This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. .
D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
S.. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. Published Set up and electrotyped. Berwick & Smith Co. 1916. 1910. Cushlng Co.' February. 1911. U. May. January. . 1910. 1910 . September. 1915. 8. September. 1917.A. July. J. May. . IQJS January. . Mass. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Reprinted 1913. August.
All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. are omitted. shortcuts that solve only examples real value.. and conse . All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. owing has certain distinctive features. however. Such a large number of methods. manufactured for this purpose. specially 2. chief : among These which are the following 1.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Elementary Algebra." this book. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. etc.
hence either book 4. two negative numbers. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. For the more ambitious student. especially problems and factoring. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. are placed early in the course. however.g. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. may be used to supplement the other. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. as quadratic equations and graphs. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. e. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. etc. Moreover. Topics of practical importance. In regard to some other features of the book. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.
and commercial are numerous." Applications taken from geometry. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. viz. elementary way. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. in " geometry . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. By studying proportions during the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. Moreover. is based principally upon the alge . and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. physics. such examples. based upon statistical abstracts. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.
viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. William P. NEW YORK. . 1910. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.
Powers...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . SUBTRACTION..... . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...........CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .
. Type II.. Type Polynomials... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . .. Type IV. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. Type III.. Type VI.. .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. /^ . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ... .. . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . * .114 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. Type V. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ..
.....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .... Evolution of Monomials 170 ..... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
since the parts are a . V^a6. v'Ta. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. V3 .g. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 13. 27. Val \fi?. 4(a 6(6 + &). 9. 2 . b = 3. as in arithmetic. A binomial is 62 . 11. 8. 15. (cfd) 4. c = 1. 5Vl6c. V2a. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 26. !^f\/03 3 ft. 4V3~6c. 17. 2. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 6. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 10. 6. + c). find the numerical value of: Vff. some number is . 16. are trinomials. d 7. + 1]. 7 = 2. 12. \/c. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. V36". aVc^." EXERCISE If a 1. e.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. is 28. A polynomial is an y. x 9. a polynomial of two terms. or 9 Vx. 3. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 0. c f d). 14. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. [6c] 3 .
8. __ E. Ex. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. . 4a6fVaV2^. l 13. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.390.. 4. 4 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.810 + 150 = . b = 3. 3 2 If 1.5 ax 50 a6cd. EXERCISE 8*  . .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . find the numerical value of: 9. 52 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . i. 2.30 = 270 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. x=^. c=l. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 14. 3.g. a=4.9 aWc + f a b .INTRODUCTION 29. 16. * For additional examples see page 268. subtraction. 5=3. 5.4 6^9 ad. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 1. = 32 + 4527 = 50. Otherwise operations of addition. 6. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .19 = 6. d=Q. 6. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5. (a (a f b) 7. 3 4 . 10. c = 2. a2 11. . . 5c +d 2 .e. 2.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . d = 0. Ex. a 2 6.9. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 12.99.2 + I126. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . multiplication. 2 ). + 26+3 c.
28. 6. 23. 33. and other sciences.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 29. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. if : a = 2. 6 = 5. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 35. 6 = 1. 6 = 7. 6 = 6. Six times a plus 4 times 32. geometry. 6 = 2. a = 4. 26. 6=2. 6. 6 = 4. Six 2 . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 25. a = 4. physics. 37. 30. 22. a =4. a = 3. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. Read the expressions of Exs. . 27. 34. 30. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 3.6 f c) (6 a + c). 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic.c) (a . a = 2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. = 3.6 . : 6. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 5. a =3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a. 38. 24. a = 3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. a a=3. sible to state Ex.
An electric car in 40 seconds. 12. if v : a. and 5 feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 15 therefore feet.INTRODUCTION E. and 13 inches. c.) Assuming g . b 14. (b) 5.16 centimeters per second. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.16 1 = 84. A train in 4 hours.seconds. if v . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. and 15 feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. Find the height of the tree. (c) 4. .g. then a 13. b. the area of the triangle equals feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. i. 4. 14. d.e. 2. 84 square EXERCISE 1.
If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14d (square units). (c) 8000 miles. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (The number 3. is H 2 units of length (inches. : 8000 miles. square units (square inches.14 square meters. meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. 5. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 4.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (c) 5 miles. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. the area etc. $ = 3. (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 F. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. 32 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). . diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 2 inches.). then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the 3.
of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. . While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. In algebra. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. or positive and negative numbers. SUBTRACTION. however. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.
4. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 19. d = 0. 23. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 21. lf(2). 5. 4 is 3 J.3. d = 5. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 10. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 24. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. (17) 15 + (14). 2326. 18. c = = 5. 22. c = 4. 33.16 32. + 12. is 2. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. + (9). subtract their absolute values and . is 0. of 2. 12. (_ In Exs. of: 20. 6 6 = 3. Thus.  0. the one third their sum. '. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. = 5. . if : a a = 2.
& = 15. 72. 7 a. $500 loss. and 3 F. 7 yards. 6.. . 4. ^ ' 37. 09. 40. d= 3. 43. AND PARENTHESES d = l.13. and 3 a. : and 1. 30. c = 0. 3 and 25. $3000 gain. : 48. \\ Add 2 a. }/ Add 2 a. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. affected by the same exponents. 32. and 4. = 23. or and . 27. .4. 10. . . 1. ' Find the average of the following 34. 74. 37. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 6. are similar terms. 3. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 2. c=14. 12. $7000 gain. 60. 33. which are not similar. 0. and 8 F.3. 55. 31. 10. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.7. . 34. ' 1? a 26. 42.7.. 13. 36. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. : 34. 4 F. 38. 10. 2. 11 (Centigrade). and 3 yards. = 13. sets of numbers: 13. SUBTRACTION. 35. & 28. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 25. 39. 7 a.. 41. $1000 loss. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.5.ADDITION. 66. 6. and $4500 gain. . = 22. 5 and 12. .5. and 3 a. 32. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 29. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.
5 a2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12Vmfn. 2 a&.ii. 12 2 wp2 .sign. 12(af b) 12. 3a . The sum x 2 and f x2 . Vm f. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 9(af6). While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. f 4 a2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.13 rap 25 rap 2. Algebraic sum. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. in algebra it may be considered b. 5l 3(af6).18 35. 10. or a 6. 14 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2(af &). . 2 . + 6 af . : 2 a2. 5Vm + w. 7 rap2. b a f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 13. 11.
c 2 ^24. 2 7 1 26. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2/ : Add. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 1 27. 35. 32. and to add each column. l^S 25. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.ADDITION. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. + y. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 30. a a8 ZL **. 17. 6 23. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 21. SUBTRACTION. is . 37. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. + / + 3 Va. +m """ 20. 33. without finding the value of each term 34. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. n x* 2 22. 36.
2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . of that letter. 2 025. to show any error.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2 .15 abc .20 c 5 ab 4.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.7 2 . 4 2.g.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. . ft any convenient and c. and 2 . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.g. the erroneous answer equal 7.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.o c and 4.41 = 3. 46 4z 7 c. 3a 2? .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . therefore the answer is correct.15 6c.c= 2. 9 q 4. 7 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.12 a& 4.3 s.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. f 110WS: 26 aft. to add 26 ab . c = 1. = . 4 = 7. a 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 3 a f 4 1) 4.8 abc .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 5. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. and J 2 s. 6=2. x of x. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 2 Thus.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . V3. 5 . s. 2 Sum. . e. NOTE. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2c. 3. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. .
16. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. in 8 3 m n 4. a 4 a . and 1 4 a . .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 19.4:xy xz 6yz.a.5a^6 f 6) . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. . 16e + 17/90. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .6. a) y ^/. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. + a + 1. and and 13.5 cr& + 7 6 9. and v 15. . + 50 + 62 . and 5 Vb 18. 2 ?ft ?/z. 56 w. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.(b + c) 1. 2 3(c f a). 4 ajy 17. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 7ar + 3B 5. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. a2 2 14. 4 3 . 2 a. d. a 4 a .and 6. . .12(a 4. . 2 2 .8 m 2m 12. a.12 6 ~5 a . 3 2 2 3 9 .7v/if. 18/+6y + d. 2 ?/. d and / 3 ? 12. 11.a 4 a 4 1. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.a. and .1. and 8 3 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 2 2 and . 4 Vc. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.a .10 Vc. ^2 1 e. 2 and 9m 48m 4. v/20.VS 4 2 Vc.15 5. and 12a 4 15& 20c . a + 1> 8 2 2 . . xy3xz + yz. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . m 4 6. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.12.1 a 4 1 0.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .7m . . 4 8 3 4 4 .ADDITION. 4(a . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 8.9(a + &) . a2 a. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.Ga 43x45.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . SUBTRACTION.2n 2 2 3 rz . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. e a4 /.4 Va .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . ?/ .
. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. and e + 6y .3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. 13 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 22. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.9aj 2. 1. 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. + n*. 8 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. s . If you diminish a person's debts. 1. a 6 2 c.ra + m. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. many negative units re main ? from 2. how 1. f number may be added 3. and 25. T8a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. The sum and ? 1. and 2 24. f 1.3^* 2n 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 6 f c 2 23. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. . . 45a6 2 . 12 xyz. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. f 1.22 21. +d a.. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. c 3 3 3 2 3 .11 xy + 12. 1/ . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. + 1. is 2.17 + 4 ?nfy . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.
This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract + 3. the given number the subtrahend. Ex. NOTE. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Or in symbols. Ex. and the required number the difference.2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. two numbers are given.ADDITION. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. In subtraction. In addition. 2. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. ab = x. called the minvend. a. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 6 (3) = 8. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. the other number is required.g. SUBTRACTION.3. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. and their algebraic sum is required. . +b 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 1. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . To subtract. 3. from What 3. 5 is 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. if x Ex. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 41. From 5 subtract to . 7. ( 6) ( = .
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 .3 r*5o.3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. If x = l = 2 t . Check. Ex.
48. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. SUBTRACTION.4 a*& + 6 a & .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 41. 43. 2. . 56. 51. 49. 55.2. tract 4 x 3. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 2 a take a & j. 47. + a the 2 a. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 50. 45. 2y 2 . 6 4 a. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . check the answer. From 6(af. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 44. 54. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .a 2 j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.ADDITION.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.6)f. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. c f d. 57. and 3 7/ .w>t. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.7 a .c. 53. of a 4. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 42. 46. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 52.4 a^ 4.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 58.
a + 6. 6. a 2y + z.15. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a a + c. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 9. of # 2 8. + 6 + c. 6 17. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 2 m 21. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. +a add the difference duce 13. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 16. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 20. subtract # + 1. A is n years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.26 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 2. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.
& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. the sign is understood. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.g. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. I. Ex. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.6 b f (.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. II.c.b c = a a & f f. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 45. changed.a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. & f c. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. one occurring within the other. a+(bc) = a +b . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. .2 b . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 46.
. Ex. 16.7i h jp) (m ?*.y (60. By removing parentheses. 19. [36+ (a 2c]. a f (a a . Signs of aggregation 1. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.) 5 . ? 11. a (a + 6). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 4. 15. 2 2a. 18. 6) 2. 2 2 2 a(. 271 + (814 . 14.)].1422) J ] . may be inserted according to 43. a (a + 26 c ). (m a2 f. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].: Ex. 8. + (2a 6 + c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 3 3 f 7. In the following expression inclose the second and third. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. find the numerical value of { 1422 .(a + 6). : x + (2yz). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 5. 9. 2. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 17. 6. 21.[271 47. 13.+ 6)f (a2 b). m f ft) a. 3. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 2a (4a 26 +c ).
10. The square of the difference of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 2. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6.2 tf . . 5. a\l> > c + d. 9. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The sum^)f m and n. and the subtrahend the second. difference of the cubes of n and m. m x 2 4. II. SUBTRACTION. 4. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. ' NOTE. 6. 5 a2 2. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 8. 12.1. of the cubes of m and n. y f 8 .7fa. m and n. The difference of a and 6. 13. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 3. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 7.ADDITION. 6 diminished . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The product The product m and n. first. )X 6. 5^2 _ r .4 y* . p + q + rs. terms 5. z + d. 3. 7. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2mn + 2q3t.
dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 18. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers.30 14.) . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. b. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6. d. 6 is equal to the square of b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
3. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads balance. weights. two loads balance. 2. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. force is produced therefore. what force is produced by the Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads balance. therefore. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 4. If the two loads what What. 5. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . A A A 1.
( (. NOTE.4)(. 48. To take a number 7 times. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4x(3)=12. the multiplier is a negative number. Thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. (. (5)X4. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 9 x ( 11). Practical examples^ it however. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4 multi44444 12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. x 11. becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. . a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. however. 5x(4). 4 multiplied by 3.32 8. 9 9. or plied by 3. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. thus. such as given in the preceding exercise.9) x 11. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.
. . .3) (1) 7 2 . 15. 2a6 c . is 6x7. (4)X(15). 5x3. 8. 19. 3. b = 3. 9. 2a 2 6c. 4. Law Thus. 26. 22. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. find the numeri values of: 21. 6 2. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 1. _2. _2^ 3. 13. 3 a2?/2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.2. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 24. 17. the parenthesis frequently omitted. x= 0. 4 . 16.3. NOTE.a)( =+ a&. 10. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 11. (7) X (12). . 3 aW.MULTIPLICATION 50. (10) 4 . (2) 8 (. 12. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (2)x9. 1. 30.4.(4J).2f 18. 3. (. 32. 20. 29. _3. of Signs: TJie positive. If a cal = 4a6c. 14. 7. Ua b 28. 23.7. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .2 f+x 2 . and y = 4. z s 11 aWcx. 6. 2. 4 a2 . 8 4 . (4)'. 6. x. +5. (c#) . 5. 8 31. . 27.(a&c) 2 2 . about fac (2)X If 6. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. etc. X(5). c = 25.
Ex. 127  127 9 7 . 3 3 4 . + 2/). . fl*" integers. 2(14.(2. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 6 = . a= 1. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.m a 3  4 . 5 .257). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 2 2 3 6 . 2. a8 a=2.6 if 35. 5. a = 2. 4. of the factors. a = 3.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2 2 2 . 53. 16. 3. 7.. . 3. IB. B.503). 9 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 4. (a6) (a5) 9. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 12 U U . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 3 2 . Ex. & = 3. .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2(7.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . . 78 . 5(711. 5 3 5 3 2 . 13.3). 36. 4. i.. 5 = 2.2).  and 2 25 8 . 6 = 1. 200. 6" 127 U . or 2 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12.(7). By 3 definition. m*. 100. = 2.35).2 2 23 + 5 . 50(112.<?. 1. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . This 52. 17.e.7. 2 3 . 6 aWc x . : 3a7abc. 11. 6. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 34. a 2 2 .(12) . 14. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. . 10. =2 a *. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . &*) c d*.  2 2. 2.
6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .A). 23. This principle.7 w'W (8 n^W). 22. 19. (. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 3. 31. 12( + 1 4 i). 6. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.7pqt. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 27. 35 4 7(6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 35. 6(10420430). . 7p*q r*. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.3 win ) . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . but we shall assume it for any number. 20. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 4. _4aft. 7. . . multiply each by the monomial.f 2). 2(5fl5f25). 17(10041042). 24. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2 32. 26. 25. If results ft. 28. c(4a ftc ).6. 34.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). by first multiplying. 11(3. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2. . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 3(124342). . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 21.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.2 3 aft ). and then adding : 1. /). 5. ) 2 33. 29. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 23(10004100420). (. called the distributive law. 2(645410).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.4a#.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .
3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 12. By what 25.60 a& 10 aft. 9.asa product. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 2 2 16. . 30. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.2 mn(9 mV . f7a. . be multiplied to give 4o.5 w*V f 7 wn). . 7 a 6 c(. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 19. 21. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 3 ). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 20. : expression must 24.we b) (x law. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. Find the factors of 6 ary . 28. 5). . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 17. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).6 a6). ~2mn(m +n p ). 22. 26.3 aftc). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 29. 2 27. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 23.^ c + 2 .5 x 7). 11. 2 m(mhn \p).
Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 b by a 5 b. To multiply two polynomials. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Multiply 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Check.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. the student should apply this test to every example. .3 a 2 + a8 . Ex.4. Multiply 2 + a a. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 59.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Since errors. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. a2 + a8 + 3 .a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . however. 2a3b a66 2 a .1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 2.
9. 8. 13. (6i7n)(llJn). (a^26) .2m)(l m). 30. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 29. 10. 28. 3<7). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). ^ 2 . 4 2). 32. 25. QQ O7. (ajf6y)(aj 23. . 40. (8r7*)(6r39. 35. * For additional examples see page 261.1 . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (13 A. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.4) (x + 1). l)(raf 2). a 5c)(2a6c). 36) I) 14. (6a~7) 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 31. 2 . 11. 22. 2) (3 A: 1). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).4) (mnp 4. 3. (2w 19. 26. 2 . 16. 15. (6p (2 f 21. 2  37. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (4a 2 33.2). I (mfn)(m4.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 12. . 6. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 24. (2 x* x 2 . 18. OQ OO. 7y). 2. 36). 20. 36.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 4.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 17. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 1). 41. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 12)(a?^2l). 5. 7.
+ 2) (a f 3). 1) (10 + 2). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 6. 19. in of the two unequal terms. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. : 23 2. 14. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 75 ab f 54 ft .2 6) (a f 6). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2.!!)( (a + 21). 12. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. _3)(a _4). ft 16. 21. 2 6) (a 3 6). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. . (a (a (a. 15. 2 a? 29. + 3) (a 7). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. i. (10+ (1000 (2.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. plus the product of the two unequal terms. . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 1005x1004. (p12)(p + ll).e. (*.25)(y+4). plus the product 62. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (a3)(a + 2). 9. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (a 102 x 103. 8. + 5) (1000 + 4). 18.13). 24. . 7. 22. (6 12) (6 f. 17. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 10. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. i. 27.4). 3. (ra. (J 23.e. 13. + 9)(m+9). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 20. (a 9) (a + 9). 28. 2) (1000 + 3). 25. 11. + 60)(f2).n)(wf w). 26. 25 a 2 . (!)(* 5). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). X 102.
III.30. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. + 6 a + 8. 31. 34. p 2 p. plus the square of the second. 9. 8. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 35. 4. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. Ex. of the second. 6. plus sum of two numbers the square II. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. + 3) 2 . 33. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. w 2 ro .e.15. a2 2 w + 2 w . 37. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 7 a + 10.e. second. III. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. n2 10ii+16. 3. : ar'Sz + a 2 G.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. . . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.66 s. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. i. i. 2 5. (x+3i/) 2 . 49 y*. 2 (a (*5) 2 .e. and the second. 63. 32. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 7. : 24 (a 2. (a2) (p a . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (a26) 2 . <J>7) J .15. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). .
998 39. 40. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 48.MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 104 2 37. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (100 + 2) (100 2). 34. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 35. 55. 44. (2x3yy. 52. 22 2 . . The product of 57. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. ( 27. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 11. (^. 33. a2 9. 23. + 3z) 2 2 . 9 a2 . + 5)(5+a). 14. 22. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 21. 62 25n 2 . 45. 47. 2 11 # ) 2 20. . 16aW25. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 12. 24. 18. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). By actual multiplication. 42. 49. m 2 16. 29. 28. 103 36. 2 J ). 99x101. . 46. . 2 9a 496 2 56. G> +5g)*. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 41. 51. 32. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (20 f 1) . I) 2 . ). 4 53. 25 a 9. 2 (4a36) 2 13. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 . 38. 54. 991 2 2 . 2 . 17. (1000 2 . 15. 31. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 7& ) 25. n*6n+9. 2 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. + 5). 41 16. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.ll^X^+lly (100 30. n 2 f4n+4. 998x1002.
2 2 + 2) (10 43). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 2 10. 5. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 11. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ((5a? (10 12. 65. sum of the cross products. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4s + y)(32y). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (2a3)(a + 2). plus the last terms.& + c) = a + tf + c . . 9. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). or The student should note minus signs. (5a64)(5a&3). 13. (3m + 2)(ml). ) (2 of a polynomial. The square 2 (a 4. 4. 6. 3. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 8. 7. : 25 2. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 14.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (5a4)(4al).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products.
5. 4. + 6)( . Hence.3)(z. (a (.3) (x .1 5 = 10 . 4.24 . 13.[a? . 2 2. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 3. of z : 10. (xy+z)*.39. 7. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 4(* + 2)5(3).r _ 2 . (  2 4) =  20 a. 2)6. 4(aj2)h3(7).X2 + 2 x . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. n). 5. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.y? + 8 .(m 2 6.24] . If x = 1.39. = 10 x .8 x + 15] . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).(= [ Xa + 2 .5).(>. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 6~2(a + 7). 12. 6(a 2. a. 4y sf n) 2 . 9.3) . (u4& + 3c'. = .5) = (7 . and check the answers !. 3. Check. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .29. 8. Find the square root 11. Ex. 8. .(x . 66. after multiplying the factors of a term. + 65) . 7.i2&c) 2 .4) .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 6. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).4) .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
51 15.2) (3 a . (81 m + 1 .11 a + 9 a . 18. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).l. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . 20. v/17.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .DIVISION 14. 19.2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.e. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. a I. 16.
f 13. 121a a 16 100 11. 9& 2 . 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 16 . 1.000.0001. aW 12 a. : the following w a 4 !. 14. 16. 12. 10. r/ 1.49. 100ry. .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 15. 4 b.
(rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. second member is x + 4 x 9. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. 82. =11. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . (a + ft) (a b) and b.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. hence it is an equation of condition. the first member is 2 x + 4. in the equation 2 x 0. 81. . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. the 80. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 83. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. Thus. is said to satisfy an equation.
If equals be subtracted from equals. A term may be transposed from its sign. 2 = 6#f7. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. If equals be added to equals. 85. 90. 5. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . If equals be divided by equals. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 86. but 4 does not equal 5. NOTE. a. .g. the quotients are equal. the remainders are equal. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.e. 87. Transposition of terms. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. x I. one member to another by changing x + a=. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. A 2 a. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 3. 2. the divisor equals zero. 89. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the products are equal. . the sums are equal. A numerical equation is one in which all . 4. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.2.54 84. E. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. called axioms 1. To solve an equation to find its roots.b. If equals be multiplied by equals.
3 y . Uniting similar terms. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Transposing. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. if 55 x members. f If y 20 . a= a 6fc.8. b Adding a to both + a. Ex. The second member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. The first member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 4x 1 + 6. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. b c.2.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. x = 3. a? Adding 5 to each term. x = (Axiom 3) 92. and the known terms to the second. 91. is correct. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.9 y + y2 = 22 . 6a5 = 185 = 13.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Check. Unite similar terms. The first member. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.6 y f y\ . x = 93.2 y= f . Hence the answer. 2 x = 6. 2(11 . Dividing both members by 2. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Dividing by Check. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Uniting. . if a x = b. To solve a simple equation. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. (4y)(6.
3. x x 1 . it NOTE. 14. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 13 y 99 = 7 y. 17 + 5a. 17 7 a.. 9 9a? = 7 13. 2.17 + 4y = 36. \x x 2^xfl. + 16 = 16 + 17. 11 ?/ a? 18. 4y 10. =2 = 3. 7a? 5. 22. 12. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. . = 3. 4a + 5 = 29. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 32 = 264. : 5# = 15+2a.7a: = 394a. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 11. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. = 7. etc.7. f Simplifying. 4. {(x (x The The member right member left . If x = 18. 19. a? a?. 16.56 Ex. 13a? 3a?. 50.69. a. + 22. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 20. Uniting. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. . J. 21. Solve the following equations by transposing. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. = 5a?+18.. a?. and check the answers 9. 6. 3. = 2 ?/. 247y = 68lly. 7. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 7 a. v23. Transposing. 15. 24. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). x = 18. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 8. 7 (6 x 16). aj * See page 264.
he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.2) (M . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . 2 2 * Jaj. Evidently 45. a? 43. 27.g. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 42. 40. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 39. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. a? 28. .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .1) (u .(2 + 6) (4 . . 25. 29. 31. .7) (7 x + 4) . .1) (a (a? + 3) = . this question.3) + 14. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 6(6a.1 0) = 0.7.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. find the other part. 38.5) = (a. 5) (as (a. . + 7) (.14 = 0. (6 u =5 44.32. 30. 36. 7) (a. 35.4) + 4 w . (aj 37. or 70 a?. + 4). 33.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .3) . 7(7 x y 26.12) (2 + 5) . is the other part.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 41.3) + .5(2 u . 34. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.5) + 199. e.
5. 6. x f y yards cost $ 100 . The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 9. is b. EXERCISE 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. greater one is g. 33 2. 7. a. 11. 13. 14. Ex. If 7 2. and the smaller one parts. 17. Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5.58 Ex. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . Find the greater one. is a? 2 is c?. is d. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. find the cost of one yard. 3. 15. Divide 100 into two 12. 1. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. so that one part The difference between is s. 4. so that one part Divide a into two parts. one part equals is 10. 10. 6. so that of c ? is p. smaller one 16. or 12 7.
numbers is x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. A dollars. is A A is # years old. Find 35. How many cents had he left ? 28. Find 21. sum If A's age is x years. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 20. and B's age is y years. A man had a dollars. 22. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and spent 5 cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. If B gave A 6 25. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents has he ? 27. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 32. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 34. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and B has n dollars. 19. amount each will then have. ?/ 31. and c cents. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 24. 28. b dimes. 28. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 26. How many years A older than is B? old. and B is y years old. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the has ra dollars. 33. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A feet wide.
find the fraction. The two digits of a number are x and y. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. The first pipe x minutes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. of 4. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. A cistern is filled 43. m is the denominator. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. a. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 46." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ).50. Find a 47. Find a. A was 20 years old. 49. of m. . . b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. % % % of 100 of x. Find the number. he walk each hour ? 39. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. c a b =  9. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. 48. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36.
c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The excess of a over b is c. The double as 7. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 6. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . same result as 7 subtracted from . 2. of a increased much 8. 80. etc. 9. 3. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 4. a exceeds b by c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. double of a is 10. 5. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. by one third of b equals 100. c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of a and 10 equals 2 c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of x increased by 10 equals x.
. 18. x 4 If A. 6 % of m. a. (c) If each man gains $500. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 17. as 17 is is above a. sum equals $20. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. x is 100 x% is of 700. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. they have equal amounts. they have equal of A's. B's. express in algebraic symbols : 700. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. a. In 10 years the sum of A's. m is x % of n. is If A's age is 2 x. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.62 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. a second sum. 12. symbols B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic 3x : 10. and C have respectively 2 a.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 11. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.000. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. amounts. >. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C's age 4 a. 50 is x % of 15. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and C's ages will be 100. 16. of 30 dollars. B. 3 1200 dollars. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. B's. B's age 20. #is5%of450. 14. pays to C $100. .
2. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Simplifying. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x The (2) = A's present age. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. number of yards. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. much as 40 exceeds the number. Check. Transposing. but 30 =3 x years. be 30 . Ex. the . In order to solve them. number. 1. 3z40:r:40z. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Uniting. x = 20. Transposing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. In 15 years 10. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. x+16 = 3(35). x= 15. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 6 years ago he was 10 . Uniting. 23 =30. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Let x = the number. NOTE. Ex. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. the required . denote the unknown 96. 4 x = 80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Three times a certain no. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Dividing. Find A's present age. 15. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. A will Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. etc.
What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Forty years hence his present age. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 11. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 300 56. 120. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. . 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 5. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the number.2. Hence 40 = 46f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent.64 Ex. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number. by as much as 135 ft. Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. twice the number plus 7. Let x 3. EXERCISE 1. Six years hence a 12 years ago. exceeds the width of the bridge. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find 8. A number added number. 4. 13. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 14. % of 120. 3.
The problem consists of two statements I. How many dol A has A to $40. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Maine's population increased by 510. 65 A and B $200. and as 15. the second one. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B will have lars has A now? 17.000. B How will loses $100. Find the population of Maine in 1800. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. During the following 90 years. 97. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. A and B have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. If A gains A have three times as much 16. and B has $00. is the equation. two verbal statements must be given. which gives the value of 8. One number exceeds the other one by II. . statements are given directly. Vermont's population increased by 180. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. written in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. F 8. 14. The other verbal statement.000. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. five If A gives B $200. x. Ex. times as much as A. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 1. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.
If we select the first one. + a f f 8 = 14. 2x a? x j = 6. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. I.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. The two statements I. unknown quantity in Then. = A's number of marbles. Then. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. and Let x = the Then x +. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 3x express one many as A. 25 marbles to B. the greater number. x x =14 8. x = 8. 8 the greater number. B will have twice as many as A. / . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. A will lose. terms of the other. Statement x in = the larger number. 2. the smaller number. . which leads ot Ex. A gives B 25 marbles. to Use the simpler statement. B will have twice as viz. x 3x 4 and B will gain. Let x 14 I the smaller number. has three times as many marbles as B. = 3. = B's number of marbles. If A gives are : A If II. = 14. 8 = 11. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. consider that by the exchange Hence.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Dividing. . the sum of the two numbers is 14. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. < Transposing. . Uniting. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying.
15 + 25 = 40. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.10. Simplifying. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 6 times the smaller. and the Find the numbers. A's number of marbles.240. is 70. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).550 f 310. by 44. Check. B's number of marbles. Find the numbers. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. etc. w'3. x = 6. Eleven coins. Let 11 = the number of dimes. (Statement II) Qx . 2. 40 x . 1. of dollars to the number of cents. Check. Two numbers the smaller. * ' . have a value of $3. Dividing. Uniting.75. Dividing. 11 x = 5. then. The number of coins II. the number of half dollars.10. * 98.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 50 x Transposing. 3 x = 45. cents. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. x = 15.. but 40 = 2 x 20. . the price.. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.5 x . Find the numbers. x from I. x = the number of half dollars. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 60. greater is . 50. the number of dimes. The value of the half : is 11. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Simplifying. 3. .10.. Uniting. The sum of two numbers is 42. 45 . dollars and dimes is $3.25 = 20.$3. consisting of half dollars and dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.
