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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
1917. 8. J. 1910 . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. January. August. Mass. 1916.S. Norwood. 1910. Cushlng Co.COPYRIGHT. IQJS January. U. Published Set up and electrotyped. July.' February. September. 1910. Berwick & Smith Co. May. September. . May. . .A. Reprinted 1913. 1915. 1911.
All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. however. etc." this book. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. owing has certain distinctive features. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method.. Elementary Algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. specially 2.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Such a large number of methods. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. and conse . All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.
In regard to some other features of the book. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. Moreover. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. as quadratic equations and graphs. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . hence either book 4. e. etc. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Topics of practical importance. For the more ambitious student. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. may be used to supplement the other. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. are placed early in the course.g. two negative numbers. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. especially problems and factoring. however.
Moreover. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. elementary way. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. in " geometry . and commercial are numerous. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications." Applications taken from geometry. By studying proportions during the first year's work. physics. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. is based principally upon the alge . nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. such examples. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. based upon statistical abstracts.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. viz.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.
NEW YORK. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.
CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. . ..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...... Powers.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... SUBTRACTION......... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..
.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Type II. ..... .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type V. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type VI. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .114 . Type Polynomials. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type III.. /^ ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ... * ... Type IV.
CHAPTER XIV 169 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... ........ Evolution of Monomials 170 .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
b = 3. A binomial is 62 . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. \/c. v'Ta. since the parts are a . 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. Val \fi?. 16. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. + c). x 9. [6c] 3 . d 7. as in arithmetic. 10. 4(a 6(6 + &). + 1]. !^f\/03 3 ft. 2. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 5Vl6c. 26. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 4V3~6c. 17. 11.g. or 9 Vx. is 28. V2a. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1).10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. are trinomials. 2 . 6. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. e. (cfd) 4. A polynomial is an y. 27. 12. find the numerical value of: Vff. 15. V3 ." EXERCISE If a 1. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. V36". A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 6. 3. a polynomial of two terms. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 13. 14. some number is . 7 = 2. V^a6. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. c = 1. 8. aVc^. c f d). 0.
subtraction.99. 5=3. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 8. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.g. 6. EXERCISE 8*  . d = 0. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 4a6fVaV2^. 5. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.9 aWc + f a b . 2 ). = 32 + 4527 = 50. __ E.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . l 13.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 1. c=l.810 + 150 = .e. a=4. c = 2. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .390. 3. 5. 3a + 56 a 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.2 + I126. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.5 ax 50 a6cd.19 = 6. 3 2 If 1. 6. find the numerical value of: 9. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 4 . d=Q. multiplication. . 14.9. 5c +d 2 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 4. a2 11. + 26+3 c. . 10. .4 6^9 ad. 2.. Ex. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. x=^.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 2. 12.INTRODUCTION 29. b = 3. 52 . Otherwise operations of addition. * For additional examples see page 268. i.30 = 270 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. (a (a f b) 7. a 2 6. 3 4 . 16. Ex. .
of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. : 6. 23. 6 = 7. 25. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. = 3. 24. 6. 6 = 5. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 29. a =4.c) (a . a = 3. a. 27. a = 3. physics. 6 = 3. a = 2. a = 4. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 2. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 5. 6 = 4. 6 = 6. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. geometry. Six 2 . 26. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). Express in algebraic symbols 31.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 28. 22. 6 = 1. sible to state Ex. if : a = 2. 33. 26 of the exercise. 30. a a=3. 34. Read the expressions of Exs. 38. and other sciences. 37. 6 = 6. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6=2. a = 4. 6. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 35. . a =3.6 . 30.
By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. b 14. if v = 30 miles per hour.INTRODUCTION E. 15 therefore feet. 14. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.16 centimeters per second. count the resistance of the atmosphere.seconds. 4. A train in 4 hours. . (c) 4. if v : a.16 1 = 84. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and 13 inches. the area of the triangle equals feet. Find the height of the tree. 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 5 feet. b. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. and 15 feet. c. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. d. (b) 5.g.e. 2. i. An electric car in 40 seconds.) Assuming g . 84 square EXERCISE 1. then a 13. 12.
If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. . and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. This number cannot be expressed exactly. : 8000 miles. square units (square inches. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). diameter of a sphere equals d feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14 square meters. $ = 3. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (The number 3. If the (b) 1 inch. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 2 inches.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. the 3. (c) 10 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 5 miles. 5. 32 F. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14 4.14d (square units).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.).). meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. the area etc. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 5 F.
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. . or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers. In algebra. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. however. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. SUBTRACTION.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.
find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. . 23. + 12. (17) 15 + (14). Thus. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. (_ In Exs. 5. is 2. if : a a = 2. 4. 10.16 32. 12. 6 6 = 3. + (9). The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. c = 4. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 4 is 3 J. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. d = 5. = 5. 18. is 0. 22. 21. '. 24. 33. of: 20. the one third their sum. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. subtract their absolute values and . lf(2). c = = 5. 19. d = 0.  0. 2326. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.3. of 2.
are similar terms. 34. SUBTRACTION. 66. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.. 41. 7 a. 31. 13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 60.7.5. 7 a. 2. 11 (Centigrade). 37. . ' Find the average of the following 34. 09.. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. sets of numbers: 13. . and 3 F. and 4. 39. 40. 12. 35. : and 1. 10. $3000 gain. 4 F. }/ Add 2 a. ' 1? a 26. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 10. 7 yards. and 3 yards. and 3 a. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $1000 loss. 10. $7000 gain. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 0. 36. = 23. d= 3. 4. . \\ Add 2 a. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 25. : 48.. .4. 6.ADDITION. affected by the same exponents.7. and $4500 gain. 6. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. . c=14. 38. 6. 29. 1. c = 0. 32. : 34. . 33. and 3 a. . which are not similar.13. & = 15. 3. 3 and 25. 74. 2. 27. = 22. 5 and 12. 55.5. 32. or and . . and 8 F. = 13. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 72.3. 43. ^ ' 37. & 28. 30. 42. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. $500 loss.
+ 6 af . 7 rap2. 2 a&.13 rap 25 rap 2.sign. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12 2 wp2 . or a 6. 5l 3(af6). . Algebraic sum. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 9(af6). 13.ii. Vm f. : 2 a2. b a f ( 6). 10. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 . f 4 a2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 14 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 11. EXERCISE Add: 1. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 12(af b) 12. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2(af &). and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. b wider sense than in arithmetic. in algebra it may be considered b. 5 a2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 3a . 5Vm + w.18 35. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 12Vmfn. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .
It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. + / + 3 Va. and to add each column. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. +m """ 20. 6 23. + y.ADDITION. 2 7 1 26. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. a a8 ZL **. c 2 ^24. 1 27. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 36. is . 35. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . without finding the value of each term 34. l^S 25. ra 19. SUBTRACTION. 30. 2 2 2 31. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 21. 33. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 37. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 32. n x* 2 22. 17. 2/ : Add. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173.
3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. and J 2 s. 3. . 2 Thus. 5 . . 3 a f 4 1) 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 3a 2? .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. to show any error.7 2 .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. e. the erroneous answer equal 7.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 6=2. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. ft any convenient and c. 2 025.g. = . 7 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. f 110WS: 26 aft. 5.g. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2 Sum. therefore the answer is correct. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. c = 1. 2c.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . NOTE. 46 4z 7 c.41 = 3.20 c 5 ab 4. x of x. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 4 = 7. and 2 . 2 .8 abc .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . . 4 2. a 4. s.o c and 4.15 abc . 9 q 4.15 6c.c= 2. V3.3 s. of that letter. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. to add 26 ab .12 a& 4.
a. a) y ^/. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. . . ^2 1 e.a 4 a 4 1.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2 2 and . . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . ?/ .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .4:xy xz 6yz.9(a + &) . . and . 4 Vc. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. m 4 6.(b + c) 1. 56 w. 4(a .2n 2 2 3 rz .5 cr& + 7 6 9.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.15 5. and 5 Vb 18. v/20. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. + a + 1. . and 1 4 a . . and and 13.10 Vc. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 8. . in 8 3 m n 4.1 a 4 1 0. 2 and 9m 48m 4. a2 2 14. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 2 3(c f a).a . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7ar + 3B 5. 16.12. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .8 m 2m 12. 19. . 2 ?ft ?/z. d. and v 15. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 4 ajy 17. 2 a.a. e a4 /. a 4 a . 2 ?/. SUBTRACTION. 16e + 17/90. 3 2 2 3 9 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .12 6 ~5 a .VS 4 2 Vc. 4 3 . and 8 3 . a2 a.ADDITION.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . .Ga 43x45. d and / 3 ? 12. + 50 + 62 .12(a 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .a. 2 2 .6. 18/+6y + d.1.5a^6 f 6) .7v/if.and 6.4 Va . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a 4 a . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. xy3xz + yz.7m . 4. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 11. 4 8 3 4 4 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.
2 a3 a 4 3 af^. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 2 24.5< 3 2 s 4^4. s .11 xy + 12. + 1. f 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. . 8 . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. c 3 3 3 2 3 .17 + 4 ?nfy . 12 xyz.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1.9aj 2. . 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. and 25. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. The sum and ? 1. 13 1. 1. and e + 6y . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.. 1/ . f number may be added 3. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 6 f c 2 23.22 21.ra + m. T8a. . 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. + n*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. how 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. +d a. many negative units re main ? from 2.3^* 2n 2 . f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 45a6 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . a 6 2 c. is 2. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 22. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.
2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. ab = x. From 5 subtract + 3. Or in symbols. In subtraction. a. 7.3. SUBTRACTION. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.g. two numbers are given. Ex. .ADDITION. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. if x Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. from What 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 41. 3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 6 (3) = 8. the given number the subtrahend. called the minvend. Ex. +b 3. 1. To subtract. Therefore any example in subtraction different . This gives by the same method. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. NOTE. In addition. the other number is required. From 5 subtract to . and their algebraic sum is required. ( 6) ( = . and the required number the difference. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 5 is 2. 2.
Ex. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8.3 r*5o. If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .f 8 .
42. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. + a the 2 a. 41.ADDITION. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 45.w>t. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . and 3 7/ . 54. tract 4 x 3. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 51. 2y 2 . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 56. of a 4. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.a 2 j. SUBTRACTION. From 6(af. 58. 53.6)f.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. check the answer. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .7 a . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 47. From 2 a take a & j. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .4 a^ 4.4 a*& + 6 a & . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . c f d. 6 4 a. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 50. . 49. 52.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.c. 2. 46. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 57. 44.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 43. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.2. 48. 55. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .
15. a 2y + z. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 6 17. a + 6. A is n years old.26 4. 20. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . +a add the difference duce 13. + 2. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 9. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. subtract # + 1. of # 2 8. + 6 + c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 19. 2 m 21. 16.
The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.c. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.g. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.b c = a a & f f. 46. changed.2 b . one occurring within the other. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. the sign is understood. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.a^6)]  } . 45. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. a+(bc) = a +b .a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.c. SUBTRACTION.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. II. & f c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. I.ADDITION. .6 b f (.
Ex. 9. In the following expression inclose the second and third. Signs of aggregation 1. : x + (2yz). ? 11.+ 6)f (a2 b). 21. 6) 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6.(a + 6). a f (a a . 3 3 f 7. + (2a 6 + c ). [36+ (a 2c]. a (a + 26 c ). 5.y (60. 17. 13. find the numerical value of { 1422 . may be inserted according to 43. 16. 271 + (814 . m f ft) a. 19. 2 2 2 a(. 2. 8. a (a + 6). 3. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 4. By removing parentheses.1422) J ] . 18. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.7i h jp) (m ?*.)]. 14.[271 47. 15.: Ex. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.) 5 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2 2a. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. (m a2 f. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.
6 diminished . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. y f 8 . z + d. 10. 5^2 _ r . p + q + rs. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 13. first.4 y* . 6. 2mn + 2q3t. 9. SUBTRACTION. The sum^)f m and n. 7. m and n.7fa. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 7. of the cubes of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 5. 8. difference of the cubes of n and m. The difference of a and 6. 5 a2 2. )X 6. 4. a\l> > c + d. The square of the difference of a and b. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.2 tf . ' NOTE. II. m x 2 4. 3.ADDITION. 12. 2. The product The product m and n. . 3. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.1. and the subtrahend the second. terms 5. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. b. 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers.30 14. 18. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.) .
By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. weights. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 2. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. therefore. two loads balance. 3.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. force is produced therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads what What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. 4. let us consider the and JB.
Practical examples^ it however. 5x(4). make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.9) x 11. x 11. 9 9. 4 multiplied by 3. ( (. (. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. To take a number 7 times. 48. 4x(3)=12. such as given in the preceding exercise. NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 9 x ( 11). thus. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. the multiplier is a negative number. Thus.4)(. however.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.32 8. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. or plied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. becomes meaningless if definition. (5)X4. 4 multi44444 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4)(4) = + 12. .
the parenthesis frequently omitted.2.(4J). find the numeri values of: 21. 6 2. Law Thus. NOTE. _3. 22.7. . 9. If a cal = 4a6c. 2a6 c . X(5). . . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 3 a2?/2 . (c#) . etc. 5.3) (1) 7 2 .2 f+x 2 . (2) 8 (. 2. 30.(a&c) 2 2 . of Signs: TJie positive. 3 aW. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 12.MULTIPLICATION 50. 8 31. x= 0. 29. (4)'. 17. 20. 23. _2. 32. 16. +5. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 4. 14. 8 4 . (10) 4 . 3. 19. _2^ 3. 11. (2)x9. 1. 6. Ua b 28. about fac (2)X If 6. 13. 10. 6. (. 27. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. . . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. (4)X(15). is 6x7. c = 25. z s 11 aWcx. 24. 1.2f 18.3. 15. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.a)( =+ a&. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (7) X (12). 7. and y = 4. 26. 4 . 3. 5x3.4. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. b = 3. 2a 2 6c. 4 a2 . x. 8.
: 3a7abc. 34. 6 = .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. Ex. a 2 2 . a = 2. . 6 aWc x . 4. = 2. of the factors. =2 a *. 1. 10.6 if 35. . 3. Ex. 3 3 4 .2).7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 127  127 9 7 .7. 2(14. 5 3 5 3 2 . 14. 2 3 .<?. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.  and 2 25 8 . 50(112. 2 2 3 6 . 53.3). 6 = 1. . 100. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 36. a8 a=2. 16. B. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 3. 2 2 2 .m a 3  4 . 5(711.35). 200. fl*" integers. 13. IB.(12) .  2 2. By 3 definition. 11. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 2(7. 2.503). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. This 52. 4.2 2 23 + 5 . 6" 127 U .e. 9 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 3 2 .. 2. . 4. m*. 12 U U .257). 5 = 2.(2. i.(7). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. (a6) (a5) 9. a = 3. & = 3. . a= 1. + 2/). 7. &*) c d*. or 2 . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5. 5 . 17. 6. 78 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.
(. 23.2 3 aft ). 5. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 31. 2(645410). 25.A). by first multiplying. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 20. 24. . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 22. 19. c(4a ftc ).3 win ) . 34.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 3(124342). 28.6. . 17(10041042). 6(10420430). but we shall assume it for any number. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. . . 29. . 2. 2(5fl5f25). multiply each by the monomial. 35.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .7pqt. 12( + 1 4 i).f 2). called the distributive law. 6.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 23(10004100420). ax /) 2 4 1 (. and then adding : 1. . Thus we have in general a(b 56. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 27. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 21. 7p*q r*. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. If results ft. ) 2 33. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 3. 35 4 7(6. 4. 26. 7.7 w'W (8 n^W).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. _4aft. 2 32. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. This principle. (. /).4a#. 11(3.
2 2 16. f7a.60 a& 10 aft. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 21. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 9.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. : expression must 24. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 5). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.asa product. 30. 2 m(mhn \p).5 x 7). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). 28. . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.we b) (x law.^ c + 2 . . 23. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 26. be multiplied to give 4o. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 11. Find the factors of 6 ary . By what 25. 12.6 a6). 17. ~2mn(m +n p ). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).5 w*V f 7 wn). 7 a 6 c(. 19. 3 ). 20. 22. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 27.2 mn(9 mV .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . 29. .
1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Ex. the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 . Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 2. Multiply 2 + a a.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Multiply 2 a . 2a3b a66 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Since errors. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . however.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.4.3 b by a 5 b. Check.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.a . To multiply two polynomials.1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. . 59. a2 + a8 + 3 .
. * For additional examples see page 261. 8. 2 .4) (mnp 4. 36). 3. (ajf6y)(aj 23. QQ O7.1 . 36. (6i7n)(llJn). 12)(a?^2l). 17. 32.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. + & + 1f a^faj 1). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 22. (4a 2 33. 41. 25. 16. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 24. 4 2). 15. l)(raf 2). (a^26) . (6p (2 f 21. 26. a 5c)(2a6c). 11. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 28. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 13. (13 A. 10. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 1).4) (x + 1). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 20. ^ 2 . (2w 19. 18. (8r7*)(6r39. OQ OO. 2) (3 A: 1). 2 . 7y). 9. 12.2). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 4. 7. 30.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 36) I) 14. (6a~7) 2 . 2. 35. 6. 29. 5. 2  37. 31. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . .2m)(l m). 40. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (2 x* x 2 . I (mfn)(m4. 3<7).
(10+ (1000 (2.e. ft 16. (p12)(p + ll). 1) (10 + 2). 19. i. 8. (J 23.13). (ra. + 60)(f2). 25. 7. + 9)(m+9). 17. .n)(wf w). (!)(* 5). : 23 2. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 12.25)(y+4). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 25 a 2 . 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. plus the product 62. i. 27. 28. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 13. X 102. 6. 9. (a 9) (a + 9). 75 ab f 54 ft . 21. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 2) (1000 + 3). 20. 2 a? 29. 14. _3)(a _4). 26. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6).e. 18. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (a 102 x 103. + 5) (1000 + 4). + 3) (a 7). 24. 3. (a3)(a + 2). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .2 6) (a f 6). 11.!!)( (a + 21). in of the two unequal terms. . (6 12) (6 f.4). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 10. 15. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (*. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 22. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (100 +2) (100 + 3). . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. + 2) (a f 3). 1005x1004. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (a (a (a. 2 6) (a 3 6).
plus the square of the second. <J>7) J . n2 10ii+16. : 24 (a 2. p 2 p. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 33. 7 a + 10. 2 5. 49 y*. 2 (a (*5) 2 . III. second. 6. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . and the second. (x+3i/) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first. . 63. w 2 ro .30. 35. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 9. + 3) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 34. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. (a2) (p a .e. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. (a26) 2 .e. a2 2 w + 2 w .66 s. 8. 3. III. i. 32. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 31. of the second. 37. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . Ex.15. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 4. + 6 a + 8. .15. 7. i. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.e. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. plus sum of two numbers the square II. . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
2 J ). 998x1002. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 7& ) 25. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). (1000 2 . 41. 16aW25. 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 40. 4 53. 42. The product of 57. (6afy 2 5) (a. 22. . 45. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. m 2 16. 44. (2x3yy.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 11. 32. ). (100 + 2) (100 2). 104 2 37. 2 . n 2 f4n+4.MULTIPLICATION 10. a2 9. . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 34. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5)(5+a). 2 2 . 23. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 51. G> +5g)*. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 21. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 46. 99x101. 38. (^. ( 27. 17. 24. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 22 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 29. 54. . 991 2 2 . + 5). 28. 52. 12. 31. 2 9a 496 2 56. 62 25n 2 . 55. (20 f 1) . 33. . (a 3) 2 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. I) 2 . By actual multiplication. 25 a 9. 9 a2 . 18.30 ab + 25 6 64. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 14. + 3z) 2 2 . 41 16. 49.998 39. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 . 15. 103 36. 35. n*6n+9. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 48. 47.
. (4s + y)(32y). : 25 2. 2 10.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 65. ) (2 of a polynomial. 14. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 5. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7. The square 2 (a 4. (3m + 2)(ml). 3. or The student should note minus signs.& + c) = a + tf + c . 8. (5a64)(5a&3). 6. sum of the cross products. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 9. plus the last terms.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 11. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 13. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ((5a? (10 12. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 4. (5a4)(4al). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
(a (.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. Check. Find the square root 11. 3.3)(z. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 7.(= [ Xa + 2 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).1 5 = 10 .4) . 4(aj2)h3(7).5) = (7 . 8. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . = 10 x . 9. 6~2(a + 7). n).(>. 8. 12. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.8 x + 15] . (xy+z)*. 6(a 2. 4.39. + 65) . of z : 10. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).(x .4) . = . If x = 1.24] .3) (x . 4(* + 2)5(3). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). Hence.(m 2 6. (  2 4) =  20 a. .X2 + 2 x . 4.5).[a? . + 6)( . 13.3) . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. Ex.29. a. 5. 6.r _ 2 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 3. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 4y sf n) 2 . 66. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (u4& + 3c'. 7.y? + 8 . 5. 2)6. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. and check the answers !.39.24 . 2 2.i2&c) 2 . after multiplying the factors of a term.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
51 15. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. v/17.2). 19. 16. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (81 m + 1 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . Division of the difference of two squares. . . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 18.DIVISION 14.e. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. a I. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).11 a + 9 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.l. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .2) (3 a . 20.
. 14. . 10. 16 . 100ry. : the following w a 4 !. 16. 12. 15.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.49.0001. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. f 13. aW 12 a.000. 9& 2 . r/ 1. 1.
. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. in the equation 2 x 0.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 81. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 82. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. is said to satisfy an equation. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 83. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. x 20. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. (a + ft) (a b) and b. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus. . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the first member is 2 x + 4. hence it is an equation of condition. the 80. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . =11.
Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 89. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 85. 90. 87. 5. the products are equal. the sums are equal. . E. one member to another by changing x + a=. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. A term may be transposed from its sign. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. Transposition of terms. If equals be divided by equals. NOTE.54 84. called axioms 1.2. x I. To solve an equation to find its roots. 4. A numerical equation is one in which all . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. the divisor equals zero. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.g. 2. A 2 a. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the quotients are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the remainders are equal. 86. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .b. 3. a. 2 = 6#f7. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. If equals be subtracted from equals.e. . If equals be multiplied by equals. If equals be added to equals.
Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. b c. Hence the answer. Uniting. Dividing by Check. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. f If y 20 .8. To solve a simple equation. The first member. The second member. The first member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 2(11 . x = 93. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Unite similar terms. a? Adding 5 to each term. Transposing. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.2 y= f . Uniting similar terms. if a x = b.9 y + y2 = 22 . and the known terms to the second. 4x 1 + 6. b Adding a to both + a.2. if 55 x members. a= a 6fc. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. x = 3. 6a5 = 185 = 13.6 y f y\ . Dividing both members by 2. 3 y . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. is correct.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Ex. 91. (4y)(6. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 2 x = 6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.
\x x 2^xfl. and check the answers 9. 7 (6 x 16). it NOTE. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. etc. + 22. 22. 15. 3.69. x x 1 . a. : 5# = 15+2a.. Solve the following equations by transposing. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 11. . 17 7 a. 8. Dividing by Cfcecfc. Transposing. 2.7a: = 394a. = 2 ?/. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 32 = 264. 21. 7a? 5. 24. a. 13a? 3a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 4y 10. 3 7 a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). aj * See page 264. 17 + 5a. 6. 14. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Uniting. + 7(3 + 1) =63. = 5a?+18.. 3.7. 12. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. x = 18. = 3. 16. 4. 19. 7. 13 y 99 = 7 y.17 + 4y = 36. 11 ?/ a? 18. a?. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 247y = 68lly.56 Ex. . + 16 = 16 + 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 20. 9 9a? = 7 13. a? a?. =2 = 3. 50. = 7. {(x (x The The member right member left . J. If x = 18. f Simplifying. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 4a + 5 = 29. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. v23.
30. 40. .3) + . . 5) (as (a.5) = (a.(2 + 6) (4 . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. . (6 u =5 44.1) (a (a? + 3) = . (a.5(2 u . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . a? 28.3) . 27. (aj 37. + 7) (. Evidently 45.g. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).3) + 14. . 38. 25. e. 33. or 70 a?.5) + 199. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 6(6a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. a? 43.32. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .7. .14 = 0. . 41.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 31.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. + 4). 2 2 * Jaj. is the other part.7) (7 x + 4) .12) (2 + 5) . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. this question. 42. 7(7 x y 26. 29.1) (u .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 35.2) (M .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. find the other part.4) + 4 w . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. .1 0) = 0. 39. 7) (a. 36. 34.
11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. Find the greater one. smaller one 16. so that of c ? is p. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 3. If 7 2. and the smaller one parts. is b. Ex. 6. 6. EXERCISE 1. 17. 4. x f y yards cost $ 100 . or 12 7. 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 9. so that one part Divide a into two parts. find the cost of one yard. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is a? 2 is c?.58 Ex. greater one is g. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 13. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. Divide 100 into two 12. so that one part The difference between is s. one part equals is 10. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 1. 14. a. is d. 15. 7. 10. 33 2. Divide a into two parts.
Find 35.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. sum If A's age is x years. amount each will then have. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 28. and B's age is y years. ?/ 31. b dimes. 33. 26. and B is y years old. Find 21. 19. is A A is # years old. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 28. A feet wide. How many cents had he left ? 28. If B gave A 6 25. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many cents has he ? 27. 32. A dollars. and B has n dollars. 24. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and spent 5 cents. 22. How many years A older than is B? old. 34. find the has ra dollars. and c cents. 20. A man had a dollars. numbers is x. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. find the of their ages 6 years hence. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if .
The two digits of a number are x and y. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. of m. 46. per Find 5 Find 6 45. 49. find the fraction. he walk each hour ? 39. The first pipe x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find the number. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. . A cistern is filled 43. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. m is the denominator." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ).50.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. . A was 20 years old. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 48. Find a. Find x % % of 1000. a. % % % of 100 of x. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. of 4. c a b =  9. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. Find a 47. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.
c. 80. etc. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 4.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of x increased by 10 equals x. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The double as 7. The excess of a over b is c. a exceeds b by c. 9. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 2. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a increased much 8. same result as 7 subtracted from . third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . double of a is 10. 6. 80. 5. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. by one third of b equals 100. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 3.
>. of 30 dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. x 4 If A. 18. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. and C have respectively 2 a. is If A's age is 2 x. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a. m is x % of n.. a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. #is5%of450. A gains $20 and B loses $40.000. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. they have equal of A's. express in algebraic symbols : 700. In 10 years the sum of A's. (c) If each man gains $500. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. . symbols B. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. they have equal amounts. amounts. B. and C's ages will be 100. as 17 is is above a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's age 20. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. and C's age 4 a. 50 is x % of 15. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 12. sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 6 % of m. 16. a second sum. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.62 10. 11. 17. B's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 3 1200 dollars. pays to C $100. 14.
be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x+16 = 3(35). the required . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3z40:r:40z. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. number. Ex. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the . = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 15. . NOTE. 23 =30. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Ex. etc. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Check. Uniting. much as 40 exceeds the number. Uniting. 1. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Dividing. x= 15. Find A's present age. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Transposing. 6 years ago he was 10 . number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. but 30 =3 x years. 4 x = 80. Simplifying. Let x = the number. 2. be 30 . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. denote the unknown 96. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In 15 years 10. Three times a certain no. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. In order to solve them. Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. number of yards. x = 20. A will Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand.
Find the number. 4. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Dividing.64 Ex. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. EXERCISE 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 3. A number added number. 120. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. A will be three times as old as toda3r . How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Let x 3. 5. 11. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.2. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. exceeds the width of the bridge. Six years hence a 12 years ago. How many miles per hour does it run ? . by as much as 135 ft. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. % of 120. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find 8. . 13. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 300 56. 14. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. twice the number plus 7. Forty years hence his present age.
is the equation. the second one. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. Ex. The other verbal statement. times as much as A. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. two verbal statements must be given. B will have lars has A now? 17. 97. five If A gives B $200. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. statements are given directly. which gives the value of 8. A and B have equal amounts of money. Vermont's population increased by 180. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. F 8. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. The problem consists of two statements I. One number exceeds the other one by II. and B has $00. How many dol A has A to $40. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 14. Find the population of Maine in 1800. 1.000. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. . During the following 90 years. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. x. 65 A and B $200.000. If A gains A have three times as much 16. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. written in algebraic symbols. B How will loses $100.
I. 2x a? x j = 6. unknown quantity in Then. = 14. has three times as many marbles as B. If A gives are : A If II. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. . + a f f 8 = 14. . Dividing. < Transposing. B will have twice as many as A. = 3. the greater number. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as viz. Then. x x =14 8. terms of the other. If we select the first one. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. / . and Let x = the Then x +. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = A's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. x = 8. to Use the simpler statement. Statement x in = the larger number. 8 = 11. 25 marbles to B. 8 the greater number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 2. The two statements I. A will lose. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Let x 3x express one many as A. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. A has three times as many marbles as B.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the smaller number. which leads ot Ex. Uniting. the sum of the two numbers is 14. consider that by the exchange Hence. although in general the simpler one should be selected. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. = B's number of marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other.
differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. have a value of $3. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. the number of dimes. B's number of marbles. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. .5 x . Find the numbers. the number of half dollars. 40 x .240. Two numbers the smaller. Check. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. .. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.10. the price.$3.10. of dollars to the number of cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. x = the number of half dollars. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. dollars and dimes is $3. x = 6. cents. Check. 45 . then. 3 x = 45. * ' . we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Let 11 = the number of dimes. consisting of half dollars and dimes. and the Find the numbers. Simplifying. Eleven coins. Simplifying. but 40 = 2 x 20. The number of coins II. 15 + 25 = 40. Uniting. A's number of marbles. 11 x = 5. * 98..550 f 310. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Dividing. x from I. Find the numbers.75. 6 times the smaller. 50 x Transposing. 60. by 44. x = 15. Dividing. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.25 = 20.. 1. 2. w'3. 50. etc. greater is . The sum of two numbers is 42. Uniting. The value of the half : is 11. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. is 70.10. (Statement II) Qx . 3.
McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. tnree times the smaller by 65. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Find their ages. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Two numbers The number differ by 39. Twice 14. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many 14 years older than B. How many hours does the day last ? . and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 5. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. United States. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. On December 21. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum.. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and twice the altitude of Mt. one of which increased by 9.000 feet.68 4. the number. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Everest by 11. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 7. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many inches are in each part ? 15. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 6. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 11. 9. A's age is four times B's. as the larger one. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.
