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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA. .
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
U. September. 1910. J. July. IQJS January. 1917. . Berwick & Smith Co. 1916. January. 8. 1915. May. 1910.' February. Mass. Published Set up and electrotyped. May. . Norwood.S. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.COPYRIGHT. Cushlng Co. .A. September. 1910 . Reprinted 1913. August. 1911..
not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. specially 2. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. owing has certain distinctive features." this book. Such a large number of methods. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. and conse .PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition.. etc. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. however. chief : among These which are the following 1.
a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . two negative numbers. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". In regard to some other features of the book. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. etc. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. may be used to supplement the other. Moreover. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.g. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . e.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Topics of practical importance. as quadratic equations and graphs. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. however.
PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. is based principally upon the alge . By studying proportions during the first year's work. viz. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. elementary way. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. based upon statistical abstracts. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed." Applications taken from geometry. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. Moreover. and commercial are numerous. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. such examples. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. physics. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. in " geometry . to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.
. however. April. William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. 1910. edge of physics. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.
.... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . Powers.. . ..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors........ AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . SUBTRACTION...
Type IV.. . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .114 ... Type Polynomials. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . . /^ .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. * .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type VI. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type III.. Type V. Type II.
. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .... CHAPTER XIV 169 .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... . .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ....... Evolution of Monomials 170 .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
8. [6c] 3 . 0. \/c. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. !^f\/03 3 ft. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. aVc^. 7 = 2. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. Val \fi?. + c). are trinomials. is 28. V2a. 2. 26. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 9. V36". 4V3~6c. 3. 16. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). c f d). 15. 13. 17. 11. 6. a polynomial of two terms. 2 . 10. b = 3. 5Vl6c. d 7. V3 . or 9 Vx. (cfd) 4. + 1]. 12. c = 1. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. find the numerical value of: Vff. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. v'Ta. A polynomial is an y. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. as in arithmetic. 6. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. x 9. 4(a 6(6 + &). e." EXERCISE If a 1. some number is . 14. since the parts are a .g. V^a6. A binomial is 62 . 27. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. a2 + and   \/a are binomials.
find the numerical value of: 9. 16. Ex. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. i. 6. 2. * For additional examples see page 268. a2 11. c = 2.. 10. 5. 3 2 If 1. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. EXERCISE 8*  . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.810 + 150 = . . subtraction. . b = 3. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 3 4 . __ E. Ex. 3a + 56 a 2 . .390. 2. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. c=l.4 6^9 ad.INTRODUCTION 29.e. multiplication. 4a6fVaV2^. + 26+3 c. 12. d=Q.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 1. 5c +d 2 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 5=3. 52 . 4. 3. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . l 13.30 = 270 . 14.2 + I126. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.5 ax 50 a6cd. d = 0. a=4. 2 ). 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 6. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . Otherwise operations of addition. x=^.9 aWc + f a b .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.19 = 6.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .g.99. (a (a f b) 7. 8. a 2 6. 5.9. 4 . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .
a = 4. 6 = 3. 38. 6 = 2. 30. 22. 27. a = 4. Read the expressions of Exs.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. : 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 26 of the exercise.c) (a . 6. 6.6 . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 33. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 4. a. and other sciences. physics. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. geometry. 23. a = 3. 28. 37. a a=3. 6 = 5. a = 3. if : a = 2. 29. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 30. a =3. 35. 34. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six 2 . 26. a =4. 6 = 1. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6=2. 6 = 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31.6 f c) (6 a + c). sible to state Ex. = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 25. 6 = 7. 24. 6 = 5. 6 = 6. a = 2. .
) Assuming g . 14. 13.e. and 5 feet. 12. b 14. . An electric car in 40 seconds. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.16 centimeters per second.g. 15 therefore feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. Find the height of the tree. and 15 feet. if v : a. 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v . (c) 4. then a 13. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.16 1 = 84. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (b) 5. A train in 4 hours. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. 84 square EXERCISE 1. b.seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 2. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 13 inches. the area of the triangle equals feet. i. and c 13 and 15 = = = .INTRODUCTION E. d. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. c.
If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 5 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. $ = 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 5. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. (c) 8000 miles.14 square meters. is H 2 units of length (inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 2 inches. . then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 5 miles. : 8000 miles. meters. the 3. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14d (square units). then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (The number 3. 32 F.).). (c) 10 feet. ~ 7n cubic feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. square units (square inches. If the (b) 1 inch. the area etc.14 4.
in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. SUBTRACTION.CHAPTER II ADDITION. or positive and negative numbers.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. . Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.
22. (_ In Exs.3. lf(2). of 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 19. 5. .16 32. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. is 2.  0. subtract their absolute values and . 12. the one third their sum. 4. c = 4. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 24. (17) 15 + (14). '. d = 0. 33. 2326. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 23. 21. if : a a = 2. 18. 4 is 3 J. is 0. + (9). and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 6 6 = 3. 10. of: 20. d = 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. + 12. Thus. c = = 5. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5.
\\ Add 2 a. 27. .13. 35. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. and $4500 gain. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 5 and 12. 09. d= 3. 3 and 25. AND PARENTHESES d = l. ^ ' 37. 6. 33. ' Find the average of the following 34.5. 11 (Centigrade). or and . 1. 34. 10. 6. 29. 31. . 7 yards. . : 34. sets of numbers: 13. c=14.. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. ' 1? a 26. 4 F. . 13. which are not similar. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 39. $500 loss. SUBTRACTION. $1000 loss. 7 a. 3. 43. 12. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 74. 55. 7 a. 42. : and 1. affected by the same exponents. . . = 23. 72.. = 13. and 3 a.7. 30. 40. 10. & = 15. 0. : 48. 38. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 6. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 36. and 3 a. c = 0. 4. and 3 F. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 41. 60.. 66. and 3 yards. . 2. 2. 25. and 8 F. & 28. 32. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. are similar terms. = 22. $7000 gain.4.5. 10. and 4. 32.ADDITION. $3000 gain. 37. }/ Add 2 a.7.3.
The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 . Algebraic sum. 11. b wider sense than in arithmetic. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. EXERCISE Add: 1. Vm f. 5l 3(af6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 2(af &). While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.sign.18 35. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. : 2 a2. 3a . in algebra it may be considered b. 5 a2 . 12 2 wp2 . 2 a&. 9(af6). + 6 af . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. or a 6. 5Vm + w. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 12(af b) 12. 12Vmfn. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. f 4 a2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.13 rap 25 rap 2. b a f ( 6). 14 . 13. 10. 7 rap2.ii.
1 27. n x* 2 22. 30. 6 23. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va.ADDITION. 37. 2 7 1 26. without finding the value of each term 34. + / + 3 Va. 35. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. a a8 ZL **. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. c 2 ^24. 36. 2/ : Add. l^S 25. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 33. SUBTRACTION. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 17. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . and to add each column. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. + y. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. +m """ 20. is . i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 32. 21.
the erroneous answer equal 7.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . a 4. to add 26 ab . 5. 3a 2? .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.c= 2. of that letter. 4 2. to show any error. f 110WS: 26 aft. V3. s. x of x. 6=2. 9 q 4.o c and 4. 2 025. 5 . NOTE. .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.8 abc . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 46 4z 7 c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.7 2 .15 abc . 2 . e.41 = 3. . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 4 = 7. 2 Sum. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 Thus.12 a& 4.3 s. 3 a f 4 1) 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. ft any convenient and c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 3.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. and 2 .20 c 5 ab 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .g. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. c = 1. and J 2 s.15 6c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 7 4. = .g. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. therefore the answer is correct. 2c.
2 2 and . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 19. e a4 /. a 4 a . . 3 2 2 3 9 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).15 5.Ga 43x45. 2 a. + 50 + 62 . ^2 1 e.a 4 a 4 1. .5 cr& + 7 6 9. and 5 Vb 18. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 56 w. . m 4 6. in 8 3 m n 4. a. 2 ?/. and and 13. .1. 2 ?ft ?/z. 7ar + 3B 5. . d and / 3 ? 12.ADDITION.12(a 4. a2 2 14. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.4:xy xz 6yz. 2 and 9m 48m 4.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 4 Vc.9(a + &) . a 4 a . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.7m . a2 a.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 4(a .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4.a .5a^6 f 6) .1 a 4 1 0. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. ?/ .VS 4 2 Vc. xy3xz + yz.8 m 2m 12.4 Va . 11. d. 2 3(c f a). . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 8. SUBTRACTION. a) y ^/. 16. 4 8 3 4 4 .and 6.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .a. 4 3 .10 Vc. 2 2 . + a + 1. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .7v/if.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 18/+6y + d. 4 ajy 17. . and . . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .6. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.a. and 1 4 a . v/20.12 6 ~5 a . 16e + 17/90. . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.12. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.(b + c) 1. and v 15. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.2n 2 2 3 rz .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . and 8 3 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.
3 taken from 2 ? 5. 2 8 n + <w 2 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.3^* 2n 2 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. + 1. f 1.9aj 2.ra + m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . s .5< 3 2 s 4^4. 1. how 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. + n*. . .22 21. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1. 1. f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. The sum and ? 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.17 + 4 ?nfy . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. +d a. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.m 4m ?/?/ d. 6 f c 2 23. and e + 6y . a 6 2 c.11 xy + 12. many negative units re main ? from 2. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1/ .. 1. f number may be added 3. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . and 25. T8a. . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 12 xyz. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 8 . 1. and 2 24.4 2tn* Sic 2 . is 2. 22. 13 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1. 45a6 2 .
To subtract. . may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 41. Therefore any example in subtraction different . This gives by the same method. two numbers are given. Or in symbols. called the minvend. 7. Ex. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. ( 6) ( = . From 5 subtract to . State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.g. From 5 subtract + 3. 6 (3) = 8. 3.ADDITION. ab = x. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. a. and the required number the difference. NOTE. +b 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. In subtraction.2. In addition. if x Ex. 1. SUBTRACTION.3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. Ex. 5 is 2. from What 3. and their algebraic sum is required. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . change the sign of the subtrahend and add. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. the other number is required.
Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* .3 r*5o. If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8.f 8 . Check.
+3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 57. 41.6)f. 49. 42.2.c.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 58. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. c f d. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 53. 45. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From From x2 the sum sum 7. and 3 7/ .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 6 4 a.ADDITION. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 43.a 2 j. 46. check the answer. 44. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. of a 4. 48. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 6 6 2 2 ?/ .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 51. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. tract 4 x 3. 54. 47.4 a*& + 6 a & . 55. 50.w>t. 52. 56. + a the 2 a. From 6(af.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From 2 a take a & j.4 a^ 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2y 2 . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 2. .7 a . SUBTRACTION.
15. +a add the difference duce 13. 16. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 2. a 2y + z.26 4. 19. 9. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. a + 6. 2 m 21. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 6 + c. subtract # + 1. of # 2 8. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. A is n years old. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. a a + c.
a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.c. a+(bc) = a +b . the sign is understood.c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.6 b f (. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. II.g. 46. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. & f c. changed.b c = a a & f f. 45.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. I. SUBTRACTION.2 b . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. . Ex. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. one occurring within the other. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.a^6)]  } .ADDITION.
+ 6)f (a2 b). m f ft) a. 6. 2 2 2 a(. 6) 2. 8. a f (a a . : x + (2yz).(a + 6). By removing parentheses. Signs of aggregation 1. 18. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 15. . 2a (4a 26 +c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 19. 2 2a. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. + (2a 6 + c ). may be inserted according to 43.: Ex. 3 3 f 7.[271 47. 5. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 17.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. Ex.y (60. 21. [36+ (a 2c]. a (a + 6). 9. 13. 16. 4. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. (m a2 f. 3. a (a + 26 c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.7i h jp) (m ?*.1422) J ] . 271 + (814 . 14.)]. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.) 5 . 2. ? 11.
4. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.ADDITION. 2. m and n. 7. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. terms 5. 3. 9. difference of the cubes of n and m. 13. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 7. 12. 5 a2 2.1. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. . a\l> > c + d. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. )X 6. SUBTRACTION. 10. The product The product m and n. p + q + rs. 6 diminished . first. The square of the difference of a and b. 5. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 8. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. y f 8 . 5^2 _ r .2 tf .4 y* . 6. 2mn + 2q3t. and the subtrahend the second. m x 2 4.7fa. The sum^)f m and n. z + d. of the cubes of m and n. ' NOTE. The difference of a and 6. 3. II. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 18. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19.) . 16. d. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.30 14. b. 6. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6 is equal to the square of b.
By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. let us consider the and JB. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force is produced by the Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 5. 2. 4. weights. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads what What. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads balance. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. A A A 1. force is produced therefore. 3. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. therefore.
Practical examples^ it however. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. (. x 11. however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(4) = + 12. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 48. or plied by 3. 9 9. Thus. 5x(4).9) x 11. the multiplier is a negative number.4)(. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 multiplied by 3. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. thus. 4 multi44444 12. To take a number 7 times. becomes meaningless if definition. ( (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.32 8. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 x ( 11). NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. . (5)X4. 4x(3)=12.
9. 5x3. 23.2. etc. _2. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3. 26. 20. c = 25. 2a6 c .(4J). 29. 4 a2 .2 f+x 2 . 13. 7. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. . 1. tors is no misunderstanding possible. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (4)'. 8. find the numeri values of: 21. 8 31. 17. 22. 2a 2 6c. 4. 16.MULTIPLICATION 50. (.2f 18. . 8 4 . _2^ 3. Law Thus. NOTE.3) (1) 7 2 . X(5). If a cal = 4a6c. 12. z s 11 aWcx. 27. 2. 6 2. and y = 4. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. (7) X (12). (4)X(15). 32. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (c#) . _3. Ua b 28. (10) 4 . 11. 3. 1. 5. 4 . . (2)x9.4. 3 a2?/2 .3.(a&c) 2 2 . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 15. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 6. x. 6.7. .a)( =+ a&. 14. 10. . x= 0. of Signs: TJie positive. 30. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 19. is 6x7. +5. about fac (2)X If 6. (2) 8 (. b = 3. 3 aW. 24.
78 . . 2. a= 1. & = 3. 2 2 2 . 2 3 . 6.e. a8 a=2. 5(711. 4. 100. m*. . : 3a7abc. Ex. 34.m a 3  4 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . a = 3. a = 2. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 5 3 5 3 2 .2 2 23 + 5 .. 3. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. + 2/). 2. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 6 = .2). 5 . 10. By 3 definition. Ex.  and 2 25 8 . 16. 3 2 .35)..6 if 35. 17.503). if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 4. 2(14. 53. =2 a *. 200. 4. 13. 14. 6 aWc x . 2(7. 5 = 2.<?. &*) c d*. 12 U U . = 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .(7). (a6) (a5) 9. 50(112. i. 3 3 4 . 2 2 3 6 . of the factors.7. a 2 2 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 36. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 5. .(2.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 6" 127 U . This 52. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. or 2 .257). .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. IB.  2 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.(12) . 3. 11. . 1. B. 7. fl*" integers. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.3). 9 . 127  127 9 7 . 6 = 1. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .
(.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 6. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 4.A). 28. This principle. 7. . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 27. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).4a#. 7p*q r*. 2 32. Thus we have in general a(b 56. . 3. 23(10004100420). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 11(3. 23. . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). but we shall assume it for any number. 29. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. c(4a ftc ). 21. 26. 24.f 2). 2. 25. 2(5fl5f25). _4aft. 6(10420430). ) 2 33. . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .7pqt. 20. 34. ax /) 2 4 1 (. . /). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 22.7 w'W (8 n^W). 35 4 7(6. 35. by first multiplying. 17(10041042). 5. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . (. 19.3 win ) .M UL TIPLICA TION 18.2 3 aft ). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. multiply each by the monomial. 2(645410). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). and then adding : 1.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 12( + 1 4 i). 31. If results ft. . called the distributive law. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 3(124342).
29. 7 a 6 c(. .^ c + 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 19. 5).5 x 7). 2 m(mhn \p). 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). : expression must 24.5 w*V f 7 wn).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 26. 3 ).3 aftc). . 2 2 16. 30.we b) (x law. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.asa product. Find the factors of 6 ary . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 27.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 11. .6 a6). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 28. 12.2 mn(9 mV . 17. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . f7a. 21. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.60 a& 10 aft. 23. 20. By what 25. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . be multiplied to give 4o. 9.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. ~2mn(m +n p ). . 22.
The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Check. 2.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. To multiply two polynomials. Multiply 2 a .3 b by a 5 b. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the student should apply this test to every example. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Ex.1. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. 2a3b a66 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 .a . Multiply 2 + a a.4. a2 + a8 + 3 . .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Since errors. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 59. however.
OQ OO. (13 A. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 7. (6a~7) 2 . (8r7*)(6r39. 36). 2  37. (a^26) . (6i7n)(llJn).4) (mnp 4. 20. 12)(a?^2l). 2) (3 A: 1). 32. 16. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 5. 6. 3. 25. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 40. 2. (2w 19. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 31. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 8. (6p (2 f 21. 28. 36. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 36) I) 14. (4a 2 33. I (mfn)(m4. l)(raf 2). 4. 15. 26. 11. 7y). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 35. 13.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.1 . 2 .2m)(l m).4) (x + 1). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 41. 9. 4 2). a 5c)(2a6c). 3<7). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 1). 10. 18.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (a 2a + 2)(a3). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 22. 30. 29.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1.2). (2 x* x 2 . . 24. * For additional examples see page 261. QQ O7. . ^ 2 . 17. 12. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 2 .
1) (10 + 2).!!)( (a + 21). 8. (6 12) (6 f. . ft 16. 27. . 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.4). 11. + 3) (a 7). i. 24. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 12. 20. (ra. 19. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (J 23. 14. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 21. . i. 75 ab f 54 ft . + 2) (a f 3). (a 9) (a + 9). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 7. in of the two unequal terms. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 2 a? 29. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 15. _3)(a _4). (!)(* 5).13). 10. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 25.n)(wf w).e. 22. 13. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 1005x1004. : 23 2. 25 a 2 . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 28. 2 6) (a 3 6). (a3)(a + 2).2 6) (a f 6). (100 +2) (100 + 3).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (*. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). + 60)(f2). 17. X 102. (a (a (a. 3. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . + 5) (1000 + 4). 6. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4). 2) (1000 + 3). 9. (a 102 x 103. (p12)(p + ll). plus the product 62. 26. + 9)(m+9). (10+ (1000 (2. 18.e.
: 24 (a 2. n2 10ii+16. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (x+3i/) 2 . i. 9. 8. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 3. of the second. . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. i. 32. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. (a2) (p a . + 6 a + 8. . 33. 37. 2 5.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. (a26) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. p 2 p. 7 a + 10. III. + 3) 2 . 49 y*. second.e. .e. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 4. 63.e. 34. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . and the second. Ex. a2 2 w + 2 w . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 35. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.15. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 7. 6. plus the square of the second.66 s. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. <J>7) J . 31. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second.15.30. w 2 ro . III. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 77ie square of the of the first.
24. 29. 33. 991 2 2 . 41 16. (1000 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. . n 2 f4n+4. 16aW25. 55. 51. 34. 32. 25 a 9. 22 2 . 31. By actual multiplication. . I) 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 45. 11. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 104 2 37. 14. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 22. 46. 2 . 2 J ). 998x1002. 42. G> +5g)*. 2 9a 496 2 56. 15. 2 2 . 49. + 5). a2 9. (6afy 2 5) (a. 52. 41. (100 + 2) (100 2). two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 17. + 3z) 2 2 . . 48. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 9 a2 . 62 25n 2 . 35. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 40.998 39. 28. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 (4a36) 2 13. The product of 57. (2x3yy. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 4 53. 12. 54. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . n*6n+9. 38. 47. 2 . m 2 16. (^. 103 36. 18. 7& ) 25. 21. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 23.MULTIPLICATION 10. (20 f 1) . ( 27. ). .30 ab + 25 6 64. 44. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. + 5)(5+a). + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 99x101. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .
or The student should note minus signs. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (5a64)(5a&3). 9. sum of the cross products. 8. (5a4)(4al). (3m + 2)(ml).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 11. 5. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). ((5a? (10 12. 14. 13. ) (2 of a polynomial. 4.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (2a3)(a + 2). . : 25 2. The square 2 (a 4. 7. plus the last terms. (4s + y)(32y).& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 65. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 10. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 6. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 3.
(a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).y? + 8 . Find the square root 11.i2&c) 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.24 . (u4& + 3c'. Hence. 9. 6~2(a + 7). the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).4) . 13.(>.X2 + 2 x .3)(z. = 10 x . of z : 10.1 5 = 10 . + 65) . 4. 66. . a.5) = (7 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).[a? .3) . after multiplying the factors of a term. 8.r _ 2 . n). and check the answers !. 7. 5. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 6(a 2. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 2 2. (a (. + 6)( . 8. 4y sf n) 2 . 4(aj2)h3(7).3) (x . (  2 4) =  20 a. 4. If x = 1. 6.39.24] .39. 2)6. 3. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .4) . 7. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.5). (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Check. 12.(m 2 6. 5.(x .8 x + 15] .(= [ Xa + 2 . 4(* + 2)5(3). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. = . 3. Ex.29. (xy+z)*.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).l.2). (81 m + 1 . .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).DIVISION 14.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . v/17. 51 15. 16. . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. a I. . 20. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 19. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 18. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2) (3 a . Division of the difference of two squares. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).e.11 a + 9 a .
9& 2 . .000. r/ 1. 16.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 12. f 13. 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. aW 12 a. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14. 100ry.0001.49. : the following w a 4 !. . 1. 10. 15. 16 .
An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. . the first member is 2 x + 4. in the equation 2 x 0. 82. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. 81. . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. x 20. 83. =11.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. second member is x + 4 x 9. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . hence it is an equation of condition. (a + ft) (a b) and b. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.
expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. the products are equal. a. 4. 90. If equals be added to equals.2. . To solve an equation to find its roots. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A numerical equation is one in which all . but 4 does not equal 5. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.b. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 87. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 5. 86. If equals be multiplied by equals. 85. A 2 a. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 3. NOTE. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. E. x I. one member to another by changing x + a=. 89. called axioms 1.g.54 84. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the sums are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the divisor equals zero.e. If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be divided by equals. 2 = 6#f7. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the quotients are equal. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the remainders are equal. . A term may be transposed from its sign. Transposition of terms.
b c. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.2. 4x 1 + 6. 3 y . Uniting. b Adding a to both + a. Transposing. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Hence the answer.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Check.8. and the known terms to the second. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. (4y)(6. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.2 y= f . x = (Axiom 3) 92. if 55 x members. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 2(11 . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. To solve a simple equation. The first member. The first member. Ex. a? Adding 5 to each term. a= a 6fc.9 y + y2 = 22 . 91. Dividing by Check. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 2 x = 6. The second member. x = 93. Unite similar terms. is correct. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. if a x = b. Uniting similar terms. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. f If y 20 . Dividing both members by 2.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 6a5 = 185 = 13.6 y f y\ . x = 3. .
7. = 7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 16.. 4y 10. 7 (6 x 16). 2. 24. + 7(3 + 1) =63.. : 5# = 15+2a. 11. . = 5a?+18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 15. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 19. 20. 3 7 a. 4a + 5 = 29. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. a. and check the answers 9. Solve the following equations by transposing. 13a? 3a?. f Simplifying. 17 7 a. 14. it NOTE. = 3. =2 = 3. 22. a? a?. Transposing. 3. 12. 4. 8. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. Uniting. x x 1 . 3)= 9(3 7 a. 13 y 99 = 7 y.56 Ex. x = 18.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. a. 50. J. + 16 = 16 + 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 247y = 68lly. 6. 11 ?/ a? 18.7a: = 394a. \x x 2^xfl. = 2 ?/. 21. aj * See page 264. etc. . a?. 9 9a? = 7 13. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 14y = 59(24y + 21). + 22. 17 + 5a. If x = 18.17 + 4y = 36.69. 7a? 5. v23. 3. 32 = 264. {(x (x The The member right member left .
12) (2 + 5) . . . (a. 31. 29.32.5(2 u .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 2 2 * Jaj. 25. 33.3) . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 7(7 x y 26.1) (a (a? + 3) = . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. or 70 a?. Evidently 45. + 7) (. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . find the other part. .4) + 4 w .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. a? 28. is the other part. 41.7.5) = (a. 5) (as (a. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. e. 39.2) (M . + 4). this question. . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 34. 7) (a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). .3) + . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (6 u =5 44.(2 + 6) (4 .1) (u .14 = 0.3) + 14.7) (7 x + 4) . 6(6a. . . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. (aj 37. 38. 30. 42. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 35. a? 43. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 27.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .g. 40.5) + 199.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. : One part is of 70 is 25 . . 36.1 0) = 0.
EXERCISE 1. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. or 12 7. 3. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 9. Find the greater one. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 6. Divide a into two parts. 1. is b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. so that one part The difference between is s. a. If 7 2. 7. smaller one 16. is d. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. and the smaller one parts. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 15. 33 2. 14. find the cost of one yard. 5. 11. 13. 4. one part equals is 10. greater one is g. so that of c ? is p. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is a? 2 is c?. 10. so that one part Divide a into two parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 17.58 Ex. Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Divide 100 into two 12.
If B gave A 6 25. and spent 5 cents. 26. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. amount each will then have. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and c cents. Find 35. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 28. 19. find the has ra dollars. 34. How many cents has he ? 27. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 22. is A A is # years old. 20. A man had a dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 24. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. sum If A's age is x years. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find 21. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 33. 28. ?/ 31. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A dollars. and B's age is y years. How many years A older than is B? old. b dimes. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B has n dollars. 32. and B is y years old. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A feet wide. numbers is x.
a. % % % of 100 of x. 46. Find a. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. Find the number. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. A was 20 years old. c a b =  9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41.50. . and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. per Find 5 Find 6 45. Find a 47. he walk each hour ? 39. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. of m. 48. . The two digits of a number are x and y. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. 49. m is the denominator. A cistern is filled 43. The first pipe x minutes. of 4. find the fraction. Find x % % of 1000.
c. 3. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 5. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. The excess of a over b is c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 2. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. a exceeds b by c. 4. The double as 7. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. double of a is 10. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 80. 6. of x increased by 10 equals x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of a increased much 8. same result as 7 subtracted from . by one third of b equals 100. 80. c. etc. 9. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c.
they have equal of A's. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. #is5%of450. 12. . and C's age 4 a. and C's ages will be 100. (c) If each man gains $500. a. 14.000. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic 3x : 10. A gains $20 and B loses $40. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. a second sum. of 30 dollars. x is 100 x% is of 700. 17. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B. 18. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. pays to C $100. 11. B's. and C have respectively 2 a. 3 1200 dollars. as 17 is is above a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. amounts. x 4 If A. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. symbols B. In 10 years the sum of A's. a. B's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. m is x % of n. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old.62 10. is If A's age is 2 x. B's age 20. 6 % of m. 16. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. they have equal amounts. >.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum.. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 50 is x % of 15. sum equals $20. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.
verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). In order to solve them. x = 20. Let x = the number. Ex. the required .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Three times a certain no. 1. number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Transposing. x= 15. 15. the . The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. denote the unknown 96. In 15 years 10. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Check. etc. 23 =30. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Transposing. . Simplifying. 4 x = 80. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. be 30 . but 30 =3 x years. Ex. much as 40 exceeds the number. 6 years ago he was 10 . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. number of yards. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Uniting. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 3z40:r:40z. Dividing. Uniting. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 2. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. NOTE. Find A's present age. Let x The (2) = A's present age. A will Check. x+16 = 3(35). by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40.
Six years hence a 12 years ago. 300 56. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. EXERCISE 1. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 5. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Hence 40 = 46f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. A number added number. Find 8. by as much as 135 ft. 13. twice the number plus 7. 4. 11. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Let x 3. % of 120. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. . 3. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12.64 Ex. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 120. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. Dividing. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *.2.
and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If A gains A have three times as much 16. Maine's population increased by 510. B How will loses $100. written in algebraic symbols. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. two verbal statements must be given. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. and B has $00. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. statements are given directly. A and B have equal amounts of money. x. During the following 90 years. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. F 8. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 1. the second one. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.000. Vermont's population increased by 180. . and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. B will have lars has A now? 17. The sum of the two numbers is 14. The other verbal statement.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. and as 15. 97. which gives the value of 8. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. 14. times as much as A. is the equation. 65 A and B $200. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. One number exceeds the other one by II. The problem consists of two statements I. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. How many dol A has A to $40. Ex. five If A gives B $200.000. Find the population of Maine in 1800.
x 3x 4 and B will gain. + a f f 8 = 14. consider that by the exchange Hence. = A's number of marbles. Statement x in = the larger number. which leads ot Ex. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Uniting. Let x 14 I the smaller number. B will have twice as viz. the smaller number. Then. A will lose. 2x a? x j = 6. = B's number of marbles. terms of the other. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. x x =14 8. 25 marbles to B. If A gives are : A If II. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. 8 the greater number. = 14. the greater number. < Transposing. has three times as many marbles as B. although in general the simpler one should be selected. The two statements I. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. If we select the first one. I. .= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 8 = 11. unknown quantity in Then. / . . 2. to Use the simpler statement. B will have twice as many as A. Let x 3x express one many as A. . Dividing. A has three times as many marbles as B. = 3. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. the sum of the two numbers is 14. To express statement II in algebraic symbols.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. A gives B 25 marbles. x = 8. and Let x = the Then x +.
Let 11 = the number of dimes. 50. (Statement II) Qx . consisting of half dollars and dimes.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.25 = 20.75.10. Dividing. by 44. 15 + 25 = 40. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Find the numbers. A's number of marbles. have a value of $3. Simplifying.10. 1. x from I. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. etc.240.10. The sum of two numbers is 42. Uniting. of dollars to the number of cents. the number of half dollars. and the Find the numbers. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. cents. Check. greater is . Eleven coins. 3. the price. w'3. 2. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Two numbers the smaller.$3. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. B's number of marbles. x = the number of half dollars. then. 40 x . 3 x = 45. Find the numbers. Uniting. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.. The value of the half : is 11. Check. 6 times the smaller. * 98. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The number of coins II. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x = 6. 50 x Transposing. . . 11 x = 5. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 45 . Dividing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. is 70..5 x .. dollars and dimes is $3.550 f 310. * ' . 60. Simplifying. the number of dimes. but 40 = 2 x 20. x = 15.
and four times the former equals five times the latter. 11. 7. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Twice 14. 5. 9. as the larger one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. United States. tnree times the smaller by 65. Everest by 11. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. How many hours does the day last ? . Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many inches are in each part ? 15. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. one of which increased by 9. What is the altitude of each mountain 12.000 feet. 6. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and twice the altitude of Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the number. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints.. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Find their ages. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. Two numbers The number differ by 39. How many 14 years older than B. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. McKinley. A's age is four times B's. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. On December 21. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.68 4.
