This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
. 1910. Berwick & Smith Co. Reprinted 1913.. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1910 . September. IQJS January. 1917. Mass. J. January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August.A. 8. 1910. . 1911. U.S. 1916. 1915. Cushlng Co.' February. May. Norwood. September. July. May.COPYRIGHT. .
" this book. owing has certain distinctive features. specially 2. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. shortcuts that solve only examples real value.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. manufactured for this purpose. Such a large number of methods. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. chief : among These which are the following 1. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition.. etc. however. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Elementary Algebra. are omitted.
enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. For the more ambitious student. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. are placed early in the course. Topics of practical importance. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. In regard to some other features of the book.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. etc. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. as quadratic equations and graphs. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. however. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. two negative numbers. e.g. especially problems and factoring. hence either book 4. Moreover. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".
McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications." Applications taken from geometry. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. viz. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. Moreover. in " geometry . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. By studying proportions during the first year's work. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and commercial are numerous. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. such examples. based upon statistical abstracts. is based principally upon the alge .
NEW YORK. 1910. however. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.
...... .. Powers.. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ............CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. SUBTRACTION.. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .
All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type IV. Type Polynomials....114 . .. * .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. /^ .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type VI.. Type V. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... Type II. Type III. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ..
.. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .......... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. Evolution of Monomials 170 .. . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
aVc^. V3 . \/c. 7 = 2. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 13. 26. V36". 14. is 28. 8.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 17. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). [6c] 3 . 3. find the numerical value of: Vff. A binomial is 62 . !^f\/03 3 ft. c f d). 15. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. since the parts are a . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 6. are trinomials. 6. as in arithmetic." EXERCISE If a 1. 12. b = 3. some number is . or 9 Vx. 11. e. A polynomial is an y. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 2. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. d 7. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms.g. (cfd) 4. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. V2a. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 16. 4(a 6(6 + &). 0. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 2 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 27. 9. V^a6. a polynomial of two terms. v'Ta. Val \fi?. 10. c = 1. x 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. + c). 5Vl6c. + 1]. 4V3~6c.
a=4. 3.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. . 5c +d 2 . 6. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 3 4 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. find the numerical value of: 9. Ex. b = 3. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 10. 4 . 14. 2 ). 4a6fVaV2^. subtraction.19 = 6. * For additional examples see page 268. 2. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . d=Q.390. 8. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 2. .g. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. x=^. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 52 .99.9. .. i. 1. c=l. (a (a f b) 7.810 + 150 = . Ex.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. d = 0. . 3 2 If 1. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.9 aWc + f a b . a2 11.INTRODUCTION 29.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a 2 6. multiplication. 5. EXERCISE 8*  .e. Otherwise operations of addition. __ E. 4. 6. 16. l 13. + 26+3 c. c = 2.5 ax 50 a6cd.2 + I126.30 = 270 . 5=3.4 6^9 ad. 12. 5.
and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 5. a =3. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. geometry. 28. 27. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 7. 25. 24.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a =4. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. a = 4. a = 2. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 22. 6 = 2. 30. 6 = 5. a. and other sciences. 37. 6 = 3. 23. = 3.c) (a . : 6. 26. a = 3. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. a = 4. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 34. 38. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 1. 35. 30. 6. 29. if : a = 2. 6. a = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. Six 2 . physics. a a=3.6 f c) (6 a + c). 33. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).6 . 6 = 6. sible to state Ex. 6=2. .
12. and 15 feet.16 1 = 84. 15 therefore feet. and 5 feet. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.INTRODUCTION E.e. if v : a. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.seconds. d. . 13. then a 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. (b) 5. Find the height of the tree. 84 square EXERCISE 1.g. An electric car in 40 seconds. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. the area of the triangle equals feet. b. and 13 inches. A train in 4 hours. if v . = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. c. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. b 14. 2. i.16 centimeters per second.) Assuming g . 4. (c) 4. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 14.
2 inches. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.). 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.14 4. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. square units (square inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 5 miles. is H 2 units of length (inches. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. 32 F.). . (c) 5 F. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. meters. If the (b) 1 inch. ~ 7n cubic feet. (The number 3. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. This number cannot be expressed exactly. : 8000 miles. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. $ = 3.14d (square units). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. the area etc. (c) 8000 miles. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. the 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 10 feet.14 square meters.
however. In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers.CHAPTER II ADDITION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. SUBTRACTION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.
(always) prefix the sign of the greater.16 32. d = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 10. d = 5. 4 is 3 J. 23. (17) 15 + (14). the one third their sum. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.3. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. Thus. 5. c = = 5. of: 20. 19. 4. 12. 5. if : a a = 2. subtract their absolute values and . = 5. lf(2). 18. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 22. + (9). is 0. is 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. + 12. '. 6 6 = 3. 33. of 2. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. (_ In Exs.  0. c = 4. 24. . 2326. 21.
$3000 gain.. . and 8 F. 7 a. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. \\ Add 2 a. 29.3. . 4 F. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 2. 60. 38. 32. 55. }/ Add 2 a. 3. c=14. 39. 1. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 41.. 27. c = 0. & = 15. 37. 42. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. are similar terms. = 23. 36. 7 yards. 74.13. 32. . . 43. .4. 30. or and . . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. : 34. 2. 6. 6. 4. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. which are not similar. 12. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 0. and 3 a. = 22. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. . ' 1? a 26. $7000 gain. and $4500 gain. and 3 F. 09. 13.5.5. = 13. 34. 25. 10. and 3 a. 10. 5 and 12. 11 (Centigrade). Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 66..7. 40. : 48. ^ ' 37. . $500 loss. d= 3. 33.ADDITION. 7 a. and 4. 3 and 25. & 28. 72. 10. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12.7. sets of numbers: 13. : and 1. $1000 loss. 31. ' Find the average of the following 34. 6. and 3 yards. SUBTRACTION. affected by the same exponents. 35.
2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 11. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 13. 5l 3(af6). sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.13 rap 25 rap 2. Vm f. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. + 6 af . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. in algebra it may be considered b. b a f ( 6). The sum x 2 and f x2 . . 12Vmfn. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 2(af &). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 10. or a 6. 9(af6). f 4 a2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 14 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 5 a2 . 5Vm + w. 12 2 wp2 . : 2 a2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12(af b) 12. 7 rap2.ii. EXERCISE Add: 1. 2 a&.18 35. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. Algebraic sum.sign. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a .
"Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 6 23. 2 2 2 31. 17. and to add each column. l^S 25. SUBTRACTION. 33. 2/ : Add. 37. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2 7 1 26. 21. n x* 2 22. is . +m """ 20. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. + y. without finding the value of each term 34. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 32.ADDITION. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. a a8 ZL **. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. + / + 3 Va. 35. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 36. c 2 ^24. 1 27. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 30. ra 19.
8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . c = 1.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.g.41 = 3.12 a& 4. = .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 9 q 4. NOTE. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. .15 abc .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 4 = 7. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 3 a f 4 1) 4.15 6c. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2 Thus. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. to add 26 ab .7 2 . ft any convenient and c.c= 2.3 s.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. to show any error.20 c 5 ab 4. and 2 . 2 025. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. x of x. 7 4.8 abc . V3. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. e.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .o c and 4. therefore the answer is correct. 3. 5 . 2 Sum. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. and J 2 s. the erroneous answer equal 7.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 46 4z 7 c. 4 2. f 110WS: 26 aft.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 2c. 6=2.g. 5. a 4. . 3a 2? .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 2 . s. of that letter.
6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 . . xy3xz + yz. 4(a . . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. v/20.4 Va .12 6 ~5 a . and 8 3 . 16. and 1 4 a .7m . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2 2 and . a2 a. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. and 5 Vb 18. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 11. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 18/+6y + d. 16e + 17/90.a 4 a 4 1. . m 4 6. 2 ?ft ?/z.5a^6 f 6) .and 6. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. . and . and v 15.2n 2 2 3 rz . 4 Vc.4:xy xz 6yz. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.1 a 4 1 0.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4 3 . 2 ?/. SUBTRACTION.8 m 2m 12. a. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.a . and and 13. d and / 3 ? 12. 2 a. + 50 + 62 .a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. in 8 3 m n 4. ^2 1 e. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.a. 3 2 2 3 9 .12(a 4.1. ?/ .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 19.Ga 43x45. + a + 1. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). a) y ^/. e a4 /. . 2 3(c f a).7v/if.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . .12.3 mn 2 2 n8 .6. a2 2 14. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.15 5.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.VS 4 2 Vc.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . . a 4 a . 4 8 3 4 4 . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. a 4 a . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 7ar + 3B 5.10 Vc. d. 2 and 9m 48m 4.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 4 ajy 17. and 12a 4 15& 20c . . 56 w. 4.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 8.9(a + &) .ADDITION. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . .(b + c) 1. .
m 4m ?/?/ d.5< 3 2 s 4^4. f 1.. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1.11 xy + 12. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.3^* 2n 2 .3 taken from 2 ? 5. s . and 25.ra + m. 8 . and e + 6y . 1.9aj 2. 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.22 21. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. +d a. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 6 f c 2 23. . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. how 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 1/ . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . a 6 2 c. f number may be added 3. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 45a6 2 . and 2 24. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .4 2tn* Sic 2 . The sum and ? 1. 22. f 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. If you diminish a person's debts. + 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. + n*. is 2. . 12 xyz. 1. 13 1. . T8a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1.
3. From 5 subtract to . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. To subtract. 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. ( 6) ( = . called the minvend. 6 (3) = 8. ab = x.g. 7. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. the other number is required. Ex. This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract + 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. +b 3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. In subtraction. NOTE. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. the given number the subtrahend. and their algebraic sum is required. SUBTRACTION. In addition. two numbers are given.ADDITION. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 41. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Or in symbols. a. Ex. 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. from What 3. 5 is 2. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. and the required number the difference. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 1.2. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. . if x Ex.
Ex.3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .f 8 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* . Check.
b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 44. 45. 53. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 58. and 3 7/ .c. 55. SUBTRACTION. 2y 2 . 50.2. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . check the answer. 2. 43. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 41. 6 4 a. From 2 a take a & j. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 47.6)f. 51. 49. of a 4.a 2 j. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 46. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 42. .w>t. 57. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .4 a^ 4. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 52. 54. tract 4 x 3. 56. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .7 a .4 a*& + 6 a & . +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. c f d.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 48. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 6(af.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. + a the 2 a.ADDITION.
20.26 4. a 2y + z. + 6 + c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 19. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. a + 6.15. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 2 m 21. subtract # + 1. 6. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 16. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 2. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. 6 17. 9. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. +a add the difference duce 13.
Ex. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 46. I. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.c. II.b c = a a & f f. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.6 b f (. a+(bc) = a +b . changed. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. SUBTRACTION. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.c. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. 45. the sign is understood.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.2 b . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.ADDITION. .a^6)]  } . one occurring within the other. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.g. & f c.
[271 47. + (2a 6 + c ). m f ft) a. (m a2 f. Signs of aggregation 1.) 5 . 2. 15. 271 + (814 . [36+ (a 2c]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 5. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 4. 3. ? 11. 14. 3 3 f 7. 9. In the following expression inclose the second and third. : x + (2yz). 18. 2 2a. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 16. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a (a + 26 c ). 17. a (a + 6).7i h jp) (m ?*.)]. 19. 6.y (60. 8. . 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. Ex.1422) J ] . 13. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].(a + 6). 6) 2. By removing parentheses. 2a (4a 26 +c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 .+ 6)f (a2 b). 2 2 2 a(. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 21. may be inserted according to 43. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.: Ex. a f (a a .
m x 2 4. terms 5. a\l> > c + d. 5 a2 2. 9. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. of the cubes of m and n. The difference of a and 6. 2mn + 2q3t. y f 8 . 5. 2. 12. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. SUBTRACTION. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 5^2 _ r . 3. difference of the cubes of n and m.2 tf .1.4 y* . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 7. The square of the difference of a and b. 8. 4. m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The sum^)f m and n. 3. first. and the subtrahend the second. )X 6. p + q + rs. 7.7fa. z + d. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The product The product m and n. 13. . 10. 6. 6 diminished . II.ADDITION. ' NOTE. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.
) . 16. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 18. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers. d. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 6 is equal to the square of b.30 14.
let us consider the and JB. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. 2. weights. two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 5. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads what What. 3. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 4. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. A A A 1. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. force is produced therefore. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads balance.
Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4x(3)=12. 9 x ( 11). (5)X4. the multiplier is a negative number. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. becomes meaningless if definition.9) x 11. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4)(. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. or plied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Thus. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.4)(4) = + 12. 5x(4). or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. however. Practical examples^ it however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. such as given in the preceding exercise. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 9. To take a number 7 times. .32 8. x 11. (. 48. 4 multiplied by 3. thus. 4 multi44444 12. NOTE. ( (.
(4)X(15). 11. 19. (7) X (12). 4 . about fac (2)X If 6. 8.a)( =+ a&. 8 31. x. 15. 2a 2 6c. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 22.(4J). . (2) 8 (. find the numeri values of: 21. 3. . tors is no misunderstanding possible. +5. 1.2. c = 25. (2)x9. 14. 4 a2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 8 4 . 3. is 6x7. 3 a2?/2 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 17. 26.7.4. 29. _3. 12. 32. _2^ 3.3) (1) 7 2 . 4. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 24.2f 18.3. (. 30. 5. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (10) 4 .2 f+x 2 . and y = 4. 16. b = 3. etc. 6.(a&c) 2 2 . 5x3. (4)'. _2. 6 2. NOTE. . Ua b 28. X(5). 2a6 c . 3 aW. 2. 10. 13. (c#) . 20. 1. . 9. 6. x= 0. z s 11 aWcx. Law Thus.MULTIPLICATION 50. 7. of Signs: TJie positive. If a cal = 4a6c. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . . 27. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 23.
7. 1.(7).e.  and 2 25 8 . B. 200. = 2. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.503).2). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 13. 127  127 9 7 . 10. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 12 U U .257). + 2/).. (a6) (a5) 9. 2(7. 3.. 6" 127 U .2 2 23 + 5 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .3).35). known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 11.7. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.<?.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a = 3. 2. 16. 6 = . of the factors. 6 aWc x .6 if 35. 53. 9 . & = 3. 5 3 5 3 2 . 78 . . a = 2. 36. 3 3 4 . Ex. 5. 6 = 1. 4.  2 2. . : 3a7abc. 4. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. By 3 definition. . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 5(711. 5 = 2. fl*" integers. i.m a 3  4 . 100. 34. 50(112.(2.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . a8 a=2. 3 2 . IB. 5 .(12) . 2 2 3 6 . 3. or 2 . 2 3 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. m*. 2 2 2 . This 52. . a= 1. 2(14. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 17. a 2 2 . 2. &*) c d*. 4. 6. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. =2 a *. Ex. . 14.
29.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 35 4 7(6. and then adding : 1. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. _4aft. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. ) 2 33. 26. (. This principle. 3. 34. 7p*q r*. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . If results ft. 11(3. 23(10004100420). 21. called the distributive law. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.3 win ) . 6. 2 32. 22. 20. . 27. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 31. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 28. by first multiplying. 25. 2(5fl5f25). c(4a ftc ).4a#. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.2 3 aft ). 2(645410). . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 6(10420430). .f 2). but we shall assume it for any number. 4 aft 5 aft 2 .6. multiply each by the monomial. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 35. .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . 23.7 w'W (8 n^W). 24. ax /) 2 4 1 (.7pqt.A). 3(124342). 12( + 1 4 i). 17(10041042). 7. 4. 5. Thus we have in general a(b 56.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 19. 2. (. /).
60 a& 10 aft. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. . 2 2 16. 7 a 6 c(. . 21.asa product. 3 ). By what 25. Find the factors of 6 ary . . 11. 22. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. : expression must 24. be multiplied to give 4o. 23. ~2mn(m +n p ). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 17. 12. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .5 w*V f 7 wn). 5). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 30. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . 19. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 28.5 x 7).6 a6). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 27. 9.3 aftc). 2 m(mhn \p).2 mn(9 mV . 26. 29. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .we b) (x law.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.^ c + 2 . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 20. f7a.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.
Since errors. 2a3b a66 2 a . .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 59.4.3 a 2 + a8 . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 2.1. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Multiply 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Check. To multiply two polynomials. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 + a a. however. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a . the student should apply this test to every example.
17. (6i7n)(llJn). (a 2a + 2)(a3). .4) (x + 1). (13 A. 20.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 3<7). (6p (2 f 21. 2  37. 7y). 15. 2) (3 A: 1). 9.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 2 . (ajf6y)(aj 23. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 10. 30. I (mfn)(m4. * For additional examples see page 261. 25. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. a 5c)(2a6c). . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 7. QQ O7. 18. 2. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (a^26) . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 32. 13.4) (mnp 4. (4a 2 33. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 12)(a?^2l). l)(raf 2). 4 2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). OQ OO. 28. 4. ^ 2 . 1). 36).2). 12. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 40.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (6a~7) 2 . (2 x* x 2 . 5. 41. 11. 22. 26. 2 . 35. 36. 36) I) 14. (2w 19. 3. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 16. 8. 31. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 24. 6. (8r7*)(6r39.1 .2m)(l m). 29.
(a (a (a. i. + 3) (a 7). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 8. plus the product 62. + 5) (1000 + 4). 11. 22. i. 14. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (a 9) (a + 9).!!)( (a + 21). 26. 19.13).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. .25)(y+4). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). + 9)(m+9). 25 a 2 . 15. 12. + 60)(f2). 2 6) (a 3 6). (6 12) (6 f. 6. (J 23. 9. 21. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. ft 16. (a 102 x 103. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 3. 25. 1) (10 + 2). 13. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . 20. 24. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (!)(* 5). 10. X 102. + 2) (a f 3).2 6) (a f 6). 27. 18. 28. in of the two unequal terms. 17. 75 ab f 54 ft . 2) (1000 + 3).e. (p12)(p + ll). . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (10+ (1000 (2. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (a3)(a + 2).4). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 2 a? 29. 7. (*. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (ra.n)(wf w). 1005x1004. : 23 2. _3)(a _4). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2.e.
e. p 2 p. 7 a + 10. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.e. second. 33. 77ie square of the of the first. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 3. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. . i. (x+3i/) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 32. (a2) (p a . 8. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. + 6 a + 8. i. . a2 2 w + 2 w . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 37.66 s. 31. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 63. III. 2 5. 7. w 2 ro .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. Ex. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . <J>7) J . 2 (a (*5) 2 . 34. III. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus sum of two numbers the square II. plus the square of the second. . and the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.30.15. 35. (a26) 2 . 9. 6.e. of the second. 4. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . : 24 (a 2.15. 49 y*. n2 10ii+16. + 3) 2 .
(m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 62 25n 2 . 47. 2 2 . 4 53. 31. G> +5g)*.30 ab + 25 6 64. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 103 36. 2 J ). 16aW25. 32. 45. 12. 28. (100 + 2) (100 2). 7& ) 25. 38. . 46. a2 9. 18. 24. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (6afy 2 5) (a. . ). m 2 16. I) 2 . 48. 55. 33. + 3z) 2 2 . 41. 29. 2 . 11. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . + 5). (^. 99x101. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 2 . . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 . 25 a 9. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 41 16. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . n 2 f4n+4. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50.ll^X^+lly (100 30. + 5)(5+a). we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 104 2 37. 21. 15. (20 f 1) . (2x3yy. 40. 14. 54. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 35. 17. ( 27. 52. 42. . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 998x1002. 22 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 9 a2 . n*6n+9. 22. 51. 991 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 23. 34. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 49. By actual multiplication. 2 9a 496 2 56. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. The product of 57.998 39. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 44. (1000 2 .
(100 + 3)(100 + 4). 14.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 7. plus the last terms. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. sum of the cross products. ((5a? (10 12. ) (2 of a polynomial. (4s + y)(32y). 8. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (5a4)(4al). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). . : 25 2. 6.& + c) = a + tf + c . and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (2a3)(a + 2). (3m + 2)(ml). 2 10. 4. (5a64)(5a&3). or The student should note minus signs. 13. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 11. 65. 5. The square 2 (a 4. 9. 3.
(a (. (u4& + 3c'. 5.r _ 2 . Ex. + 65) .8 x + 15] .4) . after multiplying the factors of a term. 6(a 2. 4.5) = (7 . 9.39. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3)(z. and check the answers !. Check. 4. 13. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). Find the square root 11.4) . If x = 1. a. = . 3. + 6)( . 8. 4y sf n) 2 .3) . 66. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 3. 2 2.[a? . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 6.3) (x .1 5 = 10 . (  2 4) =  20 a. 7. 6~2(a + 7). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .39.X2 + 2 x .(m 2 6.(x . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (xy+z)*. 2)6. n). 7. 4(* + 2)5(3). .y? + 8 . 8. Hence.5). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). Simplify (x + 6) (a .29. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.(>. of z : 10.24] . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 4(aj2)h3(7). 12. 5.i2&c) 2 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. = 10 x . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.(= [ Xa + 2 .24 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
19.2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).l.11 a + 9 a . . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 20.2) (3 a . Division of the difference of two squares. (81 m + 1 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 18. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . .DIVISION 14. 51 15. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . a I. v/17. 16.e.
16. 4 b. r/ 1. 100ry. 1.000. 14. f 13. . 16 . 12.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 10. . : the following w a 4 !. 121a a 16 100 11. 9& 2 . 36 a4 ?/ 4 .49.0001. 15. aW 12 a.
The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (a + ft) (a b) and b. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus. . 83.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the first member is 2 x + 4. =11. 82. second member is x + 4 x 9. is said to satisfy an equation. the 80. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. 81. hence it is an equation of condition.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. x 20. in the equation 2 x 0. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.
A 2 a. To solve an equation to find its roots. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 89. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. but 4 does not equal 5. If equals be divided by equals. A numerical equation is one in which all . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. If equals be multiplied by equals. 3. 87. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. x I. 90. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the sums are equal. 85. E. A term may be transposed from its sign. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 2. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. one member to another by changing x + a=.b. called axioms 1. NOTE. If equals be added to equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. a. the products are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 4.g. 86. If equals be subtracted from equals.54 84. . Transposition of terms.2. the divisor equals zero. the remainders are equal. 5. the quotients are equal. 2 = 6#f7. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .e. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.
. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 4x 1 + 6. b c. Hence the answer.6 y f y\ . Subtracting 4 x from each term. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 2 x = 6. 6a5 = 185 = 13. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. a? Adding 5 to each term. Check. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The second member. if a x = b. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. The first member. and the known terms to the second. f If y 20 .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Uniting. x = (Axiom 3) 92.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.2. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Ex. is correct. 2(11 . Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms. 3 y . b Adding a to both + a.8. 91. if 55 x members. Dividing by Check.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. To solve a simple equation. x = 93. a= a 6fc.9 y + y2 = 22 . Transposing. The first member.2 y= f . (4y)(6. x = 3. Dividing both members by 2.
x x 1 . x = 18. : 5# = 15+2a. + 7(3 + 1) =63. {(x (x The The member right member left . 11. = 7. etc. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.7a: = 394a. Transposing. 7a? 5. 3. = 5a?+18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. If x = 18. 24. + 16 = 16 + 17. 2. 11 ?/ a? 18. 21. 15. 247y = 68lly. a? a?. a?. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 14.56 Ex. . 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 16. 19. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3 7 a. v23. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. \x x 2^xfl. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 20.. = 2 ?/. 4y 10. Solve the following equations by transposing.17 + 4y = 36. a. 9 9a? = 7 13. aj * See page 264. 13a? 3a?. 17 7 a. . =2 = 3. 4a + 5 = 29. f Simplifying.. Uniting.7. 22. 12.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3)= 9(3 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 4. 7 (6 x 16). 50. = 3.69. 17 + 5a. 3. 7. it NOTE. 32 = 264. and check the answers 9. 8. 6. + 22. J. a.
30. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. + 4). a? 28. 29. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.5) = (a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. a? 43.3) + . 27. (a. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. .1) (a (a? + 3) = .4) + 4 w .7) (7 x + 4) . 42. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.2) (M . is the other part. 33. 31. 7) (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .14 = 0. 35. . (6 u =5 44. 25.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .32. 6(6a. . : One part is of 70 is 25 . e.5(2 u .1 0) = 0.g. 7(7 x y 26.1) (u .(2 + 6) (4 .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.3) . .12) (2 + 5) . this question. find the other part.3) + 14. 39. .5) + 199. 36. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. .7. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . 41. + 7) (. or 70 a?. . 34. 40. (aj 37. 5) (as (a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). . 38. 2 2 * Jaj.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. Evidently 45.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.
What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 13. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Divide 100 into two 12. 9. or 12 7. 7. 15. one part equals is 10. so that one part Divide a into two parts. EXERCISE 1. 6. so that of c ? is p. 33 2. 1. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5.58 Ex. Divide a into two parts. is a? 2 is c?. find the cost of one yard. 4. is b. 14. 17. so that one part The difference between is s. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. and the smaller one parts. 3. one yard will cost 100 dollars. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 10. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. is d. Find the greater one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 6. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. greater one is g. Ex. If 7 2. 5. 11. a. smaller one 16.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find 21. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. is A A is # years old. A dollars. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 28. If B gave A 6 25. How many years A older than is B? old. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. and spent 5 cents. amount each will then have. A man had a dollars. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and c cents. ?/ 31. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 20. 22. 19. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find 35. A feet wide. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. 24. and B is y years old. 33. 32. 34. 26. numbers is x. and B's age is y years. find the has ra dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. find the of their ages 6 years hence. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. sum If A's age is x years. b dimes. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . How many cents had he left ? 28. How many cents has he ? 27. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago.
49. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. per Find 5 Find 6 45.50. find the fraction. Find a. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. A cistern is filled 43. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. m is the denominator. The first pipe x minutes. A was 20 years old. c a b =  9. he walk each hour ? 39. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find a 47. 46. Find the number. . of 4. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. 48. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. a." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks 3 miles per hour. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. of m. The two digits of a number are x and y. . If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.
9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. by one third of b equals 100. 2. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. etc. a exceeds b by c. of a increased much 8. The excess of a over b is c. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. double of a is 10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 80. of x increased by 10 equals x. 3. 5. 80. 4. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 8 b ) + 80 = a . The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. The double as 7. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 6. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. c.
they have equal of A's. 12. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. . and C's ages will be 100. x is 100 x% is of 700. B's age 20. B's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. A gains $20 and B loses $40. sum equals $20. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 14. as 17 is is above a. 17. (c) If each man gains $500. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.. x 4 If A. 6 % of m. 50 is x % of 15. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. is If A's age is 2 x. 18. #is5%of450. a. and C have respectively 2 a. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. they have equal amounts.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 16. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 11. of 30 dollars. a. amounts. >.62 10. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. m is x % of n. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura.000. express in algebraic 3x : 10. and C's age 4 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 3 1200 dollars. B. B's. pays to C $100. a second sum. In 10 years the sum of A's. symbols B.
Three times a certain no. 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. A will Check. Transposing. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In order to solve them. Simplifying. Transposing. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Check. etc. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 6 years ago he was 10 . . Let x = the number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. NOTE. x = 20. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 15. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. but 30 =3 x years. number of yards. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Dividing. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Uniting. Ex. be 30 . denote the unknown 96. the . 4 x = 80. 1. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Let x The (2) = A's present age. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Uniting. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Ex. number. Find A's present age. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 23 =30. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 3z40:r:40z. In 15 years 10. the required . x= 15. x+16 = 3(35). much as 40 exceeds the number.
twice the number plus 7. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Forty years hence his present age. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 120. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number.64 Ex. Find the number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Dividing. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 300 56. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. by as much as 135 ft. A number added number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 4. 5. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 11. 3. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 14. exceeds the width of the bridge. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. How many miles per hour does it run ? . How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. EXERCISE 1. % of 120. Let x 3. 13. Find 8.
14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. two verbal statements must be given. B How will loses $100. Find the population of Maine in 1800. which gives the value of 8. and B has $00. During the following 90 years. F 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. B will have lars has A now? 17. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. the second one. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.000. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Maine's population increased by 510. statements are given directly.000. 65 A and B $200. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. . A and B have equal amounts of money. One number exceeds the other one by II.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. is the equation. The problem consists of two statements I. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. The other verbal statement. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. If A gains A have three times as much 16. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Ex. How many dol A has A to $40. 1. five If A gives B $200. written in algebraic symbols. 97. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. times as much as A.
To express statement II in algebraic symbols. B will have twice as viz. + a f f 8 = 14. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. to Use the simpler statement.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. x = 8. x x =14 8. = 3. < Transposing. the greater number. A has three times as many marbles as B.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. . A will lose. A gives B 25 marbles. 2x a? x j = 6. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = B's number of marbles. Then. I. The two statements I. 2. If A gives are : A If II. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 8 = 11. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = A's number of marbles. the smaller number. which leads ot Ex. consider that by the exchange Hence. has three times as many marbles as B. unknown quantity in Then. and Let x = the Then x +. B will have twice as many as A. Dividing. . although in general the simpler one should be selected. terms of the other. Statement x in = the larger number. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. . 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. / . 25 marbles to B. Let x 14 I the smaller number. Uniting. = 14.
Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. the price. Dividing. (Statement II) Qx . 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. The number of coins II.$3. 2. x = 6. Two numbers the smaller. 6 half dollars = 260 cents... Simplifying. is 70. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. of dollars to the number of cents. Check. 60. the number of half dollars. Find the numbers.240. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 3. then. greater is .10. * 98. 50. The value of the half : is 11. the number of dimes. etc. A's number of marbles. have a value of $3. Uniting. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. by 44. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.25 = 20.5 x . Simplifying. 15 + 25 = 40. consisting of half dollars and dimes. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. The sum of two numbers is 42.75. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. . 50 x Transposing. Dividing.10. Eleven coins. . Let 11 = the number of dimes. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 6 times the smaller. 1. 45 . Find the numbers. 11 x = 5. x = the number of half dollars. B's number of marbles. 3 x = 45. x from I. cents. but 40 = 2 x 20. x = 15.10. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).. Uniting. Check. dollars and dimes is $3. w'3. and the Find the numbers.550 f 310. 40 x . * ' .
and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 5. McKinley. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Twice 14. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40.000 feet. one of which increased by 9.68 4. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many volcanoes are in the 8. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and twice the altitude of Mt. Two numbers The number differ by 39. 6. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. as the larger one. A's age is four times B's. the number. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. tnree times the smaller by 65. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Find their ages. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. On December 21. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 7. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. United States. 11. 9. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Everest by 11. How many 14 years older than B. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and four times the former equals five times the latter.. How many inches are in each part ? 15. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more.
try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 1. . If 4x = 24. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. has. they would have 3. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 8(8 + 19) to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. III. and 68. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. I. number of dollars A had. Ex. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B has three times as much as A. and C together have $80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B. original amount. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. x = 8. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. times as much as A. II. B. and C together have $80. Let x II. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. has. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = 48. The third verbal statement produces the equation. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. bers is denoted by x. 19. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the money by I. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. and B has three as A. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x.
III. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and the sum of the . 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. = the number of dollars spent for horses. the third five times the first. number of horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 9 5 = 4 . 2. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each horse costing $ 90. x = 5. number of cows. 185 a = 925. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 4 x f 8 = 28. 90 may be written. 28 2 (9 5). 9 cows. and. Uniting. number of sheep. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and Ex. Let then. cows. according to III. x f 4 = 9. three statements are : IT. Dividing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 1 1 Check. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The I. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to II. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each cow $ 35. + 8 90 x and. = the number of dollars spent for cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x Transposing. x j = the number of horses. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and each sheep $ 15. first. The total cost equals $1185. sheep. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 35 x 4.
first. 13. women. the third 2. what is the population of each city ? 8. 9. twice the 6. the second one is one inch longer than the first. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what are the three angles ? 10. The gold. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. equals 49 inches.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 7. "Find three is 4. New York delphia. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . A 12. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. how many children were present ? x 11.  4. and 2 more men than women. v . The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. If twice The sum the third side. men.000. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.000. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice as old as B. increased by three times the second side. what is the length of each? has 3. the copper. first. and children together was 37. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.
number of hours. After how many hours will they meet and how E. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Let x = number of hours A walks. such as length.000. . and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. how many 100.000.000 more than that the copper. 3 and 4. but stops 2 hours on the way. First fill in all the numbers given directly. Dividing. 7 Uniting. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. i. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. or time. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Hence Simplifying. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. Find the value of each. together. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. = 35. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and distance. number of miles A x x walks.g. speed.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. The copper had twice the value of the gold. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 8 x = 15. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.e. and quantities area. width. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. A and B apart.000. = 5. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. we obtain 3 a. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 14.
$ 800 = required sum. Check. were increased by 30 yards. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. Find the dimensions of the field. the second 100. x + 200). 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.04 = $ 40. 70x10 Ex. The an area 40 x 20 =800.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.01 = = . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. and the width decreased by 10 yards. Transposing and uniting." gives (2. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Multiplying. x . . $ 800 = 800. z = 20. 2   and transpose.06 = $ 40. 2 a = 40.05 x x . 10 x = 200. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.M(x .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.053. But 700 certain = 800 2. or 700. l. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. x . the area would be 100 square yards less. original field has Check.04 8. $ 1000 x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. + 8. .
A man bought 6 Ibs. A sets out later two hours B . and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A of each. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. together bring $ 78 interest. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. What are the two sums 5. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. twice as large. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. Find the share of each. 3. and a second sum. Ten yards $ 42. sions of the field. were increased by 3 yards. mobile. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. but four men failed to pay their shares. After how many hours will B overtake A. the area would remain the same. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. of coffee for $ 1. A sum ? invested at 4 %. invested at 5 %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. Six persons bought an automobile.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.55. 2. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 1. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. as a 4. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %.
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
we shall not. but fractional with respect 103. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . consider 105. a. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . + 62 is integral with respect to a. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. An after simplifying. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 76 . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if it does contain some indicated root of . 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. it is composite. f db 6 to b. it contains no indicated root of this letter . irrational. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . expression is rational with respect to a letter. stage of the work.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. as. which multiplied together are considered factors. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. 104. if. this letter. at this 6 2 . a. 5. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a2 to 6. vV .
in the form 4) +3. Divide 6 a% . 2. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). for this result is a sum. 110.) Ex. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 109. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. x. . It (a.62 can be &). 1.FACTORING 106. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 8) (s1).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.3 6a + 1). ?/. E. 2. 01. TYPE I. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 107.g.62 + &)(a 2 . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. x. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Ex. y. Factor G ofy 2 . 2. 55.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. it follows that a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .3 sy + 4 y8). or that a = 6) (a = a .
8 c a 15 ofyV . 15. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.5 + 2.30 aty. 3x*6x*. ) 22  2. 7i 13. 4 tfy f. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 19. 2 Or. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 2. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). a a 'Ja . 14. . 15 2 7. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3 2 . 2 6.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .6. 18.5 + 13 8. 8. (as 3) and (ccf5). : 6 abx . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . a6c. 34 a^c 8 .12 cdx. q*q*q 2 a.3. . 5f 2 . 20. Ilro8 9. 17.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 7a & 10. 2 + q. 3 3 5 6.51 aW + 68 21. 4 8 . 12. TYPE IT.4. 2 2 . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.3.2. + llm llm.4. 14a 4 5. 13. 11.g. 3. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 2 23. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. e. obviously. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.45 afy .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 4. in general. 16. 32 a *?/ .
.1 1 a tf a 4. Factor x? . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a..11 a + 30. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 2. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.77 = (a.30 = (a . however. + 112.11. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. If q is positive. or 77 l.4 . 4. . or 7 11. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 11 7.6 = 20. is The two numbers whose product and 6. as p.5) (a . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. If q is negative.4 x .FACTORING Ex. We may consider 1. 3.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 77 as the product of 1 77.11 a 2 . Ex. 5. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Factor + 10 ax . Ex. + 30 = 20. . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. and (a . a 2 . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Therefore Check. the two numbers have opposite signs. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.a). Factor a2 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).5) (a 6). determine whether In solving any factoring example. of this type. can be factored. 79 Factor a2 4 x .G) = . 2 6.11) (a + 7). m 5m + 6. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. tfa2  3.
(4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.180 a. 100 xr . 36. 2 ?/ 5?/14. a 2 +11 a a? 16. ra + 25ra + 100. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 4 3 2 . 2 ?/ 22. or .80 7. 2 2 . 29. 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 . . + 30. + 5<y 24. 2 . 13. + 2xS. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 17.48 + + 446 200. ay 11 ay +24. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 11. a? + 5 + 6 a. 32. TYPE 113. in factoring 6 x2 + 5.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . + 44. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 19. 4 2 . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. and 5 x. 20. . 2 2 a' 34. 31. 33. 14. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. ITT. 15. 21 a 2 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ .6.500 x + 600. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 21.70 x y . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 26. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. a2 . 35. 27. 2 ?/ 28. 12. a 7 a 30. 16. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 18. 8. x2 23. + 4?/21. 16. 25.17 + 30. 9. 24.
all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. the If p and r are positive.5 . X x 18. 3. 3 x and x. and r is negative. 2 x 27. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. then the second terms of have opposite signs. but the opposite sign. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 9 x 6. Ex. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 6 x 9. 11 x 2x. 2.1). If p is poxiliw.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. or G 114. . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and that they must be negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. 54 x 1. a. 18 x 3. Factor 3 x 2 . sible 13 x negative.83 x f 54. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. viz. 27 x 2. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5) (2 x . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.13 x + 5 = (3 x . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.
2 31. 18. 2 2 2 23. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 10. 10a2 G a2 2 . since all others (II. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 25. 10a?2 2 33. 7. 5m 26m f 5. 35.27). 2 28.30 y 6 4 .2) (x . 8. 9a. 2 . 15. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 3a + 13a. 4.2 a 90 x*y . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.7. 24. : 41 2. 2m t7w + 3. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 fc .83 x . 32.163 x 2 . 5. 6. 2 . f go. and the monomial factors should be removed. 2 26. 10 a . 144 x . the expressions should be it. 6n + 5?i4. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 3. 9 y + 32^16. 9.260 xy . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. Sar' + SaG.179. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 11. 13. + 4. 4a2 9tt + 2. 30. 22.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2 2 2 . 90 a 8 2 .y + 172/9. 2. 16.19 a f 6. + 2/3. 20. 12.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 3x*Sx + 4. . . 17. 19. 14. .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 29.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 100^200^ + 100^. 2 ar* 2 i/ .83 x = (3 . 21. 14 a fa 4. 12y 2/6. X 27 . 2x* + 9x5. x54 a.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 12^17^16. 34.
Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. i. 2 9 10gf25. 2. 9 10a625. must have a positive sign. 12. 116. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 5.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. it is more convenient for that type. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. To factor a trinomial which maining term.e. of its terms are perfect squares. form are special cases of the preceding type. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . and factor whenever possible : 1. 3. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*.10 x f 16. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 6. 4. 14. .20 xy f 4 y\ . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 9. x* . 2 2 . it is a perfect square. 2 . and a perfect square. square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 13. however. 25 7. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . . 10. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 8. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 11.
19. : 43 tfy\ a 9. prime. product i. a. . 3. ). 16&*.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).60 a# + 4. 149 a 81 8.64 6 = 16(a . 3.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29. 10 a 2 4 2 . 9.6 m* + 9 m. V. 2 . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. !Gar 9 ( )+25. ). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).3 * ). 16. 2. 2 . 2 20. 25. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 4 2 23. 18. TYPE 117. +( )f816 30. 1.20 ab + 10 b a . ^//c to the Ex. 7. 48 a +( ). 6. 22. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 17. 4a2 l.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 6 2 . . aV .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). a2 24. 27. 225 ofy . According to 65. * 2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.e.2 ofy + ofy m . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 9a2 . 5. Ex.84 15. ). 2 . + GO + 25. a. 36 2 4. 2. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 26.
2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Ex. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 11. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 14. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 .(c 4. 16p 2 . 5. (m7?) y. of polynomials.(I) . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 36> . 2. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Factor a 2 . 4. T. 2.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 9.d) 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 8. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 . a2 . a:) 12.c . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. Ex. One or both terms are squares 1. 13. 6.
r. which may be factored according to types I. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. By grouping. ma ?*a + m& nb. Ex. . 1. 5. 7. a5 + ab 6 .1.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. Ex.14. a 26 2 2 3 . 9. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.and trinomials. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.7 c + 2c . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. ive find that the new terms con common factor.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.ab + bx. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 3. 12. 2. . 5) .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 119. After grouping tain a the terms. = (3 x + y .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 10. a? 11.2 ) (3 x . 4 B.VI. 4:cx . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. + x + 2x + 2. 6.y + 2 2). 8. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.a a . x8 . 2. A.
4 a2 . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8ra 2 + 16. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 2. 3. 5. = (a + 6)(a6). 4. II. . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 8. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. + 2xy + y*q*.12 aaj 4 6y. 2a3/ 7. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. IV. Arranging the terms. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 6 6. 6. : 46 x* 2. 3. 2 7.9 a2 4 v* 2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms. w m 2. $ a8 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 6a4 12a2 + 6. : m 2 2 16.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. . 2.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.l. +c+ 2 2 2/ .FACTORING Ex. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 36 9 m .4 f . 4. 8.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.
42 s 2 . 32. 19. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 50^ + 45. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 40. 3 41. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. a6 36. 11. 27. + 14.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.88 10. 48. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 25 a + 25 aft . 14. 24. a3 156. 2 a 128. 42 x . or 3 7#2 . 18. 2 17. 12.310 x .156. 3 a2 23. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 5 a.40. 28. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 3 2 . 13 c . a + a + a + l.24. a. 3 25. 5a' 20. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. (^ 34. 4 8 tt 2 z .13 c . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. (a. + 6 aft + 3 . . 2 ft . 35. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 29. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 13. 4 a. 80 a 2 ft 38. 30. 22.
the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 5 2 3 .) of two or more . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The highest is common factor (IT. F. F. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 12 tfifz. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . The H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. 25 W. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of 6 sfyz. 122. 24 s . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. F. 3. are prime can be found by inspection. 8 . of aW. C. 121. 3 . 5 7 34 2s . 6. 2 2 . II 2 .  23 3 . 2. 54  32 . F. . EXERCISE Find the H. of : 48 4. 5 s 7 2 5. expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. Thus the H. F. 15 aW. of the algebraic expressions. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. aW. The student should note H. 5. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. The H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. C. C. C. C. Two common factor except unity The H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. C. 89 .
3 xy + 2 y* = (x . a2 + 2a3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 3). . a 3a4. 12. 2a f5af 2. 9. Find the H. 16 a . 49 C. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a2 . 10. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 3. 12 w*nw 8. aWd. 4 ?io.6 a&.5 + 6.2 ?/) (x . 225 4a 9 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 95 2/V. x* x2 Hence the H. F. 14.5 y). 2 . 8. 2 . . . 57 a>V. 8. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7. 15 3ao. ^a + 5^ + 6. . 6 a2 y? .?/ .6. 6 mx .90 7. 2 . a3 9a. F. a. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. a2 ar* 4. 12 . Ex. 5. 8 a 10 . 10. 9.^9.y) . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . y + 3y64. F. a2 + 7af!2. 52 oryz4. 0^80:416.y) 123. 24 a 2 . C. of: . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. and apply the method of the preceding article.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 1. 9 aj*(a? . 65 zfyV.# 4 afy f 4 .y + y42.5 x3?/ 2 6. 11.6 . F. = x 2 y. 15. 2.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 1. 13. ^f a. . 8 6. of + 4 if.12 as 66 . 4(m+l) 3 .2 y) (a. 11. 8(?/ifl) 14. (a7 ?/) . C. 3 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 13. C. . 6(m+l) (m+2). ^707 + 12. a3 16 a. 38 #y. 6 3 a. 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. To find the H. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 16. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 12. ^2 2 . 3^ 2 4 . 25 m27i. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . of polynomials.8 a + 16.
A common remainder. &) 2 M. Common 125. 128. of tfy and xy*.C. of several expressions which are not completely factored.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. =4 a2 62 (a2 . To find the L. The L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. M. 2 The The L.6 3 ).M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. a^c8 3 . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . M. . C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of the general. M. 127. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. ory is the L. thus. C. etc. Ex. C. M. NOTE. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 126. C. Ex. two lowest common multiples.C.M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . Find the L. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 2. The lowest common multiple (L. C. C. which also signs. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . L. of 3 aW. 300 z 2 y. C. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 1. C. Hence the L. M of the algebraic expressions. . each set of expressions has In example ft). 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y.6)2. Find the L. M. L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. but opposite . 60 x^y' 2 . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.
2(m 2 . ic 2 ?/. + 2 7i) . 6 y. 13. 2 a .f 6. a2 4. . 3 Z> . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 4 a f 2. 8 afy. Find the L. 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 3. or f 3 a 15 #. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . + 6. 3 6 xif. 3 ab. a.1. xy\ . 8 d 5 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a { a~b. (a 4)(a2) 12. a 2 f 4 a +4. 20. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a. ) . 24 x. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 4 a . 40 abJ. 1. a f 3. 17. ic 23. a^1. x 2 5 a. by. a?b. f b. 2 x \2 y. 9. a 2 a3 . 2. 3 . a f 2 19. 4 a 5 6cd. 11. a. 3. G a. 6. 24. . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 6 a. x* ~5a. 18. 2 7ic+10. 16.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 5. 30 a. + 2. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 3(a + b). bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 15. 20 9 a. y*. a& 4 +& 2 . 6b 2 . 8. T a 3 a 2 . 2 . x2 + 4 a f 4. afc'cd 2 . afy. #. 14. a.1. a2 ~ab 1. (For additional examples see page 268. 21. a 2 fa6. 2 . 2 10. b 2 . 7. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 f2. 2 a . of: 4. a 1. M. a !. 22.
131. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. however. C. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Ex. but we In arithmetic. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. F. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. a b = ma mb . a?. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. rni Thus 132.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. as 8. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic.ry ^ by their H. Thus. etc. A f fraction is b. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . successively all 2 j/' . Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. 130. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Remove tor. and denominators are considered.
Ex. 3. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex. cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 2.
12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 29. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.7 . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 23.' 32. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. . nx 17. ny 4 18. 19. ^+3*. . 9x + "a" 10. 5^10 y 30. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^" a.. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.10 a + 3 2 14.*. _ 3 7i rt< 26. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 16.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. g J 21. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. """. ' ^ . . 11 ^ Mtr f . LJZJ^JL. ^' rt ^  31.
 of //* 2 .M.D.r 2 2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 2> .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . and (a 8).M. we have the quotients (x 1). TheL.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 1. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 . . by the denominator of each fraction. Reduce ^. we have M^. of the denominators for the common denominator.C. 1).3) (!)' = . Divide the L. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.~16 (a + 3) (x. and the terms of ***. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.1^22 ' . . take the L. we may extend this method to integral expressions. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.  by 4 6' . C. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. mon T denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. and 135. ^ to their lowest com The L. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.C. M. Ex. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. + 3). =(z (x + 3)(z.96 134. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. C.
3. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. . 8 i i. 5?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2aj ~ .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 7i 2 ab* ". 22 a2 5a * .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.^1. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. If the given fractions have different denominators.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .. 2. . .. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 18. JL. o o a. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 137. i. j y 3. 74). a? 1 5 > ^* .oj o* or / . 2 ay IB. common denominator 6.
aft) Ca2 . C.g.7 . (a ft).3 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .3 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.(a 2 6). in the beginning. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.ft)(a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .2 = a(a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. ft). 2.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. and adding. 2 ^. as 4 aft f. ^ is 2^JT) . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). the student should remember that parentheses are .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. e. (a . D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .3 ft 2). 4(2 a 3 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.2 ' 2 _. D. The L. T? Ex. L.
20. a+6 a 6 2 14. a 36 ++. 2L + 2a 1 17. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. + . A+2_3. 2. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 5a76 4a 106 9. 1 f q * 1 m m . j>0 i> 21. 6 c 3a 7. 15. 24. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 1 1 f w 16. 18 v 19.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. + a "" 2 6 ' .5 18 ^4f25. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 46 2a 4a 12. 23. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.
x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 42. 41. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ic 1 + 1. 43. 1 34. a ?^ 40. 2 af1 32.9 79 6 2 i. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9. a. 3a 9 +. a 30.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a 4 31. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. af 1f /j. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _ + a? ?/ + y. ! n.
.FRACTIONS 139.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. Reduce .  4 or 3 2a. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .7 5a v Ex. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 1. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 101 mixed expression. . T. .  .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 + 4x 4 x2 .
and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Since  = a. (In order to cancel common factors. F J Simplify . Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2.g. or. fractions to integral numbers. we may extend any e. multiply the 142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2 a Ex. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.) Ex.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. !. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. integer.
aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 4 8.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 50 .. 5# 56 / c& 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. 2 f 5 a. . 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.6 12 d6 4. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 14.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. 144. 8 multiply the Ex. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. Divide Xn?/ . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.
c ab 2 4 &c* & a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. or both.FRACTIONS 105 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.^c 2 2 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .10 ?/ _.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. a a2 4.5 ??i 80 50 . ga2 4 8 5 a . Ex. are fractional.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. l.afr 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.
n a 8.y 32 . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. M. .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 9. i. C. Ex. 7i+~ 7. . of their denominators. . & . Simplify x }. a m "" . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 2.a ^c c _^ a . c +6. JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . y X 4* 2 y 3. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 6. x* 4. 10. . the answer is directly obtained.
sy 18. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. m^n* n L a 17. : .~l (For additional examples see page 273.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) . 2 & a 20  a46 13. o 15.
1. 108 . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.42 + 9.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 148.14 (a. 9x x Check. Uniting. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. = 6. . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). each member is reduced to 1. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 2 3. 4 4)  x. 2x Transposing. + 1) (a + 3) .28 a = 5 x2 .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. of the denominator. tions. x = 6. 1. 2z2a.48.8 x = . 2. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . If = 64. a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . these Ex.l)(z + 3) = .9 x2 + 9. 5(3 85 Check. Clearing of fractions. C.28 x + 42 = . = 6. M. each member is reduced to Ex. Bx 12 Qx. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Transposing. If x 6.
= 2. 15. a: 7 a. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9. 18. 16. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^' 2. '  4 13.1 _77 a. +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a/  5 a/ = 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 1 *> = 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . a. . +1 = 5. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.
25. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. J_. 3x 35. 33. and" the remaining one a polynomial. If two or more denominators are monomials.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . . 32 6 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 31 31. 27 . . 26 26. . ?_=_. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 4a4l4* + l~. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36.  38 = 40. 2^12 = 2 = 34._ _ . y+3~2 29. .11_4 x 149.
of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.  5 = 20 x 45. 5x x : = 9.. .2 42 9 43. Dividing. the 1 5 L. Transposing and uniting. = 9. 1. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 60. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 26 a. 24 a. each member is reduced to ^. C. 5# 10. Check.29 50712' 9 18 .2 3 ~  == 7a. a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. M. If a.
If 3ac L= = a ? .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. fr Reducing lowest terms. a. y. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Dividing. they are united by factoring. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = = 6 6c 7 6c. = 6 a2 . Thus. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.m bx 2 mn) x. It frequently occurs that the x. 4 ac 1.2 ac + 3 aft . =a 2 151. Ex. = 2 f b 2 . = l^ 9 b 4 . Uniting. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.be.1. ax f x f. f ~ 5c. 2. Ex. . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. jr. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 5> a. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. find a in terms of b and c.3 6 2 = a' . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.& .2 62 2 ab.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting the Dividing.
a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. If ^^ = a 1 32. f P =+!. . solve for . = vt. + xx = 1. ^ ax a^ 26. 3. q solve for/. c. denoting the interest. If * 33. . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).i l . = 8 4 #. 13. iw 21. 6. 11. 1 f. The The i time. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. in terms of other quantities. 14. 15. . 4. and n the number of years. m a? x . = 5. c 18. mx = n. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. If s If 16. f ^o.= H.a. 17. _ 2.= c a Z> . rate. IIL n b + &o. p the principal. = rt. 3(* 8. r the number of $>. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. . 2 solve for y a. a. If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 3 (6 a).= n. solve for a. Ex. 29. 30. 12. 34. 5) is t =^. co?. * Solve the same equation for^). + 3a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. s = Vt solve for v. 9. 31. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 4. t. 10.
A would do each day ^ and B j. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. x Or Uniting. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. Find R in terms of C and TT. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. and 12 = the number over. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. then = 2 TT#.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.. 2 3 . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = 16^. Multiplying by Dividing.180. 100 C. . Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.114 35. is 36.20 C. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 1. 2. Ex..
4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. or 1J. and the statement. 180 Transposing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the rate of the express train. in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x. 3. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 32 x = . Clearing. Ex. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." : Let x  = the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. the required number of days. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Solving." gives the equation /I). fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. is oO. which was $4000. to his daughand the remainder. money and $10.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. by 3. and of the father's age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. make 21. 3. and 9 feet above water. ex What 5.  Find their present ages. by 6. Find A's 8. a man had How much money had he at first? . is equal 7. length in the ground. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How did the much money man leave ? 11. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. fifth Two numbers differ 2. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and J of the greater Find the numbers. of his present age. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. to his son. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.
A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and it B in 6 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and B in 4 days. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. . what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.) 22. air.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. How much money $500? 4%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 3. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 2. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. after rate of the latter ? 15. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ^ at 5%. 152. 1. investments. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. Ex.
A in 6. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. 26. if B in 3 days. B in 12. m and n. A in 6. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 3.414. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Then ft i. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. and apply the method of 170. is 57. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Hence.e.= .118 153. n x Solving. B in 5. we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 30. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. they can both do in 2 days. . 2. is 42. Ex. To and find the numerical answer. B in 16. The problem to be solved. and n = 3.009 918. therefore. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. A in 4.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 25.g. e. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.
000. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (b) 35 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (c) 16.001. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. is ?n . and the rate of the second are. 4J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. Find the side of the square. respectively (a) 60 miles. squares 30. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 33. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. meet. Two men start at the first miles apart. . 5 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. the second at the apart.721. is (a) 51. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 3 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. (d) 1. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. the rate of the first. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. same hour from two towns. (b) 149. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. squares 29. The one: 31. 34. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. if m and n are. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. respectively. : (c) 64 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28.
6 12 = .g. " a Thus. etc. : : 155. The first 156. Ex. . all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. In the ratio a : ft.5. b. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. Simplify the ratio 21 3. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. 1. the denominator The the 157. b is the consequent. a ratio is not changed etc. 158." we may write a : b = 6.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the second term the consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. b. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. E. is numerator of any fraction consequent. the antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.
A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. equal 2. 7:4 T T 4 . extremes. $24: $8. 8^ hours. 7f:6J. 3:1}. In the proportion a b : = b : c. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 16. two  ratios. 11. and c is the third proportional to a and . and c. 62:16. terms. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b and c the means. proportional between a and c. 16a2 :24a&. 3:4. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 5 f hours : 2. 17. b. 1.RATIO Ex. 9. 12. 10. : 1. 3. 18. : ay . The last first three. a and d are the extremes. 27 06: 18 a6. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 4:5f : 5. 6. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 61 : ratios 72:18. 159. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. b is the mean b. J:l. 4. Simplify the following ratios 7. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 3 8. Transform the following unity 15.
__(163. are : : : inversely proportional. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 2 165. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.) b = Vac. !. : c. " we " NOTE.30 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. i. 3 4.e. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. 164. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. of iron weigh . of a proportion. Hence the number of men required to do some work. q~~ n .) mn = pq. 6 ccm. ad = be.122 162. then G ccm. and the other pair the extremes. pro portional. : : directly proportional may say. of iron weigh 45 grams. 163. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. briefly. If (Converse of nq. and the time necessary to do it. Clearing of fractions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. The mean proportional of their product. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. = 30 grams 45 grams.
By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Or IV.) II. if 6 : 7. then =d c. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. . hence the proportion true. ad = be. (163.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (Division. 12x Hence a? = 42. d d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.PATIO Ex.) d 167. = 35 . I.) (Called Alternation. V. is 4$ = 35. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166. 1. a III. 2.) a + b:a = c + d:c. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) = f f = 3 J. bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. a:c=b:d. is Ex. + b:b = c + d:d. ad ( 163.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. (Composition. I.
i. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 4. the consequents by 7. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 120:42 2 2 7. = 2:3. = 20:7.!=!*. Simplify the following proportions. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 6 =4 : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. Apply composition. x = 2. 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 9. 10. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. V. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. . = 180:125.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1.g. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. Or III. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 5. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. IV. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 12 5ft. mx tin Apply composition and division.124 IT. 5 5. 2. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.e. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. . E. 3. = 2:x. = 7:2f 3J. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. : x.
6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 6x = 7y. 5= 18 a? : a?. 2 3 = y #. = 15o. = l^:18. to : a and 1. 14 and 21. mx = ny. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 42. 34. if : 40.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 25. terra 2:3 = 4. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 21. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. w. 50. ratio of y. : . 3. 23. 18. 7iy = 2:x. ra + landra 1. = 3 43 + x. 41. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 2. 12. Find the third proportional 24. 33. 6 x = y. ra 2 . 39. 27.8:1.j>. and 2/. 6. 52. 1. 17. rap. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. Find the 37. 03:a?=135:20. 26.x: 6:5 a : x.  32. a. x:5 = y:2. 28. 3t. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 9 x = 2 y. 3. 4 and 16. x m = y n. 5. : 53. 16. 44. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 20. . a?:15 15. 2 a and 18 a. 47. 2= 5 x x. 14. 31. ra. a 2 and ab. 112:42 = 10:a. 38. (a : : 45. to : 9 and 12. + fyx = cy. to: = 35:*. Find the mean proportional 30. 29. 35. 13. 22. b. 46. : a2 . 4. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 16 and 28. 2. 43. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 1 and a. = 2 + x: x.. 51. rag. = 5 x 12.:ff. f.
State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the area of the larger? the same. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .126 54. and the time necessary for it. and the speed of the train. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the : total cost. and the area of the rectangle. and the time. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. 56. 57. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. what 58. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). A line 7^.
2. 2 x Or = 4.000 168. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. is A line AB. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Let A B AC=1x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x x 7 Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. x = 6. 4 inches long. AB = 2 x. 18 x = 108. = the second number. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). : Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. produced to a point C. so that Find^K7and BO. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. x=2. .
: 4. 11. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 12. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.000 square miles. 13. 7. 9.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 2. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 6. : 197. find the number of square miles of land and of water. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many gen. 12. How many 7. 14.) . and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. What are the parts ? 5. How The long are the parts ? 15. and c inches. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 3. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.000. and 15 inches. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Gunmetal tin.
is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 .CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. such as + = 10. 2 y = . y = 1. a? (1) then I. if . etc.y=.. values of x and y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. =. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. However.e. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. expressing a y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.L x If If = 0. x = 1. there is only one solution. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.
y = 2. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. E. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. the last set inconsistent. for they express the x f y 10. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. Therefore. unknown quantity. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 26 y = 60. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.3 y = 80. same relation. The first set of equations is also called consistent. By By Addition or Subtraction. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. ~ 50. 3. 21 y . 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. Substitution. 172. y I 171. = . of elimination most frequently used II. 6x . viz.X. cannot be reduced to the same form.26. 174. are simultaneous equations. to The two methods I. 4y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.24.130 170. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. and 3 x + 3 y =.
EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 60 . whose coefficients In general. 3. 10 . add the equations.3 y = 47. Transposing. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. y = 1. 5 13 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. y = 2.3 1 = 47. are like. subtract the equations. 37. Therefore Check. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 25 x .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). + 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 3y = 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3.14 =8.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). = 235. Check. 64 x = 040. 8 2.2 = 6. = 406.
13. ] ^ . I i 3 a. ' 12. f 3X 7x 14.v 23. 9 1 r 20.3.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I . * + 3 y = 50.5 y = 2. i 3.3.f2/ ' = 50. _. x 11.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. J I y = 1U. 19< I a. I ~ y~~> 22.4. + 2/ 17. 7 ' 1fi fl . O t K 8. = 41. I oj 5y = 17. v ^ = ll. f 3# ?/ = 0.9 *. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. . = 6. [2o. = 24. 13 61 l7a.
. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. x ) ^"" 13. = 2. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 4#8. 8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 3. = 13. = 60.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2y + 10. and solve the resulting equation.
134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (7) (7) (8) . \ \6(a. however. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 2 y = . 4* + 3y = 19. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6.3. 3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.6)7(y7)==18. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 29 x = 29. 3 (1) Ex. From 9 = 36. simplified before elimination is possible. (4). + 212y4 = 14. Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 21z6y=9. . x = l.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 14. = 3.1) = 121.f2 2. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4 11. 10. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. a. 10 2a?5 17. 16. . J 9. 12. yM a. a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) + 5(6 y . . +y 2 .
e.and x y . {. 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y . f y . 180.Q ^ 4 21. 22. <X + 20. and y.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. but some expressions involving x.#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. * ((* (( . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. .
