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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. . OF TORONTO CANADA.
PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
8. 1915. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Norwood.. . 1910 . May.A.' February. Mass. July. May. IQJS January. 1917. J. September.COPYRIGHT. September. August. . Cushlng Co. January. . Reprinted 1913. 1910. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1916. 1911. 1910. Berwick & Smith Co. U.S.
chief : among These which are the following 1. manufactured for this purpose.. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. specially 2. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. owing has certain distinctive features. and conse ." this book. etc. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. however. Such a large number of methods. Elementary Algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. are omitted.
vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. Moreover. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. hence either book 4.g. especially problems and factoring. e. are placed early in the course. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. as quadratic equations and graphs. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. two negative numbers. In regard to some other features of the book. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. however.
physics.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and commercial are numerous. Moreover. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. in " geometry . elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform." Applications taken from geometry. based upon statistical abstracts. is based principally upon the alge . the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. viz. such examples.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.
1910. William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. NEW YORK. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April. however. .viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.
.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ........ SUBTRACTION.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..... . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... Powers. ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.
...114 .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * ...... . Type Polynomials. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ... . Type IV.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. * . . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Type V... Type II. /^ . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type III. Type VI..
. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... CHAPTER XIV 169 ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .... Evolution of Monomials 170 . .....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
some number is . x 9. 17.g. A binomial is 62 . 4V3~6c. + 1]. 11. find the numerical value of: Vff. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 0. or 9 Vx. 8. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 27. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 12. 6. a polynomial of two terms. 2 . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. (cfd) 4.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. d 7. 3. Val \fi?. 6. V36". 13." EXERCISE If a 1. V2a. v'Ta. A polynomial is an y. 15. 2. + c). 5Vl6c. since the parts are a . b = 3. 10. 14. as in arithmetic. is 28. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 16. !^f\/03 3 ft. e. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V3 . c = 1. 7 = 2. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. aVc^. \/c. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. are trinomials. 4(a 6(6 + &). 26. V^a6. [6c] 3 . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. c f d). Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 9.
EXERCISE 8*  . = 32 + 4527 = 50. . Ex. 4a6fVaV2^. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .INTRODUCTION 29. a2 11. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.9 aWc + f a b .810 + 150 = . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 6.e. Ex. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .4 6^9 ad.19 = 6.30 = 270 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.9. . 5c +d 2 . 5.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. a=4. (a (a f b) 7. d=Q. 3a + 56 a 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. multiplication. b = 3. 3 2 If 1.. 12.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 14. 1.99. 2 ). 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 6. + 26+3 c. 10. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. . 4. Otherwise operations of addition. 5. __ E. 3 4 . l 13. find the numerical value of: 9.g.2 + I126. i. subtraction. c=l. 3. c = 2. 5=3.390.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . * For additional examples see page 268. .5 ax 50 a6cd. x=^. 2. 2. 52 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 4 . 16. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 8. a 2 6. d = 0.
a = 4. Six 2 .c) (a . 30. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 3. 6 = 6. a =4. 28. 6 = 5. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). . Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 33. 29. and other sciences. 6=2. 6. 37. a = 4. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 23. 6 = 2. 34. a = 2. 6 = 7. = 3. a =3. if : a = 2. 26 of the exercise. 24.6 . 35. sible to state Ex. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 1.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. geometry. 26. physics. : 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 4. a a=3. a = 3. Six times a plus 4 times 32.6 f c) (6 a + c). and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 38. 22. 25. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 6 = 5. 30. 6. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 27. Express in algebraic symbols 31.
= (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. and 5 feet. if v . By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. c. i. (b) 5. 84 square EXERCISE 1. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. then a 13. . and 15 feet. 14. b 14. the area of the triangle equals feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.INTRODUCTION E. 15 therefore feet. and 13 inches. if v = 30 miles per hour. 2.g.e.16 1 = 84. A train in 4 hours. d. (c) 4. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 13. if v : a. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 4. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.seconds. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 12. b. Find the height of the tree.) Assuming g .16 centimeters per second. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.
If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. : 8000 miles. 5. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the (b) 1 inch.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.14 4. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 8000 miles.14 square meters.14d (square units). (c) 10 feet. (The number 3. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. square units (square inches. (c) 5 miles. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. . the 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. meters. 2 inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 32 F. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the area etc. (c) 5 F. is H 2 units of length (inches. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. $ = 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).). diameter of a sphere equals d feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.
we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). .CHAPTER II ADDITION. however. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. SUBTRACTION. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or positive and negative numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10.
EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5. d = 5. . 22. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. d = 0. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. lf(2). 4 is 3 J. + 12. 12. c = = 5. 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (_ In Exs. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 4. if : a a = 2. 18. '. 10. Thus. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. + (9). of 2. (17) 15 + (14). is 2. 5. of: 20. 21. 6 6 = 3.  0. the one third their sum.16 32. 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. is 0. c = 4. 24. 33. 2326. subtract their absolute values and . 19.3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.
7 a. ^ ' 37. and 4. and 3 F. \\ Add 2 a. and 3 yards. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors.3. are similar terms. 35. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 74. . 6. $1000 loss. 1. 10. 60. and $4500 gain. 10. 32. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 37. 36. and 8 F. 6. 39. 29. 30. = 22. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. : 48. . and 3 a. 72. ' 1? a 26. 10. 0. $3000 gain. c=14. 40. 31. 32. 09.4.. . 3. 27. 33. 25.7. or and . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. . 6. & 28. SUBTRACTION. : and 1. 2. 4. : 34. 4 F.7. $7000 gain. 41. 12. 11 (Centigrade). ... Find the average gain per year of a merchant. c = 0. 34. .13. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. }/ Add 2 a. 5 and 12. and 3 a. & = 15. 42. 7 a. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. which are not similar. 7 yards. = 23.5. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 55. 43. . 38. 2. sets of numbers: 13.ADDITION. 3 and 25. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. = 13. affected by the same exponents. ' Find the average of the following 34. 66. d= 3. AND PARENTHESES d = l.5. 13. $500 loss.
The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 .sign. 3a . 10. Algebraic sum. 12(af b) 12. Vm f. 11. f 4 a2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 12Vmfn. . in algebra it may be considered b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. + 6 af . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 7 rap2. 5 a2 . or a 6.13 rap 25 rap 2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. : 2 a2. 2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 14 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2(af &). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. ab 7 c 2 dn 6.18 35. 12 2 wp2 . 5Vm + w. 13. b a f ( 6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. EXERCISE Add: 1. 9(af6).ii. 5l 3(af6). and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 2 a&.
ADDITION. 17. a a8 ZL **. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. ra 19. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2/ : Add. SUBTRACTION. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. and to add each column. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. l^S 25. n x* 2 22. + / + 3 Va. 36. is . without finding the value of each term 34. c 2 ^24. +m """ 20. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 1 27. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 6 23. 30. 21. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 37. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2 2 2 31. + y. 2 7 1 26. 32. 35. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 33.
6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. f 110WS: 26 aft.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. c = 1. = .15 6c. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. and J 2 s.20 c 5 ab 4. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .c= 2. a 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. . ft any convenient and c. 2c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. . x of x.41 = 3. 4 2.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 4 = 7.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 46 4z 7 c. 5 .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. .15 abc .7 2 . of that letter. 2 . e. 9 q 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. to show any error. 3a 2? .8 abc . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 6=2.g. and 2 . 2 Thus. therefore the answer is correct. NOTE. V3. 7 4. 3. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. to add 26 ab .12 a& 4. 5. s. 2 025.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.o c and 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 Sum.3 s. 3 a f 4 1) 4. the erroneous answer equal 7.
and and 13. 18/+6y + d. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 4 3 . a. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4(a . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.and 6.2n 2 2 3 rz . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 4 ajy 17.4 Va . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.(b + c) 1. a + 1> 8 2 2 .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . .a 4 a 4 1.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . d. 11.4:xy xz 6yz. ?/ . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. . 56 w. and 8 3 . 7ar + 3B 5. 4 Vc.a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 19. 2 3(c f a). a2 a. v/20.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . and 5 Vb 18.1.1 a 4 1 0. . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. e a4 /. + 50 + 62 . a2 2 14. and 1 4 a .Ga 43x45. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .3 mn 2 2 n8 .VS 4 2 Vc. a 4 a .ADDITION. m 4 6.9(a + &) .10 Vc. .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 2 ?/.12 6 ~5 a . a 4 a . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 16e + 17/90.5a^6 f 6) . 16.12(a 4. 2 ?ft ?/z. 2 2 and . 4. 4 8 3 4 4 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . + a + 1.15 5. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .6. 3 2 2 3 9 . a) y ^/. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.8 m 2m 12. 2 2 . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. and .5 cr& + 7 6 9.a. .a. and v 15. and 12a 4 15& 20c .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . . xy3xz + yz. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. ^2 1 e. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.12.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. in 8 3 m n 4. d and / 3 ? 12. 2 a. 8.7v/if. SUBTRACTION.7m .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.
22 21. many negative units re main ? from 2. + n*. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.. 6 f c 2 23. how 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.m 4m ?/?/ d. 8 . 12 xyz. + 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . f 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. .3^* 2n 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . and 25. f 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 13 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. 45a6 2 . 1. . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 8 f3f a n2<w +n .5< 3 2 s 4^4. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.9aj 2. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1/ .ra + m. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. The sum and ? 1. and e + 6y . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .3 taken from 2 ? 5. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. a 6 2 c. T8a. s . f number may be added 3. and 2 24. 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . +d a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1. is 2. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. If you diminish a person's debts.11 xy + 12.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. 22.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e.
In subtraction.ADDITION. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 6 (3) = 8. NOTE. Ex. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . called the minvend. the given number the subtrahend. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ab = x.g. 1. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. from What 3. To subtract. From 5 subtract to . From 5 subtract + 3. and their algebraic sum is required. +b 3. if x Ex. Ex. ( 6) ( = . 7. This gives by the same method. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 3. SUBTRACTION. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. a.2. 5 is 2. In addition. and the required number the difference. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. two numbers are given.3. the other number is required. 2. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 41. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.
24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. If x = l = 2 t .f 8 . Ex.5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check.3 r*5o.
ADDITION. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . c f d. 41. tract 4 x 3.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 6(af. 2y 2 . 44. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.c.a 2 j. 47. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. of a 4. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .4 a^ 4.4 a*& + 6 a & . 45. check the answer.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 2 a take a & j. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 50. 51. 55.w>t. 56. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .2.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 42. 2. 57.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 43. 6 4 a. 52. 48. 46. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.7 a . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. + a the 2 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.6)f. 58. 49. 54. SUBTRACTION. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 53. .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. and 3 7/ .
+a add the difference duce 13. 9. subtract # + 1. 20. 6 17. a a + c. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.15.26 4. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . A is n years old. a + 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6. 16. 19. of # 2 8. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 2. a 2y + z. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 2 m 21.
we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.6 b f (. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. changed.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.a^6)]  } .c. & f c. 46. a+(bc) = a +b . Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. .& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. the sign is understood. II. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 45.g.2 b . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. one occurring within the other. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Ex. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. I.b c = a a & f f.
m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 5.1422) J ] . a f (a a . 6) 2. 8. By removing parentheses. Ex.+ 6)f (a2 b).[271 47.)]. 4. ? 11. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 18. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 19. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. + (2a 6 + c ). 16. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 271 + (814 .: Ex. Signs of aggregation 1.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 17. . may be inserted according to 43. : x + (2yz). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). m f ft) a. 21. 3 3 f 7. (m a2 f. [36+ (a 2c]. 13. a (a + 6). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.7i h jp) (m ?*. 15.) 5 . 14. 2 2a. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 2. 2 2 2 a(. a (a + 26 c ). 6. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 9. 3.(a + 6).y (60.
p + q + rs. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. m x 2 4.1. and the subtrahend the second. z + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.7fa. The product The product m and n. 5^2 _ r . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 7. )X 6. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. first. of the cubes of m and n. The sum^)f m and n. II. 13.2 tf . 12. 10. 5 a2 2. difference of the cubes of n and m. The difference of a and 6. 2mn + 2q3t. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. terms 5. 3. SUBTRACTION. a\l> > c + d. . 2. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 5. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 9. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 6 diminished . 3. 7. The square of the difference of a and b. 4. 8.ADDITION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6.4 y* . m and n. ' NOTE. y f 8 .
d. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 18. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.) . (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. 6.30 14. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.
two loads balance. If the two loads what What. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. 4. 2. A A A 1. If the two loads balance. force is produced therefore. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 3. what force is produced by the Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weights. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. let us consider the and JB.
To take a number 7 times. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.32 8. thus. Practical examples^ it however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 5x(4).9) x 11. becomes meaningless if definition.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. however. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. (5)X4. 9 9. x 11. (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. NOTE. or plied by 3. ( (. 4 multi44444 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. the multiplier is a negative number. . 9 x ( 11). 4 multiplied by 3. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. such as given in the preceding exercise. Thus. 4x(3)=12. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4)(. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 48.
. (. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. the parenthesis frequently omitted. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (7) X (12).2 f+x 2 . b = 3. 7. 9. NOTE. 2a 2 6c. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 13. (4)'. tors is no misunderstanding possible. X(5). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 6.MULTIPLICATION 50. . . 10. 4 .2. 1. 15. If a cal = 4a6c. is 6x7.(4J).a)( =+ a&. _2. 8 4 . _3. 12. 26. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. x. 6. 3 a2?/2 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&.3) (1) 7 2 . 32. 23. find the numeri values of: 21. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. of Signs: TJie positive. (4)X(15). 22. 4 a2 . 6 2. z s 11 aWcx. 29.4. (2) 8 (. 24. about fac (2)X If 6. (10) 4 . . (c#) . 8. 30. 3 aW. 11.7. 3. x= 0.2f 18. 16. 5x3. 20. etc. 4.(a&c) 2 2 . 1. 5. (2)x9. 19. +5. Ua b 28. 17. _2^ 3. and y = 4. 2. 2a6 c . 14. 27.3. . Law Thus. 3. c = 25. 8 31.
5(711. By 3 definition. 14. 2 2 2 . 7.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 = 1. 3. 36. . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 16. i. 34. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. (a6) (a5) 9. 2(14.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . Ex. 6" 127 U . 5. 17.e.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . B. or 2 . 4. 50(112.m a 3  4 . 1. a= 1. 13. 127  127 9 7 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 3 3 4 . . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. : 3a7abc. This 52.257). .3). 6 = . 5 3 5 3 2 ..6 if 35. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. =2 a *. fl*" integers. of the factors. . 6 aWc x . 4.<?. 2 3 . a 2 2 . = 2. 4. 2(7. & = 3. Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 10. 3. 3 2 . + 2/). 5 = 2. IB.2). 12 U U .35).2 2 23 + 5 .(7). 2 2 3 6 . 53.. 6. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. a8 a=2. 11. 200.(2. 100. 2. 2.  and 2 25 8 . a = 2. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .7. 5 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25.503). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. &*) c d*. 9 .(12) .  2 2. m*. a = 3. 78 .
multiply each by the monomial. 20. 2(645410). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 3. 31. 35. 6(10420430). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. . /). 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). but we shall assume it for any number.4a#. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 21. ax /) 2 4 1 (. . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 23(10004100420). 7p*q r*. 29.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .A). _4aft. 6. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). (. 17(10041042). If results ft. 11(3. . 23.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.7pqt. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. .7 w'W (8 n^W). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.3 win ) . ) 2 33. 7. 34. 19.2 3 aft ). by first multiplying. 12( + 1 4 i). 25. called the distributive law. 22.f 2). 26. 2 32. 27. . 24. This principle. and then adding : 1. 3(124342). 2(5fl5f25). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 35 4 7(6.6. . 5.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. (. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 2. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). c(4a ftc ). 28.
5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 29.3 aftc). 22. . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5). be multiplied to give 4o. 20. 30. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 23. . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 17. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.5 w*V f 7 wn). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.5 x 7).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. f7a.^ c + 2 .60 a& 10 aft.2 mn(9 mV . 3 ). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 11. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 21.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.asa product. 28. 2 m(mhn \p). 2 2 16. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). : expression must 24. 12. . 2 4 %Pq\ 14.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.6 a6). 19. 9.we b) (x law. . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . By what 25. 2 27. ~2mn(m +n p ). Find the factors of 6 ary . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 26. 7 a 6 c(.
If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . . 59.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Multiply 2 + a a.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. the student should apply this test to every example. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. To multiply two polynomials.1.a .3 a 2 + a8 . 2. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.4. Multiply 2 a . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. a2 + a8 + 3 . Check. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. however.3 b by a 5 b. Since errors. Ex. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.
3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 16. 40. 41. OQ OO. 2) (3 A: 1). I (mfn)(m4. 1). 3<7). ^ 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 12. 2 . 4 2). 12)(a?^2l).4) (mnp 4. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 20.4) (x + 1). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 11. 5. 8. 2. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 15. 9. . 24. 36). 6. 13. 4. 18.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 3. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (8r7*)(6r39. 22. 29. 7. (6p (2 f 21. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 30.2). 2 . (a^26) . . 31. 10. 32. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).2m)(l m). l)(raf 2). (a 2a + 2)(a3).1 . 36. 17. 28. (ajf6y)(aj 23. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 26.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (6a~7) 2 . 35. 36) I) 14. (13 A. (6i7n)(llJn). * For additional examples see page 261. (4a 2 33. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 7y). (2 x* x 2 . 2  37. (2w 19. 25. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. QQ O7.
9. 22.4). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8).e.e. 8. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 26. in of the two unequal terms. 25 a 2 . : 23 2. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. + 9)(m+9). 28. 27. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 18. . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). plus the product of the two unequal terms. X 102. (!)(* 5). ft 16. 7. plus the product 62. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 17. 1005x1004.2 6) (a f 6). 10. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 19. (a3)(a + 2).13). 14. (ra. + 3) (a 7). (10+ (1000 (2. 12. + 60)(f2). 24. (a 9) (a + 9). 11. . 15. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 1) (10 + 2). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a 102 x 103. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 20. 2) (1000 + 3). (a (a (a. (J 23. . 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .!!)( (a + 21). 6.n)(wf w). 13. 75 ab f 54 ft . (p12)(p + ll). (*. _3)(a _4). 2 6) (a 3 6). 25. i. 2 a? 29. 3. 21. (6 12) (6 f. + 5) (1000 + 4). + 2) (a f 3). i.25)(y+4).
(x+3i/) 2 . (a26) 2 . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 31. . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 7 a + 10. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. second.15. plus twice the product of the first and the second. . a2 2 w + 2 w . i. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 49 y*.e.30. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . 8. <J>7) J . 63. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. of the second. 6. 3. plus the square of the second.e. p 2 p. 35. III. and the second. + 3) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 37. i. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. (a2) (p a . w 2 ro . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. n2 10ii+16. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 34. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second.15. : 24 (a 2. 9. Ex. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 7. 2 5.66 s.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 77ie square of the of the first. 4. III. 32. + 6 a + 8. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 33.e.
998x1002. . 99x101. 11. 22 2 . 991 2 2 . 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 15. 17. 28. (1000 2 . 24. 29. (a 3) 2 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. + 5)(5+a). . 12. 31. The product of 57. 2 2 . 41 16. 2 . G> +5g)*. 48. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 9a 496 2 56. 9 a2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. a 2 8a6+166 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 52. 103 36. 16aW25. m 2 16. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 34.30 ab + 25 6 64.998 39. ). n*6n+9. (2x3yy. 25 a 9. 23. 40. 44. 55. + 5). (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 32. I) 2 . 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). By actual multiplication. 46. 35. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 7& ) 25. 47. n 2 f4n+4. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. . ( 27. 21. 104 2 37. a2 9.MULTIPLICATION 10. 41. 33. 14. 62 25n 2 . (20 f 1) . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 18. 42. 2 11 # ) 2 20. . 51. 54. 45. 22. 38. + 3z) 2 2 . 4 53. 49. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 J ). (^.
& + c) = a + tf + c . and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 14. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 6. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. The square 2 (a 4. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4s + y)(32y). 5. or The student should note minus signs. sum of the cross products. (5a4)(4al). 65. (3m + 2)(ml). 7. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 3. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the last terms. 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). ) (2 of a polynomial. 11. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 4. ((5a? (10 12. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 13. (5a64)(5a&3). 8. . The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 10. (2a3)(a + 2). : 25 2.
24 . 4(aj2)h3(7).29. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .1 5 = 10 .24] . 9. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.i2&c) 2 . 8. (a (.4) .(x . 5.5) = (7 .8 x + 15] . of z : 10. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). Find the square root 11. 3. + 65) . If x = 1. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. (u4& + 3c'. 5. 4y sf n) 2 .4) . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 4(* + 2)5(3).r _ 2 . . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).3) (x . 8. 13. and check the answers !. n).(m 2 6. = 10 x . Hence. 4.3)(z.(>.(= [ Xa + 2 . 7. a.5). EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 2)6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. = . 6(a 2. 3.39. 2 2. Ex. (  2 4) =  20 a.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 6~2(a + 7).39. + 6)( . Check. after multiplying the factors of a term. 12. 7.[a? . 6.X2 + 2 x .y? + 8 . Simplify (x + 6) (a .3) . 66. 4. (xy+z)*.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).DIVISION 14. . . 18. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .2) (3 a . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2).l.11 a + 9 a . 19. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). Division of the difference of two squares.e. 16. 51 15. 20. v/17. .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (81 m + 1 . a I.
