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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. .AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD.
PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
8. May.. 1910 . 1916. U. J. July. September. 1911. Mass. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.' February. August. January. September. IQJS January. 1910. Reprinted 1913. Published Set up and electrotyped. Norwood.COPYRIGHT.S. . . 1910.A. 1915. May. Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co. 1917. .
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. and conse . All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. manufactured for this purpose. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. specially 2. Such a large number of methods. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra." this book.
two negative numbers. hence either book 4. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. For the more ambitious student. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Topics of practical importance. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. however. In regard to some other features of the book. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . especially problems and factoring.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. etc. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. Moreover. are placed early in the course. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. as quadratic equations and graphs.g. e. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.
and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. based upon statistical abstracts. such examples. viz. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. in " geometry . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and commercial are numerous.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. is based principally upon the alge . Moreover. By studying proportions during the first year's work." Applications taken from geometry. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. physics.
April. 1910. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. edge of physics. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. however.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P.
SUBTRACTION.... ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ..... Powers. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION........ AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. .
. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ..... Type II. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type V.. Type Polynomials. . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . /^ .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type IV. .. Type III. . * . . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .114 ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type VI. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .
. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ..... .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... Evolution of Monomials 170 .... CHAPTER XIV 169 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
2. c f d). 11. 0." EXERCISE If a 1. \/c. d 7. V^a6. 27. is 28. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 6. 16. (cfd) 4. V2a. 14. V3 . 13. or 9 Vx. A binomial is 62 . some number is . 7 = 2. b = 3.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. + c). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 10.g. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. as in arithmetic. v'Ta. 8. a polynomial of two terms. c = 1. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. 5Vl6c. are trinomials. V36". 4V3~6c. 9. + 1]. Val \fi?. x 9. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. find the numerical value of: Vff. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. A polynomial is an y. 12. 2 . 4(a 6(6 + &). 15. [6c] 3 . aVc^. 6. since the parts are a . 26. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 3. e. 17. expression containing more than one and a 4 term.
Ex. EXERCISE 8*  . 8. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.30 = 270 . c=l.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . = 32 + 4527 = 50. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.. 3.390.99.e. . 5. 12. 4 . x=^. Otherwise operations of addition. b = 3. 2. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. a=4. 6. 14. 10.INTRODUCTION 29. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. l 13. 6. a2 11. d=Q. a 2 6.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . multiplication.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .g. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5=3. . __ E. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 3 2 If 1. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 52 . 1. + 26+3 c. 3a + 56 a 2 . 4. * For additional examples see page 268.9. . (a (a f b) 7. 5c +d 2 .2 + I126.810 + 150 = .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . . find the numerical value of: 9.19 = 6. subtraction. d = 0. 4a6fVaV2^. 2 ).4 6^9 ad.9 aWc + f a b . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 5. 16.5 ax 50 a6cd. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. Ex. c = 2. i. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 3 4 . 2.
c) (a . 22. a = 3. if : a = 2. sible to state Ex. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 35. a = 3. 6 = 6. 30. 6 = 1. 26 of the exercise. a =4. 24. 6 = 3. 23. 6 = 5.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 5. geometry. a =3. 38. a = 4. 28.6 . a a=3. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 25. 34. a = 4. Six 2 . 33. 6=2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). physics. Read the expressions of Exs. 30. a. : 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). 37. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 7. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. = 3. 29. 6. . and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). and other sciences. Six times a plus 4 times 32. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 27. a = 2. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6. 26. 6 = 2.
and c 13 and 15 = = = . 13.e. count the resistance of the atmosphere. A train in 4 hours. if v = 30 miles per hour.seconds. if v : a. d. b 14. b. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. i.16 centimeters per second.) Assuming g . An electric car in 40 seconds. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. (c) 4. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. the area of the triangle equals feet. .INTRODUCTION E. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. c. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.g. and 5 feet. and 15 feet. if v . 14. 4. 12. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. and 13 inches. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. (b) 5. Find the height of the tree. 2.16 1 = 84. 84 square EXERCISE 1. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 15 therefore feet.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.14d (square units). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. . ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 5 miles.). : 8000 miles. square units (square inches. the area etc. $ = 3. (c) 5 F. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 10 feet.). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 8000 miles. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. the 3. 5. (The number 3. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. If the (b) 1 inch. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14 square meters. 32 F.14 4.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 2 inches. meters. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.
or positive and negative numbers. however. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. . in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. SUBTRACTION. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.
(always) prefix the sign of the greater. 12. 22. 24. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. c = 4. '. 23. (_ In Exs. 18. is 2. lf(2). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign.16 32. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 10. of: 20. d = 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 19. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 4 is 3 J. is 0. c = = 5. subtract their absolute values and . 33. 21.3. 2326. + (9). 5. . 4.  0. d = 0. + 12. 5. the one third their sum. of 2. 6 6 = 3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. Thus. = 5. if : a a = 2. (17) 15 + (14).
5 and 12. .ADDITION. 30. c = 0. }/ Add 2 a. . 10. 32. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. = 23. 0. 6. 3 and 25. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 33. 7 a. 35. 2. : 34. & = 15. . 38. 3. 4. 10. d= 3.. . 31. 11 (Centigrade). = 22. ^ ' 37. . and 3 a. 36. 37. : 48. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.3. 43. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.5.. 7 yards. 42. and 3 a. are similar terms. and 8 F.4. = 13. 72. and 3 yards. c=14. affected by the same exponents. 09. : and 1. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 40. 41. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 6.7. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. $1000 loss. . \\ Add 2 a. 13. or and . ' Find the average of the following 34. 60. $3000 gain. sets of numbers: 13. which are not similar. 29. and 3 F. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 4 F. 1. 66. $500 loss. 10. & 28.. 6. 32. and 4. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. SUBTRACTION. 39. ' 1? a 26.13.7. . 7 a. 34. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. 55. $7000 gain. 25. 12. 27.5. and $4500 gain. . 74. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.
12(af b) 12. 5l 3(af6). 2(af &). 12 2 wp2 . .13 rap 25 rap 2. 11. 12Vmfn. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2 . 3a . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . b a f ( 6). : 2 a2. 13. 9(af6). 10. in algebra it may be considered b. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 5 a2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 5Vm + w. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. or a 6. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 7 rap2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign.18 35. Algebraic sum. 2 a&. The sum x 2 and f x2 .ii. 14 . + 6 af . EXERCISE Add: 1. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. Vm f. f 4 a2.
and to add each column. + y. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 6 23. SUBTRACTION. + / + 3 Va. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17. l^S 25.ADDITION. 35. 37. 30. 32. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. c 2 ^24. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 2 7 1 26. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. without finding the value of each term 34. a a8 ZL **. 36. n x* 2 22. 33. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. 1 27. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. is . 2/ : Add. 21. +m """ 20.
therefore the answer is correct. ft any convenient and c. 6=2. and 2 .12 a& 4. e.c= 2. 2 025. 2 Thus.3 s. to show any error. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 4 = 7. and J 2 s. to add 26 ab . . = .8 abc .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. c = 1. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. . f 110WS: 26 aft. 2 . 9 q 4. 2 Sum. NOTE.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.g. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .o c and 4. 3. 3a 2? .15 6c. x of x. 5 . the erroneous answer equal 7.15 abc .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .g. a 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. .41 = 3. of that letter. V3. 4 2. 7 4.7 2 . s. 5.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 46 4z 7 c. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.20 c 5 ab 4.
d and / 3 ? 12. 2 2 . 4 8 3 4 4 . 4. and 1 4 a . v/20.a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 4(a . . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 and 9m 48m 4. . 16.4 Va . a + 1> 8 2 2 .12.7m . .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a) y ^/. and and 13.1 a 4 1 0. a2 a. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. and .Ga 43x45. a 4 a .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.a.4:xy xz 6yz. xy3xz + yz. 11. ?/ .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 2 ?/. in 8 3 m n 4.12 6 ~5 a . . 3 2 2 3 9 . . and v 15. 8. 2 2 and . 19. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 2 3(c f a).Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2 ?ft ?/z. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).ADDITION. 16e + 17/90.9(a + &) . and 5 Vb 18. m 4 6. 7ar + 3B 5. 2 a. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. and 8 3 . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 56 w. ^2 1 e. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . . 18/+6y + d. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.VS 4 2 Vc.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .1. . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.5a^6 f 6) . a 4 a .10 Vc. a.7v/if.a . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.15 5. a2 2 14.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4 Vc. + 50 + 62 . d. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .5 cr& + 7 6 9.2n 2 2 3 rz .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . .12(a 4.a 4 a 4 1. e a4 /. . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . SUBTRACTION. 4 ajy 17. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4 3 .8 m 2m 12.6. + a + 1.(b + c) 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .and 6.
8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . a 6 2 c. If you diminish a person's debts. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. and e + 6y . 1. 6 f c 2 23. 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1/ . 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 22. 45a6 2 .11 xy + 12. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . many negative units re main ? from 2.3 taken from 2 ? 5. how 1.ra + m. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 1.3^* 2n 2 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.m 4m ?/?/ d. 12 xyz. is 2. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. and 2 24. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. +d a. The sum and ? 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.9aj 2. . 13 1. f number may be added 3. + 1. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. + n*. .22 21. T8a. s . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1. and 25. f 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 ..4 2tn* Sic 2 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.
the other number is required. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. and their algebraic sum is required. 7. ( 6) ( = . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . . two numbers are given. 1.2. This gives by the same method. In subtraction.3. 3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Or in symbols. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the given number the subtrahend. In addition. if x Ex. NOTE. Therefore any example in subtraction different . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. SUBTRACTION. From 5 subtract + 3. a. Ex. 6 (3) = 8. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. To subtract.ADDITION. 5 is 2.g. called the minvend. From 5 subtract to . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. ab = x. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. from What 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. and the required number the difference. 41. 2. +b 3.
24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8. Check.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Ex.3 x* . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o.
From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. + a the 2 a. 49.ADDITION. c f d. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . and 3 7/ .c. From 6(af. 6 4 a. 47. 58.4 a*& + 6 a & .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. check the answer.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . of a 4.7 a . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 54.a 2 j.w>t. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . tract 4 x 3. 57.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 45. 2. 52. 48. 42.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 46. 41. 50. SUBTRACTION. From 2 a take a & j. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .6)f. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 44. 2y 2 .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.4 a^ 4.2. 55. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. From From x2 the sum sum 7. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 51. 53. 43. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . . 56. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.
of # 2 8.26 4. a a + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . A is n years old. 6 17. 19. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. + 6 + c.15. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 20. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 16. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. +a add the difference duce 13. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 9. + 2. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. a 2y + z. subtract # + 1. 2 m 21. a + 6.
changed. I. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.b c = a a & f f.g.c. & f c.2 b . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. one occurring within the other. the sign is understood.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. a+(bc) = a +b . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 46.6 b f (.c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. Ex. SUBTRACTION.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.ADDITION. II. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 45.a^6)]  } . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
18. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. By removing parentheses. 9. + (2a 6 + c ).[271 47. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. .+ 6)f (a2 b). 2. 13. ? 11. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].: Ex. 3 3 f 7. 4. 6) 2. [36+ (a 2c].) 5 . find the numerical value of { 1422 . 8. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 271 + (814 . In the following expression inclose the second and third.7i h jp) (m ?*. 14. 5. a f (a a .28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. (m a2 f. 15.y (60. 16. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 6. Signs of aggregation 1. : x + (2yz). 2 2a. a (a + 6). m f ft) a. Ex. a (a + 26 c ). 19. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 17.)]. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.(a + 6). 21. 2 2 2 a(. may be inserted according to 43.1422) J ] . 3.
Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. difference of the cubes of n and m. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2mn + 2q3t. 5^2 _ r . 6.1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 7. 9. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. terms 5. . and the subtrahend the second. The difference of a and 6. 12. 13. m x 2 4. z + d. 7. )X 6. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The product The product m and n. y f 8 . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The square of the difference of a and b. ' NOTE. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. p + q + rs.ADDITION. 8. 2. of the cubes of m and n. 3.7fa. SUBTRACTION. first. a\l> > c + d. m and n. II. The sum^)f m and n.4 y* . 10. 3. 5 a2 2. 6 diminished .2 tf . 4. 5. The sum of tKe squares of a and b.
a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6 is equal to the square of b. b.30 14. 18. 16. d. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. (Let a and b represent the numbers. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) .
weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. A A A 1. If the two loads what What. 2.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads balance. weights. what force is produced by the Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. therefore. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . force is produced therefore. 5.
4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. To take a number 7 times. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. becomes meaningless if definition. however. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. thus. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. such as given in the preceding exercise. 48. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.9) x 11. NOTE. ( (.32 8. the multiplier is a negative number.4)(4) = + 12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.4)(. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Thus. 4x(3)=12. x 11. 9 x ( 11). or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. . 4 multiplied by 3. 5x(4). 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. or plied by 3. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 4 multi44444 12. 9 9. Practical examples^ it however. (5)X4. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. (.
(. . 4. Law Thus. 4 a2 . z s 11 aWcx. (7) X (12). 8 31. 26. 29. 32. 5x3.3) (1) 7 2 . about fac (2)X If 6. 3 aW. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers.7. NOTE. . 9. . 12. 3. _2^ 3. 2a6 c .a)( =+ a&. c = 25. 8. 13. and y = 4. 11. (2)x9. (2) 8 (. 19.2f 18. 16. etc.(a&c) 2 2 . 10. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. of Signs: TJie positive. the parenthesis frequently omitted. If a cal = 4a6c.4. 6. +5. find the numeri values of: 21. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. tors is no misunderstanding possible. is 6x7. 22. X(5). (10) 4 .3.2 f+x 2 . x= 0. 3. (c#) . b = 3.2. 3 a2?/2 . 8 4 . x. 6. 30. 5.MULTIPLICATION 50. 24. 6 2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 15. 1. 7. _2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 27. . 14. 4 . (4)'. 2a 2 6c. (4)X(15). 17. 23. . _3. 20. Ua b 28.(4J). 2. 1.
9 . a 2 2 .  and 2 25 8 . 14. 53. 3 2 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 78 . 3. 2(14.e. 5 . 6 = . B..1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2 2 3 6 . 3.(2.257). 5 = 2.2 2 23 + 5 . &*) c d*. . i. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 34.35). 16. 5. 12 U U . a= 1. This 52. . a8 a=2.m a 3  4 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. (a6) (a5) 9. 6 aWc x . =2 a *.7. 13. 6 = 1. 2 3 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .(12) . or 2 .(7). 2 2 2 . Ex. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. fl*" integers. 11. 4. By 3 definition. 3 3 4 . 5(711. 100. 2(7.503). . 50(112. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a = 3. 17. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 10. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. = 2. . a = 2. 6" 127 U . . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 200. : 3a7abc.  2 2. of the factors. + 2/). 36. 7. 127  127 9 7 . 4. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 2.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2.6 if 35. & = 3. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 5 3 5 3 2 . Ex.3). 1. m*. 6.2).. 4.<?. IB.
called the distributive law. 17(10041042). .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2(5fl5f25). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 20. 11(3. 35 4 7(6.6. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 28. (. This principle. 2. 27. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. ) 2 33. 12( + 1 4 i). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). If results ft.A). 23. 34. 7p*q r*.7pqt. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . . 4. 23(10004100420). 19. 21. (. 3. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.2 3 aft ). 2 32. 25. and then adding : 1. _4aft. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . ax /) 2 4 1 (. .7 w'W (8 n^W).3 win ) . 26. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 6(10420430). 31. 22. 5. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 35. multiply each by the monomial. by first multiplying. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. . 6. 7. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. .f 2). c(4a ftc ). 24.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. . 29. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. /).4a#. 3(124342). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2(645410). but we shall assume it for any number.
29.3 aftc). . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Find the factors of 6 ary . 2 27. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. . 20. . 17.asa product. 12. 3 ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. By what 25. 19. 26. 2 m(mhn \p). 28. 7 a 6 c(. : expression must 24.we b) (x law. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.60 a& 10 aft. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 21. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.5 w*V f 7 wn).5 x 7).^ c + 2 . f7a. 11. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). ~2mn(m +n p ). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . be multiplied to give 4o.6 a6). 23. 9. 30. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .2 mn(9 mV . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 2 16. 22.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . 5).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .
1. Multiply 2 a . Ex.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.4. 2. Since errors. the student should apply this test to every example. To multiply two polynomials. 59. Multiply 2 + a a.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 2a3b a66 2 a . . Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Check. however. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 a 2 + a8 . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a .3 b by a 5 b.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. a2 + a8 + 3 . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.
(ajf6y)(aj 23. 20. 1).2). 30. 2) (3 A: 1).1 . 16. 2 . 2 . (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 32. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 12)(a?^2l). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 36). 40. 5.2m)(l m). 36) I) 14. 22. 18. 25. 7. 29. (a^26) . QQ O7. (2 x* x 2 . + & + 1f a^faj 1). 26. (2w 19.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 31. 15. 3. 36. 9. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 11. (8r7*)(6r39.n)(m 8 n)(m n).4) (x + 1). (6i7n)(llJn). . (4a 2 33. 4 2). 2  37. OQ OO. 28. 3<7). 2 (a al)(2a?fl).4) (mnp 4. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 7y). . 10. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 24. 4. (6a~7) 2 . 35. l)(raf 2). 12.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 6. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 17. (13 A. ^ 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). a 5c)(2a6c). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. * For additional examples see page 261. 2. 8. (6p (2 f 21. 41. 13. I (mfn)(m4.
24. 1005x1004. in of the two unequal terms. 2 6) (a 3 6). (*. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). . + 60)(f2). : 23 2. 12.e. + 5) (1000 + 4). i. + 3) (a 7). 22. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.2 6) (a f 6). 8. (a (a (a. 25 a 2 . 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 9. X 102. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 2 a? 29. 7. (ra. 18. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).25)(y+4). 27. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. i. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 10. 20. (a 102 x 103. (a 9) (a + 9). . 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.n)(wf w). plus the product of the two unequal terms.13). 6. 25.e. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.4). 75 ab f 54 ft . 11. 1) (10 + 2). 15. 17. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (!)(* 5). ft 16. _3)(a _4). + 9)(m+9). 21. 19. 2) (1000 + 3). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 14.!!)( (a + 21). (6 12) (6 f. 26. 28. 3. (J 23. plus the product 62. (p12)(p + ll). . + 2) (a f 3). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (10+ (1000 (2. (a3)(a + 2).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 13. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .
Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.30. i. i. plus the square of the second.66 s. III. (a2) (p a . plus twice the product of the first and the second.15. 4. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus sum of two numbers the square II. p 2 p. 7. . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. w 2 ro . 32. 33. III. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . + 3) 2 . . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (a26) 2 . 34.15. 49 y*. a2 2 w + 2 w . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 77ie square of the of the first. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 7 a + 10. 3. 31. Ex.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e. of the second. 2 5. + 6 a + 8. 9. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 63.e. 6. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 37. 8. (x+3i/) 2 . : 24 (a 2.e. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 35. <J>7) J . . and the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 . n2 10ii+16. second.
7& ) 25. + 3z) 2 2 . 52. + 5)(5+a). 48. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 54. 25 a 9. 41 16. 11. (1000 2 . 62 25n 2 . 28. (^. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . n 2 f4n+4. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 12. 46. 2 (4a36) 2 13. ). . 4 53. 15. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 103 36. (a 3) 2 2 2 . By actual multiplication. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 21. 41. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 44. (20 f 1) . 31. 104 2 37. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 . 22. 42. 47. 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). m 2 16. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 22 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 16aW25. 2 9a 496 2 56. 17. 99x101. 24. 40.MULTIPLICATION 10. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. I) 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 34. 998x1002. 2 11 # ) 2 20.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 2 . 55. 29. 14. + 5). 2 . 2 J ). 23. 18. . The product of 57.998 39. 991 2 2 . 32. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (100 + 2) (100 2). 9 a2 . G> +5g)*. a2 9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 51. . 45. 38. n*6n+9. 33. ( 27. 49. 35. (2x3yy. .
(4s + y)(32y). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 5. (3m + 2)(ml). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 8. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). sum of the cross products. 11. (5a64)(5a&3). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 4.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 7. (5a4)(4al). 65. (2a3)(a + 2). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). : 25 2. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 2 10. ) (2 of a polynomial. 13.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the last terms.& + c) = a + tf + c . or The student should note minus signs. The square 2 (a 4. 6. 3. ((5a? (10 12. 14. (100 + 3)(100 + 4).
24] . (u4& + 3c'. = . 66. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 8. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 65) . Ex. 13.(x . Hence. 12. 6.4) . 8. 3. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. If x = 1. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).i2&c) 2 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.39. . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (xy+z)*. 3. 7.1 5 = 10 .(>. of z : 10.3) (x .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 2)6.5) = (7 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). + 6)( . 4y sf n) 2 . 4.r _ 2 .(= [ Xa + 2 .5). 2 2. = 10 x . (a (. after multiplying the factors of a term. (  2 4) =  20 a. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. and check the answers !. n).8 x + 15] .y? + 8 . 4(* + 2)5(3).39. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 5. 9. 4(aj2)h3(7). Check.X2 + 2 x .4) .29. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Find the square root 11.[a? .3)(z. 6(a 2.3) . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. a.24 . 5.(m 2 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 7. 6~2(a + 7). 4.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
11 a + 9 a . .l. a I.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).2) (3 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 20. v/17. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 16. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 51 15.e. (81 m + 1 .DIVISION 14. 18. Division of the difference of two squares. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 19.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . .
16.000.0001. 15. . 16 . . 12.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 9& 2 . 100ry. 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. : the following w a 4 !. f 13.49. aW 12 a. 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14. r/ 1. 10.
second member is x + 4 x 9. 81. is said to satisfy an equation. . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. hence it is an equation of condition. in the equation 2 x 0. =11. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . . . x 20. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. the 80. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 83. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. Thus. the first member is 2 x + 4. (a + ft) (a b) and b.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 82. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13.
85. 2. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 2 = 6#f7. Transposition of terms. called axioms 1.2. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the quotients are equal.g. but 4 does not equal 5. the products are equal. If equals be added to equals. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 90. A term may be transposed from its sign. a. 89. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. NOTE. If equals be subtracted from equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be divided by equals. x I. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.54 84. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. . 5. one member to another by changing x + a=. A numerical equation is one in which all . A 2 a.b. 86. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .e. 87. E. 4. the remainders are equal. the sums are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. If equals be multiplied by equals. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 3. the divisor equals zero.
x = 3. Uniting similar terms. 2 x = 6.6 y f y\ . Unite similar terms.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . The first member. Hence the answer. b Adding a to both + a. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Dividing both members by 2. Ex. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. The second member. a? Adding 5 to each term.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4x 1 + 6. 2(11 . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. a= a 6fc. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.2 y= f . To solve a simple equation. Dividing by Check. is correct. (4y)(6. and the known terms to the second. if 55 x members. The first member. Check. f If y 20 . 3 y . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.8. x = 93. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. b c.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. x = (Axiom 3) 92. .y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Subtracting 4 x from each term. 91. if a x = b. Transposing.2. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.
etc. J. 3. .69. 7 (6 x 16). 4y 10. 15. a. 8.56 Ex. 13a? 3a?. 9 9a? = 7 13. 14y = 59(24y + 21).7a: = 394a.7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). + 22. 32 = 264. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).. 24. 17 + 5a. and check the answers 9. v23. 6. x = 18.. 7a? 5. 20. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. Transposing. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 50. : 5# = 15+2a. Dividing by Cfcecfc. a?. a. If x = 18.17 + 4y = 36. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 14. f Simplifying. \x x 2^xfl. 11 ?/ a? 18. Uniting. a? a?. 3 7 a. =2 = 3. + 7(3 + 1) =63. = 5a?+18. 11. + 16 = 16 + 17. 7. {(x (x The The member right member left . 12. it NOTE. 247y = 68lly. 2. 4a + 5 = 29. = 2 ?/. x x 1 . 16. 4. 22. 17 7 a. . = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3. = 7. Solve the following equations by transposing. 21. 13 y 99 = 7 y. aj * See page 264. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. = 3. 19.
and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . (aj 37. or 70 a?.4) + 4 w . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 31.5) + 199. 39.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .14 = 0. . . 41.7) (7 x + 4) . Evidently 45. 2 2 * Jaj.1) (u .5(2 u . . 5) (as (a.(2 + 6) (4 . 7) (a. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 30. . 6(6a. : One part is of 70 is 25 .2) (M .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 25. . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 38. (a.3) . + 7) (.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 42.3) + 14. 27. (6 u =5 44.g.7. . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.3) + .32. 40. a? 28. find the other part. 34. e. . .5) = (a. is the other part. 35. 7(7 x y 26. 29. a? 43.1 0) = 0.12) (2 + 5) .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 36. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 33. + 4). this question. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.1) (a (a? + 3) = .
7. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one part equals is 10. is d. 5. Ex. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. If 7 2. Divide a into two parts. 11. 13. is a? 2 is c?. so that of c ? is p. smaller one 16. 9. 6. 15. 14. find the cost of one yard. 3. Find the greater one. EXERCISE 1. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Divide 100 into two 12. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 6. 17. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 33 2. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . or 12 7. one yard will cost 100 dollars. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. and the smaller one parts. so that one part The difference between is s. is b.58 Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 4. a. 1. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. greater one is g.
How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. How many cents has he ? 27. numbers is x. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many years A older than is B? old. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B's age is y years. 19. amount each will then have. Find 35. 28. A feet wide. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. is A A is # years old. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. sum If A's age is x years. A man had a dollars. 28. ?/ 31. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 20. 26. find the has ra dollars. and spent 5 cents. 33. 22. 34. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find 21. and B is y years old. and c cents. and B has n dollars. 24. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. If B gave A 6 25. 32. How many cents had he left ? 28. A dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. b dimes. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago.
49. per Find 5 Find 6 45. % % % of 100 of x. m is the denominator. The first pipe x minutes. c a b =  9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. 46. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41.50. A cistern is filled 43. he walk each hour ? 39. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. A was 20 years old. a." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). 48. Find a 47. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. . A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find the number. . of m. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. of 4. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The two digits of a number are x and y. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. Find a. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000.
double of a is 10. 6. of x increased by 10 equals x. c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. by one third of b equals 100. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a increased much 8. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 9. 80. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2. 80. 3. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. c. same result as 7 subtracted from . etc. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The double as 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. a exceeds b by c. 5. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The excess of a over b is c. 4. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a and 10 equals 2 c.
first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. they have equal amounts. B's. 11. 6 % of m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 50 is x % of 15. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's ages will be 100. a. (c) If each man gains $500. m is x % of n. x is 100 x% is of 700. 14. A gains $20 and B loses $40. B's age 20. is If A's age is 2 x. 12. B. 3 1200 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. they have equal of A's.62 10. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. a second sum. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. a. as 17 is is above a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. x 4 If A. #is5%of450. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 16. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. express in algebraic 3x : 10.. 18. of 30 dollars. >. amounts. pays to C $100. express in algebraic symbols : 700. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. In 10 years the sum of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 17. sum equals $20. and C's age 4 a. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. . symbols B.000.
Transposing. the . Let x = the number. Uniting. 3z40:r:40z. etc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Dividing. the required . Uniting. 1. Let x The (2) = A's present age. x+16 = 3(35). = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. A will Check. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Transposing. but 30 =3 x years. x= 15. be 30 . number. Ex. Ex. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 6 years ago he was 10 . 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 2. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Simplifying. 23 =30. NOTE. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. denote the unknown 96. Three times a certain no. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. much as 40 exceeds the number. number of yards. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Check. 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 4 x = 80. x = 20. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. In 15 years 10. In order to solve them. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. . Find A's present age.
Forty years hence his present age. Dividing. EXERCISE 1. Let x 3. 120. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. How long is the Suez Canal? 10.2. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 4. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. % of 120. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 13. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 5. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number. twice the number plus 7. 300 56. 14. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Six years hence a 12 years ago.64 Ex. A number added number. Find the number. by as much as 135 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Hence 40 = 46f. 11. exceeds the width of the bridge. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. . How many miles per hour does it run ? . 3. Find 8. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.
1. times as much as A. The other verbal statement. The sum of the two numbers is 14. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. the second one. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 97. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. The problem consists of two statements I. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. During the following 90 years. two verbal statements must be given. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. 65 A and B $200. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. five If A gives B $200. written in algebraic symbols. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and B has $00.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. B How will loses $100. . F 8. x. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If A gains A have three times as much 16. 14. A and B have equal amounts of money. B will have lars has A now? 17. is the equation. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. One number exceeds the other one by II. statements are given directly. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and as 15. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Vermont's population increased by 180. Ex. Find the population of Maine in 1800.000. which gives the value of 8. Maine's population increased by 510.000. How many dol A has A to $40.
which leads ot Ex. the greater number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. 25 marbles to B. consider that by the exchange Hence. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x = 8. terms of the other. to Use the simpler statement. = A's number of marbles. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Uniting.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. the smaller number. If we select the first one. = B's number of marbles. If A gives are : A If II. A gives B 25 marbles. = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. x x =14 8. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. . 2x a? x j = 6. Statement x in = the larger number. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. I. A has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as many as A. < Transposing. = 3. unknown quantity in Then. Then. / . 2. x 3x 4 and B will gain. Dividing. A will lose. B will have twice as viz. 8 = 11. . the sum of the two numbers is 14. Let x 3x express one many as A. has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. + a f f 8 = 14. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. The two statements I.
have a value of $3. Two numbers the smaller. Check. Check. 3 x = 45. etc. x = the number of half dollars. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. x = 6. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. x from I. Find the numbers. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. * 98. B's number of marbles. w'3. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).550 f 310. . of dollars to the number of cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 1. the number of half dollars. is 70.10. Uniting. Simplifying. and the Find the numbers. Dividing.. x = 15. by 44. the number of dimes. Let 11 = the number of dimes.10. The sum of two numbers is 42. but 40 = 2 x 20. 45 . 6 times the smaller. cents. The value of the half : is 11. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.. 40 x . The number of coins II.. Find the numbers. (Statement II) Qx . the price. 60. 3. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 2. Uniting.75. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. A's number of marbles.240. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. consisting of half dollars and dimes. then. Eleven coins. 15 + 25 = 40.$3. 11 x = 5. Simplifying.25 = 20. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 50 x Transposing. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 50. * ' . greater is . dollars and dimes is $3.10.5 x . . Dividing.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many hours does the day last ? .68 4. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 7. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. A's age is four times B's. 6. as the larger one. 5.. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.000 feet. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. tnree times the smaller by 65. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 11. On December 21. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Find their ages. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 9. United States. the number. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. McKinley. and twice the altitude of Mt. How many 14 years older than B. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and four times the former equals five times the latter. one of which increased by 9. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Everest by 11. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Twice 14. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.
