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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. .
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
.' February. Mass. July. 1910. 1915. . Published Set up and electrotyped. September. May. September. Berwick & Smith Co.COPYRIGHT.. 8. August. . J. 1911. Cushlng Co. Reprinted 1913. U.A. 1916. 1917. January.S. IQJS January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910 . Norwood. 1910. May.
giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. owing has certain distinctive features." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and conse . All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. etc. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. are omitted.. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. however. specially 2. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. chief : among These which are the following 1.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Elementary Algebra. Such a large number of methods. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. manufactured for this purpose.
as quadratic equations and graphs. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. etc. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. may be used to supplement the other. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. are placed early in the course. Moreover. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. For the more ambitious student. however. In regard to some other features of the book. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Topics of practical importance. especially problems and factoring. two negative numbers. e.g. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .
" Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. such examples. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. is based principally upon the alge . elementary way. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. based upon statistical abstracts.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and commercial are numerous. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations." Applications taken from geometry. Moreover. viz. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. in " geometry . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. physics. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. NEW YORK. . however. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. 1910. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.
. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..... .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. ... SUBTRACTION..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ..... Powers. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .
... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type IV. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type VI.. Type V. Type Polynomials... * ..114 . /^ . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . . ... All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type III.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type II.. ..
.. Evolution of Monomials 170 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ....... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
V36". 4(a 6(6 + &). d 7. A polynomial is an y. V^a6. as in arithmetic. c = 1. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. (cfd) 4. a polynomial of two terms. 0. x 9. e. 16. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 4V3~6c. are trinomials. 10. V3 . or 9 Vx. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. b = 3. 17. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. is 28. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. since the parts are a . 7 = 2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 15. + c). 2. A binomial is 62 . 14. [6c] 3 . 6. aVc^. Val \fi?. some number is . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24.g. + 1]. 27. find the numerical value of: Vff. 6. expression containing more than one and a 4 term.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 9. \/c. !^f\/03 3 ft. v'Ta. 13. V2a." EXERCISE If a 1. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 12. 5Vl6c. 11. 3. 2 . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 26. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). c f d). 8.
9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .810 + 150 = . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . d=Q. 10.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . c=l. = 32 + 4527 = 50.390. 4 .30 = 270 . 3a + 56 a 2 . . .e. . 14. Ex. d = 0. 12. + 26+3 c.99. (a (a f b) 7. 16. * For additional examples see page 268. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5. 4. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 1. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. __ E.19 = 6. Otherwise operations of addition. EXERCISE 8*  . 4a6fVaV2^. multiplication. 2.. i. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. subtraction. find the numerical value of: 9.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. l 13. 3 2 If 1. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.g. 52 .4 6^9 ad. x=^.INTRODUCTION 29. 6. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 6. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 3. 5. a=4. .2 + I126. 5c +d 2 . a2 11. 8.9 aWc + f a b . 2. 5=3. 2 ). b = 3. 3 4 . c = 2. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . Ex.5 ax 50 a6cd. a 2 6.9.
27. a = 4. 28. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 30. a = 3. 23. geometry. 6 = 7. 35. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 4. = 3. a =3. Read the expressions of Exs. 6. a =4. physics. and other sciences. 6 = 5. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s.6 . and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). . Six 2 . sible to state Ex. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 25. a a=3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. : 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). 26. 34. 6. a = 3. 24. 6 = 5. 33. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 30. 6 = 6. a = 2. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 22. 6 = 2. 38. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 26 of the exercise. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 37.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. if : a = 2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a = 4. a.c) (a . Six times a plus 4 times 32. 29. 6 = 1. 6=2.
b 14.g. and c 13 and 15 = = = . if v : a. 14. then a 13.16 centimeters per second. and 13 inches.16 1 = 84. c. 13. the area of the triangle equals feet.) Assuming g . Find the height of the tree. if v = 30 miles per hour.INTRODUCTION E. 15 therefore feet. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 2. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 12. 4.e. and 5 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. d. and 15 feet. (c) 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. An electric car in 40 seconds. (b) 5. i. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v . b. A train in 4 hours.seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.
This number cannot be expressed exactly.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. $ = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (c) 8000 miles.). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 10 feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. the 3. : 8000 miles. 2 inches.14 4.14 square meters. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 5 miles. is H 2 units of length (inches.14d (square units).). If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 5 F. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). ~ 7n cubic feet. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. the area etc. 5. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (The number 3. 32 F. . square units (square inches.
or positive and negative numbers. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). SUBTRACTION. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. however. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. . we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 12. if : a a = 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 10. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 21. 4. 23. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. = 5. . 24. 2326. the one third their sum. d = 0. 33. + 12.16 32. 4 is 3 J. lf(2).  0. (_ In Exs. is 0. c = 4. 22. Thus. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 5. subtract their absolute values and . '.3. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. is 2. + (9). 5. c = = 5. of: 20. 19. 18. (17) 15 + (14). 6 6 = 3. of 2. d = 5.
Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F.ADDITION. $500 loss. 12. 7 yards. affected by the same exponents. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 3. 34. . : and 1. 09. . 5 and 12. = 22. \\ Add 2 a. 37. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 42. . 1. are similar terms. : 34. 40. 32.3.5. & = 15. 13. 6. and 3 F. 0. $3000 gain. : 48.4. 25.13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . 38. 31. 29. 6. which are not similar. 2. 55. 35. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. c = 0.. = 13... SUBTRACTION. 11 (Centigrade). 66. 6. 4 F. $7000 gain. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 10. 7 a. & 28. ' 1? a 26. 7 a. 30. ' Find the average of the following 34. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 33. and 3 a. 10. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 32.7. 3 and 25.7. . . and 8 F. 41. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 2. 43. or and . 74. $1000 loss.5. }/ Add 2 a. = 23. c=14. 10. and 3 a. 60. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 39. 4. and 4. . 36. and 3 yards. 27. 72. ^ ' 37. sets of numbers: 13. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. and $4500 gain. d= 3. .
2 . f 4 a2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. EXERCISE Add: 1. or a 6. Vm f. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 10. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12(af b) 12. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2.18 35. 5 a2 . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. in algebra it may be considered b. Algebraic sum. 2 a&. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 14 . 12 2 wp2 . 3a . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.13 rap 25 rap 2. 9(af6). 13.ii. b a f ( 6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 5Vm + w. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 11. 12Vmfn. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.sign. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 5l 3(af6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2(af &). 7 rap2. : 2 a2. + 6 af .
2 7 1 26. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 37. 2/ : Add. n x* 2 22. l^S 25. 32. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 36. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. c 2 ^24. 21. 33. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. + / + 3 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. ra 19. +m """ 20. + y. a a8 ZL **. without finding the value of each term 34. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. SUBTRACTION. is . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va.ADDITION. 6 23. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . and to add each column. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 2 2 2 31. 1 27. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 17. 30. 35.
20 c 5 ab 4. 5 . 4 = 7.8 abc . ft any convenient and c. 7 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .o c and 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . s.12 a& 4. x of x. 2 . 46 4z 7 c. 9 q 4. f 110WS: 26 aft. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.41 = 3.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. to add 26 ab . and J 2 s.g.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 5. a 4. 6=2.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.3 s. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. therefore the answer is correct.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 4 2. 3. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.g. 2 Thus. c = 1. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. to show any error. V3. the erroneous answer equal 7. 2 025. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. = . NOTE.15 abc . .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. .7 2 .c= 2. 2 Sum. 3a 2? . e. 2c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. . and 2 . of that letter. 3 a f 4 1) 4.15 6c.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.
a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. a.8 m 2m 12. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .12(a 4. a 4 a . in 8 3 m n 4.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 3 2 2 3 9 . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.4:xy xz 6yz. ?/ . 4(a . and 12a 4 15& 20c .12 6 ~5 a . and 5 Vb 18. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 2 ?ft ?/z. . + a + 1.9(a + &) . 7ar + 3B 5. and and 13.15 5.and 6. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. . + 50 + 62 . 19. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 56 w. and 1 4 a .5a^6 f 6) .10 Vc.a. e a4 /. and 8 3 . .a 4 a 4 1. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 2 a. .5 cr& + 7 6 9.1 a 4 1 0.12. 4 3 . 18/+6y + d.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. . a) y ^/. and v 15. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. xy3xz + yz. 2 2 . d and / 3 ? 12. . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .1. 8. 4 Vc. ^2 1 e. 11. a 4 a . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a. a2 a.VS 4 2 Vc. a2 2 14.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 16. and . .7m .4 Va . 4 ajy 17. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .7v/if. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2 and 9m 48m 4.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 ?/. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 4. . 2 2 and . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 16e + 17/90.Ga 43x45.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . .2n 2 2 3 rz . m 4 6. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2 3(c f a). . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. d. 4 8 3 4 4 .(b + c) 1. v/20.a .6.
The sum and ? 1. .5< 3 2 s 4^4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. s . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .ra + m.m 4m ?/?/ d. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1. + n*.11 xy + 12. f number may be added 3. + 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 22. and 2 24. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.3^* 2n 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . is 2. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . +d a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1. . many negative units re main ? from 2.. T8a. how 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . If you diminish a person's debts. 12 xyz. . 1/ .4 2tn* Sic 2 . f 1. and 25. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1. 13 1.22 21. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 6 f c 2 23. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1. and e + 6y . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.9aj 2. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. a 6 2 c. 45a6 2 .
This gives by the same method. ( 6) ( = . In addition. 5 is 2. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. In subtraction. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence.3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. From 5 subtract to . and the required number the difference. from What 3. 7. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 41. if x Ex. ab = x. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 3. +b 3. From 5 subtract + 3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Ex. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Or in symbols. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the other number is required. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 1. Ex. called the minvend.2. NOTE. and their algebraic sum is required. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 2. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. SUBTRACTION.g. To subtract. 6 (3) = 8. a. . two numbers are given. the given number the subtrahend.ADDITION.
If x = l = 2 t . Ex. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 .5 x + 8.3 r*5o.3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.
4 a^ 4. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 48. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 58. tract 4 x 3. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 47. 51.ADDITION. 57. 46. 52.c. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 53. . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From From x2 the sum sum 7. + a the 2 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 41.6)f. of a 4. 56. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 55. 6 4 a. 44.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.4 a*& + 6 a & . 50. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2.a 2 j.2. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. From 2 a take a & j.7 a . 43. c f d. 49.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. and 3 7/ . 54. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. SUBTRACTION. 42. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. check the answer.w>t.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 6(af. 45. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 2y 2 .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.
Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. + 6 + c. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . + 2.15. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 6. 9. +a add the difference duce 13. subtract # + 1. 2 m 21. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. a 2y + z. of # 2 8. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. A is n years old. a + 6. 16. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .26 4. 6 17. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5.
I. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.c. . 45. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.6 b f (. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. & f c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.b c = a a & f f.2 b .a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. SUBTRACTION. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Ex.ADDITION. II.g. the sign is understood. a+(bc) = a +b . one occurring within the other. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.c. changed. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.a^6)]  } . 46. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.
may be inserted according to 43. 2 2a. 271 + (814 . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 14. 17. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a (a + 6).)]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). + (2a 6 + c ). 2 2 2 a(.1422) J ] . 3 3 f 7. : x + (2yz).[271 47. 6) 2.+ 6)f (a2 b). Ex. 16. 5. 13. m f ft) a. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 3. 19. find the numerical value of { 1422 . Signs of aggregation 1.y (60.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.7i h jp) (m ?*. ? 11. 9.) 5 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 15. 18. 2. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). a (a + 26 c ). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.(a + 6). a f (a a .: Ex. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 21. 6. 4. . a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. [36+ (a 2c]. 8. (m a2 f. By removing parentheses.
z + d. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. )X 6. 7. 12. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. SUBTRACTION. 5 a2 2. 2mn + 2q3t. 10. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. y f 8 . The product The product m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.4 y* . II. 13.7fa. 6 diminished . a\l> > c + d. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 3. terms 5. The sum^)f m and n. ' NOTE. 9. 7. 5^2 _ r . 6.ADDITION. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. m x 2 4. difference of the cubes of n and m. 4. p + q + rs. 8. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. . The difference of a and 6. 3. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. and the subtrahend the second. m and n. 5. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. first. of the cubes of m and n. The square of the difference of a and b.2 tf .1.
dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.) . The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 18. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. 6 is equal to the square of b. 16. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. A A A 1. 3. what force is produced by the Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 2. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. force is produced therefore. 5.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads what What. let us consider the and JB. 4. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
however. (5)X4. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Thus. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. such as given in the preceding exercise. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. To take a number 7 times. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(. 9 9. 5x(4). and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. thus. or plied by 3. the multiplier is a negative number. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.32 8. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. becomes meaningless if definition. . 48. 4 multiplied by 3.9) x 11. ( (. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. x 11.4)(4) = + 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. NOTE. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4 multi44444 12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 9 x ( 11).
and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. Ua b 28. 13. Law Thus. 27. 4 . (. 3 aW. . tors is no misunderstanding possible. etc. 2a 2 6c. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.3. 3. (10) 4 . c = 25.3) (1) 7 2 . NOTE. 7. 8. 3 a2?/2 . 17. 6 2.(4J).2f 18. 5x3. 11. (2)x9. 1. 12. 29. 1. 22. 14. 6. (2) 8 (. of Signs: TJie positive.4. (4)'. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 16. b = 3. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. .7. 8 31. If a cal = 4a6c. (c#) . _2. _3. (4)X(15). 26. 3. 2. 4. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . +5. and y = 4.2 f+x 2 . X(5). 6.a)( =+ a&.(a&c) 2 2 . 19. 10. 9. 32. find the numeri values of: 21. (7) X (12). z s 11 aWcx. 4 a2 . 5. . 23. x= 0. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 8 4 . .2. about fac (2)X If 6.MULTIPLICATION 50. _2^ 3. 2a6 c . is 6x7. 30. 15. 24. x. . the parenthesis frequently omitted. 20.
257). & = 3. 11. 7. =2 a *.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a= 1. 36. m*. 4. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 6 = 1. This 52. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. IB. 3. 5 = 2. or 2 . 16. a = 2..6 if 35. Ex. 6. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.  2 2. &*) c d*.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 12 U U . Ex.(2. + 2/). 6" 127 U . 2. 78 .e. 2. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .2). MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 6 aWc x .(12) . 53. a8 a=2. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. . 2 2 3 6 .2 2 23 + 5 . 6 = . a = 3. 10. By 3 definition. 4. 1. (a6) (a5) 9. B.. 14.(7). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 3 2 .3).35). 5 3 5 3 2 . 2(14.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 3. i. 50(112.m a 3  4 . 4. 34. 100. . : 3a7abc. 5. 17. 9 . of the factors.503). 2(7. a 2 2 . 5 . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 200. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2 2 2 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. = 2. . fl*" integers.<?. 5(711. 13.7. 2 3 . . 3 3 4 . 127  127 9 7 .  and 2 25 8 .
24. . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. c(4a ftc ). 23(10004100420). 29.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.f 2). 21. 20.7pqt. 6. 35 4 7(6. 23. 7. .5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. If results ft. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 4. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 7p*q r*. 11(3.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 34. 17(10041042). 6(10420430). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). ) 2 33. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .3 win ) . and then adding : 1. but we shall assume it for any number. . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 2(5fl5f25). by first multiplying. multiply each by the monomial. 2. 25. 2(645410).2 3 aft ). 35. 26. called the distributive law. /). 27. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.7 w'W (8 n^W). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 28. _4aft. . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.4a#.6.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 5. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 22. (. . 3. This principle. 3(124342). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2 32. 12( + 1 4 i). 19. (.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .A). 31. 4 aft 5 aft 2 .
60 a& 10 aft. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 28. 17.we b) (x law. 20. . .^ c + 2 .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 11.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).asa product. 26. . 21. ~2mn(m +n p ).6 a6). 7 a 6 c(. 30.5 w*V f 7 wn). f7a. By what 25. be multiplied to give 4o. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.2 mn(9 mV . 19. 12. 3 ). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 29. 2 2 16. 2 27. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 23. 22. 5). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . : expression must 24.5 x 7).3 aftc). . Find the factors of 6 ary . 2 m(mhn \p).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 9.
2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. however.1.3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Ex.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.4. Multiply 2 a . To multiply two polynomials. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 + a a. 2. Check. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Since errors. a2 + a8 + 3 . .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. the student should apply this test to every example. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Since all powers of 1 are 1. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.a . 59.
2).4) (x + 1). (6i7n)(llJn). (ajf6y)(aj 23. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 13. 32. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 30. l)(raf 2).2m)(l m). 22. 15.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. . 8. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (6p (2 f 21.1 . ^ 2 . OQ OO. 18. (13 A. a 5c)(2a6c).n)(m 8 n)(m n). * For additional examples see page 261. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 4. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (4a 2 33. 25. 16. 36. 4 2). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 24. 3<7). 36). 17. 2. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. QQ O7. I (mfn)(m4. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 36) I) 14. 3. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 35. 7. 28. 7y). 1). 11. 2 . 12. 26. (2 x* x 2 . 40. 20. (8r7*)(6r39. 10. 2 . (a^26) .4) (mnp 4. 5. 9.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 31. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2) (3 A: 1). (2w 19. . 6. 41. 2  37. (6a~7) 2 . 29. 12)(a?^2l).
(10+ (1000 (2. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (p12)(p + ll). 26.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 25.2 6) (a f 6). (100 +2) (100 + 3). 12. (J 23. 20. in of the two unequal terms. 15. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 6. i. _3)(a _4). + 2) (a f 3). plus the product 62.13). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. . (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (a 102 x 103. 28. 7. ft 16. 8. 14. + 3) (a 7). X 102.e. 9. . (*. 2 6) (a 3 6).4). (!)(* 5). (a3)(a + 2). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). + 60)(f2). (ra. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 2) (1000 + 3). + 5) (1000 + 4). (a (a (a. : 23 2. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 13. .!!)( (a + 21). 27. 2 a? 29. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 3. + 9)(m+9). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2).n)(wf w). 1005x1004. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 17. 1) (10 + 2).25)(y+4). 11. (a 9) (a + 9). 24. 19. 75 ab f 54 ft . = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 25 a 2 . i. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 22. (6 12) (6 f. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.e. 18. 10. 21.
15. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 35. + 6 a + 8.e.66 s.e. (x+3i/) 2 . 2 5. 49 y*. i. . plus sum of two numbers the square II. w 2 ro . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). + 3) 2 . 3. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. n2 10ii+16. p 2 p.30. and the second. III. a2 2 w + 2 w . 37. III. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. of the second. 7 a + 10. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 33. 63. (a26) 2 . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .15. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 7. 34. Ex. second. i. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 8. 4.e. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 31. 77ie square of the of the first. . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 32. 6. <J>7) J . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 9. plus the square of the second. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. . : 24 (a 2. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. (a2) (p a . 2 (a (*5) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.
2 J ). (a 3) 2 2 2 . 33. 104 2 37. G> +5g)*. 18. 41 16. 2 . 54. 52. + 5). (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 55. 12. ( 27. 103 36. . 2 . . (100 + 2) (100 2). 29. + 3z) 2 2 . 998x1002. 38. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 47. 16aW25. (2x3yy. . 2 (4a36) 2 13. a 2 8a6+166 2 . n 2 f4n+4. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. I) 2 . 9 a2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 51. 2 2 . 22 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 40. 7& ) 25. By actual multiplication. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 34. 21. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50.MULTIPLICATION 10. (1000 2 . 46. 41. 24. 35.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 32. 44. 11. 49. 2 . 99x101. 22. . m 2 16. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 14. (6afy 2 5) (a. 42. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5)(5+a). The product of 57. (^. 25 a 9. a2 9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 15. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 991 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. n*6n+9. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 .998 39. 28. 48. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (20 f 1) . 62 25n 2 . 23. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 17. 45. ). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 31. 4 53.
the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 65. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4s + y)(32y). (3m + 2)(ml).& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (5a4)(4al). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 8. 11. or The student should note minus signs.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. ) (2 of a polynomial. plus the last terms. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 4. 3. 14. 5. The square 2 (a 4. (2a3)(a + 2). sum of the cross products. 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 13. (5a64)(5a&3). 6. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). : 25 2. 7. . 2 10. ((5a? (10 12.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.
of z : 10. 3.(m 2 6. 7.4) .39. 2)6. . 9.5) = (7 . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 6~2(a + 7). 12.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).24] . 8. 4(* + 2)5(3). 5. Hence. n).3)(z. 8.[a? . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 66.(>. Ex. 6(a 2. 3. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.3) . If x = 1. 5.8 x + 15] . 4y sf n) 2 .3) (x . + 65) . = . (u4& + 3c'.39. after multiplying the factors of a term. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).1 5 = 10 . + 6)( .r _ 2 . 13. = 10 x .X2 + 2 x .5). a. 2 2. Check. (  2 4) =  20 a.4) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (a (. Simplify (x + 6) (a . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.y? + 8 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.24 .29.i2&c) 2 . (xy+z)*. 4(aj2)h3(7).(x . 4.(= [ Xa + 2 . 4. 7. and check the answers !. Find the square root 11.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
19. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .l. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. a I. 51 15.11 a + 9 a . . 20. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. v/17.2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 16. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 18. .e. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . Division of the difference of two squares. (81 m + 1 .DIVISION 14. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).
15. 16 . 12. . 1. . 10. 100ry. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 121a a 16 100 11. aW 12 a. 9& 2 . 16. 4 b. f 13.000. r/ 1. 14.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !.0001.49.
hence it is an equation of condition. 81. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. =11. 83.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . . in the equation 2 x 0. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. second member is x + 4 x 9. is said to satisfy an equation. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. . x 20. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 82. the 80. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. the first member is 2 x + 4. Thus.
54 84.2. 3. the products are equal. 86. 5. . the divisor equals zero. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. called axioms 1. a. Transposition of terms. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the sums are equal. 90. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the quotients are equal. 87. E. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. the remainders are equal.e. but 4 does not equal 5. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. . 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be added to equals. 85. A 2 a. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. If equals be multiplied by equals. To solve an equation to find its roots. A term may be transposed from its sign.g. NOTE. If equals be divided by equals. one member to another by changing x + a=. 4. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.b. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 89. 2. x I. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 2 = 6#f7. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.
and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.2. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. The first member. Transposing. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. a= a 6fc. and the known terms to the second. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. To solve a simple equation.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Uniting. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. f If y 20 . b c.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4x 1 + 6.8.2 y= f . 6a5 = 185 = 13. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2 x = 6. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 3 y . x = (Axiom 3) 92. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Hence the answer.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. x = 93. . if 55 x members. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. x = 3. (4y)(6. a? Adding 5 to each term. b Adding a to both + a.6 y f y\ . The second member. Ex.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 2(11 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. The first member. is correct. 91. Check. Uniting similar terms. if a x = b. Dividing by Check. Unite similar terms. Dividing both members by 2.
= 5a?+18. 14y = 59(24y + 21).17 + 4y = 36. 9 9a? = 7 13. 11 ?/ a? 18. a.. 7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 24. 4a + 5 = 29. 3. 14. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 50.. and check the answers 9. f Simplifying.69. Dividing by Cfcecfc. v23. 3)= 9(3 7 a. it NOTE. 3 7 a. =2 = 3. aj * See page 264. = 2 ?/. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 12. 21. + 22. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. a?. 22. + 16 = 16 + 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).56 Ex. Solve the following equations by transposing. 7a? 5. \x x 2^xfl. 17 + 5a. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 247y = 68lly. {(x (x The The member right member left . 8. : 5# = 15+2a. . Uniting. a? a?. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 2. 4. 13a? 3a?. 32 = 264. 3.7a: = 394a. = 3. 17 7 a. x = 18.7. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. If x = 18. 11. 6. 16. x x 1 . 19. Transposing. 7 (6 x 16). a. etc. 15. . J. 4y 10. 20. = 7.
7) (7 x + 4) . . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 6(6a. this question.(2 + 6) (4 . .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.14 = 0. 2 2 * Jaj. 25. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 34. 27. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .3) . 40. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. .g.2) (M . a? 43. 7) (a.5) = (a. 41. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. (a. 5) (as (a. 39. . . e.3) + . 7(7 x y 26. 36. .5) + 199. 31. : One part is of 70 is 25 .4) + 4 w .7.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 35. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. (aj 37.32.5(2 u . is the other part. + 4). . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. (6 u =5 44. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . + 7) (.1) (u . or 70 a?. 29.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. a? 28.1 0) = 0. Evidently 45.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. .3) + 14. 33. 38. 42. find the other part.12) (2 + 5) . 30.
3. 6. 10. 15. 1. 33 2. one part equals is 10. a. so that one part The difference between is s. greater one is g. Find the greater one. 7. 5. EXERCISE 1. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is a? 2 is c?. so that one part Divide a into two parts. and the smaller one parts. Ex. Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost 100 dollars. x f y yards cost $ 100 . one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 11. so that of c ? is p.58 Ex. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. If 7 2. 13. is d. Divide 100 into two 12. is b. 4. 9. 6. find the cost of one yard. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 14. or 12 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 17. smaller one 16. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars.
find the has ra dollars. ?/ 31. A feet wide. How many years A older than is B? old. If B gave A 6 25.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. and B has n dollars. A dollars. 34. 32. How many cents has he ? 27. 22. 26. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 20. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 28. How many cents had he left ? 28. and c cents. A man had a dollars. Find 35. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. numbers is x. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. b dimes. sum If A's age is x years. 24. is A A is # years old. and B is y years old. and B's age is y years. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 28. 33. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and spent 5 cents. 19. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. Find 21. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. amount each will then have.
48. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. a. The two digits of a number are x and y. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. of 4. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find the number. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. c a b =  9. 46. he walk each hour ? 39. m is the denominator. % % % of 100 of x. per Find 5 Find 6 45. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.50. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. 49. find the fraction. . of m. Find a 47. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. The first pipe x minutes. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. . Find a. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A was 20 years old." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). A cistern is filled 43. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. Find x % % of 1000.
of a increased much 8. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. etc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of a and 10 equals 2 c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 80. by one third of b equals 100. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. The double as 7. 5. 80. c. 3. 8 b ) + 80 = a . EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of x increased by 10 equals x. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. c. The excess of a over b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. a exceeds b by c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 2. double of a is 10. 4. 9. same result as 7 subtracted from . a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 6.
amounts. of 30 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. pays to C $100. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. >. 18. B's. 6 % of m. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. B's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. #is5%of450. is If A's age is 2 x. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. express in algebraic 3x : 10.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. they have equal of A's.62 10. 12. sum equals $20. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and C have respectively 2 a. and C's ages will be 100. 17. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a. B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. they have equal amounts. . as 17 is is above a. m is x % of n. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old.000. B's age 20. A gains $20 and B loses $40. symbols B. and C's age 4 a. a. 16. In 10 years the sum of A's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a second sum. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. (c) If each man gains $500.. 11. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 14. x is 100 x% is of 700. x 4 If A. 3 1200 dollars. 50 is x % of 15.
be 30 . A will Check. number of yards. Simplifying. Find A's present age. the required . Transposing. 2. x = 20. 6 years ago he was 10 . Ex. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 1. 3z40:r:40z. x= 15. Uniting. Check. x+16 = 3(35). the . Ex. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x = the number. In 15 years 10. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. NOTE. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 4 x = 80. In order to solve them. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. etc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Uniting. Transposing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. denote the unknown 96. Three times a certain no. much as 40 exceeds the number. number. 15. Dividing. 23 =30. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. but 30 =3 x years. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols.
Forty years hence his present age.2. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 14. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Dividing.64 Ex. 300 56. Hence 40 = 46f. 3. Find the number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A will be three times as old as toda3r . by as much as 135 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find 8. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. . 120. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. twice the number plus 7. 5. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. EXERCISE 1. A number added number. Let x 3. 4. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. % of 120. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 13. exceeds the width of the bridge. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 11. Find the number.
The other verbal statement. F 8. is the equation. Vermont's population increased by 180. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and as 15. The sum of the two numbers is 14. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If A gains A have three times as much 16. Ex. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dol A has A to $40. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. two verbal statements must be given. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. statements are given directly. and B has $00. times as much as A. 1. the second one. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. . which gives the value of 8. x. 65 A and B $200. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. During the following 90 years. Find the population of Maine in 1800. B will have lars has A now? 17. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. A and B have equal amounts of money.000. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.000. B How will loses $100. 14. 97. The problem consists of two statements I. written in algebraic symbols. One number exceeds the other one by II. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. five If A gives B $200.
26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. < Transposing. = 3. to Use the simpler statement. . 2. Let x 3x express one many as A. 25 marbles to B. x x =14 8. has three times as many marbles as B. the greater number. A has three times as many marbles as B. Dividing. . the sum of the two numbers is 14. the smaller number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A will lose. Then. Let x 14 I the smaller number. If A gives are : A If II. B will have twice as many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 2x a? x j = 6. unknown quantity in Then. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. x = 8. = B's number of marbles. . which leads ot Ex. Statement x in = the larger number. The two statements I. I. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. If we select the first one. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Uniting. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. consider that by the exchange Hence. + a f f 8 = 14. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as viz. / . terms of the other. and Let x = the Then x +. = 14. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = A's number of marbles. 8 = 11. 8 the greater number.
Check.25 = 20. Dividing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).75.240. dollars and dimes is $3. the number of half dollars. etc. . the number of dimes. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. w'3. the price.10. Dividing. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. of dollars to the number of cents. Two numbers the smaller. The number of coins II. The sum of two numbers is 42.10. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. * 98. Find the numbers. B's number of marbles. x = the number of half dollars. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. is 70. x = 6. by 44. 40 x . The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Uniting. Let 11 = the number of dimes.550 f 310. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 50 x Transposing. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Find the numbers. 45 . 6 times the smaller. Eleven coins. greater is . and the Find the numbers. 11 x = 5. Uniting. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). then..LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 3 x = 45.. Check. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Simplifying. 15 + 25 = 40. 2. have a value of $3.5 x . x from I. but 40 = 2 x 20. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. x = 15. 1. A's number of marbles. 60. (Statement II) Qx . cents..10. .$3. 50. * ' . The value of the half : is 11. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3. Simplifying.
and twice the altitude of Mt. United States. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 9.68 4. Find their ages. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and four times the former equals five times the latter. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. How many inches are in each part ? 15. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.000 feet. Two numbers The number differ by 39. How many hours does the day last ? . Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. A's age is four times B's. On December 21. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 6. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Everest by 11. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. McKinley.. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. tnree times the smaller by 65. 5. the number. Twice 14. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 7. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. as the larger one. one of which increased by 9. How many 14 years older than B. 11.
they would have 3. B. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. III. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. II. Ex. If A and B each gave $5 to C. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. then three times the money by I. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. number of dollars of dollars B C had. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. I. number of dollars A had. original amount. If 4x = 24. 8(8 + 19) to C. and 68. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. . 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. are : C's The three statements A. The third verbal statement produces the equation. 1. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and B has three as A. and C together have $80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. has. Let x II. B. bers is denoted by x. 19. times as much as A. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. = number of dollars B had after giving $5." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = 48. has. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. B has three times as much as A. x = 8. and C together have $80.
