3) = 0.3)(x + 3 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3) = 0. aj( 15.:=0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 2. 3^ = 0(1106). 5 = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. 9. + 100. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 13. E. 2. is 5) = 0. Or Hence the 234.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.= 24. 2o3 f9a. Ex. 16. 0^ ar> 11. 3) Factoring. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. + 10 a = 24. x2 f 2 x . a?.e. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 12. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 14. + 6)=0. 5. evidently (x Or 4)(x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The equation I. for a: . 3. 3. + 8=s: 7. O roots are 2.24 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a.
+ 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). (a + 1) (a. 22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. '3a!J  . 50.188 17. 27. 19. 20. ara + ft + c*. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 25. 23. a 2 =(x a)b. uz + u 21.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 18. 2. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.
2. EXERCISE 1. two numbers is 4. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.9. and whose sum is is 36. 2. 58. 52. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the sides. 5. is Find two numbers whose product 288. and the difference Find the numbers. 3. Find the numbers. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 7. feet.3.0. and equals 190 square inches. 0. and whose product 9. 2.2.3. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 56. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 5. 2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. G. 1. The 11. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 54. number by 10. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 1. 2.1. 6. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. The difference of . Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 57. 55. 2. 4.3. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and consequently many prob 235. Find the number. .0. 3. : 3.
19. as the 16. 15. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. ABCD.10. If he each horse ? . Find the rate of the train.190 12. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. ply between the same two ports. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. watch for $ 24. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. 14. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. sold a horse for $144. Two vessels. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. . of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for 21. 13. and Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. dollars. other. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.
as 0. how wide is the walk ? 23. constructed with and CB as sides. Ex. ^3^ = 7. By formula. . is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. Find and CB. (tf. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 24. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. or x = \/l = 1. 23 inches long. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 1. a point taken.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.) 25. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 27. 237. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. of the area of the basin. contains B 78 square inches. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. and working together. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. the two men can do it in 3 days. so that the rectangle.
12. 2 16 a^40 11. a? 15 1=2*. Ex. 436 3.)+72=0. 7. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 6. 4 : 89 10a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2.192 238.2 =4. y8)=0. 4. aV+9o 4 =0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 19. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. Hence Le. 2.T 2 2 . a4 5o. 4 a. 6. >. 10. Solving. 16. 2 h9:=0. = 1. a 21or=100. or y = 8. = 13. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a. T 17. 18. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 8.
b 4. The discriminant =(. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. rational. the roots are rational. is 4ac not zero.5) = 04.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.bx 4. the roots are unequal. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. . the roots are real. Ex. rational. and unequal. 2.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Hence the roots are real. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are imaginary. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are irrational. ( 2a Hence 1. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.12 x + 9 = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. c the roots are real. 240.f> = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . and equal. the roots are equal. 241.2 z . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Ex.2) 2 4 3 (. 3. negative. a perfect square. Relations between roots and coefficients. 1. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .
x2 7 10. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. + 12 2  . x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. = Q. 2a 4z5 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 4. 14.19 # 20. 3a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. + 2a. 60 2 = 0. = 0. : a 2 . 2 a. + 2a15 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 21. + 18 2 8. ^12. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. o. 2 7.. = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 10 x = 25 x + 1. their product isf. tfmx+p^Q.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 22. = 5x. f 2 E. 5oj aj + l = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 15.g. 2. 6. 9a3 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. = 0. 18. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 24. 17. 23. 12. 2 : 3. lla. 5aj 9.
for all values 1 of m and n. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . provided w > n.a" = a m n mn . (a m ) w . ~ a m f. > m therefore. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. hence. = a"" < . must be *The symbol smaller than. no Fractional and negative exponents. 244. while the second of the first. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. however. II. such as 2*. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. Then the law of involution. We assume. (ab) . a m a" = a m+t1 . It is.* III. that a an = a m+n . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. and ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .
as. laws. 31. (xy$. 3*. 25. n 2 a. 4~ . Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. at. '&M A 27. m$. e. a . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 245. 30. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. (bed)*. = a. fractional. etc. a*. 23. . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 29.g. 0?=^. 28.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Assuming these two 8*. a\ 26.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. disappear. or zero exponent equal x. ml. a?*. 24. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. To find the meaning of zero exponent. the base is zero. v/o&cT 34. 43. Vo5 . \/xy \/m. 49. 38. 40.\/n. 37. : 197 33. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 50. 41. equal to unity.g. = 2. v'mT 36. = 49. 46. 45. 3* = 27. Let a = a. 27* = 3. e. a . : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. hence is . a* * = 3. ty?. Solve the following equations 39. 7z* Find the values of 47. If. 5 a* = 10. however. = 2. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 246. 42. 35. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a * a2 Or a=l. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. : 2' 4* = 4. 48. \fi?.g. e. a. 44.
a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. or the exponent. Multiplying both members by a". cr n.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. by changing the sign of NOTE. . Let x= or". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. an x = a. e. vice versa. 248. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.198 247.2 = a2 . etc.
""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 3 a? * 42. a. 37. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 25."* 38. . 2m~i 43. 2 . 36. 2 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 66 45. rfS. f (2w)~i 1 . 39. 7~ l a 2b 2 . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : or 5 . ^?2 y' 34. . m . ^L. a^ 41. * 24. 27. 3 a. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 40. c 32. 22. : mi m~^. 44.
57.26)* 1 (I) 2 .6). 47. (. + A_. 54.(. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 250. 59.9*.008)* + A. + 1~* f 21 . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. z 5or*=10. 61. .1. = . z* = 1. = ^.81 f (a . 53. 10* 5* = . 1. 10* Find the values 56. 48. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 58. 55.001. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 49. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. = 5. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. of: 3ll4~* 60.343)* + (. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = l. Ex. 52. ar = i. 17' 2 51.
14. etc. a. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.$*. 13. 6. 95 ^9i 5**. 79 . NOTE. 12.6 *' 6 *25. .$". 3 a. 6a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . ' 11.&. .5. V5. / 7fv 7. 18. 26. &. 7.3 aj" a. 10. #* a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.&. 7*. .7i. Perform the operation indicated. (d) If required. 27  28.7W.5a.7*.^/5^5.. 3. 7~ 6 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 8 ' 9. 3sVS. 4 5. are performed.4 . 7~ 5 27  . 72 . 4 x^. 6 *. 16. 17.4 a8 . 16. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . remove the fractional exponents. 23. OA 20. S'sS8. Remove the negative exponents.
34. 2. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. The 252. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. If powers of a?. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33.2 d .202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 40.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
connect them by proper 1. 33. ^/IT. ^7. ^2.2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. subtract surds. 39. </20. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. + . Ex. 2\ 3*. 30. Ex. 34.3\ . ^6. v/4.2 V50. ^5. \/5. 40. V2. V3. (i. 32. ^30. VS. 3. V3. 36. ^126.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 28. A/3. in order of magnitude : \/7. v^S. ^3. V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 37. s!/3. v/3. if dissimilar. 38. </3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^4. 31. ^2. 4^/4. Arrange 35. V5.e. A/2. To add or form. 29. </2. ^2.10 V2 =  V2. \/7. v/3. 5V2. Simplify V~ . ^4. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 26. Simplify V + 3 VlS. I VJ + 3VT8 . 27. signs. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. V2.
6. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 13. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. + 3V835V2. 9. 3. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 14. V175V28+V634V7. 4V805V45. 10.J a6 V4 aft. 6. 8VT8J2V32 7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 12. V18+V32VT28+V2. 4.3V20 + 6V5.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. . 11. 8.
Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 23.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 26^ . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 6*. 3. and then multiplied. .6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. y* = Ex. 2. 1. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.
39. 37. 9. a?. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. aVa. fWa 17. 21. VlO V15. 40. (Va Va 36. Vll. 2 . 213 98 11. V42. V3 V6. 3. V3 Vl2. 38. 6. 12. 6 V4 5. 18. (V6 + 1) 1 . v/4. 25. (V2+V3+V4)V3. (2V3) 8 . 14. + VB)(2V5). 34.^/2. (5V22V3CVS)V3. \/3 \^).RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 10. (3 20. 19. 2. 40 10 30. V20 V30. V2aV8^. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 15. . (6V23V3)(6V23V3). v/18 v"3. 8. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 28 . ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V2 V50. VTO. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33.VSS. 6. 4. 41. 7. 13. 27.
v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 52. E. 268. 51. is 1 2. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 53. V3 . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.214 42. Ex.y. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (2 45. .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 48. Ex. 49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 46. 44. a fraction. 60. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. all monomial surds may be divided by method. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 47. Va v/a. 43. the quotient of the surds is If.
Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. by V7.g.RADICALS This method. is illustrated by Ex. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. /~ } Ex. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. .73205. metical problems afford the best illustrations. e. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. .by the usual arithmetical method. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. The 2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.57735. arithTo find.. 3. Evidently. Divide VII by v7. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. we have V3 But if 1. however. . Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.
2361. . V48 25. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. A. Vn V7 ' * 8. V5 = 2. Vll 212*. 271. 21. VffV?. A. V8 12..216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 7.7320. V5 270. 23 .4142. 272. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. ^/H . V3 24 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V2 22 . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. and Given V2 = 1. 14. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . . i. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 20. V8 JL. V3 = 1.
V82 2V3 1fVS .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .= 18. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex.vffi^T _ . 3. s Simplify a.2. . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .Vs2 .1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex. 1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.218 6 . : and V5 = 2. Vo1 26. V21 = 25 . 27. 19. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. v 2V3 28. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.4142. 6V7. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 24. find to _!_. Given V2 1. V5V7 18> ^SVg.7320.5 3 = 125. . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.2361. = V3 = 1. By the use of fractional exponents . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. four places of decimals 23 . J?_.W3.
Simplify Ex. 1. 2. v8f 2\/15. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. viz. 3 (V2~u)  7. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 5. According to G3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/l6*. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. \/125" . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 3. V255 . 4. the If. it to this form. V643 . 2 12. . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 9.RADICALS 219 274. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 11. 2. 8. on the other hand. In other examples of involution and evolution.
A/2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.220 Ex. 12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6\/2 = ^9 .6 V2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find Vl2 4. ^TT. 2 \/18. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vll . is 11. Find V4 + VJ8. These Ex. The Hence ^11 . +2 Ex. 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 3. and whose product is 18.
* 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 5. are radical equations. Ex. 19. = xa + 4 x f 4. +=.e. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. by raising both members equal powers. Transposing and uniting. Dividing by Check. a. 4. member to 2. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Before performing the involution. x2 = x f 2. V48 23. first involution. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. (2x xrf 1. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. VT . 4x x = 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. they are transto formed into rational equations. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.V48 4 20. The value x =2 reduces each . i. Radical equations are rationalized. . 277. r 22.1. 8. : 221 Vl32V22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.
Therefore CftecAr. Factoring. Transposing. Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. . Transposing and uniting. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. V24~+~l = 0. viz. It = 3 x . the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. . Extraneous roots. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.3. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. V4afT~l. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 2. the first member = V2. they may be extraneous roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Therefore Check. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Dividing by 24. Ex. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 278. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. a socalled extraneous root.1) = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. Transposing and uniting. a. Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. x = J.222 Ex. tion which has two roots. 5. at . 3. viz. one root.
Therefore. 223 x = 3. 4. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.47) = 0. If If x 3 = 3. the right member = V2. Solve the following equations : = G. or x *j. for it satisfies the equation . Hence there is only one root. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. NOTE. equation it is an extraneous root.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. ViTie 4 z2 . (x x = 3. and to 5. x root of the preceding equation.3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Check. Transposing.RADICALS Hence x If a. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . = 3. viz.2 r. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. + 6~ieT~3 . \ does not satisfy the given. . is x V. 2 Clearing of fractions. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Squaring. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . both members reduce to 5. Hence x = the only root. .12 . Factoring.
224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. Therefore . Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring.
2.8 x + 40 = 36. + 40 = 6. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. = 0. 3 6. y then x2 . 2Va. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 3. _ 2 y . . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. members of the equation were squared. 412a* = 16.*2a. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. x =6 or 3. This can be seen without substituting. Q .i~24 = 0. x + Vx a? = 6.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. = 26. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 4. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.f40= 5. o. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. Let 8 x f 40 . = 7.8 z40 = 7. Substituting. 2. 5. Vi 2 8a. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. x Since both =9 or 1.35 = 0. 45 14VJB = . 2_8z 440 = 49. Ex. some of the roots be extraneous.
15. 16. +3= 6. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 4 V SB* 4 a. 14. 2. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 12. 19. 20. 18.226 11. 17.a 440 = 35. a.f 18 = 24. +x . 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . a^x2 5 2 13.
Hence.4 a. even if Q is unknown.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Without actual division. does not contain a?. no matter If. If x* .2 x 5 by x 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. find the remainder when m. we make a? what the value of Q. E = ax + &z + m) Q.2 + 4. 2. then (x 2)Q 0. if Q was known. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. to x we # = 2 3.2 + 80 = 12.bx? + ex2 4.360 = 244. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 1.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . however. " Or. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R." transposing. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ax4 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 227 . 3 2 Ex. Ex.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.2) Q . = 2. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. by dividing 3 x* f. Without actual division. a? R = x* . could.
8. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. } 2 by a1.4(.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . of the division 3) is m in place of x.g. if 8 42  . x m is factor of the expression. If the remainder is zero. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.3)f 11 =.8'= 0. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. The Factor Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3. x* s 2 4. fora?.949. + 6. 8. + ^by x + b. 5. + 7 = 632. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder equals 8 2 x . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5 (4x . 2 j 7.g. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. hence (x divided by x 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 43 3 E.228 282. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.
2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 3 2 : 7. 15. 6. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. ^10^429^20=0. Let x = . 8. 9. factors of the absolute term. a^8^ + 19a. _ . then x8 7 x'2 4. 24. 18. 1.9^ + 23^15.r6 = 0. Therefore x ( 1). p 5^ + 8p 4. 8. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.13m + 30 10. 2. a + 32.1. + 27 + 27. Resolve into factors 4.49 = 0. 106 division.12. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 229 1. or x 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. & p*. 25.e. or 5 4 + 3^ . x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 11.7 x + 15 = 0. . 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . + ttt15 = 0. Factor a? 15. 3. a 2a + 4. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 21. 7 46 = 0. m f m n 14. 23. f 3. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. a 8a f 19 a 12.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a? 19. + 15. 2m 5m . The 5. f 5. is a factor.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.12 = 0. 20. a 5x 6. 2 2. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 17. a. oj 5x2 f3a. i. 5. f 15 does not vanish.1. are f 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.7 + 16 .
if n is even. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/). x* f/ = (x +/)O . : importance. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. if w is odd. 2. 1. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 286.y n is divisible by x f ?/. is odd. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.230 285. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. Ex. xn y n y n y n = 0. actual division n. 2. For substituting y for x. If n is a Theorem that 1. ar +p= z6 e. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. xn f. By we obtain the other factors. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 .g. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 Ex." . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.
f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . preferable.= . y 3 +8=0. x3 8=0. 3. 27. Hence = (m Ex. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. a.i mn f w 2). leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. however. 28. 26. since it more directly to the prime factors.
y4 is of the fifth degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy are given. (5) Combining (5) with (1). (4) Hence. 4 xy = 16. + 6 a?V . xywe have 3. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. ==5 > 1^ = 4.1. of quadratics. to equations of the fourth few cases. x y. 290. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. can be solved by the methods degree. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. & + 2 xy + = 25. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. Squaring Solve (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. * A I. If two of the quantities x f y. = 6. 232 . in general. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. however.
' 10. ^. " "' "' { r 8. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. The arranged in pairs. x and xy are not given. EXERCISE Solve: 1. but can be found. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 12. 233 y. I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. b=3. = .g. r (" 1 = 876. 3. 1.
~ y = 5. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 4 y = 20. or y = 1 . .i/ = r 13. I x+y = a. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 3. x " (3) 49 etc. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. one linear and ne quadratic. la. r^ 2 as ] f. A system of simultaneous equations. 6 "I 14. Factoring. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). + 29 = 0. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.  f J.?/ i = 6.. Ex. 7 . . 19. 5.20) = 0.a.  42 y + Transposing. ' ' . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. I* Jj ^ [.  . Substituting in (2) Simplifying.o 18. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. or JJ. aj = 2.
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.3 2x 2 Ex. 9. 10. 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 3y) : Factor (2). Solve . ':il e :) . x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. quantities. ' x*. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). y* + 2y = 3. = 1 3 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. III. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.
= 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting. 11 a2 Factoring. 15 x2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. j Substituting y in (2). 109 a. 2. = 0. Solve 2.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (1) (2) x x 5. } VI09.
A. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.xy 4. f 1 150 a?.125 ay = . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. " IV.3^42^=43. ' ^ 15. and others not belonging to them. . E. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. (4) (3).!. 150 */2 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.y = 7.6. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. 2 xy + y2 = 10. Bxy9. can be solved by special devices.175 ay = 12. 298. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). y? a? f . Division of one equation by the other.
. (1 > (2) 1. we obtain by squaring. Solve Ex. B. quadratics can be solved by ?/. y = 3. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. y . = 12 J. xy.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. jc~ y = 9. Some simultaneous ?/. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. x +y y etc. x 2 . In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. 2. Therefore x = 16. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1). Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. * ' 300. at first it is unknown quantities. i ^ *>. = 189. from (2).
Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. I e. 36* 2. 2. . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 7. F+y+ . [2x + : y= 17. 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. 6.
16. 19 ' 26. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. .21 ^ = 15. = 198. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . f 18. * .4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . 27. = y 1 y* . 25.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.
y % 9 f*K 36. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . oo 301. etc. ~\ OK OO. 33. Interpretation . hence may be any finite number. 32. or ~ indeterminate. as a . 25 34. 7' j/ 39. . Q 7. = 48201. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . 31. 30. ^ oo . . etc 302. finite  =x y if = x. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.
i. Let 2.g. as + l. TO^UU" sufficiently small. without exception.242 303. . Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. 1. and .x'2 2 x = 1.decreases X if called infinity. By making x any * assigned zero. = 10. is satisfied by any number. the answer is indeterminate. it is an Ex.increases if x de x creases. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.000 a. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. ToU" ^100 a. I. i. (1) = 0. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. creases. and becomes infinitely small. (a: Then Simplifying.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. equation.e. Hence such an equation identity. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. (1) is an identity. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . x f 2. be the numbers. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. The ~~f fraction .can be If It is made larger than number. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. 306. Or. cancel. 1. (1). or that x may equal any finite number. great. oo is = QQ.e.
1=0. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y finite QO. two numbers is 76.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve  9 7. z = 1 Substituting. = oo. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. and a. The sum is of squares 2890.8 x + 15 6.2 y = 4. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. . 42 and' their product is 377. Solve . (2). is their 2. Hence /. and the sum of Find the numbers. 2. EXERCISE 1. Solve x a. * 6. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. no numbers can satisfy the given system. third and sixth parts. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.e. 3. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 4 3 x x5 a2 .
Find the dimensions of the field. 13. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the edge of one. 10. Find the sides of the rectangle. 8. 12. increased by the edge of the other. is 6. Find the numbers. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 103. 148 feet of fence are required. is is 17 and the sum 4. 255 and the sum of 5. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edge of each cube. and the sum of ( 228. two numbers Find the numbers. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the other two sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. of a rectangular field feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the edges. equals 4 inches. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the sides. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. .quals 20 feet. Find the side of each square. 146 yards.) 53 yards. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. p. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find these sides. 190. of a right triangle is 73.244 3. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. the area becomes f% of the original area. 9. 14. and the diago(Ex. 6. and the hypotenuse is 37. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area.
Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and if the digits will be interchanged.) 17. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. by the product of 27 be added to the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. irR *. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches. Find the radii. . their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
To find the nth term / of an A. 11. 10. and d. An arithmetic progression (A. The common differences are respectively 4. to each term produces the next term. f . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the nth term. 17. the second a descending. 3.) is a series.. of a series are its successive numbers. . a f d. each term of which. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a + d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a 3d. progression. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. Since d is a f 3 d. + 2 d. 12. : 7.. 4. . 19. series 9. 16. 15 is 9 f. P.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. .1) d..7.. The first is an ascending. P. 3 d must be added to a. to produce the 3d term. . 309.. of the following series is 3. to produce the 4th term. P. Hence / = a + (n . 2 d must be added to a. except the first. The progression is a. a. a 11. a + 2 d. added to each term to obtain the next one. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. (n 1) d must be added to a....