(2) (3) a. (4) + (G). 2* * x 2. etc.4 x = 4 xy. Clearing of fractions. however. y 1. x 3. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y. x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1). y 4. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. can also be solved Examples method. 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . Therefore y=4. of this type. . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 137 Solve y y (1) . 15 y + 8 x . 33 = 11 x.
bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n. 253 7. Ex.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. . 1. 6. 21 9 . = en.= o 6.= 5. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x 8. x y 331 9.
a Find a and terms of n. . d. 14. d. W . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x a. ax + by = 2 a&. fax f = l. x 12. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.y = = 9a + 46. . f 5. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. w. 6. s in 11. x f my = 1. From the same equations find s in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. ap. bmy bm}y ap cm. and I. . and I if 13. apan cm. Dividing. Uniting.W. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.
x + 12 y . 20. Ex. = 30.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 182. l.2 + 3. .16. ties are Similarly. (4) (5). 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.15z=12 Adding.3 = 8.lf> z .13.8 = 1. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3. 1.1+4. by 3. To solve equations containing By tions. f 3y 12 =s 8. (8) 2.12 y + 6 z = . = 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 1. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 4.25.by 2.2 + 4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.3=4.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. etc. 3y = Hence Check. 4. 6. y =* 2. 8 x . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.
x 13. 10. 2z = 40. 12. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? + 709 = 26. 15 2 = 45. 8. ~6?/ 5. + y f z = 15. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . 2 4. == 6. 14. 4 = 42. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 49. a? 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 7. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
?/ 3x = 0. ^ = 2. =s 20.3 y + . . 27. (3 _. 4. . = 8*.42 = 2. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. . 84 21.6 2. ? = llz.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 60.. = 5. 19. 16. 23.2 a. 32. 1510 4 17. 22.
1. z + x = 2 n. 2 = 1(1+6). the number. and to express In complex examples. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 digit in the tens place. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. # 4. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. symbols: x + y +z 8. either directly or implied. ( 99. = 2 m. 2 = 6. Ex. . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. + 396 = 521.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. M=i. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Obviously of the other . = l. y 31. y * z 30. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. however. Find the number. 1 = 2. +2+ 6 = 8. and if 396 be added to the number. + z = 2p.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. x : z =1 : 2. Check. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.
the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. xy a: 2y 4y 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. . Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. y = 3. From (3) Hence xy Check. direction. B. 3. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. x 3 = 24. increased by one. 5_ _4_ A. x y = the = the x denominator . ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x 3x4y = 12. 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 4 x = 24. = the fraction. Find the fraction. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 6 x 4 = 24. we obtain. (1) (2) 12. 2. C. (3) C4) = 24 miles. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator.144 Ex. = Hence the fraction is f. = 8. 3+1 5+1 4_2. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. the distance traveled by A. Or (4)2x(3).
and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 2. 5. it is reduced to J. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. 183. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 7. both terms. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Find the numbers. Find the number. 1. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. Find the numbers. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If the denominator be doubled. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. added to the numerator of a fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. and the numerator increased by 4. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. ? What 9. the fraction equals .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.) added to a number of two digits. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Find the number. part of their difference equals 4. . fraction is reduced to \. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the number (See Ex. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the last two digits are interchanged. If 9 be added to the number. Find the numbers.}. 6. and the fourth 3. its value added to the denominator. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the digits will be interchanged. number by the first 3. Find the fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. the Find the fraction. tion ? 8. If 27 is 10.
and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ? 15.grams. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. partly at 5 %. Find the rates of interest. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. A sum of $10. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. How 6 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. A man invested $750. 12. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. the annual interest would be $ 195. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and in 5 years to $1125. 13. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence .146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. the rate of interest? 18. 19. . now.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. respectively ? 16. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find their present ages. in 8 years to $8500. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and 4 %. and money and 17. 14. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and partly at 4 %. 5 %.
and angle e angle/. and F. BD = HE. 23. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. A farmer sold a number of horses. BC=7. and F. B find angles a. the length of NOTE. points. what is that = OF. the three sides of a triangle E. receiving $ 100 for each horse. angle c = angle d. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and F '(see diagram). BE. are taken so ABC. c. E. On /). he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. is the center of the circum scribed circle. respectively. three AD = AF. and their difference by GO . $ 50 for each cow. 25. BC = 7 inches. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. but if A would double his pace. and e. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and CE If AB = G inches. andCL4 = 8. and AC = 5 inches. and $15 for each sheep. Find their rates of walking. 24. for $ 740. then AD = AF. triangle Tf AD. 1 NOTE. . and sheep. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and angle BCA = 70. and GE = CF. ED = BE. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. An C touch ing the sides in D. . cows. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22.
and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. the ordinate by ?/. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). Thus the points A.. jr. (3. PM. and r or its equal OA is . is The point whose abscissa is a. is the abscissa. and PJ/_L XX'. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (2. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. . 3). the ordinate of point P. PN are given.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. first 3). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. or its equal OM. The of Coordinates. and PN _L YY'. 186. ?/. 2). (2. YY' theyaxis. It' Location of a point. PN. and point the origin. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (7. B.
Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 3). 4). 11. 12. (4. Plot the points: (4. (2. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.(!. 1). (4. 8.1).and(l. 2J). . Plot the points (6. 0).4). (4.) EXERCISE 1. 3.2). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 71 2). 4) and (4. Plot the points : (0. 4) from the origin ? 7. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. What is the locus of (a?. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 2. 0).3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (3. 2). 0). (4. (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 1). (5. . (4. 2). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. and measure their distance. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (0. 3). 6. 0). !). Plot the points: (4.e. Graphs. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 4). (4. i. (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 6. 3). (See diagram on page 151.
188. D. B. By representing of points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. C. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 15. we meas1 . may be found on Jan. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ure the ordinate of F.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 1. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. from January 1 to December 1.. however. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. or the curved line the temperature. A. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 10 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.
the graph is applied. etc.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (c) January 15. (b) July 15. . uses them. (d) November 20. The engineer. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. Whenever a clear. the rise and fall of wages. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. as the prices and production of commodities.
How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ? 9. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. is 10. 1 to Oct. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 1? 11 0. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what months above 18 C. How much. on 1 to the average. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.. (freezing point) ? 7. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. 15.. (d) 9 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. When the average temperature below C..? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (1) 10 C.152 2. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3.
19. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards. Hour Temperature . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. NOTE. transformation of meters into yards. 20. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
to 27. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.50.50. 1 to 1200 copies. then C irJl. 26. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 3. etc. 2. gas.inch. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 190. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. x increases will change gradually from 13. A 10 wheels a day. x* x 19.154 24. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . binding. .) T circumferences of 25. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.5 grams. 4. books from for printing.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 9. 28. etc. e. represent his daily gain (or loss)... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. if he sells 0. if each copy sells for $1.g.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 3. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 29. function If the value of a quantity changes. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. amount to $8. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. and $. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. the daily average expenses for rent. x 7 to 9. 2 . the value of a of this quantity will change.
g. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . ( 2. E. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .1). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Draw the graph of x2 f. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.1). may . plot points which lie between those constructed above. be also represented by a graph. and join the points in order. x a variable. 4). . while 7 is a constant. 1 the points (3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. (1. 2 (1. is supposed to change. for x=l. 2. 9). Graph of a function. however. (2.0). Ex. 4). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. a*. 3 (0. as 1. 2).e. it is In the example of the preceding article. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. etc. construct '. and (3.2 x may 4 from x = 4. (1^. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. If a more exact diagram is required. J). may. to x = 4. Q. 9). 3 50. The values of func192.
. straight line produces the required graph. 4J.20).) For brevity. 2. rf 71 . 4). = 0.. as y.2 x . y = 6. 7 .4). 5). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. (4.. = 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (2. Ex. r */ +* 01 . 1).156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. and join(0. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Thus 4x + 7.. 2 4 and if y = x f. (3. etc. j/=3. Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 194.
The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2x + 3x a?. 3 a 8. 3. from x VlO'S". 16. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. a ar. (7i) (c) 23.5)2. The smallest value of the function. 5. 4a? I. 2. 1J. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 1 8 10. a. 6. 12. 2. 14. xl. J. 7. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 6 fa. 2J. a? 2 4. 2 2. if a. 4 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.8)'. + 4. 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 1J. 3. 21.5)2. y = 2x = 4. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. fa 17. i.e. if"a. 2 2 a. 18. Jar . . xz + x. 2J.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 15. = The values of a*. 2 or 2 20. (C ) (2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. . the function. 9. 2 a. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 8. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. if y = 2. l. = 4. 23x. 11. The values of a*. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. The values of a?. a?. 1J. ?/ a. (ft) (_ 1. 2 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y.or. x+1. (If) Va25. a? 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 19. if the function equals zero. a* 13. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 22.
y= formula graphically. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). i.24 or x = P and Q..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 25. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. the abscissas of 3. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.where x c is a constant. 9 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that graph with the o>axis.e.24. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. . then y = . C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.158 24. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.. Therefore x = 1.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. Show any convenient number). 14 F.. 1 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. then cXj where c is a constant. Represent 26. 32 F.
. crosssection paper is used. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. Such equations in general have two roots. + + = where a. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 6. (a) (6) 9. the points may be found otherwise by inspection.7 2 a 5 = 0. 0. a2 2a. 14. 11. 10. (a) x2 = 0. is called a quadratic equation. 3. 197. 12.f 9 = 0. viz. 13. 4. 2 and 1. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 8. 7. or 5 2. = 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.
?/. and joining by a straight line. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. i. unknown quantities. because their graphs are straight lines. y = l. 3x _ 4 . and join the required graph. Hence. If x = 0. if y = is 0. == 2. 1) and 0). Hence we may join (0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 4) and (2. first degree. NOTE.2. . Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. X'2 Locating the points (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 2). fc = 3.e. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. T . locate points (0. solve for ?/. = 0. produces the 7* required locus. 199.2 y ~ 2.1. 0). Hence if if x x  2. Ex. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Ex. y y 2. (f . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. ?/ =4 AB.
The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Graphical solution of a linear system. we obtain the roots.57. equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. (2) . P. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 3. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . 203. 202. and CD. 201. parallel have only one point of intersection. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. To find the roots of the system.1=0. linear equations have only one pair of roots. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.15. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). viz.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200.
V25 5. i. 0) and (0.0). and + 3). the point we obtain Ex. In general. etc. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). Solving (1) for y. 4. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Measuring the coordinates of P. 2.9. 4. 2 equation x 3). 4. 0. Using the method of the preceding para. the graph of points roots. Since the two  we obtain DE. 1. 3. 4. y equals 3. Locating two points of equation (2). (2. 4. (4. P graphs meet in two and $. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3. 4.5. 5.e. intersection. 3). . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. = 0. we of the + y* = 25. 3. 4. e. 1. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. (4.0.y~ Therefore. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. There can be no point of and hence no roots. if x equals respectively 0. 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. (1) (2) C. AB the locus of (1). and . x2 . 2. and joining by a straight line. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.5. Locating the points (5..g.  4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 3x 2 y = 6. they are inconsistent. 5. 0.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Inconsistent equations.
20. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. y= a2 2x y6. 8. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2x 3?/=6. 17. x~y=0. 2. \ 2x + 3^ . state reasons.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. vice versa. a+r/=6. 7. 10. a. and solve each If there are no solutions. 19. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and. Draw system. if possible. 6. y=x + 5. 4. . 16 23.. y = 4. 5. '163 Dependent equations. y 2 4. 9. 16 22. 3. the graphs of the following systems.
AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26.14 y = . CUBES. 25. 3 31. 30. TABLE OF SQUARES.y). 28. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 4 a = 3(6 .164 24.8. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .
To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. on to in factors 4.a2 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. fa. a = a3 . . 3 f a = f a = +. 2. ( a) is positive. According to 1. 52. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. is may be by 207. involution repeated multiplication. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. etc.faa a a a Obviously 1. 8. 2. Law of Signs. a special kind of product. powers of a positive quantity are positive. follows that 3.
the required power. 3 2 2 8 . 5.6 (a 8 8 . (2ar).166 To find To To power. 2 11 (afc ) . 16. (a ) 2 4  3. amVy) 3 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . raise a fraction to a power.6) = a . 4. 24. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (a ) 2 5 . a product to a given power. (^^) 2 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 210. (277171 )*. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. V V/ 13. . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 15. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 6. 2. 4 /2mV. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 76 : (>y. \ 3 J '  MW 10. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 .
6 2 8 ft) . 211. 2. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . . 1 f 3 2 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 . 15. (aj7) . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 6. An 1. 3. 8.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 16. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. : a 20. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 .y . (3 x . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 1. 23. a. 9.3 y. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 7. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . nent of the binomial.INVOLUTION Ex. 8 (a??/) 3 .) 14. +5a) 22. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 12. etc. (3af26) 8 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 21. (3 (l I) 2 8 . . 13. (afl) . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. Ex. The higher powers of binomials. + 4aj) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 2 . + a 2 a. are obtained by multiplication. 3 . 4.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 3 8 . 18. = s= (2s) 8 a. frequently called ex. (a + &)8 .y) = (3 y?y . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 5. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. pansions. (6m+2w) (3 8 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 2.
2. . (l 8 . . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 6. 3.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . . 3. (af 5) . (mnp 5 I) 5 . ( &) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. and the powers negative. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. is the coefficient of the next term. (2 a 4 . (m fl) 2 20. 1. 13.168 3. (?/i~w) : 16. 2. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. mn 5 2 5 ) . (mJ) 4 11. 5. The minus. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 78 s . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 4 . . 25. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . 10. (2 4. 17. (?>i?i f c)*. 14. (tff1) (cfd) . (p + q) 4 * 7.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (m 2 + n) 8 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (3a f5) 5) 4. Ex. 4 (1for) 5 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Ex. (a~^) 5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 .a) 3 19.216 a^ 4. 23. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 15. . 9. 24. . 18. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (la&) 4 12. Ex. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 4. (1 + 4 ?/) .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 5. 8. 21.
Thus V^I is an imaginary number. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. called real numbers. which can be simplified no further. 27 =y means r' = 27. = x means = 6.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. a) 4 = a4 . V9 = + 3. and ( v/o* = a. 1. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 4 4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . \/"^27=3. (_3) = 27. Since even powers can never be negative. 2. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. tity . and all other numbers are. 109 . or y ~ 3. 215. etc. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or x &4 . for distinction. numbers. V \/P 214.
201) = 2. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 8. 7 . 6. 7. Ex. 3 33 53 . 9. 9. To extract a root of a fraction. 3. = 199 + (_ 198) . 82 .lL. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. v/2^. 3i . 6. 6 7 = 030. = 19472.1.64 5 4 .125. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. V?. index. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 8. . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. V36 9 4. 2 .  100 a 2 . 5.4. 7 . To extract the root of a power.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 10. v/^i2 = a*.(. 79 2 v/2 5 .200 . Ex.9 = 136. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 62 = V2* . 7. EXERCISE 1. extract the and denominator. 2. roots of the numerator \/18 . 2. 3/0** = am . for (a")" a = a mn 3. . V25 9 16. fy 5 3 . = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex 5 a" . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. . \/2 4 9 . Ex. 4 v.
^40^4. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 31. 29.3 .4/. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. a* 4 8 2 . 1.) by inspection.EVOLUTION 171 28. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 34. 3. 5. V9216. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3 y2) ( vV . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Find the square root of a2 . a f2 l 2 + l.98.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V20 ./). 2. V8.75. 33. 45 V5184. 6. Ex. 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2 . 32.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 116.3. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 30. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.
#2 a2  16. 14. let us consider the relation of a f. 11. . The term a' first 2 .2 &c. i. 2 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . a\b is the root if In most cases. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . mV14m??2)f 49. a f.72 aW + 81 & 4 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 12.> 13.2 ac .b 2 2 to its square. 15. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. and b. the given expression is a perfect square. however. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 10. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 8 . 2ab .e. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 2 218. + 6 + 4a&.2 ab + b . and b (2 a f b).172 7. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.
Explanation. by division we term of the root. 8 a 2 2. . 1. 6 a.24 afy* f 9 tf. As there is no remainder. is As there is no remainder. . 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Ex. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 /. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Second trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 219. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. First trial divisor. */'' . First complete divisor.EVOLUTION Ex.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. and so forth. the first term of the answer. 8 a 2 . 2. . of x. . The square . 1. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.
174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 9.24 or . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.16.73 a8 .12m 5 4. 2 4. 1 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 8. a? 2 . 5. 15. 436^?/469a. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .25 x 4 4.10 x2 4. 19. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. . 6 11.40 a 22 . 13#4 413ar 44a. l 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .a 6 x*y 2 . 4 .9. 2 x2 3 2x. 18.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 16.162 a2 60 a10 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .V430^425^ 4m 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 5 4 16 4 iK . x 6 4 4 0^4.37 a ^ .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.25. 10.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 6. 16x6 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 24. 20. 3.20 o 4.42 a*& 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.12 m 4. 12. > 7. 17. 36it.6 . + 81 a 454 a + 81.4 x 4. 729 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 14. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .
1344. the first of which is 4.000 is 1000. = 80. Ex. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000 is 100. Therefore 6 = 8. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. and the complete divisor 168.EVOLUTION 220. of 1. etc. a 2 = 6400. 1. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 8. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. first . Ex. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000.176. Find the square root of 7744. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. which may contain one or two). of a number between 100 and 10. etc. 2. two figures. the square root of 7744 equals 88. As 8 x 168 = 1344. of 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. The is trial divisor = 160. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000. Find the square root of 524.
EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1T6 221. places. annex a cipher.10. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.GO'61. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1 are Ex. 12.0961 are '.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in .70 6. Find the square root of 6/. The groups of 16724. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.7 to three decimal places.
58 square 38. . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 36. J. JT .01.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 1.53. 37.4 square when R = radius and 11. 34. 1.) 40.22. 13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 31. whose area equals 48. 32. = 3.1410. 39. 30. 35. 5. T\. 33.
226. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2 ic = a. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. or incomplete. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. . or equation of the second degree. or affected. 6#2 = x* 24. A pure. Dividing. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. complete.. The 7 equation. 2. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2)* + 5 = 33. 1. = 4. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. This answer Check. Extracting the square root of each member. 6 y2 = 17.g. 225. x 2 7. x = + 2 or x =2. Ex. is 12. 178 . Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 224. Transposing.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.
2. : 83 2. 8. 16^393 = 7.25. Solve 179 . 10. 5. 19 + 9 = 5500. 2. 4. 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4 ax. 2 2 a. (a? 9. or Therefore. 0^ + 1 = 1. 7 = 162. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 4fc 5' 18. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 15^5 = 6. . 6(2)=10(ajl). 3.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. ' =: y? b* b . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. . o. ax Transposing and combining.
Find the numbers. solve for v. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. may be considered one half of a rec square units. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45.) of their squares 5. If a 2 4. solve for d. 2. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. r. 29. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. If 22 = ~^. 22 a.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 28. : 6. 9 & { c# a x +a and c.b 2 If s If =c . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . If G=m m g . is 5(5. Find the side of each field. Find is the number. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. is one of _____ b The side right angle. . 25. EXERCISE 1. 108. and their product : 150. 2 . 4. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 2a f 1 23. 2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. then Since such a triangle tangle. 24. find a in terms of 6 . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). . 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 2 : 3. solve for r. 3. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . A right triangle is a triangle. 27. Find the side of each field. ' 4. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 26.
let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. . Find the radii. Method of completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. (b) 44 square feet. A body falling from a state of rest. of a right triangle Find these sides. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 8. is and the other two sides are equal. sides. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the sides. Solve Transposing. . 2m. (b) 100 feet? = . J = 12. and the two smaller 11. and the other two sides are as 3 4. we have of or m = . 9. To find this term. x* 7 x= 10.2 7 . 4.) 13. radii are as 3 14. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. and the third side is 15 inches. The area : sides are as 3 4. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find these 10. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. add () Hence 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.
or x = 2. Transposing. a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. J. 2  . or J. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Uniting. Therefore. .2. 2 a* a. = x\ = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Simplifying. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.a. (*~8) a = at . 62 x 5 = f. adding member).e.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.2 a2 . a Clearing of fractions.x(l = . Transposing. = . = 6. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.1. Ex. Hence Therefore Check. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 230.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. = \ # = ff. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Ex. Extracting square roots.  \. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing.
article. Solution by formula. ao. 2x 3 4. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =0. = 12. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. and c in the general answer. x la 48.c = 0. =8 r/io?. . 49. 231. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.
6. = 64120?. 2 a. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 26. 6 Ex. 1. 2 a? = 44 x . V^tT)* . 8. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 7.4 4 5 . 2 o. 21. 2. 14. 13.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. ?i 2 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 18. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. = 12 . 16. 3. 19. 17.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 12. 4. a..25 x.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6. 2or } 5o. 6 . 11. 10. 6^+5^ 56. 20. 2 . 9. c = 5. 5 x2 Transposing. TIO. Reducing to general form. : 86 + 2 = 0.  . c p. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 7^ + 9 x 90. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 15.
1. and 6. member can be Ex. ar>8o. any degree. = 0. if either of the uct is zero.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Solution by factoring. = 0. Clearing for fractions. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 14.2. a=:i^^. 23. 3x?+x = 7. factors Now.5) =0. x(x <2 . 5 = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. all or. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 233. . orz roots. transposing terms to one member. 25.x. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Eesolving into factors. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Transposing.4) = . 26. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 27 x== 42a. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . 0. 5) = 0. 24.5 Solving (1) and (2). or # 5 is zero. }. Bx 1 1. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Factoring. x2 = 1 . (5 a? !)(.
let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 14. Therefore x =3 = 2. 5 = 0.e. 3# y 5 = 0. 4. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. (aj4)(a. + 8=s: 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The equation I. 9.g.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 13. : 87 = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3. 0^ ar> 11.6)) = 0. E. and the equation thus formed be solved. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. aj( 15. we 9 obtain x 4. + 6)=0. Ex. 7. 3^ = 0(1106). members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3) Factoring. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3) = 0. 16. for a: . 3. 4)(z3) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 100. 12. 5. 8.(. 0(02) = 7(02). a?10a=:24. evidently (x Or 4)(x . + 10 a = 24. x2 f 2 x . 2. 3 or 2 a. Or Hence the 234. is 5) = 0. a?. 6. 2. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 2o3 f9a.3)(x + 3 3. a* 10a=24. ar'Sa^ 12. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.= 24.24 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. } 2 2 (5 . In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.:=0. O roots are 2.
w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. ara + ft + c*. '3a!J  . 20. (2a? 3) (a 24. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (a + 1) (a. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 25. 18. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).188 17. 2. 23. uz + u 21. 19. a 2 =(x a)b. 22. 27. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.
2. 58. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. G. . : 3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 1. feet. 3. Find the number. The difference of . What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.3. 7. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the number. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 8. and the difference Find the numbers. two numbers is 4. 55. 2. 56. 5. 1. 3. of their reciprocals is 4. 6. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and whose product 9.1. and consequently many prob 235. 54.9. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.3. 5. 2. 0. and equals 190 square inches. The 11. is Find two numbers whose product 288. number by 10.0.0. 52.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 4. 57.2. Find the sides.3. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers. and whose sum is is 36.
. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 15. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet.190 12. ply between the same two ports. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. Two vessels. If he each horse ? . watch for $ 24. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. sold a horse for $144. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. 19. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. as the 16. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. ABCD. 13. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. dollars. other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. What did he pay for 21. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 14. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. c equals 221 Find AB and AD.10. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. Find the rate of the train. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received two horses more for the same money. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.
and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 237. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.) 25. . so that the rectangle. (tf. a point taken. Find TT r (Area of a circle . constructed with and CB as sides. 1. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. contains B 78 square inches. 24. of the area of the basin. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. the two men can do it in 3 days. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. as 0. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. ^3^ = 7. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Find and CB.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. By formula. how wide is the walk ? 23. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. and working together. 23 inches long. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 27. Ex. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. or x = \/l = 1. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. = 13. 12. 4 a. y8)=0. or y = 8. a. 2 16 a^40 11. Ex.192 238. 8.2 =4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Hence Le. 2 h9:=0. 4. 6.T 2 2 . 2. 16. 7. 436 3. = 1. a4 5o.)+72=0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 10. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 6. 9. 4 : 89 10a. >. Solving. a 21or=100. 18. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 19. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. aV+9o 4 =0. T 17. a? 15 1=2*.
The discriminant =(. is 4ac not zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . a perfect square. the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . negative. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.5) = 04. 3. Ex.bx 4. Hence the roots are real.f> = 0. 241. the roots are irrational.2) 2 4 3 (. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.12 x + 9 = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Relations between roots and coefficients. . 240. Ex. rational. the roots are equal. ( 2a Hence 1.2 z . and equal. b 4. c the roots are real. the roots are rational. 1. it 2a follows 2 : 2. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. the roots are imaginary. the roots are unequal. 2. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . and unequal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.
15. : a 2 . = 0. lla. + 2a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. ^12. 21.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. f 2 E. their product isf. 9a3 = 0. 2. + 12 2  . 2a 4z5 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 17. 60 2 = 0. x2 7 10. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 14. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 3a. + 18 2 8. 5oj aj + l = 0. 12~x = x 2 .19 # 20. = 5x. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. o.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. tfmx+p^Q. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. = 0. 2 a. 24. 22.. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = Q. 5aj 9. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 12. 4. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2 7.g. 18. 2 : 3. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 23. 6. = 0. + 2a15 = 0.
" means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 244. (ab) . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. a m a" = a m+t1 . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. hence. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. for all values 1 of m and n. = a"" < . while the second of the first. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . > m therefore. Then the law of involution.a" = a m n mn . ~ a m f. that a an = a m+n . II. It is. provided w > n. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. (a m ) w . no Fractional and negative exponents. however.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. The first of these laws is nition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than. such as 2*. We assume.* III. and .
= a. a\ 26. (bed)*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. or zero exponent equal x. etc. 3*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a*. 4~ . 245. as. . 25. '&M A 27. laws. e. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. m$.g. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. fractional. 24. 31. 29.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. (xy$. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 30. 23. ml. 28. at. Assuming these two 8*. n 2 a. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 0?=^. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. disappear. a?*. a .
246.\/n. Let a = a. Vo5 . 40. 48. : 197 33.g. a. 7z* Find the values of 47. 41. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.g. a* * = 3. hence is . 27* = 3. however. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. If. Solve the following equations 39. \/xy \/m. = 49.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a . 45. e. 37. v/o&cT 34. 38. 43. 49. the base is zero. 46. = 2. 3* = 27. 44. 35. : 2' 4* = 4. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a * a2 Or a=l. v'mT 36. e. 42. equal to unity. \fi?. ty?. 50. = 2. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 5 a* = 10.
cr n. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. . consider the following equations. vice versa. Multiplying both members by a". etc. 248. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. or the exponent.g.198 247.2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Let x= or". e.
36. rfS. * 24. 2 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . ^L. 37. 40. 27. ^?2 y' 34. 2 . 2m~i 43. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 39. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 66 45.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. f (2w)~i 1 . 22. c 32. 44. a^ 41. . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. : mi m~^. 25. 3 a."* 38. 3 a? * 42. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. m . : or 5 . . a.
5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 49.1. . = . z 5or*=10. 53. 54. 10* 5* = . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. ar = i. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .001. 47. 57. 1.81 f (a . Ex. 55. = l.9*. (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 61.26)* 1 (I) 2 . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. + 1~* f 21 .343)* + (. 52. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 17' 2 51. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.(.008)* + A. 58. 10* Find the values 56. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. of: 3ll4~* 60. 48. + A_. 250. z* = 1. = ^.6). 59. = 5.
6. remove the fractional exponents.&. . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. V5.7i. 23.$". ' 11..4 a8 . 17.7*. 3.&. 12. 18. 14. 27  28.$*. .6 *' 6 *25. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. etc. 7. 95 ^9i 5**. 4 x^. a. 72 . 79 . Remove the negative exponents. 26. (d) If required. 6a. 7~ 6 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . &. 10.5. 3sVS.3 aj" a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. #* a. 16.7W. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.^/5^5. 8 ' 9. .5a. NOTE. Perform the operation indicated. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 6 *. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. OA 20. are performed. 16. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .4 . S'sS8. 7*. 4 5. 3 a. / 7fv 7. 7~ 5 27  . 13.
V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. If powers of a?. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. 1. 2. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 34. 6 35. The 252. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 40. Arrange in descending powers of Check.2 d .202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^7. connect them by proper 1. s!/3. Ex. 34. in order of magnitude : \/7. v/3. (i. </2. V5. signs. \/5. ^6. 3. V2. if dissimilar. </20. v/4. subtract surds. </3. \/7. Arrange 35. 28. 37.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . I VJ + 3VT8 . Ex. VS.e.2. V3. ^4. ^2. 32. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 31. ^2. ^5. Simplify V~ . v/3. 2\ 3*. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 39. ^2. ^4. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V3. ^30. 27. ^/IT. A/3. + . 5V2. 38. 26. 40.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 29. A/2.2 V50. 30.3\ . ^126. V2. 36. ^3. To add or form.10 V2 =  V2. v^S. 33. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 4^/4. V2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. Simplify/a35 ~ o .
12. 13. + 3V835V2.J a6 V4 aft. V18+V32VT28+V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VJ+V8V1 + V50. V175V28+V634V7. 9.3V20 + 6V5. 4V805V45. 8. 10. 6. 14. 11. . 6. 4. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 3. 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
6*.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. y* = Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . 1. . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 26^ . 23. 3. and then multiplied.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
10. (2V3) 8 . 25. 2 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. V20 V30. 18.^/2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 2. V42. v/4.VSS. VTO. Vll. (Va Va 36. 27. 14. 38. 8. v/18 v"3. V3 Vl2. 28 . 4. 19. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 21. 12. V2 V50. 40. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 6 V4 5. \/3 \^). (V6 + 1) 1 . 37. (3 20. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 3. V2aV8^. 7. 15. 13. 6. 41. VlO V15. a?. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 34. + VB)(2V5). . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 213 98 11. V3 V6. fWa 17.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. aVa. 6. 9. 39. 40 10 30.
