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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. PH.
1911. January. 8. U.' February. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Published Set up and electrotyped. August. Reprinted 1913.S. Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. July. 1916. 1917. J.COPYRIGHT. Cushlng Co.. . May.A. September. 1910 . Mass. . . September. 1910. May. 1915. Norwood. IQJS January.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. owing has certain distinctive features. manufactured for this purpose. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Elementary Algebra. are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. specially 2. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. chief : among These which are the following 1. etc. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. and conse . but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition." this book. however. Such a large number of methods.
" The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions .g. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. especially problems and factoring. e. hence either book 4. etc. however. In regard to some other features of the book. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. as quadratic equations and graphs. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. For the more ambitious student. two negative numbers. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. are placed early in the course. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. may be used to supplement the other. Moreover.
" Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. By studying proportions during the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. Moreover. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. physics. elementary way." Applications taken from geometry. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. in " geometry . of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and commercial are numerous.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. viz. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. based upon statistical abstracts. such examples. is based principally upon the alge . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.
desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. however. . 1910. NEW YORK. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. William P. April. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible.
.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .... Powers.... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... SUBTRACTION..
. Type IV.... /^ . . Type II.... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type VI.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ... Type V. Type III....114 . * . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . . . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type Polynomials. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.
....... .... .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . CHAPTER XIV 169 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
V^a6. 7 = 2. 4(a 6(6 + &). aVc^. are trinomials. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 15. e. 9. Val \fi?. 4V3~6c. V36". 27. b = 3. 8. 16. 6. 26. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. since the parts are a . v'Ta. 0. 14. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 13. 12. \/c. 2. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. (cfd) 4.g. 6. !^f\/03 3 ft. + 1]. or 9 Vx. V3 . 3. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. V2a. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. as in arithmetic. [6c] 3 . c f d). x 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. c = 1. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 2 ." EXERCISE If a 1. a polynomial of two terms. + c). some number is . 11. 10. A polynomial is an y. d 7. 5Vl6c. A binomial is 62 . 17. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. find the numerical value of: Vff. is 28.
i. subtraction. + 26+3 c. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. Ex.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 2. 4 . d = 0.9 aWc + f a b . 14. 1.30 = 270 . EXERCISE 8*  .INTRODUCTION 29. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 3 4 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .e. 4a6fVaV2^. 2 ). a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . . c=l. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5. l 13.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . .99. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.390.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 3 2 If 1. . find the numerical value of: 9. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. a=4. 5c +d 2 . c = 2. a2 11. 3a + 56 a 2 . 6.19 = 6. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. . multiplication. d=Q. a 2 6.g. 12. 16.2 + I126. 3.9.4 6^9 ad. 5=3. * For additional examples see page 268. 52 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.810 + 150 = .5 ax 50 a6cd. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. (a (a f b) 7. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . Otherwise operations of addition. 8. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . x=^. 2. Ex. 5. 4. = 32 + 4527 = 50.. 6. __ E. b = 3. 10.
then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 5. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.c) (a .6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 3. 26. 27. 25. a =3. if : a = 2. geometry. a = 2. Six 2 . 24. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 38. and other sciences. a = 4. 6 = 2. 6 = 4. 6.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a. 30. a = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a =4. 6=2. a = 3. 6. a a=3. 26 of the exercise. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 6. . 6 = 7. 33. 22. 6 = 6. : 6. 34. 29. = 3. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 35. 6 = 1. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. physics. Read the expressions of Exs. 28. 30. Six times a plus 4 times 32. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 37. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). sible to state Ex. a = 4. 23. 6 = 5.6 .
i.16 centimeters per second. b 14. 4. d. c.) Assuming g .g. if v : a. and 5 feet. (c) 4. . 15 therefore feet. 2. 13. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.e. the area of the triangle equals feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v . and 13 inches. if v = 30 miles per hour.INTRODUCTION E. Find the height of the tree.16 1 = 84. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 84 square EXERCISE 1. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 14. 12. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.seconds. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. b. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. (b) 5. and 15 feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. then a 13. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A train in 4 hours.
on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14d (square units). then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. meters. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. is H 2 units of length (inches. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. (The number 3. : 8000 miles.14 4. (c) 10 feet. $ = 3. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). the area etc.). (c) 8000 miles. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. 2 inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 32 F. If the (b) 1 inch. . 5.14 square meters. the 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 5 F. ~ 7n cubic feet. square units (square inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.). This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 5 miles.
or positive and negative numbers. SUBTRACTION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. however. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION.
5. 18. Thus.16 32. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 2326. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 5. the one third their sum. 23. is 0. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. lf(2). find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 5. of: 20. 10. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 6 6 = 3. c = 4. is 2. 12. 19. '. 4. (_ In Exs. of 2. 24. subtract their absolute values and .3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5. 33. + (9). 21. c = = 5. 4 is 3 J. (17) 15 + (14). if : a a = 2. + 12.  0. d = 0. 22.
and 4.5. sets of numbers: 13. 66. 7 a. 41. 6. 3. $500 loss. 35. 32. 7 a. 2. . ' Find the average of the following 34. \\ Add 2 a.7. 10.ADDITION. $1000 loss. and 3 a. 10. ' 1? a 26. 38. = 13. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 33. 09. 31.4. 34. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.7. = 23. and 3 yards. . : 48.. 40. . 60. 6. 37. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 13.5. and 3 F. & = 15. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 3 and 25. 39. . 10. 11 (Centigrade). 74. and 3 a. 32. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. SUBTRACTION. : 34.3. 0. = 22. 43. c=14. 42. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 4 F. 4. c = 0. and $4500 gain. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. . 29. or and . . 72.. $3000 gain.. affected by the same exponents. 1. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. . . & 28. }/ Add 2 a. 25. 36. 27. : and 1. ^ ' 37. 30. d= 3. 12. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 55. 6. and 8 F.13. are similar terms. which are not similar. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 5 and 12. 7 yards. $7000 gain. 2.
5Vm + w. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.sign. : 2 a2. in algebra it may be considered b. or a 6. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12Vmfn.18 35. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 5 a2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.ii. 14 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 2 a&. 3a . Vm f. 7 rap2. 5l 3(af6). b a f ( 6).13 rap 25 rap 2. 2 . 12(af b) 12. EXERCISE Add: 1. b wider sense than in arithmetic. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 10. 12 2 wp2 . f 4 a2. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. Algebraic sum. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 2(af &). sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 11. 13. . 9(af6). + 6 af . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2.
2 7 1 26. l^S 25. without finding the value of each term 34. 1 27. 2/ : Add. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. + y. 2 2 2 31. 32. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 30. 37. 33. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. + / + 3 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 6 23. n x* 2 22. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. c 2 ^24. 36. 17. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 21. ra 19. a a8 ZL **.ADDITION. +m """ 20. SUBTRACTION. 35. is . and to add each column.
2 Thus.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. s.15 6c. and J 2 s. . c = 1.12 a& 4.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.8 abc . and 2 . ft any convenient and c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . a 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.7 2 . = .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . of that letter. .c= 2.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 3 a f 4 1) 4. . NOTE. 4 2. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.g. 6=2. 3a 2? . 4 = 7.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . the erroneous answer equal 7.3 s. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 7 4.20 c 5 ab 4. e. to show any error. 2 Sum.41 = 3. 5 . therefore the answer is correct. 46 4z 7 c. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . x of x. 5. 2 025.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. to add 26 ab . 2 . V3.o c and 4.g. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 3. f 110WS: 26 aft.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 9 q 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.15 abc .
a 4 a . 2 a. 4 ajy 17. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 3 2 2 3 9 .1.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.a 4 a 4 1.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 2 2 and . v/20. in 8 3 m n 4. a2 a. + 50 + 62 . 56 w.8 m 2m 12. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 4 3 . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 4. a) y ^/. 4 Vc. 16e + 17/90. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.1 a 4 1 0. .a. 2 and 9m 48m 4.2n 2 2 3 rz . . a2 2 14. 18/+6y + d.VS 4 2 Vc. . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 4 8 3 4 4 . . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.Ga 43x45. d.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 2 2 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.ADDITION. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . and . .7v/if. m 4 6.and 6.4 Va .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.6.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. and 8 3 . 16.15 5. and 1 4 a . a 4 a . and 5 Vb 18.12. and and 13. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.7m . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 11. ?/ . a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . .4:xy xz 6yz.5a^6 f 6) . .a. e a4 /.a . 7ar + 3B 5. d and / 3 ? 12. + a + 1. ^2 1 e. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 8.12(a 4. 2 ?/.10 Vc.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .12 6 ~5 a . 19. SUBTRACTION.(b + c) 1. xy3xz + yz. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . and v 15. 2 ?ft ?/z. . 2 3(c f a). 4(a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. .9(a + &) . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .
1/ . 13 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.3 taken from 2 ? 5. f number may be added 3. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. + 1. 1. s . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 2 24. 2 8 n + <w 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2. 22. 1. 6 f c 2 23. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f 1. +d a. 8 . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . is 2. how 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. . and 25. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. .3^* 2n 2 .ra + m.m 4m ?/?/ d. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . f 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. a 6 2 c.17 + 4 ?nfy . 12 xyz. 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.11 xy + 12.9aj 2.22 21. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. T8a. The sum and ? 1.. 45a6 2 . + n*. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. If you diminish a person's debts. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1. and e + 6y .5< 3 2 s 4^4.
+b 3. In addition. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.3. a. from What 3. To subtract. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . and the required number the difference.ADDITION. 5 is 2. Therefore any example in subtraction different . . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. NOTE. This gives by the same method. 1. From 5 subtract + 3. Or in symbols. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. the other number is required. and their algebraic sum is required.2. ( 6) ( = . SUBTRACTION. the given number the subtrahend. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. two numbers are given. 41.g. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. called the minvend. From 5 subtract to . In subtraction. if x Ex. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. ab = x. 6 (3) = 8. 3. Ex. 7. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.
3 r*5o.f 8 . Ex.5 x + 8. Check. If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.
5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 55. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 2 a take a & j. 50.ADDITION. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.c. 54. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 56.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 48.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. check the answer. 43.6)f.7 a . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 49.4 a*& + 6 a & . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 41. 51. c f d. 2.4 a^ 4. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 58. and 3 7/ .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . SUBTRACTION. 6 4 a. From 6(af. 47. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.w>t. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . + a the 2 a. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. of a 4.2. 2y 2 . . tract 4 x 3. 45. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 44. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.a 2 j.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 46. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 42. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 52. 53. 57.
subtract # + 1.15. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a + 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. of # 2 8. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. A is n years old. +a add the difference duce 13. 16. a 2y + z. 20. 2 m 21. 6 17. 9. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 6. a a + c. 19. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. + 6 + c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. + 2.26 4. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .
If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. & f c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. I. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. a+(bc) = a +b .ADDITION.c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. the sign is understood. II. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. Ex.2 b .c.b c = a a & f f. one occurring within the other. SUBTRACTION. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.6 b f (.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 45. 46.a^6)]  } . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. changed.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.g. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.
14. : x + (2yz). 21. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.: Ex. 19. m f ft) a. a (a + 26 c ). 2a (4a 26 +c ).y (60. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2.)]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). [36+ (a 2c]. 8. By removing parentheses.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2 2a. 15.) 5 .1422) J ] . 3. 271 + (814 . 18. Ex. 16. 3 3 f 7. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 17. Signs of aggregation 1. 9.+ 6)f (a2 b). may be inserted according to 43. (m a2 f. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 2 2 2 a(. . a (a + 6). ? 11. + (2a 6 + c ). 13. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.[271 47. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 4.(a + 6). 5.7i h jp) (m ?*. a f (a a . 6) 2.
' NOTE.ADDITION. 6 diminished . of the cubes of m and n. m and n. a\l> > c + d. 7. 5. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. SUBTRACTION. 6. . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. m x 2 4. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 13. difference of the cubes of n and m. 3. The product The product m and n. 7. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 5 a2 2. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. and the subtrahend the second.7fa. 10. II.1. 12. 9. )X 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.4 y* . The square of the difference of a and b. The sum^)f m and n. z + d. 4. p + q + rs.2 tf . The difference of a and 6. y f 8 . 3. 2mn + 2q3t. 5^2 _ r . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 8. terms 5. first.
dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6 is equal to the square of b.) . The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. (Let a and b represent the numbers. d. 16. 6. 18.30 14. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. b.
4. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weights. force is produced therefore. therefore. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 2. A A A 1. If the two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 3. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5.
( (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 5x(4). becomes meaningless if definition. To take a number 7 times. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. . 9 9. (5)X4. such as given in the preceding exercise. x 11.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4x(3)=12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. or plied by 3. the multiplier is a negative number. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4)(4) = + 12. Practical examples^ it however. 9 x ( 11). 48. however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.9) x 11. 4 multiplied by 3.32 8. Thus.4)(. NOTE. 4 multi44444 12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.
x= 0. 5. (4)X(15). about fac (2)X If 6. 32. 2a6 c .2f 18. (2) 8 (. (4)'. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 8 31. . . x.a)( =+ a&. 2. 6. b = 3. If a cal = 4a6c. 22. z s 11 aWcx. 4 a2 .(a&c) 2 2 . the parenthesis frequently omitted. (2)x9. 30. 3 a2?/2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. 5x3. X(5). 29. 27. 4 . 19. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 17. _3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 15. 1. .7. is 6x7.4. 12. (10) 4 . 3 aW. Ua b 28. 7. 6. 11. (c#) . NOTE. c = 25.MULTIPLICATION 50. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 26. 14. +5. of Signs: TJie positive. . 23. 8.3. etc. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&.2. 16. 3.(4J). _2. 6 2. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.2 f+x 2 . Law Thus. find the numeri values of: 21. and y = 4. 9. 13. . 10. 4. 2a 2 6c. 8 4 . 3. _2^ 3. 1.3) (1) 7 2 . (7) X (12). (. 20. 24.
9 .<?. a = 3. 78 . + 2/).  and 2 25 8 . 2 2 2 . 14.3)..35). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 127  127 9 7 . a= 1. 34. 5. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. By 3 definition. 10.(7). 1. 2(7. 5(711. a = 2. 2 2 3 6 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 13. i.257). 6.(2.503).1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 6 aWc x . . a8 a=2. 4. 11. This 52. Ex. 7.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 100. 4. 6 = . =2 a *. 5 = 2. . . 53. 3 2 . 2. 6" 127 U . 16. 2. 6 = 1. : 3a7abc. (a6) (a5) 9. 200. &*) c d*. 3.  2 2. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. or 2 . 3. 3 3 4 . 4. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. fl*" integers. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 5 .2 2 23 + 5 .e. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . . IB. Ex. 36. 2 3 . a 2 2 .7. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 17. 50(112. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . m*. = 2. 12 U U . of the factors.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2(14. 5 3 5 3 2 .2). B. & = 3.(12) ..6 if 35. .m a 3  4 .
35. and then adding : 1. 7.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 6.A). (.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 12( + 1 4 i). 35 4 7(6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 2 32. 21.2 3 aft ). 27. 20.4a#. . 23(10004100420). multiply each by the monomial.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 7p*q r*. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . ) 2 33. 3(124342). 2(645410). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.7pqt. 34. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). . (. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 25. 3. tet^m f c) = ab +ac.7 w'W (8 n^W). 11(3. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 23. . 6(10420430). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 31. 29. but we shall assume it for any number. /). 17(10041042). c(4a ftc ). .3 win ) . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 24. 4. .f 2). This principle. 22. 19. _4aft. 2(5fl5f25). 26. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 5. called the distributive law. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. If results ft. by first multiplying.6. 28.
we b) (x law. 9. Find the factors of 6 ary .asa product. 12. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 30. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).6 a6). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5). 2 4 %Pq\ 14.^ c + 2 . 17. 2 m(mhn \p). 21.60 a& 10 aft.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). . . 20.5 x 7). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.2 mn(9 mV . 19. 11. 7 a 6 c(. 22. 28.5 w*V f 7 wn). 2 2 16. 29. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 3 ). 23. be multiplied to give 4o. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). ~2mn(m +n p ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. . f7a.3 aftc). 26. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . By what 25. : expression must 24. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 2 27. . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.
3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Multiply 2 + a a.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 2a3b a66 2 a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Ex. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .4.3 b by a 5 b. Check. To multiply two polynomials. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a .3 a 2 + a8 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Multiply 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2. 59. . as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. however.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. a2 + a8 + 3 .1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Since errors. the student should apply this test to every example. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.
30. 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (2 x* x 2 . (13 A. 35. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 6. 8. 16. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 2) (3 A: 1). 40. . 15. 36) I) 14. (8r7*)(6r39. (6a~7) 2 . 31. . 2. 7y). (4a 2 33. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (a^26) . 9. (6i7n)(llJn). l)(raf 2). 11.4) (x + 1). 36. 4 2). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 25. + & + 1f a^faj 1).2m)(l m). 1).1 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 4. 22.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (6p (2 f 21. * For additional examples see page 261. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 12.4) (mnp 4. 5. 18. 17. 10.2). a 5c)(2a6c). QQ O7. 36). 2 . 7. ^ 2 . 13. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). I (mfn)(m4. OQ OO. 12)(a?^2l). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 20. 32. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 28. 24. 41. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 29. 2  37. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 3<7). 26. (2w 19. 3.
(10+ (1000 (2. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. + 2) (a f 3). X 102. (ra. + 9)(m+9). 26. 11. 2 a? 29.2 6) (a f 6). 7. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 6. in of the two unequal terms.n)(wf w). 12. 75 ab f 54 ft . (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 2) (1000 + 3). 18. 24. 27.!!)( (a + 21).e. _3)(a _4). (!)(* 5).e. : 23 2. 9. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 19. 25. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (*. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 1005x1004. 25 a 2 . plus the product 62. (a3)(a + 2). i.13). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (6 12) (6 f. (a 9) (a + 9). . 28. 15.4). + 60)(f2).25)(y+4). (100 +2) (100 + 3). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. . . 3. 22. 1) (10 + 2). 20. 10. (p12)(p + ll). (a 102 x 103. i. 8. (J 23. + 5) (1000 + 4). ft 16. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (a (a (a. 17. 21. 14. 13. 2 6) (a 3 6). + 3) (a 7).
of the second. second. 63. III. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 2 5. (a26) 2 . 4. w 2 ro . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. and the second. 6. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 3. n2 10ii+16. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 33. p 2 p. i. <J>7) J . : 24 (a 2. (a2) (p a . 34. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.e. .15.e. 7 a + 10.15. 9.66 s. 8. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. Ex. a2 2 w + 2 w . + 3) 2 . 49 y*. i. + 6 a + 8. 2 (a (*5) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 7. 35. (x+3i/) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 37. plus twice the product of the first and the second. plus the square of the second. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 31. 32. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 77ie square of the of the first. III.30.
(^.30 ab + 25 6 64. 41 16. 2 . 45. m 2 16. n*6n+9. 16aW25. 99x101.998 39. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 14. . 49. 22 2 . 15. + 5)(5+a). 998x1002. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 35. 32.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 12. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (100 + 2) (100 2). x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 24. 2 9a 496 2 56. 51. 11. . 103 36. n 2 f4n+4. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. . 28. 18. 33. (20 f 1) . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 4 53. + 5). 29. 22. 52. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 2 . 54. 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 2 J ). + 3z) 2 2 . 38. 34. 47. I) 2 . 44. 2 (4a36) 2 13. ( 27. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . a2 9. ).MULTIPLICATION 10. The product of 57. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 31. 991 2 2 . By actual multiplication. (1000 2 . 46. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 23. 7& ) 25. 104 2 37. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 40. 62 25n 2 . 41. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 25 a 9. 17. G> +5g)*. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (6afy 2 5) (a. 55. 21. 48. 9 a2 . (2x3yy. 42. 2 .
4. (5a64)(5a&3). The square 2 (a 4. 5. (5a4)(4al). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. : 25 2. 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). . 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 13. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (4s + y)(32y). 11. 8. 6. plus the last terms. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 65.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 7. ) (2 of a polynomial. (2a3)(a + 2). (3m + 2)(ml). 14. ((5a? (10 12. sum of the cross products. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 10. 3. or The student should note minus signs.& + c) = a + tf + c . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
2)6. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.[a? . (xy+z)*. Find the square root 11. (a (. 5. 5. after multiplying the factors of a term.1 5 = 10 . 4(* + 2)5(3).r _ 2 . Ex. 7. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .39. and check the answers !.24 . 3. 9. (  2 4) =  20 a. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. = 10 x .(= [ Xa + 2 . a. 13. 6(a 2. 12. n).4) . 66. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).8 x + 15] .3) . 4(aj2)h3(7). 3.3) (x . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Check.4) . = .y? + 8 . + 65) . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 4. 6~2(a + 7).X2 + 2 x .5) = (7 . 4. 8. 2 2. of z : 10. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). Hence. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. If x = 1. (u4& + 3c'. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. + 6)( .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.5). 6.(>. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 4y sf n) 2 . 8.29.3)(z.24] .39.i2&c) 2 .(x . .(m 2 6. 7.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. v/17.e. a I. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (81 m + 1 . 51 15.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). .11 a + 9 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 19. 16. 20.DIVISION 14. Division of the difference of two squares. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).2). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2) (3 a . . 18.l. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).
4 b. 100ry. 121a a 16 100 11. 9& 2 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 10. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 14. 16 . .000. aW 12 a. 1. 15. r/ 1. : the following w a 4 !. 12. 16. f 13.49.0001.
An equation of condition is usually called an equation. the 80. second member is x + 4 x 9. Thus. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. . 82. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. x 20. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. 81. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. in the equation 2 x 0.r f9 = 20 is true only when a.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. =11. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. (a + ft) (a b) and b. is said to satisfy an equation. 83. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the first member is 2 x + 4.
fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. If equals be subtracted from equals. 86. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. x I. the remainders are equal. E. NOTE.54 84. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.g. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.e. Transposition of terms. 5.2. 3. called axioms 1. . A numerical equation is one in which all . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. . 89. If equals be divided by equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 90. A term may be transposed from its sign. A 2 a. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the products are equal. If equals be added to equals. If equals be multiplied by equals. 85. one member to another by changing x + a=. the divisor equals zero.b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 87. To solve an equation to find its roots. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 2 = 6#f7. 2. the quotients are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 4. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the sums are equal. a.
Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. x = 3. Dividing both members by 2. Transposing. x = 93. Uniting. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. and the known terms to the second. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. b c. Ex. 2 x = 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. 3 y .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 91. if 55 x members. The second member.6 y f y\ . b Adding a to both + a. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.8. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. To solve a simple equation. 2(11 .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Hence the answer.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. x = (Axiom 3) 92. a= a 6fc.2. is correct. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. if a x = b. Unite similar terms. 6a5 = 185 = 13. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member. f If y 20 . 4x 1 + 6. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Uniting similar terms.9 y + y2 = 22 . (4y)(6. . The first member.2 y= f . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Dividing by Check.
3 7 a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 7a? 5. {(x (x The The member right member left . f Simplifying.17 + 4y = 36. 32 = 264. 11 ?/ a? 18.7. 13 y 99 = 7 y.7a: = 394a. a?. 3. it NOTE. . =2 = 3. 19. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 22. = 3. 50. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).. 8. x x 1 . Solve the following equations by transposing. . 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 7 (6 x 16).69. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. = 5a?+18. aj * See page 264. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 11. = 2 ?/.. 13a? 3a?. 12.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. v23. a. 15. 14. 6. 4.56 Ex. 4y 10. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. a. 24. 4a + 5 = 29. and check the answers 9. 9 9a? = 7 13. 17 7 a. 20. etc. 7. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. If x = 18. \x x 2^xfl. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Transposing. 247y = 68lly. a? a?. 2. = 7. x = 18. 21. + 7(3 + 1) =63. J. 16. : 5# = 15+2a. + 22. 17 + 5a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). Uniting. + 16 = 16 + 17.
. 42.1 0) = 0.7) (7 x + 4) .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. (a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. . 25. is the other part. .5) = (a.(2 + 6) (4 .5) + 199. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).5(2 u . 41. (6 u =5 44. a? 28. 6(6a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 5) (as (a.3) + 14. (aj 37. 40. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.3) . e. 34. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.g. 7(7 x y 26. . find the other part. 39.3) + .2) (M . . : One part is of 70 is 25 . .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.14 = 0.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.1) (u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 35. .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. or 70 a?. 38. . Evidently 45. 30.7. 7) (a. 31. + 7) (.1) (a (a? + 3) = . . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 27. 29.32. + 4).4) + 4 w .12) (2 + 5) . 36. this question. a? 43. 2 2 * Jaj. 33.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .
4. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. Ex. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. or 12 7. and the smaller one parts. 13. so that one part Divide a into two parts. smaller one 16. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . Divide a into two parts. so that one part The difference between is s. 33 2. 14.58 Ex. EXERCISE 1. 3. 6. one part equals is 10. is d. 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 6. If 7 2. 9. is a? 2 is c?. one yard will cost 100 dollars. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that of c ? is p. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. a. 1. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. greater one is g. 11. 17. 15. is b. Divide 100 into two 12. find the cost of one yard. Find the greater one. 10.
Find 35. 22. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 26. sum If A's age is x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. ?/ 31. and B's age is y years. and B is y years old. How many cents had he left ? 28. A dollars. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. and spent 5 cents. How many cents has he ? 27. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. b dimes. Find 21. 19. and B has n dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. A feet wide. amount each will then have. and c cents. A man had a dollars. 32. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. numbers is x. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 34. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 20. find the has ra dollars. 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. If B gave A 6 25. 33. 24. 28. find the of their ages 6 years hence. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . The greatest of three consecutive the other two. is A A is # years old.
of m. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. find the fraction. c a b =  9. . What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. The two digits of a number are x and y. of 4. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37.50. m is the denominator. 48. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. . A cistern is filled 43. The first pipe x minutes. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. % % % of 100 of x. A was 20 years old. 46. Find x % % of 1000. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find the number. he walk each hour ? 39. 49. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. Find a. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find a 47. a. per Find 5 Find 6 45.
the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. c. etc. by one third of b equals 100. 6. double of a is 10. 2. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The double as 7. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The excess of a over b is c. c. same result as 7 subtracted from .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 9. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of a increased much 8. 8 b ) + 80 = a . third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 3. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a exceeds b by c. 80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 4. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 5. of a and 10 equals 2 c. of x increased by 10 equals x.
A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. A gains $20 and B loses $40. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.. >. In 10 years the sum of A's. they have equal amounts. B's age 20. amounts. 12. of 30 dollars. a. . 3 1200 dollars. 18. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's age 4 a. x is 100 x% is of 700. symbols B. a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. and C's ages will be 100. 11. express in algebraic 3x : 10. they have equal of A's. a second sum. express in algebraic symbols : 700. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. x 4 If A. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12.000. pays to C $100. as 17 is is above a. 6 % of m. sum equals $20.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 17. 14. 50 is x % of 15. m is x % of n. B. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. 16. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. #is5%of450. (c) If each man gains $500. is If A's age is 2 x.62 10. and C have respectively 2 a.
The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 2. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 23 =30. Check. etc. 3z40:r:40z. Uniting. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. NOTE. Ex. . 15. Uniting. A will Check. 1. x = 20. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. In order to solve them. much as 40 exceeds the number. Simplifying. In 15 years 10. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the required . be 30 . Transposing. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Three times a certain no. x+16 = 3(35). Dividing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. x= 15. Ex. number of yards. denote the unknown 96.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 6 years ago he was 10 . Transposing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Let x = the number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. the . 4 x = 80. but 30 =3 x years. number. Find A's present age.
11. EXERCISE 1. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find 8. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14. Let x 3. 300 56. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 4. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A number added number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2.2. 5. 3. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the number. Forty years hence his present age. % of 120. exceeds the width of the bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. twice the number plus 7. 120. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 13. . by as much as 135 ft. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Hence 40 = 46f. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.64 Ex. Six years hence a 12 years ago.
Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. F 8. two verbal statements must be given. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. The sum of the two numbers is 14. A and B have equal amounts of money. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dol A has A to $40. The other verbal statement. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. B will have lars has A now? 17. is the equation. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.000. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. 97. and as 15. 65 A and B $200. statements are given directly. . The problem consists of two statements I. the second one. If A gains A have three times as much 16. written in algebraic symbols. During the following 90 years. Ex. which gives the value of 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. and B has $00. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. five If A gives B $200. x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. B How will loses $100. times as much as A. 14.000. One number exceeds the other one by II. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. 1.
25 marbles to B. The two statements I. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. which leads ot Ex. = 14. Uniting. B will have twice as viz. . 8 the greater number. 2x a? x j = 6. A will lose. Dividing.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. x = 8. / . = A's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = B's number of marbles. A has three times as many marbles as B. . < Transposing. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. . = 3. Statement x in = the larger number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. consider that by the exchange Hence. + a f f 8 = 14. Let x 14 I the smaller number. to Use the simpler statement. 2. has three times as many marbles as B. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Then. A gives B 25 marbles. terms of the other. although in general the simpler one should be selected. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as many as A.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. If A gives are : A If II. x x =14 8. the sum of the two numbers is 14. x 3x 4 and B will gain. the greater number. unknown quantity in Then. 8 = 11. the smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. I.
x = 15. 40 x . of dollars to the number of cents.25 = 20. Dividing.10... x = the number of half dollars. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Uniting. etc. Find the numbers.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. have a value of $3. and the Find the numbers. 3 x = 45. 2. (Statement II) Qx . The number of coins II. is 70. Uniting. the number of dimes. cents. 1. 50. B's number of marbles. 60. 11 x = 5. The value of the half : is 11. . Find the numbers. Dividing. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.$3. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.75.10. then. Simplifying. x = 6. Two numbers the smaller. x from I. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.10. . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). A's number of marbles. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. * 98. The sum of two numbers is 42. Eleven coins. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. * ' . Check. Check. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.. 3.5 x . but 40 = 2 x 20. 50 x Transposing. Simplifying. the price. by 44. w'3. the number of half dollars. 15 + 25 = 40. Let 11 = the number of dimes. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.550 f 310. dollars and dimes is $3. 6 times the smaller. greater is .240. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 6 half dollars = 260 cents. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 45 .
one of which increased by 9. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many 14 years older than B. as the larger one. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Twice 14. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. How many inches are in each part ? 15. What is the altitude of each mountain 12.. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 9. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40.68 4. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 11. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Two numbers The number differ by 39. McKinley. 6. the number.000 feet. Find their ages. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Everest by 11. tnree times the smaller by 65. 5. United States. A's age is four times B's. How many hours does the day last ? . 7. On December 21. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many volcanoes are in the 8.