8. 5. 5. Find the nth term of the series 2. 6 we have Hence .PROGRESSIONS 310. Find the 101th term of the series 1.... 3. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . ? (a) 1. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. = 2. 3. 2. P. 21. 3. = I + 49 = *({ + . 7. of the series 10. 2 EXERCISE 1. 7.. 6. Find the 5th term of the 4. (a + + (a + l) l). . 4^.. 19. 1. 1J.. 9.8.. . 115. . series .' cZ == . 2. a = 2. 10. 2J. 3... 9. P... Find the 10th term of the series 17. d = 3. .. the term a. Adding. 1.4. 8. d . 5. . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).... if a = 5. 7. the last term and the common difference d being given. . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 4. 8. 3. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 5. 6. = 99. (d) 1J. Find the 12th term of the 4. 99) = 2600. 6.. = a + (a Reversing the order... first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 24. 5.16. series 2.3 a = l.
and for each than for the preceding one. 1. . 1. striking hours only. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. 19. 11. to 15 terms. 1J. 7. 2. + 3. 3. 15. '. .7 f to 12 terms. 7. 20. (x +"l) 4. to 20 terms. 2J. : 3. 12. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. to 16 terms. 16. 4.. 6. 18. strike for the first yard.5 H + if f to 10 terms. to 20 terms. 11. 17. . . (i) (ii) . 33. 1. 7. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. > 2f 2. 22. 23. 11. hence if any three of them are given. P. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. to 10 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO.248 Find the 10. Sum the following series 14. 31. Jive quantities are involved. .(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. rf.1 f 3. 13. 29. 15. 15. to 8 terms. . . In most problems relating to A. to 7 terms. . \n. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 8. 12. 21.
P. = a + (w. The first term of an A. . 34.~n~\ 408 6). = 1014. 111. 45. and b form an A. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. l)e?. Substituting in (2). 67. = 13. 122. 23. 204 = ^ (98 . 12.e.. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x.6. 78 n Substituting in (1). 312. 89. is 12.1) . 2. n = 6. 2 (2) From Hence (2). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Find the series. 6. hence n = 6.. d = 6. Ex. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. a = 12. P. From (1). n d. Solving. The series is. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 56. a = 49 6(71 . if s = 204.1).104 w + 408 = 0.6 n). I Substituting in (I) and (II). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. the second one mean between the other two. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. I. or 11 J. 100. 133. or if x Solving. But evidently n cannot be fractional. P. if a. = n(104 .PROGRESSIONS Ex. 144. 78. = 1014. #. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. s 24ft last term 144. the and the sum of all terms 1014. = 144. 1. Findn. 6 n2 . J = 49. .
= 52. = 83. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 15. How much . = 16. Given a = 4. How much did he save the first month? 19. Find w. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 17. = 17. Given a = . has the series 82. of 5 terms 6. 78. . and s. Find d. Find d. f? . 74. 3. T? ^. a x f b and a b. I Find I in terms of a. ceding one. Find n. = ^ 3 = 1.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. s = 70. 4. = 45. = 1870. Find a and Given s = 44. a+ and b a b 5. y and #f5y. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. P. Find?. f J 1 1 / . Find a Given a = 7. produced. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. I. 10. 8. m and n 2. 6? 9. 14. n = 4. 13. 7. s == 440. n. Given a = . n = 20. Find d and Given a = 1700. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n = 17. n = 13. 16. n = 16. 12. n has the series ^ j . d = 5.3. 11. Given a = 1. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A.
I. A geometric progression first. ratios are respectively 3.. r n~ l . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 4.. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . 24. . 4 (1) ... If n is less : than unity.. +1. 2. 36. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. is it (G. . 4. <zr . 36. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. rs = s 2 . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . (I) of the series 16...PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . of a G. is 16(f) 4 .g. called the ratio.. The progression is a. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 2 a. ar8 r. NOTE. or. ar. E. 108. 24. P. P. 36.. .. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the first term a and the ratios r being given. The 314.arn ~ l .) is a series each term of which. . P. 12. or 81 315. and To find the nth term / of a G.
72. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. ? (c) 2.. I = 670. 8.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 20.. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.288. 4. . 80. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.72. first term is 125 and whose common . 18.6. (d) 5. 25. 2 term 3.. 9. (it. . . P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. .. if any three of them are given. 576. is 16. or 7. 1.. 7.. whose and whose second term is 8. Ex. 288. Find the 6th term of the series J. r^2. 36. 0.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.l. EXERCISE 1._!=!>. f. is 3. 3. series . P. i 288. Jive quantities are in. Find the 5th term of a G. volved . 9.4.*.18. 6. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64... f. (b) 1. . . fa. P. . 676.. series 6. +f%9 % ..5. P. 144. 36. fa. l. Hence n = 7. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. . 4. first term 4. 72. .5. series 5. Hence the or series is 0.18. 144. . first 5. And the required means are 18. . . 10.. 36. 9. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 144. . whose . hence. . \ t series . P.54. In most problems relating to G. a = I. Write down the first 6 terms of a G... + 5.
81. 25S series : 32. s = 310.. a. of r n decreases.. s = 605. 21. Z s.. 36. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. J. M. n = 5. . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. Find a and 4. 72.i a9 .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 24. and hence ~ r . 14. 48. 13. Find the geometric mean between 7. be written If the value of r of a G. a^. .. n = 5. Given r = n Z 5. 20. 1. 16 . 4. 81. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 2. = 3. . Find a and n = 4.. P. J. 12.J and 270. 19. to 7 . to 5 terms. 243. == 160. may be than any assignable number. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = 3. 126. to G terms. + 4 . I.. 12 terms. 1. 27. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. to 7 terms. 54. . . r . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 42. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. J. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. .nV> i*> !718. = 3. is less than unity. 23. to 6 terms. 14. to 8 terms. 15. >"> . to 6 terms. 22. J..
4. 14. . . 2.1.. 16. what is (a) the sum of the areas. P. is 9... .3121212.. ... Find the sum to infinity... .. 4. 2. i i J.191919. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 5.= . 12.01 ^ . . 10. 1. = .. . 1.. 250. of: 11. . is 16.. (6) the sum of the perimeters.555. 1. 8.717171.. The sum r. is J. = 990 . 3.. .. = a ... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . = .Ql. 100. Find the value 9..99 . . The sum Find the of an infinite G.. Hence ..072. 7. .72. 8. 9. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G... P...3 + . .272727... .= _4Z* . =A+ 10 i.37272 . i. 9. . 40.254 Ex. ratio 15. 16. ... 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. Given an infinite series of squares.27777 . r = j.. of all squares ? ... . 1 r = . 66 Therefore . first and the common term. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. and the first term is Find 17.)7?7272 .3727272 . of an infinite G.. 6. 1. 12. I. P. 13.072 + . .00072 f . 5. If a = 40. 6.
21. 12. 4 7. 20. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . /2a+Y\ 8. 7 . a6 8 16 in . 17. (a 100 . 26. 22. . 28. 14.6) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 13. 2 2 24. : (1 + xy. (a2) 6. 11. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 4. coefficient of . Find the 6th term of (x . (s + i). 5. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . . 10.b) w (a (a f (1 . (\ 9 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b ). 29. (a + b) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 25. (xy) : 6 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9.6) 20 . 16. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. l 2. 15. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .
3. c = = = 2. 5. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . . 1. 3. 3. 3. 2. (c 3. 1. if x^l. 1. 4. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 4. 4. + 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 1. 2. 2. 4. ft 4 ) 5. + 2. 3.  a)(a 1. 3. .] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 3. + c(a  c). 5. 2. 5. 3.  2. 3. 6. 3. 1. + 2. 4.c )(fta) 1. if = = 2. 6.  2. 4. 4 2. 2. 3.a(a 4. 2. 2. 5. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 7. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 1. c if 7 . 3. 3. 5. 2. a ft c = = 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 6. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. 4. 2. 3. 4. aft 3 + 4. 1. 5. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. 1. 2.  8 ^ 2. 2. 3. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 2 . *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. if y=2j 2. 4. 1. l. 2. 3. 2. if = = = 2. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 5. y 3. 1. 2. 4. 2. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. ^+^ 3. 3.f ac 1. 2. 3. 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 1. = 2. ft) . 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. 6. 2. 6. 24 4.
7. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . c = 3.a) .\ yz + xz. if a 6 = = c = 3.3 xyz. 12. + 4. 9. x C 4 4x y + . a.10. 17. 16. (5. a: . 5. 15.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . c)(x a} .5. a. 41.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .c' 2 4 / . x = 4.7 + . + 8 x4 *y .2 a?y + 3 aty . 7 xy 3 . 4 x 4 . 4. 29. . r> . ' b) + 3. 21. 40. a /> 3. x3 2 a2 . 18. b(x (b 1. 9. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 26. 8. + 4 ?y . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 21. 2 x 8.  a) (c 2. 2. = 2.259 x c) .2. 24. 10. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4 y 13. 5.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .4. 6. + 2.7 ys. 3.2 x?/. . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . . 4 z . 5.3 a?y . 1.8 3 + 7 x4 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 15. x 3 x' 14. 2.a8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. a 4 + 11 a . 25. + 1. 1. 5. x 3 11.8 + 2 // . 8 . 7y 4 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .2.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2.x 5 4 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. x3 f 3 ax'2 . .7 y 2* 4. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. or .2 z8 4 x. 3.r 6 x  4 xy . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 20. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. ~c)(b. + 3 y 2* .1. 2.a 5 a . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.a 4 . f 8.2 x2 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 2 . 4.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 2  + 12 a 8 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .
= x y ft z.(4 * .(7 x 4.4) .[4 z 8 . .4 ft) 4.c. and .4 Vl 4. ft. 5 10 + 7 . Simplify 31. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.3 x .c 4 3 a. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .(x 4. 4 3 5 y/ .c. x8 x2 2 a'2x. From of 2 the 4.3.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . . . 0" 30.2 x 8y2 44 . x'2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. sum of .(4 x 2 .x 4.?> x 4 20. 29.[4 x 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 2 x 32.] 26.(x* .x .2 a . c =x y }~ z.a ft.5 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. .8 3 4. . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .6 x ] .x 2 4.2 3 ax 2 .(5 c .{2 x 2 . 4 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .. take the sum of G x 5 . 4vTT~y 3. 4 4 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. ft 25. 35. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. c 4.1). 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.(5 y .6T .#48. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. Take the sum 4x 4. 7 12 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.c 3 a.(a . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .x2 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.260 19.7.4. f ft.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. a  ft + c. (*) a  c. 4 2 x2 23. .2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.27~~7)}]. 36. 3 ft. 5 4 7 12 .1)}] . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .2) . 542 x 2 and .{G * 2 . : a x . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .5.3 . 33.x . c 4ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 34.3 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. of a.
2 2 x + !)(* . + 4x + 5)(j. 43. 2 : 7e)a}].3c). 67.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 49.be) (a 58.[2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar.7). )(lz a ). . . . 65. 2 53.ab . (x .(2 x2 .12). 59. (x.rf)} + a [.c). 3 x 42. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 60.{2 a . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).5 )}] + {4 c . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 54. (r (1 (a.6 xy .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 63. . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 45.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].  2 a  {3 2x a .b (c . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).(6 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 51.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.2 zz . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .[4 x  5 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. .(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 ft 41. .ac .2c(V/ .3)(*5)(* 7).5)} + (3 a 2 . . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (1 55.3 *).0)} .(4 d . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . .3).a~^~c)K].(7 a. (4 + 3a 2 . (5 a 39.3 z 2 ). (.(2 a 2 . 46.& + {.6c) (a + f c).{3 c . 64.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].4 a . 13 a . 48. 2 52.JT^T+1)} + (2 .(2 a + 5 a .(5 y .2x + 3). (1 ar+a.Z . . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3 c)].{2 a (ft .56. 57. a .2 2 + 1)(7.2a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.96 [17 a.c 2 . + *+!){> + 2). 68. (/> 4 . 'J 44. 50. 62.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 4 + 2 2 + 1).6)}].2 2 .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).2)(1 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 56.4 a 2 + a 4 ).(2 . (.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .1). a {.
a) 2 .c)].(a 48 8 8 4.:y)( a. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . (p 2 . 76.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).5 .c) 2 . ft ft ft a}. 85. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. xy y 2 ). . (a 2 ft 2n 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . .y).O (a 4(a 4.q). 79.3y) a (* 2 4.3 a . . 90.z) .c) . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.m np c . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .ft) + 4(2 . 84.{3 a . 82. 87. 71. 88. ft" l Simplify 80. ft 78. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 83.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).am&t 4 A 2 *). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 86.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).c) rr identities.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y + z)(x + y .2 ft}) f (3 a . 4. 73. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . (x (x ( + *) . 92.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). (a (2 b)*(a 4.z)(x y + z)(. ft 95.6*y .b 4.2y)(.c . 2 (x 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).y)\x y).ft) 4 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. f 72. 93.c) .r 2 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 91. 4 4 .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 1).2 (a . 2 + a 2 ).c . 1).c) 4) (ft 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).x + y + z).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . Prove the following 8 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.c)} . b 4. ft /.v) 4.<f(p .c) j.3 (ft .2 (y 4.(4 .(/>  3 v)^(.n pc). 94.(ft 4. 75. ar . 77.z\x 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .(c 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. (. 74. 89.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).262 69.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).9y2). 70.
&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 3*. (8 x* 115. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".r 4 4. 99 100. 108. . 114.2 xy 8 . 109. r .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 117.(x 2 .27 x* . 103. 25 4 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).3 a"+ 4.*) (x 8 . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 120. 2 (a+ .a".6 y 4 4.2y 2 4.xy 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.40 />) . 1).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 124.b) 98. 10). 110. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 116. 106.&).(7 xi/ .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 122.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.1). 121. . 26 (a 4 c). 102.4 aft . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.v/ ~ // = a: . a*. (a 8  8 68 8 4. [10( 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 105.(a 1 2 8 .35 x 2 2 ) .2 2% 4.5 b*).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 4 41 x 4a.5 xy). 123.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 113.y 4 ) . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (80 a 112. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 1O4.y 2 4.) .y 4 . (2< 107.9 x 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).(2 a 2 . 118.16 a 6 4. (.
18 *&) (1 . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3) = 12 . (4 x .(j a? 144.2) = 3 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2) (a: + 3). .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. .264 125.1) . 148. 139. 129. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 135.2(10 x .(x + 3) ] .3(* + 4) + 9} .r>) . 142.9) + 3.3) (3 x 4.G) . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.2(5 . 136. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.n . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 143. 138.1) (a? .3 x).7(4 * . 127.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 5 146.(x . 2 4(ar . .3(2 z .3). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. y (* l x. 3) = x\x . .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .r + 7[or . 128.2 7^~5] + 1). 1) . .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2(j: .a:)]}.4(0 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2) + 2(ar + 4).5{.27 a 3" .2(4 . 3(2 x 134.5) = 12(4 x . 5(2 x .4) .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .12 M 132. 149. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). o o 140. 7(2 x . 126.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .7) = 4 . 137. .3). (5a: 150.5).(x f 9). . x 147. 42(3ar 145.3 a:). 1) = 2(* . 10(2 x 141.9) 4.22. (*+ + .19) + 5 = 4 .(1 .8 6 . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .4) .
158.3) (3 . = 2 C.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.z) (4 . and the third twice as many as the first. transformed into F. 5(ar x . 164. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. + 4) (2 x + 5).2) (7 *) + (*.19) + 42. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 163. 156.5 x) = 45 x .2 x) (4 . 157. will produce F. 2 4 .25) 2 . 265 152. (a .T)O .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.? .6 x) (3 .2).(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . . (2 .1) (s + 3). 166. . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .7) (a.29) 2 = 1.17) 2 + (4 x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.2) (j? + 1) + (x . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (x (x a.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.l)(z . + 2) + (5 .3) = (3 x .76. (a. + 10) (ar .3) (a: .5) = (3 . 165.2 x) = (1 .3) (j.7) (1 x . How many 170. 161. 155. If the area of the frame inches. . .5)(. (7 14 . 162.(5 x . 160. 154. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.1) O + 4) = (2 * .r + 3) . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.3) (3 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 153. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. (a) If C.2) a + 7(x . = 15. + 5) = (9 .a:) + 229. The second contains 3 first. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.24. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.4) (a . .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. sheep more than the 169. a: ar a. =  (F 32). find the value of F.5*) + 47.9) + (a. f^ + ^sO. (3 O + . 159.. The sum What 171.14) (a: + 3). these two angles would be equal.5(x .8) = (2 x 4.
the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 10x 2 192. x* 185. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. Find the number.266 173. 179. 187. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. ll?/102. 188. was three times that of the younger. 4 a 2 yy 42. two boys is twice that of the younger. 2 2 + a _ no. .36. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. younger than his Find the age of the father. dimension 182. side were one foot longer. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. if each increased 2 feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. aW + llab2&. number divided by 3. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. and 5 h. A house has 3 rows of windows. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. A boy is father. . 12 m. father. 15 m. 181. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. z 2 92. + 11 ~ 6. . power one of the two Find the power of each. 180.56. sister . 7/ 191. A each 177. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. + a. 186. respectively. 3 gives the 174. 176. 189. z 2 + x . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. train. How many are there in each window ? . 178. 190. +x 2. 13 a + 3. Find the dimensions of the floor.
15 x 2 + 26 x a . z + 5x 2 . 3y 248. 195. . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 201.10. 213. ifWy+b. 244. 3 x V .22 z + 48.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2 x 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 2 a 2 . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 221. . . *2 234. 208. + 198. a. + 3a 196. 6 197.x + 1. 207.77 y + 150. + 30 x.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 227.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. a: 231. 211. 239.1. 246. a^a 226. x* + 8 2 + 15.21 a:  54. 3 x 2 . 215. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2 200. 2  5 xy 13 y a.19 z 4 204. 4 m +^.3 c/> + 6 cq. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a. . + 8.c) 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . a: .6 y2 + 4.12 * . 233.6.64. a 2 . 2 2 y f 1.(b + rf) 2 . 222. 7x 2 225. 245. 8 a: ar. xm+l 243. 230.28.3 xf + 3 * 2y . + 2 .c) 2  (a . 2a te 3% ly 247. 229. y 2 194. a. a: 236. 217.6 aq . 8 a. (a + . 23 12. # 2  29 y + 120. 4a 2& 2 241. a. 3y 2 + ary . . 238.6 2 ?/ . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 235.20 z 8 a: 220. . 206.19 a . 2 . 267 199. 3 ap 2 . 5 x 2.r?/f y 2 9.10 xy.6s. 16x 4 81. 210. x 219. 7a 228. a+a* + o a +l. 224. 216. wiy + la mx + aw.3 xy. . 212.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2 a 8 . 203.8 6 2. 12 x +4. x*y 223. 232. 202. x 5 . 218.10 y a x* .14 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 24 2 + 2 . z 2 2. 209. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a a: a: 237.
x* . + 20 x 4. 2 8 . 270. . x 2 4. 10 a. x 2 f 9j: + 20.10. 254.18 xy + 5. 258. 3 ay 4.a + 2 4. 6.11 a 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. * 2 .14 bx a%% 8 . 259.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 2 a. 264. 28 2 f 71 x . 10 x 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . a 3 a 2 2 . F.16 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . a: .5 ab f 2. 1 x ar Find the L. of: 266.2/ 2 .120. x* .48 afy 2 . z 2 267.ry . + 3 x + 2. 251. + 23 x f 20.2 aft*.r . 18 x 2 .23 x f 20. 260. * 2 . 22x2 a. x 2 + 4 + 3. a. 257. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 7 12 2 2 . a? a: a: // 262. 3 #2 255.15.9 x + 14.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x*y* 4.4 ab + 1. ft a. 252.80.12. * a . I Find the II. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .11 x f 28. 269.M. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).(55. 5 x 2 256.3 abc .3 x . 3 a% 2 . 7 ax 250. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .15 + 30.9 x .7 f 5. z 2 268. x 2 + 5 f .2 z .73 xy . 2 x2 .x . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.9.C.10 a 4.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. * 2 . 265.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 15 # 2 z/ /.a 2 />c 2 f 3. of: 253. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 + 2 x . a 4.&z. 30 ^ . x 2 263. + 8 x + 5.ry 21.36.91. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.G7 x f 33.8. 261.3.13.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 2 . x 2 . + 8. C.23 + 12.4.6 by. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.1 9 .