V3 . 268. is 1 2. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. a fraction. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 43. (2 45. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).214 42. Ex.y. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 51. Va v/a. 52. 53. 47. Ex. . 44. 49. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 48. 46. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. E. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. the quotient of the surds is If. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).
g. /~ } Ex. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . Divide VII by v7. is illustrated by Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. by V7.RADICALS This method. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 3.57735. The 2. however. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . arithTo find.73205.. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. e. 1. Evidently. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. .
4142. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V5 = 2. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. A.2361. V3 = 1.7320. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 7. V3 24 .. . 21. VffV?.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vll 212*. and Given V2 = 1. A. . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 14. V48 25. 271. 20. 272. V5 270. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 23 . V2 22 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V8 JL. Vn V7 ' * 8. i. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . ^/H . V8 12.
1. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.2.= 18. . Ex. . V82 2V3 1fVS .RADICALS Ex.Vs2 . Ex.vffi^T _ .1 xVtf a.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. s Simplify a.
19. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 27. J?_. Vo1 26. v 2V3 28.4142. V21 = 25 .218 6 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.7320.W3. : and V5 = 2. By the use of fractional exponents . Given V2 1.2361. 24. find to _!_. four places of decimals 23 . = V3 = 1. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.5 3 = 125. 6V7. V5V7 18> ^SVg.
V255 . 2 12. \/l6*. 5. Simplify Ex. \/125" . 1. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. . on the other hand. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 3. v8f 2\/15. the If. 8. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 2. viz. 4. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. V643 .RADICALS 219 274. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 11. In other examples of involution and evolution. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9. 2. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. it to this form.
2 \/20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vll .6 V2. The Hence ^11 . 2 \/18. 12 and whose product is 20.6\/2 = ^9 . is 11. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. These Ex. ^TT. and whose product is 18. 3.A/2.220 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find V4 + VJ8. Find Vl2 4. +2 Ex. 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.
e. 277. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. first involution. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Ex. = xa + 4 x f 4. The value x =2 reduces each . Dividing by Check. 8. +=. r 22.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. x2 = x f 2. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. they are transto formed into rational equations. V48 23. are radical equations. VT . Before performing the involution.. Transposing and uniting. 19. by raising both members equal powers. . 4x x = 2.V48 4 20. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Solve vVf!2a = 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. (2x xrf 1. Radical equations are rationalized. a. 5. : 221 Vl32V22. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.1. member to 2. i. 4.
the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.222 Ex. they may be extraneous roots. Dividing by 24. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Extraneous roots. Transposing. . viz. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 5.1) = 0. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 278. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. a. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. It = 3 x . 4#f 4 = 9. Squaring both members. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Therefore Check. 3. Ex. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. one root. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. V4afT~l. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. a socalled extraneous root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . the first member = V2. . at .3. x = J. Transposing and uniting. tion which has two roots. 2. viz. V24~+~l = 0. Factoring. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Therefore CftecAr.
both members reduce to 5. If If x 3 = 3. . Hence there is only one root. for it satisfies the equation . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. or x *j. = 3. Transposing. Therefore. Hence x = the only root. Squaring. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Check. (x x = 3.3) (2 x . + 6~ieT~3 . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. 4. Factoring. ViTie 4 z2 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. viz.12 . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. the right member = V2. \ does not satisfy the given. 2 Clearing of fractions.RADICALS Hence x If a.47) = 0.2 r. .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 223 x = 3. Solve the following equations : = G. and to 5. NOTE. is x V. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. x root of the preceding equation. equation it is an extraneous root.
Therefore . Many 1. Factoring.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
Q . o. 3 6. x + Vx a? = 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.f40= 5. Substituting. Vi 2 8a.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.8 z40 = 7. 4. 3. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.8 x + 40 = 36. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. x =6 or 3. 2. 5. = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 45 14VJB = . . members of the equation were squared. x Since both =9 or 1. 412a* = 16.i~24 = 0.35 = 0. Let 8 x f 40 . Ex. _ 2 y . y then x2 . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. = 26. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. = 0. some of the roots be extraneous. + 40 = 6.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.*2a. 2Va. 2_8z 440 = 49. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. This can be seen without substituting. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.
18. 4 V SB* 4 a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .a 440 = 35. +x . 20. a.226 11. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14. 19. a^x2 5 2 13.f 18 = 24. +3= 6. 16. 17. 15. 12. 2. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.
a? R = x* . 227 . we make a? what the value of Q. E = ax + &z + m) Q. 1. does not contain a?.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.2 + 4. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.2) Q . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Hence. Ex. ^ = 381+2. no matter If.360 = 244. even if Q is unknown. 3 2 Ex.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . to x we # = 2 3.2 x 5 by x 3.4 a. then (x 2)Q 0. Without actual division.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). if Q was known. 2.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. by dividing 3 x* f. If x* ." transposing. however. find the remainder when m.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division. ax4 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. could. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. = 2.bx? + ex2 4. " Or.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.3)f 11 =. hence (x divided by x 4. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.228 282. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. if 8 42  . 3. 2 j 7. The Factor Theorem.g. + ^by x + b. 43 3 E. x* s 2 4. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . fora?. of the division 3) is m in place of x.4(. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x m is factor of the expression. 5. + 7 = 632. 5 (4x . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . the remainder equals 8 2 x . the divisor is a factor of the dividend.8.949.g.8'= 0. 8. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. If the remainder is zero. } 2 by a1. + 6. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.
1. 18. oj 5x2 f3a. 15. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. a? 19. is a factor. 5. m f m n 14. 2m 5m . 21. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.13m + 30 10. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 7 46 = 0. 17. are f 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. 2 2. 20.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.7 x + 15 = 0. or 5 4 + 3^ . a. 11. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + ttt15 = 0. Factor a? 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.r6 = 0. & p*. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. factors of the absolute term. ^10^429^20=0. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. Let x = . 3. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . or x 4. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.12. 25. 6.e. . 9. Resolve into factors 4. f 15 does not vanish. + 15. f 5. i. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. f 3.9^ + 23^15. 1.7 + 16 . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.49 = 0. _ . 2. 24. a 2a + 4. + 27 + 27. a 5x 6. 3 2 : 7. a + 32. 106 division. a^8^ + 19a. 23. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.12 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 229 1. 8. The 5. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 8. Therefore x ( 1). then x8 7 x'2 4.1.1.
: importance. By we obtain the other factors.g. actual division n. If n is a Theorem that 1. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.230 285. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 286. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz." . 2 Ex. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. ar +p= z6 e. is odd. if n is even. if w is odd. For substituting y for x. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 1. It y is not divisible by 287. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.xy +/). Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn f. 2.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.
Hence = (m Ex.i mn f w 2). f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. y 3 +8=0. 3. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. a.= . x3 8=0. 28. preferable. 27. however. 26. leads 231 is The first method. as 27=0. since it more directly to the prime factors.
x y. + 6 a?V . however. of quadratics.1. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. xy are given. (5) Combining (5) with (1). ==5 > 1^ = 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. = 6. to equations of the fourth few cases. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Squaring Solve (1). 232 . & + 2 xy + = 25. 290. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xywe have 3. (4) Hence. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. * A I. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 4 xy = 16. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. can be solved by the methods degree.y4 is of the fifth degree. If two of the quantities x f y. in general.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. EXERCISE Solve: 1. The arranged in pairs. 233 y. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ^.g. 3. = . the answers of the last example are : r*=2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 1. b=3. 108 2. 12. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7. r (" 1 = 876. ' 10. x and xy are not given.
4 y = 20. A system of simultaneous equations. r^ 2 as ] f. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. . Factoring. or JJ. 19. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. one linear and ne quadratic. or y = 1 .  . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .  f J. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 2 (1) From (1) we have..  42 y + Transposing. + 29 = 0. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 7 .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.i/ = r 13. . ' ' .~ y = 5. I* Jj ^ [. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 5.a. la. I x+y = a. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).o 18. aj = 2.?/ i = 6.20) = 0. x " (3) 49 etc. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. Ex. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 6 "I 14. 3.
(1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 10. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 3y) : Factor (2). If of the preceding type. y* + 2y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 4 f + 2 y = 3. III. ':il e :) . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve . 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 9. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 1. ' x*. x2y. = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. quantities. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 109 a. 15 x2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. 2 . (1) (2) x x 5. = Ex. } VI09. = 0. Solve 2. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). (3) (4) Subtracting.
(4) (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.175 ay = 12. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Bxy9.xy 4. . 2 xy + y2 = 10. " IV. Division of one equation by the other.3^42^=43.125 ay = .!. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. can be solved by special devices. and others not belonging to them. 298. 150 */2 . y? a? f .6. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).y = 7. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. ' ^ 15. E. f 1 150 a?. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. A.
= 12 J. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. jc~ y = 9. Solve Ex. y . Therefore x = 16. we obtain by squaring. xy. Some simultaneous ?/. = 189.. (1 > (2) 1. we have from (1). y = 3. x +y y etc. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. * ' 300. B. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). 2. i ^ *>. quadratics can be solved by ?/. x 2 .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving.
7. 4. 2. 239 Ex. M6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. . [2x + : y= 17. I e. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 36* 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.
x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = y 1 y* . 19 ' 26. 27.21 ^ = 15. + o5)(6hy) = 80. . 16. f 18. . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 25.4 y = 47 a. = 198. * .
as a . etc 302. .of  According to the definition of division. . 30. ^ oo . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . = 48201. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 7' j/ 39. 31. y % 9 f*K 36.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. hence may be any finite number. 32. 25 34. or ~ indeterminate. 33. oo 301. Interpretation . finite  =x y if = x. etc.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 3 a2 38. ~\ OK OO. . Q 7.
can be If It is made larger than number. By making x any * assigned zero.x'2 2 x = 1. i. i. x f 2. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.increases if x de x creases. (a: Then Simplifying. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (1). creases.e.g. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. be the numbers. . great. TO^UU" sufficiently small. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. is satisfied by any number. Let 2. (1) = 0. = 10. or that x may equal any finite number. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 1. and becomes infinitely small. it is an Ex. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. The ~~f fraction . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.000 a. and . ToU" ^100 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. without exception. Hence such an equation identity. equation. Or. I. as + l.242 303. the answer is indeterminate. cancel.e.decreases X if called infinity. 306. (1) is an identity. oo is = QQ. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. 1.
4 3 x x5 a2 . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Solve . Hence /.2 y = 4. = oo. third and sixth parts.e. (2). Solve  9 7.8 x + 15 6. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve x a. . 3. * 6. no numbers can satisfy the given system. EXERCISE 1. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. two numbers is 76. z = 1 Substituting. 42 and' their product is 377. and a. and the sum of Find the numbers. is their 2. y finite QO. 1=0. 2.
The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 148 feet of fence are required.quals 20 feet. 190. 103. 13. . and the hypotenuse is 37. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the sides of the rectangle. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area.) 53 yards. the area becomes f% of the original area. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. is 6. 6. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 255 and the sum of 5. and the sum of ( 228. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The area of a nal 41 feet. 9. Find these sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the sides.244 3. Find the other two sides. equals 4 inches. Find the dimensions of the field. 146 yards. 14. Find the edges. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the edge of one. and the diago(Ex. is is 17 and the sum 4. 8. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the side of each square. p. Find the edge of each cube. of a right triangle is 73. increased by the edge of the other. Find the numbers. 12.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. of a rectangular field feet.
their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii. irR *. is 20 inches. . and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the number.) 17. the quotient is 2. by the product of 27 be added to the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches.
of a series are its successive numbers.. Since d is a f 3 d. a 3d. The common differences are respectively 4. a + 2 d.1) d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. .7.. to each term produces the next term. and d. P. 16.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. An arithmetic progression (A. the second a descending. 12. 309. to produce the 4th term. The progression is a. 4. + 2 d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. added to each term to obtain the next one. P. a. The first is an ascending. 3 d must be added to a. 10. a 11. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 3.) is a series. . 17. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. a + d. a f d. each term of which. (n 1) d must be added to a. to produce the 3d term. of the following series is 3.. except the first. P. to produce the nth term... 15 is 9 f... Hence / = a + (n . progression... : 7. f . . 11. To find the nth term / of an A. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 2 d must be added to a. . series 9. 19.
7. 7.. . 1J. = 2. series 2. 5. = I + 49 = *({ + . 4^. Adding. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. . 19. Find the nth term of the series 2. 2. Find the 12th term of the 4.. 5.. 5. 8. series . 5.8.. (d) 1J. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 9.. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. the term a. 9. 21.. 7. 1. . 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 8. = 99.. d . 3. 5. 6. 24. 3.. 2. 10. ..PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. 1. Find the 101th term of the series 1. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).. . 99) = 2600.16.3 a = l. . the last term and the common difference d being given. 4. ? (a) 1..4.. 8. 115....' cZ == .. a = 2. of the series 10. 2J. (a + + (a + l) l). = a + (a Reversing the order. P. if a = 5. 6. 3.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Find the 10th term of the series 17. 6. Find the 5th term of the 4. P. 6 we have Hence . d = 3. 2 EXERCISE 1. P.
29. 1J. 23. 11. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 3. striking hours only. . \n. to 20 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 7. 17. to 8 terms. + 3. 22. . rf. 1.. 21. 15. 2. . . 1. 16. and for each than for the preceding one. 19. 12. (i) (ii) . 7. Jive quantities are involved. 4. : 3. hence if any three of them are given. 20. 18. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 15 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .248 Find the 10. 11. and a yearly increase of $ 120. . 2J.1 f 3. strike for the first yard. . to 20 terms. . to 20 terms. 8. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. '. 15. 6.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . 11. (x +"l) 4. In most problems relating to A. to 10 terms. 13. to 7 terms. Sum the following series 14. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 31. > 2f 2. 12. 15. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.7 f to 12 terms. 1. P. 11. 7. 16. 33. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . to 16 terms.
The first term of an A. a = 49 6(71 . hence n = 6. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 49 (1) (2) Substituting.PROGRESSIONS Ex. n = 6. I. The series is. 1. . 312. 78 n Substituting in (1).~n~\ 408 6). and b form an A. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. #. 6 n2 .104 w + 408 = 0. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 111. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). = a + (w.1) . P. the and the sum of all terms 1014. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. d = 6. J = 49. is 12. Findn..6 n). Ex. if a. 122. 89. s 24ft last term 144. 204 = ^ (98 . 100. P. 12. 45. Find the series. = 13. n d. l)e?. 23. 6. From (1). the second one mean between the other two. or 11 J. 2. Solving. = 1014. P.6. 2 (2) From Hence (2). = n(104 . 56. a = 12. Substituting in (2). 78. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. = 1014. 67. 133..1). 144. = 144. 204 = ^ (a + 49). . 34. But evidently n cannot be fractional.e. or if x Solving. if s = 204. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x.
78. 4. Find w. d = 5. 10. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. n. a x f b and a b. = 1870. s == 440. = 45. has the series 82. y and #f5y. 16. I Find I in terms of a. n = 13. n has the series ^ j . Find n. 3. n = 16. 12. = 83. and s. Find d and Given a = 1700. . 6? 9. Given a = . Given a = 1. s = 70. f? . 8. 11. = ^ 3 = 1. How much . Find d. of 5 terms 6. How much did he save the first month? 19. f J 1 1 / . Given a = 4. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 74. ceding one. = 52. 17. 13. T? ^. n = 17. P. Find a Given a = 7. produced.3. 7. = 16. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. m and n 2. Find d. 14. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. I. a+ and b a b 5. n = 20. n = 4. 15. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find?. = 17. Given a = .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Find a and Given s = 44.
ratios are respectively 3. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. and To find the nth term / of a G. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. r n~ l . . .. 108.. is it (G. E. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . +1. A geometric progression first. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. <zr . ar. is 16(f) 4 . . 36. If n is less : than unity. 24.. of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 2 a. rs = s 2 . 24. . 12.. called the ratio. P. The 314. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. (I) of the series 16. ar8 r. P.. 36. 2. The progression is a. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. or 81 315.) is a series each term of which. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. 4 (1) ...PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. NOTE. 4. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.g. P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . or.. 4. . I.arn ~ l . 36.
144. 25.. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 9. I = 670.72. fa. 7. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. . f. 72. . 36. hence. 36.6.5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 20. . . 8. whose . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 288. first term 4. .. 144. 576. + 5. if any three of them are given. series . P. P. or 7.*.. (d) 5. (b) 1.18. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 72. volved . \ t series . Hence the or series is 0. (it. 10. . a = I.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. series 6.4.54. fa. +f%9 % .18. Find the 6th term of the series J. P. ? (c) 2. Hence n = 7. P.. 1. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.. 9. Find the 5th term of a G. 4._!=!>. r^2.288. . . .. 2 term 3. 9. EXERCISE 1.. is 3. Jive quantities are in. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. whose and whose second term is 8. . series 5. f. 4. l. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. first term is 125 and whose common .l. 80. . . first 5.. And the required means are 18. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. Ex. 3. 6. 18. P.. i 288. . 144.. .. 0.. 36..5. In most problems relating to G. is 16.. 676.
is less than unity. Given r = n Z 5. 13. to G terms. to 8 terms. 12.. J. 54. 243. 72. >"> . P. . J. == 160.. be written If the value of r of a G.. 1. 36.. s = 605. 21. 1. a^. r . 27. Find a and Given r = 3. = 3. 126. = 3. to 5 terms. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 22. M. Find the geometric mean between 7. J. I. Find a and n = 4. to 6 terms. 24. .J and 270. 14. n = 5.nV> i*> !718. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 81. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 7 terms. 19. + 4 . 4. and hence ~ r . 15. 20. s = 310. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 25S series : 32.. 14.i a9 . Find a and 4. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. J.. . 48. 23. . to 6 terms. n = 5. 42. a. 81. . of r n decreases..PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. . 16 . 2. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 7 . 12 terms. to 6 terms. Z s. may be than any assignable number.
8. P.99 .. Hence . .. 2.3121212. 1. = . 1. Find the value 9. 250. .27777 . .. . P.3727272 . 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 6. =A+ 10 i.. Find the sum to infinity... ... the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. = 990 . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 66 Therefore . 16. 2... I. of all squares ? . is 16. 5. 13..3 + . Given an infinite series of squares. 12. ..555. .72. 3. 100.01 ^ .1. 7.272727. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 14. 1. 6. 8. of an infinite G. . ..Ql. 9. first and the common term. 1 r = . what is (a) the sum of the areas. is J.. = a .. 12.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 10. 4. 4... ... 16. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. r = j. 5.072.)7?7272 .072 + ... . is 9. If a = 40.. i i J. .717171. The sum Find the of an infinite G.= ... of: 11. ... P.00072 f . .254 Ex....= _4Z* . 9.37272 . ratio 15. . 1. = ... The sum r. (6) the sum of the perimeters. .191919. and the first term is Find 17. i. 40.
(\ 9 . . (a + b) . 20. 29. 21. l 2. 22. 28. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .b) w (a (a f (1 . 26. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .b ). 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .6) 20 . 14. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 2 2 24.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 13. : (1 + xy. 11. 25. /2a+Y\ 8.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 12. . 7 . 4. . 4 7. 16. coefficient of . (a 100 . (xy) : 6 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (s + i). 5. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 17. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 10. (a2) 6. 15.6) . a6 8 16 in .
2. 1. if x^l.c )(fta) 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 5. 3. 1. (c 3. ft) . 3. 3. 6. 4. 3. 1. c if 7 . + 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 2. 2.  a)(a 1. 4 ft  c) 2. c = = = 2. 1. 4. l. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. if = = 2. 1. 3. 7. 3. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. 3. 3. 2. 2 . + 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. if = = = 2. 3. 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5.  2.a(a 4. 2. 3. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 2. aft 3 + 4. 1. 5. ft 4 ) 5. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 3. 2. 3. 24 4. 5. 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. 1. 1. 6. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 2. . i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. + 2. 1. 4. 2.  8 ^ 2. 2. 2. 1. 5. 2. 3. 4. 2. 2. 2. 5. 4 2. 3. 3. 3. 4.  2. 1. 2. 5. 1. + c(a  c). 4.f ac 1. = 2. y 3. 5. 4. ^+^ 3. 3. 4. 3. 2. 4. 2. 6. 6. 5. 2. 4. 1. 2. 3. if y=2j 2. a ft c = = 2. 2. . 6.
2 a?y + 3 aty . 2. x 3 11. + 8 x4 *y . 25.10. 2  + 12 a 8 .8 + 2 // . 4 y 13.c' 2 4 / . 4. a: . x = 4.5. 2. 4 x 4 .a 5 a . 12. 3. 2 x 8. 7 xy 3 . + 1. .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.x 5 4 . 15. 4. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 29. r> . 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .2 x2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 21. 18. a /> 3. 5. + 2.4.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .7 y 2* 4. 16. f 8.3 xyz. a.\ yz + xz. x3 f 3 ax'2 .r 6 x  4 xy . 5.  a) (c 2. 10. 7.2 z8 4 x. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 20.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 17. 1. 1. c = 3. 15. a.1. a 4 + 11 a .2 x?/. b(x (b 1. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 21.2. 7y 4 . + 3 y 2* . + 4. 9. . ' b) + 3. 3. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . . 24. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 6. x3 2 a2 .259 x c) . if a 6 = = c = 3.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . = 2. 8. 9. 4 z .3 a?y . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 8 .a) .a 4 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 2 .8 3 + 7 x4 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . + 4 ?y . 6 a4 4 a8 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . c)(x a} . 26. 5. 40.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.a8 . 4. x C 4 4x y + . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.7 ys. ~c)(b. 2. . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.7 + . or . 41. (5. x 3 x' 14.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 5.
4. (*) a  c. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(a .. 5 4 7 12 .(5 y . .260 19. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. take the sum of G x 5 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .c.(x* .4 ft) 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . .(4 x 2 .6T . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 542 x 2 and . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . . x8 x2 2 a'2x. . 4vTT~y 3.2) . 4 3 5 y/ . sum of .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.(7 x 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. f ft.6 x ] . From of 2 the 4.[4 z 8 .#48.3 .(x 4.{2 x 2 .(5 c . x'2 . ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4) . 33. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 4 2 x2 23. ft 25. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .1)}] .27~~7)}].1). c 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. : a x . 5 10 4 G 11 4. 2 x 32. c =x y }~ z.2 . 5 10 + 7 .2 3 ax 2 . a  ft + c.{G * 2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.x2 . 3 ft. 35. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 . Take the sum 4x 4.c 4 3 a. 4 4 4.] 26.3 . c 4ft. 0" 30.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.a ft.x . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.2 a . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 29. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 36.7.2 .x 4.x .[4 x 4.5 .2 x 8y2 44 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .3 x . = x y ft z.3. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. Simplify 31.?> x 4 20. of a.x 2 4.4 Vl 4. 34. .8 3 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(4 * . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. and . 7 12 .c 3 a.c.5.
2 zz . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 2 2 x + !)(* .(7 a. (1 ar+a.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 54.3 c)].(2 .(4 d . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (.Z .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 'J 44.2a . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3). 2 ft 41. 2 : 7e)a}]. 65.rf)} + a [.{3 c . . .(2 a 2 .56.JT^T+1)} + (2 . 50.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2c(V/ .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (x .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .96 [17 a.{2 a . 68. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .4 a . (r (1 (a.& + {.(2 a + 5 a . . 48. 64. .2x + 3).12). .3 *).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .be) (a 58. 63.0)} .{2 a (ft . + 4x + 5)(j. 2 f [3 c 7 a . (4 + 3a 2 .5 )}] + {4 c .(5 y .3)(*5)(* 7).(6 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).ac .3c).3 z 2 ). . (.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. )(lz a ). 4 + 2 2 + 1). 56.2 2 . (/> 4 .ab . 59.c 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 2 52.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 45. 13 a . 57.b (c .[2 .4 a 2 + a 4 ).6c) (a + f c).6 xy .5)} + (3 a 2 . a .7).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. .r 2:c+ l)(ar. . 2 53. 43.(2 x2 . 49.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (x.1). 62.[4 x  5 . 3 x 42. 67.a~^~c)K]. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .  2 a  {3 2x a . (1 55. + *+!){> + 2).e '/)}] (2a + 2b .2)(1 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .6)}]. (5 a 39.2 2 + 1)(7. 46. 60. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . a {. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 51.c).
c) j. 4 4 . .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). ft 95. 4. . ft /. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .{3 a . (x (x ( + *) . 70.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 94.(ft 4. Prove the following 8 4. xy y 2 ).y + z)(x + y .262 69. f 72. 85. 73.z\x 4.(/>  3 v)^(.ft) + 4(2 .y).c)} . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 92. 2 (x 2 .c)].:y)( a.m np c . 90. (p 2 . 93.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .y)\x y). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).r 2 . ft ft ft a}.z)(x y + z)(. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 1).(c 4.c) 4) (ft 4.3 (ft . 84.v) 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 2 + a 2 ). 74.c) rr identities.n pc).c .9y2).a) 2 . 75. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .2 (y 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 91.b 4. 89. (.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). .c .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(a 2) (s 4 ft. 82. 71. ft 78.am&t 4 A 2 *).2 (a .<f(p .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 88.2 ft}) f (3 a .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. ar . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 86. b 4. 76.O (a 4(a 4. ft" l Simplify 80.z) . 87.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c) .x + y + z). (a 2 ft 2n 4.ft) 4 . 1).3 a .6*y . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.2y)(.c) 2 .5 . 79.3y) a (* 2 4. 77.q).(4 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(a 48 8 8 4.c) .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 83.
113.27 x* .&).) . 116. (8 x* 115. 106.y 4 ) . 25 4 . 102.xy 4.5 b*). 117. 109.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 (a+ .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 124. 121.b) 98. (80 a 112.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(a 1 2 8 .6 y 4 4. 26 (a 4 c).35 x 2 2 ) . 103.(2 a 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a. r .(7 xi/ . 122. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .1).3 a"+ 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 1). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .2 2% 4.16 a 6 4. 105. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 118.5 xy).2y 2 4.2 xy 8 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. .*) (x 8 . 3*.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 .(x 2 . (2< 107. . 110.y 2 4. 10).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 120. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 1O4. 123. 99 100. 108. (. 114.9 x 2 .v/ ~ // = a: . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). [10( 4.r 4 4. a*.4 aft .a". Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4.40 />) .
(x + 3) ] . 1) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. (*+ + .7(4 * .(1 .3) = 12 . 139. 3(2 x 134.9) 4. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 42(3ar 145.5) = 12(4 x . . 2 4(ar . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). (5a: 150. 142.4) . 127. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .n .2) = 3 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . . 148.22.2(j: .3). 128.2) (a: + 3). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. (4 x .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).4(0 x .5). 136.264 125.3).9) + 3.4) .3) (3 x 4. 5 146. 137.27 a 3" . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. . 5(2 x . .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 135.(j a? 144. 149.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .r>) .3 a:). y (* l x. x 147.7) = 4 .2(4 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).12 M 132.2 7^~5] + 1).a:)]}. 138.5{. .18 *&) (1 .2) + 2(ar + 4). 143. 3) = x\x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).19) + 5 = 4 .3(* + 4) + 9} .3(2 z .G) .2(5 .r + 7[or .(x f 9). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 7(2 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 126. o o 140.1) (a? .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .1) . 129. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . . 10(2 x 141.3 x).2(10 x .8 6 . 1) = 2(* . .(x .
156. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.29) 2 = 1. (a . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) (j. (x (x a.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. If the area of the frame inches. a: ar a.a:) + 229. 155. + 10) (ar . these two angles would be equal. 162. The second contains 3 first. = 15.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 158.3) (a: . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.(5 x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 163. 154.5*) + 47.. transformed into F.8) = (2 x 4.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.T)O .3) = (3 x .3) (3 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.19) + 42.14) (a: + 3).? . 153.7) (a.5 x) = 45 x . (2 . . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. + 4) (2 x + 5). 164.2 x) = (1 .5) = (3 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 157.l)(z .17) 2 + (4 x . = 2 C.24. sheep more than the 169. + 5) = (9 . and the third twice as many as the first. . (a. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.2 x) (4 . How many 170. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 2 4 . 161.2). . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.76. 265 152. 166. 165.6 x) (3 .2) (j? + 1) + (x . .1) (s + 3). (a) If C. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 5(ar x . will produce F.r + 3) . 159.25) 2 . f^ + ^sO. .2) a + 7(x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. The sum What 171.9) + (a. =  (F 32).3) (3 .4) (a . + 2) + (5 . find the value of F. (3 O + .5(x . (7 14 .2) (7 *) + (*. 160.5)(.7) (1 x .z) (4 .
aW + llab2&. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. if each increased 2 feet. was three times that of the younger. number divided by 3. 188. z 2 92. 187. 176. x* 185. + 11 ~ 6. A boy is father. power one of the two Find the power of each. 179. 12 m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. dimension 182. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 181. Find the number. How many are there in each window ? . ll?/102. respectively. same result as the number diminished by 175. 4 a 2 yy 42. train. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number.266 173. father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. Find the dimensions of the floor. + a. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 186. 15 m. two boys is twice that of the younger. . . sister . +x 2. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row.56. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 189. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. . 10x 2 192. A each 177. 190. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 180. 7/ 191. z 2 + x . A house has 3 rows of windows. and 5 h.36. 3 gives the 174. younger than his Find the age of the father. side were one foot longer. 2 2 + a _ no. 178. 13 a + 3. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.