III. = 48. The third verbal statement produces the equation. B. I. times as much as A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars A had. Ex. and C together have $80. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. are : C's The three statements A. II. B has three times as much as A. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 19. has. 8(8 + 19) to C. B. and B has three as A. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. original amount. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. If A and B each gave $5 to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. . number of dollars of dollars B C had. x = 8. Let x II. 1. and C together have $80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. then three times the money by I. number had. they would have 3. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. If 4x = 24. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and 68. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. has. bers is denoted by x." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5.
90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 9 5 = 4 . number of sheep. Let then. 90 may be written. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. the third five times the first. number of cows. Dividing. and. 28 2 (9 5). three statements are : IT. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. first. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x Transposing. number of cows. each horse costing $ 90. and each sheep $ 15. 4 x f 8 = 28.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 9 cows. sheep. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. The total cost equals $1185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. + 8 90 x and. 185 a = 925. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 2. = the number of dollars spent for horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 1 1 Check. III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. according to III. x j = the number of horses. and the sum of the . 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. Uniting. number of horses. x f 4 = 9. x = 5. and Ex. each cow $ 35. The I. cows. according to II. + 35 x 4.
and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. 7.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. 13.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. increased by three times the second side. the copper. equals 49 inches. what is the population of each city ? 8. twice the 6. the second one is one inch longer than the first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. v . 9. and the sum of the first and third is 36. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. New York delphia. how many children were present ? x 11. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.  4. women. what is the length of each? has 3. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. twice as old as B.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . first. If twice The sum the third side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. first. and 2 more men than women. men. A 12. "Find three is 4. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The gold. what are the three angles ? 10. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and children together was 37. the third 2.
72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. = 5. = 35.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000. First fill in all the numbers given directly. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. i. number of miles A x x walks. width. After how many hours will they meet and how E. of arid the value of the iron was $300. . such as length. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. of 3 or 4 different kinds. Hence Simplifying. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. or time.g. The copper had twice the value of the gold. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. but stops 2 hours on the way. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. and distance. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Dividing. and quantities area.000 more than that the copper. number of hours. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. together. Find the value of each. A and B apart.e. we obtain 3 a. Let x = number of hours A walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. 3 and 4. 8 x = 15. 14. speed. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. how many 100. 7 Uniting.
z = 20. Check. The an area 40 x 20 =800. Multiplying. 2 a = 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. the second 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 70x10 Ex. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. + 8. x + 200).M(x ." gives (2. x . x . Transposing and uniting. original field has Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.01 = = .04 8. $ 1000 x . and the width decreased by 10 yards. or 700. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 10 x = 200.06 = $ 40.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. the area would be 100 square yards less. were increased by 30 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. 2   and transpose. l. $ 800 = 800.053. Find the dimensions of the field.04 = $ 40. . But 700 certain = 800 2.05 x x . $ 800 = required sum.
mobile. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. What are the two sums 5. sions of the field. Find the share of each. but four men failed to pay their shares. Six persons bought an automobile. and a second sum. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. 2. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. together bring $ 78 interest. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. of coffee for $ 1. the area would remain the same. A sets out later two hours B . How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. twice as large. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A of each.55. After how many hours will B overtake A. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. 1. 3. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %. invested at 5 %. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. The distance from If a train starts at . and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. and from the same point. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
as. 76 . 104. f db 6 to b. An after simplifying. it is composite. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . stage of the work. + 62 is integral with respect to a. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. we shall not. but fractional with respect 103. at this 6 2 . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. 6. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if it does contain some indicated root of . irrational. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. which multiplied together are considered factors. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a. if. consider 105. a2 to 6. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . expression is rational with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 5. this letter. vV .
. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Factor G ofy 2 . Divide 6 a% . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. x. Ex.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 109. for this result is a sum. 55. 2.3 sy + 4 y8). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. or that a = 6) (a = a . 110. 2.3 6a + 1). TYPE I.FACTORING 106. 8) (s1). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 1.62 can be &).g. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 2. .) Ex. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. It (a.62 + &)(a 2 . it follows that a 2 . factors of 12 &V is are 3. 01. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 107. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . E. y.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. ?/. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. in the form 4) +3.
3. 2 Or. in general. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2. 20. 11. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. + llm llm. 5f 2 .51 aW + 68 21.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . . 14a 4 5. (as 3) and (ccf5). a a 'Ja .30 aty.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 3x*6x*. 17. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. q*q*q 2 a. ) 22  2. 18. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 16. 19. obviously. 3 2 .3.2.5 + 13 8. 4.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. : 6 abx . 13. 3 3 5 6.45 afy . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.6. Ilro8 9. TYPE IT. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 8. 7i 13.3. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . a6c. 15 2 7.4. 14. 4 8 . 12. e. 7a & 10. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 2 + q.g. 34 a^c 8 . 2 6. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). . 4 tfy f.8 c a 15 ofyV .12 cdx.5 + 2.4. 2 23.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 2 2 . 32 a *?/ . 15.
3. 5. or 77 l.4 .. 79 Factor a2 4 x . and (a . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. + 30 = 20. is The two numbers whose product and 6. tfa2  3. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. + 112.5) (a . Factor + 10 ax .G) = . . If q is positive. Therefore Check. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. If q is negative. 2. as p. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the two numbers have opposite signs. of this type. 4.1 1 a tf a 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 .a).30 = (a .11 a + 30. can be factored. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.4 x . however.11 a 2 .FACTORING Ex. Factor a2 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.5) (a 6). 77 as the product of 1 77.77 = (a. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. or 7 11.11. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. a 2 . 11 7. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Factor x? . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. m 5m + 6. Ex. .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. We may consider 1. 2 6. . determine whether In solving any factoring example.11) (a + 7).6 = 20.
25. + 2xS. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 31. . 18. 12. a 7 a 30. 35. 4 3 2 . 2 .48 + + 446 200. 4 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 2 ?/ 28. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a? + 5 + 6 a. ra + 25ra + 100. + 30. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 33. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 . + 4?/21. in factoring 6 x2 + 5.6. 9. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. . 17.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 30. or . 21 a 2 2 . 2 ?/ 22. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20.180 a. + 5<y 24. + 44. 19. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. and 5 x. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 26.70 x y . 11. ITT. . 15. x2 23. 27. 14. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 24.500 x + 600. 36.17 + 30. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 2 2 . TYPE 113. a2 . 13. 2 2 a' 34. 32. 100 xr . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 16. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 8. 16. 21. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2.80 7. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 29. 20. 2 . ay 11 ay +24.
The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.83 x f 54. . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. sible 13 x negative. and r is negative. . 11 x 2x. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. a. or G 114.1). 54 x 1.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Factor 3 x 2 . If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5) (2 x . 2 x 27. If p is poxiliw. 3. 2. Ex. the signs of the second terms are minus. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. viz. 3 x and x. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 18 x 3. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. X x 18. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 6 x 9.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 27 x 2. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the If p and r are positive.5 . 9 x 6. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and that they must be negative.
77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 21. 18. 90 a 8 2 .y + 172/9. 15. 12^17^16. the expressions should be it. 29. . 2 26. 5. 2 . 2 28. 10a?2 2 33. f go. 2m t7w + 3.179.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 10a2 G a2 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 12y 2/6. 35. 17. 3a + 13a. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 5m 26m f 5.163 x 2 . 24. 34. + 4. 14 a fa 4.83 x .19 a f 6.27). 16. 9. 10 a . Sar' + SaG. 13. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. : 41 2. 22. 8. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 2 2 23.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 6. 100^200^ + 100^.83 x = (3 . . 10. . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 31. since all others (II. 2 fc . 19. 6n + 5?i4.30 y 6 4 . 2x* + 9x5. 3. 9a. 30. and the monomial factors should be removed. 14. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 9 y + 32^16. 3x*Sx + 4. X 27 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 32. 12.2 a 90 x*y . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 7. 20.260 xy . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. x54 a. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 25. 144 x .2) (x . 4. + 2/3.7. 2 2 2 . 11.
Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. To factor a trinomial which maining term. and a perfect square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. it is a perfect square. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . form are special cases of the preceding type. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 3. 9. 6. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 4. i. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 8. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. it is more convenient for that type.10 x f 16. . must have a positive sign. and factor whenever possible : 1.20 xy f 4 y\ . 13.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2 2 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. square. 14. 9 10a625. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2 9 10gf25. x* . 25 7.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 116. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .26 ab + 9 6 2 . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. of its terms are perfect squares. 11. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 5.e. however. 10. 2. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 . 12.
4 2 23. 18. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 . aV . : 43 tfy\ a 9.20 ab + 10 b a . 7. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. + GO + 25. product i. prime. a2 24. According to 65. 2.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . ). 2 .64 6 = 16(a . 48 a +( ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 16. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 22. ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 10 a 2 4 2 . . ^//c to the Ex. ). 225 ofy . 1.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). +( )f816 30. 25. * 2 . 149 a 81 8. 19.84 15. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. a. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 6 2 . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.60 a# + 4. TYPE 117. 5.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 3. 29. 16&*. 3. 4a2 l. 36 2 4. 9a2 . 27.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. . Ex.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 17. V.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 20. 2. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 6. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 26. . 2 .3 * ).e.6 m* + 9 m. 9. a.
5. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (m7?) y. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 4. 9. a2 . 11. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 16p 2 . Ex. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Factor a 2 . 36> . 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 14. 2. 8.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Ex.(c 4. a:) 12. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2 .(I) . T.c . 6.d) 2 . 13. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . of polynomials. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. One or both terms are squares 1. 2.
a5 + ab 6 . A. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.ab + bx.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Ex.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ma ?*a + m& nb. = (3 x + y . . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. After grouping tain a the terms.1.a a . 5) . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.7 c + 2c .14. . 1. a? 11. Ex.y + 2 2). x8 . 2.VI. 10.2 ) (3 x . By grouping. 7. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 2. + x + 2x + 2. 4:cx . 5. which may be factored according to types I.r. 12. 9. 119. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 8.and trinomials. a 26 2 2 3 . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 4 B. 6. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 3.
: m 2 2 16. 4. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 3. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. $ a8 . 3. 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 . IV. 4 a2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 4.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 8.FACTORING Ex. . : 46 x* 2. 6. w m 2. 2 7.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .l. 6 6. First find monomial factors common to all terms.12 aaj 4 6y. +c+ 2 2 2/ .9 a2 4 v* 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. . + 2xy + y*q*.4 f . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. = (a + 6)(a6). II. 8.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 5. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 8ra 2 + 16. Arranging the terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2a3/ 7. 2. 36 9 m .
6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 4 8 tt 2 z . 24. 42 s 2 . 3 2 . 3 41. 11. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. + 14. + 6 aft + 3 .13 c . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 18. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 2 17. 2 ft . 3 25. 14. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. (^ 34.24. 19. 28. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . a3 156. 2 a 128. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 80 a 2 ft 38. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 30. a6 36. 4 a. 35. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 13 c . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 a2 23. 5 a. 25 a + 25 aft . 27.40. 13. 12.88 10. (a. 48. 50^ + 45. a. a + a + a + l.156. 29. 5a' 20. or 3 7#2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 22. 42 x .310 x . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. . 40.
CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . The H. . are prime can be found by inspection. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . II 2 . aW. C. 121. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 2. 5 7 34 2s . The highest is common factor (IT. 2 2 . of : 48 4. 25 W. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. The H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 24 s . C. 3 . 12 tfifz. of the algebraic expressions. F.) of two or more . F. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of a 7 and a e b 7 . Two common factor except unity The H. 54  32 . F. C. C. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of two or more monomials whose factors . 13 aty 39 afyV. F. 15 aW. of 6 sfyz. 122. 5. 5 2 3 . F. 6. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 8 . C. EXERCISE Find the H. C. 89 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .  23 3 . of aW. 5 s 7 2 5. 3. F. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. Thus the H. F. C. The student should note H.
y) . 12 .90 7. (a7 ?/) . C. 9 aj*(a? . 4 ?io. F. x* x2 Hence the H.8 a + 16.6. a3 16 a. 6(m+l) (m+2).^9. 24 a 2 . 25 m27i. 6 mx .6 . 95 2/V. 8.12 as 66 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). . a 3a4. 49 C. C. . . 15 3ao. 3. 3 . 1. 9. 3^ 2 4 . of polynomials. a2 + 7af!2. . 8 a 10 . 10.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 2 . 38 #y. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.2 ?/) (x . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . ^f a. 16 a . F. 12. 14.5 x3?/ 2 6. Find the H. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. and apply the method of the preceding article. of + 4 if. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. of: . 13. aWd.y + y42. 11. 15. 7. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 2a f5af 2.# 4 afy f 4 . 11. . 2 . 2 . a2 .6 a&. a.?/ . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . ^2 2 . 16. y + 3y64. 6 a2 y? . 65 zfyV. 2 .y) 123.2 y) (a. 13. a2 ar* 4. 57 a>V.5 + 6. 3). 225 4a 9 . = x 2 y. a3 9a. Ex. 52 oryz4. F. 5.5 y).y)\ O+ 0^(0. ^707 + 12. 1. a2 + 2a3. 4(m+l) 3 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . C. 9. 10. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. . 12. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 12 w*nw 8.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 8(?/ifl) 14. To find the H. 8. 2. 8 6. ^a + 5^ + 6. 0^80:416. 6 3 a. F.
6)2. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. 128. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. Hence the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. The lowest common multiple (L. C. C. thus. M. .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of the general. ory is the L. 126. which also signs. To find the L. Ex. of several expressions which are not completely factored. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. NOTE. C. Ex. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . etc. of tfy and xy*. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. A common remainder.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M of the algebraic expressions.6 3 ). C. M. . but opposite . of 3 aW. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. =4 a2 62 (a2 . a^c8 3 . 60 x^y' 2 . Find the L. C.C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. two lowest common multiples. C. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C.C. Common 125.M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. L. 2. M. L. 300 z 2 y. 127. M. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . Find the L. C. C. 1. M. &) 2 M. 2 The The L. The L.
6b 2 . 1. 3 f2. G a. 2 . a& 4 +& 2 . . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a . 13. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 10. T a 3 a 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 4 a f 2. (For additional examples see page 268. (a 4)(a2) 12. afc'cd 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2 a. b 2 . ic 2 ?/. ic 23.1. 3. 7. 8. a { a~b. 24. 16. a f 3. a2 ~ab 1. x* ~5a. + 6. 3 . x 2 5 a. 3.f 6. ) . 4 a . 4 a 5 6cd. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 40 abJ. 24 x. 9. 17. 5. a 2 fa6. 2. afy. a f 2 19. 2 . 8 d 5 . 20 9 a. . #. a. a^1. f b.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 11. a 1. or f 3 a 15 #. a2 4. 3(a + b). 14. 6 y. a !. + 2 7i) . x2 + 4 a f 4. by. 6. xy\ . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 a . a 2 a3 . of: 4. M. a. y*. 22. + 2. 18. 8 afy. a?b. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 ab. a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 x \2 y. 20. 21. a 2 f 4 a +4. Find the L. 2(m 2 . 2 . 3 6 xif.1. 30 a. 6 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 7ic+10. 15. 3 Z> .
130. F. a?.ry ^ by their H. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . 131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. A f fraction is b. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. and denominators are considered. C. as 8. a b = ma mb . Remove tor. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. Thus.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. etc. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. but we In arithmetic. an indicated quotient. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Ex. however. successively all 2 j/' . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. rni Thus 132. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.
resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Ex. 3.4) Ex. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. cancel factors only. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.
x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ' ^ . . 11 ^ Mtr f . """. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 23. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. ^+3*. 16. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 29. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 ..FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.7 .10 a + 3 2 14. LJZJ^JL. 5^10 y 30. ny 4 18.*. g J 21. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^' rt ^  31. . _ 3 7i rt< 26.' 32. 19. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^" a. . nx 17. 9x + "a" 10.
we may extend this method to integral expressions. ^ to their lowest com The L. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. 1). Ex. C.1^22 ' .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. TheL. 2> . + 3).C. multiplying the terms of 22 . . 1. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and 135. mon T denominator. M. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. Reduce ^.r 2 2 . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.3) (!)' = .D. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . . and (a 8). Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). C.M. take the L. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.M.96 134. .  of //* 2 . we have M^.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.  by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x. =(z (x + 3)(z. and the terms of ***. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Divide the L.
they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2. a? 1 5 > ^* . 2 ay IB. If the given fractions have different denominators. o o a. common denominator 6. 8 i i.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. i. 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.oj o* or / . 22 a2 5a * . .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2aj ~ .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 18. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ ..T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . j y 3. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . 5?. ..^1. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. . 7i 2 ab* ". 74). . 137. JL.
as 4 aft f.. ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).aft) Ca2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 2 ^.3 ft 2). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. in the beginning.2 = a(a . D. D. C.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .2 ' 2 _. L. (a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. 2. 4(2 a 3 ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft). T? Ex.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4..aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . The L. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .ft) (a ft ft)~.ft)(a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). e. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.7 .(a 2 6). the student should remember that parentheses are . ^ is 2^JT) . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (a ft). and adding.3 ft).
6 c 3a 7. A+2_3. j>0 i> 21. 5a76 4a 106 9. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 15. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 24. 2L + 2a 1 17. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 1 f w 16. 2. a 36 ++. a+6 a 6 2 14. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 46 2a 4a 12. 23. 18 v 19. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' . t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. + .
9 79 6 2 i. 2 af1 32. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 43. a 30. ic 1 + 1. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . af 1f /j. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 42. a 4 31. 1 34. ! n. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a. 41. _ + a? ?/ + y. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .9. 3a 9 +. a ?^ 40. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.
2 x2 + 2 g 4.FRACTIONS 139.  . T. 101 mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .  4 or 3 2a. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.6 + 4x 4 x2 . Reduce . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 1.
x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . !. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.g. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2 a Ex.) Ex. Since  = a. 2. we may extend any e. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. or. (In order to cancel common factors. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. fractions to integral numbers. integer. F J Simplify . multiply the 142.
4 8. 5# 56 / c& 4. 2 f 5 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 14. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. . 50 .6 12 d6 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. : a 41 ab * See page 272. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Divide Xn?/ . 1. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. 144. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.
or both. a a2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a .^c 2 2 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.afr 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. are fractional. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 s + 064.FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _. Ex. l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.
. of their denominators. 7i+~ 7.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . x* 4.y 32 . 2. . i. the answer is directly obtained. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). JL. . Simplify x }. & .a ^c c _^ a . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 6. C. 9. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. a m "" . M. Ex. 10. y X 4* 2 y 3. c +6.
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) . : . o 15.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17. 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 .
5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2. . 2z2a. 9x x Check.1. 108 . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). If x 6.28 x + 42 = . M. Uniting.42 + 9. 1. each member is reduced to 1. a.14 (a. Bx 12 Qx. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Transposing. Clearing of fractions. tions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 4 4)  x. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . x = 6. If = 64. 2x Transposing. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).28 a = 5 x2 .48. these Ex.f3# + C:E=6f7212.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . C. = 6.l)(z + 3) = . Uniting. of the denominator. + 1) (a + 3) . = 6. each member is reduced to Ex.8 x = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.9 x2 + 9. 148. 5(3 85 Check. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 2 3.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.
+1 = 5.= 2.1 _77 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. ^1 = 9. '  4 13. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . +4 14. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 1 *> = 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. . 16. a/  5 a/ = 12. 15. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 18. ^' 2. .
.  38 = 40. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and" the remaining one a polynomial. ?_=_. 31 31. y+3~2 29.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 ._ _ . 33. If two or more denominators are monomials. 27 . 4a4l4* + l~. . 25. J_. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 3x 35. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.11_4 x 149. 26 26.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 32 6 . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.
of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. = 9. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. .2 3 ~  == 7a. 24 a. Dividing. each member is reduced to ^.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5# 10. 1.29 50712' 9 18 . 26 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. a. Transposing and uniting. C.  5 = 20 x 45. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5x x : = 9. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .1. M. the 1 5 L. Check.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.2 42 9 43.. If a. 60. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.
2 62 2 ab. y. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.& . Thus.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. = = 6 6c 7 6c. fr Reducing lowest terms.m bx 2 mn) x. = 2 f b 2 . If 3ac L= = a ? . =a 2 151. = l^ 9 b 4 . 2.1. Ex. . find a in terms of b and c. Uniting the Dividing. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = 6 a2 . Dividing. Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring. f ~ 5c. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. jr. a. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. ax f x f.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 5> a. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 4 ac 1. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . It frequently occurs that the x. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.2 ac + 3 aft . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.3 6 2 = a' .be.
4. 10. f ^o. . ^ ax a^ 26. 6. 15. mx = n. 11. 13. m a? x . + 3a. 17. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. . 9.= n. in terms of other quantities. 4. t. . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. denoting the interest.= c a Z> . = rt. 14. _ 2. 12.= H. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. IIL n b + &o. 30. c. p the principal. 31. solve for a. . co?. If s (wi n) x =px + q. c 18. 1 f. If * 33. The The i time. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 34. 2 solve for y a. s = Vt solve for v. rate. iw 21. solve for . 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 3(* 8. 5) is t =^.i l . q solve for/. = 3 (6 a). = 5. 3. and n the number of years.a. f P =+!. = 8 4 #.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. + xx = 1. a. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). If s If 16. Ex. = vt. * Solve the same equation for^). r the number of $>. If ^^ = a 1 32. 29.
days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. 2. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Multiplying by Dividing. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.114 35.20 C. and 12 = the number over. x Or Uniting. Find R in terms of C and TT.. then = 2 TT#. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Ex. Ex. 100 C. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A would do each day ^ and B j. is 36. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.180. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.. 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. . . 2 3 . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. = 16^. 12.
what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the rate of the express train. 4x = 80. Clearing. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. and the statement. in Then Therefore. 32 x = . = 100 + 4 x. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = the x part of the work both do one day. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. Ex. 180 Transposing.
its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. ex What 5. which was $4000. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 3. length in the ground. Find A's 8. How did the much money man leave ? 11. by 3. and of the father's age. ceeds the smaller by 4. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and one half the greater Find the numbers. fifth Two numbers differ 2. make 21. a man had How much money had he at first? . is equal 7. A man lost f of his fortune and $500.  Find their present ages. and 9 feet above water. money and $10. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. by 6. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. is oO. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. to his son. and J of the greater Find the numbers. of his present age. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. to his daughand the remainder.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9.
air. 1. 2. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 3. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. after rate of the latter ? 15. investments. ^ at 5%. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. . In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 152. what is the 14. How much money $500? 4%. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and B in 4 days.) 22. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and it B in 6 days. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train.
B in 30.= .118 153. The problem to be solved. A in 6. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 25.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Then ft i. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. n x Solving. B in 16. To and find the numerical answer. . therefore. 2. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.g.009 918. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. and n = 3. is 57. and apply the method of 170. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. they can both do in 2 days. . B in 5. 3.414. if B in 3 days. A in 6. m and n. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 26.e. Ex. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is 42. . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 4. B in 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. we obtain the equation m m . e. Hence.
3J miles per hour. . A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. After how many hours do they meet. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour.721. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and the second 5 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. Find the side of the square. the second at the apart. 4J miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. same hour from two towns. 3 miles per hour. the rate of the first. 34.000. respectively. : (c) 64 miles. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (c) 16. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. is (a) 51. squares 29.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 2 miles per hour. is ?n . 33. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. squares 30. (b) 149. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. and the rate of the second are. 2 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.001. respectively (a) 60 miles. Two men start at the first miles apart. The one: 31. if m and n are. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. meet. (d) 1. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.
E. the symbol being a sign of division. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. 1. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. the antecedent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.g. 158." we may write a : b = 6. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Ex. is numerator of any fraction consequent. . the second term the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b is the consequent. b. " a Thus. etc. 6 12 = . b.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : : 155. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. a ratio is not changed etc. the denominator The the 157. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.5. The first 156.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. In the ratio a : ft.
159. and c. 9. 16. 7f:6J. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. a and d are the extremes. extremes. : 1. 16a2 :24a&. 27 06: 18 a6. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 3. Simplify the following ratios 7. 11. and c is the third proportional to a and . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 3:4. b is the mean b. 5 f hours : 2. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b. 3:1}. Transform the following unity 15. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 10. 62:16. proportional between a and c. 3 8. 18. J:l. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. two  ratios. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 4:5f : 5. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b and c the means. 7:4 T T 4 . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 12. equal 2. 4. The last first three. 61 : ratios 72:18. terms. 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 17. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 8^ hours. : ay . $24: $8. 6.RATIO Ex.
The mean proportional of their product.30 grams. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. : : directly proportional may say. = 30 grams 45 grams. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. !.) mn = pq. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. 6 ccm. 164. Hence the number of men required to do some work. i. and the time necessary to do it. and the other pair the extremes. If (Converse of nq.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.) b = Vac. of iron weigh 45 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. briefly.__(163. of iron weigh . 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. " we " NOTE. Clearing of fractions. q~~ n . t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. ad = be. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.122 162. are : : : inversely proportional. 2 165. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 163.e. ccm. In any proportion product of the extremes. pro portional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. of a proportion. : c. then G ccm. 3 4.
) = f f = 3 J. . = 35 . a:c=b:d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) (Called Alternation. hence the proportion true. (163. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) d 167.) II. I. 166. ad ( 163. (Frequently called Inversion. a III.) a + b:a = c + d:c. bd bd. then =d c. is 4$ = 35. Or IV. + b:b = c + d:d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 12x Hence a? = 42. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. 2. I. d d. is Ex. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. (Division. if 6 : 7. ad = be. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.PATIO Ex. V. 1. (Composition.
to simplify 48:21=32:7x.e. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. Apply composition. V. Simplify the following proportions. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.!=!*. = 7:2f 3J. 5. 5 5. = 2:x. i. 3. . To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 180:125. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.g. 10. mx tin Apply composition and division. the consequents by 7. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 120:42 2 2 7. = 20:7. = 2:3. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.124 IT. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 6 =4 : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 4. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. . 8. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. = 12 5ft. E. IV. Or III. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 9.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : 3 = 5 f x : x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. x = 2. 2.
b. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. = l^:18.  32. 3. to : a and 1. 112:42 = 10:a. a. 12. = 5 x 12..j>. 14 and 21. w. 14. 1 and a. 29. 39. 2= 5 x x. 34. + fyx = cy. . 9 x = 2 y.8:1. 2 a and 18 a. 6x = 7y. x m = y n. 3. 25. Find the 37.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. Find the mean proportional 30. 44. 5. 28. : . mx = ny. 18. ra 2 . 42. and 2/. 7iy = 2:x. : 53. = 2 + x: x. 6. x:5 = y:2. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36.x: 6:5 a : x. 4. 2. 5= 18 a? : a?. 47. 03:a?=135:20. terra 2:3 = 4. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 46. 26. 13. to: = 35:*. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 52. 38. 21. = 15o.:ff. 35. ra. Find the third proportional 24. a 2 and ab. 22. 4 and 16. rag. (a : : 45. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 27. 51. 2 3 = y #. 20. rap. 50. 1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. f. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. ra + landra 1. to : 9 and 12. 33. 16. ratio of y. 23.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 43. 16 and 28. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 6 x = y. 3t. : a2 . 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 17. 2. 41. = 3 43 + x. 31. a?:15 15. if : 40.
(c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the speed of the train.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . A line 7^. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 57. and the area of the rectangle. 56. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the time. and the : total cost. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. what 58. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time necessary for it. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.126 54. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the area of the larger? the same.
RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Then Hence BG = 5 x. . What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Let A B AC=1x. is A line AB. 2. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 2 x Or = 4. 18 x = 108. = the second number. produced to a point C.000 168. as 11 Let then : 1. AB = 2 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x f 7 x = 108. : Ex. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. so that Find^K7and BO. x = 6. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. x=2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 11 x x 7 Ex. 4 inches long. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x = 66 is the first number.
Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 2. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 6. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. What are the parts ? 5.) . 13. How The long are the parts ? 15. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. find the number of square miles of land and of water. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 3.000. 14. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and 15 inches. 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 9. : 197. How many 7. 12. 11. 12. How many gen.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. and c inches. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Gunmetal tin. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. : 4.000 square miles.
y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1. a? (1) then I. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. is x = 7. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.L x If If = 0. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. such as + = 10.y=. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y = 1. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. The root of (4) if K 129 . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. there is only one solution. =. values of x and y.e.. if . etc. 2 y = . However. expressing a y. Hence.
130 170. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. cannot be reduced to the same form. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 21 y . are simultaneous equations. 3.3 y = 80. and 3 x + 3 y =. 4y . 26 y = 60. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .24. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x . Substitution. The first set of equations is also called consistent. y = 2. ~ 50. y I 171. 172. Therefore. = . same relation. viz. By By Addition or Subtraction. E. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. unknown quantity. of elimination most frequently used II. for they express the x f y 10. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). to The two methods I. 174. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. the last set inconsistent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.X. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.26.
EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 60 . y = 1. 3y = 3. add the equations. Therefore Check. x = 10. 10 + 5 1 = 135. = 235. whose coefficients In general. y = 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3. = 406. 3. Transposing.14 =8. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 64 x = 040.2 = 6.3 y = 47. Check. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.3 1 = 47. subtract the equations. 25 x . are like.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. + 2. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 10 . 8 2. 5 13 . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 37. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.
* + 3 y = 50. 7 ' 1fi fl . J I y = 1U. f 3X 7x 14. = 24.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. .3. I i 3 a. I oj 5y = 17. 19< I a.5 y = 2. = 41. _. I ~ y~~> 22. ] ^ . + 2/ 17.3. O t K 8. = 6.v 23. i 3. 9 1 r 20.f2/ ' = 50. 13 61 l7a. v ^ = ll. ' 12. 13. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.9 *. f 3# ?/ = 0.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. [2o.4. x 11. I .
8. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. = 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 3. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 60. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . and solve the resulting equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2. = 2y + 10. .
Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.6)7(y7)==18. 4* + 3y = 19. 3 (1) Ex. 29 x = 29.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. x = l. 3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. simplified before elimination is possible. Substituting in (6) . (4).3. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. . however. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). + 212y4 = 14. 2 y = . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. \ \6(a. (7) (7) (8) . From 9 = 36. 21z6y=9. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 7 y = 6. 7x_2y=3.
4 11. 12. 10. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.f2 2. J 9. = 3. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 14. a. . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 16.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. +y 2 . . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a. yM a.1) = 121.
