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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. . OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.
PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
Berwick & Smith Co. 1917.A. September. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. September.S.COPYRIGHT. 1915. 1916. . January. U. 1911.. August. Mass. May. Cushlng Co. .' February. May. Norwood. 8. J. 1910. IQJS January. July. Reprinted 1913. 1910 . . Published Set up and electrotyped.
and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra." this book. and conse . owing has certain distinctive features.. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Such a large number of methods. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Elementary Algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. etc. chief : among These which are the following 1. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. manufactured for this purpose. specially 2. however. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study.
enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. as quadratic equations and graphs. however. In regard to some other features of the book. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".g.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. two negative numbers. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover. especially problems and factoring. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. hence either book 4. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. Topics of practical importance. e. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . are placed early in the course. etc. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work.
in " geometry . are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. such examples. and commercial are numerous. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application." Applications taken from geometry. elementary way. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. physics. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. By studying proportions during the first year's work. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. is based principally upon the alge . Moreover. viz. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.
however. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P. 1910. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra.
.... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors........ AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ........ 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . Powers. SUBTRACTION.. . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. .
.. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type VI. ... Type IV. Type V. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type III. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . .114 . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . * ... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Type Polynomials.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type II. /^ ..
....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . CHAPTER XIV 169 .... ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
11. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 5Vl6c. 0. 26. 27. aVc^. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 8. A binomial is 62 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. + 1].10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 7 = 2. (cfd) 4. d 7. 2 . !^f\/03 3 ft. V2a. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. e. since the parts are a . 10. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 4(a 6(6 + &). 2. some number is . [6c] 3 . 6. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. are trinomials. 15. 3. 4V3~6c. 14. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 12. or 9 Vx. 16. + c). 9. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 13. b = 3. 17. is 28. c = 1. a polynomial of two terms. Val \fi?.g. v'Ta. A polynomial is an y. V3 . c f d)." EXERCISE If a 1. as in arithmetic. x 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. find the numerical value of: Vff. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. \/c. V^a6. V36". 6.
3. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 5. 5c +d 2 . 4 .30 = 270 .810 + 150 = . 2. + 26+3 c.4 6^9 ad. d = 0. 2. 2 ). 1. 16. . Ex. Ex. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 6. . find the numerical value of: 9. multiplication. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. __ E. a2 11. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 52 . (a (a f b) 7. l 13.INTRODUCTION 29. c=l. 6. 4a6fVaV2^. b = 3.2 + I126. i. Otherwise operations of addition. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.9.19 = 6. 5.g.e.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . EXERCISE 8*  . 14.99. 8. 4. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. x=^. * For additional examples see page 268. .390.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 3 2 If 1. d=Q. a 2 6. 12. a=4.9 aWc + f a b . 10. = 32 + 4527 = 50.5 ax 50 a6cd. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . subtraction. . c = 2. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 3 4 ..9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5=3. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.
34. 6 = 6. 6 = 5. a =4. 26. 25. 38. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 26 of the exercise. 23. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 1. 6 = 4.c) (a . 35. Six 2 . if : a = 2. 28. sible to state Ex. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a =3. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 27. a = 3. 6 = 6. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).6 f c) (6 a + c). physics. 29. a a=3. 37. 6 = 3. 22. 6. . 6 = 7. 6 = 2. 30. 6=2. 6 = 5. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6. a = 3. and other sciences. 30. a = 2. 33. 24. a. geometry. = 3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a = 4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. Express in algebraic symbols 31. : 6.6 . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36.
S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 84 square EXERCISE 1.g. and 5 feet. if v : a. c. 2. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.INTRODUCTION E. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A train in 4 hours. i. b. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 13. if v . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. d.) Assuming g . (c) 4. and 13 inches. if v = 30 miles per hour. 12. 15 therefore feet. 14. An electric car in 40 seconds. . How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. b 14. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. Find the height of the tree.16 1 = 84. count the resistance of the atmosphere. and 15 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet.16 centimeters per second. then a 13. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 4.seconds.e. (b) 5.
) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. If the (b) 1 inch. . (c) 8000 miles. ~ 7n cubic feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 2 inches. : 8000 miles. square units (square inches. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. This number cannot be expressed exactly. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 5 miles.14 4. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). 5. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. meters. the area etc.14d (square units). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 32 F. (c) 10 feet.). $ = 3.). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. is H 2 units of length (inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 square meters. (The number 3. the 3.
AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or positive and negative numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. SUBTRACTION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. . the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra. however.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.
is 2. c = = 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. + 12. 5. subtract their absolute values and . if : a a = 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs.16 32. = 5. . (_ In Exs. 21. d = 5. 33. of 2. 23. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. '. 19. + (9). and the sum of the numbers divided by n. (17) 15 + (14). d = 0. 12. 5. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 22. c = 4. 4. 6 6 = 3. is 0. 2326. the one third their sum. Thus. lf(2).3. 10. of: 20. 4 is 3 J. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 24.  0.
Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 6.4. 4. }/ Add 2 a. 0. d= 3. 6. 42. 30. 1. 32.5. 5 and 12. $500 loss. and 3 a. & 28.ADDITION. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. or and . $1000 loss. 27. and 3 F. \\ Add 2 a. and 4. 3 and 25. ' Find the average of the following 34. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 35. 31.5. 6. 66. 4 F. and 8 F. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. = 23. . 25.. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 43. 10. 13. and 3 yards. 37. c=14. = 13. ^ ' 37. are similar terms. $7000 gain. 74. 55.13. . 38. 72. and $4500 gain. $3000 gain. 12.7. c = 0. sets of numbers: 13. 32. 60. : and 1. 7 yards. = 22. ' 1? a 26. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. which are not similar. 29. & = 15. . : 34.3. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 40. and 3 a.. 11 (Centigrade). 41. affected by the same exponents. 10. 39. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . 10. 3. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 36. 7 a. . 2. 7 a.7. : 48. . 34. 09. . SUBTRACTION.. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. 33. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.
11. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 10. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 12 2 wp2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 a&. b wider sense than in arithmetic. in algebra it may be considered b. 7 rap2. 5l 3(af6). Algebraic sum. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2(af &).sign. + 6 af . EXERCISE Add: 1. 2 . or a 6. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12(af b) 12. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 9(af6).18 35. : 2 a2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 5 a2 .ii. 14 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12Vmfn. b a f ( 6). 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. f 4 a2. 3a . Vm f. . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 5Vm + w. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.13 rap 25 rap 2.
32. +m """ 20. 17. 21. c 2 ^24. 2 7 1 26. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. + y. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 33. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. n x* 2 22. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms.ADDITION. l^S 25. is . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. a a8 ZL **. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 36. ra 19. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 37. without finding the value of each term 34. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 35. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 1 27. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 30. + / + 3 Va. 2/ : Add. SUBTRACTION. 6 23. 2 2 2 31. and to add each column.
g. to add 26 ab . NOTE.41 = 3. 2 .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . and 2 . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .c= 2. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.g. f 110WS: 26 aft. 4 = 7. = .15 6c. 6=2. a 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. and J 2 s. . 3 a f 4 1) 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .3 s. 4 2. 3a 2? .7 2 . 7 4. 46 4z 7 c. 5 . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. x of x.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. s. . 2 Sum. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.8 abc . the erroneous answer equal 7. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 9 q 4.20 c 5 ab 4. 2 Thus.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 5.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . of that letter. V3. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. to show any error.o c and 4.12 a& 4. .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 3. therefore the answer is correct. c = 1. ft any convenient and c. 2 025.15 abc .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. e.
2 2 . 2 3(c f a). . 56 w.5 cr& + 7 6 9.7v/if. a) y ^/. 2 ?/.VS 4 2 Vc. . m 4 6.7m . ^2 1 e. xy3xz + yz. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .a.9(a + &) .1 a 4 1 0.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . ?/ .a . . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.12. 2 2 and .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. a2 a. 11. 4(a . + a + 1. 3 2 2 3 9 . a 4 a .1.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 16. and and 13.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . in 8 3 m n 4. 8. . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a + 1> 8 2 2 . d and / 3 ? 12. . 7ar + 3B 5. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.a 4 a 4 1. and 1 4 a . e a4 /. 4 8 3 4 4 .5a^6 f 6) . 2 and 9m 48m 4.a.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.(b + c) 1. and 5 Vb 18. + 50 + 62 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. . d. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4.2n 2 2 3 rz . . . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.Ga 43x45. 4 3 .12(a 4. 4 Vc. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. and v 15.15 5. and 12a 4 15& 20c .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . v/20. 4 ajy 17. 18/+6y + d.12 6 ~5 a .6. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 16e + 17/90.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.8 m 2m 12. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. and . 2 ?ft ?/z. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.4:xy xz 6yz. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 19.and 6. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .4 Va . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). a2 2 14. and 8 3 .10 Vc. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 2 a. a 4 a .
1/ . 1. 12 xyz. and 2 24. +d a. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. . If you diminish a person's debts. f 1. s .3^* 2n 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 25. + n*. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.3 taken from 2 ? 5. . The sum and ? 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. and e + 6y . .ra + m. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. how 1.22 21. 1. a 6 2 c. 45a6 2 . 6 f c 2 23. T8a. 1..m 4m ?/?/ d.9aj 2. 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.11 xy + 12. + 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 2 8 n + <w 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . is 2. f number may be added 3. 1. f 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 13 1. 1. 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.
ab = x. +b 3.g. Ex. 6 (3) = 8. 7. Ex. called the minvend. from What 3. the other number is required. a. Or in symbols. Therefore any example in subtraction different . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. ( 6) ( = .ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 41. if x Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. NOTE. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. and their algebraic sum is required. the given number the subtrahend. From 5 subtract to . From 5 subtract + 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. This gives by the same method. 1. 5 is 2. SUBTRACTION. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.3. . To subtract. In subtraction. 2. two numbers are given. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.2. In addition. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 3.
f 8 .3 x* .5 x + 8.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. Check. If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
c f d. From 6(af. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. check the answer. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.a 2 j. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. + a the 2 a. 58. SUBTRACTION. 48. 57. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.c. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 2y 2 . 42. 56.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . of a 4.ADDITION. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From From x2 the sum sum 7.2. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . tract 4 x 3. 47. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 54. .w>t. 46. 50. 45. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 53. 6 4 a.4 a^ 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 55.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 2 a take a & j. 49.7 a . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 51. and 3 7/ .6)f. 44.4 a*& + 6 a & . 41. 43. 2. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 52.
Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.26 4. 16. 19. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 2 m 21. 6 17. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a + 6. a a + c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +a add the difference duce 13. a 2y + z. + 2. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. subtract # + 1. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . of # 2 8. 9.15. A is n years old. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. + 6 + c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 20. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.
AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.c. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. Ex. SUBTRACTION.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. one occurring within the other. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II.ADDITION. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.c. a+(bc) = a +b .b c = a a & f f. 45. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a^6)]  } . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.2 b . changed. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. & f c. . the sign is understood.g. I. 46.6 b f (. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.
)]. : x + (2yz). 2a (4a 26 +c ).) 5 . 6. 8. may be inserted according to 43. 19. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. m f ft) a. 21. Ex. In the following expression inclose the second and third. . 5. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. (m a2 f. ? 11. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 2. a f (a a .7i h jp) (m ?*. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 14. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).1422) J ] . 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 271 + (814 . [36+ (a 2c]. a (a + 26 c ).: Ex. 18. 4. 6) 2. 15. a (a + 6). 2 2 2 a(. 16.+ 6)f (a2 b).(a + 6). 17. 3.y (60. + (2a 6 + c ). 2 2a. 3 3 f 7.[271 47. 9. By removing parentheses. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. Signs of aggregation 1. 13. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.
2mn + 2q3t. The sum^)f m and n. z + d. difference of the cubes of n and m. 2. 5 a2 2. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 8. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.4 y* . )X 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. 3. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. . The square of the difference of a and b. first. The difference of a and 6. of the cubes of m and n. 12. and the subtrahend the second. 9. II. The product The product m and n. terms 5. 13. 7. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 6 diminished . 4. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 5.2 tf .ADDITION. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 5^2 _ r . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. SUBTRACTION. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. y f 8 . The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. a\l> > c + d. p + q + rs. 6. 10.1. 7. m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.7fa. ' NOTE. m x 2 4.
dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6. d. 6 is equal to the square of b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) .30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . (Let a and b represent the numbers. b. 18. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.
is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads balance. 2. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . A A A 1. weights. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 4. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 3. let us consider the and JB. force is produced therefore. therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads what What. two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 4 multiplied by 3. Thus. 4x(3)=12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 9 9. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.9) x 11. the multiplier is a negative number. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. becomes meaningless if definition. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Practical examples^ it however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. thus. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.4)(. (.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. x 11. 9 x ( 11). 48.4)(4) = + 12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multi44444 12. or plied by 3. ( (. 5x(4). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. NOTE.32 8. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. (5)X4. however.
c = 25. 1. 12. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 6 2. 10. x= 0. If a cal = 4a6c. 8 4 . (c#) . 6. b = 3. Law Thus. 32. 5x3. 4 . 5. _2^ 3. 4 a2 . (10) 4 . X(5). 3 a2?/2 . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. . the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3 aW.(a&c) 2 2 . 11. 14. 13. etc.7. (. 20. and y = 4.3) (1) 7 2 . (4)'. 4. 19. x.2f 18. tors is no misunderstanding possible.MULTIPLICATION 50. 3. 16. (4)X(15). 2a6 c . 29. . 6. 2.4. _3. is 6x7. 15. . 24. +5. 1. of Signs: TJie positive. about fac (2)X If 6. z s 11 aWcx. _2.2. 26. find the numeri values of: 21. 17. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 8 31.3. 3. (2) 8 (. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.a)( =+ a&. 22. 30. . 23. (2)x9. 7. NOTE. 8. . 2a 2 6c. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .(4J). (7) X (12). Ua b 28. 9. 27.2 f+x 2 .
5 . 17. or 2 . a = 3. 13.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2.e. fl*" integers. 5 = 2. . . & = 3. 5. 14.. 3 3 4 . 2(14. 53. 4. 3. a = 2.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2(7. 6. 3. 4.. 1. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. a 2 2 . 4. 7. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 2 2 2 . of the factors. 6" 127 U .7. 78 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .(2.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 34. 36.35).3). 50(112. 3 2 . 9 . =2 a *. 6 = . 200. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.6 if 35.m a 3  4 . 5 3 5 3 2 .503).2 2 23 + 5 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. &*) c d*. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. + 2/).  and 2 25 8 . 12 U U . 6 = 1.(12) . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. i.(7). m*. = 2. 10. 16.<?. IB. a= 1. 100. 11. This 52. . : 3a7abc.2). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Ex. By 3 definition.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .257). 127  127 9 7 . (a6) (a5) 9. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.  2 2. 5(711. a8 a=2. B. 6 aWc x . . Ex. 2 3 . 2. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. . 2 2 3 6 .
6(10420430). 11(3. . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 2. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 23(10004100420). Thus we have in general a(b 56. .2 3 aft ).f 2). by first multiplying. 22. 2(645410). and then adding : 1.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 34. 3(124342). . c(4a ftc ).6.3 win ) . _4aft.7 w'W (8 n^W). If results ft. /). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 26. ) 2 33. 2 32.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 17(10041042).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . (. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 7. This principle. 20. . called the distributive law. . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 28. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 29. . 2(5fl5f25). 12( + 1 4 i). 5. 7p*q r*. 3.A). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).4a#.7pqt. 21. 23. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 27. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 35 4 7(6. multiply each by the monomial. but we shall assume it for any number. (. 6. 25. 24. 19.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 4. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 31. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 35.
Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . ~2mn(m +n p ). 20. 26. Find the factors of 6 ary .5 w*V f 7 wn).6 a6).5 x 7).^ c + 2 . 9. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 2 27. 12. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 23. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 7 a 6 c(. 19. By what 25. f7a.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 5). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 2 m(mhn \p). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. . be multiplied to give 4o. 30. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).3 aftc).60 a& 10 aft. : expression must 24. 28. .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 17. 11. 29. 3 ).2 mn(9 mV . 22. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 21. 2 2 16.we b) (x law. . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.asa product.
are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. the student should apply this test to every example. however. 2. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 2a3b a66 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Multiply 2 a .3 b by a 5 b.1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. .a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Multiply 2 + a a.4. 59.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. To multiply two polynomials. Since errors. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. Check. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 . Ex. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.
QQ O7. 25.4) (x + 1). (6a~7) 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). 8. . 11. ^ 2 . (2w 19.2). 40. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 20. 13. 26.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 28. 3<7). (6i7n)(llJn). 2. . 24. 7. 36). 3.2m)(l m). (13 A. I (mfn)(m4. OQ OO. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4. 22. 41. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (4a 2 33. 7y). 12. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 10. 30. 36) I) 14. (2 x* x 2 . 15. l)(raf 2). 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 2  37. 17. (a^26) . 12)(a?^2l). 16. 32. 31. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 . 9. 2 (a al)(2a?fl).1 . 35. 36. (8r7*)(6r39. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 4 2). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).4) (mnp 4. 1). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 5. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (6p (2 f 21. * For additional examples see page 261. 18. 29. 2) (3 A: 1). 6.
(ra.13).e. (a3)(a + 2). 12. 28. 10. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. . + 3) (a 7). (6 12) (6 f. _3)(a _4). 24.!!)( (a + 21). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (p12)(p + ll). (*.4). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 11. 1005x1004.25)(y+4). 2) (1000 + 3). 17. 22. 14. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 6. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. i. (a 102 x 103. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 26. in of the two unequal terms. 25. 2 a? 29. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 20.n)(wf w). (a (a (a. 15. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (10+ (1000 (2. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 27. + 60)(f2). ft 16. 1) (10 + 2).2 6) (a f 6). + 5) (1000 + 4). plus the product 62. 25 a 2 . (!)(* 5). + 9)(m+9). 8. 2 6) (a 3 6). + 2) (a f 3). i. 13. : 23 2. (a 9) (a + 9). . 75 ab f 54 ft .e. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 19. 9. . 7. 21. X 102. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (J 23. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 18. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 3.
+ 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 3. (a26) 2 . III. a2 2 w + 2 w .e. plus sum of two numbers the square II. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 7. second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 7 a + 10. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. n2 10ii+16. p 2 p. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. III. w 2 ro . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 4. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. (x+3i/) 2 . 9. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 6. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 32. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. . of the second. i. 77ie square of the of the first.e. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. Ex. plus twice the product of the first and the second.15.15. 35. 31. + 3) 2 . and the second. 2 5. . <J>7) J . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 34. plus the square of the second. 33.66 s. + 6 a + 8. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 49 y*. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I).30. : 24 (a 2. 63. i. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .e. 8. (a2) (p a . 37. .
99x101. ). 9 a2 . 11. + 5). G> +5g)*. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 41. 2 . 24. 49. n 2 f4n+4. 41 16. 62 25n 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 18. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 35. . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 51. 29. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.30 ab + 25 6 64. 991 2 2 . 34. 15. 104 2 37. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .998 39. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (20 f 1) . 12. (2x3yy. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 J ). (1000 2 . 16aW25. 38. . 32. 55. 22. 46. 48. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 4 53. 40. 42. 31. + 3z) 2 2 . 44. 103 36. n*6n+9. 28. 47. 25 a 9. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. The product of 57. . 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2).MULTIPLICATION 10. 17. ( 27. 52. 21. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 998x1002. 54. a2 9. I) 2 . (^. 2 . 22 2 . + 5)(5+a). m 2 16. 23. 45. 2 9a 496 2 56. 14.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 33. By actual multiplication. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 7& ) 25. . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20.
. 9.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 14. (5a4)(4al). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. The square 2 (a 4. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (2a3)(a + 2). sum of the cross products. 11. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). plus the last terms. : 25 2. (4s + y)(32y). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 4. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). ) (2 of a polynomial. (5a64)(5a&3). 3. 13. or The student should note minus signs. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).& + c) = a + tf + c . 5. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 8. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 6. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. ((5a? (10 12.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 10. 65. (3m + 2)(ml). 7. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.
4.4) . . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . = 10 x . + 65) . 3. 4.3) . after multiplying the factors of a term.r _ 2 . of z : 10. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).39. Check.5). Ex. Find the square root 11.[a? .1 5 = 10 . = .29.(m 2 6.X2 + 2 x . If x = 1. 6. 6(a 2. and check the answers !. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 7. 3.8 x + 15] . (a (. (xy+z)*. 6~2(a + 7). 4y sf n) 2 .4) .(= [ Xa + 2 . 9. Simplify (x + 6) (a . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.3) (x .24 .(>. 66. 8. Hence. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 2 2. 4(* + 2)5(3). 5.y? + 8 . 13.5) = (7 .39. + 6)( . 8. 7. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 5. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (u4& + 3c'. n).24] .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 12. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.i2&c) 2 . a. 4(aj2)h3(7). 2)6. (  2 4) =  20 a.3)(z.(x .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
a I. . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (81 m + 1 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 19. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 20. v/17. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .e. .l. 16. Division of the difference of two squares. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 51 15. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .2) (3 a .DIVISION 14. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .11 a + 9 a . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18. . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.
9& 2 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 121a a 16 100 11. 4 b. 10. 15. 16. 12.0001. aW 12 a. : the following w a 4 !.49. f 13. . . r/ 1. 100ry. 1. 16 .000. 14.
. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. in the equation 2 x 0. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . (a + ft) (a b) and b. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. is said to satisfy an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 81. the 80.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. =11. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 82. x 20. . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. the first member is 2 x + 4. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 83.
but 4 does not equal 5. Transposition of terms. A numerical equation is one in which all . the divisor equals zero.54 84. called axioms 1. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 85. 90. 4. If equals be subtracted from equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.e. If equals be multiplied by equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 2. the remainders are equal. NOTE. If equals be divided by equals. . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. A term may be transposed from its sign. 5. To solve an equation to find its roots. A 2 a.b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .g. the products are equal.2. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. the quotients are equal. 87. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. a. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 3. one member to another by changing x + a=. the sums are equal. E. x I. . 89. If equals be added to equals. 86. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2 = 6#f7.
x = 3. Hence the answer.2. if 55 x members. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. if a x = b. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.9 y + y2 = 22 . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. a= a 6fc. The first member. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 3 y . 6a5 = 185 = 13.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 2(11 . . b Adding a to both + a.6 y f y\ .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . To solve a simple equation. Subtracting 4 x from each term. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Dividing by Check. and the known terms to the second. 91. Check. The first member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Transposing. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.8. is correct. 2 x = 6. Ex. f If y 20 . Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Dividing both members by 2. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.2 y= f . Uniting similar terms.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. a? Adding 5 to each term. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = (Axiom 3) 92. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Unite similar terms. x = 93. Uniting. The second member. 4x 1 + 6. b c. (4y)(6.
3)= 9(3 7 a. = 2 ?/. 9 9a? = 7 13. =2 = 3. \x x 2^xfl. a.7. 7 (6 x 16). + 22. a. 2. 17 + 5a. 4y 10. {(x (x The The member right member left . a? a?. f Simplifying.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 16. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 21. 17 7 a. = 5a?+18. = 3.69. . : 5# = 15+2a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 11. a?. v23. 19.7a: = 394a.. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 4a + 5 = 29. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 14. J. + 16 = 16 + 17. 20. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 24. 50. Dividing by Cfcecfc.. = 7. + 7(3 + 1) =63. If x = 18. x = 18. 3 7 a. 247y = 68lly.17 + 4y = 36. and check the answers 9. aj * See page 264. 11 ?/ a? 18. 3. 22. Solve the following equations by transposing. 7. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Transposing. . it NOTE. x x 1 . 6. 15.56 Ex. 3. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 8. etc. 32 = 264. 13a? 3a?. 12. 4. 7a? 5. Uniting.
7) (7 x + 4) .14 = 0. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. (aj 37. a? 28. 7(7 x y 26. . 39. 27. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(2 + 6) (4 . 6(6a. or 70 a?. . . 29. e. 25.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.7. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 33. is the other part. . 42. 38. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . . 30. 2 2 * Jaj. : One part is of 70 is 25 .5) + 199.3) + 14. 34. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .1) (a (a? + 3) = . 40.g.12) (2 + 5) . 31. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (6 u =5 44. this question.5) = (a. 5) (as (a. 7) (a. .1) (u . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).3) + . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. + 7) (.1 0) = 0. 36. .5(2 u .3) . + 4). 41. Evidently 45. 35.4) + 4 w . a? 43. find the other part.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.32. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.2) (M .
is d. 33 2. and the smaller one parts. 5. or 12 7. Divide a into two parts. 17. EXERCISE 1. 15. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. find the cost of one yard. 3. 14. Ex. so that one part The difference between is s. Divide 100 into two 12.58 Ex. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. is a? 2 is c?. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. greater one is g. a. 1. 4. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 13. is b. 7. 9. 6. 11. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. x f y yards cost $ 100 . If 7 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 6. so that of c ? is p. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 10. smaller one 16. one part equals is 10. Find the greater one.
How many cents has he ? 27. 34. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 28. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. numbers is x. and c cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. If B gave A 6 25. 33. How many years A older than is B? old. 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the has ra dollars. and B's age is y years. sum If A's age is x years. 24. 20. ?/ 31. Find 21.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. b dimes. 19. 26. A man had a dollars. and B is y years old. A dollars. is A A is # years old. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 32. and spent 5 cents. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A feet wide. amount each will then have. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B has n dollars. Find 35. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 22.
49. a. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. m is the denominator. 46. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find the number. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. Find a. . how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. find the fraction. A cistern is filled 43.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. he walk each hour ? 39. Find a 47. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. % % % of 100 of x." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. of m. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. . 48. of 4. per Find 5 Find 6 45. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. Find x % % of 1000. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. The two digits of a number are x and y. A was 20 years old. If a man walks 3 miles per hour.50. c a b =  9.
a exceeds b by c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 80. 6. 9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 4. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. etc. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. double of a is 10. c. by one third of b equals 100. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The double as 7. The excess of a over b is c. same result as 7 subtracted from . of a increased much 8. of x increased by 10 equals x. c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 5. of a and 10 equals 2 c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 2.
the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. m is x % of n. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C's ages will be 100. is If A's age is 2 x. and C have respectively 2 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 6 % of m. 18. they have equal amounts.000. B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 3 1200 dollars.62 10. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. symbols B. and C's age 4 a. as 17 is is above a. . In 10 years the sum of A's. 17. 16. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. B's age 20. #is5%of450. amounts.. of 30 dollars. they have equal of A's. 12. x 4 If A. a second sum. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. >. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. (c) If each man gains $500. 50 is x % of 15. express in algebraic 3x : 10. B's. sum equals $20. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 11. B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. x is 100 x% is of 700. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. pays to C $100. a. 14. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.
x= 15. Ex. 2. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 15. Dividing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. be 30 . be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. etc. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). the required . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 3z40:r:40z. In order to solve them. . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Simplifying. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Check. number of yards. Three times a certain no. x = 20. 1. denote the unknown 96. Uniting. A will Check. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Let x The (2) = A's present age. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Transposing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Transposing. much as 40 exceeds the number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. the . 23 =30. NOTE. Uniting. 4 x = 80. 6 years ago he was 10 . but 30 =3 x years. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Ex. Let x = the number. x+16 = 3(35). In 15 years 10. Find A's present age. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40.
How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.64 Ex. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the number. 4. by as much as 135 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Six years hence a 12 years ago. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 120. Find 8. 11. How many miles per hour does it run ? . What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Forty years hence his present age. 300 56. Let x 3. 3. twice the number plus 7. % of 120. A number added number. . Find the number. Hence 40 = 46f. Dividing. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. EXERCISE 1. 14. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.2. 5. 13. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12.
The other verbal statement. During the following 90 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Find the population of Maine in 1800. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. How many dol A has A to $40. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Vermont's population increased by 180. . then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. two verbal statements must be given. If A gains A have three times as much 16. is the equation. five If A gives B $200. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers.000. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. which gives the value of 8.000. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. One number exceeds the other one by II. Ex. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 14. written in algebraic symbols. The problem consists of two statements I. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. times as much as A. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. B will have lars has A now? 17. 1. A and B have equal amounts of money. 65 A and B $200. 97. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. The sum of the two numbers is 14. the second one. x. B How will loses $100. Maine's population increased by 510. and B has $00. and as 15. F 8. statements are given directly.
To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 25 marbles to B. Uniting. A has three times as many marbles as B. Dividing. The two statements I. 8 the greater number. Let x 3x express one many as A. < Transposing. 2. . has three times as many marbles as B. the sum of the two numbers is 14. although in general the simpler one should be selected. I.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = B's number of marbles. Statement x in = the larger number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. If A gives are : A If II. terms of the other. consider that by the exchange Hence. the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. x x =14 8. + a f f 8 = 14. unknown quantity in Then. and Let x = the Then x +. = 14. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Let x 14 I the smaller number. x = 8. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = A's number of marbles. A will lose. 8 = 11. 2x a? x j = 6. x 3x 4 and B will gain. B will have twice as viz. B will have twice as many as A. . .66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. / . to Use the simpler statement. which leads ot Ex. = 3. the smaller number. A gives B 25 marbles. Then. If we select the first one.
Two numbers the smaller. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. The value of the half : is 11. Uniting. 50 x Transposing..25 = 20. 11 x = 5. 1. of dollars to the number of cents. etc.. * ' . x = 15. is 70. The number of coins II. but 40 = 2 x 20. (Statement II) Qx . differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 45 .550 f 310.10. the number of dimes. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.5 x . 3 x = 45. Find the numbers. x = 6. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.10.75. Dividing. Dividing.10. Let 11 = the number of dimes. 6 times the smaller. Check. Check. . 3. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. w'3. 60. Eleven coins. have a value of $3. dollars and dimes is $3. Simplifying. Find the numbers. cents. . Uniting. and the Find the numbers. 15 + 25 = 40. x from I. the price. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). A's number of marbles. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. the number of half dollars. 50. * 98.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.240. x = the number of half dollars.$3. Simplifying. by 44. B's number of marbles. then. 2. The sum of two numbers is 42. consisting of half dollars and dimes. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.. greater is . 40 x .
000 feet. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and four times the former equals five times the latter. On December 21. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many inches are in each part ? 15.. Two numbers The number differ by 39. the number. 6. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. United States. tnree times the smaller by 65. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. Everest by 11. A's age is four times B's. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Twice 14. Find their ages. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22.68 4. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. McKinley. How many volcanoes are in the 8. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 5. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. one of which increased by 9. and twice the altitude of Mt. 11. How many hours does the day last ? . 7. How many 14 years older than B. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. as the larger one.
Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. I. number had. 1. II. B. = 48. 8(8 + 19) to C. . try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. Ex. III. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. has. and B has three as A. has. B. If 4x = 24. The third verbal statement produces the equation.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. original amount. If A and B each gave $5 to C. bers is denoted by x. then three times the money by I. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. they would have 3. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and C together have $80. and 68. number of dollars A had. 19. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Let x II. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. B has three times as much as A. and C together have $80. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. times as much as A. are : C's The three statements A. x = 8." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5.
number of sheep. 4 x f 8 = 28. number of cows. sheep. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 9 5 = 4 . x Transposing. according to II. x f 4 = 9. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. and Ex. III. number of cows. number of horses. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Let then. The I. x = 5. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. three statements are : IT. the third five times the first. 2. + 8 90 x and. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. according to III. The total cost equals $1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 9 cows. x j = the number of horses. 90 may be written. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and each sheep $ 15. Dividing. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. cows. + 35 x 4. Uniting. first. 185 a = 925. 28 2 (9 5). = the number of dollars spent for cows. each cow $ 35. each horse costing $ 90. and. 1 1 Check. and the sum of the .
The gold. first.000.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. what is the length of each? has 3. the copper. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. 7. A 12. v . how many children were present ? x 11. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. twice the 6. men. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. what are the three angles ? 10.000. increased by three times the second side. the second one is one inch longer than the first. If twice The sum the third side. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . twice as old as B. women.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. what is the population of each city ? 8. and 2 more men than women. and the sum of the first and third is 36.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 9. New York delphia. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. 13. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. "Find three is 4. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and children together was 37. the third 2.  4. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. equals 49 inches. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.
The copper had twice the value of the gold. and distance. = 35. number of hours. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000 more than that the copper. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. A and B apart. = 5.000. i. 3 and 4. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. Let x = number of hours A walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. we obtain 3 a. . or time. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. Dividing. width. such as length. After how many hours will they meet and how E. number of miles A x x walks. of arid the value of the iron was $300. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750.g. Find the value of each. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 8 x = 15. how many 100. 14. together. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. but stops 2 hours on the way. First fill in all the numbers given directly. speed.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 7 Uniting.e. and quantities area.000. Hence Simplifying.
x + 200). $ 800 = required sum.04 = $ 40.01 = = . Check.M(x . or 700. 70x10 Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. Transposing and uniting. the second 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. . . But 700 certain = 800 2. Multiplying. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 2 a = 40. x ." gives (2. + 8.05 x x . original field has Check. $ 800 = 800. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. The an area 40 x 20 =800. were increased by 30 yards.053. 2   and transpose. 10 x = 200. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.06 = $ 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Find the dimensions of the field. l.04 8. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less. x . z = 20. $ 1000 x .
of coffee for $ 1. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. as a 4.55. but four men failed to pay their shares. and its width decreased by 2 yards. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Find the share of each. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. mobile. A of each. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. Six persons bought an automobile. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. 3. A man bought 6 Ibs. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. invested at 5 %. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. sions of the field. 1. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. the area would remain the same. and a second sum. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. After how many hours will B overtake A. twice as large. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. were increased by 3 yards. What are the two sums 5. Ten yards $ 42. together bring $ 78 interest. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. 2.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A sets out later two hours B .
A and B set out direction.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. and from the same point. The distance from If a train starts at . how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
if it does contain some indicated root of . stage of the work. irrational. it is composite. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. 76 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 6. consider 105. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. as. a2 to 6. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . vV . this letter. a. which multiplied together are considered factors. 5. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. at this 6 2 . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. we shall not. but fractional with respect 103. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if. expression is rational with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. a. 104. An after simplifying. + 62 is integral with respect to a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression.
77 Factoring is into its factors.) Ex. E.62 can be &).3 sy + 4 y8). ?/. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. in the form 4) +3. 110.62 + &)(a 2 .3 6a + 1). x. 55.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . TYPE I.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 107. 2. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or that a = 6) (a = a . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Divide 6 a% . for this result is a sum. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 109. x. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2. 8) (s1). . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. y. 1. It (a. . Factor G ofy 2 . it follows that a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.FACTORING 106. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .g. 2. 01. Ex.
we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 3 2 . obviously. (as 3) and (ccf5). ) 22  2. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 17.2. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 7a & 10.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.5 x*y 2 17 a? . a6c. + llm llm. 2 Or. 8. 18. 4 8 . in general.g. . 4 tfy f. e. TYPE IT. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 13.3. 3.5 + 13 8.45 afy . 5f 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 12.30 aty.4. 19. 3 3 5 6. 2 23. a a 'Ja .4. 32 a *?/ . 2 2 . 15. q*q*q 2 a. 14a 4 5. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 2 6. . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .3.51 x4 2 6 xy s .51 aW + 68 21.8 c a 15 ofyV . 7i 13.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 11. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 20. 14. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 15 2 7. 2.12 cdx. 34 a^c 8 . 4. Ilro8 9. 2 + q. 3x*6x*.6. : 6 abx . 16.5 + 2.
Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.11 a + 30. can be factored. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.4 .FACTORING Ex.4 x . and (a . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 11 7.5) (a . or 77 l. 4. or 7 11. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. as p. Ex. 2 6. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11 a 2 . but of these only a: Hence 2 . however. + 112..6 = 20. Factor a2 . . 77 as the product of 1 77.11) (a + 7). Factor + 10 ax . determine whether In solving any factoring example. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. + 30 = 20.a).30 = (a . 2. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. is The two numbers whose product and 6.5) (a 6). If q is negative. .G) = . We may consider 1. Ex. If q is positive. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. .1 1 a tf a 4. 5. 79 Factor a2 4 x . tfa2  3. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.11.77 = (a. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Therefore Check.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 3. of this type. a 2 . m 5m + 6. the two numbers have opposite signs. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Factor x? . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).
100 xr . . 8. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 30. 13. 2 ?/ 22. + 5<y 24. a 7 a 30.6.48 + + 446 200. 21 a 2 2 . 2 . 17. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 15.180 a.70 x y . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 9. 14. 29. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 2 a' 34. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 16.17 + 30. x2 23. 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . + 2xS. 25. 32. 36. TYPE 113. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 24.500 x + 600. 19. or . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 2 ?/ 28. 12. + 30. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 31. + 44. 26. 33. a2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 27. . 16. 2 2 . . 11. 2 .80 7. 35. 4 2 . 20. + 4?/21. 21. 4 3 2 . and 5 x. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . ITT. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. ay 11 ay +24. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.
2. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.5) (2 x . 18 x 3. Factor 3 x 2 . a. viz. the signs of the second terms are minus.83 x f 54. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 2 x 27. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. sible 13 x negative.5 . which has the same absolute value as the term qx.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. and that they must be negative. and r is negative. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3. . the If p and r are positive.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. X x 18. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. . If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. or G 114. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. If p is poxiliw. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. Ex. 6 x 9. 9 x 6.1).13 x + 5 = (3 x . 54 x 1. 3 x and x.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 11 x 2x. 27 x 2.
3x*Sx + 4. 144 x .30 y 6 4 . 3a + 13a. 2. 4a2 9tt + 2. 12^17^16. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .83 x . 3.27). x54 a. 20. + 2/3. 9. 19. 10. 35. 16. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 12. 10 a . 9 y + 32^16. 2 . 30. and the monomial factors should be removed. 5. 32. 2x* + 9x5. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Sar' + SaG.163 x 2 . 11. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 21.19 a f 6. X 27 . 2 2 2 .179.7.2 a 90 x*y . : 41 2. 10a2 G a2 2 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 34. .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 18. the expressions should be it. 14 a fa 4. 13. since all others (II.260 xy .y + 172/9. 14. 2 31. 17. 90 a 8 2 . 15. 6n + 5?i4. 2 . 100^200^ + 100^. 2 28. 4. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2m t7w + 3. 22. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.300 ab 2 f4 250 .83 x = (3 . 2 2 2 23. 2 fc . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 12y 2/6. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 10a?2 2 33. 29. + 4. 24. 7. f go. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.2) (x . 8. 9a. 5m 26m f 5. 6. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 25. . . 2 26.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .
x* . 2 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term.20 xy f 4 y\ . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 116.26 ab + 9 6 2 . it is a perfect square. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .10 x f 16.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 8. 25 7. square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 13. must have a positive sign. 12. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11. form are special cases of the preceding type. 2 9 10gf25. 5. 9 10a625.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 6. 10. 14. 9. it is more convenient for that type. 2. however. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . and a perfect square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 3. of its terms are perfect squares. i. 4. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. and factor whenever possible : 1. . To factor a trinomial which maining term. .e. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.
6 m* + 9 m. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 25. 26. 2 20. a. 29. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. +( )f816 30. According to 65. product i. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 2. prime. 9a2 . 16&*. 27. 48 a +( ). 10 a 2 4 2 . 6.60 a# + 4. 2. 1.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 5. ). V. 16. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. Ex. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.3 * ). 2 . a2 24.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. TYPE 117. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 17. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. ^//c to the Ex. 7. 2 . 3. aV . 4 2 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 3. a. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . + GO + 25. . . . u2 6& + 2 ( ).64 6 = 16(a . 36 2 4.20 ab + 10 b a . ). 9. 22. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 225 ofy . ). 19. 149 a 81 8. 6 2 . 4a2 l.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). * 2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 18.9& 2 3<> 4 2 .e.84 15.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .
8. 6. 5. 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .d) 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 9. 4. 36> . a:) 12. (m7?) y. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 16p 2 .c . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 13. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .(c 4.FACTORING 85 118. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 . T. Ex. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .(I) . Ex. of polynomials. Factor a 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 11. 14.
8. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. A. 6. Ex. 5. .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 5) .VI. ive find that the new terms con common factor.1.and trinomials.14. + x + 2x + 2. 12. 7. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. ma ?*a + m& nb. 119. After grouping tain a the terms.ab + bx. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 1. 10.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. x8 .7 c + 2c . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a 26 2 2 3 .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a5 + ab 6 . 2.y + 2 2). = (3 x + y . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 4:cx . 2. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 9. By grouping.a a . Ex. .r. a? 11. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.2 ) (3 x . 3. 4 B. which may be factored according to types I.
6 6.4 f . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. = (a + 6)(a6). 4.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. II. Arranging the terms. : 46 x* 2. 2. 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 3. 6a4 12a2 + 6. . 8.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 4 a2 . 36 9 m . First find monomial factors common to all terms. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .l. 4.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 6.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . $ a8 . 2 7. : m 2 2 16. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. . 2. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. +c+ 2 2 2/ . IV. 5.12 aaj 4 6y. + 2xy + y*q*. 8ra 2 + 16. 2a3/ 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.FACTORING Ex. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 3. w m 2.
32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.156. + 6 aft + 3 . 27. 40. 80 a 2 ft 38. 2 ft . 42 s 2 . or 3 7#2 . 2 a 128. 5 a. 25 a + 25 aft . a5 a 1 4 2 39.40. a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . . 42 x .88 10. 50^ + 45. 3 25. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 3 2 . (^ 34. 4 a. 19. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 24.13 c .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 12. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 28. 30. a + a + a + l. 3 41. 48. 29. 3 a2 23. 22. 14.310 x . 13 c . a6 36. 18. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 13. 5a' 20. 35. + 14. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . (a. a3 156. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 2 17. 11.24.
find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. II 2 . F. of : 48 4. C. C. 3 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of the algebraic expressions. C. F.  23 3 . C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty.) of two or more . C. 54  32 . C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 122. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. 5 2 3 . F. C. 3.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. 5. C. 2. of two or more monomials whose factors . 12 tfifz. 5 7 34 2s . Thus the H. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. The H. F. F. 5 s 7 2 5. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 6. 24 s . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. . The H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. 89 . 121. of 6 sfyz. EXERCISE Find the H. The highest is common factor (IT. aW. 2 2 . of aW. F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . Two common factor except unity The H. 15 aW. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. The student should note H. 8 . 25 W. are prime can be found by inspection.
9 aj*(a? . a2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 8 a 10 . 12 . a2 ar* 4. 12 w*nw 8. a. 49 C. 24 a 2 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 3. 8(?/ifl) 14. 13. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . To find the H. . . 65 zfyV. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 16. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.y) 123.# 4 afy f 4 . . 10.?/ .5 y).5 x3?/ 2 6. C. 95 2/V. 57 a>V. 9. y + 3y64. 0^80:416. 13. 2a f5af 2. a2 + 2a3. 8 6. ^f a. ^a + 5^ + 6. 1. 38 #y. 12. F.8 a + 16. 6 a2 y? . 5. 16 a . 11. 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a3 9a. F. 8. ^2 2 . 14. 2 . C.^9. 6 mx . of polynomials. 12. 15 3ao. 10. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.12 as 66 . and apply the method of the preceding article. C. 52 oryz4. = x 2 y. 2 . .6 . 3 .2 ?/) (x . 3^ 2 4 . 2 . x* x2 Hence the H.2 y) (a. 2. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. F.5 + 6. 225 4a 9 .y) . 6(m+l) (m+2).y + y42. of: .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 25 m27i. Find the H. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . a2 + 7af!2. F. Ex.6. . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . aWd. 11. 7. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 9. a3 16 a. 15. 8. of + 4 if. 4(m+l) 3 . (a7 ?/) . . 4 ?io. 1. 3). ^707 + 12. 6 3 a. a 3a4. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .6 a&.90 7.
a^c8 3 . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M. To find the L. C. 60 x^y' 2 . 128. of 3 aW. M. which also signs.M. L.6 3 ). two lowest common multiples. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. Find the L. A common remainder. C. M.M.6)2. C. 2. M of the algebraic expressions. 127. etc. each set of expressions has In example ft). 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. 1. thus. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M. M. The L. . of several expressions which are not completely factored.C. NOTE. .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. ory is the L. Ex. L. but opposite .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . Find the L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 300 z 2 y. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 2 The The L. M.C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of tfy and xy*. &) 2 M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. Hence the L. of the general. C. The lowest common multiple (L. 126. Common 125. C. Ex. Obviously the power of each factor in the L.
a^1. 4 a . 2 a . x 2 5 a. y*. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 3 ab. a f 3. 2 a. a 1. + 6. 8 afy. a 2 fa6. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. b 2 . 2. or f 3 a 15 #. 2 x \2 y. 11. f b. (a 4)(a2) 12. 24 x. Find the L. 2 . 1. 24. #. 15. 7. of: 4. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . afy.1. 20 9 a. 4 a f 2. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6 y.f 6. 3. 6 a. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2 . by. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a { a~b. ic 23. 17. a?b. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. + 2. 6b 2 . x* ~5a. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 10. 2 . 3 . 3. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 20. 8. 4 a 5 6cd. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. + 2 7i) . M. ic 2 ?/. a2 ~ab 1. a. xy\ . 8 d 5 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 5. a& 4 +& 2 . 13.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. . a f 2 19. a. a 2 a3 . 2 a . x2 + 4 a f 4. 2 7ic+10. 3(a + b). . a. 3 Z> . 9. ) . (For additional examples see page 268. 16. 3 6 xif. 2(m 2 . G a. a2 4. afc'cd 2 . T a 3 a 2 . 18. 22. 40 abJ. 14. 3 f2. 21. 30 a. 6.1. a !.
The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. Remove tor. Ex. a b = ma mb .ry ^ by their H. as 8. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. however. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. F. rni Thus 132. 130. successively all 2 j/' . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. etc. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. and denominators are considered. an indicated quotient. Thus. A f fraction is b. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . but we In arithmetic. a?.
Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only. 3.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Ex. . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. 2.
. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^+3*. 9x + "a" 10. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 29. ' ^ . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 11 ^ Mtr f . ny 4 18.' 32. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.7 .10 a + 3 2 14.*. .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. """. ^" a. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. LJZJ^JL.. ^' rt ^  31. 16. g J 21.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 19. . 23. 5^10 y 30. nx 17.
1.C.96 134.  of //* 2 .  by 4 6' . of the denominators for the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z.~16 (a + 3) (x. C. .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.3) (!)' = . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. 2> .M. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. . Ex. . we have M^. C. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. by the denominator of each fraction.C. multiplying the terms of 22 . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. M. + 3). TheL.1^22 ' . and 135. ^ to their lowest com The L.D. mon T denominator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. Reduce ^.M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Divide the L. take the L. and (a 8). and 6rar 3 a? kalr .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 1).r 2 2 . and the terms of ***. we have the quotients (x 1). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.
5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 8 i i.. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 18. . a? 1 5 > ^* . 7i 2 ab* ". they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. JL. j y 3. 137. . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 74). 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 22 a2 5a * . . o o a. .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' ..^1. common denominator 6. i. If the given fractions have different denominators. 2 ay IB. 5?. . 2aj ~ .oj o* or / . 3.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .
e. 2 ^. L. ft)..4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .(a 2 6).3 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. the student should remember that parentheses are . and adding.3 ft 2).aft) Ca2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.2 ' 2 _. D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a ft).g. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.2 = a(a . C. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . The L. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. (a .ft) (a ft ft)~. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 4(2 a 3 ft). D. 2. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).ft)(a . ^ is 2^JT) . in the beginning. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . T? Ex.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.7 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft).. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. as 4 aft f.
6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 24. 23. + . 15. 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. 1 1 f w 16. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1 f q * 1 m m .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a+6 a 6 2 14.5 18 ^4f25. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 46 2a 4a 12. A+2_3. 2. j>0 i> 21. a 36 ++. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 20.
41. 3a 9 +. ! n. a 30. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a. 2 af1 32.9 79 6 2 i. 42. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 43. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a ?^ 40. a 4 31. 1 34. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ + a? ?/ + y.9. ic 1 + 1. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . af 1f /j. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .
101 mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 .  4 or 3 2a. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139. 1. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . T. . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.7 5a v Ex. Reduce .
each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Since  = a. F J Simplify .) Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.g. fractions to integral numbers. (In order to cancel common factors. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . integer. !. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. multiply the 142. 2.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. or. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. we may extend any e. 2 a Ex.
4 8.6 12 d6 4..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. aj 5 1 a? 18. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 2 f 5 a. 50 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. . 5# 56 / c& 4. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.. 14.
The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 8 multiply the Ex. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction. Divide Xn?/ . 144. . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 1. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .
' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. ga2 4 8 5 a .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Ex.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 s + 064. l._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. are fractional.^c 2 2 .afr 4.FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a a2 4. or both.
a m "" . of their denominators. Ex. the answer is directly obtained. JL. n a 8. i. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 7i+~ 7. . 2. c +6. Simplify x }.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 6. . M. C.y 32 . y X 4* 2 y 3. & . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.a ^c c _^ a .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . . x* 4. 9. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). 10.
) . m^n* n L a 17.~l (For additional examples see page 273.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 i 1 2 5 . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. o 15.
148. = 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 5(3 85 Check. If = 64.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Uniting.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. a.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to Ex. Clearing of fractions. tions. these Ex. 2z2a.28 a = 5 x2 . C. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 1. = 6. 4 4)  x. 2. 9x x Check. 2 3.f3# + C:E=6f7212.8 x = . Bx 12 Qx. 2x Transposing. If x 6.48. . 108 . M.42 + 9. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Transposing. x = 6. Uniting. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).14 (a. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. each member is reduced to 1. of the denominator. + 1) (a + 3) . Multiplying by (x Simplifying.l)(z + 3) = .9 x2 + 9.1.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.
1 _77 a. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 18. a/  5 a/ = 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 15. ^1 = 9. 16. . a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1 *> = 2. . a: 7 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . +4 14.= 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13. ^' 2. +1 = 5.
 38 = 40. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 25. 33. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. If two or more denominators are monomials. 4a4l4* + l~. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 27 ._ _ . 3x 35. 31 31. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ?_=_. 32 6 .11_4 x 149. J_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 26 26. . y+3~2 29. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. .
Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.1.2 42 9 43. 24 a. . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . a. the 1 5 L. Dividing. 1.29 50712' 9 18 . 60. each member is reduced to ^. Transposing and uniting. C.  5 = 20 x 45. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.2 3 ~  == 7a. = 9. Check. 5# 10. 5x x : = 9. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .. If a. 26 a. M.
unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. they are united by factoring. fr Reducing lowest terms. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. If 3ac L= = a ? . find a in terms of b and c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Dividing. Ex.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. jr. Ex. f ~ 5c. 5> a. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.m bx 2 mn) x. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Uniting the Dividing. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.3 6 2 = a' . = 2 f b 2 . Uniting. 4 ac 1. It frequently occurs that the x.2 ac + 3 aft . a.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = = 6 6c 7 6c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.2 62 2 ab. =a 2 151. . Thus. = l^ 9 b 4 .be. y. = 6 a2 .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 2.1. ax f x f.& .
= 5.i l . f P =+!. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. * Solve the same equation for^). mx = n. = vt. 30. + 3a. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 15. + xx = 1. s = Vt solve for v. c. 6. Ex. 9. 31.= c a Z> . . and n the number of years. 12. 4. 14. 2 solve for y a.= n. a. r the number of $>. .a. 3(* 8. . 10. 13. in terms of other quantities. = rt. If s If 16. q solve for/. 29. solve for a. m a? x . If s (wi n) x =px + q.= H. co?. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. f ^o. solve for . 5) is t =^. 3. t.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If ^^ = a 1 32. 4. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. _ 2. The The i time. 11. c 18. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 1 f. IIL n b + &o. 17. = 3 (6 a). = 8 4 #. denoting the interest. iw 21. p the principal. If * 33. rate. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 34. . ^ ax a^ 26. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).
A would do each day ^ and B j. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. then = 2 TT#. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 2. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. 12. 100 C. = 16^.. . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days.20 C.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. . = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 2 3 . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. x Or Uniting.114 35.180. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Multiplying by Dividing.. 1. Find R in terms of C and TT. is 36. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. and 12 = the number over.
hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. = the x part of the work both do one day. Clearing. = 100 + 4 x. Solving. and the statement. 3." : Let x  = the required number of days. 32 x = . u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. 4x = 80. or 1J. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 180 Transposing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Ex. in Then Therefore. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
Find A's 8. and of the father's age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. a man had How much money had he at first? . A man lost f of his fortune and $500.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. ceeds the smaller by 4. of his present age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. is equal 7. by 3.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. fifth Two numbers differ 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. by 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. to his son. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. which was $4000. is oO. and 9 feet above water. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. money and $10. make 21. to his daughand the remainder. length in the ground. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. ex What 5. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left.
. investments. Ex. Ex.) 22. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the 14. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and B in 4 days. How much money $500? 4%. and it B in 6 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 2. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 1.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A has invested capital at more 4%. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 3. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. ^ at 5%. air. Ex.
and apply the method of 170.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. B in 30. and n = 3. To and find the numerical answer.e. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. B in 12. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. if B in 3 days. is 42. is 57. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. n x Solving.g. Hence. 2.= . . it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. . Ex. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. e. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 5.009 918. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 16. 3.118 153. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. A in 4. m and n. 25. Then ft i. we obtain the equation m m . The problem to be solved.414. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 26. therefore. . they can both do in 2 days. A in 6. A in 6.
two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 2 miles per hour.721. 34. squares 29. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 4J miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. respectively. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.001. (d) 1. the second at the apart. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 5 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. .000. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. The one: 31. 2 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 3J miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Find the side of the square.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. : (c) 64 miles. squares 30. the rate of the first. is ?n . respectively (a) 60 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 33. is (a) 51. 3 miles per hour. (b) 149. Two men start at the first miles apart. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (c) 16. and the rate of the second are. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. if m and n are. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. meet.
" a Thus. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. the second term the consequent. 1. etc.5. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the denominator The the 157. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The first 156. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the antecedent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. E. . antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. is numerator of any fraction consequent. : : 155. Ex. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b. 6 12 = . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.g." we may write a : b = 6. b is the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. In the ratio a : ft. a ratio is not changed etc.
= or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 62:16. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. In the proportion a b : = b : c. terms. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. : ay . 7f:6J. 5 f hours : 2. $24: $8. extremes. 10. b. 6. 27 06: 18 a6. 11. a and d are the extremes. two  ratios. 16a2 :24a&. 16. 61 : ratios 72:18. 3. equal 2. b and c the means. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3:1}. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 159. 3 8. 8^ hours. J:l. 3:4. 18.RATIO Ex. 1. 9. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. and c is the third proportional to a and . and c. 12. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. Simplify the following ratios 7. b is the mean b. proportional between a and c. The last first three. 7:4 T T 4 . : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. Transform the following unity 15. 4. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 4:5f : 5. 17. : 1.
e. are : : : inversely proportional.) mn = pq. The mean proportional of their product. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. pro portional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. i.30 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : c. 3 4. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. then G ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and the time necessary to do it. " we " NOTE. briefly. 2 165. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. of iron weigh . = 30 grams 45 grams. 164. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.__(163. 163. and the other pair the extremes. ad = be.122 162. If (Converse of nq.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 6 ccm.) b = Vac. : : directly proportional may say. of a proportion. Hence the number of men required to do some work. 163. Clearing of fractions. In any proportion product of the extremes. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. of iron weigh 45 grams. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. ccm. q~~ n . !.
I. Or IV. 2.) II. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. d d. 166. V. ad ( 163. (Division. . if 6 : 7. 1.PATIO Ex. I. a III.) d 167. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. is Ex. (Frequently called Inversion. bd bd.) = f f = 3 J. (Composition. + b:b = c + d:d. 12x Hence a? = 42. (163. then =d c. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. = 35 .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a:c=b:d. is 4$ = 35. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. hence the proportion true. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) (Called Alternation. ad = be.
10. . 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. . its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 2:3. Or III. 8. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 20:7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Apply composition. mx tin Apply composition and division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 3. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. V.g. 5. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 9. the consequents by 7. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:x. = 7:2f 3J. 120:42 2 2 7. E. 2. x = 2. IV. = 180:125. 5 5.!=!*. 6 =4 : x. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.124 IT. = 12 5ft.e.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : x. 4. Simplify the following proportions. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. i.
ra 2 . 52. f. ratio of y. Find the mean proportional 30. 39.j>. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. . 21. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96.8:1. terra 2:3 = 4.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 42. a?:15 15. 26. 2 a and 18 a. 43. if : 40. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 6 x = y. and 2/. rap. 3. 16 and 28. 38. 28. Find the 37. 13. 29. 22. 23. 27. 3. 6x = 7y. x m = y n. 2. 50.:ff. 31. 5= 18 a? : a?. 34. = 3 43 + x. 46. 51. 1. 41. = 15o. 35. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.  32. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 2= 5 x x. 17. = 5 x 12. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 3t. 47. a 2 and ab. 6. 33. 9 x = 2 y. : a2 .RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. a. 2 3 = y #. ra + landra 1. 14. 03:a?=135:20. 44.. : . 7iy = 2:x. = 2 + x: x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. mx = ny. 12. 14 and 21. ra. b. 25. to : a and 1. 112:42 = 10:a. + fyx = cy.x: 6:5 a : x. rag. 20. x:5 = y:2. 2. w. 4. = l^:18. to: = 35:*. 5. 1 and a. to : 9 and 12. (a : : 45. : 53. Find the third proportional 24. 16. 18. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 4 and 16.
1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the : total cost. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time necessary for it. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the speed of the train.126 54. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the time. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 56. what 58. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 57. A line 7^. and the area of the rectangle. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the area of the larger? the same.
11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. as 11 Let then : 1. : Ex. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 inches long. x = 6. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2.000 168. . Let A B AC=1x. 11 x x 7 Ex. 2 x Or = 4. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. = the second number. x=2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. so that Find^K7and BO. AB = 2 x. produced to a point C. is A line AB.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 7 x = 42 is the second number.
The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 7. 2. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 12. and 15 inches. and c inches. How many gen. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1.000 square miles. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water.000. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. : 4. : 197. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.) . 13. 6. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 14. How The long are the parts ? 15. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Gunmetal tin. 11. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 12. 3. What are the parts ? 5.
a? (1) then I. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. values of x and y. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. the equations have the two values of y must be equal..L x If If = 0. However. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. =.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.e. there is only one solution. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 . 2 y = . Hence. x = 1. if . such as + = 10. expressing a y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. etc.y=. y = 1.
A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. = . 21 y . of elimination most frequently used II. are simultaneous equations. 174. Substitution. 3. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. and 3 x + 3 y =. y = 2.X. E. y I 171. viz. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Therefore. ~ 50. to The two methods I. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 4y . 172. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. By By Addition or Subtraction. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). for they express the x f y 10.24. cannot be reduced to the same form. unknown quantity. The first set of equations is also called consistent. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 6x . Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .26. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. same relation. the last set inconsistent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.3 y = 80. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.130 170. 26 y = 60.
3. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.14 =8. are like.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 64 x = 040. 60 . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 8 2. whose coefficients In general.2 = 6. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). y = 2. 37. y = 1. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. add the equations. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. x = 10. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 406. Transposing. 3. 25 x . subtract the equations. = 235. + 2. x = 10.3 y = 47. 10 . 3y = 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Therefore Check. 5 13 .3 1 = 47. Check.
' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.v 23. 13 61 l7a.5 y = 2. + 2/ 17. v ^ = ll. I i 3 a. ' 12. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. O t K 8. f 3# ?/ = 0. . 13. I . f 3X 7x 14. _.3. = 24. = 41. ] ^ . 19< I a. x 11.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.f2/ ' = 50. [2o. I ~ y~~> 22.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4.3. J I y = 1U. * + 3 y = 50. 9 1 r 20.9 *. I oj 5y = 17. = 6. i 3. 7 ' 1fi fl .
This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. . = 13. = 2y + 10. = 4#8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . (1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 3. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 60. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 2. x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation.
2 y = . however. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. \ \6(a. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (4). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. x = l. + 212y4 = 14. 21z6y=9. (7) (7) (8) . 7x_2y=3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 3. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Substituting in (6) . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36.3. 29 x = 29. 7 y = 6. .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3 (1) Ex.6)7(y7)==18. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. simplified before elimination is possible.
. a. yM a. . 16.1) = 121. +y 2 . 14. 4 11. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10. a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. J 9. 10 2a?5 17. . = 3.f2 2. 12.1) + 5(6 y . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.
