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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D.
1917.COPYRIGHT. August. 1910. 1915. . September.A.. May. Norwood. U. July. Reprinted 1913. January. 1910 . 1910. September.S. Published Set up and electrotyped. 8.' February. IQJS January. . 1911. . Mass. J. Berwick & Smith Co. Cushlng Co. May. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916.
but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. manufactured for this purpose. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.. however. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. etc." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. and conse . in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. owing has certain distinctive features. chief : among These which are the following 1. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. specially 2.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Elementary Algebra. are omitted.
two negative numbers. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. may be used to supplement the other. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". Moreover. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. however. e. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. are placed early in the course. For the more ambitious student. as quadratic equations and graphs. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. etc.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . hence either book 4. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.g. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Topics of practical importance. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. especially problems and factoring. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.
" Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. By studying proportions during the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. such examples. viz. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules." Applications taken from geometry. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. in " geometry . but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. is based principally upon the alge . physics.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. and commercial are numerous. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. however.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. 1910. April. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics. . desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK.
Powers..... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...... .... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .... ...... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. SUBTRACTION.
. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type Polynomials..114 .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type VI.. .. Type V.. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type II. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . . Type IV..... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. * . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type III. .. /^ .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .
.. ... Evolution of Monomials 170 ....... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XIV 169 .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ....... . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
27. [6c] 3 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. or 9 Vx." EXERCISE If a 1. Val \fi?. 17. v'Ta. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. as in arithmetic.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. \/c. + 1]. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + c). V^a6. some number is . 8. 15. !^f\/03 3 ft. c = 1. 2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 4V3~6c. are trinomials. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 10. A binomial is 62 . e. 2 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. x 9.g. aVc^. 26. 13. 7 = 2. 14. 6. 11. 9. V3 . V36". a polynomial of two terms. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 5Vl6c. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. is 28. (cfd) 4. b = 3. A polynomial is an y. 0. 12. c f d). d 7. 4(a 6(6 + &). to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 3. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 6. V2a. find the numerical value of: Vff. 16. since the parts are a .
6. 6. d = 0. 2. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 52 . __ E. 5. c = 2. Ex.e. 10. 12. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. (a (a f b) 7.5 ax 50 a6cd.g.9 aWc + f a b . a 2 6. . . * For additional examples see page 268. 3.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . multiplication. 4 . x=^. 14. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 4. b = 3.4 6^9 ad. 5c +d 2 . 4a6fVaV2^. l 13. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . . 3 4 . 16.390. i. Ex. 5.2 + I126.INTRODUCTION 29. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .99. find the numerical value of: 9. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 8. 1. a2 11.30 = 270 . subtraction.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. . + 26+3 c. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 2 ).9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a=4. 5=3. = 32 + 4527 = 50.. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.19 = 6. c=l. 3a + 56 a 2 . EXERCISE 8*  .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 3 2 If 1. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. Otherwise operations of addition. d=Q.9. 2.810 + 150 = .
35. a a=3. 6=2. a = 2. 27. 6 = 2.c) (a . then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. : 6. 29. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 5. 26. a = 4.6 . 24. a = 4. 28. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 37. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 5. 6 = 1. = 3. and other sciences. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 30. . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6. Read the expressions of Exs. a = 3. 6. sible to state Ex. 25. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. physics. a. 34. 6 = 6. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. Six 2 . and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 23. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 22.6 f c) (6 a + c). a = 3. 6 = 4. 30. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 38. 33. a =3. 6 = 7. 26 of the exercise.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. geometry. if : a = 2. a =4.
= (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.seconds. and 13 inches. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. d. if v = 30 miles per hour. Find the height of the tree. and 15 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. 14. b 14. 84 square EXERCISE 1. . An electric car in 40 seconds. 2. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.) Assuming g . count the resistance of the atmosphere.16 centimeters per second. b. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. c. 12. and c 13 and 15 = = = . if v . (c) 4. and 5 feet.16 1 = 84.e. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 4.g. 13. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. A train in 4 hours. (b) 5. then a 13. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. i. 15 therefore feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.INTRODUCTION E. if v : a.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 2 inches. square units (square inches. 5. (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 F. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). .14 4.14 square meters. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 32 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. This number cannot be expressed exactly.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. is H 2 units of length (inches. $ = 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. the 3. the area etc. (c) 5 miles.). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. If the (b) 1 inch. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14d (square units). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. ~ 7n cubic feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. : 8000 miles. (c) 8000 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (The number 3. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. however. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. SUBTRACTION.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or positive and negative numbers. In algebra. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. . in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.
16 32. 5. is 2. lf(2). EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5. 22. 2326. 5. . c = 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (17) 15 + (14). 10. 21. 4 is 3 J.  0. of 2. 33. of: 20. subtract their absolute values and . find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. + (9). d = 0.3. 19. if : a a = 2. 4. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. the one third their sum. 12. 24. is 0. 18. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 5. '. 6 6 = 3. 23. c = = 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. + 12. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. (_ In Exs. Thus.
and 3 a. 35. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 11 (Centigrade). 41. 7 a. 7 a. 6. 31. c=14. 32. 40. and 8 F. . ' Find the average of the following 34. .. 6. 10. affected by the same exponents. 1. and $4500 gain. . 5 and 12. $3000 gain.7. . 4 F. 2. and 3 yards. 66. 29. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. ' 1? a 26.7. 34..3. .13. 0. 09. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. $1000 loss. & = 15.5. = 22. 7 yards. & 28. . 38. ^ ' 37. c = 0. 12. 36. 30. 10. 13. . sets of numbers: 13. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12.ADDITION. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $7000 gain. d= 3. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 74.5. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 42. and 3 a. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 60. 10. 32. 27. 33. : 34. . = 23. = 13. $500 loss. 6.4. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 37. SUBTRACTION. 2. : and 1. 25. are similar terms. 3. and 4. 3 and 25. : 48. 43. 72. 55. \\ Add 2 a. and 3 F. or and .. which are not similar. 39. 4. }/ Add 2 a.
: 2 a2. 7 rap2.13 rap 25 rap 2.sign. EXERCISE Add: 1. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. in algebra it may be considered b. Vm f. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. Algebraic sum. 11.18 35. 5 a2 . 5Vm + w. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12Vmfn. 14 . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. f 4 a2. . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 a&. 12 2 wp2 . 2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic.ii. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 12(af b) 12. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. + 6 af . 3a . or a 6. 5l 3(af6). b a f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 9(af6). 2(af &). 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 10.
5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. c 2 ^24. 35. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 32. + y. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 1 27. SUBTRACTION. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 17. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 2/ : Add. l^S 25. without finding the value of each term 34. 2 7 1 26. 6 23.ADDITION. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 30. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. +m """ 20. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . a a8 ZL **. and to add each column. 2 2 2 31. 36. is . 21. 33. ra 19. 37. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. + / + 3 Va. n x* 2 22.
e. 5.3 s. 2c. f 110WS: 26 aft.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 2 . x of x. to show any error. NOTE.o c and 4.41 = 3. = . a 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .15 6c. V3.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.12 a& 4. 4 = 7. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. ft any convenient and c. and 2 . the erroneous answer equal 7. c = 1. 7 4.15 abc . therefore the answer is correct.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. of that letter. . 5 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.g.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . . and J 2 s. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. s.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2 025. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. to add 26 ab . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 Thus. 9 q 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 3.20 c 5 ab 4. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.g.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.8 abc . 2 Sum. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 46 4z 7 c. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 6=2.c= 2. 3a 2? . 4 2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.7 2 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
2 a.1 a 4 1 0.1.(b + c) 1. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. in 8 3 m n 4.9(a + &) .VS 4 2 Vc. 2 2 . and .10 Vc. 2 2 and .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . d and / 3 ? 12. . a + 1> 8 2 2 . xy3xz + yz. m 4 6. 2 ?/.12 6 ~5 a . 18/+6y + d.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a2 2 14. a) y ^/.12. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . a. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 16.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.7v/if.6. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .12(a 4. d. 7ar + 3B 5. + a + 1. 11. a 4 a . 19. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 4 ajy 17. 4 3 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. and 5 Vb 18. 4 Vc.Ga 43x45. ^2 1 e.a 4 a 4 1.a. .2n 2 2 3 rz .7m .4 Va .5a^6 f 6) .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 2 ?ft ?/z. 3 2 2 3 9 . and 8 3 . 16e + 17/90.and 6.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. . a 4 a . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.a. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . a2 a.4:xy xz 6yz. 56 w. ?/ .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. and 12a 4 15& 20c . and 1 4 a . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.15 5. and v 15. + 50 + 62 . . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.8 m 2m 12.ADDITION. 4(a . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 4 8 3 4 4 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . . 2 3(c f a). 4. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. SUBTRACTION. 8. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . and and 13. . v/20. . e a4 /.
22.. and 2 24.3^* 2n 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. f 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. and e + 6y . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. 1. f 1. 6 f c 2 23. how 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. + n*.ra + m. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.m 4m ?/?/ d. s .11 xy + 12. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. f number may be added 3. T8a. 12 xyz. 1. . + 1. The sum and ? 1. a 6 2 c. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.22 21. 1. 8 . . 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.4 2tn* Sic 2 . +d a. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 13 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. If you diminish a person's debts. 2 8 n + <w 2 . is 2.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 45a6 2 . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1/ . c 3 3 3 2 3 .5< 3 2 s 4^4.17 + 4 ?nfy . and 25. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .9aj 2.
and their algebraic sum is required. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.2. Or in symbols.ADDITION. two numbers are given. 7. 1. This gives by the same method. if x Ex. +b 3. 3. from What 3. In addition. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. called the minvend. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 2. In subtraction. NOTE. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. ab = x. Ex. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Therefore any example in subtraction different . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 41. To subtract. the other number is required. and the required number the difference. ( 6) ( = . 5 is 2. a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 6 (3) = 8. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.3. SUBTRACTION.g. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. From 5 subtract to . Ex. From 5 subtract + 3.
3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8. Check.f 8 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. If x = l = 2 t .
96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .2. From 2 a take a & j.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 51. 2y 2 . 2. 53. c f d. 48. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 6 4 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. of a 4.6)f. 45. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.c. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. tract 4 x 3. 43. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 6 6 2 2 ?/ .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 41. 49. 57. 55.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 54. + a the 2 a. 42. check the answer. From 6(af. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.a 2 j. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a^ 4. 47. 44. 46.4 a*& + 6 a & . and 3 7/ .7 a . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 52. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 56.w>t. From From x2 the sum sum 7. . 50.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 58.
15.26 4. a + 6. a 2y + z. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 20. subtract # + 1. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +a add the difference duce 13. 6 17. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. + 2. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. A is n years old. 19. 9. of # 2 8. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. + 6 + c. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 2 m 21. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a a + c. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18.
may be written as follows: a f ( 4.a^6)]  } . 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. changed. one occurring within the other. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. the sign is understood. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.ADDITION.b c = a a & f f. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.c.g. SUBTRACTION. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.c. . 45.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. & f c.2 b .& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.6 b f (. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 46. a+(bc) = a +b . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. I. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Ex. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. II.
(m a2 f. a f (a a . a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 14. 17.+ 6)f (a2 b). 21.) 5 .: Ex.y (60. 2 2a. ? 11. + (2a 6 + c ). 6) 2. 18. 3 3 f 7. m f ft) a. 9.[271 47. In the following expression inclose the second and third. . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 5. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a (a + 26 c ). a (a + 6). 2 2 2 a(. may be inserted according to 43.)]. 4. 16. : x + (2yz). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.1422) J ] .(a + 6). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 271 + (814 . 13. 2a (4a 26 +c ).7i h jp) (m ?*. 2. By removing parentheses. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 3.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 19. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. Ex. find the numerical value of { 1422 . Signs of aggregation 1. 8. 6. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). [36+ (a 2c]. 15.
9. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. )X 6. ' NOTE.ADDITION. The sum^)f m and n. p + q + rs. and the subtrahend the second. 2mn + 2q3t. y f 8 . SUBTRACTION. 5. 2.1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. of the cubes of m and n. . 7. The product The product m and n.2 tf . 5^2 _ r . II. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. a\l> > c + d. 13. 3. 7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 6 diminished . terms 5. m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6.4 y* . 10. m x 2 4. 4. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 12. first.7fa. 6. The square of the difference of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. difference of the cubes of n and m. 8. z + d. The difference of a and 6. 5 a2 2. 3. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
30 14. 6 is equal to the square of b. 18. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.) . 16. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.
By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. If the two loads what What. 4. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. force is produced therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. A A A 1. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. two loads balance. 3. weights. what force is produced by the Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 2. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. becomes meaningless if definition. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. such as given in the preceding exercise.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.4)(4) = + 12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. ( (. however. 5x(4). .4)(. (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 9 x ( 11). (5)X4. 4x(3)=12. 48. NOTE. 9 9. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. x 11. To take a number 7 times.32 8. thus. Practical examples^ it however. 4 multi44444 12. the multiplier is a negative number. 4 multiplied by 3. Thus. or plied by 3.9) x 11.
8. (7) X (12). 11. 26.(a&c) 2 2 . 9. (4)X(15). 10. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.3) (1) 7 2 . . 2a 2 6c. . of Signs: TJie positive. tors is no misunderstanding possible.3. Ua b 28. (10) 4 . 15. 2a6 c . 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . b = 3.(4J). 6 2. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 4 a2 . 17.2. 30. 4 . 1. 3. 19. 16. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (2) 8 (. 32. 1. 22.2 f+x 2 . and y = 4. 8 31. is 6x7.a)( =+ a&. 7. c = 25. etc. 14. 8 4 . 3 aW. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 12. (. _2^ 3. . X(5). If a cal = 4a6c. about fac (2)X If 6. the parenthesis frequently omitted. . 2. 24. 5x3. (4)'. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.2f 18. 4.MULTIPLICATION 50. 27. 3 a2?/2 . 5. x= 0. 23. 29. . 20. _3. (2)x9. find the numeri values of: 21. NOTE. +5. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 3. Law Thus. 6. x. _2. (c#) . 6. z s 11 aWcx. 13.7.4.
5.503). 36. Ex. 5 . a8 a=2.. 10. 3 2 . of the factors.  and 2 25 8 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 5 = 2. 3. . Ex.(12) . 4. 50(112.e. a 2 2 . 2 2 3 6 . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . This 52. fl*" integers.2).. 5 3 5 3 2 . B. 14. . + 2/). =2 a *. = 2.(2. 13. 100. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. . &*) c d*. 2 2 2 .35).12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a = 2. 6 = 1.<?.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .7. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .3). only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 2(14. 3. 12 U U . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a= 1. 34. . : 3a7abc. 16. 2. 2(7. 4. 2. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 6 aWc x . 9 . a = 3.257). 78 .6 if 35. 6" 127 U . 2 3 . IB. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. By 3 definition. 1.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.2 2 23 + 5 . or 2 . 3 3 4 . 200. m*. 6. 5(711. 17.  2 2. 53. 11. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.(7).m a 3  4 . 7. . & = 3. (a6) (a5) 9. i. 6 = . 127  127 9 7 . 4.
24. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 31. (. This principle. 21.f 2). ) 2 33.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 5. 20. 17(10041042). 6. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. called the distributive law. 25. Thus we have in general a(b 56.7 w'W (8 n^W).7pqt.4a#. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 35 4 7(6. 7. . 3(124342). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 29. 27. and then adding : 1. (.2 3 aft ). . . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.A).3 win ) . /). If results ft. 34. .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 23(10004100420). by first multiplying. 23. _4aft. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2(645410). . 3. 19. 28. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 35. 2(5fl5f25). 2 32. 6(10420430).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . c(4a ftc ).6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 2. 11(3. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). but we shall assume it for any number. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). . 4. 7p*q r*. 22. multiply each by the monomial. 26. 12( + 1 4 i).
9. 22. 7 a 6 c(. 2 m(mhn \p). f7a.2 mn(9 mV . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. be multiplied to give 4o. 3 ). 12. 26. 17.5 w*V f 7 wn). . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 11. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. ~2mn(m +n p ). .we b) (x law. . Find the factors of 6 ary .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.6 a6). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 21. 20. 19. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.^ c + 2 . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 29. 2 2 16. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.5 x 7). 5). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 30. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 23. 2 27.asa product. : expression must 24.3 aftc). By what 25. 28.60 a& 10 aft.
2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.4.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since all powers of 1 are 1. however. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 . 2. a2 + a8 + 3 . 59. the student should apply this test to every example. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . To multiply two polynomials.1. 2a3b a66 2 a . Multiply 2 a . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 b by a 5 b. Check. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Multiply 2 + a a.a . . Since errors.
4) (mnp 4. I (mfn)(m4. 15. 25. 22. 13. 2 . 2 . 16. 10. (2w 19. 7y). * For additional examples see page 261. OQ OO. 28.2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 41. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 20. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (13 A. (2 x* x 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2  37. 18. 35. 40. 29. l)(raf 2). (4a 2 33. 1). (6a~7) 2 . 12. 4.1 . ^ 2 . 5. (a^26) . 12)(a?^2l). 24. 3<7). 30. 8. 32. 7. 36. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (ajf6y)(aj 23. . 36). 9. 2) (3 A: 1). 2. 17. 26. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 36) I) 14. 11. 4 2). 3. 6. a 5c)(2a6c). (6p (2 f 21. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).4) (x + 1). QQ O7.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). . (8r7*)(6r39.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 31. (6i7n)(llJn).2m)(l m). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).
2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. : 23 2.4). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .2 6) (a f 6). 19. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (p12)(p + ll). + 3) (a 7). 24. 3.13). 2) (1000 + 3). 1) (10 + 2). + 9)(m+9). 21.25)(y+4). 12. _3)(a _4). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 11. (a3)(a + 2). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (a 9) (a + 9). 14. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 17.e. + 2) (a f 3).n)(wf w). (6 12) (6 f. 75 ab f 54 ft . 25 a 2 . 10. 2 a? 29. 9. . (*. 25. 6. 20. (a 102 x 103. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 27. 7.e. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). ft 16. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 18. . . (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. in of the two unequal terms. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (J 23. i. (10+ (1000 (2. + 60)(f2). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 28. plus the product 62. 2 6) (a 3 6). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 22. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 1005x1004. X 102. 13.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (a (a (a. (!)(* 5). + 5) (1000 + 4). (ra. 15. i.!!)( (a + 21). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 26. 8.
9. i. 35.30. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. + 3) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 8. (a2) (p a . 37. 4. <J>7) J . III. second. 77ie square of the of the first. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 7. plus the square of the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . : 24 (a 2.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e. 34. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. of the second. w 2 ro . . + 6 a + 8. 49 y*. . 7 a + 10. 33. 3. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 63.e. III. 32. (a26) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.66 s. . and the second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 6. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 31.15. n2 10ii+16. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 5. (x+3i/) 2 . p 2 p. a2 2 w + 2 w .e. Ex.15. 2 (a (*5) 2 . plus twice the product of the first and the second. i. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.
. n*6n+9. 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 52. I) 2 . 42. 9 a2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 62 25n 2 . 991 2 2 . (^. ). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). G> +5g)*. 22. 35. 40. 22 2 . 21. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. By actual multiplication. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 33. 99x101. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 51. + 3z) 2 2 . 41. ( 27. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 48. 12. n 2 f4n+4. 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. + 5). + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 49. (1000 2 . 2 J ). a 2 8a6+166 2 . . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 .998 39. 7& ) 25.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 . . 11. 14. 31. 2 9a 496 2 56. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 44. 2 2 . 16aW25. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 17. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 46. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 54. 15. 2 (4a36) 2 13. . (20 f 1) . 4 53. 104 2 37. (2x3yy.MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 998x1002. 25 a 9. 24. 23. 103 36. 41 16. 32. 45. 29. a2 9. m 2 16.30 ab + 25 6 64. 47. 55. 38. (100 + 2) (100 2). + 5)(5+a). 18. 34. 28. The product of 57.
) (2 of a polynomial. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 7. (3m + 2)(ml). or The student should note minus signs. 2 10. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). .42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ((5a? (10 12. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. The square 2 (a 4. 65. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. plus the last terms. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (2a3)(a + 2). 14. 8. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (4s + y)(32y).& + c) = a + tf + c . 11. 13. 9. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 3. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 4. (5a64)(5a&3). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. : 25 2. sum of the cross products. 6. (5a4)(4al). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 5.
39.3)(z. (a (. 6~2(a + 7). 4(aj2)h3(7).X2 + 2 x . 5.(x . = 10 x . 12. Ex. 3. 6.39. (u4& + 3c'.i2&c) 2 . Find the square root 11. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (xy+z)*. 7.r _ 2 .(= [ Xa + 2 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.[a? .(m 2 6.24] . = .29.5) = (7 . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . of z : 10. 8. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 2 2. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). after multiplying the factors of a term. 8. Check. 13.3) .1 5 = 10 . 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.3) (x . 4. If x = 1. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).24 . 5. (  2 4) =  20 a. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Hence. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 6(a 2.4) . 9. 7. 4(* + 2)5(3). . and check the answers !. + 6)( . 3. 66. 2)6. a.4) .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4y sf n) 2 .8 x + 15] . n).(>. + 65) .y? + 8 . Simplify (x + 6) (a .5).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 16.2) (3 a .e. 20. . . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 18. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .l. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). a I. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . 19. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). v/17. (81 m + 1 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.DIVISION 14.11 a + 9 a .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 51 15. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).
9& 2 . 12. 16. 121a a 16 100 11. 100ry. f 13. 14. aW 12 a. 1. r/ 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .000. 15.49. .0001. 10. . : the following w a 4 !.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16 . 4 b.
the 80. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. the first member is 2 x + 4. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. is said to satisfy an equation. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. in the equation 2 x 0. . .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 81. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . x 20. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . =11. 83. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 82. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (a + ft) (a b) and b. hence it is an equation of condition.
fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. A 2 a. called axioms 1. 2 = 6#f7.g. 89. NOTE. If equals be divided by equals. x I. the divisor equals zero. If equals be added to equals. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A numerical equation is one in which all .2.b. 86. E. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. . 4.54 84. To solve an equation to find its roots. Transposition of terms. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 85. the products are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. the remainders are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. 3. a. 2. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the quotients are equal. . 5. the sums are equal. 87. 90. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A term may be transposed from its sign. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. one member to another by changing x + a=. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be multiplied by equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .e.
6 y f y\ .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI .2 y= f .2. Check. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. The first member. Dividing by Check. To solve a simple equation. Subtracting 4 x from each term.9 y + y2 = 22 . 2(11 . x = 3. f If y 20 . Transposing. b Adding a to both + a. b c. 3 y . Hence the answer. Uniting similar terms.8. Uniting. 4x 1 + 6. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Unite similar terms.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. and the known terms to the second. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 2 x = 6. Dividing both members by 2. Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. The second member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (4y)(6. if a x = b. a= a 6fc. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. if 55 x members. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 6a5 = 185 = 13. x = (Axiom 3) 92. x = 93. a? Adding 5 to each term. is correct. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 91. The first member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.
. \x x 2^xfl. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Uniting. and check the answers 9. 19. = 3. aj * See page 264. + 7(3 + 1) =63. = 5a?+18. 247y = 68lly. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. = 2 ?/. 13a? 3a?. 9 9a? = 7 13. etc. Dividing by Cfcecfc. = 7. 24.17 + 4y = 36.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.7a: = 394a.7. 11. 16. a. x = 18. 12. Solve the following equations by transposing. 14. 15. 22. f Simplifying. 3. 50. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 7 a. .. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. + 22. 4y 10. 14y = 59(24y + 21). v23. 7. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 3. 32 = 264.56 Ex. 7a? 5. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 4. 7 (6 x 16). J. Transposing. : 5# = 15+2a.69. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 21. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 4a + 5 = 29. + 16 = 16 + 17. 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 17 + 5a. If x = 18.. {(x (x The The member right member left . 2. a?. a? a?. =2 = 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. x x 1 . 11 ?/ a? 18. a. 6. 20. it NOTE. 3 7 a.
.1) (u . 5) (as (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.14 = 0.5) + 199. 2 2 * Jaj. 40. 30. a? 43. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. + 4). .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . Evidently 45.5) = (a. this question. 6(6a. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . + 7) (. (a.(2 + 6) (4 . 39. e.1 0) = 0. .g. a? 28. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. .5(2 u .7. . 36.3) .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. find the other part. 29. 7) (a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 27. or 70 a?. 33.4) + 4 w . . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 25. .2) (M . (6 u =5 44.32.3) + 14.7) (7 x + 4) . 7(7 x y 26. 31.3) + . . (aj 37.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). : One part is of 70 is 25 . 42. is the other part. 41.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.12) (2 + 5) . 38. 34.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 35.
11. If 7 2. 13. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that of c ? is p. 5. 15. Find the greater one. one part equals is 10. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 3. Divide a into two parts. and the smaller one parts. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . greater one is g. EXERCISE 1. one yard will cost 100 dollars. is d. 7. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 17. find the cost of one yard. 1. 6. is a? 2 is c?. 6.58 Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Ex. smaller one 16. 4. is b. 9. 14. or 12 7. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 33 2. so that one part The difference between is s. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 10. Divide 100 into two 12. a. so that one part Divide a into two parts.
59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. How many cents has he ? 27. A dollars. 34. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. sum If A's age is x years. and B's age is y years. A feet wide. 33. 24. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. amount each will then have. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. How many cents had he left ? 28. If B gave A 6 25. and spent 5 cents. ?/ 31. Find 21. find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find 35. How many years A older than is B? old. 26. and B has n dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. b dimes. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 32. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 20. numbers is x. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 22. is A A is # years old. A man had a dollars. 28. and c cents. and B is y years old. find the has ra dollars. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. 19.
% % % of 100 of x.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. Find a. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. find the fraction. Find a 47. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 48. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. of 4. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find the number. 49.50. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. of m. ." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). he walk each hour ? 39. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. The first pipe x minutes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. m is the denominator. a. . per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. c a b =  9. A was 20 years old. Find x % % of 1000. The two digits of a number are x and y. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. 46.
by one third of b equals 100. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. double of a is 10. c. etc. same result as 7 subtracted from .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 6. 5. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 4. The double as 7. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. The excess of a over b is c. 3. 80. of a increased much 8. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c. a exceeds b by c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. of x increased by 10 equals x. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 2.
6 % of m. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. B's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 12. as 17 is is above a. . #is5%of450. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. sum equals $20. >. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 17. 18. amounts. In 10 years the sum of A's.. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. is If A's age is 2 x. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 50 is x % of 15. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.62 10. of 30 dollars. they have equal amounts. x is 100 x% is of 700.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 11. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 16. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (c) If each man gains $500. symbols B. 14. express in algebraic 3x : 10. a second sum. and C's age 4 a. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. a. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. m is x % of n. B's age 20. x 4 If A. pays to C $100. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.000. 3 1200 dollars. B. and C's ages will be 100. they have equal of A's.
Ex. 1. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 6 years ago he was 10 . 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. . the . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. number of yards. Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 2. Transposing. 23 =30. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 4 x = 80. etc. Dividing. Uniting. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Ex. 15. x= 15. A will Check. Find A's present age. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. NOTE. Transposing. x+16 = 3(35). Simplifying. In 15 years 10. Let x = the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. much as 40 exceeds the number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x = 20. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. but 30 =3 x years. 3z40:r:40z. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. denote the unknown 96. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In order to solve them. the required . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Three times a certain no. be 30 . number. Uniting.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 11. by as much as 135 ft. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44.2. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 300 56. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Dividing. A number added number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 4. 120. 14. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. Let x 3. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. exceeds the width of the bridge. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number. Find 8.64 Ex. 3. % of 120. EXERCISE 1. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Forty years hence his present age. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 5. 13. twice the number plus 7. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. .
The other verbal statement. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dol A has A to $40. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. the second one. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The problem consists of two statements I.000. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. F 8. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. 65 A and B $200. and as 15. One number exceeds the other one by II. times as much as A. statements are given directly. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont.000. x. is the equation. The sum of the two numbers is 14. written in algebraic symbols. B How will loses $100. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. . then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. A and B have equal amounts of money. During the following 90 years. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. B will have lars has A now? 17. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. five If A gives B $200. If A gains A have three times as much 16. 97. two verbal statements must be given. 1. Ex. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. and B has $00. 14. Vermont's population increased by 180.
< Transposing. the smaller number. 8 the greater number. = 14. Let x 3x express one many as A. If A gives are : A If II. 2. I. although in general the simpler one should be selected. A will lose. B will have twice as many as A. x = 8. A gives B 25 marbles. . / . has three times as many marbles as B. the sum of the two numbers is 14. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. to Use the simpler statement. x x =14 8. Dividing. = 3. 25 marbles to B. terms of the other. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Then. which leads ot Ex. and Let x = the Then x +. Uniting. . . Statement x in = the larger number. the greater number. 8 = 11. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Let x 14 I the smaller number. The two statements I. = B's number of marbles. B will have twice as viz. A has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. x 3x 4 and B will gain. unknown quantity in Then. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. 2x a? x j = 6. = A's number of marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. consider that by the exchange Hence. If we select the first one. + a f f 8 = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number.
10. Dividing.. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.. x = the number of half dollars. dollars and dimes is $3.. of dollars to the number of cents. The sum of two numbers is 42. x from I. 50. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Two numbers the smaller. Check. Uniting. the number of dimes.25 = 20. Let 11 = the number of dimes. the price.10. .550 f 310.75. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. greater is .$3. the number of half dollars. (Statement II) Qx . A's number of marbles. x = 6. * ' . 15 + 25 = 40. 6 times the smaller. Dividing. Find the numbers. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.5 x . . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. cents. Uniting. x = 15. 60. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 50 x Transposing. etc. The number of coins II. but 40 = 2 x 20. Eleven coins. Simplifying. 11 x = 5.240. 3. * 98. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). by 44. The value of the half : is 11. then. 45 .10. have a value of $3. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. w'3. 3 x = 45. B's number of marbles. Check. is 70. Simplifying. 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Find the numbers. consisting of half dollars and dimes. and the Find the numbers. 1. 40 x .
one of which increased by 9. How many inches are in each part ? 15. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts.68 4. 11. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. How many hours does the day last ? . Find their ages. How many 14 years older than B.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Twice 14. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Everest by 11. the number. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. as the larger one. tnree times the smaller by 65. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 7. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 6. On December 21. United States. 5.000 feet. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the altitude of Mt. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. McKinley. A's age is four times B's. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 9.
1. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. If A and B each gave $5 to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. = 48. B. Let x II. number had. x = 8. 19. The third verbal statement produces the equation. bers is denoted by x. B has three times as much as A. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. II. and C together have $80. they would have 3. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. number of dollars A had. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. III. If A and B each gave $5 to C. times as much as A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. I. Ex. and 68. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. If 4x = 24." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. has. has. are : C's The three statements A. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. and B has three as A. original amount. then three times the money by I. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and C together have $80. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. B. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 8(8 + 19) to C. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. . = number of dollars B had after giving $5. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has.
number of cows. Dividing. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. number of cows. Uniting. 1 1 Check. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The I. + 8 90 x and. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. each horse costing $ 90. according to II. x = 5. x f 4 = 9. and. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 9 cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and each sheep $ 15. each cow $ 35. + 35 x 4. 4 x f 8 = 28. 9 5 = 4 . x Transposing. 2. 28 2 (9 5). 185 a = 925. 90 may be written. Let then. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. three statements are : IT. cows. = the number of dollars spent for horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. according to III. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. number of horses. first. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. III. and the sum of the . Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. x j = the number of horses. the third five times the first. The total cost equals $1185. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. number of sheep. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and Ex. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. sheep.
the copper. New York delphia. the third 2. A 12. and children together was 37. men. 7.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . first.  4. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the sum of the first and third is 36.000. If twice The sum the third side. equals 49 inches. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The gold. what is the population of each city ? 8. twice the 6. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. "Find three is 4. women. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the length of each? has 3. twice as old as B. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. how many children were present ? x 11.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 13. v . 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.000. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and 2 more men than women. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. 9. increased by three times the second side.
how many 100. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. A and B apart. 8 x = 15. i. The copper had twice the value of the gold. First fill in all the numbers given directly.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. . has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. but stops 2 hours on the way. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000 more than that the copper. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and distance. 7 Uniting.g. and quantities area. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 14. or time. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. together. Let x = number of hours A walks. = 35. Find the value of each. we obtain 3 a. number of hours. width.000. Dividing.000. number of miles A x x walks. such as length. 3 and 4. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. speed. Hence Simplifying. = 5. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.e. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.
+ 8. original field has Check. $ 800 = 800." gives (2. 70x10 Ex.053. The an area 40 x 20 =800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Check.M(x . Transposing and uniting. Find the dimensions of the field. $ 800 = required sum. Multiplying.06 = $ 40.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2   and transpose. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards.04 8.01 = = . z = 20. But 700 certain = 800 2. . were increased by 30 yards. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. or 700. the area would be 100 square yards less. x + 200). + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. . $ 1000 x . 2 a = 40. x . the second 100. l. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.05 x x . x . 10 x = 200.04 = $ 40. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.
how much did each cost per yard ? 6. together bring $ 78 interest. invested at 5 %. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Find the share of each. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. of coffee for $ 1. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A sets out later two hours B . mobile. Ten yards $ 42. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and its width decreased by 2 yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. twice as large. sions of the field. 3. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9.55. were increased by 3 yards. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Six persons bought an automobile. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A of each. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. What are the two sums 5. as a 4. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. 2. 1. After how many hours will B overtake A. and a second sum. but four men failed to pay their shares. the area would remain the same. A man bought 6 Ibs. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and from the same point.
+ 62 is integral with respect to a. consider 105. f db 6 to b. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. vV . 6. it is composite. it contains no indicated root of this letter . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. irrational. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. which multiplied together are considered factors. at this 6 2 . this letter. 104. but fractional with respect 103. 76 . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if. we shall not. stage of the work. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a2 to 6. a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if it does contain some indicated root of .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An after simplifying. 5. as. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a.
107. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2. . 110. 55. y. TYPE I. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 01. It (a. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Divide 6 a% . Factor G ofy 2 . or that a = 6) (a = a . it follows that a 2 . in the form 4) +3.3 sy + 4 y8). 109. 1. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .3 6a + 1).g. factors of 12 &V is are 3. ?/. 2. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 8) (s1). 2. E. for this result is a sum.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . x. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Ex. 77 Factoring is into its factors. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.FACTORING 106.) Ex.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.62 + &)(a 2 . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. x. .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .62 can be &).
a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 4 tfy f. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 15 2 7.8 c a 15 ofyV . 4 8 . TYPE IT. 3 3 5 6. 3 2 . obviously. 15. 2 Or. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.12 cdx. . a6c. 34 a^c 8 . Ilro8 9. 7a & 10. 18.51 aW + 68 21. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 3. 2 2 . a a 'Ja .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 7i 13. q*q*q 2 a. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.30 aty. 17.3.2. . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 3x*6x*. 5f 2 . 14. 2 + q.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 11. e. 4.5 + 2. 32 a *?/ . : 6 abx . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 13. 16. 2 23.4.6. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.4. 12. 19. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. (as 3) and (ccf5). in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. in general.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . + llm llm. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.g. 14a 4 5. ) 22  2. 8. 2 6.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 20. 2.3.5 + 13 8.45 afy .
Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 2 6. of this type. + 30 = 20. 4. 77 as the product of 1 77. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.11) (a + 7)..77 = (a. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11 a + 30. Factor x? . 2. Ex. or 77 l.5) (a . m 5m + 6. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.FACTORING Ex. Factor + 10 ax . Ex. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. however. Factor a2 . .6 = 20. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. or 7 11.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. can be factored. + 112. but of these only a: Hence 2 .11. 5.4 x .5) (a 6). 79 Factor a2 4 x . tfa2  3. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. as p.1 1 a tf a 4.G) = . the two numbers have opposite signs. and (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.30 = (a . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. If q is negative. . is The two numbers whose product and 6. a 2 . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 11 7. If q is positive. We may consider 1. 3.a). 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Therefore Check.11 a 2 .
24. 27. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 5<y 24. 30. 2 2 a' 34. 32. 26. 36. 25. 29. 31. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 21 a 2 2 . 19. 2 ?/ 28. TYPE 113. 16. 35. + 4?/21.17 + 30. 2 ?/ 22. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 20. + 2xS. 4 2 . ay 11 ay +24. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. x2 23. 17. + 44.180 a. 11. 21. 16. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 . . ITT. 100 xr . 2 .6. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 2 . 12. 4 3 2 .500 x + 600. and 5 x. 8. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. a? + 5 + 6 a. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 6 8 8 4 2 a.70 x y . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . a2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 .80 7. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 30. 14. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 2 . . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 15. 9.48 + + 446 200. or . 18. ra + 25ra + 100. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 33. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a 7 a 30. 13.
18 x 3.83 x f 54. . 3 x and x. a. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 27 x 2. the If p and r are positive. viz. the signs of the second terms are minus. 6 x 9.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 54 x 1.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 2. or G 114. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. and r is negative. and that they must be negative. 9 x 6. X x 18. If p is poxiliw.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Factor 3 x 2 . sible 13 x negative. Ex.5) (2 x . 3.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. .5 . 11 x 2x. 2 x 27. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.1). we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.
15. 9a. 6. 90 a 8 2 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 30.2 a 90 x*y . + 4. 2 ar* 2 i/ .19 a f 6. 24. 20. 9 y + 32^16.260 xy .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 16. 34. f go. . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.27). 2 .30 y 6 4 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 29.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 12. 25. 2 26. 12^17^16.2) (x . 4a2 9tt + 2.163 x 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 14.83 x = (3 . 35. 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 23. Sar' + SaG. 11. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 13. 2. 10. and the monomial factors should be removed.83 x . 2x* + 9x5. 2m t7w + 3. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.179.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 3. 9. 18. x54 a. X 27 . 22. 14 a fa 4. 144 x . 7. 19.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 3x*Sx + 4. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 8. 21. 5m 26m f 5. 12y 2/6. 3a + 13a. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. . 6n + 5?i4. 5. 2 fc . 10a2 G a2 2 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 10a?2 2 33. 10 a . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2 28. 2 . 4.7. + 2/3. : 41 2. the expressions should be it. 2 31. 32. . 17. since all others (II.y + 172/9. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 100^200^ + 100^. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.
10.20 xy f 4 y\ . of its terms are perfect squares. 4. 12. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 16 y? The student should note that a term. square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 25 7. x* . 9 10a625. 116. 2 .10 x f 16. 9.e. 13. To factor a trinomial which maining term. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 14. 8. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . form are special cases of the preceding type. and factor whenever possible : 1. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 2 9 10gf25. and a perfect square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. however. must have a positive sign. 2 2 . 2. it is a perfect square. i.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 6. 11. 5.26 ab + 9 6 2 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 3.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. it is more convenient for that type.
16&*.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 2. 2. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 6. . 19.20 ab + 10 b a . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 29. 149 a 81 8. 22.64 6 = 16(a .2 ofy + ofy m . . 225 ofy . 10 a 2 4 2 . a2 24. ). 17. 36 2 4. a.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 6 2 .84 15. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. V. 9. 4a2 l. 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . aV . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. TYPE 117.60 a# + 4. ). 4 2 23. 2 . 9a2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 3. 3. Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. product i. ). 2 20. 7. . 2 . prime. 16. ^//c to the Ex. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.e. 2 . a. 48 a +( ).4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 18. 25. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 1. u2 6& + 2 ( ). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). +( )f816 30. 27. 5.3 * ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. + GO + 25. According to 65. * 2 .6 m* + 9 m.
5.d) 2 .(I) .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. Factor a 2 . 36> . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . of polynomials. 8. 9. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2. 13. 2 . 16p 2 . a2 . 11.FACTORING 85 118. a:) 12. One or both terms are squares 1. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . T. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . Ex.(c 4. Ex. (m7?) y. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 14. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 6. 4.c .
ma ?*a + m& nb. ive find that the new terms con common factor. Ex.ab + bx. a? 11.VI. .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. A. 6. 2. 5) . 4:cx . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.y + 2 2).and trinomials. 12. 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. By grouping. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 8. a 26 2 2 3 .2 ) (3 x .a a . 4 B.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.14. 9. 119. 10. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.7 c + 2c . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. = (3 x + y . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. After grouping tain a the terms. which may be factored according to types I. . 1. x8 . Ex.1. 3. a5 + ab 6 . + x + 2x + 2.r. 5. 7.
6. $ a8 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6a4 12a2 + 6. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 8. 5.4 f . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 4 a2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . Arranging the terms.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 36 9 m . 2. . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. : m 2 2 16.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 4. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 2. 8. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 3. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. : 46 x* 2. 2 7. .l. 4.FACTORING Ex. II. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 3. = (a + 6)(a6). a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6 6. w m 2.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. + 2xy + y*q*. 8ra 2 + 16.12 aaj 4 6y. 2a3/ 7.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. IV.
+ 14. 24.13 c . (^ 34. 13 c . . 42 x . 5a' 20.310 x . (a. 29. 40. 18. 28.88 10. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 3 25. a. 3 a2 23. 11.156. 2 a 128. 3 2 . 22. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 32. 4 a. 19. 3 41.24.40. or 3 7#2 . 14. 2 ft . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 5 a. 80 a 2 ft 38. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a6 36. a3 156. 48. 2 17. 25 a + 25 aft . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. + 6 aft + 3 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 30.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 12. 4 8 tt 2 z . 50^ + 45. 42 s 2 . 13. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a + a + a + l. 27. 35.
6. C. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. of two or more monomials whose factors . F. EXERCISE Find the H. C. 5 7 34 2s . C. are prime can be found by inspection. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. C. of : 48 4.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 24 s . 5 2 3 . 121. F. F. II 2 . of the algebraic expressions. C.) of two or more . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 54  32 . aW. C. 13 aty 39 afyV. 122. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 12 tfifz.  23 3 . Two common factor except unity The H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The highest is common factor (IT. 2 2 . 15 aW. 89 . 5 s 7 2 5. Thus the H. The H. of aW. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The H. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 3. 5. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . of 6 sfyz. . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. C. 25 W. The student should note H. 8 . C. 3 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. 2. F.
F.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 65 zfyV. 10.2 ?/) (x . 24 a 2 . 2 . 0^80:416. 8 6. 225 4a 9 . F.90 7. . x* x2 Hence the H. 8. 12 . F. 38 #y.# 4 afy f 4 . 11. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 13. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 12. ^707 + 12. 3^ 2 4 . 9. ^f a. y + 3y64. To find the H. 9 aj*(a? .y) 123. a. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). ^a + 5^ + 6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 57 a>V. 3 . 9.y + y42. . 49 C. 14.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 16. 6 mx . Find the H. 6(m+l) (m+2). 1. aWd. = x 2 y. 16 a . C. 10.?/ . 4(m+l) 3 .6 a&.6 . 11. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . of polynomials. a2 . 3. of + 4 if. 12 w*nw 8. 3). 25 m27i. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a3 9a. 8 a 10 . ^2 2 . of: . . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 52 oryz4. 13. .2 y) (a.y)\ O+ 0^(0.8 a + 16. 1. . 12. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 8. Ex. 4 ?io. a 3a4.5 + 6. a2 ar* 4. a2 + 7af!2. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . C. 2 . (a7 ?/) . and apply the method of the preceding article.5 x3?/ 2 6. 95 2/V.5 y). 2 . 2a f5af 2. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. . 6 3 a.6. C.y) . 15. 7. 2. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 15 3ao.12 as 66 . a2 + 2a3. 8(?/ifl) 14. 6 a2 y? . F. 2 .^9. a3 16 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 5.
6)2. M. M. C. 60 x^y' 2 . etc. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 2. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 127. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.6 3 ). of the general. To find the L. 128.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. which also signs. M. 300 z 2 y.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. NOTE. each set of expressions has In example ft). of tfy and xy*. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . Hence the L. 1.M. C. L. C. M of the algebraic expressions. two lowest common multiples.C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . A common remainder. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Find the L. . ory is the L. L. M. . thus. Common 125. 2 The The L. Ex. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. a^c8 3 .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. Find the L. M. M. of 3 aW. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. Ex. of several expressions which are not completely factored. but opposite . M.C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 126. The L. &) 2 M. C. The lowest common multiple (L.M. M.
a !. 3. 2(m 2 . 16. 2 7ic+10. 30 a. a f 3. 2 x \2 y. a 2 a3 . 24 x. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. . f b. a^1. 2 a . T a 3 a 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 3 . a2 ~ab 1. 6b 2 . 20 9 a. of: 4. 15. 3 f2. xy\ . 5. 6 y. Find the L. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 . 1. 2 . 3 ab. a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 9. 13. a2 4. 2 . afc'cd 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. x 2 5 a. b 2 . 14. 17. y*. 2. 8 afy. 2 10. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. #. 8. 22. 4 a f 2. 8 d 5 . 2 a. (For additional examples see page 268. 3(a + b). 7. or f 3 a 15 #. a 2 fa6. by. (a 4)(a2) 12. 24. a 1.f 6. 3. ic 23. afy. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. M. + 6. a { a~b. 40 abJ. ) .1. G a. x* ~5a. + 2. 21. 6.1. a?b. 11. ic 2 ?/. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2 a . 4 a . 6 a. 3 6 xif. a 2 f 4 a +4. 4 a 5 6cd. + 2 7i) . x2 + 4 a f 4. 20.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a f 2 19. a. a& 4 +& 2 . 3 Z> . a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. . 18.
but we In arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . an indicated quotient. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Thus. as 8. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. rni Thus 132.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Remove tor. 130. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . a?. Ex. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. A f fraction is b. etc. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . however. F.ry ^ by their H. and denominators are considered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. 131.
. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.4) Ex. Ex.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
. ' ^ . 19. ^" a. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 11 ^ Mtr f . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . """. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. . LJZJ^JL. 9x + "a" 10. nx 17. 29. ny 4 18. 5^10 y 30. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.10 a + 3 2 14.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 16. .*.. 23. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.7 . ^' rt ^  31. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^+3*. g J 21.' 32. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.
TheL. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.C. mon T denominator. and 135.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. + 3). . and the terms of ***.M. M. 1. we have M^.3) (!)' = .  of //* 2 . C. 2> . take the L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x.C. Reduce ^. by the denominator of each fraction. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Divide the L.96 134. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . ^ to their lowest com The L.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.D. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .  by 4 6' . 1). Ex. and (a 8). C.r 2 2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. we have the quotients (x 1). =(z (x + 3)(z. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 .1^22 ' .M.
. 8 i i. 2. 5?.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 137.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . If the given fractions have different denominators.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. JL. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). j y 3. 2 ay IB.. 7i 2 ab* ". 3. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. common denominator 6. a? 1 5 > ^* . .oj o* or / .^1. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 74). 2aj ~ . . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.. 18. i. o o a. 22 a2 5a * . . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .
2 ' 2 _. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . e.2 = a(a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .ft)(a . ft). T? Ex.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft) Ca2 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 4(2 a 3 ft). The L. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 ft 2).ft) (a ft ft)~. ^ is 2^JT) . D.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. in the beginning.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C..aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. 2 ^.g. L. C. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). and adding.(a 2 6).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .7 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . as 4 aft f. D.3 . the student should remember that parentheses are . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (a . (a ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. 2. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + ..
23. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + . 2L + 2a 1 17. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' . A+2_3. 20. a 36 ++. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. j>0 i> 21. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 f q * 1 m m . 2. 1 1 f w 16. 6 c 3a 7. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 46 2a 4a 12. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 5a76 4a 106 9. 18 v 19. 24. 15. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.
x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 42. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ! n. af 1f /j. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9. a. a 30. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ic 1 + 1. _ + a? ?/ + y.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a 4 31. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 43. 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32.9 79 6 2 i. a ?^ 40. 41. 1 34.
2 + 4tf 3 17 . 1. . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 101 mixed expression. Reduce .  . T. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . .FRACTIONS 139.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.7 5a v Ex.  4 or 3 2a.
Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.) Ex. multiply the 142. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. fractions to integral numbers. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.g. 2 a Ex. (In order to cancel common factors. F J Simplify . !. Since  = a. integer. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. we may extend any e. or. 2.
6 12 d6 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 14.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. 2 f 5 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. . aj 5 1 a? 18. 50 . 5# 56 / c& 4. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.
. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 1. Divide Xn?/ . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.
t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. Ex.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.10 ?/ _.6 s + 064._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .FRACTIONS 105 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a a2 4. l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. or both. ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.afr 4.5 ??i 80 50 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . are fractional.^c 2 2 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.
y X 4* 2 y 3. the answer is directly obtained. 2. . . . . 9.a ^c c _^ a . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.y 32 . 10. 6. Simplify x }. C. x* 4. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. n a 8. & . c +6. Ex. M. JL. a m "" . of their denominators. i.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 7i+~ 7.
~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. sy 18.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. m^n* n L a 17. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
9 x2 + 9.1.14 (a. Clearing of fractions. tions. these Ex. a. 2x Transposing. C.l)(z + 3) = . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . x = 6. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 5(3 85 Check. 2z2a. . = 6.42 + 9. each member is reduced to Ex.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.28 x + 42 = . 1. = 6. + 1) (a + 3) . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 2 3. each member is reduced to 1.8 x = .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 2.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . If = 64. Uniting. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). of the denominator. Uniting. 148. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Transposing. 9x x Check. Bx 12 Qx. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 4 4)  x. 108 . If x 6.48.f3# + C:E=6f7212. M. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.28 a = 5 x2 .
= 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 15. 16. a/  5 a/ = 12. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. ^' 2. a: 7 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. '  4 13. 18. 1 *> = 2. +4 14.1 _77 a. . +1 = 5. a. . 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .
32 6 . J_.11_4 x 149. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . If two or more denominators are monomials. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 33. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 31 31. 3x 35.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 26 26. y+3~2 29.  38 = 40. 27 . . . . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 25. ?_=_. and" the remaining one a polynomial. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 4a4l4* + l~._ _ .
Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. C. 60. 5x x : = 9. 26 a. Check. the 1 5 L.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . = 9.. 5# 10. 1. each member is reduced to ^. If a. Transposing and uniting. a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.1. M.  5 = 20 x 45. . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .2 3 ~  == 7a. 24 a. Dividing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.2 42 9 43.
Thus. Ex. = l^ 9 b 4 . 5> a. ax f x f.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. = = 6 6c 7 6c. = 2 f b 2 . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. = 6 a2 .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. y.be. a.3 6 2 = a' . fr Reducing lowest terms. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.& . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.m bx 2 mn) x. It frequently occurs that the x. Dividing.2 ac + 3 aft . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.2 62 2 ab. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. =a 2 151. Ex. If 3ac L= = a ? . Uniting.1. . f ~ 5c. find a in terms of b and c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 2. they are united by factoring. Uniting the Dividing. jr. 4 ac 1.
10. iw 21. a. solve for a. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. Ex. If * 33. 34. 14. 11. 29. . m a? x . 31. = rt. 4. c 18. = 3 (6 a). mx = n. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).= c a Z> . 3. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. in terms of other quantities. 1 f. p the principal.a.= n. = vt. t. 13. = 5. co?. . If ^^ = a 1 32. denoting the interest.i l . ^ ax a^ 26. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. + xx = 1. 17. IIL n b + &o. 30. * Solve the same equation for^). + 3a. 4. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. . rate. f ^o. solve for . If s If 16. 2 solve for y a. s = Vt solve for v. q solve for/. The The i time. 12. . 15. _ 2. = 8 4 #. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 5) is t =^. r the number of $>.= H. f P =+!. 3(* 8. 6. and n the number of years. c.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 9.
180. Multiplying by Dividing. = 16^. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. 2. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. is 36. . Find R in terms of C and TT. 12..114 35.20 C.. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 100 C. 1. then = 2 TT#. . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. A would do each day ^ and B j. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Ex.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 2 3 . x Or Uniting. and 12 = the number over. Ex. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
4x = 80. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Ex. the rate of the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 180 Transposing. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = the x part of the work both do one day. or 1J. 3." : Let x  = the required number of days." gives the equation /I). Clearing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. and the statement. Solving. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 32 x = .
and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and of the father's age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. to his daughand the remainder. by 6. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. ex What 5. and J of the greater Find the numbers. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. is equal 7. Find A's 8. of his present age. by 3. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. money and $10.  Find their present ages. and 9 feet above water. ceeds the smaller by 4. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. a man had How much money had he at first? . How did the much money man leave ? 11. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and one half the greater Find the numbers. is oO.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. which was $4000. to his son. 3. fifth Two numbers differ 2. make 21. length in the ground.
^ at 5%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. what is the 14. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. investments. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 3. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and it B in 6 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. . Ex. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.) 22. How much money $500? 4%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 1. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. air. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and B in 4 days. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 2. Ex. after rate of the latter ? 15.
. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. . 26. B in 12. B in 30. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. therefore. B in 16. we obtain the equation m m . and apply the method of 170. m and n. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. they can both do in 2 days. and n = 3. Then ft i. 3.e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. A in 6. . B in 5. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. A in 6. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.414. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Ex.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.g. 2. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. The problem to be solved. To and find the numerical answer. Hence. 25.009 918. n x Solving.118 153. if B in 3 days. is 57. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.= . is 42. e. A in 4.
(b) 35 miles. 2 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour. . (b) 149. The one: 31. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. : (c) 64 miles. 4J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. meet. squares 29. Two men start at the first miles apart. the rate of the first. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 34. (d) 1. 3 miles per hour.001. if m and n are.000. respectively. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 3J miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. the second at the apart. (c) 16. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. Find the side of the square.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. respectively (a) 60 miles. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. same hour from two towns. is (a) 51. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. is ?n . Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. and the rate of the second are.721. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 33. After how many hours do they meet. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. squares 30. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.
The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b is the consequent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. " a Thus. b. the second term the consequent. 158. Ex. 6 12 = ." we may write a : b = 6. a ratio is not changed etc. : : 155. the denominator The the 157. 1.5. antecedent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. The first 156. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. E. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. etc. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. Simplify the ratio 21 3. In the ratio a : ft. the symbol being a sign of division. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. . the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.g. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.
term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 9. $24: $8. terms. 5 f hours : 2. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 7:4 T T 4 . 62:16. 17. : ay .RATIO Ex. 4:5f : 5. 159. a and d are the extremes. The last first three. 12. Simplify the following ratios 7. 6. equal 2. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and c is the third proportional to a and . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. b is the mean b. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 3:4. 10. b. 7f:6J. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. extremes. 3 8. and c. 16. 16a2 :24a&. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 27 06: 18 a6. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. : 1. 11. Transform the following unity 15. 4. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 61 : ratios 72:18. 8^ hours. 18. two  ratios. b and c the means. 3. 1. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3:1}. J:l. proportional between a and c.
q~~ n .30 grams. pro portional. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. and the other pair the extremes.__(163. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. If (Converse of nq. ad = be. 164. are : : : inversely proportional. 2 165.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. !. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. of a proportion. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.e. In any proportion product of the extremes. 6 ccm. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. i. 163. " we " NOTE. : : directly proportional may say. ccm. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. briefly.) b = Vac. 3 4. 163. Hence the number of men required to do some work. of iron weigh . of iron weigh 45 grams. : c. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. = 30 grams 45 grams. then G ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.122 162. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Clearing of fractions.) mn = pq. and the time necessary to do it. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.
I. ad ( 163. 166.) II. Or IV. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. 12x Hence a? = 42. then =d c. V. if 6 : 7. a III. d d. is Ex. bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. (163.PATIO Ex. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (Composition. hence the proportion true. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. I. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. is 4$ = 35. a:c=b:d. 1. ad = be.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Division. + b:b = c + d:d.) d 167.) = f f = 3 J. . = 35 . 2.
to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 3. i. 5 5. 9. x = 2. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:3.e. 6 =4 : x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. the consequents by 7. . Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 2. Simplify the following proportions. = 12 5ft. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 2:x. E. mx tin Apply composition and division. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. Or III. 120:42 2 2 7. . 8. = 20:7. 5. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. V. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.124 IT. : x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6.!=!*. 4.g. = 180:125. 10. IV. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 7:2f 3J.
. 3. 2= 5 x x. 1. 29. 7iy = 2:x. rag. 46.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. a?:15 15. 2. . = l^:18. = 5 x 12.x: 6:5 a : x. = 3 43 + x. : a2 . 50. 41. 44. 39. 3t. and 2/. 17. 16. a. 112:42 = 10:a. Find the mean proportional 30.  32. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. a 2 and ab. 28. 31. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. x:5 = y:2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 16 and 28. 3. 13. 27. ra 2 . 38. b. 51. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. ratio of y. to : a and 1. ra + landra 1. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 6 x = y. 9 x = 2 y. Find the third proportional 24. 6. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 14.8:1. if : 40. 25. mx = ny. 12. to: = 35:*. terra 2:3 = 4. 2. x m = y n. 23. 18. Find the 37. 4 and 16. 35. + fyx = cy. : . 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 52. 33. 22. 14 and 21. 1 and a. to : 9 and 12. 4. 2 3 = y #. 34.:ff. 21. rap. 5= 18 a? : a?. 6x = 7y. (a : : 45. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 20. f. ra. 5. = 15o. w. : 53. 47. 43.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 2 a and 18 a. 26. 03:a?=135:20. 42. = 2 + x: x.j>.
(d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 7^. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the area of the larger? the same. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 56. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the area of the rectangle.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii.126 54. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the : total cost. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the time. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. what 58. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the speed of the train. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').
: Ex. AB = 2 x. = the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC.000 168. is A line AB. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 4 inches long. x=2. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x x 7 Ex. . 2. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 2 x Or = 4.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. produced to a point C. x = 6. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. so that Find^K7and BO. 18 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number.
: Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 9. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. : 197. 6. 11. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 14. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 13. : 4. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.) . How many 7. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 7. How many gen. 12. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. What are the parts ? 5.000 square miles. 2. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.000. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Gunmetal tin. 3. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How The long are the parts ? 15. and c inches. 12. and 15 inches. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.
the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. =. Hence. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. x = 1. 2 y = .L x If If = 0. values of x and y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3..e. such as + = 10. is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 . If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. a? (1) then I. y = 1. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. if . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. etc. However. there is only one solution. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. expressing a y.y=.
X. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 21 y . the last set inconsistent. 172. and 3 x + 3 y =. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. y I 171. same relation. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. By By Addition or Subtraction.26.3 y = 80. Therefore.130 170. of elimination most frequently used II. 3. are simultaneous equations. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. The first set of equations is also called consistent. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. = . 6x . 4y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. to The two methods I. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 26 y = 60. y = 2.24. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Substitution. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. cannot be reduced to the same form. for they express the x f y 10. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . unknown quantity. 174. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. viz. ~ 50. E.
whose coefficients In general. are like.3 y = 47. = 235. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 3. 3. 5 13 . + 2. 8 2. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 25 x . 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). x = 10. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. y = 2.3 1 = 47. Transposing. 10 . 3y = 3. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).14 =8. 37. 64 x = 040. add the equations. Therefore Check. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.2 = 6. = 406. subtract the equations. y = 1.
13 61 l7a. + 2/ 17. [2o. f 3# ?/ = 0. I . O t K 8. . J I y = 1U.9 *. = 41. I i 3 a. i 3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. ' 12.5 y = 2. = 24.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. _. 19< I a. I oj 5y = 17. I ~ y~~> 22. = 6.3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. x 11.4. v ^ = ll. ] ^ . 9 1 r 20. f 3X 7x 14.v 23. 7 ' 1fi fl .f2/ ' = 50.3. 13. * + 3 y = 50.
I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 2. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 13. 3. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. x ) ^"" 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 4#8. . 8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. and solve the resulting equation. = 2y + 10. = 60.
(4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3.6)7(y7)==18. however.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. \ \6(a. 21z6y=9. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. simplified before elimination is possible. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . . 3. (7) (7) (8) . x = l. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.3. 7x_2y=3. 29 x = 29. Substituting in (6) . + 212y4 = 14. 7 y = 6. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3 (1) Ex. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4). 2 y = . 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36.
a. .f2 2. yM a. = 3. +y 2 .1) + 5(6 y . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.1) = 121. 12. . 10. 4 11. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 16. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 14. J 9. 10 2a?5 17. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a.
In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 22.#. 180.and x y . * ((* (( . {. e. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 3x\" 1 23 24. but some expressions involving x. f y . and y. ?~y .Q ^ 4 21. <X + 20.
(2) (3) a. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . (4) + (G). x 2x(2). etc. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. 15 y + 8 x .3 xy. . x 3. can also be solved Examples method. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 1. Therefore y=4. y 1. y 4. y. 33 = 11 x. however. of this type. 137 Solve y y (1) . 2* * x 2. Clearing of fractions. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).4 x = 4 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.
