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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D.
August. January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. May. Mass. 1916. . Berwick & Smith Co. U. 1917. 1910. Reprinted 1913. 1910.COPYRIGHT. July. 1915.' February. September.A. Norwood.. 1911.S. J. 8. May. IQJS January. Cushlng Co. . . Published Set up and electrotyped. September. 1910 .
but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. manufactured for this purpose. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim." this book. owing has certain distinctive features. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. specially 2. chief : among These which are the following 1. etc. and conse ..PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Elementary Algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. however. Such a large number of methods.
two negative numbers. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. e. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. hence either book 4. may be used to supplement the other. are placed early in the course. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. as quadratic equations and graphs. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". Topics of practical importance. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. etc. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. Moreover. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. however.g. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .
By studying proportions during the first year's work. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and commercial are numerous. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters." Applications taken from geometry. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. viz. such examples. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. Moreover. physics.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. however. 1910. NEW YORK. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
.CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ...... SUBTRACTION... . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. Powers. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...... ...
114 . ...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type VI. Type II. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . . Type III. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type V. Type Polynomials. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . ... Type IV... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. * .. /^ . ...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .
1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Monomials 170 .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... ..... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
x 9. 3. find the numerical value of: Vff. 9. d 7. 2 . some number is . a polynomial of two terms. 4V3~6c. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). v'Ta. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. V2a. aVc^. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. V3 . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 27. [6c] 3 . (cfd) 4. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5.g. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. are trinomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. 13. 17. b = 3. A polynomial is an y. 5Vl6c. 0. 10. V36". e. 2. 8. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. c f d). c = 1. 6." EXERCISE If a 1. 11. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 26. 6. V^a6. 16. is 28. 15. 12. + c).10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 7 = 2. Val \fi?. 14. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. + 1]. as in arithmetic. \/c. since the parts are a . 4(a 6(6 + &). A binomial is 62 . or 9 Vx.
5 ax 50 a6cd. 4a6fVaV2^.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . Ex.390. .INTRODUCTION 29. 8. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5. x=^. 16. 6.9 aWc + f a b . find the numerical value of: 9.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . Ex. . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . multiplication. 5c +d 2 . subtraction. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 ). 2. 4. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. d=Q. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. (a (a f b) 7. 4 .. __ E. 5. a 2 6. 6. b = 3.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 14. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 10.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .2 + I126. 1. d = 0.g.30 = 270 . c=l. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 5=3.9. 3 4 . 3. 52 . c = 2. 3 2 If 1. 2. . i. 12. a=4. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. . EXERCISE 8*  .810 + 150 = . l 13.4 6^9 ad.19 = 6. + 26+3 c. * For additional examples see page 268. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.99. 3a + 56 a 2 . a2 11. Otherwise operations of addition.e. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.
then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 30. 35. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a a=3. 6. sible to state Ex. 24. 29. 33. : 6. 6 = 2. a = 4. 30. 26 of the exercise.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 6. 22. 6 = 4.6 . if : a = 2. 28. 6 = 3. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). Six 2 . geometry. 37. a = 2. 25. . 6 = 5. = 3. 6 = 5. 34.c) (a . a = 3. and other sciences. 6 = 7. physics. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. a = 3. a =3. 6=2. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 23. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 27. 6. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.6 f c) (6 a + c). a = 4. a =4. Read the expressions of Exs. 38. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 26. 6 = 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 1. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. a.
12. 2. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. d. c. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 14. (c) 4. i. and 15 feet. Find the height of the tree.16 1 = 84. (b) 5.16 centimeters per second. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 13. if v : a. then a 13. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.INTRODUCTION E. the area of the triangle equals feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. A train in 4 hours. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v .seconds. 4. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.g.e. and 5 feet. . By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.) Assuming g . 15 therefore feet. b. b 14. count the resistance of the atmosphere. and c 13 and 15 = = = . An electric car in 40 seconds. and 13 inches.
5.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. 2 inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. $ = 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.14 square meters. the area etc. ~ 7n cubic feet.). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. meters. (c) 5 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. . If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. square units (square inches. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.). is H 2 units of length (inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 5 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 10 feet. (c) 8000 miles. 32 F. the 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 4.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. This number cannot be expressed exactly. : 8000 miles. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (The number 3. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14d (square units).
or positive and negative numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. however. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.CHAPTER II ADDITION. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In algebra. SUBTRACTION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. .
5. 23. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. (17) 15 + (14). + 12. . The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. lf(2). the one third their sum. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. d = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. + (9). of: 20. '. 4 is 3 J. 10. 33. of 2. = 5. 5.3.16 32. 24. is 0. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 19. Thus. 6 6 = 3. 18. 2326. subtract their absolute values and . and the sum of the numbers divided by n. c = 4. 4.  0. c = = 5. 21. if : a a = 2. 22. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. (_ In Exs. 12. is 2. d = 5.
.7. and $4500 gain. and 3 a. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 30. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. = 23. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. sets of numbers: 13. 12. 5 and 12. 40. 39. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 37. 10. 6. = 22. or and . 41. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 7 yards.4. d= 3. }/ Add 2 a. ' Find the average of the following 34. . : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. $3000 gain. c = 0.13. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. ^ ' 37.3. 43. : 34. 4 F. 31.ADDITION. 10. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 38. 2. 74. 60. which are not similar.. 11 (Centigrade). 3 and 25.. 6. 35. 36. 29. and 3 a. 0. 7 a. AND PARENTHESES d = l.7. SUBTRACTION. . . and 3 yards. . 72. : 48. . 25. 10. affected by the same exponents. : and 1.5. ' 1? a 26. c=14. and 3 F. 34. 2. = 13. 3. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 33. & 28. 27. . 1. 42. 55. $500 loss. 6. 13.5. 32. are similar terms. 4. $7000 gain. and 8 F. 32. and 4. 7 a. $1000 loss. 09. . 66. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. \\ Add 2 a. & = 15.
11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . or a 6. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 10. Vm f. 12(af b) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 2 . + 6 af . 13. 12 2 wp2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 5l 3(af6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. : 2 a2.18 35. f 4 a2.13 rap 25 rap 2. 2(af &). ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 5Vm + w. . 12Vmfn. 7 rap2. 3a . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 14 . b a f ( 6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.ii. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 2 a&. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 5 a2 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 9(af6). Algebraic sum.
"Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. + / + 3 Va. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2/ : Add. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 1 27. 36.ADDITION. l^S 25. a a8 ZL **. 33. n x* 2 22. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 2 2 31. and to add each column. 21. + y. 2 7 1 26. 32. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 30. 35. SUBTRACTION. is . +m """ 20. without finding the value of each term 34. ra 19. 17. 6 23. c 2 ^24. 37.
o c and 4.41 = 3. .15 abc .g. x of x. 3a 2? . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 Thus.g. 4 = 7. f 110WS: 26 aft. to show any error. 5 . V3. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .15 6c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. s. 3.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .8 abc . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 46 4z 7 c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 7 4.3 s. 2c. = . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. the erroneous answer equal 7. 4 2. . of that letter.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 5. 2 . and 2 . 9 q 4. NOTE.20 c 5 ab 4. c = 1. therefore the answer is correct. and J 2 s.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 3 a f 4 1) 4. e. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 6=2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. to add 26 ab .c= 2.12 a& 4. a 4. 2 025.7 2 . ft any convenient and c. 2 Sum. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. .
.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. + a + 1.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 19. a2 2 14. . 4(a . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. . 8. ^2 1 e.12(a 4. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).15 5. 4 ajy 17.4 Va . e a4 /. 4 Vc. . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. . m 4 6.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.2n 2 2 3 rz . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . xy3xz + yz. 2 ?/. and . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. a 4 a . 56 w. 7ar + 3B 5.Ga 43x45.7m . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.1 a 4 1 0.12 6 ~5 a . . 2 a.1.10 Vc. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . . 16. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. SUBTRACTION. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. ?/ .a . and v 15. a2 a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.7v/if. 2 2 .4:xy xz 6yz. 11. 2 3(c f a). in 8 3 m n 4.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.5a^6 f 6) . and 1 4 a . 18/+6y + d.6. 16e + 17/90. 4 3 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . d and / 3 ? 12. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .a 4 a 4 1. a. 2 and 9m 48m 4.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .VS 4 2 Vc. and 12a 4 15& 20c . d. and and 13.a.12. and 5 Vb 18. 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.8 m 2m 12.and 6.(b + c) 1.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2 2 and . v/20.ADDITION. a 4 a . a) y ^/.a. 4 8 3 4 4 . + 50 + 62 . 2 ?ft ?/z. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.9(a + &) . . 3 2 2 3 9 . and 8 3 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . .
45a6 2 .22 21. and e + 6y . 1. . 13 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. is 2.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and 2 24.. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 1.11 xy + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 8 . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. If you diminish a person's debts.ra + m. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. T8a. s .3^* 2n 2 . f 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. a 6 2 c.9aj 2. . f number may be added 3. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. + n*.4 2tn* Sic 2 .m 4m ?/?/ d. 1/ . 12 xyz. 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 22. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . c 3 3 3 2 3 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. how 1. and 25. . + 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n .5< 3 2 s 4^4. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. The sum and ? 1. 6 f c 2 23. many negative units re main ? from 2. +d a. f 1. 1.
State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.g. the given number the subtrahend. To subtract.2. 3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. This gives by the same method. In subtraction. Therefore any example in subtraction different . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 41. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . SUBTRACTION. ( 6) ( = . Ex. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract to .ADDITION. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. the other number is required. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. and their algebraic sum is required. . from What 3. two numbers are given. 7. a. 1. Or in symbols. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 6 (3) = 8. +b 3. and the required number the difference. if x Ex. called the minvend. 2. NOTE. ab = x. In addition. 5 is 2. Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. From 5 subtract + 3.3.
3 r*5o.3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. If x = l = 2 t . Check.f 8 . Ex.5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .
51. From 2 a take a & j.c.7 a . of a 4. . +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 50. check the answer. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.6)f. 54. 57. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . tract 4 x 3. 55.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.2. From From x2 the sum sum 7. + a the 2 a. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 6 4 a.4 a^ 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.w>t. 45. c f d.a 2 j. 2. 43. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 44. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 52. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 47. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 48. 49. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.4 a*& + 6 a & . 53. and 3 7/ . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 41. From 6(af. 42. 2y 2 .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 56.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 58. 46.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.
Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 19. A is n years old. + 2. 9. of # 2 8.15. +a add the difference duce 13. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 20. 16.26 4. a 2y + z. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a + 6. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 2 m 21. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . + 6 + c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 6 17. subtract # + 1. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. a a + c. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 6.
II.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. changed.c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. one occurring within the other. the sign is understood.c.b c = a a & f f.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.a^6)]  } .2 b . I.ADDITION. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. SUBTRACTION.6 b f (.g.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. & f c. a+(bc) = a +b . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. Ex. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 46. . 45. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
(m a2 f. m f ft) a. [36+ (a 2c]. 18.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 5. 15. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.)]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).[271 47. 2 2a. 4. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. . a f (a a . In the following expression inclose the second and third. 19. 14. 271 + (814 . 8. + (2a 6 + c ).+ 6)f (a2 b). 2 2 2 a(. By removing parentheses.7i h jp) (m ?*.) 5 . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. : x + (2yz). 6) 2. may be inserted according to 43. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).y (60.1422) J ] . 6.(a + 6). Ex. 3 3 f 7. a (a + 26 c ). 21. find the numerical value of { 1422 .: Ex. 9. 13. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 3. 2. 17. ? 11. 16. Signs of aggregation 1. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a (a + 6).
of the cubes of m and n. y f 8 . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 12. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2mn + 2q3t. )X 6. 10. a\l> > c + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 9. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 5 a2 2. ' NOTE.1. 7. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. .2 tf . 5^2 _ r . 8. first. 3. m x 2 4. 13. and the subtrahend the second. z + d. terms 5. The square of the difference of a and b. 6 diminished . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The sum^)f m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. m and n. II. The difference of a and 6. 7. 6.ADDITION. The product The product m and n.7fa. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 4. 3. 5.4 y* . p + q + rs. SUBTRACTION. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 2. difference of the cubes of n and m.
The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 16. 18.) . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. 6. d. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.30 14. b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weights. If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. let us consider the and JB. 2. force is produced therefore. If the two loads what What. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. 3. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 5. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . two loads balance.
4)(4) = + 12. 5x(4). 9 9. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. To take a number 7 times. (5)X4. such as given in the preceding exercise. or plied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 9 x ( 11). x 11. becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Thus. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4 multi44444 12. 4x(3)=12. however. (. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Practical examples^ it however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.32 8.9) x 11. NOTE.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4 multiplied by 3. 48. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. thus. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. the multiplier is a negative number. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( (. .
Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. _2. . 32. 12. +5. and y = 4. 2a 2 6c. is 6x7.a)( =+ a&. 4 a2 .MULTIPLICATION 50. 30. of Signs: TJie positive. 22. find the numeri values of: 21. c = 25. 4 . 16. 4. 5.2. 6. 11. 29. 3.3) (1) 7 2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 15. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. Law Thus. 17. 3. 13. . 2.4. 3 aW. (7) X (12). . X(5). (c#) . (4)X(15). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. . (2) 8 (. 26. Ua b 28. 23. 5x3. NOTE. _2^ 3. (.(4J). 6 2. 8. 10. 7. 1. 3 a2?/2 . z s 11 aWcx. x= 0. 8 31.7. 24. 8 4 . If a cal = 4a6c. 20.(a&c) 2 2 . 19. . (2)x9. 27. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 9.3. (4)'.2 f+x 2 .2f 18. 14. etc. _3. about fac (2)X If 6. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. b = 3. (10) 4 . 6. 1. 2a6 c . x. the parenthesis frequently omitted.
6 if 35. of the factors. & = 3. By 3 definition. 17. fl*" integers. 2(14. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 2 2 3 6 . 200. 16. 3. 36. 5 . a= 1. 12 U U . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .(7). 6 aWc x . 13. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 3 2 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 2 2 2 . =2 a *.2 2 23 + 5 .  2 2. 50(112. + 2/). 4. IB. 5 = 2. B. 3.e. or 2 . Ex. 6 = . 3 3 4 .(2. 10. 2 3 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.7. m*. This 52. . 4. a = 3. a8 a=2.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 5(711. a 2 2 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. . 1.257). . 34. 6. . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2. 7. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 6" 127 U . = 2. 11.(12) . 4.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 2(7.2).35). 78 . 2.. i.. 53. 5 3 5 3 2 .<?. 100. : 3a7abc.  and 2 25 8 . (a6) (a5) 9. 127  127 9 7 . a = 2.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .m a 3  4 . 6 = 1. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. . 9 . Ex.503). &*) c d*. 5.3). 14.
7pqt. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2. 27. 2(5fl5f25). 20. 19. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 3(124342). 7. but we shall assume it for any number.4a#. (. 28. 26. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 3. (. 25. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). /). .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 22. 2 32. 29. 11(3. 2(645410). 5.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 23.3 win ) . multiply each by the monomial. 23(10004100420). 24. 35 4 7(6. and then adding : 1. 34. . . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). ax /) 2 4 1 (. 7p*q r*. . If results ft. _4aft. . c(4a ftc ). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 6(10420430).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. by first multiplying.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.7 w'W (8 n^W). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 21. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.f 2). 4. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). ) 2 33.A). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 35. Thus we have in general a(b 56. .2 3 aft ). 17(10041042). called the distributive law. 12( + 1 4 i).6. 31. This principle. 6.
2 27. . 23. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 11. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.5 x 7). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . .2 mn(9 mV . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 7 a 6 c(. 3 ). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.^ c + 2 . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).6 a6).60 a& 10 aft. 29. 2 m(mhn \p). . Find the factors of 6 ary . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. By what 25.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 21.asa product. ~2mn(m +n p ). 22. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 2 2 16. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 28. 9. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.3 aftc). : expression must 24. 12. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.we b) (x law. 26. . 5). 19. 17. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 20. be multiplied to give 4o.5 w*V f 7 wn). 30. f7a.
M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.a . 59. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. 2a3b a66 2 a . .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. however. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since errors.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Multiply 2 a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 2 + a8 . Since all powers of 1 are 1. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. To multiply two polynomials. Check.1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .4. 2. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 b by a 5 b.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Ex. a2 + a8 + 3 . Multiply 2 + a a. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. the student should apply this test to every example.
7. 18. ^ 2 . . (a^26) . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 2. 40. 36. (ajf6y)(aj 23. . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 1).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 13. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 11. 9. (6a~7) 2 . 4 2). 24. 41. 36). 12. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 26. 8. (2 x* x 2 . (4a 2 33. OQ OO. 28. 3<7). (6i7n)(llJn). (13 A. 36) I) 14. 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 2 . 5.4) (x + 1). 6. 12)(a?^2l). 15. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (8r7*)(6r39.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 7y). l)(raf 2). 22. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 32. 30. (6p (2 f 21. 29. 3. I (mfn)(m4.2m)(l m).1 . 25. (2w 19. 10. 2) (3 A: 1). 20.2). 31. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).4) (mnp 4. 35. 4. 17. * For additional examples see page 261. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. QQ O7. 16. 2  37.
plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 11. (a 102 x 103. 21.25)(y+4). 8. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). + 3) (a 7). . (a 9) (a + 9). + 5) (1000 + 4). 7. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 10. plus the product of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . i. X 102. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (p12)(p + ll). 17. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.4). (J 23. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 28. _3)(a _4).!!)( (a + 21). 6. 14. 1) (10 + 2).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 20. 25 a 2 . in of the two unequal terms. 26. 25. 22.e. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. + 60)(f2). plus the product 62. 2 a? 29. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.n)(wf w). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. ft 16. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).e. 1005x1004. i. 2) (1000 + 3). : 23 2. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 13. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (6 12) (6 f. 24. . 18. (a3)(a + 2). 75 ab f 54 ft . 12. 3. . (10+ (1000 (2. 2 6) (a 3 6). (!)(* 5).13). + 2) (a f 3). (*. 15. 19.2 6) (a f 6). (a (a (a. 27. (ra. 9. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. + 9)(m+9). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8).
15. plus sum of two numbers the square II.e. 6. 32. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . plus twice the product of the first and the second. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . (x+3i/) 2 . and the second. + 6 a + 8. 33.30. 4. 7 a + 10. . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 2 (a (*5) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 34. (a2) (p a . 31. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. (a26) 2 . a2 2 w + 2 w . 37. 77ie square of the of the first.e. plus the square of the second. III. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. <J>7) J . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). second. + 3) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . 9. 8. 35. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. III. : 24 (a 2. 63. n2 10ii+16. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.66 s. 2 5. w 2 ro . Ex. 49 y*.e. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. p 2 p. i. of the second. 7. 3.15. i. .
34. 31. ( 27. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 15. . By actual multiplication. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .998 39. 998x1002. 44. 29. + 5). 2 J ). 99x101. . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 16aW25. 17. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . G> +5g)*. 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 7& ) 25. 52. 35. 47. 32. 41 16. a 2 8a6+166 2 . . 46. 42. (20 f 1) . (6afy 2 5) (a. (100 + 2) (100 2). 4 53. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 41. 24. 54. (1000 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (2x3yy. 25 a 9. 2 . 2 . 62 25n 2 . 14. The product of 57. + 5)(5+a). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 49. (^. . 51. 12. 21. 103 36. 48. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 18. 22 2 . I) 2 . 38.MULTIPLICATION 10. ). + 3z) 2 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 55. 45. 40. 11. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 9 a2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 22. (a 3) 2 2 2 . n*6n+9.ll^X^+lly (100 30. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. n 2 f4n+4. 2 2 . 33. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . m 2 16. 991 2 2 . 23. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 28. a2 9.30 ab + 25 6 64. 104 2 37.
14. plus the last terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 11. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 10. 4. 8. The square 2 (a 4. 9. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 6. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ((5a? (10 12. 65. (4s + y)(32y). ) (2 of a polynomial. (100 + 3)(100 + 4).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). or The student should note minus signs.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).& + c) = a + tf + c . (5a4)(4al). . 5. sum of the cross products. 7. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. : 25 2. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). (2a3)(a + 2). (3m + 2)(ml). 13. (5a64)(5a&3). 3.
(  2 4) =  20 a.3) (x . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). Ex. 4. = .29. 7. 66. 13.[a? .4) . 5. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. If x = 1.i2&c) 2 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4y sf n) 2 .(= [ Xa + 2 . 7. Check. Hence. 9. + 65) . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 12. 4(aj2)h3(7). 8.y? + 8 . Find the square root 11.r _ 2 . .X2 + 2 x . 3.5) = (7 . 4(* + 2)5(3). 6.4) .24 .3) . 6~2(a + 7).5). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .24] . 4.(m 2 6. (xy+z)*.8 x + 15] . after multiplying the factors of a term. 3.(>. 2)6.39. 8. + 6)( .(x . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.39. n). 2 2. a. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.1 5 = 10 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. and check the answers !. of z : 10. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (u4& + 3c'. 6(a 2.3)(z. 5. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). = 10 x . (a (.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(a? s 8) 4 *( 2). . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. a I.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18. 20. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).11 a + 9 a .DIVISION 14. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (81 m + 1 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.l. 19. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 16. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). Division of the difference of two squares. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .2) (3 a . 51 15. .e. . v/17.
36 a4 ?/ 4 . 10.49.0001. . 16 . f 13. aW 12 a. 1. 4 b.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16. : the following w a 4 !. r/ 1.000. 14. 100ry. 12. 121a a 16 100 11. . 9& 2 . 15.
. . is said to satisfy an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . 81.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. in the equation 2 x 0. x 20. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . the first member is 2 x + 4. =11. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 83. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 82. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80.
b. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. the products are equal. the quotients are equal. . 2. . the remainders are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the divisor equals zero. 5. 2 = 6#f7. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.54 84. If equals be added to equals. E. a. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. NOTE. To solve an equation to find its roots. 86. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A term may be transposed from its sign. the sums are equal. A 2 a. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.e. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 87. x I. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. If equals be multiplied by equals. 4. one member to another by changing x + a=. 3. Transposition of terms. but 4 does not equal 5. called axioms 1. 89.g. If equals be divided by equals. 90. A numerical equation is one in which all . 85. If equals be subtracted from equals.
Dividing both members by 2. The second member.2. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Dividing by Check.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. a? Adding 5 to each term. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 91. a= a 6fc. b Adding a to both + a. 4x 1 + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. and the known terms to the second. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 3 y . 6a5 = 185 = 13.2 y= f . The first member. 2 x = 6. To solve a simple equation.9 y + y2 = 22 . Transposing. . Unite similar terms. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Uniting. Hence the answer.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Ex. Uniting similar terms. b c. x = 93. Check. The first member.6 y f y\ . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. if a x = b. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 2(11 . f If y 20 .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . is correct. if 55 x members.8. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. (4y)(6. x = 3. x = (Axiom 3) 92.
14y = 59(24y + 21). a?. 7. 15. =2 = 3. a.56 Ex. . = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 21. 11 ?/ a? 18. {(x (x The The member right member left . = 7. 4a + 5 = 29. 16. + 7(3 + 1) =63. and check the answers 9. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 9 9a? = 7 13. it NOTE. 17 + 5a..7a: = 394a. a. If x = 18. 19. 8. + 16 = 16 + 17. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 7a? 5. Uniting. + 22. 7 (6 x 16). v23. x x 1 .69. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Transposing. 3 7 a. x = 18. 12. 3. a? a?. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 20. 4y 10. 22. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 13a? 3a?. 50. : 5# = 15+2a. 2. 14. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 17 7 a. . f Simplifying. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 3. 247y = 68lly.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 6. 4. 24. 3)= 9(3 7 a. J. = 2 ?/. = 5a?+18. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 32 = 264. \x x 2^xfl. aj * See page 264. 11. Solve the following equations by transposing.. etc. = 3.7.17 + 4y = 36.
(6 u =5 44. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. e. 6(6a. 27. 31.14 = 0. this question. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 29.1) (a (a? + 3) = . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 2 2 * Jaj.5) + 199. . 36. . (aj 37.3) . + 4).5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.5) = (a.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 42. 25.4) + 4 w .7) (7 x + 4) .2) (M .1) (u . .32. 33. 34. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 41. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 7) (a. find the other part. . (a. 7(7 x y 26. 39. a? 43. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 38. + 7) (. . is the other part. . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 5) (as (a.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.5(2 u . Evidently 45. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 30. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.7. .1 0) = 0. .3) + .3) + 14. or 70 a?.(2 + 6) (4 . .g.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 40. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.12) (2 + 5) .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 35. a? 28.
a. EXERCISE 1. Find the greater one. 33 2. If 7 2. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 7. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. so that one part The difference between is s. smaller one 16. 4. 15. is b. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 9. so that one part Divide a into two parts. one part equals is 10. Divide 100 into two 12. one yard will cost 100 dollars.58 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 6. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 3. Ex. is a? 2 is c?. 14. 10. x f y yards cost $ 100 . The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. is d. 13. 17. or 12 7. 11. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. and the smaller one parts. find the cost of one yard. greater one is g. so that of c ? is p. 1. 6. 5. Divide a into two parts.
rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. b dimes. 22. 33. A man had a dollars. A feet wide. Find 21. find the has ra dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. is A A is # years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. ?/ 31. How many cents has he ? 27. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. How many years A older than is B? old. and spent 5 cents. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 24. 26. 32. A dollars. amount each will then have. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B's age is y years. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. If B gave A 6 25. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B is y years old. and B has n dollars. Find 35. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 19. 28. sum If A's age is x years. 28. and c cents. numbers is x. 34. 20. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a.
m is the denominator. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.50. . How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. per Find 5 Find 6 45. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. . find the fraction. Find x % % of 1000. The first pipe x minutes. of m. Find a. a. The two digits of a number are x and y. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. 46. of 4. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. he walk each hour ? 39. Find a 47. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. Find the number. A cistern is filled 43. c a b =  9. 48. A was 20 years old. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. 49.
In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. etc. The excess of a over b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 6. 9. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 80. of x increased by 10 equals x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The double as 7. c. double of a is 10. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 4. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. by one third of b equals 100. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 2. 3. a exceeds b by c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 5. of a increased much 8. same result as 7 subtracted from . c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.
a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. B's age 20. A gains $20 and B loses $40. of 30 dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. they have equal of A's. 12. sum equals $20. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. . they have equal amounts. B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. >. is If A's age is 2 x. a second sum. (c) If each man gains $500. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a.62 10. pays to C $100. 16. 17. express in algebraic symbols : 700. In 10 years the sum of A's. 11. and C's ages will be 100. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C have respectively 2 a. x is 100 x% is of 700. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's. 3 1200 dollars. amounts. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. m is x % of n. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 18. x 4 If A. and C's age 4 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. a. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 6 % of m.. B's. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 14. #is5%of450.000. symbols B. as 17 is is above a. 50 is x % of 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.
1. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 2. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Find A's present age. etc. Transposing. Uniting. number of yards. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. denote the unknown 96. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. but 30 =3 x years. Check. the . Ex. Transposing. Let x = the number. 6 years ago he was 10 . be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 4 x = 80. In 15 years 10. . Simplifying. In order to solve them. the required . much as 40 exceeds the number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 15. x = 20. Uniting. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 23 =30. x+16 = 3(35). = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Dividing. be 30 . 3z40:r:40z. A will Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. x= 15. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. NOTE. Three times a certain no.
Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. exceeds the width of the bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. twice the number plus 7. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 3. 120. A number added number. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6.2. 300 56. Find 8. Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. % of 120.64 Ex. A will be three times as old as toda3r . How many miles per hour does it run ? . How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. by as much as 135 ft. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number. 14. EXERCISE 1. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 13. Forty years hence his present age. 4. Find the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 5. . Let x 3. Six years hence a 12 years ago.
Maine's population increased by 510. The problem consists of two statements I. 1. B How will loses $100. two verbal statements must be given.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.000. Find the population of Maine in 1800. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. x. the second one. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. Vermont's population increased by 180. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B will have lars has A now? 17. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and as 15. times as much as A. 97. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. which gives the value of 8. and B has $00. The other verbal statement. statements are given directly. During the following 90 years. The sum of the two numbers is 14. 65 A and B $200. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. Ex. One number exceeds the other one by II. How many dol A has A to $40. five If A gives B $200. written in algebraic symbols. If A gains A have three times as much 16. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. . F 8. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. 14. is the equation. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. A and B have equal amounts of money.000.
x x =14 8. = A's number of marbles. Uniting. consider that by the exchange Hence.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. A has three times as many marbles as B. and Let x = the Then x +. I. = B's number of marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. although in general the simpler one should be selected. B will have twice as many as A. A will lose. 25 marbles to B. the sum of the two numbers is 14. the smaller number. B will have twice as viz. Dividing. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. terms of the other. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 8 = 11. If A gives are : A If II. . to Use the simpler statement. Let x 14 I the smaller number. / . . 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = 14. unknown quantity in Then. . which leads ot Ex. + a f f 8 = 14. has three times as many marbles as B. The two statements I. 2x a? x j = 6. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Then. < Transposing. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x = 8. 2. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Statement x in = the larger number. A gives B 25 marbles. = 3. 8 the greater number. the greater number.
Let 11 = the number of dimes. then. x = 15. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. greater is . w'3. B's number of marbles. . cents. Check. Simplifying.240. 45 .5 x . but 40 = 2 x 20. x = the number of half dollars. 15 + 25 = 40. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. The number of coins II. 6 times the smaller. The value of the half : is 11. 50. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. and the Find the numbers. 2. of dollars to the number of cents. Dividing. A's number of marbles.. the number of half dollars. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. by 44. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x from I. Check. dollars and dimes is $3. is 70. . The sum of two numbers is 42.75.. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Find the numbers.550 f 310. Uniting. etc. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 3 x = 45.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.$3. * ' . 1. x = 6. (Statement II) Qx . Dividing. have a value of $3. 3. the price.10.10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Find the numbers. Two numbers the smaller. 11 x = 5.10. Uniting. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).25 = 20. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.. Eleven coins. * 98. 50 x Transposing. 60. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). the number of dimes. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Simplifying. 40 x .
and twice the altitude of Mt. one of which increased by 9. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum.. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Twice 14. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. as the larger one. Everest by 11. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. A's age is four times B's. 9. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 7. How many 14 years older than B. tnree times the smaller by 65. Two numbers The number differ by 39. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's.68 4. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 11. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number. On December 21. 6. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.000 feet. Find their ages. 5. United States. How many volcanoes are in the 8. How many hours does the day last ? . cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. McKinley. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance.