A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. and. = the number of dollars spent for horses. + 35 x 4. 9 5 = 4 . the third five times the first. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each horse costing $ 90. 4 x f 8 = 28. and the sum of the . = the number of dollars spent for cows. according to III. x j = the number of horses. The I. Uniting.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. x f 4 = 9. 90 may be written. first. number of sheep. according to II. number of horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 28 2 (9 5). number of cows. The total cost equals $1185. and each sheep $ 15. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. + 8 90 x and.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 1 1 Check. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. cows. III. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. x Transposing. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. x = 5. 2. Dividing. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 185 a = 925. 9 cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. each cow $ 35. and Ex. three statements are : IT. Let then. sheep.
13. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. A 12. "Find three is 4. what is the length of each? has 3.  4. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If twice The sum the third side.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first. what is the population of each city ? 8. increased by three times the second side. men.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice the 6. the copper. what are the three angles ? 10. The gold. first. v . A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. twice as old as B. women. and children together was 37.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. equals 49 inches. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 7. 9. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. how many children were present ? x 11.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and the sum of the first and third is 36. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the third 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. New York delphia. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and 2 more men than women. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.
and quantities area.000. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. together.e. number of miles A x x walks. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Find the value of each. how many 100. Hence Simplifying. 14. = 5. . then x 2 = number of hours B walks. The copper had twice the value of the gold. or time. 3 and 4. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000 more than that the copper. number of hours. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and distance. = 35. A and B apart.000. First fill in all the numbers given directly. but stops 2 hours on the way. 7 Uniting.g. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. of 3 or 4 different kinds. i. Let x = number of hours A walks. speed. After how many hours will they meet and how E. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. we obtain 3 a. width. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. such as length. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.000. of arid the value of the iron was $300. Dividing. 8 x = 15. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.
or 700. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Find the dimensions of the field.M(x . were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = 800.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. z = 20.06 = $ 40. But 700 certain = 800 2. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. Check. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.01 = = .05 x x . the area would be 100 square yards less. Transposing and uniting. 70x10 Ex. x . the second 100. x .04 8. original field has Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 2 a = 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. . 10 x = 200. $ 800 = required sum. Multiplying. The an area 40 x 20 =800. $ 1000 x . l. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.053.04 = $ 40." gives (2. + 8. x + 200). 2   and transpose.
How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. were increased by 3 yards. invested at 5 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Find the share of each. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A man bought 6 Ibs. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Six persons bought an automobile. A sets out later two hours B . and its width decreased by 2 yards. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. sions of the field. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Ten yards $ 42. but four men failed to pay their shares. and a second sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. of coffee for $ 1. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.55. twice as large. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. as a 4. A of each. What are the two sums 5. mobile. the area would remain the same. together bring $ 78 interest. 3. 2. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. After how many hours will B overtake A.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. 1. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. but A has a start of 2 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A and B set out direction.
The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . it is composite. a2 to 6. at this 6 2 . if. 104. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 6. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it does contain some indicated root of . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. but fractional with respect 103. consider 105. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. 76 . which multiplied together are considered factors. 5. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. we shall not. as. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. irrational. vV . a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. An after simplifying. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . this letter. stage of the work. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it is integral to all letters contained in it.
110. Ex.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 109.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Factor G ofy 2 . 2. 107. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.3 sy + 4 y8). . 55. 2. in the form 4) +3.FACTORING 106. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or that a = 6) (a = a . . 1. it follows that a 2 . TYPE I.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.) Ex. x. for this result is a sum. 2. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. y.3 6a + 1). x. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.62 can be &). or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 8) (s1). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Divide 6 a% . E. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 01.g. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 + &)(a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . ?/. It (a. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.
11. 15. obviously.2.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 4 tfy f. 2 + q. . 8.51 x4 2 6 xy s .5 + 13 8. 7a & 10.12 cdx. : 6 abx . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 12. 18. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. q*q*q 2 a. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 17. 2 2 . 3x*6x*. 32 a *?/ . 4.8 c a 15 ofyV .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.3. 2 Or. 34 a^c 8 . 2 23. TYPE IT. 2.6.3. Ilro8 9. 3 3 5 6.4. 16. e. 13. 14a 4 5. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).51 aW + 68 21. 4 8 . in general. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.g. .5 x*y 2 17 a? . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 7i 13. 2 6. 15 2 7. 19. (as 3) and (ccf5). a6c. 3. a a 'Ja . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 20.5 + 2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.30 aty. + llm llm.45 afy . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).4. 5f 2 . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 3 2 . 14. ) 22  2.
a). 2. 3.11 a + 30. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. as p. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. m 5m + 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 5.11) (a + 7). determine whether In solving any factoring example.6 = 20. of this type. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.FACTORING Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.30 = (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. the two numbers have opposite signs. If q is positive.4 . a 2 . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2 6. . 79 Factor a2 4 x . tfa2  3. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.G) = . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Ex. . Factor a2 . Therefore Check.11.1 1 a tf a 4. + 30 = 20.4 x .11 a 2 . 11 7.5) (a 6). the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Ex.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Factor + 10 ax .5) (a .77 = (a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. + 112.. or 77 l. If q is negative. 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. . can be factored. Factor x? . is The two numbers whose product and 6. however. We may consider 1. or 7 11. and (a . 77 as the product of 1 77.
+ 4?/21. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 13. 30. 31. 21 a 2 2 . + 5<y 24. ITT. 16. 4 3 2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 14. 25. 9. 6 8 8 4 2 a. a2 . 18. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. a 7 a 30. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. and 5 x. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 20. 33. 36. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ .6. 21. TYPE 113. 29. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 19.17 + 30. + 30. x2 23. 2 ?/ 28. 32.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .70 x y . 2 2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.80 7. 2 ?/ 22. 11. 17. . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 16. 24. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 35. + 2xS. 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 .180 a. or . . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 2 . 27. 12. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ay 11 ay +24. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 . 100 xr . 26. 15. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. a? + 5 + 6 a. 4 2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2.48 + + 446 200. + 44.500 x + 600. 2 2 a' 34. 8.
and that they must be negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.83 x f 54.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.5 . X x 18. or G 114. 27 x 2. 9 x 6. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.1). .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the signs of the second terms are minus.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. viz. and r is negative. 2.5) (2 x . 54 x 1. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 18 x 3. 2 x 27. 3. a. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. sible 13 x negative. but the opposite sign. 3 x and x. Factor 3 x 2 . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If p is poxiliw. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .13 x + 5 = (3 x . Ex. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 11 x 2x. the If p and r are positive. 6 x 9. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.
15. 20. 4a2 9tt + 2. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 22. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 18. X 27 . 2x* + 9x5.260 xy . 17. 30. 32. 3x*Sx + 4.179. 10a?2 2 33. 12^17^16.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 9. 24.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . and the monomial factors should be removed.83 x . + 2/3.y + 172/9. 11.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 34.2 a 90 x*y . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 29.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 100^200^ + 100^. 25. 2 ar* 2 i/ . x54 a. 2 31. 4. 19.163 x 2 . 5m 26m f 5.83 x = (3 . 12. since all others (II. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 6. 14. 9 y + 32^16. 13. 2 26. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 10a2 G a2 2 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 10 a . . : 41 2. f go. 2 . 9a. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.27). 10. 7. 2 2 2 .7.19 a f 6. 16. 2. 21. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 28. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 5. 35. 3.2) (x . 2 . 14 a fa 4. 12y 2/6. 6n + 5?i4.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 3a + 13a. . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 144 x . 90 a 8 2 . + 4. . 2m t7w + 3. the expressions should be it. Sar' + SaG. 8.30 y 6 4 . 2 fc . 2 2 2 23.
11. 2 9 10gf25.10 x f 16. it is a perfect square. and factor whenever possible : 1. . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. however. 2 . 10. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. . 3. 4. 5. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. form are special cases of the preceding type. i.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 14.e. 25 7. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. and a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. x* . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 13. it is more convenient for that type. 12. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 9 10a625. square. must have a positive sign. 8. 9.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 6. 16 y? The student should note that a term. of its terms are perfect squares. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.20 xy f 4 y\ . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. To factor a trinomial which maining term. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 2. 116. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .
TYPE 117. 2 . +( )f816 30. 2 . 225 ofy . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.84 15. 2. . : 43 tfy\ a 9. aV . 22. 149 a 81 8. prime.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 2 20. According to 65.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 36 2 4. 9a2 . 2. a2 24. 4a2 l.60 a# + 4. 27. 6. 7. 1.2 ofy + ofy m . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. ^//c to the Ex. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.64 6 = 16(a .6 m* + 9 m. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. ). EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 10 a 2 4 2 . 19. Ex. 3. 2 . 25.e.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 5. 3. product i.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 16&*.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 26. !Gar 9 ( )+25. + GO + 25. a. 18. ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). V. 6 2 . a. 17. .20 ab + 10 b a . 16. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 4 2 23. * 2 .3 * ). 29. 48 a +( ). . ). 9. u2 6& + 2 ( ).
FACTORING 85 118. One or both terms are squares 1. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2. 4. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c 4. 16p 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 6. 13. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 5. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 11. 36> . Ex. Factor a 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .c . 14. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . a2 . T.d) 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 8. 2 . a:) 12. 2 . (m7?) y. of polynomials. 2.(I) . Ex. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 9.
ab + bx. A. a 26 2 2 3 . 12. Ex. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. a5 + ab 6 . . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Ex. a? 11. 10. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.VI. 7. 5. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.y + 2 2). which may be factored according to types I. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. By grouping. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.and trinomials.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 4:cx .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 119. After grouping tain a the terms. x8 .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 9.a a . 2. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 8. ma ?*a + m& nb. 3. = (3 x + y . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 5) . .14.r. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 1. 4 B.1.7 c + 2c .2 ) (3 x . 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. + x + 2x + 2. 6.
87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. . 36 9 m .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 8ra 2 + 16. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.12 aaj 4 6y.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. : m 2 2 16. 2. 4 a2 . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 5.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2. 4. 6 6. 3.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.l. 3. = (a + 6)(a6). : 46 x* 2. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 6.4 f .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. First find monomial factors common to all terms. . IV. II. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Arranging the terms. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. +c+ 2 2 2/ . + 2xy + y*q*. 8. 4. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. w m 2.FACTORING Ex. 6a4 12a2 + 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 2a3/ 7. 2 7. l~a 2a56 2 2 . $ a8 .
24. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 32. 4 a. 19. a3 156. 42 x . (^ 34. .24. 2 17. 80 a 2 ft 38. 29. 5 a. + 6 aft + 3 . 50^ + 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. a6 36. 2 ft . a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .13 c .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 14.88 10.310 x . (a. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 4 8 tt 2 z . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 13 c . 22. 25 a + 25 aft . 30. 11. 18. 28. 3 41. 48. 12. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 5a' 20. 2 a 128. + 14. 42 s 2 .156. 13. 40. 3 2 . 35. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 3 a2 23.40. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . a + a + a + l. 3 25. or 3 7#2 . 27. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.
5. are prime can be found by inspection. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F. 6. 3. C. 24 s . C. F. of 6 sfyz. II 2 . The H. of : 48 4. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 13 aty 39 afyV. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. Two common factor except unity The H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 8 . F. of aW.  23 3 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 5 s 7 2 5. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 2. . 2 2 . The student should note H. C. of the algebraic expressions. C. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 121. 89 . F. EXERCISE Find the H. C. F. F. The highest is common factor (IT. 5 2 3 . C. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. The H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F.) of two or more . 15 aW. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. aW. 3 . 54  32 . 5 7 34 2s . C. Thus the H. F. 122. F. 12 tfifz. 25 W. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.
C. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 3.12 as 66 . 1. x* x2 Hence the H.8 a + 16. a2 ar* 4. 12 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . aWd. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 25 m27i. 6 3 a. .5 y). 38 #y. 16.6 . a3 16 a. 9.# 4 afy f 4 . To find the H.5 + 6.6 a&. ^f a. y + 3y64. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 8(?/ifl) 14. of polynomials. 3 . 3).5 x3?/ 2 6. 0^80:416. C.90 7. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. . Find the H. 12. 12 w*nw 8. 2 . 95 2/V. 8 6. 2. a2 + 7af!2. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 16 a .y) . 24 a 2 . 8.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 9. = x 2 y. 12. 11. 6 mx .?/ . 225 4a 9 . 11. 15. 52 oryz4.y + y42. a2 + 2a3. 5. 1. (a7 ?/) . 15 3ao. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . ^2 2 . 6 a2 y? . a. . 6(m+l) (m+2). C. 13. F. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a3 9a. a 3a4. 2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. F.^9. 4 ?io. 10. 14.2 ?/) (x . 8 a 10 .6. 10. 57 a>V. F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 49 C. . and apply the method of the preceding article. . 13. 2a f5af 2. 8. 9 aj*(a? . 65 zfyV. Ex. of: . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. of + 4 if. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). F.2 y) (a. . ^a + 5^ + 6. 2 .y) 123. ^707 + 12. 4(m+l) 3 . a2 . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 2 . 3^ 2 4 .
M. of tfy and xy*. C. M. C. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . NOTE. C. &) 2 M. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . M of the algebraic expressions. M. C. a^c8 3 . ory is the L. . C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Find the L. etc. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 2 The The L. Common 125. thus. A common remainder. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 60 x^y' 2 . 126.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 2. L. M. M. The L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.6 3 ). 1. C. 128. To find the L. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. M.6)2. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. . of 3 aW. Ex. two lowest common multiples. of several expressions which are not completely factored. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.M. Find the L. M. Hence the L. 127. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. each set of expressions has In example ft). =4 a2 62 (a2 . The lowest common multiple (L.C. 300 z 2 y. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. but opposite . L. of the general. Ex.M.C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. which also signs. C.
M. 4 a 5 6cd. 16. 24 x. 3. a !. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 6 y. a f 2 19. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 9. x 2 5 a. 5. a 2 f 4 a +4. f b. a. a 2 a3 . 13. 4 a . x* ~5a. Find the L. 3 f2. a. 17. x2 + 4 a f 4. 2 7ic+10. (For additional examples see page 268. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2(m 2 . 40 abJ. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a 1. a2 ~ab 1. 3.1. 2 10. 15. afy. 6. 8.f 6. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. #. + 2 7i) . 2 a . xy\ . 20 9 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 24. b 2 . 21. 2 . 2 a . 6b 2 . 18. 11. T a 3 a 2 . (a 4)(a2) 12. a?b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 7. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. + 2. ic 23. 14. a2 4. 22. ) . 2. a^1. afc'cd 2 . a { a~b. 5 a? 5 a? y. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. by. 2 . 2 a. 30 a. a 2 fa6. a. 6 a. 20. 2 . 3 . or f 3 a 15 #. . 3 ab. y*. 8 afy. 2 x \2 y. a& 4 +& 2 . 8 d 5 . 1. ic 2 ?/. 3(a + b). 3 Z> . G a.1. + 6. 4 a f 2. . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 3 6 xif. a f 3. of: 4.
etc. Thus. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. a?. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. an indicated quotient. Remove tor. however. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. 131. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. as 8. rni Thus 132. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. but we In arithmetic. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . successively all 2 j/' .ry ^ by their H. and denominators are considered. Ex. F. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . a b = ma mb . 130. A f fraction is b. C. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators.
4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. .33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3.
* OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 23. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. LJZJ^JL.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.7 ..' 32. 16. .10 a + 3 2 14. ^+3*. g J 21. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ny 4 18. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. . 5^10 y 30. 9x + "a" 10. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ' ^ . 11 ^ Mtr f . 29. nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.*. .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ^" a. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 19. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^' rt ^  31. """. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.
1). and the terms of ***. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.  by 4 6' .M.1^22 ' . 1. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. M. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Reduce ^.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.M.3) (!)' = . and 135.r 2 2 . mon T denominator. C. we may extend this method to integral expressions.C. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. of the denominators for the common denominator. . TheL. we have the quotients (x 1). ^ to their lowest com The L. Divide the L. C.C. 2> .~16 (a + 3) (x. . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. =(z (x + 3)(z. we have M^.D. take the L.  of //* 2 . by the denominator of each fraction. multiplying the terms of 22 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.96 134. and (a 8). we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex. + 3).
.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . .. JL.oj o* or / . 18. 7i 2 ab* ". a? 1 5 > ^* . 2 ay IB.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. . If the given fractions have different denominators.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . .^1. 3. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. j y 3. o o a. 2. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 8 i i. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 5?.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 22 a2 5a * .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2aj ~ . common denominator 6. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 137. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. i. 74)..
ft) (a ft ft)~. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. and adding. T? Ex. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. ft). (a ft). 4(2 a 3 ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). (a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . D.aft) Ca2 . 2 ^.3 ft)..98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. the student should remember that parentheses are . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . The L.3 ft 2). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.(a 2 6).2 = a(a .3 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .7 .2 ' 2 _. as 4 aft f. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). 2. e.g.ft)(a . D. in the beginning. L. C. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). ^ is 2^JT) .
a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 f q * 1 m m . a 36 ++. 24. 1 1 f w 16. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. 5a76 4a 106 9. + . 6 c 3a 7. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 20. j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 2. + a "" 2 6 ' . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 18 v 19. 46 2a 4a 12. 2L + 2a 1 17. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.5 18 ^4f25. 23. A+2_3.
1 34.9 79 6 2 i. ic 1 + 1. af 1f /j. 41. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ! n. 42. 2 af1 32. 43. 3a 9 +. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 4 31. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. a ?^ 40. a 30. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9.
2 x2 + 2 g 4.7 5a v Ex. . 1. 101 mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. Reduce .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . T.  . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .
or. 2. 2 a Ex.g. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. we may extend any e. !. Since  = a.) Ex. multiply the 142. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. fractions to integral numbers. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. (In order to cancel common factors. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. integer. F J Simplify .
FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8. 14. 5# 56 / c& 4.. . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.. aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
Divide Xn?/ . 144. 1.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 8 multiply the Ex. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. : a 41 ab * See page 272.
afr 4.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 . ga2 4 8 5 a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. Ex. l. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a a2 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . are fractional.FRACTIONS 105 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.10 ?/ _.6 s + 064. or both. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.
9. i. Simplify x }. the answer is directly obtained.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . & . 10. C. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. y X 4* 2 y 3. . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 7i+~ 7. Ex. n a 8. a m "" .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . 2. of their denominators. M. x* 4.a ^c c _^ a . JL. . c +6. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 6.y 32 . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).
sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 2 & a 20  a46 13. m^n* n L a 17.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 i 1 2 5 . : .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
4 4)  x. Bx 12 Qx. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 2z2a. 2x Transposing.28 a = 5 x2 . tions. 148.28 x + 42 = . a. Clearing of fractions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. each member is reduced to 1. 108 . 2 3. each member is reduced to Ex. M. = 6. 9x x Check. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).14 (a. = 6.9 x2 + 9. Uniting. If x 6. C.1. Uniting. x = 6. + 1) (a + 3) . of the denominator. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . .l)(z + 3) = . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 5(3 85 Check. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Transposing.48. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. these Ex. 2. If = 64. 1.8 x = .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.f3# + C:E=6f7212.42 + 9.
= xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a.= 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +4 14.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. '  4 13. . . ^' 2. a/  5 a/ = 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. ^1 = 9. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a: 7 a. 1 *> = 2. 16. +1 = 5. 15.1 _77 a. 18.
it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 31 31. . 32 6 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 25. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.11_4 x 149._ _ . 33. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . . If two or more denominators are monomials. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 27 . ?_=_. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 26 26. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.  38 = 40. 4a4l4* + l~. J_. y+3~2 29. 3x 35.
2 3 ~  == 7a. each member is reduced to ^. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . 1. C.1. = 9. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Dividing. If a. a.  5 = 20 x 45. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 60. 5# 10..FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 24 a. Transposing and uniting. . Check. M.2 42 9 43. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 26 a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5x x : = 9. the 1 5 L. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.
fr Reducing lowest terms. It frequently occurs that the x.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting. . Uniting the Dividing.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 5> a.& . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 2. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Thus. = 2 f b 2 . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.m bx 2 mn) x. find a in terms of b and c. =a 2 151. a.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 4 ac 1.1. y.2 ac + 3 aft . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. ax f x f. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.3 6 2 = a' . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. jr. If 3ac L= = a ? . Dividing. they are united by factoring. f ~ 5c.2 62 2 ab. = l^ 9 b 4 . = 6 a2 . Ex. Ex. = = 6 6c 7 6c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.be.
Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. If s (wi n) x =px + q. + 3a. If ^^ = a 1 32. = vt. 13. .= H. If s If 16. 34. denoting the interest. IIL n b + &o. 31. If * 33. m a? x . + xx = 1. Ex. 14. 4. a. 2 solve for y a. 17. 3(* 8. mx = n. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). s = Vt solve for v. r the number of $>. 5) is t =^. . 12.a. 9. in terms of other quantities. 29. . co?. rate. = 8 4 #. 10. _ 2.i l . = 5. p the principal. and n the number of years. q solve for/. 11. solve for a. = 3 (6 a).= c a Z> . t. . 3. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 30. f ^o. The The i time. f P =+!. 4. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .= n. 6. 1 f. solve for . 15. ^ ax a^ 26. c 18. c.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. * Solve the same equation for^). i The formula for simple interest ( 30. iw 21. = rt.
1.180..20 C. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 100 C. 2. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . = 16^. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. is 36. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Multiplying by Dividing. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Find R in terms of C and TT.. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. . Ex. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over.114 35. A would do each day ^ and B j.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. x Or Uniting. 2 3 . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. then = 2 TT#. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
3. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the required number of days. Solving. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 32 x = . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . in Then Therefore. the rate of the express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. Ex. Clearing. 180 Transposing." gives the equation /I). 4x = 80. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = 100 + 4 x. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train." : Let x  = the required number of days. and the statement. or 1J.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day.
How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. is oO. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. How did the much money man leave ? 11. by 3. and of the father's age. which was $4000. of his present age. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ceeds the smaller by 4. is equal 7. a man had How much money had he at first? . 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and 9 feet above water. money and $10. ex What 5. fifth Two numbers differ 2. to his son. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. make 21. and J of the greater Find the numbers.  Find their present ages. to his daughand the remainder. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and one half the greater Find the numbers. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. length in the ground. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 6.
investments. air. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) 22. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 1. How much money $500? 4%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 152. A has invested capital at more 4%. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. what is the 14. after rate of the latter ? 15. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. ^ at 5%. 3.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. 2. and B in 4 days. . and it B in 6 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.
Then ft i. they can both do in 2 days. Ex. is 42. n x Solving. therefore. we obtain the equation m m . make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. .009 918. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. To and find the numerical answer. Hence. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. A in 6. 26. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. 3. e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 2. B in 5. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. The problem to be solved. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.414. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. and n = 3. B in 16. if B in 3 days. and apply the method of 170. 25. A in 4.g. m and n. is 57.= . Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 12. A in 6.118 153. B in 30.e. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. .
Find the side of the square. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. . 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 34. meet. (c) 16. same hour from two towns. 3 miles per hour.721. 3J miles per hour. 4J miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. The one: 31.001. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number.000. (d) 1. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. respectively. the second at the apart. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. is ?n . squares 29. the rate of the first. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 35 miles. and the rate of the second are. if m and n are. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 5 miles per hour. squares 30.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (b) 149. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 2 miles per hour. 33. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. : (c) 64 miles. respectively (a) 60 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. is (a) 51. Two men start at the first miles apart. and the second 5 miles per hour.
The first 156. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . 1.g. the denominator The the 157. 158." we may write a : b = 6. b. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. b is the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. Ex. 6 12 = .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. a ratio is not changed etc. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the symbol being a sign of division. the second term the consequent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. antecedent. : : 155. E. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. etc. .5. the antecedent. In the ratio a : ft.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. " a Thus.
proportional between a and c. 1. 4:5f : 5. 9. In the proportion a b : = b : c. $24: $8. Simplify the following ratios 7. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 8^ hours. 159. extremes. 16. 5 f hours : 2. 17. two  ratios. 7:4 T T 4 . J:l. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. terms. 11. b is the mean b. Transform the following unity 15. 27 06: 18 a6. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 3:4. 61 : ratios 72:18. 12. 18. 10. 3 8. 62:16. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. and c is the third proportional to a and . and c. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. : ay . : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. b.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. a and d are the extremes. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. : 1. equal 2. 7f:6J. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b and c the means. 6. 16a2 :24a&. 4. The last first three. 3.
: : directly proportional may say. ccm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. Clearing of fractions. of a proportion. then G ccm. " we " NOTE. are : : : inversely proportional. pro portional. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. = 30 grams 45 grams. and the other pair the extremes.122 162. of iron weigh .) b = Vac. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ad = be. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. q~~ n . If (Converse of nq.30 grams. Hence the number of men required to do some work. 2 165. 164. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. In any proportion product of the extremes. !.e. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. : c. 6 ccm.) mn = pq. 163. and the time necessary to do it. i.__(163. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 3 4. The mean proportional of their product. briefly.
2. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. ad = be. hence the proportion true. (Division. then =d c. if 6 : 7.) = f f = 3 J. 166. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. 12x Hence a? = 42. bd bd. ad ( 163. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. is Ex.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. I.) a + b:a = c + d:c. = 35 .) II. is 4$ = 35. (163. . (Composition. a III.PATIO Ex.) (Called Alternation. (Frequently called Inversion. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 1. d d. I. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a:c=b:d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) d 167. V. + b:b = c + d:d. Or IV.
8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 10. : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. : 3 = 5 f x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 2:x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. IV. 4. . 120:42 2 2 7. 8. 3. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 180:125. = 12 5ft. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. = 20:7. and determine whether they are true or not : 6.e. Simplify the following proportions. the consequents by 7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.g. . Apply composition. V.!=!*. 2. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:3. 9. 6 =4 : x. 5. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. i.124 IT. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. x = 2. Or III. mx tin Apply composition and division. = 7:2f 3J. E. 5 5.
16. rap. 16 and 28.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 42.:ff. 2 3 = y #. to : 9 and 12. 27. f. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 14. 20. 35. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. x:5 = y:2. 12. 29. 28.  32. 6 x = y. = 15o. 14 and 21. : a2 . 2. Find the 37. a 2 and ab. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 2.8:1. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. and 2/. 3. 4 and 16. 112:42 = 10:a. 31. 38. 50. b. 25. w. 46. x m = y n. 18. : . 7iy = 2:x. Find the third proportional 24. 1. 43. 3. 03:a?=135:20. 17. ra. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. terra 2:3 = 4. 9 x = 2 y. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 47. 4. to: = 35:*. : 53. 39.. 6x = 7y. 33. to : a and 1. 5= 18 a? : a?. . (a : : 45. if : 40.j>. a?:15 15. 2= 5 x x. 41. ratio of y. rag. 13. + fyx = cy. = 3 43 + x. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 6. 34. 26. 2 a and 18 a. mx = ny. ra + landra 1. 23. 1 and a. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 51. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. ra 2 . 21. = 5 x 12. 44. 52. = 2 + x: x. 5. 22.x: 6:5 a : x. Find the mean proportional 30. = l^:18. a. 3t.
the area of the larger? the same.126 54. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the time necessary for it. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the time. 57. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the speed of the train. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the : total cost. what 58. and the area of the rectangle. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 56. the squares of their radii (e) 55. A line 7^. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet.
. 4 inches long. = the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 11 x f 7 x = 108. : Ex. 11 x x 7 Ex. x=2. 11 x = 66 is the first number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. so that Find^K7and BO. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. Then Hence BG = 5 x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 2 x Or = 4. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. AB = 2 x. as 11 Let then : 1. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. produced to a point C.000 168. Let A B AC=1x. is A line AB. 18 x = 108. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2. 7 x = 42 is the second number.
How many 7. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 6. What are the parts ? 5. 9. 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 11. 13. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 12. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.000. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 14. : 197. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Gunmetal tin. and c inches. and 15 inches. 12.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many gen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How The long are the parts ? 15. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 2. 3. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.) . consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000 square miles. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : 4. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water.
y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. 2 y = . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence. if . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6.L x If If = 0.e. The root of (4) if K 129 . is x = 7. y = 1.y=. values of x and y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. there is only one solution. etc. However. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.. =. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. expressing a y. x = 1. a? (1) then I.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. such as + = 10. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.
By By Addition or Subtraction. viz. 4y . 3. Therefore. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. E. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. of elimination most frequently used II.X. the last set inconsistent.130 170. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 172. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 6x .26. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . cannot be reduced to the same form. The first set of equations is also called consistent. same relation. = . ~ 50. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). unknown quantity.3 y = 80. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.24. Substitution. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 21 y . for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 26 y = 60. y I 171. and 3 x + 3 y =. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 174. for they express the x f y 10. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. to The two methods I. y = 2. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. are simultaneous equations.
Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 y = 47. x = 10. x = 10. are like. 37. = 406.3 1 = 47. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. = 235. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3. 3y = 3. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. y = 2. Transposing. 64 x = 040. Check. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 8 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. 60 . subtract the equations.2 = 6. y = 1. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Therefore Check.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).14 =8. whose coefficients In general. 5 13 . 25 x . add the equations. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. + 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 10 .
* + 3 y = 50. 19< I a.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. v ^ = ll. = 24.4.3. I i 3 a. _. O t K 8. I oj 5y = 17. 13. = 41. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 13 61 l7a. ' 12. x 11.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.3. f 3# ?/ = 0.v 23. 7 ' 1fi fl . i 3. 9 1 r 20.f2/ ' = 50. + 2/ 17. [2o.9 *. . = 6. f 3X 7x 14. ] ^ . J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I ~ y~~> 22.5 y = 2. I .
8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 13. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 3. and solve the resulting equation. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. . = 60. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 4#8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other.