180. e. <X + 20. . ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . 22. but some expressions involving x. f y . {. * ((* (( .#. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. and y.Q ^ 4 21.
. Dividing by 11 3 = #. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).3 xy. of this type. x 2x(2). 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. however.4 x = 4 xy. x 3. y.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) + (G). 15 y + 8 x . etc. Substituting x = 3 in (1). 1. Clearing of fractions. (2) (3) a. Therefore y=4. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. y 4. y 1. can also be solved Examples method. 137 Solve y y (1) .
4 13. 253 7. y MOi y a. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 331 9.= o 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= 5. n. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. . 6. = en. Ex. 21 9 . 1. x 8. x y 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).
bmy bm}y ap cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. a Find a and terms of n. apan cm. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. d. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x 12. ax + by = 2 a&. 14. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. x f my = 1. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 6. d. x a. .W. ap. . and I. w. fax f = l. . W .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. Dividing. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. Uniting. ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I if 13. s in 11.y = = 9a + 46. . f 5.
etc. 3. 8 x . the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). by 3.by 2.16.25. 20. = 30. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. To solve equations containing By tions.1+4.15z=12 Adding. 6. 4.3 = 8.2 + 4. 3.12 y + 6 z = . . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.13. y =* 2. Ex. l. (8) 2. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.lf> z . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. (4) (5). four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3=4.8 = 1. = 3. 1.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).2 + 3. 3y = Hence Check. 182. 4. ties are Similarly. x + 12 y . f 3y 12 =s 8.
4 = 42.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. 10. 15 2 = 45. == 6. 2 4. + y f z = 15. a? + 709 = 26. 2z = 40. 7. ~6?/ 5. 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . y f ?/ M 2? = 4. x 13. k 2/ f 2 x a. 49. a? 11. 12. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 1510 4 17. 4. ^ = 2. 32. 16. . . 60. .. 23. (3 _.2 a.42 = 2. 27. 22.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. =s 20. ? = llz. ?/ 3x = 0.3 y + . = 8*. = 5. 19.6 2. 84 21.
and to express In complex examples.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. . 1 digit in the tens place. 2 = 1(1+6).) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + z = 2p. Obviously of the other . + 396 = 521. and if 396 be added to the number. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. 2 = 6. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. z + x = 2 n. Ex. x : z =1 : 2. +2+ 6 = 8. y 31.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1 = 2. = 2 m. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . . M=i. Find the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. ( 99. = l. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Check. either directly or implied. symbols: x + y +z 8. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. y * z 30. # 4. 1. however.
starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 2. . By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Ex. x 3 = 24. (1) (2) 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. Or (4)2x(3). C. = 8. Find the fraction. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. B. x 3x4y = 12. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 4 x = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. = Hence the fraction is f. increased by one. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. From (3) Hence xy Check. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 6 x 4 = 24. 2. we obtain. xy a: 2y 4y 2. x y = the = the x denominator . the distance traveled by A. 5_ _4_ A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . Since the three men traveled the same distance.144 Ex. direction. = the fraction.
2. it is reduced to J.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.) added to a number of two digits. 7. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. its value added to the denominator. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. added to the numerator of a fraction. tion ? 8. 1. number by the first 3. If the denominator be doubled. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 183. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the number. 5. the fraction is reduced fraction. part of their difference equals 4. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the numerator increased by 4. fraction is reduced to \.}. 6. A fraction is reduced to J. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the fourth 3. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If 27 is 10. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the last two digits are interchanged. ? What 9. Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. Find the number. the digits will be interchanged. the Find the fraction. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction equals . and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. . If 9 be added to the number. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. both terms. Find the fraction.
12. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. How 6 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and 4 %. now. A man invested $750. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 5 %. and partly at 4 %. Find their present ages. and money and 17. and in 5 years to $1125. the annual interest would be $ 195. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. in 8 years to $8500. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. the rate of interest? 18. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. respectively ? 16. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . . Find the rates of interest. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.000 is partly invested at 6%. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. 13. partly at 5 %. 14. 19. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. A sum of $10. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.grams.
BC = 7 inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. angle c = angle d. and their difference by GO . An C touch ing the sides in D. 1 NOTE. three AD = AF. points. 24. ED = BE. and CE If AB = G inches. respectively. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. but if A would double his pace. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and F. and e. On /). A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. for $ 740. are taken so ABC.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. E. 23. c. and angle BCA = 70. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and $15 for each sheep. 25. BE. then AD = AF. . cows. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and F '(see diagram). Find their rates of walking. BD = HE. and GE = CF. what is that = OF. triangle Tf AD. and F. BC=7. and AC = 5 inches. $ 50 for each cow. is the center of the circum scribed circle. B find angles a. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and sheep. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. . If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. the three sides of a triangle E. the length of NOTE. and angle e angle/. andCL4 = 8.
and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . ?/. and PN _L YY'.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. is The point whose abscissa is a. and r or its equal OA is . then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The of Coordinates.. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). (2. the ordinate of point P. or its equal OM. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. is the abscissa. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and PJ/_L XX'. first 3). (2. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. B. PN are given. . (7. PN. PM. 186. (3. It' Location of a point. 2). YY' theyaxis. and point the origin. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). 3). the ordinate by ?/. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. jr. Thus the points A. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P.
Graphs. What Draw is the distance of the point (3.4). (2. (5. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Plot the points (6. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 4).and(l. 8. (0. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. What is the locus of (a?. 3). . whose coordinates are given NOTE. 71 2). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187.) EXERCISE 1. (1. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4) from the origin ? 7. and measure their distance. 4) and (4. Plot the points : (0. !). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.3). (4. 0). which of its coordinates known ? 13. 12. (4. 1).(!. (4. 2. 1). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 4. 3). 6. Plot the points: (4. i. (4. 2). 11. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 0). 4).2). Plot the points: (4. 3. (0. . 0). (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.e.1). 2J).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (See diagram on page 151. (4. 2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 3). 0). 6. (3.
Thus the first table produces 12 points. . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. from January 1 to December 1. or the curved line the temperature. 188. D.. C. By representing of points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we meas1 . 1. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 15. 10 . may be found on Jan. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. ure the ordinate of F. A. B. however. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc.
etc.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. as the prices and production of commodities. (d) November 20. physician. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. the merchant. the graph is applied. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. . Whenever a clear. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. The engineer. uses them. (b) July 15.
on 1 to the average. When the average temperature below C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. How much. During what months above 18 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (freezing point) ? 7.. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. is 10. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.152 2. (d) 9 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (1) 10 C. ?  3. 1 to Oct. 15. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 1? 11 0. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. ? 9.
transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw . a temperature chart of a patient. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. NOTE. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20. Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards. One meter equals 1.
. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.50. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. to 27. and $. gas. x increases will change gradually from 13.) T circumferences of 25.50. function If the value of a quantity changes. A 10 wheels a day. binding. 190. if he sells 0. 2.5 grams.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. etc. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 26. represent his daily gain (or loss).. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. books from for printing.154 24. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.inch. x* x 19. 3.g.. the daily average expenses for rent. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. x 7 to 9. 3. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 28. 29. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if each copy sells for $1. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. e. 4. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. then C irJl. the value of a of this quantity will change. etc. 1 to 1200 copies. 9. . amount to $8.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 .
etc. a*.1). 2 (1. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. may . Graph of a function.g.1). while 7 is a constant. 4).0). 2). E. however. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 50. (1. . is supposed to change. If a more exact diagram is required. 4). construct '. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. for x=l. and (3. 1 the points (3. as 1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. x a variable. plot points which lie between those constructed above. may. to x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article. (2. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . be also represented by a graph.2 x may 4 from x = 4.e. Q. The values of func192. Ex. ( 2. (1^. Draw the graph of x2 f. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. J). 9). and join the points in order. 9). 3 (0. 2.
the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. (4.. 194. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. straight line produces the required graph. r */ +* 01 . j/=3.. 4). 2. Ex. as y. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.. etc. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. (3. y = 6. = 4. 7 . It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. and join(0. Thus 4x + 7. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.2 x . 5).. (2. .) For brevity. = 0. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable..20).4). rf 71 . (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 1). 4J. 2 4 and if y = x f. Thus in the above example.
6 fa. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 3 a 8. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a? 2 4. ?/ a. Jar . 19. 1J. 2. + 4. . if a. 9. if the function equals zero. a? 1. 1J. 16. 2J. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 7.e. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.or. 8. . = The values of a*. 12. xz + x. fa 17. 2x + 3x a?. a?.8)'. 5. 2 or 2 20. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 15. 21. a. (7i) (c) 23. 2 2. if"a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2 a. 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.5)2. 18. 4 a. xl. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. if y = 2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 14. 22. l. 2J. = 4. 1J. 3. 6. (If) Va25. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 2. The values of a*. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (C ) (2. from x VlO'S". Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (ft) (_ 1. a* 13. i. a ar. y = 2x = 4.5)2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 1 8 10. 23x. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. x+1. 2 a. 2 2 a. 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. the function. 4a? I. The values of a?. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. J. 3. The smallest value of the function. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.
Therefore x = 1.24. then cXj where c is a constant. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. that graph with the o>axis. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.e..24 or x = P and Q.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. y= formula graphically. 32 F. Show any convenient number). 9 F. Represent 26. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. the abscissas of 3...158 24. C. . 25. i. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).where x c is a constant. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 14 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. 1 C. then y = .
viz. 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. = 0. is called a quadratic equation. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. + + = where a. Such equations in general have two roots. 11. 12. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 197. . 14. 3. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 8. crosssection paper is used.f 9 = 0. 4. (0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (a) x2 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. or 5 2. a2 2a. 13.7 2 a 5 = 0. 10. 2 and 1. (a) (6) 9. 7. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.
If x = 0. Ex. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.1. NOTE. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 1) and 0). Hence if if x x  2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. locate points (0.2 y ~ 2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). == 2. y = l. 4) and (2. y y 2. solve for ?/. 199. first degree. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 0). and joining by a straight line. . if y = is 0. 2).160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. and join the required graph. Ex. Hence. unknown quantities. = 0. ?/. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. produces the 7* required locus. i.e.2. X'2 Locating the points (2. 3x _ 4 . T . Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . because their graphs are straight lines. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. ?/ =4 AB. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. fc = 3. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Hence we may join (0. (f .
viz. 201. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 203. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 3. P.15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. and CD. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 202. AB y = . equation x= By measuring 3. To find the roots of the system. (2) . Graphical solution of a linear system. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.57. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots.
Locating two points of equation (2). 0) and (0. intersection.5. and . 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. the graph of points roots. Solving (1) for y. and + 3).5.0. 2 equation x 3). The equations 2 4 = 0. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. AB the locus of (1). Locating the points (5. 1. 5. P graphs meet in two and $. There can be no point of and hence no roots. x2 . (4. the point we obtain Ex. (4. In general. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. i. = 0. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. if x equals respectively 0. 4. 0. 4. (2. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.e.  4. e. 1. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 3. . 3. 5. V25 5. etc. Measuring the coordinates of P. Inconsistent equations.9. 2. 2. we of the + y* = 25.0). 4. 3x 2 y = 6. Using the method of the preceding para.g. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. (1) (2) C. 3). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 0. y equals 3. 3. and joining by a straight line. 4. they are inconsistent.y~ Therefore..
as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. \ 2x + 3^ . y = 4. '163 Dependent equations. y=x + 5. 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y= a2 2x y6. 6. 16 23. 16 22. the graphs of the following systems. a+r/=6. 9. state reasons. . 19. 2x 3?/=6. y 2 4. and solve each If there are no solutions. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1.. 17. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 7. a. 10. vice versa. Draw system. 2. 8. 3. 20. if possible.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. and. 5. x~y=0.
164 24. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31.14 y = . 29 . 28. 4 a = 3(6 . 26. CUBES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25.y).8. 30.
a = a3 . a special kind of product. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . According to 1. 2. 52. . Law of Signs. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. etc. ^4/? it According to 50. powers of a positive quantity are positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.faa a a a Obviously 1. on to in factors 4. is may be by 207.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.a2 . involution repeated multiplication. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ( a) is positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . fa. 8. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. follows that 3. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.
\ 3 J '  MW 10. 2 11 (afc ) . 210. (^^) 2 . (a ) 2 4  3. amVy) 3 . the required power. (277171 )*. . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . raise a fraction to a power. 16. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 4. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (a ) 2 5 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. V V/ 13. 2.166 To find To To power. (2ar). 76 : (>y. 4 /2mV.6 (a 8 8 . 15. 3 2 2 8 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 5. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 24. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . a product to a given power.6) = a . 6.
(afl) . Ex. 5. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . . (3 x . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . frequently called ex. 3 . 3 8 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 3. 7. 2 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 15. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 1. nent of the binomial.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 13. 23.) 14. pansions. (a + &)8 . 12. 8 (a??/) 3 . 211. are obtained by multiplication.3 y. 2. + 4aj) 3 .6 2 8 ft) . + a 2 a. . : a 20. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 21. (aj7) . 9. The higher powers of binomials. 1 f 3 2 3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 .y . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.INVOLUTION Ex. etc. 6. 2. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 8. 16. 18.y) = (3 y?y . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 4. +5a) 22. = s= (2s) 8 a. An 1. (3af26) 8 .
Ex. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (m fl) 2 20. . . 24. (1 + 4 ?/) . . 13. The minus. 10. (p + q) 4 * 7. and the powers negative. . (mnp 5 I) 5 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . Ex. (tff1) (cfd) .2. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 25. (2 4. ( &) 5 . 4 . 4 (1for) 5 . (m 2 + n) 8 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 5. is the coefficient of the next term. (mJ) 4 11. 6.a) 3 19. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (2 a 4 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (af 5) . 1. 4. 3. (?/i~w) : 16. (w 4 ?i) 4 .216 a^ 4. 2. (l 8 . Ex. 5. 3. (a~^) 5 . (la&) 4 12. 15.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 23. 21. 9. . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 18. 8. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (?>i?i f c)*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .168 3. (m 5 I) 2 22. 17.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 78 s . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 14. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . mn 5 2 5 ) .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (3a f5) 5) 4.
\/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and all other numbers are. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 2. 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a. Since even powers can never be negative. called real numbers.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. V \/P 214. 27 =y means r' = 27. 215. a) 4 = a4 . etc. \/"^27=3. or y ~ 3. for distinction. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or x &4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. (_3) = 27. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. numbers. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. tity . 1. V9 = + 3. = x means = 6. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 109 .
V5 v/2 7 2.1. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 5. v/2^. 8. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.64 5 4 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 .201) = 2. 7. index. 8. 7.(. . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.125. 3 33 53 . 82 . 6. To extract a root of a fraction. for (a")" a = a mn 3.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 62 = V2* . = 19472.  100 a 2 . . 3. 6. = V26TIT81 = 53. 9. To extract the root of a power.4. 2 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 7 . V?. 9. = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex. Ex 5 a" . extract the and denominator. 79 2 v/2 5 . fy 5 3 . 3i . Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex. Ex. 7 . 4 v.9 = 136. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 10. 2.200 . 3/0** = am . roots of the numerator \/18 .lL. 6 7 = 030. . Ex. EXERCISE 1. V36 9 4. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 2. v/^i2 = a*. \/2 4 9 . V25 9 16.
2 f ( V240) 3 . 116. 30. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V8. 6. 34. 45 V5184.3.4/.) by inspection. 5. 32.75. 31. 2. 3. 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.EVOLUTION 171 28. Ex. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . a* 4 8 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .6 tfif + 9 y = O . 2 ./). .3 . 33. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 1. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. Find the square root of a2 .3 y2) ( vV . 29.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. a f2 l 2 + l. V20 .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ^40^4. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. V9216.98.
. and b (2 a f b). a f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 &c. 2 . i. 2ab . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. #2 a2  16. 8 .172 7. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . 10. let us consider the relation of a f.> 13. mV14m??2)f 49. 14.e. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ac .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 15. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however. and b. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.2 ab + b . 12. + 6 + 4a&. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. a\b is the root if In most cases. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 11.b 2 2 to its square.
4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 1. Ex.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s .24 afy* f 9 tf. . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. */'' .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. of x. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 219. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . . . by division we term of the root. 8 a 2 . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 6 a. 1. and so forth. First complete divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. the first term of the answer. As there is no remainder. 10 a 4 8 a. Second trial divisor. 2. The square . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 2. First trial divisor. 8 /. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Explanation.
54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .25 x 4 4. 20. 12. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 14.25.6 .V430^425^ 4m 4.12 m 4. 10.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 5 4 16 4 iK .20 o 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 16. 16x6 4.4 x 4. > 7.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 2 4. 5. 6.10 x2 4. 19. 15. 18. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 36it.40 a 22 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. l 4. 729 4.12m 5 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 9. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 1 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 6 11. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.73 a8 . 3. . 24.24 or . 436^?/469a. 8. 2 x2 3 2x. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 17.16.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.37 a ^ . x 6 4 4 0^4. 13#4 413ar 44a.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. a? 2 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .73a4 440^436^460^.9. 4 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .42 a*& 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.
1344. and the first remainder is.176. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. Ex. first .EVOLUTION 220. of a number between 100 and 10. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the square root of 7744 equals 88. 2. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Find the square root of 7744. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. which may contain one or two). etc. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000.000. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 100. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1. Ex. two figures. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000 is 1000. = 80. Therefore 6 = 8. the first of which is 8. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the complete divisor 168. a 2 = 6400. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Find the square root of 524. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. of 10. the first of which is 4.. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. 1. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. etc.
The groups of 16724.GO'61. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.10. places. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1T6 221. Find the square root of 6/.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. annex a cipher. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.70 6. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .1 are Ex.0961 are '. 12. in .7 to three decimal places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.
13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. T\. 32.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.01.4 square when R = radius and 11. 34. 30. 37. 31. J. 39. whose area equals 48. JT .) 40. feet. 36.53. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .22. 33. 1.58 square 38. 35. = 3. 5. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . feet. 1.1410.
1. 6#2 = x* 24. 2 ic = a. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. This answer Check. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. or incomplete. A pure. or equation of the second degree. 225. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities.g. Dividing. 6 y2 = 17. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. is 12. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 2)* + 5 = 33. = 4. x = + 2 or x =2. is A quadratic equation. 2. The 7 equation. 226. = 7^ + 5. but no higher power e. Extracting the square root of each member. x 2 7.. or affected. 178 .CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 224. complete. Transposing. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Ex. .
.25. 15^5 = 6. 4. 4 ax. Solve 179 . 0^ + 1 = 1. 10. Dividing by Extracting the square root. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 7. 3. . 8. 19 + 9 = 5500. : 83 2. 2 2 a. 16^393 = 7. 6(2)=10(ajl). EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 5. ax Transposing and combining.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ' =: y? b* b . o. 2 4fc 5' 18. 7 = 162. or Therefore. (a? 9. 2.2.
solve for v. find a in terms of 6 . 28. . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find is the number. Find the side of each field. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 3. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Find the side of each field. 2a f 1 23. 2 . If G=m m g . 2 : 3. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If 22 = ~^. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 26. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 27. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. A right triangle is a triangle. 2. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 4. may be considered one half of a rec square units. ' 4. If a 2 4. 2 . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . r. 22 a. : 6.b 2 If s If =c . 228. and their product : 150. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. solve for d. Find the numbers.) of their squares 5.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. EXERCISE 1. then Since such a triangle tangle. 25. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. . is 5(5. solve for r. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 108. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 29. 24.
make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Find the radii. and the third side is 15 inches. . 2m. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the two smaller 11. A body falling from a state of rest. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 24. we have of or m = .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. of a right triangle Find these sides. is and the other two sides are equal. 8. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find these 10. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 9. Find the unknown sides and the area. x* 7 x= 10. . radii are as 3 14. Solve Transposing. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . Find the sides. add () Hence 2 . Method of completing the square.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) 13. (b) 100 feet? = . To find this term.2 7 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. The area : sides are as 3 4. (b) 44 square feet. 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. sides. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. J = 12.
 x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. J. Ex.a. a.2 a2 . = \ # = ff. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 62 x 5 = f. = . = x\ = 2.1.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Transposing. 2  . or J. Simplifying.x(l = . .2. Transposing. 230. Extracting square roots.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = 6. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Therefore.e.  \. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Hence Therefore Check. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . or x = 2. (*~8) a = at . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Ex. 2 a* a. Uniting. a Clearing of fractions. adding member). x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.
183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
2x 3 4. Solution by formula. =8 r/io?. . article. x la 48.c = 0. =0. 231. 49. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. = 12. and c in the general answer. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. ao.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. \bx\.
c p. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 3. 9. 2 a? = 44 x . : 86 + 2 = 0. 15. Reducing to general form. = 12 . 2 a.. 18.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 10. 8. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2. 17. 4. 2 o.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6 Ex. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. V^tT)* . 20. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.25 x. c = 5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2 . 2. 1. ?i 2 . TIO. 6 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 26.4 4 5 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 16. 11. 5 x2 Transposing. = 64120?. 2or } 5o. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 6. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 14. 7. 6^+5^ 56. 6. 19. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 12. 21. 13. a. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.  .
Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . all or. 26.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. x2 = 1 . 25. if either of the uct is zero. = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . and 6.4) = . = 14. 0.2.x.5) =0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.5 Solving (1) and (2). Eesolving into factors. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. ar>8o. 24. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Transposing. 5 = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 3x?+x = 7. 1. 27 x== 42a. 233. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Bx 1 1. }. a=:i^^. Clearing for fractions. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. any degree. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. = 0. or # 5 is zero. Solution by factoring. 5) = 0. factors Now. orz roots. transposing terms to one member. . = 0. member can be Ex. x(x <2 . (5 a? !)(. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 23. Factoring.
14. 12. 3. + 9 f 20 x = 0. E. 4)(z3) = 0. 5. 9. 3) = 0. O roots are 2. Ex. we 9 obtain x 4. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.= 24. 3^ = 0(1106). + 100. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 4or + 18a f 8a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. is 5) = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 13. 4. 16. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.(. 7. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.6)) = 0. 3. 2. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. (aj4)(a.:=0.3)(x + 3 3. 5 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. + 10 a = 24. : 87 = 0. 3 or 2 a. } 2 2 (5 . 2o3 f9a. 2. 0(02) = 7(02). members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.g. x2 f 2 x . 6. 3) Factoring. a* 10a=24. + 6)=0. a?10a=:24. a?. 3# y 5 = 0. for a: .24 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ar'Sa^ 12. and the equation thus formed be solved. 0^ ar> 11. The equation I. 8. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. aj( 15. + 8=s: 7. evidently (x Or 4)(x . Therefore x =3 = 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. Or Hence the 234.e.
188 17. 20. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 2. (2a? 3) (a 24.3) = (s + l) (3 a). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 19. ara + ft + c*. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 22. '3a!J  . 27. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 23. 18. 25. a 2 =(x a)b. uz + u 21. 50.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 54. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. EXERCISE 1. 5. 3. and whose sum is is 36. 55. and equals 190 square inches.0. 2. 2. G. 0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 7. 1. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. The 11. 4.3. 56. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find the number.2. and whose product 9. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.3. . Find the numbers. 52. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. number by 10. : 3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.1. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find the number. two numbers is 4. 2. 2. Find the sides.0.3. 2. 58. The difference of . and consequently many prob 235. 3. 57.9. of their reciprocals is 4. 8. 5. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 1.
he would have received two horses more for the same money. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 17.190 12. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 14. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. 19. 15. Find the rate of the train. as the 16. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for 21. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. ABCD. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. other. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. sold a horse for $144. watch for $ 24. If he each horse ? . ply between the same two ports. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. Two vessels. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.10. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and Find the sides of the rectangle. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. . 13. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. dollars.
and the area of the path the radius of the basin. and working together. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find and CB. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. a point taken. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. ^3^ = 7. how wide is the walk ? 23. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Ex. as 0. so that the rectangle. 237. By formula. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 23 inches long. or x = \/l = 1. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 27. contains B 78 square inches. constructed with and CB as sides. 1. (tf. 24. the two men can do it in 3 days. . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. of the area of the basin. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide.) 25.
stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 6. 4. 16. 2 h9:=0. = 13. 4 : 89 10a. 10. T 17. a4 5o. 436 3. Solving.T 2 2 . Hence Le.2 =4. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 7. 6. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Ex. 8. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. = 1. y8)=0.192 238. 2. aV+9o 4 =0.)+72=0. a. 12. 18. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 9. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 a. a? 15 1=2*. a 21or=100. >. 19.
If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .2) 2 4 3 (. . ( 2a Hence 1. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Ex. 240. the roots are irrational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 241. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are imaginary. and equal. the roots are real. Ex. rational. and unequal. a perfect square.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Relations between roots and coefficients.5) = 04. rational. c the roots are real.f> = 0. 2. 3. 1. is 4ac not zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are unequal.2 z . b 4. The discriminant =(. Hence the roots are real. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. negative.bx 4. the roots are equal.12 x + 9 = 0.
14. 3a. 9a3 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. : a 2 . 18. 12~x = x 2 . 6. x2 7 10. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5aj 9.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. + 2a. 2. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 21. 5oj aj + l = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2 7. 60 2 = 0. = 5x. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. tfmx+p^Q. = 0. their product isf.. lla. 24. 2 a. + 12 2  . 15.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 23. 2 : 3. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j.19 # 20. = Q. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. o. 17. 22. f 2 E. 4. + 18 2 8. or + 10 + 4520 = 0.g. + 2a15 = 0. ^12. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 12. = 0.
Then the law of involution. a m a" = a m+t1 . = a"" < . however. (a m ) w ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 244. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .a" = a m n mn .* III. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. and . ~ a m f. The first of these laws is nition of power. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. > m therefore. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. II. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. (ab) . no Fractional and negative exponents.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. must be *The symbol smaller than. We assume. such as 2*. m IV. It is. for all values 1 of m and n. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. that a an = a m+n . while the second of the first. hence. provided w > n.
3*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. m$. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 29.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Assuming these two 8*. a\ 26. fractional. . ^=(a^) 3* 3 . n 2 a. a . = a. '&M A 27. a*. disappear. 28. 24. at. 4~ . Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 245. 0?=^. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 30. or zero exponent equal x. 25. (bed)*. laws. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 31. ml. e. 23. a?*. as. (xy$.g. etc.
41.g. = 49. \/xy \/m. Vo5 . 40. hence is . Let a = a. v'mT 36. : 2' 4* = 4. : 197 33. 246. a * a2 Or a=l. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. however. the base is zero. 35. 44. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a . 43. 7z* Find the values of 47.g. 3* = 27. 38. ty?. 27* = 3. = 2. 45. If. v/o&cT 34.\/n. 49. = 2.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. e. Solve the following equations 39. 42. 37. 5 a* = 10. a* * = 3. 46. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. \fi?. 48. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. e. a. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. equal to unity. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent.
Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. . 248. Multiplying both members by a". ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .2 = a2 . e. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. etc. Or a"# = l. vice versa. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Let x= or". cr n. consider the following equations.198 247. by changing the sign of NOTE. or the exponent.g.
25. 37. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . f (2w)~i 1 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 2m~i 43. c 32. . 39. . 66 45. 36. ^L. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 40. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. * 24. rfS. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 22. 2 . : or 5 . 27. 3 a."* 38. : mi m~^. m . 7~ l a 2b 2 . 3 a? * 42. 44. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. a^ 41. a.
= 5. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . z 5or*=10. = . 59.81 f (a . = ^. 1. z* = 1. 10* Find the values 56. of: 3ll4~* 60. 48.001. 61. 49.(. 52.9*. 250. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. + A_. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.6). 47. 10* 5* = . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. . 17' 2 51. + 1~* f 21 . = l. Ex. 55. (. 58. 54. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 53.1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 57.343)* + (.008)* + A.26)* 1 (I) 2 . ar = i.
S'sS8. 4 x^. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. #* a.4 a8 . 95 ^9i 5**. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. Remove the negative exponents. 10. OA 20. remove the fractional exponents. 4 5.5a. 23. 8 ' 9. are performed. 13. 26.7*. 6 *.^/5^5. 3. 17. 6a. 7~ 5 27  .7W. . 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 16. ' 11. 27  28. &.$". 14an (4**(Va) 4 . etc. 7~ 6 . 6.. 79 . / 7fv 7. 14.$*. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 12. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 3sVS. .5.7i.6 *' 6 *25. a.3 aj" a. 18. NOTE. Perform the operation indicated.4 . 3 a. 72 . 7*. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7.&. (d) If required.&. . V5.
6 35. If powers of a?.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 2. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. powers of x arranged are : Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Arrange in descending powers of Check. The 252. 34. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 40.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
connect them by proper 1.10 V2 =  V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Ex.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . V2. V3. if dissimilar. </2. \/7. ^/IT. VS. ^4. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 38. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^5. 3. 39.2. 5V2. V2. 28. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^2. 40. 32. Arrange 35. 36.2 V50. Ex. v/3. ^2. ^7. 26. + . ^3. To add or form. ^30. in order of magnitude : \/7. Simplify V~ . 33.3\ . v/4. 30. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 27. ^2. 2\ 3*. A/3. V3. ^6. v^S.e. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. \/5. 29. V2. signs. 4^/4. ^4. 31. 34. Simplify V + 3 VlS. A/2. 37. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. V5. ^126. </3. v/3. subtract surds. s!/3. (i. </20.
13. V175V28+V634V7.3V20 + 6V5. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. 8VT8J2V32 7. V18+V32VT28+V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45. . 4. 11. 14. 12. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. + 3V835V2. 8.J a6 V4 aft. 3. 6. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10. 9. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .
6*.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .6V35 106 460V35100 .2v/6 + IPV6 105.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. y* = Ex. and then multiplied. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex. . 26^ . 1. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 2. 3. Ex. . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 23.
Vll. 37. 28 . V42. VlO V15. (Va Va 36. a?. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 6 V4 5. 21. 10. V20 V30. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 39. . 2 . V2 V50. 25. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 18. 3. 6. 15. 41. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. 14. 40 10 30. V2aV8^. 8. 34. (V6 + 1) 1 . 7. 213 98 11.^/2. V3 V6. (2V3) 8 . 12. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V3 Vl2. \/3 \^). 9. 19. (5V22V3CVS)V3. aVa. v/4. 13. VTO. (3 20. 38.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. fWa 17. 4. v/18 v"3. 27. + VB)(2V5). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33.VSS. 40. 2.
y. Va v/a. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 43. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 268. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).214 42. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. 53. 52. 51. 44. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). the quotient of the surds is If. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 49. Ex. 48. (2 45.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). a fraction. is 1 2. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. V3 . all monomial surds may be divided by method. Ex. 46. 60. .
by the usual arithmetical method. by V7. metical problems afford the best illustrations. e. . we have V3 But if 1. Divide VII by v7.73205. Evidently. 3. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. /~ } Ex. . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 1. The 2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. arithTo find. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . however. . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .. is illustrated by Ex. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.RADICALS This method. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.57735.g.