5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. number had. has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and 68. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. B. Let x II. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. are : C's The three statements A. original amount. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. 8(8 + 19) to C. III. has. ." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. = 48. If A and B each gave $5 to C. x = 8. 1. and C together have $80. then three times the money by I. If 4x = 24. II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. I. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. The third verbal statement produces the equation. they would have 3. B has three times as much as A. 19. B. and C together have $80. times as much as A. Ex. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and B has three as A. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. number of dollars A had. bers is denoted by x. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99.
number of horses. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. The total cost equals $1185. Let then. and the sum of the . 185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for cows. x j = the number of horses. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. number of cows. each cow $ 35. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and each sheep $ 15. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. the third five times the first. three statements are : IT. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x = 5. each horse costing $ 90. x Transposing. Uniting. according to III. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 1 1 Check. 9 5 = 4 . 90 may be written. and. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 28 2 (9 5). = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 2. number of cows. x f 4 = 9. according to II. 9 cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. number of sheep. + 8 90 x and. cows. The I. sheep. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 4 x f 8 = 28.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. Dividing. + 35 x 4. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. first. III. and Ex. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185.
and 2 more men than women. what are the three angles ? 10.000. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. first. v . twice the 6. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. 13. increased by three times the second side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. the second one is one inch longer than the first. New York delphia. and children together was 37. twice as old as B.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. what is the length of each? has 3. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and the sum of the first and third is 36. men. equals 49 inches. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. first.  4. what is the population of each city ? 8. the third 2. The gold. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. 9. A 12. women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. "Find three is 4. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.000.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). If twice The sum the third side. how many children were present ? x 11. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the copper. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . 7.
g. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. or time.000. Let x = number of hours A walks. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. how many 100. Dividing. we obtain 3 a. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 7 Uniting. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. A and B apart.000 more than that the copper. width. of arid the value of the iron was $300. = 5. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E.000.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. number of hours. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Hence Simplifying. . 3 and 4. such as length.e. Find the value of each. of 3 or 4 different kinds. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. speed. = 35. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. number of miles A x x walks. and distance. together. 8 x = 15. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. 14. First fill in all the numbers given directly. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. i. and quantities area. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. The copper had twice the value of the gold.
x . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. . the second 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. + 8.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify." gives (2. the area would be 100 square yards less. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.06 = $ 40. Multiplying. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. The an area 40 x 20 =800.05 x x . $ 800 = required sum. $ 1000 x .04 8. l.053.01 = = . Find the dimensions of the field. $ 800 = 800. Transposing and uniting. 70x10 Ex.M(x .04 = $ 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x . z = 20. and the width decreased by 10 yards. But 700 certain = 800 2. were increased by 30 yards. Check. or 700. x + 200). original field has Check. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 2 a = 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 10 x = 200. 2   and transpose.
sions of the field. A man bought 6 Ibs. but four men failed to pay their shares. After how many hours will B overtake A. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. 2. together bring $ 78 interest. What are the two sums 5. A sets out later two hours B . Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Six persons bought an automobile. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. of coffee for $ 1. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. the area would remain the same. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. were increased by 3 yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %. as a 4. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour.55. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Find the share of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A of each. 3. twice as large. Ten yards $ 42. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and its width decreased by 2 yards. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and a second sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. 1. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. invested at 5 %.
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and from the same point. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction.
6. as. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 104. it is composite. 5. we shall not. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. at this 6 2 . which multiplied together are considered factors. consider 105. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. stage of the work. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it does contain some indicated root of . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. 76 . if. this letter. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . An after simplifying. expression is rational with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a2 to 6. but fractional with respect 103. f db 6 to b. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . irrational. a. if it is integral to all letters contained in it.
it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.3 6a + 1). 2. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 2.62 can be &). for this result is a sum. it follows that a 2 . x. factors of 12 &V is are 3.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .g.FACTORING 106. 77 Factoring is into its factors. y. 01. 1.) Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 109.3 sy + 4 y8). Divide 6 a% . x. TYPE I. . or that a = 6) (a = a . .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Ex. 2.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 55. 107. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 + &)(a 2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. E. 110. Factor G ofy 2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . It (a. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. in the form 4) +3. ?/. 8) (s1).
In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 2 + q. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . q*q*q 2 a. obviously. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 15. 4 tfy f. a6c.12 cdx. 18. Ilro8 9. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 14.51 aW + 68 21.6. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 2 23. .2.3.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 20. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2 Or. . 34 a^c 8 . TYPE IT. in general. 12. 13. + llm llm.4.8 c a 15 ofyV .30 aty. 3 3 5 6. 19. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 3 2 .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 14a 4 5. 11. : 6 abx . 16. 8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. (as 3) and (ccf5). a a 'Ja . 2. 4 8 . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. e. 17.5 + 13 8.5 x*y 2 17 a? .5 + 2. 7a & 10. 32 a *?/ . 7i 13. 3x*6x*. ) 22  2. 4. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 3.3.4. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 5f 2 . 15 2 7. 2 2 .g.51 x4 2 6 xy s .45 afy . 2 6.
the two numbers have opposite signs. 11 7. tfa2  3.4 . We may consider 1.30 = (a .G) = .5) (a 6). the two numbers have both the same sign as p. If q is positive. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 2 6. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. determine whether In solving any factoring example.FACTORING Ex. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y )..6 = 20. 3.11 a 2 .11. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.1 1 a tf a 4. can be factored. as p. Ex.11 a + 30. m 5m + 6. Factor + 10 ax . 77 as the product of 1 77. . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. + 30 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. If q is negative. a 2 . Ex. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 4. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. of this type. . but of these only a: Hence 2 .11) (a + 7). Factor x? . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.a). or 77 l. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 2. and (a .4 x . however. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.5) (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x .77 = (a. Therefore Check. + 112. . or 7 11. 5. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Factor a2 .
6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . ra + 25ra + 100. . 11. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 4 3 2 . 29. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 9. TYPE 113. 31.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 ?/ 28. 14. + 4?/21. and 5 x. 16.70 x y . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 30. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . a2 . 2 2 . 4 2 . 21 a 2 2 . 20. 12.80 7. x2 23. 13. 15. 32. 21. 8. 25.6. + 44. 2 ?/ 5?/14.500 x + 600.48 + + 446 200. 2 2 a' 34. a? + 5 + 6 a. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. + 2xS. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. ay 11 ay +24. 19. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 18.17 + 30. 24. + 5<y 24. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 2 . 35. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 16. . 27. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 36. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 17. or .180 a. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. a 7 a 30. 100 xr . 33. ITT. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 ?/ 22. 30. 26. 2 . 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 .
and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 11 x 2x. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 2. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. .5) (2 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2 x 27. then the second terms of have opposite signs. X x 18. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. and r is negative. 3 x and x. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 6 x 9. If p is poxiliw.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Factor 3 x 2 . but the opposite sign.5 . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. viz. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.83 x f 54. 9 x 6. sible 13 x negative. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 18 x 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. or G 114. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.1). and that they must be negative. a. 27 x 2. the signs of the second terms are minus. Ex. 54 x 1. 3. the If p and r are positive. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. .
2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. . : 41 2.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 10. 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 14. 21. 2x* + 9x5. 2m t7w + 3. 2 . 144 x .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 2 2 2 . 2 fc . Sar' + SaG. 35. 13. since all others (II. 10 a . 11. . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 90 a 8 2 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 12^17^16. 9a.179. 2 . 5. 3x*Sx + 4. 29. 2 31. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 2 2 2 23.27). 2 ar* 2 i/ .163 x 2 . 22. 4a2 9tt + 2. . 8. 24. 17.2 a 90 x*y . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. f go. + 2/3. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 3. the expressions should be it. 5m 26m f 5. 6. 14 a fa 4. 10a?2 2 33. 16.83 x = (3 . 32.260 xy . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.7.2) (x . + 4.30 y 6 4 . 12. 2 28. 2 26. 9. 7. 19. 10a2 G a2 2 .83 x . 18. X 27 . 12y 2/6. 25.19 a f 6.300 ab 2 f4 250 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.y + 172/9. x54 a. 9 y + 32^16. and the monomial factors should be removed. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 20. 30. 34. 15. 3a + 13a. 4. 6n + 5?i4.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 100^200^ + 100^. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.
form are special cases of the preceding type. i. it is a perfect square. 9. 6.26 ab + 9 6 2 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 11. of its terms are perfect squares. . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. however. 14. 2 . 2 2 . 8. 5. 2 9 10gf25.10 x f 16. 12. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. and a perfect square. 10. 3.e. 9 10a625. . 2. 116. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 25 7. it is more convenient for that type. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. must have a positive sign.20 xy f 4 y\ . square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4. and factor whenever possible : 1. 13. x* . 16 y? The student should note that a term. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. To factor a trinomial which maining term. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.
V. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 18. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. . TYPE 117. 2 20. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 7. 4 2 23.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. ). .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 9. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . a.3 * ). 26. 149 a 81 8. 9a2 . 22. 19. + GO + 25. 36 2 4. 4a2 l.2 ofy + ofy m . Ex. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 2. product i.84 15. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). ).6 m* + 9 m. 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . prime. 3. 48 a +( ). 17.e. a2 24. 5. * 2 .60 a# + 4. 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 3. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2 . 16. According to 65. 29. 1. 16&*. 27. 2. 6 2 .64 6 = 16(a . ). aV . . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. +( )f816 30. 225 ofy . a. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 25.20 ab + 10 b a . 6. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. : 43 tfy\ a 9. ^//c to the Ex.
of polynomials. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 9. 6.(c 4. 13. 2. a:) 12. Ex.c . 16p 2 . 5. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a2 . 4. 14. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .(I) . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 8.FACTORING 85 118. Factor a 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .d) 2 . T. 2. 36> . One or both terms are squares 1. Ex. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 . (m7?) y.
5) . . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. Ex. 10. x8 . By grouping. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. a5 + ab 6 .14. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.a a . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 4:cx . 6. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 119. + x + 2x + 2.VI. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 3. 8.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.and trinomials. a? 11.y + 2 2). : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 7. 12. 4 B.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. . 2.1.2 ) (3 x .ab + bx.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. After grouping tain a the terms. ive find that the new terms con common factor. Ex. which may be factored according to types I. 1. = (3 x + y .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. a 26 2 2 3 . 5. 2. 9.r. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.7 c + 2c . A. ma ?*a + m& nb.
First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. . Arranging the terms. : 46 x* 2. 4 a2 .FACTORING Ex. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. + 2xy + y*q*. 2. 2a3/ 7. : m 2 2 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 8. II. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. . 2 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 5.4 f .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 36 9 m . $ a8 .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . = (a + 6)(a6). a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 3.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 2. w m 2. IV. 8. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.l. 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 6 6. 4.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8ra 2 + 16.
any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 13. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 24. 5a' 20.13 c . 3 2 .310 x . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .88 10. 14.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 5 a. 42 x . (^ 34. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 41. 3 25. 25 a + 25 aft . 48. a + a + a + l. a3 156.40. + 14. or 3 7#2 . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 27. 22. 2 17. 11. 13 c . 4 8 tt 2 z . a6 36. 32. . a. 80 a 2 ft 38. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 40. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 18. 3 a2 23. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 a 128. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 12. 29. 35. 50^ + 45. 4 a. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 28. + 6 aft + 3 . 30.156. 42 s 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 ft . (a. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 19.24.
. C. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 2 2 . The student should note H. F. 121. 3 . F. 54  32 . C.  23 3 . aW. F. C. 2. C. 25 W. 5 2 3 . 15 aW. 8 . The highest is common factor (IT. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. II 2 . 3. 5 7 34 2s . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. 5 s 7 2 5. F. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The H. 122. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of two or more monomials whose factors . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. are prime can be found by inspection. 5. of aW. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 24 s . F. The H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. Two common factor except unity The H. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. Thus the H. 13 aty 39 afyV. of : 48 4. F. of the algebraic expressions. 6. of 6 sfyz. EXERCISE Find the H. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 89 . F.) of two or more . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 12 tfifz.
75 a&X 15 bed 11 . and apply the method of the preceding article. 12 . aWd. 16 a .^9. 12.# 4 afy f 4 . . 3). 11. 9 aj*(a? . = x 2 y. 6 3 a. 3. Find the H. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 2 .12 as 66 . 4(m+l) 3 . a2 + 2a3. 8 a 10 . . 2 . of: .y) . 9. F. 4 ?io. 11.y) 123. 8(?/ifl) 14. a2 ar* 4. 8 6. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.6 . 12 w*nw 8. y + 3y64.5 + 6.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 2 . 14. a. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). ^707 + 12. C. 3^ 2 4 . 24 a 2 . 65 zfyV. ^a + 5^ + 6. 16.6. . 7. a2 + 7af!2. (a7 ?/) . . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 13. 25 m27i. 8.2 ?/) (x . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. ^2 2 . 10. ^f a. C.90 7. of + 4 if. To find the H.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 57 a>V. 6 mx .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . x* x2 Hence the H. 95 2/V. a 3a4. 6 a2 y? . 1. 52 oryz4. 2. 8.5 y). C. 2 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. F. F. 49 C. a2 . 12. 38 #y. 225 4a 9 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV.2 y) (a. 3 . 5.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 15.y + y42. 13. 0^80:416. F. 1. 10.5 x3?/ 2 6. a3 16 a. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.?/ . 9. . a3 9a. 6(m+l) (m+2). Ex. 2a f5af 2. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .8 a + 16. .6 a&. 15 3ao. of polynomials. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .
Find the L.C. L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 128. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. two lowest common multiples.M. The lowest common multiple (L. but opposite .6 3 ). 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 60 x^y' 2 . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. M.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M of the algebraic expressions. Ex. M. Common 125. of 3 aW. 127. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. Find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 2 The The L. each set of expressions has In example ft). L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Ex. &) 2 M. M. C. C. of tfy and xy*. C. . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . . =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. a^c8 3 . To find the L. thus. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. 2. ory is the L. 126.6)2.M.C. C. A common remainder. etc. NOTE. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. of the general. M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . which also signs. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 1. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. Hence the L. The L. M. C. 300 z 2 y. C.
9. ic 2 ?/. 24 x. 15. 8 afy. 2 a . ic 23. 2 a . a 2 fa6. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3 Z> . M. 6. 2 a. + 6.1.1. 20 9 a. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. #. 8 d 5 .f 6. 2 . 22. G a. 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y. Find the L. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 4 a f 2. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a. 17. of: 4. 3. a !. x2 + 4 a f 4. 14. 4 a . 24. 40 abJ. a2 4. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 11. 8. a^1. 7. y*. . 3 6 xif. . 3 f2. 2 x \2 y. a. 2 . a. x 2 5 a. a 2 a3 . b 2 . 3 ab. 4 a 5 6cd. 1. ) . 6 y. 2 10. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2(m 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 18. a { a~b. a 1. T a 3 a 2 . 6 a. x* ~5a. 30 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 16. a& 4 +& 2 . afy. 3 . a 2 f 4 a +4. 3(a + b). f b. 3. 6b 2 . + 2 7i) . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 7ic+10. a f 3. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . + 2. 13. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. by. 20. 21. or f 3 a 15 #. 2. (For additional examples see page 268. afc'cd 2 . a?b. xy\ . a2 ~ab 1. a f 2 19. 5.
the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. however. 130. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. an indicated quotient. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . as 8. etc.ry ^ by their H. but we In arithmetic. A f fraction is b. and denominators are considered. Ex.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Thus. a b = ma mb . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 131. F. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. rni Thus 132. C. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. successively all 2 j/' . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. a?. Remove tor. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms .
Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both. 3. cancel factors only. Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. .
23. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 11 ^ Mtr f . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ^+3*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9..*. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.' 32. ^' rt ^  31. ^" a. . 29. ny 4 18. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.7 . . 5^10 y 30. ' ^ .10 a + 3 2 14. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . """. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 16. 9x + "a" 10. LJZJ^JL. nx 17. g J 21. 19. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. .
and (a 8). TheL. of the denominators for the common denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex. we have M^. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. ^ to their lowest com The L. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.  of //* 2 . M. . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. =(z (x + 3)(z. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.D. 2> . and the terms of ***.C.M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Reduce ^. Divide the L.M. mon T denominator. 1).96 134.r 2 2 .~16 (a + 3) (x.3) (!)' = . by the denominator of each fraction. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. we have the quotients (x 1). and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. take the L. .  by 4 6' .1^22 ' .C.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . C. . 1. + 3). and 135. multiplying the terms of 22 .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.
2aj ~ . 8 i i. 5?. 7i 2 ab* ". If the given fractions have different denominators.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. common denominator 6.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .. . JL. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). i. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 3.. 2 ay IB.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 74). fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 2.^1. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. a? 1 5 > ^* . .oj o* or / . 18.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 137. . o o a. 22 a2 5a * . j y 3.
the student should remember that parentheses are . C.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.(a 2 6). (a ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. ^ is 2^JT) .3 . The L. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 ft 2). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .ft)(a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.7 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft) Ca2 .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.g.. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .ft) (a ft ft)~. as 4 aft f. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). in the beginning..98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).2 ' 2 _. 2. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . and adding. e.2 = a(a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . D. 2 ^. L. D. ft). T? Ex. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 4(2 a 3 ft).
+ a "" 2 6 ' . j>0 i> 21. 46 2a 4a 12. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. a 36 ++. 6 c 3a 7. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 23. A+2_3. + .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 2. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 18 v 19. 20. 24. 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 1 f w 16. 2L + 2a 1 17. 15. 1 f q * 1 m m . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.5 18 ^4f25.
LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ! n. 2 af1 32. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 42. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a 30. a 4 31.9 79 6 2 i. a ?^ 40. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ic 1 + 1. 41. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _ + a? ?/ + y. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 3a 9 +. 43. a. af 1f /j. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9. 1 34.
.  . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a.7 5a v Ex. 1.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 101 mixed expression. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. .6 + 4x 4 x2 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . T. Reduce .FRACTIONS 139. .
) Ex. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. or. we may extend any e. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Since  = a. F J Simplify . multiply the 142. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. fractions to integral numbers.g. !. (In order to cancel common factors. integer. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.
5# 56 / c& 4.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18. 50 . . 14.6 12 d6 4. 4 8.
. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. : a 41 ab * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . Divide Xn?/ . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 144. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
or both.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064.afr 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . are fractional. l.FRACTIONS 105 .5 ??i 80 50 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a a2 4.^c 2 2 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Ex.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . ga2 4 8 5 a .10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
i.y 32 . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.a ^c c _^ a . Ex. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. c +6. C. 6. y X 4* 2 y 3. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). n a 8. 2.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . of their denominators. the answer is directly obtained. 7i+~ 7. & . 9. 10. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. Simplify x }. . a m "" . JL. .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . x* 4. M.
2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. m^n* n L a 17.) .~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. : . 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18.
2.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 4 4)  x. . each member is reduced to 1. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 2z2a.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. M.28 a = 5 x2 . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Clearing of fractions. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).l)(z + 3) = . 2 3. = 6. If x 6. C. 108 . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Transposing. Uniting. Bx 12 Qx. If = 64.28 x + 42 = . 1. 2x Transposing. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. tions.14 (a. 5(3 85 Check. these Ex. 9x x Check. of the denominator.9 x2 + 9. each member is reduced to Ex. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . x = 6.8 x = . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. a. Uniting. = 6. + 1) (a + 3) .48.42 + 9. 148.1.f3# + C:E=6f7212.
^1 = 9. +4 14. . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. . +1 = 5. 18. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.= 2. ^' 2. a. 16. a: 7 a. 15.1 _77 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a/  5 a/ = 12. '  4 13. 1 *> = 2. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.
2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 33. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. If two or more denominators are monomials. 27 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. ?_=_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 4a4l4* + l~. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.11_4 x 149._ _ . .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. 25. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. 3x 35. 32 6 .  38 = 40. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. . y+3~2 29. 26 26.
the 1 5 L. . each member is reduced to ^. C. a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.. 26 a. 1.1. Dividing. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 24 a. M. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.  5 = 20 x 45. If a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.2 3 ~  == 7a. Transposing and uniting. = 9. 5# 10. 5x x : = 9. 60.2 42 9 43.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .29 50712' 9 18 . Check.
f ~ 5c. Ex. 2. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Dividing. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring. = l^ 9 b 4 . Ex. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .2 62 2 ab. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.m bx 2 mn) x.be.& . = = 6 6c 7 6c. It frequently occurs that the x. 4 ac 1.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). If 3ac L= = a ? .3 6 2 = a' .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. 5> a. find a in terms of b and c. fr Reducing lowest terms. ax f x f. a. . =a 2 151. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.1.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. jr. Uniting the Dividing. Thus.2 ac + 3 aft . = 2 f b 2 . y. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = 6 a2 . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.
^ ax a^ 26. . 29. = vt. _ 2. 34.= H. 15. * Solve the same equation for^). f P =+!. 4. = 5. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. c 18. q solve for/. rate. . If s If 16. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 6. 14. 11.= c a Z> .a. + 3a. = 8 4 #. + xx = 1. 17. 10. s = Vt solve for v. m a? x . . 1 f. denoting the interest. and n the number of years. 2 solve for y a. 13. co?.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 3. If * 33. 3(* 8. solve for a. r the number of $>. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 4. 31. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = rt. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . The The i time. If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 3 (6 a). iw 21. c. in terms of other quantities. 30. a. mx = n. IIL n b + &o. 12. 5) is t =^. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). Ex. f ^o. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. If ^^ = a 1 32. . t. 9. p the principal. solve for .= n.i l .
then = 2 TT#. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Multiplying by Dividing. A would do each day ^ and B j. 2 3 . C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 12.. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.180.114 35.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. . Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 100 C. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = 16^. and 12 = the number over. 1. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. is 36. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. x Or Uniting.. . 2. Find R in terms of C and TT.20 C.
4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. 32 x = . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Ex. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 180 Transposing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. and the statement. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). = 100 + 4 x. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. or 1J. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 3. in Then Therefore.
to his daughand the remainder. to his son. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and 9 feet above water. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. is equal 7.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find A's 8. is oO. and J of the greater Find the numbers. and of the father's age.  Find their present ages. a man had How much money had he at first? . one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. of his present age. length in the ground. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and one half the greater Find the numbers. which was $4000. make 21. 3. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. by 6. How did the much money man leave ? 11. ex What 5. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. money and $10. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. fifth Two numbers differ 2. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. by 3. ceeds the smaller by 4.
A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 152. . If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 1. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and B in 4 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 2. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) 22. How much money $500? 4%. 3. air. ^ at 5%. what is the 14.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. Ex. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and it B in 6 days. investments.
26. .009 918. B in 30. . A in 6. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. m and n. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.= . A in 6. is 42. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. and n = 3.118 153.g. e. B in 12. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. A in 4. 25. Ex. 2. B in 16. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. n x Solving. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence.414. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 5. The problem to be solved. To and find the numerical answer. is 57. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Then ft i.e. if B in 3 days. they can both do in 2 days. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. we obtain the equation m m . . and apply the method of 170. therefore. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 3.
respectively. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. (b) 35 miles. (c) 16. 34. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 149. the rate of the first.001. 2 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 5 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. if m and n are. is (a) 51. meet. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 30. is ?n . If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. and the rate of the second are.721. Two men start at the first miles apart. the second at the apart.000. (d) 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. The one: 31. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 3J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 4J miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 33. 2 miles per hour. . Find the side of the square. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 3 miles per hour. squares 29. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. respectively (a) 60 miles.
b is the consequent. E. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. etc. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b is a Since a ratio a fraction. . : : 155. 1. 158. the second term the consequent. a ratio is not changed etc." we may write a : b = 6. the denominator The the 157. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b. Ex. In the ratio a : ft. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the symbol being a sign of division. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. " a Thus. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b. the antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. The first 156.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.5.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. antecedent.g. 6 12 = . all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.
: ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 10. 6. The last first three. b and c the means. b is the mean b. 27 06: 18 a6. 7f:6J. 5 f hours : 2. 3:4. 9. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. proportional between a and c. two  ratios. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. and c. 16. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3. terms. 8^ hours. Transform the following unity 15. 3 8. : ay . 16a2 :24a&. and c is the third proportional to a and . J:l. a and d are the extremes. 4:5f : 5. 12. 4. 159. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 11. 3:1}. 61 : ratios 72:18. 1. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. equal 2.RATIO Ex. 62:16. : 1. b. 18. 17. 7:4 T T 4 . Simplify the following ratios 7. extremes. $24: $8.
" we " NOTE.__(163. and the other pair the extremes. 164. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. are : : : inversely proportional. : : directly proportional may say.) mn = pq. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. pro portional. ccm. q~~ n .122 162. briefly. i. In any proportion product of the extremes. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Clearing of fractions. of iron weigh . Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. then G ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 2 165.e.30 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. and the time necessary to do it. Hence the number of men required to do some work. of iron weigh 45 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. of a proportion. : c. 3 4. ad = be. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 163. 6 ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. The mean proportional of their product.) b = Vac. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. !. 163. If (Converse of nq.
Or IV. a:c=b:d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Division.) (Called Alternation. hence the proportion true.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. V. I. ad ( 163. 2. if 6 : 7. 1. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) II. = 35 . (163. is 4$ = 35. bd bd. ad = be. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Frequently called Inversion.) d 167. d d. I. is Ex. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) = f f = 3 J. a III. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. . 166. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.PATIO Ex. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. (Composition. + b:b = c + d:d. 12x Hence a? = 42. then =d c.
= 20:7. the consequents by 7. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. Apply composition. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. : 3 = 5 f x : x.g. = 2:x.124 IT. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.!=!*. = 2:3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. Or III. = 180:125. 6 =4 : x.e. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 12 5ft. 10. = 7:2f 3J. Simplify the following proportions. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 120:42 2 2 7. 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 5 5. 2.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 4. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. : x. 5. . mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. i. 9. 3. x = 2. E. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. V. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. IV. .
22. 14 and 21. 12. 23.8:1. . 35. Find the 37. to: = 35:*. 03:a?=135:20. 2. 29. : a2 . Find the third proportional 24. 52. 2= 5 x x. b. 21. 3t. 3. 4. : . ra 2 . 33. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. (a : : 45.:ff. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 9 x = 2 y. 34. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 18.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. = 15o. rag. 5. 16. f. a?:15 15. 51. 112:42 = 10:a. : 53. 27. 16 and 28. w. 28. 13. 17. to : 9 and 12. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 38. 20. 4 and 16. 6. 47. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 39. a 2 and ab. 46. if : 40.  32. x:5 = y:2. mx = ny. 2 3 = y #. 5= 18 a? : a?. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. Find the mean proportional 30. = 2 + x: x. terra 2:3 = 4. rap. 25. 41. 1.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 1 and a.. 7iy = 2:x. + fyx = cy. 2. ra + landra 1. = 5 x 12. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 6x = 7y. 31. to : a and 1. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 43. 14. = l^:18. 2 a and 18 a.j>. ratio of y. 44. 42. 26. 6 x = y. and 2/. 50.x: 6:5 a : x. x m = y n. ra. 3. = 3 43 + x. a.
State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the : total cost. and the time necessary for it. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the area of the rectangle. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. 56. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 7^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the speed of the train. and the time.126 54. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. 57. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). what 58. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').
Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. Then Hence BG = 5 x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. as 11 Let then : 1. x = 6. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Let A B AC=1x. 2. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. produced to a point C. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. = the second number. : Ex. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. so that Find^K7and BO. 2 x Or = 4. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). AB = 2 x. 11 x x 7 Ex. x=2. 4 inches long. . 18 x = 108. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20.000 168. is A line AB.
How many 7. and 15 inches. 11. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Gunmetal tin. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 6. and c inches. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 3. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 2. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. What are the parts ? 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.000. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 9. How The long are the parts ? 15. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many gen. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.000 square miles. 12. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 12. : 4. 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.) . : 197. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 13. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 14.
e. there is only one solution. expressing a y. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. is x = 7. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. values of x and y.y=. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. a? (1) then I.L x If If = 0. y = 1. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.. etc. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. x = 1. Hence. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. such as + = 10. =. if . The root of (4) if K 129 . 2 y = . However. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.
21 y . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 26 y = 60. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.3 y = 80. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. y = 2. 4y . y I 171. 172. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2.24. 6x . 3. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. to The two methods I. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. same relation. cannot be reduced to the same form. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 174. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. E. By By Addition or Subtraction. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Substitution. Therefore. unknown quantity. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.26. of elimination most frequently used II.130 170. viz. ~ 50. the last set inconsistent. The first set of equations is also called consistent. and 3 x + 3 y =. = . are simultaneous equations.X. for they express the x f y 10.
3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Check. y = 1. 8 2. Therefore Check. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Transposing.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . = 235. 25 x . subtract the equations.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). x = 10. 10 . are like. 37. y = 2.3 1 = 47. 5 13 . 64 x = 040. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3.14 =8.2 = 6. = 406. whose coefficients In general. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 60 . add the equations.3 y = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. + 2. 3y = 3.
' 12. i 3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. = 24. 19< I a. O t K 8.4. I i 3 a.3. f 3X 7x 14.f2/ ' = 50. [2o. 7 ' 1fi fl . 13 61 l7a.5 y = 2. 9 1 r 20. _. . ] ^ .3. I ~ y~~> 22.v 23. + 2/ 17. I oj 5y = 17. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 41. = 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. v ^ = ll.9 *. I . x 11.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. * + 3 y = 50. f 3# ?/ = 0. 13. J I y = 1U.
21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 2y + 10. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 13. and solve the resulting equation. = 60. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 2. 8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. x ) ^"" 13. . = 4#8.
7 y = 6.3. Substituting in (6) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. however. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. \ \6(a. 7x_2y=3. 4* + 3y = 19. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (4). (7) (7) (8) . 21z6y=9. x = l. 3 (1) Ex. 29 x = 29. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 2 y = . . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . From 9 = 36. + 212y4 = 14. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179.6)7(y7)==18. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. simplified before elimination is possible. 3.