The third verbal statement produces the equation. x = 8. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. B has three times as much as A. and B has three as A. number of dollars A had. 19." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. are : C's The three statements A. they would have 3. I. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. number had. Let x II. has. and C together have $80. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. Ex. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 1. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. B. and 68. has. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. then three times the money by I. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. original amount. = 48. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If A and B each gave $5 to C. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. III. bers is denoted by x. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. If 4x = 24. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. times as much as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80. . the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. B.
185 a = 925. cows. number of horses. x f 4 = 9. 9 cows.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Uniting. 4 x f 8 = 28. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. + 35 x 4. III. according to II. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. The total cost equals $1185. sheep. 90 may be written. each horse costing $ 90. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 28 2 (9 5). The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. number of cows. number of cows. Let then. and the sum of the . x Transposing. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. the third five times the first. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 9 5 = 4 . and each sheep $ 15.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and. number of sheep. first. according to III. = the number of dollars spent for horses. Dividing. + 8 90 x and. 2. 1 1 Check. x = 5. each cow $ 35. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and Ex. x j = the number of horses. three statements are : IT. The I.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. "Find three is 4. and 2 more men than women. women. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. 9. what is the length of each? has 3. men.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the sum of the first and third is 36. increased by three times the second side. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. what are the three angles ? 10. first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If twice The sum the third side. A 12. twice as old as B. 13. the third 2. New York delphia. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. how many children were present ? x 11. The gold. the second one is one inch longer than the first. the copper. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. twice the 6. what is the population of each city ? 8. 7. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. v . equals 49 inches. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and children together was 37. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. first.  4. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.
width. . 3 and 4. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Find the value of each. The copper had twice the value of the gold.000.e. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. number of miles A x x walks. = 35. such as length. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and distance. how many 100. and quantities area.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. = 5. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 7 Uniting. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. together. Dividing. Let x = number of hours A walks.000. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. First fill in all the numbers given directly. of 3 or 4 different kinds. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. i. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. A and B apart.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Hence Simplifying.000 more than that the copper. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. of arid the value of the iron was $300.g. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E. number of hours. speed. or time. 14. we obtain 3 a. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 8 x = 15.
x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. original field has Check.05 x x . x + 200). z = 20. the second 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. . Transposing and uniting.04 = $ 40. $ 800 = required sum.M(x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Multiplying.06 = $ 40. x . 2 a = 40. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x .053. the area would be 100 square yards less. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Check. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. were increased by 30 yards. 10 x = 200.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. $ 800 = 800. $ 1000 x .01 = = . l. + 8." gives (2. 2   and transpose. 70x10 Ex. and the width decreased by 10 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. But 700 certain = 800 2. or 700.04 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.
mobile. A of each. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sets out later two hours B . After how many hours will B overtake A. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and its width decreased by 2 yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. sions of the field. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. What are the two sums 5. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. Six persons bought an automobile.55. but four men failed to pay their shares. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. of coffee for $ 1. Ten yards $ 42. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. 3. 1. invested at 5 %. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. together bring $ 78 interest. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and a second sum. were increased by 3 yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Find the share of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %. the area would remain the same. 2. twice as large. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. as a 4.
how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A and B set out direction. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and from the same point. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles.
but fractional with respect 103. a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An after simplifying. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . as. f db 6 to b. stage of the work. we shall not. + 62 is integral with respect to a. at this 6 2 . 104. if it does contain some indicated root of . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. consider 105.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 5. it is composite. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . irrational. 76 . a2 to 6. which multiplied together are considered factors. if. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . vV . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a. this letter. 6.
3 sy + 4 y8). It (a. Ex. 55. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. TYPE I. x.FACTORING 106. E. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. in the form 4) +3. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 8) (s1). it follows that a 2 . or that a = 6) (a = a .62 can be &). 107. 109. ?/. .g.) Ex. x. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Factor G ofy 2 .62 + &)(a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 77 Factoring is into its factors.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Divide 6 a% .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 1. 2. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.3 6a + 1). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 110. y. . for this result is a sum. 01.
2 Or.6. (as 3) and (ccf5). ) 22  2.5 + 2. 2 6.51 x4 2 6 xy s . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 3. . 18.g. 7i 13. 16. 2 + q. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). obviously. Ilro8 9. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. a6c.3. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 13.3.5 + 13 8. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 32 a *?/ . in general. 3x*6x*. a a 'Ja .2. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 8. . 34 a^c 8 . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 14. 3 2 . 4 8 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 15. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2.4. 12. + llm llm. 5f 2 . 2 23.8 c a 15 ofyV . 17. e. 7a & 10.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. TYPE IT.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 3 3 5 6. 2 2 . 14a 4 5. : 6 abx . 19. 20. 15 2 7.45 afy .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 11.51 aW + 68 21. 4. q*q*q 2 a.4.12 cdx.30 aty. 4 tfy f.
2. .. 3. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. + 30 = 20. a 2 . Therefore Check.G) = . . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. + 112. 11 7.5) (a 6). We may consider 1. determine whether In solving any factoring example. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. If q is positive. however.30 = (a . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.5) (a .6 = 20. or 77 l. or 7 11. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Ex. 2 6. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.4 x . Factor x? . 79 Factor a2 4 x . 77 as the product of 1 77. as p.4 . 5.11 a 2 . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.a). tfa2  3. If q is negative. and (a . . 4. the two numbers have opposite signs. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. of this type.FACTORING Ex.11. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.11) (a + 7). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. Ex. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor a2 .77 = (a.11 a + 30. Factor + 10 ax .1 1 a tf a 4. can be factored. m 5m + 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).
in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 35. 24. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.80 7. + 30.48 + + 446 200. 27. ra + 25ra + 100. 9. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 2 a' 34. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 2 . ITT. a? + 5 + 6 a. 36.180 a. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 32. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 12. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. + 5<y 24. 14. 8. 31. a2 . 2 . 11. a 7 a 30. . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 20. 16. x2 23. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 100 xr . 15. 33. 26. or . 17. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 ?/ 22. 29. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 13.500 x + 600. 2 ?/ 28.17 + 30. 4 2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 2 .70 x y . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 4 3 2 . and 5 x. . 25. 19.6. + 44. 21. 16. 18. ay 11 ay +24. 21 a 2 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. + 2xS. .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . + 4?/21. 30. TYPE 113. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.
. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. then the second terms of have opposite signs. Factor 3 x 2 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. a.5 . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 3 x and x. 27 x 2. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. Ex. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.5) (2 x . all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .13 x + 5 = (3 x . 2 x 27. 9 x 6. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 18 x 3. If p is poxiliw. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. X x 18. the If p and r are positive. 54 x 1. or G 114. the signs of the second terms are minus. 6 x 9. . and that they must be negative. but the opposite sign.1).83 x f 54. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 3. viz. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. sible 13 x negative.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 11 x 2x. 2. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and r is negative.
. 32. 3. 15. 7. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 16.83 x = (3 . 100^200^ + 100^. 20.7. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. . 10 a . 9a. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 14. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 2 2 2 23.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 2 28. 35. 2 26. .260 xy .19 a f 6. 6. since all others (II.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . X 27 .2) (x . 19. 10a?2 2 33. 21. 4. 2 fc . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. and the monomial factors should be removed. 5m 26m f 5. 12^17^16. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . : 41 2. f go. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 9. 14 a fa 4. 30. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 . 11. 2x* + 9x5.y + 172/9. 2 2 2 . 9 y + 32^16. 13. 34. 5. + 2/3. 2 31.2 a 90 x*y . 24. 90 a 8 2 . 6n 2 f 13w + 2.27). SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 144 x .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 22. 12y 2/6. 3a + 13a. 3x*Sx + 4. 6n + 5?i4. 8. the expressions should be it. 18. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. Sar' + SaG. 2m t7w + 3.30 y 6 4 .179.83 x . 10.163 x 2 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 17. 25. 12. 4a2 9tt + 2.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. x54 a. + 4. 2. 29.
m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 16 y? The student should note that a term.e. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 5. 2 9 10gf25. 11.10 x f 16. must have a positive sign. it is a perfect square. and factor whenever possible : 1. 14. 9. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. it is more convenient for that type. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. of its terms are perfect squares. 9 10a625.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 6. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . form are special cases of the preceding type. 2. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. however. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . . 4. 12. 13. i. 10. 116. and a perfect square. square. 25 7. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 3. . 8.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 .20 xy f 4 y\ . x* . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.
2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. aV . a. . 19. prime. 25. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 22. 2. u2 6& + 2 ( ). a2 24. ). . 48 a +( ). a4 a2 2 f 6 is .60 a# + 4. 9a2 . a. 4 2 23. V. 2. 5. 4a2 l. product i. 2 20. 2 . 16&*.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).2 ofy + ofy m . According to 65.84 15. 16. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 6 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 18.3 * ). 10 a 2 4 2 . ). ). +( )f816 30. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. + GO + 25. 36 2 4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 26. ^//c to the Ex.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 7. : 43 tfy\ a 9. .20 ab + 10 b a . 3.6 m* + 9 m. 1.64 6 = 16(a . 17. 27. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).e. 225 ofy . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 149 a 81 8. TYPE 117. 29. Ex. 3. 9. * 2 . 6. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.
13. (m7?) y. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .(c 4. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.FACTORING 85 118.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 14. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2 .(I) . 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .d) 2 . 2.c . Factor a 2 . 2. 36> . Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . a2 . 9. T. 11. 5. 16p 2 . a:) 12. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 8. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . of polynomials. One or both terms are squares 1. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 4. 6. Ex. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.
raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 3. 2. 2. 8. + x + 2x + 2.1. ma ?*a + m& nb.and trinomials. Ex. 7. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.y + 2 2). . Ex.14.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. which may be factored according to types I. 119. .a a . 6. A. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.r.7 c + 2c . By grouping. a? 11. x8 . ive find that the new terms con common factor.VI. 4 B. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. a5 + ab 6 .ab + bx. a 26 2 2 3 . 5) .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 5. 10. = (3 x + y . 4:cx .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. After grouping tain a the terms. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 9. 1. 12.2 ) (3 x .
= (a + 6)(a6). 4 a2 . IV. : 46 x* 2. . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 2 7.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 4. 3. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : m 2 2 16. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 3.12 aaj 4 6y.l. 4. 5.FACTORING Ex. First find monomial factors common to all terms. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. + 2xy + y*q*. II. 6 6.4 f . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2a3/ 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6a4 12a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 2. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 8. 8ra 2 + 16. . w m 2. 36 9 m .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Arranging the terms. $ a8 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 6. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.
13 c . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.40.88 10. 2 17. 2 a 128.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.310 x . 4 8 tt 2 z . 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 50^ + 45. 2 ft . 3 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 27. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 28. 3 41. 32. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 29. 30. . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 13. 5 a. 18. 24. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 42 x . (a.156. a3 156. 13 c . 48. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 80 a 2 ft 38. or 3 7#2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 12. 14. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 4 a. a + a + a + l. a6 36. 40. 3 a2 23. 35. 42 s 2 . (^ 34. a. 11. + 14. 22. 5a' 20. a5 a 1 4 2 39. + 6 aft + 3 .24. 3 25.
F. 5 s 7 2 5. . C. 5. 2 2 . Thus the H. 121. 25 W. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . II 2 . C. F. F. C.  23 3 . aW. 12 tfifz. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. EXERCISE Find the H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 13 aty 39 afyV. C. C. 5 7 34 2s .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 8 . The H. 122. are prime can be found by inspection.) of two or more . 3 . of aW. Two common factor except unity The H. F. C. of the algebraic expressions. 3. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. 24 s . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of : 48 4. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. The student should note H. 54  32 . F. F. C. 89 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 5 2 3 . 2. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. 15 aW. F. The highest is common factor (IT. 6. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. The H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of 6 sfyz.
2 . 52 oryz4. F.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 13. Ex. (a7 ?/) . 9 aj*(a? . 5. 15 3ao. 8.7 xy + 10 2 = (x .2 ?/) (x . C. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 25 m27i. of + 4 if. 2 . ^707 + 12. 11.2 y) (a. a3 16 a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . a2 + 2a3. C. . 2 .5 y). 3^ 2 4 . 3).6 . 8 6.5 + 6.y) 123. x* x2 Hence the H. 13.12 as 66 . a. 6 mx . C. 10. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . . 7. 225 4a 9 . ^a + 5^ + 6.^9. F. aWd. 2. . 16. F.6. 65 zfyV. To find the H.y) . of: .6 a&. 9. 3 . 1. . a2 + 7af!2. Find the H. F. 8. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 95 2/V. 6 3 a. 11. 57 a>V.8 a + 16. 8 a 10 . 4 ?io. a2 ar* 4. 12 w*nw 8. 12 . 12. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.# 4 afy f 4 . 12. 16 a . and apply the method of the preceding article. 0^80:416. 38 #y. 2a f5af 2. a2 . 9. = x 2 y. 10.90 7. 49 C. 15. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . y + 3y64. 14. . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 8(?/ifl) 14. of polynomials.y + y42.5 x3?/ 2 6. 6(m+l) (m+2). 4(m+l) 3 . .?/ . ^f a. ^2 2 . a3 9a. 1.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 3. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . a 3a4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 6 a2 y? . 24 a 2 . 2 .
M.M. two lowest common multiples. A common remainder. Find the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. NOTE. but opposite . Ex. 126. 127. a^c8 3 . of several expressions which are not completely factored. 300 z 2 y. of 3 aW. C. M. M of the algebraic expressions. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . etc. 2. . C. C. 1. C. Find the L. thus. of the general. L. M. &) 2 M. M. =4 a2 62 (a2 . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. of tfy and xy*. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. C. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 128. C. The lowest common multiple (L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.C. To find the L. Hence the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . which also signs. Common 125. M. Ex. C.6 3 ). ory is the L. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.M. C. 2 The The L. each set of expressions has In example ft). The L.C.6)2. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. L. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 60 x^y' 2 . . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.
x2 + 4 a f 4.f 6. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 7. of: 4. a f 2 19. 3(a + b). 18. 17. xy\ . 5 a? 5 a? y. a. 15. 24. afc'cd 2 . a& 4 +& 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a. 3.1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 20 9 a. 3 Z> . 30 a.1.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 13. G a. 6. T a 3 a 2 . Find the L. + 2. 4 a f 2. ) . x* ~5a. a { a~b. 2 10. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 a. 2 x \2 y. afy. 21. 11. . (a 4)(a2) 12. 20. 6 a. 2 . 2 a . 8 afy. 5. ic 2 ?/. a 2 a3 . a f 3. a2 ~ab 1. 3 ab. a 2 fa6. 2. + 2 7i) . 24 x. a. a^1. 1. ic 23. 40 abJ. 2 a . + 6. 22. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a 2 f 4 a +4. by. 4 a . 3. 9. 3 f2. a2 4. . x 2 5 a. 4 a 5 6cd. (For additional examples see page 268. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 6 y. 2 . 3 6 xif. a 1. 2(m 2 . 3 . M. 8. a?b. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 8 d 5 . 2 7ic+10. 14. y*. 16. a !. #. f b. b 2 . or f 3 a 15 #. 6b 2 .
Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Thus. F. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. rni Thus 132. successively all 2 j/' . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. a?.ry ^ by their H. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. A f fraction is b. etc. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . but we In arithmetic. however. a b = ma mb . an indicated quotient. and denominators are considered. 131. as 8. Remove tor. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Ex.
Ex. 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex. 3. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. cancel factors only. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.
. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . . 11 ^ Mtr f .10 a + 3 2 14. .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 23. 19.7 .' 32. g J 21. ^+3*. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 16.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^" a. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ' ^ . ny 4 18. LJZJ^JL. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ^' rt ^  31. . 29.*. nx 17. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. """. 5^10 y 30. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 9x + "a" 10. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.
 by 4 6' . we have the quotients (x 1). 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Divide the L. C.r 2 2 . Reduce ^. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.M. multiplying the terms of 22 . Ex. . . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. M.C. by the denominator of each fraction. + 3). and 135. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. of the denominators for the common denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L.1^22 ' .  of //* 2 .C. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. =(z (x + 3)(z. and (a 8).M.D. C. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. . 2> .~16 (a + 3) (x.96 134. and the terms of ***. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. we may extend this method to integral expressions. mon T denominator. take the L. 1). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.3) (!)' = .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. TheL. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . we have M^. 1.
o o a. .^1. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. a? 1 5 > ^* . 7i 2 ab* ".T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 22 a2 5a * . 2 ay IB. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. common denominator 6. 3.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. JL. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. j y 3. i. 8 i i.. .. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 18. 137. . 2aj ~ . .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . If the given fractions have different denominators. 5?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2. 74). they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).oj o* or / .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.
Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. ^ is 2^JT) .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.g. and adding.ft)(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . the student should remember that parentheses are . e.2 ' 2 _. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. D. D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . as 4 aft f. (a ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . The L. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. L. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). C. 4(2 a 3 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.(a 2 6).2 = a(a . 2 ^. ft).7 ..20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft 2).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 2.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.aft) Ca2 . in the beginning.3 . T? Ex.ft) (a ft ft)~.
46 2a 4a 12. + . 24. A+2_3. 1 1 f w 16. 15. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 1 f q * 1 m m . j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a+6 a 6 2 14. 6 c 3a 7. 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. a 36 ++. 2.5 18 ^4f25. 23. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. + a "" 2 6 ' . 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. 20. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.
2 af1 32. ic 1 + 1. 1 34. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . ! n. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a ?^ 40. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.9. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 3a 9 +. 41. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 4 31. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 43.9 79 6 2 i. 42. af 1f /j. a 30.
. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 + 4x 4 x2 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .FRACTIONS 139. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 1. T.7 5a v Ex.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . Reduce .  . . 101 mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. .
Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . !.g. Since  = a.) Ex. fractions to integral numbers. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2. or. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2 a Ex. multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors. integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.
5# 56 / c& 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . aj 5 1 a? 18.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 50 . 4 8.. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 14.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. Divide Xn?/ . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. : a 41 ab * See page 272. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .
mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. Ex. l.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .^c 2 2 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 .FRACTIONS 105 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.10 ?/ _. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. or both. a a2 4. are fractional.
of their denominators. 7i+~ 7. . M. x* 4. Ex. 10. c +6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. the answer is directly obtained. C. . 6. 2. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .y 32 . i. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). .a ^c c _^ a . 9. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. n a 8. . Simplify x }. a m "" . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. & .
o 15. 2 & a 20  a46 13.) . sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. m^n* n L a 17. : .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.
2 3. C. 2x Transposing. of the denominator. = 6. If x 6. 108 .48. a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. x = 6.28 x + 42 = . tions. 9x x Check.28 a = 5 x2 . each member is reduced to 1. each member is reduced to Ex. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . M.l)(z + 3) = .9 x2 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 148.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Uniting.14 (a. . 4 4)  x. If = 64.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Transposing. 2z2a. Clearing of fractions. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 5(3 85 Check. 1. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Bx 12 Qx.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 2.8 x = . Uniting. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).1. these Ex. = 6.42 + 9. + 1) (a + 3) . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).
+4 14. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a: 7 a. 16. '  4 13. ^' 2. 18.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. +1 = 5. 15. . a/  5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.1 _77 a. ^1 = 9.= 2. 1 *> = 2. .
25. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 31 31. ?_=_.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 27 .11_4 x 149. If two or more denominators are monomials. J_. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 4a4l4* + l~. 33. . y+3~2 29._ _ . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 32 6 . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 2^12 = 2 = 34. and" the remaining one a polynomial. .  38 = 40. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 26 26. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3x 35.
2 3 ~  == 7a. 24 a. 1. Dividing. Transposing and uniting.2 42 9 43. = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5x x : = 9. C.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. a. 26 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Check. 5# 10. the 1 5 L. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.29 50712' 9 18 . If a.1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 60. M. . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . each member is reduced to ^.  5 = 20 x 45.
.1.2 62 2 ab. 4 ac 1. = = 6 6c 7 6c. 2. = 6 a2 . f ~ 5c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Ex. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.m bx 2 mn) x. It frequently occurs that the x.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). a. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . =a 2 151. Uniting the Dividing. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.& . Thus.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 5> a. jr. y. Uniting. Dividing. = 2 f b 2 . If 3ac L= = a ? . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.3 6 2 = a' . find a in terms of b and c. Ex. fr Reducing lowest terms. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.be. = l^ 9 b 4 .2 ac + 3 aft . ax f x f.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring.
The The i time. + 3a. * Solve the same equation for^). i The formula for simple interest ( 30.i l . c 18. = vt. .= H. c. 12. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. If s If 16. = 5.a. 4. solve for . co?. 29. q solve for/. and n the number of years. 3(* 8. 9. 4. t. . If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 8 4 #. 15. f P =+!. denoting the interest. 3. a. in terms of other quantities. 34. 31. 14. 13. + xx = 1. rate. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 6.= c a Z> . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). _ 2. = 3 (6 a). p the principal. 30. s = Vt solve for v. mx = n.= n. ^ ax a^ 26. 10. 17. r the number of $>. . 11. 1 f. m a? x . f ^o. solve for a. If ^^ = a 1 32. If * 33. 5) is t =^. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = rt. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. . Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. IIL n b + &o. iw 21. 2 solve for y a. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8.
114 35. 12. 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. . days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.20 C. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Ex. then = 2 TT#. Find R in terms of C and TT. x Or Uniting. Multiplying by Dividing. = 16^. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 2. A would do each day ^ and B j. and 12 = the number over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.180. 100 C. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. Ex. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. is 36. 1.
" : Let x  = the required number of days. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = 100 + 4 x. the required number of days. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J. 180 Transposing. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." gives the equation /I). 32 x = . Solving. and the statement. Clearing. in Then Therefore. 4x = 80. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the rate of the express train. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 3. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.
How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. fifth Two numbers differ 2. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. length in the ground. by 6. 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. a man had How much money had he at first? . is equal 7. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. money and $10. to his daughand the remainder. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and J of the greater Find the numbers. by 3. and of the father's age. Find A's 8.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. ex What 5. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. ceeds the smaller by 4. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and one half the greater Find the numbers. is oO. of his present age. which was $4000. to his son. make 21.  Find their present ages. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and 9 feet above water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife.
At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. what is the rate of the express train? 152.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 152. and it B in 6 days. Ex. air.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. A has invested capital at more 4%. 3. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 1. Ex. How much money $500? 4%. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. 2. and B in 4 days. . ^ at 5%.) 22. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. investments. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. after rate of the latter ? 15.
we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. therefore. 2. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. A in 4. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.= . if B in 3 days. The problem to be solved. they can both do in 2 days.e. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. m and n. . : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. n x Solving. 25. Ex. To and find the numerical answer.009 918.g. B in 16. e. 26. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. and n = 3. 3. is 42.414. B in 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. A in 6.118 153. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 5. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Then ft i. is 57. B in 12. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Hence. A in 6. and apply the method of 170.
respectively (a) 60 miles. The one: 31. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Two men start at the first miles apart. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 4J miles per hour. squares 30. 3 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. meet. (d) 1. (c) 16. is ?n . two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. if m and n are. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 29. 33. (b) 35 miles. After how many hours do they meet. the second at the apart. .721. : (c) 64 miles.000. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Find the side of the square. 34. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. respectively. and the rate of the second are. and the second 5 miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (b) 149. 2 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour.001. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. the rate of the first. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. same hour from two towns. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. is (a) 51. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 2 miles per hour.
the second term the consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 6 12 = .g. . : : 155. etc. antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.5. The first 156. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6." we may write a : b = 6. " a Thus. b. In the ratio a : ft. the denominator The the 157. 1. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. a ratio is not changed etc. the symbol being a sign of division. E. b is the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b. 158. Ex. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.
equal 2. b is the mean b. 4:5f : 5. extremes. 17. 3:1}. and c. 3. : 1. 12. 16a2 :24a&. 5 f hours : 2. J:l. two  ratios. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 11. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 7:4 T T 4 . 7f:6J. In the proportion a b : = b : c. The last first three. 61 : ratios 72:18. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3 8. terms. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. $24: $8. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 1. 18. 3:4. : ay . 27 06: 18 a6. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 159. 4. a and d are the extremes. 10. b and c the means. 8^ hours. proportional between a and c. 62:16.RATIO Ex. 9. b. 16. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. Simplify the following ratios 7. and c is the third proportional to a and . term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. Transform the following unity 15. 6. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms.
!. 2 165. In any proportion product of the extremes. i.__(163. Clearing of fractions. Hence the number of men required to do some work. q~~ n . ad = be. 3 4. : c. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. ccm.) b = Vac. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. of iron weigh 45 grams. 6 ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. and the time necessary to do it. are : : : inversely proportional. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. : : directly proportional may say. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.122 162. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.) mn = pq. 164. 163.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.e. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. " we " NOTE. of iron weigh . then G ccm. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. briefly. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. and the other pair the extremes.30 grams. 163. = 30 grams 45 grams. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. pro portional. of a proportion.
V. ad = be. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. is Ex. d d. 166. a:c=b:d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. I. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. + b:b = c + d:d. hence the proportion true. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. then =d c. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (Frequently called Inversion. ad ( 163. (163. 2. 1.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I. a III. bd bd.) (Called Alternation. (Composition. . is 4$ = 35.) d 167.) II.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Or IV.PATIO Ex. = 35 . 12x Hence a? = 42. if 6 : 7. (Division.) = f f = 3 J.
= 2:3. 10. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 8. the consequents by 7. x = 2. : x. 2. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. Simplify the following proportions. 3. = 20:7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 6 =4 : x. Or III. mx tin Apply composition and division. E. 3n JJ =n x NOTE.e. = 12 5ft. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 4. . . 9. 5. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 120:42 2 2 7. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. V. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 5 5.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 180:125. = 2:x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Apply composition. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.124 IT. i. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. : 3 = 5 f x : x. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.!=!*.g. = 7:2f 3J. IV.
5= 18 a? : a?.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 7iy = 2:x. 13. x:5 = y:2. 22. 27. to : 9 and 12. f. 112:42 = 10:a. ra. 2. ra 2 . 1 and a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. Find the third proportional 24. 51. a?:15 15. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 6. terra 2:3 = 4. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. + fyx = cy. and 2/. 12. 3. 3t. 34. 31. 16. 6x = 7y. 1. 18. . 39. 5. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 38. 2 3 = y #. 4. 26. 23. a 2 and ab. = 15o. 52. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. a. 25. if : 40. b. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : . y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. = 5 x 12. 29. to: = 35:*. 42. 9 x = 2 y. mx = ny. rag. 44. : 53.j>. 33. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. Find the mean proportional 30. to : a and 1. (a : : 45.. 03:a?=135:20. 21. 2= 5 x x. 20. ratio of y. Find the 37. ra + landra 1. 41. 47. rap. = l^:18. 43.:ff. = 3 43 + x. 2 a and 18 a. 50. 3. 17. 6 x = y. 2. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 46. = 2 + x: x.8:1. 35. 16 and 28. 28. x m = y n.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. w. : a2 .x: 6:5 a : x. 14 and 21.  32. 4 and 16. 14.
inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 7^. and the : total cost. and the time. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.126 54. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the area of the larger? the same. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. 56. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the area of the rectangle. and the time necessary for it. and the speed of the train. 57. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. what 58. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches.
4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2 x Or = 4. 11 x x 7 Ex. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108. : Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. AB = 2 x. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 11 x = 66 is the first number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. is A line AB. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Let A B AC=1x. produced to a point C.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. = the second number. so that Find^K7and BO. 4 inches long.000 168. . x=2. 2. x = 6. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. Then Hence BG = 5 x.
How many 7. 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. What are the parts ? 5. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 12. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 13. : 197. 9. 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000 square miles. 12. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 14. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. and c inches. How The long are the parts ? 15. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many gen. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : 4. 3. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 2. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Gunmetal tin.) . 11. and 15 inches.000. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1.
values of x and y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. x = 1. The root of (4) if K 129 . if . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.y=. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. expressing a y.. there is only one solution. etc. Hence.e. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. such as + = 10. However. a? (1) then I. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.L x If If = 0. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. =. is x = 7.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y = 1. 2 y = .
Therefore. of elimination most frequently used II. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.X. and 3 x + 3 y =. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. = . Substitution. 26 y = 60. viz. 4y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. same relation. y = 2. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). By By Addition or Subtraction. y I 171. ~ 50.24.130 170. for they express the x f y 10. E. unknown quantity. 172. the last set inconsistent. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. The first set of equations is also called consistent.3 y = 80.26. 3. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. to The two methods I. 174. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 21 y . x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x . cannot be reduced to the same form. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. are simultaneous equations. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2.
15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 60 . are like. 64 x = 040.3 y = 47. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. = 235. y = 2. add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Therefore Check. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 37. Transposing. + 2. Check. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations.2 = 6. x = 10. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. whose coefficients In general.14 =8. 8 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3y = 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 5 13 . y = 1. 10 . 3. = 406.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). subtract the equations.3 1 = 47. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. x = 10. 25 x .
1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I . I oj 5y = 17. = 24. ' 12. 13. f 3# ?/ = 0. I ~ y~~> 22. f 3X 7x 14.3. 13 61 l7a.3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. . O t K 8. * + 3 y = 50. + 2/ 17. _. i 3. 9 1 r 20. = 41.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. = 6.5 y = 2. [2o. ] ^ . I i 3 a.4.f2/ ' = 50. 19< I a. x 11. 7 ' 1fi fl .v 23.9 *. v ^ = ll. J I y = 1U.
= 4#8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 2. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 2y + 10. and solve the resulting equation. 8. 3. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. (1) (2) Transposing 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. x ) ^"" 13. = 60. .
4* + 3y = 19. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. \ \6(a. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (7) (7) (8) . + 212y4 = 14. 21z6y=9. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 2 y = . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.6)7(y7)==18. . Substituting in (6) . 7x_2y=3. x = l. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 7 y = 6. (4). (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.3. 3 (1) Ex. simplified before elimination is possible. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 29 x = 29. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 3. however. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. From 9 = 36.
f2 2. J 9. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. yM a. a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 14. 10 2a?5 17. . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. +y 2 . 10.1) = 121.1) + 5(6 y . a. 16. . . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. = 3. 12. 4 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
f y . <X + 20. and y. 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y . * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21. 22. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. e. 180. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. . but some expressions involving x. {.and x y .#.