J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL.!/. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 8 .ar 1 279. 289 ' .2* + 3 x* 280.. z2 (a 2 + c)a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . a. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.. + ac . *2 " 2 + Oge.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.(y 2 z) * t (j.2c a: 282.
+ 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^_2*(m 308. Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 6) _ ~ i 305. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x 7. O(ca) 306. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^. 4 3 301.
( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 1 x2 + + a. } .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 1a: + y a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1 _. (1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2 + y 2 319.ft) 2 322.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . a: 1 313. . (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. _ x8 .(a . 2ft 2 a8 3 314._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.
a: 2 x* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 250 5 10 2 325.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.6* t 328..9 *// + 27 . 2 lOx 5x.2 +lOar 2 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .7 xy + 12 x .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.ll..15 33 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . * 3a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.V  + y  x 3y a . 20 44 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .y20  2y + 4 2 .
344. + l + IV. (af2/. if a = 3. a: 349 _ o. aj 339. ?_2 ^ .. \5yl 341.r 5 2 . ** i. + ni + . f V. 7 ( ?f!?.y. 352.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. fl.+ r . \x yj 340. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (a \ + lV. (aWi + iJ. 5 343. xi 347. +^ a: y x .1V. ( 342. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. w \. : 1+ i. ' 2 "l 5 . a>74 . 1 345. 338. 348.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (ar \ 346.) 2 .
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. 1+2 362. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. I  I f 366. + x x a . a2 4 .
370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
*2 = 15. 5 {2 x 381.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 379. .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. ^ . J !__7. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. <3 378. . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 4(* . 5*8. + 1) 45 O 377. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. __4 2x 3_ = !. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .
^ (a . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.2 a:  1.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.25 x + . 396.. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 40. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.1 .25. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).8 = . 397.75 x f . a. + 4 a. c . .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 x =r f .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. u '2 a.147.. 400. 399. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.  8 9* x ~r. 401.5 ^ ~ a: a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 3* 177.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.6  . _____ . m x 398. f 1 1 + a 403. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  J). b 404.
and was out 5 hours. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.c) . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. In a if and 422. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. the order of the digits will be inverted. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 18 be subtracted from the number. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Tn 6 hours . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.  a) 2 6 2a. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. far did he walk all together ? A . hour. 421.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .278 410. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 418 ~jo. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 411. Find the number. (x . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 420.(5 I2x ~r l a) .
6 8 ). 435. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. find : a : c.a 2^ 8 + aft* . x 427. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. a + 5. find the angles of the triangle. 2 2 8 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Which ratio is greater. : i. Find the length of the parts. if . a  t>. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 428. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . y. . wi* + y= ny. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Solve 436. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 3 and 1J. 432.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . b. 430. . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). d. . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 431. z 2 y.46 2): (15a 2 .49 63).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 438. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.iand 22 22 I a . ax is \ by  ex + dy. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 433. : If is one equal 434. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.& 5 ) (a 8 . a. If a b : =5 n : 7. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the fourth proportional 426. Find the mean proportional to 429.
55 y = . 4 = 5 y + 29. Find the value of a. 453. 458. 451.89 = q. 3 a. . . a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. c.7 y = 25. 5x+4y=lQ.35. 7 442. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 9ar7# = 71. 8 . 7jr9y = 17. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. /) ar a. 457. 443. 8 x + y = 19. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 459. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. if 2 ft : 439. The volumes If their diameters. 445. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. .11 7.rf2# = l. />(. ft. ?/ 447. = 25. 1(3  a. 56 + 10y = 7a. 450. 448. 456. 452.11 y = 95.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . x + 17 # 53.(or l(*2y)=0.59 = 3 z. . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 454. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 5z4:# = 3. . Solve the following systems: 441.4 12 . 7 a: . + 5y = 59. 9/> = 2 . 5 2 = 7 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . a: a: + 5y). 42 = 15y + 137. 16. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 446. a: 2y= = 1 . 28 = 5 a . 3 . 444. 15ar = 20 + 8y.*. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 7a?y = 3. 449. 455. ft.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.
_ 469.2y) (2 = 2J. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 473. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 475. 468. 8 461. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.. x y 474.7.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.  = 2.c=563y.+ =2. ax by = c \ 472. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 465. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. (or . + eyn.?/ + 1 . ax cx by = m. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. i = 5. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ^ + i^ = 7.
and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the numbers. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. . 485. years. Find their ages. 481. Find the sum and the rate of interest. How much money less 484. 486. 487. to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 483. the Find their ages. Find the principal and the rate of interest. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 477. Find the numbers. Find the number. by 4. age. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A spends \ of his. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and the other number least. and in 18 months to $2180. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the fraction. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 479. whose difference is 4. A number consists of two digits 4. and in 20 months to $275. fraction becomes equal to .
? + 2y = 8. y Solve : x +z= 5. 1+1 = 6. . and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2a:f 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 488./ f z =a. a: + // = 11. 494. + # +z= 35. z y ifi = z x 502. = 20. 492. *i. x y f z = 13. a number . a: 499. 3 x 500. \ . . a. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 3 a: + 5=84. 496. x f y f z 29 . 2y + 3a = ll. 5 + a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 2 e. 3ar 503. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. z y x 25 . . 2 2 = 41. a: f z = 79. 1. 5^ 9z = 10. 7.5#+2z = $x a: G. 8. 4z+3z = 20. 490. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . ifi = x a. + y 5 y = 101 . 493. 4 506. 4 497. . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. : Solve the following systems 491. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9./ 504. .z = 20. 2 a. * + 425  = .z = 12. 489. 498. The sum of two numbers squares is b. x s + y z = 18J . = 15. ~ 507. 2/>3r = 4. 495. = 209. 7 + 2 z .
517. 36 + c. z z =3a&c. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. + : = 1472. ll" .284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523.
How long will B and C take to do . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. it separately ? 531. When weighed in water. CD. B and C and C and A in 4 days. AB=6. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. What are their rates of travel? . 90. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . Find the present ages of his father and mother. BC = 5. . and BE.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. if the number be increased by Find the number. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. if and L. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and CA=7. In circle A ABC. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. L. 527. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. E 533. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. they would have met in 2 hours. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. touches and F respectively. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. . if L and Af in 20 minutes. in 28 minutes. If they had walked toward each other. N. 532. Find the numbers. the first and second digits will change places. it is filled in 35 minutes. M. 530. Tf and run together. AC in /).
The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. d. 536.  3 x. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 548. + 3. GERMANY.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet.  7. One dollar equals 4. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 2 x + 5. The greatest value of the function. the function. 542. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.e. x 2 + x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. formation of dollars into marks. then / = 3 and write = 3. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. . of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. e. The values of y.  3 x. to do the work? pendulum. 545. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 547. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 2 541. 3 x 539. 543.10 marks. c. 550. 546. The values of x if y = 2. . a. x 8 549. i. from x = 2 to x = 4. FRANCE. z 2  x x  5. if x = f 1. x 2 544. x*  2 x. x*. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x *x + x + 1. 2. 2  x  x2 .286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 540. b. 2.
h. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. If y +5 10.13 = 0. .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a. Solve 552.r a: a: x a.0. 565. i. = 5. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. c. g. 564.4 x 2 + 4 . z 2 . J. 2 a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 2. and make the unit of the b. 568.G . x 4 . if y =m has three real roots. + 5 .= 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. a.1 = 0.6 + 3 . z 4 . a: 559. x* . 563.r .3 x . Solve// = 0. a. j. 572.5 x .17 = 0. 562.15 = 0. + 10 x . 3 . Represent meters. x 2 ~ 2 .3 . 556.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 3 x . 2 554. . 566. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 2 567.9 = 0.4 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 553.11 = 0. . r?. 2 x 2 560.7 = . 558.3 x . a? 4 x . f. 3 + 3 z . 2 8 .= 0. 3 x* .4 .  2 1 a: a. \ to t = 5.3 = 0. 557. e. c. 15. ' = 8.r 1 561. x 5 . 555.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 18 x  4 = 0.
4 a. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . f ?>) 3 591. xY. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. . j^f = 3. a 8 606. 608. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 604. + %) (a* + *) 5 . [ y =10.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a 2a. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.x + 2 )'2 601. a: .%) 4 (aa. 596. + + 4 . 597. 4 (1a:) 3.5 xy = 0. 1 . (1 + x a. (aiy. (# 2) . 64 a 12 603. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. jj+. + .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 609. : y* or 25. 589. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2  2 aa: 2 . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . (a.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.4. x + z2) 8 .frf : 583. 4 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 599. 9  4 fSb 607. a:.2 6a: + 30 &c a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 592. (1 (1 (1 .2 2 + y.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 600. + ^) + (air%)8. 579. 3 (f.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 6 + 1) . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . x [ ?/ 577.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 593. 2 611. 3 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 588. a. . 595. a 612. 598. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 582. 585 594. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 5 a*. (a  8 ft) .(1 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. <r)3  2 3 a:) .
Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 639. 7) 2. 8*' + 24* = 32. + 112 a 8 . 630. 623. 644. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .2410. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 651. + 24 a 2 4 . 25023844. 626. x 2 . : 5.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.191209. 3a. = . Find the eighth root 617. 634. GGff. Find the square root of 619. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.\/4090. 4J. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 210. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. V 635. 636. 035. + 2 21 x = 100. + 54 'x*y* . 2 + 189 z = 900. 9g. 942841. 632.1024 x + a: 256. 4370404. According to Kepler's law. 628.53 x ~ . x 2 641. 0090. find Jupiter's period.150. 633. = 70. = 0. a 642. 620. = 87. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 49.30. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 615. 371240. 638. 9a. 40. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 650.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. /. 643. V950484 . VOIOOD + V582T09.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 645. 629. 647t x 2 648 649. 49042009.*. 2. (x 9 x 646. 44352. 2 + 21Ga.871844.2. 614. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 622. 625 : 621. 494210400001.49. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. *+* = 156. 21. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.12 a?y + y*.15174441.V250 . 624. 32 631. ft . 637. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
.c = 0. = 0. 696. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 702.a a )jr . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 2 . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 694. 706. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 692. 695.bx . a. 2 2 697. ex abc= fx 0.ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ax 2 698. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 699. 708.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 707. 693.
In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 716. 724. How shares did he buy ? if 726. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.44#2 + 121 = 0. 729. in value. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. . Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 3or i 16 . 727. 723. A equals CO feet. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 16 x* . 717. 725. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find the price of an apple.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find two numbers whose 719. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.25 might have bought five more for the same money.292 709. 721. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 217 . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 12 4*+  8. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 722. a: 713. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. sum is a and whose product equals J.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. **13a: 2 710. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee.
33.1 + x. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. n. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 1 6.X . 39. 43. 42. 37. 31.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 46.aft* 1 + a 2*.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (v/x). 38.2)(x2 4. 36. . + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).l). . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 35. 41. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).2 ). 40. 52. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.1 f c" ).)(ai + &. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f ^ 2).2? 50. 34.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).1 + c. 32.
~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU.1+J 756. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 754. 2V2 2V3 . [1r^ T 1 i . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 768. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 758..294 753._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 757. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 761. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759.
14 791. 786. 806. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. Va 809.2V3* ^ 807. + 2V21. a 9442V5. 13 799.4 V(j. 3J . . 783.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 794. 790. 789. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.VlO. 92VI5. . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 103 788. . 7512V21.2 V30. 3812VIO. c 792. 793. 10 785. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.12VIT. . 787. x 782. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 16 + 2V55.
g. + 103Var. 829. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 811.13 = 0. V3 f 1 V4a. V14 a. + Vx .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 831. Va: . 812.Vc^lJ .f 5 = V5x + 4. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 819. 836. 815. \/12 a. 833. 830. 814. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. /9ar a: = 17.79.\/2y  810. x/aT+l . 3 x + 2 . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.V? = 813.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. (x a: 2 ) 4 .  5 + V3 f 12 817.V2 ar 10. = 1.4 = 0. 816. VaT+lJ f ^l . + ViTli + V7 . 820. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 818. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.
8 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a 18 4. 870. 729 867. a 8 869. . a. 840. 9.x*y + 3x f 2. 4 x* 847. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 868. +3 4 +  4. 876. 8 8 848. 844. 865. 2 f" + a/ 15. 863. 4 a. a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8^27^. 4 a: 2 842. . . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.3 . a. f 841. 852. 861. 839. 864.3 Va: 2 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 855. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 856. 5 a 4 7 a8 . + 512 y8 874. a: . a*" & 6n . a 872. x 8 2 857. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. f b**. 16 859. 8 8  13 a. a 8 850. 64 a 866. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 846.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. . 8 4a: 8 a. 845. 875. 4 x 8 858.12. a.ab9 ft*. 27 862. y 4. x 4 + f 2 a. 2 x 3.3 a:.  3x a. a l0m . 64. 19 x 14.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 851.28 a 4 xy 8 80. . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 871. 8 860. 8 2a. 27 y 8. a 8 873. a. + 1. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a.a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 40 x 2 7 f 49. a: 849. 2 a: 64 y*.1. V4 x 2 . 6.10 = 118. 853.3 x . 275 8 l. f 12.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . z*y 8 l64a.1000 6. 4o. + . 8 a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.
x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a: a. 901. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a# f + xy = 126. y y 2 y 2 1121. . +y f y = 7. 2 + y 2 . 894. x 882. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y 2 2 8f. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 885. 878. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.sy = 198. a: 888. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 . 900. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + xy = 28.5 xy + 4 f = 13.xy + y 2 = 19. 895. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. y*+ xy . z 2 898.18. 5. 2 = 2 + 5. + 2y=\2. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 896. a:y .298 877. . 889. . 2 + xy = 10.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 . 2 2 = 16 y. y = 28. x*xy.y 2 + V(j.y 2) = 20. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 886. y 2 4. a. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. x a: lI = xz . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. + ary + 2 = 37. a: 884. M1 891 1 . a: + y 2 = 34.35.y 2 = 2 y + 2.1 = 2 a#. 1 x 893. a. 887. . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 883. 890. . a: 2 897.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 3 x 2 . 899. f ?/ a: a: .15. xy + y = 32.
3 y 8 ) =1216. 2 5 xy = 11. y x 2 = by. . 2 924. 912. 4 (a. Vary + y = 6. 2 * 2 ~ g. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. + y)(a. + y = 9.r a. = 8.x) = 21. y 3 2 2 922. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 2 915.#y + 2 = 27. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. x 2 ry + y = 3. a: * a: a: ar 928. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 + y = 2 a 4. a: y zx 12.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y). 910. x f 2 a:y = 32. (3 x . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. + 2 a:y + = 243. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 917.y) (3 y . 905.6. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. xy + x= 15. yz = 24. 907. 909. 2 2 2 916. 914.y = a(ar + y).3)2 = 34. xa 903. # + xy + y = 7. + a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 2 913. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 7 y . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. .y) (a? . + 2 ary = 39.16 y 3 8 = . + y 8 = 189. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. (a. 923. x 4 299 xy z 904. a:y xy 929. (* 918. 3 :r(3 . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 908.3) 2 f (y . 911. *y . 920. * + y = 444.y) = 33. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. (!) * . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. x + y}(x + y) = 273. x + y 2 = aar. (o. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. or or a? a: a: . + ary = a*. ary y = 8. a: a. 23 x 2 . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.y2 = 22. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 921.3(* + y) = 6. 906.2 y) = 49 2 919.23 = 200. + ?/) . . ^ 2 . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. y + a:y = 180. y . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. a.
is 20. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. diagonal 940. is 3. and also contains 300 square feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133.300 930. 931. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. *(* + #) =24. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. Tf there had been 20 less rows. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 34 939. In the second heat A . is 3 . Find the sides of the rectangle.000 trees. s(y 932. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. find the radii of the two circles. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 935. feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. (y + *) = . z(* + y + 2) = 76. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. A and B run a race round a twomile course. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. feet. 944. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. A plantation in rows consists of 10. Find the numbers. y( 934. and 10 feet broader. Assuming = y. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. rate each man ran in the first heat. a second rec8 feet shorter. and the difference of 936. 2240. + z) =108. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Find the side of each two circles is IT square.102. 152. A is 938.square inches. . How many rows are there? 941. two squares equals 140 feet. + z)=18. 942. 943. two squares is 23 feet. 937.
What is its area? field is 182 yards. whose 946. A and B. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. each block. 950. . and that B. and if 594 be added to the number. 953. Two starts travelers. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the digits are reversed. Find the number. Find in what time both will do it. P and Q. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. . sum Find an edge of 954. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 949.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 952. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. unaltered. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. that B A 955. is 407 cubic feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and its perim 948. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet. and travels in the same direction as A. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the eter 947. distance between P and Q. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. set out from two places. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find its length and breadth. overtook miles. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. triangle is 6. . 951.
P. x(x to 8 terms. 16 962.. .. the terms being in A. ^ Vfirst five 959. Sura to 24 terms. Find the Find the common 977. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). n to n terms. .1 4 f j$V . 969. 961. f + 1 .v 973.454. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . (x 4 to n terms.to infinity. s  88. 4 4 to 7 terms . are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 3 + 5 7 + . .. !Ll^ + n . 9th and llth terms of an A.141414.4142 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 18th terms of an A. and 976... 3 .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. ^ 1 .... 4.. 972. + (iiven a +  4 d . 970. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.321? 965. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 5.. . Find n f (ft) . (to 2 n terms).. 971. 975... Sum to 20 terms.. Find the sum of 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. *" 968. 964. Find n. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.3151515.  2. P. to infinity. P. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Evaluate (a) . to 7 terms. difference. 966. 958.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.>/) to infinity. = 4. '. 1 to n terms... P. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.V2 . 5. \ . Find an A. to n terms.. Sum Sum to infinity. J. are 29 and 53. 12434+ j I 967. 1G series .302 956. fourth of the unity. 36 963. 974. 957.
5 11.01 3.. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to n terms.. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . to 105? 981. : + 9   V2 + . 992. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40...001 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. and of the second and third 03. P.. P. 2 grains on the 2d. and so on. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 303 979. 987. The sum 982. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. of n terms of an A. "(. 989. The term. 985..) the last term the series a perfect number. 4 grains on the 3d. Find n. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Find the sum of the series 988. 0. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find four numbers in A. 990.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 986. to oo. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . . and the common difference. is 225. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the first term.2 . to infinity may be 8? . first 984. 980.. The 21st term of an A. P.+ lY L V.04 + . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. 1.3 ' Find the 8th 983.1 + 2.001 4. Find four perfect numbers. named Sheran. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.
AB = 1004. at the same time. of squares of four numbers in G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. If a. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 994. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. areas of all triangles. prove that they cannot be in A. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 1001. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. find the series. ABC A A n same sides. P. 999. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. P. ft. 512 996. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 1003. P. The sum and product of three numbers in G. is 4. 1000. Under the conditions of the preceding example. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The fifth term of a G. Two travelers start on the same road. c. many days will the latter overtake the former? . . in this circle a square. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 995. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 997. (a) after 5 strokes. The sum and sum . 998. are 28 and find the numbers. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and G. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (6) the sum of the infinity. and so forth to infinity. are unequal. in this square a circle. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. inches.
Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the two middle terms of 1013. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . ) 1021. (12 #) 7 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1011. (1 1018. a: 8 7. . 2 ) 5. . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.o/) 14 . x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1012. 1009. Write down the 1 5a  6 V .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Expand  2 a. 1014. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1006. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.l) w f . 1008.ft) 19 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of ( .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. + lQ .
.