. 10. 100ry. aW 12 a. f 13. 4 b.000. 16 . 15.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.0001. : the following w a 4 !. 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 12. 16.49. . 9& 2 . 121a a 16 100 11. 14. r/ 1.
ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. =11. . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 83. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the 80. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the first member is 2 x + 4. hence it is an equation of condition. 82. is said to satisfy an equation. Thus. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 81. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. second member is x + 4 x 9. in the equation 2 x 0. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. .
If equals be added to equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 86. 87. To solve an equation to find its roots.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.b. called axioms 1. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. the sums are equal. A term may be transposed from its sign. A numerical equation is one in which all . the divisor equals zero. 2. 85. one member to another by changing x + a=.54 84. the products are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .2. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. . Transposition of terms. NOTE. If equals be multiplied by equals. 89. 90. 5. 2 = 6#f7. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. If equals be subtracted from equals. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.e. a. but 4 does not equal 5. A 2 a. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 3. the remainders are equal. If equals be divided by equals. the quotients are equal. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. x I. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. E. . 4. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.
3 y . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Uniting similar terms. Subtracting 4 x from each term.9 y + y2 = 22 .2 y= f .2. The second member. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 6a5 = 185 = 13. is correct. The first member. To solve a simple equation. x = (Axiom 3) 92. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. if a x = b. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Dividing by Check. 2 x = 6. The first member. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. a= a 6fc. b c. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 91. Uniting. f If y 20 . (4y)(6. . 2(11 .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . x = 3. Hence the answer. if 55 x members. Unite similar terms. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. a? Adding 5 to each term. Transposing.6 y f y\ . b Adding a to both + a.8. x = 93. and the known terms to the second. Ex. 4x 1 + 6.
= 3. 7. 9 9a? = 7 13.56 Ex. a. 20. 247y = 68lly. =2 = 3. v23. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7a? 5. \x x 2^xfl. + 16 = 16 + 17. . + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. : 5# = 15+2a. and check the answers 9. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 14y = 59(24y + 21). etc. x x 1 . 50. 3.. = 7. J. = 5a?+18. 32 = 264. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. + 22. 3 7 a. If x = 18.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 13a? 3a?.7a: = 394a.. aj * See page 264. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). . 12.7. 4.69. a?. x = 18. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Uniting. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 17 + 5a. 24. 11 ?/ a? 18. 6. it NOTE. {(x (x The The member right member left . a. 8. Solve the following equations by transposing. 4a + 5 = 29. 15. 3.17 + 4y = 36. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 14. 2. f Simplifying. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 4y 10. a? a?. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. Transposing. 16. 17 7 a. 11. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 19. 21. 7 (6 x 16). 22. = 2 ?/.
29.g. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 38.5) + 199. 35. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (aj 37. 42.32. 27. is the other part.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. + 4). 31. or 70 a?. .4) + 4 w . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. a? 43.3) + 14.3) + . : One part is of 70 is 25 . this question. 5) (as (a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 36.(2 + 6) (4 .14 = 0. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. . 2 2 * Jaj. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. a? 28. . . 40. 25.1 0) = 0. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . find the other part.2) (M . .7) (7 x + 4) .12) (2 + 5) . 33.1) (u . 39.5) = (a.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 30. e. 7) (a. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.3) . (a.5(2 u .1) (a (a? + 3) = . . 6(6a. 34. . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). + 7) (. 41. 7(7 x y 26. Evidently 45.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. (6 u =5 44.7.
4. or 12 7. is a? 2 is c?. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 6. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. and the smaller one parts. 11. 15. 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 14. 10. is b. is d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 33 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts. a. greater one is g. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. Ex. 6. find the cost of one yard. 13. 3. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. so that of c ? is p. 17. 7. smaller one 16. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Find the greater one. If 7 2. Divide a into two parts. EXERCISE 1. one part equals is 10. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 1. Divide 100 into two 12.58 Ex. 9. so that one part The difference between is s.
A feet wide. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A dollars. and B's age is y years. 19. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 24. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 33. 28. 26. ?/ 31. 28. find the of their ages 6 years hence. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. Find 35. b dimes. and B is y years old. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents has he ? 27. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many years A older than is B? old. sum If A's age is x years. A man had a dollars. find the has ra dollars. and B has n dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. 22. and c cents. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. Find 21. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. numbers is x. is A A is # years old. 32. 20. and spent 5 cents. amount each will then have. If B gave A 6 25. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 34.
The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find a 47. Find x % % of 1000. Find a. The first pipe x minutes. a. find the fraction. c a b =  9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. If a man walks ? r miles per hour." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. 48. of m. 49. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. m is the denominator. he walk each hour ? 39. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour.50. A cistern is filled 43. . and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. Find the number. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. 46. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. % % % of 100 of x. The two digits of a number are x and y. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A was 20 years old. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. of 4.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. . How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes.
of x increased by 10 equals x. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 80. of a increased much 8. double of a is 10. c. 5. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The excess of a over b is c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. a exceeds b by c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. etc. 80. The double as 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 4. c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. by one third of b equals 100. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 3. 6. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 9. same result as 7 subtracted from . 2. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols.
sum equals $20. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. (c) If each man gains $500. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. #is5%of450. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. x 4 If A. 16. express in algebraic symbols : 700. B. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 18. as 17 is is above a. 11. a. amounts.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. In 10 years the sum of A's. m is x % of n.. is If A's age is 2 x. x is 100 x% is of 700. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old.62 10. a second sum. and C have respectively 2 a. symbols B. >. 3 1200 dollars. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. B's. 6 % of m. a. pays to C $100. 14. 17. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum.000. of 30 dollars. they have equal of A's. 50 is x % of 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. B's age 20. B's. express in algebraic 3x : 10. . a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. they have equal amounts. 12. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C's ages will be 100. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C's age 4 a.
NOTE. Uniting. 3z40:r:40z. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Three times a certain no. A will Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. x = 20. Uniting. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). but 30 =3 x years. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 23 =30. Transposing. In order to solve them. Transposing. etc. number. Simplifying. Let x = the number. Ex. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Dividing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x+16 = 3(35). the required . 4 x = 80. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. the . Let x The (2) = A's present age. Find A's present age. much as 40 exceeds the number. Check. In 15 years 10. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x= 15. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 15. 6 years ago he was 10 . . number of yards. 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. be 30 . 2. denote the unknown 96. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact.
64 Ex. 120. exceeds the width of the bridge. A will be three times as old as toda3r . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How many miles per hour does it run ? . to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Dividing. 13. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. A number added number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Hence 40 = 46f.2. 5. % of 120. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 3. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Six years hence a 12 years ago. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Forty years hence his present age. twice the number plus 7. by as much as 135 ft. 4. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number. EXERCISE 1. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 11. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 14. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Let x 3. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. . How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find 8. 300 56.
Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. times as much as A. and as 15.000. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dol A has A to $40.000. The other verbal statement.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 1. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. 14. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. five If A gives B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. B How will loses $100. Vermont's population increased by 180. F 8. 65 A and B $200. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. and B has $00. One number exceeds the other one by II. 97. written in algebraic symbols. which gives the value of 8. statements are given directly. The problem consists of two statements I. The sum of the two numbers is 14. the second one. two verbal statements must be given. During the following 90 years. Ex. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Maine's population increased by 510. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. B will have lars has A now? 17. Find the population of Maine in 1800. If A gains A have three times as much 16. x. is the equation. A and B have equal amounts of money. .
A gives B 25 marbles. terms of the other. consider that by the exchange Hence. Uniting. and Let x = the Then x +. x = 8. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Dividing. A will lose. / . . Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. which leads ot Ex. x 3x 4 and B will gain. The two statements I. 8 = 11. 25 marbles to B. A has three times as many marbles as B. = A's number of marbles. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 2. the smaller number. x x =14 8. If we select the first one. < Transposing. = 14. the sum of the two numbers is 14. has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 3x express one many as A.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the greater number. Then. Statement x in = the larger number. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. + a f f 8 = 14. . I. although in general the simpler one should be selected. B will have twice as many as A. unknown quantity in Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. . If A gives are : A If II. = 3. 2x a? x j = 6. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. 8 the greater number. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. = B's number of marbles. B will have twice as viz. to Use the simpler statement.
25 = 20. dollars and dimes is $3. 1. Two numbers the smaller. 6 times the smaller. by 44. cents.. * 98.10. of dollars to the number of cents. Uniting.10. Check... Uniting. The sum of two numbers is 42. Find the numbers. 2. w'3. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. The number of coins II. x = 6. the price. 40 x .5 x . x from I. (Statement II) Qx . B's number of marbles. Let 11 = the number of dimes.550 f 310. Dividing. the number of half dollars. 50 x Transposing. then. 11 x = 5. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310.75. is 70. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Eleven coins. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. have a value of $3. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. x = the number of half dollars. and the Find the numbers. 15 + 25 = 40. Check.10. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Simplifying. 45 . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. . Dividing. greater is . x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). the number of dimes. A's number of marbles. but 40 = 2 x 20. 50.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.$3. Simplifying.240. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The value of the half : is 11. 3. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 3 x = 45. 60. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. . Find the numbers. * ' . etc. x = 15.
What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Two numbers The number differ by 39. 5. Find their ages. the number. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.000 feet. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. one of which increased by 9. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 6. 11. Twice 14. On December 21. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Everest by 11. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and twice the altitude of Mt. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. as the larger one. McKinley. How many hours does the day last ? . 7. A's age is four times B's. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. How many volcanoes are in the 8. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many 14 years older than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. United States. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22.. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches.68 4.
are : C's The three statements A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. original amount. then three times the money by I. and C together have $80. Let x II. bers is denoted by x. If A and B each gave $5 to C. and 68. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and B has three as A. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. The third verbal statement produces the equation. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars A had. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 8(8 + 19) to C. B. B. . I." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. = 48. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. times as much as A. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. x = 8. II. and C together have $80. 19. number had. If 4x = 24. number of dollars of dollars B C had. Ex. has. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. 1. III. has. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. they would have 3. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. B has three times as much as A.
90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and the sum of the . 28 2 (9 5). 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 90 may be written. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x f 4 = 9. each cow $ 35. + 8 90 x and. x j = the number of horses. number of cows. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 185 a = 925. 1 1 Check. The I. 9 cows. according to II. III. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. Let then. and. x Transposing. and Ex. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. three statements are : IT. The total cost equals $1185. + 35 x 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. first. according to III. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. x = 5. cows. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each horse costing $ 90.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. sheep. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 2. Uniting. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. the third five times the first. number of sheep. and each sheep $ 15. number of cows. number of horses. 9 5 = 4 . 4 x f 8 = 28. Dividing.
If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. equals 49 inches. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. what is the length of each? has 3. increased by three times the second side. and 2 more men than women. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the second one is one inch longer than the first. The gold.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and children together was 37. 9. what are the three angles ? 10. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. A 12. 13.000. "Find three is 4. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If twice The sum the third side. first. twice the 6. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. how many children were present ? x 11. what is the population of each city ? 8. the copper. women. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . men. New York delphia. twice as old as B.  4. first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. the third 2. 7. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000. v . 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.
. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and distance. 3 and 4. Hence Simplifying. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000 more than that the copper. and quantities area. 8 x = 15. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. A and B apart. width. After how many hours will they meet and how E. but stops 2 hours on the way. together. Dividing.e. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.000.g. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. speed. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000. Find the value of each. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. number of hours. 14. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. how many 100.000. such as length. = 5. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. we obtain 3 a.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. i. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. number of miles A x x walks. Let x = number of hours A walks. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 7 Uniting. = 35. or time.
Multiplying. $ 1000 x . + 8. But 700 certain = 800 2. 2   and transpose. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. the second 100. x + 200). 10 x = 200.01 = = . x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.06 = $ 40. Transposing and uniting. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 2 a = 40. Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. z = 20. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. ." gives (2. The an area 40 x 20 =800. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.M(x .05 x x . $ 800 = 800. or 700. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less.04 = $ 40.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x .053. were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = required sum. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Find the dimensions of the field. . original field has Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8. l. 70x10 Ex.
twice as large.55. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and a second sum. A man bought 6 Ibs. and its width decreased by 2 yards. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. Find the share of each. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. the area would remain the same. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. After how many hours will B overtake A. Ten yards $ 42. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. What are the two sums 5. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Six persons bought an automobile. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. as a 4. A of each. sions of the field. invested at 5 %. mobile. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. together bring $ 78 interest. A sum ? invested at 4 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A sets out later two hours B . of coffee for $ 1. 3. 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. 2.
A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. After how many hours. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and from the same point. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . A and B set out direction. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
5. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 76 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. at this 6 2 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. irrational. if it does contain some indicated root of . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . vV . + 62 is integral with respect to a. f db 6 to b. it contains no indicated root of this letter . as. 6. expression is rational with respect to a letter. a.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. which multiplied together are considered factors. consider 105. a2 to 6. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. stage of the work. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. An after simplifying. a. this letter. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. but fractional with respect 103. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . we shall not. 104. it is composite. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational.
107. Factor G ofy 2 . 109. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 2. . x. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 01.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 2. TYPE I. in the form 4) +3. or that a = 6) (a = a . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .3 6a + 1).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. it follows that a 2 . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. E. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 8) (s1). Ex. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 2.62 + &)(a 2 .FACTORING 106. 55. ?/. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.62 can be &).) Ex. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. It (a.3 sy + 4 y8). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. for this result is a sum. y. 1. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Divide 6 a% .g. 110. . x.
(as 3) and (ccf5).4. 3 3 5 6. TYPE IT.2. Ilro8 9. . 7i 13. 11.6. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. q*q*q 2 a. 3 2 .3.8 c a 15 ofyV .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. in general.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . e. a6c.5 + 2. 2 6. 32 a *?/ . a a 'Ja . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 13. 18. 15 2 7. 20.30 aty. + llm llm. . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 4.45 afy . 15. 4 tfy f. 34 a^c 8 . 2 2 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 4 8 . we had to add tain the coefficient of x.3.51 aW + 68 21. 19.5 x*y 2 17 a? . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2 Or. ) 22  2. 17. : 6 abx . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 3x*6x*. 12.5 + 13 8. 8. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 16.12 cdx.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 14a 4 5. 2 23. 2 + q. 7a & 10. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. obviously.g.4. 3. 14. 5f 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 2.
+ 112. a 2 . Therefore Check. or 7 11. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.1 1 a tf a 4. Factor x? .11. determine whether In solving any factoring example. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. + 30 = 20. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.a). the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 4. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Factor a2 . and (a . tfa2  3. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 77 as the product of 1 77. can be factored. We may consider 1. If q is positive. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.30 = (a . 11 7. .G) = .FACTORING Ex. as p. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. however.5) (a 6). Factor + 10 ax . m 5m + 6.. Ex. the two numbers have opposite signs. If q is negative. . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. . 2 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 5.77 = (a. 79 Factor a2 4 x .6 = 20.11) (a + 7). 2.5) (a . of this type.11 a + 30. Ex.4 x .11 a 2 . or 77 l.4 . 3. but of these only a: Hence 2 .
(4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 24. 2 .180 a. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 30. + 4?/21. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 32. 26. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. ra + 25ra + 100. ay 11 ay +24. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . and 5 x. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 15. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 18. 11. . 29. 25. TYPE 113. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 33. 17. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 16. . 36. a 7 a 30. 9. + 2xS. 13. 21.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 30. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.500 x + 600. 21 a 2 2 .48 + + 446 200. 4 2 .80 7. 2 ?/ 5?/14. x2 23. + 44. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 35. 27. 2 2 .70 x y . 31.17 + 30. + 5<y 24. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. a2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. . 2 ?/ 28. 4 3 2 . 19. ITT. 14. 2 . 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 2 2 a' 34. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 12. or . 2 ?/ 22. 16. 100 xr . 8. a? + 5 + 6 a. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x.6.
13 x + 5 = (3 x . a. 27 x 2. .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. and that they must be negative. 9 x 6. 54 x 1. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. the signs of the second terms are minus. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 6 x 9. and r is negative. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. then the second terms of have opposite signs. . 18 x 3. 2. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. Ex.5) (2 x . Factor 3 x 2 .1). exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. but the opposite sign. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 3.5 . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. sible 13 x negative. or G 114. 3 x and x. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. If p is poxiliw.83 x f 54. X x 18. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 11 x 2x. 2 x 27. viz. the If p and r are positive. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .
6n 2 f 13w + 2. 34.83 x = (3 . 12. 2. 10 a .7. .2 a 90 x*y . Sar' + SaG. 10a2 G a2 2 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 6. 2 2 2 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 9.27). 32. . 24. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 2 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 29. 2 . : 41 2. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 10.260 xy . 18. 12^17^16.y + 172/9.83 x . x54 a. 16. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.179. 15. 2m t7w + 3. 3x*Sx + 4. 9a. 4a2 9tt + 2. 144 x . 17. 7. 35.19 a f 6. 19. 9 y + 32^16. 100^200^ + 100^. 6n + 5?i4. 11. 12y 2/6.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 30. 2 fc . 3a + 13a. 20. since all others (II.163 x 2 . 4. 8.2) (x . 5. 2x* + 9x5.30 y 6 4 . 14. 2 28. the expressions should be it. + 2/3. 2 26. 2 31. 22. 21. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 5m 26m f 5. 14 a fa 4. f go. 25. 3. 2 ar* 2 i/ . + 4. 10a?2 2 33. X 27 . 90 a 8 2 . . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 2 2 23. 13. and the monomial factors should be removed.
e. 116. 14. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. and factor whenever possible : 1. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. form are special cases of the preceding type. 11. 16 y? The student should note that a term. must have a positive sign. and a perfect square. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. it is more convenient for that type. however. 2 9 10gf25. i. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 25 7. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 4. square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . x* . 10. of its terms are perfect squares. 2. 6. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. it is a perfect square. 2 . . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 5.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.10 x f 16. 13. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 9. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 12. 3. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.26 ab + 9 6 2 . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 2 2 . 9 10a625. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . . 8. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .
26. 2 . 149 a 81 8. 2 20. !Gar 9 ( )+25. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. V. . product i. 25. 4a2 l. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .e. ). 17. +( )f816 30. 16&*.20 ab + 10 b a .60 a# + 4. 48 a +( ). 225 ofy . TYPE 117. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. : 43 tfy\ a 9. a. 29. 3. 2 .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . + GO + 25. 19. 18. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 3. a2 24.84 15. 36 2 4. 2. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. u2 6& + 2 ( ).2 ofy + ofy m . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). . 5. * 2 . According to 65. 6 2 . ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 2. Ex. 10 a 2 4 2 . 27. aV . ). 9a2 .64 6 = 16(a . 9. a. 6. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 7. 2 . 16. prime.6 m* + 9 m. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4 2 23. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.3 * ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. ^//c to the Ex. 1. 22.
(I) . Factor a 2 . 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . a2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.c . 5. 4. 14. Ex.(c 4. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .FACTORING 85 118. (m7?) y. One or both terms are squares 1. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 9. Ex. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 8. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a:) 12. 11.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . T. 6.d) 2 . 2 . of polynomials. 2. 13. 36> . 16p 2 .
8. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. which may be factored according to types I. 9. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.7 c + 2c . a5 + ab 6 . ive find that the new terms con common factor. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 12. a 26 2 2 3 . 5) . a? 11. 7. + x + 2x + 2. Ex. By grouping. 3.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. Ex. 5.VI. 119. 4:cx . 10. ma ?*a + m& nb.a a .6z2 + 5 = z2 (.14. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. = (3 x + y . x8 .y + 2 2). 4 B.ab + bx. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. A.r. 6. 2. After grouping tain a the terms.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. . 1. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 2. .and trinomials. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.2 ) (3 x .1.
a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 2. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 4. + 2xy + y*q*. w m 2. 2a3/ 7. 36 9 m .9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .l. $ a8 . 4. . 4 a2 . = (a + 6)(a6). 6a4 12a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. IV. 3.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 6.12 aaj 4 6y. 2 7. : m 2 2 16. 6 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .FACTORING Ex. II. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. +c+ 2 2 2/ . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. . Arranging the terms. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 8ra 2 + 16. : 46 x* 2. 8. 3. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.4 f .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 5. 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 8.