14. a. J 9. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . 4 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.f2 2. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a. = 3. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17. . 10. yM a. +y 2 . 12. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.1) = 121. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 16. .
and x y .Q ^ 4 21. e. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. ?~y . .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.#. f y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 22. but some expressions involving x. * ((* (( . 180. {. <X + 20. 3x\" 1 23 24. and y.
x 3. y. 137 Solve y y (1) .4 x = 4 xy. etc. (2) (3) a. Substituting x = 3 in (1).3 xy. of this type.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 1. (4) + (G). Therefore y=4. Dividing by 11 3 = #. can also be solved Examples method. 15 y + 8 x . . 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). however. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . x 2x(2). y 4. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 1. Clearing of fractions.
y MOi y a. x 8. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 253 7. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 .= o 6. 4 13. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). Ex.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. 6. 1. . x y 5. x y 331 9.
f 5. and I. apan cm.W. d. Uniting. fax f = l.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. s in 11. From the same equations find s in terms of a. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x f my = 1. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ax + by = 2 a&. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. d. . and I if 13. W . w. 14. ny = fy/ I sc 1. bmy bm}y ap cm. x a. 6. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. Dividing. x 12. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a.y = = 9a + 46. . a Find a and terms of n.
1. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.3 = 8. 3y = Hence Check.by 2.8 = 1.3=4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. Ex. y =* 2. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. l.2 + 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 182. = 30. (8) 2. . by 3. To solve equations containing By tions. ties are Similarly. (4) (5). 8 x . 4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.lf> z . 3.15z=12 Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8.16. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).13. = 3.1+4. 6. x + 12 y . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).25. etc. 4. 20.2 + 4. 1.12 y + 6 z = .
a? 11. == 6. 10. 12. 15 2 = 45. 14. 8. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? + 709 = 26. + y f z = 15. x 13. 2z = 40. 2 4. 2 . + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 49. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5.
60.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0. ^ = 2.. . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. = 8*. (3 _.6 2. =s 20.42 = 2.2 a. 27. ? = llz. 16. 1510 4 17. 22. . 23.3 y + . = 5. 19. 32. . 4. 84 21.
Find the number. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. +2+ 6 = 8. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 2 = 6. M=i. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Obviously of the other . y * z 30. = 2 m. however. = l. 1 digit in the tens place. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. . + z = 2p.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. symbols: x + y +z 8. .) it is advisable to represent a different letter. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. 1 = 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number. and if 396 be added to the number. Ex. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. x : z =1 : 2. 2 = 1(1+6). z + x = 2 n. + 396 = 521. either directly or implied. 1. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . # 4. y 31. and to express In complex examples. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. ( 99. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Check.
Find the fraction. x 3x4y = 12. Ex. 2. 2. x 3 = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 3+1 5+1 4_2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . direction. . the distance traveled by A. Since the three men traveled the same distance. C. 6 x 4 = 24. 5_ _4_ A. = 8. = the fraction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. xy a: 2y 4y 2. From (3) Hence xy Check.144 Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. we obtain. (1) (2) 12. increased by one. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . (3) C4) = 24 miles. B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Or (4)2x(3). 4 x = 24.
. and its denomi nator diminished by one. the value of the fraction is fa.}. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. added to the numerator of a fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. it is reduced to J. the digits will be interchanged. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the fraction. part of their difference equals 4. the fraction equals . Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Find the numbers. fraction is reduced to \. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. number by the first 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the last two digits are interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. If 27 is 10. A fraction is reduced to J. both terms. tion ? 8. the Find the fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the numbers. to the number the digits will be interchanged. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the fourth 3. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 5. 2. 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. 183. Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.) added to a number of two digits. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. 6. If 9 be added to the number. the number (See Ex. Find the number. the fraction is reduced fraction. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. 7. and the numerator increased by 4. ? What 9.
Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. now. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. the rate of interest? 18. respectively ? 16. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . A man invested $750. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.grams. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 4 %. 14. 12. 13. Find the rates of interest. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find their present ages. and money and 17. the annual interest would be $ 195. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. . What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and partly at 4 %. How 6 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 19. and in 5 years to $1125. in 8 years to $8500. A sum of $10. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000.000 is partly invested at 6%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5 %. 5 %.
25. and AC = 5 inches. B find angles a. and their difference by GO . BE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. the length of NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. points. what is that = OF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. are taken so ABC. receiving $ 100 for each horse.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 24. and $15 for each sheep. ED = BE. . and e. angle c = angle d. . c. On /). and sheep. and angle BCA = 70. 23. and F '(see diagram). The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and GE = CF. 1 NOTE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. respectively. and angle e angle/. and F. cows. triangle Tf AD. the three sides of a triangle E. is the center of the circum scribed circle. An C touch ing the sides in D. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. A farmer sold a number of horses. but if A would double his pace. $ 50 for each cow. BC=7. three AD = AF. BC = 7 inches. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. E. BD = HE. Find their rates of walking. and F. andCL4 = 8. for $ 740. then AD = AF.
PN are given. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. Thus the points A. ?/. is the abscissa. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and r or its equal OA is . and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). jr. (3. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. It' Location of a point. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and point the origin. B. or its equal OM. (2. PN. and PJ/_L XX'. YY' theyaxis. and PN _L YY'. is The point whose abscissa is a. 2). the ordinate of point P. the ordinate by ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 186.. The of Coordinates. 3). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. first 3). and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . . (2.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (7. PM.
3). (See diagram on page 151. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 1). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (4. Plot the points : (0. 11.2). 0). i. Plot the points: (4. and measure their distance. 2. (4. (5. (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. .4). 6. 2J).3).(!. Graphs. 3). (1. 4) from the origin ? 7.1). (4. (0. (4. 12. What is the locus of (a?. 4. (2. 71 2). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 4). 4). 0). 2). 2). 4) and (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (0. 1).e. 8. 0). 3). 3. Plot the points: (4. (3. 6. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. . Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 0). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Plot the points (6.and(l. !). (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. which of its coordinates known ? 13.) EXERCISE 1.
or the curved line the temperature. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. however. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 188. B. 10 . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 15. 1. we meas1 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds.. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. D. from January 1 to December 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. Thus the first table produces 12 points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. . may be found on Jan. C. A. By representing of points. ure the ordinate of F. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations.
concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the rise and fall of wages. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15. uses them. etc. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. Whenever a clear. . the graph is applied. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. and to deduce general laws therefrom.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. physician. (b) July 15. (d) November 20. the merchant.
At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. How much. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . When the average temperature below C. 15. ?  3. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. is 10. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. on 1 to the average.152 2. (d) 9 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 1? 11 0. During what months above 18 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1 to Oct. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13..
153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.09 yards. Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. NOTE. 20. 19. a temperature chart of a patient. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. transformation of meters into yards. Draw . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.
50. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. represent his daily gain (or loss). 29. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. A 10 wheels a day. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. then C irJl. . 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. if each copy sells for $1.154 24. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.g. function If the value of a quantity changes. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. amount to $8. e. and $. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.50. etc. etc. binding. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.. 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. books from for printing. 4.inch. 9. 190. 26. 1 to 1200 copies. x increases will change gradually from 13.. 28. x* x 19. 3. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. if he sells 0. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. the value of a of this quantity will change. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. gas.) T circumferences of 25. x 7 to 9. 2 . to 27. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 3..5 grams.
e. 9). plot points which lie between those constructed above. The values of func192. may . Q.g. it is In the example of the preceding article. is supposed to change.1). . E. as 1. If a more exact diagram is required.2 x may 4 from x = 4. and (3. Draw the graph of x2 f. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. however. 4). 9). to x = 4. J). 2). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (1. may. 4). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 3 (0. and join the points in order. Ex.1). 2 (1.0). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 50. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . for x=l. be also represented by a graph. 1 the points (3. a*. etc. x a variable. Graph of a function. while 7 is a constant. 2. construct '. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. ( 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. (1^. (2.
Thus 4x + 7. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. = 4. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 2 4 and if y = x f. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. as y. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 5).. rf 71 . Thus in the above example. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 7 . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Ex. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. = 0. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.20). and join(0. 4). 2. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 194. y = 6.2 x .4). j/=3. etc.. (3. .. (2. straight line produces the required graph.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.) For brevity. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 1). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. r */ +* 01 . 4J. (4..
a ar. 2 a. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 23x. the function. 18.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.or.e. 5. . The smallest value of the function.5)2. ?/ a. The values of a?. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 11. if the function equals zero. 1J. if y = 2. (7i) (c) 23. J. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 4 a. 9. y = 2x = 4. 3. a? 1. 8. if"a.8)'. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 6 fa. 22. 14. 2x + 3x a?. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 21. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2J. l. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. a. a? 2 4. (ft) (_ 1. 12. 1J.5)2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 3 a 8. The values of a*. fa 17. 2. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 7. 1 8 10. 1. 2J. 19. 6. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. . from x VlO'S". x+1. xl. 3. if a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. = 4. xz + x. 2 2. Jar . 1J. (If) Va25. 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. i. (C ) (2. 2 or 2 20. 4a? I. 15. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a?. + 4. 2 2 a. = The values of a*. 2 a. 16. a* 13.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. 14 F. the abscissas of 3.where x c is a constant. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 25. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12..24 or x = P and Q. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 9 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. Show any convenient number).. i. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. Represent 26.158 24.24.. then cXj where c is a constant. C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. y= formula graphically. 32 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 1 C..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. . If two variables x and y are directly proportional. then y = . that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. that graph with the o>axis..e. Therefore x = 1.
6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 4. crosssection paper is used. or 5 2.f 9 = 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 3. is called a quadratic equation. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 8. 11. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 2 and 1. a2 2a. 13. Such equations in general have two roots. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 14. (a) x2 = 0. 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 7. (a) (6) 9. viz. + + = where a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. (0. 12. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 197. 10. . z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 6.7 2 a 5 = 0.
if y = is 0. fc = 3. ?/ =4 AB. Hence. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). produces the 7* required locus. 3x _ 4 . and join the required graph. 199. == 2. . Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. locate points (0.2. If x = 0. i. solve for ?/. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 4) and (2. ?/. first degree.1. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. NOTE. 0).e. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. and joining by a straight line. X'2 Locating the points (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . = 0. Hence we may join (0. because their graphs are straight lines. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. T . (f . Ex. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.2 y ~ 2. 1) and 0). y = l. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. unknown quantities. y y 2. Hence if if x x  2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Ex. 2). Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.
(2) . The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). equation x= By measuring 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. P. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 3. To find the roots of the system. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.1=0. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. linear equations have only one pair of roots. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB y = .15. Graphical solution of a linear system. 202. viz.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 203. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 201.57. and CD. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. we obtain the roots.
This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). the point we obtain Ex. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2. 0) and (0.. (1) (2) C.y~ Therefore. Measuring the coordinates of P. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. etc. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 1.5. Solving (1) for y. 2 equation x 3). 5. e. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. AB the locus of (1). Locating the points (5. intersection. 3. . 4.  4. 0. 4. V25 5. = 0. (4. they are inconsistent. There can be no point of and hence no roots.9. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 1. Inconsistent equations. 4. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. and joining by a straight line. we of the + y* = 25. 5. The equations 2 4 = 0. x2 . 3. 2. (4.g. In general. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.e. and . P graphs meet in two and $. the graph of points roots.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3x 2 y = 6. y equals 3. 0. if x equals respectively 0. 4. (2. 3).0). and + 3). i. 3. 4. 4. Locating two points of equation (2).5.0.
a. 7. x~y=0. 10.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. a+r/=6. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. and. '163 Dependent equations. . y = 4. 4. 6. 20. if possible. 2x 3?/=6. \ 2x + 3^ . 16 23. Draw system. 8. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y 2 4. 5. 19. vice versa.. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 3. y=x + 5. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 9. 17. y= a2 2x y6. the graphs of the following systems. 16 22. and solve each If there are no solutions. 2. state reasons.
28.8.14 y = .y). 3 31. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 26. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 30. 4 a = 3(6 . 25.164 24. CUBES. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . TABLE OF SQUARES.
a2 . a special kind of product. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. a = a3 . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 8. Law of Signs.faa a a a Obviously 1. . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. is may be by 207. etc. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . fa. follows that 3. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. According to 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 52. 2. on to in factors 4. 2. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . involution repeated multiplication. 3 f a = f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. powers of a positive quantity are positive.
4 /2mV. 2. the required power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 210. 24. V V/ 13. (^^) 2 . 5. (2ar). 2 11 (afc ) .6) = a . \ 3 J '  MW 10. amVy) 3 .6 (a 8 8 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 6. raise a fraction to a power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. a product to a given power. 16. (a ) 2 4  3. 15. 76 : (>y.166 To find To To power. 3 2 2 8 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 4. . (277171 )*. (a ) 2 5 .
The higher powers of binomials. (a + &)8 . . 2 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . + a 2 a. 16. 23.3 y. 1 f 3 2 3 . (afl) . etc.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 5. 13. 9. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .y . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. a. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. +5a) 22.y) = (3 y?y . = s= (2s) 8 a. or*  Find the cube root of 19. (aj7) . pansions. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . nent of the binomial.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 12. (3af26) 8 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 18. 6. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 1. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (3 x . frequently called ex. An 1. are obtained by multiplication. 21. 7. Ex. 8.INVOLUTION Ex. 211. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 . 15. 2. : a 20. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 4. 3. 3 . 3 8 . 2. 8 (a??/) 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .) 14. + 4aj) 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .6 2 8 ft) .
216 a^ 4. (la&) 4 12. 4. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (1 + 4 ?/) . 18. (a~^) 5 . (l 8 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 5. .2. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 3. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 15. 8.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 14. (mnp 5 I) 5 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 4 . Ex. . (m 5 I) 2 22. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (p + q) 4 * 7. 4 (1for) 5 . 21. (af 5) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 78 s . and the powers negative. Ex. . (m 2 + n) 8 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (?>i?i f c)*. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 23. (2 4.168 3. 25.a) 3 19. 3. mn 5 2 5 ) . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (tff1) (cfd) . The minus. (m fl) 2 20.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 2. (?/i~w) : 16. 5. . is the coefficient of the next term. . Ex. 17. . ( &) 5 . . 24. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 9. 10. (3a f5) 5) 4. 1. 6. 13. (2 a 4 . (mJ) 4 11.96 ^y f 216 o?y .
\/"^27=3. (_3) = 27. or x &4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 109 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . 215. 27 =y means r' = 27. = x means = 6. etc. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. for distinction. and ( v/o* = a. Since even powers can never be negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 1.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. called real numbers. tity . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 2. which can be simplified no further. 4 4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. V \/P 214. V9 = + 3. and all other numbers are. or y ~ 3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. numbers. a) 4 = a4 .
9 = 136. . = 199 + (_ 198) . V25 9 16.lL. index. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3i . 8. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. Ex 5 a" .200 . 5. 2. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. roots of the numerator \/18 .1. = 19472. Ex. 9. 2. 6.(. fy 5 3 . V?. \/2 4 9 . 3 33 53 . 6 7 = 030. extract the and denominator. V5 v/2 7 2. To extract the root of a power. 7.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 10. 9.  100 a 2 . 6. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . V36 9 4. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3. v/2^. 2 . 8. Ex. Ex. 82 .125.4. = V26TIT81 = 53. 7 . Ex. 7. EXERCISE 1. . 7 .201) = 2. v/^i2 = a*. 4 v. To extract a root of a fraction. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.64 5 4 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3/0** = am . . 62 = V2* . 79 2 v/2 5 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.
a f2 l 2 + l. 2 .3. 29. 2.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .3 . 33. 116.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .75. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 6. a* 4 8 2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.98. 2 f ( V240) 3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3 y2) ( vV . 31. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . V9216. V20 .4/. 45 V5184. 1. Find the square root of a2 . ^40^4.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Ex. 30. V8. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 5. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 3.EVOLUTION 171 28. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 34./). .) by inspection. 2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 32.
and b (2 a f b). the given expression is a perfect square.172 7. + 6 + 4a&. 15.2 ac .b 2 2 to its square. however. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . a\b is the root if In most cases. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .72 aW + 81 & 4 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49. let us consider the relation of a f. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. #2 a2  16. 12. 10. 8 .2 &c. and b. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2 . a f. 11.> 13. i.e. . 14. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b . 2 2 218. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. The term a' first 2 .
Ex. The square . Explanation. 2. 10 a 4 8 a. As there is no remainder. 1. 6 a. First complete divisor. */'' . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. and so forth. Second trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 1. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. of x. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. by division we term of the root. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. . . the first term of the answer. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .24 afy* f 9 tf. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2 . 219. 8 /. 8 a 2 2. is As there is no remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. First trial divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor.
5 4 16 4 iK .40 a 22 .12m 5 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .37 a ^ . 14. 729 4.4 x 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 16x6 4. 16. 9.16.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 436^?/469a. 36it. 3.10 x2 4.42 a*& 4. 24. 13#4 413ar 44a.9. 20.25 x 4 4. 2 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. a? 2 . 4 . 6 11.25.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . > 7. x 6 4 4 0^4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.20 o 4. 1 4.24 or . 19.6 . 2 x2 3 2x.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 8.162 a2 60 a10 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 10. l 4.73 a8 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 15. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 5. 18.12 m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 17. .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 12. 6.V430^425^ 4m 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . + 81 a 454 a + 81.a 6 x*y 2 .73a4 440^436^460^. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .
Find the square root of 7744. Ex. the first of which is 4. Find the square root of 524. 2.176. the square root of 7744 equals 88..000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Ex. = 80. a 2 = 6400. first . As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc. Therefore 6 = 8. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. of 1. etc. the first of which is 8. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.EVOLUTION 220. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . of a number between 100 and 10. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000.1344. and the complete divisor 168. and the first remainder is. and the square root of the greatest square in units. The is trial divisor = 160. of 10.000 is 1000.000 is 100. which may contain one or two). the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. two figures. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 1.
in . The groups of 16724.0961 are '.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.GO'61. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places.1T6 221.10. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.70 6. places.1 are Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher. 3. Find the square root of 6/.
feet.22. 34. J. 33.) 40. 30.53. feet. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . JT . T\. 36.1410. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.01. 5. 32. . 35. 1. whose area equals 48. 37. 13.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 39.58 square 38. = 3. 31.
225. 224. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is A quadratic equation.g. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5. .. Ex. Dividing. or incomplete. or equation of the second degree. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. is 12. 1. x 2 7. Extracting the square root of each member. = 4. but no higher power e. or affected.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 226. 6#2 = x* 24. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 2)* + 5 = 33. This answer Check. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Transposing. x = + 2 or x =2. A pure. The 7 equation. complete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 2. 178 . 2 ic = a. 6 y2 = 17.
0^ + 1 = 1. 6(2)=10(ajl). ax Transposing and combining. 5. Solve 179 . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 19 + 9 = 5500. 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 8. 2 2 a. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. ' =: y? b* b .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. (a? 9. 3. 2. 4 ax. 16^393 = 7. . o. : 83 2. . 2 4fc 5' 18. 7 = 162. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4. 15^5 = 6.2. 10. or Therefore.25. Dividing by Extracting the square root.
Find the numbers. Find is the number.) of their squares 5. 228. If G=m m g . If 22 = ~^. . 2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A right triangle is a triangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. is 5(5. 108. 22 a. 24. 2 : 3. and their product : 150. Find the side of each field. 29. and they con tain together 30G square feet. find a in terms of 6 . 3. may be considered one half of a rec square units. r. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .b 2 If s If =c . 27. solve for d. 2 . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. ' 4. 2a f 1 23. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If a 2 4. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find the side of each field. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. then Since such a triangle tangle. . solve for v. 2. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). solve for r. 4. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. : 6. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 25. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 28. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 9 & { c# a x +a and c.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 26. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45.
x* 7 x= 10.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.7 x f 10 = 0. add () Hence 2 . J = 12. and the other two sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. and the two smaller 11. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. we have of or m = . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . A body falling from a state of rest. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) 13.2 7 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Solve Transposing. sides. Find the sides. Find the unknown sides and the area. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . radii are as 3 14. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find these 10. (b) 44 square feet. Find the radii. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Method of completing the square. 24. is and the other two sides are equal. and the third side is 15 inches. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides. . 2m. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 9. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. To find this term. . 8.
Ex. = 6. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. = . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.e. J. = x\ = 2.  \.2 a2 . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2. .x(l = . = \ # = ff. 2  .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Extracting square roots. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Transposing. Ex. or J. (*~8) a = at . Simplifying. adding member).182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 7 5 + 10 = 0.1. a Clearing of fractions. Therefore..a. Transposing. or x = 2. Hence Therefore Check. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Uniting. 62 x 5 = f. 230. a. 2 a* a.
183 Simplifying. Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
=0. =8 r/io?. \bx\. 49. ao. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. Solution by formula. 2x 3 4. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. and c in the general answer.c = 0. article. = 12. .
11. ?i 2 .  .4 4 5 . 20. 7^ + 9 x 90. 5 x2 Transposing.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 7. 8. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. a. 19. 2 o. 2. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 14. 3. = 12 . 26. 2 . 18. 2 a? = 44 x . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 9. 21. c p. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 17. 10. 12. 6. 4. = 64120?. 6 Ex. TIO. 2 a. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2. 6 . c = 5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.25 x.. 16. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2or } 5o.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 1. 6^+5^ 56. V^tT)* . 15. Reducing to general form. 13.
Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. a=:i^^. = 0. factors Now. (5 a? !)(. x(x <2 . and 6. any degree. Clearing for fractions. = 14. if either of the uct is zero.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Transposing.5) =0.4) = . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. x2 = 1 . }. Eesolving into factors.x. Solution by factoring. or # 5 is zero. 23. Bx 1 1. 27 x== 42a. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 1. member can be Ex. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. orz roots. 5) = 0.2. transposing terms to one member. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . all or. 24. 233. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 5 = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 25. 26. ar>8o. = 0. Factoring. 2S3x 1 2 .5 Solving (1) and (2). 0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. = 0. . 3x?+x = 7.
3)(x + 3 3. 3) = 0. } 2 2 (5 . 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.:=0. 3# y 5 = 0. 2o3 f9a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. + 8=s: 7. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.g.(. we 9 obtain x 4. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 16. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3) Factoring. 5 = 0. 2. Or Hence the 234. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. evidently (x Or 4)(x . In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 2.24 = 0. 7. 3^ = 0(1106). 0(02) = 7(02). 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 13. E. for a: . a?10a=:24. a?. (aj4)(a. 9. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 100. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. x2 f 2 x . + 10 a = 24. and the equation thus formed be solved.= 24. 5.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. Ex. 6. 4)(z3) = 0. : 87 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. + 6)=0. is 5) = 0. 12. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 4.6)) = 0. a* 10a=24. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3 or 2 a. 3. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. + 9 f 20 x = 0. O roots are 2. 8. 0^ ar> 11. The equation I.e. aj( 15.
3) = (s + l) (3 a). 20. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 23. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19. (2a? 3) (a 24. '3a!J  . 18. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. uz + u 21. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 27. (a + 1) (a. 25. 50. 2.188 17. ara + ft + c*. a 2 =(x a)b.
0. The difference of . Find the number.3. 1. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 0. 2. feet.3. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 55. 5. The 11. 5. 58. . Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 3. of their reciprocals is 4. 2. Find the sides. Find the numbers. and whose sum is is 36. is Find two numbers whose product 288.3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 56. : 3. two numbers is 4. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 52. 8. and the difference Find the numbers. number by 10. 7.2. G. 57. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.1. 2. and whose product 9. 3. 1. 54. Find the number. 6. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and equals 190 square inches. 4. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. EXERCISE 1. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. and consequently many prob 235.0. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.
watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 15. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 17. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. What did he pay for 21. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two vessels. and Find the sides of the rectangle. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. watch for $ 24. as the 16.190 12. he would have received two horses more for the same money. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. 13. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. If he each horse ? . dollars. . other. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. ply between the same two ports. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. sold a horse for $144. ABCD. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.10. Find the rate of the train. 14. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey.
Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Find and CB. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 23 inches long. . The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. contains B 78 square inches. Ex. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. By formula. of the area of the basin. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. so that the rectangle. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. a point taken. and working together. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. constructed with and CB as sides. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 237. or x = \/l = 1. (tf.) 25. 27. ^3^ = 7. as 0. Find TT r (Area of a circle . How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. the two men can do it in 3 days. 24.
)+72=0. 6. y8)=0. = 13. 8. a? 15 1=2*. 10. 2 16 a^40 11.2 =4. 4 6. 4 : 89 10a. 16. Ex. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 12. = 1. a 21or=100. Hence Le. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a. 18. aV+9o 4 =0. T 17. 4 a. a4 5o. 436 3. or y = 8. 9.T 2 2 . 7. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 19. 2 h9:=0.192 238. 2. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. Solving. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . >. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.
negative.f> = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are equal. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. the roots are imaginary. ( 2a Hence 1. 3. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 240. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . and unequal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . rational. 2. the roots are irrational.bx 4. Relations between roots and coefficients.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. rational. and equal.12 x + 9 = 0. The discriminant =(. . 241. the roots are rational. b 4. Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are unequal. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.2) 2 4 3 (. c the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .2 z . Hence the roots are real. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 1. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.5) = 04. is 4ac not zero. a perfect square. Ex.
5aj 9.g. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 15. tfmx+p^Q.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. o. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 23. + 2a. 3a. 9a3 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 60 2 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 17. 12~x = x 2 . + 2a15 = 0. 2. 2 : 3. x2 7 10. 4. = 5x. 21. 2 7. = 0. 22. 5oj aj + l = 0. lla. 14. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. = Q. 2 a. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. f 2 E. ^12. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.19 # 20. : a 2 . Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 6. = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 18. = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. + 12 2  . 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.. 24. + 18 2 8. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. their product isf. 12.
II. 244. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . for all values 1 of m and n. (a m ) w . however. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. We assume. a m a" = a m+t1 . no Fractional and negative exponents.a" = a m n mn . such as 2*. = a"" < . while the second of the first. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . that a an = a m+n . Then the law of involution. and . (ab) . The first of these laws is nition of power. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. > m therefore.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. ~ a m f. It is. provided w > n.* III. hence.
0?=^. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 30. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. ml. . a?*. m$. 31. a*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . = a. 4~ . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 25. n 2 a. 28. '&M A 27. etc. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 3*. 29.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 245. e. 23. (bed)*. 24. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. disappear. or zero exponent equal x.g. a\ 26. at. laws. (xy$. as. fractional. Assuming these two 8*. a .
= 2. \/xy \/m. 246. the base is zero. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. Let a = a. equal to unity. v'mT 36. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 7z* Find the values of 47.g. 46. 40. hence is . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.\/n. v/o&cT 34. however.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.g. a . 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 5 a* = 10. \fi?. : 197 33. a. 38. 42. Solve the following equations 39. 48. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 3* = 27. e. = 49. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. : 2' 4* = 4. a * a2 Or a=l. If. a* * = 3. 35. Vo5 . 27* = 3. 44. 50. ty?. 49. 43. 37. e. = 2. 45. 41.
a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. or the exponent. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.198 247. e. etc. Let x= or".2 = a2 . 248. an x = a. cr n. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. by changing the sign of NOTE. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. vice versa.g. . Multiplying both members by a". Or a"# = l.
36. 3 a. m . 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. * 24. 44. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. rfS. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 40. 22. a. f (2w)~i 1 ."* 38. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. . 2m~i 43. 37. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a? * 42. 66 45. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. ^L. ^?2 y' 34. 2 . a^ 41. 25. 2 . : or 5 . . : mi m~^. 27. 7~ l a 2b 2 . c 32.
= ^. 61. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 49. 250. 54. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 47. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.343)* + (. 55. + 1~* f 21 . + A_. 53. 52. 1. = l.9*. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.81 f (a . ar = i. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.001. = 5. z 5or*=10. (. 59. Ex. 10* 5* = . z* = 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 57. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 58. 10* Find the values 56.(. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . .1.6). 48. of: 3ll4~* 60. 17' 2 51.008)* + A. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. = .
remove the fractional exponents. NOTE.5. Remove the negative exponents. 3sVS. are performed. 16. etc. ' 11. 8 ' 9. 7*. V5.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7~ 6 . 13. . 6 *. . Perform the operation indicated.^/5^5. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 4 5. 7. 10. 12. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.5a. 79 .7*. 7~ 5 27  . 26. (d) If required.. 18. 3. 23. 72 . 4 x^. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. S'sS8. / 7fv 7. 16. 14. OA 20.7i.6 *' 6 *25. 17.$". Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.7W.4 a8 .4 . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 95 ^9i 5**. a. 6.$*.&. .3 aj" a. 3 a. 27  28. 6a. #* a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. &.&.
powers of x arranged are : Ex. The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 40. 2. 1. 34.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. If powers of a?. 6 35.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
36. ^30. Simplify/a35 ~ o . if dissimilar. V2. 34.e. s!/3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 3. ^2. ^2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. VS. A/3. V3. To add or form. connect them by proper 1. 31. ^7. 27. + . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V3. 2\ 3*. Ex. ^/IT.2 V50.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 29. ^4. (i. 40. </3. 5V2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^6. 28. ^3. 38. v/4.2. Arrange 35. 30. V2. </20. I VJ + 3VT8 . 39. V5. v/3. 32. ^2. \/7. Simplify V~ . ^4. 4^/4.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. signs. </2. ^126. in order of magnitude : \/7. \/5.3\ . 37. ^5.10 V2 =  V2. subtract surds. A/2. v^S. 33. V2. 26. Ex.
6. 8.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 9. 13.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. V175V28+V634V7. 11. 3. 12. V18+V32VT28+V2. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 6. 10. 8VT8J2V32 7. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. . 4. 14. + 3V835V2.
98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 1.6V35 106 460V35100 . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. . 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 3.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . and then multiplied. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 2.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Ex.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 23. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 6*. y* = Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.
(5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 27. 13. V3 V6. 39. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 38. 9. 6. 8. v/18 v"3. 40. 15. 25. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). Vll. 6. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 10. (V6 + 1) 1 . 41. + VB)(2V5). 213 98 11. 2. (3 20. 34.^/2.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (V2+V3+V4)V3. \/3 \^).VSS. 40 10 30. (Va Va 36. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. VlO V15. 28 . V20 V30. V2 V50. 2 . fWa 17. 6 V4 5. V3 Vl2. (2V3) 8 . V42. 12. 18. VTO. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. aVa. 7. 3. 19. . v/4. 21. 4. (5V22V3CVS)V3. a?. V2aV8^. 14. 37.
51. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). all monomial surds may be divided by method. a fraction. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Ex. 53. Ex. 52.y. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. E. is 1 2. 44. Va v/a. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (2 45. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. . 49. 60. 48. 43. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 46. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 268. V3 . the quotient of the surds is If.214 42. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. (5V2+V10)(2V51). it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).