... . . . 129. . .. . 232 169 807 ... 123 . .. 54.... Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .... . 232 mean progression . 19. .108 160 " .. simple simultaneous . . signs of Algebraic expression ... . Aggregation. . 37. 160 in quadratic form 191 ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. . 129 54. 9. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 97. t 53 120 .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.... Checks Coefficient 20. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .. . . . 112 54 54 251 ..130 . linear literal Common ** * difference . .. lowest ratio " '* . . 8 .] Abscissa Absolute term . 9 ** .... Brace Bracket Character of roots .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . . 158.. graphic tion of representa . . 246 91 " multiple.. quadratic .193 11 . numerical . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . .. . . .178 Completing the square .. .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. ..210 130 " Addition value 4 15.... .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.
Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.108 Minuend .. . Inconsistent equations . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Mathematical induction . . 189. Known numbers . .. 63.. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Imaginary numbers .C Multiplication . . . 17 65. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . addition of " square of . G. 227 geometric . Negative exponents 11 . 143. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . inversely 122 numbers . . 45. 112 . . . . 45. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . . . 195 33. Product '* 76 Infinite.154 Order of operations " of surds . 253 28 70 1. 34. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. Insertion of parentheses . 184 54. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 241 123 geometric . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. INDEX 8 . P . Like terms Linear equation . 243 7 . 120 Member. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 212 .. 114. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . .. directly. 109 102 . 227 . 9... . 180. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . Geometric progression . law of Extraneous roots . L. . 45 Laws of signs .808 Exponent Exponents... . . . numbers ... . . exponent . 205 . first and second .105 Monomials 03 Multiple... .31. 42 7 Independent equations Index . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest ... common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 84. . 91 .. 23 10 91 102. arithmetic .
... .. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... . polynomial ... ....INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. . 129. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. absolute 54 Variable .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 9. algebraic Surds .. 4 155 9 " of . . .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 45 Trinomial 240 .. 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .... .. Sum. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. .
.
MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1910. Mass. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. U. NorfoooS J.. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. 8. August. 1917. Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co.A. Published September. December. 1913. 1916. . Set up and electrotypcd.S.
1. 10. 5. 5. ^. 3. 2 5.150. 14. $100. 27. 3. 6. x. 6. 18. per sec. 13.000. 16. T . 2. 3. 12. 4..1. Page Page Ilis expenditures.. $160. B $20. Page 13. 24. b. 9 16  larger than 7. A Bl 7.2. 11. 14. 6. c. 3. 17. 20. 9. 32. Multiplication. 14. . 6* 16.000. 36.000. 8. 23. 11. 13.. 25. 7.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 144. 15. 1. 5. 1. 7. 6 yd. 10. 16f 2. 150. 1. 30. 1 16. 19 4. 10. 2. Page 8. 2. 0. in 12. 6. loss. 11. Page 4. 115. 3. 6. 3. 14. 20 B. 32. 15. 5. 192. 25. . A . 5. 10. 13. 72 = = 216. 9 14. 14. B 10 mi. 3. 11. $ 1 50 10. 10. 13. 4. 8. 20 jo. 3. . 18. 3. 12. in. 18. 16..8. 21. 576. 2. _ 32. . 27. B $4700.000. 1. 3. 9 m.  1. 2  Page 8.. 30?. 17.21 24. 7m. 26z. 2. 10g. 7. 6. 14. 3. 48 ft. 2. 5000. 5. Page 1. 49.000. 13 d. Yes..  2 p. 28. sign. x. 1. 12. 3 m. 7.000. 17. 22. 49. 9. 22. 9 = 4. 14. A 15. 85. 0. A 38 mi. 9. 24. 8. 256. 17. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 6. 4. 4.  1. Ot 15. 106.000 negroes. 14. 16. 4. + 1. Page?. .000 Indians. B $80. B $ 128. C $1(50.000. 10. 16. 18. }. i . 15. 3. A $90. 73. 5. 12.. 16. 2. 13 S. 59. 3. 18. 6. 1. 1. 12. 210. 8 13. 16 in. 18. 7. 8. V 23. 14 11.$9400. 2. $40. 12. 1. 1. 8. 8. 16. 89. is $10. 19. 3. 7. 3 below 0. 9. 6. 10. 3* 7. 6. 7. 2. 32. 1. 12. 15. 3. 3. 7.  13. 17.. C $ 16. 6. 4. ft.000. (a) (/>) 1. = 5 81. 8 ft. 2. 5. 1. 8. 7. 12. 26. 20 \. 13. 2. 4. 11. in. 16 in. South America 46. 1. 16.3. 1. 2. 29. 37 S. 2. 19. 15. 10. arithmetic. C $60. 25. 12. 27. 28. 32. 9. 21. 1. 9. 16. 2 ~ 15.00000001. 37. 29. 19. 21. Australia ft. 512. 13 V. 3. 64.C. 25.12. sign. 126. 16. 12. Not 5. westerly motion. 20. 24.  22 20. 6. 2. 20. 9.. 9. 128. 9. 20.
o^ft. 51 f. 30. Trino inial.. 20. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 5. arty 1 20. 9. a 32. 15. 12yd. . 18. 0. 38. vi 14. 7.ab. 12.  11. 8. 29. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 33. ]*. :.x.~4.  1. ft n. //'. 14.. 15. 39. 3.  0. 16.rty8. 38 ab. 11. 8. 1. 16. sq. 22. (a) <> sq.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 28. 11. 1.. Pagel4r. 12. Polynomial. m + 3(a. 1. Binomial. = ()501. 8. 18. 41.1. . mi. 23. +/2(/. 28.4  2ft 2 33. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. Page 23. 8. 0. Page 31. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. Page 7.32 c2 > ft 3 . 27. <i~ 26. 31. 32. 19.  xV 3 y. 2x' 2 5 . 10. 2. 22( 19. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 34. $3000 Page 6. 24. 3. (c) 8. 57. 104. 21 a 3 4 10. 13. 30. 17. 16. (r) 2G7. 25. 4. 22. 15. (59. 237. 0. m 24. 15a. 6<t. 17. . 5. + v> 2 . 3 . 9.. . 19. 16.ft.. 37. f  5e 35. in. (a) 50.  40.94(>.r~ f 34. 2. (ft) Page 2. 12 a.  12. _ 4 . 18. 17. 21^. 35. ft f 19.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 58. 27.6) 38. 15. #1111. 0.000 . ft. . (a} 100 1(5 cm.'J. 4. 18. 3. 15. 13. 0. (b) 135 mi. 25.  3. 20. 26. 5. 22. 2. 35. 0. r/ \(\xyz. 3. 4. ft. 28. 7. \'\ 4. . 32 2 ftc. 14. 5. 20(. 3(c4a). 5. (a) r>23ifcu. 29. 11. 42. (a) 200. 36. (r) 78. 4. 30.. 10. 5x+3. 1. 13 cu.. 21. II. 17. 16. 04.. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 2. 9. 3a. (a 4 4.GOG..ii ANSWERS Page 11. a ft c. 15. 24. Page 21. 8. 2oVmf?i. x^ 20. 14:).4 ft. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 36. 7 7. 8. 1. ??i??. jrif 4 9.5f> sq. 12. ft. 25. in. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 13.14 sq. 6. Page 18. r+l. 3. 3. 6. ft.a . 6. It. in. 4 y/ . 3 a* + 2 at*. 4. 7. 13. 27. 240. ^.r 2 .000 sq. + ft). (ft) $40. 7. 10. Polynomial. 3. 5.900.. 9. 17. 8.9?/2 8. WIN + wiw. 4. $80. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 31. 1. 314 sq. 4 9/^/rl 2. 3. 2. 21. 2. 49. 92. 31. a2 4 15^44.. c.. .<>Gq. 1. 2ftx. 19. 7. ft. 13. (r) 2000 m. 27. :J!>r'. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 3. 33. Monomial. 173.r f 15. t. 32.q 4. 26. 13. 0. ^). 20. ft' 3 . 11. y. 43w//2 17. 14. 00 24 04 ft. 14. . 27. 27. 50. . 12. i:5.ft) 4. 14. 0. 5. 1. 14. (ft) 12. in. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. yyz+xyz*. 12.. (ft) 7. 18. (c) S(i.'JO ft. 14. 23. 34. I. rt.5 (ft) sq. 9. 8. = 81. 1. w. (r) 2. r:A 29. + 5. 0. 5. (ft) mi. 21. 22. 35. 12. 3rf 27.
2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . a2 9. 40. x3 . 28. 29. a4 4 4. 4. 7 a5 1 . 31. . . 26. 5 2 Page 29. . 56. 7  # + 12. 2a: 2 4x. 2x 4 a 13. 42. 11. s_r>a5. 2 3x f z. 4. 4. a' 4ab + ?/. 20. 2. 2// 16. m*  n*. 8 b. _5a<>&43c. 2 a 37. 2. 15.. Exercise 16. 51. 13. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 18. 2 6. 8 + 2 a . 18.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .  23. 2 + a4l). 19. 10. 9. a 6 2 . 2 4. M + 10. 32 w 2 w. 2. 3 m. . . _ Page 30. 22. 21. 8. 3. + c 4 d x + 6 e.Oa: + 10. 2 2 2 6. w* ( . 2. 4. a f 2 f 2 9. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 3. 3 a . 14. x  + 3z.'U4j>. 4.  12. !  </ . j)(g1. 18. w 17. 58.2. lOrt 15w4. a. 7. c2 .a*. 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . G.5. a + a.r. 0. 5. 31. 38. 814. f 2 ?/  2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. .8(c + a)..r 2 + 4?/ 4l).3 6. 33. 12. ar. 1. 5. t).a . 2 17. 5. 3 Ji 8 . 1. 10. 2. . ii\ 22. (yz~d}. 0.ws 2 ft) . 2 . 25. 24. 14. ^ <.2 a. 26. 20.r 2. (w4w)(ww). . 4ft ~. 6. 15. 2. 3. + 2y. ft Exercise 17.c. 20. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 1 4. 24. (2n' 43p 47 ). Page 7.1 .  14 afy . 12. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .3x 2 2 tf. 13. 15.4. 2m. \ :{ 2 a 48. 2. ?/. + 6.a'2 . 59. 2 3.(2 x2 . 21.6 x + 0) 16. 11. 7.a~. a). 34. 2 a f 6 414. 26. 6. 8 . 36. 2 . 6. a 52.  b* 4 r 1 .x f 1 2 . 22. a a. 25 47. + a 2 f 2 a 4.(7x2 Ox2).4 d.a f 54. 1. 34 39. a 3 . 17.2 a2 2m 2 4. G a bd. . 8. 0. 7. 10 x. 35.11. . 4. 5x 2 rt ft. ?/i 13. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. ab a. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 1 + 45.  1. 11. a + (ftc4df). Page 44. + 4 c.  4 b 17 y*.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 10. 7. 1. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. + 8. 2 2. 14.l. r. . 14. (mn} 11. 5. . a 3a 4 2 &. a2 24. 2 y' 4 . x a8 1. a  ISjfat.  a: 2. 4wipg>' 27.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.  b. 10 m. 24 b 46. 8. . 16. '  .4x. 37. ( 7.4c 3 8 8 J.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 55. a 10w. . 7  a + 2 + c. ?>4tl 53. 50. f ft 9.5 z?/ + 3 y . a 3& . 36. 19.2 . 2. (5x47 3. 12. 12.h. c. 43. 8 8 . 1. . ri\ 18.2 57. 21. 19.7. 30.aft. 6. ?> 22. Page 8. mn. 25. 17.1. ti. 1. 2a. &. 25. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 24. 364c. a  49. n*. 16. a 4 + ft. 2m + 2w. :5 41. 4 21. 3 a3 & 41. Page 28.abc. c. 32. 4r 2 .2 ft 2 r2 10. .  17.
8. 0.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 15. 30. 10. s 9 ww. 3(*+0 + 2). 6.18 w w + 10 WI M . 8. 5. n (a6) 125.14 w 2 2 . 64. 3 a 2 46. 108. 102.. 6 . 14 m 2 . 6". 31. ^^ = 20. a*b*c. .r% 2 2 ry.21. . 17. 24. 25. 18. 2 2 2 . 35. 84. 18. 66 39 k* .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 34.25 + 14.64 190 p6. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 31. 4 jcy*z*>. 4. Page 5.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 11. 20. 1. Page 3. 24. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. +. ft 17. 10. 32. 19. 20. 14.28 p'^/. ci 5 . 24. 23. 17. 15 lb. 120. 360. 1. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 14f 5. 770. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 76 8 a' 1 . 2 * 80 . 4 fc.36 35. 21. ISartyW e*f*tj. 4 a8 . 22. 42. . 30. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .>(/ r . 66 8W 34. 13. 28. 2 . 28. 10. 33. 16 51. 216. 7. 25. 11. 2 w +2 2 . 27. . Ox a 5 . 3.000.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 2. 6. 04. 90. 4. 29. 29. 38 a*b 6 : 24. +15. 22.20 xyz . 12. 11. 3. Page 35. 16. 40 r 2 . 9.21 a 3 c2 21. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 23. a.11 xyz . 22. a + ft. 18a% y. 60. fa 2.1. 2 ). + O4 66 . 18. 32.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 3. 2 ). 2*8f x2 6x4. 2 ll9HH 2) + .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 1. 16. a. 17. .6 2 . 9 13.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 7.26. 38wiw. 4. 8. 108. 14.7(50. 10. 2.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 42. 5aft(a 126 2). r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 17. 30.19p" + 19^ 10 . 4 7> 4 :j !} . 16 lb. 7. 30. etc. 29. ..12. iSx8 . . 19. 7. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.. 27. 12 ^. 21.15. Page 38. 8. 30. 28. 33. 11.:>/ . 20. 6. 33. 30 n?b*c*. 12. . 26. 34.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.12.8 12. + 58 . 1. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 26.6) =a2 31. 15. (+3)x6=+16. a 8 . 1400. 8 . 25. 15. 18. ?/ . 19. 21. 18> ^* = a . 23. 161b. 343. 28. 15. 1. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 24. 16. 15. 12 x2 2 . 9. 27. 4 a2 . 25 4 4. 29. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 21 a'&c. 30. 83 In + 1 n*. 60. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 14. 37. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 36. 216. .16 a 2 + 32 a . . 20 aW. 20. 2 7t A. 12. 24. 25. 18. 15 q\ 6. 4.44 aWc 16 abxy. 1. . //. 2. 3300. 14. 13. 4.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 9. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 2 a2 (y 2 . .2. ! 2. 19.19 + 2. 30 j9 jt?g j . 20. 16.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 52 + 6s 12. x2 xy42^. 2. 20. 13. 4aWy. ?> 4 . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.14 . a. Page 36. Page 7. 18. . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 8. 7G . 23.(3x2_4^+7).16 x2/ 5 4. 210. 2''. m. 161b. + 7. ll 2 i.32 y s s G . 1904. 3. 27. 4200. . 4. a: .32. 3 a 3 . 22. f 26. 6. 16. 27. 13..3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 13. 5. 1. 127"'. 34. 0.
4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 10.ANSWERS 28.2 y*. 10. 4. 32. ab . 6.r .6. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 3. 2 . 25 25. 10. 15. x4 28. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 4 x2 13. 40. w'n 2 //^ + 25.2. 4 + 25 q*. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.5 ~ 81. 2 a' y' . 30 /><. 28. 35. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . (p 2. a + 25. 21 2 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 10 a' 2 .001.^.6 xy . 17.008. 52. x 48. 38. 41.20.996. 2. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 4x21.. s rc 47. (a + 4) (a + 2).404.2 x + 2 x. ab. 2 . 4 21. 14. 1. 2 fr . Page 39.606. lflrt 2 8 + l. 2 62 V2 132. a3 0. m 2 . p 2 . 484. . (m + 6)(m3). 9 4 /> . 42. . 2 4 a + 4.6 y4 10. . 39.000.000. a + 25. 1.994. 1. 39.8. 55. 4 . 26. .500. . 5. 7 . 11. 20a 2 21a + 4.x2y22.4 12. 998.10 35. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 11. ^' J  7 f 12. 45. 44.49.35 ab 9. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. ) 4' 6/ 49.009. a2 ' + 48Z100. + 4 t*. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 24. . 10. 2 +10s281. . 9990. 7. . 1). 15.14 jp + 49. 9999. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 166. . 37. n + 2. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. ^V^4 . 27. . 27.r* 2 30. 8. 7> . r. p4 + . .4 n.810.25. x2 GiC+5. 19. + 4 a +4. 14. 40.54 p 2 + 81.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 29. 36 a 4 .ri 17. 16. 31. 5. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. I/). 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. ?/H)0. (n 2 5. 57. 10. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 29.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 24. . 51. ' 46. 8 a W . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 36. (w4)(w + l). (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.84 a' 9.098. +4 34. . 18. 30.712. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 37.020. 9801. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. ft' 11. Om2 4 6m 6. (a (3 54. 34.4 a&+ 4 &*. a + 56.m 30 6 4 1. 1. 36. x 2 f xy + 9 41. G a6 2.009. n2 a4 6. a' . 40. 41. 990. . 8. y. Page 12. + 2 9. 1. 34. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 3wi2 m Page 42. 2 4 2 2 64 . +   5).3. 30 x + 19 x3 .10 x + 25.00 + 37.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. + 10 + 121 y*. 26. 2). 4 2 //. 4. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 56.ab . a4 4 ?/ . 999.2 6 + 13.004. 4 . x* .^ + a? + 1. ~ 6 20 . 31. 10. 10 a 4 ?. 4.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.020. 12 x2 . 2 a 2 + a . m 3 j) 3 . 25 a 2 6 2 . 23.. 32. 33. 2 12. x 4 ?/4 + ab .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 33. . 53. 10.16 a3 f 50. fo*.^V"' . 6. 2. 35./ . 33. ^/> 8 4 .6 x2 13. 9. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.1. 7. 9.p132. 1. + 3)(3). 2 1: 21. 10. V + o ft . 14. 2 6' . 441. 2 m3 + 4m2 . + 12. +  m' 1. 31. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 36. 3. 2 0)(p + 5). 8.201. 10. . 10. 19. 10. 25. . 7. 2 (5 a 3). x*2^f I. (w+4)(m4).15.r . a 2 . 2 j3 Z . 8 38.
r?/. aft. 8.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.y3. . 4. . . 10 ft. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .3 5. . 50. 01. 3. ft 17. 1. . 1. 7 r . 26. 6.2 . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. Osy. j) .3 x 2 2 4. 44. aftc 52. 12. Page 7. 4xy + 13 <) .15 21./ 4.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 8 x . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 15.  5 z* .30 ftc. 3. .8. aft 12. 2. w 2 .24 . 46. 2 2 + 2 a. 6. x 2 + 2r f J. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.  3 c. 9. 8. 4 c m .25 c . 11. 19.x^. '. 13. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 4.1. 2 ?/' . Page 48. . w . 4 a* 4 9 11. 7a3ft.8 y. z. *3 y 4 . i 2 tji.2 . 9.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . ft ? ft' ft ft. 1000 1000 . 47. x 4. 13. 2 4 2 x 4. a 4 4 ft. 20. y 7. 3. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. m L 4.w. m'2 3. sr 11. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5. :r !>. l 4 . a. 2 4. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . c3.34. 1.2 ftc . 2 .25. _ 2 a . . 75 a 2 29. f>r* 4. 4 d 2 4. a 2 .> 10. 5.21 2 2 f + . 19.10 2 + z 2 410. 12. 8 ?/ . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.r?/ j/. as _ 10 16. Page 13. 5 a  (5 ft. 2. 5. 8. 6.2 1 //. i 9. 4 ac. 3. 11 4. 3.12 aft 4 20 ac . 16. ??.rw. 8.  11. r/2 4. 2.r'^ 15. 8. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. . 14 r 2 . 4. +w . 17. .5 a . /r . 1.  10. Exercise 2 a:// 26. ft* ft / . 5.5 mp. 12. ti'jry1 7. 5^418(7. 135. ft. 10. r//. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. r 7. Page 22. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.4. 9. 4ft. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. + 3.1.8. 9. 18.3 ry. 4 x. 4. // 19. 4. 8 ?/ .r . 14. 2 4 3 9. 12. 125. 2 ?/ 4.7.  12 y 25. abc 7.29.+ 77 15. 49. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .9 d. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.3 a 41.  . 21.1.r ?/ ??i ?). 14. Exercise 27. 3.9 4. 6x 3. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 13.1*5 2 r 2 .8 yn . r ft. 4. G. 20 15. + x?/ 2 1. 10.2 2 . 18. .2 . 5. 4x43?/.2 <</. 17. 4 a 2 4. 1. 2 ? 14 . 6. 12.3^V. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.27 x 2 4. 2. . x4.1. a 10. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 1. 1/*. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.2 ac . 6.n.5 n*. 22. 14. .6 :rs 4.23.1. 4. . 2. Page 11. 13. 15.2 ar.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 7. 2 .10 xy*. 3 a. 5. 21. 4 pq. 1. yfl. 2 a 3 ft. Page 51. 5.2 wZ 4.VI ANSWERS 43. 11. c 12.1. 3*y2 w + 1. 10. 17.000.r" 20 S? . 5. 5. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 16.1. .2 2 2 8 . 13. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 16. ?/2. 14. 2 1.rw f 8 . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 8.15. 24. 13. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 14.lit x + 4. . a 8 4. 4. 3 aft 20. 23. + 4. 2 12. 2.r' ~ 16. 9.2 aft 4.2.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 5 4 a Oft.3 3.