V3 = 1. 271. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 272. V5 270. ^/H . V3 24 .7320.2361. VffV?.4142. 7. . V8 JL. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8 12. A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. i. 20. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. A. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.. V2 22 . 14. V48 25. Vll 212*. V5 = 2. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. and Given V2 = 1. 23 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 21. .
.vffi^T _ . . s Simplify a.2. Ex. Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.Vs2 .= 18.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. 1.RADICALS Ex.1 xVtf a. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .
J?_. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 19. = V3 = 1.5 3 = 125. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . Vo1 26.7320.4142. . : and V5 = 2. 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.W3.218 6 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. find to _!_.2361. 24. four places of decimals 23 . By the use of fractional exponents . Given V2 1. V21 = 25 . v 2V3 28. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 6V7. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.
2. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 5.RADICALS 219 274. on the other hand. 2. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/125" . it to this form. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 3 (V2~u)  7. 3. . v8f 2\/15. 8. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. V643 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 4. 9. According to G3. 11. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Simplify Ex. V255 . 2 12. the If. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . viz. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 1. \/l6*.
3.6\/2 = ^9 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.6 V2. 2. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11. 2 \/18.220 Ex. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. Find Vll . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20. and whose product is 18. The Hence ^11 . 12 and whose product is 20.A/2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. +2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ^TT.
examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.. Radical equations are rationalized. : 221 Vl32V22. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. they are transto formed into rational equations.1. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. VT .e. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 4.V48 4 20. i. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. The value x =2 reduces each . 19. a. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Dividing by Check. first involution. . 4x x = 2. Solve vVf!2a = 2. V48 23. Before performing the involution. r 22. (2x xrf 1. 8. 5. are radical equations. member to 2. by raising both members equal powers. 277. Transposing and uniting.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. +=. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. x2 = x f 2. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Ex. = xa + 4 x f 4.
Therefore Check. a. Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. It = 3 x . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Squaring both members. .222 Ex. 4#f 4 = 9. V24~+~l = 0. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Dividing by 24. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Extraneous roots. at . Factoring. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. viz. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. tion which has two roots. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 278. 2.1) = 0. one root. Therefore CftecAr. 3. x = J. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 5. f 25 = 12. Transposing and uniting. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. viz. Ex. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . the first member = V2. V4afT~l. a socalled extraneous root.3. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Transposing and uniting. .
2 r. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. + 6~ieT~3 . Hence x = the only root. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. viz. Transposing. and to 5. Therefore. = 3.47) = 0.RADICALS Hence x If a. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Squaring.12 . Factoring. the right member = V2. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. . \ does not satisfy the given. is x V. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. 223 x = 3. If If x 3 = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5. or x *j. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . equation it is an extraneous root. 2 Clearing of fractions. Hence there is only one root. 4. x root of the preceding equation. NOTE. Solve the following equations : = G. (x x = 3. . Check. ViTie 4 z2 .3) (2 x .
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Ex. Solve af*. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
y then x2 .i~24 = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. = 0. members of the equation were squared. _ 2 y .8 z40 = 7. x =6 or 3. o. Let 8 x f 40 . + 40 = 6. 412a* = 16.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. = 26.*2a. Ex. 2Va. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 45 14VJB = .35 = 0. Vi 2 8a. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 3 6. This can be seen without substituting. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Substituting. x Since both =9 or 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 2. 5.f40= 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 4.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. = 7. .8 x + 40 = 36. 2. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x + Vx a? = 6. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 3. Q . some of the roots be extraneous.
ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.f 18 = 24. 16. 15. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +3= 6.226 11. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 14. 4 V SB* 4 a. +x . a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. 20. 2. 19. a. 17. 18.
227 . then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 3 2 Ex. by dividing 3 x* f. does not contain a?. 1. we make a? what the value of Q. no matter If. = 2.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 + 4.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. even if Q is unknown." transposing.4 a. ^ = 381+2. 2.360 = 244.2) Q . E = ax + &z + m) Q. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. " Or. Without actual division. If x* .2 x 5 by x 3. ax4 4. then (x 2)Q 0. find the remainder when m. if Q was known. however.2 + 80 = 12. Hence.bx? + ex2 4. a? R = x* . we can find the value of R by making x = 2. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. could. Ex. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.
x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the remainder equals 8 2 x .8'= 0.g. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 6.8. The Factor Theorem.4(. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 2 j 7. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 43 3 E.228 282.g. 8. x m is factor of the expression. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. hence (x divided by x 4. fora?.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x* s 2 4.3)f 11 =.949. } 2 by a1. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. 5 (4x . + 7 = 632. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. if 8 42  . 3. + ^by x + b. 5. of the division 3) is m in place of x. If the remainder is zero.
7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2. 8.7 x + 15 = 0. + 15. 17. 106 division. . 20. 24. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.12 = 0. f 5.12.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.1. oj 5x2 f3a. 23. a 8a f 19 a 12. a? 19. 1. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. + ttt15 = 0. 7 46 = 0. f 3. i. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 1. 5. 2 2. 21. 229 1. Factor a? 15.13m + 30 10. 6. a^8^ + 19a. a 5x 6. 18. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.49 = 0. 3 2 : 7.1. The 5. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m f m n 14. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 2m 5m . & p*. 15. then x8 7 x'2 4. 11. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.e. f 15 does not vanish. 25. is a factor. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a + 32.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. ^10^429^20=0. or 5 4 + 3^ .9^ + 23^15.7 + 16 . Resolve into factors 4. or x 4. Let x = . 3. + 27 + 27. 8. a. 9. Therefore x ( 1). factors of the absolute term. a 2a + 4. _ . p 5^ + 8p 4.r6 = 0. are f 1. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.
Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. xn y n y n y n = 0. ar +p= z6 e. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. is odd. If n is a Theorem that 1. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. if n is even.y n is divisible by x f ?/. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.xy +/). By we obtain the other factors.g. actual division n. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Ex. if w is odd. 2. 1." .230 285. 286. It y is not divisible by 287. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. x* f/ = (x +/)O . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. : importance. 2. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. xn f. For substituting y for x.
26. a. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. however. 28. preferable. x3 8=0. 3. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). as 27=0.= . 27. since it more directly to the prime factors. Hence = (m Ex.
y4 is of the fifth degree. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. in general.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. If two of the quantities x f y. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. however. + 6 a?V .CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. 232 . 4 xy = 16. (4) Hence. = 6. 290. x y. Squaring Solve (1). *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. (5) Combining (5) with (1). * A I. xy are given. & + 2 xy + = 25. of quadratics. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. xywe have 3. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. can be solved by the methods degree.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. " "' "' { r 8. r (" 1 = 876. x and xy are not given.g. I I x + y=7. 12. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. 1. but can be found. ^. = . In many cases two of the quantities x f y. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. b=3. The arranged in pairs. 233 y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ' 10. 108 2.
la. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . ' ' . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 6 "I 14. or JJ. aj = 2.o 18. one linear and ne quadratic. Factoring. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. I x+y = a. x " (3) 49 etc. 3.i/ = r 13. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  f J. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). A system of simultaneous equations. 7 . Ex.  . r^ 2 as ] f.  42 y + Transposing.?/ i = 6. or y = 1 . 2 (1) From (1) we have..4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. . 5. I* Jj ^ [.~ y = 5.a. + 29 = 0. 4 y = 20. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 19.20) = 0.
y* + 2y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). = 1 3 3. ':il e :) . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 3y) : Factor (2). 9. Solve . 10. quantities. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. If of the preceding type. ' x*. 1. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .3 2x 2 Ex. III. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. x2y. 4 f + 2 y = 3.
236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. Solve 2. 11 a2 Factoring.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. 15 x2 . j Substituting y in (2). = 0. 109 a. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (3) (4) Subtracting. = Ex. 2 . (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) (2) x x 5. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. } VI09.
2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). A. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. f 1 150 a?. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.6.3^42^=43. E. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. 298. .!. can be solved by special devices.125 ay = . ' ^ 15. 150 */2 . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Bxy9. and others not belonging to them.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.175 ay = 12. y? a? f . " IV. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.xy 4.y = 7. (4) (3). 2 xy + y2 = 10. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Division of one equation by the other.
Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. we have from (1). = 189. y . = 12 J. from (2). quadratics can be solved by ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. x 2 .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. i ^ *>. we obtain by squaring. 2. Therefore x = 16. xy. jc~ y = 9.. y = 3. Solve Ex. * ' 300. B. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . at first it is unknown quantities. x +y y etc. Some simultaneous ?/. (1 > (2) 1.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 7. [2x + : y= 17. I e. 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 36* 2. F+y+ . M6. 6. . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. 4.
= 198.4 y = 47 a. . = y 1 y* . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 25. 19 ' 26. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 27. .21 ^ = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.
3 a2 38. hence may be any finite number. 31. 33. ^ oo . etc. ~\ OK OO. 30. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . y % 9 f*K 36. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . or ~ indeterminate. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. = 48201. 32. . Interpretation . 7' j/ 39.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. Q 7. oo 301.of  According to the definition of division. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . 25 34. finite  =x y if = x. as a . etc 302.
The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. cancel. creases. equation.g. The ~~f fraction .000 a. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .x'2 2 x = 1.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. be the numbers. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.increases if x de x creases. i. TO^UU" sufficiently small. Hence such an equation identity. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Or. .e. it is an Ex. i. (1) is an identity. or that x may equal any finite number. the answer is indeterminate. and .e. (a: Then Simplifying. (1) = 0. as + l. . great. I. oo is = QQ. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. 1. (1). x f 2. 306. By making x any * assigned zero. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. is satisfied by any number. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Let 2.242 303. without exception. 1. = 10. and becomes infinitely small. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.can be If It is made larger than number. ToU" ^100 a.decreases X if called infinity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.
no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. * 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.e. Solve . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve x a.2 y = 4. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Hence /. 42 and' their product is 377.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. z = 1 Substituting. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4).8 x + 15 6. = oo. third and sixth parts. and the sum of Find the numbers. 4 3 x x5 a2 . and a. 1=0. 3. . EXERCISE 1. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. two numbers is 76. y finite QO. (2). The sum is of squares 2890. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. is their 2. Solve  9 7.
is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 255 and the sum of 5. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 6. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the edge of one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. of a right triangle is 73. . To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 103. the area becomes f% of the original area. 146 yards. The area of a nal 41 feet.) 53 yards. Find the other two sides. 10. of a rectangular field feet. and the diago(Ex. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 8. Find these sides. Find the side of each square. Find the dimensions of the field. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the edges. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.quals 20 feet. 190. Find the edge of each cube. 12. p. two numbers Find the numbers.244 3. 9. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find the sides. 148 feet of fence are required. is 6. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. equals 4 inches. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. increased by the edge of the other. and the sum of ( 228. is is 17 and the sum 4. 14. Find the sides of the rectangle. 13. Find the numbers. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.
Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. differ by 8 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.) 17. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. irR *. . 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the number. is 20 inches. the quotient is 2.
15 is 9 f. of the following series is 3. series 9. : 7. the second a descending. a 11. ..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. .. 19. P. 17. 3. of a series are its successive numbers. 16. f . 2 d must be added to a.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. (n 1) d must be added to a.. a 3d. each term of which.. The progression is a. a. An arithmetic progression (A. a + d.. P. 11.7. except the first. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 12. added to each term to obtain the next one. Since d is a f 3 d. 10.. 309.. progression.. . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. to produce the nth term. a f d. The first is an ascending.1) d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 4. a + 2 d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. to produce the 3d term. To find the nth term / of an A. + 2 d.. P. and d. . The common differences are respectively 4. to produce the 4th term.. to each term produces the next term.) is a series. 3 d must be added to a. Hence / = a + (n .
. 8. 2. 7. 10. . 7.PROGRESSIONS 310. of the series 10.' cZ == . (d) 1J. 1. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 2. 8.. 2J. the last term and the common difference d being given.16. P. 19. 6 we have Hence . 1J. = 2. d = 3. 1.. 3. 5.. 8. series 2. 21. . 7. if a = 5.8. 5. = a + (a Reversing the order.. . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 3.3 a = l. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 24. . 6. 9. Find the 101th term of the series 1. Find the nth term of the series 2. 115. d . a = 2. . P... = I + 49 = *({ + . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/)... = 99.. the term a. .4. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 5.. 99) = 2600.. 5.. 6.. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. series . 3. 5.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . Find the 5th term of the 4.. (a + + (a + l) l). ? (a) 1. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3.. 6. 4^. 3. Find the 12th term of the 4. . Adding. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 4.. 9.
18. 17. P. 1. + 3. 23. 2.7 f to 12 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. striking hours only. hence if any three of them are given. and for each than for the preceding one. 11. 11. . . \n. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 7. '. . 12. 3. to 16 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 15. to 20 terms. 15. 1. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 8.5 H + if f to 10 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 29. 13. . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 10 terms. rf. . 1. 21. 1J. . 2J. 6. (x +"l) 4. to 20 terms. (i) (ii) .. 31. 16.248 Find the 10. 33. In most problems relating to A. 7. to 15 terms. > 2f 2. . 19. 4. 12. to 20 terms. : 3. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. Jive quantities are involved.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 15. 22. 16.1 f 3. Sum the following series 14. to 8 terms. to 7 terms. 20. 11. strike for the first yard. 7.
a = 12. Find the series. 111. 312.e. 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 2 (2) From Hence (2). = a + (w. a = 49 6(71 . 2.6. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. and b form an A. Ex. .. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. if s = 204. the and the sum of all terms 1014. P. = n(104 . 56. 6 n2 .. The first term of an A. But evidently n cannot be fractional. The series is.~n~\ 408 6). if a. 23. Findn. 45. the second one mean between the other two. 204 = ^ (98 . s 24ft last term 144. 89. P. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). hence n = 6. 78 n Substituting in (1). is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 144. or if x Solving.104 w + 408 = 0. l)e?. 100. or 11 J. P.6 n).1) . = 1014. Solving. is 12. 1.1). 34. . 78. #. n d. J = 49. n = 6. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 204 = ^ (a + 49). = 1014.PROGRESSIONS Ex. I Substituting in (I) and (II). I. = 144. d = 6. From (1). 6. Substituting in (2). 67. 133. = 13. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 122.
Find a Given a = 7. I Find I in terms of a. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 3. = 16. produced. n = 17. 10. a+ and b a b 5. = 1870. P. 16. T? ^. 7. n has the series ^ j . Given a = . 13. = 17. 78. = 83. and s. ceding one. = 52. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n. 12. n = 16. Given a = 4. 15. . s = 70. Find w.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Given a = . Find n. 4. Find a and Given s = 44. 17. y and #f5y. = 45. 14. 11. Find d and Given a = 1700. of 5 terms 6. 74. How much did he save the first month? 19. Given a = 1. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540.3. Find d. d = 5. = ^ 3 = 1. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. has the series 82. f J 1 1 / . 8. n = 4. Find?. I. How much . s == 440. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. m and n 2. n = 20. 6? 9. a x f b and a b. n = 13. f? . Find d.
g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. and To find the nth term / of a G. . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 24. ar8 r. . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). is 16(f) 4 . P.. . .. 36. 36. 4.. 12. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. P. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. the first term a and the ratios r being given. . . called the ratio. If n is less : than unity. +1. or 81 315... I. NOTE. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .g. A geometric progression first.. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . The 314. ratios are respectively 3. 36. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. (I) of the series 16. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.arn ~ l .) is a series each term of which. is it (G. 4 (1) . of a G. ar. 108. P.. <zr . 2.. 4. 24. E. rs = s 2 .. or.. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 2 a. The progression is a. r n~ l .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.
72.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. f. f.4. 4. if any three of them are given... 36. 80. whose and whose second term is 8. 20. 36.. P.18. . In most problems relating to G. series 6. Ex. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. .54. series . r^2. 6. Hence n = 7. . . Hence the or series is 0.. . P. Jive quantities are in. Find the 6th term of the series J. 9. 144. 18. \ t series .6. (b) 1.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. P. EXERCISE 1. 3. . P.. (d) 5. +f%9 % . . 8. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. i 288. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576._!=!>. 9. l. And the required means are 18. . I = 670. 9. 144..*. whose and whose common ratio is 4. first term 4. 72. 144. hence. whose . 576. .. 72.. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. is 3. a = I. fa. ? (c) 2. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. is 16. 288. 0.. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. + 5. (it. 676. 10. first 5. . P.. or 7. series 5. . volved . 36. 4. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G..l. 1. 25. fa. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 7. Find the 5th term of a G.. . first term is 125 and whose common .5.288.5. 2 term 3.18.
. is less than unity. 48. of r n decreases.. 24.. J. to 6 terms. 23. to G terms. 12 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 81. s = 310. J. >"> . I. . to 6 terms. and hence ~ r . 1. to 7 . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. s = 605. 15. be written If the value of r of a G. + 4 . 1. . 14. Z s. to 8 terms.. 21. 20. 72. . a. may be than any assignable number. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. n = 5. Find a and n = 4. . 243. 54. Find a and Given r = 3. Find a and 4. 81. J. 13. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 25S series : 32. 22. = 3. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1...PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 2. J.J and 270. . to 7 terms. r . 12. P. 126. 36. n = 5. . 4. to 6 terms. to 5 terms. == 160. 16 .nV> i*> !718. 14. 27.. = 3. 19.i a9 . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Given r = n Z 5. a^. Find the geometric mean between 7. M. 42.
.1.3727272 . of an infinite G.191919..= .717171.= _4Z* .. = . 100. 40.. 3. Find the value 9. =A+ 10 i. 5... 8. 5. 2. .. 9.3 + . ratio 15. 4.01 ^ .254 Ex.. 16.. .072 + . 1.072. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 1 r = . is 9. 8.555. The sum r.. is J.. . If a = 40.Ql..37272 . 7. 14. 10.3121212. . P. Hence . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. = a . 1.99 . 13. .. 250. i. = . 1. first and the common term. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 16...)7?7272 .. .. 9. . is 16....72. ... Given an infinite series of squares. 12. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. .27777 . r = j.. 6. 2. Find the sum to infinity. i i J. P. . 1.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 6. 4.00072 f . 12. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . = 990 ... what is (a) the sum of the areas. I.. . .... 66 Therefore .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. of: 11.. .272727. of all squares ? . P. and the first term is Find 17. .
(a + b) . 29. .b ). Find the 6th term of (x . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 15. 21. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 13. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .6) . 10. 5. 12. 28. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . 4 7.b) w (a (a f (1 . (xy) : 6 . . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 16. 14.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . a6 8 16 in . l 2. 11. 26. 7 . : (1 + xy. 22. (s + i). (a 100 . (a2) 6. 4. 20. 2 2 24. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 17. 25. . (\ 9 . /2a+Y\ 8.6) 20 . coefficient of . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ .
24 4. 3. 2. if y=2j 2. 1. if = = 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. ft 4 ) 5. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 2. 4. 1. 1. 5.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. l. 2. 5. 4. 3.c )(fta) 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4. 1. . 1. 2. 3. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 5. if = = = 2. 4. 1. 3. 3. 5. 3.  8 ^ 2. 1. 5. 2.a(a 4. 2. 1. 2. a ft c = = 2. 4. 2. 6. 6. 1. 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5. + 2. 5. 6.  a)(a 1. 1. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 2. 3. + 1. 1. 2. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 3. 3. 1. aft 3 + 4. 3.  2. 3. 1. 3. 1. 5. 3. 6. 2. 3. 2. 2. c = = = 2. ft) . if x^l. 1. 3. 1. 3. c if 7 . 3. 4. 4. 2. . *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 6. 2. 1. 4 2. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft.  2. 2. + c(a  c). 4. 2 . 7. 5. 2. ^+^ 3. y 3. (c 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. + 2. = 2. 4. 2. 4. 2.f ac 1. 3. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . (ca)(cft)' 4. 4. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1.
c' 2 4 / . ~c)(b. 4. 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2. 2 . 15.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 26. ' b) + 3. 1. 5. 24.r 6 x  4 xy . 29. 40. 16.7 ys. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .2 z8 4 x.1. (5. 4 z . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.2 a?y + 3 aty . or . 17. c = 3. a: . 9. + 2.4.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .2 x?/. 4 y 13. x 3 x' 14. 2. 4. = 2. a /> 3. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .a) . 1. 18. 7. if a 6 = = c = 3.8 + 2 // .3 a?y . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 25.\ yz + xz.  a) (c 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 8. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 2. 41. x 3 11. 20.7 y 2* 4. x3 2 a2 . 21. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 4 x 4 .a 4 . 2 x 8.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .3 xyz.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. + 8 x4 *y . .10.259 x c) .a8 . 2  + 12 a 8 .a 5 a .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . a. a. + 1. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 5. 5.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.2. r> . c)(x a} . 10.5. f 8. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 4. a 4 + 11 a . 3. b(x (b 1. 6. 8 .x 5 4 . 5. + 4.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . . 7 xy 3 . 15. . 7y 4 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .2. x C 4 4x y + . 9.8 3 + 7 x4 . 12. x = 4. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 3.7 + .2 x2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 4 ?y . . + 3 y 2* . 21.
[4 z 8 . 5 4 7 12 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . x'2 . .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 4 3 5 y/ . 2 x 32.2) .(a .3 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.c.1)}] . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and . . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.x 2 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.5.x .2 a .c. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .2 x 8y2 44 . 0" 30..6 x ] . (*) a  c.{G * 2 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4.7. c =x y }~ z. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. c 4ft.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 5 10 + 7 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. a  ft + c.a ft.(5 c . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 4vTT~y 3.x2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.2 3 ax 2 .2 .27~~7)}]. 3 ft. . Take the sum of 3 x 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x. take the sum of G x 5 . Simplify 31. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.4 Vl 4. : a x .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. ft.c 4 3 a. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . = x y ft z.3 x . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 .4) .5 . c 4.x . 29. sum of .x 4.(7 x 4.#48.6T . 7 12 .(x 4. ft 25. 33. .[4 x 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . From of 2 the 4. 4 4 4.c 3 a.{2 x 2 .2 . f ft.260 19. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 34.?> x 4 20. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.8 3 4. 35. 4 2 x2 23. 542 x 2 and . 5 10 4 G 11 4. of a.4 ft) 4.(5 y . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.3 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . .(4 x 2 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. Take the sum 4x 4.(4 * .3.(x* . 36.] 26.1).
'J 44.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 56.4 a 2 + a 4 ).JT^T+1)} + (2 . .(5 y . (r (1 (a. 67.Z .r 2:c+ l)(ar. . . (/> 4 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. a {.2 zz .{2 a . (1 ar+a. 43. 54.2 2 + 1)(7.3 c)].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 : 7e)a}].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .56.[2 .5)} + (3 a 2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .2x + 3).[4 x  5 . 46.2c(V/ . 65.(6 . (5 a 39.{3 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3).ab . 48. 2 52. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).(2 a + 5 a .2)(1 .96 [17 a. 2 ft 41.(4 d .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].4 a .(2 . a .3 *). 4 + 2 2 + 1). 2 53.6)}].be) (a 58. (1 55. 64.  2 a  {3 2x a . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 51.6c) (a + f c). 60. 3 x 42. . )(lz a ).c). (.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .3)(*5)(* 7).5 )}] + {4 c . .1).2 2 . 2 f [3 c 7 a . (4 + 3a 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.& + {. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 50. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).(2 a 2 . 62. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 68. (x . 45.{2 a (ft .(2 x2 . 59. + 4x + 5)(j.a~^~c)K]. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 13 a .(7 a.2a . . . 49.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 2 2 x + !)(* .6 xy . . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .b (c .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .ac . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (x. 57.7).rf)} + a [. . + *+!){> + 2).3c). 63.12).c 2 . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3 z 2 ).0)} .
m np c . 91. 82.3 a . 93.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.:y)( a. 88. 77. (x (x ( + *) .9y2). 92. 87. ft ft ft a}.c)].5 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.a) 2 .c) j.ft) 4 . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . ft 95. (a (2 b)*(a 4.v) 4. 2 + a 2 ).am&t 4 A 2 *). 74.6*y . 71.n pc). f 72.262 69. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 73.y + z)(x + y . (.2 ft}) f (3 a .z) .3y) a (* 2 4.y)\x y). 94.2 (a . 1). ar .3 (ft . 4. ft 78. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. ft /.c) .b 4.c) 2 . b 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y).c) .c)} . Prove the following 8 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.(a 48 8 8 4.(c 4.{3 a . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. ft" l Simplify 80. 75. 83.ft) + 4(2 .c .r 2 .(/>  3 v)^(. 89.<f(p .O (a 4(a 4.x + y + z).(4 . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 84. 70.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). .2 (y 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).q). 90.(a 2) (s 4 ft.2y)(.c) rr identities. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(ft 4.c) 4) (ft 4. 79. 1). . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (p 2 .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 86.z\x 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 4 4 .z)(x y + z)(. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 76. xy y 2 ). .c . 2 (x 2 . 85. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).
114.) .(a 1 2 8 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).y 4 ) .27 x* . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).(7 xi/ .6 y 4 4. 120. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 108.v/ ~ // = a: . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 105. . (8 x* 115.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 106. [10( 4. 99 100. 1O4. 121. 103.35 x 2 2 ) . 124. 3*.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .2 xy 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.5 xy). (80 a 112.(2 a 2 . 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4.4 aft . 2 4 41 x 4a.y 2 4.2 2% 4.40 />) . 26 (a 4 c). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.3 a"+ 4.&).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . a*. 102. 118. (2< 107.(x 2 . 113. 117. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .2y 2 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 2 (a+ .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). r .16 a 6 4. 122. . 1).9 x 2 .y 4 .1). 25 4 .*) (x 8 .b) 98. 110. 116. (.xy 4.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).r 4 4.5 b*). 109.a". 123.
135.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. (*+ + .3 a:).2 7^~5] + 1).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(x f 9).4) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. . 1) .(x .2) = 3 .2) (a: + 3). 127.3(2 z .(j a? 144. 3) = x\x .3).2(4 .2(5 .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 2 4(ar . 136.5).3).2(10 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 3(2 x 134. o o 140.3) = 12 .a:)]}.22.8 6 . 42(3ar 145.264 125. .27 a 3" . 138. 148. 139.3) (3 x 4.n .G) .1) (a? . 126.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). (4 x . .18 *&) (1 . 137.9) 4. 149.2(j: .2) + 2(ar + 4). .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .r>) .r + 7[or . 10(2 x 141. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.4(0 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 5 146. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).5{.1) .9) + 3. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . .(x + 3) ] . 129.(1 . 142.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 5(2 x .12 M 132.4) . . 1) = 2(* . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 143.7) = 4 . 7(2 x . (5a: 150. .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).5) = 12(4 x .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). y (* l x. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3 x). x 147.7(4 * . 128.3(* + 4) + 9} . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .19) + 5 = 4 .
5(x . The sum What 171.14) (a: + 3). =  (F 32). .6 x) (3 .2) (j? + 1) + (x .l)(z . 265 152.25) 2 .29) 2 = 1. 155.r + 3) . 154.5*) + 47. 164.2 x) (4 .24. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. If the area of the frame inches. (a) If C.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. find the value of F.T)O . 159. = 15.1) O + 4) = (2 * . + 10) (ar .7) (a. + 4) (2 x + 5). There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 5(ar x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.3) (3 .2) a + 7(x . 2 4 .19) + 42. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. The second contains 3 first. 161. 165.9) + (a. 166.5 x) = 45 x . 162. 157. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. transformed into F. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. and the third twice as many as the first. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.1) (s + 3). f^ + ^sO.17) 2 + (4 x . .3) = (3 x . . (7 14 .7) (1 x .2) (7 *) + (*. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.a:) + 229. = 2 C. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 158.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. a: ar a.3) (3 . will produce F. (x (x a. (3 O + . . + 2) + (5 .z) (4 .8) = (2 x 4.2 x) = (1 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) (a: . these two angles would be equal. How many 170.? . sheep more than the 169.76. (a .5) = (3 . 153. 163.5)(.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0..2).4) (a . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 160. (2 .(5 x . (a. 156.3) (j.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. + 5) = (9 . .
dimension 182. 15 m. 179. ll?/102. A each 177. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 180. two boys is twice that of the younger. 12 m. the sum of the ages of all three is 51.36. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. train. . 2 2 + a _ no. A boy is father. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h.266 173. + 11 ~ 6. Find the number. 189. z 2 92. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. number divided by 3. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. . x* 185. same result as the number diminished by 175. 186. respectively. 190. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 7/ 191. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.56. How many are there in each window ? . power one of the two Find the power of each. 187. 188. was three times that of the younger. father. and 5 h. 3 gives the 174. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 13 a + 3. z 2 + x . + a. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 178. 176. Find the dimensions of the floor. if each increased 2 feet. 10x 2 192. 181. A house has 3 rows of windows. 4 a 2 yy 42. sister . younger than his Find the age of the father. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. +x 2. aW + llab2&. side were one foot longer. . The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet.
203.x + 1. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 213. 2 2 y f 1. ifWy+b. 208. x 5 .6 2 ?/ . 195. 224. 3 x V . wiy + la mx + aw. 7a 228. .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 4a 2& 2 241. 229. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.21 a:  54. .77 y + 150. 246. + 8. 211. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 235. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 202.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. a a: a: 237. 206. 222. a^a 226.(b + rf) 2 .10 y a x* . xm+l 243. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 239.14 2 .6 y2 + 4.c) 2 . (a + . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. + 3a 196. 227. x 219.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .20 z 8 a: 220. 2 . 7x 2 225. . 232. 12 x +4. a: .r?/f y 2 9. . a. . y 2 194. 244.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 24 2 + 2 . 5 x 2. 238. 209. 245. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . x*y 223. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .19 a . 4 m +^. 3y 2 + ary . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .28. a. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 16x 4 81. 267 199. z + 5x 2 .10 xy. x* + 8 2 + 15. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247. 233. a: 236.22 z + 48. a. a: 231.12 * . a. 8 a. . # 2  29 y + 120. 2 200. *2 234.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 218. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 210. 201. + 2 .3 xy. 2 a 2 . 2 x 2 .10.c) 2  (a .6 aq .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 23 12. 3 x 2 . a+a* + o a +l. 215. + 30 x. 8 a: ar.6. 3y 248. 221. 230. + 198.6s. 216. 2 a 8 .64. 207. z 2 2.8 6 2.1. . 212. 217.19 z 4 204. 6 197. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3 ap 2 .