How many 14 years older than B. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. United States. How many volcanoes are in the 8. How many inches are in each part ? 15. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. tnree times the smaller by 65. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 6. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Twice 14. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. one of which increased by 9. McKinley. Everest by 11. 7. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. the number. How many hours does the day last ? . and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 5. A's age is four times B's. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 9.000 feet.68 4. On December 21. 11. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. as the larger one.. Find their ages.
number had. III. = 48. The third verbal statement produces the equation. bers is denoted by x. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Ex. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. If A and B each gave $5 to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. B. B. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. then three times the money by I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. has. and B has three as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. II. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. If 4x = 24. 19. I. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. original amount. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. Let x II.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and 68. B has three times as much as A. and C together have $80. has. 8(8 + 19) to C. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. 69 If a verbal statements must be given." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. are : C's The three statements A. number of dollars A had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. . let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. times as much as A. x = 8. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. they would have 3. and C together have $80. 1.
Let then.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. the third five times the first. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. number of cows. 28 2 (9 5). and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and. x j = the number of horses. 2. each horse costing $ 90. three statements are : IT. The I. according to II. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x Transposing. x f 4 = 9. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. = the number of dollars spent for horses. according to III. sheep. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. III. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 9 cows. cows. x = 5. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. Uniting. + 8 90 x and. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 4 x f 8 = 28. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. number of sheep. and each sheep $ 15. + 35 x 4. 90 may be written. 185 a = 925. first. Dividing. The total cost equals $1185. 9 5 = 4 .140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 1 1 Check. and Ex. and the sum of the . number of horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. each cow $ 35.
7. men. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.000. women. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. what is the length of each? has 3. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and 2 more men than women. and children together was 37. The gold.  4. "Find three is 4. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. increased by three times the second side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. 13. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. the copper. 9. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. New York delphia. first.000. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and the sum of the first and third is 36. v .000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). first. equals 49 inches. twice the 6. twice as old as B. If twice The sum the third side. the third 2. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. how many children were present ? x 11. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. A 12. what are the three angles ? 10. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . what is the population of each city ? 8. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1.
and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. or time. After how many hours will they meet and how E. such as length. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and distance. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Dividing. we obtain 3 a. together. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and quantities area. width. Find the value of each. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 3 and 4. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. The copper had twice the value of the gold. how many 100. Hence Simplifying. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Let x = number of hours A walks. = 5. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000. i. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. but stops 2 hours on the way. 7 Uniting. of 3 or 4 different kinds.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.g. 8 x = 15. number of hours. = 35. of arid the value of the iron was $300. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.e. number of miles A x x walks. speed.000. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. 14. A and B apart.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. .000 more than that the copper.
+ 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 70x10 Ex.04 = $ 40. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. 10 x = 200. + 8. $ 1000 x . But 700 certain = 800 2. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. and the width decreased by 10 yards.053. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.01 = = . . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Find the dimensions of the field. Multiplying. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.M(x . The an area 40 x 20 =800.04 8. 2 a = 40.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. or 700. the second 100. z = 20. x + 200). x . 2   and transpose. $ 800 = required sum. original field has Check. . Check. $ 800 = 800." gives (2. x .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. were increased by 30 yards. l.05 x x . Transposing and uniting. the area would be 100 square yards less.06 = $ 40.
invested at 5 %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. Six persons bought an automobile. 1. Find the share of each. of coffee for $ 1. mobile. twice as large. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and its width decreased by 2 yards. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. After how many hours will B overtake A. A man bought 6 Ibs.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and a second sum. were increased by 3 yards. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sets out later two hours B . and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. as a 4. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %. What are the two sums 5. sions of the field. A of each.55. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. 3. Ten yards $ 42. 2. together bring $ 78 interest. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. but four men failed to pay their shares. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. the area would remain the same.
and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point. A and B set out direction.
stage of the work. a2 to 6. An after simplifying. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. it is composite. 104. as. + 62 is integral with respect to a. at this 6 2 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . but fractional with respect 103. which multiplied together are considered factors. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . 76 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. this letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. vV . a. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if it does contain some indicated root of . if. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. expression is rational with respect to a letter.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. it contains no indicated root of this letter . irrational. 5. consider 105. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. 6. we shall not.
factors of 12 &V is are 3. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. or that a = 6) (a = a .g. Divide 6 a% . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 110. 2. for this result is a sum. 55. 77 Factoring is into its factors. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. ?/.62 can be &). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.3 sy + 4 y8). It (a. it follows that a 2 . . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Ex. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. TYPE I. 109. 107.) Ex. 1. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 01. 8) (s1).FACTORING 106.62 + &)(a 2 . Factor G ofy 2 . x.3 6a + 1). E. x. 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . y. in the form 4) +3.
19. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 2 + q.6. 5f 2 . 3 2 . 8.8 c a 15 ofyV . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 15 2 7. 2. .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .g.51 aW + 68 21. 3.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 7i 13. 15. 2 Or. a a 'Ja .3. e.5 + 13 8. obviously. 13. 20. ) 22  2. + llm llm. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 2 6.2.51 x4 2 6 xy s . a6c. 12. Ilro8 9.30 aty. 11. 14a 4 5. 32 a *?/ . 2 23. 3x*6x*.4.5 + 2. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.4. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. (as 3) and (ccf5). q*q*q 2 a. 14. 7a & 10. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 17. 16. TYPE IT. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 4 8 . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.45 afy . 3 3 5 6. 4 tfy f.12 cdx.3. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. . in general. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).5 x*y 2 17 a? . 34 a^c 8 . : 6 abx . 18. 2 2 . 4.
can be factored. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. and (a .5) (a . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. but of these only a: Hence 2 . If q is negative. a 2 .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 4. Factor a2 . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.11) (a + 7). of this type. 79 Factor a2 4 x . 5. Factor + 10 ax . 2 6.4 x . Ex.11. Factor x? .11 a + 30. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Therefore Check. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.a). Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 3. tfa2  3. + 30 = 20.G) = .11 a 2 . .6 = 20..FACTORING Ex. . 2. 77 as the product of 1 77. We may consider 1. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.77 = (a.1 1 a tf a 4. however. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 . m 5m + 6. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. . the two numbers have opposite signs. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Ex.5) (a 6). 11 7. or 77 l. If q is positive. or 7 11.30 = (a . as p. + 112.
or . in factoring 6 x2 + 5.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 2 . . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 36. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ITT.17 + 30. TYPE 113. 11. ay 11 ay +24. a 2 +11 a a? 16. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. a 7 a 30. 2 ?/ 28. 19. + 4?/21.500 x + 600. 27. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 16. 20. + 5<y 24. x2 23. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.6.70 x y . 31. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 29. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 15. 2 ?/ 22. 18. . 14. 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 12. + 2xS.48 + + 446 200. + 44. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. . 35. a? + 5 + 6 a. 30. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 21. 13. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. + 30. and 5 x. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 4 3 2 . 33. 2 .180 a. 17. 2 . 100 xr . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. a2 .80 7. 24. 16. 4 2 . 21 a 2 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 2 a' 34. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 9. 25. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 8. 26. 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.
none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. then the second terms of have opposite signs.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. the If p and r are positive. Ex.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. but the opposite sign. 11 x 2x. 54 x 1.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 6 x 9. 18 x 3.83 x f 54. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. Factor 3 x 2 . and that they must be negative. the signs of the second terms are minus. a. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. viz. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 2. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3.1). Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. X x 18. 27 x 2.13 x + 5 = (3 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. and r is negative. or G 114. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 2 x 27. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.5) (2 x . 9 x 6. .5 . 3 x and x. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. sible 13 x negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. If p is poxiliw.
8.83 x . 12^17^16. 6n + 5?i4.179. 15. . Sar' + SaG. 2.163 x 2 . 2 . 34. 9. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 100^200^ + 100^. 90 a 8 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a.y + 172/9.27).19 a f 6. 10.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 22. 9a. 18.30 y 6 4 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 32. 24. 19.7. 7. 35. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. + 4. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 17. 10a2 G a2 2 . and the monomial factors should be removed. 14 a fa 4. 5. 20. 9 y + 32^16. 30. 3a + 13a. 21.2) (x .2 a 90 x*y . 2m t7w + 3. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 13. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. . 2 28. 10a?2 2 33. . 25. + 2/3. 2 . 5m 26m f 5. 29. 144 x . since all others (II. x54 a. 12y 2/6. 10 a . 2 2 2 23. 2 31. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 2 ar* 2 i/ .83 x = (3 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 11. 2 26. the expressions should be it. 4. 2 2 2 . 3x*Sx + 4. : 41 2. 14. 2x* + 9x5. 2 fc . 12.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 3.260 xy . X 27 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 4a2 9tt + 2. 6. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. f go. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 16.
a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 5. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 13. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 2 . 9 10a625. square. 14. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. and a perfect square. however. . 3. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . it is more convenient for that type. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.20 xy f 4 y\ . 25 7. of its terms are perfect squares. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. To factor a trinomial which maining term. and factor whenever possible : 1. . must have a positive sign. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 9. 116. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . i.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 8.10 x f 16. 10.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy.26 ab + 9 6 2 . it is a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 11. form are special cases of the preceding type. 6. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 2 9 10gf25. x* . 4. 12. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 2.e.
u2 6& + 2 ( ). 1. 149 a 81 8.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. prime. Ex. + GO + 25. ). 4a2 l. a. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. .20 ab + 10 b a .60 a# + 4. 3. 3. 2 20. product i. ^//c to the Ex.84 15. 27. 25. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.64 6 = 16(a . 4 2 23. aV . 2 .e. 48 a +( ). a. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). !Gar 9 ( )+25. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 5. 6 2 . 2. a2 24. 9. 2 . a4 a2 2 f 6 is .2 ofy + ofy m .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 22. . ). 225 ofy . V. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 17. 7. 16. ). 10 a 2 4 2 . 19.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 26. 18. 6. 29. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2. 36 2 4. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. According to 65. TYPE 117. * 2 .3 * ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 2 . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 16&*. . 9a2 .6 m* + 9 m. +( )f816 30.
16p 2 . 4.c . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 13. 6. 14. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 5. 36> .(I) . One or both terms are squares 1. 9. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . a2 . of polynomials. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Ex. 2 . T. 8. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Ex. a:) 12.d) 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . Factor a 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c 4. (m7?) y. 11.
r.y + 2 2). 119.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a5 + ab 6 . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. By grouping. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.ab + bx. 12.and trinomials. . ive find that the new terms con common factor.VI. 5) . 10. 8.2 ) (3 x . A.a a . 1.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 7. 4:cx . 2.1.14. = (3 x + y . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 9. 4 B. 6.7 c + 2c . After grouping tain a the terms. 2. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. . a? 11. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Ex. x8 . + x + 2x + 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 3. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 5. Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. which may be factored according to types I. a 26 2 2 3 .
m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 4.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . : m 2 2 16. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 12a2 + 6. II. 3. 2 7. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. + 2xy + y*q*. 4 a2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. +c+ 2 2 2/ .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. l~a 2a56 2 2 .4 f . $ a8 .l. 3. = (a + 6)(a6). 36 9 m . . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .FACTORING Ex. 2. IV. First find monomial factors common to all terms. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 8. .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 8ra 2 + 16. : 46 x* 2. 6 6. 8. Arranging the terms. 4. 5. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.9 a2 4 v* 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 2. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. w m 2. 2a3/ 7.
3 41.13 c . 22. 3 2 . (^ 34. + 6 aft + 3 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .24. 19. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a6 36. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 14.156. 12. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 5a' 20. 13. 2 a 128. 50^ + 45. a3 156. 2 17. 3 25.88 10. . 30. a.310 x . 11. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 27. 2 ft . or 3 7#2 . 5 a. 42 s 2 . 4 a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 13 c . a + a + a + l. 32. 18. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 40. 2 3#4 3a2 36. + 14. 35. (a. 3 a2 23. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 80 a 2 ft 38. 4 8 tt 2 z .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 28. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 24. 48. 25 a + 25 aft .40. 42 x . 29.
and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 15 aW. C. 89 . F. 121. are prime can be found by inspection. of the algebraic expressions. F. of : 48 4. F. C. 54  32 . of two or more monomials whose factors .  23 3 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. II 2 . F. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 8 . . C. The highest is common factor (IT. C. 24 s . 2 2 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 5 s 7 2 5. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 12 tfifz. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 25 W. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 3. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. F. C. Thus the H. EXERCISE Find the H. The student should note H.) of two or more . 3 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. F. C. 5 2 3 . of aW. 2. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. aW. C. F. of 6 sfyz. 6. C. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. 5 7 34 2s . The H. 5. 122. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .
4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 5. 16. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .2 ?/) (x .# 4 afy f 4 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 13. 225 4a 9 . y + 3y64. 11. 12 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . Ex. F. 12 w*nw 8. 14. F. 8(?/ifl) 14.3 xy + 2 y* = (x .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 49 C. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. F. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. ^2 2 . a2 ar* 4. a2 . . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 7. aWd. 4 ?io. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.y) . . 3^ 2 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 11. C. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 9 aj*(a? . a2 + 2a3. . 1. 3). 52 oryz4. 25 m27i. 57 a>V.5 x3?/ 2 6. a.2 y) (a. of polynomials. a3 9a. 38 #y. 10.5 + 6. C.6 a&. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .6 . 12.^9.12 as 66 . 8 a 10 . 2 . 16 a . a3 16 a.8 a + 16. . 6 mx . . 2 . 2 . 0^80:416.?/ .y) 123. 95 2/V. a 3a4. 65 zfyV. 1.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 15. of: . = x 2 y. 6 a2 y? . ^f a. and apply the method of the preceding article.5 y). Find the H. F. x* x2 Hence the H. 9. (a7 ?/) . 2 . 2a f5af 2. 3 . a2 + 7af!2. 8 6. 24 a 2 .6. of + 4 if. 6 3 a. 15 3ao. 3. 12. 8. C. 9.y + y42. 13. ^707 + 12. 8. To find the H. ^a + 5^ + 6. . 4(m+l) 3 . 10. 6(m+l) (m+2). 2.90 7.
To find the L. C. M. . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of the general. Ex. two lowest common multiples. but opposite . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Hence the L. of 3 aW. 128. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of tfy and xy*. L. 126. The lowest common multiple (L. 1. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y.6 3 ). 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. Common 125.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. of several expressions which are not completely factored. Find the L. which also signs. C.M.C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. each set of expressions has In example ft). . of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . M. C. M. 2 The The L. M. L. 2. a^c8 3 .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C. etc. A common remainder. 300 z 2 y. Find the L. C. M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 127. The L. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . ory is the L.6)2. thus.M. &) 2 M.C. Ex. 60 x^y' 2 . NOTE. C. M. C. C. M of the algebraic expressions.
3(a + b). 2 a . ) . 14. a2 ~ab 1. 24. 2 x \2 y. G a. 13. 40 abJ. + 2 7i) . or f 3 a 15 #. 2 . 2(m 2 . a2 4. Find the L. M. 2 a. a& 4 +& 2 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 3 . afy. a f 2 19. 7. xy\ .1. x2 + 4 a f 4. 5 a? 5 a? y. 5. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a 1. T a 3 a 2 . 18. 24 x. 2 . 2 a . 8. + 6. of: 4. 8 d 5 . 17. 21. b 2 . a^1. by. 4 a f 2. 20. 2. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 6. 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . a !. 3.1. 16. y*. 4 a . 6 y. f b. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 1. 3 f2. 2 10. . x 2 5 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a. 15. ic 2 ?/. 30 a. 3. x* ~5a.f 6. a { a~b. ic 23. #. 3 Z> . (For additional examples see page 268. 6b 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. a. 8 afy. 22. + 2. 3 6 xif. 6 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3 ab.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a?b. 11. afc'cd 2 . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 20 9 a. 2 7ic+10. a 2 f 4 a +4. a. a 2 a3 . a 2 fa6. a f 3. 9.
thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Thus. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. but we In arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Remove tor. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a b = ma mb .ry ^ by their H. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. F. however. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. Ex. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 131. successively all 2 j/' . etc. A f fraction is b. and denominators are considered. as 8. rni Thus 132. 130. a?. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. C. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .
. cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex.4) Ex.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.
g J 21.7 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. . 19.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.*. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ny 4 18. ^' rt ^  31. 9x + "a" 10. . ^" a.' 32. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 11 ^ Mtr f . LJZJ^JL.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ' ^ . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^+3*. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 29. . 16. nx 17.. 23. """. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.10 a + 3 2 14. 5^10 y 30.
by 3 ^ A 2 ' . mon T denominator.C. 2> . C.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr .96 134. and the terms of ***. + 3). M. by the denominator of each fraction. . Ex. we have the quotients (x 1). and (a 8). =(z (x + 3)(z. TheL. .  of //* 2 .r 2 2 . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.M. and 135. we may extend this method to integral expressions.1^22 ' . of the denominators for the common denominator. C. Reduce ^. we have M^.D. 1. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. 1). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.  by 4 6' .3) (!)' = .~16 (a + 3) (x. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.M. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Divide the L. . ^ to their lowest com The L.C. multiplying the terms of 22 . take the L.
FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . j y 3. . 2 ay IB. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 74). o o a. i. common denominator 6. .^1.oj o* or / . . 7i 2 ab* ". 2. 3.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . a? 1 5 > ^* . 22 a2 5a * . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 18. 5?. JL.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). If the given fractions have different denominators. 137.. 2aj ~ . 8 i i. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.
e.3 ft 2). and adding.ft)(a .aft) Ca2 . 2 ^.ft) (a ft ft)~. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. (a .. ft). T? Ex.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. as 4 aft f. the student should remember that parentheses are . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 2. 4(2 a 3 ft).7 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. C.2 ' 2 _. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.2 = a(a . D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). The L.(a 2 6). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . in the beginning. L. D. (a ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.g. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. ^ is 2^JT) .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).
a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. + . 20. 1 f q * 1 m m . a+6 a 6 2 14. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 24. + a "" 2 6 ' . j>0 i> 21. 6 c 3a 7. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. A+2_3. 5a76 4a 106 9. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a 36 ++.5 18 ^4f25.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 23. 2. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 1 f w 16. 18 v 19. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 2L + 2a 1 17. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.
42. _ + a? ?/ + y. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 2 af1 32. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 30. ic 1 + 1. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 41. 1 34. a ?^ 40. ! n. af 1f /j. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 3a 9 +.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 4 31.9. 43.9 79 6 2 i. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.
. Reduce .  .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a. 101 mixed expression.FRACTIONS 139.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. . 1. T.7 5a v Ex. .
F J Simplify .) Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Since  = a.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. we may extend any e. 2. (In order to cancel common factors. !. integer. fractions to integral numbers. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2 a Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. multiply the 142. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. or.g. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.
6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 50 .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 2 f 5 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 4 8. 14. aj 5 1 a? 18. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 1. Divide Xn?/ . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 144. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272.
Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. l. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . are fractional. a a2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.5 ??i 80 50 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.10 ?/ _.6 s + 064.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Ex._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. or both.afr 4.^c 2 2 .FRACTIONS 105 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. ga2 4 8 5 a .
10. . . 6. . n a 8. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 2. x* 4.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .y 32 . Ex.a ^c c _^ a . M. 9. C. a m "" . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. of their denominators. i. Simplify x }. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). y X 4* 2 y 3. & . the answer is directly obtained. 7i+~ 7. c +6.
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. 1 i 1 2 5 . : .~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13.) . sy 18.
28 x + 42 = . these Ex. 2z2a. tions.14 (a. 2x Transposing. 9x x Check. 108 . M. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Transposing. 4 4)  x. If = 64. 1.l)(z + 3) = . each member is reduced to 1. Uniting.8 x = . 148. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 2 3. a. Clearing of fractions.f3# + C:E=6f7212. each member is reduced to Ex. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . of the denominator. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Uniting. 2.28 a = 5 x2 . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. If x 6. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). = 6. C.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 5(3 85 Check. . x = 6.9 x2 + 9. = 6.1. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .48.42 + 9. + 1) (a + 3) . Bx 12 Qx.
o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16. . 1 *> = 2.1 _77 a. '  4 13. ^1 = 9. a/  5 a/ = 12. 15.= 2. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 18. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a. ^' 2. +4 14. a: 7 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.
26 26.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. y+3~2 29. . and" the remaining one a polynomial.11_4 x 149. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ?_=_. 3x 35. If two or more denominators are monomials.  38 = 40. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 25. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . J_. . 33._ _ . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 32 6 . . 4a4l4* + l~. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 2^12 = 2 = 34.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 27 .
1. C. M. = 9. If a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5x x : = 9. each member is reduced to ^. the 1 5 L. 60.. Transposing and uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .2 42 9 43. 24 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. . Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Dividing. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Check. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 1.  5 = 20 x 45. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5# 10.29 50712' 9 18 .2 3 ~  == 7a. a. 26 a.
Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.1. If 3ac L= = a ? . = = 6 6c 7 6c. a. It frequently occurs that the x. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. f ~ 5c. = l^ 9 b 4 . Dividing. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. fr Reducing lowest terms.& . 4 ac 1. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Ex. jr. 5> a. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. = 6 a2 . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. y. 2. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Uniting.2 ac + 3 aft . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Uniting the Dividing.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. =a 2 151.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Thus. they are united by factoring. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .2 62 2 ab.m bx 2 mn) x. = 2 f b 2 . ax f x f. find a in terms of b and c. Ex. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.be.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). .3 6 2 = a' .
The The i time. = 3 (6 a).a. f P =+!. 30.= n. t. r the number of $>. Ex.= H. 17.= c a Z> . 1 f. _ 2. denoting the interest. a. 14. . 4. = 5. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). * Solve the same equation for^). 11. If * 33. q solve for/. 4. 2 solve for y a.i l . solve for . c. 29. IIL n b + &o. s = Vt solve for v. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 15. 12. If s If 16. = vt. 34. 3. iw 21. ^ ax a^ 26. in terms of other quantities. 5) is t =^. m a? x . c 18. 10. mx = n. = 8 4 #. . 31. p the principal. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 13. rate.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. solve for a. 9. . + xx = 1. If ^^ = a 1 32. f ^o. + 3a. . = rt. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. and n the number of years. co?. 6. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 3(* 8.
hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Find R in terms of C and TT. . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Multiplying by Dividing. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. and 12 = the number over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.. A would do each day ^ and B j. 2. x Or Uniting. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 2 3 . 100 C. is 36.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.20 C.114 35. 1. = 16^. then = 2 TT#. Ex.180. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
3. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. in Then Therefore. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 180 Transposing. the required number of days. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. and the statement. 32 x = ." : Let x  = the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x." gives the equation /I). 4x = 80. Solving.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the rate of the express train. Clearing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. or 1J. Ex. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = the x part of the work both do one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.
and one half the greater Find the numbers. a man had How much money had he at first? . How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. ceeds the smaller by 4. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. is equal 7. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and J of the greater Find the numbers. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. fifth Two numbers differ 2. How did the much money man leave ? 11. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. make 21. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 6. Find A's 8. ex What 5. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. to his son. 3. and of the father's age. by 3. to his daughand the remainder. and 9 feet above water. money and $10. length in the ground. A man lost f of his fortune and $500.  Find their present ages. is oO. of his present age.
A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. investments. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. what is the 14. . what is the rate of the express train? 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. 3. and B in 4 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) 22. and it B in 6 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 2. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. A has invested capital at more 4%. 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. air. How much money $500? 4%. after rate of the latter ? 15. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. ^ at 5%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. Ex.
B in 5. 3. e. is 57.= . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 25. and n = 3. Ex. B in 12. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. therefore. if B in 3 days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. To and find the numerical answer.g. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. A in 4.414. we obtain the equation m m . .118 153.009 918. B in 30. Hence. 2. A in 6. 26. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 6.e. is 42. they can both do in 2 days.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. The problem to be solved. B in 16. and apply the method of 170. n x Solving. Then ft i. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. m and n. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.
2 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. (d) 1. is ?n .000. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. if m and n are. Two men start at the first miles apart. and the rate of the second are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 4J miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. squares 30. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. the rate of the first. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (b) 149. 34. meet. . 5 miles per hour.001. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. and the second 5 miles per hour. squares 29. : (c) 64 miles. (c) 16. After how many hours do they meet. is (a) 51. 3 miles per hour.721. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 2 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. Find the side of the square. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. The one: 31. 33. the second at the apart. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. (b) 35 miles. 3J miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. respectively. the area would be increased by 19 square feet.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28.
In the ratio a : ft. the symbol being a sign of division.g. b is the consequent.5. the denominator The the 157. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b. etc. antecedent. 1.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. . 6 12 = . Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . : : 155. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. a ratio is not changed etc. b. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . the antecedent. E. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. The first 156. Ex.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division." we may write a : b = 6. 158. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. " a Thus. the second term the consequent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.
11. 4. : ay . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 9. and c is the third proportional to a and . 4:5f : 5. proportional between a and c. 6. 61 : ratios 72:18. b and c the means. 1. and c. 16a2 :24a&. terms. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. extremes. 10. Transform the following unity 15. 16. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. $24: $8. 7:4 T T 4 . Simplify the following ratios 7. 12. 3 8. 3. b. 3:1}. 17. 8^ hours. 159. two  ratios. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. : 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 18. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. The last first three. 62:16.RATIO Ex. 3:4. 27 06: 18 a6. equal 2. 5 f hours : 2. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. J:l. b is the mean b. 7f:6J. a and d are the extremes.
if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. i.30 grams. of iron weigh 45 grams.__(163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 2 165. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 163. If (Converse of nq. briefly. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. " we " NOTE. : : directly proportional may say. of iron weigh . and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 6 ccm. q~~ n . ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams.e. 164. are : : : inversely proportional.) b = Vac. !. and the other pair the extremes. In any proportion product of the extremes. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. Clearing of fractions. pro portional. The mean proportional of their product.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. then G ccm. 3 4. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. and the time necessary to do it. : c. ad = be.122 162. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. of a proportion.) mn = pq.
) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. V. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) II. (163. = 35 . if 6 : 7. (Frequently called Inversion.) d 167. is 4$ = 35. ad ( 163. then =d c. 166. hence the proportion true. 2.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a:c=b:d. I. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. (Composition. is Ex. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. ad = be. . 1. d d. 12x Hence a? = 42.PATIO Ex.) a + b:a = c + d:c. + b:b = c + d:d.) (Called Alternation. a III. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. Or IV. bd bd. (Division.) = f f = 3 J. I.
A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. . : 3 = 5 f x : x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. x = 2. = 7:2f 3J. 5 5. . 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 10.!=!*. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. Simplify the following proportions. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 12 5ft. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. E. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 3. 4. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 5.124 IT.e.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. IV. 2. Apply composition. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 2:3. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 120:42 2 2 7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 6 =4 : x. = 2:x. the consequents by 7. = 20:7. 9. : x.g. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 8. mx tin Apply composition and division. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. Or III. = 180:125. i. V. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.
46. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. and 2/. b. x:5 = y:2. ra 2 . 27. . 4. 14. 14 and 21. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. = 15o. 47. a 2 and ab. 03:a?=135:20. mx = ny. 39. rap. 26. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 6. 29.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. to: = 35:*. : . 42. 7iy = 2:x. 13. 2= 5 x x. 33. rag. 18. ra. a?:15 15.. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 43. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. terra 2:3 = 4. 9 x = 2 y. 21. 12.  32. 2. w. : a2 . 6 x = y. 17. to : a and 1. 20. 38. to : 9 and 12. 34. 6x = 7y. 16 and 28. 31. 41. 5= 18 a? : a?. 22. = 2 + x: x. ratio of y. (a : : 45.8:1. f.j>. 51. = 5 x 12. 4 and 16. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 23. a. 1. 25. Find the mean proportional 30. 112:42 = 10:a. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2 a and 18 a. 28. 5. 3. 3t. Find the third proportional 24. 2. = l^:18. Find the 37. 44. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.:ff.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. x m = y n. = 3 43 + x. 35. 50. if : 40. 52. 3. + fyx = cy. 16. ra + landra 1. 2 3 = y #. : 53.x: 6:5 a : x. 1 and a. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48.
areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). A line 7^. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the area of the rectangle. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 56. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.126 54. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time necessary for it. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). 57. and the : total cost. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the speed of the train. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. the area of the larger? the same. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time. what 58. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches.
AB = 2 x. 11 x x 7 Ex. produced to a point C. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 18 x = 108. : Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. = the second number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 4 inches long. so that Find^K7and BO. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. x = 6. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). is A line AB. 7 x = 42 is the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2 x Or = 4. Let A B AC=1x. x=2. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. as 11 Let then : 1. 2.000 168. . Then Hence BG = 5 x.
: 4. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.000. and c inches. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.) . A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many gen. 9. 7. 3. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many 7. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. : 197. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 12. 14. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 12.000 square miles. 11. and 15 inches. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 2. How The long are the parts ? 15.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Gunmetal tin. What are the parts ? 5. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 6. 13. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.
values of x and y. there is only one solution. 2 y = .y=. =.L x If If = 0. if . such as + = 10. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. The root of (4) if K 129 . However. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. is x = 7. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. expressing a y.. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y = 1. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. etc. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.e. a? (1) then I. x = 1. Hence. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.
for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 4y . = . same relation. By By Addition or Subtraction. 6x . y I 171. y = 2. 172. 174. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. The first set of equations is also called consistent. unknown quantity. Substitution. E. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. of elimination most frequently used II. Therefore.130 170.26. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they express the x f y 10. 3. cannot be reduced to the same form. viz. 21 y . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 26 y = 60. to The two methods I. are simultaneous equations. and 3 x + 3 y =. the last set inconsistent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.3 y = 80.X. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ~ 50. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.
= 406. 37. 3. Therefore Check. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 5 13 . Transposing. Check.3 y = 47. 25 x . 64 x = 040. + 2. 8 2. 10 . subtract the equations. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3y = 3. x = 10.2 = 6. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. add the equations.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. x = 10.14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 60 . y = 1. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 2. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.3 1 = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 235.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 10 + 5 1 = 135. are like. whose coefficients In general.
f2/ ' = 50. = 24. I ~ y~~> 22. 7 ' 1fi fl . 19< I a. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. f 3# ?/ = 0. i 3. * + 3 y = 50. O t K 8. ' 12. I . = 41.5 y = 2.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I oj 5y = 17. . 13 61 l7a.4.9 *. 9 1 r 20. = 6. [2o. ] ^ . _. I i 3 a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3.3.v 23. v ^ = ll. + 2/ 17. J I y = 1U. f 3X 7x 14. x 11. 13.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.
This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 3. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 8. . = 2. = 13. = 4#8. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 60. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177.
+ 212y4 = 14. \ \6(a.6)7(y7)==18. Substituting in (6) . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 29 x = 29. however. 21z6y=9. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 7 y = 6. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. From 9 = 36. 7x_2y=3. (4).3. 3. 4* + 3y = 19. 3 (1) Ex. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. 2 y = . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (7) (7) (8) .
