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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. Mass. September. 1910.S. September. Reprinted 1913.COPYRIGHT.' February. January. . . IQJS January. May. 1910 . . 8. 1910. May. Norwood. Published Set up and electrotyped.A. Berwick & Smith Co. 1915. 1917. Cushlng Co. U.. July. J. 1916. 1911.
and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. specially 2.. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. etc. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. Elementary Algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Such a large number of methods. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted." this book. owing has certain distinctive features. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study.
e. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. Moreover. as quadratic equations and graphs. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. may be used to supplement the other. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. hence either book 4. In regard to some other features of the book. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". two negative numbers. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. For the more ambitious student.g. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. etc.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. are placed early in the course. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . however. Topics of practical importance. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. and commercial are numerous. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. elementary way. is based principally upon the alge . to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. such examples. Moreover." Applications taken from geometry. in " geometry . " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. By studying proportions during the first year's work. viz. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. physics.
edge of physics. NEW YORK. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. 1910. . desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P.
...... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . ...... SUBTRACTION. . Powers...
. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . . Type Polynomials. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . * ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type III.114 .. /^ . Type IV. .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type II...... Type VI. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Type V.
CHAPTER XIV 169 ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ..... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
V^a6. as in arithmetic. + 1]. 2 . V3 . 4V3~6c. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. V36". c = 1. 6. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9.g. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 12. + c). or 9 Vx. e. c f d)." EXERCISE If a 1.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 13. V2a. 3. some number is . v'Ta. aVc^. 2. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 16. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 15. 26. 14. !^f\/03 3 ft. x 9. \/c. is 28. 7 = 2. 17. 5Vl6c. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. a polynomial of two terms. 4(a 6(6 + &). 8. [6c] 3 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. are trinomials. since the parts are a . a2 + and   \/a are binomials. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 6. 27. d 7. (cfd) 4. Val \fi?. 0. find the numerical value of: Vff. 10. b = 3. 11. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A polynomial is an y. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. A binomial is 62 . 9. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole.
EXERCISE 8*  . 4. subtraction. 5=3. 16.2 + I126. a 2 6. . 5. multiplication. + 26+3 c. . Ex.19 = 6. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5c +d 2 . 4a6fVaV2^.e. l 13. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. . Ex. 5. find the numerical value of: 9.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . __ E. 3. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. d = 0. Otherwise operations of addition.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . i. x=^. d=Q. a=4.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.. 2 ).810 + 150 = . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 10.INTRODUCTION 29.9. 8.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . . b = 3. c = 2.30 = 270 .5 ax 50 a6cd. a2 11. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 1. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 4 .9 aWc + f a b . * For additional examples see page 268. c=l. 6. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .g. 14. 3 2 If 1. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.390. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2. 52 . 3a + 56 a 2 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. (a (a f b) 7. 12. 3 4 .99.4 6^9 ad. 2. 6.
6 = 4. 6 = 1. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6=2. = 3. a = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a. geometry. 6 = 5. 6 = 3. a = 4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. Express in algebraic symbols 31. : 6. if : a = 2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. Read the expressions of Exs. 29. 28. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 26 of the exercise. 27. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).6 f c) (6 a + c). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a =4. a =3. . then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 30. 6 = 2. a a=3. Six 2 . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 5. 35.6 . 38. 24. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 30. 23. 6 = 6. 25. 37. a = 2. physics. 6. a = 4. 6 = 6. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs.c) (a . 6. a = 3. 6 = 7. 22. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 34. sible to state Ex. 26. 33. and other sciences.
and 5 feet. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. c. if v : a. Find the height of the tree. if v . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 2.16 1 = 84.) Assuming g . = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.g. . (c) 4. the area of the triangle equals feet.seconds. then a 13. An electric car in 40 seconds. 15 therefore feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. d. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. (b) 5. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 13.16 centimeters per second. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.INTRODUCTION E.e. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 12. if v = 30 miles per hour. 14. and 15 feet. and 13 inches. b. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. i. A train in 4 hours. 4. b 14. 84 square EXERCISE 1.
on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. meters. (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 miles. .) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. : 8000 miles. (c) 8000 miles.14d (square units). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). If the (b) 1 inch. 32 F.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.14 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. is H 2 units of length (inches. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. the area etc. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 5. square units (square inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. $ = 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. the 3.14 square meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 5 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 2 inches. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.). (The number 3.).
Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). or positive and negative numbers. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. however. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION.
19. 12. 5. of: 20. d = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 2326. 24. of 2. = 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. + 12. 6 6 = 3. Thus. lf(2). d = 0. (17) 15 + (14). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. '. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 5. is 2. 18. (_ In Exs. 4 is 3 J. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. . 4. if : a a = 2. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 23. + (9). 33. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. c = 4. the one third their sum. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 21. c = = 5. subtract their absolute values and . 22. is 0. 10.16 32.3.  0.
41. 10. affected by the same exponents. 33.5. SUBTRACTION. \\ Add 2 a. . $3000 gain.3. 09. 74. sets of numbers: 13. 10. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 7 yards. c = 0.. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 13. 11 (Centigrade). & 28. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. d= 3. and $4500 gain. 6. $1000 loss. 7 a. and 3 yards. 2.. 12. 6. 25. 10. . 6. = 22. 30. are similar terms. 35. which are not similar. 40. 27.13. 31. & = 15. 4. ^ ' 37. and 3 a. and 8 F. . : 48. 29. : and 1. ' 1? a 26. or and . 32. . c=14. . Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 5 and 12. 37. = 13. . 36. . 7 a. 60.ADDITION. and 3 a.. 38. 66. AND PARENTHESES d = l. . 1. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 55. 72.4.7. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 3 and 25. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 43. 0. }/ Add 2 a. 2. 34. 32. $500 loss. 42. ' Find the average of the following 34. $7000 gain. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 39. : 34. 3. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 4 F.5. and 3 F. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.7. and 4. = 23.
. 12(af b) 12. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. b a f ( 6). 9(af6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. f 4 a2. Algebraic sum. 12 2 wp2 .ii.13 rap 25 rap 2.18 35.sign. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . or a 6. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 13. + 6 af . 10. 12Vmfn. 11. 2(af &). b wider sense than in arithmetic. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 5 a2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 2 a&. 7 rap2. 3a . : 2 a2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. in algebra it may be considered b. 5l 3(af6). ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 5Vm + w. Vm f. 14 .
It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 6 23. ra 19. 21. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2/ : Add. 32. is . 2 2 2 31. 2 7 1 26. 1 27. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. without finding the value of each term 34. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. SUBTRACTION. + y. 35. l^S 25. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. a a8 ZL **.ADDITION. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. n x* 2 22. +m """ 20. 17. c 2 ^24. 37. 30. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 36. 33. + / + 3 Va. and to add each column.
. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. the erroneous answer equal 7.15 abc .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .c= 2. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. . a 4. therefore the answer is correct.15 6c. 2 . 5. 6=2. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. = .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. c = 1.7 2 . 2c. 46 4z 7 c. 7 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. ft any convenient and c. 3 a f 4 1) 4. . f 110WS: 26 aft. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. to show any error.41 = 3.3 s.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . x of x. NOTE. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. of that letter.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 9 q 4. 3a 2? . 4 2.20 c 5 ab 4. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2 Sum. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. and 2 .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 2 Thus. 2 025. to add 26 ab .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 5 .12 a& 4. and J 2 s. 4 = 7.8 abc .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. V3. s.o c and 4.g.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.g. e. 3.
2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).Ga 43x45.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.a.7m . .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . d. 18/+6y + d.1 a 4 1 0. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 3 2 2 3 9 . and . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.a.a 4 a 4 1. SUBTRACTION.a . 16e + 17/90. a2 a. 4 ajy 17. 2 2 and . .5a^6 f 6) .and 6. a + 1> 8 2 2 . + a + 1. . and 1 4 a . 4. 11. and 8 3 .12.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 8. and 5 Vb 18. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. xy3xz + yz. 2 3(c f a). 4 8 3 4 4 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 2 a. a 4 a . . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. .12(a 4. 4 3 . 16.9(a + &) . a2 2 14. a. and v 15.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . e a4 /. in 8 3 m n 4. . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2 2 .ADDITION. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . d and / 3 ? 12. 2 ?ft ?/z. . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.7v/if. 7ar + 3B 5.VS 4 2 Vc.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and and 13. a) y ^/.(b + c) 1. m 4 6.6. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.2n 2 2 3 rz . ^2 1 e. . .4 Va . 4(a . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.15 5. 4 Vc.10 Vc.12 6 ~5 a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . ?/ . a 4 a .8 m 2m 12. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. v/20.1. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.4:xy xz 6yz.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 19. 56 w. 2 ?/. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2 and 9m 48m 4. + 50 + 62 .
5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 1. is 2. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. f number may be added 3. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .3 taken from 2 ? 5.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . and e + 6y . how 1.9aj 2. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. . c 3 3 3 2 3 . 13 1. and 25. 12 xyz. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.3^* 2n 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.m 4m ?/?/ d.17 + 4 ?nfy . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.22 21. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.. + n*. . f 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. and 2 24. 22. 1. 1. a 6 2 c. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.11 xy + 12. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. 8 .5< 3 2 s 4^4.ra + m. + 1. T8a. f 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. +d a. . 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. 1/ . 45a6 2 . s . The sum and ? 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1.
a. Therefore any example in subtraction different . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.2. and the required number the difference. +b 3. SUBTRACTION. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. and their algebraic sum is required. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract to . .g. 2. 7. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. In subtraction. ab = x. This gives by the same method. Ex. the other number is required. 41. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. NOTE.ADDITION. 5 is 2. To subtract. 6 (3) = 8. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . Ex. ( 6) ( = . called the minvend. From 5 subtract + 3. two numbers are given. if x Ex. Or in symbols. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. In addition. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. the given number the subtrahend. 1. from What 3.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 x* . If x = l = 2 t .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . Check. Ex.
a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.7 a . 42. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 55. 53. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 51. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 47. tract 4 x 3. 41. + a the 2 a. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 57. SUBTRACTION. 43.c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.2. From 6(af.4 a^ 4. 58. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 2y 2 .ADDITION. c f d. 49.4 a*& + 6 a & .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 52. 46. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 56. 54. 44.a 2 j. and 3 7/ . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 6 4 a. 45. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From 2 a take a & j. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 50. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.w>t.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 48. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . check the answer.6)f. of a 4. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.
9. + 6 + c. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5.26 4. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a + 6. of # 2 8. A is n years old. +a add the difference duce 13. 6 17. a 2y + z. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a a + c. + 2. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 20. 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 19. subtract # + 1. 2 m 21. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.15. 16. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.
The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.g.a^6)]  } . Ex. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. the sign is understood. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. . & f c.c. a+(bc) = a +b . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.2 b . SUBTRACTION. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. II. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.ADDITION.6 b f (. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. changed.b c = a a & f f. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.c. 45.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 46. I. one occurring within the other. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.
2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 9. 18. 16.)]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2 2a. 5. m f ft) a. 8. 271 + (814 . + (2a 6 + c ).) 5 . Signs of aggregation 1.1422) J ] . [36+ (a 2c]. (m a2 f. 2a (4a 26 +c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 6. a (a + 26 c ).7i h jp) (m ?*.y (60.(a + 6). a (a + 6). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.[271 47. 6) 2. 3 3 f 7.: Ex. 14. 15. 2 2 2 a(. In the following expression inclose the second and third. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. Ex.+ 6)f (a2 b). a f (a a . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 3. 2. may be inserted according to 43. 13. 19. 17. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. : x + (2yz). 21. ? 11. . 4. By removing parentheses.
of the cubes of m and n.4 y* . The difference of a and 6. 5 a2 2. 13.ADDITION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The sum^)f m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. difference of the cubes of n and m. 6. 12.2 tf . p + q + rs. and the subtrahend the second. 6 diminished . 4. 2. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5^2 _ r . The product The product m and n. terms 5. 3. )X 6. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. m x 2 4. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 10. 5. 3. first. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. SUBTRACTION. The square of the difference of a and b. 7.1. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 8. . 2mn + 2q3t. II. z + d. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. ' NOTE. m and n. 7. y f 8 .7fa. a\l> > c + d. 9.
x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 18. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .30 14.) . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. b.
applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 2. A A A 1. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. two loads balance. therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads balance. 4. what force is produced by the Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. force is produced therefore. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 5. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads what What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3.
(. x 11. 9 9. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. Thus. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 9 x ( 11). (5)X4. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. such as given in the preceding exercise. 48. . a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. however.4)(4) = + 12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 4 multiplied by 3.4)(.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4x(3)=12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. thus. or plied by 3. Practical examples^ it however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 5x(4). ( (. the multiplier is a negative number. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.32 8.9) x 11. NOTE. 4 multi44444 12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. To take a number 7 times. becomes meaningless if definition.
2f 18. . c = 25. . X(5). 11. 3.(4J).7. 2a6 c . 20. find the numeri values of: 21. 7. b = 3. _2. 5x3. 19. 30. 14. about fac (2)X If 6. +5. 8. 3.2 f+x 2 .2. 2. 23. 6.3) (1) 7 2 . 15. . 9. (10) 4 . _2^ 3. 17. (4)'. 4. 6. 2a 2 6c. (7) X (12). 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 27. x= 0. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. z s 11 aWcx. 4 a2 . 6 2. 1.4. 8 31. is 6x7. (. 29. 10. Ua b 28. (4)X(15). (c#) . (2)x9. 24.MULTIPLICATION 50. If a cal = 4a6c. 12. 16. 3 aW. of Signs: TJie positive. _3. Law Thus. x. tors is no misunderstanding possible. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . NOTE. 8 4 . 5. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 32.3. and y = 4. 26. (2) 8 (. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 1. 3 a2?/2 . 4 . 22. 13. .a)( =+ a&. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&.(a&c) 2 2 . . the parenthesis frequently omitted. etc.
= 2. 3 2 .  and 2 25 8 . 6" 127 U . 6 aWc x . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .e.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . : 3a7abc. . 2(14. & = 3. 53.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . . This 52. 3. 10.35). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. of the factors. a8 a=2. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 4. 6 = 1. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. (a6) (a5) 9. or 2 .2 2 23 + 5 . . 5 = 2. 5. 2(7. Ex. 127  127 9 7 . 50(112. 2 3 . 5 . 3 3 4 .(12) .m a 3  4 .6 if 35. 5(711. By 3 definition. 9 . 2. a = 2. 100. a 2 2 . =2 a *.  2 2. 34. 17. IB. 14. 1. a = 3. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. i.503).. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.257). 13. 12 U U . . 2 2 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. Ex. 78 . &*) c d*.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 3. 5 3 5 3 2 .(7).. m*. 11. 200. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .3). B.(2.2). if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. a= 1. 4. 6 = .7. 2. . 4. + 2/). 16. 7. 36. fl*" integers. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2 2 3 6 . 6.<?.
. 24. . 27. 31.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. This principle. 12( + 1 4 i). 3(124342).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 3. 23. c(4a ftc ). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 4.A). 6. (. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 6(10420430).f 2).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . by first multiplying. multiply each by the monomial.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. . 20. /). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 7. 17(10041042). but we shall assume it for any number. Thus we have in general a(b 56. . 26. 23(10004100420). 35 4 7(6. 25. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. .6. 2(645410). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).7pqt. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2(5fl5f25). 7p*q r*. 28. ) 2 33. 11(3. 2 32.4a#.7 w'W (8 n^W). called the distributive law. 21. . ax /) 2 4 1 (. 5. 22. 34. If results ft. and then adding : 1. _4aft.2 3 aft ). 19. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. (.3 win ) . 29. 2. 35.
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 30. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.asa product.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 5). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 29. 3 ). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).60 a& 10 aft.3 aftc). . be multiplied to give 4o. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 12. 22. 2 27. 9. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. : expression must 24. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). .5 w*V f 7 wn).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.5 x 7). f7a. ~2mn(m +n p ). 23. 11. 19.^ c + 2 . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Find the factors of 6 ary .6 a6). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 26.we b) (x law. 2 m(mhn \p). 17. By what 25. . 2 2 16.2 mn(9 mV . 7 a 6 c(. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 20. 28. 21. . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.
Since errors.1. Ex.a .3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Multiply 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. . the student should apply this test to every example. 59. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.4.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 b by a 5 b. however. a2 + a8 + 3 .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Multiply 2 + a a. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 2a3b a66 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1. 2. Check. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. To multiply two polynomials.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.
(a 2a + 2)(a3). (2w 19. (6i7n)(llJn). (4a 2 33. 36.1 . 25. 7. 12. 12)(a?^2l). a 5c)(2a6c). 28. 3.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.2). l)(raf 2). 20. (6a~7) 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). QQ O7. 32. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 31. 8. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (8r7*)(6r39.4) (mnp 4. 24. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 41. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). + & + 1f a^faj 1). . 4 2). 30. 13. ^ 2 . 26. (a^26) . 22. 15. (2 x* x 2 . 18.2m)(l m). 7y). 2  37. 10. 17. 2 . (13 A. 11. 3<7). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.4) (x + 1). 36). (6p (2 f 21. 5. . 16. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 6. 2. 40. I (mfn)(m4. 35. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). OQ OO. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 29. 2 . 9.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 1). 2) (3 A: 1). 36) I) 14. * For additional examples see page 261. 4.
i. (*. : 23 2. 9. (a (a (a.!!)( (a + 21). 19. . 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (J 23. (!)(* 5). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (6 12) (6 f. + 5) (1000 + 4). 21. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 17. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 15. 1) (10 + 2). 18. _3)(a _4). ft 16.n)(wf w). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.25)(y+4). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .4). 25. (ra. 27. 12. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 2 a? 29. 2) (1000 + 3). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab.13). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 22. 14. (a 9) (a + 9). 6.2 6) (a f 6). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 26. plus the product 62. 75 ab f 54 ft . 25 a 2 . 8. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 3. i. 11. + 3) (a 7). .e. + 2) (a f 3). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (10+ (1000 (2. (a3)(a + 2). 2 6) (a 3 6). + 60)(f2). (p12)(p + ll). (100 +2) (100 + 3). 28.e. 24. X 102. 7. (a 102 x 103. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 20. 1005x1004. . in of the two unequal terms. + 9)(m+9). 10. 13.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61.
m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 6.15. 63. : 24 (a 2. n2 10ii+16. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. III. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 8. 32. a2 2 w + 2 w . (a2) (p a . 2 5. plus the square of the second. 9. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 7 a + 10. and the second.66 s. 2 (a (*5) 2 . plus sum of two numbers the square II. 3. second. III. + 3) 2 . 7. i. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. (a26) 2 .30. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. i. of the second.e. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 4. . p 2 p. 34. Ex. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . (x+3i/) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first. 37. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 49 y*. + 6 a + 8. <J>7) J .15. 33. plus twice the product of the first and the second. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 31.e.e. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. w 2 ro .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 35.
The product of 57. + 5). 45.30 ab + 25 6 64. 23. 34. n 2 f4n+4. 21. ( 27. 991 2 2 . 17.MULTIPLICATION 10. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. . 15. 103 36. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 . . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 J ). 55. 16aW25. 2 . By actual multiplication. 25 a 9. (2x3yy. 2 (4a36) 2 13. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 22 2 .998 39. 9 a2 . 35. 47. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 62 25n 2 . 44. 99x101. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 22. 18. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 12. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 51. ). 54. 2 9a 496 2 56. (1000 2 . 42. 31. 998x1002. G> +5g)*. 40. 46. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 104 2 37. 2 11 # ) 2 20.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 14. (20 f 1) . a 2 8a6+166 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . 52. 28. (100 + 2) (100 2). + 5)(5+a). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 2 . 33. 7& ) 25. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 49. I) 2 . 48. 24. 41. 38. 4 53. 32. a2 9. m 2 16. (6afy 2 5) (a. 11. n*6n+9. 29. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (^. 41 16. . . 2 .
11. or The student should note minus signs. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the last terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). sum of the cross products. The square 2 (a 4. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 14. ((5a? (10 12. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 2 10. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 3. (3m + 2)(ml).& + c) = a + tf + c . (5a64)(5a&3). ) (2 of a polynomial. (5a4)(4al). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 65.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 5. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 4. : 25 2. 13. 6. 7. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. . (2a3)(a + 2). 9. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (4s + y)(32y). 8.
(xy+z)*. 7. 2)6. 8.5). 7. = . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. = 10 x . 13. Ex.r _ 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 3. 6(a 2.i2&c) 2 .4) .(= [ Xa + 2 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.5) = (7 . . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).24] . 2 2. Hence. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 5. after multiplying the factors of a term.4) .3) . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (u4& + 3c'. + 65) . 66. and check the answers !. 4(* + 2)5(3). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. Simplify (x + 6) (a . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 5. Find the square root 11. 12.(m 2 6. 4.3)(z. 9. (a (.(>. of z : 10.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.39.X2 + 2 x .[a? . 6~2(a + 7). If x = 1. 4.1 5 = 10 .y? + 8 . 3. 4(aj2)h3(7).(x . Check. a. 8.29.3) (x .8 x + 15] . + 6)( . n). (  2 4) =  20 a.24 .39. 4y sf n) 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
11 a + 9 a . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 51 15. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 16.e. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (81 m + 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).2). a I.DIVISION 14. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 20.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . . . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). v/17. 18.l. 19. Division of the difference of two squares.2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.
4 b. 100ry. . 16. 16 . 1. r/ 1. 9& 2 . 14.0001. f 13. : the following w a 4 !. 15. 121a a 16 100 11.000.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. aW 12 a. 12. 10. . 36 a4 ?/ 4 .49.
=11. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. x 20. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 83.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . (a + ft) (a b) and b. the 80. in the equation 2 x 0. 81. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the first member is 2 x + 4. . hence it is an equation of condition. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . . 82. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.
87. 3. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. one member to another by changing x + a=. 86. If equals be subtracted from equals. x I.54 84. To solve an equation to find its roots. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the remainders are equal. E. A 2 a. the quotients are equal. If equals be added to equals. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. a. the products are equal. 89. 2 = 6#f7. called axioms 1. . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. A numerical equation is one in which all .e.b. 90.g.2. . 2. If equals be divided by equals. NOTE. If equals be multiplied by equals. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 5. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 4. the sums are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the divisor equals zero. Transposition of terms. A term may be transposed from its sign. 85. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.
6a5 = 185 = 13. 3 y .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . f If y 20 . 2 x = 6. Transposing.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. (4y)(6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 91. Dividing by Check. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. x = 3. a= a 6fc. if 55 x members. x = 93. a? Adding 5 to each term. 2(11 . The first member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Check. and the known terms to the second.2.9 y + y2 = 22 .6 y f y\ . Dividing both members by 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. is correct. b c. Uniting similar terms.2 y= f . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Hence the answer. 4x 1 + 6. Ex. To solve a simple equation. if a x = b. Uniting. The first member. x = (Axiom 3) 92.8. Unite similar terms. The second member. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. b Adding a to both + a. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.
. + 22. 7a? 5. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 9 9a? = 7 13. a? a?. + 16 = 16 + 17. 2. 8. aj * See page 264. 16. 3.. 21. 6. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 4.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 22. Dividing by Cfcecfc. = 3. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 247y = 68lly. 50. 3 7 a. 15. etc. Uniting. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 24. a?. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 4a + 5 = 29. {(x (x The The member right member left . 14y = 59(24y + 21). = 7. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 20. Solve the following equations by transposing. x = 18.56 Ex. a. =2 = 3. 7 (6 x 16).69. x x 1 . 4y 10. = 5a?+18. 17 7 a. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). = 2 ?/. 12. a. f Simplifying. J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 14. . 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 7. \x x 2^xfl. it NOTE. 32 = 264. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 17 + 5a.7.7a: = 394a. If x = 18. v23. : 5# = 15+2a. 3. 11. and check the answers 9. Transposing. 19. 11 ?/ a? 18.17 + 4y = 36.. 13a? 3a?.
2) (M .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 27. 25.12) (2 + 5) . (aj 37. 7) (a. . a? 28.3) . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 29.32. 35.(2 + 6) (4 . a? 43. .3) + . 38. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.1) (u . . . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. (a. is the other part. 36. 6(6a. (6 u =5 44. or 70 a?. + 7) (.5) = (a. this question.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 31. + 4). .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. find the other part. 7(7 x y 26. Evidently 45.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 5) (as (a.g. 39. 2 2 * Jaj.7. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 41. .5(2 u . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 42.1 0) = 0.4) + 4 w .7) (7 x + 4) . . e.14 = 0.3) + 14. 40. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 30. . 34.5) + 199. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 33.
so that of c ? is p. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. smaller one 16. EXERCISE 1. If 7 2. 3. greater one is g. 7. 17. 1. is a? 2 is c?. one part equals is 10. 6. 13. is b. Ex. 10. 11. or 12 7. 9. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 15. one yard will cost 100 dollars. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. and the smaller one parts. 33 2. a. 14. x f y yards cost $ 100 . find the cost of one yard. 5. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 4. is d.58 Ex. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Divide 100 into two 12. Divide a into two parts. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . so that one part The difference between is s. 6. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Find the greater one.
amount each will then have. 22. numbers is x. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents has he ? 27. A feet wide. ?/ 31. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. and spent 5 cents. Find 21. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 28. 34. 33. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. is A A is # years old. 26. find the has ra dollars. 24. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A man had a dollars. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B's age is y years. 20. A dollars. sum If A's age is x years. How many cents had he left ? 28. 19. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many years A older than is B? old. Find 35. 32. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 28. and c cents. If B gave A 6 25.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. b dimes. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and B is y years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two.
The first pipe x minutes. Find x % % of 1000. a. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. of m. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. 49. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 46. The two digits of a number are x and y.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour.50. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a. of 4. m is the denominator. Find the number. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A cistern is filled 43. 48. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). per Find 5 Find 6 45. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. he walk each hour ? 39. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. find the fraction. c a b =  9. . A was 20 years old. % % % of 100 of x. . Find a 47. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3.
8 b ) + 80 = a . Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 80. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. same result as 7 subtracted from . 9. 6. The excess of a over b is c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. etc. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 3. The double as 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of x increased by 10 equals x. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 5. 4. c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. by one third of b equals 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. of a increased much 8. double of a is 10. a exceeds b by c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.
m is x % of n. sum equals $20. and C's ages will be 100. is If A's age is 2 x.. 18. x is 100 x% is of 700. B's. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 3 1200 dollars. 6 % of m. a second sum. 50 is x % of 15. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a. . x 4 If A.000. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (c) If each man gains $500. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. symbols B. #is5%of450. as 17 is is above a. In 10 years the sum of A's. B's. 16. 11. and C's age 4 a. >. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. pays to C $100. B's age 20. of 30 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. and C have respectively 2 a. 14. B. they have equal of A's. 17.62 10. they have equal amounts. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum.
Transposing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 2. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Ex. 3z40:r:40z. denote the unknown 96. A will Check. number. 23 =30. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 1. NOTE. Find A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. etc. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Let x = the number. Transposing. x+16 = 3(35). x= 15. 6 years ago he was 10 . but 30 =3 x years. Simplifying. Dividing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. . In 15 years 10. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. number of yards. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. the . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Three times a certain no. be 30 . x = 20. Check. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. the required . much as 40 exceeds the number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. In order to solve them. Uniting. 4 x = 80. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Uniting. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand.
. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find 8. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. exceeds the width of the bridge. Dividing. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. twice the number plus 7. % of 120. EXERCISE 1. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.2. 13. Let x 3. Hence 40 = 46f. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 3. 14. 300 56. 4. 120. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. A number added number. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number.64 Ex. 5. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. by as much as 135 ft. 11. Forty years hence his present age. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.
One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. B will have lars has A now? 17. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. two verbal statements must be given. Vermont's population increased by 180. the second one. B How will loses $100. times as much as A. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and B has $00. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. One number exceeds the other one by II. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. statements are given directly. F 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. The sum of the two numbers is 14. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. How many dol A has A to $40. .000. The other verbal statement. Find the population of Maine in 1800. written in algebraic symbols. five If A gives B $200. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. which gives the value of 8. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money.000. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Ex. The problem consists of two statements I. 1. 97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. During the following 90 years. 65 A and B $200. A and B have equal amounts of money. x. is the equation. If A gains A have three times as much 16. and as 15. 14. Maine's population increased by 510.
2x a? x j = 6. 8 the greater number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. the smaller number. x = 8. . = B's number of marbles. 2. . and Let x = the Then x +. B will have twice as many as A. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. If A gives are : A If II. to Use the simpler statement. has three times as many marbles as B. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. I. If we select the first one. which leads ot Ex. consider that by the exchange Hence. A has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. . unknown quantity in Then. = 14. terms of the other. x x =14 8. / . < Transposing. = A's number of marbles. A will lose. Uniting. Dividing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. = 3. 8 = 11. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. The two statements I.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Statement x in = the larger number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Then. x 3x 4 and B will gain. the greater number. Let x 3x express one many as A. 25 marbles to B. A gives B 25 marbles. although in general the simpler one should be selected. B will have twice as viz. + a f f 8 = 14.
