Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co. September. July. Reprinted 1913.. Published Set up and electrotyped.A. May. January. 1916. 8. 1910. September. August. May. Norwood. IQJS January. Mass.COPYRIGHT. .' February. . 1910 . 1910. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. 1911. 1917. J. U. 1915.
All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. specially 2. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject." this book. owing has certain distinctive features. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. etc. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. manufactured for this purpose. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method.. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. however. Elementary Algebra.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Such a large number of methods. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. and conse . are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.
as quadratic equations and graphs. Topics of practical importance.g. are placed early in the course. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. e. hence either book 4. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. especially problems and factoring. may be used to supplement the other. For the more ambitious student. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . In regard to some other features of the book. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. Moreover.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. etc. two negative numbers. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.
such examples. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and commercial are numerous. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. viz. Moreover. physics. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. elementary way. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. in " geometry . an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view." Applications taken from geometry. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. is based principally upon the alge . nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. By studying proportions during the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple.
however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. 1910. April. William P. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. .viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics.
... SUBTRACTION.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. ..... Powers... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors...
. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type Polynomials. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ... Type III. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type VI.. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ...114 . Type V. Type II.. . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . * .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. /^ .... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . . . Type IV. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .
...... . Evolution of Monomials 170 .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . . CHAPTER XIV 169 .... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
Val \fi?. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. e. 17. v'Ta. 5Vl6c. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. b = 3. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. some number is . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 2 . a2 + and   \/a are binomials. since the parts are a . 12. c f d). d 7. + c)." EXERCISE If a 1. 0. V3 . a polynomial of two terms. A binomial is 62 . 14. V36". 16. x 9. [6c] 3 . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). (cfd) 4.g. !^f\/03 3 ft. A polynomial is an y. or 9 Vx.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. find the numerical value of: Vff. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. is 28. + 1]. 10. V2a. 9. 6. 27. 4V3~6c. 13. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. as in arithmetic. 15. 7 = 2. \/c. 8. aVc^. 11. 2. c = 1. 26. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 6. V^a6. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. are trinomials. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials.
19 = 6. * For additional examples see page 268. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 10. EXERCISE 8*  . 3 4 . a 2 6. Ex. 5c +d 2 . 5. 14. 1. . 3 2 If 1. a=4.. . d = 0. 4a6fVaV2^. 52 .e. l 13. b = 3. 3. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. a2 11. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.99. Otherwise operations of addition. . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 16. i. 6. 8. multiplication. (a (a f b) 7. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . + 26+3 c. find the numerical value of: 9.390. __ E.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . Ex.5 ax 50 a6cd.9 aWc + f a b .30 = 270 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . c=l. . 6. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 12. subtraction. d=Q. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 4 .g. x=^.INTRODUCTION 29. 4. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 5=3.810 + 150 = . 2.2 + I126. 2 ). c = 2.4 6^9 ad. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .9. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 2.
if : a = 2. 28. 6 = 2. = 3. 6 = 6. physics. : 6. 30. 26. sible to state Ex. 6 = 5. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 25. 33. 6 = 7. 6 = 1. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 24. a = 4. a =3. . 6 = 3. 6 = 5. a a=3. Read the expressions of Exs. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six 2 . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 22.c) (a . Six times a plus 4 times 32. 37. 30. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6=2. a =4. 23. a = 3. 35. 38. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6. 34.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3. 6 = 4. 29. a = 4. geometry. and other sciences. 6. 6 = 6. a. 27. a = 2.6 f c) (6 a + c). Express in algebraic symbols 31. 26 of the exercise. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.6 . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).
if v : a.) Assuming g . if v = 30 miles per hour. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.seconds. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.16 1 = 84. i. c. b 14. 14. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 12. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 2. then a 13.g. if v . b.16 centimeters per second. d. A train in 4 hours. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 84 square EXERCISE 1. . and 15 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. (c) 4. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. Find the height of the tree. and 13 inches. 4. the area of the triangle equals feet. and 5 feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.INTRODUCTION E.e. 15 therefore feet. (b) 5. 13.
If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 5.).14 square meters. the 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14d (square units). then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 5 F.). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14 4. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the area etc. meters. $ = 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. : 8000 miles. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the (b) 1 inch. square units (square inches. 2 inches. (The number 3. 32 F. (c) 8000 miles. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. is H 2 units of length (inches. . (c) 5 miles. (c) 10 feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.
In algebra. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. SUBTRACTION.CHAPTER II ADDITION. or positive and negative numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.
+ 12. is 0. 24. '. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. c = 4. 19. 4 is 3 J. . (17) 15 + (14). if : a a = 2. 5.3. of 2. + (9). and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. = 5. 6 6 = 3. 4. lf(2). 22. is 2. 2326. c = = 5. the one third their sum. 33. subtract their absolute values and . 21. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 23. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 12. (_ In Exs. d = 5. d = 0. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.16 32. Thus. 10.  0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. of: 20. 18.
$3000 gain. 3.5. and 4. and 3 yards.7. = 23. 38. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 74. = 22. 29. ' Find the average of the following 34. are similar terms. 72. . 4 F. 42. : and 1. 7 a. SUBTRACTION. and 3 a.7.. 09. 6. & = 15. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. d= 3. 1.. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. and 3 F. 66. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.. 35. . . 36.13. 60. 27. 25. 12. c=14. . $1000 loss. and 8 F. 10. or and . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. $7000 gain. ^ ' 37. $500 loss. 39. = 13. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 55. 2. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. : 48. & 28. c = 0. 5 and 12.4. which are not similar. 32. affected by the same exponents. 7 yards. \\ Add 2 a. 2. 41. 43. 4. 37. 10. 33. and 3 a. 32. 6. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. : 34. 10. . }/ Add 2 a. 3 and 25. 40. 31. 34. 30. 6. 7 a. . 11 (Centigrade).ADDITION. and $4500 gain. AND PARENTHESES d = l. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.5. 0. 13. .3. sets of numbers: 13. ' 1? a 26.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.13 rap 25 rap 2. or a 6. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. : 2 a2. + 6 af . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 5Vm + w. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 12(af b) 12. 12Vmfn. 2(af &). . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 a&. 13. Algebraic sum. Vm f. 10. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. b a f ( 6). 5 a2 . f 4 a2. 3a . 5l 3(af6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 12 2 wp2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.18 35.sign.ii. 7 rap2. 14 . 9(af6).
30. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. l^S 25. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. c 2 ^24. 35. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 1 27. ra 19. 33. a a8 ZL **. SUBTRACTION. + / + 3 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2/ : Add. 36. 2 7 1 26. 2 2 2 31. n x* 2 22. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. and to add each column. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 32. +m """ 20. + y. 17. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 6 23.ADDITION. 37. 21. without finding the value of each term 34. is . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va.
and 2 . = . 2c. . 2 Sum. x of x.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 3a 2? . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.g. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 . 4 = 7. ft any convenient and c.7 2 . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.41 = 3. .15 6c. 2 Thus.15 abc . 6=2. and J 2 s. 2 025.12 a& 4. . 3 a f 4 1) 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 5 . 3. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 46 4z 7 c. the erroneous answer equal 7.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . a 4. to show any error. f 110WS: 26 aft.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 7 4. s. NOTE.3 s. to add 26 ab . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. c = 1. e. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. therefore the answer is correct. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. V3. 9 q 4.o c and 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.20 c 5 ab 4.g. 4 2. 5.c= 2. of that letter.8 abc .
and 5 Vb 18. . a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. . 2 and 9m 48m 4.8 m 2m 12. a 4 a . 56 w. 2 2 . SUBTRACTION. ^2 1 e. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . 2 a.15 5. e a4 /.a 4 a 4 1.1.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 18/+6y + d. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. .ADDITION.(b + c) 1.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.4:xy xz 6yz.7m .10 Vc. xy3xz + yz. + 50 + 62 . + a + 1. 16.VS 4 2 Vc. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.Ga 43x45. 4 ajy 17. 4 3 . 11.12 6 ~5 a . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .5a^6 f 6) . a) y ^/. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.2n 2 2 3 rz .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .a . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. d. . 4.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a 4 a .12(a 4. 7ar + 3B 5.a. 4 Vc.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .4 Va . 4(a .a.9(a + &) . . and 8 3 . 2 2 and . v/20.7v/if. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 ?/. ?/ . . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . a2 2 14. 16e + 17/90. 3 2 2 3 9 . and 12a 4 15& 20c .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 3(c f a). 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 19. 8. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.6.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. m 4 6. .12.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. a2 a.and 6. and 1 4 a . and and 13.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 4 8 3 4 4 . and v 15. and . 2 ?ft ?/z. d and / 3 ? 12. in 8 3 m n 4.1 a 4 1 0. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).
4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. The sum and ? 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . and 2 24. .5< 3 2 s 4^4. many negative units re main ? from 2. 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.11 xy + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. is 2. If you diminish a person's debts. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.ra + m. 1. + n*.. s . 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 13 1. +d a. 6 f c 2 23. c 3 3 3 2 3 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.9aj 2.m 4m ?/?/ d. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.17 + 4 ?nfy . T8a. a 6 2 c. f 1. 12 xyz. 22. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . 8 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f number may be added 3. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. + 1. . f 1. 1/ . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and e + 6y .3^* 2n 2 . and 25. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.3 taken from 2 ? 5. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . how 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.22 21. 1. 1. . 45a6 2 .
To subtract. 3. 6 (3) = 8. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. SUBTRACTION. from What 3.g.3. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . NOTE.2. the given number the subtrahend. From 5 subtract to . This gives by the same method. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the other number is required. 5 is 2. ( 6) ( = . In subtraction. Ex. Therefore any example in subtraction different . called the minvend.ADDITION. In addition. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. ab = x. and their algebraic sum is required. 41. 2. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 1. a. From 5 subtract + 3. Or in symbols. . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. and the required number the difference. if x Ex. 7. two numbers are given. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. +b 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* . Ex. Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8.
From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 2. 48. 41. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 42. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 58. From 2 a take a & j. 47. 53. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 2y 2 . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . and 3 7/ . 50. 44. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.7 a . 49.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 56.a 2 j. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. c f d. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 52. check the answer. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.2. 43. of a 4. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From 6(af. 51.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. SUBTRACTION. 6 4 a. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From From x2 the sum sum 7. tract 4 x 3. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .4 a^ 4. 57.c.6)f. + a the 2 a. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .4 a*& + 6 a & .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 55. 46. 45.ADDITION. 54.w>t. . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .
of # 2 8. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 20. + 2.15. subtract # + 1. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6. 16. a a + c. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 6 17. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. +a add the difference duce 13.26 4. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. a + 6. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 2 m 21. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a 2y + z. 9. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. A is n years old.
& f c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. SUBTRACTION.c.c. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. changed. I. II.a^6)]  } . 45. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.ADDITION. a+(bc) = a +b . .2 b . Ex. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. one occurring within the other.b c = a a & f f. 46.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.6 b f (. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.g. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. the sign is understood. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.
15. a f (a a . + (2a 6 + c ). 6) 2. 8.+ 6)f (a2 b).: Ex. 17. 2 2 2 a(. 19. 5. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 13. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.) 5 . 14. ? 11.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. Signs of aggregation 1. In the following expression inclose the second and third. . 9. : x + (2yz). 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a (a + 26 c ). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.y (60. 271 + (814 . [36+ (a 2c]. m f ft) a. (m a2 f. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).7i h jp) (m ?*. 2a (4a 26 +c ). By removing parentheses. a (a + 6). Ex.(a + 6). 21.1422) J ] . 4. 6. 16. 3 3 f 7. may be inserted according to 43.)]. 2 2a. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 3.[271 47. 18.
and the subtrahend the second. 9. 13. 3. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. m and n.4 y* . a\l> > c + d. 6 diminished . y f 8 . 2. SUBTRACTION. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 12. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The difference of a and 6.7fa. first. The square of the difference of a and b. z + d. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 5 a2 2. 4. 5^2 _ r . II. 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b.2 tf .ADDITION. 10. terms 5.1. p + q + rs. difference of the cubes of n and m. of the cubes of m and n. 7. 5. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The product The product m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. )X 6. 7. ' NOTE. m x 2 4. 3. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 2mn + 2q3t. . 8. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The sum^)f m and n.
6 is equal to the square of b. d. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.30 14.) . (Let a and b represent the numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . b. 18. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.
A A A 1. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 5. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. therefore. 2. two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. force is produced therefore.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 4. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weights.
or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 9 x ( 11). 4 multiplied by 3. such as given in the preceding exercise. 5x(4). make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4x(3)=12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 48. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. NOTE.4)(4) = + 12.32 8. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. Thus. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.9) x 11. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. or plied by 3. however. To take a number 7 times. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. . x 11. the multiplier is a negative number. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. ( (. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. (.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.4)(. 4 multi44444 12. thus. (5)X4. becomes meaningless if definition. 9 9. Practical examples^ it however.
4. find the numeri values of: 21. x. 4 a2 .(4J). .3. 23. 3. 3 a2?/2 . (2) 8 (.3) (1) 7 2 .a)( =+ a&. and y = 4. 2a 2 6c.(a&c) 2 2 . 7. (c#) . 6. (4)'. 8. c = 25. of Signs: TJie positive. x= 0. 6. 19. 20. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. (2)x9. 14. Ua b 28. 3. X(5). . 2a6 c . _3. 6 2. NOTE. . 12.7. 8 4 . 10. b = 3. 5x3. . (4)X(15). (7) X (12). 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. z s 11 aWcx. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (. 22. (10) 4 . 9. tors is no misunderstanding possible.2. about fac (2)X If 6. . 30.2f 18. 3 aW. _2^ 3. If a cal = 4a6c. 27. 1. 11.MULTIPLICATION 50. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 32. 2. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 8 31. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 1. 15. 13. 4 . +5. 4. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. etc. 26. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 16. Law Thus. 29. 5.2 f+x 2 . _2. is 6x7. 17. 24.
. a = 3.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 16. 3. 2(14. 2 3 . 2 2 3 6 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 14.<?. 200. 3. . 50(112. 3 2 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a8 a=2. 12 U U . 127  127 9 7 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 4. B. 2.e. & = 3. 5 3 5 3 2 . 17. . 6 = 1.2 2 23 + 5 . 4. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. By 3 definition. This 52.503). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 5(711. 5 = 2.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .6 if 35.3). 1.. IB. 4. Ex.(7). 11. : 3a7abc. 78 . 6 = .7. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. i. m*. or 2 . a = 2. of the factors. 10. 36. 13. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.257). 53. 5.m a 3  4 . &*) c d*.  2 2. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . = 2.(12) . a= 1. 5 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. =2 a *. fl*" integers. 2(7.2). 100. 6 aWc x . 34. .  and 2 25 8 . 6. 3 3 4 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . (a6) (a5) 9. 2 2 2 . + 2/).(2.35). 7. 9 .. a 2 2 . . 6" 127 U . 2. Ex.
but we shall assume it for any number. Thus we have in general a(b 56.6. 19. . and then adding : 1. called the distributive law. 22. 2.4a#. 3(124342). . If results ft. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 25. 29. 20. 27. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. (. 4 aft 5 aft 2 .7 w'W (8 n^W). ) 2 33. ax /) 2 4 1 (. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 24. (.A). 6(10420430). . 28. 2(5fl5f25). 6. 26. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.7pqt. by first multiplying. 35 4 7(6.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. _4aft. 2(645410). 7p*q r*.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 21. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 4. . 5.f 2). 23(10004100420).2 3 aft ). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 17(10041042). multiply each by the monomial. . 31.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 11(3.3 win ) . /). This principle. 34. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. c(4a ftc ). 7. 35. 12( + 1 4 i). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 3. 23. . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 2 32.
2 mn(9 mV . be multiplied to give 4o. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.5 w*V f 7 wn). Find the factors of 6 ary . . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 17. 9. 26. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 30. 11. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. By what 25. . 12.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.6 a6). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.60 a& 10 aft. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 19. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).asa product. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. f7a. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 28. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 23. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.^ c + 2 . 22. 2 27. . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 21. 2 2 16. 3 ). 7 a 6 c(. 29.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 2 m(mhn \p). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . ~2mn(m +n p ). 20.5 x 7). 5).we b) (x law.3 aftc).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. : expression must 24.
as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 a 2 + a8 . Check.1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 2.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 59. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 2a3b a66 2 a . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. .3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 + a a. Since all powers of 1 are 1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. a2 + a8 + 3 . however.a . To multiply two polynomials. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Ex.4. the student should apply this test to every example.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Since errors. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.
(2w 19. 32. 2 . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). . QQ O7. 35. 20. 3<7). 8. (a^26) . 7y). . (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 6. + & + 1f a^faj 1).2m)(l m). (6i7n)(llJn). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).4) (x + 1). 36). (4a 2 33. 9. 16. 2  37. a 5c)(2a6c). 28. 7. I (mfn)(m4. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 36) I) 14. 30. 1).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 4 2). 26.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 18. 3. 15. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 24. OQ OO. 2 .1 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 12.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2. 40. 10. ^ 2 . 25. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2) (3 A: 1). (8r7*)(6r39. 31. 36. 17. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).4) (mnp 4. 5. 41. (2 x* x 2 . 29. (6a~7) 2 . 4. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 12)(a?^2l). 22. 13. * For additional examples see page 261. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 11. (13 A. (6p (2 f 21. l)(raf 2).2).
7. 13. 8. 25. . (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (*. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 3) (a 7). 2 a? 29. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6).4). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 6. . (100 +2) (100 + 3). ft 16. 20. (ra. 17. in of the two unequal terms. : 23 2. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (p12)(p + ll). + 2) (a f 3). 26. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (!)(* 5). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 9.2 6) (a f 6).!!)( (a + 21). (a (a (a.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (J 23. X 102. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). plus the product 62. (10+ (1000 (2. 24.13). 2) (1000 + 3). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (a3)(a + 2). 1) (10 + 2).n)(wf w). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.25)(y+4). 19. (a 102 x 103. 21. + 5) (1000 + 4). 28. i. 75 ab f 54 ft . _3)(a _4). 11. + 60)(f2). . 12. 18.e. i. 10. 25 a 2 . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (6 12) (6 f. (a 9) (a + 9). 22. + 9)(m+9). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 14.e. 3. 27. 1005x1004. 2 6) (a 3 6). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 15.
63. 49 y*. + 6 a + 8. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 6. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 7 a + 10. 2 5. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). plus sum of two numbers the square II.30. plus twice the product of the first and the second. Ex. 35. <J>7) J . 7.66 s.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. III. 33. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (a26) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.15. 31. 37. .e. i. second. III. and the second. (a2) (p a . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. : 24 (a 2. . 2 (a (*5) 2 . a2 2 w + 2 w . (x+3i/) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 34. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. 9. 32. w 2 ro . p 2 p.15. 4. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. . i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 3) 2 . n2 10ii+16. 8. plus the square of the second. of the second. 77ie square of the of the first. 3. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.e. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .
991 2 2 . 35. 12. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). n*6n+9. 25 a 9. 29. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 . 31. (1000 2 . 104 2 37. (^. + 3z) 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 47. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. 42. 11. . 45. 2 J ). a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 33. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 41. 21. By actual multiplication. I) 2 . 7& ) 25. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. The product of 57. 55. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 28. 24. . ( 27. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 14. a2 9. ). G> +5g)*. + 5)(5+a). 4 53. 16aW25. 2 . 15. 62 25n 2 . 49. 54. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 18. + 5). 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 48. 99x101. m 2 16. 103 36. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 41 16. (20 f 1) . 22.ll^X^+lly (100 30. a 2 8a6+166 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 46. n 2 f4n+4. 998x1002. 22 2 . 34. 52. 2 . 38. 40. 9 a2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. . (6afy 2 5) (a. (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 2 . (2x3yy. . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* .998 39. 23. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 32. 51. 44. 17. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19.
14. 2 10. 9. sum of the cross products. 8. ((5a? (10 12. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. or The student should note minus signs. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. : 25 2. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 11. 5. . (2a3)(a + 2). (3m + 2)(ml). 4. (5a64)(5a&3). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 13.& + c) = a + tf + c . The square 2 (a 4. 65. 3.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (4s + y)(32y). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus the last terms. 7. (5a4)(4al). 6. ) (2 of a polynomial.
4) . Ex. 12.39. 7. 6(a 2.1 5 = 10 . after multiplying the factors of a term.(m 2 6.24 . = 10 x . (xy+z)*. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 9. 2 2.r _ 2 . 13.3)(z.5). 66. (a (. Find the square root 11.i2&c) 2 . + 65) .[a? . 7.3) .29. 4(aj2)h3(7).4) . 8.5) = (7 . and check the answers !. of z : 10. 4(* + 2)5(3). a. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (u4& + 3c'. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).X2 + 2 x .3) (x . .(x .(>. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 4y sf n) 2 . 8.y? + 8 . 3. If x = 1.8 x + 15] .(= [ Xa + 2 . 5.24] . + 6)( . 5. Hence. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (  2 4) =  20 a. 3. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 6~2(a + 7). = . Check. n). 2)6. 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.39. 4. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .DIVISION 14. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . . . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). v/17.e. 51 15.11 a + 9 a . 20.2) (3 a . (81 m + 1 .2). Division of the difference of two squares. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 16. 18. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).l. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 19. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. a I. . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).
000. . f 13. 15. 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 100ry.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !. 16. 10. . 4 b. aW 12 a.0001. 12. 14.49. 9& 2 . 16 . r/ 1. 121a a 16 100 11.
An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. in the equation 2 x 0. 82. 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. . hence it is an equation of condition. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. (a + ft) (a b) and b. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. Thus. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . =11. . the first member is 2 x + 4. 81. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. the 80. x 20. is said to satisfy an equation. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9.
E. . 89. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. NOTE. 87. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.2. called axioms 1.g. 86.54 84. one member to another by changing x + a=. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. If equals be added to equals. 3. the quotients are equal. Transposition of terms. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be multiplied by equals. To solve an equation to find its roots. x I. 2. the products are equal. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be divided by equals. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 85. the divisor equals zero. 90. If equals be subtracted from equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 5. the remainders are equal. A 2 a. 2 = 6#f7. the sums are equal. a.b. A numerical equation is one in which all . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.e. A term may be transposed from its sign. 4. but 4 does not equal 5.
Ex.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4x 1 + 6. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Uniting. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 2(11 . (4y)(6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. The second member. 2 x = 6.6 y f y\ . f If y 20 . Hence the answer. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. The first member. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. is correct. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. if a x = b. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. . if 55 x members. b c. Dividing by Check. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Dividing both members by 2. The first member. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. x = 3. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.2. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. a= a 6fc. 91.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . x = 93. Uniting similar terms. and the known terms to the second. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Check. Unite similar terms.2 y= f . b Adding a to both + a. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.8. x = (Axiom 3) 92. 3 y . To solve a simple equation. Transposing. a? Adding 5 to each term.
Transposing. 15. 50. v23. etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). a. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.69.7. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. : 5# = 15+2a. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3)= 9(3 7 a. J. Solve the following equations by transposing.17 + 4y = 36. =2 = 3. 14. 11 ?/ a? 18. 9 9a? = 7 13. aj * See page 264. 8. 2. 7. 4y 10. 3 7 a. 247y = 68lly. 3. a?. and check the answers 9. 6. a? a?. 7 (6 x 16). 12. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).. 11. 17 7 a. + 16 = 16 + 17. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 13a? 3a?. \x x 2^xfl. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. + 22. . x x 1 . If x = 18. 7a? 5. 16. 13 y 99 = 7 y. = 5a?+18. a. 20. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 4. x = 18.56 Ex. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 21. = 2 ?/. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 4a + 5 = 29. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. = 7.7a: = 394a. 24. f Simplifying. 22. 32 = 264. Dividing by Cfcecfc. = 3. . 17 + 5a. 3. it NOTE.. Uniting. 19.
3) .1 0) = 0. 2 2 * Jaj. a? 43.1) (a (a? + 3) = . (a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. .3) + 14. . 29. is the other part. .4) + 4 w .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 31. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 5) (as (a. 38.2) (M . 42. a? 28. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. find the other part.g.32.5(2 u .(2 + 6) (4 .5) + 199. 7(7 x y 26. e. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 34. Evidently 45.7) (7 x + 4) . .3) + .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 36. or 70 a?. . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 7) (a. this question. 27. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 40. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. + 4). 41. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 33. + 7) (.12) (2 + 5) . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.5) = (a. 6(6a. . (6 u =5 44.14 = 0. . (aj 37. 25. 35. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 39.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.1) (u .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 30.7. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.
Divide 100 into two 12. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 9. 3. 6. or 12 7. greater one is g. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 17. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Find the greater one. is a? 2 is c?. 7. so that one part Divide a into two parts. smaller one 16. 13. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? .58 Ex. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 11. one part equals is 10. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. Ex. so that one part The difference between is s. a. 15. and the smaller one parts. 1. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 5. 10. EXERCISE 1. 14. find the cost of one yard. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 33 2. is b. so that of c ? is p. If 7 2. Divide a into two parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. is d. 4.
amount each will then have. 33. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many years A older than is B? old. Find 35. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and c cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. 19. is A A is # years old. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. A feet wide. 24. A man had a dollars. 34. numbers is x. find the has ra dollars. 26. How many cents has he ? 27. and B's age is y years. 22. A dollars. and spent 5 cents. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 20. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . ?/ 31. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and B is y years old. b dimes. 28. Find 21. 32. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and B has n dollars. sum If A's age is x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 28. If B gave A 6 25.
50. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. 46. a. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . m is the denominator. . % % % of 100 of x. Find a 47. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. of m. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. The first pipe x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). c a b =  9. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. he walk each hour ? 39. A was 20 years old. A cistern is filled 43. 49. of 4. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. find the fraction. Find the number. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. Find x % % of 1000. 48. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. The two digits of a number are x and y. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. Find a.
a exceeds b by c. The excess of a over b is c. 2. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. by one third of b equals 100. of a increased much 8. 6. 80. The double as 7. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 4. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 9. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. c. of x increased by 10 equals x. double of a is 10. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. c. 5. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. etc. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. of a and 10 equals 2 c.
000. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 14. 50 is x % of 15.62 10. . and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 18. B's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. >. and C's age 4 a. of 30 dollars. a second sum. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. they have equal of A's. as 17 is is above a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 17. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. symbols B. they have equal amounts. 16. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 11. In 10 years the sum of A's. a. A gains $20 and B loses $40.. x is 100 x% is of 700. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 6 % of m. and C's ages will be 100. B's age 20.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. #is5%of450. m is x % of n. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. (c) If each man gains $500. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C have respectively 2 a. 3 1200 dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. sum equals $20. a. x 4 If A. pays to C $100. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. amounts. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 12.
3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. number of yards. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 4 x = 80. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Uniting. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. the required . Uniting. Find A's present age. Let x The (2) = A's present age. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x = the number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x= 15. Dividing. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Simplifying.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 3z40:r:40z. x+16 = 3(35). The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Transposing. x = 20. etc. Three times a certain no. 1. denote the unknown 96. Transposing. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 15. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 23 =30. but 30 =3 x years. NOTE. In order to solve them. Ex. . be 30 . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. In 15 years 10. Check. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. A will Check. the . 6 years ago he was 10 . much as 40 exceeds the number. 2. number. Ex. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago.
What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. A number added number. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. % of 120. A will be three times as old as toda3r . . Find 8. twice the number plus 7. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 13. 120. EXERCISE 1. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Forty years hence his present age. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 11. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.64 Ex. by as much as 135 ft. Let x 3. 14. 3. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 4. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. 5. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.2. Hence 40 = 46f. 300 56. Dividing. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. exceeds the width of the bridge.
000. written in algebraic symbols. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. The problem consists of two statements I. Vermont's population increased by 180. If a problem contains two unknown quantities.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 65 A and B $200. the second one. B How will loses $100. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. Maine's population increased by 510. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and B has $00. B will have lars has A now? 17. How many dol A has A to $40. times as much as A. 97. During the following 90 years. F 8. x. is the equation. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. Find the population of Maine in 1800. statements are given directly. . and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 14. which gives the value of 8.000. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 1. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. If A gains A have three times as much 16. five If A gives B $200. The other verbal statement. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. and as 15. Ex. A and B have equal amounts of money. two verbal statements must be given.
To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 8 = 11. A gives B 25 marbles. = B's number of marbles. The two statements I. unknown quantity in Then. / . A has three times as many marbles as B. 8 the greater number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. the smaller number. = 3. Let x 14 I the smaller number. I. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. . Let x 3x express one many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. terms of the other. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 2x a? x j = 6. the greater number. consider that by the exchange Hence. = A's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = 14. Dividing. x x =14 8. A will lose. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. although in general the simpler one should be selected. . + a f f 8 = 14. to Use the simpler statement. which leads ot Ex.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. < Transposing. x = 8. has three times as many marbles as B. If A gives are : A If II. and Let x = the Then x +. . B will have twice as viz. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 2. If we select the first one. B will have twice as many as A. Then. Statement x in = the larger number. Uniting. 25 marbles to B.
15 + 25 = 40.. the number of dimes. Two numbers the smaller.. x from I. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. by 44. The value of the half : is 11.10.550 f 310. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. the number of half dollars. x = 6. have a value of $3. Dividing. * ' .25 = 20. 6 times the smaller. B's number of marbles. (Statement II) Qx . 3 x = 45. * 98. Simplifying. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).240. 11 x = 5. etc. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 2. Uniting.10. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Find the numbers.75. x = 15. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42.$3. the price.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Check.5 x . we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 50. w'3. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. and the Find the numbers. greater is . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 50 x Transposing. 45 . Eleven coins. Let 11 = the number of dimes. The number of coins II. Dividing. A's number of marbles. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 40 x . Find the numbers. x = the number of half dollars.10. 1.. 3. cents. 60. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. dollars and dimes is $3. Check. is 70. . Uniting. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. then. . Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. but 40 = 2 x 20. of dollars to the number of cents.
and four times the former equals five times the latter. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and twice the altitude of Mt. How many hours does the day last ? . the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 9. McKinley. Everest by 11. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 6. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. How many 14 years older than B. A's age is four times B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Find their ages. tnree times the smaller by 65. 11. 5. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Two numbers The number differ by 39.68 4. 7. the number.000 feet. How many inches are in each part ? 15. How many volcanoes are in the 8. On December 21. as the larger one. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Twice 14. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. United States. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. one of which increased by 9.