10 " 12 25 U y 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 253 7. . n.= o 6. 21 9 . 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . Ex. x y 331 9. 4 13. = en. 1. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x 8. y MOi y a.= 5. x y 5.
s in 11. .W. ap. fax f = l. w.y = = 9a + 46. x 12. d. and I if 13. W . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. x a. 6. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 5. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. 14. d. a Find a and terms of n. apan cm. and I. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . ny = fy/ I sc 1. Uniting. x f my = 1. Dividing. bmy bm}y ap cm. . ax + by = 2 a&.
f 3y 12 =s 8.2 + 4. 1.12 y + 6 z = .3 = 8. x + 12 y . (8) 2. 4. 6. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 3. by 3. 1. 3y = Hence Check. 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. . 20.2 + 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Ex.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.25. ties are Similarly. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. (4) (5). 4.by 2. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. To solve equations containing By tions.3=4.13.8 = 1. = 30.lf> z . the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.16. etc.1+4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). = 3. 182. l.15z=12 Adding. 8 x . y =* 2.
2 4. 10. == 6. f 2 i/ f z = 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 4 = 42. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 8. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 15 2 = 45. a? + 709 = 26. a? 11. 12. k 2/ f 2 x a. x 13. 49. 14. 7. ~6?/ 5. 2 . + y f z = 15. 2z = 40.
23. 27. . 19. ?/ 3x = 0.3 y + . . (3 _. ^ = 2. 1510 4 17.. 16.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . 4. = 8*. 84 21. = 5. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.42 = 2.6 2. =s 20. 32. 60.2 a. ? = llz. 22.
Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1. ( 99. z + x = 2 n. the number. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. and if 396 be added to the number. Find the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. x : z =1 : 2. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + z = 2p. . # 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. y 31. = l. Obviously of the other . +2+ 6 = 8. Ex. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and to express In complex examples. 2 = 1(1+6).) it is advisable to represent a different letter. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Check. symbols: x + y +z 8. y * z 30. 1 digit in the tens place. either directly or implied. . however. 2 = 6. M=i. + 396 = 521. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. = 2 m. 1 = 2.
we obtain. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3+1 5+1 4_2. Or (4)2x(3). the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. x y = the = the x denominator . y = 3. the distance traveled by A. 4 x = 24. B. 6 x 4 = 24. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Find the fraction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. C. 2. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.144 Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (3) C4) = 24 miles. x 3x4y = 12. Since the three men traveled the same distance. Ex. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 5_ _4_ A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. . x 3 = 24. increased by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. = Hence the fraction is f. = the fraction. = 8. 3. direction. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B.
. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If the denominator be doubled. Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the digits will be interchanged. fraction is reduced to \. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J.}. the fraction equals . The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If 9 be added to the number. If 27 is 10. 183. Find the numbers. tion ? 8. Find the number. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. both terms. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. it is reduced to J. 5. Find the numbers. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. A fraction is reduced to J. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4.) added to a number of two digits. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the Find the fraction. ? What 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and its denomi nator diminished by one. number by the first 3. and the numerator increased by 4. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the number. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the number (See Ex. the fraction is reduced fraction. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. 6. 1. part of their difference equals 4. and the fourth 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 7. its value added to the denominator. the last two digits are interchanged. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 2. to the number the digits will be interchanged.
and 5 years ago their ages is 55. now. and money and 17. How 6 %. respectively ? 16. Find the rates of interest. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 13. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. . Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and in 5 years to $1125. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and partly at 4 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 19. the rate of interest? 18. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. A sum of $10.grams. the annual interest would be $ 195. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. partly at 5 %.000 is partly invested at 6%. in 8 years to $8500. 12. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 4 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. A man invested $750. 5 %. 14.
is the center of the circum scribed circle. BE. points. angle c = angle d. are taken so ABC. andCL4 = 8. Find their rates of walking. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and F '(see diagram). and e. and their difference by GO . but if A would double his pace. An C touch ing the sides in D. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and CE If AB = G inches. and F. c. and angle e angle/. for $ 740. the length of NOTE. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and sheep. BD = HE. On /). BC=7. A farmer sold a number of horses. triangle Tf AD. and angle BCA = 70. the three sides of a triangle E. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. 23. what is that = OF. BC = 7 inches. ED = BE. 1 NOTE. 24. and F. respectively. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. cows. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. . . and $15 for each sheep. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. then AD = AF. and GE = CF. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 25. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. three AD = AF. E. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and AC = 5 inches. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. $ 50 for each cow. B find angles a. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles.
then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 2). PM. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).. The of Coordinates. It' Location of a point. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. PN are given. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. Thus the points A. and point the origin. and PN _L YY'. PN. (7. (2. and r or its equal OA is . lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. ?/. 3). and PJ/_L XX'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. first 3). B. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). . is the abscissa. YY' theyaxis. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. (2. 186. the ordinate of point P. or its equal OM. (3. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles.
4).(!. 1).1). (5. 71 2). 8. (4. 0). Graphs. Plot the points (6. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 2). 2. (4. 3). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points: (4. What is the locus of (a?. 0). (4.4). 11. 4) and (4. 2).and(l. (4. 4). 12. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 6. and measure their distance. 3. Plot the points : (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (0. !).3). 2J). i. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4. (2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. . 4. 0). (See diagram on page 151.) EXERCISE 1. 6. . Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (3. What Draw is the distance of the point (3.2). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (4. 1). whose coordinates are given NOTE. (1. 4) from the origin ? 7.e. 3). (0. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3). 0).
ure the ordinate of F. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. may be found on Jan. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. By representing of points. 188. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 1. we meas1 . . C. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. however. from January 1 to December 1. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A. 15. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. B. 10 .. D. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. Thus the first table produces 12 points. or the curved line the temperature.
the graph is applied. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. The engineer. (b) July 15. uses them. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. (d) November 20. (c) January 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Whenever a clear. etc. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. . physician.
?  3. 1 to Oct. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. During what months above 18 C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. 15.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. How much. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. on 1 to the average. (1) 10 C. (d) 9 0.. is 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1? 11 0.152 2. When the average temperature below C.. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.
NOTE. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.09 yards. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . Draw . in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. One meter equals 1. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20. Draw a graph for the 23.
2 . 26. function If the value of a quantity changes. x* x 19.5 grams.50. etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.inch. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 3.. etc. 3.. if he sells 0. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. books from for printing. 29. to 27. binding. if each copy sells for $1. A 10 wheels a day. x increases will change gradually from 13. 190.. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. x 7 to 9. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. .) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. represent his daily gain (or loss).154 24. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. and $. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. then C irJl. 9. 4.) T circumferences of 25.g. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. the value of a of this quantity will change. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. amount to $8. 2.50.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. the daily average expenses for rent. 28. 1 to 1200 copies. gas.
1). 3 (0. is supposed to change. 2. for x=l.0). J). may . (2. x a variable. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. a*. If a more exact diagram is required. 2 (1. Q. however. Draw the graph of x2 f. and join the points in order. E. The values of func192. may. plot points which lie between those constructed above. ( 2. while 7 is a constant. 9). to x = 4. as 1. . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .e. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 1 the points (3. 9).g. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 50. construct '. 4). etc. and (3. be also represented by a graph. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 4). Ex.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. (1. 2). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.1). Graph of a function. (1^.
Thus in the above example.) For brevity. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 2. 4J. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 1).2 x . rf 71 . (4. 4). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. . (2.20). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. etc.. Ex.. as y. 194. = 4. Thus 4x + 7. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.. j/=3. (3. straight line produces the required graph.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. y = 6. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.4).. 5). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 7 . = 0. r */ +* 01 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. and join(0. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 2 4 and if y = x f.
2 or 2 20. 4 a. 22. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The smallest value of the function. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 4a? I. J.5)2. i. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. fa 17.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 3 a 8. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (ft) (_ 1. xz + x. y = 2x = 4.8)'. a? 1. a?. if y = 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 1 8 10. . 2.e. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 9. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 2 2 a. a ar. if a. 1J. (If) Va25. xl. 12. the function. 2 a. . 2x + 3x a?. 16. x+1. ?/ a. 14. l. 23x. 6 fa. 15. 2. 5. 7. a* 13. 1J. a? 2 4. 8. 2J. 1J. if"a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a. The values of a?. (C ) (2. 2J. if the function equals zero. 11. Jar . = The values of a*. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. (7i) (c) 23. 21. 2 2. 6.5)2. from x VlO'S". 3. 18. The values of a*. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 19. 1. + 4. = 4. 3.or. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. that graph with the o>axis. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.. then cXj where c is a constant.24.24 or x = P and Q. y= formula graphically. Represent 26. then y = . 9 F.where x c is a constant. 32 F. i... A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 25. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. Show any convenient number). 1 C.e.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 14 F. C. . the abscissas of 3.158 24. Therefore x = 1.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.
14. 8. 3. 10. 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.f 9 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (0. 6. 13. 11. . 7. 197. Such equations in general have two roots. the points may be found otherwise by inspection.7 2 a 5 = 0. crosssection paper is used. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. is called a quadratic equation. a2 2a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 4. 12. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. (a) x2 = 0. viz. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. or 5 2. (a) (6) 9. + + = where a. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 2 and 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. = 0.
and joining by a straight line. 1) and 0). y y 2. solve for ?/.1. T . produces the 7* required locus. first degree. and join the required graph. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. locate points (0. 3x _ 4 . . Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Hence.2. unknown quantities. Ex.e. if y = is 0. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). X'2 Locating the points (2. ?/. 4) and (2. 2). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. == 2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 199. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. y= A and construct x (  graphically. fc = 3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. = 0. 0). 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . NOTE. ?/ =4 AB. (f . Hence if if x x  2.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. y = l. Ex.2 y ~ 2. If x = 0. i. because their graphs are straight lines. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Hence we may join (0.
and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. viz.1=0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. AB y = . (2) . To find the roots of the system. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. parallel have only one point of intersection.15. 203. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). and CD. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 201.57. equation x= By measuring 3. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). linear equations have only one pair of roots. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. we obtain the roots. P. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 3.
etc. 4.y~ Therefore. Inconsistent equations. x2 . the point we obtain Ex.0.5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. P graphs meet in two and $. 4. and . y equals 3. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. i. Measuring the coordinates of P. The equations 2 4 = 0. . and + 3). e. 4. 3). 3. 2 equation x 3). 3. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). (4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. the graph of points roots. 3. 2. 3x 2 y = 6. = 0. 1. Using the method of the preceding para. Locating the points (5. AB the locus of (1).e. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection..g. intersection. 4.5.0). they are inconsistent. (4. In general. Locating two points of equation (2). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 0. we of the + y* = 25. 0) and (0. 4. 0. There can be no point of and hence no roots. and joining by a straight line.  4. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 1. (2. 2. V25 5. Solving (1) for y. 5. if x equals respectively 0.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 5. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. (1) (2) C.9.
1 6* + 7 y = 3. 6. 2x 3?/=6. the graphs of the following systems. y= a2 2x y6. and solve each If there are no solutions. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs.. and. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4. '163 Dependent equations. 17. x~y=0. 19. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. state reasons. y = 4. 16 22. y=x + 5. \ 2x + 3^ . 10. a. Draw system. y 2 4. vice versa. 7. . a+r/=6. 20. 8. 3. 2. 9. 5.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 16 23. if possible.
4 a = 3(6 . 28. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24.8. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 30. CUBES. 3 31. 26. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25.y).14 y = .
According to 1. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 2. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. involution repeated multiplication. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. on to in factors 4. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. is may be by 207. ( a) is positive. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 3 f a = f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a special kind of product.faa a a a Obviously 1. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. fa. etc. follows that 3. powers of a positive quantity are positive.a2 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. . 2. 8. Law of Signs. 52. a = a3 .
raise a fraction to a power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 210. 16. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 4. V V/ 13. (a ) 2 5 . 2. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 15.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 3 2 2 8 . . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 4  3. 24. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.166 To find To To power.6 (a 8 8 . a product to a given power. (^^) 2 . 6.6) = a . 76 : (>y. (2ar). 5. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 4 /2mV. (277171 )*. amVy) 3 . 2 11 (afc ) . the required power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.
5.y) = (3 y?y .INVOLUTION Ex. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. nent of the binomial.y . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (a + &)8 . (3af26) 8 .6 2 8 ft) . 3 8 . frequently called ex. 12. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. + 4aj) 3 . The higher powers of binomials. 18.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (5 (1 a) 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. a. (afl) . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 211. 3. 21. 13. pansions. 1. (aj7) . 3 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8 (a??/) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 7. 4. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2.) 14. 8. .3 y. (3 x . . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 1 f 3 2 3 . etc. = s= (2s) 8 a. 15. 6. 2 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. An 1. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 23. are obtained by multiplication. 9. 2. +5a) 22. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . + a 2 a. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 16. : a 20. Ex.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.
15. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (la&) 4 12. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 9. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (m 5 I) 2 22. is the coefficient of the next term. (3a f5) 5) 4. 5. 25.216 a^ 4. 14. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 18.168 3. . (a~^) 5 . 13. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 4 (1for) 5 . 8. (af 5) . (2 a 4 . (mJ) 4 11. 78 s . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 3. and the powers negative. The minus. (m 2 + n) 8 . . 17. .2. (?/i~w) : 16. .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 4. 1. Ex. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 10. ( &) 5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 24. (1 + 4 ?/) . (p + q) 4 * 7. (?>i?i f c)*. 23. 21. .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (m fl) 2 20. 3. . 2. 4 . 6. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b.96 ^y f 216 o?y .a) 3 19. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (2 4. 5. (tff1) (cfd) . Ex. (l 8 . mn 5 2 5 ) . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.
27 =y means r' = 27. or y ~ 3. 2. called real numbers. V \/P 214. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or x &4 . and all other numbers are. numbers. \/"^27=3. 109 . etc. V9 = + 3. and ( v/o* = a. (_3) = 27. Since even powers can never be negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 215. a) 4 = a4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . 4 4 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. = x means = 6. 1. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. which can be simplified no further. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. for distinction. tity .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213.
EXERCISE 1. To extract a root of a fraction. for (a")" a = a mn 3. V5 v/2 7 2.200 . 2. fy 5 3 . 3i . Ex 5 a" . = V26TIT81 = 53. 7.4. Ex. 3 33 53 . 2 . V?.  100 a 2 . 3. 9. extract the and denominator. index. 3/0** = am .64 5 4 . v/2^. Ex.9 = 136. 10.lL. 7 . v/^i2 = a*. 6. roots of the numerator \/18 . V25 9 16. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex.(. 62 = V2* . Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. 2. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 6. . 8. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 5. V36 9 4. To extract the root of a power.201) = 2.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 82 . .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 6 7 = 030. 79 2 v/2 5 . 7 . . = 19472. 7. Ex. 9. \/2 4 9 . = 199 + (_ 198) .1. 4 v. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.125. 8.
a* 4 8 2 .75. 5. . 33. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.) by inspection.4/. 32. 2 . V8. V20 . 30.3.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 1. 2 f ( V240) 3 . Ex. ^40^4./). \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 29. Find the square root of a2 .98. V9216.3 . 45 V5184. 2.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .EVOLUTION 171 28. 3. a f2 l 2 + l. 6.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 116. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.3 y2) ( vV . 2 . 31. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 34. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .
and b. however.172 7. The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.> 13. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. + 6 + 4a&.2 &c. the given expression is a perfect square. mV14m??2)f 49. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. let us consider the relation of a f. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.2 ac . #2 a2  16. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. and b (2 a f b). 8 . 10.72 aW + 81 & 4 . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 15. 12. 11. . a\b is the root if In most cases. 2 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . a f. 2ab . 14.2 ab + b .b 2 2 to its square. 2 2 218. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .e. i.
by division we term of the root. First trial divisor. . 10 a 4 8 a. and so forth. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . First complete divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 6 a. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 1.24 afy* f 9 tf. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.EVOLUTION Ex. 1. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. */'' . the first term of the answer. 8 a 2 . 219. of x. 8 a 2 2. Second trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. The square . As there is no remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Explanation. . 8 /. . Ex. .
4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.20 o 4. 8. 6.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 16x6 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 12. 16. 729 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .24 or .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .9.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. a? 2 . 10.42 a*& 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .73 a8 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 436^?/469a. 17. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . > 7. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.162 a2 60 a10 4. 3.a 6 x*y 2 .25.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 2 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. l 4.10 x2 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .12m 5 4. 5.6 . 20. 19. 5 4 16 4 iK .73a4 440^436^460^. 36it.V430^425^ 4m 4.4 x 4. 14.16. 24. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 4 .25 x 4 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 6 11.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 18.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 m 4.37 a ^ . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.40 a 22 . 1 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. . 9. 15.
176. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 4. = 80. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Ex. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. the first of which is 8. 2.. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.000 is 100. a 2 = 6400. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. which may contain one or two). of 1. and the complete divisor 168. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000.EVOLUTION 220. and the square root of the greatest square in units. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . of 10. Find the square root of 524. Therefore 6 = 8. first .1344. Ex. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. etc.000. the square root of 7744 equals 88. two figures. The is trial divisor = 160. etc. and the first remainder is. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000 is 1000. of a number between 100 and 10. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. 1. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. Find the square root of 7744.
10. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. places. in . 3.GO'61. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12.7 to three decimal places.70 6. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . annex a cipher.1 are Ex. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.
36. J. whose area equals 48. = 3. feet. 37. 39. 31.1410. 13. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 33. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 34. JT .58 square 38.4 square when R = radius and 11. 35. 1. . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 1. 5. feet. T\. 30.53.22.01.) 40.
. but no higher power e. 225. is A quadratic equation. or incomplete. complete. 226. 2. 1. 224. = 4. Extracting the square root of each member. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . or affected.g. x 2 7. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 7^ + 5. The 7 equation. Dividing.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 6 y2 = 17. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Ex. This answer Check. A pure. is 12. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. . 2 ic = a. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x = + 2 or x =2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Transposing. 6#2 = x* 24. or equation of the second degree. 2)* + 5 = 33. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 178 .
or Therefore. 2 4fc 5' 18. 4 ax. 2. ' =: y? b* b . 4. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. Solve 179 . 10. . 19 + 9 = 5500. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 7. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 16^393 = 7. : 83 2. 15^5 = 6. (a? 9. 2 2 a. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 3. 7 = 162. ax Transposing and combining. 8. 5. .2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6(2)=10(ajl).25.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.
2 : 3. 4. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 228. 28. . solve for v. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. : 6. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 27. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 26.) of their squares 5. 2a f 1 23. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). find a in terms of 6 . Find the numbers. and their product : 150. 3. EXERCISE 1. ' 4. If G=m m g . 108. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If 22 = ~^. A right triangle is a triangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 2 . 22 a. 25. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. then Since such a triangle tangle. is 5(5. r. If a 2 4. Find is the number. Find the side of each field. . Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2. 24. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .b 2 If s If =c . solve for d. 2 . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. solve for r. 29. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. may be considered one half of a rec square units.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . (b) 100 feet? = . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . (b) 44 square feet.2 7 . Find the radii. and the other two sides are as 3 4. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . is and the other two sides are equal.) 13. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. radii are as 3 14. A body falling from a state of rest. Method of completing the square. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find the sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 4. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 8. we have of or m = . The area $ /S of a circle 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. 9.7 x f 10 = 0. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. Solve Transposing. To find this term. sides. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Find the unknown sides and the area. and the two smaller 11. add () Hence 2 . Find these 10. 2m. J = 12. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. . x* 7 x= 10. 24. of a right triangle Find these sides.
Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.1. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . = \ # = ff. Ex. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Transposing. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Therefore. J. = 6. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a. (*~8) a = at . 7 5 + 10 = 0. adding member). 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.a. = x\ = 2.2 a2 . 230. Transposing. Ex.  \.e.x(l = . 62 x 5 = f. 2 a* a.. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. = . Uniting. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Hence Therefore Check.2. a Clearing of fractions.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. or x = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. . or J. Extracting square roots. 2  . Simplifying.
4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
ao. 49. =0. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . \bx\. =8 r/io?. Solution by formula. 2x 3 4. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. article.c = 0. = 12.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. and c in the general answer. x la 48. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.
10. 15. 14. 1. 2 a? = 44 x . 6. 6 .4 4 5 . 19. 21. 7. 20.  .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. V^tT)* . 2or } 5o. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. = 12 . 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 17.25 x. 2. a. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2 . 2 o. 16. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2 a. 3. = 64120?. 4. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. Reducing to general form. 6. c = 5. 8.15 x9 25x* = 21 . c p. 2. 18. 9. ?i 2 . 6^+5^ 56. 11. 6 Ex. b =  + 20 == = 0.. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 7^ + 9 x 90. 26. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 12. 5 x2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 13. TIO.
x. Bx 1 1. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.5 Solving (1) and (2). 24. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 233. 5 = 0. x2 = 1 . = 0. ar>8o. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 1. if either of the uct is zero. x(x <2 . Factoring.5) =0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. orz roots. 26. or # 5 is zero. Solution by factoring. Clearing for fractions. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. any degree. = 14. Eesolving into factors. a=:i^^. (5 a? !)(. 27 x== 42a. Transposing. . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. transposing terms to one member. member can be Ex. 23. 2S3x 1 2 . = 0.2. factors Now. 25. and 6. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.4) = . }. 5) = 0. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 3x?+x = 7. 0.
:=0. Ex. x2 f 2 x . let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 4. The equation I. 2. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. Therefore x =3 = 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3.24 = 0. a?.e. 3 or 2 a. aj( 15. 7. } 2 2 (5 . + 9 f 20 x = 0. is 5) = 0.3)(x + 3 3. 0(02) = 7(02). such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Or Hence the 234. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. (aj4)(a. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 0^ ar> 11. 2o3 f9a. evidently (x Or 4)(x . : 87 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 13.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 6. we 9 obtain x 4. 9. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 3. a?10a=:24. 5. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 4or + 18a f 8a.g. 3) Factoring. E. 14. 8. 3) = 0. for a: .= 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. + 100. + 6)=0. + 10 a = 24. ar'Sa^ 12. 3# y 5 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 16. 5 = 0. 12. a* 10a=24. 2.(. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.6)) = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 8=s: 7. O roots are 2. 4)(z3) = 0.
w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 18. uz + u 21.3) = (s + l) (3 a). ara + ft + c*. 23. 27. 20. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 25. '3a!J  . 19. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). (a + 1) (a. 50.188 17. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 22. a 2 =(x a)b. (2a? 3) (a 24. 2.
2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. 5. and consequently many prob 235. 6. 3. 54. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and whose product 9. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 52. 56. Find the sides. 57. and equals 190 square inches. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 2. 4.3. 1. The 11.0.2. : 3. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 7. two numbers is 4. 58. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.3. of their reciprocals is 4. G. 55. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The difference of . The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the number. and the difference Find the numbers.0. number by 10.3. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers. 2. 3. Find the number. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. . PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 0. 8. feet. and whose sum is is 36. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 1. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .9. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 5.1.
. dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. as the 16. ABCD. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 19. 14. sold a horse for $144. 15. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and Find the sides of the rectangle. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200.10. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If he each horse ? . and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. other. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 13. Two vessels. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ply between the same two ports. A man cent as the horse cost dollars.190 12. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. Find the rate of the train. 17. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. What did he pay for 21. watch for $ 24. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. he would have received two horses more for the same money. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other.
24.) 25. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 1. of the area of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. a point taken. or x = \/l = 1.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Ex. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 237. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is On the prolongation of a line AC. the two men can do it in 3 days. 27. Find and CB. and working together. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. how wide is the walk ? 23. so that the rectangle. contains B 78 square inches. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. By formula. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. constructed with and CB as sides. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. (tf. . as 0. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. ^3^ = 7. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 23 inches long.
^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 6. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 12. 4 a. 4 : 89 10a. or y = 8. 7. = 1. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.192 238. 19. aV+9o 4 =0. 2. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a.T 2 2 . = 13. 9. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a4 5o. Ex. T 17. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.2 =4. Solving. Hence Le. 2 h9:=0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4. 2 16 a^40 11. 16. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 436 3. a. 4 6. >.)+72=0. a? 15 1=2*. y8)=0. 10. 18. a 21or=100. 8.
negative. is 4ac not zero.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . and equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are rational. 241. rational. 240.5) = 04.12 x + 9 = 0. 2.bx 4. Hence the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. Ex. Relations between roots and coefficients. 3. the roots are equal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.f> = 0. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.2) 2 4 3 (.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are imaginary. Ex. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. . b 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 1. a perfect square. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. and unequal.2 z . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. ( 2a Hence 1. the roots are irrational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are unequal. c the roots are real. The discriminant =(. rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.
2a 4z5 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 2 : 3. 24. 14. = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 21. 60 2 = 0. 3a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 12 2  . 2.g. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. ^12. = 0. + 2a. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 6.19 # 20. 2 a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 12~x = x 2 . 18. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 5aj 9. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. = Q. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. their product isf. 9a3 = 0.. 4. = 5x. + 2a15 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 17. 2 7. f 2 E. : a 2 .194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 15. = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 12. lla. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 23. + 18 2 8. tfmx+p^Q. x2 7 10. 22. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. o.
while the second of the first. It is. however. that a an = a m+n . = a"" < . must be *The symbol smaller than. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . hence. We assume. II. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. such as 2*. > m therefore. for all values 1 of m and n. ~ a m f. no Fractional and negative exponents. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. provided w > n. m IV. (ab) . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . a m a" = a m+t1 . (a m ) w . The first of these laws is nition of power. 244. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.* III. and . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. Then the law of involution.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242.a" = a m n mn .
a?*. . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. (bed)*. e. n 2 a. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. etc. 31. laws. a . = a. 25. '&M A 27. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 29. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 4~ . (xy$. 30. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. as. Assuming these two 8*. 3*. m$. fractional.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of.g. disappear. a\ 26. at. 23. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. a*. 0?=^.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 24. ml. 245. 28. or zero exponent equal x. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.
= 2. 45. 42. a . v/o&cT 34. e. 40. 46.\/n. Solve the following equations 39. 44. \/xy \/m. 27* = 3. : 197 33. = 49. the base is zero. 7z* Find the values of 47. hence is . 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a* * = 3. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a. equal to unity. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 38. 50. ty?. : 2' 4* = 4. 37. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 48. To find the meaning of zero exponent. If.g. a * a2 Or a=l. 246. \fi?. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 49. Let a = a. 43.g. 35. Vo5 . 41. e. 3* = 27. however. = 2.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 5 a* = 10. v'mT 36.
Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. or the exponent. by changing the sign of NOTE. Or a"# = l. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. etc. e. 248. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.2 = a2 . . Multiplying both members by a". a8 a 2 = 1 1 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. vice versa.g. cr n. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Let x= or". consider the following equations.198 247.
^L. 39. . 44. a^ 41. a. 25. c 32. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. m . ^?2 y' 34. 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . 2 . 27. 3 a. 66 45. . 36. rfS. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 37. 22. : or 5 . 40."* 38. 7~ l a 2b 2 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 2m~i 43. * 24. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a? * 42. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . : mi m~^.
= 5. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.(.26)* 1 (I) 2 . of: 3ll4~* 60. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 61. z* = 1. 49. = l. 53. = . 10* 5* = .6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 59. 250. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + 1~* f 21 .008)* + A. + A_.81 f (a . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z 5or*=10. 47. 52. 55. ar = i. 48. 17' 2 51.001.9*. 58. 10* Find the values 56. = ^. Ex. (. 1. . 57. 54.343)* + (.1.
4 a8 . Remove the negative exponents.7*. S'sS8. 72 . 7*.7W. 3 a. 17.$". . 6..3 aj" a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 7. 4 5. 95 ^9i 5**. remove the fractional exponents. 14. ' 11. 3sVS.4 .7i. are performed.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 27  28. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. &. 7~ 5 27  .&.$*. . 8 ' 9. 26. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 12. a. etc.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 16.5a. NOTE. 7~ 6 . 16. 23. 79 . 13. 6a. #* a.5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.&. 10. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. Perform the operation indicated. (d) If required. OA 20. 6 *. V5.6 *' 6 *25. 18. 3. 4 x^.^/5^5. / 7fv 7.
34.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 6 35. powers of x arranged are : Ex. If powers of a?. 2. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . 1. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 40. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. A/2. 32. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 5V2. Simplify V~ . 27. 28. 38. 26. ^30. 34.10 V2 =  V2. ^126. signs. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 30. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . </2.2 V50. V2. v/3. To add or form. V3. ^3. 29. Simplify/a35 ~ o . I VJ + 3VT8 . s!/3.e. Ex. 39. 3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. (i. V5.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. in order of magnitude : \/7. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^2. ^6. 40. ^4. V2. 33.3\ . if dissimilar. VS. + . </3. 36. 37. 31. V3. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^7. A/3. ^4. </20. V2. \/7. ^5. ^2. v/4. Arrange 35. 2\ 3*. v/3. v^S. \/5. connect them by proper 1. subtract surds. Ex. ^/IT.2. 4^/4.
9. 8VT8J2V32 7.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. V175V28+V634V7. VJ+V8V1 + V50. . VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 3. 11. 13. + 3V835V2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 8. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 12. 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4. 6. 4V805V45. 10. 6. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .
Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . and then multiplied. 3. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 23. 6*.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex. . y* = Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 26^ . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. .6V35 106 460V35100 . 1. Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105.
RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 14.^/2. a?. 13. (Va Va 36. V2 V50. 37. + VB)(2V5). V20 V30. Vll. VTO. 34. V2aV8^. . 41. 213 98 11. 38. V42. (2V3) 8 . VlO V15. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 27. (3 20. 39. fWa 17.VSS. 12. 4. 2. aVa. 40 10 30. 21. v/4. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 9. v/18 v"3. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 25. 18. V3 V6. 6. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 2 . 40. 3. (V6 + 1) 1 . 6. 19. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 15. V3 Vl2. 6 V4 5. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 10. 8. 7. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . \/3 \^). 28 .
49.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 46. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). the quotient of the surds is If. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Ex. 47. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 53. Ex. is 1 2. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (2 45. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 43. (5V2+V10)(2V51). E. V3 . 48. 268. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Va v/a.y. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 52.214 42. 44. 51. 60. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . a fraction. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. .