(8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 7 y = 6. . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 29 x = 29. From 9 = 36.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. + 212y4 = 14. 4* + 3y = 19. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. Substituting in (6) . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (4). 3. \ \6(a. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).3. 2 y = .6)7(y7)==18. however. x = l. 21z6y=9. simplified before elimination is possible. (7) (7) (8) . 7x_2y=3. 3 (1) Ex.
f2 2. . J 9. .1) + 5(6 y . a. 12. yM a. 16. = 3. . 4 11. 10 2a?5 17. +y 2 . a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) = 121. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.
#.Q ^ 4 21. <X + 20. * ((* (( . and y.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. but some expressions involving x. 22. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . . e. f y . {. ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. 180.
y 1. (2) (3) a. 1. x 3.3 xy. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. etc. y. 15 y + 8 x . can also be solved Examples method. . Clearing of fractions. however. . 2* * x 2. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. 137 Solve y y (1) . (4) + (G). Substituting x = 3 in (1). 33 = 11 x. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).4 x = 4 xy. Dividing by 11 3 = #. Therefore y=4. x 2x(2). of this type.
21 9 . . 6w3 + bny = 6p. 1. n.= 5. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 5. y MOi y a. x 8. x y 331 9. 253 7. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 4 13.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= o 6. Ex. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. . ax + by = 2 a&. From the same equations find s in terms of a. Dividing. . apan cm. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. d. f 5. a Find a and terms of n. 6. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. bmy bm}y ap cm. 14. x a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. W . . Uniting. ap. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. s in 11. x f my = 1. x 12. w.y = = 9a + 46. fax f = l. and I. and I if 13.W. d. . ny = fy/ I sc 1.
25. 182. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). = 30. Ex. 4. 6. 1.by 2. 3y = Hence Check. (8) 2. 8 x .8 = 1.1+4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. = 3.3=4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. y =* 2. 20. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.12 y + 6 z = . by 3.2 + 4. etc.3 = 8.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. f 3y 12 =s 8. ties are Similarly.15z=12 Adding.lf> z .2 + 3. 3. . 1.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).13. 4.16. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (4) (5). x + 12 y . l. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. To solve equations containing By tions.
4 = 42. 49. ~6?/ 5. k 2/ f 2 x a. 7. 2 . 2 4. + y f z = 15. 2z = 40. 12. f 2 i/ f z = 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. x 13. a? + 709 = 26. 8. 14. 15 2 = 45. + 2 y f 2 = 35. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? 11. 10. == 6.
1510 4 17.2 a. 32.3 y + .42 = 2. 23. 60. (3 _. ?/ 3x = 0. = 5. ? = llz.. ^ = 2.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. =s 20. = 8*. 19. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.6 2. 4. 22. 27. 84 21. . . . 16.
z + x = 2 n. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 1 digit in the tens place. Check. the number. and to express In complex examples. + z = 2p. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . and if 396 be added to the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. . +2+ 6 = 8. however.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. either directly or implied. + 396 = 521. # 4. y 31. M=i.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. 1. 2 = 1(1+6). 2 = 6. y * z 30. Find the number. 1 = 2. = 2 m. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. Ex. symbols: x + y +z 8. ( 99. x : z =1 : 2. Obviously of the other . = l. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.
(1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. Ex. . By expressing the two statements in symbols. 4 x = 24. direction. 2. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x y = the = the x denominator . Or (4)2x(3). From (3) Hence xy Check. 5_ _4_ A. Find the fraction. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. x 3 = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. increased by one. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. y = 3. = the fraction. = Hence the fraction is f. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3. = 8. the distance traveled by A. 2. B. C. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 6 x 4 = 24. x 3x4y = 12. we obtain. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B.144 Ex. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.
If 9 be added to the number. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. number by the first 3. 6. the number (See Ex.}. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the last two digits are interchanged. part of their difference equals 4. Find the number. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the Find the fraction. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the fourth 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. ? What 9. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. If the denominator be doubled. Find the fraction. the fraction equals . Find the numbers.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. its value added to the denominator. both terms. . 7. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. If 27 is 10. Find the number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction is reduced fraction.) added to a number of two digits. and the numerator increased by 4. the digits will be interchanged. tion ? 8. 2. 183. 5. it is reduced to J. fraction is reduced to \. A fraction is reduced to J.
bringing a total yearly interest of $530. the rate of interest? 18. respectively ? 16. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. the annual interest would be $ 195. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages.grams. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . . and money and 17. How 6 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. now. A sum of $10. partly at 5 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and in 5 years to $1125. 14. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 4 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find the rates of interest. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 19. 12. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. A man invested $750.000 is partly invested at 6%. in 8 years to $8500. 5 %. and partly at 4 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. 13. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.
24. cows. On /). . How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. . what is that = OF. then AD = AF. and F. but if A would double his pace. BE. and $15 for each sheep. B find angles a. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. c. BC=7. BD = HE. and their difference by GO . and AC = 5 inches.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 1 NOTE. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. 25. $ 50 for each cow. and F. receiving $ 100 for each horse. are taken so ABC. three AD = AF. and sheep. and e. the three sides of a triangle E. angle c = angle d. for $ 740. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 23. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. triangle Tf AD. and F '(see diagram). and angle e angle/. ED = BE. the length of NOTE. and GE = CF. Find their rates of walking. andCL4 = 8. and CE If AB = G inches. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. points. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. E. An C touch ing the sides in D. is the center of the circum scribed circle. BC = 7 inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. and angle BCA = 70. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. respectively.
(2. is the abscissa. B. PM. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. or its equal OM. and PJ/_L XX'. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). and point the origin.. (2. (3. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. (7. jr. 3). is The point whose abscissa is a. It' Location of a point. the ordinate of point P. 2). and PN _L YY'. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . ?/. PN are given. . 186. PN. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and r or its equal OA is . first 3). YY' theyaxis. Thus the points A. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. The of Coordinates.
(4. . (2. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. What is the locus of (a?. (4.2). 0). (0. 71 2).4). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 0).e. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4) and (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13.(!.1). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 2). 4. 2. (5. 11.3). (1. i.) EXERCISE 1. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. !). 1). (4. (3. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 6. 2). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 4). 3). and measure their distance. 6. 1). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2J).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Plot the points (6. 8. Plot the points: (4.and(l. 12. 3). (0. Graphs. (4. 3. (4. 3). Plot the points: (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. . all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 4). Plot the points : (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. 0). 0). (See diagram on page 151. 4) from the origin ? 7.
ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. or the curved line the temperature. C.. Thus the first table produces 12 points. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ure the ordinate of F. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . By representing of points. 15. we meas1 . 188. B. may be found on Jan. D. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. A. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 10 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 1. . from January 1 to December 1. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15. Whenever a clear.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the graph is applied. (b) July 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. uses them. the merchant. . physician. the matics. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages. and to deduce general laws therefrom. etc. (d) November 20. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. The engineer.
is 10. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. How much. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4..? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 1? 11 0. ?  3. (d) 9 0. (1) 10 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.152 2. 1 to Oct. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. on 1 to the average. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 15. During what months above 18 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. When the average temperature below C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.
NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20. Draw . One meter equals 1. 19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
binding. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. the value of a of this quantity will change. etc. x* x 19. function If the value of a quantity changes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.50.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. x 7 to 9. if he sells 0. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 4. . 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. gas. 1 to 1200 copies. 29.5 grams.. etc. 3. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. A 10 wheels a day. 190. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 26.154 24. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . and $. 28.50.. then C irJl.. amount to $8.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.) T circumferences of 25. 9. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 3. if each copy sells for $1. to 27. books from for printing. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.inch. x increases will change gradually from 13.g. the daily average expenses for rent. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. e. represent his daily gain (or loss). Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 . 2.
( 2. (1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 (0. Graph of a function. be also represented by a graph. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. however. and (3. 4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. a*. as 1. construct '. plot points which lie between those constructed above. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 9).g.2 x may 4 from x = 4. Draw the graph of x2 f. . (1^. 3 50. E. may . may. it is In the example of the preceding article.e.1).0). The values of func192. If a more exact diagram is required. x a variable. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. etc. to x = 4.1). 2 (1. (2. J). 1 the points (3. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2). while 7 is a constant. Ex. is supposed to change. for x=l. 4). 9). 2. Q. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. and join the points in order.
If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 7 . (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (2. 2 4 and if y = x f. (3. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. straight line produces the required graph. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.20). 4).. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 4J.. Ex. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 194. etc... y = 6. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. and join(0.2 x . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. r */ +* 01 .4). . 2. j/=3. = 0. = 4.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. as y. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. Thus in the above example.) For brevity. rf 71 . Thus 4x + 7. (4. 1). 5).
2 2 a. (If) Va25. a? 2 4. xl. (C ) (2. 4 a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a ar. 1J. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 11. if"a. 2J. 15. 2 a. The values of a?. a. The smallest value of the function. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 18. a?. 5. 12. the function. (ft) (_ 1. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 3. l. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. = 4. + 4. 3. ?/ a. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 1. 14. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. = The values of a*. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. xz + x. x+1. if a. 6.5)2. 21. J. if y = 2. 8. 1J. 2 2.5)2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (7i) (c) 23. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. a* 13. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 16. 22. fa 17. 2. Jar . 2 4 x f 2 = 0. y = 2x = 4. 9. i. 2. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 2x + 3x a?. The values of a*. 6 fa. 1J.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 7. 2 or 2 20. a? 1.or. . 19. 2 a. 1 8 10.8)'. if the function equals zero. . from x VlO'S". 3 a 8. 2J. 4a? I.e. 23x. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.
25. y= formula graphically.24 or x = P and Q. then y = . .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. i.e. then cXj where c is a constant. 32 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). Represent 26. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. Therefore x = 1. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. 14 F. that graph with the o>axis...158 24. the abscissas of 3. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 9 F. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.where x c is a constant.. 1 C.24..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.
a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 3.7 2 a 5 = 0. 0. 2 and 1. 7. Such equations in general have two roots. 197. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (0. 4. = 0. (a) x2 = 0. 10. (a) (6) 9. 13. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. or 5 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. crosssection paper is used.f 9 = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 11. a2 2a. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 8. is called a quadratic equation. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 12. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. viz. + + = where a. 14. 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 6. .
Ex. NOTE. If x = 0. (f . Hence. y = l.1. ?/ =4 AB. Ex. ?/. because their graphs are straight lines. . if y = is 0. locate points (0. T . 199.e. i. unknown quantities. 2). Hence if if x x  2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Hence we may join (0. 3x _ 4 . fc = 3. solve for ?/. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 1) and 0).2 y ~ 2. = 0. 4) and (2. first degree. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). and join the required graph. 0). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. == 2. and joining by a straight line. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. y y 2. X'2 Locating the points (2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. produces the 7* required locus.2.
To find the roots of the system. and CD.15. we obtain the roots. parallel have only one point of intersection. 3. 203. equation x= By measuring 3. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. viz. 202. AB y = . The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). Graphical solution of a linear system. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 201. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200.57. P. (2) . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.1=0. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.
0). 3). we of the + y* = 25. 2 equation x 3). 2. 2. 4. P graphs meet in two and $.  4. 4.e. intersection. 4.9. 1. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. Locating two points of equation (2). In general. Inconsistent equations. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.0. Locating the points (5. etc. (2. Solving (1) for y. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 5. 4. 4. 0. 3. (4. 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. e. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. and . 1. 4.y~ Therefore. the point we obtain Ex. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. y equals 3.. the graph of points roots.5. i. (4. 3. Measuring the coordinates of P. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. There can be no point of and hence no roots. (1) (2) C. if x equals respectively 0. 0) and (0. and + 3).g. x2 . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. and joining by a straight line. AB the locus of (1). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Using the method of the preceding para. 3x 2 y = 6.5. 5. V25 5. . = 0. The equations 2 4 = 0. they are inconsistent. 0.
if possible. and. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 2. state reasons. . 17. vice versa. a+r/=6. a. y = 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. Draw system. '163 Dependent equations. 8. 7. 10. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4. 6. 16 23. 5. 19. 2x 3?/=6. \ 2x + 3^ . 20. y=x + 5. and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 22. y= a2 2x y6. y 2 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. the graphs of the following systems. 9.. x~y=0. 3.
8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 25. 29 . CUBES.y). 3 31. 30.14 y = . 28. TABLE OF SQUARES.164 24. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 4 a = 3(6 . 26.
( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .faa a a a Obviously 1. 3 f a = f a = +.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206.a2 . fa. . is may be by 207. 8. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . According to 1. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( a) is positive. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. etc. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a special kind of product. Law of Signs. involution repeated multiplication. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ^4/? it According to 50. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. powers of a positive quantity are positive. follows that 3. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 52. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a = a3 . 2. 2. on to in factors 4. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.
' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (a ) 2 4  3. 15. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . V V/ 13. raise a fraction to a power. 2. 16. (a ) 2 5 . 2 11 (afc ) . 210. . 5. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. the required power. 3 2 2 8 . a product to a given power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.166 To find To To power. (277171 )*. 24. (2ar). multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 6. \ 3 J '  MW 10. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 76 : (>y. (^^) 2 . 4. amVy) 3 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 4 /2mV. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.6) = a .
The higher powers of binomials. 5. 18. An 1.6 2 8 ft) . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 2 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 6. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 12.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (3af26) 8 . (3 x . = s= (2s) 8 a. 2. (3 (l I) 2 8 .3 y. nent of the binomial. 2. 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 211. (aj7) . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (5 (1 a) 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 9. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 7. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 1 f 3 2 3 . etc. . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 8. Ex. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . frequently called ex.) 14. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 16. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. (6m+2w) (3 8 . pansions. (a + &)8 . 1.y) = (3 y?y . . 8 (a??/) 3 . +5a) 22.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 15. 3 8 . 4. + a 2 a.y . (afl) . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . are obtained by multiplication. : a 20. + 4aj) 3 . 23. 13. 21.INVOLUTION Ex. 3. a.
. (2 a 4 . 4 . (p + q) 4 * 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 3. (a~^) 5 .168 3. and the powers negative. Ex. (m fl) 2 20. (2 4. 17. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 13. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (mnp 5 I) 5 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 23. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 25. (?>i?i f c)*. (l 8 . . Ex. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 9. 8.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . Ex. (3a f5) 5) 4. 3. ( &) 5 . . 15. 18. (1 + 4 ?/) .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 24. 2. (la&) 4 12. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 10. (m 5 I) 2 22.216 a^ 4. . 14. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (mJ) 4 11. (?/i~w) : 16. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (af 5) .a) 3 19.2. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 5. 4 (1for) 5 . 1. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . (tff1) (cfd) . . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . The minus. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 6. 4. (m 2 + n) 8 . 21. is the coefficient of the next term. . . 5. mn 5 2 5 ) . 78 s .
or 3 for (usually written 3) . tity . 109 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. called real numbers. = x means = 6. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. which can be simplified no further. Since even powers can never be negative. 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a. or y ~ 3. 27 =y means r' = 27. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. V \/P 214. V9 = + 3. numbers. for distinction. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. a) 4 = a4 . or x &4 . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. etc. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 215. \/"^27=3. 2. (_3) = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 1. and all other numbers are.
= 19472. 10. 6.125. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 6 7 = 030. = 199 + (_ 198) . 6. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .200 . Ex. 4 v. V36 9 4. extract the and denominator. To extract a root of a fraction.1. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 7. 3/0** = am . 3i . Ex 5 a" . 7 . 3 33 53 . 79 2 v/2 5 . 9.9 = 136. 8. Ex. . EXERCISE 1. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 2. 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. V5 v/2 7 2. v/2^.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 62 = V2* . index.lL. To extract the root of a power. Ex. 7 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 9. \/2 4 9 . 7. 2 . 82 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.4.(. v/^i2 = a*. . Ex. 3. 5. Ex. . roots of the numerator \/18 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . V?.201) = 2. fy 5 3 . V25 9 16.64 5 4 .  100 a 2 . 8.
2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 3.4/. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .6 tfif + 9 y = O .3 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 ./). Find the square root of a2 . 5. 116.) by inspection.75. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.3. a* 4 8 2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2. ^40^4.EVOLUTION 171 28. 34.98. 33. . V20 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 6. 1. 45 V5184.3 y2) ( vV .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . V8. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V9216. 2 . 31. 30. 29. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Ex. a f2 l 2 + l. 32.
however. 2ab .e. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b . i.72 aW + 81 & 4 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .2 ac . #2 a2  16. let us consider the relation of a f. a f. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . . 2 .2 &c. 15. The term a' first 2 . 10. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. and b (2 a f b). The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .> 13. 2 2 218. 14. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a\b is the root if In most cases. 8 .172 7. and b. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.b 2 2 to its square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. + 6 + 4a&. the given expression is a perfect square. mV14m??2)f 49. 11.
The square . 2. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. the first term of the answer. is As there is no remainder. 6 a. and consider Hence the their sum one term. . */'' . 8 a 2 . .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 1.24 afy* f 9 tf. Explanation. . 1. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Ex. 8 /. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. First trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 219. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. by division we term of the root. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . of x. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 10 a 4 8 a. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. and so forth. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . First complete divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . As there is no remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. Second trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.
14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 13#4 413ar 44a. . 4 . 12. 16. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 3. 2 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 6.10 x2 4. 16x6 4.73a4 440^436^460^.12m 5 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .20 J or 2 16 x 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 24.40 a 22 . 8. 5 4 16 4 iK . 14.9. 2 x2 3 2x.42 a*& 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 5.162 a2 60 a10 4.37 a ^ . 19.73 a8 . 18.25.20 o 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .16. 36it.12 m 4. 10. 15. 6 11.6 .25 x 4 4.24 or . 729 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 436^?/469a. + 81 a 454 a + 81. x 6 4 4 0^4. l 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 1 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. > 7. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. a? 2 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 17. 9. 20.4 x 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .
the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 1. Ex.000. of a number between 100 and 10.176. = 80.EVOLUTION 220. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. As 8 x 168 = 1344. two figures. The is trial divisor = 160. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the square root of the greatest square in units. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.. Find the square root of 7744. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 100. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the complete divisor 168. of 10. 2. a 2 = 6400. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. etc. the first of which is 4. the first of which is 8. which may contain one or two). 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000 is 1000. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. of 1. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. etc.1344. Therefore 6 = 8. and the first remainder is. first .000. Ex. Find the square root of 524.
0961 are '. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.70 6.10. 3. annex a cipher.GO'61.1T6 221. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Find the square root of 6/. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. The groups of 16724. in .7 to three decimal places.1 are Ex. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12.
JT . feet. 36. . 32.22. 31.53. 5. = 3.58 square 38. feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 39. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 37. 33. 13.) 40. 30. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. J. 1.1410.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48. T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 34. 35.
is 12. 226. 2 ic = a. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. The 7 equation. Ex. . or affected. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 225. but no higher power e. A pure. or equation of the second degree. x = + 2 or x =2.g. = 4. This answer Check. 6#2 = x* 24. ax 2 + bx + c = Q.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. complete. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Dividing. Extracting the square root of each member.. 2. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is A quadratic equation. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 7^ + 5. or incomplete. 6 y2 = 17. 178 . x 2 7. 1. 224. 2)* + 5 = 33. Transposing. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number.
5. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 10. 19 + 9 = 5500.25.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4 ax. 0^ + 1 = 1. or Therefore. 4. 15^5 = 6.2. Solve 179 . ax Transposing and combining. 7. : 83 2. Dividing by Extracting the square root. (a? 9. 2 2 a. 8. 2 4fc 5' 18. 6(2)=10(ajl). ' =: y? b* b . 16^393 = 7. . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 7 = 162. 2. o. .
If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. r. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. : 6. solve for d. If a 2 4. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 2. 22 a. 2 . Find the numbers. 26. 25.b 2 If s If =c . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. solve for r. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 27. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is 5(5. Find the side of each field. EXERCISE 1. 24. . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 3. and their product : 150. A right triangle is a triangle. 4. Find is the number. If G=m m g . . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). find a in terms of 6 . 28. 108. 29. Find the side of each field. 2 . solve for v. ' 4.) of their squares 5. If 22 = ~^. 228. may be considered one half of a rec square units. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. then Since such a triangle tangle. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .
the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the two smaller 11. 9. we have of or m = . . add () Hence 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . Find the sides. and the third side is 15 inches. The area : sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. sides. 24. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. radii are as 3 14. Method of completing the square. J = 12. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. To find this term. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 .) 13. 8. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. A body falling from a state of rest.2 7 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the radii. 4. Solve Transposing. x* 7 x= 10. Find these 10. is and the other two sides are equal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.7 x f 10 = 0. . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . 2m. (b) 44 square feet.
Uniting. = x\ = 2. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.. Therefore.2. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Ex. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 230. or x = 2.  \. 2 a* a. Transposing. Extracting square roots. (*~8) a = at . or J. a. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.x(l = .1. Hence Therefore Check.a. Transposing. = 6. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.e. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2  . Simplifying. adding member). = \ # = ff. J. . 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. = . Ex. a Clearing of fractions.2 a2 . 62 x 5 = f.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing.
article. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. . and c in the general answer. 2x 3 4. ao.c = 0. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solution by formula. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =8 r/io?. =0. x la 48.
2 o. V^tT)* . 1. : 86 + 2 = 0. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 3. 9. Reducing to general form. TIO. 2. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 a. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 20. 4. 6. ?i 2 . 11. 7. 2or } 5o.25 x. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6^+5^ 56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 17. 16. = 12 . 2.4 4 5 . 2 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . 15. c p. = 64120?.. a. 8. c = 5. 18. 12. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6 Ex. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. b =  + 20 == = 0. 21. 19. 10. 14. 2 a? = 44 x . 13. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 6.  . 26. 5 x2 Transposing.
186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. = 14. 2S3x 1 2 .2. Bx 1 1. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. any degree. = 0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. orz roots. Eesolving into factors. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Solution by factoring.x. 3x?+x = 7.5 Solving (1) and (2). 1. = 0. 25. 0. 233. x2 = 1 . }. transposing terms to one member. 26. ar>8o. Transposing. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. if either of the uct is zero. . 24.5) =0. a=:i^^. = 0. Clearing for fractions. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . member can be Ex. or # 5 is zero. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. and 6. (5 a? !)(. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. all or. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. x(x <2 . 5) = 0. 5 = 0. 23. 27 x== 42a. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. factors Now.4) = . Factoring.
Therefore x =3 = 2. Ex. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.3)(x + 3 3. a?10a=:24. a* 10a=24. for a: . we 9 obtain x 4. and the equation thus formed be solved. a?. + 8=s: 7. Or Hence the 234. aj( 15. 4or + 18a f 8a.= 24. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 16. 3) = 0. The equation I. 2. 8. O roots are 2. 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.6)) = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 2. 3^ = 0(1106). 3. 7. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. } 2 2 (5 . such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. + 100. : 87 = 0. 13.e.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. is 5) = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. 3) Factoring. 9. 4. 5. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 2o3 f9a. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 4)(z3) = 0.(. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.:=0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 14. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.g. + 6)=0. 3 or 2 a. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.24 = 0. + 10 a = 24.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. x2 f 2 x . (aj4)(a. 5 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. E. 6. 12.
'3a!J  . 23. uz + u 21. 25. 20. ara + ft + c*. a 2 =(x a)b. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).188 17. 2. (a + 1) (a. 19. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 27. 18. 50.
5.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 56. 7. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.1.9. 1. . 2. Find the sides. 58. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find the number. 54. two numbers is 4. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the numbers. Find the number. 8. The 11. and the difference Find the numbers. 57. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. of their reciprocals is 4. number by 10.0.3.3. 3. 1. 2. EXERCISE 1. 4.3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. : 3. 2. and equals 190 square inches. The difference of . and whose product 9. 2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 2. and whose sum is is 36.0.2. 55. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and consequently many prob 235. 5. 3. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . feet. 6. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. G. 2. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 0. 52.
dollars. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. .190 12. 15. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. 14. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.10. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. Find the rate of the train. other. What did he pay for 21. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 13. If he each horse ? . 17. ply between the same two ports. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. as the 16. sold a horse for $144. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. Two vessels. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. ABCD. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and Find the sides of the rectangle. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. watch for $ 24.
A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Find and CB. 237. so that the rectangle. 24. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. a point taken.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. and working together. 1. By formula. how wide is the walk ? 23. as 0. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. the two men can do it in 3 days. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 23 inches long. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 27. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. . ^3^ = 7. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. contains B 78 square inches. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. of the area of the basin. (tf. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.) 25. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Ex. constructed with and CB as sides. is On the prolongation of a line AC. or x = \/l = 1.
= 1. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Ex. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 2 16 a^40 11. 6. a4 5o.192 238. or y = 8. a. 2. y8)=0.2 =4. Solving. a? 15 1=2*. aV+9o 4 =0. 4 : 89 10a. 10. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 436 3. 19. 4 6. 12. 16. T 17. 18. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a 21or=100. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 a. = 13. Hence Le. 8. 4. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.T 2 2 . >.)+72=0. 2 h9:=0. 7. 9. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.
Ex. the roots are unequal. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 240. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. a perfect square. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. and unequal.5) = 04. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.bx 4. is 4ac not zero. rational.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are equal. 2. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 3.f> = 0. the roots are irrational. the roots are rational. 1. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are imaginary.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . and equal.12 x + 9 = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2 z . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.2) 2 4 3 (. ( 2a Hence 1. . the roots are real. The discriminant =(.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Relations between roots and coefficients. b 4. negative. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . c the roots are real. Ex. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Hence the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 241.
+ 2a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2 a. 10 x = 25 x + 1. their product isf. 2 : 3. 9a3 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. = 5x. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. + 12 2  . EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2. 2a 4z5 = 0.19 # 20. = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 23. 17. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. : a 2 .g. ^12. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2 7. 24. 18. = 0. = Q. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 21. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. tfmx+p^Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 5oj aj + l = 0. x2 7 10. 5aj 9. 15. 22. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 2a15 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 12. 6. or + 10 + 4520 = 0.. 4. + 18 2 8. 60 2 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . o. lla. 3a. f 2 E. 14.
such as 2*. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. ~ a m f. hence. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. m IV. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. no Fractional and negative exponents. that a an = a m+n .* III. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. II. Then the law of involution. (ab) . The first of these laws is nition of power. 244.a" = a m n mn . for all values 1 of m and n. and . We assume. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. while the second of the first. must be *The symbol smaller than. > m therefore. however. It is. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. (a m ) w . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . provided w > n. = a"" < . a m a" = a m+t1 ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .
ml. Assuming these two 8*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. (bed)*. m$. . 25. 28. at. etc. a\ 26. n 2 a. or zero exponent equal x. 245. a?*. 30. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. as. (xy$.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 4~ . 3*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. disappear.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. = a. 23. a*. '&M A 27. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 31. e. 29.g. 0?=^. a . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 24. fractional. laws.
42. \fi?. Vo5 . ty?. 27* = 3. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. e. v/o&cT 34. 50. \/xy \/m. 35. Let a = a. a . hence is . 5 a* = 10. = 2. 38. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. = 2. To find the meaning of zero exponent. equal to unity. 49. 44. 246. however. 3* = 27. 45. e.g. v'mT 36. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a* * = 3. a * a2 Or a=l. : 2' 4* = 4.g. 46. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. Solve the following equations 39. 48. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 37. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. : 197 33. = 49. 41. If. the base is zero. 43.\/n. 7z* Find the values of 47. 40.
a8 a 2 = 1 1 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. by changing the sign of NOTE. Let x= or". etc. or the exponent. . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. cr n.g. an x = a.2 = a2 . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Or a"# = l. consider the following equations. e. Multiplying both members by a". vice versa. 248.198 247.
2m~i 43. f (2w)~i 1 . 37. a^ 41. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 22. rfS. * 24. 25. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. m . : mi m~^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 39. . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . a. 44. 27. . 3 a? * 42.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : or 5 . 2 . c 32. 3 a. 40. 36."* 38. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 2 . 66 45. ^L. ^?2 y' 34.
2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 54. 58.1. 61. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. of: 3ll4~* 60. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z 5or*=10. + A_. 17' 2 51. = ^. 57. + 1~* f 21 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 52. = 5. = l. Ex. 53. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 10* 5* = .6). 49.(. 250. (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .008)* + A. 59.81 f (a . 1. 48. z* = 1.001. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = .9*.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 47. 55. .343)* + (. 10* Find the values 56.26)* 1 (I) 2 . ar = i.
16. 3.. 6. 7~ 6 . __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. OA 20. a. 23. .4 a8 . etc.5a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. Perform the operation indicated.&. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. V5. 3sVS.&. 7~ 5 27  . are performed. 4 x^.5. 7*. 13.7*. 4 5. 16. / 7fv 7. #* a. . ' 11. 72 . &. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 27  28. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 3 a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 10.3 aj" a. 12. .^/5^5.4 . Remove the negative exponents. 14.$". 26. 6 *. NOTE. 95 ^9i 5**.7W. (d) If required. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7. 79 . 8 ' 9.6 *' 6 *25. 18. remove the fractional exponents.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 17.7i. 6a. S'sS8.$*.
2. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 40. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 6 35. The 252. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. powers of x arranged are : Ex.2 d . 1. 34. Arrange in descending powers of Check.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
27. 32. ^5.2. </3. 5V2. 28. ^/IT. Arrange 35. Simplify/a35 ~ o . signs. 26. I VJ + 3VT8 . A/3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. Simplify V + 3 VlS. V2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. if dissimilar.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . connect them by proper 1. A/2. \/5. V2. v^S. ^126. ^2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^4. 36. 34.10 V2 =  V2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 40. Simplify V~ . ^4. Ex. 3. subtract surds. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V2. in order of magnitude : \/7. 2\ 3*. ^30. </20. v/3. ^6. 37. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V3.3\ . 31. (i. 38. + . 39. \/7. </2. v/4. ^7. v/3.2 V50. 30. ^2. V3.e. s!/3. Ex. V5. 4^/4. 29. 33. ^2. To add or form. VS. ^3.
14. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 4. 12. 3. .3V20 + 6V5.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45. 11. 6. 10.J a6 V4 aft. 13. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. V175V28+V634V7. V18+V32VT28+V2. + 3V835V2. 8. 6. 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VJ+V8V1 + V50.
Ex. 2. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 23. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 26^ . .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 3.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. y* = Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.6V35 106 460V35100 . 6*. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. and then multiplied. 1.2v/6 + IPV6 105.