4\/3~a' 36 Ex.73205. is illustrated by Ex. 1. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Divide VII by v7. . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. The 2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Evidently. metical problems afford the best illustrations. e. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. /~ } Ex. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.57735. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . . we have V3 But if 1.. arithTo find. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.RADICALS This method. 3.g. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. by V7. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. however.by the usual arithmetical method. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.
V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 .2361. VffV?. 272. V8 JL.7320. 14. V8 12. V2 22 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V5 270. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V48 25. 23 ..216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 20. 7. . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V5 = 2. V3 = 1. A. A. and Given V2 = 1. 271. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. i. ^/H . 21. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.4142. Vll 212*. . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .
= 18. s Simplify a. Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .2.1 xVtf a.Vs2 . V82 2V3 1fVS .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . . . 1. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex. 3.vffi^T _ . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.RADICALS Ex.
7320. Vo1 26. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.W3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V21 = 25 . J?_. four places of decimals 23 . : and V5 = 2.5 3 = 125. 24.2361. 19. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 27. V5V7 18> ^SVg.218 6 . By the use of fractional exponents . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. v 2V3 28. find to _!_. Given V2 1. 6V7. .4142. = V3 = 1.
2 12. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 8. In other examples of involution and evolution. \/l6*. According to G3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 3 (V2~u)  7. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 4. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 11. \/125" . V255 . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. it to this form. Simplify Ex. viz. 2. . the If. v8f 2\/15. on the other hand. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 1. 9. 5. V643 .RADICALS 219 274.
3. and whose product is 18. These Ex. is 11.6\/2 = ^9 .A/2. The Hence ^11 .220 Ex. ^TT. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find V4 + VJ8. 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. +2 Ex.2 \/20. Find Vll . 12 and whose product is 20. 2 \/18. Find Vl2 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6 V2.
= xa + 4 x f 4. 8. The value x =2 reduces each . Dividing by Check. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 4. by raising both members equal powers. Solve vVf!2a = 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Transposing and uniting. +=. VT . 5. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. i. member to 2. Before performing the involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 277. (2x xrf 1.e. 4x x = 2. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. . Radical equations are rationalized. x2 = x f 2..V48 4 20. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Ex. a. 19. : 221 Vl32V22.1. are radical equations. V48 23. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. r 22. first involution. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. they are transto formed into rational equations.
at . viz.3. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 2. 4#f 4 = 9. It = 3 x . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore Check. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. x = J. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. tion which has two roots. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Ex. 278. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. V4afT~l. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing. a. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. a socalled extraneous root.1) = 0. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. 3. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. the first member = V2. one root.222 Ex. viz. Therefore CftecAr. f 25 = 12. Extraneous roots. Squaring both members. . 5. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. V24~+~l = 0. Dividing by 24. Factoring. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Transposing and uniting. . or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. they may be extraneous roots. Squaring both members.
Hence there is only one root. Transposing. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.RADICALS Hence x If a. . both members reduce to 5. x root of the preceding equation. Hence x = the only root.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 4. equation it is an extraneous root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.3) (2 x . Therefore. ViTie 4 z2 . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Solve the following equations : = G. or x *j. NOTE. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Squaring. 223 x = 3. Check. = 3. Factoring. is x V. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. . and to 5. the right member = V2. for it satisfies the equation . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.2 r. 2 Clearing of fractions. If If x 3 = 3. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . (x x = 3. + 6~ieT~3 .12 . \ does not satisfy the given. viz.47) = 0.
Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Ex. Many 1. Solve af*. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
2_8z 440 = 49. Q . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. This can be seen without substituting. 3. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. _ 2 y . o.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Vi 2 8a. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. + 40 = 6. = 26.*2a. x Since both =9 or 1. . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. members of the equation were squared. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Let 8 x f 40 . y then x2 . = 0. Substituting.f40= 5. 2. 412a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 45 14VJB = . 2.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Ex.35 = 0. x =6 or 3. x + Vx a? = 6.i~24 = 0. 2Va. = 7. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. some of the roots be extraneous.8 x + 40 = 36. 4.8 z40 = 7. 3 6. 5.
4 V SB* 4 a. a^x2 5 2 13. 17. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 19.f 18 = 24. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 18. +x . 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14. 15. +3= 6.226 11. a. 2. 20. 12. 16.a 440 = 35.
4 a.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). find the remainder when m. ^ = 381+2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . even if Q is unknown.2 + 80 = 12. Ex. Without actual division. by dividing 3 x* f. if Q was known. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. a? R = x* ." transposing.bx? + ex2 4. E = ax + &z + m) Q. If x* . = 2.2 x 5 by x 3. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. " Or. could. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 1. ax4 4. then (x 2)Q 0.2) Q . we make a? what the value of Q.2 + 4. Hence. 3 2 Ex. no matter If. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.360 = 244. 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 227 . Without actual division.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. does not contain a?. however. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. to x we # = 2 3.
8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.228 282. } 2 by a1. x* s 2 4. 43 3 E. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x m is factor of the expression. of the division 3) is m in place of x.949.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. The Factor Theorem.g. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 2 j 7. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.3)f 11 =.4(. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . hence (x divided by x 4.8.8'= 0. + 7 = 632.g. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. If the remainder is zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 5. 5 (4x . fora?. + 6. + ^by x + b. if 8 42  . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3.
we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 5.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 2m 5m . is a factor. oj 5x2 f3a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. m f m n 14. factors of the absolute term. 23. f 3.13m + 30 10. 2 2.7 x + 15 = 0. 17. The 5. p 5^ + 8p 4. 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a 2a + 4. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. + 27 + 27. 8. a 8a f 19 a 12. Let x = .7 + 16 . a? 19. 25. & p*. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. i. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 11.12 = 0. Resolve into factors 4.12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 6.49 = 0. 3. 18.1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a 5x 6. 24.1. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 3 2 : 7. 15. 21. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. a^8^ + 19a.9^ + 23^15. a + 32.e. f 5.r6 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 20.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. Factor a? 15. 106 division. a. 7 46 = 0. or x 4. . 2. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 229 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. are f 1. 1. ^10^429^20=0. Therefore x ( 1). 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. + 15. _ . + ttt15 = 0. 8. f 15 does not vanish. or 5 4 + 3^ . 9. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . then x8 7 x'2 4.
y n is divisible by x f ?/. xn f. x* f/ = (x +/)O . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to." . 2. if n is even. By we obtain the other factors. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.xy +/). The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. For substituting y for x.230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. 1. is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. : importance. 286. if w is odd. actual division n. Factor consider m m 6 n9 .g.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. xn y n y n y n = 0. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. ar +p= z6 e. 2 Ex. Ex.
26. 3.= . 27. x3 8=0. 28.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. a. preferable. however. since it more directly to the prime factors. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . leads 231 is The first method. Hence = (m Ex.i mn f w 2). y 3 +8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. as 27=0.
The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. (5) Combining (5) with (1). * A I.1. xywe have 3. Squaring Solve (1).CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 290. to equations of the fourth few cases. + 6 a?V . 4 xy = 16. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. xy are given. = 6. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. If two of the quantities x f y. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25.y4 is of the fifth degree. in general. of quadratics. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. however. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. 232 . (4) Hence. x y.
108 2. I I x + y=7. 1. 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. x and xy are not given. r (" 1 = 876. ^. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. 3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1.g.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. b=3. The arranged in pairs. ' 10. 12. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. = .
 42 y + Transposing. or JJ. 19. one linear and ne quadratic. aj = 2. or y = 1 . la. A system of simultaneous equations.a. x " (3) 49 etc. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 4 y = 20. . ' ' .  f J. 5. I* Jj ^ [. 6 "I 14. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 3. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. + 29 = 0.o 18.20) = 0. 7 .  . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.?/ i = 6. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . r^ 2 as ] f.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. Factoring.~ y = 5. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. Ex. I x+y = a.i/ = r 13.. 2 (1) From (1) we have.
the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 10. ':il e :) . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. quantities. III. If of the preceding type. y* + 2y = 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve . 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 9. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). x2y. = 1 3 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.3 2x 2 Ex. ' x*.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 1. 3y) : Factor (2).
} VI09. (1) (2) x x 5. 109 a. = 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (3) (4) Subtracting. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 15 x2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. j Substituting y in (2). = Ex. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. Solve 2. 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.
!. E.xy 4. 298. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. (4) (3). f 1 150 a?. 150 */2 . Bxy9. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. can be solved by special devices. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. .y = 7. Division of one equation by the other.3^42^=43.6. ' ^ 15. and others not belonging to them. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A.175 ay = 12. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. " IV. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).
we have from (1). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 12 J. Therefore x = 16. x 2 . jc~ y = 9. xy. x +y y etc. 2. we obtain by squaring. Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. (1 > (2) 1. at first it is unknown quantities. B. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y . i ^ *>. from (2). quadratics can be solved by ?/. Solve Ex. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. = 189.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving.. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. * ' 300.
4. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. F+y+ . . 6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. I e. M6. 2. [2x + : y= 17. 7. 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5.
.21 ^ = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 19 ' 26. * . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. f 18. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . 25.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = 198. 27.4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 16.
7' j/ 39. . ^ oo . Q 7. Interpretation . 25 34. 33. oo 301. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 30. . as a . ~\ OK OO. hence may be any finite number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . or ~ indeterminate. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . 3 a2 38. etc 302.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x. = 48201. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. y % 9 f*K 36. 31. etc. 32.
Or.g. . 306. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. or that x may equal any finite number. = 10. oo is = QQ. (1). i. I. equation. cancel. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.x'2 2 x = 1. (1) is an identity. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. . and . it is an Ex. Let 2.e. creases.can be If It is made larger than number.decreases X if called infinity. The ~~f fraction . 1. and becomes infinitely small. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. as + l. the answer is indeterminate. without exception. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. ToU" ^100 a. is satisfied by any number. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.e. (1) = 0. By making x any * assigned zero. Hence such an equation identity. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . x f 2. 1. be the numbers. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.increases if x de x creases. (a: Then Simplifying. TO^UU" sufficiently small.000 a. great. i.242 303. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.
(2). third and sixth parts. and the sum of Find the numbers.8 x + 15 6. two numbers is 76. . Hence /. Solve  9 7. y finite QO.2 y = 4. The sum is of squares 2890. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. EXERCISE 1. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 42 and' their product is 377. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve . 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. is their 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. and a. 3. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. = oo. z = 1 Substituting. Solve x a.e. * 6. 1=0.
and the sum of ( 228. p. Find the side of each square. 14. 190. Find the sides of the rectangle. 8. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the edges. 148 feet of fence are required. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the edge of each cube. 10. 255 and the sum of 5.) 53 yards.quals 20 feet. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the other two sides. increased by the edge of the other. is is 17 and the sum 4. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and the edge of one. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 13. and the diago(Ex. 103.244 3. is 6.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 9. two numbers Find the numbers. of a rectangular field feet. . The area of a nal 41 feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 146 yards. of a right triangle is 73. equals 4 inches. Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 12. Find the sides. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 6. Find these sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. the area becomes f% of the original area.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. . and if the digits will be interchanged. Find the radii.) 17. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. Find the number.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. irR *. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. by the product of 27 be added to the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. the quotient is 2.
.. f . added to each term to obtain the next one. to produce the 3d term. .. . a. The progression is a. and d.. 3 d must be added to a... The first is an ascending. (n 1) d must be added to a. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.1) d. 12. 10. 4. to produce the nth term. of the following series is 3.) is a series. The common differences are respectively 4. 15 is 9 f. P..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. . a + d. 16. progression. the second a descending. . The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. of a series are its successive numbers. 3. + 2 d... the first term a and the common difference d being given. a f d. P. P. 17.7. An arithmetic progression (A. a + 2 d. except the first. To find the nth term / of an A.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. : 7. a 3d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 2 d must be added to a. each term of which. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. to each term produces the next term. Since d is a f 3 d. 309. Hence / = a + (n .. 11. 19. to produce the 4th term. a 11. series 9.
if a = 5. 1.16. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. series . series 2. = 99.. 2. a = 2. .. 7. 6 we have Hence .. 1. ... 24.. 2. 1J..' cZ == .. of the series 10. 19. = I + 49 = *({ + . 4^. 3. . 6. 8. 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. Find the nth term of the series 2. (a + + (a + l) l).PROGRESSIONS 310. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . 5. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A... P.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 6.. 5. 9. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 5.. Find the 10th term of the series 17.. 3. Find the 12th term of the 4. 10. 4. .8. 7. 6.. 3. (d) 1J.3 a = l. 2J.. d . = 2. . the term a. 5. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 5. P. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 21. 2 EXERCISE 1. 8. 3. ? (a) 1. 99) = 2600. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).4. 8. P. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 7. . Adding. d = 3. 115. Find the 5th term of the 4. 9.
18. 7. . 1. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. hence if any three of them are given. In most problems relating to A.1 f 3. : 3. to 15 terms. (i) (ii) . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . 11. 11. . rf. Jive quantities are involved.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . 33. 11. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. P. striking hours only. 7. '. 13. 7. 15. 16. 31. 21.248 Find the 10. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 2. 1J. 16. \n. to 20 terms. strike for the first yard. to 16 terms. . 1. > 2f 2. to 7 terms. 11. to 8 terms. 22. and for each than for the preceding one. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.7 f to 12 terms. + 3. . 29. 1. 15. to 10 terms. 20. to 20 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 2J. (x +"l) 4. 3. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. . 23. 12. 15. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 12. 19. 8. 4. 17. Sum the following series 14..
Substituting in (2). and b form an A. or 11 J. 122. or if x Solving. 111. is 12. Findn. #.104 w + 408 = 0. 133. P. 56. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. a = 49 6(71 . = n(104 . P. 67. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. Find the series.6. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.1) . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. hence n = 6. 1. n d.1). 78 n Substituting in (1). l)e?. s 24ft last term 144. 12. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. . if s = 204. . = 1014. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 2. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 144. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. = 13.. The first term of an A. P. Ex.6 n). 34. Solving. 6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). a = 12.e.~n~\ 408 6). = a + (w. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 100. 23. 89. 312. = 1014. the and the sum of all terms 1014. J = 49. I. if a. 45. 204 = ^ (98 . The series is. From (1). d = 6. 2 (2) From Hence (2).. = 144. 78. 6 n2 . the second one mean between the other two.PROGRESSIONS Ex. n = 6.
= 1870. Find a and Given s = 44. d = 5. How much . 74. a x f b and a b. n = 13. Given a = 1. Given a = 4. of 5 terms 6. 11. . = 52. 8. a+ and b a b 5. and s. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 14. 3. P. = 45. Find d and Given a = 1700. 4. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = ^ 3 = 1. How much did he save the first month? 19. Given a = . s == 440. f? .3. 15. Find n. = 16. Find?. m and n 2. 6? 9. 10. Find d. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 16. Find a Given a = 7. ceding one. Find w. I Find I in terms of a. n = 17. produced. 7. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Given a = . n = 20. T? ^. n = 4. n has the series ^ j . 78. Find d. = 17. 12. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 13. = 83. f J 1 1 / . has the series 82. y and #f5y.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. n. n = 16. s = 70. 17. I.
.. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 24. 4 (1) . E. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .arn ~ l . . ratios are respectively 3. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 4. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.. (I) of the series 16. 4. is 16(f) 4 . 24.. or. <zr .. ar. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.) is a series each term of which. A geometric progression first.. . 12. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. or 81 315. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. P. P. The 314. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. NOTE. and To find the nth term / of a G. P. If n is less : than unity. 2 a. The progression is a. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 36. ar8 r. . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 36. I. 36. rs = s 2 ... r n~ l . . 2. of a G.g. +1. . called the ratio. .. is it (G.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 108. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.
whose and whose common ratio is 4. . first term 4. 72. 10. 576. 18. . . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 9. (b) 1. 7. I = 670.*. . P. . .. Hence the or series is 0. series 6.5.. . is 16. 4.. P. 8.5. + 5. 3. (it..18. 72. a = I.. 36. f. . f. 6.. 25. 36.. (d) 5. volved .. 288. ? (c) 2. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 144. whose .288.72. +f%9 % ... 9..54. 1.. r^2. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. . fa. 4. Jive quantities are in. P. 0. 676. or 7. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Ex. . . 144. first 5. if any three of them are given. Hence n = 7._!=!>. . 36. \ t series . . series 5. In most problems relating to G. Find the 6th term of the series J.l. first term is 125 and whose common . 80.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316..4. series . hence. i 288. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. And the required means are 18. 144. 20. 2 term 3. 9.18. whose and whose second term is 8. fa. l. . EXERCISE 1..6. is 3. Find the 5th term of a G.
to 7 terms. . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 48. 54..J and 270. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. n = 5. == 160. 36. = 3.. M. to 6 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.i a9 . 27. 4. and hence ~ r . 19.. 81... to 8 terms. 16 .. 25S series : 32. n = 5. a^. is less than unity. P. to 6 terms. 21. >"> . Find a and n = 4. of r n decreases. to G terms. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 1. Find the geometric mean between 7. 24. 13. a. .. = 3. J. 12 terms. 42. 12. 81. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 243. 126.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. be written If the value of r of a G. r . . 2. 1.nV> i*> !718. Z s. J. 15. I. + 4 . 14. 23. . Find a and Given r = 3. may be than any assignable number. 20. 72. to 7 . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Given r = n Z 5. . . J. Find a and 4. J. 22. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. s = 605. to 5 terms. to 6 terms. s = 310. 14.
The sum Find the of an infinite G. .. I.27777 . . . 4. 9..254 Ex. is 9.. P. .= _4Z* . 6. 100. . 2.. is 16. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 3.. ..555. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.3 + .. of an infinite G.. 13.717171.. and the first term is Find 17... 1.00072 f . 6.191919... =A+ 10 i. 12.. of all squares ? .. Find the sum to infinity. If a = 40. . 14. . 1. 10..3727272 . 9. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .3121212. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. = a .072 + . . is J. r = j.Ql.072. Find the value 9. ratio 15. what is (a) the sum of the areas.99 .. 12.. 1 r = . P. i.72. 16. .. 7. 1.37272 . i i J. 1.)7?7272 . 66 Therefore . 8. first and the common term. of: 11.. 5.. . = . = .= . = 990 . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 2.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. ..272727.. The sum r. 4. 16..01 ^ . 250.. 5.. . 40... Hence ... P. . . Given an infinite series of squares.. 8..1.
29. . 14. (a 100 .b) w (a (a f (1 . (a2) 6. (a + b) . : (1 + xy. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 11. (s + i). 12. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 21. . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. (\ 9 . Find the 6th term of (x . . 17. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 22. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b ). a6 8 16 in . 16. 4. coefficient of . 26. 2 2 24. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . l 2. /2a+Y\ 8. 4 7. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 13. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. . 25.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18.6) 20 . 20. 7 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .6) . 28. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 15. 10. 5. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (xy) : 6 .
5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . + c(a  c).  2. 2. 1. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3. l. 2. y 3. 3. 1. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.c )(fta) 1. 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 2. 3. 1. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5. 24 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. c if 7 . 3. 4. + 2. 1. if y=2j 2. 1. 4. 1. 2. 2.  2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). if = = 2. 3. 2. 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3.f ac 1. 5. 3. 2. + 2. if = = = 2. 3. 1. 2. 6. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 7. 5. 3. 4. (c 3. 1. ^+^ 3. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 2. 4.  8 ^ 2. 4. 3.a(a 4. 1. 2. 1. 1. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4. 2. ft) . 3. = 2. 2. 1.  a)(a 1. 4. if x^l. . 3. 5. 5. 4. 5. 5. 2. 4. a ft c = = 2. 2. 2. + 1. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 1. 4 2. 6. 2. 3. 3. 2. 3. 1. 6. 2. 1. 3. 3. 1. aft 3 + 4. 4. 1. 2. 2. 5. 2. 2. 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2 . 2. 2. 6. 4. c = = = 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 2. .
.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . or . a: . 16. 1.4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.a8 .2 x?/.8 3 + 7 x4 .7 ys. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 17.c' 2 4 / . 2. 2  + 12 a 8 . 2. 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .7 + . x3 f 3 ax'2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 6. 15.r 6 x  4 xy .  a) (c 2.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. . 21. 4 y 13. . 7y 4 . = 2. 5. 5. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. r> . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6 a4 4 a8 . 41.3 a?y . 15.10. a. 4. 40. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 9. + 8 x4 *y .3 xyz.2 a?y + 3 aty .2. c = 3. 5. 3. c)(x a} . 5. + 2.a 4 . x C 4 4x y + .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x 3 11. + 4.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2 .2 x2 . x 3 x' 14. 10.2 z8 4 x. 2 x 8. 12. + 4 ?y .a 5 a . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .1.5. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .\ yz + xz. + 1. 2.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 7.x 5 4 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . 4. ' b) + 3. 24.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 2. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 26.8 + 2 // . 20. x3 2 a2 . a. (5. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 3. b(x (b 1.2.7 y 2* 4. 4 z .259 x c) . 8 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . f 8. 4 x 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3.a) . 18. 21. 29. a 4 + 11 a . 8. + 3 y 2* . 25. a /> 3. 9.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x = 4. 1. ~c)(b. 7 xy 3 .
4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].[4 x 4.260 19. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. From of 2 the 4. 29. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 0" 30. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(7 x 4.(x* . Take the sum of 3 x 4.(5 y .6 x ] . ft.(x 4. c =x y }~ z. take the sum of G x 5 . f ft. 5 4 7 12 .2 3 ax 2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 3 ft.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.c 3 a.2 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 542 x 2 and . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .5. 4 .{2 x 2 .(4 x 2 . 2 x 32.c 4 3 a. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.. 33.2 . a  ft + c. (*) a  c. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .a ft. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.x . 4 2 x2 23. x'2 . 4vTT~y 3.3 x . c 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .(4 * .x .8 3 4. : a x . . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.[4 z 8 . ft 25. .c. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 35.2 a . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .(a . 5 10 4 G 11 4. 7 12 .?> x 4 20.3 .(5 c . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .1)}] . 4 4 4.6T .x 2 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.27~~7)}]. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. . .x2 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .] 26.4) . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.4 ft) 4.5 . 36. of a.{G * 2 .7. 5 10 + 7 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. .x 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .c. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 34. .4 Vl 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. = x y ft z. Take the sum 4x 4.3 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.#48. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . Simplify 31. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. c 4ft.2) . sum of .2 x 8y2 44 .3.4. and .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 4 3 5 y/ .1).
65. (/> 4 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 'J 44.[2 . 46. 67. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.7). .{2 a (ft . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (5 a 39.2c(V/ . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. . + *+!){> + 2).b (c .2)(1 . 49. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .ac .56.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . a {.JT^T+1)} + (2 . 13 a . 43. . 2 ft 41. 68.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (a 2 + 2 + 9 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 45.2 2 + 1)(7. 2 : 7e)a}]. )(lz a ). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).2 2 . 56.(4 d . . + 4x + 5)(j.4 a . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).5)} + (3 a 2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).ab . (x.Z . . 50. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (1 55.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 54.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.c).(2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .(2 a 2 . .be) (a 58.r 2:c+ l)(ar. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 62. 48.[4 x  5 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).96 [17 a. .  2 a  {3 2x a .3 z 2 ).3c). (r (1 (a.12).rf)} + a [. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .6c) (a + f c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 2 52.3)(*5)(* 7). 63. 2 2 x + !)(* .{3 c . . (x .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].{2 a .(2 a + 5 a .4 a 2 + a 4 ).(5 y . 57. 59.1).c 2 .3 *).(6 .3).0)} . 3 x 42.2x + 3). (.a~^~c)K]. (. 2 53. .2a . (4 + 3a 2 .(7 a.2 zz .6 xy .3 c)]. 64.(2 x2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .6)}]. 60.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . a . 51.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (1 ar+a. 2 f [3 c 7 a .& + {. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.5 )}] + {4 c .
c)} .z) . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 89. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.3y) a (* 2 4.{3 a .<f(p . 79.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. .m np c . 85.9y2).y + z)(x + y .c . (p 2 .n pc). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.:y)( a. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.y)\x y).ft) + 4(2 .2 ft}) f (3 a .am&t 4 A 2 *). 2 (x 2 . ft /.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). (x (x ( + *) . . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 86. 90.v) 4. 4. 84. ft 95.c) j.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (a 2 ft 2n 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 87. 93.b 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 91. 82.r 2 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 76. (.2 (a .ft) 4 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). Prove the following 8 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .z\x 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).2 (y 4.x + y + z).3 a . ft ft ft a}. 83.c) 2 . 70.c) 4) (ft 4.q). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 4 4 .c)].(ft 4.O (a 4(a 4. 71.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .2y)(.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 1).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).z)(x y + z)(. 74. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 75. 2 + a 2 ). ft 78.y).3 (ft .6*y . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.262 69.(a 48 8 8 4. 92. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . .5 .(4 .c) .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft" l Simplify 80.(c 4. 88.a) 2 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 1).c) . 73. 77. 94. b 4. f 72.c) rr identities. xy y 2 ).(/>  3 v)^(.c . ar .
2 4 41 x 4a.5 b*). 121.4 aft . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 108. 25 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. [10( 4.xy 4.27 x* .9 x 2 .1). . 110.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 2 (a+ . 1).(2 a 2 .(x 2 . 102.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 1O4. . 123. 10).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .) . a*.6 y 4 4.y 4 ) .(a 1 2 8 .y 2 4.16 a 6 4.(7 xi/ .40 />) . 116.*) (x 8 . 113.2 2% 4.a". (. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 118. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (8 x* 115.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .&). 117.y 4 .3 a"+ 4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.2y 2 4. 124. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 105. 99 100. 114. 103. 26 (a 4 c).2 xy 8 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 106. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 3*.v/ ~ // = a: . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 109. (2< 107.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).b) 98.35 x 2 2 ) . 120.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 122. (80 a 112.5 xy). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).r 4 4. r .
3(2 x 134.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.5). (4 x . 3) = x\x . . 42(3ar 145.5) = 12(4 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.19) + 5 = 4 .(x f 9).G) .(x . . 5 146.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . o o 140.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .5{. 126.2(j: .3 x). 127.9) 4.2 7^~5] + 1). 135.2(5 . 10(2 x 141. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. . 149.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3) = 12 .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).264 125. 1) = 2(* . 142.n .(j a? 144.3(2 z .7(4 * .2) (a: + 3).1) .12 M 132.2(4 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 129. 138.2(10 x . 148. 7(2 x . y (* l x. 139.4) .4(0 x . (*+ + . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).9) + 3. .2) = 3 .(1 . (5a: 150.r + 7[or .a:)]}.22.3).r>) .27 a 3" . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .3 a:).18 *&) (1 .(x + 3) ] . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .1) (a? . x 147. . 1) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 137. . .7) = 4 .3). 5(2 x . 2 4(ar . 128. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3(* + 4) + 9} . 136.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).4) . 143.3) (3 x 4.8 6 .
The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.6 x) (3 . will produce F. 265 152. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (3 O + .r + 3) . 164. + 4) (2 x + 5). 155.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. . . 154. 157. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.l)(z .3) = (3 x . If the area of the frame inches.1) (s + 3). + 2) + (5 . .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.4) (a . 153. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.5)(.76. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.25) 2 . + 10) (ar .3) (j. (a . 162. = 15. f^ + ^sO.7) (1 x . .2) (7 *) + (*. (a. 2 4 . (x (x a. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.5 x) = 45 x .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (2 .9) + (a.17) 2 + (4 x .24. . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 163. 166. and the third twice as many as the first. 160.2 x) = (1 .? .5(x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. (7 14 .3) (3 .5*) + 47. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.2) a + 7(x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. = 2 C. + 5) = (9 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.8) = (2 x 4.19) + 42. The sum What 171.3) (3 . transformed into F. (a) If C. How many 170. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 165. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 5(ar x . these two angles would be equal.a:) + 229. 158. The second contains 3 first.2).(5 x .T)O . 156.3) (a: .29) 2 = 1.14) (a: + 3)..2) (j? + 1) + (x .z) (4 . sheep more than the 169. 161. =  (F 32). 159.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. a: ar a.7) (a. find the value of F.2 x) (4 .5) = (3 .
z 2 92. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. if each increased 2 feet. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. A house has 3 rows of windows. 2 2 + a _ no. respectively.36. was three times that of the younger. . aW + llab2&. +x 2. 10x 2 192. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. A each 177. power one of the two Find the power of each. father. z 2 + x . younger than his Find the age of the father. train. number divided by 3. 179. 187. x* 185. side were one foot longer. 181. . . 3 gives the 174. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. dimension 182. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 186. two boys is twice that of the younger. 178. 189.56. 13 a + 3. 15 m. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. A boy is father. 188. 190. and 5 h. How many are there in each window ? . 180. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. + a. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. sister .266 173. same result as the number diminished by 175. 12 m. ll?/102. 7/ 191. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. + 11 ~ 6. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. Find the number. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. Find the dimensions of the floor. 176. 4 a 2 yy 42.
a. 2 a 2 .1. . 238. 203. y 2 194. ifWy+b. 215. 208. x*y 223. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . x* + 8 2 + 15.19 a . 3 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. . z 2 2. 213. 233.3 c/> + 6 cq. 195. 8 a: ar. 23 12.6s.19 z 4 204. 244.6. 239. 207.14 2 .77 y + 150.x + 1. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a+a* + o a +l. a. + 8.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. wiy + la mx + aw. 7x 2 225. a: 236. . 12 x +4. (a + . 8 a. 3 ap 2 .6 y2 + 4. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 30 x. 5 x 2. 60 a 2  a: // 205. xm+l 243.10. 2 x 2 . 3 x V . 229. 202.21 a:  54. 211. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.10 y a x* . x 5 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.c) 2  (a . + 3a 196. 210. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 2 y f 1. 267 199. a^a 226. 212.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 206. a a: a: 237. 201. 7a 228. x 219. 2 a 8 . # 2  29 y + 120.28. . + 198. 246.8 6 2. 218. 209. a. a 2 .c) 2 .(b + rf) 2 .20 z 8 a: 220. 6 197.r?/f y 2 9. z + 5x 2 . 4a 2& 2 241. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 221. 3y 248. 216.12 * .6 aq . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. . 230. 24 2 + 2 . 2 200.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 3y 2 + ary .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.10 xy. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a: 231. 2 . a: . 222. 235. 224. 232. 4 m +^. 2a te 3% ly 247. a.22 z + 48.6 2 ?/ .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . *2 234.64. 217. . 227.3 xy. + 2 . . 16x 4 81. 245.