4\/3~a' 36 Ex.RADICALS This method. 3. however. is illustrated by Ex. by V7. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.by the usual arithmetical method.g. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205. Evidently. arithTo find. . The 2.57735. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . . e. /~ } Ex. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. metical problems afford the best illustrations. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have V3 But if 1. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Divide VII by v7.. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 1.
Vn V7 ' * 8. 271. 23 . V8 JL. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V5 = 2.2361. 272. V48 25. and Given V2 = 1.4142. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V2 22 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. ^/H . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 21. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .. 7. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. A. .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 20. VffV?. i. V5 270. Vll 212*.7320. 14. V3 24 . V8 12. V3 = 1. .
3. . V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. Ex.vffi^T _ .2.RADICALS Ex. . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . s Simplify a.Vs2 . 1. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .= 18.1 xVtf a.
V21 = 25 .218 6 . Given V2 1. v 2V3 28. : and V5 = 2. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.5 3 = 125.7320.W3. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 24. = V3 = 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 27. By the use of fractional exponents . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.2361. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 .4142. J?_. V5V7 18> ^SVg. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . Vo1 26. . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 6V7. 19.
2. 9. V255 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. the If. 2 12. it to this form. \/l6*. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. v8f 2\/15. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . V643 . 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 11.RADICALS 219 274. . 4. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 8. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. According to G3. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. on the other hand. viz. 1. Simplify Ex. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/125" . 5. In other examples of involution and evolution.
Find V4 + VJ8. 2.6 V2. ^TT.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 3. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. The Hence ^11 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.A/2.6\/2 = ^9 . Find Vll . 2 \/18. and whose product is 18. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20. +2 Ex.220 Ex. is 11.
they are transto formed into rational equations. VT . = xa + 4 x f 4. r 22. 8. by raising both members equal powers. Radical equations are rationalized. are radical equations. 4. i. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. x2 = x f 2. Ex. The value x =2 reduces each . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. first involution. a. Dividing by Check. Transposing and uniting. 5. V48 23.e.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 19. +=. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.. 4x x = 2. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. : 221 Vl32V22. 277. (2x xrf 1. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. . member to 2. Before performing the involution. Solve vVf!2a = 2.1.V48 4 20.
. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. tion which has two roots. . Therefore CftecAr. a socalled extraneous root. 2. a.1) = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Extraneous roots. 5. viz.222 Ex. V24~+~l = 0. 278. the first member = V2. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2.3. Transposing and uniting. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 3. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Squaring both members. Ex. Therefore Check. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. at . 4#f 4 = 9. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Factoring. one root. Dividing by 24. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. It = 3 x . Transposing and uniting. V4afT~l. x = J. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. they may be extraneous roots. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. f 25 = 12. viz.
48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. . ViTie 4 z2 .2 r. Hence there is only one root. . + 6~ieT~3 . NOTE.47) = 0. viz. x root of the preceding equation. Therefore. Hence x = the only root. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5. If If x 3 = 3. Squaring. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. (x x = 3. is x V.12 . Solve the following equations : = G.RADICALS Hence x If a. Transposing.3) (2 x . the right member = V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Check. and to 5. or x *j. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Factoring. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given. equation it is an extraneous root. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. . = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. 223 x = 3.
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1. Ex. Solve af*. Therefore . Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0.
_ 2 y . 45 14VJB = . members of the equation were squared. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. x =6 or 3. x Since both =9 or 1.35 = 0. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x + Vx a? = 6. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 2. = 26. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2Va. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.f40= 5. some of the roots be extraneous. Vi 2 8a. 2_8z 440 = 49. o. 4. . = 7. This can be seen without substituting. Let 8 x f 40 . Ex. 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 3.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Q . + 40 = 6. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 z40 = 7.i~24 = 0. Substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.*2a. 412a* = 16. 2. 3 6. = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. y then x2 .
19.226 11. 4 V SB* 4 a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .a 440 = 35. +3= 6. a. 2. 15. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. a^x2 5 2 13. 16. 17. +x . 18.f 18 = 24. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 12. 20. 14.
substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. then (x 2)Q 0. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. a? R = x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. Hence. 1.4 a. ax4 4.2 x 5 by x 3. to x we # = 2 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Ex. 227 . ^ = 381+2. = 2. If x* .360 = 244.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . if Q was known. even if Q is unknown. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. however. " Or.2 + 4.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?)." transposing. Without actual division. by dividing 3 x* f. 2.2 + 80 = 12. does not contain a?. Without actual division. find the remainder when m.2) Q . 3 2 Ex. we make a? what the value of Q.bx? + ex2 4. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. no matter If. could. E = ax + &z + m) Q.
fora?.4(. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 5. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.8'= 0.3)f 11 =. The Factor Theorem. + 6. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. if 8 42  .g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.949. 43 3 E. 2 j 7. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 5 (4x .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . the remainder equals 8 2 x . 3.g. of the division 3) is m in place of x. } 2 by a1. x* s 2 4. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + ^by x + b. 8. x m is factor of the expression. hence (x divided by x 4.228 282. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.8. If the remainder is zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.
8. Let x = . 7 46 = 0. 3 2 : 7. + ttt15 = 0. 1.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. + 15. 2. a^8^ + 19a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. a 8a f 19 a 12. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 2m 5m . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.7 + 16 . 1. 2 2. 17. a 2a + 4. 229 1. 23. ^10^429^20=0. 6. 11.r6 = 0. 3. 5. 20. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. f 5. or x 4. Therefore x ( 1). are f 1. oj 5x2 f3a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a? 19. f 15 does not vanish. a + 32. 15.1. a 5x 6. _ . x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . Resolve into factors 4. The 5.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 25. . 18.e. m f m n 14.12 = 0.9^ + 23^15. f 3. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.7 x + 15 = 0. 9. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.12. Factor a? 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. or 5 4 + 3^ . 106 division. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . then x8 7 x'2 4.13m + 30 10. a. is a factor. 24. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 8. i. p 5^ + 8p 4.49 = 0. factors of the absolute term. & p*. + 27 + 27. 21.
2. 286. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. x* f/ = (x +/)O .xy +/). ar +p= z6 e. 2 Ex. xn f. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if w is odd. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. It y is not divisible by 287.230 285. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Ex. xn y n y n y n = 0. actual division n.g. By we obtain the other factors. For substituting y for x. is odd.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n is even. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 1. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz." . : importance.
Hence = (m Ex.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. preferable. leads 231 is The first method. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). x3 8=0. 3. as 27=0. 27. however.= . since it more directly to the prime factors. 28. y 3 +8=0. 26. a. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.
If two of the quantities x f y. x y. ==5 > 1^ = 4.1. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. 290. xy are given.y4 is of the fifth degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. xywe have 3. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. (5) Combining (5) with (1). * A I. of quadratics. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. can be solved by the methods degree. + 6 a?V . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. in general. Squaring Solve (1). = 6. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. however. 4 xy = 16. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 232 . & + 2 xy + = 25. (4) Hence. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.
but can be found. x and xy are not given. the answers of the last example are : r*=2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 12. 108 2. 233 y. " "' "' { r 8. EXERCISE Solve: 1. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. r (" 1 = 876.g. The arranged in pairs. 1. b=3. = . I I x + y=7. ^. ' 10. 3.
 f J. I x+y = a.. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Substituting in (2) Simplifying. one linear and ne quadratic.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.i/ = r 13. la. + 29 = 0.a. 2 (1) From (1) we have. or y = 1 . 7 . aj = 2.o 18. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. . Factoring. or JJ. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. I* Jj ^ [. Ex. 5. 19. 6 "I 14. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 3. . x " (3) 49 etc. 4 y = 20. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  . ' ' . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.?/ i = 6.  42 y + Transposing.~ y = 5. r^ 2 as ] f. A system of simultaneous equations. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.20) = 0.
quantities. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 10. 3y) : Factor (2). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. III. ' x*. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 1. Solve .3 2x 2 Ex. = 1 3 3. If of the preceding type. 4 f + 2 y = 3. ':il e :) . x2y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 9. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. y* + 2y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3 y2 Substituting in (1).
(1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. j Substituting y in (2). 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = Ex. 109 a.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. Solve 2. 15 x2 . 2 . = 0. (1) (2) x x 5. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). } VI09. 2.
which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. E. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). and others not belonging to them. 2 xy + y2 = 10. Division of one equation by the other. " IV. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. A. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).175 ay = 12. ' ^ 15. (4) (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Bxy9. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.!. f 1 150 a?. .3^42^=43.125 ay = .y = 7. 298. 150 */2 .6. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. y? a? f . can be solved by special devices.xy 4.
considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . y = 3. Some simultaneous ?/. (1 > (2) 1. y . B. x 2 . we have from (1). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Solve Ex. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.. Therefore x = 16. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. x +y y etc. = 189. = 12 J. we obtain by squaring. * ' 300. i ^ *>. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. quadratics can be solved by ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. 2. xy. jc~ y = 9. at first it is unknown quantities. f^ + 3 7/ = 133.
2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . F+y+ . . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 6. I e. [2x + : y= 17. 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. 4. M6. 239 Ex.
2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . 25.21 ^ = 15.4 y = 47 a.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 19 ' 26. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . = y 1 y* . * . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. = 198. 16. 27.
The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. Q 7. oo 301. = 48201.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. finite  =x y if = x. 30. 32. . . 31.of  According to the definition of division. ^ oo . . etc. 25 34. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. y % 9 f*K 36. hence may be any finite number. 7' j/ 39. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . or ~ indeterminate. as a . 3 a2 38. etc 302. ~\ OK OO. 33.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Interpretation . .
+ I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . (1). be the numbers. TO^UU" sufficiently small. 1. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.000 a.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 1. oo is = QQ. . 306. it is an Ex.e. Let 2.242 303. i. the answer is indeterminate. The ~~f fraction .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. without exception. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Or. and . cancel. (1) = 0.increases if x de x creases. x f 2. i. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.can be If It is made larger than number. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. (1) is an identity.x'2 2 x = 1. or that x may equal any finite number. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.g. as + l. is satisfied by any number. = 10. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. (a: Then Simplifying. . I. By making x any * assigned zero.decreases X if called infinity. and becomes infinitely small. great. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. equation. ToU" ^100 a. Hence such an equation identity. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. creases.
Solve . 4 3 x x5 a2 . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. is their 2. two numbers is 76. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.e. Solve  9 7. y finite QO. 2. z = 1 Substituting. Solve x a. 42 and' their product is 377. 1=0. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). The sum is of squares 2890. third and sixth parts. and a. 3. Hence /. * 6. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. and the sum of Find the numbers. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.8 x + 15 6. (2). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. = oo. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. .
) 53 yards. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the other two sides. and the diago(Ex. 148 feet of fence are required. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the edges. 10. of a rectangular field feet. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the numbers. 103. two numbers Find the numbers. 190. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. p.244 3. Find the edge of each cube. 14. is 6. the area becomes f% of the original area. 8. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. of a right triangle is 73. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find these sides. Find the dimensions of the field. . 6. increased by the edge of the other. 9. 146 yards. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the sides of the rectangle. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the side of each square. 12. equals 4 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the sum of ( 228. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the edge of one. 13. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find the sides.quals 20 feet. The area of a nal 41 feet.
(Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) 17. . irR *. is 20 inches. Find the radii. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. Find the number. the quotient is 2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and if the digits will be interchanged.
. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. 3. 15 is 9 f. 19. added to each term to obtain the next one. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. a 11. 17. : 7. P. Hence / = a + (n . P.) is a series. An arithmetic progression (A. series 9. the second a descending. (n 1) d must be added to a. each term of which. The progression is a. 10. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. The first is an ascending. and d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.. 3 d must be added to a... 4. The common differences are respectively 4. 2 d must be added to a. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a f d. 309. P. . f ... 12. a. 11. to each term produces the next term.. . progression.. of the following series is 3. a 3d. . a + d. To find the nth term / of an A. to produce the nth term. of a series are its successive numbers. to produce the 4th term.7. 16. the first term a and the common difference d being given. except the first. + 2 d. to produce the 3d term..1) d. Since d is a f 3 d. a + 2 d.
Find the 5th term of the 4. 19. 1.. 8.4. 10..8. 3. 5. d = 3. = 99. P.. 9. 4. 7. 9. if a = 5. P. 3. (a + + (a + l) l). 6. Find the 12th term of the 4. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . 2. . . Adding.. . 1J. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 5... of the series 10. = I + 49 = *({ + .. 7. series . 21.. the term a. . 6 we have Hence .. 8.. 7. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. 5. 5. the last term and the common difference d being given. 24. Find the nth term of the series 2. . 2. 2 EXERCISE 1... (d) 1J.. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. P..PROGRESSIONS 310. d . = a + (a Reversing the order. 2J. 6.. 1. series 2..' cZ == . 99) = 2600.. 115. 3. 4^... 5. 6.16.3 a = l. ? (a) 1. 8. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 3. a = 2. Find the 101th term of the series 1.
22. 2. . 11. . In most problems relating to A. and for each than for the preceding one. to 10 terms. 11. 16. Jive quantities are involved. . Sum the following series 14. 11. 18. to 7 terms. to 20 terms. 20. 12. 21. 7.248 Find the 10. 31. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 17. \n. 12. P. 33. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 8 terms. 29.. (i) (ii) . (x +"l) 4. and a yearly increase of $ 120. '. 8. 1. 7. 16. 7. .7 f to 12 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 15. 11. to 15 terms. rf. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 2J. 23. to 20 terms. . 1. . striking hours only. to 20 terms. 6. 13. 4. 19. + 3. hence if any three of them are given. to 16 terms. strike for the first yard. 15.1 f 3. 15. 1. : 3. 3. > 2f 2.5 H + if f to 10 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . . 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 1J.
P. 100. 122. 45.6 n). Ex. = n(104 . #. = a + (w. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 12. 204 = ^ (98 . n = 6. 6 n2 . = 1014. 144. = 144. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 34. I Substituting in (I) and (II). = 13. The series is. or 11 J.1). is 12. 111. The first term of an A. I. 133. . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 78 n Substituting in (1). 6. Findn. 67. 56. P. if s = 204. s 24ft last term 144. J = 49. Solving. d = 6. a = 49 6(71 ..e.104 w + 408 = 0. if a. the and the sum of all terms 1014. Substituting in (2).. or if x Solving. .PROGRESSIONS Ex.1) . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. and b form an A. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 1. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). But evidently n cannot be fractional. 312. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A.6. hence n = 6. Find the series. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 23. a = 12. = 1014. n d. From (1). 2.~n~\ 408 6). the second one mean between the other two. 89. l)e?. P. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 78.
= 83. y and #f5y. P. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. has the series 82. Find a Given a = 7. a x f b and a b. n = 16. 10. Find d and Given a = 1700. 7. 13. 16. s == 440. a+ and b a b 5. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = 4. = ^ 3 = 1. n = 4. 11. = 52. Find?. n. I Find I in terms of a. m and n 2. 78. = 17. = 16. and s. d = 5. 14. 15. Find a and Given s = 44. Find d. Find w. . Find d. n = 17. produced. 8. = 45. How much . ceding one. 4. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 3. Given a = .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 1870. n has the series ^ j . Given a = 1. How much did he save the first month? 19. n = 20. f? . Given a = . Find n. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 17. f J 1 1 / . 74. of 5 terms 6. 12. s = 70. 6? 9. T? ^. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. n = 13. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. I.3.
g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. called the ratio.) is a series each term of which. P. 24. 2 a. 36. 4. the first term a and the ratios r being given. The progression is a. . P.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. E. . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . ar8 r. 12. r n~ l .. <zr .. +1. is it (G. . The 314. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. of a G.. P. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. or. is 16(f) 4 . 36.. NOTE.. ratios are respectively 3. ar. rs = s 2 . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. .... If n is less : than unity. I. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 36. 24. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).arn ~ l . 108.g. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . . A geometric progression first. and To find the nth term / of a G. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 4 (1) .. 2. .. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. (I) of the series 16. 4. or 81 315.
1._!=!>. 25. . is 3. I = 670. or 7. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.. And the required means are 18. Find the 5th term of a G. 72. 288. Hence n = 7. first 5. whose and whose second term is 8. f. f. \ t series . . P.18. .. +f%9 % . i 288. fa. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.. 144.. . 36.*. 80. 8. P. . 7. 4. first term is 125 and whose common . 6.72. first term 4. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. fa.. 2 term 3. . 36.5. (d) 5.. 36.. Jive quantities are in.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. P. series . 3.. if any three of them are given.288. 676. 144. . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. In most problems relating to G. a = I.l.. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. is 16. . series 5. r^2.6.18. P. ... Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. (it. series 6. P.4. (b) 1. 4. 576. 20. whose . whose and whose common ratio is 4. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 72. . EXERCISE 1. .. . 9. 18.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.5. 9.. volved . hence. 10. l. Find the 6th term of the series J. ? (c) 2. 9. Hence the or series is 0.54. + 5. 144. 0. Ex.
may be than any assignable number. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find a and n = 4.. 22. 2. 4. 54. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 21. s = 605. Z s. . 48. s = 310.. 14. 72. 27. >"> . to 7 .. and hence ~ r . to 8 terms. . J. . . + 4 .. be written If the value of r of a G.nV> i*> !718. to 7 terms. a. = 3. 42. 24. J. 19. = 3. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Find the geometric mean between 7. 12.. 16 . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. . to 6 terms. 1. M. J. to 6 terms. 12 terms.i a9 . . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 13. 15. 25S series : 32.. 23. is less than unity. 36. Find a and 4.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 1. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 20. of r n decreases. to G terms. to 6 terms. n = 5. r . Find a and Given r = 3.J and 270. J.. 81. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. n = 5. to 5 terms. P. 81. I. a^. 14. 243. == 160. 126. Given r = n Z 5.
= 990 .. 1. is J..072 + . 12.. and the first term is Find 17. 2. ... i.3121212.. . = a . . .272727.. . 6.Ql. ...191919. 16.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 1.. P.= . If a = 40. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. = ..)7?7272 . 40.. . (6) the sum of the perimeters.37272 . 4.. is 9.. 1 r = . 8..254 Ex.. The sum r. . 250.27777 . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. is 16.555... =A+ 10 i. of: 11. 100. 66 Therefore . what is (a) the sum of the areas.. .72. .. r = j. 5.. P...3727272 .3 + . 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . = . 7. P. ratio 15. I.00072 f . 13..99 . 2. Find the sum to infinity... 9. Hence . 9.1. . .. 12. . 4. Find the value 9.717171. 1. 14.= _4Z* . . 16. 3.. The sum Find the of an infinite G. i i J..01 ^ .072. 8. of an infinite G. .. 10. of all squares ? . . 1. first and the common term. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.. Given an infinite series of squares. 6. .
(s + i). (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . a6 8 16 in . 15. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. (a 100 . 2 2 24. . (a2) 6. . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. : (1 + xy. 29. 16. (\ 9 . 20. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . l 2.6) . Find the 6th term of (x . 4. 7 .6) 20 . (xy) : 6 . 28. (a + b) . coefficient of . . 12.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 10. 13. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 25. 17. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 21. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 4 7. 11. . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b ). 14. 5.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. /2a+Y\ 8. 22.b) w (a (a f (1 . 26. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.
2. 3. 2. 2. if = = = 2. . 5. + 1. 4. 1. 3. 5. 3. if y=2j 2. y 3. c = = = 2. 2. 3. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. 6. 1. 2. if x^l. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . = 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 2. 6. 2. 7. if a ft c = = = 4. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. 1. 4. 3. 4. 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . ^+^ 3. 4 ft  c) 2. + 2. 3. . 4. 3. 1. 5. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 .c )(fta) 1. 3.f ac 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 3. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3.  8 ^ 2. 2. 5. + 2. 1. 2 . 3. 3. 2. 1. 1. 2. if = = 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 1. 3. 6. 3. ft 4 ) 5. l. ft) . 5. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 2. 3. 5. 3. 4. 2. 2. 3.  2. aft 3 + 4. 1. 4. 1. + c(a  c). 2. 2. 2. 3. 3.  2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. (c 3. 2. 4. 1. 2. 6. 5. 4. 2. 3. 5.  a)(a 1. 24 4. 1. c if 7 . 1. 2. a ft c = = 2. 1. 3. 4. 3. 2.a(a 4. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 6. 2.
xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . a /> 3. 5. (5. 6. + 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. f 8. 15. + 8 x4 *y . 21. 10. 5. 2.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . a.2 x?/.7 + . 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .4. c = 3. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + 4 ?y . a: . 3. ~c)(b. 15. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.2 a?y + 3 aty . 6 a4 4 a8 . 4. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 21. 4 y 13.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 8.  a) (c 2. 25. 5. 7 xy 3 .a) . r> . x3 2 a2 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . if a 6 = = c = 3. 9. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. ' b) + 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 24. 9. . 4. 4.a 4 . 2. 8 .7 ys.7 y 2* 4.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .c' 2 4 / . 1. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.5 xy 3 + + 4 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.5.a8 .a 5 a .x 5 4 . a.3 xyz. 5. 1. x 3 x' 14. 26. + 1. x 3 11. + 2. . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a 4 + 11 a . 2 x 8. 2  + 12 a 8 . or .2. x C 4 4x y + . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 29. 16. x = 4. 4 x 4 . 12.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.r 6 x  4 xy . = 2.2 x2 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .259 x c) . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 40. 7.\ yz + xz. + 3 y 2* .2.2 z8 4 x. 41.3 a?y . 20. b(x (b 1. 2 . c)(x a} . 2.8 3 + 7 x4 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .10.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 4 z . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .8 + 2 // . 18.1. 7y 4 . . 17. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . . 3. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .
33.c 4 3 a. Take the sum of 3 x 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .x2 . From of 2 the 4. . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .2 a . 29.4 ft) 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .c 3 a.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.27~~7)}].5. c =x y }~ z. x8 x2 2 a'2x.3 . 4 . take the sum of G x 5 . : a x . 2 x 32. 36. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].1)}] .3 x .4 Vl 4.4. c 4ft.8 3 4.(4 * . 7 12 .x .2 3 ax 2 . f ft.4) . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. and .3 . 0" 30. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 5 10 4 G 11 4.?> x 4 20. .{2 x 2 . . Simplify 31.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .(5 c .a ft. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(5 y . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . of a.] 26. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.[4 x 4.6T .{G * 2 . a  ft + c.(x* . 34. 4 3 5 y/ . 3 ft. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2 x 8y2 44 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .3.5 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 4vTT~y 3. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 5 4 7 12 .c.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.2 ..x 2 4.1).7. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . (*) a  c. sum of . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.2 .(7 x 4. ft 25. . 542 x 2 and . . ft. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.2) . 5 10 + 7 .x 4. Take the sum 4x 4.260 19.x . 4 2 x2 23. x'2 .(4 x 2 .#48. = x y ft z.6 x ] .c. 4 4 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.(x 4.(a . c 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 35.[4 z 8 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.
(2 a + 5 a . 62. 49. 4 + 2 2 + 1). 2 2 x + !)(* .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).3c). 68. 59. (x. (x . 64.a~^~c)K]. (. 60.2 2 .(7 a. (4 + 3a 2 .3 z 2 ).[2 .[4 x  5 .2 zz . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 52. 54. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].(4 d .3)(*5)(* 7). . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 46. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.2c(V/ .c 2 .4 a . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .{2 a (ft .  2 a  {3 2x a .4 a 2 + a 4 ).ac .(2 a 2 .6)}].r 2:c+ l)(ar.3 c)].6c) (a + f c).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.(2 . 'J 44. a . 57. .ab .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 45. 48. )(lz a ). 2 ft 41.{3 c . 43. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2)(1 .12).(6 . 2 f [3 c 7 a .5 )}] + {4 c .96 [17 a. (1 55. + 4x + 5)(j.be) (a 58.3 *). . .2x + 3).6 xy .(2 x2 . (1 ar+a. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.56.& + {. (/> 4 . (r (1 (a.7). 63. 50.2 2 + 1)(7.1). . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 56.{2 a .2a .c). (5 a 39. 67.Z .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 2 53.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 65. 2 : 7e)a}].(7 i + 4 r:) .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3). 13 a . + *+!){> + 2).b (c . a {. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 51. 3 x 42.(5 y .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. .0)} .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).JT^T+1)} + (2 .5)} + (3 a 2 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . .rf)} + a [.
85.m np c . . 2 + a 2 ).6*y .(a 48 8 8 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .3y) a (* 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).2 (a . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.z\x 4. 77.b 4.c .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).am&t 4 A 2 *).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).2 ft}) f (3 a .5 .c) 4) (ft 4. b 4.c) rr identities.c) 2 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 1).(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.ft) + 4(2 . 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .c) .(/>  3 v)^(. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .(ft 4.(4 .(a 2) (s 4 ft.<f(p . 93.q).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. .c) . 90.O (a 4(a 4. 1). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.262 69. 76.c .3 a .r 2 . ft ft ft a}. 71.n pc). 91. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . ft 95.y)\x y). 74. 75.c) j.ft) 4 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 82. (.z)(x y + z)(. ft /. 4 4 .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). (p 2 . ar .(c 4. xy y 2 ). 88. ft 78.3 (ft . 87.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).9y2). 79. f 72.{3 a .y + z)(x + y . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c)]. .y).a) 2 .x + y + z). 2 (x 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 83. (a 2 ft 2n 4.2 (y 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 94. 89. 86. 92.z) . 73. ft" l Simplify 80. 84. 70.v) 4. Prove the following 8 4. (x (x ( + *) . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c)} .:y)( a.2y)(.
16 a 6 4. 10). (8 x* 115.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 1O4.3 a"+ 4. 110. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).(7 xi/ . 103. . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .b) 98. 108.&). 120. 123. 114. 1). (80 a 112.v/ ~ // = a: . 116. 102. 26 (a 4 c). 109. [10( 4.9 x 2 . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.xy 4. 117.*) (x 8 .(a 1 2 8 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.6 y 4 4.2 2% 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (.27 x* .y 4 .4 aft .(2 a 2 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. (2< 107. 122.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 105. 99 100. a*. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .(x 2 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".5 b*).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 3*.35 x 2 2 ) . r .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . . 106.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 113.2y 2 4.40 />) . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 124. 25 4 .1).) .2 xy 8 .y 4 ) . 2 4 41 x 4a. 121. 2 (a+ .5 xy).a". 118.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.y 2 4.r 4 4.
10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . o o 140.5).3).G) .264 125.r>) . 139. . 143. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.2 7^~5] + 1). 136. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 7(2 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.27 a 3" .8 6 .(x + 3) ] . . (*+ + .5{.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3(* + 4) + 9} .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 2 4(ar . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2(j: .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).r + 7[or . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 128.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 5(2 x . 135.4) . . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.n .9) 4.3) (3 x 4.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2) = 3 .4) . . 10(2 x 141.2(10 x . 137. 142.19) + 5 = 4 .3(2 z .12 M 132.(x f 9).(j a? 144.1) (a? .3 x). .2) (a: + 3). 138. (4 x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . (5a: 150.(x . 5 146.2(4 . 42(3ar 145.9) + 3.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 1) = 2(* .3). 3) = x\x .7(4 * .(1 .3 a:).7) = 4 . 3(2 x 134.3) = 12 .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . x 147.5) = 12(4 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). . 129.4(0 x .2(5 .22.18 *&) (1 . 126.a:)]}. 149. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 1) . 127. 148. .1) . y (* l x.
7) (1 x .z) (4 .5(x .3) (3 . (a. (x (x a.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . transformed into F.2) a + 7(x . 156. (2 . 157. 5(ar x . 160.2 x) = (1 .5)(. . If the area of the frame inches.14) (a: + 3). + 5) = (9 .7) (a. 163. 2 4 .5 x) = 45 x .2 x) (4 .4) (a . (3 O + . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.3) (a: .8) = (2 x 4.(5 x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. .l)(z .. (7 14 . 159. these two angles would be equal. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. The second contains 3 first.5*) + 47.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 162.3) (j. 158. 166. a: ar a. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.6 x) (3 .5) = (3 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. The sum What 171. sheep more than the 169. + 4) (2 x + 5).2). There are 63 sheep in three flocks. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . (a .r + 3) . 164. 265 152. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. .17) 2 + (4 x . .19) + 42.24. 165.3) = (3 x . . = 2 C. 154. 153.3) (3 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. + 10) (ar . and the third twice as many as the first. 161.? .29) 2 = 1. = 15.25) 2 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.9) + (a. =  (F 32). + 2) + (5 .2) (j? + 1) + (x . (a) If C. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.a:) + 229. f^ + ^sO. will produce F. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2) (7 *) + (*. find the value of F.76.1) (s + 3). + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 155. How many 170.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.T)O .
sister . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. was three times that of the younger. 4 a 2 yy 42. . Find the dimensions of the floor. 181. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. +x 2. younger than his Find the age of the father. 12 m. 190. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. A boy is father. z 2 + x . and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.56. Find the number. How many are there in each window ? . 180. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. ll?/102. 2 2 + a _ no. train. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 178. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. x* 185. 3 gives the 174. 187. father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. if each increased 2 feet. respectively. 176. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. dimension 182. side were one foot longer. 188. 7/ 191. 186. A each 177. number divided by 3.266 173. 189. . aW + llab2&. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 179. power one of the two Find the power of each. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. + 11 ~ 6. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 10x 2 192. and 5 h. A house has 3 rows of windows. + a. . z 2 92. two boys is twice that of the younger. same result as the number diminished by 175. 15 m. 13 a + 3.36. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years.
212. 203. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 218. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 210. a: 236. a. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. a+a* + o a +l. 2 2 y f 1. . 246.(b + rf) 2 .c) 2 . 227.12 * . 2 a 2 .6 y2 + 4. 195. . a: . (a + . a.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .10 y a x* . ifWy+b. x*y 223. 2 . a. 23 12. 8 a. 235.8 6 2.3 c/> + 6 cq.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 245. + 3a 196. wiy + la mx + aw.22 z + 48. .3 xf + 3 * 2y .64. a: 231. 8 a: ar.10. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 4 m +^. *2 234. 3 x V . 2a te 3% ly 247. 2  5 xy 13 y a.19 z 4 204. 3y 248. 7a 228. z 2 2. 3y 2 + ary . x* + 8 2 + 15.20 z 8 a: 220. . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .28. 7x 2 225. 60 a 2  a: // 205.6 2 ?/ .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 213. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.14 2 . + 8.6 aq . 215. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 198.21 a:  54. + 2 . 216. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .c) 2  (a . 230. . + 30 x.1. a^a 226. 211. # 2  29 y + 120. 5 x 2. y 2 194. 208. 238. 209.x + 1. 267 199. 3 x 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .6s. 12 x +4. a. 24 2 + 2 .10 xy. 224. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 3 ap 2 . 2 x 2 .6. 222. 2 200. x 219. xm+l 243. 4a 2& 2 241. x 5 . 206. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 233. 201.3 xy. 229. z + 5x 2 . 6 197. a 2 . 239.19 a . .77 y + 150.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 207. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 232. a a: a: 237. 221. 217. 244. . 2 a 8 .r?/f y 2 9. 16x 4 81. 202.