3 xy. can also be solved Examples method. (2) (3) a. y 4.4 x = 4 xy. y 1. . 137 Solve y y (1) . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 15 y + 8 x . Dividing by 11 3 = #. x 2x(2). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Substituting x = 3 in (1). however. 1. (4) + (G). 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. . Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. etc. Therefore y=4. x 3. of this type. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y.
LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 1. Ex. x 8. 6. 253 7. 4 13. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.= 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. = en.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x y 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 21 9 .= o 6. n. . y MOi y a. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x y 331 9.
d. Dividing. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. fax f = l. apan cm. From the same equations find s in terms of a. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ny = fy/ I sc 1. ax + by = 2 a&. a Find a and terms of n. x 12.W. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. W . .y = = 9a + 46. f 5. . 6.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. . 14. ap. and I. x a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. s in 11. x f my = 1. bmy bm}y ap cm. w. Uniting. and I if 13.
3=4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. ties are Similarly. = 3. 8 x .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).16. 3y = Hence Check. x + 12 y . l.25. f 3y 12 =s 8.1+4. 4. 182. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 1. etc. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (4) (5).3 = 8.by 2.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Ex.2 + 3. 6.15z=12 Adding.lf> z . = 30. To solve equations containing By tions. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 3.8 = 1.12 y + 6 z = .2 + 4. by 3. 3. 4. y =* 2. (8) 2.13. 20. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).
2 . f 2 i/ f z = 14. 49. a? 11. x 13. k 2/ f 2 x a. 10. ~6?/ 5. 7. + y f z = 15. 2z = 40. 2 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 4 = 42. + 2 y f 2 = 35. == 6. a? + 709 = 26. 14. 8. 15 2 = 45. 12.
84 21. 22. ? = llz.3 y + .6 2. =s 20. 32. ?/ 3x = 0.. 1510 4 17. = 5. . = 8*.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . 16. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.42 = 2. .2 a. (3 _. ^ = 2. 4. 19. 23. 60. 27.
.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. = l. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. z + x = 2 n. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. y 31. # 4. M=i. either directly or implied. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. symbols: x + y +z 8. . The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 2 = 1(1+6). however. = 2 m. 1 = 2. Obviously of the other . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. and if 396 be added to the number. ( 99. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Find the number. x : z =1 : 2. 2 = 6. 1 digit in the tens place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Check. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. +2+ 6 = 8. + 396 = 521. the number. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. Ex. + z = 2p. y * z 30. 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples.
and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.144 Ex. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 6 x 4 = 24. . ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3. Since the three men traveled the same distance. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Ex. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. increased by one. B. = Hence the fraction is f. Or (4)2x(3). 5_ _4_ A. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 2. = 8. 3+1 5+1 4_2. C. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. direction. 2. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. y = 3. x y = the = the x denominator . the distance traveled by A. From (3) Hence xy Check. 4 x = 24. = the fraction. we obtain. x 3x4y = 12. Find the fraction. x 3 = 24.
part of their difference equals 4. If the denominator be doubled. Find the numbers. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the fraction equals . it is reduced to J.) added to a number of two digits. the last two digits are interchanged. 183. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and its denomi nator diminished by one. the value of the fraction is fa. the digits will be interchanged. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 6. fraction is reduced to \. the fraction is reduced fraction. both terms. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the number. added to the numerator of a fraction. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 1. If 27 is 10. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the Find the fraction. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. A fraction is reduced to J. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the numbers. 7. number by the first 3. ? What 9. its value added to the denominator. the number (See Ex.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the fraction. 5. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. . and the fourth 3. and the numerator increased by 4. Find the number. 2. Find the numbers. tion ? 8.}. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. If 9 be added to the number.
partly at 5 %. Find the rates of interest. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and money and 17. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.000 is partly invested at 6%. 5 %. 13. and partly at 4 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the amount of each investment ? 15.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. 14. respectively ? 16. and 4 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190.grams. in 8 years to $8500. How 6 %. 19. the annual interest would be $ 195. If the rates of interwere exchanged. A man invested $750. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. now. . Find their present ages. and in 5 years to $1125. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the rate of interest? 18. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 12. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. A sum of $10.
Find their rates of walking. E. angle c = angle d. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and e. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. andCL4 = 8. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. but if A would double his pace. and F. BE. An C touch ing the sides in D. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. BC=7. points. 1 NOTE. 23. and their difference by GO . are taken so ABC. what is that = OF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. c. and $15 for each sheep. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. the three sides of a triangle E. BC = 7 inches. three AD = AF. is the center of the circum scribed circle. . A farmer sold a number of horses. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and AC = 5 inches. ED = BE. respectively. 24. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. triangle Tf AD. then AD = AF. and F. and angle e angle/. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. $ 50 for each cow. the length of NOTE. 25. and F '(see diagram). BD = HE. and GE = CF. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. for $ 740. and sheep. and CE If AB = G inches. . B find angles a. cows. and angle BCA = 70. On /). receiving $ 100 for each horse.
is The point whose abscissa is a. and PJ/_L XX'. (7. 2). (3. B. It' Location of a point.. 186. Thus the points A. . and point the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. first 3). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. PN are given. the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PN _L YY'. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. PM. jr. (2. YY' theyaxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. The of Coordinates. 3). and r or its equal OA is . the ordinate of point P. PN. (2. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . ?/. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). is the abscissa. or its equal OM.
(4. 3. 4. 8. Plot the points: (4. 2). 0). . 11. (4.4). (0. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 3). Plot the points: (4. 2. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 0).1). 0). 4) from the origin ? 7. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.(!. 1). Graphs. 0). (5. 6. (See diagram on page 151. (4. Plot the points (6. !).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (1.3). (4. 4) and (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. which of its coordinates known ? 13. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. i. (3. 6. 12. Plot the points : (0. 1). whose coordinates are given NOTE. (0. and measure their distance. 2). 3).e. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. What is the locus of (a?. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 2J). (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.and(l. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 71 2). (2. 4). 3). 4).2).) EXERCISE 1. . (4.
By representing of points. 1. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. may be found on Jan. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. B.. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. A. C. 188. 15. however. or the curved line the temperature.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . we meas1 . D. from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ure the ordinate of F. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 10 . .
Whenever a clear. as the prices and production of commodities. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the matics. physician. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. The engineer. the merchant.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. etc. and to deduce general laws therefrom. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (b) July 15. (c) January 15. . the graph is applied. the rise and fall of wages. uses them. (d) November 20.
At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 15. on 1 to the average. When the average temperature below C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. How much. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. is 10. ? 9. (1) 10 C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ?  3. 1? 11 0. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13...152 2. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what months above 18 C. (freezing point) ? 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (d) 9 0. 1 to Oct.
From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. One meter equals 1. 20. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Hour Temperature . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards.
1 to 1200 copies. A 10 wheels a day. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2.154 24. etc.50. the value of a of this quantity will change. x 7 to 9. x increases will change gradually from 13. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.inch. if each copy sells for $1. to 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 4. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. x* x 19.5 grams.50. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 9.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 26. represent his daily gain (or loss).. 28. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.. e. gas.) T circumferences of 25. the daily average expenses for rent.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.g. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 3. if he sells 0. 2 . binding.. 3. etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 29. . and $. books from for printing. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. then C irJl. 190. amount to $8. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. function If the value of a quantity changes.
for x=l. 3 (0. x a variable. . be also represented by a graph.1). 2). 3 50. 9). is supposed to change. The values of func192. E. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 1 the points (3. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. Ex. may. a*.e. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.2 x may 4 from x = 4. while 7 is a constant. J). etc. 2. (1. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . Graph of a function.1). may . and join the points in order. Q. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . ( 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 4). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. as 1. Draw the graph of x2 f. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2 (1.g. (1^. 9). (2. construct '. to x = 4. If a more exact diagram is required. however. it is In the example of the preceding article. and (3.0).
= 0. as y.. 4J. Ex. rf 71 . (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (4. 7 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. and join(0. 194. y = 6. 5).2 x . straight line produces the required graph. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. (3.. . j/=3. 2 4 and if y = x f. 1).. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 4). Thus 4x + 7.. etc. r */ +* 01 . the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 2. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.20).4).) For brevity. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. = 4. (2.
2 a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. xl. y = 2x = 4. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 14. The values of a*. 7. . (C ) (2. 3 a 8. 23x. 21. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 4a? I. 1. the function.8)'. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 5. a. (7i) (c) 23. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 18.e. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (If) Va25. 4 a. 1J. + 4. 2x + 3x a?. 1J. l. 1 8 10. a? 1. 2J. 9. from x VlO'S". Jar . 3. 12. (ft) (_ 1. x+1. 19. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 15. The values of a?. a?. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.5)2. if"a. 3. = 4. if a. 6. ?/ a. . xz + x. fa 17. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. a* 13. = The values of a*. 11. 2J. a ar.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 8. i. if y = 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 1J. J. 2. 2 or 2 20. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2 2 a. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. if the function equals zero. a? 2 4. The smallest value of the function. 2 2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2.or. 16. 6 fa. 2. 22.5)2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2 a.
to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. .. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. i... C. then y = .e. Show any convenient number). Represent 26. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. that graph with the o>axis. 9 F.. 32 F. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. then cXj where c is a constant. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).where x c is a constant. y= formula graphically.24 or x = P and Q.158 24. the abscissas of 3.24. Therefore x = 1. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 25. 14 F. 1 C.
Such equations in general have two roots. 197. 8. 11. 6. is called a quadratic equation. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. = 0. (a) (6) 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. + + = where a. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a2 2a.f 9 = 0. (0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 14. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. or 5 2.7 2 a 5 = 0. 3. 13. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 10. . and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. viz. 12. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 0. 7. crosssection paper is used. (a) x2 = 0. 4. 2 and 1.
Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. T .2. unknown quantities. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). ?/. and joining by a straight line. Hence we may join (0. y y 2. y = l. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Ex. Ex. ?/ =4 AB. 3x _ 4 . solve for ?/. first degree.e. locate points (0. 0). 4) and (2.1. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. = 0. i. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. fc = 3. . we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. X'2 Locating the points (2. If x = 0. because their graphs are straight lines.2 y ~ 2. (f . NOTE. if y = is 0. Hence. == 2. and join the required graph. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. produces the 7* required locus. 1) and 0). 2). 199. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence if if x x  2.
202. 203. viz. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.15. linear equations have only one pair of roots. equation x= By measuring 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. P. To find the roots of the system. (2) . parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots.1=0. AB y = . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200.57. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 3. and CD. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. Graphical solution of a linear system. 201. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).
Locating two points of equation (2). 3. = 0. 0) and (0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 1. 3. Measuring the coordinates of P. e. 3. 2.5. 0. 4. 2 equation x 3). AB the locus of (1). and + 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines.0. 4. and joining by a straight line. 4.e. . parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. the point we obtain Ex. 5. In general. x2 . 2. There can be no point of and hence no roots..5. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.  4. if x equals respectively 0. 1.9. Inconsistent equations. we of the + y* = 25. y equals 3. 3). Using the method of the preceding para. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. Solving (1) for y. the graph of points roots. they are inconsistent. (2. V25 5. etc. (1) (2) C.0). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 3x 2 y = 6. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. P graphs meet in two and $. 4. intersection.y~ Therefore. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. (4. Locating the points (5. 5.g. i. (4. 4. 4. The equations 2 4 = 0. and . Since the two  we obtain DE. 0.
idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 3. . y= a2 2x y6. y = 4. 2. '163 Dependent equations. 9. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. Draw system. 4. 5. 6. 10. 16 22. y 2 4. a. 16 23. the graphs of the following systems. a+r/=6. vice versa. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 8.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. and solve each If there are no solutions. state reasons. x~y=0. 2x 3?/=6. if possible. and. y=x + 5. 7. 17. 19. \ 2x + 3^ . 20..
8. TABLE OF SQUARES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 28. 29 . 26. CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = .y). 3 31. 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .164 24. 30.
8. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. . involution repeated multiplication. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 2. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. Law of Signs. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 3 f a = f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 2.a2 . follows that 3. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. fa. on to in factors 4. ( a) is positive. 52. a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a = a3 . is may be by 207. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. powers of a positive quantity are positive.faa a a a Obviously 1. ^4/? it According to 50. According to 1. etc.
3 2 2 8 . 76 : (>y. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 2 11 (afc ) . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise a fraction to a power. (a ) 2 5 . V V/ 13. 16. (^^) 2 .6 (a 8 8 . the required power.6) = a . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. a product to a given power. 24. (277171 )*. (a ) 2 4  3. 6. 5. 210. 4 /2mV.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 15. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . (2ar). amVy) 3 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.166 To find To To power. . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 4. \ 3 J '  MW 10.
2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 8. 211. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (3af26) 8 . . 3 . pansions. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 8 (a??/) 3 . The higher powers of binomials. + 4aj) 3 . 4. 2. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 15.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. (5 (1 a) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 12. 5. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .) 14. 1. (a + &)8 . (aj7) . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (3 x .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. Ex. : a 20.INVOLUTION Ex. 2 . etc. 3. (6m+2w) (3 8 . + a 2 a.6 2 8 ft) . 18. 23. 6. 2. nent of the binomial. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . An 1. . 3 8 . a.3 y. 13. 7. 9. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (afl) .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1 f 3 2 3 .y . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 16. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. or*  Find the cube root of 19. frequently called ex. are obtained by multiplication.y) = (3 y?y . 21. +5a) 22. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.
Ex. 4. (?/i~w) : 16. 18. . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 8. (2 4. (p + q) 4 * 7. 4 (1for) 5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (2 a 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . (m fl) 2 20. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 2. 23. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . 9. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 15. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. . (m 5 I) 2 22.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 25. (m 2 + n) 8 . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. and the powers negative. 14. ( &) 5 . (af 5) . (l 8 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .168 3. . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 78 s . . 24. 17. is the coefficient of the next term. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 5. (?>i?i f c)*. 13. Ex. 5. 4 . 1. The minus. 10.216 a^ 4. (la&) 4 12. mn 5 2 5 ) . Ex. (1 + 4 ?/) . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. (tff1) (cfd) . 6. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .a) 3 19. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.2. 21. (a~^) 5 . (mJ) 4 11. 3. 3.
Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 215. for distinction. Since even powers can never be negative. a) 4 = a4 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. and ( v/o* = a. etc. called real numbers. 1. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or x &4 . 2. V9 = + 3. = x means = 6. 109 . which can be simplified no further.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. V \/P 214. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. (_3) = 27. 4 4 . \/"^27=3. 27 =y means r' = 27. tity . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or y ~ 3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. or 3 for (usually written 3) . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. and all other numbers are. numbers. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.
v/^i2 = a*. V5 v/2 7 2. 9. 7. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .125. \/2 4 9 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.201) = 2. 3. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 2 .  100 a 2 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.4. 79 2 v/2 5 . 3 33 53 . 7 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.9 = 136. 2. V36 9 4.200 . . = 199 + (_ 198) . 82 . . 9. 62 = V2* . 7 . v/2^. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex. Ex 5 a" . To extract the root of a power.(. 5. 4 v. 8. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. V25 9 16. 10. Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. V?. To extract a root of a fraction.lL. 6.1. index. . extract the and denominator. 6 7 = 030. EXERCISE 1. fy 5 3 . = 19472. Ex.64 5 4 . 3/0** = am . 8. 3i . 2. 6. 7. for (a")" a = a mn 3.
75. a f2 l 2 + l.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 .3./). 2 .3 y2) ( vV . V8. 5. 45 V5184.3 . 31. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 116.98.4/. . 2. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 1. 6. a* 4 8 2 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 33. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. ^40^4. V20 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . V9216. 29. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 32.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 30. 3.EVOLUTION 171 28. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . Ex.) by inspection. 34. Find the square root of a2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .
14. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. #2 a2  16. 10. 15. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 12. let us consider the relation of a f. 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49. + 6 + 4a&.2 ab + b . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The term a' first 2 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. i. however. and b (2 a f b). the given expression is a perfect square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.b 2 2 to its square. 2 2 218. 8 . 11. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 &c. a\b is the root if In most cases. and b. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .172 7.e.> 13.2 ac . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.72 aW + 81 & 4 . a f.
and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. and so forth. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 1. 1. As there is no remainder. by division we term of the root. 6 a. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. of x.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the first term of the answer. 2.EVOLUTION Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . First trial divisor. Ex. . 8 /. 10 a 4 8 a.24 afy* f 9 tf. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. */'' . 8 a 2 . Second trial divisor. First complete divisor. Explanation. .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . The square . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. is As there is no remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. . 219. 8 a 2 2.
25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 20. 8. 14. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 18. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 6. a? 2 .20 o 4.25. 2 x2 3 2x.12 m 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .73 a8 . 16.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 19.37 a ^ .V430^425^ 4m 4. 12. > 7.9.4 x 4. 17.73a4 440^436^460^. 5. 1 4. 9.40 a 22 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 4 .24 or .12m 5 4. 10.10 x2 4. 436^?/469a.a 6 x*y 2 . l 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.42 a*& 4. 3. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 5 4 16 4 iK .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 24.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 36it. 6 11. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 15.25 x 4 4.16.6 . 16x6 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. x 6 4 4 0^4. . 13#4 413ar 44a. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 729 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 2 4.
the square root of 7744 equals 88. the first of which is 8. of a number between 100 and 10. The is trial divisor = 160. and the complete divisor 168. the first of which is 4. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 1. of 1. = 80.1344. a 2 = 6400. of 10. etc. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. first . the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 2. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. etc. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000. As 8 x 168 = 1344.000. Ex. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. which may contain one or two). Therefore 6 = 8. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. two figures.000 is 100.EVOLUTION 220. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Ex. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Find the square root of 524.176. and the square root of the greatest square in units. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000 is 1000. Find the square root of 7744. and the first remainder is.
Find the square root of 6/. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '.GO'61.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. The groups of 16724. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.1T6 221. in . annex a cipher. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.10.7 to three decimal places. 12. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .70 6. 3.1 are Ex. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. places.
31. 13. 32.4 square when R = radius and 11. feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 37.1410.01.) 40. JT . whose area equals 48. 5. 36.22. = 3. 30. feet.53. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 33. 34. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 39. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .58 square 38. T\. 1. J. 1.
an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 6 y2 = 17. = 4. 224. or equation of the second degree. 225. 2.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 178 . A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. x = + 2 or x =2. Dividing. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. . Extracting the square root of each member. 226. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. is A quadratic equation. is 12.. 2)* + 5 = 33. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Ex. complete. 1. but no higher power e. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2 ic = a. = 7^ + 5. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or affected. Transposing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. The 7 equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. This answer Check. ax 2 + bx + c = Q.g. x 2 7. A pure. or incomplete. 6#2 = x* 24.
. . o. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 7. 15^5 = 6.2. 5. 8. 10. ax Transposing and combining. (a? 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 19 + 9 = 5500. 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 3. 6(2)=10(ajl). or Therefore. 4 ax. 2 2 a. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 7 = 162. 16^393 = 7. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. : 83 2. 2. 2 4fc 5' 18.25.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. ' =: y? b* b . Solve 179 .
2a f 1 23.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 4. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . and their product : 150. solve for r. EXERCISE 1. 2 . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. then Since such a triangle tangle. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If 22 = ~^. Find the numbers. may be considered one half of a rec square units.b 2 If s If =c . find a in terms of 6 . ' 4. 28. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 108. 22 a. 27. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for v. . If a 2 4. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. : 6. 25. r. 2 : 3. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m.) of their squares 5. solve for d. If G=m m g . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 26. is 5(5. Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 29. . 24. Find is the number. 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .
in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Solve Transposing. Find these 10.7 x f 10 = 0. of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 44 square feet. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . Find the radii. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the two smaller 11. . 2m. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 24.2 7 . To find this term. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. and the third side is 15 inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. we have of or m = . Method of completing the square. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. add () Hence 2 . sides. A body falling from a state of rest. 9. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . is and the other two sides are equal. 8. Find the unknown sides and the area. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. x* 7 x= 10. its surface (Assume ir = 2 .) 13. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Find the sides. J = 12.
 \. Transposing. = \ # = ff.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.x(l = . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. a. (*~8) a = at . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.2 a2 . 2 a* a. J. Hence Therefore Check. Therefore. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .e. = x\ = 2. .2. Ex. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.. = 6. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2  . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 62 x 5 = f. or J. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.1. 230. Ex. a Clearing of fractions. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Transposing. Uniting. Extracting square roots. or x = 2. adding member). = . Simplifying.a.
Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
=8 r/io?. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. and c in the general answer. 2x 3 4. ao. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. = 12. x la 48. 231.c = 0. article. . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solution by formula. 49. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46.
3. 2. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. : 86 + 2 = 0. 9. 6 Ex. 15. 18.. 17. 2or } 5o. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. a. 2 a? = 44 x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. TIO. 2 o. 6^+5^ 56. 11. 5 x2 Transposing. 26. 12. 6. Reducing to general form. 16. 20. b =  + 20 == = 0. 21. 7. c p. 1.4 4 5 .25 x. 6. 10.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2. 14. c = 5. 2 a. 13. = 64120?. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.15 x9 25x* = 21 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 6 . ?i 2 . V^tT)* .  . = 12 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 19. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 8. 4. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.
23. Transposing. 233. Eesolving into factors. Solution by factoring. if either of the uct is zero. Clearing for fractions. x(x <2 . x2 = 1 . factors Now. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. and 6. 3x?+x = 7. . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . = 0. 25. any degree. ar>8o. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 5 = 0. = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.4) = . a=:i^^. = 14. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. (5 a? !)(. }. Bx 1 1. 24.5 Solving (1) and (2). 0. 27 x== 42a. 26. or # 5 is zero. 5) = 0.2.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. transposing terms to one member. orz roots. member can be Ex. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232.5) =0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.x. all or. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Factoring. 2S3x 1 2 . = 0. 1.
+ 8=s: 7. 3 or 2 a. 3) = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. a* 10a=24. 12. 13. } 2 2 (5 .:=0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. E. Or Hence the 234. 16. 5 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 6. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 2o3 f9a.e. x2 f 2 x . aj( 15. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. a?. 2. 7. a?10a=:24. 3. : 87 = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. (aj4)(a. O roots are 2.(. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 0(02) = 7(02). 3) Factoring. 14. + 100. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.24 = 0. we 9 obtain x 4.= 24. and the equation thus formed be solved. for a: .3)(x + 3 3.g. + 6)=0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 5.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 8. 4. ar'Sa^ 12. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. Therefore x =3 = 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 4)(z3) = 0. Ex. 2. The equation I. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 9. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3# y 5 = 0.6)) = 0. + 10 a = 24. 3. is 5) = 0.
uz + u 21. '3a!J  . a 2 =(x a)b. 20. 2. (2a? 3) (a 24. 23. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 50. 27. 18. (a + 1) (a. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 25.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 19.188 17. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 22. ara + ft + c*.
2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.9. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find the sides. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and equals 190 square inches. 52. G. EXERCISE 1. 3. 2. 1. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 6. 58. 54. feet.1. 7. 2. Find the number.3. Find the numbers.3. 5. 1. : 3. 8. 55. 57. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .2. and whose product 9. 2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2. 4.0. and whose sum is is 36. and the difference Find the numbers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find the number.0. The 11. 3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. number by 10. The difference of . two numbers is 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. and consequently many prob 235. 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. of their reciprocals is 4. 0.3. 5. 56. .
The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. other. and Find the sides of the rectangle. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ABCD. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 14. as the 16. 17. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. Find the rate of the train. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet.190 12. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. . A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 15. watch for $ 24. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. Two vessels. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. What did he pay for 21. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 13. he would have received two horses more for the same money. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. dollars. ply between the same two ports. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. If he each horse ? . vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20.10.
Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. of the area of the basin. 1. ^3^ = 7. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Ex. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. and working together. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. constructed with and CB as sides. 27. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 237. or x = \/l = 1. how wide is the walk ? 23. as 0. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Find and CB. so that the rectangle. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. a point taken. 23 inches long. By formula. contains B 78 square inches. 24. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find TT r (Area of a circle .) 25. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. the two men can do it in 3 days. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. . (tf.
)+72=0. 9. 18. a? 15 1=2*. 16. a. 4 a. 2 16 a^40 11. 19. 2 h9:=0. = 13. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . T 17. aV+9o 4 =0. 2. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. Hence Le.2 =4. 7. 4. >. Ex. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 436 3. 12. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.192 238. 8.T 2 2 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 10. 4 6. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. = 1. Solving. y8)=0. or y = 8. 6. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 : 89 10a. a 21or=100. a4 5o.
241. Ex. The discriminant =(. the roots are unequal. the roots are rational. . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. c the roots are real.2) 2 4 3 (. and equal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are imaginary.f> = 0.2 z . a perfect square. 2. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. rational.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 240.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are real. and unequal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Relations between roots and coefficients. 1.5) = 04. it 2a follows 2 : 2.bx 4. rational. the roots are equal. 3. Ex. Hence the roots are real. negative. is 4ac not zero. b 4. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are irrational.12 x + 9 = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . ( 2a Hence 1.
= 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 21. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 14. 15. = 5x. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 12. + 2a15 = 0. 4.g. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 6. their product isf. : a 2 . 23. 22. tfmx+p^Q. 5oj aj + l = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2. x2 7 10. 18. = 0. 2 : 3. 17. 2a 4z5 = 0. = Q. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.19 # 20. = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 12 2  . 10 x = 25 x + 1. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 18 2 8. 12~x = x 2 . n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 2 7. 5aj 9. + 2a. lla. 60 2 = 0.. 2 a. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 24. ^12.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 3a. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. f 2 E. 9a3 = 0. o. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.
a m a" = a m+t1 . (a m ) w . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. = a"" < . 244. Then the law of involution. provided w > n. that a an = a m+n ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . for all values 1 of m and n.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. > m therefore. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. ~ a m f.a" = a m n mn . We assume. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. while the second of the first. It is. however. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. hence. and . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. The first of these laws is nition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .* III. such as 2*. (ab) . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. must be *The symbol smaller than.
29. 23. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. . 4~ . e. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 3*. laws. (bed)*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. etc. 30. 0?=^. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. disappear. m$. a*. as. a . n 2 a. = a. or zero exponent equal x. 31. 24. '&M A 27. 25. a?*. 28. at. Assuming these two 8*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. ml. 245. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. fractional. (xy$. Hence Or Therefore Similarly.g. a\ 26.
= 2. 42.g. 49. 43. 38. a . 246. 46. Solve the following equations 39. v/o&cT 34. : 197 33. : 2' 4* = 4. v'mT 36. 48. 50. Let a = a. 44. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. however. 40. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 5 a* = 10. \/xy \/m. hence is . e. If. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a* * = 3. Vo5 . 41. 3* = 27. equal to unity. \fi?. ty?. = 2. 7z* Find the values of 47. e. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 37. a. 45. = 49.\/n. 27* = 3.g. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. the base is zero. a * a2 Or a=l. 35.
cr n. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. vice versa. 248. etc. an x = a. . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.2 = a2 .g.198 247. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. or the exponent. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. consider the following equations. Multiplying both members by a". a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or".
a. 44. 7~ l a 2b 2 . rfS. ^L. a^ 41. * 24. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 40. : or 5 . 39. 2 . 27."* 38. 2m~i 43.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 37. . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. c 32. ^?2 y' 34. 25. . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. m . 3 a? * 42. 36. 2 . 3 a. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. f (2w)~i 1 . 22. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : mi m~^. 66 45.
(. = 5. 52. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. = l. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . of: 3ll4~* 60.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.6). .343)* + (. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 49.81 f (a . + A_.1. ar = i.26)* 1 (I) 2 . = .001. z 5or*=10. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z* = 1.9*. 47. 53. 59. 1. Ex.008)* + A. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 58. 48. + 1~* f 21 . 55. 10* Find the values 56. 61. 10* 5* = . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 57. 54. 250. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 17' 2 51. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. (. = ^.
6 *' 6 *25. 4 x^.4 a8 . 95 ^9i 5**. 10. Remove the negative exponents. are performed. Perform the operation indicated.7W. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 4 5. 3 a. 16. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . . 14. a. 23. 26. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 79 . &.&. (d) If required. 13. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.. 3sVS. V5. 6 *. 27  28. remove the fractional exponents.7i.4 . 12. #* a.5a.5.$*. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. etc. 7*. NOTE. 17. 8 ' 9.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 72 . S'sS8.^/5^5. ' 11.&.7*. 16. 7~ 5 27  . 6. 7~ 6 . . OA 20. 3. .3 aj" a. / 7fv 7. 6a. 7.$". 18. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.
The 252. 2. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check.2 d . 40. If powers of a?. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 34. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^2. Simplify V~ . subtract surds. \/5.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^/IT. </2. v/3. 33. + . V2. 38. ^6. s!/3. Arrange 35. ^5.2. 29.3\ .2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . Ex. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . signs. 39. V3. connect them by proper 1. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 36. v/4. V2. ^126. V5.e. \/7. 40. 32. ^30. v^S.2 V50. 34. 2\ 3*. V2. v/3. Simplify/a35 ~ o . Simplify V + 3 VlS. Ex.10 V2 =  V2. 26. ^7. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. (i. 3. ^4. A/3. 31. 28. 27. ^4. ^2. 37. To add or form. A/2. 5V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . 30. if dissimilar. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. </3. in order of magnitude : \/7. VS. V3. ^3. 4^/4. </20.
V175V28+V634V7. 12.J a6 V4 aft. 6. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 14. 8.3V20 + 6V5. 4. + 3V835V2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. 3. 9. 11. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. . 10. 13. 6. V18+V32VT28+V2.
y* = Ex. 3.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 23.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. 6*.6V35 106 460V35100 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 26^ . Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 1.
V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. VTO. 25. 18. 12. 37. 27.VSS. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). v/4. V2aV8^. V3 V6. 19. v/18 v"3. 4. 28 . (3 20. aVa. 3. 9.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. a?. 6. 6. 8. V3 Vl2. 6 V4 5. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 21. . (2V3) 8 . 13. 2. 2 . 7. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 15.^/2. 39. (V6 + 1) 1 . 40 10 30. 213 98 11. fWa 17. 40. V42. \/3 \^). VlO V15. + VB)(2V5). (5V22V3CVS)V3. Vll. 34. 10. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V2 V50. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 41. 38. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V20 V30. (Va Va 36. 14.
y. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 51. 52. 48. a fraction. is 1 2. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. 268. 46.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 60. Ex. Ex. (2 45. Va v/a. . 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 49.214 42. E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (3V52V3)(2V3V3). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 44. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). the quotient of the surds is If. V3 . 43. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.