5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. . let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B has three times as much as A. Ex. If 4x = 24. III. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. then three times the money by I. 1. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. and B has three as A. has. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and C together have $80. has. If A and B each gave $5 to C. number of dollars of dollars B C had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. II. bers is denoted by x. number had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. I. times as much as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. number of dollars A had. = 48. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. and 68. they would have 3. and C together have $80. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 19. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation. B. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. x = 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C. are : C's The three statements A. Let x II. original amount. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements.
28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and Ex. + 35 x 4.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. x = 5. and. number of horses. 4 x f 8 = 28.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 90 may be written. each cow $ 35. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x f 4 = 9. Uniting. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. cows. x j = the number of horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. according to II. according to III. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 8 90 x and. The I. and each sheep $ 15. number of cows. the third five times the first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. sheep. three statements are : IT. Dividing. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. 9 cows. 2. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 185 a = 925. x Transposing. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. first. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. and the sum of the . The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. number of sheep. 1 1 Check. 28 2 (9 5). Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each horse costing $ 90. The total cost equals $1185. 9 5 = 4 .
the copper. 7. what are the three angles ? 10.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 13. the third 2. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. first. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. how many children were present ? x 11. and children together was 37.  4. 9. and 2 more men than women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. The gold. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice as old as B. women. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. the second one is one inch longer than the first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. v .000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. New York delphia. A 12. what is the population of each city ? 8. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. what is the length of each? has 3. equals 49 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and the sum of the first and third is 36. "Find three is 4. twice the 6.000. increased by three times the second side. If twice The sum the third side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. men. first.000.
Find the value of each. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Let x = number of hours A walks.e. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. of 3 or 4 different kinds. or time. 14. Hence Simplifying. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. A and B apart. = 5. such as length. how many 100. and distance. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. we obtain 3 a. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. but stops 2 hours on the way. = 35. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.g. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. After how many hours will they meet and how E. First fill in all the numbers given directly. i.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. . and quantities area. width. 7 Uniting.000. speed. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of miles A x x walks. of arid the value of the iron was $300. together. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.000 more than that the copper.000. 3 and 4. number of hours. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Dividing. 8 x = 15. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.000.
were increased by 30 yards. .M(x .01 = = . and the width decreased by 10 yards.05 x x . Multiplying. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. the area would be 100 square yards less. Find the dimensions of the field. z = 20. But 700 certain = 800 2. + 8." gives (2. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. $ 800 = required sum. original field has Check. l. $ 1000 x . 2   and transpose. 2 a = 40. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. . Transposing and uniting. x . The an area 40 x 20 =800. Check.04 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 10 x = 200. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.06 = $ 40. the second 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 = $ 40. or 700. x + 200). 70x10 Ex. $ 800 = 800.053.
55. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. sions of the field. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. the area would remain the same. Find the share of each. 3. mobile. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. were increased by 3 yards. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sets out later two hours B .74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A man bought 6 Ibs. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 2. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. 1. A of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Six persons bought an automobile. and a second sum. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and its width decreased by 2 yards. together bring $ 78 interest. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. invested at 5 %. as a 4. After how many hours will B overtake A. What are the two sums 5. Ten yards $ 42. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. twice as large. of coffee for $ 1. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. but four men failed to pay their shares.
how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. After how many hours. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . at this 6 2 . if. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. we shall not. a2 to 6. which multiplied together are considered factors. this letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it does contain some indicated root of . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . but fractional with respect 103. a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. as. 6. it is composite. consider 105. 5. stage of the work. An after simplifying. a. + 62 is integral with respect to a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . irrational. vV . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 76 . f db 6 to b. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.
The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. in the form 4) +3. for this result is a sum. x. 01. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.g.3 sy + 4 y8). 1. . 8) (s1). Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 107. it follows that a 2 . y.62 can be &).62 + &)(a 2 . ?/. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.3 6a + 1). 110. It (a. 55. 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. . E. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Ex.) Ex. 77 Factoring is into its factors. or that a = 6) (a = a . 2.FACTORING 106. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 109. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. TYPE I.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . x.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . factors of 12 &V is are 3. Factor G ofy 2 . Divide 6 a% .
3 2 . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. : 6 abx . 16.6. 34 a^c 8 .8 c a 15 ofyV .5 + 13 8. in general. e.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 Or. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 2 + q.4. 3x*6x*. 17. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 14a 4 5.4.3. 15. obviously. 20. 4 tfy f.2. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. ) 22  2. a a 'Ja .30 aty. TYPE IT. a6c. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. + llm llm.3.g. (as 3) and (ccf5). 4 8 . 7i 13. 8. 11.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 4. 32 a *?/ .45 afy . Ilro8 9. 19. . .5 + 2. 3 3 5 6. 2. 5f 2 . 2 6. 3. 7a & 10. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 15 2 7. 13.51 x4 2 6 xy s . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 18. 2 23. 14. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.12 cdx. 2 2 . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. q*q*q 2 a. 12.51 aW + 68 21.
or 7 11. . Factor x? .FACTORING Ex. of this type. 4. determine whether In solving any factoring example. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.5) (a .5) (a 6). Factor + 10 ax . Ex. . tfa2  3. 3.6 = 20. 2 6. 79 Factor a2 4 x . 11 7. 5.11 a 2 . is The two numbers whose product and 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). If q is positive. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.1 1 a tf a 4.G) = . however. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Ex. or 77 l. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. and (a . + 30 = 20. If q is negative.11) (a + 7). + 112.30 = (a . m 5m + 6. the two numbers have opposite signs.a). Factor a2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.11. can be factored. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Therefore Check. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.11 a + 30. 77 as the product of 1 77. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. We may consider 1.4 x . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.4 .. . a 2 . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. as p. 2. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.77 = (a.
ra + 25ra + 100. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 44. + 5<y 24. 100 xr . 16. 16. 2 ?/ 22. x2 23. 12. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 31. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . . 35.6. 2 ?/ 28. 27. 2 2 a' 34. 33. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. and 5 x. 15. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 30. 2 ?/ 5?/14. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. + 4?/21.500 x + 600. 29. 25. TYPE 113. 26. 9. . 13. 18. or . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. a 2 +11 a a? 16. a2 .48 + + 446 200. ay 11 ay +24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 14. 17. 32.80 7.180 a. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 8. ITT. 4 3 2 . . 19. 21 a 2 2 . 2 . 2 2 . 2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. + 2xS. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . a 7 a 30. 36. 24. a? + 5 + 6 a.17 + 30. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 .70 x y . 11. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 4 2 . 21. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ^ </ 2 2 7p8.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 20. + 30.
Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and r is negative. sible 13 x negative.5 . X x 18.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 9 x 6. 27 x 2. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.1). 54 x 1. 3 x and x. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 2. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. a. . 2 x 27. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If p is poxiliw. viz. the signs of the second terms are minus. but the opposite sign.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. or G 114. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 18 x 3. the If p and r are positive. Factor 3 x 2 . and that they must be negative.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 6 x 9. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 11 x 2x.83 x f 54. . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. Ex. then the second terms of have opposite signs.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.5) (2 x .
17. 144 x . 2 2 2 . 12y 2/6. 3a + 13a. 6n + 5?i4. 20. 2 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 7. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 5. : 41 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 10. 9. 2m t7w + 3. 12. 12^17^16.260 xy . 21. f go. 2 26. 34. 13. 14. 10a2 G a2 2 . + 4. 2. 25. 35. 8. .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 90 a 8 2 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. since all others (II. 24. + 2/3.163 x 2 . 14 a fa 4. 2 31. 2 ar* 2 i/ .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.83 x = (3 .179. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 4a2 9tt + 2. 9a. .7. x54 a. 4.27). Sar' + SaG. 3. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 2 . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. the expressions should be it. 11.83 x . and the monomial factors should be removed.2 a 90 x*y . 16. 19. 2 28. 2x* + 9x5. 6. 3x*Sx + 4.19 a f 6.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 100^200^ + 100^. 2 2 2 23. 29. 2 fc . 15. . 18. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 10 a .2) (x . 32. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 10a?2 2 33.y + 172/9. 5m 26m f 5. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 9 y + 32^16. X 27 . 22.30 y 6 4 . 30.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.
THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 2 9 10gf25. 10. must have a positive sign.e. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 2 . and factor whenever possible : 1. 14. 3. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 6. 9.10 x f 16. 5. 13. 2. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 4. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 16 y? The student should note that a term. it is a perfect square. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 11. 8. 9 10a625. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 2 . of its terms are perfect squares.20 xy f 4 y\ . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and a perfect square. . square. form are special cases of the preceding type. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. i. x* . 116. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. however. 25 7. it is more convenient for that type.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 12.
x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. prime. 16. ). 6 2 . 2 20. 25.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 1.2 ofy + ofy m . 10 a 2 4 2 . Ex.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . ). According to 65. .e. 17.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 9.6 m* + 9 m. 149 a 81 8. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 16&*. ^//c to the Ex. 5. 2 . 4a2 l.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 2. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a. product i.3 * ). 36 2 4. V. 22. aV . . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.64 6 = 16(a . * 2 . TYPE 117. +( )f816 30. 7. 18. 27. a. 225 ofy . . 2. + GO + 25. 2 . 9a2 . ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).60 a# + 4.84 15. 3. 4 2 23. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 48 a +( ).20 ab + 10 b a . !Gar 9 ( )+25. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 26. a2 24. 29. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 6. 3.
2. 13.c .d) 2 . (m7?) y. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2. 5.FACTORING 85 118. 2 . 14. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 9. One or both terms are squares 1.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . of polynomials.(c 4. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 . Ex. a:) 12. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . a2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . Ex. 6. 8. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) . Factor a 2 . T. 16p 2 . 4. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 36> . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11.
a 26 2 2 3 .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.y + 2 2). 4:cx . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.14. 10.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.a a .7 c + 2c . a5 + ab 6 . 3. ma ?*a + m& nb. 119. 1. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 9. x8 . a? 11. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 5) . + x + 2x + 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.VI. 12. 6. which may be factored according to types I. Ex. After grouping tain a the terms.ab + bx.r. 2. 8. ive find that the new terms con common factor. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 7. . Ex. . = (3 x + y . 4 B.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. By grouping. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.1. A.2 ) (3 x . 5.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.and trinomials.
Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.4 f . +c+ 2 2 2/ .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 3.FACTORING Ex. : 46 x* 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. II. 4.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2a3/ 7. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.l. 36 9 m . . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. First find monomial factors common to all terms. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. = (a + 6)(a6). 4 a2 . 4. 5. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 2 7. Arranging the terms. IV. 6 6. 8ra 2 + 16.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . $ a8 . 8. + 2xy + y*q*.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. . 8. 2. 6. w m 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 . : m 2 2 16.12 aaj 4 6y. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2. 3.
2 3#4 3a2 36. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 13. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .24. a + a + a + l. + 6 aft + 3 .13 c . 3 2 . 19.156. 3 41. 5a' 20. 42 s 2 . 29. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 50^ + 45. 12. 4 a. (a. a. a6 36.40. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. + 14. 48. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 42 x . 40. 27. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 22. 2 a 128. 25 a + 25 aft . 3 25. 5 a. 11. 80 a 2 ft 38. 32.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. or 3 7#2 . 35. 30.310 x . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. . (^ 34. 28. 3 a2 23.88 10. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 14. 2 17. 13 c . 2 ft . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 18. 4 8 tt 2 z . a3 156. 24.
F. aW. 6. C. 3. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. Thus the H. C.  23 3 . 13 aty 39 afyV. 121. of two or more monomials whose factors . The student should note H. The highest is common factor (IT. 5 7 34 2s . F. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . . C. 5 s 7 2 5. F. 5. 89 . II 2 . 54  32 . Two common factor except unity The H. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . EXERCISE Find the H. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. are prime can be found by inspection. 3 . F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. C. of 6 sfyz. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. 5 2 3 . C.) of two or more . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 24 s . The H. C. 15 aW. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 122. 25 W. 8 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 12 tfifz. 2 2 . 2. F. C. of aW. F. of : 48 4. of the algebraic expressions. The H. C. F.
15. .8 a + 16. 11. a2 + 7af!2. F. ^f a. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 1. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 4(m+l) 3 . 38 #y.7 xy + 10 2 = (x .5 y). 65 zfyV. 13.y) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 8. 2 . 9. 2a f5af 2. y + 3y64. 52 oryz4. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. . 8. 16. 9 aj*(a? . x* x2 Hence the H. 8 6. 5. 10. 7. (a7 ?/) . 12 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 12.5 x3?/ 2 6. C.12 as 66 . ^707 + 12. of: .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 6(m+l) (m+2). 15 3ao. 6 3 a.y + y42. F. F. and apply the method of the preceding article. a3 9a.6.?/ . a2 + 2a3. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 14. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 3^ 2 4 .# 4 afy f 4 . To find the H. 49 C. C. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 3. 4 ?io.6 . 57 a>V.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 16 a . of polynomials. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.6 a&. 2 . ^a + 5^ + 6. a2 ar* 4. 24 a 2 . . 9. 95 2/V.2 ?/) (x . Ex. 8 a 10 . aWd. a 3a4. 8(?/ifl) 14. . = x 2 y. a2 . ^2 2 . 225 4a 9 . 1. 2. 12 w*nw 8. 6 mx .y) 123. 0^80:416. C. .2 y) (a. 25 m27i. 6 a2 y? . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 13. 2 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 2 . Find the H. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 10. a. a3 16 a. .90 7. of + 4 if.^9. 12. 11.5 + 6. F. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 3 . 3).
Common 125. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.6 3 ). L. C. etc. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . . L. C. each set of expressions has In example ft).(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. which also signs. NOTE. M. Ex. C.C. 126.M. M. C. Hence the L. C. The lowest common multiple (L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. =4 a2 62 (a2 . A common remainder. but opposite . M. 2 The The L. M. 60 x^y' 2 . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .M. M. M. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. of several expressions which are not completely factored.6)2. a^c8 3 .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. To find the L. 1. Find the L. &) 2 M. of the general. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . of 3 aW. 128. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. of tfy and xy*. 2. C. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. two lowest common multiples. thus. Find the L. Ex. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. C. The L. M of the algebraic expressions. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 127. . ory is the L. 300 z 2 y.C. M.
5. 2 . 3 Z> .1. 20 9 a. 8. afc'cd 2 . 2 . 3 ab. by. 15. 3. 6 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 4 a f 2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2(m 2 . afy. 14. ) . 2 x \2 y. 24 x. 2 a . 11. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 16.f 6. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a { a~b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. + 2 7i) . a 2 f 4 a +4. 17. 2 10. a 2 fa6. M. a !. T a 3 a 2 . y*. of: 4. 3 . 4 a 5 6cd. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . (a 4)(a2) 12. 5 a? 5 a? y. x2 + 4 a f 4. 13. 7. 22. . ic 2 ?/. 2. 2 7ic+10. . a2 ~ab 1. a. 3(a + b). ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 8 afy.1. a 2 a3 . 30 a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. (For additional examples see page 268. 24. a f 3. a2 4. f b. b 2 . 6b 2 . 1. 18. ic 23. x 2 5 a. 3 6 xif. + 6. Find the L. 9. 20. 4 a . 3. a 1. #. a. or f 3 a 15 #. + 2. a. G a. 3 f2. xy\ . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 8 d 5 . a f 2 19. 21. 2 . x* ~5a. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a?b. a^1. 40 abJ. 6. a& 4 +& 2 . 2 a . 6 y. 2 a.
All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. etc. C. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. rni Thus 132. however. 131. a b = ma mb . A f fraction is b. a?. as 8. 130. Ex. but we In arithmetic. Remove tor. successively all 2 j/' . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. F. and denominators are considered.ry ^ by their H. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Reduce ~ to its lowest terms.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Thus. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. an indicated quotient.
resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both. . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 3. Ex.
23.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. . . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ' ^ .10 a + 3 2 14. 5^10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f . 16.' 32. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ^' rt ^  31. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.7 . 9x + "a" 10. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ^+3*. g J 21. ny 4 18. 29.*. nx 17. LJZJ^JL.. 19. . """. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^" a.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .
ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. Reduce ^.  of //* 2 . we have the quotients (x 1). and 135. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.C. . .3) (!)' = . of the denominators for the common denominator. 2> .r 2 2 . C. 1. Ex. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. take the L. mon T denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.96 134. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . and the terms of ***. we may extend this method to integral expressions. C. by the denominator of each fraction.C. multiplying the terms of 22 . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. we have M^.M. TheL. .  by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.D. and (a 8). Divide the L. + 3).1^22 ' . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L. M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. 1).M.
8 i i. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.oj o* or / . If the given fractions have different denominators. 74). ..T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . 2 ay IB. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 7i 2 ab* ".^1. 2. 22 a2 5a * . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. i. o o a. 3. . 2aj ~ . . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). j y 3. JL.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. a? 1 5 > ^* . 5?.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . common denominator 6. .. 137. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 18. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.
4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .7 . C. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . T? Ex.2 ' 2 _.2 = a(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . the student should remember that parentheses are . ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . L. in the beginning. and adding. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . D. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 2. The L.(a 2 6). (a ft)..aft) Ca2 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. as 4 aft f.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft)..3 . D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .ft) (a ft ft)~. (a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. 4(2 a 3 ft). e.3 ft 2). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.ft)(a . ^ is 2^JT) . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . 2 ^. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.g.
6 c 3a 7. a+6 a 6 2 14. A+2_3. a 36 ++. 15. 24. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.5 18 ^4f25. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. + a "" 2 6 ' . 46 2a 4a 12. + . 5a76 4a 106 9. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. j>0 i> 21. 18 v 19. 2. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. 1 1 f w 16. 1 f q * 1 m m . 20.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 2L + 2a 1 17.
9 79 6 2 i. ! n. 42. 3a 9 +. ic 1 + 1. 1 34. af 1f /j.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a 4 31. a. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 2 af1 32. _ + a? ?/ + y. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 30.9. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 41. a ?^ 40. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .
To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .7 5a v Ex. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  4 or 3 2a.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. T.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . . 1. 101 mixed expression.  .FRACTIONS 139.6 + 4x 4 x2 . . . Reduce .
!. fractions to integral numbers. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. or. integer. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2. Since  = a.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. F J Simplify .g. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. multiply the 142. we may extend any e.) Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. (In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.
50 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 4 8.6 12 d6 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 5# 56 / c& 4.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
1. . 144. : a 41 ab * See page 272. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Divide Xn?/ . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.
are fractional.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. or both.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. l.^c 2 2 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. Ex._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .5 ??i 80 50 .10 ?/ _.6 s + 064.FRACTIONS 105 . ga2 4 8 5 a .afr 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . a a2 4.
xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).y 32 . . C. Simplify x }. a m "" . Ex. .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 2. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. the answer is directly obtained. 6. c +6. JL. of their denominators. x* 4. & . i. n a 8.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. M. 7i+~ 7. 10. . . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.a ^c c _^ a . y X 4* 2 y 3. 9.
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . m^n* n L a 17. o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.
9 x2 + 9. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 1. Uniting. 2x Transposing. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). = 6.8 x = . 2z2a.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 4 4)  x. If x 6.1. each member is reduced to 1. C. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). a. Bx 12 Qx. 5(3 85 Check. Clearing of fractions. Transposing.14 (a. x = 6. M.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .28 x + 42 = . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .f3# + C:E=6f7212. Uniting. each member is reduced to Ex.l)(z + 3) = . 148. + 1) (a + 3) .42 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. If = 64. tions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 2.28 a = 5 x2 . = 6. these Ex.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.48. 108 . 2 3. of the denominator. 9x x Check. .
1 _77 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 15. 18. +1 = 5. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. .= 2. +4 14. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 1 *> = 2. 16. a. ^' 2. ^1 = 9. a: 7 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. '  4 13.
. y+3~2 29. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 27 . If two or more denominators are monomials.11_4 x 149. 25. and" the remaining one a polynomial. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. . . J_. 3x 35. 4a4l4* + l~.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. ?_=_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators._ _ . 33. 32 6 .  38 = 40. . 26 26.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 31 31.
M.2 3 ~  == 7a. 5x x : = 9.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. .1. Dividing.. 1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 24 a.2 42 9 43. = 9. a. 5# 10. each member is reduced to ^. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.  5 = 20 x 45. If a. 26 a. the 1 5 L. 60. Check. Transposing and uniting.29 50712' 9 18 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. C.
find a in terms of b and c. = = 6 6c 7 6c. = 6 a2 . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Ex. .3 6 2 = a' . ax f x f.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). they are united by factoring. Thus. If 3ac L= = a ? . a. 2. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Dividing. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 5> a. =a 2 151. Ex.m bx 2 mn) x. fr Reducing lowest terms.2 62 2 ab. Uniting. y. jr. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.1. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. = l^ 9 b 4 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.& . It frequently occurs that the x. f ~ 5c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .be.2 ac + 3 aft .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 4 ac 1. Uniting the Dividing. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = 2 f b 2 .
11. 9. . and n the number of years. p the principal.a. c. solve for a. = vt. 15. ^ ax a^ 26. * Solve the same equation for^).i l . 10. r the number of $>.= H. iw 21. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 17. + 3a. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = 8 4 #. 30. m a? x . in terms of other quantities. = rt. IIL n b + &o. .= c a Z> . solve for . . 14. = 5.= n. denoting the interest. 5) is t =^. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 6. 12. 34. co?. 3(* 8. If ^^ = a 1 32. 1 f. 4. = 3 (6 a). a. _ 2. If s If 16. c 18. The The i time. mx = n. 4. f ^o. f P =+!. . 3. rate. s = Vt solve for v. 2 solve for y a. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 31. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. q solve for/. t. If * 33. + xx = 1. 29. Ex. 13.
Find R in terms of C and TT.. Multiplying by Dividing. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 100 C. 2 3 . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. then = 2 TT#. .114 35.180.. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. is 36. and 12 = the number over. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. x Or Uniting. = 16^. 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.20 C. 12. .
" gives the equation /I). or 1J. 32 x = . But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. in Then Therefore.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. and the statement. Solving. = 100 + 4 x. the rate of the express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the required number of days. 180 Transposing. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 4x = 80. Clearing.
How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. of his present age. and 9 feet above water. to his son. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. money and $10. by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. is oO. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and of the father's age. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. make 21. is equal 7. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. which was $4000. fifth Two numbers differ 2. to his daughand the remainder. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. a man had How much money had he at first? . and one half the greater Find the numbers. ex What 5. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How did the much money man leave ? 11. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and J of the greater Find the numbers. by 6. length in the ground. ceeds the smaller by 4. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other.  Find their present ages. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Find A's 8.
what is the rate of the express train? 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train.) 22. what is the 14. investments. 152. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. How much money $500? 4%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. ^ at 5%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 2. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 3. and B in 4 days. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. after rate of the latter ? 15. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. air. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 1. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. . At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A has invested capital at more 4%. and it B in 6 days. Ex.
The problem to be solved. Then ft i. A in 6. m and n. B in 16. .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.= . 26. A in 4. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. . A in 6. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. B in 30. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is 57. therefore. is 42. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. n x Solving. 3. Ex. we obtain the equation m m . Hence.414. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. and n = 3. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 25.118 153. B in 12. and apply the method of 170.009 918. 2. e. B in 5.g. they can both do in 2 days. To and find the numerical answer.e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. if B in 3 days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.
the Two men start at the same time from two towns. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. (b) 35 miles. 2 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 29. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour.000. 5 miles per hour. 34. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. squares 30. respectively. 3 miles per hour. 33.001. Find the side of the square. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 3J miles per hour. is (a) 51.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. meet. 4J miles per hour. the rate of the first. (d) 1. and the second 5 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. is ?n . (b) 8 and 56 minutes. The one: 31. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 2 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. same hour from two towns. After how many hours do they meet. the second at the apart. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (b) 149.721. . solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. if m and n are. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (c) 16.
or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. is numerator of any fraction consequent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. 158. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b is the consequent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. b. 6 12 = . a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. . : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.g. In the ratio a : ft. " a Thus. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. E. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.5. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . antecedent." we may write a : b = 6. the antecedent. The first 156. etc. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . Ex. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the symbol being a sign of division. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 1. the denominator The the 157.
Transform the following unity 15. 18. 62:16. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 4. extremes. 3:1}. 1. $24: $8. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 10. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. and c is the third proportional to a and . b. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 27 06: 18 a6. Simplify the following ratios 7. b is the mean b. proportional between a and c. and c. terms. 61 : ratios 72:18. 3:4. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 7:4 T T 4 . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. two  ratios. 7f:6J. The last first three. 9. : ay . The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 17. a and d are the extremes. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 4:5f : 5. 12. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 6. 16a2 :24a&. 5 f hours : 2. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 159. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3 8. b and c the means.RATIO Ex. equal 2. 11. 3. J:l. : 1. 16. 8^ hours.
if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : : directly proportional may say. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.30 grams. and the other pair the extremes. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. of iron weigh . q~~ n . ccm. 164. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. of iron weigh 45 grams. 6 ccm. ad = be. of a proportion. In any proportion product of the extremes. pro portional. i. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. " we " NOTE. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. If (Converse of nq.122 162. and the time necessary to do it. 163. !.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.) mn = pq. then G ccm.__(163. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. are : : : inversely proportional. 3 4. The mean proportional of their product.) b = Vac. 2 165. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.e. briefly. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. : c. = 30 grams 45 grams. Clearing of fractions.
Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. if 6 : 7. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) d 167.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 166.) (Called Alternation. then =d c. ad ( 163.PATIO Ex. 2. Or IV.) = f f = 3 J. (Composition. hence the proportion true. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. a:c=b:d. bd bd. I. is 4$ = 35. . I.) a + b:a = c + d:c. d d. is Ex. = 35 . (Division. a III.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. V. 12x Hence a? = 42. ad = be. (163. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 1. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (Frequently called Inversion.) II. + b:b = c + d:d.
= 12 5ft. = 2:x. 5 5. i. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 9. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. . EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. E. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 7:2f 3J. = 2:3. mx tin Apply composition and division. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. V. x = 2. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Or III. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 20:7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.e. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.!=!*.124 IT. 4. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 10. 120:42 2 2 7.g. the consequents by 7. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 5. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. : x. 6 =4 : x. 3.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. IV. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 8. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 2. . Simplify the following proportions. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 180:125. : 3 = 5 f x : x. Apply composition.
. 38. 5= 18 a? : a?. a.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 35. 34. mx = ny. 14 and 21. 2. 03:a?=135:20. . = 5 x 12. w. 52. a?:15 15. 6x = 7y. Find the third proportional 24. 16. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 112:42 = 10:a. to : 9 and 12. 28. 27. 21. rap. 12. 33. 1 and a. 2= 5 x x. 17. 50. 41. = 2 + x: x. 3. 39. rag. ra + landra 1. 26. : 53. 4. 29.x: 6:5 a : x. 2. 13. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96.8:1. : a2 . a 2 and ab. 42. (a : : 45. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 4 and 16. terra 2:3 = 4. to: = 35:*. 20. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra.  32. : . = 3 43 + x.:ff. 46. 51. Find the mean proportional 30. 25. x:5 = y:2. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48.j>. 2 3 = y #. 22. 6 x = y. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 7iy = 2:x. + fyx = cy. ra. 47. b. 31. = 15o. = l^:18. 5. and 2/. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 16 and 28. 14. 18. 43. x m = y n. f. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 9 x = 2 y. if : 40. 3t. ratio of y. 44. 2 a and 18 a. to : a and 1. 3. 6. Find the 37.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. ra 2 . 1. 23.
and the : total cost. and the time.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. 56. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 7^. the area of the larger? the same. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time necessary for it. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the speed of the train. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. and the area of the rectangle. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). what 58. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 57.126 54.
When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2 x Or = 4. . as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x x 7 Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). = the second number. x=2. so that Find^K7and BO. AB = 2 x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. : Ex. 2. 4 inches long. x = 6. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. Then Hence BG = 5 x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 18 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number.000 168. produced to a point C. 11 x f 7 x = 108. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Let A B AC=1x. is A line AB. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.
How The long are the parts ? 15. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 11. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How many 7.000. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. What are the parts ? 5. : 197. 12.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 3. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. and c inches. : 4. 2. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.000 square miles. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 9. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.) . and 15 inches. How many gen. 6. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 14. Gunmetal tin. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 13.
is x = 7. such as + = 10. =. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. However. 2 y = . expressing a y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. etc.e. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.L x If If = 0. The root of (4) if K 129 . which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. x = 1. a? (1) then I. Hence. if . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.y=. y = 1. values of x and y. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. there is only one solution.
4y . 174. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 6x .X. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.26. Therefore. of elimination most frequently used II. 172. viz. unknown quantity.24. E. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. ~ 50. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. By By Addition or Subtraction. same relation.3 y = 80. 3. The first set of equations is also called consistent. Substitution. and 3 x + 3 y =. 26 y = 60. are simultaneous equations. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. y = 2. the last set inconsistent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. to The two methods I. 21 y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. = . cannot be reduced to the same form.130 170. for they express the x f y 10. y I 171.
60 . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1).2 = 9 + 4 = 13.2 = 6. = 406. 25 x . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Transposing. Check. 10 + 5 1 = 135. subtract the equations. 3y = 3. x = 10.14 =8. 8 2. Therefore Check. 3. 3.3 1 = 47. whose coefficients In general. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 37.3 y = 47. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . add the equations. 64 x = 040. 10 . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. + 2. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 1. 5 13 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). y = 2. x = 10. are like. = 235.
* + 3 y = 50. i 3.9 *. _. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. f 3# ?/ = 0. O t K 8. [2o. x 11. J I y = 1U. . 7 ' 1fi fl . I . + 2/ 17.3. 9 1 r 20.5 y = 2. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I oj 5y = 17. I ~ y~~> 22.3. 13.4. = 41. 19< I a. ' 12. = 24. I i 3 a. f 3X 7x 14. = 6. ] ^ .f2/ ' = 50.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 13 61 l7a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.v 23. v ^ = ll.