J 9.1) = 121. 16. . yM a.f2 2. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. +y 2 .1) + 5(6 y . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 10. a. 14. . a. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. = 3. 4 11. 12. 10 2a?5 17.
but some expressions involving x. and y. ?~y .#. * ((* (( . 22. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. . 3x\" 1 23 24. 180.and x y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. {. <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. f y . e.Q ^ 4 21.
by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. however. 137 Solve y y (1) . (2) (3) a. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. of this type. y 4. . x 2x(2). 33 = 11 x.4 x = 4 xy. 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). Therefore y=4. etc. Clearing of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. Substituting x = 3 in (1). y. 15 y + 8 x . x 3. 2* * x 2. can also be solved Examples method.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 1. .3 xy.
Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. = en. . 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x y 331 9. x 8.= o 6. 21 9 . y MOi y a. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 253 7.= 5. 1. 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x y 5.
d. w. and I if 13. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 5. From the same equations find s in terms of a. .W. fax f = l. d. . 14. x f my = 1. s in 11. x a. Dividing. . ax + by = 2 a&. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. Uniting. . and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. W . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting.y = = 9a + 46. 6. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. a Find a and terms of n. bmy bm}y ap cm. x 12. ny = fy/ I sc 1. apan cm.
by 3. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).3 = 8.lf> z .1+4. To solve equations containing By tions.3=4.2 + 3. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. . ties are Similarly. 6. (4) (5). f 3y 12 =s 8. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. y =* 2. = 3.2 + 4.16. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 1.8 = 1.13. = 30. 20. (8) 2. x + 12 y .140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 1. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 182. 3y = Hence Check.12 y + 6 z = . 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.25. etc.by 2. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. Ex. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.15z=12 Adding. 4. l. 8 x . 3. 4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 4 = 42. a? + 709 = 26. 12. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. x 13. a? 11. 10. 2z = 40. + 2 y f 2 = 35. ~6?/ 5. 49. 2 . 14. == 6. 15 2 = 45. 8. + y f z = 15. 2 4. 7. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. =s 20. 4.3 y + . 19. ^ = 2. = 5. 1510 4 17.42 = 2. (3 _. 60. ? = llz. .6 2. 22. ?/ 3x = 0.. .2 a. 23. 84 21. 27. 32. 16. . = 8*. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.
+ z = 2p. the number. y * z 30.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. # 4. x : z =1 : 2. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. z + x = 2 n. Obviously of the other . y 31. 2 = 1(1+6). the first and the last digits will be interchanged. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Check. 2 = 6. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1 = 2. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. = 2 m. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and to express In complex examples. however. +2+ 6 = 8. either directly or implied. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. = l. 1 digit in the tens place.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and if 396 be added to the number. . + 396 = 521. 1. M=i.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. . Find the number. Ex. ( 99.
starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. xy a: 2y 4y 2. x 3 = 24. x y = the = the x denominator . = Hence the fraction is f. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 2. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. the distance traveled by A. 6 x 4 = 24. From (3) Hence xy Check. 3+1 5+1 4_2. direction. x 3x4y = 12. 4 x = 24. 3. C. Or (4)2x(3). B. 2. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. (1) (2) 12. y = 3. . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 5_ _4_ A. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Find the fraction.144 Ex. = 8. Ex. (3) C4) = 24 miles. we obtain. increased by one. = the fraction. Since the three men traveled the same distance.
the number (See Ex. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. its value added to the denominator. the fraction equals . Find the numbers. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. 2. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the fraction. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the numerator increased by 4. 5. Find the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the value of the fraction is fa.) added to a number of two digits. it is reduced to J. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 9 be added to the number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If 27 is 10. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 183. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.}. Find the number. tion ? 8. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. the Find the fraction. Find the numbers. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 1. . and the fourth 3. and its denomi nator diminished by one. number by the first 3. If the denominator be doubled. added to the numerator of a fraction. 7. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction is reduced fraction.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 6. both terms. the digits will be interchanged. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. ? What 9. fraction is reduced to \. part of their difference equals 4.
and in 5 years to $1125. Find the rates of interest.000 is partly invested at 6%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. . 12. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 13. now. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and money and 17. and partly at 4 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. 14. in 8 years to $8500. 19. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. A sum of $10. 5 %. the rate of interest? 18. and 4 %. What was the amount of each investment ? 15.grams. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . partly at 5 %. Find their present ages. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. A man invested $750. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. How 6 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the annual interest would be $ 195. respectively ? 16. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.
c. and AC = 5 inches. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F. An C touch ing the sides in D. and F '(see diagram). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. points. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. angle c = angle d. the length of NOTE. the three sides of a triangle E. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. three AD = AF. and GE = CF. and sheep. E. cows. BC=7. is the center of the circum scribed circle. A farmer sold a number of horses. B find angles a. $ 50 for each cow. what is that = OF. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. BE. . and their difference by GO . Find their rates of walking. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. 1 NOTE. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. On /). Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC = 7 inches. but if A would double his pace. 23. BD = HE. . and $15 for each sheep. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. triangle Tf AD. are taken so ABC. 24. 25. and angle e angle/. and e. and angle BCA = 70. receiving $ 100 for each horse. for $ 740. then AD = AF. and F. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and CE If AB = G inches. ED = BE. respectively. andCL4 = 8.
PN. the ordinate by ?/. B. The of Coordinates. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 3). and point the origin. PN are given.. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. 186. jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. YY' theyaxis. and r or its equal OA is . (7. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and PN _L YY'. ?/. (3. (2. 2). (2. the ordinate of point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . first 3). It' Location of a point.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). and PJ/_L XX'. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. Thus the points A. or its equal OM. PM. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). is the abscissa. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P.
3).3). 3. 4). (2. (3. (See diagram on page 151. (0. 6.and(l. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. Plot the points: (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. and measure their distance. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 3). (4. 12. 2). Graphs. (0. (4.1).) EXERCISE 1. 71 2). Plot the points (6. 2J).e. 2).2). 2. i. 1). which of its coordinates known ? 13. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 0). 0). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (1. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 0). (5. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 0). What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points : (0. (4. (4. Plot the points: (4. . 3). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 8.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 11.(!. (4. 4) from the origin ? 7. 4). (4.4). 4. !). 1). 4) and (4. . 6.
By representing of points. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 10 . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 1. may be found on Jan. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. . D. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. or the curved line the temperature. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. C.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 188. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. from January 1 to December 1. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. A. we meas1 . however. Thus the first table produces 12 points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. 15. ure the ordinate of F. B.
etc. the merchant. (c) January 15. uses them. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. The engineer.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages. (d) November 20. physician. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the matics. . Whenever a clear. (b) July 15. the graph is applied.
is 10. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (1) 10 C. ? 9. ?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. How much. 1? 11 0. (d) 9 0. on 1 to the average. (freezing point) ? 7. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When the average temperature below C. 15. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1 to Oct. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.152 2. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13... June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what months above 18 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.
Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. transformation of meters into yards. 20.09 yards. 19. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Hour Temperature . One meter equals 1. NOTE. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.
the value of a of this quantity will change. amount to $8. e. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. gas.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. if he sells 0. then C irJl.inch. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. A 10 wheels a day. to 27. 3.. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 190. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . the daily average expenses for rent. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. books from for printing. 9. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. binding.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. . x 7 to 9. etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 1 to 1200 copies. and $.g. 3. if each copy sells for $1.50. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.) T circumferences of 25. 29.5 grams. 4. 2 . etc.50. represent his daily gain (or loss). function If the value of a quantity changes. 2.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.154 24. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 26.. 28. x increases will change gradually from 13. x* x 19.
3 50. Draw the graph of x2 f. is supposed to change. it is In the example of the preceding article.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. however. 1 the points (3.1). etc. a*. to x = 4. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . and (3.2 x may 4 from x = 4. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .1). ( 2. E. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.e. Ex. construct '.g. and join the points in order. while 7 is a constant. plot points which lie between those constructed above. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 9). The values of func192. x a variable. J). 9). 3 (0. may .0). 2 (1. . (1^. as 1. Q. 4). be also represented by a graph. may. 4). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 2. (2. Graph of a function. for x=l. If a more exact diagram is required. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 2). (1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.
or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. r */ +* 01 . 194. (3. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 2 4 and if y = x f. rf 71 . Ex. Thus 4x + 7.2 x . Thus in the above example. .) For brevity. (To avoid very large ordinatcs..20). j/=3. etc. 5). straight line produces the required graph. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 4). (2. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 1). 7 . = 4.. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. as y. = 0.4). 4J..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. y = 6. (4. and join(0. 2..
?/ a. if y = 2. 2 a. (7i) (c) 23. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. xz + x. = The values of a*. l. if the function equals zero. 2 a. 1J. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. if a. 14. 4 a.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. . a? 1. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. The smallest value of the function. 23x. 16. Jar . The values of a?. . a. = 4. 3 a 8. (C ) (2. 5. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. xl. (ft) (_ 1. 6 fa. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 4a? I. 1J. 6. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1. 2x + 3x a?. if"a. 12. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. The values of a*.or. 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.e. (If) Va25. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2 or 2 20. 7. 2 2. 3. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . i. 22. + 4. 18. J. 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. from x VlO'S". 3. 1 8 10. a ar. 1J. y = 2x = 4. 19. 15. 2 2 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y.5)2. 9. 21. fa 17. x+1. a?.5)2. 2J. 11. 8.8)'. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. the function. 2J.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a* 13. a? 2 4.
) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 32 F. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 25.. Therefore x = 1. Show any convenient number). A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. .24. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 14 F. then y = .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that graph with the o>axis. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.158 24. C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. the abscissas of 3. y= formula graphically.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. Represent 26. then cXj where c is a constant. 1 C. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12..e. 9 F.where x c is a constant.. i.24 or x = P and Q. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.
2 and 1. 8. Such equations in general have two roots. (a) (6) 9. 0. 7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. or 5 2. 11. 12. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.7 2 a 5 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 13. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. a2 2a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 197. 10. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 6. = 0. is called a quadratic equation. viz. crosssection paper is used. (a) x2 = 0. (0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. + + = where a.f 9 = 0. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 6. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 4. 3. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 14.
X'2 Locating the points (2. because their graphs are straight lines.1. ?/. If x = 0. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Hence if if x x  2. unknown quantities. 199. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Hence we may join (0. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. y y 2. (f .2 y ~ 2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . T . locate points (0.2. == 2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 1) and 0). Ex. . i. solve for ?/. 3x _ 4 . 2). if y = is 0. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. first degree. NOTE. ?/ =4 AB. and joining by a straight line. = 0. fc = 3. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. and join the required graph.e. Hence. 4) and (2. Ex. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). produces the 7* required locus. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 0).
To find the roots of the system. 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection.15. viz.57. we obtain the roots. 201. linear equations have only one pair of roots. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and CD. AB y = . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Graphical solution of a linear system.1=0. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 202. (2) . equation x= By measuring 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. P. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.
x2 . 3). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 4. (1) (2) C. = 0.9. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. (4. AB the locus of (1). 4. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2. and . and joining by a straight line. the graph of points roots. 5. .. Locating two points of equation (2). intersection. (4. 3x 2 y = 6. 3. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. The equations 2 4 = 0. Inconsistent equations. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Solving (1) for y.g. i. 1. 4.e. 3. 1. 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. etc.5. we of the + y* = 25. Using the method of the preceding para. which consist of a pair of parallel lines.y~ Therefore. 4. 4. 4.  4. P graphs meet in two and $. In general. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. Measuring the coordinates of P. e. 3. y equals 3. V25 5. Locating the points (5. 0) and (0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 0. 4. the point we obtain Ex.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.5. 2. 4. 5. if x equals respectively 0. 2 equation x 3). Since the two  we obtain DE. and + 3). (2.0.0). they are inconsistent.
y = 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. '163 Dependent equations. 10. Draw system. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. a+r/=6. 5. and solve each If there are no solutions. vice versa. 8.. 2x 3?/=6. \ 2x + 3^ . and. 7. 16 23. a. 6. 4. 9. state reasons. y 2 4. 20. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. if possible. 16 22. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 19. 17. 3. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. the graphs of the following systems. 2. y= a2 2x y6. y=x + 5. .
y). 25. 4 a = 3(6 . 26. 28.14 y = .164 24. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. CUBES.8. 30. 3 31. TABLE OF SQUARES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .
( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. According to 1. 2. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .a2 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 2. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. is may be by 207.faa a a a Obviously 1. involution repeated multiplication. Law of Signs. a = a3 . fa. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . . a special kind of product. follows that 3. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . etc. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 8. 52. ( a) is positive. on to in factors 4. 3 f a = f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ^4/? it According to 50.
raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 15. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.166 To find To To power. 4. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2. (^^) 2 . 210. a product to a given power. (a ) 2 4  3. 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. \ 3 J '  MW 10. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 4 /2mV.6 (a 8 8 . 3 2 2 8 . raise a fraction to a power.6) = a . (2ar). . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (a ) 2 5 . amVy) 3 . the required power. 76 : (>y. 24. (277171 )*. 5. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 2 11 (afc ) . 16.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. V V/ 13.
= s= (2s) 8 a. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. +5a) 22. 9. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 1. are obtained by multiplication. 3.3 y. . 2 . 211.y) = (3 y?y . An 1. etc. 2. 23. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 4. 16. (5 (1 a) 3 . 8. 2. : a 20. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .INVOLUTION Ex. frequently called ex. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 3 8 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8 (a??/) 3 . 6. a. + 4aj) 3 . (afl) . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 5.y .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 13. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (a + &)8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . (aj7) . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 12. 18. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 15. pansions.6 2 8 ft) . or*  Find the cube root of 19. nent of the binomial. The higher powers of binomials. + a 2 a. Ex. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.) 14. 21. 3 . . (3 x . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 1 f 3 2 3 . 7. (3af26) 8 .
. 10. (af 5) . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 18. 15. (2 4. . (a~^) 5 . (1 + 4 ?/) . 6.2. 5. 4 . (?/i~w) : 16. is the coefficient of the next term. 5. and the powers negative. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 25. (mJ) 4 11. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 13. . (2 a 4 . (3a f5) 5) 4. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. 3. 8. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (l 8 . 4 (1for) 5 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 1.216 a^ 4. (m 2 + n) 8 . The minus. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . Ex. mn 5 2 5 ) .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 21. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (la&) 4 12. . Ex. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 2. ( &) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .168 3. . (m fl) 2 20. 23. (p + q) 4 * 7. 78 s . 17. 4. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 3. (tff1) (cfd) . 14. 9. 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (?>i?i f c)*.a) 3 19. (w 4 ?i) 4 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . Ex.
Thus V^I is an imaginary number. (_3) = 27. 215. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. a) 4 = a4 . 4 4 . called real numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. and ( v/o* = a. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 2. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for distinction. or y ~ 3. or x &4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . 27 =y means r' = 27. = x means = 6. V9 = + 3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. V \/P 214. etc. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/"^27=3. Since even powers can never be negative. tity . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. numbers. which can be simplified no further. and all other numbers are. 1.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 109 .
200 . 5. 2 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.lL. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3. 8.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. Ex. 7.201) = 2. Ex 5 a" . roots of the numerator \/18 . V25 9 16. 82 . 9. 4 v. v/2^. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 7 . = 199 + (_ 198) . EXERCISE 1.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 2. v/^i2 = a*. 3 33 53 . 3/0** = am .9 = 136. = 19472.4. 6 7 = 030. 6.(. index. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . V5 v/2 7 2.1. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . \/2 4 9 . To extract the root of a power. 7 . 10. 7. V?. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 62 = V2* . 8. 3i . Ex. fy 5 3 . .125.  100 a 2 . Ex. . 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . extract the and denominator. 6. . 9. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex.64 5 4 . V36 9 4.
75. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 30. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .) by inspection.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 2 . 3. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 2./). In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 1. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.3 . Ex. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 . 6. . 2 f ( V240) 3 . V9216. V20 . V8. Find the square root of a2 . a* 4 8 2 . 5.EVOLUTION 171 28. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 116. 34.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .3 y2) ( vV . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 32.3. 45 V5184. ^40^4. a f2 l 2 + l. 29.4/.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 33. 31.98.
172 7. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. + 6 + 4a&. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. i.e. the given expression is a perfect square. and b. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 2 218. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. however. .b 2 2 to its square. a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 15.2 ab + b . 14.> 13. 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49.2 &c. and b (2 a f b). 8 . #2 a2  16. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a\b is the root if In most cases. 2 . 12. let us consider the relation of a f. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 11.2 ac . The term a' first 2 .
Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the first term of the answer. 10 a 4 8 a.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and consider Hence the their sum one term. by division we term of the root. .EVOLUTION Ex. First trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . is As there is no remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 219. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 /. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. The square . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. . . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2 . 2. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. . 1. 1. As there is no remainder. Second trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Explanation. 8 a 2 2. */'' . of x. Ex. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 6 a. and so forth.24 afy* f 9 tf. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. First complete divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. .
10. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 19.12m 5 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.42 a*& 4.6 . 14. 18. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.37 a ^ . 17. 8.25 x 4 4.12 m 4.10 x2 4. . 16x6 4. 436^?/469a.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 1 4.16. 2 x2 3 2x. 3. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 729 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.4 x 4. 9. x 6 4 4 0^4.20 o 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 13#4 413ar 44a. 4 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 6.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . l 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 24. > 7.73a4 440^436^460^.a 6 x*y 2 . 5.40 a 22 . 16.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 20. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 36it. 6 11. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .73 a8 . a? 2 . 5 4 16 4 iK .24 or . 12.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 15.9.V430^425^ 4m 4. 2 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.25.
the first of which is 8.EVOLUTION 220.000. of 1. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. Therefore 6 = 8. two figures. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000.1344. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 4. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of 10. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.. Ex. The is trial divisor = 160. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. which may contain one or two). then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Ex.000 is 100. Find the square root of 7744. and the complete divisor 168. a 2 = 6400. 2. first . and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the first remainder is. = 80. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.000 is 1000. the square root of 7744 equals 88. 1. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Find the square root of 524.176. of a number between 100 and 10. and the square root of the greatest square in units. etc. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.
1T6 221.7 to three decimal places. annex a cipher.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.10.1 are Ex. Find the square root of 6/. in . The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.70 6.0961 are '. 12. 3. places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.
58 square 38. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.4 square when R = radius and 11. feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 32. 13. JT . 35. 37. 36. 1. 30. = 3. 33. J. 39. feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.53. 1. whose area equals 48.01.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 31. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .1410. T\. 5. 34.) 40. .22.
Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 225. x = + 2 or x =2. The 7 equation. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 178 . x 2 7. complete. This answer Check. Ex. is 12. = 4. 1. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Dividing. 224. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 226. . x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. = 7^ + 5. is A quadratic equation. 6#2 = x* 24. 2 ic = a.g. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 2. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. Extracting the square root of each member. Transposing.. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 .CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 6 y2 = 17. or affected. 2)* + 5 = 33. A pure. or incomplete. but no higher power e.
s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. or Therefore. 3. ax Transposing and combining. 7 = 162. Solve 179 . 8. 7. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 83 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 4fc 5' 18. 5.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. o.25. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 2. (a? 9. 4.2. 16^393 = 7. 19 + 9 = 5500. ' =: y? b* b . 10. . 4 ax. 15^5 = 6.
3. 2 . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. ' 4. 27. 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. 2. . If 22 = ~^. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 22 a. If G=m m g . 108. 24. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). EXERCISE 1. is 5(5. 26. solve for d. 4. Find is the number.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2a f 1 23. 25.) of their squares 5. . If a 2 4. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). : 6. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .b 2 If s If =c . 2 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. and they con tain together 30G square feet. and their product : 150. r. 29. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for v. is one of _____ b The side right angle. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for r. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. Find the side of each field. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. A right triangle is a triangle. then Since such a triangle tangle. Find the numbers. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 228. find a in terms of 6 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 28.
The area $ /S of a circle 2 . . of a right triangle Find these sides. Find the unknown sides and the area. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet.2 7 . 4. 8. x* 7 x= 10. 9. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Find these 10. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find the radii. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Solve Transposing. A body falling from a state of rest. radii are as 3 14. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. To find this term. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . is and the other two sides are equal. add () Hence 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. we have of or m = . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. . sides.7 x f 10 = 0. and the other two sides are as 3 4.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 24. 2m. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. (b) 44 square feet. (b) 100 feet? = . and the third side is 15 inches. and the two smaller 11. Method of completing the square. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Find the sides.) 13. J = 12. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.
J. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.a. 7 5 + 10 = 0. or J. 230.1. a. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = 6. .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.e. a Clearing of fractions. Ex.. Extracting square roots. Transposing. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. = x\ = 2. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Therefore. Uniting. 62 x 5 = f. adding member). = .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = \ # = ff.  \.2 a2 . or x = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 2 a* a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Transposing. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Simplifying. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2  . Hence Therefore Check.x(l = .2. Ex. (*~8) a = at .
4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x . Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =8 r/io?. \bx\. article. and c in the general answer. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2x 3 4.c = 0. Solution by formula. x la 48. ao. 231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =0. = 12. . 49. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.
= 64120?.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 20. 2. 2 o. 7. 9. c p. 14. 19.4 4 5 .. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 11. 6. 2 . 6^+5^ 56. TIO. Reducing to general form.  . 2# 11 + 15 = 0.25 x. 2 a? = 44 x . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. a.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 8. 3. 21. ?i 2 . 1. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 a. 4. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 18. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 26. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 16. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2. 7^ + 9 x 90. = 12 . 13. 6 . 17. 6 Ex. c = 5. 5 x2 Transposing. : 86 + 2 = 0. V^tT)* . 10. 2or } 5o. 15. b =  + 20 == = 0. 12. 6.
5) =0. Factoring. (5 a? !)(. Solution by factoring. or # 5 is zero. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . all or. x(x <2 . factors Now. ar>8o. 24. and 6. 26.x. any degree. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. if either of the uct is zero. Clearing for fractions. Bx 1 1. x2 = 1 . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 0. = 0. orz roots. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Transposing. member can be Ex. Eesolving into factors.2. a=:i^^. }. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 5 = 0. 27 x== 42a. . 1. 3x?+x = 7. 5) = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 25. = 0. transposing terms to one member. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x.5 Solving (1) and (2). Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. = 14. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . 233. 23. 2S3x 1 2 . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 0.
The equation I. 3) = 0. 5 = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. for a: . 4. a?10a=:24. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.6)) = 0. 3) Factoring.= 24. 14. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. aj( 15. 7.e. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. a* 10a=24. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2.:=0.3)(x + 3 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 2. 3. 3 or 2 a. E. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 8. 4)(z3) = 0. 12. 2o3 f9a. 3# y 5 = 0. } 2 2 (5 . Therefore x =3 = 2. a?. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. O roots are 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. + 8=s: 7.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. we 9 obtain x 4. 6. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 9. 5. ar'Sa^ 12. + 6)=0. : 87 = 0. x2 f 2 x . Or Hence the 234. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 3^ = 0(1106). + 10 a = 24.24 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 13. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. + 100. 2. 0^ ar> 11.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. Ex. 3.(. 16.g. 0(02) = 7(02). (aj4)(a. + 9 f 20 x = 0. is 5) = 0.
2. 19. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).188 17. '3a!J  . or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. 25.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 18. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 27. 20. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 23. 22. uz + u 21. ara + ft + c*. 50.
56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find the number. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.0. 3. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.2. 1. Find the sides. feet. 54. : 3. EXERCISE 1.9. and whose product 9. 55. 5. 8. The difference of . 5. 2.3.0. number by 10. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 52. 0. 2. 2. and whose sum is is 36. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 7. 6. G. and the difference Find the numbers. of their reciprocals is 4. 2.3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Find the number. 1. . and consequently many prob 235. 2. Find the numbers.3. 3. 2.1. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. and equals 190 square inches. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. two numbers is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 4. The 11. 58. 57. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.
A man cent as the horse cost dollars. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and Find the sides of the rectangle. dollars. ABCD.190 12. 17. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. . it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. ply between the same two ports. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. Two vessels. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. sold a horse for $144. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. What did he pay for 21. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. If he each horse ? . 14. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 19. 13. watch for $ 24. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. Find the rate of the train. as the 16. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey.10. 15.
By formula. (tf. a point taken. and working together. how wide is the walk ? 23. 1. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 27. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. constructed with and CB as sides.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. or x = \/l = 1. Find and CB. the two men can do it in 3 days. is On the prolongation of a line AC. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. ^3^ = 7. Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. contains B 78 square inches. so that the rectangle. 23 inches long. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find TT r (Area of a circle . and the area of the path the radius of the basin.) 25. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. 24. as 0. . of the area of the basin. 237. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.
16. 7. T 17. 2. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 10.)+72=0. 4 a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.2 =4. 4 6. a 21or=100. Hence Le. = 13. 2 16 a^40 11. 4. 9. 18.192 238. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 2 h9:=0. 4 : 89 10a. 6. 12. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a? 15 1=2*. = 1. 8. Ex. or y = 8. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. aV+9o 4 =0.T 2 2 . 436 3. 19. a4 5o. >. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. Solving. y8)=0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> .
rational. negative. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 241. the roots are real. rational. is 4ac not zero. ( 2a Hence 1. it 2a follows 2 : 2. Hence the roots are real. the roots are irrational. b 4.5) = 04. the roots are rational. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. and equal. 3.f> = 0. the roots are equal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are imaginary.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .2 z . and unequal. Ex. the roots are unequal. . 2.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. The discriminant =(. c the roots are real. a perfect square. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Ex.2) 2 4 3 (. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Relations between roots and coefficients.12 x + 9 = 0.bx 4. 240.
x2 7 10. = Q. = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16.19 # 20. tfmx+p^Q. 22. 21. + 2a15 = 0. = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. ^12. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 12. 60 2 = 0. + 18 2 8. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. their product isf. 4. 18. o. 2 a. + 12 2  . 2a 4z5 = 0. 6. + 2a. 2 7. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 15. lla. 2. 14. 9a3 = 0. = 5x. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 2 : 3. : a 2 .194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 12~x = x 2 . 23..g. f 2 E. 5aj 9. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 17. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 24. 3a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. = 0.
instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (ab) . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. provided w > n.* III. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. while the second of the first. II. It is. 244. ~ a m f. must be *The symbol smaller than. We assume." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The first of these laws is nition of power. hence. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. and . for all values 1 of m and n. no Fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 . m IV. such as 2*. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. Then the law of involution. that a an = a m+n . > m therefore.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. = a"" < . however.a" = a m n mn . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a m ) w .
a . ml. disappear. 3*. at. 0?=^. or zero exponent equal x. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. a\ 26. etc. 25. = a. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. (xy$. fractional. as. laws. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Assuming these two 8*. a*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 28. 245. 29. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. m$. . 23. n 2 a.g.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 4~ . 24. a?*. 30. 31. '&M A 27. (bed)*. e.
35. v/o&cT 34. : 197 33. = 2. 5 a* = 10. 246. \/xy \/m. a . hence is . v'mT 36.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 38. Solve the following equations 39. 40.g. a* * = 3. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 45. 3* = 27. ty?. Let a = a. = 49.g. 50. 7z* Find the values of 47. e. 46. 49. 27* = 3. a. a * a2 Or a=l. \fi?. 48. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 44. If. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 2. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.\/n. : 2' 4* = 4. e. however. 41. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 37. 42. Vo5 . the base is zero. 43. equal to unity.
an x = a. or the exponent. Or a"# = l. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.g. .198 247. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. vice versa. etc. consider the following equations. cr n. e.2 = a2 . Multiplying both members by a". a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. by changing the sign of NOTE. Let x= or". 248. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : or 5 . 66 45. m . c 32. a^ 41. 22. 44. 40. 37. 3 a? * 42. . 25. 36. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. rfS. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 39."* 38. a. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . f (2w)~i 1 . ^L. : mi m~^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 2m~i 43. 27. . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. * 24. 2 .
= 5. 250.343)* + (. = ^. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .26)* 1 (I) 2 . + 1~* f 21 . 47. ar = i.1.9*. z 5or*=10. 10* 5* = .001. 48. z* = 1. 52. 53. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 49.6). 1. 54. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 57. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 55. (. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = l.(. = . 58. . Ex. 61. of: 3ll4~* 60.81 f (a .008)* + A. + A_. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 59. 17' 2 51. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 10* Find the values 56.
26.&. 6 *.$*.4 a8 . Remove the negative exponents.7*.5. / 7fv 7.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. (d) If required. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 10. 3sVS.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 17. 13. 7~ 5 27  . 16.7i. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 7. a. 14. 95 ^9i 5**. 6a. etc.7W. Perform the operation indicated.6 *' 6 *25. &. 23.3 aj" a. 8 ' 9. . 72 . remove the fractional exponents. 12. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. NOTE. 6. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.4 . #* a. S'sS8. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 4 5.^/5^5..&. . are performed.5a. 3 a. 7~ 6 . OA 20. . 27  28. 18. 16. ' 11. 79 . 7*. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3.$". 4 x^. V5.
The 252.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Arrange in descending powers of Check. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1. 2. 40. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. If powers of a?. 34.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. powers of x arranged are : Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 6 35.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
connect them by proper 1. \/5. 36. I VJ + 3VT8 . v/4. Arrange 35. 2\ 3*.3\ . V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . A/3. To add or form.e. ^30. V3. in order of magnitude : \/7. Simplify V~ . 34. VS. A/2. 39. 29.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 31. V2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 28. V2. ^/IT. </3.2 V50. v/3. 4^/4. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 37. ^3.2. 27. ^2. subtract surds. ^4. s!/3. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v/3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 40. ^2. ^126. 33.10 V2 =  V2. 38. V3. ^7. </20. 5V2. Ex. if dissimilar. Ex. 26. 32. ^4. signs. 30.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 3. V5. ^5. ^2. + . (i. ^6. v^S. \/7. </2.
. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 14. 10. 6. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 13. 8VT8J2V32 7. V175V28+V634V7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 4V805V45.3V20 + 6V5. V18+V32VT28+V2. 8.J a6 V4 aft. 9. 3.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 11. 6. + 3V835V2. 4.
26^ .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . . 2. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex. and then multiplied. y* = Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 23.6V35 106 460V35100 . 3. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. . 6*. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 1.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.