73205.RADICALS This method. . is illustrated by Ex. /~ } Ex.. e. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7. Divide VII by v7. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. arithTo find. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.by the usual arithmetical method. however. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.g. . we have V3 But if 1. 3. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.57735. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Evidently.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. The 2. .
V5 270. 23 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. A. V48 25. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.2361. V8 JL. V3 24 . 14. V2 22 . . 20.7320. . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. Vll 212*.4142. 21. 7. ^/H . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 271.. i. 272. VffV?. Vn V7 ' * 8. A. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. and Given V2 = 1. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V3 = 1. V5 = 2. V8 12.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
= 18.2.vffi^T _ . . s Simplify a. V82 2V3 1fVS . 3.Vs2 . Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .RADICALS Ex. 1. Ex. . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
V5V7 18> ^SVg. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. .218 6 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. J?_.2361. By the use of fractional exponents . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . four places of decimals 23 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 6V7. 19. : and V5 = 2. 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. find to _!_. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. v 2V3 28.5 3 = 125. Vo1 26.4142.W3. 24. V21 = 25 . Given V2 1. = V3 = 1.
2 12.RADICALS 219 274. 4. on the other hand. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. viz. 8. it to this form. 5. . 2. \/125" . V643 . ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. 1. V255 . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 3. the If. 3 (V2~u)  7. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. v8f 2\/15. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 11. \/l6*. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. According to G3. Simplify Ex. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9.
A/2. 2 \/18.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find V4 + VJ8. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 12 and whose product is 20. 3.2 \/20. 2. is 11.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . ^TT. and whose product is 18.6 V2. Find Vll . These Ex. Find Vl2 4.220 Ex. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. +2 Ex. The Hence ^11 .
4. first involution.V48 4 20.. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 277. (2x xrf 1. are radical equations. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. r 22. x2 = x f 2. a. Dividing by Check. +=. 19. Before performing the involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. member to 2. 5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Radical equations are rationalized. 4x x = 2. Transposing and uniting. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. V48 23. by raising both members equal powers. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 8. . Ex. The value x =2 reduces each . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.1. i. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. VT . they are transto formed into rational equations.e. = xa + 4 x f 4.
1) = 0.3. they may be extraneous roots. Therefore CftecAr. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. x = J. Transposing. V4afT~l. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. It = 3 x . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. viz. Factoring. Squaring both members. Dividing by 24. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. V24~+~l = 0. Squaring both members. a socalled extraneous root. a. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. at . 3. Extraneous roots. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. tion which has two roots. f 25 = 12.222 Ex. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. . . 4#f 4 = 9. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. the first member = V2. 5. viz. Ex. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. one root. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 278. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Therefore Check. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. Transposing and uniting. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 2.
viz. Check. 2 Clearing of fractions. ViTie 4 z2 . . Hence there is only one root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .3) (2 x .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. \ does not satisfy the given. equation it is an extraneous root. = 3. is x V. or x *j. NOTE. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.RADICALS Hence x If a. Transposing. both members reduce to 5. for it satisfies the equation . If If x 3 = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.47) = 0.12 . . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Therefore. Hence x = the only root. 4. Factoring. 223 x = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Solve the following equations : = G. Squaring.2 r. and to 5. x root of the preceding equation. the right member = V2. + 6~ieT~3 . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. . (x x = 3.
Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. Factoring. Ex.33 af* + 32=0.
2_8z 440 = 49. 4. x =6 or 3. Ex. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. y then x2 .8 z40 = 7. members of the equation were squared. 2Va. x + Vx a? = 6.i~24 = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. = 26. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Vi 2 8a. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.35 = 0. some of the roots be extraneous. 2. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 412a* = 16. + 40 = 6. 2. o. Q . 3. This can be seen without substituting. Let 8 x f 40 . for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Substituting. = 0. 3 6.*2a. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. _ 2 y .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. = 7.f40= 5. x Since both =9 or 1. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. . 45 14VJB = . 5.
4 V SB* 4 a. 12. +3= 6. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 18.f 18 = 24. 19.226 11. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 2.a 440 = 35. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14. +x . 20. a^x2 5 2 13. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 15. 16. 17. a.
could. ax4 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. does not contain a?. then (x 2)Q 0. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. however. If x* . even if Q is unknown. = 2.4 a. if Q was known.2) Q . Without actual division.bx? + ex2 4.360 = 244. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .2 x 5 by x 3. E = ax + &z + m) Q. 3 2 Ex. 1. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. we make a? what the value of Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. to x we # = 2 3.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division. Hence. by dividing 3 x* f. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. " Or. 227 . a? R = x* ." transposing. no matter If. 2. Ex. ^ = 381+2.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. find the remainder when m.2 + 4.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.
of the division 3) is m in place of x. 3. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x m is factor of the expression. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.228 282. fora?. 5.4(. 43 3 E.949.3)f 11 =.8'= 0.g.8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. if 8 42  . + 7 = 632. 8. 2 j 7. x* s 2 4.g. 5 (4x . hence (x divided by x 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + ^by x + b. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. The Factor Theorem. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . } 2 by a1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + 6.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. If the remainder is zero.
x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .r6 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 1. a^8^ + 19a. a + 32. 2m 5m . f 5. 6. Therefore x ( 1).1. or 5 4 + 3^ . 24. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 8.9^ + 23^15. ^10^429^20=0.7 x + 15 = 0.e. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a 8a f 19 a 12. + 27 + 27.49 = 0. 18.12. 106 division. f 3. f 15 does not vanish. 23. or x 4. 229 1. 11. 2 2. The 5. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. factors of the absolute term. & p*. . oj 5x2 f3a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 21. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a? 19. 25. 17. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.12 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 20.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. + 15. _ . a 2a + 4. a 5x 6. Resolve into factors 4. m f m n 14. is a factor. 2. 8. 5. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. then x8 7 x'2 4. 15. Factor a? 15. 9. 3.1. are f 1. + ttt15 = 0. Let x = . 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. a. 7 46 = 0. 3 2 : 7.13m + 30 10. i. 1. p 5^ + 8p 4.7 + 16 .
: importance. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. It y is not divisible by 287. For substituting y for x. actual division n. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.230 285. If n is a Theorem that 1. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Ex. 2. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . ar +p= z6 e. if w is odd. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. xn f. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 2. is odd.xy +/). Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to." . 2 Ex. By we obtain the other factors. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 1. if n is even.g.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 286.
x3 8=0. 28. preferable.= . as 27=0. 27. y 3 +8=0. 26. 3. since it more directly to the prime factors. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Hence = (m Ex.i mn f w 2). leads 231 is The first method.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. a. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.
If two of the quantities x f y. 4 xy = 16. x y. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. xy are given. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. & + 2 xy + = 25. = 6. in general. 290. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree.1. can be solved by the methods degree. 232 . Hence " /  X y = =} 4. (4) Hence. * A I. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). + 6 a?V .y4 is of the fifth degree. however. to equations of the fourth few cases. of quadratics. (5) Combining (5) with (1). ==5 > 1^ = 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. xywe have 3.
1. = . In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ' 10. " "' "' { r 8. x and xy are not given.g. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. ^. 12. 108 2. but can be found. EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. I I x + y=7. The arranged in pairs. b=3. 233 y. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 3. r (" 1 = 876.
20) = 0. 5. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. A system of simultaneous equations. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 6 "I 14. la. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).?/ i = 6. 4 y = 20.  . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. or y = 1 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. . r^ 2 as ] f. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . aj = 2.o 18. 19.  42 y + Transposing. or JJ. one linear and ne quadratic.  f J. 7 . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. I* Jj ^ [.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. Ex. I x+y = a.i/ = r 13. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. . x " (3) 49 etc. ' ' . + 29 = 0. Factoring.~ y = 5. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 3.a..
1.3 2x 2 Ex. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4 f + 2 y = 3. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. III. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ' x*. y* + 2y = 3. 9. ':il e :) . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 3y) : Factor (2). quantities. x2y. Solve . If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 10. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).
the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 2. Solve 2. 109 a. j Substituting y in (2).236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 15 x2 . } VI09. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 11 a2 Factoring.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. (3) (4) Subtracting. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. 2 . = Ex. (1) (2) x x 5.
. can be solved by special devices. (4) (3). Division of one equation by the other.175 ay = 12. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.6.3^42^=43. E. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. f 1 150 a?. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. 150 */2 .!. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A.xy 4. y? a? f . " IV. Bxy9. and others not belonging to them.y = 7. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' ^ 15.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.125 ay = . 298.
Solve Ex. we obtain by squaring. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. 2. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. x +y y etc. xy. * ' 300. Therefore x = 16. i ^ *>. at first it is unknown quantities. Some simultaneous ?/. B. = 12 J. x 2 . jc~ y = 9. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1). Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. (1 > (2) 1. = 189. quadratics can be solved by ?/. from (2).238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. y . y = 3.. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.
6. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. . M6. F+y+ . 239 Ex. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 7. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 36* 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . [2x + : y= 17. I e. Hence = V or = 4.
* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .21 ^ = 15. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 19 ' 26. . 16. = 198. = y 1 y* . . 25. f 18. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 27.
y % 9 f*K 36. etc 302. 32. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . = 48201. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. ~\ OK OO. or ~ indeterminate. ^ oo . . .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Q 7. hence may be any finite number. 30. etc. 33. finite  =x y if = x.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . . 3 a2 38. 31. as a . Interpretation . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.of  According to the definition of division. oo 301. 25 34. 7' j/ 39.
1. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .e. creases. By making x any * assigned zero. is satisfied by any number. ToU" ^100 a. equation. 306. Or. (1). cancel. the answer is indeterminate. . I. i.000 a. (a: Then Simplifying. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.can be If It is made larger than number. . x f 2. be the numbers. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.increases if x de x creases. or that x may equal any finite number. and . The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. i. great. (1) = 0. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. = 10. Let 2.g. (1) is an identity. without exception. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. it is an Ex.e.decreases X if called infinity.242 303. and becomes infinitely small. TO^UU" sufficiently small. The ~~f fraction . Hence such an equation identity. as + l.x'2 2 x = 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. oo is = QQ.
Solve x a. y finite QO. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. z = 1 Substituting. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). = oo. no numbers can satisfy the given system. two numbers is 76. 3. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. * 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum is of squares 2890. 1=0.2 y = 4. and a. 4 3 x x5 a2 . (2). third and sixth parts. . Solve  9 7. is their 2. 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 42 and' their product is 377. EXERCISE 1. Hence /. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.8 x + 15 6. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Solve .e.
255 and the sum of 5. and the edge of one. 146 yards. of a rectangular field feet. 10. is 6. Find the dimensions of the field. the area becomes f% of the original area. two numbers Find the numbers. equals 4 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. 8. increased by the edge of the other. 14. . and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the sides. Find the edges. is is 17 and the sum 4. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.quals 20 feet. Find these sides. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 12. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the hypotenuse is 37. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.) 53 yards. 9. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the sum of ( 228. 148 feet of fence are required. p. and the diago(Ex. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the side of each square. of a right triangle is 73. Find the sides of the rectangle. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 6.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the other two sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 13.244 3. Find the numbers. Find the edge of each cube. 190. 103.
The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) 17. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. Find the number.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged. . and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. irR *.
. to each term produces the next term. 3 d must be added to a. The first is an ascending... a 11.7. P. 16. to produce the 4th term. 19. a + 2 d. series 9. to produce the 3d term.. of the following series is 3. added to each term to obtain the next one.. progression.. An arithmetic progression (A. except the first. P. f . . a + d. Hence / = a + (n . 309. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. Since d is a f 3 d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. To find the nth term / of an A. 11. 17. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law... a. the second a descending.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a f d. 12. to produce the nth term.. 2 d must be added to a. . 3. . The common differences are respectively 4. P. 10. and d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.) is a series. (n 1) d must be added to a. : 7. 15 is 9 f. The progression is a. + 2 d. 4. each term of which..1) d. of a series are its successive numbers. a 3d.
24. . 2J. Adding.. 8. 115. 1J.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 4. 5. (a + + (a + l) l). 1. of the series 10. . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 10. 9.4. the term a. P.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3. . 8. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . Find the 10th term of the series 17. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 6. Find the nth term of the series 2.. .. d . = I + 49 = *({ + . 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. = 99. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. = 2.. 7. 8.. 19.8.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 2. 7. series 2.16. . 6.... Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 6. 21. 6 we have Hence . 5. = a + (a Reversing the order. 4^. series . d = 3. 99) = 2600. a = 2. 5.PROGRESSIONS 310.. P. if a = 5.. Find the 5th term of the 4... . 5. 7. ? (a) 1.. 3. . 5. 3..3 a = l. 9. P. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2. (d) 1J.' cZ == .. 3. 3. Find the 12th term of the 4.
(i) (ii) .5 H + if f to 10 terms. \n. 18.248 Find the 10. 12. to 20 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. Jive quantities are involved. In most problems relating to A. 8. 7. 15.. 12. 1. : 3. 15. 1J. 2J. to 8 terms. 13. 23. 21. to 10 terms. 11. 19. 16. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 6. > 2f 2. to 7 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 1.1 f 3. 7. rf. strike for the first yard. 11. 31. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 20 terms. 16. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 17. to 16 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. P. 29. to 20 terms. + 3. 2.7 f to 12 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 3. 11. '. to 15 terms. . . 4. . . 7. and for each than for the preceding one. . . (x +"l) 4. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 15. striking hours only. . 11. 22. hence if any three of them are given. 33. Sum the following series 14. 1.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. .
204 = ^ (a + 49). l)e?. 100. 312. s 24ft last term 144. = n(104 . n = 6. 6. 78. 89. 78 n Substituting in (1). Find the series. The series is. = a + (w.1). 2. 56. = 13. I. a = 12.~n~\ 408 6). . P. d = 6. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 144. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 122. 12. if s = 204. 67. = 1014. P. n d. . if a. #. Solving. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. But evidently n cannot be fractional. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. or if x Solving.1) . From (1). is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. the second one mean between the other two.104 w + 408 = 0. 23.6. Substituting in (2). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 111. = 1014. 45. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. the and the sum of all terms 1014. P. hence n = 6. 1. a = 49 6(71 . 133. is 12. Ex.. 6 n2 ..e. 34. J = 49. 204 = ^ (98 . and b form an A.PROGRESSIONS Ex. = 144. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Findn. or 11 J. The first term of an A.6 n).
n = 13. n. 11. 4. n has the series ^ j .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. n = 4. Find d and Given a = 1700. T? ^. = 16. Given a = 1. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 10. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 15. 12. m and n 2. y and #f5y. f? . I Find I in terms of a. Find?. I. 78. 6? 9. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. a x f b and a b.3. n = 20. n = 17. s == 440. P. 17. Given a = 4. and s. Find a Given a = 7. = 52. = ^ 3 = 1. Find n. a+ and b a b 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. s = 70. has the series 82. . Find d. n = 16. Given a = . Find a and Given s = 44. = 1870. 8. 16. How much . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = . = 83. of 5 terms 6. produced. 7. 13. f J 1 1 / . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 14. Find d. Find w. = 45. = 17. ceding one. How much did he save the first month? 19. 74. 3. d = 5.
P. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. The progression is a. 24. P. is it (G.. E. 108. . . I. called the ratio... . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . the first term a and the ratios r being given. . 4. <zr ..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. r n~ l . 36. A geometric progression first. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. If n is less : than unity.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. (I) of the series 16. and To find the nth term / of a G. 2 a. 36. P. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 36. or. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. ar8 r.. NOTE.) is a series each term of which. . rs = s 2 . is 16(f) 4 . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 4 (1) . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . +1. 24. of a G. or 81 315. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. The 314.arn ~ l . 12. 2. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. ratios are respectively 3... 4.g. ar.
(b) 1. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 80. 144. ._!=!>. 8. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. i 288.*.18. 18. . 6. (it. P. 36.. 72. ? (c) 2. . P. series .4.. Hence n = 7. 144. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 9.. 7.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 25.6. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 20. hence. P. Ex. 4. 10. 576. .. 4. . series 6. 36. fa.72. a = I. is 16. 144. 9. 0. l. whose . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. ..l. is 3. 1. Jive quantities are in. first term 4. .5. (d) 5. I = 670. P.. Hence the or series is 0. 9. P. r^2. . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. first term is 125 and whose common . 2 term 3.. Find the 6th term of the series J. first 5..288. f. \ t series . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.. .18. . if any three of them are given. . 288. 36. . . And the required means are 18. fa.. + 5.. volved . . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. +f%9 % ..5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. f. 676. whose and whose second term is 8. 3.54. or 7.. series 5. 72.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. In most problems relating to G. EXERCISE 1. Find the 5th term of a G.
16 . 13.. 15. n = 5.nV> i*> !718. 21. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find the geometric mean between 7. . 14. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Z s. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.. Given r = n Z 5. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. r . . + 4 . Find a and Given r = 3.i a9 . to 6 terms. P. == 160. to 5 terms. J. 19. . be written If the value of r of a G. 14. = 3. 81. = 3.. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 126. 23. to 7 . 1. J.. 27. to 8 terms. 25S series : 32. 81. J. >"> . Find a and 4. to 6 terms. s = 605. Find a and n = 4. .. 72. is less than unity. 48. 54. 24. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 4. to G terms. .. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 12. 22.. 2. of r n decreases. n = 5. may be than any assignable number. I. a^. and hence ~ r . 243. .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. to 6 terms. s = 310. M. a.J and 270. 12 terms. 1. 42. to 7 terms. J. 20. 36.
= . 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . P. 9.= . Given an infinite series of squares.254 Ex.. I. 100.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 1. ratio 15. 1. 12. of all squares ? .. =A+ 10 i. .. of an infinite G. (6) the sum of the perimeters.3121212. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. is 16. 3. 4..3 + . The sum Find the of an infinite G. P. i i J.555. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. is 9. 6. . The sum r. 1. . .. Find the sum to infinity. 8.Ql.1..00072 f . 7. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.99 . 16.072. 250.. = ... . .272727. . and the first term is Find 17. = 990 . first and the common term.. 13.. is J.. 12. . P...072 + ... If a = 40. what is (a) the sum of the areas.717171.. 1. .. .= _4Z* . .. 2..72. i.. 8. 40..)7?7272 .. . 66 Therefore . 9. of: 11.. 14... .. r = j. . 2.01 ^ .... 10. 6.. 4.3727272 . 16. . 1 r = . Find the value 9.191919. .27777 . = a .. 5. Hence .37272 . . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.
coefficient of .b ). 2 2 24. 11. 5. 29. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (\ 9 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . 12. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the 6th term of (x . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (xy) : 6 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 15. 26. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . /2a+Y\ 8. 13. 4 7. 14. (s + i).BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 20.b) w (a (a f (1 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a + b) . 28. . . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 7 . 16. 17. 25. 10.6) 20 . : (1 + xy. (a2) 6. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (a 100 . 21. 4.6) . a6 8 16 in . 22. l 2. . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.
3. 1. 2. 3. 4. c = = = 2. 2. 3. 1. 6. 3. 3. 2. 4. c if 7 . (c 3. 4. 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 5. 1.  a)(a 1. 2 . 4. 1. 4. 1. 1. if y=2j 2. 3. . 5. 2. 2. + 2. 3. 1. 5. + 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. 3. 1. 1. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 7. 2.c )(fta) 1. 2. 2. 1. l. 1. 2. 6. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. = 2. ^+^ 3. 6. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. 3. 3. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. + c(a  c). 1. 3. 2. 5. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. if = = 2. 4 2. 2. 24 4. 2. 4. 6. 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. a ft c = = 2.f ac 1.a(a 4.  8 ^ 2. 3. 3. 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. if x^l. 3. 3. 4. 3. 2. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 2. 2. 5. 3. 1. 3. . 2. 5. 3. y 3. 3.  2. 3. 1. 2.  2. 1. 2. 2. 1. 1. 2. 5. if a ft c = = = 4. 1. if = = = 2. + 1. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5. aft 3 + 4. ft) . 2.
a) . 29.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . + 4 ?y . 40. ' b) + 3.8 3 + 7 x4 . 16. . 4.7 y 2* 4. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 3.10. 10.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . a: . 26.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.2. 21. . + 3 y 2* . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .3 xyz. 15. 15.1.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 2. . 5.c' 2 4 / . 7. 1.7 ys. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 4. x3 f 3 ax'2 .a 5 a . 25. 1.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .4. 3. + 4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. x C 4 4x y + . + 8 x4 *y .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . a /> 3.8 + 2 // .2 x2 . 2. 5. c)(x a} .2. 4 x 4 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 24. = 2.7 + . if a 6 = = c = 3. 2 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 8.  a) (c 2. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.3 a?y . 20. 5. + 1.2 a?y + 3 aty . a 4 + 11 a . 4. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x = 4. or . ~c)(b. 7y 4 . c = 3. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . x3 2 a2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . a. 12.\ yz + xz.2 z8 4 x. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. . 9. x 3 x' 14. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . a. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .a 4 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. f 8. r> . 21. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4 z .259 x c) . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . x 3 11.a8 .r 6 x  4 xy . + 2. 8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 2 x 8. 9. (5. 41. 5.2 x?/. b(x (b 1. 2. 4 y 13. 18.5. 17.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 7 xy 3 .x 5 4 . 2. 6 a4 4 a8 . 6.
c 4. 4 2 x2 23. c =x y }~ z.#48.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.(x* . Simplify 31.2 . 0" 30. f ft.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. sum of .260 19. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. .(7 x 4.2 x 8y2 44 .2 .c. 542 x 2 and . = x y ft z. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .c 4 3 a.1).2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . (*) a  c. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(4 x 2 . : a x . Take the sum of 3 x 4.x .c. . 3 ft.3 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 35. 4 3 5 y/ .c 3 a. 7 12 . a  ft + c. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .?> x 4 20. 34. take the sum of G x 5 .(x 4.3 x .4 ft) 4.] 26.6T . ft 25. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . .4. 33.a ft.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .{2 x 2 .3.{G * 2 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 2 x 32. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.x 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . ft. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.7. . .(a .(5 y .5 . 5 4 7 12 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].2 3 ax 2 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. x'2 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 4 4 4.(5 c . 29.[4 z 8 .(4 * .x2 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 36.8 3 4..5. 4 . From of 2 the 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and .4) . c 4ft.[4 x 4. 4vTT~y 3. Take the sum 4x 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.4 Vl 4.27~~7)}].1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.1)}] .2) . of a. . 5 10 + 7 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 a .3 .x 2 4.x .6 x ] .
5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.2 2 + 1)(7.Z .(5 y . 49. + *+!){> + 2). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.2a .[2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 65.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 51. 2 53.2 zz . 48.5)} + (3 a 2 . 67.0)} .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.(2 a + 5 a .b (c . 68.3 z 2 ). (. 2 2 x + !)(* .(7 a.r 2:c+ l)(ar. (1 ar+a. . . .12). . a . . 54.56.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3 c)].c).a~^~c)K]. (4 + 3a 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .7). 57.2)(1 .& + {.2 2 .3 *).4 a .ab .3c). 50. 60. 62.2x + 3).6c) (a + f c).3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.5 )}] + {4 c .4 a 2 + a 4 ). (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). a {. 64. + 4x + 5)(j. (r (1 (a.3)(*5)(* 7). 56.(2 .(4 d .[4 x  5 . 46.6)}]. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 2 : 7e)a}].JT^T+1)} + (2 .{3 c .6 xy . (x .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . . 43.{2 a (ft . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). )(lz a ). 2 f [3 c 7 a . 'J 44.  2 a  {3 2x a .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .c 2 . (5 a 39.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 13 a . 63. 45. 3 x 42. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 ft 41.(2 a 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (1 55. (. .2c(V/ . 59. 4 + 2 2 + 1). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].(6 .ac .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .be) (a 58.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].96 [17 a.{2 a .rf)} + a [. (/> 4 . 2 52.3). . (x.(2 x2 . .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .1). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .
m np c . 71.x + y + z).c .c) j. ar .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). ft /. 75. 73.c) .(a 48 8 8 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c)]. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.3 (ft .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .z) . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 89. 2 + a 2 ). (p 2 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). (a (2 b)*(a 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.{3 a . f 72. . (a 2 ft 2n 4.5 .(c 4. 82.2 (a . 93. b 4. 88. ft ft ft a}.z)(x y + z)(. ft 78.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .:y)( a.c .ft) 4 .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.y).(/>  3 v)^(.(ft 4.9y2). ft" l Simplify 80.c) 2 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c) rr identities. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(a 2) (s 4 ft.6*y . . 90.n pc).b 4. 85. ft 95.c)} .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c) .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). Prove the following 8 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 94.r 2 . 4 4 . 86. 87.3y) a (* 2 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. . 77. 1).z\x 4.am&t 4 A 2 *).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 2 (x 2 .v) 4.y + z)(x + y . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c) 4) (ft 4.O (a 4(a 4. 74.2 (y 4. xy y 2 ). 1). 79.y)\x y).(4 . 91. (x (x ( + *) .q). (. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.262 69.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 84. 70.a) 2 . 83.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).3 a .2 ft}) f (3 a . 76.ft) + 4(2 .2y)(.<f(p . 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 92. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .
Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 2 4 41 x 4a.5 b*). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).5 xy).9 x 2 .v/ ~ // = a: . (80 a 112.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).2y 2 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 26 (a 4 c).4 aft . 10). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 102.16 a 6 4. 118. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 110. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 109. 3*. 123. 114. (8 x* 115. (2< 107.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.(x 2 .) .1). 116. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 124. 108. [10( 4.40 />) .35 x 2 2 ) . 25 4 . 122. (.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.27 x* .2 2% 4. 121.b) 98. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). . a*. 2 (a+ .3 a"+ 4.&).y 2 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 1). 105. (a 8  8 68 8 4. . 106.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 99 100. 120.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 . 117. 103. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 113.r 4 4.(a 1 2 8 .2 xy 8 .(7 xi/ .xy 4.y 4 ) .a". r .*) (x 8 .(2 a 2 .6 y 4 4. 1O4.
(x f 9). 136. 3(2 x 134.2) = 3 .2(10 x .n .a:)]}. .r + 7[or . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 137. . 143. 42(3ar 145. 7(2 x .9) 4. 149.5{. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2(5 .19) + 5 = 4 . 127.4(0 x . 5 146.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .2) (a: + 3).3 a:). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.5). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 148. x 147. (4 x .2(j: .3 x).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).3 a#z) (ar + y + s). y (* l x. 3) = x\x . 2 4(ar . .(j a? 144.22.4) . 5(2 x . .2) + 2(ar + 4). 128. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. .9) + 3. 10(2 x 141.18 *&) (1 .1) . .(1 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 139.2(4 .264 125.2 7^~5] + 1). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .3(* + 4) + 9} . 129. 142. (*+ + . (5a: 150.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 138. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 1) = 2(* . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .5) = 12(4 x .r>) . 1) .27 a 3" .3).(x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .3) = 12 .7(4 * .G) .1) (a? .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). o o 140.3) (3 x 4.4) . 126.3(2 z .(x + 3) ] . . 135.3).8 6 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).12 M 132.7) = 4 .
. + 10) (ar .2 x) = (1 .2). (a . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.76. (a) If C.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.T)O . and the third twice as many as the first. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 153. 5(ar x . 158. + 5) = (9 .. . (x (x a.3) = (3 x .3) (3 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 159.5) = (3 . = 2 C.3) (3 . . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.7) (a. If the area of the frame inches. = 15. f^ + ^sO.5(x .2 x) (4 . 165.2) (j? + 1) + (x . 157.19) + 42. + 4) (2 x + 5). and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 163.l)(z . .1) O + 4) = (2 * .r + 3) .2) a + 7(x . 265 152.17) 2 + (4 x .z) (4 . 160. 164. 2 4 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .8) = (2 x 4.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.? . The second contains 3 first.5 x) = 45 x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. . (2 .a:) + 229.3) (a: . How many 170.1) (s + 3).7) (1 x . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.5)(. 162. 154. a: ar a. The sum What 171.24. sheep more than the 169. 156.(5 x .3) (j. find the value of F. these two angles would be equal.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (3 O + .2) (7 *) + (*. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. (a.6 x) (3 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. will produce F.25) 2 . 155.14) (a: + 3). 166. transformed into F.29) 2 = 1.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.9) + (a.4) (a . + 2) + (5 .5*) + 47. =  (F 32). (7 14 . 161. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.
4 a 2 yy 42. Find the number. ll?/102. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 188. younger than his Find the age of the father. A each 177. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. side were one foot longer. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 187. was three times that of the younger. 181. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 7/ 191. 189. 10x 2 192. . two boys is twice that of the younger. dimension 182. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 190. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. sister . the sum of the ages of all three is 51. A boy is father. x* 185. 15 m. same result as the number diminished by 175. 179. 13 a + 3.36. train. 176. How many are there in each window ? . An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h.266 173. . respectively. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 180. z 2 + x . power one of the two Find the power of each. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 12 m. number divided by 3. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. aW + llab2&. father. z 2 92. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. and 5 h. . 3 gives the 174. + a. 178. + 11 ~ 6. if each increased 2 feet. 186. A house has 3 rows of windows. 2 2 + a _ no. +x 2.56. Find the dimensions of the floor.
11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . . 3y 2 + ary .10 y a x* .19 z 4 204. a 2 . . 216. a. 5 x 2. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 238. 3 x V . 232. + 8. a.12 * . 2  5 xy 13 y a. z 2 2. 210. + 2 . 217. 2 a 2 . 233. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2 200. 208. 245.6 2 ?/ . 202. 23 12. 3 x 2 .3 xy.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . z + 5x 2 . 16x 4 81.77 y + 150. .28. a+a* + o a +l. 203.8 6 2.(b + rf) 2 . a^a 226.10 xy. 3 ap 2 . a: 236. 246. . 2 a 8 . 2 . a: 231. 207. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 2 x 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. wiy + la mx + aw.6 y2 + 4. 212. xm+l 243. + 30 x.6 aq .21 a:  54. + 198. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 221. 24 2 + 2 . 215. 213. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 7x 2 225. 2 2 y f 1. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 229. 7a 228. . 224.3 c/> + 6 cq. + 3a 196. 12 x +4. 209. 2a te 3% ly 247. 4 m +^. 4a 2& 2 241. 211.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 8 a: ar.r?/f y 2 9.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. x 5 . (a + . 239. 206. 230. 244.x + 1. 222.19 a .c) 2 . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 8 a. 201.64. x 219.6s. a: .20 z 8 a: 220. 227.c) 2  (a . a a: a: 237. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . 195. 267 199. x* + 8 2 + 15. x*y 223. 218. 3y 248. y 2 194. 235. . a.14 2 .6.1. ifWy+b. 6 197. # 2  29 y + 120. a.22 z + 48. *2 234.10.