8 a. 206. 3 ap 2 . a^a 226. 3 x 2 .c) 2  (a . 218.3 c/> + 6 cq.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .1. x* + 8 2 + 15. 232. a. (a + .77 y + 150. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 213.20 z 8 a: 220. 207. 7a 228.12 * . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 230. 208. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 x 2 . 12 x +4.r?/f y 2 9. 16x 4 81. 212. 215.19 z 4 204. 235. 2a te 3% ly 247. 2 200. + 30 x. 216. z 2 2. 217. 3y 248. wiy + la mx + aw.8 6 2. 227. xm+l 243.64. 244.10 y a x* .28. 2 a 2 .6 aq . . 4 m +^. 267 199. 5 x 2. a: 236. # 2  29 y + 120. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.3 xf + 3 * 2y . x*y 223. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. z + 5x 2 . ifWy+b. 211. + 3a 196. 245. . 2 2 y f 1. y 2 194. 209. 2 .6 y2 + 4. 7x 2 225. + 2 . x 5 .3 xy. a: 231. 6 197. + 8.6. 202. a: . 8 a: ar.22 z + 48. 233. *2 234.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. x 219. a+a* + o a +l. 224.10. 3 x V . 229. a. .6 2 ?/ . 195.c) 2 .21 a:  54. 210.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 203.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. . 222. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . + 198. 201. a. 3y 2 + ary . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 4a 2& 2 241. . a a: a: 237.(b + rf) 2 .14 2 . 246. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 23 12. 24 2 + 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.10 xy. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . a 2 . . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 239. a. 221. 2 a 8 .x + 1.19 a .6s. . 238.
x* . 251.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3. + 20 x 4.8.80.a + 2 4.3.4 ab + 1.9 x + 14.48 afy 2 .120. x 2 4. + 23 x f 20. * 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. . 259. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 22x2 a. a 4.G7 x f 33.10. z 2 267.a 2 />c 2 f 3.10 a 4. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. + 8 x + 5.3 abc . a? a: a: // 262. 260. x 2 + 5 f . 2 + 7 r f 2. a.1 9 . * 2 .9. 252. x*y* 4. 28 2 f 71 x . 18 x 2 . 1 x ar Find the L. 264.2 aft*. I Find the II. 3 a% 2 .2 z .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.5 ab f 2.13.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 8 2 + 10 x . 2 8 . 2 a.9 x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.&z.(55. 269.r . 15 # 2 z/ /. 10 x 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .14 bx a%% 8 . a: .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 258. ft a. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .4. * 2 . of: 253. 257. x 2 . 270.2/ 2 . 2 x2 . 261. 5 x 2 256. 3 ay 4. x* .15.11 a 2 .15 + 30. x 2 263. of: 266.6 by.36. 6. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . + 8. 7 ax 250.18 xy + 5. 3 #2 255. 10 a. a 3 a 2 2 .7 f 5.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .23 + 12.11 x f 28.12.16 x . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).ry 21.3 x . + 3 x + 2. 254.x .73 xy .C. x 2 f 9j: + 20.ry . F. 30 ^ . 7 12 2 2 .M. 265. Reduce to lowest terms 271.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . z 2 268. 2 . * a .91. x 2 + 2 x . C.23 x f 20.
ar 1 279. *2 " 2 + Oge.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 8 . z2 (a 2 + c)a..rL. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.!/. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . + ac ..(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.J' 4 2 2 w mp .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2c a: 282. 289 ' . 285 z4 n* + a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2* + 3 x* 280. a.
x 7. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. Lnl + ar 2 a. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^_2*(m 308. O(ca) 306. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a (: a) (x 2. ^. 4 3 301. 6) _ ~ i 305. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23.
(a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 . . a: 1 313.. (1 . 2 + y 2 319. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 1 _. 1 x2 + + a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. } .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 1a: + y a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .(a . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.ft) 2 322. .
2 lOx 5x.2 +lOar 2 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .9 *// + 27 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. * 3a.. .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.y20  2y + 4 2 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x . a: 2 x* . .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 250 5 10 2 325. 20 44 333.ll.V  + y  x 3y a .15 33 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .6* t 328.5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.
+ l + IV.) 2 . f V. 7 ( ?f!?.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. xi 347. + ni + . \5yl 341. ?_2 ^ . (ar \ 346.1V. 352. ( 342. (af2/. 338. \x yj 340.r 5 2 . 344. aj 339. a>74 . ' 2 "l 5 . +^ a: y x .y. 1 345. if a = 3. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 348..REVIEW EXERCISE 336. fl. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. w \. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.+ r . : 1+ i. (aWi + iJ. (a \ + lV. a: 349 _ o. ** i. 5 343.
+ x x a .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . 1+2 362. (~ 364. (a a b yx c yabc 361. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. I  I f 366. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. _ + l a 359.
. 2  m 373 "1*7 374.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
4(* . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 379. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5 {2 x 381. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . __4 2x 3_ = !. + 1) 45 O 377.*2 = 15.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. ^ . . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5*8. J !__7. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 8  376. <3 378.
f 1 1 + a 403. + 4 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).  8 9* x ~r.25 x + . 397. 396.6  . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 3* 177. m x 398.147. c . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.2 a:  1. _____ ..* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.  J). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.75 x f . b 404.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. ^ (a . .5 ^ ~ a: a. .8 = .25..1 . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 400.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. u '2 a. 399. a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 401. 40.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.5 x =r f .
c) . far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 421. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(5 I2x ~r l a) . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 418 ~jo.  a) 2 6 2a. Tn 6 hours . hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.278 410. the order of the digits will be inverted. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. (x . 411. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . In a if and 422. and was out 5 hours. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. Find the number. 18 be subtracted from the number. How long is each road ? 423. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 420.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .
Solve 436. x 427. a  t>. find : a : c. . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 430. 431. . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). z 2 y. If a b : =5 n : 7. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). ax is \ by  ex + dy. a. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 428. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. d. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.a 2^ 8 + aft* . if . 438. b. : If is one equal 434. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. find the angles of the triangle. : i. Which ratio is greater. a + 5. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. and : b : c = 14 : 15. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.& 5 ) (a 8 . .iand 22 22 I a . 433. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 435. 432.46 2): (15a 2 . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . wi* + y= ny. Find the length of the parts. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. y. 2 2 8 2 . 3 and 1J.49 63). Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.6 8 ).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the fourth proportional 426.
7 a: .3 y = 3 5 f 7 .11 y = 95. 445.(or l(*2y)=0. 7a?y = 3. ?/ 447. x + 17 # 53. . . 9ar7# = 71. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 42 = 15y + 137. 5x+4y=lQ. 449. 5j + 7 7 = = 2.7 y = 25. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.rf2# = l.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. /) ar a.. . 7jr9y = 17. 450. 459. 458. 448. 1(3  a. 7 442.35. 444. 451. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 9/> = 2 . 454. a: 2y= = 1 . 3 a. if 2 ft : 439. 457. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 5 2 = 7 . 8 x + y = 19. a: a: + 5y). 455. />(. The volumes If their diameters. 456. . + 5y = 59. Solve the following systems: 441. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 15ar = 20 + 8y. Find the value of a. a.4 12 .11 7. 21 7 = 27 + Op. ft.55 y = . 3 .59 = 3 z. 56 + 10y = 7a. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 453.89 = q. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). = 25. ft. 8 . 443. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 28 = 5 a . 5z4:# = 3. 446.*. 16. . 452. c. 4 = 5 y + 29. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.
?/ + 1 .2y) (2 = 2J. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .+ =2.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 8 461. 468.  = 2.7. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.c=563y. ^ + i^ = 7. ax cx by = m. i = 5. 475. x y 474. _ 469. 465. (or . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . + eyn. ax by = c \ 472. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 473..
282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find their ages. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and the other number least. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. years. 481. Find the numbers. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and in 18 months to $2180. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. by 4. whose difference is 4. to . A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the number. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. How much money less 484. and in 20 months to $275. fraction becomes equal to . A number consists of two digits 4. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 479. 477. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the numbers. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the sum and the rate of interest. the Find their ages. A spends \ of his. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the fraction. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 483. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 485. 487. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 486. . Find the principal and the rate of interest. age. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260.
495. x f y f z 29 . \ . 4 506. 7. 1+1 = 6.z = 12. x s + y z = 18J . 489. a: f z = 79. ifi = x a. . 493. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 ./ 504. 490. 8. . z y x 25 . 7 + 2 z . x y f z = 13. 2 e. 2y + 3a = ll. = 15. 2a:f 7. a: + // = 11. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 496. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. . 498. 1. a: 499. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a. + # +z= 35.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. . The sum of two numbers squares is b. y Solve : x +z= 5. 7 4#+ 3z = 35.? + 2y = 8. *i.z = 20. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 3ar 503. 4 497./ f z =a. 2/>3r = 4. 3 a: + 5=84. 3 x 500. = 20. 5^ 9z = 10. : Solve the following systems 491. 4z+3z = 20. 492. 494. of two the sum of the digits also if number. ~ 507. a. . 5 + a. 2 2 = 41. + y 5 y = 101 . a number . * + 425  = . 2y + 2z = a: 2. = 209. z y ifi = z x 502. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2 a.5#+2z = $x a: G.
z z =3a&c. !f == 2800. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. 517. ll" .284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. 523.
A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. What are their rates of travel? . AB=6. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. 532. in 28 minutes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. it separately ? 531. touches and F respectively. Find the numbers. Tf and run together. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 90. 527. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. they would have met in 2 hours. CD. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. B and C and C and A in 4 days. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. E 533. the first and second digits will change places. and CA=7. In circle A ABC. . If they had walked toward each other. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. How long will B and C take to do . and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. if the number be increased by Find the number. AC in /). . and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 530. it is filled in 35 minutes. M. BC = 5. and BE. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. L. N. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. When weighed in water. if and L. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528.
10 marks. 542. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. . 543.e.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x*. the function. i. 3 x 539. 550. FRANCE. 2. 2. x 2 + x. 2 x + 5. a. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The values of x if y = 2. 546. from x = 2 to x = 4. 548. 545. e. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. b. 547. to do the work? pendulum. The greatest value of the function. formation of dollars into marks. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. then / = 3 and write = 3. 536. The values of y. x *x + x + 1. GERMANY.  3 x. if x = f 1. c. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. + 3. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.  7. 540. . d. 2 541. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2  x  x2 . z 2  x x  5. x 2 544. x*  2 x. x 8 549. If to feet is the length of a seconds. One dollar equals 4.  3 x.
2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. x 4 . . \ to t = 5.1 = 0. r?. 557. 2 x 2 560. 562.13 = 0. 555. and make the unit of the b.5 x . 2 554. a.4 x 2 + 4 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 565. 553.3 x . 2 a. 564. J. 3 . 3 x* . 568. 2 567. 563. x* . + 5 .3 x . f. x 2 ~ 2 .4 . a. 3 + 3 z . j.r . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. e.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 3 x . + 10 x .  2 1 a: a. 15. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Represent meters.= 0. c.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 556.G .4 = 0. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .3 . .0. ' = 8. 566.9 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a. // Solve y Solve y = 5. g. 2 8 . If y +5 10.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.17 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. a? 4 x . c. 18 x  4 = 0. 2. z 4 .= 0.15 = 0. Solve 552. = 5.r 1 561.11 = 0.3 = 0. h. 572. .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.6 + 3 . 558. z 2 . Solve// = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. x 5 .7 = .r a: a: x a. a: 559. i.
64 a 12 603.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a 612. (a  8 ft) . a 8 606. 5 a*. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 597.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .x + 2 )'2 601. 585 594. x + z2) 8 . . 595. f ?>) 3 591. x [ ?/ 577. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. (a. + + 4 . a: . : y* or 25. (# 2) . 592.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 6 + 1) . 582.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . (aiy. 4 (1a:) 3. [ y =10. 608. j^f = 3.2 6a: + 30 &c a. jj+. a 2a. 593. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 9  4 fSb 607.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . . (1 + x a. 579. 3 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 596. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 609.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 3 (f. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . xY.%) 4 (aa.5 xy = 0. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 2  2 aa: 2 . a:. + ^) + (air%)8. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.frf : 583. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.(1 . 600. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2 611. 4 a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 598. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 599. 589. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + .4.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 604. 1 . (1 (1 (1 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 4 . 588. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.2 2 + y.
32 631.30. V 635. 0090. 21.191209.2410. 2. 371240. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.15174441. 620. 210. V950484 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 625 : 621. ft . 942841. Find the eighth root 617. 494210400001. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.1024 x + a: 256.49. 9g. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 24 a 2 4 . = 0. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. Find the square root of 619.V250 . = 87. = . + 54 'x*y* . VOIOOD + V582T09.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 3a. 8*' + 24* = 32. 644. 638. 628.\/4090. = 70. + 112 a 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 25023844. (x 9 x 646. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. x 2 . 40. 44352. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 630.871844. 651.*. 2 + 189 z = 900. 645. 624. 035. 4370404. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 647t x 2 648 649. 9a. 639. 632.53 x ~ . 629. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . /. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.150. 636. GGff. find Jupiter's period. 634. 637. 633. + 2 21 x = 100. 49. 2 + 21Ga. a 642. 49042009. 650. : 5. 614. 623. 622. 626. According to Kepler's law. 7) 2. 4J. *+* = 156.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. x 2 641.2. 643.12 a?y + y*. 615. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
696. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 699. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 2 697.bx . 2 2 . a.c = 0.a a )jr . 706. 707. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 702. 694. 708. ax 2 698.ax . ex abc= fx 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 692.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. . 693. 695. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. .
What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 12 4*+  8. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 724. 3or i 16 . 217 .292 709.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 16 x* . A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 716. 717. 722. 727. a: 713. 725.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726. **13a: 2 710.44#2 + 121 = 0. 729. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find the price of an apple. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. . A equals CO feet. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. in value. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 721. 723. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. and working together they can build it in 18 days. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find two numbers whose 719. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.
1 6. 38. n. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.l). 34. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 35. 42. 41. 31.aft* 1 + a 2*.1 f ^ 2). 33. (v/x).2 ).2)(x2 4. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). . 36.1 + c.1 f c" ). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 46.X .2? 50. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 52. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). .1 + x.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 40. 39. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 43. 32.)(ai + &. 37.
754. ~ r* x .1+J 756. 758. [1r^ T 1 i . \/G86 v/lGv/128. 757. 2V2 2V3 . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.. 759. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 761. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 768._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.294 753.
2 V30. 7512V21. c 792. 103 788. 16 + 2V55. 789. . 14 791. x 782. 13 799. 10 785. + 2V21. 786.12VIT. 793. Va 809. . 92VI5. 3J . . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.VlO. 806. 787. a 9442V5.2V3* ^ 807. 790. 3812VIO. 783.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 794. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .4 V(j. .
VaT+lJ f ^l .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .  5 + V3 f 12 817.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.79. 811. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.V? = 813. 812.\/2y  810. 816. 3 x + 2 . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 831. 814. 820. 815. 819.Vc^lJ . + Vx .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 829. 836. = 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. /9ar a: = 17. 818.4 = 0. x/aT+l . (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/12 a. + ViTli + V7 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. V3 f 1 V4a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.13 = 0.g. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 830. V14 a.V2 ar 10. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. + 103Var. 833. Va: .
8 . 2 a: 64 y*. 4 x 8 858. 870. 876. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a. 855. . 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.1000 6. a. 8 4a: 8 a. a. a 872. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 840. V4 x 2 . a 8 850.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.  3x a. a. 8 8 848. 844. 2 x 3. 845. 40 x 2 7 f 49. + . a. +3 4 +  4. 8 8  13 a. 846.ab9 ft*. 27 862. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 4 + f 2 a. 275 8 l. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. y 4. a: 849. 4 a: 2 842.3 . 839. 865. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . a*" & 6n .3 a:.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 4o.3 x . a 8 869.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. + 1. a 18 4. 875. 861.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . + 512 y8 874. 5 a 4 7 a8 .3 Va: 2 . 8 860. 8 + a: 5 8 a.a. 16 859. 856. 851. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 864.1. 6. 868. 853. 6 2 f 3 6 s.12. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 852. 64. a. z*y 8 l64a. . 64 a 866. a 8 873. 19 x 14. 729 867. 8 2a. . f b**. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4 x* 847.x*y + 3x f 2. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. x 8 2 857.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8 a.10 = 118. a l0m . a: . 871. f 841. f 12. 9. 8^27^. . 4 a. 863. 2 f" + a/ 15. 27 y 8. .
x 8 3 = 13:3. a: + y 2 = 34. 895. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 883. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. a. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 + xy = 10. 2 = 2 + 5. a: 888. 2 . y 2 4. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 887.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 1 x 893. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 . +y f y = 7.xy + y 2 = 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: 884. 896.1 = 2 a#. f ?/ a: a: . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 885. 2 + xy = 28. xy + y = 32.y 2 + V(j. x 882. 2 2 = 16 y. + 2y=\2. y = 28. . 886.sy = 198. 901. a. x a: lI = xz .Vi' + 1 1_3.35. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. x*xy. a: a.298 877.18.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. a# f + xy = 126. 894.15. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 900. . . 3 x 2 . y*+ xy . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 889. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. . a: 2 897. M1 891 1 . + ary + 2 = 37. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 + 2 f = 17. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. z 2 898. y 2 2 8f. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .5 xy + 4 f = 13. 5. 890. a. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 878.y 2) = 20. . a:y . 2 + y 2 . 899. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.
909. a: a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 908. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x f 2 a:y = 32. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. or or a? a: a: . * + y = 444. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.y2 = 22.3(* + y) = 6. + 2 ary = 39. 3 :r(3 . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 921. y .16 y 3 8 = . (* 918.r a.y) = 33. y + a:y = 180. 23 x 2 .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + ?/) . y 3 2 2 922. 2 924. y x 2 = by. 914. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. + ary = a*. x 2 ry + y = 3.#y + 2 = 27. (!) * . Vary + y = 6. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. a: y zx 12.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + y 8 = 189. 905.y). a. 912. 910. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.23 = 200. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 5 xy = 11. + a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 4 (a. 907. (o. yz = 24. 920. (a.y) (3 y . 2 913. (3 x . ^ 2 . 2 + y = 2 a 4.6. 906.3)2 = 34. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 2 2 916. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 2 * 2 ~ g. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y) (a? . 7 y . .x) = 21.y = a(ar + y). a:y xy 929. 911. 923. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. ary y = 8. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x 4 299 xy z 904. a: * a: a: ar 928. # + xy + y = 7. + 2 a:y + = 243. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.3) 2 f (y . . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. . + y = 9. + y)(a. xy + x= 15. 917. 2 915.2 y) = 49 2 919. xa 903. *y . = 8. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. x + y 2 = aar. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.
and 10 feet broader. is 3 . y(x + y + 2) = 133. is 20. a second rec8 feet shorter. Tf there had been 20 less rows. (y + *) = . 2240. If each side was increased by 2 feet. In the second heat A . A plantation in rows consists of 10. two squares equals 140 feet. and the difference of 936. 942. 34 939. s(y 932. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. diagonal 940.000 trees. A is 938. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Find the numbers. y( 934.300 930. find the radii of the two circles. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Assuming = y. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. A and B run a race round a twomile course. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 943. 152. feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. *(* + #) =24. Find the sides of the rectangle. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 931. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. and also contains 300 square feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.square inches. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. two numbers Find the numbers. two squares is 23 feet. is 3. and the sum of their areas 78$. + z)=18. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. How many rows are there? 941. + z) =108. 937. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 935. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 944. z(* + y + 2) = 76. .102.
and travels in the same direction as A. whose 946. . Find its length and breadth. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. overtook miles. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find in what time both will do it. and its perim 948. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. its area will be increased 100 square feet. unaltered. . was 9 hours' journey distant from P. 952. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. and that B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and if 594 be added to the number. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 951. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. triangle is 6. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. sum Find an edge of 954. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. A and B. Find the eter 947. 953. that B A 955. 949. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. P and Q. Find the number. 950. at Find the his rate of traveling. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the number. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. each block. the digits are reversed. distance between P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. . Two starts travelers.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. set out from two places. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14.
Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. .. 961.. '. \ .V2 . !Ll^ + n .. = 4. P. ^ Vfirst five 959. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . Evaluate (a) . 3 + 5 7 + . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. to infinity. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).4142 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. and 976. J. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Sum to 20 terms. difference. 18th terms of an A. Find an A. n to n terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.. 5. (to 2 n terms).. 1 to n terms.. 957. 972. are 29 and 53. Sum Sum to infinity..321? 965. f + 1 . + (iiven a +  4 d ... 9th and llth terms of an A. to n terms..454. *" 968. 1G series . 36 963. x(x to 8 terms. Find n. Find n f (ft) . s  88. 964.  2. 969.v 973.>/) to infinity. 4 4 to 7 terms . 971.. the terms being in A.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. fourth of the unity. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 16 962. Sura to 24 terms. 966.1 4 f j$V . 3 .. 974.. 958. 5.. (x 4 to n terms.141414. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. P. . 4. Find the sum of 4. P.3151515. ^ 1 . to 7 terms. . 975..302 956. 970. . P.. 12434+ j I 967. Find the Find the common 977.to infinity.
such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. and the common difference. is 225. 986. to 105? 981. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.001 4..2 . : + 9   V2 + .. 0. 1. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . named Sheran. and of the second and third 03. The term. The 21st term of an A.. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .. and so on. first 984. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Find four numbers in A.. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find n. to infinity may be 8? . Find four perfect numbers. Find the first term..001 + . 5 11. 990. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. . of n terms of an A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.01 3.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. P. 992. to n terms. Find the sum of the series 988. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.04 + .) the last term the series a perfect number. to oo. 989. The sum 982..+ lY L V. 980. 303 979.. 2 grains on the 2d.1 + 2. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. 985. "(. P. 4 grains on the 3d. 987.
. 997. prove that they cannot be in A. 1001. 1000. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. If a. (a) after 5 strokes. areas of all triangles. The fifth term of a G. 995. in this square a circle. ABC A A n same sides. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. The sum and product of three numbers in G. P. 1003. are unequal. P. and G. The sum and sum . The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. AB = 1004. Two travelers start on the same road. find the series. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. is 4. at the same time. 999. and so forth to infinity. P. many days will the latter overtake the former? . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. (6) the sum of the infinity. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 512 996. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 998.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. inches. of squares of four numbers in G. in this circle a square. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. ft. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 994. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Under the conditions of the preceding example. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. c. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. are 28 and find the numbers.
REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1011. 2 ) 5. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. ) 1021. . 1006. a: 8 7. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. + lQ .l) w f . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of ( . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1012. . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .iV 2i/ 5 . (12 #) 7 . 1014. 1008. Find the middle term of 1020. 1009. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . (1 1018.o/) 14 .
.
. 97. 129. 123 . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 37.. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . linear literal Common ** * difference .... signs of Algebraic expression .. 232 mean progression . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .. .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . ..... Aggregation. .. .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . numerical . .] Abscissa Absolute term ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . . ...193 11 . . graphic tion of representa .. . .. Checks Coefficient 20.... . . . 232 169 807 . .. 19.. 9 ** . simple simultaneous ..178 Completing the square .... 129 54. t 53 120 . 158. . . ... 9.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 112 54 54 251 .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 54.130 .. lowest ratio " '* ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . 246 91 " multiple. .. .. . .. 8 . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. . . quadratic .. .. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.108 160 " . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .
arithmetic . .. law of Extraneous roots . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . . . . 189. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . . . G. 45. first and second . 227 geometric . . 227 . numbers .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 9.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 241 123 geometric . Product '* 76 Infinite.. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 91 . 253 28 70 1.154 Order of operations " of surds . 180. exponent . 42 7 Independent equations Index . .C Multiplication . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . L.808 Exponent Exponents. 195 33.. . addition of " square of . Geometric progression .. 205 . 23 10 91 102. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. . Insertion of parentheses . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 243 7 . P . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. .. 184 54. inversely 122 numbers . Inconsistent equations . directly. . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 84. Negative exponents 11 .. . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 34. .. .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 63. Known numbers . . Imaginary numbers . . INDEX 8 . 143. 17 65. . 212 . .. 45. 114.108 Minuend .. 112 . Like terms Linear equation . ..31. 120 Member. . 109 102 . Mathematical induction .. . . 45 Laws of signs ..
Sum. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America... . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... binomial Third proportional Transposition . . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 9. ... ........ 4 155 9 " of . algebraic Surds . 45 Trinomial 240 . .. 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 129. . polynomial . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... . . absolute 54 Variable ..
.
MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1916. August.COPYRIGHT. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd..S. Norwood. 1910. 1913. December.A. Published September. 8. Mass. 1910. Reprinted April. 1917. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. U. NorfoooS J. Gushing Co.
16. A $90. 1. x. . 20. 14. Page 13. 49. 7m. Yes. 14. $ 1 50 10.000. 22. 27. 3. 576. 9. 19. 9 16  larger than 7.. 2. 21. 3. 4. 6* 16. sign. 14. Page 4. 6. 85. 2. 5000. 150. 20 \. 7. 3. 5.00000001. 3 below 0. 32.000. 11. B $ 128. Australia ft. 3.  1. 10. 4. 13. 3. 1. 18. c. 210. 2. 2 5. x. South America 46.  13. Page 8. 11. 19. 4. 3* 7.000 Indians. 6. 25. 9. in 12.. 20 B. 8. 29. 23. Multiplication. 18.3. 29. 18. 2. 7. 9 m. 15. i .. 20. 28. 64. Not 5. 12. 17. 13. 21. B 10 mi. 2. 5. 6. 12. $160. V 23. 20. 49. 37 S. 9. 32.000. 17.21 24. 1. 27. 4. 8. 8. T . 6.  1. = 5 81. 0. 9. 10.000 negroes. 13. 7. . 9 14. + 1. 13 V. . 3. 192.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 11. 4. 59. 10. 5. 3. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 3. 2  Page 8. 8. 17. Page 1. ft. 13. 1.  22 20. B $80. 18. 15. }. 18. 27. 3. 6. 3. 14 11. 30?. 4. 17. 10. $40. 115. A 38 mi. 1. 25.8. 6. 2. 7. arithmetic. _ 32. sign. 2.000. 72 = = 216. 6. 6. 144. 3. 8 13. 1. 6. 12. 9. 20 jo. 37. 12. 20. in. 2. 13 S. 89.. 12. 10. 3 m. 12. 8 ft. 106. 1. 22. . 128. 8. C $60. 2. 7.000. 6 yd. 2. 12. 26. 2.. 32. 5. B $20. 12. 1. 19 4.. 13 d. 15. 18. 1. 14. 11. C $ 16. 7. 2 ~ 15. 9. 16. loss. A 15. 30. 25. 3. 3.. 3.2. 16 in. 36.. 10. 126. is $10. 48 ft. 5. 6. Page?. 16. 12.1. in. 14. 5. 10g. 12. 13. B $4700. 32.150. 8. 1. 3. 3. 10. 16.C. 11. 15. 16. C $1(50. 7. 4. 73. 16. 2. 7. 15. 14. 14. Ot 15. 5. 512. 1. 3. 24. per sec. 1. westerly motion. 6. 14. 5. 9.  2 p. 8.. 1 16. 6. 16. 16. 9. 7. 1. 0.000. 16 in. 24.000. 25.000.$9400. 9. $100. 17. 16. 26z. 21. (a) (/>) 1. 28. 1. b. 256. 9 = 4. 2. A . 24. . 16f 2. A Bl 7. 2. 1. 19.12. ^. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 10.
18. 7. 240. 4.ii ANSWERS Page 11.. in. 16. 9. 23. 27. + ft).  12. (ft) mi. 32. rt. 2ftx. 37.<>Gq. 1. 39. 3 . f  5e 35. 2. \'\ 4. 58. in. (a) 200. 12.ft) 4. 1. 2. (c) S(i. 18. 14. 11.GOG. 49. (a 4 4.3 * 10 r5 <3 . sq. 16. 28. 5. 43w//2 17. = ()501. . (r) 2. 12. 21. 34.  xV 3 y. 15a. 10. Monomial. 12yd. Trino inial. 57. 38. 31. 3.x. 8. 18. (59. (a) 50. 14. Page 18. 25. #1111. 17.4 ft. 30. ft. 4 9/^/rl 2. 04. m + 3(a. 12. (b) 135 mi. 1. 50.. WIN + wiw. 35. 16. . 104. 1. ^. ]*. 5. 12. 35. 3. 27.4  2ft 2 33. 2. 22. 14. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.5 (ft) sq. 22. Pagel4r. 17. r+l. 7 7. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.. 36. It. 3. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). Binomial.5f> sq. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 38 ab. 27. (r) 78. 2. 6. = 81. 2. 8. 22.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 19. 35. 4. //'. 3.  11. 0. 9. 8. Polynomial. + 5. 19. 5.  0. Page 21. 3a. 20(. r/ \(\xyz.. 15.6) 38. 41.'JO ft. 3. (ft) $40. 1. 1.  1. 11. . +/2(/. ft f 19.. 5.. 0.. $80. 4. 3.a . 28. 7.. 5. yyz+xyz*. ft' 3 .. 20. 31. :. 14. in.. 8. 14:). 19. t.  40.. 2. 34. . 27. 21. 32 2 ftc. :J!>r'. 8. 0. 22( 19.. I. 13. (ft) Page 2. 1. 25. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 30. Page 31. (ft) 12. 8. 173. 42. $3000 Page 6.~4. 30. 00 24 04 ft. 3 a* + 2 at*.9?/2 8. 17. (ft) 7. 18.32 c2 > ft 3 . (a} 100 1(5 cm. Page 23. 20. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.ft. 26. 14. 16. 17. 0. ??i??.r 2 . 9. .94(>. 13. in.14 sq. 13 cu. y. 13. 31. + v> 2 . x^ 20. 4. 23.. 33. 11. 0. 7. jrif 4 9. c. 3. . 4. vi 14. 1. 17. 2oVmf?i. 15. 14. .r~ f 34. i:5. ^).r f 15. ft. 6<t. 33. 25. a ft c. 3. 11. 27. 15. 22. ft. .000 . 14. <i~ 26. (r) 2G7. 4.1. 4 y/ . 21. 6. (a) <> sq. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 13. 24. 16. 13. 32. 12. 6. 1. 8. 314 sq. 5. 7. 0. 12. 237. 8. (c) 8.'J. 36. 27. 21^. 92. _ 4 . m 24. 0.q 4.900. 15. 12 a. 26. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . II. a2 4 15^44. 5. 5. 20. 3.ab. 2x' 2 5 . r:A 29. ft. 7. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. Page 7. a 32. 28.rty8. 15. 29. 51 f. 29. . 0. 10. o^ft. (r) 2000 m. 5x+3. ft. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 24. arty 1 20. 0. 3rf 27. 18. ft n.  3. 9. 13. 21 a 3 4 10. (a) r>23ifcu. 15. 9. 3(c4a). w. mi. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 10.000 sq. Polynomial.