40 10 30. V3 Vl2. V2aV8^. 8. (Va Va 36. 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 34. V42. v/18 v"3. 15. 13. 14. 21. 12. 18. 9. 6 V4 5. 2. (3 20. 4. aVa. 38. 27. 28 . V2 V50. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V3 V6. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 25. \/3 \^). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). . 2 . 6. VlO V15. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). fWa 17. a?. 37.^/2.VSS. V20 V30. 10. 213 98 11. 40. 3. v/4. 41. VTO. + VB)(2V5). (V6 + 1) 1 . (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (2V3) 8 . 19. 39. Vll.
53. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. the quotient of the surds is If. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. is 1 2. a fraction. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 46. (2 45. Ex. V3 . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). . 44. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V2+V10)(2V51).y. 60. Va v/a. 51. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 49.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.214 42. 52. 43. 48. 47. E. 268. Ex. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V52V3)(2V3V3).
. however. we have V3 But if 1. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.RADICALS This method. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.57735. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. . Evidently. by V7. Divide VII by v7. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 3.by the usual arithmetical method. The 2.73205.g. is illustrated by Ex. arithTo find. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. 1. e. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. metical problems afford the best illustrations. /~ } Ex. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2..
i. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V8 JL. Vn V7 ' * 8. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .7320. V48 25. V3 = 1. VffV?. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8 12.2361. 23 . 7. V3 24 .. 14. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 21. A. 272. 20. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. and Given V2 = 1. V5 270. A. Vll 212*. V2 22 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. ^/H . 271. V5 = 2. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. . .4142.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
vffi^T _ .1 xVtf a. .= 18. 1. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. 3.Vs2 . . Ex. s Simplify a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2.RADICALS Ex. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .
Given V2 1. = V3 = 1. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. J?_.218 6 . V21 = 25 . 27. Vo1 26. . 6V7. 24. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. : and V5 = 2. v 2V3 28. four places of decimals 23 .W3. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.5 3 = 125. 19. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.2361.4142. By the use of fractional exponents .7320.
According to G3. 5. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 4. 3. V255 . 2. it to this form. . 9. \/l6*. In other examples of involution and evolution. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. v8f 2\/15. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. on the other hand. 1. 2 12. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . viz. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 8. \/125" . 3 (V2~u)  7. V643 . 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 11.RADICALS 219 274. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Simplify Ex. the If. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.
12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vll .A/2.220 Ex. The Hence ^11 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 2. is 11. 3. +2 Ex. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. These Ex.6\/2 = ^9 .6 V2. and whose product is 18. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 \/20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. ^TT. Find V4 + VJ8.
e. . 19. a.V48 4 20. by raising both members equal powers. member to 2. r 22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Ex. 5.. Transposing and uniting. first involution. 4. are radical equations. = xa + 4 x f 4. 4x x = 2. they are transto formed into rational equations.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Solve vVf!2a = 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. The value x =2 reduces each . x2 = x f 2. 277. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. i. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. +=. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. Before performing the involution. VT . V48 23. Radical equations are rationalized. (2x xrf 1. 8. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.1. Dividing by Check.
Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing. x = J. a. . V24~+~l = 0. Extraneous roots. 278.222 Ex. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 2. Squaring both members. Squaring both members. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. It = 3 x . Solve Vx f Squaring both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 5. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. at . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.1) = 0. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . tion which has two roots. Transposing and uniting. Therefore Check. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Therefore CftecAr.3. a socalled extraneous root. Dividing by 24. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. the first member = V2. they may be extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. one root. 4#f 4 = 9. viz. V4afT~l. Transposing and uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Factoring. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. . Ex. 3. viz. f 25 = 12. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.
. the right member = V2. 223 x = 3. equation it is an extraneous root. 2 Clearing of fractions. . or x *j.3) (2 x . Therefore.RADICALS Hence x If a. Solve the following equations : = G. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Hence x = the only root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. both members reduce to 5. Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. and to 5. + 6~ieT~3 . Factoring. x root of the preceding equation.2 r.47) = 0. 4. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .12 . for it satisfies the equation . Hence there is only one root. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. NOTE. ViTie 4 z2 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. . is x V. = 3. (x x = 3. Squaring. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. viz. Check. If If x 3 = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.
Therefore . Many 1. Ex.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*. Factoring.
members of the equation were squared. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.i~24 = 0. some of the roots be extraneous.8 z40 = 7. + 40 = 6. = 26. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.f40= 5. 412a* = 16. . _ 2 y . x =6 or 3. Ex. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 3.*2a. o. 45 14VJB = . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2_8z 440 = 49. 2. 2Va. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x + Vx a? = 6.35 = 0. x Since both =9 or 1. 3 6. Let 8 x f 40 . 2.8 x + 40 = 36. Q . This can be seen without substituting. = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Vi 2 8a.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 5. 4. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. = 0. y then x2 . Substituting.
a.f 18 = 24. 15. 19. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 4 V SB* 4 a. 16.226 11. 18. 2. 17. 20. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +3= 6. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +x . a^x2 5 2 13. 14. 12.a 440 = 35.
= 2. if Q was known. however.2) Q . " Or. 1.2 x 5 by x 3.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. could. ^ = 381+2.360 = 244. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. does not contain a?. even if Q is unknown. we make a? what the value of Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 3 2 Ex. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. If x* . Hence.2 + 80 = 12. E = ax + &z + m) Q.bx? + ex2 4. 227 . then (x 2)Q 0.4 a. to x we # = 2 3.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Without actual division.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. a? R = x* . Ex." transposing. Without actual division. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. no matter If.2 + 4. ax4 4. find the remainder when m. by dividing 3 x* f.
8. x* s 2 4. if 8 42  . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. hence (x divided by x 4.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 43 3 E. 5. } 2 by a1. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 2 j 7. + 7 = 632. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.8'= 0.4(. x m is factor of the expression. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5 (4x . the remainder equals 8 2 x .228 282. 3. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.3)f 11 =. If the remainder is zero. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + ^by x + b. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. of the division 3) is m in place of x. fora?. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.g. + 6.949.g. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. The Factor Theorem.
m f m n 14. are f 1. 229 1. 17. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . Let x = . 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. then x8 7 x'2 4.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. Factor a? 15. a 2a + 4. 24. 2 2. f 15 does not vanish. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 2. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. ^10^429^20=0.r6 = 0. 2m 5m . a 5x 6. 3. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. a 8a f 19 a 12. 106 division. 5. f 3.7 + 16 . + 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. 20. 1.13m + 30 10. is a factor.1. 23. a. a? 19. Therefore x ( 1). Resolve into factors 4. a^8^ + 19a. i. 6. a + 32. 1.7 x + 15 = 0. + 27 + 27. 11. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. . _ .12 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.49 = 0. 8. 7 46 = 0. or 5 4 + 3^ . The 5.9^ + 23^15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 3 2 : 7. 18. oj 5x2 f3a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. & p*. 21.e. + ttt15 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. factors of the absolute term.1. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 8. 9. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. f 5. or x 4. 25.12. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.
is odd." . 2 Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if n is even. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. It y is not divisible by 287. x* f/ = (x +/)O . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. By we obtain the other factors. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.230 285. actual division n. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. Ex. 1. 2.g. 286. 2. ar +p= z6 e. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. For substituting y for x. xn y n y n y n = 0. : importance.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. xn f.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if w is odd.xy +/). The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.
Hence = (m Ex. a. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .= . 28. leads 231 is The first method. 27. since it more directly to the prime factors. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. preferable. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. however. x3 8=0. 26. 3.i mn f w 2). y 3 +8=0.
290. xywe have 3. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. If two of the quantities x f y.1. 232 . + 6 a?V . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. however. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (4) Hence.y4 is of the fifth degree. of quadratics. * A I. xy are given. & + 2 xy + = 25. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. x y. = 6. can be solved by the methods degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). in general. 4 xy = 16. Squaring Solve (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.
12. = . 1. b=3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.g.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 233 y. ^. r (" 1 = 876. but can be found. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 3. I I x + y=7. The arranged in pairs. ' 10. x and xy are not given. " "' "' { r 8.
EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). one linear and ne quadratic.~ y = 5. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  . or JJ. . x " (3) 49 etc.a. Ex. la. 6 "I 14. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  f J. 7 . + 29 = 0. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.20) = 0.  42 y + Transposing. 5. Factoring. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. or y = 1 . ' ' . aj = 2.i/ = r 13. . 19. I* Jj ^ [. I x+y = a. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 4 y = 20. A system of simultaneous equations.?/ i = 6. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. r^ 2 as ] f.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 3..o 18.
3 2x 2 Ex. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3y) : Factor (2). 4 f + 2 y = 3. III. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 1. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. ':il e :) . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10. quantities. 9. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ' x*. y* + 2y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. If of the preceding type. x2y. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. = 1 3 3. Solve .
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. j Substituting y in (2). y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . Solve 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 109 a. = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. } VI09. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (1) (2) x x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2. 11 a2 Factoring. 15 x2 . = 0. = 0. 2 .
2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).6. " IV. (4) (3). A. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Division of one equation by the other. 150 */2 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.3^42^=43. Bxy9. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. ' ^ 15. can be solved by special devices. and others not belonging to them. 2 xy + y2 = 10. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.125 ay = . y? a? f .175 ay = 12. f 1 150 a?. . 298.xy 4. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. E.!.y = 7.
from (2). Solve Ex. Therefore x = 16.. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. quadratics can be solved by ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. * ' 300. = 189. y . i ^ *>. at first it is unknown quantities. y = 3. xy. we have from (1). B. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. x 2 . Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . 2. jc~ y = 9. Some simultaneous ?/. we obtain by squaring. (1 > (2) 1. = 12 J. x +y y etc.
Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . I e. 239 Ex. 4. 36* 2. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. [2x + : y= 17. 6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. M6. . 7. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. F+y+ .
19 ' 26. . 25. 27. 16.4 y = 47 a. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = 198. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6hy) = 80.21 ^ = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . * . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. f 18.
.of  According to the definition of division. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . or ~ indeterminate. oo 301. 31. . 33. hence may be any finite number. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 7' j/ 39. 25 34. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 32. ^ oo . = 48201. y % 9 f*K 36.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. ~\ OK OO. 3 a2 38. Q 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Interpretation . finite  =x y if = x. 30. . etc. etc 302. as a .
Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. (1) = 0.e. the answer is indeterminate. creases. 1. equation. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. and . Let 2. 306. oo is = QQ. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. (1) is an identity. ToU" ^100 a. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .can be If It is made larger than number.increases if x de x creases.g. it is an Ex. i. . TO^UU" sufficiently small. and becomes infinitely small. great.000 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. Hence such an equation identity. is satisfied by any number. By making x any * assigned zero. or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1. (a: Then Simplifying. (1). as + l. cancel. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1. i.242 303. = 10. . Or. be the numbers. I. The ~~f fraction . or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.e.decreases X if called infinity. without exception. x f 2.
Hence /. Solve x a. = oo. The sum is of squares 2890. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 3. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 2. EXERCISE 1. 1=0.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. and a. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. is their 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. two numbers is 76. z = 1 Substituting. (2). * 6.e.8 x + 15 6. y finite QO. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve .2 y = 4. third and sixth parts. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve  9 7. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 42 and' their product is 377.
p. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the side of each square. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find these sides. equals 4 inches. . 103. 10. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 14. Find the other two sides. 190. is 6. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the diago(Ex. is is 17 and the sum 4. 6.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the hypotenuse is 37. The area of a nal 41 feet. and the edge of one. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the sides.244 3. Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.quals 20 feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. the area becomes f% of the original area.) 53 yards. 12. Find the edge of each cube. of a right triangle is 73. Find the sides of the rectangle. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. of a rectangular field feet. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. increased by the edge of the other. Find the edges. 8. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. two numbers Find the numbers. 13. 9. 146 yards. and the sum of ( 228. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 255 and the sum of 5.
and if the digits will be interchanged. . irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number. Find the radii. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. the quotient is 2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the number. is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) 17.
P.7. added to each term to obtain the next one. progression. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 19. to each term produces the next term. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 3 d must be added to a.) is a series. . : 7. 12. 309.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a 11.. (n 1) d must be added to a. a 3d. a + 2 d. 17. the second a descending. except the first. To find the nth term / of an A. . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. . 11. of a series are its successive numbers.1) d. The common differences are respectively 4. The first is an ascending. 10.. P. of the following series is 3.. P. Since d is a f 3 d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a.. and d. to produce the 4th term. An arithmetic progression (A..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. . 4. a f d. to produce the 3d term. the first term a and the common difference d being given. to produce the nth term.. 15 is 9 f.. 2 d must be added to a.. 16.. each term of which. Hence / = a + (n . series 9. 3. f . + 2 d. The progression is a. a + d.
3. d = 3. 1.. 99) = 2600. Find the 10th term of the series 17. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 8.. 1. . d . 7. 4^. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Find the 5th term of the 4. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. = a + (a Reversing the order... 5.. Find the 12th term of the 4.8. if a = 5. 7. 3... . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. (d) 1J. 2. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 5. 2. 115. ..4.. = 99. . Find the 101th term of the series 1. = 2. 19. 6 we have Hence . (a + + (a + l) l).. 6. 4. a = 2. series 2. 9.PROGRESSIONS 310. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5. 5. 8. 6. = I + 49 = *({ + . 5. 21.. 3.' cZ == .. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. of the series 10.16.. 10. . P. Adding. ? (a) 1. P. the term a. Find the nth term of the series 2. series . 24.. P.. 6. ..3 a = l. 8. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 3. 9.. 1J. 2 EXERCISE 1. 7. 2J..
. 29. Sum the following series 14.1 f 3. 19. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. + 3. 12. 11.248 Find the 10. \n. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.7 f to 12 terms. 2J.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . 7. 31. 33. . strike for the first yard. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 7. to 8 terms. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 23. to 20 terms. '. 15. to 15 terms. . P. > 2f 2. . to 7 terms. 11. to 20 terms. (i) (ii) . 1J. rf. 16. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 17. 11.. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1. 16. : 3. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 22. hence if any three of them are given. 6. 11. to 10 terms. (x +"l) 4. to 16 terms. 3. 20. 15. 15. 13. 1. to 20 terms. 4. and for each than for the preceding one. 21. 18. . 12. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 8. . 7.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 1. In most problems relating to A. 2. Jive quantities are involved. striking hours only.
312. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 204 = ^ (a + 49). 122. . 45. or if x Solving. or 11 J.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 89. Substituting in (2). From (1). = 1014. Find the series. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.e. The series is.~n~\ 408 6). 78. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 100. The first term of an A. s 24ft last term 144. hence n = 6.6. is 12. 2. = a + (w. I. 67.1).. 144. Solving. P. 204 = ^ (98 .1) . P. = 13. 133. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. P. 6. if s = 204. if a.6 n). . 56. a = 49 6(71 . J = 49. d = 6. = 1014. But evidently n cannot be fractional. n d. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 2 (2) From Hence (2). #. 12. Findn. n = 6. 78 n Substituting in (1). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. a = 12. the second one mean between the other two. = n(104 . 34. 111. = 144. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 1. 23. Ex.104 w + 408 = 0. l)e?. and b form an A. 6 n2 ..
. 11. n = 4. n has the series ^ j . T? ^. How much did he save the first month? 19. 16. f? . Find w.3. 8. s = 70. Given a = . 78. has the series 82. 12. m and n 2. Find d and Given a = 1700. 17. s == 440. 3. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = ^ 3 = 1. 13. d = 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. y and #f5y. 6? 9. Given a = 4. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 45. I Find I in terms of a. Find n. Given a = . 10. Find d. ceding one. I. 74. a x f b and a b. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . How much . = 52. n. and s. P. = 17. n = 17. f J 1 1 / . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = 1870. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 16. 4. 14. = 16. = 83. n = 20. n = 13. Find a Given a = 7. of 5 terms 6. 15. Find a and Given s = 44. Find?. Find d. a+ and b a b 5. Given a = 1. 7. produced.
. . of a G. 36. ar8 r. rs = s 2 .arn ~ l . 24. <zr ..g. 4.) is a series each term of which.. 2. P. E. ar. (I) of the series 16. +1. A geometric progression first. 12. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. . called the ratio. .. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 24.. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. or 81 315. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.. is it (G.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 2 a. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . the first term a and the ratios r being given.. ratios are respectively 3. . P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . NOTE. 36. P. or. is 16(f) 4 . 4. and To find the nth term / of a G. The progression is a. 4 (1) . If n is less : than unity. r n~ l . .. 36. The 314. I. . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 108.
. . whose and whose second term is 8. . EXERCISE 1._!=!>.. 4. + 5. . . 9. 80.4. 18. . 20. 2 term 3. . hence. 4.*. And the required means are 18. 0. 36. Ex. 6. 36. . f. i 288.54. (it. 144. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. r^2. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 10. . +f%9 % .. In most problems relating to G. 8. Jive quantities are in. 288... P. whose and whose common ratio is 4.5.. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. is 16. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 25. series . if any three of them are given. P. 144. 7. l. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 9. 72... 676. fa.. . (b) 1. 9.18. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. whose . ? (c) 2. f. 36. a = I. is 3..288. 576. . series 5. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. or 7. \ t series . 3.72.. P..18. first term is 125 and whose common . 1. 144. I = 670. Find the 5th term of a G. first term 4. volved . .. fa. Hence the or series is 0. . series 6. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. first 5.5. P.6. Hence n = 7. . 72. (d) 5.l.. Find the 6th term of the series J. P.
= 3. 42.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 16 . to 7 . Given r = n Z 5. is less than unity. Find the geometric mean between 7. . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 15. = 3. M. 72.nV> i*> !718. may be than any assignable number. 1... INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. n = 5. P. 81. of r n decreases. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. ..J and 270. to G terms. s = 605. . r . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. + 4 . 2. to 8 terms.. == 160.. J. . to 6 terms. J. 14. Find a and 4. to 6 terms. Find a and n = 4.. 23. 22. to 5 terms. Find a and Given r = 3. 81. J. 1. 48. I. n = 5. 13. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. a^. to 6 terms. 12 terms. . J. 27. s = 310. Z s. 20. a. 12.. . to 7 terms. 14. 25S series : 32. >"> . and hence ~ r . 24. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 243. 36. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 54. 19. be written If the value of r of a G. 126. 21.i a9 . 4.
. Hence ... .3121212. =A+ 10 i. P. 10..555.. = . .. .. 14.. = . is J.. P. 1. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 2.. .. 12. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. . 16..272727. 1. 12.37272 .)7?7272 .717171.. 13.1. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. i. .191919. 7.. 1 r = . i i J...= . 16.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.254 Ex. of an infinite G.01 ^ . 2. . . 40. . r = j. P. 6. 5.99 . 1.. of: 11.= _4Z* . ratio 15. and the first term is Find 17..3 + .72. 6. is 9. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.. first and the common term. 66 Therefore . 100. 3. The sum r. I. The sum Find the of an infinite G.27777 . . . 4... .3727272 . . 1. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. (6) the sum of the perimeters...... 8.. 4. .. Given an infinite series of squares. 8.00072 f . what is (a) the sum of the areas. 5. .. = a . Find the sum to infinity. is 16.072.. If a = 40. 9. 250. of all squares ? . . 9.072 + . Find the value 9.. = 990 .Ql.
20. 29.b ). 11. 2 2 24. 21. . (a 100 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 4. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (a2) 6. 4 7. (xy) : 6 . Find the 6th term of (x .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 5. 12. 28. coefficient of . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . . 14. l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. : (1 + xy. 22.6) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 15. (\ 9 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 16.6) 20 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 10. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 25. 17.b) w (a (a f (1 . 13. (a + b) . . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 7 . a6 8 16 in . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . . /2a+Y\ 8. (s + i). + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 26.
(ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 5. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. + 1. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2. 4. 5. 4. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. + c(a  c). 3. 5. 4. . 2. . 2. 3. 5. 1. 2. 2. 1. 1.f ac 1. 6. 3. 2. 4. 1. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1.c )(fta) 1. 2. 3. 1. 4. a ft c = = 2. 2. 6. 4. 3. 4. 1. aft 3 + 4. 3. if y=2j 2. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. + 2. 2 . c if 7 . 1.a(a 4. 6. 6. 2. 5. 3. 2. c = = = 2. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . y 3. 3. 2. 5. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4 2. 24 4. 4.  8 ^ 2. if = = 2. 1. 5. 4. 3. (c 3. 3. 1. 3. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. l. 3. 3. 2. 7. 1. if = = = 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 1. 3. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 2. ft) .  a)(a 1. 5. 3. 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. 6. 5. + 2. 1.  2. ^+^ 3. if x^l. 3. 1. 3. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4. 2.  2. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 5. = 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 2. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 4. 1.
c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 4 y 13. a.\ yz + xz. (5.7 ys. .2 x?/. 15. 4 z .8 3 + 7 x4 . 5. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.a8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. + 4 ?y .  a) (c 2.3 a?y . x3 2 a2 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 10.2.8 + 2 // . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .a) . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 9.x 5 4 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x 3 11. 5. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 12. 8.3 xyz. x 3 x' 14. 2. 7. 1.c' 2 4 / .4.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . f 8. 4.7 y 2* 4.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. x = 4. 25. + 2.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 7 xy 3 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 29. or .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2 x 8. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. .5.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .7 + . 6. 4 x 4 . 1. ' b) + 3. 20. = 2.10. 21.259 x c) .r 6 x  4 xy . 2 .2 a?y + 3 aty . . 17. 4. 2. 9. 2. ~c)(b.2 z8 4 x. 3.1. 2. 8 . + 1.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. + 3 y 2* . a 4 + 11 a . 5.5 xy 3 + + 4 .2 x2 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 3. x C 4 4x y + .2. 40. a: . a.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. if a 6 = = c = 3. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 18. + 8 x4 *y . 4. c)(x a} . 41. 15. a /> 3.a 5 a . + 4. c = 3. r> .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 7y 4 . 24. 16. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . b(x (b 1.a 4 . 21. 5. . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 26. 6 a4 4 a8 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.
4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 7 12 . take the sum of G x 5 .3 .c.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .7.3 . a  ft + c. 29. 2 x 32. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. Simplify 31.{2 x 2 .a ft. 33.] 26. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .[4 z 8 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. = x y ft z.x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. c 4ft. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 34.4.260 19. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 3 ft.[4 x 4. .(x 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4 3 5 y/ .#48. 36. .(5 c . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.6T .1). From of 2 the 4.8 3 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .(x* .c 3 a. f ft.6 x ] .(4 x 2 .5 .3 x .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. ft.. x8 x2 2 a'2x. . ft 25.2 . 4 2 x2 23. : a x . sum of .(4 * .4 ft) 4.x . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 0" 30.4 Vl 4. c =x y }~ z.{G * 2 . 542 x 2 and . c 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 x 8y2 44 . 35.x . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .2) .4) .1)}] . 4 4 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.c 4 3 a. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 5 4 7 12 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].5. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .2 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.2 3 ax 2 . (*) a  c.x2 . 4vTT~y 3. 5 10 + 7 . . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 5 10 4 G 11 4. of a.2 a . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .c. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . and .(5 y . . 4 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. Take the sum 4x 4. .?> x 4 20.27~~7)}]. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.(a .(7 x 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.3. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. x'2 .x 2 4.
5)} + (3 a 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .{2 a (ft .[4 x  5 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.2)(1 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.2x + 3).3c). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 63.3 c)]. 45. .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (r (1 (a.rf)} + a [.{2 a .6)}]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .(5 y . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . + *+!){> + 2). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.4 a .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .{3 c .0)} . )(lz a ). 60. (/> 4 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 62.(7 i + 4 r:) .c 2 . (x .2 2 + 1)(7. a . 54. 2 : 7e)a}].6 xy . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2 zz .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 57.(2 a 2 .5 )}] + {4 c .a~^~c)K]. 49.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .56.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 48. a {.b (c .(2 a + 5 a .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 51.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].6c) (a + f c). 4 + 2 2 + 1). .3)(*5)(* 7).  2 a  {3 2x a .1). 3 x 42. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (1 ar+a. 59. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. . 46. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 2 f [3 c 7 a . .3). .(2 x2 . 56. + 4x + 5)(j.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 68. 2 2 x + !)(* .2c(V/ .2a .& + {.(7 a.2 2 .3 z 2 ).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (.(2 .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).Z .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .7). 50.3 *). 2 52. . (. (4 + 3a 2 . 13 a . 67.be) (a 58. (1 55.c).4 a 2 + a 4 ). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 65.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (x. 43.(4 d . 'J 44.12).(6 .ab . 64. . 2 53. 2 ft 41.96 [17 a. .[2 .ac . (5 a 39. .
2 ft}) f (3 a . 89. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. ar .c) .3 (ft . xy y 2 ).ft) + 4(2 . 88.c)} . 1).r 2 .n pc). 85. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(a 48 8 8 4.m np c .O (a 4(a 4.c) 4) (ft 4.y + z)(x + y . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c) . 86.am&t 4 A 2 *).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .{3 a . ft 95.(4 .q). 91. 74. 93.z\x 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). f 72. (x (x ( + *) .z) . 79. 2 + a 2 ).a) 2 .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).x + y + z).c . 1). 83. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 71. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (a (2 b)*(a 4. 73. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .3y) a (* 2 4.v) 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 4 4 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 76.3 a .c . . Prove the following 8 4. 87. .2y)(. 90.c) j.b 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).(a 2) (s 4 ft.9y2).262 69.y).(c 4. 77.c)]. 75.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c) rr identities. 84.y)\x y). 4.2 (a . 2 (x 2 . ft 78. 92. 70. (a 2 ft 2n 4.6*y .(ft 4. .<f(p . ft /. ft" l Simplify 80. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 82. ft ft ft a}.c) 2 . (.:y)( a. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 94. (p 2 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.5 .z)(x y + z)(. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).2 (y 4.ft) 4 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. b 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.(/>  3 v)^(.
(20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.3 a"+ 4. 121. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 114. (2< 107. . 116.r 4 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.b) 98. 3*.4 aft . 123. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. (a 8  8 68 8 4. 99 100.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.y 4 ) .5 b*). a*.(7 xi/ .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).6 y 4 4. 10).a".v/ ~ // = a: . 124. 108.9 x 2 . 102. 109.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (. .5 xy). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).(2 a 2 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .16 a 6 4.1). 103. r . 113. [10( 4. 25 4 .&).40 />) . 26 (a 4 c).35 x 2 2 ) . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).(a 1 2 8 . 117.2 xy 8 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 105. 2 (a+ . 1). 1O4.y 4 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.y 2 4. (8 x* 115. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.(x 2 . 106. (80 a 112.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).xy 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).27 x* . 110. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.*) (x 8 .2 2% 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 2 4 41 x 4a.) . 118.2y 2 4. 120. 122.
10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . x 147.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 3) = x\x . 7(2 x .8 6 . o o 140.a:)]}. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 143.1) .3(* + 4) + 9} . 127. 135. 137.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).19) + 5 = 4 .2) + 2(ar + 4).5{.(x .5). 136.27 a 3" .2(4 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .4(0 x .1) (a? . . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.4) .3) = 12 . 2 4(ar .2) (a: + 3).9) 4.2) = 3 .(x f 9).n . 10(2 x 141.5) = 12(4 x . 129. 148. 1) . 128. . .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3 a:). 126.3) (3 x 4. 5 146. .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). . 138. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(5 .4) . (*+ + .22.2(j: .9) + 3. 1) = 2(* .2(10 x .12 M 132.r + 7[or .G) .7) = 4 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.18 *&) (1 . (4 x .3(2 z . .3 x). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.(x + 3) ] .3). 142.(1 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 3(2 x 134. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .264 125.3). 139. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . .(j a? 144.2 7^~5] + 1).r>) .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 5(2 x . (5a: 150.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 42(3ar 145. 149.7(4 * .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . y (* l x.
159. 155. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.z) (4 . 2 4 .8) = (2 x 4. transformed into F.T)O . 154.2 x) = (1 .r + 3) . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5)(. (7 14 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (2 . 162. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.5*) + 47. = 2 C.3) (3 .25) 2 . 157. The sum What 171.l)(z . = 15. .1) O + 4) = (2 * .2) (j? + 1) + (x . 265 152. (3 O + . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. (a . + 4) (2 x + 5).? . + 2) + (5 . 164.3) (a: .a:) + 229.2) a + 7(x . =  (F 32).(5 x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.5(x . The second contains 3 first.5) = (3 .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.17) 2 + (4 x . will produce F.2 x) (4 .4) (a .2) (7 *) + (*. (x (x a.5 x) = 45 x . find the value of F. + 5) = (9 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.9) + (a. sheep more than the 169.14) (a: + 3). 166.3) = (3 x . 153.3) (j. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. + 10) (ar .76. How many 170. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.. a: ar a. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.6 x) (3 . 165.24. (a) If C. If the area of the frame inches. .7) (1 x . . . (a. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 156.3) (3 .1) (s + 3). and the third twice as many as the first. 163. 160. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.29) 2 = 1. 5(ar x .7) (a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 161. f^ + ^sO. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. .19) + 42. 158. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . these two angles would be equal.2).
178. younger than his Find the age of the father. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 179. 189. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.56. aW + llab2&. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. father. 186. . train. and 5 h. side were one foot longer. same result as the number diminished by 175. z 2 + x . 188. 15 m. two boys is twice that of the younger. +x 2.266 173. ll?/102. + a. 180. dimension 182. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. number divided by 3. z 2 92. 190. A each 177. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A boy is father. 176. 2 2 + a _ no. 10x 2 192. 181. Find the dimensions of the floor. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. if each increased 2 feet. Find the number. + 11 ~ 6. was three times that of the younger. 187. 13 a + 3. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 4 a 2 yy 42. power one of the two Find the power of each. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. respectively. 12 m. x* 185. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. sister . . A house has 3 rows of windows. . 3 gives the 174. 7/ 191. How many are there in each window ? .36. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass.
a+a* + o a +l. 246.(b + rf) 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 245. 3y 248. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . .64. 209. a: . 195. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 224. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 222.28. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 239. 2 x 2 . 5 x 2. 217. 6 197. 202. 12 x +4. a. 2 .12 * .19 a . *2 234. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 213. 2 a 2 .21 a:  54. 7a 228. 2a te 3% ly 247. 4 m +^. 212. 218. x 219. 230. 2 a 8 . 8 a: ar. x 5 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a: 231.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . + 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. 227. 229.8 6 2. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .1. a. x* + 8 2 + 15. 211. 235. 7x 2 225.6 2 ?/ .6 aq . + 198. a a: a: 237. 210. 208. 267 199.6s. 4a 2& 2 241.6. 3 ap 2 .x + 1. a: 236. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 233.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 206. a^a 226. x*y 223. a. ifWy+b.6 y2 + 4. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 60 a 2  a: // 205.19 z 4 204.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 238. 2 200. (a + . 23 12.c) 2 . . xm+l 243. . 24 2 + 2 . 3 x 2 . wiy + la mx + aw. 8 a. a.10 xy. 232. # 2  29 y + 120.22 z + 48. . 207.20 z 8 a: 220. 3y 2 + ary .10. 201. z 2 2. + 30 x. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .14 2 . 203. 244.10 y a x* . 216. 215.c) 2  (a . a 2 .3 xy. z + 5x 2 . . + 3a 196. + 8. y 2 194.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 3 x V .77 y + 150. 221. . 2 2 y f 1. . 16x 4 81.r?/f y 2 9. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.