3 ay 4. 265. F.5 ab f 2. 7 ax 250.a + 2 4. x 2 + 5 f .4 ab + 1. a 3 a 2 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x 2 + 2 x .80.10.C. * 2 .2 z .G7 x f 33.9 x . a: . a? a: a: // 262. 269. x 2 263.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 260. a 4.9 x + 14.7 f 5.14 bx a%% 8 . 6.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 5 x 2 256. 7 12 2 2 . 252. 259.M. + 8 x + 5. + 23 x f 20.10 a 4.73 xy .18 xy + 5.ry . C.3 abc . x* . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 8 2 + 10 x . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 18 x 2 .8.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 258.23 + 12. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .91.4. x 2 4. 15 # 2 z/ /. of: 266. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 264.3 x . 28 2 f 71 x .36. a.2 aft*.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.6 by.2/ 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 270. 30 ^ . 2 8 .15 + 30. z 2 267.16 x .15. 10 x 2 .11 a 2 . x* . 3 #2 255.(55.48 afy 2 . ft a.23 x f 20. . x 2 + 4 + 3.120.&z.9. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. x*y* 4. 1 x ar Find the L. + 8.3.13. of: 253.x . I Find the II. * 2 .12.1 9 . 261.11 x f 28. 2 x2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .r . 22x2 a. + 20 x 4. * a . + 3 x + 2. 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 251. 2 a. x 2 f 9j: + 20. z 2 268. 257. 254. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). : x2 4 a: ~ + a.ry 21. * 2 . 10 a. 2 + 7 r f 2. 3 a% 2 .
rL. + ac ..2c a: 282.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 289 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a. *2 " 2 + Oge. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . m 4. a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.!/.. 8 .ar 1 279.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.(y 2 z) * t (j. 285 z4 n* + a.
4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. * 19 23 19(23 23. O(ca) 306. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . Lnl + ar 2 a. 6) _ ~ i 305. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x 7. ^. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
} . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1a: + y a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.. 2 + y 2 319.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.(a .ft) 2 322. _ x8 . (a? 4 2) 317. 1 x2 + + a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. a: 1 313. . (1 . . 1 _.
a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. * 3a.7 xy + 12 x .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.ll. a: 2 x* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .6* t 328. 250 5 10 2 325.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .5 a .V  + y  x 3y a .15 33 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 20 44 333. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. .9 *// + 27 .2 +lOar 2 a. 2 lOx 5x.
1 345.+ r . w \. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.. 344. (ar \ 346. \x yj 340. (af2/. a: 349 _ o. ** i. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (aWi + iJ. 7 ( ?f!?. \5yl 341. a>74 . ' 2 "l 5 . 348. + ni + . fl. 338. aj 339. f V. (a \ + lV.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. xi 347.1V. ( 342. 352. +^ a: y x . ?_2 ^ . + l + IV.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. if a = 3. 5 343.) 2 . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.y. : 1+ i.r 5 2 .
I  I f 366. ar xy + yl x* 358.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. a2 4 . y360. (~ 364. 1+2 362. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. _ + l a 359.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. b c 368. . a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .
# k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. __4 2x 3_ = !. J !__7. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 8  376. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .*2 = 15. 4(* .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. + 1) 45 O 377. 379.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. ^ . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. <3 378. 5*8. . . 5 {2 x 381. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.
 ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 3* 177.. . 400. c . . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 401.5 ^ ~ a: a.5 x =r f .147.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .. m x 398. 399.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. u '2 a. + 4 a. ^ (a .25. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 396.25 x + . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. b 404.6  . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.1 . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).8 = .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.2 a:  1.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 397.  8 9* x ~r.  J). f 1 1 + a 403. _____ . 40.75 x f .
A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 18 be subtracted from the number. Tn 6 hours . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. hour. far did he walk all together ? A .278 410. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 420. How long is each road ? 423. In a if and 422. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . the order of the digits will be inverted. 418 ~jo.c) . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 421. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. (x . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. and was out 5 hours. 411. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.  a) 2 6 2a.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.
y. z 2 y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. a  t>. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .46 2): (15a 2 .49 63). Which ratio is greater. a. b. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the length of the parts. 2 2 8 2 . 430. if . If a b : =5 n : 7. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Find the mean proportional to 429. find the angles of the triangle.iand 22 22 I a . 431. d. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. wi* + y= ny. : i. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 432. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. a + 5.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. : If is one equal 434. 438. 428. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 3 and 1J. . Solve 436. find : a : c. ax is \ by  ex + dy. 435. Find the fourth proportional 426.6 8 ). . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.& 5 ) (a 8 . . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 433.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). x 427.a 2^ 8 + aft* .
. 456. Solve the following systems: 441. 448.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . ft. 446. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 9ar7# = 71. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 459. a: 2y= = 1 . . ft.rf2# = l. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.11 7. 56 + 10y = 7a. 458. 5 2 = 7 . 7jr9y = 17. 4 = 5 y + 29. if 2 ft : 439.35. 9/> = 2 . 457. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. ?/ 447. The volumes If their diameters. . Find the value of a. 16. 21 7 = 27 + Op.7 y = 25. 7 a: . /) ar a. 8 . 3 a. + 5y = 59. 453.*. 452. 1(3  a. 28 = 5 a . 454. 443. 444.. 8 x + y = 19.55 y = .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 5z4:# = 3. c. 7 442. a: a: + 5y). x + 17 # 53.11 y = 95. 450. 3 . 445. .(or l(*2y)=0. 42 = 15y + 137. = 25. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.59 = 3 z. 455. 451.89 = q. 7a?y = 3. a. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 5x+4y=lQ.4 12 . 449. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. />(. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .
4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y) (2 = 2J. x y 474. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 468.7. 8 461. 465.+ =2. i = 5.c=563y. ax cx by = m. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. _ 469. 475.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ^ + i^ = 7. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax by = c \ 472. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.?/ + 1 . + eyn. (or ..  = 2. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 473.
and in 18 months to $2180. 486. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. by 4. Find the numbers. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. years. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. fraction becomes equal to . Find the numbers. whose difference is 4. and the other number least. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and in 20 months to $275. . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the sum and the rate of interest. How much money less 484. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A number consists of two digits 4. 487. 477. age. Find the fraction. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find their ages. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the number. 481. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . the Find their ages.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 479. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 483. A spends \ of his. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. to . and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 485.
and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: + // = 11. 2y + 3a = ll. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 489. x s + y z = 18J ./ 504. 2 2 = 41. . 2/>3r = 4. a number . a: 499. 7 + 2 z . z y ifi = z x 502.? + 2y = 8. 490. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. : Solve the following systems 491. = 20. 5 + a. * + 425  = . 2 a. *i. z y x 25 . of two the sum of the digits also if number. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. . 4 506. 493. a. x f y f z 29 . + # +z= 35. = 209. 4z+3z = 20. 7. 3 x 500. 5^ 9z = 10./ f z =a. y Solve : x +z= 5. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2 e. 494. 3 a: + 5=84. x y f z = 13. . 4 497. 3ar 503. 496.5#+2z = $x a: G. a. 495. \ . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + y 5 y = 101 . = 15. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 1. 1+1 = 6. .z = 20. 498. 2a:f 7. ~ 507.z = 12. a: f z = 79. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 492. ifi = x a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 8. .
z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 523. + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + : = 1472. 517. i=a + 6 c. 36 + c. ll" .
it separately ? 531. E 533. 90. Find the present ages of his father and mother. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. AB=6. If they had walked toward each other. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. if L and Af in 20 minutes. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the numbers. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . L. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. How long will B and C take to do . in 28 minutes. they would have met in 2 hours. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. What are their rates of travel? . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 527. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. N. CD. and BE. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. . M. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. AC in /). 532. In circle A ABC. it is filled in 35 minutes. 530. if the number be increased by Find the number. if and L. touches and F respectively. and CA=7. BC = 5. Tf and run together. . the first and second digits will change places. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. B and C and C and A in 4 days. When weighed in water.
b. 2. GERMANY. One dollar equals 4. 543. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 546. If to feet is the length of a seconds. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x*  2 x. x *x + x + 1. 2  x  x2 . formation of dollars into marks. a. . 540.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. the function. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. d. 3 x 539. . 547. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. from x = 2 to x = 4. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. then / = 3 and write = 3. x*. if x = f 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The values of x if y = 2. 2 x + 5. FRANCE. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x 8 549.  7. z 2  x x  5. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. The values of y. 2 541. + 3. x 2 + x. 536.10 marks. e.  3 x. 550. to do the work? pendulum. c. x 2 544.e. i.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2. The greatest value of the function.  3 x. 545. 542. 548.
563. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 562. 2 x 2 560. 555.3 = 0. a: 559.r . Solve// = 0. 565. j. a? 4 x . 572. 2 a. 2. x 2 ~ 2 .9 = 0.6 + 3 .3 . 2 554.5 x .1 = 0. z 4 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. z 2 . 3 x . If y +5 10. x* .11 x* + + 2 8 569.r 1 561.r a: a: x a. 18 x  4 = 0. i. . g. 3 + 3 z . = 5. 2 567.G . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.4 x 2 + 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. c. a. ' = 8. f.15 = 0. 2 8 . e. Represent meters. 558.13 = 0.= 0.= 0. r?.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. + 5 . + 10 x . 3 . 568. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . a. . 553. x 5 . Solve 552. h. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. \ to t = 5. c. and make the unit of the b. J.  2 1 a: a. . 3 x* . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 564.3 x . a. 15.4 .0. if y =m has three real roots. 556.17 = 0. 566.7 = .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.11 = 0. x 4 . 557.3 x .4 = 0.
4. 2  2 aa: 2 . 599. x [ ?/ 577. x + z2) 8 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. j^f = 3.2 2 + y. 9  4 fSb 607. 600. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . [ y =10. (a. a 612. 6 + 1) . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 5 a*. a 2a. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . + .5 xy = 0. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 611. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 4 a.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. + ^) + (air%)8. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. a:.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 588.frf : 583.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 1 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 598. 3 (f. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .(1 . 593. 596. 609. (1 + x a. 64 a 12 603. 579. 597.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 4 (1a:) 3.x + 2 )'2 601. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. f ?>) 3 591. (a  8 ft) . 604. jj+. 4 . a 8 606. + %) (a* + *) 5 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 585 594. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 3 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 608. a: . 592.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . : y* or 25. xY. + + 4 . (aiy. 595. (1 (1 (1 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 582. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.%) 4 (aa. . (# 2) . 589. .
191209. 0090.49. 651. 637. 624. 645. 7) 2.12 a?y + y*. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .1024 x + a: 256. (x 9 x 646. 632.\/4090. a 642. 32 631. 4J. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. = . 4370404. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .*. 9g. x 2 641. 626.2410. 44352. find Jupiter's period. 2 + 189 z = 900. GGff.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 25023844. + 2 21 x = 100. Find the square root of 619. 625 : 621. 40.150. x 2 . VOIOOD + V582T09. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 633. 9a. 639.8 aft 6 + 8 21G.V250 . 371240.2. 035.15174441. 494210400001. 620.30. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. V950484 . ft . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. = 87. 634. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 2. 8*' + 24* = 32. 623. 49042009. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. = 70. 644.53 x ~ . 630. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. /. 615. 622.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 629. + 54 'x*y* . 628. 942841.871844. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. + 24 a 2 4 . 643. + 112 a 8 . 21. 49. 650. V 635. Find the eighth root 617. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 636. 210. *+* = 156. 647t x 2 648 649. 3a. 2 + 21Ga. 638. 614. According to Kepler's law. = 0. : 5.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
1 __ : )'*' _i. 694. 699. 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 695. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. .c = 0. ax 2 698.ax . = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 708. ex abc= fx 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 706. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 707. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. a. 2 702.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .a a )jr .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 2 697. 692. 2 2 . . 696. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.bx .
needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 723. 725. 721. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find the price of an apple. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. . he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find two numbers whose 719. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 12 4*+  8. sum is a and whose product equals J. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 722. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 217 . A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. in value. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. **13a: 2 710.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. a: 713. 727. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.292 709.44#2 + 121 = 0. A equals CO feet. and working together they can build it in 18 days. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 717. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 724. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 3or i 16 .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 16 x* . How shares did he buy ? if 726. 729. 716.
l).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 39. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 40.)(ai + &. 31. . n. 37.1 f ^ 2). 1 6. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 43.1 f c" ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.2 ). . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 46. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 42.1 + c. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .X . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 52. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 33. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 35. (v/x).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 36. 32. 38.2)(x2 4. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 34.2? 50.aft* 1 + a 2*. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.1 + x. 41.
+ V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. JU. 757. 758.1+J 756. ~ r* x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.294 753. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 761. 754. 768. 759. 2V2 2V3 . [1r^ T 1 i .. \/G86 v/lGv/128. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.
c 792. . + 2V21. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 789. . 3J . . 783. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. a 9442V5. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 786. 794. 3812VIO. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 92VI5. 14 791. 10 785.VlO.2 V30.12VIT.2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. 787.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 793. 790. 7512V21. 806. x 782. . 103 788. 16 + 2V55. 13 799.4 V(j.
Va: + 28 f + V9 x .\/2y  810. 820. \/12 a. /9ar a: = 17.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 833.V2 ar 10. 831.V? = 813. 818. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . + Vx .f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. Va: . = 1. x/aT+l .79. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.13 = 0. 814. V3 f 1 V4a. 819.4 = 0. VaT+lJ f ^l . (x a: 2 ) 4 . V14 a.Vc^lJ . 3 x + 2 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 811. 829. 812. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.g. 816.  5 + V3 f 12 817. + 103Var. + ViTli + V7 . 815. 836. 830.
x 11 a^ J 13 854. f 12. f 841. 4 a: 2 842. 27 y 8.28 a 4 xy 8 80. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.12. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a: . a. 852. 855. 8 8  13 a. a 8 850.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a*" & 6n . 19 x 14.10 = 118. 8 860. 840.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a 8 873. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 4a: 8 a.  3x a. f b**. 864. 4 x 8 858.a. 863. 2 f" + a/ 15. 4 a. 9. 275 8 l.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 . 16 859. a. 27 862. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 2 a: 64 y*.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 729 867. 40 x 2 7 f 49. + . 856. z*y 8 l64a. a 8 869. . 4o. 865. y 4. a. a: 849. 6. 844. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 839. a. 871. 851. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 64 a 866. a. . x 8 2 857. . V4 x 2 .3 Va: 2 .x*y + 3x f 2. 861. +3 4 +  4. 8 8 848. + 1. 875. + 512 y8 874. 853. 2 x 3. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 868.3 . a. 870.3 a:. 4 x* 847. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a 872. . 845. a 18 4.1000 6. 8^27^.ab9 ft*. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 8 a.1. a l0m . 64. 8 2a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 846.3 x . x 4 + f 2 a. . 876.
+ ary + 2 = 37. 2 + xy = 10. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y 2) = 20. 889. a. . a# f + xy = 126. 900. a: + y 2 = 34. 901. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.Vi' + 1 1_3. a: 888. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.35. y 2 2 8f. 890. y 2 4. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 5. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y y 2 y 2 1121. 887. 885. x*xy. 2 . 2 = 2 + 5. 3 x 2 . . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. + 2y=\2. 2 . xy + y = 32. x a: lI = xz . 2 + xy = 28.15.5 xy + 4 f = 13. x 882. x 8 3 = 13:3. y = 28. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.xy + y 2 = 19.298 877. a: 884. a: 2 897. a.1 = 2 a#.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a:y . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. z 2 898. 894. 899. 886.sy = 198.18. M1 891 1 . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + y 2 . 878. 895. f ?/ a: a: . +y f y = 7. 883.y 2 + V(j. 896. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. y*+ xy . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. a. . . 1 x 893. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a: a.
+ a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. + ary = a*. (!) * . a: y zx 12. x + y 2 = aar. xy + x= 15. a.23 = 200. xa 903. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. a: * a: a: ar 928. y x 2 = by. y 3 2 2 922. = 8. (o. x 2 ry + y = 3. + y 8 = 189. + y)(a. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. + ?/) . (a. (3 x . 3 :r(3 . 910. 2 5 xy = 11.x) = 21. ary y = 8. 905. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 908. 907. 2 924. 923. yz = 24. 906. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.16 y 3 8 = . 909. 2 915. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 2 2 916.y = a(ar + y).#y + 2 = 27. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. *y . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). ^ 2 . 911.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . x 4 299 xy z 904. + 2 ary = 39. 912. x f 2 a:y = 32. or or a? a: a: . 917.r a. + y = 9. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 2 913. Vary + y = 6.3)2 = 34. (* 918. y . + 2 a:y + = 243. y + a:y = 180. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. # + xy + y = 7. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 4 (a. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 7 y . a:y xy 929.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.6. . 920.3(* + y) = 6.3) 2 f (y . . . 2 * 2 ~ g. 23 x 2 . 921. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.y2 = 22. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.2 y) = 49 2 919. a: a.y) (a? . 3 y 8 ) =1216. * + y = 444.y). y 2 + 3 ary = 2.y) (3 y . 2 + y = 2 a 4. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 914.y) = 33.
Find the sides of the rectangle. feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Assuming = y. In the second heat A . 943. y( 934. and also contains 300 square feet.102. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. If each side was increased by 2 feet. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. Find the numbers. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.square inches. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 935. + z)=18. 931. A plantation in rows consists of 10. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. A and B run a race round a twomile course. is 20. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. s(y 932. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the sum of their areas 78$. 2240. 942.000 trees. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 944. *(* + #) =24. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. (y + *) = . and the difference of 936. and 10 feet broader. 34 939. is 3 . A is 938. Tf there had been 20 less rows. two numbers Find the numbers. is 3. two squares is 23 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. 937. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. + z) =108. How many rows are there? 941. . diagonal 940. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. a second rec8 feet shorter. 152.300 930. find the radii of the two circles. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.
at Find the his rate of traveling. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. distance between P and Q. 952. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find in what time both will do it. 953. P and Q. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. What is its area? field is 182 yards. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Find its length and breadth. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . triangle is 6. each block. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and if 594 be added to the number. Two starts travelers. and its perim 948. sum Find an edge of 954. and that B. 949. that B A 955. . The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. 950. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. is 407 cubic feet. the digits are reversed. unaltered. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. and travels in the same direction as A. .REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. A and B. set out from two places. whose 946. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find the number. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find the eter 947. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. overtook miles. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. 951.
J.  2. !Ll^ + n . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 5.>/) to infinity. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).3151515. 966. . 4.. (x 4 to n terms.1 4 f j$V . 36 963.141414.. Evaluate (a) . P. 971. \ .. = 4.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.302 956. . to n terms. 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.to infinity.454.. x(x to 8 terms. *" 968. ^ 1 .. 5. Find an A.. 958. to 7 terms. Sum Sum to infinity.. 18th terms of an A. f + 1 . 4 4 to 7 terms . 974. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 975. 957. Find n. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. 969. .v 973. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. Find the sum of 4. + (iiven a +  4 d .. 964. to infinity. ^ Vfirst five 959.V2 .. 9th and llth terms of an A. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.. the terms being in A. 961. 1G series .321? 965. P. Sura to 24 terms. are 29 and 53.. . 970. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. P. Find the Find the common 977..4142 .. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . Sum to 20 terms.. Find n f (ft) . fourth of the unity. '. 3 . 16 962. (to 2 n terms). 1 to n terms. and 976. 972. difference. P. 3 + 5 7 + ... (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. s  88. n to n terms.
. and of the second and third 03. 992.1 + 2. Find n. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The 21st term of an A. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.) the last term the series a perfect number. is 225. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .+ lY L V. 987. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . .REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. P. 1. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. P. 4 grains on the 3d. to infinity may be 8? . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. named Sheran. P.001 4.01 3..3 ' Find the 8th 983. 980. Find the first term. and so on. The term. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. and the common difference. Find the sum of the series 988. 990. to 105? 981. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two... Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.001 + ..2 . of n terms of an A. 5 11. Find four numbers in A. The sum 982. : + 9   V2 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 303 979. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . doubling the number for each successive square on the board.04 + . 2 grains on the 2d. Find four perfect numbers. to oo.. 0. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 989. to n terms. first 984. "(. 985. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 986.
Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. at the same time. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Two travelers start on the same road. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 995. inches. P. 994. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are 28 and find the numbers. The sum and sum . 997. are unequal. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. P. in this circle a square. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. prove that they cannot be in A. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. ABC A A n same sides. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 998. P. 1001. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 999. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. and G. in this square a circle. 1000. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. find the series. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 512 996. is 4. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. If a. areas of all triangles. P. c. (a) after 5 strokes. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. ft. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. many days will the latter overtake the former? . . and so forth to infinity.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. AB = 1004. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. of squares of four numbers in G. 1003. The fifth term of a G.
l) w f . . a: 8 7. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of ( .o/) 14 . 1006. (12 #) 7 . + lQ . ) 1021. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Write down the 1 5a  6 V . x) 18 .iV 2i/ 5 . (1 1018. 1008. 1011. 2 ) 5. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1012. Expand  2 a. Find the two middle terms of 1013. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1014. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . . Find the middle term of 1020.ft) 19 . 1009.
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. 37. Aggregation. 112 54 54 251 . 129. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . quadratic . . . ... Brace Bracket Character of roots .193 11 .. . 9. ... . 123 .108 160 " . 8 .... 129 54.. t 53 120 . ... 19. . .. . ...130 .. numerical .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . graphic tion of representa . . . Checks Coefficient 20. .. . lowest ratio " '* ... 232 mean progression . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .178 Completing the square . simple simultaneous .. .. 158.. .. 232 169 807 . . .. linear literal Common ** * difference ... .. ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . 9 ** .... 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 97. 246 91 " multiple.. . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ..] Abscissa Absolute term .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . signs of Algebraic expression .. 54. . ... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .
addition of " square of .154 Order of operations " of surds . inversely 122 numbers .. . L. 17 65. . Mathematical induction . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 45. . 45. 184 54..251 Graphic solution of simultane. P . INDEX 8 . 243 7 . . 114. Imaginary numbers . directly. 180... 23 10 91 102. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. 42 7 Independent equations Index . .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .808 Exponent Exponents. 9. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . 212 . first and second . 253 28 70 1. .. . law of Extraneous roots . . 120 Member.31. 205 . .. numbers . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . exponent . 195 33. Insertion of parentheses . 189. .. .108 Minuend . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. G. 84. 63.. 91 . . .C Multiplication .. Geometric progression . . . . . Product '* 76 Infinite. . Inconsistent equations ... 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . . . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . arithmetic . . 109 102 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 34. .. 227 . 112 . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 241 123 geometric . Known numbers . . 227 geometric . . 45 Laws of signs . Like terms Linear equation . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 143.. Negative exponents 11 .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Mean " 81) proportional Mean.
. polynomial . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. Sum. absolute 54 Variable .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 4 155 9 " of . .. ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. . binomial Third proportional Transposition ... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value..... 129.. ..... 9... algebraic Surds .. .. 27 17 Unknown numbers ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 45 Trinomial 240 .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1916..COPYRIGHT.A. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. Norwood.S. August. 1917. 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . Published September. NorfoooS J. U. Reprinted April. Mass. Gushing Co. 1910. 8. December.
in. 21. 7. 28. 7. 20. 18. . 3. 10. x. 16.8. 16. . 9. 2.C. 16. loss.000. 16. A . 2. 2. 18. 3. 5. 3. 12. 3.. 28. Page 1. 11. 12. 89. 2. 6. 14 11. 10. 6. 9. 20 B. 27.000. B $ 128. 16. 2.2. 13. 2. 7.000. 16 in. 13. 32. 14. in.000. sign. 4. 13.$9400. 11. 73. 17. 22. 9. 10. Yes. 1.  2 p. 8. 16. 16. 4. 5. 9 = 4. Not 5. 20 \. (a) (/>) 1. 26. 15. westerly motion. 8 ft. 49. 8. 1. 21. ft. 8. 13 S.1. 19.3. 37. 7. 59. 1. B $80. 6. 25. 6. Page?. South America 46. Ot 15. = 5 81. i . 12. 3. is $10. arithmetic. 5. 2  Page 8. 13 V. 15. c. 2. $160. 12. 0. 7. 1. 6 yd. A 38 mi. 23. 9. 9. 21. 3 m. 10g. B $20. 6. 576. 20. 13 d. . 37 S. $100. A $90. 126. 9. 5.. sign. 1. 10. 3* 7. 5. 1. 25. 29. 128. }. 6. 10. 2. 2. 10. 24. 4. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 1. 13. 14. 13. A 15. 3.000 negroes.. 12. 12. 14. 2 ~ 15. 17. B 10 mi. 8. . Page 13. 11. 1. 24. 8. 32. Multiplication. 7.000. 49. 6. B $4700. 1. 36. 2. 7. 22. 3. 9 16  larger than 7. 18. 1. 4. 15. 1. 3. $ 1 50 10. 2.  22 20. 29. ^. 3. 18. 3. 210. C $ 16..  1. 26z. 64. 72 = = 216. 6. 4. 8. 16 in. . 192. b. 32. 20 jo.21 24. 144. 3. A Bl 7.000 Indians.00000001. 27.  13. 9. 2. 20. 3. Australia ft. 27. _ 32. 32. 5. 2. 9. 12. 19. 0. 10.. 5. $40. 9. 1 16. + 1. 15. 48 ft. 5. T . 4. Page 4. 3. 85. 18. 7. 1. 20.12. 18. 3. 512. C $1(50. 14. 9 m.. 106. 11. 10. 16. 11. Page 8. 25. 256. 6* 16. per sec. 6. 8. 1. 12. 3. 14.. x. 9 14.  1. 14. 1. 5000.150. in 12. 7. 12. 6. 14. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 150. 12.000. 30?.. 1..000. 3 below 0. 6. 14. C $60. 16. V 23. 8 13.000. 17. 2. 3. 19 4. 24. 2 5. 4. 30. 3. 16f 2. 25. 7m. 15. 19. 17. 17. 115. 6.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.
6. f  5e 35. 5. 16.x.  40. 3. 0. 43w//2 17. (V) (rf) (ft) 50.5f> sq. 33. 12. Page 7. m + 3(a. + v> 2 . 5. in. 8. ^. 15a. <i~ 26. (a 4 4. 3. 13. 17. 4. 19. (a) <> sq. 18. i:5. 7.  3.9?/2 8. 15. 25. 19.. + ft). 22. 27. 1. 2ftx. arty 1 20. \'\ 4. 13.  xV 3 y.14 sq. 00 24 04 ft. 23.4  2ft 2 33. ft n. 7. 15. :J!>r'. 314 sq. r:A 29. 12. 104.. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. . 13. 6. 27.  11. 18.r 2 .  2 4 13 ft 2 .'J. 58. 27. 12. Page 31. Page 18. 0. 16. (a) r>23ifcu. 8. 35. 28. Monomial. 35. 14. 15. .94(>. 36. 4 9/^/rl 2. 8. (c) 8. 11. 12. .. 21 a 3 4 10. 1. 7.ft. 5. 8. (ft) 7. 30. 3. 22. 17. 20. 237. 21. 15. Va'+Y2 8^2 . = ()501. ??i??. 4 y/ . c. 6. 22( 19. 0. 4. 34. 3rf 27. 35. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 21. 38. $80. 3. 10. 2. 3(c4a).ii ANSWERS Page 11.a . 1. 1. 0. Polynomial.000 sq. in. 25. (a) 50. 10. 19. 0. 31. 4. 36. $3000 Page 6. 14.. x^ 20. 8. 16. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 5x+3. 18. 32 2 ftc. 17. #1111. t. 50. 0. 17.. +/2(/. 3. . ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).1. a2 4 15^44. 16.. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 4.32 c2 > ft 3 .. ^). vi 14. 11.. ft. yyz+xyz*. . 26. 20. Page 23.3 * 10 r5 <3 . ]*. 28. 13. 8. 11. jrif 4 9. 12. 3. (ft) mi. 3. 9. rt. (r) 78. 4.. 240. 4.GOG. y. 17.  1. 26. 9. 10. 32. 6<t. 1. 5. _ 4 . 32. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 18. 8. Polynomial.. . 22. o^ft. 12yd. Page 21. 8.rty8. a ft c. 57. ft. 12. II. a 32. 1. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (a) 200.ab. 22. 2. + 5. 2. 41. 24. It. 2x' 2 5 . ft' 3 .  0.~4. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 51 f. . 21.. 3. 20. WIN + wiw. 5. ft f 19. ft. 34. //'. 2. 2. 49. 33. 7. 14. 21^. 13 cu. (59.ft) 4. 18. 0. 9.r f 15. 27. 27. 0. 3.6) 38. 11. 38 ab. . = 81. in. 29. (r) 2G7. Trino inial.5 (ft) sq.r~ f 34. (r) 2. 13. 5. 31. 1. (b) 135 mi. 5. 14. (<7) (a) 314 sq. (c) S(i. Pagel4r. (ft) Page 2. in. 13. I. 14. 2oVmf?i. 3a. 9.4 ft. 04. m 24. 3 a* + 2 at*. 15. 39. 29. Binomial.<>Gq. 30. 0. 23. .'JO ft.. 2. 15. 1.q 4. 3 .  12. 173. 7 7. 24. :. (ft) $40. 25. 14:). (a} 100 1(5 cm.900. (r) 2000 m. 1. ft. 9. 27. ft.000 . w. 30. sq. 42. 37. (ft) 12. r+l. r/ \(\xyz. 28.. 92. 14. 12 a. 20(. 16. mi. 14. 7. 5. 31.
