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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD. . OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
.A. 1910. U. May.COPYRIGHT. 1915. 1917. July.S. 1916.' February. Norwood. May. J. January. . September. Reprinted 1913. 8. Cushlng Co. Mass. Berwick & Smith Co. IQJS January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . August. September. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1910. . 1910 . 1911.
and conse . Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Such a large number of methods. are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. however.. owing has certain distinctive features. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. etc. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition." this book. Elementary Algebra. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. manufactured for this purpose. specially 2.
a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . two negative numbers. especially problems and factoring.g. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. as quadratic equations and graphs.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. In regard to some other features of the book. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. hence either book 4. are placed early in the course. etc. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. For the more ambitious student. Moreover. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. e.
physics. in " geometry . but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform." Applications taken from geometry. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. is based principally upon the alge . viz. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. Moreover. By studying proportions during the first year's work. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. elementary way. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and commercial are numerous.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. such examples.
William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. April. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. NEW YORK. edge of physics. 1910. .
.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. SUBTRACTION....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. .. ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... Powers........
Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Type V.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..... . .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type VI.. Type III. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . /^ . Type II. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Type IV. Type Polynomials. * .114 . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. ...
.CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. ..... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ......... Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XIV 169 . . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
d 7. 5Vl6c. since the parts are a . 6. x 9. V3 . or 9 Vx. 2. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 16. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 11. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. + c). c = 1. are trinomials. V2a. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 4(a 6(6 + &). a2 + and   \/a are binomials. aVc^. (cfd) 4. 9. V^a6. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. !^f\/03 3 ft. a polynomial of two terms. A binomial is 62 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). some number is . b = 3. v'Ta. 10. 7 = 2. 17. is 28. 4V3~6c. Val \fi?. 12. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 14. 0. find the numerical value of: Vff. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 15. [6c] 3 . e. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 26. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. c f d). + 1]. 6.g. 8. V36". \/c. 27. 2 . 3. 13. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. as in arithmetic.
. 5c +d 2 .390. find the numerical value of: 9. 12.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 1. 6. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. i. b = 3. 16. 2. subtraction. (a (a f b) 7. 14. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5=3. Ex.2 + I126. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.810 + 150 = . Ex. 2 ). 5.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.5 ax 50 a6cd.30 = 270 . EXERCISE 8*  . a2 11. 6. 4 . Otherwise operations of addition. + 26+3 c. multiplication. 10. c=l.e.g. .. 2.99.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a 2 6. * For additional examples see page 268. d=Q. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 3.19 = 6. 3a + 56 a 2 . 5.9. 3 4 . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 4a6fVaV2^. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.INTRODUCTION 29. d = 0. c = 2. l 13. __ E. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 3 2 If 1. 4.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a=4. x=^. 8. . 52 .9 aWc + f a b . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.4 6^9 ad. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .
6 = 3. 6=2. 34. Express in algebraic symbols 31. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. = 3. 6 = 6. physics. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s.c) (a . 38. a = 4. Six 2 .6 . a a=3. a = 3. 35. Read the expressions of Exs. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 30. a = 4. 37. 29. 6 = 4. 6 = 2. if : a = 2. 24. 6 = 5. 6 = 1. a =3. 28. : 6. 6 = 6. 26. 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). 30. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6. and other sciences. 23. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. a = 2. 22. a = 3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. sible to state Ex. geometry. 6 = 5. a. a =4. 25. 6 = 7. Six times a plus 4 times 32. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 26 of the exercise. 27. 33.
b 14.seconds. . (c) 4. the area of the triangle equals feet. 12. c. Find the height of the tree.16 centimeters per second. 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and 15 feet. i. (b) 5.e. b.) Assuming g . if v .INTRODUCTION E. An electric car in 40 seconds. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 84 square EXERCISE 1.g. d. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and c 13 and 15 = = = . if v : a. 2. 14. 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. and 5 feet.16 1 = 84. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. and 13 inches. A train in 4 hours. if v = 30 miles per hour. 15 therefore feet.
to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. meters. square units (square inches. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. ~ 7n cubic feet. the area etc. .) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. This number cannot be expressed exactly. If the (b) 1 inch.). $ = 3. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14d (square units). 2 inches. (c) 5 miles. 5.). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. (c) 8000 miles. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 32 F. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the 3.14 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 square meters. (c) 5 F. (The number 3. is H 2 units of length (inches.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 10 feet. : 8000 miles.
While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. . or positive and negative numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however.
lf(2). of: 20. (_ In Exs.  0. the one third their sum. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. + 12. 23. 6 6 = 3. 33. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. is 2. c = 4. is 0. 5. 24. 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. of 2.3. 12. d = 5. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 4 is 3 J. 10. c = = 5. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 21. = 5. 19.16 32. 2326. . 22. + (9). '. subtract their absolute values and . Thus. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. (17) 15 + (14). if : a a = 2. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 5. d = 0. 18.
c = 0. 10. 13. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 32.. & = 15. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. \\ Add 2 a. and 4. and 3 a. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 2. 2. or and . 38. 55. . & 28. 25. 33. . 1..ADDITION. and 3 a. 31. $3000 gain. 72. and 3 F. and $4500 gain. 6. 10. . 6.3. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. and 3 yards. = 23.5. 66. . d= 3. . 3.13. 40. 4. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 7 a. 32. 0. $7000 gain.5. . which are not similar. 7 yards. 43. 7 a. 30. 42. $500 loss. 35. 5 and 12.. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 12. SUBTRACTION. 39. : and 1. ' Find the average of the following 34. are similar terms. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 4 F. . : 34. sets of numbers: 13. ^ ' 37. $1000 loss. = 13.7. c=14. 11 (Centigrade). 41. and 8 F. 37. 10. 09. 29. 74. = 22. 60. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 34. 6. : 48. }/ Add 2 a. . Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. affected by the same exponents. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 27. ' 1? a 26.7. 3 and 25. 36. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.4.
Vm f. 5l 3(af6). b a f ( 6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 10.13 rap 25 rap 2. 12 2 wp2 . 12Vmfn. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 2(af &). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. Algebraic sum. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. EXERCISE Add: 1. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only.18 35. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The sum x 2 and f x2 . or a 6. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. f 4 a2. 3a . 9(af6). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. : 2 a2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2 a&. + 6 af . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 5 a2 . 12(af b) 12. 13. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 5Vm + w. . 14 . 2 .sign.ii. 7 rap2.
n x* 2 22. 6 23. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. SUBTRACTION. 2/ : Add. 33. is . 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 32. ra 19. c 2 ^24. 21. + / + 3 Va. 2 7 1 26. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. without finding the value of each term 34. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 36. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 17. 30. and to add each column.ADDITION. a a8 ZL **. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. l^S 25. 37. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 1 27. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 2 2 31. 35. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. +m """ 20. + y.
15 6c. 4 = 7. = . e.o c and 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. to show any error. f 110WS: 26 aft.c= 2. to add 26 ab . V3. .41 = 3.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 2 025.12 a& 4. NOTE. 3a 2? .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.20 c 5 ab 4. 4 2. 3 a f 4 1) 4.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.8 abc . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . and J 2 s. 5. 46 4z 7 c. c = 1. 2 Thus. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2 Sum. of that letter. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. therefore the answer is correct. s. 2 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . a 4. 5 . 2c. the erroneous answer equal 7. and 2 . 7 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 6=2. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.g.7 2 .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. x of x. 3.g. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. ft any convenient and c.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.15 abc . 9 q 4.3 s. .
v/20. 2 3(c f a). 3 2 2 3 9 . in 8 3 m n 4. 4 Vc. a 4 a .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. + 50 + 62 .12(a 4. and 5 Vb 18. 56 w.7m . 2 ?/.1. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. and . 8. . and v 15.(b + c) 1. ^2 1 e. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 2 ?ft ?/z. a + 1> 8 2 2 .a.4 Va . . 16e + 17/90.5 cr& + 7 6 9.10 Vc. xy3xz + yz. . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .2n 2 2 3 rz . 4. d.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. a2 a. + a + 1. 4 ajy 17. m 4 6. 4 3 .ADDITION. 2 2 .9(a + &) . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. and 8 3 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 7ar + 3B 5. 2 and 9m 48m 4.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .a. 19. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. and and 13. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .12.12 6 ~5 a .a . 2 2 and . 4(a . . . a) y ^/. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .VS 4 2 Vc. . a 4 a .a 4 a 4 1. 16. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.and 6.4:xy xz 6yz. 4 8 3 4 4 . . a2 2 14. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.8 m 2m 12. 2 a. e a4 /. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 18/+6y + d. a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . and 1 4 a . 11. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.5a^6 f 6) .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.6. d and / 3 ? 12. . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).Ga 43x45.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . ?/ . .1 a 4 1 0.7v/if. and 12a 4 15& 20c . SUBTRACTION.15 5.
16m 7/12my d+e a 6. f 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. 45a6 2 . 8 . + 1.3^* 2n 2 . s .m 4m ?/?/ d. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1. how 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. a 6 2 c. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 22. + n*. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. many negative units re main ? from 2. The sum and ? 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.22 21. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . c 3 3 3 2 3 . f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. f number may be added 3. 13 1. 1. and e + 6y .ra + m.11 xy + 12. 1. . is 2.. 12 xyz. and 2 24. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .9aj 2. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.4 2tn* Sic 2 . . +d a. 1/ . T8a. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2 8 n + <w 2 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 6 f c 2 23. and 25. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.
This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract to . ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. the other number is required. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. the given number the subtrahend. Or in symbols. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 5 is 2. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. NOTE. +b 3. 41. called the minvend. From 5 subtract + 3. SUBTRACTION. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 3.2. 1. two numbers are given. Therefore any example in subtraction different . a. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. and their algebraic sum is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. from What 3.ADDITION. and the required number the difference.g. if x Ex. 2. Ex. 6 (3) = 8. ( 6) ( = . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.3. To subtract. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 7. In addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. In subtraction. ab = x. .
5 x + 8.f 8 .3 x* .3 r*5o. Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .
96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From 2 a take a & j. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 43. 53. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 2.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.2. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.a 2 j. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 57.c.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. . 46.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. check the answer. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 44. 48. 52. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2y 2 .4 a*& + 6 a & .4 a^ 4. of a 4. + a the 2 a. 56. 54.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 6 4 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 41. 51. 42. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 58. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .w>t.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 6(af. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.6)f. 55. 47. tract 4 x 3. 49. 45. c f d. and 3 7/ .7 a . 50.
Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a 2y + z. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. of # 2 8.26 4. subtract # + 1. 6 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +a add the difference duce 13. 16. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.15. + 6 + c. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 19. 2 m 21. 20. 9. A is n years old. + 2. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a a + c. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a + 6.
we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Ex. 45.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.a^6)]  } . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.2 b . 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. a+(bc) = a +b . one occurring within the other.ADDITION. II. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.g. 46. changed. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c. .b c = a a & f f. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. & f c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. I. SUBTRACTION.6 b f (. the sign is understood.c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.
: x + (2yz). ? 11. 271 + (814 . 16. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.)]. 17. 2 2a. 21. 3 3 f 7. 18. By removing parentheses. . 2 2 2 a(. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 3. m f ft) a.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. + (2a 6 + c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6. 4. 15. a f (a a .7i h jp) (m ?*. 6) 2.+ 6)f (a2 b). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). [36+ (a 2c].1422) J ] . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 13. 2a (4a 26 +c ). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].(a + 6). 14. 9.) 5 . Signs of aggregation 1. a (a + 26 c ).: Ex. 2. a (a + 6). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 5. 19. Ex.y (60. (m a2 f. may be inserted according to 43.[271 47. 8. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.
8.2 tf . 10. y f 8 . The sum^)f m and n. 3. 2.1. 7. m x 2 4. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. first. p + q + rs. The product The product m and n. a\l> > c + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 2mn + 2q3t. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 12. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The square of the difference of a and b. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. II. . difference of the cubes of n and m. SUBTRACTION. 3.4 y* . terms 5. 6. 5. 13. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n.7fa. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. ' NOTE.ADDITION. and the subtrahend the second. 4. 6 diminished . 5 a2 2. 7. 5^2 _ r . z + d. )X 6. of the cubes of m and n. m and n. The difference of a and 6. 9.
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 18.) . 6 is equal to the square of b. 16. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.30 14. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. (Let a and b represent the numbers. b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6. d.
weights. 5.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 3. let us consider the and JB. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. force is produced therefore. what force is produced by the Ib. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 4. 2. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. If the two loads balance.
4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(4) = + 12. becomes meaningless if definition. Thus. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.32 8. 9 x ( 11). and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. x 11. 4 multiplied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.9) x 11. 48. however. ( (. 5x(4). ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. (. 9 9. 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 multi44444 12. or plied by 3. thus.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. (5)X4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. the multiplier is a negative number. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. NOTE.4)(. . a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.
(4J). 30. (. 19. 2a 2 6c. 6 2. the parenthesis frequently omitted.2 f+x 2 . 10. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers.2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 1.3) (1) 7 2 . find the numeri values of: 21. . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. of Signs: TJie positive. (4)X(15). and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.7.(a&c) 2 2 .4. 1. 5x3. 4 a2 . 3. (2)x9. 8. If a cal = 4a6c. about fac (2)X If 6. (7) X (12). 14. x. z s 11 aWcx. 29. (2) 8 (. 17. 20. _3. Ua b 28. 8 4 .a)( =+ a&. 7. (c#) .MULTIPLICATION 50. 6. 26. _2^ 3. 2a6 c . . 15. 11. 3 a2?/2 . 4. 23. 5. tors is no misunderstanding possible. X(5).2f 18. 3 aW. . b = 3. _2. 3. and y = 4. 9. 22. 12. .3. +5. x= 0. 27. 8 31. Law Thus. (4)'. 6. is 6x7. etc. c = 25. NOTE. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 13. 2. 16. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 24. . (10) 4 . 32. 4 .
3 3 4 . 6. fl*" integers. This 52.<?.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 10.m a 3  4 . 17. 5 3 5 3 2 . . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . . Ex. . i. 12 U U .3). 11. a = 3. 2. 2 2 2 . 2. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 16. 13.7. 3. 6 = 1. : 3a7abc.(7). 36.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 4. a = 2. 2 3 . a 2 2 . 50(112. 4.503). & = 3. a8 a=2. = 2. 53. 4. 34.  2 2..6 if 35. 9 . 2(7.. a= 1. . or 2 . 1. Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . + 2/).  and 2 25 8 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 100. 3 2 . of the factors. . =2 a *. B. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 78 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 3. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . (a6) (a5) 9. 127  127 9 7 .e.2 2 23 + 5 .2). IB. 5(711. 5 = 2. 200. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.257). 2(14. 2 2 3 6 . 6 = .35). In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. m*. 5 . 6" 127 U . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.(2. 14.(12) . 5. &*) c d*.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 6 aWc x . 7.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . By 3 definition.
6(10420430). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 2(5fl5f25). 3(124342). multiply each by the monomial. . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.2 3 aft ). . .A). ax /) 2 4 1 (.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 2. but we shall assume it for any number. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 19. 23.7 w'W (8 n^W). 11(3. 27. 20. ) 2 33. This principle. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.3 win ) . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 35. (. 25. 26.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 35 4 7(6. /).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 34. 2(645410). 31.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 24.f 2). 7p*q r*. by first multiplying. and then adding : 1.6. 29. 28. 4. 23(10004100420).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 12( + 1 4 i). 2 32. _4aft. (. . If results ft. called the distributive law. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 17(10041042). 5. 22. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.4a#. 7. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 6.7pqt. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 3. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. c(4a ftc ). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 21. .
^ c + 2 . 30.6 a6).60 a& 10 aft.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 12. 17.asa product. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Find the factors of 6 ary . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 21. 20. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .5 w*V f 7 wn). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 23. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. . By what 25. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. f7a. 19.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 22.5 x 7).3 aftc). 2 2 16.2 mn(9 mV . : expression must 24. 5). 29. 3 ). . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 11. ~2mn(m +n p ). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . be multiplied to give 4o.we b) (x law. 2 27. . . 7 a 6 c(. 2 m(mhn \p). 9. 26. 28. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.
3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. a2 + a8 + 3 . 2a3b a66 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example. however.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Multiply 2 + a a. Since all powers of 1 are 1. To multiply two polynomials. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 b by a 5 b. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Check. . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 2.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .4. Since errors. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Ex. 59.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Multiply 2 a .
* For additional examples see page 261. 36) I) 14. 35. 36. (6a~7) 2 . (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 2) (3 A: 1). I (mfn)(m4. 36). 30. 17. 6. + & + 1f a^faj 1). (8r7*)(6r39. 41. (13 A. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 5. 31. 18. 15. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 32. (6i7n)(llJn). 22. 8. 12)(a?^2l).4) (mnp 4. 1).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 11. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 13. 28.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (4a 2 33. 25. (2 x* x 2 . 2  37. 4. 2 . 3<7). 40. 9. 2 . 29. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 2. a 5c)(2a6c). (a^26) . (a 2a + 2)(a3). (2w 19. OQ OO. 4 2).4) (x + 1). . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 10. 7. (ajf6y)(aj 23. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (6p (2 f 21. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 20. QQ O7.1 . ^ 2 .2m)(l m). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 24.n)(m 8 n)(m n). . 3.2). 7y). 12. l)(raf 2). 26. 16.
e. (J 23. plus the product 62. (a3)(a + 2). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.13). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . 75 ab f 54 ft . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). in of the two unequal terms. 2) (1000 + 3). (p12)(p + ll). + 5) (1000 + 4). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (!)(* 5). + 3) (a 7). 10. 6. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 18. X 102. (ra. 2 6) (a 3 6).2 6) (a f 6). (6 12) (6 f. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 11. + 2) (a f 3). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (10+ (1000 (2. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 21. + 60)(f2). 1005x1004. (a 102 x 103. + 9)(m+9). (*.!!)( (a + 21). 15. : 23 2. 13.25)(y+4). i. 26. 8. 1) (10 + 2). (a (a (a. 27. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. i. 14. 7. 12. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). ft 16. 19. 24.e. 17. 9. 28. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (100 +2) (100 + 3). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 22. 25 a 2 . 2 a? 29. 25.4).n)(wf w). . 20. (a 9) (a + 9). _3)(a _4). 3.
2 5.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 6 a + 8. 77ie square of the of the first. (a26) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 6. i. + 3) 2 . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.66 s.e. 49 y*. of the second. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .30. .e. 35.15. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 31.e. (x+3i/) 2 . 3. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. a2 2 w + 2 w . plus the square of the second. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (a2) (p a . III. and the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 63. i. . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. plus twice the product of the first and the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 34. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 4. 32. . w 2 ro . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). <J>7) J . 7. p 2 p. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. III. n2 10ii+16. 37. 7 a + 10. second.15. 33. 9. : 24 (a 2. 8. Ex.
ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 J ). (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). n*6n+9. . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 4 53. 45. ( 27. 23. (6afy 2 5) (a. 44. 54. . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 9 a2 . 998x1002. I) 2 .998 39. m 2 16. 52. 15. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 22. . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 49. 17. 35. 29. 25 a 9. 51. 14. 104 2 37. (1000 2 . 32. (20 f 1) . 991 2 2 . 99x101. 11. 18. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. (^. 47. 2 9a 496 2 56. (100 + 2) (100 2). we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 34. n 2 f4n+4. 42. 33. 12. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 103 36. 38. + 5)(5+a). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 62 25n 2 . (2x3yy. 24. 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 46.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 2 . 16aW25. + 3z) 2 2 . + 5). 40. ). 48. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 21. . 55. 41. 2 . The product of 57. G> +5g)*. 22 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 28. 7& ) 25. By actual multiplication. a2 9. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 31. 41 16.
(4s + y)(32y). 14. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). . (5a64)(5a&3). 65. plus the last terms.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. : 25 2. The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 5. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 6. sum of the cross products. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. or The student should note minus signs. 8.& + c) = a + tf + c . that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). ) (2 of a polynomial. 11. 2 10. (3m + 2)(ml). ((5a? (10 12. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 7. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 4. 9. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (5a4)(4al). 3. (2a3)(a + 2). 13.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.
Ex. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 66. 2 2. 9.(m 2 6. 6(a 2.8 x + 15] . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. . 4(* + 2)5(3). Find the square root 11. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.3)(z. = . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. If x = 1. + 65) . after multiplying the factors of a term.4) . a. 8.24] . = 10 x .X2 + 2 x . 4. n). + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). of z : 10.4) .39.1 5 = 10 .29.(>. 5. 6. Simplify (x + 6) (a . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.y? + 8 . (  2 4) =  20 a. 6~2(a + 7). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.24 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).(= [ Xa + 2 . 12. (u4& + 3c'. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) (x . 3.5) = (7 .39. + 6)( .i2&c) 2 . 4(aj2)h3(7). 5. 3. Hence. 2)6. (a (.5). and check the answers !.(x . Check. (xy+z)*.[a? .3) . 8. 7. 7.r _ 2 . 13.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4. 4y sf n) 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(81 m + 1 . a I.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). v/17. . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 18.2) (3 a . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). Division of the difference of two squares.11 a + 9 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. . 16. 20. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 19. . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.DIVISION 14.l.e. 51 15.
16 . 9& 2 . . aW 12 a. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14. 10. . 12.0001.000. 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. 15. r/ 1. 16. 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !. 100ry. f 13.49.
An identity is an equation of the letters involved. the first member is 2 x + 4. in the equation 2 x 0. =11. Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . hence it is an equation of condition. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 82. 81. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. x 20. . (a + ft) (a b) and b. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. is said to satisfy an equation. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. second member is x + 4 x 9. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. the 80. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. 83. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . .
called axioms 1. 4. . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 86.54 84. To solve an equation to find its roots. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be subtracted from equals. NOTE. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A 2 a. x I. 89. but 4 does not equal 5. E. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. . 2 = 6#f7. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the quotients are equal. If equals be divided by equals.e. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be added to equals. 3. the sums are equal.g. 90. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the divisor equals zero. A term may be transposed from its sign. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 87. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the remainders are equal. Transposition of terms. 85. one member to another by changing x + a=. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 5. 2.b. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. If equals be multiplied by equals. the products are equal.2. a.
Dividing both members by 2. b c.2. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. a? Adding 5 to each term. x = 93.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. if a x = b. The second member. 3 y . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Dividing by Check. Unite similar terms. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. b Adding a to both + a. and the known terms to the second. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. The first member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Uniting. Ex. Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . if 55 x members. The first member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (4y)(6. Transposing. 2 x = 6.2 y= f . 4x 1 + 6. To solve a simple equation. 2(11 . a= a 6fc. x = (Axiom 3) 92. is correct. Uniting similar terms.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.9 y + y2 = 22 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.6 y f y\ . 91.8. x = 3. f If y 20 . Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Hence the answer.
87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. J. 21. = 3. 6.56 Ex. a. 7. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 14y = 59(24y + 21). BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. Solve the following equations by transposing. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 13a? 3a?. a. 3.69.17 + 4y = 36. 24. and check the answers 9. 32 = 264. : 5# = 15+2a. = 5a?+18. 12. 13 y 99 = 7 y. = 2 ?/. 3. aj * See page 264. 19. x = 18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. etc. 16.. 50. a? a?. v23. 4.7. x x 1 . 17 + 5a. {(x (x The The member right member left . + 7(3 + 1) =63. 8. 11. it NOTE. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). . + 16 = 16 + 17. 11 ?/ a? 18. f Simplifying. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 2. 4y 10.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 9 9a? = 7 13. 14. =2 = 3. 7 (6 x 16). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). . a?. \x x 2^xfl. 7a? 5. 247y = 68lly. 20. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 17 7 a. Uniting. = 7. If x = 18. 3 7 a. + 22. Transposing. 15. 4a + 5 = 29. 22.7a: = 394a.
1 0) = 0. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.(2 + 6) (4 . 2 2 * Jaj.1) (u .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 34. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 42. . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 25. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 30. 35.7) (7 x + 4) .3) + 14.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. is the other part. 38. : One part is of 70 is 25 .2) (M .14 = 0.5) + 199. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 41.5(2 u . 29. . a? 28. 39.5) = (a. 27. .g. .7. 7) (a.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 36. 40. e. 6(6a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 31. or 70 a?. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 7(7 x y 26. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . (aj 37. . (6 u =5 44. + 4).3) + . a? 43. find the other part. + 7) (. this question.12) (2 + 5) . 33. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .3) . (a. .4) + 4 w .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.32. 5) (as (a. Evidently 45.
4. greater one is g. smaller one 16. 14. EXERCISE 1. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. If 7 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Find the greater one. Divide a into two parts. or 12 7. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 10. 33 2. and the smaller one parts. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 7. 11. Divide 100 into two 12. Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . is b. is d. 9. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 5. so that one part The difference between is s. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 15. 13. 17. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. is a? 2 is c?. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. find the cost of one yard. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 3.58 Ex. a. 6. so that of c ? is p. 1.
and spent 5 cents. Find 35. How many cents had he left ? 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . A room is x feet long and y feet wide. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 20. and c cents. 28. ?/ 31. is A A is # years old.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 24. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 22. 28. How many cents has he ? 27. and B is y years old. b dimes. 33. A man had a dollars. 34. If B gave A 6 25. find the has ra dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 32. and B has n dollars. numbers is x. A dollars. Find 21. and B's age is y years. amount each will then have. A feet wide. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 19. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many years A older than is B? old. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 26. sum If A's age is x years.
If a man walks ? r miles per hour. m is the denominator. 46. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. he walk each hour ? 39. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. of 4.50. A cistern is filled 43. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find the number. Find a. The two digits of a number are x and y." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). % % % of 100 of x. Find a 47. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. 49. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find x % % of 1000. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. . a. A was 20 years old. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. . as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. 48. per Find 5 Find 6 45. The first pipe x minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. of m. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. c a b =  9.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36.
cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. by one third of b equals 100. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. The excess of a over b is c. same result as 7 subtracted from . 3. c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. double of a is 10. 80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. a exceeds b by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a increased much 8. 5. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 80. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of x increased by 10 equals x. 4. 6. 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 9. etc. The double as 7. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c.
amounts. and C's age 4 a. 50 is x % of 15. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. B. a second sum. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. of 30 dollars.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50.000. 16. >. x is 100 x% is of 700. 12. m is x % of n. #is5%of450. sum equals $20. and C's ages will be 100. and C have respectively 2 a. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. they have equal of A's. B's. a. a. x 4 If A. . (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. symbols B. In 10 years the sum of A's. they have equal amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 17.. 11. as 17 is is above a. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 3 1200 dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. 18. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 6 % of m. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. (c) If each man gains $500. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 14. is If A's age is 2 x.62 10. A gains $20 and B loses $40. B's age 20. pays to C $100. express in algebraic symbols : 700. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.
verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). much as 40 exceeds the number. 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. A will Check. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. x+16 = 3(35). Find A's present age. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Uniting. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. denote the unknown 96. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. be 30 . Simplifying. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Dividing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. NOTE. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In order to solve them. Transposing. x= 15. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. but 30 =3 x years. the required . number. Check. . Uniting. etc. 23 =30. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Three times a certain no. 6 years ago he was 10 . Transposing. 4 x = 80. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. x = 20. number of yards. 3z40:r:40z. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 2. 1. Let x = the number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. the . Ex. In 15 years 10. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. twice the number plus 7.2. . then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Forty years hence his present age. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. % of 120. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 4. Hence 40 = 46f. 120. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.64 Ex. by as much as 135 ft. Let x 3. How many miles per hour does it run ? . A will be three times as old as toda3r . exceeds the width of the bridge. 13. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 300 56. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. A number added number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 5. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 3. 11. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 14. Find the number. Dividing. Find 8. EXERCISE 1.
F 8. 1.000.000. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. Ex. 65 A and B $200. statements are given directly. the second one. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. two verbal statements must be given. The other verbal statement. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. is the equation. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. five If A gives B $200. How many dol A has A to $40. During the following 90 years. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. The problem consists of two statements I. which gives the value of 8. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 14. The sum of the two numbers is 14. and B has $00.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. A and B have equal amounts of money. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. written in algebraic symbols. Maine's population increased by 510. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. x. 97. . Vermont's population increased by 180. B will have lars has A now? 17. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B How will loses $100. If A gains A have three times as much 16. One number exceeds the other one by II. Find the population of Maine in 1800. times as much as A.
= B's number of marbles. . to Use the simpler statement.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Uniting. the greater number. Dividing. A has three times as many marbles as B. the smaller number. Then. 2. 25 marbles to B. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x = 8. B will have twice as many as A. 8 the greater number. The two statements I. / . If A gives are : A If II. A gives B 25 marbles. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. = 14. unknown quantity in Then. Statement x in = the larger number. 2x a? x j = 6. I. = A's number of marbles. although in general the simpler one should be selected. and Let x = the Then x +. . B will have twice as viz. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. If we select the first one. the sum of the two numbers is 14. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. x 3x 4 and B will gain. consider that by the exchange Hence. terms of the other. x x =14 8. which leads ot Ex. = 3. 8 = 11. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. + a f f 8 = 14. has three times as many marbles as B. . A will lose. Let x 3x express one many as A. < Transposing. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Let x 14 I the smaller number.
Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Check.25 = 20.10.$3. Dividing. the price. Two numbers the smaller. * 98.. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Find the numbers. of dollars to the number of cents. 1. the number of dimes. Dividing. 40 x . 15 + 25 = 40. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Uniting. 11 x = 5. but 40 = 2 x 20. The number of coins II. Let 11 = the number of dimes. x from I. 50. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). consisting of half dollars and dimes. * ' . Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Simplifying. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 60. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. and the Find the numbers. Check. . 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. the number of half dollars.10. 6 times the smaller.. then. by 44. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 2. Simplifying. w'3. x = 6.5 x . The sum of two numbers is 42. A's number of marbles. Find the numbers.75. cents.550 f 310. 3 x = 45. x = the number of half dollars. x = 15. is 70. The value of the half : is 11. have a value of $3.240. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Uniting. 45 . 50 x Transposing. (Statement II) Qx . B's number of marbles. . Eleven coins. dollars and dimes is $3. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols..10. etc. greater is . 3.
Two numbers The number differ by 39. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Twice 14. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 11. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Find their ages. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.68 4. tnree times the smaller by 65. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and twice the altitude of Mt. as the larger one. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. United States. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. On December 21. 6. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 7. the number.000 feet. How many hours does the day last ? . and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. McKinley. A's age is four times B's. How many inches are in each part ? 15. one of which increased by 9. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 5. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Everest by 11. How many 14 years older than B. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day..