80.2 z . 252.15 + 30. 7 12 2 2 . 2 8 . x 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.16 x .ry 21.6 by. a? a: a: // 262. 265.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). + 8 x + 5.11 x f 28.23 + 12.120. x 2 263.13. + 8. 10 x 2 . * 2 .11 a 2 .3 x .5 ab f 2. 2 x2 . 264. 258.9.73 xy . 30 ^ .ry . a 3 a 2 2 .4. x* . 3 #2 255. C. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 5 x 2 256.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. + 20 x 4.9 x . * 2 .2 aft*.4 ab + 1. F. 8 2 + 10 x . a: .(55. of: 253. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . * a .7 f 5.18 xy + 5. a.a + 2 4. 269. 22x2 a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 259.91. 3 a% 2 . of: 266. 28 2 f 71 x . 270. ft a.3 abc .C. + 23 x f 20. 261. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 10 a. 15 # 2 z/ /. 2 a. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . * 2 .x .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.M. 251.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 18 x 2 .48 afy 2 . 7 ax 250. a 4. z 2 268.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 2 . x 2 + 2 x . x 2 4. 260.8.r . I Find the II.1 9 .2/ 2 .G7 x f 33. z 2 267. Reduce to lowest terms 271.14 bx a%% 8 .10 a 4.&z.23 x f 20.3. x*y* 4.12. + 3 x + 2.15. 254.9 x + 14. 2 + 7 r f 2. x 2 + 5 f . .36. 1 x ar Find the L. 6. x 2 + 4 + 3. x* . 257.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 3 ay 4.10.
REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 289 ' .2c a: 282.(y 2 z) * t (j. 285 z4 n* + a. *2 " 2 + Oge.. a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .ar 1 279.J' 4 2 2 w mp . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . 8 .. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .!/.2* + 3 x* 280. + ac .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. z2 (a 2 + c)a.rL. m 4.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.
* 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^_2*(m 308. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x 7. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a (: a) (x 2. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. Lnl + ar 2 a.
( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. (1 .. 1 _. 1a: + y a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . . 2 + y 2 319. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.(a .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. a: 1 313. (a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 .ft) 2 322. } .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 x2 + + a.
.5 a .6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.V  + y  x 3y a .y20  2y + 4 2 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . . 250 5 10 2 325.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . * 3a.9 *// + 27 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . a: 2 x* .7 xy + 12 x .ll... ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 20 44 333. 2 lOx 5x.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.15 33 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.
(a \ + lV.) 2 . 5 343. 1 345. (ar \ 346. a: 349 _ o. 352. if a = 3.+ r . + ni + . 338. 7 ( ?f!?. w \. xi 347. ** i. ( 342. +^ a: y x .. 344. a>74 . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.r 5 2 .1V. \x yj 340. aj 339. ' 2 "l 5 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 348.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (af2/. ?_2 ^ .y. : 1+ i. fl. + l + IV. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. f V. (aWi + iJ. \5yl 341.
+ x x a . a2 4 . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. (~ 364.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. y360. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.*2 = 15. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. J !__7. . 4(* . <3 378. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 8  376. + 1) 45 O 377. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. . 5 {2 x 381. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 379. ^ .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.
5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. m x 398.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  8 9* x ~r. 401.  J).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).25.. 396.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. c . . . 3* 177. + 4 a.1 .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 399. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.75 x f . 397.6  ..5 x =r f . b 404.25 x + . u '2 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 400. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 40. ^ (a . _____ .147. f 1 1 + a 403.2 a:  1.8 = .5 ^ ~ a: a.
and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 18 be subtracted from the number. Tn 6 hours . How long is each road ? 423. (x . far did he walk all together ? A . 421. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Find the number.278 410. and was out 5 hours. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 411. 420.  a) 2 6 2a.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. In a if and 422. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.c) . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 418 ~jo.
Find the mean proportional to 429. 2 2 8 2 . b. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). y. a  t>. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 438. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). find the angles of the triangle.46 2): (15a 2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. x 427.a 2^ 8 + aft* . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. z 2 y. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. If a b : =5 n : 7. : If is one equal 434. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 428.6 8 ). if . : i. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Solve 436. Find the length of the parts. 3 and 1J.iand 22 22 I a . a + 5. 430. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Which ratio is greater. find : a : c. .& 5 ) (a 8 . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. . and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the fourth proportional 426.49 63). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 432. z2  y\ x* xy + y*.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . . 433. 435. a. d. wi* + y= ny. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 431.
5 2 = 7 .55 y = . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 448. ft. 443. 1(3  a. 42 = 15y + 137.11 y = 95. 445. + 5y = 59. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5z4:# = 3.rf2# = l. . 16. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 8 .(or l(*2y)=0. Solve the following systems: 441. 3 a. ft. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 455. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). . The volumes If their diameters.11 7. /) ar a. 446. 451. 7 442.7 y = 25. 9ar7# = 71. 7 a: .59 = 3 z. 458. Find the value of a. 56 + 10y = 7a. />(. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 456.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. a. c. 5x+4y=lQ. . 28 = 5 a . 4 = 5 y + 29. 9/> = 2 . .. 454. 3 . a: 2y= = 1 . if 2 ft : 439.89 = q. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 444. . 453. 457.*. x + 17 # 53. = 25.4 12 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 449.35. 459. 450. 7a?y = 3. ?/ 447. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 452. 7jr9y = 17. 15ar = 20 + 8y.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 8 x + y = 19. a: a: + 5y).
' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. + eyn.+ =2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . (or . 473.?/ + 1 . _ 469. 475.  = 2. x y 474. ax cx by = m. 468. i = 5. ax by = c \ 472. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.2y) (2 = 2J.c=563y. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .7. 465.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ^ + i^ = 7.. 8 461.
half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. years. How much money less 484. 485. 483. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the numbers. Find the principal and the rate of interest. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 481. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find their ages. 479. by 4. the Find their ages. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and in 20 months to $275. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 486. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the number. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and the other number least. Find the sum and the rate of interest. to . and in 18 months to $2180. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 477. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A number consists of two digits 4. age. fraction becomes equal to . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A spends \ of his.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the fraction. 487. whose difference is 4. .
= 15.z = 20. 496. . and the difference of their Find the numbers. a. a: + // = 11. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 492. ~ 507. 489. 4z+3z = 20. ifi = x a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 493. 4 506. 498. of two the sum of the digits also if number. : Solve the following systems 491. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x f y f z 29 . 2 a. . 7 + 2 z . 8. 2a:f 7. 494. z y ifi = z x 502. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . x y f z = 13. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. ./ 504. 2 2 = 41. + # +z= 35.? + 2y = 8. 5^ 9z = 10. 3ar 503. a number . = 20. 7. = 209. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.5#+2z = $x a: G. y Solve : x +z= 5. 3 a: + 5=84. z y x 25 . 1+1 = 6. \ . *i. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 2/>3r = 4. 2y + 3a = ll. 490. + y 5 y = 101 . a: f z = 79. a: 499. * + 425  = . 1. 4 497./ f z =a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 e. 495. . . 2y + 2z = a: 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 3 x 500. a.z = 12. x s + y z = 18J . 5 + a.
!f == 2800. + + 3579 2+?. 517. ll" . + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 36 + c. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c. 523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. Find the present ages of his father and mother. 90. What are their rates of travel? . When weighed in water. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. the first and second digits will change places. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. it is filled in 35 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. if the number be increased by Find the number. touches and F respectively. CD. If they had walked toward each other. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Tf and run together. How long will B and C take to do . L. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. E 533. . In circle A ABC. AC in /). A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it separately ? 531. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . if L and Af in 20 minutes.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and CA=7. in 28 minutes. M. Find the numbers. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. 530. 527. AB=6. 532. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. N. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. BC = 5. and BE. . In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. they would have met in 2 hours. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.
One dollar equals 4. a. + 3. i. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . d.e. 2. x*. 547. to do the work? pendulum. The values of x if y = 2. 545. 2 541. 543. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. formation of dollars into marks. 2 x + 5. 540. z 2  x x  5. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 546. x *x + x + 1.  3 x. if x = f 1.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. the function. 2  x  x2 . 550. x 2 + x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. .  3 x. The values of y. 548. . x*  2 x. from x = 2 to x = 4. e. FRANCE. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. then / = 3 and write = 3. 3 x 539. 536. 542. x 2 544. b. The greatest value of the function. GERMANY. x 8 549. c. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.  7. 2. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.10 marks.
' = 8. a? 4 x .6 + 3 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.9 = 0. 2 x 2 560. c. . c. e. . 2 554. h. 563. 565.3 = 0. a.= 0. 555. x 2 ~ 2 .G . + 10 x .11 = 0. Represent meters. 2.r .4 x 2 + 4 .r a: a: x a. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 3 x . 15.11 x* + + 2 8 569.7 = .4 .1 = 0. J.= 0. 2 8 . z 2 . 2 567. Solve// = 0. = 5.0. a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. x 4 . and make the unit of the b.5 x .3 x . If y +5 10. j. 562. 564. r?. + 5 . 556. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. if y =m has three real roots. 2 a. . x* .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. i.r 1 561. f. 18 x  4 = 0. Solve 552.13 = 0.3 . 3 x* . 572. 553.3 x . 568. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 3 + 3 z .  2 1 a: a. 566. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. \ to t = 5.15 = 0. x 5 . 3 . z 4 .17 = 0. 557. a. g.4 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a: 559. 558.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.
o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 3 (f. (1 + x a. 604. a 2a. 4 a. 600. + + 4 .%) 4 (aa. 4 (1a:) 3.4. (a. 593. 1 . 2 611.(1 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 592. + . 599. f ?>) 3 591. 64 a 12 603. 579. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. a:. + ^) + (air%)8. j^f = 3. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 585 594. 2  2 aa: 2 . 5 a*. x + z2) 8 . x [ ?/ 577. 4 . (# 2) .frf : 583.5 xy = 0. 608. 595. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 596. + %) (a* + *) 5 . jj+. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (aiy. 609.x + 2 )'2 601.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . <r)3  2 3 a:) .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 597.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a 8 606.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. : y* or 25.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 588.2 6a: + 30 &c a. a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. [ y =10. 582. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 3 .2 2 + y. 6 + 1) . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 9  4 fSb 607. xY. 598. a 612. 589. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . a: . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (a  8 ft) . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. (1 (1 (1 .
49. 645.*. 4370404. + 112 a 8 . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . Find the square root of 619.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.30. 650. x 2 . (x 9 x 646.2410. : 5. 632. + 24 a 2 4 . 637. x 2 641. 638.12 a?y + y*. a 642. 629. 8*' + 24* = 32. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 9g. = . 633. *+* = 156. 371240. 2 + 189 z = 900. = 87. 630. 643. VOIOOD + V582T09. 644. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. According to Kepler's law.15174441. = 70. 625 : 621. 2 + 21Ga. 623.\/4090. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. + 2 21 x = 100. 647t x 2 648 649. 639. 636. 2. 626. 9a.V250 . 035.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. + 54 'x*y* . /. 615.53 x ~ .1024 x + a: 256. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 628. 4J. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. V 635. ft . 44352. 634. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .150. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 494210400001. Find the eighth root 617. 622. 3a. 32 631. 7) 2. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 620. 40. GGff. V950484 . = 0. 942841. 614. 21.191209. 0090. 25023844. 651.871844.2. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 624. 210. 49042009. find Jupiter's period. 49.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.bx .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 1 __ : )'*' _i. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 . ax 2 698.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. ex abc= fx 0. = 0. 694. 2 702. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 699. 692. 707. 696.c = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 695. 2 2 697.ax . 693.a a )jr . 708. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. a. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 706.
44#2 + 121 = 0.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. **13a: 2 710. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 721. 723. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 717. Find the price of an apple. 727. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 724. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. . 3or i 16 . 217 . 729. 722. Find two numbers whose 719. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.292 709. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. How shares did he buy ? if 726. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.25 might have bought five more for the same money. sum is a and whose product equals J. 725. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 16 x* . A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 716. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. and working together they can build it in 18 days. A equals CO feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. in value. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. a: 713. 12 4*+  8.
41. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 32. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2)(x2 4. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 35. 42.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f c" ).1 f ^ 2).)(ai + &. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 52. 46. 43. 36. 31.aft* 1 + a 2*. 38. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2? 50.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 40. . 37. (v/x).1 + x. 33. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 ). 34. 39.l). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. .2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .X . 1 6. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).1 + c. n. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.
758. 754. JU. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.294 753. ~ r* x . 2V2 2V3 . [1r^ T 1 i . \/G86 v/lGv/128. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 761. 768. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.1+J 756. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759.
Va 809. 13 799.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.2 V30. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .VlO. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 3J . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 786.12VIT. 793. 787. 14 791. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 7512V21. . + 2V21. 790.2V3* ^ 807. 92VI5. 783. . a 9442V5. c 792. 789. 16 + 2V55. 806.4 V(j. 10 785. 103 788. 794. 3812VIO. . x 782.
812. = 1. Va: . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.f 5 = V5x + 4.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . VaT+lJ f ^l . (x a: 2 ) 4 . 820. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + ViTli + V7 .V? = 813. V3 f 1 V4a.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 831. 819. + 103Var. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . 818. 836. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.g.13 = 0. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.V2 ar 10. 829.79. + Vx .\/2y  810. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 816. 3 x + 2 . 830.Vc^lJ . \/12 a. 811. 833.4 = 0. 815. V14 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . /9ar a: = 17. 814.
y 4. a 872. a. 64. 844. +3 4 +  4. . a. 2 a: 64 y*. 871. V4 x 2 . 2 f" + a/ 15.10 = 118. 4 x* 847. a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 275 8 l. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.  3x a.a. 876. 8 2a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 853. 8 4a: 8 a. 8 8 848. a*" & 6n . x 4 + f 2 a. f 841. 875. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . x 8 2 857. 865. 5 a 4 7 a8 . a l0m . 729 867. 16 859. a: 849.1. 6. 27 y 8. 870. . + . 4o. 27 862. + 1. 868.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 8  13 a. 8 . . x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 860. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 861. a 8 869.3 . 40 x 2 7 f 49. f 12.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.3 x .3 Va: 2 . .1000 6. 4 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 855. 863. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8^27^. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.12. 2 x 3. a. f b**. a. 856.ab9 ft*. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 64 a 866. 839. a 18 4. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 4 x 8 858.x*y + 3x f 2. a: . 4 a: 2 842. 851. a 8 850. z*y 8 l64a. + 512 y8 874.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .3 a:. 852. 840. 9. 19 x 14. 864. 8 a. 846. 845. a 8 873. 6 2 f 3 6 s.
a: 888. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. x 8 3 = 13:3. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.15. 885. 883.xy + y 2 = 19. y 2 4.35. 2 + xy = 10. a# f + xy = 126. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + xy = 28. 2 . 2 . 889. 899. a. 2 2 = 16 y. y 2 2 8f. 895. 894. 887. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . +y f y = 7. a. xy + y = 32. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 900.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a. . + ary + 2 = 37. .sy = 198. 2 = 2 + 5. a:y . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + 2 f = 17. x 882. + 2y=\2. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. z 2 898.y 2 = 2 y + 2. x*xy.1 = 2 a#. 2 + y 2 . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 901. . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 886.298 877. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y*+ xy . 890. 896. . a: + y 2 = 34.18. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.5 xy + 4 f = 13. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .y 2) = 20. 3 x 2 . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.y 2 + V(j. x a: lI = xz .Vi' + 1 1_3. a: 884. a: a. f ?/ a: a: . . y = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 5. a: 2 897. M1 891 1 . 1 x 893. 878. y y 2 y 2 1121.
917. . xy + x= 15. + ary = a*. 923. + y)(a.3) 2 f (y .y) (a? . a: y zx 12. 911. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 908. + ?/) .y = a(ar + y). 7 y . (a.3)2 = 34. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 924. 912. *y . y + a:y = 180. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 5 xy = 11.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.y) = 33. 909. y x 2 = by.y). L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ^ 2 . + a. . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. (* 918. + 2 a:y + = 243. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. a: * a: a: ar 928. ary y = 8. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 2 2 2 916. = 8. xa 903. 4 (a. # + xy + y = 7. (3 x . 3 y 8 ) =1216. (!) * . a: a. 2 * 2 ~ g. Vary + y = 6.y) (3 y . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 + y = 2 a 4.23 = 200.y2 = 22. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 921. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a.r a.3(* + y) = 6. 2 913.x) = 21. 905.#y + 2 = 27. a:y xy 929.6. x 2 ry + y = 3. x 4 299 xy z 904. 907. 914. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. * + y = 444. x + y 2 = aar. 2 915. or or a? a: a: . y 3 2 2 922. a. 3 :r(3 . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.16 y 3 8 = . x f 2 a:y = 32. 906.2 y) = 49 2 919. (o. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 910. 23 x 2 . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. + y 8 = 189. + y = 9. + 2 ary = 39. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. yz = 24. 920. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.
The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76. two squares equals 140 feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Find the numbers.000 trees. A is 938. y(x + y + 2) = 133. is 20.102. 937. is 3 . two numbers Find the numbers. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 942. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. . In the second heat A . Assuming = y. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. + z)=18. A plantation in rows consists of 10. feet. and also contains 300 square feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the sum of their areas 78$. s(y 932. rate each man ran in the first heat. 935.300 930. find the radii of the two circles. and 10 feet broader. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 2240. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. + z) =108. feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 34 939. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 152. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. A and B run a race round a twomile course. 943. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. (y + *) = .square inches. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and the difference of 936. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. *(* + #) =24. two squares is 23 feet. is 3. y( 934. How many rows are there? 941. diagonal 940. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. a second rec8 feet shorter. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 931. 944. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.
The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find the eter 947. that B A 955. its area will be increased 100 square feet. sum Find an edge of 954. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . and that B. triangle is 6. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. whose 946. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Two starts travelers. distance between P and Q. What is its area? field is 182 yards. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 951. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 949. overtook miles. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and if 594 be added to the number. . and its perim 948. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find in what time both will do it. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. 950. Find the number. 952. and travels in the same direction as A. unaltered. at Find the his rate of traveling. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. A and B. 953. the digits are reversed. P and Q. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. each block. is 407 cubic feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find the number. set out from two places. Find its length and breadth. . Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.
Sum Sum to infinity. Find n. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. '.>/) to infinity. Sum to 20 terms. 1G series . and 976. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.1 4 f j$V . 970. . 966.v 973. 18th terms of an A. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10..  2. (x 4 to n terms. 969. to infinity....to infinity. ^ 1 .. *" 968. 4. . Find n f (ft) .4142 . .. f + 1 . 36 963..454. . to 7 terms. difference. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. 9th and llth terms of an A.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. s  88. 3 . 972.141414. 961. 12434+ j I 967. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.V2 . Find the sum of 4. 1 to n terms. 971. J. 5. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .. 964. are 29 and 53.. 957. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. x(x to 8 terms. 16 962. P. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 958. Evaluate (a) . + (iiven a +  4 d . 5. 974.. Find an A. P. P. P. Sura to 24 terms. = 4.302 956.. !Ll^ + n . n to n terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). (to 2 n terms). 3 + 5 7 + . Find the Find the common 977. \ ... fourth of the unity.. ^ Vfirst five 959.3151515. 975..321? 965.. 4 4 to 7 terms . the terms being in A.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. to n terms.
to 105? 981.01 3. P. Find the first term.1 + 2. 992. P. 980. first 984. 990.. doubling the number for each successive square on the board..) the last term the series a perfect number. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. is 225. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. of n terms of an A.. and the common difference. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. The sum 982. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 5 11. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 986.. and of the second and third 03. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 985. "(. to oo.+ lY L V.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 0. 4 grains on the 3d. The 21st term of an A. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . P.04 + .3 ' Find the 8th 983. 1. Find n.. .001 4. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. named Sheran.. 987. Find four perfect numbers.. 303 979. to n terms. : + 9   V2 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .001 + .2 . to infinity may be 8? . Find the sum of the series 988. Find four numbers in A. and so on. 2 grains on the 2d. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 989. The term.
. 997. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 994. of squares of four numbers in G. ABC A A n same sides. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 1003. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. If a. The sum and sum . are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 995. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. Under the conditions of the preceding example. are unequal. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. ft. prove that they cannot be in A. (a) after 5 strokes. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. is 4. 1001. The sum and product of three numbers in G. c. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. (6) the sum of the infinity. are 28 and find the numbers. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. Two travelers start on the same road. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. many days will the latter overtake the former? . in this circle a square. find the series. P. at the same time. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. AB = 1004. P. The fifth term of a G. inches. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. P. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and so forth to infinity. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 998. 1000. 999. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . in this square a circle. and G. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 512 996. areas of all triangles. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.
Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1006. (12 #) 7 . 1012. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . . Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. a: 8 7. + lQ .ft) 19 . 2 ) 5. ) 1021. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the two middle terms of 1013. x) 18 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of ( . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. 1011. 1009. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1014. .o/) 14 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. (1 1018. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .l) w f . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)".
.
. signs of Algebraic expression .. 232 169 807 . 9 ** ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . ... . 9.. 54. 123 . .... 246 91 " multiple. ... ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ..130 . quadratic . 112 54 54 251 .108 160 " .. numerical . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. . .178 Completing the square . 232 mean progression .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ... .. . . ... .. . 19. 129.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES... 37.. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 160 in quadratic form 191 . . . .... Checks Coefficient 20.. . ... 129 54. Brace Bracket Character of roots . . graphic tion of representa ..193 11 . 8 . 97. lowest ratio " '* . . .] Abscissa Absolute term . t 53 120 . Aggregation. 158. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. simple simultaneous . .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 ... linear literal Common ** * difference ... . . .. ..
L. . arithmetic . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .. . 184 54. . . .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. .C Multiplication . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . Imaginary numbers ... Inconsistent equations . . .. G. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. first and second . . 205 . INDEX 8 .154 Order of operations " of surds . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 91 .. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 241 123 geometric . law of Extraneous roots . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 112 .31.808 Exponent Exponents. Mean " 81) proportional Mean.. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 34. 180. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Insertion of parentheses . .. 23 10 91 102.. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Mathematical induction . Product '* 76 Infinite.. directly. . . . 109 102 . 45. 17 65. P . . . 84. 63. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 45.. .. . 143. . . 9. . . 227 . Negative exponents 11 . Geometric progression . 120 Member.. . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. 114. 195 33. . 212 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 45 Laws of signs ... 189. Like terms Linear equation . 253 28 70 1. numbers . 227 geometric .108 Minuend . exponent . addition of " square of . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 243 7 . inversely 122 numbers . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Known numbers .
. absolute 54 Variable . 27 17 Unknown numbers ... .. Sum.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . binomial Third proportional Transposition .... .. . polynomial .. 45 Trinomial 240 . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . .... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . .. 129. 4 155 9 " of ..... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. algebraic Surds . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 9.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value...
.
ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
S.COPYRIGHT. U. 1916. 1910.A. Published September. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd. Mass. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . Norwood.. December. 8. Gushing Co. NorfoooS J. August. 1917. Reprinted April. 1910. 1913.
22. 27. 17. _ 32. Page 13. $40. 15. x. 3. . 19. 6. South America 46. 14. 20. 6 yd. ^. 1. 18.000. 17. 2. 13. 3. 21. 18. A 15. 3. Australia ft. 9. 256. 16. A 38 mi. westerly motion. 9.. 16f 2.000. 24. 9. 10. 16. 14. 19 4. 3. 59. 13 S. 9. Page 8. 30. 0. 20. 49. 20 B. 21. 17. per sec. 14. 10g. 12. 8. 9. in. 2 5.000 negroes. 8. is $10. 20. 49. 4. 2. 15. 15. 14. 2. 3. 28. arithmetic. (a) (/>) 1. 3.000. 8. 16. 1. 10. 150. 4. 2. Not 5. 9. 5. 17. 12. 3. 8. 6. 12. x.  1. 30?. 28. 22. 7. i . 24.. 13 V. 1. 9 16  larger than 7. 10. 32. 6. 5. 18.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 13. 1. 7. 144. 7. 7. 25. 7. in 12. 4. 7. 12. 2  Page 8. 12. 7. 5. 23. 2. 11. C $1(50. 3 below 0. 16. 10. 21. 2. 12.3.. A Bl 7. 4. . Ot 15. 1. 8. 16. ft. 3. 1. 64. 1. 1. 6. 32.00000001. 16. 16 in. 3. 73. 14 11. 1. 9. 2. 27. 5. 18. 14. 13 d.000 Indians. 126. 26z. B $20. 72 = = 216. 37 S.. 37. sign. 85. B $ 128. 6. B $80. c. Page 4.2. 3. 3.000. 3. 10.1. 6. 6.$9400.000. 9 14. C $ 16. 9. 27. 4. 6. 14. 18.. 15. $100. 12. 11. loss. 13. 3. 1. 16. sign. 9 m. 2. 32.. 19.150. 6. 9. Page 1. B 10 mi. 210. 9 = 4. C $60. 3 m.000. 8 ft.. 16 in. $ 1 50 10. 1. 8. 7. 13.000. 4. 11. 6. 25. 3. . Yes. 24. 3* 7.21 24. 192. 16. 3. 3. 5. 2. 10. + 1. 6.  22 20. Multiplication. 2 ~ 15. 8 13. 4. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 11. 20 \.  13. 32. 6. 2. T . 1 16. 29. 36. 115. }. B $4700..000. 19. 13. 5. 25. Page?. . 576. 17. 25. in. 2. 89. 128. 2. 11. 6* 16. 48 ft. = 5 81. 7. 12. 12. 12. 20 jo.  1. 8. 7m. 16.  2 p. 14. 5. 2. A $90. 1. 15. 10. 20. 5. 2. 26. b. $160. 29. 0. 3. V 23. 14. 1. 18.12.8. 5000. 1.C.. . 1. 106. 10. A . 512.
15.. 8. 8. 14. Page 23. 27. 19. :J!>r'. . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. //'. 0. c. 12.5f> sq. 39. 12. 2x' 2 5 . I. (a} 100 1(5 cm. o^ft. yyz+xyz*. 13. t. + ft). . 21.ab. in. 12. Page 21. 32 2 ftc. 33. 2. 17. vi 14..14 sq. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 5x+3.. 26. a ft c. 2. arty 1 20. in. 4 9/^/rl 2. 37.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 173. 5. in. (ft) Page 2.~4. 25. 3 . ft.r 2 . 16. (a) 200. 14:). \'\ 4. 12yd. 32. 33. 2. 23. 04. 12. 10. ]*. 21.. 35. 14. ft. 2oVmf?i. Page 31. 20. 13. 15. 3.. 22. (ft) 7. 8. 18. 1. 7. Monomial. 13 cu. = ()501. Page 18. 38 ab. 57. 25. 23. 5. 3.1.9?/2 8. 21^. 27.32 c2 > ft 3 . 7. 3a. jrif 4 9. 34. 3(c4a). 9. 18. 41. 19. . 16. 1.. m + 3(a. r:A 29. 17. 7. i:5.x. ft. 2. sq. 240. 24. 9.94(>. ^. (r) 2. 17. 35. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 0. Binomial. :. 58. 34. 14. 12.  2 4 13 ft 2 . It. 1. = 81.. 3. 8. ft f 19. 14.ft. 15. +/2(/. rt. 22( 19. in. 20. m 24. 0. 8. 3. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 12 a. $80. 42. 13. 11. 32. 4. ft n. 5. 2ftx. 14.  12. 11. ^). 15a. 28. mi. 16. r/ \(\xyz. 15. 21 a 3 4 10. 20(.GOG. 3.. (ft) 12. 27. 4. 51 f. 1. 3. 49. 30.<>Gq. + 5. (a) 50.. ??i??. _ 4 . 20. 1. 17. 43w//2 17. 1. 10. $3000 Page 6. 27.  3. 7. 28. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. . + v> 2 .. Polynomial. 26.r f 15.  1. 13. 00 24 04 ft.a . 314 sq. . 0. 4. 0. (r) 78.r~ f 34. (59. (a) <> sq. (c) 8. 18. 2.  xV 3 y. a2 4 15^44.000 sq.  40. 50. 14. 6<t. w. 1. 1. 9. 27. (c) S(i. 14.. (b) 135 mi. 0. 31. 13.000 . .. 3. 8. 10. 25. 4 y/ . 2. . 13.  0. 5. 35. (<7) (a) 314 sq. Polynomial. 31. 6. . 11.'J. 5. 7. 4.. 27. 92.3 * 10 r5 <3 .  11.4  2ft 2 33. 22. #1111. Trino inial.q 4. 5. (a 4 4. 22. y. 24. 16. Pagel4r. <i~ 26. 28. II. WIN + wiw. 8. 4. 18. ft' 3 . 12. 29. Page 7. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 22.'JO ft. 9. 5. 6. 15. (r) 2G7. 3. r+l. ft. (ft) $40. 38. 36. 19. 29. 0. (r) 2000 m.4 ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). .ft) 4. 31. 8. 21. 6. ft. 30. 30. 4. 7 7. 11. 0. a 32. f  5e 35. 9. (ft) mi.5 (ft) sq. 17. 3 a* + 2 at*. 18. x^ 20. 104.rty8. 0. 36.900. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 237. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 5. 3rf 27. (a) r>23ifcu.6) 38. 16. 15. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 3. 1.