22. but some expressions involving x. 180.#. * ((* (( .and x y . {. e.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. ?~y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. .Q ^ 4 21. 3x\" 1 23 24. f y . <X + 20. and y.
2* * x 2.3 xy. . . y 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). (2) (3) a. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . however. 1. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.4 x = 4 xy. x 2x(2). etc. Dividing by 11 3 = #.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. x 3. Clearing of fractions. 15 y + 8 x . of this type. can also be solved Examples method. Substituting x = 3 in (1). Therefore y=4. y 4. y. 33 = 11 x.
. x 8. 21 9 . Ex. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . y MOi y a. x y 5. n. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 1.= o 6. x y 331 9. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 6.= 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 253 7. = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.
ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I. ap. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 5. Uniting. d. apan cm.W. From the same equations find s in terms of a.y = = 9a + 46. x f my = 1. 14. . w. and I if 13. . bmy bm}y ap cm. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. . x 12. W . 6. a Find a and terms of n. s in 11. Dividing.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. ax + by = 2 a&. d. fax f = l. x a.
8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 20.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.8 = 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.3 = 8. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 4. f 3y 12 =s 8. 3.13. 1.1+4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 3y = Hence Check. x + 12 y . (4) (5). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.25. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 4.2 + 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.3=4. y =* 2. l.15z=12 Adding. . etc. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.16. To solve equations containing By tions.lf> z . = 3.by 2. by 3. 3. = 30. 182. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 6. 8 x . Ex. 1. (8) 2. ties are Similarly.2 + 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).12 y + 6 z = .
15 2 = 45. a? + 709 = 26. 2 4. 49. 14. k 2/ f 2 x a. 10. a? 11. 7. 8. x 13. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 4 = 42. 2 . == 6. 2z = 40. 12. + 2 y f 2 = 35.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + y f z = 15. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. ~6?/ 5.
142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. =s 20. 32. 16. 84 21. ^ = 2. . 27. . 1510 4 17.3 y + . 19. 4.42 = 2. = 8*. = 5. 60. .6 2. ?/ 3x = 0. ? = llz. 22.2 a. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. (3 _.. 23.
as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Check. x : z =1 : 2. symbols: x + y +z 8. and if 396 be added to the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = 2 m. Obviously of the other . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. = l. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Ex. z + x = 2 n. + z = 2p. y 31. Find the number. the number. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and to express In complex examples. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. y * z 30. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . . either directly or implied. +2+ 6 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. ( 99. 1 = 2. 1 digit in the tens place. however. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + 396 = 521.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. . 2 = 1(1+6). and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. M=i. # 4. 2 = 6.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity.
x y = the = the x denominator . From (3) Hence xy Check. = 8. the distance traveled by A. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. increased by one. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. x 3 = 24. . x 3x4y = 12. Or (4)2x(3). starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. By expressing the two statements in symbols. xy a: 2y 4y 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. C. Find the fraction. 5_ _4_ A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. B. we obtain. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 2. y = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 4 x = 24. = the fraction. (3) C4) = 24 miles. direction. Ex. Since the three men traveled the same distance.144 Ex. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. = Hence the fraction is f. (1) (2) 12. 6 x 4 = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 3. 2.
and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. If 27 is 10. 183. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. the fraction is reduced fraction. the Find the fraction. the digits will be interchanged. 5. its value added to the denominator. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 7. it is reduced to J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 2. . ? What 9. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the number (See Ex.) added to a number of two digits. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Find the fraction. and the numerator increased by 4. 6. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the number. part of their difference equals 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and the fourth 3. If 9 be added to the number.}. both terms. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the fraction equals . fraction is reduced to \. Find the numbers. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. added to the numerator of a fraction. and its denomi nator diminished by one. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the value of the fraction is fa. tion ? 8. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the numbers. 1.
Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 5 %. and 4 %. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and partly at 4 %. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find their present ages. the annual interest would be $ 195. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Find the rates of interest. A man invested $750.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. partly at 5 %. 14. 19. A sum of $10. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. respectively ? 16.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. the rate of interest? 18. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.grams. and in 5 years to $1125. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. . now. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 13. How 6 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 12. and money and 17.
Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. . An C touch ing the sides in D. and sheep. 25. what is that = OF. but if A would double his pace. c. and e. respectively. the length of NOTE. andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and F. and $15 for each sheep. and angle BCA = 70. B find angles a. then AD = AF. 24. . is the center of the circum scribed circle. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. points. and angle e angle/. E. triangle Tf AD. ED = BE. and CE If AB = G inches. angle c = angle d. are taken so ABC. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F '(see diagram). The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. three AD = AF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. BD = HE. and F. Find their rates of walking. 23. A farmer sold a number of horses. cows. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. for $ 740.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and GE = CF. and their difference by GO . On /). the three sides of a triangle E. BC=7. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. $ 50 for each cow. 1 NOTE. BC = 7 inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and AC = 5 inches.
3). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and point the origin. the ordinate by ?/. is The point whose abscissa is a. The of Coordinates. or its equal OM. and PN _L YY'. 2). 186.. and r or its equal OA is . ?/. B. (7. the ordinate of point P. (3. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). first 3). (2. PN are given. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PM. YY' theyaxis. and PJ/_L XX'. jr. PN. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. is the abscissa. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. . The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. It' Location of a point. (2. Thus the points A. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).
1). 1). (4. (4. (See diagram on page 151. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 2J). (3. 2). Plot the points (6.3). Graphs. 3). 3. 2). 12.2). (5. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 0).4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 4). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (4. (4. (4. Plot the points: (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. and measure their distance. 71 2). 4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 6. . all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 3). 2. i. (2.and(l. Plot the points: (4. What is the locus of (a?. 3). 4) from the origin ? 7. 0). (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE.1). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (1.) EXERCISE 1. Plot the points : (0. !). 0). 4) and (4.e. 6.(!. 8. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4). (0. 0). 11. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (0. .
D.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.. or the curved line the temperature. By representing of points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. we meas1 . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 10 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 1. may be found on Jan. from January 1 to December 1. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. however. A. 15. B. ure the ordinate of F. . Thus the first table produces 12 points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. C. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 188.
uses them. The engineer. as the prices and production of commodities. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. . the rise and fall of wages.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (d) November 20. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (c) January 15. etc. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. the merchant. the matics. the graph is applied. Whenever a clear. (b) July 15.
15. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what months above 18 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (d) 9 0. (freezing point) ? 7. ? 9. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 1? 11 0. How much. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.. is 10. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ?  3.. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.152 2. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (1) 10 C..? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1 to Oct. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.
Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. a temperature chart of a patient. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 20. NOTE. One meter equals 1. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Hour Temperature .09 yards. Draw a graph for the 23. transformation of meters into yards.
. 2 . then C irJl. 28. x* x 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 190. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2. the daily average expenses for rent. A 10 wheels a day. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.50. x increases will change gradually from 13. x 7 to 9.154 24. etc.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \..) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.) T circumferences of 25.50. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. function If the value of a quantity changes. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . amount to $8.5 grams. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.. the value of a of this quantity will change. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.inch. and $. 1 to 1200 copies. 9. represent his daily gain (or loss). binding. to 27. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 3. 3. books from for printing.g. 4. if each copy sells for $1. etc. gas. 29. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. if he sells 0. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 26. e.
1). a*. for x=l. 9). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. it is In the example of the preceding article. and join the points in order. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .g. ( 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. while 7 is a constant.e. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. is supposed to change. 4). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. . and (3. be also represented by a graph. may . 3 (0. 2 (1. 9). however. 2). 2. If a more exact diagram is required. (1. Q.2 x may 4 from x = 4. may.0). as 1. 3 50. (1^. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 4). to x = 4. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . Graph of a function. 1 the points (3. The values of func192. x a variable. E. Draw the graph of x2 f. (2. etc.1). construct '. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. J). Ex.
Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. = 0. 4J.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. j/=3. and join(0. 194. 2. 5). 1). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 4. r */ +* 01 . 4). or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. straight line produces the required graph.) For brevity.4).20). . etc. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. (4. Ex.. Thus 4x + 7.2 x .. as y. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. (3. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (2. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. y = 6. rf 71 . 7 . 2 4 and if y = x f.
2 4 x f 2 = 0. 1. 23x. The values of a?. The smallest value of the function. ?/ a. Jar . 1J. 4 a. if"a. 11. 22. y = 2x = 4. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. (7i) (c) 23. . (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. i. 2x + 3x a?. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. a?. 7. 1J. 2 2 a. + 4. (If) Va25. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.5)2. 5. 3. 18. fa 17. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 3 a 8. 2J. . 12. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2.e. 19. = 4. a* 13. 2 a. 1 8 10.5)2. xz + x. 6. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 16. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 3. 2 or 2 20. 1J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (C ) (2. 6 fa.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 2. from x VlO'S". The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.or. 2 2. 15.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. (ft) (_ 1. = The values of a*. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. if y = 2. the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a ar. 21. 2J. l. a. 14. xl. 9. a? 1. a? 2 4. x+1. 2 a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2. 8. J.8)'. if a. 4a? I. The values of a*. if the function equals zero.
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.. the abscissas of 3. 1 C. Represent 26. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. y= formula graphically. 9 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.. 25. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192)..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. then y = ..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. C. Show any convenient number). If two variables x and y are directly proportional.24. 14 F. i.24 or x = P and Q.where x c is a constant. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. . From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. then cXj where c is a constant.e. Therefore x = 1. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that graph with the o>axis. 32 F. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.158 24. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.
the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 11. crosssection paper is used. 10. 4. . 3. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 12. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 197. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6.7 2 a 5 = 0. 14. + + = where a. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 7. or 5 2. 8. 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. viz. a2 2a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. is called a quadratic equation. 2 and 1.f 9 = 0. 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 6. 13. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (a) x2 = 0. (a) (6) 9. (0. Such equations in general have two roots. = 0.
?/. first degree. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.2 y ~ 2.e. because their graphs are straight lines. X'2 Locating the points (2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . y = l. T . i. 0). ?/ =4 AB. if y = is 0. locate points (0. 199.2. unknown quantities. and join the required graph. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. NOTE. 2). 1) and 0). 3x _ 4 . y= A and construct x (  graphically. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Hence we may join (0. produces the 7* required locus. Hence if if x x  2. If x = 0. Ex. (f . Ex.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. solve for ?/. 4) and (2. . == 2. = 0. fc = 3. and joining by a straight line. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y y 2.1.
AB y = .1=0. and CD. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. (2) . AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). parallel have only one point of intersection. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 203. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. equation x= By measuring 3.15. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. linear equations have only one pair of roots. we obtain the roots. To find the roots of the system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 3. Graphical solution of a linear system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 202. viz. P. 201. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.57.
5.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 0) and (0. 2 equation x 3). 0.y~ Therefore. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. There can be no point of and hence no roots.0.5. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. e. 1. we of the + y* = 25. and + 3). y equals 3. 4. and joining by a straight line. Measuring the coordinates of P. 5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).  4. (4. they are inconsistent. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. V25 5.0). 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. and . AB the locus of (1). if x equals respectively 0. Inconsistent equations. Locating the points (5. (4. i. 4. (1) (2) C. 4. intersection.e.. . 2. x2 .g. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 3. 5. 4. the point we obtain Ex. (2. In general. The equations 2 4 = 0.9. 0. 3. Locating two points of equation (2). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Since the two  we obtain DE. 1. the graph of points roots. Using the method of the preceding para. 3x 2 y = 6. Solving (1) for y. 2. 4. etc. 4. = 0. 3).
state reasons. y 2 4. 19. 16 22. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 7. 9. if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. vice versa. and solve each If there are no solutions. 10. 3. \ 2x + 3^ . 17. a. '163 Dependent equations. y= a2 2x y6. y=x + 5. . 20. Draw system. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. x~y=0. a+r/=6. 6. 5. 4. 8. y = 4. and. 2. 16 23.. 2x 3?/=6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205.
TABLE OF SQUARES.y). 4 a = 3(6 . 30.8. 3 31. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25. 26.164 24.14 y = . 29 . 28. CUBES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .
( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. 2.faa a a a Obviously 1.a2 . 8. 52. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. on to in factors 4. 2. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. involution repeated multiplication. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( a) is positive.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. According to 1. a = a3 . etc. follows that 3. a special kind of product. Law of Signs. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. is may be by 207. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 3 f a = f a = +. fa. .
166 To find To To power. (a ) 2 4  3. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 2. 16. 4. 76 : (>y. 210. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (^^) 2 . 3 2 2 8 . raise a fraction to a power. (a ) 2 5 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 24. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 4 /2mV.6 (a 8 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 6. . V V/ 13. (2ar). the required power. a product to a given power. 2 11 (afc ) . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. amVy) 3 . 5. (277171 )*.6) = a . 15. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.3 a 6 f 3 a6 .
1.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (a + &)8 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . + 4aj) 3 . 18. (aj7) . 7. 6. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 16.3 y.INVOLUTION Ex. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (afl) . . (3af26) 8 . nent of the binomial. 13. pansions. +5a) 22. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 4. are obtained by multiplication.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. An 1. + a 2 a. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 2. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . frequently called ex. a. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 8. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (5 (1 a) 3 . etc.) 14. 21. (6m+2w) (3 8 .y) = (3 y?y . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 23. 9. 3. 211. : a 20. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. = s= (2s) 8 a.y . (3 x . 12. 5. 8 (a??/) 3 . 15. . 1 f 3 2 3 . 2 . The higher powers of binomials. 2. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. Ex. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .6 2 8 ft) . 3 . 3 8 .
Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . The minus. Ex. (m 2 + n) 8 . (la&) 4 12. 2. (l 8 . 17. 15. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 5. 9. . 5. is the coefficient of the next term. (1 + 4 ?/) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (a~^) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 3. 4 . 23. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 6. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 18. 21. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and the powers negative. Ex. (m 5 I) 2 22. (af 5) . (3a f5) 5) 4.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . . ( &) 5 . (?/i~w) : 16. (mnp 5 I) 5 . . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 10. 14.a) 3 19.2. (2 a 4 . . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . Ex. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 1. 8.168 3. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 4. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (w 4 ?i) 4 .216 a^ 4. 25. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (?>i?i f c)*. (tff1) (cfd) . (p + q) 4 * 7. 24. (mJ) 4 11. (m fl) 2 20. (2 4. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 4 (1for) 5 . 78 s . 13.
tity . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. = x means = 6. which can be simplified no further. V9 = + 3. and all other numbers are. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. etc. 215. or y ~ 3. 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 1. V \/P 214. (_3) = 27. 27 =y means r' = 27. and ( v/o* = a. or 3 for (usually written 3) . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or x &4 . 4 4 . called real numbers. for distinction. 109 . Since even powers can never be negative. \/"^27=3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. a) 4 = a4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. numbers.
V?. 3. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.9 = 136. . Ex.4.1. 6. 8. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . roots of the numerator \/18 . 10. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.(. 9. 5.125. 3/0** = am . 9. extract the and denominator. 7 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 2. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Ex. 7. = V26TIT81 = 53. 3i . 2 . fy 5 3 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. \/2 4 9 . V36 9 4. Ex. Ex 5 a" .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 7 . To extract the root of a power. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. To extract a root of a fraction. 6.64 5 4 . EXERCISE 1. 79 2 v/2 5 . . = 199 + (_ 198) . v/^i2 = a*. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. = 19472. 4 v. V25 9 16. Ex.  100 a 2 .200 .201) = 2. V5 v/2 7 2.lL. Ex. 6 7 = 030. Ex. 7. 62 = V2* . 2. . index. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 8. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . v/2^. 82 .
a f2 l 2 + l. 29. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.4/. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V9216. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 116.3 . ^40^4. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.EVOLUTION 171 28. 31./). 33.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 5.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 30.98.3. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . Find the square root of a2 .3 y2) ( vV . 1. 2. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. . a* 4 8 2 .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .75. 2 . Ex.) by inspection. 45 V5184. 3. 6. V8. 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 34. 32. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. V20 . 2 f ( V240) 3 .
2 ac . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .> 13. 10. 2 2 218. 11. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.2 ab + b . and b. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. however. 15. #2 a2  16. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 8 . let us consider the relation of a f. 2 . The term a' first 2 . and b (2 a f b).2 &c. + 6 + 4a&.e. a\b is the root if In most cases. 12.b 2 2 to its square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.72 aW + 81 & 4 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. mV14m??2)f 49. i. a f. 2ab . . 14.172 7. the given expression is a perfect square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.
\ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 219. 10 a 4 8 a.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 2. . of x.EVOLUTION Ex. 8 /. the first term of the answer. First complete divisor. by division we term of the root. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . 1. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. and so forth. . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 2. */'' . Explanation. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . The square . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Second trial divisor. 6 a. As there is no remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf. First trial divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2 . Ex.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.
1 4.37 a ^ . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 24. 6 11. 16x6 4. 8. 436^?/469a. 36it.25 x 4 4. 12.12m 5 4. 15. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . > 7.25.16.73a4 440^436^460^. . 14.4 x 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. + 81 a 454 a + 81.20 o 4. 9.20 J or 2 16 x 4.24 or . 5 4 16 4 iK .6 . 3. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .42 a*& 4. l 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 2 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 4 .10 x2 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 19. 17.162 a2 60 a10 4. 20.9. 13#4 413ar 44a. 729 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 6. 2 x2 3 2x. 18. 5. 16.12 m 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . a? 2 . x 6 4 4 0^4.40 a 22 .73 a8 . 10.a 6 x*y 2 .
Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. of 1. Ex. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 1. Ex. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. As 8 x 168 = 1344. of 10.EVOLUTION 220. 2. Find the square root of 7744.176. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000 is 100. the first of which is 4. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the square root of the greatest square in units. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. etc. and the complete divisor 168. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. etc. which may contain one or two). the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the first of which is 8. The is trial divisor = 160. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000. Find the square root of 524.000 is 1000. two figures. a 2 = 6400. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. first . of a number between 100 and 10. and the first remainder is. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Therefore 6 = 8.1344. = 80.
Find the square root of 6/.10. in .688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3.1T6 221. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.0961 are '.GO'61.7 to three decimal places. 12.1 are Ex. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher. places.70 6. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.
Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. whose area equals 48. 33. JT . 30. . 13. 5.58 square 38. 35. feet.1410.4 square when R = radius and 11.22.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 1.) 40. 32.53. 36. 34. J.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. T\. 37. 31. = 3. 39. feet. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .
quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. or affected. is 12. 6#2 = x* 24. or incomplete. 178 . 2. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. The 7 equation. x 2 7.g. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 226. 2 ic = a. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or equation of the second degree. 2)* + 5 = 33. complete. Transposing. Extracting the square root of each member.. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. . Dividing.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 224. 225. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. = 4. is A quadratic equation. 6 y2 = 17. 1. Ex. x = + 2 or x =2. This answer Check. but no higher power e. A pure. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5.
. or Therefore. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. o. (a? 9. 2. 7 = 162.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 7. 5. 19 + 9 = 5500. 15^5 = 6. 16^393 = 7. 8. 3. Solve 179 . Dividing by Extracting the square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 83 2.2. 6(2)=10(ajl). ' =: y? b* b . 2 4fc 5' 18. ax Transposing and combining. 2 2 a.25. 4 ax. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 0^ + 1 = 1. 10. .
= a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . solve for r. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. .) of their squares 5. Find the numbers. Find the side of each field. then Since such a triangle tangle. 28. Find is the number. 2a f 1 23. : 6. 2 : 3.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 25. 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 2. 27. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If G=m m g . 22 a. 4. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . solve for v.b 2 If s If =c . solve for d. EXERCISE 1. 24. 26. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. is 5(5. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . find a in terms of 6 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. ' 4. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 29. may be considered one half of a rec square units. r. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and their product : 150. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 108. 2 . If 22 = ~^. 228. 2 . . If a 2 4. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144).
Solve Transposing. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.2 7 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 8. . radii are as 3 14. x* 7 x= 10. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. A body falling from a state of rest. Find these 10. . Find the radii.) 13. add () Hence 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . sides. The area : sides are as 3 4. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. (b) 44 square feet.7 x f 10 = 0. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 24. 9. Find the unknown sides and the area. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. (b) 100 feet? = . of a right triangle Find these sides. we have of or m = . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. J = 12. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Method of completing the square. is and the other two sides are equal. 4. To find this term. and the third side is 15 inches. Find the sides. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. and the two smaller 11. . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. 2m.
Transposing. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2 a* a. 62 x 5 = f. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Simplifying.2. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . or x = 2. 230. J.2 a2 . adding member).182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Ex. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.x(l = . 7 5 + 10 = 0. = . Extracting square roots. . Uniting. 2  .e. (*~8) a = at .. a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Hence Therefore Check. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Therefore. = 6. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. = x\ = 2. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Ex. a Clearing of fractions. or J.a.1. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.  \. Transposing. = \ # = ff.
x . 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
231. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2x 3 4. x la 48. 49. =0. =8 r/io?. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solution by formula. article.c = 0. and c in the general answer. \bx\. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao. .
19. = 64120?. = 12 . 2 a? = 44 x . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 13. 17.4 4 5 . 6 Ex. 12. 20. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 8. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 a..25 x. 2or } 5o. V^tT)* . 5 x2 Transposing. 2. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2. 16.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. TIO. b =  + 20 == = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 18. 14. 2 o. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6.  . a. 15. 2 . c p. 10. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.15 x9 25x* = 21 . Reducing to general form. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 4. ?i 2 . c = 5. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 21. 6 . 11. 6. 9. 3. 6^+5^ 56. 26. 1. 7. : 86 + 2 = 0.
Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. ar>8o. = 0. if either of the uct is zero. x2 = 1 . 5) = 0. transposing terms to one member. (5 a? !)(. x(x <2 . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.5 Solving (1) and (2). 26. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 25. member can be Ex. 24. = 14. factors Now. = 0. 23. a=:i^^. }.2. Solution by factoring.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 5 = 0. orz roots. Clearing for fractions. Eesolving into factors. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 3x?+x = 7.5) =0. . 0. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Transposing.x. any degree. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . or # 5 is zero. all or. Bx 1 1. Factoring. and 6. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 233.4) = . 27 x== 42a. 1.
ar'Sa^ 12.6)) = 0. 3. 3^ = 0(1106). 7. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 8. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 9. 3. (aj4)(a. + 6)=0. we 9 obtain x 4. and the equation thus formed be solved. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.3)(x + 3 3.e. 2o3 f9a. 5 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). evidently (x Or 4)(x . } 2 2 (5 . 14.:=0. a?10a=:24. O roots are 2. 6. 5. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. E.= 24. 4. Therefore x =3 = 2. x2 f 2 x . Or Hence the 234. for a: . 13. 3) = 0. 12. 3# y 5 = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. : 87 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 10 a = 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 3 or 2 a. 2. 3) Factoring. + 9 f 20 x = 0. The equation I. is 5) = 0. Ex. 16. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. aj( 15.24 = 0. a?.g. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 4)(z3) = 0. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ ar> 11. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. a* 10a=24. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. + 8=s: 7. + 100.(.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.
(2a? 3) (a 24. 23. 50. a 2 =(x a)b. ara + ft + c*. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. uz + u 21. 20.188 17. 22. 18. (a + 1) (a. 2. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 27. 25. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19. '3a!J  .
The 11. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and consequently many prob 235. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. : 3. Find the numbers. 52. 7. 2. 0. 1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.3. Find the number. 56. . two numbers is 4. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. EXERCISE 1. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 4. The difference of . number by 10. 2. is Find two numbers whose product 288.0. of their reciprocals is 4. and equals 190 square inches.2. 1. and whose product 9. 8. 3. 58. G. Find the sides. and the difference Find the numbers. 5. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 3.9. 5.3. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 55. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 57. 54. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. and whose sum is is 36. 2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .1. 6.0. feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find the number.3.
What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and Find the sides of the rectangle. watch for $ 24. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. dollars.10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 17. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 13. ply between the same two ports. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. other. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for 21. Find the rate of the train. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. . he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. If he each horse ? . had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 19. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. ABCD.190 12. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 15. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 14. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. he would have received two horses more for the same money. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Two vessels. as the 16. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively.
so that the rectangle. 1. By formula. as 0. constructed with and CB as sides. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. ^3^ = 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. or x = \/l = 1. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. (tf. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. is On the prolongation of a line AC. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. of the area of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find and CB. . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.) 25. the two men can do it in 3 days.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 23 inches long. 237. a point taken. 27. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. contains B 78 square inches. how wide is the walk ? 23. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 24. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. and working together. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Ex.
2. 19. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. aV+9o 4 =0.)+72=0. = 13.192 238. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 8. = 1. 4 a. 2 h9:=0. 2 16 a^40 11. 10. a4 5o. a? 15 1=2*. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Hence Le. Solving. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 16.T 2 2 . stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. or y = 8. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 18. 6. 4 : 89 10a. 4 6. a. 9. 4. 436 3. a 21or=100.2 =4. T 17. y8)=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 12. 7. >. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Ex.
f> = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are real. and unequal. rational. Ex. the roots are rational. b 4. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Relations between roots and coefficients. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. a perfect square. c the roots are real. and equal. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. The discriminant =(. the roots are irrational. .2 z .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. rational. ( 2a Hence 1. negative.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2) 2 4 3 (. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. is 4ac not zero. the roots are unequal. 240. 2. 3. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.5) = 04. Ex. 241.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are equal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 1.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are imaginary.bx 4. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.
2a 4z5 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 15. 3a. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. their product isf. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. f 2 E. tfmx+p^Q. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. + 12 2  . lla. 21. ^12. 12. 2 : 3. 2. : a 2 .g. 2 a.19 # 20. o. 9a3 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 14. 2 7.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.. = 0. 23. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 60 2 = 0. + 18 2 8. 6. 18. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 5aj 9. = 5x. 22. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 4. 5oj aj + l = 0. = Q. x2 7 10. + 2a15 = 0. + 2a. 17.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 24. = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5.
~ a m f.* III. = a"" < .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. that a an = a m+n . The first of these laws is nition of power. Then the law of involution. It is. 244. and . II. hence. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. provided w > n. We assume. while the second of the first. (ab) . such as 2*. > m therefore. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .a" = a m n mn . no Fractional and negative exponents. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. a m a" = a m+t1 . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. however. for all values 1 of m and n. m IV. must be *The symbol smaller than. (a m ) w .
or zero exponent equal x. m$. n 2 a. as. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. e. a*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 31. 4~ . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 23. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. a\ 26. Assuming these two 8*. . 24.g. etc. 28. (xy$. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 25. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 245. a?*. at. 29. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. = a. ml. (bed)*. laws. 0?=^. a . disappear. 3*. '&M A 27.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. fractional. 30.
38. If. 45. the base is zero. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.\/n. a* * = 3. 46. a . 5 a* = 10. v'mT 36. 27* = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 2' 4* = 4. 44. : 197 33. Let a = a. To find the meaning of zero exponent. hence is . = 49. = 2. a * a2 Or a=l.g. Vo5 . ty?. 49.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 48. a. e. \fi?. 50. 3* = 27. equal to unity. \/xy \/m. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. v/o&cT 34. 7z* Find the values of 47. however. = 2. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 35. 37. 43. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.g. e. 40. 41. Solve the following equations 39. 42. 246.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.198 247. e. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . by changing the sign of NOTE. 248.2 = a2 .g. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". an x = a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. etc. Or a"# = l. or the exponent. vice versa. consider the following equations. cr n. . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Let x= or".
7~ l a 2b 2 . . rfS. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. c 32. 3 a? * 42. * 24. : mi m~^. m . a^ 41. ^L. 2 . 39. 2 . . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. : or 5 . ^?2 y' 34."* 38. 44. 25.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 37. 2m~i 43. 66 45. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 36. 3 a. 22. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 27. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 40. f (2w)~i 1 . a.
z 5or*=10.343)* + (. 52.6). 1. 17' 2 51. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 49. 57. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 61. 10* 5* = . .(. (. = ^. 59. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .26)* 1 (I) 2 . 53. Ex. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + A_. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.1. 250. z* = 1. 48. 47. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. = l. = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.008)* + A.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 58. of: 3ll4~* 60.81 f (a . 54. 55. + 1~* f 21 . ar = i. = 5.001.9*. 10* Find the values 56.
(d) If required.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 3. 23. 3sVS.7W. 18. 14. S'sS8. OA 20. 7~ 5 27  . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 4 5.&.6 *' 6 *25.. 3 a. 27  28. a.7*. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 6a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 8 ' 9. 4 x^.$". . 16. Remove the negative exponents.7i. .$*. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . Perform the operation indicated. .4 a8 . etc.3 aj" a.5.4 . 72 . __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 17. 6 *. 12. ' 11. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.&. 7~ 6 . remove the fractional exponents. &. 6. 79 . 16.5a. / 7fv 7. V5. 26. are performed.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 10. 95 ^9i 5**. #* a. 13. NOTE. 7*. 7.^/5^5.
1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.2 d . lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. powers of x arranged are : Ex. The 252. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 2.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 6 35. 40. 1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. If powers of a?. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^4. ^/IT. V2. ^2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. Simplify V~ . 29. ^126. Simplify/a35 ~ o . Arrange 35. 30. signs. (i. I VJ + 3VT8 . A/2. v^S. </20. v/4. To add or form. 38.3\ . subtract surds. 4^/4.2. </2. 37.10 V2 =  V2. ^2. 26. ^5. ^3. 31. ^7. A/3. connect them by proper 1. </3. 27. Ex. 40. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^6. \/7. 32. 39. V3. V2. V3. 28. Simplify V + 3 VlS. VS. ^4. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^2. ^30.e.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . in order of magnitude : \/7. if dissimilar. + . Ex. 2\ 3*. 3. 5V2. 36. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .2 V50. \/5. V2. v/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 33. v/3. s!/3. 34. V5.
6. 14. 4. 3. 12. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . . 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 11. 6. 8.3V20 + 6V5. 8VT8J2V32 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45. 13. V18+V32VT28+V2. VJ+V8V1 + V50.J a6 V4 aft. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10. + 3V835V2. V175V28+V634V7. 9.
2v/6 + IPV6 105. 3.6V35 106 460V35100 . 23. 26^ . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 2. 1. Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Ex. 6*. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . and then multiplied. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . y* = Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. .