32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 13 c . 50^ + 45. 40. 32. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 4 a. 42 s 2 . 24. 3 2 . 18. 19.13 c . + 14. 27.88 10. (^ 34. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 30. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 3 25. 5a' 20. or 3 7#2 . 2 17. 13. 4 8 tt 2 z . a + a + a + l. a. 5 a.156. 12. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 29. 35.24. 2 a 128. 42 x . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. a3 156. . a6 36. 11. 28.310 x . a5 a 1 4 2 39. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 2 ft .40.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 3 41. 25 a + 25 aft . 3 a2 23. 14. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 2 3#4 3a2 36. + 6 aft + 3 . 80 a 2 ft 38. 48. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. (a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 22.
Thus the H. 5. 6. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 13 aty 39 afyV. F. are prime can be found by inspection. . 54  32 . 3. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. EXERCISE Find the H. expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. 3 . 89 . of two or more monomials whose factors . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. of aW. C. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. II 2 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.  23 3 . Two common factor except unity The H. C. F. C. F. The H. The highest is common factor (IT. F. C. of 6 sfyz. 12 tfifz. 5 2 3 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. F. 5 7 34 2s . 2 2 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. F. 121. C. The student should note H. aW.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. F. 8 . F. of : 48 4. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 15 aW. The H.) of two or more . 25 W. F. of the algebraic expressions. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 122. 2. 24 s .
8. 16. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 65 zfyV. F. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). . of polynomials.?/ . 9. 2 . 9 aj*(a? . 10. .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 3). resolve each polynomial into prime factors. Ex. 8.6 . a. 7.2 ?/) (x . C. 4 ?io.5 x3?/ 2 6. 16 a .# 4 afy f 4 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . a 3a4.5 + 6. 95 2/V. 15. F. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.^9. a2 + 7af!2.y) . 24 a 2 . 2 . and apply the method of the preceding article. 5. 57 a>V. 3 . aWd.90 7. ^f a. 12 . a3 16 a. 3. 11. ^2 2 . of + 4 if. of: . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 4(m+l) 3 . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .y) 123. 2 . 225 4a 9 . ^707 + 12. (a7 ?/) . ^a + 5^ + 6.8 a + 16. y + 3y64. a2 . F.6. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . . 14. 12. x* x2 Hence the H. 2. 1.12 as 66 . 6 a2 y? . 10. 2a f5af 2. 8 6. F.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 12. a3 9a. 8 a 10 . 13. . 13. 6 3 a. . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 1.y + y42.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 49 C. 9. 11. 2 . 25 m27i. 12 w*nw 8. To find the H. a2 ar* 4.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 52 oryz4. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 6(m+l) (m+2).5 y). 0^80:416.2 y) (a.6 a&. C. . C. = x 2 y. 6 mx . Find the H. 8(?/ifl) 14. a2 + 2a3. 15 3ao. 38 #y. 3^ 2 4 .
C. C. L. thus. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 127. 60 x^y' 2 . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . two lowest common multiples. A common remainder. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .C. M. M of the algebraic expressions. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. . M. C. 126. ory is the L. C. a^c8 3 . of the general.C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. The lowest common multiple (L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . but opposite .M. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. The L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. of tfy and xy*. Ex.6)2.6 3 ). of 3 aW. . M. &) 2 M. C. 2 The The L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. NOTE. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. etc. Find the L. Common 125. To find the L.M. C. 2. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 300 z 2 y. Ex. M. M. C. M. 1. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. Hence the L. which also signs. 128. Find the L.
a^1. 5. 2 7ic+10. 4 a . a. Find the L. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a f 2 19. 1. 17. afy. 22. 6 y. a 1. x* ~5a. 14. x 2 5 a. (For additional examples see page 268. 3(a + b).1. a { a~b. 3. 7. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a !. 16. 18. a& 4 +& 2 . 20 9 a. 2 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a2 4. 40 abJ. by. 3 f2. 3. 20. a 2 f 4 a +4. x2 + 4 a f 4. 2. ic 23. 2 . xy\ . 2(m 2 . 2 10. (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 . 6 a. + 2. 2 a . a 2 fa6. + 6. 6. 6b 2 . 2 a . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . afc'cd 2 . 30 a. a2 ~ab 1. b 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y. ) . 3 6 xif. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a?b. 2 x \2 y. of: 4.f 6. or f 3 a 15 #. 15. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . 3 ab. . G a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. ic 2 ?/. T a 3 a 2 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 4 a 5 6cd. 3 . 4 a f 2.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a f 3. 8 afy. 13. 8 d 5 . a 2 a3 . 9.1. 11. y*. 2 . 3 Z> . f b. 8. M. a. a. 24 x. + 2 7i) . 21. 24. #.
a?. etc. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. 131. A f fraction is b. as 8.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. rni Thus 132. and denominators are considered. a b = ma mb . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. C.ry ^ by their H. Remove tor. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Ex. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. 130. Thus. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . F. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . however. but we In arithmetic. an indicated quotient.
and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. Ex.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 2.
23. 9x + "a" 10. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.' 32. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 5^10 y 30. . 16. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ' ^ . _ 3 7i rt< 26. nx 17..n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 19. """. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ^+3*.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. LJZJ^JL. ^' rt ^  31. ny 4 18.7 . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 29. . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . g J 21. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.*.
+ 3). =(z (x + 3)(z. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.M.3) (!)' = .C. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.  of //* 2 . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. take the L. C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and 135.r 2 2 .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . mon T denominator.1^22 ' . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.C.~16 (a + 3) (x. we may extend this method to integral expressions. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and (a 8). C. 2> . 1).96 134. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. . by the denominator of each fraction. TheL. we have the quotients (x 1). Divide the L. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L. multiplying the terms of 22 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.  by 4 6' . and the terms of ***. we have M^. .D. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Ex.M. 1. Reduce ^. of the denominators for the common denominator.
2aj ~ . JL. . 22 a2 5a * . 5?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2 ay IB. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 18. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .^1.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74). 137. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. common denominator 6. j y 3. i. 2. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.. o o a. 8 i i. a? 1 5 > ^* .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 3. .. .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 7i 2 ab* ". bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . If the given fractions have different denominators.oj o* or / . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.
as 4 aft f.aft) Ca2 . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . 4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft).3 ft 2).2 ' 2 _.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).. C. 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . The L.2 = a(a . ^ is 2^JT) .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.g. (a ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . 2. (a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. D.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. T? Ex. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . the student should remember that parentheses are . ft). D. L.ft) (a ft ft)~. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).(a 2 6).7 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .ft)(a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. and adding.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. in the beginning.. e.
FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 18 v 19. j>0 i> 21. 1 f q * 1 m m . 2L + 2a 1 17. + . a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2. a 36 ++. 46 2a 4a 12. 5a76 4a 106 9. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. A+2_3. 23. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 20. 24. a+6 a 6 2 14. 6 c 3a 7. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 15. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1 1 f w 16.
_ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j. ! n. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 1 34. 3a 9 +. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.9 79 6 2 i. 43. a 4 31.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a. 42. 41. a 30. a ?^ 40. ic 1 + 1.9. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 2 af1 32.
'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . T. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .7 5a v Ex.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . 1. 101 mixed expression. Reduce . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  .  4 or 3 2a.
Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. F J Simplify . multiply the 142. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. we may extend any e.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.) Ex. 2 a Ex. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. integer. Since  = a. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.g. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. or. !. (In order to cancel common factors. fractions to integral numbers. 2.
20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .6 12 d6 4. 5# 56 / c& 4. 14. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. aj 5 1 a? 18. 50 ...
104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 8 multiply the Ex. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. Divide Xn?/ . 1. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 144. . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.
l.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. or both.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . are fractional. Ex. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4.6 s + 064. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .FRACTIONS 105 .5 ??i 80 50 .^c 2 2 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.10 ?/ _. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a a2 4.
c +6. M. 9. x* 4. . C.a ^c c _^ a .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. . 6. i. 2. n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. of their denominators. . Simplify x }. 7i+~ 7.y 32 . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Ex. a m "" . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. JL. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). & . the answer is directly obtained.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.
1 i 1 2 5 . : . o 15. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. sy 18.
8 x = . 9x x Check. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 4 4)  x. If = 64. Uniting.14 (a. Transposing. Uniting.l)(z + 3) = . these Ex. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 5(3 85 Check. of the denominator. x = 6.f3# + C:E=6f7212.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.1. M. + 1) (a + 3) . 108 . 148. a. = 6.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 2z2a. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 2x Transposing. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). each member is reduced to 1. = 6. C. 2. Bx 12 Qx.28 a = 5 x2 . If x 6.42 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Clearing of fractions. 1. each member is reduced to Ex. .9 x2 + 9.28 x + 42 = . 2 3.48. tions. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .
3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 15. 18. . +4 14. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . . +1 = 5. ^1 = 9. a: 7 a. ^' 2. 1 *> = 2. a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. '  4 13. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16.1 _77 a.= 2. a/  5 a/ = 12.
33. J_. 26 26. 27 .11_4 x 149. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. ?_=_. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x._ _ . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. . .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 32 6 . 31 31. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . y+3~2 29. 25. 3x 35. 2^12 = 2 = 34. .  38 = 40. 4a4l4* + l~. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. If two or more denominators are monomials.
2 42 9 43.  5 = 20 x 45. 26 a. = 9. 5x x : = 9. . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. each member is reduced to ^. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 24 a. a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. C. 60. Transposing and uniting.29 50712' 9 18 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. M.1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing.2 3 ~  == 7a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Check. 5# 10.. If a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 1. the 1 5 L.
y.3 6 2 = a' . ax f x f. f ~ 5c. Ex. jr. = = 6 6c 7 6c.2 62 2 ab.2 ac + 3 aft . a. = l^ 9 b 4 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. = 2 f b 2 . 2. Uniting. 5> a. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = 6 a2 . find a in terms of b and c.m bx 2 mn) x. . Uniting the Dividing. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Dividing.be. they are united by factoring. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. fr Reducing lowest terms. =a 2 151.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).& .1. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 4 ac 1. It frequently occurs that the x. Thus.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Ex. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. If 3ac L= = a ? .
6. Ex. = 5. m a? x . mx = n. s = Vt solve for v. 13. + 3a. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. If ^^ = a 1 32. 29. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. q solve for/. 31. * Solve the same equation for^). i The formula for simple interest ( 30. c. solve for a. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 4. rate. 30. = rt. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. f ^o. f P =+!. p the principal. = 3 (6 a). in terms of other quantities. denoting the interest. . 3(* 8. The The i time. IIL n b + &o. 15. = vt. ^ ax a^ 26. If s If 16. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. iw 21. 12. .= H. 11. solve for . 17. 1 f. c 18. 14.a. co?.i l . + xx = 1.= n. 5) is t =^.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 2 solve for y a. r the number of $>. _ 2. t. . a. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . and n the number of years. 4. 10. 34. 3. = 8 4 #. . 9. If * 33.= c a Z> .
2 3 . 1. Ex. 12. is 36. 100 C. . days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.20 C. 2. and 12 = the number over.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.180. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Multiplying by Dividing.. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Find R in terms of C and TT.114 35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. x Or Uniting. A would do each day ^ and B j. = 16^. Ex. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. then = 2 TT#.
= 100 + 4 x. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Solving. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Ex. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." gives the equation /I). and the statement. the required number of days. 180 Transposing. 32 x = . in Then Therefore. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 3. Clearing. the rate of the express train.
to his son. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. which was $4000. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How did the much money man leave ? 11. to his daughand the remainder. 3.  Find their present ages. Find A's 8. and J of the greater Find the numbers. ceeds the smaller by 4. make 21. of his present age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. is equal 7. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. money and $10. a man had How much money had he at first? . and of the father's age. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. length in the ground. by 6. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 3. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. A man lost f of his fortune and $500.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ex What 5. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and one half the greater Find the numbers. and 9 feet above water.
investments.) 22. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. air. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 2. and B in 4 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and it B in 6 days. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ^ at 5%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. . 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 3. what is the 14. How much money $500? 4%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A has invested capital at more 4%. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. after rate of the latter ? 15. 1. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce.
B in 12. 26. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Ex.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. . B in 16. and n = 3. is 42.414.e. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.g. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. B in 30. 2. they can both do in 2 days.009 918. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. A in 6. and apply the method of 170. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. n x Solving. 25. is 57. 3. m and n. To and find the numerical answer. The problem to be solved. Then ft i. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. therefore. we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Hence. if B in 3 days. A in 4. e.= . B in 5.118 153. A in 6.
(a) 20 and 5 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21.001. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. is ?n . the area would be increased by 19 square feet. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 4J miles per hour.721.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 5 miles per hour. is (a) 51. the rate of the first. 2 miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. 33. (c) 16. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. The one: 31. squares 30. and the rate of the second are. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 29. 2 miles per hour. respectively. 34. (b) 35 miles. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. respectively (a) 60 miles. (b) 149. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Find the side of the square. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. . two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the second at the apart. same hour from two towns. (d) 1.000. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and the second 5 miles per hour. meet. if m and n are. : (c) 64 miles. After how many hours do they meet. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.
terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. The first 156. . the second term the consequent. 6 12 = . Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .g. etc. the symbol being a sign of division. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. 1. a ratio is not changed etc. Ex. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. b. is numerator of any fraction consequent. " a Thus. the antecedent. the denominator The the 157.5. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio ." we may write a : b = 6. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. E. b is the consequent. antecedent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Simplify the ratio 21 3.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. In the ratio a : ft. : : 155. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b. 158.
4. terms. : ay . 12.RATIO Ex. The last first three. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. Simplify the following ratios 7. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. two  ratios. 16. 8^ hours. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3:4. 62:16. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 18. 10. 27 06: 18 a6. b is the mean b. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 61 : ratios 72:18. J:l. 5 f hours : 2. 3. 159. 3 8. 17. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 6. proportional between a and c. 7:4 T T 4 . : 1. 3:1}. equal 2. extremes. 1. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and c is the third proportional to a and . 16a2 :24a&. b. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. a and d are the extremes. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 4:5f : 5. Transform the following unity 15. $24: $8. 11. 9. and c. b and c the means. 7f:6J.
i. 164. of iron weigh . then G ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. and the other pair the extremes. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. !. ad = be. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 163. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 2 165.) b = Vac. 6 ccm. : c. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.122 162. q~~ n .__(163. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. of a proportion.e. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. The mean proportional of their product. Clearing of fractions.30 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes. are : : : inversely proportional. 3 4.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. : : directly proportional may say.) mn = pq. If (Converse of nq. Hence the number of men required to do some work. and the time necessary to do it. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. briefly. = 30 grams 45 grams. of iron weigh 45 grams. " we " NOTE. ccm. pro portional. 163.
a III.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Composition. V. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. I. is Ex. d d. (Division. + b:b = c + d:d. Or IV.) II. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 2. (Frequently called Inversion. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) = f f = 3 J. 166. = 35 . if 6 : 7. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. is 4$ = 35. hence the proportion true. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) d 167. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. bd bd. (163. .PATIO Ex. ad = be. 12x Hence a? = 42. ad ( 163.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) (Called Alternation. I. a:c=b:d. then =d c. 1.
120:42 2 2 7. . i.e. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. = 12 5ft. the consequents by 7. = 180:125.124 IT. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. x = 2. 4. = 7:2f 3J. . mx tin Apply composition and division. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.g. : x. 3. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 8.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 5. Simplify the following proportions. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. IV. V. 10. = 2:x. = 20:7. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. : 3 = 5 f x : x. E. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 9.!=!*. Or III. 5 5. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 6 =4 : x. = 2:3. Apply composition. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.
2. : 53. 2. 9 x = 2 y. ra. 18. = 15o. 12. 34. Find the third proportional 24. 20. + fyx = cy.j>. 2= 5 x x. 29. (a : : 45. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 17. 2 a and 18 a. w. 46. . 33.x: 6:5 a : x. 5= 18 a? : a?. x m = y n. 43. 38. 2 3 = y #. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. to : a and 1. Find the 37. = l^:18. 16 and 28. 39. ra + landra 1. 42. 50. = 5 x 12. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. terra 2:3 = 4. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 6 x = y.  32. a?:15 15. 14 and 21.. 22. 23. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 35. 21. 7iy = 2:x. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. rap. 1 and a. = 2 + x: x. rag. f. 51.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 13. 5. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 47. 31. 14. 6x = 7y. 3t. 6. 41. Find the mean proportional 30. 4. : . a 2 and ab.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.:ff. 3. a. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 52.8:1. 112:42 = 10:a. 1. and 2/. 25. to : 9 and 12. b. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 03:a?=135:20. 16. 27. ratio of y. 26. = 3 43 + x. if : 40. 44. 4 and 16. 28. ra 2 . : a2 . x:5 = y:2. to: = 35:*. 3. mx = ny.
A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the : total cost. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time.126 54. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the speed of the train. 57. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the time necessary for it.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. the area of the larger? the same. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 7^. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. what 58. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 56. and the area of the rectangle. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet.
18 x = 108.000 168. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. = the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. 2. 7 x = 42 is the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 2 x Or = 4. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. . is A line AB. : Ex. AB = 2 x. 4 inches long. 11 x f 7 x = 108. produced to a point C. x = 6. x=2. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. as 11 Let then : 1. so that Find^K7and BO. Let A B AC=1x. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.
m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.000. Gunmetal tin. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000 square miles. find the number of square miles of land and of water. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 6. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 2. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 13. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 3. : 4. 9. and 15 inches. 12. How many 7. How many gen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 11. How The long are the parts ? 15. What are the parts ? 5.) . How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 12. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. : 197. 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. and c inches. 14.
L x If If = 0.. x = 1. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. values of x and y. Hence. =. expressing a y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.y=. 2 y = .e. such as + = 10. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. is x = 7. y = 1. if . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. However. etc. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. a? (1) then I. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 .
for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 21 y . ~ 50. 174. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous.24. 6x . = . and 3 x + 3 y =. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. the last set inconsistent. 4y . y = 2. 3. cannot be reduced to the same form. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.26. 26 y = 60.3 y = 80. unknown quantity. The first set of equations is also called consistent. to The two methods I. viz. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . y I 171. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Therefore. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. By By Addition or Subtraction. for they express the x f y 10.X. E. Substitution. are simultaneous equations. 172. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. same relation.130 170. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. of elimination most frequently used II.
by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. y = 2. = 406. 10 . 3. 64 x = 040. y = 1. 5 13 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. + 2.2 = 6. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 y = 47.14 =8. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 37.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. whose coefficients In general. x = 10. 3. 3y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 235. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . add the equations. 8 2. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Therefore Check.3 1 = 47. 25 x . Transposing. subtract the equations. are like. 60 .
= 24.3.v 23. I i 3 a. f 3# ?/ = 0. 9 1 r 20. = 41. I .4.3. 19< I a. ' 12.f2/ ' = 50. 7 ' 1fi fl . . f 3X 7x 14. + 2/ 17. v ^ = ll. I ~ y~~> 22. x 11. I oj 5y = 17.9 *. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. _. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. ] ^ . 13 61 l7a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. * + 3 y = 50. J I y = 1U. [2o.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 13. i 3.5 y = 2. = 6. O t K 8.
EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. x ) ^"" 13. = 13. = 4#8. 3. and solve the resulting equation. = 2. 8. = 2y + 10. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 60.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. . (1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation.
(4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. however. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. . simplified before elimination is possible. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Substituting in (6) . 2 y = .3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3 (1) Ex. \ \6(a. x = l. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 7x_2y=3. 3. 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36. 7 y = 6.6)7(y7)==18. + 212y4 = 14. (7) (7) (8) . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 29 x = 29. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 21z6y=9. (4). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.
12. 10. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. a. 16. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. +y 2 . yM a.1) = 121. 4 11. . a. .f2 2. 10 2a?5 17.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. J 9. 14. = 3. .1) + 5(6 y . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.
but some expressions involving x. {. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. <X + 20. and y. 22. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. . ?~y .and x y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. f y . 3x\" 1 23 24. 180.#. e. * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21.
1. however. 33 = 11 x. y 1. 137 Solve y y (1) . etc.3 xy. . Dividing by 11 3 = #. y. of this type. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . Therefore y=4. Clearing of fractions. 2* * x 2. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. can also be solved Examples method. x 3. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. (2) (3) a. y 4.4 x = 4 xy. x 2x(2). 15 y + 8 x .
LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 6w3 + bny = 6p. . Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7.= o 6. 6.= 5. x y 331 9. 4 13. Ex. 1. x y 5. x 8. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. n. y MOi y a.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 21 9 .
(1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. Uniting. d. . . 14. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. x a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x 12. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. W . apan cm. bmy bm}y ap cm. ax + by = 2 a&. x f my = 1. . d. From the same equations find s in terms of a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . s in 11. ap. and I. 6. Dividing. fax f = l. ny = fy/ I sc 1.y = = 9a + 46. and I if 13.W. a Find a and terms of n. f 5. w.
x + 12 y . (8) 2. = 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).3=4. 20. 182.1+4.25.3 = 8. ties are Similarly.lf> z . 4. 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.2 + 3.15z=12 Adding.by 2.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 3y = Hence Check.2 + 4. 4. Ex. .13. 1. (4) (5). 8 x . l.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).8 = 1. y =* 2. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. by 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. = 30. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. etc. f 3y 12 =s 8.16. 3.12 y + 6 z = . To solve equations containing By tions. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 6. 1.