= 48. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. B. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. Ex." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. III. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. II. and C together have $80. The third verbal statement produces the equation. number had. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. then three times the money by I. original amount. are : C's The three statements A. x = 8. If 4x = 24. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. has. . 19. bers is denoted by x. has. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. number of dollars A had. 1. they would have 3. B has three times as much as A. times as much as A. Let x II. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. and B has three as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and 68. I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. and C together have $80. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. B. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps.
90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. number of sheep. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and Ex. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of cows. Let then. x Transposing. 2. and each sheep $ 15. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. sheep. + 35 x 4.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 28 2 (9 5). according to III. = the number of dollars spent for cows. x j = the number of horses. 9 5 = 4 . 90 may be written. each cow $ 35. + 8 90 x and. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x = 5. Uniting. and. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 1 1 Check. 4 x f 8 = 28. x f 4 = 9. The total cost equals $1185. and the sum of the . number of cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. cows. Dividing. each horse costing $ 90. III. three statements are : IT. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. number of horses. according to II. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. the third five times the first. The I. 185 a = 925. 9 cows. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. first. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying.
If twice The sum the third side. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. 13. "Find three is 4. how many children were present ? x 11. The gold. New York delphia. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and children together was 37. the third 2. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000. increased by three times the second side. 9. A 12. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. what is the population of each city ? 8. women. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). what are the three angles ? 10. v . what is the length of each? has 3. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. equals 49 inches.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first. men. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.  4. twice as old as B. the copper. and 2 more men than women. 7. twice the 6. and the sum of the first and third is 36.000.
Hence Simplifying. 14.e. we obtain 3 a. or time. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 7 Uniting. A and B apart. First fill in all the numbers given directly. 3 and 4. number of hours. Dividing. and distance. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. such as length. width. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000. 8 x = 15. speed. i. = 35. .72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. how many 100. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.000. and quantities area. of 3 or 4 different kinds. of arid the value of the iron was $300. Let x = number of hours A walks.000 more than that the copper. together. number of miles A x x walks. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. = 5. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Find the value of each. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.g. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.000. but stops 2 hours on the way.
$ 800 = required sum. But 700 certain = 800 2. + 8. $ 1000 x . x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. . 2 a = 40.M(x .053. 70x10 Ex. and the width decreased by 10 yards. or 700.01 = = . Check. . z = 20. 2   and transpose.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. l. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.06 = $ 40. Find the dimensions of the field. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. original field has Check.05 x x .04 8. x + 200). were increased by 30 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less. 10 x = 200. Multiplying. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. the second 100." gives (2. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Transposing and uniting. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. x . $ 800 = 800.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. The an area 40 x 20 =800.04 = $ 40.
and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. 3. Find the share of each. together bring $ 78 interest. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. invested at 5 %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. the area would remain the same. After how many hours will B overtake A. What are the two sums 5. as a 4. A man bought 6 Ibs. Six persons bought an automobile. were increased by 3 yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. 1. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. 2. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A sets out later two hours B . but four men failed to pay their shares. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A of each. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. sions of the field. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. mobile. Ten yards $ 42. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and a second sum. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and its width decreased by 2 yards.55. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sum ? invested at 4 %. twice as large. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. of coffee for $ 1.
Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.
it is composite. if. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 104. a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. An after simplifying. a. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a2 to 6. 76 . which multiplied together are considered factors. vV . f db 6 to b. 5. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it does contain some indicated root of . + 62 is integral with respect to a. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. at this 6 2 . as. 6. but fractional with respect 103. consider 105. if this letter does not occur in any denominator.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. irrational. this letter. stage of the work. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . we shall not. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . expression is rational with respect to a letter.
TYPE I. E. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). x. in the form 4) +3. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.62 can be &). Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2. Factor G ofy 2 . ?/. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.FACTORING 106. 110. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 77 Factoring is into its factors.) Ex. 1. 109.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 55. for this result is a sum. It (a. 8) (s1).3 sy + 4 y8). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. . factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . y.g.62 + &)(a 2 . 107. Ex. 2.3 6a + 1). 01.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Divide 6 a% . it follows that a 2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . or that a = 6) (a = a .
&{20a 6 4 &3 2 .g. 12.45 afy . 3 3 5 6. 2. 2 23.5 + 13 8. + llm llm.30 aty. (as 3) and (ccf5). 14. 13. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.51 x4 2 6 xy s . TYPE IT. 15 2 7. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 4 tfy f. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 20.12 cdx. obviously. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 18. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. in general. : 6 abx . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 14a 4 5. 7i 13. 34 a^c 8 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.3. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 6. a6c. 2 Or. . .2. 5f 2 . 15. 2 2 . 4. 16. 3 2 . Ilro8 9. 32 a *?/ .5 x*y 2 17 a? . a a 'Ja . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 11. 8. q*q*q 2 a. 3. 17.6. e. 7a & 10. 4 8 . 3x*6x*. 19.4. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.51 aW + 68 21.3. 2 + q.5 + 2. ) 22  2.4.8 c a 15 ofyV .
4. Ex. . tfa2  3.5) (a 6). and (a .6 = 20. . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).77 = (a. or 7 11. If q is negative.11) (a + 7). 3. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.a). Therefore Check. + 112. 79 Factor a2 4 x .11 a 2 . or 77 l. m 5m + 6. 5.G) = .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. of this type. Ex. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. determine whether In solving any factoring example. 2 6.11 a + 30.5) (a .11. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. the two numbers have opposite signs. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.1 1 a tf a 4. Factor + 10 ax . 11 7.30 = (a . but of these only a: Hence 2 . If q is positive.4 x . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor x? .. Factor a2 . can be factored.4 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 77 as the product of 1 77. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. + 30 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 2.FACTORING Ex. . as p. however. a 2 . We may consider 1.
. ITT. 100 xr .180 a. 13.48 + + 446 200. TYPE 113. + 5<y 24. + 4?/21. . 21 a 2 2 . 11. . 2 . 12. 25.500 x + 600. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. + 2xS. 2 2 . 2 ?/ 28. 2 ?/ 22. 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 2 a' 34. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 35. 6 8 8 4 2 a. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 26. a 7 a 30. 4 3 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 19. 32.80 7. 17. 14.70 x y . 15. 8. 31. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 29. 30. ra + 25ra + 100. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 36. + 44. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 9. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 21. 20.6. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . x2 23. and 5 x. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.17 + 30. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 30. 4 2 . 24. or . a? + 5 + 6 a. a2 . ay 11 ay +24. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 27. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 18. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 16. 33.
FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. the signs of the second terms are minus. Ex. 11 x 2x.1). we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. and that they must be negative. 18 x 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 2 x 27.13 x + 5 = (3 x . a. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 9 x 6. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. but the opposite sign. Factor 3 x 2 . 2. sible 13 x negative. 3 x and x. viz. . 6 x 9. the If p and r are positive. 27 x 2. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. If p is poxiliw.5) (2 x .83 x f 54. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and r is negative.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. or G 114.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. X x 18. 54 x 1. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.5 . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.
19. 100^200^ + 100^. 11.30 y 6 4 . : 41 2. 2 28. 18.19 a f 6. 3. 20. 3a + 13a. 12y 2/6.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 29. . 2 26. 15. 13.83 x .2) (x . 9. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.2 a 90 x*y . 21. x54 a. 6. 5. 35. 25.27). 7. 9a. 14 a fa 4.163 x 2 . 8. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. f go. 2. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2 fc . the expressions should be it. 30. 4a2 9tt + 2. . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 32. 34. Sar' + SaG. X 27 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 6n + 5?i4. 2 .260 xy . 12^17^16. 2m t7w + 3. 9 y + 32^16. 16. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 22. 5m 26m f 5. 10 a . 12.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 90 a 8 2 . 144 x . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 2 2 2 . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . . 3x*Sx + 4. 4. 17. 2x* + 9x5. 2 31. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2 2 2 23. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.83 x = (3 . 10. + 4. since all others (II. 24. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . + 2/3. 10a2 G a2 2 . and the monomial factors should be removed. 10a?2 2 33.179.7.y + 172/9.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 14.
it is more convenient for that type. 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. it is a perfect square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . x* . however. 2. 9. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 25 7. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. and factor whenever possible : 1. 6. 5. 9 10a625. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. must have a positive sign. 2 9 10gf25.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 3. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 10. i. square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. form are special cases of the preceding type. . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 116. 11. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 8.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. of its terms are perfect squares.26 ab + 9 6 2 . . 12. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .10 x f 16. 14.e. and a perfect square. 2 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.20 xy f 4 y\ . 4.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 13. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.
!Gar 9 ( )+25. 17. V. ^//c to the Ex. prime. 27. 29. 1. 6 2 . 9a2 . 2 20. aV . ). . ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 16&*. 26. 2 . According to 65. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 149 a 81 8. 10 a 2 4 2 . product i. 6. 22. 2. 36 2 4. 9. 25. a2 24. 7. 5.3 * ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 18. 3. Ex. 2 . 4a2 l. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.e. + GO + 25. 2.6 m* + 9 m.9& 2 3<> 4 2 .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ). 19.84 15. . . 48 a +( ). +( )f816 30.2 ofy + ofy m . 16. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.64 6 = 16(a . 225 ofy .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. TYPE 117. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.20 ab + 10 b a . * 2 . 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 4 2 23. a. a. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .60 a# + 4. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.
2 . 11. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 16p 2 . Ex.c .(I) .(c 4. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (m7?) y. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2.d) 2 . of polynomials. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 9. 8. 14. a:) 12. 13. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 5. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Factor a 2 . 6. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 . 2.FACTORING 85 118. One or both terms are squares 1. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 4. 36> . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. a2 . Ex. T. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 .
6. A. . x8 . By grouping.and trinomials. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.1.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 4:cx . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.r. Ex. which may be factored according to types I. 5. 2. 3. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. a 26 2 2 3 . 9. After grouping tain a the terms. = (3 x + y . 12. 1.2 ) (3 x . ive find that the new terms con common factor. Ex.VI.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 119.7 c + 2c .y + 2 2).a a . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 2. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.14. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 8. 4 B. 5) . + x + 2x + 2. 10. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. ma ?*a + m& nb. a5 + ab 6 . a? 11.ab + bx. 7.
12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 3. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. II.4 f . w m 2. $ a8 .l.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 2a3/ 7. 6a4 12a2 + 6. : m 2 2 16. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Arranging the terms. 4. 6. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. IV. . 3. 2 7. 6 6. : 46 x* 2.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 8.12 aaj 4 6y.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 5. +c+ 2 2 2/ . + 2xy + y*q*.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 4 a2 . 2. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 2. . 36 9 m . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. = (a + 6)(a6). 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 8ra 2 + 16. l~a 2a56 2 2 .FACTORING Ex. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.
48. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.310 x . 3 41. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 28. (a. 22. 2 a 128. a3 156. 27. 18.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 5 a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 25 a + 25 aft . (^ 34. 42 s 2 .88 10. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . . 3 a2 23. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.24. a + a + a + l. 13. 5a' 20. 2 17. 11. 256 4 2 2 ?/) .156. 24. + 14. 50^ + 45. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 14. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 29. a6 36. 40. 42 x . 30. 4 a. or 3 7#2 . 32. 2 3#4 3a2 36. a. 2 ft .40. 35. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . + 6 aft + 3 . 3 2 . 13 c . 4 8 tt 2 z . 80 a 2 ft 38. 3 25. a5 a 1 4 2 39.13 c . 19.
The student should note H. II 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. aW. F. 6. The H. F. C.) of two or more .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. 3 . of two or more monomials whose factors . C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 13 aty 39 afyV. The highest is common factor (IT. 12 tfifz. of : 48 4. C. 2. 24 s . 3. 2 2 . C. F. C. of aW. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 8 . 122. are prime can be found by inspection. 5 2 3 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 121.  23 3 . 25 W. F. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 5. . F. of the algebraic expressions. 5 7 34 2s . expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. of 6 sfyz. 15 aW. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 89 . The H. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Thus the H. F. F. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. EXERCISE Find the H. 54  32 .
38 #y. 24 a 2 . a3 16 a.6. ^707 + 12. 8. 13.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 12. To find the H. a3 9a. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. . a.?/ . 3 .6 a&.^9. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. C. a2 + 2a3. 2 . 225 4a 9 . . . 6 mx . 8 a 10 . 52 oryz4. 3^ 2 4 . 15 3ao.y) 123. C. y + 3y64. . 4(m+l) 3 . 65 zfyV. and apply the method of the preceding article.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . F. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 2 . a2 + 7af!2. of: . 1. 12 .5 x3?/ 2 6. C. ^f a. 6(m+l) (m+2).6 .y + y42. 2 . 49 C. Find the H. 0^80:416.5 + 6. 12.12 as 66 . 15. 13. F. 5. 12 w*nw 8.90 7.2 ?/) (x . ^2 2 . aWd.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 2 . 16. 1. a2 .# 4 afy f 4 . 10. 9.5 y). 10. x* x2 Hence the H. 2. ^a + 5^ + 6. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . F. 8. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a 3a4. .y) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 16 a . Ex. a2 ar* 4. 57 a>V. 4 ?io. 7. of polynomials. 6 a2 y? . 9 aj*(a? . 3. 6 3 a. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 8 6. 95 2/V. 9. (a7 ?/) .2 y) (a. 14. of + 4 if.8 a + 16. 11. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . . 8(?/ifl) 14. = x 2 y. 25 m27i. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 11. 2a f5af 2. F. 3).
C. Ex. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. etc. M.6 3 ). . M of the algebraic expressions. of the general. M.C. Ex. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . two lowest common multiples.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. To find the L. 2. 127. C.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. L. C. A common remainder. Common 125. C. 126. a^c8 3 . Hence the L. 300 z 2 y. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. . The L. of several expressions which are not completely factored.M. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 60 x^y' 2 . but opposite . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 1. =4 a2 62 (a2 . each set of expressions has In example ft). C. M. 2 The The L. which also signs. The lowest common multiple (L. M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. ory is the L. 128. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M.C. L.6)2. C.M. of tfy and xy*. M. Find the L. C. &) 2 M. of 3 aW. NOTE. thus. Find the L.
of: 4. a { a~b. 2 . 14. 3 ab. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 7. afc'cd 2 . + 6. y*.f 6. 6 y. M. #. 5.1. 30 a. 22. a& 4 +& 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. f b. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 20. x2 + 4 a f 4. a?b. 3(a + b). ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. . 2 . 20 9 a. 21. a 2 fa6. 2 7ic+10. x 2 5 a.1. a^1. a2 ~ab 1. 6b 2 . 6 a. 2 a . 3 Z> . ic 23. a. 1. G a. a 1. 2. 9. 3 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. . a 2 a3 . a f 3. a. 40 abJ. 8 d 5 . 2(m 2 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 24 x. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . (a 4)(a2) 12. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a !. b 2 . 18. 6. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 10. 11. or f 3 a 15 #. 16. ) . 13. Find the L. 8. a f 2 19. 2 a . xy\ . 3 f2. 4 a 5 6cd. (For additional examples see page 268. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 4 a . ic 2 ?/. + 2 7i) . 3. 17. 8 afy. 2 . 4 a f 2. 5 a? 5 a? y. afy. 3 6 xif. + 2. T a 3 a 2 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 24. 2 x \2 y. 3. a2 4. a. by. 15. 2 a. x* ~5a.
successively all 2 j/' . but we In arithmetic. as 8. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. however. F. A f fraction is b. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Ex. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. and denominators are considered. a?. an indicated quotient.ry ^ by their H. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. a b = ma mb . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Thus. etc. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. rni Thus 132. 131.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. C. 130. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Remove tor.
2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . cancel factors only.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Ex. 3. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.
^+3*.. """. 9x + "a" 10.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.7 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ^" a. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 23. 29. . ny 4 18.*.' 32. 11 ^ Mtr f .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 16. . LJZJ^JL. 19. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. . 5^10 y 30. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ^' rt ^  31. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.10 a + 3 2 14. g J 21. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . nx 17. ' ^ .
and (a 8). we have M^.M. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Divide the L.D.M. C. we have the quotients (x 1). and the terms of ***. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . and 135. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . 2> . 1.~16 (a + 3) (x. . C. .  by 4 6' . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.1^22 ' . ^ to their lowest com The L. we may extend this method to integral expressions. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. 1).C. . by the denominator of each fraction. + 3).C. Reduce ^. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. TheL.r 2 2 .3) (!)' = . Ex. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. mon T denominator.96 134. =(z (x + 3)(z. M. take the L. of the denominators for the common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.  of //* 2 . multiplying the terms of 22 .
oj o* or / . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 137. o o a.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . 2aj ~ . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.. . j y 3.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . If the given fractions have different denominators. 5?. 22 a2 5a * . 18. 2.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.^1. . JL.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 8 i i.. 74). they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). a? 1 5 > ^* . common denominator 6. i. 2 ay IB. 3. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 7i 2 ab* ". .
ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.g. and adding. e. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. the student should remember that parentheses are .ft)(a .. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 2 ^.7 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . in the beginning. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. L. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .aft) Ca2 . T? Ex.2 ' 2 _. (a ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft)..(a 2 6).ft) (a ft ft)~.3 . D.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 4(2 a 3 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. ^ is 2^JT) . ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (a . The L. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .2 = a(a .3 ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 ft 2). 2. C. as 4 aft f. D.
t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 5a76 4a 106 9. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.5 18 ^4f25. 15. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. a+6 a 6 2 14. 6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . 24. j>0 i> 21. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 2. + . 1 f q * 1 m m . 1 1 f w 16. A+2_3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 23. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. a 36 ++. 20. 18 v 19. 46 2a 4a 12.
x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a 30. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ! n. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 2 af1 32. a ?^ 40. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a 4 31. 3a 9 +. 43. af 1f /j. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a. 41.9 79 6 2 i. 1 34.9. ic 1 + 1. 42.
17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.  4 or 3 2a.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 1. T. . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .  .FRACTIONS 139. . 101 mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. .6 + 4x 4 x2 . Reduce .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .7 5a v Ex.
multiply the 142. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . !. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. or. 2 a Ex. we may extend any e. Since  = a. F J Simplify .) Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.g. (In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. integer.
6 12 d6 4. 4 8..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 50 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. . aj 5 1 a? 18.. 5# 56 / c& 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a. 14.
104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. 8 multiply the Ex. : a 41 ab * See page 272. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 144. 1. Divide Xn?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . . To divide an expression by a fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.
FRACTIONS 105 . ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.^c 2 2 . a a2 4.10 ?/ _._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. are fractional. l. or both.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.afr 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Ex.
y X 4* 2 y 3. 7i+~ 7. n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. JL. 10. . . Simplify x }. Ex. of their denominators. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. x* 4.y 32 . i. . the answer is directly obtained. 9.a ^c c _^ a . a m "" . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). c +6.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . M. 6. 2. . & . C.
o 15. : . 1 i 1 2 5 . m^n* n L a 17. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.) . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18.
14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . M. C. = 6. each member is reduced to 1. = 6.28 a = 5 x2 . of the denominator.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . If x 6. Uniting.48. 5(3 85 Check. + 1) (a + 3) . tions.8 x = . a.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. If = 64. . Clearing of fractions. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 4 4)  x. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 2z2a.28 x + 42 = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Uniting. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 1. 2 3.42 + 9.1. x = 6. Bx 12 Qx. 2x Transposing.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 108 . these Ex.l)(z + 3) = . 148. 2. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 9x x Check.9 x2 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.14 (a. Transposing. each member is reduced to Ex.
1 *> = 2. ^1 = 9.1 _77 a. 15. a: 7 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. . 18. . '  4 13. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a. +4 14. +1 = 5. ^' 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 16.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a/  5 a/ = 12.= 2. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.
If two or more denominators are monomials. 25. ?_=_. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.11_4 x 149. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x._ _ . 33. 31 31. .  38 = 40. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. . .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 3x 35. 26 26. 4a4l4* + l~. . J_. y+3~2 29. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 32 6 . 27 . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .
Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 26 a. 60. 5# 10.1. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. If a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.. M. the 1 5 L. a. Transposing and uniting. . 24 a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . 1.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. each member is reduced to ^.2 42 9 43. C. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5x x : = 9.2 3 ~  == 7a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .  5 = 20 x 45. = 9. Check. Dividing.
y. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Uniting. Ex.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = = 6 6c 7 6c. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = 6 a2 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Ex.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Dividing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. they are united by factoring. fr Reducing lowest terms.1. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.2 ac + 3 aft . ax f x f. = 2 f b 2 .& .be. Thus. 2. If 3ac L= = a ? . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. f ~ 5c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Uniting the Dividing. 4 ac 1.2 62 2 ab.3 6 2 = a' .m bx 2 mn) x. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. =a 2 151. = l^ 9 b 4 . 5> a. a. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. jr. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. . It frequently occurs that the x. find a in terms of b and c.
mx = n. 30. f P =+!. If s (wi n) x =px + q. . 11.= c a Z> . If ^^ = a 1 32. . in terms of other quantities. and n the number of years. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 12. + xx = 1. rate. 10. c 18. 2 solve for y a. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. If * 33. 14. solve for a. 3. = 5. 29. 5) is t =^. 3(* 8. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. . + 3a. t. = 8 4 #. 15.= n. 31. iw 21. q solve for/. If s If 16. solve for . = 3 (6 a). a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. * Solve the same equation for^). 34. . Ex. m a? x . 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . The The i time. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. a. 4. 17. co?. s = Vt solve for v. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. 13. 9. 1 f. f ^o. 6. p the principal. = rt. c. _ 2.= H.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = vt. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). r the number of $>. 4.a. denoting the interest.i l .
2. . then = 2 TT#. and 12 = the number over.20 C. A would do each day ^ and B j. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = 16^. Find R in terms of C and TT. .180. 12.114 35. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 100 C. is 36. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. Ex.. Multiplying by Dividing. 1. 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. x Or Uniting..
or 1J. = 100 + 4 x. Clearing. 4x = 80. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the rate of the express train. in Then Therefore. 3. and the statement. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 32 x = ." gives the equation /I). Solving. 180 Transposing. = the x part of the work both do one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.
116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. a man had How much money had he at first? . which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. make 21. 3. Find A's 8. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. is equal 7.  Find their present ages. ex What 5. ceeds the smaller by 4. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. by 6. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and 9 feet above water. length in the ground. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. to his son. is oO. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How did the much money man leave ? 11. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. money and $10. by 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers. of his present age. and of the father's age. to his daughand the remainder. fifth Two numbers differ 2. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and one half the greater Find the numbers.
2. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. investments. 3.) 22. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. A has invested capital at more 4%. . after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the 14. How much money $500? 4%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 1.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B in 4 days. Ex. and it B in 6 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. air. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 152. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. ^ at 5%. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.
. is 42. 2. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 25. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.118 153.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. therefore.e. e.009 918. The problem to be solved. B in 12. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. . and apply the method of 170. if B in 3 days. m and n. A in 4. Then ft i. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. A in 6. A in 6. To and find the numerical answer. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 26. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Hence. B in 5.g. and n = 3. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. they can both do in 2 days.= . B in 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.414. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m . is 57. B in 16. Ex.
(b) 8 and 56 minutes. respectively (a) 60 miles. meet. The one: 31. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the rate of the first. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 3J miles per hour. squares 29. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 2 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (c) 16. 2 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. . : (c) 64 miles. the second at the apart. 5 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 30. 34. 33. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and the second 5 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 35 miles. 4J miles per hour. (b) 149. if m and n are. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.721. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.000. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. is ?n . A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. is (a) 51. Find the side of the square.001. 3 miles per hour. respectively. (d) 1. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.
the denominator The the 157. 158. E. etc." we may write a : b = 6.5. the symbol being a sign of division. " a Thus. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . Simplify the ratio 21 3. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. b. In the ratio a : ft. 6 12 = . the second term the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.g. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. 1. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. The first 156. : : 155.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. is numerator of any fraction consequent. antecedent. b is the consequent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. Ex.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. a ratio is not changed etc. b. . the antecedent.
27 06: 18 a6. 11. and c is the third proportional to a and . The last first three. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 159. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 8^ hours. 16. 7f:6J. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 18. 5 f hours : 2. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3 8. $24: $8. terms. 3:1}. extremes.RATIO Ex. 1. : 1. b is the mean b. b. 6. Transform the following unity 15. 62:16. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 4. 7:4 T T 4 . 3. two  ratios. proportional between a and c. 9. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 61 : ratios 72:18. J:l. 3:4. 12. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. : ay . 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. equal 2. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 4:5f : 5. 10. 16a2 :24a&. 17. a and d are the extremes. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. Simplify the following ratios 7. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. b and c the means. and c.
of a proportion. are : : : inversely proportional. = 30 grams 45 grams. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 163. i. In any proportion product of the extremes. " we " NOTE.__(163. 164. Hence the number of men required to do some work.) mn = pq. 6 ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. then G ccm. 163.30 grams. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. pro portional. of iron weigh 45 grams. 2 165. ad = be. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. 3 4. and the other pair the extremes. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Clearing of fractions. and the time necessary to do it. The mean proportional of their product. briefly. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. If (Converse of nq.122 162.) b = Vac.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ccm. q~~ n . a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : : directly proportional may say. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. : c. !. of iron weigh .e.
(Division. ad = be. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) (Called Alternation. (Composition. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. . AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. a III.) = f f = 3 J. d d. bd bd.) d 167. hence the proportion true.) a + b:a = c + d:c. I. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 2. is 4$ = 35. (Frequently called Inversion. V. 1. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.PATIO Ex. a:c=b:d. ad ( 163. 12x Hence a? = 42. 166. I. (163. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. = 35 . is Ex. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) II. if 6 : 7. then =d c. + b:b = c + d:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Or IV.
: 3 = 5 f x : x. 6 =4 : x.e. E. = 2:3. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 5. = 7:2f 3J. Apply composition. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. x = 2. mx tin Apply composition and division. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 120:42 2 2 7.124 IT. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. . 3. IV. 8. 10.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 20:7. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25.g. 9. V. : x. 4. = 2:x. = 12 5ft. Or III. i. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. . 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 2. = 180:125. 5 5. to simplify 48:21=32:7x.!=!*. the consequents by 7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. Simplify the following proportions. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.
38. 31. a. 3t.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.  32. 39. 27.8:1. a 2 and ab. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 17. (a : : 45. to : a and 1. : . : 53. rap. 42. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 112:42 = 10:a. b. 03:a?=135:20. 2. 2 a and 18 a. 26. ra + landra 1. 34. x m = y n. 35. f. ra. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. : a2 . = 15o. 1. 5= 18 a? : a?. 22. 52. 28. 2.x: 6:5 a : x. 13. Find the mean proportional 30. = 2 + x: x. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. terra 2:3 = 4. 20. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 2= 5 x x. 44. 29. to: = 35:*. = 5 x 12. 23. 51. Find the third proportional 24. 6 x = y. to : 9 and 12. 3. ratio of y. mx = ny.j>. 4. 50. 5. 21. 25. if : 40. 46. 3. 4 and 16. 2 3 = y #. 14 and 21. 6x = 7y. x:5 = y:2. 6. 33. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. + fyx = cy. w. 16. 43. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. = l^:18. 14. 1 and a. 18. = 3 43 + x. ra 2 . 9 x = 2 y.:ff. 41. 47. . and 2/. a?:15 15. rag. Find the 37. 12. 7iy = 2:x.. 16 and 28.
and the area of the rectangle. A line 7^. 57. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the : total cost. the squares of their radii (e) 55.126 54. and the time. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time necessary for it.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the speed of the train. the area of the larger? the same. 56. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.
11 x f 7 x = 108. produced to a point C.000 168. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 2. . 4 inches long. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. so that Find^K7and BO. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x x 7 Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. as 11 Let then : 1. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. is A line AB. 18 x = 108. x = 6. Let A B AC=1x. x=2. 11 x = 66 is the first number. AB = 2 x. : Ex. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2 x Or = 4. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. = the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20.
consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 2. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 6.) . Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and 15 inches. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 12. Gunmetal tin. : 4. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many 7. 9. 3. 12.000 square miles. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 7.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 14. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. find the number of square miles of land and of water. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How The long are the parts ? 15. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. and c inches. 13. How many gen. 11. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : 197. What are the parts ? 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.
The root of (4) if K 129 . expressing a y. such as + = 10. values of x and y. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if . However. there is only one solution. Hence.. x = 1.e. =. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. etc.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. 2 y = . the equations have the two values of y must be equal. is x = 7.L x If If = 0. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. a? (1) then I.y=. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y = 1.
Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . cannot be reduced to the same form. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 172. to The two methods I.X. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. y = 2. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. same relation. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they express the x f y 10. Therefore. and 3 x + 3 y =. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.24. are simultaneous equations. = . ~ 50. 26 y = 60. y I 171. 21 y . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170.3 y = 80. 174. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. unknown quantity. of elimination most frequently used II.26. 3. 6x . the last set inconsistent. 4y . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Substitution. E. viz. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. By By Addition or Subtraction. The first set of equations is also called consistent. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.
preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. + 2. x = 10. 37. 60 . 8 2. subtract the equations. add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .2 = 6. 64 x = 040.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. y = 1. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 y = 47. whose coefficients In general. Check. are like. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).14 =8. 3y = 3. = 235. 25 x . 3. 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 10 . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Transposing. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 5 13 . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). Therefore Check.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. y = 2.3 1 = 47.
13. . = 41. = 24. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 19< I a. = 6.3. ] ^ . i 3. _.f2/ ' = 50.4. 7 ' 1fi fl . + 2/ 17.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. v ^ = ll. O t K 8. f 3X 7x 14. * + 3 y = 50. I oj 5y = 17. 9 1 r 20. I i 3 a. J I y = 1U. x 11.5 y = 2. I ~ y~~> 22. 13 61 l7a. ' 12. f 3# ?/ = 0. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3. [2o.v 23.9 *.
tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. . 3. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#8. = 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. x ) ^"" 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27.
7 y = 6. . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . \ \6(a. 3 (1) Ex. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.6)7(y7)==18. simplified before elimination is possible. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 7x_2y=3. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 3. From 9 = 36. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. x = l. + 212y4 = 14. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 2 y = . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 21z6y=9. however. 4* + 3y = 19. Substituting in (6) .3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (7) (7) (8) . 29 x = 29. (4).