8. V3 V6. 41. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. v/4. 37. 38. 28 . 15. 4. 10. v/18 v"3. 34. 40 10 30. 6. 6. 12. . aVa.VSS. 40. (2V3) 8 . (3 20. 18. (Va Va 36. 7. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). \/3 \^). 14. 39. VlO V15. 213 98 11. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 19.^/2.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 27. 2. + VB)(2V5). 3. V42. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2 V50. 2 . fWa 17. Vll. V2aV8^. VTO. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 13. 9. a?. V20 V30. V3 Vl2. 21. 6 V4 5. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 25. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33.
all monomial surds may be divided by method. 49. is 1 2. 48. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). a fraction. 46. 51. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). . (2 45. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 268. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 53. Va v/a. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). V3 . 44. 43. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.y. E.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). the quotient of the surds is If. Ex. 52. 47. 60. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S .214 42. Ex. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.
57735.by the usual arithmetical method. . e. /~ } Ex. . Divide VII by v7.g. is illustrated by Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations.73205. by V7. arithTo find. The 2. 3.. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. we have V3 But if 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .RADICALS This method. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 1. however. Evidently. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.
if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 272. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. VffV?. 20. 14. . . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 = 1.2361. A. 23 . V3 24 . i. and Given V2 = 1. 271.4142. V5 270. ^/H . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V48 25. Vll 212*. 7. V8 JL. A. V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8.. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V5 = 2.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.7320. 21. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V2 22 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.
1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . .= 18. V82 2V3 1fVS . s Simplify a.vffi^T _ .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .Vs2 . Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. 1. 3.2. . Ex.
By the use of fractional exponents . Vo1 26.5 3 = 125.7320. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 19. 6V7. v 2V3 28. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V5V7 18> ^SVg.2361.218 6 . = V3 = 1. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.W3. J?_. find to _!_. 27. V21 = 25 . four places of decimals 23 . 24. . Given V2 1.
To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V643 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. 3. 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 2. 1. 4. 2 12. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. . 8. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. v8f 2\/15. \/l6*. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . on the other hand. 5. the If. \/125" . According to G3. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. 11. In other examples of involution and evolution. 3 (V2~u)  7. Simplify Ex. it to this form. viz. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.
^TT.6 V2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. is 11. Find Vll .2 \/20.220 Ex. Find V4 + VJ8. 12 and whose product is 20.6\/2 = ^9 . 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . The Hence ^11 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 3. and whose product is 18. +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .A/2. These Ex.
Dividing by Check. VT . The value x =2 reduces each . are radical equations.. first involution. 5. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. +=. a. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. = xa + 4 x f 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Before performing the involution. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. i. member to 2. 8. (2x xrf 1. 4x x = 2. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Ex. V48 23.1.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. they are transto formed into rational equations. by raising both members equal powers. . Transposing and uniting. Solve vVf!2a = 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Radical equations are rationalized. 277.V48 4 20. x2 = x f 2.e. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. r 22. 4. 19.
one root. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Dividing by 24. Factoring. a socalled extraneous root. V4afT~l. x = J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . at . tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0. 3. Therefore CftecAr. viz. It = 3 x . . radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Ex.222 Ex. 5. . 278. Therefore Check.1) = 0. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. the first member = V2. f 25 = 12. they may be extraneous roots. a.3. 4#f 4 = 9. 2. tion which has two roots. Transposing. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. viz. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. Extraneous roots. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.
Transposing. 223 x = 3.12 . the right member = V2. 4. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . If If x 3 = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions. for it satisfies the equation . = 3. .47) = 0. both members reduce to 5. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. NOTE. + 6~ieT~3 . \ does not satisfy the given. (x x = 3. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Therefore. is x V.3) (2 x . and to 5. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.2 r.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. ViTie 4 z2 . Squaring. Check. Hence x = the only root. or x *j. Hence there is only one root. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. .RADICALS Hence x If a. x root of the preceding equation. equation it is an extraneous root. Solve the following equations : = G. Factoring. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. .
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*. Many 1. Ex. Factoring.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
3 6. This can be seen without substituting. 2. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 5. 4. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Ex. 2_8z 440 = 49. x Since both =9 or 1. = 7. 45 14VJB = .f40= 5. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 3. . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. _ 2 y . 2. + 40 = 6. members of the equation were squared. y then x2 . Vi 2 8a. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 26. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Q . some of the roots be extraneous.35 = 0. Let 8 x f 40 . x =6 or 3. x + Vx a? = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. o. Substituting.i~24 = 0. = 0. 412a* = 16.*2a.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.8 x + 40 = 36.8 z40 = 7. 2Va.
12. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14. 17.a 440 = 35. 15. 4 V SB* 4 a. 20.f 18 = 24. +3= 6. a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +x . or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.226 11. 19. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 16. 18. 2. a^x2 5 2 13.
a? R = x* . Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.4 a. Without actual division. " Or. no matter If. 1. 3 2 Ex. 2. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. could.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Hence. find the remainder when m. to x we # = 2 3. we make a? what the value of Q. then (x 2)Q 0. If x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Without actual division. even if Q is unknown.2 + 4.2) Q ." transposing. does not contain a?.360 = 244.bx? + ex2 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.2 + 80 = 12. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. ^ = 381+2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 227 . = 2. by dividing 3 x* f. if Q was known.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Ex.2 x 5 by x 3. ax4 4. however.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.
3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The Factor Theorem. if 8 42  .4(. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x* s 2 4. If the remainder is zero. hence (x divided by x 4. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 2 j 7. 8.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . fora?. x m is factor of the expression. + 6. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + ^by x + b. 5 (4x . 43 3 E. + 7 = 632. 5.g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.3)f 11 =. } 2 by a1.8'= 0. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .949.228 282. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.g. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. of the division 3) is m in place of x.
8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . i. + ttt15 = 0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a. f 15 does not vanish. then x8 7 x'2 4. 9.49 = 0. 21. 25. Resolve into factors 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a 5x 6. 17. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . is a factor. a 8a f 19 a 12. 8. 6. 229 1. + 27 + 27. 20. 2m 5m . a? 19.13m + 30 10. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. p 5^ + 8p 4. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. ^10^429^20=0. f 3. a^8^ + 19a. are f 1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 1.12. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. oj 5x2 f3a.9^ + 23^15. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 7 46 = 0. 8.e.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.1. a 2a + 4. & p*. or x 4. 2 2. . _ . 1. 3 2 : 7. Let x = . a + 32. 106 division. 11. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.7 + 16 . Therefore x ( 1). m f m n 14. + 15. 23. The 5. 15. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 2.12 = 0. f 5. 18. 3. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.r6 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.1.7 x + 15 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. Factor a? 15. 24. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. or 5 4 + 3^ . factors of the absolute term. 5.
is odd. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0." .y n is divisible by x f ?/. 286. By we obtain the other factors. xn f. xn y n y n y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. For substituting y for x. actual division n. ar +p= z6 e. It y is not divisible by 287. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. : importance. 2. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.xy +/). Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. x* f/ = (x +/)O . if n is even. if w is odd.g.230 285. 1. Ex.
i mn f w 2). y 3 +8=0. a. 28. 3. Hence = (m Ex. 26. preferable. since it more directly to the prime factors. however. leads 231 is The first method. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 27. x3 8=0. as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.= .
290. (5) Combining (5) with (1). however. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. + 6 a?V . in general. (4) Hence. If two of the quantities x f y. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. can be solved by the methods degree. xywe have 3. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.y4 is of the fifth degree. xy are given. * A I. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.1. x y. of quadratics. 232 . ==5 > 1^ = 4. & + 2 xy + = 25. = 6. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Squaring Solve (1). 4 xy = 16. to equations of the fourth few cases.
the answers of the last example are : r*=2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. r (" 1 = 876. " "' "' { r 8. I I x + y=7. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.g. 1. but can be found. b=3. ' 10. 3. 233 y. 108 2. = . x and xy are not given. 12.
aj = 2. Factoring. .  f J. 19. I* Jj ^ [. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 5. A system of simultaneous equations. or y = 1 . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 4 y = 20. one linear and ne quadratic. 6 "I 14. 2 (1) From (1) we have. + 29 = 0.?/ i = 6.o 18.~ y = 5. ' ' . x " (3) 49 etc.a. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 7 . Ex. or JJ. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). I x+y = a. r^ 2 as ] f. . la.i/ = r 13.20) = 0. 3.  42 y + Transposing..
If of the preceding type. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . = 1 3 3. III. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 9. 10. Solve . quantities.3 2x 2 Ex. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 3y) : Factor (2). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. ':il e :) . 1. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). y* + 2y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 4 f + 2 y = 3. ' x*.
= 0. 2 . (3) (4) Subtracting. 15 x2 . 109 a. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. } VI09.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. Solve 2.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. j Substituting y in (2). = Ex. (1) (2) x x 5. = 0. 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.
298.y = 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.!. and others not belonging to them.125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. Division of one equation by the other. A. ' ^ 15. f 1 150 a?.xy 4. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 150 */2 . (4) (3). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. " IV. E. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. y? a? f .175 ay = 12. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). can be solved by special devices.3^42^=43. Bxy9. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.6.
= 12 J. jc~ y = 9. y . we have from (1). x 2 . y = 3. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 189.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we obtain by squaring. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x .. 2. x +y y etc. from (2). Some simultaneous ?/. Therefore x = 16. i ^ *>. xy. (1 > (2) 1. * ' 300. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Solve Ex. at first it is unknown quantities. B.
Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. 36* 2. M6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . 2. 4. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. F+y+ . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e. 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . [2x + : y= 17. 7.
27. * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 25. = y 1 y* . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = 198. . . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 19 ' 26. f 18. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 16.21 ^ = 15.
25 34. . Q 7. hence may be any finite number. ^ oo . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 30. ~\ OK OO. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . as a . 7' j/ 39. 31. . y % 9 f*K 36. Interpretation . oo 301. . or ~ indeterminate. finite  =x y if = x. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. = 48201. etc 302. 33.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division. 3 a2 38. 32. etc.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.
can be If It is made larger than number. Or. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. cancel. (1). x f 2. is satisfied by any number. great. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.x'2 2 x = 1. . I. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. and becomes infinitely small. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. the answer is indeterminate. it is an Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. (1) is an identity. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. The ~~f fraction . and .000 a. be the numbers. 1. i. Hence such an equation identity. or that x may equal any finite number. 306.g.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. . = 10. oo is = QQ.e.decreases X if called infinity. 1.increases if x de x creases. creases. i. (a: Then Simplifying. TO^UU" sufficiently small. without exception.242 303. as + l.e. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. equation. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Let 2. By making x any * assigned zero. (1) = 0. ToU" ^100 a.
Solve  9 7.e. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. = oo. and the sum of Find the numbers.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. . 42 and' their product is 377. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Hence /. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. * 6.8 x + 15 6. Solve x a. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 3. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 2. is their 2. and a. Solve . y finite QO. The sum is of squares 2890. z = 1 Substituting. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts. 4 3 x x5 a2 . EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. two numbers is 76. (2). 1=0. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.
Find the edges. and the diago(Ex. 6. 255 and the sum of 5. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the edge of each cube. 190. . equals 4 inches. and the edge of one. 8. p.) 53 yards. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the sides. Find the numbers. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the sum of ( 228. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the side of each square. 10. 9. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. of a rectangular field feet.244 3. Find the other two sides. 103. two numbers Find the numbers. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. is 6. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. of a right triangle is 73. the area becomes f% of the original area. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find these sides. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the dimensions of the field. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 14. 146 yards. The area of a nal 41 feet. increased by the edge of the other.quals 20 feet. 13. and the hypotenuse is 37. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 12. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.
) 17. by the product of 27 be added to the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and if the digits will be interchanged. is 20 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. the quotient is 2. Find the number. differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. .
a 11. progression.... 17. . P. a + 2 d. to produce the nth term.. f . . 309. (n 1) d must be added to a. 12. a 3d. of the following series is 3. to produce the 4th term. . 11. 3 d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.1) d. and d. 19. + 2 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. Since d is a f 3 d. . a. P. 3. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. of a series are its successive numbers.. 4.. : 7. The common differences are respectively 4. to produce the 3d term. series 9. An arithmetic progression (A. to each term produces the next term.. To find the nth term / of an A. The progression is a. The first is an ascending. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 10. 16. the second a descending. a + d. P. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.7. Hence / = a + (n . a f d. each term of which. 2 d must be added to a.. 15 is 9 f.) is a series. added to each term to obtain the next one. except the first..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.
.. P.' cZ == . d = 3. 115. P. . 3... . 6. 8. 19. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 6 we have Hence . 6. 24. . 3...8. = 2. .. 5. ? (a) 1. . 2 EXERCISE 1.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 5.. 7. Find the nth term of the series 2. 4.. the last term and the common difference d being given. . Find the 5th term of the 4. (a + + (a + l) l). 5.. = a + (a Reversing the order. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. of the series 10. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 9. 2. 5. = I + 49 = *({ + . P. 1J.16. 9.. 2J. d . Find the 12th term of the 4..3 a = l. the term a. 4^. 1. 7. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). series . 99) = 2600. series 2.. 6. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A..PROGRESSIONS 310.. = 99. Find the 101th term of the series 1. if a = 5. 5. 8. (d) 1J. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. Adding. 1.. 2. 21.4. 8. . 3. 3. 10. a = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 7.. 3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. to 15 terms. . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 16 terms. 4. 16. 33. . rf. + 3. 21. 1. 29. 23. Sum the following series 14. to 7 terms. 2J. : 3.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . 11. 7. 1J. 1. . 16. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. to 20 terms. strike for the first yard.. 31. > 2f 2. and for each than for the preceding one. \n. 11. 7. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 6. 13. 19. 8. to 20 terms. to 10 terms. to 8 terms. P.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 7. 17. 22. striking hours only. 15. 3. 11. Jive quantities are involved. 18. . 2. (i) (ii) . 1. (x +"l) 4. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 15. 12. and a yearly increase of $ 120.1 f 3. 15.248 Find the 10. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . . 11. 12. 20.7 f to 12 terms. hence if any three of them are given. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. '. In most problems relating to A.
111.104 w + 408 = 0. Ex.1). 133.6 n). 144. 204 = ^ (98 . = 144. a = 12. P. Solving. The series is. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = 13. 100. J = 49. a = 49 6(71 . #. n d. The first term of an A. 78. is 12. Findn. I Substituting in (I) and (II). From (1). 204 = ^ (a + 49). or if x Solving. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 45. l)e?.e. = 1014. P.1) . . I. 89.. 1. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 6. P. 78 n Substituting in (1). 56. hence n = 6. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. Find the series. or 11 J. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 34. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 23. 2 (2) From Hence (2). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. . and b form an A. the and the sum of all terms 1014.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 12. if s = 204.~n~\ 408 6). 67. 122. 6 n2 . Substituting in (2). = n(104 . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. the second one mean between the other two. s 24ft last term 144. n = 6. 2. 312. = a + (w. = 1014.6.. d = 6. if a.
Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = 1870. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find w. Find?. I. a x f b and a b. Find a and Given s = 44. = 45. 12. 8. 17. Find a Given a = 7. 10. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3.3. = 17. Given a = . Given a = 4. 13. Find d. produced. 6? 9. of 5 terms 6. has the series 82. ceding one. T? ^. y and #f5y. n = 20. m and n 2. = ^ 3 = 1. n has the series ^ j . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. f J 1 1 / . Given a = . 7.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. a+ and b a b 5. 15. 14. d = 5. n = 17. Find d. How much did he save the first month? 19. f? . Find d and Given a = 1700. Find n. 78. How much . n. n = 13. n = 16. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n = 4. 4. 16. s == 440. 74. P. = 52. . s = 70. Given a = 1. 3. and s. = 83. 11. I Find I in terms of a. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 16.
36. is 16(f) 4 ... s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. 24. . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . P. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.) is a series each term of which. called the ratio. ratios are respectively 3. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . 108. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.arn ~ l . ar8 r. and To find the nth term / of a G. 2. or 81 315.. 36. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. (I) of the series 16. <zr . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.g. +1. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . P. NOTE.. The progression is a. E. 36. ar. or. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 12. 4. . I... The 314. 4 (1) . . the first term a and the ratios r being given. . If n is less : than unity. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. A geometric progression first. is it (G. of a G... 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 4. P.. 2 a. 24. rs = s 2 . r n~ l .
18. f. Hence the or series is 0.72.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 9. . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 80. 6. is 16. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.. + 5. I = 670. 10.5. 9. 144. (d) 5. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 288. . . EXERCISE 1. r^2. 576.6. . l. .4.*. 8. P.. first 5. P. 9. 2 term 3. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.5.54. 36. . 36. +f%9 % .. series 5. is 3. In most problems relating to G._!=!>. 144. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. \ t series . . 3. 1. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . 25.18. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 144..288..l. 7. first term 4. P. . Jive quantities are in. whose and whose common ratio is 4.. . i 288.. 36. volved . Find the 5th term of a G. . a = I... (it. 4.18. fa.. P. or 7. Ex. if any three of them are given. whose . 676. 72. 4. series 6. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. series . ? (c) 2. And the required means are 18. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. (b) 1. Find the 6th term of the series J. 72. Hence n = 7. whose and whose second term is 8. first term is 125 and whose common . 20.. P... . fa. 0.. hence. . f.
36.. 13. 16 . 81. n = 5. + 4 .J and 270. a. J.. 81. r . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 12.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. and hence ~ r . a^. of r n decreases. 27. is less than unity. >"> . 42. s = 310. 1. to 6 terms. 48. I.. 20. == 160. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. . Find a and Given r = 3. be written If the value of r of a G. J. s = 605. Given r = n Z 5. . J. J. . Find a and 4. to 8 terms.. 12 terms. 19. 22.i a9 .nV> i*> !718. 14. 2. may be than any assignable number.. 126. = 3. . Z s. Find the geometric mean between 7. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. to 7 terms. 14. to 7 . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 23. 24. M.. Find a and n = 4. 25S series : 32. 72. . 15. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. . n = 5. 21. 4. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 1. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 6 terms. 54. to 5 terms. P. to G terms. to 6 terms.. = 3. 243.
..555. 5.. 10. is 16.. ratio 15.. . 12. 5. and the first term is Find 17. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 250... 100. .... 2.... If the side of the first square is 2 inches.3121212. . 1.. r = j.. 14. .717171.072. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. The sum r... Find the value 9..= .. 9.072 + . 66 Therefore . . 8. Hence .)7?7272 ..99 . 9. is J. .72. P. Find the sum to infinity..254 Ex. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 13. 1. . 6. 2. Given an infinite series of squares.01 ^ . . P. . 16. 4.= _4Z* . 3.. 6. of all squares ? . . . i i J. what is (a) the sum of the areas.272727. I. (6) the sum of the perimeters. The sum Find the of an infinite G.191919. first and the common term..... If a = 40. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. . 1. is 9. =A+ 10 i.... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. of an infinite G.. . = . 1 r = .1. . 4. = 990 . = . . 8.27777 . 40.00072 f . .37272 . .. P. 7. 16. 1.3 + . of: 11..3727272 .. i.Ql. = a .
12. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 5. /2a+Y\ 8. 10. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (xy) : 6 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 22. 20. : (1 + xy. 25. coefficient of .6) 20 . 4. (a 100 .6) . 21. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 26. 29.b ). (\ 9 . 11. 28. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 6th term of (x . 15. (a2) 6. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 2 2 24. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (s + i). . 17. (a + b) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. l 2. . . a6 8 16 in . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 13. 7 . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 16. . 14. 4 7.b) w (a (a f (1 .
+ 2. 3. if = = = 2. 1. 2. if = = 2. 7. + c(a  c). 3. a ft c = = 2. 4. 5. 2 . 2. 2.c )(fta) 1. 3. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. = 2. 2. 2. 4. 3. 3. 2. 5. 3. 2. 1. 5. 2. 2. 1. 3. 1. 1. 4. ft 4 ) 5. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. 3. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 1. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 3.f ac 1. 5. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 6. 2. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. ^+^ 3. 2. 1. 3. 5. c if 7 . 3. 5. 1. 2. 2. 4. 4. 3. 6. 1. 1. 1. 2. 5. 4 2. if y=2j 2.  8 ^ 2. 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. . 1. + 1. 3. 3. 1. 1. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 24 4. 2. 3.  a)(a 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 6. aft 3 + 4. 3. 5. 2. 6. 2.a(a 4. 3. 1. 2. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 4. l. ft) . 3. c = = = 2. . (c 3. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 4. y 3. if x^l. 1. 2. 5. 1.  2.  2. 4. 2. 2. 6. + 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 1. 3.
\ yz + xz. 40. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 1.7 ys. .2 x?/. 1. + 2. = 2. if a 6 = = c = 3.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 8.3 a?y . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . x 3 x' 14.c' 2 4 / . 4. 9.a) . 20. 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 7y 4 . 3. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .r 6 x  4 xy . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 8 . 41. 2  + 12 a 8 . 4. 7. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 2. x 3 11. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . c)(x a} . 5.4. 12. b(x (b 1.5. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 5. r> . 2 . a 4 + 11 a . a /> 3. 4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 17. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 21.x 5 4 . a: . 2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 15.7 + . 25. + 1. 29. x = 4.8 3 + 7 x4 . 9. 4 z . 26. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. . 7 xy 3 .3 xyz.a8 .2 x2 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . a. + 4. 2. x3 2 a2 .259 x c) .1.7 y 2* 4. 4 y 13. a. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + 3 y 2* . 4 x 4 .8 + 2 // . 2. . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .2 a?y + 3 aty .2.2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 16. (5.10. . 6.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . + 8 x4 *y . 2 x 8. 21. + 4 ?y . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .a 5 a . f 8.a 4 .2 z8 4 x. c = 3. 24.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . ~c)(b. ' b) + 3. 15. 5. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. or . 5. 10. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 18.  a) (c 2. 6 a4 4 a8 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x C 4 4x y + .
ft.2 3 ax 2 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 29. of a. Take the sum 4x 4.#48.(4 x 2 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. c 4. . 4 3 5 y/ . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .2 .c. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .{G * 2 .x2 . 2 x 32. 542 x 2 and . x'2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.6 x ] . 4 .5 .(5 y . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .4 ft) 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 7 12 .c 3 a.(4 * .3 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . = x y ft z. : a x . .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 5 10 + 7 .4 Vl 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.x . ft 25. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 0" 30. 36. 5 4 7 12 . (*) a  c.(5 c .2 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.x . and .(a . c 4ft. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 35.(x 4.c 4 3 a. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.27~~7)}]. 4vTT~y 3.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .3 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].8 3 4.1)}] . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .(x* . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. From of 2 the 4.7. x8 x2 2 a'2x. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 ..4.(7 x 4. 3 ft.[4 z 8 .1).2 x 8y2 44 . 4 2 x2 23.] 26. c =x y }~ z.3. a  ft + c.[4 x 4.x 2 4. sum of . take the sum of G x 5 .6T .3 x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.a ft. 4 4 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 33. f ft.?> x 4 20. . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 5 10 4 G 11 4.260 19.x 4. . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .5.{2 x 2 . 34.2 a .c.2) . Take the sum of 3 x 4.4) . Simplify 31. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.
.{3 c . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).(7 i + 4 r:) .[2 .c 2 . 2 53.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 3 x 42. . )(lz a ).5)} + (3 a 2 . 4 + 2 2 + 1). a .(2 a + 5 a .2 zz .3 *). 2 ft 41. + 4x + 5)(j. 65.(6 .2 2 . 48. 68.6c) (a + f c).5 )}] + {4 c . 'J 44.2x + 3). (r (1 (a.[4 x  5 .0)} . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .& + {. 13 a .6 xy .c). (x.3).2a .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.ac .(4 d . 54.(2 x2 . (. 51. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 59.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).ab .{2 a . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .6)}].{2 a (ft . (/> 4 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 a 2 .2)(1 .3 z 2 ). + *+!){> + 2).1). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).a~^~c)K].(2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar.be) (a 58. 57. 2 : 7e)a}].3)(*5)(* 7).12). 2 f [3 c 7 a . (4 + 3a 2 .2c(V/ . (5 a 39. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 2 2 x + !)(* . 49. (1 55. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (1 ar+a.rf)} + a [. 60. 56.2 2 + 1)(7. .Z . .3 c)].[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 50. (x . 45. . 43.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .4 a 2 + a 4 ).96 [17 a.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .  2 a  {3 2x a .3c). 46.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (. . .b (c . . a {. 2 52.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 62.7). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).4 a . 63. 64.(5 y .(7 a.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 67. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.JT^T+1)} + (2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). .56.
89. 88. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 74.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). (x (x ( + *) .2 (a .c)]. 84. (.2y)(.z\x 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.(c 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.2 (y 4.c) .<f(p .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 79.ft) 4 . (a 2 ft 2n 4.3 a .c) 2 .a) 2 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.6*y .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c) 4) (ft 4.ft) + 4(2 . 76.3y) a (* 2 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.c) j. 85.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).y).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). ft 78. ft 95. 90. 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .n pc).q).262 69.c . . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .3 (ft . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 93.5 . 92.c)} . f 72.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c) . ft" l Simplify 80.y + z)(x + y . 86. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 91. 2 (x 2 . . ft ft ft a}. (a (2 b)*(a 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.v) 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 1). 94.m np c .(ft 4. 82.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 75. 77. 73. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 71.c .y)\x y). 83.x + y + z). b 4.9y2).:y)( a. ft /.O (a 4(a 4.(/>  3 v)^(. 2 + a 2 ).z)(x y + z)(. (p 2 .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 87. 4 4 . Prove the following 8 4.z) . ar .c) rr identities.(4 .(a 2) (s 4 ft.{3 a . 1). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.(a 48 8 8 4.b 4. 70. xy y 2 ). .2 ft}) f (3 a .r 2 .am&t 4 A 2 *).
c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).xy 4. 113.35 x 2 2 ) .3 a"+ 4. 121. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).b) 98. [10( 4.6 y 4 4. 1O4. 108.5 b*). (80 a 112. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 106. 2 4 41 x 4a.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 109.v/ ~ // = a: . 123. 26 (a 4 c). 110. 10). 114. 124.27 x* .4 aft . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 122. .(a 1 2 8 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.5 xy).2 xy 8 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 105. (8 x* 115.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.) .r 4 4. a*. 99 100.2y 2 4.y 2 4.(2 a 2 .1). 116.2 2% 4.y 4 ) .40 />) . 1). 120. 103. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .*) (x 8 . 25 4 .a".&). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 3*. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 2 (a+ .(x 2 . . 117. 118. 102.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).y 4 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (2< 107.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.(7 xi/ . r . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.16 a 6 4.9 x 2 .
G) . (5a: 150.2 7^~5] + 1).3) = 12 . y (* l x. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .19) + 5 = 4 .(x + 3) ] .3) (3 x 4.(j a? 144.3 a:).(x f 9). 1) = 2(* . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. x 147.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 127.8 6 .264 125.2(4 . .2(10 x .(1 . 126. 2 4(ar .2) = 3 .n .3).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.r + 7[or . 7(2 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 42(3ar 145. 128.1) .9) + 3. 137.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 136.1) (a? . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 135. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2) + 2(ar + 4).7(4 * .3).2(j: .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 142.4(0 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.3(* + 4) + 9} .2(5 .9) 4.27 a 3" . 143.4) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).5) = 12(4 x . 3) = x\x . (*+ + . . 129. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.18 *&) (1 .(x .7) = 4 . . . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .3 x).3(2 z . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.r>) . 3(2 x 134.22. .5).4) .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .a:)]}.5{. 10(2 x 141. 149.12 M 132. o o 140. 148. 5 146. 1) .2) (a: + 3). . (4 x . 5(2 x . . 139. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 138.
(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .9) + (a.3) (j. these two angles would be equal.29) 2 = 1. 158.17) 2 + (4 x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 155.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.19) + 42.2). = 15. (x (x a.a:) + 229. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. will produce F. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. =  (F 32). A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5*) + 47.3) (a: .2 x) (4 .8) = (2 x 4.3) (3 . + 10) (ar . + 2) + (5 . .4) (a . 265 152. 5(ar x . 159.5) = (3 . How many 170. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .5)(.1) O + 4) = (2 * .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.T)O . transformed into F. 163. = 2 C.2) (7 *) + (*. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 161.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. f^ + ^sO. 165. 157.5 x) = 45 x . sheep more than the 169. .7) (1 x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . 166. 164.? . 153.2 x) = (1 .14) (a: + 3). (2 . a: ar a.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (a.2) a + 7(x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. + 4) (2 x + 5). The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (a) If C.3) (3 .z) (4 . 2 4 . . 154.5(x .r + 3) .3) = (3 x . The second contains 3 first. . + 5) = (9 .l)(z .(5 x . 160.1) (s + 3). (a . . 162. (7 14 .7) (a. 156. (3 O + . The sum What 171. and the third twice as many as the first.76. If the area of the frame inches.24. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.6 x) (3 .25) 2 . find the value of F.
z 2 + x . 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. if each increased 2 feet. + a. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. A each 177. . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 3 gives the 174. was three times that of the younger. 190. 178. train. younger than his Find the age of the father. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 179. z 2 92. 4 a 2 yy 42. dimension 182. number divided by 3. How many are there in each window ? . ll?/102. 189. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 187. sister . 180. 2 2 + a _ no. 13 a + 3. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 15 m. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 10x 2 192. x* 185. + 11 ~ 6. Find the dimensions of the floor. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. +x 2. . A boy is father.36. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. A house has 3 rows of windows. 186.266 173. 176. same result as the number diminished by 175. 12 m. aW + llab2&. 188. 181. respectively.56. two boys is twice that of the younger. and 5 h. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. . side were one foot longer. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. power one of the two Find the power of each. 7/ 191. Find the number. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. father.