73 xy .3 x . 30 ^ . z 2 267.13. a 3 a 2 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 10 a.1 9 . 252. x 2 + 2 x .120. I Find the II. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 258.15 + 30.10. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .ry 21. . 259. 251. 15 # 2 z/ /.a 2 />c 2 f 3.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 18 x 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 2 + 7 r f 2.11 x f 28.x .18 xy + 5. x 2 . 269.4.10 a 4. 264.9 x + 14. 265. 254. C. 5 x 2 256.4 ab + 1.12. of: 266. x 2 + 5 f .36. 2 x2 . * 2 . F. a.2 z .11 a 2 . * 2 . ft a.3 abc .91.23 x f 20. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x*y* 4.ry .7 f 5.14 bx a%% 8 .C. z 2 268.3. 2 8 . 1 x ar Find the L.&z.80. 7 12 2 2 . + 20 x 4. * 2 . 7 ax 250. + 8. a: .9. 10 x 2 . 270.15. + 8 x + 5. 2 .6 by. + 23 x f 20. 28 2 f 71 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 260. 22x2 a. x* . 261. 6. 3 #2 255.23 + 12.2/ 2 . x 2 263. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).(55. x* .2 aft*.r .5 ab f 2. 3 a% 2 .a + 2 4.48 afy 2 . * a .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. x 2 4. x 2 + 4 + 3.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . x 2 f 9j: + 20.8. 3 ay 4. 8 2 + 10 x . Reduce to lowest terms 271.M.9 x . 2 a. a? a: a: // 262.G7 x f 33.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 257. + 3 x + 2. of: 253.16 x . a 4.
2c a: 282.!/. m 4. 289 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge.. z2 (a 2 + c)a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278..REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . + ac . a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .rL. 8 .2* + 3 x* 280. 285 z4 n* + a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.ar 1 279.
X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^. Lnl + ar 2 a.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a (: a) (x 2. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. O(ca) 306. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. * 19 23 19(23 23. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 6) _ ~ i 305. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^_2*(m 308.
ft) 2 322. 1 _. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. _ x8 . .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (1 . } . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 1a: + y a. 1 x2 + + a. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.(a . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.. 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317.
4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .15 33 .2 +lOar 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.. 250 5 10 2 325.9 *// + 27 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.. 20 44 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .ll. . . a: 2 x* .5 a .y20  2y + 4 2 .V  + y  x 3y a .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. * 3a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.7 xy + 12 x . 2 lOx 5x. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.6* t 328.
+ l + IV. 344. ?_2 ^ . (ar \ 346. f V. ** i.+ r .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. if a = 3. a: 349 _ o. 1 345. : 1+ i.) 2 . (a \ + lV. w \. + ni + . aj 339. \x yj 340.. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 5 343. fl.y. 7 ( ?f!?. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (aWi + iJ. +^ a: y x . xi 347. 352. ' 2 "l 5 . (af2/.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 348. \5yl 341.1V. ( 342.r 5 2 . 338. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. a>74 .
ar xy + yl x* 358. + x x a . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. (~ 364. (a a b yx c yabc 361. y360. I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. _ + l a 359.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. b c 368. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
^ . 8  376. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . .*2 = 15. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 4(* . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. <3 378. + 1) 45 O 377. . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5 {2 x 381. J !__7. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 5*8. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. __4 2x 3_ = !. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 379.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.
3* 177. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).6  . f 1 1 + a 403. 401. c .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.8 = .2 a:  1. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 40.  8 9* x ~r. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). b 404. + 4 a.147.. . u '2 a.25 x + .5 ^ ~ a: a. .1 .  J). ^ (a .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. _____ . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 397. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.25. 400.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 399. 396. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. m x 398.75 x f .5 x =r f ..
420. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.c) . Find the number. and was out 5 hours.278 410.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 421.  a) 2 6 2a. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. In a if and 422. hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . the order of the digits will be inverted. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Tn 6 hours . 411. How long is each road ? 423. 418 ~jo.
432. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.6 8 ). ax is \ by  ex + dy.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. a + 5. find : a : c. 2 2 8 2 . : If is one equal 434.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. wi* + y= ny. find the angles of the triangle. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . if . d.49 63). : i. Find the mean proportional to 429. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. x 427. If a b : =5 n : 7.iand 22 22 I a . Which ratio is greater. 3 and 1J. 430. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. .46 2): (15a 2 . and : b : c = 14 : 15. z 2 y.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Solve 436. b.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 428. 438. Find the length of the parts. . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 435. a  t>. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 431. 433. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. a. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. .& 5 ) (a 8 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find the fourth proportional 426. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. y. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.
453. 16. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 454. 5z4:# = 3. 445. .7 y = 25. 4 = 5 y + 29. 451. 42 = 15y + 137. . 5 2 = 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y.11 7. 3 .(or l(*2y)=0. a: 2y= = 1 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 443. 457. 450. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 8 x + y = 19. 448. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 455. . 446. ?/ 447. 459. ft. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 449. 1(3  a. . 9ar7# = 71. The volumes If their diameters. x + 17 # 53. />(. 7 442. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. ft. + 5y = 59. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 56 + 10y = 7a. Solve the following systems: 441. 7a?y = 3. a.35. 458.89 = q. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 8 . 28 = 5 a . 452. 5x+4y=lQ. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 9/> = 2 . . Find the value of a.11 y = 95. /) ar a. 3 a. c. if 2 ft : 439.4 12 .. 7jr9y = 17.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 456.*.59 = 3 z. = 25. 444.rf2# = l.55 y = . a: a: + 5y). 7 a: .
car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. + eyn. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 468. 473. i = 5. ax cx by = m. 475.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.c=563y.?/ + 1 . ^ + i^ = 7. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.2y) (2 = 2J.7.+ =2.  = 2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 8 461. ax by = c \ 472.. (or . _ 469. x y 474.
Find their ages. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the numbers. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. 479. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 481. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. whose difference is 4. 477. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find the number. Find the numbers. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A number consists of two digits 4. A spends \ of his. age. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. and in 20 months to $275. the Find their ages. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 486. 485. 483. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and in 18 months to $2180. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the fraction. .282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and the other number least. years. to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. fraction becomes equal to . How much money less 484. by 4. Find the principal and the rate of interest. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. 487. Find the sum and the rate of interest. thrice that of his son and added to the father's.
2/>3r = 4. : Solve the following systems 491. = 15. z y x 25 ./ 504. 1+1 = 6. + # +z= 35. 3ar 503. . 498. a. 4 497. 2y + 2z = a: 2. ifi = x a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 495. 489. y Solve : x +z= 5. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2 a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. a. x f y f z 29 . 496.? + 2y = 8. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 494. . a: + // = 11. 493. \ . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 2 = 41. a: 499. 7./ f z =a. x y f z = 13. 3 x 500. of two the sum of the digits also if number.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. . ~ 507. 8. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. = 209. 4z+3z = 20. 490. 5 + a. 4 506. 2a:f 7. 7 + 2 z . 2y + 3a = ll. a number . + y 5 y = 101 . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 492. *i. 5^ 9z = 10. * + 425  = . and the difference of their Find the numbers.z = 20. z y ifi = z x 502. 3 a: + 5=84. 1.z = 12. x s + y z = 18J . 2 e. = 20. . a: f z = 79. . The sum of two numbers squares is b.5#+2z = $x a: G.
+ : = 1472. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. 523. ll" . 36 + c. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c. !f == 2800.
and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. In circle A ABC.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it separately ? 531. 90. AC in /). and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. AB=6. L. if the number be increased by Find the number. When weighed in water. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . touches and F respectively. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. . and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. BC = 5. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. in 28 minutes. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. If they had walked toward each other. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. the first and second digits will change places. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if and L. Tf and run together. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. B and C and C and A in 4 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. 527. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. CD. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. What are their rates of travel? . and BE. they would have met in 2 hours. it is filled in 35 minutes. 532. if L and Af in 20 minutes. M. How long will B and C take to do . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Find the numbers. N. 530. Find the present ages of his father and mother. . his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. E 533. and CA=7.
2 x + 5. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. FRANCE. 542.  3 x. 545. 546. the function. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2  x  x2 . 536. 543. .e. to do the work? pendulum. The greatest value of the function. 2. a. i. x 2 544. b.  7. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. if x = f 1. formation of dollars into marks. 3 x 539. 2. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. from x = 2 to x = 4. 540. . How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x *x + x + 1. then / = 3 and write = 3. 547. 550. One dollar equals 4. e. The values of y. d. + 3. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The values of x if y = 2. z 2  x x  5. x 2 + x.10 marks. GERMANY. x*.  3 x. c. x*  2 x. 2 541.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 548. x 8 549. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet.
553.r . Represent meters. r?.= 0. Solve// = 0.r a: a: x a. x 4 . 558. a: 559. a. j. f.= 0. . + 5 .11 x* + + 2 8 569. c. 563.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. = 5.13 = 0.7 = . 566. 18 x  4 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 568. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.15 = 0. . a. a. g. z 2 .9 = 0.17 = 0. 3 + 3 z .11 = 0.3 x . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.1 = 0.0.r 1 561. z 4 . \ to t = 5. 565. 556. .4 = 0. 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. If y +5 10. 564. i. 2.G . 2 8 . ' = 8.3 = 0.  2 1 a: a. 2 x 2 560. 2 554. and make the unit of the b. 2 567. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. e.3 . a? 4 x .5 x .4 x 2 + 4 . 572. J. // Solve y Solve y = 5.6 + 3 . 562. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . x 2 ~ 2 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. + 10 x . 3 x* .4 . if y =m has three real roots. 2 a. x 5 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. x* . Solve 552.3 x . 3 x . h. 557. 15. c. 555.
(a. 585 594.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . f ^s_ 14 a 4/.5 xy = 0. 3 (f. x [ ?/ 577. 597. : y* or 25. 64 a 12 603.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 598. [ y =10.(1 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 9  4 fSb 607. 4 a. 582. a: . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 596. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. (1 (1 (1 .4. 588. 5 a*.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 599. 609. 593. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2  2 aa: 2 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 579.2 2 + y. a 2a. a.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .frf : 583. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. (# 2) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 2 611. 4 . a 8 606. <r)3  2 3 a:) .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 2 943 ++ ~bx. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. (a  8 ft) . + + 4 . a 612.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .x + 2 )'2 601. 608. 589. 1 . a:. + ^) + (air%)8. . (1 + x a.%) 4 (aa. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 4 (1a:) 3. xY. . 6 + 1) . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 3 . jj+. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. f ?>) 3 591. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. x + z2) 8 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 592. (aiy.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 600. 595. j^f = 3. 604.
633. = . find Jupiter's period. = 70. 210. VOIOOD + V582T09. 2.*. 2 + 189 z = 900. 371240. + 112 a 8 . Find the square root of 619. 21. 615. 622. + 2 21 x = 100. *+* = 156. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. x 2 641.871844. : 5. 626. V950484 .15174441. 634. 639.150. 7) 2. 4370404. + 24 a 2 4 . 651. Find the eighth root 617. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 630. 494210400001. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 624.12 a?y + y*. 644. V 635.1024 x + a: 256. 638.2410.\/4090. 628. 4J. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 614. 25023844. 44352. 32 631. = 87. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 40. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 9a.191209. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . + 54 'x*y* . 0090.49.30.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. = 0. 8*' + 24* = 32. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 942841. 49. 629. 620. 625 : 621. 637.53 x ~ . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. According to Kepler's law. (x 9 x 646. 623.2. 49042009. ft . 9g. 3a. GGff. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 645. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 643.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 035. 647t x 2 648 649. /. 2 + 21Ga. 650.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 632. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. x 2 . a 642. 636.V250 .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
694. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. . 2 2 . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. ax 2 698.c = 0. = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 2 697. 695. ex abc= fx 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.bx . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 707. 706. 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 696.a a )jr . 708. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 693. a. 2 702. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 692.ax .
217 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 12 4*+  8. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 724. 725. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 722. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 716.44#2 + 121 = 0. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 721. 729. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 717. 727.292 709. 723. 3or i 16 .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. sum is a and whose product equals J. 16 x* . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. . 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. and working together they can build it in 18 days.25 might have bought five more for the same money. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. A equals CO feet. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. **13a: 2 710. Find two numbers whose 719. a: 713.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.
40. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 38.1 f c" ). 37. .1 f ^ 2). 35. 39. 46.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 34. 43. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50.1 + c. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 36. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 ).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. n. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (v/x).l). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 33. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).X . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 1 6.aft* 1 + a 2*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 + x. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2)(x2 4. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.)(ai + &. .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 52. 41. 42. 31. 32.
759._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.294 753. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lGv/128.1+J 756. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. 758.. 761. 754. 2V2 2V3 . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 757. [1r^ T 1 i . JU.
7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . + 2V21. 3812VIO.2 V30. c 792. 790. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 16 + 2V55. a 9442V5. x 782. 3J . 14 791. . 7512V21.VlO. .12VIT.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 789. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.4 V(j. 787. . 806. 786. 793. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 103 788. 783. 10 785. 794. 92VI5. Va 809. 13 799.2V3* ^ 807.
/9ar a: = 17. x/aT+l .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + Vx . 814. 812. 818.Vc^lJ . 815. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V2 ar 10.4 = 0. 831. 836. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 816. \/12 a. VaT+lJ f ^l . 3 x + 2 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. 833. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . = 1.\/2y  810. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: + 28 f + V9 x .g. + 103Var. V3 f 1 V4a.13 = 0. V14 a. 829. 811. + ViTli + V7 . 820.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. Va: . 830. 819.V? = 813.79.
3 a:. 2 a: 64 y*. 4 x 8 858. 4 x* 847.1. 865. 846. a.ab9 ft*. 27 862. f 12. 852.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 839. 853. 8^27^. 2 f" + a/ 15. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a. a l0m . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a 18 4. a: . . 729 867. x 11 a^ J 13 854. . 5 a 4 7 a8 . 27 y 8. a 872. z*y 8 l64a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a. 876. 40 x 2 7 f 49.3 . 2 x 3. a: 849.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a.x*y + 3x f 2. + 512 y8 874.1000 6. a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 844. 8 a. a. 19 x 14. 8 8  13 a. + . 875.12. 4o. 861. a*" & 6n . 275 8 l.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 855. . 8 4a: 8 a. 8 2a. a 8 850. 64. f b**.3 Va: 2 . 870.  3x a. 864. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 6. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 16 859. x 8 2 857. a 8 869. y 4. 871. 9. 868. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 64 a 866. . + 1. . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 8 848.10 = 118. x 4 + f 2 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 851. 4 a: 2 842. 863. V4 x 2 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. +3 4 +  4. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 856. 8 860. a. 840. a 8 873.3 x .a. f 841. 845. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 4 a.
2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 889. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a. x 8 3 = 13:3.y 2 = 2 y + 2. x*xy. 899. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.298 877.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. .sy = 198. a: 2 897.y 2 + V(j. f ?/ a: a: .18. 2 + y 2 . 896. . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. +y f y = 7. 5. 885. a:y . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a. 2 . 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 = 2 + 5. x 882. a: a.y 2) = 20. 883. y = 28. . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .xy + y 2 = 19. a: 888. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 887. y*+ xy . x a: lI = xz .15. 894. 901. 895.1 = 2 a#. . xy + y = 32. a# f + xy = 126. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 + xy = 10. y 2 2 8f. 2 2 = 16 y. a: 884. + 2y=\2.35. y y 2 y 2 1121. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a. a: + y 2 = 34. 3 x 2 . . 900. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. z 2 898. 890. 886.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + xy = 28. . 878. M1 891 1 . 2 . 1 x 893. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. y 2 4. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.
y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 920. a: * a: a: ar 928. . xy + x= 15.y) (a? . 3 :r(3 . a: a. 910. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. + ?/) . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 924. (a.y2 = 22. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 2 913. 2 2 2 916.y) = 33. x + y 2 = aar. (3 x . a:y xy 929. 905. 911.3(* + y) = 6. 914. + y 8 = 189. 917.3) 2 f (y . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. (* 918. *y . y + a:y = 180. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. + y = 9. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + 2 ary = 39. 912. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. # + xy + y = 7.23 = 200. x f 2 a:y = 32. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. or or a? a: a: . * + y = 444. 908.y).#y + 2 = 27. 2 5 xy = 11. a: y zx 12. . = 8. 3 y 8 ) =1216. + y)(a.r a. 2 915. 23 x 2 .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . y x 2 = by.2 y) = 49 2 919. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 4 (a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. a. 923. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.y) (3 y .6. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (!) * . 2 * 2 ~ g. x 4 299 xy z 904. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.3)2 = 34. 7 y . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.x) = 21. 909. x 2 ry + y = 3.y = a(ar + y). + ary = a*. . Vary + y = 6. ary y = 8. ^ 2 . xa 903. yz = 24. y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.16 y 3 8 = . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 921. + a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. (o.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y 3 2 2 922. 907. 906. + 2 a:y + = 243.
and the difference of 936. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. (y + *) = . is 20. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. 34 939. Assuming = y. A and B run a race round a twomile course. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Tf there had been 20 less rows. + z)=18. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and the sum of their areas 78$. feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. two squares is 23 feet. Find the numbers. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 931. *(* + #) =24.000 trees. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. How many rows are there? 941. rate each man ran in the first heat. and also contains 300 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. In the second heat A . 937. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. + z) =108. 152. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 935. is 3. Find the sides of the rectangle. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. 944. If each side was increased by 2 feet. is 3 . and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 943. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.102. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and 10 feet broader. a second rec8 feet shorter. 942. 2240. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. two squares equals 140 feet. A is 938.300 930.square inches. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. y(x + y + 2) = 133. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. s(y 932. z(* + y + 2) = 76. two numbers Find the numbers. . diagonal 940. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. A plantation in rows consists of 10. y( 934. feet.
When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. and that B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. A and B. . Find the eter 947. Two starts travelers. that B A 955. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. 950. . is 407 cubic feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the digits are reversed. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. sum Find an edge of 954. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. triangle is 6. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. and if 594 be added to the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and its perim 948. . Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 953. set out from two places. distance between P and Q. at Find the his rate of traveling. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. unaltered. Find in what time both will do it. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. P and Q. Find the number. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. 951. each block. whose 946. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and travels in the same direction as A. 952. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 949. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. overtook miles. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards.
the terms being in A. 3 .302 956. s  88. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.. 975. x(x to 8 terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 958. Find the sum of 4. 5. to infinity. 16 962. to n terms. 970.. 5. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find an A.. are 29 and 53. . difference. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. n to n terms. 1 to n terms.4142 . Find n. ^ 1 .321? 965. Sum Sum to infinity. 4.454.v 973. f + 1 . Evaluate (a) .. to 7 terms. 971. 1G series . 974. and 976.3151515. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .. . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 18th terms of an A. Find the Find the common 977. = 4. (x 4 to n terms.141414.. P. . P.. 969.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.to infinity. (to 2 n terms). \ . Sura to 24 terms. '.... 966.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Sum to 20 terms. 961. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123...>/) to infinity. 957.V2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. + (iiven a +  4 d . 3 + 5 7 + .1 4 f j$V . P. 12434+ j I 967.. *" 968.. J. Find n f (ft) . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. ^ Vfirst five 959. P. 36 963. 4 4 to 7 terms . fourth of the unity. 972. .  2. 964.. !Ll^ + n . 9th and llth terms of an A.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.
and the common difference. Find the first term.. of n terms of an A. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . P. : + 9   V2 + . 2 grains on the 2d. Find four perfect numbers. 5 11. P.3 ' Find the 8th 983.... The sum 982.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.+ lY L V. 992. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . and of the second and third 03.. first 984. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 987. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. The 21st term of an A. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. P.04 + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. to infinity may be 8? . to oo. 303 979. Find four numbers in A. Find n. 985. .) the last term the series a perfect number. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 990. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.1 + 2.2 . Find the sum of the series 988. The term. 986. to n terms. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .001 4. "(. is 225. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 4 grains on the 3d.001 + . and so on. to 105? 981. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.01 3. 980. 0.. 989. named Sheran. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. 1. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .
areas of all triangles. and G. inches. 997. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. If a. P. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. are 28 and find the numbers. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 998. find the series. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. is 4. at the same time. The sum and product of three numbers in G. of squares of four numbers in G. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. AB = 1004. and the fifth term is 8 times the second .304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 1003. 995. ABC A A n same sides. 1001. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 994. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. prove that they cannot be in A. in this circle a square. c. ft. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The sum and sum . 512 996. and so forth to infinity. . are unequal. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 999. P. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Two travelers start on the same road. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The fifth term of a G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. many days will the latter overtake the former? . (6) the sum of the infinity. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. in this square a circle. (a) after 5 strokes. 1000. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.
1008. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.ft) 19 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . . ) 1021. Find the middle term of ( . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. x) 18 .o/) 14 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).iV 2i/ 5 . 1009.l) w f . Expand  2 a. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1011. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1014. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1006. (1 1018. 1012. (12 #) 7 . a: 8 7. + lQ . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 2 ) 5.
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...193 11 . . .. signs of Algebraic expression ... ... . 123 . ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .. . .108 160 " . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. 129 54.. lowest ratio " '* . ..] Abscissa Absolute term . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . simple simultaneous . 9. . . Checks Coefficient 20. . . 160 in quadratic form 191 . . .178 Completing the square . . 19. linear literal Common ** * difference . .... . 9 ** .. . ... . quadratic . .. . 129. 246 91 " multiple. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 112 54 54 251 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .... . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. t 53 120 . graphic tion of representa . numerical .. 158. ....241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ..130 .. 97.... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .. 37. 8 . .. 232 169 807 . 232 mean progression ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 54. Aggregation. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .
. 205 . . 91 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 227 geometric . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . 180. . .. law of Extraneous roots .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 23 10 91 102. 195 33.. .. 120 Member. . 114. . 253 28 70 1. .. .. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 17 65. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Imaginary numbers . 45. 227 . . 84.31. . INDEX 8 . 241 123 geometric . .. . arithmetic . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 143..C Multiplication . Inconsistent equations . . Geometric progression . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. directly. . . Mathematical induction . 189. G.. 212 .. addition of " square of .. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . . . . 9.154 Order of operations " of surds .. first and second .808 Exponent Exponents. exponent . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 109 102 . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .. . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . Like terms Linear equation .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. numbers .. . 184 54. . L. Insertion of parentheses . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Negative exponents 11 . 45. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . Known numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 34. 112 . . 63.108 Minuend . P . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 42 7 Independent equations Index . .. 45 Laws of signs . 243 7 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . inversely 122 numbers .. Product '* 76 Infinite.
255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 129. binomial Third proportional Transposition . ...... Sum. algebraic Surds . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 4 155 9 " of . polynomial ... ......... . .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 9.. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. absolute 54 Variable . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. ... .. 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 45 Trinomial 240 .. . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
1917. U.A. Set up and electrotypcd. December. . 8.S.. August.COPYRIGHT. Norwood. 1910. Published September. 1910. NorfoooS J. Reprinted April. Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1913. Mass. 1916.
. 106. 5. 21. 5. 8. $40. 8. 3.. 23. 6 yd. 28. 12. 13. 20. A $90. 29. 2.. 14. 30. 3. 6. 19 4. arithmetic. 576. 22. Page 4. 3* 7. 6. Australia ft. 2 5. 11. 2 ~ 15. 16. 3. 9.  1. ^. 512. Multiplication. 2. 3. 17. 9 14. is $10. C $60. 13. 24. 14. 2. 15. 9. 2. 3. B $20.000 negroes. loss. 3.C.. 20. 3. westerly motion. 18. 115. 2. 5. 18. 21. 9. ft. 2. 9.  22 20. 1. 192. 8 ft. in. 10g.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 4. 10. B $4700. 16f 2. 27. 210. 12. 85.000. 6. 8. 5000. 11. 7.. 49. 25.000.. 2. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 17.21 24. 32.00000001. _ 32. 17. 5. 144. 48 ft. 3. 16. 11. 7. Yes. 7. 37. B 10 mi. A 15. 9 = 4.000. 7. 8. 9 m. 2. 3 below 0. 16. 10. 20. 7. x. 9. 256. sign. 1. 12. 14. per sec. 14. 20 jo. sign. c.  2 p. 29. 16 in. 2. 1. Page 1. Page 13. 1. 16. A . 12. 20 B. 32. 3. 13 V. 1. 12. 4. $100. 2. 10. 16 in. 0. 3. 9 16  larger than 7. .12. 8 13.. . 32. 1. 12. . Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 5. (a) (/>) 1. 1. 26. 1. 11. 3. 15. 24. . 2. 15. 25. 14. 1. Page 8. 13 S. 4.8. 4. 11. 3. 26z.000. 17. + 1. 37 S. 6. 1 16. 14 11. $160. 32. 9. 128. B $ 128. 59. 1. C $ 16. 4.000. 2. 18. 6. 20 \. A 38 mi. 64. 49. 2. T . $ 1 50 10. 6. 19. 22. 3. }. 36. 16. 73. B $80. 12. i . 0. A Bl 7. 10. 4.000. b. 3. 4. 16. 28.000 Indians.000. 7. 3. 6. 13 d. 30?. 16. 13. 126. 6. South America 46. 150.2. 8. 27. 1. 3. 1. 10. V 23. 6* 16. . 25. 8.. 18. 2. 9. 5. 21. 27. 15. 19. 13. 10. 3 m.$9400. in 12. 1. 8. 19. 1. C $1(50. Page?. 1. 14. 9.. 6. in.  1. 12. 5. 16. Not 5. 6. 7. 20.000. 7.  13. 2  Page 8. x. 72 = = 216. 7m. 15.150. 12. 5. 12. 18. 10. Ot 15. 13. 25. 18. 9. 16. = 5 81. 14. 7. 24. 6. 14. 17. 10. 89.3.1. 6. 3.
. ft. w. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 57. (ft) 7. 6. 2.5 (ft) sq.4 ft. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 4.. 3. \'\ 4. 31. 14. 0. 5. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 8. (c) S(i. a 32.  1. 4. x^ 20. 8. 32. 38 ab. 9. ft. 3. 1. . 8. $80. 30.6) 38. 30.  xV 3 y. 3.r~ f 34. 18. Page 23. 11..4  2ft 2 33. 32 2 ftc. 14. 27. 12. i:5. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). ft' 3 . (r) 2G7. ft f 19. 13. yyz+xyz*.. 17. 27. (ft) mi. 20. 15. = ()501.r 2 . II. 14. 25. 23. 5. ft. 1. 2ftx. Pagel4r. 34. 7. 13. 35. 14. 12. sq.ft) 4. m 24. vi 14. 16. Monomial. Polynomial. 9.<>Gq. 3rf 27. 37.1. 2. 1. It. 237. in. (V) (rf) (ft) 50.'J. 10. Page 21. 04.9?/2 8. in. m + 3(a. (a} 100 1(5 cm. o^ft. 104. Binomial. + v> 2 . 0.94(>. a2 4 15^44.'JO ft. 43w//2 17. 13. 14:). (r) 78.a . 50. 12. I.. //'. t.rty8. 22( 19. 16. 11. 6. + ft). (ft) 12. 30.  12. 22. 2. 13.. 1. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . jrif 4 9. 92. = 81.  3. 21. . 2. 3. 0. 17. . 42. 15a. 21^. Trino inial. 18. 8. . 2oVmf?i. 3. 17. 33. Page 7. 19. 23. r/ \(\xyz. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 3 . (a) 200. 6<t. 29.ii ANSWERS Page 11.14 sq. 00 24 04 ft. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. (r) 2. 41. 20. ??i??. 18. 33. 9. 240.~4.  40. 29. (r) 2000 m.r f 15. 15. 0. 7. 21. 15. rt.GOG.000 . 5. 19. 36. r+l. 49. 7 7.. 0. 11. 6. 9. 5. 8. 25. :J!>r'. . 0. (ft) $40. 1.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 3. mi. y. 8. 15. . 4 9/^/rl 2. 5. 31. 17. 7. (a 4 4. 24. 1. in. ft.  11.. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 12. 0. c. 24. 5.900. 36. 314 sq. 20.. 39. 22. ^. 13. WIN + wiw. 34. 28. 22. 4. 19. 16. 0. 8. 13 cu.x. 1. . 32. 12. 3(c4a). 22. in. + 5. <i~ 26. (ft) Page 2. 15. ^). Page 18.32 c2 > ft 3 . 3 a* + 2 at*. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 31. 51 f. 26. 4. 3. ft. 27. ]*. 35. 58. 27. 7. 38.ft. 4. 25. r:A 29. 35. . 10. Polynomial. :. 3. arty 1 20. Page 31. #1111. 5x+3. 4 y/ . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 14.000 sq. 0. 26. 21 a 3 4 10. 5. 12yd. (a) r>23ifcu. 3. 20(. 18. 16. $3000 Page 6. 28. a ft c.  0. 13. 10. 17. 173.. +/2(/. ft n. 5. 4. 7.. 9. (c) 8. _ 4 . 28. 3a. . (a) <> sq. 27. 2x' 2 5 . 2.. 15. 18. 11. 12. 14.5f> sq. 16. f  5e 35. (59.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 1. (b) 135 mi. 1. 14. 12 a. 27.q 4. 8. 21. 2.ab. (a) 50..