4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. 10. J 9. +y 2 . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 10 2a?5 17. yM a.1) = 121. 16. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 12. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. = 3.f2 2. 4 11. .1) + 5(6 y . . 14. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
Q ^ 4 21. 3x\" 1 23 24. e. 180. f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. <X + 20.and x y . {. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. * ((* (( . 22. . and y. ?~y .#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. but some expressions involving x.
Dividing by 11 3 = #. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. Therefore y=4. (4) + (G). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). etc.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. of this type. y 4. x 2x(2). (2) (3) a. . Clearing of fractions. x 3.3 xy. Substituting x = 3 in (1). 2* * x 2.4 x = 4 xy. y 1. 15 y + 8 x . can also be solved Examples method. 33 = 11 x. however. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. y.
253 7. x y 5.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. n. . x 8. = en. y MOi y a. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.= o 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). Ex. 1. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= 5. x y 331 9. 21 9 .
fax f = l. . and I. ax + by = 2 a&. 6. f 5. d.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x f my = 1. ap. a Find a and terms of n. W . 14.W.y = = 9a + 46. w. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. Dividing. . From the same equations find s in terms of a. x a. x 12. apan cm. Uniting. . s in 11. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. d. ny = fy/ I sc 1. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. bmy bm}y ap cm.
15z=12 Adding. 1. f 3y 12 =s 8. = 30. 6. x + 12 y . etc.25. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. = 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. (4) (5). . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 8 x .2 + 4.12 y + 6 z = . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).16. 3y = Hence Check. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 3. 3.13. l.3=4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).8 = 1. 4. (8) 2. 182.lf> z . y =* 2.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 1.by 2.3 = 8.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Ex. ties are Similarly. by 3. To solve equations containing By tions. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 20.2 + 3.1+4.
15 2 = 45. 2 4. ~6?/ 5. 2z = 40. a? 11. 14. 12. f 2 i/ f z = 14. a? + 709 = 26. 7. 8. + y f z = 15. x 13. 49. 10. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 4 = 42. + 2 y f 2 = 35. == 6. 2 . k 2/ f 2 x a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1.
. = 5.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 4.42 = 2. ?/ 3x = 0. ^ = 2. 60. 1510 4 17.2 a.6 2. 22.. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 84 21. ? = llz. =s 20.3 y + . 27. (3 _. 16. . = 8*. 32. . 19. 23.
The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. = 2 m. Obviously of the other . either directly or implied. and to express In complex examples. M=i. ( 99. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. = l. z + x = 2 n. 1. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 digit in the tens place. Check. 2 = 1(1+6). 1 = 2. symbols: x + y +z 8. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. + 396 = 521. x : z =1 : 2.) it is advisable to represent a different letter.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. . 2 = 6. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. y * z 30.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Ex. and if 396 be added to the number. + z = 2p. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. however. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. +2+ 6 = 8. Find the number. # 4. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . the number. y 31. .
y = 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Or (4)2x(3). 2. we obtain. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Since the three men traveled the same distance. By expressing the two statements in symbols. = the fraction.144 Ex. B. C. Find the fraction. Ex. = Hence the fraction is f. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 5_ _4_ A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. direction. = 8. 2. x 3 = 24. 3. increased by one. (1) (2) 12. (3) C4) = 24 miles. . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. xy a: 2y 4y 2. From (3) Hence xy Check. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 4 x = 24. x 3x4y = 12. 6 x 4 = 24. the distance traveled by A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. x y = the = the x denominator .
to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3.) added to a number of two digits. Find the numbers. If 27 is 10. 7. and its denomi nator diminished by one. part of their difference equals 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and the fourth 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 6. added to the numerator of a fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. the fraction equals . and the numerator increased by 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 1. A fraction is reduced to J. If 9 be added to the number. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the Find the fraction. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. tion ? 8.}. ? What 9. Find the number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. both terms. 5. . Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. fraction is reduced to \. the digits will be interchanged. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the number. 183. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. it is reduced to J. its value added to the denominator. Find the fraction. If the denominator be doubled. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the fraction is reduced fraction. number by the first 3. 2. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11.
much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.000 is partly invested at 6%. the annual interest would be $ 195. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. 13. 19. Find their present ages. now. 5 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. A man invested $750. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 12. A sum of $10. and partly at 4 %. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. How 6 %. in 8 years to $8500. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and in 5 years to $1125. respectively ? 16. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Find the rates of interest. 14. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. .grams. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 4 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. the rate of interest? 18. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and money and 17. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. partly at 5 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages.
E. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. BE. but if A would double his pace. and angle e angle/. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. for $ 740. the three sides of a triangle E. On /). The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and CE If AB = G inches. BC=7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. . and $15 for each sheep. c. are taken so ABC. what is that = OF. $ 50 for each cow. angle c = angle d. and angle BCA = 70. B find angles a. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. three AD = AF. points. 23. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and F '(see diagram). he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. Find their rates of walking. andCL4 = 8. respectively. and AC = 5 inches. cows. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and GE = CF. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and e. and sheep.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. BC = 7 inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. and their difference by GO . ED = BE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. 1 NOTE. triangle Tf AD. the length of NOTE. and F. receiving $ 100 for each horse. An C touch ing the sides in D. 25. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. BD = HE. . then AD = AF. and F. 24.
. and PN _L YY'. and PJ/_L XX'. is the abscissa. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). is The point whose abscissa is a. B. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. ?/. first 3).CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. the ordinate by ?/. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and point the origin.. (3. The of Coordinates. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. PN are given. (2. (7. Thus the points A. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . the ordinate of point P. (2. PM. jr. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 2). 3). or its equal OM. 186. YY' theyaxis. and r or its equal OA is . PN. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). It' Location of a point. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.
(4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 12. 4). 4) and (4. Graphs. 2. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Plot the points: (4. 4. Plot the points : (0. (See diagram on page 151. Plot the points (6. (1. . What Draw is the distance of the point (3.e. 0). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 3). (3. !). 2). 1). 0). (4.(!. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. i. 6. 0). 3. What is the locus of (a?. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 1). (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (2. (0. 3). and measure their distance. 11. 3).3).and(l. 4). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.) EXERCISE 1. . 8. 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 71 2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 6. 4) from the origin ? 7. (4.2). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 2J). (5.4). 2).1). (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (0. Plot the points: (4.
10 . C. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. or the curved line the temperature. 1. . ure the ordinate of F. A.. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 15. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. B. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. D. By representing of points. we meas1 . may be found on Jan. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 188. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. however. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. from January 1 to December 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the first table produces 12 points.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the matics. (b) July 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the rise and fall of wages. uses them. etc. the merchant. Whenever a clear. as the prices and production of commodities. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the graph is applied. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. . The engineer. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (d) November 20. physician. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
15. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.152 2.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (1) 10 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 1? 11 0. on 1 to the average. ? 9.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (freezing point) ? 7. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. When the average temperature below C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. During what months above 18 C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3. How much. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (d) 9 0.. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. is 10. 1 to Oct.
09 yards. One meter equals 1. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. NOTE. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Draw . Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. a temperature chart of a patient. 20. transformation of meters into yards. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 19.
Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. function If the value of a quantity changes..50. 2 . the daily average expenses for rent. 4.inch. 28. binding. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.5 grams. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. x 7 to 9.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. and $.50. if each copy sells for $1. to 27. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. . if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.) T circumferences of 25. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. x* x 19. 1 to 1200 copies. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.. 3. gas. A 10 wheels a day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. e. if he sells 0. 190. the value of a of this quantity will change.154 24. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 29. represent his daily gain (or loss).50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. books from for printing. 2. 3. x increases will change gradually from 13. 26. amount to $8. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .g. then C irJl. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. etc. 9.
g. (1^. to x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. . ( 2. x a variable. 2). If a more exact diagram is required. be also represented by a graph. while 7 is a constant.e. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . however. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 3 (0.0). 2 (1. 4). as 1. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. etc. Graph of a function. (2. construct '. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. plot points which lie between those constructed above. and join the points in order. 4). may . 2. 9). is supposed to change. 1 the points (3. E.2 x may 4 from x = 4. (1. Draw the graph of x2 f. and (3. Q. 3 50. Ex. a*.1). may. J). for x=l. The values of func192. 9).
the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. y = 6. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. straight line produces the required graph. (2. 194. rf 71 . (3. Thus 4x + 7. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 2.4).) For brevity. 4). 4J. (4. as y. 7 . = 0.. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.2 x . 2 4 and if y = x f. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. and join(0..20). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. r */ +* 01 .. Ex. = 4.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. etc. 1). Thus in the above example.. j/=3. 5). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. .
2 2. 2 2 a. a? 2 4. 5. a ar. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (C ) (2. 1J. 19. . (If) Va25. x+1. Jar . 7. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. if a. 22. a* 13. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. . 2. xz + x.8)'. The values of a?. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 8. 4a? I. 1. + 4. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. fa 17. 16. 1J. 2 or 2 20. 2x + 3x a?. 15. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 11. 2 a. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a? 1. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2.e. J. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 3. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. if"a. The values of a*. if the function equals zero. = The values of a*. 4 a. 9. (7i) (c) 23. l. xl. 2J. from x VlO'S". 1 8 10. (ft) (_ 1. 12. a?. if y = 2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. a. 6 fa. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 23x. The smallest value of the function. 1J. 14. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. = 4.or. 21. y = 2x = 4. 6.5)2. 3. 3 a 8. ?/ a. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2J. i.5)2. the function. 18.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.
. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. C. 1 C.24. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 9 F.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Show any convenient number). Represent 26.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 25. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. i. then y = .158 24.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1..e. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. Therefore x = 1. y= formula graphically. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. then cXj where c is a constant.where x c is a constant. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.24 or x = P and Q.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 14 F.. the abscissas of 3. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 32 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. that graph with the o>axis.
2 and 1. is called a quadratic equation. (0. 7. 6. 10. 197. (a) x2 = 0. 13. 11. a2 2a. Such equations in general have two roots. 6. + + = where a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 8. 12. 3.f 9 = 0. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.7 2 a 5 = 0. crosssection paper is used. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 0. viz. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 4. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (a) (6) 9. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. or 5 2. = 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 14.
2 y ~ 2. (f . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. y y 2. NOTE. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. because their graphs are straight lines.e. 0). represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). . = 0. ?/. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. and joining by a straight line. Hence.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. if y = is 0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 199. 4) and (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . unknown quantities. 2). locate points (0.1. Ex. first degree. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 1) and 0). and join the required graph. Ex. y = l. == 2. 3x _ 4 . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. produces the 7* required locus. fc = 3.2. i. Hence if if x x  2. Hence we may join (0. T . If x = 0. ?/ =4 AB. X'2 Locating the points (2. solve for ?/. y= A and construct x (  graphically.
and CD. 201. Graphical solution of a linear system. equation x= By measuring 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 3. (2) . 202. To find the roots of the system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. AB y = . By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 203.15. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. viz. parallel have only one point of intersection.57. we obtain the roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.1=0. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). P.
parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 1. 2 equation x 3). the graph of points roots. 3). 4. 4. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. and joining by a straight line.0. The equations 2 4 = 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. (1) (2) C. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.y~ Therefore. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 2.. 0. Locating two points of equation (2). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. i. x2 .9. In general. = 0. Since the two  we obtain DE. if x equals respectively 0. (4. 1.5.0). There can be no point of and hence no roots. 3. Solving (1) for y. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. y equals 3. 3x 2 y = 6. and + 3). Using the method of the preceding para. Measuring the coordinates of P. we of the + y* = 25.e. 4. 4. (2. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. 4. the point we obtain Ex. (4. 5. . Locating the points (5. 5. AB the locus of (1). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 0) and (0.g. etc. 4. intersection. and . 0. 3. they are inconsistent.5. e. 2. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.  4.
1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. if possible. 7. state reasons. '163 Dependent equations. 16 22. y= a2 2x y6. Draw system. x~y=0. 9. 8. 6. y 2 4. y = 4. and solve each If there are no solutions. 4. vice versa. . y=x + 5. 17. 20. a+r/=6. and. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 3. \ 2x + 3^ . as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 2.. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2x 3?/=6. 16 23. 10. 19. a. 5.
TABLE OF SQUARES.8. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 28. 30. 26. 25.164 24.14 y = .y). AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 . 4 a = 3(6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . CUBES. 3 31.
2. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . a special kind of product. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ^4/? it According to 50. involution repeated multiplication. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. is may be by 207. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.a2 . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . 3 f a = f a = +. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. fa. etc. .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206.faa a a a Obviously 1. follows that 3. 8. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 52. powers of a positive quantity are positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a = a3 . ( a) is positive. According to 1. on to in factors 4. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive.
raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. the required power. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2 11 (afc ) . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 3 2 2 8 . a product to a given power. 5.6 (a 8 8 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 2. (a ) 2 4  3. amVy) 3 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (277171 )*. (2ar). 6. (^^) 2 . 4. 210. 24. .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 4 /2mV. raise a fraction to a power. V V/ 13.6) = a . 15. 76 : (>y. (a ) 2 5 .166 To find To To power. 16. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. \ 3 J '  MW 10.
167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (aj7) . 2.) 14. pansions. Ex. 16. 12. nent of the binomial. 7. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 3 .3 y. 1. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 5. 21. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (3 x . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 8 (a??/) 3 . 211. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . . etc. (5 (1 a) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. + 4aj) 3 . 1 f 3 2 3 . The higher powers of binomials. a. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2. 6.INVOLUTION Ex. 15. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 18.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (afl) . 3 8 . + a 2 a. (3 (l I) 2 8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. : a 20. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 23. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. . (3af26) 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 9. 13. frequently called ex. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . +5a) 22. 4. (6m+2w) (3 8 . An 1.y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 2 . (a + &)8 .6 2 8 ft) . 3.y) = (3 y?y . 8.
5. 3. (3a f5) 5) 4. 25. mn 5 2 5 ) . (?/i~w) : 16.216 a^ 4. 17. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 10. (mJ) 4 11. (2 a 4 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 15. ( &) 5 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 14. 5. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . 4. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 3. (w 4 ?i) 4 . . . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (2 4. 8. 13. .168 3. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (m fl) 2 20.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 6. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (p + q) 4 * 7. Ex. (tff1) (cfd) . and the powers negative.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (m 2 + n) 8 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . is the coefficient of the next term. 21. 4 .a) 3 19. The minus. 2. 23. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (m 5 I) 2 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 78 s . 18. . 1. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 24. . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Ex. (la&) 4 12. (af 5) . 9.2. Ex. 4 (1for) 5 . (?>i?i f c)*. (a~^) 5 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (l 8 . (1 + 4 ?/) .
for distinction.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. etc. V \/P 214. which can be simplified no further. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. \/"^27=3. called real numbers. or x &4 . tity . 27 =y means r' = 27. 109 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and all other numbers are. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 1. V9 = + 3. a) 4 = a4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 215. = x means = 6. 2. and ( v/o* = a. Since even powers can never be negative. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or y ~ 3. 4 4 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. or 3 for (usually written 3) . numbers.
V25 9 16. 7 . EXERCISE 1. Ex. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. v/2^. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. extract the and denominator. 6.1. Ex. 3 33 53 . index. 3/0** = am . fy 5 3 . .(. 2 . 9. 8. 79 2 v/2 5 . . VT8226 = V25 2 729 .  100 a 2 .125. To extract the root of a power.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. Ex. Ex 5 a" .201) = 2.200 . 3. = 199 + (_ 198) . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . V36 9 4. \/2 4 9 . To extract a root of a fraction. 5. 2. 4 v. 82 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.lL. V?.9 = 136. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3i . Ex. 7. 10. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 6 7 = 030. = V26TIT81 = 53. 6. V5 v/2 7 2. = 19472.4. roots of the numerator \/18 . 7.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 8. 9. 2. . 7 . 62 = V2* . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .64 5 4 .
2. Find the square root of a2 . 30.75. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V8. 34. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .3 . 29.EVOLUTION 171 28.4/. 6. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 31. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.98. ^40^4.3. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 116. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 45 V5184. V20 . 5./). . a f2 l 2 + l. 32. 3. 2 f ( V240) 3 . V9216. Ex.3 y2) ( vV .) by inspection. 2 . 33.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 . 1. a* 4 8 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.
8 . 15. #2 a2  16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . + 6 + 4a&.2 ac . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 12. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 10. 11.b 2 2 to its square. 2 2 218. mV14m??2)f 49. and b (2 a f b). 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.172 7. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. The term a' first 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 14. .> 13.72 aW + 81 & 4 . i. 2 . the given expression is a perfect square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a f. let us consider the relation of a f. 2ab . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.e.2 ab + b . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a\b is the root if In most cases. however.2 &c. and b.
The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. and so forth. the first term of the answer. 219. First complete divisor. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Ex. 6 a.24 afy* f 9 tf. 8 a 2 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. The square . 1. and consider Hence the their sum one term. . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. As there is no remainder. of x. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 8 /. 8 a 2 . is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Explanation. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Second trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.EVOLUTION Ex. . 2. 1. . */'' . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. by division we term of the root. 10 a 4 8 a. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. First trial divisor.
4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.12 m 4.37 a ^ . 3. a? 2 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .a 6 x*y 2 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 5 4 16 4 iK . 6.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 12. 13#4 413ar 44a.24 or .25 x 4 4.10 x2 4.V430^425^ 4m 4.9. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 6 11. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 36it. 5. 1 4. 19. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.73 a8 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 16. 17. 2 4. 8. 729 4. 18. . 24.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 20. l 4. 16x6 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 10.40 a 22 .42 a*& 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 436^?/469a. 9. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .25.16. 14.20 o 4.6 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. x 6 4 4 0^4. 15.4 x 4.12m 5 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. > 7.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .73a4 440^436^460^.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 4 .
then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. etc. the first of which is 8.000 is 1000. The is trial divisor = 160. Therefore 6 = 8. the square root of 7744 equals 88. which may contain one or two). of 10.176. the first of which is 4. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. first .000 is 100. of 1. and the complete divisor 168. two figures. Ex. Ex. 1.000. a 2 = 6400. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. etc. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the square root of the greatest square in units. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . of a number between 100 and 10. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.. = 80.EVOLUTION 220. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000.1344. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 2. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the first remainder is. Find the square root of 524. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 7744.
0961 are '.70 6. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places. 3. annex a cipher.10. in . and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1T6 221. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. 12. Find the square root of 6/.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.GO'61.1 are Ex. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .
JT . 13. 30. T\.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 5. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .58 square 38.1410. 1. feet. 31. 34. 33. 36. 39.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 32. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48. J.01. feet. . 37. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .) 40. 35.22. = 3.53.
or affected. or equation of the second degree. This answer Check. or incomplete. x 2 7. 178 . 224. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. A pure.g. Ex. is 12.. complete. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Transposing. 2. 1. = 4. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. . The 7 equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Dividing. 6#2 = x* 24. x = + 2 or x =2. 226. = 7^ + 5. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 225. is A quadratic equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. but no higher power e. Extracting the square root of each member. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 2 ic = a. 6 y2 = 17. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.
=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 2. 19 + 9 = 5500.2.25. ' =: y? b* b . ax Transposing and combining. 16^393 = 7. 15^5 = 6. . 2 4fc 5' 18. Solve 179 . 0^ + 1 = 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 5. . 3. (a? 9. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 8. 4 ax. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 4. 7 = 162. Dividing by Extracting the square root. o. or Therefore. 2 2 a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 10. 6(2)=10(ajl). : 83 2. 7.
. : 6. If 22 = ~^. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 108. 22 a. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. A right triangle is a triangle. solve for r. 2 : 3. ' 4. and they con tain together 30G square feet. find a in terms of 6 . 28. 228. 4. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .) of their squares 5. and their product : 150. Find the side of each field. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. is 5(5. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 . . EXERCISE 1. If G=m m g . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 2 .b 2 If s If =c . r. solve for v. Find the numbers. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find is the number. Find the side of each field. 2. 3. 24. may be considered one half of a rec square units. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 27. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. If a 2 4. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 26. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 25. solve for d. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 29.
Method of completing the square.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Solve Transposing. Find the radii. A body falling from a state of rest. 4. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. add () Hence 2 . 24.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The area : sides are as 3 4. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. sides.) 13. Find these 10. (b) 100 feet? = .7 x f 10 = 0. 8. Find the sides. and the two smaller 11. Find the unknown sides and the area. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. x* 7 x= 10. J = 12. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. and the other two sides are as 3 4. . (b) 44 square feet. is and the other two sides are equal.2 7 . radii are as 3 14. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. To find this term. and the third side is 15 inches. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . we have of or m = . 2m. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. . 9.
Extracting square roots. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Uniting.e. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Simplifying.. = \ # = ff. or J. Transposing. Transposing.2. or x = 2. 62 x 5 = f.1. = . Ex. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.x(l = . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.a. Ex. adding member). (*~8) a = at . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. J. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 230. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.2 a2 . 2 a* a. = 6. Hence Therefore Check. a Clearing of fractions. Therefore. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2  .  \. = x\ = 2.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing. x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
ao. Solution by formula. \bx\. x la 48. 231. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. and c in the general answer. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 49. article. . =0. =8 r/io?. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . = 12.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46.c = 0. 2x 3 4. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.
2 a? = 44 x . ?i 2 . 13. c = 5. 18. 15. = 12 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).. c p. 5 x2 Transposing.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 1. 20. 6. 2 a. a.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6 . 2. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6.4 4 5 . 6 Ex. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 17. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 4. 26. = 64120?. 7. Reducing to general form. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 21. 19. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.25 x. 9. : 86 + 2 = 0. 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 . 6^+5^ 56. V^tT)* . 2. 2or } 5o. 11. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 8. 16. 3. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.  . 2# 11 + 15 = 0. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2 o. TIO. 14. 10.
orz roots. Clearing for fractions. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. = 0.4) = . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.5) =0. = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 2S3x 1 2 . ar>8o.x. Bx 1 1. 27 x== 42a. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. a=:i^^. (5 a? !)(. all or. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. }. 26.5 Solving (1) and (2). 5 = 0. 3x?+x = 7. 24. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232.2. Transposing. transposing terms to one member. 25. 23. Solution by factoring. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. = 0. or # 5 is zero. 1. 233. factors Now. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 0. Factoring. = 14. x(x <2 . 5) = 0. and 6. any degree. x2 = 1 . member can be Ex. Eesolving into factors. if either of the uct is zero. .
Or Hence the 234. aj( 15.6)) = 0. 13. 3. 3) Factoring. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 12. 5 = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. E. 9. 3) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. ar'Sa^ 12. 3. 5. + 100. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. O roots are 2. 4. (aj4)(a. 0(02) = 7(02). 2o3 f9a.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.= 24. 2. } 2 2 (5 . is 5) = 0. 2. + 10 a = 24.3)(x + 3 3. 3^ = 0(1106).QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6. 3# y 5 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 7. + 8=s: 7. for a: . The equation I. 4)(z3) = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.e.g. a?. + 6)=0. : 87 = 0. 14.24 = 0.(. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 0^ ar> 11. 8. x2 f 2 x .:=0. a* 10a=24. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. evidently (x Or 4)(x . members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 16. a?10a=:24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. Ex. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3 or 2 a.
20. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 27. uz + u 21.188 17. '3a!J  . + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). a 2 =(x a)b. (a + 1) (a. 22. ara + ft + c*. (2a? 3) (a 24. 18. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 50. 19. 23. 25.
Find the number.0. and equals 190 square inches. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and whose sum is is 36. 2. 5. EXERCISE 1. 8. 1.1. 55. 58. 2. feet. 2. 6. 54. number by 10. The 11.3. Find the sides. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. G. 57. and the difference Find the numbers. 7. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 3. 52. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 56. of their reciprocals is 4. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 0. : 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.9. 5. two numbers is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. and consequently many prob 235. Find the number. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 2. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. The difference of .0. 2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.3. 4.2. 1. and whose product 9. .3. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find the numbers.
If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. other. he would have received two horses more for the same money. 17. as the 16. sold a horse for $144. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 13. 15. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20.190 12. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. watch for $ 24. ply between the same two ports. 14. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Find the rate of the train. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. Two vessels. ABCD. dollars. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 19.10. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. . start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. What did he pay for 21. If he each horse ? . and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. Two steamers and is of 420 miles.
If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. constructed with and CB as sides. or x = \/l = 1. 27. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. how wide is the walk ? 23. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. 23 inches long.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 237. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find and CB. Find TT r (Area of a circle . (tf. Ex. By formula. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. is On the prolongation of a line AC. a point taken. so that the rectangle. . of the area of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 1.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.) 25. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days. and working together. ^3^ = 7. 24. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. contains B 78 square inches. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. as 0. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.
192 238. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 h9:=0. 6. Hence Le. 436 3. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. or y = 8. = 1. 12. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4. 8. 16. 2.T 2 2 . 4 6. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. a? 15 1=2*. 19. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a 21or=100. Solving. 10. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.)+72=0. >. = 13. T 17. 4 : 89 10a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.2 =4. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 9. 2 16 a^40 11. a. a4 5o. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 7. 18. y8)=0. 4 a.
the roots are unequal. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. and unequal. rational. rational. c the roots are real.f> = 0.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. ( 2a Hence 1. Ex. Relations between roots and coefficients. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. and equal. the roots are irrational. the roots are imaginary.2 z . The discriminant =(. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. b 4.12 x + 9 = 0. 1. it 2a follows 2 : 2. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are real. 3. 2. negative. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.5) = 04.2) 2 4 3 (. . 241. is 4ac not zero. the roots are equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Ex.bx 4. the roots are rational. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Hence the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 240. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. a perfect square.
19 # 20.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. = Q. 2 a. tfmx+p^Q. 23. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 5aj 9. 2 : 3. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 2a. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 15. 21. 17. ^12. 3a. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 6. + 2a15 = 0.. = 5x. = 0. 2. 2 7. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 18 2 8. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. o. f 2 E. lla. 4.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. + 12 2  . 12~x = x 2 . 5oj aj + l = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 24. 9a3 = 0. 22. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 12. x2 7 10. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2a 4z5 = 0. 14. = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j.g. 60 2 = 0. 18. = 0. their product isf. 10 x = 25 x + 1. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. : a 2 .
and . Then the law of involution. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. (a m ) w ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 244. > m therefore. a m a" = a m+t1 .* III. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. provided w > n. that a an = a m+n . however. II. while the second of the first. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. (ab) . hence. m IV. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The first of these laws is nition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents. It is. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .a" = a m n mn .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. for all values 1 of m and n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. must be *The symbol smaller than. = a"" < . We assume. such as 2*. ~ a m f.
. fractional.g. at. Assuming these two 8*. a?*. a . = a. etc. 30. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 23. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 245. n 2 a. e. 3*. as. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 28. (bed)*. disappear. 25. ml. laws. (xy$. 0?=^. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. m$. 4~ . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 24. or zero exponent equal x. 29. a\ 26.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. '&M A 27. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. a*. 31.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.
v'mT 36.g. 7z* Find the values of 47. 40. 50.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 27* = 3. e. 42. = 2. \fi?. 37. 49. ty?. 43. To find the meaning of zero exponent. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 3* = 27. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. = 49. = 2. 44. Let a = a. a* * = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. equal to unity. the base is zero. a . : 2' 4* = 4. e. 246. Vo5 .\/n. v/o&cT 34. however. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a * a2 Or a=l. hence is . a. \/xy \/m. If. 41. 38. 5 a* = 10. 48.g. 35. Solve the following equations 39. : 197 33. 46. 45. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate.
consider the following equations.198 247. e. . by changing the sign of NOTE.g. Let x= or". Multiplying both members by a". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. an x = a. 248. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. vice versa. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . cr n. etc. Or a"# = l. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. or the exponent.2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.
66 45. . 7~ l a 2b 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29."* 38. 2m~i 43. 2 . 25. ^?2 y' 34. 22. 3 a? * 42. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. m . .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. 27. * 24. 37. 44. : mi m~^. 2 . : or 5 . 3 a. 40. ^L. a. c 32. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . f (2w)~i 1 . 36. 39. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. rfS.
26)* 1 (I) 2 . 49.1. = 5.81 f (a . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. z* = 1. 10* 5* = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 250. = . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 59. (. + 1~* f 21 . .008)* + A. + A_.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. of: 3ll4~* 60. z 5or*=10. 47.001. 58. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 10* Find the values 56. 54. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.6).343)* + (. 57.9*. 48. ar = i. Ex. 1. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 55. 53. = ^. 17' 2 51.(. 52. = l. 61.
etc.4 . 6a.$*. 8 ' 9.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .^/5^5. 3sVS.&. 6 *.&.7*. 7. Perform the operation indicated. 16. a. 79 .6 *' 6 *25. . 3. #* a. .7i. 4 x^. 13. OA 20. ' 11. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.$". 18. 12. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 72 .3 aj" a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 95 ^9i 5**. 7~ 5 27  .7W. remove the fractional exponents. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7~ 6 .4 a8 . V5. 10. (d) If required. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .5a. 16. 27  28. 26. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 3 a. &. Remove the negative exponents. 23. 17. 6. NOTE. 7*. . / 7fv 7.5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. are performed. 14. 4 5.. S'sS8.
The 252. powers of x arranged are : Ex. If powers of a?. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.2 d . 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 2. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 34. 6 35. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 40. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V3. A/2.2. s!/3. Ex. \/7. 29. if dissimilar.10 V2 =  V2. Simplify V~ . 34. ^5. 36. (i. 38. ^126. 33. 37. ^6. I VJ + 3VT8 . Simplify V + 3 VlS.2 V50. ^4. V2. ^7. V3. </20. ^2. signs. V2. Arrange 35. v/4. ^30. 28. ^2. 39. 26.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. in order of magnitude : \/7. V2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. + . Simplify/a35 ~ o . 30.3\ . terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 3. </2. 32. v^S. \/5. </3. subtract surds. 5V2. 31. To add or form. ^4. 40. ^/IT. A/3. v/3. 4^/4. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 27. v/3. ^2. Ex. 2\ 3*. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . connect them by proper 1.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 .e. ^3. V5. VS.
3V20 + 6V5. 3. 8. 10. V175V28+V634V7. 12. 11. 6.J a6 V4 aft.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 14. V18+V32VT28+V2. + 3V835V2. 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 4V805V45. 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . . 4. 9. 13.
for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . 3. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. y* = Ex. Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 23. 6*. 1. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 2. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. and then multiplied.6V35 106 460V35100 . .