3. 24 b 46. ii\ 22. Exercise 16. 1 + 45. 24. w 17.abc. 12. ri\ 18. 0. 11. 364c.c. 16. \ :{ 2 a 48. 2 + a4l). 6. 2a: 2 4x.  b. a. 7 a5 1 . 2.r 2. ?/i 13. 55.Oa: + 10. 36. a f 2 f 2 9.  b* 4 r 1 .a . 3. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. a + (ftc4df). 15. ft Exercise 17. x3 . a 10w.  17. 2a. ' 12 m?/'2 27.5.7. 10. (2n' 43p 47 ). 4ft ~. 1. 59. Page 7. a4 4 4. a + a. . 4.3 6. 5. 0. 25. 50. . 5. 4r 2 . 2. 29. M + 10. a 52. .x f 1 2 . (yz~d}. 32. 2 4. 22. 2m.2 a.2 a2 2m 2 4. (5x47 3. f ft 9. 34 39. 6. a  ISjfat. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 8 8 .2 .(2 x2 . 36. 35. 7  # + 12.2 57. 26. 32 w 2 w. 1. 2 2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 19. 4. 22. 56.6 x + 0) 16. (mn} 11. + c 4 d x + 6 e. !  </ . a 3& . ^ <. 2. lOrt 15w4. 2.r. 25.a*. 21. 4. Page 8. 14. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 1 4. 7.1 . G. 8 .h. ti. 4 21. m*  n*. 814. 1. 3 Ji 8 . 19. 10. 14.5 z?/ + 3 y . 13. 3 m. 12.4x. 6.1. a 6 2 . .'U4j>. . ab a. + 8. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. a  49. + a 2 f 2 a 4. x  + 3z. r. 5. 8 + 2 a . 17. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.  a: 2. 7.a'2 . 2x 4 a 13. ..  14 afy . 21.ws 2 ft) .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 2m + 2w. 24. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 9. '  .4 d. 2 . 18. a).r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2. 14. 15.aft. a a. 2 . 11. 8. 21. _ Page 30. mn. 4. s_r>a5. 4.4. 25 47.11.2. 20. 37. . 26. f 2 ?/  2. 3 a3 & 41. 34. 2. a' 4ab + ?/. 1. 11. 33.8(c + a). 20. 2 a 37. 2// 16. . a 3a 4 2 &. 2 a f 6 414. G a bd. a 3 . + 4 c. 1. t). 7  a + 2 + c. 8. x a8 1. 2 3x f z. a 4 + ft. ?> 22. ar. . 18. 13. . 2 6. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 3 a . ( 7. c.  1. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 30. 8.a~. 1. c2 . Page 44.a f 54. 25. 5. 5x 2 rt ft. 2 y' 4 . a2 9. 51. 16. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 4wipg>' 27.(7x2 Ox2).2 ft 2 r2 10. &. .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 7. ?>4tl 53. 31. 5 2 Page 29. . 2. 20. a2 24. 43. 42. 28. 8 b. + 2y.  12.  4 b 17 y*. ?/. 12. 17. 40. 7. 15. 10 x. n*.  23. 12. 2.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. w* ( . 58. (w4w)(ww).  G J8 r  4 a <?. 26. . :5 41. 38. c. 10. + 6. 10 m. 6. 2 3.4c 3 8 8 J. _5a<>&43c.3x 2 2 tf. 19.l. . 31. 0. j)(g1. 4. . 24. 2 17. Page 28.. 2. 14. 2. 3. 18. . 2 2 2 6.
a.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 16 51. 2 . 15. 8.6) =a2 31. 36. 27.>(/ r . 16. 4.16 a 2 + 32 a . 28. 14. a + ft. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 30 j9 jt?g j . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . .44 aWc 16 abxy. 1.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . . 23. 2 7t A. Page 35.. 12 x2 2 .1. 13. 2 w +2 2 . 30. 2.18 w w + 10 WI M . 34. 19. n (a6) 125.19p" + 19^ 10 . 7. 22.15. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 17. . 23. x2 xy42^. . 22. 25. 6. 22. 5aft(a 126 2). . 161b. a*b*c. 76 8 a' 1 . 2. 14. 28. 4200. 216. 8. 90. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 27.19 + 2. 20. 16. 20 aW. + 7.26. 3 a 3 . 30. 30. Page 3. 35. 2. 66 8W 34.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 16 lb. 15 q\ 6. 30. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 18> ^* = a . 30. 10. 5. 3(*+0 + 2). 1. 14. 20. 38wiw.16 x2/ 5 4. 17. 8. 27. 7. 10. Page 36. 21. 16. 13. 4aWy. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .. 18a% y. 60. 60. . 2''.. 6. 16. 2 ).:>/ . 3. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 16. ci 5 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 29. . 11. 20. a. 32. 9 13. 1. 12 ^. 11. +. ?/ . 31. 42. 37. s 9 ww. .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. ^^ = 20. ?> 4 . Page 5.(3x2_4^+7). 127"'. 8. ISartyW e*f*tj. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . + 58 . 4. 19. 0. 1. 120. 2 * 80 . 29. 4. 32. 3. +15. 25. Ox a 5 . 10.7(50. 25. 3. 7. etc. 210.32 y s s G .r% 2 2 ry. 6 . 6. (+3)x6=+16. 83 In + 1 n*. 14. + O4 66 . 3300. 9.28 p'^/. 34. 4.11 xyz . 360. 1400. 4.25 + 14. 18. 17. 20. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 11. 19. 33. 108. 12. 770. 64. 343. 20.36 35. 4. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .8 12. 52 + 6s 12. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 17.14 w 2 2 . 23. 11. 9. 18. 18. 6.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 34. 29. 1. 25. 4 fc. 102.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 28. 1.14 . 13. 21. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 15. 04. m. 1. 27. 27.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 14 m 2 .. 18. 4 a8 .000. 21. 24. . 13. . 2 a2 (y 2 . 15. . . . 8 .12. Page 38.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . ll 2 i. 12. 3. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 2*8f x2 6x4.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 21 a'&c. 24. 8. 40 r 2 . 15 lb.6 2 . 18. 20. //.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 66 39 k* . 24.21 a 3 c2 21. 2 ). 84. 3 a 2 46. iSx8 . 7. 13. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 24. 24. 25 4 4. 2. 18.32. 1904. 6". 33. 0. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. ft 17. 42. a. 19. 14f 5. 28. 5. 30 n?b*c*. 22. f 26. 4 a2 . 26. 33.12. 23. 31. 26. 10. 12.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. .57 p6 3 2 4 25.64 190 p6. 30. 15. 161b.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 108.20 xyz . fa 2. Page 7. 9. a: . 2 + aft 4 ft 2.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a 8 .21. 2 2 2 . 4 jcy*z*>. 7G . 216. 29. 4 7> 4 :j !} .2. ! 2. 15.
33.712. 52. . .r* 2 30. 998.^ + a? + 1. ^' J  7 f 12. 19. 7. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. .m 30 6 4 1. 2 +10s281.4 a&+ 4 &*.6 xy .3.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 2 j3 Z . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .2. 39. .2 6 + 13. Om2 4 6m 6. 3wi2 m Page 42. 2. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. ^/> 8 4 . 7> . lflrt 2 8 + l. x 48. 9 4 /> .54 p 2 + 81. 4x21. 33. a + 56. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 37. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 36. 1. y. 10. 7. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 25 25. 27. 26. 9. 31. . 2). 40.^. 4 21. ) 4' 6/ 49. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 45. . 10.098.008. 9. 484. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 10 a' 2 . 2 6' . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 31.004.^V"' .4 12. 15.4 n. (m + 6)(m3). 2 4 a + 4. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. + 4 t*. 10..15.020.996. 9999. . (a (3 54. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. V + o ft . 25 a 2 6 2 . x*2^f I. ab . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 30 /><. 10. r.2 y*. 10. 8 a W . . 3. 28. +  m' 1. 10 a 4 ?.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. ~ 6 20 . a + 25. 4 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 29. 9801. n + 2.994.201. 1.8.1. x* . 36. 999. 2 4 2 2 64 . . + 2 9. + 10 + 121 y*. . 10. 8. . 9990. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 33. 38.49. 29. 166.009. 55.r .000.25. (n 2 5. 53. m 3 j) 3 . 27. a2 ' + 48Z100.p132. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . a4 4 ?/ . Page 12. 6 2 + 6lf>0. (p 2. (w4)(w + l). 37. 1.ab . . 2 0)(p + 5).001.84 a' 9.810. 57. ft' 11. 1). 8. 36 a 4 . 10. s rc 47. 11.10 x + 25. 30. 35. 14. 41. 42. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. fo*. 35. 41. 32. 6.16 a3 f 50. 10. 6.6 x2 13. +4 34. 18.5 ~ 81. +   5). 23. 2 62 V2 132. 2 1: 21.6. .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2 a 2 + a . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 990. 7.r . 32. 14.ri 17. . + 12. 2 fr . 7 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 51.000. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 4 x2 13. 441. ab.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .x2y22. ^V^4 . 1. p 2 . 34. 5. 11. a' . + 4 a +4. ?/H)0. n2 a4 6.10 35. x 2 f xy + 9 41.404. 1.009. (a + 4) (a + 2). 19. 56. 10. 30 x + 19 x3 . m 2 . 16. 2. 8. ' 46. 21 2 . 8 38. 39.ANSWERS 28. 26. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 31. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 4 ..20. 24. 40. a + 25. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. . x2 GiC+5. 4. 2 (5 a 3). 15./ . G a6 2. 1. 40.35 ab 9.020. 44. 10. x4 28. 4. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . a 2 .500. a3 0. 3. p4 + . 20a 2 21a + 4. 36. 10. 34. 2 . (w+4)(m4). 4 2 //. + 3)(3). 12 x2 .00 + 37. 17. . 24.2 x + 2 x. 5. I/). 4 + 25 q*. 25. 4.606. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).14 jp + 49. 14. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 2 a' y' . w'n 2 //^ + 25.6 y4 10. 2 12. 2 . Page 39.
x^. 8.2 . aft. Page 22.2 2 2 8 . 4. 8 x . 01. 47. 14. 5. 1. 8 ?/ . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 23. 125.r'^ 15.15.30 ftc. 18.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . Page 51. r/2 4. x 4. 21.2 ftc .7. _ 2 a . 9. 1000 1000 .24 .1. 24.w. r 7. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 3. 15. 12.12 aft 4 20 ac . 16.r' ~ 16. 2 ?/ 4. a 2 . Page 13. 12. +w . . 17. + 3. 5. 12. 2.3^V. 1. 2 a 3 ft.23. l 4 . ft* ft / . 2.6 :rs 4. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4 ac. . .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 22. 4 c m . ft. 4. 49. yfl.5 n*.9 4.1. 2 1. 4xy + 13 <) . 1. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 7 r .2 2 . 4 d 2 4. 4 a* 4 9 11. 6. x4. 2. 3.21 2 2 f + . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 13. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .15 21. z. 8. 5. 17. 5 4 a Oft. 50. 3 a. Osy. 5. 3. .2 . i 9. r//. .2 <</. 3*y2 w + 1. . 2. 8.10 2 + z 2 410. as _ 10 16.27 x 2 4. 2 2 + 2 a. 4x43?/.3 3.  12 y 25. 7a3ft.1. 14. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. . 8.8. 5. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 6x 3. // 19. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.29.3 ry.lit x + 4. m L 4. y 7.25 c . Page 11. . 14 r 2 . w 2 . 13.r" 20 S? . 9. 2 . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 1. 4. 15. abc 7. 8 ?/ . 5. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 20 15. Exercise 27. 10.1. 9. 4. 5 a  (5 ft.rw f 8 .2.3 a 41. 135. 2.  10. 17. 3. 26. 12. /r .4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3. 10. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8. aft 12. c 12.VI ANSWERS 43. 9.2 1 //. 1/*. 2 ? 14 . .y3.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.1.9 d. . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 13. sr 11.8 y. 1.r . a 10. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. j) . 2 4. 75 a 2 29. 1. 12. 2 4 3 9. f>r* 4.10 xy*.r?/.> 10. a 4 4 ft. + x?/ 2 1. ??. 1. 9. 16.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 2 12. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 3 aft 20. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.1*5 2 r 2 . 4. 11 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 14. c3.3 x 2 2 4.3 5.2 aft 4.2 ar.1. . :r !>./ 4.  3 c. m'2 3.  .8. 4 x. 8. 13.1. w . 4 a 2 4. 5. 4ft.r ?/ ??i ?).000. 2 ?/' . . ti'jry1 7. + 4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 20. 11. 16. ?/2. a 8 4. 4 pq. a. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 19. 2. ft 17. 5. r ft. 14. 18. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.+ 77 15. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 5^418(7. 3. 5. G. 2 . '.2 wZ 4. 21. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. *3 y 4 . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.r?/ j/. 2 4 2 x 4. x 2 + 2r f J. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 4. 7. 6. 6. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . aftc 52. 6.  5 z* . 6. 13. 10 ft. 10. . 4.  11. .34. 46.8 yn . .rw. Page 48. 11. 19. 14.5 a .5 mp.n. 4. 13. 44.2 ac . Page 7. .25. i 2 tji.
Page 13. 25. iL*. 5. vil 56.  1$. 17. lO. 4. m+ 11. + 3 = 2(3* . 100= ^. 25. 100 d ct.. fix. 100 2. </ 20. 4.ANSWERS Page 9. y 50. . x 48. 22. 13.r ct. ^ 12 sq. '^ . 37. . 4.  2\.  />) a = all. 38. + 10 b + c ct. 39. 22. 5. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 2 ct. 7. sq. 12. a 10. 4 f 39. 10 a. / + y + a// 12 yr. 6. y yr. ct.6 = *. 47. x = m. y ?>i x + 26. 8. v (6) 2x. 4^ = 100. 11. 15. = 5 ?i x 460. . 1. 50= L 100 15. xy ft. 35. 16. 36. 28. 26. d + !. 12. 2. 0. 10. Page 31. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. lOx 10 + w. 30. . 16. 21 2. 00. 2b. 7. 6. 9. 6. 29. 2=10. 19.rr2. . 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 6. (A) 3 x f (4 x . x 2y 10 act. 23. 8 n  10 yr. 15. 16. 27. ct. 1. . 17. (c) 2x. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. d. Page 40. a 8. 14. 2b 22. (2 a. 4.ab a. 19. 3. 10 x sq. 10 yr. 9. <>. 3x  1700) = 12. X 60. 1. 5. 5.10) 100. 7. (>. 31. 17. 20. }f. x + 1=a.p+7. 42.  6 10. 10) + = (a) 2 x . f = eZ 2 x. 60 25 1. f (I. 33. ? 43. 34. r tx mi. 33. x 49. b. s.000. y 100 a 24. 11. 37. "mi. 'nj 100 a 28. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 0. !). % 4. x. + 4x 3y 34. ] 2 ri 42. 2. 29. 23. 57. I. 7. 20. ft. # + 20yr. 41. 41. 38. 8. 36. ft. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. + 3x + 2y + 32. 7. 59. 3. n M.(3x  700) = 5. (> 27. 100 14. f 6)(o 62. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. ( a f 4. (</) 2a. Page 6. 2. 2. 10. 45. (a) ' 12. 46. 2. I. 24. 10.. 1..200) f(^ + (e) 200. 18. 14. 10. 2x + 35.(3x+ = rraxlO. 40. + f + b 2. Page 61. Jj12. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. b. 20. 18. 43. 58. 11. 7x 2 Page 21.  9 = 17 a. 7. r>?imi. 800 = x + 1300. 13. 30. 2. 10 >_&. 4(a ft) c = 8. rn mi. 44.7). 5. ct. 44. 4. 32. x y $ 6 yr. ft. " lir. 3.100. 5. 1&.r1. m +~m 3.x700.. 1. 13. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 3 9. 6. 7. 3x2. . l.
25 yr. 3. 70^.13. 5$ hr. 1200. 30. 180. 6. 2 2 2 5. 20.24. 200. 12.1). 2. 5pt. 1.000 ft.000 pig iron. 80 A. 20 yr. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 2. 12. 78. 6. 8. 2. 5 lb. 2.. 8 2 19. 8 in.. Page 7. 8.411. 4. 7. 9 in. 4. 85 ft. 11 in. 68.3). Y. 14. 6.5. 1. 6rt 2 11. 1. 10 Mass. 52.. (a 4) (a.. 18.000. Page 7. 5. 8 12. 70. (y 13. 67. (ro3)(w2). 18. 1. Pace 65.5p + 7 g ).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.000. ... . 2.0. 8. 5. 28yr. 11.10. (a + 4)(a + 8). 5 Col. 24J. 3. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 55. 12.22. 10 Cal. 20. 30. 4. 71. 25. 12 mi. 6.210^. Page Page 4.  PageSO. 100. 3. 7 hr. 50. Oaj(o62cd). 15. 2$. 7. 2 2 ?/ 21.. a 12. 82 mi.0. 10. 14. (e) i* + A. 10. 3 (a +&)(*.000 Berlin.3aftc + 4). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 11. Page Page 4. 15. 4pt. (m + n)(a + 6). 480.000. (a + 6) (a + 3). 10. Page 5. 10 yd... (y7)(y + 2). 6. 13. 5. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 160 lb. 75. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 7. 78. 1313. 8. 11 w(w' + wi . 05. 42yr. (a5)(a4). 9. 10.. 5. 12. 17. 150.000 Phil. 3. (a + 5)(a + 6). 12. (yll)(y4). 10. 7. ~=90. 13. 9.. + 7)(y3). 15. 6. 74. 90 mi.(5z . 21. 2. $40. by 12 yd.000. 11 pV (2 p8 . 20 yr. 15 mi. 20 yd.79. 15. ( + 4)(*2). 6. 3x (3r.. 18. Page Page 480 12. 3. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 2 3 6 7. 12. 9. 7a*fe(2a & l). 16.000.000 copper. 300. 9. 22.. 45 in. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .11. 8. 9. 19. 200.000 gold.y"). . 9.6). 4. (y8)(y + 2). 15 yd.000 ft.000. 40 yr. 13.16. 1250. a a (a 8 a+l). 90. Ib. 2. 100 1.2). 1.3. = _?_(2ar + 1).2.8. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 1. 20.000. 4. 600. 9. (c) ^ v ' . 29. 3. Page 79. 7. w (/) 64. 1 lb.3. 15 in. (y + 8)(y2). 13. 30 mi.000 N. (*4)( + 11. 11. . 4. 1200.5. ^ . 10. 3 hr. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 72. 3. 25. 10 yr. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 30 yr. 7. 8.. ?(g ? g+ 1). 8.7. 14. 10 yr. 8. 14.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 6. 2). 250. 5. 14. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. (z5)(z2).. 13. 14.21. 17. 23. 15. 1. (p + 7)(3a5&).. 10. 11.
a . 15. 25. (4y3)(3y + 2). 23. 7. 100(x. 17. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 26. 16. 28. 10.8).2 by2 6. Yes. Yes. . (m + n +p)(m + wp).+4 y)(3x4 y). 27.ANSWERS 16. (3#y)(+4y). 9. 25. 4 (a . (* + y)(zy). + y + . 10(a + ft)(aft). 29.4. 24. (x + y4 )(x . 18. (az + 9)(ox2).3)(z2). 20. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 22.9*). (y8) 2 2 . (g . 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.4 6).6) 2 1. . (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 12. 216 aft. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). x(x +y)(x y). 1. 2 No 4. 24. (6 a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 18. 21. 8. + 8)(g3). 30. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . Yes. 22.r2). (15z2y)(x5y).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 3. 31. 30. Yes. (w ~ n (x . (5x . ( 2 4 19. 17. 34. (5a +l)(5a l). 15. 3a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 9. + 0(90 Page 85.. 3)(3a. 3. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (15ay2) 2 .y4 ). No. y) (a. 23. 27. No. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 7 6) (a 10 6). (13a +10)(13a 10). 16. 35.2 y). 9. (w + 20)(w + 5).7)(2z f 1). 10. (:52y)(2a!3y). 5. (6n + l)(+2). (ft + ll)(aftll). 2. 8) (a. x\x 24. 11. 19. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).1). 10. 2. Oa 2 (a2)(al).2). 33. 3. Page 83. (2 a? 4. . (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 17. 4.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 103x97. 21. 10 a 2 (4 . (4 13.6) 2 2 . (4a. 14. 7.7) (a. 26.2).3). 13. Yes. (a 6 6) (a 4. ix 18. 3(x + 2)(zl). 16. (2w+l)(ro + 3). Yes. (a 3 + 10)(a. 9. y(x. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft).11 ft)(a6). 32. (3*2)(. (y + 4)(yl). . Yes. 5. Page 84. (a (p8)0> + l). 11. 2 3 by2 Yes. . . (4 18. 25. (ay8)(ay3). Yes. (m7n) (a. . 2). 23. 10(a . 7. 36. . + 2y). 9. (0 + 6)(66). (2o + l)(2l). No. (w* (3a26). a. (10a + ft)(10aft). (a + 8)(a3). (3a. 29. 13x7. 21. + 3)(c44). (2xl)(x + f>). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 23. 12. 20. 22. (9y4)(y + 4). Page 82. 10. 6. 28.   . 25. 32.5y)(3a. 35. 24. + 5) a. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 19. 2. Yes. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . . 100 (a. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). . 24 9. (4al)(a2). 8. Yes. 21. . (<7 20. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). y) 2 29. 4. 22. (2yl)(y + 9). (15a + 46*)(16a46).1). a(2u.* (2 y + 3)(y. 8. 14. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 26. (7 a + 4) (2 a .1). 14. 33. 12. 1.y) 2 aft. 2 17. 34. No. 6. 1. 20. . a*(5a f l)(flr .1). (m + w) 2 5. (5wl)(m5).11 6) (a 4. + 3).c 2 ).4p). (a. (m + n + 4p)(w + .  x (5 a. 40 x. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). f 2). + 4) (a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 28. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (2 *+!)(* 9). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (a a: 19. + 9^)(oxy . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 2 2 15. 10(2 30.2 ft). No. Yes. 25. 26. 27. 31. Yes. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 11.
37. 41. (a />.7s) (2 a. 16. 19. 4 a8 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 14. 9. 3. Page 12.. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.) j).8) n 43*).4. (m  I)' 6.8) ( (16. 42). 8. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 6. 2(m4l)' . 6. (r420(4 10. y6. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (w4w) 2 1.^ 48. 14.1). 4. 6.  29. (14. 7.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 8. (w * . 5 x8 3.y '2 2). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (^ 7. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 32. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 39.?>) H. 7.5 m2 x2.e 4.?50)(xt/z. a 2 (a9). 10. Exercise 46. 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 11. (a 9. 13.3. 8. 36. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 13( 33.1). 2.&). (f> + fo 7.3. 11. 11.7)(^ {I 12. 2. 42a 3 x. ?>). . 3x(x?/) 4. 15. Page 89.36). (!__/>). 11.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 4. 27. 12. 4 6. a 41. 17(x43//)(x2y).42 x 4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (> 1. 35.  WIM. 15 M. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 3 x4 .!) (x42)(x2).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2 2 10. 2 21. (2 a ~ f> b 4. ( y).  (w' 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). 12. 6.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 5. l. 38.2).n).4). 8.4).3)(x 4. ah}. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).&). 14. 4. 7. (x//. 14.X 5. 4. 6. (c. 8. 6 f c). 22. (* _ 2 )(a 4. (5 31. 7. 2 2 3 . 4 3. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2 8(w . 2 .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 3(.'/)('< 4. 5. 2 1. ofc)( fid). 8). 28. 6. n  r)(5a 10. 8x. y).l)( a 25.y. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). Exercise 47. 24. Gp). 10(2 (3 4. 13 x 8 2 .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). a 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 2.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). . 5. 30.0+ 12). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. b) (r 4.'J)(' .'})(c . (16 4  2(5 n . (^ + ?>_8).8). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.9). 17.1) 3. 2 (a 4. y(2x?/). x 4.b. 5  (2 2 . 8. 4). 16. (5a+l)(9a). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 5.y). ( (<> r4y3 . 9. 4. . 40. 12. 4  9. a x 3 10. ^ . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 4 a s &8 . + 3. Page 90.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . a (a + 2 6).2)(x 1. 24x sy s 9. 2 y) ^ .r(3x' 2 4 (14. 1.y)(fi a . (5^4. 15. 2 + .4. (x.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. ( a ^)(^3. 20. 7. (. y )(.2 y). 13. (5 26. ?i(w 4y) . Page 92. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4. a 4. 2 k (wi 4.?/). Page 86. 18. + 2 //). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. ( rt 23. a8 . r x 2 */3 .))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2. 1(V/ 88. x43. x(x f y)(jr . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. ( { &). (a 4. x . fi(c426). Page 87. 7.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). x  1). 2. (a &4. 8. 450. . 13. a + a b. 4.2). .
x 22. x 24. 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6). a 10 25. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.ANSWERS 10. 11. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). + y) (a: y). x 12. + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. 18. a 23. 13. b ! 21. // m+1 !+*?. (a2)(a + 2)2.6). 30(3 2 (a 15. +5 1.  1).
+ lH + . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.  **/* + 84 _. 30. ' 2 7. a 5. 7. 6. w1 + ac w 4 7. c 8. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6a5f^. 4 L 8 2 . 28. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i^. .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 11. 0. 26. Page 101. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .50 ~ 1/2 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 2 a. xy 43. Page 100. 6. + 2H 1 ^. 4c 10.. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 4.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. A^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . i. 1. ^~ 29. _*^p5_^^_. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.
3. ft. 12. 37. 34. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 7. n m a + 13. 7.  10 X + u. 4. n . 5. 11. x\. 1. 44. 14. ?. 8. 6. 4a3ft. 26. J. + f. 4. 31. 42. 16.^U\WF### X<6. 6. 8. j L . 46. Page 113. ' 6. 20. 5.^_. flf. a2 2. 4. 1. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 18.y 7. m 9. 12 28. 9. 19. 17. 10. x 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 1. 36. 12. 6. 24. 15. ac mp lf> n 12. ?+_!?>. 4. 9. ! 4 20. 1. 9. 3. . 16. 33. 29. 21. 3. 5. 13. 0. f 7. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 23. 11. 15. 1. 30. I) 2 3z 1. 8j_m 7 3. 21. J. 7. . (>. . 1. pf n 6 1. 3. Of. 2ft a i m x. f Page 107. 25.L+ft. a 17. an 18. 3. 6 . 35. 39. 10. Page 106. 5. w^x 2 b Page 105. 11. 2) 19. 43. 7. 15. 14. 6. A. 14. 3. x 05m ' 5. 1. ^_. 0. b 2. 1. 4. Page 110. 5 be _J_. (y + (z 12. b a f +c 14. 1. 11. 40. 38. 45. 3 7 i o. J. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. y(x + x ?/). c 8. 4. 1. 2 47. n 16.  V o 4.ft . +3 ( + 15. 11. . 17. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ^i 11. 21. Page 111. 6. a. 32. 27. 41. 4.
(ft) 28. 5ft 30mi. 17.000 If da. No. () 2. 300. 2.139. 5 2. 26. . 14. _JL. dn ~ mi. (c) 2 hr. 9$. 1:1=1:1. 17. 40wn. 4. 24 mi. 18. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. Yes. 33.000 1 = 23. 4. 15. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 7 . (r) 3^ da. 500. IV s. 10. 11. 4. 34. 12. 27. silver. min. 3. (ft) 5 da. " 0. 11. 3. $30. 28. 10^ oz. 1^'.003. 2 20. 6. 212.001. 30ft. 10. Yes. 15. 10.000. ft. 15.  29. 26 30. 18. 9J oz. 75 . Yes. 10. n 32. 10 yrs. 15. 55 mi. 00. 7. 3:2. w 44. 19.. ^?i min. 9. 8. (d) 4 da.. 0. 15. 20. . b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . (c) 8300. 9ft. ^p^ r ~ 7. 9. 14. 19. 300. No. 18. 1. 10.. after $12. .} da. 8. xy. 21ft min. (a) 12 hr. nm. jj. w 18. 4.. 10. w 21.9. $45.15.2.0 & . 17. 7.. ^m .004. 36. $40. 1. 275:108. 31. 2:1. 3. 7} 18.  C . 7. a 4 ft. 8. 7T 2 Page 116. 15. 1: ~. 12. 1. 6. 8. 1 da. gold. (a) 4 min.138. 32. f . 5. Page 119.000. 1:1 = 1:1. . 38ft min. 3. 8301 hr. 35. 13. 81. 7./hr. ANSWERS 16. 4fl M_. Page 124. P+ ^ 33. 10. 20. '"I 22.10. Page 121.0. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. $0. (ft) 104. J ^'. 1. Yes.. :2. * 7:9. [>> ^ a . 3. 7. 1 : 12. 21. 17. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 13. 9. = A's. 8.. 33.  + . 30 mi. 1:1 = 1:1. . 1:4. 40 yrs.11. 23< &n b ' . Page 117. 5. 30. 74. 20. 5. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.137. 4~r~ n . 40 mi. 9. 16. 16.x + y. after 20. 3. 10. 13. . Yes.. J. Yes. (ft) 5 hr. 3 da. 15. Yes. 300. 16. min.. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 6. 1:3. 7. 22.. 5. Yes. ~m . 4. 11 hrs.000. (d) 500. (a) 30./hr. 19. . 14. Page 125. 2. 24. Page 118. 13. 14. f. 19. after 18.000.2. 5 25.XIV '/ . 12.002. 2x:3y. 21. (a) 25. 24. 30 yrs. 11. 26 mi. #V ~~ 34. $00.