2z = 40. + 2 y f 2 = 35. + y f z = 15. a? + 709 = 26. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 14. 15 2 = 45. 2 4. 49. 7. 12. 10. x 13. == 6. a? 11. 2 . ~6?/ 5. k 2/ f 2 x a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 8. 4 = 42.
16. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 4.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 1510 4 17.2 a.. = 8*.42 = 2. . = 5. 23. . 19. 27. ?/ 3x = 0. 60. . (3 _. ^ = 2. =s 20.6 2.3 y + . 22. 84 21. 32. ? = llz.
= l. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1 = 2. + z = 2p. and if 396 be added to the number. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. +2+ 6 = 8. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 2 = 6. + 396 = 521. M=i. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. either directly or implied. 1 digit in the tens place. Ex. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. ( 99. and to express In complex examples. symbols: x + y +z 8. # 4. 2 = 1(1+6). Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the number. 1.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. x : z =1 : 2. Obviously of the other . y 31. y * z 30. however. Find the number. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. = 2 m. z + x = 2 n. Check. The sum of three digits of a number is 8.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (3) C4) = 24 miles. Find the fraction. Ex. 2. 6 x 4 = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2.144 Ex. x y = the = the x denominator . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. C. direction. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. Or (4)2x(3). (1) (2) 12. y = 3. From (3) Hence xy Check. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x 3x4y = 12. x 3 = 24. we obtain. B. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. = the fraction. By expressing the two statements in symbols. = Hence the fraction is f. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 4 x = 24. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. = 8. . 2. the distance traveled by A. xy a: 2y 4y 2. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 5_ _4_ A. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. increased by one.
to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. 7. Find the numbers. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 183. the Find the fraction. fraction is reduced to \. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 5. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and the fourth 3. both terms. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. If 9 be added to the number. Find the numbers. part of their difference equals 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. If 27 is 10. . it is reduced to J. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the numerator increased by 4. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. ? What 9. the number (See Ex. 2. its value added to the denominator. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the number.) added to a number of two digits. the last two digits are interchanged. 6. tion ? 8. the fraction equals . If the denominator be doubled. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the value of the fraction is fa. 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. A fraction is reduced to J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the fraction.}. the digits will be interchanged. and its denomi nator diminished by one. added to the numerator of a fraction. Find the number. number by the first 3.
What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . the rate of interest? 18. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. the annual interest would be $ 195. and partly at 4 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. How 6 %. . a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and money and 17. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. respectively ? 16. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90.000 is partly invested at 6%. 12. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.grams. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. A sum of $10. Find the rates of interest. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and in 5 years to $1125. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 4 %. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. now. 13. If the rates of interwere exchanged. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 5 %. partly at 5 %. 14. in 8 years to $8500. 19. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. A man invested $750.
he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. c. BC=7. and angle e angle/. and e. An C touch ing the sides in D. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. andCL4 = 8. and F. is the center of the circum scribed circle. . E. On /). A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. are taken so ABC. and F. and F '(see diagram). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. Find their rates of walking. and their difference by GO . and CE If AB = G inches. triangle Tf AD. B find angles a. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. BE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BD = HE. the three sides of a triangle E. and $15 for each sheep. $ 50 for each cow. and AC = 5 inches. what is that = OF. 1 NOTE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. 25. but if A would double his pace. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and angle BCA = 70. BC = 7 inches. 24. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. angle c = angle d. for $ 740. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. three AD = AF. cows. and GE = CF. receiving $ 100 for each horse. 23. points. the length of NOTE. then AD = AF. and sheep. . ED = BE. A farmer sold a number of horses. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. respectively.
. 186. (2. . hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and r or its equal OA is . jr. the ordinate by ?/. The of Coordinates. and PJ/_L XX'. (7. (2. ?/. or its equal OM. 3). is the abscissa. It' Location of a point. PN are given. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (3. PM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. B. and PN _L YY'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and point the origin. PN. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate of point P. 2). YY' theyaxis. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). Thus the points A. is The point whose abscissa is a. first 3). and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).
4) from the origin ? 7. (See diagram on page 151. 1). . 3). 3). (3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.) EXERCISE 1.e.2). 0).4).and(l. 12. 6. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.1). Plot the points (6. 2J). What is the locus of (a?. whose coordinates are given NOTE. and measure their distance. Plot the points: (4. 2). 4. . 2). (4. Graphs. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4. 6.3). 0). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.(!. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 3. i. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (4. 8. 11. 0). (0. 4). 0). 4). 71 2). (5. Plot the points : (0. (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (4. 2. (2. (0. 4) and (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 3). !). 1). (4. Plot the points: (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (1.
10 . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A. or the curved line the temperature.. may be found on Jan. we meas1 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. from January 1 to December 1. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. . B. 188. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. D.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. C. By representing of points. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 15. however. ure the ordinate of F. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 1.
the merchant. (d) November 20. uses them. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. etc. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the rise and fall of wages. (b) July 15. as the prices and production of commodities. the graph is applied. . and to deduce general laws therefrom. the matics. The engineer. (c) January 15. physician. Whenever a clear.
During what months above 18 C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. When the average temperature below C.. 15. (d) 9 0. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. 1? 11 0. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (1) 10 C.. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1 to Oct. How much. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3. is 10. ? 9. on 1 to the average.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.152 2. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (freezing point) ? 7.
20. Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Hour Temperature .09 yards. One meter equals 1. Draw . a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. transformation of meters into yards. NOTE. 19.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. the value of a of this quantity will change. etc. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.. 28. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. x increases will change gradually from 13. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. x* x 19. the daily average expenses for rent. x 7 to 9.g.50. . binding.. 2. 3.50. function If the value of a quantity changes.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2 . A 10 wheels a day.5 grams. etc.) T circumferences of 25. if each copy sells for $1. 29.. 190. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 9. 4.inch. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. gas. then C irJl. 1 to 1200 copies. and $.154 24. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 26. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. amount to $8. 3. to 27. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. represent his daily gain (or loss). if he sells 0. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. e. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. books from for printing. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.
The values of func192. (1^. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. however.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 9). may. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.1). to x = 4. If a more exact diagram is required.2 x may 4 from x = 4. and (3.0). Ex. it is In the example of the preceding article. is supposed to change. construct '. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. as 1. a*. 2 (1. 2. x a variable. J). 2). be also represented by a graph. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 3 (0. and join the points in order.e. 4). (2. while 7 is a constant. ( 2. (1. Draw the graph of x2 f. Q. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 9). may . for x=l. 3 50. etc. Graph of a function. E. .1).g. 1 the points (3. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 4).
(4. 5).. Ex. 1).. (3. 4J. . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. (2..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. = 4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. j/=3.) For brevity. r */ +* 01 . if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. etc. and join(0. 2 4 and if y = x f.. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 4). (To avoid very large ordinatcs.4). Thus in the above example. = 0.20). 7 . Thus 4x + 7.2 x . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. straight line produces the required graph. 194. as y. rf 71 . y = 6. 2.
2 2 a. + 4. Jar . 1J. 16. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 8. 6 fa. if"a. xz + x. The values of a?. 1J. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 3. 1 8 10. 11. The smallest value of the function. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 14. 6. if a.e. 9. 2x + 3x a?. if y = 2. 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The values of a*. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 18. l.5)2. . 1J. 2 2. 2 or 2 20. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. from x VlO'S".GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . . 19. a. 1. 5. 12. fa 17. i. = 4. 3 a 8. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. a* 13. 15. 2 a. 2J. 2 a. a?. a? 1. J. y = 2x = 4. (C ) (2.5)2. 3. if the function equals zero. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1.8)'. a? 2 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (If) Va25. = The values of a*. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. xl. ?/ a. the function. 22.or. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 2. 7. (7i) (c) 23. x+1.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 23x. (ft) (_ 1. a ar. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2J. 4 a. 21. 4a? I.
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 25.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). that graph with the o>axis. 9 F. the abscissas of 3.158 24. Show any convenient number).e..24 or x = P and Q. 1 C. y= formula graphically. Therefore x = 1. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. 14 F. Represent 26. . we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. then cXj where c is a constant.where x c is a constant. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C...24. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. then y = .) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. 32 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. C. i.
8. is called a quadratic equation. 10. 13. 4. 3. 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.f 9 = 0. (a) (6) 9. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 2 and 1. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 12. crosssection paper is used. (a) x2 = 0. 6. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. Such equations in general have two roots. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 197. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. . and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (0. 7. + + = where a. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 6. 14. 11. viz. a2 2a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. or 5 2.
== 2. = 0. and joining by a straight line. X'2 Locating the points (2. because their graphs are straight lines. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically.1. y = l. unknown quantities. 4) and (2. Hence if if x x  2. fc = 3. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.e. (f . y y 2. if y = is 0. If x = 0. NOTE. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 2).2 y ~ 2. ?/ =4 AB. 1) and 0). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Hence. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). first degree. solve for ?/. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. and join the required graph. i. produces the 7* required locus. Hence we may join (0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s .160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. . 0). T . Ex. ?/. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.2. 199. 3x _ 4 . locate points (0. Ex.
202. 201. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. viz. and CD. P. To find the roots of the system. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. we obtain the roots.57. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 203. Graphical solution of a linear system. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.1=0. (2) . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.15. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection. linear equations have only one pair of roots. equation x= By measuring 3.
etc. intersection. e. AB the locus of (1). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. = 0. they are inconsistent. Measuring the coordinates of P.0). 4. the point we obtain Ex. 4. 0) and (0. 0.5. 5. (4. we of the + y* = 25. 2.g. V25 5.  4. The equations 2 4 = 0. 1. Inconsistent equations.e. 2 equation x 3). parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. (4. x2 . . Since the two  we obtain DE. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Locating the points (5. y equals 3. In general. P graphs meet in two and $. 3). 1. 4. the graph of points roots.. 2. 4.0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Locating two points of equation (2). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.9.5. Solving (1) for y. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 4.y~ Therefore. 0. 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 4. 3. 3x 2 y = 6. (1) (2) C. 3. and joining by a straight line. 4. 3. and .162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. and + 3). i. (2. Using the method of the preceding para. if x equals respectively 0.
y= a2 2x y6. 10. vice versa.. and solve each If there are no solutions. 6. 9. . 19. y=x + 5. a+r/=6. 2. and. Draw system. 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y = 4. the graphs of the following systems. a. 5. 16 22. 3. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. state reasons. y 2 4. '163 Dependent equations. 17.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. if possible. x~y=0. 8. \ 2x + 3^ . 2x 3?/=6. 16 23. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 7. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 20.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24. 3 31. 30. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.y). 28. 26. 25.14 y = . TABLE OF SQUARES.8. CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .
8. a special kind of product. is may be by 207. According to 1. ^4/? it According to 50. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. powers of a positive quantity are positive. a = a3 . 2. Law of Signs. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. on to in factors 4. ( a) is positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. involution repeated multiplication. 3 f a = f a = +.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . follows that 3. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 52. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . fa. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.faa a a a Obviously 1. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.a2 . 2. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. . etc.
4. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . \ 3 J '  MW 10. 15. 6. 2 11 (afc ) . . 24.6 (a 8 8 . (2ar). 5. 4 /2mV. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 210. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 2. raise a fraction to a power. a product to a given power. (277171 )*. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.166 To find To To power. V V/ 13. (a ) 2 5 . 76 : (>y. the required power.6) = a . 3 2 2 8 . amVy) 3 . (a ) 2 4  3. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (^^) 2 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 16.
(3 (l I) 2 8 . 7.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 2. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . +5a) 22. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 3. 8 (a??/) 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 12. 9. 1 f 3 2 3 . etc. (aj7) . (3af26) 8 . 1.6 2 8 ft) . a. (afl) . (3 x . 211.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. An 1. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.y) = (3 y?y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 18. 2. + a 2 a.3 y. 3 .y . 2 . 5.INVOLUTION Ex. 23. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (5 (1 a) 3 . . 16. 13. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . nent of the binomial. frequently called ex. . The higher powers of binomials. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 6.) 14. 21. + 4aj) 3 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 15. Ex. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 8. or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. (a + &)8 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 4. 3 8 . pansions. are obtained by multiplication. : a 20.
.216 a^ 4. (tff1) (cfd) . 9. (1 + 4 ?/) . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 18. 10. (m fl) 2 20. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 5. 3.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (mJ) 4 11. 2. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (l 8 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (w 4 ?i) 4 .168 3. 6. . 21. (3a f5) 5) 4. (m 5 I) 2 22. . 4 . 15. (p + q) 4 * 7. Ex. 24. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . and the powers negative.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (2 4. (2 a 4 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.2. (?>i?i f c)*. 4. Ex. 3. mn 5 2 5 ) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Ex. 25. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (la&) 4 12. 8. 17. . (m 2 + n) 8 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (af 5) . 4 (1for) 5 . ( &) 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . is the coefficient of the next term. (?/i~w) : 16. 1. 23. The minus. 14. 78 s . 13. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (a~^) 5 .a) 3 19. . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .
\/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and ( v/o* = a. 215. which can be simplified no further.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 27 =y means r' = 27. 109 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 1. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 4 4 . V \/P 214. or x &4 . a) 4 = a4 . 2. called real numbers. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for distinction. = x means = 6. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. tity . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. V9 = + 3. \/"^27=3. numbers. Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or y ~ 3. and all other numbers are. etc.
Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. 3/0** = am . Ex 5 a" . . 7. roots of the numerator \/18 . 5. 3i . 2. 9.(.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . = 19472. Ex.9 = 136. \/2 4 9 .200 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 9. fy 5 3 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 2. 6 7 = 030. = 199 + (_ 198) .lL.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 8. Ex. 6.  100 a 2 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 2 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 7. 6. 10. To extract a root of a fraction. v/^i2 = a*. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. Ex. v/2^. index. V25 9 16. 62 = V2* . 4 v. 3. = V26TIT81 = 53. for (a")" a = a mn 3. EXERCISE 1.201) = 2. 7 .4. 3 33 53 . 8.1.64 5 4 .125. extract the and denominator. V?. 82 . . To extract the root of a power. Ex. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V5 v/2 7 2. . 79 2 v/2 5 . V36 9 4. 7 .
98. 33.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . Ex. V9216. 45 V5184. 29.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 6. a* 4 8 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3 y2) ( vV . 1. 116. 31. 2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2.3.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 30. 32./). 34. V20 .) by inspection. 3.75. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 5. ^40^4. Find the square root of a2 .3 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. V8. 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. a f2 l 2 + l.4/.
14. 2 . let us consider the relation of a f.2 ac . 10.b 2 2 to its square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2 2 218. 8 . + 6 + 4a&. and b (2 a f b). 15. The term a' first 2 .> 13. the given expression is a perfect square. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. .2 &c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . i. a\b is the root if In most cases. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 12.e. and b. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a f.72 aW + 81 & 4 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .172 7. 11.2 ab + b . however. #2 a2  16.
. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. . 1. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 1. and so forth. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. . 2.24 afy* f 9 tf. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. First complete divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. is As there is no remainder. 6 a. 8 /. Ex. 8 a 2 2. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. of x. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. the first term of the answer. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. The square . 219. . Second trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. As there is no remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 a 2 . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Explanation. . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. by division we term of the root. First trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. */'' . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .EVOLUTION Ex.
20. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 12.16.37 a ^ .10 x2 4. 36it. 16x6 4.42 a*& 4. > 7. 18.20 o 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.73 a8 . 13#4 413ar 44a. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .12 m 4. 729 4. 6 11. l 4. 4 .a 6 x*y 2 . 17.24 or . 8.V430^425^ 4m 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .162 a2 60 a10 4. 24. 3. .25 x 4 4. 10.40 a 22 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.12m 5 4. 6.20 J or 2 16 x 4.6 . 9. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 436^?/469a. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. + 81 a 454 a + 81.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .73a4 440^436^460^. 2 x2 3 2x.4 x 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .9. 2 4. 19. 14. a? 2 . 16. 1 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 5 4 16 4 iK .25. 15.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 5.
the consists of group is the first digit in the root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Find the square root of 524. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. first . and the first remainder is. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.EVOLUTION 220.176.000 is 100. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the first of which is 4. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. of 1. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. a 2 = 6400. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Therefore 6 = 8. two figures. the first of which is 8. the square root of 7744 equals 88.1344. Find the square root of 7744. etc. 2.000 is 1000. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 1. The is trial divisor = 160. etc. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Ex. which may contain one or two). = 80. of a number between 100 and 10. Ex. and the complete divisor 168. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. of 10..
GO'61. in .688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Find the square root of 6/. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3. annex a cipher. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.70 6. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1T6 221. places. The groups of 16724.1 are Ex.0961 are '.7 to three decimal places.10.
33.22. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .) 40. 5. 1. . Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 34. feet. whose area equals 48. feet. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 30.53. T\. 35. 36.1410.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. JT . = 3.01. 32. 37. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 39.58 square 38. J. 31.4 square when R = radius and 11. 13.
Transposing. or equation of the second degree. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 6 y2 = 17. but no higher power e. complete. 178 . 226.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2 ic = a. Dividing. or affected. is 12. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 224. = 7^ + 5.. Ex. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2)* + 5 = 33. A pure. is A quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. = 4. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. The 7 equation. x 2 7. x = + 2 or x =2. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 225. This answer Check. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 1. or incomplete. 2.g. Extracting the square root of each member. 6#2 = x* 24.
. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 8. 6(2)=10(ajl). : 83 2. 4 ax. 2 2 a. (a? 9.25. 3. or Therefore. ' =: y? b* b . 19 + 9 = 5500. 15^5 = 6. Dividing by Extracting the square root. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 4fc 5' 18.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. Solve 179 .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.2. 5. 10. ax Transposing and combining. 7 = 162. 16^393 = 7. 7. o.
228. Find the side of each field. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 27. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If 22 = ~^. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 24. Find the side of each field. 22 a. 2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2.) of their squares 5. If a 2 4. r. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . is one of _____ b The side right angle. If G=m m g . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). . EXERCISE 1. solve for d. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards.b 2 If s If =c . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. then Since such a triangle tangle. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 4. 2 . ' 4. 2a f 1 23. 29. solve for r. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 108. 25. find a in terms of 6 . and they con tain together 30G square feet. A right triangle is a triangle. 2. 28. Find the numbers. 26. 3. Find is the number. . solve for v.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2 : 3. : 6. and their product : 150. is 5(5. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. may be considered one half of a rec square units.
we have of or m = . and the two smaller 11. add () Hence 2 . To find this term. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 9. 8. and the other two sides are as 3 4. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. A body falling from a state of rest. x* 7 x= 10. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. (b) 100 feet? = . 2m. sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.2 7 . J = 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 24. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . Solve Transposing. is and the other two sides are equal. Find these 10. 4. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.7 x f 10 = 0. . . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . radii are as 3 14. . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. Method of completing the square. (b) 44 square feet. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the unknown sides and the area. Find the radii. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) 13. Find the sides. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.
22 7 2 + 10 =0.. or x = 2. a. = . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.1. or J. 2  . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Transposing. = \ # = ff. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Simplifying. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0. J.x(l = .e. = x\ = 2. Transposing. 62 x 5 = f. Ex. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . (*~8) a = at .a. Uniting. 2 a* a.2.2 a2 . Ex.  \. Extracting square roots. . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. = 6. adding member). Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Therefore. a Clearing of fractions. 230. Hence Therefore Check.
4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. . x la 48. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 49. = 12. ao. and c in the general answer. =0. article. =8 r/io?. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .c = 0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. Solution by formula. \bx\. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46.
7^ + 9 x 90. c = 5. Reducing to general form. 2. 9. 6 Ex. 19.4 4 5 . 8. = 12 . 10. 3. 4. 6 . 6^+5^ 56. 20. 2or } 5o. 2 a? = 44 x . ?i 2 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 5 x2 Transposing. 11.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.  . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. = 64120?. 2 a. 14. : 86 + 2 = 0.25 x. b =  + 20 == = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 15. 18. c p. 2 . a.. 16. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 21. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 1. TIO. 26. 6. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 17. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 7. 13. 2. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 2 o. 12. V^tT)* .
2. orz roots. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Eesolving into factors. Solution by factoring. = 0. x2 = 1 . 1. 5) = 0. 26. = 0. 25. (5 a? !)(. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Bx 1 1.x. . member can be Ex. or # 5 is zero. 2S3x 1 2 . = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Factoring. = 14.5 Solving (1) and (2). 24. a=:i^^. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 3x?+x = 7. 0. 23. 5 = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. transposing terms to one member.4) = . 27 x== 42a. all or. }. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. ar>8o. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.5) =0. any degree. x(x <2 . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . if either of the uct is zero. Transposing. and 6. 233. factors Now. Clearing for fractions.