^/2. 9. (Va Va 36. 38. 6 V4 5. 4. 34. 7. + VB)(2V5). 18. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V42. 6. v/4. 13. 25. (V6 + 1) 1 . V3 Vl2. 6. V2aV8^. Vll. 213 98 11. 39. 14. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V2 V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. fWa 17. a?. VTO. 27. 12. 37. 28 . (3 20. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 19. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). (6V23V3)(6V23V3).VSS. 21. v/18 v"3. \/3 \^). 15. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 2 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. (2V3) 8 . V20 V30. 2. 41. . 8. VlO V15. 40 10 30. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 10. 3. V3 V6. aVa. 40.
47. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 60. 53. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 49. is 1 2. all monomial surds may be divided by method. V3 . (5V2+V10)(2V51). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . the quotient of the surds is If. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (2 45. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. E. Va v/a. . Ex. 44. Ex. 268. 52. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.y.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 48. 51. a fraction.214 42. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 43. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 46.
called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1. Evidently.by the usual arithmetical method.g. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. /~ } Ex. . e. The 2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. by V7. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.RADICALS This method.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . arithTo find. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. we have V3 But if 1. 3. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is illustrated by Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Divide VII by v7.. metical problems afford the best illustrations.73205. however. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .57735.
they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.2361. ^/H . V5 270. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 23 . 271. . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 272. i. V2 22 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 . . A.7320. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 7.. V5 = 2. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.4142. 20. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . VffV?. Vll 212*. and Given V2 = 1. A. V8 12. V48 25. 21. 14. V3 = 1. V8 JL.
V82 2V3 1fVS . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex.1 xVtf a.Vs2 . .2. 1. .vffi^T _ . s Simplify a.= 18. 3. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex. Ex.
19. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 24. .4142. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .W3.7320. By the use of fractional exponents . : and V5 = 2. Given V2 1. J?_.218 6 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. v 2V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. V21 = 25 . 27.2361. = V3 = 1.5 3 = 125. find to _!_. four places of decimals 23 . Vo1 26. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 6V7. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.
: 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 8. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. \/125" . ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 2.RADICALS 219 274. 2 12. 2. 3 (V2~u)  7. 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. viz. on the other hand. \/l6*. the If. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 9. 11. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V255 . . 4. According to G3. V643 . 1. v8f 2\/15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 5. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. it to this form. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Simplify Ex.
2 \/18.A/2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . These Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. +2 Ex. is 11.6\/2 = ^9 . The Hence ^11 . 12 and whose product is 20. 2. 3. Find Vll . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.220 Ex. Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. and whose product is 18. Find Vl2 4. ^TT. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20.6 V2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.
1. . i. 4. The value x =2 reduces each . they are transto formed into rational equations. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. by raising both members equal powers. Ex. VT . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 4x x = 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. r 22.V48 4 20. V48 23. Radical equations are rationalized. = xa + 4 x f 4. +=. are radical equations. 277. : 221 Vl32V22. x2 = x f 2.e. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. first involution. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Dividing by Check. Before performing the involution. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Transposing and uniting. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.. member to 2. 8. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. a. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. 5. (2x xrf 1. 19.
3. Extraneous roots. It = 3 x . . Ex. viz. at . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. V24~+~l = 0. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Therefore Check. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Factoring. tion which has two roots. viz. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1.222 Ex. . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. Squaring both members. V4afT~l. 278. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 2. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the first member = V2. 5. one root.3. a socalled extraneous root. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. a. 4#f 4 = 9. Transposing and uniting. Therefore CftecAr. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Dividing by 24. f 25 = 12. x = J.1) = 0. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Transposing. Squaring both members. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. \/4 jc~+~l = 5.
If the signs of the roots were not restricted. + 6~ieT~3 . (x x = 3. the right member = V2. 2 Clearing of fractions.12 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Check. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. for it satisfies the equation . Hence x = the only root. 223 x = 3. NOTE. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Factoring. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. and to 5. \ does not satisfy the given.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 4.2 r. If If x 3 = 3. or x *j. . x root of the preceding equation. Solve the following equations : = G. both members reduce to 5. Therefore. viz. ViTie 4 z2 . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Squaring. equation it is an extraneous root.RADICALS Hence x If a. Transposing. = 3.47) = 0.3) (2 x . . . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. is x V. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Hence there is only one root.
Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1. Solve af*.
45 14VJB = . 2.f40= 5. 2_8z 440 = 49. Q . = 0. 4. Ex. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Vi 2 8a. 2Va. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. y then x2 . = 7. members of the equation were squared. x + Vx a? = 6. o.*2a. 5. x Since both =9 or 1. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. _ 2 y . But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.i~24 = 0. 3 6. Let 8 x f 40 . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. some of the roots be extraneous. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. + 40 = 6.8 x + 40 = 36. 412a* = 16. 2. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.35 = 0. 3.8 z40 = 7. Substituting. . = 26.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x =6 or 3. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. This can be seen without substituting.
17. 2. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 19. 18. 14. 12. a^x2 5 2 13. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.f 18 = 24. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.a 440 = 35. 16. 15. +3= 6. 4 V SB* 4 a. 20. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +x .226 11. a.
" transposing.2 x 5 by x 3. does not contain a?. we make a? what the value of Q. = 2. Without actual division. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 1. ^ = 381+2.2) Q . ax4 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 227 . no matter If. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. by dividing 3 x* f. Hence. a? R = x* . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 + 80 = 12. E = ax + &z + m) Q.2 + 4.360 = 244. if Q was known. to x we # = 2 3. could.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. then (x 2)Q 0.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 2.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. however. Ex. find the remainder when m.4 a. even if Q is unknown. If x* .bx? + ex2 4. 3 2 Ex. " Or. Without actual division.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + 6. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 43 3 E.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 3.4(.8'= 0. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. The Factor Theorem. 8. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.3)f 11 =. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. fora?. 2 j 7. x m is factor of the expression.228 282. + ^by x + b.949. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. if 8 42  . of the division 3) is m in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.8. x* s 2 4. If the remainder is zero. + 7 = 632. 5 (4x . } 2 by a1. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .g. hence (x divided by x 4. 5.
we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. + 27 + 27. 8. Factor a? 15. Therefore x ( 1). 1. a 2a + 4. 24. Resolve into factors 4. 2. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 9. a 5x 6. factors of the absolute term.7 x + 15 = 0. Let x = . . 106 division. 17. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. a + 32. 6. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 15. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.7 + 16 . 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. is a factor. 2 2. 7 46 = 0. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. a^8^ + 19a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 11. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. or x 4. f 3.12. 3. 229 1. oj 5x2 f3a.9^ + 23^15.e.49 = 0. or 5 4 + 3^ . i. & p*. p 5^ + 8p 4.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 23. 5. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.12 = 0. _ . a? 19. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . f 5. a 8a f 19 a 12. 18. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.13m + 30 10. f 15 does not vanish. 2m 5m . 8. + ttt15 = 0. 1. m f m n 14. ^10^429^20=0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 20. 25. The 5. a.1. are f 1. 21. + 15.r6 = 0. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 3 2 : 7. then x8 7 x'2 4.
x* f/ = (x +/)O . actual division n.y n is divisible by x f ?/. if w is odd. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2. It y is not divisible by 287. : importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. Ex. 1. If n is a Theorem that 1. is odd.230 285. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. xn y n y n y n = 0. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.xy +/). ar +p= z6 e. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. For substituting y for x. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn f. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0." . 286. 2 Ex. if n is even. By we obtain the other factors. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.g. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.
3.= .THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Hence = (m Ex. however.i mn f w 2). as 27=0. preferable. since it more directly to the prime factors. 26. 27. y 3 +8=0. 28. x3 8=0. a. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.
*The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. * A I. (5) Combining (5) with (1). xy are given. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. If two of the quantities x f y. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. however. = 6. & + 2 xy + = 25.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. (4) Hence. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. + 6 a?V . x y. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 4 xy = 16. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. 232 . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. can be solved by the methods degree. Squaring Solve (1). xywe have 3. 290.y4 is of the fifth degree. of quadratics.
1. 12. 3. x and xy are not given. = .g. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ' 10. ^. " "' "' { r 8. I I x + y=7. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. b=3. 108 2. r (" 1 = 876. 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. The arranged in pairs. but can be found.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.
EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 6 "I 14. r^ 2 as ] f. 2 (1) From (1) we have.o 18. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.  .?/ i = 6. la. 19. A system of simultaneous equations. I x+y = a. or y = 1 .i/ = r 13.20) = 0. .  42 y + Transposing. Ex. or JJ. Factoring. one linear and ne quadratic. ' ' .~ y = 5. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. + 29 = 0. 5. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.a. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 7 . ..  f J. I* Jj ^ [. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 4 y = 20.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. aj = 2. 3. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. x " (3) 49 etc.
the example can always be reduced to an example 296. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .3 2x 2 Ex. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3. Solve . x2y. 1. If of the preceding type. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. quantities. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ':il e :) . 9. 3y) : Factor (2). = 1 3 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. III. 10. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. Solve 2. 2 . j Substituting y in (2). } VI09. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 15 x2 . (3) (4) Subtracting.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) (2) x x 5. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = Ex. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0. = 0. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 11 a2 Factoring.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 2. 109 a.
(4) (3). .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Division of one equation by the other. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. " IV.175 ay = 12. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 298. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. f 1 150 a?. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4. and others not belonging to them.y = 7.125 ay = . 150 */2 .3^42^=43. A. y? a? f . Bxy9. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).6.!. E. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. can be solved by special devices. 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' ^ 15.
y . from (2). = 189. x 2 . In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. * ' 300. (1 > (2) 1. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . f^ + 3 7/ = 133.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. 2. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. B. Solve Ex. at first it is unknown quantities. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Some simultaneous ?/. we have from (1). xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Therefore x = 16. = 12 J. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we obtain by squaring. x +y y etc. i ^ *>.. jc~ y = 9. y = 3.
239 Ex. 6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. F+y+ . 4. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 2. I e. Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . 7. 36* 2. [2x + : y= 17. M6.
19 ' 26. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. * . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 25. f 18.21 ^ = 15. 16.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . = 198. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = y 1 y* .4 y = 47 a. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .
Q 7. ~\ OK OO. etc 302. hence may be any finite number. . 31. Interpretation . y % 9 f*K 36. . 25 34. 33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . = 48201. or ~ indeterminate. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . oo 301. etc. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ^ oo . 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . 7' j/ 39. as a . 30. 32.
(1) = 0. The ~~f fraction . Hence such an equation identity. 306. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Let 2. the answer is indeterminate. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. great. oo is = QQ. i. or that x may equal any finite number.decreases X if called infinity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.e. (1) is an identity. equation. as + l. i.e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. it is an Ex. By making x any * assigned zero. creases. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.x'2 2 x = 1.000 a.can be If It is made larger than number. (a: Then Simplifying. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (1). be the numbers. TO^UU" sufficiently small.242 303. cancel. . ToU" ^100 a.g. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. is satisfied by any number. x f 2. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. and . without exception.increases if x de x creases. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . and becomes infinitely small. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 1. Or. I. 1. = 10. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.
y finite QO. Solve . * 6. z = 1 Substituting. and the sum of Find the numbers. and a. = oo.e.2 y = 4. is their 2. 3. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 1=0. (2). no numbers can satisfy the given system. 4 3 x x5 a2 .8 x + 15 6. Solve  9 7. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 42 and' their product is 377. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. EXERCISE 1. two numbers is 76. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Hence /. 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve x a. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts.
6. is 6.) 53 yards. and the hypotenuse is 37. of a rectangular field feet.244 3. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the sum of ( 228. . the area becomes f% of the original area. 10. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.quals 20 feet. 146 yards. 13. Find the edges. Find the sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find the side of each square. two numbers Find the numbers. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the dimensions of the field. equals 4 inches. 8. 190. 12. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the edge of each cube. The area of a nal 41 feet. of a right triangle is 73. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. 103. and the edge of one. 9. 14. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the diago(Ex. p. Find these sides. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 148 feet of fence are required. increased by the edge of the other. Find the other two sides.
differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. is 20 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. irR *. Find the radii. . 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. the quotient is 2.) 17. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the number.
The progression is a. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 11. series 9. a 3d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 19. The common differences are respectively 4.1) d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. of the following series is 3. 2 d must be added to a. P. a f d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. . 17.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. An arithmetic progression (A. progression. . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. P. and d.. 4. of a series are its successive numbers. 15 is 9 f. each term of which. (n 1) d must be added to a. P. : 7.. to produce the nth term. Since d is a f 3 d. a. the first term a and the common difference d being given. to produce the 3d term. to produce the 4th term. a + d. 309. 16..... . To find the nth term / of an A. .) is a series. added to each term to obtain the next one. a + 2 d. f . 3. except the first.. 3 d must be added to a. a 11.7. + 2 d. 12.. to each term produces the next term. Hence / = a + (n ... 10. the second a descending. The first is an ascending.
= a + (a Reversing the order. the last term and the common difference d being given. 2. 9. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Adding. . = 2. = 99. P. 6. 2J.. 7. 4. 99) = 2600. . 5.3 a = l. d .. 6 we have Hence ..8. 24. 3. 8. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A...PROGRESSIONS 310.. . 8. 5. P. 115. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). ? (a) 1. (d) 1J. 5. Find the nth term of the series 2..' cZ == . = I + 49 = *({ + . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. Find the 12th term of the 4... . 10. a = 2. 8.. 2. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 3... of the series 10. (a + + (a + l) l). . 21. 3... if a = 5. 7. the term a. . 3. 6.4. series 2. 3. 1J.16. 9. 1.. . 19.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 5. 7... 4^. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 5. 1. P. Find the 5th term of the 4. 6. series . d = 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .
and for each than for the preceding one. 1. 11. 16. 19. 2. Sum the following series 14. . 31. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . to 20 terms. 20. hence if any three of them are given. to 10 terms. + 3. 17. . 12. to 16 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 2J. to 20 terms. 8. 11.. 12. 16. striking hours only. strike for the first yard. 6. 15. to 8 terms.7 f to 12 terms. to 7 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. (i) (ii) . 7. 21. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. .1 f 3. 11. 11. 15. P. > 2f 2. . 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 15 terms. . 1. 13. 1J. 15. 29. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . . '. 22. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 7. rf. In most problems relating to A. \n. : 3. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 23. 1. 4. 33. 7. Jive quantities are involved. to 20 terms. (x +"l) 4.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 18.248 Find the 10.
e. 133. d = 6. 78 n Substituting in (1). P.~n~\ 408 6). l)e?.. . n d. 6. and b form an A. 2. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = 1014. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). n = 6. P. . a = 49 6(71 .. 312.6 n). 6 n2 . = 144. 56.6. the second one mean between the other two. The first term of an A. = n(104 . 2 (2) From Hence (2). But evidently n cannot be fractional. is 12. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 12. 204 = ^ (98 . Find the series. = 1014. 100. 111. 144. if s = 204. hence n = 6.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 67. #. Substituting in (2). Solving. if a. or if x Solving. 34. 204 = ^ (a + 49). The series is. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.104 w + 408 = 0. From (1). Ex. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. = 13.1). 78. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. s 24ft last term 144. 89. or 11 J. a = 12. the and the sum of all terms 1014. J = 49. 122. I. 1. 45.1) . I Substituting in (I) and (II). = a + (w. 23. Findn. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P.
n has the series ^ j . s == 440. n = 16. 16. P. Given a = . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 3. n = 13. Given a = 1. 10. a x f b and a b. 17.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. and s. m and n 2. = 16. 14. a+ and b a b 5. Find w. f? . How much did he save the first month? 19. Find d. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. has the series 82. Given a = . f J 1 1 / . Find n. n = 17. Find d. = 45. Find a and Given s = 44. 13. y and #f5y. n = 20. 4. 7. ceding one. How much . 6? 9. Find d and Given a = 1700. = 17. of 5 terms 6. n = 4. . = 52. Find a Given a = 7. Given a = 4. T? ^. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 74. 8. = 83. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. produced. n. d = 5. s = 70. 78. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . I. 12. = ^ 3 = 1. I Find I in terms of a. = 1870.3. 11. 15. Find?.
2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .. 24. rs = s 2 .. and To find the nth term / of a G. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . . is 16(f) 4 . 2 a.. or. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. . the first term a and the ratios r being given. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. or 81 315. The 314. is it (G. 4 (1) . 2. of a G.g. +1. P. A geometric progression first. (I) of the series 16. . 4. . 12. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.. ar8 r. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. <zr . P. I.. ratios are respectively 3. ar. 24. If n is less : than unity. E. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD... 4. 108. called the ratio. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 36. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .) is a series each term of which.. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *... s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 36. . 36.arn ~ l . The progression is a. P. NOTE.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . r n~ l .
l. 25. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. first term is 125 and whose common . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 4. 36. . (it. is 3.l. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . 144.5.. 80. . whose .18. volved . 576. 2 term 3. . . Jive quantities are in.. whose and whose second term is 8. ..4._!=!>. Ex. 0. series 6. (d) 5. +f%9 % . 1. 10. 8. 72. first term 4. P. first 5. 144... 144. . is 16. hence. fa. r^2. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G... 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.. series 5. 6. or 7. . 20. if any three of them are given. f. .6. EXERCISE 1.54.18.. a = I..5. fa. 36. Hence the or series is 0. . i 288. . P. (b) 1. 9. 9.*. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.288.. ? (c) 2. P. f. series . 18. 7. In most problems relating to G. 676. I = 670. 72.72.. Find the 5th term of a G.. . 3. P.. Hence n = 7.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. \ t series . 288. + 5. 9. 4. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 36. And the required means are 18. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. Find the 6th term of the series J.
may be than any assignable number. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. I. 36. 81. 27. J. s = 605. to 7 . 14. . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. = 3. Find a and Given r = 3. and hence ~ r . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. be written If the value of r of a G. 25S series : 32. s = 310.. J. 54. >"> ..J and 270.i a9 . 243. to 6 terms. to 8 terms. to 5 terms. 22. is less than unity. Find a and n = 4. 24. to 6 terms. of r n decreases. 12 terms. 4. n = 5... Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 20. Find the geometric mean between 7. to 7 terms. 1. Z s. J. 48. r . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. . n = 5. 42. 16 . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. == 160. to G terms. 81. a^. P. 72. M. 2. 19. 21.nV> i*> !718. J.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 12. 1.. + 4 . Find a and 4. Given r = n Z 5. . . 126. to 6 terms. 13. 15. a.. = 3. 14. 23. . ..
what is (a) the sum of the areas. =A+ 10 i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . . 1.254 Ex. 250.. is J. i. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.37272 . . . first and the common term. = .72.072 + .Ql. P. and the first term is Find 17. 2. 14... I.01 ^ . . = a . of: 11. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. . Find the value 9. is 16. 12.. . i i J. . 6. 9. 1 r = .072. 100.. . 66 Therefore .27777 . .... If a = 40. Given an infinite series of squares... 1.717171..3121212. 6......= _4Z* .. 5... P.. = 990 . 7. 3. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 16. .555. r = j. 2.1.. 4. 4. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 1. .. of an infinite G.. ratio 15..99 .. is 9. . . (6) the sum of the perimeters. of all squares ? . 8. 16.3727272 .. .272727. 5.191919.00072 f . = ..)7?7272 .. . 13. 1. 10. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.= .3 + .. 12. 40... 9. P.. The sum r. Find the sum to infinity.. . . 8. Hence .
b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 2 2 24. (\ 9 . (s + i). 14. . .b ). 20. 10. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 15. (a + b) . coefficient of . /2a+Y\ 8. 12. (xy) : 6 . 4 7. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. .6) . 29. 26. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 21. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 11. . Find the 6th term of (x .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 13. a6 8 16 in . 17. 4. 16. 28.6) 20 . 7 . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 5. (a 100 . l 2. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 22.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a2) 6. : (1 + xy. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 25. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .
+ c(a  c). 4. 4. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 1. 2. 2. c = = = 2. 5. 2. 2. 3. a ft c = = 2. 6. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 1. 4 2. 2. 2. 4. 2. 2. 1. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.  8 ^ 2. l. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. + 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. 2. 1.  2. 2. 3. 1. 5. 2. 1.  a)(a 1.a(a 4. 1. 2. + 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 .  2. 3. 2. 24 4. if x^l. 2. (c 3. 3. 1. 6. 5. 1. 4. 4. 4. y 3. 5. 1. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 3. if = = = 2. 1. 2. 3. aft 3 + 4. 5. 1. 1. 2. 1. 1. 5. 3. 2. 6.f ac 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4. 6. 3. 3. 1. 5. ft 4 ) 5. . 7. 3. 5. if y=2j 2. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 4. 2. if = = 2. c if 7 . 1. 1. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 6. 3. + 2. 5. 5. 2. 2. = 2. 3. 3. 4. ft) . ^+^ 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 4. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. . 3. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 2 . 2. 3.
4 x 4 . 21.7 y 2* 4. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. + 8 x4 *y .3 a?y . 25. or . 2. + 2. 41. 1. 2. a. 8.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 8 . r> . a: . (5. 20.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .c' 2 4 / .4. 5. x3 f 3 ax'2 .2 x?/. . 9. 21.x 5 4 . 7 xy 3 . 4. x 3 x' 14. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 5. ~c)(b. + 1.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .1. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 5. x3 2 a2 . . .2. 10. a /> 3.2. 4 y 13. 17.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2 x 8.a) . x = 4. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 2. b(x (b 1.7 ys.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 z . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 3. if a 6 = = c = 3.\ yz + xz. 2. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 12.8 + 2 // .2 x2 . 29. 7.8 3 + 7 x4 . 15.2 z8 4 x. c = 3.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .a8 .2 a?y + 3 aty . 18.a 4 . = 2. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. + 4.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2  + 12 a 8 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 4. 7y 4 . + 3 y 2* . x 3 11. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 26. 6. 1. a. ' b) + 3. 16. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .5.10. 5. f 8. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 40. . a 4 + 11 a . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .7 + .259 x c) . 6 a4 4 a8 .a 5 a . c)(x a} . 15. 3. 24. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.r 6 x  4 xy .  a) (c 2. x C 4 4x y + .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 9. 2 .3 xyz. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4. + 4 ?y .
c 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .a ft.x .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(x 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 4 . 5 10 + 7 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. 5 4 7 12 .x 2 4. : a x . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.7.] 26.2) . 5 10 4 G 11 4.3 x . and . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. (*) a  c. 34. 33.1). and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. of a.[4 z 8 .1)}] . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 36. 7 12 .x2 . 542 x 2 and . . 4 3 5 y/ .5.4 Vl 4.[4 x 4. Simplify 31.5 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.(5 y . Take the sum 4x 4. From of 2 the 4.27~~7)}]. .(5 c . a  ft + c.3 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .2 .4.(7 x 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. x'2 .3 . 4 2 x2 23.c.c 3 a.. 3 ft.c. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. .x .2 3 ax 2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. . 35.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .(4 x 2 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.2 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 0" 30. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.(a . take the sum of G x 5 . ft.x 4.(4 * . 4vTT~y 3.6T . ft 25. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.2 a .2 x 8y2 44 .8 3 4. = x y ft z.{G * 2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.{2 x 2 .#48. .3.6 x ] . .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. f ft.4 ft) 4. sum of . 29.?> x 4 20.260 19.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 2 x 32.c 4 3 a.4) .(x* . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . c 4ft. 4 4 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. c =x y }~ z.
2 2 . 45. (5 a 39.a~^~c)K].be) (a 58.3 *).3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 64.2 zz .(4 d .{3 c .c 2 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .JT^T+1)} + (2 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .{2 a (ft .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 49. 63. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . . + 4x + 5)(j.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 62.7). 2 52.2c(V/ .3c).(2 x2 .6 xy .& + {.Z . 67. (r (1 (a.2 2 + 1)(7.(6 .ab .3 z 2 ). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.0)} .2x + 3). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 2 2 x + !)(* . 59. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 2 : 7e)a}]. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 48.1). 'J 44. a {. 2 f [3 c 7 a . (x .ac . (x. a .(7 i + 4 r:) . . . 51. 13 a .  2 a  {3 2x a .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.6)}].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . . (/> 4 . 57. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.56.2a .5 )}] + {4 c . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .5)} + (3 a 2 .3)(*5)(* 7). 3 x 42.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 4 + 2 2 + 1). (1 ar+a.c).96 [17 a. .b (c . 54. (4 + 3a 2 . . (1 55.4 a . (. 2 ft 41. .{2 a .(2 a 2 .(2 a + 5 a . 46.12).rf)} + a [. 43.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. )(lz a ). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).6c) (a + f c). 65. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 68.2)(1 . 2 53. 56.(7 a.3 c)].r 2:c+ l)(ar.(5 y . 60. + *+!){> + 2). . (.3). 50.[4 x  5 .[2 .
r 2 .x + y + z). 1).6*y . 4.3 a . (. 77. 2 + a 2 ). . ft /. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.z\x 4.(4 .c . 4 4 .(c 4. .3y) a (* 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). xy y 2 ).c) . 74.(ft 4.(a 48 8 8 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . . Prove the following 8 4.y + z)(x + y .c) 2 . 91. 76.<f(p . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 92. 88.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 2 (x 2 .n pc).2 (y 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 87. (a (2 b)*(a 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .b 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 83. b 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .y)\x y). 70.9y2). 84.c)} .z)(x y + z)(.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.q).ft) 4 .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.y).c) .c) rr identities. (p 2 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.:y)( a.3 (ft .a) 2 . f 72. 89. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . ft 95.c)]. 73.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). ft 78. (a 2 ft 2n 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 94. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 79.v) 4.c) 4) (ft 4. 85. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.c) j. 90.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).(/>  3 v)^(. 82. 86. (x (x ( + *) .ft) + 4(2 . ar .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).2y)(.5 . 1).O (a 4(a 4.z) .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). ft" l Simplify 80. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 71.am&t 4 A 2 *).2 ft}) f (3 a .{3 a . 93.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .m np c .2 (a . ft ft ft a}.262 69.c . 75.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .
c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 121. a*. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).&).(a 1 2 8 .v/ ~ // = a: . r .3 a"+ 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 1). (80 a 112.y 4 ) . 114. 99 100.(7 xi/ .y 2 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 105.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 2 4 41 x 4a. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 2 (a+ .) .(2 a 2 .5 xy). . 10).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 123.4 aft . 1O4. 120.35 x 2 2 ) . 26 (a 4 c). (2< 107.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 122.1).2y 2 4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. [10( 4. 124.*) (x 8 . 118. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 102.a".y 4 . 25 4 . 103.2 2% 4.5 b*).9 x 2 . . 117. 3*. 113. 108. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.r 4 4. 109. (8 x* 115.xy 4.b) 98.27 x* .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).40 />) .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 110.6 y 4 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(x 2 . 106. 116.16 a 6 4.2 xy 8 .
128.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . .5).n . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).264 125.7) = 4 .3).22.1) .5) = 12(4 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). y (* l x.r + 7[or . o o 140. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .9) + 3.3 x). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.r>) .27 a 3" . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 127.3).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 42(3ar 145. . 2 4(ar . . 138. 10(2 x 141. .2) (a: + 3).(x f 9).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). .12 M 132. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.19) + 5 = 4 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.(j a? 144.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 3(2 x 134.3 a:). 139. 1) = 2(* .2(5 .(x + 3) ] . (*+ + . (4 x . 126. .4) .2(j: .(x . (5a: 150. 136.7(4 * .18 *&) (1 .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 129.3(* + 4) + 9} .2(10 x . 137.2 7^~5] + 1).2) = 3 .(1 .2(4 . 3) = x\x .3) = 12 .a:)]}.1) (a? .4(0 x . 148. 5 146. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.G) . 135. 143. 149. 5(2 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .8 6 .5{. .4) . 142. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).3) (3 x 4.3(2 z . 7(2 x . x 147.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 1) .9) 4.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).
9) + (a. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. will produce F.29) 2 = 1. (7 14 . 5(ar x . a: ar a. f^ + ^sO. (2 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 2 4 . 165. find the value of F. 160. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (3 O + . 162. The second contains 3 first.T)O . these two angles would be equal. (a) If C.2 x) (4 .8) = (2 x 4. 156. 161. 157. + 2) + (5 .3) = (3 x .. + 10) (ar . 159. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.r + 3) .l)(z .a:) + 229. 164. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. (a.5) = (3 .7) (1 x .? .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. The sum What 171. . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.17) 2 + (4 x . + 5) = (9 . (x (x a.z) (4 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) (j.1) (s + 3).7) (a. (a .2 x) = (1 . .3) (a: .5 x) = 45 x .24.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. + 4) (2 x + 5).5)(.2) (7 *) + (*. .3) (3 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 265 152. = 15. transformed into F.5*) + 47. If the area of the frame inches. 153. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 155. and the third twice as many as the first.3) (3 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.4) (a . .5(x .76. 166.2) (j? + 1) + (x . 154.2) a + 7(x . = 2 C.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.14) (a: + 3). 163.6 x) (3 .2).25) 2 .(5 x . sheep more than the 169. How many 170.19) + 42. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 158. .1) O + 4) = (2 * . =  (F 32).
3 gives the 174. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 178. aW + llab2&. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. + a. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 4 a 2 yy 42. x* 185. if each increased 2 feet. 188. same result as the number diminished by 175. 186. father. 189. z 2 92. 176.56. 190. number divided by 3. 13 a + 3. two boys is twice that of the younger. Find the number. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. . z 2 + x . 181. Find the dimensions of the floor. 15 m. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 2 2 + a _ no. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. and 5 h. ll?/102. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 179. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. dimension 182. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. +x 2. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. . 187. side were one foot longer. 12 m. was three times that of the younger. . What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. sister . A boy is father. train. 10x 2 192.36. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A house has 3 rows of windows. How many are there in each window ? . 180. the sum of the ages of all three is 51.266 173. 7/ 191. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. + 11 ~ 6. respectively. power one of the two Find the power of each. A each 177. younger than his Find the age of the father.