I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 4#8. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 60. and solve the resulting equation. 8. = 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. x ) ^"" 13. = 2y + 10. = 2. 3. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. (1) (2) Transposing 2. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.
2 y = . 3 (1) Ex. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19. \ \6(a. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 7x_2y=3.6)7(y7)==18. (7) (7) (8) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. x = l. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . however. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. + 212y4 = 14. 7 y = 6. From 9 = 36. (4).3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. . Substituting in (6) . 21z6y=9. simplified before elimination is possible. 3. 29 x = 29. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.
4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 10 2a?5 17. . 10. a. 16. a. +y 2 . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. J 9.1) + 5(6 y . 14.1) = 121.f2 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. = 3. . yM a. 12. 4 11.
and x y . and y. 3x\" 1 23 24.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 180. <X + 20.Q ^ 4 21. ?~y . 22. e. f y .#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. but some expressions involving x. * ((* (( . {. . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.
y 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.4 x = 4 xy. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . Dividing by 11 3 = #. x 3. (4) + (G). 33 = 11 x. etc. y 1. Clearing of fractions. Therefore y=4. Substituting x = 3 in (1). (2) (3) a. 2* * x 2. 1. 15 y + 8 x . .3 xy. x 2x(2). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y. of this type. . however. can also be solved Examples method.
10 " 12 25 U y 6. Ex. n.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 4 13.= 5. y MOi y a. x y 5. 253 7. x 8. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 6. 1. = en. . x y 331 9. 6w3 + bny = 6p. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.= o 6. 21 9 .
and I if 13. and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. w. Uniting. bmy bm}y ap cm. 14. f 5. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. x 12. 6. From the same equations find s in terms of a. W . . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. fax f = l. apan cm. ax + by = 2 a&. . .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. a Find a and terms of n. ny = fy/ I sc 1. x f my = 1.W. s in 11.y = = 9a + 46. Dividing. x a. . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.
13. 4.2 + 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. y =* 2.3 = 8.2 + 4.15z=12 Adding.1+4. 3. ties are Similarly. x + 12 y . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.25.8 = 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 8 x . etc.by 2. (4) (5). 182. = 30. 6. 3y = Hence Check. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. = 3. 1. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 20.12 y + 6 z = . Ex.16. (8) 2. To solve equations containing By tions. 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.lf> z . by 3. 1. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 4. .3=4. f 3y 12 =s 8. l.
x 13. k 2/ f 2 x a. 49. a? 11. == 6. 15 2 = 45. ~6?/ 5. 2 . 12. 7. 10. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2z = 40. 2 4. 4 = 42. + y f z = 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. a? + 709 = 26. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 8. 14.
4.3 y + .2 a. =s 20. ^ = 2. ? = llz.. 22. (3 _. 19. = 5. 32. . . = 8*. 84 21. 27. 1510 4 17. 60. 16.6 2. . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 23.42 = 2.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0.
(1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. and if 396 be added to the number. # 4. + 396 = 521. Find the number. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . 1 = 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Ex. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 1(1+6). . y 31. the number. 2 = 6. Check.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. ( 99. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. = 2 m. 1 digit in the tens place. symbols: x + y +z 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + z = 2p. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. y * z 30. Obviously of the other . x : z =1 : 2. z + x = 2 n. M=i. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. either directly or implied. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and to express In complex examples. = l. however. . 1. +2+ 6 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.
the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 4 x = 24. By expressing the two statements in symbols. Or (4)2x(3). ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. (1) (2) 12. we obtain. Find the fraction. the distance traveled by A. C. = the fraction. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 2. Since the three men traveled the same distance. B. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x 3 = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 2. 5_ _4_ A. direction. = 8. 3. increased by one. . starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 6 x 4 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. = Hence the fraction is f. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. From (3) Hence xy Check.144 Ex. x y = the = the x denominator . + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. y = 3. x 3x4y = 12. Ex.
Find the fraction. to the number the digits will be interchanged. If the denominator be doubled. the value of the fraction is fa. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 183. 7. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. both terms. Find the numbers. 6. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.}. Find the numbers. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 5. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. added to the numerator of a fraction. number by the first 3. the number (See Ex. and the fourth 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. ? What 9. 1. . fraction is reduced to \. the Find the fraction. tion ? 8. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 2. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the fraction equals . it is reduced to J. part of their difference equals 4. Find the number. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and its denomi nator diminished by one. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. If 27 is 10.) added to a number of two digits. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. the last two digits are interchanged. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. If 9 be added to the number. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.
What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and in 5 years to $1125. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. A man invested $750. in 8 years to $8500. 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. Find their present ages. and partly at 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 13. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and money and 17. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. If the rates of interwere exchanged. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and 4 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. partly at 5 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Find the rates of interest. 14. How 6 %. now. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. .000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest? 18. respectively ? 16. A sum of $10. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. 12.grams. 19. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the amount of each investment ? 15.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the annual interest would be $ 195.
BD = HE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. ED = BE. and F '(see diagram). what is that = OF. angle c = angle d. and F. c. andCL4 = 8. On /). but if A would double his pace. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. 25. $ 50 for each cow. B find angles a. and F. . An C touch ing the sides in D.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. BC=7. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. respectively. Find their rates of walking. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. triangle Tf AD. BE. and e. BC = 7 inches. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. 24. and GE = CF. and angle BCA = 70. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and AC = 5 inches. points. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. A farmer sold a number of horses. the length of NOTE. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. 23. . the three sides of a triangle E. 1 NOTE. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. then AD = AF. and angle e angle/. and their difference by GO . In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. cows. E. and sheep. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and $15 for each sheep. are taken so ABC. for $ 740. three AD = AF. and CE If AB = G inches.
the ordinate of point P. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. B. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. YY' theyaxis. (7. and point the origin. PN. and r or its equal OA is . 186. is the abscissa. 2). and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . jr. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). first 3). ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185.. PN are given. (2. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. The of Coordinates. the ordinate by ?/. (3. Thus the points A. It' Location of a point. and PN _L YY'. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). or its equal OM. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (2. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. is The point whose abscissa is a. and PJ/_L XX'. 3). .CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PM.
2).(!.1).and(l.3). 0). (4. (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 2. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. Plot the points: (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Plot the points: (4. 11. (4. 71 2). (4. 3). 4). (2. (0.4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points (6. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.2). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 2J). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 3). 1). (4. 8.e. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 0). i. Graphs. which of its coordinates known ? 13. !). . What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4) and (4. 4. 6. . (See diagram on page 151. 12. (0. whose coordinates are given NOTE. What is the locus of (a?. (5. 2). Plot the points : (0. (4. (3. 6. 4) from the origin ? 7.) EXERCISE 1. and measure their distance. 1). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 0). 3). 3. 0). 4). (1. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.
150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. or the curved line the temperature. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. D. B. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. C. may be found on Jan. . 15. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. ure the ordinate of F. 188. we meas1 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . however. from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations.. Thus the first table produces 12 points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. By representing of points. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 10 . representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 1.
Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. The engineer. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. (d) November 20. etc. (c) January 15. uses them. (b) July 15. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. physician. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied. the merchant. Whenever a clear. as the prices and production of commodities.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. .
(freezing point) ? 7. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. ? 9. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (d) 9 0. 1 to Oct. (1) 10 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. is 10... At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 15. 1? 11 0. During what months above 18 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. When the average temperature below C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much.
Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Draw a graph for the 23. 19. transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. One meter equals 1. Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. a temperature chart of a patient. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards. NOTE. 20.
to 27. 3. 9. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. x* x 19. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.. the value of a of this quantity will change. 29. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. A 10 wheels a day. 26. . gas. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 .154 24. e. 3. function If the value of a quantity changes. if each copy sells for $1.50. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. x increases will change gradually from 13. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) T circumferences of 25. represent his daily gain (or loss). if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.g. 190. if he sells 0. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. binding. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. and $..50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.5 grams. 28. etc. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. then C irJl. books from for printing. amount to $8.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.inch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2. 1 to 1200 copies.. 4. x 7 to 9.50. etc.
values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. Ex. (1. 1 the points (3.1). 4). . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Draw the graph of x2 f. 2 (1. 9).2 x may 4 from x = 4. to x = 4. x a variable. is supposed to change.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 9). a*. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table.g. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . be also represented by a graph. (1^. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 2). as 1. (2. ( 2. E. it is In the example of the preceding article.e. for x=l. while 7 is a constant. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . may. Graph of a function. Q. etc. may . plot points which lie between those constructed above. The values of func192. however. J). and join the points in order. 4).1). 3 50. 3 (0. construct '.0). If a more exact diagram is required. and (3. 2.
.. 7 .) For brevity. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. j/=3.2 x . Thus in the above example. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. as y. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. = 4.. and join(0. (4. r */ +* 01 .4). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. Ex. (3.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. Thus 4x + 7. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. (2. rf 71 .. 4J. straight line produces the required graph.20). y = 6. 1). 2 4 and if y = x f. 5). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.. 194.. etc. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 4). = 0. 2. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.
if a. 2 a. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (If) Va25. 16. 9. 2J. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 1 8 10. a* 13. a.e. The values of a?. . 2 4 x f 2 = 0. ?/ a. i.5)2. 2 2. a ar. (ft) (_ 1. if y = 2. The values of a*. x+1. 11. 2. 3 a 8. 1J. 18. 2x + 3x a?. a? 1. xz + x. 6 fa. 21. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. = The values of a*. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. y = 2x = 4. from x VlO'S". + 4. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . the function. 8. 7.8)'. 1J. a? 2 4.or. The smallest value of the function. 1. 4 a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. = 4. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2 2 a. a?. 2J. 5.5)2. J. 3. 15. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. xl.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2 a. Jar . 2. (7i) (c) 23. l. if the function equals zero. 3. 1J. 4a? I. 2 or 2 20. . 19. 23x. 22. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 6. 12.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. fa 17. (C ) (2. if"a. 14.
y= formula graphically. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).24. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.e. C. the abscissas of 3.. Show any convenient number). Therefore x = 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. that graph with the o>axis. . i.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. then y = . we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 25. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. then cXj where c is a constant.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.where x c is a constant. 1 C. Represent 26. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.158 24.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 32 F.24 or x = P and Q. 9 F. 14 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.
(a) x2 = 0. crosssection paper is used. . = 0. 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. Such equations in general have two roots. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. viz. 6. + + = where a. 12. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 11. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 3. 14. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. or 5 2. (a) (6) 9. 2 and 1.f 9 = 0. 6. 197. 13. a2 2a. 7. 10. 4. 8. (0.7 2 a 5 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. is called a quadratic equation. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.
we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. (f . = 0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2).2 y ~ 2. 199. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 4) and (2. 3x _ 4 . 0). Ex. fc = 3. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. ?/. locate points (0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. . solve for ?/. and joining by a straight line. NOTE. Ex. T . If x = 0.e. because their graphs are straight lines. == 2. produces the 7* required locus. first degree. Hence we may join (0. Hence. 2). i.2. Hence if if x x  2.1. y = l. X'2 Locating the points (2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. unknown quantities. ?/ =4 AB. 1) and 0). and join the required graph. y y 2. if y = is 0. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.
To find the roots of the system. linear equations have only one pair of roots. viz. we obtain the roots. P.57. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. and CD. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. AB y = . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).1=0. 3. 201. equation x= By measuring 3. 202. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).15. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. parallel have only one point of intersection. 203. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. (2) .
162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 0. 5. 3. and . 2 equation x 3). 3x 2 y = 6. 4. and + 3). they are inconsistent. i. 2. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. if x equals respectively 0. intersection. 4. 1. x2 . 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). In general. 3). 5.g. 3. = 0. etc. V25 5. 4. Locating the points (5. Locating two points of equation (2). 4. 0) and (0. 1. and joining by a straight line. 2. e. Measuring the coordinates of P.  4. 3. 4. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Inconsistent equations. The equations 2 4 = 0.5. AB the locus of (1). 4.5..0). (4. There can be no point of and hence no roots.0. (1) (2) C. Solving (1) for y.e. (2. . construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. y equals 3. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. P graphs meet in two and $. 4.y~ Therefore. we of the + y* = 25. Since the two  we obtain DE.9. 0. the graph of points roots. Using the method of the preceding para. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. the point we obtain Ex. (4.
y=x + 5. and.. y 2 4. 19. \ 2x + 3^ . 10. y= a2 2x y6. '163 Dependent equations. and solve each If there are no solutions. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. Draw system. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 3. 17. 9. 2x 3?/=6. the graphs of the following systems. vice versa. 20. 4. 8. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. a. y = 4. 16 22. 7. state reasons. 16 23. a+r/=6. 2. x~y=0. 5. 6. if possible. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. .
CUBES.14 y = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24. 30. 28. 4 a = 3(6 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 . 3 31. TABLE OF SQUARES.y). 26.8. 25. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
involution repeated multiplication. 8. follows that 3. on to in factors 4.faa a a a Obviously 1. ^4/? it According to 50. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. According to 1. ( a) is positive. is may be by 207. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs.a2 . a = a3 . 2. powers of a positive quantity are positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 52. . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . etc. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. a special kind of product. 2. fa. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 3 f a = f a = +.
4 /2mV. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 16. 5.166 To find To To power. 24. 76 : (>y. 2 11 (afc ) . 2. . 3 2 2 8 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. 6.6 (a 8 8 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . V V/ 13. 15. a product to a given power. (a ) 2 4  3. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.6) = a . (^^) 2 . the required power. (277171 )*. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 4. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. raise a fraction to a power. amVy) 3 . 210. (2ar). (a ) 2 5 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.
pansions. 2.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 3 . 23. 5. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 9. etc. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (a + &)8 . + a 2 a. (afl) . 1. +5a) 22. 16.y) = (3 y?y . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8 (a??/) 3 . 7. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 1 f 3 2 3 . 13. and decreases in each succeeding term by L .6 2 8 ft) . (3 x . a. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . Ex. 3 8 . The higher powers of binomials. 18. frequently called ex. . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (5 (1 a) 3 . 3. = s= (2s) 8 a. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . + 4aj) 3 . 6. .INVOLUTION Ex. : a 20. 2. 4. (3af26) 8 .y . 21. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.3 y.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. nent of the binomial. 211. are obtained by multiplication. (6m+2w) (3 8 .) 14. 15. 12. (aj7) . 2 . 8. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. An 1.
since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 25. Ex. (m fl) 2 20. 8. 13. . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (p + q) 4 * 7.2. (1 + 4 ?/) . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (la&) 4 12. (mJ) 4 11.168 3. 15. . (a~^) 5 . (2 a 4 . 5. (w 4 ?i) 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . 17. 9. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . The minus. Ex. mn 5 2 5 ) . 10. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (m 5 I) 2 22. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . is the coefficient of the next term. 6. 5. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 3. 14. 21. and the powers negative. (?/i~w) : 16. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. .a) 3 19. 4 (1for) 5 . (?>i?i f c)*. 24. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 4 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 78 s . 3. (m 2 + n) 8 .216 a^ 4.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (2 4. Ex. . 2. (tff1) (cfd) . . (l 8 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 18. 4. ( &) 5 . (af 5) . 23. 1. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.
It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. a) 4 = a4 . and ( v/o* = a. V \/P 214. and all other numbers are. = x means = 6. for distinction.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. which can be simplified no further. Since even powers can never be negative. etc. 4 4 . 1. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 215. 109 . 27 =y means r' = 27. V9 = + 3. or x &4 . tity . or 3 for (usually written 3) . \/"^27=3. or y ~ 3. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 2. (_3) = 27. numbers. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. called real numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.
9. 9.64 5 4 . v/^i2 = a*. Ex. 6. 62 = V2* . index.1. EXERCISE 1.  100 a 2 . 8. 2. V36 9 4. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 2 .125. 7. 5. 3. 7 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . 6 7 = 030. Ex 5 a" . roots of the numerator \/18 .4.201) = 2. \/2 4 9 .lL. 79 2 v/2 5 . Ex.200 .(. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 10. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . V5 v/2 7 2. v/2^. Ex. V25 9 16. 4 v. 3/0** = am .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. . Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. . 3i . extract the and denominator. . To extract the root of a power. for (a")" a = a mn 3. To extract a root of a fraction. 2. 8. 82 . 7. 7 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3 33 53 . fy 5 3 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. V?.9 = 136. 6.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . = 19472.
A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. .EVOLUTION 171 28. a f2 l 2 + l. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 29.3 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. Ex. Find the square root of a2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . a* 4 8 2 .4/.3. 34. 2.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .) by inspection. V9216. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.3 y2) ( vV .75. 45 V5184. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 1. V20 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 6. 30. ^40^4. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 31./). \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 . 2 . V8. 5. 3.98.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 32.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 116. 33.
however. 2ab .> 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 ab + b . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. let us consider the relation of a f. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 . and b. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 11. mV14m??2)f 49. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.2 &c. . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . the given expression is a perfect square.b 2 2 to its square. 14. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 12. and b (2 a f b). a2 + & + c + 2 a& . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a f.172 7. 15. #2 a2  16. i.2 ac . a\b is the root if In most cases. 2 2 218.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 8 . + 6 + 4a&.e. The term a' first 2 . 10.
we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. and so forth.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Explanation. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 8 a 2 . . 6 a. 1. As there is no remainder. 219. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . and consider Hence the their sum one term.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Ex. . First trial divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. */'' . 1. . Second trial divisor. of x. First complete divisor. the first term of the answer. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 2. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. The square . 2. is As there is no remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 /. by division we term of the root. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.24 afy* f 9 tf.
x 6 4 4 0^4.9. 436^?/469a.37 a ^ . 2 x2 3 2x. 6 11.12m 5 4. 36it.24 or . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 9. 24. 8.12 m 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.4 x 4. 16x6 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 14. 12.6 .42 a*& 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 18. 5 4 16 4 iK . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. a? 2 . 6. l 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 15.25 x 4 4. 2 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 729 4. 10.73 a8 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 4 . > 7.16.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 3. 5.25. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.40 a 22 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.73a4 440^436^460^.10 x2 4. 16.a 6 x*y 2 . 17. 19.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 20. 1 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.20 o 4.
the first of which is 4. etc. As 8 x 168 = 1344. of 10. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.000 is 1000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. = 80. first . two figures. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.1344. Find the square root of 524. Therefore 6 = 8. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Ex. of 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Find the square root of 7744.176..000. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the first of which is 8. 1. 2. etc. which may contain one or two). a 2 = 6400. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Ex.EVOLUTION 220.000 is 100. and the complete divisor 168. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. of a number between 100 and 10.000. and the first remainder is. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .
or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. places.1 are Ex.0961 are '.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. in .70 6. 12.10. annex a cipher. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . The groups of 16724. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 3.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.7 to three decimal places.
35. 34.1410.4 square when R = radius and 11. = 3.) 40.01. 1. whose area equals 48. feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 30. J. T\. 32. 31. 37. JT . Find the mean proportional between 2 and . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. . 36.58 square 38. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 33.53.22. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . feet. 13. 39. 1. 5.
g. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. This answer Check. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. complete. x 2 7. 6#2 = x* 24. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 6 y2 = 17. 178 . Ex. 225. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Extracting the square root of each member. 224. but no higher power e. or incomplete. is A quadratic equation. or affected. 2)* + 5 = 33. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Dividing. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 1.. = 7^ + 5. x = + 2 or x =2. The 7 equation. 226. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. A pure. = 4. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is 12. Transposing. 2 ic = a.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. . or equation of the second degree. 2.
s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. or Therefore. ' =: y? b* b . 2 2 a. o. 16^393 = 7. 10. 7 = 162.25. Solve 179 . : 83 2. 5. ax Transposing and combining. . 8. 6(2)=10(ajl). 4 ax. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . (a? 9. 7. 2 4fc 5' 18.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. 19 + 9 = 5500. 4. 3. . 0^ + 1 = 1. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.2. 15^5 = 6. Dividing by Extracting the square root.
2 . If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .b 2 If s If =c . Find is the number. then Since such a triangle tangle. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If 22 = ~^. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 26. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 228. .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Find the side of each field. . solve for v. Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. 29. solve for r. 22 a. 2 . ' 4. 2. 2 : 3. If G=m m g . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 108. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 24. 3. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. 25. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 9 & { c# a x +a and c.) of their squares 5. : 6. If a 2 4. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. is 5(5. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . find a in terms of 6 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 2a f 1 23. 28. 27. and their product : 150. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for d. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 4. r. may be considered one half of a rec square units.
. Find the unknown sides and the area. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 24. . x* 7 x= 10. A body falling from a state of rest. of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 44 square feet. 4. . Find these 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. J = 12. 8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Method of completing the square. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. we have of or m = . radii are as 3 14. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . add () Hence 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. is and the other two sides are equal.2 7 . (b) 100 feet? = . Find the radii. Solve Transposing. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find the sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. and the two smaller 11. 2m. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.7 x f 10 = 0. To find this term. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 9.) 13.
Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Ex. a Clearing of fractions.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. adding member). a.a. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Simplifying. 2  . Transposing.1.  \. Extracting square roots. Hence Therefore Check. or x = 2. 230. Ex.. 2 a* a. Therefore. = x\ = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Uniting.2 a2 . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. = 6. Transposing. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . = \ # = ff.x(l = . = . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. J. or J. 62 x 5 = f. (*~8) a = at .e. 7 5 + 10 = 0.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
= 12. =8 r/io?. .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. Solution by formula. 231. \bx\. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.c = 0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. x la 48. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . article. ao. and c in the general answer. 2x 3 4.
8. 6. 3.  . 20. 2 a. = 12 . 12.15 x9 25x* = 21 . a. 15. Reducing to general form. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. = 64120?. TIO. c p.4 4 5 . 2or } 5o. ?i 2 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6 Ex. 10. 26. : 86 + 2 = 0. 7. 2 . 11. 1. 6 . c = 5. 13. 6. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2. 16. 14. 21. 6^+5^ 56.. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 18. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2 a? = 44 x . b =  + 20 == = 0. 5 x2 Transposing. 2. 7^ + 9 x 90.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 17. 2 o.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 9. 19. V^tT)* .25 x.
3x?+x = 7.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0.5) =0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 233. x2 = 1 . orz roots. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. factors Now. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x.4) = . all or. member can be Ex. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.x. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. if either of the uct is zero.2. Solution by factoring. 1. Eesolving into factors. = 0. transposing terms to one member. Transposing. (5 a? !)(. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 26. 23. 2S3x 1 2 . ar>8o. . and 6. 24. }. any degree. Clearing for fractions. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 25. a=:i^^. x(x <2 . Factoring. 27 x== 42a. 5) = 0. = 0. = 14. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 0. 5 = 0. Bx 1 1. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. or # 5 is zero.
a?. 8. 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. E. 3^ = 0(1106). a* 10a=24. 14.e. Or Hence the 234.:=0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3 or 2 a. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 12. 2. + 6)=0. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 2. The equation I. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. is 5) = 0. 5. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 16. 6. Ex. we 9 obtain x 4. : 87 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. + 8=s: 7.g. (aj4)(a.6)) = 0. 0^ ar> 11. 2o3 f9a. a?10a=:24. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 5 = 0. 7. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3) Factoring. 3# y 5 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . + 100. for a: . 3) = 0. 4)(z3) = 0. 3.(.3)(x + 3 3. aj( 15. + 10 a = 24. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.24 = 0. 13. ar'Sa^ 12. x2 f 2 x . and the equation thus formed be solved. 3. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.= 24. O roots are 2. } 2 2 (5 . such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 4.
ara + ft + c*. 50. 18. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 27. 22. 25. 20. (a + 1) (a. 2. '3a!J  . 23.3) = (s + l) (3 a). a 2 =(x a)b. uz + u 21. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.188 17.
two numbers is 4. 3. 2. number by 10. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. of their reciprocals is 4. 4. . What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2. 7. Find the sides. 2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and consequently many prob 235. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 5.3. Find the number. 55. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 1. 58. 0. 2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 1. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.2. 8.3. G. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. 5. feet. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3. 52. and equals 190 square inches.1. The difference of . : 3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 3. 6. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 56. Find the numbers. and whose product 9. 54. Find the number. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 57.0.9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. EXERCISE 1. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 2.0. and whose sum is is 36. The 11. and the difference Find the numbers.
vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. sold a horse for $144. If he each horse ? . exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. ply between the same two ports. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 13. and Find the sides of the rectangle. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. watch for $ 24. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. Find the rate of the train. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 17. 14.10. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. 15. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for 21. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. c equals 221 Find AB and AD.190 12. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. ABCD. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. Two vessels. . as the 16. 19. other.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. ^3^ = 7. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 23 inches long. or x = \/l = 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 24.) 25. so that the rectangle. 1. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. By formula. . and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. contains B 78 square inches. the two men can do it in 3 days. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Ex.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Find TT r (Area of a circle . (tf. Find and CB. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. of the area of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and working together. as 0. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. a point taken. constructed with and CB as sides. 27. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. 237.
12. 2. a4 5o. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . = 1. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 6. 7. Solving. 9.T 2 2 . 2 16 a^40 11. aV+9o 4 =0. 18. 4 : 89 10a. 16. 4. 2 h9:=0. 10. or y = 8. a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. T 17. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Hence Le. Ex. 19. a 21or=100. 4 6.2 =4. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 a. = 13.192 238. >. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 8.)+72=0. y8)=0. a? 15 1=2*. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 436 3.
2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. the roots are irrational. it 2a follows 2 : 2. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are imaginary. Ex. 2. c the roots are real. rational. rational.bx 4. Ex.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .2 z . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . ( 2a Hence 1. Relations between roots and coefficients. 1. a perfect square.f> = 0.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .5) = 04. and equal. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The discriminant =(.2) 2 4 3 (.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 241. the roots are unequal. negative. 240. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Hence the roots are real. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. and unequal. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 3. is 4ac not zero. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are rational. b 4.
the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. o. = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.g. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. = 5x. = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2 : 3. 22. lla. + 2a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 18. x2 7 10. 12. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. : a 2 . 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 3a. 60 2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 17. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.19 # 20. 6. = Q. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5aj 9. ^12. 2 7. 2. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 5oj aj + l = 0. 14. 12~x = x 2 . 21. + 18 2 8. 23. 2 a. 15. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. f 2 E. their product isf.. 9a3 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. = 0. 24. + 2a15 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 12 2  . 4.
CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.* III. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. however. = a"" < . The first of these laws is nition of power. II. hence. m IV. no Fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . that a an = a m+n . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. must be *The symbol smaller than. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (a m ) w . such as 2*. > m therefore. Then the law of involution. for all values 1 of m and n. We assume. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . (ab) . It is. 244. while the second of the first.a" = a m n mn . provided w > n. and . ~ a m f.
'&M A 27. as.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 0?=^. n 2 a. 31. a*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. or zero exponent equal x. 24. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . ml. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 30. 3*. 23. 245. disappear. (bed)*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. etc. laws. e.g. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. = a.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 4~ . Assuming these two 8*. a?*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a\ 26. 28. fractional. a . . at. m$. (xy$. 25. 29.
: 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 46. = 2.g. a . a * a2 Or a=l. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. however. 44. \fi?. 40. v'mT 36. 42. Solve the following equations 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.g. 48. 43. = 49. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. e. v/o&cT 34. If. 45.\/n. a. = 2. e. 41. 3* = 27. 38. 35. equal to unity. ty?. 49. 27* = 3. Let a = a. hence is . 50. 5 a* = 10. \/xy \/m. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. Vo5 . the base is zero. 246. : 2' 4* = 4. a* * = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 37. : 197 33. 7z* Find the values of 47.
Or a"# = l. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. 248.198 247.2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. by changing the sign of NOTE. Multiplying both members by a". cr n. or the exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .g. Let x= or". vice versa. e. consider the following equations. etc. an x = a.
3 a. 2m~i 43. . 40. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 36. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 37. ^L. 3 a? * 42. * 24. 2 . 66 45. a^ 41. 25. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. : mi m~^. : or 5 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. c 32. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 22. . rfS. f (2w)~i 1 . m ."* 38. 44. 27. a. ^?2 y' 34. 39.
= l. = 5. 58.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* 5* = . = . 49. + A_. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. . z* = 1.1. 59. 52.001.9*. 1. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. of: 3ll4~* 60. 47. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. (. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 17' 2 51. ar = i.6). = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 250. + 1~* f 21 . 61.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.008)* + A. 10* Find the values 56.(. 55. Ex. 54. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 57. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . z 5or*=10.343)* + (. 48. 53.81 f (a . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.
$".4 a8 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 6. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.5.3 aj" a. 27  28.. 23.7*. are performed. 3. 17. . 7~ 5 27  . #* a. 10. 7*. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 16. 95 ^9i 5**. S'sS8. OA 20. Perform the operation indicated. 6a.6 *' 6 *25.$*. 4 5.7i. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. V5. remove the fractional exponents.&. etc. &. 16. 26. 13. 3sVS. 7. 72 . a. ' 11.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .5a. 18. 3 a. 79 .7W. 4 x^.^/5^5. (d) If required.4 .&. 7~ 6 . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. / 7fv 7. Remove the negative exponents. NOTE. 12. . 14. 8 ' 9. 6 *. . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.
If powers of a?. 34. The 252. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 6 35. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 2. 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 40. 1.2 d .
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
5V2.10 V2 =  V2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. A/2.2 V50. ^2. ^4. 38. 27. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . v/3. ^2. 36. 4^/4. 33. \/5. subtract surds. ^7. 28. Ex. in order of magnitude : \/7. 39. ^6. s!/3. ^30. 32. v/3. V3. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^3. 3. VS. V2. 40. A/3. 26. v/4. ^4. Simplify V~ . (i. Arrange 35. signs. V3. \/7. ^126. 37.2. + . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v^S. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 30. </3. 2\ 3*.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . if dissimilar. </20. V5. ^/IT. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 29. </2. 34. V2. Ex. To add or form. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^5.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 31. V2.e. ^2. connect them by proper 1.3\ .
10. 6. 3. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V175V28+V634V7. 4. 4V805V45. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 8. 8VT8J2V32 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 9. 11. + 3V835V2. V18+V32VT28+V2.3V20 + 6V5. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. . V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 14. 6.J a6 V4 aft. 13. 12.
2v/6 + IPV6 105. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. and then multiplied.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. y* = Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.6V35 106 460V35100 . 23. Ex. 26^ . 6*. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 3. Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 1. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. .
(VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (3 20. 7. (Va Va 36. v/4. 34. 2. 19. 12. V2 V50. 6 V4 5. 213 98 11. aVa. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 37. 39. 25. 38. V42. VTO. a?. 6. 4. 21. 27. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). v/18 v"3. fWa 17. 18. 14. Vll. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 8. V3 V6. 10. V2aV8^. 15.VSS. (V6 + 1) 1 . (2V3) 8 . 28 . V20 V30. 40 10 30. (5V22V3CVS)V3. . 2 . 9. + VB)(2V5). 41. 40. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V3 Vl2. \/3 \^). 13. VlO V15.^/2.
47. (2 45. 53. 49. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 48. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 46. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. . 52. Ex. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 43. all monomial surds may be divided by method. the quotient of the surds is If. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 60. Va v/a. (5V2+V10)(2V51). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 51. 44.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). V3 . a fraction.y. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. Ex. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). E. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 268. is 1 2.214 42.
. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.57735. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.by the usual arithmetical method. arithTo find. 1. 3.73205. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.RADICALS This method. The 2.g. . we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is illustrated by Ex. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. e.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . metical problems afford the best illustrations. by V7. /~ } Ex. Divide VII by v7. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. however. Evidently. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.
20. 271. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.4142. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 . and Given V2 = 1. .7320.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V8 JL. 14.2361. 21. i. V2 22 . A. V3 = 1. ^/H .. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. A. 7. V5 = 2. Vll 212*. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V5 270. 23 . V48 25. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. VffV?. 272.
s Simplify a.= 18. 3.RADICALS Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . 1.Vs2 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.1 xVtf a. .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex.2.vffi^T _ . Ex.
= V3 = 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . . V21 = 25 . find to _!_. V5V7 18> ^SVg. J?_.5 3 = 125.218 6 .2361. v 2V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. Given V2 1. : and V5 = 2.W3.4142. 19. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 6V7. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. Vo1 26. four places of decimals 23 . By the use of fractional exponents . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 24.7320. 27. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.
To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 2 12. the If. 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 5. . \/l6*. on the other hand. \/125" . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 4. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. v8f 2\/15. it to this form. 8. 1. In other examples of involution and evolution. 9. 11. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.RADICALS 219 274. Simplify Ex. V255 . 2. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. viz. V643 . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . According to G3. 3 (V2~u)  7. 3.
+2 Ex.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. and whose product is 18.6\/2 = ^9 . 3. 2 \/18.220 Ex.2 \/20. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is 11. 12 and whose product is 20. Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. ^TT. The Hence ^11 . 2. These Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. Find Vll .6 V2. Find Vl2 4.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.A/2.
first involution. 277. +=. Solve vVf!2a = 2. The value x =2 reduces each . . Dividing by Check.V48 4 20. : 221 Vl32V22. V48 23.1. 4x x = 2. member to 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 5. r 22. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 8. are radical equations. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 19. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. they are transto formed into rational equations. 4.. x2 = x f 2. Transposing and uniting. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Radical equations are rationalized. = xa + 4 x f 4.e. Ex. a. by raising both members equal powers. VT . Before performing the involution. (2x xrf 1. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. i.
radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. It = 3 x . tion which has two roots.3. viz. the first member = V2. a socalled extraneous root. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Factoring. Ex. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 3. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Squaring both members. x = J. Dividing by 24. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. . viz. Transposing.1) = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. one root. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 2. Therefore CftecAr. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. .222 Ex. f 25 = 12. Therefore Check. they may be extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. 5. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Extraneous roots. V24~+~l = 0. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . V4afT~l. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . 278. Squaring both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. a. at .
(x x = 3.3) (2 x . viz. Hence x = the only root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . ViTie 4 z2 . Transposing. = 3. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. the right member = V2. Check.47) = 0.RADICALS Hence x If a. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Solve the following equations : = G. If If x 3 = 3. equation it is an extraneous root. and to 5. or x *j. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.12 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . for it satisfies the equation . \ does not satisfy the given. Squaring. 4. + 6~ieT~3 . is x V. 223 x = 3.2 r. . Therefore. . NOTE. Factoring. Hence there is only one root. both members reduce to 5. x root of the preceding equation. 2 Clearing of fractions.
Solve af*. Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore .
+ 40 = 6. 3. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. = 26. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 3 6. 412a* = 16. 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Q . o. some of the roots be extraneous. 4.*2a. y then x2 . it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.8 x + 40 = 36. .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. = 0. 5. Vi 2 8a. 2. 2Va.f40= 5. x Since both =9 or 1. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.i~24 = 0. x + Vx a? = 6. Substituting. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. This can be seen without substituting. = 7. Ex. _ 2 y . 2.8 z40 = 7.35 = 0. members of the equation were squared. x =6 or 3. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Let 8 x f 40 . for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2_8z 440 = 49. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.
20. a^x2 5 2 13. 2. 16. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 15.a 440 = 35. 18. a. 12. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.f 18 = 24. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 17. 14. 4 V SB* 4 a. +x .226 11. +3= 6. 19. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .
f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. then (x 2)Q 0. Ex.2 + 4." transposing. " Or. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. 1.2 + 80 = 12.4 a. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.360 = 244. = 2. does not contain a?. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. however.2 x 5 by x 3. no matter If. we make a? what the value of Q. by dividing 3 x* f.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . find the remainder when m. If x* . 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Hence. Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. could. ax4 4. if Q was known.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 3 2 Ex. even if Q is unknown. a? R = x* . ^ = 381+2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 227 . Without actual division. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.
The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . the remainder equals 8 2 x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.3)f 11 =. 3. + ^by x + b. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.g. fora?. 2 j 7.8. + 6. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.8'= 0. The Factor Theorem. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x m is factor of the expression.228 282. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 5. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . If the remainder is zero. 5 (4x . x* s 2 4. } 2 by a1. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. hence (x divided by x 4.949. + 7 = 632. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. of the division 3) is m in place of x. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. if 8 42  .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.4(. 43 3 E. 8.
1. f 3. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . The 5. i. 2. are f 1.12.49 = 0. 17. 229 1.7 + 16 .e. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. & p*. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 23. Let x = . a. 8.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 5. 11. 21. 24. 15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 8. a 2a + 4. oj 5x2 f3a. 25. or x 4. a + 32. ^10^429^20=0. a 5x 6. a^8^ + 19a. p 5^ + 8p 4. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 18. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.7 x + 15 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.r6 = 0. 9. + 27 + 27. 20. m f m n 14. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.9^ + 23^15. 2m 5m . f 15 does not vanish. _ .13m + 30 10.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. . + ttt15 = 0. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. factors of the absolute term. Therefore x ( 1). + 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 3 2 : 7. or 5 4 + 3^ . f 5. Factor a? 15.1. a 8a f 19 a 12. 3. 6.1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 2 2.12 = 0. 7 46 = 0. Resolve into factors 4. 106 division. is a factor. a? 19.
x* f/ = (x +/)O . Factor consider m m 6 n9 . is odd.xy +/). We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. actual division n. It y is not divisible by 287.g." . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 2. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. if w is odd. 1. 2. if n is even. 286.230 285. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. ar +p= z6 e. xn f. xn y n y n y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. If n is a Theorem that 1. Ex. For substituting y for x. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. By we obtain the other factors. : importance.
x3 8=0. 27. however. as 27=0. Hence = (m Ex. preferable.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 3. leads 231 is The first method. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . since it more directly to the prime factors. 28. a. 26.i mn f w 2).= . y 3 +8=0.
(4) Hence. xywe have 3. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.y4 is of the fifth degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. Squaring Solve (1). x y. 4 xy = 16. = 6. to equations of the fourth few cases.1. in general. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. of quadratics. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. ==5 > 1^ = 4. can be solved by the methods degree. + 6 a?V . (5) Combining (5) with (1). 232 . * A I. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. however. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. & + 2 xy + = 25.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy are given. If two of the quantities x f y. 290. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
but can be found. 233 y. I I x + y=7. ' 10.g. r (" 1 = 876. ^. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 12. " "' "' { r 8. b=3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. The arranged in pairs. 1. x and xy are not given. = . 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. EXERCISE Solve: 1.
( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .a. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 6 "I 14. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 7 . .  f J. + 29 = 0. 5.?/ i = 6. 2 (1) From (1) we have. . ' ' . 4 y = 20. Factoring. x " (3) 49 etc. Ex.i/ = r 13.  42 y + Transposing. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.o 18.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 19. or y = 1 . r^ 2 as ] f. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. la. A system of simultaneous equations. or JJ.20) = 0..  . I* Jj ^ [. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. aj = 2. 3. I x+y = a.~ y = 5. one linear and ne quadratic. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).
235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 1. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ' x*.3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 9. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3. III. x2y. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. If of the preceding type. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 10. 3y) : Factor (2). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4 f + 2 y = 3. y* + 2y = 3. quantities. Solve .
(1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . = 0. (3) (4) Subtracting. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 2. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. } VI09.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. Solve 2. 11 a2 Factoring.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = Ex. 109 a. 2 . j Substituting y in (2).
y = 7. 150 */2 .175 ay = 12. can be solved by special devices. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' ^ 15. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). . 298. y? a? f .3^42^=43. A. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.xy 4.125 ay = . 2 xy + y2 = 10.6.!. E. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). " IV. Bxy9. Division of one equation by the other. f 1 150 a?. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. and others not belonging to them. (4) (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.
Some simultaneous ?/. B.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. i ^ *>. (1 > (2) 1. Solve Ex. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we obtain by squaring. = 189. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Therefore x = 16. y . x +y y etc. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). y = 3. = 12 J.. jc~ y = 9. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. xy. x 2 . * ' 300. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. 2. we have from (1). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.
. [2x + : y= 17. 2. Hence = V or = 4. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. F+y+ . M6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. 36* 2. I e. 7. 6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
16. 25. .21 ^ = 15. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. + o5)(6hy) = 80. . = y 1 y* . * . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. = 198.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.4 y = 47 a. 19 ' 26.
= 48201. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . ^ oo . or ~ indeterminate. oo 301. . as a . . 32. etc. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. etc 302. 33. y % 9 f*K 36.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x. 3 a2 38. 25 34. ~\ OK OO. 30. Q 7. 31. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. . hence may be any finite number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 7' j/ 39.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. Interpretation . .
and . however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. 1. (1) = 0. or that x may equal any finite number. it is an Ex. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.can be If It is made larger than number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. as + l. = 10. By making x any * assigned zero. (a: Then Simplifying. Hence such an equation identity. i. 306. . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.e. (1). great. Let 2.e. The ~~f fraction . cancel. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. and becomes infinitely small. Or. 1.242 303. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. creases. the answer is indeterminate. equation. is satisfied by any number. TO^UU" sufficiently small. . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.increases if x de x creases.x'2 2 x = 1. i.decreases X if called infinity. I. oo is = QQ. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .000 a.g. be the numbers. x f 2. ToU" ^100 a. without exception. (1) is an identity.
two numbers is 76. y finite QO.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. and the sum of Find the numbers. 3. is their 2. Solve  9 7.2 y = 4. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. (2). z = 1 Substituting. 42 and' their product is 377. third and sixth parts. 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve . Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Hence /. 1=0. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. no numbers can satisfy the given system. = oo.8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve x a. The sum is of squares 2890. * 6. and a. .e. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.
of a right triangle is 73. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 10. and the diago(Ex. of a rectangular field feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the edges. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides.quals 20 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. two numbers Find the numbers. The area of a nal 41 feet. 103. 146 yards. is 6. p. 9. Find the numbers. 148 feet of fence are required. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 190. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the sides. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the hypotenuse is 37. 14. 8. 13. Find these sides. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the other two sides. 6. Find the side of each square. increased by the edge of the other. 255 and the sum of 5. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the dimensions of the field. the area becomes f% of the original area. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.) 53 yards. 12.244 3. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and the edge of one. . and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. equals 4 inches. and the sum of ( 228. Find the edge of each cube.
by the product of 27 be added to the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the number. the quotient is 2. . differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. is 20 inches. and if the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. irR *. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) 17.
11. f . The progression is a. 15 is 9 f. to produce the 4th term. 12. Hence / = a + (n . 16. P... 3 d must be added to a. + 2 d. P.. a f d.. To find the nth term / of an A. each term of which. the second a descending. to each term produces the next term. . 2 d must be added to a.7. to produce the nth term. 19. . of a series are its successive numbers.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. Since d is a f 3 d. 4. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. : 7.. added to each term to obtain the next one. to produce the 3d term... 10. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 3. 17. the first term a and the common difference d being given. a + 2 d. and d. The first is an ascending. a 3d. a 11. a + d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law..) is a series. An arithmetic progression (A. progression. except the first. a. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.1) d. .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. P... . (n 1) d must be added to a. The common differences are respectively 4. of the following series is 3. 309. series 9.
19. (d) 1J. 5.. series . . Adding. 4^. 7.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). if a = 5. 5. 2. 2 EXERCISE 1. 1. 5. 7. 9. P.. 8. Find the 5th term of the 4. 1.. . 9.' cZ == .. = I + 49 = *({ + . 99) = 2600. P. 8. the term a... 7.. 4. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 2. of the series 10.. P. Find the nth term of the series 2... .. 2J. 10. . 5.. 6.8. 3. a = 2. 115. 3. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. ? (a) 1. series 2.3 a = l. .. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. the last term and the common difference d being given. 3. d .. 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. Find the 12th term of the 4. (a + + (a + l) l).. 3. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 6. 24. . 8. = a + (a Reversing the order. 1J. Find the 10th term of the series 17.PROGRESSIONS 310. = 99.. 3.4.. = 2. 6. .16. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 21.. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6 we have Hence . d = 3.
1J.5 H + if f to 10 terms. : 3. 7. to 8 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. '. 2. 23. . 15. 22. 8. 29. 21. . 1. 3. 20. and for each than for the preceding one. 4. 11. 31. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 19. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 20 terms. 12. 6. P. to 7 terms. Sum the following series 14.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. (x +"l) 4. . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. . rf. 33. to 20 terms. 7. striking hours only. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 1. > 2f 2. . 2J. 17..7 f to 12 terms. . (i) (ii) . 16.1 f 3. hence if any three of them are given. 16. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. to 20 terms. \n. 7. 11. 15. strike for the first yard. 15. Jive quantities are involved. to 16 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. In most problems relating to A. 12. + 3. 11. to 10 terms. 13. 1. 18. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . . to 15 terms.248 Find the 10.
122. P. 89. Find the series. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). J = 49. a = 12. Findn. s 24ft last term 144. 34. = 13. = 144. l)e?. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 78.e. if a. .1). = n(104 .~n~\ 408 6). hence n = 6. 111. a = 49 6(71 .. = a + (w. Solving.104 w + 408 = 0. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll.6. is 12. 56.. P. 23. or 11 J. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. . 312. 204 = ^ (98 . = 1014. 6. P. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.6 n). The series is. Ex. 78 n Substituting in (1). 2. 100. #. Substituting in (2). if s = 204. n d. 67. 6 n2 . The first term of an A. I. 45. 12. the second one mean between the other two. 133. 144. or if x Solving. I Substituting in (I) and (II). But evidently n cannot be fractional. d = 6.PROGRESSIONS Ex. n = 6. From (1). = 1014. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 1. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.1) . and b form an A.
3. Find a and Given s = 44. a x f b and a b. 16. Find n. f J 1 1 / . 17. 74. Find w. Find d and Given a = 1700. of 5 terms 6. n = 4. Find?. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Given a = . . 15. 78. 7. I Find I in terms of a. Given a = . m and n 2. ceding one. n = 13. = 45. has the series 82. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 83. T? ^. y and #f5y. n = 17. 4. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Find d. = ^ 3 = 1. s == 440.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. n has the series ^ j . Given a = 1. s = 70. = 16. f? . 10. produced. Given a = 4. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find d. How much did he save the first month? 19. I. 3. and s. P. a+ and b a b 5. 8. How much . Find a Given a = 7. 13. 14. = 1870. 6? 9. 11. n = 20. d = 5. n. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. = 52. = 17. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n = 16. 12.
. 2. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . NOTE. P. is it (G. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD... the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 4. r n~ l .g. I.. ar8 r. is 16(f) 4 .. . . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. called the ratio.arn ~ l ... the first term a and the ratios r being given. 2 a.. 36. <zr . . The progression is a. ratios are respectively 3. 24.) is a series each term of which. P. (I) of the series 16. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. or. 12. 4. The 314. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. or 81 315. rs = s 2 . ar. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 24. 4 (1) . . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 36. +1.. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). A geometric progression first.. E. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 108. and To find the nth term / of a G.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. of a G. P. 36. If n is less : than unity.
8. Ex. 72. whose and whose second term is 8. if any three of them are given. f. 7. 36. 3. P. series 6. 144. 25.6. whose and whose common ratio is 4. . 80.18. . P. \ t series ... 36. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. +f%9 % . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. Find the 5th term of a G. And the required means are 18. . Hence the or series is 0. series . first 5. EXERCISE 1... r^2. 2 term 3. 144. 72. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^... 9._!=!>. first term is 125 and whose common .*.72.. . . (it. 20. 10. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.l. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. l. In most problems relating to G. . fa.. 6. volved . P. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 4. + 5..288.4. is 3. series 5. .. f. .5.54. a = I. ..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. i 288. fa. 9. 9. (d) 5. or 7. is 16. Hence n = 7. Jive quantities are in. Find the 6th term of the series J. .5. 36.. 144. . P. 18. (b) 1. ? (c) 2. 676. 1. . 4.18. first term 4. hence. whose .. 576. I = 670. . 288.. 0.
Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 25S series : 32. s = 605. a. may be than any assignable number. >"> . Find a and Given r = 3. 21. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. a^. = 3. 1.J and 270. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. . r .. of r n decreases. . == 160. Find a and 4. J. to 8 terms. 19. 2. 48.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 4. to 6 terms. 72. Given r = n Z 5. Z s. Find the geometric mean between 7. . 20. 22. 42.. to G terms. . 126. + 4 . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. is less than unity. n = 5.. 36. Find a and n = 4. 23. 14. 81. 243. = 3. 14. .nV> i*> !718.i a9 .. to 7 terms. to 6 terms. I. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 7 . 15. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 6 terms. .. 16 . J. P. n = 5. J. and hence ~ r . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317.. 54. M. 81. J. to 5 terms. be written If the value of r of a G.. 12. 13. 12 terms. 24. 27. 1. s = 310.
27777 .3121212. 6... 1 r = . 3. The sum Find the of an infinite G. what is (a) the sum of the areas.3727272 . .. 10. .= _4Z* . 1. 12. I. first and the common term. r = j.)7?7272 . . = 990 . .072 + . 66 Therefore .. The sum r. . i. . i i J.. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 4. 16. 16. (6) the sum of the perimeters. of: 11. Find the sum to infinity. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one..01 ^ .. 1. Hence . P. 12..072. 13. .555. 5..99 ..... 9.717171..Ql. 14.. is 16. = a . and the first term is Find 17. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. is 9. .. . 100..1... ..72. . . is J. ..3 + .. ... . If a = 40.00072 f .. 250.= . Find the value 9.. ratio 15. . 118 : infinity of the following series 3.. 1. Given an infinite series of squares. 8.. 2. P. . = . P.. 5.. 8. 7. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G..191919. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 9. =A+ 10 i..37272 .. = .272727. 4.254 Ex. 2. of an infinite G. of all squares ? . 40. 6.
17. . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . a6 8 16 in .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 7 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 29. /2a+Y\ 8.6) . 25. l 2. (a 100 . (s + i). (\ 9 . 13.b ). Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (a + b) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (xy) : 6 . Find the 6th term of (x . (a2) 6. coefficient of . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 12. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 10. 16. 5. 4. 14. : (1 + xy. 26. 2 2 24. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 22.b) w (a (a f (1 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . . 11. 21. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 28.6) 20 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 15. 20. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 4 7. . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.
2. 1. 6. 3. 1. 5. 4.  a)(a 1. 5. 4. 6. + 2. 3. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. ^+^ 3. 4. 3. 2. l. 2. 5. 1. 2. 1. 1. 5. 3. a ft c = = 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. 3.f ac 1. 2. 2. 4. 1. 1. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 2. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). if y=2j 2. if = = 2. 2. 3. 4. 24 4. 3. 1. 2 . 2. 1.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. + 1. 4. 3. 1. 2. 2. 5. 2. c = = = 2. 1. 3.  2. 5. 2. 2. 2. 5. 3. 6. 4. 1.a(a 4. 5. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. if a ft c = = = 4. . 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. = 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 2. 4. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. c if 7 . ft 4 ) 5. ft) . 7. 1. 1. 3. . 1. 4. 3. 2. 6. 1. 3. 3. y 3. 5. + c(a  c). 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 6.  8 ^ 2. 3. if = = = 2. 2.c )(fta) 1. 1. 3. 1. 4 2. 4. (c 3. 3. if x^l.  2. aft 3 + 4. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. + 2. 2. 2.
1.7 + . 2 .2 x?/. 12. 16. 5. . a: . a 4 + 11 a . c = 3.2. 4. 20.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 10. if a 6 = = c = 3. 2. 4.5.a 5 a .x 5 4 .7 y 2* 4. 40. + 8 x4 *y . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 8 .a 4 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . + 4 ?y . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 18. 5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 4 y 13. 5. 29. x 3 11. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4 x 4 . ~c)(b.2 a?y + 3 aty .a8 . 26.c' 2 4 / .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 3. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 7. 24. ' b) + 3. .8 + 2 // . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.\ yz + xz.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 8. . b(x (b 1.10. x 3 x' 14. 7 xy 3 . 6. 17.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + 2.2 x2 .259 x c) . + 3 y 2* . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 2  + 12 a 8 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 21.4.2. 15. c)(x a} . 21. + 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . . a. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.8 3 + 7 x4 . x = 4. r> . x3 2 a2 . 7y 4 . 9.  a) (c 2.1.3 a?y .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2.3 xyz. x C 4 4x y + . f 8. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 25. = 2. or . a /> 3. 1. 41. 2 x 8. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . (5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. + 1.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.2 z8 4 x.a) . 3. 9. 15.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . a. 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.r 6 x  4 xy . 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.7 ys. 4 z . 2. 5.
35.{2 x 2 .2 . 4vTT~y 3.8 3 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 3 ft.c 4 3 a.c. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.x .c.#48.[4 x 4.[4 z 8 .6 x ] .5. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.(5 c . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.3.260 19. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . take the sum of G x 5 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. = x y ft z.] 26. Simplify 31. 542 x 2 and . 4 4 4. ft. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.27~~7)}].x 4. . 5 10 + 7 . Take the sum 4x 4. 33. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 4 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . : a x . .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.3 .(4 * . ft 25. x'2 . 34.?> x 4 20. c 4ft. a  ft + c.a ft.x 2 4. 4 3 5 y/ .(5 y . sum of .4) .4 ft) 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. c 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 2 x 32. 36.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. .{G * 2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. and .2 x 8y2 44 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.5 .7. 7 12 .2 a . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.3 x .2 3 ax 2 .4 Vl 4.(x* .(a . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].3 . . c =x y }~ z.1). 29.(4 x 2 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .x . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 4 2 x2 23.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .x2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . .2 .2) . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . From of 2 the 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. x8 x2 2 a'2x.(7 x 4. 5 4 7 12 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. of a. f ft. 5 10 4 G 11 4.c 3 a.1)}] . ..6T .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.4.(x 4. 0" 30.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. (*) a  c.
(5 y . 56. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.2)(1 . 51. + *+!){> + 2). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.0)} . (/> 4 . . 60. .3c). .(2 a 2 . 3 x 42.(6 .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 2 ft 41.ab . (x .6c) (a + f c).(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 53. (4 + 3a 2 . 2 f [3 c 7 a .2x + 3). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).12).{2 a . .3 *).a~^~c)K]. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 2 2 x + !)(* . 54.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 46. (r (1 (a. . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (.7).3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . a . 65.be) (a 58.5)} + (3 a 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a . 45. (. .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 62. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .3 c)].[4 x  5 .{3 c .(2 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).1).ac . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(4 d . 4 + 2 2 + 1).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (1 55. 68.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.(2 a + 5 a . 49.2 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 x2 . 2 : 7e)a}].(7 a.96 [17 a.[2 . 67. 59.2 2 + 1)(7. 64.Z .56. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).4 a .5 )}] + {4 c .2c(V/ .2 zz .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.3).rf)} + a [. 2 52.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 63. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .c). a {. + 4x + 5)(j. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).6 xy .b (c .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 50.c 2 . )(lz a ).2a . 'J 44. 48. 43.3)(*5)(* 7).4 a 2 + a 4 ). (1 ar+a.6)}].r 2:c+ l)(ar. (5 a 39. (x.3 z 2 ). .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 57.{2 a (ft .& + {. 13 a .
(a 2) (s 4 ft.y).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).(4 . (a 2 ft 2n 4. ft ft ft a}.262 69. . 82.z)(x y + z)(. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 2 (x 2 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . ft" l Simplify 80. xy y 2 ).c) j. 87.ft) 4 . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .a) 2 .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c)} . 92. 79. 85. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(a 48 8 8 4.b 4.2 (y 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).v) 4.y + z)(x + y . 83. 70.2 (a . ft /.3 (ft . (a (2 b)*(a 4. .(c 4.c .ft) + 4(2 .x + y + z).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. Prove the following 8 4. 1).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. ft 95. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 73. 93. 86.c)]. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.:y)( a.3y) a (* 2 4. 89. 91. 77.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .q).5 . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .c .(ft 4. 74.r 2 .O (a 4(a 4. ar . 2 + a 2 ).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 94. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.c) 4) (ft 4. b 4. f 72. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). (. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.m np c .c) .c) 2 . 1).c) rr identities.(/>  3 v)^(. 88. 71.am&t 4 A 2 *).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).{3 a .3 a . 84. 4 4 .<f(p . (p 2 .z\x 4. ft 78. 4.z) .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c) .6*y . 75.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).2y)(.2 ft}) f (3 a . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 90. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. .n pc).y)\x y). 76.9y2). (x (x ( + *) .
110. . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.(a 1 2 8 . r . 103. 120.6 y 4 4. (. 2 (a+ .*) (x 8 . 105.35 x 2 2 ) . 106. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).3 a"+ 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (a 8  8 68 8 4.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).&).5 b*). 113. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). [10( 4. 109. 114.40 />) .(2 a 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .y 2 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 124.(x 2 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .27 x* .16 a 6 4.r 4 4.(7 xi/ . (80 a 112.2 2% 4. a*. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (2< 107. 117.v/ ~ // = a: .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.2y 2 4.1).) .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 3*. 25 4 . 118. 122. 99 100.y 4 .a". 102. 26 (a 4 c). 2 4 41 x 4a.5 xy). 121.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.2 xy 8 .y 4 ) . .b) 98. 1). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 116. 10).xy 4. (8 x* 115. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .9 x 2 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 108.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 1O4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).4 aft . 123.
135.264 125.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 129. .12 M 132. 1) = 2(* .r>) . 127.3) (3 x 4. 5 146.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.8 6 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(x f 9).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .1) (a? . (4 x .3 a:).4) . . 2 4(ar .7) = 4 .4(0 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3) = 12 . 126.5). 136. 42(3ar 145. .2(j: . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . y (* l x.3 x).n . 1) .G) .2(4 . 137. 142. 148. 143.22.27 a 3" .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .3). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).9) + 3.2) (a: + 3). .(j a? 144.2 7^~5] + 1).1) . 138. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.19) + 5 = 4 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 7(2 x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 5(2 x .9) 4. o o 140. 139.2(10 x . . x 147.3).18 *&) (1 .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2(5 .r + 7[or .3(2 z .a:)]}.7(4 * . 10(2 x 141. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(1 .2) + 2(ar + 4). 149.2) = 3 . (*+ + . 3(2 x 134. 3) = x\x . . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.5) = 12(4 x .5{. .(x + 3) ] .(x .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3(* + 4) + 9} . 128. (5a: 150.4) .
165.1) (s + 3). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.5 x) = 45 x . = 15. 158. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. sheep more than the 169. find the value of F.6 x) (3 . (a . f^ + ^sO.3) (3 .3) (j. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.3) = (3 x .2) (7 *) + (*. and the third twice as many as the first.29) 2 = 1. 5(ar x .7) (1 x . + 2) + (5 . 157. . + 4) (2 x + 5).17) 2 + (4 x . 2 4 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . these two angles would be equal.2 x) (4 .(5 x . The sum What 171. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.r + 3) . 155.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. transformed into F. 156. The second contains 3 first.z) (4 . .3) (3 . 265 152.5)(. (2 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.2 x) = (1 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.14) (a: + 3). a: ar a. (3 O + .T)O .2) a + 7(x .8) = (2 x 4. (7 14 .3) (a: .2) (j? + 1) + (x . 160. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. (x (x a.7) (a. . + 5) = (9 . If the area of the frame inches. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 153. will produce F. 162. (a) If C.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.1) O + 4) = (2 * .? . 163. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .76. + 10) (ar .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.19) + 42. 166. = 2 C. (a.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.9) + (a. . . 164. 161.4) (a .5) = (3 . 154. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2). =  (F 32).25) 2 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. How many 170.a:) + 229. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.24.5*) + 47.5(x . 159.l)(z . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180..
The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Find the dimensions of the floor. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 13 a + 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 180. . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. . 10x 2 192. side were one foot longer. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number.36. 3 gives the 174. A house has 3 rows of windows. was three times that of the younger. and 5 h. +x 2. A boy is father. 7/ 191. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 176. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. + 11 ~ 6. 4 a 2 yy 42. A each 177. 187. 12 m. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot.266 173. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 179. Find the number. power one of the two Find the power of each. 178. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 189. ll?/102. if each increased 2 feet. 188. z 2 92. aW + llab2&.56. 2 2 + a _ no. father. train. 190. younger than his Find the age of the father. 15 m. + a. 186. x* 185. respectively. sister . z 2 + x . . number divided by 3. How many are there in each window ? . same result as the number diminished by 175. 181. dimension 182. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. two boys is twice that of the younger.