4 ab + 1. 3 ay 4.12.1 9 . 254.15 + 30. ft a.a 2 />c 2 f 3. x 2 + 2 x .15. 258. 30 ^ .16 x . 251. 3 a% 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. 10 x 2 . + 20 x 4. 5 x 2 256. 15 # 2 z/ /.G7 x f 33.2 z . a? a: a: // 262. x 2 + 4 + 3.ry . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 259. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 260. 265. 2 x2 . x*y* 4. 1 x ar Find the L.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. of: 266. * a . * 2 .36.9 x + 14.C. 22x2 a.ry 21.14 bx a%% 8 .4. x 2 263. 7 ax 250. 252.80. F.10.8. 8 2 + 10 x .5 ab f 2. 18 x 2 .23 x f 20. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 28 2 f 71 x . 2 8 .120. + 23 x f 20. 2 .48 afy 2 . + 3 x + 2.10 a 4.&z.11 x f 28. x 2 + 5 f . x 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . 3 #2 255. . 269. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).13. + 8 x + 5.2 aft*. Reduce to lowest terms 271. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 7 12 2 2 .3 x . 261.6 by.x . x 2 4. a 4. x* .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . z 2 268.18 xy + 5. a: .3 abc .M. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 264.23 + 12.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 6.11 a 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 257. + 8. a. I Find the II.a + 2 4.9 x . * 2 .2/ 2 .7 f 5. 10 a.3.73 xy . 2 a. 270. z 2 267. C. * 2 . x* .r .9.91.(55. of: 253.
(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . a.2* + 3 x* 280. 285 z4 n* + a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .rL.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. z2 (a 2 + c)a.. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.2c a: 282. *2 " 2 + Oge. m 4.ar 1 279. + ac . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 8 . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 289 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp .!/.
a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 4 3 301. x 7. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. Lnl + ar 2 a. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^. a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. O(ca) 306. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.
i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2 + y 2 319.ft) 2 322. (1 .._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. . (a? 4 2) 317.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.(a . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1a: + y a. .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. } . 1 x2 + + a. _ x8 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . a: 1 313. 1 _. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.
2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .V  + y  x 3y a . .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .6* t 328. 20 44 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .2 +lOar 2 a. 250 5 10 2 325.ll..272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. ..9 *// + 27 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . * 3a.y20  2y + 4 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.15 33 . 2 lOx 5x. a: 2 x* .7 xy + 12 x .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .
\x yj 340.) 2 . aj 339. 348. + ni + . : 1+ i. 7 ( ?f!?. w \. (a \ + lV.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (aWi + iJ.+ r . if a = 3. 5 343. ?_2 ^ . 352. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. ' 2 "l 5 . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. ** i. 1 345. a>74 . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.r 5 2 . f V. xi 347. \5yl 341. 344. (af2/. a: 349 _ o. ( 342.. fl.y.1V. (ar \ 346. + l + IV. +^ a: y x .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 338.
274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. _ + l a 359. (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . a2 4 . 1+2 362. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (~ 364. ar xy + yl x* 358.
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 8  376. . 379. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. <3 378.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. __4 2x 3_ = !. . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 1) 45 O 377. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 4(* . 5 {2 x 381. ^ . J !__7.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15.
l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.5 ^ ~ a: a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 400. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  8 9* x ~r. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. .6  . _____ .2 a:  1.5 x =r f . c . 40. + 4 a. f 1 1 + a 403.1 .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 401. 3* 177. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. b 404. u '2 a. 399. a.  J).147. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 396.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. m x 398.8 = . 397. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).25. ^ (a ..75 x f .25 x + .
hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Find the number. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.c) . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 411.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. and was out 5 hours. 421.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. Tn 6 hours . In a if and 422. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. far did he walk all together ? A . the order of the digits will be inverted. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . (x . 420.278 410.  a) 2 6 2a. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 418 ~jo.
Solve 436. Find the length of the parts. Find the fourth proportional 426. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 3 and 1J. z 2 y. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : If is one equal 434.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 438. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 2 2 8 2 . . If a b : =5 n : 7.6 8 ). 428. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . y. 433. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the mean proportional to 429. 432.iand 22 22 I a . . ax is \ by  ex + dy. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. a. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. a + 5. find : a : c. wi* + y= ny.49 63). : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).46 2): (15a 2 . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. a  t>. Which ratio is greater. if . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. b.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 431. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find the angles of the triangle. : i. .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. x 427. d. 430. 435. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.& 5 ) (a 8 .
if 2 ft : 439. + 5y = 59.*. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.rf2# = l. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. /) ar a. 8 . 3 a. 453. 455. 7 442.7 y = 25. a. 16. ?/ 447. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. .. 9/> = 2 . 452. The volumes If their diameters. 458. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 1(3  a.11 7.89 = q.35. a: a: + 5y). 5z4:# = 3.(or l(*2y)=0. 446. 5 2 = 7 . Solve the following systems: 441. 448. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). x + 17 # 53. a: 2y= = 1 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. = 25. 4 = 5 y + 29.59 = 3 z. 28 = 5 a . 451. 5x+4y=lQ. c. 450. ft. 15ar = 20 + 8y. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 456. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 454. 7a?y = 3. . ft. 444.4 12 .11 y = 95. . 9ar7# = 71. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 7jr9y = 17. . 7 a: .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 3 . 42 = 15y + 137. 457. 443. 56 + 10y = 7a. Find the value of a. .55 y = . />(. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 459. 445. 449. 8 x + y = 19.
3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.7. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y) (2 = 2J. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax by = c \ 472. ax cx by = m. ^ + i^ = 7.c=563y. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.. 473. 8 461. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.?/ + 1 . 475. (or . _ 469. i = 5. 468. x y 474. + eyn.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 465.  = 2.+ =2.
Find the numbers. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the numbers. Find their ages. to . . Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 485. Find the principal and the rate of interest. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. A number consists of two digits 4. 486. by 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. age. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the sum and the rate of interest. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 477. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the number. years. fraction becomes equal to . A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 479. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 487. the Find their ages. 483. and in 20 months to $275. and the other number least. Find the fraction. 481. How much money less 484. whose difference is 4. A spends \ of his. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and in 18 months to $2180. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age .
* + 425  = . x y f z = 13. 2/>3r = 4. a: + // = 11. *i. y Solve : x +z= 5.? + 2y = 8. z y x 25 . 5^ 9z = 10. a. ifi = x a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. : Solve the following systems 491.z = 12. . 490. . 3 a: + 5=84. 492. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . . 4 497. 7. 4 506. 495. a: 499. . a number . a: f z = 79. 494. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. = 20. 2 a. 2a:f 7. 496.z = 20. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 1.5#+2z = $x a: G. 8. 498. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. z y ifi = z x 502. a. ~ 507. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 3 x 500. 489. 2 e. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x f y f z 29 . = 15. \ . + # +z= 35./ 504. = 209.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 1+1 = 6. 3ar 503. 5 + a. x s + y z = 18J . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 7 + 2 z ./ f z =a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2y + 2z = a: 2. . of two the sum of the digits also if number. 493. 2y + 3a = ll. 4z+3z = 20. + y 5 y = 101 . 2 2 = 41.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 517. 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. 523. z z =3a&c. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800. ll" . i=a + 6 c.
A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. When weighed in water. What are their rates of travel? . AC in /). and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. . 532. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if L and Af in 20 minutes. BC = 5. if and L. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. they would have met in 2 hours. 530. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . Tf and run together. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. In circle A ABC. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. CD. 527.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. How long will B and C take to do . . N. E 533. and CA=7. it is filled in 35 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number. B and C and C and A in 4 days. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. touches and F respectively. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. M. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. and BE. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Find the numbers. it separately ? 531. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. L. the first and second digits will change places. 90. AB=6. If they had walked toward each other. in 28 minutes. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526.
 3 x. d. if x = f 1. x 2 544. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.  7. 550. The values of y.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. to do the work? pendulum. 536. 2. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x*. 542. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 547. x*  2 x. z 2  x x  5.10 marks.  3 x. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 546. formation of dollars into marks. + 3. 545. 540. . 543. FRANCE. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2 x + 5. b. . x 8 549. GERMANY. a. e. 548. If to feet is the length of a seconds. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x *x + x + 1. 3 x 539.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. One dollar equals 4. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. The values of x if y = 2. the function. from x = 2 to x = 4. The greatest value of the function. then / = 3 and write = 3. 2. i. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.e. c. x 2 + x. 2  x  x2 .
3 x . 563.1 = 0. 2 8 . 3 .r 1 561. 553. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.17 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . x 4 . c.r .11 = 0. ' = 8. z 2 . 565. h.5 x . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. f.0. and make the unit of the b.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a? 4 x .13 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. e. 557.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. a: 559.15 = 0. r?.  2 1 a: a.= 0. if y =m has three real roots. . j. + 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . x* . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 555.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x 2 ~ 2 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a. a. z 4 . 2 567. 2. 558.G . 562. = 5. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.3 x .9 = 0. + 10 x . 568.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.3 = 0. 564. c. // Solve y Solve y = 5. Solve 552.= 0. 2 a.6 + 3 . J. Solve// = 0. i.7 = . If y +5 10. x 5 .3 . 3 x* . a. 2 554. 18 x  4 = 0. . 572. 2 x 2 560.3 x . \ to t = 5. . 15. g.4 . 556. Represent meters.r a: a: x a. 3 + 3 z .4 = 0. 566.
6 + 1) .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 4 (1a:) 3. 3 .frf : 583. 588.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 1 . a: . 592. 5 a*. (a  8 ft) . 596. 582.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. x + z2) 8 .2 2 + y. 595. (aiy. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. <r)3  2 3 a:) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. j^f = 3.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 589.5 xy = 0. a. 608.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a:. 597. + %) (a* + *) 5 . . 4 a. 593. a 8 606. [ y =10. 598. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. f ?>) 3 591. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. a 612. : y* or 25. + + 4 . (1 (1 (1 . 599. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . xY. (a. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 9  4 fSb 607. + . 579.2 6a: + 30 &c a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . (1 + x a. .%) 4 (aa.(1 . a 2a. 2  2 aa: 2 . 609. 64 a 12 603.4.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . jj+. 3 (f. 2 943 ++ ~bx. x [ ?/ 577. 600. (# 2) . 604. 2 611. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.x + 2 )'2 601. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 585 594.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. + ^) + (air%)8. 4 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .
9g. 4370404. Find the eighth root 617. = 87.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 629. 647t x 2 648 649. + 112 a 8 . 614. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 632. a 642. 636. 645. 644. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. (x 9 x 646. 2 + 189 z = 900. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. : 5. 40. 32 631. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 633. 643. 2. 7) 2. 210. GGff. 650.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 637. 035. 634. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 9a. *+* = 156. 21. 626. 622.49. 0090. 44352. 942841. 630. x 2 .V250 . /. 4J.15174441. find Jupiter's period. 25023844. 615.30. + 24 a 2 4 .53 x ~ .871844. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . = 0. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . = 70. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 620.1024 x + a: 256.12 a?y + y*. x 2 641.2. 625 : 621. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.*. Find the square root of 619.\/4090. 638. ft . 623. 49. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 3a. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 494210400001. + 54 'x*y* . According to Kepler's law. 651. + 2 21 x = 100. 49042009. 624. 628. = .2410. V 635. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 371240.191209. 2 + 21Ga. 639. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. VOIOOD + V582T09. 8*' + 24* = 32.150. V950484 .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
bx . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.c = 0. 708. 696. 707. 2 702. 2 2 697.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . = 0.a a )jr . 693. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 706. 694. .ax . 2 2 . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 695. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 1 __ : )'*' _i. ex abc= fx 0. 699. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. a. 692. ax 2 698.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. .
and working together they can build it in 18 days. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 16 x* . .292 709.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 727. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. sum is a and whose product equals J. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 716. 12 4*+  8. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find the price of an apple. 217 . The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find two numbers whose 719. 717. 721. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. A equals CO feet.44#2 + 121 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. a: 713. 729. 724.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. **13a: 2 710. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 723. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 725. 722. 3or i 16 . ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.
43. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50. . 34.l).2)(x2 4. n.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 52. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).1 + x. . 31. 36. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 46. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).2 ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.X . 38. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 42.1 f ^ 2). 35. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 39. 32. 1 6.1 + c. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 33.aft* 1 + a 2*.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 f c" ). 41. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 40. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (v/x). 37.)(ai + &. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .
758. 759. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. [1r^ T 1 i .294 753. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. \/G86 v/lGv/128.. 754. JU. 2V2 2V3 . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 761. 768. ~ r* x . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.1+J 756. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.
10 785. 16 + 2V55.VlO. c 792. 793.2 V30. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 783. x 782. a 9442V5. 789. + 2V21. . 13 799. 790. . Va 809. 786. 103 788.2V3* ^ 807. 92VI5. .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 14 791. 7512V21. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 794. 787. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.4 V(j. 806. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 3J . 3812VIO.12VIT.
296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 831. V3 f 1 V4a.\/2y  810. = 1. \/12 a.79.V2 ar 10.Vc^lJ . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 3 x + 2 . 818. 829. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 815. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 820. 811.13 = 0.f 5 = V5x + 4.V? = 813. /9ar a: = 17. 836. x/aT+l . 814. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. V14 a. + 103Var. 816. + Vx .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 833. VaT+lJ f ^l .g. 830.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. Va: . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812. + ViTli + V7 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.4 = 0. 819. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.
z*y 8 l64a. 8^27^.3 . 8 8 848. 9. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.3 Va: 2 . 40 x 2 7 f 49.3 a:. +3 4 +  4.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 + a: 5 8 a. f 12. 27 y 8. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. f 841. a. 6. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.  3x a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a 18 4.x*y + 3x f 2. 876.1000 6. x 4 + f 2 a. 2 f" + a/ 15. V4 x 2 . 5 a 4 7 a8 . 4 x* 847. . 4 x 8 858. + 1. a: . 2 x 3. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 19 x 14. 8 a. 729 867. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 875. .a. + 512 y8 874. . a 8 850. 64. 4 a. a: 849. 864. 868. 2 a: 64 y*. 4o. 840. 275 8 l. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 2a. 839.10 = 118. a 872.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.1. a l0m . 870. .1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .12. a*" & 6n . 846. + 216 rt aty a 10 .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 64 a 866. 845. a. a 8 873. 855. + . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 871. x 8 2 857. 856. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 16 859. 861. 844. 865. 8 860. 863. 8 .3 x .ab9 ft*. a. 8 8  13 a. a 8 869. y 4. f b**. . 851. 853. 852. 27 862. 8 4a: 8 a. 4 a: 2 842. a. a. a.
y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a: 2 897. y 2 4. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 .y 2) = 20.Vi' + 1 1_3.1 = 2 a#. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 1 x 893. +y f y = 7.298 877. 2 2 = 16 y. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 + y 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 885. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 + 2 f = 17. a: a. f ?/ a: a: . a. . x*xy. y*+ xy . x 8 3 = 13:3. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.15. 878. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 899. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 896.35. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. M1 891 1 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.5 xy + 4 f = 13. y = 28. 2 . 889. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 890. . a# f + xy = 126. 2 = 2 + 5. x a: lI = xz . a: 888. y 2 2 8f. x 882. . 900. a:y . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. + 2y=\2. 3 x 2 . 5. 883. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. . a. . a. + ary + 2 = 37.y 2 + V(j. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.xy + y 2 = 19. xy + y = 32. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 901. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 887.sy = 198. a: 884. 886. 2 + xy = 28.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 895. y y 2 y 2 1121.18. 894. z 2 898. 2 + xy = 10.
REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. (3 x . (* 918.#y + 2 = 27.3)2 = 34. 923. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. + 2 a:y + = 243. y 3 2 2 922. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). x + y}(x + y) = 273. 910. * + y = 444.y). a: y zx 12. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. . x + y 2 = aar. yz = 24. 23 x 2 . *y . 2 924. 3 :r(3 . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. ^ 2 . x f 2 a:y = 32. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. + a. a: * a: a: ar 928. + y)(a.y) (3 y . 912. . 914. or or a? a: a: . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. # + xy + y = 7.23 = 200. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 908. + 2 ary = 39. xy + x= 15. 2 2 2 916.16 y 3 8 = . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 917. a. (a. 920. a: a.6. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.3(* + y) = 6. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.y = a(ar + y).x) = 21.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + ?/) . 4 (a. y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 7 y .y) = 33.3) 2 f (y . x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. . 907. 2 915. ary y = 8. xa 903. (o.r a. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 2 + y = 2 a 4. (!) * . y x 2 = by. 2 5 xy = 11. + y = 9. x 2 ry + y = 3. Vary + y = 6.y) (a? . 3 y 8 ) =1216. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. + ary = a*. 2 913. a:y xy 929. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. = 8.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y2 = 22. 906. + y 8 = 189. y + a:y = 180. 921. 911. 2 * 2 ~ g. 905.2 y) = 49 2 919. 909.
The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.300 930. y( 934. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. (y + *) = . 942. A is 938. and 10 feet broader. 34 939. 937. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 152. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. + z)=18. and the difference of 936. s(y 932. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. two squares equals 140 feet. . How many rows are there? 941. diagonal 940. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. y(x + y + 2) = 133. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the numbers. 944. is 20. and also contains 300 square feet. Assuming = y. 935. 2240. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A plantation in rows consists of 10.square inches. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. two numbers Find the numbers. feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. find the radii of the two circles. In the second heat A . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. *(* + #) =24. feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. is 3 . + z) =108. If each side was increased by 2 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 931. is 3. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.102. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. 943. z(* + y + 2) = 76.000 trees. and the sum of their areas 78$. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. A and B run a race round a twomile course.
sum Find an edge of 954.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. whose 946. and travels in the same direction as A. and if 594 be added to the number. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. is 407 cubic feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find its length and breadth. Find in what time both will do it. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. each block. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. . that B A 955. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 951. Find the eter 947. Two starts travelers. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and its perim 948. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. its area will be increased 100 square feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. set out from two places. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 950. 952. . the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. overtook miles. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . P and Q. 953. triangle is 6. and that B. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. 949. Find the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. A and B. unaltered. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. distance between P and Q. the digits are reversed. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53.
^ Vfirst five 959. 961.. Sura to 24 terms. to 7 terms. 957. Sum Sum to infinity.. 12434+ j I 967. 958. to n terms. and 976. 36 963.. 5. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. n to n terms.  2.. the terms being in A.. Evaluate (a) . . difference. 5. 1 to n terms.. to infinity. 971. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. fourth of the unity.v 973. 969.321? 965.. Find the sum of 4. 3 + 5 7 + .3151515. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Sum to 20 terms. + (iiven a +  4 d . . ^1 + Vj 1 2  . x(x to 8 terms.V2 . P. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms..141414.>/) to infinity. *" 968. are 29 and 53. P. = 4. 975. 3 . !Ll^ + n ...4142 .. Find n.1 4 f j$V . 18th terms of an A. 972. P. 9th and llth terms of an A. 1G series .. 974. . 4 4 to 7 terms . 4. Find an A.. (x 4 to n terms.to infinity.454.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). (to 2 n terms).. s  88. 964..302 956. 966.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. J. Find n f (ft) . 970... 16 962. Find the Find the common 977. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. P. f + 1 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. . ^ 1 . \ . '.
980. "(..01 3. 1. The sum 982. first 984. Find four numbers in A. 4 grains on the 3d. of n terms of an A. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . is 225. P. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54... 5 11. P. Find n. 990. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.+ lY L V. 989. : + 9   V2 + . named Sheran. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 303 979. and the common difference. 0. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . to 105? 981.. . 986. 992. 987.. and of the second and third 03. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. Find four perfect numbers. The term.) the last term the series a perfect number.3 ' Find the 8th 983.. Find the first term. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible..1 + 2. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 985. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .2 . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. The 21st term of an A.001 4. to oo. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to n terms. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find the sum of the series 988.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. and so on..04 + . to infinity may be 8? . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.001 + . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. P.
are 28 and find the numbers. (a) after 5 strokes. If a. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. The fifth term of a G. 1003. 1000. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. of squares of four numbers in G. 995.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. find the series. c. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 512 996. in this circle a square. AB = 1004. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. and so forth to infinity. inches. 998. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. areas of all triangles. ABC A A n same sides. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The sum and product of three numbers in G. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. many days will the latter overtake the former? . ft. Two travelers start on the same road. P. . 999. 1001. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. prove that they cannot be in A. P. P. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. (6) the sum of the infinity. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. in this square a circle. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. is 4. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 997. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. at the same time. The sum and sum . 994. are unequal.
+ lQ . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1009. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1011. 2 ) 5. a: 8 7. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . . (12 #) 7 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . (1 1018. 1014. x) 18 .iV 2i/ 5 . 1012.o/) 14 . Find the middle term of ( . ) 1021. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Expand  2 a.l) w f . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1006. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 1008.ft) 19 .
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246 91 " multiple.. 232 169 807 . .... .... 123 . 232 mean progression .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . .. signs of Algebraic expression .108 160 " ... . .. 8 .. t 53 120 . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . Aggregation.. .. . . . . quadratic . 9 ** .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 158. linear literal Common ** * difference . . 112 54 54 251 . . .. . ...130 .. 54. .. graphic tion of representa . Brace Bracket Character of roots .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES..178 Completing the square .193 11 . 9. . . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. .... .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ...Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 97. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . Checks Coefficient 20. .. ... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. . numerical . 19. .. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . lowest ratio " '* ..] Abscissa Absolute term .. 129. 37. . simple simultaneous ... . 129 54...
23 10 91 102. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .. . exponent . 45. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 9. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 112 . . . . . ..808 Exponent Exponents. P . Like terms Linear equation .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Known numbers . first and second . .. 84. Geometric progression . Mathematical induction .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 227 .154 Order of operations " of surds . .. . 189. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 114. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . inversely 122 numbers .31. 241 123 geometric . . 253 28 70 1. 42 7 Independent equations Index . Inconsistent equations . . . G.C Multiplication .. 45.108 Minuend . .... . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 120 Member. . . . Negative exponents 11 . 34.251 Graphic solution of simultane. Imaginary numbers .. . 227 geometric . 195 33.. . law of Extraneous roots . INDEX 8 . 63. 17 65. . 143. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. numbers . . 109 102 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. L.. arithmetic . 91 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Product '* 76 Infinite. 243 7 . 184 54.. . 180. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 45 Laws of signs . Mean " 81) proportional Mean... . 205 . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . addition of " square of . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. directly. 212 . . Insertion of parentheses . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. . .
. 45 Trinomial 240 . .. algebraic Surds .. . 9.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... .. 129. . . binomial Third proportional Transposition . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . absolute 54 Variable .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. . Sum. . 4 155 9 " of . ......... polynomial ....INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1917. August. Mass.. NorfoooS J. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. December.COPYRIGHT.A. 1916. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Published September. 8. Norwood. Reprinted April. 1910. Set up and electrotypcd.S. . U. Gushing Co. 1913.
3. 12. 5. 2. 7. 4. 24. 12. 2. 11. 13 V. 5. 10. 8.000. 12. . 14. 1. 8. 17. T . 7. 2. C $ 16. 0. 6. A 15. 49. . 7. 7.000. 10. 21. 1. 25. 25. Australia ft. C $60. 3. 27. = 5 81. 576. 16 in. 9 14. 21. 72 = = 216. 20. 3* 7.8. }.. 4. 10g. ^. 3. per sec. 9. 12. 32. 18. 12. 9 16  larger than 7. 49. Page 8. 32. 2. 11. 11. 8.000.. 6* 16. 18. 28. 16.21 24. 10. 6. 14. 6..000. 5. 2. 59. 14. Page?. westerly motion.. 5. 4. loss.00000001. C $1(50. ft. in 12. 126. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 10. 14. in. is $10. 1.000. 0. 5000. 7. 6. . + 1. 1. 14 11. 18.000.. 16. 2. 16 in. 144. 18. A Bl 7. 19 4. 15. B $4700. 7. 23. 5. 3. 3 m. 1. 12. 192.C. in. _ 32. 20 jo. 2. 20.  2 p.3. 10. 5. 12. 2. 9. 16. 1.2. 12. Not 5. 3. B $20. 3. 2  Page 8. 17. 8 ft. 18. 9. 1. 3. 8.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. Multiplication. 16f 2. 16.. 6. 2 ~ 15. 10. 1. 4. 256. 37. 3. 11. 1. 16. 4. (a) (/>) 1. 14. B $80. 26z. 1. 9 = 4. 24. 2 5. 24. x. 1. 115. 13 S. B $ 128. c. $160. 10. 19. 16.  1. 36. 9. 2.000. 30?.000 Indians. 29. 1 16. 8 13.000. A 38 mi. 3. 7... 1. South America 46. 6. 15. 5. 5. 11. 8. 30. 6. 9 m. 2. 8. 8. 17. 13. 3. A $90. 3. 27. 9.. i . B 10 mi. 13 d. 6 yd. 6. 20 B. 4. 2. 9. 2. 13.12. 7. Page 4. 16. 12. 6. 26.  22 20. 73. sign. 37 S. 14. 6. 7m.1. 3. 1.150. 512. 32. . 150. . 13. 85. 9.$9400. 106. x. 20.  1. 3. 3 below 0. $100. 27. 210. $40. 3. 15. 6. arithmetic. 16. 16. 15. 29. 48 ft. 22. 19. 1. 9. 17. 15. 20. 19. V 23. 22. 2. Yes. 3. 1. 20 \. 10. 25. 89. 4. 21. 2. $ 1 50 10. Page 13. 28. 7.000 negroes. 12. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 14. 64. 25. 32. 3. 9. 17. b. A . 6. sign. 13. 128. Ot 15. 14. 13. 3. Page 1.  13. 18.
Trino inial. 41.. 7. = 81. 15. arty 1 20. 35. (c) S(i. 6<t. in. 3a. 8. 5. 27. Pagel4r. 36. 18. 15. 92. 28. :J!>r'. (ft) 12. (ft) $40. 22. WIN + wiw. 20. 15. Va'+Y2 8^2 . in. Page 18. 17. 58. 173. 00 24 04 ft.a . 35. 2oVmf?i. (c) 8. 27. 34. ft. 12. 5. . x^ 20. . 3(c4a). 1. 0. 8.. 14:). (59. 25. 7. 3. ^). 0. 30. 11. f  5e 35. 3. ]*. ft. 57. Binomial. 51 f.6) 38. . 25. (r) 2G7. :. o^ft. 17. 16. + ft). _ 4 . v'ft a4 4 a a 41. .. 1. 9. 8. 7 7.5f> sq. 4. 16. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 5.. 9. 0.94(>. 13 cu. Polynomial.900. r:A 29. i:5.  1. 6. ft n. t. <i~ 26. 35. 10. 17. \'\ 4. 21. 20(. 11. $80. 14. 3rf 27. 50. 3. a2 4 15^44. 20. 15. 31. 21^. 12 a. 32. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 16. 0.<>Gq. 8. 1. It. 7. 2. 1. yyz+xyz*. 19. 2. 0.. 27. 23. . (ft) 7. Polynomial.'J. (r) 78. 14.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 1. II.GOG. 18. 1.  11. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. + 5. . 32 2 ftc. 18. a ft c. 237.x. 28. 9. 3.r f 15. 5. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.32 c2 > ft 3 . ft. 26.. 11. 1. ^. ft f 19.ft) 4. 31. 8. + v> 2 . 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. sq. 23.q 4. 14. 31. 7.4  2ft 2 33. Page 31. 4.. 30. (ft) mi. 0.9?/2 8. 34.14 sq.5 (ft) sq. 19. jrif 4 9. a 32. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 13.  3. I. 22.  2 4 13 ft 2 . m + 3(a. 26. 3. 1. 2. ??i??. 2ftx. 13. 5. 4 9/^/rl 2.  xV 3 y. Page 7. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 0.r~ f 34. 24. 0. (a) 50. mi. 38... 28. 12. 3. 4. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 4. r+l. 0.000 . 42. Page 21. 4 y/ . ft. 29. = ()501. 43w//2 17. 240. 12. 21. 17. Monomial. 15. 9. 25. (a) 200. (a 4 4. (a) <> sq.~4. 104. 3 . 27. 18. 32. 8. 15a. 10. 4. 27. 13.000 sq. 5x+3. //'. 2. 24.'JO ft.. 3.  0.r 2 . 5. 12. 22( 19. (b) 135 mi. 13.4 ft. 30. 21 a 3 4 10. 2.  40. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). c. . 8. (r) 2000 m. 314 sq. 33. 14. 16. rt. 14.ft. in. 21. 38 ab. 12. 15. 3. 04.1. 1. 14. 36. 2x' 2 5 . vi 14. 22. $3000 Page 6.. ft' 3 .  12. (a) r>23ifcu. 19. 9. 13. 29. 49. +/2(/. 2. 6. 14. 18. (r) 2. (ft) Page 2. 6. in. ft. . 5. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 33. y. 17. 3. 10.. 39. w. Page 23. 27. 5. 13.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 20. 8. 22.ab. 12. 11. 4. 7. 3 a* + 2 at*.rty8.. . 12yd. 37. 16. r/ \(\xyz. #1111. m 24.