60. 2.550 f 310. 40 x .5 x . Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 50. Let 11 = the number of dimes. then. . Two numbers the smaller. 45 . etc. 15 + 25 = 40. . * 98. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. of dollars to the number of cents. Simplifying.10. have a value of $3. Eleven coins. * ' . How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. The value of the half : is 11. 3.$3. is 70. The sum of two numbers is 42. 3 x = 45.. but 40 = 2 x 20. 6 times the smaller. Find the numbers.25 = 20. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Find the numbers.10. x from I. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). x = 15. Dividing. the number of half dollars.240. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. dollars and dimes is $3. x = the number of half dollars. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. by 44. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. and the Find the numbers. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. the price. Check. Dividing.. (Statement II) Qx . greater is . Simplifying.75. w'3. the number of dimes. 50 x Transposing. Check. 11 x = 5. Uniting. cents. B's number of marbles. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. A's number of marbles. Uniting.10. x = 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 1. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. The number of coins II. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions)..
How many inches are in each part ? 15. tnree times the smaller by 65. and twice the altitude of Mt. Two numbers The number differ by 39.68 4. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 7. McKinley. A's age is four times B's. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. Twice 14. Everest by 11. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and four times the former equals five times the latter.. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. United States. as the larger one. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance.000 feet. the number. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 5. Find their ages. 9. 6. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many volcanoes are in the 8. On December 21. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. one of which increased by 9. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many hours does the day last ? . How many 14 years older than B. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 11. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.
then three times the money by I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Ex. times as much as A." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. has. has. B. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. they would have 3. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. 1. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. If 4x = 24. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. number had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 8(8 + 19) to C. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. bers is denoted by x. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. are : C's The three statements A. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. Let x II. B. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. x = 8. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. III. and B has three as A. B has three times as much as A. The third verbal statement produces the equation. = 48. II. and C together have $80. original amount.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. number of dollars of dollars B C had. . I. 19. and 68. number of dollars A had. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and C together have $80.
three statements are : IT. and. Let then. cows. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 90 may be written. and the sum of the . first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x j = the number of horses. = the number of dollars spent for cows. number of horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. III. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 185 a = 925. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. + 8 90 x and. x Transposing. 2. the third five times the first. 1 1 Check. x = 5. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each horse costing $ 90. number of cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. Uniting. and Ex. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. Dividing. 4 x f 8 = 28. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. sheep. 28 2 (9 5). The I.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and each sheep $ 15. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 9 5 = 4 . The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. according to III. according to II. first. each cow $ 35. number of sheep. x f 4 = 9. The total cost equals $1185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 35 x 4. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 9 cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2.
what is the population of each city ? 8. and children together was 37.000. what is the length of each? has 3. The gold. 7. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. twice the 6.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the third 2. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. "Find three is 4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. men.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. the copper. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . increased by three times the second side. 9.  4. twice as old as B. the second one is one inch longer than the first. women. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 13. first. v . how many children were present ? x 11. equals 49 inches. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. New York delphia. If twice The sum the third side. A 12. and 2 more men than women. what are the three angles ? 10. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first.
how many 100. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. of arid the value of the iron was $300. = 35. but stops 2 hours on the way. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. or time. The copper had twice the value of the gold.000. 14. A and B apart.e. width. 8 x = 15. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. speed.g. . i. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. we obtain 3 a. number of miles A x x walks. After how many hours will they meet and how E. Let x = number of hours A walks. Dividing. and quantities area. number of hours.000. 7 Uniting. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. First fill in all the numbers given directly. 3 and 4.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. together. Find the value of each. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Hence Simplifying. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000 more than that the copper. of 3 or 4 different kinds. = 5. such as length. and distance. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.
2   and transpose.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. or 700. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Find the dimensions of the field. l. $ 800 = required sum. Transposing and uniting. Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. original field has Check. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. were increased by 30 yards.M(x .01 = = . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. The an area 40 x 20 =800. But 700 certain = 800 2.053. the second 100.06 = $ 40. x . 10 x = 200. .04 = $ 40. 70x10 Ex.04 8. z = 20. 2 a = 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x + 200). $ 1000 x . $ 800 = 800. and the width decreased by 10 yards." gives (2.05 x x . Multiplying. + 8. x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. the area would be 100 square yards less. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. .
74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. 2. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. 1. What are the two sums 5. as a 4. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A sets out later two hours B . invested at 5 %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and a second sum. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. but four men failed to pay their shares. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. Find the share of each. A man bought 6 Ibs. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. sions of the field. 3. of coffee for $ 1. mobile. were increased by 3 yards. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. the area would remain the same. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sum ? invested at 4 %. together bring $ 78 interest.55. A of each. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. twice as large. After how many hours will B overtake A. Six persons bought an automobile. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Ten yards $ 42. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at .will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. A and B set out direction. but A has a start of 2 miles. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.
expression is rational with respect to a letter. but fractional with respect 103. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a2 to 6. irrational. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. if it does contain some indicated root of . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . An after simplifying. a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 5. as. if. consider 105. 6. a. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. at this 6 2 . which multiplied together are considered factors. 104.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. we shall not. f db 6 to b. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . stage of the work. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 76 . it is composite. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. vV . this letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a.
TYPE I. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2.3 6a + 1). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). y.) Ex. it follows that a 2 . 107. 8) (s1). in the form 4) +3. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.62 can be &). factors of 12 &V is are 3. . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 110. x. It (a.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. 1.3 sy + 4 y8). Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 77 Factoring is into its factors. or that a = 6) (a = a . 55. 01. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 109. ?/.g.FACTORING 106. E.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Factor G ofy 2 . Ex. 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. for this result is a sum. . Divide 6 a% . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.62 + &)(a 2 . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2.
14a 4 5. 7i 13. 8. 4. in general. 2 Or.4. 7a & 10. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.30 aty. 16. 3 2 . 3. 18. . + llm llm.2.12 cdx.5 + 13 8.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 20. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 2 + q. e. TYPE IT. ) 22  2. 2 23. (as 3) and (ccf5). 15 2 7.4. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. a6c. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 32 a *?/ . 34 a^c 8 .3.6. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 3x*6x*. obviously. 14. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 15. 13. 17.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). : 6 abx . Ilro8 9. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3 3 5 6.3. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 12. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 4 8 . 4 tfy f. 2 6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 11.51 aW + 68 21.5 + 2. 2 2 . q*q*q 2 a. a a 'Ja . 19. 5f 2 .8 c a 15 ofyV . 2.51 x4 2 6 xy s .45 afy .g.
5) (a 6). . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.77 = (a. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Factor x? .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). If q is negative.FACTORING Ex. but of these only a: Hence 2 . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If q is positive. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 . Ex. however. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.6 = 20.4 x . + 30 = 20. 4. a 2 . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.11 a 2 . .G) = .a). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. the two numbers have opposite signs. as p. Factor a2 . Ex. . 3. We may consider 1. and (a . or 77 l.11 a + 30. 2.30 = (a . Therefore Check. Factor + 10 ax . m 5m + 6. 77 as the product of 1 77. or 7 11. + 112.1 1 a tf a 4.11. can be factored.. 5. 2 6.5) (a . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. tfa2  3. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 11 7.11) (a + 7). of this type. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.
and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. a? + 5 + 6 a. ra + 25ra + 100. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 ?/ 28. 4 2 . 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 4 3 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 ?/ 22. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. . 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. a2 .500 x + 600. 18. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 2 . 16. 31. + 30. 2 .48 + + 446 200. 32. . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 33. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 100 xr .80 7. a 7 a 30. 14. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 15. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 17. TYPE 113.6. 21. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 25. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 5<y 24. 19. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 13. 21 a 2 2 . 30. 12. ITT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. or . 9. 35. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 16. 27. 24. 20. 26. + 4?/21. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a 2 +11 a a? 16. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. . x2 23. 36. 2 2 a' 34. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.17 + 30.180 a. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 29.70 x y . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 11. ay 11 ay +24. 6 8 8 4 2 a. and 5 x. + 44. + 2xS. 8.
. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the If p and r are positive.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2 x 27. but the opposite sign. 11 x 2x. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 54 x 1. or G 114. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. sible 13 x negative. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. the signs of the second terms are minus. 6 x 9.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. X x 18. 9 x 6. 18 x 3. viz. Factor 3 x 2 . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. a. 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.5 .13 x + 5 = (3 x . 27 x 2. and that they must be negative. If p is poxiliw. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. then the second terms of have opposite signs.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.83 x f 54. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. Ex. 3 x and x. 2.1). all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .5) (2 x . and r is negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.
83 x = (3 .83 x . 11. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 22. 13. 9. 35.163 x 2 . 16. 4a2 9tt + 2. 144 x . X 27 . 6. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.260 xy .300 ab 2 f4 250 . : 41 2.27).2 a 90 x*y .10 4a? + 14oj + 12.179. 2 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 10a?2 2 33. 25. 2 fc . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 32.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 10 a . since all others (II.7. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. and the monomial factors should be removed. f go. 4. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 9a. 14. 2 31.30 y 6 4 . 20. 12.19 a f 6. 6n + 5?i4. 18. 10. .y + 172/9. x54 a.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. the expressions should be it.2) (x . 2. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 2 26. 3a + 13a. 21. 10a2 G a2 2 . 12y 2/6. 17. 2 . 2 28. 7. 14 a fa 4. 19. 3. 29. 2 2 2 . 3x*Sx + 4. . 34. + 4. + 2/3. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 24. 2x* + 9x5. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 15. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2 2 2 23. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. Sar' + SaG. . 12^17^16. 5m 26m f 5. 30. 2m t7w + 3. 90 a 8 2 . 9 y + 32^16. 5.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 8. 100^200^ + 100^.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .
4. i.26 ab + 9 6 2 . . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 116. 25 7. 2 . 2 2 . square. 16 y? The student should note that a term. it is a perfect square. however. 8. 10.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 11. 2 9 10gf25. 14. must have a positive sign. 13. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2. and factor whenever possible : 1. of its terms are perfect squares. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.10 x f 16. 5. form are special cases of the preceding type. and a perfect square. x* .20 xy f 4 y\ . it is more convenient for that type. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 9 10a625. To factor a trinomial which maining term.e. 12. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 6.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 9. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 3.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) .
20 ab + 10 b a . 48 a +( ). . 4 2 23.84 15. a.e. u2 6& + 2 ( ). V. 5. ). ). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. prime. 2 . 2 . 16. 149 a 81 8. product i. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 9. According to 65. 9a2 .3 * ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 19.64 6 = 16(a . 2 . 22.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . ^//c to the Ex.6 m* + 9 m. 10 a 2 4 2 . +( )f816 30. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 25.60 a# + 4. Ex. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). a.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. 6. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. + GO + 25. !Gar 9 ( )+25. aV . a2 24. 225 ofy . 18. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2. 6 2 . 3. 26. 3. 2 20. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. TYPE 117.2 ofy + ofy m . ). 17. 4a2 l. 16&*. 1. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 2. 7.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). * 2 . 36 2 4. . 27.
of polynomials. a2 .FACTORING 85 118. 6.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2.d) 2 . 36> . (m7?) y. Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 16p 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Ex. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .c . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 5. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) . Factor a 2 . 11. a:) 12. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 4. 14. T. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2. 13. 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 9. 2 . 8.(c 4.
VI. 5) . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.a a .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 119. 8.1. 5. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. After grouping tain a the terms. 2. . a 26 2 2 3 . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 10. a? 11. 6. 2.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.ab + bx.7 c + 2c . By grouping. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. + x + 2x + 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.r. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. x8 . 4 B. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 12. 4:cx . 9. which may be factored according to types I. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. A.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. Ex. .and trinomials. Ex. 3.14. 7.y + 2 2). a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. = (3 x + y . a5 + ab 6 . 1.2 ) (3 x . ma ?*a + m& nb. ive find that the new terms con common factor. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.
* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6 6. $ a8 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . : 46 x* 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 2 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 2a3/ 7. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. II. 3. 2. 8. . 3. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 5. IV. 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. : m 2 2 16.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 6. 4 a2 . = (a + 6)(a6). Arranging the terms. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .l.12 aaj 4 6y. 8ra 2 + 16. 4.4 f .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.FACTORING Ex. 36 9 m . + 2xy + y*q*. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. . First find monomial factors common to all terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w m 2. 6a4 12a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 4.
2 17. 48. 30. a + a + a + l. 80 a 2 ft 38. 3 25. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 32. 24. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. a6 36. 3 2 . 18. 3 41. 42 x . 29. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 5 a.88 10. 35.310 x . 40. 4 8 tt 2 z .156. 3 a2 23. 4 a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.24. a.40. a3 156. 5a' 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 14. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. a5 a 1 4 2 39. + 14. 13 c . 13. (a. 12. or 3 7#2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 2 ft . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .13 c . 11.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 22. . 42 s 2 . 27. 25 a + 25 aft . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 a 128. 28. (^ 34. 50^ + 45. 19. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. + 6 aft + 3 .
F. II 2 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 122. F. aW. 5 7 34 2s . . C. 54  32 . 5. C. 5 2 3 . 25 W. C. 3. C. 121. of aW. C. 24 s . 15 aW. expressions which have no are prime to one another. The H. F. 2. 12 tfifz. of : 48 4. 6. 8 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 3 . The H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 13 aty 39 afyV. are prime can be found by inspection. C. of the algebraic expressions. Two common factor except unity The H. F. F. The student should note H.) of two or more . F. The highest is common factor (IT. F. EXERCISE Find the H. C.  23 3 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. 2 2 . C. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 5 s 7 2 5. of 6 sfyz. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. Thus the H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 89 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients.
y) 123. 8(?/ifl) 14.y + y42.90 7.5 + 6.y) . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 9 aj*(a? . ^a + 5^ + 6.^9. 8 a 10 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 6 mx . 13. a2 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .12 as 66 . 49 C. . 9. . F. 6 3 a. 9. a2 + 7af!2. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 0^80:416. F. .8 a + 16. 3. F. 2 . a2 + 2a3. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 8 6. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.y)\ O+ 0^(0.5 y). 2a f5af 2.2 ?/) (x . aWd. 16. . 4 ?io. To find the H. of + 4 if. ^707 + 12. (a7 ?/) . 13. y + 3y64. 1. 15 3ao. 24 a 2 . 12. 8. of: . 12 w*nw 8. 10. 57 a>V. C.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . a. a3 9a. 25 m27i.2 y) (a. 1. 2 . a3 16 a. 7. 15. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. F. 38 #y. . ^2 2 .# 4 afy f 4 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 6(m+l) (m+2). 2. 65 zfyV. C. C. 11.?/ . Find the H. 3 . 4(m+l) 3 . 12. ^f a. and apply the method of the preceding article. 225 4a 9 . Ex. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 3). 2 . 11. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . x* x2 Hence the H. of polynomials. 3^ 2 4 . 14.6 a&. = x 2 y. 8. 2 . a2 ar* 4.6. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. . 10. 52 oryz4.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 6 a2 y? . 95 2/V.5 x3?/ 2 6. 12 . a 3a4. 16 a . 5.
Common 125. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.C. Find the L. each set of expressions has In example ft). M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. which also signs. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. Find the L. L.M. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. L. C. of tfy and xy*. M. Ex.C. of the general. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. a^c8 3 .6 3 ). 1. C. M. M.6)2. M of the algebraic expressions. =4 a2 62 (a2 . NOTE.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. C. 300 z 2 y. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. A common remainder. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 2. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. two lowest common multiples. of 3 aW. The L. 60 x^y' 2 . thus. ory is the L. but opposite . To find the L. C. 128.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 126. 2 The The L. M. C. 127. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. . &) 2 M. Ex. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . Hence the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. etc. M.M. . M. The lowest common multiple (L.
(For additional examples see page 268. 4 a . 6 y. 3 ab. 2 . 2 x \2 y. 24. 6 a. 2 . by. y*. 15. afc'cd 2 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. xy\ . 3 Z> . 4 a 5 6cd. a !. 18. 9. a f 3. 3 f2. T a 3 a 2 . 13. 2(m 2 . ic 23. 20 9 a. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . ) . a f 2 19. 2 . . 2 a . a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. afy. 6. 2 a. a 2 a3 . 14.1. G a. a 2 f 4 a +4. 3(a + b). a& 4 +& 2 . x* ~5a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a2 ~ab 1. 3. 8 d 5 . a 1. 8 afy.1. + 2. a2 4. 16. a?b. 21. or f 3 a 15 #. 5. 3 . 7.f 6. 3 6 xif. 20. b 2 . x2 + 4 a f 4. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. (a 4)(a2) 12. x 2 5 a. 2. 11. 40 abJ. 2 10. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 5 a? 5 a? y. ic 2 ?/. 3. . a { a~b. 2 7ic+10.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 30 a. Find the L. 24 x. M. 2 a . 1. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 22. a. 4 a f 2. f b. + 2 7i) . 8. #. a. 6b 2 . of: 4. a 2 fa6. + 6. 17. a^1.
fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. as 8. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Thus. but we In arithmetic. a b = ma mb . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. an indicated quotient. and denominators are considered. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator.ry ^ by their H. however. Ex. C. Remove tor. etc. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. a?. A f fraction is b. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . 131. rni Thus 132. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. F. 130.
4) Ex. 3. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. . Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. cancel factors only. 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . and cancel all factors that are common to both. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.
10 a + 3 2 14. . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 19.7 .' 32. ^' rt ^  31. 16. 11 ^ Mtr f . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^" a. ^+3*. g J 21. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ' ^ .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. nx 17. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 5^10 y 30. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ny 4 18. . 23. 29. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 ..*. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. LJZJ^JL. """. 9x + "a" 10.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. .
C.C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Reduce ^. . =(z (x + 3)(z. we may extend this method to integral expressions. + 3). 1. .  by 4 6' . . M. multiplying the terms of 22 .C.r 2 2 . C. and the terms of ***. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.M.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Ex. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.M. of the denominators for the common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x. 2> . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. take the L. TheL. Divide the L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and 135. mon T denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L.3) (!)' = . by the denominator of each fraction.  of //* 2 .1^22 ' . 1). we have M^. we have the quotients (x 1). and (a 8).by 3 ^ A 2 ' .D. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.96 134.
137. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . a? 1 5 > ^* . 2aj ~ . common denominator 6. 5?.^1.oj o* or / . i. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. o o a. If the given fractions have different denominators. 22 a2 5a * . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 3. 2 ay IB.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . JL. 74). 18. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.. . 7i 2 ab* ".T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . j y 3. .. 8 i i.
3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).. ft). as 4 aft f.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . (a . D.. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . and adding. C. ^ is 2^JT) . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 ft 2).2 ' 2 _. the student should remember that parentheses are .7 . 2.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. e. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 = a(a . 4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft). (a ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. in the beginning. D. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .(a 2 6).aft) Ca2 . 2 ^. The L. T? Ex. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .ft) (a ft ft)~.3 . L.ft)(a .
18 v 19. 1 f q * 1 m m . 24.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 1 1 f w 16. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 6 c 3a 7. 23. a+6 a 6 2 14. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.5 18 ^4f25. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 2. 15. 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. j>0 i> 21. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. a 36 ++. + a "" 2 6 ' . + . 2L + 2a 1 17. A+2_3.
2 af1 32. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9 79 6 2 i. ! n. a 4 31. _ + a? ?/ + y. 42.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 1 34. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 41. a. a 30. af 1f /j. a ?^ 40. ic 1 + 1. 3a 9 +. 43. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .9. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.
. 101 mixed expression. T.FRACTIONS 139.  . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . . 1. .7 5a v Ex.6 + 4x 4 x2 .  4 or 3 2a. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. Reduce . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.
fractions to integral numbers. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.g. multiply the 142. Since  = a. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. we may extend any e. integer. (In order to cancel common factors. 2 a Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . F J Simplify . or. !.) Ex. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2.
53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 ..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 f 5 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14..6 12 d6 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 144. To divide an expression by a fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Divide Xn?/ . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . : a 41 ab * See page 272. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. 8 multiply the Ex.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 1. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.
' ' * ' ^5^+4 .FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _.5 ??i 80 50 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.afr 4. are fractional.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. a a2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Ex.6 s + 064._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .^c 2 2 . or both.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. l. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
. 10. c +6. 9. a m "" . . M.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . n a 8. of their denominators.a ^c c _^ a .y 32 . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. i. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 7i+~ 7. the answer is directly obtained. Simplify x }. 2. & . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Ex. JL. . x* 4. y X 4* 2 y 3. C. 6.
: . m^n* n L a 17. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . sy 18. 1 i 1 2 5 . 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. o 15.
5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .48. 1. each member is reduced to Ex.1. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).28 a = 5 x2 .l)(z + 3) = . each member is reduced to 1. x = 6. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.28 x + 42 = . 2z2a. 2 3. 148. 4 4)  x. = 6. If = 64. tions.9 x2 + 9. Transposing. = 6. these Ex. 2. 9x x Check.14 (a. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). M. If x 6. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). C.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Uniting. . a. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.42 + 9. Uniting. Bx 12 Qx. 108 .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 5(3 85 Check.8 x = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Clearing of fractions.f3# + C:E=6f7212. + 1) (a + 3) . of the denominator. 2x Transposing.
15. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . ^' 2. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 16. '  4 13. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 18. a/  5 a/ = 12.1 _77 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. 1 *> = 2. . +4 14. +1 = 5.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a. ^1 = 9.= 2.
 38 = 40. 31 31. and" the remaining one a polynomial. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 32 6 .11_4 x 149. J_. 27 . 26 26. 2^12 = 2 = 34. . . . 3x 35. y+3~2 29. 25.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 33. If two or more denominators are monomials. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. ?_=_._ _ . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 4a4l4* + l~. .
Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.. = 9. 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Transposing and uniting. 26 a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. .  5 = 20 x 45. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . each member is reduced to ^. the 1 5 L. 5x x : = 9. If a.2 3 ~  == 7a. a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. M. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Check. 60.2 42 9 43. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .1. Dividing. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 24 a. C.29 50712' 9 18 . 5# 10.
. Ex. = 6 a2 . Dividing. fr Reducing lowest terms.3 6 2 = a' . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. y. find a in terms of b and c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. =a 2 151. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. jr.2 62 2 ab. ax f x f.m bx 2 mn) x. It frequently occurs that the x. = 2 f b 2 . Uniting the Dividing.be.2 ac + 3 aft . Ex. 2. they are united by factoring. 4 ac 1. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = = 6 6c 7 6c. 5> a. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. f ~ 5c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.1.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). a.& . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Thus. = l^ 9 b 4 . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. If 3ac L= = a ? . Uniting.
.= c a Z> . 13. = vt.= H. 12. m a? x .a. . rate. in terms of other quantities. 15. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. solve for a. Ex. 3(* 8. 4. p the principal. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 34. The The i time.i l . a. 4. If s (wi n) x =px + q. denoting the interest. IIL n b + &o. solve for . r the number of $>. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 9. 3. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = rt. t. 1 f. 14. If s If 16. c 18. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. co?. . f ^o. + 3a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If ^^ = a 1 32. + xx = 1. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = 3 (6 a). 31. 5) is t =^. 30. f P =+!. s = Vt solve for v. . and n the number of years. 17. 29. 6. = 5. If * 33. 11. q solve for/. c. _ 2. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 8 4 #. iw 21. 10. ^ ax a^ 26. * Solve the same equation for^). mx = n. 2 solve for y a.= n.
180. . 1. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 12. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.. 2 3 . 2. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.20 C. Ex. Ex. x Or Uniting. 100 C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Multiplying by Dividing. = 16^. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over. A would do each day ^ and B j. then = 2 TT#. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.114 35.. Find R in terms of C and TT. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. is 36.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days. 32 x = ." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. the rate of the express train. Clearing. 3. = 100 + 4 x. in Then Therefore. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 4x = 80. Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 180 Transposing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. and the statement.
 Find their present ages. make 21. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. a man had How much money had he at first? . is oO. is equal 7. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. ex What 5. by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and of the father's age. money and $10. and 9 feet above water. 3. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. to his daughand the remainder. and J of the greater Find the numbers. Find A's 8. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. of his present age. to his son. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. length in the ground. by 6. How did the much money man leave ? 11. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. which was $4000.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and one half the greater Find the numbers. fifth Two numbers differ 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. ceeds the smaller by 4.
what is the rate of the express train? 152. How much money $500? 4%. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. ^ at 5%. Ex. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. 152. 2. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. investments. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and it B in 6 days. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) 22.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and B in 4 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. A has invested capital at more 4%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. . A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. air. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 3. after rate of the latter ? 15. 1. what is the 14. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13.
and n = 3. Ex. therefore.g. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. 3. 2. A in 6.118 153. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m .414. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. is 57. m and n. B in 30. is 42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. The problem to be solved. A in 6. if B in 3 days. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. To and find the numerical answer.= . and apply the method of 170. . e. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 12. . 26. 25. Hence. A in 4.009 918. B in 5. Then ft i. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. B in 16.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. they can both do in 2 days.e. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.
and the rate of the second are. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. : (c) 64 miles. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 29. meet. The one: 31. the second at the apart. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 3 miles per hour. 34. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 2 miles per hour. respectively.721. 4J miles per hour. (d) 1. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.001. the rate of the first. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. . the area would be increased by 19 square feet. is ?n . last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (c) 16. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. squares 30. Find the side of the square. 2 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. if m and n are. 33. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. same hour from two towns. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 149. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. is (a) 51. 5 miles per hour.000. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number.
term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 6 12 = .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. : : 155. . In the ratio a : ft. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. " a Thus. 1. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The first 156. Simplify the ratio 21 3.g. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Ex. b.5. the denominator The the 157. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the antecedent. 158. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. b. E. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. etc. is numerator of any fraction consequent." we may write a : b = 6. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. b is the consequent. antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the symbol being a sign of division.
61 : ratios 72:18. 62:16. 9. b. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 16a2 :24a&. 17. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 159. 3 8. J:l. : 1. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and c is the third proportional to a and . Simplify the following ratios 7. 8^ hours. 10. 16. 3:4. b and c the means. two  ratios. 4. a and d are the extremes. 12. 4:5f : 5. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 7:4 T T 4 . 11. : ay . The last first three. equal 2.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. and c. 3. 27 06: 18 a6. Transform the following unity 15. 6. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 7f:6J. In the proportion a b : = b : c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 5 f hours : 2. $24: $8. proportional between a and c. 18. extremes. 1. terms. b is the mean b.
ccm. In any proportion product of the extremes. !. of iron weigh .__(163. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 2 165. Hence the number of men required to do some work. i. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.122 162. : : directly proportional may say. ad = be. 163. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.e.) b = Vac. are : : : inversely proportional. of iron weigh 45 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams. 6 ccm. 3 4. The mean proportional of their product. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the time necessary to do it. If (Converse of nq. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. q~~ n . 164. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Clearing of fractions. pro portional. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.) mn = pq.30 grams. : c. " we " NOTE.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. and the other pair the extremes. of a proportion. briefly. then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.
) d 167. hence the proportion true.) (Called Alternation. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. 2. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 166. = 35 . ad = be. a III.) = f f = 3 J. + b:b = c + d:d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. is 4$ = 35. 1. d d. V. . (Frequently called Inversion.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a:c=b:d. (Division. 12x Hence a? = 42. bd bd. Or IV.PATIO Ex. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) II. then =d c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. ad ( 163. (Composition. is Ex. I. if 6 : 7. (163.
= 20:7. : x. Simplify the following proportions. = 180:125. mx tin Apply composition and division.!=!*. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. V. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 120:42 2 2 7. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. the consequents by 7. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 2:x.124 IT. . 6 =4 : x. 5 5. 4. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. IV. Or III.e.g. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 7:2f 3J. x = 2. 5. 10. Apply composition. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 2:3. 2. i. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. E. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. . : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 12 5ft. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 9.
Find the mean proportional 30. if : 40. 28. 29. ra. f. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 47. rap. Find the third proportional 24. w. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.x: 6:5 a : x. 2. ratio of y. 21. a?:15 15. : a2 . 2 3 = y #. 16 and 28. 13. to: = 35:*. 39. 20. + fyx = cy. mx = ny. = l^:18. 5= 18 a? : a?. ra 2 . 25.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 16. 3t. 1. 6. 03:a?=135:20. x:5 = y:2. 7iy = 2:x. 18. 46. (a : : 45. a. 43. Find the 37. 112:42 = 10:a. 44. 31. 2= 5 x x.8:1. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 4. 50. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 23.:ff. : . .  32. ra + landra 1. 12. 6 x = y. and 2/.j>. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 3. rag. a 2 and ab. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. x m = y n. 42. 51. 2. 27. terra 2:3 = 4. to : a and 1. : 53. b. 3. 22. 34. 14. 26. = 2 + x: x. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. = 3 43 + x. 17. 6x = 7y. 38. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 52. 4 and 16. 2 a and 18 a. = 5 x 12. 5. = 15o. 14 and 21. 33. 1 and a. 35.. to : 9 and 12. 41. 9 x = 2 y. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36.
othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 57. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the time necessary for it. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.126 54. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the speed of the train. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the rectangle. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. A line 7^. 56. the area of the larger? the same. and the : total cost. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. what 58. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii.
it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. Then Hence BG = 5 x. so that Find^K7and BO. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. produced to a point C. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). AB = 2 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 18 x = 108. 4 inches long. x = 6. . is A line AB. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. x=2. as 11 Let then : 1. 2.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. : Ex. 2 x Or = 4. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. = the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.000 168.
and 15 inches. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 2.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 11. 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How many 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 6. Gunmetal tin.000 square miles. How The long are the parts ? 15. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 14. How many gen. find the number of square miles of land and of water.000. What are the parts ? 5. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 13. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 12. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 3. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. and c inches. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.) . : 197. : 4. 9.
the equations have the two values of y must be equal. The root of (4) if K 129 .e.y=. x = 1. there is only one solution. y = 1. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. etc. is x = 7. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. if . 2 y = . Hence. =. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. such as + = 10. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. a? (1) then I. expressing a y. values of x and y.L x If If = 0. However. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.