11 a 2 .5 ab f 2.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . of: 266. a 4. x 2 + 4 + 3. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .11 x f 28. ft a.36.15. z 2 268.18 xy + 5.15 + 30. a. 264.2 aft*. x*y* 4. a 3 a 2 2 . 251. x* .10 a 4. . C. 10 a. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 15 # 2 z/ /. F.9 x + 14. 10 x 2 .4 ab + 1. 3 a% 2 .a + 2 4. 254. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x 2 263.3 abc .r .G7 x f 33. + 3 x + 2.9.48 afy 2 .4. 1 x ar Find the L. 261. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 .7 f 5. 6.16 x . 5 x 2 256.23 + 12. 3 #2 255.2/ 2 . 30 ^ . 7 ax 250.&z. + 8 x + 5. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 260.ry 21. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 265.73 xy .12.120.10. x 2 + 5 f . 2 .9 x . 28 2 f 71 x .x . + 8.ry .8. 270. 252. I Find the II. x 2 f 9j: + 20. x* .a 2 />c 2 f 3. + 23 x f 20. 7 12 2 2 .6 by.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .91.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .14 bx a%% 8 . 269. z 2 267. * 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. * 2 .13. * 2 . 18 x 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .C.(55.3.2 z .1 9 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. of: 253. 8 2 + 10 x . a? a: a: // 262. 2 a. 22x2 a. x 2 4. a: . 3 ay 4. * a . x 2 + 2 x .80. 258.3 x . 259. 257.M. 2 8 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.23 x f 20.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. + 20 x 4. 2 x2 .
!/.(y 2 z) * t (j. *2 " 2 + Oge. 289 ' .2c a: 282.ar 1 279.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 285 z4 n* + a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .rL..2* + 3 x* 280. a. + ac . z2 (a 2 + c)a. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 8 . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .
^_2*(m 308. a (: a) (x 2. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 6) _ ~ i 305. O(ca) 306. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . Lnl + ar 2 a.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 4 3 301. * 19 23 19(23 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" .
i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. . (1 . _ x8 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. ..(a .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. } . 1a: + y a.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (a? 4 2) 317. a: 1 313. 2 + y 2 319. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 _. 1 x2 + + a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.ft) 2 322.
B ~ 1037  329 4 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.ll.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 20 44 333. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . a: 2 x* .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.9 *// + 27 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.y20  2y + 4 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .6* t 328. .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x . . * 3a. 2 lOx 5x. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .2 +lOar 2 a.V  + y  x 3y a .5 a .. 250 5 10 2 325.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.15 33 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .
(a \ + lV. ' 2 "l 5 .. a: 349 _ o. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 5 343.y. + l + IV. a>74 . \x yj 340.) 2 . ( 342. 344. aj 339. +^ a: y x . \5yl 341. 7 ( ?f!?. ** i. (af2/. 348. if a = 3. ?_2 ^ . 1 345. 338. fl. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. + ni + . : 1+ i.r 5 2 . w \. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 352. (aWi + iJ.1V.+ r . (ar \ 346. xi 347. f V.
I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. (~ 364. _ + l a 359. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. 1+2 362. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. b c 368. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
379. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. __4 2x 3_ = !. + 1) 45 O 377. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 4(* . <3 378. 5 {2 x 381. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. J !__7. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5*8.*2 = 15. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 8  376.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. ^ . . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. .
.  8 9* x ~r.2 a:  1.75 x f . 396.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.  J). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 40. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.25 x + . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). b 404. + 4 a.147.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. m x 398. 3* 177. f 1 1 + a 403.5 ^ ~ a: a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar..8 = . 401.25. 397.5 x =r f . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. ^ (a .1 . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).6  . a. 399.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.. c .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 400. u '2 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). _____ .
and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Tn 6 hours .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Find the number. far did he walk all together ? A . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. and was out 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. 418 ~jo.(5 I2x ~r l a) . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . hour. 420. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . the order of the digits will be inverted. How long is each road ? 423. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.278 410.c) . (x . 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. In a if and 422. 411.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 421. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.
Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 438. Find the mean proportional to 429. 3 and 1J. 432. b. Find the fourth proportional 426.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. wi* + y= ny. 431. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. x 427. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. : If is one equal 434. find : a : c. if . 435.& 5 ) (a 8 . Solve 436. z 2 y. 430. a + 5. 433.6 8 ). .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Which ratio is greater. 2 2 8 2 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).iand 22 22 I a .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). . and : b : c = 14 : 15. y. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a. ax is \ by  ex + dy. a  t>. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.a 2^ 8 + aft* .46 2): (15a 2 . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. : i. d. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . If a b : =5 n : 7. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 428. find the angles of the triangle.49 63). Find the length of the parts. .
11 7. 3 a. 443. 7a?y = 3.(or l(*2y)=0. . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).89 = q. 453.. 7 a: . 7jr9y = 17. /) ar a. />(. 459.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 446.rf2# = l. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. The volumes If their diameters. 15ar = 20 + 8y. . 444. 450. ft. 452. 458.55 y = . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.*. 449. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. a: 2y= = 1 . . 5 2 = 7 . 5x+4y=lQ. 451.4 12 . 9/> = 2 . 28 = 5 a . = 25. if 2 ft : 439. Find the value of a. 457. c. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.11 y = 95. 454. 4 = 5 y + 29. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). a: a: + 5y). ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ft. 8 . 3 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 56 + 10y = 7a. 1(3  a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .35. 456. 445. a.7 y = 25. 16. . 455. x + 17 # 53. ?/ 447.59 = 3 z. 448. Solve the following systems: 441. . 9ar7# = 71. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 5z4:# = 3. + 5y = 59. 7 442. 42 = 15y + 137. 8 x + y = 19.
+ =2.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ^ + i^ = 7. + eyn. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .c=563y. i = 5.?/ + 1 .7. 468. 465. ax cx by = m. 475.  = 2. _ 469. x y 474. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. (or .2y) (2 = 2J. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax by = c \ 472. 473.. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 8 461. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.
In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. the Find their ages. Find the sum and the rate of interest. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 485. A number consists of two digits 4. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. by 4. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. whose difference is 4. A spends \ of his.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 486. and in 18 months to $2180. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. . fraction becomes equal to . half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the number. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and the other number least. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. How much money less 484. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. to . Find the fraction. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and in 20 months to $275. 479. 483. 487. age. 481. years. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 477. Find the principal and the rate of interest.
and the difference of their Find the numbers. 4 497. 2/>3r = 4. 493. 2 2 = 41. z y ifi = z x 502. a number . 2y + 3a = ll. \ . 4 506. + # +z= 35. y Solve : x +z= 5. 495. 4z+3z = 20./ 504. x s + y z = 18J . 3 a: + 5=84. x f y f z 29 . a. a: f z = 79. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.z = 20. 494. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. ~ 507. 490. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2y + 2z = a: 2. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. * + 425  = . + y 5 y = 101 .? + 2y = 8. . 1. 2a:f 7. ifi = x a. 7. = 20. 489. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. = 209. x y f z = 13.5#+2z = $x a: G./ f z =a. 3 x 500. 498. . 3ar 503. 2 a. 8. a: + // = 11. *i. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 1+1 = 6. .z = 12. a. . 492. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. = 15. 5^ 9z = 10. . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 7 + 2 z . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2 e. : Solve the following systems 491.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. z y x 25 . 496. 5 + a. a: 499.
z z =3a&c. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523. + : = 1472. ll" . + + 3579 2+?. 36 + c.
A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Tf and run together. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. 532. . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it separately ? 531. How long will B and C take to do . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. in 28 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. the first and second digits will change places. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. When weighed in water. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. L. if the number be increased by Find the number. touches and F respectively. E 533. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. M. If they had walked toward each other. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and CA=7. What are their rates of travel? . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. In circle A ABC. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Find the numbers. 90. and BE. BC = 5. 527. . CD. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . it is filled in 35 minutes. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. if and L. 530. N. if L and Af in 20 minutes. AC in /). 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. they would have met in 2 hours. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. AB=6.
. formation of dollars into marks. x 2 544. 2. a. 548. 543. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2  x  x2 .3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 3 x 539. 550. x*  2 x. e. 547. 2. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 542. if x = f 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The values of x if y = 2. 536. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.  7. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.  3 x. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. One dollar equals 4. the function.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. + 3. The values of y. The greatest value of the function. 546.  3 x. x 8 549. 2 x + 5. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x *x + x + 1. 545.e. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x*. c. then / = 3 and write = 3. FRANCE. 540.10 marks. GERMANY. x 2 + x. z 2  x x  5. from x = 2 to x = 4. d. i. to do the work? pendulum. . b.
+ 5 . a.4 . i. r?. 558. f. x 5 .r 1 561. g. 3 + 3 z . z 4 .11 x* + + 2 8 569.= 0. a.7 = . if y =m has three real roots.4 x 2 + 4 .  2 1 a: a. .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. If y +5 10.5 x . 564. 2 8 . 566.G . 565.1 = 0. + 10 x . 2 x 2 560.0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 2 567. 3 x* . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.3 x .r a: a: x a.15 = 0. x 4 .6 + 3 . Solve// = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 3 .17 = 0. 555. c.4 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5.9 = 0.3 . \ to t = 5. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. ' = 8. j. a. 553. 2. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 a. z 2 .3 x . 18 x  4 = 0. 556. x 2 ~ 2 . .3 = 0.= 0. 568.11 = 0. 3 x . h. c. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. a? 4 x . = 5. Solve 552. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. and make the unit of the b.13 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. J.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.r . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 557. a: 559. . 2 554. 15. x* . e. Represent meters. 572. 562. 563.
+ + 4 .%) 4 (aa.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (1 + x a. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . : y* or 25. jj+. (# 2) . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 5 a*. 2  2 aa: 2 . 4 a. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 2 611. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . (a.(1 . a 8 606. 597. 6 + 1) . 592. 598. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.4. f ?>) 3 591. 593.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 64 a 12 603. 596. <r)3  2 3 a:) . j^f = 3. + ^) + (air%)8. {f_7l j? 2* + ''.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. (aiy. . 2 943 ++ ~bx.x + 2 )'2 601. 604. 9  4 fSb 607.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 600. 595.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. xY. (a  8 ft) . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 599. 4 . 609. x + z2) 8 . 3 . a: . . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . [ y =10. (1 (1 (1 .5 xy = 0. x [ ?/ 577.frf : 583. a 612. 585 594. 588.2 2 + y. + %) (a* + *) 5 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a:. 3 (f. 4 (1a:) 3.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 589. 579. 1 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 582. a. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . a 2a. 608.
632.150. = 70. find Jupiter's period. VOIOOD + V582T09. 44352. 638. 624. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 210. 9g. V 635. According to Kepler's law.12 a?y + y*. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 371240.49. 622.30. 623. 643. x 2 641. 40. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 8*' + 24* = 32. 7) 2. /. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 2 + 21Ga. (x 9 x 646. 633.*.V250 .\/4090. x 2 . 630. 637.53 x ~ . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 645. 636.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 2 21 x = 100.15174441.191209. + 24 a 2 4 . 49. 035. 628. 615. 0090. 629. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 21. V950484 .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 614.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 650. 651. = 87. Find the eighth root 617. : 5. ft . 2 2) 2 +x = 14.2. *+* = 156. 2. = . 625 : 621. 32 631. 942841. 644. 620.2410. 626. 2 + 189 z = 900. a 642. GGff. + 54 'x*y* . + 112 a 8 . Find the square root of 619. 9a. 4J. 49042009. 634. 25023844. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.1024 x + a: 256. 647t x 2 648 649. 639.871844. 4370404. = 0. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 3a. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 494210400001. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.c = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. ex abc= fx 0. . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 702. 707. a. 708. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. . 2 2 697.ax . = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 699. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.bx . 706. 696. 2 2 . 695. 694. 1 __ : )'*' _i.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 692. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.a a )jr . ax 2 698. 693.
25 might have bought five more for the same money. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 717.292 709. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. and working together they can build it in 18 days. sum is a and whose product equals J.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 727.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 723. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 3or i 16 . paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 722. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. . what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find two numbers whose 719. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. a: 713. **13a: 2 710. 724. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 725. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 721. 716. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. How shares did he buy ? if 726. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 16 x* . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 12 4*+  8. 729.44#2 + 121 = 0. 217 . in value. A equals CO feet.
42. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (v/x). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).X . 34.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 43. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). .)(ai + &. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 37. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 39. 40. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).1 f ^ 2).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f c" ). . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 33.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 41.l). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 52. 38. 1 6.1 + c.1 + x.2 ). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 32. 35. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2)(x2 4. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 31. 46. 36. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50. n.aft* 1 + a 2*.
_ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 761.1+J 756.. ~ r* x .294 753. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 759. 757. 2V2 2V3 . [1r^ T 1 i . JU. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 754. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.
. 793.12VIT. a 9442V5. 789. 790. 7512V21. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 3812VIO. . 794. 806. 16 + 2V55. c 792. 13 799.2V3* ^ 807.2 V30. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 103 788.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 787. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 10 785. 92VI5. 786. . Va 809. 14 791. + 2V21.VlO. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 783. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.4 V(j. x 782. 3J .
3 x + 2 . \/12 a. 830.g. 811. x/aT+l .4 = 0. 816. 819.V2 ar 10.13 = 0. V3 f 1 V4a. 814. = 1. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 831. + Vx .79. 833. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .\/2y  810. VaT+lJ f ^l . 815. 829. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .Vc^lJ . + ViTli + V7 . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.V? = 813. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 818.f 5 = V5x + 4. 812.  5 + V3 f 12 817. V14 a. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 836.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Va: . 820.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. /9ar a: = 17. + 103Var.
855. .ab9 ft*. 871. x 8 2 857.x*y + 3x f 2. a 8 850. 852. a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 4 a: 2 842. 6 2 f 3 6 s.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . V4 x 2 . 8 . z*y 8 l64a. 8 8 848.1000 6. 27 862. 4 x 8 858. a 8 873. a 8 869. 9. a. a 872.10 = 118. a. a*" & 6n . 64. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 870. 4o. +3 4 +  4. + 1. a: 849. 864.3 a:. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 4 x* 847. 8 4a: 8 a.3 . + 512 y8 874. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 844. 851. 4 a. + .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . . 64 a 866.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.a. y 4. 5 a 4 7 a8 . a. a 18 4. 839.3 Va: 2 . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 861. 846. 729 867. 27 y 8. x 4 + f 2 a. 876. 8^27^. 8 2a. 275 8 l. 16 859. 8 860. 856.3 x . f 12.  3x a. 840. 865. 853. . 2 f" + a/ 15. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 8  13 a. 845. f b**. 875.1. 19 x 14. a. a l0m . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. f 841. 868. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8 a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a: . 8 + a: 5 8 a.12. . 2 x 3. 863. 2 a: 64 y*. 6.
= ? + p"iaL+L=13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.y 2 = 2 y + 2. y = 28. + 2y=\2. 889. a# f + xy = 126. z 2 898. 3 x 2 . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 . 878. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 895. f ?/ a: a: . 901. xy + y = 32. . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 2 = 16 y.Vi' + 1 1_3. x 882.sy = 198.18. 885. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. x 8 3 = 13:3.35. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 890. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y*+ xy .xy + y 2 = 19. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .15.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. +y f y = 7. M1 891 1 .1 = 2 a#. y 2 2 8f. a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + 2 f = 17.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a: 2 897. 2 = 2 + 5. 896. 900. a:y . 886. a: a. 1 x 893. a: 888. 883. 5. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. .298 877. a. 887. 2 + xy = 10.y 2) = 20. 2 + xy = 28. 894.y 2 + V(j. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 . 899. y 2 4. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. x a: lI = xz . a. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + y 2 . . a: 884. . y y 2 y 2 1121. x*xy.
908. a: a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a.r a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 2 924. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 2 * 2 ~ g. 2 915. 911. 907. xy + x= 15. + ?/) . 3 y 8 ) =1216. 923. 910. 917. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. (* 918. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. xa 903. 7 y . Vary + y = 6. . 905. 914. x 2 ry + y = 3.16 y 3 8 = . y 3 2 2 922. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 23 x 2 . y # 2 2 f f y = 84.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 920. + 2 a:y + = 243. + y 8 = 189. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 2 2 916.23 = 200. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. ary y = 8. x f 2 a:y = 32. x + y 2 = aar. 909. y + a:y = 180. a. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (!) * .y). 2 5 xy = 11. + a. + y = 9.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . y x 2 = by.y = a(ar + y).3(* + y) = 6. 921.6. 912. a: y zx 12. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. (o. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + ary = a*. 2 913. + 2 ary = 39. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.y) (3 y . + y)(a. 906. yz = 24. = 8.x) = 21. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. . x 4 299 xy z 904. .y) = 33. * + y = 444. # + xy + y = 7. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.2 y) = 49 2 919. a:y xy 929. 4 (a. or or a? a: a: . 3 :r(3 . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. (3 x .3)2 = 34.y2 = 22. y . *y .3) 2 f (y . (a. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.y) (a? .#y + 2 = 27. a: * a: a: ar 928. ^ 2 .
2240. two squares equals 140 feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. + z) =108. How many rows are there? 941. y( 934. If each side was increased by 2 feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. is 20. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. diagonal 940. *(* + #) =24. is 3 . 944. Assuming = y. two squares is 23 feet. 943. find the radii of the two circles. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 935. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Find the numbers. + z)=18. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows.square inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. feet. Find the sides of the rectangle.000 trees. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. In the second heat A .102. s(y 932.300 930. 937. a second rec8 feet shorter. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. is 3. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and the sum of their areas 78$. 942. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. A is 938. . z(* + y + 2) = 76. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 34 939. A and B run a race round a twomile course. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. and the difference of 936. two numbers Find the numbers. 931. (y + *) = . feet. 152. and 10 feet broader. and also contains 300 square feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.
Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. the digits are reversed. and if 594 be added to the number. and that B. overtook miles. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. What is its area? field is 182 yards. and travels in the same direction as A. and its perim 948. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. P and Q. A and B. Find the number. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. 950. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Two starts travelers. at Find the his rate of traveling. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. that B A 955. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. 952. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. distance between P and Q. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. its area will be increased 100 square feet. unaltered. Find its length and breadth. 949. set out from two places. . whose 946. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. triangle is 6. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find the number. . 953. sum Find an edge of 954. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. each block. . A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. 951. Find the eter 947. is 407 cubic feet. Find in what time both will do it.
. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. .  2. P.1 4 f j$V . 18th terms of an A.V2 .. 966. !Ll^ + n . ^ 1 . 971..321? 965. Sum to 20 terms. Find n f (ft) .to infinity.. 12434+ j I 967. 958. 3 + 5 7 + . 974. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 957. . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. and 976. 9th and llth terms of an A. to 7 terms. P. 3 . 4. \ . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. n to n terms.. . 5. Sura to 24 terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.v 973. 975. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. J.4142 .. 964. the terms being in A..454. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. (x 4 to n terms. 1 to n terms.. 969. 5. 1G series . 961.. x(x to 8 terms. Find an A..302 956. 36 963. P. Sum Sum to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 970. '.3151515. Find n. f + 1 . fourth of the unity.. difference. (to 2 n terms). Find the Find the common 977. Evaluate (a) ..>/) to infinity.. Find the sum of 4. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. = 4. 4 4 to 7 terms . *" 968. to infinity. 16 962.. s  88.141414.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. P. are 29 and 53. + (iiven a +  4 d . to n terms. . ^ Vfirst five 959. 972.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4..
Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 1. 986.. 989. Find four numbers in A. and of the second and third 03. : + 9   V2 + .001 + . 987. of n terms of an A.+ lY L V. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .. 985.1 + 2.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. to n terms. 990. to infinity may be 8? . 0. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. Find four perfect numbers. to oo. "(. P. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.. 992. and the common difference.2 .. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . and so on. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 4 grains on the 3d.04 + .01 3. Find the sum of the series 988. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. is 225. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. first 984. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find n. named Sheran. P. 980. to 105? 981. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .001 4. The 21st term of an A.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The term. ... 303 979. 2 grains on the 2d. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.. Find the first term. The sum 982.. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 5 11.) the last term the series a perfect number. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.
512 996. P. 1003. 1001. 994. are unequal. . in this circle a square. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. (6) the sum of the infinity. and G. 999. AB = 1004. find the series. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 995. of squares of four numbers in G. 998. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (a) after 5 strokes. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 997. If a. 1000. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. Under the conditions of the preceding example. P. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. ft. at the same time. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and so forth to infinity. areas of all triangles. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. inches. prove that they cannot be in A. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. ABC A A n same sides. are 28 and find the numbers. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. many days will the latter overtake the former? . The sum and product of three numbers in G. in this square a circle. c. The fifth term of a G. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. P. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The sum and sum . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Two travelers start on the same road. is 4. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed.
a: 8 7.o/) 14 . 1012. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).l) w f . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .ft) 19 . 1008. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1014. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of ( . (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1011. + lQ . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1009. 2 ) 5.iV 2i/ 5 . (1 1018. Expand  2 a. ) 1021. . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 1006.
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... . 158.. 97.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . . Checks Coefficient 20..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ... numerical ...181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. signs of Algebraic expression . . . 19.. .. . .... 8 . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 123 . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . ... . simple simultaneous ... Brace Bracket Character of roots . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. 129. 232 mean progression . t 53 120 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . ...108 160 " . . quadratic .. . . 112 54 54 251 . . 160 in quadratic form 191 . linear literal Common ** * difference . . .. 54. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 9 ** . . . graphic tion of representa .. . . . 37. 129 54.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 246 91 " multiple.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. ..130 . .. Aggregation... . 9.193 11 .. 232 169 807 .. ... .. .178 Completing the square . lowest ratio " '* ..] Abscissa Absolute term ....
. 205 . . INDEX 8 . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 189. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Product '* 76 Infinite. first and second . . . 227 geometric .. 34. law of Extraneous roots .. 180. inversely 122 numbers . 243 7 . .. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 84.108 Minuend . 195 33. G. 23 10 91 102. 9. . . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . arithmetic . Negative exponents 11 . 91 .. . . 45 Laws of signs . 45. ..C Multiplication . Inconsistent equations . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.251 Graphic solution of simultane. 109 102 . L. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. exponent . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Like terms Linear equation . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 227 . ... Imaginary numbers . .. . . directly. . 112 . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 253 28 70 1. P . 212 .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Mathematical induction . Geometric progression . addition of " square of . 114. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.31.808 Exponent Exponents. . numbers . .. 45. 63. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 241 123 geometric ... 143. . . 120 Member. Insertion of parentheses .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . .. Known numbers . .. 17 65. 184 54.
INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. . 45 Trinomial 240 . polynomial .. ... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 9. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.... 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 4 155 9 " of .. . Sum.. absolute 54 Variable . ..... algebraic Surds .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 129. ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
.S. Norwood. 8. August.COPYRIGHT. U. Set up and electrotypcd. NorfoooS J. 1910. 1917. Gushing Co. Reprinted April. 1913. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Published September. 1910.A. December. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Mass. .
2. in. 72 = = 216. 14. + 1. 3. 13. 2. 14. 6. 1. 2 ~ 15.000. 9 16  larger than 7. 27. 24. 5. 14. 3. 9 m. 9. 20. ^. 14. 13. 1. 7. 21. 16. 144. 10. 13. 2. 25. 2. 17. 12. 16. 26z. 19. T . 15. A Bl 7. 18. 1. 3 m.000. 8 13. 3.8. 4. 30?. 4. A $90.  1. 1. Page 13. per sec.21 24. 16 in. 9. 27. 3* 7. 3. b. 36. 32. Australia ft. 2. 3. 1. 1 16. 2.. 150. Page 1. 11. 11. A . 21. 3. Ot 15. 5000. 6. 32. 5. 4. 32. 3. 18. 10g.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.000. 14. 22. 20. 126. 28. 16. . $160. 0. 7m. 8. 3.. 5.000. 3. 49. 2  Page 8. 3. 12.000 Indians. Page?. 12. 21. 15. . loss. 5. 13 d. South America 46. 4. 16. 6. 10. C $60. 24. 10. B 10 mi. 8. 73. 18. 9. 3. B $ 128. 7. 6. Not 5. 25. 18. 16f 2. 3. 4. 10. 1. 512. 6. 3. 128. in. 26. 27. 49. 20 \. 12. 6.  2 p. 6.. 32. 8.1. 16. 115. is $10. 1.000.C. i . 6. 15. 256. 64. 3.$9400. 5. 6 yd.2. = 5 81. 5. 8. 106.. 576. V 23. 18. 1. Page 4. 12. 30. 2 5. 23. arithmetic. }. 17. 13 S.3. 1. B $4700. 3. 9. 85. ft. 6* 16. 4. 5. 5. 1. 6. x. 10. 7. 12.. 1. 3 below 0. Page 8. 8 ft. $ 1 50 10. westerly motion. 16. 12. 37 S. B $20. 1. A 38 mi. 2.. 2.. 25. 8. 89.000. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 6. 16. 17. 16. 17. 1. 0. 2. 2. 59. 6. 3. . 22. $40. 17. B $80. (a) (/>) 1. _ 32. sign.000. in 12. Yes. 15. 15. 16. sign. 29. 7. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 25. 20. 7. 7. 14. 8.  13. 20 jo. 9. 11. 28.. 24. 11. Multiplication.000. 2. 192. .00000001. 48 ft. . 9. $100. 12. 2. 12. 20. 11.150. 14. 210. 8. 2. 7. 9. c. 7. 10. 10. x. 9 14. 13 V. 18. 29. 37.  1. 13. 10. 7.  22 20. 14. A 15. 13. 6. 19. 12. 19 4. 4.12. 16 in. 19. 3. 2.. C $1(50. 9. 14 11. 1. 20 B. C $ 16. 9 = 4. 9. 1.000 negroes.
(V) (rf) (ft) 50. 14. 14:). 8. 8.ab. <i~ 26. ^). rt. w. (c) 8. \'\ 4.  40. 8. 6. 1. x^ 20.. 4.  0. yyz+xyz*. 3 a* + 2 at*. 3. 4. 15a. 28.rty8. 13. 37.ft) 4.  11. 30. WIN + wiw. 23. arty 1 20. 35. 04. . 0* Page 3 w" 0. 13. in.. 1. in. (59. 15. 3. 17. r:A 29. 3. 5. 0. (a 4 4. 3rf 27. 314 sq.. + 5. 2. 12. 13 cu. 0. $3000 Page 6. 19. r+l. 1. 38 ab.ii ANSWERS Page 11.  1. (b) 135 mi. . .'JO ft.6) 38. + ft). 32.. 26. + v> 2 .  2 4 13 ft 2 . 43w//2 17. 20. ^. 29. 17. 25. 49. 21. 12. 57. 33. vi 14. . 25. 58. 12. (a) 200. 16. in. 17. 2. 4 9/^/rl 2. ft. 34..  xV 3 y. 20. Page 7. Pagel4r. 10. 4 y/ . 00 24 04 ft. ft. 2. 32. 14. II. 5. 10. 29. 3. 19. 12. Binomial. 14. 25. Polynomial. (ft) $40.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 8. 8. i:5. 15.4 ft.GOG. 36. 1. 35. 20(. 42. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 22. 2.. 9.4  2ft 2 33. 11. 11. 6<t. 5. 237. 240. 39. a ft c. 31. 1. 51 f. 30. (a) 50. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 0. (ft) 12. ft' 3 . Trino inial.5f> sq. 11.  3. 1. 13.900. Monomial. 24. 3a. 27. 27. 4. 41. 27. ]*. 12 a. sq. 16. Page 23. 14.94(>. 5. 28.. ft. 27.~4. 10. 16. 34. . a2 4 15^44. 24. (a) <> sq. f  5e 35. c. It. 15. 14. 173. 0. 5. 31. 2x' 2 5 .. 15. 18. 2oVmf?i. 33. +/2(/. ft n. 1. 7. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 13. 21 a 3 4 10. 0. (r) 2000 m. 0. 32 2 ftc. 3. m + 3(a. ft.. 20. 22. Page 21. 22.x. 5. 17. 5. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 12yd. 7. 6. 35. //'. 0. ft f 19. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 30.. (ft) mi. (r) 78. 0. 8. (ft) 7.000 . 1. 9. 16.. 6. (r) 2G7. I. 4. 9. 3(c4a). = 81. 27. t. Polynomial. 4. 17. 19. jrif 4 9.5 (ft) sq. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 3 .ft. in. (c) S(i. 1. 7 7. = ()501. 50. 36. 18. 7. 7. 8. 9. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 12. 15. 104. 3. 9. 13. 15. a 32. :. :J!>r'. $80.a . Page 18. 18. 21. (ft) Page 2. 3.000 sq. 2. 7. . Va'+Y2 8^2 .. 22( 19.<>Gq. 8. r/ \(\xyz. .1.32 c2 > ft 3 . _ 4 . 38. o^ft. 16. 14.. 4. 18. (a) r>23ifcu. #1111. 21^. . y. (r) 2.14 sq. 26. 0.  12. 12. 28. 27. 23. 14. ft. Page 31. 13.'J. 21. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 2ftx. ??i??.r f 15.r 2 . mi. 5. 11. . 2. 3. 5x+3. 18. 92. 3. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.r~ f 34. m 24. 22.q 4.9?/2 8. 31.