20. _5a<>&43c. 16. + 8.  b* 4 r 1 . 4. . 5 2 Page 29.2. 22. Page 7. ?> 22.3 6. ^ <.4. 16. 4wipg>' 27.  12. 1. 1 4. 36.r. 42. 6. Page 44. a + (ftc4df).Oa: + 10. c. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 19. 2 3x f z. + 6.  b. a2 24. 8. 14.  14 afy .  17. 2 y' 4 . . '  .abc. 0. 50.8(c + a). 5. 2a: 2 4x.  1. 24. 24.c. 40. 10. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.aft. t).ws 2 ft) . 28. 11.l. &. 32 w 2 w. . (yz~d}. + 4 c. 21. 31. 7. 7  # + 12. M + 10. 37. n*. 29. 2 3.3x 2 2 tf.11. 34. 20. 1. a 3 . 364c. 7 a5 1 . 2 a 37. j)(g1. 6. a2 9. 13. (5x47 3. 7  a + 2 + c. ?/i 13. 2. a 3& . 4..a f 54. 7. 6.'U4j>. f 2 ?/  2. 3 a .  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2 . 8. 4. 18. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 1. 2 + a4l). r. 1. 59. ab a. . a a. 10 x. ar. 8 . 2 .a*.1. (2n' 43p 47 ). 26.a~. 4.  a: 2.  23. 3 a3 & 41. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 31.4 d. 5x 2 rt ft. . ii\ 22. a  49. 3. 2. 0. 15. a. 10 m. 2 2 2 6. 2. 2m. !  </ . w* ( . 9. (mn} 11. 12. 0. 1. .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 4ft ~. 21. 2// 16.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 8 b. x a8 1. 8 8 . 12. 2a. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.2 . w 17. . G. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2. a 52.a . 20.h. 17. ?>4tl 53. 2 4. ri\ 18.(7x2 Ox2). x3 . 7. 43. Exercise 16. 6.2 a2 2m 2 4. 3 Ji 8 . 5. Page 8. 2. + c 4 d x + 6 e. s_r>a5. 814. 19.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 2m + 2w. 2 6. a 3a 4 2 &. Page 28.5.. 2. 18. a4 4 4. 14.2 a. a  ISjfat. 8.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 2. a 4 + ft. ' 12 m?/'2 27.6 x + 0) 16.2 ft 2 r2 10. 15. . 14. 2 a f 6 414.4c 3 8 8 J. f ft 9. 2.(2 x2 . 4 21. a' 4ab + ?/. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. lOrt 15w4. 4r 2 . 2 2. c. 1 + 45. 13. ti.x f 1 2 . a). 18. 2 17. 26. a + a.7. 30. 2.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 12. 25. 3. 7. 25. 51. 4. 58. 4.2 57. ?/.4x.  4 b 17 y*. 11. 17. . G a bd. 11. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 21. 24. 3 m. ft Exercise 17. . a 6 2 . 36.5 z?/ + 3 y . . 10.a'2 . ( 7. 19. .r 2. 35. 56. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 26. 24 b 46. 5. a 10w. 12. 25 47. 1. 55. . 3. 5. 38. 25. 33. + 2y. 32. 14. . 8 + 2 a . 2x 4 a 13. . _ Page 30. c2 . x  + 3z. 2. 10. m*  n*. :5 41. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 15. (w4w)(ww). 22. a f 2 f 2 9. . mn. \ :{ 2 a 48.1 . 34 39.
210. 26. . 9 13.16 a 2 + 32 a . 33.20 xyz . 6. ft 17. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 90. Page 36.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 120. 33. etc. + 7. 7. . 38wiw. 66 39 k* . 37.19 + 2. 15. 30. 19. 84. 15. 2 ).1. 16. 5. . a + ft. 0. fa 2.7(50. 1400. Ox a 5 . 15. 3. 9. 29. 216. 2 a2 (y 2 . 18a% y. 35. a. 25. 52 + 6s 12. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 20. 11.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 20. ! 2. . 12 ^. 4200. 17. 9. 60. 1. 19. 11. 3. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 83 In + 1 n*. 18> ^* = a .19p" + 19^ 10 . 4aWy. . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 20. 7. . 8. 1. 28.32 y s s G . 13.6 2 . 25 4 4. 30 n?b*c*.44 aWc 16 abxy. 34. 28. 3.15. 8 . 6 . ci 5 . 32. Page 5.14 . s 9 ww. 14. 7. 24. 22. 25. 27. 14. 20. 23. 14. + 58 .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 4. 16 51. 8. 127"'.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 40 r 2 . 1. 18. 5. 22. 24. 8. ^^ = 20. a: . ISartyW e*f*tj. 343. n (a6) 125. + O4 66 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 770.14 w 2 2 . 30.36 35. 13.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 23. 16. 42. 11. iSx8 .6) =a2 31. 108. 16 lb. 6". 4 a2 . 8.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 30. 04.21.. 29. 2 ). . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.25 + 14.11 xyz . . 6. a. . 2. 3(*+0 + 2). .26. 24. 9. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 20. (+3)x6=+16. 33.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 31. 15. 27.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 7G . 18.r% 2 2 ry.000. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 12. 1. 18. Page 38. 14f 5. 29.12. 3300.16 x2/ 5 4. 23. 4 fc.12.. 4 a8 . 19.:>/ . 21. 15. 13. 21. //. 1. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 20. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 16. 7. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 1.. 161b. 360. 3 a 2 46. 6. 13. 17. 12.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. . 5aft(a 126 2). +15. 29.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 4. 10. 36. 24. 20 aW.32. 18. 76 8 a' 1 . 14 m 2 . 108. 30. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 1904. 2.18 w w + 10 WI M . 4. 2 7t A. 32. 30. 66 8W 34. 18. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 12. 25. 24. 16. . a. 13. Page 3. 3. 2*8f x2 6x4. 30 j9 jt?g j . 10. 102. 2 . 27. 26. Page 7. 22. 60. 30. 21 a'&c.(3x2_4^+7). 14. 3 a 3 . 34. 8. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 34. 2 w +2 2 . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 15 q\ 6. 22. f 26. 18. +. Page 35.8 12. 2 * 80 . 12 x2 2 . 64. 2. . 2. ll 2 i. 10. 11. 27. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 4. 28. . a*b*c. a 8 . 21.64 190 p6. 17. 6. 2 2 2 . 42. m.>(/ r . 1.28 p'^/. 23. 0. 10. 19. 161b. ?> 4 . 25. 27.21 a 3 c2 21. 216.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 17. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.. 4 jcy*z*>. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 2 n8 29 a + 30. ?/ . 4. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 15 lb.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 4. 2''. 28. 16. x2 xy42^. 31.2.
x*2^f I.84 a' 9.4 12. 29.6 x2 13. 1. 10. a2 ' + 48Z100.x2y22. 31. 2 6' . r. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). .5 ~ 81.810. x2 GiC+5. 25.15. 26. 2 1: 21. n2 a4 6. 33. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 57.4 n.996. 30 x + 19 x3 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. ~ 6 20 . 5.2. s rc 47. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 25 a 2 6 2 . ' 46.25. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 8 a W . 10. . 1. 8. 53.404. 14. . 38. 9801. ^V^4 .x2 + 6 x2y 2 .r . + 7 6)(3a~76>. ab. 2 62 V2 132. 10. p 2 .35 ab 9. ^/> 8 4 . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 999. 4 x2 13. 15. 7. 36.1.008.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 10 a' 2 . 4. (w4)(w + l). 32. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).14 jp + 49. . 9999. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 3wi2 m Page 42. n + 2. 16. 998. 4x21.2 x + 2 x. 52.16 a3 f 50.^V"' . 7.000. 35. 2 j3 Z . 27. 33. fo*. 9.ab . (n 2 5.8. 40. +4 34. 39.20. 4 + 25 q*. + 2 9. Page 39. 40.004. 4 . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 37.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 4 21.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 21 2 . lflrt 2 8 + l.994. 10 a 4 ?. 41. 4. . a + 25.^. 4 2 //.ANSWERS 28. 34. 9 4 /> . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 12 x2 . 26. 36.2 6 + 13.000. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 29. 44.201. m 3 j) 3 . 36. 2 +10s281. 36 a 4 . 30. 20a 2 21a + 4. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 10. 9. I/). ft' 11. . 10. 3. 24. 2 fr .00 + 37. 56. . . 2). + 12. 31.020.54 p 2 + 81. 10. . 17. 10.r . 25 25. 2 4 a + 4. a + 56.6 xy . 19. 27.49.6.m 30 6 4 1.001. 7 . 40. 11. 1).ri 17. a' .4 a&+ 4 &*.p132.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 41. 2 a' y' . 10. 484. 1. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 2 4 2 2 64 .009. ?/H)0. 8. . 51. +  m' 1. 1. 2 12. 10. . 24.712.10 35. p4 + . 6. 7. x4 28. G a6 2.500. 15. 14. 2. ./ . 2 a 2 + a . a3 0. 166. 34. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 6. 2 . (w+4)(m4). . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 5. 42. 1. y. 7> . + 10 + 121 y*. 11. . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.. 8. ^' J  7 f 12. 8 38. 2 (5 a 3). r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 37. 441. 28. 3. (p 2. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.098. a 2 . 23.3. 2 0)(p + 5). 14.10 x + 25. Page 12. .020.2 y*. x* . x 48. 35. 33. V + o ft . a + 25. 31. a4 4 ?/ . ) 4' 6/ 49. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. +   5). (a (3 54. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.. + 4 a +4. 2 . ab . 19. 45. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 32. 18. + 4 t*. + 3)(3). m 2 . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 9990. 4. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 1.^ + a? + 1. 55. Om2 4 6m 6. 990. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 4 . .606. 30 /><.r* 2 30. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 10. (a + 4) (a + 2). 10.6 y4 10.009. (m + 6)(m3). 39.
14. :r !>.lit x + 4.3 5. 15. 6x 3. 4. 46.23. Exercise 2 a:// 26.rw.1*5 2 r 2 . ft. ?/2. ft* ft / . 13. 11 4. . Page 22. 8. 4 c m .1.y3.10 xy*. 12.5 a . aftc 52. 16. /r . 14.34.21 2 2 f + . 5.9 4. 3. 5. 3*y2 w + 1.r?/.6 :rs 4. 13. 4xy + 13 <) . 8.1.2 aft 4. 2 . 1. 4 a 2 4. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 9.8 yn .2 1 //. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 5. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .VI ANSWERS 43. _ 2 a . 4 x.  5 z* . j) .  . Page 11. 6. 1. i 2 tji.8. m L 4.> 10. 17. f>r* 4. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2 ?/ 4. 12. 3.r ?/ ??i ?). 16. aft. aft 12. x 4.r .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 8 x . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . . 13.15.2 2 2 8 . 2.5 mp.rw f 8 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . ft 17. 4 d 2 4. r/2 4.24 . 7a3ft. 4. .2 . . 5. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 2. ti'jry1 7. 3. 17. 18. 10 ft. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 13. a 4 4 ft. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 8 ?/ .5 n*. 3. 13. 75 a 2 29.1. 1. 21.25 c . Page 51.1. 47. 14. Page 13. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 <</.w.3 ry. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 9. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 10. '.8. 1/*. 6. 8. . 2 4 3 9. 13. 2 ? 14 .30 ftc. 8. 4.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 2.  3 c. ft ? ft' ft ft. 10. 12. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 4 pq. y 7. 5 4 a Oft. 3 aft 20. 4x43?/. 1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . . 2. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . sr 11.r" 20 S? . .4. G.27 x 2 4. 8. r ft. 20 15. a 2 . 44.10 2 + z 2 410. 49.2 ar. as _ 10 16.2 ac . 6. 8 ?/ . 9. .  12 y 25. 4 a* 4 9 11.r' ~ 16. 50. i 9.2 ftc . yfl. 5^418(7. m'2 3.3 x 2 2 4.15 21. 9. + 4. 3. r//. 01. 8 r<ft 4 2 . a 10.29.  11. l 4 . 6. *3 y 4 . 5. 19. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.12 aft 4 20 ac . 12. 1. x 2 + 2r f J. 14.7. . 17. 4ft. 4. 1000 1000 . 4 ac. 2 4. 2 1. 5. 15. z. 12.1. // 19. w 2 . . 26. 1. 14./ 4. 4. 4.1.  10. c 12. Page 7. +w . r 7.r?/ j/.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. c3. . x4. 3 a. 24. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. .r'^ 15. 9. 20. Page 48. 16.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 10. 11. 5. . 5. 125. 2 2 + 2 a.n. 5 a  (5 ft. 1. 2 . Exercise 27. 22.2 . 21. 19. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 14 r 2 . 3. 2. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. . 8.000. + x?/ 2 1. 4.2. 2 4 2 x 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 11. 2 ?/' . ??.2 . Osy.9 d. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2 a 3 ft. .1. 2 12.8 y. a.x^. a 8 4.3 a 41.3^V.25.+ 77 15.3 3. 2.2 wZ 4.2 2 . 23. + 3. 7. 5. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. . w . 6. abc 7. 135. 18. 7 r . 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.
37. m+ 11. }f. 6.x700. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 36. x. v (6) 2x. 19. 5. (>. . 3. 7.10) 100. 7. (> 27. 20. y 50. " lir.  9 = 17 a. x 49. 0. 8 n  10 yr. 12. 32. 22. 5. 13. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 16. 24. 36. d.ANSWERS Page 9.p+7. 7. 11. 1&. Page 6. 0. y ?>i x + 26. ] 2 ri 42. 9. 2b 22. 58. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 4 f 39. 28.r ct. xy ft. a 8. 5. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 6. 3 9. 100 14.. 5. 46. . 23.  6 10. 17. 11. 27. (</) 2a. 59. 1. 18. 1. + 4x 3y 34. n M. 2. 3x2. Page 61. 40. 13. 25. 4. 19. 57. 2=10.100. 13. 47. 38. ? 43. 4(a ft) c = 8. 5. b. 17. 6. 3x  1700) = 12. 800 = x + 1300. 4. 33. y 2z p= 3 (a c. ft. 2. = 5 ?i x 460. 2. 16. 3. . 41. 2. 2 ct. 18.200) f(^ + (e) 200. "mi.(3x+ = rraxlO. r>?imi. % 4. 22. 20.  1$. b. . 4.ab a. 7x 2 Page 21. 10 a. 10 x sq.  2\. 9. 42. . 29. (d) 2a + 10 = n. (2 a. 2x + 35. a 10. 10) + = (a) 2 x . ct. + 10 b + c ct. + f + b 2. ft. 1. . 31. 4. </ 20. '^ . d + !. 100 d ct. 14. fix. 45. Page 31. f 6)(o 62. 33. (c) 2x. 100= ^. s. 39. I. iL*. 7. 17.7). 10. !). 5.. 7.. 7.(3x  700) = 5. vil 56. 41. 44. 4. 12. 34. 3. l. X 60. 16. 11. 30. 44. 38. <>. 7.r1. 10. 15. ct. Page 13. 15. f = eZ 2 x. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. x = m. 30. x y $ 6 yr. 8. f (I. m +~m 3. 2. 6. 00. 35. 60 25 1. + 3x + 2y + 32. 14. 50= L 100 15. Page 40. 10 >_&. 8. y yr. r tx mi.  />) a = all. rn mi. 1. lOx 10 + w.rr2. y 100 a 24. + 3 = 2(3* . 10. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 6. 29. Jj12. 2. 100 2. 23.6 = *. 20. ft. / + y + a// 12 yr. 4^ = 100. 21 2. 1. x 48. x 2y 10 act. ( a f 4. . 26. lO.. sq. # + 20yr. 2b. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 10. I. ct. 25. ^ 12 sq. x + 1=a. 'nj 100 a 28. 43.000. (a) ' 12. 10 yr. 37.
6. 10. 1. 71. 20 yr.210^.79.1). 300. 1. 85 ft. 14. 10 yd. 20. 12. 15 in. 10. 8. 13. 25. 8. 8. (a + 5)(a + 6). 11. Page 7. 05.13. 5. 6. 5.11.000 N. 23. 7. 30. 24J. 250. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 11. + 7)(y3). 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 7. 1. Oaj(o62cd). 3x (3r. 78. 15 yd. 29.. 11 in. (y + 8)(y2). 30. (a + 6) (a + 3). 8. 6.411. (a + 4)(a + 8)..0.5. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 3. 2$.  PageSO. 5 Col. 15. 3 hr. 4. 8.. 14. 1. ?(g ? g+ 1). 14.. 10. (yll)(y4).000 ft. 5. 25 yr. a 12.5p + 7 g ).. Page 5. 17. 600. 100 1.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.6). 5pt. 55. Page Page 4. 17.0. Pace 65. (ro3)(w2). = _?_(2ar + 1). 17z8 (l3z + 2x').000. 160 lb.16. (a5)(a4). 2 2 ?/ 21. 9. 12. 10. 78. 9.. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 45 in. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 11. ( + 4)(*2). 1200. 2). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000 ft. 2 3 6 7.000. 7. 11 pV (2 p8 . 3. 18. 5 lb. w (/) 64. 10. . Page 7. 6. 21.000 gold. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).000. Page 79. 10 Mass. 5. Y. 1 lb.000 copper. 9. 9. 2. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.10. 72. 9. 10 Cal. 150.2). 19.000 Phil. 28yr. 13. 6. 14. (*4)( + 11. 70^. (y7)(y + 2). 18.(5z .y"). 7 hr. 4.24. 11 w(w' + wi . ~=90. 9.2. 1. 74. (p + 7)(3a5&). ^ .. 6. 25. 1.. 15.3. 5. 90 mi.. 8 12. 1. . 8. 4. 1313. $40. 20 yd. 68. 12. 52. 2.000. 13. 8 2 19. (z5)(z2). 10. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 20 yr. 13.. 9 in. (y 13.000 pig iron. 16. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. (m + n)(a + 6). 3. 4pt. 50. 15. 7. Page Page 4. 8 in. a a (a 8 a+l). 180.22.3). 30 yr. 8. 1200. 10 yr. 2.3aftc + 4).000.000. 8. 3 (a +&)(*. 2. 22. 5$ hr.7. 15. 90. . 3. 9. (c) ^ v ' .21. by 12 yd. 42yr.. 4. 11. 3. 7.000. 40 yr. 2 2 2 5. 2. 20. Ib. 4. 1250.. 6rt 2 11. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).000 Berlin.8. (y8)(y + 2). 20. 82 mi. 7a*fe(2a & l). 70. 30 mi. 3.. 14. 7.3. 480. (a 4) (a. 10.. 100. 6.. 2. Page Page 480 12. 15 mi. 18. (e) i* + A. 14. 10 yr. 80 A. 15. 12. 200. 12. 4. 75.. 13. 12. 6. 3. 2. 12 mi. 67. .30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.5. 200.
+ 0(90 Page 85. 32.r2). y) (a. 24. 31. 11. 9. 2. (2o + l)(2l).7)(2z f 1). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2 No 4. 10(a + ft)(aft). 10(2 30.4p). Yes. (a. 18. (4a. 28. (15z2y)(x5y). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2).  x (5 a. 23. Yes. (4al)(a2). (2 *+!)(* 9). 16. + 2y). 6. 29.c 2 ). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). . + 5) a. (a a: 19. 24 9. (5a +l)(5a l). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 9. 25. 12. (2 a? 4. 20. 23. 3)(3a.4.8). . Page 84. (az + 9)(ox2). (a 3 + 10)(a.9*). 34. 20. Yes. x (z + 2)(x + 3). a. 16. 25. . 9. 25. 10. 17. y) 2 29. (5x . 5. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 3. 16. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 35. (w + 20)(w + 5). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (3*2)(.2). (w ~ n (x . 24. 12. 14. 5. 1. 15. 100(x. 28. No. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). . (:52y)(2a!3y). 9. 34. 40 x. y(x. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 21. (3a. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 28. 19. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . x(x +y)(x y). 10. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .y (6x + 4)(5x4).1). 3(x + 2)(zl). (6n + l)(+2).4 6). 1. Yes.   . 10 a 2 (4 . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 8) (a. (w* (3a26).y) 2 aft. 11. 4. 6. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2).1). Yes. 10(a . Page 82. Yes. 36. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 26. (10a + ft)(10aft).2 by2 6. (5wl)(m5). 21. 8.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 18. (0 + 6)(66). . . (a 6 6) (a 4. 2 2 15. ( 2 4 19. 27. No. 2. 27. 13x7. (ay8)(ay3). 35. a*(5a f l)(flr .7) (a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (2yl)(y + 9). 22. (4y3)(3y + 2). . 23. 103x97. x\x 24. 216 aft. 3.3). 10. ix 18. 19. 7. 26. (3#y)(+4y). 27. 7. 26. + 9^)(oxy . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (a + 8)(a3). (a (p8)0> + l). + 3). 2. + y + . No. (13a +10)(13a 10). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).2).* (2 y + 3)(y. 25. 8. 4. (9y4)(y + 4). a(2u. 33. 33. 14. . (2xl)(x + f>). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 3. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Yes. 12. 2 3 by2 Yes. (x + y4 )(x . 25. 24.1). 14. Yes. Page 83.11 6) (a 4. (6 a.2 y). Yes. 1. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 4 (a . . No. + 8)(g3). 11. (<7 20. 17. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 7. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 22. 20. 31. 21. (y8) 2 2 . 10. Yes. 26. . 29. (y + 4)(yl). 2). (7 a + 4) (2 a .ANSWERS 16. (* + y)(zy).6) 2 2 . (4 13. 22.+4 y)(3x4 y). 9. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 21. 17. (ft + ll)(aftll). 30. a . + 4) (a. . . 13. (m + w) 2 5. 32. . + 3)(c44). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 22.11 ft)(a6). (15ay2) 2 . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (m7n) (a. 15. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 23. f 2). 100 (a. 3a.y4 ). 30. Yes..3)(z2).2 ft). Yes.6) 2 1. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).1).5y)(3a. No. (4 18. 7 6) (a 10 6). (g . 2 17. 8.
13. 16. a x 3 10. 13 x 8 2 . 11.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).l)( a 25.7)(^ {I 12. 13( 33.2). ( (<> r4y3 . y )(.2)(x 1. 15.5 m2 x2. 36. 28. a (a + 2 6). 24x sy s 9. (f> + fo 7.7s) (2 a. r x 2 */3 . 1(V/ 88. (7/1 2) (m 41). 4  9. 11.) j). 2 (a 4. 30. (a 4. 19. 2. 8. ^ . . l. 8. ( rt 23. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). ah}.y)(fi a . 14. 7. (2x7)(x 2 2). (. + 3. 39.  WIM.y). 13. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (5a+l)(9a).'J)(' . 14.4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (r420(4 10. 10(2 (3 4. + 2 //). 11. (^ + ?>_8). 40. (16 4  2(5 n . 2 21. .4).  (w' 4. 37. ( y). Exercise 47. 10. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . Page 12. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).2 y). 2 y) ^ . 3. 2 8(w . ( { &). 6. (w4w) 2 1. 35. x . 22.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 7. 7. 5  (2 2 .X 5. 2 2 10. (a &4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 1.4). 17(x43//)(x2y). x43. 32. b) (r 4. 6. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 5. (x//.1). 8x. 12. (c. 15 M. 2. 9. 42a 3 x. 4 a8 . 8. y(2x?/). 10(8x' 4l) 4.e 4.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).//)(5y x(x4ti<0.y. 24. 5 x8 3.3. 2. 15. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . Gp). 2 1. 14. a8 . x  1). (5^4. (w * .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 4. y6. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ?>). . 4. (x. 12. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (5 26. 27. 18. (!__/>). 41. (a 9. (2 a ~ f> b 4. .3)(x 4. 2 2 3 . a 4. 6. 3(. Page 90. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . x(x f y)(jr . 4. (14. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).))(x  ^OC 1 1).4. 4 3. a 41.  29. 13. n  r)(5a 10. 4. a 4.9). 9. (a />. a + a b.36). 6. 450.1). 6 f c).?/).0+ 12). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). ( a ^)(^3. Page 89. 12. 17.42 x 4. 2. 4 6. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).8) ( (16. 11.'/)('< 4. a 2 (a9). Page 86.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. ofc)( fid). x 4.?>) H.8) n 43*).2). 42). fi(c426)..3.&).&).r(3x' 2 4 (14. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 2(m4l)' . 8. . 16. 2 + . 20. 6.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 7. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4).b. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 5. Page 87. 4).y '2 2). 3x(x?/) 4. 4.1) 3. 4. 8. 2. 14. Page 92. 3 x4 .'})(c . y). 7. 8. 38. (> 1. 7. (m  I)' 6. . 2 k (wi 4. 2 .?50)(xt/z.n).8). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 8. 4.^ 48. (5 31. ?i(w 4y) . 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).!) (x42)(x2).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 5. Exercise 46. 4 a s &8 . 8). 6. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 5. (^ 7.
6). // m+1 !+*?. x 24. 1). ?_!&. a 10 25. a 23. x 12. b ! 21. x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. 13. +5 1. + y) (a: y).  1). +8b a 4 3 / ^. 6a2&(rt6).ANSWERS 10. 18. (a2)(a + 2)2. 11. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + &) 2 ( . 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.
w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6.  **/* + 84 _. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w1 + ac w 4 7. i^. Page 100. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 0. 28. . a 5. 4c 10.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 7. _*^p5_^^_. 6. i. 30. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. xy 43. 26.. 4 L 8 2 . 6. Page 101. 4. A^. 11.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 6a5f^. 1. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + lH + . 2 a. + 2H 1 ^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ' 2 7. c 8. ^~ 29.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.50 ~ 1/2 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .
b a f +c 14. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 45. 4. 11. 0. 26. 14. 29. 4. 4a3ft.  V o 4. Page 113.^U\WF### X<6. f Page 107. a2 2. 11. 4. ac mp lf> n 12. 1. b 2. 10. 23.y 7. 7. 7. 12 28. ' 6.ft . ^i 11. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 3. a. c 8. 1. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 40. 15. Page 111. flf. 14. ! 4 20. 6 . 3. 6. . pf n 6 1. 32. 41. 5. 9. x 1. a 17. 3. 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 5. 9. J. 1. 8. 24. 6. 15. n . 1. 11. 30. m 9. 25. 3. j L . 5 6 Q 5 a 12. w^x 2 b Page 105. (y + (z 12. 21. 42. . 16. . 44. 33. 21. 4. 1. 7. ft. 9. 6. 12. 5. 17. Page 106. 8. 46. 14. 21. 43. 1. . (>.^_.  10 X + u. 15. 1. 6. 3 7 i o. x\. f 7. 18. 27. 35. 36. n m a + 13. 4. 10. 37. 2 47. an 18. 2ft a i m x. Page 110. +3 ( + 15. 38. 12. + f. 39. x 05m ' 5. 34. 20. n 16. 1. 19. ?. Of. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5 be _J_. ?+_!?>. 0. 16. 3. 8j_m 7 3. 6. 11. y(x + x ?/). 13. 11. 4. ^_. 31. J.L+ft. 5. A. 7. J. 2) 19. 17. 3. 1.
[>> ^ a . 30ft. 20. 7. 17. 8301 hr. 34. _JL. (ft) (r) 8 hr. . f. 10. $0. 12. 17. 9.9. 40 yrs. 28. 81.004. 36. 35. (a) 4 min. 2:1. ~m . = A's. Page 121. 40wn.. min. 9$.000. 75 . 10. 15. 4.. * 7:9. 300. 9. 9J oz. ft. 1 da. 19. 11 hrs. 10. 13. 24. 275:108. " 0. 4~r~ n . ^p^ r ~ 7. 5 2. 4. after $12. 10. 10.10. 15. a 4 ft. (a) 12 hr. 7} 18. ANSWERS 16. #V ~~ 34. 16. No. 17. 14. after 18.  C . 00. 212. 9. 6. 21. 20. 18. J. (d) 500. . 7. 7.15. () 2. 2 20. 4fl M_. 16. (a) 30. 26 30. 1 : 12.0 & . 26 mi. P+ ^ 33.2. :2. 300.000 1 = 23. 5. (ft) 28. 10 yrs. 15. n 32. Yes. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 8. 13.. Yes. 5. (c) 2 hr. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .001. 1:1=1:1. 10^ oz. 10. 8. ^?i min...11. 38ft min. 26. 5 25. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 124. '"I 22.0. 14. 11. Yes. 3. 300. 15. Page 119. 2. 3. 30 mi. xy. No. 3. 5ft 30mi. 4. 14. Yes... 15. (c) 8300.003. 11. 24 mi.x + y. 8. 4. Yes. 3 da. ./hr.000. (a) 25. Page 118.  + . (ft) 5 hr. 7T 2 Page 116. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . $45.139. 1:3. 17. dn ~ mi. 12. 19. 18. 7. 12. 9ft. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4. w 21. 6. 7. f . Page 117. 10. Yes. nm./hr. 13.. J ^'. $40. 21ft min. 55 mi. 1.138. 2. 3. 30. 1:4. 19. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. $00. 3.  29. 1. 7 . 33. 6. IV s. 16. Yes. Yes. 14. 31. 20.000. 1. 40 mi. silver. 10. . 22. 33. 5. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. 27. w 44. 24. 1. 1^'. (r) 3^ da. 15.2. 9.137. 32. 3. 21. Page 125. 30 yrs.000. 2x:3y. 19. gold. 7. ^m . 8. (ft) 5 da. $30.. (ft) 104. 1: ~. . .. 8. 500. 18. 74.} da. 23< &n b ' . 15. . (d) 4 da. w 18.XIV '/ . min. 13. 3:2. after 20. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. jj.000 If da. 11.002. 0.