If 4x = 24. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. are : C's The three statements A. then three times the money by I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. number of dollars A had. 1. = 48. If A and B each gave $5 to C. x = 8. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. original amount. Let x II. and C together have $80. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. and B has three as A. III. bers is denoted by x. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80. has. number had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. Ex. number of dollars of dollars B C had. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B. and 68. I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. times as much as A. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 19. The third verbal statement produces the equation. II. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. they would have 3. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B has three times as much as A." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. . then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. has.
each cow $ 35. x j = the number of horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of sheep. Uniting. x = 5.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The total cost equals $1185. III. sheep. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x f 4 = 9. according to II.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of cows. first. number of horses. 185 a = 925. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. cows. and Ex. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. three statements are : IT. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 90 may be written. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 4 x f 8 = 28. and. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 9 5 = 4 . the third five times the first. and the sum of the . + 35 x 4. number of cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and each sheep $ 15. 28 2 (9 5). each horse costing $ 90. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. x Transposing. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Dividing. 9 cows. 1 1 Check. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to III. 2. Let then. + 8 90 x and. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The I. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4.
New York delphia. the copper. v . and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the third 2. and the sum of the first and third is 36. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. equals 49 inches. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. what is the length of each? has 3. first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.  4.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. how many children were present ? x 11. If twice The sum the third side. first. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. 13. twice as old as B. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. twice the 6. increased by three times the second side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. A 12. 9.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 7. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The gold. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.000. men. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the population of each city ? 8. women. "Find three is 4. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and children together was 37.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and 2 more men than women.
and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. and quantities area. and distance.000 more than that the copper. such as length. A and B apart. or time. After how many hours will they meet and how E. i. = 35. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Find the value of each. 3 and 4. First fill in all the numbers given directly. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 14. number of miles A x x walks. 8 x = 15. Hence Simplifying. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000. together. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Let x = number of hours A walks. 7 Uniting. we obtain 3 a. width. of 3 or 4 different kinds. how many 100. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.000.e. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Dividing.g.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. speed. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of hours. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. . but stops 2 hours on the way. = 5. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.
l. The an area 40 x 20 =800. . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100." gives (2.05 x x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.04 8.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. or 700. 2   and transpose. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. But 700 certain = 800 2. . and the width decreased by 10 yards. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. Find the dimensions of the field. 70x10 Ex. the area would be 100 square yards less.01 = = . 10 x = 200. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. $ 800 = 800. the second 100.M(x . Transposing and uniting. $ 1000 x . z = 20. Check.053. were increased by 30 yards.06 = $ 40. 2 a = 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x . + 8. Multiplying. original field has Check.04 = $ 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. $ 800 = required sum. x + 200). x .
A of each. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. Six persons bought an automobile. together bring $ 78 interest. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sets out later two hours B . sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Find the share of each. Ten yards $ 42. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. invested at 5 %. as a 4. A sum ? invested at 4 %. the area would remain the same. 1. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and its width decreased by 2 yards. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. but four men failed to pay their shares.55. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1. twice as large. What are the two sums 5. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sions of the field. 2. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and a second sum. 3. mobile. After how many hours will B overtake A.
and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. After how many hours. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and from the same point. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. as. consider 105. An after simplifying. 6. we shall not. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. vV . this letter. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . but fractional with respect 103. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if. f db 6 to b. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a. irrational. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 5. a2 to 6. a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 76 . it is composite. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 104. which multiplied together are considered factors. stage of the work. if it does contain some indicated root of .
8) (s1). x. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 110.3 6a + 1). It (a. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . TYPE I.) Ex. or that a = 6) (a = a . 107.FACTORING 106.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Ex. for this result is a sum. 109. it follows that a 2 . in the form 4) +3. . 2. E. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 55. . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 1. 2. x.62 + &)(a 2 .62 can be &). y. 2. Divide 6 a% . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 01. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Factor G ofy 2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.g. 77 Factoring is into its factors. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. ?/.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. factors of 12 &V is are 3.3 sy + 4 y8).
4. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 Or. 18. in general. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 19. Ilro8 9.6. : 6 abx . a a 'Ja .g. 3. ) 22  2. 3 3 5 6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 7i 13. 7a & 10.3. 2 6. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. obviously.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 4 8 .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . . 32 a *?/ . 2 + q. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 4. 2.30 aty. 11. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 16. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.8 c a 15 ofyV . 20. 17.2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 8. q*q*q 2 a. + llm llm. 2 23. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .5 + 13 8. e.45 afy . . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 4 tfy f.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. (as 3) and (ccf5). 14. 5f 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 15. 15 2 7. x2 f2 x = 15 we have.3. 2 2 .51 aW + 68 21. 12. 34 a^c 8 . TYPE IT. 3 2 . 13.12 cdx.4. 14a 4 5.5 + 2. 3x*6x*. a6c.
Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). a 2 .G) = . tfa2  3. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 2 6. 2.. m 5m + 6. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. We may consider 1. but of these only a: Hence 2 . however. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.11 a + 30. Ex.11) (a + 7). .4 . If q is negative. Ex. 5.1 1 a tf a 4. Therefore Check.4 x . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. as p. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example. of this type. 4. 11 7. If q is positive. 77 as the product of 1 77. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.5) (a .6 = 20. or 7 11.77 = (a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 3.30 = (a . and (a . Factor a2 . the two numbers have opposite signs. or 77 l. can be factored.a).11. . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 30 = 20.FACTORING Ex. + 112. .11 a 2 .5) (a 6). Factor x? . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Factor + 10 ax .
x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 2 . . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 8. x2 23. . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 21. + 30. + 44.70 x y . 2 2 a' 34. or . 16. 13. 32. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 19. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 14. 31.180 a. a? + 5 + 6 a.6. 11. 2 . 36. + 4?/21. 33. 16. 9. a2 .80 7. + 2xS. 4 3 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. ra + 25ra + 100. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 100 xr . 25. ITT. ay 11 ay +24. 17. 12. 18. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 26. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 ?/ 28.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . a 7 a 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 20.500 x + 600. 30. 2 2 . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.48 + + 446 200. 2 . 21 a 2 2 . and 5 x. + 5<y 24. 29. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.17 + 30. 15. 35. TYPE 113. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 4 2 . . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 ?/ 22. 24. 27. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 .
we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.5 . 3 x and x.1). Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. but the opposite sign.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. a. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 6 x 9. 27 x 2. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. viz. the If p and r are positive. 9 x 6. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. and r is negative.13 x + 5 = (3 x . . 18 x 3. 3. . X x 18. or G 114. 11 x 2x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2.83 x f 54. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. If p is poxiliw. 54 x 1. then the second terms of have opposite signs. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. sible 13 x negative. Ex. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. the signs of the second terms are minus.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Factor 3 x 2 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. and that they must be negative. 2 x 27.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.5) (2 x .
3x*Sx + 4.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2 ar* 2 i/ . Sar' + SaG. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. f go. 2 2 2 23. 10. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 16. 20. + 4. 10 a .83 x . .260 xy . 9 y + 32^16.y + 172/9. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 144 x . 2x* + 9x5. 100^200^ + 100^. 22.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. and the monomial factors should be removed.7. 7. 2 31.83 x = (3 . 14 a fa 4. 12^17^16. 24.2 a 90 x*y . 21. 2 2 2 . 6n + 5?i4. 2 fc . x54 a. . 4. 35. 25. 2 . 5. 90 a 8 2 . X 27 . 5m 26m f 5. 34.30 y 6 4 . 6. 3. 2 28. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2m t7w + 3. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.2) (x . 15. since all others (II. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.27). 12y 2/6. 32. 12. 14. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. : 41 2. 11. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. . 9. 2 . 8. 10a2 G a2 2 . 13. the expressions should be it.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 29.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 17.163 x 2 . 30. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.19 a f 6.179. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 10a?2 2 33. 2. 18. 9a. 3a + 13a. + 2/3. 2 26. 19.
4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 12. 4. form are special cases of the preceding type. 14. and factor whenever possible : 1. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 2 . 6. 16 y? The student should note that a term. . 5.20 xy f 4 y\ . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. square. must have a positive sign.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 8. 9 10a625. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2.10 x f 16. 11. 3. 10. 9. it is more convenient for that type.26 ab + 9 6 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and a perfect square. 2 9 10gf25. 116. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. of its terms are perfect squares. 25 7. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2 2 . 13. . it is a perfect square. To factor a trinomial which maining term. i. however. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . x* . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .e. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.
9& 2 3<> 4 2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. prime. a. 149 a 81 8. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. a.60 a# + 4. 27. 10 a 2 4 2 .2 ofy + ofy m . a2 24. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 2 20. . 3.20 ab + 10 b a . 4 2 23. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. aV .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 16&*. 17. 9. product i. 2. 2 . 2 . 6. . ^//c to the Ex.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. TYPE 117. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 19. 2. 26. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 16. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 25. +( )f816 30. ).84 15. u2 6& + 2 ( ). * 2 . V.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 22. 1. Ex. 48 a +( ). 2 . 7. 9a2 .e. !Gar 9 ( )+25.6 m* + 9 m. According to 65. 6 2 . 225 ofy . ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 36 2 4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 4a2 l.64 6 = 16(a . . 3. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. + GO + 25. 18. 29.3 * ). ). 5.
8. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 14. Factor a 2 .(I) . 4. a2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. 13. a:) 12.c . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 5. of polynomials. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 16p 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. (m7?) y. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 36> . 9.FACTORING 85 118.d) 2 .(c 4. T. 2. 11. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 6. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2 . Ex. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Ex.
GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.VI. which may be factored according to types I. = (3 x + y .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 9.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. A.14.y + 2 2).ab + bx. 5. Ex. x8 . 8. 5) . 2. ive find that the new terms con common factor.a a . + x + 2x + 2.and trinomials. a 26 2 2 3 .7 c + 2c .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. After grouping tain a the terms. 12. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 4:cx . Ex. 6. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 10.r.2 ) (3 x . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. a? 11. 3. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. . 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. By grouping. . the expression becomes the difference of two squares.1. 1. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 119. 7. ma ?*a + m& nb. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a5 + ab 6 . 4 B.
w m 2. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6. 36 9 m .12 aaj 4 6y. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 5. 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 6 6. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. $ a8 . = (a + 6)(a6). 3. II.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.l. +c+ 2 2 2/ . Arranging the terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. : m 2 2 16. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. 3.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 6a4 12a2 + 6.FACTORING Ex. 2 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 4 a2 . IV. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. + 2xy + y*q*.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 2. 4. 8.4 f . 2a3/ 7. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 8ra 2 + 16. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. : 46 x* 2.
156. + 14. a6 36. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 42 s 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . (a. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 3 41. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 3 a2 23. 42 x .310 x .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 40. 14. a. 29. a3 156. (^ 34. 5 a. 13 c . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. + 6 aft + 3 . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.24. 2 a 128. 3 25. 4 8 tt 2 z . 30. 80 a 2 ft 38.13 c . 4 a.88 10. or 3 7#2 .40. 13. 35. 50^ + 45. 48. a + a + a + l. 28. 18. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 2 17. 2 ft . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 3 2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 24. 32. 22. 27. 5a' 20. 19. 11. a5 a 1 4 2 39.
expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. 5 s 7 2 5. F. 12 tfifz. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 2. C. The student should note H. 25 W. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 2 2 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. Thus the H. 122. C. aW. C.  23 3 . F. of : 48 4. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 5 7 34 2s .) of two or more . II 2 . F. 13 aty 39 afyV. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 3 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. C. The H. The highest is common factor (IT. F. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of two or more monomials whose factors . of the algebraic expressions. 3. 54  32 . F. 8 . of 6 sfyz. C. C. of aW.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. 89 . 5 2 3 . C. 24 s . 121. F. C. are prime can be found by inspection. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. . 15 aW. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . EXERCISE Find the H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The H. 6. Two common factor except unity The H. C. 5.
4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 0^80:416. 3). 9. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 8. 12 w*nw 8.2 ?/) (x .12 as 66 . .5 y). 49 C. 2 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ^f a. y + 3y64.90 7. 3. 12. F. . a3 16 a. 8 a 10 . 12 . ^707 + 12. = x 2 y. 15 3ao.# 4 afy f 4 .y + y42. 52 oryz4. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.6 . F. 11.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . F.5 x3?/ 2 6. 2a f5af 2.^9. 4(m+l) 3 . 15. 2 . 8. 38 #y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . Ex. 2 . . To find the H. x* x2 Hence the H. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . of: . a 3a4.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 24 a 2 . 8 6.2 y) (a. 8(?/ifl) 14. 10. 2 . 1. 14. C. 225 4a 9 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 2. of + 4 if. . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 95 2/V. 57 a>V. 3^ 2 4 . a2 . Find the H. . 5. a2 ar* 4. 25 m27i. ^a + 5^ + 6. and apply the method of the preceding article. a3 9a. 65 zfyV. . (a7 ?/) . 16 a . 9.y) . C.6 a&. 7. 13. a.6. C. 3 . 6 3 a. F. 13. 6 a2 y? .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. of polynomials. 1. a2 + 7af!2. 4 ?io. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. ^2 2 .y) 123. 12. 11. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. a2 + 2a3. 16.?/ .5 + 6. 10. 6(m+l) (m+2). 9 aj*(a? .8 a + 16. aWd. 6 mx .
two lowest common multiples.6 3 ). NOTE. &) 2 M. 60 x^y' 2 . C. 1. Ex. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 2. of the general.M. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. each set of expressions has In example ft).C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. etc. C. M. M. which also signs. 127. Find the L. The lowest common multiple (L. Hence the L. M of the algebraic expressions. Ex. C. but opposite . Common 125. The L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. a^c8 3 . of tfy and xy*. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. thus. L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. To find the L.C. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of 3 aW. M. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of several expressions which are not completely factored. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 126. M. Find the L.6)2. Obviously the power of each factor in the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. .M. 300 z 2 y. 128. L. ory is the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. M. 2 The The L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . . M. A common remainder. M.
3 Z> . G a. 3 . 3(a + b). or f 3 a 15 #. 4 a . M. x2 + 4 a f 4. 13. 2 x \2 y. 6 y. 8.1. 3. #. 2(m 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 18. afc'cd 2 . . (a 4)(a2) 12. x 2 5 a. Find the L. x* ~5a. a2 ~ab 1. a& 4 +& 2 . 1. afy.1. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a 2 f 4 a +4. 24 x.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 3 ab. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3 f2. 9. 5. 6 a. xy\ . 21. T a 3 a 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a 1. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . ) . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2 . ic 2 ?/. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a^1. 2 10. 2 a. b 2 . 11. 4 a 5 6cd. (For additional examples see page 268. 22. 16. 3. 2 a . y*. a !. a. 3 6 xif. a f 2 19. a?b. 5 a? 5 a? y. 24. 2 . a f 3. 6. 20. 14. of: 4. 20 9 a. 2. 2 a . a 2 a3 . ic 23. a. 6b 2 . 2 .f 6. 8 d 5 . + 6. by. a. a { a~b. 8 afy. + 2 7i) . 40 abJ. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 7. 4 a f 2. 15. a 2 fa6. 17. + 2. a2 4. . f b. 30 a. 2 7ic+10.
130. Thus. A f fraction is b. 131. but we In arithmetic. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. an indicated quotient. C. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . a b = ma mb . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. however. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. and denominators are considered. a?.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. rni Thus 132. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Ex. as 8. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. successively all 2 j/' . F.ry ^ by their H. Remove tor. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . etc.
33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.4) Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. cancel factors only. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 2.
29. 9x + "a" 10.. 11 ^ Mtr f . 16. 5^10 y 30. LJZJ^JL. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.10 a + 3 2 14. ' ^ . ^+3*. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.' 32. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^" a. g J 21. """. ny 4 18. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 23. .*. nx 17.7 . 19. ^' rt ^  31. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.
. ^ to their lowest com The L. Divide the L.3) (!)' = . multiplying the terms of 22 .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 2> . Reduce ^.1^22 ' . we may extend this method to integral expressions.C. C. mon T denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.M. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. . we have M^.M. 1).3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. + 3).  by 4 6' .96 134. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. and 135. .D.r 2 2 . C. and the terms of ***. of the denominators for the common denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. take the L. 1. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. TheL. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . by the denominator of each fraction. =(z (x + 3)(z. M. and (a 8). we have the quotients (x 1).  of //* 2 .C. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Ex.~16 (a + 3) (x.
5?. 2.^1.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. a? 1 5 > ^* .. 18.oj o* or / . 2 ay IB.. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 74).FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . common denominator 6. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 22 a2 5a * . JL. 137. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 8 i i. . 2aj ~ . If the given fractions have different denominators. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. o o a. .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. . 3. i. j y 3. 7i 2 ab* ".
2 = a(a .ft)(a .3 ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .2 ' 2 _. D. C.3 ft 2). (a .aft) Ca2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . e. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.(a 2 6). 4(2 a 3 ft).7 . in the beginning. as 4 aft f. and adding.. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . L.3 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. 2. 2 ^. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . The L. D.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. T? Ex..3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .ft) (a ft ft)~. the student should remember that parentheses are .g. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.
1 1 f w 16. 5a76 4a 106 9.5 18 ^4f25. 24. 2. 2L + 2a 1 17. a+6 a 6 2 14. j>0 i> 21. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 15. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 f q * 1 m m . + .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 23. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. + a "" 2 6 ' . 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 20. 6 c 3a 7. 18 v 19. a 36 ++. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. A+2_3. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.
a. 1 34.9. a ?^ 40. ! n. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a 30. 41. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 42.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9 79 6 2 i. 3a 9 +. af 1f /j. ic 1 + 1. 43. a 4 31. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 2 af1 32.
T.7 5a v Ex. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 + 4x 4 x2 .  4 or 3 2a. 1.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . Reduce . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .FRACTIONS 139. . 101 mixed expression.
integer. multiply the 142. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. (In order to cancel common factors. 2. !. fractions to integral numbers. Since  = a. 2 a Ex. F J Simplify . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. or. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . and the product of the denominators for the denominator.g.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.) Ex. we may extend any e.
14. 50 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~...6 12 d6 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 4 8. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 f 5 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. . aj 5 1 a? 18. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.
1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Divide Xn?/ . 144. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.
&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a a2 4.10 ?/ _. or both.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. l.5 ??i 80 50 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.afr 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.6 s + 064.^c 2 2 .FRACTIONS 105 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . are fractional. Ex.
16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. 9. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. JL. n a 8. the answer is directly obtained. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Simplify x }. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. Ex. . 7i+~ 7.a ^c c _^ a . . i.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . of their denominators. 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. 6. C. c +6. & .y 32 . a m "" . . 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4.
2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 i 1 2 5 . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. m^n* n L a 17. : .) . sy 18.~l (For additional examples see page 273.
Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. + 1) (a + 3) . If = 64.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 9x x Check.42 + 9. Bx 12 Qx. of the denominator. . If x 6. 2 3. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . C. Transposing.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Uniting. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). = 6. tions. these Ex. each member is reduced to Ex.28 a = 5 x2 .28 x + 42 = .48. = 6. each member is reduced to 1. 4 4)  x. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 2z2a. 148. Uniting. 2. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).14 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .1. M.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 2x Transposing. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).l)(z + 3) = . 1. 108 . 5(3 85 Check.8 x = . x = 6.9 x2 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. a. Clearing of fractions.
= xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . . 1 *> = 2.= 2. 16. . a: 7 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^' 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a.1 _77 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 18. '  4 13. 15. +4 14. ^1 = 9.
. y+3~2 29. J_.11_4 x 149. .  38 = 40.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. and" the remaining one a polynomial. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 25.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 32 6 . 4a4l4* + l~. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 ._ _ . 31 31. 26 26. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. If two or more denominators are monomials. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 27 . 3x 35. . 33. ?_=_.
r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. a.2 3 ~  == 7a. = 9. 26 a. 24 a. 5x x : = 9. the 1 5 L. 1.. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1. Transposing and uniting. M. 5# 10. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Check. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . Dividing. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. each member is reduced to ^.  5 = 20 x 45.2 42 9 43. 60. C. If a.
m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Ex. 2.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.1.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. fr Reducing lowest terms. = 2 f b 2 . f ~ 5c. Ex. find a in terms of b and c. 4 ac 1. = = 6 6c 7 6c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Uniting the Dividing. . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. y. Thus. Dividing. 5> a.& .2 62 2 ab. ax f x f. It frequently occurs that the x. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. a. If 3ac L= = a ? . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Uniting. they are united by factoring. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .2 ac + 3 aft . = l^ 9 b 4 . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. =a 2 151.be. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. jr. = 6 a2 .3 6 2 = a' .m bx 2 mn) x.
co?. + xx = 1. rate. in terms of other quantities. q solve for/. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. + 3a.= H. f P =+!. denoting the interest. = 3 (6 a). 11. 6. 34. 3(* 8. . a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. c 18. The The i time. 17.= c a Z> . 2 solve for y a. . iw 21. 29.= n. 1 f.i l . Ex. * Solve the same equation for^). solve for . p the principal. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 4. and n the number of years. If ^^ = a 1 32. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a.a. 3. 9. If * 33. IIL n b + &o. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. . 13. _ 2. t. 30. ^ ax a^ 26. If s If 16. m a? x . = rt. 5) is t =^. solve for a. s = Vt solve for v. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . c. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 14. = 5. 15. = vt. If s (wi n) x =px + q.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 8 4 #. mx = n. 12. 4. 31. 10. r the number of $>. f ^o.
~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 100 C. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. .. then = 2 TT#. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. .20 C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Multiplying by Dividing. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. is 36. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. and 12 = the number over. 1.114 35. A would do each day ^ and B j. Find R in terms of C and TT.180. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. 2 3 . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. = 16^. Ex. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Ex. 12. x Or Uniting.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.
4x = 80. 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. and the statement." : Let x  = the required number of days. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. Ex." gives the equation /I). Clearing. 180 Transposing. the required number of days. 32 x = . But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. or 1J. Solving. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. in Then Therefore.
is oO. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. of his present age. and of the father's age. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. 3. length in the ground. and one half the greater Find the numbers. A man left ^ of his property to his wife.  Find their present ages. make 21. ex What 5. fifth Two numbers differ 2. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is equal 7. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. to his son. by 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. a man had How much money had he at first? . and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his daughand the remainder. and J of the greater Find the numbers. money and $10. which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. by 6. ceeds the smaller by 4. and 9 feet above water. Find A's 8.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1.
^ at 5%. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. Ex. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 152. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 2. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. what is the 14. . An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 1. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. investments. and B in 4 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. Ex. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. after rate of the latter ? 15. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. air. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. How much money $500? 4%. A has invested capital at more 4%. 3.) 22. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and it B in 6 days.
A in 6. B in 30. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. A in 6. and apply the method of 170. .414. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. therefore. Hence. 25. B in 16.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Ex. 26. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. and n = 3. 2. The problem to be solved. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.g. .e.= . A in 4. To and find the numerical answer. 3. m and n. B in 12. if B in 3 days. e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.118 153. . n x Solving. they can both do in 2 days. is 57.009 918. B in 5. is 42. Then ft i. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.
33. 4J miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. and the rate of the second are. (c) 16. squares 29.001. Two men start at the first miles apart. 34. . and how many miles does each travel ? 32. and the second 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 2 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. respectively. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000.721. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. the rate of the first.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. Find the side of the square. (d) 1. the second at the apart. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. meet. is (a) 51. 5 miles per hour. The one: 31. is ?n . After how many hours do they meet. 3 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. squares 30. (b) 149. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. if m and n are. (b) 35 miles.
: : 155.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. E. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. the antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. " a Thus. a ratio is not changed etc. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .g. b. the denominator The the 157. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. the second term the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 6 12 = . b is the consequent. b. Simplify the ratio 21 3.5. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. the symbol being a sign of division. . 1. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. antecedent. etc." we may write a : b = 6. The first 156. Ex. In the ratio a : ft.
4:5f : 5. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. J:l. 1. two  ratios. 12. Transform the following unity 15. 16a2 :24a&. 8^ hours. 4. b is the mean b.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. In the proportion a b : = b : c. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 16. a and d are the extremes. 7:4 T T 4 . 3 8. : ay . 7f:6J. $24: $8. and c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. : 1. The last first three. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3:4. 27 06: 18 a6. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 17. and c is the third proportional to a and . extremes. equal 2. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 10. b. 62:16. 9. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 11. 6. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. terms. Simplify the following ratios 7. 5 f hours : 2. 3. 18. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 159. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. proportional between a and c. b and c the means. 61 : ratios 72:18.
'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.e. " we " NOTE.__(163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 163. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. are : : : inversely proportional. !. ccm. ad = be.) mn = pq. and the other pair the extremes. then G ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. If (Converse of nq. 6 ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. Hence the number of men required to do some work. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : c. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. In any proportion product of the extremes. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. q~~ n . of a proportion.) b = Vac. Clearing of fractions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. briefly. : : directly proportional may say. and the time necessary to do it. of iron weigh .122 162. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 164. 3 4. pro portional. The mean proportional of their product. 2 165. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. of iron weigh 45 grams.30 grams. i.
(Frequently called Inversion. I. a:c=b:d. (163. (Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 1. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. + b:b = c + d:d. Or IV. then =d c.PATIO Ex. (Composition. a III. is 4$ = 35. V. 2.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. . if 6 : 7. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 12x Hence a? = 42. bd bd.) (Called Alternation. I. ad ( 163. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. = 35 .) II. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) d 167. d d.) = f f = 3 J.) a + b:a = c + d:c. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. is Ex. hence the proportion true. ad = be. 166. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.
6 =4 : x.g. 4. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. . 120:42 2 2 7. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 12 5ft. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. the consequents by 7. . 5 5. Or III. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 2:x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.124 IT. i.e. = 20:7. IV. 5. Simplify the following proportions. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 9. 10. 2. = 180:125. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = 2:3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 8. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. E. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 3. x = 2. Apply composition. V. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. = 7:2f 3J. : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1.!=!*. mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.
12.. w. x m = y n. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.x: 6:5 a : x. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 2 a and 18 a. 3. + fyx = cy. ra. 7iy = 2:x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.:ff. 6x = 7y. 39. = 15o. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 23. 4 and 16.8:1. 43. 52. 27. 35. 31. = 2 + x: x. : 53. f. ra 2 . 51. 42. mx = ny. 28. 14. Find the third proportional 24. ratio of y. 47. = l^:18. a. . a 2 and ab. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 6. 33.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. ra + landra 1. 44. a?:15 15. 25. 1 and a. 1.  32. 50. 41.j>. 2. 9 x = 2 y. = 5 x 12. to: = 35:*. 29. 03:a?=135:20. 3.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. x:5 = y:2. b. 4. (a : : 45. Find the 37. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 5. = 3 43 + x. 22. 38. 20. 3t. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 17. 13. rap. if : 40. 26. terra 2:3 = 4. to : a and 1. rag. 6 x = y. : a2 . 34. 2= 5 x x. and 2/. 16 and 28. : . 2 3 = y #. 46. 21. 14 and 21. 112:42 = 10:a. 18. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. to : 9 and 12. Find the mean proportional 30. 16. 2. 5= 18 a? : a?.
what 58. and the area of the rectangle. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 7^. 56. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the : total cost. the squares of their radii (e) 55. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the speed of the train. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.126 54. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time necessary for it. the area of the larger? the same. 57. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the time.
AB = 2 x. is A line AB. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. Then Hence BG = 5 x. . 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 7 x = 42 is the second number. produced to a point C. 2 x Or = 4. 18 x = 108. : Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. as 11 Let then : 1. Let A B AC=1x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 inches long. x = 6. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2. x=2. so that Find^K7and BO. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.000 168. 11 x f 7 x = 108. = the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69.
3. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 12. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. How many gen. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Gunmetal tin. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. find the number of square miles of land and of water. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. and c inches.) . and 15 inches.000 square miles. 2. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 13. 14. : 4. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 9. What are the parts ? 5.000. 6. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. : 197. How The long are the parts ? 15. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 12. 7. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many 7. 11.
y = 1. x = 1. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. Hence. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. However. =. a? (1) then I. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. there is only one solution.L x If If = 0. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. The root of (4) if K 129 . if . etc. is x = 7. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. values of x and y.y=. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.e.. 2 y = . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. expressing a y. such as + = 10.
Therefore. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x . the last set inconsistent. of elimination most frequently used II. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 21 y . 3. to The two methods I. and 3 x + 3 y =. 174. 26 y = 60.130 170.24. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. for they express the x f y 10. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. y I 171. E.X. are simultaneous equations.26. cannot be reduced to the same form. Substitution. same relation. ~ 50.3 y = 80. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. By By Addition or Subtraction. 4y . The first set of equations is also called consistent. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 172. unknown quantity. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . = . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. viz. y = 2.
3y = 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 25 x . + 2. are like. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 10 .3 y = 47. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 60 . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. 3.2 = 6. = 406. 37. x = 10. 5 13 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 64 x = 040. add the equations. y = 2. Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Transposing. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. subtract the equations. y = 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). whose coefficients In general.3 1 = 47. x = 10. Therefore Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). = 235.14 =8. 8 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.