2. V3 Vl2. 213 98 11. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 15. 19.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 2 . v/18 v"3. V2aV8^. 28 . a?. V42. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 37. (V6 + 1) 1 . 34. 7. (2V3) 8 . 39. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . . \/3 \^). aVa. (V2+V3+V4)V3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). Vll. V20 V30. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 4. 6. VTO. 12. 27. VlO V15. (3 20. 9. 14. v/4. 13. 6. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 41. fWa 17. 10. 38. 18. 3.VSS. 25. + VB)(2V5). (Va Va 36. 21. 40 10 30. V2 V50. 40. 6 V4 5. 8.^/2. V3 V6.
Ex. 43. 51. V3 . 52. 49. Va v/a. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 47.214 42. 268. a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 60. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (2 45. 44. is 1 2. . E. Ex. the quotient of the surds is If. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 53. 48. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.y. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 46. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.
Divide VII by v7. by V7.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.. 3. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. arithTo find. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .57735. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. we have V3 But if 1. e. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. however. . The 2. /~ } Ex. . .73205. is illustrated by Ex.RADICALS This method. 1. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. metical problems afford the best illustrations.g.by the usual arithmetical method. Evidently. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.
V48 25. 20. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 21.2361.7320. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 23 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 271. Vll 212*. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 7. V3 24 . V3 = 1.. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. A. 272. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. and Given V2 = 1. . V8 JL. V2 22 . 14. VffV?. V5 270. V5 = 2. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. A.4142. V8 12. . ^/H . i.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
vffi^T _ . s Simplify a. Ex. .1 xVtf a. . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.= 18. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .RADICALS Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.2. 3. 1.Vs2 . Ex.
J?_. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V21 = 25 . 6V7. 24.5 3 = 125. = V3 = 1. : and V5 = 2.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . By the use of fractional exponents . find to _!_. Vo1 26. 27.W3. four places of decimals 23 . v 2V3 28.2361.218 6 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. Given V2 1.
v8f 2\/15. viz. 5. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 9. it to this form. V643 . 2. 4. 2. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2 12. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. \/125" . 3. Simplify Ex. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. According to G3. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. \/l6*. 3 (V2~u)  7. the If. 1. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 11. In other examples of involution and evolution. on the other hand. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. 8.
coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. and whose product is 18. Find V4 + VJ8. 3. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6\/2 = ^9 .A/2. 12 and whose product is 20. 2. The Hence ^11 . These Ex.220 Ex.6 V2. +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ^TT.2 \/20. Find Vll . 2 \/18. Find Vl2 4.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . is 11.
VT . If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Dividing by Check. a. are radical equations. Before performing the involution. i. 4x x = 2. Solve vVf!2a = 2.. The value x =2 reduces each . +=. . member to 2.1. Ex.V48 4 20. x2 = x f 2. Transposing and uniting. 5. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. r 22. by raising both members equal powers.e. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. first involution. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Radical equations are rationalized. 4.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 19. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 8. 277. = xa + 4 x f 4. (2x xrf 1. V48 23. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. they are transto formed into rational equations.
Therefore CftecAr. 3. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing and uniting. Extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. . Transposing and uniting. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Squaring both members. 5. . V4afT~l. V24~+~l = 0. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 278. f 25 = 12. 2. viz. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.1) = 0. the first member = V2. at . \/4 jc~+~l = 5. viz. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.3. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. a socalled extraneous root. Therefore Check. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Factoring. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. x = J. It = 3 x . Dividing by 24. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Squaring both members. tion which has two roots. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.222 Ex. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. they may be extraneous roots. one root. a. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 4#f 4 = 9. Transposing.
223 x = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Transposing. Check.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. = 3. ViTie 4 z2 . Solve the following equations : = G. \ does not satisfy the given. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Squaring. 4.3) (2 x . 2 Clearing of fractions. .12 . Factoring.2 r.47) = 0. equation it is an extraneous root. . . Therefore. for it satisfies the equation . NOTE. + 6~ieT~3 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. If If x 3 = 3. x root of the preceding equation. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. is x V. Hence there is only one root. viz. (x x = 3. the right member = V2. and to 5. both members reduce to 5. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. or x *j. Hence x = the only root. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.
33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Ex. Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*.
225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 3 6. 5.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x =6 or 3. 2Va. x Since both =9 or 1. o. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Ex. 45 14VJB = .35 = 0. Q .i~24 = 0. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 x + 40 = 36. members of the equation were squared. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. This can be seen without substituting. Vi 2 8a.f40= 5. 412a* = 16. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. = 26. + 40 = 6. _ 2 y . = 7. x + Vx a? = 6. 4. 3.8 z40 = 7. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. y then x2 . it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.*2a. = 0. some of the roots be extraneous. Let 8 x f 40 . 2. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Substituting. 2_8z 440 = 49. .
6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . a. a^x2 5 2 13. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 15. 19. 14. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 16. 17. 20. 2.a 440 = 35.f 18 = 24.226 11. 4 V SB* 4 a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 12. +3= 6. 18. +x .
then (x 2)Q 0. 2. 227 . 1.bx? + ex2 4.2 + 4.4 a. we make a? what the value of Q. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. If x* . = 2. if Q was known. Without actual division.2 x 5 by x 3. however. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. to x we # = 2 3. 3 2 Ex.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Hence.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Ex. E = ax + &z + m) Q." transposing. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. by dividing 3 x* f.360 = 244. Without actual division.2 + 80 = 12. even if Q is unknown. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. ^ = 381+2. does not contain a?. no matter If.2) Q . " Or. could. a? R = x* .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. ax4 4. find the remainder when m.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + 7 = 632.228 282. + 6. of the division 3) is m in place of x. x m is factor of the expression.g. + ^by x + b. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 5 (4x . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. fora?. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. if 8 42  .3)f 11 =. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . If the remainder is zero.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .8. } 2 by a1. 3.8'= 0. 5. x* s 2 4. 43 3 E. 8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. The Factor Theorem. 2 j 7. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.949. the remainder equals 8 2 x . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.4(. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. hence (x divided by x 4.
we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.e.1. i. 2. or x 4. 8. is a factor.12 = 0. a 2a + 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 2 2. 7 46 = 0. 11. factors of the absolute term.1.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 8. f 3. a. + 27 + 27. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.7 x + 15 = 0. 3 2 : 7. 21. 20. 23. or 5 4 + 3^ . a 8a f 19 a 12. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 25. ^10^429^20=0. Factor a? 15. 229 1. 6.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 1.12. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.9^ + 23^15. & p*.13m + 30 10. The 5. 106 division. a? 19. + 15. f 5. then x8 7 x'2 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a^8^ + 19a. Resolve into factors 4. Therefore x ( 1). 1. Let x = . _ . + ttt15 = 0. p 5^ + 8p 4. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 24. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. . 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 17. a + 32. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 2m 5m . a 5x 6.49 = 0.7 + 16 . 18. 9. f 15 does not vanish. are f 1. m f m n 14. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 5. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. oj 5x2 f3a. 15. 3.r6 = 0.
y n is divisible by x f ?/. 2. if w is odd. if n is even. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.xy +/). ar +p= z6 e. xn f. For substituting y for x." . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2 Ex. actual division n. It y is not divisible by 287. Ex. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 286. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . By we obtain the other factors. 1.230 285.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. xn y n y n y n = 0. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2.g. If n is a Theorem that 1. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. x* f/ = (x +/)O . : importance. is odd.
since it more directly to the prime factors. as 27=0. Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0. 26. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 28. 3. 27. preferable. however. leads 231 is The first method.= . a.
Hence " /  X y = =} 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. however. can be solved by the methods degree. = 6. xywe have 3. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 4 xy = 16. x y. 232 . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. ==5 > 1^ = 4. * A I. xy are given.1.y4 is of the fifth degree. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. in general. 290. Squaring Solve (1). xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. (4) Hence. (5) Combining (5) with (1). + 6 a?V . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. of quadratics. & + 2 xy + = 25. If two of the quantities x f y. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.
the answers of the last example are : r*=2. I I x + y=7. but can be found. b=3. 233 y. 3. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. = . 1. EXERCISE Solve: 1. r (" 1 = 876.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ^. ' 10. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 108 2. 12. x and xy are not given. " "' "' { r 8.
A system of simultaneous equations.~ y = 5.  f J. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. Ex.  42 y + Transposing. 19. . 5. ' ' .o 18. r^ 2 as ] f. one linear and ne quadratic. 4 y = 20. aj = 2. . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. I x+y = a. x " (3) 49 etc.20) = 0. I* Jj ^ [.  . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.i/ = r 13. or JJ. 7 .. + 29 = 0. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .?/ i = 6. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 6 "I 14. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. Factoring. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 3. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. or y = 1 .a. la.
(1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. x2y. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10. y* + 2y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. III. ':il e :) . 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. If of the preceding type. Solve . 1. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 3y) : Factor (2). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 9. = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. quantities. ' x*.
2. (3) (4) Subtracting. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . } VI09. (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . 109 a. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). = Ex. Solve 2. 11 a2 Factoring. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.
!. (4) (3). 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.3^42^=43. Division of one equation by the other. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. ' ^ 15. A.125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. and others not belonging to them. f 1 150 a?. 150 */2 .xy 4. " IV. 298. E. y? a? f . . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.175 ay = 12. can be solved by special devices.6.y = 7. Bxy9. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).
Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. B. Solve Ex. i ^ *>. = 189. x +y y etc. from (2).238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. we have from (1). 2. Some simultaneous ?/. xy. x 2 . = 12 J. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. y . Therefore x = 16. * ' 300. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. quadratics can be solved by ?/. jc~ y = 9. we obtain by squaring. y = 3. at first it is unknown quantities. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. (1 > (2) 1. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x ..
The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 7. 4. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. I e. 36* 2. M6. [2x + : y= 17. 6. F+y+ . 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. .
. = 198. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 27. 25. 16. + o5)(6hy) = 80.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = y 1 y* . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. f 18. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 19 ' 26. . * . ( xy (7 m 2 n*.4 y = 47 a.21 ^ = 15.
etc 302.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. etc. 25 34. . as a . . 33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. ~\ OK OO. y % 9 f*K 36. hence may be any finite number. 7' j/ 39. finite  =x y if = x. 31. Q 7. 3 a2 38. = 48201. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . Interpretation . 32. ^ oo . . or ~ indeterminate.of  According to the definition of division.
By making x any * assigned zero.e.e. x f 2. is satisfied by any number. (1) is an identity. equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. and becomes infinitely small. TO^UU" sufficiently small. (1) = 0. 1. oo is = QQ. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. I. cancel. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.000 a. . The ~~f fraction . 306.242 303. and . ToU" ^100 a.g. the answer is indeterminate. or that x may equal any finite number. (a: Then Simplifying. creases. without exception. Let 2. be the numbers. 1. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. i. as + l.can be If It is made larger than number.x'2 2 x = 1. Hence such an equation identity. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.increases if x de x creases. .decreases X if called infinity. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Or. = 10. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. (1). great. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . it is an Ex. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. i. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.
42 and' their product is 377.2 y = 4. no numbers can satisfy the given system. and the sum of Find the numbers. and a. = oo. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve  9 7.8 x + 15 6. Solve . Solve x a. 3. y finite QO. is their 2. EXERCISE 1. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. (2). 1=0. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. * 6. third and sixth parts. 2. two numbers is 76. Hence /. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.e. z = 1 Substituting. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum is of squares 2890.
The area of a nal 41 feet. is 6. and the sum of ( 228. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find these sides. Find the numbers. 12. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 255 and the sum of 5. 10. Find the side of each square. 148 feet of fence are required. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. equals 4 inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514.244 3. of a right triangle is 73. 190.) 53 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. increased by the edge of the other. and the edge of one. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 9. is is 17 and the sum 4. the area becomes f% of the original area. 103. Find the sides. and the diago(Ex. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 13. 14. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 8. Find the sides of the rectangle. 6. 146 yards. Find the other two sides. Find the edge of each cube. p. of a rectangular field feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.quals 20 feet. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. . two numbers Find the numbers. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the edges. and the hypotenuse is 37.
the quotient is 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged. is 20 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the radii.) 17. . their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. irR *. Find the number. by the product of 27 be added to the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
The first is an ascending. a 11. 4. . to produce the 4th term. . . An arithmetic progression (A. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. f .. to each term produces the next term. of a series are its successive numbers. a f d. 15 is 9 f. The progression is a. a + d.. To find the nth term / of an A. 3 d must be added to a. : 7. a 3d. progression. P. added to each term to obtain the next one.. Since d is a f 3 d... a + 2 d. a. P. + 2 d. 17..) is a series. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 10. 309. P. 12. of the following series is 3. to produce the 3d term. series 9..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. Hence / = a + (n . 2 d must be added to a. 16. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.7.1) d. 11. the second a descending.. 3. 19. the first term a and the common difference d being given. except the first. ..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. (n 1) d must be added to a. The common differences are respectively 4. each term of which. to produce the nth term. and d..
5. if a = 5. d = 3. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Find the 101th term of the series 1... 3. series . (d) 1J. 8.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). = 99.3 a = l.. Find the 12th term of the 4. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .PROGRESSIONS 310. (a + + (a + l) l)... 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.' cZ == . P. 6. 2J. 115. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3.. . P. 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .8. . = I + 49 = *({ + . a = 2. 7. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 3. 2. . . 21. 3.. 7. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 5. 6. 1.4.. 4. . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 5. = 2. 9. . 8. Adding. 6. 2. 3. the term a. ? (a) 1. 1J.. 1. 19..16. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. = a + (a Reversing the order. 99) = 2600.. P. 10.. 7. 4^. series 2. 5. .. of the series 10. Find the 5th term of the 4. 24.. 9. 6 we have Hence . d . 8.
(x +"l) 4. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 7. 7. to 7 terms. : 3. 11. . 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.1 f 3. Sum the following series 14. Jive quantities are involved. 33. > 2f 2. 1. 1. In most problems relating to A. . hence if any three of them are given. \n. 1. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .5 H + if f to 10 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. 19. to 20 terms. 11. (i) (ii) . 2J. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 10 terms. strike for the first yard. 16. 11. 23. striking hours only. 4.7 f to 12 terms. to 8 terms. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . rf. . to 20 terms. 31. 1J. 16. + 3. 2. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.. 22. '. 8. 11. 17. to 15 terms. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 6. 13. . to 16 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 20 terms. 21. 15. P. 29. 20. 15.248 Find the 10. . 15. 7. 3. . 12. 18. and a yearly increase of $ 120. .
Findn. 89. a = 12. if s = 204. 122. a = 49 6(71 . 6 n2 . the and the sum of all terms 1014. = 1014. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. #. 204 = ^ (98 . 1. = a + (w. 78. n d. . hence n = 6. s 24ft last term 144. P.104 w + 408 = 0. 6. and b form an A. the second one mean between the other two. Solving.6.6 n). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. Find the series. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. or 11 J. 45. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. P. 2. or if x Solving. = 13. n = 6. .e. 204 = ^ (a + 49). J = 49. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 67. = 1014. 78 n Substituting in (1). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. l)e?.. 56. Ex. 100.. 2 (2) From Hence (2). P. 312.1) . is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 34. The series is. 111. 144. is 12. = n(104 . = 144. 12. The first term of an A. if a.1).PROGRESSIONS Ex. 23. d = 6. I.~n~\ 408 6). From (1). I Substituting in (I) and (II). 133. Substituting in (2).
. Find a and Given s = 44. n = 13. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 7. = 52. Given a = . n = 20. has the series 82. I Find I in terms of a. Find a Given a = 7. f J 1 1 / . Given a = . Given a = 4. Find n. Find d. Find d and Given a = 1700. and s. 12. 78. n has the series ^ j . 10. How much did he save the first month? 19. T? ^. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. s = 70. m and n 2. 17.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 74. 8. d = 5. y and #f5y. Find d. 13. n = 16. I. of 5 terms 6. Given a = 1. 15.3. P. = 16. = ^ 3 = 1. f? . produced. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 83. How much . 4. = 45. = 17. a x f b and a b. s == 440. 16. n = 4. Find?. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 17. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 11. 6? 9. 3. = 1870. a+ and b a b 5. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find w. 14. ceding one. n.
a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . the first term a and the ratios r being given. or 81 315. The progression is a.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. P. 36.. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).g. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. P.. is 16(f) 4 . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. A geometric progression first. is it (G. .. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. +1. 2. (I) of the series 16. and To find the nth term / of a G..) is a series each term of which. . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 4 (1) .. or. 4. The 314. P.. 36.. 24. of a G. E. 108. r n~ l . ratios are respectively 3. 24.arn ~ l . NOTE. <zr . . I. . ar8 r. 12. 2 a. called the ratio. rs = s 2 . 36. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. ar. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. If n is less : than unity. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. ... 4. .
. 288. . whose and whose second term is 8. 4. 72. whose and whose common ratio is 4.._!=!>. f. 144. Jive quantities are in. Find the 6th term of the series J. 10.. if any three of them are given. 18. fa. 3. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 9. + 5. . 1. +f%9 % . first term is 125 and whose common .. (b) 1.5. ? (c) 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . In most problems relating to G. 9. is 16. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 9.l. series .. 36.. 8.72. series 6. 0. P.. 25. . or 7.18. .. first term 4. 7.5. series 5.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. P.. P. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. \ t series . . 144. hence. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.18. (d) 5. 20. P. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 80. Ex. 36. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 4.. is 3. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. i 288. Hence n = 7. . Hence the or series is 0. 72. EXERCISE 1.288.*. P. volved . 2 term 3. first 5. 144. Find the 5th term of a G.. f.. . . I = 670.. r^2. a = I. . 36. . (it. .4. whose .54. l. And the required means are 18. 676.6.. 6. 576. fa. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . .
i a9 . to 8 terms. 27. J.. s = 310. to G terms. 13. 72. . 23. is less than unity. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. = 3. Find a and 4. J. 19. >"> . to 7 . to 5 terms. 2. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. may be than any assignable number. n = 5.. 1. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Find the geometric mean between 7. to 6 terms.nV> i*> !718. to 6 terms. 20. s = 605. of r n decreases. Find a and Given r = 3. 12. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 21. 14. n = 5. 22. . 4... I.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. J. 15. 81. 16 . J. be written If the value of r of a G. to 7 terms. = 3. 54. Find a and n = 4.J and 270. 24. 36. 126. . . and hence ~ r . Z s. 243. == 160. P. . 25S series : 32. 14.. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. a^. 1. to 6 terms. . 81.. M. + 4 . Given r = n Z 5. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.. a. 48. 42. r . 12 terms.
65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 6.. Given an infinite series of squares. = . . . 5.. . I. 3.= .. 1. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 16.. of: 11.Ql. 1 r = . and the first term is Find 17. is 16. 40. 5.3727272 . . . = 990 ..717171.. =A+ 10 i....99 . 2.. 7.072. 2.. 250. ... Find the sum to infinity. . The sum r.00072 f . 14. ratio 15.3121212.. .37272 .. . 9. 12. If a = 40. of an infinite G.555. 9. P.= _4Z* ..072 + . . is J.. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 1. 1. . Find the value 9. first and the common term. is 9. i.. 8. Hence ... what is (a) the sum of the areas. 66 Therefore . . 8.)7?7272 .... P. = .01 ^ ...27777 ....191919. . r = j. 12.1.. 10. of all squares ? . 16. P. 4. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 100. = a . 6. i i J.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. . (6) the sum of the perimeters. 13.254 Ex. .3 + ..72.272727.. . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 4.
2 2 24. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 11. 7 . coefficient of . 16. 22. . 4. . (a 100 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 5. 20. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (s + i).6) 20 . (a2) 6. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 10. 15.b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 12. 28. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (\ 9 . Find the 6th term of (x .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 14. a6 8 16 in . .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . l 2. /2a+Y\ 8.6) . . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 26. : (1 + xy. (a + b) . (xy) : 6 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .b ). 4 7. 25. 13. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 17. 21. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 29.
4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 4. 3. 6. 3. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 4. 5. 3. 2. 3. 1. ft) . 2 . 3. 6. 2. 4. 5. 1. 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 4. = 2. 1. if = = = 2. + 1. ft 4 ) 5. 24 4. 3. 5. 5. 1. 2. 3. 2. 2. 1. 4. 3. 2.f ac 1. . if a ft c = = = 4. 1. 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4.  2. 5. + c(a  c). ^+^ 3.a(a 4. 3. 4. c = = = 2. 1. a ft c = = 2. + 2. 2. aft 3 + 4.  2. 6. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3. l. 3. 2. 3. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 2. 1. 2. if y=2j 2. 1. 3. 2. 2. 5. 1.  a)(a 1. 5. 2. 2. 5. 1. . (c 3. 1. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.  8 ^ 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 4. 4. y 3. 5. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 1. 2. 5. 3. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . if = = 2. 7. 3. + 2. c if 7 . 4 2. 2.c )(fta) 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. 3. 6. 1. if x^l. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 4.
8. 4 x 4 . + 3 y 2* . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.a) .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 15.a8 . x3 2 a2 . 21. 5.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .7 ys.10.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 4 z . 25. + 4 ?y .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . + 1. 6. b(x (b 1. 41. f 8. 15. 2 . 2. a 4 + 11 a . x = 4. . a. 5.8 + 2 // .a 5 a . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . + 2. a /> 3. 4.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.5. 20. x C 4 4x y + . 7y 4 . ~c)(b. 24. .1. 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2  + 12 a 8 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 40. 16. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 1. 18.8 3 + 7 x4 . 3.r 6 x  4 xy . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 5.7 y 2* 4.3 a?y .2.5 xy 3 + + 4 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . x 3 x' 14. 2.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . x 3 11. 2. 10. if a 6 = = c = 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6 a4 4 a8 .2 z8 4 x. 9. c)(x a} .7 + . 17.  a) (c 2. 4. = 2. ' b) + 3. 12. 4.4. 9. 1. r> .a 4 . c = 3. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. . 3. 7 xy 3 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.2 x2 . + 4. 5. 29. + 8 x4 *y . or .259 x c) . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .2 a?y + 3 aty . (5. 4 y 13.3 xyz. 26. 7. 8 . . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .x 5 4 . a. x3 f 3 ax'2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .2 x?/. 2 x 8. 21. a: .\ yz + xz. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .2.c' 2 4 / .
and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.c 4 3 a.5. : a x . f ft. c 4ft.7.a ft.8 3 4.1)}] .[4 x 4.6T .260 19. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 35. 34.(4 * . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .3.(5 c . 2 x 32. a  ft + c. ft.x 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.x2 .#48. 7 12 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . of a.?> x 4 20. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . ..2 a .x 2 4. 29.3 x .3 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .4) . take the sum of G x 5 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4 . . 4vTT~y 3. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. Take the sum 4x 4.2) . 3 ft.4 ft) 4.(7 x 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. (*) a  c. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. sum of . 542 x 2 and . . . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .c.(x 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].(x* .6 x ] . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .[4 z 8 . 5 10 + 7 .2 x 8y2 44 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. Simplify 31.(4 x 2 .x . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 4 4 4.x .5 . 36.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .4. . 5 10 4 G 11 4. c =x y }~ z.2 .(5 y .2 . 33.c.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. c 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. x8 x2 2 a'2x. ft 25.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.4 Vl 4.] 26.2 3 ax 2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 4 3 5 y/ .1). / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 5 4 7 12 . 0" 30. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .3 . and .c 3 a. 4 2 x2 23. x'2 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.(a .{G * 2 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.{2 x 2 .27~~7)}].4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. = x y ft z. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . From of 2 the 4.
JT^T+1)} + (2 . (r (1 (a. 2 ft 41. + *+!){> + 2).rf)} + a [. . 57. .(2 a + 5 a . 2 2 x + !)(* .56. (. (1 55.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 48. 4 + 2 2 + 1).a~^~c)K]. 2 53.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 63.ab .(2 x2 . 67. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). .c 2 .{2 a .0)} .ac .3 *).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.4 a 2 + a 4 ).2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 2 52. 51.(7 a.(4 d .& + {. 68.(6 . 43. .(2 a 2 .2 2 + 1)(7. 62.3c).12).2a .3 z 2 ).4 a .[4 x  5 .(2 .6)}].3).b (c .2 zz .be) (a 58.2 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (/> 4 . (.3)(*5)(* 7).2)(1 . )(lz a ).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. .5 )}] + {4 c . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.{2 a (ft . (5 a 39.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(5 y . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). .{3 c .96 [17 a. a {.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. a . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.  2 a  {3 2x a .6c) (a + f c). 50. + 4x + 5)(j. .7).3 c)]. 46. 49.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 65. 64.6 xy .5)} + (3 a 2 . .c).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (1 ar+a. 13 a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 3 x 42. 45. 54.(7 i + 4 r:) .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). (x. (4 + 3a 2 . .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .[2 . 59. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 2 : 7e)a}].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 56. 'J 44. (x .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 2 f [3 c 7 a .Z .2x + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .1). 60.
89.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).c)} . 91. 83.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . Prove the following 8 4. ft /.c)]. 94. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c .v) 4. 76. 79. 74.:y)( a.2 (a . ft 95.3 a . ft" l Simplify 80.c) 4) (ft 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 93.(/>  3 v)^(.a) 2 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).262 69. b 4.(4 . 1). . (x (x ( + *) .6*y . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c) .3y) a (* 2 4. 87. 71.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 4 4 .(ft 4. 86.2 ft}) f (3 a .ft) + 4(2 .y + z)(x + y . 92. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).z\x 4. (.c) j.5 .y)\x y). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 84.z) . (a (2 b)*(a 4.9y2). ft 78. 88.y). ft ft ft a}.m np c .c .{3 a .am&t 4 A 2 *).q). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.2y)(.(a 2) (s 4 ft. .r 2 .n pc). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .c) 2 .x + y + z). 90. 2 (x 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 2 + a 2 ).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.3 (ft .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 77. 75. 82. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .z)(x y + z)(. (a 2 ft 2n 4.c) rr identities.(c 4. (p 2 . xy y 2 ). 85. ar . 73.O (a 4(a 4. f 72.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).b 4. 1).c) . 70.2 (y 4. .ft) 4 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(a 48 8 8 4.<f(p .
O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".y 4 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 123.y 4 ) . (.xy 4. (80 a 112. 116. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 114. 108.27 x* . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.(7 xi/ . 103.(a 1 2 8 .&). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .2y 2 4. 110. 109. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 3*. .35 x 2 2 ) .40 />) .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (2< 107.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).2 xy 8 .1). 113. 2 (a+ .9 x 2 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.16 a 6 4. 120. 117. 102.5 b*).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).v/ ~ // = a: . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.(x 2 .(2 a 2 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 99 100.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).5 xy). 25 4 .3 a"+ 4. a*.6 y 4 4. 124.a".2 2% 4. (8 x* 115.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 1). 118. 1O4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 122.) . 26 (a 4 c). [10( 4.y 2 4.b) 98.4 aft .*) (x 8 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 106. 105. r .r 4 4. 10). 121.
(j a? 144.4) . .2) = 3 .3). 7(2 x . 1) . 143. 127.1) (a? .4) .4(0 x . 137.(x f 9). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.3(2 z .3).3 x). . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.5{. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 5 146.264 125. 142. 3(2 x 134.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 149.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 139. . . 5(2 x . .5) = 12(4 x . 129. (5a: 150. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .22. 148.3) (3 x 4.(x + 3) ] . 3) = x\x .2(j: .27 a 3" .7) = 4 .1) . 138. (4 x .n . 136.3) = 12 .7(4 * . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .19) + 5 = 4 .3 a:).2) + 2(ar + 4). .2(10 x .12 M 132. 135. 1) = 2(* .r + 7[or . 2 4(ar . .r>) . 128.8 6 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). (*+ + . x 147. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2 7^~5] + 1).G) . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3(* + 4) + 9} .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 42(3ar 145.5).(x . 10(2 x 141.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 126.(1 .2) (a: + 3).2(5 .2(4 .9) 4.9) + 3.a:)]}.18 *&) (1 . o o 140.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). y (* l x. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.
163.5) = (3 . 165. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. = 2 C.7) (1 x .2) a + 7(x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . (x (x a.3) (3 . + 2) + (5 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. will produce F. (3 O + .3) (3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.T)O .2).3) = (3 x . (a. (a) If C. 155. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. + 10) (ar . 160. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.14) (a: + 3).(5 x . 157. .76.1) O + 4) = (2 * .5 x) = 45 x . transformed into F.1) (s + 3).5(x . = 15. How many 170.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.5)(.24.17) 2 + (4 x .6 x) (3 . 166. f^ + ^sO. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. The second contains 3 first.2) (7 *) + (*. 2 4 .7) (a. a: ar a. (2 . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 158. 164. find the value of F. these two angles would be equal.z) (4 .a:) + 229.l)(z . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. If the area of the frame inches. 161.? .3) (a: . 156.25) 2 .2 x) (4 . =  (F 32). and the third twice as many as the first. 162. . 265 152. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.2 x) = (1 . . + 4) (2 x + 5).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 159.8) = (2 x 4.r + 3) . . The sum What 171.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 154.3) (j. (a . (7 14 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 153. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.9) + (a.19) + 42.5*) + 47. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. sheep more than the 169.. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.4) (a .29) 2 = 1. + 5) = (9 . 5(ar x .
z 2 92. if each increased 2 feet. 176. and 5 h. . x* 185. side were one foot longer. train.36. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. A each 177. same result as the number diminished by 175. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. power one of the two Find the power of each. A boy is father. two boys is twice that of the younger. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 4 a 2 yy 42. was three times that of the younger. 188. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 7/ 191. 180. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. z 2 + x . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Find the dimensions of the floor. +x 2. 2 2 + a _ no.56. 190. ll?/102. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. Find the number.266 173. sister . + a. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 13 a + 3. 189. 181. 179. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. dimension 182. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. father. 187. 3 gives the 174. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. aW + llab2&. + 11 ~ 6. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 178. How many are there in each window ? . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. respectively. 186. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 12 m. number divided by 3. younger than his Find the age of the father. 15 m. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 10x 2 192. A house has 3 rows of windows. .
z + 5x 2 . . y 2 194. # 2  29 y + 120. 12 x +4. 207.12 * . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 4 m +^. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 246. 211.6 2 ?/ .6 aq . 239. 210. 2 . . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .8 6 2. 6 197. 233. 60 a 2  a: // 205. a. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 a 8 .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 2 200. 23 12.x + 1. 227. a 2 . 206. 5 x 2. 203. (a + .6. ifWy+b.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 202. + 2 .14 2 . 3y 2 + ary . 229. 213. a.6 y2 + 4. 3 x V . 3y 248. + 30 x. x*y 223. 2 a 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . a a: a: 237. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . .28. 209. 217. x* + 8 2 + 15. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . a: .6s.3 c/> + 6 cq. 222. a: 236. 216. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 208.(b + rf) 2 . 267 199. a+a* + o a +l.3 xy. 230. . 201. a. wiy + la mx + aw. x 5 . 244.19 a . 212.64. 7x 2 225. 235. .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 8 a. + 198.21 a:  54.1. a^a 226.77 y + 150. 221. . xm+l 243. a. 7a 228. 238. 24 2 + 2 .10 xy.22 z + 48. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 8 a: ar. 16x 4 81. 195. 218. 215.r?/f y 2 9. z 2 2. 2a te 3% ly 247. 4a 2& 2 241.c) 2  (a . 245.19 z 4 204.10. 2 x 2 . *2 234. + 8. 3 ap 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 224. x 219. .c) 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 3 x 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a: 231.10 y a x* . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 232.20 z 8 a: 220. + 3a 196. 2 2 y f 1.