By By Addition or Subtraction. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. y I 171. The first set of equations is also called consistent.X. to The two methods I. cannot be reduced to the same form. same relation. for they express the x f y 10. 6x . and 3 x + 3 y =. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 3. of elimination most frequently used II. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 26 y = 60.3 y = 80. viz. E. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . y = 2.26. the last set inconsistent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. are simultaneous equations. unknown quantity. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 174. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 4y .130 170. Therefore. Substitution.24. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 21 y . x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. = . 172. ~ 50.
x = 10. 64 x = 040. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Transposing. 8 2. = 235. 25 x . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. x = 10. 10 . 37. 3y = 3. are like. subtract the equations.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. + 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 60 . whose coefficients In general.3 1 = 47. 5 13 .14 =8. add the equations.3 y = 47.2 = 6. y = 2. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. y = 1. Therefore Check. Check.
I ~ y~~> 22. x 11. f 3X 7x 14. = 41. 9 1 r 20. [2o. ] ^ .f2/ ' = 50. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. _. I i 3 a.3. 13.4. ' 12.9 *. I oj 5y = 17. = 24. O t K 8. = 6. 7 ' 1fi fl .3. + 2/ 17. v ^ = ll. * + 3 y = 50. I . 13 61 l7a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. . 19< I a. f 3# ?/ = 0. J I y = 1U.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. i 3.v 23.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.5 y = 2.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 3. . = 4#8. 8. and solve the resulting equation. = 2y + 10. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 2. = 13. x ) ^"" 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 60.
4* + 3y = 19. 7x_2y=3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (7) (7) (8) . .3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3 (1) Ex. simplified before elimination is possible. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . \ \6(a. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. From 9 = 36. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 2 y = . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 29 x = 29. x = l. (4).6)7(y7)==18. 21z6y=9. 3. however. + 212y4 = 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. Substituting in (6) . 7 y = 6.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3.
1) + 5(6 y . +y 2 . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 14. yM a. a. 12.f2 2. = 3. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4 11. 10. . .1) = 121. J 9. 10 2a?5 17. 16. .
?~y . 180.Q ^ 4 21. 22. * ((* (( . but some expressions involving x.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.#. 3x\" 1 23 24. . f y . {. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . <X + 20. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. e. and y.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. can also be solved Examples method. y 1. Therefore y=4. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. however.4 x = 4 xy. of this type. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . x 2x(2). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). (2) (3) a. etc. 1. Clearing of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 4. 2* * x 2. 15 y + 8 x .3 xy. . 33 = 11 x. x 3. y. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) .
x y 331 9. x y 5.= 5. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 253 7. . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 21 9 . n. Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x 8.= o 6. = en. 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6. 1. y MOi y a.
d.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. . 6. f 5. apan cm. . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. Dividing. ny = fy/ I sc 1. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. From the same equations find s in terms of a.W. W . .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. and I if 13. and I. s in 11.y = = 9a + 46. w. x f my = 1. fax f = l. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . ap. a Find a and terms of n. Uniting. x a. 14. bmy bm}y ap cm. ax + by = 2 a&. x 12.
eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. = 30. 3y = Hence Check.16. 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). by 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (4) (5). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.by 2.1+4.3 = 8.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. l. To solve equations containing By tions.lf> z . f 3y 12 =s 8.15z=12 Adding. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 20.8 = 1.3=4.25. 1.13. 4.2 + 3. 182. etc. 8 x . = 3. 6. (8) 2. Ex. 3. 1. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.2 + 4. 3.12 y + 6 z = . ties are Similarly. x + 12 y . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. . y =* 2. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.
4 = 42. == 6. 7. 2z = 40. 2 4. a? + 709 = 26. 2 . 15 2 = 45. ~6?/ 5. 12. 10. 8. 49. 14. + y f z = 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. k 2/ f 2 x a. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? 11. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. x 13.
3 y + . . 22. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.. 19. ^ = 2. = 8*. 16. 27. (3 _. 84 21. =s 20.2 a. 1510 4 17.42 = 2. = 5. 4. ?/ 3x = 0. 23. . .6 2. 60. ? = llz.
Ex. and if 396 be added to the number. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. . 2 = 1(1+6). + 396 = 521. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. y * z 30.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1 = 2. symbols: x + y +z 8. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. +2+ 6 = 8. however. 1 digit in the tens place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Find the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. + z = 2p. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. . M=i. = l. Check. the number. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. # 4. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. x : z =1 : 2. z + x = 2 n. = 2 m. ( 99.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. either directly or implied. 1.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . y 31. and to express In complex examples. Obviously of the other . and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 2 = 6.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . Or (4)2x(3). who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. . B. 5_ _4_ A. the distance traveled by A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. = the fraction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Find the fraction. 2. y = 3. direction. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Ex. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. we obtain. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator.144 Ex. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. x 3 = 24. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x y = the = the x denominator . = Hence the fraction is f. = 8. From (3) Hence xy Check. 4 x = 24. increased by one. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 6 x 4 = 24. 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3. C. x 3x4y = 12.
tion ? 8. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. ? What 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the number (See Ex. . and the numerator increased by 4. fraction is reduced to \. it is reduced to J. 183. 2. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction is reduced fraction. and its denomi nator diminished by one. the last two digits are interchanged. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 27 is 10. the Find the fraction.) added to a number of two digits. added to the numerator of a fraction.}. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the fraction. number by the first 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and the fourth 3. Find the number. If the denominator be doubled. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. both terms. the value of the fraction is fa. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the fraction equals . to the number the digits will be interchanged. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the numbers. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 7. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. part of their difference equals 4. the digits will be interchanged. 5. 6. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 1.
Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and money and 17. respectively ? 16. partly at 5 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Find the rates of interest. 13. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find their present ages. How 6 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. . bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 14. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.grams. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. A sum of $10. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.000 is partly invested at 6%. and 4 %. A man invested $750. the rate of interest? 18. and in 5 years to $1125. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. 12. in 8 years to $8500. now. 19. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 5 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. and partly at 4 %.
How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. $ 50 for each cow. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. c. 25. are taken so ABC. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. B find angles a. and angle BCA = 70. and sheep. and $15 for each sheep. respectively. E. and F '(see diagram). 23. the three sides of a triangle E. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. andCL4 = 8. On /). and angle e angle/. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. receiving $ 100 for each horse. . points. is the center of the circum scribed circle. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and e. 1 NOTE. Find their rates of walking. cows. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. ED = BE. BC = 7 inches. and AC = 5 inches. angle c = angle d. and GE = CF. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. what is that = OF. and F. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. but if A would double his pace. . A farmer sold a number of horses. BD = HE. three AD = AF. An C touch ing the sides in D. triangle Tf AD.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. the length of NOTE. and F. BC=7. then AD = AF. 24. and their difference by GO . and CE If AB = G inches. BE. for $ 740.
and r or its equal OA is . Thus the points A. (7.. the ordinate by ?/. PM. and point the origin. is The point whose abscissa is a. The of Coordinates. YY' theyaxis. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . is the abscissa. and PJ/_L XX'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). 3). jr. or its equal OM. ?/. PN. 186. (3. . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. B. PN are given. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. It' Location of a point. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. (2. and PN _L YY'. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate of point P.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (2. 2). first 3).
6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4.(!. Graphs. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (0. (3. (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 3). .1). 4) from the origin ? 7. Plot the points (6. (See diagram on page 151. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 6. 2). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Plot the points : (0. Plot the points: (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 2. (1. 0). 12. (5. What is the locus of (a?. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (0. 0). .4). (4. !). (4.) EXERCISE 1. 3). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points: (4. 0). 71 2).e. i.and(l. 1). 11. and measure their distance. whose coordinates are given NOTE.3). 8. (2. (4.2). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4). 3). 4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 1). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 0). (4. 4) and (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 2). 2J).
we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 1.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. or the curved line the temperature. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. may be found on Jan. . C. Thus the first table produces 12 points. B. D. from January 1 to December 1.. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . ure the ordinate of F. By representing of points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. we meas1 . 15. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 10 . however. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 188. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.
(b) July 15. the matics. (c) January 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (d) November 20. the graph is applied. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the merchant.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. etc. as the prices and production of commodities. Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. and to deduce general laws therefrom. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. uses them. the rise and fall of wages. The engineer. .
15. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When the average temperature below C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 to Oct. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. ?  3.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ? 9.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.152 2. on 1 to the average. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. is 10. (d) 9 0.. During what months above 18 C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (1) 10 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1? 11 0.. (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.
transformation of meters into yards. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 20. Draw a graph for the 23. Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards. NOTE.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. One meter equals 1. 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
) T circumferences of 25. 3. if he sells 0. x 7 to 9.50. the daily average expenses for rent. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 190.. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. gas. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189..50. the value of a of this quantity will change. A 10 wheels a day. 2 . to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. then C irJl. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . binding. .) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 1 to 1200 copies. books from for printing. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.inch. and $. represent his daily gain (or loss). etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 4.5 grams. etc. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. to 27. x* x 19. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.g. e. 3.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. amount to $8. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 29. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if each copy sells for $1. 28. 9. function If the value of a quantity changes. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.154 24. 26.
J). 9). 9). 1 the points (3. Ex.1). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 3 (0. If a more exact diagram is required. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . and join the points in order. 4). (2. 3 50. (1. etc. is supposed to change.e. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. x a variable. . be also represented by a graph. it is In the example of the preceding article. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.g. however. and (3. construct '. while 7 is a constant.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Graph of a function. a*. Draw the graph of x2 f. may. may . as 1. (1^. ( 2.1). 2. 2 (1. to x = 4. The values of func192.0). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. for x=l. 2). 4). plot points which lie between those constructed above. E. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . Q.2 x may 4 from x = 4.
y = 6. rf 71 . r */ +* 01 . and join(0.. (2. straight line produces the required graph. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 5). (4. (3.2 x .. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 2.) For brevity. etc. 1). j/=3. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Thus 4x + 7. = 4.4). and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. 7 . 4).20). = 0. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Ex. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. Thus in the above example. 4J. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 2 4 and if y = x f. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. as y. .. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 194.
2J. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . + 4. 12. 9. 6 fa. 2 a. 18. (If) Va25. 1J. a?. a ar. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. . 5. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 15. x+1. 2x + 3x a?. xz + x. The values of a*. 6. 11. 1J. ?/ a. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (C ) (2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. (7i) (c) 23. 2. y = 2x = 4. 1J. if"a. = The values of a*. l. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. i. The smallest value of the function.or. (ft) (_ 1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. the function. 3 a 8. if the function equals zero. a? 1. if y = 2. 2 or 2 20. 14. 16. 1.5)2. 4 a. from x VlO'S". (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2 a. = 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a? 2 4.e. Jar .5)2. 3. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 19.8)'. . (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 2J. 2 2 a. a* 13. 8. fa 17. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. The values of a?. 2. 21. 1 8 10. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 7. xl.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. J. 4a? I. 22. 2 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. if a. 23x.
24.158 24. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. 32 F. Represent 26. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. then y = . the abscissas of 3. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. that graph with the o>axis.24 or x = P and Q.where x c is a constant. then cXj where c is a constant. i. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. Therefore x = 1.e. Show any convenient number). 14 F.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.. 25. 9 F.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 1 C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. C. y= formula graphically.
(0. (a) x2 = 0. 3. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 10.7 2 a 5 = 0. 4. . draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. is called a quadratic equation. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a2 2a. crosssection paper is used. 8. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. viz. or 5 2. 197. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 6. 2 and 1. Such equations in general have two roots. 11. (a) (6) 9. 12. 6. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 14. = 0.f 9 = 0. 13. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. + + = where a. 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 7.
Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. == 2. solve for ?/. (f . NOTE. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. ?/ =4 AB. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). = 0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. If x = 0.e. locate points (0. first degree. Ex. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. T . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. and join the required graph. X'2 Locating the points (2. i. y = l. Hence if if x x  2. y= A and construct x (  graphically. .2 y ~ 2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . because their graphs are straight lines. ?/.1. y y 2. 3x _ 4 . Hence. Hence we may join (0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y.2. Ex. 1) and 0). 199. 0). produces the 7* required locus. 2). if y = is 0. fc = 3. 4) and (2. and joining by a straight line. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.
57. AB y = . AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). viz. 202. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and CD. equation x= By measuring 3. we obtain the roots. parallel have only one point of intersection. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 201. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. (2) . Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.15. P. 3. To find the roots of the system.1=0. linear equations have only one pair of roots. Graphical solution of a linear system. 203.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.
0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 1.g. Solving (1) for y. 2. (2.9. 2. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).5.0). and joining by a straight line. 5. if x equals respectively 0.5.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. Locating two points of equation (2). etc. P graphs meet in two and $. = 0. 4. 5. 3. 1. (1) (2) C. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 3. The equations 2 4 = 0. V25 5. y equals 3. the point we obtain Ex. 3). There can be no point of and hence no roots. .y~ Therefore.0. and . and + 3). 3x 2 y = 6. 4.e.  4. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 0) and (0. 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Locating the points (5. 4. In general. 2 equation x 3). AB the locus of (1). they are inconsistent. Measuring the coordinates of P. 3. (4. i.. 4. (4. the graph of points roots. we of the + y* = 25. Inconsistent equations. intersection. x2 . 4. 4. e. Using the method of the preceding para. 4.
7. 16 22. 19. 2x 3?/=6. y 2 4. vice versa. Draw system. x~y=0. 8. 4. 5. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 9. a. and. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and solve each If there are no solutions. a+r/=6. \ 2x + 3^ . y=x + 5. 2. y = 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 17.. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. if possible. 6. state reasons. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 10. 16 23. y= a2 2x y6. the graphs of the following systems. '163 Dependent equations. 20. .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . CUBES. 28. 4 a = 3(6 . 26. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.y). 30. 3 31.164 24.8. TABLE OF SQUARES. 29 .14 y = . 25. AND SQUARE HOOTS .
( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . is may be by 207. 52. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 2. follows that 3. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.a2 . ( a) is positive. ^4/? it According to 50. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . involution repeated multiplication. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. According to 1. . a special kind of product. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. fa. 3 f a = f a = +. 8. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Law of Signs. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. etc. a = a3 . on to in factors 4.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 2.faa a a a Obviously 1.
16. 4. 76 : (>y. .6) = a . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 3 2 2 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 24.166 To find To To power. (a ) 2 4  3. 2. (a ) 2 5 . 5.6 (a 8 8 . 4 /2mV. V V/ 13. (277171 )*. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. a product to a given power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 15. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (^^) 2 . 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. the required power. 2 11 (afc ) . amVy) 3 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . (2ar). 210. raise a fraction to a power.
2. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 2 . (3 x . 6.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 23. frequently called ex. 18. 8 (a??/) 3 .y . 8. (3 (l I) 2 8 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 3. (5 (1 a) 3 . 3 8 . (3af26) 8 . . 5. (afl) . pansions. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 21. 2. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 3 .y) = (3 y?y . 4. Ex. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 1. = s= (2s) 8 a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. nent of the binomial. 1 f 3 2 3 . +5a) 22. . 15. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (a + &)8 . + 4aj) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .INVOLUTION Ex. a. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 13. are obtained by multiplication.6 2 8 ft) . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (aj7) . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . An 1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. + a 2 a. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 9. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. etc. 7.3 y. The higher powers of binomials. 16. 12.) 14. 211. : a 20.
mn 5 2 5 ) . 10. (m 5 I) 2 22. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 4 (1for) 5 . . (mnp 5 I) 5 .2. and the powers negative. 78 s . Ex. Ex. 18.a) 3 19.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (w 4 ?i) 4 . is the coefficient of the next term.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 25. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 14. 5. 21. 13. 24. 9. (tff1) (cfd) . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 8. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 1. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (a~^) 5 . 15. 4 . . (la&) 4 12. (m fl) 2 20. 17. (?/i~w) : 16. (p + q) 4 * 7. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. ( &) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 3. (mJ) 4 11. 23. 2. 5. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (?>i?i f c)*. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . The minus. (2 4. 4.168 3. (af 5) .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Ex. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (l 8 . . (m 2 + n) 8 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. .216 a^ 4. (2 a 4 . 6. (1 + 4 ?/) . 3.
215. 2. \/"^27=3. V \/P 214. etc. V9 = + 3. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. and all other numbers are. called real numbers. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 109 . for distinction. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. tity .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. numbers. or x &4 . and ( v/o* = a. = x means = 6. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. which can be simplified no further. 4 4 . (_3) = 27. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. a) 4 = a4 . 1. Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or y ~ 3.
5. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .200 . 3. 6. 62 = V2* .1.(. 7.9 = 136. Ex 5 a" . fy 5 3 . 7 . V5 v/2 7 2. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.201) = 2. v/^i2 = a*. To extract a root of a fraction. V?. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.lL. 10. V25 9 16. 2 . = V26TIT81 = 53.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 2. \/2 4 9 . Ex. index. 9. 6.  100 a 2 . Ex. 3 33 53 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . . . 6 7 = 030. 7 . V36 9 4. = 19472. Ex. 7. 4 v. v/2^. To extract the root of a power. 79 2 v/2 5 . . = 199 + (_ 198) . 8. 82 . 3/0** = am . 9. 8. 2. for (a")" a = a mn 3. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. EXERCISE 1. Ex. Ex. 3i .125. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .64 5 4 . extract the and denominator.4. roots of the numerator \/18 .
33.) by inspection.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2 . V9216. a* 4 8 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 30.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 2.3. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . Ex. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .3 y2) ( vV . V20 . ^40^4. 3.6 tfif + 9 y = O . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 29. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.EVOLUTION 171 28. a f2 l 2 + l.75./). In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 32. 1. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 116. 6.4/. 31.98. 5. V8. 34. 45 V5184. Find the square root of a2 .
172 7. 12.e. 15. The term a' first 2 .2 ac . 10. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 14. however. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . + 6 + 4a&. and b. 11. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2ab . . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 8 .72 aW + 81 & 4 . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. and b (2 a f b). term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.b 2 2 to its square. 2 . mV14m??2)f 49. a f. i.2 &c. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ab + b . a\b is the root if In most cases. 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square.> 13. #2 a2  16. let us consider the relation of a f.
EVOLUTION Ex. by division we term of the root. and so forth. Explanation.24 afy* f 9 tf. The square . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 1. . . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 8 a 2 2. 219. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 1. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. the first term of the answer. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 2. 8 /. 6 a. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . is As there is no remainder. First complete divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. As there is no remainder. . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 10 a 4 8 a. Ex. and consider Hence the their sum one term. First trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Second trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . */'' . 8 a 2 . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . of x. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.
a 6 x*y 2 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 1 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 6 11. 17.20 o 4. 12.25 x 4 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 2 4. 16x6 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 24. 18.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 19. 9. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81. . 20. 729 4.16.V430^425^ 4m 4. 16.42 a*& 4. 36it. l 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 4 .40 a 22 . 15.73 a8 .9. 8.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 10. 5.73a4 440^436^460^.12m 5 4. 3. 5 4 16 4 iK .25. 6. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. > 7. a? 2 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.24 or . x 6 4 4 0^4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.12 m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.4 x 4. 436^?/469a.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .37 a ^ . 25 m 20 w + 34 m .6 .10 x2 4. 14.
and the first remainder is. Ex. The is trial divisor = 160. Find the square root of 7744. Ex. first . etc. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the square root of the greatest square in units. and the complete divisor 168.000 is 1000.000. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. 1. a 2 = 6400. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.1344.000 is 100. Find the square root of 524. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the square root of 7744 equals 88. of 1. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . two figures. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.. = 80. the first of which is 8. of 10. etc. the first of which is 4.EVOLUTION 220. of a number between 100 and 10. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.176.000. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 2. which may contain one or two). Therefore 6 = 8.
1 are Ex.10.7 to three decimal places. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '. Find the square root of 6/.70 6. annex a cipher. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 3. in . The groups of 16724. 12. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.GO'61.1T6 221.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.
36. J. 39. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 32.22. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.4 square when R = radius and 11. T\. 13. 30. 31. whose area equals 48. 35. = 3.) 40.01.58 square 38. 34. feet.1410. feet. 5. . Find the mean proportional between 2 and .53. 1.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. JT . 33.
1. Transposing. Extracting the square root of each member.g. is 12. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . or affected. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 6#2 = x* 24. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x = + 2 or x =2. 226. or equation of the second degree. is A quadratic equation. but no higher power e. 2. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 7^ + 5. 225. 2)* + 5 = 33. = 4. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Ex. 224. complete. .. x 2 7. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 6 y2 = 17. or incomplete. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 2 ic = a. Dividing. The 7 equation. This answer Check. A pure.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.
25. ' =: y? b* b . 2. 15^5 = 6. : 83 2. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ax Transposing and combining. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). o. 5. 16^393 = 7. 19 + 9 = 5500.2. 2 4fc 5' 18. 7 = 162. 3. (a? 9. 4.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4 ax. Solve 179 . .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. or Therefore. 10. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 2 a. . 8.
and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and they con tain together 30G square feet.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and their product : 150. Find the side of each field. 24. 2 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. If a 2 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If 22 = ~^. solve for d. : 6.b 2 If s If =c . find a in terms of 6 . 108. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 2. Find the side of each field. EXERCISE 1. 26. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. is one of _____ b The side right angle. Find is the number. 228. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 2 : 3. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 22 a. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 25. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. A right triangle is a triangle. 28. 29. solve for r.) of their squares 5. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. solve for v. 2 . 4. . then Since such a triangle tangle. 3. 2a f 1 23. may be considered one half of a rec square units. is 5(5. . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. r. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If G=m m g . Find the numbers. 27. ' 4.
The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the sides. sides. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The area $ /S of a circle 2 . is and the other two sides are equal. add () Hence 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 8. 2m. 4. . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area : sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest. . radii are as 3 14. Find the unknown sides and the area. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . (b) 44 square feet. x* 7 x= 10. and the two smaller 11. of a right triangle Find these sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. we have of or m = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Method of completing the square. its surface (Assume ir = 2 .) 13. and the third side is 15 inches. and the other two sides are as 3 4.2 7 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Solve Transposing. J = 12. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 24. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.7 x f 10 = 0. To find this term. 9. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the radii. Find these 10. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.
Ex. Uniting.1. = 6. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. or J. Transposing. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.  \. Hence Therefore Check. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.. 62 x 5 = f. (*~8) a = at . Extracting square roots. J. or x = 2.e. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Therefore.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.x(l = . Ex. = \ # = ff.2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 230. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 2  .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 7 5 + 10 = 0. adding member). Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. . a Clearing of fractions. Simplifying.2 a2 . Transposing. = . = x\ = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a. 2 a* a.a.
1+2?= "*"   Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. x .
x la 48. = 12. article. =0. =8 r/io?. ao. Solution by formula. 2x 3 4. \bx\. and c in the general answer. . any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a.c = 0. 231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .
9. 2. 20. V^tT)* . b =  + 20 == = 0. 6. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 16. c = 5. 21.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 3. 2 a. 8. 2 o. 12. TIO. ?i 2 . 6 Ex. 19. c p. 18. Reducing to general form. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 2 a? = 44 x . 5 x2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 86 + 2 = 0. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 4. 6 . = 12 . = 64120?. 13. 26. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.. 17. 15. 14.25 x. 11. 6^+5^ 56. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).  . 6. 2. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 1. a. 2or } 5o. 7.4 4 5 . 10.
Transposing. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 25. factors Now. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.x.2. 233. Bx 1 1. transposing terms to one member. x(x <2 . Solution by factoring. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 23. 27 x== 42a. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2S3x 1 2 . }. 1. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 5 = 0. any degree. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 26. Factoring. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. and 6. 24. member can be Ex. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.4) = . = 0. = 0. 3x?+x = 7. ar>8o. a=:i^^.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. x2 = 1 . Clearing for fractions. if either of the uct is zero. or # 5 is zero. 5) = 0.5) =0. 0. = 14.5 Solving (1) and (2). orz roots. = 0. . (5 a? !)(. Eesolving into factors.
5 = 0. for a: . (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. + 8=s: 7. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.:=0. 0(02) = 7(02). Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3) Factoring. 4. 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. x2 f 2 x . and the equation thus formed be solved. aj( 15. 9. : 87 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). O roots are 2. 7. 8. Therefore x =3 = 2. E. + 100. we 9 obtain x 4. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4)(z3) = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.(. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.e. 2o3 f9a. 14. 3. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. (aj4)(a. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. Or Hence the 234. Ex. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.3)(x + 3 3. + 6)=0. a* 10a=24. 5. 12.= 24. 0^ ar> 11. 3 or 2 a. is 5) = 0.24 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 16. 4or + 18a f 8a. a?.g. The equation I. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 6. 3. + 10 a = 24. evidently (x Or 4)(x .6)) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 3) = 0. 13.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 2. } 2 2 (5 . a?10a=:24.
(2a? 3) (a 24. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 19. a 2 =(x a)b. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 20. 27. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 18. 23. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 22. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a).188 17. ara + ft + c*. uz + u 21. '3a!J  . 25.
G.9. 8.3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 58. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. number by 10. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 1. 6. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Find the numbers. 56. 7.0. 54.1. 2. feet. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. 0. 57. Find the sides.3. : 3. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. .0. 3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 1. 52. 2. The difference of . and the difference Find the numbers. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 4. 2. and whose sum is is 36.3. 2. EXERCISE 1. 3. and whose product 9. Find the number. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. and consequently many prob 235. of their reciprocals is 4. 55. 5. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. The 11. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.2. Find the number.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. and equals 190 square inches. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. two numbers is 4. 5.
and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 19. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for 21. watch for $ 24. Find the rate of the train.190 12. . 15. 13. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. dollars. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. he would have received two horses more for the same money.10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. sold a horse for $144. If he each horse ? . Two vessels. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. as the 16. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and Find the sides of the rectangle. 14. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 17. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. ABCD. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet.
A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. so that the rectangle. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. of the area of the basin.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. or x = \/l = 1. as 0. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. contains B 78 square inches. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 27. 1. a point taken. 24. Ex. . How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 23 inches long.) 25. the two men can do it in 3 days.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. ^3^ = 7. is On the prolongation of a line AC. (tf. By formula. Find and CB. and working together. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. how wide is the walk ? 23. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 237. constructed with and CB as sides. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
T 2 2 . 18. a? 15 1=2*. a4 5o. y8)=0. Hence Le. a 21or=100. Solving. T 17. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 a. or y = 8. 436 3. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 9.192 238. 8. 2 h9:=0. = 13. 4 6. 10. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 : 89 10a. aV+9o 4 =0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 7. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 19. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4. 16. 12. >. 4 8 = 2 a* 2.2 =4. = 1. 6.)+72=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 2.
2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . b 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . it 2a follows 2 : 2. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 240. 1. The discriminant =(.5) = 04. a perfect square.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.12 x + 9 = 0. and equal. Ex. ( 2a Hence 1.2) 2 4 3 (. 3. the roots are equal. rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.2 z . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are unequal. the roots are imaginary.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Hence the roots are real. the roots are real. the roots are rational. 2.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .f> = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients. negative. 241. rational. the roots are irrational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. is 4ac not zero.bx 4. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. c the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. . and unequal. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ex.
(b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 4. f 2 E. 18. 2 a. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2 : 3. 21.g. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 12. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. + 18 2 8. = 0. + 2a. 23. 9a3 = 0. = 5x. 12~x = x 2 . their product isf. o. tfmx+p^Q. + 2a15 = 0. = 0.. 2. = Q. ^12. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. x2 7 10. 6. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. + 12 2  . 3a. 5aj 9.19 # 20. 22. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 17. lla. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 15. 2a 4z5 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 24. : a 2 . 60 2 = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2 7. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 14.
m IV. no Fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. Then the law of involution. while the second of the first. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. We assume. = a"" < . and . must be *The symbol smaller than. ~ a m f." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. provided w > n. a m a" = a m+t1 . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . It is. (a m ) w . however. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. II. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. > m therefore. (ab) . for all values 1 of m and n.* III. hence. 244. that a an = a m+n .a" = a m n mn . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. such as 2*.
30. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.g. 31. 3*. 4~ . disappear. a . 25. 24. ml. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 29. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . '&M A 27. = a. 0?=^. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 28. m$. e. etc. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. (xy$. a?*. (bed)*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. fractional. a\ 26. 245. 23. as. n 2 a. laws. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. Assuming these two 8*. a*. or zero exponent equal x. at. .196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.
7z* Find the values of 47. = 2. e. v/o&cT 34. 38. If. 27* = 3. equal to unity. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 5 a* = 10. : 197 33. the base is zero. e. 37. 46. 42.g. 3* = 27. 50. ty?.g. \/xy \/m. a . 43. a* * = 3. 35. 48. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. = 2. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 2' 4* = 4. v'mT 36. 45. 41. 246.\/n. Solve the following equations 39. however. 44. hence is . a * a2 Or a=l. = 49. Vo5 . Let a = a. 49. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a. 40. \fi?.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate.
in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. . cr n. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. consider the following equations. Let x= or". an x = a. Or a"# = l.198 247. by changing the sign of NOTE.2 = a2 .g. e. vice versa. 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. etc. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Multiplying both members by a". or the exponent.
c 32. 36. : mi m~^. 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . 27. 37. ^L. 22. 2 . 40. . 66 45. 25. 2m~i 43."* 38. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. a. m . a^ 41. 7~ l a 2b 2 . ^?2 y' 34. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. * 24. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : or 5 . 39. .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 3 a. rfS. 44. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 3 a? * 42.