 1. m*  n*. (mn} 11. 16. + 4 c. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 9. 22. 2x 4 a 13. 2 2 2 6. . . 2. f 2 ?/  2. 17. 11. 1.a f 54. c. 24. 19. f ft 9. 36. a  ISjfat. 21. a' 4ab + ?/. c. a + a. ?>4tl 53. 1 4. + 8. 36.. 2. 7. a2 9. a 52. 2. 51. . j)(g1. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 4wipg>' 27. ii\ 22. 24.x f 1 2 . 56. 13. 43. . 34 39. 25. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 14. 20. 20. 2 6. mn. 2 2. ab a. ti. 7. 13. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. a 3a 4 2 &. 2 17. 2a. . 28. G. &. 19. + c 4 d x + 6 e. a 6 2 . t). 5x 2 rt ft. 2. M + 10. 2.a*. 2 . 364c.3x 2 2 tf. 31.3 6.Oa: + 10. 1.4. (2n' 43p 47 ).11. w 17. 18. 30. . 19. a 10w. _5a<>&43c. 1. 8.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).2 . 8 . 1. 2a: 2 4x. a2 24. 32. 12. a 4 + ft. s_r>a5. 3.a . 59. 18. 2.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.l. 0. _ Page 30. 10 m. a + (ftc4df). 10. 1. Page 8. a  49. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.ws 2 ft) . 2 . Page 28. (yz~d}. 10. 37. 15. ar.5 z?/ + 3 y . c2 . 4. !  </ . a.  17. 42. + 2y. 5. 2 a 37. . 26..2 57. 814. 4. 21. 31.(7x2 Ox2). . 14. 2 4. .4 d. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 14. ^ <. 15. 26.6 x + 0) 16.r. . 7  # + 12.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 4 21. 5.4c 3 8 8 J. 4.  b. 3 a3 & 41. 26. 2 y' 4 . a). 4ft ~.5. 2. n*. r.  4 b 17 y*.8(c + a). 20. 2 a f 6 414. a a. (w4w)(ww). 15. ?/i 13.1.2 ft 2 r2 10. 11.a'2 . 2 3. ft Exercise 17. 18. 2m + 2w. ?> 22. .2 a. 6. 25. 16. 17. 7  a + 2 + c. 3 Ji 8 . 2 + a4l). 12. 2 3x f z. 33. . Exercise 16.7.2 a2 2m 2 4.4x. 0. 2// 16. 6. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .  12. 50.h. 8 + 2 a . 8. 12. 6. . a4 4 4. 40. 24 b 46. 1. w* ( .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 25. 24. ( 7. 5. 1 + 45. . 5 2 Page 29.(2 x2 . 10. G a bd. Page 44. 2. 25 47.aft. 35. 38. 4.1 . 11. 32 w 2 w. lOrt 15w4. 3. 6. 3. . 3 m.  23. 2.  a: 2. 7. 7 a5 1 . . 29. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 34. x a8 1. 12. 0. 4r 2 . a 3& . 58. 7.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . a 3 . 21. (5x47 3. ?/. :5 41.  14 afy . x  + 3z. \ :{ 2 a 48. 14.'U4j>. ri\ 18.  b* 4 r 1 . 3 a . 10 x. 8.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.2.a~.r 2. 2m. 55. '  . + a 2 f 2 a 4. x3 .c. + 6. 5. a f 2 f 2 9. 4. 22. 8 8 . Page 7. 8 b. 4.abc. 2.
8. 28. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 20. x2 xy42^. ?> 4 . 16. iSx8 . 15. ISartyW e*f*tj. 27. 30 n?b*c*. n (a6) 125. 52 + 6s 12. 6". 1.26. + 7.19p" + 19^ 10 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 14 m 2 . a + ft. 30. 2''. . Page 3. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.15. 18.14 w 2 2 . 64.12. 14. 216. 04. 23. a. m. 12. 9. 4 fc.1.28 p'^/. 28. 38wiw. ci 5 . 22. 19. 25 4 4. a: . 14. 13. 16.7(50. 343.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 34. 21. 20 aW. 2 * 80 . ^^ = 20. 19. 60.32 y s s G . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 30. 0. 27. 4aWy. 11. 6. 3300. 11. 9 13. .2. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .25 + 14.64 190 p6.(3x2_4^+7). 3(*+0 + 2). 15.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 18. 29. 3 a 2 46. 8. 21. Ox a 5 . 18. 11. etc. 1.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 13. 34. 15. 15. 27.6 2 . 1. 18a% y. 16. 15 q\ 6. . 4 jcy*z*>.>(/ r . 24. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 12 x2 2 .44 aWc 16 abxy. 66 8W 34. 31. 29. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 30. 31. 29. Page 7. 24. 10. + 58 . 5. 14. 10. s 9 ww. 18. 24. ll 2 i. 23. 83 In + 1 n*. 30.20 xyz . 42. 40 r 2 .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 25. 26. 1400. a*b*c. 60. 3. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 22. 108. +15. 7G . 1. 33. 66 39 k* . 2 2 2 . 7.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19. 4. 216.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .12. 14. + O4 66 . Page 36.. Page 35. 11. 10. 4. 4.6) =a2 31.000. 2*8f x2 6x4. 17. 34.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 25. 29.r% 2 2 ry. 20. 18> ^* = a . 2 n8 29 a + 30. 24. 1904. 32. Page 5.18 w w + 10 WI M . 12. 2 w +2 2 . 21. 2. 17. 3. 30. 20. 6.. ?/ . 18. .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 42. 26. +. 17. (+3)x6=+16. 25. 4200. 8. 2 ). 360. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. . 8. //. 27. 20. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 13. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 35. . 25. 4. a. 2 8 xy f 4 a. . 3. 108. 21 a'&c. 1. 33. 7. 30. 3. 4. 32. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 127"'. 28. 120.19 + 2. 210. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 7. 8 . a 8 . 2 . 102. 20. 0. 9. 6. . 22.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 4 7> 4 :j !} . 16 51.. 13. 22. 76 8 a' 1 . 4. 6.16 x2/ 5 4.8 12. 30 j9 jt?g j . 770. 161b. 33. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 90. Page 38. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 161b. 9.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 16. 6 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 36. 24. 2 7t A.32. 16 lb. 2.. . fa 2. . 15 lb.11 xyz . 37. 23. 14f 5. 2.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a. 2 ). . f 26. 2.21 a 3 c2 21.14 . 7. 13. 28. 18. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.:>/ .57 p6 3 2 4 25. 12. 20. ! 2. 23. 5. 5aft(a 126 2).36 35. 15. 12 ^. 10.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 84. 3 a 3 . 19. 17. ft 17. 27. 4 a2 . 1. 8.21. . 1. 16. 4 a8 .
+ a2 12 ab 2 8 0.000. ' 46. . a 2 . p4 + . x2 GiC+5. 12 x2 . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 10. 1.16 a3 f 50. 2 62 V2 132. 9 4 /> . 3wi2 m Page 42. + 3)(3). 6. 26. 10 a 4 ?.^. r..6 y4 10.4 12. 7 . 4 2 //. 53. 51. 2 4 a + 4. 35. 4. 10 a' 2 .4 a&+ 4 &*.020. m 2 .009. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .25. 32. n + 2. 4 + 25 q*.14 jp + 49.p132. 2). 999. 24. m 3 j) 3 ./ . ^' J  7 f 12. . .00 + 37. 5. 26.m 30 6 4 1.54 p 2 + 81. 998. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 29. 3. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.ri 17.10 35. 2 0)(p + 5). 23. (n 2 5. Om2 4 6m 6. 9990. 2. .^ + a? + 1. 10. 14. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 35. 37. . 15. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 11. 34.009. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.ANSWERS 28.020.712. 36. 2 12.6 x2 13. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. V + o ft .996.. I/). . 8. 36. 27. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2 . 30 /><.001. . (a + 4) (a + 2).500. 57. 2 (5 a 3). 9. Page 12. 3. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 2 a' y' .994. 4. 52.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 27. . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 17.008. 21 2 . 40. 2 6' . 25 a 2 6 2 . w'n 2 //^ + 25. 4 . 2 a 2 + a . 31. 39. 1.r .404. 1. x 4 ?/4 + ab . . .2. 2 1: 21. 31. 41. a + 56.2 6 + 13. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 166. 1. 8. + 7 6)(3a~76>.098. 25 25. . a + 25. 33. 8. ~ 6 20 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10. 8 a W . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 484. + 10 + 121 y*. y.r . x4 28. (w4)(w + l). n2 a4 6.1. ?/H)0. 990. 10. 2 4 2 2 64 . 24. (m + 6)(m3).84 a' 9. 16. a + 25. 34.606. 33. x 48. G a6 2. ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 j3 Z . ft' 11. 19.20.x2y22. + 12. . (a (3 54.r* 2 30. 7> . . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). fo*. s rc 47. x* . +4 34. 37. 11.10 x + 25. 4x21. 55. 10. (p 2. 40. 5. 2 fr . 20a 2 21a + 4. 8 38.15. a3 0. 4 21.5 ~ 81. 25. 45. 441. 10.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 4 x2 13. a2 ' + 48Z100. 44. +   5). 14.35 ab 9. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 36 a 4 . 36.004. 2. lflrt 2 8 + l.8. 2 +10s281.4 n. + 4 t*. 1. 10.3. 4.49. . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. x*2^f I. + 4 a +4. 9801. 28. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 14. 2 . 29. +  m' 1. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.2 x + 2 x. 42. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.2 y*. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). (w+4)(m4). 7. 41.810. 19. 40. a4 4 ?/ . . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 31. 33. ^V^4 .201. 39. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 4 .ab . ^/> 8 4 . Page 39. 10. ab. 7. a' .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 15.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . .6 xy .000. 9999.^V"' . + 2 9. 30. 1). 10.6. 1.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 32. 30 x + 19 x3 . 7. 9. 18. p 2 . 10. 6. ab . 38. 56. 10. . x 2 f xy + 9 41.
4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. abc 7. 2 ?/' . 2 . 6. 8. 2. 2 ?/ 4. 5^418(7. 8. . r ft. 23. 11.4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 17.lit x + 4. 12. 18. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.2 ac . 8. l 4 . . 5 4 a Oft. _ 2 a . 2. 01. 1000 1000 . 4.3^V. 5.6 :rs 4. 8 ?/ . 1/*. 2 . 4 a 2 4. 14 r 2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 6.1*5 2 r 2 .3 a 41. 4 d 2 4. . x4.24 . 4. 2. 5. 13. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 10.25.8. 24. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. x 4. ti'jry1 7. 4. a. f>r* 4. yfl. 44. 19. . 17. 13. 4 a* 4 9 11.5 n*. 125.  11.8 y.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 3.r?/. .r?/ j/.2 ftc .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 15.x^. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.10 2 + z 2 410. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. . Osy. 1.> 10. 1. 5. m L 4. a 8 4.1.30 ftc.2 2 . . 14. 14.VI ANSWERS 43. 16. 7. + 3. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. r 7. ??. Page 13.3 x 2 2 4. . 12. 12. 4ft. 3. 22. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 9. 2 4 3 9.r ?/ ??i ?).1. 6. 6x 3. 8 ?/ . 5. sr 11. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 16. 21. . as _ 10 16. 2 ? 14 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 1. m'2 3. 4 x./ 4.8 yn .3 3. 1. 9. 11.23. 3 aft 20. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 5. 10. 11 4. 2 4 2 x 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 15.29. 3.15 21. aft.12 aft 4 20 ac . 4 ac. 26.2 1 //. 2 12.  12 y 25. .  . aftc 52.1.1. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 8. 10 ft. r/2 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.15. i 9. 5. 9.7. ft. a 2 .  5 z* . c 12.2 aft 4.2 .8. + x?/ 2 1. w . z. 5.2 2 2 8 .r' ~ 16. 13. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . w 2 .r . 2 a 3 ft. 3. 20 15.n. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 17.1.r'^ 15.  10. 4. 1. 12. 20. 16.34. 2 4. *3 y 4 . 7a3ft. 135. 7 r . 75 a 2 29. Page 48. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 6. 13. + 4. 3. 14. 4. 6. 8.1.5 mp. 8.2. 2.y3.r" 20 S? .3 ry. G. c3. 14. .2 . 14. '.  3 c. 4.9 d. 1. Page 22. 5. y 7. ft 17. 13. Exercise 2 a:// 26.000. . . 8 r<ft 4 2 . :r !>. 2. 5. 1. 50. ?/2.rw. a 4 4 ft. 18. Page 7. 4 c m .5 a . 9. a 10. 21. 4x43?/.w.9 4.1. 9. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.3 5. /r .+ 77 15. aft 12.2 . .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 13. 3 a.2 wZ 4. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . i 2 tji.2 <</. j) . 10.27 x 2 4. ft ? ft' ft ft. 47. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. // 19. 4xy + 13 <) . Page 51. 12. .2 ar.21 2 2 f + . Exercise 27. 5 a  (5 ft. 4 pq. 8 x . 46. 3*y2 w + 1.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . Page 11. x 2 + 2r f J. r//. . 4.25 c . 2.rw f 8 . 2 ^r ???' 2 . ft* ft / . 19.10 xy*. 49. 2 1. +w . 2 2 + 2 a.
14. 800 = x + 1300. 2. 1. x + 1=a. " lir. 17. '^ . % 4. (a) ' 12. 20. 23. ft. 30. ft. 7. 37. 10 >_&. 18. 11. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). y yr.  />) a = all. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 5.p+7. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 10. 5. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 42. . ct. 20. x 48. 7. Page 61. r tx mi. 10 yr.. I. a 8. 13. 30. 21 2. + f + b 2.x700. 16. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 2. y ?>i x + 26.ANSWERS Page 9. 12. 13. = 5 ?i x 460. 2. 7. 0. vil 56. 7. x 2y 10 act.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 29. 10 x sq. ? 43. </ 20. 5. 36. . 'nj 100 a 28. 5. . a 10. x y $ 6 yr. 19. + 10 b + c ct. 10. 25. .  1$. 5.. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 38. ct. 19. 29. 2. 2b. 2=10. . 46. 00. 24. b. 3. 3 9. (> 27. 44. iL*. 7. 4.100. 41. 100= ^. 26. l. v (6) 2x. 32.rr2. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 17. 14.10) 100. Page 40. 6. lO. 4 f 39. <>. 8 n  10 yr.  9 = 17 a. 0. ( a f 4. 40. . 31. 3. 7. 100 d ct. + 3 = 2(3* .(3x  700) = 5. ^ 12 sq. 4. 15. 4. 37. 27. 20.. 59. n M.ab a. 9. lOx 10 + w. 2. (>. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 22. f 6)(o 62. d. 45. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 10. X 60. m+ 11. 1. !). 33.r ct. s. ] 2 ri 42. 11. I. + 4x 3y 34. 36. d + !. ct. 4. Page 13. 15. # + 20yr. 57. 13. 5. 60 25 1.(3x+ = rraxlO. 7. 10. 17. x. f = eZ 2 x. 2x + 35. 43. f (I. 6. }f. 34. 4. 3x  1700) = 12. + 3x + 2y + 32. Page 6.6 = *. 3x2. 41. 23. 1. 18.7). Page 31.  2\. fix. r>?imi. 10 a. 1&. 6.r1. 11. 7x 2 Page 21. (</) 2a.. ft. 1. m +~m 3. x 49. 100 14.000. 8. 33. 6. 47. 8. 35. "mi. rn mi. b. 28. 9. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 3. 12. sq. 50= L 100 15. 2b 22.  6 10. 100 2. 4(a ft) c = 8. 58. y 50. 25. 2 ct. y 100 a 24. 39. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 44. 4^ = 100. (2 a. 6. x = m. 16. 1. (c) 2x. 16. 38. . Jj12. 22. / + y + a// 12 yr. xy ft. 2.
6. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 1. 29. 9. 23. 52. (y8)(y + 2). Pace 65.000 ft.16. 12.. (6) (6 a 30) =20. . 30 yr. 10. 6. 22. (z5)(z2). 14. 1313.. ^ .0. 25 yr. 28yr. 15.. 18. 6.2). 480. 15. 2.411. 80 A. 8.2.000.6). 1. 2. + 7)(y3). 20. 14. 3. 8. 7. 11. 3.5. 5pt. $40. 70^. 9. .3. w (/) 64. 30. 21. 9 in. 8.3aftc + 4). 15. 15 mi. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.  PageSO. 82 mi.000. 8. 10 Mass. 18. 7a*fe(2a & l).. 74. 19. 5. 90. 13. 1. 20. 20 yr.000.21. 9.5p + 7 g ). 7 hr. 15.3). (a + 5)(a + 6). Page Page 4. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 8 2 19. = _?_(2ar + 1). 8. 71.. 1200. Page Page 4.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 5$ hr. ( + 4)(*2). (m + n)(a + 6). (a 4) (a. 11 w(w' + wi . 7.000 ft. by 12 yd. 4pt. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 10 yr. 3. 3.3. 20 yd.. 8. 7. (a5)(a4).7. a a (a 8 a+l). 13. 10. 6. 12. (a + 4)(a + 8). 9. 30. 600. 250. 8 12. 16. Oaj(o62cd). 11. 12. ~=90. (c) ^ v ' . 20. 5. 3. 1 lb. 10. 7. 30 mi. 160 lb.8.. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 4. 5 Col. 8.5.. Page Page 480 12. 20 yr.(5z . 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 25.22. 4.000 gold. 8 in. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 3. 24J.. Page 79. (y7)(y + 2). 2 3 6 7.210^. 10 yr. 12. Page 7. 2). 2.y"). 75. (*4)( + 11. 11. 11. (ro3)(w2). 300. 05. 50. 85 ft.0. 11 pV (2 p8 . 14. 13. 15 yd.. 14. 10.000 N.11. 5. . Y.79.. 2 2 2 5. Ib. 3 hr..000. 7. 3 (a +&)(*. 14. a 12.000 copper. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 3. . 25. 9. 7. 10. 6. 6rt 2 11. 6.. 10. 72. 18. 15. 78. 2. 5 lb. 150. 12 mi. 10 Cal. 10. 40 yr. 12.000. 90 mi.10. 4. (yll)(y4). 45 in. 8. (a + 6) (a + 3). 5. 2. (y 13. 9. 4. (y + 8)(y2). 200.000 Phil. 68. 13. 2$. 42yr. 6. 5. 180.. 3x (3r. 12.000. 200. 14.000 pig iron. 17. 55. 1200.24.1). 17.000 Berlin. 13. 11 in. 1. 67. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1. 6. Page 5. Page 7. 100 1.000. (e) i* + A. 1. 1250. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 4. 2 2 ?/ 21. 4. 70. 9.. 78. 1. 2.. (p + 7)(3a5&).13. 2. 15 in. 10 yd. 100.
27. 28. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 9. 2 17. 9. 20. 30. (az + 9)(ox2). (<7 20. 21. 8. No. (m + n +p)(m + wp).2). 31. Yes. 11. 40 x. 2 No 4.3). (3*2)(. 29. 28.1). No.11 6) (a 4. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 13x7. 10(a + ft)(aft). 100 (a. 16. (3a.5y)(3a. a . 23. 24 9.3)(z2). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (ft + ll)(aftll). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .2). 26. (a (p8)0> + l). Yes. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 23. 7. 6. 18. 100(x. .1). (y + 4)(yl). (4 13. (w* (3a26). 8. . 15. (4al)(a2). Yes. 103x97. (a. 12. 16. 32. (a a: 19. a*(5a f l)(flr . 4 (a .9*). Yes. (a 3 + 10)(a.ANSWERS 16. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 25. + 4) (a. 3. 1. 34. 26. 10. No. x(x +y)(x y). 24. . . 4. (w + 20)(w + 5).y4 ).  x (5 a. 11. 5.c 2 ). 14.   . 3. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 30. . 26. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2).8). x (z + 2)(x + 3). ( 2 4 19. (g . 21. + 8)(g3). (2yl)(y + 9). (2 *+!)(* 9). .6) 2 1. (6 a. 25. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (5a +l)(5a l). 10(a . y) 2 29. 23. 28. 2. Yes. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). x\x 24.6) 2 2 . y) (a. 17. . 12. (:52y)(2a!3y). 22. 27. . 3.4p).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 10(2 30. 2 3 by2 Yes. 25. Oa 2 (a2)(al).2 by2 6.r2). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). No. (w ~ n (x . 11. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . f 2). 15. Yes.+4 y)(3x4 y). (y8) 2 2 . (15ay2) 2 . 9. (13a +10)(13a 10). 10. 1. (2 a? 4. 10. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 7. 18.y) 2 aft. 7. (4 18. 21. 27.4. 14. 33. No. (15z2y)(x5y). 1. 29. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 9. 8. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). Page 84. 10. (m + w) 2 5. Yes. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 33. 6. 10 a 2 (4 . 17. 3(x + 2)(zl). (5wl)(m5). 2. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). + 0(90 Page 85. 7 6) (a 10 6). 23. 36. (a + 8)(a3).2 ft). . 3a. 8) (a. (2xl)(x + f>). 20. 16.* (2 y + 3)(y.7)(2z f 1). (9y4)(y + 4). (2o + l)(2l). a.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 24. 22. 12. 4. 22. 19. 24. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). . 31. 35. . y(x. 20. 21. + 2y). (4y3)(3y + 2). 216 aft. + 3). (a 6 6) (a 4. 2). 19. 35. (* + y)(zy). + 5) a. 2. 25. ix 18. (m7n) (a.7) (a.11 ft)(a6). Yes. 9. 5.y (6x + 4)(5x4). Page 83. + 3)(c44).4 6). Yes.1). a(2u. 2 2 15. 26. + y + . 34. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 13. 17. Yes. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (3#y)(+4y). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (5x . 22.2 y). (6n + l)(+2). (2w+l)(ro + 3).. (x + y4 )(x . 10(3 5 6) 2 . . . (0 + 6)(66). (10a + ft)(10aft). 14.1). Yes. (ay8)(ay3). Yes. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 32. 3)(3a. Page 82. + 9^)(oxy . (4a. 25. (a2 + 10) (a2 2).
ofc)( fid). ( { &). 2. 24x sy s 9. a 2 (a9). 2. 40. + 3. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . .r(3x' 2 4 (14. (f> + fo 7. 9. 13 x 8 2 .'})(c .1) 3. 30.2). 28. 2 2 3 . 6. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 10(2 (3 4. b) (r 4. 4 6. 6. 5 x8 3.y)(fi a .5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.36). 15 M. l. 12. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 5. 16.1). x(x f y)(jr . 4 a8 .l)( a 25. a 4. 6. 8x. n  r)(5a 10. Gp). 2 k (wi 4. Page 90.3)(x 4. . x . (x//. ?i(w 4y) . y6. 36. (c. 4. Page 92.7s) (2 a. 1(V/ 88.  (w' 4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. Page 87. 10.4). (a 4. 4).2 y). 39. 6 f c). . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (5^4. 3(. 8). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).&). 5  (2 2 . 5. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 20. 14.1). Page 12. 3 x4 . 4  9. (^ 7.?>) H. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 2. Exercise 46. 2(m4l)' . ?>).5 m2 x2.!) (x42)(x2). 7. 15.8). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). ^ . (14. (16 4  2(5 n . 11. 35. 11. 19. 12. 32.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 450.) j).X 5. . 41. Page 89. 4.y. 9. 14. (5 26. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 13. 24.42 x 4. Exercise 47. (2x7)(x 2 2). r x 2 */3 .2). + 2 //). 4. fi(c426).^ 48. 13( 33.))(x  ^OC 1 1). a + a b. 38. 8. 4. 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 18. 13.4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). (w4w) 2 1. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). a 4. (> 1.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). ( rt 23.4. 2 (a 4.3. 3p (^9)(j) 4). (.3. x43. 8.e 4. ( (<> r4y3 .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (a />.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .b. a8 . 2 21. 42a 3 x. a (a + 2 6). 8.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 1.4). 2 .0+ 12). ( y).8) ( (16. 17. 7. 27. 13. (w * . (x. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (a &4. 16.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.&). 8.8) n 43*). 11. 2 + .  29. (a 9. (^ + ?>_8). 7. 17(x43//)(x2y).?50)(xt/z.7)(^ {I 12. (7/1 2) (m 41). x  1). .9). 2. 8. (r420(4 10. x 4. 7. 42). 12. 6. 8. ( a ^)(^3. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). a x 3 10. 4.?/). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. (!__/>).'J)(' . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). y(2x?/). 14. 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4..  WIM. (5a+l)(9a). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 2. 6. 2 8(w . 15. 22. 3. 7.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 11. 3x(x?/) 4.y '2 2). 2 y) ^ . 6.n). . 2 1.y). 4 a s &8 . 8. 37. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4. 4 3. y )(. (m  I)' 6. y). Page 86.'/)('< 4. a 41. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 7. (5 31. 5. 14. 5. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.2)(x 1. ah}. 2 2 10.
w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 6a2&(rt6). + y) (a: y). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. // m+1 !+*?.6). a 23. 2(2al) + l).ANSWERS 10. ?_!&. a 10 25. 30(3 2 (a 15.  1). 18. (a2)(a + 2)2. 13. +5 1. b ! 21. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). + &) 2 ( . x 24. x 22. x 12. + &)(&) ( . 11.
Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. c 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. i^. ' 2 7. 30. Page 101. 4. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 0. . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 1.50 ~ 1/2 . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 2 a. 4c 10.  **/* + 84 _. 26. 7. 6. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. xy 43. _*^p5_^^_. a 5. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 6. 6. 11.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 6a5f^. + lH + . Page 100. A^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. + 2H 1 ^. ^~ 29. i. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 28. 4 L 8 2 ..
^_. b 2. 5. Page 113. 3.^U\WF### X<6. x\. 21. 16. 1. 21.  V o 4. 17. 3. flf. 9. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 39.  10 X + u. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. y(x + x ?/). f Page 107. a 17. 44.L+ft. 8j_m 7 3. 1.y 7. ^i 11. 16. 34. . 0. n m a + 13. 26. 4. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 43. J. 3. . 14. J. 7. an 18. 4. 6 . 10. Page 111. Page 110. 25. f 7. 6. 27. 2 47. 6. +3 ( + 15. 4a3ft. ?. 13. + f. 37. 5. 15. ?+_!?>. n . a. 12. 6. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 0. 29. 9. 1. 46. 33. 20. 3. w^x 2 b Page 105. (>. m 9. 42. 41. ac mp lf> n 12. 1. ft. ^_. 38. 32. x 1. 11. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 4. 1. 11. n 16. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 5 be _J_. . 1. c 8. 36. 19. 1. 1. 40. 18. Of.ft . 7. 24. 31. 11. ' 6. 23. 1. 15. 6. 4. 17. 7. 14. 45. (y + (z 12. a2 2. 1. x 05m ' 5. Page 106. . 21. 14. b a f +c 14. 8. ! 4 20. 4. 3 7 i o. 10. 2) 19. 12 28. j L . 35. 9. A. 3. 12. J. 7. 11. 3. 2ft a i m x. 30. 15. 8. 6. 11. pf n 6 1. 5. 4. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 5.
36.137. 3. 33. 9. 8. 300. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 6. ^?i min.. (a) 30. . after 18. $30. :2. 10. 7. 15. 300. 10. Page 125. 24. Yes. 19. 74. 4. Yes. 17. $0. nm./hr.. 14. #V ~~ 34. Page 124. (a) 12 hr. 16. xy. 17.15. No. $45. '"I 22. P+ ^ 33. 10. (a) 4 min. 7. after 20. 7. 20. 9. 38ft min.001.0. 17. 7T 2 Page 116. 30ft. 9$. 18. 9J oz. 18.11. IV s.139. ft.10. 4. f . 1:1 = 1:1. 12.000. 2x:3y. 9. 2:1.. 21. (ft) 28. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4. 4fl M_. . 26 mi. 5. min. Yes. 11 hrs. 10. (ft) 5 da. 8. 30 mi. 81. 1 da. 30 yrs. Yes. 15. 3. 1^'. 32. (c) 8300. 28. () 2. 34. 10. n 32. 14. 1. 18. 15. 3 da. 1:3. ~m . w 18. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 1:4. 0.2. 13. dn ~ mi. 1. ^p^ r ~ 7. 26 30. 20. 24.  C .. 1: ~. 10. 10^ oz. $00. 4. 5.004. 9ft.x + y. 212. 24 mi. 40wn.138. min. 19. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 14. 21. f. . 8. 33.000. 22. 3. 7. 75 . 15. . 26. 40 yrs. 1. .. gold. 10.. 7. 12. 13. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 3. 1. 20. 13. . 5ft 30mi. 6. 4. = A's. Yes. 5. Yes. " 0. 2 20. (r) 3^ da.. 275:108.000. * 7:9. 19. 6. 8. 3:2. 3. 2. silver. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 15.. 21ft min. 40 mi. 4~r~ n . 23< &n b ' . 1:1 = 1:1. $40. 5 2.000 1 = 23. 55 mi.XIV '/ .  29. Yes. 8. 15.000 If da. 27.9. Yes./hr. a 4 ft. _JL. 8301 hr. 5 25. 12. 7. 2. 1 : 12. 11. w 21. 10. 10 yrs. (ft) 104. (c) 2 hr. 16. (d) 4 da. Page 119. Page 121. (a) 25..000. 00. J. 13. 31. 500. 7 .  + . 9. ANSWERS 16.0 & . w 44. [>> ^ a . 1:1=1:1. jj. after $12. 14. .003. 1:1 = 1:1.2. 15. 19. 11. No.002. 3.. Page 118. Page 117. 16. 10. ^m . 35. (ft) 5 hr. J ^'. 11. (d) 500.} da. 17. 5. 7} 18. 300. 30.