13 61 l7a. ] ^ . + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.v 23. v ^ = ll. 13.f2/ ' = 50. f 3# ?/ = 0. I oj 5y = 17.9 *. 7 ' 1fi fl . [2o.3. _. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 19< I a. = 24. J I y = 1U.5 y = 2. i 3. ' 12. I i 3 a. = 41. . I ~ y~~> 22. * + 3 y = 50. f 3X 7x 14. x 11. = 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I .4.3.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 9 1 r 20. O t K 8. + 2/ 17.
. = 2y + 10. = 4#8. 8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. and solve the resulting equation. = 60. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 13. = 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. (1) (2) Transposing 2. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 3.
the equation must be cleared of fractions and . . 3 (1) Ex. + 212y4 = 14. 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36. 2 y = . however. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. \ \6(a. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (7) (7) (8) .3. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 29 x = 29. Substituting in (6) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (4). 3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 21z6y=9.6)7(y7)==18.
2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4 11. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. J 9. a.1) + 5(6 y . a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 16. = 3. 10. +y 2 . . 14. 10 2a?5 17. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.f2 2. yM a. 12.1) = 121. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . .
#. * ((* (( .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 22. {.Q ^ 4 21. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. . e. <X + 20. but some expressions involving x.and x y . ?~y . and y. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y . 180.
. x 2x(2).3 xy. x 3. y 4. can also be solved Examples method. (4) + (G). Therefore y=4. . 137 Solve y y (1) . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 2* * x 2. 33 = 11 x. (2) (3) a. 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.4 x = 4 xy. y. Clearing of fractions. y 1. of this type. however. 15 y + 8 x . Dividing by 11 3 = #.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). etc.
138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . y MOi y a.= 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. . n. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 21 9 . x y 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). = en. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.= o 6. x 8. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x y 331 9. 1. Ex. 6. 253 7. 4 13.
y = = 9a + 46. fax f = l. Dividing. bmy bm}y ap cm. a Find a and terms of n. d. and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. s in 11. . . W . Uniting. 6. x 12.W. x f my = 1. 14. w. apan cm. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . x a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I if 13. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ap. . f 5. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ax + by = 2 a&.
x + 12 y .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). = 30. (4) (5). (8) 2. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3y = Hence Check. by 3. ties are Similarly. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). To solve equations containing By tions. f 3y 12 =s 8.1+4. y =* 2. 3. l. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 1.2 + 4. 4.3 = 8.12 y + 6 z = . 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Ex. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.16. 6. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 4. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. etc. 3. 182. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 8 x . . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.8 = 1.lf> z .15z=12 Adding.13.2 + 3.25.by 2. = 3. 20.3=4.
a? + 709 = 26. 4 = 42. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 15 2 = 45. 2z = 40. 14. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 10. 2 4. + y f z = 15. 7. ~6?/ 5. x 13. 12. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? 11. 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. == 6. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2 . 49.
16. 32. 60. ?/ 3x = 0.. . 23. ? = llz. 27. . = 5. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. (3 _. = 8*.6 2. 84 21.3 y + . 4. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 1510 4 17. =s 20. ^ = 2.2 a. 19. 22.42 = 2.
and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. = 2 m. and to express In complex examples. 1 = 2. Ex. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . 1. Find the number. 2 = 6. however. y 31. 1 digit in the tens place. Obviously of the other . M=i. symbols: x + y +z 8. ( 99. + z = 2p.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. y * z 30. +2+ 6 = 8.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. either directly or implied. = l. the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. z + x = 2 n. 2 = 1(1+6). (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. x : z =1 : 2. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. + 396 = 521. Check. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. and if 396 be added to the number. # 4. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. . as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.
(3) C4) = 24 miles. 2. x 3 = 24. = 8. Ex. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. Since the three men traveled the same distance. From (3) Hence xy Check. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x y = the = the x denominator . 2. x 3x4y = 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 4 x = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. Find the fraction. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. (1) (2) 12. C. Or (4)2x(3). 5_ _4_ A. direction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. B. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. y = 3. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 6 x 4 = 24. 3. the distance traveled by A. increased by one. By expressing the two statements in symbols. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. = Hence the fraction is f. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . = the fraction. . we obtain.144 Ex.
If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the numbers. 6. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. it is reduced to J. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. part of their difference equals 4. Find the fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. 5. If the denominator be doubled. both terms. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. the digits will be interchanged. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. 183. and the numerator increased by 4. 2. tion ? 8. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 9 be added to the number. the number (See Ex. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. ? What 9. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. the fraction equals . if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 1. and its denomi nator diminished by one. 7. Find the number. If 27 is 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the Find the fraction. Find the number. the last two digits are interchanged. . and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. its value added to the denominator.) added to a number of two digits. Find the numbers. fraction is reduced to \. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. to the number the digits will be interchanged.}. and the fourth 3. added to the numerator of a fraction.
Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 4 %. in 8 years to $8500. 13. partly at 5 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. respectively ? 16. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . If the rates of interwere exchanged.000 is partly invested at 6%. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. the annual interest would be $ 195. and in 5 years to $1125. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.grams. the rate of interest? 18.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. 14. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. 19. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. . and money and 17. A sum of $10. 12. 5 %. Find the rates of interest. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. How 6 %. now. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A man invested $750. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and partly at 4 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.
what is that = OF. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and angle e angle/. three AD = AF. cows. c. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. then AD = AF. B find angles a. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and GE = CF. . and F. 25. respectively. and their difference by GO . angle c = angle d. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and angle BCA = 70. the length of NOTE. and e. ED = BE. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. BD = HE. and AC = 5 inches. $ 50 for each cow. and $15 for each sheep. 24. the three sides of a triangle E. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. 23. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. On /). If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. but if A would double his pace. An C touch ing the sides in D. and CE If AB = G inches. for $ 740. triangle Tf AD. and F. are taken so ABC. and sheep. E. Find their rates of walking. A farmer sold a number of horses. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 1 NOTE. BC=7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. BE. andCL4 = 8. points. and F '(see diagram). . BC = 7 inches.
and point the origin. is The point whose abscissa is a. (2. jr. Thus the points A. 186. (3. PM. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate by ?/. is the abscissa. 3). and r or its equal OA is . PN. (7. B. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. PN are given. It' Location of a point. YY' theyaxis.. the ordinate of point P.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). first 3). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. . (2. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and PJ/_L XX'. and PN _L YY'. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. The of Coordinates. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). 2). ?/. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . or its equal OM.
11. (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4.3). (4.) EXERCISE 1. which of its coordinates known ? 13. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. What is the locus of (a?. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (4. (1. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 0). 4.(!. (4. 71 2).e. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 6.4). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 2J). 12. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (3. (4. 1). 3).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point.2). i. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 2). Plot the points : (0. 4). . 1). 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. !). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Graphs. (See diagram on page 151. 8. (0. (2. 6. 2). 2. 4) from the origin ? 7. (4. Plot the points: (4.and(l. 0). Plot the points (6. (5. 0). and measure their distance. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. . Plot the points: (4. 4) and (4. 3). 3. 3).1).
may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. from January 1 to December 1. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. however. Thus the first table produces 12 points. B.. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. or the curved line the temperature. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. . 10 . we meas1 . C. ure the ordinate of F. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. D. 188. may be found on Jan. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 15. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 1.
Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the graph is applied. and to deduce general laws therefrom. as the prices and production of commodities. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the merchant. (b) July 15. the matics. uses them. . The engineer. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the rise and fall of wages. (c) January 15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (d) November 20. physician. etc. Whenever a clear.
(1) 10 C. How much. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When the average temperature below C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. 15.. (d) 9 0. (freezing point) ? 7. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. is 10. on 1 to the average. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 1? 11 0. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. ?  3. ? 9. During what months above 18 C.152 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1 to Oct.
Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. NOTE.09 yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 19. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. 20. Hour Temperature . One meter equals 1. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
then C irJl. 1 to 1200 copies. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 9. 26. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 . 28.50. binding. A 10 wheels a day. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. if he sells 0. etc. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 3.154 24. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .g. if each copy sells for $1. the daily average expenses for rent. amount to $8. x* x 19.50.5 grams.. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 190. books from for printing. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. gas. x increases will change gradually from 13. function If the value of a quantity changes. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 3. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. to 27. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. x 7 to 9. 29.) T circumferences of 25..inch. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.. and $. e. .50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2. the value of a of this quantity will change. etc. 4.
2 (1. 3 (0. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . Draw the graph of x2 f. to x = 4. a*. plot points which lie between those constructed above. (2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. however. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. construct '.1). 9). E. as 1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (1.0). Ex. Graph of a function. (1^. 4). and join the points in order. 3 50.2 x may 4 from x = 4. while 7 is a constant. etc. 2). 4). . The values of func192.g. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . x a variable. may. ( 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 1 the points (3. be also represented by a graph. Q.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. If a more exact diagram is required. it is In the example of the preceding article. 2.1). J). for x=l. and (3. is supposed to change. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 9). may .e.
1). rf 71 .. Thus 4x + 7.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. Ex. etc. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.) For brevity. (4. y = 6. as y. 2 4 and if y = x f.2 x . 194. . r */ +* 01 . 4J. = 4. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and join(0. 7 . Thus in the above example. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.4). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. straight line produces the required graph. (3. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4). 2. j/=3. (2. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line..20). 5). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. = 0.. and joining in order produces the graph ABC..
4 a. a? 2 4. 1 8 10. 1J. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 21. The values of a?. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if the function equals zero. 2x + 3x a?. 11. 2 or 2 20. J. if y = 2. a? 1. 3. x+1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 8. 2 a. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. . 2 4 x f 2 = 0. if a. 2 a. i. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a. xl. 1J. 2 2 a. 2J. a* 13. Jar . the function. l. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of a*. = 4. fa 17.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.8)'. The smallest value of the function. 2 2. . 2. if"a. 2J. (If) Va25. + 4. from x VlO'S". 3 a 8. y = 2x = 4.e. 22.5)2. 7. 6 fa. 16. (7i) (c) 23. a ar. 9. 12.or. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 6. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 1. 3. a?. 23x. 5. (C ) (2. 18. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 15. xz + x. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 14. 1J. 2. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 19.5)2. 4a? I. ?/ a. = The values of a*. (ft) (_ 1.
what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). that graph with the o>axis. then y = . From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. 25. the abscissas of 3.. i. Represent 26.24. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. C. Show any convenient number).where x c is a constant.e. 9 F. . 14 F..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.. Therefore x = 1. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. then cXj where c is a constant.24 or x = P and Q.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. 32 F. y= formula graphically. 1 C.158 24.
. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 10. 6. (a) x2 = 0.f 9 = 0. 11. 7. 8. + + = where a. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. or 5 2. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 14. a2 2a. is called a quadratic equation. 6. 197. 3. (a) (6) 9. = 0. 2 and 1.7 2 a 5 = 0. 4. Such equations in general have two roots. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 0. crosssection paper is used. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 13.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. viz. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. (0. 12.
?/. Hence. Hence if if x x  2. If x = 0. i. 199. Hence we may join (0. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. X'2 Locating the points (2. because their graphs are straight lines. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). ?/ =4 AB. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. locate points (0. 0). 4) and them by straight line AB (3.e. 1) and 0). 4) and (2. T . solve for ?/. fc = 3. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y y 2. . 3x _ 4 . (f .2 y ~ 2. Ex.1. unknown quantities. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. first degree. produces the 7* required locus. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. NOTE. and joining by a straight line. == 2. and join the required graph. = 0. y = l. if y = is 0. Ex. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 2). that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically.
parallel have only one point of intersection. (2) . and CD. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. To find the roots of the system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. P. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.57.1=0. viz. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. we obtain the roots. 201. 203. linear equations have only one pair of roots. AB y = .15. Graphical solution of a linear system. 202.
0. 4. 2. Locating two points of equation (2).0. 0) and (0. 2 equation x 3). 1. There can be no point of and hence no roots.5. they are inconsistent. .e.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.0).. Using the method of the preceding para. Inconsistent equations. 4. if x equals respectively 0. 3). 3x 2 y = 6. 0. 3. (4.g. and + 3). The equations 2 4 = 0. the point we obtain Ex. (1) (2) C. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (4. 4.5. In general.9. 4. etc. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. V25 5. 3. and . and joining by a straight line. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. AB the locus of (1). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 4. = 0. the graph of points roots. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). x2 . 3. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. P graphs meet in two and $. i. intersection.y~ Therefore. (2.  4. 4. e. Since the two  we obtain DE. Solving (1) for y. 1. Measuring the coordinates of P. 5. 4. 4. 5. 2. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. y equals 3. we of the + y* = 25. Locating the points (5.
as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y=x + 5. and.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 3. 6. 16 23. . 16 22. 9. and solve each If there are no solutions. vice versa. 19. 7. Draw system. 5. x~y=0.. 2x 3?/=6. the graphs of the following systems. a. 20. state reasons. y= a2 2x y6. y 2 4. 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y = 4. if possible. \ 2x + 3^ . 17. '163 Dependent equations. a+r/=6. 8. 10. 2. 1 6* + 7 y = 3.
25. CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.8. AND SQUARE HOOTS .14 y = .164 24.y). 29 . 3 31. 28. 4 a = 3(6 . 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 26.
All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. fa. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 8. a special kind of product. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 2. involution repeated multiplication. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. . ( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Law of Signs. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a = a3 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.faa a a a Obviously 1. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ^4/? it According to 50. is may be by 207. 3 f a = f a = +. etc. on to in factors 4.a2 . 52. 2. According to 1. follows that 3.
4. (^^) 2 . (2ar).166 To find To To power. (277171 )*.6 (a 8 8 . (a ) 2 5 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 76 : (>y. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. V V/ 13. 4 /2mV. the required power. raise a fraction to a power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 210. 2 11 (afc ) . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 15. amVy) 3 . . 3 2 2 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (a ) 2 4  3. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 5. 24. 6. 2.3 a 6 f 3 a6 .6) = a . 16. a product to a given power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.
12. 3. 7. 1 f 3 2 3 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 6. 18.y) = (3 y?y . : a 20. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 211. frequently called ex. 23. nent of the binomial. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . An 1. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 15.y . a. or*  Find the cube root of 19.INVOLUTION Ex. 2. 3 . pansions. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 13. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2. etc. Ex. (3 x . 3 8 . are obtained by multiplication.6 2 8 ft) .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 2 . . + a 2 a. The higher powers of binomials. (3af26) 8 . +5a) 22.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .3 y. 8. (5 (1 a) 3 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . (aj7) .) 14. . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8 (a??/) 3 . 16. (afl) . 9. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 4. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (a + &)8 . 5. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. + 4aj) 3 . 21. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.
168 3. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (af 5) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 4 (1for) 5 . Ex. (l 8 . .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 14. 3. (m fl) 2 20.216 a^ 4.96 ^y f 216 o?y . mn 5 2 5 ) . 9. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (?/i~w) : 16. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. (a~^) 5 . (2 a 4 . . 18. The minus. 17. 13. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 1. (mJ) 4 11. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (?>i?i f c)*. (1 + 4 ?/) . 15. 4. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 10. . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 24. (m 2 + n) 8 . (3a f5) 5) 4. . 23. 4 . 3. is the coefficient of the next term. 2.2. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 5. 25. . 6. (p + q) 4 * 7. . 5. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.a) 3 19. 8. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (la&) 4 12. Ex. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 21.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (tff1) (cfd) . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (2 4. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 78 s . Ex. and the powers negative. . ( &) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .
and ( v/o* = a. a) 4 = a4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. \/"^27=3. or x &4 . called real numbers. etc. 4 4 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. numbers. which can be simplified no further. and all other numbers are. or y ~ 3. 1. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. V9 = + 3.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. tity . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. 215. for distinction. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. = x means = 6. Since even powers can never be negative. 109 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . V \/P 214.
9. V5 v/2 7 2. 7 . 5. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 7. 7.125. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = V26TIT81 = 53.(. index. extract the and denominator. 82 . Ex. V25 9 16. 79 2 v/2 5 . Ex. 6. . 6. To extract the root of a power.4. v/^i2 = a*.1. roots of the numerator \/18 . . fy 5 3 .lL. 3 33 53 . 6 7 = 030.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 2 . 10. 3/0** = am . Ex 5 a" . V36 9 4. v/2^. Ex. . 8.64 5 4 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 4 v. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . V?. 62 = V2* . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 3. \/2 4 9 . 8. EXERCISE 1. 3i . 2. To extract a root of a fraction. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 2. = 19472.  100 a 2 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 7 .9 = 136. = 199 + (_ 198) .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex. Ex. 9. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.201) = 2.200 .
(Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. a* 4 8 2 . 3. 29. V9216. V20 .3. 2 . V8. 34. Find the square root of a2 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .3 . 6.98. 32.75.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/. 31. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.EVOLUTION 171 28.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 5. ^40^4. 116. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 33. . 30. 2 .) by inspection. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 1./).3 y2) ( vV . a f2 l 2 + l. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . Ex. 45 V5184.
a f. 8 . 12. 2 .e. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . however. 14. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. i. the given expression is a perfect square. and b (2 a f b). second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. let us consider the relation of a f. . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.b 2 2 to its square. #2 a2  16.2 &c. a\b is the root if In most cases.172 7. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 15. and b. The term a' first 2 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 11. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.> 13. 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49. 2 2 218.2 ab + b .2 ac . 10. + 6 + 4a&.
8 a 2 Second complete divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 2. Ex. As there is no remainder. Explanation. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. . . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 . 1. and so forth. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .EVOLUTION Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. . 8 a 2 2. 8 /. First complete divisor. is As there is no remainder. */'' . 219.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. First trial divisor. by division we term of the root. .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. the first term of the answer. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Second trial divisor. 10 a 4 8 a. and consider Hence the their sum one term.24 afy* f 9 tf. The square . of x. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 6 a. 1.
2 4.20 o 4.40 a 22 .9. 1 4. 19. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 9. 3.25 x 4 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.4 x 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 5.10 x2 4.73 a8 . 24.24 or . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.42 a*& 4. 12. 729 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.a 6 x*y 2 .37 a ^ .16. 36it. l 4. > 7. 436^?/469a.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 4 . 2 x2 3 2x. 13#4 413ar 44a. 16x6 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 6. 16.12 m 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . . 20.6 .12m 5 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 8. 6 11.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 14.25.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 18. 10.V430^425^ 4m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 15.73a4 440^436^460^. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. a? 2 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 17.
176. of 10. the first of which is 8. the first of which is 4. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. etc. Ex. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the square root of the greatest square in units. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Ex.1344.EVOLUTION 220.000.000. = 80. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Therefore 6 = 8. the square root of 7744 equals 88. two figures. and the first remainder is. The is trial divisor = 160. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of a number between 100 and 10. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.000 is 1000. which may contain one or two). of 1. Find the square root of 524. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the complete divisor 168.. a 2 = 6400. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Find the square root of 7744. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. first . 1.000 is 100. 2. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.
70 6.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. annex a cipher. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.10. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .0961 are '. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 3.GO'61.7 to three decimal places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 12. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. The groups of 16724.1 are Ex.
31.1410.) 40. . 13. 1. 30.4 square when R = radius and 11. 36. = 3. 32. feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 34. J.22. 33. T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. JT .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 1. 39.01.53. feet. 37. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .58 square 38. 35. 5. whose area equals 48.
The 7 equation. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 226. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 2. 2 ic = a.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. x = + 2 or x =2.. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or equation of the second degree. Transposing. is 12. Extracting the square root of each member. 6 y2 = 17. is A quadratic equation. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2)* + 5 = 33. or affected. complete. This answer Check. 225. = 7^ + 5. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 6#2 = x* 24. = 4. 178 . or incomplete. x 2 7. Dividing.g. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. A pure. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. but no higher power e. . A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 1. 224. Ex.
Solve 179 . 16^393 = 7.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 19 + 9 = 5500. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ' =: y? b* b . 5. 0^ + 1 = 1. . o. 3. 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7 = 162. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. or Therefore. (a? 9. 10.25. 2 4fc 5' 18. 15^5 = 6.2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . : 83 2. 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). 8. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 7. ax Transposing and combining. 2 2 a. . 4 ax.
solve for d. 228. is 5(5. A right triangle is a triangle. EXERCISE 1. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 28. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. : 6. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . is one of _____ b The side right angle. 4.) of their squares 5. 2 : 3. solve for r. then Since such a triangle tangle. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and their product : 150. Find is the number. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2a f 1 23. 24. If G=m m g . r. If 22 = ~^. 108. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 27. Find the numbers. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . . 2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 3. 29. ' 4. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. find a in terms of 6 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. solve for v.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find the side of each field. 26. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. . If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2 . 2. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram).b 2 If s If =c . may be considered one half of a rec square units. 22 a. 25.
and the other two sides are as 3 4. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. of a right triangle Find these sides. and the third side is 15 inches. and the two smaller 11. To find this term. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. sides. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. we have of or m = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.7 x f 10 = 0. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. add () Hence 2 . Find these 10. . Method of completing the square. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . . .) 13. Solve Transposing. (b) 44 square feet.2 7 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 8. 9. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the unknown sides and the area. x* 7 x= 10. A body falling from a state of rest. (b) 100 feet? = . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 24. radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 2m. 4. is and the other two sides are equal. Find the sides. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. J = 12. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. Find the radii.
or x = 2. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Therefore. adding member). = \ # = ff. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. (*~8) a = at . 2 ax f 2 o) s a . or J. Hence Therefore Check. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2  .a.x(l = . = . a. Uniting.e. Simplifying.2. a Clearing of fractions. Transposing. J. Ex. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  \. Transposing.2 a2 . Ex.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. = 6. = x\ = 2.. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 2 a* a. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 230. 62 x 5 = f. Extracting square roots.1. .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . 183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.1+2?= "*"   Vl . Extracting square root. x .4 ~ a2 Transposing.
o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . article. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. and c in the general answer. 231. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 2x 3 4. . = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. =8 r/io?.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =0. Solution by formula.c = 0. 49. x la 48. \bx\. ao.
2or } 5o. c = 5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. ?i 2 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 14. b =  + 20 == = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 11. 5 x2 Transposing. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 12. V^tT)* . 16. 2. 7^ + 9 x 90. = 64120?. 21. 1. 10. TIO. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 19. 6. 2 o. 2. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. = 12 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 26. 7. 20.. : 86 + 2 = 0.4 4 5 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6. 6^+5^ 56. 17. 6 Ex. 2 . 3. 15. 2 a. 2 a? = 44 x . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.  . 6 . 9.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 4. Reducing to general form. c p. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 18. a. 8.25 x. 13.
a=:i^^. x2 = 1 . Clearing for fractions.5) =0. ar>8o. 233. member can be Ex. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 0. 5 = 0. 1. all or. transposing terms to one member. and 6. any degree. 25. 2S3x 1 2 . Transposing. if either of the uct is zero. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 27 x== 42a. = 0. 23. orz roots. = 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. }. Bx 1 1. x(x <2 . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 24. factors Now. Factoring. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Eesolving into factors.x. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. or # 5 is zero.4) = . 5) = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solution by factoring. = 14. 26. 3x?+x = 7.2. (5 a? !)(. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.
6. (aj4)(a. and the equation thus formed be solved. is 5) = 0. O roots are 2.(. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 0^ ar> 11.e. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. aj( 15. + 8=s: 7. 7. 3# y 5 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 14. 3) Factoring. Therefore x =3 = 2. 12.24 = 0. 2o3 f9a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. we 9 obtain x 4. Or Hence the 234. 3) = 0.3)(x + 3 3.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. Ex. + 100. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. } 2 2 (5 . 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). 3 or 2 a. 8. a?. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.:=0. a?10a=:24. 5 = 0. 13.= 24. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. a* 10a=24. + 6)=0.6)) = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 4or + 18a f 8a. 5. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 2. 4)(z3) = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 87 = 0. + 9 f 20 x = 0.g. + 10 a = 24. E. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 3. 9. 16. The equation I. 4. ar'Sa^ 12. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. for a: . x2 f 2 x . 2.
ara + ft + c*. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 27. 20. 22. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 18. (a + 1) (a.3) = (s + l) (3 a). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.188 17. a 2 =(x a)b. 50. 23. (2a? 3) (a 24. 25. '3a!J  . + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). uz + u 21. 19. 2.
2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 4. and the difference Find the numbers.1.0. 57. feet.9. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find the number. 5.0. 2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. number by 10. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . . 2.2. Find the numbers. 52. EXERCISE 1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and consequently many prob 235. 54. 3. and equals 190 square inches. Find the sides. The 11. and whose sum is is 36. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. two numbers is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2.3. of their reciprocals is 4. and whose product 9. The difference of . 55. : 3.3. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 56. 5. 0. 58. G. 1. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 6. 2. 1. 7. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Find the number. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 8.
Find the rate of the train. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. . he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. What did he pay for 21. other.190 12. Two vessels. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If he each horse ? . If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. ABCD. sold a horse for $144. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. dollars. 17. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. ply between the same two ports. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. as the 16. 15. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received two horses more for the same money. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and Find the sides of the rectangle. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. 13.10. watch for $ 24. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 14. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle.
I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. is On the prolongation of a line AC. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. or x = \/l = 1. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 24. 237. ^3^ = 7. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Ex. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. By formula. . A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. so that the rectangle. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. contains B 78 square inches. how wide is the walk ? 23. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. the two men can do it in 3 days. Find TT r (Area of a circle . (tf.) 25. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. a point taken. 27. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 23 inches long. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. constructed with and CB as sides. and working together. as 0. Find and CB. of the area of the basin. 1.
)+72=0. = 13. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 436 3. 4 6. a. 2 h9:=0. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 19. 16. a? 15 1=2*. 12. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. a 21or=100.T 2 2 . 6.2 =4. Ex. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4 a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. = 1.192 238. >. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 : 89 10a. or y = 8. y8)=0. 7. 4. 9. 2. aV+9o 4 =0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . Solving. a4 5o. T 17. 8. 10. 2 16 a^40 11. Hence Le. 18.
the roots are irrational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 3. Hence the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . ( 2a Hence 1. rational. and unequal. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. and equal. the roots are equal. negative.2 z . the roots are imaginary. the roots are unequal. it 2a follows 2 : 2.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are rational. 240. 2. The discriminant =(.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. . b 4. Ex. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. rational. the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .bx 4. Relations between roots and coefficients. is 4ac not zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 241. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.2) 2 4 3 (. 1.12 x + 9 = 0.5) = 04. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .f> = 0. c the roots are real. Ex.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. a perfect square. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.
+ 2a15 = 0. 18. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 60 2 = 0. = 0. 5aj 9.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 3a. 9a3 = 0. 2 7.19 # 20. = 5x. 6.g. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2 a.. + 18 2 8.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 12. = 0. + 2a. = 0. 21. f 2 E. 2 : 3. 5oj aj + l = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2a 4z5 = 0. their product isf. 14. lla. o. 2. tfmx+p^Q. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. : a 2 . If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 24. 12~x = x 2 . ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 15. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. ^12. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 4. x2 7 10. 10 x = 25 x + 1. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 17. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. = Q. 22. 23. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 12 2  .
the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 244. such as 2*. hence. > m therefore. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. that a an = a m+n . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents. (ab) . for all values 1 of m and n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. while the second of the first. ~ a m f. and ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The first of these laws is nition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than.a" = a m n mn . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. We assume. m IV. Then the law of involution. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. II. however. provided w > n. = a"" < .* III. a m a" = a m+t1 . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . It is. (a m ) w .
ml. m$. = a. laws. 24. (bed)*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 25.g. '&M A 27. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. or zero exponent equal x. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 23. n 2 a. a . 30.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. a*. 3*. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. disappear. e. . a\ 26. Assuming these two 8*. etc.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. (xy$. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. at. fractional. 245. 31. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. a?*. 28. as. 0?=^. 29. 4~ .
hence is . 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 5 a* = 10. a * a2 Or a=l.g. Vo5 . 40. 48. ty?. 45. = 2. 41. v/o&cT 34.\/n. 49.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. : 2' 4* = 4. 42. 46. a* * = 3. Let a = a. 246. 37. 38. however. Solve the following equations 39. 7z* Find the values of 47. = 49. 43. the base is zero. = 2. 50. : 197 33. e.g. equal to unity. a. 27* = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. v'mT 36. 35. \fi?. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 3* = 27. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. e. a . : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. If. \/xy \/m. 44.
Let x= or". 248. cr n.198 247. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. an x = a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. consider the following equations. e. or the exponent. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .2 = a2 . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". etc.g. by changing the sign of NOTE. Or a"# = l. vice versa.
Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 37. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . rfS. : mi m~^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 40. ^?2 y' 34. 7~ l a 2b 2 ."* 38. 2m~i 43. a. f (2w)~i 1 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 66 45.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 22. 2 . a^ 41. 25. 3 a. 3 a? * 42. . 44. 39. ^L. m . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. c 32. * 24. 36. : or 5 . 27. . 2 .
59. = 5. 54. 10* Find the values 56. 49. 1.9*.26)* 1 (I) 2 . . of: 3ll4~* 60. = l. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* 5* = . 52. z 5or*=10. 58. = . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. ar = i. Ex. + A_.008)* + A.1. z* = 1. 250. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 55. 57. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 53. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. = ^. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 17' 2 51. 61. (. 47. 48.6). + 1~* f 21 .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.343)* + (.(.001.81 f (a .
4 5. 72 .3 aj" a. etc. ' 11. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.&. Remove the negative exponents. (d) If required. a. 7~ 5 27  . 6a. 12.. NOTE. 13.7i. V5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.&. 27  28. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.$".7*. 16.7W.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 3sVS. 14. 10. remove the fractional exponents. 79 . 3 a. 26. . 6. 4 x^.5a. 8 ' 9. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . S'sS8.$*. 23.4 a8 . &. 17.^/5^5. . 18. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. / 7fv 7. . Perform the operation indicated.6 *' 6 *25. OA 20. 95 ^9i 5**. 3. 7~ 6 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 6 *.5. 7. are performed.4 . 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7*. #* a.