14. . 11.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. w 17. 25.5 z?/ + 3 y . 19. 14. c.2.(2 x2 . 55. 21. + 2y. 4. 3.4 d. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 56. a 3a 4 2 &. 1. . 17.h. c2 . a2 9.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.3 6. _5a<>&43c.8(c + a). 15. mn.2 a2 2m 2 4. 5. 11.c.aft. 3 a3 & 41. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . + 8. n*. 2. 1. a a.l.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 14. . !  </ . 22. . 20. 42.1 . 25 47. 0. . a  ISjfat.3x 2 2 tf. 7  # + 12. ?/. . 2 . r.a*.a . 814. f 2 ?/  2. a4 4 4. 32 w 2 w. a2 24. (5x47 3. 10. ti. 37. 29. 1 + 45. 2 4. .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 18. 12. 5x 2 rt ft. 2x 4 a 13. 18.abc. ?> 22. Page 7.7. .11. 2 3. . 6.'U4j>.  a: 2.x f 1 2 . 31. 18. 24 b 46. 4. 2 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. ri\ 18.Oa: + 10. f ft 9. 24. 5. 10. _ Page 30. 3. 7  a + 2 + c. 4. + 6.  1. 4. a' 4ab + ?/. ar. 2a: 2 4x. 31.4. 21. Exercise 16. a. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 34. . 22. . (mn} 11. 364c. (w4w)(ww). ab a. a 6 2 . 6. 8. 2 2. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 32. 7. 7 a5 1 . 4. + 4 c.5. . 36. 3. 33. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 12. ^ <.. 8. 7. 26. 2. 2 y' 4 . a 4 + ft. Page 8. m*  n*. 7. 2 6.1. 20. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 15.. x a8 1. 26. s_r>a5.ws 2 ft) .  b* 4 r 1 .4x. 2 17. 2 2 2 6. 1. 51. . 12. 2.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 40. 13.r. a  49. 24.a f 54.2 a.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 13. 10. 25. 20. a). 26.  17. 5.r 2. 2 a f 6 414.  14 afy . 5. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 19.  b. 28. 5 2 Page 29.a~. ii\ 22. Page 28. 2 a 37. lOrt 15w4. 10 x.  4 b 17 y*. 2. 2. 8. ' 12 m?/'2 27. . a + a. G a bd. 6. 1. j)(g1. 15. 1. 2a. 50. 2// 16. 0. (2n' 43p 47 ). 21.4c 3 8 8 J. 1 4. M + 10. 2 3x f z. 3 Ji 8 . 34 39. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 25. 7.  12. a 52. 38. 3 m. . 4ft ~. (yz~d}. a 3& . 4.2 . '  . 16.2 ft 2 r2 10. w* ( . 1. 35. a 3 . 14. ?>4tl 53. 8 b. . 2. \ :{ 2 a 48. 9. 2m. :5 41. 2. 8 + 2 a . 2. 3 a . a + (ftc4df). 4r 2 .a'2 .6 x + 0) 16. a f 2 f 2 9. G. + a 2 f 2 a 4. + c 4 d x + 6 e. t). 12. x3 . 4 21. ?/i 13. 36. 59.2 57. c. 6. 0. 17. 10 m. 4wipg>' 27. 8 .(7x2 Ox2). 8 8 . 58. 2. 2. Page 44. 30. x  + 3z. a 10w. 11. 2m + 2w. 19. 2 + a4l). 24. ( 7. 43. &. 16. ft Exercise 17.  23.
14 m 2 .14 . 26. 3. //.:>/ .000. 4 a8 . 30 j9 jt?g j . a 8 . 29.2. 2 a2 (y 2 . 3. 16. 14f 5. 10. 13. 38 a*b 6 : 24. Page 3. 13. 14. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 5. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . . 1. 12 x2 2 . 7. ISartyW e*f*tj.7(50. 28. 13. a. Page 38. 42. 25. 16.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .16 a 2 + 32 a . 13. ll 2 i. 6. 19. (+3)x6=+16. 9 13. 60. s 9 ww. 10. 22. . 108. 15 lb.19p" + 19^ 10 . . a.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 25. 4.16 x2/ 5 4. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 2''. 1. 42. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 12.25 + 14. 9.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .r% 2 2 ry. 23. 20. x2 xy42^. n (a6) 125. 3 a 3 . 24. 2 w +2 2 .22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 1. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 6". 76 8 a' 1 .28 p'^/. 60. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 18a% y. 4 fc. 8. 15. 12. 30. . 15 q\ 6. 6. 34.18 w w + 10 WI M . 7. 8.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. Page 5. ^^ = 20.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 4. 19.36 35. 24.12. 18.32 y s s G . 2. 12 ^. ft 17. 4 a2 .20 xyz . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 16 lb. fa 2. 66 39 k* . 52 + 6s 12.. 17. 33. 1. 7G . 30. 210. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20. 20 aW. 27. 29. 8. 11. 16. 3 a 2 46. 8. 32. 4. 19. . 23. a + ft.19 + 2. 21. 22. Page 7. 4. 10. 0. . 4. 3300. 21 a'&c. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18. 15. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 29. 24. 2 n8 29 a + 30. . 4200. 04. 1. 25. 31. Page 36. 19. 2 * 80 . 27. 7. 102. + 58 . 36. 35. 14. 216.1. 7. 161b. 11.26. 4 jcy*z*>. 64. 20. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 120. 18> ^* = a .6 2 . 27. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 26. 18. 2.69 rt + 21 132 + r .21 a 3 c2 21.57 p6 3 2 4 25. m. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 24. 33. 21. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 32.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 18. 15. Ox a 5 . 8.>(/ r . 5aft(a 126 2). 25. 1400. 30. . 9. 2*8f x2 6x4.12. ci 5 . 23. 90.. 1904. 4. 22.(3x2_4^+7). 343. 28. Page 35. 6 . + 7. 6. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . f 26. 30. 8 . . 30. . 11. 23. 20. 2. 770. 2 ). 84. 16. 6. 20. 360.64 190 p6. 66 8W 34. 25 4 4. 3. 17. 28. 16 51. a.32.15. 161b. 21. iSx8 . +15. + O4 66 .14 w 2 2 .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 0. 12.8 12. +. 15. 14. 22. 10. 9. 1. 24.. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 30. 34. a: . 17. . 2. 18.11 xyz . 28.21. . 3(*+0 + 2). 15. 108.6) =a2 31. 14. 38wiw. 216.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 34.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 33. 2 . 13. 37. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 16. 18. 17.44 aWc 16 abxy. 2 2 2 .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 127"'. 83 In + 1 n*. 2 7t A. etc. ! 2. 29. ?/ . 3. 5. ?> 4 . 2 ). a*b*c. 27. 30 n?b*c*. . 11. 27.. 20. . 31. 40 r 2 . 4aWy.iv ANSWERS + &)(.
r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 35. x2 GiC+5. . 1. 26. 24. 31.14 jp + 49.p132.^. ab. 26. 16. 41.500. a2 ' + 48Z100. 14. ^/> 8 4 . 2 12. 15. 2 0)(p + 5). (a + 4) (a + 2). 3. 2 a 2 + a .009. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.r* 2 30. x4 28. 29. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 6 2 + 6lf>0. +4 34.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 1).4 a&+ 4 &*. 39. 19. 2 1: 21. + 4 a +4. + 2 9. 27.16 a3 f 50. . . 1. 10.020. 166. 34. 55. 7. 4 . . 8 a W .2. ^' J  7 f 12. .^ + a? + 1. a + 25. 9999.00 + 37. 8. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 8)(?i (x2)(x3).001.996. fo*. 10.15. (w+4)(m4). 4. 23. w'n 2 //^ + 25. lflrt 2 8 + l. a + 25. x 48. + 7 6)(3a~76>. . 4 2 //. 10. 11.. . r. .3. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). x4 4 121 4 ?/ .54 p 2 + 81. 1. ft' 11. 53. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 4 2 2 64 . 41. Page 12. . 31. 8. 29. 1. a 2 .404. y. 10.10 35. .5 ~ 81. .. 25. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 4 21. m 3 j) 3 . 36 a 4 . 4. 15.^V"' . 56.000. p4 + . x 4 ?/4 + ab . +  m' 1.49.008. 42. 30 x + 19 x3 .x2y22. 35. ) 4' 6/ 49. a + 56.8.712. . . 33.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 4x21. 38. 484. 10 a 4 ?. . +   5). 12 x2 .098. . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 27. n2 a4 6.84 a' 9. 1. 2). 2 . m 2 . 7 . 36.020. 8.25. 5. G a6 2. 2 62 V2 132.10 x + 25. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 32. 7. 45. 10. p 2 . n + 2. 36.004.201.6 x2 13. 441. 9. 998. ~ 6 20 . 4. x* . 10 a' 2 . 4 x2 13.ANSWERS 28. 37. 9801. 6. Page 39. + 10 + 121 y*.6 xy .r . a' . a4 4 ?/ . I/). 10. ab . 9 4 /> . 2 +10s281.009. 9990.1. 30. x*2^f I. + 3)(3). (w4)(w + l). 37. ?/H)0. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 2. 40.ab . 11. 4 . (n 2 5. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 14. 19. s rc 47. 40. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 51. (m + 6)(m3). ' 46. 10.810. 9.000.4 n. + 12.606. 14. 39. 44. 7. 2 a' y' . V + o ft . 3. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 10.6. 10. + 4 t*. . 24. 2 6' . 7> . (p 2.4 12. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 33. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 21 2 . 999. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 10. 2 . 5. a3 0. 2 4 a + 4. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 28.ri 17./ .m 30 6 4 1. 40.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 33.20. 36.35 ab 9. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 57. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. (a (3 54. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.r . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 8 38. Om2 4 6m 6. 32. 52. 30 /><. 2 m3 + 4m2 . ^V^4 . 2 (5 a 3). 4 + 25 q*. 2.6 y4 10. 2 fr . 25 25. 3wi2 m Page 42. 10.2 6 + 13. 34. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 990. 2 j3 Z . .2 y*. 25 a 2 6 2 . 31. 18. 6.994. 20a 2 21a + 4. 17. 1.2 x + 2 x.
. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.6 :rs 4. 8 ?/ . Exercise 27. 26. 1.2 .34.3 3. 20. 4 a 2 4. // 19. 5. + 4.1. 1.y3. 15.r' ~ 16.8. 2. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 13. /r . 6. 3 a. 8 ?/ .2 2 . aft. 4. 1000 1000 . 14. 6. 4. 16. 15. 3*y2 w + 1.1*5 2 r 2 . ti'jry1 7.000. 6. 75 a 2 29. 5.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 22. 17. ?/2. .r?/ j/. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 5^418(7. 1.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 5. 13. l 4 . Osy. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.7. 14. . 8. 5. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 ac .25 c . 2. . 14. 14 r 2 . 1.> 10. a 4 4 ft. 49.2 aft 4. Page 48.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . Exercise 2 a:// 26. c 12. ??. 2 12. 18. 2. . .1. 12.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . r/2 4. Page 7. 5.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 2 1. 3. ft. 50.rw. 8. .10 xy*. 5. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 8. 4.21 2 2 f + .29. 8. 4 d 2 4.1. .5 n*. 2 . 4 ac. +w . 2. 10. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 17.  12 y 25. 11. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 47. . . m'2 3. 6. 8. 12.8. 2 4 3 9.r" 20 S? .5 mp. 4. *3 y 4 . 7a3ft.r'^ 15. 4. 5 a  (5 ft.15.  10.r ?/ ??i ?). 7. 4. 5. 6.1. . 14.+ 77 15. y 7.2 1 //. 16. 10. sr 11.lit x + 4. x 2 + 2r f J. 11 4. Page 51. ft ? ft' ft ft. 5 4 a Oft. r 7.x^. . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. as _ 10 16. yfl. 2 ^r ???' 2 . w 2 . 4. 12. 13. 4 pq. abc 7. 44.VI ANSWERS 43. 01.24 . 6x 3. c3.5 a . 16. z.25. w . .30 ftc.2 ftc . 8. 4 x.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 9. 10. 7 r . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 9. + x?/ 2 1. 19.  5 z* . 8 x .n. + 3. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 3.3 5./ 4.12 aft 4 20 ac .r?/. j) . 13. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 13. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 2 4 2 x 4. 4 c m . aftc 52. . G. 19. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 2 a 3 ft. f>r* 4. 3. aft 12. 13. 4. ft 17. 2.r .8 y. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. a 10. 135. 18. 1.8 yn . 3.3 ry. 10 ft. 4xy + 13 <) . 1. 12. 2 4.2 . 2 ?/' . 3. 4 a* 4 9 11. 5. 14. 1/*. . 20 15. Page 13.  3 c. 2 . .2. ft* ft / . 3. r//. 2 ? 14 .2 wZ 4.23.9 4.  . a. '. 9.4. 5. i 2 tji. _ 2 a . 4ft.3^V. 21. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .  11. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.15 21. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 21.w. 24. 2 2 + 2 a.3 a 41. :r !>. 2 ?/ 4. 46. 9. Page 22.1. 125. 4x43?/.2 ar. 2.27 x 2 4. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . x 4.2 2 2 8 .2 <</.9 d. a 2 .3 x 2 2 4. 1. x4. r ft.2 .rw f 8 . a 8 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .1. 12. 23. 11. 17. 9. 3 aft 20. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.10 2 + z 2 410. i 9. Page 11. m L 4.
a 8. 19. 18. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 29. 11. 6. 27. 47. s.ab a. 10 yr. v (6) 2x. 26. 45. 13. 100 14. 15. x. (> 27.(3x  700) = 5. 800 = x + 1300. 19. 42. (c) 2x. 38. ct. 1.10) 100. r tx mi. + f + b 2. 1. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 10 a. 36. 9.. (>. . 4. 12.  />) a = all. 00. 12. x + 1=a. 2=10. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 7. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 16.000. 3. 13. 3 9. 0. 44. 8 n  10 yr. 30. l. 2. b. 2b 22.  2\. x 49. 25. 5. 8. + 10 b + c ct.  9 = 17 a. (</) 2a. 2. 28.200) f(^ + (e) 200. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. # + 20yr. X 60. 6. . 3x2. 4 f 39. x 48. m +~m 3. rn mi. 10. 5. 50= L 100 15. d + !. Page 6. . . 24. ( a f 4. 60 25 1. </ 20. "mi. 9. 23. 39. 17. I. 2x + 35. . 10 >_&. 59. 5. 7. vil 56. 33. 33. 100 2. 7. 23.6 = *. 1. 10 x sq. ^ 12 sq. 20. / + y + a// 12 yr. 7. ct. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 4. 3x  1700) = 12. n M. 2.p+7. 43. 7x 2 Page 21. 36.100. 1. 4(a ft) c = 8... 41. 7. 58. 7. 100= ^. 5. 34. 4.  1$. 32. Page 61. r>?imi. 2b. 2. 21 2. Page 13. 3. 44. 30. Jj12. ft. 38. 1&. = 5 ?i x 460. 7. ? 43. 41. !). 100 d ct. 10. 35. 17. }f. 0. % 4. 10. 6. 16. xy ft. 8. 37. + 3 = 2(3* .r ct. 37. x 2y 10 act. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 2 ct. y ?>i x + 26.ANSWERS Page 9. 16. 2. 6. 13. 6. 57. b. 25. m+ 11. 4^ = 100. lOx 10 + w. + 4x 3y 34.x700. y yr. x = m. a 10. 14. 40. '^ . 10) + = (a) 2 x .  6 10. 20. I. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 29. lO. 20. 10.(3x+ = rraxlO. 4. 22. 46. 14. 5. . f (I. 17. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. y 50.7). ft. f 6)(o 62. 22. 5. y 100 a 24. 2. iL*. (a) ' 12. 15. 4. 11. 11. 18. 1. fix. sq. ft. .. d. ] 2 ri 42. f = eZ 2 x. " lir. Page 31.r1. (2 a. 31. Page 40. 3. x y $ 6 yr. + 3x + 2y + 32. <>.rr2. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 'nj 100 a 28. ct.
12. 600. 7 hr.8. (a5)(a4). 7a*fe(2a & l). 71. ^ . 12. 8.y"). 6.. 9.. 14. 3. 6rt 2 11. 1. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. (a 4) (a. 8. 100 1. 45 in.. 11. 15 in. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 8 in.. 4. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.5. 05. 78.13.000. 2.. 21.210^. 4pt. 7. Page Page 4. 4.0. 6. 5. 9. 1200. 70. 30.3. 8 2 19. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 42yr.000 pig iron.000 N. 28yr. . (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 1. 20.. 10 yr. 6. 9. 3. 3. 15. 8. 15. 52. 7. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 1. 5. 2. Oaj(o62cd). 29. 1200. 300. 6. 12 mi. 22. 10.000. 11. 12. 70^. 10. 12. 10 yd. 1250.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 13. 3. ~=90. 18. 4.000 gold. $40. 5. 4. (a + 6) (a + 3). . (e) i* + A.. Page 5. 3. 15. by 12 yd. Page 7.411. 15 yd. 5$ hr. w (/) 64. 2. 2$. 7. 67. 2.5p + 7 g ). (a + 4)(a + 8).. 200.000 Phil. 12.000. 1. 14.. 2). 10. (*4)( + 11. 2. 11. 50.3). 7. Page Page 4. 20. ( + 4)(*2). 11. + 7)(y3). 24J. 20 yr. 75.000. (y7)(y + 2). 4. (yll)(y4). 480. 14. 3 (a +&)(*.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.000 copper. 150. 3.3aftc + 4). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 68. 16. 100. 10 Mass. (ro3)(w2). 13. 10. Page Page 480 12.79. 55. 8. 10 Cal. 9 in.. 17. . 17. (6) (6 a 30) =20.(5z .000. 72. 14. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. (m + n)(a + 6). 180. 200. a 12. (c) ^ v ' . 14. 2 2 2 5. 15.11. (y8)(y + 2). 250.. 13. 10 yr. 11 in.000. 3 hr. 90 mi. 15 mi. 2. (a + 5)(a + 6). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 10. 5. 11 w(w' + wi . 5pt. 9. 25. 6. 20 yr.1). 160 lb.16. (z5)(z2). 13. 1.2. Page 7. 74. a a (a 8 a+l).10. 82 mi.000 ft. 6. 2 2 ?/ 21. 23. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. (y 13. 11 pV (2 p8 . 13. 1 lb. . 12.000 Berlin. 8. 20. (p + 7)(3a5&). (y + 8)(y2).24.21.5.. 10. 5. 80 A. 18. 5 lb. 3x (3r. 78.. Ib.0.  PageSO. 10.. 9. Page 79. 4. 1.000 ft. 30 yr.22. 30. 6. 2. 85 ft. 19.. 8 12. 1313. 9. 30 mi. 7. = _?_(2ar + 1). 25 yr. 5 Col.. 14. 8. 8. ?(g ? g+ 1).3. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 2 3 6 7. 7. 3. 15.000. 25. 9. Pace 65. 6. 90. 1.2).7. 8.6). Y. 40 yr. 18. 20 yd.
(15a + 46*)(16a46). 10. . (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Page 83. 1.9*).r2). . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 17. 31. 25. 4.2 y). . (2yl)(y + 9). 16. 27. 23. 11.7)(2z f 1). 14. 31. (3#y)(+4y). 20. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 25. (a + 8)(a3). 5. 12. 22.1). . a(2u. + 0(90 Page 85. (m + n +p)(m + wp). + 9^)(oxy . 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). No. 35. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 19. Yes. 24 9. 10(2 30. (10a + ft)(10aft). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 23. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (a 3 + 10)(a. (0 + 6)(66). (y8) 2 2 . 13. (2xl)(x + f>). 9. (15ay2) 2 . 29. 21. (2o + l)(2l). 1. 7. (4 13. + 4) (a. 10.7) (a. Yes. (5a +l)(5a l).11 ft)(a6). 25. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 21.* (2 y + 3)(y. 12.1). 5. + 8)(g3). . 22. y) (a. 6. (w* (3a26). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 20. (4y3)(3y + 2). Page 82. (x + y4 )(x . 34. (4 18. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 16. 8. (* + y)(zy). (3*2)(. (m7n) (a. f 2). 1. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (w ~ n (x . 15. Yes. Yes. 3)(3a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (7 a + 4) (2 a . 24. 21. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 17. 3(x + 2)(zl). 8) (a. (5wl)(m5). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 10 a 2 (4 .5y)(3a. y(x. + 2y). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (5x . 30. (w + 20)(w + 5). 2 2 15. 27. 11. 34. No. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 216 aft. (a 6 6) (a 4. 3. (a a: 19. (a (p8)0> + l). 18. 19. (9y4)(y + 4). . (13a +10)(13a 10).  x (5 a. No. x\x 24. 22. 17. 7.4p). 4 (a . (m + w) 2 5. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 10. (g . No. 11. 8. 10(a . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 40 x. 30. 23. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).2 ft). . 10. 2 No 4. ( 2 4 19. 14. 9. 33. + 5) a. 9. 4.3)(z2).   . 26. a.2). 8. . 22. . x(x +y)(x y). Yes. Yes. 9. 26. + 3). . 36. Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al). (4al)(a2). (6n + l)(+2). 28. a . 28. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .y) 2 aft. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). Yes. 28.6) 2 1. Page 84.11 6) (a 4. 23. 2. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 26.y4 ). 20. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).3). (az + 9)(ox2). (:52y)(2a!3y). (ay8)(ay3). (y + 4)(yl). a*(5a f l)(flr . 21. 18. 24. 16. 9. 32. (4a. 2. 26.4 6). (2 a? 4. 29.1).y (6x + 4)(5x4). (<7 20.2 by2 6. 2.c 2 ). 7. 100(x.4. 2 3 by2 Yes. (6 a. ix 18. y) 2 29. 25. No. 3. 13x7. Yes. 10(a + ft)(aft). .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 7 6) (a 10 6). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 103x97. 100 (a. 15. 3a. 35. 14. Yes. (15z2y)(x5y).6) 2 2 . 32. (2 *+!)(* 9). (3a.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 12. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). . 2 17. 3. + 3)(c44).+4 y)(3x4 y). 33.1). 2).ANSWERS 16. Yes. 24. 27.8). . 6. 25. Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll).2). (a.. + y + .
10(2 (3 4. 4. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 3. (2x7)(x 2 2). 6. y )(. a (a + 2 6).y)(fi a . 12. 4. 5.y.8). (m  I)' 6. y). Page 92. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). . b) (r 4. 8. 5.  WIM.0+ 12). 7. 14. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). Page 87. (^ + ?>_8). (x//. 42a 3 x. 27.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 3x(x?/) 4. y(2x?/). 5. 4. + 2 //).8) ( (16. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 15. Page 86. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). a 41. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).n). 13 x 8 2 . (c.7)(^ {I 12. 5  (2 2 . 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 8.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 14.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 7. 8x. Page 89. 15 M.4).4. a 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).?>) H.b. .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 18. 24x sy s 9. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 4).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). Exercise 46. 30.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). (x.&). 7. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.. 4. 11.1) 3. ?>). 5 x8 3. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 6. 3(. (w * . fi(c426). 38. Exercise 47.1). 4  9. n  r)(5a 10. 11.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (5 31. ( y). 1. + 3. 2 y) ^ . Page 90.4). . 13.X 5.7s) (2 a. 2. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 16.4. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . a + a b. 2. 4 6. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4 a s &8 . 39. 13( 33. 9. 8. 2(m4l)' . 15. 7. 450. 8). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 20. 10(8x' 4l) 4. .  29. (7/1 2) (m 41). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). x(x f y)(jr .8) n 43*). . 2. 28. 40. 2. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 8. (16 4  2(5 n . 8.) j). (a 9. 2 21.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. ^ . (^ 7. 6. 2 k (wi 4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 2 2 3 . 17(x43//)(x2y). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 8. 4.36). 1(V/ 88. ofc)( fid).!) (x42)(x2). 9. 4 3. (5^4. 4. 37. 3 x4 . ?i(w 4y) . (f> + fo 7. 14.y '2 2). 2 (a 4. 6.  (w' 4. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (14. 17.^ 48.?50)(xt/z. 10. 24.1).3. Page 12. y6.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 + . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . x  1).42 x 4. (r420(4 10. 6. 16. (w4w) 2 1. 7. (a 4. a 4.2).&). ( (<> r4y3 . 6 f c). 5.y). 13. r x 2 */3 . x43. (a />. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 35.e 4. (5a+l)(9a). 2 8(w . (> 1.3. 41.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.2)(x 1. Gp). 12.l)( a 25.9). a x 3 10. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).5 m2 x2. (5 26. 13.2 y). . 4. 22. ah}. 8.2).'})(c .3)(x 4. 32. (a &4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. ( { &). 11. 2 1. 36. 7.'/)('< 4. (. 2.?/). 4 a8 . 12. x 4. 2 . (!__/>). l. 2 2 10. 19.'J)(' . 11. ( a ^)(^3. x . ( rt 23. a 2 (a9). 14. 42). 6. 4. a8 . (2 a ~ f> b 4.
2(2al) + l). x 12. x 24. + &) 2 ( . 11. x 22. 6a2&(rt6).  1). 30(3 2 (a 15. (a2)(a + 2)2. 18. 1). + &)(&) ( . a 23.6). 13. ?_!&. +5 1. b ! 21. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +8b a 4 3 / ^.ANSWERS 10. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. // m+1 !+*?. a 10 25. + y) (a: y).
i^. 30. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 6a5f^.. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 1. 11. 4c 10.  **/* + 84 _. . xy 43.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. + 2H 1 ^. A^. Page 100. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 2 a. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. 6. + lH + . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. c 8. 26.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ' 2 7. 4. 4 L 8 2 . 7. a 5.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 0.50 ~ 1/2 . w1 + ac w 4 7. i. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 28. Page 101.
4a3ft. J. I) 2 3z 1. y(x + x ?/). 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. a. x 1. 6. 5. 9. 3. c 8. 42. 12. Page 110. 12 28. 1. 21. b 2. 16. n 16. 4. ac mp lf> n 12. 12. 5.L+ft. w^x 2 b Page 105. ^i 11. 20. 17. 23. 21. x 05m ' 5. 41. 0. 4. 2 47. 27. 4. 21. 15. 25. ft. 3 7 i o. an 18. Page 111. 1. 8. 31. 9. 26. 24. 4. 19. f 7. n m a + 13. 7. 6. 44. Of. 1. 11. j L . Page 113. pf n 6 1.y 7. 3. 40.^U\WF### X<6. 10. 39. 30. 16. flf. 35. . 5. 37. 45. 6. n . J.^_. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 36. (y + (z 12. +3 ( + 15. 34. 38. 15. A. J. 3. 13. 1. 1. 4. 6. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. b a f +c 14. 7. 1. 33. 11. 2ft a i m x. 7. 8. 14. ' 6. 3. 9. 29. 1. (>. 8j_m 7 3. 43. 11. 5 be _J_. a 17. 32. x\. .  10 X + u. m 9.  V o 4. 15. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 1. 0. 46. Page 106. 14. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 17. 7.ft . 4. 6 . ^_. 10. 4. 14. 18. ?+_!?>. . + f. ?. 11. 3. . 2) 19. 5. ! 4 20. 3. a2 2. 1. 11. 6. 1. f Page 107.
14.  + .  29. 19.15. 3. J. 20. $45. 300. w 18.2. 10. [>> ^ a . 7} 18. 26 mi. $0. 22. No. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. 19. (ft) 104. 15. 3. 7 . 13. 33.. 15. 24. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 4. 2:1.000. 13. 40 yrs. 15. $30. 26. 7. 17. 1. 0. (a) 4 min. 10 yrs. J ^'. 4. w 44.000. (c) 2 hr. 9. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 5./hr. P+ ^ 33. 17. Yes. 81. 9ft.001. 23< &n b ' . 10. 15. Yes. after 20. 75 . 32. 2 20.. 8. 30ft. (ft) 5 da. 1 da. 36. IV s.. 14. 20. 17. 4fl M_. 3.138. . 31. 8. nm. 3 da. 12. ft. 55 mi. 1. 300.000 If da. (d) 500. min. 7. 14.x + y.000. 2x:3y. #V ~~ 34. 18. 1:1=1:1.. 18. after 18. dn ~ mi. ANSWERS 16. 11. 10./hr. Yes.2. ^?i min. 9. Yes. = A's. 10. 9J oz. 11. 3. Page 125. (a) 30. 33.. 5 25.10.11. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 1:1 = 1:1.9. . 40 mi. . 15.000. (a) 12 hr. 5ft 30mi.0. Page 124. 21ft min. (ft) 28. Page 117. 7. $00. 6. 30 mi. 28. (ft) 5 hr. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. (a) 25. Yes. " 0. 11. 24 mi. 7. 10. 1:1 = 1:1. 7T 2 Page 116. f.000 1 = 23. 16. Yes. 9$. 4. f .. 8. 6. 17. 38ft min. 18. 12. a 4 ft.137. Page 119. 1. ^p^ r ~ 7. _JL. 10. $40.XIV '/ .. xy.002. 15. 6. 500. 300. 40wn. 30. 1:3. 8. w 21. 3. . 00. silver. 9. 2. 9. 34. . 212.0 & . 13. 8. 1. 11 hrs. 21. 19. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 5. 15. 1 : 12.} da. 19. 1: ~. 1:4. :2.. 16. () 2. min. Page 118. Yes. 35. jj. 7. * 7:9. 275:108.. 30 yrs. 2. 10. 1^'. 5 2. 4.003.004. 4~r~ n . 26 30. after $12. 13. 10. 8301 hr. 12. (d) 4 da. '"I 22. 24. ~m . . n 32. gold. (c) 8300. 27. 7.  C . 16. No. 21. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.. 10^ oz. 3. 74. 5.139. 3:2. 4. 20. ^m . 5. (r) 3^ da. Page 121. . 14. Yes.