0(02) = 7(02). a?. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 4)(z3) = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 5 = 0.:=0. + 10 a = 24. 6. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 16. Or Hence the 234. (aj4)(a. + 8=s: 7. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 9. Therefore x =3 = 2. aj( 15.24 = 0. + 100. The equation I. 5.6)) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.3)(x + 3 3.= 24. 14. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ ar> 11. 3. : 87 = 0. } 2 2 (5 . EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3^ = 0(1106). let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.g. 3. 12. is 5) = 0. 3 or 2 a. 3# y 5 = 0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 4.(.e. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. Ex. evidently (x Or 4)(x . for a: . 2. 13. 7. a* 10a=24. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. we 9 obtain x 4. O roots are 2. + 6)=0. 3) Factoring. 3) = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 2. 2o3 f9a. a?10a=:24. E. + 9 f 20 x = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. x2 f 2 x .
uz + u 21. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 27. 20. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 25. '3a!J  . 19. a 2 =(x a)b.188 17. 23. 18. (2a? 3) (a 24. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. ara + ft + c*.
56. 2. 0. 2. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 1. 54. Find the numbers.3. 8. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.2. 52. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 4. two numbers is 4. EXERCISE 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. G. 5. Find the number. 1. is Find two numbers whose product 288. and consequently many prob 235. 5. of their reciprocals is 4. number by 10. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and equals 190 square inches. The difference of . Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 2.3. 3. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 55.1.0. The 11.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 57. 6. 2. 58. and whose sum is is 36. feet. . : 3. 7. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and whose product 9. Find the sides. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .9. and the difference Find the numbers. Find the number. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 3.0.
Two vessels. and Find the sides of the rectangle. watch for $ 24. ABCD. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 17. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. . and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 14. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other.190 12. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he would have received two horses more for the same money. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. sold a horse for $144.10. 15. 19. dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. as the 16. What did he pay for 21. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. Find the rate of the train. other. 13. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. If he each horse ? . exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.
1. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Find and CB. a point taken. so that the rectangle. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. 24. is On the prolongation of a line AC.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 23 inches long. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. and working together. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. the two men can do it in 3 days. 27. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. how wide is the walk ? 23.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. or x = \/l = 1. By formula.) 25. 237. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. ^3^ = 7. . and the area of the path the radius of the basin. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Ex. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Find TT r (Area of a circle . constructed with and CB as sides. of the area of the basin. (tf. as 0. contains B 78 square inches. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other.
Solving. = 13. a4 5o. 8. Ex. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. T 17. 4 a. 18. 19. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Hence Le. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 h9:=0. 4 6. >.T 2 2 . 436 3. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 7. 2 16 a^40 11.)+72=0. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 2. 4 : 89 10a.2 =4. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a? 15 1=2*.192 238. = 1. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 16. 9. 10. 12. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . y8)=0. 6. or y = 8. a. a 21or=100.
240. c the roots are real. negative.f> = 0. rational.5) = 04. .bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . is 4ac not zero. the roots are rational. ( 2a Hence 1. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Ex. b 4. The discriminant =(.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are equal. the roots are unequal.bx 4. rational. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. and unequal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 2. Hence the roots are real.2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are irrational. a perfect square. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .2 z . 3.12 x + 9 = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 241. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are real. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. it 2a follows 2 : 2. and equal. Ex. Relations between roots and coefficients.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 1. the roots are imaginary.
6. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 5aj 9. 2a 4z5 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 15. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2 : 3.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. o. tfmx+p^Q. 12~x = x 2 . 24. their product isf. = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0.. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. ^12.g. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 3a. 18. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = 5x. lla. = 0. 22. 9a3 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 21. + 18 2 8. : a 2 . x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2 a. 14. + 12 2  . 23. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 2a. = Q. 2. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 4. f 2 E. 60 2 = 0. = 0. 17.19 # 20. 2 7. 12. x2 7 10.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0.
we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. (ab) . We assume. for all values 1 of m and n. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. m IV. provided w > n. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . and . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. a m a" = a m+t1 . 244. The first of these laws is nition of power.* III. while the second of the first. > m therefore. Then the law of involution. It is. that a an = a m+n . = a"" < . hence. such as 2*." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . must be *The symbol smaller than. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. ~ a m f.a" = a m n mn . (a m ) w . however. no Fractional and negative exponents.
ml. a?*. . a\ 26. n 2 a. (xy$. laws. 29. '&M A 27.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a . 24. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 28. 31. disappear. 23. or zero exponent equal x.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. m$. (bed)*. at. 4~ . Assuming these two 8*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. a*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . etc. 30. = a.g. 3*. 245. fractional. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 25. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 0?=^. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. as. e.
e. a . 7z* Find the values of 47. 3* = 27. 37. : 2' 4* = 4. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 41. 42. 38. hence is . 49. \/xy \/m. 246. : 197 33. v'mT 36. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a* * = 3. = 2. a * a2 Or a=l.\/n. 40. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. Solve the following equations 39. however. equal to unity. 5 a* = 10. the base is zero. Let a = a. Vo5 . \fi?. e. a. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 48. = 49. 43. 35. = 2. 45. 46. If. 50. 27* = 3. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.g.g. ty?. 44. v/o&cT 34.
. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Let x= or". a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . etc. consider the following equations. Multiplying both members by a". each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. 248. by changing the sign of NOTE. an x = a. Or a"# = l. vice versa. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. e.2 = a2 . cr n.198 247. or the exponent.g.
7~ l a 2b 2 . 25. 40. rfS. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. f (2w)~i 1 . a. 2m~i 43. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 22. 3 a? * 42. . 2 ."* 38. a^ 41. 66 45. : mi m~^. 3 a. * 24. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. m . 36.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ^L. : or 5 . 44. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 37. . 2 . 39. 27. c 32. ^?2 y' 34. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29.
z* = 1. . = 5. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 54. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 61. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. of: 3ll4~* 60. 250.1. 53.343)* + (. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 52. 48. = l. 57. + A_. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* Find the values 56. z 5or*=10.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* 5* = . 58.008)* + A. ar = i.001. Ex. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. + 1~* f 21 . 55. = .(. = ^.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 1. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 49.6). 59.9*. 17' 2 51. 47.81 f (a . (.
16. 23. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7~ 6 . Remove the negative exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 12. 4 5. 4 x^.7W. 6.4 . 16.^/5^5.$*. S'sS8. 3sVS. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . etc. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.&. 7~ 5 27  . 6 *. 3. 18. 27  28. (d) If required.7*.5a.6 *' 6 *25.&. 8 ' 9. V5..7i. 79 .3 aj" a. OA 20. / 7fv 7. 3 a. 13. . 6a. a. are performed. 7.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7*. 26. . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.5. 14.4 a8 . 17. #* a. 95 ^9i 5**.$". remove the fractional exponents. 72 . . Perform the operation indicated. ' 11. 10. NOTE. &.
1. If powers of a?. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 40. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252.2 d . we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 4^/4. </3. v/4.3\ . subtract surds. 27. I VJ + 3VT8 . Ex. (i. \/5. signs. V3. v^S. V2. Arrange 35. V2. 3. v/3. V2. 33. A/2. 34. ^7. s!/3. 32. \/7. 26.e. ^5. ^30. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 36. ^6. 30. 40. 31. ^2. ^3. 38. To add or form. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 2\ 3*. + .10 V2 =  V2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^/IT. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^126. v/3. A/3. </2. ^4. 39. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 5V2. ^2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . VS. 28. Ex. connect them by proper 1. </20.2 V50. in order of magnitude : \/7. 37. V3.2. V5. ^4. 29. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. if dissimilar. Simplify V~ .
13. 14. . 11. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6.J a6 V4 aft. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VJ+V8V1 + V50.3V20 + 6V5. V175V28+V634V7. 8. 9. 6. 4. + 3V835V2. 10. 12. V18+V32VT28+V2. 4V805V45. 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 3.
23. 6*.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 2. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 26^ .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 3.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. and then multiplied. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . y* = Ex. Ex. 1. . . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .
8. 3. v/4. 7. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 27. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. 13. 28 . 34. . 4. 2 . 38. V3 Vl2. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (2V3) 8 . + VB)(2V5). Vll. 41. VTO. 6. VlO V15. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 213 98 11. 9. a?. 37. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 6 V4 5. 19. \/3 \^). 2. V3 V6. 10. 15. V2aV8^. 21. 40. (3 20. 14. V42. (Va Va 36.^/2. (V6 + 1) 1 .VSS. V20 V30. V2 V50. aVa. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 18. fWa 17. 39. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 40 10 30. 12. v/18 v"3. 25.RADICALS EXERCISE 1.
the quotient of the surds is If. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 53. 51. 52. 47.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 268. . Ex.214 42. (2 45. 44. 46. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). is 1 2. E. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 43. V3 . 48. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).y. (5V2+V10)(2V51). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . Ex. a fraction. all monomial surds may be divided by method. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 49. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 60. Va v/a.
73205. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. arithTo find. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. .RADICALS This method. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.57735. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. is illustrated by Ex. e. we have V3 But if 1..g.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . by V7.by the usual arithmetical method. 3. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Evidently. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1. metical problems afford the best illustrations. /~ } Ex. however. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. The 2. . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide VII by v7.
2361. V5 270. Vn V7 ' * 8. V5 = 2. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 272. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. . 23 . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 20. V48 25. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.7320. . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V2 22 . A. Vll 212*. V3 = 1. 14. 7. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 21. V3 24 . and Given V2 = 1. VffV?. V8 JL.4142. 271.. V8 12. i. ^/H . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. A.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
s Simplify a. V82 2V3 1fVS . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .vffi^T _ . . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.RADICALS Ex.Vs2 . . 1. Ex. Ex.= 18.1 xVtf a. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .2. 3.
V21 = 25 . J?_. = V3 = 1. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.4142.7320. 6V7.218 6 .W3. V5V7 18> ^SVg.2361. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. find to _!_. four places of decimals 23 . : and V5 = 2. Vo1 26. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.5 3 = 125. 19. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. By the use of fractional exponents . 24. v 2V3 28. 27. Given V2 1.
1. . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V643 . 2 12. 9. it to this form. 8. 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. Simplify Ex. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V255 . the If. 2. 2. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. \/125" . 11. In other examples of involution and evolution. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. viz. \/l6*. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 5. 4.RADICALS 219 274. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. on the other hand. v8f 2\/15. According to G3.
coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 12 and whose product is 20.220 Ex. 2 \/18. These Ex. 3. ^TT. Find V4 + VJ8.6 V2.2 \/20. +2 Ex. is 11.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find Vl2 4. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.A/2.6\/2 = ^9 . and whose product is 18.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. The Hence ^11 . Find Vll .
(2x xrf 1. a. VT . examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. x2 = x f 2. = xa + 4 x f 4. : 221 Vl32V22.e. first involution. Solve vVf!2a = 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. by raising both members equal powers. V48 23. 8. Ex.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. +=.. The value x =2 reduces each .1. Before performing the involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 277.V48 4 20. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. are radical equations. 4x x = 2. Radical equations are rationalized. Dividing by Check. they are transto formed into rational equations. 4. 19. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Transposing and uniting. i. member to 2. r 22.
= 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. x = J. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. . one root. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 2. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. viz.222 Ex. . Transposing and uniting. 3. Transposing and uniting. viz. Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. they may be extraneous roots. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Extraneous roots. at . 278. the first member = V2. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.1) = 0. Transposing. Therefore CftecAr. 4#f 4 = 9. Therefore Check. Dividing by 24. It = 3 x . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Squaring both members. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Factoring. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. tion which has two roots. V4afT~l. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Ex. . V24~+~l = 0. a socalled extraneous root.3. a. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.
4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.RADICALS Hence x If a.47) = 0. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Solve the following equations : = G. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 2 Clearing of fractions. or x *j. x root of the preceding equation. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 223 x = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Transposing.3) (2 x . Therefore. for it satisfies the equation . and to 5. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given. equation it is an extraneous root. the right member = V2. NOTE. Hence x = the only root. Factoring. 4.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. viz. Hence there is only one root. If If x 3 = 3. is x V. (x x = 3. .12 . . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. both members reduce to 5. . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. ViTie 4 z2 .2 r. Squaring. = 3. Check. + 6~ieT~3 .
Ex. Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore .
. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. x + Vx a? = 6. some of the roots be extraneous. 412a* = 16.i~24 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. = 7. + 40 = 6.*2a. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. 3 6. = 26. 4. Q . Substituting.8 z40 = 7. Ex. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.f40= 5. x =6 or 3. o. Let 8 x f 40 .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. _ 2 y . 45 14VJB = .8 x + 40 = 36. y then x2 . = 0.35 = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 2. x Since both =9 or 1. 3. This can be seen without substituting. 2. 5. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2Va.
16. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.226 11. +3= 6. 14. 20. +x . 15.f 18 = 24. a. 18. 12. 4 V SB* 4 a.a 440 = 35. 17. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 19. 2. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a^x2 5 2 13.
a? R = x* .2 + 80 = 12.4 a. we make a? what the value of Q. if Q was known. find the remainder when m. Ex.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . even if Q is unknown. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 1." transposing. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. = 2. by dividing 3 x* f. ax4 4.2 + 4.360 = 244. does not contain a?.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. If x* . Without actual division. Hence. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). however. " Or. could. 3 2 Ex.bx? + ex2 4. 227 . no matter If.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division.2) Q . E = ax + &z + m) Q. ^ = 381+2. 2. then (x 2)Q 0.
x m is factor of the expression. 2 j 7. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 3.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . If the remainder is zero.3)f 11 =.228 282. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. + 7 = 632. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. if 8 42  .g. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 5. the remainder equals 8 2 x .4(.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. } 2 by a1. hence (x divided by x 4. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. fora?. The Factor Theorem. 43 3 E. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 5 (4x .8'= 0. + 6. x* s 2 4. + ^by x + b. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. of the division 3) is m in place of x.949.g. 8. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.
3 2 : 7. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 2. 106 division. a? 19. a + 32. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. factors of the absolute term. 20. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 229 1.7 x + 15 = 0. 1. or x 4. or 5 4 + 3^ . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.12 = 0. then x8 7 x'2 4. f 3. + 15. a^8^ + 19a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 23. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. Resolve into factors 4. a 5x 6. 3. The 5. oj 5x2 f3a. Factor a? 15. a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 18. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 15. ^10^429^20=0. 11.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.49 = 0.1. Therefore x ( 1).9^ + 23^15. 8. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a 8a f 19 a 12. + ttt15 = 0. 6. 2m 5m . 17.12. are f 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.7 + 16 . 24.1. a 2a + 4. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.e. 5. i. p 5^ + 8p 4. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.13m + 30 10. 9. 1. f 5. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. is a factor. 21. 7 46 = 0. m f m n 14. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. . + 27 + 27. 2 2. f 15 does not vanish. Let x = . 25. & p*. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. _ . 8.r6 = 0.
g.xy +/). 2. 2. actual division n. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 286.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. xn f. if n is even. xn y n y n y n = 0. By we obtain the other factors. It y is not divisible by 287. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y." . is odd.230 285. 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.y n is divisible by x f ?/. : importance. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. Ex. ar +p= z6 e. 2 Ex. if w is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. For substituting y for x. If n is a Theorem that 1. x* f/ = (x +/)O . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.
as 27=0. 26. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .= . Hence = (m Ex.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 3. a. 28.i mn f w 2). since it more directly to the prime factors. however. x3 8=0. 27. y 3 +8=0. preferable. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. leads 231 is The first method.
4 xy = 16. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. xy are given. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. however. Squaring Solve (1). = 6. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.1.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xywe have 3. & + 2 xy + = 25. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. + 6 a?V . x y. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 232 . to equations of the fourth few cases. 290. * A I. of quadratics.y4 is of the fifth degree. can be solved by the methods degree. If two of the quantities x f y. (5) Combining (5) with (1). (4) Hence. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. but can be found. 3. 108 2. ^. 233 y. The arranged in pairs. 12. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. = . I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. b=3. ' 10. " "' "' { r 8. r (" 1 = 876. x and xy are not given. 1. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g.
?/ i = 6. A system of simultaneous equations. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. + 29 = 0. or y = 1 .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. I x+y = a. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 4 y = 20. 3.i/ = r 13. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.  42 y + Transposing. I* Jj ^ [.20) = 0.a. one linear and ne quadratic. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. . 5. 6 "I 14. ' ' ..~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .  . 19. la. . r^ 2 as ] f.o 18. x " (3) 49 etc. Factoring.  f J. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 7 . Ex. 2 (1) From (1) we have. or JJ. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. aj = 2.
1. 10. = 1 3 3. x2y. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 4 f + 2 y = 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ':il e :) . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). quantities.3 2x 2 Ex. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. y* + 2y = 3. III. Solve . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. ' x*. If of the preceding type. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 3y) : Factor (2).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.
2. 15 x2 . } VI09. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 11 a2 Factoring.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. = Ex. 2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (3) (4) Subtracting.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. Solve 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) (2) x x 5. 109 a.
2 xy + y2 = 10. (4) (3). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). can be solved by special devices. and others not belonging to them. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. . A. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.xy 4.3^42^=43. f 1 150 a?. ' ^ 15. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. E.6.125 ay = . y? a? f . 150 */2 .!. " IV.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Division of one equation by the other.y = 7. Bxy9.175 ay = 12. 298.
xy. = 12 J. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. quadratics can be solved by ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . x +y y etc. y = 3. Solve Ex. 2. Some simultaneous ?/. from (2). B. = 189. i ^ *>. we have from (1). * ' 300. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. (1 > (2) 1. x 2 .. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we obtain by squaring. jc~ y = 9. Therefore x = 16. y . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. at first it is unknown quantities.
The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. [2x + : y= 17. 7. 6. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. M6. 2. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e. F+y+ .
. 27. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 16. f 18. + o5)(6hy) = 80.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 19 ' 26. = 198.21 ^ = 15. 25. = y 1 y* . . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. * . ( xy (7 m 2 n*.
 But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. = 48201. y % 9 f*K 36. ^ oo . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 33. as a . 30. . 31. ~\ OK OO. 32. etc. . 7' j/ 39. finite  =x y if = x.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . .of  According to the definition of division. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. etc 302. 25 34. or ~ indeterminate. hence may be any finite number. . oo 301. Interpretation . Q 7. 3 a2 38. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .
great. is satisfied by any number. it is an Ex. as + l. TO^UU" sufficiently small. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . The ~~f fraction . By making x any * assigned zero.000 a.e. without exception. (1) = 0. ToU" ^100 a. (1). (a: Then Simplifying. equation. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.can be If It is made larger than number. i. 1. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.e. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.increases if x de x creases. x f 2.242 303.decreases X if called infinity. (1) is an identity.x'2 2 x = 1.g. 1. cancel. Let 2. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. creases. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. I. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. and . i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. oo is = QQ. or that x may equal any finite number. Or. = 10. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. . . the answer is indeterminate. and becomes infinitely small. Hence such an equation identity. 306. be the numbers.
Solve  9 7. 3. third and sixth parts. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 42 and' their product is 377. z = 1 Substituting. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.8 x + 15 6. 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum is of squares 2890.2 y = 4. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Hence /. = oo. 1=0. (2). Solve x a. * 6. no numbers can satisfy the given system. . y finite QO. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.e. is their 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve . Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. two numbers is 76. EXERCISE 1. and a. and the sum of Find the numbers.
14. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 8. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 6. p. Find these sides. 255 and the sum of 5. 9. Find the dimensions of the field. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the other two sides. Find the edge of each cube. is is 17 and the sum 4. The area of a nal 41 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. equals 4 inches. increased by the edge of the other. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. of a rectangular field feet. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the diago(Ex. is 6. .quals 20 feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area.) 53 yards. 12. of a right triangle is 73. 146 yards. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the edge of one. 10. and the sum of ( 228. 190. two numbers Find the numbers. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the edges. 103. Find the side of each square. Find the sides of the rectangle. 148 feet of fence are required. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet.244 3. Find the numbers. Find the sides. 13.
(Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) 17. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. . is 20 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. irR *. Find the radii. the quotient is 2. differ by 8 inches. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.
to produce the 3d term. a 11.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. to each term produces the next term. the first term a and the common difference d being given. and d.. Since d is a f 3 d. To find the nth term / of an A. a + d. Hence / = a + (n . series 9. 10.. P. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 17. P... a 3d. of a series are its successive numbers. An arithmetic progression (A. The first is an ascending.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. progression. 4. a + 2 d. 19. The progression is a. to produce the 4th term. the second a descending. f . 16. 12. a f d. 11. 309. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. each term of which. . : 7. a. The common differences are respectively 4.. 3. 2 d must be added to a.7. to produce the nth term. P.. . . of the following series is 3. + 2 d.1) d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 3 d must be added to a..) is a series..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. (n 1) d must be added to a. added to each term to obtain the next one. . except the first. 15 is 9 f.
d . 115. . Find the 10th term of the series 17. the term a. 6. = I + 49 = *({ + . 3. = 2. P... 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 4. 1. 1J. a = 2. P. 3. 99) = 2600.4. 3. 24.. 7. 10.. 3. 2 EXERCISE 1. Find the 12th term of the 4. . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A... 5... series . 6. Adding. 7. series 2.8.' cZ == .. .PROGRESSIONS 310. . Find the 101th term of the series 1. d = 3. 2. 5. 3. 2J.. 8. 19. (d) 1J. P. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. . 7.. if a = 5. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. (a + + (a + l) l). 9. = 99. 8... .. the last term and the common difference d being given. of the series 10.16. 1. 9. 5. 8. Find the nth term of the series 2. 21. 5. 5. 6 we have Hence . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 6. 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . . = a + (a Reversing the order.. Find the 5th term of the 4.3 a = l. ? (a) 1.. 4^...