1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . 1. 40. If powers of a?. 6 35. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 2. Arrange in descending powers of Check. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 34. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
I VJ + 3VT8 .10 V2 =  V2. + . v/3.3\ . 28. 5V2. </20. 39. ^3. A/2. 30. </3. V2. 34. ^5. A/3. v/3. 29. Arrange 35. 38. ^126. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. \/7. V3. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 33. Simplify V~ . V3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. Ex. 4^/4. ^2. ^4. subtract surds. (i. 40. signs. V2.2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^6. </2. ^30. 27. connect them by proper 1. 31. if dissimilar.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. s!/3. 26. \/5. ^4. 36. in order of magnitude : \/7. Ex. v/4. V2. VS. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .2 V50. 37. 32. ^2. V5. v^S.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^2. To add or form. ^7. 3. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex.e. 2\ 3*. ^/IT.
11. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4. 8VT8J2V32 7. 8. 9.3V20 + 6V5. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 14. V175V28+V634V7.J a6 V4 aft. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 3. 4V805V45. 6. 13. 6. V18+V32VT28+V2. 12. . + 3V835V2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Ex. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .6V35 106 460V35100 . and then multiplied. 2. 26^ . 6*. 23. 3. Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. y* = Ex. .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 1.
12. \/3 \^). Vll. V42. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 21. V2 V50. v/18 v"3. 6 V4 5. VlO V15.^/2. (2V3) 8 . (V6 + 1) 1 . V3 Vl2. aVa. 9. VTO. 34. V3 V6. 213 98 11. 2. 40 10 30. 28 . V20 V30. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V2aV8^. 8. 37. 6. 25. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. . 27. 3.VSS. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 38. v/4. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. 2 . a?. fWa 17. (Va Va 36. 19. 41. 13. 14. 39. (6V23V3)(6V23V3).RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 18. (3 20. 4. 7. 40. 10. + VB)(2V5). 15. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 .
46. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 268. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. Va v/a. the quotient of the surds is If. 51.214 42. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 52. Ex. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 48. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). E. . (2 45. 43.y. a fraction. 44. 53. 60. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). V3 . 49. 47. (5V2+V10)(2V51). is 1 2. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex.
. Evidently. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. arithTo find. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 3. is illustrated by Ex. . by V7. however. /~ } Ex. The 2. e. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 1. .57735. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.RADICALS This method. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.73205.g.by the usual arithmetical method. . Divide VII by v7. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations.
V5 270. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. and Given V2 = 1. A. V2 22 .4142. . i. V5 = 2. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. 21. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.7320. V8 12. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. ^/H . V48 25.2361.. 7. Vll 212*. 14. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 23 . . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V8 JL. A. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. VffV?. V3 = 1. 272. 20. V3 24 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 271.
Vs2 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.RADICALS Ex. 3. 1.2. Ex. . V82 2V3 1fVS . s Simplify a. . Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.= 18. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .1 xVtf a.vffi^T _ .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .
By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 . Given V2 1. 6V7. Vo1 26. 24. = V3 = 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 27. J?_.5 3 = 125. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. four places of decimals 23 .4142. : and V5 = 2. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.218 6 .W3. .2361. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.7320. 19. find to _!_. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. v 2V3 28. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .
In other examples of involution and evolution. the If. V643 . 3 (V2~u)  7. V255 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 2 12. v8f 2\/15. According to G3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. \/l6*. Simplify Ex. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 8. 9. 1. . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 4. 2. 5. on the other hand. 11.RADICALS 219 274. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. it to this form. \/125" . viz.
A/2. +2 Ex.220 Ex. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 12 and whose product is 20. ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 2 \/18. Find V4 + VJ8. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.2 \/20. These Ex.6 V2. and whose product is 18. The Hence ^11 . Find Vl2 4. is 11.6\/2 = ^9 . 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find Vll . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.
RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Before performing the involution. +=. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.V48 4 20. 19. Solve vVf!2a = 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. V48 23. by raising both members equal powers. r 22. Ex. Radical equations are rationalized.. 277. (2x xrf 1. 4x x = 2. they are transto formed into rational equations. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. member to 2. a.1. . i. x2 = x f 2. first involution. 4. The value x =2 reduces each . A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. are radical equations. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 8. VT .e. Dividing by Check. Transposing and uniting. : 221 Vl32V22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. = xa + 4 x f 4. 5.
Factoring. Transposing. . . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. . viz. Squaring both members. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the first member = V2. one root. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. It = 3 x . viz.222 Ex. Therefore CftecAr. Ex. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. at . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. V24~+~l = 0. Transposing and uniting. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 2. tion which has two roots. x = J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 3. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. 278. a socalled extraneous root. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing and uniting.3. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Dividing by 24. Therefore Check. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 5. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.1) = 0. V4afT~l. a. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Extraneous roots. 4#f 4 = 9. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. they may be extraneous roots. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12.
= } would be a VaT+T Ex. Hence x = the only root. equation it is an extraneous root. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. or x *j. Factoring. x root of the preceding equation. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.RADICALS Hence x If a. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . NOTE. ViTie 4 z2 . + 6~ieT~3 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence there is only one root. viz. = 3. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. If If x 3 = 3. both members reduce to 5. and to 5. Transposing. 223 x = 3. 4.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Check. Therefore. Solve the following equations : = G. the right member = V2.47) = 0.3) (2 x .2 r. 2 Clearing of fractions. (x x = 3. for it satisfies the equation . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. is x V. Squaring. \ does not satisfy the given. . .12 .
Ex. Therefore . Factoring. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
This can be seen without substituting. Vi 2 8a. 2.f40= 5. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Let 8 x f 40 . = 0. 412a* = 16. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. x + Vx a? = 6. + 40 = 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.*2a. Substituting. 4. x =6 or 3. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x Since both =9 or 1. y then x2 . 45 14VJB = . Ex. 5. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. = 7. . some of the roots be extraneous. _ 2 y . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Q . o. 3 6. 2. members of the equation were squared. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 3. 2Va. 2_8z 440 = 49.8 x + 40 = 36.i~24 = 0. = 26.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.8 z40 = 7. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.35 = 0.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.
226 11. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 14. 2. 15. 12. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a. +3= 6. +x . a^x2 5 2 13. 17. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.f 18 = 24. 19.a 440 = 35. 16. 18. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 4 V SB* 4 a. 20.
substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. Without actual division. Ex. does not contain a?. If x* . if Q was known.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. = 2. 227 .bx? + ex2 4. could.2) Q .360 = 244. E = ax + &z + m) Q. we make a? what the value of Q. then (x 2)Q 0." transposing. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. a? R = x* . " Or.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Hence. no matter If. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. even if Q is unknown.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 3 2 Ex. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 1. ax4 4. however.2 x 5 by x 3.2 + 4.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 2. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. find the remainder when m.4 a. by dividing 3 x* f.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.
+ 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . hence (x divided by x 4. + 7 = 632. If the remainder is zero. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 8. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x m is factor of the expression.4(. 5 (4x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.228 282.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . The Factor Theorem. + 6. 5. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . the divisor is a factor of the dividend.8'= 0. x* s 2 4. } 2 by a1. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the remainder equals 8 2 x . 2 j 7. of the division 3) is m in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.g.8. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. fora?. if 8 42  . + ^by x + b.3)f 11 =.949. 43 3 E.g. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.
+ 27 + 27. 24. 11. oj 5x2 f3a.7 x + 15 = 0.7 + 16 .9^ + 23^15.1.12.e. 8. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. are f 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. Let x = . i.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 5. a + 32. + ttt15 = 0.1. 2. 21. or 5 4 + 3^ . a^8^ + 19a. a 2a + 4. m f m n 14. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.49 = 0. 1. f 15 does not vanish. . ^10^429^20=0. factors of the absolute term. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 2m 5m . Factor a? 15. 23. 25. then x8 7 x'2 4. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 7 46 = 0. 229 1. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . _ .r6 = 0. & p*.13m + 30 10.12 = 0. a 5x 6. 8. a. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 2 2. Resolve into factors 4. f 3. 3. 106 division. a 8a f 19 a 12. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. p 5^ + 8p 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 1.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 3 2 : 7. 17. is a factor. + 15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . The 5. 20. or x 4. 9. Therefore x ( 1). 6. f 5. 18. a? 19. 15.
if n is even.xy +/). ar +p= z6 e. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.230 285. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 1. 286. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . xn f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. if w is odd.y n is divisible by x f ?/. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2 Ex. 2. is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. By we obtain the other factors. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. For substituting y for x. xn y n y n y n = 0.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. If n is a Theorem that 1. x* f/ = (x +/)O . : importance. Ex. 2. actual division n.g. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.
THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. since it more directly to the prime factors. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . x3 8=0. leads 231 is The first method. y 3 +8=0. 27. preferable. a. 26. as 27=0.= . 3. 28. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. Hence = (m Ex.i mn f w 2).
EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 232 . 4 xy = 16. xy are given. & + 2 xy + = 25. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. however. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. = 6. (5) Combining (5) with (1).CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. * A I. x y. ==5 > 1^ = 4. If two of the quantities x f y. + 6 a?V . Hence " /  X y = =} 4.1. (4) Hence. of quadratics.y4 is of the fifth degree. 290. can be solved by the methods degree. in general. xywe have 3. Squaring Solve (1). to equations of the fourth few cases.
I I x + y=7. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 1. 233 y. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. = . The arranged in pairs. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. ' 10. r (" 1 = 876. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 12. x and xy are not given. b=3. 108 2.g. 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.
r^ 2 as ] f. . Ex. A system of simultaneous equations.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. Factoring. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 2 (1) From (1) we have. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.a. or y = 1 . 5. 7 .  f J. I x+y = a. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ' ' . la. I* Jj ^ [. 4 y = 20. aj = 2. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  42 y + Transposing. or JJ. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . one linear and ne quadratic. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 3. 19.o 18. + 29 = 0.20) = 0. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.i/ = r 13. x " (3) 49 etc. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.~ y = 5.?/ i = 6.  .. 6 "I 14. .
(1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. III. ':il e :) . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). the example can always be reduced to an example 296.3 2x 2 Ex. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. quantities.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. Solve . = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. If of the preceding type. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 10. x2y. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. ' x*.
11 a2 Factoring. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. 2 . 109 a. 15 x2 . = 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. Solve 2. 2. (3) (4) Subtracting.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = Ex. j Substituting y in (2). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. } VI09. (1) (2) x x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.
3^42^=43. ' ^ 15. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 150 */2 .125 ay = . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.175 ay = 12. . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.xy 4. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.y = 7. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Bxy9. A. f 1 150 a?. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Division of one equation by the other. and others not belonging to them. 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices. y? a? f . E. (4) (3). " IV.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.!. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.6. 298.
quadratics can be solved by ?/. B. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. 2. we have from (1).. y . Therefore x = 16. i ^ *>. jc~ y = 9. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Solve Ex. at first it is unknown quantities. y = 3. (1 > (2) 1. x 2 . from (2). i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. xy.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. x +y y etc. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . Some simultaneous ?/. = 12 J. * ' 300. we obtain by squaring. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. = 189.
M6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 239 Ex. 7. F+y+ . 2. 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 36* 2. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. [2x + : y= 17. Hence = V or = 4. . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 6. I e.
. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. f 18. 19 ' 26.4 y = 47 a. * . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 27.21 ^ = 15. . 16. = 198. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 25.
y % 9 f*K 36.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 3 a2 38. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. as a . 7' j/ 39. etc 302. = 48201. ^ oo . . ~\ OK OO. Q 7. finite  =x y if = x. 25 34. hence may be any finite number. 31. etc. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. oo 301. 33. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . Interpretation . or ~ indeterminate.of  According to the definition of division. 32. .
g.242 303. . 1. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. creases. Hence such an equation identity. Or. I.decreases X if called infinity.000 a. . (a: Then Simplifying. TO^UU" sufficiently small. equation. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. without exception.x'2 2 x = 1. or that x may equal any finite number. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. is satisfied by any number. be the numbers. as + l. oo is = QQ. the answer is indeterminate. The ~~f fraction . = 10. cancel. Let 2. i. (1) is an identity. 306.increases if x de x creases. it is an Ex. (1) = 0. and becomes infinitely small.e. and . of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. 1. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . ToU" ^100 a. (1). The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. i. great.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.e. By making x any * assigned zero. x f 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.can be If It is made larger than number. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.
4 3 x x5 a2 . third and sixth parts. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. 3.8 x + 15 6. = oo. Hence /. Solve x a. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. * 6. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. . 1=0. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. (2).2 y = 4. Solve  9 7. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). and a. 2. 42 and' their product is 377. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. is their 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. y finite QO. and the sum of Find the numbers.e. no numbers can satisfy the given system. z = 1 Substituting. two numbers is 76.
the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the hypotenuse is 37. two numbers Find the numbers. 8. 10. Find these sides. the area becomes f% of the original area. increased by the edge of the other. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the side of each square. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.244 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the edges. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 103. p. 13. 12. 9. and the diago(Ex. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the dimensions of the field. is is 17 and the sum 4. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 255 and the sum of 5. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the numbers. of a right triangle is 73. Find the other two sides. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.) 53 yards. 14. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the edge of one. 148 feet of fence are required. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 190. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the sum of ( 228. is 6. equals 4 inches. Find the sides. . 6. The area of a nal 41 feet. of a rectangular field feet. Find the edge of each cube.quals 20 feet. 146 yards. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet.
and if the digits will be interchanged. irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. the quotient is 2. . (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. is 20 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.) 17. Find the number.
. 19. 3.. P. 15 is 9 f.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 17. 11.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. the second a descending. series 9.. 309. of a series are its successive numbers. + 2 d. of the following series is 3. P. and d. The progression is a.... 12. to produce the 4th term... the first term a and the common difference d being given. a. The first is an ascending. a + 2 d. To find the nth term / of an A. 10. 2 d must be added to a. 4. (n 1) d must be added to a.7. Hence / = a + (n . except the first. Since d is a f 3 d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to each term produces the next term. added to each term to obtain the next one. a + d. The common differences are respectively 4. progression. 3 d must be added to a. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. f . to produce the nth term. P. to produce the 3d term. a f d. a 3d.1) d. . . 16. each term of which. .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. a 11. : 7.) is a series. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. An arithmetic progression (A..
9. 1. series 2..... 1. 2J. 8. P.. 1J. 6 we have Hence . d .3 a = l. 2. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. Find the 101th term of the series 1.4..... . the term a. Adding. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . . the last term and the common difference d being given. 9. 19.. 5.8. 3. 4^. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. .. = I + 49 = *({ + . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 5. Find the nth term of the series 2.. ? (a) 1. 6. = 2.. 6. . 3.. of the series 10. 5. 5.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 2. series . 10.' cZ == . . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). a = 2.. 99) = 2600. Find the 5th term of the 4. (d) 1J.. 7. P. 8. 115. 6.16. d = 3.. 24. 5. 4. P. (a + + (a + l) l). Find the 10th term of the series 17. .PROGRESSIONS 310. 7. 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. = 99. if a = 5.. . 3. 7. 8. Find the 12th term of the 4. 3. 21.
16. to 7 terms. P. 13. In most problems relating to A. . 15. 20.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 8. . (i) (ii) . 22. 1. 1. 2. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. to 10 terms. . 7. \n. 29. 31. 11. and for each than for the preceding one. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .248 Find the 10. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.1 f 3. Sum the following series 14. + 3. rf. '. . to 15 terms. 1. 11.7 f to 12 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . (x +"l) 4. . 16. strike for the first yard. Jive quantities are involved. 12. 3. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 12.5 H + if f to 10 terms. to 16 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120.. . to 8 terms. 21. 17. 15. : 3. to 20 terms. striking hours only. to 20 terms. 7. to 20 terms. . 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. hence if any three of them are given. 7. 1J. > 2f 2. 4. 11. 23. . 33. 2J. 6. 18. 15.
= n(104 .6. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 45. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 6. 1. or 11 J. 12. 56. 6 n2 . But evidently n cannot be fractional. I Substituting in (I) and (II). l)e?. 34. 133. Solving. = 144. 89. I. P. = 1014. The series is. The first term of an A. = 13. if s = 204. 2.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 78. s 24ft last term 144.104 w + 408 = 0. 23. n = 6.1) . . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the and the sum of all terms 1014.. J = 49.6 n). Find the series. Substituting in (2). a = 49 6(71 . 67. or if x Solving. 204 = ^ (a + 49). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). #.1).~n~\ 408 6). n d.e. if a. 312. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. a = 12. = a + (w. 111. . and b form an A. 100. the second one mean between the other two. 204 = ^ (98 . 122. P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. From (1). d = 6.. = 1014. P. hence n = 6. is 12. 144. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. Findn. 78 n Substituting in (1). Ex. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.
3. How much . 12. 17. has the series 82. n = 4. n. Given a = . = 83. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. . 15. and s. = 1870. n = 20. f J 1 1 / . I Find I in terms of a. 11. n = 17. m and n 2. Find?. How much did he save the first month? 19. 6? 9. = 45. Find d. P. 8. = ^ 3 = 1. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. I. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. f? . Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = . s == 440. 7. s = 70. Find d and Given a = 1700. n has the series ^ j . produced. T? ^. = 17. 14. d = 5. 78. ceding one. Find n. y and #f5y. Given a = 4. Given a = 1. = 16. n = 16. 13. Find d. Find w. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find a Given a = 7. 4. n = 13. 16. = 52.3.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 10. a+ and b a b 5. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . of 5 terms 6. a x f b and a b. 74. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540.
36. called the ratio. 2. rs = s 2 . P. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. or. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 2 a.. (I) of the series 16. The 314. the first term a and the ratios r being given. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . P.. of a G. NOTE. ratios are respectively 3. r n~ l . . The progression is a. 4 (1) . 24.. 24. ar. 36. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313..arn ~ l . 12.) is a series each term of which. +1. . . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4.. and To find the nth term / of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 108. I. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.g. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 4.... A geometric progression first. 36.. is 16(f) 4 .. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. ar8 r. is it (G. E. P. If n is less : than unity. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). or 81 315. . <zr . . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.
. 144. . 80.. ? (c) 2. 9. hence. 36. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. is 16.72. 36. (d) 5. fa. Write down the first 6 terms of a G... I = 670. . Hence n = 7.4. 36. 3. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. f.. i 288.5. 10. (it. P.6. 1. 144. . 2 term 3. or 7. a = I. 8. Find the 6th term of the series J. series . whose . is 3.. P. . 144.*. Ex.. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 6. . 576.54. . 72. 288. first 5._!=!>. P. .. 7. fa. 25. +f%9 % .288.5. \ t series . 0. 9..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. if any three of them are given.l.. whose and whose second term is 8. l. . In most problems relating to G. 18.. series 6.18. first term is 125 and whose common . f. 72. first term 4...18. 4. Hence the or series is 0. 9. . (b) 1. r^2. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Jive quantities are in.. Find the 5th term of a G. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. + 5. 20. 676. . EXERCISE 1. series 5. 4. And the required means are 18. . . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. volved . . . whose and whose common ratio is 4. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.
15. I. 81. 36. 48.J and 270. >"> . Find the geometric mean between 7. 13.... . . to 7 terms.. 12. 4. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. . = 3. J. and hence ~ r . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. n = 5. 21. . n = 5. Find a and Given r = 3. Find a and n = 4. 243. to 6 terms. 14. 42. P. Given r = n Z 5. == 160. 23. may be than any assignable number. 24.. 19.i a9 . s = 310. Find a and 4.. . of r n decreases.. J. to 8 terms. 25S series : 32. J. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. s = 605. 12 terms. to G terms. 1. Z s. 22. J. M. 14. a. 54. = 3. 16 . to 6 terms. 81. be written If the value of r of a G. 126. . 20.nV> i*> !718. to 6 terms. 27. a^. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 5 terms. to 7 . + 4 . 2.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. is less than unity. r . 72. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 1.
100. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. of all squares ? . P. is 16. (6) the sum of the perimeters.072. 1. . 9.. Find the sum to infinity.3727272 .. is J. P. 250.99 .00072 f . . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1... . The sum r. .555. .717171..= ... 4. Find the value 9. = . Hence . i.. 2.191919. 12. ratio 15...72. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .= _4Z* . 6. .. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 9. ..)7?7272 .. P..Ql. 8. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. If a = 40.. i i J.. 5.. 4. .072 + . Given an infinite series of squares. 10. 8.254 Ex.. 6. The sum Find the of an infinite G....3121212. 12...27777 . 1... If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 2. 7. 5.01 ^ . 66 Therefore . 14. 16. .1. . =A+ 10 i... ... .. 1 r = . . 16. = . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.3 + . 13. = a .37272 . 40. of an infinite G. 1.272727. of: 11. . . first and the common term. .. I. = 990 . is 9... r = j. and the first term is Find 17. . 1.
a6 8 16 in . 25. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 13. 4. . l 2.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. . 11. 15. (a2) 6. 26. . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 21. 10. (xy) : 6 . 14.6) 20 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 20. 22. 16.b) w (a (a f (1 . (a + b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 17. 12. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 28. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. coefficient of . 4 7. 5.6) . 29. . /2a+Y\ 8. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the 6th term of (x . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . : (1 + xy. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (s + i). 2 2 24.b ). (\ 9 . 7 . (a 100 .
if = = 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 2. 4.c )(fta) 1. 2. 3. 1. aft 3 + 4. 6. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 6. 3. 3. c = = = 2. . *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 4. 5. 1. + 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.a(a 4. 2. 2. 5. 2. 3.  2. 3. 3. if y=2j 2. + 2. ft 4 ) 5. 2. 5. 2. 1. 2.  8 ^ 2.  a)(a 1. 2. 2. 5. ^+^ 3. 1. 3. 6. 5. 4 2. 2. 4. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. (c 3. 1. c if 7 . 1. 2. 2. 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 3. 2. if = = = 2. 24 4. 5. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 4. 3. if x^l. if a ft c = = = 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. ft) . 2. 4. 2. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 3. 1. = 2. a ft c = = 2. 1.  2. + c(a  c). 1. 1. 1. . 2. l. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. 2. 2. 1. 2 . 2. 4. 7. 3. 5. 4. 1. 3. 2. 4. 3. 1. 4. 4. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 3. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.f ac 1. 3. 2. 5. 1. y 3. 3. + 2. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4. 1. 6.
2 . 15. = 2. c)(x a} . 7. 2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 25. 26. 5.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.r 6 x  4 xy . x 3 x' 14. 4. x3 2 a2 . (5. 41. 8.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .a8 . f 8. 4. 21. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6 a4 4 a8 . c = 3. 12. 2  + 12 a 8 . or .3 xyz. 29.259 x c) . 9. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x3 f 3 ax'2 .c' 2 4 / . . ' b) + 3. a.a 4 . a.8 + 2 // . a /> 3.x 5 4 . x C 4 4x y + . 5.2.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 4 x 4 . 5. 8 . x 3 11. 2.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2. a: .10. 2.5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . r> .7 + .1. 20.a 5 a . 24. 3.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2.2 z8 4 x. 7 xy 3 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.a) .7 y 2* 4. + 1. a 4 + 11 a . 10. 18. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. + 3 y 2* . + 4 ?y .  a) (c 2.3 a?y . 4.8 3 + 7 x4 . 6. 7y 4 .2 x?/. 2 x 8.2 a?y + 3 aty . 40. 5.7 ys. 1. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 21.\ yz + xz. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 z . ~c)(b.4. . b(x (b 1. + 2.2 x2 . x = 4. 17.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 9. if a 6 = = c = 3. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 3. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 15. . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4 y 13. . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.5 xy 3 + + 4 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 16. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. + 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. + 8 x4 *y . 1.
and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.(5 y .4) .?> x 4 20. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.4 Vl 4.. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 7 12 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .[4 x 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.c.x . 542 x 2 and . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.5. .[4 z 8 . 35.x2 .6T . take the sum of G x 5 . of a.c. (*) a  c.#48.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 36. 4 2 x2 23.1)}] . c =x y }~ z.4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 4vTT~y 3. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. x'2 . Take the sum 4x 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .5 .x 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .2 a . 4 . c 4ft. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 29. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(x* .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 34. .(a .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. a  ft + c. .8 3 4.c 3 a.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .2 x 8y2 44 . ft 25. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 5 10 + 7 .3.a ft. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .260 19. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .2) . 4 3 5 y/ .(5 c .c 4 3 a. f ft.(4 x 2 .{2 x 2 . Simplify 31.4 ft) 4.2 . 0" 30.1).3 . and . .2 3 ax 2 . x8 x2 2 a'2x.27~~7)}]. ft. = x y ft z. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.x . 3 ft. 33. c 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.3 .3 x .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .(7 x 4. sum of .x 2 4.7. From of 2 the 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. : a x . 5 4 7 12 . 4 4 4. 2 x 32. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.{G * 2 .] 26. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.(4 * .(x 4.6 x ] .2 .
(5 y .3 z 2 ). 57. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).(2 a 2 . 2 52.JT^T+1)} + (2 .6 xy . 2 2 x + !)(* .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).(2 a + 5 a . 2 53. .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.c 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .ac .a~^~c)K]. (x . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (4 + 3a 2 .4 a . (/> 4 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.be) (a 58. 2 : 7e)a}]. 3 x 42. 56. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. .7).c).(4 d . 2 ft 41.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 67. (1 55.2c(V/ .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 'J 44.{2 a .3)(*5)(* 7). . a {.rf)} + a [.{3 c . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 63. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2 2 .56.12). (.(7 i + 4 r:) .(7 a. . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. (5 a 39.(2 .(6 . 45. .2 zz . + 4x + 5)(j.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 13 a .& + {. + *+!){> + 2).2 2 + 1)(7.2a . 49. .5 )}] + {4 c . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.  2 a  {3 2x a .3 c)].3).Z .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].ab . 65. a . (1 ar+a.2x + 3). (r (1 (a.5)} + (3 a 2 .3 *). .[2 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 51.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (. 60. 68.6)}]. 54. .0)} .2)(1 . 62.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 64. 2 f [3 c 7 a .b (c . )(lz a ). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (x.6c) (a + f c).96 [17 a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 48.[4 x  5 . 59. 43. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].{2 a (ft .(2 x2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).3c). .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).1). (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 46. 50.r 2:c+ l)(ar.
74.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).ft) 4 .6*y .c)].c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . ft 95. 70.:y)( a.c)} .9y2). 1). ft 78.am&t 4 A 2 *).z) .c) rr identities. (a 2 ft 2n 4.3y) a (* 2 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 2 + a 2 ).c) . 94. 89. 85. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . (x (x ( + *) . b 4.(ft 4. 82.2 (a .z\x 4. 2 (x 2 .r 2 .a) 2 . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. (a (2 b)*(a 4. 88. ft" l Simplify 80. 73.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 79. 4 4 . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c) .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 93. 84.y).(a 48 8 8 4. . 83.(4 .q).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.v) 4. 4.n pc).z)(x y + z)(. 90. . ft /.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . Prove the following 8 4. 76.y)\x y). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 87. 92. 86.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 77. f 72.c) 2 .ft) + 4(2 .262 69.3 a . 91.2 ft}) f (3 a .{3 a .c) j.5 .m np c . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 1).c) 4) (ft 4.(/>  3 v)^(. ar . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.x + y + z).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).2y)(.y + z)(x + y .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. . 71. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .b 4.c . (.O (a 4(a 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.2 (y 4. 75.(c 4. xy y 2 ).<f(p .3 (ft . (p 2 . ft ft ft a}.
124.) . 110.v/ ~ // = a: . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. [10( 4. 117. 113.2 xy 8 . r . 102.6 y 4 4. 10).r 4 4.a". 1O4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .27 x* .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.y 4 .4 aft . (2< 107. . 123.y 2 4.5 xy). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 25 4 .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 114. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 118. 26 (a 4 c). (. 120.&).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).1).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.(7 xi/ . 2 4 41 x 4a. 108.35 x 2 2 ) . 106. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 121.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.16 a 6 4. . (80 a 112.2y 2 4. 2 (a+ .(a 1 2 8 .(x 2 . 116.2 2% 4.5 b*).*) (x 8 .40 />) . 105.3 a"+ 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".y 4 ) . a*.(2 a 2 .xy 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (8 x* 115. 1).b) 98.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 103. 122. 109.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 3*. 99 100.
(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). .9) 4.22.2 7^~5] + 1). 127. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 1) .2) = 3 .4) .2(j: .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . y (* l x.7(4 * .9) + 3.3).4(0 x .G) . 136.3).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).3(* + 4) + 9} . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2(4 .1) (a? . 148. 138.3 a:). .r + 7[or . 5 146. .2) (a: + 3). 126. 3(2 x 134.3(2 z . . 129.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).7) = 4 . 10(2 x 141.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 7(2 x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . x 147.(x f 9). 1) = 2(* .1) . .(j a? 144. . 42(3ar 145.8 6 .27 a 3" .3) = 12 .264 125.a:)]}. 142.r>) .2(10 x .19) + 5 = 4 .3) (3 x 4. 139.18 *&) (1 .3 x). 149.5) = 12(4 x .n . 5(2 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. .12 M 132. o o 140.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 1 o + 5 + 1=15. (*+ + .5).(x . 128. 143. 2 4(ar . (5a: 150. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 137. (4 x . 3) = x\x .2(5 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 135.4) . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(1 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .5{.(x + 3) ] .2) + 2(ar + 4).