69 If a verbal statements must be given." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. = 48. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Ex. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. bers is denoted by x. III. and C together have $80. II. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. B. If 4x = 24. they would have 3. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Let x II. has. are : C's The three statements A. 19. times as much as A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and C together have $80. x = 8. number of dollars A had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. I. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. The third verbal statement produces the equation. B. 1. and 68. and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 8(8 + 19) to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. original amount. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the money by I. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. number had. B has three times as much as A. . 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. has.
2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 9 5 = 4 . number of cows. each horse costing $ 90. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 185 a = 925. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 1 1 Check. + 8 90 x and. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Uniting. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The total cost equals $1185. and Ex. x j = the number of horses. according to II. and each sheep $ 15. x f 4 = 9. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. and the sum of the . each cow $ 35. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. the third five times the first. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Dividing. according to III. x Transposing. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 9 cows. 4 x f 8 = 28. 28 2 (9 5). Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. three statements are : IT. 2. number of horses. number of sheep. first. number of cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. Let then. 90 may be written. The I. III. cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. sheep. x = 5.
and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and the sum of the first and third is 36.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the third exceeds the is second by 5. twice the 6. twice as old as B. 7. women.000. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. The gold. "Find three is 4. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the copper. New York delphia.  4. 13. and children together was 37. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. A 12. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and 2 more men than women. what is the length of each? has 3. v . and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. what is the population of each city ? 8. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. first. men. the third 2. what are the three angles ? 10. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. how many children were present ? x 11. 9. equals 49 inches. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. If twice The sum the third side. increased by three times the second side.000.
After how many hours will they meet and how E. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000. and quantities area.e. or time. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. of 3 or 4 different kinds. such as length. Hence Simplifying. Let x = number of hours A walks.000. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. we obtain 3 a. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000 more than that the copper. how many 100. width. and distance. number of miles A x x walks. 14. = 5.g. 8 x = 15. The copper had twice the value of the gold. A and B apart. of arid the value of the iron was $300. number of hours.000. . and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 7 Uniting. 3 and 4. but stops 2 hours on the way. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Find the value of each. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. speed. = 35.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Dividing. i. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. First fill in all the numbers given directly. together. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.
05 x x . x . the second 100. But 700 certain = 800 2. + 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. z = 20. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. 70x10 Ex.01 = = . and the width decreased by 10 yards. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = 800. . original field has Check.04 = $ 40.04 8. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. Multiplying. x . the area would be 100 square yards less. $ 1000 x . The an area 40 x 20 =800. Transposing and uniting. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.06 = $ 40. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . 10 x = 200.053. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify." gives (2. 2 a = 40. 2   and transpose. Find the dimensions of the field. x + 200). $ 800 = required sum.M(x . l. or 700. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.
and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A man bought 6 Ibs. but four men failed to pay their shares. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and its width decreased by 2 yards.55. Six persons bought an automobile. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. twice as large. Find the share of each. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. were increased by 3 yards. invested at 5 %. What are the two sums 5. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A of each. A sets out later two hours B . 1. together bring $ 78 interest. 3. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. as a 4. the area would remain the same. Ten yards $ 42. After how many hours will B overtake A. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. mobile. A sum ? invested at 4 %. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and a second sum. of coffee for $ 1. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. sions of the field. 2.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first.
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . but A has a start of 2 miles. After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. A and B set out direction. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point.
An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a2 to 6. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a. 6. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 5. we shall not. if it does contain some indicated root of . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if. which multiplied together are considered factors. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. but fractional with respect 103. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . f db 6 to b.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. at this 6 2 . it is composite. as. vV . irrational. An after simplifying. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. expression is rational with respect to a letter. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . this letter. stage of the work. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. + 62 is integral with respect to a. consider 105. 76 . 104.
. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Divide 6 a% . 77 Factoring is into its factors. Ex. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 8) (s1).3 sy + 4 y8). Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . it follows that a 2 . E. Factor G ofy 2 . factors of 12 &V is are 3. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 55. 107.62 + &)(a 2 . 2.3 6a + 1). 2.62 can be &). x.) Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. TYPE I. y. 109. ?/. 01. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. for this result is a sum. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . . 110. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. x. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . in the form 4) +3. or that a = 6) (a = a .g. It (a. 1. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2.FACTORING 106.
a6c. (as 3) and (ccf5). 14. e. 3x*6x*. 11. Ilro8 9. 2 23.3.12 cdx. 4 tfy f.8 c a 15 ofyV .4. 2 6. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 19. 2 + q.6. 32 a *?/ . 2 Or. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 16. . 17.2. 15. 7a & 10. x2 f2 x = 15 we have.g. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 3. 4. : 6 abx . 13. 8. 14a 4 5. ) 22  2. 3 3 5 6. 20.30 aty. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.51 aW + 68 21.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. a a 'Ja . 5f 2 . 15 2 7. TYPE IT. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 3 2 .5 + 13 8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2. 12. obviously. . in general. q*q*q 2 a.5 + 2. + llm llm. 2 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s .5 x*y 2 17 a? .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .3. 34 a^c 8 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 7i 13. 18.45 afy .4. 4 8 .
4 x .30 = (a .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. m 5m + 6. is The two numbers whose product and 6. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 2. . tfa2  3.. Ex. 79 Factor a2 4 x . If q is positive. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.4 . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.6 = 20. the two numbers have opposite signs.a). however. Ex. and (a . .11) (a + 7).5) (a 6). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. or 77 l.11 a + 30. . of this type.1 1 a tf a 4.G) = . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. + 30 = 20. 5. Factor x? .11 a 2 .77 = (a. 3. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).11. If q is negative. 11 7. as p.FACTORING Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example.5) (a . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 4. a 2 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. or 7 11. Factor + 10 ax . Therefore Check. 2 6. can be factored. Factor a2 . but of these only a: Hence 2 . + 112. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. We may consider 1. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 77 as the product of 1 77.
ay 11 ay +24. 25. 26.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 14. 21 a 2 2 . 2 2 . . 33. + 44. 19. or . 15. + 5<y 24. 36. . ra + 25ra + 100. and 5 x. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. + 4?/21. 21. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 6 8 8 4 2 a.6.80 7. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 13. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. + 30. 20. 24. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 2 a' 34. 17. 2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 8. 4 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 31. 2 ?/ 22. 27. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 29. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 18. 4 3 2 . 100 xr . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. + 2xS. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 16. 2 ?/ 28. TYPE 113. 30. x2 23. . 12. 9. 35. a? + 5 + 6 a. a2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 2 .180 a.48 + + 446 200.17 + 30. 11. 16. ITT. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.70 x y . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a 7 a 30. 32. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.500 x + 600.
If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. and that they must be negative. sible 13 x negative. 11 x 2x. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 9 x 6. or G 114. the signs of the second terms are minus.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 2 x 27. but the opposite sign. 6 x 9. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.1). Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 3.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 18 x 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. the If p and r are positive. 2. Factor 3 x 2 . 54 x 1. Ex. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . If p is poxiliw. 3 x and x. viz. X x 18.5 . then the second terms of have opposite signs. . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and r is negative. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 27 x 2. .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.83 x f 54.5) (2 x . a. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.
. 2 31. 10a2 G a2 2 . 12^17^16.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .179.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2x* + 9x5.260 xy . 14. 21. 35. + 2/3. 10. 9a. 25. 32.27). and the monomial factors should be removed. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. x54 a. 14 a fa 4.30 y 6 4 . X 27 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 19. 6n + 5?i4. 13. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 7. : 41 2. 4.19 a f 6. 3a + 13a. 5. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 12.7. 8. since all others (II. the expressions should be it. 3x*Sx + 4.2 a 90 x*y . 2. 5m 26m f 5. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.y + 172/9. . 90 a 8 2 . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. f go. 12y 2/6. + 4. 10a?2 2 33. 100^200^ + 100^. 3. 17. 29. 6. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 . 20.83 x = (3 . 2 2 2 23. 30. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 22. Sar' + SaG. 15.163 x 2 . 34. . 2 26. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 11. 10 a . 2 . 144 x . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 24. 2m t7w + 3.83 x . 2 2 2 . 18. 9.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 16.2) (x . 2 fc . 2 28. 9 y + 32^16. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.
and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. it is more convenient for that type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy.26 ab + 9 6 2 . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 6. must have a positive sign. and a perfect square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. and factor whenever possible : 1. 2 2 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 9. . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 10. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .10 x f 16. 3. however. 4. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. i. of its terms are perfect squares. .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . form are special cases of the preceding type. 25 7. 12. 2. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 . 14. 5. it is a perfect square. 13.e. 116. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11. 9 10a625. 16 y? The student should note that a term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 8. x* . square. To factor a trinomial which maining term. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 9 10gf25.
EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.6 m* + 9 m. ). aV . u2 6& + 2 ( ). +( )f816 30. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. ).4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . Ex. 18.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 20. . 17.e. 26. a2 24.60 a# + 4. 36 2 4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 9a2 . V. 10 a 2 4 2 . a. 2 . 6 2 . !Gar 9 ( )+25. 27. 5. 2 . 2. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. ^//c to the Ex. 22.3 * ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .20 ab + 10 b a . 4 2 23. 149 a 81 8. * 2 . . 16&*. 19.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 6. According to 65. 25. a. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 16. prime. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 4a2 l.64 6 = 16(a . . 29. 9. 225 ofy . difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. product i. 2. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 1.84 15. ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 3. + GO + 25. 7. 2 . 48 a +( ).  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3. TYPE 117.
(m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .(c 4. (m7?) y. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 9. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. T. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2 . Ex. 11.d) 2 . 16p 2 . 4. Ex. 13. Factor a 2 . 8. One or both terms are squares 1. 6. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . a2 . 5.c . of polynomials. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 14.FACTORING 85 118. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2. 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . a:) 12.(I) . 36> . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .
5. 119. Ex. 2. 9. Ex.y + 2 2). + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a? 11.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 10. 8. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. a 26 2 2 3 . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 4:cx . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.and trinomials. 2.VI.ab + bx. By grouping. = (3 x + y . which may be factored according to types I. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 4 B.1. + x + 2x + 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.14. a5 + ab 6 . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. . x8 .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 6.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. A. 5) . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. .7 c + 2c .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ive find that the new terms con common factor.a a . ma ?*a + m& nb. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 12. 1. After grouping tain a the terms. 3. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 7.2 ) (3 x .r.
Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 3. 4. II. w m 2.l. 3. 36 9 m . Arranging the terms.9 a2 4 v* 2 . + 2xy + y*q*.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8ra 2 + 16.12 aaj 4 6y. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 4. 8.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.4 f . 2. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 6 6.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . $ a8 . 2a3/ 7. .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 2. .FACTORING Ex. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. : 46 x* 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 8. 4 a2 . IV.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 6. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : m 2 2 16. 2 7. = (a + 6)(a6). 5. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. +c+ 2 2 2/ . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.
80 a 2 ft 38. 14. 13. 28. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. a + a + a + l. 13 c . or 3 7#2 . 2 17. 50^ + 45. a. 18. 2 ft . 5a' 20. (a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . a3 156. 19. 11. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 4 8 tt 2 z . 3 25. 48.156. 30. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.88 10. (^ 34.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 24. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 40. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39.13 c .310 x . a6 36. 29. 5 a. 3 41. 27. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 2 a 128. 35.40. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 12. 4 a. 22. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 42 x . 3 a2 23. 3 2 . + 14. 42 s 2 . .24. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. + 6 aft + 3 . 32. 25 a + 25 aft .
33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 121. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of aW. C. 54  32 . The H. aW. C. The H. Thus the H. F. C. 3. of 6 sfyz. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The highest is common factor (IT. F. Two common factor except unity The H. are prime can be found by inspection. 3 .) of two or more . 5 2 3 . 5 7 34 2s . C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. of : 48 4. 2. of the algebraic expressions. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 2 2 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. . C. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 5. of a 7 and a e b 7 . The student should note H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 5 s 7 2 5. 8 . C. 122. F. C. II 2 . 6. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 24 s . 15 aW. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. 89 . 25 W. C. 12 tfifz.  23 3 .
4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a2 . 4(m+l) 3 . 15. 49 C. 57 a>V. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 25 m27i. C.y) 123. ^f a.5 y). = x 2 y. 15 3ao. 11. 1. . 2 .6 . 1. 225 4a 9 . 4 ?io. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 5. .5 + 6. C. 13. 9 aj*(a? . 16 a . 38 #y. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . F. a 3a4. a3 9a. 3^ 2 4 . To find the H. 13.5 x3?/ 2 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a2 ar* 4. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 12. 9. 12. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . ^2 2 . 2a f5af 2. 6 a2 y? . 11. 2 . of polynomials.6 a&. ^a + 5^ + 6. . 9. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. . and apply the method of the preceding article. . 6(m+l) (m+2).12 as 66 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 6 mx . 8 a 10 . 8.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 8 6.# 4 afy f 4 . (a7 ?/) .y + y42. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 12 w*nw 8. 52 oryz4. C. 3).90 7. x* x2 Hence the H. 24 a 2 . Find the H. F. 6 3 a. 2 . 16. of + 4 if. . 7. 2. a2 + 2a3. 10. a. 2 . a3 16 a.8 a + 16. 95 2/V.2 ?/) (x .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 8(?/ifl) 14. a2 + 7af!2. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. Ex. 0^80:416. of: . 10. 12 .^9. aWd. 3 . ^707 + 12. 8. F.y) .y)\ O+ 0^(0.6. F.2 y) (a.?/ . y + 3y64.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 14. 65 zfyV. 3.
each set of expressions has In example ft). C. 60 x^y' 2 . 2. A common remainder. M. The lowest common multiple (L. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. The L. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. etc. C. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. C. ory is the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . two lowest common multiples.C. Ex.6)2. but opposite . 300 z 2 y. 1. C. M. 128. L. . 126.C. Hence the L. Find the L. 2 The The L. of 3 aW. a^c8 3 . M. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. Common 125. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y.M. M of the algebraic expressions. Ex. of several expressions which are not completely factored. which also signs. C. &) 2 M. 127. . of the general. M. C.M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.6 3 ). Obviously the power of each factor in the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. thus. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . To find the L. L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. of tfy and xy*. C. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. Find the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. NOTE.
a^1. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 5 a? 5 a? y. a { a~b. Find the L. 6b 2 . b 2 . 22. a !. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a f 2 19. by. a& 4 +& 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a f 3. 3.1. 24 x. 4 a f 2. xy\ . #. 4 a . 3 Z> . 2 x \2 y. 17. ic 23. a 1. x* ~5a. a 2 fa6. 11. 8 afy. 2 . 3. 40 abJ. 14. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3 f2. 2 10. or f 3 a 15 #. f b. a 2 a3 . 7. T a 3 a 2 . . 4 a 5 6cd. 2 a . afc'cd 2 . 3(a + b). 3 . x 2 5 a. 9. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a?b. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . ) . . G a. 16. (a 4)(a2) 12. 2. 18. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. afy. 2 a.f 6. 2(m 2 . y*. 2 . 20 9 a. of: 4. 8 d 5 . M. x2 + 4 a f 4. + 2. + 2 7i) . 6 a. 6. 15. (For additional examples see page 268. a. 3 ab. 24.1. a. + 6. a2 4. 6 y. 21. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a . 5. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a. 3 6 xif. 13. 2 . ic 2 ?/. 20. 30 a. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 7ic+10. 8. 1. a2 ~ab 1.
and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Remove tor. rni Thus 132. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. C. A f fraction is b. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. 131. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. an indicated quotient. a?.ry ^ by their H. and denominators are considered. as 8. but we In arithmetic. a b = ma mb . successively all 2 j/' . F. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. however. etc. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 130. Ex. Thus.
To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. cancel factors only. 3. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.
' ^ . ^" a.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ny 4 18.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^+3*.7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . LJZJ^JL. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^' rt ^  31. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.*. . nx 17. 19. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 5^10 y 30. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.. 23. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 16. _ 3 7i rt< 26. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.10 a + 3 2 14. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 29. . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. """. g J 21. 9x + "a" 10. .' 32.
3) (!)' = . 1. multiplying the terms of 22 . and the terms of ***. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . by the denominator of each fraction. and 135. Divide the L. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. take the L. we have M^. of the denominators for the common denominator.  of //* 2 . . and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.1^22 ' . TheL.C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. . Ex.96 134.C.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Reduce ^.  by 4 6' .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 1). M. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.M.D. 2> . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. mon T denominator. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. ^ to their lowest com The L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. + 3).r 2 2 . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.~16 (a + 3) (x. C. we have the quotients (x 1). by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. =(z (x + 3)(z.M. C.
FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . common denominator 6. . JL. . o o a. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. a? 1 5 > ^* . 137. 2.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2 ay IB. 22 a2 5a * . .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 5?. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 3. i.oj o* or / . 74). . 2aj ~ . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 8 i i.^1. 18. j y 3.. If the given fractions have different denominators.. 7i 2 ab* ". 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.
7 . 2. (a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.g. L. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).3 ft 2). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). D.2 ' 2 _. (a ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft). T? Ex. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . C.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . in the beginning.ft) (a ft ft)~.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .. The L. and adding.ft)(a . ft).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. as 4 aft f. e.2 = a(a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 . 4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . the student should remember that parentheses are . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.aft) Ca2 .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).(a 2 6). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .. ^ is 2^JT) . D. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .
1 f q * 1 m m . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. j>0 i> 21. 5a76 4a 106 9. + . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 20. a 36 ++. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17. 15.5 18 ^4f25.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 6 c 3a 7. 18 v 19. 24. + a "" 2 6 ' . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a+6 a 6 2 14. 23. A+2_3. 1 1 f w 16. 2.
1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 43.9. 2 af1 32. a. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 4 31.9 79 6 2 i. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 41. a ?^ 40. _ + a? ?/ + y. 3a 9 +. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . a 30. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ! n.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ic 1 + 1. 42. af 1f /j. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .
. T.  4 or 3 2a. . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 101 mixed expression. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . Reduce .6 + 4x 4 x2 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.7 5a v Ex.  .FRACTIONS 139. 1. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. .
2. fractions to integral numbers. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. !. we may extend any e. F J Simplify . or. 2 a Ex.) Ex. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . (In order to cancel common factors. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. integer. Since  = a. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.g. multiply the 142.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.
. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5# 56 / c& 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. aj 5 1 a? 18. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a.6 12 d6 4. 50 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 14.. .
x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. 144.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . : a 41 ab * See page 272. . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Divide Xn?/ . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.
c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a a2 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .^c 2 2 . or both. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.afr 4.FRACTIONS 105 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. l._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .10 ?/ _. are fractional. Ex. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . ga2 4 8 5 a .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.
M. & .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. n a 8. x* 4. C. JL.a ^c c _^ a . Ex. i. . 6. . y X 4* 2 y 3. a m "" . c +6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.y 32 . of their denominators. 2. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). the answer is directly obtained. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . 9.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. 7i+~ 7. . Simplify x }. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.
2 & a 20  a46 13.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 .) . o 15. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. sy 18. m^n* n L a 17. : .~l (For additional examples see page 273.
= 6. 2x Transposing. each member is reduced to 1. 1.9 x2 + 9.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. + 1) (a + 3) . a.42 + 9.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.1.28 a = 5 x2 . M.48. Bx 12 Qx. 148. Uniting. If = 64. 2 3. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 9x x Check. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). = 6. these Ex. Clearing of fractions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. tions.14 (a. If x 6. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . x = 6. each member is reduced to Ex. of the denominator. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). C. 108 .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Uniting.28 x + 42 = . 5(3 85 Check.8 x = .l)(z + 3) = . . 4 4)  x. 2. 2z2a.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Transposing.
3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1 *> = 2. a: 7 a. 15. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. . 16. a. ^' 2. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. +1 = 5. a/  5 a/ = 12. 18. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .1 _77 a. +4 14.= 2. '  4 13. ^1 = 9. .
^^ ' 39 7 ' x. J_. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 27 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 31 31.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. y+3~2 29. 4a4l4* + l~.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 ._ _ . . If two or more denominators are monomials. 26 26. 33. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 32 6 . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 25.11_4 x 149. ?_=_. 3x 35. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . .  38 = 40.
of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. If a.1. the 1 5 L. 5x x : = 9. 24 a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.29 50712' 9 18 . each member is reduced to ^. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. M.2 42 9 43. 60.  5 = 20 x 45. = 9. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.. C. 26 a. . Transposing and uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. Dividing. a. Check. 1. 5# 10.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.
3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .2 ac + 3 aft . find a in terms of b and c. f ~ 5c. If 3ac L= = a ? . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. a. = 2 f b 2 . Ex.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).be. It frequently occurs that the x. Uniting the Dividing.2 62 2 ab.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 2. = 6 a2 . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. y.m bx 2 mn) x. = = 6 6c 7 6c. =a 2 151. Thus.1. they are united by factoring. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 5> a. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.& . Dividing. ax f x f. 4 ac 1. Uniting. Ex.3 6 2 = a' . fr Reducing lowest terms. jr. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = l^ 9 b 4 .
30.i l . q solve for/. 13. 17. The The i time. _ 2. = rt. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 4. * Solve the same equation for^). c 18. 11. . + xx = 1. 9. 1 f. If * 33. solve for a. + 3a. IIL n b + &o. m a? x . = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. If s (wi n) x =px + q. Ex. f ^o. If ^^ = a 1 32. and n the number of years. solve for . = 5. iw 21.= n. c. . . = 3 (6 a). 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. co?. = 8 4 #. 4. . 10.= c a Z> . in terms of other quantities. 3. 14. 34. 31. a. = vt. 5) is t =^. mx = n. denoting the interest. rate. 12. 6. 15. s = Vt solve for v. p the principal. 29.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. r the number of $>. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. t. 2 solve for y a. ^ ax a^ 26. 3(* 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. f P =+!.= H.a. If s If 16.
~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2 3 ..114 35. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. is 36. and 12 = the number over. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2. . then = 2 TT#.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 12. Multiplying by Dividing. = 16^. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 100 C. 1. Find R in terms of C and TT. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.180.20 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. A would do each day ^ and B j. Ex. . x Or Uniting. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Ex. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.
" gives the equation /I). Clearing. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. in Then Therefore. or 1J.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 180 Transposing. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 3. the rate of the express train. Solving. = the x part of the work both do one day. and the statement. 4x = 80. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Ex. the required number of days. 32 x = ." : Let x  = the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
 Find their present ages. How did the much money man leave ? 11. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Find A's 8. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. 3. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. ceeds the smaller by 4. which was $4000. money and $10. and one half the greater Find the numbers. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. length in the ground. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. to his daughand the remainder. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his son. make 21. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and J of the greater Find the numbers. is equal 7. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. is oO. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ex What 5. by 3. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. by 6. and 9 feet above water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and of the father's age.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1.
At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. Ex. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. A has invested capital at more 4%. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. Ex.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. air.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and B in 4 days. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and it B in 6 days. How much money $500? 4%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. investments. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. . 2.) 22. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 3. 152. 1. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. ^ at 5%.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. we obtain the equation m m . B in 30. Hence. B in 5. . B in 16. A in 6.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. n x Solving. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. therefore. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 26. Ex.e. is 42. if B in 3 days. 25. is 57. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.009 918. and n = 3. . A in 6.414. B in 12. and apply the method of 170. . e. Then ft i. m and n. 2. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.118 153.= . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 4. The problem to be solved. To and find the numerical answer. 3.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. they can both do in 2 days.
The one: 31. is ?n . and how many miles does each travel ? 32.001.000. 2 miles per hour. 33. (c) 16. 2 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. squares 30. (b) 35 miles. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. same hour from two towns. the rate of the first. Find the side of the square. 5 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. respectively. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. squares 29. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 4J miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 3 miles per hour. . (b) 8 and 56 minutes. respectively (a) 60 miles. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. is (a) 51. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. if m and n are. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (b) 149. : (c) 64 miles. meet. 34. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. After how many hours do they meet. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and the rate of the second are.721. the second at the apart. (d) 1. Two men start at the first miles apart.
g. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.5. antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the antecedent." we may write a : b = 6.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the symbol being a sign of division. Simplify the ratio 21 3. Ex. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 6 12 = . etc. b is the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. " a Thus. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the second term the consequent. b. The first 156. . 1. a ratio is not changed etc. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. is numerator of any fraction consequent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b. the denominator The the 157. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . E. : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. In the ratio a : ft. 158.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.
equal 2. proportional between a and c. 27 06: 18 a6. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 61 : ratios 72:18. $24: $8. 3:1}. Simplify the following ratios 7. J:l. : ay . Transform the following unity 15. 62:16. 4:5f : 5. 11. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 7:4 T T 4 . 17. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. terms. 9. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 3. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 159. b is the mean b. b and c the means. 4. b. 1. a and d are the extremes. 3:4. 16a2 :24a&. The last first three. 5 f hours : 2. 6.RATIO Ex. 7f:6J. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and c is the third proportional to a and . The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3 8. extremes. 16. and c. 8^ hours. : 1. 18. 12. 10. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. two  ratios.
if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. q~~ n . ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.30 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. : : directly proportional may say. The mean proportional of their product. pro portional. i. 163. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 2 165. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. !. briefly. ad = be. If (Converse of nq.e. Clearing of fractions. of a proportion. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.122 162. : c. 164. of iron weigh . then G ccm. are : : : inversely proportional. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. = 30 grams 45 grams. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. and the other pair the extremes. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.) mn = pq. of iron weigh 45 grams. 3 4. In any proportion product of the extremes. " we " NOTE.__(163. 6 ccm. and the time necessary to do it.
bd bd. 12x Hence a? = 42. V. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. d d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. then =d c. + b:b = c + d:d. if 6 : 7.) II. Or IV.) a + b:a = c + d:c. . 2. (Frequently called Inversion. a III. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. hence the proportion true.) = f f = 3 J. is 4$ = 35. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. (163.PATIO Ex.) (Called Alternation.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. I. = 35 .) d 167. 166. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. is Ex. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. ad ( 163. 1.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (Composition. ad = be. I. a:c=b:d. (Division.
its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 2:3. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. V. the consequents by 7. 10. IV. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. i. = 2:x. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. . 6 =4 : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 20:7. 8.!=!*. 3. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. : x. = 12 5ft. E.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. Or III. 5. mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 180:125. 120:42 2 2 7. = 7:2f 3J. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. x = 2.124 IT.g. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 5 5.e. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 9. Apply composition. 4. Simplify the following proportions. . to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 2. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.
13. 22. 47. : a2 . 5= 18 a? : a?. terra 2:3 = 4. 03:a?=135:20. : . 26. 3t. rap. 18. 7iy = 2:x. f. 35. 1 and a. 6x = 7y. 17. mx = ny. 51. 46. 52. Find the mean proportional 30. 6. = 2 + x: x. to: = 35:*. 2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. Find the third proportional 24. ra 2 . 25. if : 40. 31. 2 3 = y #. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. . x:5 = y:2. ra + landra 1. 27..j>. ratio of y. 23. to : 9 and 12. 4. = 5 x 12. 43. 44. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 16 and 28. 34. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.  32. 39. Find the 37. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : 53. + fyx = cy. = 15o. 14 and 21. = 3 43 + x. 42. x m = y n. a. 3. 1. = l^:18. 9 x = 2 y. to : a and 1. 28. 4 and 16. 14. a 2 and ab. 2= 5 x x. 112:42 = 10:a. 20. 16. 5. w. rag. (a : : 45.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. ra.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 2 a and 18 a. 2. and 2/. 38.:ff. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. a?:15 15. 29. b. 33. 12. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3. 50. 21.x: 6:5 a : x. 41.8:1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 6 x = y.
(e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A").126 54. what 58. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the : total cost. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the area of the rectangle. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. the area of the larger? the same. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the squares of their radii (e) 55. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the speed of the train. 56. A line 7^. and the time necessary for it. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .
18 x = 108. is A line AB. AB = 2 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. x=2. so that Find^K7and BO. = the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2.000 168. produced to a point C. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x = 66 is the first number. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x x 7 Ex. 4 inches long. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x f 7 x = 108. x = 6. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2 x Or = 4. Let A B AC=1x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. . Then Hence BG = 5 x. : Ex.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).
How many gen. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 3. 7. What are the parts ? 5.000.) . and 15 inches. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. How many 7. : 197. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 6. 11. 2. How The long are the parts ? 15. find the number of square miles of land and of water. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. Gunmetal tin. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 12. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 14. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. and c inches. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 9. : 4. 13.000 square miles. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b.
Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. expressing a y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. such as + = 10. there is only one solution. y = 1.e.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. However. is x = 7.y=. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. Hence. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6.L x If If = 0. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. The root of (4) if K 129 . values of x and y.. a? (1) then I. 2 y = . if . x = 1. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. =. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. etc.
Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. the last set inconsistent. and 3 x + 3 y =. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. are simultaneous equations. By By Addition or Subtraction. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 3. y I 171. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. to The two methods I. cannot be reduced to the same form. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ~ 50. same relation.X. 4y .130 170. for they express the x f y 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.26. 21 y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. = . 6x . 26 y = 60. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. unknown quantity. viz. Therefore. The first set of equations is also called consistent. Substitution. y = 2. 172. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. E. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 174. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. of elimination most frequently used II.24.3 y = 80.
3. 10 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.3 y = 47. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Check. y = 1.14 =8. whose coefficients In general. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. add the equations. 37. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. are like. x = 10. Transposing. 3y = 3. 60 . 25 x .2 = 6. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3. y = 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.3 1 = 47. 8 2.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). subtract the equations. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 5 13 . 64 x = 040. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. = 235. + 2. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Check.
J I y = 1U. 13. f 3# ?/ = 0. ' 12. I i 3 a. = 6.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. i 3. x 11. [2o.4. _.5 y = 2. I oj 5y = 17. I . 7 ' 1fi fl . ] ^ . .3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. + 2/ 17. O t K 8. 9 1 r 20. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 24.v 23. v ^ = ll.3.f2/ ' = 50. I ~ y~~> 22. 19< I a. = 41. 13 61 l7a.9 *. f 3X 7x 14. * + 3 y = 50.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.
= 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. and solve the resulting equation. = 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 13.
3. \ \6(a.6)7(y7)==18. 7x_2y=3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 21z6y=9. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (4). f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. however. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 7 y = 6. + 212y4 = 14. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. From 9 = 36. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). . 3 (1) Ex. 29 x = 29. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 4* + 3y = 19. simplified before elimination is possible. 2 y = . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3. (7) (7) (8) . Substituting in (6) . x = l.
. . +y 2 . a. 10 2a?5 17. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. yM a.1) = 121.f2 2. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . 12. = 3. 4 11. a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 16. J 9. 14. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.