232.10. 212. 218.x + 1. 233. 2 a 8 . . 201.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. + 3a 196.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a. *2 234. x*y 223. xm+l 243.c) 2  (a . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 210. a a: a: 237.10 y a x* . + 30 x.1. 5 x 2. 3y 248. 2 x 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . x* + 8 2 + 15. 3 x V . 245.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 3y 2 + ary . a^a 226.6 y2 + 4. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . + 198. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. . . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 235. 195. 2 . 2 200. a: 236.3 xy. 216. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 211. wiy + la mx + aw.19 a . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . y 2 194. . a 2 . 213. 217. a+a* + o a +l.77 y + 150. 222. 227.6 2 ?/ . 23 12. + 2 . 244. 202. 7a 228.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . . 8 a: ar. 3 ap 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247. (a + . 238.6. + 8. 16x 4 81.19 z 4 204. x 5 . z 2 2. 6 197. 239. 207. 4 m +^. ifWy+b. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 7x 2 225.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 203. . 246.22 z + 48.14 2 . 229. 3 x 2 . a. 12 x +4. a: 231.3 c/> + 6 cq. 4a 2& 2 241. z + 5x 2 . 2 a 2 . 230.64. 209.c) 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.6 aq .12 * .10 xy. 215. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.20 z 8 a: 220. 206. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .6s. 224. 208. a. a: . 267 199.r?/f y 2 9. # 2  29 y + 120. 8 a. a. 24 2 + 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a.28.3 xf + 3 * 2y .21 a:  54.8 6 2.(b + rf) 2 . x 219. 2 2 y f 1. 221.
9 x + 14. * 2 . 18 x 2 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . 261.3 x .2 z .6 by.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.x .91. * a . 2 8 .10 a 4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x 2 + 5 f . + 3 x + 2.120.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.&z. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 264.M. 10 x 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3. 251. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.ry . 265.3 abc .11 a 2 . 6.(55. 15 # 2 z/ /. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. x 2 + 2 x . of: 253. ft a. 269. a? a: a: // 262.36.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. C.3.10.8. x 2 . z 2 268.14 bx a%% 8 . .9 x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.r . I Find the II.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .a + 2 4.5 ab f 2. 258.48 afy 2 . 3 a% 2 .1 9 . a: .80. 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20.a 2 />c 2 f 3.13.11 x f 28. a. 28 2 f 71 x . * 2 . 257.ry 21. x 2 263. 10 a.18 xy + 5. 2 + 7 r f 2. x 2 4.4.16 x .23 x f 20. 259. a 3 a 2 2 . 254. + 8 x + 5. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 1 x ar Find the L. x* . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .12. 2 a. 260.15 + 30. Reduce to lowest terms 271. + 23 x f 20.15. 252. 7 ax 250. 2 x2 .2 aft*.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .7 f 5. 3 ay 4.G7 x f 33.4 ab + 1.9. * 2 . a 4. x* . F. + 8. 5 x 2 256.C.2/ 2 . + 20 x 4.73 xy . 3 #2 255. 22x2 a. z 2 267. 30 ^ .23 + 12. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x*y* 4. 7 12 2 2 . of: 266. 270.
+ ac . 8 . *2 " 2 + Oge.2* + 3 x* 280.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/..J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j. 285 z4 n* + a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2c a: 282. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.ar 1 279.!/. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 289 ' ..  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.
^_2*(m 308. a (: a) (x 2. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. * 19 23 19(23 23. O(ca) 306.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 4 3 301. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 6) _ ~ i 305. Lnl + ar 2 a.
. 2 + y 2 319.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. a: 1 313. 1 x2 + + a.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } .(a . 1 _.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 1a: + y a. .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (1 . _ x8 . (a? 4 2) 317. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .ft) 2 322. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
2 +lOar 2 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.15 33 . 250 5 10 2 325. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .7 xy + 12 x . 2 lOx 5x.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .V  + y  x 3y a .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. * 3a. .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .y20  2y + 4 2 .6* t 328.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ..7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 20 44 333.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . . a: 2 x* .9 *// + 27 .. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.5 a .ll.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .
' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ( 342.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. a: 349 _ o. 7 ( ?f!?. (aWi + iJ. +^ a: y x . 352. (a \ + lV.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. \5yl 341.y. f V. \x yj 340.r 5 2 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (ar \ 346. 1 345. 5 343.1V. ' 2 "l 5 . 348. if a = 3.. + l + IV. (af2/. + ni + . xi 347. 338. ** i. aj 339. ?_2 ^ .) 2 . : 1+ i. fl. 344. a>74 .+ r . w \. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.
_ + l a 359. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (~ 364. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. + x x a . a2 4 . ar xy + yl x* 358.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 5*8. J !__7. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. __4 2x 3_ = !. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . .*2 = 15. 5 {2 x 381. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . <3 378.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. 4(* . ^ . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.
f 1 1 + a 403.5 ^ ~ a: a. . _____ . 397. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). + 4 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. c . ^ (a .2 a:  1. ..75 x f . 40. 3* 177. 400.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.5 x =r f . m x 398.25 x + . u '2 a. a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. b 404. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.8 = .  8 9* x ~r.  J).147. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.. 401.6  . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.1 .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.25. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 396. 399.
f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.(5 I2x ~r l a) . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 18 be subtracted from the number. 411. and was out 5 hours. 418 ~jo. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. (x . hour. In a if and 422.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.c) .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. the order of the digits will be inverted. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 420. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Tn 6 hours . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. Find the number. far did he walk all together ? A . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 421.  a) 2 6 2a.278 410.
2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 428. 438. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. x 427. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .46 2): (15a 2 . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. .a 2^ 8 + aft* .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 430. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.& 5 ) (a 8 . 431. d. Solve 436. wi* + y= ny. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. a + 5. 433. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 3 and 1J. and : b : c = 14 : 15.49 63). Which ratio is greater.6 8 ). : i. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. If a b : =5 n : 7. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. : If is one equal 434. Find the fourth proportional 426. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. ax is \ by  ex + dy. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find : a : c. b. 432. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 435. a. a  t>. . 2 2 8 2 . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the length of the parts. . if . z 2 y. y. find the angles of the triangle.iand 22 22 I a .
445. x + 17 # 53. 16. 3 . />(. Solve the following systems: 441. 9/> = 2 .7 y = 25. 459. 443. . 446. 7 a: . 444.11 y = 95.89 = q. ?/ 447. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 8 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. Find the value of a. 8 x + y = 19. 56 + 10y = 7a. . 5x+4y=lQ. 457. 7jr9y = 17. /) ar a. 5z4:# = 3. ft. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. c. a: a: + 5y). a: 2y= = 1 . 448. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 5 2 = 7 . 456. 4 = 5 y + 29. 458.55 y = . 452. + 5y = 59. ft. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 28 = 5 a . 3 a. The volumes If their diameters.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 21 7 = 27 + Op.59 = 3 z. if 2 ft : 439. 9ar7# = 71. = 25. . 450.rf2# = l. 454.. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 1(3  a.*. . . 7 442.35. 451. a. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).11 7.4 12 . 455. 42 = 15y + 137. 7a?y = 3. 449. 453.(or l(*2y)=0. 5j + 7 7 = = 2.
i = 5. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ax by = c \ 472.?/ + 1 . x y 474. 465.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. + eyn. 475.+ =2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ^ + i^ = 7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.c=563y. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. (or . ax cx by = m. 473. 8 461. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.2y) (2 = 2J.  = 2. _ 469. 468.7.
479. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. How much money less 484. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. age. years. Find the number. Find the principal and the rate of interest. by 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. to . A spends \ of his. and the other number least. 487. . Find the sum and the rate of interest. Find their ages. A number consists of two digits 4. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 485. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . the Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. whose difference is 4. 477. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the numbers. 483. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 481. and in 20 months to $275. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 486. and in 18 months to $2180. Find the fraction. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12.
2 a. 4z+3z = 20. = 15. 1. a. z y ifi = z x 502. 8. a: + // = 11. 4 506. 5 + a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 492.z = 12. = 20. a: 499. \ . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. * + 425  = .z = 20.? + 2y = 8. 5^ 9z = 10. : Solve the following systems 491. 489. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. = 209. . 4 497. + y 5 y = 101 . 496. 494./ 504. x y f z = 13. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 2 2 = 41. 2y + 2z = a: 2. a number . 2y + 3a = ll./ f z =a. . + # +z= 35. z y x 25 . 3ar 503. 2/>3r = 4. ifi = x a. . 490. *i. 7 + 2 z . 2 e. a: f z = 79. . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. . 498. 3 a: + 5=84. x f y f z 29 .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 3 x 500. 7. y Solve : x +z= 5. 495. x s + y z = 18J . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. ~ 507. a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 493.5#+2z = $x a: G. 1+1 = 6. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2a:f 7.
284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 523. + : = 1472. z z =3a&c. ll" . + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800. 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 36 + c.
L. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 90. they would have met in 2 hours. N. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. E 533. the first and second digits will change places. CD. in 28 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . When weighed in water. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and CA=7. 527. B and C and C and A in 4 days. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. What are their rates of travel? . M. In circle A ABC. Tf and run together. and BE. it separately ? 531. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 532. BC = 5. AB=6. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. . if and L. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. it is filled in 35 minutes.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. touches and F respectively. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 530. if the number be increased by Find the number. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. If they had walked toward each other. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. . Find the present ages of his father and mother. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. Find the numbers. AC in /).
The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. to do the work? pendulum. e.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x*  2 x. z 2  x x  5. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 550. 543. x 2 544. 2 541. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. the function. If to feet is the length of a seconds.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 3 x 539. FRANCE. 2. c. i. 540. 542. . Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. . 2 x + 5. 545. x*. then / = 3 and write = 3.e. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. formation of dollars into marks. + 3. 2  x  x2 . 546.  7. 2. 547. x 8 549. x *x + x + 1. d. One dollar equals 4.10 marks. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.  3 x. 536. The greatest value of the function. if x = f 1. The values of x if y = 2. a. 548. x 2 + x. The values of y. GERMANY. from x = 2 to x = 4. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. b.
c.r . a.11 x* + + 2 8 569. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . J. 18 x  4 = 0. if y =m has three real roots.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.9 = 0.3 x . 2 8 . 2. z 4 . x 4 . 555. and make the unit of the b.4 = 0. 568. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 2 x 2 560. a.3 . a.  2 1 a: a. + 10 x . 3 x . 3 + 3 z . j.4 . 562. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.= 0. + 5 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. ' = 8.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 558. i. 566. 3 . a? 4 x . x 5 .1 = 0.3 x . 2 567. = 5.3 = 0.11 = 0. 553. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.7 = . x* .5 x .r a: a: x a. If y +5 10. . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. // Solve y Solve y = 5. . g. 3 x* . 563.13 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . c.G .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. Represent meters. 565.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r 1 561. Solve// = 0. 557. 15. 556. 572. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. z 2 . h. 2 554. \ to t = 5.6 + 3 . Solve 552.4 x 2 + 4 . . 2 a.17 = 0. a: 559. e.15 = 0.= 0.0. r?. 564. f.
f ^s_ 14 a 4/. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 3 (f. 599. (# 2) . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. : y* or 25. 600.frf : 583. 2  2 aa: 2 . 595. 609. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 592. 4 a. 588. + . 589. f ?>) 3 591. 64 a 12 603. .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 4 (1a:) 3. xY. (1 + x a. 6 + 1) .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.4. 579. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 585 594. . + + 4 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 597. x + z2) 8 . 604.%) 4 (aa. 9  4 fSb 607. (aiy.5 xy = 0. a 2a. 2 611. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. (1 (1 (1 .2 6a: + 30 &c a.(1 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 598. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 3 . jj+. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 943 ++ ~bx. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. j^f = 3.x + 2 )'2 601. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 5 a*.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a:. a 8 606. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . + ^) + (air%)8. 593.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 582. a 612. (a. a. 4 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . <r)3  2 3 a:) . 596. 608. 1 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. [ y =10. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. (a  8 ft) .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. + %) (a* + *) 5 . a: .2 2 + y.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . x [ ?/ 577.
f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 620. *+* = 156. 4370404. /.*. + 24 a 2 4 . V 635. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .150. 650.12 a?y + y*. x 2 641. 647t x 2 648 649.1024 x + a: 256.191209. 643. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 54 'x*y* . 21. 942841. 49. 40. 645. find Jupiter's period. = 87. 2 + 21Ga. 210. 624. 634. Find the square root of 619. 636. 494210400001. 638.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 9g. + 112 a 8 . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 639. 49042009. 3a. VOIOOD + V582T09. 0090. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.2410. = 0. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 630. 637.15174441. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 614.30. V950484 . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 9a. 035. 615. 371240. (x 9 x 646. 626. a 642. 2. 7) 2. 44352. 8*' + 24* = 32.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.V250 . 4J.53 x ~ . 629. GGff. According to Kepler's law.\/4090. 25023844.871844. 632. 625 : 621. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft .2. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. = . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 2 21 x = 100. 633. 32 631. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. = 70. ft .49.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 628. 623. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 651. 622. x 2 . 644. Find the eighth root 617. 2 + 189 z = 900. : 5.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
bx . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 2 697. ex abc= fx 0. 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. . a. 693. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. . 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.a a )jr . 696. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 708. 694. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . = 0. 707.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .ax . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 695. 706.c = 0. 2 702. ax 2 698.
Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. a: 713.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0.25 might have bought five more for the same money. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 729. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 12 4*+  8. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 716. 717. in value.292 709. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 724. **13a: 2 710. 727. 725. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.44#2 + 121 = 0. 217 . 16 x* . 723. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find the price of an apple. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. Find two numbers whose 719.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. and working together they can build it in 18 days. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. sum is a and whose product equals J. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 722. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. A equals CO feet. . 721. 3or i 16 .
(x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 33. 46.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.l).aft* 1 + a 2*. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 41.1 f ^ 2). (v/x).2)(x2 4. 31. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).1 + x.1 + c.2? 50. 39. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 40.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f c" ). 37. 36.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). n. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 35. 1 6.X . 34. 42.2 ). 38. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.)(ai + &. . 32. 43.
768.1+J 756.. 761._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 757. ~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758. JU. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759. 2V2 2V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.294 753. 754. [1r^ T 1 i .
3812VIO. 790. 13 799. . 103 788. 7512V21.2V3* ^ 807. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 10 785. c 792.4 V(j. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.2 V30. 793. a 9442V5. x 782. Va 809. 3J . 794. 14 791. 16 + 2V55. 789. 786.12VIT. 783. . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 806. .VlO. 92VI5. + 2V21.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 787.
830. Va: .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.79.V2 ar 10. 818. 831. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.  5 + V3 f 12 817.Vc^lJ . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 819. 812. 816. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 815. VaT+lJ f ^l . x/aT+l . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 829. \/12 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.4 = 0. + Vx . /9ar a: = 17.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.g. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. + ViTli + V7 . 836. 820. = 1. 814.13 = 0.V? = 813. V14 a. 811. 3 x + 2 .f 5 = V5x + 4.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 833. + 103Var. (x a: 2 ) 4 .\/2y  810. V3 f 1 V4a.
8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. + 512 y8 874. 2 f" + a/ 15. x 8 2 857. 868. 855. 8 8 848. 845. 851. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. . 871.a. 846. 4 x* 847. 4 a. 876. a. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 27 y 8. 2 x 3. 27 862. a 8 869.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 861.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 64. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .ab9 ft*. . f 12. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 64 a 866. 275 8 l. y 4. 4 a: 2 842. 8 4a: 8 a. 8 . . 9.1.3 a:.1000 6. 864.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 856. + 216 rt aty a 10 . V4 x 2 . a 8 850. 853. 16 859. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 19 x 14. + 1.x*y + 3x f 2. 844. 8 a.3 . a. a 8 873. 2 a: 64 y*. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 865. 6 2 f 3 6 s.3 Va: 2 .12. x 4 + f 2 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.3 x . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 8 860. 863. 40 x 2 7 f 49. + . a. 6. . z*y 8 l64a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 872.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. f b**.10 = 118. a 18 4. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 729 867.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a. 8 2a. a. a: . 8 8  13 a. 852. +3 4 +  4. . a l0m . 840. 8^27^. 4o. f 841. 4 x 8 858.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a: 849. 875. a*" & 6n . 870. 839.  3x a.
901. 883.15. xy + y = 32. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .18. 2 = 2 + 5. 2 + 2 f = 17. .1 = 2 a#. 889. M1 891 1 .y 2 = 2 y + 2. x a: lI = xz . 899. 2 + xy = 10. x 8 3 = 13:3. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. z 2 898. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x*xy.y 2 + V(j. 3 x 2 . . + 2y=\2. y = 28. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. +y f y = 7. 887. 894. f ?/ a: a: . a# f + xy = 126. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 886. .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. a: 884. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y 2) = 20. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 . a: 888. . . 885. a. a: a. y y 2 y 2 1121. a. . 878.298 877.xy + y 2 = 19. y 2 2 8f.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 .sy = 198. 895. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 + y 2 . a:y . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. a. 896. 2 + xy = 28.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 900. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. y*+ xy . a: + y 2 = 34. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a: 2 897. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 890.35. 5. + ary + 2 = 37. 1 x 893. y 2 4. x 882.
= 8. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. + ?/) . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 913. 911. 2 * 2 ~ g.r a.x) = 21. x + y 2 = aar. 908. *y . . 907. 914. + ary = a*. y x 2 = by. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 4 (a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y + a:y = 180. + a. x 2 ry + y = 3. 23 x 2 . a:y xy 929. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.y).3(* + y) = 6. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 905. 912. (a. 906.#y + 2 = 27.3)2 = 34. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. y . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 910. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. (3 x . + y = 9. a.y) = 33. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.16 y 3 8 = .2 y) = 49 2 919. ^ 2 . or or a? a: a: . Vary + y = 6. 2 5 xy = 11. xy + x= 15. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. + y 8 = 189. 909. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. # + xy + y = 7. 7 y . 917. .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.23 = 200. ary y = 8. a: a. * + y = 444. (!) * . (o.3) 2 f (y . a: * a: a: ar 928. a: y zx 12. . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. yz = 24.y2 = 22. 923. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 2 924. x f 2 a:y = 32.6.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 920.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y) (3 y .y = a(ar + y). 2 + y = 2 a 4. 921. (* 918. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xa 903. 2 915. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 3 :r(3 . 2 2 2 916.y) (a? . + y)(a. + 2 ary = 39. + 2 a:y + = 243. y 3 2 2 922. x 4 299 xy z 904.
The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and also contains 300 square feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. y( 934. and 10 feet broader. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. + z)=18. 2240. *(* + #) =24. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. + z) =108. a second rec8 feet shorter. find the radii of the two circles. (y + *) = . is 3 . 944. Find the numbers. feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. diagonal 940. two squares equals 140 feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. How many rows are there? 941. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. 937.square inches.102. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. is 20. 942.000 trees. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. 34 939. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 152. A plantation in rows consists of 10. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 943. 935.300 930. A is 938. two squares is 23 feet. and the difference of 936. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. is 3. two numbers Find the numbers. s(y 932. A and B run a race round a twomile course. . Assuming = y. 931. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. In the second heat A . rate each man ran in the first heat.
The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. set out from two places. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. and if 594 be added to the number. What is its area? field is 182 yards. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. is 407 cubic feet. and its perim 948. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and that B. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. sum Find an edge of 954. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and travels in the same direction as A. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. at Find the his rate of traveling. A and B. Find its length and breadth. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find the number. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. 953. Find the eter 947. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. P and Q. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. . whose 946. unaltered. the digits are reversed. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. . 950. distance between P and Q. that B A 955. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 951. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. triangle is 6. each block. overtook miles. Two starts travelers. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 949. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. 952. Find in what time both will do it. .
.. 970. P. 974. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Sum Sum to infinity.454. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 1G series . 3 . 3 + 5 7 + . P. 972. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. '.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.to infinity.>/) to infinity. ^ Vfirst five 959. .V2 . and 976. P. 975. to n terms. 1 to n terms.3151515. + (iiven a +  4 d . 961. n to n terms. 36 963... to 7 terms..4142 . to infinity..321? 965. Find the Find the common 977. *" 968. (x 4 to n terms.. 966. (to 2 n terms). are 29 and 53. the terms being in A. Find n. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. f + 1 . Find the sum of 4. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.. J. Evaluate (a) .. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 4.. 18th terms of an A. Find an A. 969.. 964.  2.. Find n f (ft) . = 4. ^ 1 .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.v 973. P. 16 962... x(x to 8 terms. 12434+ j I 967.. 971. 4 4 to 7 terms . 957. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.302 956. s  88. Sura to 24 terms. 5. !Ll^ + n . \ . 9th and llth terms of an A.141414. fourth of the unity. difference. Sum to 20 terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). . .. 5. 958.1 4 f j$V .
04 + . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Find the sum of the series 988. to oo. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.01 3.2 . 980. Find n. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. The term.. 2 grains on the 2d.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. to infinity may be 8? . P. P. first 984. of n terms of an A. Find four numbers in A. . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.. Find the first term. named Sheran.. : + 9   V2 + ..001 + .. 986. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . is 225. The sum 982.. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. and the common difference. Find four perfect numbers. 5 11. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. and so on. P.+ lY L V. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 1. 992. to n terms. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to 105? 981. 4 grains on the 3d.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 985.) the last term the series a perfect number. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. "(. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.001 4. The 21st term of an A.1 + 2. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 0.. 989. 303 979. 990. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .3 ' Find the 8th 983. and of the second and third 03. 987.
(6) after n What strokes? many 1002. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. at the same time. and so forth to infinity. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. c. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. inches. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. The sum and product of three numbers in G. areas of all triangles. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . . Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. is 4. of squares of four numbers in G. in this square a circle. 999. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 512 996. in this circle a square. AB = 1004. 997. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. and G. ft. 994. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. are 28 and find the numbers. ABC A A n same sides. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 998. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The sum and sum . many days will the latter overtake the former? . find the series. 995. If a. P. Two travelers start on the same road. 1000. 1001. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. P. 1003. prove that they cannot be in A. The fifth term of a G. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. (a) after 5 strokes. are unequal.
Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1011. + lQ . 1014. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. a: 8 7. 1006. . 2 ) 5. 1012. Expand  2 a. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the two middle terms of 1013. ) 1021.l) w f . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". (12 #) 7 . 1009.o/) 14 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. (1 1018. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1008.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .
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signs of Algebraic expression ... Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. Checks Coefficient 20. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution...... 37. . . 8 . . . 232 mean progression . graphic tion of representa .. Aggregation. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . t 53 120 . quadratic . . . ... . . . . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . .178 Completing the square . .. .. ... 112 54 54 251 .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .... numerical . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .130 . simple simultaneous . 54. . 19. .193 11 . 246 91 " multiple.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . ... . Brace Bracket Character of roots . 232 169 807 .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 129 54. 158.. lowest ratio " '* .] Abscissa Absolute term . . 123 . 9. ... . 97... ..... .... . 129.. 9 ** . linear literal Common ** * difference . ... .108 160 " . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ..
42 7 Independent equations Index . numbers .108 Minuend . . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 17 65. .154 Order of operations " of surds . Insertion of parentheses . G. ... Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 84. Mathematical induction . . 227 geometric . . ... . law of Extraneous roots . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 91 . first and second . 23 10 91 102. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. Negative exponents 11 . L. . 212 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 189. Inconsistent equations . 109 102 . 45. 184 54. 112 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . directly. exponent . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 180.. .. . .31. Like terms Linear equation . 9.. Geometric progression . . Known numbers .C Multiplication .. inversely 122 numbers . . 45 Laws of signs . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .. 143. . 241 123 geometric . . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. . 227 . 253 28 70 1. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 63. INDEX 8 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .. 195 33. . .. 120 Member. addition of " square of . . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . P .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. .808 Exponent Exponents.251 Graphic solution of simultane. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 205 .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . 114. . . . Imaginary numbers . 45. 34. . Product '* 76 Infinite. .. arithmetic . 243 7 .
..... .... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. .. 129. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. .. 9.... . 45 Trinomial 240 . 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . polynomial . ..... . 4 155 9 " of ... Sum.. absolute 54 Variable .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. binomial Third proportional Transposition .. algebraic Surds . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
S. Gushing Co. Mass. U. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 8. 1910. 1910. Norwood. 1917. 1916. December. NorfoooS J. 1913. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd.A. August. Reprinted April. .. Published September.COPYRIGHT.
. 19. 6. 2. 6 yd. 8 ft. 3. 1. 22. 17. 4. 5000. 21. T . Page 1. 126. 12. 25. 576.12. 9. 30?. x. $100. 14. 2 5. 14. B 10 mi. 1. 6. . 9 16  larger than 7. 12.000. ^. $ 1 50 10. 30. Page Page Ilis expenditures. C $1(50. 28. 5. 6. 32. 4. 210. 37. 2. 10g..8. C $ 16. 3. 18. 16. 27. V 23. 26z. 3. 12. 2. 14. i . 9 14. 3. 1. 2. 1. 4.  1.000. 4.150. 24. 12. 9. 7. 8. + 1. 12. sign. 20. 12. 26. 14 11. 512. $160. 49.000. 13 S. 48 ft. 25.. 17. 3. C $60. = 5 81. 9.000. Page 4. 3. 8. 89. 19. 13 d. 7. 8. 15. 18. 6. is $10. 10. A $90. 20 jo. 16. 5. .. B $4700. 10. Not 5. 15. 3. 1. 6. 0.000 negroes. 6. per sec. A Bl 7. 3 m. in. 64. 1. 3. Page 8. 21. arithmetic. x. 25. 14. . A . 1. 9. 9.. 18. 7. 16 in. 2. 14. 7. 2. 18.000 Indians. 85. 6* 16. 150.000. 2. 32. 12. 49. 11. South America 46. 7. 4. 1.  13. 0. 73.  1. 8. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 16. westerly motion. 7. 2. 21.000. 23. Ot 15. 9 m. 14. 2  Page 8. c. 3.. 5. 11. sign. Australia ft. A 38 mi. B $20. 16. 2. 59. 1. 5. 128. 2. . in 12. 13. 11. 12. 1. 10. 10. in. 9. 2. 27. 9. 36.$9400. 256.  22 20. b. 20. 10. 6. 115.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 13. 16f 2. Yes. 27. 37 S. 32. 10. 2. 3. 2 ~ 15. 16. 18. 7. 12. }. 25. 1. 9.00000001. 28.. Page 13. (a) (/>) 1. 6. 5. 6. 16. 14.000.2. _ 32. 4. 10. Multiplication. 16.C. 11. 14.21 24. 17. 7. 15. 32. 6. 15. 18. B $80.1. 8. ft. 29.  2 p. 8. 24. 5.. 20 B. 192. 16. 20. $40.. 20 \. 19 4. 8 13. 24. 7m. 29. 1. 1. 15. 2. 3. 3* 7. 2. 11. 20. B $ 128. 3. 72 = = 216. 1. 16 in. 3. 3. 6. A 15. 9. 13. 8. 12. 3 below 0. 13 V. 5. 1.3. 16.000. 10. 144.. 106. Page?. loss. 19. 17. 9 = 4. 3. 4. 3. 13. 22. 6. 1 16. 13. 5. 7. 3. 17.
000 .  0.9?/2 8. (r) 2. 2oVmf?i. 7 7. . 29. 16. 8.r~ f 34. 0.GOG. 7. 9. 27. 12. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 18. 9. 1. c. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 20. Pagel4r. jrif 4 9.rty8. arty 1 20. It. 51 f. 5. + 5. 21 a 3 4 10. 6. 14. 33. . 16. 30. ft. 22.ft. 14:). 2. 4. 16. 42. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 32.. 18... a2 4 15^44.5 (ft) sq. 1. 92. 22( 19. 15. 30. 15. 11. 2. ]*. 12 a. 12. 14. + v> 2 . 41. 5. 35. 8. 11. 13. 12. 1. ft. 25. (a) r>23ifcu. 32. #1111. 58. 30. 9. 10.q 4. 23. 2. 0. 2. 3. 1. (ft) $40.. (r) 78. 4. Polynomial. 240. . in. 3. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 17. i:5. 4.1. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 11. . 22.32 c2 > ft 3 . 6. 0.000 sq. 18. 8. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.r f 15. 15. 27. 0. 29. 35. Binomial. rt. ??i??. + ft). 28. 31. (a) 50. 0. (b) 135 mi. 173. $3000 Page 6. 27. 31.  12. 1. 4. 8.x. .4 ft. 237. 28. 13. 17. 28.900. in. 16. 13. 3.ft) 4. a 32. sq. 27. in. 3 . 4. 2. 17. 14. 18. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 25. y. 26. = ()501. 16. ^). . Page 31. 10. 12yd. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 36. ft. (ft) mi. 8.. 6. 38.. 13. (ft) 7. (a) 200.  1. f  5e 35. 32 2 ftc. Page 7. 26. Trino inial. (ft) 12. 00 24 04 ft. 0. <i~ 26. II. 9. r/ \(\xyz. 4 y/ . 5x+3. 24. 27.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 3. \'\ 4.4  2ft 2 33. 33.  40. 14. ^. ft' 3 . ft n. _ 4 . +/2(/. = 81. 5. 3rf 27. 10. 49. 5. m 24. . 24. 0. 18.  xV 3 y.a . 13 cu. 104. Page 23. 39.14 sq. Monomial. 17. in. 12. 314 sq. 34. 38 ab. 9. 20(. ft. 8. 57. 50. 5. 2x' 2 5 .6) 38. 11. 7. 3. 5. (r) 2G7.. 0. 35.. //'.. 3. 21. 5. 14. 22. 21. mi. 36.'JO ft. 2.. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. m + 3(a. 31. 12. 4. 20. 22. 1. 15. 1. Page 21. 2ftx..3 * 10 r5 <3 . 14. Va'+Y2 8^2 . Page 18. I. $80. vi 14. 43w//2 17. 7. 3(c4a). (c) 8. 27.94(>. 3. 04. 3.<>Gq.ab. 5. 15a. 12. 0. 15. 13. (c) S(i. (a 4 4. 19. . 19. 15. 21. ft. 8. 3a. x^ 20. (59.r 2 .~4. yyz+xyz*. 19.5f> sq. (a) <> sq. (ft) Page 2. (r) 2000 m. 1. a ft c. r:A 29. r+l. 34. 3. 7. 37. 14. WIN + wiw. :J!>r'. :. 3 a* + 2 at*.. 8. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 7. 25. w.. 17.  11. 20. (a} 100 1(5 cm. .  3. 4 9/^/rl 2. 13. ft f 19. t. 23. Polynomial. 6<t. o^ft.'J. 21^. 1.  2 4 13 ft 2 .