3) (a: . 158.7) (a. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 156. 5(ar x . . How many 170. 166.2 x) = (1 . + 10) (ar . .5*) + 47.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. = 2 C. 165.2 x) (4 . 161. If the area of the frame inches.9) + (a. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.(5 x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.14) (a: + 3). . 265 152.2) a + 7(x .3) (3 .17) 2 + (4 x . 160. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .7) (1 x . (a. (x (x a. 155. 162. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. sheep more than the 169. these two angles would be equal. 157. (a .24.l)(z . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. f^ + ^sO. 153.4) (a .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. + 5) = (9 ..2) (j? + 1) + (x .1) (s + 3).1) O + 4) = (2 * . (2 . + 4) (2 x + 5).2) (7 *) + (*.25) 2 .5) = (3 .a:) + 229. 164.3) (3 . (a) If C.6 x) (3 . =  (F 32). 163.19) + 42.3) (j.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.5 x) = 45 x . = 15. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.76. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.z) (4 .8) = (2 x 4.? . 159. The sum What 171. (3 O + . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. + 2) + (5 .5)(. 2 4 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. .29) 2 = 1. (7 14 . transformed into F. The second contains 3 first. .5(x . will produce F. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .r + 3) . a: ar a.T)O . and the third twice as many as the first. 154.3) = (3 x .2). find the value of F.
number divided by 3. ll?/102. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. How many are there in each window ? . . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 13 a + 3. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 189. 187. z 2 92. and 5 h. Find the dimensions of the floor. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. same result as the number diminished by 175. 15 m. 7/ 191. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. . 180. if each increased 2 feet. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. father. dimension 182. 4 a 2 yy 42. side were one foot longer. + 11 ~ 6. A house has 3 rows of windows. Find the number. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. power one of the two Find the power of each. train. aW + llab2&. A boy is father. z 2 + x .36. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 10x 2 192. +x 2. two boys is twice that of the younger. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. sister . 2 2 + a _ no. 188.56. 12 m. 176. 181. 178. respectively. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass.266 173. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. . x* 185. A each 177. 186. was three times that of the younger. + a. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 190. 3 gives the 174. younger than his Find the age of the father. 179.
3y 248.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 201. 3 ap 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 222. 211. 215. 3 x 2 . 8 a: ar. .10 xy.12 * . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . + 3a 196. wiy + la mx + aw. z + 5x 2 . a: 231. 267 199.3 xf + 3 * 2y . . a. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . z 2 2. ifWy+b. # 2  29 y + 120. 2 x 2 .c) 2  (a .6 aq .19 a . 224. 23 12. 3 x V . x 219. 218. 232. 246.21 a:  54. 7a 228. 203. 12 x +4. (a + . 209. 202. 216. 210. 2 . 4 m +^.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 3y 2 + ary . 2 2 y f 1. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 239.22 z + 48.6 2 ?/ . 208. 213.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.x + 1. 5 x 2. y 2 194. x 5 . . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a. 244. 206. + 8. x* + 8 2 + 15.6s. 227. a+a* + o a +l. a a: a: 237. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 233. a^a 226.10 y a x* . a: 236. 245.14 2 . 230. 221. x*y 223.3 c/> + 6 cq. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .1. 207.(b + rf) 2 . a: . 2a te 3% ly 247. 6 197. + 198.6. . 212. 16x 4 81. 2  5 xy 13 y a.28.64.10. 2 a 2 . 60 a 2  a: // 205. + 30 x. 2 a 8 .c) 2 . 217. 238. a.77 y + 150. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .r?/f y 2 9. xm+l 243. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .19 z 4 204.3 xy. . 195. + 2 . . a. 2 200. 24 2 + 2 . 229.8 6 2. 4a 2& 2 241.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .6 y2 + 4. 7x 2 225. 235. 8 a. *2 234.20 z 8 a: 220.
11 a 2 .3.4. x* .14 bx a%% 8 . + 8. x 2 + 2 x . 30 ^ . * a .15. + 3 x + 2.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. of: 253. a 3 a 2 2 .G7 x f 33.9 x . 251. a? a: a: // 262.2/ 2 . C.23 + 12.18 xy + 5. 259. 3 #2 255. + 23 x f 20. x 2 263. 2 + 7 r f 2. 8 2 + 10 x . + 8 x + 5.36.C. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 8 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 257.8. 254.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 2 x2 .10. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).16 x . x 2 + 5 f .23 x f 20.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20.x . 2 .15 + 30.3 x . F. 15 # 2 z/ /. 269.73 xy .M. a: . 3 a% 2 . 265. x 2 + 4 + 3.1 9 . + 20 x 4. x* .12. 10 a.13.a 2 />c 2 f 3.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 270.48 afy 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 22x2 a. 260. 7 ax 250. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 3 ay 4. Reduce to lowest terms 271. z 2 267. x*y* 4. a 4. 6. 18 x 2 . a. x 2 .91.9. 252.120. of: 266. x 2 4. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . * 2 . 7 12 2 2 .2 aft*. I Find the II. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .11 x f 28. 28 2 f 71 x .5 ab f 2. 1 x ar Find the L. 5 x 2 256.2 z .ry . 261. z 2 268.80.ry 21.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * 2 . 258.9 x + 14. 2 a.&z.10 a 4. 10 x 2 . 264.7 f 5.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .3 abc .(55.6 by.a + 2 4.4 ab + 1. * 2 . ft a. .r .
2* + 3 x* 280.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. z2 (a 2 + c)a.rL.!/. *2 " 2 + Oge. 289 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a. 8 . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . + ac .J' 4 2 2 w mp .(y 2 z) * t (j.. m 4. 285 z4 n* + a.ar 1 279.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.2c a: 282.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' ..
^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^. a (: a) (x 2. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . Lnl + ar 2 a. 4 3 301. * 19 23 19(23 23.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. O(ca) 306. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.
1 _._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.. (a? 4 2) 317.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. _ x8 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. . 2 + y 2 319. } .ft) 2 322.(a . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 1 x2 + + a. (1 . 1a: + y a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .
* 3a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .15 33 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. .6* t 328. . 250 5 10 2 325.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 lOx 5x.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.5 a .2 +lOar 2 a.9 *// + 27 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 20 44 333. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x . a: 2 x* .V  + y  x 3y a .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 ../  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.ll.y20  2y + 4 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .
) 2 . (af2/. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. a: 349 _ o. 5 343. aj 339. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. fl. 1 345. ** i. ' 2 "l 5 . + ni + . 348. f V.1V. +^ a: y x . 352. w \.y. (aWi + iJ. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.+ r . : 1+ i. ( 342.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.r 5 2 . 344. 7 ( ?f!?. a>74 . (a \ + lV. (ar \ 346. 338. \5yl 341.. ?_2 ^ . \x yj 340.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. xi 347. + l + IV. if a = 3.
_ + l a 359. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. I  I f 366. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. 1+2 362. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. + x x a . (a a b yx c yabc 361.
2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. .
a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5*8. <3 378. J !__7. __4 2x 3_ = !. . 5 {2 x 381. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.*2 = 15.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 4(* . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. . 379. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. 8  376.
. ^ (a . c . 399.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).75 x f . m x 398.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.5 x =r f . 401.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 ^ ~ a: a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5)..147. .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 40.25 x + . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.1 . _____ .8 = . 396.  J).6  . u '2 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.2 a:  1. + 4 a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 400. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.25. b 404. . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. f 1 1 + a 403.  8 9* x ~r. a. 397. 3* 177.
far did he walk all together ? A . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 411. and was out 5 hours. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. hour. 420. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. (x . Tn 6 hours . Find the number.(5 I2x ~r l a) . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . How long is each road ? 423. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted.c) .278 410. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 418 ~jo. In a if and 422.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 18 be subtracted from the number. 421. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.  a) 2 6 2a. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.
Find the length of the parts. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. if . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. find : a : c. x 427.49 63). d. 2 2 8 2 . 428. . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.a 2^ 8 + aft* . and : b : c = 14 : 15. a + 5. If a b : =5 n : 7. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. a. 433. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.46 2): (15a 2 . 435. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . . . 430. b. 432. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Solve 436. : If is one equal 434. find the angles of the triangle. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Find the mean proportional to 429. 438.6 8 ). 431. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. ax is \ by  ex + dy. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. y. 3 and 1J. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the fourth proportional 426. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).& 5 ) (a 8 .iand 22 22 I a .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). z 2 y. a  t>. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. wi* + y= ny. Which ratio is greater. : i.
= 25. a: a: + 5y). a: 2y= = 1 . . + 5y = 59. if 2 ft : 439. 456. 450. c.(or l(*2y)=0. />(. x + 17 # 53. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 4 = 5 y + 29. 458. 9ar7# = 71. 7jr9y = 17. . 449.89 = q. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 16. . 56 + 10y = 7a.11 y = 95. 445.55 y = .35.59 = 3 z. 448. 42 = 15y + 137. 7a?y = 3. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.4 12 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 453. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. Solve the following systems: 441. 3 .7 y = 25. 454. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 5z4:# = 3. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 9/> = 2 . 7 a: . 457. 28 = 5 a . 5 2 = 7 . 444. 446. 3 a. 8 x + y = 19. /) ar a. 451. 452. 8 . ft.. ft. 7 442.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .rf2# = l.11 7.*. 455. 1(3  a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. ?/ 447. a. . 5x+4y=lQ. 443. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. Find the value of a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. The volumes If their diameters. 459. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).
 = 2. 475. 473. ax by = c \ 472.c=563y. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ^ + i^ = 7. 465. 468. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ax cx by = m.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.+ =2. _ 469. + eyn. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . x y 474.. i = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y) (2 = 2J.7. 8 461. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.?/ + 1 . (or .
Find the fraction. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. A number consists of two digits 4. the Find their ages. Find their ages. Find the sum and the rate of interest. Find the principal and the rate of interest. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. to . A spends \ of his. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 483. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. years. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. whose difference is 4. fraction becomes equal to . and the other number least. age. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 487. How much money less 484. Find the numbers. 477. Find the number. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . . by 4. and in 20 months to $275. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 486. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 479. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 481. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 485. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and in 18 months to $2180.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.
5 + a. 8. 498. . a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. of two the sum of the digits also if number. : Solve the following systems 491. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 3ar 503. y Solve : x +z= 5. + # +z= 35. 495. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 3 x 500. 3 a: + 5=84. 496. 4 506. 2y + 3a = ll. a: f z = 79. + y 5 y = 101 . = 20. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. . 489. ~ 507. . z y ifi = z x 502. 2y + 2z = a: 2. x y f z = 13. z y x 25 . 1. 5^ 9z = 10. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.5#+2z = $x a: G. ifi = x a. . 492. a: 499./ 504.z = 20./ f z =a. . x s + y z = 18J . a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.? + 2y = 8. 4 497. 1+1 = 6.z = 12. 4z+3z = 20. 494. = 209. \ . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2 e. 2 a. 493. 7. 2 2 = 41. a number . * + 425  = .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. *i. a: + // = 11. 2/>3r = 4. 490. 7 + 2 z . 2a:f 7. = 15. x f y f z 29 .
523. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. ll" . 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 517. z z =3a&c.
and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. In circle A ABC. E 533. if the number be increased by Find the number. N. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. the first and second digits will change places. How long will B and C take to do . 527. Tf and run together. AC in /). touches and F respectively. 90. . Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. AB=6. they would have met in 2 hours. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. in 28 minutes. if and L. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. L. 530. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. M. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. What are their rates of travel? . and CA=7. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. . Find the numbers. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. it is filled in 35 minutes. When weighed in water. BC = 5. and BE. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if L and Af in 20 minutes. If they had walked toward each other. it separately ? 531. 532. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. B and C and C and A in 4 days. CD. Find the present ages of his father and mother.
x *x + x + 1. 2 541. x*. The values of x if y = 2. If to feet is the length of a seconds. e.  3 x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. . One dollar equals 4. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.  3 x. 547. d.10 marks. 543. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. . b. 536. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. formation of dollars into marks. x*  2 x. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2. + 3. FRANCE. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 + x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. c. 542.e. a. The values of y. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. from x = 2 to x = 4. z 2  x x  5. 545. 2  x  x2 . x 8 549. 546. then / = 3 and write = 3. if x = f 1. The greatest value of the function. i. to do the work? pendulum. the function.  7. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 548. 2. 3 x 539. x 2 544. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. GERMANY. 540. 2 x + 5. 550.
563. z 2 . + 10 x .r 1 561.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 565. and make the unit of the b. 556. 3 x . c. 564. 562. e. 3 + 3 z .3 x . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.3 x .= 0. r?. .5 x . x* .3 . a.17 = 0. z 4 . 2 554. if y =m has three real roots. 2 8 . f. 558. x 2 ~ 2 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 2 x 2 560. 572. = 5. a: 559. \ to t = 5. a. 557. + 5 . 555.1 = 0. j. Solve 552. 2. h.6 + 3 . 2 a.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 566.4 . ' = 8.15 = 0. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . Solve// = 0. c. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.0. .  2 1 a: a.r a: a: x a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. i. Represent meters.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. a? 4 x . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.9 = 0. 18 x  4 = 0. x 4 . 3 . // Solve y Solve y = 5.3 = 0.= 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.G .7 = . 15.r .13 = 0. 2 567. a. g.4 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . J. 3 x* . x 5 .11 = 0. 553. 568. If y +5 10.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.
600.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 9  4 fSb 607.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 2 611.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 604. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. jj+. 582. a 8 606. (# 2) . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. a 612.2 6a: + 30 &c a.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 5 a*.4. xY. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (aiy.%) 4 (aa. + ^) + (air%)8. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. x [ ?/ 577. 64 a 12 603. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 3 . a: . (1 (1 (1 . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. a 2a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a:. 1 . (a. a. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 4 a. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 598. : y* or 25. 579. 585 594. 6 + 1) . f ?>) 3 591. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 593. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .x + 2 )'2 601. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. x + z2) 8 . 592.5 xy = 0. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .(1 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.frf : 583.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 4 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 595. (a  8 ft) .2 2 + y. j^f = 3. 597. 2  2 aa: 2 . 609. 589. [ y =10. .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. + + 4 . (1 + x a. 588. .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 599. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 3 (f. 4 (1a:) 3. + . 596. 608.
15174441. 634. 624. : 5.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 3a.191209.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 629. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . ft .30. 647t x 2 648 649.12 a?y + y*. + 2 21 x = 100. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 7) 2. VOIOOD + V582T09. GGff.2410. 4370404. 625 : 621. 4J. 620. x 2 641. 9a. According to Kepler's law. 2. + 54 'x*y* .150. 614. 622. 626. 49042009. x 2 . 035. V950484 .2. /.\/4090. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = 70. 623. 494210400001. + 24 a 2 4 . 8*' + 24* = 32.871844. 644. 636. 44352. Find the square root of 619. 210. 942841. 632. 9g. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.53 x ~ . 49. = . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 628. 2 + 189 z = 900. 32 631. 371240. = 0. 630.*. 637. 643. 40. = 87. 2 + 21Ga. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. Find the eighth root 617. 25023844. a 642.1024 x + a: 256. (x 9 x 646. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . *+* = 156. 651. 638. 650. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 639. 615.V250 . V 635.49. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . find Jupiter's period. 21. 645. 0090. 633. + 112 a 8 .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
694. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 2 697. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 2 .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 696.ax . 693. 707. ax 2 698. . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 692. 695. 708. . 699. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 706. 2 702. a.a a )jr . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.bx . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i.c = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ex abc= fx 0.
How shares did he buy ? if 726. **13a: 2 710. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. in value. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 725. sum is a and whose product equals J. 729. 217 .292 709. 723. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 727. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 722. . 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 3or i 16 . if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.44#2 + 121 = 0. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.25 might have bought five more for the same money.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 12 4*+  8. Find two numbers whose 719. 721. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 724. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. A equals CO feet. 16 x* . The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 717. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. and working together they can build it in 18 days.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 716. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. a: 713. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.
(^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). n. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). . 38.X . 37. 35.aft* 1 + a 2*. 42. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2 ). . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 40. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 32. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 39. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .l). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (v/x).2)(x2 4. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 33.1 f ^ 2).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 + x. 1 6. 41. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 34. 31. 46. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 43. 52. 36.2? 50.)(ai + &.1 f c" ).1 + c. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).
768. [1r^ T 1 i .294 753. JU. 758._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lGv/128. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.1+J 756. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754. 2V2 2V3 .. 761. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. 757.
+ 2V21. Va 809. 789. 13 799.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .4 V(j. 783. 787. 7512V21. 103 788. a 9442V5. x 782. 92VI5.2 V30. c 792. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 794. 10 785. 790. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 16 + 2V55. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.2V3* ^ 807. . 786. 793.12VIT. 14 791. 806. . 3812VIO. 3J . .VlO.
(x a: 2 ) 4 .79.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 830.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.\/2y  810. + ViTli + V7 .f 5 = V5x + 4. V3 f 1 V4a. 818. V14 a. 815. 814. 820. VaT+lJ f ^l . = 1. 811. \/12 a.4 = 0. 833. 3 x + 2 . 831. Va: .Vc^lJ .13 = 0. + 103Var.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 816. + Vx . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . 812. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .V? = 813. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.V2 ar 10. 829. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. /9ar a: = 17. 836. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.g. 819.
8 8  13 a. x 4 + f 2 a. 864.  3x a. a*" & 6n . 855. a 18 4. 4 x* 847.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 846. 851. 8 8 848. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 845. 875. . . 6. a.12. z*y 8 l64a. a 8 869. a l0m .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a.3 Va: 2 . 863. 8 . 64. 8 a. 865. 840. . +3 4 +  4. 8^27^. 64 a 866. V4 x 2 . x 8 2 857. 8 2a. 9. f 12. 861. a 8 850. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 40 x 2 7 f 49. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 876. 871. 4 a. 868. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 27 y 8.1. a. a: 849. a. a 872.a. a.3 x . a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a 8 873. 4 x 8 858. .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 844. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 16 859. . 27 862.10 = 118. 8 860. 2 f" + a/ 15. 870. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 853. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 729 867. f b**. f 841. 4o. 5 a 4 7 a8 .ab9 ft*.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 4 a: 2 842.1000 6.x*y + 3x f 2.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 2 a: 64 y*.3 a:. + . a: . 275 8 l.3 . 8 4a: 8 a. 852. + 1. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 856. 19 x 14. 839. + 512 y8 874. 2 x 3. y 4.
y 2 = 2 y + 2.18. . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.35. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. + ary + 2 = 37. 896. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a: 2 897.Vi' + 1 1_3. a. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 + xy = 28. 2 + xy = 10. a:y . f ?/ a: a: . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a: + y 2 = 34. a. 895. 2 . y 2 4. a. y y 2 y 2 1121. . x 882. 900. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. + 2y=\2. a: 884. 890. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.sy = 198. 1 x 893. y 2 2 8f. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + 2 f = 17. . . x*xy. 887. 889.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a# f + xy = 126. a: 888. 894. 2 2 = 16 y.1 = 2 a#. y = 28. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. a: a. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 899. 878. 3 x 2 . x a: lI = xz . 2 = 2 + 5. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 5.298 877.15. 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 883. z 2 898. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. M1 891 1 . 885. y*+ xy . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. +y f y = 7. . 886. xy + y = 32.y 2) = 20. 2 + y 2 . 901.y 2 + V(j.xy + y 2 = 19. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.
2 2 2 916. = 8.y) (3 y . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 * 2 ~ g. + a. 3 :r(3 . yz = 24. + y 8 = 189. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 911. * + y = 444. (* 918. y + a:y = 180. . 905. 3 y 8 ) =1216. a: a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. xy + x= 15. + 2 ary = 39. y 3 2 2 922. + ?/) . + ary = a*.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . y # 2 2 f f y = 84.3) 2 f (y . 910. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.3(* + y) = 6. (!) * . 909.y) (a? . x + y 2 = aar. 2 913. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.23 = 200.2 y) = 49 2 919. *y . . x 2 ry + y = 3.y = a(ar + y). 921. (o. 917.r a. + y)(a. y x 2 = by. 923. (a. . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 4 (a.y) = 33. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 924. 908. + y = 9. 912. a. xa 903.3)2 = 34.y). Vary + y = 6. 2 915. x f 2 a:y = 32. 920.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 907. ^ 2 . y . 7 y . + 2 a:y + = 243.16 y 3 8 = . # + xy + y = 7. ary y = 8. a:y xy 929. 914.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 906. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.#y + 2 = 27. 23 x 2 .y2 = 22. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 2 5 xy = 11. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x + y}(x + y) = 273. or or a? a: a: . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.x) = 21. a: y zx 12. a: * a: a: ar 928. (3 x .6.
square inches. two numbers Find the numbers. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and also contains 300 square feet. 931. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. is 3 . A plantation in rows consists of 10. *(* + #) =24. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. In the second heat A . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. A is 938. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the difference of 936. is 3. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 943. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. feet. . The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. If each side was increased by 2 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle.300 930. How many rows are there? 941. 942. A and B run a race round a twomile course. is 20. 937. and the sum of their areas 78$. two squares is 23 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. 935. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. find the radii of the two circles. y( 934. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 944.102. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the numbers. + z) =108. rate each man ran in the first heat. (y + *) = . feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. and 10 feet broader. 34 939. diagonal 940. s(y 932. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. a second rec8 feet shorter. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.000 trees. Tf there had been 20 less rows. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find the sides of the rectangle. + z)=18. 2240. 152. Assuming = y. two squares equals 140 feet.
and travels in the same direction as A. 950. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. . The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. set out from two places. 949. . 951. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. sum Find an edge of 954. P and Q. 952. is 407 cubic feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find the eter 947. Two starts travelers. and its perim 948. Find the number. each block. Find the number. unaltered. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. triangle is 6. distance between P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. that B A 955. . The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find its length and breadth. its area will be increased 100 square feet. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. overtook miles. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find in what time both will do it. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. whose 946. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 953. and if 594 be added to the number. and that B. the digits are reversed. A and B. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. at Find the his rate of traveling.
971. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.. (x 4 to n terms. 16 962. 961.141414. 974. 36 963. 4.v 973. 972..321? 965. *" 968. P. 18th terms of an A. !Ll^ + n . 958. difference. 3 . f + 1 .. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.>/) to infinity. x(x to 8 terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. n to n terms. 5. . s  88.. fourth of the unity... P.4142 .. 964. 4 4 to 7 terms . 9th and llth terms of an A. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. J. Sura to 24 terms.. 957. Find the Find the common 977. and 976.454.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find n. \ . 1 to n terms...V2 . Sum Sum to infinity. Find an A. . (to 2 n terms). 3 + 5 7 + . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 969. Find the sum of 4. 975. . = 4. Find n f (ft) . '...  2. P... Evaluate (a) . the terms being in A. 12434+ j I 967. to 7 terms. ^ Vfirst five 959. Sum to 20 terms. 970. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). + (iiven a +  4 d . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. ^ 1 . P. to n terms. are 29 and 53. 966.1 4 f j$V ..to infinity. to infinity. 1G series .302 956.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 5.3151515.
to oo. "(. . to n terms. and the common difference. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.. The 21st term of an A. to infinity may be 8? . 985. 1.. 992.. P. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . Find n.. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 987. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.001 + .3 ' Find the 8th 983. : + 9   V2 + ..REVIEW EXERCISE 978. first 984. 990. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 986.001 4. and of the second and third 03. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 0. Find the sum of the series 988. The sum 982... 5 11.04 + . of n terms of an A. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. The term. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. P. Find four numbers in A. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 989.2 .01 3. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 980. to 105? 981. and so on. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find four perfect numbers.+ lY L V. 2 grains on the 2d. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. Find the first term.. is 225. named Sheran.) the last term the series a perfect number.1 + 2. 303 979. 4 grains on the 3d. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . P.
. ABC A A n same sides. in this square a circle. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. c. ft. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 994. is 4. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 512 996. inches. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 998. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. areas of all triangles. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Two travelers start on the same road. P. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and so forth to infinity. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 1001. AB = 1004. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 1000. P. find the series. 1003. 995. The sum and sum . 999. 997. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. at the same time. of squares of four numbers in G. in this circle a square. prove that they cannot be in A. P. The fifth term of a G. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. are unequal. If a. (a) after 5 strokes. are 28 and find the numbers. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and G.
.o/) 14 . x) 18 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1012. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (12 #) 7 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1008. Find the middle term of 1020. 1009. 1011. (1 1018. Expand  2 a. 2 ) 5.ft) 19 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. . ) 1021. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1006.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of 1013.l) w f . a: 8 7. Find the middle term of ( . + lQ .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1014. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down the 1 5a  6 V .
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graphic tion of representa . . . . . quadratic . . 9. 19.. Checks Coefficient 20. 97. 129.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .108 160 " . 54.. .. . . . lowest ratio " '* . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 112 54 54 251 .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ... . signs of Algebraic expression .. 158.. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . Aggregation. numerical . .. 129 54.... Brace Bracket Character of roots .. ..130 .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . linear literal Common ** * difference . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .193 11 . .. . simple simultaneous . ... .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. . ... .. 8 . . 232 169 807 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 37. . . 160 in quadratic form 191 . .. 9 ** .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 246 91 " multiple.. 232 mean progression ... t 53 120 . .. .178 Completing the square .] Abscissa Absolute term .... .. . ..... 123 .
. 112 ..C Multiplication . Geometric progression . .. 195 33. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. Inconsistent equations . Like terms Linear equation . 45 Laws of signs .. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 109 102 . 227 geometric . 114. . .. 120 Member. . 180.154 Order of operations " of surds .108 Minuend . 45. .808 Exponent Exponents. G. . Insertion of parentheses .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 34.. . 84. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . law of Extraneous roots . .. Imaginary numbers . numbers . . 212 . Negative exponents 11 . . . Known numbers . 227 . . arithmetic . first and second . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. . 253 28 70 1. 42 7 Independent equations Index . addition of " square of . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. ... 184 54. 243 7 .. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 205 . Product '* 76 Infinite. 189. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 143. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . exponent . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.31. 17 65. . . inversely 122 numbers . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . . . directly. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . ... 45.. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 23 10 91 102.. 241 123 geometric . . INDEX 8 . 91 . 9.251 Graphic solution of simultane. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. Mathematical induction .. L. 63. P . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .
232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 9.. . 129. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. 4 155 9 " of . .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. . algebraic Surds . Sum............ . binomial Third proportional Transposition .. absolute 54 Variable . . .. polynomial . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 45 Trinomial 240 .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
S. August. 8.COPYRIGHT.A.. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. U. Gushing Co. 1910. . 1916. Norwood. 1917. 1910. December. Set up and electrotypcd. Published September. NorfoooS J. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1913.
7. 23... 18. 28. 25. 17. 13 d. 48 ft. 1. A Bl 7. 106.  13.. 2. 9. T . 128. C $60. 1. 13 S. 7. 4. Page 1. 24. 210. $40. 9 m. 1. Ot 15. 9. 8. 12. 0. 25. 6.000. 150. 11. 20 jo. 6. 14. 2. 12.8. B $20. 20 B. 21. 32. $ 1 50 10.000 negroes. 30. 5. 13. 3. A 15. B 10 mi. South America 46. 3. 3. x. ft. 7. 13. 3.. sign. 73. .000 Indians. 18. 1. 13. 20. 14. A 38 mi. 3. 20 \. in 12. . 2. 14 11. = 5 81. 14. 5. _ 32.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 4. 59. $160. Page?. 256.000.C. 5. 32. sign. . 8. 20. 10. 17. 2. 25. 11. 1. 4. 19.  1. 3. 126.000. 192. 10. 2. C $ 16. 3. 3 below 0. 9 = 4. 20. 6* 16. 115. 16. in. 8. 19. 17. 7m. 7. 2. 144. 3. 10. 1. 1. 11. 16. 7. 22. 9.12.$9400. 2. 6. 1. 6.. 64. 3.00000001. A . 9. B $4700. 26. 1. 9. 20. 4. 37 S. 27. 14. 18. 2. 15. 16. 16. 29. 3. 2. 12. 16 in. 10. 30?.. Multiplication. 4. 10. 1 16. 27. 8. 5.3. 7.  22 20. westerly motion. 13 V. 15. 15. 6. 7.. 6. 16. 14. c. 49. 2. 13. 14. 9. 6. $100. 89. 18. 2. 10g. 32. 8. 3. 15. 1. 1. 8 13. 13. Not 5.000. 7. V 23. 3. 16f 2. 16. 85. 19 4. x.. 24. 9. 3.  1. 14.21 24. 21. B $ 128. 19. 4. Page 8. 72 = = 216. 17. 2 ~ 15. 16. 11. 3* 7. 10.000. 12. 49. 2 5. 576. 5. 9. 10. 3. Page 4. 12. (a) (/>) 1. per sec. in. + 1. }. 16. 2. Yes. 15. 3 m. 16. 2  Page 8. 6. 9 14. 5.000. 18. 21. 12. b.150. 6 yd. 8. 18. 14. 6. C $1(50. 10. 25. 12. 12. 22. 1. loss. arithmetic. 1. B $80. 3.000. 5. 26z. 36. Page 13. 1. 6. i . 5000. 37. 6. . 1.2. 2. 5. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 512. 28. 32. 7. 9. ^.000. is $10. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 9 16  larger than 7. 2. Australia ft. 8. 4. 11. 6.1. 16 in. 8 ft. 3. 27. 0. 3.  2 p.. 29. . 17. 12. A $90. 12. 24.