28 2 f 71 x . 10 a.1 9 .15.3.36. 252. 3 #2 255. C. a 3 a 2 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 261.8. x 2 4. 264. x*y* 4.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.91. x 2 .a 2 />c 2 f 3. 8 2 + 10 x . a.18 xy + 5. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . + 23 x f 20. a? a: a: // 262.80.5 ab f 2. of: 253. Reduce to lowest terms 271. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 265. 269. + 8 x + 5.11 a 2 . x 2 263. 10 x 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 22x2 a.x . 2 x2 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .(55.7 f 5.11 x f 28.&z.2/ 2 .a + 2 4.23 + 12. * a . 2 a.2 z . x 2 + 2 x . * 2 .3 abc .73 xy . F. 2 8 . x 2 + 5 f . * 2 .3 x .6 by. 5 x 2 256. * 2 .120. 30 ^ . 257. 2 .14 bx a%% 8 . x 2 + 4 + 3. I Find the II. + 8.9 x + 14. 7 ax 250. 2 + 7 r f 2.10. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. + 3 x + 2. 260.9 x . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. z 2 268.r . .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 254.4.10 a 4. 259. z 2 267. 270.48 afy 2 .15 + 30.2 aft*.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 251. 3 ay 4.M.12.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .ry 21. a: .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. of: 266. 15 # 2 z/ /.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .13.4 ab + 1. 1 x ar Find the L. x* . 18 x 2 . 258. x* .9. ft a. 3 a% 2 . 7 12 2 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.ry .23 x f 20. + 20 x 4. 6.16 x . a 4.G7 x f 33.C.
2c a: 282. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . z2 (a 2 + c)a.. 289 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. m 4. 8 . + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280.!/.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 285 z4 n* + a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.rL.(y 2 z) * t (j. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .
* 19 23 19(23 23. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 6) _ ~ i 305. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^_2*(m 308. O(ca) 306. Lnl + ar 2 a. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304.
( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (a? 4 2) 317. .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 _. 1a: + y a.._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.(a . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. (1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2 + y 2 319. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1 x2 + + a. . a: 1 313. } .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . _ x8 .ft) 2 322. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.
28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.5 a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. .y20  2y + 4 2 . 250 5 10 2 325.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . * 3a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.9 *// + 27 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. .. a: 2 x* .6* t 328.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 lOx 5x.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 20 44 333.V  + y  x 3y a .ll.15 33 .
1V.. ** i. + ni + . ?_2 ^ . 7 ( ?f!?. + l + IV. xi 347. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 348. 338. 1 345. (af2/. \5yl 341. +^ a: y x . : 1+ i. a: 349 _ o. 352. aj 339. 344.y. f V. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. w \. (a \ + lV. a>74 .) 2 . \x yj 340.REVIEW EXERCISE 336.+ r . (ar \ 346. ( 342. 5 343. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.r 5 2 . ' 2 "l 5 . (aWi + iJ. fl. if a = 3.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.
+ x x a . I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359. (~ 364. 1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. a2 4 . y360. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.
. b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.*2 = 15. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. ^ . 5 {2 x 381. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. J !__7. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 8  376. . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 379. 5*8. __4 2x 3_ = !. 4(* . + 1) 45 O 377. <3 378.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.
399. 3* 177. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.8 = . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.147. c .2 a:  1. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. + 4 a. _____ .5 ^ ~ a: a. 396.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 401.1 . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. .6  . m x 398. . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.25..  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.5 x =r f .75 x f . u '2 a.25 x + . f 1 1 + a 403.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. ^ (a . 397.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.  8 9* x ~r. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).  J)..6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). b 404. 40. 400.
18 be subtracted from the number. far did he walk all together ? A . the order of the digits will be inverted.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. How long is each road ? 423. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . hour. Find the number. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Tn 6 hours . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.  a) 2 6 2a. (x . and was out 5 hours. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.278 410. In a if and 422.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 421. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.c) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 411. 420. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 418 ~jo. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.
find : a : c. a. 438. x 427. .6 8 ). : i. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. b. 3 and 1J. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. If a b : =5 n : 7.46 2): (15a 2 . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a + 5. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 435. y. d. 432.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). . Find the fourth proportional 426. 2 2 8 2 . 428. a  t>. 430. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Solve 436. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). find the angles of the triangle.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 433. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 431. . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. wi* + y= ny.a 2^ 8 + aft* . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. z 2 y. Find the length of the parts. ax is \ by  ex + dy. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.iand 22 22 I a . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Which ratio is greater. if . Find the mean proportional to 429.& 5 ) (a 8 .49 63). : If is one equal 434. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.
453. 449.55 y = . 450. 7 a: . 445. 7jr9y = 17. The volumes If their diameters. 457. 446. x + 17 # 53. 5x+4y=lQ. 28 = 5 a . c. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 3 a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.(or l(*2y)=0.4 12 . 9/> = 2 . a: a: + 5y).35. 1(3  a. 4 = 5 y + 29. .7 y = 25. 7a?y = 3. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 5 2 = 7 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . Find the value of a. . 458. 3 . . a: 2y= = 1 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 454. 56 + 10y = 7a. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.11 7. 448. 5z4:# = 3. 8 x + y = 19. ?/ 447. 16.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . . 21 7 = 27 + Op. /) ar a. 42 = 15y + 137. 9ar7# = 71. ft. = 25. 8 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 459. 7 442. a. if 2 ft : 439. 456.*. 444. 455. 15ar = 20 + 8y. />(. Solve the following systems: 441. 451. + 5y = 59. . 5j + 7 7 = = 2.89 = q. 443. ft.rf2# = l. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 452.59 = 3 z.11 y = 95.
 = 2. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 475.7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 473.?/ + 1 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. x y 474. + eyn. 468.. ax by = c \ 472. (or .2y) (2 = 2J. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.c=563y. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. _ 469. ax cx by = m.+ =2. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ^ + i^ = 7. 465. i = 5. 8 461. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.
had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. A spends \ of his. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. . 486. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the principal and the rate of interest. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 481. Find the numbers. and in 18 months to $2180. Find the numbers. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. to . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. years. by 4. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find their ages. 477. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 483. 487. 479. 485. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the fraction. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. the Find their ages. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. age. Find the sum and the rate of interest. and in 20 months to $275. whose difference is 4. Find the number. and the other number least. fraction becomes equal to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. How much money less 484.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478.
489. ifi = x a. 2a:f 7. 2 e. = 209. . = 20. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 490. y Solve : x +z= 5. 5 + a. . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 496. a number . . . 2/>3r = 4. = 15. 2 a. a: 499. 4z+3z = 20. a.z = 12. of two the sum of the digits also if number. + # +z= 35. 495. + y 5 y = 101 . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 3 x 500. a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. x s + y z = 18J .? + 2y = 8. * + 425  = . 3ar 503. x f y f z 29 . 1+1 = 6. 493./ 504. ~ 507. z y x 25 . 8. a: f z = 79./ f z =a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. : Solve the following systems 491.z = 20. *i. 494. 2 2 = 41. \ . a: + // = 11. 498. 7.5#+2z = $x a: G. 4 497. z y ifi = z x 502. . 3 a: + 5=84. 492. x y f z = 13. 2y + 3a = ll. 4 506. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 7 + 2 z . 1. 5^ 9z = 10. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. z z =3a&c. ll" . 36 + c. i=a + 6 c. 523. + : = 1472. 517. + + 3579 2+?.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.
CD. and CA=7. . Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . L. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if and L. and BE. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. it separately ? 531. 90. if the number be increased by Find the number. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. When weighed in water. they would have met in 2 hours. 527. AC in /). E 533. . N. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. it is filled in 35 minutes. the first and second digits will change places. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. M. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. touches and F respectively. AB=6. if L and Af in 20 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . 530. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. In circle A ABC. Find the numbers. 532. Tf and run together. B and C and C and A in 4 days. What are their rates of travel? . BC = 5. If they had walked toward each other. in 28 minutes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Find the present ages of his father and mother.
. 550. d. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . b. The greatest value of the function. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2  x  x2 .  3 x. If to feet is the length of a seconds.e. to do the work? pendulum. FRANCE. x 8 549. the function.10 marks. x 2 544. The values of y. 540. i. 2 541. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2. x*. One dollar equals 4. 545. 547.  3 x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. + 3. c. z 2  x x  5. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 3 x 539. 548. 536. x 2 + x. then / = 3 and write = 3.  7. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. x *x + x + 1. . 2 x + 5. x*  2 x. from x = 2 to x = 4. e. formation of dollars into marks. The values of x if y = 2. 543. a. GERMANY.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 546. 542. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2. if x = f 1.
553.13 = 0. x 4 .3 = 0. . c. Represent meters. a: 559.4 x 2 + 4 . Solve 552.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.= 0.5 x . if y =m has three real roots. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 566. 555. 556. h. 2 554.0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 x 2 560. c. x* .r a: a: x a.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.3 . a.r 1 561. 565. e. 3 x . a? 4 x . g.G . a.7 = . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. Solve// = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569.3 x . j. 3 + 3 z . r?. 3 .4 = 0. 557.r . \ to t = 5. 558. 562. x 2 ~ 2 .1 = 0. f. 2 8 .11 = 0. 3 x* .  2 1 a: a. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. . z 4 . If y +5 10.6 + 3 . 2 a. + 5 . + 10 x .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. ' = 8. 568. z 2 . 2 567. x 5 .17 = 0. 15.= 0. 563. . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. and make the unit of the b.4 . 18 x  4 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.3 x . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.15 = 0. 2. 564. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. J.9 = 0. a. 572. i. = 5.
. 597. 592. + + 4 . (1 + x a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 609.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.4. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. x + z2) 8 . 3 . j^f = 3. + . jj+.frf : 583. xY. 579. 589. a 8 606. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 599. a: .%) 4 (aa. 604. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 600.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2  2 aa: 2 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 593. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 6 + 1) . 4 a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 4 (1a:) 3. 2 943 ++ ~bx. + ^) + (air%)8. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 598. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (aiy. a 2a. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.5 xy = 0. . 9  4 fSb 607. x [ ?/ 577. 3 (f. 582. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .(1 . 1 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 5 a*. 596. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 4 . 64 a 12 603. [ y =10. 2 611. a 612. 585 594. f ?>) 3 591. (a  8 ft) . a:. (1 (1 (1 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . (a. 608.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 588. 595. a. (# 2) .2 6a: + 30 &c a.x + 2 )'2 601. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. : y* or 25.2 2 + y.
= 87. 643. 633. 9g. = 70. 494210400001.871844. 634.30. 615. 630.2. 629.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 44352. 2. 4370404. (x 9 x 646. 638. + 54 'x*y* . 624.53 x ~ . 035. Find the square root of 619. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. + 2 21 x = 100. *+* = 156. + 112 a 8 . 626. 2 + 21Ga. 632.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 210. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 637. 8*' + 24* = 32. 3a. 622. 49042009.2410.V250 . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. a 642. 639. 623. 4J. 647t x 2 648 649. 49. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . Find the eighth root 617. 645. GGff. 7) 2. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 625 : 621.1024 x + a: 256. VOIOOD + V582T09. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 651. = 0. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 644.191209. 620.150. find Jupiter's period. /. 2 + 189 z = 900. = . 628. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 25023844. 614. : 5. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 650. ft . V950484 . 21. 9a.*. 636. 40. 0090.\/4090. 371240. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.15174441.12 a?y + y*. V 635. According to Kepler's law. + 24 a 2 4 . x 2 641. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.49. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 942841. x 2 . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 32 631.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
696. 699. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . a. 2 702. 2 2 . 694.ax . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.a a )jr . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. = 0. ex abc= fx 0. 695. 706. 692. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 2 697. .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 1 __ : )'*' _i. ax 2 698. 707. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.c = 0. 708.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. . 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.bx . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.
723. .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. in value. 724. 721. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.44#2 + 121 = 0.292 709. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. How shares did he buy ? if 726. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 727. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. **13a: 2 710. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 722. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. and working together they can build it in 18 days. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.25 might have bought five more for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 12 4*+  8. 725. a: 713. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 717. Find the price of an apple. Find two numbers whose 719. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 16 x* . he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 729. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 217 . 716. 3or i 16 . sum is a and whose product equals J. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. A equals CO feet.
(64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 43. 52. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .1 f c" ). (v/x).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).2 ). 33. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).2? 50. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 40.aft* 1 + a 2*.2)(x2 4. n.X . 39. . 34. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 f ^ 2). 41. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 36. 1 6. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 37. 46.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. .1 + x. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.1 + c.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .)(ai + &.l). 38. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 35. 42. 31. 32.
. 2V2 2V3 . 761. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. ~ r* x . 759.294 753. [1r^ T 1 i . \/G86 v/lGv/128. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 758.1+J 756. 754. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768.
806. . + 2V21. 92VI5. 13 799. 793. 790. 787. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .2 V30. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 794. . 786.VlO. Va 809.4 V(j. x 782. 789. .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 3812VIO. 16 + 2V55. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.12VIT. 103 788. 14 791. c 792.2V3* ^ 807. 10 785. a 9442V5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 7512V21. 3J . . 783. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.
V2 ar 10. 829.V? = 813. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . (x a: 2 ) 4 . + Vx .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 816. V14 a. 3 x + 2 . 830.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 818. = 1.Vc^lJ . 833. VaT+lJ f ^l . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 819.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . V3 f 1 V4a. 836. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . \/12 a. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.79.13 = 0. + 103Var. 831. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.  5 + V3 f 12 817. + ViTli + V7 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 811. 815. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.\/2y  810.f 5 = V5x + 4. 812.g. 814. /9ar a: = 17. x/aT+l .4 = 0. 820. Va: .
+ . 275 8 l. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 8 2 857. 861. y 4.3 Va: 2 . 27 y 8. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 19 x 14. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 8 .10 = 118. 8 2a. 2 x 3. a. z*y 8 l64a.12. 64.3 a:. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.3 . 840. 2 f" + a/ 15. 864.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4 a. 8 8  13 a. a 8 869. a.a. 64 a 866.  3x a. a: 849. 6. a*" & 6n .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. x 4 + f 2 a. 855. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a: . a 18 4. + 1.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876. f 841. 846. 875. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. .1. a.ab9 ft*. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 870. 863.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 27 862. +3 4 +  4. 8 860. 845. 856. f b**. V4 x 2 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 851. . 16 859. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 871. 8 8 848. . 8 4a: 8 a.3 x . x 11 a^ J 13 854. 844. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 729 867. 2 a: 64 y*. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a. 8 a. a. . 865. 853. 4 x* 847. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .1000 6. a. a l0m . 852. . 4 a: 2 842. 839. + 512 y8 874. 9. a 8 850. 4o. a 872. 8^27^. 4 x 8 858. f 12. a 8 873. 868.x*y + 3x f 2.
a# f + xy = 126. 887. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. y 2 4. xy + y = 32. +y f y = 7. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 900. y 2 2 8f. 2 .298 877. a. . y*+ xy . a: 888. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. a. M1 891 1 . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 895.y 2 + V(j. 899. 885.15. y = 28. + 2y=\2. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 890. 889. x*xy.5 xy + 4 f = 13.sy = 198. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 3 x 2 . . 2 = 2 + 5. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y 2) = 20. 886. x a: lI = xz . 878.1 = 2 a#. x 8 3 = 13:3. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a:y . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 2 = 16 y.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.xy + y 2 = 19. 883. 1 x 893. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 + xy = 10. a: a.35. 2 + 2 f = 17. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 + y 2 . a: 2 897. f ?/ a: a: . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x 882. . 896. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 901. + ary + 2 = 37.y 2 = 2 y + 2. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. a: + y 2 = 34. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a. 2 + xy = 28. . 894. z 2 898. 5. 2 .Vi' + 1 1_3. a: 884.18.
V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 917.y). a: a. 7 y .r a. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 920. 914. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. xa 903. (!) * . (o. or or a? a: a: . 2 2 2 916.3(* + y) = 6.y) = 33.y = a(ar + y). 906. 3 y 8 ) =1216. ^ 2 . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 913. # + xy + y = 7. = 8. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 921. + y = 9. 2 924.y2 = 22. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 911. 23 x 2 . + ary = a*. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 910.#y + 2 = 27. a:y xy 929. 905. x 4 299 xy z 904. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. (* 918. 2 5 xy = 11. 2 * 2 ~ g. a: y zx 12. .2 y) = 49 2 919. x + y}(x + y) = 273. Vary + y = 6.y) (a? . xy + x= 15. y . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. x + y 2 = aar. 2 915. + a. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. *y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. y 3 2 2 922. y + a:y = 180. . x f 2 a:y = 32.y) (3 y . 909. y x 2 = by. yz = 24. a: * a: a: ar 928. + 2 ary = 39. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + y 8 = 189. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 912.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. x 2 ry + y = 3.6. 908. * + y = 444.16 y 3 8 = . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). . 923. a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 3 :r(3 .x) = 21.3)2 = 34.23 = 200. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. (a. + ?/) .3) 2 f (y . 907. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 4 (a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. (3 x . ary y = 8. + y)(a.
Find the sides of the rectangle. and 10 feet broader. feet. (y + *) = . two numbers Find the numbers. is 20. 943. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and the sum of their areas 78$. feet. . and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B.square inches. rate each man ran in the first heat. In the second heat A . 152. y( 934. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. A is 938. 944. 935. 942. and also contains 300 square feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. *(* + #) =24. and the difference of 936. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.000 trees. 34 939. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. Assuming = y. + z)=18. is 3 .300 930. two squares is 23 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. How many rows are there? 941.102. 931. z(* + y + 2) = 76. + z) =108. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Find the numbers. s(y 932. is 3. a second rec8 feet shorter. 2240. two squares equals 140 feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 937. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. diagonal 940. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. find the radii of the two circles. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A and B run a race round a twomile course.
Find in what time both will do it. at Find the his rate of traveling. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. P and Q. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. . A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find the number. . the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 953. 950. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Two starts travelers. that B A 955. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. sum Find an edge of 954. and that B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. and its perim 948. A and B. unaltered. triangle is 6. its area will be increased 100 square feet. is 407 cubic feet. 951. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 952. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 949. and if 594 be added to the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. . overtook miles. Find its length and breadth. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. distance between P and Q. Find the number.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and travels in the same direction as A. each block. set out from two places. the digits are reversed. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. whose 946. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the eter 947.
Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 966.321? 965.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 5. ^ Vfirst five 959. P.. 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Sum to 20 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. are 29 and 53. difference. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. .. f + 1 .. Find the Find the common 977. 974. J.1 4 f j$V . ... 1 to n terms. Find the sum of 4. ^ 1 . 971. 4 4 to 7 terms . 957. .. Sum Sum to infinity. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. to n terms.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . (x 4 to n terms. Evaluate (a) . 5. 964.V2 . 9th and llth terms of an A.. 958.3151515. . 969. 970. 3 + 5 7 + .141414.. '. Find n f (ft) . 1G series ..302 956. \ . = 4..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. to 7 terms. and 976.  2.>/) to infinity. 36 963. 975. P. fourth of the unity. 4.. to infinity. P. *" 968. 16 962. Sura to 24 terms..454. s  88.. + (iiven a +  4 d . 18th terms of an A..v 973.. P. !Ll^ + n . Find n. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. the terms being in A. x(x to 8 terms. 3 .to infinity. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Find an A. 961. n to n terms. 972.. (to 2 n terms).4142 .
P.3 ' Find the 8th 983. and the common difference. 987. Find the first term. of n terms of an A. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 985. named Sheran. 989.001 4.2 . 303 979. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.001 + . Find four numbers in A. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.) the last term the series a perfect number. first 984.. : + 9   V2 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 0. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . P. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.+ lY L V. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. "(. is 225. to n terms.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . to oo. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find the sum of the series 988. to 105? 981. 1... What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 5 11. Find four perfect numbers. 4 grains on the 3d. and so on. and of the second and third 03. 986. . 2 grains on the 2d. The 21st term of an A.. 980. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . to infinity may be 8? .. P..1 + 2.04 + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find n. 992. The term.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 990. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54..01 3. The sum 982.
P. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. are unequal. 1001. prove that they cannot be in A. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 998. The fifth term of a G. is 4. c. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 1000. 1003. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. (6) the sum of the infinity. 512 996. are 28 and find the numbers. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and so forth to infinity. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. . Two travelers start on the same road. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . areas of all triangles. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. in this square a circle. inches. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. ABC A A n same sides. (a) after 5 strokes. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 994. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 997. in this circle a square. The sum and sum . AB = 1004. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. at the same time. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. ft. P. If a. and G. The sum and product of three numbers in G. find the series. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. many days will the latter overtake the former? . of squares of four numbers in G. 995. 999.
a: 8 7. (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .o/) 14 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. 1006. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Expand  2 a. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". + lQ .l) w f . ) 1021. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the middle term of 1020. 1012. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1014. 1009. . 2 ) 5. x) 18 . Find the middle term of ( .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down the 1 5a  6 V .ft) 19 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). (12 #) 7 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1011. .
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. . 232 169 807 . .. .. 19. 129. .. . 54. . .. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. ... . 9..] Abscissa Absolute term .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .....181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. .....INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES...108 160 " .... Checks Coefficient 20. 97. .178 Completing the square .. 246 91 " multiple. quadratic .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . numerical . 129 54.. 158..193 11 . 112 54 54 251 . . . . linear literal Common ** * difference .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 232 mean progression . . lowest ratio " '* .. 160 in quadratic form 191 .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 123 . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . . t 53 120 ... . signs of Algebraic expression . 37. Aggregation. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 9 ** . simple simultaneous . graphic tion of representa .. .. . . . .. . .... . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 8 .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .130 .
91 . . . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 205 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 243 7 ... Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . numbers . . 241 123 geometric .. 112 . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. P .C Multiplication . Insertion of parentheses . 253 28 70 1. arithmetic . 143. . law of Extraneous roots .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . .. Inconsistent equations .. 17 65.. .. 42 7 Independent equations Index . L. 195 33. exponent .108 Minuend . . . . 227 . . 189. 184 54. ..31. directly.. 23 10 91 102. 84. Like terms Linear equation . 109 102 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. .. 45. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . G. 45 Laws of signs .808 Exponent Exponents. 9. . 227 geometric .. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Product '* 76 Infinite.251 Graphic solution of simultane. 114. Geometric progression . Mathematical induction . 63. . INDEX 8 . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . . . 212 .. . Negative exponents 11 . .. . Imaginary numbers . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .. 45. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . . Known numbers .. 180. first and second . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 34.. . 120 Member. addition of " square of . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . inversely 122 numbers .
... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . 45 Trinomial 240 .... 129. polynomial . absolute 54 Variable ... . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... 27 17 Unknown numbers . Sum. . .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. . ... binomial Third proportional Transposition . algebraic Surds . 4 155 9 " of .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33....INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 9. ....
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
December. Gushing Co. . August. Reprinted April.. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. Set up and electrotypcd. Berwick <fe Smith Co. U. 1913.A. NorfoooS J.COPYRIGHT. 8. Published September. 1916. 1917. 1910. Mass. 1910.
576. $160. 21. 25. 19. 48 ft. 30. 7. x. 89. + 1. 256.C. 10. 4.00000001. 2  Page 8. 5. 6. 9 m.000. 15. 18. 5. 16f 2. 4. 6. 26z. 10. A 15. 9.  13.000 Indians. B $20. 1... c. . Page?. (a) (/>) 1. 9. 13 V. 6. 3 m. 9 = 4. 1. 106. 6. 15. 8. 2. 13. South America 46. 7. 150. 16. 19 4. Australia ft. 3. C $60. 26. 12. 32. 28. 16 in. 7. 4. 9. 4. 10. 37 S. 12. 13.000. 20 \. 16. 1.. 1. 15. 24. 13. 49. 5. T . 192. sign. 14 11. 0. 3. 126. $ 1 50 10. 7. 2. 16. 18. 17. 5. 20 B. in.. 3. 6. 15. 6. 2.8. 14. 32.  2 p. 1. i . loss. 9.000. Multiplication. 20. 2. 25.. 12. 2 5. 14.  22 20. b. sign. 1. C $1(50. 5000. C $ 16.. 9. B $80. 32. 3. 3 below 0. 512. 9. 8 ft. 3. 11. 1 16. 5. 3.  1. A . 16. 29.000. 20. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 7. 73. . 19. 3. Page 8. 12. 6. 16. 17. .$9400. Ot 15. 0. 6. 128. per sec. 8. westerly motion. 11. A 38 mi. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 12. 11. 85. 72 = = 216. 9 16  larger than 7. 3. 17. 20 jo. 3. 59. 1. 2.000. 9. 16. x. 7. A Bl 7. 29. B $ 128. 7. 12. 3. 9 14. 8. 14. 6. 3. in 12. 5. 2. }. 14. 8. 1. 8. 2. 2.. Page 13. 3. 17. V 23. . 1. 27.000. 24. 22. 2. 16 in. 1. 9.1. 14. 3. 1.000 negroes. 24. B 10 mi. 18. .. 10. 16.12. 3. A $90. 1. 11. 49. in.21 24. 16. 9. 25. 27. 4. 210. 64. B $4700. 2. 22. 7m. 32. Not 5. 1. 3. 4. 8 13. Page 1. 18. 115. 16. 6 yd. 6. 21. 144. 14. 20. 3* 7. 17. is $10. Page 4. _ 32. 14. 27.. ^. 25. arithmetic. 21. 15.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 10g. 2. 5. 18.000. 10. 2. 37.2.  1. 10. 3. 30?. 6. 20. 13 S. 13 d. 10. 4.3. 11. 28. $100. 14. 1. 23. 2. 1. 8. $40. 2 ~ 15. 13. Yes. 19. 12. 18. 5. 12.150. 36. 7. 12. 3. 13. 10. 12.000. 2. = 5 81. 7. 6* 16. 8. ft. 6.
8. rt. 3(c4a). sq. Page 21. 5.r~ f 34. 38 ab. 11. 7. Page 23. ]*.  3. 16. 1. 25. a2 4 15^44. 32. f  5e 35. 104. 15.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 0. 22. II. 3. 1. Polynomial. (ft) 12. 31. 0. 35. 23. $80. t... 3. 19. 14. 92. 15. ft. (c) S(i. 4.5f> sq. 4. o^ft. 12yd. 1. ft.900. 10. 2. 8. 21. 13. = 81. 04. (c) 8.  2 4 13 ft 2 . Va'+Y2 8^2 . a 32. 35. 0. 16. 10.4 ft. 6. 20. ??i??.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 32.  40. (b) 135 mi.32 c2 > ft 3 . 5.000 . 21^. 13. 35. 22. 14. 9. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 42. 3. 37.q 4. 8.. (ft) mi. + ft).1.  12.x. 5.. r/ \(\xyz. (a) 200.r f 15. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).ft) 4. ft' 3 . Trino inial. yyz+xyz*. 14. 1. 17. r+l. 17. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 7. 33. 36. 3.  0. 12. . 2. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 13. . . 7. r:A 29.rty8. 20(.4  2ft 2 33. I. . #1111. 5. 5. . 5. 24. 2oVmf?i. WIN + wiw. 22. 3rf 27. Page 18. 12. 240. 18. 3 .. 3a. 15. 0* Page 3 w" 0. ft n. 7 7. 4. 25. 0. 15. _ 4 . 12.... 0. 19. vi 14. Pagel4r. in. 6. 28. 51 f. 29. 28.ab. +/2(/. 17. 15. 5. 9. 28. 1. . 11. 58. ^).. 22. Page 7. x^ 20. 4. 1. 1. 41. 4 9/^/rl 2. 12 a. 4. 8. 0. 17. (ft) 7. (a) 50. 11. (ft) Page 2.  1. ft. (a) r>23ifcu. :J!>r'.  11. 7. 6<t. 314 sq.  xV 3 y.r 2 .. 38. 8. 2ftx. 36. Monomial. 4 y/ .<>Gq. 27. 3. Polynomial. 27. 27. 25. . 20. + 5. . 49. (a) <> sq.000 sq. 15. 4. c. 0. 00 24 04 ft. 3 a* + 2 at*. (r) 2. 27. y. ft f 19. 33. m 24. 13. w.GOG. 14. 29. 30. 15a. It. jrif 4 9. 26. 8. 31. 12. 17. 19. 14.~4. 18. 7. 31. 11. 0. 173. 2. 24. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 16. (59. ft. 30. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.. 18. 43w//2 17. Page 31. 50. 3. ^. 23. 26. 39. 16. ft. (a 4 4. 2. arty 1 20. 8. 22( 19.ft. 2. 12. (r) 2G7. in. in. 6. 13. 12. 1. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .a . 9. 2x' 2 5 .'JO ft. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 14. 9.14 sq. 3. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. <i~ 26. 21 a 3 4 10. 27. in.94(>. 57. 18. 20. 5. :. Binomial. a ft c.. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 5x+3. //'. 0. 13 cu. 14. (r) 78. . \'\ 4. 8. i:5. mi. 13. = ()501. (r) 2000 m. 10. 34. 21. 18. 21. m + 3(a.6) 38. 14:).'J. 34. 9.9?/2 8. 1. 237. 16. 3. 2. 32 2 ftc.5 (ft) sq. $3000 Page 6. + v> 2 . 30. (ft) $40.. 3. 27.
a . 12. 4ft ~. 5 2 Page 29. 31. . 5.aft. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .3x 2 2 tf. c2 .r 2. 1. 7.1. 16.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . ?/i 13. m*  n*.. 11. 2 3x f z. 7 a5 1 . 18. 2m. 25. 26. 19. .4 d. 2 2 2 6. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 38. 26. a f 2 f 2 9. 7. 3 Ji 8 . a  ISjfat.r. 10.6 x + 0) 16. 20. 4. 14. 8. w* ( . G a bd.4x. f ft 9. 10 x. . . a 10w. 25 47. 4. 59. + 4 c. x3 . 2 a f 6 414. 15.c. 34. 35. n*. 0. a  49. 58. 32 w 2 w. (yz~d}. 4. _ Page 30. r. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . ti. _5a<>&43c.l. 1.ws 2 ft) . 8. + 6. s_r>a5. 4. 2.1 .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2 . ?>4tl 53. . 3 a3 & 41.  b.2 57. 40. a 4 + ft. 6.abc.a~. a a. Exercise 16. 16. 25. 14. 29.  14 afy . 37. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. + 8. 20. ii\ 22.5 z?/ + 3 y . 6. 22. c. 2m + 2w. ri\ 18. 2 6.x f 1 2 . 15. 3. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 19. 25. 12. 0. . 4. 8. ^ <. Page 44. 8 b. 2. a' 4ab + ?/. 7. 21. x a8 1. Page 28. a + (ftc4df).a*. mn. 42. 5. 7  a + 2 + c. . 5x 2 rt ft. 1.3 6. .  12. 0. 1. . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 56. . 3 m. M + 10. w 17.  G J8 r  4 a <?. ( 7.8(c + a).2 a. x  + 3z. 22.2 a2 2m 2 4. ab a. 2// 16. 36. 2. a). 55. 8 . . . a 52. 3. t).r 2 + 4?/ 4l). . 2a. . 12. + 2y.  17. :5 41. 2 y' 4 . ?/. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. a 6 2 . 10. 33. 7. 17. 2 17. 1 4. 364c. 4wipg>' 27. Page 8. c.2 ft 2 r2 10.  1.(7x2 Ox2). 7  # + 12. 2 2. 1. 24. 2a: 2 4x.  b* 4 r 1 . 11. 2. 3 a . 43.a'2 . 31. ' 12 m?/'2 27.  a: 2. a 3a 4 2 &. 34 39. 2. a4 4 4.11. 9. 5. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2 + a4l). 14.(2 x2 .a f 54.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 10. 1. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. + c 4 d x + 6 e. . 4. a.. 2. lOrt 15w4.2 . + a 2 f 2 a 4. j)(g1. 30. 13.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2. 26. 18. a2 9.  4 b 17 y*. 18.5.h. (5x47 3. a 3 .7. 8 + 2 a .4c 3 8 8 J. 11. 4 21. 2 3. a 3& . . 2 . 24. &. !  </ .'U4j>. 12. 3. 50. 2x 4 a 13. \ :{ 2 a 48.2. (w4w)(ww). 20.  23. 14. 32.4. ft Exercise 17. a2 24. 4r 2 . 8 8 . 19. 1 + 45. 24 b 46. 814. G. 2 4. 51. ?> 22.Oa: + 10. Page 7. 2. a + a. 6. '  . (mn} 11. f 2 ?/  2. 2. 2 a 37. 6. 2. 13. 15. 21. 17. 36. 24. ar. 21. 28. 5. 10 m.