22. {.and x y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. <X + 20.#. and y. but some expressions involving x. f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 3x\" 1 23 24. e.Q ^ 4 21. ?~y . . 180. * ((* (( . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.
. 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. however. y. Therefore y=4. Clearing of fractions. 15 y + 8 x . of this type. 137 Solve y y (1) . 2* * x 2. x 2x(2). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. x 3.3 xy. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). etc. y 4. 33 = 11 x. can also be solved Examples method.4 x = 4 xy. (4) + (G). (2) (3) a.
6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). Ex. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= 5. x 8. x y 331 9. y MOi y a. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 253 7. x y 5. 21 9 . = en. 1.= o 6. . 10 " 12 25 U y 6.
. Dividing. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. d.W. x a. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5. bmy bm}y ap cm. 6. x f my = 1. fax f = l. and I.y = = 9a + 46. apan cm. . d. w. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1. From the same equations find s in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. ap. s in 11. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ax + by = 2 a&.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x 12. W . a Find a and terms of n. and I if 13. . Uniting. 14. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.
ties are Similarly. 3. = 3. 182. . To solve equations containing By tions. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). f 3y 12 =s 8. y =* 2. 6. 1.15z=12 Adding.lf> z . = 30. by 3. 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Ex.3=4. 20. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).25.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 3y = Hence Check. (8) 2.by 2.13. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). etc. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 1. (4) (5). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.2 + 4. 4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.1+4.16.3 = 8. 4. l.8 = 1.2 + 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 8 x . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.12 y + 6 z = . x + 12 y .
2 4. ~6?/ 5. + y f z = 15. 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2z = 40. a? + 709 = 26. 4 = 42. 2 . f 2 i/ f z = 14. 12. x 13. 8. 7. 10. == 6. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 15 2 = 45.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 49. a? 11.
22. =s 20. 16.. 19. 84 21. 32. = 5.42 = 2.6 2. ^ = 2.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 60. 4. = 8*. 1510 4 17.2 a.3 y + . 23. (3 _. ?/ 3x = 0. . . . ? = llz. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 27.
y * z 30. + 396 = 521.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. . and if 396 be added to the number.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. x : z =1 : 2. z + x = 2 n. ( 99. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. M=i.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1 = 2. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. 2 = 6. however. the number. either directly or implied. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Check. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. = 2 m. y 31. # 4. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. = l. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 1(1+6). Ex. 1 digit in the tens place. and to express In complex examples. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . +2+ 6 = 8. symbols: x + y +z 8. Find the number. 1. Obviously of the other . + z = 2p. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.
and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 2. we obtain. Find the fraction. x 3 = 24. (1) (2) 12. (3) C4) = 24 miles. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. direction. 3. x 3x4y = 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 6 x 4 = 24. = Hence the fraction is f. increased by one. Or (4)2x(3). = the fraction. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3+1 5+1 4_2. the distance traveled by A. Ex.144 Ex. From (3) Hence xy Check. . x y = the = the x denominator . By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. = 8. C. 4 x = 24. B. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 5_ _4_ A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5.
The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction equals . Find the number. and the numerator increased by 4. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. part of their difference equals 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. If 27 is 10. A fraction is reduced to J. 5. the number (See Ex. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the fourth 3. 1. the Find the fraction. fraction is reduced to \. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the fraction is reduced fraction.) added to a number of two digits. Find the number. 2. Find the numbers. the digits will be interchanged. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. number by the first 3. tion ? 8. If 9 be added to the number. ? What 9. 6. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. 183. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the numbers. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. it is reduced to J.}. its value added to the denominator.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. If the denominator be doubled. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the value of the fraction is fa. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and its denomi nator diminished by one. . 7. both terms.
the annual interest would be $ 195. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and partly at 4 %. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A sum of $10. 14. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. partly at 5 %. 5 %.grams. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. 13. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and in 5 years to $1125. and money and 17. How 6 %. respectively ? 16. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 19. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. bringing a total yearly interest of $530.000 is partly invested at 6%. 12. now. in 8 years to $8500. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . . Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find their present ages. and 4 %. Find the rates of interest. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. A man invested $750. the rate of interest? 18.
. $ 50 for each cow. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. BD = HE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and $15 for each sheep. An C touch ing the sides in D. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and GE = CF. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. angle c = angle d. and angle e angle/. the length of NOTE. but if A would double his pace. the three sides of a triangle E. then AD = AF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and AC = 5 inches. and e. respectively. is the center of the circum scribed circle. three AD = AF. and F. E. and sheep. and their difference by GO . Find their rates of walking. c. 25. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. ED = BE. triangle Tf AD. On /). and F. A farmer sold a number of horses. points. B find angles a. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BE. 24. 1 NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. cows. andCL4 = 8. and angle BCA = 70. and F '(see diagram). BC=7. what is that = OF. are taken so ABC. for $ 740. receiving $ 100 for each horse. BC = 7 inches. 23.
The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (3. YY' theyaxis. jr. The of Coordinates. (2. ?/. B. 186. . and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). PM. PN. 3). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). Thus the points A. and PN _L YY'. is The point whose abscissa is a. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and r or its equal OA is . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (2. or its equal OM. the ordinate by ?/. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . is the abscissa. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. It' Location of a point. the ordinate of point P. and point the origin. 2). first 3). PN are given. and PJ/_L XX'. (7..
=3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.4). 12. (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. .and(l. 3. (4. Plot the points: (4. 2. 3). !). and measure their distance. 11.3). 6. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (1. (3. 6. (See diagram on page 151. 0). i. 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Graphs. 71 2). (0. 8. 2J). 1). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 1). 2).e. 4). What is the locus of (a?. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 2). (4. Plot the points (6. Plot the points: (4. . What Draw is the distance of the point (3. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (2.2). 3). 0). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (5. 4. Plot the points : (0. 4). (4. (0. 4) and (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (4. 3). whose coordinates are given NOTE.) EXERCISE 1. 4) from the origin ? 7.1).(!. which of its coordinates known ? 13. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 0).
from January 1 to December 1. B. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. D. A. 15. 188. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. or the curved line the temperature. we meas1 . and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. may be found on Jan. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. however. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. C. ure the ordinate of F. By representing of points. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 10 .
concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. as the prices and production of commodities. uses them. (c) January 15. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. . the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the merchant. The engineer. etc. (b) July 15. (d) November 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the graph is applied. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Whenever a clear. the rise and fall of wages.
(c) the average temperature oi 1 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6.. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 1 to Oct. During what months above 18 C. 1? 11 0. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. on 1 to the average. 15. How much. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (freezing point) ? 7. When the average temperature below C.. ?  3. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is 10. (1) 10 C.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ? 9.152 2. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (d) 9 0. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.
transformation of meters into yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.09 yards. Hour Temperature . NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Draw . 20. One meter equals 1. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.
26. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 . if each copy sells for $1. 3. and $. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. then C irJl. A 10 wheels a day. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . the value of a of this quantity will change. 28.. e.50. amount to $8.g. 190. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. if he sells 0. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. .50. 29. 9. 2. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 4. 1 to 1200 copies. 3. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. function If the value of a quantity changes. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. x 7 to 9. books from for printing. x increases will change gradually from 13.5 grams.. etc. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.154 24. etc. gas. binding.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. to 27. x* x 19. the daily average expenses for rent.inch.) T circumferences of 25.
2. 4).1). construct '. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 1 the points (3. may. 3 50.2 x may 4 from x = 4. etc. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 4). is supposed to change. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. however.1). and (3. it is In the example of the preceding article. ( 2. (2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. may . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .0). J). If a more exact diagram is required. while 7 is a constant. Q. a*. E.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191.g. 2). x a variable. Draw the graph of x2 f. Graph of a function. The values of func192. . be also represented by a graph. 2 (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. (1^. 9). as 1. 3 (0. Ex. (1. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 9). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. and join the points in order. to x = 4.e. for x=l.
4). Thus in the above example. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. . Thus 4x + 7. etc. 7 . (2. r */ +* 01 . j/=3. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. 5). (4. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 2 4 and if y = x f. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. and join(0. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 1). the function is frequently represented by a single letter. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Ex.) For brevity. 194. (3.20). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 2.. 4J. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 4.2 x . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. straight line produces the required graph. y = 6. = 0... 4). rf 71 . as y.
+ 4. 3.or. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Jar . 15. 9. 2 2. 4a? I. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. . 2 a. 11. a? 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . . a ar. a. xl. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 5. 2J. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. i. 21. 1J.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. ?/ a. x+1. 2 a. 2 2 a. (7i) (c) 23. 2 or 2 20. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 12. 16. a?.e. l. 6. 1 8 10. if the function equals zero. (C ) (2. (ft) (_ 1.8)'. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a? 2 4. = 4. 8. if"a. J. if y = 2. 1J. 3. fa 17. y = 2x = 4. a* 13. 1J. 14. The values of a*. 6 fa. 2. from x VlO'S". 3 a 8. 2x + 3x a?. The smallest value of the function. 4 a.5)2. 19. the function.5)2. xz + x. 2J. = The values of a*. 22. (If) Va25. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 18. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. if a. The values of a?. 7. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 23x. 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.
Represent 26. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. Show any convenient number). 9 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. then y = .24. 14 F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. C.. the abscissas of 3. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.158 24.e.. ...) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 25. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 1 C. 32 F. that graph with the o>axis..where x c is a constant. i. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. then cXj where c is a constant. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Therefore x = 1.24 or x = P and Q. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). y= formula graphically.
3. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. a2 2a. viz. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 12. 6. 4. = 0. + + = where a. 2 and 1. (0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. Such equations in general have two roots. crosssection paper is used. 8. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. is called a quadratic equation. 10. (a) x2 = 0. 6.7 2 a 5 = 0. 197. . the points may be found otherwise by inspection. or 5 2.f 9 = 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 7. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 11. 14. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. (a) (6) 9. 13.
160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Ex. (f . Ex. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. T .2 y ~ 2.2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. == 2. y= A and construct x (  graphically. and joining by a straight line. ?/ =4 AB. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. ?/. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 1) and 0). 0). i. 4) and (2. fc = 3.e. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 2). X'2 Locating the points (2. NOTE. if y = is 0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. solve for ?/. first degree. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence. . because their graphs are straight lines. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. locate points (0. y y 2. Hence we may join (0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 3x _ 4 . produces the 7* required locus. and join the required graph. = 0. 199. unknown quantities.1. If x = 0. y = l. Hence if if x x  2.
202. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and CD. 3. 201. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. P. AB y = .15. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). equation x= By measuring 3. we obtain the roots. Graphical solution of a linear system. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection. (2) .1=0.57. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. To find the roots of the system. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 203. viz. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).
and joining by a straight line. 4. (1) (2) C. 4. and . 0.g. 3). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. P graphs meet in two and $. 2.0). 4. Solving (1) for y. e. (2.5. 1. 4. 3x 2 y = 6.e.9. and + 3). (4. V25 5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. In general. = 0. 4. Locating the points (5. (4. 5. 0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines.0. Locating two points of equation (2). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 3. the point we obtain Ex. the graph of points roots. . we of the + y* = 25.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. i. The equations 2 4 = 0. etc. 5. y equals 3. if x equals respectively 0. 2. 2 equation x 3). there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204..5. 3. 3. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Inconsistent equations. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Measuring the coordinates of P. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.y~ Therefore. 1. 4. Using the method of the preceding para. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). they are inconsistent. 4. intersection. x2 . 4. 0) and (0.  4. AB the locus of (1). Since the two  we obtain DE.
if possible.. 9. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 22. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. . a+r/=6. y = 4. 6. and. y= a2 2x y6. 8. 5. Draw system. '163 Dependent equations. 10. \ 2x + 3^ . vice versa. a. and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 23. 17. state reasons. 19. x~y=0. y=x + 5. 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 7. 2x 3?/=6. y 2 4. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 3. 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. the graphs of the following systems. 20.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .8.14 y = .y). CUBES. 25. 3 31. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. TABLE OF SQUARES. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 .164 24. 28. 26. 30.
( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 3 f a = f a = +. follows that 3. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 2. According to 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a = a3 . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ^4/? it According to 50. a special kind of product.faa a a a Obviously 1. is may be by 207.a2 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 8. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ( a) is positive. fa. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Law of Signs. on to in factors 4. involution repeated multiplication. 2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 52. etc.
raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 5. (277171 )*. 16. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 6. 24. . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 4. amVy) 3 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 4  3. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (2ar).6 (a 8 8 .166 To find To To power. (a ) 2 5 . 4 /2mV. (^^) 2 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 2 11 (afc ) . 2. 76 : (>y. the required power. 3 2 2 8 . a product to a given power. 210. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. V V/ 13. raise a fraction to a power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 15.3 a 6 f 3 a6 .6) = a .
6. 7. + a 2 a. : a 20. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. (3 x . pansions. 16. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. frequently called ex. a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (5 (1 a) 3 . An 1. nent of the binomial. (6m+2w) (3 8 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 3 .y . 3 8 . (3af26) 8 . 2. 21. 1 f 3 2 3 . The higher powers of binomials. 23. = s= (2s) 8 a. 2. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . or*  Find the cube root of 19. . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 15.3 y. . etc. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 9. 12. + 4aj) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (aj7) . 211. (3 (l I) 2 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 5. 8.) 14.y) = (3 y?y . (a + &)8 .6 2 8 ft) . +5a) 22. 13. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .INVOLUTION Ex. 8 (a??/) 3 . 18. Ex. 1. 3. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 4. (afl) .
168 3. . (w 4 ?i) 4 . and the powers negative. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .a) 3 19. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . (m fl) 2 20. 8. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. mn 5 2 5 ) . (?>i?i f c)*. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 24. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (l 8 . (a~^) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. 21. 13. 23. . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (3a f5) 5) 4. 9. 3. is the coefficient of the next term. 2. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (1 + 4 ?/) . Ex. (mJ) 4 11. 25. The minus. (af 5) . (la&) 4 12. 1. (?/i~w) : 16.216 a^ 4. 10. 4. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 5. . 18.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (tff1) (cfd) . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 6.2. (m 2 + n) 8 . 5. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (2 4. 78 s . Ex.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 14. 15. 3. 4 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. . (p + q) 4 * 7. 4 (1for) 5 . ( &) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (2 a 4 . . 17. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. Ex.
Since even powers can never be negative. a) 4 = a4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. and all other numbers are. etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or y ~ 3. \/"^27=3. 215. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 27 =y means r' = 27. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or 3 for (usually written 3) . which can be simplified no further. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. V9 = + 3. 1. or x &4 . 4 4 . called real numbers. tity . = x means = 6. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. (_3) = 27. for distinction. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 109 . 2. and ( v/o* = a. V \/P 214.
EXERCISE 1. Ex.125. 7 . V?. 79 2 v/2 5 . . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3. 9. 3/0** = am .64 5 4 . 7 . = 19472.4. . 7. 10. 6 7 = 030. Ex.  100 a 2 . \/2 4 9 . v/2^. 2.(. To extract a root of a fraction. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 7. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 2. To extract the root of a power. Ex. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . = V26TIT81 = 53. 8. 62 = V2* . 3 33 53 . Ex 5 a" . roots of the numerator \/18 . 9.200 . 82 .201) = 2. Ex. v/^i2 = a*. for (a")" a = a mn 3.1. V36 9 4. 6. extract the and denominator. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. . Ex. 8. 4 v. 2 . Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. V5 v/2 7 2. V25 9 16. fy 5 3 . index. 6.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 5.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .9 = 136. = 199 + (_ 198) .lL. 3i .
( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Ex. . 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 ./).6 tfif + 9 y = O . Find the square root of a2 . 3.EVOLUTION 171 28.3 y2) ( vV . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 6. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ^40^4. 34. 2 . 45 V5184. V20 . V9216. 29.) by inspection. a f2 l 2 + l. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 33.75.4/. 116. 2.98. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V8. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 31.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 30. 2 .3. 5. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 32. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . a* 4 8 2 .
14. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.> 13. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2ab .2 &c.2 ab + b . mV14m??2)f 49. a f. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. #2 a2  16. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 .e. + 6 + 4a&. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 12. the given expression is a perfect square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. i. let us consider the relation of a f. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 ac . 10. 8 .72 aW + 81 & 4 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.172 7.b 2 2 to its square. 11. and b. 15. 2 2 218. . a\b is the root if In most cases. however. The term a' first 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . and b (2 a f b).
8 a 2 . 2.EVOLUTION Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. First trial divisor. 219.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and so forth. 8 a 2 2. of x. Second trial divisor. the first term of the answer. First complete divisor. . and consider Hence the their sum one term. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. */'' . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 1. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. The square . . 8 /. . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 1. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf. Ex. 6 a. by division we term of the root. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 10 a 4 8 a. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Explanation. As there is no remainder.
12m 5 4. . 6 6 2 49 a 4 .16. 36it. 20.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 4 .9.20 o 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. > 7. 1 4.40 a 22 . 729 4.4 x 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .37 a ^ . 5 4 16 4 iK .24 or .a 6 x*y 2 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.25. 2 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 6.10 x2 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 18.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 m 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.42 a*& 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .25 x 4 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .73 a8 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 13#4 413ar 44a. 5. 19.V430^425^ 4m 4. 14. 3.6 . 2 x2 3 2x. 10. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 24. l 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 436^?/469a.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 12. a? 2 . 9. 16. 8. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 16x6 4. 6 11. 15. 17.
etc. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups.000. As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc.176.. and the first remainder is. Therefore 6 = 8. The is trial divisor = 160. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.000 is 100. 1.1344. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. of 10. the first of which is 4. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the square root of 7744 equals 88.000 is 1000. = 80. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Find the square root of 524. Ex. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Ex. of 1. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. first . 175 The by a method very similar expressions. and the complete divisor 168. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Find the square root of 7744. a 2 = 6400.000. which may contain one or two). two figures. 2. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 8.EVOLUTION 220. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.
The groups of 16724. places.70 6. annex a cipher. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.10. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .0961 are '.GO'61. in .1 are Ex. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1T6 221.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 12.7 to three decimal places.
feet. 1. 33. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 34. 1. JT . 30.53. 13. 39.1410. 36. J. whose area equals 48.4 square when R = radius and 11. 5.22. 35.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. . T\. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 32. 31.) 40. feet.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.58 square 38. = 3.
225. . or incomplete. 2)* + 5 = 33. or equation of the second degree. Extracting the square root of each member. Dividing.. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . The 7 equation. 2.g. = 7^ + 5. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 6 y2 = 17. is 12. This answer Check. 1. x = + 2 or x =2. 6#2 = x* 24. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 224. = 4. or affected. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 178 . Ex. 2 ic = a. is A quadratic equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 226. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Transposing. complete. x 2 7. A pure. but no higher power e. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.
3. Solve 179 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ' =: y? b* b . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 4 ax. 10. . 19 + 9 = 5500. : 83 2. 8. 7. 7 = 162. ax Transposing and combining.2. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 2 4fc 5' 18. or Therefore.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . . 2 2 a. 4. o. 6(2)=10(ajl). 15^5 = 6. (a? 9. 0^ + 1 = 1.25. 2.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 5. 16^393 = 7.
is one of _____ b The side right angle. find a in terms of 6 . 29. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3.b 2 If s If =c . solve for v. 108. 4. 25. 228. 22 a. . 2 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. r.) of their squares 5. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If 22 = ~^. 27. Find is the number. 28. 24. may be considered one half of a rec square units. If G=m m g . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find the side of each field. 3. and their product : 150. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 2 : 3. then Since such a triangle tangle. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers. 26. solve for d. is 5(5. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for r. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. : 6. . 2a f 1 23. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . ' 4. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If a 2 4. 2 . and they con tain together 30G square feet. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2.
. 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Find the sides. 4.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. sides. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides.) 13. Find the unknown sides and the area. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Solve Transposing. add () Hence 2 . 8. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 9. and the two smaller 11. is and the other two sides are equal. and the third side is 15 inches. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find these 10. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .2 7 . J = 12. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 2m. . radii are as 3 14. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area : sides are as 3 4. and the other two sides are as 3 4. To find this term.7 x f 10 = 0. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . x* 7 x= 10. Method of completing the square. (b) 100 feet? = . A body falling from a state of rest. Find the radii. we have of or m = . (b) 44 square feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.
Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. = . J. Simplifying. 62 x 5 = f. = \ # = ff.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. . or x = 2. a Clearing of fractions. Uniting. 2  . Hence Therefore Check.. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. a.x(l = . 2 ax f 2 o) s a .2. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.2 a2 . Extracting square roots. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. = x\ = 2. Therefore.1.e. 230. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 a* a.  \.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. (*~8) a = at .a. Ex. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Transposing. = 6. Transposing. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. or J. adding member). Ex.
Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x .1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
Solution by formula. \bx\. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . x la 48. . =0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.c = 0. 2x 3 4. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =8 r/io?. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 49. and c in the general answer. ao.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article. 231.
4 4 5 . 2 . TIO. 4. 3. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6 Ex. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 13. 2 a? = 44 x . 6. 9. 2 o. 17. ?i 2 . 5 x2 Transposing. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. c = 5. 15. 21. = 64120?.15 x9 25x* = 21 .  . 6. 2or } 5o.25 x. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 18. Reducing to general form. : 86 + 2 = 0. 11. 26. 2. 14. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. c p.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 16. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. b =  + 20 == = 0. V^tT)* . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 7.. 6^+5^ 56. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 20. 8.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2. = 12 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 1. 6 . 10. 2 a. 12. 19. a.
186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 233. x(x <2 . =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 23. Bx 1 1. 2S3x 1 2 . 27 x== 42a. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. = 14. Solution by factoring. or # 5 is zero. 0. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 5) = 0. 24. = 0. ar>8o. }. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. a=:i^^.5 Solving (1) and (2). member can be Ex. 3x?+x = 7. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. = 0. factors Now. Clearing for fractions. 1.4) = . = 0. 26. Transposing. transposing terms to one member. any degree. (5 a? !)(. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. orz roots. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. if either of the uct is zero. 5 = 0.2. x2 = 1 . Eesolving into factors.5) =0.x. 25. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. and 6. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. all or. Factoring. .
12. 14. 2. we 9 obtain x 4. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 2o3 f9a.6)) = 0. 3. 13.g. Or Hence the 234. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 5 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. a?10a=:24. a?. + 6)=0. } 2 2 (5 . + 10 a = 24.24 = 0.e.:=0. 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . + 9 f 20 x = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. aj( 15. 3^ = 0(1106).3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. E. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. a* 10a=24.3)(x + 3 3.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.(. for a: . 3# y 5 = 0. 6. ar'Sa^ 12. + 8=s: 7. 0^ ar> 11. Ex. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. is 5) = 0. The equation I. 5. 16. 0(02) = 7(02). 4)(z3) = 0. 4. 3) = 0. (aj4)(a. 2. : 87 = 0.= 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4or + 18a f 8a. O roots are 2. 3 or 2 a. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3) Factoring. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Therefore x =3 = 2. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 100. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. x2 f 2 x . 8. 7.
2. 19.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (2a? 3) (a 24. 22.188 17. 50. ara + ft + c*. 25. a 2 =(x a)b. '3a!J  . 18. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. uz + u 21. (a + 1) (a. 23. 27. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 20.
6. and whose sum is is 36. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. and whose product 9. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2. 8. 2.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 7. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 57. 3. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 3. number by 10.3. 56. Find the number. 4. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. and the difference Find the numbers. 5. and consequently many prob 235. 54. Find the sides. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.9. G. 52. . Find the number. The difference of . The 11. 1. Find the numbers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 1. EXERCISE 1.3.3. 5.2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. of their reciprocals is 4. two numbers is 4. : 3. feet.0. and equals 190 square inches. 0. 58. 55.1. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.
What did he pay for 21. other. 14. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 19. 15. watch for $ 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. Two vessels. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. Two steamers and is of 420 miles.190 12. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. as the 16. Find the rate of the train. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. sold a horse for $144. dollars. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 17. A man cent as the horse cost dollars.10. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ply between the same two ports. and Find the sides of the rectangle. If he each horse ? . 13. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. . ABCD. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.
Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. contains B 78 square inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. ^3^ = 7. Find and CB. a point taken. Find TT r (Area of a circle . B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 24. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. as 0. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 27. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Ex. how wide is the walk ? 23. of the area of the basin. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. constructed with and CB as sides. (tf. By formula. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days.) 25. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. or x = \/l = 1. so that the rectangle.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 237. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 1. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 23 inches long. and working together. . is On the prolongation of a line AC. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other.
4. T 17. 4 : 89 10a. Ex. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 a. a4 5o. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 19. y8)=0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 2.2 =4. Hence Le. a? 15 1=2*. 8. 6. 9. 4 6. a 21or=100. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. = 1. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.)+72=0.192 238. a. 2 h9:=0.T 2 2 . Solving. 18. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 436 3. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . >. 12. or y = 8. 7. 10. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. aV+9o 4 =0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 16. = 13.
the roots are rational.f> = 0. and unequal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Relations between roots and coefficients. ( 2a Hence 1. the roots are unequal. rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 240. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. rational. is 4ac not zero. The discriminant =(.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Ex. 2. the roots are equal. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.2 z . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.12 x + 9 = 0. c the roots are real.bx 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. b 4. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .5) = 04. it 2a follows 2 : 2. 241. negative. a perfect square. 1. Ex.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are real. and equal.2) 2 4 3 (. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 3. the roots are imaginary. the roots are irrational. .
^12. 23. f 2 E. 12~x = x 2 . 12. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2 : 3. 21. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 18. 3a. 22. 2a 4z5 = 0. = 0. + 18 2 8. tfmx+p^Q. 5oj aj + l = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = Q.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. + 2a. 2 a. 2 7. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. : a 2 . x2 7 10. 10 x = 25 x + 1. o. = 0. 6. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 17. 24. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. = 0. 60 2 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 14. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5aj 9. lla. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 15. = 5x.19 # 20.. + 12 2  . 2. + 2a15 = 0. 9a3 = 0. 4. their product isf.g.
" means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. (ab) . must be *The symbol smaller than. hence. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. and . m IV. that a an = a m+n . ~ a m f. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. such as 2*. It is. 244. however. while the second of the first. II. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. We assume. no Fractional and negative exponents. Then the law of involution. for all values 1 of m and n. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. = a"" < .* III. a m a" = a m+t1 . > m therefore. provided w > n. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a m ) w .a" = a m n mn . The first of these laws is nition of power.
since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. fractional. 0?=^. 4~ . e. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 245. 28. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. m$. 31. '&M A 27. 24. a . etc. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. n 2 a. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. (xy$. .196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 29.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a?*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 30. 23. ml.g. as. at. 25. (bed)*. or zero exponent equal x. a\ 26. disappear. Assuming these two 8*. a*. = a. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 3*. laws.
246. 37. 3* = 27. v/o&cT 34. 40. 35.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. hence is . 45. \/xy \/m. 42. 46. 5 a* = 10. 49. 38. a. 44. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 2. = 49. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 50. v'mT 36. e. the base is zero. : 2' 4* = 4. equal to unity. : 197 33. \fi?. If. 43. a* * = 3. = 2. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. Vo5 . Let a = a. ty?. a . e.\/n. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. Solve the following equations 39.g. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 48. 27* = 3. 41. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a * a2 Or a=l. 7z* Find the values of 47.g. however.
cr n.g. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. . etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.198 247. vice versa. 248. by changing the sign of NOTE. Let x= or".2 = a2 . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. Multiplying both members by a". an x = a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations. or the exponent. e.
37. . 39. : or 5 . f (2w)~i 1 . 44. 2m~i 43. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. rfS. . 7~ l a 2b 2 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 66 45. 2 . 40. 36. 3 a. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 2 ."* 38. 25. m . * 24. : mi m~^. 3 a? * 42. 27. ^L. c 32. a^ 41. ^?2 y' 34. a. 22.
52.343)* + (. = ^. 49. (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . + A_. z 5or*=10. = 5. 53. 59.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .001. 10* 5* = .1. = . 54. ar = i. 48.81 f (a .(. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.6). 1. . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. of: 3ll4~* 60. 47. 10* Find the values 56. 57.008)* + A. 17' 2 51. z* = 1.9*. 61. = l. 55. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 58. + 1~* f 21 . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 250.26)* 1 (I) 2 . Ex.
&. 4 5.&. a. 12. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.4 a8 .5. 27  28. 7. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. . 3 a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. Perform the operation indicated.7i. . 16. 95 ^9i 5**. &. 3. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.3 aj" a. etc. 13. OA 20. 6a.6 *' 6 *25.7W.$". 3sVS.$*. 79 . 16. NOTE.5a.. V5. 7*. . 8 ' 9. 23. 72 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. #* a. 26. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 6 *. 7~ 5 27  . ' 11.4 . S'sS8. 18. 7~ 6 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . / 7fv 7. 14. 17. remove the fractional exponents. are performed. (d) If required. Remove the negative exponents. 6.^/5^5. 4 x^.7*. 10.
Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?. 34. 1. 40. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1.2 d .202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 2. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^126. ^2. if dissimilar. ^4. 2\ 3*. signs.2. ^4. 5V2. 27.e. A/3. 40. ^5. A/2. ^6.10 V2 =  V2. ^2. 37. 30. 28. v/4. connect them by proper 1. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 31. V2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V5. Ex. ^2. subtract surds. 26. </20. ^30. in order of magnitude : \/7. 39. ^3. </3. VS. 36. </2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. \/5.2 V50. 33. 4^/4. 32. ^7. Simplify V~ . Arrange 35.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. V3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . I VJ + 3VT8 . 38. V3. To add or form. 29. V2. + . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 3. (i. v/3. \/7.3\ . Ex. ^/IT. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v^S. V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 34. v/3. s!/3.
VJ+V8V1 + V50. + 3V835V2. 10. 8VT8J2V32 7. 14. 6. 6. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V175V28+V634V7. 4. V18+V32VT28+V2. 12. 4V805V45. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 11. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.3V20 + 6V5. 9. . 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 8. 3.J a6 V4 aft.
5 4/6072 = 16^6272.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. y* = Ex. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 2. Ex. . 23.2v/6 + IPV6 105.6V35 106 460V35100 . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. and then multiplied.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 6*.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 1. Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 3.