213.64. 235.20 z 8 a: 220.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. . xm+l 243. ifWy+b.6. a 2 . a: 231. x 219.21 a:  54. 238.x + 1. 216.19 z 4 204. . 4a 2& 2 241. a. 227. z 2 2. a. 5 x 2. 207. x* + 8 2 + 15.22 z + 48. 221. 12 x +4.1. 210. 2 x 2 . 233. 3y 2 + ary . 2 200. 2 a 2 .28. . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .10 xy. 7x 2 225. 246. (a + . a^a 226. 201.6s.12 * . a: .r?/f y 2 9. 195. 209.3 c/> + 6 cq.19 a .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 245. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 4 m +^. 2 a 8 . 211. . x*y 223. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 2 . x 5 . 267 199. 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 3y 248. 229. 3 x V . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. a a: a: 237. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 222. a.(b + rf) 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10 y a x* . 203.8 6 2. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 206. 224. 232. + 8. a: 236. 244. 3 x 2 .6 y2 + 4. 202. + 30 x. + 198.6 aq . 230. 239. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 24 2 + 2 . . a. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.c) 2  (a . 6 197. 23 12. 8 a. y 2 194.14 2 . # 2  29 y + 120. 7a 228. a+a* + o a +l. .6 2 ?/ . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 8 a: ar. 217. .77 y + 150. + 3a 196. wiy + la mx + aw. z + 5x 2 . 2 2 y f 1. 3 ap 2 .10.3 xy. 208. 215. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . *2 234. 16x 4 81. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .c) 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 212. 218.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .3 xf + 3 * 2y .
4 ab + 1. 30 ^ .18 xy + 5. a 4.M. 15 # 2 z/ /. 257.3 abc . 2 x2 . 264.4.15 + 30.12. 1 x ar Find the L. * 2 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.ry 21.36.1 9 . 2 . 260. 2 8 . z 2 267. * 2 . 252.5 ab f 2. of: 253.9.23 x f 20.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 28 2 f 71 x .120.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . * a . + 20 x 4. + 3 x + 2. 10 a. x* . 7 ax 250.&z.16 x .2 aft*. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.G7 x f 33. 3 #2 255.15. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x 2 + 2 x . 22x2 a.r . + 23 x f 20. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x 2 f 9j: + 20. x 2 + 4 + 3. 3 ay 4. * 2 .80.91. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 a.10. 254.14 bx a%% 8 . x 2 4. 7 12 2 2 . 10 x 2 . 3 a% 2 . 265. x 2 263. C. ft a.2 z . F.73 xy . 5 x 2 256.7 f 5. 261.11 x f 28.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2.x .13.(55.11 a 2 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 + 5 f .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 269.23 + 12.ry . + 8.8. 8 2 + 10 x . 18 x 2 . a? a: a: // 262.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . I Find the II.48 afy 2 .2/ 2 .9 x . 6. a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. a: . 251. + 8 x + 5. 258. x* . .3. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x 2 . 259.9 x + 14.C.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. z 2 268. of: 266.a + 2 4.3 x . x*y* 4.10 a 4. 270.6 by.
ar 1 279.2c a: 282.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 289 ' .!/.(y 2 z) * t (j. 8 . z2 (a 2 + c)a.. *2 " 2 + Oge. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 285 z4 n* + a. m 4.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp . a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa ..2* + 3 x* 280.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.rL.
^. O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. x 7. ^_2*(m 308.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a (: a) (x 2. Lnl + ar 2 a. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. * 19 23 19(23 23. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.
1 _. } .. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (1 . 1a: + y a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2 + y 2 319.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. a: 1 313. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 . . 1 x2 + + a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.ft) 2 322. (a? 4 2) 317._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .(a .
4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 20 44 333.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . .2 +lOar 2 a.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .9 *// + 27 ..y20  2y + 4 2 .5 a .15 33 .7 xy + 12 x . 2 lOx 5x. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.V  + y  x 3y a . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. a: 2 x* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . * 3a. 250 5 10 2 325.B ~ 1037  329 4 a.ll.6* t 328. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3..
fl. a: 349 _ o. (a \ + lV. xi 347. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. + ni + . : 1+ i.. 348.r 5 2 . \5yl 341. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. ** i. (ar \ 346.+ r . + l + IV.y. ?_2 ^ . 5 343. f V. aj 339.) 2 . ( 342. \x yj 340. 352. if a = 3.1V. (af2/. 7 ( ?f!?. 344. 338.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (aWi + iJ. w \. ' 2 "l 5 . +^ a: y x . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 1 345. a>74 .
a2 4 . (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. + x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. y360. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357.
. b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5*8. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. 8  376. . 4(* . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. ^ . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. <3 378. __4 2x 3_ = !. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. J !__7. 5 {2 x 381.*2 = 15.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .
n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.147. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).5 x =r f .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. u '2 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 399. c . . 397. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).2 a:  1. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).. f 1 1 + a 403.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.6  . 401. a. 3* 177.  8 9* x ~r. _____ .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .25. . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = . 396. + 4 a.5 ^ ~ a: a.25 x + .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.75 x f . 40. 400. b 404. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.  J). ^ (a . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. m x 398..1 . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.
420. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 421. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 418 ~jo. (x . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .  a) 2 6 2a. How long is each road ? 423. the order of the digits will be inverted. and was out 5 hours.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. hour. 18 be subtracted from the number. In a if and 422. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 411.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. Find the number.(5 I2x ~r l a) . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Tn 6 hours . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.278 410.c) .
a. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Find the fourth proportional 426. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : i. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. z 2 y. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.iand 22 22 I a . Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the length of the parts. Solve 436. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . wi* + y= ny. . . If a b : =5 n : 7. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. b. a  t>.49 63). Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. find the angles of the triangle. 431. if .a 2^ 8 + aft* . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 432. and : b : c = 14 : 15.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. : If is one equal 434. 433. a + 5.& 5 ) (a 8 .46 2): (15a 2 . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. . 3 and 1J. x 427. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. y. ax is \ by  ex + dy. 435. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 438. 2 2 8 2 . d.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . find : a : c. 430. 428. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Which ratio is greater.6 8 ).
of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. + 5y = 59.. ft. 15ar = 20 + 8y. /) ar a. 7a?y = 3.11 7. 1(3  a.11 y = 95.55 y = . ft.rf2# = l. . 9/> = 2 .35. 5 2 = 7 . />(. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 7jr9y = 17. 56 + 10y = 7a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. = 25. a: a: + 5y). c. 452. 443. The volumes If their diameters. 449. 450. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 28 = 5 a .4 12 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 456. 454. 446. 458.7 y = 25. .(or l(*2y)=0. 459. 42 = 15y + 137. if 2 ft : 439. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 4 = 5 y + 29. Find the value of a. Solve the following systems: 441. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 455. 457. 3 a.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 21 7 = 27 + Op. a. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. . 444. ?/ 447. 5x+4y=lQ. 3 . 7 a: . 445. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. . 5z4:# = 3.59 = 3 z. a: 2y= = 1 . 8 x + y = 19. 451. 8 . . 453. x + 17 # 53. 16. 9ar7# = 71.89 = q. 448.*. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 7 442. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .
_ 469. ax cx by = m.+ =2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. + eyn. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467..7. x y 474. (or .  = 2. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i = 5. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 468.2y) (2 = 2J. 465.?/ + 1 . ^ + i^ = 7. 475.c=563y. 8 461. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ax by = c \ 472. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 473.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.
and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 479. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find their ages. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the numbers. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 481. and in 20 months to $275. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. . In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and in 18 months to $2180. years. age. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 487. the Find their ages. Find the fraction. 477. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 483. and the other number least. 486. Find the number. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find the numbers. by 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. How much money less 484. 485. fraction becomes equal to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. A number consists of two digits 4. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. whose difference is 4. A spends \ of his. to .
/ f z =a. 4 506. 492. 1+1 = 6.? + 2y = 8. : Solve the following systems 491. a: f z = 79. *i. 493. 3ar 503. = 20. a number . .z = 20. 495. 5 + a. 2 a. a: + // = 11. . y Solve : x +z= 5. 2 2 = 41. 1. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. x f y f z 29 .z = 12. = 15. 4z+3z = 20. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 498. .5#+2z = $x a: G. 489. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 5^ 9z = 10. + # +z= 35. . 3 a: + 5=84. + y 5 y = 101 . * + 425  = . x y f z = 13. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 3 x 500./ 504. 4 497. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 7. . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. ifi = x a. a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. = 209. 2y + 3a = ll. 490. z y ifi = z x 502. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2 e. 2/>3r = 4. 496. ~ 507. x s + y z = 18J . 7 + 2 z .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. a: 499. 2a:f 7. 8. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a. z y x 25 . \ . 494.
!f == 2800. 36 + c. ll" . 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c.
How long will B and C take to do . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Tf and run together. the first and second digits will change places. M. 527. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 90. 530. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. touches and F respectively. . it separately ? 531. AC in /). his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In circle A ABC.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 532. Find the numbers. if and L. in 28 minutes. BC = 5. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. When weighed in water. E 533. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. L. and BE. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and CA=7. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . B and C and C and A in 4 days. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. What are their rates of travel? . N. if the number be increased by Find the number. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. they would have met in 2 hours. if L and Af in 20 minutes. AB=6. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. . it is filled in 35 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. If they had walked toward each other. CD. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days.
542. z 2  x x  5. 536. x *x + x + 1. from x = 2 to x = 4. 2 541. x*  2 x. e.e. formation of dollars into marks. x*.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. x 2 544. x 2 + x. 2 x + 5. 2. 2. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. to do the work? pendulum. 540. If to feet is the length of a seconds. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. GERMANY. 2  x  x2 . How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . . 543. b. x 8 549. c. 3 x 539. One dollar equals 4. The values of y. + 3. d. a.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. if x = f 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.  3 x. 550.10 marks. i. then / = 3 and write = 3. 546. 548. . The greatest value of the function.  3 x. 547. FRANCE. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. The values of x if y = 2. the function.  7. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 545.
287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. e.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 553. // Solve y Solve y = 5. x 5 . r?.0. a? 4 x . = 5.3 x . .3 x . If y +5 10. and make the unit of the b. Solve// = 0. j. 572. if y =m has three real roots. 565. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 557.= 0. 2 554.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 3 + 3 z . J. Solve 552. 2 a. 558. 568. 2 567.11 = 0. 556. h. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. ' = 8. z 4 . . 562. x 4 .4 . a: 559. 563. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.5 x .r .  2 1 a: a.r 1 561.9 = 0.3 = 0. 3 .= 0. Represent meters. 2 x 2 560. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 15. x 2 ~ 2 . + 10 x .13 = 0. 18 x  4 = 0.r a: a: x a. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. a.4 x 2 + 4 . c. i.11 x* + + 2 8 569.17 = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 564. z 2 . a. 2. .G . \ to t = 5.15 = 0.1 = 0.6 + 3 . 566. + 5 . g. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. a. 3 x .3 .7 = . x* . c.4 = 0. 3 x* . 555. 2 8 . f.
o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 3 . 609. + . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. : y* or 25. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 600. (a  8 ft) . 4 .2 6a: + 30 &c a.2 2 + y. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 604. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a 2a. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. . 592. <r)3  2 3 a:) . (aiy. a. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. [ y =10. x [ ?/ 577. (1 (1 (1 . 593. + + 4 . 2 611. x + z2) 8 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 579. 4 (1a:) 3. a 612. 1 . xY. 608.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 9  4 fSb 607. {f_7l j? 2* + ''.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 5 a*. 6 + 1) . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. j^f = 3. 64 a 12 603.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .5 xy = 0. 596. 599. + ^) + (air%)8. 2 943 ++ ~bx.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. (a.x + 2 )'2 601.%) 4 (aa. 597. 4 a.4. 598. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 3 (f. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: . 588. 582. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. + %) (a* + *) 5 . a 8 606. (1 + x a. a:.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 595.(1 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 589. .frf : 583. 585 594. 2  2 aa: 2 . jj+. (# 2) . f ?>) 3 591.
f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . = 70.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.49. + 112 a 8 . 4J. = . 40. 9g. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.\/4090.2410. 625 : 621. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. ft .53 x ~ . 9a. 638. 632. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 371240. 629. 614. 633. VOIOOD + V582T09. *+* = 156.30. 942841. Find the eighth root 617. 8*' + 24* = 32. 21. 624. 49. 210. 644. 44352. 622. GGff. Find the square root of 619. (x 9 x 646. 628. x 2 . 2 + 21Ga. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 647t x 2 648 649. 637.191209. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 634. + 2 21 x = 100.150. 639. /. 623.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 0090. 3a. 4370404. 615. = 0.V250 . 650. = 87. 49042009. 32 631. find Jupiter's period. 620. 651. V 635. 643. 2 + 189 z = 900.15174441. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.1024 x + a: 256. 2. 25023844. 636. 035. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . According to Kepler's law. 630. x 2 641. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. + 24 a 2 4 .*.12 a?y + y*. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. : 5. 7) 2.871844. 626. a 642.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 494210400001. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 54 'x*y* . 645. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. V950484 .2.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
(x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. ex abc= fx 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.a a )jr .bx . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.ax . 692. 708. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 707.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . . . 2 2 . ax 2 698. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. a. 699. 694. 693. = 0. 695.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 706. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 702.c = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 696. 2 2 697.
If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 716. in value. a: 713. 722. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 723. 12 4*+  8.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 717. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. . **13a: 2 710. How shares did he buy ? if 726. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 725. 16 x* . sum is a and whose product equals J. and working together they can build it in 18 days. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 729.292 709. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the price of an apple. 217 . Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 727. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 3or i 16 . A equals CO feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find two numbers whose 719. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 721.44#2 + 121 = 0. 724. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.
(v/x). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 39. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .l). 43. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 35.)(ai + &.1 + x. . 32. 1 6. 31.X . n.2 ). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 41. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 33. 46. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 f c" ).2? 50.2)(x2 4. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 37. 42.1 + c.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. . 36. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 34.1 f ^ 2).aft* 1 + a 2*. 38. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 40.
761. 768. 2V2 2V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.294 753. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU. 754. [1r^ T 1 i . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 759. ~ r* x .. \/G86 v/lGv/128.1+J 756. 758. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.
7512V21.VlO. x 782. 3J . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Va 809. 103 788. 14 791. 789. + 2V21. . . 787. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 16 + 2V55.4 V(j. 92VI5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.12VIT.2 V30. 794. c 792. 806. 786. 13 799. . 790. 793. . 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 3812VIO. 10 785. a 9442V5. 783.2V3* ^ 807.
830. 818.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Va: . 819. x/aT+l . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . + 103Var. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 811.13 = 0. 836.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 820.V2 ar 10. 829. /9ar a: = 17.g. VaT+lJ f ^l . 814. V14 a. + ViTli + V7 .Vc^lJ . 816.4 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. V3 f 1 V4a.\/2y  810. \/12 a. 831. 3 x + 2 .79. 815.V? = 813. 812. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . = 1. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 833. + Vx .
853. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 8 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. + 1.3 x . 8 4a: 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 5 a 4 7 a8 . a 8 869. 6. 839. 855.3 . a.1000 6. 846. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 864. 27 y 8. 19 x 14. y 4.ab9 ft*. x 8 2 857. 865. . + 216 rt aty a 10 . 844. a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 861. 2 x 3. 845. 856. a. 870. V4 x 2 . 863. 4 x* 847. 868.  3x a. 8 . f 841. 4 x 8 858.12. 840. x 4 + f 2 a. a. 4 a: 2 842. 64 a 866. a 8 873.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 860. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4 a. 4o. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. . a 872. a 8 850. f b**. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .x*y + 3x f 2.10 = 118.1. 16 859. 2 f" + a/ 15. a l0m . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. + . a*" & 6n . 8 2a. 871. a: 849.3 a:.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 876. 8^27^. z*y 8 l64a. a. 8 8 848. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 9. . . f 12. 275 8 l.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 875. 27 862. 6 2 f 3 6 s. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 729 867. a. 8 8  13 a. 851. . + 512 y8 874. 64. +3 4 +  4. 2 a: 64 y*. 852. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a 18 4.a. a: .3 Va: 2 .
889.18. 885. .y 2 + V(j. x 882. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. x*xy.xy + y 2 = 19. 3 x 2 . a# f + xy = 126. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. y 2 4. a: a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. xy + y = 32. + ary + 2 = 37. . a: 884.y 2) = 20. 900. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 5. y 2 2 8f. x a: lI = xz .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a. 894. y*+ xy . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 . . z 2 898. 1 x 893. 2 + y 2 .Vi' + 1 1_3. x 8 3 = 13:3. a: 888. +y f y = 7. 878. 896. + 2y=\2.15. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13.298 877.sy = 198. .1 = 2 a#. a. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.35. y = 28. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 + xy = 28. 2 + xy = 10. 883. 2 + 2 f = 17. 887.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a:y . f ?/ a: a: . y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 . 895. 886. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a. a: 2 897. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 2 = 16 y. 899. 890. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. M1 891 1 . 901. 2 = 2 + 5. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.
905. + y)(a. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . ^ 2 . a: * a: a: ar 928. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 2 5 xy = 11. 910. + y = 9. 3 :r(3 . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 2 915. + y 8 = 189. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. (a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. xy + x= 15. + ?/) . 2 * 2 ~ g. . yz = 24. a:y xy 929. y + a:y = 180. 906. xa 903. 923. a: y zx 12. Vary + y = 6. (3 x . x + y}(x + y) = 273. 920.#y + 2 = 27. a.23 = 200.3(* + y) = 6. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + 2 ary = 39.2 y) = 49 2 919. 921. (* 918. *y .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ary y = 8.y) (3 y . y # 2 2 f f y = 84.x) = 21. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. + 2 a:y + = 243. 909.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 913. + ary = a*. 908.16 y 3 8 = . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. x 2 ry + y = 3. x + y 2 = aar. 2 924. x f 2 a:y = 32.6. = 8. 912. 3 y 8 ) =1216. .3)2 = 34. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 907. # + xy + y = 7. a: a.y = a(ar + y). ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.y) = 33.3) 2 f (y . 23 x 2 . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 2 2 916.y) (a? . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. . 4 (a. (o.y2 = 22. y 3 2 2 922. or or a? a: a: .r a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 917. (!) * . + a. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.y). 7 y . x 4 299 xy z 904. 914. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). * + y = 444. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 911. y . y x 2 = by.
y(x + y + 2) = 133. + z) =108. A is 938. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.300 930. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. diagonal 940. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. find the radii of the two circles. a second rec8 feet shorter. two squares equals 140 feet. y( 934.square inches. is 3. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. two numbers Find the numbers. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 931.102. and also contains 300 square feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 152. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. + z)=18. and the difference of 936.000 trees. 942. 943. (y + *) = . 935. *(* + #) =24. is 20. 937. feet. In the second heat A . Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. s(y 932. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. If each side was increased by 2 feet. How many rows are there? 941. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. z(* + y + 2) = 76. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. is 3 . Assuming = y. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 2240. and the sum of their areas 78$. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and 10 feet broader. 944. two squares is 23 feet. . 34 939. A and B run a race round a twomile course. rate each man ran in the first heat. Find the numbers.
if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the eter 947. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and that B. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. whose 946. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. its area will be increased 100 square feet. and travels in the same direction as A. 949. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. 950. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. P and Q. that B A 955. A and B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. sum Find an edge of 954. Two starts travelers. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. unaltered.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. each block. 952. distance between P and Q. overtook miles. . 953. the digits are reversed. Find the number. . at Find the his rate of traveling. . Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. triangle is 6. and if 594 be added to the number. and its perim 948. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. set out from two places. Find in what time both will do it. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. 951. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together.
to infinity. to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 1 to n terms.V2 . Find the Find the common 977. difference. 1G series . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. . and 976.3151515.1 4 f j$V . P. 971. 966.. f + 1 . ^ Vfirst five 959.. 4 4 to 7 terms . 5. = 4. are 29 and 53. 4. Evaluate (a) .. P.. 16 962. 5.4142 ....>/) to infinity.. 961. *" 968. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Sura to 24 terms. . + (iiven a +  4 d . ^ 1 . 969. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 3 + 5 7 + .. \ .. 36 963.. Find n f (ft) . Sum Sum to infinity. the terms being in A.. 964. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 12434+ j I 967.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 972. Sum to 20 terms. to n terms. fourth of the unity. 974. J. . (x 4 to n terms. x(x to 8 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A.321? 965. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . to 7 terms.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Find the sum of 4. Find an A.. . 3 .141414. '.  2.v 973.454. !Ll^ + n . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 975. n to n terms.. (to 2 n terms).. Find n.. P.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 958. 957. s  88.302 956. P. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 18th terms of an A. 970.
Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .. and of the second and third 03. Find the first term.. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the sum of the series 988. 980. P. first 984. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.+ lY L V. The sum 982. to infinity may be 8? .. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.001 + . named Sheran.3 ' Find the 8th 983. and so on. 986. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to oo. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. The 21st term of an A. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .01 3.1 + 2. 985. 303 979.001 4. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.. Find four perfect numbers. 987.2 .. 5 11. P. P. of n terms of an A. Find four numbers in A. 0. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 990. 989. "(. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The term. . 992. to 105? 981.04 + . Find n. 1.. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . is 225. and the common difference.. to n terms. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.) the last term the series a perfect number. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. : + 9   V2 + . 4 grains on the 3d.REVIEW EXERCISE 978..
third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Two travelers start on the same road. at the same time. 994. many days will the latter overtake the former? . The fifth term of a G. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. (a) after 5 strokes. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. P. P. areas of all triangles. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 998. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. 995. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. find the series. AB = 1004. 997. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. in this circle a square. in this square a circle. The sum and sum . . are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 1003. are 28 and find the numbers. c. ABC A A n same sides. prove that they cannot be in A. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. and so forth to infinity. If a. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. ft. P. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. is 4. 1000. of squares of four numbers in G. 512 996. 999. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 1001. and G. (6) the sum of the infinity. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. inches. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. are unequal. and the fifth term is 8 times the second .
1012. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .l) w f . Find the middle term of ( .iV 2i/ 5 . 1008. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. ) 1021.o/) 14 . x) 18 . Find the middle term of 1020. . 1011. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. a: 8 7. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1009. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 2 ) 5. 1014. Expand  2 a. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of 1013. (12 #) 7 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).ft) 19 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . + lQ . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. (1 1018. 1006.
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37. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. . .. t 53 120 . simple simultaneous ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .... . 158. ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .. . 123 . .. . ... 9 ** . graphic tion of representa . . lowest ratio " '* .. . ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. linear literal Common ** * difference . . .. . 232 169 807 .. . quadratic . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 97. . signs of Algebraic expression . ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.130 . .. Aggregation. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.....193 11 . Checks Coefficient 20.. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 54.108 160 " . 232 mean progression . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 129.. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. .. 129 54.. .178 Completing the square ... . .] Abscissa Absolute term .. 19.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .... 246 91 " multiple. .. 112 54 54 251 . 9. . . . 8 . numerical ..
45. 34... arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 109 102 . 195 33. 120 Member. 227 . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 114.. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . .C Multiplication . inversely 122 numbers .. 241 123 geometric . . . law of Extraneous roots . Insertion of parentheses .. 253 28 70 1. 45. . 184 54. . . numbers . . G. arithmetic . Inconsistent equations . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Imaginary numbers . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 17 65. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .808 Exponent Exponents. first and second .31. 112 . 189. . 23 10 91 102. . Mathematical induction . 243 7 . Product '* 76 Infinite. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 ... .. .. . Negative exponents 11 . . addition of " square of . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.154 Order of operations " of surds . exponent . . . 180. 9. Geometric progression . 63. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. .108 Minuend .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . 45 Laws of signs . Like terms Linear equation .. Known numbers . 143. . 42 7 Independent equations Index .. 212 . .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. L. INDEX 8 . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . .. . . . directly.. 227 geometric . . . 91 . 84. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 205 . P .105 Monomials 03 Multiple..
. 4 155 9 " of .. 9.. 45 Trinomial 240 . ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. algebraic Surds . . ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... binomial Third proportional Transposition . ... .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . 129. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. polynomial . Sum. . absolute 54 Variable .. ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem..... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ....
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
A. 1916.COPYRIGHT. 8. . Gushing Co. NorfoooS J. 1910. Published September. Set up and electrotypcd. Norwood. 1913. December. 1910. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. 1917. Mass. August. Berwick <fe Smith Co.. U.
18.3. 9. 12. 10. 11. 4. c. . 18. 37 S. Page?.000 Indians. 3. 1. 3. 13 d. 6. 16. (a) (/>) 1. 106. 3.C. 10. 5000. 16f 2. 9. 11. $160. 19. 19. 6. 7. 5. 13. 5. 1. 8. 144. 9. 25. 192. in. B 10 mi. 26z.000.8. 7. 16. is $10. Yes. 12. 18. 4. 14. 7. = 5 81. in. 1 16. per sec. 23.00000001. 13. 16.1. 13. 16. 24. 3. B $20. 85. 10. 25. 1.  13. 21. 1. 256. Page 8. 14. 1.. 150. 10. 17. 16. 24. 27.150. Page 1.  1.000. 6.  2 p. 2. 14. 10. westerly motion. T . 48 ft. 16. 6. 36. 32. 9. $ 1 50 10. arithmetic. 4. 576. $100. 4. 8. 7m. 30?. Australia ft. 128. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.  22 20. 0. 20. 10. 14.12. sign. 4. 14. 7. B $4700. 20 jo. 6. 19.. 12. 12. $40. Multiplication. 9 m. 6* 16. 3.$9400. 10. in 12. 1. 115. 9. 8. 15. 3. 7. 3. 16. 8. 3. 12. 49. 3. }. 49. 30. 1. 25. 14 11. 29. 8.. 2. 8. 126. 4. 32. b. 18. 15. 2  Page 8. 22. 2. 2. A $90. 21. 1. 13 S. 13. 28. 5. 12. 6. 2. 21. 2. Ot 15. 1. 3 m. 16 in. x. 27. C $60. 5. 22. A Bl 7. C $1(50. A 38 mi. 5. 3* 7.2. sign. 24. C $ 16. 14. 59.000. 3 below 0. 11. 20. 6. B $ 128.000. 9 14. 1. 17. 9. 6. ^. x. 2 ~ 15. 7. 1. 4. 11. 5. A 15. 6. 7.000. 8 13. 18. Page 13. 10. 32. loss.. 13. 8 ft. 15. 1. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 5. 26. 10g. 6 yd. 27. 3.. Not 5. 16. 18. 29. 8. 2. 1.000 negroes. 13 V. 3. . 3. 210. 6. 20 \. 3. 17. 2. 2. 16 in. 2. 2. A . + 1. 6... _ 32. 15.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.  1. 3. 17. 9.21 24. 16. . 3. 7. Page 4. 2. 28.. 89. 6. 9. 12. 9 = 4. 17. 1. 0. 64. 14. 25. 3. 12. 37.000. 72 = = 216. 19 4. V 23. 11.000. 20.000. 20. i . 12. .. South America 46. ft. 9. 7. 15. 5. 14. 2. 2 5. B $80. 12. . 9 16  larger than 7. 1. 32. 512. 3. 20 B. 2. 73.
51 f. 29. (V) (rf) (ft) 50.. Page 7. WIN + wiw. Page 21. It. +/2(/. 12. 2. . 1.14 sq. 20. (ft) mi. 10. 35. 27. 25. 8.. 14. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 7. 18. 0. 18. 22. = ()501. 32. 18. $3000 Page 6. 1. 15. 34. 9. (59. 5. 4. (a 4 4. 0. 39.1. 18. 6. a2 4 15^44. 0.000 sq. 5. 4. 42. 28. 2. x^ 20.. #1111. 27. ft. (ft) Page 2. 3. ]*. 173. 314 sq. 4. 1. 36. 0. 5. in. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. (r) 2G7.4 ft. 6. 17. . 16. ft. 15. ??i??. 3. 11.'JO ft. (c) 8. 22( 19. 6<t. :.r~ f 34. ^. (ft) 7. 57. 23. 1. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). \'\ 4. 2. 27. 2.. 25. 3 a* + 2 at*. 15. (r) 78. 7.4  2ft 2 33. 20(. 8. 8. 3(c4a). 11. r:A 29. 0. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. . 1. a ft c. 0.. (b) 135 mi. Pagel4r. 3.. 5. (a) 200. 14. (a) r>23ifcu. arty 1 20. 22. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 7. 10. 25. . 16. 13. 5.5f> sq. 20. r/ \(\xyz. . 21.  1. 11. 50.ft) 4. 41. f  5e 35. = 81. 33. + 5. 3. (a) 50.<>Gq.5 (ft) sq. (c) S(i. . m 24. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 237. 36. 9. 17. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 12. rt. 24. 9. 27. 49. 15a. 1.. 13. ft f 19. 21. 00 24 04 ft. 14. 8. sq. in. 22.94(>. 26. 13. 3. 19. yyz+xyz*. c. 12.. 3. 13.a . 8. in. 1.. mi. 9. jrif 4 9. 15. 16. 35. $80. _ 4 . 5. (a) <> sq. vi 14. 19. 33. 6. 3.  0. 3a. Page 23. 14. (ft) 12. 43w//2 17. 7 7. 27. 21^. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 32. 21. 14.q 4. (r) 2000 m. 21 a 3 4 10. 30.  40. 12.  12. 18. 1.  3. 12yd. 28. 4. 32 2 ftc. 10. 13.GOG. a 32. :J!>r'. 7. 15. 5. 17. 26. + ft). 92. ft' 3 . 30..3 * 10 r5 <3 . 12. 11. 31. 23.rty8. 9. 27. . 8. Trino inial. m + 3(a.  11. Page 31. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 2. 5. 2x' 2 5 .32 c2 > ft 3 . 12. 16. <i~ 26. + v> 2 .x.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 14.r 2 . Polynomial. 14:). t.. II. 3. 4 9/^/rl 2. Page 18. 34. 0.~4. 30. Monomial. 3. ft n. Polynomial. 31.ab. i:5. . 28. 29. 4 y/ . a3 a2 4 a 4 1. r+l.. (ft) $40. 0. 8. in. o^ft. 13 cu. w. 38 ab. 4. ft.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 104. 5x+3. 3 . 2. 12 a. ft. 35. 38.900. I. 37. 8. 15. (r) 2. 58. //'. 3rf 27. 1. 14.. 20. 240. 16.r f 15. 17. 19. 04. 2oVmf?i. 2ftx.'J. 24. 22. 17.ft.  xV 3 y.9?/2 8. 13. 0. 7. ft. 31. Binomial. y.6) 38. ^).000 . . 4. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.