1. 18. 30. 42.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 2. 24. 24. 15 q\ 6. . 16 51.6) =a2 31. 22. 15.16 x2/ 5 4. 18. 770. 52 + 6s 12.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 12 x2 2 . 23. 24. a*b*c. 108. 9.6 2 .44 aWc 16 abxy. 14. +15. 18> ^* = a . 34. 4. 19. ?/ .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 90. 2 w +2 2 . 13. 27. 21. 25 4 4. 16. 2 * 80 . 34.19 + 2. 10. 18.25 + 14. Page 35. ll 2 i. 7. 25.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 26. 11. 8.28 p'^/.32 y s s G .14 w 2 2 . 4aWy. 7.8 12. 29. 2 ll9HH 2) + .14 xyz + 14 a:y0.21. 29. 14. 16.32. 9. . 35. 4. a. 3. 22. 10. 7. 2 7t A. 15. 17. 33. 19. 16. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 23.(3x2_4^+7). 33. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .11 xyz . Page 3. a + ft. 11. 12.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 2 a2 (y 2 . a: . 3300. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.000. 19. a. 1. s 9 ww. 83 In + 1 n*. 15. 1. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. 4200. 18. 10. . 30 n?b*c*. 11. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7G . 14. 3(*+0 + 2). //.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 3 a 3 . 27. 1904.r% 2 2 ry. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20 aW. a. 102. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 3 a 2 46. 24.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 4. 22. 31. 9 13. 30. x2 xy42^. . . 64. 8 . 216. n (a6) 125. 30. 17. 12.. 127"'. 2 .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 6. 32. 17. 30. 23. 04. 21 a'&c. 4 fc. 1. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 66 39 k* . + 58 . 27. a 8 . 20. 60. . 2*8f x2 6x4.>(/ r .2. .7(50. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 28. 216. 37. 7. 2. f 26. 38wiw. 1. 343. 40 r 2 . . 15 lb. 9 w 2 + 13 n .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. . 161b.:>/ . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 17. 1. 30. 8.20 xyz . 1400. 11. 1. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 16 lb. 161b. 60. 13. 13. 12 ^. 66 8W 34. + 7. m. 31. 108.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 4. 12. 6 . 360.16 a 2 + 32 a . 0. 6". 30 j9 jt?g j . 29. 14f 5. +. 6.. Ox a 5 . .. 120. 4 a2 . 28. Page 5. 6. 26. 25. 4. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.36 35. 2''. 30. 1. 3. 23.19p" + 19^ 10 .15. Page 38.. 8. 5aft(a 126 2). 14.18 w w + 10 WI M . 9. . 27.12. 22. 6. 2.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 34. 16. ! 2. 20.64 190 p6.21 a 3 c2 21. 3. 4 a8 . 2 ). 33. 29. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 210. 20. 21. 8. 4 jcy*z*>. 18a% y. 13. 3. 24. 32. 25. 21. .22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8.26. 8. 20. 0. 76 8 a' 1 . ISartyW e*f*tj. .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. Page 36. 27.12. 2 2 2 . fa 2. 25. 4. ?> 4 . ^^ = 20. 10. 14 m 2 . 18. 28. etc. Page 7. 16. + O4 66 . 5. . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. iSx8 . 18. 42. 15. 28. 84. ft 17. (+3)x6=+16. 20. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 19. 15. 2. ci 5 . 2 ).14 . 5. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 13. 36.
22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 35. 9999.6 x2 13. fo*. 26. +4 34. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.201. . .009. .2 y*. (a + 4) (a + 2). 9990. 1. 16.2 x + 2 x. 2 12.3. +  m' 1.994.500. . (w+4)(m4).020.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 2. 1.00 + 37. 9 4 /> . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. V + o ft .810.020. 8. 8 a W . y.14 jp + 49. 7. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 31. ab. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.000. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.8. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 998. 11. ) 4' 6/ 49. ^V^4 . (w4)(w + l). s rc 47.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . G a6 2. ?/H)0.6 xy . I/). 10.49.p132. (m + 6)(m3). 2 4 2 2 64 . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 31. x 2 f xy + 9 41. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 33. 40. 9. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. m 3 j) 3 . 10. 33.ri 17. a + 56. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 53. 18. 9801. 10. 11.84 a' 9. 30 x + 19 x3 .606. a 2 . m 2 . ^/> 8 4 . 38.^ + a? + 1. 2 0)(p + 5). 441. 31. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 29. a3 0. 52.25. 17. 36 a 4 . 36. 42. 4x21. 2 62 V2 132. 10. + 3)(3). 51.m 30 6 4 1. 2 .4 n. 6. 29. Page 39.ANSWERS 28. 24. 8 38. 44.6. 41. 10. 10 a' 2 . 10. 41. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . .15. 12 x2 . 2). 32.1. 1. 8. 2 fr . p4 + .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 3.^. ' 46. 1. 1. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 2 6' . 10.. . 2. 4. (a (3 54. 7. 3wi2 m Page 42. 34. 4 21. + 10 + 121 y*. 32. 34.4 12. 15. 14.ab . 23. 1.10 35. ft' 11. x*2^f I.008. . 19. 2 4 a + 4. 45. 6. n2 a4 6. ..r* 2 30. 25. 7. 10. 2 1: 21. 21 2 .^V"' . 10 a 4 ?.r . 5.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 5. 2 +10s281.r . 2 a' y' . 36. .001. 19. 2 j3 Z .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . . 37. 4 + 25 q*. 4 2 //. .x2y22. 30. 39. 10. ~ 6 20 . 26. 14. 2 (5 a 3). 4 x2 13.35 ab 9.2. a + 25. +   5). x4 28.712.098. 40. + 12. 9.6 y4 10. ^' J  7 f 12./ . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. + 2 9.2 6 + 13. 7 . (n 2 5.16 a3 f 50. 30 /><. 4 . 2 a 2 + a .404. 4 . 484. 27. a + 25. 33. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 27. 20a 2 21a + 4. r. 57. 35. . 55. 24.5 ~ 81. 56. 28. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 1). n + 2.54 p 2 + 81. 7> . ab . 990. Om2 4 6m 6. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 25 25. 25 a 2 6 2 .004. 37.009. Page 12. 4. a2 ' + 48Z100. 39. lflrt 2 8 + l. x* . + 4 a +4. . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . . a' . 2 . 14. (p 2. a4 4 ?/ . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.996. x 48. 3. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 10. p 2 .20. 166. 999.10 x + 25. .000. 10. 15. x2 GiC+5. . 36. 8.4 a&+ 4 &*. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 40. + 4 t*. 4.
_ 2 a . w 2 . 3 a. 20 15. y 7. 5. 3*y2 w + 1. l 4 .r?/. m'2 3.r ?/ ??i ?). 135. 11.7. 14. .  10. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 12. 2 4 2 x 4. 75 a 2 29. 3. 7 r . 10. 6. f>r* 4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. Page 7.5 a .  3 c. . 49. + 3.rw.1. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 14. Page 48. 2 4.2 ftc .2 2 2 8 .15. + 4. r 7. 13.24 .  5 z* . 26. 13. 2. a 4 4 ft. 4. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 19. 2.3 a 41.9 d. 2 4 3 9. 5. 6. z. ft* ft / .1.8. c3.2 ac .r?/ j/.> 10. a 8 4. . 12./ 4. 50. 47. i 2 tji. 4. 4ft.2 aft 4. . 8 r<ft 4 2 .r'^ 15. 8. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 7a3ft.9 4.3 5.1. 125. 2 12. m L 4. 5. Page 51. 14. 2 ?/ 4. 2 2 + 2 a. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 2 1. 8. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 4 a* 4 9 11. 14 r 2 . 8. 16. 1.  . 2 .2 ar.w. /r .2 2 .3^V. 11 4. 1. 2 ?/' . 3.2 . 21. 13. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. Page 11.n. :r !>.5 mp.25 c . . 13. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 44. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 12. Page 13. 2. 1. ft.  12 y 25. 7. 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 4.8. 4 x. 6x 3. a 2 . 15. 20.y3. abc 7. 24. 5. 5. 14. 8 ?/ . Exercise 27.  11. .3 x 2 2 4.r" 20 S? . 4 c m . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.rw f 8 . 8.3 ry.12 aft 4 20 ac . 10 ft. 6. 3.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 6. w . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. r//. 4xy + 13 <) . G. Page 22.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. '.25.10 2 + z 2 410. 8. 5^418(7. a 10. 13. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 5. 4 a 2 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 8 ?/ . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .1. aftc 52.x^. 12. 17.10 xy*. . a. yfl.8 y. ??. 19. ?/2. 5. 4. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. aft 12. 9. .2. .23.2 1 //. 8 x . 46.29.2 .8 yn . 1/*. 15. x 2 + 2r f J. 3 aft 20. ft ? ft' ft ft.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. Osy. 18.1. 10. c 12. +w . r ft. 3. 9. .+ 77 15.34. 14. 4 ac. ti'jry1 7. 5.000. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.4.27 x 2 4.1. 1. r/2 4. 4 d 2 4. 13. 22. 2.5 n*. 17.r' ~ 16. 4. 5 a  (5 ft.r . .lit x + 4. 5 4 a Oft. x4. 9. 1000 1000 . ft 17. 12. as _ 10 16. 3. aft.15 21. *3 y 4 . 11. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.1*5 2 r 2 . 16. 4 pq. x 4. + x?/ 2 1. j) .21 2 2 f + . 2 ? 14 .2 . 16. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 5. . // 19. 6. 23. . . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 9.2 <</. .1.2 wZ 4. 8. 2 . 4. 17. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 1. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. i 9.30 ftc. 10. 1. 2. .6 :rs 4. 9. 01. 2 a 3 ft.3 3. 21. 1. 3. 18.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 4x43?/. sr 11. 4. 2.VI ANSWERS 43.
17. 40. 37. (A) 3 x f (4 x . x 48. 5. 3x  1700) = 12. 4. 6. 32. 19. Page 40. + 3x + 2y + 32. ct. . 4. = 5 ?i x 460. 28. x = m. 16. 15. 10 >_&. ft. 42. 10 x sq. 10. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. <>.(3x+ = rraxlO. # + 20yr. 31. 8. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 20. xy ft. 35. "mi. y 100 a 24. lO. 10 a. 5. 24. 2. Page 31. d. 7. (2 a.(3x  700) = 5. ct. b. 37. s. 16. (</) 2a. 33. !). y 2z p= 3 (a c. 7.. 7. 36. 44. f = eZ 2 x. Jj12. (c) 2x. ft. f 6)(o 62. 50= L 100 15. 8. lOx 10 + w. 29. 21 2. 2. 25. x. 19. 38. 10. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 7. 27. 100 d ct. I. ( a f 4. 2. 3. 3x2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 6.100. 4^ = 100. . 2 ct.x700. 'nj 100 a 28. 11... (>. I. 57. vil 56. 13. 10. (> 27. 16. x 2y 10 act. 23. . 14. l. . " lir. 00. 26. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 9. x 49. 5. + 10 b + c ct. 6. 3 9. 0. 22.  2\. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 33. 1. 10. 10 yr. 58. 2b 22. 4.p+7. 100= ^. 20. 1. 100 2. 1&.r ct. 18. 25. 7. 5. 46. 14. 29. 4(a ft) c = 8.  6 10.rr2. }f.. 17.  1$. 5. % 4.7). 6. 0. X 60. 800 = x + 1300. . iL*. m+ 11. Page 61. y yr. 2b. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). / + y + a// 12 yr. 2x + 35. a 8. . 34. </ 20. 30. (a) ' 12. ? 43.ANSWERS Page 9. 6. m +~m 3. 11. sq. x y $ 6 yr. f (I. x + 1=a. 13. 2. ft.6 = *. 12.r1.10) 100. 18. + 3 = 2(3* . Page 6. 13. 7. 8 n  10 yr. 2. 7. 20. 23. Page 13. 11.000. 3. d + !. ct. 44. y 50. 36. 1.ab a. 12. 38. 15. y ?>i x + 26. 47. 4. 4. 39. 2=10. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 2. rn mi. a 10. v (6) 2x. 9.200) f(^ + (e) 200. . 17. 43. 60 25 1. 41. b.  9 = 17 a. n M. 3. 5. 100 14. + 4x 3y 34. fix. '^ . 30.  />) a = all. ] 2 ri 42. ^ 12 sq. 7x 2 Page 21. 1. 41. 59. 4 f 39. + f + b 2. r tx mi. 45. r>?imi. 22. 1.
10 yr.000 copper. 75. 8 12. 85 ft.22. 12. 1250.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.. ~=90. z?/(4^ + 5xy . (6) (6 a 30) =20. . 74. 6. 6. 200. 14. 3.3). 3 hr. 25. 4. 14. by 12 yd. 4. 9 in. 10. 10. 5. 82 mi. 250. 3. 8. (a 4) (a. 12. 5 Col. 7.000. 1. 18. 72.. 13. 78. 4.0.2). 7a*fe(2a & l). 10. 68. 1200. 30. 2. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 7 hr. 78. 71..(5z .000. 7. 180. 2.0. 6rt 2 11. 16. (p + 7)(3a5&). 3. 15. 10. 480. 8. Page 7. 3. Page 5. 10. Oaj(o62cd). Y. 15. Page Page 480 12.5. 7. 2. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). ^ . 7. 15 mi. 90. 2 3 6 7. 40 yr.. 2. 17. 10. (y 13. 2).y").10. 8. (a + 6) (a + 3). 11. 14. 25.16. 2. 9. 21. 29. 05. (m + n)(a + 6). 15 in.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 1. Page Page 4. ?(g ? g+ 1). (y + 8)(y2). 12. 50.411. ( + 4)(*2). 5. 1. 3 (a +&)(*.000.000 Berlin. (ro3)(w2). 5 lb.6).3. 13. 42yr. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 23. 30 mi. 4. 20 yr. 28yr. (a5)(a4). 11 w(w' + wi .3aftc + 4)..000 N. 8 2 19.. 6. (y7)(y + 2). 8. a a (a 8 a+l). 20. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).  PageSO.21. 2 2 ?/ 21. 5. 25 yr. (yll)(y4). Page 79. a 12. 6. 10 Cal.2. 5. 30 yr. 200. 7.11. 70.5. 19. 55.7.3. 1.. 7. 2. 3. 10 yd. 9. 90 mi. 13. 4pt. 3. 4. 1. (a + 4)(a + 8). (y8)(y + 2). 6.. 11 in. 15. w (/) 64. 10. . 6. 20 yd. 100 1. 8 in.000 pig iron.8. $40. 3x (3r.1). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 52... 12. 15. 14. 11 pV (2 p8 . 14.13.000 gold. 2 2 2 5. 15 yd. 13.5p + 7 g ). 1200.000. (z5)(z2). 11. 1.. = _?_(2ar + 1). .210^. 600. 11. 14. 70^.. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.. 67. 8.000. 8.000 ft. 15. 3. (a + 5)(a + 6). 5pt. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. + 7)(y3). 20. 10 yr.000 Phil. 12 mi. 1 lb. 12. 24J. 160 lb. 150. Ib. 9.000. 6. 100. 30. Page Page 4. 5$ hr. 10 Mass. . 18. 20. 5. (c) ^ v ' ..000 ft. 8. 9.000. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 6. 1313. 8. 11. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 80 A. 300. 1. 13.. 2$. 17. 9. Page 7..24. 18. 22. 4. (e) i* + A. 9. 45 in. 12. (*4)( + 11. Pace 65. 20 yr. 2. 9.79.
(* + y)(zy). (a (p8)0> + l). 17. 22.4p). a.r2). 2. 10. 2. (5wl)(m5).2). 6. 20.3)(z2). 34. 6. 14. 24. No.* (2 y + 3)(y. 27. (15ay2) 2 . 23. 14. (3*2)(. Yes. (y8) 2 2 . 25. 2. 29. 8. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 23. 4. No. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 22. 30. 14. 35. (2yl)(y + 9).6) 2 1. 32. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (ft + ll)(aftll). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 10.1). Yes. (0 + 6)(66). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 28. + 8)(g3). (y + 4)(yl). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 5. 27. 5. 17. y) (a. . y(x. 13x7. No. (3#y)(+4y). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 22. 19. ix 18. 27. (15z2y)(x5y). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . . 10. . 2 3 by2 Yes. 15.8). + 2y). . No. 25.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.5y)(3a. 11. (3a. (a + 8)(a3). + y + .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (5a +l)(5a l). 16. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). x (z + 2)(x + 3). x(x +y)(x y). (4al)(a2).11 ft)(a6). 12. Yes. 1.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (10a + ft)(10aft). 216 aft. 3. (g .4 6). 28. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5).ANSWERS 16. 3a. (m7n) (a. 25. 4 (a .2 by2 6. (5x . (w ~ n (x . x\x 24. 19. Yes. (2 *+!)(* 9). 12.  x (5 a. Page 84. 33. 21. 9. (ay8)(ay3). a(2u. 17. . Yes.   . . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Yes. 100(x. 9.6) 2 2 . 9. Page 82. 23. 18. (:52y)(2a!3y). 16. 25. 15. Yes. (4 13. . + 3)(c44).1). + 9^)(oxy .11 6) (a 4. + 4) (a. ( 2 4 19. a . 1. (2 a? 4. + 3). 25. 33. 10(a + ft)(aft). 9. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 2 17.2). (<7 20. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 103x97.2 y). 23. 26. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 7 6) (a 10 6). (2xl)(x + f>). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). y) 2 29. .9*). (6 a.y) 2 aft. 26. 24.7) (a. 3. (4a. 3.+4 y)(3x4 y). (2o + l)(2l). 20. . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 10(2 30. (a 3 + 10)(a. 9. (x + y4 )(x . a 2 (w7)(w + 3).. 36. 32. (m + n +p)(m + wp). + 0(90 Page 85. (m + w) 2 5. 35. Yes. 26. . 10(3 5 6) 2 . (a a: 19.1). 11. 8. 24 9. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (9y4)(y + 4). No. 12. 10 a 2 (4 . 21. 31. 21. (13a +10)(13a 10). (w* (3a26). 40 x. 29.y4 ). a*(5a f l)(flr . 16. 11.2 ft). 4. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 8. 2 2 15. 28. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 10(a . (w + 20)(w + 5). 22. 2). 7.1). 1.3). 26. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 18. (az + 9)(ox2). . 7. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 3(x + 2)(zl). 2 No 4. (a. Yes.c 2 ). + 5) a. 34.4. 13. 100 (a.7)(2z f 1). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (4y3)(3y + 2). Yes. . 20. Yes. 3)(3a. (m + n + 4p)(w + . Page 83. (6n + l)(+2). 24. (a 6 6) (a 4. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 8) (a. 21. Yes. 30. f 2). 10. 7. (4 18. 31.
(w * . 14. 38. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). a8 . 4  9.y. x 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 2 2 10. 4. 3x(x?/) 4.l)( a 25. (r420(4 10. ofc)( fid).i4l)(x4l)(x~l).3)(x 4. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (a 9. ?i(w 4y) . 8.1). 18. ( y).'/)('< 4. 4). 1(V/ 88. 10.36). 11.2)(x 1. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). 22. (* _ 2 )(a 4. fi(c426). 14. 6. (a 4.7)(^ {I 12. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 16. 13( 33. a 4.y)(fi a .42 x 4. ah}. a + a b. 2(m4l)' . 4 a8 .b.8) n 43*). (x. (f> + fo 7. 12. 9. 7. 24. (!__/>). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).r(3x' 2 4 (14. b) (r 4. 40. ^ . 17. 5. 11.2).2). .5 m2 x2. 14. 12. .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). Exercise 47. ( rt 23. 6. 3 x4 . (^ + ?>_8).4). 8x. l.8) ( (16. (. 4 a s &8 . + 2 //). 13. 5. y). 5 x8 3. 30. a 4. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 8. (5a+l)(9a). y(2x?/). 19. 10(2 (3 4. 15. 4. 14.&). 37. 2 + .4). 4.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 3(. 4. 6. ( { &). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 12. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.?/). 13 x 8 2 . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). Page 92.4. (14. 9. 36. 4. 8.&). 2.7s) (2 a. 42).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). . 41.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 15. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). Page 90. a (a + 2 6).?>) H. . a x 3 10. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 2 2 3 . Page 12. 24x sy s 9. y6. 2 1.n). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). ?>). . 5.e 4. (x//. (a &4. 6. n  r)(5a 10. 13. 7. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 15 M. 6.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 4 3. (5 31. 2. 28. 27. 2 k (wi 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). Gp).4. 7. 2 (a 4.3. 2. .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . r x 2 */3 . 11.2 y). x . 4 6. 8). Page 86.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. + 3. 4. 6 f c).!) (x42)(x2). 2 . 7.1) 3. 8. (16 4  2(5 n .. 8. 7. 42a 3 x. 3. 4.  29. 20. a 2 (a9). x  1).^ 48. a 41.X 5. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 16. x(x f y)(jr . 1. 2 8(w . 2 y) ^ .//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (> 1. (a />. 2.1).  (w' 4.y). ( a ^)(^3.'J)(' . 2 21.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 13. 32. x43. Page 87. ( (<> r4y3 . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 39. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .0+ 12).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).3. Exercise 46. 7. 35. 450.  WIM. y )(. 11. (m  I)' 6. (5 26. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 10(8x' 4l) 4. (w4w) 2 1.y '2 2). (5^4.'})(c .9). 8. 17(x43//)(x2y). 5.) j). 8. 2. 5  (2 2 . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (c. 4. (^ 7.?50)(xt/z. Page 89.8). 6.
+ &)(&) ( . 30(3 2 (a 15.6). 11. +8b a 4 3 / ^. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 24. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21.  1).ANSWERS 10. 6a2&(rt6). +5 1. 2(2al) + l). x 22. + &) 2 ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . a 10 25. 1). 18. ?_!&. (a2)(a + 2)2. + y) (a: y). 13. a 23. x 12.
+ lH + . A^. i. 0. a 5. 26. . 7. 2 a. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. c 8.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 4c 10. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. _*^p5_^^_. i^. ' 2 7. w1 + ac w 4 7. 4. 4 L 8 2 . 1. xy 43. Page 101. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 11. Page 100. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.  **/* + 84 _. 6a5f^. 28.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 6. 6.50 ~ 1/2 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. + 2H 1 ^. 30. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .
1. 8j_m 7 3. 31. an 18. 15. ^i 11.  10 X + u. Page 111. ac mp lf> n 12. 4. 16. 1. Page 106. 10. flf. 23. Page 113. 4. 1. 6 . 24. 3. 3. 6. f Page 107. 3. . 20. +3 ( + 15. a2 2. n . . 5. 37. 18. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. x 1. 4a3ft. 6. 38. 5.^U\WF### X<6. ft. 45.  V o 4. 43. 8. I) 2 3z 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 11. a. Page 110. 3. 9. 44. 11. 13.^_. 8. 7. J. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 11. 12. 6. w^x 2 b Page 105. 3 7 i o. 17. 12.ft . y(x + x ?/). A. 1. J. 46. ' 6. 26. n m a + 13. 27. 4. ?. 9.L+ft. 0. 5 be _J_. 2ft a i m x. . 36. + f. 4. 10. x\. 39. 32. ^_. 12 28. 29. 15. 5. 15. x 05m ' 5. 0. 33. 11. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 30. 11. j L . n 16. 35. 16. 21. 7. 4. 14. 21. 5. 2) 19. (y + (z 12. 1. 1. ! 4 20. 41. . 19. 17. 1. (>. 2 47. b a f +c 14. a 17. 9. 21. Of. b 2. 3. m 9. 6. ?+_!?>. 1. 40. 7. J. 7. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 25. 34. 6. c 8. 3. 1. f 7. 14. pf n 6 1. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 14. 4. 42. 4.y 7.
1:1 = 1:1. 4. 26 mi.003.. 24 mi. (d) 500. n 32. $0. (ft) 5 da. 5 2. min.  29. J. Yes. 27. 74. 28. 14... $40. 15.. 2 20. 40wn. Yes. 1. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. :2. 30ft. '"I 22. 8. 55 mi. 7.001. 300.000. after 20. 2:1. 12.. 21ft min. 24. ^?i min. 17. 10. 13.10. 1 : 12. w 18. 13. 19./hr. nm. 17. 30. 6. 7T 2 Page 116. dn ~ mi. 5. 1:4. .002. 4. 2x:3y. Page 117. 9. 15. (c) 8300. Yes. 18. 23< &n b ' . 10 yrs. 15.004. 6. $00. 10. 14. 1. 19. 8. Yes. 21.000. . 4. 1. = A's. 36. 10. 12. 10. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 8.. xy. f. 4. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. a 4 ft. 7. () 2. silver. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 9. #V ~~ 34. after 18. 11 hrs. 10. 17. 11. 300.137./hr. 7. 34. 15. 35. 12.000. 14. (ft) 28. gold. 7. ~m . 1^'. _JL. 33. 33. IV s. ANSWERS 16. 3. 10. 19. Yes.. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. 9ft. Page 119.x + y.2. 1:3.. w 44. 32. 10. " 0. No. 8301 hr. 13.. 5 25.11.0. . 500. (a) 25. 30 mi. 300. 7 . 11. 1 da. f . [>> ^ a . No. Page 125. 3. 7. (ft) 104. 9. 9$. (c) 2 hr. 5. (a) 4 min. 11. 16.0 & . 8. w 21. 3. 20. 3:2. 4. (r) 3^ da. 3. 17.  C . 3 da. P+ ^ 33. 40 mi. . after $12. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . ^m . 40 yrs.XIV '/ . (a) 12 hr.. Page 124. 16. 2. 22. 15. 1: ~.139. 7} 18. 8.9. 4~r~ n . J ^'. min. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 3. 00. 18. $30. 275:108. 38ft min.000 If da. (a) 30. jj. 5. 14. 9. . . 81. ft. Yes. (ft) 5 hr. 6.2. 21.000 1 = 23.} da.000. 18. 1. 10^ oz. Yes. 24. 2. * 7:9. 10. . 31. 20. 26. 9J oz. 26 30. 4fl M_. Yes. ^p^ r ~ 7. 0. 13. 3. Page 118. 10.  + . 16.138. 20. Page 121. 30 yrs. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 5ft 30mi. 75 . (d) 4 da. 212. 1:1=1:1.15. 19. 15. $45. 15.
ft. 11. 15. 56. 41. (b) Inversely. 10. 47. x +y x + 74 7 \.22. 13. 4. a f 2 2 = 5 x.5. 4. 5. . 5:0 = 10:12. 7. 26. Page 5. 2. 8. 4.*. 43. in. . 9. 3. 2.12.2.. a~.4. 11 5 . 19. 39.ANSWERS 22. 1. 2. 1. \\. 57. 7. 8.15 x. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 1 18 = 3 51. 2 n . 25. mi.2. 6.5.5. 31.3. 15> 9.J. 3. 54. 23. in n.3.a. 5. : : T 1' : /> : . 10. 7. 12. 2. 9. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 4.3. 7. i.3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 15. 4. : 23. 11 w a 13. 2. x y y . 13. 14.3. 50.6. 12.1. 127.1. 48. 3. copper. x 42. 3. 2. . 23. 2. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 2. ig 6. I. 16.5. : XV 27. 9. 2. .. 35. 2.4. Page 137. 11.1. 4. lo mi. Page 135. 1. 6 10 = 12. 2. J. 1 rt * vm^1. 174+ Page 128.].5. 16.J 3. *. . 2. 3. 3. 1. (I.160. 1(5. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 36. 17.5. 2. 6*. 2. 12. $. 8. J. 27. ~ 1. Page 132. 8.7.3. 2.17. 19. 21. 3. 30.3. 52. 7. 3. 3.3.3. jc:y = n:m.3. 36. . 6. a +b 1./':</ c a f :y=2:9. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 ."2:1. mi. 7. 2. 11. 58. : />.x a. . /. 2. + W. 19 3 . 19.C ?/ a . 4.9. Of. 4.2. . 5. 8. 22. 14. . 18. ' 55. 7.  ?. \. : . 5. Page 136. 5.4. 17. 7. y :y =. () 7 Page 126. w 8. 2. Inversely. "lO. 49. 59. 31J. 2. = 7 b'. a 3. 5 2. 7. x:y a: b. OJ. 9. 4. 3 2=3 x. 32j. t 5. 1. .4.5. 20 cu.36. J pq. 7. 945 11 10 .000 sq.7. 4.  19. water. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 3}. + b 7 . 2. 8. 2. 5.1. 1. . 11. tin.57. land. 4. 6. 13J. 10. 20. 2. 29. 5. 7. w.. . s<i. 2.2. 7. 3. 20 20 J ^. 5.12. 2.4. 38. (</) ft.li. 3. 10.15. 1. 7^. 4. . 45. 9  15.3. 7. 16. 24. () Directly. b x 37. 46. : : .) 31. . J. 21. 13. 53. y .000 sq.  28. 20. OJ. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. (a) Directly. 3. 5:3 = 4: x. 17.1. 9. 3. l.46.840. 7. 25. 41. 200 mi. 5. x y = 1 = 3 2. Page 133. 4. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 14. 13.2 oz.20. y a y = 7 0. Page 9. Page 134. 4.5. 32+ mi. 44. 9. 40. 12. 6. 138.8 oz. 30. 1. 7. 40. 24 1 (e) Directly. 3. 4.^ 0?j ' gms.' : : : : <>. 9. y 1. 24.2 x. 9. 26. 1. 141. cu. 11.5. 2. ini. 7.r. 25. Page 131. 22. 3  24. 55. 14. 5. 5. 2. 28. 6. 19 OJ. 8." ^ 2. 1.