9. 25. 40. in. 22.20. tin. 3. 6./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 2. 1. 8."2:1. 6. .7.]. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 13. 39. 14.5. 9. J pq. 2. 5.1. 3. : : T 1' : /> : . 1. 10. : . 41. 17.2 x.J. a~. 24 1 (e) Directly. \. 4.ANSWERS 22. 14. 11 5 . + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 10.. 7. 5. ft. /. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. .7. 10. i. 4. 5.000 sq. 5. 3}. 2. x 42. 2. 45. Page 137.8 oz.1. 48. + 7>i//  ft 1 . x y y . 19.*. *. OJ. 8. J.) 31. Of. y . (a) Directly. 7.3. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 11.6. 18. 5 2. 127. : />. 19 3 . 1. Page 136. 945 11 10 . 1. 19 OJ. 11. 16. w.36. 3.22.3. 7. (I.2.3.5. 138. 9. 6*. in n. 54.12. 3 2=3 x. 2. 13. .5. 1 18 = 3 51. 13. () Directly. 46. 14.  28. a 3. l.4. 3. 36. 19.1. 43. 11.160.1. : : . ig 6. 2. 4. 16.5. 36. 4.4.17. 23. 2. 4. 5:3 = 4: x. jc:y = n:m. 1. 6. 5. 5. 2. y :y =. 11. mi. . lo mi.5. 2. 20. land. 11 w a 13. 4. 2. 4.57. 58.4.' : : : : <>. 2. a +b 1. 11. 2.a. 7. w 8. . 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'.5. 41.3. : 23.2. 12. 6. 2. "lO. 3. (</) ft. 26. 9. Page 135. 15. 21. ' 55. 5. 21. 22. 2. 2. 31J. 15> 9.2.4. 1.x a. 30. 20 20 J ^. 55. 44.3.4. 38.5. J. 2. 2. 26. 59. 40.5. .li. 3. 49. 9. 8. 2 n . 7.. 4. 12. 5. Page 134. 8. 12. 56. 29. Page 9. 6 10 = 12. 9. ~ 1. 7. 5:0 = 10:12. Page 131. ini. = 7 b'. 28. 3.J 3. 7. x +y x + 74 7 \. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 9. 1 rt * vm^1. Inversely. 2.46. . 4. 24. 7. 3.000 sq. 9. t 5.840. 4. cu. 7. . 4.2. 3. b x 37. 23. 1. 6. y 1. 8.  ?. 8. 15. 30. 7. 7.3. 2. . 52. 3. 7. 57. 5.r. 17. 19. Page 132.^ 0?j ' gms. 7. 17. 8.15. 50. 4. 141. $. 20. I. 2." ^ 2. . 7. () 7 Page 126. 1(5. 3. 9  15.12. 5. 32j..5. OJ. + b 7 . + W. mi. : XV 27. 35.2 oz. x y = 1 = 3 2. J. 31. copper. 3. 53.3. 7^. water.3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 13J. 3  24. 12. 32+ mi. 2. 14. 7. . 13. 10. 174+ Page 128. 1. 200 mi. Page 133. 2. 3. 4.C ?/ a . 1. 3. 5. 47. .3. . Page 5. a f 2 2 = 5 x. s<i. 25. \\.15 x.9. 1. 25. 24.3. 2. 2. y a y = 7 0. 16.3. 4. 4. x:y a: b. 2. 27.1. 20 cu. . (b) Inversely.  19.
00. 10. 16. 1. $3000. Oct. (ft) 23 J. 20. Page 143. (<f) 13. 6. Page 151. 3. . 3.. 5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 20. 40. m f 9. 20. 22.0. A's 50 13. 1. 9. 31.0. 3. 1 (c) Jan. 5%. 6.8. . $250. 0. 2t2. Page 153. 12. J. m f 8. . 11. Apr. 15. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 6 cows.. 4. 4. 25. 3. 1. 3. 7. yrs. 5. m . 4. 23. 1.2. Page 142. <*ft/ bd 1. 29. 6%. $900 5%. & May.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2. 16 to July 20. 18. 1. 12. A a parallel to the x axis. 5. Nov. 5. 20 & Oct. . 18. 2 horses. 3. Jan. 423. 8. July 20. 4 ' q.9. 3. 5. 30. (5. 14.l. 32. 24. 10. 2.7. .. a. 7. 4. 19. 10. 21. 4. &. ad AzA. Apr. Feb. Apr. 100. 16. 10^ gms. 2. 10. (ft) 20. 5. 12. 2. 3. m + n p. 20 to Oct. On the y axis. 25. 24. 9. 4. On 11.  11.XVI Fagel39. 4.1J. 30. 18. 2. 4. 0. 5. 3). 147. 17. 3. 6. 3. 28. 9. 1. ad _(?jrJL.4.$5000. 4 mi. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 6. 12. 11. (c) .3. 3. 23f . 25. 9. 15. 10 sheep. 26. 5. be 10. a =J (n  1) rf. The ordinate. 6. 4. 2. & part of Feb. 4. 11. 25. 1. Nov. 7. 2. ' 6 3 a.4.n + p. 19. 1.33. July.3. 3. 0. 3. 3. M 2. . 2. ^. 21. 16. 40. 14. (a) 12. 2.$2000. 10. Page 152. Jan. 11. Nov. 3. ' . 8. 7. 2. 26. 1. be 7.4. Nov. May 5. 72. 5. 7.. 24. 5.65. 4. 11.  17. 9. B's 15 yrs. .^. 1 (d) Apr. 8. 2 a. 6. 14. Page 22. = ^ a Page 141. 1. 90. 16. 8./hr. . 13. 7. . 3. $ 1000. 12. Aug.. 2. 6. 2. 4. July. 30. $500. yrs.  Zn  "(^ll 14. SL=J o ft r^2. .. 23. 24. 3. u 2ft. 18. . 13. 2.1. June. at 15. 2. 3. 6. 3. Page 146. $4000.3. 2. Jan. Jan. 11.10. 15. 4. 20. About 12f. 27. Page 145. 7. 13.2. 16. . Page 149. 2. 7. 3. A's 30 18. 7. C's 30 yrs.1. 17. 7. 17. 20. 16. 19 gms. On the x axis. B's 40 yrs. . through point (0. 1. 1. 4. 4. (a) Apr. parallel to the x axis 0. 2. Jan. C's 10 yrs. & part of Sept. ft 3. 9.
1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . (c) 2. 1. 28.73. 5. 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 1. 1 23.73. 20. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 3. (a) 2. 3.75 (ci) 3^. 25. 3. 11. * 16. 13 .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. . 12.  12 ft xW  26 31. 3 .25.5.24. xy. 2. 2. ImW. 3. H. xW. . .27. 2 2 22. 1. Indeterminate. . 3. 2. 125a 28. 4. 1.67.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 15. 8. f. Page 163. 13C. SlstyW 7. . 1. 5. 2.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.41 and . 1.5. 5. 2. Inconsistent. 4}. . 13. 1. 1. 1. ft 2 4. 0C. 8mW. 4 ) 21. 10 C. 19. 1. 1. (c) 14 F. 11. 0. 1. (/) 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. (a) 4. 4. \ft) 5. 21. G. () (rt) 3." 23. 4wn8 + n4 5. 2.64. Page 158. 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. ft . 32F. a 10 ' a ll V&. 27 27 81.83.. Page 164. (c) 7.41 and 23. 15. . 12.2 (ft)  1.1. 9 and Page 166.59. 27. 3. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 13. 1 4. 9.79.. + a 4 ft* .3. 2. (/) 3. . 2. 30. (ft) 2. (e) 2. 16. (a) 12. . . 3. 4. 3. 3. 6. 5. 17. 2. 1^. 2 a&m Page 167. (e) 3. . 24. . 3. f. 1.6. 14.  1.59 . 15 . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 125 16. . 14. 5 and 2. 3. 4.  1. 8 1 f f g*. . 1.25. 2. 9.3. 3. 1. 19.17 (ft) (c) 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. Page 159. 22. 20. . 81 ".73. 8. f12 wi 9. 1. m. 1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 83.64.  . 14. 3. 1. 2.73 ami . . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. (ft) (ft) 2. (gr) 21. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 10.75. .34F. . 4.13. jgiooyiio 17.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 11. 5. 27 19. 4. 3. 125 a 8 12.25. 14. . (ft) and (d) 2. 15.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . a + ft. 22. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 8. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. Indeterminate. 3. Inconsistent. (ft) (d) 2. 3. 2. 2. f 10. H. 3.. 1. 2. .25.7. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 24. ' :=_!. . 2 l. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. a 29. 6. 26. 5. 3.. 2. .4. 2. 13. 4. 18. 10. xg . 18C. (<?) 2. 2ft4 Page 168.75.24. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 10. (a) 5.83.1. 2. 8 a1. +3 4.75.5 (ft) 3.25.79. . 5. 3.24 .84. 30. . 7. .
1. 25 19. (1 (x2y). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 2. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. I 8x2). (a 2.x ). . 5 5 8. (l + x + . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 16. ( Page 174. 84.1. 6. Page 172. 15. (x + y\ 90. 26. 3. + l). a 2 . ?7i 1 1 3 1. 70. 4.^). Page 176. (3a.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.r 2 + 6jt).+3^ + 4. 2.037. 16.6. 4.GO a c + 23. 2 2 7. ? : 1 . 119. 10*. + 29. 22. (ly). 20. wi 8 + 3m 2 . a: l . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w.5. a. 309. 3. 27. 8.3 ab + 2 2 ). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 71. Page 170.i c 6 15. 247. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.r 2 + S:r2/2 ).y2 ).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 5. 180 . 2. (a + y+l). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 10. 14. . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 5.a b 22. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 237. 10. 3 2 8 3 12. 8 /. rt .7 /)). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 17. 9. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .2). 35. 30. 2 4 8 2 . . ^i. 10. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 300. 33. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 20. 16 6 w . ??i ?i . 13. 14. 6. 11. 5. 11. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 17. 30. (48 + 6. 90. 36. 8. 9.XV111 7.5). 6. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 24. 5. 10 x G a 4 . 978. 25. 3M. 16. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. a ). . . f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. . 420. 3 2 ^. 2 2 4. 6 (\x 3. (2 a + ft). 99. 34. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.1. 2 49 . 6. 40. 3. 31. 3 6 23. .10 a~ + 5 a . 98. 14. 101. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 00. 21. 6. fe *?>' ?> fi . 11. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 1. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). . + (win . 17. 7. ). 2 12. 4. 7. 9. 15. 18. 28. 76. 14. (Gx + (i + 2a. 4. 64.94. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). Page 171. 18. ? . + i)). 19.f 1 m 9 16. +35. 13. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 3. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 1. + y). 1247. (a + 2 +l). 8. 23. 15. 2. +3 + 5 4. /> 4 ). 2038. 90. 57. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 72. 21. 32. 20. GOO 2 c 2 . 8. 9. 8. 11. 1 1 ?>). r> 4 : 1 . 18. 12. 2.  +X '. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .  x. 12. 1. c 10 6 :l 20. 763. 15. 12. 7. + Z). 9. + + ?V 22. 5. 19. (4a2 9& 2 13. 9. (x' l).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 0. a. m 13.83. . AN S WE no . . (ab + c). Zll. 20.
46. 42.  5. 9. 28. 1. 10. 3. 3. 5. m. 6J. 3. 21 28 ft. 1 f Vl3. 3. 14.916 yds. 23. 5. }. () 2. 13. 3.. 4.w 18. 1. . f .935. 9.1. 4. 10. ft. 6. 14. 9. >i 27. (< + ?>). 2.925 ft. 34. Page 180. Page 185. 11. 17. 26. 47.?. V35 1. 5f. 5.18. 39 in. m. . 5. > w ft.13. 32. 15. 15. 7. 6561. 7. 6 f !. 35. 4 a. 9. 23.  43. V J l. 5. 20. 31.367. 7. i.4. a. or 3. 40. 21. 12. 49. Page 179. xix 26. 2. 35. ^. 7. . 21yds. 4. 27. 15. V. 10.243. 6. . 4J.a. 7 in. 33. 3. 2. 6. vV'TA 24. 4. 6V'2J. " ^_ 22. 7. 1 7. 9. 3. 4. 24. 36. 48. 2. 33. 19.6. 28. 8. 10. 18. 1. 7563. 13.742 in. f.6. Page 177. 4. 9.  2. 12. . 14. 21. f 3. 2. a + 61. 4. or 5. vYb. 3. 29. 25. 1. 25. 3J. 7. 7}. 18. . 5. 40.. 31. . 1. 36 in.6. 1.  1. 13.60. 12. 3. 16. 5. 2. 2. 5. 10. 11. * 1. ft. 20.6. JJI.5. 4 n.469. 13. 23. 6. V2. ^^7m. 2. 39. 5. 16. 12.4.1. f f V. 5.. 7 45. V17. 8.. 8. 28 in. 4. 10. 17.798 yds.237. 6. 3..236. 30. 5. 11. 21. .4. 270 sq.*. 5. 29. 8.. 25 J. If ^. {. ft.Sn. 32. 50. 16. ZLlAiK 19. 30. 8.6. 11. 9. 21 in. Page 184. 6. 8.. 7. . /. 2 sec. ^. 5. 39. 12. 1. 5083. 2.690. 17. 14. v 17. 3. 2. 4. 15. 3. 9 15 ft. 6V21. 2. 10. 1&. V2. 1. 2] see. 22. 2. 4.005. 41.  14. 37. 1. 10. 5. 6. 6. 9. 37.. 27. 4 TT M 28. (afl). 29. 10. w. 7. 3. 16n. 11. >TT 26.522 38. 34. 14. f ^ is. J. 20. 15. 24. (6) Vl4 3. 4. \/3.ANS WERS 22.645. f. 12. 15 1 10. i ^. ii :J _7. 2. 19.V 8j. 36. 3. 16. 1. 4 W**. ~ V^3. 7.}. *. 12. 1 38.. / 11. _ iVaft. 44. 12.5. 13. l~8. Page 183. 7. . Page 181.i.. 7. . 4. Af^.  3. .  f. 4. 6yds. 1.  f.
0. 0. 0. 4 da. 5./hr. 0. 3. 6. H. 58.59. 23. 0. 48. . ' 1.  1. Real. V2. 8.]. 37. 3.* 2. 1. . x 14. 43. 18. 13. 23.2. 20. . 4. 24. = 0.  1. 5.. v^^fcT"^. . 28. 6. 26. 1. unequal. 42. 2.  24. 1. 6. 10. $30 or $70. 6. 1. 2 ft.3.4. 39. 35. . 25. 6..2. Imaginary. 45. + 11 x. 120 ft. a + 6.  5. 4. 20. V^l. 7. . 19. 1. Imaginary. jr . 27. 3. . 44. rational. r* i.2.7. 0. 15 ft. 5. 20 eggs. 64c. . 30.3. x* 51. 3. Real. 4. a8 . 1. 8.5. 2. 2. 2. 7.a.  5.23. 23.. Real. 18. 33. 35.1.10. i. V7.3.02. .. . 0. 5. _ 19.7. Real. 1. 9. 70 ft. 2. orf. 25. 2.  1.1.12 = 0. ANSWERS 22. 6^2 in. rational. 3. 3. 16.37. $80.2. %. 3. 27. 14. 22.7. 16. 52. V^l.6 = 0.l. 3. 46. 1. 9. 2. 1 3. Page 190.70. Page 188./hr. f. 3. 4. 6./hr. 0. 24.2. 12. 20 nii. 16. V^~2. 50. 28. VV11. 3. 3. 36. unequal. 2. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 1. 4. 1 . 1. unequal.  13. 19 in. 4. 2. 2. . 4. in. t is. 1). 49. 1. 6.  i. 28. 1. 14. 15. Real. rational.0*8. 12. 1_^L ft 14. 7. 1. 7. 6. 3. If. 8 or 12 mi. 12. 2. 5 ft. 22. .1. 6. f. 4.2. i . . '  f 5.  2.4. 2. unequal. rational. 0. irrational. 1. 53. irrational. 9.2 x2 . 6V64. 3.4.5 x + 6 = 0. 26.17. 5. . 4.Oa. 20.4. 34. 0.4. 6. 25. 10 in. 2. 7.  9x <).2. 11.62. a + 1. a.$40 or $60.2. 3. s 11. 21. . 12. 0.6. Page 192. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 3if.  6. f 6 52 a. 2. unequal. unequal.a. unequal. 3. 1.. 25. 10 mi. 10 or 19. 1. 2. Real. 10.  1. 11. 8\/2 17. 21. 0. rational. 0.48 3. 3. . 3. 24. 0. Page 189. 1. 3. 2. 47. . unequal./hr. . 2 V3 in.23. 1.a 3 a. a. Imaginary.74.  2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.2. 0. 1.12. 17.XX Page 186. 19. Page 191. 26. 7.  1. 26. 2.5^. 40. x*4x=0. equal. 13. Page 187. 3. x2 + B . AB = 3. 2. 15. V ~ 16 4 2. 10 mi.'. 2. (5 10.48. 2. 29. 0. 31. 57. . 4. 2 . 3. Imaginary. 55. 38.  Page 194. 8. 56. 10. 2. equal. Real. #<7=3. 7. 3. 32. 21. 2. . 2. 8. 3. . 3. $ 120. equal. 18. U. 9. 27. 41. 64. ft. unequal.41. Real. V2. . 1.2. AB = 204 ft. 12. 7.. 15. *'' 12.
9.1 5 15. 0. J. 50. r. 4. 7. v'frW. 30. 2. 33. 29. 2. 16. Page 201.//^. 21. 49. x/25. 8. 21. 25. 28. 9. Page 196. . 24. 2. 20. v^T4 m. 40. 4. 3. 8. 13. 15.32. 49. . 2. 58. 15. 33. Vr. . I. p. 56. ^49. 2 L ( V. 60. 26.  a'2 . fx'^z'l 23. 3. v. 4. 19. . jV 10. 1. 25. 24. 19. 55. 13. 11. 29. 41.6. 7. 7V7. 23. 5. 13. 1. 6. 43. 18. Jb \. 12*2 61. *V. J 3. 21. \/r\ 11. 0. ^Sf 3 38. 5\/5. 16. ). 47. 50. 48. 3. 3. 1." 17. 37. 2. 5. 19. 15. vm. 3. \/3. 11. 18. 3. \ . y . . 39. 23. &. $7. i. 14. aW\ 40. 1. 10. 8. 2V a. 4. vV. m'. 6. 5. 17. 'J. 1. 8. 9. 49. a 18 . 16. 27. 22. 2.17. 1. 53. _! V3. J. 7. wA 46. 30 a. 8. 54. 2.  5. v'frc 18. 36. 20. 33. 42. 243. Page 200. l  5 12.ANtiWEUS rational. 1. J. 8. 9. 14. xxi 15. 10. 84.  f . \. 3. Page 197. 30. 35. 28. 2. ) 2 >J i 10. 3. . 12. V^ 34. 3. 27. 4. 32. 1. 1. 8. 20. 57. 47. 2. 45.  f. ar 1 . 22. 5. 7 . 3 4 11. 52. 3. 125. 49. 12. 2. 9. 2. 6  AAf. x$. 4.2. . 5. Page 199. 5. : .^7. 0. x. . m. 51. (m 26. 24. 31. 20. 14. ifa. \a\ \/^. 59. 10. 10. v/3. 1 39.  48. 1. a. 31. n\/* Page202. 14. 1. 46. 18. r*. . 1V1. 25. JV37.  J j. 17. \/. 19. J. 29. 17.. 32. 9. z + 22. . 8. 4. 3. 44. \. ? . 4. y. 38. 13. 3. 1. 16.
12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 16. 49. 12. (o* 2. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2. 9 . V 5 47. 51. ^88".  a Vft 2 121 b. 16. + + ft. 41. Page 203. v/^r 5  A/^~. 18. 26. 29. (x' (l 1+x). 5. 3V^T. 8V/) 15. V2 + 4 V22. 31. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. .x^y* + y%. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3^ + 2). 26. 101 1. . 2. a^ + 2^+1.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft.r. 37. 28. 17. 10. 3. 36. 1) 3V3. 3 \ 39. yV35. 27. Vr 8. x. 2 x* 15. + 2 Vzy + y 1. V. 3 a~ 3 (x (. m* n*. 2. 11. 17. 9. 13 35. 39. 20. 30. + 1. v'TM. JIV6. 31.Vxy 35. x 25. 11. r 17  Page 204. 3V5. + . 3 4\/2. 9. 2v (T 2aVf. 19. v^.2 VlO. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 5 ( . 34. 45. 135V6. 25.).648. 1. 4. 2. 3 x^y 33. x y.f. y. 4aV^J 16. 10. 37. 3. + 2). 40. Page 207.577. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 03r* 7.3 + 40 3 . 13.  2 3:r. a 3.'\ 14. Va 2 "ft. y (a + ft) V2. 13. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 33. 30. 7. 2. 2. x 7  34.2 18. ftV 46. Page 208. 24. . ). abVab. 50.rV:r. ^7 \AOx.707. 20. 195V3. 2 a?>V2 a. 8.yl : . 8. 9. 22. ?tV?w. V80. . 21. a 4 +* + !. 20&V6. 3. V. T.XXii ANSWERS 1. 19. V63. 29. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 2>X2. a2 4. 5. 21.692. r c . 5 22. 10. 24. 62V(J. 3 42. 38. (a 27. 28. 2\/7. 43. 6. 13 a. 3^2. 48. / V3. 6. 40. 34 r 6. + Vic + 25. . 4. + 2 V22. ^: V2c. l 5. 11V3.632. 23.. 2 '"V5. + 2 ar 1 ). 15. x%  3 ^+ 1. k/2. . 32. . 8a6V5. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 7. 32. x^ .
v 25^4714 V2"a. 10. \^6. 21 23. v^30. 2\/7. 23. "^8000. a\/5c. 11. aVa. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . \^6. 74\/Jl 120 46.30 2. V5. v"5. 13\/3. 9. V/. fl^Vac. a^\/a7>. 5V2. v^a. 8. Page 210. 2 V'3. 3\/2. Vdbc. 2. r)\/(l Vrtr. \/2. W). V5. VT5. 3v^2. '.T*. ^ 3 b 5 24. x/8. vT). 29. 2yV2?/. 8  \/15. 6. v^f. 2 \/2. 2. a2  b. 37. % 29. 31. 12. 4. \XOfl6Vi5. Page 213. 9. . 24. v^lf. 0. xx 1. 2. : ^32. 32. . Page 214. 52. 13. 35. 2. 22. 6x2?/..J Page 212. 19. 6. 44. 9. 8V73\/IO. + 20. 3 V15  47. 27. 22. . 4 >/3. 3. V8. 49. 18. 3. 14. ab 4. V2. 20. 6+2V5. 4VO. 28. / \/w/t 4 13. D 45. 30 Vl4. 3 V2. b. VJla. 16. Page 211. 1. \/04a. 40. 13. 2 1. 32m27n. 43.r v/^ v^fr*. Vn. V3"m. 17. x/w^ 8.  3. 3\/wi. + VlO  v y (5. 38. Page 216. 7. 25. x/8l. 7\/(l 7VTO. 17. rtv/5. 5V2. x/27. 3. "v/wi ??. x/125. m ?i2Vm/t. 34. 15. 46. v/8. 26. Vtf +3+ 33. 2. 34. 5v/2. 50. 14. \^r^bVabc. 4\/5. 39. 53. 31. 32. w?i. 14c 4 V5. v/lO. 3. 9 VlO + 4. 14. 21. 7. v/9. 23. 5. 21. v7^. \/abc*. 51. 11. 6. v/i). 2 28. 17. x/3. \V3. 18. v^4. 10. v"3. V2. 37. ^v 7 15. 8. 4 a*. 3\/15  6. . 11. x/4. 15. 6aV2\^. 10V(). \/8. 38. 27. 7. ^27. x/8L v/27. 1. 36. 25. 0. 33. 16. 41. V3. 8v2T 12. 3 Vl5 30. . 35. v^O. 39. 24. 5 \/2. 2 ate. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 5. ^\/3. ^9. 6 2\/0. \/a6c. . 42. 26. 6V2. . 30. V3. 16. 19. 6. 1V5. 40. 12. 1. 4.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 18. \/128. 36. Vat. 48. 8V2. 5. 6. v/l2. 3. 10.
4722. 8. 9. 4. Page 225. 2V3. Page220. Page 219. 3.^ (\/22 4. 64. 18. 4. 0. * 3. 22.64. Vf6fVtf. 19. 34. 1. 15. V2.0606. . 23. 7. V3.2828. . 12. 6.601. 8.5. 100. 23. 9. Page 218.81. 13. 14. 29. ^. +3 V2). 6.13. 18. 4. 16. (Vf + (4 V2).6. 12. 25. (2Vll). 0. 9. 81. . 16.\/TO). 14. 9. 1. 3. Va. V3 . 10. 17.9. 5. 35. . 2.  f. nVTl. 23. 25. 4. 2!5_. 12.  2. 20. 1.3. 4. (V21). . 15. (a 1. V3. 224. 3(7+3V5). V5. 24. 11. Page217. 6. 5 V65.732.625 10.389. 21. 6. V.V3). 6. n*. 4. x 20. 19. 5 f. 36. 25. 2. 8. V35. 5. (VllV2). (V6 + 2V2). _^JflJ?. (V51). 2ajV2*. 25. 7. . (VaT^v a). \. 4.4142. 16. (2. 1. 12. 19. (V8 + V2. 1. 14. 4. + 6) 2 . 10. ^\/2. 4 14. 10.w 6. {.  . p 6 13. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). (2f V"5). 5.1. 30. 4. 8. 2V2. 8. 3. 37. 9 mn. 22. (\/5V2). 12. 18. \/57t. 31. 29.7071. 14. 23. . !^ 6 4. ^r. 23. 27. Page 28.2. 4. ~ Vac _c 0. j 15. 4. 24. 10. 7. 7 Page221. . 11. 2. 30. ^(VlO\/2). 5 + 2 vU 17. 9. 25. 16. 21 ' Vob 26. 22. 4. 26. 11. 13. 1. i^ ~ 1 v ^. j.. 2. 10. 15. V6c. A . 18. 5.3. 6 V. . 9. 7. 7. Page 223. 216. 3. 5. ^. 11. 12. + 5V2. 3. 2. 9. 9. 21.  13. i^Lzi. 1. f. 21. ' 22 i . 11. J. 2 . 4. 20. 4. 28.6 V3. 26. 18. 3. fV2. 25. 25. 512. 7 f 5 4. 16. m f. 24. 17. 8. 33.464. 15. 10. 27. 1. 4. 2x^2^. 24. 8 V3V2. 16. 7.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . xy 2. 1. 19.2. 5. (3+ v/2). Va. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 9. K>/0 + \/2). 5. 2V3.1805. 2.3535. 16. 3V23. 81. 20. i(Vf Vft).732. (V5f 5.5530. Page 226. 1. J.XXIV 7. 3. V3. 7. 13. 125.7083. 19. 7. (2V2). 32. 5. V^TTfc. 10. . 15. 2. \/3). 20. 1.1547. 27. 11. 8. 17. 4V3 + 6. 17. (\/3f 1). ANSWERS 8. 5. 8. .
3 .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1.3. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. . 24. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (xy + 5) (x*y* .4). l. 2. . 3.  3. 11. 7. 2 6. 14. 5. 3.4.  3.  J. 2 &. 8.4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 8. 7. (pl)(p2)(p2). 2.2. 4. 1.4. 6. 25. J 24. 8. 12. 1. 22.  5. . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. (8. 23. 20.  16). 13. . 3. 4. 2 . 25. (&y2a#H4).^a. . 2. 2. 73. 2.5 xy + 25) 22. b . . 13. 3 . 2. 3. 3. 3. 8. . 73. 0. Page 234. 2 . (a. 3. (63)(6' t 18. . 4 4. 11. . 87 . 22. . 2. J. 4. . 10. . 1. 3 . \/0. 4.2. 11. 4 1. 2. 5. 20. (a . 4.5. 1. 11. . 21. 20. 0. 2. 1.  1. 10. 9. 1.3. 3. 7. 6. (pl)(p3)(p6). ' J. 12.l)(a3)(a . 3. (a+&)( 2 14. 3. . 4 . 6. 5. 6. V3. //. 1 . . 4. 2 6. (m 4 + l)(ro. f . & + 6 2 ). 17. 4. 1. 1. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (2 a. 10. 3 5. 7.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 10. 1. 17. Page 233. 6. 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).  . 0. 26. 3. 6. ( 16. 6.0. 25. 12. . 5. . 1 . (r. 15. 1. =A^Z3. f>. 19. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2.3. 1. a: :} .  1. (a 4. y. 3 9. 2. 2. 2. 2. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 10.1.  3.  f . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).3 2. 30 . 7. 2.Y. 5. 3. 3. 0. 28. 4 . 14. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 3. 4. 15.w 4 + 1). . . 5. 5. 2. 1. 21. 4. 1.ANSWERS Page 228.. 2. 12. 2. a(. 2. 10. 1 . P. 3.22.7. 100. 5.2)(* . 5.8a 18. 4.  2. 1 3. 4. (a. 3. 4 20. 5.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.12. 2. 1 . (B43). 4.l)(a 2 + a f 1).2.r . 3. 12 24 y . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). ~ f7.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). . 8. (4 mn . J Page 235. 4. 25. 2. 2. 1. 2. 4. 30. 18.  4. 8 6 & 0. 1.2)(m. 19. 1 (?> x/^3. t/ 23. 19. 2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3. 4. 15. 17. 6 2 2a + 2). a  . 13. 1. 5. 24. 1 . 9. 7. . 14. (+!)( 2) 10. 8. 4. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . 0. 16. o. 18. 16. 3.l)(m . 3. (w . 4. 1 6.1. 3. 2. 7. 2.10. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44).3. qpl. 30. 2 . 4. 12. J. 50.3. 56l). 3. 5. 5. 30 30. 2 . 11. Page 236.3). 3. 0.nl^EI. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 9. 13. 4. 3. XXV 4. 2 V^ . 0. .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2 > 1. . 0. 5. a . 7. 1. 11. (rt. 1. 13.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).