2. \n. 4. 19.. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 16. 6. 1. to 16 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. hence if any three of them are given. . 7. 15.248 Find the 10. + 3. 15.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 11. '. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. P. Sum the following series 14. (x +"l) 4. 22. 11. 33. . 17. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 12. 1. 12. . 3. 11. 1. Jive quantities are involved. 13. to 10 terms. 2J.7 f to 12 terms. rf. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 15 terms.1 f 3. to 20 terms. 8. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 7 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 1J. strike for the first yard. 29. . 7. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. . 7. (i) (ii) . . 31. In most problems relating to A. 11. to 20 terms. striking hours only. > 2f 2. to 8 terms. 18. : 3. 20. to 20 terms. 16. . 23. 21. 15.
#.~n~\ 408 6). a = 12. 2. the second one mean between the other two. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 67. The series is. 312. . From (1). . 56. But evidently n cannot be fractional. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. Find the series. 204 = ^ (98 . n d. or if x Solving. 6. 111. 23. I. Findn. = 1014. d = 6. I Substituting in (I) and (II).1). 144. or 11 J. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. if a. n = 6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Solving. 89. 1. = 144. 12. if s = 204. The first term of an A. Ex. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. is 12. 78 n Substituting in (1). 133. Substituting in (2). P. 100.PROGRESSIONS Ex. J = 49. 6 n2 .6. 2 (2) From Hence (2).104 w + 408 = 0.e. 45. 78. = n(104 .6 n). a = 49 6(71 . and b form an A. = 1014. hence n = 6. 34. P. l)e?. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. = 13. 204 = ^ (a + 49). s 24ft last term 144.1) . 122. = a + (w... P.
= 17. y and #f5y. 14. n = 20. Given a = . 17. d = 5. f J 1 1 / . 10. 8. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . of 5 terms 6. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. a x f b and a b. Given a = 4. n = 4. = 45. 16. 74. 4. n has the series ^ j . has the series 82. Find?. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. s == 440. 15. Given a = . = 1870. How much . n = 17. n = 16. How much did he save the first month? 19. n. . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. P. s = 70. m and n 2. = 52. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. and s. T? ^. produced. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find d. = 83. 13.3. 12. ceding one. Find d. I. n = 13. Find a Given a = 7. = 16. Find a and Given s = 44. f? . Find w. Find d and Given a = 1700. Given a = 1. I Find I in terms of a. 7. = ^ 3 = 1. 6? 9. a+ and b a b 5. Find n. 78. 3. 11.
. ar8 r. P. A geometric progression first. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4. ar. 2 a. NOTE.. . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 24. E. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). The progression is a. P. 36.g. is 16(f) 4 . The 314. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a... If n is less : than unity.. called the ratio. 2. 4. . of a G. the first term a and the ratios r being given. or 81 315. . r n~ l . . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . +1. . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 12. and To find the nth term / of a G. 4 (1) .arn ~ l . ratios are respectively 3. 108. I. . rs = s 2 . or. 36.... is it (G. 36. <zr . 24. P.) is a series each term of which. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. (I) of the series 16.
. series 6. first 5. fa.. . 7.. 288. is 16. .54. In most problems relating to G. 80. 9. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 72. . 676.18. is 3.5. Hence the or series is 0. f. first term is 125 and whose common .. P. P.l. P. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. whose . 36. (b) 1.. (it. ? (c) 2. Find the 5th term of a G. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. or 7. 6. Hence n = 7. . if any three of them are given. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.18. 1. +f%9 % ..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 25. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 0. whose and whose second term is 8. 8. (d) 5. P. . r^2. fa. 18. 4. a = I. I = 670. i 288. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. Find the 6th term of the series J. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. series 5.4. 36. And the required means are 18. \ t series . 576. + 5..6. 9. .. 2 term 3. series . Jive quantities are in._!=!>. l. . 72. EXERCISE 1.5.*. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 144... . . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. hence. . 20. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576... 3.. 144. 36. . first term 4. 4. f.. 10.72. volved . P. Ex. 9. 144. .288..
>"> . .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. be written If the value of r of a G. n = 5.. to 8 terms. 22. 126. of r n decreases. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 7 . 72. a. 13. 42. 12. 14. . s = 310. 14. is less than unity. J. to 7 terms. 27. s = 605. . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 16 . J. J. to 6 terms. = 3. + 4 . 48. r . 1. 1.. 24.J and 270. 2. 81. to 6 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. Find a and Given r = 3. 21. 81. P.. = 3. 54. 23. == 160. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. may be than any assignable number. and hence ~ r . I. 19. 36. a^.. n = 5. Z s. J. M.. Find the geometric mean between 7. 25S series : 32. 243. to 5 terms. . to G terms. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 15.. Find a and n = 4. Given r = n Z 5. 12 terms. .nV> i*> !718. 20. Find a and 4. . 4.. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.i a9 . to 6 terms.
. = 990 . I. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 1 r = . 1..717171. 5.. . = a . and the first term is Find 17. 8. (6) the sum of the perimeters..Ql. 9.. P. 13. .191919. 5.. 66 Therefore . is J. 6..072 + .. 100.72. 12. ..= . =A+ 10 i. . 4.. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. .. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 2. . of all squares ? . 1. P.. 16. what is (a) the sum of the areas.555.1.254 Ex. is 9.. 3... .272727. 6. If a = 40.. of: 11.3727272 . 1... 1. .27777 . 10. 8. .. 40.. 12.. . r = j. ...3 + ... . .. of an infinite G. i.. ratio 15. 9. Find the sum to infinity. Find the value 9... = . is 16. 250. = . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. Hence .. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 16. 118 : infinity of the following series 3..37272 . i i J. The sum r.)7?7272 ..01 ^ . .= _4Z* .3121212. P. Given an infinite series of squares.99 .00072 f . first and the common term. 4. 2. . 7.072. . . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 14..
25. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (xy) : 6 . 16. (a 100 . 12. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 7 . . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 15. .6) 20 . 14. 10. l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the 6th term of (x . . .b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 4 7. 22. 13. 21. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 29. 5. (a2) 6. 4. a6 8 16 in . coefficient of . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . : (1 + xy. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 20. (s + i). (a + b) .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .6) . 17. 11. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. /2a+Y\ 8.b ). Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 2 2 24. 26. (\ 9 . 28. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .
a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 1. 2. 2 . 1. 2. 3. . of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 4 2. 5. 3. 3. 2. 3. 2. 4. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. if = = = 2. 2. l. 1. 2. 1. 5. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 2. 1. 1. ^+^ 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 3. 2. 3. 1. + c(a  c). 2. 4. 6. 4. 5. 3. 1. c = = = 2. 5. 4. 3. 2. 3. 5. 4. 3. a ft c = = 2. 3.  a)(a 1. 4. c if 7 . 3. 1.  2.a(a 4.  2. 3. 1. 5.c )(fta) 1. 3. 5. 6. if y=2j 2. + 1. 4. 2. . 6. 24 4. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 2. 1. 1. (c 3. 4. 3. 1. 4. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4 ft  c) 2. y 3. if x^l. 1. 3. 2. 3. 4. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. + 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. if = = 2.f ac 1. 7. 1. 2. aft 3 + 4. 5. 4. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4.  8 ^ 2. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 6. 1. ft) . 1. 4. 6. + 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. = 2. 5. 5. 1. 2. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3.
x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .3 xyz.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. (5.8 + 2 // . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x3 2 a2 . 8 . c)(x a} .2 a?y + 3 aty .a 4 . 2. 2. 21. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . or . 4 x 4 .5. . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. + 1. 18.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 10. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 15.  a) (c 2. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 4 y 13. 9. 2  + 12 a 8 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . x C 4 4x y + .3 a?y . 12. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 29. 7. 26.a8 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .2 x2 . 2. 6.x 5 4 . 5. 2. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.2. 5.7 ys. 7y 4 . 3. x 3 11. .2 x?/.7 y 2* 4. 1. a.r 6 x  4 xy . 7 xy 3 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . if a 6 = = c = 3. = 2. 4. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .259 x c) .8 3 + 7 x4 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 5. + 2. 4. 9. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 16. c = 3.4. x = 4. . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .a) . 2 . 6 a4 4 a8 . r> . 4. + 4 ?y . 5.2. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. + 3 y 2* .7 + . 3. 25. 41. ~c)(b. 15. b(x (b 1.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 17. a: . 2 x 8.2 z8 4 x.a 5 a . x 3 x' 14.\ yz + xz. 21. 4 z . a. + 8 x4 *y . f 8.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . a /> 3. .1. 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 20. 24. + 4. 40.10.c' 2 4 / . 8. x3 f 3 ax'2 . a 4 + 11 a . ' b) + 3.
c.6T .3 .#48. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. .3.5 . : a x .{G * 2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 5 10 + 7 . = x y ft z.(5 y .. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 4vTT~y 3.1). 4 .4 ft) 4. 35. 3 ft. and . 5 4 7 12 . a  ft + c. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .(5 c .x .[4 x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.7. ft.8 3 4.c. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.c 3 a. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 3 5 y/ . .2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Simplify 31. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . . x8 x2 2 a'2x. take the sum of G x 5 .260 19.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. (*) a  c.(7 x 4. 34. c 4ft.4 Vl 4.2 a . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . .x 2 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].a ft. 36. 7 12 .4) . f ft. . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.(x* . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 5 10 4 G 11 4. 4 4 4.3 x . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.2) . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .3 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.(4 x 2 .c 4 3 a.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.4. of a. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 2 x 32. ft 25.1)}] . From of 2 the 4.27~~7)}]. c 4. 29.2 x 8y2 44 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .[4 z 8 . Take the sum 4x 4. .(a . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.x2 .(x 4.x . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . sum of .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 542 x 2 and .(4 * . c =x y }~ z.2 3 ax 2 .5. 4 2 x2 23.{2 x 2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.?> x 4 20. 33.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.2 . 0" 30.6 x ] . x'2 .] 26.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .x 4.
2 zz . (r (1 (a. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 'J 44. 45. 2 52. .  2 a  {3 2x a .5)} + (3 a 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).c).a~^~c)K].6)}]. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 63. . (. 46.rf)} + a [. (/> 4 .(7 a. .1). + 4x + 5)(j.6c) (a + f c).3c).(2 x2 . (1 ar+a. . . 62. 49.2 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).{2 a (ft .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 56.{2 a . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3 c)]. 67.(2 a + 5 a . 13 a .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 3 x 42.ab .(5 y .r 2:c+ l)(ar.(2 a 2 . a {.96 [17 a.4 a 2 + a 4 ).2 2 + 1)(7.2c(V/ .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (5 a 39.(4 d .3). (. 48.ac . )(lz a ). 2 : 7e)a}].12). (4 + 3a 2 .(7 i + 4 r:) . (x .{3 c . 57.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 65.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.be) (a 58. 60. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . .[4 x  5 . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 59.0)} .3 *).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 51.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 54.2)(1 .4 a .3)(*5)(* 7).(6 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2x + 3).3 z 2 ).[2 . + *+!){> + 2).JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 2 x + !)(* . 2 53. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 50.b (c . .Z . 64. 43.7).c 2 .2a . (1 55. 68.6 xy .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .(2 . 2 ft 41.& + {. (x. a .56. .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).5 )}] + {4 c . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).
n pc).(a 48 8 8 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4.z)(x y + z)(.c) j.r 2 . 85. (a 2 ft 2n 4.x + y + z).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c) . 2 + a 2 ).am&t 4 A 2 *). ft /.c .ft) + 4(2 .3 (ft . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .2 (y 4.y)\x y).(a 2) (s 4 ft. xy y 2 ). (x (x ( + *) .(/>  3 v)^(.3 a . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).a) 2 . ft 95. 79.2y)(. 84.z) . ft ft ft a}. 2 (x 2 . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 4 4 . (p 2 .c) . . 86.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 70. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.c) 2 . . 71. ar .(ft 4. 92.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 1). 4. b 4.5 . . (. 87. 82. 76.3y) a (* 2 4.y + z)(x + y .262 69.:y)( a.{3 a .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .ft) 4 . 94.O (a 4(a 4.9y2).c)].c .2 ft}) f (3 a .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.(4 . 74. 93.6*y .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).<f(p . 89. 75.z\x 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.2 (a .v) 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(c 4. 88. 83.c) 4) (ft 4.c)} . f 72.m np c .c) rr identities. ft 78. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 1). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 91. 77.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .q).b 4. ft" l Simplify 80. Prove the following 8 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 73. 90.
6 y 4 4.v/ ~ // = a: . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .(a 1 2 8 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 10).*) (x 8 .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 117.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 2 4 41 x 4a. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .2y 2 4.35 x 2 2 ) . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 116.(x 2 .1). 3*.4 aft . 103. 114.(7 xi/ .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). (8 x* 115.a". 108. 109. 110. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (2< 107. 106. [10( 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 1O4.3 a"+ 4. 120. . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(2 a 2 .27 x* .b) 98.9 x 2 .) .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 99 100. 26 (a 4 c). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 118. 122. 113. 2 (a+ .y 4 ) . (.2 2% 4.&). 121.40 />) .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 124.16 a 6 4.y 4 . a*. 105. .5 b*).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.r 4 4. r .5 xy).xy 4.2 xy 8 . 123. 25 4 . 1).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). (80 a 112. 102. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.y 2 4.
x 147. .2(5 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 137. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 139.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). .8 6 . 42(3ar 145.3). 5(2 x .12 M 132. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 2 4(ar .2(4 .(1 .19) + 5 = 4 .a:)]}. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .4) .3(* + 4) + 9} .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(j a? 144. (4 x . 127. 148. 1) = 2(* . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(x f 9).1) (a? . 3) = x\x . .27 a 3" . .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2) = 3 . o o 140. y (* l x. 129.1) .3).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).9) 4.3 a:). . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 149. 136.n . 135. 138.3 x). 7(2 x . 5 146.9) + 3. 128. .5{.18 *&) (1 .(x + 3) ] .2(j: . 142. 10(2 x 141. 3(2 x 134.4(0 x .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 143. . 1) .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2) (a: + 3).22.3(2 z .r + 7[or .G) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 126.(x .264 125.5).3) (3 x 4. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. (*+ + .4) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2(10 x .3) = 12 .5) = 12(4 x .7) = 4 .2 7^~5] + 1).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. (5a: 150.r>) .7(4 * .
REVIEW EXERCISE 151.5) = (3 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. these two angles would be equal. 153.17) 2 + (4 x .5)(. 157. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 162. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . (x (x a. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. transformed into F.5(x .14) (a: + 3). will produce F. How many 170.25) 2 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. + 10) (ar .29) 2 = 1.2) a + 7(x .7) (a.z) (4 . 160. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (a . and the third twice as many as the first. a: ar a. 166. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .3) (j. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 5(ar x .1) O + 4) = (2 * . . (a) If C.l)(z .76. 161.2) (7 *) + (*.6 x) (3 .3) (a: . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.. 154. + 4) (2 x + 5).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 156. (7 14 . + 5) = (9 . 2 4 . (2 . .r + 3) .5*) + 47.19) + 42.2 x) = (1 .1) (s + 3).9) + (a. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.3) (3 .(5 x . 163. 155.8) = (2 x 4. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 165.a:) + 229. 159. 164. If the area of the frame inches.2) (j? + 1) + (x . sheep more than the 169.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. + 2) + (5 . =  (F 32).7) (1 x . (a.4) (a . The second contains 3 first. 265 152.2 x) (4 . . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) = (3 x . find the value of F.? . f^ + ^sO.T)O .3) (3 . = 2 C.5 x) = 45 x . = 15. . 158. (3 O + . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. The sum What 171. .2).24.
3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number.36. 178. 7/ 191. two boys is twice that of the younger. number divided by 3. 12 m. 181. 13 a + 3. 179. side were one foot longer. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 2 2 + a _ no. same result as the number diminished by 175. x* 185. z 2 + x . A house has 3 rows of windows. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. + a. 15 m. if each increased 2 feet. 180. 186. 4 a 2 yy 42. 187. younger than his Find the age of the father.56. and 5 h. 188. respectively. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. +x 2. 3 gives the 174. dimension 182. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now.266 173. train. A each 177. How many are there in each window ? . A boy is father. ll?/102. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 189. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. father. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. . was three times that of the younger. 10x 2 192. power one of the two Find the power of each. sister . z 2 92. aW + llab2&. . Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. + 11 ~ 6. . Find the dimensions of the floor. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 190. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. Find the number. 176. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet.
215. 195.3 xf + 3 * 2y . z 2 2. 5 x 2. # 2  29 y + 120.c) 2 . 227. 209. 232. 206. a.10 xy. . a: 236.6 aq . + 198. 2 .1. 4 m +^. 207. x*y 223.3 c/> + 6 cq. 233. a^a 226. 211. 218. 235. . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . .14 2 .8 6 2. .10 y a x* . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 245. 201. 16x 4 81. + 3a 196. 3 x 2 . 23 12. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . wiy + la mx + aw. xm+l 243. (a + . 229.22 z + 48. 2 x 2 . ifWy+b. 24 2 + 2 .28. 210. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a: . 3 ap 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a.6 y2 + 4. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 246.10. 238. 60 a 2  a: // 205.20 z 8 a: 220.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . x 219. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 230. 3y 248. 239.3 xy.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . x* + 8 2 + 15. 7x 2 225. z + 5x 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247.12 * .6 2 ?/ . + 8. a. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 3y 2 + ary . 222.6s. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.19 a . x 5 . 2 a 2 . 12 x +4. + 2 . .(b + rf) 2 . y 2 194.21 a:  54. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 202. 3 x V . a+a* + o a +l. 2 2 y f 1.x + 1. a. 203. *2 234. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 224.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 7a 228.19 z 4 204.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. a 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 244. 6 197. + 30 x. a a: a: 237. 8 a. . 221. . 213.77 y + 150. 2 a 8 . 267 199.64. 4a 2& 2 241. 212.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 216. 8 a: ar. a.c) 2  (a . a: 231. 217. 2 200. 208.6.
8. 28 2 f 71 x .3 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .12. 264. x 2 4. a.C.&z. 3 a% 2 . 2 x2 .7 f 5. 258.(55. + 8 x + 5. 251.23 + 12.91. 6.14 bx a%% 8 .9 x + 14. 2 a. + 23 x f 20.11 x f 28. of: 253.3. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.18 xy + 5. ft a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.2 z . x 2 . x 2 + 5 f .48 afy 2 . x*y* 4. a 3 a 2 2 . 252. 3 #2 255. F. 270. 259.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.a + 2 4. a? a: a: // 262. x 2 + 2 x . * 2 .4. 7 ax 250. a: . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . z 2 267. 5 x 2 256.15. 7 12 2 2 .13. 260.ry 21. x* . 269.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .2/ 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 3 ay 4. z 2 268.r . + 8. a 4. 261. * 2 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). x 2 f 9j: + 20. x 2 263.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 10 x 2 .x .80. 18 x 2 .G7 x f 33. x 2 + 4 + 3. 10 a. 30 ^ . 2 + 7 r f 2. 2 .11 a 2 .23 x f 20. 265.a 2 />c 2 f 3.3 abc . x* .36.16 x . 15 # 2 z/ /.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 254. * a . * 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. C. 1 x ar Find the L.4 ab + 1.15 + 30. 22x2 a. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . I Find the II. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 2 8 . 8 2 + 10 x .6 by.10.2 aft*.9 x .73 xy . 257. + 3 x + 2.1 9 .10 a 4. Reduce to lowest terms 271.M.ry .120. + 20 x 4.9. .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. of: 266.5 ab f 2.
!/. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .(y 2 z) * t (j.ar 1 279. 289 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. m 4. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .2* + 3 x* 280.2c a: 282.rL. z2 (a 2 + c)a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 8 . 285 z4 n* + a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.. + ac .. a.
* 19 23 19(23 23. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^. 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . x 7. a (: a) (x 2. 4 3 301. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^_2*(m 308. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. O(ca) 306. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. Lnl + ar 2 a.
} . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 2 + y 2 319. a: 1 313.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. _ x8 . 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a. 1 _. (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (1 . ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.(a ..ft) 2 322.
4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 lOx 5x.V  + y  x 3y a . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. . . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .9 *// + 27 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 .7 xy + 12 x ..28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a.5 a .ll. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.15 33 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . a: 2 x* .6* t 328.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. * 3a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.. 20 44 333.2 +lOar 2 a.