2.4c 3 8 8 J. '  . 12. . 10. a + (ftc4df). 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 14. 17. a 3 . 0.. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. s_r>a5. a f 2 f 2 9. w 17. 2. 5.c. ?/i 13. 22. 8 8 . a a.ws 2 ft) . 13. 4r 2 . 50. m*  n*. 20.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 5. . 20. 14.  12.3 6. a' 4ab + ?/.l. ri\ 18. c.1.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 10 m. a + a. \ :{ 2 a 48. . 2 3. 24. 24. 3 Ji 8 . a 52. mn.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2 17.(2 x2 . 11. Page 8. 12. 5. ti. 2 . 2 6. 2. . 5x 2 rt ft. 35. 43.1 .4x.4. 36. 34 39. ?>4tl 53. ab a. 12. 20. f 2 ?/  2. 2 2.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 8. a 4 + ft. (2n' 43p 47 ). (w4w)(ww). . 3 m. 40.4 d. + 4 c.11. 15. 2m + 2w. 10. 12.2. 6. 3.2 57. 8 + 2 a . 18.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .6 x + 0) 16. 24 b 46. _5a<>&43c.  b* 4 r 1 . 2. a  ISjfat. a2 9. . 21. 814. + 8. ii\ 22. Page 28. 4ft ~. c2 . x3 . 31. n*. 30. 15. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. _ Page 30. 17. 2. . 2// 16. G. 4. 0. 25 47. 24.3x 2 2 tf.a . 3 a3 & 41. 59. 3. 2 .  23.7. a). 1. 2 4. 2m. 14. x  + 3z. 13.5 z?/ + 3 y . 15. &.  G J8 r  4 a <?.  4 b 17 y*. 2 3x f z. . 6. 2. 4. 58. 21. 33. . 2a: 2 4x. 7  # + 12. 2 y' 4 . 5 2 Page 29.a*. 7. 9. a  49. 10 x. (yz~d}. t).2 .  1. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 28.a'2 . 2 a f 6 414. 0. Exercise 16.2 a. 1 4. 8 b. 10. 11.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. . a.r 2.2 a2 2m 2 4. 4.  17. f ft 9. ( 7. M + 10. 7 a5 1 . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. x a8 1. 2. 19. 2 a 37. 2x 4 a 13. r. 8. 29. 2 2 2 6. 55. + 2y.8(c + a). + 6. .abc. 21. 32 w 2 w.5.. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 7  a + 2 + c.  a: 2. ar. ?/. 7. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. ft Exercise 17. 51. 1. 4. 19. . a 6 2 . 11. j)(g1. 36. 5.h. 4. 8 .'U4j>.aft. 38.  14 afy . 4wipg>' 27. 42. 14. 34. ?> 22.  b. 25. . 26. . 1. 364c. a4 4 4. 56. + a 2 f 2 a 4.r. ^ <. 6.a~. 7. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 4. !  </ . (5x47 3. 2a. Page 7. 2. G a bd. 25. 7. 18. 37.a f 54. 22.Oa: + 10. a 3a 4 2 &. Page 44. 2. 3. 8. a 10w.(7x2 Ox2). _2?> 2 + 3 x 9.x f 1 2 . c. a 3& . 26. 18. 25. 6. 1. 26. 2. 1 + 45. 31. a2 24. 3 a . 1. . 19. lOrt 15w4. 16. 4 21. 32. 1. (mn} 11. 2 + a4l). /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . . w* ( . 16. :5 41.
24. 17.25 + 14. 25. 31. 2. 161b. 23. 90. m. ll 2 i.15. 4 a8 .2. 4aWy. 12 x2 2 . 14f 5.19p" + 19^ 10 . 30.8 12.16 a 2 + 32 a . 2 n8 29 a + 30.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 16 lb.r% 2 2 ry. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 10.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 23. f 26. 15 lb.20 xyz . 3. Page 5. 32. . 18. 3(*+0 + 2). Page 35. 2 w +2 2 . 12. 4. 7. 15 q\ 6.12. . a + ft.16 x2/ 5 4. 25. 6. 4 fc. 19. 27. .32 y s s G . . 360. 84. 18. 22.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.12. a. 34. 23. . 1. 52 + 6s 12. 7.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 24. 9.1. 18. 2*8f x2 6x4. 23. 102. 3. 7. 13. n (a6) 125. 29. 20. 30. 16. Page 36. 2 8 xy f 4 a.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 15. 3 a 2 46. 11. 1. 33. 4. 2. 20.28 p'^/. 21. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.. 8. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 9 w 2 + 13 n . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. . ?/ . 38 a*b 6 : 24. a. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20. 21. 108. 7G . . . 66 39 k* . 2 2 2 . 17. 9 13.6) =a2 31. 27. Page 3. 30. 30. 1400.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.21 a 3 c2 21.26. 6.19 + 2. 30. 15. .36 35. fa 2. 2 ). 2 * 80 . 21. 10. ^^ = 20. 18. ?> 4 . 12.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 770. + 7. Page 38. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 28. 24. 4 a2 . 27. 42. 22. 32. 14. 17. 15. 28.14 . 4 jcy*z*>. 2. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 2 7t A. 4. 30. 13. 18.(3x2_4^+7). 11. 1. 12.iv ANSWERS + &)(.32. 14. 18> ^* = a . 16. 4. 16. 1. 6 .44 aWc 16 abxy. 8 . 24. 11. 28. 8. 28.. 6". (+3)x6=+16. 1. 1. 8. 66 8W 34. 35.6 2 . 60. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. + O4 66 . 3.21. 19. 30 j9 jt?g j . a 8 . 8. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19. 29. 30 n?b*c*. 5.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 40 r 2 . 161b. 16. +. ci 5 .:>/ . 16..11 xyz . 6. ISartyW e*f*tj. 5. 9. 108. 16 51. . +15.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 25. //. 42. x2 xy42^. 36. 22. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. Page 7. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 34.7(50. 27. 34. 210. 29. 9. 0. 22. 64. 76 8 a' 1 . a. etc. 2''. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .>(/ r . 18. 216. 13. Ox a 5 . 11. 26. 18a% y. 15. 13. 10. 60. 0. 33. 6. 7. 3 a 3 . 1. 3300. 127"'. 120. 15. 83 In + 1 n*. 5aft(a 126 2). ! 2.. 1904. 21 a'&c. + 58 . 3. 2 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 13. 20. 8. 2 ). 14.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 25 4 4. 12 ^. . 4. ft 17. a: .000. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. s 9 ww. iSx8 . 216. 20. 27. 37. . 14. 24. 343. 25. 20 aW.18 w w + 10 WI M . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 29.64 190 p6. 19. 14 m 2 . 33. 10. 4200. . 2. 4. 20. 04. 26. .14 w 2 2 . 31. 17.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 38wiw.69 rt + 21 132 + r .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . a*b*c.
(r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 37.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . Page 12. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 36. 17. 10. 1. .994. x 48. a4 4 ?/ .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 25.m 30 6 4 1. (a (3 54. a + 56. Page 39. 10. 39. 24. 4 21. 30 x + 19 x3 . 4 + 25 q*. 3wi2 m Page 42. Om2 4 6m 6.009. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 1). a' . 39. 9. .16 a3 f 50. 2 12. 10.4 n.001. ft' 11.^. 4 .2.404./ . . + 4 a +4. 2 a' y' . . 4 x2 13. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 1. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). ) 4' 6/ 49. 166. 14. (n 2 5.^ + a? + 1. 2 . 6. 4 . w'n 2 //^ + 25. .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 2 a 2 + a . 11. 28.201.020. . 4. (p 2. . 2 . 1. 24. 32. 3. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.20. 990. + 4 t*. 10. 35. 40.2 y*. 36 a 4 .6 x2 13. 6 2 + 6lf>0. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 19. p4 + . . 34.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . . 7 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. ^' J  7 f 12. 10. 1. 2. 36. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 2 0)(p + 5). 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 26.ab . 40. 9999. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . I/). r.098.35 ab 9. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). . 2 4 a + 4. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 34. 2 j3 Z .2 x + 2 x. 10 a' 2 . + 10 + 121 y*. lflrt 2 8 + l. 2 fr . 8 a W . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . V + o ft . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 1. x4 28. x2 GiC+5. 16. 41. 51.1. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. fo*. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.49. 23. 9990. + 2 9.5 ~ 81.000. 36. n2 a4 6. 40. . 2.r . 2). 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 2 6' . (w4)(w + l).020.ANSWERS 28. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . . 20a 2 21a + 4. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 25 r 4 ?/i 30. + 3)(3).810.4 12.6 y4 10.r .14 jp + 49.25. n + 2. 8. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 10. 45. 10. 15. 2 1: 21. ' 46. 56. 31. ab. 32. 8.15. 57. . (a + 4) (a + 2). + 12. 31.ri 17. 29.8. 33. 7> . 2 4 2 2 64 . 9. 5. 53.10 x + 25. 998. a + 25. 484. 10 a 4 ?. 25 25. 31. 25 a 2 6 2 . a2 ' + 48Z100.. 30 /><. y. 21 2 . G a6 2. 33.. 999. 26. 2 +10s281. 5.00 + 37.x2y22. 55.54 p 2 + 81.000. 33. (m + 6)(m3). 10.p132. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.996. . 15. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. +   5). 18. 41.r* 2 30. 7. 7. ab . 19.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 14. 3.712. 2 m3 + 4m2 .009. p 2 . 10. 8.6. 10. ~ 6 20 . 8 38. ?/H)0.2 6 + 13. x* . .6 xy . 27.3. 6. 42. 14. 37. 4. x*2^f I. a + 25. 12 x2 .606. 11. 4. s rc 47. ^/> 8 4 . 4x21. ^V^4 . +  m' 1. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 10. (w+4)(m4).4 a&+ 4 &*. . 2 (5 a 3).004.10 35. 27. m 3 j) 3 . 2 62 V2 132.008.^V"' . 9 4 /> . 441. 7. +4 34. 35. 4 2 //. . 52. 1. m 2 . a3 0. 29.500. 9801. 30. 44. 38.84 a' 9. a 2 .
44. 14 r 2 . 4 x. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .000. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4ft. 11. 2 ?/ 4. +w . 13.2 . 5. sr 11. 10. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 1000 1000 . 3. Osy.10 2 + z 2 410. 1. 5. . 18. 8 ?/ .8 yn . 17.29.  10. Page 7.2 wZ 4. 9. aftc 52. 5. '. 5. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 10. a 2 . 14. 13. 11. 47. _ 2 a . 2. as _ 10 16. abc 7.VI ANSWERS 43. 2. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .1. f>r* 4. 01. 6. 2 ?/' .x^.3^V. 23. 4xy + 13 <) . 5. 49. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . . 6x 3. 4 c m . Page 48. aft 12. 5 4 a Oft. r 7. 4. 3. 4 pq. 2 4 2 x 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 8. 21.1. . 18. 4.2 <</.10 xy*.r . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 8. 2.1*5 2 r 2 . 1. 19. 9. 13. 8. 5. 2 ^r ???' 2 . ?/2. 4 a 2 4.1. 2 4. 14.27 x 2 4. Exercise 27. . 4.  .9 d. 7.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. . 8. a. 46. 6. w . 26. m L 4. 21. 6.lit x + 4. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 2. y 7.15. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 1. a 8 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 4. 13. . 2 1. 1. j) . 16.5 mp. 14. 11 4.25 c .34. 15. 135. 3.2 .1. + 4. 13. 2 12. 14.  3 c. 16. . 4 d 2 4. 2 4 3 9. 9. .2 2 2 8 . ft* ft / . 20. 17. 1/*. Page 51. a 4 4 ft. 75 a 2 29.15 21. 12. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 12.n. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 3. :r !>.y3. 20 15.2 ac . *3 y 4 . 4 a* 4 9 11. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. w 2 . 22. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 19.1. 5 a  (5 ft. 8. 3.25. r/2 4. 2. Exercise 2 a:// 26.24 . r//.2.2 . 9. 13.21 2 2 f + . .3 5. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .r'^ 15.rw. Page 22. 3 aft 20.4.3 a 41.2 1 //.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.r' ~ 16. m'2 3. 14. 5.r" 20 S? . 3*y2 w + 1.w. .23./ 4. 2.2 ar. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .12 aft 4 20 ac . + 3. 1. 1. 12.3 3. l 4 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' .> 10.3 x 2 2 4. 2 a 3 ft. 10 ft. 5^418(7. i 2 tji.r ?/ ??i ?).2 aft 4. 10. 8 x . x 4.1. i 9. 4. 2 . 9. 5. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 3. ft 17.2 2 . 7 r . /r . 24. 6. 2 2 + 2 a. 125. G.30 ftc. 12. x4. 4 ac. ft ? ft' ft ft. Page 13. 15.8 y. 6. . r ft. // 19.5 n*. 8 r<ft 4 2 .  11. aft. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.7.+ 77 15. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . . ??.rw f 8 . a 10. ft. 7a3ft. 4.3 ry. 4. 3 a. 1.9 4.r?/ j/.  5 z* . c3. . yfl. 17. Page 11. 5. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 4.8. . x 2 + 2r f J. 2 ? 14 . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 50. . z. c 12. 8. + x?/ 2 1.8. . 2 . 16. 4x43?/. ti'jry1 7.2 ftc .5 a . 8 ?/ . 12.1.r?/.  12 y 25.6 :rs 4.
11. iL*. 2. 5. x 48. 2. 57. + 4x 3y 34. 1. 'nj 100 a 28. I. 100= ^. 59. ? 43. 37. 47. 9. I. 36. 14. Page 13. 100 d ct. lOx 10 + w. f 6)(o 62. 11.7). 3x  1700) = 12. 2 ct. 27. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 12. 4 f 39. 46. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 45. x. 17. 8 n  10 yr. r tx mi. + 3x + 2y + 32. 0.(3x  700) = 5. 30. 100 2. y 50. 2b 22. 8.6 = *. 25.10) 100. 14. b. 17. 40.(3x+ = rraxlO.  6 10. 44. 23. 28. 44.. !). . 31. 2. 100 14. x y $ 6 yr.ab a. d. 22. 15. 2. # + 20yr.r ct. 5. 10 >_&. 17. 20. 33. 3x2. sq. y 100 a 24. + 10 b + c ct. (a) ' 12. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 7.. 30. 7. 13. 23. 1. 3.. 4(a ft) c = 8. f = eZ 2 x. x 2y 10 act. vil 56. 10.100. 6. l. y yr. 7. . 16. 7. xy ft. 25. = 5 ?i x 460. 13. 50= L 100 15. % 4. ft. (2 a. 8. + 3 = 2(3* . 20. 2=10. 29. X 60. Page 31. 2.  2\. 4. 24. 21 2. 1&. 7. 5. Page 40. 3 9. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 26. a 10. (>. 3. .. 4. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). fix. rn mi. Jj12. d + !. b. 00. 42. '^ . ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 41. 3. x + 1=a. 10. ct. 16. 4. 2b.p+7.ANSWERS Page 9. 18. v (6) 2x. 5. x 49. 38. 18. 43. }f. ( a f 4. 12. (</) 2a. 35.200) f(^ + (e) 200.  9 = 17 a. 39. 10. " lir. (c) 2x. 41. 37. 11. 5. . (> 27. 7x 2 Page 21. ct. 36. ft. 13. 0. 34. x = m. 2x + 35. 10. "mi. + f + b 2. ct.x700. (d) 2a + 10 = n. Page 61. m +~m 3. ^ 12 sq. 7. 22. 1. 32. (A) 3 x f (4 x . + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 60 25 1.rr2.  />) a = all. 1. 29. n M. <>. . 38. 58. 15.r1. 20. . 2. </ 20.000. y ?>i x + 26. / + y + a// 12 yr. s. 16. f (I. 4^ = 100. 19.  1$. m+ 11. 4. 6. 7. 6. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 800 = x + 1300. 10 x sq. ft. 6. 6. 10 a. 10 yr. ] 2 ri 42. 9. r>?imi. 5. 4. 33. Page 6. lO. 1. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. a 8. . 19.
12 mi. 90.000 Berlin. 2 2 ?/ 21. 2. 8.000. 71. 10. 8 in.000 gold. 11. 14. 8 12.5p + 7 g ). (yll)(y4). 70^. 1. 19. 20 yr. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 28yr. 11 w(w' + wi .. 68. 15. 67. 12.6). Ib. (a5)(a4). 18. 74. 11.13. 480.  PageSO. 9. 21.0. 20. 6. 3. 14.2. (c) ^ v ' . 11. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 8. 9. 12. 23. 18. 20. 13.000. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 1. 10. 5pt. 12. Page 5.000 Phil. 5$ hr. 3x (3r.16. (y + 8)(y2). . Oaj(o62cd). 10 Cal. 90 mi.5. (y8)(y + 2). 5 Col. 11. 10. 29.10. 15. 45 in. 25 yr. ( + 4)(*2). 17. 6. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10 yr. 13. 30 yr. 2.000. 5. 10 Mass.. 20 yr. 72. 78. 6.000 copper. 52. 12.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 30.3. 11 pV (2 p8 . 3.(5z . 17.. 9 in. Page 7. 160 lb. 70. 9. 25. (ro3)(w2). 4. 11 in. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 600. 1250. 7. (p + 7)(3a5&). (y 13. 9.. 10. a 12. 13.3. 30.000. 15 in. ^ . 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 10. Page 7. 10 yr. 1. 5.1).. ~=90. 250.. 7. 7 hr.. 15.21. 2 3 6 7.24.7. 1. (y7)(y + 2). 15 mi. 3. 5. 75. 2. + 7)(y3). (a + 6) (a + 3).79. 05. 8. 78. 7a*fe(2a & l). $40.. 3. 4. 22.2). 16.000 ft. 4. 85 ft. 2. (*4)( + 11. w (/) 64. 13. 2$. 2. 20 yd. 1. by 12 yd. 7. 1 lb. 9. 2). 100. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 5. 18. . ?(g ? g+ 1).. 2. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. . 4.3aftc + 4). a a (a 8 a+l).000 pig iron. 3. 3 hr. 42yr. Page Page 4. 9. 6rt 2 11. 40 yr. (a + 4)(a + 8). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 180. 80 A. 7. 5 lb. 25. 10. 4. 4pt.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 6. 30 mi. 6.000 N. 10. Page Page 4.. 15. 8.. 6. Page 79. 3. 1. 82 mi. 14. 14.11. 150.8. 8. 12.. (e) i* + A.210^. 13.22. 15. = _?_(2ar + 1). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 100 1.000. 7. 2 2 2 5. 1.5. .3). 20. 24J. 55. 200. 15 yd.y").. (z5)(z2). 10 yd. 5. 1200. 14. 4. Pace 65. 3. 8 2 19. 14.000. Page Page 480 12. 50. 300. 8. 3 (a +&)(*. (m + n)(a + 6). 8. 6.000 ft. 8... 1200.411. (a + 5)(a + 6). 200. 9. 2. 1313. z?/(4^ + 5xy .0.. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 12.000. Y. 7. (a 4) (a. 6.
11. (3#y)(+4y). Yes. (15z2y)(x5y). Yes. Yes. 24. 21. (m + n +p)(m + wp).r2). Yes. 10. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 100(x. 21. 23. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 2. 18. ( 2 4 19. 14. 11. 12. 3a.7)(2z f 1). (a a: 19. 6. + 5) a. + 3). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 2. 27.2 y). 2. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (m + w) 2 5. 34. 4 (a . 31. 20. (w* (3a26). 20. 22. 9.3)(z2). 6. 17. Yes. 19. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (a (p8)0> + l).8). Page 82.2 by2 6. 5. Page 84. 10(a + ft)(aft). 25. + y + .2). (4 18. 10 a 2 (4 . 9. 19. 10(3 5 6) 2 . (0 + 6)(66). (w + 20)(w + 5). (az + 9)(ox2). 36. (x + y4 )(x . a . . 14. 216 aft. a*(5a f l)(flr . 7. 33. 30. 26.c 2 ). Yes. . Yes. 32. (6n + l)(+2).9*). 20. (g . 11. (y8) 2 2 . 7. y(x. 40 x.y4 ). . 7. 31. 26. . (<7 20. (5 a 2) (2 a 3).. 21. 35. 3)(3a. 30.+4 y)(3x4 y). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). + 4) (a. (4a. 24. Yes. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 10.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (4 13. . 4. 10(a . (w ~ n (x . (6 a. (2xl)(x + f>).11 6) (a 4. No. (a + 8)(a3). 2 3 by2 Yes. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 9. 16. 24 9. (a 3 + 10)(a.7) (a. 9. No. 23. (:52y)(2a!3y).6) 2 2 . y) 2 29. 22. (2 *+!)(* 9). 33. 15. 3. 26. 2 2 15. (y + 4)(yl). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (3*2)(. 17. 28. f 2). Yes. 10. 27. 3.  x (5 a. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 25. 16. Yes. .5y)(3a. 34. No. (a 6 6) (a 4. (ft + ll)(aftll). (2w+l)(ro + 3). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 25.1).1). 8. x(x +y)(x y). 22. 13x7. 12. + 9^)(oxy . ix 18. 3. + 8)(g3). (10a + ft)(10aft). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 16. 10.4p). 1.ANSWERS 16. a(2u. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 10(2 30. 22. . (5x . + 2y). 1. + 3)(c44).2). (5wl)(m5). (4y3)(3y + 2). 8. Page 83. 28. (9y4)(y + 4).* (2 y + 3)(y.   . (13a +10)(13a 10). (15ay2) 2 . 8. 100 (a. 3(x + 2)(zl).1). 35. 15. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). . Oa 2 (a2)(al).y) 2 aft. 18. 23. 2 17. (ay8)(ay3). (5a +l)(5a l). 1. Yes. 5.2 ft). 28. 32. (a. 8) (a. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 9. 4. 24. . 13. 2 No 4.3). + 0(90 Page 85. 2). (m7n) (a. 26. 13x(a + ft)(aft). No. x\x 24. 29. . 200 (x + l)(x + 1).4 6). (2yl)(y + 9).11 ft)(a6). 21.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).y (6x + 4)(5x4). y) (a.1). 29. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 7 6) (a 10 6). . 25.6) 2 1. 12. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (* + y)(zy). . 23. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). a. (4al)(a2). (3a. No. (2 a? 4. . 27.4. (2o + l)(2l). 17. 14. 103x97. Yes. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 25. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .
12.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 1(V/ 88. 14. ?i(w 4y) . a 2 (a9). (r420(4 10. ( rt 23. 11. Exercise 47. . 8.3)(x 4.&). + 3. 2 2 3 . (* _ 2 )(a 4. 14. . (14. 36. 4.&). 8. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). Page 90. 1. a x 3 10. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (w4w) 2 1.36). 17(x43//)(x2y). (2x7)(x 2 2). (a />.4. 11. (2 a ~ f> b 4.4). y(2x?/). 11. 9. 4. 2 (a 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 6. 7. 2 + .3.  WIM. 8. ( { &). 7. x 4.  29. y )(.?/). Page 89.y '2 2). + 2 //).1). 4. (c. 5 x8 3. 28.3. 9.5 m2 x2. 2 21. (a &4.2).1).'/)('< 4.7)(^ {I 12. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 16. . (. ( y). 8. a + a b. 8). 4  9.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 12. Page 92.4). (5a+l)(9a). (a 4. . x43. 15. 6. a8 . Page 86. (^ + ?>_8). fi(c426). 6.) j).. 16. b) (r 4. 5.l)( a 25. (7/1 2) (m 41). 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. (16 4  2(5 n . 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 14. 2(m4l)' . r x 2 */3 .'J)(' .?>) H. (x//. (5 31. 2. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 3(. (x. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (m  I)' 6.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 8.b. ofc)( fid). 35.^ 48. 2 2 10.8) n 43*). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 13.e 4.y)(fi a . 24x sy s 9.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 4. 7. 3x(x?/) 4. 2 8(w . 32.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4 3. Page 12. 40. 3 x4 . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 2 1. 8x. 2. 4 a s &8 . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 2 .'})(c . 6.X 5. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .2). ( a ^)(^3. 13 x 8 2 . x . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2 y) ^ . 13. 4. 38. (f> + fo 7. x  1). 4). 18. 3p (^9)(j) 4). n  r)(5a 10. 20. 13. a (a + 2 6). ah}. Page 87.7s) (2 a.!) (x42)(x2). l.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 41. 4 6. 30. 5  (2 2 .r(3x' 2 4 (14.2)(x 1.  (w' 4. 39. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 3.?50)(xt/z. 15 M.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. ^ . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). a 4. 13( 33.y). 17. 22. Exercise 46. 450.4. 6. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). (w * .8) ( (16.1) 3.0+ 12). ( (<> r4y3 . 14. (!__/>).))(x  ^OC 1 1). y6. y). 4.n). 2. 42a 3 x. 2. 27. 5. Gp). 2. 6. . 19. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 4. (^ 7. 7. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (a 9. 10(2 (3 4. 37. x(x f y)(jr . 2 k (wi 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 11. (5 26.2 y).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .9). 42). 24. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 12. (> 1. 7.8).42 x 4. 8. 5. 15. 6 f c). (5^4. 5. 4 a8 . 10. 7. . a 4. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).y. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). ?>). 8.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). a 41.
6). 13. + &) 2 ( .ANSWERS 10. x 24. + &)(&) ( . + y) (a: y). 6a2&(rt6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. b ! 21. a 10 25.  1). 30(3 2 (a 15. 18. 1). (a2)(a + 2)2. 2(2al) + l). +8b a 4 3 / ^. a 23. 11. // m+1 !+*?. x 12. +5 1. x 22. ?_!&.
26. 4. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4c 10. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . i. a 5. 0. 28. .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. A^. + lH + .. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. _*^p5_^^_.50 ~ 1/2 . w1 + ac w 4 7. 1. 4 L 8 2 . i^.  **/* + 84 _. 6. ^~ 29. 2 a. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 30. Page 101. ' 2 7. + 2H 1 ^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6a5f^. 7. 6. xy 43. 6. c 8.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . Page 100.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 11. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.
11. 38. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 44. 10. 30. 2ft a i m x. 11. Page 110.^_. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. x 1. n m a + 13. an 18. 3. 39. 42. m 9. 4. 21. 1. . 21. 8j_m 7 3. 6. 11.y 7. 2 47. 4. 21. ft. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 17. ?+_!?>. 1. J. 1. . . Of. 0. 6. 16. ! 4 20. 20. 5.^U\WF### X<6. 3 7 i o. c 8. b a f +c 14. 14. Page 113. pf n 6 1. 10. 46. 40. 17. 12. 5. 7. 3. 3. 7. 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 5 be _J_. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 4a3ft. (>. 3. 19. flf. 8. (y + (z 12. x 05m ' 5. 4. 6. 1. 14. 9. 6 . 15. 0. a. 9. n . f Page 107. 3. 41. 5. ac mp lf> n 12. J. y(x + x ?/). 12. f 7. 18. +3 ( + 15. I) 2 3z 1. . ?. 29. 6. 11.  10 X + u. j L . 1. A.ft . 32. n 16. 5. 27. a2 2. 7.L+ft. 37. 25. 33. w^x 2 b Page 105. 1. 12 28. 36. 1. 26. + f. b 2. 11. 23. 6. 8. 4. 4. 35. Page 111. 9. J. 31. 43. x\. 7. 13. 1. 15. 24. 2) 19. 4. 15. ' 6. ^_. a 17. 4. 14. 45.  V o 4. 34. 16. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. Page 106. ^i 11. 3.
. ^p^ r ~ 7. 26 30. Page 124.  29. 1:4. (ft) 5 hr. Yes. 7.002. . J ^'. $00. Page 121. . 4. 24.. Page 119. 6.138. ^?i min. 4fl M_.139. 1:1 = 1:1.2. 30. $30. 5ft 30mi. 34. 17. 28. ^m . 10. IV s. 1. 12. Yes. 33. 4. No. 26 mi. 7. 16.0 & . 1 : 12.2. 10.000. 10. 11. Yes.. min./hr. 14. #V ~~ 34. 32. 3:2. 10. 14. 2. 24.. 3. 10. 21ft min. jj. .XIV '/ .9. 40 mi. silver. 8. 10. 15. 19. 9.. 9J oz. 3. (a) 30. 10. 15. 9ft.. 8. $45. 24 mi. 18. 27. 9$. Yes. 19. 15. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.000. 10^ oz. '"I 22. 21. 17. 20. 13. dn ~ mi. 26. 8. 1.000. (c) 8300. 8301 hr. 17. (ft) 5 da. 4. 212. " 0. 12. = A's. 7. 1:3. 10. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 7T 2 Page 116. 18. 75 . .. Page 118. 10 yrs. 40wn. ANSWERS 16. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.11. 74. 13. after $12. 9. f . 14. w 21. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 14. nm.000 1 = 23. after 18. P+ ^ 33.  C . 9. (ft) 28. 31. 4. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 125. Yes. 7. 275:108. (a) 25.000 If da. 5 2. $40. Yes. 500. (ft) (r) 8 hr.0. gold. 55 mi. 3 da. 13. w 44. _JL. 40 yrs. 2 20. 21. 38ft min. :2. No. 30 yrs. (a) 12 hr. 7. 1:1 = 1:1.x + y. min. 6. 1: ~. 22.. 81. 300. (d) 4 da. J. after 20. 30 mi. 8.. 17. 3. n 32. a 4 ft. 300. * 7:9. Yes. () 2. (r) 3^ da. 2:1. 1^'. 15. 3. . 15. 12.004. (d) 500. 5.003. 11 hrs. 36. Page 117.000. 15. 0. 4~r~ n . [>> ^ a . 1. 30ft. 8.137. 300. 19. 5. 35. 7 . (a) 4 min. 5.001. 16. xy. 18. 7. 2x:3y. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 15. 20. 20. . 1:1=1:1. w 18. 2. 1. 23< &n b ' ./hr.15. 1 da. 6. . 3. 16. (c) 2 hr. 9. 19. 13. 10.  + .. 00. 4. ft. Yes. 11. 3. ~m .} da. f. (ft) 104. 7} 18. 5. $0. 33. 5 25. 11.10.