12. 2. 14. 40. 12. 9. 8. 1. 2 . Page 245. 2. 19. 17. Indeterminate. 1. 400. 12. 1. . 5. J. . V3~. 16. 3. 9. 17.3. 3. 0.6. f>. 30. 3. 3. 12 1. . 50. 29. 5. f. 6. 8 . 2.18. 3.  . 1. ' j. 4. . 3. 14. 21. 2. _ 10.y. 4. Indeterminate. . 3.4. 1. 10. }. 14. 4. 5050. 5. 9. 5. 5.020. 13. 8. 18. 1. V7. 8. 15. 3. c. 2 1. in. +  n. ft. 2. 1. 23. 11. 5. 4. 16. 3 . 2 ft. 6. 12. . 1. . 0.0. 1 . 5. . oo .  11. 5. 2. 1. . oo. 12 d.3. 1. 6. 4. 1. 1. 1. 35. 11. m27. 5. . 2. 2. 25.. ANSWERS 2.. . GO . 3. 3. 4. 2 16. 2. 2. i'ljVU. 288. J. . 13. 30 13. 2. 3V5. no co . 1. 5. i. 4 . 1. 10. 2. 1. 8. 7. 8.4. 21. $. Page 244. 1. 15. 45yd. 7. Page 240. 3 . i j.0. 3. 3. 4. 7. 10. 1. 3 4. J. 4. 3.. = QO 6. 1J.  2 . . 2 10. . co . 0.1. 48. 18. . 17. 2. 5. 18. 15. 2. Page 238.. . Page 248. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 31. 3. 15. 19. 125 125. jj. 14. 1. 900. 24. . 1. 3. '>. 20 in. 3 3. 37. 8. tn 2.xxvi Page 237. ( 3. . 12. 4. 4 34. ^~2. 12 ft. 37.3. 2 Y> V . 9.200. 2. 4. 16. 17. 28yd. 9. 201. 4 6. 37. 22. . 35^ 5. 20. 22. 11. 40 25 in. (&) 2.3. j. Page 241. .. 1 . 3. 35 a. 2 . 8.3. . 36.30. 14. x 4. in.13. 2. 15. . 1. 3. 7. 69.1. 17. 4. . . . 21 30. 1 2. 5. J. 6. 2 26. ri*. .. . 5. 26. 15. 4. 3. f*. 2. Exercise 113. \. 2n. 78. $VO. Page 243. 7. 35 ft. 7 3. 4. Page 239. 1. 2>/3. 1. 11. (a) $3400. 2 2. 2. 9.. (>. 3 2. 5. 1. 512. 5 .  1. n. 2. i i i . $46. Page 247. 3. in. 14. 11.4. \/6. $. 1. 4. 1. 15. 6. 17. 84. 5. ft. 3 cm.2. 32. 2. n . 5. 1.. 3. 4. 512. 50. 4.136. _ 7. 4 8. 3. 8. 33. . 1 . . 10. . 41. 2. 2. _ 13 (0 6. 8ft. 3. .6. 4. 3. } . ft. and _ 4.1.3. in. (a) 5. 5. 1 .. 38. _ 5. 11. 4. 4.3 . 12. 24. 1. 12ft. Exercise 114. . 7f solution. 7. 40 in. 55.4. . 1 . (/>) "_.e.5. 2 . 3. oo . 7. 3. 1. 3. 5 cm. 5 4. in. . 2V7. 1. 4. . 5.3. 14. 8 3. 3 . 1. 2. 20 7. 31.. m + n. 4. ^ }. . m28. 39. 1.5. 23. 13. 20. 4. 30.
^ ?>i 2412x4. 125. 5. ~ an . 22. 6. 16 11.6 . 3. 1.419. ~v 9. 4. 3. 7 2 x 4 x8 . ?/i 6 x llj . d. 4. 15.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 12. G. 13. 16. 343.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 100.4. 75. 4. Y11. 7. 280 53. 25. 3. 5.v Page 253. 5.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 20. 8. 3. 3. 20. B . 2.r* 4 70 . 1. 15. \ w 4 . 0. 15. 2. 44. 5. 17. 2. 105. 19. &' 14. 4. 5. 10. 0. 14. 6. 304. 4. 8. 12. . 10. 1.7 10. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 27. 11. 4. 70. 7. . Page 254. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 405. 35.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7. 15. 3. 13. . 3.5y 4 .r 4. 12. 7 x4 17.4 &z x>&. 16. 16. 45. 708. .170. and 1. 16. Page 258.x' 10 . 8. 327. 04. J 2 //2 25. 3. i 10. 4950 M 2 b y *. 18. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .192. . 4. 5 13. Page 252. . 910. 18. f y 8 + z* . 2. . 1. 53. 4. 7. 45 Page 257. 6. 81. . 28. 120 aW. 27. a4 4 14. 005. ' 1. 10.ANSWERS Page 250.5. 1JH. 2. 343. 04.6. 6.870 m*n*. 1. 2. 43. Jj? 45. 4. c. 45. 3. . . 2i* 7f. 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 2. . 1820. 0. 05. 12. 12. 10.504. 125. 0. 13. 8J.8. 8. 26. 10 14. 1.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.53. 10. 8 . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 9. in.  20 flW. 15. 4. 22. 128. 21. 16. 9. 6. 20. 192.470. 9. 4 0.700. 8. 18.  17. . 48.12 x*y 16. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. x + Vy. 6. x r 4.5 x. 3. 0.1. 1 7 4. 7. 4. 8.  101. 27. 21.210. 11. 6.920. 4. 2. 7. <. 1. 8. **+. 8. 19.5. 0. 2. 8. 18. 0. 1. 2. 1. 3. 4. 9. 9. 5. 29. JSg. 5. 7. 70. I. 8 4x' 2 . Page 259. 27. 1 14. r 5 4. r r j. 5. 3. 9. 4. '23. x4 . 23. 12. REVIEW EXERCISE .2 45 a 8 /). 32. 2. 4.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .384. . ^a 8. 10.0. 0. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . vy. 17. 35. . 8 1. 495. 12. } $ 50.680.120. (). 16.2 9. 19. . 6. 5. 410. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.r x>/ 7 3. . 220 . 16. 11. 1. 8. 1000 aW. 17. 1. 6i. 3. 7. 70. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 12.<2 4. 4. 50. Ja.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. xxvii 1. 6. 0. sq.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 55. 2.3 ays. a. 2. A. 5. 5.13. />*. w9  8.
x.x 51. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . x } 4. 61. 2 53. x' 79. 120. 36. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 63. 0. 1 121. 70.rty x2 4 123. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . 22. 5x + 2y~z. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .3 . 91.9 b. 2 x2 4. 64. 122.  12 a.1w 77. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . t 81. 2 30 .x4 + y'2 z 4. ?/ 3. ^ . . 130. 62.4. 35. 4 fee 4. 3a~2c.y*.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. /> 4 83.18 ?/ 5x4. 32.2. . a4 x.4 x y 87. 131. . 13 + 2 s. 4. 7 + 3 xf 2.5x4.41.3 a 2 '6 w 4.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 39. 4 65. 16t/.1 4 jry 4 x . y 4 z* 0. 2 2/' . Page 260. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. a* a 8 a aftc. I 57. . 76. 118. () 2 x 33.4 x 2 . 100. ft /> 78. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 5 42.  3 x2 . 30.4 ac. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 3 a . + 3 a?. 16. _55_7c 48. 4 115.  + 3 x2 . 4 2 . 6 a2 97.2 x 4.  4 a3 85.5 a 2x8 x 3 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56.fee 2 4.a6 2 4. . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 82. x' . x 8 + x 4 y* 67.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .1. 102. 4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 27.^a .x 2 4. 3 36 b c . 24.15 4 62 x  72. df. 25. 0. . az 4.4 x?/2 3 4.a'2 c. 3 a 44. 5 4 4. ft n . 14 x . a* 4. +^ + ft W. x4 f + 23 . c3 4 58. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 3 c .2 c . .xxviii ANSWERS 19.105.4. 28. ?/ . 2 . 4ft y3. 1 . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. . 49. x 3 4. 2 . . 0. Page 263.ft). (a + ft)" 98. 4 . . 107. x 8 + x 4 68. 43..18 x?/0. . 46. 6a6c. ?> .7. a 3m 4. 2 x'V2 90. 110.1.2 xy + 4 y2 106. a J . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. .c 3 4. 104. 12 a/. 12 x. 10 a 12 b. 1 a"* 4 an . 124. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 3a'2 Page 261.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. . + z. 4 Page 264. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 72. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 38. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 9 2w 128.a' 'ft 4. 125.3 y. 93. x8 x2 55. * 60. 23.x24 73. &p 84. 8 . 2 113. .9 x .{ 54. 37. 26.2.a 2 x 2a .1. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 21.ac 44 aft. m " + n + P3c . x 3 41.5 b + c . 99. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. . 94. 2 q. a2 2 aft 2 2. 52.2 x^. 96. 105.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.c. .  e +/.3 a'ft.2. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 2 a.1. a~b 89. 4 69. as 20. 2 . 29. 133. 2 x2 108. 8x3 8x. 10 4.7 x   15. 50. 88.3 x 2 + 3 x . 1 + 4 xy. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. x* . a 4 .3 aftc. ft2ft 4 4l. x . 3 a 5 a 5. 4 15 x 5 . 1 x 45.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 132.3 103.6 am b\ 129. 4 ! . . . x 4. 86.6 b. 80. . 31. 114. x2 471x4.5.4. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. a' 111.a*ft 2 126. 4.5 3n 4.4. . 127. . x 8  a8 . !! 71. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 5x 2 2x43. x2 a2 1 .a. . x2 5r*x ft 5 . xyxzyz.  .3 b . 243x4729. 109. x2 2 .c. . + a 4. 40. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 9x. 6 c 47. x 2 . f5+7. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3~ n 4. 66.4 2 4 c2 42 .
3 y). 138. 190. 12. ?. (x . 178. (7x2//) 203. 202. Page 266. 136. 2 2 (a. 4. 239. 19. 152.m)(x + a). 206. 148. 218. 205. 151. (r^x + 1).3 y)(a .1).6) (2 x + 1). 143. 247. 30 + xyr. 231. 7. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 146. 75. 166. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 173. (y7)(y + 188. 2. 48 h. .11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (/ 246. 244. 176. 169. Page 265. 30 yr. 20. 4. 180.. 161. (a} 59. 1.. 3.3) (2/3y). 22. z(x10)(xl). 207. 149. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 142. + 22)./_4). 175. 238.1). 2. + 2) + 9a.y) (\r3y).y)(z . 1. 24. 215.9)(xf 2). 6). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 164. 144. 186. 12. 212. + 3) (x f f>) . 140. 237. (2 198.2 )(x+y) 228. 10 ft. y 245.3. 218. + y. 40 yr. HI.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (7 c 2 ). (5 x . 36ft. 187. 216. m. 1. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . ( jc // a 2 (a1). Or (a + 2)0el). 30. 179. 3(x . (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. G7.y2 ). 211. (y_24)(y5). 233. p. 155.l)(y + 1). 182. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 1. 15  a. (y 7f))(y 196. 174. 209. + 3). (3x2?/)(2. 147.2. 153.. 18. + 7)(rt4). (x + 6)(x6). fc'2a+62c). y3.1). 3. 15. . (at (4 a +!)( + 3).r . 193. C3 y _l)(. (y  17)(y + (>). 235. .2ac + 229. 191.l)(a 2 +3). (JT y 225. 210.2).I2y). 15. 156. 171. p. 8 204.r + 4). 12 6 panes.  1. 185. . (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).3). r>x 2 (4x. 10 in. 32 h. y. (ab + 8) ( 7). +)(x2 x^+2. 168. 163.y).2) (3 x . (r7y)(ai. aft. 12 yr. k. x(x + 6) 213. a 2 (15. 23 18.2).. . x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (xyX^+y" )1 243. . Page 267. 183. 1. (8x + 3)(3x4). 2^.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 224. 184. 167.y + 3)(r (. Iff 145. 20.4xl). xxix 139. (?/+l)(yl). 232. 157. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 2. 159.ANSWEKti 135. 37 1. (a& 192. 6. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 241. 2. as 194. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 6. 217. (2a + l)(a . 220. a + 2x2 ). (x + 2)(x . y  y 165. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 236. 154. 197. (233). 1. 1. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 177. 1. (x^ + x1) 234. 2(x8)(x3). 2 (4 x . 195. + 11) (a 10). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 189. 12 yr. a(a. 208. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 160.y)(jc + 7 y). 5. 147 mi. 150. 172. 10). 230. 240. 2 xy(3 x . ft. 181. (6) 40. 170. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 137. (x 227. 199.l)(x8 + x2 . 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 226. 8(ar}(/)27).6 . 10. 214. 158. (c) 160 C. 222. 12) (j. 201. (. (a 2 + 2a6. a. . yr. 2. (x  42 yr. (3x  . 219. (y _ ft)(y 4. 10). 50.6)(4 + 6). 162.1(5) 200. 21.
(x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 7. 254. x 267. 269. &). 250. 263. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 2 4 300. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 261. 256. x . a. x 283. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . a~ ' b*). ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 3.   . 2. 43 '^rJ'. ^ 299. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 264. 306. 298. 0.1. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .^^^^^^^^. 307. x ?/ z 1.4) 1) (3 x . 3  262.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 249. + f. 260. 279. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. x12. 268. o.2* i^^ !^. ?^ZLiZ 308. (7 255. 266. 0. > 4. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 4 5. 295. o(x4l). 251. 10. ^/>J. 7 x 265. 305. 5. 301.  3xyf x// 257.^ ^^. 303. Ca&c 1)(M 253.4). 259. ? 1) 302. 3).(x  4) (x4 304. *>). \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 258.  7.. 310. 3). 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 2 x  3. 7^T 2 . *.
1. 398. If.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 4 A. ^ 3 // . 393.  1 356. 2 ). (a + b + c\ . 325. ^_:r f> 331. 407. 0. L . 364. 1. S. 376. 375. 2 ab  a Page 276. 326. f. 388. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.1. l'j. 390. 2(q. 339.". 2. <L 409. A^L5L. 3. c 402. 379. 396. 404. 4. 1. 399. . 334. 395. * 357. 370.. 2. 365. 2 327. + 4 & 4 \ b. ?=. 20. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 336. 11. 324.3. 389.vin a /r " 337.  1. 0. 1. + x 362. 366. 355.. . 1 i 2 ^. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. ab.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 377. 380. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 382. ?/ + 3 332. 397. 0. 2(a i 403. 4 rw. T\. 1. a +6. ^"" 4 s . 9^. 333. x 54 359.)Cr4)__ . a 2 .!. 401. . j 328. 394. 3. 360. 6 ?/+:>.XXXI Page 272. 386. _*L'L+. ?>*. 3. 387. 406. 2 r36 384. Page 274. 2 ?/ 363. y 4 I 340. 361. 7/i ^ _ . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 400. 6a. 13 391. 343 00 351. 0. 383. m. 7. . . l . 329. 4.J . 392.(5 a . T+^. 385. 405. 408. a + b + 6). + 335. 12. Page 277.7. " 4 378. . a) A^_.
450.46. . 17.}.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 7. 10$. . (a  c). 455. z8 +?/ 3 431. 17. 490. '.  2. 5. ISjmi. 10. 2. ISJini. 2. 444. ft 5.12. 8. m 1 : wi. 460. 42. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 5. 6. 2$.. 461. Page283. A 5 mi . 440. A $ 3500. 421. 485. 442. 50. 430. 0. \. 3 . 486. 1. . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 507. 454. 22.4. 9. 0. 428. 5. Page 278. a* 424. 463. fj. c 6fc 10. (d  6) f. 90. ' $260 at 0%. 0. 0. . 63.55. 422. 6. 457. . . 483.4. 476. Page 280. : />a.. 2. 501. !L=4. 28 yr. 18. 464. 6. 11. 10. b 449. 33. 5. 445.rz Page 279. ^V.7.  7. 21. 0. 10. c. 494. 53 yr.489.2. 3. 420. 502. 1. (d) true. Page 282. (&) 443. 429.7. 456. 40 oz.te + . 8. 472. B $ 2500.  7. 446. 462. 427. . 6. 426. 10. 432. I. 479. 10. 8. 435.  f>. . . 1 a /?$+&?. 20 yr. 4. . . 12. 2. 484. 7. m. 458. B 4 mi. 4. />c c(f be. 481. 2. $2000 at 0%. . 24 days. 2. 425. 467. 503. 1. * .  . . a 22 . 506. 465. 6. 10. 441.3. 4. 7 : . a + + ft c. 1. + () 433. 477. 508. 2 a 2. 423.  2. 411.7. i.. 32. Page 281. 4.  1. 0. ^r?i 434. .7. 5J.vz in. . 51. 466.3. 418.. 5. 412.488.  505. 32 yr. 7.  2f 504.0. 2. 410. \ 1. 40.  1. *+. 8.7.. ^. 500. 2. i a b 451. 448. 419.m  m+ M in.  453. L (c) I. <L+ 6 (. 3. 439. L2 a  6 . 3a 4 5. .5. 413. 452. 482.0. 1$. 498. 6. 447. 5. .}. 436. & 491. 6. 459. fc. 497.. 7. .  2. 0. 3. 14 miles. 1. . 20. 2. 480. 495. 496. 499. (&) true. 10.  10.1. (a) 1. (c) not true. 2. 492. 478. not true. 84.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 2 438. 7. 487. 493.2. 468.
4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  2.0. _ 4. 603. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. y% Z * 586.% rr\* 585. 525. 3. 1. Roots imaginary. . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4. 564.4. xxxin 511.5.  imag. 27 y* f\4 . 5. 533. 574. 1. .  2ft da.24.02. (c) 3. o> . f36a28x8 592.3. 4.21. 3. . f ? a f ft __ + c C). (6) 3. 583. 532. tin. 561.1. 2(6 597. 4. 1. > ^ . 568. f.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.3. da. 536. 3. 551. (d) 537. 1.r8 596. 591. (gr) 10 1. 3. 3.8.  (a) 2.55. . a + ft  a  f c.0. 527.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. T .5 f. 4 mi. 3. .54. <z ft 1.53.6. . 1 580. 565. . .8.2. 4.3. 4 0. 1. 3 . (/)  10 to 8. 21*_.14. 8 mi. tin.20.31. If 572. 579.8. 510. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 3.1.. per hr.03. 40 Ib.75. 1J. 4* da. 556. 598. (a) 74 Ib. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). Page 285. 1.6. 563. 4. 2. 550. 6. 526. 553. .88. 560. . 569. 531. 2. 2 10. 515.xj/ f xV .12.73.78.02. _^ 2754x . 599. .9. 514. 6435. .78.54. 3f 4f. .3. y 4. 8. . 1. 576.16. 3.51. 552. . 577. (c) 4.0. a f ft + c. 578. . 2. S82 c. 2 1. 7.. 581. 3. x8 . (6) .6 2.0. ft 584.10. .6.83. 1. M ft c 2 ft 3465.5. 5. 24 da. 509. 512.3.00.5. 555.04.4. 2(4 602. 1. 3. Page 288. . f. 573.ANSWERS Page 284. . 232.5. _ 3. 2 . 5.  1.35. 558. . 4.. 1. .  7. 530. . 2.1.3.  4.75... 2 2.37.  557. 1. (e) (c) 2.8. 571. 7^ da.4. 2 . 2 1.7. 1. 4. Page 287. 582. 554. 2. 0.15.02. J7] min.15. or 8. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1. 566.7. imag. 2. + 6 tf f 3 . 2. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 559.  .4. + 12 x . .4 x + .   (h) 8. 1. H. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.1.24.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 31.30.f 1. 24. 518. 1. 516.15.  ft*.1.8 x3^.03. 4. 2$. 1.62.6.  (a) (d) 1. 567. 5. 1.3. 562. 1 . 14. 6. 1. 1. ^ ft 4.83.1. (i) 3. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. .38.62. 1. 3. 1.4.25m. 2.05. (ft) Ill Ib.5.4. 575. (ft) 4. 528.7. + 26 + .04.3.24 sec.33.10. . 593. . 4. 513. lead.25. 1 . 1$. .  J(a f + 2c).5+.37. 3 da.  + + c.52. . 0000.  3. per hour.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 1 600. 3. 3. 3. g(rc+ 6c). a+ Page 286. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . (e) 570.31.02. 529. lead. 1.56 sec. 2 imag. 115 Ib. 2. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.
78. . 666. /> 4. 708. 2.303. <T! . 624. If 665. 8. a + b. 1.  1. . / V^+lO^M"^. 3. 669. 617. 13. b. 632. 646. ft). 702. 645. 679. I}'/.3. 3 a. n^l +^. 1 2. 1m*. 648. 644. 1 704. 635.2f Page 290. 622. ' 674. be ac \. 4. 3 x2 . 8 6 fo . 651. 2f. 672. 2f. 5. 898. 655. 2. 4. 3. c.y. . fta a/> ^A. o. 670.  3.  .14 If 1.002. 650. 1. if 4/> 671. 654.  4. \+ab 699. 1. a 2. 25. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 703. 623. a ' 2 + . ab 689. 627. 2 x 44 ^/. If 658.3f l 668. 660. . J^^. 2. . ' fe 2 ). 1 ~a . l/'3. 621.XX XIV 606. 9. (a3&45rj. b 664. 640.  684.c ) 697. 690. 705. 634.  6. 691. 3. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. la6 2. 633. 677 680.25.>A 610.a~ {Z 663. ^. 0. 971.049. V2. 649. 2 a: 4. 7. ix 2 .43^4. If b. ^. 2&).  13. 1. 5002. V"^TJ. 615. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 628.3. V2. 6. 608. 2. 9*. \. 636. ^^ 695. 7003. 2.  2f r 659. 0. 2 a  6*. 703. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 4$. 12. 614. Page 289. 6. 4 V 0.2f (5 4. a 673. 2. . 3 681. K 5 2 V2. 11. . 4330 da. 2.b. 2092. 1010. 661. 2. . 2 ab + a  &. . . 616.001.  4. 5. 4. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.3. 4 676. 637. 642. 700. 6 685. 009. i. (*_ + a: 611. 626. If. 706. z  1.0. ab. 0. 692. 625. 2.702. a. 1$ 639. 638. V7. 5 3. b . 5. 657. 630. 11.  a2  a (ab). 696. 613. . 620.. 652. 25. 643. ^ 1. 10. fe + a. . 2 / 2 4. 5. a 4.b 686. 8 f 3. 607. 647. 662. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 641. y  619. 701. + ~^'2 + a 1.04.203. 656. 4.001. 50. 2 a 688. 629. 0. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 1 V5 1.f 3 V^3). If f 667. 698. 678< 682. 7. 210. 0. 631.  ft. 653.. 612. 683. 0. 618. . a 1J. V^~3). 14. .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. If .3.
718. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 3 720. .^. 736. T%. 788. 778.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 793. . ^7xy. Page 293.10. 722. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 4 104 v/2. mn. VV> L4V34. 33^2. i^. 738. 1 747. 5.~ . 32>/2. 15 shares. 1. . 726. ^ ?>. 3 VlT 795. 794. 39. 2\/53V2. 740. > 748. 782 785. 7  3V5. 719.. 13ft. 342V3. 723. + 6 2 tf'c.V2. 24. 751. Hi a. 1 [ + '> J. 3^. 796. i 2. 30\/10 764.9. 24 4 . 1^ _ 760.2. j 742.rJ w L 754. cr*lr*. ^ . 1 752. r. 713. 3V72VO. x\y. 777.12 af V^ 4 744. J(v'lO2V 791. 746.r. 789.^ 743.. 769. 790 2v 3v 2. + < 735. 714. 768. 734.4 . v'll. 792.4 . 25.V/^ 741. 750. 34. 773. VT14V5. a 2 6^. 8. 731.. 717. 730.1 . . 29\/3. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 5. v/7 / . 716. a". Page 294. 17ft.. 733.r+y> 759. 755. 763. 712. "V313. 710. 725. VIO\/3. a 2  x2 . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . a db Va^T < 45da. a 5 . 727. 1 I . 739. 749. . 776. 00. fyaw&cu. rt3 2 ^i^. 3V72V3. 3. 2 V2 . a:* . 8. 753. x i f^' . 729.ANSWMHti Page 292.9. 728. 758. 709.8. 732. 2x3^ a. 1. / 787. 756.11. iv/Jj. y  1. 47. 1. 711. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 24V2.257. 715. 724. 59. 300. 737. 3V52V3. 721. 3V7. 767.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.
$. X4 1). \/5.l)(x .  tt 815. 23. + d)*. 800. 837. (x . 6. 2. 872. .1)(V 2 . 894. Page 297. ANSWERS 798. 2 854. are extraneous. 843. 10.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2.5) (x + * 853. . 801. 4. 1C. 833. 6. 8. 7.3. 819. 841. 822. 11. 25. 3. . x. 842.  1. 849. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . Va 803. 7. 4 818.rae) (4 . \/2. (:r 11. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 1 1. m = 2. 6 $. 4. (x . 863. 2 . 2 2 . (xl)(^~3)(. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 897. o 828. 814.7).om 441) (a 855. 898. 879.7)(4 x. 4 . 4. 3 . 4. 884. 899. 2.3)(x + 4). 17. 824. (2x (r. 811. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc./>") (a'. 848. 8 09. 2 m . 2. 2. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). (x 845. 0.. Page 296.y) 852. ( 4 4. 826. 13. 8.a 3 " 4. . b' 2 821. 3. jV3 f 3.r . 835. db 7..7. m 875. J V.0. Hoots are extraneous. Hoots . 7. 2.2w . 799.a 2 2 ).4) 860. a(ry + 864. H. 3. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3.2 ax 4. 17. (a 1) (x 4. 887.10 ab 4. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 881. 813. +j!>. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). a(ft)( 873.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 831. 827. (1 . 895. 832. 3. 2. x . 883.  ' . . 876. 838. 2  2.r4). 820.25 ?>2). a 42)(x . 867. 810. .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 6+V7. (x3). (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 804. 1. 4. 900. 2. 5. 4. 2 *x 807. 5. 836. 892.4. 3. 7.l)(x + 3)(2x43).  + l(l^). a2 ^E*!. 891.7 4 1) 846. 851.. 19. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 0. 834. 11. 0. 2 . 6(a6)(o a + + &). 840. V 3. 882. **. 3. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 5. . 3. (x 2 f r . Va. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.f.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 858. 2/ 856. 3. (.l)(x + 2). (2 a . ^VG. 48. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). (3 862. 896. 857. 1.7). 812. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 825. 4. (a m . 2 j 889.a 4 + 1). 829.1)(0 865. 2 (x 4*4. . 4. 1.l)(x . ^ V}. ( 869. 859. (x + 0X024. 2 806. 1 .4. 808. 6. 4. o. f. 5. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 890. a* 4.3. $. 888. ((' 1). . (2 x + 3 y} . . ^. 880. 4. 886. 3. 893. 830. . ) (a' 874. 2. (3 b .1) (a 8 . 847.1. 2. 868.  839. 20).1). 0.5 b) 4 1). 14. (x 2 . 844. 861. 4 885. n =  29. 4. 823. (4 c 4. . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . (2 4.2) (x 4 2). 817.+ m f ") (a* ). 5). (x 4. . 816.1) . 2 . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. (a 4 871. 1. (x*y*ryz + z*).XXXVI 797. 5. 1.
906. 329. 2. 937.760 sq. . J(_ ft. 480 8 sq. . 28. 3 . 920. 66 924. Va926. Page 303. 12. 5.I. yd. tt2 19. ft. 5. 28./hr. . .  26j. 5. V5 T 2 . 912. 956. Y.1. 15 16 ft. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 4. i1" 913. 333. 936. Z ^. 1 + V953. .. ft. 6.2. 28. 2. .. 10. 18. 11. 7. i>. 977. 948..  1 . 3). 6 da. 938. T 6.744. 10. =F J. 958.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 5.1. 7 ft. 0. . . T 6. 959. 1). %* . 2 w 914. J. 955. 3. 941. 7. 934. 8 .446. 14 . ft. 944.V~~3). 917. 921. 923. 8. 930. 984. 939. i 3. 108. 12 mi. 11. 80. 3. 902. 904. 935. 4. 5l4f. 951. 4. 3. 100 rows. 985. Page 300. 5 .. 1. 1 . 4. 943. . 1 XXXVll ' a 1. ?/i 6. 333... 12. 5. 918. 952. 2 1. 916. 56. 6 . . 115. 60 949. 6. . 925. 15 946. 909. 6.2. T3. f ft 4 . 3.. 2 ft. r ft ' < Page 299. 2 yd. 2.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 4. 8. i(6 in.  1. 8. '3 3 in. 978. 4. 9 in. 3. 981. 6. 963. 3 4 . 950.01. 957. 903. 1. 4 . 496. 8.. 40 16 in. $(l 4. 927. 979. V^3). 12 in. 2. 2. 905. 2. 3.. 932. 3. 8. . 12. a + .073. 982. dL 4.. Page 301. a. 1. 8. 2. 980. ft. 2. 1 _2 . ft.615. 911. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.0. 947. S07. 11. 11. 922. 20 19 ft. 4. 8128. ft. ft. 1 1. 4 6 mi. 6. v/(ai !)(&910. 4.. 6 1 1. 940. 964. 983.1 = 9. 2 i ' a V. 0. 6. f. 986. 945. w. 7.. 4 in. 2. 4. 0. 933. i 8. 961. w 3. ^y.. 987. 7.651. . 1 2.. 0. 111. J. 960. 962. Page 302. 2. . 248. . 280. 942. 908. .709. .111.. 919. ft. 6. . 6 a 915. . 8. V5 fj. 931. 8. 4. 954. 7 or 30. 73.
128 I. + 448 . (Z>) 999. 1009. (J. 4. 1(5. 2 . 1008.51. 1017. 1007. Page 305. 992. 1016. 995. 1010. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1 8 8 2. 162. 990.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1003. + v 2). in. 0.'^^ } ( . 1012. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1001. (5.192rt?)r 120 *. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1 1004. X. 72. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 12. 12. 120 i^l^. 1006. 24. 8. 120 a. 3003. 9 da.. (a) (6) ^ 1002. r = 2. 994. 1000. (6) 8(1 .378 <W and 92. 192.870 z8 .92. 6 70 . 991. ^Trsq. . 108. 993. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1005.  5&7 1021.378 1015. 2(2 v/2). (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).18. . 1018. 0. ^f (2f3V2). 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 4 and 1020. 996. ~ \. 997. . 1019. 988.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. () 12(2+V3).. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .870 a 6 1011. 48. Page 304. 1013. 1014.
i2mo. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. save Inequalities. than by the . book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. physics. xiv+563 pages. $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. etc. great many work. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Half leather. so that the Logarithms. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Ph. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. HEW TOSS . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. comparatively few methods are heretofore. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.25 lamo. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. given. The more important subjects tions.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. xi 4 373 pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. and commercial life. A examples are taken from geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.D. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.
12010. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. Ph. Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. so that the tions. xi f 373 pages. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. In Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. great many A examples are taken from geometry. Half leather. comparatively few methods are given.25 i2mo. xiv+56a pages. physics.D. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. HEW YOKE . $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. HatF leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. etc. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The author grade. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. save Inequalities. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and commercial life. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1.
The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 10. lines.r and. under the heading Remarks". Cloth. 7 he .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 4. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .. wor. Ph. xii + 233 pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. i2mo. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK . State: . ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Cloth. 6. Attention is invited to the following important features I. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . SEVENOAK. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . aoo pages. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. SCHULTZE. 9. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. $1.10 L.D. $1. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. Half leather. izmo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. . iamo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.
Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York City. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. and not from the information that it imparts.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. $1. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 370 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. of these theoretical views." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . 12mo.
photographs. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Maps. diagrams. $1. " This volume etc. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. i2mo. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. and a full index are provided.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. diagrams. Topics. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Cloth.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.