10* Find the values 56. 59.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 49. z 5or*=10. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + A_. 55.81 f (a . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 250. Ex. 61.001.343)* + (. 48. = 5. 47. 53. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . . ar = i. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 1. z* = 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.(. + 1~* f 21 . = l. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.008)* + A.6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 58. = ^. (. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 17' 2 51. 52. 10* 5* = . of: 3ll4~* 60. 54.9*.1. = . 57. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .
__ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. NOTE. 7~ 6 . V5.$*. . 17.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 16. #* a. 3sVS. are performed. OA 20.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 6.4 .5. . remove the fractional exponents. 26.^/5^5. 27  28. 95 ^9i 5**. .7W. (d) If required.&. 6a.. 79 . Remove the negative exponents. 3 a. 72 . 4 x^. etc. 14.7*.$". 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 8 ' 9. 18.4 a8 . 6 *.&.5a. S'sS8.7i. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 3. 7~ 5 27  . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 13. Perform the operation indicated. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . a. ' 11. 16. 12. 7*. 23.3 aj" a. 7. &.6 *' 6 *25. 10. / 7fv 7. 4 5.
2.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 34. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.2 d . The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. s!/3. ^2. ^/IT. ^4. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V2. A/3. v/3. 40.10 V2 =  V2. 31. 38. ^3. \/7. 26. ^30. v/4. Arrange 35. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 32.2 V50.3\ . signs. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 2\ 3*. ^126. 4^/4. 33. V3. in order of magnitude : \/7. (i. V2. 36. \/5. ^5.2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^6. subtract surds. Simplify V~ . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 28. Ex. 29. V2. A/2. 3. 34. 30. Simplify V + 3 VlS.e. </20. v/3. To add or form. </2. I VJ + 3VT8 . V5. if dissimilar. VS. 5V2. Ex. connect them by proper 1. </3. + .2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 27. V3. ^2. 39. ^4. ^7. v^S. 37.
3. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4. V175V28+V634V7. + 3V835V2. 4V805V45. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 11. 14. 8VT8J2V32 7. 13. 6. 10. . V18+V32VT28+V2. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.J a6 V4 aft. 9. 8.3V20 + 6V5. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
3. 23. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex. Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 2. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 6*. y* = Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. and then multiplied. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 1. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.
10. 28 . 15. 6 V4 5. 3. 12. aVa. V3 V6. v/4. . fWa 17. 4. a?. (3 20. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 40. V3 Vl2. VTO. 40 10 30. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 37. v/18 v"3. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2aV8^. 6. (V2+V3+V4)V3. VlO V15. 21. \/3 \^). 34. 9. 2. 8. V42. 2 . 41. 19. + VB)(2V5). 39. (Va Va 36. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V2 V50. V20 V30. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 213 98 11. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 38. (2V3) 8 . 6. 18. 7. 27.^/2. 14. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm).VSS. Vll. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 25.
V3 . (3V52V3)(2V3V3). it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.y. 43. 49. 268. the quotient of the surds is If. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).214 42. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. E. 47. Ex. Ex. 51. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 46. Va v/a. 48. 44. a fraction. (2 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . is 1 2. . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). all monomial surds may be divided by method. 52. 53. 60.
/~ } Ex. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. arithTo find. 3. Evidently. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. The 2.by the usual arithmetical method. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. e. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.73205.g. is illustrated by Ex. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. however.RADICALS This method.57735. Divide VII by v7. . . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7. 1. we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations.
A. VffV?. 21. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8 JL. V8 12.7320. 7.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 23 . A. 14. . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. and Given V2 = 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V5 270. V3 = 1. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.2361. i. 271. 20. Vn V7 ' * 8. V48 25. Vll 212*.4142. . ^/H . V2 22 . 272. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.. V5 = 2. V3 24 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .
vffi^T _ .RADICALS Ex.= 18.2. . Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 3. 1. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . s Simplify a.1 xVtf a.Vs2 .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex. . V82 2V3 1fVS .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. J?_. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 6V7. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. Vo1 26. Given V2 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. By the use of fractional exponents . = V3 = 1.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.W3. find to _!_. 24. v 2V3 28. V5V7 18> ^SVg.218 6 . 19.5 3 = 125. : and V5 = 2. . V21 = 25 . four places of decimals 23 .4142. 27.2361.
4. viz. 2 12. 11. 2.RADICALS 219 274. V255 . 2. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. \/l6*. it to this form. 3 (V2~u)  7. the If. . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. According to G3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 9. Simplify Ex. 5. \/125" . V643 . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 1. v8f 2\/15. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. on the other hand. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.
^TT. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 12 and whose product is 20. 3. is 11.A/2. 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find V4 + VJ8. These Ex. The Hence ^11 . 2 \/18. and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.6 V2.2 \/20.6\/2 = ^9 .220 Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. Find Vll . Find Vl2 4. +2 Ex.
* 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. a. Ex. 277. are radical equations. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. +=.1. = xa + 4 x f 4. VT . member to 2. i. Dividing by Check. Before performing the involution.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. : 221 Vl32V22. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. V48 23. Radical equations are rationalized. 4x x = 2. . first involution. 19. Transposing and uniting. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 8. they are transto formed into rational equations. by raising both members equal powers.e. 5.V48 4 20. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. (2x xrf 1. 4. The value x =2 reduces each . r 22. Solve vVf!2a = 2. x2 = x f 2. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.
1) = 0. viz. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Factoring. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. . 4#f 4 = 9. Dividing by 24. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing and uniting. Squaring both members. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. one root. a. x = J. f 25 = 12. at . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. V4afT~l. Extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. they may be extraneous roots. Transposing. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Therefore CftecAr. 2. tion which has two roots. 278. a socalled extraneous root. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. the first member = V2. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 3. . viz. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. .222 Ex. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Transposing and uniting. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Therefore Check. V24~+~l = 0. It = 3 x . Ex. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Squaring both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.3.
or x *j.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Therefore. Squaring. (x x = 3. 223 x = 3. and to 5.47) = 0. ViTie 4 z2 . 2 Clearing of fractions. Factoring. both members reduce to 5. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. for it satisfies the equation . Hence there is only one root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. If If x 3 = 3. + 6~ieT~3 . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. . Solve the following equations : = G. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . NOTE. Check. viz. is x V. equation it is an extraneous root.RADICALS Hence x If a. \ does not satisfy the given.12 . Hence x = the only root. 4. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. x root of the preceding equation. = 3. Transposing.2 r. the right member = V2. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. .3) (2 x .
Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore . Solve af*. Ex.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
x Since both =9 or 1. Let 8 x f 40 . Vi 2 8a. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.*2a. Ex. = 0. members of the equation were squared. 2.f40= 5. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.8 x + 40 = 36. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 3 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.35 = 0. 5.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. + 40 = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 412a* = 16. = 7. . This can be seen without substituting. Q . o. 3. x =6 or 3. 45 14VJB = . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. y then x2 . 2. Substituting. 2_8z 440 = 49. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. _ 2 y .i~24 = 0. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2Va. x + Vx a? = 6. 4. some of the roots be extraneous.8 z40 = 7. = 26.
12. a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 4 V SB* 4 a. 15. +x .a 440 = 35. 20. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 16. 18. 2. 19.226 11. 14. 17. +3= 6. a^x2 5 2 13.f 18 = 24.
if Q was known. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. to x we # = 2 3. does not contain a?. 1. Hence. even if Q is unknown. 2.2 x 5 by x 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. a? R = x* . Ex. find the remainder when m. 227 . " Or.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). then (x 2)Q 0.bx? + ex2 4. E = ax + &z + m) Q." transposing. by dividing 3 x* f. 3 2 Ex. we make a? what the value of Q.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Without actual division.2 + 4. no matter If. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. could. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.360 = 244. If x* .4 a. = 2.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. ^ = 381+2. however. ax4 4. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. Without actual division.2 + 80 = 12.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.2) Q .
If the remainder is zero.228 282.8'= 0. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5 (4x . } 2 by a1. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. 8. hence (x divided by x 4.949.4(. of the division 3) is m in place of x.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . the divisor is a factor of the dividend. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . the remainder equals 8 2 x .g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. fora?. if 8 42  . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The Factor Theorem. 2 j 7. x m is factor of the expression. x* s 2 4. 3. 43 3 E.3)f 11 =. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.g. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + ^by x + b.8. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5. + 7 = 632. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 6.
m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. a? 19.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. or x 4. p 5^ + 8p 4. a 8a f 19 a 12. f 15 does not vanish. 20. 1.r6 = 0.12 = 0. a. 2 2. 8.49 = 0. 9. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a 2a + 4. & p*. 106 division. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.e. 15. factors of the absolute term. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. or 5 4 + 3^ . Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 11. are f 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 23. Factor a? 15. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 7 46 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 8. f 3. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + ttt15 = 0. + 27 + 27. oj 5x2 f3a. i. 1. 17. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 3. Resolve into factors 4. 2m 5m . ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. a 5x 6. 5. + 15. 24.9^ + 23^15. Let x = . is a factor. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 3 2 : 7. 25. Therefore x ( 1). _ . 6. a + 32. 2.1. 18. m f m n 14. 229 1. ^10^429^20=0. a^8^ + 19a.7 x + 15 = 0.7 + 16 . 21. The 5. f 5. .12.13m + 30 10. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.
: importance. 286." . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. ar +p= z6 e. x* f/ = (x +/)O . xn y n y n y n = 0.230 285. 1. Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. xn f.y n is divisible by x f ?/. if w is odd. By we obtain the other factors. For substituting y for x. 2 Ex. 2. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 .g. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. is odd. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n is even. It y is not divisible by 287.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.xy +/). actual division n. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.
28. preferable. x3 8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. 27. y 3 +8=0. 3.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 26. as 27=0.i mn f w 2). f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .= . a. however. Hence = (m Ex. leads 231 is The first method.
xy are given. of quadratics. however. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. & + 2 xy + = 25. * A I. x y.y4 is of the fifth degree. 4 xy = 16. If two of the quantities x f y. to equations of the fourth few cases. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 232 . xywe have 3. in general. (4) Hence. + 6 a?V . 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. = 6. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1).1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 290. can be solved by the methods degree. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Squaring Solve (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
b=3. 12. 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. = . EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. " "' "' { r 8. 233 y. 108 2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ^. but can be found. 3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7. x and xy are not given. ' 10. The arranged in pairs.g. r (" 1 = 876.
r^ 2 as ] f. 4 y = 20.~ y = 5. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . la. + 29 = 0. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 3. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 2 (1) From (1) we have.a. x " (3) 49 etc. Factoring. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 7 . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.?/ i = 6. aj = 2..o 18. 5.  . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. . one linear and ne quadratic. or JJ.i/ = r 13. A system of simultaneous equations. 6 "I 14.  f J. .20) = 0. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. Ex.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.  42 y + Transposing. 19. ' ' . I x+y = a. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). or y = 1 . I* Jj ^ [.
x2y. 1. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. quantities. III.3 2x 2 Ex. 3y) : Factor (2). If of the preceding type. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 9. = 1 3 3. Solve . 10. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ':il e :) . ' x*. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. y* + 2y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.
20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . = Ex. 2. Solve 2. = 0. = 0. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. } VI09. 2 . 109 a.
(4) (3). f 1 150 a?.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. can be solved by special devices. 150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. y? a? f .175 ay = 12. " IV. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10. E.xy 4.!.6. Bxy9. Division of one equation by the other. . and others not belonging to them. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).y = 7.3^42^=43. A. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. ' ^ 15. 298.
In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 12 J. x +y y etc. x 2 . quadratics can be solved by ?/. Solve Ex. i ^ *>. B. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving.. (1 > (2) 1. y = 3. y . Therefore x = 16. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. we have from (1). f^ + 3 7/ = 133. from (2). i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. jc~ y = 9. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we obtain by squaring. Some simultaneous ?/. = 189. at first it is unknown quantities. * ' 300.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. 2. xy.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. . F+y+ . 4. [2x + : y= 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 7. Hence = V or = 4. 2. I e. 6. 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 239 Ex. M6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
16.21 ^ = 15. * . + o5)(6hy) = 80. = y 1 y* .4 y = 47 a. 27. = 198. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. f 18. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . . . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 19 ' 26.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 25. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.
of  According to the definition of division. 25 34. etc. finite  =x y if = x. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Q 7. . hence may be any finite number. ~\ OK OO.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 31. Interpretation . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 33. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . y % 9 f*K 36. oo 301. or ~ indeterminate. ^ oo . 7' j/ 39. 30. as a . etc 302. = 48201. 3 a2 38. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 32. .
while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Or. cancel. and .e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.e. I.decreases X if called infinity. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . i.increases if x de x creases. Hence such an equation identity. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.242 303. (1) is an identity. Let 2.000 a. 306. (1). i. The ~~f fraction . By making x any * assigned zero. . 1. (a: Then Simplifying. = 10. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. 1. . without exception. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1. ToU" ^100 a. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. it is an Ex. as + l. be the numbers.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. and becomes infinitely small. is satisfied by any number. the answer is indeterminate. equation. TO^UU" sufficiently small.g. x f 2.can be If It is made larger than number. creases. great. (1) = 0. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. oo is = QQ.
The sum is of squares 2890. third and sixth parts. Solve . 42 and' their product is 377. * 6. Hence /. two numbers is 76. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). and a. is their 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.8 x + 15 6.e. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve x a. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 1=0. Solve  9 7. y finite QO. 3. EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. no numbers can satisfy the given system. z = 1 Substituting. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = oo. (2).
) 53 yards. and the edge of one. is 6. of a right triangle is 73. 9. the area becomes f% of the original area. 14. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find these sides. is is 17 and the sum 4. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 190. . and the sum of ( 228. 13. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the sides. two numbers Find the numbers. 8.244 3. 146 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. The area of a nal 41 feet. 12. Find the side of each square. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the numbers.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the edge of each cube. 6. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides.quals 20 feet. p. Find the sides of the rectangle. 10. and the hypotenuse is 37. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the edges. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. equals 4 inches. increased by the edge of the other. 103. of a rectangular field feet. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the diago(Ex. Find the other two sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.
Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. Find the number.) 17. is 20 inches. irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. the quotient is 2. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.
P. of the following series is 3. 10. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. series 9. 16. 309. of a series are its successive numbers.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. 15 is 9 f. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 12. a 11. a. to produce the 4th term. The progression is a. Hence / = a + (n .7. a 3d. to produce the nth term. progression.. 11.. P.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. P. except the first.. and d. To find the nth term / of an A. Since d is a f 3 d. The first is an ascending. to each term produces the next term.1) d.. : 7.. a + d.. The common differences are respectively 4. + 2 d.. (n 1) d must be added to a. . 3 d must be added to a. a + 2 d. the second a descending.. each term of which. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. . to produce the 3d term. 17.) is a series. An arithmetic progression (A. 2 d must be added to a. f . 19.. .. a f d. added to each term to obtain the next one. 3. the first term a and the common difference d being given. . 4.
. 4. 1. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 7. d . 99) = 2600. Find the 12th term of the 4. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 9. 3. series 2.. a = 2. 24. 3. = I + 49 = *({ + . Find the 5th term of the 4. the term a. 21.. . . series . (d) 1J. 1.. (a + + (a + l) l).. .. 6. 19. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .16. . 5.. P.. = 99. .8. 5. 3. 10.4. Find the 10th term of the series 17.3 a = l. 2 EXERCISE 1. if a = 5. 6 we have Hence .. 115. 5. 7. 3.. 8. 7. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . of the series 10.. = 2. .' cZ == ... d = 3. 5. 8. 2. 9. 2. Find the nth term of the series 2. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6. 5.PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. 4^. P. P. ... ? (a) 1. = a + (a Reversing the order. 1J. 8.. 6. Adding. 2J..
to 15 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 7. 11. to 20 terms. . to 7 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311.248 Find the 10. 33. to 16 terms. 2. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. '. . strike for the first yard. (x +"l) 4. 1. 16. > 2f 2. Sum the following series 14. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . .7 f to 12 terms. In most problems relating to A. striking hours only. 7. 3. hence if any three of them are given. to 8 terms. to 20 terms. . 4. 1J. 1. P. 15. 11. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 7. rf. 15. 16. and for each than for the preceding one. to 20 terms. 8. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 12.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . 15. to 10 terms. 19.. 11. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 22. 31. Jive quantities are involved. 20. . 23. 6. . 21. 13. 12. 2J. 18. 11. (i) (ii) .1 f 3. : 3. \n. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1. + 3.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 29. 17.
1) .e. Find the series. n d. 122. . 2. the and the sum of all terms 1014. and b form an A. The series is.6 n).~n~\ 408 6). 144. 56. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. I Substituting in (I) and (II). if a. = a + (w.PROGRESSIONS Ex. = n(104 . 67. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 34. I. 12. d = 6.. 78 n Substituting in (1). 6 n2 . 45. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 1. #. From (1). 2 (2) From Hence (2).6. or if x Solving. The first term of an A. 23. P. 111. J = 49. Findn. a = 49 6(71 .1). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. if s = 204. hence n = 6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Solving. P. But evidently n cannot be fractional.. 204 = ^ (98 . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. P. = 144. is 12. = 1014. 89. = 13. 100. Ex. n = 6. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. or 11 J. 133. s 24ft last term 144. the second one mean between the other two. 6. a = 12.104 w + 408 = 0. Substituting in (2). 312. . = 1014. 78. l)e?. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.
7. n. 74. y and #f5y.3. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n = 13. a x f b and a b. s = 70. f J 1 1 / . Find d. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 17. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. f? . and s. n = 4. d = 5. Find a and Given s = 44. = 45. Find d. s == 440. produced. n = 20. of 5 terms 6. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. has the series 82. 16. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. = 17. 13.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 78. How much did he save the first month? 19. n = 16. m and n 2. Given a = 4. . 6? 9. Find d and Given a = 1700. = 83. 3. Given a = . Find a Given a = 7. 4. How much . = 16. = 52. 8. 14. Given a = . Given a = 1. 10. = ^ 3 = 1. Find w. = 1870. Find?. n = 17. I. ceding one. 11. Find n. I Find I in terms of a. 15. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 12. a+ and b a b 5. T? ^. n has the series ^ j . P.
(II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 36. 2. of a G. 24. ar. <zr . is 16(f) 4 .. 108.. 4. The progression is a. called the ratio.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. ratios are respectively 3. .. and To find the nth term / of a G. . E. . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. is it (G. 24.. A geometric progression first. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). or. P. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. NOTE. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 36. ar8 r. P.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. r n~ l . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . P. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. . . 12. I. If n is less : than unity. rs = s 2 . (I) of the series 16.) is a series each term of which.g. . or 81 315.. 2 a.. 4.. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. 36. +1. The 314.arn ~ l . 4 (1) . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.
is 16. . . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. r^2. fa. 1.. (b) 1. first 5. f. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.. whose and whose second term is 8. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. Find the 5th term of a G. EXERCISE 1. ? (c) 2. ..72. 7. And the required means are 18. 676. or 7. is 3. 80. I = 670. P. + 5.. . 9. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.18. 36._!=!>. P. 8.. 144.. 18.5.. hence. whose and whose common ratio is 4. .18. . 6. first term 4. . 9. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 20. series 6. 0. Hence n = 7. P. fa. ... To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. In most problems relating to G. f. 2 term 3. (d) 5. 25. (it. series 5.6. 36. volved . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.*.5. 10. series . 36. P. 576. \ t series . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.288. 288. l. i 288. first term is 125 and whose common . . a = I.. 144. . Ex. . Jive quantities are in. Hence the or series is 0. 72. if any three of them are given..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. P. .54. Find the 6th term of the series J. 4. 72.4. whose . 3.l... 4. 9. . +f%9 % . . 144.
14. Z s. 12 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. . 81. M. Given r = n Z 5. be written If the value of r of a G. 81. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 15. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.. == 160. . is less than unity.. J. and hence ~ r .. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. . 14. 1. 19.. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Find a and Given r = 3. 13. to 8 terms. 23. = 3. may be than any assignable number. + 4 .i a9 . 42.. 54. to 7 . to 6 terms. J. 12.. 36. I. 24. 72. to G terms. . n = 5. a. 25S series : 32. to 6 terms. 2. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. s = 605. Find a and n = 4. 20. 1. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. P. 48..nV> i*> !718. 22. to 5 terms. of r n decreases. n = 5. Find a and 4. 27. 126. to 6 terms. 21. >"> . 243. . J. a^. to 7 terms. 16 . = 3. J.J and 270. s = 310. . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 4. r .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.
118 : infinity of the following series 3. 13. P.555. 16.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.)7?7272 . . 5. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.1. .3121212. 12.... 3. 6..072. P.. 16. 8. Find the sum to infinity.. . The sum r. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. of all squares ? .99 ... of an infinite G.. 40.. 4.= _4Z* . = a . i. 2. If a = 40. 5. 4.3727272 . . 1 r = . i i J... is 9. 7. . P.. 1. ratio 15. and the first term is Find 17. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. . 250.. of: 11. Given an infinite series of squares.01 ^ .. (6) the sum of the perimeters.. first and the common term. . what is (a) the sum of the areas...72..37272 .. I...254 Ex. 66 Therefore . . . is 16. 100. = . 1..717171. 6.... . Find the value 9.= . 9. .. = 990 ..072 + . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . The sum Find the of an infinite G. 10. . 14. 8. 1. r = j..27777 . .00072 f .3 + . 12.. =A+ 10 i. 1..272727.Ql. Hence .191919. = . . 2. . is J. 9. .
(a 100 . (xy) : 6 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . coefficient of . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 10. a6 8 16 in . /2a+Y\ 8. 14. 21. (\ 9 . 4. : (1 + xy. 2 2 24. 26. . 28. 20. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 11. . 12. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 29. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 5.6) 20 . . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .b ). 17. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (s + i).6) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a + b) . 13. 7 . Find the 6th term of (x .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 16. 4 7. 15. 22. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.b) w (a (a f (1 . (a2) 6. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 25. l 2.
4 ft  c) 2. 2. 3. 4. 2. 6. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. = 2. 3. 2. 6. 2. 2. 2 . a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 2. 1. 3. 2. if = = = 2. aft 3 + 4. 1. if x^l. 3. + 2. 1. 4. 1. 3. if y=2j 2. 3. 1. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. ^+^ 3. 3. 2. 1. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. a ft c = = 2. 3. + c(a  c). 1. ft 4 ) 5. 5. 7. 3.c )(fta) 1. 1. 5. 24 4. (ca)(cft)' 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 3. 1. 3. 2. 3. 1. 4 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4.  a)(a 1. 4.  2. 3. 4. 2. 3. 3. . 4. 1. 5. + 1. l. 5. 1. 4. 5. 2. 3. ft) . 2. 2. 2.a(a 4.  8 ^ 2. 4. if = = 2. c = = = 2.  2. 5. (c 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 6. . 1. 5. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 4. 5. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 5. 2. c if 7 . 3. 4. 6. 6. 1. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. + 2. 5. 1. y 3. 3.f ac 1.
7 + . 2. 2 . 7y 4 . 24.7 y 2* 4. r> . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . if a 6 = = c = 3. = 2. f 8.2 x?/.r 6 x  4 xy . x 3 x' 14.c' 2 4 / .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. .a8 . 9.2 z8 4 x. 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . x3 f 3 ax'2 .\ yz + xz. 5. + 1. 4 x 4 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .x 5 4 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 21. a: .10.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 4. 12.3 xyz.a 4 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .2. 8.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 15.8 + 2 // . 2  + 12 a 8 . a 4 + 11 a . x3 2 a2 . + 3 y 2* . 8 . + 4 ?y . 20. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . + 2. 5. 29. x C 4 4x y + . .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. ' b) + 3.7 ys.2 x2 . a /> 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .  a) (c 2.5. x 3 11.4. ~c)(b. 41. 6 a4 4 a8 . a. 21.8 3 + 7 x4 . 6. 15.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 16. 10. 4. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 25.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . + 8 x4 *y . 3. 4 y 13. 9. (5. + 4. 18.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .259 x c) . c = 3. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 17.a 5 a . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.1. a. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2 x 8. 7 xy 3 . 3. 26. . 4. 7. 2. .3 a?y . or . c)(x a} .2. 2. 40. 1.a) . x = 4. 5. b(x (b 1. 4 z .2 a?y + 3 aty .
Simplify 31. 542 x 2 and .4) . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .7.x 4. 34.4 ft) 4. 4 4 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. = x y ft z. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. : a x .(4 * . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. ft.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.a ft.(x 4.c 3 a. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.2 a . sum of . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.[4 z 8 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .(4 x 2 .] 26. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.(5 y .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .x .4 Vl 4. and .3.2 . take the sum of G x 5 . .260 19. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . x'2 .. Take the sum 4x 4.c 4 3 a.8 3 4. a  ft + c.1).2) . . 36. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(x* .6T .5.x2 .4.[4 x 4. 7 12 . c 4ft. . 5 4 7 12 . 4vTT~y 3. 0" 30. .#48. c 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.(5 c .x . (*) a  c.3 x .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 2 x 32.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .3 . 3 ft. x8 x2 2 a'2x. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. f ft. c =x y }~ z.(a .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. ft 25. 4 3 5 y/ . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. of a.2 x 8y2 44 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 29. 4 .5 .?> x 4 20. .3 .6 x ] .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . From of 2 the 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 33. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .1)}] .27~~7)}]. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.{2 x 2 . 5 10 + 7 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.{G * 2 .c. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 35.c. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .2 . 4 2 x2 23.2 3 ax 2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].(7 x 4.x 2 4.
0)} . (. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).7).3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).c). 51.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(7 a. a . 57.(6 .  2 a  {3 2x a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . )(lz a ).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 46.4 a .3). 'J 44. (x .b (c . 62. 2 : 7e)a}]. + *+!){> + 2). 64. 3 x 42.2 zz .2c(V/ .2 2 + 1)(7. .ab .3 c)]. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 50. 56.12). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.(4 d .(2 a + 5 a . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . a {.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.4 a 2 + a 4 ). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 49.5 )}] + {4 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.(2 x2 .[2 . (5 a 39. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (r (1 (a. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 43. .3 *). 63.(2 a 2 . + 4x + 5)(j. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 13 a . (/> 4 . .56.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).a~^~c)K]. .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 4 + 2 2 + 1). 2 2 x + !)(* . 68. (1 ar+a.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 65.6)}]. . (x. 48.1).96 [17 a.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .{3 c . 2 f [3 c 7 a .(5 y .[4 x  5 .c 2 . 2 52.2x + 3). 54. 45.3)(*5)(* 7). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).(7 i + 4 r:) .(2 .{2 a . . . 2 ft 41.6 xy .{2 a (ft . .5)} + (3 a 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar.be) (a 58. 60. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .6c) (a + f c).JT^T+1)} + (2 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].ac . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 67.& + {.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .rf)} + a [.Z .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].2)(1 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 2 53. (4 + 3a 2 . (. . 59.2a . (1 55.3c).3 z 2 ).2 2 .
262 69. 86.m np c . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.(a 48 8 8 4.c) . 91.c . 1).c .{3 a .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). f 72. 76.n pc).y). 4 4 . 74. (x (x ( + *) .am&t 4 A 2 *). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .6*y . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . ft 95. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . ft ft ft a}.(/>  3 v)^(. 90. 2 + a 2 ). 83.z) . 73. 85. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 88. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. .a) 2 . 2 (x 2 . 87.c) .2 (y 4.x + y + z). 70. b 4. 92. 82.z)(x y + z)(. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.c) 2 .O (a 4(a 4. xy y 2 ).c) rr identities.z\x 4.<f(p . (.c)]. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 77.2y)(.5 . 94. 93.y + z)(x + y .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). ft 78. .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.3 (ft .(a 2) (s 4 ft. (a 2 ft 2n 4.:y)( a. (a (2 b)*(a 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).(c 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).ft) + 4(2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).b 4.3y) a (* 2 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 71. 84.(ft 4.2 ft}) f (3 a .9y2).c)} .r 2 .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.ft) 4 . ft" l Simplify 80. 75. ft /. 4. (p 2 . 1).c) 4) (ft 4.v) 4. Prove the following 8 4.y)\x y).q).2 (a . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 89.c) j.3 a . 79. ar . .(4 .
109.16 a 6 4. 108.y 4 .1).a".'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 1O4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 122.35 x 2 2 ) .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 110. 25 4 .5 b*).&). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.xy 4. 103. 116. 106. 121. r .b) 98.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).3 a"+ 4.2y 2 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".6 y 4 4. 99 100.5 xy).(a 1 2 8 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 1). 123.y 2 4.(2 a 2 . 105.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 10).4 aft .2 2% 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).r 4 4. 2 4 41 x 4a.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 113.27 x* . (8 x* 115. .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). a*.y 4 ) . 117.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 102. 3*.*) (x 8 . 2 (a+ . 114.) . 118. 124. . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .v/ ~ // = a: . 120. (a 8  8 68 8 4.(7 xi/ . [10( 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . (2< 107. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).40 />) .2 xy 8 . (. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).9 x 2 . (80 a 112. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 26 (a 4 c). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.(x 2 .