4.h.r 2.r. 2 y' 4 . 0. 18. 19. 25.1 . 1. ii\ 22.4c 3 8 8 J. 11.  a: 2.3x 2 2 tf. 15. 17. (mn} 11. 31. 29.  1.. n*. . 814. 5x 2 rt ft. 2 3.abc. 12. 26. a  ISjfat. ^ <.4 d. a 4 + ft. 4ft ~. 1. 2. a 3a 4 2 &. 1. . 8 + 2 a .a*.  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 4. 25. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . . 4. . 28. 31. 2. _5a<>&43c. 5. 15.  14 afy .2. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . mn.a f 54. a  49.7. 34. 3. ?/.5. 16. 7 a5 1 . 30. a 3& . 20.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ti. 26.4x. 35. 3. 2 . 2. 364c. 4wipg>' 27. a + (ftc4df). 13. 2x 4 a 13. 14. (2n' 43p 47 ). 33. a4 4 4. 13. Page 8. 2 4.  4 b 17 y*. 38. 8. 15. 4r 2 . !  </ .8(c + a). . 2 a f 6 414.a'2 . r. 24. 21. ?>4tl 53. 32 w 2 w. 36. 32. M + 10. 6. 21. . 7. (w4w)(ww). 2m + 2w. 2. x3 . c2 . 17. 43. 8 b. 6. ( 7. 11. j)(g1.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2 2 2 6. :5 41. a 52. 2m.3 6. (yz~d}. 7. 25.2 a. 5.l.2 . w* ( . 26. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 24. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 34 39. 4. 1 4.  b. 18. 7  a + 2 + c. 3. 2 + a4l). f ft 9. 42. 8. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 20. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 58.. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. a).2 ft 2 r2 10. a f 2 f 2 9. G a bd. 2. 56. 36. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 6. 11. a a. 1. 40. Page 44. 19.  17. 5. 3 m.Oa: + 10. . 7. 8. 59. 12. + 4 c. G.(2 x2 .6 x + 0) 16.2 57.a .a~. 19. 2// 16.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. '  .4. 2 6.1. 6.c.2 a2 2m 2 4. w 17.5 z?/ + 3 y . 2. 24. 25 47. . 2a: 2 4x. lOrt 15w4. 5. 3 Ji 8 . 16. 2 2. . Page 7.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 10 m. . 14. . 10. 7  # + 12.  23. 3 a3 & 41.ws 2 ft) . 7.  b* 4 r 1 . a2 9. a.aft. 5 2 Page 29. 12. a + a. + 6. 51. 2 3x f z. Page 28. 2. x  + 3z. 2. 9.  12. ft Exercise 17. 12. s_r>a5. a 3 . 4. c. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 50. 2. 20. 37. 10. 1. \ :{ 2 a 48. 22. ?/i 13. 14. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.(7x2 Ox2). 8 8 . a 6 2 . 0. 2 . 1. a 10w. ri\ 18. 10. 8 . 2. 24 b 46. 1 + 45. 14. . . f 2 ?/  2.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 10 x.x f 1 2 . + 8. c. ?> 22. 3 a . 21. a' 4ab + ?/. 4 21. 2 a 37. (5x47 3. . x a8 1. 4. . Exercise 16. t). _ Page 30. m*  n*. ar. 22. 55. 0. + 2y. 2a. ab a.'U4j>.11. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2 17. a2 24. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 18. &.
r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 216. 102.16 x2/ 5 4. 17. 7. 4 a8 . 360. a + ft. 16. 2 w +2 2 . 66 8W 34. 8.32 y s s G . a: .>(/ r . 2. 32. 1. 12.2. 6.7(50. 12. 28. 1400. 42. 11. . 33.21. 76 8 a' 1 . 4 7> 4 :j !} . 4. 32. Page 3. + 58 . 33. a*b*c. 4. 18. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 16.21 a 3 c2 21. 28. 17. 25.25 + 14. 18. 20.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 9 13. .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 9. etc.36 35. 38wiw. 21 a'&c. + 7.44 aWc 16 abxy. 1904. . 10. 3. 30.:>/ . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 12. 34. 27. 4 jcy*z*>.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 16. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 5aft(a 126 2). 108. 2 . 30. 13. 21. 13.26. 6". 7. 4200.32. 2 ). 18> ^* = a . 19. 161b. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 26. 20. 2*8f x2 6x4. 20. . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. . 17. 15. 15. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 14f 5. 27. 36. 3.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 7. 19. 1. 23. ci 5 . 8.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 7. 2 7t A. ?> 4 . 3. 30. 23.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 18. 210.19 + 2. 3300. 42. . 21.8 12.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 4 fc. 20. 2 8 xy f 4 a. ^^ = 20. n (a6) 125. 30. 11.1. 7G . 161b. 2. 23. 26. 25 4 4. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 15 q\ 6. 16. 64.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 13. 31. 25. 34. 2 ). 1. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 29.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 25. 2''. 52 + 6s 12. 33. 6 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 8.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 22. //. 84. 4 a2 . Page 5. ?/ .14 w 2 2 . (+3)x6=+16. 2. 343.28 p'^/.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 108. 21. 8 . ! 2. 24. 30. 22. 4. Page 7. 0.r% 2 2 ry. a. 10. 11. 6. 10. 3. + O4 66 . . ft 17. +. 25. . a 8 . 24.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 6. s 9 ww. 24. 15 lb.000. 127"'. 5. 4aWy. 19.15. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 1. 4. 14. 34. 5. 14. 28. 16 51.6) =a2 31. 04. 23. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 14.20 xyz . 12 x2 2 . 37. 30 j9 jt?g j . 3 a 2 46. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . . 2 * 80 . 1.14 . x2 xy42^. 9. 9. iSx8 . a. 10. 12 ^. +15. 120. 4. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 15.16 a 2 + 32 a . 60. 22. 20. 18. 20. 18. Page 35. . 90.. 216. Ox a 5 .12. 15. 18a% y. 0. 4. 8.. 15. 20 aW.11 xyz . 2 2 2 . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 6. 60. 2. a.. fa 2.(3x2_4^+7). 29. 83 In + 1 n*.64 190 p6. 13. 14.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.. 31. 29.6 2 . 40 r 2 . 30.12. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . Page 38. 3 a 3 .19p" + 19^ 10 . 3(*+0 + 2). 29. 30 n?b*c*. 1. 8. 17. f 26. . 24. 2 a2 (y 2 . 18.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . Page 36. 28. 19. 27. 35. 16. 27. 13. 27. . 11. 16 lb. . 22. 66 39 k* . 14 m 2 . 24. m. 1. ll 2 i. 770. . ISartyW e*f*tj.
(w4)(w + l).84 a' 9.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. a' .996. 2). + 4 a +4. + 3)(3). 38. a + 25.606. a + 56. 20a 2 21a + 4. 3. 15. 1. 2. 2 +10s281. +4 34. 2 . 11. . .10 35. 4. 34. 10.6 xy . 2 62 V2 132. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 27.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. ^' J  7 f 12.10 x + 25. Om2 4 6m 6. G a6 2. 4 .r . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 33. . 8. s rc 47.8. 30 /><. + 2 9. 28. 14. 14.009.008. .5 ~ 81. 9801. ^V^4 . a 2 .000. . 4 . 5. . 26. 4x21.009. n + 2.49. 18. . x 2 f xy + 9 41. ab. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 51. 25 a 2 6 2 .001. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. (w+4)(m4). 19.^V"' . ^/> 8 4 . 10. 9. 36. Page 12.1.994. 10 a 4 ?. 7 . 7> . 19. 4 2 //. 26. 32. V + o ft .p132. a4 4 ?/ .500.6 x2 13. a2 ' + 48Z100. .2 x + 2 x. ab . (a + 4) (a + 2).712. 4 21. . 1. a + 25. +  m' 1.16 a3 f 50. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 166. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 9. 37.x2y22. fo*. 10. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 55. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. ft' 11. 36. 31. 24. 31.4 12.54 p 2 + 81.^.3. 10. 12 x2 . 2 1: 21. 2 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.020. 27.00 + 37.4 a&+ 4 &*.ab . 21 2 . 24.20. + 12. 42. 17.6 y4 10. 8 38..15. 441. 41. 2 a 2 + a . . + 10 + 121 y*. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 2 j3 Z .2 y*. 15. 10. 1. 29. 4. 484.35 ab 9.098. 10. 2 (5 a 3). 16. . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. (m + 6)(m3).<* &2 + 106 + tt + . x4 28.^ + a? + 1. 990. 10. 1.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .4 n. . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 29.14 jp + 49. x2 GiC+5. 44. . 31. 40.6. 2 fr . 2 a' y' . 3wi2 m Page 42. 999. 56.201. 30 x + 19 x3 .. 2 4 a + 4. (a (3 54. 40. 14.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 6 2 + 6lf>0. 32. I/).404. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . + 7 6)(3a~76>.25. x 48. + 4 t*. 36 a 4 . 11. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 7. 1. 8. 2 12. 4. 3. p 2 . Page 39.r* 2 30. 52. 1. 998. r. 36. . lflrt 2 8 + l.004. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .r .810.2. ' 46. 9999.m 30 6 4 1.ri 17. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 4 x2 13. 8 a W . 2 6' . . 25. 2. ~ 6 20 .020.000. +   5). 2 0)(p + 5). 10. p4 + . a3 0. 53. ) 4' 6/ 49. 6. 40. 8. m 2 . w'n 2 //^ + 25. 33. 7. . 39. 33. 37. x 4 ?/4 + ab . .ANSWERS 28. 35. 7. 9990. 57. 5. 10 a' 2 . m 3 j) 3 . 23. (p 2. 1). 10. x* . 45. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. x*2^f I.2 6 + 13. 10./ . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 34. 9 4 /> . 39. 4 + 25 q*. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 30. 10. 35. y. (n 2 5. n2 a4 6. 2 4 2 2 64 . 6. 25 25. ?/H)0. 41.
4 x. 7 r . 1. 12. . 6.12 aft 4 20 ac . 17. 4. 19. 20 15. 20. 23. abc 7. 10. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. i 2 tji. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5 4 a Oft. 13.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . Page 13. 12. 15. // 19. Page 22.x^. x 2 + 2r f J. 2 ? 14 . r 7.1. 10. 6x 3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 18. Exercise 27.  11. . . 3. c 12.rw f 8 .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .3 5. 3.r'^ 15. + 4. 4 pq. G.24 .3 x 2 2 4. x4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .3 3. 5. _ 2 a . 8 ?/ .2 2 2 8 . 4 a* 4 9 11. 2 2 + 2 a. 4. 24. + 3. 8. 14 r 2 .1*5 2 r 2 . Page 11. 2.5 mp. 75 a 2 29. m'2 3. 3 a. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.r ?/ ??i ?).w. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.2 ftc .r?/. 46. .5 n*. 8 x .r . 4. 11. 19. 4 ac. 14. 13. 3. 2 ^r ???' 2 .9 d.1.3 ry. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 2 a 3 ft.2 . ft ? ft' ft ft.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 1. 14.2 1 //. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.1.r' ~ 16. .  12 y 25. 4.8. 1. .2 <</. . 2. aft. 5. r ft. 44. 47.10 xy*. 3 aft 20. 2 12. 13. 18. 11. 8 ?/ . .y3. 17.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. y 7. ft* ft / . ??.2 2 . 9. r/2 4. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. c3.VI ANSWERS 43. yfl. 9.000.2 .2 ac . Page 51. a 2 .3^V. .n.10 2 + z 2 410.1.34.7.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. Osy. 5 a  (5 ft. 1/*.3 a 41. f>r* 4.  10. 4. 3. 8.2 wZ 4.  3 c. 6. 2.25 c . 2 . 3*y2 w + 1. 8. 21. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 . ti'jry1 7. 1.2 aft 4.lit x + 4. '.27 x 2 4.30 ftc. 4 d 2 4. 16.15 21.  5 z* . 1. 22.r" 20 S? . 5. 2 4 2 x 4. /r . 4ft.15. 125. 6.23. a 10. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. .rw.29.r?/ j/.+ 77 15. 9. 1.8 yn . ?/2. +w . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 8. 16.1.6 :rs 4. 9. 2 4 3 9. 5. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 5^418(7. 5. 4 c m . 5.1. 7a3ft. 12. 11 4. 21. aft 12. 4 a 2 4. z. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. aftc 52. 15. 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. + x?/ 2 1.21 2 2 f + . 5. w . 6. 2. . as _ 10 16. 6. 5. 1. . :r !>. 50./ 4. 49. 2. 14. 1000 1000 . 2 4. 17. 16. 12. a 8 4. l 4 . 4. ft 17. 2 . 8. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 2. a. 4xy + 13 <) . 2 1. 3. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. . .25. x 4. . 2 ?/' . a 4 4 ft. ft. 01.9 4. 135. Page 7. 14. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 13.2. 13. 13. 2 ?/ 4. .  . 3. 12.> 10. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 4. m L 4.8. 10. 14. r//.1. *3 y 4 . 10 ft. 8. 4x43?/. j) . 5. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.2 ar. 26. Page 48. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.4. 7. i 9. w 2 .8 y. 9.5 a .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . sr 11.
) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 35. 7. 4(a ft) c = 8. 17. 47. 20. m+ 11. / + y + a// 12 yr. 7.. 46. X 60. 3. sq. y 50. 34. 5.(3x  700) = 5. 12. x.  />) a = all. . 10. 39. 58. x 2y 10 act. r>?imi. n M. Page 61.r1. 20. + 3x + 2y + 32. d + !. f = eZ 2 x. 1. f 6)(o 62. 18. 10 yr. . (2 a. fix.  6 10.p+7. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 0. Page 13. 3x2. r tx mi. % 4. 2=10. 38. 2x + 35. 41.  9 = 17 a. <>. 38. 'nj 100 a 28. m +~m 3. 22. 9. 36. 2. 16. Page 40.100. 29. 37. 7. (>. 23. 30. 36. y 100 a 24. 1. 16.6 = *. 31. 5. 44. '^ . 29. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 17.ANSWERS Page 9. 6. 1. 25.rr2. x 49. iL*. f (I. "mi.(3x+ = rraxlO. 7. . (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. ] 2 ri 42. 3 9. # + 20yr. 11.r ct. 20. 2. ? 43. rn mi. a 8. 4. y ?>i x + 26. I. ct. 18. 17. 8. 24. I. . 6. + 3 = 2(3* . 11. x 48. 6.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 2b 22. 800 = x + 1300. 5.000. </ 20. 9. ct. 23. . (c) 2x. " lir. 1&.10) 100.x700. = 5 ?i x 460. 4. a 10. 10 x sq. Page 6. 41. 7. y 2z p= 3 (a c.  2\. 10) + = (a) 2 x .. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). + f + b 2. 10 >_&. 10. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 4^ = 100. 2. 42. l. 100= ^. 15. b. x = m. 4. vil 56. 43. 100 14. (d) 2a + 10 = n. . 27. ct. 3x  1700) = 12. 14. 10 a. ft. 7. ^ 12 sq. 57. 8 n  10 yr. 37. 13. 33. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 3. 2. lO. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 8.  1$. 4.7). 0. 7. + 4x 3y 34. 100 d ct. 28. lOx 10 + w.. 14. 12. !). 4. 32. 5. 30. 4 f 39. 33. + 10 b + c ct. 2b. (a) ' 12. 100 2. b. 45. v (6) 2x. 19. 3. }f. 5. s. ( a f 4. 7x 2 Page 21. 00. ft. 13. 10. 26. d. Jj12. 13. y yr. 5. 44. 2 ct. (</) 2a. 22. ft. 6. (> 27. 50= L 100 15. 59. 1. x y $ 6 yr. .. 40. 2. xy ft.ab a. 16. 19. x + 1=a. 11. Page 31. 2. 21 2. 60 25 1. 1. 15. 25. 10. 6.
5$ hr.000.000 Berlin. + 7)(y3). 80 A. 29. 10. 5 lb. 30 yr. (c) ^ v ' . 25.0. 4.. 14. (m + n)(a + 6). 1250. 2. 9. 11.24.000 gold. Ib. 71. 13. = _?_(2ar + 1). 2$. 16. 1. (p + 7)(3a5&).000. 4. 8. $40. (y7)(y + 2). 100 1. 3 (a +&)(*. (y + 8)(y2). 3. 55. 12. 90 mi. 8 2 19.  PageSO. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 78. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 11. 3x (3r. 52. 45 in.. Page 5. 12 mi.. 3. 11 pV (2 p8 . 2. 25 yr. 1313. 40 yr.000.10. 200.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 480.2. (a5)(a4). ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 15. 18. 8 in.79. 28yr. (a 4) (a. 8.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 14. 20. 10.. (ro3)(w2). 13.000 N. 3.3).3aftc + 4). 5.21. 11 w(w' + wi . 75. Page Page 4.5p + 7 g ). 600. 13. 5pt. 2. 20. 14. 2. 9. 12. 1.000 ft. 20 yd.. 14.000. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 2. 30. 7.22.5. Page Page 4. 6.210^. 5. 10.. 19. 12.000 copper.1). 6. 2. 68. 8. ?(g ? g+ 1). 160 lb.000 ft. 5. 2. 30. 10. 9. 1. 6rt 2 11. 78. 20 yr. (a + 4)(a + 8). 2 3 6 7. 18. w (/) 64. 2). 70. 12. 11. 15 in. 11. 85 ft. 3. 200. 12. 12.16. (y 13. 7. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 2 2 2 5. 20 yr. 50. 7 hr. Page Page 480 12. 10.5. 30 mi. 13. 250. 180. 300. 18. 1. 6. 10. 42yr. 1.(5z . 8 12. 8. 90. . 7. 10 Cal. Oaj(o62cd). 5. 10 yd.2). 25.0. ~=90. 67.. 10 Mass. 24J. 9. . 05. 1. Pace 65. 10 yr. 150. 7. 8. 15 mi. 21. 74.000. (*4)( + 11. 3. 7a*fe(2a & l). 9.. Page 7. 6. 9 in. (a + 5)(a + 6). z?/(4^ + 5xy . . 6. .000. 4. by 12 yd.6). 15.411. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').. 23.y"). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).7. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 22. 6. 1 lb. 100. 1.. 13. 8. 17. 11 in. 3. a a (a 8 a+l). 15. 4. 1200. 17. 3 hr. 1200. 10 yr. 9. (e) i* + A. 3.. Page 79.3. 10. 14. 8. 6. 15 yd. (6) (6 a 30) =20.. 7.. 9. 70^. 7. (yll)(y4). 6. 15. 14.13. 4. 4pt. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).11. (z5)(z2). 20.000.000 Phil..3. a 12.. (a + 6) (a + 3).8. ^ . 4. Page 7. Y. 5 Col. ( + 4)(*2)..000 pig iron. 15. 5. 2 2 ?/ 21. 82 mi. (y8)(y + 2). 72. 8. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .
f 2). 7. Yes. 23. No. 2 17. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 26. 4. (w* (3a26). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). . Page 83.* (2 y + 3)(y. 16. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). y(x. (2w+l)(ro + 3).3)(z2). 26. 3.+4 y)(3x4 y).9*). 9. 3a. 24. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 19. + y + .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 10(a + ft)(aft). 34. 3(x + 2)(zl). Yes. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 1. 10 a 2 (4 . 27. 7. . y) (a. . 10. Page 84. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 18. 216 aft. + 2y).1). + 4) (a. 100 (a. No. (<7 20. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 2 No 4. (2xl)(x + f>). (a 3 + 10)(a. 28.y (6x + 4)(5x4). a . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 22. Yes. 24 9. (5a +l)(5a l). 12. (3a. No. 9. 27. Yes. 14. 5. 13. 32.2). No. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 25. (5x . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (10a + ft)(10aft). 2. 27. 16. (7 a + 4) (2 a . . (2 a? 4. 29. (a a: 19. 21. (a 6 6) (a 4. .4p). 2. 10. (:52y)(2a!3y). 100(x.6) 2 2 .y4 ). (g . (15ay2) 2 . (ft + ll)(aftll).  x (5 a. 8. 7 6) (a 10 6). 30. ix 18.. 2 3 by2 Yes. 26. 15. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (x + y4 )(x . 23. 22. No.r2).4 6). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 14. 32. 10(a .3). Oa 2 (a2)(al). (2 *+!)(* 9). 10. . + 3)(c44). 33. (a (p8)0> + l). ( 2 4 19.8).c 2 ).7)(2z f 1). 22. 19.2). (w + 20)(w + 5). (m + w) 2 5. . 29. (m7n) (a. . 17. 20.1). x\x 24. (4 18. 31. (13a +10)(13a 10). Yes. Page 82. 5. 4. 20. 22. 26. . 3)(3a. 21. + 5) a.5y)(3a. 35. 34.7) (a. a*(5a f l)(flr . Yes. . 25. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 2).2 by2 6. 23. Yes. 10(2 30. Yes. 28. 9. 3. 28. 2 2 15. + 3). 24. + 0(90 Page 85. . 1. (az + 9)(ox2). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 8. (3*2)(. . a(2u. (y8) 2 2 . 17. + 9^)(oxy .4. (5wl)(m5). (9y4)(y + 4). 35. 12. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (3#y)(+4y).2 ft).1). (6n + l)(+2). 103x97. 21. (a + 8)(a3). 10. (4a. (4 13.   . (15z2y)(x5y). 1. (ay8)(ay3). 20. 31. (6 a. 11. a. (4y3)(3y + 2). 11. 11. 4 (a . 9. 25. 3. .y) 2 aft. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (* + y)(zy). 6. 6. 12. 8) (a. 7.11 ft)(a6). 36. (y + 4)(yl). (15a + 46*)(16a46). Yes. 25. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3).6) 2 1. + 8)(g3). Yes. (2yl)(y + 9). (2o + l)(2l). 40 x. x(x +y)(x y). 18.ANSWERS 16. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. 23. 15. 13x7. (w ~ n (x . (4al)(a2). 8. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 16. 21. y) 2 29. (m + n +p)(m + wp).2 y). 24. 17. (0 + 6)(66). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.1). Yes. 33. 30. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 10(3 5 6) 2 . 9. 200 (x + l)(x + 1).11 6) (a 4. 2. 14. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (a. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).
8) n 43*). . + 3. 16. a + a b. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (a &4.  29. 7. 40.7s) (2 a. ( (<> r4y3 . 2 k (wi 4.X 5. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 12.8).4). Page 86.. (^ 7. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). (r420(4 10. 5. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.1). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (5 31. 5 x8 3. 8. 14. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 5. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 6. 2 y) ^ .5 m2 x2. 6. 8). 4. . (a 9. 7. 20. 41. (5a+l)(9a). 12. y(2x?/).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . n  r)(5a 10. 450. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 17(x43//)(x2y). (5 26.4. 10. Exercise 47.9). ( { &). x 4. 7. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4.8) ( (16.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 16. a 41.1) 3. x(x f y)(jr . l. a 4. (16 4  2(5 n .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 1(V/ 88. ?>).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (a />. 27. a 2 (a9). 2 8(w .3. . 7. 30. ?i(w 4y) . 13( 33. ^ . (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). a (a + 2 6). ah}.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 11. 5.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 2 . 4 6. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . y )(. 10(2 (3 4.y).1). 4. 2. 5. (f> + fo 7.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 13. 32. r x 2 */3 . (a 4. 14.2). 13. . ofc)( fid). ( a ^)(^3. (2x7)(x 2 2). x43.42 x 4. 13. 7. 2 (a 4. 38. 2 1.?50)(xt/z. 14. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 2. 13 x 8 2 . 18.4.y. + 2 //).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 11. (14. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 8. 3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. ( rt 23. 3 x4 . 4 a8 . 28. (!__/>). 11.  WIM. 42).&). 4. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (x. 3x(x?/) 4. 1. 24. b) (r 4. a 4. 9. 2(m4l)' . 22. . 6.0+ 12).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).) j). (w * . 14. Page 89. 4 a s &8 . 2 21. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 9. (^ + ?>_8).n). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2. 4). 4.?>) H. 12.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.36). y). Page 90. (5^4. 2 2 3 .7)(^ {I 12. . 2 + . 6.'})(c . 8.2)(x 1.?/). 8.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (m  I)' 6. Page 92. x .'/)('< 4.b.l)( a 25.3. 4. (w4w) 2 1. ( y). 8. 39. 5  (2 2 . 2 2 10. Page 87. a8 . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 37. 6 f c). 17. (.e 4.2 y). 4 3. 4  9. 6. (* _ 2 )(a 4. (> 1. 15 M.'J)(' .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).3)(x 4. 24x sy s 9. 8. 6. 8x. 42a 3 x.^ 48. Page 12.y)(fi a .2). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 35. y6. a x 3 10. 36. 15. 8. 15.4). 7. 19. fi(c426).!) (x42)(x2). (c.y '2 2).  (w' 4. (x//. 2.))(x  ^OC 1 1). x  1). Gp). Exercise 46.&). (7/1 2) (m 41). 11. 3(.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2.
+ &) 2 ( .6). a 23.  1). +8b a 4 3 / ^.ANSWERS 10. a 10 25. // m+1 !+*?. x 12. x 22. +5 1. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. ?_!&. + y) (a: y). 30(3 2 (a 15. (a2)(a + 2)2. 13. 18. 11. + &)(&) ( . 2(2al) + l). 6a2&(rt6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 1). b ! 21.
1. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. + 2H 1 ^. 0. 4. 28. 4c 10. 6a5f^. c 8. a 5. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 4 L 8 2 .  **/* + 84 _. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. Page 101. 7. i^. 11. _*^p5_^^_.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.50 ~ 1/2 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 6. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.. . i. A^. + lH + . 26. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 2 a. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 6. xy 43. ^~ 29. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ' 2 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. w1 + ac w 4 7. Page 100.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.
18. 1. 5. 46. 17.ft . 8. flf. 12. x\. y(x + x ?/). 1. 43.  V o 4. 5. . 24. 12 28. m 9. 4. ft. Page 110. 1. 21. 13. 16. 4. pf n 6 1. 1. b a f +c 14. 7. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 6. 41. 14. 11. 7. 6. 27. ^_. 16. ?. 4. Page 113. Of. 5 be _J_. 25. Page 106. J. 23. 31. 6. 6. 8j_m 7 3. 9. 7. 45. 1. 17. 36. 3. 2 47. + f. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. 3.y 7. 11. 2) 19. ' 6. (y + (z 12. 8. 15. 21. 21. c 8. J. (>. Page 111. 10. n 16.  10 X + u. 4. 40. . 3. j L . 4a3ft. 14. x 05m ' 5. 10. 44. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. x 1. 33. 29. 1. A. 35. 1. 1. 3. 42. 30. 1. n m a + 13. 9. 0. 12. a 17. 4.^U\WF### X<6. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 5. 34. 4. 1. 38. 19. ?+_!?>. b 2. 6 . 15. f Page 107. f 7. +3 ( + 15. 11. 7. 4. 3. 11. an 18. J.^_. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 14. 15. 3 7 i o. . a2 2. 39. ! 4 20.L+ft. ^i 11. 20. I) 2 3z 1. n . xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 26. 5. a. . 37. 3. 0. 32. 2ft a i m x. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 9. w^x 2 b Page 105. 6.
9. 22. 6. 3.11. 34. 1:1=1:1. 19. 2:1. 28.001. Page 117. 24 mi.. 212. 14. 30ft. 3. 4. 15.003. 2x:3y. (a) 30. min.000. Yes. 13. 10. 7. 81.9.000. 19. 24.. 300. 3. 7} 18. 15. #V ~~ 34. 8. 6. $00. Page 121. 9. " 0. 35.. silver. 30 yrs. 500. 74.139. IV s. 13. . 36. 1 da. = A's. 7. 10. 9$. 18. 10. 2. 10 yrs. 10. 19.} da. $45. 33. 1:1 = 1:1.2.004. 3. 7 . 6. 1:3. 4~r~ n . 1. 20. 5. after 20. 275:108. 12.. 5 25. 9./hr. 20. 26 30. 1: ~. (a) 4 min. ft. (a) 25. 30. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. xy. 1^'. after $12. 7T 2 Page 116. jj./hr. dn ~ mi. ^p^ r ~ 7. ~m .10. 15. Yes. 40wn.  29.000. w 21. (a) 12 hr. 24. P+ ^ 33. 2 20. 2. 1:1 = 1:1. 18. 13. 1:1 = 1:1. Yes. 8. . 17. 40 mi. 1. 26.x + y. (ft) 104. '"I 22.0 & . b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 300. 16. 0. (r) 3^ da. 8.0. (ft) 28.002. 31.. min. 4.  + . 11. 3. (ft) 5 hr. 10^ oz. 11 hrs. 7. 7. 15. 7. 32. 3:2. 4fl M_. gold. w 18.. . $0. 5 2.138. 12. Yes. Yes. 27. 21. . 4. 17. 4. Page 118. No.000 1 = 23. 5. 1 : 12. (c) 2 hr. 5ft 30mi. 75 . J ^'. ^m . Page 124. 33. . w 44. 11. 23< &n b ' . 20. 9ft. * 7:9. 10. 18. 17. Yes. after 18. 19. f. 21. 9.15. 14..137. 11. :2. 300. 15. (ft) 5 da. 55 mi. 16.. 15. 30 mi. [>> ^ a . a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. .. No. 14. 10. 5. 17. $40. ^?i min.000 If da. ANSWERS 16. 1:4. 10. 8. 38ft min. f . (d) 500. a 4 ft. J. 14. 40 yrs. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . . 13. 00. 12. (d) 4 da. Page 125. 16. 8.. nm. 26 mi. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 5. 3. 8301 hr. _JL. $30. 1. Yes.000. Page 119. n 32.2. 21ft min. 3 da. (ft) (r) 8 hr. Yes. 1. (c) 8300.  C . 10. 7. 15. () 2. 9J oz. 10. 4.XIV '/ .