19. 38. 25. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 8. 10. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. .RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 41. 3. (3 20. 12. V3 Vl2. V3 V6. 39. 7. 9. VlO V15. aVa. 2 . 27.^/2. (2V3) 8 . (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 14. v/4. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 37. (Va Va 36. 28 . (5V22V3CVS)V3. (V6 + 1) 1 . 18. 6. 21. 2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). + VB)(2V5). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V2aV8^.VSS. 213 98 11. 6. 4. 13. a?. Vll. \/3 \^). V42. V20 V30. V2 V50. 15. fWa 17. v/18 v"3. 40 10 30. 34. 40. 6 V4 5. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). VTO.
all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). the quotient of the surds is If. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 49. is 1 2. 43. Ex. 48. 268. 52. 51. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E. . (2 45. V3 . 53. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Va v/a. Ex. a fraction. (3V52V3)(2V3V3).y.214 42. 46. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 47. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 44.
Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.RADICALS This method.57735. 1.g. we have V3 But if 1. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. metical problems afford the best illustrations. however. 3. .by the usual arithmetical method. e. is illustrated by Ex. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7. The 2. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .. /~ } Ex. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Divide VII by v7. Evidently. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. .73205. arithTo find. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.
20. Vll 212*. 14. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. A.. ^/H . . V48 25. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 23 . V2 22 . VffV?. V3 24 .7320. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. Vn V7 ' * 8. 272. A.4142. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V5 270. V8 12.2361. 21. and Given V2 = 1. . 7. V3 = 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V8 JL. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 271. i. V5 = 2.
Vs2 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. . s Simplify a.2.RADICALS Ex.= 18.1 xVtf a. 1.vffi^T _ . . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
5 3 = 125. J?_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. v 2V3 28. 6V7. .7320. find to _!_.4142. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. By the use of fractional exponents .2361. 24. : and V5 = 2. 19. = V3 = 1. four places of decimals 23 . Given V2 1. Vo1 26. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V5V7 18> ^SVg. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .218 6 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 27. V21 = 25 .W3.
: 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 3. According to G3. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 1. 3 (V2~u)  7. 2 12. \/l6*. 4. it to this form. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex.RADICALS 219 274. \/125" . V643 . 5. 2. Simplify Ex. v8f 2\/15. on the other hand. In other examples of involution and evolution. V255 . 8. . the If. 11. viz.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 \/20. and whose product is 18. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. 2. 2 \/18. +2 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 3.220 Ex.6 V2.A/2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. ^TT. Find Vl2 4.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find Vll . The Hence ^11 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 . is 11. Find V4 + VJ8.
Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. (2x xrf 1.V48 4 20.. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. first involution. a. i. The value x =2 reduces each . = xa + 4 x f 4. member to 2.e. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Transposing and uniting. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. r 22. Before performing the involution. 277. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. 4. 5. x2 = x f 2. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. : 221 Vl32V22. Ex. +=. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. they are transto formed into rational equations. VT . Radical equations are rationalized. Dividing by Check. by raising both members equal powers. 19. . are radical equations. 4x x = 2.1. V48 23.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 8. Solve vVf!2a = 2.
= 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. x = J. a socalled extraneous root. a. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore CftecAr. viz. Squaring both members. Dividing by 24. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. tion which has two roots. one root. Transposing and uniting. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Ex. at . 3. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members.1) = 0. 5. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Factoring. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.3. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Transposing. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 278. V24~+~l = 0. 2. . . viz. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Therefore Check. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . the first member = V2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. . 4#f 4 = 9. they may be extraneous roots. Extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. It = 3 x . V4afT~l. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting.222 Ex.
Therefore. 4. or x *j. equation it is an extraneous root. If If x 3 = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 223 x = 3. Squaring. . Hence there is only one root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Factoring. the right member = V2. x root of the preceding equation. Solve the following equations : = G. .12 . Check. Hence x = the only root. = 3. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. ViTie 4 z2 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. is x V. NOTE. viz. both members reduce to 5. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. .2 r.3) (2 x .RADICALS Hence x If a.47) = 0. \ does not satisfy the given. Transposing. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 2 Clearing of fractions. + 6~ieT~3 . (x x = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. and to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. for it satisfies the equation .
224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Solve af*. Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring.
+ 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2Va. Let 8 x f 40 . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.f40= 5. 45 14VJB = . Q . it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 412a* = 16.i~24 = 0. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 2. 4. 5. 3. = 0. y then x2 . 2_8z 440 = 49. members of the equation were squared. + 40 = 6. x Since both =9 or 1.*2a. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. _ 2 y . x =6 or 3. Vi 2 8a. x + Vx a? = 6. Substituting. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. . some of the roots be extraneous. Ex. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. = 26. = 7. o.35 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2. 3 6.8 z40 = 7.8 x + 40 = 36.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. This can be seen without substituting.
ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 12. 14. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. +3= 6. a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. 2. 19. 18. 15. +x .f 18 = 24. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 4 V SB* 4 a.226 11. a. 16. 20.
f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?)." transposing. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. = 2.2) Q .3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . if Q was known. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. by dividing 3 x* f. a? R = x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. does not contain a?.2 + 80 = 12. ^ = 381+2. Hence. 3 2 Ex. Without actual division.2 x 5 by x 3. If x* . could. 1. no matter If. to x we # = 2 3.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Without actual division.4 a. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. we make a? what the value of Q.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. ax4 4. 227 . however. even if Q is unknown. E = ax + &z + m) Q. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. find the remainder when m. then (x 2)Q 0. " Or. 2.bx? + ex2 4. Ex.360 = 244. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 + 4.
x m is factor of the expression. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.228 282. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x* s 2 4. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.8'= 0. of the division 3) is m in place of x. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. } 2 by a1. + 6. fora?. 2 j 7. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632. The Factor Theorem. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.g. 8.949. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 3. 43 3 E. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.3)f 11 =.8. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.g. If the remainder is zero. 5.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . hence (x divided by x 4. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.4(. 5 (4x . if 8 42  . + ^by x + b.
f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. f 3. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 18. oj 5x2 f3a. f 15 does not vanish. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 5. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.12 = 0. a 8a f 19 a 12. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 2m 5m . 24. 3. 8.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 21. Factor a? 15.7 + 16 . 1.13m + 30 10. 3 2 : 7. a + 32. or 5 4 + 3^ . m f m n 14. 2 2. a. 20. & p*. 8. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 106 division. or x 4.9^ + 23^15. a^8^ + 19a. a 2a + 4. + 15. i. 9. 23. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 229 1. The 5. 15. factors of the absolute term. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. Let x = . + 27 + 27. 1. 6. is a factor.49 = 0. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. Resolve into factors 4. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 17.7 x + 15 = 0.e. 25.1.r6 = 0. are f 1.12. _ . 11. 7 46 = 0. Therefore x ( 1). p 5^ + 8p 4. a? 19. ^10^429^20=0. then x8 7 x'2 4.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.1. f 5. . 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. + ttt15 = 0. 2. a 5x 6.
and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd." .y n is divisible by x f ?/. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. xn f. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. actual division n. if w is odd. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. x* f/ = (x +/)O .xy +/). it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Ex. By we obtain the other factors. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 2.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. ar +p= z6 e. is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.230 285. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 Ex. xn y n y n y n = 0. If n is a Theorem that 1. : importance. 1. For substituting y for x. if n is even. 286. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.g.
= . preferable. since it more directly to the prime factors. however. 27. a. y 3 +8=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. Hence = (m Ex. 3. 28. 26.i mn f w 2). as 27=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. x3 8=0.
1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. (5) Combining (5) with (1).CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. xywe have 3. 4 xy = 16. however. * A I. can be solved by the methods degree. xy are given. in general. If two of the quantities x f y. + 6 a?V . 232 .y4 is of the fifth degree. of quadratics. ==5 > 1^ = 4. Squaring Solve (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. & + 2 xy + = 25. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. = 6. (4) Hence. 290. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. x y. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. to equations of the fourth few cases. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.
233 y. 12. ' 10. r (" 1 = 876. = . the answers of the last example are : r*=2. b=3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. but can be found. The arranged in pairs. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. x and xy are not given.g. ^. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 108 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 1. 3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7.
 42 y + Transposing.?/ i = 6. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .o 18.~ y = 5. Factoring. one linear and ne quadratic. 7 . ' ' . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 6 "I 14. 5. .i/ = r 13. I x+y = a. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). r^ 2 as ] f. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 3.. 2 (1) From (1) we have. or JJ. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 4 y = 20. + 29 = 0.  f J. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. la. I* Jj ^ [. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. or y = 1 . Ex. .a.  . aj = 2.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. A system of simultaneous equations. 19. x " (3) 49 etc.20) = 0.
(1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3y) : Factor (2). If of the preceding type. quantities. 10. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. Solve . the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). = 1 3 3. 4 f + 2 y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 1. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). ' x*. ':il e :) .3 2x 2 Ex. III. 9. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. x2y. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. y* + 2y = 3.
= 0. Solve 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 11 a2 Factoring. } VI09. 109 a. 2. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). j Substituting y in (2). 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = Ex. = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. ' ^ 15. f 1 150 a?. Bxy9. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Division of one equation by the other. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.6.xy 4.!. 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.175 ay = 12. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).125 ay = . E. A. 298. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).3^42^=43. " IV. can be solved by special devices. (4) (3). 150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. y? a? f .y = 7. . and others not belonging to them. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.
i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. B. (1 > (2) 1. x +y y etc. at first it is unknown quantities. * ' 300. y = 3. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . xy. y . = 12 J. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. jc~ y = 9. 2. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we obtain by squaring. x 2 . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i ^ *>. we have from (1). Solve Ex. = 189. f^ + 3 7/ = 133.. Therefore x = 16. from (2).238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Some simultaneous ?/.
F+y+ . M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. 239 Ex. 7. . [2x + : y= 17. 2. I e.
2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 19 ' 26. * . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 27. f 18. = 198. 25. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 16.21 ^ = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . .
The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 31. 7' j/ 39. etc. etc 302. Q 7. y % 9 f*K 36. or ~ indeterminate. oo 301.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . Interpretation .of  According to the definition of division. . 30. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . finite  =x y if = x. 3 a2 38. . 33. 25 34. hence may be any finite number. ^ oo . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. = 48201. ~\ OK OO. as a . 32.
can be If It is made larger than number. oo is = QQ. be the numbers. cancel. is satisfied by any number. TO^UU" sufficiently small. 1.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.decreases X if called infinity. or that x may equal any finite number. and becomes infinitely small. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. as + l. = 10. (1) is an identity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. (1) = 0. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. i. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Or. creases. great.242 303. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.e. . i. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.increases if x de x creases. By making x any * assigned zero. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. I. ToU" ^100 a. (1). 306. equation. it is an Ex. the answer is indeterminate. Hence such an equation identity. without exception.x'2 2 x = 1. (a: Then Simplifying. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. The ~~f fraction .000 a. Let 2.e. and . x f 2. 1. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.g.
4 3 x x5 a2 . .8 x + 15 6. Solve x a. 3. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. z = 1 Substituting. EXERCISE 1. Solve . Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum is of squares 2890. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.2 y = 4. = oo. is their 2. and a. 2.e. Solve  9 7. y finite QO. (2). Hence /. * 6. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 42 and' their product is 377. and the sum of Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. third and sixth parts. two numbers is 76. 1=0.
) 53 yards. equals 4 inches. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. is is 17 and the sum 4. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the edge of one. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the other two sides. 255 and the sum of 5. Find these sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the edge of each cube. p. 146 yards. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the hypotenuse is 37. 148 feet of fence are required. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the dimensions of the field.quals 20 feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the sides of the rectangle. and the diago(Ex.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 10. of a rectangular field feet. Find the sides. increased by the edge of the other. 103. of a right triangle is 73. Find the edges. Find the side of each square. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 6. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 190. 14. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the sum of ( 228. is 6. 12. Find the numbers. 13. 9. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. . The area of a nal 41 feet. 8.244 3.
their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged. Find the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. is 20 inches. Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. irR *. .) (Area of circle and = 1 16.) 17. differ by 8 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.
10. The common differences are respectively 4. the first term a and the common difference d being given. . a + d. P.. 12.. to produce the 3d term. of the following series is 3. 2 d must be added to a. 309. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. Since d is a f 3 d..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. series 9.. to produce the 4th term. An arithmetic progression (A. and d. a 3d.. 16.. The progression is a. Hence / = a + (n . The first is an ascending. 15 is 9 f. each term of which. . : 7. 3 d must be added to a. .. a + 2 d. 4. a f d. (n 1) d must be added to a. progression.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. of a series are its successive numbers.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. P.7. 11.) is a series. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.1) d.. .. 19. a. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. added to each term to obtain the next one. a 11. to produce the nth term. 17. 3. + 2 d. except the first. f . to each term produces the next term. P. To find the nth term / of an A. the second a descending.
.. ... series . Find the 12th term of the 4. = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17.PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. 6.. Adding. = I + 49 = *({ + .8.4.. 2. 8. . d = 3. 1. 5. 2. 2 EXERCISE 1. P. 1J. 19. 9. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. the term a. 115. 5. series 2. . 24. a = 2. 21. Find the 5th term of the 4. the last term and the common difference d being given. 5. Find the 101th term of the series 1.' cZ == . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. (a + + (a + l) l)... (d) 1J.. . 8. Find the nth term of the series 2. 2J.3 a = l.. 4^. . 10. 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 4. 8.. 5. . 7. 6 we have Hence .16.. 3.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers... 7. ? (a) 1.. = 99. 5.. 3. 99) = 2600.. 6. P. . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 1. 6. P. 7. d . if a = 5. of the series 10. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 9. 3. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . .1 f 3. 21. 20. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 20 terms. to 16 terms. rf. Sum the following series 14. 1. 1J.. 13. . > 2f 2. and for each than for the preceding one. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. to 20 terms. 31. P. 2J. to 10 terms.7 f to 12 terms. 4. 16. 11. 6. In most problems relating to A. 1. 15. 1. : 3. 16. 2. to 15 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . (i) (ii) . and a yearly increase of $ 120. . 11. 23. to 8 terms. 29. 8. . to 7 terms. 12. to 20 terms. 15. Jive quantities are involved.248 Find the 10. 11. \n. 7. . . + 3.5 H + if f to 10 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 15. 22. 11. 33. . 17. 3. striking hours only. strike for the first yard. hence if any three of them are given. 19. 7. 12. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 18. '. (x +"l) 4. . 7.
Ex. if a. n d. 6 n2 . 56. 34. I. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 78. 111.PROGRESSIONS Ex. #. . 100. = n(104 .~n~\ 408 6). From (1). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 144. I Substituting in (I) and (II).. 6. 12. 89. d = 6.6 n). = 144. = a + (w. 45. or 11 J. 2. if s = 204. 67. and b form an A. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.1). 204 = ^ (a + 49). = 1014. Solving. P. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.e. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P. l)e?. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 204 = ^ (98 . When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 312. The series is. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. the and the sum of all terms 1014.6. or if x Solving. 1. n = 6. 133. The first term of an A. J = 49.. P. 23. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014.1) . a = 12. s 24ft last term 144. Find the series. Substituting in (2). = 13. hence n = 6. .104 w + 408 = 0. is 12. a = 49 6(71 . 122. the second one mean between the other two. Findn.
I. s = 70. m and n 2. n = 4. a x f b and a b. = 52. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. T? ^. I Find I in terms of a. Given a = . Find n. n.3. n = 20. of 5 terms 6. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 12. 6? 9. 15. ceding one. 17. How much . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = ^ 3 = 1. Find d. n = 13. Find?. y and #f5y. 4. . n = 16. 10. has the series 82. Find w. 3. 8. = 17. Given a = 4. 13. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Given a = . 7. 11. 74. Given a = 1. n has the series ^ j . n = 17. = 16. = 45. s == 440. a+ and b a b 5. Find a Given a = 7. Find d. and s. P. d = 5. 14. produced. How much did he save the first month? 19. = 83. 78.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 16. = 1870. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find a and Given s = 44. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . f? . f J 1 1 / . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.
or. (I) of the series 16. . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. and To find the nth term / of a G. 4. 108. 24. is it (G. 36. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. or 81 315. 36. If n is less : than unity. NOTE..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. .) is a series each term of which. P. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . P. . 36.. The progression is a. A geometric progression first. the first term a and the ratios r being given. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. .. P...arn ~ l . rs = s 2 .g. called the ratio. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. ar8 r.... The 314. ratios are respectively 3. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. +1. ar. 12. 2 a. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. r n~ l . of a G. 2. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 4 (1) . . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . E. 24. <zr . 4. I. is 16(f) 4 .
Ex. 3. P. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 0. 576. 1. In most problems relating to G. 20. 144. or 7. 288. 10.18. first term is 125 and whose common . P. r^2. (d) 5. first 5. ? (c) 2.*.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. .. whose and whose second term is 8. 4. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. f.288. fa. 36. Find the 6th term of the series J. (it. . . 144.72. 25. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 2 term 3..18. . 7.. 4. Hence the or series is 0. 36. 36. Find the 5th term of a G. +f%9 % . P. 72. 80. a = I. And the required means are 18. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.. 9.54. (b) 1. 144. i 288. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. ..._!=!>. .l. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . l. I = 670.. 72. 6. Jive quantities are in. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64... fa. Hence n = 7. volved . f. 9. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. + 5. 18. whose . . P. 8. EXERCISE 1. series 5. . 9. ..5. .. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. 676. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G.5. series . if any three of them are given. series 6. is 16. hence. . first term 4. \ t series .6.4. is 3...
.. 23. 19. 16 . 12. 15. be written If the value of r of a G. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. a. 20.. 12 terms. 24. to 6 terms.i a9 . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. M. . to 7 .. 42. may be than any assignable number. . J. is less than unity. 14. of r n decreases. 243. to 8 terms. 4. 126. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.J and 270. to 6 terms. to G terms. r . . Find a and n = 4.. s = 605. == 160. and hence ~ r . J.nV> i*> !718.. . to 7 terms. to 6 terms.. 14. I. 54. 48. J. s = 310. 2. . 22. a^. 27. Find a and 4. J. = 3. 21. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 36. = 3. to 5 terms. 13. 81.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. n = 5. n = 5. . 1. 1. >"> . Z s. P. 81. Find a and Given r = 3. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Find the geometric mean between 7. 72. Given r = n Z 5. 25S series : 32. + 4 .
of an infinite G. = 990 . The sum Find the of an infinite G.. . 14.. 9. P.. first and the common term. . The sum r. . . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 250. 12. P.191919. 1.. ... 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.. . = . 2. =A+ 10 i. .. 8. ..99 ..072... 5. r = j. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 1.. (6) the sum of the perimeters. of: 11.. 2...717171... is 9. If a = 40. 7. . . 3.. of all squares ? .272727.1. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 13..3727272 . 10.. = .01 ^ .. 40.555. 5. 6. 1. Given an infinite series of squares. 12. 16..Ql.254 Ex. 6. 100. 4. 1. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. .37272 . Find the value 9. 4. . 9. ratio 15.)7?7272 . is 16. 16. Hence . 66 Therefore .72.3 + .. and the first term is Find 17. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of ..... i.072 + . P. 1 r = .. I..= . i i J. 8.= _4Z* . = a . . is J..00072 f . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.27777 . .. Find the sum to infinity..3121212. . .
Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.6) 20 . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 10. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) .b) w (a (a f (1 . 15.b ). 14. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. l 2. . 22. . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 5. coefficient of . (s + i). Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . 16. 29. . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a 100 . 17. 21. 13. 4. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . : (1 + xy. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 12. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 4 7. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 7 . 11. (xy) : 6 . 25. 20. 2 2 24.6) . (a + b) . a6 8 16 in . 28. 26. (a2) 6. (\ 9 . /2a+Y\ 8.
2.f ac 1. 4. 3. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 3. 5. 4 2. 2. 2. 5. 5. 2. 2. 4.  2. 5. 6. 6. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 3. 3. 2. 3. y 3. 3. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. . 5. 1. 4. 4. 2. 2. 1. 1. (c 3. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . c if 7 . 1. + 1. 3. 1. 4. if a ft c = = = 4. if y=2j 2. 3. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). + c(a  c). 4. 5. if x^l. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 4. 2. 6. 1. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2 . 5. if = = = 2. 3. 4. 4. 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. + 2. 1. 2. 1. 1. ft) . ^+^ 3. 2. 4. 2. 6. + 2. 1. aft 3 + 4. (ca)(cft)' 4.  a)(a 1.  8 ^ 2. 3. if = = 2. 2. 24 4. 6.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 2. 5. 4. l. 7. 1. = 2. . 1. 2. c = = = 2. 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5.  2. 5.a(a 4. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 1. 1. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 2. 2. 3.
15. a /> 3. x 3 x' 14. 2.3 a?y . x 3 11. .8 3 + 7 x4 . 2. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 6 a4 4 a8 . a 4 + 11 a .4. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .2 a?y + 3 aty . 7. x3 f 3 ax'2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. + 4 ?y . (5. ' b) + 3. + 4. 10. 4.2.\ yz + xz. 41. 21. . .7 + . .5. = 2. 3. 40. 5. f 8. 18. a. 20.r 6 x  4 xy . r> . 4 y 13. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . ~c)(b. 16. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 2 . 1. b(x (b 1. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .a8 . 25. x C 4 4x y + . 17. + 3 y 2* .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.  a) (c 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. + 1.2 z8 4 x.8 + 2 // . 2. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 7 xy 3 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 3. 24. c = 3.10. 6. + 2.3 xyz. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 4. x3 2 a2 . or . c)(x a} . 5. 5.7 ys.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 8 . 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 1. 7y 4 .2.a) . 29.259 x c) . 4 z . x = 4. 2 x 8.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .a 5 a .2 x2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . a.c' 2 4 / . a: . 8. 9. 15.7 y 2* 4. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.2 x?/. 26. 9. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 21. 4 x 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3.x 5 4 . 2  + 12 a 8 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .a 4 . + 8 x4 *y . 12.1.
5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 33. : a x . 5 10 4 G 11 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . c 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.3 . 3 ft. 29. 7 12 . Take the sum 4x 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x.x 2 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. and . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.3 . (*) a  c. a  ft + c. f ft.7. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 5 10 + 7 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 34.x 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].(4 * . c 4ft.2 .. 4 4 4. 35. .1).2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.2) .6 x ] . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.{G * 2 .(4 x 2 . . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . . From of 2 the 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 4 3 5 y/ . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.4. ft 25. 4vTT~y 3.] 26. of a.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .5 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. take the sum of G x 5 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .260 19. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.x .{2 x 2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.2 x 8y2 44 .27~~7)}].(5 y . Simplify 31.x2 .(a . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.5.2 3 ax 2 . 2 x 32.x .[4 x 4.2 a . .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.c 3 a. 4 2 x2 23.3 x . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].4 Vl 4.c. 5 4 7 12 .8 3 4.[4 z 8 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 542 x 2 and .a ft. x'2 .(x 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.6T . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .c.(7 x 4.1)}] . 36. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . . 0" 30. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. c =x y }~ z.2 .(5 c . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.3.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.(x* . 4 .c 4 3 a. = x y ft z. . sum of .4 ft) 4.?> x 4 20.#48. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4) .
+ 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].c).[4 x  5 . 2 53. 2 ft 41.be) (a 58.3 *).96 [17 a.5 )}] + {4 c .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 68.2a .12).  2 a  {3 2x a . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 63. (4 + 3a 2 . 2 f [3 c 7 a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 45.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .6)}]. a .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.c 2 . )(lz a ). . 64. 59. (r (1 (a.(6 .6c) (a + f c). . 46.3)(*5)(* 7). 48.ac .& + {. 65. 2 52. + 4x + 5)(j. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.2 2 + 1)(7. (1 55. .3 z 2 ).0)} .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 67.(2 a + 5 a .2 2 . .rf)} + a [. . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). + *+!){> + 2). 51.r 2:c+ l)(ar.2x + 3). (x .7).{2 a (ft . 49.b (c . 57. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.(2 x2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 60.{2 a .a~^~c)K].[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. .2)(1 .(2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).5)} + (3 a 2 . 2 : 7e)a}]. . 43.JT^T+1)} + (2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .[2 . 56. (/> 4 .(5 y .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.1).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).4 a .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (1 ar+a.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).(4 d . .56. a {. (.6 xy . (x. 3 x 42. (5 a 39.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 50.2 zz . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (.2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 'J 44.Z .(2 a 2 . 62. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .ab .{3 c .3).3 c)].(7 a. 2 2 x + !)(* . 13 a . 54.3c).
(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). .b 4. 73.r 2 .c) j. 84. ft /. 85. 83. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 4 4 .3 a .z) . 2 + a 2 ). ar .c) rr identities.{3 a . 86. (.2y)(.z\x 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 76. 79.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 75. 82. ft 78. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.y). ft ft ft a}. .q).(a 2) (s 4 ft.ft) 4 .(4 .(a 48 8 8 4. (p 2 . 94.z)(x y + z)(. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ft 95.c)].5 . 70. 71.y + z)(x + y .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 90.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .2 (y 4.:y)( a.9y2).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). . 4.m np c . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .x + y + z).c . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c) . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). b 4.2 ft}) f (3 a . 88. 1).6*y .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).3 (ft .a) 2 . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 2 (x 2 .O (a 4(a 4. f 72.c) .3y) a (* 2 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 93. xy y 2 ). ft" l Simplify 80.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).262 69.c) 4) (ft 4. 1).v) 4. Prove the following 8 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.(/>  3 v)^(.(c 4.n pc).c .am&t 4 A 2 *). 87. 77.(ft 4.c) 2 .ft) + 4(2 .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 89. 74. (x (x ( + *) . 91.2 (a .y)\x y).c)} . 92. (a (2 b)*(a 4.<f(p . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .
114.y 2 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).xy 4. . 118.6 y 4 4. 122.(x 2 .&).35 x 2 2 ) . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 109. 124. 2 (a+ . 123. 25 4 .(a 1 2 8 . 121. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 113. 99 100.4 aft . 3*. 1). 1O4. 106. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).40 />) .b) 98.a". 116. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 108. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 103.2y 2 4. 117.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).r 4 4. 120.5 b*). 10).(7 xi/ .27 x* . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 105.(2 a 2 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .*) (x 8 .2 xy 8 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (8 x* 115. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . a*.2 2% 4. 26 (a 4 c). (. 102.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).) .v/ ~ // = a: .5 xy). [10( 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). r .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 110. .y 4 ) . (80 a 112.1).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.16 a 6 4. 2 4 41 x 4a.9 x 2 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.3 a"+ 4. (2< 107.y 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.
5).2(5 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 5 146. .4(0 x .7) = 4 .1) (a? . 128. .2) + 2(ar + 4). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 3(2 x 134.9) 4. 10(2 x 141. 1) = 2(* .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .3) (3 x 4.2 7^~5] + 1).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.18 *&) (1 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.2(j: . (*+ + .7(4 * .3 a:).2) (a: + 3). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 129. x 147.5{.4) .(x . 136. 138.r + 7[or .3(* + 4) + 9} . 142. o o 140. 135.2(10 x .2(4 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). .2) = 3 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 7(2 x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 137. (5a: 150.8 6 . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).264 125.G) .3) = 12 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 139.19) + 5 = 4 .n . (4 x .12 M 132. 2 4(ar .3(2 z . .27 a 3" .(1 .3).3 x).4) .r>) .(x + 3) ] .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .22. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 42(3ar 145. y (* l x.5) = 12(4 x .3). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . .a:)]}. . 143.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 148.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 5(2 x . .(j a? 144. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(x f 9). 149. 1) . 126.1) . 127. 3) = x\x .9) + 3. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.
. 159.r + 3) .5)(. f^ + ^sO.76. (2 .2 x) = (1 .24. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (3 . .3) = (3 x .9) + (a. . How many 170.? . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (7 14 . + 10) (ar .5 x) = 45 x . find the value of F.1) O + 4) = (2 * . (3 O + ..29) 2 = 1.6 x) (3 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 2 4 . The sum What 171.1) (s + 3). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.5*) + 47.7) (1 x .(5 x . (a) If C. The second contains 3 first.2). 165. and the third twice as many as the first. (a. = 15.5) = (3 . 155. 5(ar x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.14) (a: + 3).2) a + 7(x . . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. a: ar a. = 2 C.3) (3 .2) (j? + 1) + (x .l)(z .a:) + 229.2) (7 *) + (*.z) (4 . 156. =  (F 32).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. sheep more than the 169.8) = (2 x 4. 265 152. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. these two angles would be equal.19) + 42. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. will produce F. transformed into F. 162. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. + 5) = (9 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.17) 2 + (4 x . (a . 157.7) (a.25) 2 . 158. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 154. + 2) + (5 . 163. (x (x a.3) (a: . 153.5(x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .T)O . + 4) (2 x + 5). If the area of the frame inches.3) (j. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 161. 166. 164. .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.4) (a .2 x) (4 . 160.
7/ 191. and 5 h. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. Find the dimensions of the floor. A house has 3 rows of windows. 187. dimension 182. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. aW + llab2&. 13 a + 3. respectively. x* 185. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. same result as the number diminished by 175. 12 m. 180. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 178. number divided by 3. +x 2.36. . Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183.266 173. . 190. 176. z 2 + x . + a. 3 gives the 174. + 11 ~ 6. power one of the two Find the power of each. 188. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 15 m. was three times that of the younger. 10x 2 192. two boys is twice that of the younger. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. sister . Find the number. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. A boy is father. 2 2 + a _ no.56. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 189. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. train. z 2 92. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 179. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 4 a 2 yy 42. side were one foot longer. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. if each increased 2 feet. A each 177. 181. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. younger than his Find the age of the father. How many are there in each window ? . ll?/102. . An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 186. father.
222. a+a* + o a +l. 6 197. a 2 .x + 1.6 y2 + 4. 2 a 2 . a. 2 200. xm+l 243.3 xy.22 z + 48. x 5 . . ifWy+b. 227. a: . 216.21 a:  54. wiy + la mx + aw. 213. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. + 3a 196. 267 199.6 2 ?/ . 246. 8 a. 224. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 3 x V .c) 2  (a . 232. + 30 x. 12 x +4. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .10 xy. 2 x 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . (a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. . # 2  29 y + 120. . x 219. . 235. 210. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .20 z 8 a: 220.6s.3 xf + 3 * 2y .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. + 2 . z 2 2.12 * .6. 203. 218.64.8 6 2. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 233. + 198. 4a 2& 2 241.19 z 4 204. 208. 201. 221. *2 234. 229.10 y a x* . . 3y 2 + ary . x* + 8 2 + 15. 2 . a.14 2 .1. a^a 226. 207. .(b + rf) 2 . a. x*y 223. 2 2 y f 1.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .77 y + 150. a. 2a te 3% ly 247. 202.19 a . z + 5x 2 . 16x 4 81. 206. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .c) 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. . 8 a: ar. 195. 24 2 + 2 . 230. 239. 3y 248. 238. 7a 228.10. + 8. 217. 212. 211. 7x 2 225.6 aq .3 c/> + 6 cq. 3 ap 2 . y 2 194. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a: 236. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.28. 215. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 4 m +^. 3 x 2 . 245.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 2 a 8 . a: 231. a a: a: 237. 209. 5 x 2. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 244.r?/f y 2 9. 23 12.