4. 44. . (c) 2x. sq. 14. 5. (d) 2a + 10 = n. ft.  2\. a 8. 3. 10. . ct. 00. (A) 3 x f (4 x . (a) ' 12. 10) + = (a) 2 x . ( a f 4. m+ 11. 10 x sq. '^ . d + !. b. / + y + a// 12 yr. 6. (>. . 10 a. a 10. 3x  1700) = 12. x y $ 6 yr. 50= L 100 15. 2. + 10 b + c ct. 19. I. 12. 59. ? 43. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. (> 27. 2b. 41. . (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 100 d ct. 2=10. 8 n  10 yr. 3. 16.x700. 7. m +~m 3. l. d. 17. 17.. 4(a ft) c = 8. iL*. " lir. ^ 12 sq. 13. r tx mi. 27. 2. b.. x 48. 2. 8. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 17. 800 = x + 1300. x + 1=a. Jj12. 13. rn mi. 7x 2 Page 21. 35. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 21 2. 7. s. y yr.(3x+ = rraxlO. I. 30. 2. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. Page 40. 'nj 100 a 28. 23. 6. 22. . ] 2 ri 42. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 20. 46. 40.000. 18. 3 9. 22. "mi. y 50. 28. 15. 45. 2x + 35. x = m. 5. f = eZ 2 x. 100 14. x. Page 31. 10. 19. ft. 25.10) 100. fix. ft. 0. 10. ct. 36. 39. 4. + 3 = 2(3* . 4 f 39. 8.  9 = 17 a. v (6) 2x.7). 7. 5. ct. 2b 22. 12. + 4x 3y 34.ANSWERS Page 9. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.100. . 41. 16. 9. 4. 1. 1. 32. 7. 29. + 3x + 2y + 32. 13. 9.  6 10. 11. 5.  />) a = all. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 20. % 4. 3x2. 33. 10 >_&. .6 = *. 6. 42. 5. r>?imi. xy ft. 6. f (I. 4. 1. <>. 47. 37. 3. 33. 10 yr. 37.. lO. vil 56.r ct. 36. (2 a.  1$. 38. 57. = 5 ?i x 460. + f + b 2. }f. 2 ct. 58. 100= ^. 2. Page 6. 4. 1. 100 2. y ?>i x + 26. 20. X 60. 7.rr2. 25. Page 61. n M. 6. !). 10. 18. 24. lOx 10 + w. 2. y 100 a 24. 1&.ab a. 4^ = 100. x 2y 10 act. 1. 15.. 38. 34. (</) 2a. 7. 43. 11.r1. 23. 16. 29. 7. 30.p+7. 11. 60 25 1. 5. 14.200) f(^ + (e) 200. Page 13. x 49. # + 20yr.(3x  700) = 5. 31. 0. f 6)(o 62. </ 20. 44. 26.
2 3 6 7. 8.. 5. 25. 4. 17. 9.000. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. 10 Mass. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 3x (3r. (y8)(y + 2). 14. 8. (*4)( + 11.3). 18. 10. 50..000. 2. 18. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 16.21. 67. 5$ hr.000. (p + 7)(3a5&). 7.000 Berlin. (y 13.8..000 pig iron. 4. 20 yr.. 4.000. 15. 30 mi. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. ^ . 7. 7 hr. 10 yr. 9. 17. 68.000 Phil. 4. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 8 12. 11..0. 10. 10.y"). 13.000. 6. 20 yr. (a + 5)(a + 6). 200.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. ( + 4)(*2). 6. 11 pV (2 p8 . 14. (z5)(z2). 20.000 ft. 30. 7a*fe(2a & l). 6rt 2 11.000 N. 8. 70^. 18.7. 7. 600. 4.1). 3. 3.(5z . 15. 10 yr. 9. 15. 10 yd. 12. 14. 480. 3. 8. = _?_(2ar + 1). 15 in.10.. 10. 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 2. 11. 7. a 12. 90.5p + 7 g ).210^. Page 79.411.  PageSO. 1 lb.. 10 Cal. 1200. 85 ft. (e) i* + A. 13. 15. 5. 2. + 7)(y3). 1250. 12. 9. Pace 65. 74. 78.2. 2. 70.0. 45 in. 22.79. 7. 11.. 100. 10. Ib. 3.. 9. 1. 05. 21. 150. 13. 2. 72. 1.2). 14. (c) ^ v ' .000 copper. 12 mi. 100 1. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 2 2 ?/ 21. 2 2 2 5. 20. 9 in. 3. 11 w(w' + wi . 5.000 gold. 1. 8. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 52. ?(g ? g+ 1). (y7)(y + 2). 250. Y. ~=90. 7.5. 200. 5. 4. 12.3aftc + 4).6). 15. 20 yd. 90 mi. 2. . 24J. 2). 2. 25 yr. .13. Oaj(o62cd). 19. (yll)(y4).. 12. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 6. 4pt. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 75. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 15 yd. w (/) 64. Page 5. 5 lb. 160 lb. 180. 13. 3.000. 6. (a + 6) (a + 3).. . 14. (y + 8)(y2).. 8. 300. 3. 1. 6. 28yr.. 5pt. 8. 12. 6. Page 7..24. 20. 9. 13. 29. (a + 4)(a + 8). Page Page 4. 6.3. 30 yr. 42yr. 71. 40 yr. Page 7. 12. 80 A.11. 8 2 19. by 12 yd. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .000 ft. (a 4) (a. Page Page 4. 1. 6. 30.5. (ro3)(w2). 5 Col. 14. 1. 15 mi. 5. 1200. 1313. 78. 23. Page Page 480 12. (m + n)(a + 6). 11. 1. . 11 in. (a5)(a4).3. 25. 8 in. 10.. 82 mi.16.22. 2$. a a (a 8 a+l). $40.000. 55. 3 (a +&)(*.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 3 hr. 10. 9.
31. 21. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). y) (a. (10a + ft)(10aft). 2 17. (4 13. (a 3 + 10)(a. 5. 100 (a. 2. 22. 30. 11. 24 9. 3a. 3. . 40 x. Page 83. 19. 2. a(2u.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (4 18. 19. Yes. + 5) a. (w + 20)(w + 5). . (x + y4 )(x . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2).y4 ).1). + 8)(g3).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 16. 10 a 2 (4 . 216 aft. 28. 17. Page 84. 10. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 35. Yes. . 8. Yes. (g .8). (w ~ n (x . (a + 8)(a3). 32. . ( 2 4 19. No. (5wl)(m5). 9. 9.6) 2 1. 20. 29. (6n + l)(+2).3). Yes. 25. 12. (y + 4)(yl). (2o + l)(2l). . 31. 26. No. Yes. (3#y)(+4y). 34.* (2 y + 3)(y. 3)(3a. . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (4al)(a2). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .4p). + 0(90 Page 85. f 2). 1. (a (p8)0> + l). Oa 2 (a2)(al).   . (15ay2) 2 . 13.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 16. (w* (3a26).4. Yes. 10(a . ix 18. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 1. 33. 33. 24. (:52y)(2a!3y). 24. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).11 ft)(a6). 28. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 3. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 6. . + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (2yl)(y + 9).r2). Yes. 22. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (2 a? 4. 15. Page 82. 20.6) 2 2 .2 y). 6. 12. 16. . 2. 9.2 by2 6. 23. (5a +l)(5a l). 4. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 25. 21. 25. No. x(x +y)(x y). 34. 26. 26. (3*2)(. 21. 4. 2 2 15. 17. 23.y) 2 aft. (15z2y)(x5y). 8) (a. (5x . (ay8)(ay3).11 6) (a 4. (m7n) (a. + 3). (4a. . 10(a + ft)(aft). 35. . 10(3 5 6) 2 . (a a: 19. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 14. 10.4 6). 25. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 9.5y)(3a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. . 5. y) 2 29. 103x97. (a. Yes.ANSWERS 16. (m + w) 2 5. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 23. 15. 7 6) (a 10 6).1). 8. 22. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 14. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). a . (3a. (7 a + 4) (2 a .  x (5 a. 36. 25. 11. 10(2 30. 3. Yes. (6 a.+4 y)(3x4 y). (0 + 6)(66). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).9*). 7. 8.2 ft).1). + 3)(c44). 28. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 22. 12. 2 No 4.2). 7.. 30. 10. y(x. 13x7. 26. 27.7) (a. 3(x + 2)(zl). 7. (13a +10)(13a 10). 24. (y8) 2 2 . (* + y)(zy). No. . (ft + ll)(aftll).2). + y + .7)(2z f 1). a. Yes.c 2 ). 14. 32. Yes. 27. x\x 24. 23. No. + 9^)(oxy . 2). 1. (9y4)(y + 4).1). (a 6 6) (a 4. 17. 11. 18. (<7 20. (2 *+!)(* 9). + 2y). 100(x. 27. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (az + 9)(ox2). 21. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 29. Yes. + 4) (a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). a*(5a f l)(flr . 2 3 by2 Yes. 13x(a + ft)(aft).3)(z2). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 10. 4 (a . (2xl)(x + f>). 20. (4y3)(3y + 2). 9. 18. .
(2 a ~ f> b 4. a (a + 2 6). 13. (^ 7. 15.8) n 43*). 16. 3. ( { &).42 x 4. b) (r 4.&). 8. y6. ?>). 4. Exercise 47.l)( a 25. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).b. ( (<> r4y3 . 7.4. 16. ah}. 42). (16 4  2(5 n .. (14. 11. 17. y )(. 4. (5a+l)(9a). x  1).2)(x 1. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 2 (a 4. 3x(x?/) 4.8) ( (16.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 38. (2x7)(x 2 2). 6. 6. 30. 35. 11. (^ + ?>_8). 22. 2.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 5.^ 48. . Gp).?/). Page 92. 14. (x. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 2 21. 28. 13 x 8 2 . 8. ( a ^)(^3. a 4. 2 2 10. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . l. Page 86. 14. 41.) j). 8.1).y)(fi a . 4  9. 3(.9). 5  (2 2 . 4 a s &8 . .e 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (a 4.n).&).3)(x 4.'})(c . 4). (> 1.  29. 8). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . x(x f y)(jr . 36. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (5 31. 4 3. 2. 39. 17(x43//)(x2y). ( rt 23. 2 k (wi 4. 4 6. r x 2 */3 . 4. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 9. 6. 4 a8 . (5^4. (a 9. 14. 1(V/ 88.2 y). 2 1. (w * .4). . 10.1) 3. 2 y) ^ .i4l)(x4l)(x~l). a + a b. 42a 3 x. 24. (5 26. (c. y). 7.?>) H.y '2 2). a x 3 10. 15.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).8). 6. 40. 19. 5. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. + 2 //).2).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 5. 20. 2. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. Page 89. (* _ 2 )(a 4. ?i(w 4y) .1). n  r)(5a 10. a8 . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 8. (r420(4 10. 13. 6. 13. x . Exercise 46. 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). x 4. 11. 15 M. (x//.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 5 x8 3. 2 .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .?50)(xt/z.7s) (2 a. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). y(2x?/).3.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.  WIM. 6.36). 7. 14. 6 f c). 9. 27. 2. 7. (w4w) 2 1. ^ .'J)(' .7)(^ {I 12. 2 + . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). . 7. Page 12.y). 2(m4l)' . a 41.!) (x42)(x2). Page 90. 2. 4. 37. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 18. 450. (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 2 3 .4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 11. 8. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 2 8(w . 4.2). (a &4. (!__/>). x43. fi(c426). 32. 10(2 (3 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 7. (f> + fo 7. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 12.y. 13( 33. 12. 4.4).X 5. 5. 4. 3 x4 . + 3. . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. a 4. ( y). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 8. .5 m2 x2. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.))(x  ^OC 1 1). Page 87.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 8. a 2 (a9). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 8x. 12. 24x sy s 9.'/)('< 4.3.0+ 12).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. ofc)( fid). (a />. (m  I)' 6. 1.  (w' 4.
 1). (a2)(a + 2)2. 11. +5 1. 6a2&(rt6). + &) 2 ( . x 12. 2(2al) + l).6).ANSWERS 10. 13. 18. a 23. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21. + &)(&) ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. x 24. ?_!&. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. a 10 25. x 22. + y) (a: y). +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1).
50 ~ 1/2 . 28. + 2H 1 ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. a 5. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 6. c 8.  **/* + 84 _. 4.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. + lH + . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. i^. 2 a. 26. xy 43. 4c 10. ^~ 29. 7. w1 + ac w 4 7. . i. 6. Page 100. ' 2 7. 4 L 8 2 . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. A^. 30.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . _*^p5_^^_. 6a5f^. 1. 6. 11. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 0. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. Page 101.
5. 1. 25. 11. 13. Page 111. 3. 1. 3. 16. 44. 1. 4. 1. f Page 107. 15. 10. 21. ' 6. J. 4. 2) 19. b a f +c 14. n m a + 13. 1. (y + (z 12. 3. x 05m ' 5. 9. ft. b 2. 34. 5. (>. 15. 41. 6.^_. 26. (a + y) 2 Page 104. . Page 113. 6. 5. y(x + x ?/). 3. 4. . 4a3ft. 7. 19. . 14. 0. 5. 43. m 9. a 17. 37. Page 106. ac mp lf> n 12. 2 47. 17.L+ft. 24. 4. 11. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 9. Of. 11. ! 4 20. n 16. x\. 35. 1. 32. I) 2 3z 1. 45. 42. +3 ( + 15. 7.  10 X + u. A. 6 . flf. 4. 11. 14. 17. 8j_m 7 3. Page 110. c 8. 5 be _J_. 1. 12. ^_. 20. 7. 14. 27. 1.^U\WF### X<6. pf n 6 1. 40. 36. J. 1. an 18. 29. 10. 16.y 7. 3 7 i o. 46. a2 2. 30. 12 28. + f. 3. n . 9. x 1. 31. 33. j L . 4. 23. J. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. ^i 11. a. 38. 7. 2ft a i m x. 8. f 7. ?+_!?>. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 12. 0. w^x 2 b Page 105. 39. 4. 1. 15. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 6. . 21.ft . 18. 6.  V o 4. 21. ?. 6. 11. 3. 8.
. 11..137. 19. 8. . 26.002. 3. 7. 4. 18. 15. Page 117. . 3. 14.138.000 1 = 23. 300. :2. 21. 10^ oz. $30. Yes. Page 119. 500. dn ~ mi.001. after 18.000. 3. 300. 21ft min. 4fl M_. IV s. 40 yrs.004. 13. 11 hrs. 20. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. $40. 5ft 30mi. nm. 8. Yes. 19. 9ft. 17. 27. 5 2. n 32. (ft) 104. 14. 9. 1. (ft) 5 da. 30ft. 2 20. 00. Yes. . 40wn. 9. 40 mi. J. 31. (d) 4 da. (r) 3^ da.139. w 18. 16. 1 : 12. 5. 1:1=1:1. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. J ^'. 1. 7.. $00. 3. 17. P+ ^ 33. #V ~~ 34. 8. 75 . a 4 ft. 22. Page 118. Yes. 19. [>> ^ a .0. 5.XIV '/ . 55 mi. 15. 19. (c) 8300.. 300. 23< &n b ' . 35. 275:108. (ft) 5 hr. 18.15. 3:2. ^p^ r ~ 7. $45. (c) 2 hr. 4. 33. 24.  C . 6. _JL.. 9J oz. 33. 8. 15.003. 10. Yes. 1:4. 81. 13. 7 . 18. 9$. 11. 5 25. 10. 11. 17. gold. (d) 500. 4. 8301 hr. 14.9.. . Yes. 26 mi.0 & . 3. w 44. (a) 12 hr.000. ~m . (ft) 28. 12.x + y. 28. after $12. 15. 2.000 If da. 1 da. . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. " 0. 1:1 = 1:1. 10.} da. after 20. 2:1. 30 mi. 4. 12. 2x:3y. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 6. ANSWERS 16. silver. w 21. 16. 13. 74. . 36. 9. 13. 12. 38ft min. 1:1 = 1:1. 6.  + . ^m . 10 yrs. 7} 18. 10. 15. 4~r~ n . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 7. jj. '"I 22. 10. f. 5.. 3. 10. 30 yrs. 32.. 7. $0. (a) 4 min. () 2. No. 1:3. * 7:9. 15. 26 30. 2. 7. 21. . Yes. 4. (ft) (r) 8 hr. min. 1:1 = 1:1.  29. 10. 15. 24 mi. 30. xy.2. (a) 25. Yes. No. 20.000. 1. f . 1: ~. 34. 16. Page 124.000.10. 17. 10... min. 0. 3 da. 24. 7T 2 Page 116. 5. 9./hr. (a) 30. = A's. 1. 212. Page 125. 20. 1^'. 7. Page 121. ft. 8.11./hr. ^?i min.2. 14. 10.
41. 4. 20. 7. .57. 53. 40. 6*. 141.5.7. 10. 23. 1. 2. 40. : 23. 174+ Page 128.3. 7. 8. water. . 14. \\. x +y x + 74 7 \. 3  24. 1. 8. 945 11 10 . ~ 1. () Directly. 36. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 9  15. 1.46.3.160.. 2. 2. 1. 17. 16.3. 2. 3. 6. 25. (a) Directly.. 9. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 19 OJ. 1.22.4. 3. . 2 n . 4.12.3.15. () 7 Page 126. 1. 5. 6. 6. mi. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 10. 2. w 8. 7. 5.3. 7. 7. 21. 9.  19. 14. 11 5 . 9. 18. 7. 7. 2. 20.840.r.1. (I. 55.17.. y a y = 7 0.2. OJ. 4. 2. 35. 5:3 = 4: x. : : . mi.4. : : T 1' : /> : . 127.15 x. : XV 27. 20 20 J ^. 3. 4.5.6. OJ. 7. . 2. 3. 12. J. 13. b x 37. . 7. 3. 29. 1.3.000 sq. 5. 10. 24. 3. 26. 46.4. 2. Of.) 31. \. 4. x:y a: b. 1. J pq. 9.  ?. i. 16.3. 23.3. J. 30.1. 21. *.000 sq. w.5.36. 11. : .4. 38. 4. 11. copper. . 13J. 19. 2. 3. Page 133.5. 11. 24.2. 2. Page 131. /. 31. 54. 2. s<i. land. 12. 2. 52. 3. 36. 15. x y = 1 = 3 2.2 x. Page 137. 22. 9. 3. 3. 5. cu. + b 7 . 2. tin. ini. .7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 4. 7. t 5. 43.3. . 11. 4. 57. 3. (</) ft. 5.li. 45. 19. 7. 4.5. 22. 1. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.ANSWERS 22. 14. 11 w a 13. Page 135. 2.3. $. 6 10 = 12. 7. 5. 47.5." ^ 2. 58. 13. l. . 13. ig 6. 5.1.5. 8. 25. 8. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 24 1 (e) Directly. 3 2=3 x. . ' 55. 15> 9. 26.20. 41. 2. 32+ mi. y 1. Page 9. 4.9.J. . 56. 49. 14.*. a~. 17. 4. y :y =.^ 0?j ' gms. = 7 b'. J. 2. 11. Page 5. x 42. 2.x a. 44. 7. x y y . (b) C C' = fi JR'. . Page 134. 9.5. 6. 7^. 9. 1 18 = 3 51. 2. 7. a 3. 39. 3. lo mi.C ?/ a . 28. : />. 4. + W. "lO. 12. 3.5. 19 3 . 6. jc:y = n:m.  28.12. 10. .2 oz. 9. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2. 3. 16. 27. 4. 5.J 3./':</ c a f :y=2:9.2. 138. 50. 7. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 5:0 = 10:12. y . 30. 13.4. 8.8 oz. 7. 2. Inversely. 59. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . Page 136. 8. 4. in n. I."2:1. Page 132. 19. 32j. 5.1. 2. . in.a. 15. 1. 1(5. 48. 25. 2. 4. 20 cu. 3}. 5.]. 8. 200 mi. 2.3.1.' : : : : <>. a +b 1. 5. 12. 17. (b) Inversely. 31J. 5 2. 1 rt * vm^1.2. 2. 2. ft.