(<f) 13. . 15. 10. 3. 24. Page 146.7. . 00. July. $ 1000. 5. Jan.33. 2. 10^ gms. Nov. $6500at3Ji%. 24.65. u 2ft. m + n p. 19. 4. 13. 2. at 15. 16. 15. 1. 2. 30. 17. 13. On 11. 3. 3. 23f . 11. 25. m f 8. 4. ' 6 3 a. 1. 15. 3. 2 horses. 12. 5. 4. A's 50 13. 1. 2. 3. Page 152. 2.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 11. 9.0. 13. Jan. 5. Oct. 2. 21. 25. 2. 4. 7. Apr. On the x axis. . 3. 14.l. ad _(?jrJL.XVI Fagel39. 4. 3. 16. .10. $250. 1 (d) Apr. 1. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . Page 143. 18. Apr. 7. 4 mi. ^. 2. (a) Apr. July. 26. 4. . 1. 18. 5. 5%. yrs. Feb. 12. 2. The ordinate. 6. 29. 10. 30.1. 12. ' . 27. 100. A a parallel to the x axis.. 3. 14... a. yrs. A's 30 18. 4. 10. 7. 22. & part of Sept. Page 153. 20.. (a) 12. 3.n + p. Page 142. 23. 16.2. be 7. 5.  17. 4. Page 149. C's 10 yrs.$5000. 6. 4. 7. 5. 1. (ft) 23 J. 4. 8. Jan. C's 30 yrs.. (c) . 2. parallel to the x axis 0. Jan. 7. B's 40 yrs. 31. 1. & part of Feb. . 6%. 7. . 2 a. 18. m f 9.4. $900 5%.2. 9. 20. SL=J o ft r^2. 2. $4000. through point (0. 26. 25. 6. 1. 3. 32. 5. 147. 30. 10 sheep. 6. 12. 11. be 10. 4. 24. 11. 3. June.  11. 9. . 7. 25.0. 10. Nov. 3. 0. 20. 2. 6. 11.^. 3.$2000. 16 to July 20. 20. 1. . 90. 3). 40. = ^ a Page 141. 2. ad AzA. 9. 1 (c) Jan. . 16. 423. 1. 3. 1. 20 to Oct. 11. 14. 10. 4. 17.3. $3000. 20 & Oct. 5. Page 22. 4 ' q. 5. 18. Aug. 20. 21. 2. (ft) 20. ft 3. Jan. 6. 28. 16.8.3.. 8.1J.1. 5. 3. 7. 3. 3. J. Apr. 3. &. 7. 16. 19. Nov. m . 17. 6 cows. 2t2. 8. 24. 23. 4. May 5. Page 151. 1. On the y axis. 2. (5. Page 145./hr. 6.3. & May. 4.4. 3. 40. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4. . 2. 0. 2.9. 6. About 12f. $500.  Zn  "(^ll 14. . M 2. B's 15 yrs. 8. Nov. July 20. . a =J (n  1) rf. 72.4. 3. 9. 2. 12. 9. <*ft/ bd 1. 19 gms. 0. 7.
 1. . 4. a 6o&i85 c i5o . ft . 10.59. 8mW.73.75 (ci) 3^. 14. 20.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 83. 8. 125 16. f.  .24.7. (ft) (d) 2. 10 C.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 125 a 8 12. 1.67. 14. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 20.25.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 3. 27. 5. 125a 28. (ft) and (d) 2. Indeterminate. 2. . xy. 3. H. . (a) 12. 3. 2.3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.27. . (/) 3. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 14. 3. 4. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 3. 2. 27 19.75. . 1. 3. 26.17 (ft) (c) 2. 18C. 21. . 2. 11. 1. 10.13. 4. 2..25. .25. 22. 2. 2. (e) 3. 4. H. 19. 2. 3. Page 158. 2. ' :=_!. 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. G. 15 . 1. f 10. . 3.1. 30.75. 1. 3.4. 5. (<?) 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 2.83. 16. + a 4 ft* . 1. 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . +3 4. 4}.73. 3. 1.  1. 4.83. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.73. 11. 19. 27 27 81. 9. m. 1. . (a) 2.25. 9. 8.24.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . (c) 2. 1. * 16. 5. 13. (/) 3. 5. . 13. 3. 1.. a 29. ImW. 24. 2. 3.5 (ft) 3. Page 159. Inconsistent. 1. 2. 10. f12 wi 9. (c) 14 F. 5. \ft) 5. 1. 12. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 6.41 and . 8 a1. 30. 3. 9 and Page 166. 15.5. 5. 2 a&m Page 167. 15. ft 2 4. (gr) 21.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.  12 ft xW  26 31. 2. 4. 18. . (a) 4. (ft) 2. . (a) 5.5. 5.2 (ft)  1. 1 23. . 24. . . Indeterminate. 1. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. 17. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 1. 1. 13C.1.73 ami . 8 1 f f g*. 2. . 2. () (rt) 3. 3. (c) 7. 15.25. 0. 5 and 2. 1^. 7.. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.75. a 10 ' a ll V&. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 13 . 3. 0C.3. xg . SlstyW 7. 2ft4 Page 168. 4 ) 21.59 . 2 2 22. (ft) (ft) 2. 2.64.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1.64.34F. . 3 . 12. f. a + ft. xW. 14. . . . 2 l. 3. 11. 13. 6. 2. 4. jgiooyiio 17. . Page 163. 1. .79. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.6." 23. 32F. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 28. 25.. 1. 8. . 22. Page 164. (e) 2. 3.41 and 23. 1. .24 .79. 1 4.84. Inconsistent. 81 ". 3. . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.
. 36. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 57.a b 22. 20. 14. 12. 10 x G a 4 . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. ? : 1 . ^i. . 18. 98. 2038. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 6. . (4a2 9& 2 13. 21. 35. 31. + i)). 8. 9. 14. 18. 237. 7. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 1 1 ?>).5. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 13. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 84. 00.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 4. 2. 3 6 23.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). Page 172. 20. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (l + x + . + + ?V 22. (Gx + (i + 2a. 3.XV111 7. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 4. 90. 30. 16 6 w . 33. 22. a 2 . 6. 247. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 1. 4. 30. 12. 90. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 1. 2. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . .83.  x. 70. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 34. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 10. (2 a + ft). (3a.x ). 8. 27. 5. 5. 6. 978. 7. 5 5 8.GO a c + 23. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . Zll. 17. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13.037. (48 + 6. 15. 11. 5. GOO 2 c 2 . 15.5). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . + Z). 72. Page 170. (ab + c). 24. 2. 6. 2 2 4. 17. 2 2 7. 11. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 6 (\x 3. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. a ). 8. 28. 16. (a + y+l). 13. a: l . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 2. 16. + (win . fe *?>' ?> fi . 1247. 21. 4. 14.y2 ).^). 5. (a + 2 +l). 5.2). 15. 10. ). . 9. a. 10. + l). 3 2 ^. 2. 309. 32. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 10*. 3 2 8 3 12. 8. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 420. 8. 7.i c 6 15. 2 12. . +3 + 5 4. 76. 19. 26. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 16. . 3. rt . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. (ly). 6. 11. 25 19. 9.10 a~ + 5 a . 300. 20. 71. 99. . c 10 6 :l 20. AN S WE no .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 0. (x + y\ 90. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. a. 14. 2(> + ( 2 7>). Page 176. 8 /. 23. 12. + 29. 119. 40.6. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. m 13. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. ? . 19. 101. Page 171. 18.3 ab + 2 2 ). + y). (a 2.  +X '.94. ( Page 174. 9. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 1. .1. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. r> 4 : 1 . 15. 25. 1. 11. 9. 2 4 8 2 . +35. 3.f 1 m 9 16. 17. ??i ?i . 9. (1 (x2y). 3. 180 .r 2 + 6jt). 2 49 . I 8x2). 3M. .7 /)). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. /> 4 ). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .+3^ + 4. 763.1. 64. 20. (x' l).
 5. m. 16. ^^7m.6. 1&. 1. 1. 30. 11. 17. Page 184. 7. * 1. f. 3. 9.469. 6. J. 3. 50.690.4. 28. 1. 25. 10. 12. 4. 47. 20.w 18. 1. 3. 25 J. xix 26. 9. 6V'2J. 7}. 27. . 8. 4.522 38. 14. 6. 32. 20. 15.. 13. . 7. 36 in.. 24.935. m. 10. 23. 16. 39. 33. 4. 270 sq. 6561. Page 179. 12. 2. 5. 6J. 37.5.}. 1. 14. 23.6. i ^. l~8. 6. 6. 5. 21. 25. 31. 13.742 in. 22. 8. 6. 10. _ iVaft. 4. 9 15 ft. 3. ft. 36. 1. Page 177. f ^ is. 3J.925 ft.18. 9. 7563. 3. 18. or 5. . 28 in. V2.. 5083. 39 in. 4 a. Page 181. 15. 5. 4 W**. 10. vV'TA 24. 5. 1. 2. (6) Vl4 3. 23. 16n. 16. w. 12. 9. 46. 21. f. 9. 10.  14.. {.*. 7. 14. 12. 5.  2. 5. 19. or 3. (afl). a + 61. *.1. 18. 33.1. f f V.243. 4. 3.Sn. 7 in. 7.4. 5. 14. 2.ANS WERS 22. 5. . 3. 49. >i 27. 6V21. 29. 2] see. 2. Page 183. ^. 10. . 36. 6. . 11. . ii :J _7. 37. 21yds. 19. 4. f . If ^. 34. 1. 4 TT M 28.5. 4. ft. 17. V35 1. 5. . 3. > w ft. 7.  f. .13. 6. 10. ZLlAiK 19.367. 35. 39.. }. 13. 7. vYb. 34.. 7 45. 9. 2.4. 1.645.916 yds. 41. 15. 4. \/3. 8. Af^. 48.  43. 12. 3. . i. 6yds. 11. 29. (< + ?>). 1 f Vl3.236.237. 2. 1 7. 3. 9.005. 40. 3. Page 180. 5. 15. 7.. 5. 21 in. 2. 11. 4 n.  3. 27. 15 1 10.6. 21. ft. 4. 14. V2.6. 2. 13. 35. ~ V^3. 6 f !. >TT 26. Page 185. 28. 21 28 ft. V.. V J l. 8. a. 10. . 26. 7.. ^. 4J. 4. 3. JJI. 4. 1 38. 1.i. 2 sec. 7. v 17. 1. 4.  f. 7. V17. 11. /. 42. 7. 15. / 11. 2.V 8j. 10. 2. 13. 3. 4.798 yds. 9. 32. 16. 6. 20. 12.?.. 29. 40. 12.60. 2. 8. () 2. 2. 12. 2. 5f. " ^_ 22. 31. 44. 24. 5. 5. 30. 3.6. 17. 8. . f 3.  1. 5.a.
27. 10 or 19. 2 V3 in. ANSWERS 22. rational. Page 191. 18. (5 10.  1. 14. jr .5 x + 6 = 0.  2. 6V64. 4. . 6. 9. $30 or $70.2. 12. 1 . AB = 204 ft.2. 2. 18. f.4. 57. Page 192.'. 0. 4. 6. 6. x 14.12 = 0. 56.l. 10. 23. Real. 34. 16. 2. 1. 0.23. 45. rational. . unequal. 19.4.  13. 0. 7. 2 ft. VV11.3. a. If. 12. 6. 15. 5. 6. 50. 8. 15 ft. 1). 26.  Page 194. unequal. 36.  1..$40 or $60. 10 in. 0. 5.  1.48. . . irrational. 11. . 35.62. 18. 1. 22. 64. 3. irrational. 1. a + 6. Imaginary. in. unequal. 0. V2. 2. unequal. 2.0*8. 0. V2. 1. i . 1. 28. i.2. .a. unequal./hr.5.3. 29. 5. 2. 32. 43. 4. 16. 3. 1.a. 2 .2. 26. 26.* 2. 41. 0. 27. 7. 3. Real. 6^2 in. 37. Real. AB = 3. 47. 20 eggs. 20. rational. Real.4. + 11 x. 10. . f. 3. 2. 2.  1.2. 28.. 4. 3. 17. V^~2. 2. 21. 2. . v^^fcT"^. a + 1.10. 31. 20. 11. .02. 0.  24.41. 0. 3. Page 188.70. 4. 25. 2.]. V ~ 16 4 2. 1. 9. 16. 0. 3. 3. unequal.a 3 a. .1. 6. 20 nii. 3. x*4x=0. 1. 2. 24. %. 21. 22. 21. . = 0. 1. 42. 1_^L ft 14. 7. 38. 5. V^l. 14. equal. .  5. 10 mi. 3.2.6. 7. 24. 4 da.Oa.. rational. 12. 24. 3. r* i. 10 mi. Page 187. V7. 1.  5. H.7. 7. 0./hr.17. 39.5^. 2. _ 19.XX Page 186. Real. 1.2. 120 ft. 5 ft. 15. 8. Imaginary. 3. . orf. 28. 6. s 11. 3. 23.74. 6. 25. a. rational.59. '  f 5. 8. 20. f 6 52 a. U. 1.2.  i. . 25. 27.2. 3. #<7=3.12. 0. ' 1. 4. V^l. 2. 33.7.  6. 64c. 3. 53. 13. 55. . 13. unequal. 3. 26. 5. 48. 3. x* 51. 30. Real.1. 19 in. x2 + B . . . Imaginary. 12. 4. 15. 1 3. unequal. 1. . 0. ^l/>> = 85 ft. equal. 58. 3.  2. .48 3. Real. . + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .37. 1. Real. 1. 4. 7. 9. 19. Page 189.7. 2. 46. 2. 2. equal. 3. 2. a8 . 1. 2.. 2. 70 ft. 52./hr.  1. 4. 2. 8 or 12 mi.6 = 0. 1. 0.2 x2 . 0. 12. 25. 6.3. 1. ft. $80. $ 120. 40.. 6. 7..1. 8. 23. Page 190. t is. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 35.4. 9. . 3if. 0.2. *'' 12. unequal.23. 3. 49. 8\/2 17. 3. 3. 3. 1.  9x <).4. 4. Imaginary. 44. 2. 10. 2. 1. 7. ./hr.
p. 4. 8. 44. 30. 31. 8. 35. 38. 20. 2. 17. 5. v^T4 m. 3. 58. 31. 13. 1.  48. 2. 1V1. 28. _! V3. 17. 45. 20.  J j. 8. i. \/3. J. 7 . 13. 49. 54. . 60. 4. 15. 1. 5. 12*2 61. 30. 4. 33. 16. . 51. m'. 13. 3. Page 196. 0. 84. 3. v'frW. I. . 4.^7. \/r\ 11. 29. &. 2. 4. 8. 2. 1. \/. 19.1 5 15. 57. ? . vV. 4. 3. ^49. z + 22. ^Sf 3 38.17. 9. 5. 6. 1 39. . 25. \. 243. 55. 3. 125. 22.//^. 2. 53.32. 9. jV 10. 3. 24. 7V7. 16. 6. 8. 26. 47. Page 199. 1. wA 46.  f . 1. x. ). 9. l  5 12. 9. 49. 13. 32. 24. $7. 10. 5. 15. 9. 30 a. 3. y . 'J. 32. xxi 15.. J. 9. 47. . 3. 46. x$. n\/* Page202. aW\ 40. 3.6. m. r. 7. 2. . ifa. 23. 1. 22. 50. v'frc 18. 2. . 3. 3. 10. 29. 14. 1. 19. J. v. 2. 17. 6  AAf. 50. : . 0.2. 18. x/25. 7. vm. V^ 34. 27. Page 197. 11. 18. 3." 17. 21. 25. 52. 1. 11. 21. 5. 3 4 11. 37. 56. 29. 8. 4. \. 24. 5. 2 L ( V. ar 1 . fx'^z'l 23. 12.ANtiWEUS rational. 0. 23. 2V a. 8. 1. 2. *V. Page 200. \ . 43. 1.  5. 33. 16. 19. 5\/5. 42. a. 39.  a'2 . 21. 2. 4. 7. 36. 2. 20. 40. (m 26. 41. Jb \. 12. 18. Page 201. 1. 10. . 15. 10. 14. 59. 16. J 3. r*. 19. 20. 28. J. 27.  f. 49. JV37. 8. 14. a 18 . 14. \a\ \/^. . Vr. y. 25. ) 2 >J i 10. 49. 1. 48. 33. . v/3.
1. 23.f. + 2).2 18. . 21. 2. 34 r 6. 3. x. 19. 4aV^J 16. 50.Vxy 35. + 2 ar 1 ). 16. 5 ( . 9. 13 35. 3 x^y 33. 6. 4. y. 21. 8. 26. k/2. Vr 8. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. ftV 46. 17. + . 20. + 2 V22. 2 x* 15. 3 4\/2. V80. v'TM.  2 3:r. 31. 11. 3. + Vic + 25. r c . 43. a^ + 2^+1. . 37. 13 a. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 48.632. 16. ^7 \AOx. 20&V6. 2. 9 . 2\/7. 4.XXii ANSWERS 1. 40. V. 2 4 z2 l 3. l 5.. 2 '"V5.'\ 14. 2. 3V5. m* n*. 51. 5. 24. 11. 13. 18. 5.). 27. 2. 12. 45.692. 9. V2 + 4 V22. JIV6. x^ .3 + 40 3 . 3. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 2. 20.  a Vft 2 121 b. Page 203. 49. 26. / V3. 34. Va 2 "ft. 3^ + 2). . ^: V2c. 2v (T 2aVf. ^88". 32. yV35. 2 a?>V2 a. 40. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 36. (x' (l 1+x). 17. 22.yl : . 1 2 or 1 ?. 10.577. x 25. 3V^T. V63. 135V6. x 7  34. x%  3 ^+ 1. . .rV:r. 8. 13. 03r* 7. ?tV?w. v/^r 5  A/^~. 6. 31. 2>X2. . + 1. 39. a 3. 38. 10. 33. Page 208. y (a + ft) V2. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 8a6V5. (a 27. . 15.648. r 17  Page 204.2 VlO. a 4 +* + !. abVab. 2. 1) 3V3. 28. 8V/) 15. 11V3. 10. 30.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. V. 7. 19. ). 3^2. 3 42. x + 5 x3 + 0. 37. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. + + ft.r. 32. v^. (o* 2.x^y* + y%. 29. 30. 5 22. 62V(J. 25. 195V3. T. x y.707. 9. 29. Page 207. 28. 24. 7. V 5 47.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . 101 1. a2 4. 41. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3 \ 39.
V5. : ^32. 2.  3. a\/5c. 21. b. 25. 4 a*. 2. 8v2T 12. x/8. 5V2. ^\/3. 1. 6. 3\/2. V2. VT5. vT). 34. 32.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 3. . Page 211. W). 44. v^4. 4 >/3. 50. 22. x/3. 28. 4. 14. 31. 17. 53. 5V2. Page 214. 2\/7. a2  b. 4VO. Vtf +3+ 33. x/27. 14. \V3. Vdbc. Page 216. V3"m. 1. 2 V'3. 40. 18. 8V73\/IO. 4\/5. ^ 3 b 5 24. 10. 12. 8  \/15. 49. v"5. v/lO. 52. 10. 22. 15. 3v^2. 32. a^\/a7>. 6. 11. 18.r v/^ v^fr*. 21. \^6. % 29. 1V5. "v/wi ??. "^8000. 40. . 6x2?/. 2. 24. 7\/(l 7VTO. ab 4. 14. rtv/5. v/l2. 14c 4 V5. 37. 10V(). 6V2. 3 V15  47. 12. 25. \/abc*. 23. 37. 26. 8.30 2. 7. 13\/3. 6. 31. 5. 36. 6. 6+2V5. Page 210. 2. x/8l. 9. v/8. 16. 46. 4. 19. V/. x/8L v/27. 5. v^a. v^lf. 3\/wi. 20. v"3. 34.J Page 212. xx 1. 51. V3. . 16. 2 28. v 25^4714 V2"a. 9. D 45. 6aV2\^. 16. 39. x/w^ 8. r)\/(l Vrtr. 43. m ?i2Vm/t. 38. fl^Vac. 10. \XOfl6Vi5. 42. 11. v/i). 39. 7. aVa. 74\/Jl 120 46. . x/125. 33. V3. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . \/2. Vn. 13. v^O. 24. 3 Vl5 30. . + VlO  v y (5. 48. v^30. 13. V8. 32m27n. 3 V2. 17. \^r^bVabc. 26. \/04a. 30 Vl4. 6. 0. V2. 6 2\/0. V5. '. v^f. 2 ate. VJla. 19. 41. 38. 5. Vat. ^27. . 3. 3\/15  6. ^9. 2 \/2. 15. v7^. 8. 17. \/128. 2. 11. 30.T*. 3. + 20. 8V2. 1. 3. 27. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . ^v 7 15. 18. v/9. 35. . 35. w?i. \^6. 7. 21 23. 9 VlO + 4. 2yV2?/. 5v/2. x/4. \/8. 9. 23. 0. 2 1.. 36. 29. 27. \/a6c. 5 \/2. 3. / \/w/t 4 13. Page 213.
4.4722. 81. 25. 8. 1.464. 7. 13. 2V3. 23. 19. 25.732.3. .4142. 1. (2.6 V3. (VllV2). 19. 31. 4. 6 V. 8. 26. 2. {. 7. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 18. 5 f. 22. 16. 2ajV2*.9. 15. 24.13. 13. 6. 125. 14. 2x^2^.2828. 0.XXIV 7. 25. V3. 3. 16.  2. 23. 5. 17. ^\/2. 0. 9. 7 f 5 4. 3(7+3V5). 10. 18. 1. 6. 15. (2V2).3535. 20. 21. 4. 10. V^TTfc. 12. 24.732. 12. + 6) 2 . 3. 20. (Vf + (4 V2). 33. 6. . 1. 2. A . 224.. 19. V3.625 10. . Page 225. fV2. 5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 512. Va. j. . 27. Page217. 12. 4. 9. (V21). n*. Page 218. 16. 5. (V51). m f. 7. 1. 11. 3V23. + 5V2.81. 16.  f. 4. 19. (VaT^v a). _^JflJ?. 14. . V3. 5 V65. 12.w 6. 23. 8.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . i^ ~ 1 v ^. 16. V2. 32. 30. 4. 9. 11. (V5f 5. i^Lzi. 4. . 17. \/57t. 4. 29. 9. ~ Vac _c 0. 9. 8. 4V3 + 6. 2. 24.5. +3 V2).\/TO).64. 3. 9. 15. 2. 25.7083.389. 5. 22. 9.1. !^ 6 4. 1. 3. V3 . 6 (V2 + 1). 21. 1. 4 14. 7. ^. Page 28. 18. 2V2. 4. 27. 2. (a 1. 21. 100. 8. (\/5V2). 13. (\/3f 1). \/3). 16. Page 219. . 4. 7. 25. (3+ v/2). 27. 4. ^r. 21 ' Vob 26. (V6 + 2V2). 11. 4. J. 14. (V8 + V2. xy 2. V5. 14. 1. 1. 1. 37. 2. 10. 17. 18. . ' 22 i . 7. 9. 10. 8. K>/0 + \/2). . 2!5_. 5. 11. 23.V3). 7. 3. ^. 5.^ (\/22 4. Page 223. 4.5530. 81. 22. 216. Vf6fVtf. 2. 10. 24. 5. * 3. ANSWERS 8. Page 226. 12. 23. 20. 5. 10. 34.7071. 25. (2f V"5). 8 V3V2. 16.1547. 2 . 3. 11. 36. 26. 15.0606. 16. Page220. 7 Page221. 8. V.6.2. 6. 29. 7. 25.  13. ^(VlO\/2). 9. 9 mn. 19. 8. J. 1. 17. 11. 35.1805. 64. .3. V6c. 30. 18. 4. V35. 4. 20. 15.2. \. p 6 13. 3.601. 2V3. Va. 12. nVTl. j 15. 5.  . 6. i(Vf Vft). . x 20. 28. 10. (2Vll). f.
17. 12 24 y . 13. 1 3.Y. XXV 4. 1 6.4). 11. 25. 1. 56l). a .  f . 3. 19. 2 . 24. 12. 4. . 0. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 7. 2. . 3. 7. 1 . . a  . 1. 4. 2. 2 .r . 4. V3. (B43). 1. 13. 6 2 2a + 2). 1. 3. (a+&)( 2 14. b . 73. (a. 4. 5. 2. 11. a: :} . 87 . 3. 2 V^ .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3 . 17. . 3. 1. 3 . 2. 1 (?> x/^3. 3.  1. . 13. 23.  16).2. 2. 24. 4.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). o. 19. qpl. 10. 4.2. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 1. 11. 13. 4. 8.4. 1.3. 15. 2 . 2. 3.10. 2. .3. 9.l)(a3)(a . 3. 5. 30. (8. 3. \/0. & + 6 2 ).l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).3 2. 5.0. 1 . (4 mn . (&y2a#H4). (rt. 3. J. 25.  1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 16. 2 &. 1 . 2. P. a(. 20. 5. 10. . 21. 26. 14.  . 2. . 3. 1. 14. 1. 4. 2.  3.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 8. 0. ( 16.. 8 6 & 0. . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1. 2.4. 3.ANSWERS Page 228. 4. 2.2. 5. 6. 5.3. 5. 7. 20. 2 6. 7. 2. y. J 24.^a. 2. 1. 2 > 1. 16. . .3. 10. 100. 3. 4. 3. 4. 22. 30. 25. (a 4. 11. 4 4. 2.5 xy + 25) 22. 8. . Page 234. (m 4 + l)(ro. 73. 0. 5. 6. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 50.nl^EI.  J. 17. 30 30. 2. 6. . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). . 21. 5. Page 236. 3. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). (2 a. 1 . 1. 3. . . . . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 8. 5.  4. J Page 235.2)(m. 4. 1.7. 6. 1. 0. 3.w 4 + 1). 12. 0. l. 22. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 2. 0. 25. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1).3. 2 <? 4a2 . f>. 1 . 4. 15. //. . 4.12. ' J. 6. 7. 2.5. 5. 3. 3 9. 4 . 4 20. . 11. 4. . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 9. 8. 18. 3 . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3. 4 1. 4 .1. 2. 2. 20.22.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 1. 10. 3. 15. 4. J. 9. 13. 7. 6. 11. 30 . 2. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2 6. 4. 7. 2. 3. 8.3. 3. 10. 10.  3. (a.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).2)(* . =A^Z3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3 5. 3.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 14. . 6. (pl)(p3)(p6).1. 1. 5. 2. 1. f . (pl)(p2)(p2).8a 18. (w . 7. (r. t/ 23.  2. 3.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 4. 12.l)(m . 1.  5. 2. 5. 2. 12. 0. 19. ~ f7.4. 2. 3. 28. 2 . . (+!)( 2) 10.  3. Page 233. 18. 5. 12. 0. (63)(6' t 18.3). 1. 4. 2. (a .