5. 24 1 (e) Directly. 15> 9.15 x. 3. 5. 8. 3. 32+ mi. 1. 24. 2.5.  ?.5." ^ 2. 3.x a.7.3. 11. : : . Page 9. x y y . 11 5 . 17. J. 8. x y = 1 = 3 2. 49. 16.20. w 8. 38. 9. . 4. 2.160. 7. 7. 2. 2 n . 2. 4. 25. 5. 7.3.3.3. 7. 1 rt * vm^1. 2.5. ig 6.000 sq.2. /. Page 135. l. 3. 54. I. . 13J. 4. 200 mi. 9. 6 10 = 12. 5:0 = 10:12.*. 41. Page 131. 17. 2. 5. . *.2 oz. 1. 4. 29.4.9. Page 134. lo mi. Inversely. ini.5. 41. 4.ANSWERS 22. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 25.5. : . 127. 3. 8. 2. jc:y = n:m.15.4. 7. 4. 6. 1(5.]. 1.4. 13.12. 3. 3. 21. . 5 2. 19 OJ. a +b 1. 4. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.J 3. 58. 13. 20 cu.4. mi. 11. 4. 23. Page 132. 2. + b 7 . + 7>i//  ft 1 . \\. 8. 2. 14.3. 7^. 5. 2. 52. .57.1. 35. 10. (</) ft. . 5.. 2. 2. y :y =. 28.36. 7. 27. mi. x +y x + 74 7 \.  28. 40.1.3.C ?/ a . 7. 12. 4. : 23.7..a. ' 55.5. 45. J pq. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr."2:1.3. 3. 19. 14. 1. 4. 13. in n. 14. 4. ft.li. 9  15.  19. 138.1. 2. 6. 945 11 10 . 56.3. 26.5.3. 12. + W. 174+ Page 128..2. (a) Directly. 1 18 = 3 51. $. : : T 1' : /> : . 14. 1. . 2. 2. 19 3 . 9. "lO. 31J. Page 5. 7. 25. 141. = 7 b'. 8.000 sq. 1. 2. s<i. 24. () 7 Page 126.8 oz. 21. .1.840. 36. 7. (I. 55. 3  24.5. 23.3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 20. t 5.2 x. . copper. 31. 43. OJ. y . 15. 12. 9. x 42. 57. ~ 1. water. 2. 1. . in. 1. b x 37.1. 18. y a y = 7 0. 4. Page 136. 59. 8. 11.2. 10.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. y 1. 5. 9. 6. 5:3 = 4: x. 39. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 9. 10. 2. 4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 6*. J. 3. : XV 27. () Directly. 2. 5. 3. 30. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.5. OJ. 19. cu. \. 50. 7. 36. (b) Inversely. 7. 32j. 1. 2. i.22. 3. 3. 2. 12. 2. 53. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 40. 1.17. 7. w. Of.4.3. : />. 5. . 30. 11. 2.' : : : : <>. 9. 48. 7. 5. 3. 10.6. . 6. 2.2. 47. x:y a: b. 9.r.46. . Page 137. 11. 2.12. Page 133. tin. 44. 7. 16.) 31. 15. 8. (b) C C' = fi JR'. a 3. 6. 16. 22. 46. 4. 7. 20 20 J ^. 3 2=3 x. . 19. 3. 22. 20. 5. 17. 7./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 26. a~. 3}. 13. 11 w a 13.J. land. J.
7. 16. 16. 7. 5. 10 sheep. 6. $250. 30. 6. 3. . a. 25. 3. 4. 3). 7. 1 (c) Jan. 10. 26. Page 153. 8. 4. Jan. 1. 9. <*ft/ bd 1. 2. 21. (c) . 5. 11. 4 ' q. 3. $ 1000. 32. B's 15 yrs. 19. C's 30 yrs. ' 6 3 a. 18. 40.  Zn  "(^ll 14. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. (ft) 20. 4..n + p. . 9. 6. . 9. &. 2. 3. 1. 4. 2.2. 25. Apr. 16 to July 20. 3. 31. ft 3. 10. 11. ad AzA. . SL=J o ft r^2. Jan. 3. a =J (n  1) rf.3. 1. 17. Apr.1J. ad _(?jrJL. Page 142. 2. 2. 5. 1.9. 13. 13..8. Jan. 11. 3. Page 151. 2.. 20. On the y axis.7. m + n p. 20. yrs. 1. 3. through point (0.0. 26.. 5. 4. 2. 4.  11. 11. 2 a. be 10. m . & part of Feb. . 2.0. 15. 100. 3. 4. 29. June. 90. Nov. 27. $3000.. 2. $500. 3. A's 30 18. Nov. 2. C's 10 yrs. 11. 10. 10. 14.$2000. 20.4. 7. 1. 15. (a) Apr. 16. . 3. Page 143. A a parallel to the x axis. 16.1.3. 0.l. 8.$5000. 3. 18. 5. 2. On the x axis. 2. 8. 2t2. 6. May 5. 17. 6. 7. 7.33. 22. 423. 14. 1. B's 40 yrs. Page 145. 18.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 11. 4 mi. m f 8. 6. Nov. 1. m f 9. 2. 20 to Oct.XVI Fagel39. Jan. A's 50 13. Page 149. (5. 5. 5. 147. 3. & May. July 20. 0. 18. 1. 6 cows. July. & part of Sept. be 7. . 4. 12. 4. (a) 12. 1. 10. 6. July. 3. Oct. . (ft) 23 J. 14. 21. 3. Page 146. 7. 2. 5. 5. Apr. 2 horses.10. The ordinate. 8.3. 4. $6500at3Ji%. J. . 4. 24. Page 152. 2. 00. 6%. 72. = ^ a Page 141. 23. ' . 16. 13. 12. 2. yrs. 30. (<f) 13. 0. 3. 15. 10^ gms. 25. 40. M 2. 7.1. Aug.4. u 2ft. Page 22. 23f . 1. . 4. 20. Feb. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w .. 9. . 3. 16. . 24. 24. About 12f. 2. 23. 28. 7. 4. $4000. 9./hr. 25. 2. 7.4.  17. 30. 3. 6.^. 20. parallel to the x axis 0. 24. $900 5%. 1.65. 5. 12. 20 & Oct.2. ^. 1 (d) Apr. 5%. 4. Jan. at 15. 9. 12. 19. 12. 17. 19 gms. On 11. . 4. Nov. 3. 3.
10. 2 a&m Page 167. 4." 23.. . 7. f 10. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 2.13. (gr) 21. ImW. 22.  . 1.75 (ci) 3^. (a) 5. 3. 15. (e) 2. 2. .84. 5. 8 1 f f g*. 3. 1.83.7. 1. 6. 1. 27. 9. .34F. 30. 4. 125 16. 3. 2.24. 1. . 12. (ft) (ft) 2.41 and . (/) 3.  1. 0. f. . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 4 ) 21. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. (c) 14 F. 2ft4 Page 168.73. 4wn8 + n4 5. 27 27 81. 1. 20. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 5. 26. 13. .64.. 3. 10. 1 23. 2. 9 and Page 166. xy. . 3. () (rt) 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 5. \ft) 5.59 . 24. 1.3. 8mW. . 125 a 8 12. 19. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 1.75. 13C. 2. . 3. 2. 8. Inconsistent. (e) 3. 20. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . . 30. 19. 1. 16. 3. 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. xg . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. (a) 12. 15 .75. .79. . 1.25. 2. H. . (<?) 2. 4}. (c) 7. 9.79. 3. a 29.73. (c) 2. .5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.1. 1^.  1. xW. 10 C.25. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. .25. 14.. 14. Inconsistent. 2. f. ft 2 4. 3. 3.2 (ft)  1. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4. 2. 1. 4. jgiooyiio 17. H.67. m. (ft) (d) 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 13.59. 83. f12 wi 9. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 10. . . 1 4. . . (a) 4.25. 12. 4. 1. 11. 6. 3. 2. Page 163. 14.25. 2.5 (ft) 3. 11. 4. 21.1. 125a 28. . 2.24. 2. 1. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 3 . 28. _ 9 x ^27 1 .41 and 23. a + ft. 13 . + a 4 ft* . 22. 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 2. SlstyW 7. 11. +3 4.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . Indeterminate. . 32F. . 27 19. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 2 l. 8.27. 4. 2. 25. 5. 13. 81 ". 1. * 16. ft . 1.83.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. Page 164. 24. 17. 5.24 . Indeterminate. 1. 1. Page 159. (a) 2.73 ami .64. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . . 5 and 2. (/) 3. 3. 8 a1. 18C. (ft) 2. 3. 3. 14. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. G. ' :=_!.73.17 (ft) (c) 2.3. 3. 15. 15. Page 158. .. 2. 1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.6.75. (ft) and (d) 2. . 3.5. 2 2 22. 0C. 3. 8.4. 18. 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 5. 5.
1247. 57. 6. 25. 64. 8.037.1. 27. 7. + Z). Zll.3 ab + 2 2 ). (a + 2 +l). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .1. 11. . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (a 2. 18. 3 6 23. 72. 15. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. . 15. 2 2 4. 4. 237. (Gx + (i + 2a. 763. +3 + 5 4.y2 ). 4. 1. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). (x' l). 3M. . 98.XV111 7. 17. 6. 1 1 ?>).5. 31. 20. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 15. 7. 12. 25 19. 14. 32. 40. 11. 26. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. + (win . 16. 76. 2 12.6. ( Page 174. 180 . ? . a. 2 2 7. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 14. 16. m 13. 21. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 11. Page 170. . 14. 18.  x. 420. 18. Page 172.10 a~ + 5 a . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). r> 4 : 1 . (3a. + y). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 90. 10. 5. a. GOO 2 c 2 . (a + y+l). 12. 5 5 8. 9. 101. a 2 . 1. + + ?V 22. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. a ). + l). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . fe *?>' ?> fi . 33. 3 2 ^. 10. 9.f 1 m 9 16.i c 6 15. +35. . 22. 16. 5.+3^ + 4. 99. 30. (x + y\ 90. 309. 10*. 23. 9. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 24.r 2 + 6jt). (ly). rt . Page 171. 247. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.a b 22. 8 /.2). 2. 978. wi 8 + 3m 2 . (2 a + ft). 300. 2. (l + x + . 2 49 . c 10 6 :l 20. 5. 35.^). 16 6 w . 3. . 2. 9. (48 + 6. + 29.7 /)). 84. 28. 8. 2(> + ( 2 7>). (4a2 9& 2 13. + i)). /> 4 ). 10. 119. 1. 30.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . ? : 1 . 7. . . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). ??i ?i . a: l . 8.5).GO a c + 23.  +X '. 70. 4. 21. 12. AN S WE no . 20.94. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 6 (\x 3. Page 176. 3 2 8 3 12. 2038. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 6. 90. 9. ). 19. 8. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.x ). 2.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 3. 13. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . . 3. 2. 11. 5. (1 (x2y).83. 00. ^i. 8. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 13. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 6. 2 4 8 2 . 34. 9. 5. 0. 3. 19. 14. 17. 6. 4. I 8x2). 36. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 10 x G a 4 . 20. 15. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 17. (ab + c). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . 20. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 71. 1.
14. 49. 2. . 19.w 18. 12. 22. 16. 37. 1. 2.5. 7.645. 6J. 33. 3. 42.i. 7. 5. 14. 15. 4. 5. 3. 9 15 ft. 1. 12. 10. ^. 41. V2. 36. 1 38.. 12. 15. or 3.4.. 7. 20.925 ft. Page 179. 11. 4 a. 10. ii :J _7. 9. V J l. 13. / 11. 3J. 31. 4.798 yds. 23. 4. 3. 5. 48. 40. or 5. 2. >TT 26. 7.4. 3. f. \/3. 13. 2. 10. 21. 6. 5. 14. " ^_ 22. 7. 3. 4 n. 3. 47. 1 f Vl3. 32. Page 181. 9. /. 11. 12. 9. 4. 7. . a. (afl). 13. 3. 34. JJI. . 4. If ^. 5.6. * 1. 29. 1.916 yds. i. 13. 7563. 4 TT M 28.}.  14. 26.6. 21. 11. 270 sq.5. 32. 2. 23. 11. 10. 1&. 2. 33. 3. 4. 18. 35.. 7. 16n. 15. 9. _ iVaft. 9. 30. 35. 21 in. 8. 2. 50. 24. 20. 8.?. . 3. 1. . ft. 29. ^^7m. 2. l~8. 27. 7}. Page 177. 20. 6V21. 21 28 ft.367. m. . 10.236. 18. vV'TA 24.. 6 f !. ft. 9. 6. m.4. a + 61. 9. 2 sec. 5. 5. 6. 1. . 16. ZLlAiK 19. V35 1.  5. xix 26.005. 5. 27. 14. 4..  43. 2. 5. ft. 37. 7 in. 3. . 24.ANS WERS 22. 1 7. 3. 28 in. 1. i ^.6.690. 11. 6.6. 7.. V. 39 in. 28. 2. 3. 46.522 38. 6. 17. w. 39. 10. {. 44. (6) Vl4 3.60. f 3. 1. 1. 7. V2. f. 6. 8. 30.  f. 7 45. 12. 5.1. 4. ^. 3. 12.935. 15 1 10. 2. 6561. f f V. 6. 3. 10.  2. .. Page 185. 1.1. 12. 21yds. 7.237. 5. 34. 10. 5. 4 W**.6. 5. 28.  f. 2] see. . 1. vYb.13. f . 1. 23.. 29. 21. 36 in. 6yds. Af^. .. }. 12. 5f. 9. 36. Page 183. 6. ~ V^3. 4. .  3. V17. 25.742 in.469. Page 180.a. (< + ?>). J.Sn. *. 2. 5. 13. 2. 4. 6V'2J. () 2. 25 J. f ^ is.  1.*. 25.V 8j. 4. 15. > w ft. 31.18. 4. 10. 4J. 16. 17.243. 14. >i 27. 19. 4. 16. Page 184. v 17. 8. 8. 5083. 15. 39. 8.. 17. 7. 40.
20. 26. . . 8 or 12 mi. 50. 2. . 13. V^l. 7. V^l. in. 28. 3. 3. 1. Real. 23. unequal.  9x <).a.74. 18. equal. 64c.3. ' 1. jr . 8\/2 17. 6^2 in. 45. 17. 3. 5. 2. 5 ft. 27. i . #<7=3. 29. 46. 1. 27. 2.  i. x 14. U. 0.. 1. 15.12 = 0. a. . 4. Real. rational. 2. . 2 ft. 18. 1.23. 34. Page 188. 19. 0. 3. 0. 20 nii.  13. s 11. = 0. 3. 57. V ~ 16 4 2. 10 or 19.62. 4. 3. 6. 40. x* 51. _ 19. Real. 35.6. unequal.. 6. 21.10. Real. 3. x2 + B .70.3. 15. Page 191.4. 24.a. 6. 4. 48. rational.0*8. . 2. 0. 58. $80.1. 5. irrational. 53.].02. 22. orf. 1. 7. ^l/>> = 85 ft. Page 187. VV11. 21. $30 or $70.7. 4. 26. . 2. a + 6. unequal. 10. 25. ft. 26. rational. . V7.5^. 23. 0./hr. 6.2.. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. 1. 4.a 3 a. 3. 64. 2.59. 41. 16. 24. 20. 37. 0. 16. 42.6 = 0. Real. 20. 49. 3. 5. ANSWERS 22. 2.  1. Imaginary. irrational.'. 3.23. unequal. 10.. (5 10. . 1.41. 28. 2. 15. 2..4.  Page 194. unequal. unequal. 9. 10 mi. 36. 3. 12. 9. 1. 11. 1_^L ft 14.2. 0. 4. 11. 6. f. V2. 2 V3 in. 56. 1.1.  6. 1.  24. 24.2. . 13.3.XX Page 186. 25.  1. 1. 3. .7. 0. i. Page 192.  5. 3. 3. 39.l. %. 30. r* i. 6.2. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 3if. 70 ft. 0. 1. 3. 3. 12. 31.  2. 1. 23. 8. 0. 44. 0.  2. 25. 8.Oa.48. . Page 190. 0. 12. AB = 204 ft. 12. 2. 26. 120 ft. 3. 2. f. 1. 19 in. 1 3. 1 . unequal. 2. 8. 4 da. Real. H. 3. $ 120. 32. 4. 1. 35. 7. . 3. 3. equal. 6. 0. 2 . 15 ft. 1. 7. 2. unequal. 4. 47. 2.5. rational. . 52. unequal. Imaginary. *'' 12.12.* 2. 38. 7.2. 1.2. . 6./hr. 7.2. 2.$40 or $60. If. AB = 3.2. t is. 2. Page 189.4. 7. 0.  1. 3. 16. rational. 6. 22. V2. 0. .5 x + 6 = 0. 27. 7. Imaginary.1.2. 43.  1. 20 eggs. v^^fcT"^. 1. 14.  1. . 5./hr. 6. Imaginary. 18. 1). 2.37. . . V^~2. 10 in.17. x*4x=0. 2. 5. 19. 8./hr. 4.2 x2 .2. 55. '  f 5. + 11 x. a8 . 25.4.  5.48 3. a + 1. . Real. 2.. . 0. 9.4. 28. 2. f 6 52 a. . 10. Real. 4.7. 6V64. a. 2. 1. 14. 12. 33. 10 mi. 3. 9. equal. 21. 1. 2.
 48. 1. 16. J. 2. 2 L ( V. p. Page 196. 2. jV 10. 25. 4. 1. 19. 20. 5. 1.  a'2 . 2. 43. 7V7. 11.^7. 84. 3. \. Jb \. 3 4 11.  f. ar 1 . V^ 34. &. 5. ^Sf 3 38. 39. 1. 17. 2. 49. 49. Page 197. 3. 13. 29. n\/* Page202. 9. 24.1 5 15. 0. 1 39. 19. . 8. 5. 6. 49. 18. 31. 21. 14. 32. 33. r*. 5. 16. (m 26. 3. 25. 'J. : . 38. 13. 4. v. ifa.32. 27. I. 35." 17. 18. 3. 45. .2. 29. 2. 2. . .. x. 30 a. 8. 2.  5. 14. 28. v'frW. 19. Page 201. 15. 37. 13. 5. 18. 1. Page 199. 5. 1. 10. m. a. 7 . . i. x/25. wA 46. 1. 36. 3.17. 23. \ . 4. 7. vV. 1. 1. 10. 15.  J j. 3. m'. 6. 17. 11. . 4. 48. 8. 22.6. \/. 41. J. 33. 20. ). 47. 2V a. aW\ 40. JV37. 0. 28. . 50. 10. a 18 . 57. r. 52. . 20. fx'^z'l 23. 9. 8. 2. 4. 20. 55. 22. 243. 14. 23. 32. 17. 53. 8. 6  AAf. v/3. 15. 14. 12*2 61. J. 13. 50. 30. Page 200. 4. 56. 58. 3. 3. \. 9. 4. 9. $7. x$.//^. \/r\ 11. 46. 10. 1. 3. 33. ^49. 30. v^T4 m. 9. y . 3. 1. 26. 21. 125. 4. z + 22. 59. 21. 8.ANtiWEUS rational. 2. vm. .  f . y. 31. 16. 47. 24. 3. 7. 8. ) 2 >J i 10. 49. 40. 27. 54. . 42. 29. 1. 2. 0. Vr. 2. J 3. \a\ \/^. 7. 60. 16. 1V1. *V. 9. 12. xxi 15. 24. l  5 12. 3. ? . J. 8. 51. _! V3. 12. 19. v'frc 18. 25. 5\/5. \/3. 44.
4aV^J 16. V2 + 4 V22. 30. 1 2 or 1 ?. 1. 51. (a 27. 6. 3V^T. 41. 9. 11. 24. + + ft. 45. . 21. 5 ( . 21. 27.632. 31.2 VlO. 26.). 62V(J. 13 35. . r c . 3^2. 30. 8V/) 15.'\ 14. a 3. 29. 101 1. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 13. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3 4\/2.yl : . x 25. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.707. 9 . ?tV?w. / V3. . 8a6V5. V. x%  3 ^+ 1. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 5. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 2.  2 3:r. 3. 20&V6. 17. 2 a?>V2 a. 40. 2. m* n*. (x' (l 1+x). 18. V80.r. 22. 11V3.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. x^ . v'TM. y (a + ft) V2.XXii ANSWERS 1. JIV6. 28. 3 x^y 33.3 + 40 3 . 4.692. y. 2>X2. 1) 3V3. abVab. 38. 37. 13. 12. Vr 8. + . Page 208. 10. 10. 37. ^: V2c. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 15. 2. T.. 3 \ 39. ). 8. a 4 +* + !. 33. 31. 50. a^ + 2^+1. + 2). 2\/7. v^. x + 5 x3 + 0. v/^r 5  A/^~. 10. 5 22. 3V5. 32. 29. x y. 19. l 5. 13 a. 24. V. 2v (T 2aVf. . 2. 20. 32. 7.648. 28. a2 4. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 4. Page 203.Vxy 35. 8. 23. Page 207. 2. 135V6. + 2 ar 1 ). 17. 48. 26. 16.rV:r. 2 x* 15.577. ^7 \AOx. 19. . 5.  a Vft 2 121 b.2 18. + 1. 2 '"V5. Va 2 "ft. 195V3. . 3^ + 2). 7. V63. 9. yV35.x^y* + y%. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3 42. 49. 43.f. 25. 11. 16. 36. 6. x 7  34. 2. 03r* 7. k/2. ^88". 3.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 39. 40. 34 r 6. V 5 47. r 17  Page 204. (o* 2. 9. x. 34. 3. 20. + 2 V22. . . + Vic + 25. ftV 46.
\/04a. 18. / \/w/t 4 13. 13\/3. a\/5c. 3. 31. v^30. \/8. v^lf. 2. 28. % 29. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . + 20. aVa. 8  \/15. 35. 22. \/2. v"5. 2 1. xx 1. '. 6. m ?i2Vm/t. Vat. 21. \^r^bVabc. 3. 22. v/l2. Page 210. x/w^ 8. V/. 37. 9. 17. 6+2V5. 8. 40. 14. rtv/5. 27.r v/^ v^fr*. 39. 24. 8V73\/IO. 7. v/9. 5. 23. 41. 32m27n. 3 Vl5 30. 6aV2\^. 8. ^27. 5 \/2. x/8l. 6. 0. 43. x/4. 18. \/128. 3. 11.T*. 42. 10. VT5. 30. 17. 53. 1. 1. Page 216. 44. 4VO. 3 V15  47. 23. 12. 13. 26. \XOfl6Vi5. V2. 8v2T 12. 1. 0. 4 >/3. 6V2. Page 211. 36. 31. \V3. ^\/3. x/8L v/27. fl^Vac. 38. 14c 4 V5. v/i). 8V2. ab 4. 2\/7. 11. Vtf +3+ 33. 3. v^f. 49. 3 V2. 21. 4. 27. 18. 6. 20. 36. 4. 24. a^\/a7>. 2 \/2. v/lO. V2. v^a. 16. 4\/5. Vdbc. . 6x2?/. 48. 26.. 25. v7^.  3. 25. 14. 38. 7\/(l 7VTO. v 25^4714 V2"a. 14. + VlO  v y (5. ^ 3 b 5 24. 50. 10. 1V5. . 2 ate. 17. . 19. 4 a*. ^9. "^8000. . 5. 7. 21 23. 34. 5V2. 32. V3. 33. 3v^2. 6. 40.J Page 212. 2yV2?/. x/125. \/abc*. \^6. 2. 3\/2.ANSWERS _ Page 209.30 2. v^4. 35. 5V2. \^6. 2. V5. 9. r)\/(l Vrtr. . 2 28. 29. 6. Page 213. 2 V'3. Page 214. . V3. a2  b. v/8. 11. 2. b. 6 2\/0. 52. "v/wi ??. 15. \/a6c. 10. 3\/15  6. 12. 7. 39. 13. 15. 2. 5. 74\/Jl 120 46. vT). 19. x/8. 10V(). . : ^32. 5v/2. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 3. 9. 3\/wi. Vn. 34. x/27. 46. 51. V8. V3"m. 32. w?i. 30 Vl4. D 45. 9 VlO + 4. VJla. ^v 7 15. 16. V5. v^O. W). v"3. 37. x/3. 16.
8. 21. i(Vf Vft). 3V23. nVTl. 23. 20. 26. n*. (2V2). 14. 4. (2. 20. 7. 5.625 10. 4. 23. Page220. (a 1. {. 1. 3. 17. 7. V3. 17. 6 (V2 + 1). 11. 5. 0. 22. Page217. 2. 1. V3 . 9. 4. (2f V"5). 1. 16. 17. 4. V6c. 9. 5. 1. 4. 10. 29. 36. 10. 19. xy 2. 7. + 5V2.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .4142. Va. 2V3. 27.  13. 6. 6 V.6.XXIV 7. 4. Page 225. (Vf + (4 V2). V^TTfc. 12. m f. ' 22 i . 25. 8. 4. 3.^ (\/22 4. . f. 7. 9 mn. 31. 4. fV2. 29. A . 12. 1. 4. 2V2. 100. 5. 12. 216.1805. 16. V3. 2. x 20. Page 28. 17. 28.\/TO). j 15. 4. 14. 7 Page221. 7.3. +3 V2). 15. 5. p 6 13.3. 25. V.2. _^JflJ?. 2 . 20. 18. ^r. 21. 11. 6. 2ajV2*. \. 14. 22. 16. . 25. 13. * 3. 6. 5 f. 3(7+3V5). 224.2828. 24. 35. 27. 2. . ~ Vac _c 0. 23. 2. 12. . 19. 16. Page 218.601. 16. 24. 16.81. 19. 2. 10. (2Vll).2.. 4. 2.  2.9. 21. (\/3f 1). 25. Vf6fVtf. 7. 15. 8. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 2V3. 18. . 25.1547. 25. 24. 2!5_. 15. Va. 30. 4. 4. 8 V3V2. 3. \/3). 24. 18. 3. 9. 2. V2. 1. 12. 23. 25. 37. 19. . (V6 + 2V2).5530. 81. 8.4722. 11.1. 4.6 V3. Page 223.464. 4. . 8. (3+ v/2). 5.7071.  . (VllV2).  f.13. (V8 + V2. 22. . 4V3 + 6. 23.732. 7 f 5 4.w 6. (V5f 5. 18. 15 f 3 V2L 4.732.64. 10. . 3. 5. V3. 5. 64. 8.389. 81. 15. 20. 4 14.V3). ^\/2. 16. 5 + 2 vU 17. ^. J. 14. V5. 33. 18. . 26. 9. 9. 7. ^. . 1. 8. 1.3535. ANSWERS 8. 7. 16. 6. 9. K>/0 + \/2). 11. 3. (VaT^v a). 11. 3. 10. 30.0606. J. 12. 10. 9. 32. 9. 34. 125. 1. 19. 5 V65. 2x^2^. 27.5. i^Lzi. 1. 6. V35. 9. 5. 11. j. 1. 21 ' Vob 26. 0. Page 226. (\/5V2). ^(VlO\/2). 15. 13. (V51). 13. \/57t. 8. 512.7083. 10. !^ 6 4. Page 219. (V21). + 6) 2 .
. .nl^EI. 10. 2 . 3. 17. .  1. 2. 1 6. . 4. 3. 1. 87 .7. 7. 1. 3. (w . (a.5 xy + 25) 22.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). Page 234. 2. 12. 1. 1 3. 2. 2 V^ . 20. 1. 3.. 4. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (a 4.3. 14.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 17.  2. 23. 3.^a. 4. 7. (a .22. f>. 4 20. 8. 3. 2. 7. 30. .  3. (rt. . 2. 2.  J. 4 4. 16. 13. (pl)(p2)(p2). .l)(a 2 + a f 1). 30. 1.4. 2. 1. 10. t/ 23. 5. 3. ~ f7. 24. 73. 7. 5. 3 . 0. 10. 5. (B43). 1. 2. 4. 3. f .  1. 4.r .  . (8. 1. 6. 0.3. 20. a: :} . 3.8a 18. 8. 6. . 7. 1.3 2. 5. . o.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 7. 2. 2. 2.w 4 + 1). 3. 3.1. (a+&)( 2 14.  3. 18. 13. 19. J 24. 2.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). \/0.3. 2. a  . (pl)(p3)(p6). .  16).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 19. 1 . 15. 2. 1. 12. (63)(6' t 18. 6. 25. 8. 2. (a. 3 . 9.2)(* . 2. 28. 4. 5. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). XXV 4. qpl. 6.  4.2. a . 11. 30 30. 2 > 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 4.2)(m. 9. 10. 16. 4. . (4 mn . 3. 1. 8 6 & 0. 3.3.l)(m . . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 6. ( 16. 2. 8. 1 (?> x/^3. 8. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 6. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).ANSWERS Page 228. 3. b . 11. 1 . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 7. 2. (xy + 5) (x*y* . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 1. 4. 0. . 5. . 2. 17. 5. 1 .4. y. Page 233. 4. 19. 4. (r. 0. 14. 2 &. 2 . 5. J Page 235. 3. 3 . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 2 6. 5. 56l).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).12. Page 236. 3 9. 2. 2. =A^Z3. .Y. 5. 25. 20. 4. 12.0. l. 1. 15. (2 a. 11. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). J. 4.5. 21. 1 . J. (+!)( 2) 10. 8. . 13. 5. 3. 1. 0. 3. 30 . 2 . . . 1. 4. 2. 1. 2 . 73. 7. 4 1. . (&y2a#H4). . //. 10. 2 6.4. 0. 14. V3. 5. 25.3. 11. 0. 12. (m 4 + l)(ro. 4 . 25.4). 3. 3. 3. 9. . 6 2 2a + 2). 1 . 4.3). 13. 2. ' J. 50. 6. 1. 11. 3. 2.1.  5. 4.3. 12. 12 24 y . & + 6 2 ). 13. 3. 3. 10. 18. 1. 3 5.l)(a3)(a . a(. 100. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 1. 21. 22. 4. 2. 22.10.  f . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).2. 15. 3. 26.  3. 2. 1. P. . 4 . 24. 5.2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 11. 4. . 2 <? 4a2 . 0. 3. 4. 5. 2. 2.