3. 20.1. J. 17. x 42. 5. 52. 2. . 45. 47.5. 2. 19 3 . 36. 3.]. copper. 2. 7. 53. 13.5. $. . () 7 Page 126. 55. y 1. J. Page 132. 2. 2. 6. mi. 19.3.a.8 oz. 14. 5. 10.x a. 19. 36. + W.000 sq. 7.li. 21. 127. x:y a: b.3.160. 4. 5. 20. i. ig 6. 27. 8. cu. 15> 9. l. 9. 16. w.22.4. 8. a +b 1.*. 945 11 10 . 2.3. + b 7 . 2. 11. 5 2. 14..17. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.^ 0?j ' gms. . : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 10. () Directly. 7.5. 2.3. 4. ini.3. 4. 26. 3. 7.3. 25. land. t 5. 3. 4. 2. 30. 58. 22. 23. 2. 49.ANSWERS 22. 1. 12. 7..20. 40. Page 133. 4.) 31.7. 7."2:1. 7.  ?.1. 7. 13. 24. 3. 41.12.5. Page 131. 35. 31. 138. Page 137. 5.46.' : : : : <>. *. 8. water. : : T 1' : /> : . 17.2 x. 43. /. . 3. 8. 1. 17. 3. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 9.2 oz. . 2. 29. . 32j. 2. 1 rt * vm^1. (I. x +y x + 74 7 \.15 x. 4.5. 2. 4.r.3. 6. 200 mi.2. 10. 174+ Page 128. 6 10 = 12. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 11 5 . (b) Inversely.5. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. tin. : />. 5. 4. 24. 1 18 = 3 51. . 5:3 = 4: x. in. 4. 24 1 (e) Directly. = 7 b'. 3}.6. 4. 1. 13. Page 5. 11. 3. Inversely.C ?/ a . : . 3. 6.  19. 16.5.5. . 11 w a 13. 7. x y y . 23. J pq. (</) ft. 16. Page 136. 20 cu.4. 2.57.36. 2. 7. 5. 38. 7^.3. 59. 31J. 4. 18. 56. . . 7. 25. 54. x y = 1 = 3 2. 1. 4. OJ. ~ 1. : : . 5. 3. 5. \.840. 19 OJ.3.5. 2. 2. 48. 7. 3 2=3 x. 2. 2. 9. : XV 27. 5. 1. 1. .2. 14. I. 1. 5:0 = 10:12.9./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 32+ mi. 2. "lO. 46. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2. Page 134. \\. 40.2. 3.4. 15.J.. 3. in n. 2. 9. . 6. 6*. 28. 39. 20 20 J ^. 10. lo mi. 57.12. 7.4. 12. 11. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 9. 4. (b) C C' = fi JR'. s<i.1. a 3. y . 3. 3  24. Of. 30. a f 2 2 = 5 x.1. 22. 21. J.15. 12." ^ 2. 4.J 3. 8. 50. 12. 15. 2.000 sq. 141. y a y = 7 0. ' 55. 11. Page 135. 1(5. 13. 25. 7. . y :y =. 2. 9. 1. 9  15. ft. b x 37. mi. 19. : 23. 13J. 41. OJ.4.1. 9. 3. 5. 7. jc:y = n:m. a~. 8. 26. 2. 1.3. 9.2.  28. 3.7. 44. Page 9. . 5. 1. 7. 8. 6. (a) Directly. 11. 4. w 8. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 2 n . 14. 2.
5. ' 6 3 a. 4. 4 mi. 11. 6. 4. 3. 6. 9. m f 8. 4. ft 3. Jan. be 10. parallel to the x axis 0. 6.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 25. 2. B's 40 yrs. 9. 5. M 2. Apr. 23. 2 a. Apr. 3). (ft) 23 J. 5. 2t2. m + n p. 5. 9. 1. . 4. ' . 3. 23. July 20. 15. 4. $500. 15.. Nov. 2. 6 cows. 20. The ordinate. 14. 17. 2. 40. 1. 2. . $ 1000. 9. m .l. . 4 ' q. . 1. 3. 13. 16.65. a. 00. 27. 0. 3. m f 9. 3. $3000. 14. 2.  11. (<f) 13. 90. <*ft/ bd 1. 10. 16 to July 20.  17. . 18. 2. Nov. On 11. A's 30 18. $250. Page 153. 2.2. 4. SL=J o ft r^2.3. B's 15 yrs. 20. Page 143. 6. 17. 24. 20. . 3.9.n + p. 2. Page 142. 3. 3.10.4. 20 to Oct. J. Page 152. 147. 8. 24.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 40. Page 149. 1 (d) Apr. 2. 14.. 13. A a parallel to the x axis. 26. . $900 5%. = ^ a Page 141. 10 sheep. 1. 1. 29. 5%. Page 146. 11. 10. & part of Sept. 10. . 6. 1. 16.1. 25. About 12f. 4. 12. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 6. 1.1J. Page 151. 16. 7. 21. 25. 4. 7. 18. 12. 11. (a) Apr. 5. 6%. 7. . 12. ^. .3. Jan. at 15. 8. 6.4. 7. ad _(?jrJL. 3. a =J (n  1) rf. 4. A's 50 13. 0. 4. 10. On the y axis. & part of Feb. yrs. (c) . 3. 7. 2. Page 22. . Jan. 12. 3. (5. 19 gms. 72. C's 30 yrs. Oct. ad AzA. 2 horses. 2. 5. 7.0. 6. 1. be 7. 1. 32. May 5. 10. 16. &. 2. July. 11. 3. yrs. through point (0. 5. (ft) 20.3.$2000. 19. 18. 9. Apr. 3. 7. 13. 3. 423. Jan.33. 1. 4. Page 145. 22. 5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 0. & May. .8. . 28. 31. 10^ gms. 23f . 12. 7.0.2. Aug. C's 10 yrs. 16. 8. Jan. 4. 18. 1. 24. Nov. 15. 3.. 2. 5. July. 19.XVI Fagel39. 7. 1. 30. u 2ft. On the x axis. 7. 1 (c) Jan. 4. 2.$5000. 8.7./hr. $4000. Nov. 9. Feb. 2. 5.. June. 3. 21. (a) 12. 20 & Oct... 11.^. 3. 16. 25.1. 3. 20. 30. 3. 17. 30. 26. 100. 4.4. 3. 24. 2. 11. 20. 2. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 4.
(a) 5. 3. 1. 5.24 . ft . 12. f12 wi 9. 3 .25. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 24. 19. (e) 3. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 21." 23. (<?) 2. 4}. (ft) and (d) 2. 3. 5 and 2.75 (ci) 3^. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. .73 ami .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . a 10 ' a ll V&. 8 a1. Page 158. 4. 14. 13 . G. 6. 16. 4. (ft) (ft) 2.27.2 (ft)  1. 14. 8. . .  1. 2 2 22. m. 5. 22. + a 4 ft* . 3. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 27 27 81. 1. SlstyW 7. 1 4. 2. H.25.75. 24.79. 14. 1.7. 1. . (c) 14 F.79. 13. 2.1. 1.. 83. 5. 28. 27 19. 1. 2 a&m Page 167.41 and 23.34F. Inconsistent. 25. 27. f. ImW.  1.5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (/) 3. 11. .75. . (ft) (d) 2. 3. (gr) 21. 15. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 19. 2. 2.4.84.24.3.  12 ft xW  26 31. 2. 10.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. . (c) 2.6. 20. 4. . 17. 3.. 2 l. a + ft. 1. 9. . 3. 125 16. 2. (a) 12. H.. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 1 23. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 18C. 3. 4.75.17 (ft) (c) 2. 8mW. (a) 2. .25.67. 15. () (rt) 3. 2. (e) 2. 3. 2. 22. 3. 3. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 2.13.. 3. (/) 3. . . 1^. 13C. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .3. 1.64. 1. 125 a 8 12.  . 3. 2. 5. 2. . 11. Indeterminate. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.73. 1. 5. 2. ft 2 4. 3. . . 5. 9. \ft) 5.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. .59 . jgiooyiio 17. 14. 9 and Page 166. 0. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. 0C. 26. 2ft4 Page 168. 1. (ft) 2. 30. f. 1. xg . (c) 7. 10 C. 8 1 f f g*. 2.5. 1.83. 18. . 4.64. 1. 3. 2. 13.59. 7. 2. .73.73. 8. 15 . Inconsistent. 13. 3. 5. 81 ". f 10. Page 164. 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. a 29.83. 6. 3. 8. . . 4 ) 21. 4. 1. 3. . 3. Indeterminate. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 32F. Page 159. xy. (a) 4. +3 4. 4. . . 12. 10. 1. 20. 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 11. 1. ' :=_!.24. 125a 28. 10.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. 15. 30. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1. 3. .41 and .25.5 (ft) 3. xW.1. a 6o&i85 c i5o . .25. * 16. Page 163.
22. 25 19. . 6. 2 12. 99. ??i ?i . 14. 11. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . GOO 2 c 2 . 19. 9. 19. rt . 2. (x' l). 21. (Gx + (i + 2a. (2 a + ft). 12. a ). 20.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 5. . 2. 2 4 8 2 . 18. 64. 11. 16. 10*. 3 2 ^. 14. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 13. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 300. 180 . 119. 18. 15. c 10 6 :l 20.^). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 12.7 /)). (ly).+3^ + 4. 2 49 . a. 3M. + Z).83. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. AN S WE no . 2(> + ( 2 7>). ( Page 174. I 8x2). 28. Page 176. 21. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 247. + (win . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 9. 5. 4. 14. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 8. + y). 30. 31. 10.  +X '. 4. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 12.1. 34. 33. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 5.  x. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 1247. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 9. fe *?>' ?> fi . 5. 8. 18. 16. 2038. (a + 2 +l). 978. 420. 3 6 23. 27. 20. 40. 2 2 4. 26. 3 2 8 3 12. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 0. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.XV111 7. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 11. 14.r 2 + 6jt). Page 172. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). Page 170.y2 ). 72. r> 4 : 1 . 70. 3. a: l . . 3.10 a~ + 5 a . 15. 6. 5 5 8. 20. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 98. . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). (l + x + . (1 (x2y). 1. 2. 9. Zll. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 6. ). 8.3 ab + 2 2 ). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 00. 7. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 3.2). 90. 1. 7. 17. 9. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 101. . 11. 8 /. 8. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 309.1.f 1 m 9 16.6.GO a c + 23. a. 23. 36. 237. 10. ^i. 2 2 7. 9. ? : 1 . 4. 6 (\x 3.5. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 17. 15. 763. + + ?V 22. . 57. (a + y+l). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 1 1 ?>). 2. . 32. +35. 35. 15. 5. 10. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 8. + l). 10 x G a 4 . (4a2 9& 2 13. + i)). + 29.5). 24. m 13. (x + y\ 90. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 7. 6. (ab + c). 25.i c 6 15. Page 171. 1. 90.94. . 4. /> 4 ). 16 6 w . 17. 76. ?7i 1 1 3 1.x ). 71. 16. (a 2. 2. 3. 30. 84. 13.a b 22. (48 + 6. . 1. 20. (3a. ? . +3 + 5 4. 6. a 2 .r 2 + S:r2/2 ).037.
270 sq. 6yds. 11. 15 1 10. 7. 1.935. 13. 7}. V. 49. V2. 1. 50.*. 17. 14. 4. 5. 21. .. 2. 13.6. 6. a. Page 185. ft. 27. ft. 30. . 15.60. 7. 12. 5. 4. 13. 6.. 41.Sn. f. 10. V J l.V 8j. f ^ is. 15.798 yds. 34. 6. 5. 5. 6561.6. . 12. 2. 26. 21.6. 24. 28.237. 4. 8. 5. 5. ft.13. 10. 6J.4. w. 10.469. 2. 39 in. . 7563. 2. 31. 13. 8.  f. 4.i. ^^7m. " ^_ 22. 7.  2. 10. 3.6. 3. 5083.243. 19. 6.  5. V17.. Page 184. 8. Page 181. . 7. 44. 9 15 ft. . 29.  3. Page 180.a.690. 32. 16. 1.005. 10. 3. 11. If ^. 20. () 2. 18.645.  f. 16n. 4J. 33. 15.1. or 5. 30. 16. f 3. 7 in. 28. *. ~ V^3. 5f. ^. 14. 1. 2] see. 14. xix 26. 10.. 23. 9. 9. / 11. f . 36 in. 42. 7. 15. 18. 9. 3J. 3. 1 f Vl3. 21. 5. i. 4 n. 10. 3. J. 46. 25 J. f. 4. 33. 7. 8. 4. 5. Page 179. 3. 24. >i 27. Af^. V2. 39.4. 21 in. 12. > w ft.5. 11. 7. 6V21.  43. }. 25. vYb. 2. 6 f !. 31. 2. 17.6. 8. 3. 36. _ iVaft. 39. 4. V35 1. /. 1 38. m. 1&. 1. 48.18. {.w 18. 1 7. 12. 3. 5.742 in. . 9. 19. 14. 17. 21 28 ft. 2 sec. * 1. 7. (6) Vl4 3. 11. 3.. 6V'2J. 5.  14. 28 in. 4. 37. or 3. 22.4.ANS WERS 22. 3. m. 9. 2. 6. 11.916 yds. . 1. . 9. 1. 3. 8.. i ^. 2.}. 1. 40.522 38.. 20. 23. 5.. 9.. 4. f f V. 4. 27. 15. 21yds. 4.925 ft. 6. 7 45. 4. 4.236. 36.. 2. 10. 10. 29. 12. >TT 26.367. 3.  1. 5. 9. 6. 6. 16. JJI. 2. 4 W**. 4 TT M 28. \/3. ii :J _7. ZLlAiK 19. . 4 a. 12. 5. 7.5. 1. (< + ?>).?. v 17. 3. 2. Page 177. 23. 47. 3. a + 61. 5. 25. Page 183. 12. 20. 40. 16. 1. 2. 1. vV'TA 24. 32. 35. 13. 2. 12. . . 14. 35. 7. 34. l~8. (afl). 7. ^.1. 37. 29.
^l/>> = 85 ft.2. . ft.* 2.62. 25. 8\/2 17. 3. 4. V^~2. 48. 15. . 0. 2 .2.. 2. Real. 2. 2. 25. . rational. 1 3. 1.02. orf. rational. 28. 7. 0. #<7=3. 1 . i. 20 nii. AB = 3. 3.  6. 3. 9. V ~ 16 4 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.$40 or $60.12. 9. 3.7. 11. 7.48 3. 3. 21. 20. 1. 2./hr. 10. equal. 7. Page 188. 3. . 1. irrational. 3. 2.4. equal. Imaginary. x 14. 47. Real. f. unequal. 32. 4. 2. . f.7. unequal. 3. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 56.  2. unequal.6 = 0. 7. 10. 2. 1). 4. rational. 2. v^^fcT"^. 2. 6. 1. '  f 5. unequal. + 11 x. 2. 9. 2.2. V2. 0. 3.5^. 2. a8 . 5.2. . *'' 12.XX Page 186. rational.10. 39. 10. 4. 44. ANSWERS 22. Page 191. irrational. 12.a. r* i. f 6 52 a.'./hr. unequal.3. unequal. 70 ft. V7. 14. = 0. $ 120. 38. 1. 0. 1. 3. 55. 8. $80. 0. 4. 0.2. 1. 4. 3. 2. 0. 1. 11. 6. 1. . AB = 204 ft. 0. 3. 26.6. 3. 2 V3 in. 6V64. 41. .17. 1_^L ft 14. 15 ft. 53.  1.4. Real. 7.1. 19. 37. 1. 21. Page 190. (5 10. Page 187. 16. x2 + B . 30. 1. . 0.  1. 18. . 22. 2. 9. 27. 40. a + 1. . 19. VV11. 6. t is. . U. 64. 29. V^l. unequal. 3if. 20. 26. unequal. 6. . 24. 3. 1.  24.1. Imaginary. 10 in. 5. 2. V^l. Real. 3. 1. 6. 33. 50. 18. 24.]. %.2. 6. 12.2.12 = 0. 28. . 10 mi. 35.74. 8 or 12 mi. 7. 4 da. $30 or $70. Imaginary. 2.5 x + 6 = 0. _ 19. 0. 2. 4. 16.3. 8. 8.70. 16. 23. x*4x=0.2 x2 . 6.5. 20. Real. unequal. 28. 2.3. 17. 22. 5. . 25. 25. 58. 15.l. a + 6. 20 eggs. 64c. 1. . 1. 7. i .a. 27. s 11. 5. 57.a 3 a. 3.2. . 6. 26. 18.48. 0.  Page 194.23. 27. 3. . 2 ft. 13. Imaginary. 0./hr.  i.. 12. 45. 36. 6^2 in. a. 3. 3. . 42.  1. 31. 3. 46. .4. Page 189. 2. 15.23. 3. 120 ft. 3. 43. 23.41. 8.4. x* 51. 49. ' 1. .  1. 2. 1. 10 mi. Real.  13.59. 5 ft. 26. 24. 0. 4.2.  2. 4. 4.. 10 or 19. 1./hr. .  5. 0. 6. Real. 52. 2. V2. 2. 21.0*8.2.7.  1.1. jr . rational.4. 0.. 6.37. 19 in. in. 34. a.. 7. 23. 3. Page 192. equal. 13.Oa. 1. H. 0. 14. 2. 1. Real. 1.  9x <)..  5. 5. 35. 12. 12. If.
8. 32. 40. . 2. . 4. Page 196. 2V a. 47. 15. 24. m. 14. 57. 4. i. y. wA 46. JV37. . \. 21. 2.//^. r. 43.ANtiWEUS rational. a. 20. $7. 4. 8. 3. 1. . 16. fx'^z'l 23. 3. 6. 28. 39. y . 1. 1. 243. 20. 29. 42. 21. 1. 59. 4. 14. 11. 50. 12. 17. Page 200. 9. 9. 30. J 3. 2 L ( V. 1. 31. 33. . 7. 19. ).  J j. 11. 25. 32. 1 39. Page 199. 3.6. v'frW. 3. 53. ? .  f . 31. 15. . 23. ifa. m'. 49. ^49. 10. Jb \.1 5 15. Page 201. 27. 17. 10. 5. 8. 49.32. x.  48. 13. \/r\ 11. 56. p. v'frc 18. 22. 60. . 14.. 1. (m 26. 30. 18. 47. 49. I. 33. 8. 17. 7. \. V^ 34. v/3. 1. 5. 22. ) 2 >J i 10. . \ . 20. 15. Page 197. 49. ar 1 . 33. 84. 5\/5. 38. 8. z + 22.17. xxi 15. 19. 3. . 2. 1. Vr. aW\ 40. 19. vm." 17. 46. _! V3. 1.2. 8. 24. 51. 12. 37. J. 36. 4. 16. 5. 3. 5. 3 4 11. 0. . 0. 6  AAf. 8. 2. 3. 54. 9. 10. 26. J. v. 1V1. 18. 50. 5.^7. 7V7. J. 48. \a\ \/^. x$. l  5 12. 1. 8. 6. 13. 4. n\/* Page202.  f. v^T4 m. 7. 13. 2. 41. 2. 25. J. 13. 29. 125. 30 a. 19. 14. r*. 3. 28. 4. 3. 20. 1. 2. 18. 10. 9. : . 44. 58. 21. 29. a 18 . 5. 23. 7 . 3. 9. 2. 0. 2. 1.  5. 2. &. 'J. ^Sf 3 38. \/3.  a'2 . 3. x/25. 3. jV 10. 52. 24. 16. 16. *V. 25. 12*2 61. 35. 27. 4. 2. 55. 45. \/. 9. vV.
v'TM.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. a^ + 2^+1. . 16. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).yl : . 2. Va 2 "ft. 7. 1 2 or 1 ?. 11V3. 6. T. 4. 31. 135V6.XXii ANSWERS 1. 41. 33.648. 10. V80. + + ft. 43. 24. 19. ^88". 26. 2v (T 2aVf. / V3. v^. 27. 2. 3 x^y 33.707. 34. 2. 25. 23. 195V3. 2 x* 15. r c . Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 37. 32. . 31.  2 3:r. abVab. 10. 8. (o* 2. JIV6. + . + 2 V22. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 11. 3V^T. a 3. (a 27.692. 39.'\ 14. 21.x^y* + y%. 4. k/2. 5 ( . x 7  34. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. Page 203. 2. 17.. 13 35. 10. 03r* 7. x. 3^2. r 17  Page 204.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 101 1. 3 42. 2. .  a Vft 2 121 b. 8V/) 15. x + 5 x3 + 0. 6. 2 a?>V2 a. ftV 46. 11. (x' (l 1+x). x 25. 13. 30. 45. 17. 3. 1) 3V3. a2 4.2 18. 29. 3^ + 2). 2\/7. 20&V6. ^: V2c. 2>X2. 13 a. 40. 18. 21. 32. 28. 3.rV:r. . 9. 9 . 3V5. 22. 1. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 28. 4aV^J 16. Page 207. 2 4 z2 l 3. 38.3 + 40 3 . + Vic + 25. V. 5 22. + 1. 20. 9.f. 8a6V5. 13. . V 5 47. 8. 5. 49. 3. 30. 3 4\/2. 37. 40. ). 12. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 3 \ 39.).2 VlO. 9. 24. V2 + 4 V22. m* n*. 36. Page 208. Vr 8. 29.r.Vxy 35. 19. x%  3 ^+ 1. 51. a 4 +* + !.632. 20. + 2 ar 1 ). 48. y. 50. ^7 \AOx. yV35. . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. + 2). ?tV?w. y (a + ft) V2. V. x y. . 34 r 6. 2 '"V5. l 5. v/^r 5  A/^~. x^ . 7.577. 26. 62V(J. 5. 2. V63. 16. . 15.
. 17. 25. 14c 4 V5. ab 4. 19. v"5. 34. V2. 3 V15  47. 32. 10. x/125.T*. 5. Page 213. 7. 12. V/. 39. 3\/15  6. 37. ^ 3 b 5 24. 6x2?/. D 45. Page 216. 38. 39. x/8. 21. 36. . 3 V2. 1. r)\/(l Vrtr. xx 1. V2. VJla. 11. 25. 6V2. 31. 2. 5V2. V5. 7. V3"m. 3. '. 4 a*. 43. b. Page 210. 17. 33. \XOfl6Vi5. v^lf. 30 Vl4.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v/9. . 10V(). 24. 6.r v/^ v^fr*. 6. \V3. 16. v/l2.30 2. 8. 2 \/2. \^6. 29. x/8l. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 1. 3v^2. 7\/(l 7VTO. 28. 48. 13\/3. 35. Vat. 9. 2. 49. x/w^ 8. 3. 1V5. v 25^4714 V2"a. 4VO. 32m27n. 24. 8v2T 12. 4. m ?i2Vm/t. 5. + VlO  v y (5. V5.  3. 2 1. 74\/Jl 120 46. 13. v^4. 52. \/128. ^v 7 15. 8  \/15. 2. 50. \/04a. \^r^bVabc. 21 23. V3. Vn. W). 27. 23. 34. 2. 37. \/8. 5v/2. ^9. 30. . 42. % 29. ^27. 23. 14. v^O. 5V2. 11. 26. 15. 2 ate. 14. 9. 3 Vl5 30. Page 214. V3. 9. . x/8L v/27. 40. a^\/a7>. 10. vT). Vdbc. v/lO. 40. 41. v^30. 6. 4. 27. 51. 5 \/2. 2 28. 18. aVa. 22. 6aV2\^.J Page 212. 12. x/4. 8V73\/IO. 19. v/8. 6+2V5. 5. 3. 18. . 26. 2\/7. 35. 14. / \/w/t 4 13. rtv/5. 16. w?i. 3\/wi. \/abc*. 9 VlO + 4. x/27. a\/5c. 38. "v/wi ??. 53. \/2. v^a. 21. 2. 4\/5. 13. 8. 36. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . fl^Vac. 16. 11. 18. 10. a2  b. ^\/3. 6 2\/0. 2 V'3. 3. 44. 15. x/3. 6. VT5. 17. 2yV2?/. \^6. v^f. + 20. 8V2. 1. "^8000. v"3. V8. 32. 4 >/3. 7. . 20. : ^32. v/i). 31. . 3. 46. \/a6c. Vtf +3+ 33. 6. Page 211. v7^. 22. 0. 3\/2. 0.
Page217. 23. (3+ v/2). V5. 29. 9. Vf6fVtf.  13.625 10. 9. 30. 10. V. 18. 7.w 6. 21 ' Vob 26. (\/3f 1). 20. 81.^ (\/22 4. 4 14. 24. 3. 3. 11. 4. 27. 1. 6 (V2 + 1). 0. + 6) 2 . 4. . 5. 23. 6.  2.6 V3. 20. 4. (2Vll).7083. i(Vf Vft). 8. 30. 10. V2. V3. 16. (\/5V2). !^ 6 4. . 7 f 5 4. +3 V2). Va. 9. 8 V3V2. 8. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 9 mn. 2!5_. . 12. 10. 5.3. 2x^2^. Page 223. 16. 12. 25. 4. 64.. (V5f 5. f. J.464. 19. 25. 35. 32. . 7 Page221.1547. 23. fV2. 31.64. 16. 33. ^.9. i^Lzi. . 1. x 20. 1. 18. 8. 7. 5. \/3). 21. 4. 29. 4. 22. 14. 10. ^(VlO\/2). 15. 7.2. 8. 9. 16. 15.81. 19. p 6 13. 27. 2. 7. Va. 1. * 3. \/57t. 1. 4.732. 4. Page 219. nVTl. 19. 19. ^\/2. 9.601. 3(7+3V5). 1. 11. (V8 + V2. ~ Vac _c 0. 10. 5 V65. 0. + 5V2. 17. 2. j. (2V2). 11. Page 226. 4.V3). 9. 2V3. n*. 26. 2ajV2*. 13. . 14. . 12. 4V3 + 6. 2 . 22. 3. 21. Page220. 26. (V51). j 15. 3V23. \. 2. 16. 19.732.3535. 1. 9. 6.5. 24. 25. 18. 15. 512. 2V2. A . {. 216. 6.6. 1. 24. 25. 4. (V21). 28. 6. 8. Page 218. 4.4142. (a 1. 16. 20. V3 . 2. 2. ' 22 i . 7. 25.  . 14. 8. 1. V3. (VaT^v a). 8.2. 11. 17.\/TO).2828. 3. 34.7071. Page 28.389. 20. ANSWERS 8. 224. xy 2. 5. 5. (VllV2). (2. 2. 17. 4. K>/0 + \/2). 37. (Vf + (4 V2). 12. 8. 14. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 11. 5. Page 225. 2. 11. 15. 36. 6 V. 4. 2V3.3. _^JflJ?. (V6 + 2V2).0606. 25. 125. 13. 27. ^.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 5. 10. 1.1. 24. V6c. 16. m f. (2f V"5).1805.5530. 4. 16. 7. 3. 9. 100. 22. 6. ^r. 5 + 2 vU 17.13. 12. 10. V35.XXIV 7. V3. 13. . 12. . 7. V^TTfc.  f. 5 f. 23. 18. 25. 7. 23. 3. . 1. 21. 5. 3. 81. J. 15. 17. 18. . 9. 5.4722. 4.
3.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.  1. 2. . 12 24 y . . (&y2a#H4). 2. 7. . 10. (pl)(p2)(p2). 5. 17. 16. 4 . . 1. 4 4. 3. y. 2 . 3. 18. 4.  2. 25. P. 2.  1. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1. 3. 4. 5. 10. 3. . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2.ANSWERS Page 228. Page 233. 10.1. ' J. 5.r . 1. \/0. ~ f7. 4. .^a. 3 . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).w 4 + 1). 4. 25. 3 . 2. 12. 1. (r. (a+&)( 2 14.5 xy + 25) 22. a . 4. 1. . 1. 6. 1. (2 a. 9. . 3. 5.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 20. 4. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1).. 2 . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 3. 11. 2 &. 50. 4. 18. 1. 4. . 2.4. (w . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 17. 2. 8. qpl. V3. 14. 15. 1. 6. (pl)(p3)(p6). 3. 3. 13. 1. 0.0. 13.2)(m. & + 6 2 ).3. . 87 . 3 5. 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 4 20. 3. 2.l)(a3)(a . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). J 24. . . 3. 9. . J. 1. a  . a: :} . 2. 1 . 4 1. . b . (63)(6' t 18. t/ 23. 12. //. 24. 2.  5. 30 .4. 4 . . 1. 22. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).l)(m . 2 > 1. 2 V^ . 2. 1.  f .3 2.10. 7. 6. 16. 1. 3 9. 5. 2.12. 2. 2. 15. 10. 8. 2. 1. 5. 3. 14. (8.2)(* . 13.7. 4. =A^Z3. 11.4. 11. 3 .3. 4. . 7.5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 4. 2. . 2. 4. 5. 8 6 & 0.3. 0. 12. (a . (B43). 23. (m 4 + l)(ro. 4.3. 73. 1 .3. 6. 4. .+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 7. 6. 30 30. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 3. 3. 0. (rt. 1 .l)(a 2 + a f 1). 4. (a. 22. (a 4. 14. l. 2. 11. 1. o. Page 234. 13. 2 . 3. 56l). 17. 73. 1 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 2. 21.  3.4). 5. Page 236. . 2 6. 26. 5.3. 2 6. 8. 25. 6. 5.  J. 30. 3. 9. 5. 3. 8. 0. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 5. 3. 4. a(. 20.  3. 1 6. 7. 30. 1 (?> x/^3.22. 2. 12. 3. 1.  .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 2 . 25. 4. 1. 7. (4 mn . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 6. 3.2. 2. . 5. 3.Y. 19. 0. 28. . 2. 24. 19. 10. 19. 0.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 0. 4. (+!)( 2) 10. 1. . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).2. 8. 2 <? 4a2 . 20. 1 . XXV 4. 3. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 15. 2. 2. 2. 10.8a 18. .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1 . f>. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44).3).1. (a. 8. 7. J Page 235. 7.nl^EI. 6 2 2a + 2). 13.2. 11. 11.  16). J. 100. 5. 2. 3.  3. 21. 1. 4.  4. 3. f . 0. ( 16. 12.