11.ws 2 ft) . 5. 18. 25.2 ft 2 r2 10.  23. w 17. 7. 7  # + 12.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 22. 1. 814. 18. a + a. w* ( . . 2. 2. 10 m. G. + a 2 f 2 a 4.r 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .  12. 7.4c 3 8 8 J. 2. 8 .6 x + 0) 16. 2 3x f z. 1. 56. f ft 9. n*. 13. . 26. (yz~d}. 14. ?>4tl 53. x3 . 7  a + 2 + c. a 52.5 z?/ + 3 y . 21.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). + 4 c. 6.(2 x2 . 25 47. . c. 51. . 20. (5x47 3. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2 2.c.h.a*. a). 12. 2// 16. 36. 1 4. 6. 14. x a8 1. 26. 22. _5a<>&43c. Page 44. a' 4ab + ?/. x  + 3z. 4wipg>' 27. 18. 17.abc. . 14.aft.8(c + a).4 d. mn. . 24. 9. 4. . 50. 11. 31. a a.  b* 4 r 1 . ( 7. 3. 2. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . c.1 .1. 2. 2a. 10 x.2 a2 2m 2 4. 2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. a4 4 4. 34. t). 2 + a4l). 8. 26. G a bd. 16. a 6 2 . 15. 40. _ Page 30. 4. ?/.3x 2 2 tf. 21. 28. 10. .  17. 2 . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 33. s_r>a5. 2 2 2 6. 5.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ?/i 13. + 2y. 4. 4. 17. 2a: 2 4x. !  </ .a . 4ft ~. ri\ 18. 2x 4 a 13. a 4 + ft.a f 54. 4. 3 Ji 8 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.Oa: + 10. 10. 20. 7. a  49. 11. 4r 2 . ti. 37. 32. 15. 2 6. 16. 32 w 2 w. 38.4x. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 8 b. a 3& .(7x2 Ox2).11. a + (ftc4df). 58. 1. 2 3. 2m. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 1. 31. 2. 12. 12. 7. a. 5. 2.l. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . (2n' 43p 47 ).  1. a 3a 4 2 &. (w4w)(ww). 24. 3 a3 & 41. lOrt 15w4.4. a f 2 f 2 9. ii\ 22. &.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2 . 59. a 10w. ^ <. 1. r. 43. 20. 7 a5 1 . 2 y' 4 . 19. 6. 24. 42. 35. 5x 2 rt ft.2. a  ISjfat.x f 1 2 . 36. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. m*  n*.. ?> 22. 19. 0. a 3 . 2. 5 2 Page 29. 8 + 2 a . Exercise 16.  a: 2.7. a2 9. 2. 2 17.  G J8 r  4 a <?. .2 a. 21. 4 21.  b.a~. 3. M + 10. '  . . Page 8.3 6. 2m + 2w. 29. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.  4 b 17 y*. 34 39. 12. 25. ar. ft Exercise 17. 55. Page 28. 5. 24 b 46. 0. 2 a f 6 414. 2 a 37. \ :{ 2 a 48. 6. 13. 0. :5 41. (mn} 11. 8.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .'U4j>. + 6. 3 m. 10. 19.a'2 . 30. 1. a2 24. 3 a . 25.2 . Page 7. . c2 . 15. ab a.. .r. 364c. 2 4. . 14. 8.2 57. 4. 3. f 2 ?/  2. . + 8. .  14 afy . . 1 + 45.5. 8 8 . j)(g1.
18 w w + 10 WI M . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 29. 2.25 + 14. 22. 10.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 4 a8 . 4aWy. . 161b. 20. 6". 15.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 27. 161b. 8 . 76 8 a' 1 . 15. 28. ci 5 .19 + 2. 4. 3 a 2 46. 2.57 p6 3 2 4 25.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 4 7> 4 :j !} .r% 2 2 ry. 4. 25. . 31. 12. 2 . 8. 15. ?> 4 . 25.(3x2_4^+7). + O4 66 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 19. 16 lb. ! 2.64 190 p6. 6 . 8. ?/ . 12 x2 2 . 15 q\ 6. 30 j9 jt?g j . 102. fa 2. 19.21. 24. 33. 42. 33. 04. 18. 25. . 27. 4. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 20 aW. 2 w +2 2 .21 a 3 c2 21.:>/ . 2 a2 (y 2 . 25. +15.36 35. 28. 6. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 16. 9. 8. 14 m 2 . m. . 21. . 360. 1. 27. 84.28 p'^/. a: . 23. 7G . 22. //. Page 3.16 x2/ 5 4. etc. 16.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 1. 21 a'&c. 26. 7.32. 120.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 15. 4. 0. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 2 ). 20.69 rt + 21 132 + r .32 y s s G .6 2 . 2 7t A. 30. 4 a2 . a 8 . 9 13. 90. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 2. 60. Page 7.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 32. 29. 20. 1. . 216. 13. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 31. a + ft. 17. 32. 27. Page 35. 18. 3(*+0 + 2). 64. 3. 3. 12.. 5aft(a 126 2). 30. (+3)x6=+16. 4. 12 ^. 16. 6. 17.11 xyz . 33. 21. 24. + 7. 13. 42. 27.000. 14. 37. 11. 4 jcy*z*>. 26.14 . a*b*c. Page 38. 6. ft 17. 210. 16. 1. 34. 29. 8. ll 2 i. 60.8 12. 24. 9. 1904.15. 4. 16 51. 10. 14. 7. Ox a 5 . . 10. 13. 30. 20. 108. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 2''.>(/ r . 2 ll9HH 2) + . a. 3. 34. . x2 xy42^. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.12.44 aWc 16 abxy. n (a6) 125. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 127"'. 15 lb. 13. 14f 5. 23. Page 36. 52 + 6s 12. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . +. 2 n8 29 a + 30.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 38wiw. 20. 18. 17. 18> ^* = a . 34. . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 28. 14. 15. 22.16 a 2 + 32 a . 30. 2*8f x2 6x4. 3. ^^ = 20. 25 4 4. 18. 24. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 8. 22.1.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 7. 1. 18. 5. 23. 19. 7. 13. s 9 ww. 770. Page 5. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 3300. 11. 20. 11. 10. 4200. 343. . 0.. 17. 3 a 3 .26. 1400.. . 83 In + 1 n*. 30 n?b*c*. 16. .12. f 26. 2. 35. 2 2 2 . 9. 12.19p" + 19^ 10 .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.6) =a2 31. 23. ISartyW e*f*tj. 18a% y. 4 fc.2. 21. 11. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 5. 30. a. 2 * 80 .7(50. 66 8W 34. 14. 18. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 6. 36. a. 66 39 k* . + 58 . 28. 108.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 1. 216. iSx8 . 40 r 2 .20 xyz .. 30. . 1. 24.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 19. 29.14 w 2 2 . 2 ). .
( 5) O5)(w + 3). 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 1. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.810. 9 4 /> . 52. 2 4 a + 4./ .r* 2 30. a + 25. 8. 6. 26. Page 39.020. . 4 21. . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 10. .2 x + 2 x. (w4)(w + l). ~ 6 20 . +4 34. +  m' 1. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 2 +10s281. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 16. . 11. 10.008.404. 37. 15. 2.r . m 2 . . 41. x4 28. 2 .^V"' . m 3 j) 3 .10 35. 9990. 9801. + 10 + 121 y*. 30. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 30 /><. 26.000. 2 4 2 2 64 . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 6. 19. 17. . 1). 4 . 2 12. a' . 10 a' 2 . 10. 51. 3wi2 m Page 42. .x2y22. . 4. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. a 2 . 33. 10. (m + 6)(m3). 4 . 8 38. y. . .p132. 9999. ab. . 42. . 2 (5 a 3).ri 17.15. 27. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .6 y4 10. 40. 40..020.994. a2 ' + 48Z100. (w+4)(m4). 24. 4x21. r. 7. 34. 2 . 35.ab . 8 a W .^.000. 18. 9. 990.14 jp + 49. ^/> 8 4 . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 5.16 a3 f 50.6 xy .009. 10.^ + a? + 1. 11. ab . 4 2 //. 1. 1. 4 x2 13. 2 m3 + 4m2 .8. 24.6 x2 13. a + 25. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 25 a 2 6 2 .4 a&+ 4 &*. lflrt 2 8 + l. . a4 4 ?/ .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 3. p 2 .2 y*.20. 484. 39. ) 4' 6/ 49. 8. 36. 23. + 3)(3)..4 n. 2 0)(p + 5). I/). 20a 2 21a + 4. 29. 33.1. 2 j3 Z . 10. G a6 2. 25. 7. 8. 19. V + o ft .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 166. + 2 9. 35.001. 36. 27.009. 36 a 4 .5 ~ 81. . 10. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 441.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 4.996. 15. 38. 7.098. 56.004. 53.54 p 2 + 81. 2). 14.35 ab 9. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . ft' 11. . 14. 2 6' . 41. +   5). 999. + 7 6)(3a~76>. x 48. 25 25. p4 + . 4.10 x + 25.2 6 + 13.49. 14. 2 fr . 1. + 4 t*. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 10. 37.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . n + 2. 33. fo*. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 6 x6 + 13 x3 . a + 56. 2 1: 21. (p 2. + 12. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.712. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 55. 10. 3. 29. n2 a4 6.606. 32. 31. 44. 10. 1. s rc 47. 5. + 4 a +4. x*2^f I. 7 .2. 32.25. 40.ANSWERS 28. 2 62 V2 132. Page 12.m 30 6 4 1. 9.4 12. 7> . ^' J  7 f 12. 30 x + 19 x3 . 10 a 4 ?.00 + 37. (a + 4) (a + 2).r .84 a' 9. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. x2 GiC+5. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 57. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 31. (a (3 54. w'n 2 //^ + 25. ' 46.3. 21 2 . x* .500. ^V^4 . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 45.6. 2 a' y' . 10. Om2 4 6m 6. . 2. 4 + 25 q*. 1. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 36. 31. 34.201. a3 0. 6 2 + 6lf>0. ?/H)0. 998. 2 a 2 + a . 39. (n 2 5. 12 x2 . 28.
n.rw.w. 5. 11. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 14. ??. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. ft.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . f>r* 4.x^.23.8 yn . Page 11.2 1 //. 4. .r?/. 8 ?/ . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 01. i 9. 1. 4.5 mp. 10. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4. z. 11 4. + 4.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .15 21. . a. 49. 2 4 3 9. 4 pq. 1. . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 21.  11. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 2. y 7. 50.12 aft 4 20 ac .25 c . 2 ?/ 4. 2. m'2 3. . 5 a  (5 ft. 6. 125. 4. 18.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 12. abc 7. ?/2. 2. w 2 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.y3. '. 14 r 2 . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 5.27 x 2 4. 2. 4 a 2 4. yfl. 5.5 a . 5. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4. r ft. 17.3 x 2 2 4.30 ftc. 3 aft 20. aftc 52. 2 ? 14 . 5. 4. Page 22. 4 d 2 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. +w . 13. 6. a 4 4 ft. 2 1. 4.3 a 41. Page 48. 4xy + 13 <) . 3.3 5.4. 13. 4 c m . :r !>.r' ~ 16. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 5.1*5 2 r 2 . 4 x.3^V. 8 x . 26.  5 z* . 13. 5. Page 7.2 wZ 4. a 10. 8.6 :rs 4. . 2 a 3 ft. . 1. 18. 2 .> 10. ti'jry1 7. . 4 ac. 9. 20 15. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. . 17. 16. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 10 ft. 9. j) . . Exercise 27. a 8 4. . 4 a* 4 9 11. 14. 2 12. ft 17. 8. 19. 14.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 6x 3. a 2 . 13.2. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . .r . 6.25. ft ? ft' ft ft. /r . 13. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. sr 11. 7 r .2 ftc .lit x + 4. aft 12.  . x4. m L 4. 22. 5^418(7. 7. 5 4 a Oft. 46.21 2 2 f + . // 19.  3 c.r?/ j/.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 6. 21. 1. 17. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 24.34. 1/*. 12. . 19. 12.7. r 7. 2. 2.2 .2 2 . 2 ?/' . 12.  10. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 2 2 + 2 a. Osy. 4. 5. 47. Page 51. 3. 3.rw f 8 .2 <</. r//.3 3. aft.VI ANSWERS 43. 15. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .2 . c3.2 2 2 8 . 1. 14. + x?/ 2 1. 8 ?/ . 15. 3 a. 3.10 2 + z 2 410.10 xy*. 13. 3. x 4. 1.8. 8. 9. 1000 1000 . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4./ 4. 2 4.2 ar. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 9.9 4. G.2 aft 4. 2 .1. 8 r<ft 4 2 .1. 8.  12 y 25. 16.r ?/ ??i ?). 44.+ 77 15. . 135. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.1. 11. 7a3ft. ft* ft / .2 .1. _ 2 a . 9. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 10. as _ 10 16. 8. 2 ^r ???' 2 . r/2 4. 8. w .15. . 4x43?/. l 4 . 16.1. i 2 tji. .8. 12. 20.5 n*. c 12.3 ry.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. *3 y 4 .9 d.000. + 3.r'^ 15. 10. x 2 + 2r f J.1.24 .1. 5. 23. 3. Page 13. 6.r" 20 S? . 75 a 2 29. 4ft.29.2 ac . + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 2 4 2 x 4. .8 y. 1. 3*y2 w + 1. 14.
 6 10. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. ct. 38. Page 13. 3. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 50= L 100 15. 9. 13. 10. 00. y 2z p= 3 (a c. ^ 12 sq. ( a f 4. 100 2. / + y + a// 12 yr. ct.. 34. 14. lO. 0. 47. 26. ft. f = eZ 2 x. l. 22. .r1. 1. 10 yr. 3x2. 1&. 4(a ft) c = 8. x y $ 6 yr.p+7. 0. 8 n  10 yr.x700.. d + !. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. (> 27.  9 = 17 a. 1. 13. ] 2 ri 42. 8. 45.r ct.ab a. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 100= ^. 25. m+ 11. Page 40. 17. 2. 27. y 100 a 24. 3.7).(3x+ = rraxlO. x. 4 f 39..  2\. 5. . + 10 b + c ct. </ 20. 7. x + 1=a. 28. 7. Page 61. 33.(3x  700) = 5. m +~m 3. 5. x 48. 6. 7. (c) 2x. 10. sq. 9. 100 14.rr2. . 37. n M. 14. 4^ = 100. (a) ' 12. 12. 5. 2 ct. 1. 7x 2 Page 21. 17. 20. 1. 15. 6. 4. . + f + b 2. vil 56. 2b. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 60 25 1. Jj12. f 6)(o 62. 7. x 49. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 57. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 10. y 50.6 = *. .  1$. !). 3 9. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. ? 43. Page 31. 5. # + 20yr. 38. 16. }f. 36. 6. 7. 10. rn mi. 20. v (6) 2x. 2x + 35. 10 x sq. 19. 19. (>. 5. r>?imi. "mi. 42.. 11. + 3x + 2y + 32. 20. y ?>i x + 26. 3. (d) 2a + 10 = n. lOx 10 + w. 43. xy ft. 2. 15. " lir.  />) a = all. 18. <>. x 2y 10 act. 36. f (I. I. % 4. 6. 44. 10 >_&. 12. 58. d. 30. 4. x = m. 2=10. 24. y yr. 4. 33. 16. 10 a. 800 = x + 1300. ft. a 8.000. Page 6. 41. 100 d ct. = 5 ?i x 460. 39. 2. 46. 2. s. 11. 23. 29. 1. 7. 16. + 3 = 2(3* . 29. 4. 35. iL*. 21 2. 7. (2 a. 2b 22. ct. 5. (</) 2a. 3x  1700) = 12. 11. 13. 59. 6. 8. a 10. 44. 17. 32. ft. b. fix. . 25. r tx mi. 37. '^ . 41. X 60. 'nj 100 a 28. 40. b.10) 100. 4. 30.ANSWERS Page 9. 22. + 4x 3y 34. 31.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 2. 18. . I. 2. 23.100.
30 mi. 7a*fe(2a & l). 6. 9. 2. (y8)(y + 2). ( + 4)(*2). 9. 9. Page 7.11.. + 7)(y3). 16.. 250.16.3). 4. 5$ hr. 52.5. Page 7. (z5)(z2). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 6. 1200. ?(g ? g+ 1). 2 3 6 7.22. 19. 13. 5. 2. 68. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 200.21. 15. 10 Mass. 78. 15. Page Page 4.000 N.  PageSO. 5pt. 1.. (a + 5)(a + 6). a a (a 8 a+l). 12. 12 mi. 55. (p + 7)(3a5&). (yll)(y4). 8..000. 22. 10 Cal. 9. 7. 10. (m + n)(a + 6). 1200. 10. ~=90. 2.0. 18. 6rt 2 11. 45 in. 9.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 50. 1.. 2). 6. $40. 100 1. 12. 3. (*4)( + 11.000 gold. 5 Col. 5.3aftc + 4). 5 lb. w (/) 64. 15. (a 4) (a. 11.y"). 3. 20. 10 yr. Pace 65. 90.8. 150. 4.24. . 15 yd.2). (a + 6) (a + 3). 3 hr. (e) i* + A. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 17. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 3. 11. 15. Page 5.. 2.210^. 10. 20 yr.000 copper. (y + 8)(y2). 1313. 24J. 11 pV (2 p8 . 5. 11 w(w' + wi . 8 2 19. 71. Page Page 480 12. 78. 1.. 5.5p + 7 g ). 3x (3r. Oaj(o62cd). 11 in. 9 in. 14. 4. 8 in.000. 13. 2 2 ?/ 21. 1 lb. 14.000. 25. 15 in. a 12. 9. 8. (a + 4)(a + 8).000.2. 20. 6.3.000 Phil. 70^.. 600.. 6. 10. 6.1). 3. 85 ft. 17.(5z . 29. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 20. by 12 yd. 4pt. 75. 18. 2.000 Berlin. 74. 10. 40 yr.. (a5)(a4). 1. 72. 28yr. 8. 8. ^ . 7 hr. Ib. .0. 15. 7.000 pig iron. 30 yr. (ro3)(w2). 23.000. 4. 180. 10 yr. 12. 2. 05. 8 12. 6.3. 67. 7. 8. 20 yd. 1. 82 mi. 13.000 ft. 13. 11. 8.. 10. 3. Page 79. 160 lb. 80 A. 3.7. (y 13. 2 2 2 5.000. 14. 12. 30. 21. 25 yr. . 90 mi. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 1. 9. 2$. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 14. 8..411. 10 yd. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .000 ft. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 4. 12. 300. 8. = _?_(2ar + 1). 13. 7. 70. 5. Page Page 4. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 3 (a +&)(*.. 15 mi. 2. 1250. 10. 100. 30. 18. 14. (c) ^ v ' . (y7)(y + 2). 42yr.79.13. 480. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 1. 4.. 11. . 20 yr. 7. 200. 14.5.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 6.6). Y.10..000. 3. 12. 25. 7.
10. (w + 20)(w + 5). 7.2 ft). 13. Yes. 25. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (6 a. 30. (y8) 2 2 . No. 100 (a. 25. 9.   . No. 16. Yes.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (a. (0 + 6)(66). (* + y)(zy). 216 aft. 36. (2xl)(x + f>). Yes. (m + n +p)(m + wp).c 2 ). 23. (2 a? 4. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 28. 9. 22. 8. (3a. . 5. 100(x. 15. 31.8).1). . ix 18. (5x .1). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). a*(5a f l)(flr .+4 y)(3x4 y). 16. 28. . 13x(a + ft)(aft). (:52y)(2a!3y). 18.4 6). (15z2y)(x5y). . 27. (g . (a (p8)0> + l). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 25. 26. 10. 9. 26. + 4) (a. (m7n) (a. . a . 20. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 21. 4 (a . 9. (w ~ n (x . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 29. 20. 28. 4. (3*2)(. Yes. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 32. 10. .1). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (2 *+!)(* 9). (15ay2) 2 . Yes. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 3)(3a. 11. y) 2 29. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 17. 14. ( 2 4 19. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 17. .11 ft)(a6). 24. 3. 25. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .7) (a. 2. (10a + ft)(10aft). + y + . 8. 23.2). (6n + l)(+2). 31. . 24.6) 2 1. 8. 7 6) (a 10 6). + 0(90 Page 85. 33. 22.7)(2z f 1). 12.1). Yes. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). x(x +y)(x y). 22. + 2y). 2). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). f 2). (2o + l)(2l).3)(z2).3). (13a +10)(13a 10).ANSWERS 16.y (6x + 4)(5x4). a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (<7 20. 19. 23. No. 21.6) 2 2 . Yes. No. Page 82. (ft + ll)(aftll). + 3). (4 13.9*). + 5) a. 7. 21. 21. 17. 6. (a a: 19.. 13x7. (x + y4 )(x . Yes. (4al)(a2).2 by2 6. 34. 1. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 29. . + 9^)(oxy . 7. 2. 2 17. + 8)(g3). 10(a . 4.4p). (5wl)(m5). 5. y) (a.4. (w* (3a26). (2yl)(y + 9). 12. (ay8)(ay3). Yes. (4y3)(3y + 2). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).* (2 y + 3)(y.5y)(3a. Page 83. Yes. x (z + 2)(x + 3).r2). 19. Page 84.11 6) (a 4.2). . 200 (x + l)(x + 1). Yes. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).y4 ). 10. 22. 8) (a. 27. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .2 y). (a 3 + 10)(a. 14. 3a. 33. . y(x. 27. 1. 11. 26. a(2u. 11. (a 6 6) (a 4. 2 3 by2 Yes. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (5a +l)(5a l). 15. 16. 10(2 30. 20. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 34. + 3)(c44). x\x 24. 35.  x (5 a. 2. 3. (y + 4)(yl). 12. 9. 103x97. 25. 2 No 4. 6. 26. 3. 14. (7 a + 4) (2 a . Yes. 40 x. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (2w+l)(ro + 3). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (3#y)(+4y). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (a + 8)(a3). 2 2 15. 3(x + 2)(zl). 18. (9y4)(y + 4). 10(a + ft)(aft). 23. 24. (az + 9)(ox2). (4 18. 1. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).y) 2 aft. (m + w) 2 5. 30. 35. 32. . (4a. 10 a 2 (4 . No. . 24 9.
'/)('< 4. Exercise 47. 4 3. 3x(x?/) 4. 8. a + a b. 2 1. Exercise 46. (w * . 1(V/ 88.X 5. 6. 450.4). 22. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.8) n 43*). ofc)( fid). 14.8) ( (16.2 y).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2. 4. 6.&).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.l)( a 25. 4). ah}. (2 a ~ f> b 4. Page 92. 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 41. y )(. .  29. 14. 4.?/). 8. (5a+l)(9a). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). .4.2). 8x. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2. 2 8(w . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (7/1 2) (m 41).&). 13.3. ( (<> r4y3 . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (5 31. + 2 //). 4. 37. a 4. 5. (a 4. a 4. 4 6. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .  (w' 4.5 m2 x2. (> 1.2). 11. 30. Page 87. y). 19. Page 90. 24x sy s 9. 7.4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 9.1).e 4. 11. 14. 40. Page 12. 11. 5  (2 2 . (w4w) 2 1. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . . . x 4. a 41. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2 21.?50)(xt/z. x43. 4 a s &8 . 42). 7. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .y '2 2). 6. 13. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). + 3.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 38.9).. (14. 14. 12. ?i(w 4y) . 2 2 3 . fi(c426). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 1.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (m  I)' 6. 2 (a 4. 39. (a />.3. 35. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 3. ^ . (16 4  2(5 n . 3(. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 2 2 10. 8). (* _ 2 )(a 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4. b) (r 4. (x//. x . (a &4. 8.1). (^ 7.7)(^ {I 12. 42a 3 x. 4. 10.1) 3. r x 2 */3 . ( rt 23. 16.2)(x 1. 17(x43//)(x2y). 4. 12. 6. 13 x 8 2 . ?>). 10(8x' 4l) 4. (^ + ?>_8). a 2 (a9).'})(c .y). 5. 8.) j). (c.?>) H. (f> + fo 7.42 x 4. Gp). 2.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 8. y(2x?/). 4  9. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 2 y) ^ . a8 .7s) (2 a. 11.n). ( { &). 15 M.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (. 2. 2 + . 2. (r420(4 10. 7. (5^4.!) (x42)(x2). 12.b.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 2 k (wi 4.0+ 12). 13. l. 28. 4. Page 89.8). 5 x8 3. (!__/>). (x. Page 86. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 5. . a x 3 10.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).^ 48. 3 x4 . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 24. 10(2 (3 4. 5. 2(m4l)' . 36.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). x  1).'J)(' . 6. 9. 8. (2x7)(x 2 2). 7. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 7.4). 17. 27. 16.  WIM. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 20. (a 9. 13( 33. a (a + 2 6). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).y)(fi a . 32. 18. 15. 7. 15. y6.36). ( a ^)(^3.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 8. 6. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).y. (5 26. . 4 a8 .3)(x 4. x(x f y)(jr . 6 f c). ( y). 2 . n  r)(5a 10.
6a2&(rt6). x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.ANSWERS 10. a 23. (a2)(a + 2)2. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 30(3 2 (a 15.  1). b ! 21. x 22. + y) (a: y).6). // m+1 !+*?. + &) 2 ( . 1). + &)(&) ( . a 10 25. x 12. +5 1. 11. ?_!&. 18. 2(2al) + l). 13. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
28. + lH + .  **/* + 84 _. ' 2 7. Page 100. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . _*^p5_^^_. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. a 5.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 6. A^.50 ~ 1/2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 1. 4. xy 43. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2 a. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. w1 + ac w 4 7. 6a5f^. 7. 4c 10. 4 L 8 2 . i^. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. ^~ 29. 11. + 2H 1 ^. . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 30. 6.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. Page 101. c 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 0.. 26.
! 4 20. 4. 4.  10 X + u. 15. ?+_!?>. 21. 39. 1. 3. 38. 16. (y + (z 12. m 9. 6. 1. . flf. a2 2. 4a3ft. 14. pf n 6 1. 26. 6. 31. a 17. 12. 3. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. +3 ( + 15. j L . (>. 27. 12. 11. 1. 15. 3. 5. 19. x\. f 7. A. ^_. 43. 25. 2ft a i m x. 37. 8. Of. 4. 41. f Page 107. 30. 4. Page 111. ft. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 1. 1. 46. 2 47. 40. 15. 0. 44. 3 7 i o. 35. 1. 0. 4. 7. 11.ft . 36. 42. 8. 5. 11. + f. 45. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 3. n 16.L+ft. 5. 1. 3. 21. 10. . Page 110. 6. 16. y(x + x ?/). 14. 24. x 1. . 5. 1. 18. 7. 32. b 2. 21. n m a + 13. 11. x 05m ' 5.y 7. c 8. 6 . 1. 10. 5 be _J_. 14. ac mp lf> n 12. 12 28. 17. 33. 20. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 3. 4. 29. 9.^_. J. 4. 17. I) 2 3z 1. 9. 8j_m 7 3.^U\WF### X<6. Page 106. 1. ^i 11. 34. 7. w^x 2 b Page 105. 6. 13. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 7. ' 6. an 18. ?. . 23. 6. Page 113. n .  V o 4. J. J. 2) 19. 11. a. 9. b a f +c 14.
Yes.004.. xy. 1:3. 28. 11. ^m . 3. 9ft. . 15. gold. 27. 38ft min. w 18. ft. (d) 4 da. 24. Yes. 15. 5. 20. f . . 19. 3. 16. 14. 0. _JL.001. 212. $40. (d) 500. '"I 22. 20. 8301 hr. 6. (a) 25. min. 1:1=1:1. 10. 5ft 30mi. 1:1 = 1:1. 300. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. ~m .. 6. :2. 81. 7. 15. 1 da. 35. 19.. 20. $30. 4. IV s. 7. 8. 18. No. 26 mi. 16./hr. 13. * 7:9. 1:1 = 1:1. 2:1. 74. 10.x + y. 16. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 18. . 4. Yes. 19. 2. 24 mi. after 18. min. 33. 40 mi. 26 30. Page 118. 5 2. 14. 8. 4~r~ n .. 9. 7. 30 yrs. 14. (ft) 28. 10. 15. (c) 2 hr. . 17. 13. 1. 3. 12. 7 . 8. 33.  + .0 & . #V ~~ 34.003. jj.000.. (a) 12 hr. 34. 15. 300. 10. 40 yrs. (a) 4 min. 1. silver. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 31.000 1 = 23. $45. 30 mi. 5. 17. 1. 18.  29.} da. 5.  C . 10. $00. 11 hrs. 3:2. P+ ^ 33. = A's. 1:1 = 1:1. 1. . 17. 30ft. 2x:3y.002. No. 1^'.10. $0.000. f. 4. 55 mi. 32. 500. Yes. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 21. " 0. (ft) 104. 4. (ft) 5 da. 2 20. 11. 75 . 1 : 12. 17.0. 275:108. 7T 2 Page 116. 8. n 32. 6. 7. ^?i min. 10 yrs. 4fl M_. a 4 ft. Yes. (ft) 5 hr. 3. 30.139. 40wn. (c) 8300. ANSWERS 16. 19.XIV '/ . 15.2. 11.. 7. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 5.9.11. 300. 26. . 4. 8. Yes.138. 21ft min. 12. 21.000 If da. 12. 9J oz. 10.000. ^p^ r ~ 7. 24. Page 119. 1:4. (r) 3^ da. 3. 13... J ^'. 10. 1: ~.. 14.15. 7} 18. Page 117.000. 9. 22. Page 121. nm. 13. 10^ oz. Page 125. dn ~ mi. 23< &n b ' . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 00. J. 2. after $12. 9. w 44. Yes. 3. 15. after 20. 10.. 10. 3 da. ./hr. 9$. () 2. 7. Page 124. 9. w 21. [>> ^ a .2. 36.137. Yes. 5 25. (a) 30.