3 xf + 3 * 2y . a. 2a te 3% ly 247. 7x 2 225.22 z + 48. 4 m +^. 212.6. 213. 2 a 2 . 222. a 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.21 a:  54. z 2 2. 218. ifWy+b. x*y 223. 208. 233. 23 12. 3 ap 2 . 2 2 y f 1. + 30 x. 2 .6 y2 + 4.6s. a a: a: 237.r?/f y 2 9.64. 3 x V . 216. + 198. 3 x 2 . 24 2 + 2 . 3y 2 + ary . a: 236.28.19 z 4 204. 215. . a: 231. + 3a 196. x 5 . a. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.14 2 . # 2  29 y + 120. 224. 238. 217. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .1. a+a* + o a +l.3 c/> + 6 cq. 203. 246. . 206.6 aq .c) 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a .c) 2  (a . 202. 245. 232. 2 200. a. . 229.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 210. + 2 . 244. 211. 207.x + 1. a. 8 a. x 219. 235. 7a 228. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 267 199.3 xy. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .10 xy.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 16x 4 81. 8 a: ar.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.19 a .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. *2 234. 6 197.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 3y 248.10 y a x* .6 2 ?/ . xm+l 243. y 2 194. . 201. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .10. 195. a^a 226. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 230.20 z 8 a: 220. 2 x 2 .(b + rf) 2 . 239. 4a 2& 2 241. + 8.77 y + 150. x* + 8 2 + 15. 12 x +4. (a + . .12 * . 2 a 8 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 209. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 60 a 2  a: // 205.8 6 2. 227. 221. 5 x 2. a: . z + 5x 2 . . wiy + la mx + aw.
2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. x 2 .10. 2 + 7 r f 2. a 3 a 2 2 .a 2 />c 2 f 3. + 8 x + 5. + 20 x 4.23 + 12.3 abc .ry 21. z 2 267. x 2 263.11 a 2 .12. 8 2 + 10 x .C.48 afy 2 . C.73 xy .&z. of: 253. 28 2 f 71 x .11 x f 28. 7 12 2 2 .9 x .13.M. + 3 x + 2.14 bx a%% 8 . x*y* 4. 30 ^ . * 2 .r . ft a. 2 x2 .2 aft*. 2 8 . 254. 15 # 2 z/ /. 260. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.18 xy + 5. a: . z 2 268.15 + 30.8.80. a.120.23 x f 20. 18 x 2 . x 2 + 5 f . F.4 ab + 1.x . 5 x 2 256. + 8.ry . x 2 4.10 a 4. x 2 + 2 x . * a . * 2 . 264. 261.9 x + 14.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .a + 2 4. * 2 . 2 a. of: 266. a? a: a: // 262. 1 x ar Find the L.9. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.6 by.91.2 z . . 10 a. 257. 6.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 258. 269. 3 a% 2 . + 23 x f 20.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .36. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 + 4 + 3. 3 ay 4. 2 . I Find the II. 259.7 f 5.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 251.3 x .2/ 2 . 3 #2 255. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 270. 7 ax 250. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.(55.5 ab f 2.4. 22x2 a.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x* . 265. x* . x 2 f 9j: + 20. a 4.G7 x f 33.3. 252.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.1 9 . 10 x 2 .16 x .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .15. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).
_ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. + ac .(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 285 z4 n* + a..rL. *2 " 2 + Oge.2c a: 282. a.!/. 8 . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 289 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a. m 4.ar 1 279..REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.2* + 3 x* 280.J' 4 2 2 w mp .
Lnl + ar 2 a. * 19 23 19(23 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x 7. a (: a) (x 2. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. O(ca) 306. ^. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .
+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2 + y 2 319. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . a: 1 313.. . 1 _. (1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.(a . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a. } . (a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.V  + y  x 3y a .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.7 xy + 12 x .2 +lOar 2 a. a: 2 x* .ll..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . * 3a.15 33 .. 20 44 333.9 *// + 27 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .5 a .6* t 328.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 lOx 5x.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 250 5 10 2 325.y20  2y + 4 2 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.
(aWi + iJ. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 338. 1 345. \5yl 341.y. 344. ' 2 "l 5 . f V.r 5 2 . ** i. xi 347. ?_2 ^ . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. a: 349 _ o. (a \ + lV.+ r .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 7 ( ?f!?. 5 343. \x yj 340. if a = 3. 348. + l + IV. fl. 352. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (ar \ 346. : 1+ i.. + ni + .) 2 .1V. +^ a: y x . w \. ( 342. a>74 . aj 339. (af2/.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. 1+2 362.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361. (~ 364. + x x a . a2 4 .
a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. b c 368. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
8  376.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . ^ . 4(* . + 1) 45 O 377. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 5 {2 x 381. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. J !__7. __4 2x 3_ = !. 379. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. <3 378. 5*8. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.*2 = 15. . . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .
5 x =r f . 397.6  . . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. u '2 a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.75 x f . f 1 1 + a 403. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.2 a:  1. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. + 4 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.8 = .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 396. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. m x 398. c .  J). l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. _____ . 401.25.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 400.  8 9* x ~r.. ^ (a . 399. a.1 . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).. 40.5 ^ ~ a: a. .147.25 x + .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 3* 177. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. b 404.
mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Find the number. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 420. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. In a if and 422. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.c) . Tn 6 hours . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. and was out 5 hours. hour. far did he walk all together ? A . the order of the digits will be inverted.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.  a) 2 6 2a. 18 be subtracted from the number.278 410. How long is each road ? 423. 411.(5 I2x ~r l a) . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 418 ~jo. (x . 421.
When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.iand 22 22 I a . a.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. z 2 y. : i.& 5 ) (a 8 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. : If is one equal 434. . a + 5.49 63). 428. 3 and 1J. x 427.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Which ratio is greater. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. y. d.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Solve 436.46 2): (15a 2 . wi* + y= ny. 2 2 8 2 . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 433.6 8 ). angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . find : a : c. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . and : b : c = 14 : 15. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 435. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. find the angles of the triangle. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. a  t>. 438. 431. If a b : =5 n : 7. Find the mean proportional to 429. 430. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. . Find the fourth proportional 426. b. 432. Find the length of the parts. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. ax is \ by  ex + dy. if . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .
a: a: + 5y). 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 5x+4y=lQ.11 y = 95. 3 .11 7. 449. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). The volumes If their diameters..55 y = . 443. c. 459. . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 456. 16. />(. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 3 a. if 2 ft : 439. 9ar7# = 71. 9/> = 2 . 452. 5z4:# = 3.59 = 3 z. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). a. 8 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. ?/ 447.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 455. Solve the following systems: 441. = 25. ft.4 12 . 7 a: . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.*. . 8 x + y = 19. 458. 448. 454. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 451. 453. 21 7 = 27 + Op.7 y = 25. 5 2 = 7 . 457.89 = q. . 7 442. a: 2y= = 1 . x + 17 # 53. 42 = 15y + 137. ft. Find the value of a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . 56 + 10y = 7a.rf2# = l. 450. 444. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 7jr9y = 17. + 5y = 59.35. 445.(or l(*2y)=0. 4 = 5 y + 29. . 1(3  a. 28 = 5 a . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. /) ar a. 446. 7a?y = 3.
car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.+ =2. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. _ 469..REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 475. 468.c=563y. i = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.2y) (2 = 2J. (or . ax cx by = m. 473. x y 474.7. + eyn.  = 2. 8 461. 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.?/ + 1 .
whose difference is 4. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. to . 481. thrice that of his son and added to the father's.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the principal and the rate of interest. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 487. 485. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. How much money less 484. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 483. Find the fraction. 479. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. . Find the number. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . fraction becomes equal to . A spends \ of his. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the numbers. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 486. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. age. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A number consists of two digits 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. and in 20 months to $275. 477. Find their ages. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. years. the Find their ages. by 4. and in 18 months to $2180. and the other number least.
a number . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 7. y Solve : x +z= 5. ./ f z =a./ 504. 1+1 = 6.z = 20. 7 + 2 z . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 492. 5^ 9z = 10.? + 2y = 8. 2 2 = 41. 5 + a. *i. 3 x 500. ifi = x a. 2y + 3a = ll. 4z+3z = 20. x f y f z 29 . 2a:f 7. 4 497. 2 e. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. * + 425  = .5#+2z = $x a: G. a. 494. + # +z= 35. 2 a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. . = 20. 3 a: + 5=84. x y f z = 13. and the difference of their Find the numbers. : Solve the following systems 491. 496. ~ 507. . . 490. \ . + y 5 y = 101 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 498. = 209. z y x 25 . a. x s + y z = 18J . a: 499. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.z = 12. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. = 15. 4 506. 489. 2/>3r = 4. z y ifi = z x 502. a: f z = 79. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 495. 493. a: + // = 11. 8. 3ar 503. 1.
ll" .284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 517. 36 + c. !f == 2800. + + 3579 2+?. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c.
and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. AB=6. . What are their rates of travel? . and BE. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. N. 90. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 527. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. In circle A ABC. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. if the number be increased by Find the number. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 532. they would have met in 2 hours. AC in /). and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. How long will B and C take to do . the first and second digits will change places. CD. .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. if L and Af in 20 minutes. it is filled in 35 minutes. E 533. Tf and run together. 530. L. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. When weighed in water. M. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. touches and F respectively. it separately ? 531. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. in 28 minutes. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Find the numbers. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. BC = 5. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and CA=7. If they had walked toward each other.
545. . AND BRITISH ISLES 535. d.  7. if x = f 1. 543. b. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 2. e. One dollar equals 4. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 3 x 539. 542. 2 x + 5. 550. The values of y.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. GERMANY. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. then / = 3 and write = 3. x*. x 2 + x.e. 2  x  x2 . 540.10 marks. .  3 x. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x 8 549. a. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 547.  3 x. 546. 548. 2. The greatest value of the function. x*  2 x. the function. FRANCE. + 3. 2 541. x 2 544. The values of x if y = 2. c. 536. i. x *x + x + 1. to do the work? pendulum. z 2  x x  5. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. from x = 2 to x = 4. formation of dollars into marks.
3 x* .7 = . 572. x 2 ~ 2 . 558. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. z 4 . 2 554.4 = 0. a: 559. j.3 x . 564. = 5. 2 8 . a? 4 x . r?. 3 + 3 z . c.5 x . + 5 . g.3 . a.13 = 0. 566. and make the unit of the b. 555.9 = 0.4 . i.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.15 = 0.= 0. c.r . 2.r 1 561.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. h. . f. // Solve y Solve y = 5.  2 1 a: a. Solve 552. 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a. 562.6 + 3 . 18 x  4 = 0. Represent meters.11 = 0. 553.= 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. ' = 8.1 = 0. x 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . . x 4 . 565. a. 568.17 = 0. 3 x . e. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 556. .4 x 2 + 4 . if y =m has three real roots.3 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. z 2 . Solve// = 0. \ to t = 5.0. 15.3 x . + 10 x . 563.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. If y +5 10.r a: a: x a.G . J. 2 a. 557. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. x* . 2 567. 2 x 2 560.
589. x [ ?/ 577. 4 a. + + 4 . (a  8 ft) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 597.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.%) 4 (aa. 2 611. . x + z2) 8 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.5 xy = 0.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 64 a 12 603. [ y =10. 5 a*.(1 . 3 (f. a. 585 594. j^f = 3. 600. 579. .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. + %) (a* + *) 5 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 588. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 596. 592. 582. a: . 609. 2 943 ++ ~bx. a 612. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 4 (1a:) 3. f ?>) 3 591. 608. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 6 + 1) . (1 + x a. {f_7l j? 2* + ''.frf : 583. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .2 2 + y. 604. xY. 3 . 598. + ^) + (air%)8. 1 . (1 (1 (1 . + . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . (aiy. (a. 595. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. jj+.4. (# 2) . a:.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 593.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 2  2 aa: 2 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . : y* or 25. 599.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a 8 606. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.x + 2 )'2 601. a 2a. 4 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 9  4 fSb 607.
638. 2 + 21Ga. Find the square root of 619. + 24 a 2 4 . = 0. 49042009. 40. 371240. 625 : 621.53 x ~ .191209. x 2 641. 2 + 189 z = 900. 624. 035.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 3a. 634. 650. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. VOIOOD + V582T09.1024 x + a: 256. V950484 .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.2410. 614. = . (x 9 x 646. 629. 21. 4370404. 628.V250 . 633. 210. = 87. + 112 a 8 . 636.15174441. 637. 4J.871844. 9a. V 635. x 2 . : 5. 643.2. 647t x 2 648 649. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 2. + 2 21 x = 100. a 642.12 a?y + y*. According to Kepler's law. GGff.49. 651. 632.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. Find the eighth root 617. = 70. 630. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 32 631.*. 7) 2. 622. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 620. 626. 8*' + 24* = 32. 644. 615. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. ft .\/4090. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . /. find Jupiter's period. 25023844. 645. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.30. 49. + 54 'x*y* . 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 639.150. 623. 942841. 494210400001. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 44352. *+* = 156. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 0090. 9g.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
707. .c = 0. 696. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. a. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 692. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .bx . 695.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 2 . = 0. 708.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ex abc= fx 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 694. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 706. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 702. ax 2 698. 2 2 697. . 699. 693. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.a a )jr . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.ax .
Find two numbers whose 719. A equals CO feet. 717. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 725. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.44#2 + 121 = 0. in value. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 721. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 3or i 16 . a: 713. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. How shares did he buy ? if 726. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 727. **13a: 2 710. 16 x* . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. sum is a and whose product equals J. 723. . 12 4*+  8. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 217 . 729. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 724. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee.292 709. 722. Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 716.
1 6. . f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 35. 52.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 f ^ 2). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 42. n. 46. 36. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 37. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aft* 1 + a 2*.X . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 + c. .l). 41. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 39. 43.1 + x. 31. 40. 38. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 33. (v/x). 32.2? 50. 34. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.)(ai + &. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.1 f c" ).2)(x2 4.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.
761. 757. 754. 759. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 768.1+J 756.294 753. JU. 2V2 2V3 .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. ~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. [1r^ T 1 i . 758.
783.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.4 V(j. c 792. 787. .2 V30. 103 788. + 2V21. . 3J . 790.VlO.2V3* ^ 807. 793. 786. 92VI5. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 10 785. 789. a 9442V5. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7512V21. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . Va 809. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 16 + 2V55. 14 791. 13 799. 3812VIO. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . x 782.12VIT. 794. 806.
\/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. \/12 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V14 a. = 1. Va: .Vc^lJ . 818. 3 x + 2 .79. + 103Var. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 811. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 829. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 816. 831.4 = 0.g. VaT+lJ f ^l . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 815.V? = 813. 836.  5 + V3 f 12 817.V2 ar 10.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 814.13 = 0. 833.\/2y  810. /9ar a: = 17. 820. + ViTli + V7 . (x a: 2 ) 4 . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 830. x/aT+l .f 5 = V5x + 4. V3 f 1 V4a. + Vx . 819.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 812.
a 872. a 8 850. 851. 8 . . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 865. . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4o. a. 275 8 l.1. V4 x 2 . 8 860. 839. a: 849. f 12. 8 4a: 8 a. a.3 x . f 841. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.x*y + 3x f 2. 64 a 866.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a l0m .3 a:. 2 f" + a/ 15. a 8 869. 844. 4 a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 871. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 16 859. . + 216 rt aty a 10 . 853. x 8 2 857. 27 y 8. a.12. . y 4. 19 x 14.3 Va: 2 .10 = 118.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a. a. +3 4 +  4. 863. 4 x* 847. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 868. z*y 8 l64a. 2 x 3. 8^27^. a 8 873. 855. a: . 5 a 4 7 a8 . 864.ab9 ft*. 8 8  13 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. f b**. 852. 40 x 2 7 f 49. x 4 + f 2 a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 6. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.  3x a.1000 6. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 846. 27 862. a. 8 8 848.3 . 2 a: 64 y*. 875. 870. 876. 845.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 861. + 1. 840. . 64.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 729 867.a. a 18 4. 4 x 8 858. + 512 y8 874. 4 a: 2 842. + . 8 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a*" & 6n . 9. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 856. 8 2a.
887.18. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 885. 5. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 883. a:y . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 878. 2 = 2 + 5. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 899. a: 888. +y f y = 7. M1 891 1 . 2 + 2 f = 17. x 882. . 901. 900. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 884. 2 + xy = 10. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 1 x 893. 896. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.15. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. y 2 2 8f. a: a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 1 1 _ 5 892.y 2) = 20. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. z 2 898.xy + y 2 = 19. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + xy = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.y 2 = 2 y + 2. f ?/ a: a: . x 8 3 = 13:3. 886. xy + y = 32. 3 x 2 . y*+ xy . a: 2 897. + 2y=\2. 894.298 877.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.Vi' + 1 1_3. a. . y 2 4. 2 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 . y = 28. 889. 895.sy = 198. . x*xy. 890. a. . a. a# f + xy = 126. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 + y 2 . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 2 = 16 y.35.y 2 + V(j. a: + y 2 = 34. x a: lI = xz . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. .1 = 2 a#.
911. . 3 :r(3 . x 4 299 xy z 904. ^ 2 . 2 5 xy = 11. 921. + y)(a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 923.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 + y = 2 a 4.3(* + y) = 6. a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x 2 ry + y = 3. x + y 2 = aar.16 y 3 8 = . 2 2 2 916. 2 915. * + y = 444. Vary + y = 6.2 y) = 49 2 919. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 913. (!) * . xy + x= 15. + y 8 = 189. 917. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 907. 910. (3 x . 905.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. x f 2 a:y = 32.y) (3 y . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + ?/) . (* 918. + y = 9. . (o.r a. 4 (a. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y 3 2 2 922. 7 y . y x 2 = by. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.23 = 200. # + xy + y = 7. or or a? a: a: . 908. + 2 ary = 39.#y + 2 = 27. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + a. = 8. a: * a: a: ar 928. a: a. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.x) = 21. (a.3)2 = 34. x + y}(x + y) = 273. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. xa 903.y = a(ar + y). *y .y) (a? . y # 2 2 f f y = 84. a:y xy 929. a: y zx 12. 920. + 2 a:y + = 243.y). yz = 24. y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 912.y2 = 22. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y + a:y = 180. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 * 2 ~ g.y) = 33.6. 2 924.3) 2 f (y . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 909. + ary = a*. 23 x 2 .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 906. ary y = 8. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 914.
and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.square inches. 34 939. 935. Tf there had been 20 less rows. (y + *) = . Find the side of each two circles is IT square. 942. 943. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. + z)=18. and the sum of their areas 78$.300 930.102. 2240. is 20. *(* + #) =24. Find the sides of the rectangle. 152. How many rows are there? 941. feet. In the second heat A . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. y( 934. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. Find the numbers. 931. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. s(y 932. two squares equals 140 feet. and also contains 300 square feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. two squares is 23 feet. find the radii of the two circles. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. rate each man ran in the first heat. A is 938. 937. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. diagonal 940. A and B run a race round a twomile course. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. is 3 . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. + z) =108. Assuming = y. is 3. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A.000 trees. 944. z(* + y + 2) = 76. y(x + y + 2) = 133. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and the difference of 936. . A plantation in rows consists of 10. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and 10 feet broader. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.
The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. . at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. the digits are reversed. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. 953. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and its perim 948. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. at Find the his rate of traveling. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. set out from two places. A and B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. sum Find an edge of 954. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. 951. whose 946. overtook miles. 949. and if 594 be added to the number. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 952. Find the number. Find in what time both will do it. its area will be increased 100 square feet. each block. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. and that B. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. . is 407 cubic feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . triangle is 6. P and Q. and travels in the same direction as A. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 950. Find the eter 947. Two starts travelers. that B A 955. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find its length and breadth. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. distance between P and Q. unaltered. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet.
Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. to n terms. .. difference. Find n.. Sura to 24 terms.302 956. 36 963. 3 + 5 7 + . ^ Vfirst five 959. = 4. 957. J.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . P. f + 1 .. 9th and llth terms of an A. Sum to 20 terms.to infinity.1 4 f j$V . 966. 4. '. 18th terms of an A.321? 965.. 958. \ . Find n f (ft) . are 1 and sum of 20 terms. *" 968. 3 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10..3151515. 4 4 to 7 terms .. Evaluate (a) .454. (x 4 to n terms. .4142 . + (iiven a +  4 d . 972. the terms being in A. are 29 and 53. .. x(x to 8 terms. Find an A. s  88.141414.. Find the sum of 4. P. !Ll^ + n . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 16 962. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms..  2.v 973. fourth of the unity..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 971. P.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 974. n to n terms. 969. to 7 terms. Sum Sum to infinity. to infinity. 961. 964.. Find the Find the common 977. 970. 975. ^ 1 . 12434+ j I 967. and 976... P. 1G series .V2 ..>/) to infinity. . (to 2 n terms). 5. 1 to n terms. 5..
such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. first 984. Find four numbers in A.. P.. "(. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . .001 4. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .001 + . : + 9   V2 + . to 105? 981. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.. to infinity may be 8? . P.01 3. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible..3 ' Find the 8th 983. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.1 + 2. 980. is 225.. Find n. 1. and the common difference. and so on. and of the second and third 03. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The sum 982.2 . P. of n terms of an A. to oo. Find the sum of the series 988. The term. 5 11. Find four perfect numbers..04 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. to n terms.. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 986. The 21st term of an A.. Find the first term. 992. 987.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. named Sheran.+ lY L V. 4 grains on the 3d. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 989. 2 grains on the 2d.) the last term the series a perfect number. 303 979. 0. 990. 985. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.
Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The sum and sum . in this circle a square. at the same time. prove that they cannot be in A. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. 995. c. (a) after 5 strokes. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 994. find the series. . ft. The fifth term of a G. 1000. areas of all triangles. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. ABC A A n same sides. 1003. 997. is 4. If a. The sum and product of three numbers in G. Under the conditions of the preceding example. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. in this square a circle. P. P. 512 996.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. (6) the sum of the infinity. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. inches. 998. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and so forth to infinity. AB = 1004. 1001. of squares of four numbers in G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. and G. 999. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. many days will the latter overtake the former? . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. are unequal. Two travelers start on the same road. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. are 28 and find the numbers.
Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (12 #) 7 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1011. .ft) 19 .l) w f .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. 1012.o/) 14 . 1014. + lQ . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. ) 1021. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. x) 18 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. a: 8 7. . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Expand  2 a. 1009. 1006. Find the middle term of ( . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. (1 1018.
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. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . . simple simultaneous . . .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. quadratic .... 129. 129 54. .. .. . numerical .. 246 91 " multiple. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 19.193 11 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 158. . linear literal Common ** * difference . lowest ratio " '* . 112 54 54 251 . t 53 120 . .. 123 ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. .. . . 54... .. . . Aggregation...... Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . .. .. . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . .... 8 . . Checks Coefficient 20. 232 169 807 .130 .108 160 " . .. 37.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 97. 9. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . ...] Abscissa Absolute term . 9 ** . 232 mean progression . . ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .... . . signs of Algebraic expression . 160 in quadratic form 191 .178 Completing the square ... graphic tion of representa ...
195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 ... 227 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 120 Member. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. inversely 122 numbers . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 45. 45. 114. Like terms Linear equation .. Known numbers . . .. . 84. .. L. Imaginary numbers . 9. 91 . . . 184 54. . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 23 10 91 102. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 205 . 180. . G. 143. INDEX 8 . . 243 7 . 45 Laws of signs .808 Exponent Exponents. . Inconsistent equations ... 253 28 70 1. .. law of Extraneous roots . . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. . 241 123 geometric .. exponent .. 189. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 212 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . 63. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. .C Multiplication ... Negative exponents 11 . 227 geometric . Mathematical induction . arithmetic . addition of " square of . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 109 102 . . numbers . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 195 33. 34. .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 112 .. Product '* 76 Infinite. . . 17 65.31. .108 Minuend . Insertion of parentheses . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . P . directly. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. Geometric progression . . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . first and second .154 Order of operations " of surds .
. polynomial .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . algebraic Surds .. 45 Trinomial 240 . 4 155 9 " of ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 9. ... ... . . . 129..... 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. absolute 54 Variable ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. . Sum.. ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Set up and electrotypcd. Mass. 1916. 1910. Published September.S. 8.A. 1910. Norwood.COPYRIGHT.. U. 1913. December. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick <fe Smith Co. . August. Gushing Co. Reprinted April. 1917. NorfoooS J.
14. C $1(50.3.000. 16. sign. 7. 20. 115. in. 12.  1.. 7. _ 32. 64. 36. Australia ft. loss. (a) (/>) 1. 6. 3. 6. 14. A 38 mi. 10g. 3. 6 yd. 18. B $20.. 73. 5. 1. 2. 7. 3. A Bl 7. 6.. 9. 4. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 1. 14. 4. 2. 26. 3. $40. 32. 29. 1. 9 14. 9.000.1. 1.  22 20. 9. 22. Page 1. 6. 27. 2. 1. $ 1 50 10.. 26z. 16 in. Yes. 6. $100.. 12. 7. 13 d. 17. 32. 14. Not 5. 13.12. 15. T . 576.C. 1. 1. 12. 16f 2. C $60. B $80. 14. 13 S. 11. 25. 1. 17. 2. 12. 6. 9 = 4. 15. 5. ft. 3.  1. 3 below 0. 16. 3. 8.21 24. 19. 9 m. B $4700. is $10. c. 12. 3. 16. 4. 4. 11. 9. 8. 106. 16.  2 p. 37. 2. 6.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 0.000. 19. 2. 23. Page 13. 13. 32. 5. 8. x. 20 \. . 28. 5. sign. 59. 5000. 30. 4. 48 ft. 3. 3 m. 15. 2. 13. 89. . 17. 9. Multiplication. 14. . 9. 3. 3. 27. 10. 8. 2. 10. 20. $160. 21. 5. 3. 6* 16. 128. 5. 24. 512. 8. 16. 9 16  larger than 7. 9. 14. Page 8. 2. B 10 mi. 11. 7. in 12. C $ 16. . 18. 11. 85.. 10. 7. 1 16. 192. 12. i . 16. ^. 5. 1..000 Indians. b. 12. westerly motion. 0. 30?. 11. 6. 126.. 12. 18. 3. 21. 144. arithmetic. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 150. Page?. }. 18.000 negroes. 72 = = 216.000. 32. 2. 24. 5. 25.$9400.2. + 1. 8 ft. 9. 6. 9. 2. 4. 6. 1. per sec. 3* 7. 10. 24.  13. 2. 21.000. . 1. 14. A $90. 16 in. 6..000. 210.8. 18. Page 4. 2. 7. B $ 128. 10. 2 ~ 15. 16. 2  Page 8. 8 13. = 5 81. 27. 13. 13 V. South America 46. 19 4. 15. V 23. 1. 1. 14 11. A 15. A . 8.00000001. 8. 25. 20. 15. 3. 3. 1. 20 jo. 25. 17. 12. 2 5. 20 B. 10. 13. 7. 3. 22. 20. 19. 256. 3. 4. 7. 29.000.150. 16. 10. 7m. Ot 15. 18. in. 1. 49. 17. x.000. 6. 49. 28. 3. 16. 10. 2. 37 S. 12.
]*. 0. 3.<>Gq. 14. It. 3. w.'JO ft. 31. 6<t. 42. 4. 00 24 04 ft. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.. 3. 49. (59. 0.ft) 4. i:5. 12.. + v> 2 .. (r) 2.GOG. 14:).000 .94(>. 16. _ 4 . 22. 43w//2 17. 39. :J!>r'. (r) 78.. $3000 Page 6. 35.. (a) 50. . 27. 14. (ft) mi.. I. 7. 18. 8. + 5. Polynomial. //'. a2 4 15^44. 6. a 32. 30. 4 y/ .6) 38. 9. 314 sq. 50. 3. ^). 2. 34.a . 8. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (c) 8.  11. 11. 3 . 12. ft' 3 . 9. 34. 1. 3. 1. 3. 13. 15. 37. 7. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 1. 38 ab. 19. 5. (a) <> sq. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 5. 28. r/ \(\xyz. \'\ 4. 18. 18. a ft c. 2oVmf?i. in. Page 18. ft f 19. .q 4. 2. 41. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 3.rty8. mi. (a) 200. 25. Monomial.ab. c. 13 cu. 0. . t. 26. (r) 2G7. yyz+xyz*. rt. 24. 13. 14. x^ 20. 14. 20. 16. 16. m + 3(a. 2. r+l. 14. 17. 8. 32 2 ftc. 35. 12 a. 17. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 10.14 sq.x. 2.9?/2 8. (ft) 7. 9. jrif 4 9. . 7. 12yd. 15.r 2 . = 81.1. . . (a 4 4. 30. 4. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 23. 21 a 3 4 10. ??i??. 19. (ft) $40.  3. $80.  40. 51 f. 0. 22. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).  1.. 5. . 17. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  ..  0. 104. Page 21.. Binomial. 31. (ft) 12. 12. Page 31. 0. 16. 28. 9. 0. 1.~4. 237. 27. r:A 29. 27.  2 4 13 ft 2 ..5 (ft) sq. 14. 20.r~ f 34. 4. ^. 1. in. 27. 0. 38. 26. 4.4  2ft 2 33.. 173. 25. 0* Page 3 w" 0. Page 23. ft. 27.900. 20.000 sq. 13. 12. 7. WIN + wiw. 12. 8. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. in. 14. 19. 1. 21. 13. vi 14. 0.  12. 04. 20(. arty 1 20. 22. f  5e 35.  xV 3 y. m 24. 240. 6. 10.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 10. #1111. :.32 c2 > ft 3 . 15. 21. 2x' 2 5 . 30.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 2ftx. 2. Pagel4r. 13. 25. y. 3. 11. 7 7. in. sq. Polynomial. 3a. 29. 92. 9. 1. 13. 33. 33. ft n. 32.. 5. ft. ft. 5. 22. . 36. ft. 58. 21. 17. (c) S(i. 8. 5x+3. 12. 4 9/^/rl 2. <i~ 26. 18. 35. 32. 4. 11. 1. .. 15. 6. 7. +/2(/. (ft) Page 2. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 5. 29. Page 7. + ft). (b) 135 mi. 27. 5. 36. 22( 19. 57. II. 8. 24. 2. 15a. 15.4 ft. 8. 8. Trino inial. 31. 0. 21^. 28. = ()501. 5. 11. 17. 18. 3 a* + 2 at*. (r) 2000 m. 16. 15. ft. o^ft.'J. 1.5f> sq. 4. 3(c4a). (a) r>23ifcu.r f 15.ft. 23. 3. 3rf 27.