5 343. (a \ + lV. \5yl 341.y. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ?_2 ^ . + l + IV. ( 342. ' 2 "l 5 . 338. fl.) 2 . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. +^ a: y x . (af2/. aj 339. 344. + ni + . 1 345.r 5 2 . 7 ( ?f!?. (aWi + iJ. : 1+ i. ** i. a>74 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. a: 349 _ o. if a = 3. xi 347.1V.REVIEW EXERCISE 336.. \x yj 340.+ r . 348.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. f V. 352. (ar \ 346. w \.
i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. (~ 364. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. a2 4 . + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361.
REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. b c 368. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.
5*8.*2 = 15. <3 378. 5 {2 x 381. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . 379. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . 8  376. __4 2x 3_ = !. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. . J !__7. 4(* .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.
75 x f .8 = . . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 397. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).5 ^ ~ a: a.2 a:  1. 3* 177. _____ .  J). 40. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. b 404. + 4 a. . 396.  8 9* x ~r.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. f 1 1 + a 403.25 x + .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. a. c .5 x =r f . ^ (a .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 400.147.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. m x 398. 399. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 401.6  .. u '2 a.25.. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).1 .
 a) 2 6 2a. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . In a if and 422. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 420. 411. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. the order of the digits will be inverted. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Tn 6 hours . 421. (x .(5 I2x ~r l a) . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.278 410. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Find the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. and was out 5 hours. How long is each road ? 423. 418 ~jo. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 18 be subtracted from the number. far did he walk all together ? A . hour.c) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.
438.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. x 427. 433. Find the fourth proportional 426.6 8 ). Which ratio is greater. 432. 430. Find the length of the parts. 2 2 8 2 . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.46 2): (15a 2 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). a + 5. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 435.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).a 2^ 8 + aft* . wi* + y= ny. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . If a b : =5 n : 7. : i.49 63). b. d. a  t>. . : If is one equal 434.& 5 ) (a 8 . and : b : c = 14 : 15. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.iand 22 22 I a . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. find : a : c. . z 2 y. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Solve 436. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 431. Find the mean proportional to 429. 428. y.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 3 and 1J. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). ax is \ by  ex + dy. a. . find the angles of the triangle. if . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.
rf2# = l. 5z4:# = 3. 9/> = 2 . 7 a: . 56 + 10y = 7a. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 448. 459. 3 . 455. 28 = 5 a . + 5y = 59. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). Solve the following systems: 441. 446. 451.(or l(*2y)=0. 454.4 12 . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. . The volumes If their diameters. />(. if 2 ft : 439. 5x+4y=lQ. ft.59 = 3 z. 452. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.55 y = .11 7. 15ar = 20 + 8y. . 16. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. . x + 17 # 53. 445. /) ar a. 42 = 15y + 137. 8 x + y = 19. 458. 443. c. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.11 y = 95. 7a?y = 3. 7jr9y = 17.89 = q. ft. 5 2 = 7 . 456. 1(3  a. Find the value of a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.7 y = 25. a: 2y= = 1 . 450.. = 25. 444. 449. a: a: + 5y). 457. 7 442. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). a. 4 = 5 y + 29. . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 3 a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. ?/ 447. 9ar7# = 71.*. 8 . 453.35.
' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 468. 473. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y) (2 = 2J.c=563y. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. + eyn. _ 469. i = 5. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.  = 2. 8 461.. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.?/ + 1 . 475.+ =2. 465. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .7. ax cx by = m. (or . x y 474.
487. age. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find the fraction. 486. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 479. . Find the number. years. 481. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 483. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the numbers. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. whose difference is 4. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the principal and the rate of interest. by 4. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the sum and the rate of interest. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A number consists of two digits 4. 485. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 477. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and in 18 months to $2180. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. How much money less 484. and the other number least. Find the numbers. the Find their ages. and in 20 months to $275. Find their ages. A spends \ of his. to .282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. fraction becomes equal to . A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100.
. x y f z = 13. a: 499./ f z =a. a number .z = 20. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 7. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. a. 2a:f 7. . = 15. 490. y Solve : x +z= 5. 489. 1. . 496. 2 2 = 41. + # +z= 35. 1+1 = 6. *i. = 20. 3ar 503.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . ifi = x a./ 504. 494. 498. \ . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 493. 3 a: + 5=84. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2y + 3a = ll. : Solve the following systems 491. 4 506. 492. * + 425  = . = 209.? + 2y = 8. x f y f z 29 . The sum of two numbers squares is b. z y ifi = z x 502. x s + y z = 18J . a: + // = 11. 4 497. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 5^ 9z = 10. . a. 495. 8. 3 x 500.z = 12. ~ 507.5#+2z = $x a: G. + y 5 y = 101 . a: f z = 79. 2 a. 7 + 2 z . 5 + a. . 2/>3r = 4. 4z+3z = 20. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 e. z y x 25 .
ll" . !f == 2800. i=a + 6 c. 523. z z =3a&c. + : = 1472. + + 3579 2+?. 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.
E 533. if and L. and CA=7. AC in /). and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. in 28 minutes. Find the numbers. How long will B and C take to do . and BE. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Tf and run together. CD. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. N. it is filled in 35 minutes. 90. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. AB=6. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. . BC = 5. the first and second digits will change places. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. touches and F respectively. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. If they had walked toward each other. it separately ? 531. Find the present ages of his father and mother. M. 532. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. they would have met in 2 hours. L. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. In circle A ABC. What are their rates of travel? . . if the number be increased by Find the number. 527. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. When weighed in water. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . 530.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525.
x *x + x + 1. The greatest value of the function. x*.  3 x.  3 x. . x*  2 x. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2  x  x2 . the function. formation of dollars into marks. x 2 544. 550. The values of y. 547. 542.  7. e. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2 541. a. 543. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. GERMANY. x 2 + x. b. One dollar equals 4. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. then / = 3 and write = 3. 548. 545. 3 x 539. 540.e. from x = 2 to x = 4. 536. z 2  x x  5. 2. + 3. . to do the work? pendulum. 546. FRANCE. The values of x if y = 2. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. if x = f 1. x 8 549. d. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.10 marks. c. i. 2.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2 x + 5. If to feet is the length of a seconds.
563. j.9 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.G . 553. ' = 8. 2 8 . // Solve y Solve y = 5.  2 1 a: a.= 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 564. Solve// = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. c. .17 = 0. + 10 x . 557. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. h. i.3 x .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. \ to t = 5. x* . J. 3 . a: 559. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 565. 18 x  4 = 0. a. + 5 . = 5. e. if y =m has three real roots.4 = 0. z 2 . f. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. g.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x 5 . 2 x 2 560. Represent meters. 2 554. 568.3 = 0. 2 a. If y +5 10.= 0. 2 567.4 x 2 + 4 . 566. x 2 ~ 2 .3 x . 15. 3 x* . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.1 = 0. Solve 552.5 x .4 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .7 = . 2. 562. 3 + 3 z . a. .r . 556. 3 x .6 + 3 . r?.15 = 0. and make the unit of the b. x 4 .11 = 0.3 .13 = 0. 558.0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.r 1 561. 572. a. 555.r a: a: x a. a? 4 x . . c. z 4 .
f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 4 . 588. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2  2 aa: 2 . 4 (1a:) 3.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. x [ ?/ 577. + + 4 .5 xy = 0.4.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. : y* or 25. . 598. 582. 593.2 2 + y. a:. 2 943 ++ ~bx.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .%) 4 (aa. 585 594. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. <r)3  2 3 a:) .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 3 . 599. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 6 + 1) .(1 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . a: . + . 595. 600. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.2 6a: + 30 &c a.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . f ?>) 3 591. 9  4 fSb 607. xY. 2 611.x + 2 )'2 601. 64 a 12 603. 4 a. a. 579. a 2a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. (a  8 ft) . jj+. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . j^f = 3. 3 (f. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 1 . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 5 a*.frf : 583. [ y =10. 597. a 612. 592. 608. (1 + x a. 604. + ^) + (air%)8. (aiy. . (1 (1 (1 . (a. 596. a 8 606.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 589. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. x + z2) 8 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . (# 2) .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 609.
191209.2. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 651.871844. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 620. x 2 . 634. = 87.1024 x + a: 256. *+* = 156. 7) 2. 2.30. 25023844. 626. 44352. ft . Find the eighth root 617. 4370404. 21. = .\/4090. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 624.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .V250 . 625 : 621.15174441. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 638. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = 70.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 644. 942841. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9g. 623. x 2 641.*. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 650. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.53 x ~ . 628. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.12 a?y + y*. 614. + 112 a 8 . 643. 2 + 21Ga. 2 + 189 z = 900. 8*' + 24* = 32. 633. Find the square root of 619. 40. VOIOOD + V582T09. 371240. 035. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 639. 0090.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 637. 4J. V950484 .49.2410. 494210400001. + 24 a 2 4 . find Jupiter's period. /. 32 631. 629. + 2 21 x = 100. a 642. 210. 622. = 0.150. 630. 647t x 2 648 649. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. GGff. According to Kepler's law. 49042009. + 54 'x*y* . (x 9 x 646. 632. 615. 49. : 5. 645. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 3a. V 635. 9a. 636.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. a. ax 2 698. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 695.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.ax .a a )jr . ex abc= fx 0. 699. 694. . 2 702. 2 2 697. = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 708. 706. 2 2 .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 692. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 707. 696. . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.bx . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.c = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 693.
722. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.25 might have bought five more for the same money. A equals CO feet. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 727. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 716. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 12 4*+  8.292 709. a: 713. 3or i 16 . he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 725. in value. . 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 721. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 217 . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. How shares did he buy ? if 726. **13a: 2 710. sum is a and whose product equals J. 723. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 729. Find the price of an apple.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i.44#2 + 121 = 0. 724.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 16 x* . paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 717. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find two numbers whose 719. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.
+ &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).1 f ^ 2). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 52. 37. 33.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).2? 50.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 42. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 35. 34. 40. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). .)(ai + &. 39. 41. 46. 38. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).l). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 + c.aft* 1 + a 2*. . 31.X . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 + x. (v/x). 32.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 43.1 f c" ). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 1 6. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2 ).2)(x2 4. 36. n. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).
vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. [1r^ T 1 i .294 753.. 2V2 2V3 . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754. JU. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 758. 761. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 759. 757. ~ r* x . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.1+J 756. 768.
Va 809. 787. 3J . 794. 793. 13 799.VlO. 786. . 103 788. c 792. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 10 785. 14 791. 789. x 782. 16 + 2V55. a 9442V5.12VIT. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . .4 V(j.2V3* ^ 807. 3812VIO. . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. + 2V21. 806. 783.2 V30. 790. . 7512V21. 92VI5.
815.V2 ar 10. /9ar a: = 17. 829. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.  5 + V3 f 12 817. x/aT+l . 830. 836. 833. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/12 a. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.4 = 0. = 1.V? = 813. 814. 3 x + 2 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 819.13 = 0.g. 831. 816.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 811. + 103Var. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.Vc^lJ . Va: + 28 f + V9 x .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. (x a: 2 ) 4 . + Vx . Va: . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a.79. 812. V14 a.\/2y  810. 820. 818. + ViTli + V7 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.
4 x* 847. V4 x 2 . 27 y 8. 4 x 8 858. a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 4o. a 8 873. a: 849. y 4.3 Va: 2 . 64. 8 + a: 5 8 a. z*y 8 l64a.ab9 ft*.3 . . 840. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 839. x 11 a^ J 13 854. +3 4 +  4. a 872. 2 f" + a/ 15. .1000 6.3 x .7x + 3 = 3ar(a.  3x a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. . 8 860. a. 853. a 18 4. 845. a. a. a. 27 862. + 1. 846. a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. x 4 + f 2 a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 729 867. 868.a.3 a:. a l0m . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 863. 64 a 866.12. + .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876.1. 6 2 f 3 6 s. .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a*" & 6n . 4 a. 6. 275 8 l. a 8 869. f 841. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 865. + 216 rt aty a 10 . + 512 y8 874. f b**. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 870. 8^27^. 16 859. 8 4a: 8 a. 8 8  13 a. 2 x 3. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. . 8 . a 8 850.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 8 848. 864. 19 x 14.x*y + 3x f 2. 8 2a. 851. 9. 8 a. 844. x 8 2 857. 855. a: . 871.10 = 118. 861. 875.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 852. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4 a: 2 842. 856. f 12. 2 a: 64 y*.
y y 2 y 2 1121. a:y . . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 894. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. M1 891 1 . 878.15. 2 + y 2 . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.35. 885.xy + y 2 = 19.5 xy + 4 f = 13. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 895. 901. z 2 898.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a: a.sy = 198. . 900. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x 882. + ary + 2 = 37. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 .y 2 + V(j. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. x*xy. + 2y=\2. xy + y = 32. 2 . y*+ xy . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 2 = 16 y. 5. a: 884.y 2) = 20. 883. a: + y 2 = 34. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 889. a.298 877. a: 2 897. 890. a: 888. +y f y = 7. a# f + xy = 126. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . 899.1 = 2 a#. 886. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. x 8 3 = 13:3. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 2 + xy = 10. y 2 4.18. 896. 2 + 2 f = 17. y = 28. 887. 1 x 893. x a: lI = xz . a. 2 + xy = 28. a. 3 x 2 . f ?/ a: a: . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. . . y 2 2 8f. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 = 2 + 5.Vi' + 1 1_3.
ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. xa 903. = 8. 2 * 2 ~ g. (!) * . x 2 ry + y = 3.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y) = 33. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 5 xy = 11. + 2 a:y + = 243. yz = 24. *y .r a.23 = 200. y . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + y 8 = 189.y) (3 y . a: a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 909. x 4 299 xy z 904. + ary = a*.6. x f 2 a:y = 32. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 920.16 y 3 8 = . x + y}(x + y) = 273. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 3 :r(3 . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 914. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. + y)(a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. (* 918. ^ 2 . 4 (a. ary y = 8. (o. a:y xy 929. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + a. (3 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 911. a. 2 924. 7 y .2 y) = 49 2 919. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + ?/) . 921. 910.#y + 2 = 27. 23 x 2 . # + xy + y = 7. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. y + a:y = 180.y) (a? . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 2 2 2 916. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.3)2 = 34. 917. + 2 ary = 39. y 3 2 2 922. 906.y). * + y = 444. y x 2 = by. . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 923.3) 2 f (y . . 907. xy + x= 15. + y = 9. or or a? a: a: . . 2 913. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 915. (a. a: y zx 12. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x + y 2 = aar. 905. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.3(* + y) = 6.y2 = 22.y = a(ar + y). 912. 908.x) = 21. a: * a: a: ar 928. Vary + y = 6.
Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. is 20. y( 934. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.102. and also contains 300 square feet. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. + z) =108. Find the sides of the rectangle. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. + z)=18. 937. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. How many rows are there? 941. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 935. feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. is 3.000 trees. (y + *) = . y(x + y + 2) = 133. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. is 3 . and the sum of their areas 78$. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 2240. find the radii of the two circles. A and B run a race round a twomile course. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. a second rec8 feet shorter. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and 10 feet broader. 943. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. s(y 932. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. Tf there had been 20 less rows. diagonal 940. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. In the second heat A . A plantation in rows consists of 10. rate each man ran in the first heat. Assuming = y. . 942. and the difference of 936. A is 938. two numbers Find the numbers. 931. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. two squares equals 140 feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. two squares is 23 feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76. Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.300 930.square inches. 152. 34 939. *(* + #) =24. 944.
set out from two places. . 949. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and if 594 be added to the number. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. its area will be increased 100 square feet. the digits are reversed. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. is 407 cubic feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. P and Q. and that B. Find its length and breadth. 951. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the number. . What is its area? field is 182 yards. each block. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find in what time both will do it.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. A and B. that B A 955. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. 952. and its perim 948. unaltered. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find the eter 947. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 950. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Two starts travelers. distance between P and Q. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. overtook miles. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and travels in the same direction as A. whose 946. 953. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. triangle is 6. sum Find an edge of 954.
(x 4 to n terms.. J.454. Find the sum of 4. 3 . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 5. Sura to 24 terms. *" 968. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Sum to 20 terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). are 1 and sum of 20 terms. the terms being in A.141414. + (iiven a +  4 d . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 1G series . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. Sum Sum to infinity. 961. .1 4 f j$V . 975. x(x to 8 terms.. !Ll^ + n . ^ 1 . . Find n f (ft) .302 956. n to n terms. 18th terms of an A. \ . = 4. 974. 969..>/) to infinity. 4 4 to 7 terms .. 1 to n terms.3151515.. and 976. . 966. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Find an A.4142 . 958. P... to n terms. Find the Find the common 977. P. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . P... 4. 16 962.v 973. Find n.321? 965. (to 2 n terms). to infinity... are 29 and 53. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.V2 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 972. 9th and llth terms of an A.. f + 1 . 12434+ j I 967. 970.. P. fourth of the unity. Evaluate (a) . 5. difference. ^ Vfirst five 959. .... s  88..  2. 971. 36 963.. to 7 terms. 957. 3 + 5 7 + . 964.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.to infinity. '.
The 21st term of an A. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 987. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . to infinity may be 8? . Find the first term. P. first 984. The sum 982.04 + .. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .+ lY L V... of n terms of an A. 989. 0. 980.. named Sheran. Find n. . "(..) the last term the series a perfect number. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.. and the common difference. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find the sum of the series 988. to 105? 981. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .1 + 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 303 979. 992. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 986. P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.01 3. 5 11. and so on.. 2 grains on the 2d.001 4. Find four numbers in A. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. P. and of the second and third 03.001 + . is 225. 1. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. to oo. 4 grains on the 3d.. : + 9   V2 + . The term. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Find four perfect numbers. 985. 990.3 ' Find the 8th 983. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to n terms.2 .
prove that they cannot be in A. ft. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . inches. 998. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 1000. The fifth term of a G. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. (6) the sum of the infinity. . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. and G. 1001. The sum and sum .304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 999. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. P. P. is 4. and so forth to infinity. If a. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 512 996. c. AB = 1004. at the same time. Under the conditions of the preceding example. of squares of four numbers in G. 994. (a) after 5 strokes. in this circle a square. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 995. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. in this square a circle. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The sum and product of three numbers in G. areas of all triangles. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. are 28 and find the numbers. 1003. find the series. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. are unequal. 997. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Two travelers start on the same road. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. many days will the latter overtake the former? . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ABC A A n same sides. P.
1011. . (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of 1013.l) w f . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 2 ) 5. + lQ . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of ( . (12 #) 7 . 1014. 1012. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Expand  2 a. 1008. x) 18 . 1009. a: 8 7. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1006. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of 1020.ft) 19 .o/) 14 . ) 1021. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . .
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. 8 . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. Checks Coefficient 20.. . . linear literal Common ** * difference ... . 19.. 112 54 54 251 . ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . signs of Algebraic expression . graphic tion of representa ... numerical . .. . ... . . 158.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . ..... . 129.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. .. 123 . 160 in quadratic form 191 ... . .. 37..178 Completing the square .. simple simultaneous . Aggregation.130 . 54. . ... . 232 169 807 . ...193 11 .... . 9 ** .] Abscissa Absolute term . . 232 mean progression . lowest ratio " '* . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ... quadratic .108 160 " ... 246 91 " multiple.. 9. . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. 97.. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 129 54... . t 53 120 .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .
. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . ... 45. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . . Known numbers . . 205 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 227 . addition of " square of . Insertion of parentheses . Imaginary numbers . INDEX 8 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 227 geometric . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 63. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 17 65. 112 .. Like terms Linear equation . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 195 33. 45 Laws of signs . . .. L. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 241 123 geometric .. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 23 10 91 102. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities ... Negative exponents 11 . . 114.154 Order of operations " of surds . 212 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. exponent . . inversely 122 numbers .. G. arithmetic .. . 120 Member.. 45. . 180. . ..108 Minuend . . Inconsistent equations . . directly. .251 Graphic solution of simultane. .808 Exponent Exponents. Product '* 76 Infinite. . 109 102 . . 91 .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. numbers .. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin ..C Multiplication .31. . . 189. law of Extraneous roots .. 184 54. . . 143. 253 28 70 1. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Mathematical induction .. 84. . . P . Geometric progression . 34.. first and second . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 9. 243 7 .
.. absolute 54 Variable . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... binomial Third proportional Transposition . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 129... 4 155 9 " of . 9. . ... .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. .. algebraic Surds . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... 45 Trinomial 240 . . . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. polynomial . .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76...... .. Sum...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
U. Published September. Mass. December. 1910. . 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Set up and electrotypcd.S. 1913.. 1910. Norwood. August. NorfoooS J. Gushing Co. 1917.A. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 8.COPYRIGHT. Reprinted April.