261. + 8.9.6 by. .9 x . 8 2 + 10 x . of: 266. 30 ^ . x 2 4.91. C. x 2 f 9j: + 20. Reduce to lowest terms 271.ry 21. + 3 x + 2. * 2 .9 x + 14. 2 . + 8 x + 5.73 xy .16 x . I Find the II.23 + 12.r .M.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. x*y* 4. 2 a. x* .13. 28 2 f 71 x . + 23 x f 20. 3 ay 4.23 x f 20. z 2 267. of: 253.10 a 4. 6. * 2 . 257. x 2 + 4 + 3. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).14 bx a%% 8 . 3 a% 2 .18 xy + 5.1 9 .8. 252. z 2 268.G7 x f 33. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 5 x 2 256.(55.4 ab + 1. 251.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 270.C.a + 2 4.11 a 2 . ft a. 2 x2 .2 z .80. 260. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.x . 2 8 .3 x .120. 1 x ar Find the L.3.10. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 3 #2 255. 2 + 7 r f 2. 15 # 2 z/ /. * a .2/ 2 . 10 a.2 aft*. 264. 7 12 2 2 .48 afy 2 . 259. 7 ax 250.7 f 5.15.11 x f 28.36. a: . 18 x 2 . 269. 22x2 a.ry .12.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x* .a 2 />c 2 f 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.4.&z.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. x 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 254. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . a 4. + 20 x 4. * 2 . x 2 + 5 f . 265.3 abc . 10 x 2 . 258. a. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. a 3 a 2 2 .15 + 30.5 ab f 2. x 2 + 2 x . x 2 263. F. a? a: a: // 262.
2c a: 282.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . m 4.. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL.ar 1 279. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 8 . 289 ' . + ac .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.2* + 3 x* 280.(y 2 z) * t (j.!/.. 285 z4 n* + a. *2 " 2 + Oge. z2 (a 2 + c)a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.
(a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x 7. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . O(ca) 306. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2. Lnl + ar 2 a. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300.
. _ x8 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 x2 + + a. 2 + y 2 319. .. (1 . 1 _. (a? 4 2) 317. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } . 1a: + y a.ft) 2 322.
2 lOx 5x.V  + y  x 3y a .6* t 328.y20  2y + 4 2 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 20 44 333. .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .2 +lOar 2 a..B ~ 1037  329 4 a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .5 a . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x .ll. a: 2 x* .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a..15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.9 *// + 27 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . * 3a.
1 345..1V. ** i. +^ a: y x . (af2/. 7 ( ?f!?.) 2 . \5yl 341. : 1+ i. 348. ' 2 "l 5 . + l + IV. xi 347. if a = 3. + ni + . f V. (a \ + lV. aj 339. 5 343. fl.y. \x yj 340. (ar \ 346. ( 342. 338. 344. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ?_2 ^ . w \. 352.+ r . a>74 . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. a: 349 _ o. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.r 5 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ.
1+2 362. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. I  I f 366. + x x a . (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. y360.
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . b c 368. . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .*2 = 15. __4 2x 3_ = !. 379. 5 {2 x 381. 8  376. 4(* . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. J !__7. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. . 5*8. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. ^ . + 1) 45 O 377. <3 378. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.
6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 397.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. m x 398. 401.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 399. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.5 ^ ~ a: a.147. .. ^ (a . b 404. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. .8 = .5 x =r f .  8 9* x ~r. c . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 40. _____ .  J).75 x f . + 4 a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 400. f 1 1 + a 403.25.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). a.6  . u '2 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 396.25 x + . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a..1 . 3* 177.2 a:  1. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).
(5 I2x ~r l a) .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412.c) . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 421. 418 ~jo. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . How long is each road ? 423. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 411. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. and was out 5 hours. In a if and 422.278 410. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. far did he walk all together ? A . hour. Find the number. Tn 6 hours . 420.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.
REVIEW EXERCISE 424. find : a : c. if . a + 5. 438.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. : i. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. b. 431. . If a b : =5 n : 7.49 63). 2 2 8 2 . a  t>. Which ratio is greater.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. x 427. find the angles of the triangle. : If is one equal 434. 435. d. wi* + y= ny. 432. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Find the length of the parts. 430. . a. .6 8 ). 5 7 or 151 208? 437.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 433. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 3 and 1J. Solve 436. Find the fourth proportional 426.46 2): (15a 2 . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.& 5 ) (a 8 . Find the mean proportional to 429. ax is \ by  ex + dy.iand 22 22 I a . z 2 y. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 428.
. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. c. 443. Solve the following systems: 441. 4 = 5 y + 29. 15ar = 20 + 8y. ft. 453. The volumes If their diameters.*. x + 17 # 53. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .4 12 . 451. 454. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 8 x + y = 19. 9ar7# = 71.7 y = 25. 7 442. 446.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.89 = q. 445. . /) ar a. 56 + 10y = 7a. 8 . 3 . 449. 458.11 y = 95.(or l(*2y)=0. Find the value of a. .55 y = . 7jr9y = 17. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7a?y = 3. 16. if 2 ft : 439. 444. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 457. . . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .35.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 5x+4y=lQ. 455. = 25. 456.. 42 = 15y + 137.59 = 3 z. 5 2 = 7 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. />(. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.11 7. 1(3  a. a. a: 2y= = 1 . 452.rf2# = l. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 448. 3 a. 450. a: a: + 5y). 9/> = 2 . 28 = 5 a . 7 a: . ?/ 447. + 5y = 59. ft. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 5z4:# = 3. 459.
x y 474.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 468. ax by = c \ 472.2y) (2 = 2J. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .  = 2. (or .+ =2.c=563y. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 8 461. ^ + i^ = 7. 475. i = 5.?/ + 1 . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.7. + eyn. 465.. _ 469. 473. ax cx by = m. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.
thrice that of his son and added to the father's. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. by 4. 483. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and in 20 months to $275. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. A number consists of two digits 4. and the other number least. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. How much money less 484. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. fraction becomes equal to . the Find their ages. Find the numbers. . Find the numbers. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the fraction. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. years. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. age. Find the sum and the rate of interest. to . Find the principal and the rate of interest. 477. A spends \ of his. Find their ages. 481. and in 18 months to $2180.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 486. 485. whose difference is 4. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the number. 487. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 479.
of two the sum of the digits also if number. + # +z= 35. 498. 2a:f 7. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. : Solve the following systems 491. ifi = x a. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. a: + // = 11. . z y x 25 . a: f z = 79.z = 12. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. ./ f z =a. 2 a. * + 425  = . . 492. 2/>3r = 4. 4 497. 5 + a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 15. 4 506. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 2y + 3a = ll. 7 + 2 z . z y ifi = z x 502.z = 20. .5#+2z = $x a: G. y Solve : x +z= 5. = 209. 3 a: + 5=84. 3 x 500. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 1. 495. x f y f z 29 . + y 5 y = 101 . 8. 494. 496. \ . *i. The sum of two numbers squares is b./ 504.? + 2y = 8. 490. x s + y z = 18J . . 493. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2 e. a: 499. ~ 507. a. 2 2 = 41. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 7. 4z+3z = 20. = 20. 1+1 = 6. x y f z = 13. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 489. a number . a. 5^ 9z = 10. 3ar 503.REVIEW EXERCISE 488.
z z =3a&c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. 36 + c. ll" . !f == 2800. i=a + 6 c. + : = 1472. 523.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517.
AC in /). 527. . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. if L and Af in 20 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and CA=7. BC = 5. CD. if the number be increased by Find the number. How long will B and C take to do . and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. L. it separately ? 531. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. What are their rates of travel? . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. it is filled in 35 minutes. AB=6. . Find the present ages of his father and mother. they would have met in 2 hours. Tf and run together. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . N. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. the first and second digits will change places. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. 530. in 28 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. When weighed in water. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. E 533. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. If they had walked toward each other. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the numbers. M. 532. 90. In circle A ABC. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. touches and F respectively. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if and L. and BE. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.
545.10 marks. The greatest value of the function. If to feet is the length of a seconds. to do the work? pendulum. The values of y. 540. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. the function. FRANCE. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. z 2  x x  5. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 547.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. a. x 2 544. 2. b. c. 2. if x = f 1. from x = 2 to x = 4. 3 x 539. The values of x if y = 2.  3 x. . then / = 3 and write = 3. 2  x  x2 . AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 546. GERMANY. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.  7. x 2 + x. formation of dollars into marks.  3 x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 536. 548. x 8 549. + 3. i. d. e. 542. 2 x + 5. . One dollar equals 4. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x*  2 x. 550.e. x*. x *x + x + 1. 543. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2 541.
9 = 0. .G .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.17 = 0. 555. 566.0. a.  2 1 a: a.r 1 561. . e.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x 5 . h. g. 563.r a: a: x a. 2 a. and make the unit of the b. 558.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. \ to t = 5. z 2 . x* . r?. 2. 565.3 x .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.7 = . 2 8 .= 0. ' = 8. 2 x 2 560.15 = 0.= 0. J.11 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. f.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a.1 = 0. Represent meters.6 + 3 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 564.r . 557.3 . x 4 .4 . a: 559. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 2 554. 18 x  4 = 0.5 x . + 10 x . a.3 x . 15. If y +5 10. Solve 552. 3 x* .4 = 0.3 = 0. = 5. 572. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 3 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. + 5 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 562. j. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 3 + 3 z . if y =m has three real roots. c.4 x 2 + 4 . 553. a? 4 x . 556. Solve// = 0. 3 x . c. . 568.13 = 0. 2 567. x 2 ~ 2 . z 4 . i.
<r)3  2 3 a:) . 1 . a 8 606. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. x + z2) 8 .5 xy = 0. 599. (1 (1 (1 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. [ y =10. 597. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. (1 + x a.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 609. 64 a 12 603. (a. 595. a 612. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . . 2  2 aa: 2 . 582. 579.2 2 + y. 6 + 1) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 608.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.(1 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + ^) + (air%)8.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 4 (1a:) 3.4. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 3 (f.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 589. 2 611. 604. 585 594. 9  4 fSb 607. : y* or 25. 596. j^f = 3. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 4 a. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. + + 4 . a. + %) (a* + *) 5 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (aiy.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a:. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 598. jj+.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . xY. (a  8 ft) . 5 a*.%) 4 (aa. x [ ?/ 577.frf : 583. 3 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . f ?>) 3 591.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 592. a 2a. 4 . .x + 2 )'2 601.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. + . 593. a: . (# 2) . 600. 588.
GGff. 210.15174441. 49. 4370404. 645. 643. = 0. 638. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 636. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . : 5. 25023844. 9g. = . 650. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 371240.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . Find the eighth root 617.871844. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. + 112 a 8 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft .V250 . 629. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 4J. 9a. 620. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 614. + 2 21 x = 100.30. 626. + 24 a 2 4 . 7) 2. ft .150.8 aft 6 + 8 21G.1024 x + a: 256. 625 : 621.2. Find the square root of 619. = 70. 40.53 x ~ . 3a. 622. 633. (x 9 x 646. 32 631. 2 + 189 z = 900. 651.49. + 54 'x*y* . 8*' + 24* = 32. 634. 628.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. /. 615. 494210400001. 0090.12 a?y + y*.2410. 632. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.*. 639. 035. 630. 49042009. V950484 .\/4090. 644. 637. 2. find Jupiter's period. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. x 2 . 624. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 647t x 2 648 649. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 2 + 21Ga. = 87. a 642. V 635. 623. x 2 641. 21. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 942841. *+* = 156. 44352. VOIOOD + V582T09. According to Kepler's law.191209.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .c = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 708. 2 2 697. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 702. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 707. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694. 706.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 692. 2 2 . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 696. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 693. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ax 2 698. ex abc= fx 0. 695.a a )jr . = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 699. a.bx . . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.ax .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.25 might have bought five more for the same money. Find the price of an apple. 727. 716. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 717. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find two numbers whose 719. 729. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. in value.292 709.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. **13a: 2 710. 12 4*+  8. 722. . 16 x* . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 3or i 16 . paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. a: 713. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 724. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. and working together they can build it in 18 days. How shares did he buy ? if 726.44#2 + 121 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 725. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 721. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 217 . if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. A equals CO feet. 723.
38.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 + x.l). .X . 34. 39.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).1 f ^ 2). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2 ). (v/x). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).aft* 1 + a 2*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 33. 46. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . . 1 6. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).)(ai + &. 31. 43. 52. 32. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 41. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 37. 36. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50. 42. 40. n.1 + c.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 35.2)(x2 4. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 f c" ).
\/G86 v/lGv/128.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 768. 761. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. ~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 757. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 2V2 2V3 . 754.1+J 756. [1r^ T 1 i ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 758. JU. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.294 753.
4 V(j. + 2V21. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . c 792. .2V3* ^ 807. a 9442V5. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 786. Va 809. 787. . 790. 793. 789. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . 16 + 2V55. 92VI5. x 782. 10 785.2 V30. 794.VlO. 3812VIO. 103 788. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . 13 799. 3J . 783. 806. 7512V21. 14 791.12VIT.
+ ViTli + V7 . = 1. 812. 815. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 829. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . Va: . + Vx . (x a: 2 ) 4 .\/2y  810. 830. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a.  5 + V3 f 12 817. \/12 a.V2 ar 10. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.79.Vc^lJ .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 816. VaT+lJ f ^l . V14 a.f 5 = V5x + 4. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.13 = 0. 833.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 819.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 811. 836. 820.4 = 0. + 103Var.g. /9ar a: = 17. 3 x + 2 . 818. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 831. x/aT+l .V? = 813. 814.
27 862. + 512 y8 874. 8 860. 863. 6. 729 867. 2 a: 64 y*. 844. a. 8 8 848. 8^27^. 868. 64 a 866. a. . 6 2 f 3 6 s.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 9.  3x a. +3 4 +  4. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a 8 873. x 8 2 857.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.3 Va: 2 . a 18 4. 851. 876. a*" & 6n . 864. 865. 4 x* 847. 27 y 8. 856. 4 a: 2 842. 875. 861.x*y + 3x f 2.12. a. a. 2 x 3. 4 x 8 858. f b**. a l0m .1000 6. 855. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 8 2a. 16 859. a. 4o. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a 872. f 841. f 12. V4 x 2 . 275 8 l. 40 x 2 7 f 49. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a 8 869. x 11 a^ J 13 854.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 19 x 14. a: . 4 a. 840. 64. . + 216 rt aty a 10 .1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . . a 8 850. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. y 4. a. 2 f" + a/ 15. 839. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. z*y 8 l64a. 846. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 845. 852. 8 4a: 8 a. a: 849.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 . 871.1. 870. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 8 8  13 a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. .7x + 3 = 3ar(a.3 x . + . 8 a.ab9 ft*. x 4 + f 2 a.3 . 853.10 = 118. + 1.3 a:.
a: + y 2 = 34. 900. . f ?/ a: a: . 2 + xy = 10.y 2 = 2 y + 2. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. xy + y = 32. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.5 xy + 4 f = 13. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 894. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . y*+ xy . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 885. a: 888. + 2y=\2. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 .15. a: 2 897.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.xy + y 2 = 19. a: 884. a# f + xy = 126.Vi' + 1 1_3. z 2 898. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.1 = 2 a#. x a: lI = xz . 887. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.18. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. a:y . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 + xy = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.y 2) = 20. y 2 4. y = 28.35. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. x 882. . 2 = 2 + 5. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. x 8 3 = 13:3. 5. 886. 2 . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. . 3 x 2 . 890.y 2 + V(j. M1 891 1 . +y f y = 7. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a. 895. + ary + 2 = 37. x*xy. y 2 2 8f. a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a: a. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 883. 878. y y 2 y 2 1121. a. 896. 889. 901. 2 2 = 16 y. . 1 x 893. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 + y 2 .sy = 198.298 877. 899.
y) (a? . * + y = 444. 2 913.3) 2 f (y . 909.3(* + y) = 6. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 4 (a. 921. + ?/) . = 8.3)2 = 34.23 = 200. y . x + y 2 = aar. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). f y 2 x 2 y = 1.y2 = 22. ary y = 8. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. (o. 923.x) = 21. x f 2 a:y = 32. 2 5 xy = 11. (!) * . 907. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 2 * 2 ~ g. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. x 2 ry + y = 3. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. + y 8 = 189. xa 903. 2 + y = 2 a 4. + y)(a. 3 :r(3 .y) = 33. + a. x 4 299 xy z 904. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y = a(ar + y).6. (* 918. # + xy + y = 7. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. + y = 9. (a. y x 2 = by. a:y xy 929.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 911. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. ^ 2 . *y . a. yz = 24. 2 2 2 916. a: y zx 12. 912. 914. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.2 y) = 49 2 919.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y). 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.#y + 2 = 27. 917. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. a: * a: a: ar 928.r a. or or a? a: a: . Vary + y = 6. 908.y) (3 y .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + ary = a*. + 2 ary = 39. . 906. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y + a:y = 180. 2 915. xy + x= 15. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. + 2 a:y + = 243. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.16 y 3 8 = . 920. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 905. a: a. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. y 3 2 2 922. 2 924. 7 y . 23 x 2 . 910. . (3 x .
and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.102. 935. If each side was increased by 2 feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. 942. two squares is 23 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. is 20.000 trees. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. s(y 932. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 937.square inches. and also contains 300 square feet. + z) =108. a second rec8 feet shorter. 943. feet. A is 938. A plantation in rows consists of 10.300 930. (y + *) = . and the sum of their areas 78$. 2240. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. is 3 . feet. y( 934. z(* + y + 2) = 76. + z)=18. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. Assuming = y. 34 939. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. is 3. 931. 152. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. *(* + #) =24. find the radii of the two circles. Find the numbers. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. . The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the difference of 936. Find the sides of the rectangle. diagonal 940. In the second heat A . How many rows are there? 941. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 944. y(x + y + 2) = 133. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. A and B run a race round a twomile course. two squares equals 140 feet. and 10 feet broader.
Find in what time both will do it. whose 946. at Find the his rate of traveling. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. 950. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and its perim 948. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Find the eter 947. the digits are reversed. unaltered. . Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. that B A 955. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. . its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and that B. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. 952. triangle is 6. overtook miles. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find its length and breadth. and if 594 be added to the number. P and Q. 949. . The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. set out from two places. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. each block. 953. Two starts travelers. is 407 cubic feet. sum Find an edge of 954.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. distance between P and Q. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 951. and travels in the same direction as A. Find the number. A and B.
4142 . . P. ^ 1 . (to 2 n terms). 4 4 to 7 terms . 9th and llth terms of an A. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. difference. .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 970. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 971. P.. to infinity. Sum to 20 terms. fourth of the unity. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. \ . Find n.. 3 . 1 to n terms. 5.to infinity. 5. 969. to 7 terms. Sum Sum to infinity. 957. 18th terms of an A.>/) to infinity. 974.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Find an A. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). to n terms.. *" 968.454.v 973. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.141414. 972. . (x 4 to n terms. s  88.1 4 f j$V . x(x to 8 terms. Find n f (ft) . + (iiven a +  4 d .. Sura to 24 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. ^ Vfirst five 959. 966.  2... 1G series .302 956. f + 1 . 12434+ j I 967. 4..3151515.. Evaluate (a) . n to n terms. 964. 16 962. ... 975. J. Find the sum of 4. 3 + 5 7 + . are 29 and 53. 958. the terms being in A.. !Ll^ + n .. 36 963. Find the Find the common 977. and 976.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 961.... = 4.321? 965. P.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.V2 . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. P. '.
REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. and so on. 986. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 980.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 4 grains on the 3d.. The sum 982. 1. to n terms. to 105? 981. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.2 . 992. is 225. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.3 ' Find the 8th 983. Find four perfect numbers. : + 9   V2 + . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.+ lY L V. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.. .1 + 2. first 984. Find the first term. named Sheran. and the common difference.04 + . The 21st term of an A. Find four numbers in A. 989. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 990. 987. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .001 + .01 3. 2 grains on the 2d. P. The term. to infinity may be 8? . P.. to oo. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 303 979. 985. "(. Find n. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 0. Find the sum of the series 988. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. of n terms of an A. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. and of the second and third 03... Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .) the last term the series a perfect number.. P. 5 11.001 4.
ABC A A n same sides. 1000. prove that they cannot be in A. 999. 512 996. is 4. are 28 and find the numbers. 997. P.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. in this circle a square. and G. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. areas of all triangles. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. ft. Under the conditions of the preceding example. at the same time. c. many days will the latter overtake the former? . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. P. find the series. 995. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. The sum and sum . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 1003. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (6) the sum of the infinity. 1001. . of squares of four numbers in G. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 998. Two travelers start on the same road. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. are unequal. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. If a. in this square a circle. P. AB = 1004. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and so forth to infinity. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. 994. The fifth term of a G. inches. (a) after 5 strokes.
(12 #) 7 .o/) 14 .l) w f . 1011. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1006. 1012. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. a: 8 7. 2 ) 5. . Find the middle term of 1020. + lQ . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 1008. x) 18 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.iV 2i/ 5 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . . 1014. Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of ( . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . (1 1018.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . ) 1021.ft) 19 . 1009. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the 1 5a  6 V .
.
.. .178 Completing the square .. . numerical . quadratic ... . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . simple simultaneous . 232 mean progression . . ..] Abscissa Absolute term . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . Checks Coefficient 20. graphic tion of representa . . 9 ** . .. 9. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . signs of Algebraic expression . 158.. . . Aggregation.. 246 91 " multiple. .. 112 54 54 251 . . ... 129 54. 54.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. linear literal Common ** * difference . Brace Bracket Character of roots .193 11 .... .. .. .. . 97.. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 232 169 807 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. ..... 19. .. t 53 120 . 160 in quadratic form 191 ... 123 .. 8 . 129. 37.. .108 160 " . . . .130 ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . ..... lowest ratio " '* .... .
Geometric progression . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 253 28 70 1. 17 65. .. 63.. . .. INDEX 8 . Negative exponents 11 . Known numbers . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . Product '* 76 Infinite.C Multiplication . inversely 122 numbers . .. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 112 .31. 205 . 23 10 91 102. 114.. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . .. law of Extraneous roots . Imaginary numbers . P . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. G. 227 . 120 Member. .251 Graphic solution of simultane.154 Order of operations " of surds . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals ... .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. exponent . . . 243 7 . 84. 109 102 . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. . 212 . 9. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . Insertion of parentheses . Inconsistent equations . directly. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. first and second . 184 54.. 45. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.108 Minuend . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . arithmetic . 180. . addition of " square of . . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .808 Exponent Exponents. . 34. 143. . numbers . . .. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Like terms Linear equation . . 91 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Mathematical induction .. . . . 45 Laws of signs .. 227 geometric . 189. L. . 45. 241 123 geometric . 195 33.
. algebraic Surds . Sum...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... 45 Trinomial 240 .... 27 17 Unknown numbers . absolute 54 Variable . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. . . 9. . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . .... 129. 4 155 9 " of . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. binomial Third proportional Transposition . .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America......... .... polynomial ..
.
ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Set up and electrotypcd. August. Mass. 1910. 1910. Norwood. . 1916. U. Published September. Gushing Co. 1913. NorfoooS J. Berwick <fe Smith Co. December.S. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Reprinted April.COPYRIGHT.. 1917.A. 8.
6 yd. 9 m. 14. 8. Page?. 9 14. Page 1. 17. 6. 6. $ 1 50 10. 16f 2. 4. 10. 2. 49. 36. 2. 9 16  larger than 7. 25.000. sign. 7. 32. 13. 13. westerly motion. C $1(50. 1. + 1. 13 d. 3. sign. 16. 64. in 12. 3. . 3* 7. Ot 15. 15. 20. Page 13. 14. 19. 15.000. per sec. 2. 10. 6. ^. 16 in. 27. (a) (/>) 1. . 19. 24. 256. 10. 11. i . 27. 14.. 7. A 15. 16. 13.00000001. 512. 23. 10. 6. 24. 6. 1. T . Australia ft. 1. 1. 15. V 23. 14 11. 16. 1. South America 46.000. 0. 15. 16 in. 13. 2 ~ 15.21 24. 2. 16. 37 S. 8. 4. 4. 4. 12.  13. 11. 3. 8. 6. 29. 9. 1. 3.. 7. 17. 9. 30?. 6.2.000 Indians. 6. 48 ft.. 1. Page 8.8. 17. A $90. 576. 9. B $4700. Page 4. 3. in. 2. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. B $20. 2  Page 8. 4. 7. 12. 115. A . 12. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 7. 20 jo. 20 B. 9.150.. 29.12. 12. 2. 5. 2. 10g. A Bl 7. 7. 14. 28. $160. 1. 6. 24. 8. 3. 5. loss. 0. 22. 18. 5..ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 3. C $ 16. 1.. 7. 13 S. 11. x. 10. 10. 3. 28. B 10 mi. 5. ft. Not 5. 9. 3. 1. 2. 1 16. 128.000. $40. 8 ft. 5000.. 6* 16. 14. 13.  1. 2. 25. 3. C $60. 2.000. 16. . 12.3.000. x. 2. 10. 16. 5. 106.000 negroes. 10. 18. 9. 9. 11. 3. 26z. 7. 17. 210. 32. 12. 12. 150. 2. 27. 17. 5. = 5 81. 18. 7.1. 13 V. 72 = = 216. 3 below 0.. 30. 12. 12. 37.000. 5. 3. 25. 14. 21. 192. 1. 4. 3. is $10. _ 32. 1. 20. 1. 85. 3.000. 7m. 19 4. 73. 25. 32. 6. 9 = 4.  1. 126. 18. 22.. 49. 16. 21. b. 16. B $ 128. . 19.  2 p. 14. }. arithmetic. 4. 3. 59. 20 \. A 38 mi. 1. 9. 5. 3 m. 8. 26.$9400. 6. 9. 16. 14. 2. 3. 15. 89. 8. 32. B $80. in.  22 20. 12. $100. 8 13. 21.C. 11. 18. . Yes. c. 144. 2 5. 20. 6. 20. 18. 8. Multiplication. 3. 1. 2.
 3. 16. 9. II. 30. 4. 26. 19. 1. a 32. m + 3(a.4  2ft 2 33. 2. a2 4 15^44. (c) 8.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 0. 17.14 sq. 41. 12. (a) 200. 4 9/^/rl 2. 22. 3. 3. 0. 34. 3. ft' 3 . 1. 9. (a 4 4. 7. . 1. yyz+xyz*. . 5. 28. 27. 11. Page 23. Monomial. (r) 2000 m.. r:A 29. 20.'JO ft. 27. 8. Page 18.5f> sq. .. 1. (ft) mi. $80. 29. 13 cu. \'\ 4. 30. 15.  1. 12 a. 13. 27. 32. (ft) $40. ft. 15. . 15. = 81. Polynomial. 13.a .6) 38. 21 a 3 4 10. (r) 2. 5.000 sq. 0.ft) 4. ]*. 3. 33. 0. 173. 16. 3. 19. 12. 0. 5. 5. 2x' 2 5 . (<7) (a) 314 sq. 24. 17.. 13. 26. 9. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 50. 23. 6. (a) r>23ifcu. 51 f.  0. ft. <i~ 26.. 6. 7. 21. 237.4 ft. ft n. 36. m 24. 27. 27. y.  12. 3a. 43w//2 17. 58. 4. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 34. 1. 14. WIN + wiw. (r) 2G7..000 . 0. . 12. + v> 2 .9?/2 8. (ft) Page 2. 6<t. 4. Page 21. 9. 6. Polynomial.1. 10. 31. 7. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 33. 18.q 4. jrif 4 9. 7. 3.5 (ft) sq. 8. 18. 2. . 5. $3000 Page 6. 28. 14:).900. 38 ab. 20(. 1.. in.ft. (ft) 7. . _ 4 . 22( 19.  40.  11. 1. 00 24 04 ft. 4. 2. //'. Trino inial. 18. 39. 92. 13.<>Gq. arty 1 20. 21. 17. 22. (b) 135 mi. Page 31. 2ftx. 38. r+l. 04. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 57. in. 11. 12. ^). 8.r f 15.~4. 18. 27. 9. #1111. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 14. 5. + ft). 25. sq. 12. 13. 13. t. 15a. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. Binomial. 240. (c) S(i. + 5. 7 7. a ft c. 104. :J!>r'.. 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1.x. 31. 3.r 2 . (ft) 12. 8. 4. ??i??. 11. 2.. 21. ft. 0. 8. 4. 4 y/ . 3. 36. 22. o^ft.'J. :. in. (a) 50. mi. 28. 3(c4a). 17.ii ANSWERS Page 11. Page 7.ab. 19. c. 314 sq. 8.GOG. 16. 8. 0. +/2(/. 25. 14. 12yd. 20. 5. ft f 19. 15. in. 32 2 ftc. f  5e 35.. . . Pagel4r.. 20. 15. 14. ft. ^. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 12. x^ 20. It.r~ f 34. w. 0. (a) <> sq. vi 14. 2. 2oVmf?i. 49. 7. 24. 14.. I. 3. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 3 . 3 a* + 2 at*. 5. 14.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 29.32 c2 > ft 3 . 17. 35. 21^. 30. (59. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 8. 14. r/ \(\xyz. 2. 37. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 25.  xV 3 y. (r) 78. 16.94(>.. 16. rt. 1. 32. 1. 42.. 22. 5x+3. 23. i:5. 11. = ()501. 35. 35. 10. 31.rty8. 10. ft. 15. 3rf 27.