11. 7. 29. $. J pq. ft. . 3 2=3 x.) 31. 57.8 oz. 2.2 oz. 20 20 J ^. Inversely.2 x. 1 rt * vm^1. 9  15. 7. 5. 35. 32+ mi. mi.4. 7. 1. 10. 17. 24. 2. 9. 53. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 5.. Page 132./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 200 mi. 30. 3.15. y . 6 10 = 12. y :y =. 4. 31. 9. water.J. .*. (a) Directly. 5. 4. a 3. y 1.li. 12. 36. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. : .1. 9. 4.5.57. ini. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.36. 2. 3. 11. 11.a.160..1. 19 OJ. .. in n. 3. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 27. 5:0 = 10:12. 20 cu. 55. 2. 141. 2 n . 26. 9. 4. 15. 13. 5. 1. 5. 21. (I.12. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 3. 52. land. . 1. jc:y = n:m. 3.17. "lO. . 174+ Page 128.2. 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 26. w.7. 19.2. 4. 4.3.5.9. 1. 7. x:y a: b.12. Page 134. () Directly. 21.3. y a y = 7 0. 4. 9. ' 55. 36. OJ.  19. 1. 3. 5. 38.5. . x y y . 2.1. 30. 16. 9. 3. 2. Of.15 x. 4. 7. 14. \. 44. 15> 9.3. 25. 6.J 3. 3.1.000 sq. 3}. x 42. 2. 945 11 10 . + W. Page 136. 10. x y = 1 = 3 2. : : T 1' : /> : .3. /. . 7. 58."2:1. 5. 13. 7. 3. *. 46. 25.' : : : : <>. I. : XV 27. 11 5 .5. 2. 19. b x 37. 19. 4. 19 3 . 45. : 23. 16. OJ. 4. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 18. 2. 22. 2.4. l. 7.3. tin. 13. 39. 2. 7^. 24 1 (e) Directly. 54. 59. 20. 2. 12.2. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . i. 49.5. 2. 48. 13. 138. ~ 1. 7.46. 1.840. 24. 8.3. 2. 11. lo mi. . 2. Page 133. 1 18 = 3 51. 5:3 = 4: x. 9. 5. 12. . 6.3." ^ 2. 7. 43. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 7. 4. w 8. 4.r.x a.  ?. x +y x + 74 7 \. . .4. 41. 3. 2. 5 2. 2. a +b 1. 8. 20. .4. 11 w a 13. t 5. 8. mi. 28. 8. J.C ?/ a . 17. 15.20. 5.22.3. 50. 12. 10. 2. + b 7 .4. : />. 3  24. 1(5. Page 9. 5. 2. 31J. 14. 1.3. 16.]. 6. 127.5. 41. 10. 4. 22. 3.5. 14. s<i. 5. ig 6. 2. copper. 7.7. 2. 2. 1. 23. 9. 1. 8. 40. Page 131. J. 2. 3. = 7 b'.5.000 sq.3. 23. 7.1. Page 135. 11.  28. \\. () 7 Page 126. Page 5. 6*. 8. (b) Inversely. 6.2. 7. 4. + 7>i//  ft 1 . . 4. 56. Page 137. in. 32j. 47. 7. J. a~.5. cu. 3. 2. 7. 14. : : . 25.3.6. 1. (</) ft.ANSWERS 22. 13J.^ 0?j ' gms. . 6. 40. 17. 8. 2.
7. 6. Nov. Feb. 20. 16 to July 20. 3. 1. 1. 11. 1. 21. 23f . B's 15 yrs. . 5. 2.0. 4. 8. 7. . . 25. 4. 3). (ft) 20. . through point (0. 2. 0. 147. 1. 1. 10.XVI Fagel39. yrs. On the y axis. 26. 12. Nov.l. 17. .9.2. 7. 2. 2 horses. 2. 10. 3.10. 4. May 5. 30. 23.4.8. On the x axis. 2. 9.3. 17. 1. 27.  11. 2. & May. ^. 21. 13. 1 (d) Apr. 20. Page 151. 2. m . 100. 1. 40. 1. 9. Jan. 6.33. ' 6 3 a. Jan.  17. 423. 3. 3. 12. 3. 7. $900 5%. Page 145. at 15. yrs. 3. 13. a. 3. 7. July. 10. 8. m f 8. . . June./hr. 3. 1. 5. $500. 1. Page 149. 20 & Oct. A a parallel to the x axis. $6500at3Ji%. 12. 18. (5. A's 50 13. 4. 2. 24. 8.65. Jan. 3. 00. (<f) 13. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. About 12f. 4 ' q. $4000. 26. 4 mi. $ 1000. 4.  Zn  "(^ll 14. . 3. 19.. &. 12. ad _(?jrJL. 10 sheep. 24. & part of Sept. Oct. u 2ft. .. 1.0.4. 9. .7. 16. (a) 12. 32. C's 30 yrs.1. 4. <*ft/ bd 1. 2. 11. 25. 4. 7. 14. 1 (c) Jan. 16. 14. 13. 15. A's 30 18. 7. 10. 15. 72. 40. 2 a. 2. 3. $3000. 9. 4. 2. 22..$5000. 11. M 2. 30.. 4. Page 22. J. 10^ gms. 25. Apr. 2.1J. 5%. 2. 3. 28. 6. a =J (n  1) rf. .. 11. ad AzA. 18. 5. 4. 18. 5. 2. 16. 6. ' . 19 gms. = ^ a Page 141. 31. 11. 3. 20 to Oct. 20. 17. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . On 11. 3. B's 40 yrs. Aug. $250.^. 6. July. 4. be 10. 30. SL=J o ft r^2. & part of Feb. Apr. 2. 6. 3. 6 cows. 10.2.1. Page 152. parallel to the x axis 0. 8.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. Page 142. 16. (c) . Jan. (a) Apr. 12. 7. 24. 9.$2000. 11. 2t2. Apr.3. 5. Page 146. 3. 15. 23. 90. 24. Page 153. 4. 19. 0. . Jan. 7. July 20. 6. 3. 5. ft 3. 29. 5. 1. C's 10 yrs. 2. 4. 14.n + p. 6. 20. 5. m + n p. be 7. 5. 0. 5. 3. 25. 9.3. (ft) 23 J. 2. Nov. Nov. m f 9. 2. . 16.. 16. 18. 4. The ordinate.4. 3. 4. 6%. 7. 3. Page 143. 20.
1. 2. . 3. 1.7. 3. 13.. 3.. Indeterminate. 1 4. 4. 19. 14. 10. 9 and Page 166. 3. 2 l. 15.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . . 12. 2. 13 . 13.24. (c) 14 F. 3. 5. +3 4. . 2ft4 Page 168. (e) 3. 1. 3. f 10. 2. G.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. .73. 18.64. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. Page 158. 1^. ImW. 2. (a) 4. 8.64. \ft) 5. 11. ft 2 4. 3. 1. (a) 5. 2. SlstyW 7. xg .17 (ft) (c) 2. 1. 81 ". 4. (e) 2. . 20.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 1. 5.1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 3.25. .3. 5 and 2. 2 a&m Page 167. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 125 a 8 12. 1. (/) 3. 6. 26. 2. 2. 14. (ft) 2.2 (ft)  1. . (a) 2. 2. (<?) 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 2." 23. 125 16. 7. 1. 1. 3. 22.13. 3. 2. Inconsistent. 4. 1 23. 14. 1. 4. 17.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 125a 28. f. 3. a 6o&i85 c i5o . a + ft. 6. f12 wi 9. 13C.6.79. . 9.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. .59 . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.59. 10.75. 4. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 8 1 f f g*. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 4. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.83. 12. 25. 21. Inconsistent.. 3. 5. . . 2.41 and 23. 19. 11. (ft) (d) 2. 1. ft .24. H. 0. 4.4. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .73. 8.83. 10. . * 16. 27 19.25. 1. . 3. 1. 2. 3. 83. 3.73 ami .75. 3. a 29. 15 . 30. 5. . 8 a1. f. . 1. 4wn8 + n4 5.. . 8. (gr) 21. 2. .5. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. (ft) (ft) 2. (/) 3. 4 ) 21. 8mW. 14. H. . . 30. 2 2 22.25. 0C. a 10 ' a ll V&.75 (ci) 3^. . 11. 24. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 28. 2. jgiooyiio 17.67. 15. 13. () (rt) 3. 1. (c) 7.73. 24. 15. 10 C. 2. Indeterminate. 1. 3.25.5.1. 5. (c) 2.  1. Page 159.84.75. 9. 27. 2. 3 .34F.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.24 . . 3. .  . 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . 2. 1. + a 4 ft* .  12 ft xW  26 31. 5. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4}. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 22. 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. Page 163.3. xy.27. (ft) and (d) 2. xW. 16.41 and . 5. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. ' :=_!.79. 32F.  1. 27 27 81. 3.5 (ft) 3. Page 164. 18C. . (a) 12. 20.25. 2. m. 1. . 1.
12. 16.1.10 a~ + 5 a . 21. (2 a + ft). 6. +3 + 5 4. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 34. Page 176. ( Page 174. fe *?>' ?> fi . 5. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 8. a ). 13.1. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 5. 17. 20. ). 237. 3 6 23. 31.GO a c + 23. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 71.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). ? : 1 . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.y2 ). 8. 12. 17. (a + y+l). 2 2 7.037. 10 x G a 4 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . + (win . . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 6. Zll. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. + 29. . 3M.+3^ + 4. 10*. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 3.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 35. ^i. 15. 10. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. (1 (x2y). 180 . 99. Page 170. (x' l). 2 4 8 2 . 22. (ab + c). 8. 3. 64. +35. . 2. 14. . (3a.x ). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). . 15. 1. 6. 2 49 . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 14. 7. m 13. 40. 6. 6. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 6 (\x 3. + l).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 20. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (Gx + (i + 2a. 11. 4. 25. 9. (48 + 6. 9. 15. 2038.6. (4a2 9& 2 13. 21. 7.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. ? .5). 28. a. 4. 18. Page 172. + i)). 2. . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 119. 5. 11. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 00.3 ab + 2 2 ).a b 22. 2. 18. GOO 2 c 2 . 8 /.r 2 + 6jt).XV111 7. 9. 9. 10. 3 2 ^. 2. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 .7 /)). 247. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 5. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. a 2 . 300. 978. 14. 1. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. a. 72. 10.  x. rt . 26. AN S WE no . 30. + Z).83. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 36. 32. 30. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 3. 101.5. r> 4 : 1 . 16. (ly). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 4. 3 2 8 3 12. 17. 90. 1. Page 171. c 10 6 :l 20. (x + y\ 90. 1. 7. 16 6 w . (l + x + .  +X '. 11. 3. 70. 14. 12. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 2 12. 13. 23.i c 6 15. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .f 1 m 9 16. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 24. + + ?V 22. 15. 8. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 27. 19. 19. ??i ?i . . . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.2). 1247. 420. 11. 16. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 763. 1 1 ?>). 25 19. 9. 5. 98. 20. 20. 33. 2. + y). 18. 2 2 4. 8. (a + 2 +l). 90. 9. . I 8x2). 4. /> 4 ). 5 5 8. a: l . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 84.94. 309. 76. 0. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 57. (a 2.^).
 2. V17. 26. 36. 7. 4. 28 in.?. 23.4. 23. 3.. 3. 4. (< + ?>).. 1. 15. f ^ is. 29. 1.. ZLlAiK 19. Page 181. 5.4. 11. 1. 28. a + 61.6. 4. vYb. 46. 3. 6. 3. 7. . 44. or 5. 4 a. 4 TT M 28. 2.1. 2. 11. 21. 29. 1. 5. 28. Page 183.ANS WERS 22. ii :J _7. 7}. 8. }. V35 1. 2. 3.798 yds. 50.Sn. 20. 7. 6. 2. 30. 32. 1. 12.237. . 39.005. 1. 13. 3. v 17. 4J.645.w 18. 4... w.*. . 7. 15.6. 21. ft. 1.6. 7.6. 17. 9. 13.. 5. 32. * 1. 11. ft. 16. 4. _ iVaft.  43. 35. f f V. 25. 21. 7 45. 6. 3. 12. 10.. 9. 4 n. 47. 3J. 15. " ^_ 22. 12. 14. 6. 4. 9. 42. 15. 12. 2 sec.1. 3. l~8. 5. 9. 12. 2. 1&. 10.742 in. V2. 16.690.  f. 39. 10. 16. Page 177. 1. xix 26. ~ V^3. 5f. 7563. ft.236. 16n. 7 in. 9. 18. 14. 19. 2. 4. f. 25. 36. 6J. 40. m. f. 18.5.469. . 7. 39 in. 11.. 4 W**. 36 in. 11. . Page 184. ^^7m. 6.18. 1. 2. 6. 1.4. 8. 35. 6 f !. 4. 20. (6) Vl4 3. 1 f Vl3. 14.i. 8. JJI. 6561.367. ^. 34. 2. 5. 29.. 10.  14. 9 15 ft. 17. . 4. 7. 4. > w ft. 5. 13. >i 27. Page 180.  f. / 11.  1. 13. 7. 2. 33. 27. >TT 26. 21 28 ft. 5. /. 23. . 10.5. 1. 49.}.6.  5. 7.243. 3. 9. 21 in. 270 sq. {. 2. 4. 12. 12. 10. 6yds. 15. 6.522 38. 3. 22. V. 6. 5. i. . 31. ^. 40. f 3.13. *. V J l. 37. 5. 5083. Page 179. 24. 20. V2. . 8. 10. 2. 8. 2. 34. 10. 19.916 yds. 1 7. If ^. 4. a. 14. 4. 27.60. 13.935. 37. 6V'2J. 8. 6V21. 5.V 8j. 7.  3. 48. 5. 3. 25 J. 30. \/3. 1 38. 3.925 ft. . 9. 5. () 2. 3. 12. m. . f . 5. Page 185. 16. 15 1 10..a. 7. or 3. Af^. 9. 5. 31. 2. 21yds. . i ^. 10. (afl). 3. 2] see. J. vV'TA 24. 41. 17. 24. 14. 33.
3. *'' 12. 2 . 35. 27. .  1. 53. 7. 4. 23. 2 V3 in. . Imaginary. 3. 3. 37. 1. = 0. 1. 25.70. 2. 0. U. x* 51. 13. 19. 58. 6.62.* 2. 2.4. 0.  i. 22. Page 188. Real. V^l. 1 3./hr. 2. If. 3. Page 190. . 1. 2. 14. 38. 46. 57. 9. 3. 23. r* i. . 14. 6. V^l. 3. t is. rational. 11. _ 19. 1. 16. 1./hr. 3.2. 27.. .37. 2. in. 0. 6.5.a. 3.Oa. 21.a. 34. 1. 10 mi. unequal. 6V64. 7. 2. 1. 3. Real. 12. 42. 3. 1. 20. . unequal. . 7.2. 4. 2.'. 1_^L ft 14. 2.17. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. AB = 3. 2. 3. 36. 5. 25. 30. 6. orf. (5 10. 2. 10. 1. 1).2.5 x + 6 = 0. 28.. 41. Real. 1. 11. 1. 2.5^. 39. 13. unequal. . 44. 26. . 4. 2. unequal. 7. 25.74. #<7=3. 120 ft.41. 5. 8. .$40 or $60. s 11. . 2. $80. . Page 189. 0.  1. 1. 3. ^l/>> = 85 ft.59. 43. a8 . 12. 21. $ 120. 10. Page 192. 19.  13. 9. V2. 33. VV11. 9.7. .23. 12.2. 16.1. a + 1. 21.  24. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 2. 2. V^~2. 4 da. 3. 1. 6./hr.6. 4. 0. 24. Page 187. jr . Imaginary.  2. .6 = 0. 1. $30 or $70.  5. 31. .1. 19 in. . Real.12 = 0. a + 6. V ~ 16 4 2. 1. 1. 3if. 47. unequal.2. 16.4.  Page 194. f 6 52 a.48. 26. 18. 64.2 x2 . .2. f. 32. rational.2.  1.  9x <). 6^2 in. 48. V2.2. 22. unequal. Real. 8. 0. '  f 5. 6. 2. 1. 3. 1. Real. 40. rational.48 3. 28. 0. 5 ft.  5. 23. 9. 20.]. irrational. 15. 5. i . . 24. i. equal. 1 . ft. 12. 70 ft.4. 18. 50. ' 1./hr. AB = 204 ft. 6. rational. 3..1. 3. unequal. 7.  6. 10 or 19. f. 20 eggs. 64c. + 11 x. 15 ft.  1. ANSWERS 22. x 14.a 3 a. equal. 8\/2 17. 49. 35.7.7.  2. rational. irrational. 52.3. 3. 10. 3. 20 nii. 18.2. 1. 4.XX Page 186. 29.10. 15. 0. 26. H. 3. 6. . 45. 4. unequal.2. 0. 0.12. . 2.  1. Real. 7. 17. 27.02. 4. Page 191. 2 ft. V7.4. 2. 12.4. 7. 25. 8. 4. . 0.0*8.23. 3. 5. 2. 5. x2 + B . 15. 8 or 12 mi. 3.. 1.. 0. 3. a. 6. 2.. 8. 7. 0.l. 10 mi.3. unequal. 26. 4. equal. 0. 56. 3. 28. 20. 3. 4. 10 in. 0. %. 24. Imaginary. 6. 2. x*4x=0. Imaginary. a. 55. v^^fcT"^. 2. 2. . 0. Real.
Page 197. Vr. 17. 28. _! V3. 47. . 9. 3. \. i. 5. 25. 30 a. x/25. 4. v. 21. 27. vm. $7. x. 9. 31. 41. 14. 9.17. 19. 1. ) 2 >J i 10. p. 6. v'frW. wA 46. 8. 22. 3. 4. v/3. 52.  f . 14. Jb \. Page 196. 9. 14. 40. 50. 12. 10. 2. 5\/5. ifa. 55. 15. 49. 1. . fx'^z'l 23. ^49. 28. 15. 125. m'. 24. J.. 2. 16. 50. 59. 36. 3. 25. 31. 3. a 18 . 14. 8. 3. 8. y. &. 6. 2.  J j.  5. 10. 1. 20. y . 18. . 7V7. 4. J. 7. 3. 2 L ( V. m. 16. r*. 7. 43. 53. Page 201. 45. 38. 49. *V. 29. 84. xxi 15. 18. V^ 34. 33. 42. . 2. 1. 8. 0. 39. : . 1. 4. 20. 35. JV37. 0. 51. 8. 27. 3. . 24. \/r\ 11. 8. 2. . 3. 2. vV. J 3. 47. 1. n\/* Page202. 29. 4. I. 48. 21. 1. 9. 8. 5." 17. 19. . 29. \a\ \/^. 11. 3 4 11. 49. J. 18. 12*2 61. ? . 5. 30. l  5 12. 46. 20. 13. 1V1. 10. 57. 24. 13. z + 22. 20. 3. 1. 16. 4. (m 26.ANtiWEUS rational. 19. 13. 13. 7. 1. v'frc 18. 2V a. 60. \ .2.  f. \/. 5. 12. 54.1 5 15. 17. 26. 19. Page 200. 0. 32.//^.^7. 33. 8. 1. aW\ 40. 1 39. 25. ^Sf 3 38. 5. 4. 1. v^T4 m. 1.32. jV 10. 7 . 4. 32. J. ar 1 . 11. 2. 'J. a. 2. 21. 30. r. 3.6. 3. 49. 22. 23. \. 17. . ). . 2.  48. 16. 9. 44. 243. x$. 3.  a'2 . 15. . 6  AAf. 23. Page 199. 58. 2. 2. 37. 10. 5. 56. 33. \/3.
x%  3 ^+ 1.3 + 40 3 . 8. 25. 29. k/2. ftV 46. 19. 2. 28. v^. 5. 2v (T 2aVf. 28. 2. 1 2 or 1 ?. 31.  a Vft 2 121 b. y (a + ft) V2. x 7  34. m* n*. . V2 + 4 V22. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.Vxy 35. (o* 2. y.rV:r. 13. 48. 13 a. 41.2 VlO. 16.r. 6.x^y* + y%. 2 '"V5. 3. 11.. 10. 3. 40. ?tV?w.). . 12.'\ 14. 20. 3 \ 39. 101 1. 3 4\/2. .XXii ANSWERS 1. 8a6V5.  2 3:r. 10. JIV6. + 2 V22. 3 42. 8V/) 15. . 23. 17. + 2). (a 27. 50. 3V5. + 1.577. 3 x^y 33. . . x y. x 25. 34 r 6. a 4 +* + !. 1) 3V3. 33. 49. a2 4. T. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12.yl : . V63. 2. 24. 36. 17. 2\/7. 9. 9 . V 5 47. 4. 2 a?>V2 a. 2. 13. 3V^T. 7. 5 ( .f. x + 5 x3 + 0. 19. 2>X2. 20. 32. 2. + 2 ar 1 ). 11V3. a 3. 13 35. 135V6. . .692. ^88". 11.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. + 2 Vzy + y 1. V80. 3^2. + + ft.648. r 17  Page 204. 9. Va 2 "ft. 20&V6. 34. 27. 45. + . + Vic + 25. l 5. 26. Page 208.632. 2. 37. 195V3. v/^r 5  A/^~. 10. 5. 22. 26. 4aV^J 16. a^ + 2^+1. 30. 43. 2 x* 15. 24.707. 21. 30. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. x^ . 9. Page 203. 15. 1. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 3^ + 2). 2 4 z2 l 3. Vr 8. 40. abVab. yV35. 29. ^: V2c. 5 22. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). Page 207. 21. 38. v'TM. 8.2 18. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. V. ). 3. 31. V. (x' (l 1+x). ^7 \AOx. 32. 03r* 7. 39. / V3. 18. x. 51. 62V(J. r c . 37. 7. 16. 6. 4.
\/128. 7. 2 28. 14. 22. 27. 3. 23. 4VO. 8v2T 12. V2. x/w^ 8. 39. 14. VT5. 3. 6x2?/. 44. v/8. 6. 21. Vtf +3+ 33. 6+2V5. a^\/a7>. 37. a\/5c. v^4. 6V2. 31. b. 22. 18. Vat. 14c 4 V5. . __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . x/8L v/27. 11. V5. 21 23. 20. 35. Page 213. \/04a. 5 \/2. 3. 10V(). 5V2. "v/wi ??. v^lf. 48. V2. 36. . 4 >/3. 49. 10. w?i. 74\/Jl 120 46. aVa. \/abc*. 2 ate. 2yV2?/. 11. V5. 8  \/15. 27. 2. 51. 52. ^27. 7. Page 210. Page 216. 37.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 5. m ?i2Vm/t. 2. 23. \^6. v^O. V3. 17. 8V2. 5. r)\/(l Vrtr. x/4. 19. 25. 1. 40. rtv/5. . 2. V/. 18. 9. . 6aV2\^. 3\/2. V3"m. / \/w/t 4 13. 19. 3 Vl5 30. ^\/3. 2 \/2. \^r^bVabc. 31. 2. 30. 0. 1. 24. V8. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 2\/7. 7\/(l 7VTO. 5V2. 41. 34. 15. D 45. Vdbc. + VlO  v y (5.  3. \^6. 3 V15  47. 17. 8. . 16. 26. x/125. . a2  b. v/l2. 3v^2. 17. 34. \/2. 1. 14. 16.r v/^ v^fr*. Page 211. 4. 2 V'3. fl^Vac. ab 4. + 20. 5. 5v/2. xx 1. vT).30 2. 4\/5. 53. 36.T*. 40. . 3 V2. 32. v^f. 1V5. 9. 3. VJla. 25. v^30. 10. v 25^4714 V2"a. 8V73\/IO. 3. 42. 29. 4. 39. 50. 26. 18. 6 2\/0. v/i). 13. x/8l. 43. v"3. 0. 9. 10. 6. 13. 33. 6. 32m27n. \V3. v7^. 4 a*. 3\/wi. : ^32. Page 214. x/3. 11. 12. \/a6c. 6. 38. 9 VlO + 4. V3. \/8. 15.. 30 Vl4.J Page 212. 12. v/9. v^a. \XOfl6Vi5. x/8. 8. ^9. 21. '. W). 7. 13\/3. ^v 7 15. 46. 2 1. 38. "^8000. 6. 32. 16. 35. x/27. 3\/15  6. 28. 2. % 29. 24. Vn. v"5. v/lO. ^ 3 b 5 24.
18. 3. 4. 3. 11. 2 . 23. + 5V2. ^. 12. m f. 25.2. (VllV2). 14. 3. 5. 64. Page 225. 34. 8 V3V2. 2. 13. 2. i(Vf Vft). 32. Page 218. 2. 3. 2. ^(VlO\/2). !^ 6 4. V5. 216. 24. 26. 3(7+3V5). 3V23. 4. 4. i^Lzi. ^\/2. 12. 9.389. fV2.  2.w 6.732. 21. p 6 13. 30. . 6.625 10.7083. 35.2. 4.  f.464. (2Vll). 14. 4. 24. 3. 2. n*. 2x^2^. V6c. (\/5V2). 27. V. 4. 9. 2. 7. * 3. 1. 14. (V5f 5. j.3. 2V3.2828. 15 f 3 V2L 4. Page 223.13.0606. 9. 5. 4 14.XXIV 7. 81.732. 9. 1. 20. J. 8. 19. 1.81. 11. Page 28. 21 ' Vob 26. 1. 9 mn. 4. 7. 2V2. 1. (V6 + 2V2). 22. V3. 25. V2. 16. 4. V^TTfc. 37.. V3. 29. (3+ v/2).5530. 15. 9. 6. 15. . (2f V"5). 16.3535. 5. 16. 8. 4. 8. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 10. Page220. 0. 7. 6. 5. 25. 4.4142. 1.\/TO). 25.7071. (2V2). 20. 23. . + 6) 2 . 81. 22. V35. 21. 6 (V2 + 1). _^JflJ?. 19.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 21. . 4. 15. 1. 6. 3. 12. 4.6 V3. 18. 8. (VaT^v a). 23. 23. 28. 4. 512. ' 22 i . 5. ^. 11.9.1547. 25. 8. j 15. Page217. 24. . Va. 16. 11. 22. 16. 19.V3). 7. 25. 17. . 9. 24. 19. 26. V3 . 7 f 5 4. 17. 8. 12. 20. 18. 18. 11. Page 219. Page 226. 224. \/3). . 29. 1. 5 f. 100. x 20. 10. f. ~ Vac _c 0. 17. 7 Page221. xy 2. 8.1805. (2. 9. . 1. 23. K>/0 + \/2). (\/3f 1). 30. 1. nVTl.5. 17.^ (\/22 4. (V8 + V2. 2V3. 12. 10. 5. 4. 7. 10. 9. 36. 14. 125. 11. 8. 5. 2!5_. 16. (V51). V3. 6 V. (Vf + (4 V2). 0.601. . A . 19. ANSWERS 8.4722. 33. \/57t. 1. 3. 10. 10. 7. Vf6fVtf. .1. 16.  . 2.3. 7. ^r. 13. 4. 9. 27.6. (V21). 6. 25. 18. 5 + 2 vU 17. 2ajV2*. . 12. 15. 7. 10. 5. 4V3 + 6. 13. \. Va. 31. 5 V65. {.  13. 16. 20.64. +3 V2). 15. J. 27. (a 1. 5.
5.  f . 3 5. 16. 3. 4. 30 . 15. 3. 5. 21. 19. 12. 2. .4).f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 13. a(.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 5. 20. 0.  1. 17. 3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). . ~ f7. 30. //. 23.l)(a3)(a . 2. XXV 4. 6 2 2a + 2).2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).3 2.1. 8. . 2. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 14. 2 6. 4. 4. b .  J. 1.3.3). 2. 73. . a . ( 16.  5. 0.2. 4. 13.8a 18. \/0. 5. 3. 15. 12. (a 4.3.4.nl^EI. 30 30. 1. l. 22. 2.Y. (a. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). . 1. 11. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). . J. 3 . 4. 1 . . o.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 12.5 xy + 25) 22. . 20. 4. 13.^a.2. 10. 1 6. . 4 4.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 7.3. 2. (m 4 + l)(ro.4. . 1. 8. 4 .  1. =A^Z3. 17. 3 . (w .1. 24. 2. 4 . 3. 5. 6. 22. 3. . 50. (8. 5. & + 6 2 ).3. 4. 10. 2 . 6. 7.0. 20. 3. Page 236. 2. 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). P. 4. 1. 15.2. 2 . 0. 2 > 1. J Page 235. 1. 19. 3 9. 3.2)(* . 1. 2. (a . 0. 1. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 5. 1. 3. 4. 2. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 9. 11. 1. 1. 1 (?> x/^3. 1 . (r. . .w 4 + 1). 5. 2. 18. . a  . 25. 1. 1 . 17. 1 . 4. 4 1. V3.12. 2 . 25. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 5. 5. 3 . . 18. f . 2 <? 4a2 . 2. 12 24 y . 1. 5. Page 234. 3. 87 . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1.3. 4. 3. 2. 8. . 26. 11. 7. 2. 2. 3. a: :} . 9. 56l). 6. 16. (pl)(p3)(p6). 10. t/ 23. 1. (B43). 7. 10. 2. 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). (pl)(p2)(p2). 28. (63)(6' t 18. 9. 2. . 100. 7. 4.2)(m.7. 4.4. 3.  . 30. 7. 0. 3. 13. 3. 2. 6. 2. 3. 10. 0. . 2. 0. 19. 4. . 2 . (2 a. 11. ' J. 1. 8. 1 . 10.10. 25. 2. 2 V^ .l)(m . .  3. (a+&)( 2 14. 25.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. . 5. qpl. 7.  4. 2. 14. 3. 1.  3. f>. 7. 4. 73.r .ANSWERS Page 228. 2. 2. 2. 11. 3.22. 0. 8 6 & 0. (rt. 4. . 2. 24. (a. 13. 6. 4. 2 &.l)(a 2 + a f 1). Page 233. (&y2a#H4). 5. 2. y.5. 4.. 12. 3. 2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).  3. 11. (4 mn .3. J 24. 6.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 8.  16).  2. 1 3. 8.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). (+!)( 2) 10. 5. J. 6. 1. 4. 12. 2 6. 3. . 21. 14. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 3. 3. 4 20.
m27. . 3. 35 a. 2. 1 . 13. (a) $3400. 3V5.136.2. 4. . 2 1. 8ft.30. 1. 15. 4. 3. 2. in. 2 10.xxvi Page 237. 4. 84. 4. $. '>. in. 8. 36. . 40. . 5 4. 39. . 2. . f>. 3. 35 ft. in. 17. 2V7. 17. 18. 37. 8 . . J. 6. . 9. 78. 5. Page 240. _ 10. ft. . 3 4.0. in. 1.. ri*. 4. 1. 2 16. 2. 10. V7.4. 9. 2. 11. 5050. 10. (a) 5. and _ 4. . 5. 17. 1. 3.4. oo . . 4. 4. Indeterminate. 15. 8. 14. 8 3. i i i .4. 15. 5. 19. 40 25 in. 7. 5. 21. 11. 15. ( 3. jj. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 4. 1 . 125 125. 2n. 22. \/6. 3. . 3.1. 8. 5. 29. 1J. 12 d. (/>) "_. (&) 2. 3. 1 2. 4. . 4. 2 2. 20.0. 4. 7. 5 . 24. 5. x 4. f.  . 25. 12. 12. 2. 1. 2. . Page 244. 1. 201. 2 . 1 . 2 ft. 37. 3. 24. 3. 3. 23.e. }. 30 13. 20 in. 14. 1. 12ft. 3. 3 . 3 . 21. 20 7.6. 6. 400. 14. 6. 1. _ 7. $VO. 2. 32. 30.y. 1. 4. 4. J.5. ft. 5. 2. 8. 512. 5.. f*. 4 6. 20.3. . ANSWERS 2. 10.3. Exercise 113. 9. 512.. 5. 15. 2. j. 1. 14. . . 4 . 3. n. 4. . 900. 3. 2 26. 5. 18. 16. c. 1. 3. . m28. 3. 4. 4. 1. Page 239. V3~. ^ }. +  n.  2 . 16. 3. 55. 3 3. 2. 4. 17. (>. ' j. Page 238. 18. 7 3. 1.4. 1. 11. 3 cm. 11. oo. } . 9. 1. 16. 2. 3. 8. 5. in. 10. 6. 4. 2. Page 247. 1. 15.  11. 2. 26. 69. 2. .1. 12 1. 11. 38. 2. 1. 7. 1. 45yd. 14. 3. 0. Exercise 114.. .. 35. 2 Y> V . . 23. 2. 17. 1.3. 14. 12. 1. 35^ 5. .1.5. _ 5.3 . J. 4 34. _ 13 (0 6. 2. 48. 5 cm.13. 9. 3. 14. .3.. 11. 1. . 12 ft. 1 . \. 1. oo . 2. 1. 5. 1. GO . 1. 41. . . 0. 21 30. 2 . 1. 22. ^~2. 12. 2.6. 31. 8. 1. 13. 3.3. .. 1. 7f solution. . 31.. $. i j. 2. 4 8. n . i'ljVU. .. 8.. Indeterminate. 4. 15. 7. tn 2.  1. Page 241. J. 3. 7. 4. 1. Page 248. 288. . 12. 3. . . 4. = QO 6. . 3. 50.3. 17.200.020. 13. 28yd. 5. 37. 4. 40 in. 5. $46. 12. 3. 2. 1. 3. Page 245.3. 3. 5. co . i. . 2. 5. 5. 9. 19. 6. 3 2. 7. ft. 30.18. 1 . m + n. 5. Page 243. 1. 2>/3. 0. 3 . 33. 7. no co . . 1. 8. 50. 2 .