2. 27. 20 20 J ^.5. 8. () 7 Page 126. 11.  19. 9. 4. 1. 10.2. 35. 6 10 = 12. 23.J.1.7. 57. 3. 1 rt * vm^1. 4. 14.4. 1. : 23. 21. in. 3. 48.15 x. 7. (b) Inversely.15. Page 9. 4. 30. 2. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 2.8 oz.a.4.3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . jc:y = n:m.ANSWERS 22. 2. . 141. 7. : XV 27.3. 15> 9. Page 5. J.3./':</ c a f :y=2:9.5. 2 n .3. 5. : />. 54.. x:y a: b. 16. 25.160.2.36. . 1.2 x. 22. 1. 38. . 2. Page 135. 15. 41.57. () Directly. Page 136. 11.  ?.4. 5. 43. 40. 7^. 50.17.1. in n. 20 cu. .12. mi. 13. 7. . 4. y :y =. 5. 7. 1. 5. copper. 5 2. 945 11 10 . 138. . 7. 7. cu. . 9. y 1. 11. 19. 2.46. 2. OJ. 24 1 (e) Directly. x 42. 2. 5. J. 3. 2. 13J. 3.x a. 18.3. . ~ 1. \\. (I.C ?/ a . 7. 3. \. 3. 5. /. 3. 7. 22. (a) Directly.3. a 3.3. 9  15. l. "lO. 2. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.5. Page 131.li. a f 2 2 = 5 x.. 6. 5:0 = 10:12. 15. 4.  28. 7. 5. 2. 7. 13. 4. Of. 44. : . 25.3. 4. 2. w 8.r. 3.3. 23. 19 OJ.5. 4. 8. 36. water. 1. 4. Page 137. 2. 3}. . 9. 3. 10.4. 14. 24. 8. .*. 9. 2. 10. + b 7 . 2. 12.7. 40.1. 3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. $. t 5. 10.9. 6. 2. 8." ^ 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . ' 55. a~. 9. ini. 1. 17.2. 20. 26.5.3. Inversely. 28. 6. 4.3. 2. 49. Page 132. : : . 12. 14. 56.5. 6. 200 mi. . 1(5. (</) ft. 3  24.. 6*. 174+ Page 128. 1.000 sq. 8. 8. 30. 21. 3 2=3 x. land. 4."2:1. 2. . . 32+ mi. 24. = 7 b'. 1 18 = 3 51. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 47. 7. 52. 41. 46.5.22.5. 1.2 oz. 53. 9. 55. 2. 17. 14.J 3. 19. 17. a +b 1. J. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. ft. . 7. x y = 1 = 3 2. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 5.2. 36. y a y = 7 0. 13. 2. 58. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.1. 6. 4.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. 3. b x 37. 19. 3. 7. 2. I. 4. 25. 5. 31J.) 31.840. 20.000 sq. 7.' : : : : <>. J pq. 11 w a 13. + W.]. 13. 9. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 12. Page 133. : : T 1' : /> : . tin. s<i. 1. 19 3 . 32j. OJ. 2.6. 11. 11 5 . w. 9.4. mi. 8. 3. 16. 5. 31. x y y . *.12. 16. 45. 2. 29. 4. lo mi. 127.5. y .1. 5. 26. 12. 39. ig 6. 2. i. 5:3 = 4: x. 59. 3. 2. 7. 7.20. Page 134. 11.
1 (c) Jan. 12. 3. 6. 18. 15. 100. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . Apr.. 14. 21. 2. 3. 11. 1. 5%. . 4. 4. July. 17. 8. J. $500. m f 9. Nov. Nov.4. 25. 0.8. 6. 2.1J. 16. 4. 20 to Oct. 1.1. 16. 3. 18. . 5. & May. 3. yrs. 6. 7. ad _(?jrJL. 3. 3. 7. 21. 9. Page 143. 17. 6. On 11. 7. . (a) Apr. 4. 5. 6. 2. Oct. 15. (a) 12.10. yrs. 3. Jan. 423.0. 10. 147. 15. 5.. 3. 8. . 2. 4. Nov. 7. 16. (ft) 20. 3.n + p.3. be 10. 7. 23f .  Zn  "(^ll 14. 26. 1. 14. Jan. 7. $900 5%. 22. 4. 4 ' q. & part of Feb. ' . (c) . $3000. 18.7. m .. <*ft/ bd 1. 1. $4000. 30. 20. 90. Page 149. 14. u 2ft. The ordinate.  11. 00. . SL=J o ft r^2. 2. at 15.33. June. 3. 11. 2.2. . 4 mi.4. 4. 3. 12. 23. 16 to July 20. 11. . 20 & Oct.^. 27. 9. 12.2. m f 8.0. . . About 12f.9.. 20. 11. 2. 4. 0. 4. Nov. 9.1. 16. 3. 31. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 5. Page 151. . 3. = ^ a Page 141. Jan. (<f) 13. 9. 4. 2 a. 1. Apr. 25. Apr. 30. 26. On the x axis. a. 1 (d) Apr. 40. & part of Sept. 18. 6. 2. 40.3. 29. 1. 1. Feb. May 5. $6500at3Ji%. 13. Page 145. (5./hr. 12. 10.. A's 30 18. 16. 3). 12. 24. m + n p. 0. 1. 7. ft 3. 5. parallel to the x axis 0. A a parallel to the x axis. 25.$2000.l. 6. 28. 16. $ 1000. 6 cows.. 2. 10. 2. 7. 1. Jan. On the y axis. 2 horses.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 11. B's 15 yrs. 20. (ft) 23 J. 5. 8. 1. . 7. 19 gms. through point (0. 5. a =J (n  1) rf. 9. 19. 3. 3. ^.XVI Fagel39. 5. 2. 4. 11. 6. 25. 24. 13. 19. $250. 10. 2. . 20.4. Page 153. 72. 2. 9. . 8. 10 sheep. 10. 4. 3. 4. 5. 2. be 7. Page 22. C's 10 yrs. ad AzA. 3. July. 2. Page 142. 4. Page 146.$5000. 2t2. 24. Aug. &. 3. C's 30 yrs. 13. 17. Jan. 2. 20. ' 6 3 a.65. 32. B's 40 yrs. 3. 23. 30. A's 50 13. 5. 2.3. 7. 3. M 2. Page 152. 24. 6%. 10^ gms. 1. 2. July 20.  17. 1. 4.
. 3. (<?) 2.2 (ft)  1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 4. 10. 4. 2. 2.84. 125a 28. 5. 8. 5.25. Inconsistent. f12 wi 9.25. Page 164.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (a) 12. 15. 0C. 5. 13 . 8mW. 4. . 20. 8 a1.24.25. m. 3. 1. . 3.1. Inconsistent.24 . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. * 16. 4. 3. 3. . (ft) (d) 2. ' :=_!. 1. 8. 10. 3.13. 5. 22.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 1.24. 125 16. 15. 3. 6.27. 32F. H. a 29. 13. . 2. 2..83. 1. 9 and Page 166. . a + ft. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 26. (a) 4. Indeterminate. 9. .41 and 23. 8 1 f f g*. . . 1. (c) 2. f 10. 6. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 1. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 2.79. 1. () (rt) 3. 2 a&m Page 167.59. (e) 3. xW..  . 1. 25. 3. 5 and 2. 30.25. . (e) 2. 5. .75. . 10 C. 8.75 (ci) 3^.75. 3.  1. 83. a 10 ' a ll V&. (/) 3.5.34F. 11. \ft) 5. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 1.3. 12. + a 4 ft* .5. 4. 1.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . . 2. (c) 7. 0. 2. 2. 13C.73 ami . 3 .5 (ft) 3. 2 2 22. . 28.4. 4. . Page 163. 1 23. 16.3. 3. 27 19.7. .79. xy. 5. SlstyW 7. (gr) 21.  12 ft xW  26 31. (ft) 2. . (a) 2. 14. H. 1. 2 l. (/) 3. 2.73.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 10. 18.25. 7.41 and . G. 18C. . 19. . . 2. 27. 2. 3. 24.59 . 1^.  1. . xg . (ft) (ft) 2. 9. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i." 23. ft . 12. 3. 13. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. +3 4. 2. 22. 2.. 3. (a) 5.6. 14. 14. 4}. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 1. 15 .64. 4wn8 + n4 5. 3. 19. Page 158. 3. Indeterminate. 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 24. 1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 1.. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.83.1. (c) 14 F. 15.73. 3. 1. 30. 2. 1 4. 1. 2. 3. 3. (ft) and (d) 2. 4 ) 21. ft 2 4. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 81 ". f.73. 4. 1. 21. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 13. f. 1. 11. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 20. 2. 27 27 81. jgiooyiio 17. 125 a 8 12. 2.64. . 17.75. . . 11.67. 2ft4 Page 168. . ImW. . 2. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 5. Page 159. 14.
64. 35. (x + y\ 90. 8.6. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l.^). 30.  +X '. a 2 . Page 171. 17. 00. (1 (x2y). 8 /. 8. 237. 3. 2.1. + 29. ). 20. 1. Page 170.7 /)). 99. 15. . 2 2 7. 5 5 8. 71. 8. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 17. 10 x G a 4 . . 3M. 6.i c 6 15. 8. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. + l). 5. Zll. 15. 1. I 8x2). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 16.037. 6. 19.5. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 72.10 a~ + 5 a .GO a c + 23. 180 . 15. r> 4 : 1 . ( Page 174. 4. 10. 16.1. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 15. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 3 6 23. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 119. (ab + c). 16. a ).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18.83. 3. m 13. 25 19. 22. 70. 11. 9. 3. 2038. 57. . 4. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 31. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 5. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 9. 18.94. 11. 14. 2. 5. + i)). . 7. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 13. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 17. 28. 36. 24. ? . 14. 76. Page 172. 20. 21. 2 2 4. 14. +3 + 5 4. (l + x + . 9. 9. + (win . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 420. 6. 25. 0. 1 1 ?>). 2. ??i ?i . 5. (x' l). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 4. + + ?V 22. 309. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 10. GOO 2 c 2 . (2 a + ft). 34. 2. 101. 33. 40. 11.XV111 7. ? : 1 . 4.+3^ + 4. 8. 12. 300. . 20. 1247. ^i. a: l .3 ab + 2 2 ). 90. (a 2. 978. rt . wi 8 + 3m 2 .x ). 13. fe *?>' ?> fi . 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 247.2). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 6.y2 ).  x. 18. 19.r 2 + 6jt). 5. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . 12. 23. 763. Page 176. + Z). 10. c 10 6 :l 20. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 2. 3 2 8 3 12. 32. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 2 4 8 2 . 7. 10*. . a. . 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 3. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 1. 20. +35. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. a. (a + 2 +l).a b 22. (a + y+l). (48 + 6. 90. 1. 26. 21.f 1 m 9 16. . . 2 12. 11. 98. 30.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 2 49 . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . /> 4 ). 27.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 12. (4a2 9& 2 13. (ly). 14. 6 (\x 3. 9.5). 18. AN S WE no . 84. (3a. + y). 16 6 w . 7. 9. 3 2 ^.
 5. }. 3. 3. 2. 1 f Vl3. 30. 36. 7. {. 4. 36. 21 in. 11. 6. 28. . *. ^. w.6. 32.V 8j. 5.4. 8. 8. 2. .. 11. v 17. 23. 35. 29. 5. 3.13.742 in.. 40. 15 1 10. (afl). f. 5083. 5. vYb. . 7. 13.ANS WERS 22. 12. ii :J _7. 1. 6. >i 27. 7563. l~8. 2. 23. 6561. 16. 20. 14. 5. 21yds.4.005. 1. 4. 14. 1. 4. 5f.. 17. 25. 35. 15. 19.6. 16n.w 18. 2 sec. f. 18.5. 2. . 4J. 3. 3. f . 15. 3. 32.i. 1. 6V21.469. 11. 33. 17. 6. 1. 24. > w ft. xix 26. 2. 47. If ^. 11. 7. Page 184.a. 18. 4.*. .  f. 31.916 yds. 4. 2. 1 38. 17. V35 1. 2] see. 8. 7. vV'TA 24.. 7. 9. 10. 44. 1&. 2. Page 185. 9. 9. 7. 3. 24.925 ft. 37. 1. 33.. f 3. 39 in. 2. ZLlAiK 19. 37. 36 in.5.1. 6J. 4. Af^.  2. V J l. a. \/3. 4 a. 5. 48. 9. >TT 26. 1 7. ft. 3. . 10. /. 2. . 49. * 1. Page 177. 7}. 4 n. 5. 25.?. 22. 10. 3.}. 15.  14. 4. 13. 39. 11. 10. 15. . Page 180. m.243. i ^. ft. 4.. 1. 5. 14.  f. 1. 3. 6 f !. 3. () 2. 6yds. i. 13. f f V.6. f ^ is.6. 2. 2. / 11. 25 J. 10. 9.. 5. 7 45. 16. V2. ft. 7. 29. (< + ?>). 3.. 40.18. 19.522 38. 12. 6. 20. 4 W**. 12. 13. 7. 12. 5. 5. 4. _ iVaft. or 3. 1. 5. 21. 12.935. 2. 26. Page 181. a + 61. 30. 14. 27. 7 in. 5. V2.60. 5. 16. 14. 6. 29. 10. 46. Page 179. 6. 21. 21. 8. 41.  1. 39. JJI. . 16. 270 sq. 4. 42. 4. 15. 8. 6V'2J. 1. 12. 27.  43.. 2. 34. or 5.4. 3.6. 9. 10. 4 TT M 28. V17. 5. 10. 20. (6) Vl4 3. " ^_ 22.237. 10. 13. 50. 9 15 ft. 23. m. Page 183. 6. V. 7. . 28. 4. 7. 12.798 yds. ^. 9. 7. .236. 3.645.367.. 3J. 1. ~ V^3. ^^7m. 6. 8.690.Sn.  3.1. 4. 34. J. 9. 31. 12. 28 in. . 21 28 ft.
0.  Page 194. 14. 4. 43.2. 25. 3. 1 . 26.Oa. 12. 31. 4 da./hr. Page 187. 35. V2.$40 or $60. 2.70.2. 1. .10.  2.5. 19. 4. unequal. 4. 2.59.  24. $80. 2. 7. 64. Real. 6. 1. 29.l. 25. 7. 19 in. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. unequal.4. . . 28.3. 3. 24. 1_^L ft 14.4. 16. 38. . 8. t is. 3. 10 or 19. 1. 3.2. Imaginary. 33. i. Real. 18. 3.2. . 2. 9. 25. 20 nii. Page 191. 3.3. 57. 0. irrational.  13. in. 2. 4. 4. 5. $30 or $70. f. 1. ft. 0. 9. 0. 4.]. 64c. 2. 2.a.* 2.a 3 a. rational. 2. 2.7. 10. 12.3. 55. 27. unequal. 3. 3. 6. jr .. 21. 26. Imaginary. x* 51. .12. Real. r* i. .1. 2. .62.. Page 189. unequal.74. 34. i . 18. 0. 1. 3. #<7=3. AB = 3. 3if. Imaginary. . 2. a8 .2. 22. 41.a. + 11 x. a. Imaginary. 1. 3. = 0. 0. 11. 21.23. rational. .. 1. 25. 20 eggs. 3. V7. 6. 50. 46. 9. 44.2... 4.  i.48 3. 39. 1. 40. 15. 2.2. V ~ 16 4 2. 4. 49.17. V^l.2 x2 . 0.  2. . 53. 0. rational. 2.  9x <).5^. Real.2. 6V64.4./hr. 7. 2.  5. 17. 24. 3. x2 + B . 6.4. 2 ft. %. irrational. 1. (5 10.2. 8. Page 192.  1.  1. 2. V^~2. 37. f. 6. 0. Real. 24. . V2. f 6 52 a. AB = 204 ft. 2. 3. 10 in. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 12. 16. 70 ft. 8\/2 17. unequal. 10 mi. 32. 3. 1. 0. 3. 6^2 in. 2. . 23.  1. 16. 0. 2 V3 in.. 10.2. 2.'. unequal. . H. 7. 58. unequal. 13. 28. 28. 10 mi. 1. ' 1. 1). 7.  1. 6.6 = 0. 1. 12.  6. 23. 1 3. 30. ^l/>> = 85 ft. . 9. . Real.  1.37.5 x + 6 = 0. 1.7. 3. 1. . x*4x=0. orf. 27. 13./hr. 6. 21.48. s 11. 45. 6. . equal. 5. Page 188. 0. 15.  5. VV11.7. 1. 1. *'' 12. 1. 7. 27. 20. 8. v^^fcT"^. 0. 5. 36. 2. 23.4. 3.0*8. Real. 18. rational. 1.12 = 0. If.6. 4. 1. 15. 8. 47. 19. 3.23. a + 6. 2. 6. rational. 11. 42. 0.02. . . 1.1.41. 48. 14. _ 19. 3. a. $ 120. unequal. 3. x 14. 7. Page 190. 120 ft. 5. 10. 20. 15 ft. V^l. ANSWERS 22. 4. 8 or 12 mi. 2./hr. 26. 35. unequal. 7. . U. 12. 6. 0. equal. 5 ft. 56. 3. 2 . equal. 5. 0. 26. . 2. 20.1. a + 1. '  f 5.XX Page 186. Real. 3. 52. 22. 3.
5. 24. \a\ \/^. l  5 12. 48. 13. 5\/5. r*. 6. 2. 25. 14. 84. 35. J 3. Vr. 9. 3. 40. 243. I. 55.  5. 19. 30. \/3. 11. 4. 2. a. $7. 18.ANtiWEUS rational. 29. . 4. 4. 31. 49. 2. 30. x. 21. 3. 49. Page 197. . 3. 16. 2. v'frc 18. 2. 31. . 17. 38. Page 201. 19. &. 5. . 23. 15. 7. 41. 20. 36. (m 26. 15. 13. 22. 26. 32. 2V a. 42. 4. 8.1 5 15. 0. 58. 17. . 60. 2 L ( V. \. 15. 1. 13. ^Sf 3 38. 49. n\/* Page202. 9. 43. 10. ar 1 . p. 2. 25. 1. v. ). 7 . 1. 20. Page 199. 2. 5. \/r\ 11. 19. 7. m'. 4. m. 1. 44. 21. 6  AAf. J. 27. 18. 20. 'J. 17. 1. 8. 50. \. 14. 4. 2. 8. 0. 5. 56. 28. ifa. 8. 10. 4. a 18 . 24. 14. 1. \ . i. v'frW. 3. . 32. ^49. 47. 3. 1. 16. 2. 33. x$. 9. vV. 3. 1. 6. xxi 15. 29. 12*2 61. 12. 1 39. 9. z + 22. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 10. x/25. 24. vm." 17. JV37. 20. _! V3. 3. 19. fx'^z'l 23. 8. wA 46. . Jb \. 14.. r. 46. 5.^7. 3. 57. 23. 37. Page 200. 16. . 8. 27. 7V7. v^T4 m. 29. 47. aW\ 40. 8. 53. 22.  48. jV 10. 33. 9. 7. 39. 3. 50. 52. 49. 12. 3 4 11.32. *V. 3. J. 5. y . 59. .2. 45. 11. . 18. 21.  J j. : .  f.  f . 9. 51. J. 125. 8. 25. 1. 28. 3.6. 4. 54. 0. ? . 3. 13.//^. 30 a. y. 1. V^ 34. 2. 16. 1V1. 2. J. 1. \/. 10. Page 196.  a'2 . 33.17. v/3.
5. 24.'\ 14. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 11V3.  2 3:r. 101 1.632. 19.2 18. JIV6. k/2. 51. 3. + 2 V22.rV:r. 45. 03r* 7. 5. 2\/7. 10. 2.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . 50. 3 a~ 3 (x (.3 + 40 3 . 2 4 z2 l 3. ^88". 135V6. 13. 26. 48. V 5 47. 36. . . 22. 19. 17.. 21. 29. ). 30. 28. / V3.Vxy 35. 28. 4aV^J 16. 40. 3V^T. ^7 \AOx.f.r. x 7  34. x y.577. 195V3. x + 5 x3 + 0. y.648. . 2 '"V5. 16. 37. 1) 3V3. 12.). ^: V2c. 49. V80. 20. + 1. 7. 31. (x' (l 1+x). 8V/) 15. 62V(J. 2v (T 2aVf. 13. x^ . 9 . V63. 24. 3V5. 2 a?>V2 a. 13 35. 2. 32. 11. 34 r 6. 2. 18. 23. + . 37. 8. 7. 3 42. 33. 3^ + 2). v/^r 5  A/^~. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. r c . 32. y (a + ft) V2. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 3 x^y 33. Page 203. 15. abVab. Page 207. 4. . 20. 29. 10. + + ft. 38. V. r 17  Page 204. 4. x%  3 ^+ 1. 17. 5 ( . x 25. 3^2. 21. V2 + 4 V22. 10. a2 4. Va 2 "ft. 1 2 or 1 ?. 3 \ 39. 13 a. yV35.2 VlO. 1.yl : . 3. m* n*. 2.x^y* + y%. a 3. 8. T.692. 6. 27. 39. 43. Page 208.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 2 x* 15. 5 22. . 2. V. 40. 2>X2. + 2 ar 1 ). 9. 34. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. + 2). (o* 2. 6. . 26.707. 3. 30. v^. a 4 +* + !. 8a6V5. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 41. 16. 25. (a 27. v'TM. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 9. l 5. 31. 20&V6. ?tV?w. + Vic + 25.  a Vft 2 121 b. a^ + 2^+1. 9. . Vr 8. x. ftV 46. 11. 3 4\/2.XXii ANSWERS 1. 2.
a\/5c. 14c 4 V5. 1V5. 24. 40. 3. 7. 20. 22. 9 VlO + 4. ab 4. 41. + 20. 8. 9. 4VO. . 25. 33. 14. v/l2. 4. 23. % 29. 15. 5v/2.  3. 10. \/abc*. Page 213. v7^. + VlO  v y (5. 2. 2 28. 37. 30 Vl4. 5V2. 3. V8. 3\/15  6. v/9. xx 1. v^lf. 1. 6aV2\^.30 2. V/. 18. x/8l. 53. D 45. 2. 34. 49. 74\/Jl 120 46. V3. 26. 3 V2. v"5. 5. Vtf +3+ 33. 32m27n. Vdbc. 11. 12. x/w^ 8. 22. 43. v/8. VT5. 4 >/3. 35. 18. \/04a. 6V2. 2\/7. x/125. V2. V3"m. 2. fl^Vac. \^r^bVabc. 51. r)\/(l Vrtr. 14. 7. 16. 27. 5. 46. 30. 18. W). Page 211. 16. 10. 32. 8V73\/IO. 13. VJla. "^8000. 3v^2. \/a6c. \^6. V5. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . \/2. a^\/a7>. 5 \/2. 28. 4 a*. a2  b. w?i. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 8. 39. b.. v/i). 42. . V2. 24. V5. v^30. . 2. : ^32. 7. v^O. x/4. 2yV2?/. 3. 50. 6+2V5. 6.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 6. 21. 3\/wi. vT). 9. v^f. 3. 38. 11. 17. 2 1.r v/^ v^fr*. 3 Vl5 30. 31. ^27. x/8L v/27. 4\/5. V3. m ?i2Vm/t. \^6. 19. 2 V'3. 15. 8V2. Page 210. 16. 6. v"3. 4. 31. 3. 36. aVa. v^a. 10V(). ^\/3. 27. 14. rtv/5. 29. 6 2\/0. 52. 3\/2. 17. 21. 5. 12. 44. '. 9. 7\/(l 7VTO. 1. v 25^4714 V2"a. 2 \/2. 13.J Page 212. 10. 8  \/15. 11. ^9. \V3. 2. \XOfl6Vi5. 40. 35. ^ 3 b 5 24. 6x2?/. 38. 0. . 3 V15  47. 19. x/3. 6.T*. \/128. 26. 37. 1. v/lO. Vat. . 36. v^4. 6. x/8. Page 216. 8v2T 12. 34. 39. 0. Vn. Page 214. ^v 7 15. 32. 23. 5V2. 25. . / \/w/t 4 13. \/8. 21 23. 17. 48. "v/wi ??. 13\/3. . x/27. 2 ate.
V3. 30.3. 11.601. 19. . 5. 1. 25. 9.64. j 15. 21 ' Vob 26. 37. 8. 3. 12. 100. Page217. 35. 2. 9. 21. Page 226. + 5V2. 7.2828. 17. 1. (2. 5. Page220. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 3.389. 10. A . (Vf + (4 V2). 27. 4V3 + 6. 17.625 10. 2. 64. j. ANSWERS 8. ^(VlO\/2). V3. Page 219. 6. 25. (VllV2). 29. (VaT^v a). 8. ~ Vac _c 0. 2 .732. f. (2Vll). 4. 3V23. 4. 25. {. 14.81. 1. 6 (V2 + 1).7071. 14. ^. 6. Page 28. 24. 8. (V51). 16. 5 V65. 2. 21. 5.^ (\/22 4. 9. 6. . (V8 + V2. 17. ^. 8. 9. Vf6fVtf. (2V2). (a 1.w 6. V2. 23. 17. * 3. 25. 24. 8. .\/TO). (V6 + 2V2). 1. 24. (\/3f 1). 4.4722. 6. .1547. 14. 7. 9 mn. 4.4142. . 27. 23. 4. xy 2. 7 f 5 4. 9. (2f V"5). 19. 4. 20. fV2. 3. 7. 1. . 32. 7. 1. 3. 10. 15. 16. V3. 4..  . 2V3. 9. 22. 4. 19. 12. 5. 2ajV2*. 2V2. (\/5V2). 216.  f. m f. 0. V^TTfc. 3(7+3V5). 4. 6 V. 11. 15. (3+ v/2). 22.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 14. 15. 3. 13. x 20. 25. 7. 19. 16. 2!5_. 8. 12. Page 223. 224. 5. 25. J. 7 Page221. 11. 4. 15. 81. n*. 125. 20. 31. 0.2.5530. 12.5. 23. p 6 13. 2. 10. 5.9. 18.V3).XXIV 7. 7. i(Vf Vft). 2. 4. 1. 12. 27. V. 5. 8. 3.1805. 11. 8. . !^ 6 4. 16.3. 20.  13. 10. 512. 23. 4. . 15. 10. Page 225. 18. 9. 8 V3V2. 10. 1. 25.  2. 16. 18. V35. i^Lzi.732. 24. 10. J. 2. 30. (V21). (V5f 5. \/3). 28. 13. 16. nVTl. 36. +3 V2). 1. 20. 22. \/57t. 16. 5. 16. 13. 3. 1. V6c. K>/0 + \/2).3535.6 V3. 11. 2x^2^. ' 22 i .464. .13. . 19. 4 14.7083. Page 218. 7. V3 .2. 34. 33. 4. 11. 6. 2. 18. 9. 5. 23. 4. 4. Va. 2V3. 18. 9. 29. Va. 5 f. V5.6.0606. 7. 21. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 26. ^\/2. 1. 12. . 26. \. _^JflJ?. 81.1. + 6) 2 . 5 + 2 vU 17. ^r.
4). a(. 30 . 8. (pl)(p2)(p2). 6. 9.10. . 0. (a . \/0. 30 30. 13. 1 . 1. ~ f7. 2. =A^Z3. 4. 1. 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).l)(a3)(a . . . 3.22. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. 2 .ANSWERS Page 228.  3.4.4. (r. (4 mn . 73. 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 13. 1. .  2. 100. 4. 22.3. 0. 8 6 & 0. 3. 2. 11. 13. 1. 13.3 2. 7. 4 . f . 20. (m 4 + l)(ro. t/ 23. 2. (a 4. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 3 . a . o. a: :} . 2 6.  . 1 . 5. 1. . 4. 11.  1. J. 4. 4.3. 6.8a 18. 3. . 8. . 0. 18.2. 2. 2 > 1. 10. 4 4. 17. 3. 12. 2. 5. 5. 87 . 2.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1. 2. 16. 6. 4. 5. 25. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 30. 0.  J. 4. . 5. 10. 2.l)(m . 16.  4. 15. 2. 7. 30. 24. 4 20. 1. Page 236. (2 a. . 5. 0. (B43). 0. 3 5. 4. .0. 2 . .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). Page 234. 2. 17.3. b . 6. 21. 3. 7. 23. 3. 3 . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). J 24. 5. 10. 7. 3. (8.12. 2. 5. 6. 8. 4. 9.1. 2. . 2.  16). V3. 3. 5. 2. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).  3.3. 1 . 3.nl^EI.3. 11. 5. 2. 12. . 10. 6 2 2a + 2). 1. . . (a+&)( 2 14.5. 3. 24. (&y2a#H4). 2 6.2. 5. 3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1 3. 20. 5. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 2 V^ . 2 <? 4a2 . 1. 19. (a. P. 3.Y. . 9. 1. (pl)(p3)(p6). 15. . 2. 10. 26.2)(m. 1.7. 8. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 28. //. 19. 4. 12 24 y . 2. 11. 3 9. 14. & + 6 2 ). 4. 15. 1 . 7. (+!)( 2) 10. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1 (?> x/^3. 25. 0. 3. 1.4. 3. 1. 11. 5. 3. 5.  5. .r . 4. 1. 50. 2. 10. 25. 11. 8. 2. 18. 1. 17. 19. 3. (a. a  . 4. ( 16.^a. 1. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 1.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 13. 4 1. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 7. y. (w . 2 &.l)(a 2 + a f 1).. 1 . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). l. 3. (rt. 73. 56l). 20. 3.  f . qpl. 2. 25. 4. 2. 3. 14. 3.3). Page 233. . 3 .2)(* .  1. 12.5 xy + 25) 22. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 12. 22. 2. 12. 1. 6. 3. 2. . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). J. J Page 235.1. 4. 0. f>. 1 6. 3. 3. 4.w 4 + 1). 3. XXV 4. . 2 . 2. 6. (63)(6' t 18. 7.  3. 7.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). (xy + 5) (x*y* .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). . 8.2. 4. 14. 4 .3. 4. 2 . 3. . 21. ' J.