4. 3. u 2ft. 1. 1. 0.2. 5%. 6. 4. 72.0.1J. J.10. 1. 5. 5. m f 9. 23. $900 5%. B's 40 yrs. 20. C's 10 yrs. 40. 2. 3. 0. 13. 19. 4. 16. (5. 40. 8. $3000. 100. 7.. 11. . 90. 16 to July 20. 31. 3. 30. 3.2.. 3.8. 2 horses. 20. Nov. 1 (d) Apr. 3. 4 ' q. 16. 9.n + p. 24. 25. 15... July 20. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 20 & Oct. m f 8. 1 (c) Jan. 27. 2. Apr.$5000. 4.0. 10^ gms. 3.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 4. 2t2.1. Jan. . m + n p. 20. 12. 24. 423. 3. 13. 12. 2. ad AzA. $250. 4. 3. 3. 20. 20 to Oct. M 2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft./hr. <*ft/ bd 1. Jan. 15. 9. 18. & part of Feb. 9. Page 22.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 4 mi. 2. 7. (a) 12. 30. 6. = ^ a Page 141. 2. (a) Apr. 147. 19 gms.^. 3. 4. $ 1000. 4. 7. 1. 1. 23f . 4. 25. . Page 142.4. 4. a. 17. 2. July. 6%. $6500at3Ji%. 2. 3. ' 6 3 a. 30. . $4000. 13. (ft) 23 J. 2. 2. (<f) 13. & May. 10. Jan. 7. be 7. 8. 9. 16. 2. 21. 10. 25. be 10. 3. 00. 5. 3. 6.l. 16. 1. . 0. 7. 14. 1. 19. 11. (c) . 5. 12. 6. 12. Page 143. 3. C's 30 yrs. 28. 3. 8.65. at 15. 7. 16.4. 5. June. Page 145. 5. July. $500. 2. 3. 1. SL=J o ft r^2. About 12f. 7. a =J (n  1) rf. yrs. Nov. 18. 2. 2. 11. On the y axis.$2000.9. 7.3. 3. 5. B's 15 yrs. 14. The ordinate.33. parallel to the x axis 0. 6. 16. 10. Apr. 21.. . Nov. 7. Aug. . ft 3.  17. 10.7. 2. . 17. through point (0.4. 9. On the x axis. 26. 24. 5. 15. 17. 4. 4. (ft) 20. 1. 25. 2. 8. 1. 3). 11. . 12. 10. ' . m .3. 10 sheep. Nov. 24. . 4. A's 30 18. 20. 11. 18. 29. Oct. 26.3. 7. &. 1. .  11. Jan. 6. 1. 9. 3. 22. On 11. yrs. 2. May 5. Page 146. A a parallel to the x axis. ^. Apr. . Page 152.1. 14. 2.XVI Fagel39. 23. ad _(?jrJL. 2 a. & part of Sept. . Page 153. Feb. 6 cows. Page 151. Jan. 4. 32. 5. 11. 4.. 2. 3. 6. A's 50 13. 18. 5. 6. Page 149.
4wn8 + n4 5. 1. 14. ImW. (/) 3. 2. 8 a1.7. 25. 3. (gr) 21.64. . 5. .75. 3.4.3.25. 2. 4.. 3. . 1^. a 10 ' a ll V&. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 21. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.24 . 2.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 14. 1. . xg . ft 2 4.25. 18.24. 20. . m. . 2. (<?) 2. 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.25. 5. (a) 12. 10. xW.2 (ft)  1.. 1.. 3 . 2. 19.59. . 1. a 29. . f 10. 3. 1. 8 1 f f g*. 22. f. 13 . 2. 6.79. 3. f12 wi 9.75. 2.  1. 81 ".59 .25. 1. 2.83. 1. 2. 27. ft . 1. + a 4 ft* . (c) 14 F. 12. . 24. 5. 15.  12 ft xW  26 31. 3.73. 4. 14. 24. 1.6. 1. . Inconsistent.34F. 2. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 4. 1.64. 9.75. 13C. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . ." 23. 3. .1. 13. 19. a + ft. Page 164. 7. (c) 7. 1. 2 2 22.25. . 1. 15. 3. (c) 2. 1.5 (ft) 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (/) 3. 13. 3. 32F. 10 C. (a) 5. 28. (ft) and (d) 2. 4. 8mW. 8. 1 4. (e) 3. 11. 0. 27 27 81. . 13. 2. . . 0C. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 11.27. 5. 30.73..79. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.5. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 5. 4. 1. () (rt) 3. 2. G.73 ami . 3. 3. (a) 4. 5 and 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 15.84. SlstyW 7. 83. .  . . . 30. +3 4. 26. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. .17 (ft) (c) 2. . . 9. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 4. f. 15 . 12. \ft) 5. . (a) 2. 2. 5. 2.13.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.1.5. ' :=_!. 9 and Page 166. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 3. 2. 2ft4 Page 168. 8.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 3. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. Indeterminate. 16. 22. jgiooyiio 17.83. xy.  1. 3. Inconsistent. 2.67. (ft) 2. 20.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 1. 3. (e) 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. Page 159. 2. 18C. 5. 1. (ft) (d) 2. * 16. 6.24. .41 and . . 4}. Indeterminate. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 8. 1 23. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 2. 2 l.75 (ci) 3^.73. 125a 28. 2 a&m Page 167. 10. 2. 1. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. 1. H.41 and 23. 3. 4. Page 163. 14. 3. . H. 27 19. Page 158. 11. 10.3. 4 ) 21. 17. 125 16. 125 a 8 12.
Zll. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.x ). 57. 2 4 8 2 . 7. 300. 16. 32. 10. . (x + y\ 90. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 26.^). 3. 6. 21. 15.r 2 + 6jt).2). (4a2 9& 2 13.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . Page 171.037.XV111 7. 11. . 40. 13.1. (48 + 6. wi 8 + 3m 2 .6. 3 2 ^. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. +3 + 5 4. 25. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .94. 763. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). Page 172.a b 22. 71. fe *?>' ?> fi . 1247. 2 2 4. 84. 24. 90. 16. 19. . (l + x + . 9. 15. (2 a + ft). 30. 18.7 /)). 17. 8. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 3.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 14. 35. 14. 6. 14. 119. GOO 2 c 2 . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. +35. c 10 6 :l 20. 2038. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 27. 101. 76. m 13. 99. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 13. /> 4 ). a. 5. ^i. 18. 6. 5. 21. 2.  x. 00. 309. 1. 28. 20. ? . 0. r> 4 : 1 . 420. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 23. 8 /. 2. 12. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. (Gx + (i + 2a. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 8. 2 12. 15.5). 247.3 ab + 2 2 ). 3M. 90. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (a 2. 14. 8. ( Page 174. 31. .GO a c + 23. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. + i)). + Z). . Page 176. 70. . 2. a ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 16 6 w . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.i c 6 15. a 2 .+3^ + 4. 9. 22. 16. + + ?V 22. 4. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). Page 170. 2. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 11.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. . I 8x2). 237. 20. 64. 18. 15.  +X '. ). 1. 20. 9. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . ? : 1 . 3. 98. 10*. 12. 20. 978. a: l . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). rt . + l).y2 ). 10.1.10 a~ + 5 a . 6 (\x 3. 8. a.83. 33. 4. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. . (ab + c). 25 19. (1 (x2y). 3 6 23. 30. 11. (ly). + (win . 11. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (3a. . (a + y+l). . 6.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 72. 7.5. 1 1 ?>). 180 . 36. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 34. 10. 9. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 2(> + ( 2 7>). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2. (a + 2 +l). 17. 17. 19. 3. 4. 9. 1. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 4. AN S WE no . 5. + 29. 1. 3 2 8 3 12. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 2 49 . 7. 5. 5 5 8. 2 2 7. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 8.f 1 m 9 16. 9. 6. 5. ??i ?i . + y). 12. 10 x G a 4 . (x' l). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a).
7. V2. 5. 42. 5. 1. 25. 2. 18. 35. 39. (afl). 10. 5. 5. 4.13.522 38.935. 4. Page 184. 2. 3J.5. /. 24. 36. 7}. 7. 270 sq. 32.742 in. 22. > w ft. 1. 10. 2. 1. 47.. 28 in. . 10. 6V21. 1. 11. *. 14. 1 38. Af^.798 yds.*. 11. Page 177.  f. 2. 12. 4 W**. 5. 8. .4. 15 1 10. 3. 14. a + 61. ^. 6. 12. 46. 25.6. 17. * 1. 12. 9. 4. 7. 40. 49. 9. 9. 20. f ^ is. 6. 21. 14..925 ft. Page 185.Sn.?. . 7.1.5. ft. 4J. 3. 32. ^..916 yds. J. 7. w. 1 f Vl3. 25 J. 4 a.4. 2. 16. 1 7. 4. 5. 34.4. 6 f !.  43. 4. }.  14. 10. 3. 5083. 20. . 21 in. / 11. V J l. 11.237.. 4. . m. 8.367. 3. 7 45. 1. 21.005. 2. 16. 5. 31. 13. 12. i ^. 3. 21.. 31. 3. ^^7m. 39 in. 3. 3. 19. V35 1. " ^_ 22. 5. 7. 2. 8.i. vYb. . 9..6. 28. 4.243. 7. or 5. 26. 12. 16. 13. 3. 4 n. (6) Vl4 3. 21yds. 15. 21 28 ft. 27. V17. 7563. 15. 10. 16n. 6. 6. 6. 6. 37. 30. 3. Page 179. . JJI. ft. Page 180. 4. 10. 12.6. 3. 15.a. a. V2. 7. 29. 20. 6. 36. 50... _ iVaft. 6. 9.1. 5. 5. v 17. 9. 8. 13.60. >i 27. 37.690. l~8. 14.  5. 28. 15. If ^. 1. 6V'2J. . 14. m. 7 in. 4. 6J. 10.}. 4. 34. 48. 30. 5. 11. f f V. . 7. 2. 23. 1. Page 181. 5. ft. 5f. 23. 2. 7. 6yds. ZLlAiK 19. 13. 29. 10. 36 in.ANS WERS 22. 19.  f. 11.  2. f . 2. 3.18. Page 183. 23. (< + ?>). 39. 16. 29. . 5. vV'TA 24. 17.V 8j.w 18. ii :J _7. 2. 40. 2] see. f. 41. ~ V^3.236. 1&. or 3. .. i. 5. 4. 17.645. >TT 26. 8. 1.6. 1. \/3. 1. 6561. 24. . 4. 3. 2. 12. 9. 7. xix 26. 9. f 3. 4.. {. 13. 27.  3. 18. 33. 9 15 ft. 10. 2 sec. 3. 2. 12. f. 8. 44.  1. 4 TT M 28. 35. () 2. V. 15.6. 1. 33.469.
3. 1. 44. r* i. 3. 1. Imaginary.4. 20. 14. a + 6. 70 ft. If. 3. 6. 1. x* 51. 4. 6. 26.  5. 10 mi.2. 4. 26. U. .4. $30 or $70. 27. 13. 2. 2 ft. 0. V^l. 0. 27. 1 3. f. = 0. 3. 2. . %. 8\/2 17. 8. 4 da. 6. 6V64.XX Page 186. 29.2.  2. .70. 43. 6. . 4. ./hr.23. unequal.  13. a8 . 4. irrational.4. Real. V^~2. 0. 2.'. t is. 0. 6. 3. 19 in. .74. unequal. i . 2 V3 in. Page 191. 25. 3. 0. 4.  1.  1. 3. 6. 120 ft. 40. 45. 3if. 1.Oa. 39. 3. . 46. unequal. 1. 4. 25. 33. ' 1. 2. 35. a + 1. 0..0*8.62.1. 7. ANSWERS 22.]. 7. 12. 35. 4. 1. 16. 1. a. Real. 5. 6. 24. 30. v^^fcT"^. $ 120. 20 eggs. Page 189. 0. 8. 8. 31. equal. Imaginary. 10. Real. 6. 24. 4. 1. 36. 1. #<7=3. 12. 21. irrational. rational. 3.12.23. s 11. 38. 2. V7. 3. Page 192. 49. f.48. Real. 2. . 3. 2. 1. 0. 27. 23./hr. orf. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 14.5 x + 6 = 0. V ~ 16 4 2.2. 28.. '  f 5. 25. V2. . 20 nii. 1. . 47. 0. 2.4. .a 3 a. 5.  1. 10 in. 3. a. 28. 10. .  1.. 1_^L ft 14.12 = 0.2 x2 . unequal. 2. 1. V2. Real.2. i. 7. 10 or 19. 23. 3. 16. AB = 204 ft. 9. rational.. ft. 3. x2 + B . 6^2 in. 3. rational. 41.$40 or $60.4. 1. 37. 42. 1.  i. 34. 52. 4.  24. 7. 64c. 15. equal. 3. 5. 2. H. 26. 2.6. 0. 1. 19. 58. AB = 3.7. 9.3. + 11 x. 2. x 14. 2. 28.41. 1. 4.02. unequal. VV11. 2. 1. unequal./hr. 3. 2. 10 mi.7. . 10. 7. V^l. .59. 57. rational. Imaginary. 15. unequal. 15 ft. 26. 7.2. 2. 1). 21. 0. 5.1. 18. 11. . 0.  1. unequal. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 1. Real. 2. 3. (5 10. Page 188. 8 or 12 mi. 3.37. 3.2. 2. 0. .5^. 53. 16. unequal.  5. *'' 12. 7. Page 190.2. 20. Real. rational. 5. 0. 17... 22. 20.7.  6. f 6 52 a. 25. 1. 48. . 11. 2. Real. 2 . 1. . . in. 6. 8. 18. 13. 18.2.2. 12. 9. 6. equal.17. 64. 56. 24. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .48 3. _ 19. 2.3.  Page 194. 21. 55. 2. 2. .l. 0. $80. 22. .a. 1 . 12.a. 3.5.6 = 0. 15. jr . 32.10. 3. 9./hr. . 12.3. Imaginary. Page 187. 19. 23. 50. 0.1. 3. x*4x=0.  2.  9x <). 5 ft. 7.2.* 2. 2.
12*2 61. 50. 17. 36. 21.17. 84. \. 18. 2. 5. Jb \. 3. 14. 18. 22. 3. 21. J. 47. 41. 27. 23. m'. 9. 30. 4. 7. 29. 4. 13. 15. v^T4 m. 7. 7 . x. 8.  f . 5. 2. . 2. 1. 8. 16. Page 196. 8. 1. v'frW. 12. &. 16. 125. ^49. r*.//^. 39. 23. 28. 1V1. 32.  5. 29. 6. . ? . 1. . 9. 25. 3. 50. 17. 7. . 2. 2. 37. a 18 . 32.  a'2 . JV37. 12. 19. ifa. 19. 3 4 11.1 5 15. 0. 2. 51.  J j. J. 10. 14. \a\ \/^. 24. 33. 26. 3. 30 a. z + 22. 16. 3. 20. 9. 47. 18. i. 33. aW\ 40. . 9. 3." 17. 24. 1. y . 42. wA 46. Page 199. v. 243. 55. 49. 2. 20. 17. 8. 38. 4. 58. 31. 3. 8. 1. 20. \/r\ 11. 9. vm. 2. 11. 6. 0. \ . m. v/3. 60. 5. 1. 52. 1.32. Page 197. x/25. 24. ) 2 >J i 10. . J. 1.^7. ar 1 . 2. 30. 25. fx'^z'l 23. 56. 21. 59. 5. 35. \/. . 33. 6  AAf. \/3. . 48. 'J. 49. 45. 13.6. (m 26. 8. 57. 28. Page 200. vV. 5\/5. 4. 2. 10. . 3. 3.  48. 20. $7. 0. 2. _! V3. : . 4.2. xxi 15. 10. 5. 49. 1. 3. 29. . J 3. n\/* Page202. 3. 11. 27. 16. 15.. 49. p. 1. jV 10. l  5 12. 1 39. 19. 25. J. x$. 22. 5. ). 4. 14.ANtiWEUS rational. 19. *V. 54. 1. 8. 4. Vr. V^ 34. 14. 15. r. 13. 31. 9.  f. \. 1. I. ^Sf 3 38. 43. 53. 2V a. y. Page 201. 8. 2 L ( V. 13. 4. 46. 10. 3. 44. 40. a. 7V7. v'frc 18.
195V3. 26. 43. 8. (x' (l 1+x). 2. 13. + 2 V22. 2 a?>V2 a. .692. 24.707. ^7 \AOx. 20. 30. + Vic + 25. x 7  34. 15. 3 x^y 33. 16. + + ft. + . abVab. 3. 19. ftV 46. 2. 3V^T. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3 4\/2. v'TM. 4. 37. 2. 29. k/2. 17. 9.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 49. 10. 51. 3^2.'\ 14. 4. 10. 5. Vr 8. 8V/) 15. (o* 2. (a 27. 3^ + 2). 27. 48. .rV:r. 3. .). v/^r 5  A/^~.. 6. l 5. 2 4 z2 l 3. 18. Page 208. 5. 2\/7. 30. V2 + 4 V22. 40. 9. V.577. / V3.f. 23. 5 ( . m* n*. . 6. a 4 +* + !. + 2). 32. 11. 25. 8. x + 5 x3 + 0. 37. Va 2 "ft.632. 3V5.648. 7. 13 a. 101 1. 32. 2 x* 15. 29. x^ . + 2 ar 1 ). JIV6. V63. . ^88". 03r* 7.x^y* + y%. . y (a + ft) V2. 45.2 18. r c . 135V6.XXii ANSWERS 1. 2 '"V5. 38. 3 42. 31. 11V3. v^. 2v (T 2aVf. 2. Page 203. x y. 12. 28. .  a Vft 2 121 b. 17. 9 . Page 207. 24. 21. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.r. 1. ). 36. x%  3 ^+ 1. x 25.3 + 40 3 . (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 50. 33. 16. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2. 34. y. a^ + 2^+1. 19.  2 3:r. V 5 47.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 34 r 6. 21. x. 40. 2>X2. . 22. 62V(J. 41. 7. 3 \ 39. 20. 39. 5 22. 10. 13 35.yl : .Vxy 35. a 3. a2 4. ^: V2c. V. yV35. ?tV?w.2 VlO. 13. + 1. 2. 20&V6. 28. 4aV^J 16. r 17  Page 204. 26. 11. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 3. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 31. 1) 3V3. V80. 8a6V5. T. 9.