1. 1.3x 2 2 tf. 25. 19. ii\ 22. a 52. Exercise 16. x a8 1.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .1.abc. 21. 4. M + 10. 24.8(c + a). 31. 1. a 3& . 25 47. 34 39. . 34. 2 3. 2x 4 a 13. 26.1 . ^ <. (2n' 43p 47 ). 38. 6. &. 6.aft. 10. 1. 33. a + a. s_r>a5.  17. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 9.  b. '  . ?/i 13. 2 17. 51.ws 2 ft) . 2 .3 6.2 ft 2 r2 10.. 7. 8 . a).  14 afy . + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 2.5 z?/ + 3 y . 814.2 a2 2m 2 4. . 13. 15. 11. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. ' 12 m?/'2 27. G a bd. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2m + 2w. a f 2 f 2 9. 7  # + 12. 37. 7. 2 . 8 + 2 a . 7. 32 w 2 w. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. :5 41. 5. 16. 7 a5 1 . 10. 15. 16. 2 a 37. 12. x  + 3z. n*. 4. 1 4. 8 b. 17. 10 x. + 8. 17.4 d. 32. Page 44. ab a. lOrt 15w4. 22. 14. 14.x f 1 2 . 3 m. a' 4ab + ?/. 6. _ Page 30. 25. 15. .  23. 10 m. 11.  b* 4 r 1 . 28. ft Exercise 17. ?>4tl 53. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 20. w* ( . Page 8. 2// 16. 4. 55.a'2 . + 4 c. 2. 14. 4r 2 . 56.4x. 8. 31. . . 5. 24.4c 3 8 8 J.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).2 a. a  ISjfat. c2 . 1. a 3a 4 2 &. 6. 0. 4. 11. 26. a2 9. . 24. a 10w. ri\ 18. 24 b 46.. a 4 + ft. 2. \ :{ 2 a 48.4. 4wipg>' 27. 2 6.'U4j>.h.r 2. (mn} 11. 5x 2 rt ft. . m*  n*. 3 a3 & 41. 2. f ft 9.Oa: + 10. . 364c.(7x2 Ox2). 20.5. a + (ftc4df). _5a<>&43c. ar. 3. mn. 20. j)(g1. + 6. x3 . 59. c. 8.a . 58. 8 8 . 42. 1 + 45. 35. 8. G. 7. 36. 3. 4. 2 y' 4 . 2m.a*. a. 5 2 Page 29.2 57.(2 x2 . 5.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.7. ?/. 2.a~.  a: 2. 0. 2. 2. 21. 22. . . 2a.r. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . a 6 2 . . 7  a + 2 + c. (w4w)(ww). 2. 4ft ~.  12. 2a: 2 4x. a4 4 4. 2 2 2 6. (yz~d}. 18. 12. Page 7. (5x47 3. 3. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . . ti. 29. 25. 2. 2 + a4l). 2 4. 10. 2 3x f z. 43.2. 18. 26. 12.c. 19. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 19. !  </ .  4 b 17 y*. + 2y. 3 Ji 8 . 4. 1.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2 a f 6 414. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 5.l.2 . a2 24. 40. a 3 . 21. 2. 36. f 2 ?/  2. ?> 22.11. . 30.  1. .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. t). 2. 18. 50. . Page 28.5 4 2 3 ?/ . c.6 x + 0) 16. ( 7.a f 54. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. . 14. 3 a . 12. 13. a a. a  49. r. 4 21. 0. w 17.
30. 10. 31. 12 x2 2 . 16. ! 2. 30.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 8. 37. 2 * 80 .19 + 2. 18a% y. 5. 22. . 23. . ll 2 i. . 21.2. 343. Page 5. 27. 18. 4 a8 . 6. 84. 18. 3. 42. . 22. 21 a'&c. 3300. . 33. 20. 2. 29. a 8 . 1. 33.r + 7 1S + 2 mp.20 xyz . 25.16 x2/ 5 4. 9. 25. 18. 4 jcy*z*>. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 13. 11. 28. 4200.12. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 23. 15 lb. 4. 12.(3x2_4^+7). 20. 7. 6 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 21.r% 2 2 ry. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. Page 38.69 rt + 21 132 + r . a: . 7. n (a6) 125. 24. 15. 16 lb. 10. 2 8 xy f 4 a. . 16. 1400. ?> 4 . 25. .19p" + 19^ 10 . 19. 20. 4. 27. 32. 770. 66 8W 34. 35. 17. 66 39 k* . 83 In + 1 n*. 14 m 2 . 19. 161b. 7. 27.21. 16. 22. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . f 26. 8 . 6. 30. 14. 21. 30 n?b*c*. 34.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 24. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 13. 102.32. fa 2. ^^ = 20.25 + 14. 3. iSx8 .14 .. Ox a 5 . Page 36. //.28 p'^/.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 27.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 20.6 2 . 11.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 76 8 a' 1 . 24. 4. 32. 33. 9. 60. Page 7. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 12. 6. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 64. 4aWy. 1.21 a 3 c2 21. 24. 7G .>(/ r . x2 xy42^.15. 34.26.. 30 j9 jt?g j . 10. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 15. 2 ). 13. a.64 190 p6. .18 w w + 10 WI M . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 360. 2. + 58 . 15. . 18. 17. 120. 9 13. 20 aW. 10. 27. +. 17. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 34. 13.32 y s s G . 2''. a. 8. 31. + 7. 1.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 13.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2. 23. 30. 4 fc. 1. 30. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 18> ^* = a .14 w 2 2 . 20. 14. 28. 216. 3(*+0 + 2). 26. Page 35. 8. 6". 11.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 1. Page 3. 2 2 2 . 25. 4. 14. 36.. ISartyW e*f*tj. 17. 0. 52 + 6s 12. 11. 16. a + ft.44 aWc 16 abxy. . . 16. 14. 2 w +2 2 . 42. 15.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 4. 5aft(a 126 2). 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. + O4 66 . 4.. 3. 90. 7. 0.000. 24. 5. 18. 29.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . +15.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2 7t A. 30. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 18. 22. 216. 8. . ?/ . 15 q\ 6. 161b. 04. 2 a2 (y 2 . 14f 5.:>/ . 28. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 40 r 2 . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . ft 17. 28. 3 a 3 . a.8 12. 1904. s 9 ww.6) =a2 31. 19. m. 3 a 2 46. 2 ). 108. 23. 2. 19. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.36 35.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 4 a2 . 210. 15. a*b*c. 20. 29. . .11 xyz . 12. 3. 12 ^. 2 . 60. 108. 26. 6.12. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 127"'. ci 5 . 1. 16 51. 8. 38wiw. 2*8f x2 6x4. 29. 9. (+3)x6=+16. 25 4 4. 4 7> 4 :j !} .7(50. etc.1.
2 fr . (m + 6)(m3). a4 4 ?/ . V + o ft .14 jp + 49. 31. ) 4' 6/ 49.p132.009. fo*. 19. 10. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.ri 17.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .1. r. 36. 1.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 0)(p + 5). 10. 32. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 26. 10. 35. 4 x2 13. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. +4 34. 40. 2 a' y' . .10 x + 25. a3 0. 4. 27. 3. 36 a 4 . 21 2 . a + 56. 30 /><.r . ^V^4 . + 4 a +4. . 2 .25. x* .84 a' 9. Page 39.r . (n 2 5. (p 2. 4 2 //.004. 1). 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 11. 34. 23.ab . 42. 2. 8. ^/> 8 4 . 10 a 4 ?. . 24. ft' 11. + 2 9. Page 12. 10.6 xy . 2 (5 a 3). + 12. 8. 4 . + 7 6)(3a~76>.6 x2 13.201.500. 10. 55.16 a3 f 50. +  m' 1. + 4 t*. 34. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.020. 30 x + 19 x3 . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . m 3 j) 3 . 25 a 2 6 2 . 9 4 /> . . Om2 4 6m 6. 2 j3 Z . 45. 2.8. 2 62 V2 132. x4 28.. a' . x*2^f I.606. 2 12. 166. 53. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 990. 15. 32.009. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 1. 33. 999.49. 10.20. 2 m3 + 4m2 . a2 ' + 48Z100. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 3. a + 25. 37. 31. (a + 4) (a + 2). 10. 3wi2 m Page 42. . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 8.4 12. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 33. 6 2 + 6lf>0.35 ab 9. 14. 4 21. 998. . 484. 2 1: 21. 12 x2 . p 2 .4 n. 28. 2 a 2 + a .x2y22. 7. 35. + 3)(3). n2 a4 6. ab.6 y4 10.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. . 441. a 2 . 9801. p4 + . ab .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 30. 2 +10s281.2 y*. 7 . 2). 7> . 27. 8 38. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 4. ?/H)0. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). x2 GiC+5. 5. 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 4 a + 4.3.6./ .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 51. 7. 40.ANSWERS 28. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 6. +   5). 29. 1.810. 39. (w4)(w + l). s rc 47.098. (w+4)(m4). 2 . .008. . 14. 38. 11.m 30 6 4 1. 4 + 25 q*. 7.2. 8 a W . 9. 9990. . 36. 56. 25 25. 44. 18. G a6 2. 4 . 5. 1.000. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.001. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 6.r* 2 30.404. 2 4 2 2 64 . 14. ~ 6 20 . a + 25. 41.5 ~ 81. 39. 10. 57. I/). . ^' J  7 f 12. 1.996. . . 25.4 a&+ 4 &*. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.2 x + 2 x.54 p 2 + 81. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 40. 17. 10. . .2 6 + 13. 1. 36. ' 46. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.00 + 37. .020.000. (a (3 54. m 2 . 4.15. x 48. 33. 19. 10.^. y. 15. 24. 41. 10 a' 2 .. 10. 9. 26. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. lflrt 2 8 + l.^ + a? + 1. .10 35. 37. n + 2.^V"' . 29. 16. 9999. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. + 10 + 121 y*.712. 31. 52.994. 4x21. 2 6' .
2 .12 aft 4 20 ac . 6. 8 r<ft 4 2 .8 y. 19. 1. 5 4 a Oft. a 10. 5^418(7. 7. 6. 4 a 2 4. 2 4 3 9.1. 5.34. 5. 2 12. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8 x . 2 . 14 r 2 . 11. .2 2 2 8 . .  11. 14. 7a3ft. 17. 12.30 ftc.24 . 8 ?/ . Page 48. 2.1. 5. 10.2 wZ 4. + 4. G. 2 ? 14 .2 2 .8. :r !>. w .r ?/ ??i ?). 1.r?/. a 4 4 ft.1. 2. 13. r 7. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 12. 17. 3 a. yfl. 3. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 2 1.2 <</.  3 c. 2 4 2 x 4. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 8. 4. .9 d. 46. 21. 3.5 mp. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 5 a  (5 ft.2 ftc . y 7. 8. . 4xy + 13 <) . 16. 4x43?/.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . . ft.7. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 12. 6. 5. 14. 22. c3. 3. 8.2 ./ 4.1. 8 ?/ .3 x 2 2 4. 4.r' ~ 16. 5. w 2 . 20 15. . . . 1/*. 9. Page 7. 9.3 5. 2 2 + 2 a. 75 a 2 29. Page 11. 1.n. m L 4. ft* ft / . 3*y2 w + 1. j) .8 yn . 5.25 c . 2.10 xy*. 4. 15. 18. x4.000. 49.5 a .10 2 + z 2 410.r'^ 15.VI ANSWERS 43.rw. Page 22. 125. 14. + 3. 2. a 8 4. 9.15. 14. z. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 17. 4 a* 4 9 11. 2 ?/' . . ti'jry1 7. 13. x 2 + 2r f J.w. 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.5 n*. i 2 tji. sr 11. /r .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 15. 01.23. a 2 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 13. ?/2. 2.1.2 1 //. r//. 1.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 4. 2. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.21 2 2 f + . 4.2 ar. 9. + x?/ 2 1.2 . 6. 2 ^r ???' 2 . _ 2 a . 135.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. r ft.3 a 41. x 4.9 4.2 ac . 1. +w . 11. 4 ac.3 3. 3. 2 . c 12. 5.27 x 2 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.3^V. 47.r" 20 S? . . .r?/ j/. 6. f>r* 4. aft. 13.25.3 ry. 10 ft. 20. 1. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.4. 23. 1. as _ 10 16. m'2 3. aftc 52. a. Exercise 2 a:// 26. Osy. 4.29. 8. . 10. 9. 3 aft 20.  5 z* . . . 5. 2 ?/ 4. 50.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 24. // 19. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 14. r/2 4. 4 x. ft 17.1. aft 12. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 1000 1000 . 16. 26.15 21. 8.2.rw f 8 . 19. 8. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 6x 3. 21. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.lit x + 4. 12. ft ? ft' ft ft. 12. 44. 3. 2 a 3 ft.6 :rs 4.  . 5. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. Page 51. i 9. 13.> 10.y3. 4 pq. Exercise 27.1*5 2 r 2 .2 aft 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. '.  10. 2 4.  12 y 25. . 18.+ 77 15. 4 d 2 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.1. . Page 13. ??. 13. 4.r .8. abc 7. 4 c m . 10. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . l 4 . 7 r . 4ft. 11 4.x^. 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . *3 y 4 . 16. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.
x + 1=a. 100 14. 3x2. d. 7. ct..r1. 4^ = 100. 45. ft. m+ 11. I. 100 2.p+7. 11.6 = *.100. 16. ft. 2x + 35. (A) 3 x f (4 x . (> 27. y 2z p= 3 (a c. ct. 33. 7. n M. 15. 22. 5. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 13. fix. 2. 5. 30. b. . 33. 12. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60.(3x  700) = 5. 10 >_&. 2. 16. 6. 10 a. y 100 a 24. 20. Page 31. I.ab a. 4. 58..rr2. 17. 25. 3. . 14. 1.000. lO. 32. v (6) 2x. 60 25 1. y yr. 19. . ? 43. 1. 18. r>?imi. = 5 ?i x 460. iL*. 'nj 100 a 28. '^ . 40. "mi. Page 40. s.200) f(^ + (e) 200. <>. 2=10. 13. x. 0. 800 = x + 1300. 39. !). 90 7 2 + 10 = c.  9 = 17 a. (a) ' 12. 31. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. X 60. f = eZ 2 x. 10. 47.x700. 1. 57. }f. Page 13. 1&. lOx 10 + w. 36. a 10. 100= ^.(3x+ = rraxlO. 2. 3. 19. 6. 2. 4(a ft) c = 8. 2b. 28. 7. b. 7. 100 d ct. 41. 8 n  10 yr. y ?>i x + 26. 6. f 6)(o 62..10) 100. x 48. 41. y 50. 16. x y $ 6 yr. 7. 3 9. ct. (2 a. 37. 12. ft. 50= L 100 15. r tx mi. . ] 2 ri 42. 9.  1$. 17. m +~m 3. . 10. 21 2. 10) + = (a) 2 x . f (I. 9. 6. l. rn mi. 44. 4. sq. 10 x sq. Page 6. 00. 17. + f + b 2.. 18. 4. 34. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 20. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 20. # + 20yr. 23. x 49. 11. 10. 29. 25. (d) 2a + 10 = n.  />) a = all. 36. (</) 2a. 8. 46. 22. + 10 b + c ct. 7. + 3 = 2(3* . 5. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. x 2y 10 act. 5.  6 10. vil 56. 3x  1700) = 12. 5. 3. xy ft. (>. x = m. 5. (c) 2x. 7. 2. 59. 8. a 8. 23. 1. 30. 13. 42. ^ 12 sq. 14. 43. 15. 38. " lir. 4. 10 yr. </ 20. 38. . 2b 22.7). 10. ( a f 4. / + y + a// 12 yr. Page 61.  2\. 11.r ct. 26. 2 ct. 37. 35. 29. 6. 0. 7x 2 Page 21. 4. + 3x + 2y + 32. 27.ANSWERS Page 9. % 4. Jj12. 4 f 39. 2. + 4x 3y 34. 44. d + !. 24. . 1.
Page Page 480 12. 1.0. 30 mi. 1313.000 Phil. (*4)( + 11. 480. 24J. 180. Ib.000 ft. 10 yr. 5. 19. 17. 2. 85 ft. 3. 12. 250. 3.. 5. (a 4) (a. (p + 7)(3a5&). 1. 10. w (/) 64. 5. 5$ hr. 1. 5.. 2 3 6 7. (e) i* + A. 12.13. 74. 05. 10 Mass.3. 6.000.5. a a (a 8 a+l). 15 mi. 11.7.24. 2). 21. 42yr. 6. Page 79.10. 9. 9. (z5)(z2). 6. 6rt 2 11. 11. 11 pV (2 p8 . z?/(4^ + 5xy ..000 Berlin. 13. 10.000.000. 2. 1. (a + 4)(a + 8).5.(5z .y"). . 3 hr. 11. 3. 82 mi. 15 in. 5 Col.16. 7a*fe(2a & l).11. 7. 20 yr. 160 lb.210^. 100 1. 1. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.3).. 20 yd. 30 yr. 72. (y8)(y + 2). 30. (c) ^ v ' . 4.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 2. 10 yd. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 15. 12. 14. Y.. = _?_(2ar + 1). 7. 10. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 13. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 7. 1 lb. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 7. 12. . 15. 13. 25. 90 mi. 15.5p + 7 g ). 15 yd. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).. 25 yr.. (a + 6) (a + 3). 3. 1200. 71. 2 2 ?/ 21. 11 in. 14.000. 90.. 13. 4. 12 mi. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 70. 8. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 8. 9. 20. Oaj(o62cd). 7. 10. 8.. 5.000.000 N. 11 w(w' + wi .  PageSO.000 ft. 150. ( + 4)(*2). (y7)(y + 2). 9.21.. 14. 4.411. Pace 65. (m + n)(a + 6). 10. 300.000. (a5)(a4).000 gold.. 3. 8. 8. 3x (3r. 9.. 29. 55. 1. 100. 80 A. 18. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 6. 28yr. a 12. $40. 68. 11.2. 20.22. 3. (ro3)(w2). 7. 1.. 6. .2). 4. 8. 14. 13. 8 2 19. 9 in.0. 5 lb. Page Page 4. 2.8. (yll)(y4). 10. 12. 75. 17. 12. 1250. 14. 9.3aftc + 4). by 12 yd. Page 7. 6. Page 7. 10 yr. 2 2 2 5. 200. 20 yr. (y + 8)(y2). 9. 2.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. . 67. 45 in. ?(g ? g+ 1). 4. 2. 2$. 78. 5pt.. 22.3.79. 2. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. ~=90. (y 13. 6. 70^. 30. 40 yr. 52. Page Page 4. Page 5. 8 12. 8. 3 (a +&)(*. 25. + 7)(y3).. 4pt. 10. (a + 5)(a + 6). 3. 600. 1200. 50. 20. 15. 7 hr.000 copper. 14. 200. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000 pig iron. 8 in. 6. 10 Cal. 4. 15. 78. 18. 16. ^ .000. 8. 23.1).6). 18..
. Yes. 26. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (m7n) (a. 22.2 y). 12. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 2. No. Page 84. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 24. 29. (4a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 5. 19. 27. 16. (3#y)(+4y). (g . 17. 25. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 21. 9. (10a + ft)(10aft). Yes. + 9^)(oxy . 25. 4. 21. Page 82. 13. (15ay2) 2 . 19. . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). . + 3)(c44). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (6 a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). a*(5a f l)(flr .6) 2 1. 7 6) (a 10 6). 17. ( 2 4 19. 216 aft. (9y4)(y + 4). + 2y). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (az + 9)(ox2). 8. 23. 10.4p). 1.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 9. Yes. 4 (a . . .1). Yes. 31.ANSWERS 16. 103x97. Yes. (0 + 6)(66). 2 2 15. 10(3 5 6) 2 . . (4al)(a2). 30. 11. + 4) (a. 5. a.r2). 17. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 32.y4 ). (a (p8)0> + l). 1. (w ~ n (x . 20. 20. (a. (2yl)(y + 9). 2 17. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (3*2)(. 3. (7 a + 4) (2 a . y) 2 29. (6n + l)(+2). 26. + 8)(g3). x(x +y)(x y). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 23. No. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (w* (3a26). 14. . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 32.  x (5 a. . 2. (a 6 6) (a 4. (x + y4 )(x .1). Yes. (m + w) 2 5. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 12. 26. 24 9. (a a: 19. 20. 3. (:52y)(2a!3y). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 14.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 9. . 3(x + 2)(zl). (2 a? 4. 2 3 by2 Yes. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.7)(2z f 1).1). (2xl)(x + f>). 6. (ft + ll)(aftll). 8) (a. Yes. 8. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 21. . ix 18. f 2). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (5x . 16. 13x7. Yes.   . (m + n + 4p)(w + .3)(z2).2 ft). (* + y)(zy). + y + . 34. y) (a. 31. 100(x. 35.2). x\x 24. 33. 12. 10(a . 26. 9. (4y3)(3y + 2). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .c 2 ). 22.2). 29. 27. (a 3 + 10)(a. 10(2 30.4. No. Yes. (4 13. 22.7) (a.11 6) (a 4. + 0(90 Page 85. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 10. 16. 8. (2o + l)(2l). 3a.y) 2 aft. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 18. 25.1). + 3). (<7 20. 34. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 25. 7. (ay8)(ay3). x (z + 2)(x + 3). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (a + 8)(a3). (13a +10)(13a 10). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 2 No 4. 4. 100 (a. (y + 4)(yl). (y8) 2 2 . (5wl)(m5). 23. 36. 7. 18. Yes. 28. Yes. 2). 1.+4 y)(3x4 y). a . Yes. 3)(3a. 11. 35. 6. (3a. 10.3). 7. 14. 30. 40 x. 23. 28.4 6). a(2u. (5a +l)(5a l). 24.8). 10 a 2 (4 . No. 21. 28. 24. 15. 22. + 5) a.6) 2 2 . 25. No. 9. (2 *+!)(* 9). 2.. 33. (w + 20)(w + 5). 11. 27.5y)(3a. 3. .11 ft)(a6). (15z2y)(x5y). . 13x(a + ft)(aft).9*). 10.2 by2 6. Page 83. 15. .* (2 y + 3)(y. y(x. (4 18. 10(a + ft)(aft).
y '2 2).))(x  ^OC 1 1).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 8. a (a + 2 6). 37. 35. 13. 8. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).'J)(' .l)( a 25. 2. 24x sy s 9. 2 21. 4). 3. 4 a s &8 . 12. + 3. ofc)( fid). 11.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).b. 4. (16 4  2(5 n . 12. 4. 5. 8x. 15. (r420(4 10.3. 8. . 13( 33. 2 k (wi 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.?50)(xt/z.  (w' 4. 8. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. . 42). 2 1. 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.4). (^ + ?>_8). n  r)(5a 10. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 4. 6.1).^ 48. ( rt 23.1). 27. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).  29. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .2).y)(fi a . Page 86. 22. 8). (a 4. 2 2 3 . 7. 1. 13 x 8 2 .?>) H. .i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (a 9. Page 87. ?i(w 4y) . ( { &). 42a 3 x. Page 92. 8. 6. Page 12. (w4w) 2 1. 5. 8. 41. 30. 7. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. ^ . . (x. 2 2 10.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4  9. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. x43.42 x 4. y6. (2x7)(x 2 2). 7. a8 .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .1) 3. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.. 6. Gp). 14. 6. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). y(2x?/). 2 + .2)(x 1. .0+ 12). (w * . 39. 15. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. (a &4. (5 26. a 2 (a9). Page 90. 40. 4 a8 .4.36). 4. 9. (. 3(. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 . r x 2 */3 .^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 28.8) n 43*).'/)('< 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 8. y). 6. 450. ( y). a 41. 12. 20. (> 1. x .?/). 32. (^ 7. 7. 3 x4 . 4.5 m2 x2. 6 f c).2). 14. 6. 7.8) ( (16. . (14. 17(x43//)(x2y). b) (r 4. 15 M. 5. 2. fi(c426). 11. x 4.'})(c . (!__/>). 11. 13. 3x(x?/) 4.e 4.&). (x//. ?>). 14. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 4 3. 5 x8 3. 4 6. 5. 2.7)(^ {I 12. ah}.7s) (2 a. l. y )(. 13. 4.3)(x 4. (f> + fo 7. (5a+l)(9a). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. ( (<> r4y3 . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 11. Exercise 47. (m  I)' 6.X 5. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (c. 2 y) ^ . 2 (a 4. ( a ^)(^3.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). Page 89. 16. 38.  WIM. 2 8(w . 10.4). Exercise 46. a + a b.2 y). 9. a 4.n). 36. 19. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (5 31. 7.!) (x42)(x2).y).r(3x' 2 4 (14. (5^4. 2. 3p (^9)(j) 4).&). a 4.y. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 17. 10(2 (3 4.) j). 2. 16.3. (a />.8). 1(V/ 88. + 2 //).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 24. 18. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). x  1).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).9). x(x f y)(jr . 4. 5  (2 2 . 2(m4l)' . 14.4. a x 3 10.
+ &) 2 ( . + y) (a: y). ?_!&. 11. a 23. a 10 25. + &)(&) ( .ANSWERS 10. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 6a2&(rt6). x 22. b ! 21. 2(2al) + l). x 24.6). +5 1. 13. x 12. +8b a 4 3 / ^. (a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15.  1). 18. // m+1 !+*?. 1).
i^.. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. c 8. xy 43. w1 + ac w 4 7. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. ' 2 7. 30. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. + lH + . _*^p5_^^_. 4. Page 100. 28. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . Page 101. A^. 7. + 2H 1 ^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 11. . i. ^~ 29.  **/* + 84 _. 1. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 26. 4c 10.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. a 5. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6. 6a5f^. 0.50 ~ 1/2 . 2 a.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 6. 4 L 8 2 .
9. f 7. 42. Page 113. 15. 21. 16.  10 X + u. 14. 4. 16. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. pf n 6 1. 15. Of. 21. 3. 9. 30. 14. 10. 0. 4. 8j_m 7 3. 21. 34. 44. 1. (y + (z 12. 7. J. 6. 5. J. flf. 35. a 17.L+ft. 8. n . 6. 4. 3. 11. 1. 0. 2ft a i m x. 2 47. ?. 3 7 i o. 3. 1. 5. f Page 107. 27. +3 ( + 15. (>. x 05m ' 5. ?+_!?>. 14. 3. 17. 6. 4. 5. 29. c 8. j L . 41. ' 6. 25. 5. 45. Page 106. 26. 12 28. 24. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18.^_. 1. 43. 39. . x\. ac mp lf> n 12. 1. 2) 19. Page 111. 23.y 7. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13.  V o 4. 6. 9. I) 2 3z 1. 3. 6. n m a + 13.^U\WF### X<6. Page 110. 4. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 38. 11. 7. y(x + x ?/). 15. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 17. A. ^_. 33. an 18. 8. 37. 4. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. ! 4 20. 18. x 1. b 2. 5 be _J_. 1. 7. ft. 20. 1. 3. . 13. a2 2. 11. 32. 1. + f. 11. 7. 40. 10. 12. ^i 11. 1. 6 . . 36. 11. m 9. b a f +c 14. 4. a. 12. n 16. 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. 19. 46. J. 31. . 4a3ft.ft .
15. 16. :2. 5. nm. 18. w 44. ft. 212. 15. after 18.  + . (a) 25.003.10. Yes. = A's. 30ft. 15. 17. 3 da.. Yes. (a) 12 hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 4.. 19. 23< &n b ' . 31. 2.0 & . Yes.000. $45. 9. n 32. 20.000 If da. 14. 8. 10. 6. $00. 300. 18.. 8. 20. 8301 hr. 26. 7} 18. Page 124. ^p^ r ~ 7. 30. 8. 35. 9. after 20. P+ ^ 33. _JL. 4. 13. 17. 13. 19. 7. 300. 21. Page 117. 3:2. 24. w 18. 7T 2 Page 116. 1:1=1:1. 8. 7. a 4 ft. 10. #V ~~ 34.0. f.138. (r) 3^ da. 36. . 1:4. Yes. 9$. 16. 74. 300. 3. 4. 33. (d) 500. 13. 0.000. 75 .15.  C .. 10 yrs. (ft) 104. 2.. 1. 40wn. 7 . 2 20. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. min. 10.001.000. 1:1 = 1:1. jj. (ft) 5 da. 10. 15. 4. 9. 22. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 1^'.XIV '/ . 1:3. 9ft. (a) 4 min. Yes. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. . 4fl M_. 26 30. . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .. 12. $0. 30 mi. " 0. 1... Page 118. 7. $30. 9J oz. 33.9. (d) 4 da.139. 8. 11 hrs. min. 5ft 30mi.002. [>> ^ a .. 1.2. $40. 20. 10. 81. 27. 11. 26 mi. 40 mi. 12. 1. 15. 11. J ^'. 11. 16. 500.004. 3. 2x:3y. 5 25. Page 125. 14. (c) 8300. 34. 4~r~ n . 40 yrs. 4. f . 10. 24. 3. ANSWERS 16. (ft) 5 hr. Page 119. 19. . ^?i min. 7.11. dn ~ mi. 3.x + y.2. 24 mi. J. ^m . 10. .000. 38ft min. 1: ~. 10. 10. ~m .000 1 = 23./hr. 00. Page 121. No. 10^ oz. xy.. 7. 9. w 21. 3. after $12. 6. 6. gold. (ft) 28. 275:108. 15. () 2. 5. 12.137. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31./hr. 21ft min. Yes. 5 2. 17. 15. Yes. 14. 1 : 12. '"I 22. . (ft) (r) 8 hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 30 yrs. No. 13. 18. 1 da. 5. 14. . 19. 2:1. 28. 21. silver.  29. Yes. IV s. 3. 5. (a) 30. 55 mi. * 7:9. (c) 2 hr. 17. 32.} da. 7.