15..4  2ft 2 33.  12. rt. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 19. 31.GOG. . 12yd. 1. 9. 1. 33. 16. o^ft.  11.q 4. 11. 3. 16. 2. 15. 0. 00 24 04 ft. 5.. Polynomial.r f 15. 8. Va'+Y2 8^2 .5f> sq. jrif 4 9. . Page 7. 0. 3. (c) S(i. 11. 13. 10. 12. 1. ft. 37. 11. ^). It. <i~ 26. 2oVmf?i. (r) 78.r~ f 34. 12. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 0.. 104. ft. 16. Page 31. 28. 34. 20. 2x' 2 5 . 22( 19.ft. 4. r:A 29. 17. . 27.9?/2 8. 12. 13. 5. . 12. 27.  0. 21 a 3 4 10. (59.'J. . 15. 20. 12.<>Gq. 50.ii ANSWERS Page 11. a2 4 15^44. 3. 5. 35. 0. 17. $80. Page 18. 41. 2.1.. 8. 18. (a 4 4. 4. #1111.r 2 . + ft). ft.. 17. (r) 2. 32. 22. 8..x. 0. 34.ft) 4. 240. 3. 13. 32. 15.000 sq. 32 2 ftc.5 (ft) sq. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. ft' 3 . vi 14. ??i??. 21^. 1. 9.. a 32. r+l. 3a. 13.a . 3 . Monomial. 26. (ft) 12. 3.ab. 1. i:5. (ft) $40. 7. 43w//2 17. 14.  3. (c) 8. 8. 16. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. in. 8. a ft c. (b) 135 mi.4 ft. I. 13. yyz+xyz*. Pagel4r. 5. 26. 22. 20(. 1. (a) <> sq. 36. 20. . 18. 36. 35.~4. 17.000 . 21.. 12.  xV 3 y. 7.14 sq. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 28. WIN + wiw.900. 6.. 38. ft f 19. 29. 5x+3. 14. Trino inial. ft n. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 0. 4. 7. ]*. 21. 12 a. 38 ab. 0. 28. Polynomial. (ft) 7. 22. 0. = ()501. 1. :. 3. 27. 13 cu. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 173. sq.'JO ft. 3. 6<t. 35.  40. 4. 92. 2.6) 38.32 c2 > ft 3 . 19. 18. Page 23. 25.. 17. 4. 0. //'. 16. II. r/ \(\xyz. 31. 5. 5. (ft) mi. :J!>r'.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 3. Page 21. arty 1 20. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (r) 2000 m. f  5e 35. 14. 9. (a) 200. (ft) Page 2. 14:). 237. in. 2ftx. = 81. 9. .  2 4 13 ft 2 . 6. 23. 49. 9. 1. 24. 21. \'\ 4. 14. m + 3(a. 4 y/ . in. 19. 15. 04. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 42. in. 6. 22. 3rf 27. 14. 27. 10. mi. (a) 50. 8. 2. 3 a* + 2 at*. + v> 2 . 14. 29. 8.. 4. 2. ft. 5. w. 8.. 25. 27.. 314 sq. 3(c4a). + 5.rty8. 15. 25. 11. 5. 30. 7. . 30. +/2(/. 7. ^. 31. 2. (a) r>23ifcu. 39. t. 3. y. 30. 57. x^ 20. 18. 7 7.94(>. . 14. 18. 27. 10. (r) 2G7. ft.  1. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. m 24. 13. 23. 4 9/^/rl 2. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 15a. _ 4 . 58. c. $3000 Page 6. 33. 1. Binomial. 51 f. 24.
4c 3 8 8 J. + 2y. 19. &. 35. a2 24. 22. 6. .4x.aft.. (mn} 11. f ft 9. 7. 13. m*  n*. 2.2 a2 2m 2 4. 20.ws 2 ft) . 2 .a f 54. 26. n*. c.  b. 56. . 3 Ji 8 . 3 m. 36. 15. 8 + 2 a . 4. 0. 8. 15.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. M + 10. 31. 20. 32. 2. 4r 2 . 2 a f 6 414. . 21. 22. 7 a5 1 . a  ISjfat. 13. 2a: 2 4x.a~.2 a. 40. 30. 4 21.a .3 6.(7x2 Ox2). . 2 . 51. 3. 4ft ~.4 d. . 43. . 5. 1.  1. . 4. :5 41. 2// 16. 33. w* ( . ar. . 364c. 6. . 12. ii\ 22. . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. . 2 2 2 6. + a 2 f 2 a 4. x a8 1. 24. a2 9.3x 2 2 tf. 2. 1. + c 4 d x + 6 e. Page 8. 3. 7  a + 2 + c. a4 4 4.abc.5 z?/ + 3 y . ( 7. 1. 25. 8 b. 7  # + 12.6 x + 0) 16.  23.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2 a 37.5. _ Page 30. 4. 24. 10 m. 42. 2 6. a 4 + ft.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 55.7. 2. 36.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 8. a 10w. _5a<>&43c. 0. 11. c. 2. 2 17.(2 x2 . . 1. a).2. 12. 0. 16. a 52. a + (ftc4df).a'2 . (2n' 43p 47 ). 8. 26. 25. G a bd.  b* 4 r 1 .  17.r 2. 2. '  . 37. + 4 c. 17. 4. 7. 17. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2 y' 4 . Exercise 16. . + 8.  a: 2. 28. r. a 3a 4 2 &. 2m. 18. 2x 4 a 13.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .4. Page 44. 50. Page 28. a  49. 31. a + a. \ :{ 2 a 48. 1 4. 10 x. 7. ?> 22. 11. 1. 4. 25 47. a 3 . 1 + 45. 26.2 . . lOrt 15w4.11. (5x47 3. 24.2 57.h. 59. 2a. f 2 ?/  2. t). 14. . 12. 2m + 2w. 24 b 46. 14. 3 a3 & 41. ' 12 m?/'2 27.. 3. mn.a*. 10.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 14. 38.  4 b 17 y*.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 6. 2 2. x  + 3z. ri\ 18. 814. 5. s_r>a5.x f 1 2 .  12. a.8(c + a). 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 7. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. x3 . 18. 4.r. a a. 20. 2 + a4l). a 6 2 . 21. 5 2 Page 29. !  </ . 2. 6.1. 10. 10. 5x 2 rt ft. 2 3.l.Oa: + 10. 3 a . 32 w 2 w. 5. 2 4. 15. 8 . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . c2 . 29. (yz~d}. 21. ?/i 13. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. a f 2 f 2 9. ti. 19. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. G. j)(g1. 34. 9. a' 4ab + ?/. Page 7. 1. 25. 14. .  14 afy . a 3& . 12. 4wipg>' 27. 19. + 6. w 17. 58. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.1 . 18. 34 39. 8 8 . 2. ft Exercise 17.'U4j>. ?/. 11. 5. 2. 2 3x f z. 16.c. ^ <. ?>4tl 53. 2. (w4w)(ww). ab a.
770. . 0. 29. 34. . 13. 25. 120.14 w 2 2 . n (a6) 125. 2 ll9HH 2) + . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 29. 7. 34. ^^ = 20. 33. 13.7(50. 30. 25 4 4.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 2''. 31. 11. 18a% y. . 24. 360. a. 2. 16 51. 17. 21. 4 jcy*z*>.21 a 3 c2 21. 11. 25. a + ft.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 2. . . . 3300. 5.19 + 2. 0. 26. 4. 30.16 x2/ 5 4.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 21. 161b. 36. f 26. 66 39 k* . 11.28 p'^/. 19. 14. 6.26. .16 a 2 + 32 a . 10. 38wiw. 15. 16.r% 2 2 ry. 29. 210. 19. 31. (+3)x6=+16. ll 2 i. +15. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.6) =a2 31. 30. 7. 12. 5. 90. 13. 18. 24. . 161b. 24. Page 3. 30. 25. 3. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. //. 23. a 8 . ISartyW e*f*tj. 127"'. 25. 23. 1. 15 lb.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. m. 108. a: . iSx8 .21. 102. 18.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .r + 7 1S + 2 mp.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 18. 76 8 a' 1 . 4. 7G . + 58 . 20. 15. 10. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 42. +. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 14 m 2 .25 + 14. 14. 8. 9. 2 n8 29 a + 30.. 7. 14.1. 37. 2 2 2 . 20.20 xyz . 27. .. 6". 3 a 2 46. 84. 13. . 2.:>/ . 17. 33. 66 8W 34. 216. 18. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 9 13. etc. 40 r 2 .. 17. 35. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. + O4 66 .6 2 . 6 . 13. 16 lb. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 64. 22. 12. 19. 24. ft 17. a*b*c. 04. 32. 21 a'&c. 52 + 6s 12. Page 7. . Page 36. 14f 5. 28. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 3. 10. 1. 5aft(a 126 2). Page 38. 42.69 rt + 21 132 + r . x2 xy42^. 20. 2 ). 20 aW.. 83 In + 1 n*. 1904. Page 5. 20. 32. fa 2. 18. 3. 16. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 30 j9 jt?g j . 4. s 9 ww. 22. 16. a. 4. 2 a2 (y 2 . 27. 16. 2 w +2 2 . 23. 8 . 12. 2 ).000. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .2.8 12. + 7. 12 ^. 30 n?b*c*. 4aWy. 10. 4 a2 . 4. 4 a8 . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . Ox a 5 .12. 28. 30. 9. 9. 7. 216. 22. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 28. 8.44 aWc 16 abxy. 1400. ?> 4 .64 190 p6. 1. 8. 21. ! 2. 30. 1. 27. . 20. 11.32 y s s G . 16.36 35. 2 . 1. 108. 15.15. 33. 6. 15. 1. 343. 19. 28. . 34. 3. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 4. 2. Page 35.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 4200. 8. 2 7t A. 4 7> 4 :j !} . a.(3x2_4^+7). 2*8f x2 6x4.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 3 a 3 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl.14 .11 xyz . 1. 24. 27. 26. 15 q\ 6.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 12 x2 2 . 2 * 80 . 3(*+0 + 2). 20. 6. 18> ^* = a .19p" + 19^ 10 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 14. 29. 6. 17. 22. 4 fc. ?/ . 60.>(/ r . ci 5 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 27.32. 60. 23.12. 8. 18. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 .22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 15.
+ 3)(3). 25. 10.4 12. 2 1: 21. . 14. 56. 2 . 38. 441.49. m 2 . 4 . ab . 39. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.ri 17.201.2. 32. a 2 . 23. 29. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 2. x 4 ?/4 + ab .098. 3. 2 +10s281. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.14 jp + 49. 29. 5. 19. 33. 9. (a + 4) (a + 2). 19. 16. 10. 4. 2 0)(p + 5). 36 a 4 . 39. 8 a W . 26. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.2 y*.ANSWERS 28. (w4)(w + l). 2 4 2 2 64 . 27..712. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 18. . 990. 166. 42. 10 a 4 ?.^ + a? + 1. .500.25. (w+4)(m4). ' 46. 2 j3 Z . p 2 . 26.. . . 8. 51. 1. 52.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 25 a 2 6 2 . .p132. 3. 1. . 6.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 . 37. . 8 38.r . 35. 35. . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 44. x* . 1.009. 55. . 1. 10 a' 2 . a + 25. 2 4 a + 4. 484. 10. 9801. 8. 5. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. a3 0. 24. 9. 24. 2 (5 a 3). ~ 6 20 . 17. 7 .2 x + 2 x. 33. 4 x2 13. a + 25. a2 ' + 48Z100. n + 2. a + 56. 20a 2 21a + 4. 41. + 2 9.84 a' 9. 4x21.6 y4 10. 7.001.15.^. 11. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. +4 34. 12 x2 . . (m + 6)(m3).2 6 + 13. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.020. Page 39. 41. 34. 10. 2. 1. 10. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .35 ab 9. 2 fr . Om2 4 6m 6. 32. 1. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.4 n. 31. 30 x + 19 x3 .r . (n 2 5.994.000. ) 4' 6/ 49. 10. . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. (a (3 54. ^/> 8 4 . + 10 + 121 y*. 10.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. + 4 a +4. 40. 4 . n2 a4 6. 11. x2 GiC+5.10 35. 4.x2y22. r. ^' J  7 f 12. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 31. x 2 f xy + 9 41.4 a&+ 4 &*. ?/H)0.10 x + 25.20. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 15. 10. 3wi2 m Page 42. 998. 7. . ^V^4 . 31. 2 a' y' . 999. 4. 14. 9990. 1). x*2^f I.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . +  m' 1. 30 /><. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 28. a4 4 ?/ . m 3 j) 3 .8.000.020. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 10. 37. p4 + .404. . 2).54 p 2 + 81. a' ./ .r* 2 30. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . y.606. 21 2 . . 8. 2 62 V2 132. 6. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.5 ~ 81. 4 2 //. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. . s rc 47. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). V + o ft . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 25 25. 33.009. 34. 30. 57. 45. 6 2 + 6lf>0. ft' 11. 2 12.008. fo*.6 x2 13. 4 21. (p 2. lflrt 2 8 + l.6 xy . 2 a 2 + a . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 4 + 25 q*. 7> . 10.^V"' . 14. 36.996. 10. 36. G a6 2. Page 12. 40. 2 6' . 9 4 /> . 15. 40. 7. 27.1. 9999. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 36.6.004.ab .m 30 6 4 1. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.810. + 4 t*. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). x 48. .16 a3 f 50. ab. + 12. x4 28. + 7 6)(3a~76>.00 + 37. +   5). 53. I/).3.
7. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 21. 13. 3. ti'jry1 7.r?/ j/. ft. 2 a 3 ft. 12. _ 2 a . 3. a 2 . 1. a 8 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .2 ar.r . . 5. 135. . r 7. 18. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. aft.2 .rw f 8 . 8 ?/ . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.3 ry.r" 20 S? . aftc 52.5 a . 10.2 <</. r/2 4.24 . 10. 4ft. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 4 a 2 4.1. 44. m L 4. 2. 4 pq. 1/*. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 4 a* 4 9 11. . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 4 c m . 49. 4.2 ftc . 2 ?/ 4. 9.21 2 2 f + . w 2 . sr 11. . 11 4. Page 48. 3 aft 20.23. 6. f>r* 4. 9. 21.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.1.29.000. 5. 20. + x?/ 2 1. 7 r . Page 22.10 xy*. 16. aft 12. 75 a 2 29.30 ftc. 2 1.9 d. 2 4 3 9. 13. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .25 c . as _ 10 16.  5 z* .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 2 4 2 x 4. yfl. 22. 2. /r . 4.3 3. z. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 14. *3 y 4 . Page 7. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 4xy + 13 <) .8.2 aft 4. 2 ?/' . abc 7. 4.25. 3. m'2 3. 7a3ft. 20 15. 3. 19. 15. 9.12 aft 4 20 ac . ??. .rw. 2 ? 14 . . . 2.r ?/ ??i ?). 6.+ 77 15. 2. ?/2. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 17. +w .7.2 1 //. 125. 50.5 mp.8 yn .1. 47.9 4. 8.5 n*. Exercise 27. 6x 3. 5^418(7. y 7.2 2 .1. . w . :r !>.1. . 12.2. . 46.  10. 16. 12.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 5. . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.10 2 + z 2 410. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5.lit x + 4. x 2 + 2r f J.> 10. 5. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. ft 17. . 4 ac. '. r ft. 17.15 21. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 16. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 5. 4. 3. Page 11. 8 ?/ . 1. 4 x.VI ANSWERS 43. 8 x . 4x43?/.6 :rs 4. a 10. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .27 x 2 4. Osy. 12. 14. 4. 4.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .15.w. 13. 13. 11. .n.  . 1000 1000 .3^V. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. G. 14. . // 19. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 1. r//. . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 5 4 a Oft. c 12. 13. 10. 2.2 wZ 4. 9. 19. 01. 12. 1. 2 . 14. 4.r?/.x^. 15. + 4. 1.2 ac .3 5. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 18. a. 2. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. ft* ft / . Page 13. 14 r 2 .2 . 1.  3 c. 3 a. a 4 4 ft.3 a 41.  12 y 25. 8. 26. i 2 tji.2 2 2 8 . 8.4.1. 2 . 10 ft. 8.8 y. 6. 13.2 . 23. ft ? ft' ft ft. x4.r'^ 15.r' ~ 16.1*5 2 r 2 . 2 12. 5. Page 51. 17.3 x 2 2 4.34. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 4. x 4. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 11. c3. l 4 . i 9. 5. 5. 9. 3*y2 w + 1. 6. + 3.  11.1.y3. 6. 14. 8. 24. j) . 1.8. 4./ 4. 4 d 2 4. 8. 2 2 + 2 a. 5 a  (5 ft. . 3.
a 10.100. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 18. ct. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 17. Jj12. m +~m 3. 24. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 4. 42. d. 10) + = (a) 2 x . # + 20yr. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. x = m. 100 14.ANSWERS Page 9. 6. 100 d ct. (</) 2a. 39. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 2b 22. 2. 2. 10 yr. + 10 b + c ct. fix. 8. 7x 2 Page 21. % 4. 6. 19.  1$. 10 x sq. + f + b 2. 4. y ?>i x + 26. 3. sq. b. Page 31. l. 10. 12. 1. s. x 2y 10 act. b.10) 100. 37. 26. 58. ft. ct. 2. 33. 'nj 100 a 28. 10 a. n M. 14. x. 8 n  10 yr. x + 1=a. 7. ( a f 4. 36. xy ft. 38. 16. 19. 15. 50= L 100 15. <>. 2. 57. (a) ' 12. I. 17. 45. 16. 2b. 43. v (6) 2x. (c) 2x. 2.  2\. 60 25 1. 11. 34. 3x2.(3x  700) = 5. "mi. 5. Page 61. 22. . . (A) 3 x f (4 x . 9. 5. 41. x 49. 3. 59.ab a.. 35. 25. 29. f (I. 800 = x + 1300. lO. 30. I. 10 >_&. 31.. 2=10. 14. 27.r1.  6 10. r tx mi. 5. 23. vil 56. . 0. 10. 29. (> 27. + 4x 3y 34. 6. 7. 44.(3x+ = rraxlO. 00.. !). d + !. ft. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 41. 4. iL*.  />) a = all. . 5. 10. . 2. 9. 36. 40. ft. }f.p+7. 37. 5. y yr. f = eZ 2 x. x 48.000.. 4 f 39. + 3 = 2(3* . 2 ct. 23. 46. 28. 2x + 35.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 6. (>. a 8. 38. </ 20. Page 40. 3 9. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). r>?imi. 18. . 7. 33. 30. 7. 4. 4^ = 100. = 5 ?i x 460. x y $ 6 yr. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 100 2. Page 13. " lir. 20. X 60. 22. 100= ^. 16. 10. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 4. Page 6.  9 = 17 a. + 3x + 2y + 32. . 1. ? 43. ^ 12 sq. 13. 5. 4(a ft) c = 8. 11. 21 2.x700. 25. 15. 13.7). 17. 1. 47. 11. 0. y 100 a 24. / + y + a// 12 yr. lOx 10 + w. 20. 1. y 50. 7. 1&. 44. 12.6 = *. m+ 11. 6. 7. 3. 13. ] 2 ri 42.r ct. 3x  1700) = 12. 20. ct. 8. f 6)(o 62. 1. rn mi. 32. (2 a.rr2. '^ . 7.
. . 23. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 11 w(w' + wi .8. 15. 10. 9. 05. 42yr.(5z . by 12 yd. . 19. $40. 16.. 10. 90. 1 lb. 10. 300. 20. 20 yd. 8. 5. 15. 11. Pace 65. 3. 18. (c) ^ v ' .210^. 2. (a + 4)(a + 8).5. 25. (a5)(a4). 6. 82 mi.. 20. (e) i* + A.  PageSO. Page 7. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 13. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. Page Page 4.2). 1200. 10 yr. 14. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 200.22. 7. 1313. (y8)(y + 2). 1. 8 12. 9. Page 5. 30 yr. 8. 12. 2. 2 2 ?/ 21.24.3. 13. 1. 9.79.000. 21.. 2. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 8 2 19. 5. 4. 10. 30 mi. 1. 8. (a 4) (a.000 gold. 7. 5. 4. 2.y"). (y + 8)(y2). 12. 600.000 pig iron. 9. (yll)(y4). 3 hr.1). 15 yd. 12 mi. 50. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 2. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 3.5. 6rt 2 11. 14. Oaj(o62cd). 3 (a +&)(*.0.. 2. Page 79. 7. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 9. 4pt. 70^..000.16. 1. 12. 80 A. 12. 4. 3. 18. 30. 250. (ro3)(w2). 6. 2$. 5 lb. 6. 20. 70. 10 yr. 20 yr. 10. 2 3 6 7. 2).000 copper. 7 hr. 4. 6. 5. 480. ?(g ? g+ 1). (p + 7)(3a5&). 10 yd.10. 78. ^ . 11 in. 5pt. 52.. 22. Page Page 480 12. 3. 8. 8. 6. 1. 8.000.0. 200. 25 yr. 7.000 ft. 8 in. 2 2 2 5. 8. 72. 11. 18. (*4)( + 11. 6. 55. w (/) 64. 45 in. 10 Cal. 14. 24J. 3. 71. 7. (m + n)(a + 6). (y 13.2. ( + 4)(*2).11.21.000. 5 Col. 12. 15. 9. 7a*fe(2a & l). 6. 15 mi. 17. (a + 6) (a + 3).3). 1250.5p + 7 g ). 3x (3r. 9.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. Page 7. 100.. 10 Mass. 180. 74. 11. z?/(4^ + 5xy .. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 7. 15.000. 4. 85 ft. 2.3. 6. a a (a 8 a+l).. = _?_(2ar + 1). 3. 3.3aftc + 4). ~=90. 8. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 1. 14. Page Page 4. 25. 5. 14.000 N. 1200.000 Berlin.. 75.411.000. 100 1. 150. (z5)(z2)... 10. 14. 29.7. 40 yr.000 Phil. .000 ft. 160 lb. a 12. 11. 5$ hr. 13. 67.6). + 7)(y3). Ib. 13. (a + 5)(a + 6). 15. 17. 9 in. 20 yr. 90 mi. 78. (y7)(y + 2). 68. 12.. 11 pV (2 p8 . 4.000.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.13. 13. 28yr.. 1. . 30. Y.. 15 in.
27. 35. 216 aft. Page 84. Page 83. (2o + l)(2l). 12. 10.2 by2 6. 12. 23.11 6) (a 4. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (<7 20. (3a.4 6). 6. 20. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . Yes. 2. 26. 25. x(x +y)(x y). (15z2y)(x5y). (x + y4 )(x .* (2 y + 3)(y. 16.. (4y3)(3y + 2). 22. 28. a(2u. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 2. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). y) 2 29. (4 13. . 33. No.1).3)(z2). Yes. Yes.6) 2 2 . 10 a 2 (4 . 8. (4 18.y4 ). 13x(a + ft)(aft). a . 23. 10(a + ft)(aft). 19. 22. . 31. 24. 10. 2. (3#y)(+4y).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 9.  x (5 a. 25. 25. 16. + 0(90 Page 85. No. 13. 15. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 21. 33. + 2y). 2 2 15. Yes. (az + 9)(ox2). (2xl)(x + f>). + 4) (a. . y) (a. 8. 3.7) (a. 10(a . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (2 a? 4. 1. 28. 36. 7. 18. 24. (y + 4)(yl). 21. 3a. (5a +l)(5a l). . 4. Yes. 22. + 5) a. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 10. 9. . (4al)(a2). (a. (w* (3a26). 7. 34. (g . (13a +10)(13a 10). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 27. 21. 40 x. 9. Yes. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 17. 103x97. Page 82. 26. (y8) 2 2 . 2 No 4. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 17. 9. Yes. (a a: 19. 100(x. (* + y)(zy). 20.2 ft). . a. 24. 21. + y + . (2w+l)(ro + 3). (ft + ll)(aftll). 5. 12. Yes. 10. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (4a. 30. 16. 8. + 3)(c44). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 11. 19.r2). (m + n + 4p)(w + .4. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 14. No.7)(2z f 1). (2 *+!)(* 9). 23. ix 18.+4 y)(3x4 y). 18. (10a + ft)(10aft). 11. 26. 14. (0 + 6)(66). Yes. (:52y)(2a!3y). No. 7 6) (a 10 6). .y (6x + 4)(5x4). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 31. .2 y). 3)(3a. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).c 2 ). ( 2 4 19. 30. (3*2)(. . 14. (5wl)(m5). . 32. 10(2 30. 3. f 2). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 4 (a . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (5x .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.11 ft)(a6). Yes. + 3). 25.ANSWERS 16. 2 3 by2 Yes.3). 26. x (z + 2)(x + 3). . 7. 100 (a. x\x 24. a*(5a f l)(flr . 29.6) 2 1. (ay8)(ay3). 22. 20. (15ay2) 2 .2). (w ~ n (x . (6 a. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 28.1). 34. (a + 8)(a3). 2 17. . 2). (a (p8)0> + l).1). (5 a 2) (2 a 3).9*).4p). 13x7. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 5. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). Yes. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 6. 11. 1. 24 9. 10(3 5 6) 2 . Yes. 1.1). (2yl)(y + 9). + 9^)(oxy . 9. 8) (a. 32. 23. 15. 27.8). (a2 + 10) (a2 2).   .y) 2 aft. 3.2). (m7n) (a. 3(x + 2)(zl). (6n + l)(+2). (a 6 6) (a 4. 17. 29. y(x. 4. 25. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (m + w) 2 5. (a 3 + 10)(a. + 8)(g3). No. (w + 20)(w + 5).5y)(3a. 35. (9y4)(y + 4). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .
5. 7.) j). 18. . 16. 13( 33. 3.1).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). ah}. 41. (a 4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 1(V/ 88. 11. 2 (a 4.b.4. 2 y) ^ .X 5.2 y).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 4.7s) (2 a. 2. 5  (2 2 .?/).  29. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .7)(^ {I 12. 4 a8 . 8. 12.y)(fi a . 6. 22. 13. 13 x 8 2 . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 28. y )(. 2 1.y '2 2). ?i(w 4y) . 20. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 9. .8) ( (16.'J)(' . 6.?>) H.3. (a &4. x(x f y)(jr . 2. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). ( y). ( (<> r4y3 . ( rt 23.!) (x42)(x2). (5a+l)(9a).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ( { &). a + a b. . 6. (w * .4). 2 k (wi 4. 2 + . 8. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 2. 4 a s &8 .36). 16. 450. 4  9.y.&).  WIM. 12.1) 3. 7.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 14. (2x7)(x 2 2). a 4. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.42 x 4. 8. 8. n  r)(5a 10. (f> + fo 7. 13.'/)('< 4.5 m2 x2.'})(c .>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 3(. 30. 11.r(3x' 2 4 (14.e 4. 10(2 (3 4. 40. 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). (x//. a8 . 2 2 3 . 10(8x' 4l) 4. a 2 (a9).2)(x 1. 3 x4 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 2.8) n 43*). ( a ^)(^3.n).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).2). 14. l. 8x. 8. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 6. (14.3. 2(m4l)' . Exercise 47. 5 x8 3. Page 90.2). y(2x?/). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. x43. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 13. 7. 6. 1. (w4w) 2 1.4). 8.l)( a 25. 42). 7. y). 38. (x. (> 1. a (a + 2 6). 4. (5 26. 14. r x 2 */3 . (. a x 3 10. 32.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 4. 4 3. 9.3)(x 4. 6 f c).8).4. 35. y6. 39. 4). 4. (r420(4 10. (a />. 4. (c.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).y). x 4. 17.^ 48. 17(x43//)(x2y). 4. 2 21. (!__/>).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 42a 3 x. (^ 7. a 41. 2 8(w . 15 M. a 4. 24x sy s 9. 14. + 2 //). Page 12. 36. 3x(x?/) 4. (^ + ?>_8). b) (r 4. + 3. (5^4. x .  (w' 4.0+ 12). 15. 11. 5. 4.1). 4 6.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (m  I)' 6. 15.9). 11.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 7. 7. 3p (^9)(j) 4). Page 92. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 27. 2 2 10. x  1). ofc)( fid). 2 . 19. (a 9. 12.&). Exercise 46. . ^ . 6. (5 31.. Gp). . (2 a ~ f> b 4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 37. 10. Page 89. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . Page 87. ?>). 24.?50)(xt/z. 5. 5. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 2. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). Page 86. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). . 8). (16 4  2(5 n . 8. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). fi(c426).
2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . x 22. 6a2&(rt6). 1). 11. +5 1. x 24. 30(3 2 (a 15. 13. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. b ! 21.  1). 18. x 12. a 10 25. + y) (a: y). // m+1 !+*?. + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. a 23. +8b a 4 3 / ^.ANSWERS 10.6). (a2)(a + 2)2. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
28. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 30. 6. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. i. 4c 10. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.50 ~ 1/2 . 6a5f^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 0. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 4 L 8 2 . 6. w1 + ac w 4 7. 2 a. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ' 2 7. a 5. . ^~ 29. + 2H 1 ^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. c 8. + lH + .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. i^. 7. 1. A^.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 26. 4. _*^p5_^^_. xy 43. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. Page 101.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.  **/* + 84 _.. 11. Page 100.
19. 43. A. 1. 3. 21. x 1. 41. 1. . 5. 24. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 12. b a f +c 14. 1. 3. . 42. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 21. 1. 9. 5. n . x\. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ft. + f. 11. an 18. j L . 15. 20. c 8. 1. 34. a2 2. 12 28. 38. 4. 6. 7. 16. ?. +3 ( + 15. 11. f Page 107. 6. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 6. 18. 4. ?+_!?>. 11. . 2 47. 33. 4. 16. x 05m ' 5. pf n 6 1. 25. 39. ' 6. 7. 6 . 5. 2) 19. flf. 7. 26. 23. a. 15. 1.L+ft. 10. y(x + x ?/). 11. Page 106. J. 9.y 7. m 9.^U\WF### X<6. Of. 14. ac mp lf> n 12. 8. 1. 8. 1. ^_. 14. 9. 32. 5. 4. b 2. 11. 40. 4a3ft. 1. 21. f 7.^_. 1. J. 4. 7. ! 4 20. 46. 30. 6. 3. 44. 13. 5 be _J_. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 2ft a i m x. 36. 31. ^i 11. 35. 0. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 10.  10 X + u. 17. a 17. n m a + 13. 0. (>. 14. Page 113. 29. w^x 2 b Page 105. 4. 27. 3. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 3. 37. Page 111. 15. 45. 6. n 16.  V o 4. 8j_m 7 3.ft . 12. (y + (z 12. 17. 3. 3 7 i o. Page 110. . J.