31. 6. x/8L v/27. V5. v/lO. V2. 15. \/abc*. \/2. 29. 17. 37. 3. 2 ate. 21.. 2yV2?/. 6aV2\^. 8. 6+2V5. 36. 4 >/3. 3\/15  6. \/128. 1. 74\/Jl 120 46. m ?i2Vm/t. \/a6c. 24. 6. 5V2. 11. 16. 13. 48. 3v^2. 14. 30 Vl4. 14. 6. 3. 10. 2 V'3. \V3. v"3. . . 26. 13\/3. 22. 3. \^r^bVabc. 8  \/15. \^6. \XOfl6Vi5. + 20. 9. aVa. 27. 36. Page 210. 52. 0. x/27. \/04a. V8. 0. 22. 2. 24. 16. Page 211.T*. 23. 31. 1V5. VT5. 9. Page 213. r)\/(l Vrtr. ^\/3. : ^32. 43. 5. 34. 26. 50. v/9. 7\/(l 7VTO. . 5. '. a^\/a7>. 44. 37. ^27. 30. 9. 17. 12. 2\/7. 6. 28. a\/5c. 3\/wi. 6 2\/0. 33. 39. D 45. "^8000. 12. x/3. Vn. 41. 1. 14c 4 V5. 20. 32m27n. v^lf. 3 V15  47. v 25^4714 V2"a. V5. ^ 3 b 5 24. 49. V3. 2. Page 216. 42.ANSWERS _ Page 209. V3"m. 19. 38. 18. 23. v^f. x/8. ^v 7 15. 21. 6V2. 18. W). 40. Vat. 40. 9 VlO + 4. 3 V2. fl^Vac. rtv/5.J Page 212. \^6. 2. x/8l. v^O. 32. 2 \/2. b. v/8. VJla. 34. 2. 38. 15. . w?i. 11. Vtf +3+ 33. x/4. 5. 3 Vl5 30. v"5. 3. 2 28.r v/^ v^fr*. vT). x/125. 32. 2 1. 35. ^9. 11. xx 1. v/i). VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 5 \/2. 16. v^30. 18. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 6. V3.30 2. 5V2. 5v/2. 14. x/w^ 8. 7. 25. 53. 6x2?/. 4VO. / \/w/t 4 13. v^a. 39. V/. 25. . a2  b. 8V73\/IO. ab 4. 4 a*. V2. Page 214. 8v2T 12. 27. 7. v^4. 1. 7. . + VlO  v y (5. \/8. 17. . 8V2. 2. 19. % 29. 51. v7^. 4\/5. 4. 4. v/l2. "v/wi ??. 46. 35. 10. 3. 21 23. 8.  3. 3\/2. 10V(). Vdbc. 13. 10.
w 6. 37. 21.^ (\/22 4. 16.81. 21.  . ANSWERS 8. + 5V2. 18. 6 V.13. . V3.7071. . 14. 0. J. 3. 8. . ^(VlO\/2). 16. 16. 4. 7. ^. 15. 16. 7 Page221. 5. (2f V"5).64. 14. 2. 20. ^r. Page 223.  2. j. fV2. 13. f. ~ Vac _c 0. 19. 224. 9. 26.  13. J. 7 f 5 4. 17. 9. 2V3. 15. 6. * 3. 4.389. 3.V3).  f. 20. Page 28. 2!5_. 30. Page220. V3 . 5. 15.7083. 4V3 + 6. 30. 2. 35. 9. 7. 19. Va. 22. (V5f 5. 5. 24. 32. 1. 7. 2V2. 4.9. 3. 4.2. _^JflJ?. 23. p 6 13. 125.464. 8. . 12. . V. 17. 10. V5. Page 226. 11. 7. 15. 4. 4. 5. 22. 3(7+3V5). 7. 18. 12. 1. 12. 6. 3. 27. Page 225. Page217. 3. {. 11. (2.732. (2Vll). 10. 11. i(Vf Vft). A . x 20. ^. (\/5V2). j 15.601. 9 mn. 7. 23. 6. . 5. 16. 5 V65. Page 219. 25. 16. 216. 23. 24.4722.6 V3. 24. (V8 + V2. 9. \. !^ 6 4. .6. 2.0606. V2. 9.\/TO). 81. 19.625 10. 8 V3V2. 11. 28. (Vf + (4 V2). 33. 34.3535.3. 7. 5 + 2 vU 17. 6 (V2 + 1). 10. 16. 29. 25. 12. 5. K>/0 + \/2).2828. Page 218. 4. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 20. 13. 3.3. 29. 4. 25. 16. 14. 2. 27. 36.2. nVTl. V3. V35. V3. 17. ^\/2. 23. 5. (VaT^v a). 23. 22.1547. 10. 9. 1. 5. 20. 81. xy 2.5.XXIV 7. 1. (V6 + 2V2). 1. (V21). 2V3. + 6) 2 . 8. 4. ' 22 i . 25. 9. \/3). V6c. 21. 25. i^Lzi. \/57t. 18. 10. 2x^2^. . 5 f. 3. 100. 4. (V51).1.4142. 3V23. 5.732. 2ajV2*. 17. . 6. V^TTfc. 19. m f.5530. . 9. 64. 7. 18. 0. 15 f 3 V2L 4..1805. 9. . 4. Va. 1. 4. (3+ v/2). 18. 12. +3 V2). 11. 1. n*. 11. 2. 4 14. 25. 2 . 8. 1. 24. 1. 512. 8. 14. Vf6fVtf. 1. 4. 1.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 4. 19. 2. (VllV2). 31. (\/3f 1). 4. 8. 13. (2V2). 10. 25. 6. 21 ' Vob 26. 27. 8. 12. 8. 15. 2. (a 1. 26. 10.
1 . 24. 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 1. 22. XXV 4. 11. 20. (&y2a#H4). 16. 25.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).w 4 + 1). 1. 3. 3. 4. 8 6 & 0. 15. 4 . (a . 19. V3. 8. 19. . 1. J 24.ANSWERS Page 228. 4. 3. (a 4. 7. 1. 3.l)(m . . 9.3. 4. 25. 2. 2. . . 20. Page 234. 2. 3. a: :} .3. 2. J. 73. 11.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 4. . 14. (a+&)( 2 14. 1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1. 0. qpl. 2. 2. 3 9. 1.12. . 2. 10. 8.1. 5. 2 > 1. . 3. .2. 9. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (+!)( 2) 10. 1. 5. 4. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).  f . 19. 3. 0.  3. (63)(6' t 18. . 5.  2.1. ~ f7. 3 . 14. 0.  1. 2. 12. 1. 30 30. 3. 15.2. (B43). 16. 73. . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 4. //. ' J. ( 16. 10. 7. 2 6. (4 mn . 7. 2 . 1. 11. 3. 30 . 21. a(. 2. 5. 12. 12. 4.  5. . (8. 0.  . (a. 13. 22. 2 . 3. (m 4 + l)(ro. 3.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 2. 3. 18. (w . 3 5. 13. 14.. (r. f>. 4.7.3. 5. 4. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). . 3. . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 4 20. 3. 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). y. 0.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. 3. 12 24 y . 30. 2 6. a  . 8. 2 V^ . 5. 3. 3 . =A^Z3.5. 1 . 9. 13. 30. (a. 2. (pl)(p2)(p2). 3. 3. P. 1 (?> x/^3. 4 . 5. 2. 7.22.3). 100. 11.8a 18. 0.4. 21. 3.10. 87 . 2. 1 6. & + 6 2 ). 7. 10. (2 a. 15. 12.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 2. \/0. (pl)(p3)(p6). 4. . 3 . 18.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 4. . J Page 235.3. 2 &. 1.  J. 20. 2. 1.  1. 5. 2.  3. 5.  4. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 11. 0. 2. 56l). . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 1 . o.l)(a3)(a . . . 7. 2. 28. f . 4. Page 236. 1 3. 2. 8. 8. 4. 6. 50. 10. 25. 11. 6. 13. 17. 1. 6. 6. 1. 4 4. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 26. 6. 1. 4 1. . .5 xy + 25) 22. 1.l)(z 2 + z + 1).r . 5. 10. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2.3. 1. 6. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 23. 4.4. 25. 24.4. 10. 8.2. 2. 2. 5.Y.0. J. 7. Page 233. 17.  3. a . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).2)(* .2)(m.nl^EI. 4. 12. 1. 3. 2 .3. .  16). 4. 13. 4. . 2 . 1 . b . 3. 17. 1. t/ 23. 2. 2 <? 4a2 . 4. . 6.3 2. 0. 1 . 1. 5. 2. 4.^a. 2. l. 5. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). (rt. 6 2 2a + 2).l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 3. 7.4). 5.
co . 11. 3. } . 35 ft. 5. 69. f. 7f solution. . .0. 7. 20.3. 2. in. _ 13 (0 6. \. 13. 4. 1. f>. 16.5. 4. 12 ft. 4 6. J. 1. 3. 5. 29. . 17. 2.4. 14. 25. 2. _ 7. 1. 50. 2 10.1.4.4. 3. 3.. 4 8. f*.xxvi Page 237. . no co . 84. 21. 18. 2 . 1 . 16. 3. 10. 4.020. 2. 1. 2 Y> V . 3. 41. 14. 5. 2. 1. 11. 15. 1. 23. 40 in. 2. i i i . 3. . ' j. 12.. 1.6. 7. 5. 3 . Page 248. x 4. 18. . 50. 512. 21. . 1. j.13. . 5. oo . 4. 4. 1. 3. . 2. ft. 3. 5. 3. 3. ^~2. 5 4. . 4. 4. 201. 1. . 2 16. jj. 1J. 20. 8. 400. 45yd.136. 5. 2. 7. 0. 3 . 31. and _ 4. (>. 7 3. Page 241. J. 2 ft. 7. Exercise 113. 1.1. 3 4. 12ft. 33.  11. Page 245. 1. . 2. 1. . 7. ri*. 1. n. 40. 512. 37. Page 244. 8. . 10. 1. 10. 24. 1 .  1. 4. 2. 4. 1. 5. 11. $46. 2n. 4 34. 8 . 14. i j. 0. 125 125. 2. 17. 28yd.y. 17. 12 d. $. 3. 2 . 2 . 30. 19. in. 78. 14. 4. V3~. 4. 40 25 in.3. . n . _ 5. 14. in. . 6. 5. 12 1. 5050.4. ANSWERS 2. 4. 3. \/6. 12. +  n. 10. 3. 4. 23. (/>) "_.2. 1. J. 13. . 40 1} 9 3 ft. 5. 17. 8. 8. . Page 240. . . 9. 1. 38. 6. 20 7. m27. (a) 5. 3. 1. 2 1. . 3 2. 8. . 5 cm. 48. 1 . . 2. 3. in. 26. 1.. 15. 1. 1 2. 15. 7. 3 cm. 4. 35. 2. 37. 4. 3.e.  . 37. Page 247.3. 2. 5. $. 5. 2. 15. Exercise 114. 5 . c. 1.3. 11. _ 10. ( 3. 55. 5. 3. 2. 3 3. 2. 15. 3. 2. 21 30.. 2. Page 243. Indeterminate.3 . 8. 7. 15. . 12. 16. . .30. 6.0.. 39. $VO. 6. 4. 8ft. '>. 1. 1. 1. 4. 0. 2 2. 18. 9. 2. 2.. 5. 4. 2>/3. . 1. 3.. 24. . 35 a. . 31. 1. 6.. GO . 5. 4. . 3. 9.6. 5. 5. 19. . 1. 17. 11. 2. ft. 17. i'ljVU. 2 26.1. 11. m + n. 9. 288. i. 4. 36. 3. }. 8. 4. ft. 1 . 4 . 3. 35^ 5. 22. . 1. 22. V7.3. 1. 1. . m28. 2V7. 12.200. 9. Indeterminate. 30. 3. 30 13.  2 . J. 14.3. 14. 3 . 12. ^ }.5.3. 32. 3. oo. oo . 3V5. . 1 . 900. 1. 8. 12.18. Page 239. = QO 6. 4. (a) $3400. in.. 13. 2. 9. (&) 2. tn 2. Page 238.. . 20 in. 8 3. 3. . 5. 15.
10.6. 3. 4. 405. 4950 M 2 b y *. 8 1. 23. 27. xxvii 1. .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.r 4.5 x. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .  17. 2. 0.^ ?>i 2412x4. 1. 10. JSg. 21. 2. 6. 343. 4. 5 13. 9. 4. 7. 1 14. 25. w9  8. 1820.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 04. 1. 27.ANSWERS Page 250.120. 3. 19. 15. Page 252. 16. . 19.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 125. 26. 50.4. 15. c.870 m*n*. 4. 13. 22. />*. 7. 9. 70. 55. 6. 410. 0. 10. 327. Ja. 12. x + Vy. Page 258. 192. 1. 19. J 2 //2 25. 1. 9. 5. 5. 8. 7. 7. 12. 4 0. 0.r* 4 70 . 6i. 8. 8J.170. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . <. a. 343. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . **+. 3. 7. 4. 14. 45. 4.  20 flW. 10. 2. 2. . 18.384. 708. . vy.5.210. r r j. 81. 11.7 10. 5. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 4. 1. . 105. 495. 2.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 3. 6. 75.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. . 9. ().x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 11. 04. 8 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 16.130 x30 189 a 4 24. ~v 9. i 10. 128.0. 0. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 3. 10. 27. 10 14. 8. 3. 3. 16. 5. 6. 10.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 910. ^a 8.  101. 4. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. &' 14. 6.5.700. 22. 220 . 21. 16 11. 3. 16. 280 53. 17.470. x r 4. 70. . 2. 8. 4. 28. 2. 4. 7. 12.x' 10 . 13. 18. 3.2 45 a 8 /).5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 2. 16. 18. 5. ?/i 6 x llj . 15. 4. 20. 35. Page 254. . 4. a4 4 14. A. G. 12. . 9. 2. Jj? 45. 4. Page 259. 05. 29. 35. . B . 304. 0. 53. 0. 0.4 &z x>&.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 1.53.920. 120 aW. 4. 125. 13.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 11. ~ an . sq. 0.2 9. REVIEW EXERCISE . 005. 2. ' 1. '23. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 17.1. 6. 7. 2.680. 4. . 12. 3. 16. f y 8 + z* . in. 3. x4 . . 4. 20. 6. 18.419. 3.8.3 ays.12 x*y 16. 12. 100. 15. 5. 12. 8. 43. 5. 1. 45. 8. . 6. 2. 27. d.192. 7. 16. 3. 32. 1. r 5 4. 5. I.v Page 253. 12. 1. 2. 15. 1. 8.r x>/ 7 3. 45 Page 257.<2 4.13. 5.504. 7 x4 17. 1JH. 5. 20. 5. 9. Y11. 48. 8 4x' 2 . } $ 50. 1 7 4.6 . 0. 44. . 8. 1. 70. \ w 4 . 6. . 1000 aW.5y 4 . and 1. 2i* 7f. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 8. 17. . 4. 8.
9 2w 128. 12 a/. x8 x2 55. 82. ?/ 3. I 57. f5+7.4. x' 79.a'2 c. . a' 111. . 23. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 1 121. 46. 5x 2 2x43.a*ft 2 126. 4 Page 264.3 a'ft. 4 ! . x 4. 120. 7 + 3 xf 2.2 c .5 3n 4. 6 c 47. 10 4.1.ft).1.2 xy + 4 y2 106. ^ . x } 4.4 ac. a 3m 4. 2 2/' .18 ?/ 5x4.1w 77. + a 4.2 x^.x 51. 40.3 x 2 + 3 x . a* a 8 a aftc. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 1 a"* 4 an . . 3a'2 Page 261.a 2 x 2a . () 2 x 33.15 4 62 x  72. .c 3 4. 2 . x 8 + x 4 68.a. 96. 4 115. 118.1 4 jry 4 x . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.x24 73. 9x. 62. 114.ac 44 aft. 2 30 . 88. 5x + 2y~z. df. .  4 a3 85.18 x?/0. 4. 93. 6 8 j27 40 ab.3 aftc. 1 x 45. 5 4 4.1.3 103.xxviii ANSWERS 19. !! 71. 6 a2 97. 86.x. 2 a.6 b. + 3 a?.x4 + y'2 z 4. 28. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . m " + n + P3c .5x4. 64.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 49.y*. 3 c . ft n . . &p 84. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 110. 4 69. a 4 . x . 50.  12 a. 4ft y3. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .^a . 12 x. a4 x. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 109. az 4.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 63.4 x?/2 3 4. (a + ft)" 98. 2 . 38. 6a6c. + z. 32. a* 4. 16t/. 70. 3 36 b c . x2 5r*x ft 5 . Page 263.rty x2 4 123.. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .7 x   15.4. 1 + 4 xy. 4 65. 2 113.9 b. 3 a 5 a 5.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. t 81.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . xyxzyz. . .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 4 2 . x2 2 . as 20. . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 105. y 4 z* 0. ?> . x 3 4. . 133. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 2 x2 4. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 107. 36. 102. 16. . x2 471x4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3a~2c. c3 4 58.9 x .3 y. 1 . . 125.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 3 a . 122. 61. 43. x' .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.105.41. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. .5.2.4 x 2 .c. 4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.4. 80. 0. 26.2 x 4. 37. 94.a6 2 4.fee 2 4.2. 13 + 2 s. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.  + 3 x2 .{ 54. ?/ . 131. Page 260. 4 . . 30.1. 66. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .5 b + c . 2 q. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 24. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 5 42. 8x3 8x. 8 . 100.c. 76.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 132. . a~b 89. a2 2 aft 2 2. . 104. x 8  a8 . 0.4 x y 87. 27. 21.3 . 4. 243x4729.7.  . . * 60. x 2 . x 3 41.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 124. 31. ft2ft 4 4l.a' 'ft 4. 72. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . . 4 15 x 5 . 10 a 12 b. a J . 4 fee 4. 2 x'V2 90. 22. 91. 14 x . . 2 x2 108.3 b . 29. 99. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 2 .x 2 4. 2 53.4 2 4 c2 42 . .x x*  f 2 ax 4. x4 f + 23 . 25. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. /> 4 83. 39. 130. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. x2 a2 1 . .2. 3 a 44. 0. +^ + ft W. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.  e +/. 3~ n 4. 52.  3 x2 . . _55_7c 48. 127. ft /> 78. x* . .6 am b\ 129. 35. .
209. 239. 247. 30.2. as 194. 175. 147 mi.6 . 2. m. 197. (ab + 8) ( 7). (8x + 3)(3x4). 166. 140.2ac + 229. (x  42 yr. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). a + 2x2 ). (a} 59. 1.6) (2 x + 1).y). p. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (c) 160 C. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 2^. 40 yr. 4. 146. 212. +)(x2 x^+2. a(a. 214.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 144. 185. 156. aft.3. (x 227. 193. (x^ + x1) 234. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 205. 19. x(x + 6) 213. 172.l)(a 2 +3). (2 198. 2. 217. 152. 50. (x . ft. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. . 219. 142. 6). + 7)(rt4). 182. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). k. (a 2 + 2a6. 1. 30 + xyr.l)(y + 1). 10 in. 149. (7 c 2 ). (y 7f))(y 196. 2(x8)(x3). 2 (4 x . 20. + 22). 12 yr. 170. 230. 15  a.3).I2y). 24. 178. 48 h. . y. (2a + l)(a . y  y 165. (x + 2)(x . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 241. 8 204. (x + 6)(x6). 235. 186. Page 265. C3 y _l)(. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).y) (\r3y). 216. 202. (3x  . 181. (r7y)(ai. 36ft. 174. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 21. 224. 195. 168.3) (2/3y). G7. 153. 12) (j. a. 218. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 1. (5 x . 18. 238. (6) 40.2). 12 6 panes.1).3 y).. + 11) (a 10). 167. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 15. 136. 6. 190.y)(jc + 7 y). 177. . ?. 2. 231. xxix 139. 10). 163. 143. Or (a + 2)0el).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 4. 10 ft. 2 2 (a.y + 3)(r (. 162.9)(xf 2). 10. (y7)(y + 188. (a& 192. 161. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 151.ANSWEKti 135. p. 240. fc'2a+62c). 1.y)(z . 2. 159.  1. HI. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 3. 201. 169. 179.. 3. . + 3). 164. 12 yr. 160. 5. 37 1. 6. + y.m)(x + a). 226. 158. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (r^x + 1). 1. 23 18. . (. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). z(x10)(xl).1).. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 1. 3(x . + 2) + 9a. Page 267. 30 yr. 218. 176. (3x2?/)(2. 233. 184. 187. y 245. 236. 154. 157. a 2 (15.1). (JT y 225. 210. 171. 220. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 2 xy(3 x . (y_24)(y5).r . 2a(42ft)(2fo). 7. 191. . (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).r + 4). (?/+l)(yl). (y  17)(y + (>). 173. 1. 244. (/ 246. 137. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 10). 15. 189. 12. 180. 8(ar}(/)27). 222. 75. . (233). ( jc // a 2 (a1). + 3) (x f f>) .6)(4 + 6)..4xl). 20. 1. 155. (y _ ft)(y 4. 32 h. 211.1(5) 200.3 y)(a . 183. 138. 147. 208. Page 266. 232. y3. 215. 12. Iff 145. 237.2 )(x+y) 228.l)(x8 + x2 . 207.2). 199. 206. 148.y2 ).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).2) (3 x . (7x2//) 203. r>x 2 (4x. yr./_4).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 2. 150. 22.