(j a? 144.19) + 5 = 4 .2) + 2(ar + 4). 136. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . . 5 146.2(j: . 127. .7) = 4 .1) (a? . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .a:)]}.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).5{. 149. 1) = 2(* .(1 . 142.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .4) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . .5). 1) .22.n .3) = 12 .(x . 135. (5a: 150. 126.3(* + 4) + 9} . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. (4 x . 7(2 x . . 129.4) .2(4 .2) = 3 .3(2 z . y (* l x.2(5 .3 x).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 42(3ar 145. 128.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).(x f 9).27 a 3" . 137. o o 140.3). (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). (*+ + .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .1) . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 3) = x\x . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 10(2 x 141. 5(2 x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .5) = 12(4 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.8 6 . 139. 138. 2 4(ar .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).r + 7[or .(x + 3) ] . .3 a:).G) . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 3(2 x 134.9) + 3. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.264 125. .3).18 *&) (1 .4(0 x .9) 4.3) (3 x 4.2 7^~5] + 1). 143. 148.2(10 x . x 147. .12 M 132.2) (a: + 3).7(4 * .r>) .
17) 2 + (4 x . The second contains 3 first.7) (a. . =  (F 32).r + 3) . (a) If C. (a . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . transformed into F. 158.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.z) (4 .2 x) (4 . If the area of the frame inches.5 x) = 45 x . (3 O + . 160. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5(x . will produce F.2) a + 7(x . 5(ar x . 153. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.24. and the third twice as many as the first. 166. 161.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.3) (3 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (7 14 .76.4) (a .3) (a: .? . The sum What 171.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 163. 165.5*) + 47.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. = 15. 162. sheep more than the 169.2) (j? + 1) + (x .9) + (a. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (a. 156. . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.8) = (2 x 4. a: ar a.2) (7 *) + (*.3) (3 . these two angles would be equal. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.a:) + 229. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.2 x) = (1 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.5)(. . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. . . How many 170.6 x) (3 .2).25) 2 . 155.7) (1 x . = 2 C.14) (a: + 3). + 5) = (9 .. 157. (x (x a.19) + 42. f^ + ^sO.3) = (3 x . + 2) + (5 . 265 152.(5 x . + 4) (2 x + 5). 2 4 .5) = (3 . 164. + 10) (ar .29) 2 = 1.1) (s + 3). angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.T)O . find the value of F.1) O + 4) = (2 * . (2 .l)(z . 154.3) (j. 159.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.
A boy is father. 176. 180. . the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. father. Find the dimensions of the floor. 179. . same result as the number diminished by 175.36. if each increased 2 feet. 189. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. aW + llab2&. 190. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. two boys is twice that of the younger. dimension 182. number divided by 3. 178. 2 2 + a _ no. A each 177. + a. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. younger than his Find the age of the father. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 188. Find the number.56. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 181. z 2 + x . x* 185. 15 m. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. ll?/102. How many are there in each window ? . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 4 a 2 yy 42. 187. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 12 m. sister . and 5 h. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. was three times that of the younger. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. z 2 92. respectively. + 11 ~ 6. 186. side were one foot longer. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 7/ 191. +x 2. 13 a + 3.266 173. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. power one of the two Find the power of each. 3 gives the 174. 10x 2 192. train. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A house has 3 rows of windows. .
+ 8. .3 c/> + 6 cq. (a + . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a. 208. . .1. 216. xm+l 243.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 8 a: ar.6 2 ?/ . 210. 16x 4 81.6. 8 a.20 z 8 a: 220. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.6s.64. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . + 30 x. a: 236. 24 2 + 2 .(b + rf) 2 . . a+a* + o a +l. wiy + la mx + aw. 7x 2 225. 2 a 8 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .c) 2  (a . 211. + 198.14 2 . 244. 2 a 2 . 213. 245.21 a:  54.10 y a x* . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. x 219. + 3a 196. 4 m +^. 212. 233. . 246. ifWy+b. 23 12. x*y 223. 2 . 222. a 2 . z + 5x 2 . *2 234. x* + 8 2 + 15. # 2  29 y + 120. 60 a 2  a: // 205.77 y + 150. 221. 217. 12 x +4. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . z 2 2.8 6 2. . + 2 . 2 200. 2 2 y f 1. 215. 195. 239. y 2 194. 7a 228. 267 199. 3y 2 + ary .x + 1. x 5 . 232. a. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 206. 235. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .r?/f y 2 9. 3 x V . 218. 6 197.19 a . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a. a^a 226.12 * .10.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a: . a a: a: 237.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 207. 4a 2& 2 241. 202. 2a te 3% ly 247. a. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 224. 203. 209. 201. 3 ap 2 . 227.22 z + 48.3 xy. 238. 2 x 2 . 229.10 xy.6 aq . 3y 248. 5 x 2. 230.19 z 4 204.c) 2 . a: 231.6 y2 + 4. .28. 3 x 2 .
269.73 xy .120. ft a. a? a: a: // 262. + 8. x* .23 + 12. x 2 + 4 + 3. x*y* 4. a: . I Find the II. + 23 x f 20. z 2 268. 7 ax 250. * 2 . 5 x 2 256.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 1 x ar Find the L.10 a 4. * a . of: 253. x* .12. 270.3 x .a 2 />c 2 f 3.x . * 2 .8. 3 a% 2 . 259. a. C.&z.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 3 ay 4.23 x f 20. + 20 x 4.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.9 x .16 x . 28 2 f 71 x . 2 8 .91. Reduce to lowest terms 271. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.7 f 5. 10 x 2 .11 a 2 .5 ab f 2. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.2/ 2 .(55. 257. + 3 x + 2.a + 2 4. 22x2 a. 3 #2 255.10.2 aft*. 2 x2 . 15 # 2 z/ /. 18 x 2 . F. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.80. z 2 267.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .15.15 + 30. 2 . x 2 + 5 f . * 2 . .1 9 . 10 a.9 x + 14.18 xy + 5.M. 30 ^ . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 8 2 + 10 x . 264. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .3.3 abc . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 260.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 265. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x 2 263. 7 12 2 2 . of: 266.G7 x f 33. 254. a 4. 258. 2 a.6 by.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 252.36. + 8 x + 5.C. x 2 f 9j: + 20.r .ry 21.4. 251. 2 + 7 r f 2.13. x 2 + 2 x .14 bx a%% 8 . 261.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.ry . x 2 4. 6. x 2 .48 afy 2 .11 x f 28.2 z .9.4 ab + 1. a 3 a 2 2 .
m 4.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. + ac . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .(y 2 z) * t (j.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 289 ' .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .!/.ar 1 279. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2c a: 282. a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 285 z4 n* + a.rL.. *2 " 2 + Oge. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280. 8 .
x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . * 19 23 19(23 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^_2*(m 308. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x 7. O(ca) 306. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. Lnl + ar 2 a. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 4 3 301. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2.
_ x8 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. } .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 2 + y 2 319. 1a: + y a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.. (a? 4 2) 317. (1 .(a .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. .ft) 2 322. 1 _. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 1 x2 + + a. a: 1 313. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
15 33 .ll.V  + y  x 3y a . . .9 *// + 27 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 +lOar 2 a. * 3a. 2 lOx 5x. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . a: 2 x* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.5 a .7 xy + 12 x . 20 44 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 250 5 10 2 325.6* t 328. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .y20  2y + 4 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .
a>74 . a: 349 _ o. w \. ( 342. fl. (a \ + lV. 1 345. ** i. (ar \ 346. (aWi + iJ. + ni + .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (af2/. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. +^ a: y x . 348. ' 2 "l 5 . 338. 344.1V. \x yj 340.+ r .) 2 . aj 339. f V. 352. 7 ( ?f!?. : 1+ i. xi 347.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 5 343. \5yl 341.. ?_2 ^ .y. + l + IV.r 5 2 . if a = 3.
y360. a2 4 . 1+2 362. (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. ar xy + yl x* 358. I  I f 366. (~ 364.
b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . .
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 379. __4 2x 3_ = !. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. .*2 = 15. J !__7. + 1) 45 O 377. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. ^ . 5 {2 x 381. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. 4(* . 5*8.
. b 404. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 401.6  . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. + 4 a. 397. c .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 3* 177..75 x f .25. 399. 396.  J). u '2 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.5 x =r f . . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.1 . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. ^ (a . f 1 1 + a 403. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 ^ ~ a: a.2 a:  1. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 40. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. m x 398.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.  8 9* x ~r.25 x + . _____ . a. .8 = . 400.147.
(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 18 be subtracted from the number. 421. Find the number. In a if and 422. How long is each road ? 423. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412.c) . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. and was out 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. (x . far did he walk all together ? A . the order of the digits will be inverted. hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 411. 420. 418 ~jo. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. Tn 6 hours . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.  a) 2 6 2a. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.278 410.
d. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Find the length of the parts.a 2^ 8 + aft* .46 2): (15a 2 . . 428. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 433. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. if . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . If a b : =5 n : 7. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). find : a : c. . b. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. : i.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.iand 22 22 I a . Solve 436. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Which ratio is greater. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.& 5 ) (a 8 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). ax is \ by  ex + dy. . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. a  t>. a + 5. 2 2 8 2 . 435. 438. x 427. 431. Find the fourth proportional 426. wi* + y= ny. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .6 8 ). When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. : If is one equal 434. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 432. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . y. 3 and 1J. find the angles of the triangle. a. Find the mean proportional to 429.49 63). z 2 y. 430.
5 2 = 7 . 56 + 10y = 7a. a. .7 y = 25. /) ar a. . 28 = 5 a . Solve the following systems: 441.*.rf2# = l. 7 a: . 444.89 = q. + 5y = 59. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.35.4 12 . />(. 4 = 5 y + 29. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 457. 443. 451. 452. 456. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 445. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 455. 448. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 446. 21 7 = 27 + Op.11 y = 95. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 3 a. 5x+4y=lQ. 9/> = 2 .11 7. 7 442. a: a: + 5y). Find the value of a. ft. 3 . 7jr9y = 17.59 = 3 z. 453. if 2 ft : 439. a: 2y= = 1 . c. 7a?y = 3. 15ar = 20 + 8y. = 25. 8 . . ft. 458.(or l(*2y)=0. ?/ 447. . 449. The volumes If their diameters. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 9ar7# = 71. 16. x + 17 # 53. . 450.. 8 x + y = 19. 1(3  a.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 5z4:# = 3.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 454.55 y = . 459. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 42 = 15y + 137. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).
475.+ =2. 8 461. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. _ 469. i = 5. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 473. ^ + i^ = 7. 468. ax by = c \ 472. x y 474..2y) (2 = 2J. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ax cx by = m. (or .7. 465. + eyn. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.c=563y. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .?/ + 1 . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .  = 2.
A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. How much money less 484. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 486. years. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 479. 481. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. A number consists of two digits 4. and in 20 months to $275. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. fraction becomes equal to . the Find their ages. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 483. Find their ages. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the number. and in 18 months to $2180. 485. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. age. Find the fraction. 477. whose difference is 4. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 487.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the sum and the rate of interest. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the numbers. to . and the other number least. by 4. A spends \ of his.
7 4#+ 3z = 35. 4 497. . = 15./ 504. a: 499. z y x 25 . ifi = x a. 2y + 3a = ll. 489. 7. 495.z = 20. and the difference of their Find the numbers. . .z = 12. 2 e. 493. 2a:f 7. a: + // = 11. 3ar 503. 498. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a. 2 a. * + 425  = . + # +z= 35. = 20. : Solve the following systems 491. 8. 494. . 3 a: + 5=84. 492. x f y f z 29 . \ . 2y + 2z = a: 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2/>3r = 4. = 209. a. a: f z = 79. 7 + 2 z ./ f z =a. 1+1 = 6. a. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . *i. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.5#+2z = $x a: G. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 490. x y f z = 13. + y 5 y = 101 . 1. 4 506. 5^ 9z = 10. . y Solve : x +z= 5. ~ 507.? + 2y = 8. 2 2 = 41. 3 x 500. 496. z y ifi = z x 502. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. x s + y z = 18J . a number . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. The sum of two numbers squares is b.
+ + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. 517. 523. z z =3a&c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + : = 1472. ll" . !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 36 + c.
L. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. How long will B and C take to do . 532. and BE. 527. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. and CA=7. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. N. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. When weighed in water. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. if L and Af in 20 minutes. BC = 5. in 28 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Tf and run together. M. if the number be increased by Find the number. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. CD. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. E 533. AC in /). A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. they would have met in 2 hours. 90. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. AB=6. What are their rates of travel? . If they had walked toward each other.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. touches and F respectively. . 530. it is filled in 35 minutes. the first and second digits will change places. it separately ? 531. . Find the numbers. In circle A ABC.
from x = 2 to x = 4. 2 x + 5. x *x + x + 1. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 547.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 548. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. + 3. 546.e. GERMANY. . How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . to do the work? pendulum. 542. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 2. 540. 536. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. FRANCE. x*  2 x. x*. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. i.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. a. x 8 549. 550. The values of y. e. b. x 2 544. formation of dollars into marks. the function.  3 x.  3 x. 543. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x 2 + x. d. One dollar equals 4. 545. The values of x if y = 2.10 marks. c. . z 2  x x  5. if x = f 1. then / = 3 and write = 3. 2. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.  7. The greatest value of the function. 2  x  x2 . 2 541. 3 x 539. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.
4 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. c. Represent meters.13 = 0. 564. x 2 ~ 2 . z 2 .r . f. 553. a? 4 x . c.9 = 0. 568. g. 2 x 2 560. J. h.G . 566.r a: a: x a.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.0.17 = 0. 2 8 .1 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. + 5 . 3 x . = 5. 572. ' = 8. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .= 0. x 4 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. x* .6 + 3 . a. 3 x* . 565.15 = 0.= 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. If y +5 10. 3 + 3 z . a: 559. and make the unit of the b.3 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. x 5 . 2. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.3 x . 3 .4 x 2 + 4 . 555. // Solve y Solve y = 5. \ to t = 5.7 = .11 x* + + 2 8 569. . 2 a.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. e. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.  2 1 a: a. . 18 x  4 = 0. i. r?.11 = 0.5 x . z 4 . a. + 10 x . j. a. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 563.r 1 561. 2 567. 15.3 x . 562. 558. .3 . Solve// = 0. 2 554. Solve 552. 556. 557.4 .
(1 (1 (1 . 4 . 599. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 596.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. (aiy. 592.x + 2 )'2 601. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 585 594.4. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. + + 4 . 64 a 12 603. 3 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 582. x + z2) 8 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 593. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. : y* or 25. 2 611. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 1 . (a  8 ft) . 588. f ?>) 3 591.frf : 583. (a. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. xY. 4 (1a:) 3.5 xy = 0. .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 5 a*. + . a: . 597. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. a. . a 612. x [ ?/ 577.%) 4 (aa. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 600.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. a 2a. jj+. 598. 608. [ y =10. (1 + x a. j^f = 3.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a 8 606. 3 (f. 604.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 609. 595.2 2 + y. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . a:. 579. + %) (a* + *) 5 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 9  4 fSb 607. 4 a. 6 + 1) . 589.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + ^) + (air%)8.2 6a: + 30 &c a. (# 2) . 2  2 aa: 2 .(1 .
a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 633. 44352. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 651. 643. ft . 32 631.191209. Find the square root of 619. *+* = 156.\/4090. 625 : 621. + 24 a 2 4 . 2 + 189 z = 900. 645.871844. 634.150. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. GGff. 644. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 636. 2.53 x ~ . 942841. 639. 626. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 3a. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 371240. 40. 638. 637. 629. VOIOOD + V582T09.2410. /. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. = . f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 614. a 642. + 2 21 x = 100. = 0. 035. 4J. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 25023844. x 2 . 2 + 21Ga.1024 x + a: 256. 647t x 2 648 649.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 49042009.2. V 635. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. = 70. 7) 2.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 4370404. x 2 641. find Jupiter's period. 622. + 54 'x*y* . 650. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 9a.49. According to Kepler's law. : 5. V950484 .V250 . 628. 494210400001. 210. 49. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 620. 630.12 a?y + y*. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 623. (x 9 x 646.*.30. 9g. 0090.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 8*' + 24* = 32. 615. = 87. 632. + 112 a 8 . 624. 21. Find the eighth root 617.15174441.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
708. a. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. . = 0. 2 2 . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 702. 693. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 695. 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 706. 694. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.c = 0.ax . ax 2 698.a a )jr . 696. 707. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 692.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 2 697. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. ex abc= fx 0.bx . .
needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.25 might have bought five more for the same money. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 716. 16 x* . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 723. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 3or i 16 . 725. a: 713.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. In how many days can A build the wall? 718.292 709. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find two numbers whose 719. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 722. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 721. sum is a and whose product equals J. 717. 12 4*+  8. 217 . 729. **13a: 2 710. Find the price of an apple. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.44#2 + 121 = 0. A equals CO feet. How shares did he buy ? if 726. in value. . 727. 724.
39. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 38. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 42.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f ^ 2).l). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 ). 33. 37. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.X . f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 46.2)(x2 4. 31. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.2? 50. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 + x. (v/x). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. . n. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 43. 35. 41. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).aft* 1 + a 2*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 52. 1 6. 34.)(ai + &.1 + c. 40. 36.1 f c" ). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). . 32.
1+J 756. 768. 758.294 753.. 754. [1r^ T 1 i . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. 757. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. JU. ~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 761.
2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. 13 799. 806. .2 V30. . a 9442V5.12VIT. x 782. 787. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 794. 790. + 2V21.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.4 V(j. 3J . 10 785. . f x Va z Va f x + Va a.VlO. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . c 792. 3812VIO. 786. 103 788. 14 791. . 92VI5. 16 + 2V55. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 793. 7512V21. 783. 789.
833.13 = 0. 815. 819.V2 ar 10. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . /9ar a: = 17.V? = 813. VaT+lJ f ^l . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.Vc^lJ . Va: .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + Vx .4 = 0.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . + 103Var. 814. 831. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 820. (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/12 a. V14 a. + ViTli + V7 . 811.\/2y  810. 3 x + 2 . 836. 829. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.79.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 818. V3 f 1 V4a.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 830. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 812. = 1.f 5 = V5x + 4.g. 816. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. x/aT+l .
856. + . 4 x* 847. z*y 8 l64a. 8 4a: 8 a. . 9. 865. 861.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 4o. a 8 873. a*" & 6n .1. x 4 + f 2 a. f b**. 840. 876. 875. 863. + 512 y8 874. a. 864.3 a:. 846. f 12. a. 6. 852.10 = 118. y 4. 8 2a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a: 849. a 18 4. V4 x 2 . 851.x*y + 3x f 2. a 8 869. . a.3 Va: 2 .3 . 855. x 8 2 857. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 27 862. 871. 8 860.12. 4 x 8 858. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 27 y 8. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a l0m . a. 8 8 848. 868. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4 a: 2 842. 8 8  13 a. 8^27^. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 839. +3 4 +  4. 16 859. + 1. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 4 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. . a.  3x a. 853. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a 872. 19 x 14. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. f 841. a: . 870. 64 a 866. 64. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 2 f" + a/ 15.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. . 845. 844. 729 867. a 8 850. 275 8 l.ab9 ft*. 2 x 3. a.1000 6.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 2 a: 64 y*. . 8 . 8 a.3 x . 40 x 2 7 f 49. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.
M1 891 1 . 2 . f ?/ a: a: .sy = 198. 1 x 893.1 = 2 a#. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 889. 2 + y 2 .y 2 + V(j. 883. a.y 2) = 20. x a: lI = xz . a: 884. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.18. . x 8 3 = 13:3. a. y*+ xy . +y f y = 7.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 890. x 882. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 885. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.15.35. a. 3 x 2 . y 2 2 8f. y y 2 y 2 1121. xy + y = 32. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a: 2 897. a: a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 888. x*xy. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 + xy = 10. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 901. 2 2 = 16 y. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 = 2 + 5. 895. 878. a:y . y 2 4. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: + y 2 = 34.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 5. 887. 900. 896. + ary + 2 = 37. 894. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . z 2 898. y = 28. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 + xy = 28. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. .xy + y 2 = 19. .Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 .298 877. a# f + xy = 126. 886. 899. . + 2y=\2.
y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 3 :r(3 . + ary = a*. 914. . x + y}(x + y) = 273. 907. + y)(a. (a. 917. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.16 y 3 8 = . 2 2 2 916. or or a? a: a: . a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). x 2 ry + y = 3.y).#y + 2 = 27. 921. 7 y . (* 918. Vary + y = 6. . xy + x= 15. ary y = 8. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + ?/) .y = a(ar + y).3) 2 f (y . 920. y + a:y = 180. 2 + y = 2 a 4. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.y) = 33. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y) (a? . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 * 2 ~ g. 4 (a. 2 913. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.y) (3 y . 911. 2 915. (!) * . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + y 8 = 189. y x 2 = by. + 2 a:y + = 243. x + y 2 = aar. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 909. a: a. 906. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.3(* + y) = 6.r a. * + y = 444.23 = 200. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 923. a:y xy 929. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. a: * a: a: ar 928. ^ 2 . yz = 24. y . 2 5 xy = 11. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 3 y 8 ) =1216.6.y2 = 22. 905. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (o. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. + a. + 2 ary = 39. # + xy + y = 7. + y = 9.2 y) = 49 2 919. 908. 912. xa 903.x) = 21. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 910. x f 2 a:y = 32. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. . y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 924. 23 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. *y . x 4 299 xy z 904. a: y zx 12. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. (3 x . y 3 2 2 922. = 8.3)2 = 34.
square inches. a second rec8 feet shorter. 2240. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. A is 938. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. Assuming = y.300 930. A plantation in rows consists of 10. In the second heat A . there would have been 25 more trees in a row. two squares equals 140 feet. is 3. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. y( 934. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.102. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. y(x + y + 2) = 133. diagonal 940. 944. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 942. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 931. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 152. 943. A and B run a race round a twomile course. z(* + y + 2) = 76. Find the sides of the rectangle. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and the difference of 936. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. feet. 935. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. + z)=18. two squares is 23 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 34 939. . Find the side of each two circles is IT square. Find the numbers. two numbers Find the numbers. s(y 932. *(* + #) =24. find the radii of the two circles. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. + z) =108. 937. (y + *) = . feet. rate each man ran in the first heat.000 trees. and the sum of their areas 78$. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. If each side was increased by 2 feet. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. is 3 . is 20. and 10 feet broader. How many rows are there? 941. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. and also contains 300 square feet.
and that B. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. A and B. 953. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find the number. 949. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. sum Find an edge of 954. that B A 955. . set out from two places. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. . distance between P and Q.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find its length and breadth. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. whose 946. triangle is 6. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 951. overtook miles. the digits are reversed. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. and if 594 be added to the number. Find the eter 947. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. and travels in the same direction as A. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. P and Q. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 952. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Find the number. Two starts travelers. Find in what time both will do it. each block. 950. . is 407 cubic feet. unaltered. and its perim 948. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet.
Find the sum of 4.. = 4. s  88. .. 970. P.. . 972. Evaluate (a) .. ^ 1 .v 973. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. to 7 terms. the terms being in A.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). \ . 5. Find the Find the common 977.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.302 956. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. to n terms.. 18th terms of an A. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .141414. 966. (to 2 n terms). 12434+ j I 967.454.. 3 . Sum to 20 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.  2. '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.>/) to infinity. 4 4 to 7 terms . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. ^ Vfirst five 959. difference.. are 29 and 53. 4. fourth of the unity... 971. (x 4 to n terms. . Find an A. 16 962. 958.. to infinity. 1 to n terms. 975. Sum Sum to infinity. 1G series . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 969. P.. Find n... are 1 and sum of 20 terms. P. 36 963. + (iiven a +  4 d . x(x to 8 terms. Find n f (ft) . 957.V2 .. 3 + 5 7 + . Sura to 24 terms. and 976. P. 9th and llth terms of an A.4142 . 961. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. *" 968.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.321? 965. f + 1 .. 5. J. . 964.3151515..1 4 f j$V . !Ll^ + n . n to n terms.to infinity. 974.
of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to n terms. 986. The term..) the last term the series a perfect number. 992. 1. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. P. to 105? 981.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.2 . P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 989.01 3. 980.04 + .001 4.001 + . Find four perfect numbers. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the first term. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . to oo. 987. to infinity may be 8? . . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 0. P. is 225. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . of n terms of an A. 990. 4 grains on the 3d. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The 21st term of an A.. The sum 982. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find n. and of the second and third 03...3 ' Find the 8th 983. first 984. 5 11. Find four numbers in A. and the common difference. and so on. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. "(. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.... What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + ..+ lY L V. 303 979. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. named Sheran. 985. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find the sum of the series 988. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.1 + 2. : + 9   V2 + .
and G. c. areas of all triangles. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. Two travelers start on the same road. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 1001. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 28 and find the numbers. ft. 998. many days will the latter overtake the former? . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. P. P. of squares of four numbers in G. 994. inches. 997. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. prove that they cannot be in A. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . find the series. AB = 1004. 999. and so forth to infinity. (6) the sum of the infinity. in this circle a square. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. (a) after 5 strokes. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 1000. The fifth term of a G. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. are unequal. ABC A A n same sides. 1003. at the same time. in this square a circle. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. is 4. . 512 996. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sum and sum . are 45 and 765 find the numbers. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. If a. 995.
iV 2i/ 5 . Expand  2 a. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .l) w f . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). ) 1021. (1 1018. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 2 ) 5.o/) 14 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1011. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . a: 8 7. 1014. .ft) 19 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of ( . 1009. Find the middle term of 1020. + lQ . x) 18 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. 1012. 1006. (12 #) 7 .
.
158... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 54. 97. .178 Completing the square . ... Checks Coefficient 20. .... . 19.. 123 .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . 246 91 " multiple. ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . t 53 120 . . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . linear literal Common ** * difference .. . .. signs of Algebraic expression . . . . 232 mean progression .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 37... 232 169 807 ... ... . lowest ratio " '* . . ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .. 8 . 9. .... 129 54. numerical ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .130 . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . quadratic ... ..108 160 " .. .. 9 ** . . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 160 in quadratic form 191 ... simple simultaneous . 112 54 54 251 .] Abscissa Absolute term .. 129. graphic tion of representa . . Aggregation..193 11 .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . .. .
. .. numbers .31. Imaginary numbers . 45. 23 10 91 102. . .. law of Extraneous roots . . 45. 189. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 112 .. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 84. arithmetic .C Multiplication . directly. inversely 122 numbers . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 109 102 . Like terms Linear equation . 205 .108 Minuend . 120 Member. .. . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Known numbers . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . .. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Product '* 76 Infinite. 184 54. Mathematical induction .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . 195 33. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. ... Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 17 65. . 143. .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . exponent . 42 7 Independent equations Index . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . L. . . 243 7 . 212 . 45 Laws of signs . Geometric progression .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. INDEX 8 . Negative exponents 11 . 227 . 180. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 253 28 70 1. ..154 Order of operations " of surds .808 Exponent Exponents. . . Inconsistent equations . . 63. C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. .. first and second . 34. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . . 114. . Insertion of parentheses . P .. .. . 91 .. addition of " square of .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . 9. 241 123 geometric . . 227 geometric . G. .
. . . ....... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . Sum. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.... algebraic Surds . . binomial Third proportional Transposition . polynomial . absolute 54 Variable . 4 155 9 " of . 129. . 45 Trinomial 240 ... . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 9... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... . 27 17 Unknown numbers . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. .......
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
8. Mass. NorfoooS J. August.A. Norwood. Reprinted April. 1916. December. Gushing Co.COPYRIGHT. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. . Berwick <fe Smith Co. Published September. 1917.. U. 1913. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S.
6. 3. 106. 3 below 0. 1. 6 yd. 18.. B $80. 5000. 29. 7. 4. 8.$9400.150. 15.000. 36.C. 19 4. 18.. 21. 6. 16. 7m. Page 1. 17. 7. 8. 126. 5. 27. 14. 11. 3.. 32. 15. 9. C $60. 89. 25. 22. 16. 2. 20 \. South America 46. 8. 14. 1. 256.00000001. 3.  1. 6. 1. 4. 1.12. 14 11. 6. 2. 3. in. 8 13. 12. 2  Page 8. 0. 2. 3 m. 512. T . 6. 25.3. A 15. Yes. 6. 19. 8. Page 4. A $90. = 5 81. 85. 7. 24. 16. 12. 9. 9 = 4. 13 S. 28. . 7. 16. 1. 9 16  larger than 7.000.000. 6* 16. 3. loss. 5. 7. 16 in. 13. 5. 5. $160. 12. 9. 17. 29. 9 m. 9. 17. 17. 12. 3. Page Page Ilis expenditures. B 10 mi. 150.000. in 12.21 24. 19. 14. 1. 4. 7. ft. 18. 9 14. 13 d. 3. 4.000 Indians. $ 1 50 10. A . 37 S. 27. 21. 1. 128. . 3. 22. 16. 11. 8. 3. 24. x. 12.000. 10. 6. 20 B. 144.000.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 5. westerly motion. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 32. 49.000. 25. 4. 20.. 20 jo. 24. 576. in. 21. 32.000 negroes. 18. 14. 1. 13. 9. 19. 3. 18. 3. $40. 1. 6. Not 5. 3. + 1. 10. 15. 11. 16 in. 2. Page 8.  1. 11.  13. Australia ft. 14. is $10. 7. 1. 15. }. i . 9. 8. 4. 2 5. 30?. ^. 2. 26z. 210. 1. 2. 5.2. Page 13. A Bl 7. 7. 28. 10.. 13 V. 25. _ 32. A 38 mi. 13. 1. 9. 20. 30. 73. 12. 10. 16. 12. 37. . 2. 2. 9. 14. 17. 20. 10. Ot 15. per sec. 6. 10. 16. 6. 2 ~ 15. 2. 4. 2. 11. 2. 13. 59.000. 3. 23.. 13. 12. 1 16. arithmetic. 16f 2. 3. 32. $100. C $ 16. 1. B $ 128. 26. 2.  2 p. 18.. 6. 8. 6. V 23. 16. 1. 10. 9. 14. sign.  22 20. 3. B $20. 3. 1. (a) (/>) 1. 49. 27. 10. 3* 7. 5. sign. c. 2. 14. 115.. 3. 64. 72 = = 216. 5. 12. . Page?. 8 ft. b. C $1(50.1. 7. 12.. B $4700. . 10g. 48 ft. 16. 20. 2. 192. Multiplication. 0. x.8. 15.