8. lo mi. I. 945 11 10 . 36. 11 5 . copper. *. x +y x + 74 7 \. 43.  ?. 7. : : . w. 2. 2. 5. 10.1. mi. 6. 11. 56. 35.3. 6. 2. 13. a 3.000 sq. . t 5. 7. : 23.J 3. 9  15.4. 4. 2. + b 7 . 16. x 42. 2. 30. 3. 26. 27. 15.1. 16. 20 20 J ^. 1. 8. 39.4. 13. 25. Page 133.J. 2.5. ini. 2. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 3. 14. 8. 13J. 8. 40. 46. 9. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. in.. 26. . 11. x y y . () Directly. .3. Inversely.*.) 31. J pq.4.5. 58. y .840. 4. 24. 53. 4. 4. 7. 5. 24 1 (e) Directly.]. 12. 19.C ?/ a . 4. Page 9.5. 2.3. 12. x y = 1 = 3 2. 3. (</) ft.3.r. 22. 2.4.2. 11. in n. . 7. 59.  28.2 oz.6. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2. 15> 9. 6. 5. OJ. . mi. 41. ft. 2. 1. 1. 5.3. 7. 7. Page 134. 7. .22.5.5. 7. 13. : />. 200 mi.15 x. 4. 7^. 47. 41. () 7 Page 126. 9. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . a~.. 3. 3 2=3 x. 3.9. ~ 1.8 oz. 21. 5. 8. 3. 7.2.3. 3. 9. 17. w 8. 3. ' 55. 4. 3. .46.7. 1. x:y a: b. 21. 20."2:1. a +b 1. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 18.2 x. 1. 2. \. /. + W. 2. 4. 10.a.1.57. 30. 48. 9. 20. 9. 57. ig 6.1. 31. Page 5. 1 rt * vm^1.4. 2. 45. J. 24. 14. 3. 5. 11. 50." ^ 2. 5:0 = 10:12. + 7>i//  ft 1 . = 7 b'. 7. i. 5. 40. 20 cu. 38. \\. y 1.. 8. 9. (b) Inversely. l.' : : : : <>. OJ. 54. 11. 6 10 = 12. 5. 1. 28.3. 19 3 . land. 1.12.000 sq. 6. 14.  19. 55. 2.5. . 19. 52. 17. 174+ Page 128. 3. 17. 5:3 = 4: x.3. 19. 1(5. tin. : . 6. 36. 10.12.li. 14. Page 135. 5 2.5. 2. 19 OJ. (a) Directly. 22. Page 137. 3. 7. Page 136.20. 1. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 1. 13. 3}. 9. 10. 3  24. 4. 23.7. 16. water. 25. 4.5. 4.36. y a y = 7 0. (I. .1.2. 4.3. . J. Page 131. 127. 7. $. 2.2. 25. 4.3. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .^ 0?j ' gms.15. 7. 9. 12. 15. . 31J. 1. "lO. 29. cu. y :y =. . .5. 7. 12. 2. jc:y = n:m. 141. 11 w a 13.3. 49. 2.160. 23. 2. 7. : : T 1' : /> : . 2./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 2. 1 18 = 3 51. 2.ANSWERS 22. 3. : XV 27. 138. 2. 44. 32+ mi.17. 8.x a. 4. . 5. 2. 4. 2 n . Page 132. s<i. 5. 32j. 5. 2. 3. Of. 7. b x 37. J. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 6*.
(ft) 20. 3. & May. 2. 29. .1. 25. 2. 12. 20.$5000. a. 1. 1. 14. 12. 16. 8. On 11. 3. 4. 20 to Oct. . Nov. 3. 4. yrs. 6.4. 1. ' . 90. 3. 7. $ 1000.. 3. 3. . 3. 16. 10. 2. 3. 6 cows. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 18. . B's 40 yrs. $500.  11. 7. 2. (c) . 5%. 18. ^. 2. 8. A's 30 18. 7. &. be 7. 10. 7.1. ad AzA. 3. 40. 26. 4. 24. A's 50 13. Nov. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 1. 4. 9. Apr. 21. 1 (d) Apr. 13. m + n p. SL=J o ft r^2. m f 9. 12. 4. Apr.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 7. 4. 16. 1. Jan. Nov. 10. 3. 2. a =J (n  1) rf. 28. 4. 7. 5. 23. $6500at3Ji%. July 20. 9. 5. 9. 3. 7. $900 5%. 4. 2. 2. Jan. . 25. 3. m . 24. A a parallel to the x axis.  17. 2t2. Page 142. 5. $3000. (5. 1. (ft) 23 J. 19. . 11.. Page 151. 16 to July 20. 10. (<f) 13. Oct. 13. 2. 1. Page 145. 3. J. M 2. 12. 24. 20. 5. 14. 11. 6. 19 gms. 1. 15. u 2ft.33. 6. 16. C's 30 yrs. June. . 40. 6. 17. & part of Feb. 2. 6%. ' 6 3 a. 10^ gms. 9. at 15. 3.10. . 10 sheep. B's 15 yrs. 4. 23..9. Page 146. 6. . parallel to the x axis 0. 10. 5. 1. . (a) Apr. ft 3. 5. Jan. 3. 2 horses..1J. 30.l. 5. Page 149. 2. 11. 15. 3). 8. 20. 5. 20 & Oct. Nov. 4. 6. About 12f. 2.65. 72. 5. Page 153. July. 2. 4. 25. 3. C's 10 yrs. 9.3. 17. 0. 21. 7. May 5. Jan. 18. $4000. 25. July.0. 20. 22.0. ad _(?jrJL. 27. Aug. 8. 6. m f 8. Jan. 3. 423. 13. . 0. 2.7. 16. Page 152. 4. <*ft/ bd 1. On the y axis. 30.4. 100. 19. (a) 12.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 4 ' q. 14. 4. 3. 2.n + p. 32. 23f . 26. 24.4. 3. 1.8. . On the x axis. 5. Page 143. 31. 2.. 11. 7.2. 4. 2. 00. 3. through point (0.$2000.3. yrs.3. 11. 147. The ordinate. 18. 11. 20.. Apr. 30.^. & part of Sept. 1. be 10. 6. 9. 4 mi./hr. 1 (c) Jan. 2. = ^ a Page 141. 1. 7. 4. $250. 17. 0. 12. 15.2. 2 a.XVI Fagel39. Page 22. Feb. . 16.
f. 32F. 26. 3. 2. 6. 5. 9.3. 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 125 a 8 12. 20.73. .1. 20. 2 2 22. Inconsistent.41 and 23. 15. 2. 18. 5. 2.5.1. 2. 1 23.64. 14. 1. Inconsistent. 19. 10. 1. a + ft. 19. 3 . 17. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 3. 1.75. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 8. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 15. (/) 3. 3. 1. 5. .75 (ci) 3^. 12.59.25. a 10 ' a ll V&. 125a 28. 27 19. (ft) (d) 2. 13. 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 10 C. . . 3. 22.. 8. m. 5. . () (rt) 3. 2. 5 and 2. . . 3. 14. 18C. (e) 3. . 2 l.5 (ft) 3. (a) 2. 10. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.24. 10.75.73. 2. . 8 1 f f g*.75. 4. 8. (ft) 2.25.24 . SlstyW 7. 3.34F. Page 158. xW. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .41 and . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 1. H. jgiooyiio 17.2 (ft)  1.83. 14. 30.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1. 27. 1. 25. 3.25. . 1. 1. (a) 12. 1^. 8 a1. 3.84. H.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.67. .25. 2. 1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. ft . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 11. (ft) (ft) 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. 24. 1. Page 163.24. (/) 3. 5. 4. (<?) 2. ft 2 4. 24. . 0. .64. f12 wi 9. 27 27 81. 2. 1 4.73. (c) 2. 22. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.  12 ft xW  26 31. (a) 4. f 10. 1. 13C. (e) 2. .79.4. 2ft4 Page 168. xg . _ 9 x ^27 1 .3. 4}.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 2. 15 . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. f. Indeterminate.. ImW. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. 4. 7. . 3. 13 .7. 28. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 2. .. 2. 2 a&m Page 167. 3. +3 4. G. 3. 3. 2. xy. 14. 16. 11. 3. * 16. 1. . (ft) and (d) 2. 125 16. . 2.. 13. 1. 1. 4 ) 21. 3. 3. . 2. . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. Page 159.25. 12. 83. 3. 1. ' :=_!. . Indeterminate. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. 21. a 29. 0C. 9 and Page 166. 4. 4. 13. \ft) 5. (c) 14 F. 5.  1.73 ami .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. (a) 5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 3. (c) 7. Page 164.5. 6." 23.83. 5.6.  . 4.59 . .13. 3. (gr) 21. 8mW.  1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.27. 2. 1. + a 4 ft* . 2. . 11. 81 ". . 15. . 2. 30. 4. 2. .79. 9.
(:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 30. 8 /. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 4. 1. I 8x2). ?7i 1 1 3 1. a 2 .037. 2. 6.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. (a + y+l). ??i ?i . 4. Zll. Page 176. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 16. 237. 14. 247. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . + Z). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 300. 3. 64.2). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 17. 57. . 5. 5. 2 4 8 2 . 11. 3 2 ^. ). 9. 978. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3).5. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 98. + (win . (4a2 9& 2 13. 99. (a 2. 15. 6. 17. 7. 3. r> 4 : 1 . . 1 1 ?>). 90. 10 x G a 4 . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . fe *?>' ?> fi . 2. 2 12. 101. 19. 17. 21.f 1 m 9 16.10 a~ + 5 a . 23. 9. + l). 10.1. AN S WE no . (3a. 5 5 8. 9. 8. 8. 309. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4).^). ^i.6. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 13. 3. + y). 26. 33. 3 2 8 3 12. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 12. 18. 32. 21. . GOO 2 c 2 .GO a c + 23. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. ( Page 174. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 6. a. 20. 2(> + ( 2 7>).y2 ). 11. 20. 3M. a. 9. 20. 34. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 7. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 8. 0. 180 . 8. 13. +3 + 5 4. 8. 25 19.a b 22. (ab + c). 15. a ).i c 6 15. 00. 4.  +X '. 12. . 84. + + ?V 22. 14. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 11. 24. 19. + 29. 2 49 . 76. 90. 6 (\x 3. 2. 5. 420. . 16 6 w . 27. 3.94.5). 10. 119. ? : 1 . (x' l). 2038. 1. (1 (x2y). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 35. 1.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.3 ab + 2 2 ). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 28. 30. Page 170. +35. (2 a + ft). 2. Page 172. 10. 2 2 4. . 7. 6. m 13. 2 2 7. 31. (48 + 6. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. (a + 2 +l). 20.7 /)). 1.83. . 16. (Gx + (i + 2a. 4. 9. (x + y\ 90. /> 4 ). 9.+3^ + 4. 71. 18. 40. 5. rt . 5. (ly). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 6. 72. 18. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 16. 25.  x. 2.x ). 3 6 23. Page 171. ? .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 1247. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. + i)). 14. (l + x + .XV111 7. . c 10 6 :l 20. 36. 70. 15. 15.1. 763. 22. a: l . 14. 12.r 2 + 6jt).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 11. 10*. .
l~8. 18. 35. " ^_ 22. 7. V35 1. 11. 5. Page 179. 15.  5.. 2. vV'TA 24. . 16. . 2. 10.798 yds. 4J. ft. 29. 5.a. J. 26. 1 7. 1 38. 1. 10. i. 18. 13. 23. 7}. 19.6. 46. 6yds. 4 W**. 14. 7. 3. {. 6 f !. 7. 13. 3.}.60. 1. 16. 5f. 10. 6. 6561.13. 8.. > w ft. 2. 12. 7. 8. Page 185.. 29. v 17. 3. 5. *. 3. 2. 11. ^.243. V17. V. 13. 49. 10. 2. 12. 1&. 12. 36. ft. f ^ is.i. 23. 3. .5. 5. 11.469. 6. 8. V2. 6. \/3. a + 61.?. 3. 4. 28. m. 270 sq. 3. 2. 5.6. ZLlAiK 19.. 39 in. 17. 3. Af^. 34. 17. 16. ^. 31. 3. 7. Page 184. 2. 27. 9. 9.. m.6. 2. 5. 32. 4.18. 25. or 3. 7. 3. 42. 30.522 38. .ANS WERS 22. 14. 11. 10. 13. 17. 24. 21yds.916 yds. . 1. 6. 14.4. 5. 15 1 10. 44. 12.237. 29. 9. 5. Page 183. 4.w 18.  43.645. 9. 2. . 6.935.690. 36. . 4 n. / 11. . JJI. 4.  f. 25 J. 21 in. 7563.. 15. 10. f. 12. 2. 5. 3. 9 15 ft. xix 26. 23. 3.  f. 21 28 ft. }. 28. 7.  2. >i 27.6. f f V. 15. 15. 2. 15. 1. 7. 12.*. 10. 25. 1. 33. 12. 19. Page 180.. f 3. 1 f Vl3. (afl). 8. 47. 8. f . i ^. ft. 2] see. 33. w. V2. 6. 9. 5.6. 30. 2. 31. 27. .1. 7.4. 5. 37. ii :J _7.V 8j. 6. >TT 26. 2. 40. a. 48. or 5. 14. 4. 4. 7. 7. 3.367. 4.. 50. _ iVaft.4. 4. 34.  14. 35. 1. 6. 4. 2 sec. 21. 4. 9. ^^7m. . V J l. 1. 20. 20. 14. f. 3. 21. (6) Vl4 3. 7 in. 41.925 ft.236. . 7 45. 5. 3J. 9. 21. 6V'2J.5. * 1. 1.. 4 a. 13. 20. 5. 32. 4. . Page 181.Sn.742 in. Page 177. If ^. 1. 12. 22. 10.1. 4. 36 in. 11. 40. (< + ?>). 4 TT M 28.. () 2. 24. 16.  3. vYb. 5. 1. 8. 4. 5083. 39. /. 6V21. 1.  1. 39. ~ V^3. 28 in.005. 10. 37. 16n. 9. 6J.
6. 6. 53. t is. 16. AB = 3. 10. 7. 9. Real. 19 in. rational. a + 6. 7. 3. 19.2. 6. 4.  6. 6.37. 7. 1. 0. 2. 5. V2. unequal. 20 eggs.1. Real. 9. 15. s 11. 46.23. Real. i . 27. '  f 5. 49. 2. 4. 1.  9x <). 2.5 x + 6 = 0. 28.XX Page 186. . $30 or $70. 10 mi. Imaginary. 1. .  2. $ 120. rational. 6V64. 2. 0. V^l. 2. 10 or 19. 3. 2.23. 4 da. x 14. 28. x*4x=0. . 3. 3. . 2. 8.2. 20. 56. ANSWERS 22. 1. 36. 2. 3.. 21. 1. 7. 7. Page 191. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 18. ^l/>> = 85 ft.  1. 1). . 64c. 1. 6. 26. 14. . jr .. H. 3. 6. 26. irrational. 120 ft. 9. 22.2. 2. 40. 1. x2 + B .1.2. Imaginary. 1. 8.  2.6 = 0. . Real. f 6 52 a.  5.4.  1. 70 ft. 1_^L ft 14. 0. 10. 0. 3. = 0. _ 19. 0.62.41. V^~2. unequal. 4. 0. 1. $80. 2. 1.70. . i. . 16. 52. Real. 3. AB = 204 ft. 21. 58. 7. 24. . + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .2. . unequal.a.1. 0. 44. 0. 3. 3. 0. 3. 23. a8 .Oa.7. 35. 3. 39. v^^fcT"^.  1. rational. 17. 0. 3. V7. 3. 24. V2.2 x2 . 3. f. 2. 1. 20 nii. 32. VV11. 3.74. in. 47.7. 1 3. orf. 4.$40 or $60. 2. 10 mi. . Imaginary. 1. 5. equal. 8\/2 17. Real. 42. Page 190.2. 22. 1 . 64. 4. 19. 15 ft. rational. 7.10. a. Page 187. 6. 1. 35. 8. 26. 0. 25. 16. a + 1. equal. 5.5. 2.3.  i. 33. V ~ 16 4 2.a 3 a./hr. 12. 15.59. 2. equal. U.3. 18. 25.4.2. rational. 2. . 13. ./hr. 26. %.'. 12.4. 1. 12. 4. 2. . 25. 29. 6. .7. a. Page 192. 4.2. 0. unequal. *'' 12.6.4.  5. 2 ft./hr. 1.4.12. irrational. 12. 3if. 0. 2. .02.. Page 189. 31. 11. 7. 15.3.  1. (5 10. 2. 8 or 12 mi. V^l. unequal.  24. 6. unequal. 4. 4. 38. 2. 1. 3. 55. + 11 x.  Page 194. 1.17. Real. 43. 1. 2. .  1.* 2. 3. 10 in. #<7=3. . 23. 9. 6. 2. 8.  13. 34. 3. 27. ft.2. 3./hr. 24. 23. 2. f. 2 V3 in. 13. 3. 11. If. 48. . unequal.0*8.12 = 0. 5 ft. 21. 25. 10.. 0. 30. 57. 3. unequal. . unequal.2. 12. x* 51. 41. Real. 1. 20. Page 188. 6^2 in. 28..a.5^. 0. ' 1. 5.. 27. 37. 1. 2 . 4. 45. 18.48 3. 5.l. Imaginary. 0. 2. 3. 20.]. 50. r* i. 14. .48.
m'. 3. 41. 29. 8. .//^. 2. 9. 14.. 11. 10. 32. 11. vV.1 5 15. 39. 23. 15. 20. Jb \. 21. 19. 13. 29. r*.^7. 3. 2. J. 3. 28. 9. 6. 243. 4. 1.  f. 3 4 11. 44. 0. v^T4 m. v'frW. xxi 15. 16. J. l  5 12. 4. 17. ^49. 17. Page 201. 35. 18. 12. 16. 7V7. 19. 1V1. 24. Page 200. 55. v. 13. 17. 2V a. 31. 26. 5. 48. r. 30 a. 3. 25. . 0. 19. v/3. 8. 3. 7. 5. 14. Page 199. 3. 57.  J j. 38.ANtiWEUS rational. . 4. 59. 1. ^Sf 3 38. 14. \ . 49. 5. (m 26. 20. 'J. 25. n\/* Page202. 40.  f . 2.2. p. \/r\ 11. 10. 31. 19. ar 1 . 53. 60. x. m. 8. 9. 21. 25. 50. 33. 5. 8. 2. ifa. 1. jV 10. a. 9. y . 23. JV37. 18. $7. 3. 1. 47. 18. 2. 8.  5. y. 45. 1. . . 1. ) 2 >J i 10. 3. 49. &.32. 16. 1. 13. 21. \. v'frc 18. 51. 47. V^ 34. 84. a 18 . 1. 3. 125. 7. . fx'^z'l 23.17. 4. 2. 0. 36. 7 . wA 46. 5\/5. 6  AAf. 1. 52. 10. 4. 8.  48. 24. 5. J. . 29. 49. _! V3. 7. \/3. 30. 12*2 61. 50. 14. 20. 54. I. ). 46. 8. 22. 9. vm. 2 L ( V. 5. 27. 15. ? . 4. 2. \a\ \/^. x/25. 2. 33.  a'2 . 3. x$. 24. 12. J. i. 6. 28. 1. z + 22. 42. 43. 33. . 20. : . 2. 3. 56. aW\ 40. Page 196. \. 27. 1. 1 39." 17. 4. 8. 22. 2. 2. \/.6. Vr. 15. Page 197. 9. 37. 58. J 3. 32. 3. 49. *V. . 4. 13. 30. 10. 16. . 1.
. Page 203. 28. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12.707. x%  3 ^+ 1. 2>X2. 25. 13 a. m* n*.yl : . 5. 12.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. x y. 31. 21.). + 2 ar 1 ). r c . . (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). + . 26. 29. 2 '"V5. Vr 8. 9. 7. 11. 5 22. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. + Vic + 25. 37. y. ?tV?w. 30. 27.648. V 5 47. 28. x.  a Vft 2 121 b. 2. V. 16. 5. 3 x^y 33. ^: V2c. 38.692. ^7 \AOx. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . 3 42. 135V6. 23. 3 \ 39. 13 35. 1) 3V3. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 19. 22. 62V(J. 49. 32. 3V5.2 18. 51. 5 ( . 2 x* 15. y (a + ft) V2. 43. 41. 33. ^88". 8. ftV 46. 31.XXii ANSWERS 1. 15. 195V3. v^. 20.2 VlO. (a 27. 16. 9. 32. 34. . 24. 40.x^y* + y%. a2 4. 11V3.f. 9. JIV6. V. .577. 36.632. k/2. r 17  Page 204. 2v (T 2aVf. x + 5 x3 + 0. x 7  34.rV:r.3 + 40 3 . 48. 101 1. Page 207. + 2). T. . 3. 19. 17. 34 r 6. + 1. 3^2. 3.Vxy 35. V63. 39. 10. Va 2 "ft. a^ + 2^+1. 4aV^J 16. V2 + 4 V22. 30. a 3. 6. 2. 40. / V3. 13. 2. 3^ + 2). 6. + 2 Vzy + y 1.r. 2 4 z2 l 3. 4. v/^r 5  A/^~.'\ 14. l 5. 45. 20.  2 3:r. x^ . 8. 10. 7. 24. 03r* 7. 10. (o* 2. x 25. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2\/7. 21. 20&V6. Page 208. a 4 +* + !. 8V/) 15. 9 . + + ft. 3. ). abVab. 50. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. + 2 V22. 13. 1. 3 4\/2. . 8a6V5. v'TM. . 2. 37. 4.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 2. 26. 11. 29. 2.. 2 a?>V2 a. V80. 17. yV35. 3V^T. 18. (x' (l 1+x).
x/8l. 17. 10. 27. Page 211. / \/w/t 4 13. 8v2T 12. 2 1. 22. . \/128. 6. x/125. ^v 7 15. \/04a. 8  \/15. 2. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . v/lO. 2 ate. x/8. 8. 25. x/27. v^4. 36. b. . 53. r)\/(l Vrtr. v^30. + VlO  v y (5. 34. 17. 14. 6x2?/. 14. x/8L v/27. 26. 19. V8. 2. 15. + 20. 3 Vl5 30. 14c 4 V5. 24. '. 32. 35. V3"m. rtv/5. V3. xx 1. ^ 3 b 5 24. 25. 23. 10V(). V3. 42. 24. a^\/a7>. : ^32. 39. 3v^2. 9 VlO + 4. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . a\/5c. 3. Vdbc. 2. 22. 28. \/a6c. 30. 2 28. 12. VT5. 4\/5. 34. 1V5. 31.ANSWERS _ Page 209. W). 37. 18. \V3. 5V2. 16. 40. 12. \/8. 6+2V5. 6 2\/0. 37. 44. 8. Page 214. 30 Vl4. 48. 46. Page 213. ^\/3. 3 V15  47. 17. 43. 3. v^f. 6. 31. 10. v7^. x/3. 41. 3\/2. 15. 2\/7. v/8. 7. 0. v^lf. V2. 29. VJla. v 25^4714 V2"a. 35. 23. Page 210. 13. 21. 6aV2\^. 21. vT). 11. 5v/2. \XOfl6Vi5. 39. 6V2. V5.. v"5. 4VO. 0. 40. Vn. V5. 16. 21 23. v^a. 27. 4 a*. 20. v/9. 8V2. 7. 3. . "v/wi ??. 74\/Jl 120 46. aVa. . "^8000. 5 \/2. . 16. D 45. 7\/(l 7VTO. 13\/3. 2. Page 216. 5. 2 \/2. 4. 32m27n. 6. \^6. 5. . v/l2. 4. 1. 6. 11. V2. 51. Vat. 5. 1. 11. \/abc*. 3 V2. v^O. 10. 52. 7. 8V73\/IO. m ?i2Vm/t. \^r^bVabc. 36. 38.r v/^ v^fr*. \/2. 2yV2?/. x/4. 2. ^9. 18. 19. V/. 18. 38. a2  b. fl^Vac. 3\/15  6. 13. 6. 4 >/3. Vtf +3+ 33. x/w^ 8. ab 4. 9. 1. . 32. 9. 2 V'3. 3\/wi. w?i. 9. 3. 14.T*. \^6.J Page 212. v"3. v/i). 26. 49. 3.30 2. % 29. 5V2. ^27. 50.  3. 33.
4. 4. fV2. 15. 0. 17. 3. 5. 9. 6. 10. 26. 1. 2x^2^. 7. 21. V3. 1.\/TO). 8 V3V2. 23. 34.3. 12. . 7. 11. 29. 12. n*. 4. 15 f 3 V2L 4.7071. m f. 23.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 9. 25. 4. 3. .  2.7083. 7 Page221. 1. 224. (2f V"5). . 2. 15. 25.1547. 10. 11. Page 223.2828. ^\/2. 8. 14. 9. + 5V2. 11. 9. 31. 9. +3 V2).4722.464. 4.732. J. 15.V3). 10. 5. J. 20. 33.4142. 1. 22. 5 f. j 15. 21. (2V2). 23. 16. 4. * 3.601. 24. 20. 24. 10. 25. 37. 16. 24. 8. 3(7+3V5). 12. 2. 17. 2. 2. 17. + 6) 2 . 8. 4. 14. Vf6fVtf. 23. 12. V2. V3 . Page 218.0606. 1. 7. 3. 18. 9. (Vf + (4 V2). 4.389. 8. !^ 6 4. ^r. 25. j. 19. \. ^. 12. Page 219. 13. (VaT^v a). 14.6. 20. 16. 21. 4. 1. 3. 1. _^JflJ?. 2. V6c. ^. . 2. . 8. 19. 25. 28. (a 1. (3+ v/2). Page 28. 9. 3V23.13. 4. xy 2. K>/0 + \/2). 16. 27. 2. (VllV2). 216. . 4. 23. 10. 1. 0. 30.^ (\/22 4. f. 16. . 22. (V5f 5. 19. 11. ~ Vac _c 0. 7. 4. 5. (2Vll). (V21).81. (V8 + V2.5530. 22. 8.64. i^Lzi. 30. 2V2. V^TTfc. 5. 13. 7.  13. 8. 6. 32. 27. 512. p 6 13.2. 4.1805. . 12. 7. 14. 6. 18. 9 mn. Va. 3. 24. 36. 9. 1. 17. 81. 1. 3. 6 (V2 + 1). 18. ' 22 i . 29. 2!5_. 64. 4.1. Page 226. 18.5. Page 225. . 21 ' Vob 26. x 20. 5. 125. 19. 5 + 2 vU 17. 6 V. 5 V65. 2V3. Va. A . 2V3. 1.9. 8. \/57t. 5. \/3). Page220. 25. nVTl. 16. ANSWERS 8.w 6. 25.3. (V6 + 2V2). 5. 7 f 5 4. (\/3f 1). i(Vf Vft). 20.3535. 13. i^ ~ 1 v ^.2. (V51). 6. V3. 27. 16.. 15. V5. 6. 19. (\/5V2). 5. . V. V35.732. V3. 11. {. 4V3 + 6.  . 100.XXIV 7. 7. (2. .625 10. 9. 11. 3. 5. 16. 2 . 4. 15. 81. 35. 4 14. 2ajV2*.  f. 7. Page217. 26.6 V3. 10. 18. 10. ^(VlO\/2).
3. 3.4). 1. Page 233. 20. 10. 2. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (2 a. 2 . 2 6. 1. 14. 87 . 19. 1 . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 3. 2. .1. 4. 0. . 7.5 xy + 25) 22. 25. 2. 2. 3. 9.r . 7. l. 0. 3.l)(m .3. (a 4.3. 3. 5. 11. 0. (pl)(p2)(p2). 6 2 2a + 2). 3. 7. 20. 1. ( 16. 13. 1. \/0. 8. 3 5. 5. 1. 6.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 3. 5. 4 . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2. 2. o. 4. 12. 3. 22. 25. 5. 30 . (B43). . 18. P.3. 2.3 2. (8. 6. . . 6. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. J 24. t/ 23. 4.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). J. 4 . ' J.2. 2 V^ . (r.4. 15. . 3.4. 5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 26. 73. 0. . 18.w 4 + 1). 3. . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 7. 23. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). . 2. 17. 4. 4. 12. 6. f . 4. 11.3. 3. (&y2a#H4). (pl)(p3)(p6). 2. 1.7. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 50. 4. . 1.^a. 3. 16. 1. =A^Z3. 13. a  .8a 18. 28.  3. 24.  . 4.2)(m.2)(* . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 10.3. J. . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 9. . 1.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 3. a(. 5. 25. 4. 1 . . 3 . 19. V3. 8 6 & 0. 8. 7. . 7. 3. 10. 8. 10. 1 (?> x/^3. 4. 2. 3. . 8. 3.4. 5. 1. 4. 2.  3. 8.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 6. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2. 13. . 1 6. ~ f7. 25. 9. 4. 4. 7. 21. a: :} . 11. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 1. 3. 15. . 2 . 16. 6.22. 24. 3. 13.Y. 5.  1.  2. 17. 0. 12. 1 . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . (rt. 30 30. 3. 11. 5. 5.3).  3. 2.12. 1 . 3 . 4. .ANSWERS Page 228. 5. 3. 3 9. 1 .l)(a 2 + a f 1). (a. //.2. 20. 12 24 y .  5. 6. 5.5.2.  1. 4. qpl. 1.nl^EI. 3. 2. 3. 1. 1. 12. (xy + 5) (x*y* . (4 mn . 5. 100. 21. 3. 2. 2. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 3 . 14. 8. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 4. 30. 10. (a . 14. 1. 5.  J. 4. 2. 1. 0. 11. 2 > 1. XXV 4. 2. 19. (a. J Page 235. 2 &. Page 236. 30. Page 234.. 0. . 7. 2. 2. (+!)( 2) 10.  f . 2.10. 13. 2. (w . 2 6. 2. 3. 1. 4 1. 4 20. f>. 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 56l). 15. y. . 3.  4. (63)(6' t 18. 0. & + 6 2 ).1. 1 3. 10. a . 4 4. . 4. 12. 2 .l)(a3)(a . 17.  16). 2. b . (m 4 + l)(ro. 1. 22. 11. . 2. 2 <? 4a2 . 73. 2 .0.