17. 2 a f 6 414. a 3 .  4 b 17 y*. 14. . .  G J8 r  4 a <?. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2 . 2. x  + 3z.  1. 0. 2 y' 4 . w 17. ' 12 m?/'2 27. '  . 8. 4.c. 35. ft Exercise 17. 2a. x3 . 15. 814. . ( 7. 31. 2 . a 52.a f 54. 25. ^ <. . 1 + 45. 18. 26.(2 x2 . 28. + 2y. 5. 58. . c. 3. 10. 32 w 2 w. 16. a 3& . 5. 3 m. 16. 5x 2 rt ft.(7x2 Ox2). 36.r 2. 4. 37. 13.  17. t). 7 a5 1 . 8 8 . 24 b 46.1. a. 22. 4. ri\ 18. 34 39. 7  a + 2 + c. 2.11. a 4 + ft. 1. a  49. ab a. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . . 10. a 6 2 . 2m + 2w. 3.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .5 4 2 3 ?/ .  b.7. 4r 2 . 55. 38. :5 41. x a8 1. 2 6. . a f 2 f 2 9.2 a. 12. + 4 c. \ :{ 2 a 48. &. a 3a 4 2 &. . + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 4. 3. 26. . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 6. + 8.. ii\ 22. . 40. s_r>a5. 25. 13. 51. 32. 4. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .  23. 25. + 6.2 . 4.3 6. 2. 11. 12. 2 3x f z.  a: 2. 4wipg>' 27. 7. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 8 b. 8. 30. a + a. 31. 8.a*. r. 2a: 2 4x.2. 6. j)(g1.5 z?/ + 3 y .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 33. c2 . 3 a3 & 41. 59. ?/i 13. 3 a . Page 28. . 12. a 10w. a). 1. + c 4 d x + 6 e. a' 4ab + ?/. G. . ?/. 2. a2 24. 7. 36. 7.a . 2. 15. 43. G a bd. n*. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 20.4. 364c. 10 m. 0. (yz~d}. 42. 8 . 0. 5.'U4j>. 12.4 d. w* ( . 14. 6. 24. (w4w)(ww). 19. 21. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 9.5. Page 8. 2// 16. 18. c. 2 + a4l).abc. ti. 17. 2m. 14.1 . 22. 14. 24. 2. 50.4x. 2 2. 2 2 2 6.6 x + 0) 16. a + (ftc4df).4c 3 8 8 J. 10.h. ar. f ft 9. 15. ?>4tl 53. 34.  b* 4 r 1 . 2. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 1. 2 17. 25 47. 2x 4 a 13. 6.l. 20. (5x47 3. lOrt 15w4. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 3 Ji 8 . (mn} 11.2 a2 2m 2 4.ws 2 ft) . f 2 ?/  2. mn.r. 11. 4ft ~. . 2 3.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). a2 9. 7  # + 12.x f 1 2 . 5 2 Page 29. a  ISjfat. 19. .2 ft 2 r2 10. 21.  12. m*  n*. 20.3x 2 2 tf. 21.aft.2 57.Oa: + 10.. 1. M + 10. !  </ . 4. 56. 24. Exercise 16. 4 21. a a. 5.  14 afy . Page 7. 2 a 37.a~.a'2 . _ Page 30. 19. . 29.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.8(c + a). 18. ?> 22. Page 44. 1. 8 + 2 a . _5a<>&43c. a4 4 4. 1. 2. 7. 26. 1 4. 10 x. . 2. 2. 11.
8. 12. etc. 108.. 2. a. 9 13.26. 52 + 6s 12. 4200. 30. 20. 10. 34. 13. . 20. 90. 2. 84. 24. 33.21.. 120.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .1. 31. 770. 29. 7G . + O4 66 . 2 7t A. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 10. a + ft. . 2*8f x2 6x4. 3.6) =a2 31. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 11. 15. 6. 17. 24. 11. //. 360. 27. Page 36. 27. 21. . 19. 14 m 2 .>(/ r . 2 a2 (y 2 . .6 2 . 12.64 190 p6.. 18. 4 jcy*z*>. 15. ?/ . 42. 21. 3300. 13. Page 3. 33. 15. 19. 1400. + 7. 0. 8. n (a6) 125. 9. . 24. 14. 23. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 32. 36. 2 . 6". 16.(3x2_4^+7).8 12. 18. 1. 4aWy. 1. 12 ^. ISartyW e*f*tj. 66 39 k* . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 127"'. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. a*b*c. 30. 18.000. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 15. . 60. 83 In + 1 n*. 6. 1. 10. 04. 76 8 a' 1 . 9.16 x2/ 5 4. 34. 21 a'&c. 13. . 23. . s 9 ww. 17.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 40 r 2 . . ll 2 i. 10. Page 38. 4. 2 w +2 2 . 2. 14f 5.15. 27. 25. 15 q\ 6. 3. 34. . 26. 19. 6 .7(50. 31. 64. a. 2''. 4. 18a% y. 25. 5. 4. 24.44 aWc 16 abxy. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 22. Ox a 5 . 30 j9 jt?g j . +. 22. 2. 18> ^* = a . Page 35. 19. 2 * 80 . 30. 28. 3 a 2 46.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.14 . + 58 . 17. 25. 5aft(a 126 2). fa 2.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 16. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 108. . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 12 x2 2 . 102. 1904. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 6. 38wiw. 16. 30.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 7.18 w w + 10 WI M . 2 ). 11. 11. ^^ = 20.2. 161b. 8. 21. . 16. 22.12. 15 lb.32 y s s G . 6. 23.16 a 2 + 32 a . 17. 12.14 w 2 2 . 7. x2 xy42^. ci 5 .:>/ . 4. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 4 a8 . 28. 29. 15. 66 8W 34. 161b.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 22.19p" + 19^ 10 . 4. 42. 37. 33. 3. 14. 1. 18. 25. 27. f 26. 1. a 8 . 8 . 20. 5. 27. iSx8 . 3. 24.20 xyz . 216.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 28. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 1.19 + 2.28 p'^/. Page 7. 1. 60. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 14. 30 n?b*c*. 25 4 4. (+3)x6=+16. 20.12. 28.32. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 0. ft 17. 210.r% 2 2 ry. 30. ?> 4 . 216. 7.69 rt + 21 132 + r ..11 xyz . . 9. a. Page 5. 3 a 3 . 29. 13.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . a: . 8. 2 ). 16. 18. 18.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 30. 4 a2 . 20.25 + 14. ! 2. 7. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4. 23.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 13. .21 a 3 c2 21. 2 2 2 . 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. 343. 4 fc. 20 aW. 3(*+0 + 2).57 p6 3 2 4 25. 32. 26. 14. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 16 51. m. 29.36 35. 8.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. +15. 35. 16 lb.
35. 441. 10. (p 2. 1. . 12 x2 .004. 45. 29. . + 10 + 121 y*.84 a' 9. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 57.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 10.201.m 30 6 4 1. 9801. 25 25. + 4 a +4. . 10. 9999. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 8 a W . 2 . 4. 9 4 /> . 23. 2 . 32. ~ 6 20 . 7> . 55. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 7. 1. +   5). 3. 4 .6 y4 10.098. 10. 2 (5 a 3). 16. Page 39.^V"' . p4 + . 10. .16 a3 f 50.009. a2 ' + 48Z100. 7.ab . 2. 31. 7. . x4 28. 6..2 x + 2 x. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81./ . 30 x + 19 x3 . 34. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).r* 2 30.. + 3)(3). 39. 2 62 V2 132. 51. 1.10 x + 25. 2 0)(p + 5). 4 x2 13.35 ab 9. V + o ft . 2 4 a + 4. 2 4 2 2 64 . x* . 8.5 ~ 81. 36. 4 + 25 q*. 10. 33. p 2 .6 xy .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 3wi2 m Page 42. 31. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 44.712. .810.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.10 35.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 990. 15. m 2 . ' 46. 8. 2 +10s281. 6. 27. 9990.r . 999. 10. 42. 30. G a6 2. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.2. ^V^4 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 fr . (w4)(w + l). 10.606. a + 25. 9. 484. 31. (a + 4) (a + 2). 8 38. 53. (w+4)(m4).x2y22. ^/> 8 4 . 1. 998.020.2 6 + 13. 166.^ + a? + 1. m 3 j) 3 . 20a 2 21a + 4. 27. a 2 . 3. 41. 30 /><. + 12. r.994. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). . . 2).996.4 n. ) 4' 6/ 49. x2 GiC+5. n + 2. 33. s rc 47. 18. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).8. 29.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .2 y*. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2. n2 a4 6. 40.14 jp + 49. 39. 24. 9. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.r .009. 14. 8.15. 17.4 12. 4 2 //. 4x21. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 21 2 . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 36.6 x2 13.6.4 a&+ 4 &*.25.ri 17. (m + 6)(m3). fo*. 11. 37. 15. 1.020. .^.ANSWERS 28. 26.54 p 2 + 81. 4 . 2 1: 21. 7 . 19. . 6 2 + 6lf>0. 2 j3 Z . 2 a 2 + a . 40. 40. (n 2 5. 2 12. 10.20. x 48. 41. 2 6' .1. a' . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . . lflrt 2 8 + l. 34. 25 a 2 6 2 . 33. 24.00 + 37. 28. 25. 37. +4 34. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 10 a' 2 . Page 12. 19. ab . Om2 4 6m 6. 2 a' y' . a4 4 ?/ . I/). 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 35. 38. ab. ^' J  7 f 12. y.000. (a (3 54. 10.000. 56. 32. 4 21. . 36. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 1. w'n 2 //^ + 25. a3 0. a + 56. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). x*2^f I. .3. .49. ?/H)0. +  m' 1. . 14. 4. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 36 a 4 . 14. 26. + 2 9. 4. . a + 25.500. 11. + 4 t*.001. . 5. 10 a 4 ?. 1). 10. 52. ft' 11. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.404.008. 5.p132.
27 x 2 4. a 2 .2 . 10. 9. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 13. 6. 14. 9. . 4xy + 13 <) . x 4. 8. 15. 7a3ft. a 4 4 ft.12 aft 4 20 ac . 3.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 11. .3^V.2 wZ 4. 1.9 d. 8. i 2 tji. . .1. 2 2 + 2 a. 8 r<ft 4 2 .rw. Page 11. 2 ?/ 4. 6x 3.8 y.r ?/ ??i ?).6 :rs 4.23. 17. Page 22. 3 aft 20.15 21. 5. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.r'^ 15. 2.n. m'2 3. 6. 9. 13. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 2 ?/' .1.rw f 8 . 19.r' ~ 16. +w . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 10. 10 ft.+ 77 15.24 . 4 c m . a 8 4. 8. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 4ft. 14. 11 4.5 mp.r?/.34.  3 c.1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 5. ft ? ft' ft ft. 3. 2 a 3 ft. r/2 4. 4x43?/. 01. 10. Page 7. 5.21 2 2 f + . 4. 2. 19. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. . 4 a 2 4. 2 4 3 9. . 3. 16.x^.10 xy*. // 19. G. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . sr 11. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 3. 4. 21.r" 20 S? . 14. 20 15. 2 4. Osy.  10. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 20.2 2 .3 x 2 2 4. l 4 . 14. 5.lit x + 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 2. . 2.8. 3. 75 a 2 29.10 2 + z 2 410.  5 z* . 13. 1.1. :r !>. 4.2 . . 5.3 5. z. 1/*. + x?/ 2 1. 4 ac. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. aftc 52. 8 ?/ . 4 a* 4 9 11.r . *3 y 4 . 17.3 ry. 3. 1. 13. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 18. ??. 26. 23. . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 17. 135.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .000.  12 y 25.1*5 2 r 2 . 125. . a. 8. 2.29.w. 4 x. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.1. .2. 4. f>r* 4.7. 5. 12.3 a 41. 18. j) . 49.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. aft 12. 47.25. 5^418(7. 9. _ 2 a .2 2 2 8 .r?/ j/. 2 1. 12. 2 12. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 9. 1.1. ti'jry1 7.> 10. Exercise 27. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. c3. 6. 44.30 ftc.  11. 11. 15. yfl. r ft.8 yn . 13. 13.2 ac . 5 a  (5 ft. + 3. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 8 ?/ ./ 4.2 <</. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4 d 2 4. x 2 + 2r f J. 6. . ft* ft / . '.2 1 //.3 3. 5.5 a . 46. 2 . 12. 7 r . .VI ANSWERS 43. 4. r 7. 1. 3*y2 w + 1. . 12.2 .25 c . 5 4 a Oft. c 12. 12. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. w . 8.2 ftc . 22. Page 48. 14. 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 8. as _ 10 16.15. 4. 2 4 2 x 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 1. 6.  . i 9. Page 51. 2 ? 14 . 21. /r . ft 17. 3 a. 2 ^r ???' 2 . . 5. 5. 1000 1000 . 8 x . abc 7. Page 13. 4. aft. . 1. ft. + 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 4 pq. 7.9 4.1. a 10. 16.5 n*. r//.8.4.2 aft 4. 16. 14 r 2 . 2 . y 7.2 ar. 24. 2. 50.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.y3. m L 4. x4. w 2 . ?/2.
100. 3x  1700) = 12. Page 61. 59. 34. ct. 25. 1&. 45. . 36.000. 0. vil 56. 38. 5. rn mi. 100 d ct. y 50. + 3x + 2y + 32. 14. 8 n  10 yr. 6. 9. 13. 100= ^. 29. 10 a. 2=10. d + !. x = m. . ft. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 7. 16. 00.r1. 100 2. 35. 27. 23. 22. 1. 30. 33. 23. 6. ^ 12 sq. ? 43. 11. lOx 10 + w. 20. a 8. x. 2. 29. 21 2. 44.(3x+ = rraxlO. 12. 18. 'nj 100 a 28. f 6)(o 62. v (6) 2x. (a) ' 12. 39. d.(3x  700) = 5. 2. y ?>i x + 26. 13. 3 9. 5. 800 = x + 1300. f = eZ 2 x. 4. 6. 1. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. </ 20. 47. fix. 10 x sq. 33. 46. Page 40. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. f (I. (c) 2x. + 4x 3y 34. I. !). 10. }f. 2. 40.ANSWERS Page 9. 11. s.. n M. . 2. ft. sq. Page 6. 19. x y $ 6 yr. 57. iL*. Page 13. 7. r tx mi. 22. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 17. 3x2. 1. 16. . Page 31. x 2y 10 act. r>?imi. 38. 17. 11.  />) a = all. 3. 20. + f + b 2. ft. 5. 2x + 35. 4. . 13.  9 = 17 a. lO. 10. % 4. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 41.r ct. # + 20yr.. 18. 32. 42. 7. . (> 27. 4. a 10. = 5 ?i x 460. 37. 19. + 10 b + c ct. 17. 7. 2b 22. y 2z p= 3 (a c.  1$.  2\. Jj12.. l. 50= L 100 15. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. X 60. 3. " lir. 31. m+ 11.10) 100. 60 25 1. 25. (A) 3 x f (4 x . ct. b. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4..7). (2 a.ab a. / + y + a// 12 yr. 14. y yr. x 49. 10 >_&. ] 2 ri 42. 7x 2 Page 21. 36. 28. 4. 4 f 39. 20. 7. 26. 8. 7. 44. 37. 10. 24. 43. 2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. "mi. 4(a ft) c = 8. <>. b. ( a f 4.6 = *. '^ . I. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 1. + 3 = 2(3* . 3. 2.rr2. ct. 5. 6. m +~m 3.x700. 4. 0. . 5. 7. (</) 2a. 1. 41. y 100 a 24. 100 14. 2 ct. 5. 10. 6. (>. 2b. 10 yr. 16.  6 10.200) f(^ + (e) 200. x + 1=a. x 48. 30. xy ft. 15. 12.p+7. 4^ = 100. 15. 8. 9. 58.
000. 2 2 ?/ 21. (m + n)(a + 6). 18. 13.. . 1 lb. 2. 15 yd.3aftc + 4). 3. 15. 19. 24J. 8. 8. 14..000 ft. 3x (3r. 7a*fe(2a & l). Page Page 4. 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 3. 13. 5.210^. (yll)(y4). 8. 71. 3. 23. 1...000 gold. 6. 1. 5 lb. 8 12. 7. (*4)( + 11.8. (a + 4)(a + 8). 17. 78.000 N.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 1313.. (a 4) (a. 8. 7. a 12. 12. 11 w(w' + wi . 14. 21. 70^. 10 yd. ( + 4)(*2). 42yr. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 4. 20. 4. 67. Page Page 480 12.000. 45 in. 9 in. 72.000 Berlin.. 4. 12. 17. 28yr. 5.11. w (/) 64.5. 3. (c) ^ v ' . 10.5p + 7 g ). 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 78. (z5)(z2). 11.000. 5. 12. 25 yr. 10. 11. 5.2).000 ft. 85 ft. 4.. 2. 3.411. (a + 5)(a + 6). 9. 11. 8. (p + 7)(3a5&). . 1. 100. 7.3. 10 yr. 6.2.000 Phil. 10 Cal. 11 pV (2 p8 .. Oaj(o62cd). 25. 6. 18. 200..000.. 10. 6. 2.6). 11. 7. 18. 14. ~=90. 600.(5z . 15. 100 1. . 1200.y").16. 13. 4pt.3). 74. 20. 2). 10. 2 2 2 5.7. 3. 8. 14. (e) i* + A. + 7)(y3). 3. 30 mi. . 6.0. 2. 5. 11 in. ^ .000. 12. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 5pt. 13. 30 yr.13. 2. Ib. = _?_(2ar + 1).10. Page 7. Pace 65. 05. 4.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 7 hr. 8. 1200. 6. 1250. 20. 14. 40 yr. 300. 9. 22. 55.3.000 pig iron. (y8)(y + 2). 160 lb. 200. 10 yr. 7. 15 in. (y 13. 15 mi. 70. (ro3)(w2). 1. 6.. 80 A. 12. Page 79. 8 2 19. 30. 1.21. 50. by 12 yd. 13.0.22. 15. 20 yd. 82 mi. $40.000 copper. 9.79. Y.  PageSO.. 2..5. 75. 8. 14. (a + 6) (a + 3). 12. Page 7. 4. 68. 9. 5$ hr. 8 in.. ?(g ? g+ 1). 9. (y + 8)(y2). 20 yr. 6rt 2 11. 5 Col. Page 5. 3 hr. 15. 10 Mass. 2$. 10. 16. 52. 1. 2 3 6 7.1). 90 mi.000. 29. 30.. 9.24. 250. 90. 10. 10. 15. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000. 3 (a +&)(*. 180. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 7. (6) (6 a 30) =20. a a (a 8 a+l).. 150. 2. 9. 20 yr. (y7)(y + 2). Page Page 4. 1. 12 mi. 480. 25. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). (a5)(a4).
33. Yes. 4 (a . 3)(3a. (9y4)(y + 4). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 5. (w + 20)(w + 5). Yes.   . (m7n) (a. 22. (15a + 46*)(16a46).6) 2 2 . a . 30.ANSWERS 16. 3(x + 2)(zl). 10 a 2 (4 . 9. 35. 21.y) 2 aft. 2. 14.2 y).y (6x + 4)(5x4).. (2o + l)(2l). (15z2y)(x5y). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). Oa 2 (a2)(al). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 8. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (3*2)(. + 8)(g3). 216 aft. 20. ix 18. 10(3 5 6) 2 . (3a. 29. 23.4p). Yes.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (5a +l)(5a l). (4 18. (ay8)(ay3). 21. 19. . 21.7)(2z f 1). 2 2 15. 25. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (0 + 6)(66). . a*(5a f l)(flr . 23. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (6n + l)(+2). 15. 24. (m + n +p)(m + wp). x\x 24. ( 2 4 19. 1. 2). 16. . 9. 23.4 6). 12. 15.11 6) (a 4. y(x. Yes. 8. (y + 4)(yl). (a + 8)(a3). 28. . 25. 32. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 26. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 27. 10(a + ft)(aft).1). 8) (a. (y8) 2 2 . No. Yes. 7. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 9. No. 17. 10. 10.4.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).+4 y)(3x4 y). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 4. 3a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 7. (a 3 + 10)(a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).y4 ). Yes. (w* (3a26). (4a. 3. + 5) a. 22. Yes.c 2 ). 31. (2xl)(x + f>). (a. (w ~ n (x .  x (5 a. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 18. 22.3)(z2). . 30. 9. 16. 2.1).5y)(3a. 14. 25.11 ft)(a6). 5. (* + y)(zy). No.r2). 10. (2yl)(y + 9). Yes. . 29. 33.2 by2 6. 40 x. 24 9.1). 100 (a. (<7 20. Page 82. (5wl)(m5). 36. (13a +10)(13a 10). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 21. + 4) (a. 14. 25. Yes. 35. (m + w) 2 5.6) 2 1. (:52y)(2a!3y). 26. (ft + ll)(aftll). + 3). 24. 103x97.2). 10(a . 34. 20. 26. 28. 10. (a a: 19. 100(x. 2. . (2 *+!)(* 9).7) (a. Yes.8). 32. 13x7. Page 83. 11. 7 6) (a 10 6). + 2y). (az + 9)(ox2).2). 11. (10a + ft)(10aft). 6. (a (p8)0> + l). Yes. No. 27. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 8. . 7. 11. . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 6. 17. y) 2 29. 3. . 12. (3#y)(+4y). (4y3)(3y + 2). 13. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (x + y4 )(x . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 24. (6 a. 28. a. 17. 26. 16. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). + 9^)(oxy . 31.* (2 y + 3)(y. (4 13.3). 2 3 by2 Yes. . 12. f 2). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (2 a? 4. 20. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 2 17. 22. (a 6 6) (a 4. (4al)(a2). 9. 2 No 4.1). x(x +y)(x y). (g . 1. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (5x . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 34. 10(2 30.2 ft). 3. y) (a. a(2u. + 0(90 Page 85. 18. 1. + y + . a 2 (w7)(w + 3).9*). Yes. + 3)(c44). (15ay2) 2 . 23. 27. . 19. No. 4. . Page 84.
3 x4 . 11.X 5.'})(c . (x//. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (5 31.y)(fi a . ^ .3. ( y). Gp). (5a+l)(9a).?>) H. 8. 4. fi(c426). (!__/>).2). 40.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 12. 5 x8 3. . (a 4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 30. b) (r 4. 2 8(w .9).1) 3. y )(. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 5. (a &4. (r420(4 10. + 3. 2 (a 4. (5^4.b. 32. 8x. ah}. 2. 4 a8 .3)(x 4. + 2 //). 2 21. 12.8) n 43*).n). 6 f c). 4 6.0+ 12). 11. 2 k (wi 4.3.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 5.  WIM.36). 13. 36. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).5 m2 x2. 8. 20. 3x(x?/) 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (x. 11. 2. Exercise 46.1). 15 M. Page 87. 8. a + a b. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 14. ?>).  (w' 4.2)(x 1. ( (<> r4y3 . Exercise 47. x . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. a8 . 6. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 15. 4 a s &8 . (5 26.1). (w4w) 2 1. 6. 7. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 10(2 (3 4. 4.. 19. x  1). 42a 3 x. 7. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 8. 22. 3. 4. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2 2 10. 4 3. 2 .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). a 4. 7. (16 4  2(5 n . (14. a 4. 9. 37. 4. 38. 8. a x 3 10. . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). (7/1 2) (m 41).&). 8. 7.42 x 4. Page 89. 2. 13. (f> + fo 7. 14.8) ( (16. . y6. (c. 41.'/)('< 4. ?i(w 4y) . Page 90. 450. 4. 12. l. . a 2 (a9). 4.?/). 2. y(2x?/). (. 16.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).7)(^ {I 12.4).y '2 2).2 y).y.4. 1(V/ 88. 4. ( rt 23. . 5.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). x(x f y)(jr . 7. 6.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (m  I)' 6. 15. 13( 33. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 10. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 5  (2 2 . (^ 7. a (a + 2 6).) j). 2 y) ^ . 24x sy s 9.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 2. (> 1.^ 48. n  r)(5a 10. 2 2 3 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). Page 12.e 4. 1. 18. 24. 4). a 41.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 11. (2x7)(x 2 2). ( { &).y). 17(x43//)(x2y). 2 + .7s) (2 a. 5. (* _ 2 )(a 4. ( a ^)(^3. y). (a />. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .?50)(xt/z. 10(8x' 4l) 4.2). 6. 35. (a 9. 14. 9. Page 86. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. ofc)( fid). 27.l)( a 25. r x 2 */3 .>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 7. x 4. 39. 6. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 4  9. 8).4). (w * . 13 x 8 2 .//)(5y x(x4ti<0.!) (x42)(x2). (^ + ?>_8). 17.'J)(' .  29.4. 28. . 42). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. x43.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 1.8). 14.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 4. 8. 6. 16. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 13. Page 92.&). 3(. 2(m4l)' .
13. x 24. // m+1 !+*?. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 1). ?_!&. b ! 21. 2(2al) + l). a 23. 11. + y) (a: y). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .ANSWERS 10. a 10 25. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 6a2&(rt6). x 22. +5 1. (a2)(a + 2)2. + &) 2 ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. x 12. + &)(&) ( .6). 18.  1).
r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. i^. 4c 10. c 8. + 2H 1 ^. 26. 4. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. Page 101. w1 + ac w 4 7. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.  **/* + 84 _. Page 100. 6a5f^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .50 ~ 1/2 . A^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 2 a. 30. .. 6. + lH + . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. xy 43. 4 L 8 2 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 28. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6. 1. 0. 7. 11. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. ' 2 7. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . _*^p5_^^_. i. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. a 5.
29. 10. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 1. 1. 1. 6. Of. 44. 7. J. 25. +3 ( + 15. flf. 4. 4a3ft. 16. 1. . 35.^_. 3. 1. A. 23. 0.  10 X + u. Page 110. x\. 37. 33. x 05m ' 5. 12. 7. 10. Page 111. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 11. n m a + 13. ^_. ! 4 20. 11. 1. 14. f Page 107. j L . 32. 19. 43. . 39. I) 2 3z 1. 38. w^x 2 b Page 105. a. 21.y 7. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. ' 6. 1. 27. 5. ^i 11. 18. 1. + f. 13. 12 28. 21. 36. 5. x 1. a 17. 6. 21. ac mp lf> n 12. 11. n 16. 9. m 9. b a f +c 14. 5 be _J_. c 8. 31. 4. 11. 3. 20. 12. an 18. 4. 8j_m 7 3. 5 6 Q 5 a 12.L+ft. y(x + x ?/).^U\WF### X<6. 2ft a i m x. 24. 2 47. . 5. 17. J.  V o 4. 14. 0. a2 2. 11. 42. pf n 6 1. n . 3. 7. 6. 9. 30. 5. 40. 16. 3 7 i o. 17. 15.ft . 1. 4. 6. 3. 15. 41. (y + (z 12. ft. 15. 4. ?+_!?>. 4. 34. 7. (>. J. 1. 46. Page 113. Page 106. 2) 19. 8. 14. 4. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. ?. b 2. 6. 8. 26. f 7. 45. . 3. 6 . 9.
7. 9. 12. gold. 19. a 4 ft. 55 mi. No. 2.. No. (ft) (r) 8 hr. dn ~ mi.. 7.9. (c) 8300. Page 121. min. 4~r~ n .000. 15. . 6. 1:1=1:1. 17. 15. 27. (d) 4 da. 35. Page 119.000. 4. 10 yrs. 74. 15. J. 15.. 8. after 18. 300. 40 yrs. (c) 2 hr. (a) 30. 1:3. . Yes. 31. 20. () 2. ^p^ r ~ 7. w 44. 18. 8. J ^'. 6. 40 mi. ^m . 75 . n 32. 30. $0. 1: ~. 13. 10. ft. 7. 24. 11. 15. 5. 1 da. 32. ANSWERS 16. jj. 2. 1. 275:108. Yes. 10. nm. 10^ oz. 26. 19.. 5. 3.001. 5. min. 1. 14. 8. ~m . 3. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 18. 10.. 11. 9. 1 : 12. w 18. 15.003. 1:1 = 1:1. 23< &n b ' . Yes. 1:4. (a) 4 min. (ft) 104. (r) 3^ da. 15. after 20. Yes. 9. (d) 500. 28. 10. 14.000.2. (a) 12 hr. 36. 4. 8301 hr. 16. 14. . 11. 5ft 30mi. 10. 10. 13. 30 yrs. 3. IV s. Yes. _JL.. (ft) 5 hr. 3 da. 300. 20. * 7:9. 3.139.004. w 21. 17. xy.0 & ./hr. (ft) 28.000. $45. 500. 21ft min. 00. 7 . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 7} 18. 5 25. (a) 25. P+ ^ 33. " 0. 21. = A's. 7. 4fl M_. 300. 16. [>> ^ a . silver. 21. 18. 40wn. 2x:3y. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 14.15.10. after $12. 30ft. 4.002. 3:2. 212.XIV '/ .0.000 1 = 23.. Yes. Page 125. #V ~~ 34. Page 118. 7T 2 Page 116. 17.138. 2:1. 9. . 12. ^?i min. 5. 5 2. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 8. f. . (ft) 5 da. 9$. 20. 33. 38ft min.  + . 26 30. 34. 16. ./hr. 24.  C . 10. 10. 13. 7.. 9ft.. 6. 9J oz. 3. $40.  29. 0. 17. :2.000 If da. 30 mi. Yes. 33. 4.x + y.137.11. 1^'. 26 mi. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. $00. '"I 22. $30. 13. 19. Page 124. 12. 7. 1. 2 20.2.} da. 19. Page 117. 24 mi. . 1:1 = 1:1. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . Yes. 4. 81. 11 hrs. 1. 22. 3. f . 8..