K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 2. . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .130 x30 189 a 4 24.700. 8. 708. 9. 75. 35. ~v 9. 4. 2.384. 10. 9. 15. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 105.7 10.  17. 44. 3. 22. 20. 43. 45 Page 257. 6. Y11. 29.8. \ w 4 . 128. 100. .<2 4. 10. a. xxvii 1. 220 . 16 11. 1820. 8. 4. 5. 19.2 9. />*. I. 04.x' 10 . and 1. &' 14. 25. 2. 1. 327.^ ?>i 2412x4. 7. 1 7 4. 3. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 45. f y 8 + z* . Page 252. 405. 3. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 4. 35. 2i* 7f.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . . . 27. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 5. 005. 1. r r j.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .5. 15. 7.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 10. 7.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 14. 16. a4 4 14. sq. 18. 2. 6. 3. 10. 1. 19. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12.3 ays. 16. ^a 8.ANSWERS Page 250.4. 1. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. . . 5. 16. 4.r* 4 70 . 2. 81. w9  8. 21. 125. B . 04. 0. d. 19.5 x. 5. 13. 125. 12. vy.13. 3. 304.53. 13. 7.470. 7. Page 254. 17. A. 15. Page 258. 0. 410. i 10. 48.2 45 a 8 /). } $ 50. <. 13. 8. 343. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 3. 12.0. 0. . x4 . 3. 6. 495. 7. 12. x + Vy. 280 53. 8. 12. 8 .120. . 1 14. 10. 3. 20. ~ an . 5. 0.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 5. 50. 1.1. 15. 28. 70. 53. REVIEW EXERCISE . 4. 1. r 5 4.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.192.6 . 17. 27. 20. 16. '23. . 8. 8.170.5y 4 . G. 8. 6. 7 x4 17. 55. 8 4x' 2 . 27. 1000 aW. 9. . 1JH. 21. 12.870 m*n*. 3. 343. . 8 1. 0.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 8. 5. 8J. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . in. x r 4. 6. 12. 1. 45. Ja.v Page 253. 5 13. 4. JSg. 910.210. 2. 11. 2. 9.680. 11. . . 3. 18.  20 flW.504. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 9. 4. 18. 4.r x>/ 7 3. 8. Jj? 45. 6. 12. 27.4 &z x>&. 10. . . ?/i 6 x llj . 70.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 2. 9. 4. 11. 1. 17. 4 0. 6i. 2. (). 4. 16. 2. 3.r 4. 10 14. 4. 0. 05. 2. 4. .6. 7. 2. 16. 1. J 2 //2 25. 12.920. 3. Page 259. 2. 0. 1. 0.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 4. 0.5. 3. 6. 5. 26.419. 23. 5.12 x*y 16.  101. 6. 4950 M 2 b y *. 4. 5. 4. 16. 5. 8. 1. ' 1. 18. 70. 192. **+. 15. 4. 7. 22. 32. c. 4. 120 aW. 6.
30. . 14 x . 0. 1 121. 2 x'V2 90. 118. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 4 . . 2 53. . x4 f + 23 . 5 4 4. 3~ n 4. 12 x. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. y 4 z* 0. 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.2.2 c .a'2 c. 24.x24 73. 4 69. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. . 7 + 3 xf 2.3 x 2 + 3 x . 1 + 4 xy. 43.1. 102. 3 36 b c . !! 71. 99.5. . 10 a 12 b. . 6 c 47. I 57. x2 2 .a' 'ft 4. 8x3 8x.a 2 x 2a . 72.a*ft 2 126.4 x y 87. 80.5 3n 4. a2 2 aft 2 2.1. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. . 16. 2 113. az 4. 5x + 2y~z. 109.x4 + y'2 z 4. 91. 4.105.2 x^.  e +/.xxviii ANSWERS 19. ?/ . ft2ft 4 4l. + z.3 103. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .1.x. ?/ 3. /> 4 83. 120. 16t/. ?> . 2 2/' .a6 2 4.4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 4. . 107. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 86. 104. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. x 2 . .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 21. f5+7. 130. . () 2 x 33. .9 b. 1 x 45. . 36. 132. + 3 a?. a4 x. 28. 13 + 2 s. 2 .y*. 31. 4ft y3. + a 4.1w 77. 6 8 j27 40 ab. x } 4. (a + ft)" 98. a* a 8 a aftc. Page 260.4 2 4 c2 42 . 2 x2 108. 62. 35.c 3 4. 4 65. 6a6c. 4 ! .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. .2. 32.9 x .18 ?/ 5x4. 127. 2 30 . 1 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). a* 4. ft /> 78. x8 x2 55.15 4 62 x  72. 4 115. x 8 + x 4 68. c3 4 58. ft n .  12 a. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 3 a 44. &p 84. m " + n + P3c . Page 263. 100.6 b. xyxzyz. 3 a 5 a 5. * 60. 9 2w 128. _55_7c 48. . a 4 . x 3 4. x* .rty x2 4 123. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 105. a' 111. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 88.ft). . a 3m 4. 133. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.4. +^ + ft W. x 3 41. 9x. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 70. 63. . 2 . 124. 27. 4 fee 4. df. 2 a. 125.4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 10 4. x 4. 29.ac 44 aft.4. a~b 89.  .3 aftc.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 4 2 . 4 15 x 5 .7. 3 c . 5 42. 40. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . .2 x 4. 2 q. . 64. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 82. a J .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.3 a'ft.  3 x2 .{ 54. 26.5x4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .fee 2 4. 3a~2c. t 81. x2 a2 1 . 76. 23. as 20.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.x 2 4. 39. 2 x2 4. 131. 22. 0. 4 Page 264. 37.3 a 2 '6 w 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 6 a2 97. ^ . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 110. 3 a . 93.x x*  f 2 ax 4.7 x   15. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.6 am b\ 129. 114.4 x 2 .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 243x4729.2. 46. . 49. x2 471x4. 8 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.3 b . 12 a/. x' .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 25. 50. .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 122. .  + 3 x2 . x 8  a8 . 61. 52. x .^a .18 x?/0. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. . 94. 5x 2 2x43. . 1 a"* 4 an .41. .c.5 b + c .3 .c. 2 . x2 5r*x ft 5 .4 x?/2 3 4.1 4 jry 4 x . 96.  4 a3 85.x 51. 66. 38. x' 79.4 ac.3 y. 3a'2 Page 261.. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.1. 0. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .a.
169.. 197.6)(4 + 6). (x^ + x1) 234.y)(z . 7. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).3) (2/3y). (r^x + 1). 48 h. 168.  1. (y7)(y + 188. + 3) (x f f>) . (y  17)(y + (>). 166. 2 (4 x .. 12 6 panes. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.9)(xf 2). (x + 2)(x . (y _ ft)(y 4. 8(ar}(/)27). (3x2?/)(2. 215. 12. 161. k. 156.3). 1.1). 1.6) (2 x + 1).2). 199. (8x + 3)(3x4).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 5. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . fc'2a+62c). y 245. (y_24)(y5). 32 h. 2(x8)(x3). 191. 146. 180. + 3).3 y)(a . 164.3 y). m. 152. 3. (x 227. 186. 216. 20. 220. 159. 195.4xl). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). + 11) (a 10). 1. 12) (j. (r7y)(ai. 201. 237. 50. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). ( jc // a 2 (a1). (/ 246. 184.1). 10. 15  a. 37 1. Page 267. 19. 8 204. 189. (2 198. p. C3 y _l)(. (x . 15. 170. 6). 149. 147. 226. 222.y + 3)(r (. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). x(x + 6) 213. + 22).1). 140. 160. 21. (5 x . 148. . HI. 4. 183. Page 266. (7 c 2 ). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 187. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 212. a. xxix 139. 136. 176. 1. 12 yr. 2. 2. 208. 12 yr. 10). 137. 30 + xyr. ?. 142.y) (\r3y). p. 138. y. .. 6. 2.1(5) 200. a + 2x2 ). 2. 153. 190. + 7)(rt4).y)(jc + 7 y). Page 265. 177. 2^. 75. (a& 192. 150. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 154. (.2 )(x+y) 228. 6. 233.6 .y). + y. 247. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 143. 236. 10). 207. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).2ac + 229. 155. 2 xy(3 x . (a 2 + 2a6. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 4. 217. 30 yr. 3. 30. (x  42 yr. 147 mi. 241. 172. (a} 59. G7. (233). 181. 232.ANSWEKti 135.2. ( + 2y)(2x3y). a 2 (15. 157. 214. z(x10)(xl). ft. 151.l)(a 2 +3). 218. (y 7f))(y 196. 240. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 205.I2y)./_4). Or (a + 2)0el).2).l)(x8 + x2 . 224. (?/+l)(yl).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 206. 173. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). yr. (3x  . 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 1. y3. 244. + 2) + 9a. 40 yr. 1. (7x2//) 203. 231. 174. 2 2 (a. .r . (JT y 225. a(a. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .y2 ). 162. 36ft. 1. 3(x . 175. 12. 167. 22. 178.2) (3 x . (c) 160 C. as 194. 185.l)(y + 1). 23 18. 182.. (ab + 8) ( 7). aft. (2a + l)(a . 163. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 211. 1. (x + 6)(x6).3. 235. . r>x 2 (4x. 230. y  y 165. 10 in. 218. 238. . +)(x2 x^+2. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 18. 179. 15. . (6) 40. 210. 219. 20.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 2. 10 ft. 209. 202. 144. . 239.m)(x + a).r + 4). Iff 145. 171. 193. 158. 24.
7^T 2 . 264. ^ 299. + f. 256. ^/>J. 259. 260.. *. 254. 0. 3). x12. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 2 x  3. 279.(x  4) (x4 304. 306.2* i^^ !^.1. ?^ZLiZ 308. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275.   . 10. 7. 251. 301.^^^^^^^^. 0. 298. x 267.4) 1) (3 x . 305. x ?/ z 1. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. x 283. 3). 307. a. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 310. 4 5. 3. o(x4l). *>). ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 261.  3xyf x// 257. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o. 258. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. (7 255. 3  262.4). 43 '^rJ'. 266. 268. ? 1) 302. a~ ' b*). 2. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. &). 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.  7. 250. 5. 249. 303.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 269.^ ^^. x . 7 x 265. 295. 263. > 4. 2 4 300.
x 54 359.  1. 336. 2(a i 403. 2 r36 384. . 1. ^"" 4 s . 399. 20. 11. 375. 0. 392. 3. 370. 360. 377. a + b + 6). 0.XXXI Page 272. 2. . 326. + 335. 1 i 2 ^. 0. 394. 13 391. 383. 7. ab. 365. 395.7. 401. + 4 & 4 \ b. 1. ^ 3 // . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 9^. 339.". 386. m. 355.. l . 2 ab  a Page 276. 398. . 385. T+^. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. T\. 1. Page 274. 333. 3. _*L'L+. 400.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. <L 409. + x 362. a) A^_. . 1.(5 a . 324. 390. 6 ?/+:>. 1. c 402. 2(q. 366. 364. (a + b + c\ . 4. 361. . 404.  1 356. 387. 2 ?/ 363. 343 00 351. 325.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 407. 376. f.)Cr4)__ . A^L5L.J . a 2 . 6a. ^_:r f> 331. Page 277. 0. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. ?=. 393. 405. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 4 A. 7/i ^ _ .vin a /r " 337.. 12. 334. 388. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. a +6. ?>*. 382. 379. 2 ). L .1. 4 rw. 408. l'j. 396. . 3.!.3. ?/ + 3 332. j 328. 380. S. y 4 I 340. " 4 378. 2 327. 4. If. 2. 389. 329. 397. * 357. 406.
508. 444. ISJini. 7. 478. a* 424. 0. L (c) I. 1. . 10. \. 461. 492. 506. $2000 at 0%. 8. 445. 421.. 5.. 436. 22. 458. 10. 7. . (d  6) f. 467. ^r?i 434. 464. 7.12. \ 1. 494.}. . a + + ft c. fc.  505. m. '.vz in. Page 282. Page 280. 500. 496. 472. 0.rz Page 279. 0. 487. 457. c. 6.  1. 28 yr. 448.5. . 455. ^. 7. a 22 . 5. 4. 10. 32. 480.  453. 53 yr.3. 33.  2. ' $260 at 0%. 4.488. 462.m  m+ M in. 456. 502. 422. (a  c). 412. 430. 9. 411. 463. 4. 6. 3. . 2$. 479. 503. (&) true. & 491. . 1. 468. 2. . 482. 465.  1. 6. 2.7. 498.7. 499.7. Page 278. 17. 0. 40 oz. B $ 2500. B 4 mi. 425. I. 450.  2. 426. 423. . 2. 5.}. 428. 2. i.7. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. />c c(f be. . fj.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.. 1$. 2. . 466. 10. 6. 460. 10$. 490. 2. 8. 441. 497.  . (d) true. 0. . 2 a 2. 507.4. 484. (c) not true. 485. 0. 5J. 20. 17. ^V. Page283. 410.  7. 493. 452. + () 433. m 1 : wi. 50. 2 438. 20 yr. *+. 21. 2. 10. 440.  2f 504.7. 3.0. 3 . 5. 446. 2. .489. 418. 5. 3a 4 5. 483. L2 a  6 . 413. A $ 3500.1. 481. . 12. * . 42. 1. 7 : . 459. 5. 18. 11. 6.. <L+ 6 (. 2. 432. A 5 mi . Page 281..46. z8 +?/ 3 431. 486. 442. 477. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 40. (a) 1. 427. . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 8.2. 447. 420. 90. 501. .0. 6. 454. 8. b 449. 1. 495. 429. 32 yr. ft 5.  10. 10.3. 51.. 476. : />a. 439.4.2.te + . 3. !L=4.  f>. not true. . 14 miles. 4. 24 days. . i a b 451. 419. ISjmi. 84.  2. 7. 1 a /?$+&?. (&) 443. 0. 63. c 6fc 10.  7. 2. . 1. 10. 435.55. 6.
1. 2 .4. . a f ft + c. 3.1. 582. . 3. 2 10. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. . .  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . . + 6 tf f 3 . da.62. . 1. 598.8. 1.25.5.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 529. 3. 3. 552.3. 8 mi. . y 4. 579. 1. 6435.51. 6.8. 2 1.2.78. 4* da. (/)  10 to 8.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . 573. 1.54. 566. 531.7. 514.55. o> .73. 40 Ib. .15. 4.% rr\* 585. 4. ..3.  4. 3f 4f. . 2 2. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 24 da.1. 4 mi. 1. lead.9.  (a) (d) 1.  557. 1. 518. 525.1. (e) 570.35._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 1J. 14. 7. . 2. If 572. lead. 581. 3. 1.6. + 12 x . 3.21.12.5+. . 3.0.. 4.56 sec.02. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. f36a28x8 592. 1. ^ ft 4. a+ Page 286.10.f 1. (d) 537.5 f.25m. 3 .  ft*.04. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 562. .62. 1.75. 599. 2 . 3. 510. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 2. Page 287. 2. 575. 3 da. 577. 576. 4.24.  J(a f + 2c). per hour. 5. 536. 1. 556. 4.00. 1. 560. 2(6 597. 2. 2.7. 5. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .4 x + . 571. xxxin 511. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 533.24. . 515. y% Z * 586.1. 31. 4 0. 551.37.54. 550.30.  2ft da. . 530.88. 1. 1.8. 532.0. _^ 2754x .02.15. 4. .1. Page 288.. (ft) Ill Ib. 2(4 602.r8 596. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).4. 559. . 5. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.3..  (a) 2.6 2. . Roots imaginary. . 1 580. f.0. (gr) 10 1. f ? a f ft __ + c C). J7] min. 567. 115 Ib. 3. 1. H. 2.20. (a) 74 Ib. 512. 2$. 528.  1.  2. 2. per hr. tin. 0. 1.02.14.  3. (6) 3. 3. 568. a + ft  a  f c.03. 1 . (6) .83.4.53.33. tin.ANSWERS Page 284.3.83. 526. (c) 4. g(rc+ 6c). 574. 1. 5.5. imag.31.4.0. 24.5. 2 1. 27 y* f\4 .  7. 561. > ^ . 6.3.37. <z ft 1. 2.xj/ f xV . 578. . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 21*_.8.02. 8. 1.3. 555.15. 603.24 sec.03.8 x3^. 1.. . 3.  . 553. T . 563.31. 554. S82 c. 564. 593. .5.3.5. 4. 3. 527. x8 . (ft) 4. 3.52. ft 584. 1.   (h) 8. 509. or 8. 2 imag. 1 . Page 285. 565. _ 3. 7^ da. + 26 + .10.3. 2.16.05. . 3. .78. f. 591. 583.6.  imag.6. 516. (i) 3. .75.  + + c. 1$. 1 600.7. _ 4. (c) 3.6. 1.04.38. 569. 558.4. 4. 4. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 1.4. 513. 0000. . . 232. (e) (c) 2. 1.
i. 2f. . 3 681. 2 ab + a  &. 679. 7003. 624. 703. 616. 210. .3. fe + a. ab 689. If 665. 660. 637. 4 V 0.a~ {Z 663. 2 / 2 4. 5. 0. 0. . 617. 2 a 688. 701. 614. ' 674.  4. . a 1J. 2. 8 f 3. 0. 613. 2. 651. If b. 696. b 664. 678< 682. ^. o. ^ 1. 622. 612. 2f. 621. 657. 631. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . Page 289.. 653. be ac \.001. 669. 2. If.y. (a3&45rj.  2f r 659. 656. y  619. if 4/> 671.3. 009. 635. 1$ 639. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 677 680. 3 x2 . 5. 672. 78. 1 ~a . 700.3. 703. 4. 11. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.  a2  a (ab). 630.001.f 3 V^3).04. 1. la6 2. 11. 25. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. ft).25.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2 a  6*. 6 685. /> 4. ix 2 . . 643. 698. 0. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 1010. . 3.2f Page 290.  3. ^^ 695. 642. 690. 618. 2. \. 1m*.14 If 1. b . a.  1. V7. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). a 673. 2. 12. 623. n^l +^. V^~3). 636. . 708.  13. 627. c.43^4. 620. 648. 629. 662. 0. 641. K 5 2 V2. a 4. 683. V"^TJ. 2. V2.  4.049.2f (5 4. 650. 25. . . .  6. If f 667. 5002. 645. 632. 3 a. 691.0.. 9*. 607.c ) 697. 608. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 971. 2. 4. a 2. 4.3f l 668. 898. 692. a + b.  684.  . . 2.002. <T! . b. 646. V2. 4. 8.>A 610. 1 2. 654. 4 676. 4330 da. 6. 1. 1. 634. 652. 705. 666. 14. J^^. 0.  ft.702. 628. 2. 1. 6. / V^+lO^M"^. 1 V5 1. ab. 2 x 44 ^/. . (*_ + a: 611. 640. 633. 655. . If . 649. 638. 7. 7. 2 a: 4. 644. 2092. 661. z  1. 3. 5. 13.303.3. \+ab 699. ' fe 2 ). a ' 2 + .203. 4$.b 686. fta a/> ^A. If 658. 9.b. 3. 1 704.XX XIV 606. 8 6 fo . 50. 626. 706. 5. 5 3. l/'3. + ~^'2 + a 1. I}'/. 2&). 702. 625. ^. 670. 615. 647. 10. .
rt3 2 ^i^. 793. 715. 1 747.12 af V^ 4 744. a:* . x i f^' . 3V7. 726. v'll. 7  3V5. 2 V2 . 29\/3. 728. iv/Jj. 1^ _ 760. 768. Page 293. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . Hi a. 722.11. . y  1. v/7 / . VIO\/3. 13ft. 731.1 .V/^ 741. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.. a 2  x2 .257. cr*lr*. 8.10. 712. a 5 . 790 2v 3v 2.r+y> 759. 718. 300. 794. 713.ANSWMHti Page 292. 792. 00. 4 104 v/2. 776. 5. a". . 773. 34. 24V2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.V2.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. i 2. > 748. 24 4 . 723. 1. x\y. 2\/53V2. 733. 3V72V3. 1. 732. 17ft. 8. 25. 727. 730. 30\/10 764. Page 294. 746. 342V3. 3 720. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 749. r. 758. 1 I .~ . a db Va^T < 45da. T%. fyaw&cu.4 . 1. 717. 5.r. i^.2. 3V52V3. ^ ?>. 39. VV> L4V34. + < 735. 3. 33^2. 47. 729. 3V72VO. mn. 710. ^7xy. .9. 3 VlT 795. . 1 [ + '> J. j 742. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.^ 743. 751. 788.. 716.rJ w L 754. 796. 753. 756. a 2 6^. 740. J(v'lO2V 791. 739.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.9. 725.8.. 767. / 787. 709. 32>/2. 736.4 . 778. 738. 789. 755. 737. 24. 15 shares. 1 752. 724. 3^. 769.. 763. 59. . 782 785. 2x3^ a. 721. 711. 734. 750. 777. VT14V5. 714. + 6 2 tf'c. 719. "V313. ^ .^.
7.XXXVI 797. 17. ) (a' 874. V 3. ((' 1). 840. . 4 . Va 803.y) 852. 4. 5. . 6. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). n =  29. 2  2. 863. 3. 827. are extraneous. 3. 1.  839. 6(a6)(o a + + &). ^. 835. 883. 3. 3. 857. (x 845. (x 2 ./>") (a'. db 7.1) . 820. 851. ANSWERS 798. Hoots are extraneous. 2 806. 1.. 1. 13.+ m f ") (a* ). x. (2x (r. 891.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 804.. 1.1)(0 865.2 ax 4. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . Va. a* 4. 867. 2 . (a m . 876. ( 4 4.1)(V 2 . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 4. 829.r .a 2 2 ). (:r 11. 833. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (3 b . 4. ^ V}.5 b) 4 1). . (2 x + 3 y} . 858. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 826.  tt 815. \/5. 2 . 900. 6 $. 3.7 4 1) 846. 0. (x3).25 ?>2). 8 09.a 3 " 4. 1C. a(ry + 864.rae) (4 . 0. b' 2 821.r4). 2/ 856. 3. 4 818. 4. 8. 8. 819. 895. 48. 881. 1 . x . 838. 7. 879. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 859. . 6. (x . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 880. 2. 892. 811. 816. 872. . 3.1).6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).2) (x 4 2). 4. 2. 831. 2. 6+V7. ^VG. .f. 898. 861. .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.3.4. 5. 899. 4. 848. ( 869. 4 885. 0. (a 1) (x 4. 817. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 810. 886. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4. 2. 887. a2 ^E*!. 2. 0. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 1. 897. 25. **. 882. 822. . 4. . X4 1). (3 862.7). 20). f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (1 . 4. jV3 f 3. .l)(x . Hoots . 812. (x 2 f r . 2. o.3. 2 854. Page 296. 868. 3 . . 2.0. 837. 824. (. 14. 2 2 . (a 4 871. + d)*. (x . 2 *x 807. 888. 825. 7. 11.l)(x + 2). 4. 893. o 828. 836.3)(x + 4). 2 ..l)(x . 2. . (x + 0X024. m = 2. 2 j 889. f. 2 (x 4*4. J V. 832. 5). 814.7)(4 x. 7.  + l(l^). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . Page 297. (4 c 4. 2 m . 17. $.4) 860.10 ab 4. +j!>. 1 1. 843. (x*y*ryz + z*). a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 7. a 42)(x . 884. 5. \/2. 896.  ' . 2. 10. 6. 3. a(ft)( 873.1. 800.  1.5) (x + * 853. (2 4. (xl)(^~3)(. 11. (x 4. 3. (2 a .1) (a 8 . 849.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 834. 890. 841. 5.l)(x + 3)(2x43). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 844. 813. 823.4. 830. 894. 847. 2.2w . 808. 19. 23. 799.7). m 875. 5. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 842. H. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 3.a 4 + 1).om 441) (a 855. $. 4. 801. .
. 7. f ft 4 . 4 6 mi. 12 in. 333. 938. . 7 or 30. 12 mi. 8128. 956. ft. 8.111. 2. 981. ft. 4.. 919. Page 303. 933. 941. 925.. 18. . 1 . 4. 982. ft. . ft. 6 da. 12. 902. 8. 957.073. T 6. 5. v/(ai !)(&910. 2. $(l 4. 0. . 4. yd. 905. 2 ft. 1 _2 . 11. 2 yd. 11. 3. 950. 2. ft. 3. 4. 952. 0. 927. 5l4f. 6. 945.. 5. 4. 944.651.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 984. 20 19 ft. 28. Y. 248. .. 6.. V^3). 8 . . 14 . 7 ft. 4.1 = 9. S07.1. 912. 1. =F J. i 8. Page 302. 28. 959. w 3. 2 1. 923. tt2 19. 917. 921. 1. 4 . 2. 2 w 914.0. 1 1. '3 3 in. . %* . w. 4 in. ft. 8. 5. Va926. 15 16 ft. 1 + V953. 0. 11. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. .. . 937.2.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901.. J. 280. 2. 961. i>. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 6. 3 . 12./hr. ft. 11.. 980. 2. .  1 . 940.2. 73. . 28.. 15 946. 7. J. 942. dL 4. i 3. 3). 987. 8. 4. 6.615. 3 4 . 3. i1" 913. 60 949. 960. 5. 986. 2. a + . 948. 1). 906. 934. 904. 7. 955. 7. 80. ft. . Page 300. 100 rows. 8. 333. 2. 6 .. 922. 10. 6. 943. a. 4. 4. 1 2. V5 fj. 958. 903. . 947.I. ?/i 6. 108. .01. 920. 12. 918.  1. 977. J(_ ft. 939. 908. .446. 2 i ' a V. i(6 in. 115. Z ^. 0. 954. 979. 916. 480 8 sq. 911. 964. 2. 909. r ft ' < Page 299. 985. . 6. 3. T 6.. 10. 935.1. V5 T 2 . 2. 3. 329. 1.. 6 a 915. ^y. 9 in.. 930. 40 16 in. 3. Page 301. T3. 951. 496.709. . 8. 6 1 1. 5 . 931. 932. 6. 4. 962. 983. . 3. 936. 111. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.  26j. 66 924.. 978.760 sq. 5. f. 8. . 963.V~~3). 56.744. 8. .
1013. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1016. 0. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 2 . 2(2 v/2). 1010. r = 2. 992. 994.378 <W and 92. () 12(2+V3). 1005. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 997. 988. 993. 3003. (6) 8(1 . in. 108. (J. 192. 12. 996. 72.. 1001. 1 1004. 1006.  5&7 1021. 995. + 448 . 1017. ^f (2f3V2). 1007.870 z8 . 120 i^l^.'^^ } ( . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.870 a 6 1011. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . . 1000. 1 8 8 2. X. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .128 I. (Z>) 999. Page 304. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1(5.. 1003. ^Trsq. 9 da. 6 70 . . 0. ~ \.51. 32 13 (tx 4V3. (5. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .18.192rt?)r 120 *.92. 1018. 8. 4. 162. 48. . 1012. 24. Page 305. 4 and 1020. 120 a. 1019. 1009. + v 2). 12. 991. 990. 1014. 1008.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.378 1015.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .
The more important subjects tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. than by the . given. so that the Logarithms. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.D. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. physics. and commercial life. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. $1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. $1. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Ph. Half leather. etc. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Half leather. xiv+563 pages. HEW TOSS . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. i2mo.25 lamo. comparatively few methods are heretofore. xi 4 373 pages. great many work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. A examples are taken from geometry. save Inequalities.
which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The author grade.D. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW YOKE .ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. and commercial life. Ph. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.25 i2mo. so that the tions. Logarithms. $1. save Inequalities. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many A examples are taken from geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. comparatively few methods are given. etc. $1. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+56a pages. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. HatF leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. xi f 373 pages. 12010. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. In Factoring. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.
iamo. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. aoo pages. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. NEW YORK . State: . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Cloth. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.r and. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. SEVENOAK. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. lines. xii + 233 pages. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. izmo. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .10 L. under the heading Remarks". $1. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 9. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. more than 1200 in number in 2. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. 10. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Half leather. 4. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Ph. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work.D. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Cloth. 6. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. i2mo. 7 he . SCHULTZE.. $1. . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. wor. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.
Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. $1." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . 370 pages.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . of these theoretical views. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. 12mo. . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . . . and not from the information that it imparts. New York City. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.
diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. " This volume etc. Topics. Maps. $1. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. and a full index are provided. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Cloth. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. photographs. An exhaustive system of marginal references.