7. 5. 5. 2. 50. 3 2=3 x.x a. 3.]. 11 w a 13.46. 22. 5:0 = 10:12. 5 2.5. 6.5. 40.36. 8. 15. 1. 7. 4. x y y . . 2. 4.3. : />. 2.3.8 oz..1. 41. 2. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 10. 2 n .3. 24. 45. 2. 5. 8. 46. 17.20. 54. 19. \\. 5. . 2. 9.3. 8. 29. 4. 7.5. mi. 13. 5. 11. : : . 2. 3. 21. + b 7 . 9. J. 7. : : T 1' : /> : . : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 19. 17.2 x.57. J. 7. (b) Inversely.1.840. ft. 5.2. 13. 14. 11. 3. 2. Page 137.a. 49. 12.3. 4.. y a y = 7 0. 36.4. 56. Of. 30. 16. 2. $. 7. 3. 19 3 . 24 1 (e) Directly. Page 134.000 sq.3.1. "lO. 3. Page 132.5. 3. . a f 2 2 = 5 x.  28. 9.6. 3. 25. in n. 5. w 8.) 31. 12. 14. 4. 2.2. 9. . 5:3 = 4: x. 2.17. 30.2. 1(5. 9. (a) Directly.22.4. 5. Page 9. 7.1. 10. in. ig 6. 32+ mi. 13J. 2. 4. 200 mi. . 2. \. . w. 2. 3.3. 8. 2. 7. 27.7. 3. 1. 7. 58. tin.5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . . 28. 6. 17. 32j. 2. (b) C C' = fi JR'.7. : 23. cu. 40. 2. y .J 3.4. 2. 6. 31. 6*. 10. 14. 1. a +b 1. 55."2:1. 25. 23. 18.1. 47. 53. : XV 27. 4. 14. 2. lo mi. 20 cu. 12.5. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . Page 136.9. Page 133. 945 11 10 .3. 1.15. water. . 1. 48. 1 rt * vm^1. ' 55. 9  15. 52. x:y a: b. 22. 1. a~. Page 5. 4.' : : : : <>. . . *. 7.12. 8.C ?/ a . /. 1. 1.4./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 44. = 7 b'. 15. 25. . 7. 9. 174+ Page 128.160. OJ. 41.12.3. a 3. 1.5. ~ 1. mi. 20 20 J ^. 7. 3  24. Inversely. jc:y = n:m. 7. 4. 4.  19. 7^. x y = 1 = 3 2. () 7 Page 126. + W. i. 11. x 42. 13. 9. 4. 6. 12. . 4. 31J. 2.5.2 oz. l. I. 127. 15> 9. 141. 10. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. : . 13. 38. 4.*. 5. 20. land. 59. 19 OJ.  ?. y :y =.5. 8. 3. 1. (I. J. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 3. Page 131.. 20. () Directly.li.15 x. 26. 5. x +y x + 74 7 \. 5. 19. (</) ft. 16. 21. 6. 36.J. 4. 4. t 5. 9. J pq. 23. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.4. 138. OJ. 35.3. Page 135. 2. 2. y 1. 6 10 = 12. b x 37. 2. 7. s<i. 11. 57. 7. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 3}. . 3. 43. . 8. 7. copper.^ 0?j ' gms.r. 3.3. 1 18 = 3 51. ini. 2. 39. 24. 11. 3. 16.2.ANSWERS 22.000 sq. 11 5 . 2. 26. 2." ^ 2.
(ft) 20. A's 30 18. 40. 2. 72. $6500at3Ji%. 17. parallel to the x axis 0. 21. 7. 30. 6. Page 152. Page 151. 2. 24. 4. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. Nov. June. . &. 5. 5%. 4. 5. 2. 3). 14. 6%. 24. 1. C's 30 yrs. Page 153. 3. . 1 (c) Jan.8. $250. 00. ' 6 3 a. 3. 7. 14. 0. 9. 6. Nov. 27. 9. SL=J o ft r^2. 6. 10 sheep. & part of Feb.. 17. July 20. 23f . 2. About 12f.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. (5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3. (<f) 13. 5. 7. 3. 12. 20. 12. ^. Page 143. 20. 4. 5. 9. 12. 0. 2 horses. 2 a. 1. 12. 7. ft 3. 4. On the x axis. be 7. 5. 1. (a) 12.  Zn  "(^ll 14.$2000. 9. $900 5%. m + n p. . 423. be 10. Oct.  17. 5./hr. m . = ^ a Page 141. 3. 5. 5. (a) Apr. 10^ gms. 4. 4. 18. 4. 20 to Oct. 1. 2.7. 23. 2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 3. 2. 2. 19 gms. 4. 2. Jan. 3. . 11. 4. & May. 19.1. 3. 15. 25. 1 (d) Apr.^. 4. 10. 3. 9. 26. 20 & Oct. 3.4. 13.65. 13. 1. 40. 31. m f 8. 2.4. ad AzA. Jan. 6. 3. 2. 4. 2t2.$5000.33. 20. 16. 23. 2. . Page 146. 30. 19. 13. Page 142. 2. through point (0. 10. 25.. 3. The ordinate. 7. July. 14. . 0. 8. 2. Jan. M 2. 9. 24. 17. 1. 11. 22. 24. 2.3.. C's 10 yrs. Jan. Page 22. (c) .XVI Fagel39.l. m f 9. . 3. 2. 6. Aug. 2. 147. 4. Apr. ad _(?jrJL. $500. 4 ' q. Apr. 10. 11. Nov. 3. 25. B's 15 yrs. 3. 18. 10. 8. $ 1000. . 30. 4 mi.1.. 1. 2. 90. 16. 7. 1. On the y axis. Page 149. 16 to July 20. 8. 4. 1. 5. 7. 1. 18.. (ft) 23 J. 20. 7. 3. 6 cows. . a. . 3. $4000. 11. 7. 11. . 16. 100. 5. J. B's 40 yrs.4. 6. & part of Sept. u 2ft. 16. 3. 6.2. 15. Page 145. May 5.0. 8. Apr. 21. yrs. Nov. 28. 15. 11. 1. 25. .3. 7. 32. at 15. ' . On 11. 3. a =J (n  1) rf. 29. Jan. 1. 16.. 18. 26. 3.2.  11. <*ft/ bd 1.9. 10. 4. 20. yrs. 12. A's 50 13. July.10.1J.3. Feb.n + p. 16. $3000.0. . 6.
27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .17 (ft) (c) 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 1. 125 a 8 12. 8. 2. 2 a&m Page 167.3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. . 3. 24. . * 16. ft 2 4. 24.41 and 23. 1. 30. (e) 3. 1. . 4. . 3. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l." 23. 4. 10. 2. 26. Inconsistent.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 2. 1. a + ft. 1. 5. 14. (e) 2. 4.1. jgiooyiio 17. . a 10 ' a ll V&. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. ft . 15. 15.6.5 (ft) 3. . . .73.84. 13. f12 wi 9. Indeterminate. 1. 21. 1. 1.. 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . 1. f.  . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 4. 125 16. xg . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 17. 3. 9. .67. 22. ' :=_!. 9 and Page 166. . 27 27 81.73 ami . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. . 11. 6. 3. G. 12. . 20. 1. 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 8mW. 3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (c) 14 F. (/) 3. 22. 13. 5. 2ft4 Page 168. (gr) 21.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1.25. (a) 4. 1. 4.  1. 11. 3. 14.7.83. 4. 1. 5.75. 3. 2. (ft) (d) 2. .25. 19. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 19. . 20. 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. f. 13 .24. Indeterminate. 3. 27. 4wn8 + n4 5. 81 ". 4.2 (ft)  1.1. 28. 8 a1. (/) 3. 18C.3.24 . 2. . f 10. 2 l. .5. 15.79.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 10. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. 13C. . 1. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.59.25. xy. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4}. 3. 2.5. 27 19. 7. a 29.83. 3. 8. 2.75. . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 5. 125a 28. 4 ) 21. _ 9 x ^27 1 .25.79. Page 158. (a) 12. 12. 0. 32F. 5. 2 2 22. H. SlstyW 7. Page 164. Page 163. 13. 3.  1. xW. (c) 2. 5. 2. 6. 2. 3.13.. Inconsistent. .64. 1. . 16. 5 and 2.25. 83.75 (ci) 3^. (ft) 2. 1 4. 3. 2. . (c) 7. 3. 2. (ft) and (d) 2. . 2. 1 23. 10 C. ImW. 8.34F. 14. 2. 8 1 f f g*. 3. 1^.75.73.24.4.27. + a 4 ft* . Page 159. (ft) (ft) 2. 2. 1. . . () (rt) 3. 0C. H.73. 2. (<?) 2. 1. 2. \ft) 5. (a) 2. 3 .. m.41 and . 14. (a) 5. 5.59 .64. 9. 18. 11. 1. +3 4. 15 .. 10. 1. 2. 3. 30. 25.
. 71. 2. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 11. 2. a 2 . 9. (4a2 9& 2 13. +35. 30. 12. ^i. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 19. a. 8 /. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 10 x G a 4 . (1 (x2y). .1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.83. 3 6 23.f 1 m 9 16. 20. a ). 5. 9. 8.1. 14. 2. . wi 8 + 3m 2 . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip.1. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 3. 70.  x. 35.r 2 + 6jt). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 8. 300. 10*. 25. 5. 16. + + ?V 22. 2. 6. 40. 11. I 8x2). 17. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 15. 4. + i)).3 ab + 2 2 ). ? : 1 . Page 176. 17. 10. 12.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 1. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 9. AN S WE no .7 /)). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. (Gx + (i + 2a. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 15. 64. ? . fe *?>' ?> fi . 3 2 8 3 12. (x + y\ 90. . rt . 24. 6. 27. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 420.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 25 19. . 15. c 10 6 :l 20. 21. 19.a b 22. 1 1 ?>). 4. Zll. (a + y+l). 5. 5. 9. 7. 3. (a 2. 6. 20. (2 a + ft). 13. ( Page 174. .2). 99. 9.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . . (48 + 6. 4. 15. 2 49 . 978. Page 170. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 119. 18. + (win . 8. 57. 763. ). 90. 10. 16. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.+3^ + 4. 18. 3M. 12.i c 6 15. 247. 31. . 2 2 4. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4).5). 1. 10. 3. r> 4 : 1 .  +X '. 3. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 8. 13. a. (l + x + . 2 2 7. 23. 1247. 11. +3 + 5 4. 22. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 33. 5 5 8. 2038. 8. 18. GOO 2 c 2 . 76. 14. 237.GO a c + 23. (3a. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .5. 5. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 6. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 72. 36. 34. + 29. 98. m 13. 16 6 w . 9. 180 . 1.^). 84. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 1. 90. 6. ??i ?i . 28.10 a~ + 5 a . 11. 20. 32. 2 12.6. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 309. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).x ). 21. (ly). 101. 17. 7. Page 171. + y). 00.94. 2. (ab + c). . 26. + l). 7. + Z).XV111 7. 0. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. Page 172. 2 4 8 2 . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.y2 ).037. 14. 4. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 6 (\x 3. 30. 3 2 ^. (a + 2 +l). 16. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 14. 20. (x' l). /> 4 ). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). a: l . .
. 7. 9. 4J.. Page 179.5. 25. 6. 6561. 4.798 yds. 5. 23. 16n.4. 35. 3. vV'TA 24. 36. 6. i. 5f. 2.  43. 11.4. 2. 10. 3. 1 f Vl3. 2. 27. 25. 31. 10. ft. 32. _ iVaft. 1. 5. 44. 5. 8.1. Page 180.6. \/3. 24.  14. 3. 7563. 50. . 4 TT M 28. 37. 6. 5. 16.a. 30. Page 185.367. f 3. 14.ANS WERS 22. 15.925 ft. 39. 13.6. 4. ^. V. 26. 6.6. 5. 30. f f V.. 7. 1. 33. Page 181. 11... >TT 26. 1.469.i.. 2.18.4. Page 183. 21yds.742 in.. 14. 15. 3. 39. 3. 48.645. 10. w. 5. 6. 33. 35. 12. 9. 10. 16. 7.. 4 W**. V35 1. f. 4. 7 45. 9. 1. 34. 40.60. 47.005. v 17.5. 37. 36 in. 17. 2 sec. 11. f . 20. 23. 5. 9. 13. 4. 8.  f. f ^ is. 4 n. f. a. 7}. 23. vYb. Af^. V2. a + 61.  3. m. 5. 16. (6) Vl4 3. 10. . *. . 20. 2.243. 3. xix 26. 5083. 21. 14. 29. " ^_ 22. .}. 1 38. 15. 27. 17. Page 184. 4 a. () 2.  1. (< + ?>). 4. 2. 6V21. 21. . 2] see. 7. 31. 21 28 ft. 3J. V J l. . 15 1 10. 5. 16. 14. ZLlAiK 19. 9. 49. 32. m. 6yds. 28. 12. 21. 42. ft. 6V'2J. 6J. 10.6. 1. l~8. 18.?. 29. If ^. 12. 5. 8. 3. 9. 4. .1. 1.Sn. 8. 28. * 1.  5. 3. ii :J _7. 24.935. 7. ~ V^3. 15. 40.13. 2. 4.236. 9 15 ft. 7. 2..  f. 9. 1. / 11. 3. 4.690. 3. 1 7. 2. 5. 4. 13. ^. 7. J.522 38. 10. 41. 7. > w ft. 7. 34. /. . 3. 13. or 3.. 10.237. V17. ^^7m. 2. 12. {. 15. 7. 2. 1. V2. 17. 4. 5. 7. 36.  2. 28 in. ft. 10. 11. 3. (afl). Page 177. 1&.w 18. 21 in. 1. 3. 8. 19. 19. 25 J.. 5. 29. . >i 27. 14. 2. 4. 12. 1. 12. 3. 18.V 8j. 2. 39 in. }. 7 in. 22. .916 yds. 6. 270 sq.*. 6 f !. 13. 4. or 5. i ^. 9. 12. 6. 1.6. 4. 6. 8. JJI. 20. 46. . 11. 5. 12.
r* i. 8. 39. 3. 5. 10. 0. 28.0*8. 0. .2. 2. 3. 2. 24. 25. 3. unequal. ^l/>> = 85 ft. orf. 20. 55. 46. 4. 26. U. 45. 26. 5 ft. Real. 2. 28. 21. 35. 27. . 16. 15. 2. 1.2. 5.  5. 6. 6^2 in. 4. 0. 48.3. 21. 9.$40 or $60. 2. 5. 16. 25.a 3 a. rational. 9. Real. equal. 8.. 2. 12. . in. Real. equal. 8\/2 17.74. Page 191. 2. . 7.  24. Real. Real.23.2. a8 . . 56. 64. . 120 ft. 42. 16. 2. 2.'.10. 3. $80. 4.2. rational. . 52. 20 eggs. 11. 22. 12.  5. H. V2. 70 ft. 4. 8.4. ANSWERS 22. 10. . 0. 4. V^l. 0. 6. Page 187. 36.  Page 194.2.5 x + 6 = 0. 1.XX Page 186.12. 15. V^~2. 1 3. 1. 7. 3.4. 3. . 7. 6V64. 0. 2. 2.7. Imaginary. 3.2. . 1. 53. 26. x* 51. Imaginary. 1. 0. unequal. 57. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 3.  1. 19. V ~ 16 4 2. unequal. 10 or 19. 47.Oa. 7. 1 ./hr. irrational.1. 43.23. 24.2. 3.  9x <). Imaginary. 2. + 11 x.37. jr . 8. 3.a.2 x2 . 3.7. f 6 52 a.48 3. 15.7. unequal. 0. 30./hr. . a + 6. 3if. Real. 2. 7. Page 192. 49. 44. 6. s 11. 3. 3.  1. 3. 25. 34.  2. rational. 1.l. VV11. 10 mi. 4 da. 2. %.4. 18. 19 in. 6.* 2. a. 1. 3. 27. 2. 9. . 2 V3 in. #<7=3. 22. .4. 24. unequal. a + 1. 2 . 50. Page 189. 1. 2.. ./hr. 4. 20.  13. . unequal. 11. 18. v^^fcT"^.2. _ 19. AB = 3. 10 mi. 1.5.62.02.2. 1. i . 40. . 12. 23. 23. 31. $ 120. 28. . 1. 10. 1. 37. 6. unequal. . 3. 19.2.a. 64c. V^l. 1). 15 ft. 0. f.  2. 6. 2. 14. 13. . 6. 5..17. 1.. Imaginary. 1. '  f 5. 7. 2. 1. 27. 6. i. 7.3. 0. 4. 1_^L ft 14. (5 10. 0. 5. 23. 1. f. AB = 204 ft. 2. Real. 17. 0. If. 18. 2. 8 or 12 mi. . 4.70. 41. 38. 20 nii. 7. 12. 6. 13. x2 + B . 2.  1. 4. $30 or $70. 14. ft.12 = 0. 0. 3.6 = 0. 0.6. unequal. 9. 1.  1. 20. 12. irrational. *'' 12. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. V7. 3.41. V2. 1. 0.4. equal.48. Real. 3. 6. 29. 33. 1. x*4x=0. 2 ft.1. Page 188. unequal. 0. Page 190. 10 in.1. 35.. 4. 58. rational. . a./hr. ' 1.59. 21. 2. 25. .3. 1.  i.  6. x 14.5^. 2.. 3. rational. 3. 26.  1. 3. 3. = 0. 32. t is.].
JV37.//^. 4. 29. I. 47. 5.32. 6. 10. 12. 44. 14. 27. v/3. 2. 20.  a'2 . .  J j. 3. 1. _! V3. a 18 . 8. 35. fx'^z'l 23. J. 2 L ( V. 3. 8. 14. 10. 19. 1. : . 49. 6. 8. V^ 34. 28. ^49. 23. 9. 12. 30. 2. 19. 14. 2. v'frW. 3. 25. 50. m'. 1V1.  48. 10. 26. 1. 5. . 24. 13. ? . 50. 3. 21. 46. ar 1 . 3. 20. x$. . 38. 17. 1. 243. 13. 25. x/25. \.. Jb \. 39. 18. \/. ifa. vm. 16. 32. 4. 2. 30. 21. 48. \ . 2. 9. 16. 0. 40. 59. 3 4 11. 57. 3. 9. 1. 33. 36.  f . . 47. \a\ \/^. J.ANtiWEUS rational. 12*2 61. \/r\ 11. 1. 125. 60. ^Sf 3 38. 9. 56. Page 197. 8. 19. 15. i. J. 18. 3. \. 22. 58. 17.  5. 4. 51." 17. xxi 15. 2. &. ). 41. . 15. 10. y . 5. 4. p. 2. 'J. Page 196. 8. 31. aW\ 40. 4. 1. vV. 7. 29. 49.1 5 15. v. . r*. 20. 13.^7. 43. 30 a. 45. 3. 21. 9. 17. 20.6. Page 201. 37. 4. Vr. . n\/* Page202. 31. jV 10. 5\/5. 52. Page 199. *V. 7V7. 3. 49. 8. 27. 0. 1. 13. 3. 5. 7 . 22. 2. a. 24. 33. ) 2 >J i 10. 54. 9. 18. 4. 8. 24. 7. 1. 53. wA 46. v'frc 18. J. J 3. 25. 4. r. m. 42. 33. 6  AAf. 32. 1 39. 1. Page 200. 14. 3. 49. 28. 7. 19. 11. 29. 16. 15. 1. \/3. 8. y. 3. z + 22.  f. v^T4 m.2. 11. $7. 5. 0. 2V a. x. . 84. . 2. 16. 2. . 1. l  5 12.17. (m 26. 55. 5. 2. 23.
2>X2. 135V6. 2. 30. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. . / V3. + . 38. 20. m* n*. 195V3. 18. 9. 7.3 + 40 3 . v^. (x' (l 1+x). 45. a 4 +* + !. 32. r 17  Page 204. 32. x.Vxy 35.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 9. ^88". 11V3. 21. ^7 \AOx.x^y* + y%. 3. k/2. . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 7. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). . 12. V2 + 4 V22. 2 4 z2 l 3. y. V. a 3. abVab. 9. 5. 8V/) 15. V63. . + 2). JIV6. 2. 5 22. 16. V. 1) 3V3. 29. 25. 22. + Vic + 25. 26. x^ . 43. + + ft.r.'\ 14. 26. 20&V6. v'TM. 34. ^: V2c.  2 3:r.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 40. . 2\/7. 10.  a Vft 2 121 b. 13 35. 2v (T 2aVf. a^ + 2^+1. (a 27. 37. 4. 6. 24. 48. 10. + 2 Vzy + y 1. ).577. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 36. x + 5 x3 + 0. 3 \ 39. 13. 2. 03r* 7. 3V5.692. ftV 46. T. l 5. 41. 27. 39. 8a6V5. 19. r c . V 5 47. 20. 31. 23. y (a + ft) V2. 34 r 6. Page 203. ?tV?w. 9 . 21. 17. 49. 3 a~ 3 (x (. yV35. . 19. x 25. 50. 15. 8. 33. 3. 51. 5. 1 2 or 1 ?.f. 24. . 29. 2 a?>V2 a.rV:r. 30. 6. 28. 62V(J. Va 2 "ft. (o* 2. 28. 11.632. x y. 1. 2.yl : . + 1. 40. x 7  34. 13 a. Page 208.2 18. 4. V80. 3 x^y 33.. 2. 10.).2 VlO. 17. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3. 3^2. 2 x* 15. 31. 3V^T. x%  3 ^+ 1. a2 4. Page 207. 37. 4aV^J 16. 13. 11. + 2 ar 1 ). v/^r 5  A/^~. 101 1. 16. 5 ( .648. 2 '"V5.XXii ANSWERS 1. Vr 8.707. . 3^ + 2). 3 4\/2. + 2 V22. 3 42. 2. 8.
5 \/2. / \/w/t 4 13. 41. 6. \^6. a^\/a7>.T*. x/27. Page 210. 32. 4\/5. 6x2?/. a2  b. 2. Vtf +3+ 33. . 12. 1V5. 38. 4. 35. 8  \/15.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 48. 10. 2 \/2. v/l2. a\/5c. 53. v 25^4714 V2"a.J Page 212. 49. . \/128. 8. 15. 31. 34. 4 a*. 36. 3 Vl5 30. 4 >/3. 33. x/125. 3\/wi. 21 23. v"5. 8. 52. 3\/15  6. ^9. '. 22. x/4. 10. 46. 34. 0. D 45. 16. 5V2. 7. ^27. 40. v^30. 6. 11. 31. V5. m ?i2Vm/t. 24. 3. \/8. 13. \/2. 3. 13\/3. 51.  3. 35. aVa. v"3. 17. 10. v/8. 19. 11. 42. 2 ate. \V3. 13. x/8. 2. 50. 5. 12. 3 V2. v^O. 10V(). 23. V5. v/lO. 8V73\/IO. v^lf. \/a6c.. 6. 22. b. Page 213. 39. VT5. x/3. x/8l. 1. 2. 40. 24. 17. 14. 32m27n. \^6. + VlO  v y (5. 6. 1. r)\/(l Vrtr. . vT). 37. 26. 32. 6 2\/0. 2. 21. 28. x/w^ 8. Page 211. 9. + 20. % 29. 39. 6V2. ^ 3 b 5 24. 1. V8. 5V2. 27. ^\/3. . V3. 74\/Jl 120 46. rtv/5. V3. 6+2V5. Vat. 23. 7\/(l 7VTO. "^8000. 21. \^r^bVabc. 25. 30. 0. 37. 29. w?i. 6aV2\^. Page 214. 18. V2. 17. 44. Vn. 2 28. \XOfl6Vi5. 20.r v/^ v^fr*. Page 216. 4.30 2. 8V2. 3 V15  47. V/. 14. 14c 4 V5. 6. 5. 4VO. 30 Vl4. 26. 38. 2 V'3. ab 4. 18. v^4. 7. W). v^a. xx 1. 2\/7. 9. 11. "v/wi ??. . . \/abc*. 19. v7^. 15. V3"m. 18. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . . v/i). 36. 3v^2. : ^32. 3. fl^Vac. 8v2T 12. 2. 3. ^v 7 15. 2yV2?/. VJla. 3\/2. 2 1. \/04a. 9. 5. Vdbc. 9 VlO + 4. x/8L v/27. V2. 16. v/9. 5v/2. 43. v^f. 27. 25. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 7. 3. 14. 16.
^. . 12. (V8 + V2. 21 ' Vob 26. _^JflJ?. 4. V5. (VllV2). 7. 3. 16. 5. 1.w 6..2. 7. 19. 8. 24. . \. 8. 6. j 15. 16. 1. V3. 18. 27. Page 225. 10. 2. 21.64. 37. 4. 17. 11. 18. nVTl. (V6 + 2V2). ^. 12. V35. 25. 8. 4. 11. 7. 17. 24. 16. (Vf + (4 V2). 4 14. 2!5_. 125.  13. V^TTfc. V. 23. 4. 16. 30. 5 V65. V6c. 18. 26. x 20. . 23. 5. 4V3 + 6. fV2. 9. 24. . 3(7+3V5). 20.389. 2V2. .2. 4. 1. 25.7071. 7. 6 V. 5. 9 mn.  f. 16. 27.601. i^Lzi. 2. . 19. 9. 24. 3. Va. ' 22 i . 16. 9. 16. (V51).5530. 18. 16. 13. 10. 7 Page221. 28. Page 226.3. 216. 81.1. Page 223. 20. 25. 10. 8.4722. A . 2. 10. 3. 36. 3. 7. 81.6 V3. 2V3. 34. 19. 21. 4. 5. J. 12. 15.3. 23. 3. ^\/2. 5 + 2 vU 17. 5. 3V23. 1. 8. 10. 2. 9. Page 218. 1. 17. 1. 5. 0. 5. 32. 6. 4. ^r. . 1. 27. 5 f.0606. 29. Va. 33. 7. Page220. 15. +3 V2). (\/3f 1). ANSWERS 8. 26. n*.732. . 4. (2Vll). 25. 12. 13. K>/0 + \/2). 25. (3+ v/2). 22. 25. 7.464. 14. * 3.\/TO). 64. 8. 13. f. 100. 14. 5. (VaT^v a). 9.5. 35. 2ajV2*. + 6) 2 . (V5f 5. 4.  . 1. 512. (2V2). 2V3. 2. (2f V"5). 15 f 3 V2L 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 8 V3V2.  2. ~ Vac _c 0. (a 1. m f. 15. 9. 8. 30. 22. \/57t. 9. V3 . 4.1547. 4. 3.3535. (\/5V2). 2.XXIV 7. 4. . \/3). Page 219. 19. 22. 10.7083. j.81. 12. {. V3. (2. 7 f 5 4. 1. 29. J. (V21).6. 15. 8. 14. 23. i(Vf Vft). 14. 10. 224. 18. Page217. 11. V2. !^ 6 4. V3. 25. + 5V2.13.625 10. p 6 13. 6. 4. 5. Page 28. 3. Vf6fVtf. 2 . .4142. 23.V3).732. xy 2. . 12. 7.9. 4. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 20. 11. 11. ^(VlO\/2). 2x^2^. 6. 21. 6.1805. 6 (V2 + 1). 31. 20. 1. 19. 0. 9. 11. 15.^ (\/22 4. 9. 4. 17. 1.2828. 2.
3. 11. 17. Page 236. 6. 19. 1. 2. 12. y. . 5. l. 1.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 8. 4 20. 2 . 20.8a 18. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). . 9. 1. 6. 25. 18. 3 9.3. 2 . 1. 7.5. 13. 9. 2 . J. \/0. Page 234. 4. 2. 50. 3. 1 . 3. 3. 3. 22. 73. . 2 V^ . 1 . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 56l).+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). (B43). (a . (m 4 + l)(ro. 10. . 5. 2. (2 a. 6.  3. 15. 4 1.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 11. .7. 5. 3. 8. 10. (xy + 5) (x*y* . (pl)(p2)(p2).2. 8. 17. 15. 18. 14. . 26. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1. 2. 30.4. 4. 3. 2. 0. . . 21. 19. 5. 2 &. 87 . 17. 19. t/ 23. 0.3. 1. 14. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 1.3 2. 1. 5.  3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). . 2. 4. 2. 7. 24. 3. 3. . 1 3. 1 6. 10. 2. 30 .4. 12.  1. 0. 12. 4 4.2. 13. 1. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 14.  3. 3.nl^EI.5 xy + 25) 22. (4 mn . 13. Page 233. 7. 1. 3. 2. 2. 1. 2. 5.  J. 1.1.  f . 2. 11. . . 2. 0. 11. 2. . . J Page 235. 7. 3. J 24. . 2. 4. a: :} . 23. 11. 3. 1. 4 . 7. 4. 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 6.  .2)(m. 2. 2. (&y2a#H4). f . 2. 5. ( 16. b . 3 . 11. 3. 1.0. 5. 8 6 & 0. 1. 2. 4. 0. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 16. 9. 2.4. 6 2 2a + 2). 0. 4. 20. 5. 4. (a 4. 4. 5. 1. 2 6. (+!)( 2) 10. 4. 2. & + 6 2 ). 12 24 y . 7. 30 30.ANSWERS Page 228. 1.Y.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).12. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 8. (rt. 2. (8. 25.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. 100. 0. V3. a(. 15. 2. (63)(6' t 18. 8. 1 . 10. 2 .3.3. (a. 10. qpl. 4. 4. 12.l)(m . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). XXV 4. 24. 73. (w . 1 (?> x/^3.3). a  . f>.  1. 3 .22.  5. 3 . 1.^a. ~ f7.r . 1 . 5. 4. 25. 4.  4. 2. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1. 4. a . 5. 1 . 2 6.10. . 1. 3. J. 4 . 3. 3 5.. 22. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 6.l)(a3)(a . . 10. 4. (a+&)( 2 14. . P.w 4 + 1). . . . 7. 3. 5. . 12.  2. (r.4). 2. 4. 2.3. (pl)(p3)(p6). 5.  16). 3. 28. 25. 3. (a. 20. 2. 8. . o.3. 3. 2 <? 4a2 . 4. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).1. 6. 3. 3. 0. 16.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 21. ' J.2. 6. 2 > 1.2)(* . 13. 30. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 13. =A^Z3. 7. 3. 4. //.