.17. 11.7. 8. 30. 53. 10. 13. . = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.C ?/ a . . in n. 25. 5. 4. . 26. 5:3 = 4: x.000 sq. 2. 20 20 J ^.x a. 12. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. ft.6. x y y .20. 7. 4. 5. 20 cu. 2. : : . 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. w 8. 8. 12. 200 mi. mi. 5. 2.3.. J. 47. 40. 17. + b 7 .3. 3 2=3 x. 7. 2. 15> 9.840. 6. y . Page 135. tin. y 1. 2 n .2. land.8 oz. 2. J.160. 5. 3}.4. 44. 6.12. y a y = 7 0. 11 w a 13. 7. 1. 39. 36. 2. 23. 5. 52./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 1. 7^. 1. (b) Inversely.^ 0?j ' gms. 13J.) 31.7. ' 55. 8. 8. 5 2. 50. ig 6. 5:0 = 10:12. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 10. 5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.4. l.r. : 23. 14. 30. 2. 1.5. 6.5. 2. 23.  ?. 10. copper.1.5. in. 11. 48. 1. 2.000 sq.1. 35.15 x.3. 32j. 10. : . 1 18 = 3 51. 11.3. 5. 3. 58. : XV 27.5. 3. Page 131. 9. . 4. 9. 2. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 18. (</) ft. 31. 2.3.22. 6. 43.2 oz. . /. OJ. 24. 1. 7. 16. 40. \. *. () 7 Page 126.ANSWERS 22. 3. 13.  28. 7. 6*. 3. ~ 1. 38. 7. mi.3.57. 24. a 3. 16. 6 10 = 12. 25. y :y =.1.]. 54. 174+ Page 128. 7. 2.2. x +y x + 74 7 \. Page 5. x 42. water. 20. 32+ mi. Page 137. "lO. 2.4. Page 136. 4.1. \\. 11. 8. 28. 13. . 6. 127. 7. 7. 15. 36. 26. 7. 1 rt * vm^1. 3  24. 4. . 1. 4. 56. J pq. Inversely. ini. 7.*. 1. t 5. () Directly.5. 3. 15. i. 4. 11 5 .  19. : : T 1' : /> : . 20. 12. 3. 19 OJ. Page 134. Page 9. 3. 45. 49. I. 3.. Page 133. 2. $. 2. 2. x:y a: b. = 7 b'. 7. 9. 14. b x 37. 55. 8. 1. 1(5. 7. . OJ. 138. 14.a. 19. 19 3 . 9. 7. 4. 4. 141. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 4. .2 x. 19. 59. 4.3.9. 3. 9  15.46. J. . 9. 4. 2. 3. + W. 17. 11. cu. 2. 2. 25." ^ 2. .li. 13. 22. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x.3.5. (a) Directly. . a~. 17. 31J.2. (I. 2. 3. 7. 46. s<i. 24 1 (e) Directly. 9. 4. 27.3. a +b 1. Page 132. 41. 16. 5. 21.' : : : : <>.15. 9. 14. (b) C C' = fi JR'.5. 7. : />. jc:y = n:m. 3. lo mi. 5. 5. 8.1. 4.. 2. 1.2.5. 12. 22.J.3. 29. 4. w. 5.5. .3. 945 11 10 .12.36. Of.4. 3. 2. 41.J 3. 2. 19. 57. 2."2:1. 21. 9.4.
3. 32. Jan. Nov. 2. July. 2. 5. Nov. 423. J. <*ft/ bd 1. 5. 3. 3. . 10 sheep. 4. (ft) 20. 9. 100.65. 30. A a parallel to the x axis. . Apr. 20. 6. 24. 4. 14. 2 a. 31. 40. 11. 2. 5. 11. 18.1... (ft) 23 J. 0. 8. Oct. $250. Page 146. 6. 11. 28./hr. 20. 1. 4. $900 5%. 40. 4 ' q. 4. July 20. .0. yrs. m + n p. 9. 19 gms. Nov. 24. On the y axis. Page 151. 2. 30. 23. . 4. 26. 3. be 7. 8. 11. 4. 5. 3. 7. . 16. 14. 2. 1. 6. On 11. The ordinate. & part of Sept. 0. 3. 1. . Page 152. 15. 1. a =J (n  1) rf. $ 1000. 7. 3.10. . 2.3. 5. 25.0. 72.8. 1.XVI Fagel39. 1. 1 (c) Jan. On the x axis. m f 9. ^. 16. (a) 12. 2. $3000. 2. 3. (<f) 13. 30. Page 149. . 6 cows. 20. May 5. at 15. Page 143. ad AzA. 3. be 10. 3. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. . 8. 19.2. 2. 0. B's 40 yrs.l.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 3. 18. ' . 10.33. 16. 2t2. 20. 18. About 12f. Page 22. 3. 5%. 2. A's 50 13.. 2. 10. 23f . $4000. Page 142. 4. 19. 16. Feb. 4 mi.4. 5. 6. 2. 3. 4.  17. 12. 12. 3. 6. 4. 1. B's 15 yrs. 29.1.4. 20 to Oct.3.2. 147. 14. Jan. $500. 1. 22. 4. 12. 3. 5. . 3. SL=J o ft r^2. 10. 4. 7. 10. 7. Nov. Page 153. 1. 16. 12. 15. 21. 13. (5. & part of Feb. 27. 5. 7. 2 horses. 3. 2. ad _(?jrJL. 16.4. 11.9. (c) . July. 2. 3). 4. parallel to the x axis 0.3. .1J. 3. 5. C's 10 yrs. 25.$5000.7.n + p. M 2.^. 00. Page 145. 10^ gms. 3. June. Aug. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . Jan. 1. Apr. 1. 25. . 4. 25. yrs. ft 3. 20. 13. 6%. 9. 2. 20 & Oct.. 9. 7. 15. 8. 6. & May. through point (0. 3. C's 30 yrs. 12. 17. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 6. 9. 24. 21. A's 30 18. &. 11. 17. 5. (a) Apr.$2000. 7. 1 (d) Apr. 9. 2. 7. 10. 16 to July 20. 7. Jan. 90. 4. 2. . m f 8. = ^ a Page 141. 13. Apr. u 2ft.. Jan.  11. 24. 4. 7. 17. 18. 23. 26. ' 6 3 a. 6. m . a..  Zn  "(^ll 14. 1.
I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 5. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 83. a 10 ' a ll V&.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .24 . 2. 2 a&m Page 167. (ft) and (d) 2. 8 a1. 2. 14. 3. 11. 3. 12. 18C. Indeterminate. f. ' :=_!. xy. 2. (ft) (ft) 2.64. ft . 4. 2. .  1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.41 and 23. 27 19. 3. . _ 9 x ^27 1 .79.84. 13C. 3. 3.. (a) 12.75. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 3. . 8. 2. 5 and 2. 3. . . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 2 l. 19. 27 27 81. 4.59.75. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . .73. 14. (a) 4. (<?) 2. 14. 3. Page 159. 6. 4. 3. 6. 5. . 9 and Page 166. .25. 24. 2. 2. 3 . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. Page 164. 0C.5 (ft) 3. xg . .. 1.41 and . (c) 7. SlstyW 7.75. 3. 20. () (rt) 3.24. 21.24. (ft) 2. 10. 14. . 125a 28. 1. . 13 . 3. 9.6. . 27. 2. 1. 13. 15. 8 1 f f g*.3.1.. * 16.4. 3. . 2. . . (c) 14 F. 2. 24.73 ami . H. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 17. .7. 1. (c) 2. 1 23. . 20. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. ImW. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. + a 4 ft* . . 1. 3.. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 4}.25. 10 C.5. 3. 2. 5. ft 2 4. 2. 15.3.25.67.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. m. 4. 16. 125 a 8 12. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. +3 4. 1.75 (ci) 3^. 4. 3.59 . 10. 8. jgiooyiio 17. 1 4. 25. 3.13. (a) 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . (gr) 21.64. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 1. 13. a + ft. . 13. .79. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 2. (/) 3. Page 158. 4 ) 21. 1. (e) 3. 28. 4.34F. 2ft4 Page 168. G. Indeterminate. f 10. 9. 2. 19. . f. 2.2 (ft)  1. 2. 1. 12. 1. . . xW. 1. 1. 1. 2.83. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 5. 1. 30. 5. 11." 23. a 29. \ft) 5. 1.25. (ft) (d) 2. 4. . 125 16. 30. 8mW.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. (e) 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 18. 2. 7. 5.27. 81 ". (/) 3. 2 2 22. Page 163. H. 32F. Inconsistent. .  1. 1.73. 22. 0. 10. 1. 8. 3.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 1^.73. 2. 3. 15. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.  .25.83. . Inconsistent. 15 . 22. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.1. 1.17 (ft) (c) 2. (a) 5. 26. 4wn8 + n4 5. 1. 5.5. f12 wi 9. 11.
84. 3. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 4. +35. ( Page 174. 27. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). + i)). 2.^). 11. 2. 15. . 4. 20. 3. 11. 40. (1 (x2y). 10*. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 237. +3 + 5 4. (a 2. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 72. 17. 31. (a + y+l). 11. a 2 . . + y). 98. 64. 9. 32. 34. a ). 28. 36. 13. 14. 57. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 2 4 8 2 . Page 170. 1. 20. . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 20. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 35. 18.6. 18. r> 4 : 1 . 24.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 18. (ly). 3 2 8 3 12. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 2 2 4. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 3M. 1247. 180 . 22. ). . 300. 10. 8. 4. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 10. 8. 10 x G a 4 . 19. 2 12.1.83. . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 1. (a + 2 +l). 6. 17. 3 6 23. 25 19. 6. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 16. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 6.XV111 7. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. I 8x2).10 a~ + 5 a .94. Page 171. c 10 6 :l 20. 247. 71. 2(> + ( 2 7>). /> 4 ). 9.i c 6 15. + l). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . Page 172. 33. 5. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).1. (4a2 9& 2 13. 420. 8 /. 9.037. ^i. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 15. 7. . 90. 8.f 1 m 9 16. 9. ??i ?i . 3. 1. 6. 6 (\x 3. 30. 119. a. 9. GOO 2 c 2 . 9. 16 6 w . rt . 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .+3^ + 4. . 11. 21. 0. + Z). 2038. 14. 17. (48 + 6. . Page 176.  +X '. 1 1 ?>). 8. 6. 5. AN S WE no . 2 49 . . 309.y2 ). 5. 99. Zll. 23. 12. 10. 16. 2. 20. + 29. 7. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 26. 15. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. ? .r 2 + 6jt).5.3 ab + 2 2 ).2). 13. 3. 2 2 7. (l + x + .GO a c + 23.a b 22. + (win . 1. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 2. (x' l).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. ? : 1 . 70. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 25. 30. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 978. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (2 a + ft).7 /)).5). 3 2 ^. + + ?V 22. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 76. 00. m 13. 763. (x + y\ 90. 12. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 5 5 8. 7. 2. 14.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 90.x ). (3a.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 8.  x. 5. a. fe *?>' ?> fi . 15. a: l . 14. 21. 101. (Gx + (i + 2a. 16. 5. 19. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. . 12. (ab + c). 4.
9. 4. . 8. 9. 8. 18. 2 sec. 17... 1. 3. 4 n. 4. 7. /. 49.. 3. xix 26. 2. 39. 10. 17. 5. 16. 41. 4. 12. 2. l~8.. 5. 31. vYb. 42. 47. 10. 12. 25 J. . Page 181. 15 1 10. 10. 3.935. 5. 7. 5.60. Af^. 7. ft. 1 38. 4 a. 33. 4 W**.1.  43. \/3.  1. or 3. or 5. 17.236. 13. 25.}..  f. 5. 7. 9 15 ft. 31. " ^_ 22.367. 40. .?. ^^7m. vV'TA 24. 6. 36. 6 f !. 2. ~ V^3. 1. 11. 10. 7 45. {. 6. 1. 21 28 ft. f. 2. 3. 6V'2J. 27.798 yds.*. 6J. 4 TT M 28. f ^ is. (afl). 13. 28. 4. 23. 6.  2. 1. Page 184.6. 5. .1. .237. 11. Page 180. f . 5. 7. 40. 2.4. 4.. 4. *.  f. 2. 29.13. * 1.522 38. 15. 8.Sn. w.18. . 5. 1 f Vl3.. 1. ft. 3.742 in. i.469. 7 in. ^.6. 20. ^. 23. 6561. 11. 33. a. 7. >i 27. _ iVaft.925 ft. 34. 12.243.5. V J l. 6. 7. 2. 7.6. JJI. 4. . 2. 2. >TT 26. 16n. ZLlAiK 19. 9. 5083. 36 in. (< + ?>). 28 in. 4.690. m. 3. 4. 1. 4. 10. 1&. 14. 35.5. V17. 3. 29.V 8j.a. 3. 9. 50.. 21. 3. V2. 28. 9. 2. 7.6. 18. 2. 15. .ANS WERS 22. Page 177. 20. 7. v 17.w 18. 1. 37. 27. 15. 29. 44. 22. 8. 8.645. 34. 14. V2. 10. 30. m. 9. f f V. 2. 16. 3. ft. 1 7. 4. 20. 9.i. (6) Vl4 3. 26. 7}. 5. 6. 10. > w ft. 270 sq. 15. f. 4. 10. ii :J _7. 13.  5. 36. 5f. 2] see. . 39. 3. 8. Page 183. V. }. 7563. 21yds. 15. 5. 3. . 11. . 1. 5. . f 3. 19. 21 in. 30. 5. 32. J. () 2.. 1. If ^. 37. 48.  14. 12. 12. 6yds. 1. 16. 12. 9. 5. Page 179. 39 in. 14. 7. 14. 1. 5. 3. Page 185. 16. a + 61. 13. 2. 23.  3. 24. 6V21.916 yds. i ^. 24. 21. 4J.4.4. 4. 6. 35. 13. 6.. 11. 3J. 10. 46. 6. 32. 12. 3.6. 25. 19. 21. 14. V35 1.005. / 11. 12.
unequal. rational. 1). 13. a + 6. 48. 52.2. ANSWERS 22. 58. 49. 0. 3if. 6.. f. 19. 15. 1. unequal. 1_^L ft 14. 25. 12. 18. 6. 56. . t is. 2. 19 in. i. 4 da. 26. x* 51. 16.  5. orf.  1. 12. 2. 7.  2. 12. V^l. 22. 36. 27. V2. 4. 4. AB = 204 ft. 0. Real. 7. rational. Page 187. 3. 2. 44.12 = 0. 16. 8. 12. 15.4. unequal. 28. 0. 6. Page 192. 2. 2. 6. .  Page 194. 25. 25. . . 5 ft. 120 ft. v^^fcT"^. 21. 12. unequal. $30 or $70. 57. 70 ft. 16. 2 . 42.  1.  i. 55.37./hr. 0. . 41. 8. 10. 2. 3. 2 V3 in. 24. 27./hr. 0.]. Page 190.  1. r* i. 37. .0*8. 13. a. 5. Page 191. 2./hr. 3.l. 4. 2. .6.2. Imaginary. 20 eggs. Real. 1. jr . 1. 4. Page 189. rational. 4.23. 14. 8. If. 23. 6V64. 15 ft. x2 + B . 3. . . 0. 10 mi. Imaginary.* 2. x*4x=0. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 5. 8\/2 17.59. 24. 3. 1 3. 18. Real.12. . 10 in.7. 25. 3.17. *'' 12. 10. 35. 2. 23. . 0.2. . V^~2.41. 9.1.. ft. 32.  24. 7. 24. 0. s 11. unequal. 26. a + 1. 2. 8 or 12 mi. 26. H.1. 2. . 9. 17. $80.2. 3. 23. 20.XX Page 186. 9. 3.. 3. 10. 22. 0.3. unequal. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 53. . 2.1. 3. 0. 4. Real.6 = 0. 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 1.'.23. 3. 0. 11. 2. Imaginary. . 29. i . . rational. 3. 45. 1. 3.4. 47. 10 mi. 2.5 x + 6 = 0.  13. Real.4. 38.3. unequal. 18.02. 3.$40 or $60.  1. V2. 1. unequal.74. 64c. 7. 2. x 14. 1. 2. 1. 31. . 6^2 in. Imaginary. 1. 1. 1. 21.. .2. 1.2. 3. unequal. 3.2.  9x <).62. 3.2. 2. 28.  5. 6. ' 1. V^l. 4. 3. AB = 3. 26. U.48. 4. 33. 64. 50.a 3 a. 3. 5. 2. 10 or 19. 30. 3. 6. %. 7. 4. 0. 20 nii.4. 5. irrational.Oa. 4. 1. 1./hr.7. 1. + 11 x. equal. VV11. 28. 8. 6..10.a.a. 2. 0. 14. 11. 3. in. 6. equal.5.2 x2 .2. 46. equal.5^. 1. 27. f. 20. 6. 43. 9.4. f 6 52 a. 7. $ 120. 3.  6. 2.. 2 ft. 1. 35. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  2. 39. 0. 40. = 0. _ 19.2. (5 10. .48 3. 0. 15. 7. 20. 7. 1. 5.  1. '  f 5.70. . 2. 1. 2. . 21. V7.3. irrational.7. a8 . rational. Page 188. Real. 1 . 6. Real. a. #<7=3. 2. . 1. 3. 19. Real. 34.
8.  48. 12. . 1. \/. 1 39. z + 22. I. jV 10. r*. r. 7 . &. 1. Page 201. 12*2 61. 59. V^ 34. 18. 33. 15. 32. 2. 24. wA 46. *V.  f . vm. 1. 2. 10. 33. p. 3 4 11. 8. 3. 'J. v^T4 m. ^Sf 3 38. 22. 49. _! V3. . . vV. 18. 10. 14. 4. 2. 7.^7. 16. 24. . x$. m'. 38. aW\ 40. 14. 50. 2. v'frc 18. 3. 30. Jb \. J. ). (m 26. v. 30 a. 9. 31. 19. 1. x. 20. 5. 4. 23. 5. . 2. 7V7.  a'2 . 29. 27. . 84. 42. 19. \a\ \/^. 3. a. 37. 14. 17. ar 1 . 1. 1. 4. 31. 8. 28. 16. 1V1. 10. 18. 5\/5. y .17. 21. y. J. 8. : . 52. 0. \. 2V a. 21. 13. 6  AAf. \/r\ 11.6. J. J. 3. 9. 2. 15. 28. 33. 5.  J j. 49.2. 19. 8. 48. 2. 45. 60. ) 2 >J i 10. 2. \. 53. v'frW. 2. 54. 3. 1. 19. 21. 9. 4. Page 200. 11. 49. 3. 10. 51. 8. ^49. Page 199. l  5 12. 4. 4. 3.  f. 20. 25. 39. 55. 29. 44. 41. 12. 25. 2. 3. 36. 9. 47. 32. .  5. 13. 14. 5. J 3. 26. 17. 24. 8. 25. xxi 15. 15. 23. Page 197. i." 17. 40. m. x/25. 4. 16. 9. 3. 56. 6. 1. 243. . 0. 57. . a 18 . Vr. 3. n\/* Page202. 3. v/3. 7. 16. 13. 20. 46. ? .32. ifa. JV37. \/3. \ . 4. 1. 17. 29. 7.ANtiWEUS rational. 20. 35. 3. 22. 2. 9. 58.//^. 50. . 8. 13. 47.. 2 L ( V. 125. fx'^z'l 23. 1. Page 196. 27. $7. 5. 5. 49. 6. 11. 0. 1. 43. 1. 30.1 5 15.
29. Page 203. 4.2 18. 39. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. y (a + ft) V2. . 11.632. 11. 24. 31.f. 10. 13. 5 ( . 13 35. 2v (T 2aVf. 2 4 z2 l 3. V2 + 4 V22. 51. 8. 4aV^J 16. 7. 2\/7. 12. 135V6. y. 28. 2. 21. 26. (o* 2. 2.648. V63. V. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 9..XXii ANSWERS 1.3 + 40 3 . x y. ftV 46.Vxy 35.'\ 14. + 2 ar 1 ). 43. Vr 8. x%  3 ^+ 1. 3V5. 29. + . 3 x^y 33. 8V/) 15. 2 '"V5. 50. a2 4. 3 a~ 3 (x (. + Vic + 25. 32.r. v/^r 5  A/^~. 9. 19. 10. 9 . 27. 9.577. V.rV:r. 13 a. k/2. 22. 31. 1 2 or 1 ?. 34 r 6. 49. a 4 +* + !. 3^ + 2). 32. 2. 11V3. 26. 30. 20. 13. v^. 30. + 2 Vzy + y 1. T. 48. x 7  34. a^ + 2^+1. ^: V2c.). 33. 16. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 03r* 7. a 3. yV35. 15. x. 101 1. . x 25. abVab. 2>X2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 3 \ 39. 38. 3. r c . 28. 10. Page 207. V80. 7. 45. + + ft.707. l 5. 41. ^88".  a Vft 2 121 b. Page 208. 5. 21.x^y* + y%. 23. 5 22. 4. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 1) 3V3. 17. 3. 6. 40. 8. 40. / V3. V 5 47. 1. 19. 37. (a 27. 2. 195V3. 24. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 2 x* 15. + 2). x^ . . 17. (x' (l 1+x).r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 3. 62V(J. 6. . 2. + 2 V22. 3V^T. . 2. 3 4\/2.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. v'TM. ?tV?w. ). 5. 18. 37. 36. 3^2.  2 3:r. + 1. 16. .692. m* n*. 8a6V5. 25. 2 a?>V2 a. ^7 \AOx. JIV6. 20&V6. r 17  Page 204. Va 2 "ft. 20. 34.yl : . 3 42.2 VlO. .
36. x/125. fl^Vac. v/8. 2 28. 16. 10. a^\/a7>.30 2. v^O. 14. 19. V3. 34. 35. ^ 3 b 5 24. 1V5. 37. \/2. 17. 18. 4 >/3. V2. 13. 8. rtv/5. 5V2.J Page 212. 6aV2\^. v/l2. 10. 25. 12. D 45. 9. 1. ^v 7 15. 13. 39. 17. \^6. 21. 5V2. 2\/7. "^8000. . Page 210. 6. V/. 14c 4 V5. 14. V8..T*. 5. 44. . v/i). 8V2. x/3. W). 20. 5. 14. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 6 2\/0. 28. 3 V15  47. 9. 24. 25. v^30. 12. 3v^2. 23. 7. 18. 38. x/4. 38. 10V(). 3 Vl5 30. v^lf. / \/w/t 4 13. 32. v"5. 31. 36. 1. 3\/2. 2. 42. Page 214. \V3. x/8. % 29. \/abc*. 40. 2. 17. 26. . v/lO. ^27. 11. 30 Vl4. v 25^4714 V2"a. v^a. Vn. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . "v/wi ??. x/8l. ab 4. V2. 2yV2?/. \^6. v7^. 31. 21. 2 1. 7. 29. 49. 26. V3"m. 6+2V5. 32. 3\/wi. 9. 11. 5v/2. 50. 16. r)\/(l Vrtr. \^r^bVabc. 4\/5. V5. 4. 0. 3. 6. Page 211. x/w^ 8. 5 \/2. \/128. 3. 21 23. Vdbc. 6x2?/. 2. a2  b. 3\/15  6. aVa. 11. 35. + VlO  v y (5. 4VO. . 53. 8. 13\/3. 27. .  3. 74\/Jl 120 46. 40. m ?i2Vm/t. 48. 8  \/15. 33. ^9. 15. 2 \/2. 23. vT). 3. V3. Page 216. 6. 24. 2. 2 V'3. 4 a*. 8v2T 12. 2 ate. + 20. 32m27n. 5. 6V2. v^f. 52. 43. VT5. 46. 3. 30. 15. V5. 4. VJla. 18.r v/^ v^fr*. 9 VlO + 4. v/9. \/a6c. 3. 7\/(l 7VTO. 2. 6. xx 1. 7. 10. ^\/3. \XOfl6Vi5. 0. 39. w?i. : ^32. 34. x/27. 22. 41. 6. v^4. 37. . a\/5c. 8V73\/IO. 16. b. 1. Page 213. Vtf +3+ 33. x/8L v/27. 51. . 22. '. \/04a. \/8.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v"3. 3 V2. 19. 27. Vat.
4. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). 16. 4. 216. 16.389.464. Page 226. V2. x 20. A . (VllV2). 1. 15. Va. 13. 11.4142. 28. _^JflJ?. 22. 14. 3. 4V3 + 6. 24.  13. ANSWERS 8. 4. 4 14.9.2. 15. 2V3. 25. (2V2). 30. * 3. . 3. 6. 7. . 2!5_. ~ Vac _c 0. 17. 5.7071. 15. (V8 + V2. 30. 12. ^\/2. 25. 12. 81. 1.  f. 34. 16. 7 f 5 4. 12. 13.\/TO). 10.3535. 21. 1. 17.w 6. 3. 7 Page221.3. 18. V6c. 23. . 9. 19. 21. 64. 8 V3V2. 8. 512. 35. 19. 17. (V21). 6 V. . 1. 14. 5. 20. ^. 2. 26. 5 V65. n*. 0. 7. 4. \/3). 7. 3. 33. i(Vf Vft). (\/3f 1). .732. ^r. (2f V"5). Page 28. 9. 4. 15. 1. 27. 32.2. 18. 8. 22. 224. V3.4722. 20. K>/0 + \/2). 9. (Vf + (4 V2). j 15. 9.0606. 5. (VaT^v a). 81.1805. 17. 2x^2^. 11. . 0. 4. 8. V^TTfc. 1. 5 f. 24. 4. Page 225. 21 ' Vob 26.5530. 5. 8. Page 218. V35. 8. 31. Page220. 1. 10. xy 2. V3. 24. Page217. 5. 2.64. 1. 18. 6. 29. m f. J.  2.. V5.6.1. 21. 3(7+3V5). 1. 12. 7. 18. 11. + 6) 2 . 2. 2. (3+ v/2). f. 8. 4. !^ 6 4.XXIV 7. 2ajV2*. 4.601. 9 mn. 5. 2. J. 27. \. p 6 13. 5. 7.V3).2828. 8. 36. 15. 5 + 2 vU 17.1547. 25. V3. 12. Page 223. 2 . 10. V3 . 15 f 3 V2L 4. . (2Vll). 4. Page 219. 4. (V6 + 2V2). 16. 1. 11. 5. 9. 3. 23. Vf6fVtf. 5. nVTl.6 V3. V. 24. (V51). 11. 2. 37. 19. 3. Va. 3V23. 16.  . fV2. 14. 100. 6. 4. 27. . (a 1. 10. 10. 2. 19. 7. 25. 4. 9. {. .732. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 19. 6. ^(VlO\/2).81. j. 26. 10. 23.13. + 5V2. 1.7083. ' 22 i . 8. 2V3. 7. 16. 25.5. (2. i^Lzi. 16. 25. 125. 22.3. 13. 23. 4. 6. 20.625 10. 7. 14. \/57t. 9. 11. 25. +3 V2). 18. 23. (V5f 5. (\/5V2). 29.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .^ (\/22 4. 9. 10. 4. . ^. 3. 20. 12. 2V2. . 9.
Page 233. (2 a. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 4. (+!)( 2) 10.^a. 9. 4. 5.. (pl)(p2)(p2). Page 236. 5. 16. 12. 17.  f . (a. 3. 0. 4 . (4 mn . 2. b . 2.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 18. 1 (?> x/^3. 50. 3 . 11. 1 . 6. . 2 . 11. 19. \/0. . 2 . 3.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1.3. XXV 4. 3. 4. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1).12. 73. 87 . 5. . 73. 5.  16). 2. 9. 19. 22. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). t/ 23. 2 V^ . 2. 1. 22. 20. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 30 30. . .2)(* . 13. . ' J. . 2 6. 4. 1. 4.ANSWERS Page 228. . 20.5. a: :} . . 2 . 18. 3. 2. 6. 1. 2. 6.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. . . 1. 4. 1 6. 13.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 12 24 y . (rt. 3. . 0. 7.5 xy + 25) 22. 2.7.nl^EI. 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. . =A^Z3. 6. 25. 30 . & + 6 2 ). 23. . (a. 1. 4 4. 4 . 1. 4. 3 9. 2. . 5. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). (xy + 5) (x*y* . 25.2.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 0. 7. 4.3. 4. 2. J 24. 1 . 1.2. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . ( 16. 7.3.22. (r. 1.  4. 8. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (a 4. 16. 5. 4. 6. 10. 8. 0. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 3. . 2 &.10. 2. 2. 28. . 5.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 13. a .1.  5. . 4.3). ~ f7. 11. 3. 5. 0. 6. 1.1. 14. 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).r .4. 14. 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1 . 7.Y. 14. (w . . 8. 30.  3. 3.  3.3 2. 10.  2. V3. 3. 0. 15. 7. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 12. 10. 11. 3. 1 . 4. a  . 2 6. . 12. (63)(6' t 18. 6 2 2a + 2). 2. 5. 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).w 4 + 1).8a 18. 3.  J. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (&y2a#H4). 13. 3. 4. 1. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. (8. 2. 5. 7. 8. 2. 20. f>. 21. 2. 0. qpl. 3 5. 3 . 3. 13. 11. 3. 4. 12. 2. 5. 1. 11.2. J. 1. 15. 1. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 56l).4. 25. 5.2)(m. 24. 10. 2. 3. 4. 2. 4.  .3. 9. 10. 7.  1. 5. J Page 235. y. 0. o. 1.3. 1. .3. 3. 4 20. P. 10. 1 3. 19. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). f . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 5. 3. (pl)(p3)(p6).l)(m . . 1 . (a . 2. (B43). 25.4.  1. 100. 12.0. 8 6 & 0. 1. 3. 8. 2. a(. 3. 30. l. 3 . 4. 3. 2 . Page 234. 3. 3. 17. 26. 1. 4 1. 2. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 2. 15. 21. (m 4 + l)(ro. //. 6. 7. J. 8.4). 17. 4. 24.l)(a3)(a . 2.  3. 2 > 1.