4 ft. 4 y/ . 18.4  2ft 2 33. vi 14. 3. 14. (a) r>23ifcu. 8. 3a. 32 2 ftc. (r) 2.9?/2 8. 33. 8.3 * 10 r5 <3 . Page 21. 16. :J!>r'. 12 a. (r) 78. .. 7.a . a ft c.ab.. 3. 5. <i~ 26. 20. 20.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 28.14 sq. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 8.r f 15. arty 1 20.. 10. 17. 22. 1. 0. 30. 7 7. 30. 14. in. 104. 1. (c) S(i. 23. 58. 13.6) 38. 7. 16.000 .1. 9. +/2(/. x^ 20. ft. Binomial. 49. 7. 3(c4a).GOG. = ()501.  11. 3 a* + 2 at*. Monomial. y. 29. 6<t. 173. 22.x. 4. 4. 14. 35. 13. 9. f  5e 35. 35. //'. Page 31.32 c2 > ft 3 . 28. 3. 39. 2. 18. . 17. 0. (a) 50. + v> 2 . 11. rt. 2oVmf?i. 14. 3. 24. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 5. 12. 34. 17. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 13. 13. (ft) Page 2. 27. jrif 4 9. 20(. 12. m 24. 9. . 26. 22( 19. 12. 04. 25.. 16. It. I. ft. 27. 17. ]*. 3. _ 4 . 4. r/ \(\xyz. ^. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .  40. Page 23. in.ft) 4. 41. ft. 2x' 2 5 . in.<>Gq. w. 2. 7. 11.rty8. 31. + 5. 1.900. 4 9/^/rl 2. 2. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 12. 18.. 25. (59. = 81.  3. 36. 1. 20. 2. (ft) 12. 0. 27. 6. 11. ft' 3 .. 29. 15a. (a) 200.... + ft). 35. 57. 0. (r) 2000 m. 32. r+l. 21. 4. 37. 21. m + 3(a. 30. Page 18. 6. ??i??. 0.  1. 15. 38 ab. 14.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 10. a 32. 3 . 1. 314 sq. 36. sq. ft f 19. 5x+3. 21.'J. 1. 28. .. 18. . 3. . Pagel4r. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. Page 7.  xV 3 y. $80.000 sq. (a} 100 1(5 cm. a2 4 15^44. (c) 8. yyz+xyz*. 34. 31. :. 21^. 13. 27. ft n. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 0. 8. 12. #1111. (a 4 4. 8. 15. ^).94(>. 3. 13 cu. 5. 1. (ft) $40. 12yd. 15.r~ f 34. 32. 8. 12. 26.  0. 5. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. Trino inial. (ft) mi. 11. 24. 2. t. 14:). 13.. 10. 92. 2. in. 17.. Polynomial. 27. $3000 Page 6. (b) 135 mi. (ft) 7. 1. . 14.'JO ft. 5. 51 f. 16. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 43w//2 17. 3. 15. 7. WIN + wiw. 33. 19. 50. ft. 22. 2ftx. 21 a 3 4 10. Polynomial. (a) <> sq. o^ft. 0. 0. 14. 9. 22. 4. 240. 237. 8. 0. i:5. 19. 42. 00 24 04 ft. 4. .q 4. II. 25. 23.5f> sq. 3. . 8. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 5. mi.. 31. 15. 1. c. 9. 27.5 (ft) sq. \'\ 4. 16.  12. 5. 5.~4.ft. 15.r 2 . (<7) (a) 314 sq. 3rf 27. 19. (r) 2G7. ft. 18. r:A 29. 6. 38.
!  </ . ri\ 18.r. a + a. 21. a 6 2 . 2 y' 4 . 5.  12. 11.7.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 2m.5 z?/ + 3 y . 21. .aft. ' 12 m?/'2 27. . a 3 . 17. 5. 24. 2. 1. 55. c2 . f ft 9. 0. 16.3 6.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 2 2. 7.2 ft 2 r2 10. x  + 3z.a . 19.  b* 4 r 1 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 6.(7x2 Ox2). 814. 2m + 2w.4c 3 8 8 J. 14. ?/. ii\ 22. a. 4. 2// 16. 10 x. a 10w. a4 4 4. 2 6.x f 1 2 . x3 . a' 4ab + ?/. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . G.2 . 25. 34 39. . 24 b 46. 7 a5 1 . 37. 7  # + 12.'U4j>. 2. 28.4x. 35. 56. . 10.a f 54.4. 8 b. 8 + 2 a . . . ^ <.  b. . 30. 40.l. 2. 34. 33.abc.2 a2 2m 2 4. (2n' 43p 47 ).3x 2 2 tf. 15. 6.  1. + 6. .Oa: + 10. 4 21. 3. 19. 31. 26. \ :{ 2 a 48. 13. . 26. 1. _5a<>&43c. 4. 6. t). 18. 1. a 52. ?/i 13. 9. M + 10.  17. 10.8(c + a).. 1. 17. . 2 2 2 6. a2 9. 8 . 5 2 Page 29.  14 afy . w 17. 5. 1 4. '  . 2. 11. ?>4tl 53. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.c. 50. 5x 2 rt ft. 4. . 7. G a bd. 31. a + (ftc4df). a a. 7. 12. Page 8. ft Exercise 17. lOrt 15w4. a 3a 4 2 &.  4 b 17 y*. n*. Page 28. m*  n*. 22. a  49. 4. 24. 8 8 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. . 2. 2 a 37. 4ft ~. a 4 + ft.h. 2. (mn} 11. 2 3x f z. 12.5 4 2 3 ?/ .r 2. a2 24. 14. 24. 58. 2 3.  G J8 r  4 a <?.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . Exercise 16. . 0. . j)(g1. 51. 2. 7. r. 4. &.1.ws 2 ft) . 25.. (w4w)(ww). 32 w 2 w. 25 47. 15. 364c. 7  a + 2 + c. 2 . ar. a 3& . 11. (5x47 3. 2a. 18. 59. 3 m. 3 Ji 8 . 3. 20. ti. 16. 0.a~.(2 x2 . 4r 2 . 36. 38. 18. Page 44.5. 2 a f 6 414. a). 21. 8. 12. 32. 2 17. 10 m. mn. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 29. _ Page 30.1 . 42. x a8 1. 3 a3 & 41. a f 2 f 2 9. 13. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2. 2. 8. 25. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 43. 4. + 8. ab a. 15. 26. 22. 2 + a4l). 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 1. 2 . 10.2. ( 7. f 2 ?/  2. w* ( . 4wipg>' 27.a'2 . 2a: 2 4x. 5. 14. + 2y. 14. Page 7. . + 4 c.6 x + 0) 16. 12.2 a. 20.a*. c. c. .  23. 20. 3. 19. 36.4 d. s_r>a5. (yz~d}. 2x 4 a 13. :5 41.  a: 2. 2 4. 2. a  ISjfat. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 8. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 1 + 45. 3 a . ?> 22. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .2 57.11. 1.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 6.
22. 8. 11. ll 2 i. 20. . 32. 52 + 6s 12. . 2''. 30. 34. 17. 21. 14. 7. 4 jcy*z*>. 21 a'&c. 17. 16. 4. 34. 16 51. a 8 . 24. 6. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 4. 60. 7. 25 4 4. . 4aWy. 18. 7. iSx8 . 27.64 190 p6. 15. 30. 13. 24. a*b*c. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 28. . + O4 66 .19p" + 19^ 10 . 13. 1.12. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 22. 2. 16. . 66 39 k* . 2. Page 3. 66 8W 34. 3. 1. 161b.15.11 xyz .6) =a2 31.21. 19. Page 35. 16. 18a% y.18 w w + 10 WI M . 4. 34. 30 j9 jt?g j .20 xyz . 10. 127"'.7(50.25 + 14. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 42. 10. 120. 1400. 1.44 aWc 16 abxy.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . ?/ . 3 a 3 . 27.(3x2_4^+7). 36. 12 ^. 4200. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 24. 23. ?> 4 .26. 3(*+0 + 2). 7. 161b. 3.. 2.14 . 2 ). Page 7. 29. 18. 30 n?b*c*. ! 2. 6. 4 a2 . 4 a8 . . 1. 2*8f x2 6x4. 27. 20. 33. 19. 4 fc.. 8. 14. 26. a. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 13. 8. 4.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 8. 18. 14. 216. +. 64.. 9. 24. 12 x2 2 .8 12. 15. 11. +15. 16. 9 w 2 + 13 n . ISartyW e*f*tj..r% 2 2 ry. 2 w +2 2 . 9. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 0.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 11. 16. 20 aW.>(/ r . s 9 ww. 4. 15. 18.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.000. .32 y s s G . ^^ = 20. 12. 13. 3. x2 xy42^. 360. 04. . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 102. 83 In + 1 n*. 35. 5. 20.2. . 31.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 30. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 5aft(a 126 2). 14 m 2 . 3. 29.:>/ .69 rt + 21 132 + r . ft 17. 32. Page 38.16 a 2 + 32 a . 1.14 w 2 2 . 60. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 90. 17. 6. 8. 4 7> 4 :j !} .28 p'^/. 14. 2 2 2 . 30. 25.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 20. 2 . 29. 2 a2 (y 2 . 15. 22. 2 ). m. 27.16 x2/ 5 4. 11. 23. Ox a 5 . 21.32. 37. n (a6) 125. 1904. 15 q\ 6. 6. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 13. . f 26. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. a. 15. 25.6 2 . 31. 108. 28. + 58 . 3300. 1. . Page 36. 23.12. 25. 9. 10.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 10.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 9 13. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.21 a 3 c2 21. 1. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 20. a: . 28. 38wiw. 29. 19. 33. . 18. 343. Page 5. etc. 216. 26. 8 . 22. 18. 4. 16 lb.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 27.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 23. 6". 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . ci 5 . 5. 18> ^* = a . //. 84. . 2 * 80 . 19. a + ft. 40 r 2 . 3 a 2 46. 12. 7G . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 20. 0. 42. + 7. 28. 21. 33.1. 2. 2 7t A.19 + 2. 24. fa 2. 17. 108. a. 25. 6 . (+3)x6=+16. 12.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.36 35. 770. 30. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 76 8 a' 1 . 15 lb. 210. 30. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 14f 5. .
4.00 + 37.4 12. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 9801. 35. 10. 9. 36. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 8. 484.4 a&+ 4 &*. a3 0. 40. 32. 55. x 48. 10 a 4 ?. 4. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.201. (a (3 54. 7 . 33. a + 25. Om2 4 6m 6. G a6 2. 25 a 2 6 2 . 26. ./ .020. 30 x + 19 x3 .p132. 14.994. ^/> 8 4 .10 35. n + 2. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. p 2 . ^V^4 . . 5. 23.^V"' . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. m 2 . 10 a' 2 . 41. 34. 30. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. (w4)(w + l). ) 4' 6/ 49. 17. .008. ft' 11. (a + 4) (a + 2). 10.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.15. 36. 39. 29.^. 51. 20a 2 21a + 4. Page 12. 2. 31. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 2 4 a + 4. 16.14 jp + 49. a 2 . 2 . ~ 6 20 . 2 12. 6 2 + 6lf>0.712. 3.606. 41. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 14.. 4x21.000. 33. 53. 4 + 25 q*.x2y22. m 3 j) 3 . 52. 1. 2 6' . 10. 9. (p 2. 2 fr . x2 GiC+5. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 11. (n 2 5. 2 4 2 2 64 . 1. ?/H)0. 7> .6 x2 13. 24. fo*. 14. 5.810. 32. x 4 ?/4 + ab . ' 46.ANSWERS 28.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .2 6 + 13. 40. 25 25. . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 8 a W . 10. 1. 4 21. lflrt 2 8 + l. 1). 11. 2 62 V2 132. .3. a4 4 ?/ . (m + 6)(m3). 1. 2 +10s281. a' . n2 a4 6. . r.ri 17.54 p 2 + 81. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 4 . 1. 10.35 ab 9.6. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.84 a' 9. + 4 a +4. 10. + 12. 33. 38. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.8. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.25.009. 26. p4 + . 12 x2 . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 4 . . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.r . . 2 (5 a 3). +  m' 1.r* 2 30.009. + 3)(3). . 2 . x*2^f I. 18. 27. 4.^ + a? + 1. 4 x2 13. 30 /><.4 n. 31. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 9 4 /> . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 37.2 x + 2 x.20. 10.996. 19. 34.. 40. 7.10 x + 25.49. 2 1: 21. 8. + 2 9. 990.2. 10. 3. . 2. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. (w+4)(m4). x* . 37. 27. 35. w'n 2 //^ + 25.001. 2). .16 a3 f 50. 2 a 2 + a . 36 a 4 . 15. 24. 25.6 y4 10.m 30 6 4 1.1. 2 0)(p + 5).6 xy . 28. 999. 2 j3 Z . 45. . 10. . 8 38. I/). + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.020.004. ab. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 8. 36. 19. 441. ^' J  7 f 12. 2 a' y' . V + o ft .098.5 ~ 81.404. 4 2 //. ab .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.r . + 4 t*. 39. 15. 6. +4 34.ab . 10. 7. 9999. Page 39. x4 28. 1. y. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). . . + 10 + 121 y*.000. 10. a + 56. a + 25. a2 ' + 48Z100. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 42. .2 y*. 57. 166. 6. 7. 21 2 . s rc 47. 44. 9990.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. . 56.500. +   5). 998. 31. 29. 3wi2 m Page 42. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.
yfl. :r !>. Exercise 2 a:// 26.1. 2 ?/ 4. 4.25. 2 . 5.2 ftc . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.10 xy*. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 10 ft. Osy.  11. G. // 19. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .y3. y 7.3 a 41. 3 aft 20. 4x43?/. c 12. 14. . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.VI ANSWERS 43. 14 r 2 .9 d. c3. 6x 3. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 8. 14. ft 17. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. Exercise 27. 11 4. 4. 7 r .2 1 //. 8. 47. i 9. 13. i 2 tji. . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 13.1. 15. . 9. 1. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 24. ti'jry1 7. 1. 2 12. 1. 11. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. as _ 10 16. Page 51. 2 4. 2 . 01.2 . 2. 10. 18. 2.  5 z* . 1. 21. 1. 21. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. r ft. 3. 2. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.3 5. 6.3^V. . 2 a 3 ft. 9.2 aft 4. 13. 5.6 :rs 4.27 x 2 4. 5. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 49.r .1.2 ar. f>r* 4.rw. 12. 3. . ./ 4. 3. 19. _ 2 a . 22.1. /r . 4 d 2 4. 1/*. 13.1. 8 ?/ . 4. 26.23.2 wZ 4. . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . . x4.2 .7. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. ft* ft / .2 2 . 125. 4ft. 5. 17. j) . r 7. .29. 6. Page 48. 4. .1. 9. 12.25 c . x 2 + 2r f J. 15. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 2 4 2 x 4. 3. 16. abc 7. 16. 9. w . 5. a 10.x^. 5. sr 11. 17.r" 20 S? .r?/. 19. w 2 . 4. +w . 8 x . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 2 1. 20. 8 ?/ . a 2 .lit x + 4. 14. r/2 4. r//. 6. Page 22.15. 135.  . 44.3 ry. ?/2.30 ftc.rw f 8 . .2 <</. 5.5 mp.2 . Page 13. aft 12. 13.3 3. . 1000 1000 . 46. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 18.21 2 2 f + . 5. 14. 8. aftc 52. 2 ? 14 .8 y. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 2 2 + 2 a.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .2 2 2 8 .r'^ 15. a. Page 7. 10.8. 11.r' ~ 16. 2 ?/' . 12. 7a3ft. . '. m'2 3. 4 x. ft. + 4. 5. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 4 4 ft.15 21.2 ac . x 4. 5 a  (5 ft. 4.10 2 + z 2 410. 9. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .5 n*. aft. 3. z. 20 15.n. 75 a 2 29. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 2 4 3 9. ??. Page 11.9 4. 4xy + 13 <) . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 1. 3 a. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.24 . 4. 8.5 a . 5^418(7. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 10. 2.r?/ j/. . 4 pq. 4 a 2 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 14. 6. 3*y2 w + 1.> 10. m L 4. 4 c m .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. + x?/ 2 1. 4. 7. a 8 4. 2. 4 ac. .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.1.+ 77 15.34.3 x 2 2 4. 13. 3. 4 a* 4 9 11. 8.  3 c. 50. 1.r ?/ ??i ?). ft ? ft' ft ft. 12. 6.1*5 2 r 2 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' .000. *3 y 4 . 23.4. 16. 2.w.12 aft 4 20 ac . l 4 . 5 4 a Oft. . 8.8 yn . + 3.  12 y 25.2.8.  10. 12. 17.
. 37. 32. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 16. 20. 1.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 17. 60 25 1. 30. n M. 15. 59. ] 2 ri 42. 2. 44. 3. 46. a 8. 4. 34. 6. 100 d ct. 6. 1. 11. (>. 25.  6 10. . 7. 2. .100. ct. (2 a. x 48. (d) 2a + 10 = n.7). 33. 800 = x + 1300. # + 20yr. s. 10 yr. 39. 4. <>. x y $ 6 yr. 17. Page 40. y ?>i x + 26. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 10 x sq. 10 >_&. 41.  9 = 17 a. 10. 43. 20. 4.p+7.. 7x 2 Page 21. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7.10) 100. 57. 31.ANSWERS Page 9. b. vil 56. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10).ab a. y 50. 4 f 39. 40. 38.  1$. </ 20. 38. ft. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x.6 = *. ft. Page 13. ^ 12 sq. 5. sq. 37. 3. I. Page 61. fix. . 28. 15. + 3x + 2y + 32. 5.x700. y 2z p= 3 (a c. = 5 ?i x 460. + 10 b + c ct. x. 10. 2. 1. 14.r1. + 3 = 2(3* . 11. m+ 11. 19. 6. 0. 10. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. Jj12. 21 2. 8 n  10 yr. 22. b. 14. (</) 2a. 23. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 33. iL*. 44. 58. 5. 7. 35. m +~m 3. f 6)(o 62. 1&. 3x  1700) = 12. 13. . X 60. 29. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 45. I. (A) 3 x f (4 x . % 4. r>?imi. 2b. 36. x 2y 10 act. 7. x 49. 23. x = m. 6. (> 27. 42. 3 9. 5. 29. 5. 12. "mi. . 2 ct. 12. 2. 1. 4. 27. xy ft. 8. y 100 a 24. 16. 11. Page 31. 100= ^. 2x + 35. 18. 22. 36. 7. 3x2.r ct. 13. 50= L 100 15. d + !.(3x  700) = 5.rr2. lOx 10 + w. + f + b 2.(3x+ = rraxlO. 8. . 'nj 100 a 28. 17. (c) 2x. a 10. 2. f = eZ 2 x. r tx mi.  2\. . f (I. x + 1=a. (a) ' 12.. 4(a ft) c = 8.000. 13. 41. 2. 1. 7. 47. !). 19. Page 6. + 4x 3y 34. 2b 22. lO. 30. ct. 26. l. 24. 4. 100 2. 16. " lir. ft. ct. ( a f 4. 10 a.. 10. y yr. 5. / + y + a// 12 yr. d. 25. ? 43. 7.  />) a = all. 3. }f. rn mi. 9. v (6) 2x. 6. 0. 2=10. 20. 00. 9. 4^ = 100. 18. '^ . 100 14. 7.
. 8 in.000 pig iron..22. 5 lb. (c) ^ v ' . a a (a 8 a+l). 18.000. 42yr. 2.y"). 6. Page Page 4. 2. 10 Cal.7. ~=90. 7. 2.411. 10 yr. 3. 4.2). 5$ hr. 5 Col. 7. 14.13.3. 13. 3 hr.5. 14. 4. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.21. 67. 13. $40. 45 in. 52. 1 lb. 5.000.8.5.000 Phil.. 30. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).16. 1. 20. 2. 160 lb. 2. 3. 11 pV (2 p8 .. 2 3 6 7. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 8.. 13. 78. 11. 9. 23.000. 600. 8.000 N.000. 15. Page Page 480 12. 7. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 8. 10. Page 79. 15. (ro3)(w2). 22. 15 yd.0.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.3aftc + 4). 150. 55.79. 80 A. 5. (y 13. 8 2 19. 1200. (z5)(z2). 82 mi. 70. 9.. Page 7. 9. 8 12.. 29.000 ft. 5. 6. Page 7.000 copper. 10. 9 in. 2.. 7. . 7a*fe(2a & l). 1.. 100 1. . 16. 12. 10. 2).6). 3. 10. 12. 5. 13. 15. 13. 15. 50. 2 2 2 5. 1200. 10 yr. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 11.. (*4)( + 11. 100. 10 Mass. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 1313.. (a + 5)(a + 6). 300. (y + 8)(y2). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 40 yr. 2$.0. 17. 6rt 2 11.000 Berlin.(5z . 3. 20. 11 in. 6..24. Pace 65. 90 mi. 6.. + 7)(y3). ( + 4)(*2).. 20 yr.1). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 14. 25. ?(g ? g+ 1). 480. 12.11. 3x (3r. 14. 70^. 5pt. 250. w (/) 64. 10. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).  PageSO. 4. 3. 4. (yll)(y4). 68. . 10 yd.2. (a 4) (a. (a + 6) (a + 3). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 180. 15 mi. 74. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . (e) i* + A. 11 w(w' + wi . (6) (6 a 30) =20. Oaj(o62cd). 18. 78. 200. 3. 9.3. 14. 6. 1. 30 yr. ^ . 90. Page 5.000 ft. (a5)(a4). 8. 12 mi. 7 hr. 25.5p + 7 g ). 6. Y. 75. 2 2 ?/ 21. 18.10. 20 yd. 1.. 20 yr. 85 ft. 19. Ib. (p + 7)(3a5&). 72. 7. 12.000. Page Page 4. 30.. 15 in. 28yr. 1. 8. 12. 20. 30 mi. 71. (y7)(y + 2). 6. 11.000. 2. 24J. (m + n)(a + 6). a 12. 8. 9. 9. = _?_(2ar + 1).210^. 05. (a + 4)(a + 8). 200.3). 1. 7. 4pt. 8. 1250. 3.000 gold. 6. 12. 25 yr. 4. (y8)(y + 2). 14. 4. 9. 17. 3 (a +&)(*. 15. . 1. 21. by 12 yd. 5.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 8. 10. 11. 10.000.
(7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 3a. (ay8)(ay3). 24. 3. . 7. . Yes. (a + 8)(a3). . (m + w) 2 5. + 3). (5a +l)(5a l).7) (a. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 8.y) 2 aft. 100(x. Page 84. 25.6) 2 2 . 21. + y + . 23. No. (m7n) (a. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).4 6). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 2 2 15. 17. (4 13. 5. 28. . 24. 32. 40 x. 11. 9. (5x . 22. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 15. (y + 4)(yl). + 4) (a. 10. 7. 21. 28. 8. (3*2)(.1). 30. (* + y)(zy). Yes.2 y). (9y4)(y + 4). Yes. 26. (w + 20)(w + 5). 24 9. (6n + l)(+2). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 14. 31. 10(a + ft)(aft). 24. (a (p8)0> + l). (az + 9)(ox2). 26. (a 6 6) (a 4. (5wl)(m5). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 26. 2.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 100 (a. (<7 20. No. (2o + l)(2l). 8. 10. Yes. + 5) a. a*(5a f l)(flr . y) (a. 29. 2). . (a 3 + 10)(a. No. 2 No 4.+4 y)(3x4 y). 22. 14.7)(2z f 1). 9. (a a: 19. + 9^)(oxy .y (6x + 4)(5x4). ix 18. 33. 8) (a. No. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 20. (w ~ n (x .1).1). 12. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).2 ft). Yes. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (6 a.2). + 8)(g3). (w* (3a26). 26.* (2 y + 3)(y. 15. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (a. 17. 23. 13x(a + ft)(aft). (0 + 6)(66). x\x 24. (3#y)(+4y). (4a. Page 82. 19. 4. (2yl)(y + 9). (2 *+!)(* 9).. (10a + ft)(10aft). 18. 2. (2 a? 4. 25.ANSWERS 16. (5 a 2) (2 a 3).  x (5 a. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). a. + 0(90 Page 85. + 2y).5y)(3a. 10. Yes. 31.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 20. 21. 6. 16.1). (g . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . a(2u. y) 2 29. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. 4. 10(a . 29. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 10(2 30. 36. 11.8). (15z2y)(x5y). 16.2). 34. 3(x + 2)(zl). 25. 32. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). . 10 a 2 (4 . 13. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 2 3 by2 Yes. 20. (2xl)(x + f>). 2 17. 9. (ft + ll)(aftll).c 2 ). 14. Yes.11 ft)(a6). 16. (x + y4 )(x .   . 30.11 6) (a 4. ( 2 4 19. Yes. (4y3)(3y + 2). . Yes. 6. 10. Page 83. No. 22. 34. . 3)(3a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (3a. 5. 11. 35. 3. 103x97. 22.y4 ). 7. 21. 25.4p). 25. (15ay2) 2 . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 7 6) (a 10 6).3)(z2).4. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 216 aft. . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 12. . y(x.2 by2 6. 1. (:52y)(2a!3y). 33. f 2). (4 18. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 17. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 4 (a . x(x +y)(x y). 13x7. 27. 23. + 3)(c44). 18. Yes. 27. 12. 9. (13a +10)(13a 10). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 19. 27. (7 a + 4) (2 a . a . . 28. . 1. Yes.3).6) 2 1.r2). 1. 23.9*). 2. 9. . 3. (y8) 2 2 . 35. (4al)(a2). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .
>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 28.8) ( (16. 9. 37. + 2 //).4.e 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 13. 6 f c). n  r)(5a 10. 18.&). 42a 3 x. 8.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (a />. 8. ^ . (w * .b. (!__/>). 13 x 8 2 . 15. (r420(4 10. b) (r 4. x  1). Page 12. 7.8) n 43*). 6. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 12. 8).?/).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 2. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (. x43. 4. ?>).y. 35.?50)(xt/z.2)(x 1. 2. 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 16.))(x  ^OC 1 1).?>) H. 3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y.4). 7. ( y). 5 x8 3. 19. 17. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). a + a b. y )(. 8. . Page 87.y)(fi a . (5 26. 11. Page 92.'/)('< 4.5 m2 x2. 7. Page 89. 20. a 4. x . (> 1. (a &4. 41. 2 2 3 . 24x sy s 9. (^ + ?>_8).2). 13( 33. a8 . (m  I)' 6.y). 6.4.4). (c. Exercise 46. 8. a (a + 2 6). 15 M. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 4). 2 y) ^ . (x. (2x7)(x 2 2). ( a ^)(^3. (x//. 24. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 2 1. 4  9. 27. .2). ?i(w 4y) . ( (<> r4y3 . 4. 7.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 14.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 7. (5 31.1) 3.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ( { &). 6.&). 3 x4 . 32. 2 8(w . 8x. . (a 9.y '2 2).'})(c . r x 2 */3 . 10(2 (3 4. 16. Page 86.^ 48.0+ 12). 6. 4 a8 . 3(. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 8. 2. 12. 10. a 4. 5. x 4. (5a+l)(9a). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 11. 5. 8. 2 (a 4. 9.8). 4 a s &8 . 4 6. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). x(x f y)(jr . 14. 2 . 1(V/ 88. 11. 39. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .7)(^ {I 12. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.3. 5. 8. . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4.) j). (a 4. 2. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).1).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 15. 7. 38. fi(c426). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (f> + fo 7.X 5. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (5^4. 4. y(2x?/).1). .n). y6. 2 + . 17(x43//)(x2y). 13. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). a 2 (a9).42 x 4.  WIM. (14. 40. 4. 5  (2 2 .7s) (2 a. Page 90.l)( a 25. 1. 2 k (wi 4.2 y). l.3)(x 4. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 2 21. (16 4  2(5 n . 30. ofc)( fid). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 14. 11. ah}. 2 2 10. y). 2. 6. 4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.!) (x42)(x2). 5. 4.. 6.'J)(' .  29. 36. a x 3 10. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 14. 42). 12.9). ( rt 23.3. + 3. 22. (^ 7.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . Exercise 47.  (w' 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). 3x(x?/) 4. 4 3. a 41. Gp). 2(m4l)' . .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).36). 13. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 450.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). (w4w) 2 1.