5050. 3 cm. 9. '>. 16. 48. . 1. 12 ft.xxvi Page 237.  . (a) $3400. 9. 5. = QO 6. 900.136. (a) 5. 1.6. 1.. 17. jj. . 3. 1. c. 3. 3. oo. 24. 2. 3 . 13. 1 . Page 240. . 2.3. J. 15. 2 2.3. .0. 39. 1. 7. 5. 14. 25. 12 1. m27. 20 in. 1.3.1. 15. 2 1. in. 17. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 15. Exercise 113.3. +  n. 36. 1 . 4. Page 245. 22. 12. 15.e. 2 16. 7.3 . 18.6. ANSWERS 2. 2. 1 . . 1. x 4. 15. 23. 12 d. 2. 14. 1. 4. no co . 5.5. 1. . 4.2. . 125 125. 35. . . J. 10. 11.. 3V5. 2. 2.. . 3. 3 2. 16. 4. 17.  2 . ^~2. 8. 1 . 4. 6. 5. 35^ 5. 2. 3. 17. 5. 33. J. ( 3. 4. . . 21 30. 5 . 12.4. 3. f*.. co . 3. . 69. 2. 8. 1. 1. 3. 5.. in. 4 .3. 288. 11. 1. ^ }. 9. 5. 8. 14. 37. 3. Page 243. 37. GO . 2>/3. . 12ft. 6. 1. 1. 15. ' j. 2. 2. ft. 3. 5. 0. 2. 5. 4.13. 12. (/>) "_. 19. 2. 40. 6.18. 2. . n. 18. 6. $46. 3. 1 2. 40 25 in. 3. 8ft. 4. . 7. 4 8. .30. 8. 1. 24. oo . 35 ft. tn 2. J. 84. 2. 3.3. 4 34. 1J. i'ljVU. }. 20. 32.5. 2. 1. . 14. _ 10. . i i i . 2 . . 6. 2. 15. 4. 26. 0. 31. 2. 12. 21. 4. 2. 8. 3. 13. 4. f>. 22. 4. 13. 3. 2 . 11. 3. 1 . 1. 4 6. 3 3. 2 10. } . Page 247. in.. Indeterminate. Page 238. _ 5. 1. 10. $. 3 4. 5. f. _ 7. 3. i j. 14. V3~. 4. 1. 11. 19.020.. Page 241. 1. .4. Page 248. 8 3. 1.. 1. 2n.4. 31. 14. 4. . 45yd. 8 . 1. 8. 23. oo . j. 50.. 14. 400. and _ 4. 1. ft. _ 13 (0 6. 7. . 7f solution. 0. \. 4.200. 1.4. 2. . ri*. . in. 30 13. 8. \/6. 2 . 1. . i.1. 30. 5. 3. 5. . 5.y. 1. 3. 20. 7. 3. 3 . 512. 2. Indeterminate. 7 3. 7. 5. 20 7. 2 ft. 40 in. 3. 2 Y> V . 10.1. 9. Page 239. 1. 41. (>. 3. Page 244. 78.  1. 3. 38. 2. 9. 512. . 10. 8. 5. 18.3. 55. . . . . 3. 37. m28.0. 2. 50. 12. 28yd. 1. in.  11. 4. 11. $. 11. 1. 30. 5. ft. n . 5 4. 3. 1. 17. 2. 2 26. m + n. (&) 2. V7. 201. 9. 5. . 1. Exercise 114. 2V7. 5. 35 a. 29. 21. 17.. 12. 3. 4. 16. . $VO. 4. 4. . . 5 cm. 4. 4. 3 . 7. 4.
} $ 50. . 15. 3.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . c. 4.4 &z x>&. 1. 04. 708.^ ?>i 2412x4. 18.5y 4 . '23. 5. 20. 7. x4 . 9.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. i 10. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . . 16. 18. 9. (). in. 12. 1. 3. 11.13.4. 1 14.384.5 x. 5. 4. 12.ANSWERS Page 250. 6. 2. 7. 8 . G. 2. 910. J 2 //2 25. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 2. REVIEW EXERCISE . 15. 10. 8. 4.2 9. 43. 2. 22. 11. . 0.120. 27.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. x + Vy. .700. 1JH. Page 259.192. 0. 9. . 1. r 5 4. 6. 13. 05. JSg. 10 14. ~v 9. 1.r* 4 70 . 7. 55. 0. 9. 21. 125. 5. 4. 15.6. 19. 48. 7. . f y 8 + z* . 4.x' 10 . and 1. 23.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 8. 8J. 16. 12. 14. 410. 3. 4. 7. 27. Page 252. 6i. <. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. 1. 2. 17. 50. 4 0. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . ~ an . 19. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 343. 11. 10. 8 1. 3. 1.170.  17. 120 aW. 7. 13. 3. r r j. 3. 53.504. 1. 8. . 2. 5. 29. 2. 04.r 4.53.130 x30 189 a 4 24.v Page 253. 6. 2. 20. I. 2.680. 17. 8. 6. 7.  20 flW. 8. .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 12. 12. . 16. 35. 4. . &' 14. .  101. 8. 105. d. 27. 6. 0. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). . 16. 35. 125. A. 5. 6. \ w 4 . 7 x4 17. sq. 15. 16 11. 70. . 44. 5. 1. 2. 327. 12. 15.8. 3. 3. Jj? 45. Y11.5.7 10.920. 304. 16. 8. 0. 6. 0. 5.470.5. 4.2 45 a 8 /). **+. 12. 19. 0. 1000 aW. 1. 8. 100. Ja. 10. 3. 16. 005. 5. 18. ?/i 6 x llj .870 m*n*. ^a 8. . 25. a. 2. 220 . 21. 405. 5.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. w9  8. . 2. 1 7 4. 27. 2. 495. 5. Page 254. 4. 4. 3. 17. 81. 7. 32. 4. 5. ' 1.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .6 . 8. 45. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 22. 6. 192.12 x*y 16. 12. 3. B . 8. 4. 10. 20. 45 Page 257. 1. 3.<2 4. 2i* 7f. 9. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 1820.210. 4. 128.419. 4. 45. 1. a4 4 14. 4.3 ays. 343. x r 4. 75.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 0.0. 3. />*. 4. 16. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 10. . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 280 53. 5 13. xxvii 1. 0. 28. 8 4x' 2 . 10. 13. 70.r x>/ 7 3.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. Page 258. 4. vy.1. 9. 18. 70. 26.
102.41. &p 84. + a 4.x4 + y'2 z 4. 62. 2 .x x*  f 2 ax 4.3 aftc.. 66. 2 x2 4.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 5x + 2y~z. x* . 30. x2 5r*x ft 5 . a J . ft n . 93. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 64. 1 121. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . . 5 4 4. () 2 x 33. 3 a 5 a 5.2. 6 8 j27 40 ab. /> 4 83. a2 2 aft 2 2. .  e +/. 61. 40. 50. 0.4. 22. 36. 49. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 109. 1 + 4 xy. 31. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 a. . 4 ! . 6a6c.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . x 2 . 1 . 72. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. (a + ft)" 98. . 10 a 12 b.1.  + 3 x2 . ft2ft 4 4l.105. 124.18 x?/0. 12 x.  4 a3 85. 9 2w 128.  3 x2 .4. 70. 4ft y3.4 ac. 3 c . 46. a' 111. 243x4729. x 8 + x 4 68. a~b 89.3 .rty x2 4 123. 122.6 b.1. 4 65. t 81. 3~ n 4.3 y. m " + n + P3c . 29. 24. 2 . 8 . 5x 2 2x43. 3 36 b c . * 60. 27. 2 .4 2 4 c2 42 . 3 a 44. 2 x'V2 90. 4 fee 4.x24 73. 23. . 4. 104. + z. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . . 3a'2 Page 261.3 a'ft. 2 30 . ?> . ft /> 78. 21. 132.18 ?/ 5x4. x2 2 .4 x 2 . 1 x 45. y 4 z* 0. 8x3 8x. 86.^a . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 7 + 3 xf 2. 28. Page 260. 76. . .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 4 . . 4 115. 133. a 3m 4. . !! 71. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().3 x 2 + 3 x . Page 263. 14 x .y*. 38. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. c3 4 58. 4 Page 264. 32. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. . .{ 54. . 96.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. . 2 2a 2 2 2(a.a*ft 2 126. 2 q. 43. 107. 127. _55_7c 48.9 x .5 3n 4.3 b .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 16. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x8 x2 55. 26. a* a 8 a aftc. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.15 4 62 x  72. +^ + ft W. ?/ .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.2 x 4. 130.x 2 4. df. 131. a4 x. x 3 4.4. 118. az 4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 4 15 x 5 .2. 39. a* 4. x } 4.a'2 c. x' .9 b. x2 471x4. a 4 . f5+7.1 4 jry 4 x . . 12 a/.1w 77. 52. x .x 51. 37.5x4.fee 2 4.3 103.1. 82. 2 53.  12 a. 105.6 am b\ 129.4 x y 87. 4 69. 0. 9x. . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. . 125.4 x?/2 3 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.2 x^. 0.5. 5 42. 94.c.1. 3 a . 80. 99. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 6 c 47. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.a' 'ft 4.5 b + c .  .7 x   15.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 3a~2c. . 4.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 25. x' 79. ?/ 3.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.2. xyxzyz. 88. 35.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 1 a"* 4 an .ac 44 aft. 110. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 114. 120.c.a 2 x 2a .a6 2 4. . 2 113.ft). .c 3 4. I 57. + 3 a?. 4 2 . x 8  a8 . 63. as 20. 10 4. 4. x 4.a. 2 x2 108. x2 a2 1 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. . . x 3 41. . 6 a2 97. 100. .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.x. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 16t/. 91. ^ .4.7.2 c . 13 + 2 s. 2 2/' . x4 f + 23 .
(x . 4. 146. 195. 237. 10. 12.1). 217. . 230.. 173.. (. 140. 184. C3 y _l)(. 1.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 164. 151. 224. 160. 142.m)(x + a). 3. 2.l)(x8 + x2 .y) (\r3y). . 2. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (y  17)(y + (>). (y 7f))(y 196. (y_24)(y5). +)(x2 x^+2./_4). 210. 168.1(5) 200.y2 ).6)(4 + 6). 149. 1. 156. 170. 166. 15.3) (2/3y). 169. (r7y)(ai. (x + 2)(x .9)(xf 2). as 194. (6) 40. 7.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 147. 15. 193. 205. 12) (j. G7. 167. (3x  . 19. 238. ?. 177. xxix 139. (233). 2(x8)(x3). 36ft.2. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 157.l)(a 2 +3). p. fc'2a+62c). 48 h. 10 in. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). + y.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 6. r>x 2 (4x.2). 6. 176. 75..y). 211. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (a} 59.2) (3 x . HI. 8(ar}(/)27). 232.1). (r^x + 1). 226. + 2) + 9a. 30 yr. 138. 8 204. 235. 5. 1. a. 30 + xyr. 171. (x + 6)(x6). 50. (/ 246. 1. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 212.I2y). 3. (x  42 yr. 10 ft. a 2 (15.3.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 24. 247. ( + 2y)(2x3y). a + 2x2 ).2 )(x+y) 228. 199. 161. 179. . 240. 12. 175. 18. 209.1). 201. 197. + 3) (x f f>) . 183.r + 4). 215. 181. (ab + 8) ( 7). z(x10)(xl). 214. 21. 190. (c) 160 C. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 220.. 216. 20. 178. + 3). 12 yr.4xl).y + 3)(r (. . 2^. 159. (?/+l)(yl). 155.y)(jc + 7 y). ft. 3(x .ANSWEKti 135. 153. 244. Or (a + 2)0el).3 y). 187. 2. 241.3 y)(a . (x^ + x1) 234. 152. Page 266. 154.r . + 11) (a 10). (7 c 2 ). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). yr. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. (2 198. 233. 1. 40 yr. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). . 4.  1. m.l)(y + 1). 236. (a 2 + 2a6. 174. 2. Iff 145. p. 191. 163. 37 1. 172. (5 x . 158. 136. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). (y7)(y + 188. 6). 2 2 (a. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (x 227. 162. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (3x2?/)(2. (7x2//) 203. 202.2ac + 229. (a& 192. 10).6) (2 x + 1). 218. 10).2). 2 (4 x . y. (2a + l)(a . x(x f 3)(x+ 2). y 245. + 7)(rt4). 2. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 222. 218. 144. 150. 22. 143. + 22). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 12 6 panes. 180. 1. 185. . 148. y3. 147 mi. 15  a. aft. 206. 207. 20. 231. 32 h. 2 xy(3 x . a(a. x(x + 6) 213. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 219. . (8x + 3)(3x4). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (JT y 225. 189. 137. Page 267. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 239. 1. 23 18. 30.3). 208.6 .y)(z . Page 265. y  y 165. 1. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (y _ ft)(y 4. 186. 182. 12 yr. k.
+ f. 43 '^rJ'. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 260.. 2 4 300.  3xyf x// 257. 7^T 2 . 4 5. 3). x 267. 250. 0. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 307. 269. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 3. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 261. 268.  7. 0. ^ 299. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 298. x . 3  262.1. 266. 305. Ca&c 1)(M 253.4) 1) (3 x .4).(x  4) (x4 304. 303. x 283. x ?/ z 1. ^/>J. a~ ' b*). 2 x  3. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. > 4. 254. ? 1) 302. 5.2* i^^ !^. *.^^^^^^^^. 7 x 265. 295. 249. 258. a. o(x4l). 279. 306. 10. ?^ZLiZ 308.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. x12. 3).   . 264. (7 255.^ ^^. 7. o. *>). \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 256. 259. 251. 301. 310. 263. &). 2.
3.XXXI Page 272. f. 398.vin a /r " 337. 383. If.. a + b + 6). 1.)Cr4)__ . 4. 0. 2 ). T\. 2. 376. 6 ?/+:>. S. 405. . . . 6a. 386. x 54 359. 408. 375. ^"" 4 s .3.(5 a . 343 00 351. 324. 325. 20. 382. ^ 3 // . + 4 & 4 \ b. 7/i ^ _ . 396.. 3. " 4 378. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 9^. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 1. 389. l . ab. Page 277. 366. 388. ?>*. 1 i 2 ^. 1. 326. 2(q. 387.7. 385. 2(a i 403. 3. 11. 394. 12.  1. 13 391. ?=. 1. 2. L .H ' 2wi ^' /' . .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 400. 2 ?/ 363. 2 r36 384. a 2 . l'j. 399. 395. 334. 365. 1. . 339. T+^. 7. m. 336. a +6.  1 356. 0.1. 360. 379. 355. . 361. y 4 I 340. (a + b + c\ . ?/ + 3 332. 377. 390. _*L'L+. 364. 380.!. c 402. a) A^_. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. + 335. 333. 401. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 407. 370. 392. 0. 329. + x 362. 393. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). * 357. 2 327. Page 274. 406. 397. ^_:r f> 331. 404. <L 409. 4 A. 2 ab  a Page 276. 4 rw.".J . A^L5L. 4. j 328. 0.
ISJini. 2. 508. 10. 432. 5. 452. 3a 4 5.489. ' $260 at 0%. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. <L+ 6 (. 3 . 466.. . 472. 5.  10.  1.55. 0. (a  c). Page 281. 498.  7. 1.  505. L (c) I. 7. 10. 14 miles. $2000 at 0%. 462. 1. ^r?i 434. 2. 6. 1. 497. 6. 2 438. 51.  f>. 5. 20 yr. Page 278.2. 33. 482. 418. 455. (&) true. 0. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. L2 a  6 . 2. Page283.}. \.5. 459.}. 486. 84. & 491. 425. 1. I. 7. 9. 468. 21. 10. 4. 50. 0. A $ 3500. 6. ^V. . 20. 506. 28 yr. 480..  7. \ 1. 481. 6. . 436. 3. * . 499. 439. 457. 4. 53 yr. 6. *+. 500.0. 445. 5.7. 10. . 413. ft 5.2. 467. 24 days. Page 280. . 450. i a b 451. c 6fc 10. 10. 17. 5J. ISjmi. 1 a /?$+&?. fj.7. 435. 507. 419. 485. 4. 454. 427. (c) not true. 1$. 2.vz in. . 2$. 476.7. m. B 4 mi. (&) 443. 8. 8. 42. 441. (a) 1. 487. a 22 . i. 492. 465. 8. 7 : .  453. . 490. . c. 6. 32 yr. . 10. 0. 426. not true.3. + () 433. . 2.46.  . 7. 444. 4. 40 oz. 483. 479.3. 1. 8. m 1 : wi. 2. 447. 496. 0. 458. 429. 10. 18. 2. 6. . 495.  2f 504. 17. a* 424.12. 22. 460. 63. 464. 423. 0. a + + ft c. 461. 90. 501.4. 5. 502. 442. 7. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 2 a 2. 410. 448. 422.. fc. .rz Page 279.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 478. . 10$.. . . 412. 494. . 428.0.. 5. 456. 440. 2. 3. />c c(f be. 493. A 5 mi .7. 421. 0. 411.  2. 477. (d) true.  2. '.. 463. 2. 7. 11. 12. B $ 2500. Page 282. : />a. .  2.te + .7.m  m+ M in.  1. 446.4. 503. (d  6) f. ^.1. z8 +?/ 3 431.488. 430. 32. . 40. !L=4. 420. 484. 3. 2. b 449.
. 527. 561. 3. 3 . . 529.  + + c. x8 .3. 2. .02.3.02. 6435. 4. 1. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  2ft da. .0. . imag.53. 583. (i) 3.   (h) 8.05. 21*_. 567. . (gr) 10 1. . f36a28x8 592. .02.51. 4.4 x + . 603. 564. 8. 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. + 26 + .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 563.15.2. 1. 1.7.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.4.ANSWERS Page 284.. (ft) Ill Ib. 514. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.04.02.4.35.  557. f.88. 579.3. per hour. 1.03. (a) 74 Ib.  (a) 2. + 12 x . 0. . Page 287. 565. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 553.1. 8 mi. 1. (6) 3. . (e) 570. . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 4 mi. 532. J7] min.8 x3^.14.15. 574. .  . 1.1. 509. y 4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 573. T .1. 2(6 597. 4.62. 2.  4.6. f. 581.78. S82 c.83.24. lead.1. 1.7. 2 1.0.5. 3. Roots imaginary.8. 575. lead. 515. (c) 4.3. 2 .24 sec. 526. 1J.04. 3. _^ 2754x . 3. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .30. 27 y* f\4 . per hr. 560.5+.00. 555. 115 Ib. 1. 568.20. 5. 566.8. If 572.  7. _ 4.6. (ft) 4. 24. 1 580. 1.52. . 1.37.78.55. <z ft 1. 31. 2(4 602.10. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 2 . 24 da.6 2. .% rr\* 585.3.  1.21. .25. + 6 tf f 3 . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.54.  J(a f + 2c).r8 596. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 578. 4. 591. 6. 536. ^ ft 4. or 8. 1.15. . 552.12. (c) 3. a+ Page 286.5 f.  ft*. 593. .. 551.16.73. tin.3. . 4. 533. 554. 550. Page 285.37. 2. 5.1. 576.24. 528. 571. 556. 1. 7. 1. 525. 4* da. Page 288.9. 1.  imag.83.0.56 sec. 3 da. 516. 530. 559. 569. 0000. 3. 531. 512. 1 600.5.5. 1 . . 2 10. 5. (e) (c) 2. 2 1.10..4. .6. 2. (6) . 2$.  (a) (d) 1. 558. a*8a + 24tf 82a.  3. 2 imag.5.62. 1$. y% Z * 586. 6. 5.31. a + ft  a  f c. > ^ . 510. (d) 537. ft 584. 1. 2. 562.38. 1. _ 3.8. 4. (/)  10 to 8. 14. 1.1. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 577. 3. ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.03. 4. o> . 2. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).xj/ f xV . 3. H. 599. .4.. 2. . 2. 1 . 2 2. 4. 1. tin. 513. . 3f 4f. 598. 582.54. 232.31. 3.5. . 2. 3.f 1. 40 Ib. 4. 518. a f ft + c. .4.3.33. 4 0. 3. . 3. 1. .25m. . 1. 3. da.6.7.75.75. xxxin 511.  2.4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. g(rc+ 6c).8.0. 1.3. 3. 7^ da. 1.
4 676. 705. V^~3). 629. 634. z  1. 1m*. fta a/> ^A. 2. 644. 630. 4. J^^. 627. 0. V2. 5. a ' 2 + . 5. 656. 706.049. a + b.  ft.04. 971. 13. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . a 673. 4. 612. Page 289. \+ab 699.  a2  a (ab). If b.f 3 V^3). (a3&45rj. a. a 1J. 640.b. 641.  . 651. 8 6 fo . If. 653.3. 635. ^^ 695. . + ~^'2 + a 1. If 665. 3. 10. 708. V2. 3 x2 . 2 ab + a  &. V"^TJ. 690.702. 2 a: 4. 25.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2. 616. b . be ac \. 672.203. 210. / V^+lO^M"^.001. 648. 3 a. 8. 670. 683. .>A 610. 703. 11.  4.. 4. 2. 679.3. 615. 5002. 2092. 652. 1. <T! . If . 617. 2. 661. 1$ 639. I}'/. 25. 2 x 44 ^/.  4. ' fe 2 ).2f (5 4. 2. 78. 660. 0. If f 667. 626. 1 ~a . 613. 700. 692.3f l 668.3. 2. a 2. V7. 50. 701. . i. 009. 636. 5. 2 a  6*. 677 680.43^4. 7. 11.b 686. 6. 703. 647. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 666. 4$. 628.002. fe + a. If 658. y  619. 678< 682.25. 1 2. ' 674.3. 8 f 3. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 633. 2f. .0. . 1 V5 1. 5 3. 5. ab. 2f. ^. 698. 632. 618. 622. 645. 2. 1. .a~ {Z 663.  2f r 659. 9.  1. 4 V 0. o. 662. . . 691. 9*. 1. ab 689. /> 4. 649. if 4/> 671. 623. la6 2. 2. . . 1 704. 669. 646.. b.2f Page 290. 7003.XX XIV 606. c. 657. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 4. . 6. 1. 637.  13. ^.001. 6 685. 2&). 3. 608. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 638. 0. a 4.  684. 655. 7. 0.  3.303. 654. 1010. \. 696. . (*_ + a: 611. l/'3. 2. 2 / 2 4. 0. . 12. n^l +^. 614. ix 2 . K 5 2 V2. 607. 2 a 688. 4330 da. b 664.y. 14.14 If 1. 642. 3. 625. 3 681. 702. 620. 650. .  6. 621.c ) 697. ft). ^ 1. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 643. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 0. 631. 624. 898.
^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 7  3V5.8. 3. 736. r. + < 735.r+y> 759..11. 739. J(v'lO2V 791.V/^ 741. 342V3. 758. 712. 796. v'll. 727. "V313. 24. 17ft. 753. 3V72VO. 767. 15 shares.. 794. 740. 749. . 756.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. + 6 2 tf'c. y  1.. 738. 13ft. v/7 / . 768. 24 4 . 3 VlT 795. 5. 728. mn. 1. rt3 2 ^i^. 1 [ + '> J. 1.9. . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 300. 34. 29\/3.^. Page 293. 1 I . 714.10.^ 743. 730. ^ . 792. Hi a. 715. T%.2. 788. 1^ _ 760. i^. 2x3^ a. 5. iv/Jj. 47. 722. a:* . 2\/53V2. . 725. 726. 777. 793. a". 750. 25. 746. 3^.12 af V^ 4 744.257. 751. 789. 33^2. j 742. VV> L4V34. 3V7. 2 V2 . 00. 790 2v 3v 2. 731. ^ ?>. 721. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 39.ANSWMHti Page 292.. 778. a db Va^T < 45da. 24V2. 719. . 3 720. fyaw&cu. 763. 717. x\y. 734. 1 752. 713. cr*lr*. 711. 3V52V3. i 2. 724. 773. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 782 785. 769. 8. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . a 2  x2 . 718. x i f^' .rJ w L 754. > 748.V2.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.4 . 709. a 5 . 59. 8.4 . 776. 1. . 729. 30\/10 764. Page 294. 4 104 v/2. VT14V5. 710. 755. a 2 6^. 737. VIO\/3. 733. 723. / 787. 732.1 . 3V72V3. 32>/2.9.~ . 1 747. 716. ^7xy.r.
872. (x . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 3.r4). 14.7). 3. 808. 898. db 7. \/5. **.25 ?>2). n =  29.1)(V 2 . 11. 3. 4 885. 5. ( 869. (x 2 f r . (x 2 . 8 09.1) (a 8 . 4 . 892. 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). jV3 f 3. 827. . 2. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 25. (2 4. 823. Page 296.  + l(l^). 812. 6. 814.7).1)(0 865. 882.1. 849. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). Hoots are extraneous. (x 845. 8.3. (xl)(^~3)(.XXXVI 797. 4.a 2 2 ). 4.  tt 815. 1. 826. 886. 817. 5. 830. 6 $. 3. 863. a(ft)( 873. 7. 1.4) 860. 893. 17. 4. 2/ 856. 0. 0. 10. a(ry + 864. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . (3 b .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ((' 1). 3. 0. (:r 11. 843. 811. 1C. 3. 2. 2 806.l)(x . 2 2 . (a m . ^. (. .. (1 . m 875. V 3.l)(x + 2). (x . (a 4 871.  839. 7.2) (x 4 2).l)(x . m = 2. 880.2w . 799. 2 *x 807. 2 . +j!>. 804. 831. 3. 841. ANSWERS 798. 4. 829. (a 1) (x 4. 899. 861. 810. 858. 891. 2.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). . (2 x + 3 y} . . 887.a 4 + 1).a 3 " 4. 6. 2. 48. 867. 837. 876. 801. 3. a* 4. . 13. (4 c 4. 857. 2. 0. ^ V}. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 8.. 3 . 6+V7. 822. 813. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. o 828. 4 818.3)(x + 4). 2. 1 . X4 1).rae) (4 . 1 1. .f. 19. 4.0. Page 297. 890. J V. 7.3. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). ( 4 4. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 5. + d)*. 17. 820. \/2. 819. 4. $.om 441) (a 855. 883. 844.  1. 851. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 6. 11. . 2 j 889. 2. 868. a 42)(x .7 4 1) 846. 4. 1. 3. 879.4. 2. 2. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . x . x. 894.+ m f ") (a* ). 800. o. (3 862. 2 854. . 834. 881. ^VG.10 ab 4. 4. 5. 23. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . Hoots . 842.  ' . 825. 2 . 2 (x 4*4. 4. 847.7)(4 x. .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. Va 803.1) . 2. (x + 0X024. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (2x (r. 816. b' 2 821. 833. 895. are extraneous. 884.5 b) 4 1). (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (x3). 888. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). . . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). ) (a' 874.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 1. 5.4. 2 . 835. (2 a . 7./>") (a'.y) 852. H. Va. 859. 3.2 ax 4. .7. (x 4. 2 m . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 824. 897. 836. $. 2  2. 838. 900. 832. 4. 1. 5). f. 20). 848. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . (x*y*ryz + z*).r . 896. 840.5) (x + * 853.. . a2 ^E*!.1).
f ft 4 . 56. 8. 4 6 mi. J. 66 924. 911. 7 or 30. 14 . %* . ft. 3. 496. 978.. a + . . 111. 5. 921. 12. 8 . ft. 916. 5.  1. 8. 4. 2 i ' a V.1 = 9. 333.0. S07. 943. 8128. 4 in. 1 . 3. 115. J. 3. w. v/(ai !)(&910. 955. 0. 2 w 914. 11. 2. 5. Page 303. ft. V5 T 2 . . 28. 3 4 . r ft ' < Page 299. 909. 4. 12. dL 4. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. yd.. 18.1. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 945. 1 1. 0. . 906. 938. 6. 927. 923. . 15 16 ft. 248. 15 946. . ?/i 6. 480 8 sq. 1). 959. Page 301. 930. 6. 947. 950. 2 yd. 935. 2 ft. 962.111. 3). . 3. 933. 942..073. ^y. 940. .. 908. . 7.709. 960. i 8.1. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. =F J. 912.  26j. Page 302. 7.615. 7. Z ^. T3. 2. Page 300. 3.651. 4. 939. 957.. 6. 5l4f. 8.2.. 0. 925. 6. 903.I.. 920. i>. 952. 922. 919.  1 . 1 + V953. 6. i 3. 2. 2. 6 da. . . 2. 4. tt2 19. 12 mi. 963. 11. 8. 329. 931. 10. 11. '3 3 in. 977. 979. 3 . w 3. 28. 4.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 982. 956.. . i(6 in. 60 949. 4. 8. 10. 3.. 6 1 1. 1 2...760 sq. 40 16 in.. 7. 984. Y. 11. 1 _2 . $(l 4. T 6. 100 rows. 934. 4. 8. 905. . 2.744. . 918.V~~3). 1. 985. . 951.. ft. 4 . 280. ft.' ifcVira^ 2 3. Va926. 2. 902. 0. 981. 20 19 ft.. 8./hr. 8. 5. 948. 28. 954. ft. J(_ ft. 2 1. 964. 12. T 6. 6 a 915. . 6 . 958. 3. 986. i1" 913. 983. 961. V5 fj. 941. 7 ft. ft. 6.446. 944. 108. a. 2.01. 904. 9 in. ft. f. 932.. 12 in. 80. 5. 73. 1. 1.2. 987. 937. 6. 333. 980. . 2. 4. 5 . 2. . . . 917. 4. 4. 936. V^3). .
in.18. 994. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 997. 1009.51. 1005. ^Trsq. 12. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1019. 1008. 3003. ^f (2f3V2).. + v 2). 993. 995. 120 i^l^. 8. 0. 0. 2(2 v/2). ~ \.870 z8 . . 108. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 24. 992.'^^ } ( . 1017. 6 70 .378 <W and 92. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . (J. 1018. (5. 32 13 (tx 4V3. + 448 .870 a 6 1011. 1006.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1010. 1 8 8 2. 120 a. 162. 4 and 1020. 1016. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1001. 48. 1014. (6) 8(1 . 192. 12. 1(5. 990. .  5&7 1021. X. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).. 991. 1012.128 I.192rt?)r 120 *. 9 da. 996. 1007. Page 304. () 12(2+V3). . 2 . (Z>) 999. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 988. Page 305. 4. r = 2. 1003. 1000. 72.378 1015.92. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1 1004. 1013.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.
The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. physics. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. than by the .25 lamo. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. so that the Logarithms. A examples are taken from geometry. xi 4 373 pages. and commercial life. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. given. comparatively few methods are heretofore. great many work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+563 pages. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Half leather. Half leather. The more important subjects tions. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.D. Ph. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. save Inequalities. HEW TOSS . i2mo.
Half leather. so that the tions. HatF leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. and commercial life.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Ph. comparatively few methods are given. great many A examples are taken from geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. $1. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. HEW YOKE . 12010. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Logarithms. In Factoring. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.D. xi f 373 pages. xiv+56a pages. save Inequalities. etc. $1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. physics.25 i2mo. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.
10. SEVENOAK. Ph. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 4. izmo. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 7 he . iamo. 6. Cloth. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.r and. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. lines.D. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. State: . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. xii + 233 pages. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. SCHULTZE. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. i2mo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. $1. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Half leather. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. $1.. wor. 9. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . more than 1200 in number in 2. aoo pages. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. under the heading Remarks". NEW YORK .10 L. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Cloth.
. New York City.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. and not from the information that it imparts. 12mo. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. $1. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. of these theoretical views. 370 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. .
photographs. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Maps. Topics. " This volume etc. Cloth. diagrams. and a full index are provided. diagrams. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. i2mo. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. An exhaustive system of marginal references.
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