2. 9. 2. 14. Page 136. Of. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 2. 44. 20 cu. 2. ig 6.5. 17. 38. 11 w a 13. 7. (b) Inversely. 54. 2. 9. 21. 1. Inversely.12. w 8. .4.57. 6. J. 1. 17. 2. 1." ^ 2. 24. mi. 2.^ 0?j ' gms. OJ. x 42. 2.2. 15. + b 7 . Page 9. a +b 1. 2. 3.3. 3. 1. 3. land. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 32j. 23. 4. 7. x y = 1 = 3 2. 5. Page 5. 10. 25. 4. Page 131. 6.17. 2. 4.4. 41. 12. 3. 19 OJ.7. 3. 2.2. 10. 2. (a) Directly.]. 11 5 . 7.3. 2.7. 5.1. 28.a.5.36. cu. 29. 5:0 = 10:12. 5.3. 6.6.000 sq. 5. 1. 48. 31. 2. . 3.22. jc:y = n:m. 5 2. 2. 7. 36. 5:3 = 4: x.3. /.5. 6. x:y a: b. 7. 19. 30. : . $. 9  15. l. 4. 13. 16. 7. 43. 4. 57. 945 11 10 . 1. 3}.4. lo mi. OJ. 12.5. 1 18 = 3 51.' : : : : <>. 30.2 oz. 35. 7. 4. 7. 18. 3 2=3 x.) 31. in. Page 134. 1.3. 24. 3. 2. 53. x +y x + 74 7 \. 7^. (I.4. 3. 32+ mi. 7. t 5. 8. 40. + W. 1. 127. J. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 4. 11. 56. .20. 4. . 2.8 oz. 1. \\. 6*. () 7 Page 126. 19. 3. 21. . 39. 15.r. 2. 7.000 sq. in n. 2. . = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. . 9.3. 3  24. 20. 12. 5. ' 55.ANSWERS 22. 23. 25.  ?. 19. 14. 9. 4. 2. 52. 5. 10. 138.46. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 50. "lO. . () Directly. 17. 2. 7. 13. 8. 2. b x 37. .1. 11. 22. 3. ~ 1. 2. 4. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . : : . a~. 174+ Page 128.*. 5. 2. 26. 14. Page 133. a 3.J. 5.4. 8.x a. . : : T 1' : /> : .2 x. water. 25. x y y . 4. 13.3. . Page 135. 19 3 . 20. 2 n . 2. 11. 24 1 (e) Directly. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. ini. 11. copper. 1 rt * vm^1.li. : />. 47. 8. *. 9. : XV 27..C ?/ a . 7. 14. 8. 4.1. 13. 9. Page 132. 16. w. 9.3. 2. 4. 27. \. ..  19. J pq.5. 8. 20 20 J ^. s<i. 15> 9. 8. 11. 9. 7. 36. 41. 6 10 = 12. 7. 141. . J. 55. 7. 1(5. mi.3.5. .5. (</) ft.3.J 3. 4.15."2:1. I. 3. 13J. ft.1. 40. 3. 26.3. tin. y :y =.5. 12. 58.160. 10. 4. 59. 5. 22. y . = 7 b'. 16.840. 7. 49. a f 2 2 = 5 x.  28.12. + 7>i//  ft 1 . Page 137.9. i. 2. 3. 45. 6. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.2.1. 3./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 5.5. 31J.. 200 mi. 1. : 23.15 x. 46. 5. y a y = 7 0. y 1.
3. 4. 11.65. (ft) 20. 10^ gms.2. 1. 6. 7.^. 4. 2. 3.4. 16. Apr. 2. Page 145. 32. 30. Nov. 7. .. . 1.  17. = ^ a Page 141. On the y axis. 3. 4. 1. 17. July. 13. 2 a. C's 30 yrs. 25. 1. 16.  11.7. 1. 1. . & part of Feb. 2. B's 15 yrs. yrs. Page 143. (c) . 10. through point (0. 3. The ordinate. parallel to the x axis 0. 2. M 2. 2. <*ft/ bd 1. 7.2. . July. 5. 16. 2t2. at 15. . ' . 40. . 10. 20 & Oct. ft 3. . 5. 2. 4. SL=J o ft r^2. 5%. 24.. Page 142. 23. 2. 29. 21. C's 10 yrs. 2. 1 (c) Jan. 147. 3. 15. 3. 8. 3. 2. 6. be 7. 100. Apr. 9. $4000. 2.l. 7. 6. About 12f. 5. (ft) 23 J. J. 6.8. 2./hr. Page 152. 4. 15.0. 6. 25. ^. ad AzA. m f 9.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 10 sheep. On 11. 1. 17. July 20.3. 18. 24. $ 1000. 2. 4. m f 8. (a) 12. yrs. 20 to Oct. 1. 1 (d) Apr.. 1. (a) Apr. 1. $6500at3Ji%. 4 mi. ad _(?jrJL. 72. 7. 3. 12. Jan. 9. 16. 25. 10.33. 14. 6. Nov. 11. 8. a =J (n  1) rf. . 11. Jan. 18. 19 gms. 7. 4. On the x axis.1J. 4. 4. 6. 26. 90. A a parallel to the x axis. 9. 3. 7. $250. 24. 2.0. 4. Page 151. 2. 11. May 5. A's 30 18. 4. 3. 3. 7. 1. & part of Sept. 2 horses. 30. 5. 3. Page 153. 5. 31. 5. 13. & May. 12. 13. 3. . 7. $3000. 4.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 25. 4 ' q. 3.$5000. 8. 28. ' 6 3 a.n + p. 24. Aug. 17. . 9. $500. Page 22. 18. Apr. B's 40 yrs. A's 50 13. (5. 14. 5. 20. 19. 11. 3). 22. June. Jan. 12. 8. 9. 0..3. 6%. (<f) 13. 2. 3.3. 3. . . Oct.1.1. 2. 19. 3.. 00. 3.$2000. Page 146. 10. 6. 1.9. Page 149. 26. be 10. 40. 12. 6 cows. 30. 4. 20. 10. 14. m + n p. a. 23. 5. &. 21. Nov. 0. 5. 16 to July 20. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4.XVI Fagel39. . 16. 12. 23f . 423. 20. m .4. 16. 2. 9. u 2ft. 3. 27. 20. 0. Jan. Nov.10. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . Feb. 15. Jan. 5. 20. 4. 7.4.. $900 5%. 18. 11. 2. 3.
3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . 8.. 4}. (<?) 2. 10.1. Page 163. 2. H.24. * 16. 14. 125 a 8 12. 3. 1. 3. 4. 22. 8 1 f f g*. 18.. 1. 27. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1. 3. . 0. . (ft) 2. Page 158. 24. 5.75.25. 1. 83. 9 and Page 166. a + ft. 7. 19. 9.59. ImW. 16. .67.6. a 29. . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . ' :=_!. . f.73. 1.64.17 (ft) (c) 2. 8. 28. 1^. 1. 1.73. 3. Page 159. 2. 2. xW.  1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 3. 2. xy. . .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 125a 28. 2 2 22. 15. 1. 1.75 (ci) 3^.7. 13. . 15. (ft) and (d) 2. 20. . 1. 15 . 20. 2 l. 1. (c) 14 F. (/) 3. 10. 3. (ft) (ft) 2. 13.24. xg . 14. 8mW. 1 4. . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 11. (e) 2. jgiooyiio 17. . + a 4 ft* . 3.79. 2. . 5. Page 164. (a) 5. (gr) 21. 1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2. ft . 4. 26. 2. Inconsistent. .73 ami . 2.75. 6. 5. 10. +3 4.27.  12 ft xW  26 31. 10 C. (a) 4. 3. m. 24. 8 a1.13. 3. . a 10 ' a ll V&.3. 2ft4 Page 168. . 13. 6. 21. 12.25. 4. 3. 1. (c) 2.  1. 3.5. H. 11. . 13 . 2. 3. 3.25. 30.41 and . () (rt) 3. 32F. 18C.5 (ft) 3. 4 ) 21. 3 ..73. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 22. .25. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 5. 8. . f. 11. .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.1.84. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 2. 14. 0C. 2. 3. \ft) 5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (/) 3. f 10.79. 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 1. 1 23. 1.4. 5 and 2. . 3. 27 27 81. G.2 (ft)  1.41 and 23. SlstyW 7.83. 4.24 . 17. 9. 3. (ft) (d) 2. 1. 5. ft 2 4.83.34F. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 27 19. 3. 1. 2.5. 2.  . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. Inconsistent. 125 16. 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 1. 13C. . 81 ". 2. . 4. 25.. (a) 2. 12. .25.75. f12 wi 9. Indeterminate.59 ." 23. 19.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 4wn8 + n4 5. 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 15. 14. (c) 7. (a) 12. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. (e) 3. 3. 2. 1. 2 a&m Page 167. 30. . 5. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 4. Indeterminate. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2. 5.3. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. . 4.64. 2.
13. 6.1. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 76. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 8. 2038. 19. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.2). ( Page 174. 6. AN S WE no . (ly). 2 2 4. 20. 9. 12. (a + 2 +l). 7. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 72.10 a~ + 5 a . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. (a 2. 16. 26. 2 4 8 2 . 2 2 7. 5. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 8.7 /)). + i)). 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 11. 3 2 8 3 12. 71. (x' l). . 12.5). 300. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. + + ?V 22. rt . 33. 1. +3 + 5 4. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 420. ?7i 1 1 3 1. (4a2 9& 2 13. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 57. 978. 9. 8. m 13. 763. a.  x. 28.a b 22. 3. + (win . 10.94. 31. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.6.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 22. 20. 14. 30. 25 19. 2. 32. + 29.y2 ). r> 4 : 1 . 6 (\x 3. 25. (l + x + . 4. 10. ^i. 3M. 2 12. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. (ab + c). 18.  +X '. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 3. 14. 15. . 0. 2. 247. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 24. 11. 14. 9. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 20. 99. 4. Page 172. (48 + 6. 84.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 5. 19. Page 171. 98. 17. 3 2 ^. 5. 1. 5.GO a c + 23. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 7. + Z). 2 49 . 1 1 ?>). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 6. 237. 309. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 2. 6. 16 6 w . 18. 101. 5 5 8. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). ? : 1 . ). 40. 15. . (2 a + ft). 1.XV111 7. 9. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 90. a. 16. 10*. 10 x G a 4 . ? . . 3.r 2 + 6jt). 6. 3. . (1 (x2y). . 00. fe *?>' ?> fi . 15. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.1. 9. 8 /. 7. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 21. 4. 15. GOO 2 c 2 . 90. . 180 . 30. 2. Page 176.^). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 8. 8.83. a 2 .f 1 m 9 16. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. + y). 21.3 ab + 2 2 ). 35. I 8x2). 1247. a: l . (3a. 20. .x ). + l). 17. 34. (x + y\ 90.i c 6 15. 16.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 36. 12. 3 6 23.+3^ + 4. 64. a ). (Gx + (i + 2a. c 10 6 :l 20. . (a + y+l). 23. 27.037. 11. /> 4 ). 13. wi 8 + 3m 2 . Page 170. 5. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 14. 4. 119. Zll. 9. 11. 17. 18. 1. +35. ??i ?i . 10. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 70. . 2.5.
1. 40. 4 W**. 12. 20. 5.925 ft. 7 in. 28 in. 5. 9 15 ft. {. 1. 20. 12. 49. 13. 8. 7. 3J. 29. 3. . V J l.. 35. 270 sq.  f. i. f. 5. 23. 48. 4J. 15. 12. 13. 42. 5. 33. f . 14. / 11. w. . V2. 3.742 in.6. 9. (6) Vl4 3. 32. /. 14. 35. }. 1. 2. 1. 4.*.798 yds. 31. 50. 8. 7. 7. xix 26. V35 1. *. 4. 9. 12. 11... ^. 44. 36. 3. 3.  5. 7. 3. 6. Page 179. 15 1 10. 3. 6. 47. 2. 5083. 4 a. vV'TA 24. .. 16. . 15. 9. 3. 29. 4. 21 in. 10. .367. 3. 32.. 2 sec. 4. J.i. 26. vYb. Af^. 16. 5.60. 4 TT M 28.5. 24. m. 1. 9. 5. 10. 2. ZLlAiK 19. 7. . 4. 33. 1 f Vl3. 17. 6. 12. 3. 5. . 1. . 16. 39 in. 15. ft. 16. 1. 4. 1 38. 39. ft. 28.243. 6. 18. 1. v 17. l~8. 12. V17.V 8j. 36. 10.18.1. 17. 30. 6.}. . a.  f. 22. 1. 7. 30. 1&.4.. 23. 12. 21. 6 f !. >i 27. 10. 13. 9. Page 177. 6. . 8. 6J. 1. ~ V^3. 14. 7. 27. 11. 18. 10. 10. 12. " ^_ 22. 4. 2] see. . Page 183. 7 45. 5.645. 46.935. 6V'2J. 7563. 6yds. 17. V. 2.236. 41. 3. 7.. Page 184. V2.005.6. 5.  1. 4. 21yds. 9. 5. Page 185. 27.6. f 3.4.522 38. f f V. 5f. 31. 34.916 yds.a. 4 n. ^. or 3.Sn. If ^. 4.  2. 7. 8. 23. 6. 10. 5. ii :J _7. 16n.5. 2. * 1. 36 in. m. 7. 29. 2. i ^. 3. \/3. 20. f ^ is.. 21 28 ft. () 2. 25.13. 9.  3. 40. f. ^^7m. 6V21. 4. 24. 19. 1. 37.690. 5. > w ft. 4. 11. 2.  14. 10. 6561. 2. JJI. Page 180. 2. 6. 15. 7}. 13. 21. ..237. 2.w 18. or 5. 8. 3. 39. ft. (< + ?>). Page 181. 9. 1. _ iVaft. 28. 2. 4. 21. 25 J. 19.6.?. 37. 5. >TT 26. 1 7. 2. 7.4. 11. a + 61. 25.  43. 8. 15. 2. 3.469. 5. 13. 14.6. 10. (afl).ANS WERS 22.. 3. 4. 34. 11. 14.
unequal.  5. 55. 4. . 50. 45. 13. 35. ' 1. 3. . a. 5. 2. 41.Oa. 5 ft. 70 ft. 15.10. 20 eggs. 2. 1. 64. 0. 10 mi. 15. 11. 2 ft. 6V64. 38.2 x2 . equal. 1./hr. 7. 120 ft. 3.4. Page 188. 13. jr .2. 7. *'' 12. 46. 36. 58.1. V2. unequal. 1.48. Page 189.2. 56. $30 or $70. Imaginary. 20 nii. 4. 3. 3. Real. Imaginary. 3. a8 . 5. V^l. f. 2. 5./hr. 6. 3if. 4. rational. . Real.7. . 29. 0. 44.. H.]. 3. 26. '  f 5. Real./hr. 1. unequal. s 11. Real. Page 192. 23. 12.. 12. 10.23. $80. 1.'.4. Real. 6.2. 5. 1. orf.59. ANSWERS 22. . 42. 24. 3. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 3./hr.74.a 3 a. 52. . 18. 34. 31. 3. 0. 3. 2 V3 in. 26. irrational. 21. 1 3. . 25. 8 or 12 mi. VV11.  2.a. 9. 53.  5. 39.  13. 2.  1. in. irrational. If. 27. 28. 15 ft. 3.1.  Page 194.4.2. 0. 20. . 7.l.5. x*4x=0. 0. .2. 10 mi. 1.0*8. 49. Page 191. 1.  1. i . 1 . a. 2. V7. . 6. Imaginary. 8. 2. . equal. 1. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 18. 1. 25. 3. 25. equal. x 14. (5 10. 33. 10.  9x <). 8\/2 17. t is. 6. 3. . 12. 25. f. 5. 6^2 in. 10 or 19. AB = 204 ft. 12. 0.41. 16. 6. 7. 0. 0. 1.7. 7. 3.$40 or $60. AB = 3. U.2. r* i. 4. . 24. 2. v^^fcT"^. . rational. 47.2. unequal. 2. 2. V^l. ft. 43. 30. . + 11 x.  1. 2. 48.5 x + 6 = 0. 37.4. 24. 21. 2 .  6. 27. rational.02. 26. V ~ 16 4 2. _ 19.23. 16. unequal. 3. Real.7. a + 6. f 6 52 a. 19. 0. 15. . 4. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  2. = 0.3. rational. 57. 1. 1. 2. %. 4 da. unequal. 0. 2.  24.6 = 0.. x2 + B .. 1. 12. 10. rational. 16.2.12 = 0. Page 190. 14. 20..6. unequal. 1. . 35. 4.  i. Page 187. 0.70. 32.1. 7. 26. 6. 9. unequal. . 1. 7. 4.62. V^~2. . 20. i. 6. 0. x* 51. 3. 3.37. 3. . 3. 14. Real. 6. 9. 1.48 3. 17. 28. 2.17. 4. V2. 2. Real. Imaginary. 8.XX Page 186.  1. 28.12. . 3. 40. 0.  1. 3. 1. 0. 22..a. 0. 6. 18.3. 3. 10 in. 22. 27. 1. 8. 2. 1). 2. 2. unequal. 2. 2.5^. a + 1. 2.2. 64c. 23. 19. 1. 0. #<7=3. 4. 8. 1_^L ft 14. 2. 23.4. 4. 6. .3. 19 in. 21. 2. $ 120. 11. 7.* 2. 9.2. 3.
JV37. 36. 7V7. 12*2 61. 1. 2. : . 'J. 3. Page 199. wA 46. 8. 4. 3. 6  AAf. 4. 5. 7. Vr. 11. 46. 24. 49.  J j. 2. x$. 59.2. 29. p. 4. J 3. 25. 10. 56. 5. 8. &. 4. 49. 40. a 18 . 18. 9. 1. I. . ^49. J. J. 1. 16. Page 197. 5. 15. 13. 33.1 5 15. 7 . . 3.  f . 29. 9. ^Sf 3 38. 5. 33.ANtiWEUS rational. 2. Page 200.  a'2 . 26. z + 22. 21. 38. 31.  48. 4. i. aW\ 40. 12. 41. 1.17. 21. 37. 49. 6. 39. 5.32. $7. 0. 42. 3. 1. 20. 15. x. 3. 4. 45.  f. 14. 19. 21. 3. 8. Jb \. 52. jV 10. 57. 48. 28.//^. \/. 50. 19. J. 0. 10. ) 2 >J i 10. 51. 3. 7. 29. v^T4 m. 9. 18. 9. 20. 2 L ( V. vV. 43. 3. r. v. \/r\ 11. 10. J. ? . 60. _! V3. x/25. 53. n\/* Page202. 44. 13. \a\ \/^. 54. 2. 4. 20. 32. 55. xxi 15. . . 16. 1. \. 25. 1." 17. 3. 14. *V. a. 19. 17. 25. 23. 24. 2. 1. 2. . 33. 20. 125. 1. 8. 4. l  5 12. . 30 a. 3. 27. 18. 8. 1V1. Page 201. 14. 0. 5\/5. 7. \/3. 17. 9. 58. 32. 8. 2. 2V a. y. 1. ifa. m'. 15. . fx'^z'l 23. 3. 2. . 8. 10. 16.  5. 243. v'frW. 13. ). m. 30. 3. 9. 2. 30. 1. v/3.6. \. 17. 8. 3 4 11. 13. 22. y . vm. . 2. 24. 6. 23.^7. ar 1 . 47. 35. v'frc 18. 28. 22. r*.. 11. 50. 84. 49. V^ 34. 2. 19. 16. 1. 14. 5. Page 196. 47. . \ . 27. 12. 1 39. (m 26. 31.
45. x + 5 x3 + 0. 9. 40. 4. 20&V6. V2 + 4 V22. 9.2 18. 21. 62V(J. 2 4 z2 l 3. a2 4. V.692. 5. 3^ + 2). x y. 2. 3^2. 5 ( . 3V^T. + + ft.r. r c . 7. 24. + 1. 20. 1 2 or 1 ?. 6. T. 8V/) 15. x 7  34. 19. V 5 47. 29. 32. 30. + 2 ar 1 ). 4. 26.  2 3:r. a 3. . 30. Page 207. . 1. 3 42.). 10. ^7 \AOx. V. 26. 5. x. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. r 17  Page 204.577.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 9. 37. . V63. 2 x* 15. 13. . 17. 4aV^J 16. 25. Page 208. x 25. 34. (x' (l 1+x). 3 x^y 33. 3V5.648. 3 \ 39. ^88". ). (a 27. 16. . x%  3 ^+ 1. 11. 9 . y (a + ft) V2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 17. 3 4\/2. 16. 31. v/^r 5  A/^~. 33. Page 203. 8. 5 22. 10. Va 2 "ft. 39. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).rV:r.Vxy 35.f. .3 + 40 3 . 2. V80.. 24. 28. 2>X2. ftV 46. 2. 2. 13 35. a^ + 2^+1. . 37.632. ?tV?w. / V3. 38. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 6. 2\/7. 2 a?>V2 a. 28. JIV6.2 VlO. 22. 27. x^ . m* n*. 49. 11. 21. 40. v^.'\ 14. 101 1. 51. 2. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. a 4 +* + !. 43. 195V3. 3.707. 41. 2 '"V5. 13 a. 11V3. 31. abVab. 1) 3V3.yl : .r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 03r* 7. 34 r 6. 12. 50. Vr 8. 32. y.x^y* + y%. 19. 10. 7. 48. 13. 8.XXii ANSWERS 1. 29. v'TM. l 5.  a Vft 2 121 b. 2. 36. + . 23. 15. 3. 20. yV35. . + 2 V22. (o* 2. 2v (T 2aVf. ^: V2c. 135V6. + 2). k/2. 8a6V5. 3. + Vic + 25. 18.
r)\/(l Vrtr. 2 \/2. 4 a*. 42. 40. 2. 23. 25. x/125. 35. 22. 5V2. 3 Vl5 30. 4VO. x/w^ 8. 18. 21 23. 25. 5V2. v^30. 15. 36. 39. x/8. 8. 3. 14. 2. 19. 12. 9 VlO + 4. 4\/5. ab 4. 11. 3. 43. V8. 0.T*. 9. 41. Page 211. W). 74\/Jl 120 46. 6. 4. 38. Vtf +3+ 33. 3 V15  47. 13\/3. fl^Vac. 3 V2. 13. a2  b. 32. % 29. 22. 27. v/i). Page 214. 6. 1. 17. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . x/27.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 6V2. 8V73\/IO. v/8. b. 29. 2 V'3. 17. rtv/5. 35. 36.  3. 32m27n. a^\/a7>. 9. \/abc*. 3\/2. 3. 16. 3\/wi. 40. xx 1. 2. ^9. x/8L v/27. . \^6. 6+2V5. V3. 20. 5. aVa. . 14c 4 V5. 50. 23. 14. \/2. 6. x/3. 27. 5. 18. 33. . V2. 2 ate. 8. 8v2T 12. 30 Vl4. v"5. 21. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . : ^32. 46. ^v 7 15. 4. 3\/15  6. 48. 10. 3. 18. 44. 26. 32. + 20. 19. 2. \/128. 31. 2\/7. 3v^2. . 2 28. 6. m ?i2Vm/t. 2. \^6. 34. . VT5. + VlO  v y (5.r v/^ v^fr*. 1. . 1. 16. 6aV2\^. 6 2\/0. 30. 24. \^r^bVabc.. w?i. "v/wi ??. V5. 9. 37. VJla. 4 >/3. ^27. 11. v^f. 52. 5 \/2. v^a. 17. 49.30 2. 2 1. 7. V5. 26. Vat. 34. \XOfl6Vi5. vT). 6x2?/. v/l2. 8V2. v7^. 11. 39. D 45. v^lf. V/. 38. / \/w/t 4 13. 0. 7\/(l 7VTO. 1V5. \/a6c. Page 216. 31. 10V().J Page 212. 7. 51. 3. 10. 5. \/04a. v"3. v^4. Page 210. x/8l. 21. 53. V3. 12. 6. V2. 13. x/4. \V3. V3"m. 14. 37. 10. 8  \/15. 2yV2?/. v 25^4714 V2"a. "^8000. v^O. . ^ 3 b 5 24. ^\/3. v/lO. a\/5c. Vdbc. \/8. '. 24. 28. Vn. 7. v/9. 16. Page 213. 5v/2. 15.
2 . 3. 25. 4. 12. Page 219.13. 6. 7 Page221. 16. Page 223. 15.. 4. . 24. 224. 7. Page 218.2. 2V2. (VllV2). 23. 4. 20. 12. (2f V"5). Page 226. 9. 20.464. K>/0 + \/2). 34. V5. 27. (V6 + 2V2). 4.^ (\/22 4. 2.3. 64. 4. 12. 27. 16. 4 14. 10. 7. 11. 33. {. p 6 13. 17. J. _^JflJ?. 4. 11. 10. 13. 4. (V8 + V2. 3V23.6. 31. 14. 4. \/3).  13. 15. 30. ^.6 V3. 3(7+3V5).9. 1. 15. 8. ANSWERS 8. 7. 1. (a 1. (2V2). 18.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 14. 1. 5. 7.7083. * 3. (2Vll). i^ ~ 1 v ^. 7. 2V3. 16. . xy 2. 11. 5. 1. 1. 17. 8. 23. 4V3 + 6. 1. 29. 2. 9. 8. 12. 4. 125. 22. 16. 17. 10. V2. 1. 9. 16. V6c. 6 (V2 + 1). 5. 18. 2. 8. 25. 22. V3. 9. 6 V. + 6) 2 . 81. 15. V3. 16. 4. 36. 3. .0606. 6. 9. 9.  2.81. 4. 25. (VaT^v a). 4. ~ Vac _c 0. 5 + 2 vU 17. 27. 10. 35. (2. 19. . Va. 216. 10. (3+ v/2). .1. 4. 18. 5.4142. 24. 3.2. 8. 2. 14. 1. i(Vf Vft). 2V3. J. 13. 12.625 10. . 19. Vf6fVtf.1547. 11. 24.389. 14. 18. nVTl. 25. 15. 3.7071. 1. j. Page 28. 5. 22. 9. 4.\/TO).732.3. 21 ' Vob 26. (V21). 18. j 15. 25. x 20. 5 V65. 12. 9. 9. 8. Page 225. V3 . . 3.XXIV 7. 9 mn. 25. ^(VlO\/2). 6. 0. 23.64. f. 7. 23. ^r.4722. 1. 6. 16. 2x^2^. 21. ' 22 i . 10.V3). \/57t. 26. 5. 19. 2. V3. i^Lzi. 19. 100. 7.732. 21. 6. 19. 28. 29. 3. Page217.5.601. 23. 32. . 512. V35. 2. Va. 37. 5.  . (\/3f 1). 30. 7 f 5 4. m f. +3 V2). + 5V2. (V51). 5. 24. 17. (\/5V2). 16. (V5f 5. 2ajV2*. 10.  f. .3535. \. 3. 2. ^\/2. . Page220. 0. 21. 8. (Vf + (4 V2). 1.w 6.5530. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 5 f. V^TTfc.2828. 20. . fV2. !^ 6 4. ^. 4. n*. 11. 8 V3V2. 25. 20. A . V. 8. 5. 2!5_. 81.1805. 13. 26. 11. 7.
3 . 6 2 2a + 2). . 16. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 7. 5. 14. 6. 19. 1. (a. 2.3 2. 1 . 1. 22.  2. 10.2. 18. 56l). 2.Y. 2 . 0. 3. . 2. 2. 2.4. 0. 0. 3 . 3 . (a. 5. 12. 3. (2 a. 10. 3. 2. (a . 2 . 1. 1. . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).3. 2. 4. 2 > 1. & + 6 2 ). 2. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (&y2a#H4). Page 236.2)(m. 8 6 & 0. XXV 4. 13. 14. 26. 4. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 1 .5 xy + 25) 22. 25. 7. 2. qpl. 4 1. f . 4. 5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 0. 10. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 2. a  . . Page 234. 4 4. . 5.2)(* . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 1 3. 24. 4 . 7. 3. 2 . 2. 3. 5. 25. 73. 0. 9. 20. J. . . 3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 8. 3.  3. 13. . 1. l. 3.2. 12 24 y . 28.12.  16). 7. 16.2. P. 30.  3. 9. 10.10. J. 4. 4.8a 18. 12. . (r. (B43). 7.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 6. V3. J 24.  1. t/ 23.3.l)(z 2 + z + 1).  J. 3. 11. 17. 0. 3.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 2. 11. (m 4 + l)(ro. 2 <? 4a2 . 30 30. 7. 19. 3. 3 5. o. f>. (63)(6' t 18. 4. //. 3. 22. 5. Page 233. . 2. 1. 5. 100.3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2. 2 V^ . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 21. 6. 18. . 10. 8. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 25. ' J. . . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). \/0. 2 6. 1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).0.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 4. 7. =A^Z3.w 4 + 1).3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3.l)(m .4. 13. 4 20. 25. . 1 . 2 6. 13. (+!)( 2) 10.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 1 (?> x/^3. 4. 2. 20. b . J Page 235. 2.  1. 4 . (a+&)( 2 14. . 20. 1. 1. (rt.4. 5..4). 4. 8. 8.1. 3. 2. 87 . 1.  . . 9. . 12. a(.  3. (a 4. 6. 11. a: :} . 3. 3 9. 2. ~ f7.^a. 4. 2. 73.3. 8.r . 2 . (4 mn . 30. 3. 12. 1 6. 4. 1. 2. (w . 3. 24. 15. 1. 5.22. (pl)(p3)(p6). 30 . 2.  4. 7.  f . 1. 1. 4. 5. .  5. 11.3. 17. . 11. 2. 12. (pl)(p2)(p2).l)(a3)(a .3). 3.1. 3. a . 2. 0. 8. . (8. 2. . 14.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). . 1. 6. 5. 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 17. 3. 3. 1. . 4. 1. 5. 6.5. 11. 2 &. 1. 5.ANSWERS Page 228. 0. 4. 1 . 19. 3.7. 15. 1. 10. 3. 4. 3. 13. 1 . 5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 4. 2. y. 23. 4. 2. 6. 4.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. ( 16. 15. 1. 4. 2. 21. 50.nl^EI.