15. 1. 8. $00. 10. 13. 5. 2. 6. ^?i min. 4fl M_. Page 124. 2:1.000 If da. 4. 1:1 = 1:1. IV s. 15. 6.000 1 = 23. 3.0 & . 4. Yes. $45. 7} 18.2./hr. 1: ~. 10.10. 212. Yes. 3:2.002. 3.} da.000. (ft) 5 da. Page 117. 13.. 300. 15. 8. 40 mi. 10. 28. 5. .137. a 4 ft. ~m . 3. 40wn. 17. 38ft min. 300. 14. * 7:9. 300. f . ft. (ft) 5 hr./hr. silver. 275:108. 1:1=1:1. 1:1 = 1:1. (ft) 28. () 2. 1. (ft) (r) 8 hr.003. w 21. 20.0. [>> ^ a . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. #V ~~ 34. after 18. 10. J ^'. 30.. 24 mi. ^m . ^p^ r ~ 7. 19. 5. 18. 2x:3y. _JL. 32. .. P+ ^ 33. 4.11. 3. after $12. 4. :2. 7. 10. 12. 19. 24. min.004. 8. " 0.XIV '/ .. 26 mi. 9. 10. 40 yrs. (a) 25. 9. 1:1 = 1:1. 74. 31.001. 7 . '"I 22. . (r) 3^ da. 3. 9$. after 20. 18. 30 mi. = A's. (c) 2 hr. Yes. 9.. 5 2. nm. 00. 26 30. 19.2. 11. 1 da.139.000. 0. 5ft 30mi. 8301 hr. 11. w 44.. (d) 4 da. 15. 4. n 32. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . . 13.  29.15. 5 25. 30 yrs. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 35. Yes. $0. 16. 2. (a) 30. 17. 21ft min. . 11. 2 20. 12. dn ~ mi. 11 hrs. 8. 33. 1.  C . Yes.. 10. 1.  + . 16. 7. (a) 12 hr. 27. 30ft.138. gold. xy. (d) 500. 17.x + y. . 33. 20. 15. Yes. Yes. 15. 15. 20.000. 24. f. 12. 14. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 75 . Page 121. 1 : 12. 13. w 18. 7. 16. 9ft. 5. 81. 22. 3. 10. Yes. 6. No.9. 3 da. Page 118. (c) 8300.. 7T 2 Page 116. 21. 14. 36. 23< &n b ' .. No. Page 125. 18. 34. 21. 10. 10 yrs. 55 mi. ANSWERS 16. 10^ oz. 17. . 500. 26. 7. 1^'. 1:3. 1:4. 8. $30. Page 119. min. jj. 4~r~ n . 9J oz. J.. (ft) 104. 9. $40.000. (a) 4 min. 19. 14. 7. 7.
8.4.4. 7. 5. 13. 6.20.7. 141. 39. 13. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 1 18 = 3 51. \\. 7. 2. y .2. 1. 38.x a. 2. 20. 2. 17. 7. 7. 5. 45. 8.' : : : : <>. .4. 14. 6.  ?. 7.5. 57.15 x. 24.22. 5. . i. 4.3. 3. in n.15. 9  15.3. : : T 1' : /> : . 7. 9. 10.a. 1.2. (b) C C' = fi JR'.9.3. 26.17. OJ. 2. 4. 10.J. 3. 1.3. 18.*. 1. mi. 44. ig 6. 4. 4. "lO. a 3. 19 OJ. J. 4. 2. 2. 52. w. 1. . 8. 59. 19. 5.3. Page 9. 27.2 oz. 9. 21. 36. 2. 4. 3. 2. 40. 6 10 = 12. 11. 9. 35.4. \. 16. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 17. 23. 17. 5. 8. 2. . 31.ANSWERS 22. Page 133. 3 2=3 x. 3.].. 2. x 42. . 25. 4. 3. 20 20 J ^. cu. $. 11 5 . Page 134. 10. 8.5. 13J. jc:y = n:m. 40. (b) Inversely. 9. . 138. 41. 2. 32+ mi. 6. 19 3 . J.840. 6*. 2.1. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 9. 1(5. 58. 5. 1.1. 7. 3. (</) ft. 6.5. . land.000 sq. 2. 25.C ?/ a . 7. 2. 12. 7. : XV 27."2:1. 1. 32j. 31J.  28. y 1. 5. 3.2 x. Page 137. 5:3 = 4: x. + b 7 . 9. 3  24.r. 14.8 oz. x:y a: b. 4. 945 11 10 .46. : 23. .3. 200 mi. 13. . 56. 2. 2. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 24 1 (e) Directly. 1. 5.160. 12. a +b 1. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2. b x 37. 5:0 = 10:12. 2. 15> 9. .. + W. mi. 2. J pq. 11. 2. 22. 2. 25. 53. 1. 12. () 7 Page 126.1. 19. 5. s<i.12. 55. 16. 7. 3. in. lo mi. 46.1.3.li. 3}. 2. (a) Directly. 5. 8.3. : . 30. 19.3. 3. 49. 6. 54. 26. 4. 7. x +y x + 74 7 \. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 1 rt * vm^1.6.  19. 22. 43. 2 n . Page 135. 16.) 31.57. : />.5.5.5. 4.5. copper. . x y = 1 = 3 2. 29. 5. .2. 47..5. 7.4. 7. 23. 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 11.2. Inversely. 2. () Directly. 3. 15. 4. : : . water. 3.1. 11.7. l. 9. a~. 30.000 sq. w 8.J 3. 20. (I. /. y a y = 7 0. 5 2. 7. 48. tin. I. 28. 12. OJ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 21. y :y =. 50.5. 13. 8. 9. 1. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.12. 14. 11 w a 13. Page 5. 127. t 5. 7. 2.^ 0?j ' gms. ini. 3. 36. ft. 2. Page 136. 4. 7^. 7. ' 55. = 7 b'. ~ 1. 2. 15. J. *. 10. 3.3. 4. 11. Page 131. 20 cu. 4. 24. 174+ Page 128. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. ." ^ 2. 4. 41.36. 14.3. . Page 132. x y y . Of.
3. 8. m + n p. 5%. 7. m f 8. 2. 21. B's 40 yrs. 1 (c) Jan. Page 151. 8. . 7. 7. 10. 6 cows. 7.  Zn  "(^ll 14. Aug. 3. 25. $250. A's 50 13. 17. 3. Apr. 3. Apr.8. 13. Jan. 40. 3.0. 4. 4. 3).3.^. Nov.3. Feb. 25. 2. 12. m f 9.  17. 4. . 2. (a) Apr.n + p. Page 152. 6.4.. 16. 1. . 3. 20. 11. 40. 20. Oct. 8. 11. 100. 20.65. Nov. be 10. 18. 3. 3. 1 (d) Apr. . July. 10^ gms. 1. 4. 5. 4 mi..10. 15. 16. 30. 9. June. 16. ad _(?jrJL. 16 to July 20. 3. 3. A's 30 18. 72. 19. SL=J o ft r^2. 10 sheep. Apr. 6. 3. through point (0. 2 a. (5. 7. &. May 5. 6%. ' . July. 2 horses. 3. 9. 12. 15. 6. Nov. 1. a. 6.XVI Fagel39. 23. Jan. 2. M 2. $4000. (a) 12. 13. . ' 6 3 a. 2. 22. 90. 14. 9. 0. 25. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. Page 145. 8. 28. 30. 7. = ^ a Page 141. 7. 20 to Oct. 24. 17. 12. 1.  11. 1. 1. 18. 9. 2.33. 7. 1. a =J (n  1) rf. On the x axis. 10.4. 2t2. 24. 3. parallel to the x axis 0. On 11. 2. 5. 5.3. 11. 7.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. $3000. 24. 18. 6. (c) . yrs. 9. . 5. 14. . Page 142. 4. 20.9. 0. 17. C's 10 yrs. 21. 12. 11. 20.$2000.2.7./hr. 4. J. 423. 16. 12. 2.4. 0. $ 1000.1. Jan. 16. (ft) 20. 2. . 10. 6. 2. (<f) 13. 4. 5. 00. 3. C's 30 yrs. 3. 26.0. 27. 1. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 5. 11. 1. . 2. B's 15 yrs. 31.l. 30.1. & part of Sept. 19 gms. u 2ft. 29.. 26. 4 ' q. July 20. . 19. Page 153. 2. 32. About 12f. 5. & May. m . 1. The ordinate. 2. $900 5%. 9. 25. . 18. 3. $500.1J. 6. 16. 10. 3. 13. 1. Page 143. 2. 4. ft 3. 4. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3. & part of Feb. at 15. 4. 2. be 7. ad AzA. 24. Page 149.2.. 4. <*ft/ bd 1. 23. 11. 5. 4. ^. 20 & Oct. 5. (ft) 23 J. Page 146. Page 22. 4. Jan. 3. 3. 7. 10.. 23f . Nov. $6500at3Ji%. . 4. Jan. 1. 2. 15. 2. 5. 2.$5000. 147. 6. . yrs. 14. On the y axis..
27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 13.27.7. 28. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 25. . 2. .13. 4}. . 4. . f. . 3. G. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. . . (a) 4. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 .73. 3. 2. ft 2 4.1. 13. 2. 24.83. 3. 5. xg . . 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 8.67. 4.75. . 15. 5. .73 ami . 0C. Page 163. ft . 1. 15 . 1. a 6o&i85 c i5o . (c) 2. 1.64. 13C. a + ft. 1 23.25.  12 ft xW  26 31.25. ' :=_!. Inconsistent. Indeterminate.3. 16. 125 16. 3. 8 1 f f g*. Page 164. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. a 10 ' a ll V&. SlstyW 7. (ft) (ft) 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 4wn8 + n4 5.24. 17. (<?) 2. 9. 2ft4 Page 168.  1. . . 6. 14.24 . 3.17 (ft) (c) 2. xW. 22. Page 159. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.5. Page 158. 4. \ft) 5. 6. 3. 4. 2 2 22.59 . 8mW. xy.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 2. 14. 4. (a) 12. (a) 5. 2. 7. (e) 2.5. 2. 13. jgiooyiio 17.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (ft) (d) 2. 3.1.24. H.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 11.79. 1. 4.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 0. 13 . 1^. 2. 5.  . 3. . 19. H. 1.. .25. . 3. (a) 2. . 20.75 (ci) 3^.73. 3. Inconsistent. 1. 11. 8. 1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.73.4. 30. 5 and 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.2 (ft)  1. 5. 32F. (c) 14 F. 18C. 1. 20. 14. 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 3. 5. () (rt) 3. 4 ) 21. (gr) 21. 18. f12 wi 9." 23. 26. 125 a 8 12. a 29. f..25. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 10 C. 22. 27. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.64. . 2. 3. Indeterminate. 24. .  1.84. 8.41 and 23. 83. 2. 2. 1 4.41 and . 14. 15. 2. 2. 3. 3. 10. 4. . 2. 3. 2.25. 125a 28. 15. * 16. 5. 3 . . 30. 11. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 27 27 81.83.6. .3. 1. ImW. 3.. 1. 2. 12. (/) 3.79. m. . 2. 1. (/) 3. 12. 1. . + a 4 ft* .59. 9 and Page 166. 8 a1. 19. 1. (ft) and (d) 2. f 10. 2. 3. 10. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 2. (ft) 2. 3. 1. 27 19.. +3 4.75. 5. 1. . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 2 l.5 (ft) 3. (c) 7.75. 81 ". 10. (e) 3.34F. 9. 21.
15. Page 171. 8.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (3a.1. 6 (\x 3. 16. 18.^). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 5. ( Page 174.6. 25 19. 101. 1247.7 /)). 8 /. 3 6 23. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 70.  +X '. 14. + i)). 20.037. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 1.94. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 12. 978. 10. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 36. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. +3 + 5 4. 40. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a).1. r> 4 : 1 . 15. a: l . 22. I 8x2). 3. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1 1 ?>). 9. 15. 6. Page 172.+3^ + 4. 2 12. 17. 31. 5. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 23.XV111 7. 20. 21. AN S WE no . (x' l). 12. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 98. 0. 17. a. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 7. 300. 1. 71. . 34. 16 6 w .y2 ). 119. 3. (4a2 9& 2 13. . . 30. 17. rt . 9. 4.GO a c + 23. Page 176. 3 2 8 3 12. 84. 18. 6. 2 2 4. ??i ?i . 64. (48 + 6. 309. 2 49 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . fe *?>' ?> fi . 14.83. 2. 5 5 8. 4.2). . 8. 16. 4. . 180 . 90. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 00. 24. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 247. 1. 9. 12. . 13. 8. 6. (a + 2 +l). 3. 11. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.r 2 + 6jt). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 237. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .  x. 2.5). (Gx + (i + 2a. + l). 15. (ab + c). 5. + + ?V 22. 8. ). 763. 76. 9. 11. 19. 20. (ly). 2. 10 x G a 4 . 14. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 2. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 26. 20.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. (2 a + ft). 10. 3 2 ^. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). . . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 72. 21. 2. 14. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4).10 a~ + 5 a . ^i. ? : 1 . a 2 . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. Zll. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. (a 2. m 13. 19. 27. 33. ? . +35. 10*. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 6. 4. (a + y+l). 2 2 7. 5. 10. 11. 9. 57.x ). 13. + y). . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. c 10 6 :l 20. 7. 6. 3M. 11. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 7. 32.5. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).a b 22. (1 (x2y). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 2038. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 8. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (x + y\ 90. Page 170.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.i c 6 15. 28. 18. 1. ?7i 1 1 3 1.f 1 m 9 16. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). (l + x + . 2 4 8 2 . 16. 3. 99. a.3 ab + 2 2 ). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. + (win . 5. + 29. /> 4 ). + Z). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 420. 25. 90. 35. 9. GOO 2 c 2 . 30. a ). .
2. 4. 5. 2. . 10. 4 TT M 28.6. 7. 1.V 8j. 10. 5. 15. 3. 21. 25. 11. 1.4. 40. 16n. . 7. 25 J. " ^_ 22. 2] see.w 18. 9. () 2. 19. 8. 7563.13. 32. 3. 14. 40. vYb. 10. 28.. 1 38. 42. 2. 23.  5. f. 27. 2. i. 3. 13. 4 W**. 3. 13.a. 41. 3. 16. ft.1. 15 1 10. 270 sq.  14. 9. ft.367. 8. 9. 21. 25. f.4. 18. 3. If ^. 14. 2 sec. }. 9. 12. 12. 4. 7. 8. 39. 7. 2.522 38.  2. 36. (< + ?>). (afl). 26. 30.236.. 5. 4 n. 10. 7. 47. 20. Page 177. . 9.i. 6. 2. 31. 11. 2. . 5. 20.*. .742 in. .Sn. . 6.  43. m. . 35. 7. 48.5.916 yds. 50. 9. 1. 4.. vV'TA 24. 33. 7. 4. J. \/3. 36 in.. 8. 10. 6561. 5. V2. 9 15 ft. 5. 33. ~ V^3. 4. 12. a + 61. 6. 11. 21yds. 23.ANS WERS 22. 6 f !. 2. 11. . *. JJI. 6. 29. 7. 32. 15. 31. 6. 28. 3. 24. 39 in. 13. .469. 21. f f V. 7. Page 183. 14. 4. 5083.4. 10. or 3. Page 185. 4. Af^. a. 21 28 ft. i ^. V17. 5. V2. 9. Page 181. (6) Vl4 3. 44. 4. 14.935. 2. 24. 10. 3. 6yds. 3. ^. 1.  f. 5. ft. or 5. 7.60. 37. ^^7m. 1&. 8. 6.  3. w. 1. 13. 6. / 11. 2. f 3. 4. 12. Page 180. 6V'2J.5. 28 in. Page 179. 16.?. 29.}.. 36. Page 184. 35. 4. {. 15. 9. 37. 12. 7. v 17. 10. 4.690. f . V. 2. 3.. 4 a. xix 26. f ^ is. 2. 5f. 5. 10. 19. 15. 17. 30. 1. 8. 21 in. 11. 3. 1 f Vl3.6. 12. 15. 3. . 4.  f. 3.  1. 27. >TT 26. >i 27. 1. V35 1.. 18.. > w ft.6. ii :J _7. .6. 6J.645.18. m. 46. 4J.. * 1. 7 in. ZLlAiK 19. V J l. 7}. 22. 20.798 yds. 12. 17.243.6. 3. 13. 17. 49.237. 39. 6V21. 1. 7 45. 5. 5. 6. 29. _ iVaft.. /.925 ft. 14. 5. 1. 34. l~8. 5. 1 7. 1. ^. 16.005. 23. 12. 1. 34. 5. 16.1. 4. 3J. 2.
equal. 1. 7. 2 ft. 20./hr.2. 16.1. 24.Oa.17. ' 1. 1.48 3. 2.7. AB = 204 ft. rational. . .  5. 17. f 6 52 a. 11. 3. 0. 19 in. 21.48.2. 6. 1_^L ft 14. unequal. . 22. 2. 15. 0. . 7. 7. x 14.7. 0.5^. V^l. 3. $ 120. Real. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 9.  13. 1 . VV11. 58. 6. unequal. Page 187. unequal.1. 1. 0. 3if. 3. 19. 3. $30 or $70.* 2.. 10 in. . 0.2. 3. 9. 9. 2. 2. 3.5 x + 6 = 0. 26. 41. 2 . 53. . 12.70. 7. %. 1.0*8. 40.2. 1.2. 23.23. . $80. s 11.2. U.a. 33. 6.  2. 0. 32. 21. Real..2.  24.. 11. 45. . 0. 46. 3. 2 V3 in. 43.4. 6. 2. 0. 1. 26. 38. 18. 3. 48. 1. unequal.. 5. 0. 1. 4. 7.74. 0.  Page 194. 13. . V2. 18. Imaginary. 28. a + 1. 0. 3. 3. 6. 70 ft.4. 3.  5. 0.  2. 3. . 25. .10.23. i . 2. 10.l. 19. 1. 12. 1. 2. jr . 9..3. 8.7.'.  1. 64. 1. 10 mi. rational. Page 190. . 49. Real. 20. 21. Real. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . H. 28.2 x2 . 7. 6. 16. 57. Page 191. v^^fcT"^. 20 eggs. 15. orf. a8 . equal. .6. 6. 1. rational. 1.XX Page 186. 27. 5. 35. 2.  1. r* i. 27. .$40 or $60.5. 1. unequal. 5 ft.12 = 0. 8. x*4x=0. 6. 14. Imaginary.37. 31. 3. 2. Imaginary.4. 7. 44.  i. 28. t is. If. 30. + 11 x. 4. 24. 14. 12. 4. 1. 10 or 19. 5.3.4./hr. 1. 2. irrational. 16. 3. 2. 56. .a 3 a. rational.2. . unequal.  1. 4. V^~2. 2.. 3. '  f 5. f. 4. Page 188. 5.12. 1. 4 da. 3. 4. 0. AB = 3. irrational. Page 192. 25. . . Real. 10. 2. 120 ft. 3. 25. 64c. ANSWERS 22.2. 29. 1). 47. (5 10. . 13. = 0. 20. 6V64. 23. 10. 26. 3. 6. 3. i. 35.a. Real.  6. 3.2. 1. 8. 52. _ 19. 22. 24. 18. 4. 20 nii.]. 42. 0.6 = 0. equal. 2. V7. 4. 2. 26. Real. Real. 12./hr. in.  1. 8\/2 17. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. 2. 2. ft. . unequal. unequal. 1. 2./hr. a + 6.62. 2. 15. 34. 7. 39. 3. 8 or 12 mi. unequal. 2. 15 ft. 5. 4. 8.41.59. 12. 23. 4. . 55. 50. Imaginary. 27. 6. 37. V2. 2. a. 1.1. . 0.02.  1. rational. 10 mi. V^l.  9x <). f. 36. a.3. 1 3. #<7=3. 2. 2. 0. x* 51.4. 25. *'' 12. Page 189. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 6^2 in. 3. x2 + B .
3. 0. m'. 13. Page 200. 3. 28. *V. 53. 2 L ( V. 1. $7. 51. 40. . vV.  a'2 . ). 17. 1. y. 32. . 33. 12. 9. jV 10. 20. 3. JV37. 6.^7. Page 201. 11. vm. \a\ \/^. 3. 4.17. 29. 4. 1. 32. 59. 38. V^ 34. 57. Page 199. . r*. 9. x/25. 10. 21.ANtiWEUS rational. ) 2 >J i 10. 25. 13. m. p. 41. 49. 84. 14. . 3. 15.32. 14. ^49. 3. 12. 7 . 10. J. 21. Page 197. 24. n\/* Page202. 2.  5. 3. y . 5. 49. 16. 243. 9. 2. 1. 7V7. . 20. J. 3 4 11. 58.. 9. 5. 27. 36. 54. 1. 19. 45. 24. 2. 15. 1. v'frW. 2. . 4. Page 196. . 17. 14. 2. wA 46. 24. 29. 19. 2. 5\/5. 26. 33. 4. 22. (m 26. 2. 8. 25. 20. 0. 2. x$. 125.  48. J 3. 6  AAf. 9. 42. 1. xxi 15.//^. 19. 5. 10. 1. 7. 'J. 22. 39. 1. 5. 18. 8. 18. 7. 9.  f . 23. 23. 30. 30. 3. 2. ifa. 48. 1 39. : .1 5 15. i. 30 a. \/r\ 11. 5. Jb \. 16. 13. v^T4 m. 1. 35. 8. 43. 17. 10. 3. 33. 31. 2. l  5 12. a 18 . 47. 3.6. 4. 27. 8. 2. 28. aW\ 40. 44. . r. 6.  J j. 4. 16. 4. v'frc 18. 55." 17. 5. 19. 20. 15. 60. 1V1. 13. J. &. v/3. 3. 3. 7.2. a. ^Sf 3 38. 1. 11. 14. 31. 8. . 49. 37. \/3. v. 29. 50. 49. I. x. z + 22. 16. \. \. 0. 21. 18.  f. fx'^z'l 23. 52. \ . 8. 2V a. Vr. 4. . 1. 8. J. 8. 50. 12*2 61. \/. 56. ? . 46. ar 1 . 25. 47. _! V3.
Vr 8. 7. . 48. 26. r c . 2. 20. 24. 9. 34. + + ft. 13 35. 4. + 2 Vzy + y 1. yV35. 8a6V5. . 11. 51.rV:r. 49. 19. 40. 34 r 6. 37. 5. 16. 20&V6. 19. 15. 10. 101 1. 7. 20. x. 17. a 4 +* + !. ftV 46. JIV6. a2 4. 3 a~ 3 (x (. x + 5 x3 + 0.707. 1 2 or 1 ?. k/2. 28. (x' (l 1+x). 11V3. 2 4 z2 l 3.3 + 40 3 . 5 22. 29. . 2 x* 15. + . 2. 23. 8. 2. + 1. x 7  34. 30. 3^ + 2). V63. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3V5. 26. v^. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. y. 6. 16. 9. . 2v (T 2aVf. 22. 25. Page 208. 12. 135V6. + 2 V22.648. ?tV?w.577.x^y* + y%. 3. 8V/) 15. 17. ^7 \AOx. + 2). 5 ( . Page 203. ^: V2c. + 2 ar 1 ).f. Page 207. 21. 32. 27. 37. 4aV^J 16. 9. 3V^T. x y. 2. 33.2 VlO. (o* 2. 21. 13. 3. 6. / V3. 62V(J. 03r* 7. v/^r 5  A/^~. . 1) 3V3. 195V3. v'TM. . ^88". m* n*. . 11.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 24. + Vic + 25. 45. V. 32. Va 2 "ft. T. 3 42. 4. 30. 31. 10.692. 18. 5. abVab.  2 3:r. 3 4\/2. a 3. r 17  Page 204.XXii ANSWERS 1. 1. 10.r. V2 + 4 V22. 2 a?>V2 a.). 2\/7. ). 3 \ 39.632. 31. 13 a. 50.'\ 14. 2. x%  3 ^+ 1. 43. 3^2. y (a + ft) V2. x 25.. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. V.Vxy 35. x^ . 9 . 40. 2 '"V5. 2.  a Vft 2 121 b. 38.2 18. 2>X2. 41. 8. l 5. 39. V 5 47.yl : . 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V80. 28. 3. 13. 3 x^y 33. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. (a 27. 29. a^ + 2^+1. . 36.
% 29. 3 Vl5 30. 30. V8. Page 216. 3\/15  6. 21. 3 V2. 2\/7. 13. 74\/Jl 120 46. 5V2. 35. 0. V2. 4. x/8. 6x2?/. 8  \/15. 21. 9. \/2. 2. \/a6c. 5 \/2. 8v2T 12. 3\/wi.r v/^ v^fr*. V3. \/abc*. 4VO. 6. 28. . VT5. 2 ate. 5v/2. 2. 14. \/128. \/8. + VlO  v y (5. : ^32. v^30. v/lO. 9. 32. 1. 22. 16. \^6. x/4. v/8. 2 \/2. + 20. 7. x/8l. 25. 23. 33. 10. 16. b. 18. fl^Vac. 4\/5. 24. 8V73\/IO. 27. 5V2. 51. 8V2. 12. 9 VlO + 4. 13\/3. 38. 2. 6. 2. 40. 18. 26. "v/wi ??. 2 28. 3. 31. 48. v^O. 26. 34. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 38. 6. . 31. 10V(). 11. 1. 25. 36.T*. / \/w/t 4 13. 27. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . ab 4. Vdbc. 32m27n. 19. v^a. x/125. 6. 1. 46. 17.ANSWERS _ Page 209. Vat. ^9. v"5. x/8L v/27. V/.30 2. 5. 17. 52. . 3. 35. \/04a. 44. v^f. a2  b. 9. x/w^ 8. 7. 11. 29. w?i. 23. 2. 42. 39. 10.  3. 16. v/9. 2yV2?/. 1V5. . 4 a*. 53. V5. 24. 3\/2. 18. 30 Vl4. Page 211. 22. . 6aV2\^. 5. v/i). v/l2. 3v^2. 6V2. 6 2\/0. . r)\/(l Vrtr.. v7^. W). 4. m ?i2Vm/t. 11. v"3. Page 210. aVa. 4 >/3. rtv/5. 15. 17. v 25^4714 V2"a. v^lf. 15. Page 214. 36. \^r^bVabc. V5. \^6. \XOfl6Vi5. 7. "^8000. 3.J Page 212. 37. 3. 12. V2. 7\/(l 7VTO. 50. 34. 14. ^v 7 15. 6. 32. \V3. x/3. 10. 13. . 20. 14. 43. 49. D 45. 21 23. Vn. 6+2V5. 3 V15  47. 3. a\/5c. x/27. V3. VJla. 0. 37. V3"m. xx 1. 41. ^ 3 b 5 24. 8. vT). Vtf +3+ 33. 8. 14c 4 V5. 2 1. ^27. 5. 39. ^\/3. v^4. 40. 19. Page 213. a^\/a7>. '. 2 V'3.
V5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 17. 125. 16. 3. . 14. 9. 5. 3. 6. 16. 8. 15. 15. 23. 9 mn. 6 (V2 + 1). \/57t. 11. Page220. 4. {.4142.9. 0. 4. 16. 4.0606. i^ ~ 1 v ^.2. 21. V35. . A . 9. 11. 1. 1. 12. 34. 1. 24. 2V3. 31. 11. 1. 16.3. 11. 9. . 4. +3 V2).6 V3. 36. Va. p 6 13. (V8 + V2. 20. 2V2. 20. 26. (VllV2). 7. 27. 23. V2. . Page 225. m f. (\/3f 1). 8. 5. . 8. 2. 3. 37. 4. 7. 2V3. (V51). 21 ' Vob 26. ~ Vac _c 0.2828. 15 f 3 V2L 4. (V6 + 2V2).. 12. 33. (VaT^v a).XXIV 7. ' 22 i . 13. 7.464. 0. 5. 16. 2!5_. 7 f 5 4.7071. nVTl. 10. 7.7083. 25. 24. 10. 2.1805. 1. . 4. 8. 14. (V5f 5.81.  13. 29. 4. f. 4. .  f. 24. 4. _^JflJ?. 1. 7 Page221.6.V3). 4 14.601. 4. 8. 20. n*. j. 5. 5. Page 218. 9. 12. (3+ v/2). 23. Vf6fVtf. 14. 22. 23. 2. 22. 7. ^(VlO\/2). 20. 17. 23. 19. 21. 16. 5. j 15. Page 226. 9. 16. 10. Page 28. 3(7+3V5). 2. 9. 10.4722. J. 5. 35. 2.732. 7. 26. ^r. 1. 5. . 29.5. V3 . 5 V65. 2x^2^. 3. 10. 9. 16. 28. i^Lzi. 6. * 3. J. (\/5V2). 15. fV2. xy 2. 3. 17. 27. 18. 15. Page 223.389.\/TO).732. V. 2 . 8 V3V2. 25. 4. V3. 512. 81.3. 216. 1. 14. 2ajV2*. Page217. 4. 9.1. 12. 2. Va. 12. 18. 8. (Vf + (4 V2). 25. 10. 4. ^. .2. 1. i(Vf Vft). 9. 1. ANSWERS 8. 22. 6 V. 19.^ (\/22 4. 4. (2f V"5). 19. (V21). 8. 25.5530. 25. V6c. 100. 25. 10. \. K>/0 + \/2). 18. 18. 5 f. 224. ^.13. 1. 6. .W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 7.1547. (a 1. 19. 15. 3V23. Page 219.3535. 27. 25. 8. 81. (2. (2Vll).w 6. 64. 21.64. 7. + 6) 2 . 32. (2V2). 6. 19. 11. 17. V^TTfc. 24. 12. + 5V2. 4V3 + 6. 13.  2. 2. 5. 3. ^\/2. V3. 30.  . \/3). 18. 4. 11. 13. 3. V3. !^ 6 4. 6. x 20. 30.625 10. .