5.x f 1 2 . ?/i 13.5 z?/ + 3 y . 14. 16. 4. 2// 16. 1. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9.. ft Exercise 17. 20. \ :{ 2 a 48. 2 . (5x47 3. 31. 8. c. w 17. 2 6. 2 2 2 6.5 4 2 3 ?/ . a f 2 f 2 9. 2 a f 6 414.a*. a. . . 814. . 3. 2 3x f z.3x 2 2 tf. . a). 1. 19. Exercise 16. Page 44. 3 a3 & 41. 58. (yz~d}. x3 . . _ Page 30.abc. 2 + a4l). 30. ?>4tl 53. 2a: 2 4x. 20. 12.6 x + 0) 16. . . t). 24. 33.ws 2 ft) . 21. a + (ftc4df). 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .11.2 . 36. 22. c2 .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). . 5. 7 a5 1 . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 31. G. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . ( 7. 2 4. ii\ 22.(7x2 Ox2). 13. 2. 40. 7  # + 12. 8. 1. '  . n*. Page 7.  4 b 17 y*. 7. 24. 32 w 2 w. 11. 7. 4.h. 3 m. 37. 2 a 37. x a8 1. 2 3. 2 . 2a. ?> 22. 4. 5.4. 4r 2 . c. 2.  1. 18. 10 x.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 12. m*  n*. . ab a. 24 b 46. 11.  a: 2. + c 4 d x + 6 e. . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.  12. 35. ti. 19. 18. &.2 57. 4 21. 2. 4ft ~.1. 55. 0. 3 a . a 3 . 59. . 19. a4 4 4.  14 afy . G a bd.Oa: + 10. 7. Page 28. 5.aft. 25. 1. 4. ^ <. 26. :5 41. 24. 17. 51. 28. a 6 2 . 50. . (2n' 43p 47 ). 12. 25. 14.a f 54. 4. a 3a 4 2 &. 2 y' 4 . 2 4 5 2 a3 1.2 a.7. + 8. 25 47. 25. 2. a2 9. 5 2 Page 29.3 6.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.4x. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 6. 16. 26. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 1 + 45.r 2.5.  b* 4 r 1 .2 a2 2m 2 4. mn. 34. + 6. a 3& . 20. 1. 26. 5x 2 rt ft. 3. .a . 7. x  + 3z. a a. 7  a + 2 + c. a 52. a 4 + ft.1 . (w4w)(ww). 9. 10. 36. 32. 12.4c 3 8 8 J. 10. 21. 8 + 2 a .2. a  ISjfat. (mn} 11. . 34 39. 29.  b. 8 8 . 2. ?/. 14. 1 4. 2m. ri\ 18. Page 8. a  49. j)(g1.8(c + a). 14. + 4 c. M + 10. 2. 10. + 2y. 56. !  </ .  23.  17. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 4. lOrt 15w4. w* ( . 2. _5a<>&43c. 364c. . + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 38.c. 42.(2 x2 . 10 m.a~. 15. 2 2.'U4j>. 43. 6. 2 17. 15. r. 0. 1. f ft 9. 0..a'2 . 2. a 10w. 4wipg>' 27. 2. 6.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .4 d. s_r>a5. 11. 2. 13. . 8 b. 22. 3.r. 21. 6. f 2 ?/  2.2 ft 2 r2 10. 17.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 8 . a + a. 2m + 2w. 15. 2x 4 a 13. ar.l. 3 Ji 8 . a2 24. a' 4ab + ?/. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 8. 18.
14 . 11.26. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 30. 13. 17. 14f 5. 6". 8 . Page 5. 27. 21. 2. . 2 .36 35. 3. . ! 2.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 84. 04. a. n (a6) 125. 20. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 8.21 a 3 c2 21. 23. 3(*+0 + 2). 4.:>/ .(3x2_4^+7). 27. .6 2 . . 20. 27. 25. 60. 30. 8. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 66 8W 34. 24. . 28. 161b.25 + 14. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 10. 11. 3. 7. 14. 7. 29. + 7. 12 ^.>(/ r . 2z 8 s 2 3zl.19p" + 19^ 10 . 2 w +2 2 . 30. . + O4 66 . 6. 29. 25 4 4. 26.19 + 2. . 18. 15. 16. 1904. 18. x2 xy42^. a. 12. 2. 20. 31.1. 17. 8.2. 9. etc. 6. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . a 8 . 40 r 2 . 2. 1.28 p'^/.12.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . Page 35. 29.8 12. . 4. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 34. + 58 . ^^ = 20.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 210. 28. 33. 4aWy.20 xyz . 15. 1. 2''. 216. 24. 10. Page 38.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 1. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .11 xyz . 120. 18. 2 2 2 . 0. 19. 64. 2 ). 10. 16. . 38wiw. 52 + 6s 12. 216. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 15. 17. 4 a2 . 37. 21. a*b*c. 13. 12 x2 2 . 32. 22. 19. 4 jcy*z*>. 18. 108.12. 15 lb. 7. 30. 343. 24. . 25. 21.57 p6 3 2 4 25.21.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 30. m. ci 5 . 4 fc.44 aWc 16 abxy. 108. 1. 770. 21 a'&c. 2.6) =a2 31. 18a% y. f 26. 4. 20. 25. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 1400. 35. 33. 6 . 33. 14 m 2 . 12. . 7. ISartyW e*f*tj. 18. 24. 29.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 102. 3 a 3 . 23.r + 7 1S + 2 mp.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 2 ). 4. 2 7t A. ?> 4 . 7G . 15. 34. 19. 18> ^* = a . 31.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .14 w 2 2 . 66 39 k* . 2 * 80 . 76 8 a' 1 . 8. Ox a 5 . 26. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 6. 13. 42. iSx8 .7(50.r% 2 2 ry. 360. 16. Page 36. 19. . 20 aW. 13. 9 13. 22. 1. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 90.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. .. a. 17. 9. 27. 83 In + 1 n*. 18.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 3300. 4200. 16. 42. 32. 16 lb. 60.32 y s s G . 23. 20. 4 a8 . 13. 30 j9 jt?g j . ft 17.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 14. (+3)x6=+16. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 30. 34. 28. 10. 25.64 190 p6. 16. 8. 36. 27. +15. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 23. 15. 2*8f x2 6x4. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. +. 11.. 4. 0. 28. 22. a: . 30 n?b*c*. 14. 3 a 2 46. 5. 3. 6. s 9 ww.16 x2/ 5 4. Page 3. 15 q\ 6..000. 127"'.32. 22. ?/ . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 5aft(a 126 2). fa 2. 14.15.. 12. . 16 51. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . Page 7. 9. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 1. 20. ll 2 i. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 1. 2 a2 (y 2 . //. 161b. a + ft.18 w w + 10 WI M . 11.16 a 2 + 32 a . 5. 3. 4. 24.
( 5) O5)(w + 3).r . . 2 . 1.098. 11. 24. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 7. . . 30 /><. 2 62 V2 132. 40. x* .x2y22.00 + 37.1. r. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 56. x*2^f I. 4 + 25 q*. p 2 . . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 1.^.10 35. 23. 33. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 28.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .2 x + 2 x. 39. x 2 f xy + 9 41. s rc 47. 4x21. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). G a6 2.ri 17.008. 6. 10. 2 (5 a 3).4 n. x 48. Page 12.810.994. + 4 t*. 16. 25 25. a + 25. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 7> . 9.25.^V"' . 35. . 10. 2 a 2 + a . 10 a 4 ?. a + 25. . 990. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 33. 2 a' y' . +4 34. 9 4 /> . 36. 4 . 441. 53. . 36. ) 4' 6/ 49.2 6 + 13. (w+4)(m4). 25 a 2 6 2 . ~ 6 20 . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 1.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. ft' 11. 41. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 41. 2 1: 21. 39. 30 x + 19 x3 . 44. 37. + 10 + 121 y*.2 y*. 38. 9. fo*. 57. + 7 6)(3a~76>.009. .000.15. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 4. + 2 9. . ^/> 8 4 . 2 fr . 2 12.54 p 2 + 81.14 jp + 49. 40. 10. 6 x6 + 13 x3 .^ + a? + 1.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 1. 1.p132. ab . 4. Page 39. 19. 55. . 2 +10s281. 29. 31. a' . . 26.35 ab 9. 999.000. Om2 4 6m 6. 42. V + o ft . 4 21. 1.020. 10.6 y4 10. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 8 a W .404. 166. 26. 4. 1).2.500. 14.4 12. 8.84 a' 9. 8 38. 51. 484. a3 0. 34.10 x + 25. 2). 32.r* 2 30. 15. x2 GiC+5. . 24. a 2 . 7. ab. 12 x2 . (p 2. (m + 6)(m3). 10. 35. .020. . ^' J  7 f 12. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.. 10. 4 x2 13./ . 9801. 27.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .6. 2 j3 Z . 15.49. a2 ' + 48Z100. 2 6' . 14. 30. 19.996. . + 12. 2. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 25. 2 0)(p + 5).6 xy . (a + 4) (a + 2).ab . ?/H)0. 10. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. I/). 2 4 2 2 64 . a + 56.ANSWERS 28. 4 . ^V^4 . lflrt 2 8 + l.009. 8. 14. 52. 10.20. n2 a4 6.201. 36. 27. 18.004. 17. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 3wi2 m Page 42.m 30 6 4 1. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). (n 2 5.16 a3 f 50. 36 a 4 . 45. 21 2 .712. 8. . 20a 2 21a + 4. y.4 a&+ 4 &*. 33. 3. 31. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 5. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. p4 + . 998.001.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . +  m' 1. 10. 2 4 a + 4. m 2 . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 10..r . 2. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 2 . 6. 40. 31. 37. 7. 32. . 4 2 //. 11. ' 46. (w4)(w + l). + 4 a +4. 5. +   5). 10 a' 2 . 10.606. 3. + 3)(3).8. a4 4 ?/ . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.5 ~ 81. n + 2. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).3. m 3 j) 3 . 9999. (a (3 54. 7 . 34. 29.6 x2 13. 9990. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. x4 28.
_ 2 a . 12. 1. 3 a. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 4 d 2 4. 10 ft.3 3.10 xy*. aftc 52.  5 z* . 11. 1. .w.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. x 2 + 2r f J. 4. 3. 21. 18. 21. 3. sr 11. z.n. 2 4 3 9. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. /r . 8 ?/ . 5.1.9 d. . 6x 3. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. r 7. 1. c3. w 2 . 2 a 3 ft. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 17. . 7a3ft. + 3. 18. . 8 x . 17.5 a . 2 . . l 4 .2.1*5 2 r 2 .12 aft 4 20 ac . 5. 16. a 8 4.rw f 8 . 6.r ?/ ??i ?). Page 11. . 5.000. 4ft. 10.15.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. a 4 4 ft. 12. 19. 2 ^r ???' 2 .2 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.10 2 + z 2 410. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.r'^ 15. . 11 4. 2 12. 125. 75 a 2 29. *3 y 4 . 5^418(7. x 4. 01. 4. 44. . 2 4.1.r" 20 S? . 5 4 a Oft.  3 c. 3.r?/. 1. 4.rw. 2. 9. 5 a  (5 ft. Page 48.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . +w . 7 r . 2. . . 1.1. 49. 15. y 7. 15. 14. 4 a* 4 9 11. 2 4 2 x 4. 4 x. 24. 5. ?/2. . 2. 22. 13.3 a 41.8 y.7. r ft. 13.r' ~ 16. as _ 10 16. f>r* 4. Page 22. 2.3 5.1. 1. 20. 13. m L 4. 3.3 ry. ft. 8 ?/ .2 1 //. 5. . 5. c 12. 4 c m . 8. 4 pq. ti'jry1 7.2 . 4. aft. . 19. 9.3 x 2 2 4.> 10.2 2 . w . 6.8. ??. 2 . 8.3^V. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .lit x + 4. 6.2 2 2 8 . :r !>.5 mp. 50.r?/ j/. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . Page 13. // 19. G. m'2 3.2 . 16. 7. 23.  12 y 25. 1. 12.  10.1. 12. 2 ? 14 . 13.y3. 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . a.15 21. 14 r 2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.r . 8. 5. 16. 47. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.2 <</. a 2 . 12. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. '. 135.1. 9. ft ? ft' ft ft. ft* ft / . 9. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2 ?/' .+ 77 15. 8. ft 17. aft 12. Osy. 14.8 yn .34. 4 a 2 4.9 4. x4. 3.25 c . i 9. j) . 3.2 ftc . yfl.2 ar.6 :rs 4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . i 2 tji. 6.1.2 wZ 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. r/2 4. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .21 2 2 f + .VI ANSWERS 43.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4xy + 13 <) . 26. 2 1.24 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.  .  11. 14. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 5. r//. Page 7. 1/*. 4.2 ac . 10. + x?/ 2 1. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 8. + 4. a 10. 8 r<ft 4 2 .23. 5. 3 aft 20. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 2 ?/ 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. abc 7.4. 2. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.27 x 2 4. 4. . 2 2 + 2 a.5 n*. Page 51.8. 3*y2 w + 1. 17. 14. 20 15. .2 aft 4. 13. 2. 4 ac. 13.x^. Exercise 27. 10. 14. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4x43?/. 9.30 ftc. . 46.25. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 11./ 4. 4. 8.29. 1000 1000 . 6.
15. / + y + a// 12 yr. lO. y yr. Jj12. 10 x sq. 2. 2. 50= L 100 15. 1. 58.(3x  700) = 5. 21 2. 23. 18. 6. Page 61. Page 13. 11. 2x + 35. 2b 22. 3x  1700) = 12. + 4x 3y 34. 3. a 10. f = eZ 2 x. x 2y 10 act. 10. 'nj 100 a 28. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 3 9. 41. r>?imi. 100 d ct. + f + b 2.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 57. 36. 30. 30. 5. 10 >_&. 1. 39. 0. 8. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 33. 32. v (6) 2x. 37. 14. 10. 7. 1.100. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 27. 2. 4 f 39. 7. 100 2. r tx mi. 7. # + 20yr. 12. 29. 4^ = 100. 7. 9. y 100 a 24. . d + !. % 4. m +~m 3.10) 100.r1. 5. 00. ft. 4(a ft) c = 8. 1&. 13. 26. n M. 25. (</) 2a. 19.. ft. m+ 11. rn mi. '^ . 31. 47. 60 25 1. " lir. 23. 1. x y $ 6 yr. y 50. (>. 5. 59. 8 n  10 yr.  1$. (> 27. </ 20. 2=10. 20. ^ 12 sq. 6. 16. 13. l. <>. 25. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 100= ^. I. 7. 17.p+7. ( a f 4. Page 6. b. Page 31..ANSWERS Page 9. 10 a. d. 36. 41. 2 ct. + 10 b + c ct. 19.x700. ft. 28. 42. x + 1=a. . . 6.  9 = 17 a. . (2 a. 2b. x = m.. 4. 4. (a) ' 12. f (I. 9. 10 yr. 13. ? 43. }f.000. 17. 8. 3. b. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. vil 56. x 49. 11.  />) a = all. !). 5. 1. X 60. 35.ab a. 14. 4. Page 40. 6. 17. ct. 22. 29. xy ft. 18.(3x+ = rraxlO. 20. x. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 4. 12. fix. 5. f 6)(o 62. 11. 20. 34. . 0. 40. = 5 ?i x 460. (c) 2x. 100 14. 3x2.r ct. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 2. 45. . 44. y ?>i x + 26. iL*. 44. 38.  2\. a 8. "mi. 10) + = (a) 2 x . x 48. 16. ct. 38. + 3x + 2y + 32. 5. + 3 = 2(3* . 46. 10. 33. 3. 800 = x + 1300.7). 43. ] 2 ri 42. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 6. 7x 2 Page 21. . 10. 7. 37. 7. I. 2. lOx 10 + w. sq. s. 4.rr2. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 16. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 2. ct.. 22. 15.6 = *. 24.  6 10.
30 yr. 6. 2.0.. 2. 8 12. Page 7. Page 5. 9. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 52. 12.. (z5)(z2). 11 pV (2 p8 . 5. (m + n)(a + 6).000 ft. 15 in.16. 9. 6. 1313. 28yr. 85 ft. (6) (6 a 30) =20.3). 50. .. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').000. 7. 13. 71. ^ . 10. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 7.79. 7.000. 11. 11 in. Pace 65. 10 yr. 2). 8 2 19. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000 ft. 14. Page 7. (e) i* + A. 3.000 copper. 14. (*4)( + 11.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. a 12. 12.2. 9. 1. 9 in. 12 mi. 2 3 6 7. 7. (a5)(a4). 100. 10. Page Page 480 12. 8. 17. 20 yr. 14. (c) ^ v ' . 5. 6rt 2 11. (a + 4)(a + 8). (a + 6) (a + 3).22. 3 (a +&)(*. 10 Cal. 8. 68. 18. . 9.. 13. 80 A. 4. Page Page 4. 11. 2 2 ?/ 21. 14. (y7)(y + 2). 10.. 9. 3. (y + 8)(y2).000. 4. 7. = _?_(2ar + 1).. 42yr. 30. 6.000 gold. 8. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 8. 15. 18.000 N. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.11. (y8)(y + 2). 24J.3. 480.7. Page 79. 1. 160 lb. z?/(4^ + 5xy .210^. 40 yr.000. 20. 5. 4.411. 1250. 2 2 2 5. w (/) 64.2). . 82 mi.000.. 10 yr. 8.5. a a (a 8 a+l).. 3. 20 yr. 1..000 pig iron..3. 30. 14. (a 4) (a. 3. 10.3aftc + 4).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 20 yd. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 78. 5 Col. 8. 6. 2. 70^. 300. 1200. 600. 12.. 29. 3x (3r. Ib. 2. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 74. 4. 4pt. 25 yr. $40. 150. 200. 100 1. 4. 72. 10.8. ( + 4)(*2).0. 11 w(w' + wi . 3 hr. 6. 15. 70. 19. 13.. 8. 18.(5z . Page Page 4. 7 hr.. 45 in. 12.5. 12. 25. 1 lb. 23.. 25. 5$ hr. Oaj(o62cd). 11. 250.6). 13. 5 lb. 21. 4. 5. 7a*fe(2a & l)..000. 15. 9.10. 20. 1. 22. 30 mi. 78. 16. 10 yd. 13. (yll)(y4). + 7)(y3). 8.000 Phil. 75. 05. 9. 3. 20. 5pt.000 Berlin. 3. 10. 67. Y. 1. by 12 yd.000.13. 8 in.5p + 7 g ). 10 Mass. 17.  PageSO. (ro3)(w2).21. 15 yd. . 90. 55. 1200. 6. (y 13. 14. 90 mi. 2.y"). 15 mi. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 1. 6. 11. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .1). 180. (a + 5)(a + 6). 2. 3. 1. 12. 7. 6. 15. 15. 200. 10. ~=90.24. 2. 2$. 5. (p + 7)(3a5&). ?(g ? g+ 1)..
+ 4) (a. (3*2)(. 17. 10 a 2 (4 . 11.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 33. 31. 6. + 3)(c44).y4 ).1). Page 84. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 27. 17. 4. 2). Yes. (2yl)(y + 9). . (y8) 2 2 . 10. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 10(2 30. . 3)(3a. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. Yes. 12. f 2).r2). 28. (w + 20)(w + 5).8). 2 2 15. 100 (a.y (6x + 4)(5x4). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 3(x + 2)(zl). 7. 2. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 6. 21. 28. . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3).   . 20. 25. Yes. 16. 15. 9. (a. . + 8)(g3). 10(a .6) 2 1. ix 18. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). . (m + w) 2 5. 1.5y)(3a. 25. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (9y4)(y + 4). Yes. 23.. (4 13. 9. 36. (az + 9)(ox2). y) (a. No.2 by2 6. (* + y)(zy). Yes. 10. 24 9. (2o + l)(2l). 25. . 1. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 10(a + ft)(aft). 9.7)(2z f 1). No. Page 83. (5x .11 ft)(a6). (ay8)(ay3). (5a +l)(5a l). 26. (4a. (15ay2) 2 . 23. Yes. a . No. (a + 8)(a3). 25. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 17. 24. 216 aft.1). . 35. ( 2 4 19. 2. (6 a. 32. 21. 24. 13. . (2 *+!)(* 9). (13a +10)(13a 10). 23. (ft + ll)(aftll). a. 27. (3a. Yes.ANSWERS 16. 2 No 4. 32. 9. 7.y) 2 aft. 7 6) (a 10 6). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 2. . (2xl)(x + f>).2). 14. 8) (a. Yes. 4. (w* (3a26). 14. 19. 34. 8. 10.3)(z2). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (a a: 19. 11. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 19. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (4al)(a2). + 9^)(oxy . 21. 11. 3. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).6) 2 2 . 20. (6n + l)(+2). (7 a + 4) (2 a .4 6). . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 3. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 18. 22. . 34.1). 29. y(x. 29. (<7 20. + 3). a(2u.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 30.* (2 y + 3)(y. (a 3 + 10)(a. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 40 x. (2 a? 4. (a (p8)0> + l). (0 + 6)(66). 8. 31.2 ft). (10a + ft)(10aft). 14. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Yes.2). 3. 26. 22. 7.4p). 18. 12. + 2y). (15z2y)(x5y). (m7n) (a. (5wl)(m5). 16. 21. 30.  x (5 a. (3#y)(+4y).1). 26. 2 3 by2 Yes. Page 82. No. 5. 3a. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 100(x. 1. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 10. . 24. 5.4. 22.2 y). 22. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 33. Yes. 28.11 6) (a 4. 4 (a . (4 18. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). x\x 24. 20. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 8. 23. + y + . (a 6 6) (a 4. 103x97. (:52y)(2a!3y). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 27. 2 17. (2w+l)(ro + 3).9*).c 2 ). y) 2 29. Yes. 13x7. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 9. a*(5a f l)(flr . (g . (w ~ n (x . (4y3)(3y + 2).3). (y + 4)(yl). + 5) a. 12. 16. x (z + 2)(x + 3).7) (a.+4 y)(3x4 y). + 0(90 Page 85. Yes. (x + y4 )(x . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 35. No. . x(x +y)(x y). 26. 15.
) j)..  (w' 4. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 28. ?>).5 m2 x2. a 4. 450. (16 4  2(5 n .4). 13. 2. 5. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (a 4.y. 4). 15 M. 24.e 4. 4 6. 5. a x 3 10. 6.7s) (2 a. 2 (a 4.3)(x 4. (5 31. Page 92. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 6. y). (7/1 2) (m 41). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).3. 27. ( (<> r4y3 .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).y)(fi a . 2. 35. 17(x43//)(x2y). 4 3. a (a + 2 6). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 39. 16. 14. (5a+l)(9a). 12. 7.1).y '2 2). 14. (* _ 2 )(a 4.3.8). x 4. 13. 3(. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 6. Gp). Page 12. ^ . 4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 15. 18. 19. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. ofc)( fid). + 3. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .4).2)(x 1. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 10. . . 22. Page 89.1). 4 a s &8 .l)( a 25. 5.42 x 4.36).7)(^ {I 12. 8x. a 41. ah}.1) 3. . 32. l.0+ 12). 8.  29. Page 87. 2 k (wi 4. 2 y) ^ .!) (x42)(x2). 4  9. 8.9). (r420(4 10. 6. 10(2 (3 4. Exercise 47. 9. (2 a ~ f> b 4.'})(c . 8. 3x(x?/) 4.?>) H. (x. (5 26.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. Page 86. (!__/>). (14. (f> + fo 7.'/)('< 4. fi(c426). 7. (m  I)' 6. 40. 24x sy s 9. 2. 2 1. 16. 2. 5  (2 2 .&). 1(V/ 88.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 8. 17. . (2x7)(x 2 2). 15. 8).4. x  1). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 6 f c). 42). 2 2 3 .>*)(:> 4 lj 4.^ 48.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ( rt 23.2 y). (. 42a 3 x. x .?/). 3. 6. 2 . 5. 2 8(w . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 1. 12.2). 2 + . + 2 //). 14.&). y6. 13 x 8 2 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4. ( a ^)(^3. (5^4.2).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (x//. x(x f y)(jr . 11. 11.n). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4. ?i(w 4y) . 7.8) ( (16.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 11. 2. (> 1. b) (r 4. . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (w4w) 2 1. y )(. 4 a8 . a 4. (^ + ?>_8). a 2 (a9). a + a b. 7. . 41. 38. ( y).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). (^ 7. (w * . x43. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 4. (c.8) n 43*).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. y(2x?/).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 9.y). 36. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 8.X 5. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 11. a8 . 13( 33. 4.b. 20. (a 9. 2 21. r x 2 */3 . (a />. 12. 7. 4. 4. 8.?50)(xt/z. 8. 13. 7. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 6.  WIM. 14. 30.4. 2(m4l)' . 5 x8 3. 3 x4 . Page 90. n  r)(5a 10. (a &4. 4. 37. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. Exercise 46. 2 2 10.'J)(' .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). ( { &).
(a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 12. x 24. +5 1. a 23. 18. + &)(&) ( . ?_!&. 30(3 2 (a 15. // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. 6a2&(rt6). 13. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). 2(2al) + l).6). a 10 25. 11. x 22. + y) (a: y). b ! 21.  1). + &) 2 ( . (a2)(a + 2)2. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 7. 0. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 4 L 8 2 . 2 a.  **/* + 84 _. i. 11. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. i^. 28. 30. 6a5f^. ^~ 29.50 ~ 1/2 . 1. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 4. . 6. c 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 4c 10. a 5.. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. xy 43. + lH + . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. Page 101. Page 100. A^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 26. ' 2 7. w1 + ac w 4 7. 6.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + 2H 1 ^. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.
2) 19. . 34. 10. 1. 8. 3. a. 4. 35. 15. 40. 13. c 8.L+ft. Of. ^_. Page 110. 45. 9. . xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ^i 11. J. 1. Page 106. (>. 4. 18. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 3 7 i o. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. f Page 107. 8. 2 47. 3. 30. 3. 1. 5. 3. 11. 1. 43. A. b a f +c 14. 29. ?+_!?>. 10. 9. 2ft a i m x. a 17. 27. x\. 17. 19. b 2. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. an 18. 1. 31. ac mp lf> n 12. 6. y(x + x ?/). 6. 39. J. 11. 38. 1. 36. 12 28. 14. . 0. (y + (z 12. x 1. 4. a2 2. 21. 8j_m 7 3. 41. 5. 6 .^U\WF### X<6. 4. 11. ' 6. 1. 26. 0. . 32. 15. 16. 7. +3 ( + 15. ft. 1. 21. 11. j L . 1. + f. 15. f 7. pf n 6 1. 7. 3. 46. J. 6. 6. x 05m ' 5. 33. 4a3ft. 1. n m a + 13. 44. ! 4 20. 24. 12.ft . 9. 4. n 16. m 9. 20. 5. 5. 17. 4. I) 2 3z 1. 11. 21. 7.  10 X + u. 4. w^x 2 b Page 105. 12.  V o 4. 6.y 7. Page 111. 7. ?. 23. 37. n . 14. Page 113.^_. 14. 42. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5 be _J_. 16. 25. flf. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 3.
(c) 2 hr. $30. $0.9. :2. 10. 7. No. 500. 16. . 16. 31. ANSWERS 16. 300. 38ft min. 4. 3. 15. 10. 19./hr. 2x:3y.. 1:1=1:1. 00. 19. $45. 212.15. 1. 10 yrs. 12. Yes. 7. (ft) 5 da. $40. 30ft. " 0. 11. f. 8301 hr. 23< &n b ' . 5 2. w 44. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.  + . 14. Yes. 55 mi. 7. 30 yrs.137. 12. Yes. 1 : 12. 13. 10. . 11. 7. 9ft.. 9J oz. 26. 15. min. 300. 15. 2 20. (ft) 104. 14.138. Yes. IV s. 40wn. _JL. 5.  29. (r) 3^ da. 18. 5. Page 124.. J ^'. No. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 33.001. 4~r~ n . 1:1 = 1:1. Yes. 2:1. 13. 15. 8. 2.. 74. 13.. 10. silver. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .000 1 = 23.000. 10. 9.000. 10^ oz. after $12. 15. 9. 4. 26 mi. 81. 1. J. [>> ^ a .. '"I 22. $00. 21. 14. 4fl M_. 30. 15. = A's. (a) 30. 5. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 5 25. 13. a 4 ft. 10.004. 8. Page 118. 17. (d) 500. 33. . 19. 32. f . (ft) 5 hr. 16. 1:1 = 1:1.003. . 75 . ~m . w 18. 4. w 21. Yes. 19. 4./hr.x + y. (a) 4 min. 10. 9$. 300. 1^'. 6. 6. 9. 3. 40 mi. 7. ft.11.. 24. 28. 1: ~. nm. 7 . 7} 18.000. 3:2.} da. 0. 11 hrs. 21ft min. (a) 25. 24. 9. () 2. 10. 20. Page 117. 1. . 40 yrs. 11. 7. Page 121. 17.139. (d) 4 da. Yes. 8. 5ft 30mi. n 32. 1:4. #V ~~ 34.  C .2. 12. 30 mi. 1:1 = 1:1. 4. 3. 3 da. (a) 12 hr. 20. 22.2.. 36. 27. 3. 6.XIV '/ . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 26 30. . 5. 7T 2 Page 116. 34. ^p^ r ~ 7. 2. (ft) (r) 8 hr. min. 8. after 18. 35. 14. 18. (ft) 28. 1. dn ~ mi.000. P+ ^ 33. gold. . 1 da.0. 275:108. ^m . xy. 17. 15. Yes.. jj. 1:3.002. (c) 8300.10. 24 mi. 20. 3. 10. 3. * 7:9. 21. Page 125. after 20. 18. Page 119. 17. 8. ^?i min.0 & .000 If da..