30. 5. Page 240. 8 3. 1. 23. 17. 1. 2n. ^ }. 40.4. 10. 5. 4. 5. 1. 3 . i j. 4. 2. 3.3.e. _ 13 (0 6. 3. 2. 5. 3. 288. co . 48. 8. 33. 17. 900. 12. $46. 6. 31. 2 . 39. 18. oo . x 4. 36. . in. V3~. 40 25 in. 1 . _ 10. oo .3. oo.. 18. 55. 84. 2. 201. 1. 16. in. Page 241. 2.3. 3. 8. 2 10. 5. in. '>. 30 13. 24. +  n. 19. 20 in. 15.3. 1. 14. 0. 13. 2 . 20. 35 ft.020. V7. i. J. 35^ 5. . m27. 4. 4.30. m + n. 26. 11. } . 2. $. .  2 . 1. 3. 2. 3 4.. Indeterminate. 24.1. 10. 21. 1. 2. 1. 12. . 7. 2.. ft. 2. 78. $VO. 40 in. . J. 1. ft. . 1. 18. . 3. 22. 400. 1. 1. 12ft. 4. 1. 7. . 6. 21. 20.4. (&) 2. 3 cm. 31.. 50. 14.5.. 3 . 28yd.5. . . 1 . . 11. . Page 239. 15. (a) $3400. 5. 4. . 4. 125 125. .  . 2. 2. 5. 1J. . 5. 12 d. 5. in. 5 4. }. 4 8.xxvi Page 237. 38. 3. 5. 6. 4. 15. 1. 11. 3. 15.2. Page 248. 1. 1 2. 1. 1.1. 9. 4 34. 3. 15. 2 2. . and _ 4.136. Exercise 114. . 4. 3. jj. 4. Exercise 113. 14. . J. 3. 5. 10. 12 1. 9.13. 2 26. 9. 1 .0. _ 7. Page 245. 2. 15. . 6. 29.3 . 4. 4. 1. 5. 30. 3.  1. 2.3. 4. 1. i'ljVU. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 7. . 5. 2 . 7 3. 8ft. in. 4. 3. . 2>/3. 3 2. 4 6. 4. . 3. 4. Page 244. 9. n. 12. 4. 25. 16. j. 7. Page 238. 23. 6. 3 . tn 2.. _ 5. $. 1 . 3. . 13. 1. 7. 3. 2. 2.. (a) 5. 8. 50. ft. 2. 2V7. .18. 2 ft. 3. 35 a. 4. 5. 4. 9. 19. 14. 3. 1 . 7. f. 37. 5. 11. 20 7. 3. 2.6. 1. . ANSWERS 2. = QO 6. 12. . ri*. 14. 14. 4. . J. 0. 12. f*. m28. 7f solution. . . 69. 21 30. 13. 45yd. i i i . 2. 41. 4 . 3.0. 8. 7. . . 5. 5. 2 1. ( 3. . 1. no co . . . ' j. 1. 8. c. 2. 8 . 37. (/>) "_. 2 Y> V . 2 16. (>. 3. 1.3. 17. 3. 1. 32. Page 243. 8. 5.  11. 10. . 14. . ^~2. 11. \. 5050. 4. 17. 1. Indeterminate.. 0. 11. 2. 22...6. 2. 2. 5 cm. Page 247. 1. 3V5. 3. 3. \/6.4. 12 ft. 1. 1.y. 37. 512. 1. 8. 512.3. 4. 9. 5 . 35. 2. 1. 15. 8.1. 3. f>. 3 3. 12. 1. 17. n .4.200. 3. 17. GO . 16.
1. **+. 8 1.700. 2i* 7f. 5.2 9. d. 6. 2. 7. 1 7 4. . 1. B . 8.384. 12. 7. . 17.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 4.<2 4. 13. 70. 8. 0. 05. 16. 2. x + Vy.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 22.870 m*n*. . . r r j. 16. 18. 45 Page 257. 125. 0. ^a 8. Y11. w9  8. 4. 410. 4.4 &z x>&.r 4. 3. Ja. 19. 8. 2.  20 flW. ?/i 6 x llj .53. 15. 9. 12. 1 14. 15. 1. 15. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 10. 12. 2. 1. 27.210. 5.170. 4. 10. a4 4 14. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).470. 27. 4. 22. 0.  101. 16 11. 04. f y 8 + z* . 4. 8. 1. 11. 1820. 4. 9. 16. 12. 3. 27. 005. 10. . 16. 1. 8. 1000 aW. 35. 8. 8 . 53. sq.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 9.120. 343. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 1.12 x*y 16. 128.192. Page 259. 32. 16. 3. 20. r 5 4. 4. 4. (). 4 0. Page 254. c. 3. 6. 5. 6. 5. 327. 5. 2. 35. 7. 45.6. x4 . 1. 405. 17.13. 12.680. 1. 81.3 ays. Page 252. 8 4x' 2 . . 125. 10. 6. 0. 75. />*. in. 192. vy. 12. 5 13. 27.6 . 2. 6i. 2. 70. 100.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . . &' 14.419. 0. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 3. 105. 0. . 11. 3.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.v Page 253.^ ?>i 2412x4. 4.5 x. 21. 910. . 9. 25.2 45 a 8 /).5. 10. 8. 3.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 3. 13. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 4. 44. 15. 2. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 6.504. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 8. 7.4.5y 4 . i 10. . 18. 6. 10 14.r* 4 70 . 13. ~v 9. . 495. and 1. 2. 120 aW. 5.7 10.r x>/ 7 3. A. 19. 220 . Jj? 45.ANSWERS Page 250. 28. 20. 1. 20. 4. 14. J 2 //2 25.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 0. JSg. \ w 4 . . 5. 7. 8. 7. 4. <. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . Page 258. 304. . 3. xxvii 1. 4.0. 5. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 55. 9. 2. 343. 10. 1. 15. 0. 18. 04. '23. 3. 7. 5. . 26. 43. 6. 8. 23. 12.8. 17. 4. 70. a. 2. } $ 50. 8J. 3. . 6. 3. 29. 708. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 48.5.130 x30 189 a 4 24.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 2. REVIEW EXERCISE .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. I. 11. 2. 7 x4 17. 50. 4. 12. 0. 9. 7.x' 10 . 280 53. 3. G. x r 4. 16. 5.920. ~ an . 4.1. 18.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 6. 19. 21. 1JH. 45. . ' 1.  17. 4950 M 2 b y *. 16.
0. 122.  .4 ac. . 86.c.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 82. 14 x . 66. x2 2 .x24 73. 3~ n 4. 4.3 y.9 x .7 x   15.c 3 4.2 xy + 4 y2 106.xxviii ANSWERS 19. x2 5r*x ft 5 . x 2 . 52. 9 2w 128.a*ft 2 126. 31. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.  4 a3 85. 3 a 44. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 110. 6 8 j27 40 ab. &p 84.1. 29. a2 2 aft 2 2. 38.41. 127. 130.4 2 4 c2 42 .4. .3 103. 13 + 2 s. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.y*. + 3 a?. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.3 . x2 a2 1 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 .4 x y 87.1. 4 115. 70. .  e +/. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. a4 x. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. . x 3 4. .4. x' 79.2. 4 fee 4. x2 471x4.{ 54. 40. 4. 6 a2 97. 91. 2 2/' . 22. 32. 4ft y3. x8 x2 55.3 a'ft. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 105. 5x + 2y~z. 124. 63. 8 . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.fee 2 4. x 3 41. 23. 3a~2c.2 x 4. . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 4 Page 264. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 1 121.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 43. 2 .4. 99. x 8 + x 4 68.. /> 4 83.3 b . 133.1.2. a 4 . ^ . 4 69. . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.  + 3 x2 . 25. t 81. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. .a' 'ft 4. .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 120. 61. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 36. . a* a 8 a aftc.a 2 x 2a .9 b.x 51. . . 2 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . f5+7. 118.7. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . Page 260. 100.^a . 4 ! .c. 39. 9x. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .105.3 aftc. 62.1w 77. 5x 2 2x43. a 3m 4. .a'2 c. 88.  12 a. x' . 114. 16. 243x4729. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. . + a 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 3a'2 Page 261. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 125. (a + ft)" 98. a~b 89. ?/ 3. !! 71.4 x?/2 3 4. 1 .1. 0. 1 + 4 xy.5. . 104.1 4 jry 4 x . 132.4. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 2 30 . 5 42. 21. x* .5 a 2x8 x 3 .x. 6a6c.4 x 2 . 5 4 4.3 x 2 + 3 x . 131.5 3n 4. 1 a"* 4 an . + z. _55_7c 48. 12 x.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 49. 2 53. 2 a. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .6 am b\ 129.5 b + c .2.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 24. ft2ft 4 4l. 3 c . df. Page 263. 0.ft). 28. as 20. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.ac 44 aft. . . ft /> 78.18 ?/ 5x4. x 8  a8 . 37. 76. 35. m " + n + P3c . 7 + 3 xf 2. 2 q. 3 a . 30. 3 36 b c . 6 c 47. 2 x'V2 90.5x4. 3 a 5 a 5.15 4 62 x  72. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. . 16t/. x 4. . 4 15 x 5 . 4 65. a' 111. ?/ . 26. 2 . 64.18 x?/0. 8x3 8x. 50.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 102. c3 4 58. xyxzyz.  3 x2 .a6 2 4. y 4 z* 0. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 93. 96. * 60. .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 2 x2 108. 2 x2 4. +^ + ft W. 4 2 . x4 f + 23 . .6 b. () 2 x 33.a. 12 a/.rty x2 4 123. x .2 c . 1 x 45. .x4 + y'2 z 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. a J . 72. az 4. 80. 46.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. ft n . 4. 107. 27. ?> . x } 4. 4 .2 x^. . a* 4. 109. 10 4. I 57.x 2 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 10 a 12 b. 2 113. 94.
1. 155. 212. 152. (x + 6)(x6). 20.y)(jc + 7 y). 173. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 24. r>x 2 (4x. 235.1). 5. ?. 50. 193. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (3x2?/)(2. 177. 2. 180. z(x10)(xl). 20. 140. (x^ + x1) 234. 202. 178. 2. 151. 247. (7 c 2 ). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 208. 156.y) (\r3y). (JT y 225. 153.ANSWEKti 135. y  y 165. 1. HI. (.9)(xf 2)./_4). 207. 164. 1. 211.l)(x8 + x2 . a 2 (15. 184. 12 yr. 30 yr. (a 2 + 2a6. 1. 205. Page 266.6 . 206. 158. 75. 163. 147. (xyX^+y" )1 243.6) (2 x + 1). 160. as 194. . 176. 136. 12 yr. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (8x + 3)(3x4). 48 h. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (x + 2)(x . 166. 144. +)(x2 x^+2.I2y). + 3) (x f f>) . 150. 183. x(x + 6) 213. 148. 170. 162. 142. (a} 59. 224. 1. 218. 36ft. 161. 190. 172. (2a + l)(a . 147 mi.  1. 6. 154. 2. 3. 241. 239. (r^x + 1). (y  17)(y + (>). 197. 6).4xl). 10 in. + y. fc'2a+62c). (7x2//) 203. .2. 159.y)(z . 191. G7.. 2^. 12. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 237. 19. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).2). 15. 168. 2. a. 30 + xyr. 174. . (2 198. 195. 232. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 32 h. 1. 157. Page 265. (5 x . 2a(42ft)(2fo). + 7)(rt4). a(a. (x 227. 218. p. (x  42 yr. 10). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). + 11) (a 10). 3(x . (/ 246.y + 3)(r (. (?/+l)(yl).. 146. 18.l)(y + 1).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). + 22). 30. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.3 y)(a . 2(x8)(x3).1(5) 200. 222. 149. 186. 187. ft. 10. 169. 210. 143. 219. 209. a + 2x2 ). (y 7f))(y 196. + 6 y) (x 2 y) .2 )(x+y) 228. 236. 12) (j.. 12 6 panes.6)(4 + 6). (r7y)(ai. 238. 216. 199. yr.r ..3 y). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. m. 217. (y_24)(y5). 22. 138. 171. 220. (ab + 8) ( 7). y. 40 yr. 8(ar}(/)27). 4. 185. (a& 192. xxix 139. 214. 21. (6) 40. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). Or (a + 2)0el).y). 175. C3 y _l)(. 167.2). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). y 245. 2. 10 ft. 137. 2 (4 x .2) (3 x . aft. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 23 18. . .3) (2/3y).1). (x . Iff 145. 10).3). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. + 2) + 9a. y3.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 6. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 1. + 3). Page 267.3. 231. 37 1. 201.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 189. 7.m)(x + a).2ac + 229. 15  a. 2 xy(3 x . 182. (3x  . . 3.1). 233. k. 240. (y7)(y + 188. 244.l)(a 2 +3). 12. 179.r + 4). (y _ ft)(y 4.y2 ). 181. (233). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 15. 8 204. (c) 160 C. 4. . 226. p. 2 2 (a. 1. 230. 215.
306. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 250. 0.   . 295. 260. *>). 7 x 265. &). 263. 301. 261. (7 255. 258. 7^T 2 . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. ^/>J. 307. 310. x 267. 251. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 10. 256. a~ ' b*). a.  7. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 254. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 4 5.  3xyf x// 257.4). ?^ZLiZ 308. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309.4) 1) (3 x . 259.(x  4) (x4 304. 279. x12. ^ 299. ? 1) 302. 5.^ ^^. *. o. + f.2* i^^ !^. 2 4 300. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. Ca&c 1)(M 253.. 303. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 3  262. x ?/ z 1. o(x4l). 0. 3). 3. 268. 43 '^rJ'. x . > 4. 2. 264.1. 298. 2 x  3. 3).^^^^^^^^.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 249. x 283. 266. 269. 305. 7.
9^. c 402. 1. 406. ?>*. 2 ?/ 363. y 4 I 340. l . . 1. a 2 . 6 ?/+:>. ?=. <L 409. 7. 395. 393.!. ^"" 4 s . 2 327. 4. j 328. 392.. f. 3. 366.(5 a . 2. 1 i 2 ^.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381.H ' 2wi ^' /' . T\. + 4 & 4 \ b.". 324. 325. 1. A^L5L. 0. 389. 408. 4 rw.. 2 ab  a Page 276. 6a. . ^_:r f> 331. 334. 0. 4. 2. 398. . 361. 387. 397. .3. 386.7. ?/ + 3 332. 407. S. 382.J . _*L'L+. x 54 359. ^ 3 // . 377. 401. 2(a i 403. 2 ). 0. 379.XXXI Page 272. 364. 326.  1. 2 r36 384. 355. 4 A. + x 362. 385. 380. 2(q. 336. 1. 333. 7/i ^ _ . 13 391. Page 277. 11. a + b + 6). ab. 0. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 394.vin a /r " 337. 360. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 396. L . Page 274. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 370. 404. 383. * 357. 1. m. 12. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341.1. (a + b + c\ . 3. 329. a) A^_. 365. 376. 388. . 399. 343 00 351. l'j.)Cr4)__ . " 4 378. 339. 20. a +6. 405. 390. + 335. 400. 3. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.  1 356. 375. If. T+^. .
7. 487. 445. 472. 435. 466. 7. . ISJini. ^r?i 434. 457. . 7.. 497. ' $260 at 0%. . 5.5. 468. 450. 6. 0. 484. 2. 5. 1 a /?$+&?. 22. 11. 463. 6. 24 days. 3. *+. 2 a 2. 5J.. 6. 507. 8. . 456.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 9. 6. 7. />c c(f be. 478. . (&) true.46. 502. <L+ 6 (. 40. 492. 2. 2. A 5 mi . 10. 12.2. 5.. 2. 501. 53 yr. 446. . a 22 . 496. 3a 4 5. 21.  453. 430.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 2. & 491.1. 486. 462.te + . 8. 454. . L (c) I. 7 : . 10. 481. 419. 418. 1$. Page 280. 32 yr. 1. 90. 18. 42. a* 424. 439. 490. Page 282. I. 0. 429. 2. 480.  7. 1.  1. 20 yr. 10.. 51.  2.}. 412. 477. 6. 460. m. 2. 506.4. . ^V. 2. B $ 2500.3. 1. 495.  10. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 8. 476. c. 32. 5. (a) 1. 2$. 461. 40 oz..  2f 504. 0. Page 278.. 7.rz Page 279. 0. 499.  f>. a + + ft c. 447. L2 a  6 .488. 421. not true. 455. . 422. 459.}. 17. 483. 494.  . : />a.vz in. 10. i. 432. 0. B 4 mi. 423. 2. 63. 10. fj.12. 465. 442. 493. 50. 508. !L=4. 413. 5. . . 2. 420. 4. 452. 4. 482. 3.  2. .4.0. 428. (&) 443. 10$.55. i a b 451. '. 411. 3.  7. . 503. 440. 464. 17.7. 2 438. c 6fc 10. b 449. 4. 410.  505. 426. 10. .  1.7. 20. (d) true. 425. + () 433. (a  c).  2.0. 479. Page283.489.7. 500.m  m+ M in. 3 . m 1 : wi. \. 436. . 6. 427.7. 0. 498. . A $ 3500.3. 6. 467. Page 281. 4. \ 1. 7. . 0. 1. $2000 at 0%. ft 5. * . . . 444. ^. 10. (c) not true. 441. 5. z8 +?/ 3 431. 28 yr. 84. fc. 1. (d  6) f. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 485. 33.2. 8. ISjmi. 14 miles. 448. 458.
5. . 4.1..3. 3. 3. 0. 558.  2. 563. 2. 593. J7] min. 4* da.03. 4. 569. 565. 3.. 3. 603. 4.  + + c.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.04.4. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 2 1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 566. 1 . o> . 1 600. 576. 5. 515. 1..15. . ft 584.   (h) 8.5. 1.7. (e) 570.0.ANSWERS Page 284. a+ Page 286.54.3.2. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 516.5. .37. 568.52.33. 578.02. 512. Roots imaginary. . . f. 3.1.53. . 564. 1.3. 581.31. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 1.  557. . .3. 2 imag.51. 1. + 6 tf f 3 .78. S82 c.4 x + . 2 . <z ft 1.9.3.24.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .1. 6. . x8 .8 x3^.0. 21*_.  7. 583. . y 4. 2(4 602. 31. 8. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. f. 3f 4f. 552. 2 10. y% Z * 586.83. 532. . or 8.55. 1 580. . a + ft  a  f c. 24 da.  4. 1. 3.6. 7. 577. 555. g(rc+ 6c). 2. 533.02. .1.6.78. Page 285. 4.  J(a f + 2c). 6435.83. .8. 3. 529. (/)  10 to 8.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.10.% rr\* 585. . da.  imag. 1. 3. 2.3. (ft) 4.38.7.5.37. . 1.4. 4. . 115 Ib. 232.5 f. (6) . (c) 3. per hour. 530. (c) 4. (d) 537.62. 3. (i) 3. 551. xxxin 511. 574. 2 1. 553. 514. 4.5. 526.  1. 1.54.15. 1. . 571. 3. H. T . 2.35..4.75. . 554. (a) 74 Ib. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . . 40 Ib. _^ 2754x .62. tin. 1.25. Page 287.24 sec. 591. . lead. 562.0.6. 4. 1. 2$. + 12 x .4.15. 531. 567. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . ^ ft 4. 1. 561.24. . 560.03.8. If 572. imag. 1. _ 3. 536.  2ft da. 1 .20._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 582.31. . 1.02.  . 579.  (a) 2. (gr) 10 1.3.10. 14. 599. 1. 5. 3.8. . 0000.0. . 3 da. 4.30.56 sec. 2.8. 1. f36a28x8 592. per hr. 2.12.f 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.6. 513. 1$.  (a) (d) 1. 573.  3. 4 mi. 528. 575.02. . 4 0. 2 . 3.. _ 4. a*8a + 24tf 82a.5+.00.05. Page 288. (e) (c) 2. 1. lead. 6. 2. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 510.  ft*. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 2. + 26 + . 5.4.r8 596. 556. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 527. 3 .4. 559.xj/ f xV . 8 mi. f ? a f ft __ + c C).14.21.5.3. 550. 518.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4. 27 y* f\4 . tin.16. > ^ . 2. 1J. 3. 2(6 597.7.04. a f ft + c.1. M ft c 2 ft 3465.6 2. 509. 525. 2 2.75. (ft) Ill Ib. 598. 3.25m. (6) 3. 7^ da. 24. .73.1.88.
+ 2 A (i f Page 291. . 679.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. . n^l +^. 640.  1. 10. 614. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 3 x2 . 648. K 5 2 V2. 4 676. 677 680. a 1J.3. 2. 690. 654. 2. ^. 672. 0. fe + a. 645. 2f. 691. 612.  4. 1. 5 3. 8 f 3. 4. i. 632. 1. be ac \. 621. 608. 1$ 639.001. 703. 14.3.b 686. 626. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . If. 4.203. y  619. 9. 8. 696.  ft. 6.>A 610.  13. 3. b 664. 1m*. ix 2 .  2f r 659.  4. 653. If . . / V^+lO^M"^. 12. 2&).b. (a3&45rj. If b. J^^. 643.3. 3 a.  684.3f l 668. 661. 703. 4$. V2. V"^TJ. a 673. .0. I}'/. if 4/> 671. 615. 1 V5 1. z  1.303. 660. 644. 669. 2 x 44 ^/. 635. 700. 706. If 665.002. 2. 2 a 688. ' fe 2 ). ab. 625. 655. 634. a 2. 638.14 If 1. l/'3.c ) 697. 2. 630. 11. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. ft). 210. 618. 701. ^. 2. 1 704. 1010. 698. Page 289. 78. 627. \. 651. 8 6 fo ..3. 662. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 50. 11. fta a/> ^A. 2. a 4. 4330 da. 657. 650. 5002. 5. 705. 5. 898. 971.702. 2 ab + a  &.43^4. 5.. 7. + ~^'2 + a 1.y. 670. 2 a  6*. (*_ + a: 611. 702. 5.001. 25. . 13. 666. /> 4. 617. . 642. 623.2f Page 290.  . 0. 622. 4 V 0.2f (5 4. 2092.049. 641. ab 689. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. ^^ 695. 0.  a2  a (ab). 2.04. 3. V2. 678< 682. 2 a: 4. 4. la6 2. . 0. . 1 2. 631. 25. 3. 7. 649. 624. 0. 1 ~a . 1. 2f. 6 685. \+ab 699. 9*. 656.  6. 2.XX XIV 606. 637. ' 674. If f 667. V^~3). o. 683. b. 616. V7.a~ {Z 663. 647.25. 708. a ' 2 + . b . 620. ^ 1. . 1. 3 681. . 009. 613.  3. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 0. 636. 633. . If 658. 2 / 2 4. 6.f 3 V^3). . 646. 629. a + b. 628. 692. . <T! . 7003. . a. c. 4. 652. 2. 607.
724. 710. VIO\/3. 769. rt3 2 ^i^. a db Va^T < 45da. 732. "V313.4 . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .r+y> 759.9. 33^2. . 738. 1. a 5 . Page 294. 753. x\y. . 725. T%. 1. J(v'lO2V 791. 29\/3.257. 721. 32>/2. + < 735.12 af V^ 4 744. 749. 729. 790 2v 3v 2. 776. 751. 718. 1 752. 758.1 . 789. a 2 6^. 2x3^ a. 792. 722. 733. mn. ^ . a". 7  3V5. 719. r. 709. 713.^ 743. 24. i 2. 763. 726. 1 [ + '> J. fyaw&cu.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 716. x i f^' . 777. 8. y  1. 1^ _ 760. 736. v'll. 1 I .rJ w L 754. 715. + 6 2 tf'c. i^. . 25. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 5. 3. 1.V2. 24 4 . 728.. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 47. 755. 739. 4 104 v/2.. 796. 24V2. 737. 750. 788. Hi a.~ . ^7xy.4 . 740.^. 782 785. 3V72V3. 59. 730. ^ ?>.2. 734. 13ft.8. 3V72VO. 15 shares. 731. . 3 720. > 748. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. a 2  x2 . VT14V5.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.. 727. 3V7. 34. v/7 / . j 742. 717. 746.ANSWMHti Page 292. 3 VlT 795.r. . 756. a:* . 17ft.11. 723. 2\/53V2. 3V52V3. 342V3. / 787. 793. 8.9. 300.10. 794. 767. 30\/10 764. 768. 773. Page 293. 5.V/^ 741. cr*lr*. 714. 711. iv/Jj. 00.. VV> L4V34. 2 V2 . 1 747. 3^. 778. 712. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 39.
851.5 b) 4 1). 5. (x 2 .a 3 " 4. are extraneous.5) (x + * 853.  839.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 817. 3.. ( 869./>") (a'. a(ry + 864. 799. .4. 5). n =  29. (3 862. 800. 890. 3. 844. (x3). 898. 8 09.r . 896. f. x . 2 . 883. 849. 1 .l)(x + 2). 827.a 2 2 ). ^VG. 820. 7. a* 4. x.2) (x 4 2). 6. m 875. 829. 832. 2 m . 831. Va. 6 $.+ m f ") (a* ). . 4. a2 ^E*!.l)(x . 17. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 4. . 2 2 . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).3. Page 296. ((' 1). 3 .10 ab 4. 2 806. 3. .0.1).  tt 815. H. 900. Page 297. 2 . a 42)(x . . 838.4. o. 863. 880. 837. 1 1. 2 *x 807. . 1.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).7. 48. \/5. 859. 1. 810. 2  2.. 5.1)(V 2 . 0. 19. 4. 1. 4. 5. 868. **. 2 . 825.l)(x . 4 818. 14. 804. 4. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). ^. ( 4 4. 2 (x 4*4. 6. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 10.r4). 3. 892.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 8. 6+V7. 801. (4 c 4.3)(x + 4). Hoots .2w . 4 885. $.4) 860. 4. 824. 861.om 441) (a 855. 881.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 2 j 889. b' 2 821. 20). Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. (a m . 5. a(ft)( 873. (2 a . ^ V}. Va 803. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 6. 0. 23. (xl)(^~3)(. 4. \/2. 7.y) 852. X4 1).  ' . m = 2. 819.7 4 1) 846. 3. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 826. 886. (1 . 2 854. 3. db 7. 822. 3. 2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 13. (2x (r. 813. . 7. (x 2 f r .1)(0 865.7). 840. 3.1) (a 8 . ANSWERS 798. 857. 2. 2/ 856.XXXVI 797. 879. 17. 887. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 2. 895. 0. (. . (3 b .  1. 897. +j!>. 4. o 828. J V. 876. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . (x . (x 4. 830. . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (x + 0X024.. 1. 5. 4.7). ) (a' 874. 812. 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 893. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). (a 4 871. 2. (x 845. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 894. 2. 848. jV3 f 3. (a 1) (x 4. 1. 0. 884. 841. . (x . V 3.  + l(l^).1) . (:r 11. 4 . 888. 847. 816. 808. 4.1. 2. 8. 842. 823. 2. 836. 891. 833. 872.rae) (4 . (2 x + 3 y} . 814. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 2. 811.25 ?>2). . 2. 3.2 ax 4. . 899. + d)*. 2.a 4 + 1). 11. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 858. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 834.7)(4 x. (x*y*ryz + z*). (2 4. 843. 835. 7. 11. 867. 1C. 882. .f. 3. $. Hoots are extraneous.3. 25.
0. 2. 932. 927. 12 in. 936. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 921.. 2. 2. 948. 931. w 3. 56. a. i 3. 941.. 958. 12. 10. 987.01. 925. ^y. 6. J. =F J. 4.709. 5 . . 6. 7.  26j. i 8. 333. ft.. . . 959.. 1 _2 . 1 + V953. . . 2. 4.. 979. 5l4f. ft. 4 6 mi. 4. 4. 6 a 915. dL 4. 14 . 2. 983. 3 . S07..651. 80. 5. J. 944. 920. 985./hr...0. 4.I.V~~3). 2. T 6. V5 T 2 . 7. 902. 0.2.744. 940. 947. 11. . .073. V5 fj. . f ft 4 . 980. 984. 6. 943. 4 . 981. $(l 4. 978. 11. 918. 8. 0. 5. 8.. 66 924. 904. ft. 0. 2 yd. 11. 111. 4. Y. tt2 19. Z ^. 5. 933.446. 906.  1 . 945. 115. 480 8 sq. 40 16 in. 248. 4.760 sq.. 916. . 923. 3. 7 or 30.  1.615. 3. 982. ft.. ft. 4. 3 4 . 908. 7. ft. 3. 977. 7. 5. 4. 912.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 8 .2. 2.111. 951. 10. 1. a + . . . 911. 60 949. T3. 4. 8128. 6. 930. 8.1. 6. 2. . 6 . 3. J(_ ft. Va926. 18. 950. 1 2. 28. 1. 12. 333. 939. 280. 2 w 914. i1" 913. . 7 ft. 496.. ?/i 6. 3. . 329. 963. 12 mi. 2 ft. 28. i(6 in. v/(ai !)(&910. 952. 986. Page 301. 8. 1 . 960. 3. i>. 15 946. 20 19 ft. 903. Page 300. . 9 in. w.. 1 1. 6 da. 917. %* . 1. 8. . 6. 8. T 6.. . 2. . 942. 909. 2. Page 302. 934. 6. 922.1 = 9. r ft ' < Page 299. f. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 935. 108. 4 in. 954. . 1). 28. 3).ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 12. 11.. 8. ft. 6 1 1. 964. 5. yd. 905. 961. Page 303. V^3). 15 16 ft. 937. 962. 919. 8. . 957. 938. 100 rows. 2 i ' a V. 956. 2 1. '3 3 in. 73. 3. 955. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. ft.1.
2 . 32 13 (tx 4V3.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1017. 8. () 12(2+V3). (a) (6) ^ 1002.51. 1008. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 0. 997. 1000. 0. 996. + 448 . 1007. ^f (2f3V2). Page 304. . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 2(2 v/2). (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 991.378 1015. 24. 4.378 <W and 92. 992. ~ \. + v 2). . 1003. 1 8 8 2. 1019. 1010. 1018. 6 70 . 988. 120 i^l^.18. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 3003. ^Trsq. 1005.  5&7 1021. 995. in. 120 a. r = 2. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1 1004. Page 305. 72. 1012.128 I. 990. 1(5. 1016.. 1013. 162. 192. 108. X.870 z8 . 1001. 1009. 993. 9 da. 1014. 1006.870 a 6 1011. (J. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 12. 12.92. (5. 994. 48. (6) 8(1 .192rt?)r 120 *.. (Z>) 999.'^^ } ( . .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 4 and 1020.
To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. physics. i2mo. great many work. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Half leather. and commercial life. xiv+563 pages. given. A examples are taken from geometry.D. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. The more important subjects tions. etc. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xi 4 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. comparatively few methods are heretofore. so that the Logarithms. than by the . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1. HEW TOSS . The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. save Inequalities.25 lamo. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.
proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.D. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The author grade. physics. $1. Ph. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. comparatively few methods are given. so that the tions. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.25 i2mo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xi f 373 pages. $1. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. 12010. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. great many A examples are taken from geometry. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and commercial life. Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. etc. xiv+56a pages. HEW YOKE .10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. In Factoring. HatF leather. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work.
80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. $1. under the heading Remarks". at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. SEVENOAK. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Cloth. Cloth. $1. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. lines. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 7 he . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 10. more than 1200 in number in 2. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.r and. izmo. aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook.10 L.. i2mo. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. SCHULTZE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. State: . iamo. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . xii + 233 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. 9. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. wor. 6. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. 4. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. NEW YORK . These are introduced from the beginning 3. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Ph. Half leather.D. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.
. $1. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . 12mo. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. of these theoretical views." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. 370 pages.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . . and not from the information that it imparts. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. New York City. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .
The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Cloth. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. $1. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. photographs. diagrams. diagrams. " This volume etc. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Topics.