. 3. 268.(x  4) (x4 304. x 283. 0. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 264. 2 4 300. 2 x  3. 10. &). 2. > 4. ?^ZLiZ 308. + f. 259. x12. 256.  7. 3). 279.^ ^^. ^/>J. 4 5. 0. ? 1) 302. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 251. 305.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 3). 254. 301. a. o(x4l). (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 250. 261. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 7^T 2 . 298. *>). a~ ' b*). 260. (a 4 A)(2 x 5.4). 3  262. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. x . 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 306.  3xyf x// 257. 295. 5. ^ 299. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 263. 249. 307. x 267.   . 310. o. 258.4) 1) (3 x . *.1. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 266. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. Ca&c 1)(M 253. x ?/ z 1.^^^^^^^^.2* i^^ !^. 269. 7 x 265. (7 255. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 43 '^rJ'. 303. 7.
329. 2 ab  a Page 276. 339. 1. a 2 . ^_:r f> 331. " 4 378. A^L5L. 343 00 351. 379. f. 390. ^ 3 // . l'j. c 402. 1 i 2 ^. * 357.3. 0. ?/ + 3 332. . 380.". 394. 12. 361. 2 ?/ 363.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 406. 2(a i 403. ?=. .  1 356. .(5 a . 11. ab. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 4. 399. 385. ^"" 4 s .1. . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. 366. 0. Page 274. 388.. 389. 407.J . 392. Page 277. 7/i ^ _ . 376. + 4 & 4 \ b. 2 327. 4 rw. 6 ?/+:>. 1. 1. 9^. . 393. 370. _*L'L+. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. If. 324. 375. 336. y 4 I 340. 383.7. 2 r36 384.!. 3. m. 3. 404. 334.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 325.)Cr4)__ . <L 409. 2. (a + b + c\ .. 382. 365. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 377. ?>*. 333. 20. 6a. 397. 3. 396. a + b + 6).vin a /r " 337. 4 A.  1. L . 326. x 54 359. 2(q. 1. 360. 13 391. . T\. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 364. 4. 408. 2. 398. 386. 401. 387. 405. j 328. 7. + x 362. a +6. T+^. 0. 0. + 335. S. 355. 2 ). 400. 395. a) A^_. l .XXXI Page 272.
18.3. 2. 492. $2000 at 0%. 5. 2.m  m+ M in. />c c(f be. \ 1. 7. L2 a  6 . z8 +?/ 3 431.5. 6. + () 433. \. 17. 42. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. B $ 2500. 2. 472. 0. Page283.55. fj. 496.. 462. 7. . (&) true. 8. Page 282. 497.7.  10. 53 yr. B 4 mi. 2. 423. . 51. 40. 33.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 463. 0. ^V. 480. 499. 2.  f>.  2. 0. ^r?i 434. 2$. 6. 3. *+. . 2. 452. 84. & 491. ft 5.2..489. 500.  2. 20. 6. 20 yr. . 0. 10. 5. 486. 10$. 442.  7. ISjmi. 432. I. . c.  505. 444.0. 0. 419. . 466. 4. . 468. L (c) I. 447.}. . 2. a + + ft c. 1. 428. 435. 1 a /?$+&?. 0. 410. 446. 429. 459. 467. 465.4. Page 280. 495.  453. . 454. 441. !L=4. 427. 5.  2. 503. (a  c). 17. 1. 485.  1.488. 11. 5J. 508. b 449. 32. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab.}. 7 : . 50. '. m. 457. . 1$. 507. 476.0. 40 oz. 487.12. <L+ 6 (. (d  6) f.2. 1.7. 2. 14 miles. i a b 451. 494.te + . 426. 10. 479. 5. 481. 10. 22. 493. 63. 1. 2 438. 90.  2f 504. 3a 4 5. 498. 24 days. . 477.7. 490.rz Page 279. m 1 : wi. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 3. 0. 6. 1.  1. 430. * .. 445. 8. 460. 21. 483. 8. 418. A $ 3500.7. 464. 3 . 455. c 6fc 10. fc. 456. 6. . 450. 458. 10.  7. 28 yr. (c) not true. ISJini. 10.46. 8. 7. 506.  . 501. 4.vz in. 411. ' $260 at 0%. 412. 484. 32 yr. 5. 461. 10. 436. 7. . 4. 482. 440. 420. 5. .3. A 5 mi . 2. . 6. : />a. 448. 478. 9. 7. 2. 2 a 2. a 22 . 421. ^.1. . 439.. not true.. Page 278. 425. . (d) true. (&) 443. 502. 4. 422. a* 424. 413.. 10.7. (a) 1. 3. 6. Page 281. i. .4. 12.
75.5. 5.ANSWERS Page 284. . 1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 577. 7^ da. 1. 3. 526. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 2 2. 532.78.3. 554. 0. 24 da.62. .  (a) 2.5. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. (c) 4. + 6 tf f 3 . . 1. + 12 x . 2. 115 Ib. (d) 537.24 sec.51. _^ 2754x . 509. 556. 583. 27 y* f\4 .1.31.54. (6) 3. 559. (ft) 4. . imag. 531. 1. 4.1. 14. 1 580.0. 6. 4.5 f. M ft c 2 ft 3465. (/)  10 to 8. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. . 603.73. 1 .4. 1. 3.7. 2 .24. 1 . 3 da. + 26 + . or 8. 560. . 4* da. 567. 2 10. . 1.r8 596. 3f 4f.1. 565.15.56 sec.4. . 568.02. 4 0.% rr\* 585.55. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601..04.21. 571.  557.4 x + . f36a28x8 592..75.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. <z ft 1. 1. 40 Ib. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 2.02.10. Roots imaginary.8. 8. 566. 575.7. y% Z * 586. 578. 528.02.02.88. y 4. o> . 1. 3. . 2 1. 527. 1. 1$. 2(6 597.0. _ 3. .6 2.24. 1.3.5.78. 24. . 1.54. a*8a + 24tf 82a.4.1. . 2 .15. 574.16. 3.3. 2 1. 4.8. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.  7. 515. 1. 598. (i) 3. .5+. 4.10. 579.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . .  + + c. 4.83. 6. 550.2. 576.35. 0000. 3.  2.4. xxxin 511. 514. . . a f ft + c. per hr. (gr) 10 1.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 516. 3.31.15. 518.0. 513. 1. (ft) Ill Ib.62.6. Page 285..8 x3^.4. J7] min.1. 525. 569. 3. 3. (6) . 2$.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.12.14. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 510. 21*_. (e) 570. 3. 581. 533. 573. 530. (a) 74 Ib. a+ Page 286. 7.03.83. 31. lead. lead. 4.37. 551.38.30.5.xj/ f xV . 8 mi.. 555. 1.53.   (h) 8. 1. 1.  3.. 1. .8. ft 584. 552. 2. 6435. per hour.  (a) (d) 1.04. 4. 582.  ft*.7. 2. 2. 599.05. 3. . tin.52. 536.0. 563. 591. a + ft  a  f c. 3. . 2. 561.4.  1.3. .6. T . 2. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 4. 232. 553. 2. tin.  J(a f + 2c). 2 imag. 512. 558. 1. 3 . 4 mi.37. (e) (c) 2. 5.f 1. If 572. . . 529.33. 2. 5. f ? a f ft __ + c C). da. 1.  imag.3. 1. 3. (c) 3.3.3.6.25m.3. ^ ft 4.8. > ^ .03.  2ft da. 1. S82 c. Page 287. . 593. H. . . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 1 600. f.  . 4.1.5. 3.20. Page 288.25.  4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . . g(rc+ 6c).9. 2(4 602. . x8 . 564.6. 1. _ 4. 562. f.00. 5. 1J. 3.
2 a: 4. 11.  4. . 2. 706. . 621. 4. 4. 3. 5. 2. .2f (5 4. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.b 686. 679. a 2..  a2  a (ab). 3 x2 . 690. If . 11. 971.  6. I}'/.2f Page 290. 2 a 688. 632. /> 4. 630. 2092. 683. 1. 607. 2.c ) 697.  2f r 659. a + b. 7. 627. 5 3. 8 6 fo . 650. If 658. a 673. 0. . 2. 701.b. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). (*_ + a: 611. 670. 5. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 898. ^. . 637. af6fc __ __ ( a 4.3. 649. ^. o. 1 704.  . ab. ab 689. K 5 2 V2. 6 685. 5. a ' 2 + . V2. 653. i.3. 654. be ac \. 669. ^ 1. 645.XX XIV 606. 1. 677 680. 210. . 647. 6. ^^ 695. 618. V"^TJ.25.002.  ft. V7. 646. 3. 2 / 2 4. 2&). 2. 660. c. 691. 009. 608. 698. a. 625.  13. 692. . 13. ' fe 2 ). n^l +^. 678< 682. + ~^'2 + a 1. If b. 641.04.y. 703. 0. 4 676. 25. 666. if 4/> 671. .001.203. 4330 da. 616. b 664. 0. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 6. y  619.f 3 V^3).>A 610.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2 ab + a  &. 633.3. V^~3). 3 a. 0. 629. 5.a~ {Z 663. 1 V5 1. 628. 2. 1 2. Page 289. 617. J^^. 12. 700.  1. 2. 50.001. 636. 1. . 612. 656. a 1J. . fe + a. 8. 696.  684. + 2 A (i f Page 291. . 2 a  6*. 0. 672. 642. 620. 1m*. 705. 702. 635. a 4. 2 x 44 ^/. 644. 624. 1. 703. b . 643. ' 674. 613. 640.303. 14. \+ab 699. 638. 1 ~a . 662. la6 2. If. 9.43^4. <T! . 3 681. 25. 4. 2f. 634.  3. 10. 657. ..3f l 668. . 622. b. 78. 7. 655. 2. 626. 623. 615. / V^+lO^M"^. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 2f. If 665. 9*. If f 667. 614.049. 0. 1010. 4. 5002. 652.14 If 1. (a3&45rj. 708. ft). 4 V 0. . z  1.3.702. 631. V2. 3. 651. 1$ 639.0. 8 f 3. 661. ix 2 . l/'3. 7003.  4. 4$. fta a/> ^A. \. 2. 648.
1 747. 17ft. 793. i^.rJ w L 754.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 723. 758.11. 721. + < 735. v/7 / . 8.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 763. 3V7. 3 VlT 795. 4 104 v/2. 5. 30\/10 764.V/^ 741. 727. Hi a. 756.10. r.^.. . 719. Page 294. 47.2. 788. 755. 34.4 . T%. 722. 24. . 1. 731. 732. a 5 . 1 [ + '> J. 729. a:* . a 2 6^. 776. > 748. 709. VT14V5. 2x3^ a.ANSWMHti Page 292. fyaw&cu. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. Page 293. 7  3V5. 3^. 15 shares.. 2\/53V2. 25.257. mn.. 737. VIO\/3. 768. 1^ _ 760. 715. a db Va^T < 45da. 724.4 . a 2  x2 . 714. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 739. 728. 789.r+y> 759. 713.1 . 792. 2 V2 .V2. 716.. y  1. VV> L4V34. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.9. 32>/2. 29\/3. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 24V2. 738.9. 726. 3V72V3. 782 785. 794.12 af V^ 4 744. 3V52V3. ^7xy. 717. "V313. . 736.8. 750. ^ . 59. 769. x i f^' .r. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. i 2. 746. 725. v'll. cr*lr*. 00. 733. 1. 3. 773. 1 I . 39. 734. 3V72VO. 767. 718. 5. 711. 751. 710. 13ft. . 740. 3 720. 790 2v 3v 2.~ . ^ ?>. 1. x\y. 342V3. 749. 753. j 742. iv/Jj. J(v'lO2V 791. 300. 1 752. / 787. 730. 8. + 6 2 tf'c.^ 743. 777. rt3 2 ^i^. 33^2. a". 796. . 778. 24 4 . 712.
6(a6)(o a + + &). 800. 879.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 1. 883. 2 *x 807. \/2. (x3). 2. 882. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . a* 4. Page 297. 6 $.1). (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . X4 1). 6. J V. 886. 1. (2 4.7).3. ^. 25. 4 .1) (a 8 . a2 ^E*!.0.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 844. db 7. 3. 7. 11. 11. 897. 5. 4. 2 . (x 2 f r .l)(x + 2). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).7. 859. m = 2. 899.3.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 20).2w . 848.l)(x . 0.4.om 441) (a 855.3)(x + 4). 825. f.5) (x + * 853.4) 860.7)(4 x. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 892. 898. . 881. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 6. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 863. 858. ANSWERS 798.r . ((' 1). 851.f. 812. 2 854. 14. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. (x 2 . (a 4 871. (:r 11. 6+V7. 2. (x 845. Va. 0. 2. 3.a 2 2 ). (  ?>) (a + ^> . 2 m . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 1C. 0. b' 2 821. 827. . 5). 7. 829./>") (a'. 2 (x 4*4. 3. 801. 834. ( 4 4. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (xl)(^~3)(. 4. 4. x .7). . 2. 887. 13. 2. 6.. 23. 893. 2. Page 296. (2 a . 813. . 2 . (2 x + 3 y} . 3 . 3. 824. 10. 876. are extraneous. 799. ) (a' 874. a(ft)( 873.a 3 " 4.  tt 815.  + l(l^). (. 3. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).  839. 2. ( 869. 861. 1 1. 5. 900. (a 1) (x 4. a 42)(x . 814. 4. 7. 816. 895. (4 c 4. 3. 0. o 828. Va 803. 2 . $. (x 4. (2x (r. 819. 8 09. 857. 1. 2  2. (3 b . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 4. 820. 843. 894..10 ab 4. 2 j 889. 2. 811. H.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 4.25 ?>2).1. jV3 f 3. 842. 831. a(ry + 864. x. 5. V 3. 3. 3. 840. . 17. o. 810. 868. . 832. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).  ' . 4. 19. + d)*. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.2 ax 4. 833. .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. m 875. 2. 4. 826. 838. 2 806.a 4 + 1). ^VG. Hoots . 830. n =  29. . 836. 822. . . . (3 862. 880.+ m f ") (a* ). \/5. 4. 3. 5. 808. (x*y*ryz + z*). . 5. 3.  1. 804. . 4 885.4. 837. 823. (1 . 1 . 2 2 . **.l)(x . 847. 2. 896. 835. 17. 817. 888.rae) (4 . 841.y) 852.1)(V 2 . +j!>. 891. (x . 890. (a m . 48. $. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. Hoots are extraneous. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x ..7 4 1) 846. 8. 884. 4.1) .XXXVI 797. 2/ 856. (x . 872.2) (x 4 2).r4).5 b) 4 1). ^ V}. 8. 849. 1. 867. 1. 4 818. (x + 0X024. 4.1)(0 865. 7.
 1 . 8. 73. ?/i 6.V~~3). 4./hr. 7 ft. 6. . V5 T 2 . 2. 918. 2 yd. i>. 985. T 6. 934. 1.. 4 in. 927. 950. 6. yd. 4 . 964. 115.. 6. 4. 935. 977. a + .  1. S07. 911. 11. 5l4f. 5. tt2 19. 6 a 915. ft. 2. 1 + V953. 100 rows. 11. . 2 1. 8. Page 303. dL 4. 12. . 480 8 sq.  26j.0.1. 28. 12. 932. 962. 931. i(6 in. . 978. 937. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 108. Page 300. v/(ai !)(&910. 959. 980.01.I.651. Z ^. 939. i 8. 2. 943.. 919. 921. 8. 2. 906. . 280. 12. 333. 933. 11. 961. 3). 3. 4. 941. 7. f.. 920. 28. 952. 957. 2 w 914. 329. '3 3 in. 10. 936. 8.' ifcVira^ 2 3.615. 80. 4. 8. . 5.073. 6. J(_ ft. 2. ft.744. 4. 963. 496. i 3. 904. 909. f ft 4 . 15 946.446.. 2.111. 0. 1. ft. 1 _2 . . 954. 3. 2. 11. Va926. . . 940. 983. 6. 248. 2 i ' a V. 10. 944. 1). 4 6 mi. 925. . 6 da.. 981. . 4. 1. 6 . 987. 5. 951. . 2. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 3. r ft ' < Page 299. 20 19 ft.. 12 mi. V5 fj. 917. 7. 3. 5.2. 960. 3 4 . 5.. 948. 903. 982. Page 302. 14 . 8128. 8. 111. 15 16 ft. 8 . 4. 986. 2. 9 in. =F J. 6 1 1.1 = 9. ft. i1" 913. 0. 8.. 7. 902. 945.2. 1 . 2. 12 in. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. Y. 1 1. 0. J. 905. 6. 922. . ft. 18. T 6. 5 . . 984.. 3 . 6. . 2 ft. 60 949.760 sq. 3.. . 7 or 30. 66 924. J. 4.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901.. 7. . 947. . 958.1. w. 40 16 in. 4. ^y. V^3). 3. 916.. . 923. Page 301. 955. 3. 28. 4. 938. 930. %* . 942. 956. T3. 1 2. . 333. 0. ft.. ft. a. 979. 8. 56. $(l 4. 908.. w 3.709. ft. 912.
(5. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1(5. 24. 1 8 8 2. ~ \.18. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1018. r = 2. 4 and 1020. 996. 995. 1005. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . + 448 . 1008. (Z>) 999.128 I. 6 70 . 48. 994. in. 1016. 1019.378 1015. 1013. 1006. 993.192rt?)r 120 *. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. . 1012. 1010. 1014. 1000. 4. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). (J. 1009. 9 da. () 12(2+V3). 990. 0. (6) 8(1 . 192. + v 2). 12. 120 a. 108. ^Trsq. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . . 1 1004. X. 3003. 0..51.870 a 6 1011. 120 i^l^. 8. 72.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1001.92. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . Page 305..'^^ } ( . ^f (2f3V2). 2 .378 <W and 92.870 z8 . 1003. 991. 162. 997. 1007.  5&7 1021.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1017. Page 304. 2(2 v/2). 12. 992. 988. 32 13 (tx 4V3. .
and commercial life. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. given. xi 4 373 pages. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. so that the Logarithms. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The more important subjects tions. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+563 pages. Ph. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.25 lamo. great many work. comparatively few methods are heretofore. $1. i2mo. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. than by the . which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. A examples are taken from geometry. etc. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. physics. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HEW TOSS .D. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.
without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. so that the tions. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xiv+56a pages. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. comparatively few methods are given. physics. HatF leather. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The author grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. HEW YOKE . etc. xi f 373 pages.D. In Factoring. Half leather. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. Ph. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many A examples are taken from geometry. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.25 i2mo. $1. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 12010. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Logarithms. and commercial life. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.
at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 10. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Half leather. wor. Cloth. $1. 7 he . lines.r and. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 4. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. $1. 9.D. . Cloth. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Ph. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. These are introduced from the beginning 3. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . SCHULTZE. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. izmo. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. NEW YORK . Attention is invited to the following important features I.10 L. under the heading Remarks". i2mo.. aoo pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. State: . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. SEVENOAK. 6. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . more than 1200 in number in 2. iamo. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. xii + 233 pages.
. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . and not from the information that it imparts. . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. $1. of these theoretical views. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York City. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. 370 pages. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. 12mo. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.
" This volume etc. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. diagrams. Maps. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. i2mo. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Cloth. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. and a full index are provided. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. photographs.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. diagrams. Topics. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. An exhaustive system of marginal references.