5. 2. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . Page 9."2:1. 7. 3. 38. 17. (I.1. mi.2 oz.3. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 25.57. 7. 5. 13J. 3 2=3 x. 11. 36. 3. i. 40. 5:0 = 10:12. 3. . 9. y . 2. 46.. t 5.1. 200 mi. \.3. 4. Inversely. Page 136.5. Page 137.  28. 9. 7. 7. 12. 16.3. 2. . 3}. + b 7 .1.5.000 sq. 55. *. cu. 53. 25. 11. 5.12. 945 11 10 ." ^ 2. 7^. 4. 7. 17. 19. 9. 16. 8.r. () Directly. 4.a. Page 135. 1. l. 7. 4. 13. 22. 47. 3. 3. 19 3 . 6. 32j. 7. 1. Page 131. 1 18 = 3 51. 2. 13. 6. 4.4.4. x 42. 10. 1. 4. . 4. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. (</) ft.3. 7.ANSWERS 22. 43. 2. 9.C ?/ a . 11. . 6 10 = 12. 15> 9. 2.3. Page 132. mi. 7. 7. 7.^ 0?j ' gms. 49. 5 2. 3.17. Page 5.3. . 15. 8. 2. J.7. . 14. 35.1. 8. $. I. ' 55.li. 27. : XV 27. 1 rt * vm^1. 1. 141.*. 3.5. 14.2. 2.4. x:y a: b.5. 19 OJ.5. 24. 32+ mi. 44. 21./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 10. : 23. 2. 4. 39.6. 24 1 (e) Directly. 17. 2. 30. x +y x + 74 7 \. 127.15 x. 2. in. 4. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 9  15.  19. 2. 20. water. 1. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 59. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 56.3. 12. : . 40. 5. 6. 15. y 1. 13. 21. 9. 3. ini. 36. \\. 3.3. 11. 14. lo mi. 3. 5. jc:y = n:m. . J. 10. 2. 26. 5. 16.. J pq.) 31. . 31. 2. 28.9. . w. 8. 23. 14. 5.]. 2. 31J. x y = 1 = 3 2. : : . y :y =.2. 1(5. 4. 22.1. 11 w a 13. 58. 57. a 3. (b) Inversely. 6. 7. 2. 29. 1. 48. 12. 52. 12. 1.3. 13. 8.  ?. 26. 1. 2. 7.2. "lO.15. : />. J.' : : : : <>. 5:3 = 4: x. 2. 5. 8. s<i. 7. 4. . . 2.2 x. 20 cu.12. (a) Directly.8 oz. = 7 b'. 2. 7. 1. : : T 1' : /> : . 3  24. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 9. 4. 41. x y y . + 7>i//  ft 1 . 2. 19. 11. 20.5.x a. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.840.5. 11 5 . () 7 Page 126.. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 3.J. ig 6. 2. 2.160. 10. 3. y a y = 7 0. 4.J 3. 3. 4.2. 5. 2.3. . 19. 20 20 J ^.7. 5. a +b 1. Page 134.20. 2. 6*. ~ 1. tin. 2. ft. 23. 18. + W. 9. Page 133. 5. 2 n . Of. 45. 138. 41. 54. land.36. 9. 50. in n.3.5. 25. 4. 6.000 sq. OJ. 1.4. copper. 8. 3. 30.22. 7. 174+ Page 128. a~. . 5. 24. w 8. b x 37. .46. /. OJ.4.
^. 2. 6. 6.0. . 0. 5. Jan. 11. . 1. 4. About 12f. 19. 18. 2. 18. 30. 6. a. 9. Apr. &. 3. 7. 22. parallel to the x axis 0.9. $3000. 0. On 11. On the x axis.10. C's 30 yrs. Jan. 21. 18. 2 horses. & part of Sept. <*ft/ bd 1. 10. 9. through point (0. 16. 3. 0. Page 143.4. July. 3. & part of Feb. & May. 4. $4000. 12.3.$5000. ' 6 3 a. 10 sheep. 4 mi. 6. 1. 3. 3. 7. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. 10. July. 24. be 7. The ordinate. C's 10 yrs. 28. 20 & Oct. Page 145. 1. ad AzA. 16 to July 20. 4.n + p. 2 a. 5. 5. 8. Nov. 3. 4. 13. . 25. m f 9. 9. 2. . 20. 7. $ 1000. A a parallel to the x axis.. 9. 2t2. m . 9.l.1. A's 30 18. 4 ' q. ' . 3. 7.4. $250. 23. 3. . 20. 5. 14. 40. 2. 20 to Oct. On the y axis. 19 gms. 11. . 30.. 2.3. be 10. = ^ a Page 141. 12. 8. 1. (ft) 23 J.. 25. . 5. 3). 3. Oct. 24. Apr. (c) . . $6500at3Ji%. 7. 4. B's 15 yrs. 2. 9. 26. A's 50 13. 16. Jan. 31. 7. 5. 24. 2. 2. 25. 2. 30.8. 1. 18. 7. 7. 100. 32.. 4. 4. 11. 12. 2. 14. 3. Page 153. 4. 11. 00. Feb. 19. 4. 7. $900 5%.. 2. 15. 2./hr. . 2. yrs.2. 6. June. Jan. 13. 1 (c) Jan. at 15. 17. 24.$2000. 23. 6 cows. 27.7. 2. 4. 40. 10. 5. . (5. 1 (d) Apr. 16.3. 4. 147. May 5.33. July 20. 10. (a) Apr. 3.  17. 17. 6%. (a) 12. 4. 13.2. 21. .^. 11. 3. 4. 1. 10^ gms. 3.0. 10. 20. 12. 15. Page 149.65. 8. ft 3. M 2. 4. 90. 2. J. 5.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 29. B's 40 yrs. 3. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4. 3. m f 8. Aug. . yrs. 1. 14. 8. 16. Page 142. (<f) 13. Page 22.  11. Page 151. m + n p. 3. 6.1. 16. SL=J o ft r^2. 6. 3. Jan.4. 15. 2. 25.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 16.1J. 20. 17. 5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 20. 72. . Page 146. Nov. (ft) 20. 1. ad _(?jrJL. 12.. 1. Apr. 2. 3. 3. 1. 423. u 2ft. 23f . 5%. 7. 26. 2. Page 152. 5.XVI Fagel39. 6. 11. $500. 1. Nov. 1. Nov.
11. 0. (/) 3. 3. 1. 3 . 4. 2 a&m Page 167. 13. 2. 28. 2 l.73.5 (ft) 3. (gr) 21. 8. . 3. Inconsistent.59 .2 (ft)  1.84. ft . 1^. 17. ft 2 4.79.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 81 ". .. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. 2. 14. ' :=_!. (c) 2. H.41 and 23. 2. 3. 1. 4. + a 4 ft* . 1. Inconsistent.25. 18C. 8 a1. . 1. (ft) and (d) 2. .73 ami . . 4.5. 8. . Indeterminate. 4. 24. 1. xW. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.. 30. 20. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 13 .41 and . 3. (c) 7. 125 a 8 12.17 (ft) (c) 2.75. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. +3 4. 26.. 5. f 10. 15. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 2. 2. 2. 2. (a) 4.75. . f. . (/) 3.73.27. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 13. 2. 5 and 2.25. 3.64. Page 158.  1. 125 16. 125a 28. 5. f. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 3. (e) 3. 9. 2. 4. 1. 25. 3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. 3. 2. () (rt) 3.  . 1 4. H. .4. 6. 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.. 83. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 22. 1. 8.3. 14. 2ft4 Page 168. f12 wi 9. 27. \ft) 5. 32F. 3. 3.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 2 2 22. 24. 13C.75 (ci) 3^.64. 9.73. . . 16.67. (ft) (ft) 2. 2.24 .  12 ft xW  26 31. _ 9 x ^27 1 . . 14. 5. Page 163. . 19. 2. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.83. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.  1. 13. .59.25. 7. 12. .24. (a) 5. SlstyW 7. (ft) (d) 2. . 2. 1.34F. . (c) 14 F. 2. 4}.1. 15. 1. (<?) 2. (a) 12. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 19. G.6. 10 C. 6. 5. a 29. 3. 1." 23.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. . 10. a 10 ' a ll V&. 3. 4wn8 + n4 5. m. 3. 5. . 14.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 8mW. ImW. 2. a + ft. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 0C. 15 . Indeterminate. 1. 11. 20. 2. . . 1. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 27 27 81. * 16.24. 12. (a) 2. 10. . Page 159. . 1. 18. 4.13. 1.1. 22. 21. 15. 4 ) 21. (e) 2.5. 3. 1. 9 and Page 166. 1. 3.79.25.25. 3. 8 1 f f g*. . (ft) 2. 30. Page 164.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 5. 10. 11.75. 5. jgiooyiio 17. . 1. 2. 2.3. 27 19. xy. 2.83. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1 23. 3. .7. 1. xg .
(3a. 35. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 2 4 8 2 . 19. 20. ( Page 174. I 8x2). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 6 (\x 3. 6. (x' l). 3. 1. 28. + i)). 76. ). 98.94. (4a2 9& 2 13. 4. . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.83. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). ? . (a 2. 27. 70. + Z). 23. 17. 5. 2 12. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 7. (ab + c). 11.3 ab + 2 2 ). 2. a.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 40. 22. 64. Page 171. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 15. + 29. 4. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 33. rt . + l). 15. 420. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 11. c 10 6 :l 20. r> 4 : 1 . 9.  +X '. 12. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).2). Page 172. 10. 6. ? : 1 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 14.^). 3. 5. 16. .6. 57. 4. 5. 7. 1.x ). a. 8. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 10. 8 /. 10 x G a 4 . 17. 8. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 99. + (win . 9. 5. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.a b 22.i c 6 15. 14. a 2 . + y). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 15. 11. 2. . ??i ?i . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 6. 3 6 23. . a ).  x. 10. 180 . 30. 17. fe *?>' ?> fi . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 72. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (x + y\ 90. 30. 13. . 71. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (48 + 6. 36. 247.5).037. 300. ^i. 16. 2038. 11. 1. 9. ?7i 1 1 3 1. + + ?V 22. 26. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 18. 14. 6.10 a~ + 5 a . (2 a + ft).1. 763. +35. +3 + 5 4. 16 6 w . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 8. a: l . 24. 1 1 ?>). 3 2 ^. . 6. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 18. 13. 9. 3. 21. Page 176. .5. 2. 101. 2 49 . 12. 8. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.y2 ). 7. Zll. 20.r 2 + 6jt). 1. 31. 25 19.GO a c + 23. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 00. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. m 13. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (1 (x2y). 9. 9. 2 2 7.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 3M. 20. (Gx + (i + 2a. 10*. 8. 4. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 90. GOO 2 c 2 . 2.+3^ + 4. (l + x + . Page 170.XV111 7.f 1 m 9 16. (a + y+l). 1247. (a + 2 +l). 15. 90. 12. 19. . 25. 3. 3 2 8 3 12. 978. 2 2 4. /> 4 ). 119. . 20.1. 237. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 34. . 21. 14.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 5. 0. 32.7 /)). (ly). AN S WE no . 16. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 309. 18. 84. 5 5 8.
. 20.. 40. 7. 1. 18.. 15. (afl). 40. i. 31. 7. 2. 6. 5. 16. 6. 6561.18. 4. 2. 5. 11.  14. 35. ft.237. 7. 5. 6.6. 5083. 2. 9. 20. 41. 29. 8. . 39. 7.. 4. ZLlAiK 19.005. 5. J. m. 4 n. \/3. 3. . 13. 23.5. 6J. 2. 16. 28 in. 2 sec. 29. 7 in. (6) Vl4 3. 8.w 18. 6. /. 17. 3. 6.. 1&. 9. 10. .. *. 39. 2. 3.i. 28. >TT 26. 5. 15. Af^..935. 12.645. 4.367.. 1. 39 in. 6. 11. ^^7m. 16. 2.  1. 7 45.690. 3. 4. / 11.4. v 17. 3. 21 28 ft. f.. >i 27. f 3. 17. 5. 10. 6. 21. 5. 47. 2. 4.  5.1. 1. > w ft. 9. 5f. Page 181.  3. 32. 44. 3.742 in. 4. 10.V 8j. 1 7. 4 W**. . 16n. 49. 12. 14. i ^. 10. 36. 21. 22. 4.6. 19. 4J. 27. 25. vV'TA 24. 1. 26. . 2. 24. vYb. 9.236. 6 f !. 1. Page 184. 1. 1. 18. 13. 5. 3. f . 7563. 7. f. 4 TT M 28. 8. 3J. 1.6.916 yds.4. . V. Page 180. 37. 5.243. 20. ^. 15. 8. 33. 1. 5.60. 9 15 ft. 9. . 13. V17. 3. 5. 15.}. 3.?. 4. 9.925 ft. _ iVaft. 27. 21 in. 2. . 15. Page 179.798 yds.522 38. 6yds. 30. 7.*. ft. 6. 36 in. f ^ is. 30.  2. 8. m.. 4 a. 34. 12. {. ~ V^3. 4.. 11. 23. 10. 11.1. 37. 6V21. 4. .Sn. ft. JJI. 2. 7. 12. V35 1. 10. a. 1. 270 sq. 13. 12. 7. * 1. . 21yds. 5. 23. V J l.  43. 46.a. 7}. 21. Page 183. 29. 50. a + 61. 42. () 2. 4.5. 4. 12. 32. f f V. l~8. 9. If ^. 17. ^. 14. 3. 36. 25.13. 2. 12. 25 J.4. 31. xix 26. 14. 3. 14. 48. 13.6. 19.  f.ANS WERS 22. (< + ?>).469. 5. 11. Page 185. or 5. 33. . 8. 7. ii :J _7. 2. }. " ^_ 22. 10. 16. 2. 3. Page 177. 10. 7. 14. or 3. V2. 3. 4. 12. 7. 10. 1 f Vl3.  f. 5. V2. 2] see. 9. 24. 15 1 10. 3.6. 34. 1. 35. 1 38. 28. w. 6V'2J.
XX Page 186.74. 0. 25. _ 19. .. 1./hr.3. 4. 1. 3. 3. 2 ft. $30 or $70. 7.17. V7. 5.10.  6. V ~ 16 4 2.1.48. equal. 15 ft.. 2. 1. $80. 0. #<7=3. 3. . equal. 11.'. 13. 0. 19.48 3. . 19. 47. 22. 30. unequal. 52. 6V64.4. 3. 2. 7. 5. (5 10. 5. 50. s 11. 44. 1. 2. 6. i. H.5^. ANSWERS 22. 2. 1 . Imaginary. 4 da.4. 0. 4. irrational. 3. 3if. 1./hr. . 12. 2. 26. 2. 3. VV11. V^l. 27. unequal. . Page 189.2. . 43. 37. in. 2. 25. 23. 8. 3.  9x <). 4.a. 39. 1. 13. orf. . 5 ft. 12. Page 192.62.  2. 12. 4. 15. Real. Real. 3. 27. 3. 29. 32.. a + 6. 10. 120 ft. unequal. rational.  2. 2. 0. 22. 7. unequal. 55. x 14. . 4. + 11 x. 1. V2. . 20. .  24. unequal. 2. 2. a. 3. 2. unequal. 3. 7. Real. 3.  i. 24. 2. Imaginary. 12. . t is. 7. equal. 46. 1. jr . 24. . 2 V3 in. 2. U. 17. 18. 6. unequal.2.  1. 1.l. 8\/2 17. 3. 4. 34. 6^2 in. 2. V^~2. 1. rational.37.12 = 0.  1. i . Real. 20. 1. Real. 4. 27.2. 9.6 = 0. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 4. .23.3. 1. 41. 26. 0. .59. 25. 6. 2. ft.2. 38.2. 1. 16.4.  1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 0. 15. a8 . f 6 52 a. 5. Page 191. 31. 9./hr. 14. unequal. 0. 9. $ 120. 3. 0. 64c.  13. 1 3. 40. 33.a 3 a. 20 eggs. V^l. 58. rational. 3. 42. x* 51. irrational. Real. 10 in. 10 or 19. ^l/>> = 85 ft. ' 1.6. 57. .12. 9. 18. 11. 56. 23. 64. 35. 1_^L ft 14.23. AB = 204 ft. 12. Imaginary. 1. 3. 18. 7. unequal. 3. V2. 0. . 2.Oa. 6. 4. 2.]. Real.4. 28. 25. 26.5.2. 20. x2 + B . Page 188. f.0*8.02. 3. . 6. 2. 1.7. 53. 2. 19 in. Imaginary.4. 28. 2.2 x2 . 3. 70 ft. 49. 0. rational. 4. 21. 1. . 1). If.$40 or $60. 0.7.7./hr. 10 mi. 0.2.41. a.  5. 15. = 0. 16. 48. %. Page 190. 3. 1. 2.. 6. 28. v^^fcT"^. 2 . '  f 5.  Page 194. 36. 7. .70. . 2.2. 10. 0.2. *'' 12.a. 35. 1. 14. 21.1. 2. 8. 8.1. 10. 16. 5. 6.2. f.* 2. 1. 7. . 8. 45. 6. r* i. 26. 3. Real. . x*4x=0.  5.  1. 21.. 20 nii. rational. 24. AB = 3. 1. 8 or 12 mi. 3.  1. 6. 10 mi.3. Page 187.5 x + 6 = 0. 6. 0. 0.. 3. 23. a + 1.
. 1. 10. 46. J. r*. 4. 9. 18. 'J. 4. 4. J 3. 57. 24. 3. v'frc 18. 33. 6. 45. 1. 36. ifa. 50.  48. J.  J j. 7. m'.32. 0. 3. 4. 19. 5." 17. \/3. 17. 5\/5. 6. 9. *V. 27. 39. 21. 3. 8. Vr. vV. jV 10. JV37. 16. 0. n\/* Page202. 8.. 31. 2. : . 10. 20. 4. 49. 1. 33. _! V3. 2. 1. wA 46. 20. &. 5. . y . 30.2. 3. 16. 3. 3 4 11. 9. 20. 54. 8. 47. 2. 21. 18. v^T4 m. x. 56. Page 200. 53. 21. 12. ^Sf 3 38. 24. 12*2 61. i. 50. Page 199. 16.  f . 25. 28. 6  AAf. . . 1. 3. 30 a. 2. 42. ). V^ 34. 48.  5. ^49. aW\ 40. 29. 7. 8.  f. 17. 2 L ( V. 2. m. 15. 40. vm. 3. 15. . 37. l  5 12. 14. 125. 18. Jb \. 8. . Page 196.//^. 14. 10. \a\ \/^. 33.6. 5. 51. fx'^z'l 23. 84. 49. 23. 19. 8. 38. 1. 13. 0. . 1. y. 7. 1. 13. 52. 9. 14. 4. 49. 1 39. 19. 9. v. x/25. 44. \/r\ 11. xxi 15. 59. \/. 25. J. ar 1 . 9. J. 24. 2. ? .17. ) 2 >J i 10. (m 26. 47. 20. 27. 4. a 18 . v'frW. 55. 1. \ . 10. 14. 17. 8. 49. . 60. 26. 11. 3. 16.ANtiWEUS rational. \. 2V a. 31. 23. p. v/3. r. 13. 3. 3. Page 201. 29. 7 . a. 8. 5. 2. 1. 11. 7V7.  a'2 . $7. 22. 43. 32. x$. 1V1. 243. Page 197. 5. 22. . 2. 1. 1. \. z + 22. 3. 2. 12. 13. 15. 4. I. 5. 19. 25.^7.1 5 15. 2. 35. 32. . 2. 29. 58. 3. 41. 28. 30.
577. 3. ^: V2c. 2. 3^2. 10. y. 49. 25. + 2 V22.2 VlO.rV:r. 34 r 6. 48.). 37. V. 31. 2.3 + 40 3 . 2. 51. 5. + + ft. v^. v'TM. 1. 41.yl : . 9. + 2 Vzy + y 1. + Vic + 25. 32. 15. V2 + 4 V22. 29.Vxy 35. V. (x' (l 1+x). + 1. . Page 203.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 21. 195V3. 3V5. Page 207. 19. 9. 12. 13. . 10. 6. 43. / V3. T. 135V6. 23. + 2).XXii ANSWERS 1. a 3. 21. 4. m* n*. x + 5 x3 + 0.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 30. 19. Vr 8. 50. ?tV?w. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). + . 29. 3 x^y 33. 4aV^J 16. a^ + 2^+1. 31.632. 33. 13. 40. ftV 46. 24. 17.648. (a 27. y (a + ft) V2. 7. 2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. r c . 28. 32. 37. ). 3 a~ 3 (x (. 03r* 7. . 26. 5 22. 9. 20. 38. 3 4\/2. JIV6. 10. 2. 13 a. 11. 3.f. x^ . x%  3 ^+ 1. 27. . x y. 11V3. 8. 5 ( . ^7 \AOx. 18. 24. x 25. 2>X2. 2. 45. 3^ + 2). 39. 9 . a 4 +* + !. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 8a6V5. 16. ^88". 1 2 or 1 ?. . yV35. l 5. 3 \ 39. a2 4. 6. 34. 2v (T 2aVf. 2 a?>V2 a.  a Vft 2 121 b. + 2 ar 1 ). 22. 1) 3V3.  2 3:r. .r. 8V/) 15. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. V80. Va 2 "ft. 2 4 z2 l 3.x^y* + y%. 40. 16. 8. r 17  Page 204. 7.707.. k/2.692. 4. 20. 30. 3. x 7  34. 13 35. 2 '"V5.'\ 14. . Page 208. 36. . V 5 47. v/^r 5  A/^~. 2\/7. abVab. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. (o* 2. 11. 101 1. 62V(J. V63. 2 x* 15. 28. 20&V6. 3V^T.2 18. 5. 17. 3 42. x. 26.
11. \/a6c. 39. 28. 36. 2. 43. 19. 39. 6 2\/0. 1. ^ 3 b 5 24. 49. 36. 27. v^lf. 9 VlO + 4. V2. 3 Vl5 30. 32. 15. v/8. 32m27n. 41. 5v/2. VT5. x/8l. 5. 3 V2. 23. \^6. 24. 13\/3. 22. 22. 3\/15  6. a^\/a7>. : ^32. 13. / \/w/t 4 13. x/3. 21 23. x/w^ 8. . . rtv/5. V8. 2 28. V5. 1. 3 V15  47. 6+2V5. 6. + 20. 6. v/lO. 6. 14. \^6. \V3. 40. 29. v/l2. 20. 3. 8. % 29. 11. \/8. \/2. 5 \/2. 26. 44. ^\/3. 2 \/2. 34. 9. 35. x/8. D 45. 30. v 25^4714 V2"a. fl^Vac. 31. 51. . r)\/(l Vrtr. 8v2T 12. 27. 8V73\/IO. 10. V3. 18. . ab 4. 38. 0. v^f. v^30. m ?i2Vm/t. . 3\/2.. aVa. 12. v^a. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 17. xx 1. 15. 5. 3. 8  \/15. 2 ate. 4 a*. 48. 2\/7. 26. 14. Page 213. 9. 2 V'3. x/4. "^8000. \XOfl6Vi5. v^O. 34. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 13. 21. 2. Vat.r v/^ v^fr*. V3"m. ^27. 7. 8V2. 5. \^r^bVabc. 17. V3.T*. vT). a\/5c. '. 42. 6. 5V2. Page 210. x/8L v/27. Page 214. 5V2. Page 211. 2. v/9. 6. 1V5. 38. 11. 9. x/27. x/125. \/04a. 10. 53. \/abc*. Vn. 8. 14c 4 V5. 6V2. 4\/5. v^4. V2. 12. Vdbc. 16. V5. 52. v"3. 21. . 7\/(l 7VTO. 18. 10V(). . VJla.J Page 212. 33.30 2. V/. b. v7^. 6x2?/. 1. 74\/Jl 120 46.  3. v/i). 19. 4VO. 46. W). 31. 37. 23.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 6aV2\^. 2yV2?/. 4 >/3. 32. 2 1. 14. \/128. Vtf +3+ 33. w?i. Page 216. 24. v"5. 16. 50. 7. "v/wi ??. 3. 10. 17. 0. 18. 3. 37. 4. 3v^2. 4. 3. 30 Vl4. a2  b. 25. ^v 7 15. 40. 2. ^9. 7. 2. 3\/wi. 35. + VlO  v y (5. 25. 16.
i^ ~ 1 v ^. 15. 4. 25. 29. 12. +3 V2). V6c.  f.2. fV2. . 2. 9. 2. (\/5V2). . 15. + 6) 2 . 224. (2. 1. . 23. 3(7+3V5).732. 1. 4V3 + 6. 16. (Vf + (4 V2). 7. 23. 23.4142. .3. 1. 23. (2Vll). 30. Page220. 6.601.  2. 9. 31. 14. ^\/2. 25. 21. i(Vf Vft).1805. Page 226. 29. 100. 25. 1. (2V2). 4. 7. 125. 16. 5 V65. 3V23.9. 25. * 3. j. j 15. 25. 27. 18. 6 V. 25. 12. 10. Page 218. J. i^Lzi. 2. 9. 14.7071. . 7. . 8 V3V2. 1. K>/0 + \/2).732. 4. 20. 17. Vf6fVtf. 12. ' 22 i . 3.0606.7083. (V6 + 2V2). (V21). 2ajV2*.13. 24. Page217. 18. 4. 32. 8. 6. (a 1. V35. 10. 8. 20. 24. 5 f. 16. 16. 6 (V2 + 1).3. 3. 2x^2^. . \/57t. ^r.64. (VllV2).^ (\/22 4. nVTl. 4. 2V3. 17. 10. 6.w 6. xy 2. . (V5f 5. 2V2. p 6 13.XXIV 7. 4. (V8 + V2. 3. 18. 15. 512. 12. V^TTfc. 8. 2!5_. 2 . 9. 5. 13. (V51). 2. n*. 4 14. 8. 36. 19. Page 223.2828. Va.4722.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 9.3535. 1. 5. 27. + 5V2. 11. 13. m f. 37. 19. V3 . 15.\/TO). 35. 5. V. 7. 15 f 3 V2L 4.625 10. 24. 1.  . 21 ' Vob 26.1547. V3. 10. (3+ v/2). ^. 7. 9 mn. 3. 4. 17. 22. 4. Page 28. (2f V"5). 4. ~ Vac _c 0. 26. (\/3f 1). 7. 34. 1. 19. 9.V3). 1. 3. 7 Page221. 11. 18.389. V3. 8. 5. 8. 5. 9. 25.5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 22. 19. 13. 7. A . {. 1. 19. 16. 7 f 5 4. 6. 16. Va. V5. \. 4. 24. ANSWERS 8. 8. 21. 4. _^JflJ?. 11. 2. 3. J. 4. 216. 81. \/3). . 12. 7. 6. 16. ^(VlO\/2). 11.2. x 20. . 0. 16. 5. !^ 6 4. 3. 10. 4. 1. 0. Page 219. 5. 10.464. 11. 9. 12. 11. 5. 15. 8. (VaT^v a). V3. 14. 21. 17. 30. . 10. 23.5530. 20. 33. 28. 5. 18. 14. V2. 27.1. 9. 2..6 V3. 22. 2. 4. 64. 2V3. 81. 20. Page 225. f.81. 4. ^.6.  13. 26.
(pl)(p2)(p2). 3. 28. .3. 8. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. 5. 4. (+!)( 2) 10. 8.3. 4. 3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 18. 25. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 5. 0. 73. (a 4. 10. J. 16. . 9. 1 (?> x/^3. XXV 4. (a. 2 V^ . 3. 5. qpl. \/0. 1 . ( 16. 7. 22. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2. 2. 2. (w . 3. o. 0. 4. 3 . 1. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 4. 2 6. Page 234. 5.22. . . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1).3. Page 233. 2. 4. 25. 9.3. f>. 19. 3. 17. .3. 1 . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 4. 20. 2. (pl)(p3)(p6). 3. (2 a. 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. 8. 2 . 6. . 11. a  . 2 > 1.ANSWERS Page 228. 2. . 6. 3. . 14. 10. 2. 1. 1 . 3. 2. 20. . 9. =A^Z3. (a. 3. 4.3.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 17.2)(m. 2. 7. 3. 3. l. 14. 2.  5. 12. 4. 11. 3. 5.1. 2.  2. a(. ' J. . J. 3. 1 6. 2. 2. 13. 25. 15. (m 4 + l)(ro. 8. 4 20. 8.l)(m . 6.3 2..Y. (63)(6' t 18. . (a . . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 0. (r. (a+&)( 2 14. 50. 12 24 y . 1.  1. 16. 4 1. 25. 24. 1. 2. 11. 2. 2. (rt. . 0. 6.2)(* . 4. 12. 4. 1. 30. 1 3. 4. 15. 1.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). f . 4 4. 5. 1. 73.5. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2 .4.7. 30 30. 5. 7. 56l). 23. 2 . 3. 1. . 1. 30 . J Page 235. 12. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 3. 3 5. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 11. 4. 1.4). 1. 2. 12. 1.l)(a3)(a . & + 6 2 ). 1. 4. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 1. .  3. 100. 8. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 4 . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 4. 10. 2. 21. P. //.10. 15. 3 9. 10.8a 18. 2. . 2. 22. 5. 3. 4. 7.3). (4 mn .0. 18. 3. 6 2 2a + 2).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 5. 0. 2. a . 5.  . 2 &. J 24. 10. 0. 1. 3 .2.4.  3. V3.5 xy + 25) 22. 4. 3. 5. 5. 1. 1.2.  J.^a. 1 . . 24. .2. 5. 87 . 4.4. 13. 3. 26. 1. 13. (8.r . 3. 3 .1. ~ f7. 11.nl^EI. 6. 1.  f . 19. 6.  3.  16). . 7. 20. 7. (B43). 1 .  4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 0. 30. 2 <? 4a2 . b . 5. 13. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3. Page 236.w 4 + 1). 17. 3. (&y2a#H4). 19. 11. . 4. 10. 7. 2 . . y. 21. t/ 23. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 12. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 3. 3. 8 6 & 0. 13.  1.12. 2. 14. 0. 2. 2 6. . 4 .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 6. 1. 7. 2. a: :} .