}. 1. 2. . ANSWERS 2. no co . 29. 2.0.0. $46. 3. 13. 21. 1.5. 2. 2 ft.. 1 . Exercise 113. 3.3. 9. 4 . 3. 2. 4. 400. 4. 1. 125 125. 15. jj. 3 4. . 25. 31. 3. 3. 3V5. 2. 3. 12 ft. 9. 20. 4. V7. 5. 19. . 3 . 1. . 14. 4. 4.. 15. . 38. j. . Page 244. 5. 512. Page 241. 6. 15. 30. 35 a. 1.1. 2. 5. 3. 2.. 512.30. 1. 8. 5. 7. 2. 8. . 8. 12. 2 16.y. 17. 3 2. 2. . .136. 9. 1.200. 35. 2 . m27. 45yd. 40 25 in. Page 240. . 8. = QO 6. 5. 3. 40 in. 11. 4.  11. 2. 14. oo . 55. . 2 26. 28yd. 48. 2 . 3 cm. 15. 5. 4. 4. \. 4. 35^ 5. 12 1. 4. 4. Indeterminate. 1. 7 3. 2. _ 5. 24. 8 . 1.. 3. c.3. 3 3. . _ 7.. 3. ft. 1. 13. 37. } . 11. n . in. 9.3. 1. 1. 7. 2>/3. 5 4. i i i . 2 2. 2n. 39.3. 4. 23. in. 6. 900. 8. 8 3. 5. 5. . . 3. 4 8.3. 6. 4. 1. 1 .  2 . ft. . 201. 50. . 3. . 15. 1. f>. Page 238. 13. 3. 4. 1. 16. 14. 12ft. 15. 5. 1. 37. 0. 18. ^ }. 8. 5. 7f solution. n. 2. 1. 5. 18. 12. 10. 16. 8. 2. ri*.1. 15. 4. 2 10. 1 . 14.3 . 4. 23. 5. 24. (>. (&) 2. 3. Indeterminate. 17. . 5 . 12. 3. . 14. 3. in. 4. 2. 21. 7. 3. 2. _ 10. 3. 33. 1. 1. 22. i. 9. $. 11. . Exercise 114. 30. 2. 5050.. Page 248. 5. 17. 1. 5. . 2. 6. . 3 . 30 13.3. ( 3. . 3. 36. 12. J. . 3. 1. 3. J. ^~2. 10. 5. . 4. 22.. 2.020. 7. (a) 5. 3. 41. f. 1. 10. 5 cm. 6. 2 . and _ 4. 1. 21 30.13. '>. . . 4.. 2 1. 1. Page 239.6. $. 3 . 1 . Page 245.5. 20. . 69. GO . 40 1} 9 3 ft. oo. 0. 8ft. V3~.18. 35 ft. 2. in. 2. 3. 2. Page 243.3.6. co . 10. 288. 3. ft. 20 in. 3. 19. 1.. 4. 4 6. 7. f*. 9. 20 7. 50. 1. 16. 4 34. 12. . (a) $3400. 5. 11. 1J. 0. 11. 4. m + n. Page 247. $VO. 14. 1. 32. (/>) "_. 3. in. . \/6. 1.e. 2V7. 40. 4. 14. J. tn 2. 17. 78.xxvi Page 237. 7. 37. 12 d. 26. _ 13 (0 6. 17. i'ljVU.4. 18. . 2. 1 . . J.4. 5.  .4. . 1. 1.1. 17.2. 8. +  n. x 4. oo . 1. . .4. 1.. 12.  1. 31. 84. 5. m28. 7. 11. 2. i j. . 2 Y> V . ' j. 1 2.
8. 04. 105. 3. 1. 280 53. 7.53. 6. 7. 16. ^a 8. 23. 45. 15. 20.192. 12.920.210. 16.5. 5. 10. ?/i 6 x llj . 4.700. x + Vy.504. 1. 0. <. 2. x4 . 2i* 7f. 1 7 4. a4 4 14. 15. 304. '23. c. 4.2 45 a 8 /).v Page 253.ANSWERS Page 250. 35. 2. 6. 0. 18. 9. 44.870 m*n*. . 125. **+. REVIEW EXERCISE . 2. i 10. 3.5. 7. 81. 2. 75.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 20.13. 29. vy. 4. 4.130 x30 189 a 4 24.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. ~ an . 16 11. 2. 5. 6. 19. . 04. . 5.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.6. 3. 10. .384. 4. 4. 1. 19. 11. 5. 4. 100. 9. 7. 50.<2 4. 9. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 1.x' 10 . 1. 45 Page 257. 17. 343. 21.^ ?>i 2412x4. 5 13. Page 254. 8. 1000 aW. 005. . 21. in. ' 1.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 5. 4950 M 2 b y *. 15. 43.12 x*y 16. 1. 14. 22. . 405. 8 1. 22.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 19. 12. I. 32. 8. 9. 3. 35.7 10. 410. 17. 6. r r j. 16. 12. 7 2 x 4 x8 . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 1820. 192. 128. 27. 4. 45. } $ 50.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. Ja. />*. 16.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. ~v 9. 3. 5. JSg. 15. 6i. 3. 120 aW. 2. &' 14. 2. 0. 8. 20. 708. 3. 1. 5. 0. \ w 4 . 2. 6. . . 4. . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. Page 252. 13. 10 14.0. . 4. 8. 3. 1 14. 16. 3. 16.6 . 8.5 x. 13. xxvii 1.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 4. 4.1. 2. 8. 70. w9  8. Page 259. 4. 5. 1. 0. 27. 11. 125. 27. 9.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . d. 48. 343.8.r 4.680. 7. 4. 12. 8J. r 5 4. 4.419. 1. 9. 4 0.5y 4 . 55. J 2 //2 25.4 &z x>&. 3. 12. 5. 70. 495. 8. 18. 5. 0.3 ays. . 1JH. 910. . 11. 2. 3. 220 . and 1. G. 8 4x' 2 .170. 4. 2. . 7. 18. 12. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). Jj? 45. 15. 28.  101. 6. 10. B . . 6. 12. 5.470. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 0. 0. 8. 2. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . a. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 53. f y 8 + z* . 8 . 3. 27. Y11. 16.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 26.r x>/ 7 3. x r 4. 2.2 9. . . A. 12. Page 258. 70. 18. 8. 10. sq.  17. 327. 05. 1. 17.4. 6. 1. 0. 6. 7. 4. 3. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . ().  20 flW. 10. 7. 25. 10. 13. 7 x4 17.r* 4 70 .120.
 3 x2 . 80. 2 q. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.2. 104. 52. x 8  a8 . ?> . /> 4 83. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. .2 c . 4 65. 16.5 b + c . 88. 2 . 243x4729. 1 . 2 2/' . 4 69. . 39.{ 54. 4ft y3. 8 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). .  e +/.6 am b\ 129.18 ?/ 5x4.1.2 x 4.3 103. . 61. x 3 41. 9x. 3 a 44. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .x. 99. 46. 133. 6 c 47. ft2ft 4 4l.x24 73.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 36.5. 21.105.1. 12 a/. 4 Page 264. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  12 a. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.5 3n 4. x . 4 fee 4. 125. a2 2 aft 2 2. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .4. 28.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 76. t 81.x4 + y'2 z 4. a J . . 64. 2 x'V2 90. a* 4. x 8 + x 4 68.4 x?/2 3 4. 27.4. x* . 132. ft n .x 2 4. 1 121. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 131. 91. . a* a 8 a aftc. 29.4 ac. 1 x 45. 0. I 57.7 x   15.5 a 2x8 x 3 . ?/ . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 6 a2 97. 70.4. .x 51.  4 a3 85. 127. 1 a"* 4 an . 5x 2 2x43. x 2 . 4. .x x*  f 2 ax 4.3 a 2 '6 w 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 12 x. 124. 2 .5x4. 72.4 x y 87. 86. () 2 x 33. 2 a. 118. . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . ?/ 3. Page 263.a*ft 2 126. 9 2w 128. .3 x 2 + 3 x .ac 44 aft. 2 x2 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 30 .3 b .18 x?/0. a~b 89. a4 x. 63.3 y. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.c 3 4. 109.4. 13 + 2 s. 100. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . .1. 10 a 12 b. x' 79. 5x + 2y~z.4 2 4 c2 42 .2 x^. 2 113. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 122.  . 2 . x2 5r*x ft 5 . 25. 40. x } 4.9 b. 4 115. 3 a . 3a~2c. 37. x2 471x4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 7 + 3 xf 2. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 4 ! . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.fee 2 4. 38. 5 42. a 4 . . 94. x2 a2 1 .3 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . df. 4.^a .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. x8 x2 55. 3 c . 35. 30. 0. 43. _55_7c 48. a 3m 4.7. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. (a + ft)" 98. 24.6 b. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.a'2 c. 6a6c. 4 2 . . m " + n + P3c . .c. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 120. 110. 82. x2 2 . 32. 22.a.y*. 130. 5 4 4. y 4 z* 0. f5+7.41. x 4. 114. +^ + ft W. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 105. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.4 x 2 . . 8x3 8x. c3 4 58. .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 4 . 102. 93.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 4 15 x 5 . .ft). ft /> 78. . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .1 4 jry 4 x .3 aftc. . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be..2. 31. + 3 a?. 14 x .  + 3 x2 .a' 'ft 4. xyxzyz. Page 260. + z.1. x 3 4. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . + a 4. .1w 77. 16t/. 1 + 4 xy. !! 71.2. 10 4. a' 111. 0. * 60. 62. as 20. . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 49. az 4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 96. 2 x2 108.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 2 53. ^ . 23.c.a 2 x 2a . 3 36 b c .rty x2 4 123. &p 84.3 a'ft. 3~ n 4. 4. 3a'2 Page 261. . x' . . 66. 50. 107. 3 a 5 a 5.9 x .a6 2 4. 26.15 4 62 x  72. x4 f + 23 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.
150. 241. y  y 165. 168. xxix 139. 50. 239. (x . C3 y _l)(. 186. 5. 6. 144. (y7)(y + 188. 224. + 3). 10. 157. 12 yr. 169. 210. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 187. 177. 220. 190. 143. 179.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (3x  . 170. 163. 167.1(5) 200. fc'2a+62c). . + 11) (a 10). 247.r . (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 173. 209. 153.2. 2. z(x10)(xl).3 y). 217. (x + 2)(x . 75. (5 x . 7. 12. 230. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 12 yr. (x 227.. 164. 156.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (2a + l)(a . (233). Page 267. 215.y). + 2) + 9a. 1. (x + 6)(x6). ( + 2y)(2x3y). 166.y + 3)(r (. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 176. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 174.6 . 30 yr.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 199. 3. (8x + 3)(3x4). 162. k. 10).r + 4). 149. (a& 192. 22. 207. 205. p./_4). 2. (/ 246. . 48 h. 10 in. y3.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).I2y). +)(x2 x^+2. + 3) (x f f>) . 1. 18. 142. 175. 191. 195. (x  42 yr. 20. a(a. y. (y 7f))(y 196. 189. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 211. 2 (4 x .l)(y + 1). 180. 146. 24. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 19. 136.y2 ). 137. 201. 10 ft. 1. 2(x8)(x3).3 y)(a . 6). 235.. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft).6)(4 + 6). 233. 147.l)(a 2 +3). (2 198. (7x2//) 203. 147 mi. 160. 154. Page 266. 3(x . 10). 197. 151. 148. 40 yr. m. .y) (\r3y). 1. (a 2 + 2a6. 218. 2^. 138. . (y _ ft)(y 4. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 158. 181. a. 1. (7 c 2 ). 36ft. 236. 171.. 178.1). 172. (3x2?/)(2. 2 xy(3 x . 4. 15  a. 8 204.1). 208.l)(x8 + x2 . Iff 145. 232. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 12) (j. (y  17)(y + (>).3) (2/3y).4xl).3). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). (y_24)(y5). 21. 155. 216. 193. 37 1. (a} 59.2 )(x+y) 228..2) (3 x . 218. 244. y 245. 231. G7. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 6. 212.2ac + 229.2). (r^x + 1).1). + 22). Or (a + 2)0el). .y)(jc + 7 y). 23 18. 185. 152. (c) 160 C. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 206. r>x 2 (4x. 1. HI. 238. . 2. 3. (?/+l)(yl).3. 2. 4. (r7y)(ai. x(x + 6) 213. + 7)(rt4). 30.ANSWEKti 135.  1. (ab + 8) ( 7). (JT y 225.6) (2 x + 1). 240. . 184. 183. ?. 161. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 159. 1. 202.m)(x + a). 2. 214. as 194. 222. yr. 8(ar}(/)27). (x^ + x1) 234. aft. (6) 40. p. 140. ft. Page 265. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).2). 219. 32 h. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 2 2 (a. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). + y. a + 2x2 ). (. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 226. a 2 (15.y)(z . (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 1. 15. 15. 30 + xyr. 20. 12 6 panes.9)(xf 2). 12. 182. 237.
2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 298. a~ ' b*). 2 x  3. *. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 261. 310. 0.(x  4) (x4 304. 258. 2 4 300. a. 307. ?^ZLiZ 308. 301. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 3  262. *>). 259. 7 x 265. 268.  7. 269. x ?/ z 1. ^ 299. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o(x4l). ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 10.. 260. ^/>J. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . + f. x12. 3). (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. x 283. 7^T 2 . 263. 3. x 267. (7 255. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 43 '^rJ'. 295.2* i^^ !^. 4 5. 5. 256. 2.   . 266.^ ^^. 306. 249. x .^^^^^^^^. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 3).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 264.4) 1) (3 x .  3xyf x// 257. 254. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.4). 250. ? 1) 302.1. 303. &). > 4. o. 305. 7. 251. 0. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 279.
7. 2(q. 387. a 2 . 1 i 2 ^. 1. ab. 4 A. 395.  1. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?).(5 a . ?=. 326. 2. 389. 1. 12. . 383.J .. m. a) A^_.. 390.  1 356. a +6. + 4 & 4 \ b. c 402.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 2. 382. 406. 388. 0. + 335. 0. 7. 375. 329. 396.3. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 2 ). 4. ^ 3 // . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. . 1. 2 327. ?/ + 3 332. 2(a i 403. 376. 379. T+^. 398. If. 334. 360.!. Page 277. 394. ^_:r f> 331. 385.vin a /r " 337. 380. 386.)Cr4)__ . 2 r36 384. 339. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. y 4 I 340. " 4 378. 1. Page 274. 333. _*L'L+. 4. 6 ?/+:>. 404. 336. f. 325. 365.1. 13 391. 20. 324. 3. 405. 0. 397. l'j. 4 rw. 361. . 399. 355. <L 409. ^"" 4 s . + x 362. . 7/i ^ _ . ?>*. 3. 400. 364. 366. . x 54 359. . 343 00 351. j 328. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 377. 401. 392.".1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. S. 2 ?/ 363. 408. (a + b + c\ . 11. A^L5L. l . 0.XXXI Page 272. 1. T\. 9^. 407. L . 3. 370. a + b + 6). * 357. 6a. 2 ab  a Page 276. 393.
ft 5. 441.3. ISjmi. 420. 5. 2. <L+ 6 (.2. ^V.  1. 429.. . 14 miles.0. 442. ISJini. 17. 493. 427. 51. 32. 500.te + . 481. 90. 6. 20 yr.  10. 459. . 4. 495. 425. z8 +?/ 3 431. 479. 33. ^r?i 434. 496. 2 a 2. fc. + () 433. 2. (d) true. !L=4. 7. 440. 8. 422. 7. Page283.3. 17.  7. 10. 421.. 6.  . 1$. 444. 0. 2. L (c) I. 506.  2. 2. 9. 463.12. 467. 32 yr. i. 3a 4 5. 499. 507. 12. 0. . 497. (a) 1. 0. 423. 4. 4. 10. 492. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.rz Page 279. 10$. 484. 482. . 28 yr. a* 424. 468. 419. 486. 485.4.4.}. . A $ 3500. 461. 452. . (&) 443. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 503. a 22 . . . '. 6. 465. 3.vz in. 10. *+. Page 282. 1 a /?$+&?. 10.  453.7. 460. 10. 22. I. 462.55. 432. 7. 5.0. 0.  1. 10... $2000 at 0%. 411. (d  6) f. 450. 1. 439. 476. 40.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.  f>. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 0. . 1. 2. . 2. B $ 2500.  7. ' $260 at 0%. 458. 84. 502. />c c(f be.  2. fj. 63. 477.m  m+ M in. 5. . 430. 457. . c 6fc 10. 487. 426.7.. 5. 412. 6. 410. 8. & 491. 10. . 6. 8. 508. A 5 mi . 3 . 7 : . 1. Page 280.  2.. 3. B 4 mi. Page 281. 6. 2 438. 18. 480. 435. m. 413.489. 0. \. 4. 3. (a  c).488. 0.  2f 504. (&) true.2. i a b 451. 20.}. 501. 5. 2. . 1.7.7. 478. Page 278. 464.1. b 449. 428. * . . (c) not true. 2. . 24 days. 8. 40 oz. 436. 446. 483. 53 yr. : />a. 7. 455. a + + ft c. . \ 1. 472.5. 490.7. 454. 11. 2. . 494. 42.  505. 456. 445. 5J. L2 a  6 . ^. 418. 447. 2$. 5. c. 2. 498. 448. m 1 : wi.46. 50. 7. 1. 466. not true. 6. 21.
2.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 3. T . 2 1. (6) . . f36a28x8 592.0.4.37.02.3.  1. 31. 1. tin.54. 1. 554.6 2. per hr. .1.  + + c. imag. 573. 6.% rr\* 585.xj/ f xV . 1 600. 1. . 515.. 1. . 0. (ft) 4. 3.. 530. .78.25m. 2. 2 2.02.5. 551. a + ft  a  f c. If 572.15. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.20.14. or 8.37. .10. f. 2 . 5. 4. 512. 1. . . 603.3.55. Roots imaginary. 578. 559. da.83. lead.8. y% Z * 586. 563. 550. H.  3.62.  (a) (d) 1. 509. (a) 74 Ib.00. . 5. . 4. > ^ .4. . 2.6.02.38.25. <z ft 1. 2$. .56 sec.4. 1J. ^ ft 4. 533. 568.1. + 6 tf f 3 .33. 8 mi. 4. 1 .73.  imag. 2.8. 3 .  J(a f + 2c). 552. 40 Ib.54.2. 1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.7.10. 558. 3. 1. .3. y 4. 1.3. + 12 x . 528. 575. a f ft + c.8. 2 imag.75. xxxin 511.0.3. 562. 2. 4. 14. . 2. o> . (/)  10 to 8. a+ Page 286. 560. 556. . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 1. 3.04.04. 598. 582. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .  4. 232.3.  .88.4 x + .35. . M ft c 2 ft 3465.f 1. 532.5 f. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 24 da. tin.  2ft da. 593. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . (i) 3. (ft) Ill Ib. 2 10. 3. 583. 516.  2. 3. 555.1. 3. 3. (e) (c) 2. 7.  557. 2 1. 565.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 1. 4 0.8 x3^. 581. 3. 1..52.1.1.02.5. J7] min.0. . 1. . (gr) 10 1. . 1.3.7. 599.03. f. 7^ da. 2(6 597. 4. 553. 5. _ 4.31. 3. 115 Ib. 2 . 3. 566. 1.3. 24. 1.24 sec. 574.4.03. . 510.6. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.6.  7. g(rc+ 6c). 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 579. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 0000. (d) 537.21. 2. 564. lead. 514.05. 6. . 1.15. x8 . Page 285.  (a) 2.5+.9. 6435.8. (6) 3. . 1$. 3 da. 2. 536.r8 596.16. 577.30. (e) 570. 3f 4f. Page 287. 1 . . 21*_.5. 2(4 602.   (h) 8.ANSWERS Page 284. 526. 2. 5.4. 531.31. 3. 576. 8.  ft*. (c) 4.78.5. 518. 1. 571.75. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. . 525. 4 mi. 1. ft 584.7. (c) 3.5. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.62. 1 580. 4. 1. 513. 591.24. 27 y* f\4 .0. 569.24. 4.. 4.15.. . Page 288. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 527. + 26 + . 1. _^ 2754x . 4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 567.53.51. 4* da. 561. 1.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. _ 3. 3.1.4.6. per hour.12.83. 1. S82 c. a*8a + 24tf 82a. . 529. 3. .
617.b.>A 610. 1 704. + ~^'2 + a 1. 701.3. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 0. 971. 5002. . 705.  4. o. 692. 2 / 2 4. 25. 5 3. 4330 da. .702. 6. ab. 708. 607. 6. 2. 706. . .3f l 668. 8 f 3. la6 2. if 4/> 671. 2 a 688. 1. ^^ 695. c. \. 2. 1. 8 6 fo . . ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. a 673. . 627. 78. / V^+lO^M"^.0. . 2. 8. 1. 630.y. V"^TJ. fe + a. Page 289. 2f. 661.203. 628. 7. 623. 1 ~a . y  619. . 622. 4. 25. 616.. 0. ab 689. 0. 3. 612. 1010.f 3 V^3). 1$ 639. 703. . V2. 698. 640. 4. 666.  .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 1 2. 647. (*_ + a: 611.  2f r 659. 11.  684. a 4.002. 652.3. ' fe 2 ). ' 674. 009. If . V7. 621. If f 667. 644. (a3&45rj. 2&).  13. 631. a 2. 634. 0. 700. V2. 2 ab + a  &. 14.04. 11. a 1J. 10.3. 5. 679.303. 9. ^.25. 651. . 9*. 2 x 44 ^/.b 686. 2092. a. 7003. i. If b. . 660.  6. 648.  4. fta a/> ^A.001. 2 a: 4. 629.. 642. 657. 1m*. 614. 670. ^. z  1.14 If 1.001. a + b. /> 4. 608.  1.  ft.43^4. 3 a. 4 676.XX XIV 606. 672. 703. 678< 682. 0. 638. 2. 645. 643. 635. . 655. J^^. 632. 7. ix 2 . + 2 A (i f Page 291. 683. 50. 2 a  6*. 4. 898. K 5 2 V2. 702. . 3. 650. 0. 624. 3 681. 654. 669. b 664. If. 2. 633. 649. 5. b . 653.  a2  a (ab). . <T! . 613. I}'/. 2. a ' 2 + . 3 x2 . 3.c ) 697. be ac \. 5. 618. 1 V5 1. 210. 2. 626. 690.a~ {Z 663. V^~3). 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 6 685. 1.3. 615.2f Page 290. n^l +^. 4. 637. 636. 12. 13. 641. 625. 2. 691. 620. l/'3. 656. 4 V 0. If 665. ^ 1. 2f. 662. 2. ft).049. 646. b.2f (5 4. \+ab 699. 677 680. 5. If 658. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 4$. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 696. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.  3.
782 785.. a:* . r. 716. 768. 773. 731. 792. 749. 1 [ + '> J.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 756. 3V72VO. VIO\/3. 59. 767. a 2  x2 . 24V2. . 717. 727. 00. 300. x i f^' . 763. + 6 2 tf'c. 24 4 . 794. x\y. 777. 788. a 2 6^. J(v'lO2V 791. 721. a db Va^T < 45da. 5. VT14V5. 746. y  1.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. i^. 796. 1 752. 2x3^ a. 753. fyaw&cu. 738. 728. 758. 32>/2.9. Page 294. Hi a. 722. / 787. ^7xy. 47. 789. 30\/10 764. 29\/3. 709. a 5 . 725. 3 720. ^ ?>. v/7 / . T%.1 . 719. 750. rt3 2 ^i^. 1. iv/Jj.257.~ . ^ . 34. 776.4 . 3 VlT 795. 715. 737. 734. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 2\/53V2. "V313. 3V72V3. cr*lr*.^.^ 743.9.r. 2 V2 . 723. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 3^. 8.ANSWMHti Page 292. j 742. 730. mn. . 3V7.11. .12 af V^ 4 744. i 2. VV> L4V34. 25. 733.. 5. 751. 8.rJ w L 754. + < 735. . 710. 33^2. 1 747. 769. 736. 712.. 1 I . 3.10. 739. 718. 726. 755.8. 790 2v 3v 2. 711. . 342V3. 724. 1. 39.. 714.V/^ 741. 713. Page 293. 15 shares. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.2. 793.V2. > 748.r+y> 759. 13ft. 4 104 v/2. 778. 740. 17ft. 732. 1. 24. v'll.4 . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 3V52V3. 1^ _ 760. 7  3V5. 729. a". ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.
2.2w . 814. 842.l)(x . 5. 859. 1. 810.  1. 898. 868.rae) (4 . 813. m = 2. ANSWERS 798. 5./>") (a'. . (x . 14. 811. ((' 1).om 441) (a 855. **. 4. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 6. (x3). J V. x . 1. 857. (. $. 822. 4. 2. db 7.5) (x + * 853. 1 .4. 2 2 . 887. 825. o 828. 20). 801. a(ry + 864. 2 854. 2. . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).4) 860. (xl)(^~3)(.3. . . 827.7).a 2 2 ). 3. 4. 847.f. 843. 3. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 835. . . $. 8 09. 812. 836. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). (a 1) (x 4. 5. 2 .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.7 4 1) 846. 4 . 2. 872.1) .7). . 7. f. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.7. (x 2 f r . . 830. (:r 11. 0. ^ V}. 799. 1 1. 899. .l)(x + 3)(2x43). (2 4. . (  ?>) (a + ^> . 826. m 875. a2 ^E*!. 819. 11. 48. 861.1). 8. 840. 831. jV3 f 3. 5). 900. 804.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). (1 . 17.2) (x 4 2). 891. 820. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2. H. 851. 880. 876. 2 m .. 896. n =  29. 884. (4 c 4. 829. +j!>. 4 818. 834. 13. ^VG.  tt 815. 1. 3. + d)*. 2 (x 4*4. Page 297.0. 6 $.r4).r .  ' . 832. 11. x. 8. 19. ^. 816. 7..  839. (3 b . 2 j 889. (x 845. \/5. 3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 3. X4 1). (x*y*ryz + z*). (x + 0X024. 3. 892. 3. 824.4. 883. 6. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. o. 837. 2. (a 4 871.1. 838. 844. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 4.a 4 + 1). (2 x + 3 y} . 882. 890. 879.y) 852.1)(0 865. . 1.l)(x . . ) (a' 874. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).l)(x + 2). (2x (r. 823.1) (a 8 . 5. 4 885.  + l(l^). Va 803. 7. ( 4 4. 23. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 3. 833.. 817. 7. 2 *x 807. 2 . Va. 1. 2 . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . V 3. a 42)(x . (x . 858.2 ax 4. \/2. 867.XXXVI 797. (x 4. are extraneous. 10. 2  2. 4. 894. 4. a* 4. (a m . 1C. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) .3)(x + 4). 841. 849. 4. 4. 3. Hoots . 2. a(ft)( 873. 2. (2 a . 848.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 0. Hoots are extraneous. 897.+ m f ") (a* ). 888. 863. 2/ 856. 2. b' 2 821. 6.25 ?>2). 0. 886.5 b) 4 1).1)(V 2 . 6(a6)(o a + + &).a 3 " 4.7)(4 x. (3 862. 5. 881. 25. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . . Page 296. 4. 800. 2 806. 3. 2. 895. ( 869.10 ab 4. 808. (x 2 .3. 17. 0. 4. 893. 6+V7. 3 . 4.
14 . 908. 2.2.. 6. 56. 8. 66 924. $(l 4. 909. 11. . 8128. 942.. 7. 923. 6 1 1. . 963. 2 w 914. 933. 12 mi. 108. J(_ ft. .. V5 fj. 5. 12. . 927.. 5 . 979. f ft 4 . 4. Z ^. i1" 913. w 3. 18. 3 4 . r ft ' < Page 299. 930. 980. 496. 4. 1 2.  26j. ^y. 935. Va926.. 1 1. 3. ft. 9 in. 943. 985. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. . 932.760 sq. 10. 5l4f.V~~3). . 931. 3. a. 903. 3. . %* ... 954. 919. dL 4. .446. T 6. yd. . 8 . 1 . 905. Y. 6 . 3. 937. f. 934. 959. v/(ai !)(&910. J. 982.2. i 3.. 1 + V953. ft. 12. 2 1.I.. ft. 5. 7 ft.  1 . 329. 5. 248. 950. 100 rows.744. 5. 947. ft. 987. . 10. 941. Page 303. 1. 952. 8. 28. 73.615. 0. ft. 981. 978. 7. 2.709. 20 19 ft. 921. 1. 4. 12 in. 333. 480 8 sq. 11. 5. 8.. 40 16 in.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 2. 2 ft. ?/i 6. 4. tt2 19. . 977. 4. J. 960. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.. 7. V5 T 2 . 0. 2 i ' a V. 912. 951. 4. 4 6 mi. 958.651. 940. 3.073. 6. 2. . 918. 11. 4 in. 957. 2 yd. 8. 925. 12.1. 911. ft. T 6. 60 949. 6 da. 936. 6. . . . 28.111. 4. 938. 3. 2.  1.1. =F J. 7 or 30. Page 302. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.. i(6 in. w. 115. 916. 2. Page 301. 984. 945. . 333. 7. 920. 280. . 983. 4. 956. 15 16 ft. 961. 0. 8. 1 _2 . 11.. . 2. 80. 3). Page 300. 0. i>. 902. 8. 948. T3.1 = 9.01. 4. 6. ft. 939. 944. 6. 917. 6 a 915. 4./hr. 111. 922. 2. 2. 986.. 28. 4 . S07. .0. 8.' ifcVira^ 2 3. V^3). a + . 6. '3 3 in.. 906. 3 . 2. 955. 1). 962. 3. 964. i 8. 6. 8. ft. . 1. 15 946. 904.
992. 1003. 72.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.192rt?)r 120 *. 996. 993. 48. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1 1004. 120 i^l^. 997. 2(2 v/2). 8. 1(5. 1007. 1010.128 I. 162. 24. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 12. 1005. 1018.378 <W and 92. 1014. . 32 13 (tx 4V3. 120 a. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . X. ^Trsq. 1009.'^^ } ( .870 a 6 1011. 1006. r = 2. + v 2)..92. ^f (2f3V2). 192. 0. 1013. . 3003. in. 990. 991. 2 . 988.378 1015. 6 70 . 1012.18.870 z8 . ~ \. (6) 8(1 . (Z>) 999. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 9 da. 12. 1001. 1017. (a) (6) ^ 1002.  5&7 1021. Page 305. 1000.51. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 108. 4. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1016. 1008. (5. 994. 4 and 1020. 0. () 12(2+V3).  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . . 1 8 8 2. + 448 . (J. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .. Page 304. 995. 1019.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.25 lamo. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. comparatively few methods are heretofore. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+563 pages. HEW TOSS . $1. great many work. physics. Half leather. save Inequalities. The more important subjects tions. i2mo. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. so that the Logarithms. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. than by the . etc. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. given. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. xi 4 373 pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. A examples are taken from geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
than by the superficial study of a great many cases. xiv+56a pages.25 i2mo. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Logarithms. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. etc. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. $1. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW YOKE . The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Ph. The author grade. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. xi f 373 pages. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. $1. great many A examples are taken from geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.D. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. comparatively few methods are given. save Inequalities. 12010. physics. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. In Factoring. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. so that the tions. HatF leather. Half leather.
7 he . State: . Half leather.r and. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. izmo. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. more than 1200 in number in 2. NEW YORK . These are introduced from the beginning 3. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Cloth. SCHULTZE. 10. aoo pages. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. $1. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . 9.. 4. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. $1. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Cloth. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Ph. 6. under the heading Remarks". . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. lines.10 L. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. iamo. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . wor. i2mo.D. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xii + 233 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. SEVENOAK. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.
25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York City. . . and not from the information that it imparts. . $1. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . . of these theoretical views.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. 370 pages. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . 12mo. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.
" This volume etc. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. i2mo. photographs. $1. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Cloth. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Topics.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. diagrams. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Maps. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. and a full index are provided. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.