\/6. 3. 4 34. . Page 247. V3~. 1. 5. 5. 5. 69. 2 2. 30. 16.6.  1. 4 6. . = QO 6. $46. 1. 12. 6. . 8. 84. 17. Indeterminate. 28yd. 2. 10.  . 2>/3. V7. _ 7.0. 20. 2. f*. 2. 1. 5. 9. Page 240. 11. 3. 8 . 2. 2n. tn 2. . 13. 3. $VO. 41. 1. 21. 3. 31. 14. 10. 40. 7. 21. 1. 1. 9. 9. +  n. 7.. 1 .4. 2.13. 2. 16. 7 3. 31. 4. 3. 10. J. 1. 3. 18. in. 2.3. 2. ri*. 21 30.4. 10. J. x 4. 7. 5.e. 19. 2 10. ' j. . ft. 1 .18. c. . j.. 6. 3. 11. 30. J. 45yd.1. 5. 2. in. . Page 244. 7. 2 Y> V . 11.4. _ 10. 9. Page 243. 2. 3. } . m27. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 3. ft. 12 ft. 2. 37. 50. 5. 20 in. 2 . i. 2. 9. 5 cm. 23. (a) $3400. . 1. 35. f. 4.xxvi Page 237. 2 ft. 15. 20. 5. no co .020.3. '>. 3. . 8. Page 245. 1. 900. 19. 38. 12. 39. J. .. 1 . 1 2.2. 5. 5. 4. 4. 2 . 5. 35^ 5. 1 . 18. 0. 15. 3 . 3.3. 11. 29. 1. 1 . 24. 4.y. 2. . 15. 1. 3 cm. 3 2. . m + n. 4. 2. 1. 1J. 1. Page 241. 3. _ 5. 3. 14. 4 8. 1. 17. 12. . Page 239. 5050. (/>) "_. f>. 5. 1. Page 248. 15. 7. and _ 4.3. 6. 48. $. 4 . 2. 2. 35 ft. GO . 5. . 4.3. .30..5. jj.5. 11. 4. 201. 1. 16. 12 d. 12. 12. (>. in. ( 3. . 3. . 17. . 6. . 2. 3. 3. 15. 40 25 in.0. 2 16. .200. oo . Exercise 114. ^~2. ft.3 . 1. 4.3. 288. 3. 2.. Indeterminate.. 9. 3 .  11. . 7. 22. 14. 8. 17. (&) 2.. _ 13 (0 6. 4. . . 4. 3 . n . Exercise 113. 13. 125 125. (a) 5. 4.3. . 15. 4. 1. 2V7. 2 1..4. 1. . 512. i i i . 14. 8ft.. 5. 2. 3. 1.1. 1. 3. in. 5. 1. i j. 1. . 7f solution. . Page 238. 1. 1. 2. 11. 32. in. 1. oo . 8. i'ljVU. . 17. .  2 . 14. 3V5. 2 26.136. 4. 8. \. 1. . 5. 2. 4. 3. ^ }. 0. 12 1. 25. 8. . 4. 17. 3. 5 . m28. 26. 24. 1. 8 3. 5. 4. 3. 23. . ANSWERS 2. 5 4. 1. 5. 22. 14. 12. $. 50..1. 40 in. }. 12ft. 2. 1. 6. 4. 3. . 78. 15. 30 13. 512. 37. 13. 8. 36. 55. . 4. . 4.6. 1. 3. co . 4. oo. 3 4. 400. 7. n. 35 a. 8. . 4. 20 7. 33. 3 3. 18. 2. 3. 37. 3. 14. 0. 1. 2 .
17. 7.210. 495. 9.5. 125. 4. . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 11.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 05.<2 4.6. x r 4. 220 . . 4. 2. d. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.53. 2. 21. 12. 7.192.120. 327. vy. 70. (). 27.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . Page 252. 2. Ja.384. 4. 70. . 7. 1. 75. 20. . . 5.870 m*n*. 18. 4. 8. a. 3. 410. 6.4 &z x>&. 1000 aW. 6. 304. 2. &' 14. G. 5. 8. ~v 9. 3. 0.5y 4 . 0. 12. 6. 0. 4. 16. and 1. 11. 27. 5. .5 x. 45. 10. 10. 20. . 55.5. JSg. '23. 1. 125. I. 6. f y 8 + z* . 5. 16. 3.2 9. 20. \ w 4 . 6. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 3. 4. 5. 7. 8 .6 .1. 10.r x>/ 7 3. 8J. 17.12 x*y 16. 3. 2. <. 16. 18.680. 13. 1JH. 1. 4. 23. 50. 3. 2. 10. 1. 8. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 5 13. 3. . 192. 6i.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 3. 2. 27. 4. 5. 4. 2. 12. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 343. Jj? 45. 343. 0. 16.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 8. 45 Page 257. 3. 6. 16 11. 16. 1.3 ays. Page 258.470. r 5 4. 5. 26. 4. 81. 005.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 0. 19. 1. 4. **+. 04. 9.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . in. 0. 7 x4 17. 708. .419. x4 .7 10. 22. 12. 3. 128. i 10. 1. 2. 3. 10. 19.8. 32. Y11.920. 12. 2. 13. 910. 48. 29. 25.x' 10 . 9. 8 1. 04. 5. 6.170. 12. . 5. 1. sq. 4. x + Vy. 405.r 4. 7. 1 14. 9. J 2 //2 25. 2.504. 100. 70. 7 2 x 4 x8 . ^a 8. 7. 8. 8. 5. 8 4x' 2 . 7.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 1. 1.2 45 a 8 /). 0. 15.v Page 253. 11. 15. 6. 15.0. 280 53. B . 3. 4. 18. ' 1.  20 flW. . 105. 2i* 7f.4. 16. c. 7. 44. 15. 0. 4. 120 aW.13. 10 14. 2. 1. 8. 8. REVIEW EXERCISE . 4. 22. 17. xxvii 1. 6. 9. 43. 12. 16.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. . 2.700.^ ?>i 2412x4. 19.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 27. 35. 1820. 4 0. . Page 259. Page 254. ~ an . 9. 53. ?/i 6 x llj .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 35. 4950 M 2 b y *. 14. } $ 50. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8. />*. 13. 12. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . . 15. 3. 0.  101. 21. .ANSWERS Page 250. . r r j. 10. 8. 18. 4.  17.r* 4 70 . 45. 1 7 4. 28. w9  8. 4. A. a4 4 14.
3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 3 36 b c .2.3 aftc.15 4 62 x  72.4 x 2 .x24 73. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.x 2 4. 61. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . x' 79.4. 24. 10 a 12 b. 5x 2 2x43. 12 a/. 1 + 4 xy. .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 21.c. 4 15 x 5 . !! 71. 31. x* .c. 132. c3 4 58. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 2 53.a*ft 2 126. 38. 6 a2 97. 2 .ac 44 aft. I 57. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 3a~2c. 105. 107. . a J . 4 Page 264. + z. 4.4.c 3 4. 37. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. x 8 + x 4 68. () 2 x 33. 4 fee 4.1. 1 a"* 4 an .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 2 2/' .2. 72.7 x   15. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.7.  12 a. 32. a* a 8 a aftc.x4 + y'2 z 4. .5 b + c . 6 8 j27 40 ab.5. 93. 30. 4 2 . 2 x2 4. 102. 1 x 45. 6 c 47. . 76.4 x?/2 3 4.4 2 4 c2 42 . 28. x 3 4. _55_7c 48.a 2 x 2a .ft). ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. * 60. 9 2w 128. 29. 10 4. x2 471x4. 39. 0. x 4. . 1 121. . 0.4.18 ?/ 5x4. 4 69. x 8  a8 . . 91. . 133.2 x 4. 99.x x*  f 2 ax 4. x } 4.2 c .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 80. . az 4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 40.9 b. . 118. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 16. 4ft y3.3 103.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 64.1. a2 2 aft 2 2. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.^a . a* 4.a. . 4. x2 2 .fee 2 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 127. 96. Page 260. ^ .y*.1.2 x^. 9x. ft /> 78. . 4 65. 46. 2 113. 109. 122. 94. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.6 b.105.6 am b\ 129. x4 f + 23 . Page 263.  + 3 x2 . 2 .41. a' 111.3 a'ft. x 2 . .a6 2 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 0. ft2ft 4 4l. . 82. x' . .1.1w 77. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 12 x. 63. ?> . 27. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .  e +/. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.5 3n 4. 2 30 . 3 a 5 a 5. 86. 2 x2 108.2.a' 'ft 4.3 y. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 8x3 8x. 5 42. 125. 2 a. xyxzyz. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 43. 25. + 3 a?. . . 5 4 4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 35.3 .5x4. 124.. a~b 89. m " + n + P3c . y 4 z* 0. 2 q.1 4 jry 4 x . 88. 3a'2 Page 261.  3 x2 .3 x 2 + 3 x . 7 + 3 xf 2. 70. .  4 a3 85.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 2 . 104.4 ac. 36. 50. 110. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. . 62. . &p 84. 1 .x. . x2 a2 1 . ft n . df. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 66. f5+7.4 x y 87. .{ 54.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . /> 4 83.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 8 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 6a6c. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  .x 51. . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 5x + 2y~z. 2 x'V2 90. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. + a 4. . 100. 14 x . 3 c . x 3 41. 3~ n 4. 16t/. (a + ft)" 98. 3 a 44. as 20. 4 115.18 x?/0.4. 3 a . t 81.3 b . a 4 . a 3m 4. 4 . 4. 243x4729.rty x2 4 123. 114. 4 ! . 22. 26. x8 x2 55. 23. 52. +^ + ft W. a4 x. ?/ 3. x . 131. 120. 130. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 49. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. ?/ . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 13 + 2 s.9 x .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.a'2 c.
171. 36ft. 216. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 187. fc'2a+62c). (y_24)(y5). 10. 37 1. 6). 222. 183.3 y). 172. 1. 1. 195. 2.6) (2 x + 1). 244. 186. 15. (3x  . + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 50. Or (a + 2)0el). 12) (j./_4). 153. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 210. 237. 10 ft. 10).y)(z .r + 4). 238. 6. 162. (6) 40. (2a + l)(a . 151. 12 6 panes. 212.l)(x8 + x2 . (?/+l)(yl). 6. 224. 152. 160. 146. Page 265. 206. (y  17)(y + (>). 30. + 22). 48 h. 189. 2. 144. m. (a& 192. 22. 142. 182. 232. 247. 2 2 (a. 30 yr. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (x + 2)(x . ( + 2y)(2x3y). 2 (4 x . (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 3(x . 177.  1. 179. 10). 147. 214. a + 2x2 ). 155. 164.l)(y + 1). 2. yr. (r^x + 1). r>x 2 (4x. 154. 178. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 32 h. Iff 145. 140. z(x10)(xl). 5.y2 ). 12. 20. 3.3) (2/3y). 181. 8(ar}(/)27). 23 18. 167. 40 yr. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (JT y 225. (233). (2 198.y) (\r3y). (c) 160 C. a 2 (15. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (y _ ft)(y 4. 20.r . 4. . p.3. 236. 207. 191. 209. 158. + 7)(rt4). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 8 204. 199. 150. 156. + 11) (a 10). 2(x8)(x3). a.I2y).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (5 x . 1. (8x + 3)(3x4). 10 in. 2. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (y 7f))(y 196. 220. 136. (y7)(y + 188. Page 267. (x^ + x1) 234. . 24.3).m)(x + a). a(a. + 2) + 9a. 231.. (x 227.2). 163. . 30 + xyr. 137. 190. 168. 205. (7 c 2 ). (x . 169. 2 xy(3 x . 176.y)(jc + 7 y). y  y 165. 149. 233. 226. x(x + 6) 213. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl).c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).. y3. 211. . (at (4 a +!)( + 3). as 194. 1. 208. + 3). 239.4xl).y + 3)(r (. y 245.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 2^. 201. (a 2 + 2a6. (r7y)(ai.. 170. 180. y. 159. 230.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). . (7x2//) 203. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).ANSWEKti 135. 18. 197. . (x + 6)(x6).2. (. 15. (3x2?/)(2.2) (3 x . 15  a. 12 yr. aft. 193. (x  42 yr. 4. 75. 12 yr.2). Page 266. 215.2ac + 229. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 175. 166. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). (a} 59. 3. 185. 19.l)(a 2 +3). 219.1(5) 200. + y.3 y)(a .9)(xf 2).1). 218. 174. 241.1).6)(4 + 6). ?. 217. 218. 235.1). + 3) (x f f>) . HI. 184. 173. 240. xxix 139. 12. . (/ 246. 7. 157. 138. 161. 202. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).y). 1. 1. +)(x2 x^+2. (ab + 8) ( 7). 148. (2x3y) 3 xy(x..2 )(x+y) 228. 1. 147 mi. 21. C3 y _l)(. 1. ft. 143. 2. p.6 . k. G7.
3  262. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.2* i^^ !^. 254. ^/>J. + f. 2 x  3.4). (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. > 4. 266. 0. a~ ' b*). 43 '^rJ'. 260. 306.  3xyf x// 257. x12. 259. 0.  7. ? 1) 302. o(x4l). a. 307. 298. o.(x  4) (x4 304.. 251. ^ 299. 303. 3. 3). 269.4) 1) (3 x . 264. 7^T 2 . 249. *>). 2. 301. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 310. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 295. *. 4 5.   . 261. x 267.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (7 255. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 250.1.^ ^^.^^^^^^^^. 279. 7. x . 256. 268. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . Ca&c 1)(M 253. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 258. 5. 7 x 265. &). 263. 305. x ?/ z 1. 10. 2 4 300. x 283. 3). ?^ZLiZ 308.
395. . 370. 4 rw. <L 409. ^_:r f> 331. 11. 400. 0. S. l'j. . Page 277. 333. j 328.  1. 394. T+^. 389. 397. ?>*. + x 362. . 360. 0. . 366. 0. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 408. L . 4 A. 365. 355. 2. 326. 6a. 329. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 387. 325. 7/i ^ _ . ?/ + 3 332. 382. 398. 2 r36 384. x 54 359. ^ 3 // . 2(q. 399. m.3. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 380. A^L5L. 385.". Page 274. 13 391. 1. 2 ?/ 363. _*L'L+. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 1. 336. 393. 388.XXXI Page 272. a 2 . l . a +6. 386. 6 ?/+:>.  1 356. ?=. 407. 396. 3. 9^. 2 ).H ' 2wi ^' /' . . 404. 379. 2 ab  a Page 276. (a + b + c\ . 405.!. 2(a i 403. If. 3. 392. 1 i 2 ^. 4. 2 327. 406. f. + 335. 0. 324. T\. 375. 1.. 20. ^"" 4 s . a) A^_.)Cr4)__ . 2.7. * 357. 3. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 364. y 4 I 340. + 4 & 4 \ b. ab.J . c 402.vin a /r " 337. 376. 1.. a + b + 6). 4. 361. 7. 390. . 377.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 12. " 4 378. 1. 339. 343 00 351. 383. 401.1.(5 a . 334.
a* 424. 20. 502. 478. 24 days. 450. 5. 419. $2000 at 0%. 2. 422. 462. 17. 466. ^.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 455..0.55. 2. 468.4. . . 20 yr.  2. 6. B $ 2500.. 490. 413. 63. 3a 4 5. 6. 454. 496.  453. 459. L2 a  6 . 486. 7. 482.3. 508.489. 440. Page 282.12. 495.}. 439. . 4. 410. 427. 5. fc. ISJini. 10. 18. 446. 14 miles. 17. 6.. 467. 503. !L=4.0. . Page 281. 7. ^r?i 434.5. .7. 90. 444. 8.rz Page 279.vz in. fj. a 22 .46. 494. 2$. 423. B 4 mi. 2 438. 472. 420. 1 a /?$+&?. 12. L (c) I. c. 0. 1. 33. \ 1. 32. .488. 445. 0. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. ^V. A $ 3500. 3. 484. 3 . 506. 500. 426. 428. 493. (&) 443. 53 yr.4. : />a. 458.  7. ft 5.1. 4.  1. 480. 1. Page283. . 481. * . 3. '. 457. 485.2. 2. <L+ 6 (. . 432.  505.  2f 504. . 2 a 2. not true. 441. 429. *+. 11. 51. 32 yr. 1$.7.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. A 5 mi . 1. 7 : . . />c c(f be. 0. 10. 0. + () 433. z8 +?/ 3 431.  1. 421.2. . m 1 : wi. 464. 40 oz. (a) 1.te + ..}. \. 6. 2. 10. 479. 4. 463. 0. 460. 5. 436.. 2. 10. (d) true. 487. Page 280. 5. m. 465. (&) true. (d  6) f. 42. . 452. i a b 451.m  m+ M in.3. 2. 1. 5. 21. 6. 497. 418. 461. 499. . c 6fc 10. (c) not true. 456. ' $260 at 0%. 477. 476. 3. 7.  7. 10$. I. 412. i. 0. 411. 498.  10. 10.  f>. . 442. 10.7. 447. 50. Page 278. . (a  c).  2.  . 430. 0. 507. 8. a + + ft c.7. 28 yr. ISjmi. 9. 4. 448. 8.. 2. 7.7. . 6. 7. 483. 5. 8. b 449. 40. 2. 425. 84.  2. 501. . 2. & 491. 22. 6. 5J. 1. . 492. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 435. . 2. 10.
T . 577. lead.21. (e) (c) 2. 1.24. 1 . 4. . 512. . 4.02. tin. 1 580. + 26 + . 591.4. 599. 1. 1. ^ ft 4. 1. 3. 8. 555. (c) 3. 553. tin.3. 115 Ib.5 f.8 x3^. 3. . 1.1. 551. + 12 x .  3. 4. 1. 581. + 6 tf f 3 . 7. 3. 2 10. 556. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 1. 574. 564.15. 516. (6) . .75.0.1. _^ 2754x . . or 8.5. 2(4 602.4. 571. 4. 6. 566. ft 584. 14.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.6. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. a + ft  a  f c. 567.  1.37.1.. 2. 3. 568. 3. 531. > ^ . 3. . 562. per hr.24. 528. .   (h) 8. 2 1.3.10. M ft c 2 ft 3465. .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.5.7. 3. 27 y* f\4 .ANSWERS Page 284. 593.02. 1. 1J. 3.3. a*8a + 24tf 82a.54.  2. . f. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. lead. . S82 c.15. 1.4 x + .30.88. 4.  557. 582.78.25m.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4. 1.04.3.16. 3. 4* da. 2$.00. 561. 573. 6435.  + + c.9.78. 2(6 597. 550. 563. 530. . (ft) Ill Ib. 513. (c) 4.52. 2. 1$. 527.6.. 5. 2 imag.3. 1. ..5. da. 575. 2.  (a) (d) 1.73. 4 mi.1. .04. f ? a f ft __ + c C).31. 1 . Page 285.  ft*. 529.5+.6.31. (a) 74 Ib.02. 533.51.1. . 3 . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 532.53. .37.03._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.4. 578.12. 525. 24 da. 2. 4 0. 21*_. 3 da.  4. J7] min. 4.20.24 sec. 598.14. 6. Roots imaginary.83. .8.35. .03. 2. 0. xxxin 511.38. 232. 2 2. 1.62. .3.56 sec.33.7. . 526. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.15.3. 558.1. 569. . 536. . 2 1. y% Z * 586. 560.  . . per hour. 1.5. Page 288. 559. 1. 1. (gr) 10 1.  J(a f + 2c). 3f 4f. 1. 31. If 572. . g(rc+ 6c). 1.f 1.xj/ f xV . 2.  2ft da. 510. a f ft + c.. Page 287.6. H. 2. 3.8. imag. 565.54.% rr\* 585. _ 4. 5.02. 2.55. 1. . . 509. 3. 3. 514. x8 . 7^ da. 576. 8 mi.4. 2 .5. 3.0. 579. 1.10.r8 596.05. y 4.75..62. .3. 0000. 552. (i) 3. (6) 3. 2 .25.  (a) 2. 583.  imag. 515. 554. 5. 24.8. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 1 600. (d) 537. 3. 1. . 603. <z ft 1.2. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 518. f. .4.6 2. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.7.4. 4. (e) 570. f36a28x8 592. 5.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 40 Ib. _ 3.0. a+ Page 286. 1.83.8.  7. 2. o> .0. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 4. (ft) 4. 1. (/)  10 to 8.
644.  3. . (*_ + a: 611. fe + a. 7. /> 4. 4 V 0. 679. 666. + 2 A (i f Page 291. If. 651. 2092.y. 5. . a 1J. ' fe 2 ). 630. If . 656. 6 685. 971. a 4. 4 676. 655. V2. 5. 703. 3. 1 2. 0. 654. 12. 2 a 688.  6.14 If 1. + ~^'2 + a 1. 648. ^. 705.04. 614. b . If 665. 2. V"^TJ. 0. 5. . 3 681. 13.f 3 V^3). 692.2f Page 290. 706. 622. 2 x 44 ^/. 647.3. J^^. \+ab 699. fta a/> ^A. 2&). . ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 640. i. 637. 649. 5 3. 0. 9*. 2 ab + a  &.002. . . K 5 2 V2. 210. 8 f 3. 1. 4.XX XIV 606. c. z  1. 696. ab. If f 667. 8 6 fo . 628.049. 708. Page 289. 631.2f (5 4.  1. 2. be ac \. 643. 672. 009.  . af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 1 ~a .  13. 653. . 25.  a2  a (ab). . 2.0.702. 616. 700.43^4. 702. 645.>A 610. 4. y  619. . 50. ^ 1. 0. 627. 78. 683. 3. 662. 10. 657. 1010. ft).  ft.  4. 2 a: 4. 2. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 6. a 673. \. / V^+lO^M"^. 4330 da.25. V^~3). 703. 0. 2f. 1m*.303. 1.  684. 4. If b.001. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 14. V2. 646. 7003.203.3f l 668. 635. ^. 615. 623. 2. ^^ 695. 638. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 652. 620. 1 V5 1.a~ {Z 663. 618. la6 2. b. ab 689. 8. 1 704. 677 680. 5. if 4/> 671. 1. 1$ 639. ' 674. 1. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 612. 3 a.. 670. 2. 690. a ' 2 + .3. 25. a 2. 2f. 9.c ) 697. 661. 701. 898. 691. 2. 2.001. b 664. 624. 0. V7. <T! . 11. 2. o.  2f r 659. 629. 6. 4. 625. a + b. If 658. 626. 617.  4. 4$.b 686.3. 11.b. 2 / 2 4. (a3&45rj. 632. 669. 650. l/'3. 642. 641. 678< 682. . 660.. 607.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 3. I}'/. 3 x2 . . a. ix 2 . 633. . . n^l +^. 7. 621. 698. 608. 5002.3. 636. 634. 2 a  6*. . 613.
mn. 30\/10 764. 3V7..1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 4 104 v/2. 722. x i f^' . 3 720. 3V72VO. 750.. 736. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. / 787. 724. J(v'lO2V 791.. 3V72V3. 29\/3. 1 752. 740. VT14V5.4 . + 6 2 tf'c. r.8. x\y. 789. . 1. 734. ^ . 769. 777. 767.4 .V/^ 741. 8. Page 294. "V313.~ . 1 I .^ 743. 39. a:* . 794. 8. 796. 1 [ + '> J.257.^.9.V2. 709. 24. rt3 2 ^i^. 2x3^ a.1 . 1 747. Hi a. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 776. VV> L4V34. + < 735.10. 782 785. fyaw&cu. 716. 300. a 5 . 739. 714.rJ w L 754. 17ft. 711. v/7 / . 710. 25. . i 2. 1. 792. 726. 731. v'll. 721. 733. 713. 758.2. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. cr*lr*. 342V3. 737. 2 V2 . VIO\/3. 732.ANSWMHti Page 292. 34. 790 2v 3v 2.9. 3. j 742. 32>/2. 5. 712. 778. 47. i^. 3^. . y  1. 753. ^7xy. 717. 3V52V3. Page 293. 15 shares. 3 VlT 795. 59. 718. 33^2. > 748. 725. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .r. a 2  x2 . 763.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 1. 793. ^ ?>. 13ft. 730. iv/Jj. 738. 7  3V5. 751. 5. 728. 788. 756. 773.. 768. 749.11. 729. a db Va^T < 45da. 1^ _ 760. 719. 727. 00. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 755. 715. a 2 6^. 723. 24V2.12 af V^ 4 744. . T%. 24 4 .r+y> 759. a". 2\/53V2. . 746.
J V. 3. 2/ 856. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 6. 841. 7. 880. 2. 3. 1 . Page 297. 808.a 4 + 1).3. 4 818. $. 11. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.4. 23. 892.y) 852. + d)*. 827. 4. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). (x 2 f r . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). x. 819.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 10. ^. ( 869. 7.  839. \/5. . 1.1)(V 2 . (x + 0X024.2) (x 4 2). (x3). (a 4 871.XXXVI 797.1. jV3 f 3. 836. 816. 899. 4. 0.  tt 815. 2. ^VG. 876. a(ft)( 873. ) (a' 874. 886. $. 0. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .. 842. 895. 5. 2 806. 2.. +j!>. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2. 5. 800.5 b) 4 1). . 861. Page 296. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 0. 894. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .25 ?>2). 857. x . 882. . 2 854. 4. 835. (2 a . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 872. 5. 5. (x 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 3. 2 . 17. o.+ m f ") (a* ).6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). ANSWERS 798.0. 830. 837. (a 1) (x 4.l)(x . a 42)(x . 814. 13. 3 . 2 .  + l(l^). a2 ^E*!. 883. Va 803.l)(x . 5. 3.l)(x + 2). (x 2 .4) 860. 2. . . o 828.r . 4 885. 3. 2 . 8.1). . 6(a6)(o a + + &).7)(4 x. 833. 843. (1 . 858. ^ V}. 4. m 875. 887.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 900. a(ry + 864. 2. 840.1) (a 8 . . 2.f.2w .7). 2. (2 x + 3 y} . 829. 884.4. 4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).rae) (4 . (:r 11. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 888.a 3 " 4. 2  2. Va.. 831. H. 1. . (2 4. 867. ( 4 4. 4. m = 2. Hoots are extraneous. 2. 6+V7. 4. X4 1). 6. 3.3)(x + 4).  ' .7 4 1) 846. (3 862. (x*y*ryz + z*). 7. 14. 804. 48.5) (x + * 853. 4. . 823. n =  29. 4. (x 845. 4. 832. 897.3. (4 c 4.r4). 813. . 2 j 889. (x . 810. db 7. 3. 8.1) .10 ab 4. 847. 2. are extraneous. (a m . 1. 6 $. 820. 19.2 ax 4. 848.1)(0 865. 879. 1C. 1. \/2. 838. 851. (2x (r. 891. 4.om 441) (a 855. 812. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 863. 834. .a 2 2 ). . 17. 849. 3. 799. 2 *x 807. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 1. (x . 25. 868. 859. 898. 11. 817. **.  1. 890. 896. 822. 0. b' 2 821. (. 893. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 2 2 . 1 1. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 824. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 2 (x 4*4. 826. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .7). 3. ./>") (a'. 881. 2 m . 4 . 811. 3. 825. ((' 1).7. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 801. (3 b . 844. 5). a* 4. 6. 8 09. Hoots . 7. (xl)(^~3)(. V 3. f. 20).
. 1 1. 3 . 5. 3.. 1 + V953. Page 302. . 4. 950.I. 11. 3. T3. 948. 979. S07. .760 sq. 960. i(6 in. 1. 6. 958. 8. 908. 911. w. 939. . 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 4. Page 303. 959.. i>. tt2 19. 3 4 . 0. 15 16 ft. ft. 961. 919. 931. 7. 1 . 927. 977. 957.2. 921.  1. 5l4f. Page 300. 3. 4. 2 ft. ft.. 945.. 12. 8. 8. J. 964. 942. 918.1. 5. 5. 2.709. . 3). i 3.651. 935. i 8. 12. a + . 66 924. 115. 943. ft. 15 946. 1 _2 . 20 19 ft. 7 ft.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 2.0. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 930. 10. .1 = 9. 3. ft. i1" 913. . 60 949. T 6. 5. ft. ft. 4. 28. J(_ ft. 5 . 2. 11. 937. ft. . . J.. 4. 2 yd. 941. v/(ai !)(&910. 56. 8. 4. w 3. . 4 . 980. 18. 11. 912. 8. 956. 4 in. . 100 rows. 28.446. 12 in. r ft ' < Page 299. 14 . . 4. 987. 2 w 914. 480 8 sq. 6. 0. 934... 280. 6 da. 938.073. ft. 108. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 248. 1. 983. 40 16 in. 940. 2 1. 73. 906. V5 T 2 . 8.. 951. 6. 9 in. 6 1 1. 2. 8 . f ft 4 . 7 or 30. ^y. 909. 0.. 954. T 6. .. . 3. 925. yd. 904. Page 301. 28. 922. . 933. 917. 982. 916. 2. Y. 11.1... . 2 i ' a V. 905. 12. 7. 8. 12 mi.2. ?/i 6. . f. 981. 10. 0. 80. 955. 7. dL 4. 4. Z ^. 947.744. 4. 920. . 2. 944. 6. 5. V^3).. 952. 3. V5 fj. 8.' ifcVira^ 2 3.  26j. . 7. %* . 4 6 mi. 903.615. 902. . '3 3 in. 978. 333.V~~3). 963. 6 a 915. 111. 932. 936. . =F J. 6. 6. 3. 8128. 496.01. 1. 1). 1 2. Va926. 986./hr. 985. 923. 6 . 329. 984. a. 6. 2. 2. 333. 4. 2.111.  1 . $(l 4. 2. 962..
4 and 1020. 1008.378 <W and 92. .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 4. () 12(2+V3). 72. 1017. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 12. 1016. Page 304. 3003. 1014. 991.192rt?)r 120 *. 1009. 1012. 1000. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1019. 0. 8. 162. Page 305. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). . in. 988. 48. (Z>) 999. 993. 1001. ~ \. 990. + 448 .92. 192. . 12.18. 120 i^l^. 2(2 v/2).  5&7 1021. 992. ^Trsq. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1 1004. ^f (2f3V2). (6) 8(1 . 9 da.. X. 1003. 1(5. r = 2. 108.51. 1013. 1005. 2 . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. (J. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 995. 1007. (5.870 a 6 1011. 996. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1018.870 z8 . 6 70 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 997.378 1015. 1 8 8 2.. 1010. 1006. + v 2). 0. 120 a. 994.'^^ } ( . 24.128 I.
but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. xi 4 373 pages. A examples are taken from geometry. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. $1. Ph. $1. and commercial life. etc. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. so that the Logarithms. i2mo. physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The more important subjects tions. Half leather.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. great many work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. comparatively few methods are heretofore. xiv+563 pages. given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. HEW TOSS . Half leather.D.25 lamo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. than by the . save Inequalities. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.
12010. $1. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. In Factoring. The author grade. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Logarithms. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+56a pages. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. etc. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. Half leather. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. HEW YOKE .25 i2mo. great many A examples are taken from geometry.D. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. $1. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Ph. HatF leather. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xi f 373 pages. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. save Inequalities. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and commercial life. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. comparatively few methods are given. so that the tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE.
. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. aoo pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. SCHULTZE. NEW YORK . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. more than 1200 in number in 2. SEVENOAK. Half leather. $1. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.10 L. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. . $1. xii + 233 pages. 6. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 9. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.r and. izmo. i2mo. wor. lines. State: . 4. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. iamo.D. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 10. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Ph. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 7 he . Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. under the heading Remarks". Cloth. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Attention is invited to the following important features I.
25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . . 370 pages. 12mo. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. $1. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. and not from the information that it imparts. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York City.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . of these theoretical views.
AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Topics. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. diagrams. " This volume etc. An exhaustive system of marginal references. photographs. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. $1. and a full index are provided. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. diagrams. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. i2mo. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Cloth. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?