. 30. 13. 1.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 16. Page 236. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).l)(m .  J.  f . J Page 235. 8 6 & 0. 1. 3. 8.3. 4. ~ f7. 0.  3. . 1. 5. 3. a: :} . 5. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 10. ( 16. 3. 1 (?> x/^3. (+!)( 2) 10. 3. 1. 3. 4.5 xy + 25) 22. 6. ' J. 73. 1 . 2 6. 3 .2. 3 .nl^EI. 1 .l)(a 2 + a f 1). y. (rt. 3 9. . 2. 2. 19. 5. 4 20. 26. 6. 21. 7. 5. 5.Y. 2 6. 2. 10. 19. 1 . 2.1. 87 . 3. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). qpl. =A^Z3. 16. 11. 2. . 1. 18. 2 . 2 V^ . 5.  3. 15. . . 4. 30. t/ 23. 2. 11. . 12 24 y . 2. 17.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).22. . 0. 7. 4. 9. 14. 7.  1. 6. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 10. 12. 28. 1. 13. (&y2a#H4). (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). . 3. 20. 8. 2.3.3).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2 > 1. 24. f .8a 18. (m 4 + l)(ro. 9. b . 20. 2. 4 4. 3. 19. 11. 3. . 2. 4. (r. 2. (B43). 1. 11. 2. 50.4. 2 . 13. 2 &. f>. 3 . 13. 1. 56l). 2. 1. 4. 3 5. J. 11. 3. 3. . 1 3. (w . .r . 0. (pl)(p2)(p2). 4. a . (a 4.. l. 5. 0.  3.12.2. 2. 22.4. 2. 10. 3. 1. 8. J. 18. (4 mn .  2. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 5.7. 7. 9. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 2. \/0. 4. 2. 3. . 25. . V3.2. 1. o. 6. . 12. 10.2)(m. 12. 3. .0. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. 0.ANSWERS Page 228. 23. 21. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 13. J 24. 15. Page 233. 11. 4. 4.3. 2. 25. 3. 1. 5. 24. 8. 4 1. 30 30. 8. 1. 20. 6 2 2a + 2). 0.3.3 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2.  5. . 12. 15. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 2. 2 .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1. 4. 14. 8. 4.w 4 + 1). //.5. 0. . 6. 25. 17. 12. & + 6 2 ). (2 a. 2 <? 4a2 . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 3. 6. 1.  4. 4 . 3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 6. 73.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).2)(* . 1 6. 4. (a. (a . 3. Page 234. 5. . 1.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). P. (63)(6' t 18. 4. 5. 1. 5. a  . 3. 4. 4. 10. 1 . 2 . 1. XXV 4. 22. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 100. 7. 5. 0.  .10.4). 7. 14. 7. 25. 17.  16). (a. 2. . 5. 2.  1. 30 . 4 . (pl)(p3)(p6). 2. 1 . .3. 3. .3. 7. 3. .l)(a3)(a . 3. 4. 2. 4.4. 3. (8.1.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 2. a(. 2. (a+&)( 2 14. 1. 3.^a.
7. 1. 2. 0. 12. $. 2. 11. . 5. 6.. _ 7. 3. 7. 4. m + n. 35^ 5. 3.. 20. 8. 3. 5. 16. oo . and _ 4. 19. 24. 3.4. 24.  2 .y. i. 512. 32. x 4. . 5. 84. in. 17. f>. 1. 3 . 1. 2 26. 15. 1. 1. m27. J. 26. i'ljVU. oo . 12. 2. 2. $VO. 8. 40. 9. 4. 4. Page 248. 4. 5. . 5. 8 . i j. 5. 2. 6. 2 10. 14. 4 6. 5. ri*. 6. . V7.. . 2. 5 4.200. 2. (/>) "_. 69. 2 . 3. 15. . 4. 1. 3. 3.e. }. 1. 16. 3. Page 244. 37.1. Page 243. 2 Y> V . 7f solution. 4. 4. 8. 4. 8. 1. Page 245. 5. 3.4. 3. \/6.3. 1. GO . 21. 3. . 18. 1.. 8. i i i . 1. no co . 17.020. 30 13. . 50. Indeterminate. 1. 14. 2. 125 125. 3 cm. tn 2. 17. ft. +  n. 4. 4. 8. 15. 1.6. 9. 5. J. 1. 12 d. 8ft.  . 17. Page 240. 22. 9. 10. 3 3.3.3 . 11. 35 a. 30.. 12 1. 15. 14. 0. 15.136. 4. '>. in. j. c. 1. 2. 1. 12. 1. 1 . 20 in. . 41. .xxvi Page 237. Page 247. in. J. . . 4. 2. 7 3. 1J. 3. 2. 2.. 7. 400. f*. _ 13 (0 6.0. Indeterminate. 5 cm. 14. 5.. 31. . } . 1 . 12ft. 23. 7. 5. 37. 9.18. . 12 ft. 1. 2 1. 8 3. . 10. 10. 12. 15. 3. . 1. 2 16. 2>/3. 3. 36. 5050.3. 2. 18.  11. 3.. 7. 21. 1 . 2.  1. . 2. oo. 4. n .3. 9. . _ 5. 1. 6. 5. 19. 14. . 5. 35 ft. in. ^ }. 4. 11.30.6. 2. 3V5. 12. 50. 4. 3. 38. 8. 2. 2 . 1. 33. 14. 3. 7. 3 4.3. . 15. 3. 1. 6. . (a) $3400. 37. 3 . . Exercise 113. 1. 2. 5. in. $. 5.4. 1. . 11. 2. 0. . $46. m28. . 45yd. 3. 2 ft.5. Page 238. (&) 2. 1. 25. . 3. 30. 31. ^~2. 23. 4. 20 7. 2. 1 .1. n. 13.5. (a) 5. 2. 78. 29. 9. 1. 4. . 5. 3 2. Page 241. 1 2. 1. . Exercise 114. 48. 22. (>. 21 30. 2n. . 39.2.0. 900. . 4. J.1. . 18. 4. 1. .13. 2 . 2. 17. 4. 2 2. Page 239. . 8.3. 13. 3. 512. 40 in. 1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. = QO 6. 12. . 35. 1. 3. 4 34. 14.. 40 25 in. 1. 4.. ( 3. 201. 3. 288. . 11. ' j. .3. \. 28yd. 5. 4. 16. 3. f. ft. 1 . 5. 2. 10. ANSWERS 2. _ 10. 5 . 2V7. jj. 4 . 20. V3~. 11. 3 . 1. 17. 55. 7. co .4. 13. ft. 3. 4 8. 3.
12. 3. 44. 5. 45. 8.0. 7 x4 17. 8. 7. 35.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 14. 4. 6. 16. 8. 10. . 8.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .384. 18. 5.2 45 a 8 /). 4. 410.419. 4. 11. <. 1. 100.5y 4 . 7. 6. 2. 5. 8.8. 2. 75. 27. a4 4 14. 55. 304. 25. . Jj? 45. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .4. 12. 6.x' 10 . r 5 4. 7. />*. . \ w 4 . 15. 2. 405. J 2 //2 25. 2i* 7f. 7. 5. 13. 3.  101. 9. 125. 8J. 70.<2 4. x r 4. 9. 6. 1. 4. 1.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 10.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 16. 4.5 x.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 1 14. '23. 5. ~v 9. 0. } $ 50. 8. 81. . 12.v Page 253. 4. 5.7 10. 70. 7. 17. 4950 M 2 b y *. 32. 8 4x' 2 .13. 2. 2. 8 . 2.1. 16. 12. 0. 1. and 1. 4. w9  8. (). 27.920. 27. 53. 15. 2. 4. 005. 48. 2. 1. 18. Page 252. 0. 5.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 18. 18. 3. 4. &' 14. 7. . . 15.210.192. i 10. 1. 4.53. x4 . 70.r 4. 495. 8 1. 28. 6i. 22. Y11. 4 0. 20. 10 14. 1JH. a. 4. 8. 20. 1. 10. . (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 7. . JSg. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 8. 45 Page 257.r* 4 70 . d. 0. . 5. 04. 3. 19.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 343. 8. 11. 21. . 10. 4. 2. 4. 2. 27. 120 aW. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 3. B . 1. ^a 8.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .470. 6. vy. 16 11.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . sq. 10.2 9. 105. 45. 2. 910. 17. 1820. . 6. x + Vy. 9. 8. 327. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 5 13. 23. 9. f y 8 + z* .504. 6. 5. Page 258.870 m*n*. Page 259. 15. 9. 29. . 19. 5. 16. 12. r r j. 9. ?/i 6 x llj . xxvii 1.680. 0. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 26. 05. 128. c. 35. 4. 708. . ' 1. 16. 13. 3. 17. 3. 125. 12. ~ an . 16. 22. 11. 12. 3. in. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 20. 4. 5.  20 flW.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. Ja. 1.170.6. 19. 50.700. 3. Page 254. 43. 2. I. 1 7 4. 0. 280 53.12 x*y 16. 3.6 . 16. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 04.^ ?>i 2412x4. 6. 192. . 3. 6. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 10.120. 2. 220 . 4. **+.  17. A. 1. . 7. 13. G.5. 3. 21.ANSWERS Page 250.4 &z x>&. 0. 15. 4. REVIEW EXERCISE . 343. 0.r x>/ 7 3. 12.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 1000 aW. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1.5.3 ays. 3. . 0.
!! 71.7 x   15.a6 2 4. 32. 2 q. 130.  e +/. x . x* .4 x 2 . 62. 28. 88. 8 . 124. x8 x2 55. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 1 a"* 4 an .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 70. 66. ft /> 78. 23.c 3 4.1 4 jry 4 x . ?> . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 4 65. 29. 16. . 6 c 47.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 122. x2 471x4. 5 4 4. 107. 120. . 3a'2 Page 261. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . .  4 a3 85. ^ . . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.3 103.18 ?/ 5x4.4 x y 87. 125. 91. x2 2 . 3 36 b c . a4 x. 4 ! . 86. 99. 4. a* a 8 a aftc. . .2 x 4. . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 6 a2 97.41. 5x 2 2x43. 102. + a 4.1w 77. 4 115. . 3 c . a~b 89. 25. 1 x 45.a' 'ft 4. . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 39. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.4 ac. a2 2 aft 2 2. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().1.3 a'ft. t 81.4.2 c . 110. m " + n + P3c . 10 a 12 b. as 20.c.x24 73.18 x?/0. /> 4 83. 127. 4ft y3.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.1. 5x + 2y~z.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 61. 105. a 4 .3 aftc. . f5+7. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 4 69. . 96. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. x 2 .6 b.x. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 9x. 36. 1 + 4 xy. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.3 a 2 '6 w 4.x 51. Page 260.  3 x2 . 131. 2 . 2 x'V2 90. 22. 40. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 2 53. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.  12 a. az 4.a'2 c. xyxzyz. 243x4729.15 4 62 x  72. 10 4. 3 a 5 a 5.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.^a .4. 72. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 3a~2c.2. 3 a 44.ac 44 aft. . x 8  a8 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.4 2 4 c2 42 . ft2ft 4 4l. x2 a2 1 . (a + ft)" 98. .a 2 x 2a . 26. 4 15 x 5 .9 b.2 x^. 2 a.  .5 3n 4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 104.5. x' . 14 x . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. . . 2 x2 4.3 b . x 3 4. + z. a 3m 4. 7 + 3 xf 2. a J . 6a6c. 2 . . 9 2w 128. . 132.y*.xxviii ANSWERS 19. x4 f + 23 .x x*  f 2 ax 4.c.7.x 2 4. .2 xy + 4 y2 106.{ 54.a*ft 2 126.a. ft n . 76.ft).. 63. 46. 16t/. 0.3 y. 2 . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 38. 2 113. 27. 2 x2 108. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.105. 1 121.2. 8x3 8x. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 31. . . 94.rty x2 4 123. 64.5x4. +^ + ft W.4 x?/2 3 4.6 am b\ 129. 114. 4 2 . 93. + 3 a?. y 4 z* 0. 52. 109. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 21. c3 4 58. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. . * 60. 49.5 b + c . a* 4. x 8 + x 4 68.2. 12 x.4. . 2 30 .3 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 80. 4 fee 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 4. 3 a . 118. 1 . 13 + 2 s. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.1.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. x2 5r*x ft 5 .9 x . ?/ 3. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 50. 12 a/. . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . x 4.1. x 3 41.4. 24. 37. 30. 0. 133. &p 84. 82. 4 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 4 Page 264. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 35. x } 4. Page 263. 2 2/' . () 2 x 33. .x4 + y'2 z 4.fee 2 4. x' 79. a' 111. I 57. 100. ?/ . 5 42. 4. _55_7c 48.  + 3 x2 . df. 43.3 x 2 + 3 x . 0. 3~ n 4.
2. 199. 30.6) (2 x + 1). 30 + xyr. 173. 138. . + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 150.m)(x + a).1). 2 (4 x .y)(z . 237. 148. 205.3) (2/3y).. 2. 195. 218.y). y 245. 18. 20. 190. 48 h. 153. 161. 137. 214. 171. (c) 160 C. xxix 139.y) (\r3y). 184. 1. ?. (3x2?/)(2. 220. 7. 206. 12 yr. 10). a + 2x2 ).2 )(x+y) 228..I2y).y)(jc + 7 y). 1. 201. 208. 36ft. 247. x(x + 6) 213.1). 149. 222. (y 7f))(y 196. + y. . 162. as 194.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 21. 157. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.2ac + 229.3 y).r + 4). + 3) (x f f>) . 212. G7. 2. 19. 22. 209.y + 3)(r (. 178. 10). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . p. (?/+l)(yl). 1. 168. (a& 192. a 2 (15. k. C3 y _l)(. 241.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 3. 4.  1. + 3).r . 1. 216. 235. 185. Page 265. (x + 2)(x . 217. 170.1(5) 200. a. 147 mi.3. 207. (3x  . y3. 2(x8)(x3). 2a(42ft)(2fo). (r7y)(ai. (. (x 227.2. 147. 2. (5 x . +)(x2 x^+2. 236. ft. (x . 32 h. 24. 197. 231. 23 18.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). aft. (8x + 3)(3x4). 2^. 187. 159. y  y 165. 20. 186. 230. 12 yr. . p. + 2) + 9a. 142. (y_24)(y5). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). z(x10)(xl). yr. (y  17)(y + (>).2). (x^ + x1) 234. 140. 40 yr. 30 yr.2) (3 x . 1. 233. (/ 246. 2 2 (a. 238. 210. 163. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 176. 1. 158. 10 ft. 5. (a 2 + 2a6. 211. 244. 6. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 219. Page 267. 2. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 154. 180. .9)(xf 2). (2a + l)(a . 151. (y _ ft)(y 4. 75. 3. a(a. + 22).ANSWEKti 135. 160.l)(x8 + x2 . fc'2a+62c). 12 6 panes. 193. (2 198. (y7)(y + 188.3).6 . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). + 7)(rt4). 181. 167. 179. 156.. y. 1.1). 8 204. Iff 145. 172. 50. (233). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).l)(a 2 +3). 8(ar}(/)27). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (x  42 yr. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).6)(4 + 6). 182. (7 c 2 ). 175. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.. (JT y 225./_4). 183. 155.2). 10. (6) 40. 1. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 6. 15. 177. 12) (j. 143. 239.4xl). 169. 174. 240. 15. m. 224. HI. 202. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 37 1. 232. 144. 12. (7x2//) 203. (xyX^+y" )1 243.l)(y + 1). ( + 2y)(2x3y). . (ab + 8) ( 7).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 10 in. (r^x + 1). 4. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 136. 226. (a} 59. 164. 152. (x + 6)(x6). 2 xy(3 x . 3(x .3 y)(a . 12. r>x 2 (4x. + 11) (a 10).y2 ). 166. Page 266. 215. 218. Or (a + 2)0el). 6). . 146. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 15  a. 189. . 191.
4). 5. 259. 307. 43 '^rJ'. 263. 249. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 250. (7 255.4) 1) (3 x . 266. o. 258. *.   . 7. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . ?^ZLiZ 308. 2 4 300. + f.  3xyf x// 257. 254. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 0. a. a~ ' b*). (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 295. 269. 260. > 4. x . 2 x  3. ^ 299.  7. 3  262. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 261. 301. 3). Ca&c 1)(M 253.^ ^^. 305. 2. 251. 4 5. x ?/ z 1. x 283. 310. 10. x 267. 306. 256.1. 3. 303. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 298.(x  4) (x4 304.2* i^^ !^. ? 1) 302. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . *>). x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 3). o(x4l). 0. &).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.. 7^T 2 . 279. 268. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. x12. 264. 7 x 265. ^/>J.^^^^^^^^.
408. 3. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 12. 1. 383. x 54 359. 393. L . a +6. 2. 2 ). 404. 2 ab  a Page 276. 324. 13 391. * 357. 388.  1 356. + x 362.(5 a . 2(a i 403. 2 327. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 1. . 7/i ^ _ . 20. f. 360.. 1. 396. j 328. 406. 0. 405. 370. 325. 386. 377. ab. " 4 378. 382. 3. 4 A. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. (a + b + c\ . . . 407. 375. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 385. 329. 2 r36 384. Page 274. 397. . c 402. 4 rw. ?>*.. 361. 0. 6a. 1. + 335.". S. 365. T\. 380. 7. 376. . y 4 I 340. ^ 3 // . 390. If. 3. <L 409. _*L'L+. 2(q. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.7. T+^. m.1. 336. ?/ + 3 332. 387. 11. A^L5L.J . 400. 364. a + b + 6). 1 i 2 ^. 0. 401.XXXI Page 272.  1.)Cr4)__ . 395. 0. 2. 379. 4. 6 ?/+:>.H ' 2wi ^' /' . a 2 . 326.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. Page 277. + 4 & 4 \ b. . a) A^_. ^_:r f> 331. 343 00 351. 355. 339. 398. 9^. 394. 399. l'j. 4. 392.!. 366. 389. 333. ^"" 4 s .vin a /r " 337. 1.3. 334. ?=. l . 2 ?/ 363.
481. Page 282. 63. 472. 485. L2 a  6 . 17. 420.vz in. . (d) true. />c c(f be. 32 yr. 432.. 466. 490. 51. 442. 1. 40.7. 2. ft 5.4.489. b 449. 476. 21.. 411.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.. 5. 10$. 479. L (c) I. 2$.12. 6. 1$. 421.2.46. 435.  f>. 478. . 7 : . 413. *+.  10. 427. 12. 7. 9. 10. 465. 447. 455. : />a. 482.7. Page283. 419. 2.  505. . ' $260 at 0%. . 6. Page 280. 462. $2000 at 0%. 7. . * . 5. 422. 0. 496.3. 2. . 425. 423. a 22 .  1. i a b 451. a* 424. . 440. 6. 506. 503. (&) true. 5J. 483. 6.m  m+ M in. 445. . 497.7. 7. 7. ISjmi. 6. 502. . 448. 494. 10. 10. I. 461. 507. 11. + () 433. 410. 426. 8. 8. 1. 441. 5.  1. 499. (a  c). B $ 2500. ^V. \ 1. m. 2. \.  7. 2. z8 +?/ 3 431. 10. 8. (a) 1. 459.  2.}. 464. ^. c. not true. 418.  2. 460. B 4 mi..  7. 53 yr. 7.  2f 504. 84. fj. 5.0. 40 oz. (c) not true. 42. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 498.}. (&) 443.3. 33. 0. 4. 467. i. & 491. .2. a + + ft c. 20. '.488.te + .rz Page 279. 0. 500. A 5 mi . 17. 6. 436. 1. . 450. 3a 4 5. 508. 2 438. 4. 1.  2. 444. 463. 5. . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. A $ 3500.4. . 2 a 2. 452.. 495. 412. 20 yr. 2. 3. 429. 428. m 1 : wi. 486. Page 281. 10. 2. fc. 487. 0. 18. . 457. 1. 22. 477. 492. 501. 430. ISJini. 6.1.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 3 . .  453.55. . . 5.  . 2. 3. 480. 50. 8. 32. !L=4. 2. 90. 456. 14 miles. 24 days. 454.. <L+ 6 (.0.7. 439. 0. 10. . c 6fc 10. 4. 0. 484. . Page 278. 446. 10. 0. 458. (d  6) f. 2. ^r?i 434. 28 yr. 4.7. 493. 468. 3.5. 1 a /?$+&?.
2.1. 6. 4. 574.  J(a f + 2c). 510.25. imag. 2. 525. ft 584.8 x3^. . . 566. _ 3. 564. 1. 575. (gr) 10 1.02. 5.20. 527.7. 1. 533. 2. 1. 1. 1 600. 2 .0. 560. 509. a+ Page 286.  2ft da. . y 4.. (a) 74 Ib. 115 Ib.24. S82 c. 3 da.03. + 26 + .51.2. 562. 578.88. .55.  . 573.10. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 3. (c) 4. 581. (e) (c) 2. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.7.35. (ft) 4.6.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . Page 285. 1. (6) 3. per hour.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 1. 565.xj/ f xV . xxxin 511. tin.30.4.4.  4. 3f 4f. 27 y* f\4 . 8 mi. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 7.9. 599. 3 . 556. (ft) Ill Ib.  2. + 6 tf f 3 . 1.3.05. 1. T . 4. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . f. .1. 3. .00.62.25m.3.54.5. 568. 577. 550.5. 0000. 24.  (a) (d) 1. 2 2. 2(6 597. _^ 2754x .24. 6. (6) . 526. 513. 4. 1 . 3. . . . . 8. 4.75.4. 1.  557. 232.7. .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 603. 569. 4 mi. 1. 531.21._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524..5+.04. 576.6. 3. 2. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.10.24 sec. 1 580.5 f.1. 2. 0. (c) 3. ^ ft 4. 516.4. 1. 593. 579.  ft*. .1. f36a28x8 592. 6435. 3. 4. 3. (d) 537. _ 4.16. M ft c 2 ft 3465. Roots imaginary. 1. <z ft 1.37. 2 imag. 558.31. 5. 3. > ^ . f ? a f ft __ + c C).78.ANSWERS Page 284.   (h) 8. 4.. 2 1.3. 1$. 591.0.15.8. per hr. 563.3. 1.r8 596. (/)  10 to 8.1. lead.3.  3. lead.6.. 5. 21*_. (e) 570.37.04.  + + c. 40 Ib. 3.62.. 1. 518.15. . 555. 4.% rr\* 585. 1. .56 sec.6.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 4* da. 3. 1. 532.  (a) 2. 7^ da. (i) 3. a f ft + c.0. 2. Page 288.14. .12. . 2. 1.02. . y% Z * 586. 3. a + ft  a  f c.53. or 8. 2 1. 583. 5. 1.73. . f.15.54.  1.52. .31.02.03.1. 571. g(rc+ 6c).02. 598. 530. 4.75. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 552. 529. 1 . 24 da. a*8a + 24tf 82a.  imag. 561. 551.4. 4 0.8.8. 1J. 31.3. 2. .4. . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . x8 .3.  7. 582.38. If 572. 2$.5. . . 14.3.6 2.8. da. o> .5. .0. 3. 1. H.4 x + . 2 .33. 4. 2. 515. 2(4 602. 2 10. tin. . Page 287. 1. 559. 1. 514.5. 3. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 3. 1.83.f 1. J7] min. 553. . 512. + 12 x . 3.78. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 567. . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 536. 528. 554.83.
a 1J.  1. 0. K 5 2 V2. 4 V 0. 0. 613. 11. . 656. 2. 705. . 701. 1 2.. z  1.b. 7. 0. ab. V^~3). If . 607. fta a/> ^A.  a2  a (ab). 12. 0. 628. 608. 637. 708. (*_ + a: 611.3. . 631. 632. ' fe 2 ). 2 a 688. . 0. 2. 614. 2 a  6*. ft). fe + a. 5.702. \+ab 699. ^ 1. 1. .  2f r 659. . 1. 2f. 617. 666. 615. 4 676. 50.XX XIV 606. 7003. 703. 651. 4$. 650.04. a 4. b . 621. be ac \. 2092. 649. If f 667. 8 6 fo . 13.y. 630. 898. 669.203. 642. c. 25. 1m*. / V^+lO^M"^.2f (5 4. ix 2 .3. 696. (a3&45rj. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 8. 616. 7. a + b. .0. 633. 629.3. 678< 682. V7. 679. 5 3.3. 2f. 1. 661. 2.  4. 2. 703.  13. 1 704. 623. a. 622. 25. 2&). 634. a 673. 655. y  619.  . 677 680. 4330 da. + ~^'2 + a 1. I}'/. If. 2. 6.3f l 668. n^l +^. 2. 1.a~ {Z 663. 14. 653. 2 / 2 4.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. /> 4. 1 V5 1.  4. 210. 620. V"^TJ. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 702. 698. 647. . 648. V2.  684. 690.2f Page 290. 654. 3. ^. 643. 641. <T! . 5002. 625. J^^. 009. . 638. o. 3. b. 78. 0. l/'3. . ^. 700. 4. . la6 2. 971. 2 x 44 ^/. 4.14 If 1. + 2 A (i f Page 291.  ft. 618.  3. 636. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 5. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 6 685. If 658. If 665.001. 11. 2 a: 4.b 686. 626. 4.43^4. ^^ 695.>A 610. ' 674. 5. 706. 635. 9. 3 681.002. 645. 2. 670. 612. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 1010. 652. 5. 691. a ' 2 + . 1 ~a .c ) 697. 3 x2 . 646. 6. i. V2. 2. \.001.. ab 689. b 664.049. 4. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 657.  6. 627. . 683.f 3 V^3). 2. 662.303. Page 289. If b. 644. 692. 1$ 639.25. 9*. 3. 640. . if 4/> 671. 2 ab + a  &. 624. 10. 8 f 3. 3 a. . 672. a 2. 660.
. 3. 763. 1 747. ^ . 734.1 .r+y> 759. 24. Hi a. 1.9. 1. 1^ _ 760. . 740. 788. 713. + 6 2 tf'c. 709.257. 1 I . 1 752. 5.rJ w L 754. 33^2. 778. 2x3^ a. a db Va^T < 45da. 792. 755. 717. > 748. 751. 715. 749. v/7 / .. x i f^' . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. ^7xy. 730. 739. 790 2v 3v 2. 710. 24 4 . 733. iv/Jj.V/^ 741. 47.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 3V72V3.ANSWMHti Page 292. 736. VV> L4V34. "V313. 767. v'll.V2. 712. VT14V5. fyaw&cu. 773. 8.12 af V^ 4 744. 724. y  1.. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 728. r. 2\/53V2. a 2  x2 . 726. 750. rt3 2 ^i^. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 3^. / 787. 59.2.^. 789.9. 729. 7  3V5. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 769. 34. 727. 300. 4 104 v/2. 721. 32>/2. J(v'lO2V 791. 15 shares. + < 735. a 5 .4 .~ . 711. 723.^ 743. a 2 6^. i^. 782 785. cr*lr*. Page 293. 716. 1. 8.11. 746. 39.10. T%. ^ ?>. 731.4 . VIO\/3. Page 294. a". 1 [ + '> J.. 342V3. 13ft. 3V7. x\y. 796. mn. 718. 2 V2 .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.r. 5. 714. 725. 3V52V3. 3V72VO. 25. 24V2. 756. . 29\/3. 758. 722. 737. 3 720. 768.8. 794. 30\/10 764. j 742. 776. . 738. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 793. 753. 777. 17ft. 3 VlT 795. . 719. a:* . 732.. 00. i 2.
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870 z8 . . 1001. 0. 1013. 990. 4 and 1020. 1003.51. Page 304. (Z>) 999. in. 8. 1(5. 1017. (5. 991. 108. 996. 995. () 12(2+V3). 120 a. 988. 1008.92. 1016. 12. 1005. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). ~ \.378 1015. 6 70 . 1009.870 a 6 1011. 1 1004. 9 da.18. + 448 . X. ^Trsq.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1010.'^^ } ( . 120 i^l^. 1000. (J. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1018. 997. 994. . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> ..192rt?)r 120 *.128 I. 2(2 v/2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . (6) 8(1 . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 24. 192. r = 2. . 1006. 1 8 8 2. 993. Page 305. 72.378 <W and 92.. 1012. 1019. + v 2). 992. 48.  5&7 1021. 0. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 162. 12. 3003. 1007. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 2 . 1014. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 4. ^f (2f3V2).
physics. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. given. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. i2mo. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. xi 4 373 pages. Half leather. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The more important subjects tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. HEW TOSS . xiv+563 pages. save Inequalities. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Ph. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.D. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. and commercial life. etc. A examples are taken from geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. than by the .25 lamo. so that the Logarithms. great many work. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. $1. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. comparatively few methods are heretofore.
25 i2mo. The author grade. and commercial life. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. HatF leather. HEW YOKE .10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. save Inequalities. Ph. Half leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. physics. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. 12010. etc. In Factoring. great many A examples are taken from geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. xi f 373 pages. so that the tions. xiv+56a pages. Logarithms. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. comparatively few methods are given.D. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. $1. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.
Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 10. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. under the heading Remarks". Attention is invited to the following important features I. i2mo. Ph. .D.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. $1. iamo. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.. xii + 233 pages. 6. SCHULTZE.10 L. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SEVENOAK. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. State: . $1. 9. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Cloth. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 4. lines.r and. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Half leather. izmo. wor. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . aoo pages. 7 he . NEW YORK . more than 1200 in number in 2. Cloth. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .
.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . 370 pages. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . $1. and not from the information that it imparts. . 12mo. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . of these theoretical views. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . New York City. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.
which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. An exhaustive system of marginal references. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. i2mo. diagrams. Topics. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps. diagrams. photographs. and a full index are provided. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. $1. Cloth. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. " This volume etc. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation.
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