2. ^ }. 5 4. 8. . 1 2. 3. 8. 1. f>. 78. 5. 3 4.136. 3. 18. Page 248. 2 16. in. 21. 2. . Page 239. 13.. 37. 1. . 7. 4. 22.1. 8. J. 1. 2. 35. i j. 84. oo. . 14. 1. 19. 3.0.. 4. 3. . 1. 16. 288. 15. 35 a. i i i . 1. 32. 5. 5. . 5. 2 2. 1 . 36. 1. 14. (a) $3400.6. 15. 22.. 1 . (a) 5. 2. f*. 6. 3. 4. Indeterminate.  2 . 201. . . 4.18. . 512. 5 cm.3. 1. . _ 13 (0 6. 4. 1. 0. Page 244. 1. . 2. j.3. 19. 3. Page 245. 69. 1. 5. 400. 900. 40 in. \/6. 2n. 2 10. 17. 40. ft. .020. 2. . 8. 4. 13. ri*. 3. 21. 7. 35^ 5. no co . 4. 2. 15. jj. 1. Page 247. 9. Page 241. . 23. 12. 9. 2. 55. 3V5. 3. 10. +  n. 512. 1. 10. 11. 7f solution. 7. m27. . 1. 1. 3. 2. ( 3.1. 3. 50. J. $. n . . 14. 2>/3. 1. . 17. 24. \. 40 25 in. 31. in.3. 1. } . . 48. . 4 34. 1 . 2 26.30.200. 1. 1. 17.e. 10. 2. 30. 12. Page 243. 41. 15.3. 2. 17.  . 2. co . 23. 3 . 4.xxvi Page 237. = QO 6.4. 8. 18.4. 2. ft. 38. 4. 37. 11. 6. 4. 5. 3. V3~. 2. 5. i'ljVU.2. 1. i. 3 3. 2. x 4. 5. 14. 33. 3. 2. 15. 13. 2. 1. oo . 31. 6.. in. 3. '>. J. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 5. 21 30. 1. 25. 5050. 4. 16. 18. . ' j. 2 1. 125 125. . 1. 2. 2. 3. . 0. 2V7. $. 2 Y> V . 1. 50. 2 . 11. 3. 11. in. oo . 4.. . 5. 1. 29. 7. 1. 5. 9. 0. 14. 3. c. Exercise 114. 28yd. 11. 12 ft..  1. 17. (&) 2. 3. 5. 1J. Page 240. 20. }. J. 10. _ 10. 1 . 2 . 4 8. . m28. 3 cm. 4. 30 13. V7. 7 3. . 12 1. Indeterminate. 2. 5. 4. 4. . 2. 3. 9. 11. and _ 4. 5.3. . . 4. 37. 2. 1. . 6. 4.. 1. . 3 .6.. . in. 5.3 . 6. (/>) "_. 12.4. 4.3. 30. 3 . 39. 12. 3. 8. . 14. 12. 12ft. 35 ft. 5 . 14. 5. 2 . 4 .5.0. 45yd. Exercise 113. 12 d. 3. 3. 15. 7. 5. n. 1 . 4.5.13.  11. 7. 3. 2. 7. 1. 5.3. (>. . 16. 17. ANSWERS 2. . f. 12. tn 2. 8ft. 3. $46. 9. 8.. 4. 1.4. 9. 3. ft. 24. Page 238. ^~2. . m + n.. 8. 4. 4. 3 2. _ 5. 15. 4 6. 1. $VO.1. 20. 20 7. . 20 in. 1. GO . 3.y. 2 ft. 26. 8 . 3. 8 3. _ 7.
6. r 5 4.920. 3. 10. a. 2. x4 . 70.0. Page 254. 27. 3. 1.^ ?>i 2412x4. 2.ANSWERS Page 250.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 1JH. 17. 125. 6. 4.384. 6. 0. 50. 327. 10.120. 3. Jj? 45. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 8. 16. . 405. 35.8.6. <. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.6 . \ w 4 . 18. 0. Page 259. 9. 1. and 1.192.7 10. ~ an . 22. 7. . 2.  20 flW. 125. 16. . 9.r 4. 45. 12. 10. 12. 10. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 8. 3. 23. 4 0. 15. 18. 6. 15. 7.4. 1.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 8. 04. J 2 //2 25. 128. a4 4 14.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 1. 81.680. 10 14. 53.53. 2. 12.r x>/ 7 3. r r j. Page 258. 7. vy. 44. 6.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .  17. JSg. 192. 5. 55. . f y 8 + z* . 3.700. 7. 29. 45 Page 257. 20. 1000 aW. 0. 410. 16. ?/i 6 x llj . d. 910. w9  8. 7. 12. 6. 21.419. ' 1. 35. **+. i 10. 9. 28. 4. 8 1. 14.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 48. 19. 0. 04. 3.870 m*n*. 3. 32.5. Page 252. 4. . 17. REVIEW EXERCISE .r* 4 70 .  101. 8. 7. 12. 25. &' 14. 70. 13.2 45 a 8 /). 5. 1 14. 120 aW. 6. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. />*. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .<2 4. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 8. . '23. 8.170. 13. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 3. 4. 2i* 7f. 7 x4 17. 5 13. 1.2 9. 12. 6i.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. sq. 5. 1. 8 4x' 2 . 19.5. .v Page 253. 12. 1 7 4. 2. Ja. 4. 7. 3. 10. 1. 16. 27. 19. . . G. 75. 4. in. 15. 5. ^a 8. 4. 27. 5. 1. 5. 15. 22.5 x. 2. 4.1.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 45.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 21. 11. 16. 8. 16. 0. 2. 15. 18. 20. . 1. 9. B . 280 53. . . 4.3 ays. 2. xxvii 1. 220 . 17. .x' 10 . 16. c. 2. A. 4. 1820. 3. 18.504. 005. 11. 5. 6. 2.13. 3. 0. 3. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 9. 8. 20. 100. 4. 26. 5. I.4 &z x>&. 0. 105. 2. 343. 8.5y 4 . 0. 0. 16 11. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. } $ 50. . 4. 2. 05. 27. 4. 70.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . x r 4. 5.470. ~v 9.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 708. 11. 10. .210. x + Vy. 13.12 x*y 16. 8. 8J. 4. 495. 4. 7. 1. 4. 1. 12. (). 304. 9. 5. 5. 343. 8 . . 3. 2.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 43. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . Y11. 4.
?> . 28. 4 65. 35. 23. 82. c3 4 58. . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 3~ n 4. a~b 89. 125. . /> 4 83.105.7. xyxzyz.  e +/. 8x3 8x.4. 2 a.rty x2 4 123. 26. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 91.3 x 2 + 3 x . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 100. y 4 z* 0. . 104. 131. 132. 133. .  .1.3 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x 8 + x 4 68.{ 54. 8 . 12 x. 36. t 81.x 2 4.2 c . 46. 16.4. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. . 2 x'V2 90. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . . 66. 76.  3 x2 . 10 4. . 88. a' 111.  + 3 x2 . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . Page 260.x24 73. 21. 63. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 1 x 45.5 3n 4.5x4. 50.3 y. 80. 2 53. 6 c 47. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 22.4 x?/2 3 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. &p 84. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().1. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 4 69. 13 + 2 s.fee 2 4. 29. . x 3 4. 127. 37. 0.4 ac.4. (a + ft)" 98.6 am b\ 129.3 103. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.5 b + c .x4 + y'2 z 4. 2 30 . 109.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. a 4 . . 5 42.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 86. .3 b .y*. 27.c. 6 a2 97. 2 . .41. 0. 110. Page 263. 4 fee 4. 3 c . 64. df.ac 44 aft. 107.  4 a3 85.2 x 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. . 3a'2 Page 261. 70.a6 2 4. 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . a4 x. 25.x 51. 4 115. 40. 96. 118. 99. f5+7. 31. x2 471x4. x . x 4. 120. _55_7c 48. 4 2 .c 3 4. 4. x8 x2 55. a* a 8 a aftc. 2 . . .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.1.a.18 x?/0.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 x2 108.5 a 2x8 x 3 .2 x^.1w 77. ft /> 78.4 2 4 c2 42 . x' 79. x 8  a8 . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.7 x   15.2.ft). + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. x4 f + 23 . 1 . 43. 6a6c. 3 a 5 a 5. 3a~2c. x } 4. 4 ! . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.a 2 x 2a .a' 'ft 4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1..  12 a. 7 + 3 xf 2.3 a 2 '6 w 4. x2 2 . 1 121. 122. 9 2w 128. a* 4.9 b. 2 113. 4 . 62. 2 q.3 aftc. 3 a .3 mn p 2/ x 4 .a*ft 2 126. .15 4 62 x  72. 9x. +^ + ft W.^a . a J .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 94. + z. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 38.x x*  f 2 ax 4. . 16t/. 3 36 b c . x2 a2 1 . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 10 a 12 b. * 60. x 2 . 72. () 2 x 33. 4. 124. . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.1 4 jry 4 x . 1 a"* 4 an . !! 71. 61. . 52. x* . 5 4 4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 243x4729. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 4.x. 12 a/.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .5. 32. 130.4 x y 87. a 3m 4. 102. ft2ft 4 4l.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 93. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 2/' . 4 Page 264. . 5x + 2y~z.3 a'ft.c. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. + 3 a?.a'2 c.2. I 57. .4. az 4. 14 x . . 24. x 3 41. . x' . 39. 5x 2 2x43. 30. ?/ 3. 4 15 x 5 . 114.4 x 2 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 0. 49.2.9 x .1. 4ft y3. ^ . 3 a 44. m " + n + P3c . 1 + 4 xy. a2 2 aft 2 2. ft n .6 b. . 105. as 20.18 ?/ 5x4. ?/ . + a 4. 2 x2 4.
2. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 7. 37 1. 2 2 (a.l)(y + 1). xxix 139.3) (2/3y).y)(z . 1. G7. C3 y _l)(. 232. 205. 183. 191. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 1. y 245. (x .1). 21. 8 204. 1.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 12 6 panes. 8(ar}(/)27). 177. 50. 1. + 22). 216. 231. 6.6 . 48 h. m.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). . y  y 165. Page 267./_4). 19. 208. 2.l)(a 2 +3). 1.2ac + 229. . x(x + 6) 213. 163. 148. 237. 15.3 y). 155.3. (c) 160 C.l)(x8 + x2 . 4. 171. yr. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 239. 3(x . 136.2). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). +)(x2 x^+2. 174. + 2) + 9a. 182. 153. aft. 12 yr.. (?/+l)(yl). HI. 226. 247. 2^. 217. 18.m)(x + a). 244. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 214. (ab + 8) ( 7). (8x + 3)(3x4). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 159. 202. (7 c 2 ). (/ 246. (JT y 225. (x  42 yr. 195. 185. 179. . 137. 222. 23 18. 2. 236. (2 198. (a 2 + 2a6. (2a + l)(a .y) (\r3y). 24. 142. 241. 160. 164. 2 (4 x . 211. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).1(5) 200. 161. 167. (a& 192. 201. 2(x8)(x3). 140. (y  17)(y + (>). 176. 10.y2 ). (5 x . 158. 30.6)(4 + 6). 75.2. (3x2?/)(2.r .3). y. 10 in. + 3). 206. 30 yr. (233). Iff 145. 1. (y _ ft)(y 4. 166. 146. 168. 2. y3. 240. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 178. 32 h. (x 227. 20. 197. + 3) (x f f>) . (y_24)(y5). 15.6) (2 x + 1).2) (3 x . (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). ( jc // a 2 (a1). 143. 220. 10). a. 190. 22.. 230. 149. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 189. 199.r + 4). p. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (x^ + x1) 234. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). as 194. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . + y. ft.3 y)(a .y + 3)(r (. 138.ANSWEKti 135. k.9)(xf 2). 152. 3. 169.4xl). (. . + 11) (a 10). ( + 2y)(2x3y). fc'2a+62c). 6). 175. 207. (a} 59. 154. (r^x + 1). 144. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 15  a. . 3.1). + 7)(rt4). p. (x + 2)(x . 10).  1. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .. 1. 12) (j. Or (a + 2)0el). 218. 4. 151. 40 yr. 173. Page 265. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 6.2 )(x+y) 228. 150. . (r7y)(ai. a(a. 193.2). 5. (y 7f))(y 196. 180. 147 mi. 181. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 238. 157. 1. 2. Page 266. (x + 6)(x6). 224. (3x  . 187. (6) 40.y)(jc + 7 y). r>x 2 (4x. 184. 209.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. z(x10)(xl). 170. 219. 147.I2y). 218. (y7)(y + 188. 233. 20. a 2 (15. . 12.y).1). 215. 156. 186. 12. 235. 212. 172. ?. a + 2x2 ). 210. 162. 2 xy(3 x . 10 ft. 36ft. 30 + xyr.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 12 yr. (7x2//) 203.
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1. x 54 359. 324. + 4 & 4 \ b. 408. ^ 3 // . 3. 379. L . 2(a i 403. . 0. 333. 375. 389. c 402.!. 393. + 335. 377. 0.XXXI Page 272. 364.1. 361. 4 A. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 4. 386. 407. ab. l'j. + x 362. l . * 357. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.  1 356. 2 ab  a Page 276. 329. ?>*.". 0. 326. . Page 274. 11.J . 1. 388. 392. y 4 I 340. 1. 7. 6a. 3. 390. T+^. 12. 2 r36 384. 401. 383. 405. _*L'L+. S.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 343 00 351. 339. 370. If. 1. a +6. 2 ?/ 363. . a + b + 6). T\.)Cr4)__ . " 4 378. j 328. 398. . 387. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. ?/ + 3 332. 394. 406. 325. 4 rw. 396. (a + b + c\ . 6 ?/+:>. A^L5L. 2 ).vin a /r " 337. 20.  1. <L 409. .3. 334.. 395. f. ^_:r f> 331. . 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). a 2 . 9^. 365. 336. 355. 380. m.(5 a . 1 i 2 ^.7. 2. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 7/i ^ _ . a) A^_.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 13 391. 0. 399. 360. 385. 2. 404. 382. 366. Page 277. ?=. 4. ^"" 4 s . 400. 1. 376. 397. 2 327. 2(q. 3..
1. . 1. 7. 421. $2000 at 0%.  f>. 2. 5. 40 oz. 499. 441.  10. 439. 454. 442. 9. . '. (a  c). 8. 463. . i. 8. a + + ft c. . 456. 10.46. 2. 445. * . 464. 1 a /?$+&?. 446. 459. 1$. 495. 2$. 418. 476. Page283. 466. 40.m  m+ M in. 2. 21. 51. 498.55. 455. 5. 429. 413.3. 6. !L=4. 12. 0. 2. (&) true. 419. 482. 1.  7.  1.  2. 14 miles. (d  6) f. . . 24 days. c 6fc 10. ^r?i 434. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 452. . <L+ 6 (. 20 yr. (a) 1. .0. 3 . 1. 20.te + . b 449. 440.12. Page 281. fc. 426. 5. 10$. 2 438. 467. 2. 447. />c c(f be. 465. 8. 7. 3.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 507. 436. 0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. ' $260 at 0%. 508. m. 7.7. (c) not true.. 2 a 2. 487. 5J. 444. 42.0. 432.7. 10.7. .vz in. (&) 443. (d) true. ft 5. 478. . 3a 4 5. 435. a 22 . 477. z8 +?/ 3 431. B $ 2500. 1. c. 428..}. 5. ISjmi. 11.. . 3. 412.7.  . .489. a* 424.. 10.  1. 53 yr. 450. A $ 3500. 484. 28 yr. 0.  2.  7. 32 yr. L2 a  6 .2. 7.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 10. 2.488.rz Page 279. 2. . . 481.3. 22. ^.2. 423. 33. I.4. 90. 10. 496. 502. 457. ISJini. i a b 451. fj. 2. 6.4. Page 282. 462. B 4 mi. 501. 411.1. 483. 0. 0. 490. + () 433. . 468. L (c) I. \.. 461. not true. 425. 84. Page 280.}. Page 278. . 460. 500.. 0. 8. 492. 506. 6. : />a. 4. 3. *+. . m 1 : wi. 5. A 5 mi . . 17. 472.  505. 5. 4. 427. ^V.5.  2. 494. 17. & 491. 7 : . 32. 485.7. 458. 18. 420. 479. 7. 50. 493. 503. 6. 410. 10. 63.  2f 504. 422. 4. . 2. 6. 6. \ 1. 448. 497. 0. 480. 486. 4. 430. 6. 2. 10.  453.
.  2.37. 1. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.83.   (h) 8. 3. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 3 .03. 4. 1. 528.  7.5. 0000.0. . 509. 515.5 f. 1. 4.6 2. . + 12 x .. 1. f36a28x8 592.  + + c. 4.75. . 1. 516. 4. da.4. 551. 2 1.6. H. 553.1. M ft c 2 ft 3465.38. 581. 1. 2.xj/ f xV . 559. f.0. ^ ft 4.02.3. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. a*8a + 24tf 82a.6. (ft) Ill Ib. 513. 1 . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . a f ft + c. (c) 3. f. 4. 7. 575.04. 1. 2.f 1.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . If 572.7. 598. 536.35.78. 569.5.53. tin. 1J.14. 577.24.25m. 560. + 26 + . 2 2. 3f 4f.20. 24 da.4.15.21. .24 sec. 529. 3. 1. 2. 573. .  imag. 1. 0. 599. 14.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 603. (ft) 4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.8.00. 518.8. 232. 554.3. a+ Page 286. (gr) 10 1.24. .9.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 1$. 526.  J(a f + 2c). . 582. 4 mi.3. .02. (/)  10 to 8. (e) (c) 2. 1 580. y 4. . f ? a f ft __ + c C).  .  ft*.. . per hour. 1. 512. Page 285. S82 c.r8 596.3. 4. 40 Ib.8.4. (d) 537.78. T .7. 21*_. 568. > ^ .55.15. 561.3. 3. 3.4.  4.88. 583. 6. lead. 4. 532.0. lead..5.73.1. 593.3. 3.02.7. o> . 574.10. . 2 imag. (c) 4. _ 4. 558. Roots imaginary. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.3.  (a) 2. _^ 2754x . . .. .02. 115 Ib.03. 1. . 591.  1. 3. a + ft  a  f c.8. . 3. 6435. 2(6 597. (e) 570. . y% Z * 586. 24. ft 584. 4 0.33. 2. 525. 1. 514.6. . 2.25. 2 1. xxxin 511. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 556. 578. 2. . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 3. 2 . 1. (a) 74 Ib.4. 571.8 x3^. (i) 3.0. 1.10. 555.75. 2 10. 3. 8 mi. 2.62. 8.54. 531. 31. .6. 566. 550.54. <z ft 1. (6) 3. per hr. 1 . 563. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 567.1.5. 7^ da.  557. 3. 1.83. 1.1. 533.37. 576. tin.2. 2(4 602.15. 2.31.16.56 sec. 4.5+.1. 1. 2 . _ 3. 1 600. . 5. 3._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.. 1. 6. 562. 1.4. . . Page 287.04. 3.1. or 8. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 565. Page 288.  3. . 510.4 x + . 4* da.ANSWERS Page 284. 3 da. x8 . + 6 tf f 3 . 3.5. 27 y* f\4 . 552.12.  2ft da. 5.  (a) (d) 1.% rr\* 585. 1. 530. .3. J7] min. 527. (6) .52. 5.51.31. . 2$. 3. 2. 579. g(rc+ 6c).30. 5. 564. 1.62. imag. 1.05. 4.
^ 1. . 691. 700. 4330 da.3. 3. 683. . 14. 1 704. 5. 210. 2 / 2 4. fe + a. 9. If f 667. ab. 6 685. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 5 3. i. 648.  . 971. 631. 642. Page 289. y  619. 670.  684. <T! . 662. a ' 2 + .2f Page 290. 641.702. I}'/. fta a/> ^A. 703. 78. 703. be ac \.a~ {Z 663. 1 V5 1. 632. . . 2 a  6*. 628.>A 610. 620. ^^ 695. 2092. 621. 3. 646. 0. 647. 1 2. ft). a + b.  13. 690. . la6 2. . b . If. 633. 615. 612. V^~3). 678< 682. 1.049. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 643. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 7. 11. 626. ^. V"^TJ. 650. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 898. ab 689.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 4. 655. V7. a 1J. 10. 11. 661. 2. 0. 3. 1. 613. 666. 708. 652. 2f. If . 1010.b 686. 701.2f (5 4. 672. b 664. 1 ~a . 4$. \+ab 699. 702.XX XIV 606. 636. 677 680. n^l +^. 5. 2. 2&). 640.14 If 1. 8 6 fo . 654.f 3 V^3).. 6. . / V^+lO^M"^. ^. . V2. 623.001. If 658. 5. 617. 624. 616. 653.  1. 4 V 0. 7003. 705.001. 618. 645. 2. 2.002.  2f r 659. ' fe 2 ). 679. 692. 657.  6. a 4. + 2 A (i f Page 291. ix 2 .303. z  1.04. 635. . 2. 13. If b. 0. 1. (a3&45rj. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . ' 674. 8 f 3. 0. 0. . 696. 2 x 44 ^/. 6. 1m*. 644. K 5 2 V2. 5002.c ) 697. .y. . 627. 2f. a 673.b. 7. 649. . (*_ + a: 611.0.  a2  a (ab). 3 681. o. a 2. \. c. 630. if 4/> 671.. 2. 660. 8. 2. 2. 1$ 639. 637.3. 4. 2. 634. 1. /> 4. a.3f l 668.  4. 25. 614. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.  4.  ft. 9*. 622.3. 4. . 638. 656. 629. l/'3. V2. 4 676.43^4. 706. 009. 12. 50.3.  3. 608.203. 698. 3 a. 607.25. 25. 0. 669. 2 a: 4. b. J^^. 2 a 688. 3 x2 . 651. 2 ab + a  &. + ~^'2 + a 1. 4. 625. If 665. 5.
756. rt3 2 ^i^. i 2. 709. 723. 794. 2x3^ a. 731. 5. a 2 6^. 8. 713. 710.4 . 1. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. VT14V5. 767. 1. 750. + 6 2 tf'c. x i f^' . 47. 732.. 725. Page 294. iv/Jj. 776. 1 [ + '> J.ANSWMHti Page 292. 733. 737. 25. 736.1 . 33^2. ^7xy. a db Va^T < 45da. 2\/53V2. 15 shares. r. 1. 1 752. 740. 773. fyaw&cu. 3^. 3 VlT 795. 777. 3V52V3. 59. J(v'lO2V 791.2.. 727. 17ft.11.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.8. 24 4 . . 734. 724. cr*lr*. 13ft. 30\/10 764.r.~ . a 2  x2 . 782 785. 728. 342V3. v'll. 719. 8. 2 V2 . 3V7. j 742. 5. 7  3V5.. 3V72VO. x\y. 739. 796. 790 2v 3v 2. . 726. v/7 / . > 748. 768. 300. 714. . / 787. 729. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.^ 743. 711. 763. a:* . 715. mn. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 746. 00. ^ ?>. ^ .^. 778.. . 718. 751. 24V2.4 . 716. 1 747. VIO\/3. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 758.r+y> 759. 738. 34. 39. i^. 712. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .10. 769. 730. 792. 793. Hi a. 789. a 5 . 3V72V3.257.12 af V^ 4 744. 753. Page 293.9. + < 735. T%. 3 720.rJ w L 754. 788. . 717. y  1. a". 32>/2. 1^ _ 760. 722.9. 1 I .V/^ 741. 721.V2. 29\/3. 24. VV> L4V34. 4 104 v/2. 3. 749. "V313. 755.
Page 297. 800. 830.r4). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). ANSWERS 798. 7.1) . 876. 842. . 2. 7. 4 818. 3.7). (3 862. o 828..1. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 827. b' 2 821. 2. .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (xl)(^~3)(. are extraneous.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 0. 801. db 7. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 1. 14. . 896.om 441) (a 855. 4 . 6 $. 2/ 856. 6. 891. 820. 5. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 851. . ( 4 4. 4. (. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.3. x. 817.l)(x + 3)(2x43).4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2 . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). (2 4. 813. 867. 4. 814. 841. 1C.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.1). a(ft)( 873. 20). 17.+ m f ") (a* ). 900.  1. H. a 42)(x . 3. 868. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 884. 834. 2 . (1 . 822. . 880.l)(x + 2). 823. (x . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . f. 48.1) (a 8 .. 3. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 17. 13. 2 806. 844. **.5 b) 4 1). . . 4.  ' . . 2.rae) (4 . 838. 4. 892. 882.7). 2. 1 . 6+V7. 816. 8. (3 b . 1 1. m 875. 890. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 835. 5. 811. Hoots . 837. \/5.a 3 " 4. (x*y*ryz + z*). (x 2 f r . ^VG. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 899. a* 4. 4 885. x . 898.XXXVI 797.10 ab 4. 799. + d)*. 872. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 1.2 ax 4. 833. 808.4) 860. 893. 5. 4.a 2 2 ). o. 2 *x 807. 887.0. 2 j 889. 3.7 4 1) 846. 2 m . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 23. 804. 3.l)(x . (x 2 .3)(x + 4). n =  29. (a m .5) (x + * 853. 832. (x 4. V 3. (:r 11. (x + 0X024. 836. 847. 3.4. 4. . 812. (  ?>) (a + ^> .7)(4 x. 6(a6)(o a + + &). Page 296.2w . (2 x + 3 y} . 4. 25. 895. ( 869. 0. 6. 0. 1. ^. 11. ((' 1). ^ V}. 0. 825. 2 (x 4*4.a 4 + 1). 2. $.l)(x . (2 a . 848. X4 1). 3. 810.1)(V 2 .2) (x 4 2). 859. 1. 886. 863. 849. 888. 4. 7. 8 09. \/2. . Hoots are extraneous. jV3 f 3. 2 2 . 4. J V. 861. a(ry + 864. 4.. 824. 5. Va 803. 3 . (a 4 871./>") (a'.7. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 843. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . m = 2. 3. 858. .y) 852. 881. 2. (2x (r. 19.  tt 815. 4.  + l(l^). 3. 840.4. (x 845. 1. 2 854. 829. 879. 897. 894. 2  2. 819.1)(0 865.r . 11. 5. (a 1) (x 4. 831. +j!>. 857. Va. 7.  839.f. 2. 3. 5). 8. 883. 2. 6. $. ) (a' 874.3. . (x3). 10. . a2 ^E*!. (4 c 4. 2. 826. 2.25 ?>2). 2 . (x .
922. J. Page 301.. Va926.. .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. V^3). 15 16 ft. 56. 6 1 1. 905. 954. T 6. 4.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 28. 979. 7 ft. . i 3. 1. 6. 329.. 942. 2. 14 . 964. 4 6 mi. 80. 1). 6 a 915. 6..073. .2. 944. 4. . r ft ' < Page 299. 4 . 6. 2. 938. Page 302. 11. 5. i(6 in. Page 300. 280. 20 19 ft. . 5 .. 10..615. 480 8 sq. 931. . 906. 2 i ' a V. 3. 333. . . 932. 937.0. 3. 0./hr. 2.I. 940. 5.. S07. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 115. 66 924. 904. tt2 19. 6. . . ft. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 11. $(l 4. 3 4 . 100 rows.V~~3).01.651. 959. 2. 961. %* . 925. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 945. 978. 4. 3. J. 8. 12 mi. 2 w 914. 6. 6 . 60 949.. dL 4. 960. 40 16 in. ft. . 4.. 7. 918.709. 911. 1. i>. Y. 1 1. 8. . V5 T 2 . 1 . 923. 4. 10. ft. 909. 2. ft. 955. 3. i1" 913. 3).  1 . f. 248. 920. 2.760 sq. . 7. 950. . 903. 985.446. f ft 4 . 8. 2. 18. ?/i 6. 3 . 981. 12 in. 9 in. 947. 28. 982. 4. 919. 2 yd. 977. 0.. 7 or 30. 5.. T 6. 3. 1 + V953. 980. 2. 987. 956. 943. 108. J(_ ft. 5. 1. 2. 28. a + . 3. 4. 1 _2 . w. 333. 927. 941. 12. 986. 3. 2. 936. 908. 917. 2 1. yd. V5 fj.  26j. 916. w 3.1 = 9. 933.. Z ^. 934. 4. 939. 15 946.1. a. 12. 912. 4. 4. 948. 4 in. 963.744. 6. 902. '3 3 in. 5. 8. 8. 1 2. 0. =F J. ft. . ft.. .. 12. T3. . 930. . 73. Page 303. 8 . ft. 7. 6 da.. 496. 984. 8. 6. 983.1. 11. i 8. 11.  1. 8128. 7. 952. 951. 935. 921.2. ^y. 958. 5l4f. . .111. 8. v/(ai !)(&910. 2 ft. 111. 0. 962. 8. ft. 957.
78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .18. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .870 z8 . 994. 990.192rt?)r 120 *. (5. 9 da. 1012. . 996. 6 70 . 4. 2(2 v/2). 1010. 1014. 162.'^^ } ( . r = 2. 108.. + 448 . 991. ~ \. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 993.  5&7 1021. () 12(2+V3). 1008. (Z>) 999.. 1005. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 995. 48. Page 305. 0. 1009. . 12. 1003. 1016. in.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . + v 2). X. 1 1004. 992.92. 8. 12. 0. 1001. 120 a. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 24.870 a 6 1011. 1017.51. 1007. 1000. 1006. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 997. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 120 i^l^.128 I. 1013. 1(5. 2 .378 1015. Page 304. ^Trsq. 1019. ^f (2f3V2). 192. 1 8 8 2. 1018.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 3003. (J.378 <W and 92. (6) 8(1 . . 72. 988. 4 and 1020.
Half leather.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the . but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. $1. HEW TOSS . and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. great many work. A examples are taken from geometry. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. i2mo. and commercial life. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xi 4 373 pages.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. given. Ph. $1. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. save Inequalities. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. so that the Logarithms. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. physics.D. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. xiv+563 pages. The more important subjects tions.25 lamo. comparatively few methods are heretofore.
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW YOKE . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. great many A examples are taken from geometry. physics. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. save Inequalities. The author grade.D. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+56a pages. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. In Factoring. HatF leather. xi f 373 pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. comparatively few methods are given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Logarithms. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.25 i2mo. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 12010. etc. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. so that the tions. Ph. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.
textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SEVENOAK. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 6. i2mo. Ph. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK . $1. wor. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 9. . iamo. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.D. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.. Cloth. 4. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. lines. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. SCHULTZE. under the heading Remarks".10 L. xii + 233 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.r and. Cloth. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 7 he . 10. more than 1200 in number in 2. izmo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Half leather. $1. State: . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .
" The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . . . of these theoretical views. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . and not from the information that it imparts.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. New York City. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. 370 pages. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 12mo. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. $1.
New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Topics. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. $1. photographs. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Maps. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. i2mo. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. and a full index are provided. Cloth. " This volume etc. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.
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