( 3. 11. 4. 8.0. n. 4. $VO. . 32. 10. 3 cm. 8ft. V7.  2 . m27.. Indeterminate. 7. 4. 2. 3. ft. 20 7.. 20 in. Page 238. and _ 4. 41. 4 8. _ 7. 14. 15. 1. i. 1. . 14. . 3. 0. m + n. 2. 5. 7. 26. . 2. 18. _ 10. 2 ft. 3 . 8. 1. 3. (/>) "_. 2.  1. 3. 4. 2. Page 247. . 3. 3. . 2 2. f>. 4. 3. 16. 50. 8. 36. 50. 5..3. 8. 3. 23. 5.3. 2. 18. 512. 14. ft. no co . j. 4. Indeterminate. oo . 5050. 31. Page 240. ft.3.6. 12 d. 1. 9. 33. i'ljVU. n . 35. 11. 3. m28. 1. . = QO 6. 18. oo. 1 . in. 8 .020. . 5.e. . 6.3 . 3. 3. 9. 21. 4. (>.200. . 1. 8. 2n. 5. 15. 0. 3 . 5.y. 12. 8. 2 . 1 . 125 125. 12 1. 3. 3 4. c. 5. 1. 9. 1. 3. ^~2. 5 .136. 5. 1. in.  11. 13. 4.2. 3V5. 1. 12 ft.0. . 2. _ 5. 20. 15. 11. 31. 2. 37. 1 . f. 7. 3. 22. 3 3. . 4.30. 5 4. 12. 20. 55. 5. . 2 26. 5. 3. 4. 17. Exercise 114. 24. 1J. _ 13 (0 6. 4. 5.18. 1. 1. . 1. 1. . Page 244. 25. 9. 23. 11. 10. 4 6.. . Page 248. $. 6. 8. 1. . . 3. '>. 1. (&) 2. . 2 1. 19. 2. 5. 3. Page 241. 512. \. . 12ft. 10. ' j. 1. GO . . 30. Page 239. ANSWERS 2. 0. 2. 15. 19. 9.6. $46. x 4. 13. 2 10. . 12.4. 9. i i i . 35 ft. 5 cm. 12. \/6. . 4. 201. 1. 17. 2.. 5. 21.3. 15. 2. 8.1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 39. 30. 1 . 37. 22. . 17. (a) 5. 3. 1 2. i j. 35 a. 3 2. 3. 3 .1. 48. 4. 7. 3. (a) $3400. 12.. 8 3. 40 in. .3. Exercise 113.. 288. 38.5. J.5. . 1 .xxvi Page 237. 4. 400. 69. 10. 5. 1. 4. 7. 4. +  n. 15. 2. . 2. 3. ^ }. . } . 7f solution. 11. }. 11. 1.. 1. 17. $. 1. jj. 2. 4. 5. 3. 24. . 14. 78. 14. 17.13. 7. f*. 7 3. 1. Page 243. . 4 34. 3. . 2V7. 14. 5. 37. . 29. 4 . 5. 900. 45yd. 1. ri*. 2. 1. in. 3. 1. 6.4.4. 4. . . 2 16. 2. 2. 2.. 16. oo . 2. 1. 30 13. 2 .1. 4. V3~. J. J. 3. 5. 21 30. . 40 25 in. 2. 4. 1. in. 4. . 2 Y> V . 14. in. 3. 6. 28yd. 13. co .  . 2 ..4. 7. 6. 40. 2. 2. 1.3. 84. 1. 15. 35^ 5. 1. 16. tn 2. 4. J. Page 245. 12. 2>/3. 1. 17.3.
9.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 19. 11. JSg. 0. 128. 25. 16. 4. 10. a.5 x. 2. 8. 5 13. 55. 8 .5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 05. 1. ~v 9. . 2i* 7f. 29. 4.4. 15. (). . 5. 5. 10. 1. x r 4. 22. 5. 1.4 &z x>&. 70. 12. 6i. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 8. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8J.<2 4. 13. . 27. .  101. 19. 04. 2. vy. y ^ 5  ^\ ). REVIEW EXERCISE . 28. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 9. 3. 13. 20. c. 4. 6. 708. 0.0. 12. 405. 6. 16. 16. 11. ~ an . 12. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 19. ?/i 6 x llj . 3. 4.^ ?>i 2412x4. \ w 4 .870 m*n*. 27. 4. ' 1.210. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 1000 aW.53. 18. G.ANSWERS Page 250. 4. 8 1. 4. 70. 5. 3. 1. 5. 0. 0. 21. I. 5. 8. 7. 7 x4 17.920. 6.5. 4. 2.v Page 253. 192. 16. 2. 7. 6. 0. 8.700. . 7. 8 4x' 2 . 26. 2. 1 7 4.r* 4 70 . f y 8 + z* . 5. 8. 75. J 2 //2 25. . 44. . 04. 1. 6. 6. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 11. Y11. 343. 7. 3. 15. A. 4. 12. . 120 aW. 15.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 9. 53. 20.680. 45. 2. 4. 280 53. 100. 4. 2. 4.6. 1. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 0. 8. . 27. 343.5. 495. 0.12 x*y 16. Ja. 17.504. 005. x4 . 2. 32. 10. 6. 17. 9. 21. 3. . 8. 15. 12. . 45 Page 257. 8.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 20. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 16.3 ays. 2. Page 259. 3. Page 252. 7. d. . 1. 18. 304. 10.  17. 13. 8. 220 .5y 4 . 2. 0. ^a 8. 17. 3. 16 11. sq. 12. 2. 18. 50. />*. 70.8. 910.170. 45. xxvii 1. 5. } $ 50.419. w9  8.  20 flW. 6. 1820. 3. &' 14. 48. r 5 4. 327. 15.x' 10 . . 35. '23.r x>/ 7 3. 16. . 4. 12. Jj? 45. Page 258. 81.13. 14. <. 1. 3. 4. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. x + Vy. 10.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 7. 125.6 . 3. 3. 23. 125. .7 10. B .r 4. 43.470. 12.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.1. 18. 1 14. 5. Page 254.2 9.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 4 0. 10. 3. 1.384.120. 105. 6. 3. 9. 5. 1.2 45 a 8 /). in.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 1JH. 7. and 1. 410. 8. 7. 22. . 16. 2. 2. 9. 27. a4 4 14.192. i 10. 0. 35. 1.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 4. r r j. 10 14. **+. 4.
* 60. 91.41. 2 113.3 y. 16.1. 28.c. 26. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.a.3 .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.  12 a.5 b + c . ft /> 78. . 4. 2 a. I 57. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 10 4. . 2 2/' .  + 3 x2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .4. 70. . 35.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 127. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 8 . .18 x?/0.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.ac 44 aft.rty x2 4 123. 0. 124. a 3m 4.18 ?/ 5x4.9 x . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . a4 x. 12 a/. . f5+7.  4 a3 85.105.7. 3 a 5 a 5. 99.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 37. . xyxzyz. a* a 8 a aftc. 22. 32.6 b.1.a6 2 4. x 4. 4 69. 49. 3~ n 4.4. 88. x* . 2 53. 14 x .3 x 2 + 3 x . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 80.x x*  f 2 ax 4. y 4 z* 0. . 10 a 12 b. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . ^ . 16t/.x 2 4. df. az 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 93. 21. 3 c .1. . 9x. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. x 2 . 2 30 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 0. 82. . 4. x 3 4. a' 111. 50. 46. 43. x 8 + x 4 68.2 c .2. (a + ft)" 98. 4 115. .ft). 105. 2 x'V2 90. 5 42. .1 4 jry 4 x . 131. . 3 a . 12 x. 6 c 47. . a2 2 aft 2 2.5.3 a'ft. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 100. x' 79. 27. 2 x2 108. /> 4 83. + 3 a?. 122. 13 + 2 s. 76. . 132.  . 52. 1 121. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.^a . 25. 130.x24 73. 118.2. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 3a~2c. 4. Page 260.3 103. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . . 40. 1 x 45. x4 f + 23 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. _55_7c 48. 243x4729.c. 2 .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 61. 30. . 1 + 4 xy. x 8  a8 . 86. a~b 89. 39. ?> . 109.4 2 4 c2 42 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 23. 2 . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. + z. a 4 .6 am b\ 129. 38.  3 x2 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x } 4. +^ + ft W. x2 a2 1 . . x2 471x4. . 66. 1 a"* 4 an . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 1 .1w 77. 5x 2 2x43. x 3 41. Page 263. 64. 4 15 x 5 . 133. 6 a2 97. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.3 b . 4 fee 4.15 4 62 x  72. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 6a6c. 114. .4 x y 87. 5 4 4.2 x 4. 7 + 3 xf 2. as 20. ?/ .x. 120. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.2 x^. ft n .fee 2 4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.2 xy + 4 y2 106. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.7 x   15.9 b. 31. 4 2 .y*. 8x3 8x. 0.a*ft 2 126. x .3 aftc. 102. !! 71.4 x?/2 3 4. 62.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.5 3n 4. 125.1. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 4ft y3.  e +/.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l..5x4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 5x + 2y~z. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. a J . 3a'2 Page 261.a'2 c. c3 4 58.x4 + y'2 z 4. ?/ 3. 104. ft2ft 4 4l. . 29. .{ 54. 3 36 b c . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 2 q. 4 65. m " + n + P3c .a' 'ft 4.4. 96.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 110.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . . x' . x2 2 .x 51.4 ac. 94.4. 4 .c 3 4. 2 .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.4 x 2 . () 2 x 33. 72. 107. . 9 2w 128. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. a* 4.2. 2 x2 4. t 81.a 2 x 2a . 63. &p 84. 4 Page 264. 3 a 44.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 36. + a 4. 24. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. x8 x2 55. 4 ! .
6) (2 x + 1). 168. 30. 15. 2^.3. . 10). 32 h. 175. 2(x8)(x3). 2. 12 yr. 231. 237. (3x2?/)(2. 19. (y 7f))(y 196. 146. 137. 170. 182. 2. + 22). 155. 3(x . 212. (y7)(y + 188.. 10 ft. 167. + 7)(rt4). 6. (JT y 225.y2 ). 20. 23 18. 149. r>x 2 (4x.y)(z . 244. 12 6 panes. 6. (r^x + 1). 219. (a} 59.ANSWEKti 135.3 y)(a . (ab + 8) ( 7). z(x10)(xl). 240.2 )(x+y) 228. 3.. 164. 174. 2a(42ft)(2fo). p.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 5. Or (a + 2)0el).2). (x 227. 173.y + 3)(r (. k. (3x  . (233). 1. 169. + 2) + 9a. a(a.2ac + 229. 209.1). 147 mi. 12. (/ 246. +)(x2 x^+2. 206.r + 4). 236. 160. G7. HI. 222. 218. 10 in. 216. 179. 6). 201. 207.m)(x + a). + y. 177. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 3. a. 140. 232. 156.l)(a 2 +3). 22. as 194.3 y). 138. . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 144. (8x + 3)(3x4). (x + 2)(x . 163.2). y3. fc'2a+62c). 187. (a 2 + 2a6.r .1(5) 200. . 2 xy(3 x . Iff 145. 211. 197. a 2 (15. (y _ ft)(y 4. 143. + 11) (a 10). aft.2) (3 x . (r7y)(ai. 193. 190. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 171.1). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (x  42 yr. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).l)(y + 1). 10). ft.l)(x8 + x2 . + 3). 50. 15  a. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.  1. 239.9)(xf 2). 2 (4 x . 176. 30 + xyr. 224. 157.I2y). 10. (at (4 a +!)( + 3).6 .c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). ?. Page 267. m. (2 198. y.6)(4 + 6). (6) 40. 1. x(x + 6) 213. 2. 162. (. (x^ + x1) 234. 1. 24. 75. . 183. 20. 233. 166. 159.1). (2a + l)(a . 18. 12 yr. 1. 48 h. 142. 148. 37 1. 12) (j. 152.y) (\r3y).3). ( + 2y)(2x3y). 1. Page 265.y). . 220. 226. 40 yr. (7x2//) 203. 1. 2 2 (a.4xl). ( jc // a 2 (a1).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 247. y  y 165. (5 x . (y_24)(y5). 235. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 150. 1. 181. 186. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (x . 136. 4. 153. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 8(ar}(/)27). 189. 12. (7 c 2 ). Page 266.2. a + 2x2 ). . (a& 192. 217. 147. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 205. 210. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 15. + 3) (x f f>) . 2. (?/+l)(yl). 218. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). (x + 6)(x6). 238. 180. 241. 191. (y  17)(y + (>). 214. 215. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 172. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 154.y)(jc + 7 y). 230. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 30 yr. xxix 139./_4). yr. 195. 185. 2. 1. 178. 4.. y 245. 208. 21. p. 184. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 199. 8 204. C3 y _l)(. 158.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). (c) 160 C. 161.3) (2/3y).. 202. . 36ft. 151. 7.
x 283. 4 5. 2. 10. 2 4 300. 303. x12.  3xyf x// 257. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 249. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 310. 7. 305. 264. 306. 260. 0. 298. ? 1) 302. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 0. x . 250. 3). ^ 299. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 2 x  3. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 254.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 256. 279. 7 x 265. Ca&c 1)(M 253.(x  4) (x4 304. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 263. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 301. ?^ZLiZ 308.  7. 3). 259. 43 '^rJ'. (7 255.^^^^^^^^.   . > 4. ^/>J. &). 261. o. 269. 3.^ ^^. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. a. 258. 251. *>). *. o(x4l).1. 295. 5. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .. 307. 3  262. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. x ?/ z 1. x 267. + f. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .4).2* i^^ !^. 7^T 2 . 268. a~ ' b*).4) 1) (3 x . 266.
a +6. 388. + x 362. 401. 385. 20. 0. 1. 389. 375. f. 2(a i 403. 1 i 2 ^. 4. 406. 3. 9^. . * 357. 339.)Cr4)__ . 393. a) A^_. 366. " 4 378. 360. T\. 394.. 4 rw.". 1.7.vin a /r " 337. 383. 6 ?/+:>. 404. 2 ?/ 363. 1. 396. 400. 2 r36 384. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 11. 377. If. 2 327. ^"" 4 s . 343 00 351. 355. a + b + 6). 397. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 336. 1. . 382. ?>*.  1 356. 4. 4 A. Page 277. 386. ?=.XXXI Page 272. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. <L 409. (a + b + c\ . 2(q. 7. 0. 3. 13 391. + 335. 0. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 333. 12. 390. _*L'L+. 1. 387. 376. 7/i ^ _ .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. m. 395. 408. 0. 2. 334. 407. 398.(5 a . 329. 324. 2. 365. y 4 I 340. Page 274. 405.3. . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.J . ab. ^ 3 // . T+^. 361. a 2 .!. + 4 & 4 \ b.. 6a. x 54 359. 370. . l'j. 399.1. 364. ^_:r f> 331. 392.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 2 ab  a Page 276. 380. j 328. 379. ?/ + 3 332. S. 325. . c 402. 2 ). l . L . 3. 326.  1. A^L5L. .
5. 40 oz. 425.vz in. 17. & 491. .7. L2 a  6 . 8. 432.  7. 3 .rz Page 279.3. 0. 447. 5.  453.4. 32. (d  6) f. 485. . 4. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.  1. 423. L (c) I. fc. ^. 5. \ 1.  10.488. 1. 454. 466. 457. !L=4. 4. 10. 3. 481. 7. 506.  2f 504. 5J..XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 7. 463. 429. 479. 486.12. 42. 6. 435. 8. 1. (a  c). 33. Page 282.46.  1. 445. 7 : . a* 424. 20 yr. 440.2. 17. 3. 10$. 20. 6. 410. 5. 456.55. 3a 4 5. ISjmi. 10. 10.. a 22 . 7.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. Page283. 458. fj. 460. 10. 8.2. . ft 5. . 468. 459.  2. i. 0. 421.. 467. 436. 6. 3. 5. 1. 12. .0. 2. 6. 412. 420. 411. 14 miles. 494.. 84. ^r?i 434. 501. 413. (d) true.  . * . (a) 1. 2. 10. ISJini. 490.5. m 1 : wi. : />a. 11. 24 days. 2. 40. 28 yr. 1. I.te + . 500.  505. 450. 2 438. 10. 0. 22. . A 5 mi . + () 433. 4.. 483.489. 503. 455. 419. Page 281.4. 480. 499.  2. . 497.  f>. 482. 478. . 430. 5. 53 yr. 2. 6. 10. not true. '. (&) 443. 21. 492. 422. 0. . 441.7. ^V. \. 426. 90. 6. . 448.  2. $2000 at 0%.7. 502. Page 280. 507. 493. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 465. 452. />c c(f be. 508. 496. (&) true. 50. (c) not true. 1. 498.}. 439. 427. ' $260 at 0%. 2. i a b 451. . 2. 2.  7. . B 4 mi. 2$. 51. m. 444. 442. *+. c. 0. 6. 8.7. 0. . 7. 4. 2.. 2. 495.}. B $ 2500. a + + ft c. 1$. 0. 9. . A $ 3500. . c 6fc 10. . Page 278. <L+ 6 (.1. 461.7. 63. z8 +?/ 3 431. 418. 1 a /?$+&?. b 449. 472. 7. . 18. 2. 464. 487. 2 a 2. 477.0. . .m  m+ M in. 428.3. 476. 32 yr. 484. 462. 446.
2(6 597. 4. (6) 3.24. . .r8 596. 514. .0. 1. (gr) 10 1.. 2 . 518.75. Page 288. 3. 1.4. 21*_. .03.2. 6. 1.12.  3. 4. 4 mi. 530. 2. 5. _ 3.51. ft 584. 4* da. . <z ft 1. 4.  J(a f + 2c). 564. 559.9. 4. . 3.5. 552. 2. Roots imaginary. 565.  557.5. 526.0.04. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 4.88. 581. . 8 mi.0.  4.3. 1 580.   (h) 8.ANSWERS Page 284. (e) 570.24. 525. 232. 563.  7. 574.  2ft da. 2(4 602.8.6 2. 528.7. 1. 536. 599.4.31. a + ft  a  f c.78.53. . 1. _ 4. 561. 578. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 579. 6. ^ ft 4. 3. 7^ da. 554. 1. . 1. + 26 + . 582. T .5. 567. (c) 4. . imag.52. y 4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 573.  2. 3. 0. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 1. 4. 575. 27 y* f\4 . lead.8 x3^.10.3. > ^ .31. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 591. lead.78. per hour.25. 4.24 sec. (ft) Ill Ib. y% Z * 586. xxxin 511.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . If 572.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.3. 1. 1J.30. . 2.6.14.02.4. 562.02.62. 40 Ib.38. .6.1. 516. tin. 583.3. 1. . 1. 3. 24 da.62. 14.54. f. 531. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.1. (ft) 4._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 1. 1. 556. H.55.20.f 1. 1 . 1. f. 3.4. 527.5.8. 3. 2. 2.. tin. 568.8.  ft*. 551. 603.35.02. Page 285. (i) 3.  (a) 2. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.. 5. 3 da.73. . . 533.04. 3.1. . 2.83. 598.37. 550. . 555. .05. . 2.1. 0000.6. 3.37. 3. 512. (c) 3.  + + c. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 2. (a) 74 Ib. 24. 560. _^ 2754x . . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 532. 2. .6. 515.3. 5. 529. + 12 x . 1. 1. da.7.56 sec. 1 . o> . 577. 3.0. 31.5+. x8 .  . (e) (c) 2.4. 6435. 566. 593.10.15. .25m. 576. a*8a + 24tf 82a. S82 c. 1. + 6 tf f 3 . Page 287. (d) 537. (/)  10 to 8. 1.5 f. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 3f 4f. . 513. 571. or 8. 2 1.  1.15.7. . 1 600. 115 Ib. per hr. 2$. a f ft + c.54. 553. 510. 3. 569. (6) . 2 imag..16.3.15. J7] min. 7. 2 1.21. 1. a+ Page 286. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.1.33. 4 0. 2 2. 1.83. 4.4 x + .xj/ f xV . 2 10.5. g(rc+ 6c). . 5.  imag.3. 3. 4. .75. 2 . .  (a) (d) 1. 1$. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 1. 509.00. f36a28x8 592.8. 558..02. 3 .3.1. f ? a f ft __ + c C).% rr\* 585.4. 1. 8. . 3.03.
898. 672. 3. 009.203. . <T! . 703. 656. \+ab 699.3f l 668. 623.  a2  a (ab). 0. 1 704. . y  619. 627. a + b.  4. 7003. 644. 677 680. 2. 617. 641. 1$ 639. 646. 2. 635. 615. 7. 633. 50. 2 / 2 4. 612.  1. la6 2. 5. o. 2. 649. b . + ~^'2 + a 1. 6.001.f 3 V^3).303. 4. . 5. 2f.a~ {Z 663. 6. 625. ab. 2. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 654.001.b. 645.3. 3 x2 . 25. If . V2. V^~3). If b. 691. a. 1.049. c. 4 676. a 673.2f Page 290. 2 ab + a  &. 643. 25.43^4. 13. K 5 2 V2. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. i. b. 655. 2 x 44 ^/.25.y. 652. 648. 1 ~a . 8 f 3. fe + a. 0. 9*. 669. n^l +^.  13. 5 3. 2. /> 4. ^ 1. fta a/> ^A. 3. 2 a 688. 3 a. 8. 5.3. If 665.0. 2. V7. . 647. 703. 2 a  6*.702. 657. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. ^. \. 661. 706. 4. 5002. 1 V5 1. 1. 8 6 fo . z  1. 634. 679. J^^. . 616. 670. 630. a ' 2 + . 0. 11.  2f r 659. 9. V2. . 642. 666. b 664. ^. . 3. 1010.  ft. .  3.04. / V^+lO^M"^. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 614. 4$. 971. l/'3. . 10. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. . 0.3. 702. be ac \. 4330 da. 640. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 0. ab 689. 11. a 1J.002. 78. 210. 0. 1. 621. a 2. 1. I}'/. (*_ + a: 611. 14. 629. . ' 674. 626. . ^^ 695.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 651. 631. 2. 2. 1m*. 2f. 708. . 636. 2&). 696. 607. 653. 638.14 If 1.>A 610. 1 2. ix 2 . 705.b 686. 624.  6. 698. 7. 618. ft).2f (5 4. 2092. 683. 620.  4. 622.3. 660. . 628. 632. 4. 6 685. 4.. 637. a 4. (a3&45rj. 613. 12. ' fe 2 ). 678< 682. 5. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 662. 650.XX XIV 606. 701.  684. If. 2. if 4/> 671. 2 a: 4. If 658. If f 667..  . 690. Page 289. 700. 692.c ) 697. 3 681. 608. V"^TJ. 4 V 0.
. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. v'll.2. 751. a". 782 785. 15 shares.9. 763. 758. + 6 2 tf'c. VT14V5. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 712. 749. T%. 769. 7  3V5. 32>/2. 30\/10 764.4 . 25. + < 735. 715. 713. 729. 3^. 725. x i f^' . 4 104 v/2. j 742. 1..V/^ 741. 3V52V3. 726.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. a 2 6^. . 734. 1 [ + '> J.^ 743. rt3 2 ^i^. 1 752. 709. 738. mn. 737. v/7 / . 34. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .9. 740.r+y> 759. 2 V2 . / 787. VIO\/3. r. 756. 342V3. 710. 796. 718. ^ . J(v'lO2V 791.12 af V^ 4 744. 790 2v 3v 2. 767.~ . 777. 300. 717. 8. i^. 755. 5. 794. 3. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. x\y. 1. 17ft. 711. .r. 793. 714. . 24V2. 776.10. cr*lr*. ^ ?>. 59.^.1 . 24. > 748. 24 4 . 1 I .257. 721. 789. VV> L4V34. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. .4 . 5. i 2. 732. Hi a. 716. 733. a 2  x2 . 719. 773. y  1. 3V72V3. fyaw&cu. a 5 . Page 294. 728. 1. 2x3^ a. 1^ _ 760. "V313. 768. 753.11.. 722. 778. . ^7xy. 750. 00. a:* . 3 VlT 795. 2\/53V2.ANSWMHti Page 292.rJ w L 754. iv/Jj. 727. 730. 788.. 3V7. 33^2. 3V72VO. 724. a db Va^T < 45da. 47. 39. 3 720. 8. Page 293. 13ft.8. 736. 29\/3. 746. 792.V2. 731. 739. 1 747. 723.
876.2) (x 4 2). 899.l)(x + 3)(2x43). . 817. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 7. 884. f. 888. 3 . Hoots . 3. 844. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 2. 2 .7 4 1) 846. . (x*y*ryz + z*). x. 863. 810. 3. m 875. 851. V 3. 819. 886./>") (a'. 25. H.3. 5. 900. 2. 835. 6+V7.. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).om 441) (a 855. 4 885. 827. 4. 2 854. 20).1)(V 2 . 5). 857.+ m f ") (a* ). . ^ V}. ( 869. 3.5) (x + * 853. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. ((' 1). 4. (4 c 4. (x3).1). 812.10 ab 4. 4. 3. 829. 879. 813. 2/ 856. 17. 887. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . ( 4 4. 881. Va. ^VG. n =  29. \/5. 14. 811. a(ry + 864.. 2 806. 842. 816. 895.f. 4. 799. 5. 892. jV3 f 3. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . . 838. ANSWERS 798. 800. (. 6. + d)*. 19. m = 2.3)(x + 4). 2. 848. (x + 0X024.7)(4 x. ) (a' 874. 1. 5.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 849. 7. 1. 882.a 2 2 ). (3 862. (x 2 f r . 833. a 42)(x . 2. 11. . (2 a . . (2 x + 3 y} . 17.7. 3. 7. 820. 3.4. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 0. 2 2 . 1C. 4. . 808.5 b) 4 1). 2 (x 4*4. 8. o 828. Page 297. (a m .XXXVI 797. 861.1) (a 8 .2w . (xl)(^~3)(. (1 . 2 *x 807.7). 858. **.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 2  2. 880. . 4. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 2. 0. 1 1. 837. (2 4. 3. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . Page 296. 6 $. 891. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).7). 824. 832.4. J V. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. (x 2 . (x .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).1) . 2 . 6. 831.  tt 815. 4.rae) (4 . (a 4 871. 896. 2 m . 2. o. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). a2 ^E*!. 898. 1. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 48. 7. 11.y) 852.l)(x .  1. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 859. 834.  839. (2x (r. 0. . are extraneous. 801.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). Va 803. 841. 883. . 2 .1)(0 865. Hoots are extraneous.. (  ?>) (a + ^> . a* 4.l)(x + 2). $. (a 1) (x 4. X4 1).1.l)(x . 2. 5. 836. a(ft)( 873. 4. (:r 11. 3. .r4). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .a 3 " 4. 825. 2. 893. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 4 818. 894. 2 j 889. 4.  ' .25 ?>2). +j!>.0. 4. 4. x . 847. \/2. 1.r .3. 6. . (x 845. 10. 867. 8 09. 814. 0. db 7. ^. 3. 826. 8. (x . 3. 4 . 843.  + l(l^). 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).2 ax 4. 2. . 897.4) 860. 868. 830. 890. 822.a 4 + 1). 5. 823. (x 4. 13. 1. 840. 23. b' 2 821. 804. 2. (3 b . 872. 1 . $.
8. 906.0.. 925. 3. 10. 1 + V953. V5 fj. 1. 8. T 6. 6.744. 7. 6 . 921. 947. 80. V5 T 2 . i(6 in. ^y. 983. 3. 56.2. 6. 5. 1 2. 6. 919. 6.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. . ft. Va926. . . 6. 7 or 30. . 4 6 mi. . 4.1. 941. 2. 1 _2 . 8 . 932. . ft. Z ^./hr. 978. 6 1 1. . 15 946. . 902. 2. 73. 917. 12.. Y. 8. Page 300. 0. 943. 908.446. 2 w 914. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 2. 942. 7. 2. 9 in. 5. 2 yd. '3 3 in. i>. 4 in. 60 949. 4. 922.2. ft. 2. Page 302. 1. 8... 948. 964. 11. 111. 28. 333. yd. 2.V~~3). 4. . 930. 0. Page 301.111. 2. ft.. tt2 19. ?/i 6. 3. .. 11.651. 936. 7. 956. T 6. %* . 955. r ft ' < Page 299. . 40 16 in. J(_ ft. 1 . J. 329. 3). 7 ft. 280.. 115. 920. 984. 4. 14 . 1 1. 12 mi. a. 911. 12. .  1 . J. f. 6. 2. 935. 6 da. f ft 4 . 3.1 = 9. 945. 6 a 915. ft. 923. 333. i 3. 18. 5l4f. 248. 4. 108. =F J.. 909..I. 979. 11. 950. v/(ai !)(&910. 987. 28. 954. 934. w. 12. $(l 4.1.709. 8.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 940. 12 in. 4. 980..073. . . 981. 7. ft. 2 1. 985. 8. 4. 982. 2 i ' a V. 958. 8. 2. 3. 986. 959. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.. 4.. 0. 8128. 939. . 28. 963. 944. 3 . 5.  1. i1" 913. 2 ft. 927. 5 . 496.. 6. 15 16 ft. 11. 66 924. 480 8 sq. 20 19 ft. 957. 2. 905. 904. 938. 3. . 5. 0. 3 4 . 100 rows.01. 4. 918. 951. . 952. 931. . 1. i 8. V^3). 962.760 sq. . 4. ft. Page 303. w 3. 4 . 5.615. 960. 977. T3. 912. 10..  26j. 961. 916. S07. 903.. 1). 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. ft. 937. a + . 933. 8. . dL 4.
72. 8. 1(5.92. 996. 1014. Page 305.18. 994. 4 and 1020. ^f (2f3V2). 1007. 48.378 1015. ~ \. 2(2 v/2). 1017. 1013. 1012. 1010. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 120 i^l^.192rt?)r 120 *. 995. + 448 . 0. 0. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 4. 192.870 a 6 1011. 1 1004. 991. 1019.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . (J. 9 da. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .  5&7 1021. + v 2). 1018. ^Trsq. 993. 988. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 3003. 990. (5. 992. Page 304.'^^ } ( . 1005.. r = 2. in. X. 108. . 24. 12. () 12(2+V3). 1016. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .128 I. 1000. 6 70 . . 1003. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1008.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. .. 1009. 162.870 z8 . 1006. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). (a) (6) ^ 1002. 2 .51. 12. 997. 1 8 8 2.378 <W and 92. (Z>) 999. (6) 8(1 . 1001. 120 a.
which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. save Inequalities. Half leather. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1.25 lamo. A examples are taken from geometry. than by the . especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. physics. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. given. $1. HEW TOSS .D. i2mo. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The more important subjects tions. xi 4 373 pages. so that the Logarithms. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Ph. and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xiv+563 pages.
comparatively few methods are given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Logarithms. xiv+56a pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HatF leather. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.25 i2mo. physics. $1. Ph. and commercial life. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. In Factoring. Half leather. save Inequalities. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. etc. xi f 373 pages. HEW YOKE . The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. so that the tions. great many A examples are taken from geometry. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.D. The author grade. $1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 12010. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.
10. . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . SEVENOAK. 6.10 L. iamo. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. aoo pages. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book.r and. 4. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. $1. xii + 233 pages. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.D. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 9. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. more than 1200 in number in 2. Half leather.. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Cloth. izmo. Ph. lines. $1. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . SCHULTZE. NEW YORK . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Cloth. 7 he . State: . i2mo. wor. under the heading Remarks".
New York City. . and not from the information that it imparts. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 370 pages.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . . of these theoretical views. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. 12mo. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. $1. .
An exhaustive system of marginal references. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. " This volume etc. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. diagrams. Maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. and a full index are provided. Topics. i2mo. photographs. Cloth. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. $1.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.
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