ANSWERS 10. +5 1. // m+1 !+*?. 13. 30(3 2 (a 15. x 22. (a2)(a + 2)2. + y) (a: y). x 12. b ! 21.6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +8b a 4 3 / ^. x 24. 18. + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 11. ?_!&.  1). a 10 25. a 23. 1). 2(2al) + l). + &) 2 ( .
i. + lH + . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 28. Page 101. xy 43. 0. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 1. c 8. . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 6. Page 100. 30. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.50 ~ 1/2 . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.  **/* + 84 _. 2 a. A^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 7. ^~ 29. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + 2H 1 ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 4c 10.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ' 2 7.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 4 L 8 2 . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. i^. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 26. 4. 6.. w1 + ac w 4 7. a 5. 6a5f^. 11.
6. . 4a3ft. 20. 5. pf n 6 1. n m a + 13. f 7. ^i 11. 1. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. b a f +c 14. 41. 21. 23. 4. 11. j L . ?+_!?>. f Page 107. 39. + f. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. (>. Of. 1. x\. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 3. 3. 4. 2ft a i m x. Page 111. 1. 5. 6. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. a2 2. I) 2 3z 1. 7. 10. 5. J. 3. 10. ft. 8. 12. Page 110. 24. 6. a. 32. x 05m ' 5. 14. J. 3. 37. 19. 25. ac mp lf> n 12. 16. 17. 15. 44. 1. 34. . 9.  V o 4. ^_. 6. 9. 40. ' 6. n . 31. 0. 42. ?. flf. 0. 1. 29. 17. 2 47. an 18. 26. ! 4 20. 33. 38. Page 106. 7. 9. 1. 1. 6. 45. 11. 12.ft . 43. 4. 18. 13. 7. A.^U\WF### X<6. 1. b 2. 5. 14. 16. 15. 35. 3. 4. 15. (a + y) 2 Page 104. y(x + x ?/). 11. 11.  10 X + u. 8. 4. 8j_m 7 3. 2) 19. 36. 11. 1. 5 be _J_. 14. c 8. 3 7 i o. . 1.L+ft. . J. 30.^_. a 17. 46. m 9. w^x 2 b Page 105. 21. 12 28. 4.y 7. (y + (z 12. 21. 7. 6 . 27. 3. 4. x 1. +3 ( + 15. Page 113. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. n 16.
10^ oz.. IV s. Page 124. 30 mi.  + . . 3. 15. 15. 3. 55 mi. 1. silver. 4. 14. ~m . 9.  C .002. min. 14. 28.000 1 = 23. 26. Yes. * 7:9.000. 9. $30. (a) 12 hr. " 0.000. jj. 1. 2x:3y. 1:3.11. 1. 4. [>> ^ a . 300. 10.  29. 34. 3 da. Page 125. Page 117. 212. 19. 7 . J. 1:1 = 1:1. 6. 24. 15. 13. (r) 3^ da. 10. (c) 8300. 20. #V ~~ 34.XIV '/ . 275:108. 8. 00.2. f. . 26 mi. dn ~ mi. 10 yrs. (a) 30. Yes. 5 2.000 If da. 18. Page 118.2. 5. (a) 25. 7.} da. 20.138. . 1:1=1:1. 17. 24. 14. 30ft. 40wn. 1 : 12. 4. 1: ~. 11./hr. 16. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 300. 24 mi. 3:2. .10. Yes. 9$.15. Yes. 14. 10. 7. No. 36. 21. 81. 19. 21. 6. 9. Yes. ANSWERS 16. 2 20. Yes. 1. 9. 3. w 21. 17. 33. 9ft. 33. a 4 ft. 15. 2.0 & . (d) 500. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 8. $0.. 10. after 20. '"I 22. (ft) 104. 9J oz. 8.. Yes. 15. 13. w 18. 27. 40 mi. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. P+ ^ 33. 40 yrs.001. 15. 17. 15.. ft. (ft) 28. 11. 0. No. 8. Page 121. 7. 19. = A's. 18. 12.004. n 32. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 13. 10.137. 8. 7. 3. 12.. (ft) 5 da.. 23< &n b ' . gold. 32. after 18. () 2. 6. 1:4. . 10. 10. 5.. (d) 4 da. 4. :2. 2. 1^'. 5ft 30mi. 7. ^m . 300. 18. 1:1 = 1:1. 20.000. 13. 8301 hr. 7T 2 Page 116. 500. 17. 5 25.. after $12. 11. 30 yrs. $00. Yes.. 4~r~ n . 7} 18..000. (c) 2 hr. xy. 19. 10. 31. 5. . 26 30. 2:1. 3. (a) 4 min. w 44.0. nm. 3. . 5. min. J ^'. 16. _JL.139. 38ft min. 21ft min. 30.9./hr. 22. 1:1 = 1:1. 4fl M_. $40. 11 hrs. Page 119. ^?i min. 1 da. 16. 7. 12.x + y. ^p^ r ~ 7. (ft) 5 hr. 75 . 4. f .003. 10. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . $45. 74. 35. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.
3.2. 41.J 3. 17. 5. 16. 47. ft. OJ. 4. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 7.840. 15> 9. J. 5 2. 4. 31. 40. 29.22. J pq. . 4. 7. 3. 3. water. 26. : 23. \\.3. in. 3. 4. . 1. : . y . 3. Page 132. ' 55. Inversely. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . . 2. 5. 3.li. 22. s<i. 3. Page 5. 13. 2. 5.5.  19. . 14. 5. 1. 15. . 7. 4. 25.7.3. 9. 174+ Page 128. 2. Page 9. 1. $. 2. 50. + b 7 . 2. mi. 2. 4. cu. (b) Inversely.000 sq. 15. 6. (</) ft. 12. 6. + 7>i//  ft 1 . y a y = 7 0. 7. 49. I. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 31J. 7.. . 1. : : . 2 n . 2. 23. 12. 4. x y y . 2.1.C ?/ a . 4. 48. 141. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 6*.000 sq.3. 9. 11. () Directly. 19 3 . 200 mi. 3.2 oz. 3.. 10. land.46. 39. 10. 40.]. 5. 44. 5. : XV 27. 11. 17. 53. . 20 20 J ^. 13. 18. 12. Page 135. *. 20. . 19 OJ. 52. 9. 1.3. 57. 13. 7. 1(5. 3. 6 10 = 12. 1. 1.4.36. 2.12.5.1. x 42. 11.1.3. 3. 7. ini. 7. 11. a 3.*. Page 136.2 x.2. jc:y = n:m. lo mi.17.4.5. 16. 9. 4. 10.' : : : : <>. 2. 35. 25. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.3.^ 0?j ' gms. 55.3.a.5. 8. 43.5. 26.2. 16. 17. 7. 5.7. 2. w 8. 2. 2. 30. 58. 9. 6. 12. = 7 b'. w. 1 18 = 3 51.15. 22. 14.) 31. 8. 4. 25. 41. Page 133. x:y a: b. 7. 2.15 x. 945 11 10 . 4. ~ 1.1.5. 36. 5. t 5. : />. 8.5. 24 1 (e) Directly. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.3. 20 cu. ig 6. 3. 45. 30. 7. 11. 3 2=3 x. 4.160.3. 46. 2. 5:3 = 4: x. 138. 9. 5. i. 2. Page 131. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.4. 4. 36. 1. J. 6. 28. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 7. 13J./':</ c a f :y=2:9. x y = 1 = 3 2. . y 1. 8. 8. 3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : ."2:1. 14. 1. . . 3}. 23. 2. 9. 5. 127. () 7 Page 126.. a~.5. 11 w a 13. 7. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. 24.J. a +b 1. 7. + W. 2.20.12. 2.8 oz.3. 3. 24. 5:0 = 10:12.2.  28. 2. "lO. 8. 19. 2.6. 19. tin. 56. \. 6.4.ANSWERS 22. 19. 54. copper. . 27.r. 2. 8. 9. 1 rt * vm^1. 4. 7. (I. 38. Page 137. .4. (a) Directly. l. 2. 59. mi. : : T 1' : /> : . 2.x a. 21. 10. 5. 9  15. Of. 7^. 13. 3  24. in n. 2. J.9.1. 1. 11 5 . 20.5. . Page 134. b x 37.  ?. 32+ mi. 4. 21.57. y :y =." ^ 2. /.3. 7. 32j. OJ. 14.
 17. 19 gms. 18. C's 30 yrs.2. Nov. 1. 6. m + n p. 0. 21. Page 146. 10. 3. On 11. parallel to the x axis 0. . 4 mi. 6. July. 4. Apr. 9. 11. 9. yrs.1J. 2. 7. Page 145. 10. 1. Page 152. 5. 10^ gms.9. m . 4. ad _(?jrJL. at 15. 2. be 10.33. 20 to Oct.0. & May. 6. 25. 2. 1. 11. 2. 16. 3). . 21. 12.4. . $6500at3Ji%. ft 3. 7. $3000. 12. be 7.4.3. 3. 16. 16. . 3. Aug. 3. .  11. 2t2. <*ft/ bd 1. 5. $ 1000. 3. 13.65. The ordinate. C's 10 yrs. 7. 26. 2. July.1. Jan. & part of Feb. 28. B's 40 yrs. About 12f. 20. 20 & Oct. 20. 9. 15. m f 9. 22. 6 cows. 17. 3. through point (0. 5. 11. . 2 a. A's 30 18. 11. 16. 16. 25. 3. 40. 23./hr. 24.. Feb. 13. 4. 3. 15. 14. 2. 0. $4000. 32. &. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 8. 2. 1. 4.0. 2. Jan. 30. (<f) 13.4. 8. 1. J. (ft) 23 J. u 2ft. ad AzA.2. 10 sheep. 24. 31. 2. 4. 16. 1.. Page 143. 3. 1. 7.. 25. 1. 4. 30. 1. 20.^. 7.8. 20. 24. 6. $900 5%. 3. a =J (n  1) rf. 1. 3. 7. 23. 18. (ft) 20. 4. 3. 9. Jan. 26.  Zn  "(^ll 14. M 2.7. 27. 3. 3. 5. 2.. 1..XVI Fagel39. 11. Jan. 12. 6. SL=J o ft r^2. 5. 6. 29. 7.$2000. (a) Apr. . . Apr. 5. ^. Page 151.10. 14. 6. 147. 25. 00. 23f . 2. 0.$5000. 18. 24. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 19. 5%. 40. 15. Oct. 2. Jan. On the x axis. 17. 17. $250.l. 30. 10. 20. 19. 1 (c) Jan. 2. 9. (c) . 10. 4. 4. . 4. . 3. 5. Page 22. 4. Nov. 3. 2. 9. . 7.3. 13. 7.3. 5. 4. 3. 423. 4. On the y axis. 10.1. Page 149. yrs. 18. Nov. 100. 72. A a parallel to the x axis. . m f 8. $500. 12. 2. 12. 90. B's 15 yrs. 6%. 16 to July 20. 11. 2 horses. Page 153. 1 (d) Apr. 4 ' q. (a) 12. 5. a. 2. 3. 8. 8. 5. 4. ' . 2. June. (5. Nov. 3. = ^ a Page 141. 6.. 4. 7. 2. A's 50 13. 3. . Page 142. 14. Apr. & part of Sept. May 5. 1.n + p. ' 6 3 a. July 20.
25.64. 12.25. (<?) 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 2. 2. 1. (a) 4. 3. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. Page 158. . 20. 27 27 81. 3. 13. . a 10 ' a ll V&. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.5. 15 . 2. xg . 3.59 . a + ft.13. 3. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. H. 15. m. 4. 3. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3.17 (ft) (c) 2. 4 ) 21. 2 2 22. 5 and 2.73. 9. . 18C. 24. 5. .4. 2ft4 Page 168. .  . 30. (/) 3. . 125a 28. 2.64. Page 164. . 4wn8 + n4 5. 3.75 (ci) 3^. 2 l. 13C. 1 23. . 3. 8. 13.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 19. . 25.73. 4. 24. .59.73 ami .  1.24. 15. xy. (c) 14 F. 22. 27 19. Indeterminate. f. 17. 18. 3. 5.2 (ft)  1. 8. +3 4. (ft) 2. 2. 14. 3.24 .5. 5. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 8 1 f f g*. ImW. 1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. () (rt) 3.79. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 2. 10. 3. 2. . 2. SlstyW 7. Inconsistent.1. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . Indeterminate.3. (e) 3. . 14. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 5. 2. 7. 9. 11. 21. 1. * 16. 6. 3. H. 19. 1. 1. 20. Inconsistent. .41 and .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 1.84. 3. 2. 1. 13. (ft) and (d) 2. (a) 5. . 2. . (ft) (d) 2. 27. 1. 16. 5. (a) 2. .7. 125 a 8 12.75.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 1.27. . ' :=_!.5 (ft) 3. 3. 83. xW. Page 159.. 1. . jgiooyiio 17. + a 4 ft* .3.73. 6. 2. a 29. 9 and Page 166. 10.83. 4. 1. 10. f12 wi 9. (e) 2. 10 C. 8. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 22. Page 163. (a) 12. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.. 3. 1 4. 15. (c) 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. f 10. \ft) 5. 3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.. 3. 4. 11. . 1. 8mW. 13 . 11.67. 0C. 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 1. 1^. 4.41 and 23. 5. 2. 125 16. . 1. 4. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.75. 26. ft 2 4.83.34F. ft . 14. 30. G. (c) 7. 2 a&m Page 167. 3 . 14. 3.  12 ft xW  26 31. . 1.25. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 5. 1. 32F.24.79. 1. . 2. 4. . 2. 2. (/) 3. . 8 a1. (gr) 21." 23.75.25..  1. 81 ". 28. 12. 1. 2. 0.1. f. 2.6.25. 4}.
??i ?i . 3. 32. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 13. 6. . ( Page 174. 9.y2 ). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 35. + + ?V 22. 8. AN S WE no . 16. Page 176. 8. 180 .+3^ + 4. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 3. 57. Zll. 98. 76. 5. 2 4 8 2 . 16 6 w . 2038. 25. 6. 3M. 15. 2. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. + y). 20. 36. 17. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 4. Page 171. 31. 14. 33. 3.r 2 + 6jt).5.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .XV111 7. 5.5). 978. . 17. (Gx + (i + 2a. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 64.  +X '. 25 19. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 70. 71. 72. 11. 14.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 309. a.f 1 m 9 16. 12. 6. + i)).7 /)). 22. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 4. 1 1 ?>).037. . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 2 2 7. Page 170. 1.1. 5 5 8. (1 (x2y). . 6. 28. . 26. 12. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2 12. 18. 99. ? . a 2 . (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.10 a~ + 5 a .i c 6 15. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 101. 90. 0. 7. 10 x G a 4 . (a + 2 +l). 247. +3 + 5 4. rt . 9. 34. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. fe *?>' ?> fi . 5. 1. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 6. 10. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 3 6 23. 13. (ab + c). 12. (2 a + ft). 17. . 119. r> 4 : 1 . (x + y\ 90. 10*. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 2. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 11.3 ab + 2 2 ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). c 10 6 :l 20. 420. 10. 237. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 8 /. m 13. 15. 4. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 16. . 8. 9. 7. 00. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . (a 2. + Z). a. 18. 763. 4. + l). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 20. 30.^). 21. 27. 20. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). + (win . +35.a b 22. 19. (l + x + . 5. 6 (\x 3. 9. 300. (3a. 10.83. 2. 90. 3. 5. (4a2 9& 2 13. 1247. 1. 14.1.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 23. 15. .GO a c + 23. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 9. 2. (48 + 6. (a + y+l).94. ? : 1 . 11. 19. 2 49 . (ly). Page 172. 2(> + ( 2 7>). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 18. 40. 9.  x. 21. 2. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. .2). (x' l). 20. 30. 3 2 ^. 7. 14. ). . I 8x2). 15. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 16. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2 2 4. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 84. 3 2 8 3 12. 8. a ). /> 4 ). 1.x ).6. GOO 2 c 2 . ^i. + 29. 11. 24. a: l . 8.
Page 185. 26. 1. f f V. 5f. 21 in.6. 19. 2. . ^.798 yds. 2. Page 180. V2. 270 sq. 35.60. 12. V2. 37. 27. 32. 1. 6V21.925 ft. J. 4. 1. 10.. 9 15 ft. 36. V J l. 39 in. 13. 5. 2. 11. 3.. 2. 12. 8. 8. 28 in. 1 38. 20. 2 sec. 3. 7. 8. 6J. 15. " ^_ 22. 49. 30. 7. 14. 9. ft. 33. 16.243. 40. 4. 8. 10. 7. 6. . 33. JJI. 5. v 17. 6.  2. *. 31.6. 13. 21 28 ft. 10.i. 12. 4 TT M 28. 3. 3. 4. 6. ft. 1. w. 39.*. V. 3. 29. i ^.645. ~ V^3. 25. ^. Af^. 5. 42. _ iVaft. 21yds. 18. 5083. 40. 6. 5. 30. f ^ is.. 14. 37.6. 25.. 7. 8. 15. 9. 4. 5.  5. V17.ANS WERS 22. 39. 23.w 18.  1. 10. 4J. Page 184. 47. 5. ^^7m. 17.742 in. 15. or 5. 4 n. (afl). 15 1 10. a.. 5. 7}.236. . 13. 36. 1.V 8j.18. {. 13. 10. 48. ii :J _7. 21. 1. 12. 12. 44.4. 1 f Vl3. . 46. 5. ft.Sn.}.4. 2.?. 17. 10. 13. 7. >i 27. 3. 20. 23. 15. \/3. 41. f 3. 7. 9.005. 32. (< + ?>). 9.522 38.. 1. 2] see. 10. 5.a. 21. 4. 4. 3. 2. Page 179.5. 4. m. 35. 2.4.13. . . 3. 1. () 2. 11. 12. 5. 5. 36 in. 7. If ^.. 2. 19. 1. 15. 2. 7. 25 J.690. . 7 in. f. xix 26. 24. 7. 34. 7. 1 7. vV'TA 24. a + 61. 4. 17. 6. 16. . 6 f !. 3. 14. 5.6.367. l~8. 3. 6yds. 6. 8. 2. 3. 6. 10. 7563. 31. 4.  f. 6V'2J. . 7. 27. 4. / 11. 4. 4 W**. 1&. 5. 29.. . f. 12. 11.1. 29.. }. 10. 4. 24. 1. 50. 9. 12.. 9. 2. 1. 18.  f. 9. 16n. . 7 45. Page 177. 2. >TT 26. 3J. 23. 5. 28. 28. V35 1. 34.5.  14. 16. 21. 6561. 11. 14. 11. 14.  43. 9. 3. 3.  3. 20. (6) Vl4 3. m.916 yds. 4 a. > w ft. f . 16.935. vYb. ZLlAiK 19.6. 2. Page 183. . 22. 4.237. /. 3.1. i. Page 181.469. or 3. * 1. 6.
12. 2. 10 in. i.3. . unequal.70. . 6. 11. 2. 2. 16.2.5 x + 6 = 0. 10. 0. Real. 50. Real. 3. orf.2. 2. 1.1. 3. 7. 28. 20. AB = 3.1. 1. . 23. 0. 6. . V^l./hr. equal. a8 . 3. 0.10. 1. rational. t is. 25. 2. . 4. 7. 11. a. 3.2. 2. 20 eggs. 18. a + 6. 7. 7.2. $80. 25.. 9. 10 mi. 3. equal.5. v^^fcT"^. irrational. unequal. 0. 37. ' 1. rational. 28. 20 nii.  24. 5. 3. 31. 2.. 46. 5.l. 0.  i..  6. 9. 4. ft. 1.  1.  1. 2. 2. 45.* 2. 26.23. 36. 18./hr. in. . 3. 15 ft.4. 8. 55.23. 2. 4 da. 43. Real. 12. Imaginary. 5 ft. Page 192. 41.2.59. . 1 . 16. 16. 35. 6. If. %. + 11 x.1. .'. 21. 2. unequal. 2. Imaginary. 8. 8. 23. 6.. 10. a + 1. 2. f 6 52 a.74. 6. 35.7. 2 . 3. x* 51.. 3. 9. f. r* i. 3. 26. 1. . 20. 20.48. '  f 5. 18. 1. . 1. 7. 19 in. 1. 1. 1). 7. 5. 24. Real. 2. 48. 33.7. 9. 19. 27./hr. .3. 5. 14. 2.41. unequal. unequal.6 = 0.].48 3. Page 187. 4. 4. #<7=3. .  1. 3. 1. 0. 25. 3. 120 ft. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . f.02. 3. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 6.  1.  1.4. 56. 26. 3. unequal. 3. . 25.4. 6^2 in. equal. 1.12. 13. 10 mi. $30 or $70.2. 22./hr. 58. unequal. 1. 8. 24.  Page 194. 3. 17. Page 188. 7. 22. s 11. 21.2. 2. 1. 0. Page 191. 1_^L ft 14. _ 19. Imaginary. 15. 4.  9x <). 10. unequal. 1. 34. 3.a. 2 V3 in. a.17. V2. 3. . 3. x*4x=0. . 19. 2. 2. . 14. 0. 29. 1. 0.62. 2.  5. 3. 6. 1. VV11. 0.37. 4. 4. x 14. x2 + B . 15. $ 120. 0. 24. 0. 21. i . 2. Page 189. 12. rational. 8 or 12 mi. 30.4. 3if. .7.2. Page 190.  5. 23. 42. Real. 0. . 39. 47. (5 10.$40 or $60. 2. 3. . 0. 0. 1. 44.6. ANSWERS 22. 52. = 0.2. 27.4. 1. .Oa. Real.0*8. 28. 5. 0. 7. 3. . U.12 = 0. 64. 64c. 4. 26. rational.2 x2 . 32. 12. V^~2. 1 3. 6. 27. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. V^l. 2. *'' 12. V ~ 16 4 2. 10 or 19. 13.  2. H.5^. 12. Imaginary. 53. 8\/2 17. 1.2. 2.a.  2. 6V64. Real. unequal. 6. V7. 38. 40.XX Page 186. 57. 4. rational. 1. 15. 70 ft.  13..a 3 a. V2. 3. 49. jr . 6. AB = 204 ft. 2 ft. 4.3. irrational. Real.
13. 3. . 2. 49. ) 2 >J i 10. 7. 43. 2. V^ 34. 26. $7.6. 5. . 9. 6. 30 a. 39. 31. 16. 9. 12. 50. Page 197. (m 26. 31. 23. 47. 16. a. 10. 28. 22. 15. 25. 49. ^Sf 3 38. 3. . 0. : . 54. x$. 1. 12. 1 39. vm. 50. 2. 3. 4. 30.. 20. 9. m. y.  a'2 . 6. Jb \. 15. 40. 49. 20. 18. 58. J. . 16. \/3. p. . 7V7. 60. \ . 5. 8. 19. 8. 36. 1. i. 'J. y . v. 56. 14. 2. 7. 2 L ( V. 29. 3 4 11. J.17.  J j. 2. x/25. 2. 4. 13. 48. 9. ). 1. 2. 7. 17. 24. 3.  5. 4.  48. 9. 27. 8. r*. 23. fx'^z'l 23. J. 55.ANtiWEUS rational. 30. . 5. 24. 3. 18. v/3. 25. ? . Page 196. 8. 32. 27." 17. 19. 3. 52. 4. 20. 1. z + 22. v'frW. 1. 4. m'.  f . 4. 33. 33. 1. \/.1 5 15. v'frc 18. . 8. Vr. 1. 2. . 10. \a\ \/^. 5. 44. 46. JV37. 17. I. wA 46. 14. ifa. 49.  f. .^7. 59. 21. \/r\ 11. x. 42. 13. 4. *V. 6  AAf. 35. \. 2. 11. 7 . J 3. 8. 47. . n\/* Page202. 51. ^49. 20. 5\/5. 38. 125. 22. v^T4 m. 2.2. 29. 3. 3. 3. 15. 3. 1V1. 29. 14. vV. Page 201. &. 1. 0. 16. 32. Page 200. 18. 25. 243. 1. 4. 84.//^. \. 3. jV 10. 5. 11. l  5 12. 45. 10. 1. a 18 . 57. 1. xxi 15. r. 8. 53. Page 199. 21. 33. 24. 10. aW\ 40. 21. 19. 28. 12*2 61. 2V a. 3.32. 37. J. _! V3. 2. ar 1 . 8. 1. 9. 13. 14. 17. 19. 5. 41. 0.
8V/) 15. 41.. 135V6. 6. 9. 8. + Vic + 25. 101 1. 28. + 2). V63. 49. 19. 39. 13. 26. ^88".577. (a 27. 10. 1. ?tV?w. 9. 4. 34 r 6.rV:r. l 5. 7.r. x y. + 2 V22. m* n*. 9 . 5 ( .632. 20. 28. . 3^2. Page 207. / V3. 31. 13 35. . 26. V 5 47.2 VlO. 2. 3^ + 2). 2 a?>V2 a.). 03r* 7. 30. 45. 3 4\/2. 17. 2 4 z2 l 3.692. V2 + 4 V22. 4. Page 208. 43. r 17  Page 204. a 4 +* + !. 3. 40. abVab. 37. (o* 2. 2. a 3.Vxy 35. . 62V(J. 16. 21. 2\/7. 3V^T. + + ft.x^y* + y%.3 + 40 3 . 2. 8a6V5. 16. 11. 4aV^J 16. 25. ftV 46. 2>X2. 3 42. yV35. 37. 48. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 19. 24. 36. 11. + 2 ar 1 ). 2 x* 15. 5. Va 2 "ft. 21. 24.'\ 14. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. . . ). 15. 3 x^y 33.XXii ANSWERS 1.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 6. (x' (l 1+x). x 7  34. 10. 18. T. 50. 7. 2 '"V5. 2. 3.707.2 18. 32. 30. 5. 5 22. + 1. a2 4.  2 3:r. 29. 40. 3 \ 39. 11V3. 13. x + 5 x3 + 0. 2v (T 2aVf. x. 34. 1 2 or 1 ?. 38. 33. 51. 3. + . 2. 3V5. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 31. 195V3. 10. v^. 29. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 23. ^: V2c. x 25. . JIV6. 27.yl : . Vr 8. ^7 \AOx. v/^r 5  A/^~. .f. 20. 20&V6. . x%  3 ^+ 1. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 22. k/2. V80. 17. 12. + 2 Vzy + y 1. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 13 a. V. 9. 32. x^ .r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. V. a^ + 2^+1. y. v'TM.648. 8. 1) 3V3. 2. y (a + ft) V2. r c . Page 203.  a Vft 2 121 b.
19. 10. 2yV2?/. . ab 4. 22. : ^32. 6. 8v2T 12. 2 28. 3\/15  6. + 20. 5V2. 39. 13. 50. Page 214. V3. v"5. 3. vT). xx 1. 43. 3 V15  47. 30 Vl4. 12. x/3. V3. v/9. 5. 6. 3. x/8l. 34. VJla. 3. . x/8. 17. Page 210. 14. \^r^bVabc. 9. 1. 2\/7. 46. 14c 4 V5. v 25^4714 V2"a. 11. \/abc*. 38. 8  \/15. 40. v^f. 4 a*. 2. 7. ^v 7 15. 3. 3 V2. 16. 8. 9 VlO + 4. 2 \/2. 2 1. 14. 37. 2. 19. 7. V5. v^a.. 21 23. aVa. 35. 32. 25. 6aV2\^. rtv/5. 5v/2. .T*. \/a6c. 21. v^4. V2. v^O. 24. 5. 12. 1V5. 11. 3\/wi. \XOfl6Vi5. VT5. 14. 8. . 26. 7\/(l 7VTO. 37. ^\/3. . 52. 16. \^6. 6x2?/. Vat. 7. \V3. V8. v"3. 5 \/2. 2. + VlO  v y (5. W). v^30. a\/5c. 38. 32. 13\/3. 20. Page 213. 6+2V5. 0. . 53. 49. 27. 4. 42. ^ 3 b 5 24. 18. Page 211. 23. 25. ^9. 0. v7^. 18. 3v^2. 6. 6V2. 6 2\/0. 1. V3"m. Vtf +3+ 33. x/8L v/27. 40. v/l2. v/8. V5. 15. 17. \/2. 6. 34. 10. 23. 5. 4\/5. r)\/(l Vrtr. VLV/ ^i?i= a: .r v/^ v^fr*. 33. 21. Page 216. w?i. 4. 3 Vl5 30. 10. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 13. \/04a. 32m27n. 16. 3\/2. D 45. x/w^ 8. \/8. . 22. 31. V/. 1. 3. 31. 44. 26. 9. 39. 15. V2. 8V2. "^8000. 27. \^6. % 29. fl^Vac. x/125. m ?i2Vm/t. 35. x/4. 9. v^lf. 4VO. 6. 17.30 2.J Page 212. \/128. 8V73\/IO. a2  b. v/i). ^27. "v/wi ??. / \/w/t 4 13. 10V(). 2.  3. 18.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 41. 36. a^\/a7>. 5V2. 74\/Jl 120 46. 11. x/27. 28. 2. '. b. 24. 2 ate. v/lO. 29. 2 V'3. 30. 4 >/3. 51. 48. Vn. 36. Vdbc.