12. Indeterminate. 1. (a) 5. 1J. i'ljVU. 24. 7. 1. 31. 69. +  n. 14. 4. ' j. 5. . 13. . 23. $. 40 1} 9 3 ft.. . 4 6.3 . 3. 3. n . 2.. 288. 4. J. 40 in. 3. 30. 12. 10. 8ft. 45yd. (&) 2.30. 8 . .4. 2>/3. 14. 33. 1. 35 a. Exercise 114. 5. 5. 8.5. (a) $3400. 2V7. 1. . . 17. 17. 3. 12. \. 4. 4. 2. 16. 2 . 2 26. oo . 2. 1.. 1. 2. 35. 1. 5. 35^ 5. n. 3. 3. 3 . 30 13. 5. 1. ri*. 5. 8.3. 35 ft. 3. 9. 4. 2. 4. 3 3. 21. 20. 7. 50. 12 ft. 4.6. 1 . 18. 3. (/>) "_. 2. 6. oo. ft. 0. 15. f>. in. 20. co .18.4. J. 2 16. 14..200. 17. 4. 8. 4. 2. Page 244. 10. 5. 1. 37. . 11. 22. . 5. x 4. . _ 5. _ 13 (0 6.3. 2. 8. 19.  1. . 2 . 512. 31. 10. 14. 2. 2. 1 . = QO 6.3. 1. 17.  2 . 9.6. in. . i j. Indeterminate. 1. 40. V7. m + n. . 21 30. 9. 7. 4. 6. 5. 5. Exercise 113. 84. 5. oo . 2. 1 2. 1. 5. 12 1. 5. 11. in. 3. 1. 5. 2. 5 . 7. . 1 . 14. . 1. 5. 21. 6. 14.1.4. 3. 5. 2. 3 . 1. 3. ^ }. 3 cm. 0.1. 900. 29. . 4. 400. 1. 3. m28. 4. 22. 3. 5050. and _ 4. 3 4.13. 1. 23. 4 . 3. . V3~. 13. 1. . \/6. 3. 2. 1. . 2. . 7. 3V5. . 26. 4. .5.020. 17.3. . 9. 16. 6. j. 1. 41. 37. _ 7. jj. Page 248. 2. i i i . 7 3. . 2. 2 1. 32. 30. 11. 3. . 2. 3. 17. 19. m27.  11.. 1. 8. 7. Page 238. ft. 4. tn 2. 1.136. . 9. 37. 9. _ 10. 48. $VO. ANSWERS 2. Page 239. 12. 2. 15.3.2. 36. 2. Page 243. 4 8. 2 10. 2 ft. 3 2. 5. 1. 18. 50.. 5 4. f. Page 245. 6. 2 .3. 28yd. 78. 1. 3. 15.0. 1.1. 4. . 8. 14. 7. 3. c. 4. 13. 11. 4 34. 55. 10.3. 7f solution. $. 25. i. 4.. Page 240. 2n. 1.4. '>. . . in. 3.  . 39. 12. . 4. . 2. 15. 12. . $46. 0. . 15. 1.. 24. 40 25 in. 8. 4. Page 241. 3. . 1 . 512. 15. 1. 125 125. 11. 20 in. 1 . 5. GO . 8. . 1. no co .0.. }. 2 2. Page 247. 3. 8 3. 15. 3 . 12 d. 2. . 38. 4. 4. 2. (>. 4.y. 11. 3. J. 20 7. 16. f*. 18. 1. 3. 3. ( 3. in. } .. . 5 cm.e. ^~2. 1. 12ft. ft. 1. 2 Y> V .xxvi Page 237. J. 3. 201.
4. .^ 448 x a' 3 /') .192. 8. Page 259.0. 2. JSg.120. 28. .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 12. 17. 1. 27. 6. 81. 343. 7. 20. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 11. 8. 19. 75. 17. 8 .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 4. 15.4 &z x>&. 6. 12.8. 5. 44.v Page 253.4. 0. 6. 5. 3. 35. Page 258. 100. 7. 4. 3.<2 4. 7 x4 17. 70. **+. 21. i 10. 8 4x' 2 . 1. 9. 48. 10. 7. 10. 20. 0.r* 4 70 . 13. 3. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 17. ^a 8. Y11. 20. 0. . 15. } $ 50. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 10. 8. 1. 8. />*. 304. 1 7 4. 43. 11.13. (). Ja. 10 14. 29. 6.504. 5. 3. . 2. 0.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 125.2 45 a 8 /). and 1. . 105. 4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. sq. a. 7 2 x 4 x8 . . \ w 4 . 1. 6. 7.ANSWERS Page 250. 6. 3. 0. 3. . . 21. 0.  20 flW. 8. . 5. 343. 4. 8 1. 3. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 04. 16.  17. 04. 5. 405. 5. 7. 35. 125. 22. 5 13.r x>/ 7 3. Page 252.920. r 5 4. 7. G. 32. 4. 12. 0. 2.12 x*y 16. 4. 27. 9.3 ays. 45. ?/i 6 x llj . 13. 9. 4. 15.2 9. 2. in. 15. 4. '23. 9. 2. REVIEW EXERCISE . 1000 aW. 27. 910. 3. 16. 192.680. 26. . x4 . 280 53. 16.170. 16. 5. 128. 1.6 . 1.419. x + Vy. 12. 3. Page 254. B . 27.53. 45 Page 257. 2.700. 10. x r 4. d. 12. 19. 1820. 16. 18. 4.210. . 19. 1. 0. xxvii 1. 6. 3.1. . .5y 4 . 7. 6. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 18. 05. 11. 410. 6i. 16. ~v 9. 5. 22. 18.870 m*n*. 0. 8. 2i* 7f. <. 8. 1. 2. 4. Jj? 45.5 x.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 5. 8. 3. 4. 9. 50. A. 005. 10. 1JH. 2.r 4.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 1 14. 16. 2. ' 1. 23. 10. 18.470. 120 aW. 5.^ ?>i 2412x4. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8J. 13. w9  8. 55. 4. 3. 220 .7 10. . 16 11. 4. vy. 1. 7.x' 10 . 12. 15. 14. ~ an . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .6. f y 8 + z* . 4 0.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 1. 70. 1. 327. 45. 2. r r j. 3. 495. 70. 8. 4. 53. 8. 5. 12. 2. J 2 //2 25. 708. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 6. 9.384. 4950 M 2 b y *. 2. &' 14. 2.  101. 12. a4 4 14. . 4. I.5.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. c. 25.5. .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 4.
38.18 x?/0.2 x^.4.18 ?/ 5x4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.. 22. a J . . 76.3 .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 26. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.6 am b\ 129.  3 x2 . a 4 . (a + ft)" 98. ft /> 78.105. 110. az 4. 80. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 9x. 9 2w 128. 124.^a .ft). 72. + z. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 100. 2 x2 4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . a~b 89.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 14 x . 36. ?/ . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . &p 84. 25. 6 8 j27 40 ab. . x 8 + x 4 68.x 51.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. f5+7.x24 73. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .  4 a3 85. 8x3 8x. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 2 x'V2 90.1. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .fee 2 4. ?/ 3. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.ac 44 aft.4. 132. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 52. 1 a"* 4 an . + 3 a?.15 4 62 x  72. t 81. 7 + 3 xf 2. 50. 0. a 3m 4.2. 63.4 ac. 43.2.a*ft 2 126.  e +/.3 a 2 '6 w 4. _55_7c 48.4 x?/2 3 4.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 93. 0. as 20. .3 b . 1 .a'2 c. 8 . 4 65.5x4. . () 2 x 33. 4 69. 88. . 4 2 . 49. 10 a 12 b.41. 27. 5x + 2y~z.7 x   15. .x.x4 + y'2 z 4. 5 42.a' 'ft 4. 70.3 aftc. 114. 6a6c. !! 71. 4 115. x' 79. 6 a2 97. x 4. ^ . . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . xyxzyz. . 2 30 . df.4. . 12 a/. .3 y. 120. 61. I 57. 10 4. 24.5 b + c . 1 + 4 xy. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 4.1w 77. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 125. x 3 41.c. /> 4 83. 5 4 4. 3~ n 4.1. 1 x 45. 40. x2 a2 1 . 16t/. Page 260. 3 36 b c . c3 4 58. 122. 64. 21. 3a~2c. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . 102.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.{ 54.9 x .1. .  + 3 x2 . + a 4. 109. 2 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 66.9 b. 37.x x*  f 2 ax 4.xxviii ANSWERS 19.6 b. 62. .c. a' 111. 3 a . 1 121. 4 ! . 4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 30.5. . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. a4 x. .y*. 2 a. +^ + ft W.1 4 jry 4 x . 2 .5 3n 4. 2 q. 2 2/' . x2 2 . x2 471x4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  12 a. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. a* 4.3 103.2 c . 4 Page 264. 0. . Page 263. . 82.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 4. 91. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 23.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 104. . 127. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. x } 4.4 x y 87. 118.x 2 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 4 fee 4. 39. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.a.a6 2 4. . x8 x2 55.4 2 4 c2 42 .2 x 4. ft2ft 4 4l. * 60. 107. 130. 86. x 8  a8 . 28. 4ft y3.  .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. a2 2 aft 2 2.rty x2 4 123. .3 x 2 + 3 x . 94. 99. .2. 16. 2 . x* . 13 + 2 s. ft n . x . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 131.4. 133. 46. 12 x. 29. 105. a* a 8 a aftc. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 31. 3a'2 Page 261. .4 x 2 .7. 4 .c 3 4. 4 15 x 5 . 35. x 3 4. m " + n + P3c . ?> . x 2 . 3 c . 243x4729. 32. 96. 3 a 44.3 a'ft. y 4 z* 0. x' . 2 x2 108.a 2 x 2a . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 6 c 47. x4 f + 23 . . . 5x 2 2x43.1. 2 53. 3 a 5 a 5. 2 113.
y)(jc + 7 y). 1. 136. (7 c 2 ). 226. (2a + l)(a .3) (2/3y). 3. 24. 182. 160. 206. 2. 143. 12. y3. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 149. 30 + xyr. . (3x  . (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 12 yr. 147. (5 x .6 . 22. (a& 192.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).2 )(x+y) 228. 239.r . 168. 15. (a} 59. 187. 2(x8)(x3). + 7)(rt4).ANSWEKti 135. (a 2 + 2a6. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). m. 15  a. 238. 167. 137. 191. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 138. 170.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 3(x . (6) 40. yr. 195. 21. 37 1. + 22). 155. (233). 235. 210. 171. 199. 18. 190. (x .3). (x + 2)(x . 237. 207. (y  17)(y + (>). 177. 8 204. 146. 12) (j. + 11) (a 10). 2^. 19. 10 ft. 153. 1. 233. 32 h. 150. 30 yr. 163.2. . y 245. 23 18. 1.l)(a 2 +3). y  y 165. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 224. 186.y). 159. fc'2a+62c). x(x + 6) 213. 144. 162. 175. z(x10)(xl). 6. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). Or (a + 2)0el). 152. (x^ + x1) 234. 36ft. (y7)(y + 188. (ab + 8) ( 7). 1.y) (\r3y). (?/+l)(yl). 219. 222.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 2 xy(3 x .2).2). (r7y)(ai.. 212.y)(z . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 169. 1. HI. 197.y + 3)(r (.1). + 2) + 9a. . 231. 12 yr. 140. 7. 148.3 y). 50.9)(xf 2). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. Page 266. 3. Iff 145. 173. 164. 185. 1. G7. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).l)(y + 1). 241. (x 227. (.1). 184. 30. aft.y2 ). (2 198. (xyX^+y" )1 243. a.  1.l)(x8 + x2 . 201. 181. 5. (7x2//) 203. 10). (x + 6)(x6).2ac + 229. 40 yr. 2a(42ft)(2fo). . k. as 194.1). 216.I2y). (r^x + 1).m)(x + a). (3x2?/)(2. 209.r + 4). (y 7f))(y 196. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 157. 183.2) (3 x .1(5) 200. (x  42 yr. (y _ ft)(y 4. y. xxix 139.4xl).. + y. a + 2x2 ). (c) 160 C. . 2 2 (a. 215. 1. 158. 217. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 180. p. C3 y _l)(.3. 218. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 75. 236. 156. . 178. 20. 247. 142. 189. 10. 8(ar}(/)27). 240. 161. 12 6 panes. 6)./_4). 172. 1. 220. 20. Page 265. + 3). ?. 2 (4 x . Page 267. 4. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 218. 211. 4. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 179.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 208. 12. ft. (y_24)(y5). (JT y 225.. 154. 205. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). r>x 2 (4x. 214. + 3) (x f f>) . 193.. 6. (/ 246. (8x + 3)(3x4). 10 in. 48 h. 2. . 232. 166.6)(4 + 6). a 2 (15. 15.3 y)(a .6) (2 x + 1). 174. 202. 2. 151. 2. +)(x2 x^+2. 230. p. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 244. 2. a(a. 147 mi. 176. 10).
10. 3  262.^ ^^. 263. + f. 43 '^rJ'. x 267. 298. 2. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 266. 4 5.4) 1) (3 x .  3xyf x// 257. 260. 279. x ?/ z 1.1. 2 x  3. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 259. o. (7 255. 264.^^^^^^^^. > 4. 268. 303.  7. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 295. 0. x12. 250.   . o(x4l). (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 3.. 2 4 300. 3). 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 251.2* i^^ !^. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.(x  4) (x4 304. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ^/>J. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . a~ ' b*). 305.4). x 283. 249. 7 x 265. 7^T 2 . 301. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. *>). 0. a. 5. 310. 258. 3). ? 1) 302. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . *. 306. 261. x . ^ 299. 254. 256. 269. 307. &). ?^ZLiZ 308. 7.
J . 20. 2 327. + x 362. 339.(5 a . 408. 4. 395. + 4 & 4 \ b. 7/i ^ _ . 390. 4. ?/ + 3 332. 360. 2. 0. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. l'j. . 388. 334. 355.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 387. L . If. 0. 405. 3. _*L'L+. 1.)Cr4)__ . 3. . . 12. 365. 406. ^_:r f> 331. 394. (a + b + c\ . 400. 366. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. j 328. 329.vin a /r " 337. 386. T\. 9^. 2(a i 403. 1. * 357. " 4 378. Page 277. 392.  1 356. 2 ). 4 A. 385. .1. 343 00 351. .3. x 54 359. 6 ?/+:>. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. a 2 . + 335. . ab. 11.!. 2 r36 384. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. a) A^_.7. A^L5L. 325. T+^. 376. 13 391. 382. ^ 3 // .XXXI Page 272. 401. 379. 333. 1. a +6. ^"" 4 s .H ' 2wi ^' /' . 0. 4 rw. 380. 1. 396. 7. a + b + 6). 2.  1. y 4 I 340. m. S. 398. 2 ?/ 363. 1 i 2 ^. 2(q. 377. Page 274. 361.". 326. 407. 364. ?>*. 6a. <L 409. ?=. 397. 389. 1. 393. 2 ab  a Page 276. 399. 0. 336. 324. c 402. 3. 404. 370. 375. l .. 383.. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). f.
$2000 at 0%. 7. 2. . 8. 7. 32 yr. 483. 494. i. I. z8 +?/ 3 431.. 2. 448. 444.. 503. 427. 0.  2f 504. 5. . 454.55.rz Page 279.4. 429. + () 433. 425. 32. \ 1. 484.0. 499. 498. 10. 33. 1. A 5 mi . 5. 492.3. 7. 487. ^.1. fj. 493. a 22 . 2. 500.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 2. 2 a 2. 42. . 0.46. 495. 5. 446. L (c) I. fc. (d) true. . 20. 3 . & 491.  7. . A $ 3500. 2. 3. 466. 40. 507. 423. 7. 17. 461. 6.0. m. 0. a + + ft c. 90. 84. 497. 5. Page283.}. c. 428. 421. 452. 410. 8.  2. 447. . . (&) 443.  505. 439. 506. 481.vz in. 10. 1.. ISjmi. 462.7. ^r?i 434.  2. 22. B $ 2500. 436.3. . 490. Page 282. 411. * .  7. 4. 20 yr. 502.  2. L2 a  6 . (a  c). 24 days. 1. 0. 486. 10. 463. ISJini. 0. 50. 53 yr.  10.4. 496. 2$. 10. 472. 3a 4 5. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 14 miles. 460.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. i a b 451. 2 438.7. 456. B 4 mi.2. 422. 501. a* 424. .7. 12. (a) 1. 508.te + . 6. 7 : . 413. 480. 28 yr. 6. : />a. 0. 6. 2. not true. 426. 1. 40 oz. 3. 435.. 5J. 8..  1. (c) not true. 1$.  f>. 17.12. . 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0.2. 482. 432. />c c(f be. 479. 18. 477. 0. 2. \. 10$. 6. . 445. 10. 412. (d  6) f.7. 476. 3.  1. 1 a /?$+&?. ^V.7. 442. !L=4. 8. *+. 420. 2.  . 2. 440. 10. 11. 467. Page 281. . 9.488. '. 5. 450. 51. 418. . m 1 : wi.  453. 441. 457. <L+ 6 (. 465. 419. . 4. 21. 4. Page 280..}. 6. . c 6fc 10. 4. 478. . 458. ' $260 at 0%. 7.489. b 449. .5. ft 5. 2. (&) true. . 459. 430. . 455. 468. 485. 10. Page 278. 1. 5.m  m+ M in. 63. 6. 464.
S82 c. 3. T . 561. 3. 512. 527. 2. 2$. (/)  10 to 8.0. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . f.6. 536.3. . 2 . . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.02. 514.0. 4 mi. 573.8.  J(a f + 2c). <z ft 1. Roots imaginary.21. 1. + 12 x . y 4.38. 599. 579. 2 1. 564. 3.5. .6.31. 1J. 566. 2 1. 533.03. (i) 3.8. 2.3. 516.  + + c.5. 598. . 4. 3. If 572. J7] min. 2 10. 582. . .12. 530. 5.4 x + .35. 562. 1.37.. 551. 591. 7^ da.31. 576. . 232. .53.  7.. (ft) 4.  imag. . 24 da. 1 . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. . a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 2. 1.9.r8 596. 2 imag.02. 2. Page 288. imag. 567. 529. 1$. (a) 74 Ib. H. 1. (gr) 10 1.30.5. 1. 559. 2 2. a+ Page 286.15. . 4. 3 da.33.  (a) (d) 1. f36a28x8 592.0. 4.54.24.04. 1 600. a + ft  a  f c. . . 553. 565. 593. 6435. 515. 1. 2(4 602.  2. 7.78. 24.f 1. 1.24 sec. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .4.  2ft da. 1. 575. 2(6 597. (ft) Ill Ib. (d) 537. 525. o> . 1 580. 3 . 3f 4f. per hour.04. 3. 1.20. ft 584.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.05. 555. 578. 5. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 571. da. + 26 + .  3.4.55.6 2. 1. (e) (c) 2.5 f. 2.4. . 603. .  ft*. (6) . 528.8. 2 .3. . 4.  557. lead. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.8.15.10. 0000. 4* da. f. 6.6. 1. 1.3.73.xj/ f xV . 5. ^ ft 4. tin.83. (e) 570. 8 mi. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 563.02.3. 581.   (h) 8.7.  1. 1.5. 552.0. 2. . .75. 1. 509. 1 .25m. . 0. f ? a f ft __ + c C). . 1.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . > ^ . 3. 4. x8 . 560. M ft c 2 ft 3465. .4.1. y% Z * 586. 1. 40 Ib. 568. 8. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 569.  (a) 2. (c) 4.1. 6.5+. 3. 4. xxxin 511.1. 1. a f ft + c. _ 3.16.75. 3._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. _^ 2754x .10. 1.54.88.7. 532.56 sec. 526.4.15. 3. .24.62. g(rc+ 6c). 31. 556. 4 0. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605..5. 27 y* f\4 . tin. 3. 3.62. (c) 3.52.ANSWERS Page 284.1. 115 Ib. 3.  . 513.78.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 2.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.. 1.00. + 6 tf f 3 . 3.8 x3^.1.1.6. 574.3.14. 4..83. . or 8. 14. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.  4. 531. (6) 3.% rr\* 585. 558. 2.02. 21*_. Page 285. 2.51. .3. 1. .3. per hr. 583. _ 4. 1. 4.37.4. 5. . 3.7. 510.03. 577. .25. 554. 518. 1. . 550.2. Page 287. lead. 4.
f 3 V^3). . x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 1. . ix 2 . 666. 638. (*_ + a: 611. 644. 5.001.>A 610.. 642. 5. 632. 13. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. If. 14. 7. 608. .001. 1 2. 623. b . a. ^^ 695. 630.  2f r 659. 9*. 1. 4. 700. 1010. 4330 da. 1 V5 1. 648. 8 f 3. 1. 12. + 2 A (i f Page 291. fe + a. (a3&45rj.b. 620. Page 289. 2 a: 4. if 4/> 671. 0. ' fe 2 ). 2. 11.43^4.303. . 696.0. 615. 621. 4 676. 624. If 665. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 643.049. 6.3. 708. ab. 618. 703. 647. . V7. 0. 651. 625. l/'3. 655. c. a + b. 8 6 fo . 2. a 673.  ft. 2 / 2 4. 8. 633. 50. I}'/. 640. 702. \.  4. 703. 2f. <T! . . b. . 631. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.  1. 635. 1. z  1. 661. 677 680. 636. 613. 4 V 0. 612. 78. 2 a  6*. 2 a 688. 4$. V2. 6 685. ^ 1. 3. 3. 672.04. If 658. 3 x2 .  a2  a (ab).. 10. . 2. 690.  6. 641. 2. 650. If . 2f. be ac \. 971. 629. y  619. 626. 678< 682. 2 ab + a  &. a 1J.3. 698. 627. 3 a. If b. . a ' 2 + . 4. . 657. 7. . 1m*. 2&). 617. 652. ' 674. 645. 2092. 2. i. 009. a 4. 669. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. V2. J^^. . 210. a 2.  4. 656. 25. 660. n^l +^. 614. 0.  .702. 691. 653. 628. K 5 2 V2. If f 667. 11. 7003. 5002.XX XIV 606. 679.3. 1 ~a . 1 704.25. 2. 616.203. ^. + ~^'2 + a 1.14 If 1. 637. b 664. la6 2. 646.a~ {Z 663. 5. 5 3. 649. fta a/> ^A. 701.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.002.b 686.  684. 2.3f l 668. 662. 4.3. 0. 2. 706. 622.y. 0.  13. 3 681. 9. o. V^~3). 6.c ) 697. . 654. 4.2f Page 290. V"^TJ. 692. 3. ^.2f (5 4. 670. 2. 607. / V^+lO^M"^.  3. 1$ 639. 2 x 44 ^/. 634. 25. ft). ab 689. 0. /> 4. 5. 898. 683. . 705. \+ab 699.
724. 751. 3. 59. 736. 5. 737.~ . 24. 755.^ 743. 725. T%. ^ ?>. . 712. . iv/Jj.V2. j 742. 753. 711. v'll. 788.1 .. 300. VIO\/3. 713. x i f^' . 30\/10 764. Hi a. x\y. VT14V5. 728. 47. r. ^7xy. 794. 769. rt3 2 ^i^. . a 2  x2 . Page 293. 732. 756. 342V3. fyaw&cu. VV> L4V34.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 777.^.. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 17ft.257. 782 785. 746. 15 shares.r+y> 759.2. 24V2. 1. 773. 718.. 2x3^ a. cr*lr*. 2 V2 . / 787. 00. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. y  1.. 733. 767. v/7 / . 39. 738.10. 727. 3V72V3. 3 VlT 795. 715. 2\/53V2. i^. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 5. 1 [ + '> J. 778. a 2 6^. + < 735. 1. 7  3V5.9. 24 4 . 722. 32>/2. 758. + 6 2 tf'c. . 731. ^ . 750. 29\/3.9.8. a".4 . 1^ _ 760. 734. 740. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 1 747. 1 I . 716. > 748. 1 752. 796. 723. 717. 8. i 2. a db Va^T < 45da.rJ w L 754. 3^. 33^2. 763. 3V7. 4 104 v/2. . 768. 749. 721. 3V52V3. 25.11. 710. 3 720. 8. 739. 714. a:* . Page 294. 1.ANSWMHti Page 292.V/^ 741. 719.4 . J(v'lO2V 791. 3V72VO. 776. 13ft.r.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. mn. 726. 789. 729. 34.12 af V^ 4 744. 790 2v 3v 2. 709. a 5 . 792. "V313. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 730. 793.
o.7).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (a 1) (x 4. 879. 4 818. . 892. 2 (x 4*4.7 4 1) 846. 824. 4 885.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).1) . \/5. 816. jV3 f 3.l)(x . 841. 5.a 4 + 1). 2.2w . 825. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 800.4. (2 a . 799. 3. 857.l)(x + 2).3)(x + 4). 833. m = 2. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).l)(x . 8 09. 820. 25. 835.r4). 896. . 2.7.3. 1.f. 861. 4. Hoots . 3. 8.y) 852. 2 .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 867.5 b) 4 1).  + l(l^).1)(0 865. db 7. Page 297. 830.7). 894. (4 c 4. (xl)(^~3)(. 48. 4. 6+V7. + d)*.1). 2. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 17. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).4) 860. 844. 843. a(ry + 864. ^. (2x (r. 881. Va. **. 810. 882. (a m . Hoots are extraneous. 858. . 2. 3.4. (2 4. 2 . V 3. . 812. 2. . 1. 5. a 42)(x . . 10. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 890.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.  tt 815. \/2. 822. 823. 3 . x . 7.. b' 2 821. are extraneous. 2. a* 4. 808. 2. 4. 0. (x . n =  29.rae) (4 . 887. J V. 827. . ) (a' 874.. 3. (. 1. 2 m . (x 2 . $. 7. 876. m 875. 826. 23. $. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 4. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 888. (3 b . 2 j 889. 1C. 3. 804. Va 803.l)(x + 3)(2x43). .  1. 849. 831. 883. a(ft)( 873. X4 1). 19. 900. 8./>") (a'. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . H. .XXXVI 797. 4 . 898. 6. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 4. (x 845. 5.5) (x + * 853.0. 5. 6. 1.+ m f ") (a* ). 863. 886. 880. 832. (x 2 f r . 801. ^ V}. ^VG. Page 296. . 6.a 3 " 4. . 895.a 2 2 ). 4.2 ax 4. ( 4 4. 2.1)(V 2 . 7. +j!>. f. 834.. 5. 20). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 811. 11. (x3). 0. 5). 1 . 859. (x . 1 1. 2. 2. 4. 4. (1 . 884. (x + 0X024. 814. 3.7)(4 x. 13. 899. 891. 847.1. 837. 0. 11. 4. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3. a2 ^E*!. 842. 2 806. 817. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 2 . 893. 819. 0. 6(a6)(o a + + &). (:r 11. 4.1) (a 8 . (x 4. ((' 1). 4. 840. 2 854. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . o 828.25 ?>2).  839. 838. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (2 x + 3 y} . 3. 872. 813. 7.3. 1.r . 2/ 856. ( 869.10 ab 4. 897. 836. 868. (x*y*ryz + z*). 848. (a 4 871. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. . 17. ANSWERS 798.2) (x 4 2). 6 $. 14. (3 862. 2 2 .  ' . 851.om 441) (a 855. 2 *x 807. 3. 2  2. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 829. x. .
7 or 30. dL 4. 3.709... 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 6 . 2. f ft 4 . 984. . 936. 1 _2 .760 sq. 2. 2. 0. 10... 6 a 915. ft. Page 302. r ft ' < Page 299. 944. 4 in. 3. 955. . 932. 8.446. 4. i>. . 28.  26j. 2. 8.. 923. 935. 60 949. 0. 7. 28. 964.2. 912. 0..1 = 9. 1. 978.. T3. . 977. 56. 8 . 2. 0. . 7. a + . Va926. 940..01. 111. 10. J(_ ft. V^3). 4. f. 73. =F J. 956.. . 4.744..1. '3 3 in. 12 mi. 911. 4 6 mi. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 8. 2 1. 5. 6. . . ft.111. ft. 15 946. 6. 11. 5. 908.. 100 rows.. 280. 4. 925. 6. 5. 919. Y. i(6 in. 903. 941. 7. 9 in. 958.1. 1 1. 18. 985. 12 in. 4 . ^y. v/(ai !)(&910. 2. 939. w 3.. 4.2. i 3. 15 16 ft. 3. %* . 115. 952. 922. 943. ft. 4. 2 i ' a V. 906. 6. 4. . 4. ?/i 6. 6. 980. 1). 8. 909. 960. 986. 2. 902. 66 924. 496. 1. 8. . 947. 3. a. Page 300. 248. . 921. 937. 11. 951. 3 . . V5 fj. 979. 934.073. 981. 6.0. w. T 6. ft. S07. 963. . 28. 918. 933. 8. 11. . J. 12. ft. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 942. 8128. 957. 2 w 914. 4. V5 T 2 . 1 . 108. 905. tt2 19. . 2. 40 16 in. i1" 913. 6 da. 959. 916. 7./hr. 5 . 3).V~~3). 333. 2. 904. i 8. 5l4f. 931. Page 303. 6. 5. 14 . 6 1 1. 950. Z ^. T 6.  1 .' ifcVira^ 2 3.615. 3. 2. 983. Page 301. 12. 1 2. ft. 11. 954. 5. 329. 1. 3. 3 4 . ft. 948. 982. 3. 2 yd. 4. 8. 480 8 sq. 8. 80.I. 20 19 ft. 962. 2 ft. $(l 4..ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 945. 333. 938. 1 + V953. J. 930.. . 927. .  1. 987. . . 961. 917. 7 ft. yd. 12.651. 920. .
" 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.18. 1019. r = 2. 6 70 . 993. 2(2 v/2). 4 and 1020. 9 da. 995. (5.870 a 6 1011. 996.  5&7 1021. 1012. () 12(2+V3). 1009. 1007. 1 1004. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 120 a. 1016. in. 1018. 12. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1008.. 4. 48. 1013. ^f (2f3V2). 1003. 162. 1001. 994.92. (6) 8(1 . 192. 24. + 448 . 988. ^Trsq. . 990.378 1015. 1006. Page 305.378 <W and 92. 108. 1017. 2 . 72. (Z>) 999.192rt?)r 120 *. 120 i^l^. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1010. . 992. X.128 I. 32 13 (tx 4V3.'^^ } ( .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 997. 1000. 12.. ~ \. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1 8 8 2. 3003.870 z8 . . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1014. 991.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .51. 1005. 8. 0. + v 2). (J. 1(5. 0. Page 304. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .
very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1. xi 4 373 pages.25 lamo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. save Inequalities. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HEW TOSS . and commercial life. Ph. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. than by the . especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. A examples are taken from geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. The more important subjects tions. given. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. so that the Logarithms. comparatively few methods are heretofore. xiv+563 pages. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. i2mo. etc. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather.D. great many work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. physics.
physics. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Ph. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW YOKE . In Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. save Inequalities. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. so that the tions. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HatF leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xiv+56a pages. etc.D. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and commercial life. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. 12010. xi f 373 pages. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. Logarithms. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.25 i2mo. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. great many A examples are taken from geometry. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. comparatively few methods are given.
Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. State: .10 L. Attention is invited to the following important features I. SCHULTZE. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Ph. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages.r and. lines. 10. 4. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. These are introduced from the beginning 3. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. $1. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. $1. 6. izmo. iamo.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. . more than 1200 in number in 2. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. aoo pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Cloth. Cloth. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. xii + 233 pages. i2mo. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. under the heading Remarks". Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 7 he . wor. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Half leather. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 9.D. SEVENOAK.
12mo. $1. . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. of these theoretical views." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. 370 pages. and not from the information that it imparts. New York City. . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .
Topics. Maps. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. Cloth. i2mo. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. " This volume etc. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . diagrams. and a full index are provided. diagrams. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.
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