30. 7 3. 3.3. _ 7. $VO. 38. 2. 2 2. 1. 50.3 . 2. 4. 17. 36. . 1. 0. 14. 1.6.. 2>/3. 20 7.e.136. . 4. (a) 5. 1. 1. 12. 11. 20. $46. ft. 4. 2V7. 1.  2 . 10. 1.3.. 5. 5. 7. 2. 2. 69. co . 7. 1. 3. 30 13. 9. 1. . 2. ft. 23.. 1. 3.4. 4. 1. . i j. i i i . . no co . 8. 5 . 4 6. . 20 in. 12. 1..4. jj. $.18. 39. (>. .4. 19. 5.. . 3. Page 245. 8. . 78. 35 a. c. Indeterminate. 5 cm. 1. 7. 512. 1J. 1.3. 1. 8 3. 2 ft. and _ 4. 3. 7f solution. 12. .1. 9. 16. 5050. 15. in. 4. 35 ft. 3. 5. 4. 1. m27. 6. 3. n.. GO . . 3. 8. 1. 11. Indeterminate. 11. 15. Page 248. 8. 24. . Exercise 114. i'ljVU. (&) 2. 7. 4 34. 40 in. 9.  11. 1. 5. 4. 5. 15.. . 55. . 28yd.5. 13. 0. 1.5.y. } . 35. 2 . 32. 4. 15. ' j. 4. 37. 14. . 3.4. 37. 12 d. 2. . 400. n . J. 8 . . oo.3. 2. 6. 30. (/>) "_. 3. 3 . 22. 5. tn 2. 3. 2. 4. 1. 2 16. 2. 14. 16. 23. 1. 3. 41.6. 6. 12 ft. 11. ^ }. Exercise 113. 3. . ANSWERS 2. 4.3. 84.13. .30. 2. _ 13 (0 6. 2. 5. 3. 5. . 1 . 15. 1. 7. i. 15. 8ft. x 4. 2. 1.  1. 31. 17. 3. 21. 3. 8. 1.1. 2. f>. Page 247. 1. . 14. 40. 4. 29. 6. 4. (a) $3400. . 4 . 2 . 4. 15. 12. . Page 241. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 9. 10. 3 . 50. ft. 17. Page 239. 13. 11. \/6. . in. 19. 21. 1 . 5. 13. . 2. 10. +  n. V3~. 17. \. . 5 4. 9. 18. 8. oo . 5. 37. m + n. 26. 10.. 3. 2 1. 2. 16. 5. in. 8. 2. 1 . 3 . 4. 3. 1.  . 3 4. J. '>.. 5. 25. 3.2. m28. . j. Page 240. . 1 .. 3.3. 2 26. 4. J.1. 7. f*. . 5. }. 2 10. = QO 6. 35^ 5. 2n. 12 1. 3 2. Page 238. 31. 18. . 33. . 5. . 24. 45yd.0. 4. 12. 512. 17. 1. 20. 22. 12. 2. 4.200. in. ^~2. 1. . 1. ri*. 2 . 14. $. . 48. 1. 7. 2. 201. in. 5. 3. Page 244. 2. 900. oo . 11. f. 3 3. 12ft. 3. . 3 cm. 288. 4. 0. 3. J. 17. 1. _ 5. 4. 1 2. _ 10. 21 30. 3V5. 5. V7.020. ( 3. 6. 3. 3. 1 . 4 8. 2 Y> V . 9. 40 25 in.3.0. Page 243. 3. 5. . 2. 18. 4. 2. 8. 2. 14. 1. 2. 14.xxvi Page 237. 125 125.
50. 4.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . **+. 16.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 7. 16. 8 4x' 2 .6 . 16. 0. 1 14.2 45 a 8 /).x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 15. 10. 1. and 1. . B . 8. ?/i 6 x llj .v Page 253. 5. 8.5. 12. 27. 75. 220 . 17. r r j. 3.920. 1. sq. 21. 3. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. c. 45. 0. 27. Y11. 18. 2. 12.5y 4 . 2i* 7f. 44. 16. 280 53. 3. 32. 405. 2.13. 4. 8 1. .680. 0. 4.0. 4. ~v 9.470. <. . 5. } $ 50. 0. 3. 13. Page 252. 12. a4 4 14. 22. . 8. \ w 4 . 10. 9. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . REVIEW EXERCISE . 2.4 &z x>&. 4.7 10. . 17. 1. 14. 3. 20.  20 flW. x4 .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 910. .419. 11. 7 x4 17. 2.120. 6. 6. 55. 1.3 ays. . 19.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 17. 0. .2 9. 12. 7. 9. 3. 16. 7.4. . 1.170. 15. ~ an . 1. Page 258. 2. 48. 15. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 1 7 4. 5. 12. 8. 16 11. 4. 7 2 x 4 x8 . x r 4. 4. 11. 7. 105. 5. 192. (). 343. J 2 //2 25. 16. . x + Vy. 1000 aW.x' 10 . 3. 70. 2.<2 4. 53.870 m*n*.700.210. 120 aW. 19. 3. ^a 8. 12. 6.8. 18. 6. Page 254. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 23. 7. vy. Page 259. . 18. 125. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 4. xxvii 1. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 1820. w9  8.384. 45 Page 257. 13. 8. 27. I.12 x*y 16. 13.  17. 343. 1. 8. 45. JSg. 8.r* 4 70 . 10. 005. 6. 12. Ja. in. 4. 7. 04. 70.5. A. 35. 327.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 3. 4. 5.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 19. '23. 15.6. 04. 10. . 2. 4 0. 6. 11. 9. 1.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. />*. 20. 4. 5. 0. 12.r x>/ 7 3.5 x. 43. 28. 5. . 9. 128. . 10 14. 9. 2. f y 8 + z* . 5.r 4. 3. i 10. 6. 4. . 0.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 35. 1. 2. 70. 0. 05. 6i. 3. 125. 4. 15. 2. &' 14. 2.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . r 5 4. 21. 4. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).ANSWERS Page 250. 10.504. 20. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 16. 25. 708. 26. 6. 4950 M 2 b y *.192. 4. 7.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 27. 8J. 1. 0. 3. 22. 7. 4. . ' 1. 304. 81. 3. 100. 5. 8.^ ?>i 2412x4. 8. 10.1. 1JH. 5 13. Jj? 45. G. 1. 29. 6. 5. 495. 9. 8. 8 . 4. 5. 410.  101. d. 2. a.53. 18. 2.
. 99. 4. 16. x8 x2 55.^a .ac 44 aft. 82. 2 2/' . ft2ft 4 4l. .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.2.5. a J . . 3 a 44. f5+7. 1 a"* 4 an . 21.4. x2 471x4.c. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 26.2 x 4. 10 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . * 60. 72. 29. 94.  + 3 x2 . 27. 4ft y3.x 51.5x4.  . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. a4 x.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . az 4. 4.41. ?/ 3.18 x?/0. 35. 3 c .4. 109. 6 c 47.3 aftc. x* . a' 111.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .  12 a. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 2 a. x 8 + x 4 68. 88.a 2 x 2a . 130. 2 . 107. 102.rty x2 4 123. 3a'2 Page 261. x 4.fee 2 4. 86.3 .  4 a3 85. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .4 x y 87.1. 4. . 2 x2 4. 12 x. 2 q. 96. 25. + a 4. 23. 0. 124. 105.3 y.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.a. . a2 2 aft 2 2. 43. (a + ft)" 98. ?/ . I 57. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. a* a 8 a aftc.x24 73. 131. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.2. Page 263. ^ . a* 4. 125. .y*. x2 2 . 91. x2 a2 1 . 4 Page 264. 8x3 8x.6 am b\ 129. 127. 46. 49. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x 3 41. 66.1w 77. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. y 4 z* 0. ?> . df.3 x 2 + 3 x . 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . a 4 . 1 + 4 xy. ft n . 12 a/. 76. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.2. 1 . 3 a 5 a 5. 5x 2 2x43. 30. 36. 132. 122. 2 113. 4 69. x } 4.a6 2 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 3 a . 62. 6 8 j27 40 ab.a*ft 2 126. x 3 4. 4 115. 110.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 93.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 61.4 x 2 .9 b. 64. . 114. t 81. 3 36 b c .3 103. 4 fee 4. 1 x 45. + 3 a?.4 x?/2 3 4. 14 x . 2 53. 70. 4 15 x 5 .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 1 121.2 x^.9 x . x4 f + 23 . . .. . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .5 3n 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 2 x'V2 90. 38. 50. &p 84. . 4 ! . 133. 5 42.1. 63.15 4 62 x  72.4 ac.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 6 a2 97.105. 32. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x' . 4 . 52. a~b 89.x4 + y'2 z 4. . .3 a'ft. /> 4 83. 24. 28. 40. . 10 a 12 b. 3a~2c. 9x. 4 65. x 2 . 39.4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 37. 0. 31. 100. . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. x 8  a8 .6 b.4 2 4 c2 42 . .18 ?/ 5x4. 4 2 .1.c.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 2 x2 108.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 6a6c. +^ + ft W. 118. .c 3 4. 243x4729. 2 30 . 3~ n 4.x.xxviii ANSWERS 19. . 5 4 4. 16t/.{ 54. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. .5 b + c . ft /> 78. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. .2 c . _55_7c 48. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. xyxzyz. 13 + 2 s. x .1 4 jry 4 x . 120. + z.7 x   15.ft). . 8 . . 5x + 2y~z.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 80. 2 . as 20. 7 + 3 xf 2.3 b . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. c3 4 58. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . () 2 x 33.7. a 3m 4.a'2 c. 22.x 2 4. 0.  3 x2 .1. x' 79. 9 2w 128. 104.  e +/. m " + n + P3c .a' 'ft 4. !! 71. . Page 260.
6)(4 + 6). 159.2ac + 229.4xl).1). 2. 217. 2 xy(3 x . 236. 216. y 245. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 156. 23 18. 4. (y _ ft)(y 4. 1. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 4.l)(a 2 +3). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.ANSWEKti 135. 239. 10. ?.l)(y + 1). 147. a(a. + 2) + 9a. 208. (x  42 yr. 185. 167. 22. 247.2).2. (xyX^+y" )1 243. (5 x . 169.6) (2 x + 1).I2y). ( jc // a 2 (a1). 157. 152. Or (a + 2)0el). 32 h. 168. .1(5) 200. (/ 246. 2(x8)(x3). 143. 219. 205. fc'2a+62c). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). p. 211. Page 267. . 7. 176. (7x2//) 203. 212. (2 198. + 3). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 151. 12. 2.y). 36ft.6 . 1. 20. 177. 15. 240. 2. 244.. 140. 142. 3. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. (3x2?/)(2. 8(ar}(/)27). 10 in. + 3) (x f f>) . (6) 40. 162. a. 15  a.9)(xf 2). 12 yr.1). . HI.r . 148. 175. 171. a 2 (15. a + 2x2 ). 147 mi. 21. 12) (j. 1.y) (\r3y). yr. (x + 6)(x6). . y3. 18. 187. p.y2 ). 174. 197. 20. r>x 2 (4x. (8x + 3)(3x4). 163.3). + 11) (a 10). (y  17)(y + (>). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 224.y)(z . 10). 190. (7 c 2 ).2) (3 x . 172. 160.3 y). 158. 202. 215. 218. 189. 37 1. Page 265. 209. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (?/+l)(yl)./_4). 179. 191. 12.3) (2/3y). 6). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (JT y 225. 6. 3(x . (c) 160 C. 1. 218. 3. 10). ( + 2y)(2x3y). (ab + 8) ( 7). 24. (3x  . 154.1). 136.l)(x8 + x2 . 173. + 22). 8 204. 181. 166.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (. 50. 178. 232. . (x + 2)(x . (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . . 237. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 201. (y7)(y + 188. 231. as 194. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). +)(x2 x^+2. (y_24)(y5). y  y 165. + y. 1. 170. 183. 182.. 226. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 2^.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ).y)(jc + 7 y). 1. 180. 149. 222.. 144. (x^ + x1) 234. 184. xxix 139. (x 227. (233). 210. 137.y + 3)(r (. 5. 230.3 y)(a . 193. k. + 7)(rt4). 207. 199. 233. . 30 + xyr. 150. 238. Page 266. 12 6 panes. 241. 161. 75. 2 2 (a. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 164. 220. 138. 206. 146. (y 7f))(y 196. y. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (a 2 + 2a6. 30 yr. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 1.2 )(x+y) 228. (x . 30. aft.  1. 40 yr. 195. 2. (r7y)(ai. (r^x + 1). 153.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).m)(x + a). (2a + l)(a . m. 10 ft. 2.2). ft. 214. 1. C3 y _l)(.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).. 48 h. 235. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (a} 59. 186. 15. 6. G7. 19. 155. 12 yr. x(x + 6) 213. Iff 145. 2 (4 x .3. (a& 192. z(x10)(xl).r + 4).
269. 4 5.^^^^^^^^. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. ?^ZLiZ 308. ? 1) 302. 0. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 310. > 4.^ ^^. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 3  262. 7. 259.4) 1) (3 x . *>). &). x 283. 260. 249. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .4). a~ ' b*). 306. o. 10.2* i^^ !^. 254. 7 x 265. 3). 0. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 5. x12. 301. ^/>J.  3xyf x// 257. x 267. 43 '^rJ'. Ca&c 1)(M 253.  7. x ?/ z 1.   .(x  4) (x4 304. x . 3. ^ 299.. 266. 263. a. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 264. o(x4l). 268. 2 x  3. 307. 250. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 2 4 300. 305. 303. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 258. (7 255. 3).1. 256. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. + f. 7^T 2 . 298. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. *. 2. 251. 261. 295. 279.
324. 336. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 394. 3. 3. 4 A. * 357. Page 274. 390. 383. 407. 6a. 2 r36 384. 7/i ^ _ . 398. ?>*. 396. . 405.)Cr4)__ . 366. f. ?=. ^_:r f> 331. A^L5L.". **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 4. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 376. 364. 2(a i 403. 408. 2 ?/ 363. 397.!. 377. . y 4 I 340.1. j 328. 386. T+^. ^"" 4 s . x 54 359. 325. 1. 1. 11. 1. + x 362. 389. . 370. 329. " 4 378. . a + b + 6). 387. 380.. 1. 0. a 2 . l'j. 404. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 2 ). 7. 343 00 351. 3. 388. 379. ?/ + 3 332. _*L'L+. L . m. <L 409. 400. 0. 2.  1. 360. . 4. 339. Page 277.(5 a . l . 392. ab. . 382. 2 ab  a Page 276. 2(q. 20.J . + 335. + 4 & 4 \ b. a +6.vin a /r " 337. ^ 3 // . 0. 2 327. 375. 399. 1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 2. If.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 355. 0. 6 ?/+:>. 395. S. 326..XXXI Page 272. 12. 4 rw.  1 356. 365. a) A^_. 385. 406. 334. 13 391.3. 361. c 402. (a + b + c\ . T\.7. 1 i 2 ^. 401. 333. 9^. 393.
. . 481.55. 441. 460.  2. 17. 430. \ 1. 461. 422. 2. 466. 2. Page 282.}. 423. 2.  453. 4. L (c) I. ' $260 at 0%. 8.. 496.1.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. . 450. 3. 2.0. (d  6) f. 10$.te + . 419.m  m+ M in. 5. 21. 445. (a) 1. 2.  7. 492. & 491. 0. 7. 5. . !L=4. 10.. 1. 17. (&) 443. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 428. 465. 462. : />a. 507. 40. 413. 494. 6. 499. 436.3. 10. \. 32 yr. 50. 1$. m. 63. 1. ISJini. Page 280. 11. . 2.488. . c 6fc 10. 4.2. 447. not true.  1. 90. 495. B 4 mi. A 5 mi . 5. 18. 10. 6. *+. 7 : . 10. 463. 0.  . 22.  10. 468. 420.7. a* 424. 84. 452. 464. 500. 0. m 1 : wi. . 427.  2. 7. 480. 51.46. a + + ft c. 3 . 3. 456. 9. c.4. 483. . 7. 442.  2. 24 days. fj. ^V. 6. ISjmi. 429. 425. 446. ft 5. 1. . 2 a 2. .0. . />c c(f be. 14 miles. 6. 12. Page 281. $2000 at 0%.4.7. 2. z8 +?/ 3 431. 486. 8. I. 5. 4.3. . 1. 458. 485. 53 yr. 6. 418. 472. 3a 4 5. 10.  2f 504. 20. ^.  505. 0. 506. . 503. B $ 2500. 421.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.  7. 2. 501. 2. 10. 0.12. 439. 2 438..  1.7. 4. (d) true. L2 a  6 . 8. 502. <L+ 6 (.. Page283. 426. 411. 32. 20 yr. 5. 479. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 457. 8. 448.vz in. i a b 451. 2$. 2.7. 444. 476. . . 33. 10. (c) not true. 5J. . 5. 1 a /?$+&?.2. 440. 498. 40 oz. 7. '. 477. 493. 3.5. . 467. i.489. 490. 6. 28 yr. 410. 6. * . 412. + () 433. Page 278.  f>. A $ 3500. 487. 459. 1.7. 508. 455. 484. 454. 432. . fc. . 497. 482. 435.rz Page 279.. a 22 . (a  c). 42.. 478. (&) true.}. ^r?i 434. b 449. 7. 0. 0.
232.8 x3^. a+ Page 286. 1.30.f 1. 2 2. 1 580. (e) (c) 2. 526. 564.14.  2. . 6. 6435. .5+. 3f 4f. 559.54. 1. 1.1. (gr) 10 1.83. 4. 528. . 1.  ..  (a) (d) 1. tin. _ 3. lead. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). x8 .7. 509.1..62. 575.02. 8. 2. 533. 7. 591. 1 600. 1. 2(4 602. 560.5. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1.78. 31. 569.2. (d) 537.02. 1 . 4.6.xj/ f xV . 5. 3 da. 2. 1.3. 556.5. 1.3.1. . 4 mi. or 8. <z ft 1.  4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .78. + 26 + .4. per hour. tin.51. . 514. M ft c 2 ft 3465.16. 531.53.4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 562.1.55. .4._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.12. 1.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 563. 512. 1$.56 sec. .9.6 2. 2.00.  3. 8 mi.  557. 529. 3. 3 .37. 4. .7. Roots imaginary. Page 287. lead. (/)  10 to 8. 3. (6) 3.8. 2 1. 3. 5. 0. 4. 518.83. ^ ft 4.4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.62. S82 c.04.5 f. y% Z * 586.6. 6. 0000. . 1. 568. 555. 558.ANSWERS Page 284.4 x + .25. + 12 x . 2. (c) 4. 4 0. + 6 tf f 3 . da.24.75. 115 Ib. y 4. 4* da.0.24.31.  7.3. 3. 3.3.  1. 2(6 597. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. (a) 74 Ib. . 2 10. 567. 24. . 576. 577.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. .8.8. 3. .  J(a f + 2c). 583. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 2 . 551.35. 3. 40 Ib. 2$.15. 14.15. 566. . 3. If 572. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 582. 530.6. .1. 2. 1.% rr\* 585. . 581. f. 553. 1J. 515. 4. . (e) 570. 3. 1. 3. 561. 1. 579.3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. xxxin 511. 3. 2. 1. o> . 565. 536. 1. . 4. f36a28x8 592.03. a*8a + 24tf 82a.5.0.25m.3.10.52. 598.  imag.  + + c. 24 da.88. 550.r8 596. 578.20. 5.24 sec. 2. T . _^ 2754x . . 4. 3. 1.02. . 603.  ft*. 2. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.  (a) 2. ft 584. 2 1. . 1. f.03. 5.6. 527. 1. a + ft  a  f c. 21*_. .4. (ft) 4. J7] min. imag.5.15. Page 285.37. > ^ .33. 552. a f ft + c. .. 1. 516. 532. 513.75. 4. . 2 imag. 573. 599.3.10.05.3. 4. 7^ da. 525. (i) 3. 510.1.21.0. 3.8. 2.7. 571.04. (6) .02. 1. per hr.  2ft da. .. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1.0. . H.4. 3. 27 y* f\4 .31. . Page 288.54.5. 574. g(rc+ 6c). 593. (c) 3. (ft) Ill Ib. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.   (h) 8. _ 4. 1 . 554.38. .. 2 .73. 1.
11. 691. 644. (*_ + a: 611. 5. 641. 5 3.25. 645.f 3 V^3). / V^+lO^M"^. 2. 626. 2. \. ^. 4.  4. 654. 2f. 690. 613.c ) 697. \+ab 699. .203. . 702.. 683. 3. 9*. 650.  6. 703.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 0. . /> 4. a 4. 9. 670. . 657. 614.  4. af6fc __ __ ( a 4.  2f r 659. 2. 25. If b. ^^ 695. 4. 677 680. 4$. 708.. 632. 2 a: 4. 625. 4 676. Page 289. 7. 648. V2. 2. 651. 706. 8. 25. 5. 2. 701. 630. 1 V5 1. 620. 1010.3. 13. 5. . 6 685. 2. 971.  . 0. ft). 14. 696. ' fe 2 ). 6. V"^TJ.3. a 673.b.  a2  a (ab). 5. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). i. 698. 629. 2. 6. (a3&45rj. 679. 2 a 688. . 1 2. 621. 624. 3. 0. I}'/.43^4. . 637. 642.  684. ' 674. c. 2 ab + a  &. 12. 8 f 3. 1$ 639. 2. 692. + ~^'2 + a 1. .>A 610. 4. 623.3f l 668. 2. V7. 655. . 703. 1. la6 2. 700. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.a~ {Z 663. l/'3. y  619. 0. if 4/> 671. 3 681. 1. 649. 3 a. n^l +^. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. be ac \. 0. 1. 3 x2 . b.001.001.3. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . a ' 2 + . 4 V 0. 1 704. a + b. 647. 618.XX XIV 606. 3. 2 a  6*. 638.2f (5 4. 622. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.049. 633.b 686. 5002. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 653. V^~3). 662. 898. . 1 ~a . If . V2. . 652. a 2.2f Page 290. 640. J^^.  3. ab 689. 2&). 643. o. b . 4. 631. 678< 682. 656. ^ 1. 50. 4330 da. . If. 612. ab. 607. If f 667. . 635. 2f. 2092.  13. a 1J. K 5 2 V2. 210.  ft. 608. 660. 627. . <T! .0. fe + a. 8 6 fo . 634.04. ^.303. 628. If 665.  1. 636. 7003. fta a/> ^A. 2 / 2 4. 615. 617. b 664. 78. 009. a. 1m*. 666. 0.y. If 658. 646.002. 705.14 If 1. 616. 11.3. 2 x 44 ^/. 7. 1. z  1. 661. 669. 10. ix 2 . 672.702.
12 af V^ 4 744. 342V3. x i f^' . 3 720. / 787. VIO\/3. 782 785. ^ . 796. 15 shares. 730. 3^. iv/Jj. 746. 727. 731. 792.257. 59.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 17ft. 755.r+y> 759. 300. 1 I . 711. 777. 3V72V3. 790 2v 3v 2. 712. 7  3V5. x\y. 24V2. 4 104 v/2. . 24 4 .. 715. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . + 6 2 tf'c. a 5 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. i^. 793.4 . a db Va^T < 45da. 24. 5. 726. 3V52V3. ^ ?>. 2 V2 . 725. 29\/3. "V313. ^7xy. 722.9. 716. 734. 714. fyaw&cu. > 748. T%. 3 VlT 795. 717. Page 294. r. rt3 2 ^i^. a"..9. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 00. 2\/53V2.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 34.^.ANSWMHti Page 292. J(v'lO2V 791. Page 293. 2x3^ a. 778. i 2. 3V7. 728. 776. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 25. a 2 6^. 33^2.1 . 769.11. 756. 758. 719. 736. 8. 773. cr*lr*. VT14V5. v/7 / . 718.~ . 729. 13ft.8. 3. 733. a:* . . 8. 789. 709. a 2  x2 .rJ w L 754. 1 752.. 794. 713. 751. j 742. 1^ _ 760. VV> L4V34.V/^ 741. 724. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 47. 753. 30\/10 764. 1.2.V2..4 . 738.10. . 5. 1. .^ 743. 737. 749. + < 735. 763. 1 747. 39. .r. 721. 710. 788. 1 [ + '> J. 723. 32>/2. 1. 739. y  1. 3V72VO. v'll. mn. 767. 768. 750. Hi a. 732. 740.
814. 0. 2 m .l)(x + 2). 859. 832. 4. 19. $. 4 .2) (x 4 2). 801. 0. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . . 2. 3. (xl)(^~3)(. Va 803. 2. 3. 868. 2 . ^. 2 . 4. Va. Hoots are extraneous. 876. (1 . 844. 10. 20). 847.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). a 42)(x . 808. (x 4. 848. (3 b . (2 a .7 4 1) 846. + d)*. 851. 858. 888. 7. 816. 3. (a m .3. o. n =  29. 849.  1. 6(a6)(o a + + &). (a 4 871.  ' . (2x (r.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 8. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 (x 4*4. 857. 2 *x 807. 898. (  ?>) (a + ^> .7)(4 x. jV3 f 3. (3 862. ( 4 4. 3. Page 297. 2 854. 863. 826. 4. a(ft)( 873. 5). 8 09. 887. H. 4. Hoots .7). 836. 882. 2 806. 6 $. 4 885. 4. 833. 813. 4.10 ab 4.  839. 2/ 856. 11. 5. 2.. (x 2 . ) (a' 874.  + l(l^). m 875. 891./>") (a'. 5. 17. . 13. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (:r 11. 879.l)(x . 6+V7. .3. 886. 2 . 812.25 ?>2). 1.l)(x . 831. 3. 2. 819. 823. 4. ((' 1).y) 852. 824. 843.0. . 810. 3. (2 4. 2.a 4 + 1). 6. 884.  tt 815. m = 2.4) 860. 881. 800.r4).7). 4. ( 869. 811. 1.. J V. V 3.a 2 2 ). 25. .rae) (4 .5 b) 4 1). 890. 872. 3. 5. 897. . x. b' 2 821. 16xyV2*/^~x2 .f. x . \/2. (a 1) (x 4. a(ry + 864. 817. (x3). 895.7. 2  2. \/5. 837.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 2 j 889. 894. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 900.5) (x + * 853. 841. 838.1) . 840. 825. . (4 c 4. **.4. o 828. $. 804. . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 3 . 2 2 . 2. 7. 11. f.a 3 " 4. . 3. 7. (x + 0X024. . 842. ANSWERS 798. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). ^ V}. 8. are extraneous. 822.4. 5. 1. (. (x*y*ryz + z*). 880. 48.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 23. 0. db 7. 829.3)(x + 4). 3. +j!>.2 ax 4. a2 ^E*!. 892. (x 2 f r . 867. .1)(0 865. (x . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 14. 893..XXXVI 797. 835.r . 7. 1. 4 818. 3. (2 x + 3 y} . 1C.1) (a 8 . 6. a* 4. 827. 834. (x .1). X4 1). 2. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 896. 5.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 883.+ m f ") (a* ). 861. 830. 820. 899. 17. 2. ^VG. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 4. . 2. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . Page 296. 6.2w . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 799. 2.1)(V 2 . . 1 . 1. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). (x 845. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.1. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 0.om 441) (a 855. 4. 4. 1 1.
f. 925. 908. 3. 954. . ft. 4. 73.V~~3). 4 6 mi. 4 . 2 w 914. 922.2.. 5. ft. 18. 2.1. 2. . 964. . 2.. 909. 8128. %* . 7 ft. 8. 2 ft. 933. $(l 4.073. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 1 _2 . yd.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 958. 6. w. 4. 918. 12. 8.. 8 . . 8. 20 19 ft.  1..  26j. . 7. 28. . a + . 66 924. 7. 939. 985. 936. 961. 927. Page 301. 11. . T3. 2. 917.. =F J. 2 i ' a V. 5 . . ft. 11. 930. 6.651. 28. 5. i 8. . 979. 983.446. 951. 960. 12 in. .01. i1" 913. S07. 6 . 8. 6 da.. 902.  1 . ft. Page 300.. 904. 957. 6. 8. 1). r ft ' < Page 299. ft.. . 920. 5.2. 1. 60 949. 6. 1. 12. Page 302. 950.I. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 10. 56.1 = 9. T 6. 280. J. 4. . 4. . 932. 3. 9 in. 7 or 30. 3. 923..1. tt2 19. 115. J. 959. w 3. 7. 8. ft. 333. 919. 0. 1 2. 4. Z ^. 912. 978.. 2. 940. 2 1.. 934. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 4. 11. 4. 903. 10.. 111. 984. 28. 7. '3 3 in. 952. dL 4. 955. 2. 12.615. 329. 911. 2. 980. 3. Va926. 3. Y. 3. 6 a 915. 3). 100 rows. 962. ^y. Page 303.0. 1 . 1 + V953. 906. 977. 948. 2 yd. 496. a. . . ft. 941. 8. . 938./hr. 2. i>. 935. i(6 in...744. . 931. 905. 8. 943. 6 1 1. 6. 40 16 in. v/(ai !)(&910. 4 in. J(_ ft. V^3). 3. 0. 5. 0. 3 4 . 981. 982. i 3. 0.. 4. V5 fj. 916. 11. 963. 6. 942. 5. 937.709. 248. 480 8 sq. 2. 4. T 6. V5 T 2 . 3 . 956. f ft 4 . 986. . 5l4f. . 2. 14 .760 sq. 108. 947. . ?/i 6. 4. 921. 15 946. ft. 12 mi. 333. 944.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 987. 1 1.111. 80. 945. 6. 1. 15 16 ft.
1007.18. 9 da. 1005. 1006. + 448 . 993. 0. Page 304. 192. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).870 z8 .. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 992. 0. . 996. 1 8 8 2. Page 305. 1019. 12. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (J.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1014. 162. (a) (6) ^ 1002. + v 2). 1000. X. 990. 1 1004. ^f (2f3V2). 1013. 1012. 2(2 v/2). 1008. (6) 8(1 . ~ \. 2 . 6 70 . r = 2. 4.. 120 i^l^. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 24. 4 and 1020. (Z>) 999.378 <W and 92. 8. 48. ^Trsq. 1009.  5&7 1021. 1010. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . in.192rt?)r 120 *. 1017. 1003. 997. 72. . 3003.378 1015. 1(5.92. 994. 32 13 (tx 4V3. . 1018. 988.51. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 991. 1001.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . (5. 108.128 I.870 a 6 1011. 120 a.'^^ } ( . 995. () 12(2+V3). 12. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1016.
Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. so that the Logarithms. A examples are taken from geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and commercial life. xiv+563 pages. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. i2mo. xi 4 373 pages. HEW TOSS . save Inequalities. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. great many work. Ph. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. comparatively few methods are heretofore. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. than by the . but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. Half leather. Half leather. The more important subjects tions.D. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. $1. given. physics. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
$1. xiv+56a pages. HatF leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1. great many A examples are taken from geometry. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. The author grade. comparatively few methods are given. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xi f 373 pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. physics. HEW YOKE . Half leather. In Factoring. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Logarithms. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the tions. Ph. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.25 i2mo. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.D. 12010.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.
.10 L. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Attention is invited to the following important features I. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. NEW YORK . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. izmo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . $1. more than 1200 in number in 2.r and.D. under the heading Remarks". at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 10. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. i2mo. lines. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. iamo. Ph. 4. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. SEVENOAK. $1. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 9. xii + 233 pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. aoo pages. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Half leather. State: . wor. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 7 he . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Cloth. SCHULTZE. Cloth.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . 6.
. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . 12mo. of these theoretical views. and not from the information that it imparts. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. $1. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. 370 pages.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York City. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . .
AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Maps. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. " This volume etc. photographs. Topics. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. i2mo. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and a full index are provided. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. An exhaustive system of marginal references. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.
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