37. 4. 7 f 5 4. 10. j 15. 2. 18. (VllV2). 2. (V6 + 2V2). 12. 23. 125. V3. 512. 21 ' Vob 26. + 6) 2 . 3. V3. 100. 2ajV2*. 4. 24. 19. 10. 23. 1. 2x^2^. Page 226.5530. 4. \/57t. 12. n*. 5. 1. 21. 16. ^(VlO\/2).1.732. (V51). V6c. . (\/5V2). 8. 3. 16. 4.4722. * 3. 19. 1. 18. (2Vll). 11. 17. \/3).V3). 31. (VaT^v a). 4. (Vf + (4 V2). xy 2. 26. 7. 9.64. 8. 5 V65. 7. . p 6 13. . 5. 4. 12. 5. V^TTfc. 35. 2V3. . 4.  .6. 11.9. 34. 4. Vf6fVtf. 8.  2. 25.13. 4. 8. 5 + 2 vU 17. 25. 4. 4. 19. 20.732.  13. 18. . 1. 27.81. 1. 25. .3.0606. 15.2. ^. _^JflJ?. 9. 18. 2. 81. 25. 33. 3. 22. 21.3535. 18. 2. 3. 25. 21. ^r. ^. 9. Va. V3. 224. 3V23. i^Lzi. ' 22 i . 2.1547. . 6.3. 22.2828. \. Page 225.389. 2. 13. V3 . 15. +3 V2). 3. (2V2). 16. 36. 1. 20. 24. 8. 10. 6. 13. 5.464. 20. i(Vf Vft). 10. 1. 5. Page 28. 6 V. 15. fV2. (V21). 2!5_. 7. {.\/TO). 16. 7. V. ^\/2. 24. 216.601. 6.7083. 26. 2V3. . 8. 9. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 13. 17. 11. (3+ v/2). 1. 2 . 7. J. . Page 223. (2. 14. 24. 5. 4V3 + 6. 19.6 V3. Page220. 1. 32. J. V5.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . f. 4. 7. 30. 4. 3(7+3V5). (a 1. 8.4142.^ (\/22 4. 10. 25. 11. A . 5. x 20. 5 f. 4. 7 Page221.. m f. 30. Va. 9. 2V2.5. 1. Page217. 17. 15. 14. 4. 9. 0. 11. 12. 81. 6. 3. nVTl. 64. 19. 8 V3V2. 9 mn. 10. Page 219. 9.  f. ANSWERS 8. 12. (V5f 5.1805. 16. 2. 29. 11. (V8 + V2. 9. 7. 1. (\/3f 1). 27.625 10. 14. K>/0 + \/2). . V35. 5. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 10. 29. 22. V2. 16.2. j. 17.w 6. 15. ~ Vac _c 0. (2f V"5).XXIV 7. 23. 25. 23. . 6 (V2 + 1). 6. 16. 14. 12. 8. + 5V2. 27. 4 14. 23. 3. !^ 6 4. 16. Page 218. 7. 20. 0. 9.7071. 28. 5.
2. 10. 4. . 1. 1. 8. 6. =A^Z3.ANSWERS Page 228. . 2. 2.4. 25. 3. 21. 73. 15. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 2. 4. 12. a . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 8. 7. 1 .  3. 2 <? 4a2 . 3. 7. 87 .3. 4 1. 1. 4.2. 4. (2 a. 17. a  .3.1. . 24. V3. Page 233. 2. 5.22. 1. 11. 5. 5. 0. 7. 19. 6. 2 . 13. 2 6.4. 3. . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 2. 3. 9. 3. (pl)(p2)(p2). (rt.  3. (&y2a#H4). 3. 4. 9. (pl)(p3)(p6).2.5.nl^EI. 2. 17. 1. 2 > 1. 6. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 4. 1. (w . 5. \/0. . 3. 4.  1. 30. 1.  J.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).3. . 1. . 20. 2. 6. 3. (+!)( 2) 10. 19. 6. 24. 3. 2. 2 &. 12. 1. 0.3). 30 . J Page 235. 8. 7. 4 4. 5. (a. 15. 1 3. & + 6 2 ). P.3. . 2. 2.2)(m. 1 . //. 5. 3 9. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).l)(m .  f . 4.7.  3. 5. 11. 5. 1. 10. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 )..1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).10. y. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2.  5. 2. . (4 mn . 10. 0. 30 30. 18. 7. 2. . 3 . 16. 1. (a+&)( 2 14.3 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 22. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 10. 50. 6. . (B43). 3. 3. 56l). 4. 25. 0. 10. 14. 1. J. 3 . . J 24. 14. 12. 100. 4. 3. . 1. 2. 5. 2. . f>.3. 5. 0.0. 0. 2. J. 0. (a + 2) (a Page 229.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2 . 1.4. 28. (r. 3. 1 (?> x/^3. 11. 5. (a . 2. 11.Y. 4.8a 18. 4 20. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).  16). . 7. 25. 2. 3. ( 16. 4. 4. t/ 23. 4 . 11. 2.r . 5. 2 6. 16. 4. (8. 3. 1. (63)(6' t 18. 1 . 7. 12. 4. 3. 1 6.w 4 + 1). 13.  2. . b .  1. Page 236. 21. .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). . .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 8.  4. ~ f7.2. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 6. 12 24 y . 1. 30.l)(a3)(a .1.  . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 13. f . qpl. 3. 3. 23. 3. Page 234. 3. (m 4 + l)(ro. 1 . 26. 4 . 4. 4. 19. a: :} . 13. 5. 3. 2.5 xy + 25) 22. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1. 20. 9.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 2 .3. 2. (a 4. 2. 3. 11. a(.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 15.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 2. XXV 4. 12.4). 3 . 17. 7. 3. . l. 6 2 2a + 2). 2. 3. . 8 6 & 0. 73. 22. 14. . 1. 8. . 25. 2 V^ . 4. 4. 5. 3. 3 5. 18. 1. 8. 20. 0.^a. 2. 2 . 13. (a. 10. ' J. o.12. 1. 2. 1 .2)(* .l)(z 2 + z + 1).
9. . .3.  11. 1. j. . . ( 3. 2. ri*. 15. i j. 12 d. 8. 30. . 1. 5 . . 23. ' j. 14. 2 ft. 12. ft. . 13. 2. 4 34. 35.. ^~2. .  2 . 14. 2>/3. 45yd.1. 3. f>. 5. 5. 3 4. 1. 1. Page 247. Page 243. 5 4. 8 3. 2. 4. 1. 0. 5 cm. 37. 12. 7. _ 13 (0 6. 6. . . J. . . 4 . 3. 13. 3. 9. 19. 17. 2. . $46. m27. 31. .4. 3. 3. 12 ft. 1 .3. 3. . 40. 16.1. 3.4. 22. Exercise 113. Page 248.. . Indeterminate. 20. 8. 12. 3. 35 ft. 10. Page 238. 7.136.3. 1 . 4. 1 . . 5. . 17. 20. 1. 3. 40 1} 9 3 ft.3. i'ljVU.xxvi Page 237. 26. 900. 5. 69. 5. 2. 2.. 3. 37. 2 . 5. 22..0. 1.1. 3.. 1. 1. 4 8. 8.3. 15. 2..3. 7. f*. J. = QO 6. ft. 48. 16. . 3. 3. 4. 1. (>. J. 5. 4. 7 3. 12. (&) 2. oo. 4. 2. 2. 3 . 16. . 5. 14.. 2. 5. 0. 21 30. . _ 5. 5. in. 8. 1. 55. 14. 11. 1. Indeterminate. 4. tn 2. 7. 4.13. 2. n. 21. 2. 84..2. 3. \/6. 35^ 5. 9. 40 in. 7. 288.. 2. 23. 2 10.4. 1. 14. 7f solution. 37. 9. 4. 3 2. . 1. 10. 31. in. 3. 50. 36. 1. . 3. ^ }. and _ 4. Page 241. 3 .  1. 12 1.3. $. 4. 4. 18. 28yd. c. no co . 78. . 7. 8. 11. 3. f. 11. 11. 18.30. in. 3. 3. 10. 3. (a) $3400. 2. V3~. 2. 14. 30 13. 24. 38.200. 1. 1. x 4. . .e.4. 2 16. 5. 8 . . Page 245. 2 26. 4. 2 . . 1. $VO. 17. 2. 2V7. 2 2. +  n. 2 1. 8. 4. 5. 41. 5.5.y. 512. 1. 2n. 2. 17. 5. 201. } . . . 17. 20 in. 1J. 2. 4. 4. oo . ANSWERS 2. 2 . i. 4. 9. 21. Page 239. i i i . Page 240.020.3 . 30. 1 . 3. 32. 1 . 18. m28. 20 7. 29. 12. 3. . 39. 1 2. 11. . 8ft. 1. 3 . jj. ft. (/>) "_. co .. in. 1. '>. 17. 4. 4 6. 15. _ 7.0. 3V5. 7. (a) 5. 40 25 in. 35 a. V7. 125 125. 2. }. 5. 9. J. 6. 2. m + n. 1. 1. 3.6. 1. 2. Page 244. 8. 4. 5050. 15. 3. GO . 2. 1.6. Exercise 114. 25.5. 8. 12. 3 3. . 24. 6. 512. 6. 3. 4. 1. 33. 3. 4. 2. 1. 10. \. 1. 6.18. 13. 3 cm. in. 5. oo . 0. 12ft. _ 10. 19. 14. $.  . 5. 15. 5. 11. n . 1. . 15. . 1. 2 Y> V . 15. 1. 4. 50. 400. 4. . 1. 4.
x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 10 14. 2. 27.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 18.<2 4. (). 45 Page 257. 343. 125.4 &z x>&. 9. 8. 7 x4 17. . 6. 220 . J 2 //2 25. 3. 6. d. 343. ?/i 6 x llj . a.470. 0. r r j. 3. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 8. 04. 27. .  17. 17. 11.2 45 a 8 /).5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 105. 5. 5. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1. 70. 12. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 16. G. 2i* 7f. 53. 6.ANSWERS Page 250. 2. . 1 14.  101. 16. . 8. 4. 7. 4 0. 4. 20. 495. 1. 4. x + Vy. 5. 21. x r 4. f y 8 + z* . r 5 4.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 0.3 ays.4. 5. 4. 6.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 3. 120 aW. 280 53. 16. .7 10. 32. 3. 12.0. 7. } $ 50. 5. 20. . 125. 6. 8.5. 0. 10. 6.700. 3. 9. 9.5y 4 .6 . and 1. 6i. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. y ^ 5  ^\ ). ' 1. 6. xxvii 1. 27. 7. i 10. 4. .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 1 7 4. 1. .1. 15.504. 0. 1. 2.r* 4 70 . c. Page 259. 18. 28. Y11. 2. 48. 0. 12. Page 254. 3. 25.12 x*y 16. 44. 0. 4. 6. . '23. a4 4 14. 8. I. 9. 10.5. 10.  20 flW. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.r 4. 16. 1JH. 17. 4. **+. Ja. . 4. 5. 15. 2.170.r x>/ 7 3. 8 4x' 2 . 10. 5 13. 9. 5. 005. 1. JSg.v Page 253. 1000 aW. 5. 70. w9  8. 12. 43. 410. 4. 2. 45. 50. 26. . 3. 35. \ w 4 . ^a 8. 192. 1. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 16 11.5 x. 8J. 23. 1. 18. 4. &' 14. 05.870 m*n*. 1. 22.53. 708.419. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). . 19. Page 258. 3. 8. 3.920. 910. 17. 8 1. />*. 3. 2. 11.6. 2. 12. 16. 8. 70. 29. 19.13. 4. 4. 75. 12. 4950 M 2 b y *. 5. ~ an . 7. 21. 100.8. Page 252. 128.120. 11. 7. <. 8. 4. 19. . 3. 18. sq. .2 9. 4. 81. 8 . 304. 14. 327. ~v 9. 20.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 15. 6. . 2. 1. x4 . 10. 405. vy.680. 9. 16.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 10. . 5. 8. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 0. 4. REVIEW EXERCISE . A. 15. B . 1. 3. 7. 4. 13. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 04. 5. 27. 12. 45. 22. 16. 35. 2.192. 2. 8.x' 10 .^ ?>i 2412x4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 12. 2. in. 1. 13. Jj? 45.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 3. 1820. 13. 7. 0. 2.210. 0. 7. 15.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 4.384. 55.
x4 + y'2 z 4. Page 263. . 12 a/. x 3 4. x2 a2 1 .3 a'ft.1. 1 a"* 4 an .1.2 c .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 2 . 39.4. + a 4. ^ . 3 c . 4 65. . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. a4 x. 5x + 2y~z.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 25. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 0. 2 2/' .18 ?/ 5x4. (a + ft)" 98.2 x 4.4.y*. 24. 49. . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 0. 2 x'V2 90. a 3m 4. c3 4 58.a. f5+7. 30.105.c. xyxzyz.c. df. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.6 b. !! 71.a 2 x 2a . a~b 89. . a* 4. 5 42. .3 b . 2 . 13 + 2 s. m " + n + P3c . 36. 28.ft). 107.  + 3 x2 . 100. * 60. x2 2 . 125.c 3 4. 93. 6 a2 97. 1 . 4 2 . 31. 27. &p 84. 127.4 2 4 c2 42 . 132.2. x 3 41.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. a 4 .fee 2 4. 35. 94. + 3 a?. 10 4. x8 x2 55.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 6 c 47. 1 121. 109.4. 5x 2 2x43. 5 4 4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.2. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. . 23. ?/ 3. 2 q.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 131. 122.  . 66.7 x   15.  3 x2 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. x' . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 3 a 5 a 5. 40. x* .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. . . 50. 64.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. x } 4.41. x . 8 .ac 44 aft. 46.5 b + c .18 x?/0.3 a 2 '6 w 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.rty x2 4 123. 2 113. ft2ft 4 4l. . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 21. x4 f + 23 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . x' 79. 4 ! . .9 b. . + z. 72. Page 260.  4 a3 85. 130. . ?/ . x2 471x4. . 3 36 b c . 86.3 103. 12 x. /> 4 83. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 61. 2 x2 108.5 a 2x8 x 3 .  e +/. 3a'2 Page 261. 10 a 12 b. 16t/.a' 'ft 4. 43.3 y. .x 2 4. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .a*ft 2 126. +^ + ft W. 120. 3 a .7. .1. 4 115. a' 111. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 102. 114. 7 + 3 xf 2. 29. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 3 a 44. 6a6c. a2 2 aft 2 2. 4 69. 76. 9 2w 128.5.{ 54. 1 + 4 xy. x 4.5x4. . 3~ n 4.6 am b\ 129.a6 2 4. 2 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 2 30 . . 37. _55_7c 48.x24 73. 124. 38.4 ac. 96. 4 15 x 5 .5 3n 4. 3a~2c. 1 x 45.1w 77.x 51. 80. 118.  12 a.1 4 jry 4 x .2 x^. y 4 z* 0. . x 2 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().1. 99.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. . 4. 63. x 8  a8 . . 22. 8x3 8x. 82. t 81. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. a* a 8 a aftc. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.15 4 62 x  72.3 . 91. 0. 52. 16. as 20.. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 133. az 4. 2 x2 4. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 a. 104. I 57. 4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 110.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . ?> . () 2 x 33. 243x4729. . 2 53.4 x 2 . 32. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 105. 4 fee 4. 4ft y3. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 4 Page 264. 88.a'2 c.4 x?/2 3 4. 26.^a . 62.9 x . . 70. 14 x . ft n .3 aftc.3 x 2 + 3 x .4.2.x. x 8 + x 4 68. . 4 .4 x y 87. ft /> 78. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. a J . . 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 9x.
178. . 189. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 219.. 152.3. 176. (y  17)(y + (>). (ab + 8) ( 7). 153. 151. 148.l)(x8 + x2 . 136. 208. (2a + l)(a . 233. (a} 59. 238. 18. 2 xy(3 x . Page 265. + 2) + 9a. 6. (7 c 2 ). 222. y 245.ANSWEKti 135. fc'2a+62c). HI.6)(4 + 6). 191. 10 in. 1. 1. C3 y _l)(. m. (a 2 + 2a6. 211. . 161. 36ft. (8x + 3)(3x4). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 164. 214. 193. 180. aft. . (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 10. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 21. 48 h. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (7x2//) 203. (x + 2)(x . 174. 182. 2. y3. 37 1. 8 204. 2.4xl).3). Iff 145. 206.y2 ). + 11) (a 10). (x . + 7)(rt4). p. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 156. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).1(5) 200. 190. 138.r + 4). 2. 2 (4 x . 159. 218. (?/+l)(yl).9)(xf 2). (6) 40. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x ..y). 5. (3x  . 7. (y_24)(y5). 230.3 y). 75. (r7y)(ai. 168. (/ 246.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 2^. 186. 205. 30 yr. 224. (.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).  1. z(x10)(xl). . + 3) (x f f>) .6) (2 x + 1). 155. 240. 207. 12 yr. 216. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 247. y. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 40 yr. 149. 163. 150. 20.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). yr.1). 199.l)(a 2 +3). 173. Or (a + 2)0el). 4. (xyX^+y" )1 243. +)(x2 x^+2. 181. a + 2x2 ). 209. 10). 239. a. 167. (x  42 yr. 231. 32 h. 241. 201. + y. 147.y) (\r3y). 23 18. 15. 184. 15  a. 3(x . 169. 162. 166.m)(x + a). 237.2) (3 x . a 2 (15. as 194. 202. G7.y + 3)(r (. 210. 6. (r^x + 1). (y _ ft)(y 4. 12 yr. 4. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 30. 170. 12. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 235. 218. Page 266. a(a. 183. 140. (x 227. 171.2ac + 229. 50. 236.3) (2/3y).. 30 + xyr. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 175. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (233). 1. 15. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 215. 3.2). 212. 6). 244. p. 220. 24.3 y)(a . (3x2?/)(2. 22. r>x 2 (4x. 10 ft. 177. (5 x . x(x + 6) 213. . 226. + 22). 1.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 137. (2 198. 187. 12 6 panes. 8(ar}(/)27). 12. 142. (JT y 225. 1.2. (x + 6)(x6).I2y). 154. 2 2 (a. 1. + 6 y) (x 2 y) .2 )(x+y) 228. 12) (j. (y 7f))(y 196. 179. 20. 146. 2. 143. Page 267. 2. 10). 232. 1. 147 mi.y)(z . 195. 157. ?. 19. 1. .2). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.. 160.1). k. ft. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). y  y 165.6 .r . (y7)(y + 188. 144. 2(x8)(x3). (a& 192. (x^ + x1) 234. + 3).l)(y + 1).1). (c) 160 C. (2x3y) 3 xy(x./_4). 217. 185. 3. . 197. 172. xxix 139.y)(jc + 7 y). 158.
 3xyf x// 257. 10. 4 5. 295. *>). 251. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. a~ ' b*).   . 279. 305.. 3  262. 303. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 298. 261. 310. 307. 263. 5. 0. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 3. Ca&c 1)(M 253. &). a.1. 260. x 283. > 4.  7. ? 1) 302. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 2 4 300. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 269. 268. ^/>J. 266. ^ 299. x12. 7^T 2 . x 267. 250. 249. 2 x  3.4). (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o. 254. 301. 264. 3). 43 '^rJ'. 2. 7. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .^^^^^^^^. 259. *.(x  4) (x4 304.4) 1) (3 x . + f. 7 x 265. x ?/ z 1. o(x4l). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.^ ^^. 0. (7 255.2* i^^ !^. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. ?^ZLiZ 308. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. x . 3). 306. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 258. 256.
2. 7. 405. 366. ab. 390. . 2(a i 403.". 2 ).7. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 385. + 4 & 4 \ b. 1.(5 a . 326. 376. 398. 4 A. (a + b + c\ . 1 i 2 ^.. 2(q. 0. 7/i ^ _ . ?>*. 2 327. 375.. . 20. 389. + x 362. 392. 336. S. T\. 396. ^_:r f> 331. 377. 9^. . 382. 2 ?/ 363. * 357. 387. 395. 1. 404. . 370. 12. ^"" 4 s . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. If. 6a. 386. 334. ?=. 1. 406. 380. 4 rw. j 328. 361. 2 ab  a Page 276. 3. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 1.)Cr4)__ .XXXI Page 272.  1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. l'j. 13 391. 401. l .  1 356. 379. 3. Page 274. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 1. 4. a + b + 6). 2.1. ?/ + 3 332. L . 329. a) A^_. 3. 393. 388.J .3. y 4 I 340. 0. 400. a 2 . m. 365. 407. 339. 4. a +6. T+^. 394.H ' 2wi ^' /' . <L 409. 325. 408. x 54 359. " 4 378. ^ 3 // . 343 00 351. f. .vin a /r " 337. Page 277. . 399. A^L5L. 324. 0. 2 r36 384. _*L'L+. 11. 6 ?/+:>. 383. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 397. 360. 333. 355. 0. + 335. c 402.!. 364.
}. 436. 7. 429. 6. 4. 7 : . fj. 493. 476. 418. a* 424. 0. b 449.488. 487.. 472.2. 5. . <L+ 6 (. 410. 7. 458. . 17. 457.0. 439.7. B 4 mi. 0. I. 32 yr. 425. 7. 5. 447. 32. .7. 420. Page 278.4. : />a.  1. 435. !L=4.  f>.  2f 504. 1. 0. 2. 51. 460. ft 5. m. * .  453. 8. 467.  1. 499.}. 42. 2. 10. 461.5. . c 6fc 10. 463. 84. 24 days. 498. 468.12.te + . 2$. 5.rz Page 279. 50. . 2. 427. 53 yr. 3. 462.. 502. 0. . L2 a  6 . Page 282. 423. ^.7. 441. 63. . 4. $2000 at 0%. 6. />c c(f be. . ^V. 444. 508. 10. ' $260 at 0%. 411. 14 miles.7. 452. m 1 : wi. 12. 459.0.. 426. . . 6. 3 .7. 20 yr. 40. 450.  2.. 494. 90. .  505. 8. 428. 2. 2.46. . 5. 500. 455. 496.3. (&) true. 495. A $ 3500. 3. 432. 442. 448. fc. z8 +?/ 3 431. 6.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 20. 0. not true. 3a 4 5. 10. 10. 503. 430. (&) 443. ^r?i 434. (d  6) f.55. A 5 mi . 5. 1. 22. 33.  7. a + + ft c. 1 a /?$+&?. 480. 2. i a b 451. 501.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 10$. 40 oz. 422. 9. 0. 2.  2. 440. \. \ 1. 10. 2 a 2. 413. 482.4. 17. 1.  10. 28 yr. 466.  7. 21. (a  c). 483. ISjmi. Page 281. 4. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 477. .m  m+ M in. a 22 . 0. 3. . 412.  .. 18. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 2.1. . 490. B $ 2500. Page 280. 465. 497. + () 433. Page283. '. 456. . 11. 446. 1. *+. 6. 6. 1. (d) true. 485. 419. 5J. 484. 464. 2 438. 481. 454. (c) not true.. 506. . 2. 7. 445. 6. 1$. 7. 2.vz in. 8.  2. 10. 4. c. 421.3. ISJini. L (c) I. . & 491. . 507. i. 486. 10. 8.2. 492. 479. 478. 5.489. (a) 1.
Page 288.6.f 1.  557.15.30. 4* da. 3 . 1 580.  7. 560.15. . 4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 528. H.51. 7. 2. . (d) 537. 516. 1$.05. 1. y% Z * 586. 1. (ft) 4.0. (i) 3. 1. f ? a f ft __ + c C). (6) 3.   (h) 8.21. 2 .5+. T . 3.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. xxxin 511. 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 4. 582. 0.  4. 1 . 6.9. . 531. 515. 3.03. 1. 583. 1. tin. 1. o> . 2.83. (6) . 8 mi. . a+ Page 286.5. 5. 1. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.0.3. _ 3.1.. 561. + 6 tf f 3 . . 2. 2. . 536. 558. 3.12. + 12 x .75. 509.5. 1.3.  imag. 1.54. 115 Ib. 1.  2.25. 4 mi. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 1.  + + c. 4. 518. 574. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 2. a f ft + c. 4.38. 4. 5.15.8. 593..10. . 1 . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. (c) 4. or 8. .14.31.3. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.88..8.7.0. J7] min. 1. 7^ da. 512.83.0.6 2.3. 598. 533. 6.  (a) 2. 565. 526. 554. 555. 3. 571. 24 da. Page 285.16. 2$. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. . g(rc+ 6c). 1. 4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 573. 603. 2 imag. . (e) 570. 21*_.% rr\* 585. 0000. 2 10. 513. 566.6. 552.02.31.. 4.35. . 1. 4. 2 1. 3f 4f.4. .02. Page 287. 1J. 564.  1. y 4. per hour. 2 1. 2. . . 510.25m. 5.3. 559. a + ft  a  f c.  ft*. 569. (c) 3.4. 3. lead.24. 2 . . 4 0. (gr) 10 1.3. da. 5.37. .  J(a f + 2c).ANSWERS Page 284. 2(6 597. 576. 3.1. 2.52. . f.78. ft 584. .56 sec. 8. 562. 591. > ^ .73. 532. 530. (a) 74 Ib.7.3. _ 4. 1. (/)  10 to 8.02. 551.04. f36a28x8 592. 2(4 602.20. 577. 3.2. 31.00. 27 y* f\4 .04. . . per hr.1.4.r8 596.7. f. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.4.54.37. Roots imaginary. 563. 568. 1. 1.75. (ft) Ill Ib. 525.4. 2 2. 581.1. 1. 24.6. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 2.8. 3. 232. 1.55..5 f. 6435. . ^ ft 4. 3. (e) (c) 2. 14. 553. . _^ 2754x .5.xj/ f xV . .5.03. imag.33. 1.3.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.4 x + . 599. 3.  3. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 556. 1. 1. 4. .24 sec. lead. If 572. tin.1. 3 da._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 40 Ib. 2.8 x3^.10. 1 600. x8 . <z ft 1.  . 579.  (a) (d) 1.5. 514.62. S82 c. . 527. 575.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 578. 3.  2ft da.6.4. 529.78. .02.1.53. 3. .62. 550.24.8. 3. 567. + 26 + .
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VV> L4V34. . 716. ^7xy. i 2. 8. 3V72VO. 7  3V5. 739. 756. v/7 / . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . x i f^' .. 15 shares.1 . 3^. 24 4 . 33^2.^ 743. 711. 25. 776. 1. x\y. > 748. 5. 39. 723. 1 I . 736.^. j 742. 738. 794. + < 735.4 . T%. 1 747. 734. 750. VIO\/3. 3V52V3.9. 788. 709. 2x3^ a. 796. 724. 768. 751.257. . 8. 1 752.rJ w L 754. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 731. 714. mn. 749. 763. 733.ANSWMHti Page 292. 732. 777. VT14V5. J(v'lO2V 791. 715. 721. 722. 1 [ + '> J.. 13ft. a 2 6^. 32>/2. 713. 726. a:* . 3. fyaw&cu. cr*lr*. 727. 2 V2 . 712. 717. 729. 342V3. 746.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 30\/10 764. ^ . 4 104 v/2. a". 47. "V313.V2. a 5 . 5. 728.r. a 2  x2 . 34.4 .12 af V^ 4 744.. / 787.2. . 769. 710. 59.9.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. i^. 719. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 24. v'll. 758. 1. Page 294. 740. 725. 3V7. 755. 300.10. Page 293. 792. rt3 2 ^i^. a db Va^T < 45da. . 767. y  1. 737. 790 2v 3v 2.~ . iv/Jj. r. + 6 2 tf'c. 778. 782 785. 00. 793. 789. 1^ _ 760. 24V2. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 773. .V/^ 741. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 718.. 2\/53V2.11.r+y> 759. 3V72V3. 29\/3. 730. 17ft.8. 1. Hi a. ^ ?>. 753. 3 720. 3 VlT 795.
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990. 162. 9 da. 996. 2(2 v/2). ^f (2f3V2).870 a 6 1011. 1005. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. . 997. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1012. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 12. 24. 1008.18. (J. 32 13 (tx 4V3. + v 2). 108.51. (a) (6) ^ 1002.378 1015. 1013. 3003. 0.378 <W and 92.870 z8 . 991. 1(5. 4. r = 2.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 8. . 2 . 1 1004. 988. 12. 993. Page 304. 1009.128 I. 1010. 992. 1016. 1001. 1000. ~ \. Page 305. 72. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .'^^ } ( .  5&7 1021. (5. 1017. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . in.. 1007. 120 a.92. 48. () 12(2+V3). 192. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 6 70 . 1018. 1006. ^Trsq. + 448 . (Z>) 999. 1003. (6) 8(1 . 994.. 0. 1014. 120 i^l^.192rt?)r 120 *. 1 8 8 2. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . . 1019. 995. X. 4 and 1020.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .
A examples are taken from geometry. etc.25 lamo. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The more important subjects tions. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1.D. great many work. Half leather. so that the Logarithms. Ph. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HEW TOSS . save Inequalities. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. comparatively few methods are heretofore. i2mo. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xi 4 373 pages. xiv+563 pages. than by the .10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. and commercial life. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. physics. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC.
HEW YOKE . $1. xiv+56a pages. 12010. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. and commercial life. In Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Logarithms.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. save Inequalities. great many A examples are taken from geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. HatF leather. etc. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. xi f 373 pages. The author grade. Ph.D. $1. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. comparatively few methods are given. so that the tions. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.25 i2mo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.
more than 1200 in number in 2. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . under the heading Remarks". 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Half leather. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.10 L. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. State: . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time.r and. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 9. SEVENOAK. izmo. 10. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. i2mo. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Ph. lines. $1. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. wor.. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 6. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 4. Cloth. iamo. xii + 233 pages. 7 he . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Cloth. SCHULTZE.D. These are introduced from the beginning 3. $1. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. NEW YORK . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.
" The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. . . . . of these theoretical views. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . 370 pages. $1. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. and not from the information that it imparts. 12mo. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.
but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and a full index are provided. diagrams. " This volume etc. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Topics. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Cloth. $1. i2mo. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.