. 5. tn 2. 11.0. 5. 3. 9. 4. 35. . 23. 3. 2. 5050. i. 21. 15. 1. 4 6. 5. 15.3. 3.0. 15. 8 . 3. 12ft. 7. 17. 3 4. 4. 15. 9. 20. Page 247. 31. . 7. 40.5. 2V7. 2. 8ft. n. 25. 17.6. $. Exercise 114. . 78. . 7. _ 13 (0 6. J. 20 in. 2 Y> V . '>. 5.136. 2.y. 4. . 1.. 17. 1. 13. 3.. 3. Page 241. 5 cm. 6. $VO. Page 238.1. 2. 3. co . . 3 . = QO 6. . ( 3. 2 26. 3. (&) 2.1. 2. 4. 12. . 3. 1. 15. 1. Page 240.3. 3. 3. 2. oo . 2 . 3. 20 7. 0. 11. 2. 2. 41. 2. jj. . 16. . f. 31. 3. 8. 10. in. 8. 9. 9. 48.3. 2 16. 1. 21. 1. 11. }. 4. 9. \. m27. .. 1.18. . 2. 12 ft. and _ 4.  . 4. 2n. 1. ri*. 4. 4. 1. 8. _ 10. 21 30. 4. 7. 8. 1. 1. . 1. 15. . 22. 2. 38.13. ANSWERS 2. 2 . . 1 .. 10. Indeterminate. 8. 1. 11.. 12. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 24. 8 3. 37. 512.. m + n.020. 1. 4 34. V7.. 2 . ' j. _ 5. 10.e. 1. 3. 14. 15.5.6. +  n. 4. 5 4.  2 . 14.4. ft. 14. 8. 11. 5. 2. i j. 288. 0. 1 . 5.200. 24. 1. 2. . 1. . 6. 3. 1. 3. 1. 1 . 3. 5. 5. . 400. 2. (/>) "_. Indeterminate. 4. . Page 244. 4 . i'ljVU. . . 29. } . 55. Page 245.30. 3. 39. 37. in.3. . 4. J. 3. 17. 13. 1. 900. 2. 20. 1. ^ }. 7f solution. . x 4. 6. 4. 2 10. 1J. 1. 23. 33. ft. 14. 5. 26. Page 239. 2 2. 1 . 4. 12. 2 ft. i i i . n .3. 5. 512. $.2.. 12 d. (a) $3400.  11. . . 9. 14. f>.3. 32. (a) 5. 1. 4. 1. V3~. 40 in.. \/6. 5. 14. 10. 7. 4. 3. 12 1.4. 3 . 3. . ft. f*. 5. 3. 14. 1. 4 8. 2. oo . 4. 1. no co . . 8.xxvi Page 237. 3. ^~2. . 5. 5. 5. 3V5. 2 1.4. 17. 201.3. 3 2. 35^ 5. 69. 3 cm. 0. 18.. c. 3. 7. 30 13. 6. GO . 3. 4. 1. 36. 30. 1 2. 6. 2. 2. . 12. . 45yd. 1. 3 3. 30. 2. 16.  1.1. 4. 1. 5. oo. 125 125. (>. 18. 37.4. Exercise 113. 4. 1. in. 2. 7 3. Page 248. 19. 35 ft. 40 25 in. . 1. 3 . $46. 3. 50. J. in. 5. 13. 35 a. 8. 2. 28yd. 4. in. . _ 7. 5 . 4. m28. 22. 7. 2. 2>/3. 12. 11. 17. 18. Page 243. j. .3 . 19. . 1 . 2. . J. 12. 84. 50. 16. 5.
4. 3. 410. 29.5. 192. a. 70. . 10. 43. ?/i 6 x llj . 12. 1. a4 4 14. 708. x r 4. 128. 304. 75. 6. 15. 12. 4. 8 . ~v 9. 8. 27. 4. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .120. 4. d. 0. 9. 0.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. ~ an . 15. r r j.<2 4. 100. 8. 3. I. 12. 16. 26.470. 0. 105. 7. Page 254.r x>/ 7 3. 1. 4950 M 2 b y *. in. 4. 13. 27. 1. ' 1.170. 17. 7. JSg. 1. 7.5. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. **+. and 1.13. 05. 70. 6. .5 x. xxvii 1.5y 4 . 21. 0. 2. 8. 81. 16. sq.680. 19. 20. 4. 16. 6. 0. . 8 4x' 2 . 7.1. 5. 55. 5. 2. 04. 2. . 12. 12. ^a 8. . 9. 6. 19. REVIEW EXERCISE . 4.53.920. 22. 10. 8. 15. x4 . 1 14. w9  8.ANSWERS Page 250. . 4. 405.12 x*y 16.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 4. . 48. . 3. } $ 50.^ ?>i 2412x4. 44. 3. A. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 1820. 5. 3. 4. 45. 9. 6i. Ja. 3.7 10. 2. 18.6 . 7. 5 13. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 15. 10. 45. B . 27. r 5 4. 18. 50. 18. 17. 9. 21. 2. 16 11. 280 53. 0. 3. 125. 4. i 10. .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 3.r* 4 70 . f y 8 + z* . />*. 27. 12. 9. 20. 70.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 5. 005. 6. 7. 5.2 45 a 8 /). 3. 32. . 35. \ w 4 . 7. 35. 14.8.384. 9. 3. 45 Page 257.0. 1. 8. G. 343. 3.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 13. 6. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 4. . 2. vy. 5. 5.  20 flW. 6. 10. 495.504.4.r 4. 327. 2.6.419. 10. 6. 20. .^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 1000 aW.192. 1 7 4. 120 aW. 4. 8.3 ays. . 2. 5. &' 14.v Page 253. 17. Y11. 5. 0.x' 10 . 4 0. 2i* 7f. Page 258. 125. 53. 11.  101. 7 x4 17. 16.870 m*n*. Page 252. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). '23. 11. 10 14. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 10.700. 0. 2. y ^ 5  ^\ ).r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. c.  17. 12. 2. 4. 8. 04. Jj? 45. 2. 2. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 15. 0. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. . . 28. 1. 12. 18. Page 259. 11.210.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 220 . 8. <. 8. .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. J 2 //2 25. 1. 3. 16. 5. 1JH. x + Vy. (). 1. 23.4 &z x>&. 13. 3. 16. 4. 8. 4. 19. 8 1. 22. 5. 4. 8J.2 9. 1. 6. 25. 16. 1. 910. 343. 1. 2.
/> 4 83. 35.7. . 8 . 72. 63.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. . t 81. 107. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 28. as 20. 243x4729. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.c. a' 111.a.4. !! 71. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . I 57.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. (a + ft)" 98. . 96. 4. .  e +/.a 2 x 2a . 12 x. 36. x } 4. x2 a2 1 . 4 ! . 70.a6 2 4. x 8  a8 . a J . x 4. .4 x 2 .4 x y 87. .x24 73. df. 86. 4 .4.ac 44 aft.105. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 38.x 2 4. 2 . 22.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .a" xy 2 2/' 3 .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 10 4. 14 x . a 4 .5. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 4 115. 5 42.2 x 4.x4 + y'2 z 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 37. 23. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.41. x . .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.a' 'ft 4. 1 x 45. 21. Page 263. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 9 2w 128.. a 3m 4. 12 a/. x' 79. 6a6c.1.ft). ?/ . 39.7 x   15. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 3 a 5 a 5. 31. + 3 a?. xyxzyz. 88. 3~ n 4. .4 ac.  .18 x?/0. 3 a .x 51. 2 .{ 54. . 3 a 44. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. .2 x^. 118.6 b. 16. 49. 32.5x4.4. 4.  3 x2 .15 4 62 x  72. 50. 105. 16t/. 2 2/' . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. Page 260.^a .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 6 c 47. 40. . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 4 69. 99.1w 77. 80. ft n . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . x* . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. .1. . 131. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 2 113. 43. 2 30 . c3 4 58.3 103. 8x3 8x.9 b. 61. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.4 2 4 c2 42 . .3 a'ft. ft2ft 4 4l. 127. x8 x2 55. . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.4 x?/2 3 4. . x2 2 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . x 3 4.c. 4 Page 264. 124. az 4. 3 c .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.5 b + c . 114. 93. 4 fee 4.1 4 jry 4 x .fee 2 4. m " + n + P3c . 13 + 2 s.5 3n 4. 122. +^ + ft W. 25. 102. &p 84. 82.y*. 110. 2 q.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. ?/ 3. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 104. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .2 c . 2 . 10 a 12 b. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().xxviii ANSWERS 19. x2 471x4.2.2. a2 2 aft 2 2. 52.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4ft y3.3 b . 62. y 4 z* 0. 0. 27. 1 . 66. 5 4 4. 30. x 2 . 4 2 . 2 x2 108. ^ . + z. . 5x 2 2x43. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. .  12 a. a* a 8 a aftc. 29. 0. . 94. a~b 89. 4 65.2. 26.4. . 132.1.a*ft 2 126.1. () 2 x 33. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 4. + a 4. 2 53. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.x. ?> . 1 + 4 xy. .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 24.6 am b\ 129. 2 a.  4 a3 85.c 3 4. a* 4.3 aftc.9 x . 133. * 60. 0. 6 a2 97. 2 x2 4. 3a~2c. 100. 76. 2 x'V2 90. 120. . f5+7.3 a 2 '6 w 4.  + 3 x2 . 1 121.3 . ft /> 78. _55_7c 48. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 125. 9x. . 64. 3a'2 Page 261. 91. . 130.rty x2 4 123. x 3 41.18 ?/ 5x4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.a'2 c. 3 36 b c . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.3 y. 109. a4 x. x' . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x 8 + x 4 68. 46. 5x + 2y~z.3 x 2 + 3 x . x4 f + 23 . 7 + 3 xf 2. 1 a"* 4 an . 4 15 x 5 .
184. 1. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).2ac + 229. y. (x 227. 20. a(a. 19. 30 yr. (xyX^+y" )1 243. C3 y _l)(. 37 1. 6.4xl).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (. Iff 145. Page 267. 166. 232. 3. (ab + 8) ( 7).3) (2/3y). 167. 168. 10. 175. (c) 160 C. ( + 2y)(2x3y).I2y). (7 c 2 ). 178.2. 144. 226. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 207. 179. 189. m. 214. (y_24)(y5). 1.y2 ). 150. (7x2//) 203. yr.2).2) (3 x .3. 2. 2^. (y7)(y + 188.r . 241. 208. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). + 3) (x f f>) . 75.l)(x8 + x2 . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 160.y)(z . 10). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.. 2 (4 x . 5. 48 h. 143. (3x  . 2. 247. 157. aft. 235.y)(jc + 7 y). 149. 210.1(5) 200.1). (x  42 yr. 147 mi. 3(x . 2 xy(3 x .9)(xf 2). 1. 185. 142. 136. 23 18. 148./_4). 147.r + 4). 6). 233. (a 2 + 2a6. 32 h. 12 yr. 156. k.6 . (a& 192. 162. (x + 2)(x . 4. 211. 201. . (y 7f))(y 196. 205. 6. a 2 (15.2 )(x+y) 228. 238. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. + 2) + 9a. (x + 6)(x6). 182. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 158. 1.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 8 204. 10). 15  a.6) (2 x + 1). ft. 18. 12) (j. (y  17)(y + (>). 170. 12. 239. 1. 4. 206. (r7y)(ai. 2. 197.3 y). a. 1. y  y 165. 10 in. (x^ + x1) 234. 212. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. a + 2x2 ). 164. (2a + l)(a . 12 yr. + y. 36ft. . ( jc // a 2 (a1). HI.y + 3)(r (. 218.l)(y + 1). 220. 155. 2. 169. fc'2a+62c). 146. p. 173. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (r^x + 1). (x . xxix 139. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. + 7)(rt4). 159. 140.. 2(x8)(x3). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (8x + 3)(3x4). 231. (?/+l)(yl). . (233). 21. 218. (y _ ft)(y 4. . 7. 230.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 209. 24. + 11) (a 10). 183.3 y)(a . 2. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 151. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 137. 176. 216. 193. y3.y). 20.1). Page 265. + 3). (6) 40. 1. 12 6 panes. 222. 219.m)(x + a).c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). G7. 10 ft. 22. . 15.ANSWEKti 135. (a} 59. 186. 191. 153.. 171. 187. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 199.1). 244. Page 266. Or (a + 2)0el). 180. .l)(a 2 +3). 8(ar}(/)27). (JT y 225. r>x 2 (4x. 202. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl)..3). (2 198. 30 + xyr. 236.  1. 177. 174. (/ 246. 240. y 245. 30. 215. 3. 181. +)(x2 x^+2. 40 yr. 2 2 (a. 12. 237. ?. 224. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . p.6)(4 + 6). 1. x(x + 6) 213. 163. 195. 161. 172.2). as 194. 217. 138. . 50. 15. 190. 154.y) (\r3y). 152. (5 x . + 22). (3x2?/)(2. z(x10)(xl). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).
303. 310. 258. x .  7.4). 305. 10. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .(x  4) (x4 304. *>). 306. x 283. 0. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 256. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 264. o. 3). 7^T 2 . 250. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .  3xyf x// 257. + f. a~ ' b*)..^ ^^. 259. x 267.4) 1) (3 x . 254. 295. 269. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 307.^^^^^^^^. 263. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 298. 279. 5. 43 '^rJ'. 3). o(x4l). 2. ^/>J. 2 x  3. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. ?^ZLiZ 308. *. 268. 251. 7. 7 x 265. 249. Ca&c 1)(M 253. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .   . 301.1. x12. > 4. ^ 299. 261.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 260. (7 255. x ?/ z 1.2* i^^ !^. 2 4 300. 0. ? 1) 302. 4 5. &). 266. 3  262. a. 3.
3. ab. ?=. j 328.!. 4. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. ^_:r f> 331. 1. 385. _*L'L+. 4 rw. 12. y 4 I 340. 329. 6a. 408. 1. 2 ). T+^. 382. 333. T\. 11.". + 4 & 4 \ b. 392.1. 366. 3.. 0. 365. 355. 389. 387. 407. . 377. ?/ + 3 332. 406. 2.XXXI Page 272. . 0. 364.(5 a . " 4 378.vin a /r " 337. l'j.. 390. 7.J . 343 00 351.3. <L 409. 395. 9^. 0.  1 356. 325. 2 ?/ 363. . 401. 1 i 2 ^. 399. 7/i ^ _ . 4. + x 362. 1. 2 327. 2 r36 384. + 335. 6 ?/+:>. 2(q. a) A^_.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 4 A. 1. a + b + 6). 388. 405. ^"" 4 s . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 0. 380. S. 376. 396. 383. 361. 20. Page 274. 2(a i 403. a 2 . .)Cr4)__ . 2. 1. 404. 324. ?>*. 13 391. 393. c 402. 379. 3. m. . 397. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 386. 339.  1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 2 ab  a Page 276.7. * 357. L . . Page 277. 360. 398. If. x 54 359. 336. l . 394. a +6. A^L5L. 400. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 370. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 334. ^ 3 // . (a + b + c\ . f. 375. 326.
3. 28 yr. (a) 1.  1. i a b 451. . . . . 487. 84. 33. m 1 : wi. 5.}. 466. Page 280. 2 438.te + . 21. 440. .7. <L+ 6 (. 18. 0. . 10.  2. 448. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0.  2.489. 4. ft 5. 493.. 482. ISJini.. 492.4.m  m+ M in.  7. 3. 6. 6. 501. 468. .  10.12. 3a 4 5. 429. 483. 436. . 478. 454. 494. 10$. 479. A 5 mi . 32 yr. $2000 at 0%. 463. 490. 465. 2. . 447. 467. 2.. 432. 7 : . (d) true. 22. 428. 32. 0. . + () 433. i. 413. 5. a* 424. & 491.7. 9. B 4 mi. 425. 6. a + + ft c. 419. 457. 2. .2. I. 4. 508. 24 days. (&) true. 1 a /?$+&?. .7. b 449.7. Page283. 444. 458. 7. .488.rz Page 279. ^r?i 434. 50. 4. L2 a  6 . 17. 8.  f>.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.. L (c) I. 10.  7. 20.2. 1.  453. . 6.3. (a  c). 0. 441. 496.5. !L=4. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 5. 40. 420. 497. 2 a 2. 499. 445. 2. A $ 3500. (c) not true. 3. 0. 7. 10.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 5. 6.vz in. 2.4. 421. \ 1. 430. 1. 20 yr. z8 +?/ 3 431. 484. 3 . 2. 51. 42. 507. 1.46. . . 459. 1. 1$. 485. : />a. \. 10. 506. 461. 486. 464. 7. 500. 90. 12. m. 439. 462. 1. c 6fc 10. 10.  2f 504. 477. not true..55.. 7. 2. 423. 11. . 411. 426. 40 oz. (&) 443. Page 281. 2. 427. 53 yr. B $ 2500. 8. . 476. 460. Page 278. 410. 452.7. 503. 455. fc. 2. 481. 8. * . 2. 0. 495.1. 7. 450. 14 miles. a 22 . ' $260 at 0%. 456. 3. '. fj.  1. 502. 6. 2$. 5J. 442. 0.0. 6.  . 412.  505. 446. Page 282. 422. 435. 63. ISjmi. 8. 418. />c c(f be. 4. 10.}. (d  6) f. 5. 5. 498.  2. c. 10. ^. 472. .0. 480. 17. ^V. *+. 0.
x8 . 5. 4. 514.53. imag.7.75.4. 1. 518. 536.52. 3. .37. 576.f 1.12.8.  J(a f + 2c). . (c) 4.6. 1 600.33. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.15. . Page 287. Roots imaginary. <z ft 1.6. y 4. .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. (gr) 10 1. H. (c) 3.3.10.r8 596. _ 4. 559.1. o> . 1. 232. . 591. 2. (a) 74 Ib. 3. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  1. 3. or 8.02. 6. 3.25m. 525.31.03.20. + 6 tf f 3 . (6) 3. 2 10. 571.9. 532.24. . 4 mi.62.7.6 2. 40 Ib.78.51. 509.38. 526. 558. 2 . 1. 6435.  . a+ Page 286.88.  557.37.5. . 554. 527. 2.. (e) 570. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.56 sec. 513.7. 8 mi.3. 1. 2 .15.54. 3. 1. 2(4 602. per hr.  7. 1. 599.73.5. 560. (ft) 4.8 x3^. 21*_. 510. 1.1. g(rc+ 6c). lead. 4.02. 562. 581. 3.0.3. 4 0. .5. 5. f.62. 3f 4f.  (a) 2. 3. 579. 564. 582. 3.% rr\* 585. 2(6 597. 529. 550. > ^ . 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. y% Z * 586. 1.8. da. .02. 1. 6. . 4. + 12 x . Page 288.6. . 569. 568. 593.4.5. 4. 1. 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 574. _ 3.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 1 . 3. a*8a + 24tf 82a.5. 2 imag.8.35.ANSWERS Page 284.54.1. 1. 5.16..10.  (a) (d) 1. 573.3.31.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 565. per hour.3. 24. f36a28x8 592. xxxin 511. 4.2.5+. (/)  10 to 8.4.  4. 575. (i) 3.04.  ft*. 598. 7. 553. 4. 563.05. 1.xj/ f xV . 2. 528. tin. . . ft 584. lead. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 1.55.3.  3. 3 . . 561. 603. 4.4. 515. 2$.24. .4 x + . _^ 2754x . 567.. 3. 1.14. . 1. 1 580. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).5 f. 1J. 27 y* f\4 . 3. 4. 2. . tin.4. . 1. (ft) Ill Ib.. 2. 512. f ? a f ft __ + c C).6.1. 556. 1. 1. 1. 578. a + ft  a  f c. 3. f. 3.04.3. ^ ft 4. 531. . 7^ da. 516. 0. 552. T .24 sec.  2ft da. If 572. 1. 2.0. 8. 583. 31. 24 da.  2.. S82 c. 1 . 2. 2 1.  + + c.8.78.83.4. 566. . 2 2. . 551. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1$.00.25.3.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 0000. a f ft + c. (6) .83. (e) (c) 2. 2. (d) 537. 2 1. . . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.   (h) 8. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.1.  imag._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.15. 5. 4. . 577. 533.30. 115 Ib.0.02.03. . 1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . Page 285. 1. J7] min. + 26 + .0. 3 da.21. 2. 14. 4* da.75. 555. . 530.1.
b . 5 3. fe + a. 14.  6. If .2f Page 290. 0.b.0.. 630.303. . 1.a~ {Z 663. 625. b. 637. 4 V 0. 617.  4. 632. . 703. n^l +^.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2.203. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. i. 696.04. a ' 2 + . 1 704. 2. a 1J. 898. 4. 5. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 7. 646. 672. \+ab 699. 2. z  1. 656. 4330 da. 708. 654. a 2. ab 689. V7. 633. 621. 3 a. 11. a 4.>A 610.3. o. 669.y. Page 289. 703. If f 667. 2. 642. 690. 666. c. 1. If 658. 683. l/'3. 677 680. 0. 2. 8 f 3. 8 6 fo . 10. be ac \. 009.14 If 1. 50. . .  2f r 659. 679. 651. ab. . 618. . 624.  3. 701. 2 x 44 ^/. ft). 631.049. b 664. 4. 616. 644. 0. 3 x2 . 1010.  684. 4 676. 1. ^. 971. If b. 4. 1 ~a .25. 629. 2. K 5 2 V2. 1.001. 657. ' fe 2 ). 1 V5 1. a. y  619. 2 a  6*. 636. 645. 2092. 670. . 706. 7003. 620. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 4$. 3. a 673. ix 2 .702. 2. 678< 682. 2. / V^+lO^M"^. + ~^'2 + a 1. 607. 2 / 2 4.  . 25. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. . 210. J^^. ' 674. 7. 698. a + b. la6 2.c ) 697. 4. 6. 2. 8. If. 634. V2. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 25. .XX XIV 606. ^^ 695. 6. 691. 2 a: 4. . 643.. 661. 626.b 686.2f (5 4. ^. 11. 0.  4. 1 2. . 2 ab + a  &. 647. 638.3.001. 13. 649. 702. 640. /> 4. 641. 78. 3.43^4. 660.  1. 6 685. 2f. 12. V^~3). 662. 2 a 688. fta a/> ^A.002. 2&). 700. . . (*_ + a: 611. 0. 2f. <T! . 9*.3. 1m*. 608.3f l 668.  ft.  a2  a (ab). 655. 623. If 665. 612. 1$ 639. if 4/> 671. ^ 1.f 3 V^3). (a3&45rj. 0. . V2. 652. 635. 3. 9. 613. I}'/. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 5. 622. 614. 3 681. 650.3. 653. 615. 705. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 5. 648.  13. 5. \. V"^TJ. 627. 5002. 628. 692.
24V2. y  1. 738. v'll. 4 104 v/2. 767. VV> L4V34. 1. 342V3. . 7  3V5.9. a".r+y> 759. cr*lr*. Hi a. 24. . 3 VlT 795. . 796. 25. 721.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. "V313. 13ft. i^. 773. 3V52V3. 00.r. 15 shares.. 788. a db Va^T < 45da. 3. 39. a 2 6^. 750.9. 1. 715.V/^ 741. 713. 3^. 776. iv/Jj. 723.. 724..ANSWMHti Page 292. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 2 V2 . ^7xy. 756. a 5 . 8. 1 747. 718. 1 I . j 742. 727. 5. 47. a:* . x i f^' . 740. 737. ^ ?>. 733. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 30\/10 764. 729. 730. 1 [ + '> J. i 2. . 763. 777.. 3V72V3. v/7 / .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 758.8. . 17ft. 709. 768. 8. Page 294. 736. 32>/2. r. 751.4 . 769. 755.~ . 722. ^ . 711. J(v'lO2V 791. 725. 2x3^ a. VIO\/3. 793. 1. 778.2.10. 731. fyaw&cu. VT14V5. 300. 712.11. 34. 3V7.^ 743.12 af V^ 4 744. 792.^.rJ w L 754. 794.257. rt3 2 ^i^. 33^2. 29\/3. 3 720. 782 785. a 2  x2 . + 6 2 tf'c. 728.1 . 3V72VO. 732. + < 735. 726. 1 752. 734. 5. 24 4 . 790 2v 3v 2. 714. Page 293. T%. 2\/53V2. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 716. 719. x\y. 739. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 1^ _ 760. 749. 753. mn. > 748. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 59. / 787. 710. 789.V2.4 . 717. 746.
^VG. 17.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 8.l)(x .r4). 897. 4. 836. 4 . 25. x ./>") (a'. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. m = 2. 808. (x 2 .7)(4 x. V 3. 833. 2 m . 867. 5.  1. (2 a . 859.f. **. 2  2. J V. 8 09. 812. 3.3. (2x (r. 5.+ m f ") (a* ). Page 296. o. 817.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2. 6+V7. 890. . 3. 3. 887. 820. x. o 828. ( 4 4. 863. jV3 f 3. . 826. 2 *x 807. 2 . 882. (x 2 f r . 1. 4. +j!>. $. $. (x 845. \/2. H. 8.. Page 297. a(ft)( 873. 5).l)(x . 2/ 856. 2 806. 842. 13. f. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 0. 847. a 42)(x . 23. Va. 814. 880.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 11. (xl)(^~3)(. 884. a2 ^E*!. (a 1) (x 4. 4. 0. 1. (x . 3. 2. a* 4. 858.5) (x + * 853. 3. b' 2 821. 832. 801. 4. 1.  + l(l^). 872. 894. ^ V}. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 2.7). 840. . 822. 4.2 ax 4.10 ab 4. (2 4. 837. (4 c 4.y) 852. 4 818. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .  ' . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . ^. 1 1. 834. 6.25 ?>2). 843. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). Hoots . . 838. m 875. (x 4. 831. 799. 2. a(ry + 864.r .1) (a 8 .3. 823. 827. 48. 811. 879.7). 2. 810. n =  29. 892. 5. . 11. 824. 881. 851. Va 803.2w .. 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .a 3 " 4. 5.om 441) (a 855. \/5. 816. 848.1)(V 2 . 800.l)(x + 3)(2x43). (:r 11.7 4 1) 846. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.l)(x + 2). 876. 2 . ANSWERS 798. 4. (x . (x*y*ryz + z*).2) (x 4 2). (a m . 7. 0.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 900. 3. 888.. 7. (x3). 5. 1. 3. 813. 2 . 883. . . 849. 17.1). 3. 2 854. . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). ( 869. 4. 857. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). ) (a' 874. . (a 4 871. (2 x + 3 y} . 898. 825.1) . 7. 4. 4 885. 4. 868.a 2 2 ). 841. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 893. (1 . 804. 6 $. ((' 1). 896. (. are extraneous. 2. 2. 19.3)(x + 4). 1. 829.1. 819. + d)*.4) 860. . (  ?>) (a + ^> . 2 (x 4*4.5 b) 4 1). 14. (x + 0X024.7. 6.  tt 815. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 7. . 2. 4. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 1C. 3. 2 2 . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).rae) (4 . 2. X4 1). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 10. 20). 1 . 886. Hoots are extraneous. 2 j 889.4. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.XXXVI 797.0. (3 b . 2. 835. 891.1)(0 865. (3 862. 6. .  839. 0. 3 . 899. 830.4. db 7. . 861.a 4 + 1). 3. 844. 895.
ft. 4. ft. 2. 937. 942. . 1 . 6 1 1. 2 w 914. 962. 1 _2 . 906. i>. 11. 6. 921. Page 301.2. J. . 15 946. 66 924. 9 in. f ft 4 . 8.651. 0. 5 . 4. 4. 248. 333.. 948. 0. 2. ft. %* . 333.1. 8. 15 16 ft. 12 in. 1 1. 12 mi.2. i 3. 115.. 927. 925. 4. 28. 0.744. v/(ai !)(&910. 3 . 959. 2. 918. 280.. 912. 903. 5. 4.1. 28. Page 300. 977.709. 80.1 = 9. 11.. Z ^. ft. 933. 935. 8 . 7.  1 . 111. . 986.. V5 T 2 . 902. . 8. 5. 329. 12. ft.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 964. 947. 6. . 909. 917.. yd. w.V~~3). tt2 19.. dL 4.  26j. . 4 6 mi. V5 fj. 2. 2. . . a. 7. 5. 3). 2. 4. 945. 5. 2.111. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 4. 941.073. 905. 108. 0. S07.446.I. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 4. ft. 3. 4 . . V^3). . 919. Page 302. 7. 982. '3 3 in. w 3. =F J. i1" 913. 73. 980.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 40 16 in. . 904. i(6 in. f. . 2 i ' a V. 961.760 sq. . 957. 1). 987. 956. 100 rows. 11. 952. . 10.0. a + . ^y. 60 949.. Page 303. 14 . 920. 1 + V953.. 56. 6. ft. 983. J(_ ft. 6 da./hr.01. 985. 2. 3. 1 2. 908. 916. 1. 4 in. 6 .  1. 18. 8. 943.. 960. 930. 11. 20 19 ft. 6 a 915.. J. 496. 1. 7 ft. 3. 8. 7. 10. 6. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 2. 958. 981. 6. 954. 944. 12. 950.615. 8. 911. 923. 480 8 sq. i 8. . T 6. 963. 955. 940. 939. . ft. ?/i 6. 951. . 6. 4. 8.. 1. T3. 2 ft. 12.. 931. 934. 5. 3. $(l 4. 6. . 938. Y. 7 or 30. 2 1.. 922. 8128. 3 4 . 978. 979. 2. . 8. 3. . T 6. r ft ' < Page 299. 932. 936. 3. 5l4f. 2 yd. 4. Va926. 28. 3. 984..
0. 4 and 1020. 1012. 12.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 9 da. 993.18. 1016.192rt?)r 120 *. 991. 2(2 v/2). 0. Page 304. 1019. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1 1004.  5&7 1021. 192. 24. 120 i^l^.378 1015.. 1005. 1001. + v 2). 1014. 1000.'^^ } ( . . 988. () 12(2+V3). . Page 305.128 I. (6) 8(1 . 1(5.870 z8 . 992.378 <W and 92. 1013. in. 162. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (J. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . r = 2. 108. 1 8 8 2.92. 997. 1017. 1007.. 990. 120 a. 995. ~ \. 1010. ^Trsq. 6 70 . 32 13 (tx 4V3. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (Z>) 999. + 448 . 4. 1009. 8. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 2 . ^f (2f3V2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . X.51.870 a 6 1011. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1018. . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 994. 996. 1006. 72. 1008. 12. 48. 3003.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1003. (5.
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1. The more important subjects tions. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. given.25 lamo. than by the . $1. Ph. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. physics. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.D. A examples are taken from geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. great many work. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. xiv+563 pages. i2mo. etc. so that the Logarithms. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. comparatively few methods are heretofore. xi 4 373 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. HEW TOSS .10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. and commercial life.
and commercial life. xi f 373 pages. Half leather.D. HatF leather. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. HEW YOKE . xiv+56a pages. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. In Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. physics. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. so that the tions. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Logarithms. Ph.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 12010. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. comparatively few methods are given. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. great many A examples are taken from geometry. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.25 i2mo. $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The author grade. etc. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
wor. 10. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. aoo pages. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 9. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Half leather. iamo. 4. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. i2mo.. xii + 233 pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. State: . SEVENOAK. These are introduced from the beginning 3.D.r and. Cloth. under the heading Remarks".10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. .10 L. izmo. 6. lines. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 7 he . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. more than 1200 in number in 2. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Ph. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Attention is invited to the following important features I. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. $1. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Cloth. NEW YORK . $1. SCHULTZE.
and not from the information that it imparts. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 12mo. $1. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. 370 pages. of these theoretical views. . . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. .
which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Cloth. Topics. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. photographs. Maps. " This volume etc. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. An exhaustive system of marginal references. $1. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. and a full index are provided. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.
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