192.. 1. 11. 5. b. Yes. 2. 11. 3. ft. 14. 9. 16. 26z. 19. A 15. = 5 81. 16. 7. Page 13. 1. 5. 25. sign. 6. 14. 0. 9 16  larger than 7. 14 11. 20. 14. 10. 29. C $1(50. 10.. 20 \. 7m. is $10. 6. 4. 19. i . 9 m. 2. 29. Page 1.  22 20. 8. 9.  1. 2. 256. 8. arithmetic.000 Indians. . + 1. 36. 37. 25. 15. 18.. 5. B $4700. 3. A Bl 7. 3. 6. x. C $ 16. 25. 85. 49. 10. 16.$9400. 14. 26. 1.. 16. sign. 12. 21. _ 32. 16. 2. 12. 1. $40. 2. 11. 21. . 5. 7. 12. 2. ^.150. 3. 210. 576. 10. 13 S. Not 5. 3. 3. 8. 1 16. 3 m. 8. in 12.C. 13. 3. 3. 20 B. B $80. T . C $60. 32. 10. 4. 5000. 2. 22. 12. 17. 12. 59. South America 46.12. 5. 8. 16. 89.1. 14. 9. 24.  13.21 24. 3 below 0. 6. 4. 9. Page 8. 9. 8 ft. 9. 10. 1. 9. 14. 12. A . 2. 73. 2. 17. 12. 4. 17. . 16. 10g. 17. $ 1 50 10. 144. 13 d.00000001. 3.000. 1. 18.2. 5. 1. 8. 1. 14. 24. 13. 1. 8 13.. 23.. 17. 2 5. 2. 2. 15. . 25. 11. 126. 27.000. 18. 6. (a) (/>) 1. 3. 28.. 37 S. 30. 18. Multiplication. 6 yd. 48 ft. 15. A 38 mi. in. 16. 3. 16. 512. B $20.8. 7.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.000.000. 3. 7. 20. 18. in.000. 32. 6. 19. 32. 12. 1. 9 14. 11. 1. 16 in. 6. 64. B 10 mi. 32. 3* 7. B $ 128. 6. 1. 3. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 12. 1. Page?. 28. 2 ~ 15. 18. c. westerly motion. 3. 27. 20. 6. 9. V 23. $100. 24. 13. 27. 15. 14. }. 1. 3. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 115. 3. 3. 106. 7. 9. 10. 20 jo.. x. per sec. 21. Page 4. 16 in. 2. 16f 2. 6* 16. Ot 15. 30?.000. 0. 5. 72 = = 216. 7. 6. 128.000 negroes. Australia ft. 13.000. 8.  1. 19 4.000. 13. 7. 49. . 22. 10. 6. 4. $160.  2 p. 6. 7. 9 = 4. 2  Page 8. 5.. 15. 2. 12. 2. 7. 1.3. 4. A $90. 150. 4. 13 V. loss. 20.
12. 00 24 04 ft. 9. y. + ft). 12. 13. 26. 19. 12 a. \'\ 4.r 2 . . Polynomial. 8. 34.000 sq. 7. . 10. . ]*. 23. 3. 19. 8. 2. 3. 15. 38. m + 3(a. + 5. Va'+Y2 8^2 .ft. 18. (r) 2000 m. //'. 2. 4 y/ . . .94(>. 26. Page 18. 27. 14. + v> 2 . = ()501. 0. 20. 3. (a 4 4.r f 15. 1. $3000 Page 6. 5. 8. 5. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 22( 19. 23. +/2(/.a . 15. 14. 237. 21 a 3 4 10. 1.'JO ft. Trino inial. #1111. i:5. 18. 29. 16. 4. 18. 38 ab. 43w//2 17. 13. II. 92. 4. ft.q 4. ft' 3 . 21^. 0. 0. 0.9?/2 8.  1.  2 4 13 ft 2 .3 * 10 r5 <3 . ^. 0.5 (ft) sq. 34. 3a.32 c2 > ft 3 . ft. 30. 27. (r) 2. mi. 1. 27. 13.000 .900. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 104. 20(. 17. 15. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. in. 5x+3.GOG. 35. 15. Monomial. 19. 3. 6. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). c. r+l. $80. 2ftx. 31. 28. a2 4 15^44. 3. 3rf 27.. 35. 3.x. 28. m 24. 3. 17. 15a. 7. w. Binomial. (ft) 12. (a) 50. 2. 4. 16.ft) 4. vi 14. 6. 13.'J. 51 f. 16. 16. Page 21. :J!>r'. ft. 25.. 39. 30. 14. 14:). 2. 5. . ft n. ft f 19. 22. 37. 13. (a) 200.r~ f 34.  0. 21. 36. 14.  40. 7.. 11. 24. 5. 3.. 35. 8. 8.~4. _ 4 . yyz+xyz*. 41. 31. 7 7. (ft) 7. .ii ANSWERS Page 11. r/ \(\xyz. (ft) mi. 57. 22.  12.. (59. 21. 04. r:A 29. f  5e 35. 32 2 ftc.. 3(c4a). Page 7. 9. 2.4  2ft 2 33. 15.. 16. 11. 27. Polynomial. 20. 4 9/^/rl 2.. 33. 25. 9. = 81. 28..  3. 12. 0. 7. 17. 17. 32.5f> sq. in. ft. 7. 1. 31. 58. 0. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 12. 1. 25. jrif 4 9.14 sq. 0* Page 3 w" 0. Pagel4r.. in. <i~ 26.4 ft. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 4. 11. 4. 0. 22.<>Gq. 12.  11. 33. rt. 29. 6. 2oVmf?i. 42. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. t. 8. 30. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 1. (r) 2G7.1. 240. 5. 21. 9. 2x' 2 5 .. . 14. x^ 20. 314 sq. Page 31. 1. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 14. 1. in. 9. 15. (c) 8. 10. a ft c. 8. a 32. (a) <> sq. 13 cu. Page 23. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 36. (r) 78. 11. ^). 22. . 12yd. 18. 0. 6<t. 27. 5. 18. WIN + wiw.ab. sq.. 3 a* + 2 at*. (ft) $40. 12. I. 5. 27. arty 1 20. ??i??. It. 3.6) 38. o^ft.. 1. 8. 10. 49. :.  xV 3 y.rty8. 17. ft. 5. 32. (ft) Page 2. 14. 4. 2. (c) S(i. 24. 3 . (a) r>23ifcu. 50. 20. 173. (b) 135 mi. 13.
1 + 45. 2m + 2w. . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 26.4. 2 + a4l).h. 32 w 2 w.5 z?/ + 3 y . 2a. 2a: 2 4x. a 3& .a~.3 6. 25 47. .(2 x2 . a + a.a*. ( 7. 8. 6. 32. 14. . 5. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2 4. (5x47 3. !  </ . 3 a3 & 41. 2. 4ft ~. 6. ?/i 13.r. w 17. + 2y. 8 b. x  + 3z. a  49. j)(g1. 1.a'2 . 26. a  ISjfat. . f 2 ?/  2. 6.x f 1 2 . 50. 7. 55. 20. 4 21. 31.r 2. mn. 8 + 2 a . 8 . 11. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. + a 2 f 2 a 4. ?> 22. . 51. 14. 14.2 . a2 9. 31. t). ab a. Exercise 16. 2 2 2 6.  b* 4 r 1 . 13. M + 10. 18. . 814. 2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 2m. 20. G a bd. 43. 4wipg>' 27. . ^ <. Page 28. ft Exercise 17. 25. c. a' 4ab + ?/.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . c. 2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . ii\ 22. 18. 13. a 3a 4 2 &. 12. 15.l. _5a<>&43c. . 16. 3. 2x 4 a 13.5. 12. 2.  4 b 17 y*. 28. . 2 . ti. . 2 2. a f 2 f 2 9. 5. x3 . 22. 4. a 10w. f ft 9. 25. 42. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. ri\ 18. 10. 2 6. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 19. a 6 2 . 34 39.Oa: + 10.  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 1. 30. 21. . 3 Ji 8 . a4 4 4.a f 54. 35. 5.a . 14. 10. + 4 c. 10 m.  b.. 37.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. . 2. + 8.8(c + a). 2 . 17. 2// 16. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 36.  23. 1.ws 2 ft) . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 2 3x f z.2 57. \ :{ 2 a 48. 3 m. 2. 33.(7x2 Ox2). 2 y' 4 . a 4 + ft. r. 7. 5x 2 rt ft. + 6.3x 2 2 tf.c. lOrt 15w4. Page 44. . 4. &.7. a + (ftc4df). n*. ar. x a8 1. 25. Page 7.4x. 4. 2 3.11. 2 a 37. Page 8. 22. 10.  1. 0. w* ( . 1 4.  14 afy . a2 24.  a: 2. ?/.aft. 24. 0. c2 . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 3 a . :5 41. 11. 7 a5 1 . 29.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 59. 4. G.2. 2 a f 6 414. 24 b 46. 36.4c 3 8 8 J. 1. 16. 5. a a. s_r>a5.abc.  17. 8. 8 8 . 15. 58. 6. 5 2 Page 29. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 21. (yz~d}. a 3 . 34.4 d. 17. 24.2 a2 2m 2 4. 3. a 52. 2. 1. 7. (mn} 11. 18.1. 7. . '  . 19. 38. 40. 4. 24. m*  n*. 21. 20. 7  # + 12. 10 x. 0. 8.2 a. 12. 56.. 4r 2 . 2. 2 17.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). a). 9.6 x + 0) 16. 4. 26. _ Page 30. 15. 11. 12. 7  a + 2 + c. 364c. a. 19.'U4j>. (w4w)(ww).1 . .2 ft 2 r2 10. 1. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. ?>4tl 53.  12. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2. 3. 2.
14 m 2 . 14. ll 2 i. 31. 66 39 k* .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 127"'. 8.11 xyz . 18. 20. 770. 2. . 4 7> 4 :j !} . 3. 108.64 190 p6.36 35. . 4 a8 . 102. 28.14 . . 83 In + 1 n*.16 a 2 + 32 a . 2 a2 (y 2 . + O4 66 .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .19 + 2. 18a% y. 22.25 + 14. 25. 8. 36. 2.8 12. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 12. 15. 13. 24.6) =a2 31. 1. 30 j9 jt?g j . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 33. 3 a 3 . a*b*c.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 11. 60. 12 x2 2 . 14f 5.>(/ r . 14.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 10. 27. + 58 . 42. 34.000. 13. etc. . 16 lb. 64. 3300.12. 28.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 28. a. 6. 17.69 rt + 21 132 + r .32 y s s G . 343. 28. 10. m.1. 108. 6. 6. 2''. 4. . . 26. 29. 216. 12.2.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 18. 2. 1. 1904. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 29. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 10. 4. 15. 15 q\ 6. 60. 161b. a: . 20 aW. 22. 24. n (a6) 125. 12. 1. 16. 23. 26. 13. 31. 21.14 w 2 2 . a + ft.19p" + 19^ 10 . 21. 23. iSx8 . 16.7(50. 17. Page 35. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 2 ). 7. 4. 14. 23. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 25. 2 * 80 . 21 a'&c. Page 5.20 xyz . +. 6. 24. + 7. 22. 23.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 19. .21 a 3 c2 21. 16. Ox a 5 . 17. 9. //. 4. 2 w +2 2 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 12 ^. 52 + 6s 12. . 216. 18. 8 . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 3 a 2 46.18 w w + 10 WI M . 2. . 66 8W 34. 120. 15. 4.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 22. 210.32. 6". 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 18. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 11. Page 3. 2 . 11. 29. . ! 2. ?> 4 . 18. 4200. 2 2 2 . 40 r 2 . 2*8f x2 6x4. 37.. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 25. 13. 15. +15. . ft 17. 30. (+3)x6=+16. 0. 16. 15 lb. 5aft(a 126 2). a. 4 fc.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 32. 0.26. 18> ^* = a . 360. 27.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 18. 20. 5. 1.. 11. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .:>/ . 34. 7G . 8. 4.28 p'^/. x2 xy42^. 35.12. 30. 16. 4aWy. 25. 9. 10. 84. 9 13. 2 7t A. . 19. fa 2. 30. 4 a2 . 32. f 26. a 8 . 3. 90. 16 51. 9. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 42. Page 7.(3x2_4^+7). 20.6 2 . 8.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 76 8 a' 1 .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 6 . 1. 27.15.21. 29. 34. 13. 1. 20. 3(*+0 + 2).r% 2 2 ry. ?/ . 30. 24. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 1. a. 7. ISartyW e*f*tj. 25 4 4. 20. 20.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 30. 19. ... 3. 5. 15. 17. . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. Page 36. 7. 27. 21. 2 ). 04. 8. 2 ll9HH 2) + . Page 38. ^^ = 20. 30 n?b*c*. 3. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 19. 33. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 7.44 aWc 16 abxy. s 9 ww.16 x2/ 5 4. 27. 161b. 4 jcy*z*>. ci 5 . 30. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 1400. 14. 24. 33. 38wiw.
p132. a 2 . 6. ^' J  7 f 12.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . (n 2 5. 484. 10. 33. V + o ft . 18. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 4x21.54 p 2 + 81. 45. + 12. x 48. 998. 8 38. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.810. a' .3. 37. + 4 a +4. 10. ft' 11. 9990.. ^V^4 . + 3)(3). 4. 5. . (m + 6)(m3).10 35. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 8 a W . 10. 56.020. 15. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 5.4 a&+ 4 &*. 10.098. 2 0)(p + 5). 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 10. 4 2 //. 36 a 4 . n2 a4 6. 2). . 7. 8. a2 ' + 48Z100. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). ab .4 12. 2 j3 Z . 4 . . p 2 . a + 25. +  m' 1. . 23. 32.49. 166. .000.25. 2 a' y' . 32. 14. 2 4 2 2 64 . 2 +10s281. 12 x2 . m 3 j) 3 . Om2 4 6m 6.15. 1. + 4 t*. 24. 11. 1).14 jp + 49. 41. 29. 37. 2 6' . ^/> 8 4 . 2 . 2 . 17. 10 a' 2 . 2 1: 21. . 2 (5 a 3). 29. 21 2 . 1. x2 GiC+5. 8. 51. 28. 25 a 2 6 2 . 55.996. 10. 1. 40. 2. 4. 24. 7.2. + 7 6)(3a~76>.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .5 ~ 81. 36. 52. a4 4 ?/ . 9. 8. . Page 12. 26. r. 9801. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 4 + 25 q*. ' 46. 2 62 V2 132.r* 2 30. . .ri 17. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 441. 10 a 4 ?. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 999.6. 27.^. x*2^f I. s rc 47. 36.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.004. m 2 .6 xy .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 57.2 y*. 7.84 a' 9. 27.^ + a? + 1. 31. x* . 39. 40. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 2 fr .606.2 6 + 13. a + 25. 40.404.8. 31.6 x2 13. 34. 3wi2 m Page 42. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10.009. p4 + . 10. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 36. 9 4 /> . .m 30 6 4 1. (w4)(w + l). 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.x2y22. 35. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.500. ?/H)0. 19. 4 21. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 15. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 31. 9999. 2 4 a + 4.009. 16. y.ANSWERS 28. .35 ab 9. + 10 + 121 y*. a3 0.r . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . + 2 9.. ) 4' 6/ 49.994. 10.r . (a + 4) (a + 2). 26. 1. 30 /><. 6 x6 + 13 x3 .6 y4 10. 34. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 20a 2 21a + 4.2 x + 2 x. 38. 33. +   5).001. Page 39. 30 x + 19 x3 . . 1. 41. 9. 39. 35. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. n + 2.712. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 42. 10. 19. +4 34.ab .10 x + 25. 44. fo*.20. ab. 14. 4. 4 x2 13.00 + 37. I/). ~ 6 20 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 990. .201.1. 33. 53. 1. 3. 3. G a6 2. w'n 2 //^ + 25.^V"' . 6.008. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 30. lflrt 2 8 + l.4 n. (w+4)(m4). .020. x4 28. 10. 2 12. 2. 25. (p 2. . a + 56. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 25 25. 4 . . 14. (a (3 54. 2 a 2 + a . 11./ .000.16 a3 f 50. 7> . 7 .
6. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 aft 4. 2 .1*5 2 r 2 . . 5.r' ~ 16. . 5.2 ac .30 ftc.n.4. 17.rw. 2 a 3 ft.lit x + 4. r 7.  3 c.24 . 26. 2 . 10. w . 4 ac. 2 ^r ???' 2 .r .2 .r" 20 S? . 8 x . 2. f>r* 4. 01. . 2 ?/ 4.2 ar. 1. 4. 20. 2 4. 17. 17. 21. Page 48. . 13. 4 a 2 4. i 2 tji. 14. yfl.8. 13. G. 47. . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . aft. // 19. a.10 2 + z 2 410. 4 c m .2 wZ 4.2 ftc . 2. 8. . 2 1. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. . r//. 12. 18. 14. . 11. Page 11. Page 22. 2.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.1. 4x43?/. ?/2. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.5 n*.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 9.8 y. aft 12.1. x4. 8. 75 a 2 29. 1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.+ 77 15. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 5. . 4. 13. 10. 11 4. 4.VI ANSWERS 43. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 22.9 4. 8. 23. 4. 2.25. 18. 6x 3. 44.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . a r'43 ll'a^S 15.  12 y 25.9 d. Page 51. 16. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 3. 2. 7 r .2 . as _ 10 16. 8. '. 46.12 aft 4 20 ac . x 2 + 2r f J. 16. i 9. 5.1. 15. 13.> 10. a 4 4 ft. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. abc 7. 6. 13. a 10. 12. ??.x^. + x?/ 2 1. 3*y2 w + 1. 20 15. :r !>. 1000 1000 .8. . c3. m L 4. 2 4 2 x 4. ft. 6.  .000.1. .y3. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 9.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2 ? 14 .7. 3.23.r ?/ ??i ?). j) . .r?/ j/. 19.3 5. 16. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.2. 9. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 6. 4ft.2 2 . 15. 7a3ft. 1. 5^418(7.34. 50. 10 ft. 3.3 x 2 2 4. Page 13. 14. aftc 52. 135.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .w. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 9. 1. Exercise 27. 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . sr 11. 4 d 2 4. 4 a* 4 9 11. 2 4 3 9. ti'jry1 7. 12. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. . 2. 3 a. 8 ?/ . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.10 xy*. 6. 3 aft 20.  5 z* . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 125. c 12. 1/*. . 5. 3. 14 r 2 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.3 3. 8 ?/ . _ 2 a . 2 12.r'^ 15. l 4 . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. /r . 19. 5. 5 a  (5 ft. Osy. + 3. ft ? ft' ft ft. x 4.25 c .r?/. 4. 14. 11.15. 24. +w . 1. 10. 1.3 ry. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.2 <</.  10.  11. Page 7.1. ft 17. ./ 4.2 2 2 8 . . 4. ft* ft / . 12.1. 1. a 2 . 4xy + 13 <) . z. 14. r/2 4.21 2 2 f + . 9. 13. 5. a 8 4.2 1 //. 2 ?/' . Exercise 2 a:// 26. 4 pq. y 7.1. 12. 5. 7.29.6 :rs 4. + 4.3^V. 2 2 + 2 a. 8. 5 4 a Oft.2 . *3 y 4 . 3.15 21. 5.rw f 8 . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.3 a 41.8 yn . 3. m'2 3. w 2 . 21. 8. 49.27 x 2 4. 4.5 mp.5 a . r ft. 4 x.
"mi. 40. vil 56. 10 yr. ct. + 3 = 2(3* . ct. 8. + 3x + 2y + 32.. 100 d ct.ab a. x = m. Jj12. 9. y yr. 7. ct. (c) 2x. (> 27. 36. ^ 12 sq. 45. 31. 10) + = (a) 2 x . rn mi. 58. 2x + 35.6 = *. 28. I. 38.. (>. 23. 1. 35. v (6) 2x. 6. . 1&. 12. 19. b. I. 7. l. 1. 18. fix. iL*. 5. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 50= L 100 15. ( a f 4. 33.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 20. 25. . 10. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. . Page 31. 3 9. 46. 2b 22. 17.100. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 2. 59.000. 44. 14. 11. 'nj 100 a 28. " lir. . 7. 5.x700. 6. 100= ^.ANSWERS Page 9. 60 25 1.. 29. ft. x y $ 6 yr. x 48. 10.(3x+ = rraxlO. ft. 3. 6. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. y 100 a 24. n M.  />) a = all. 4. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 3. 2=10. % 4. 1. 6. 6. 8 n  10 yr. 2. 1. 00. 7x 2 Page 21. x 49. 7. 3x  1700) = 12. 30. 25. d + !. # + 20yr. 2b. 10 x sq. 9. x.  1$. <>. 5. 41. 2. 2.7). X 60. 41.  2\. r tx mi. 34. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). ft. 17. 5. 4. 4. Page 61.r1. sq. 7. 11.10) 100. }f. + 10 b + c ct. 16.(3x  700) = 5. 7. ? 43. 3x2. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. xy ft.p+7. 22. lO. 10. Page 40. 10 a. '^ . . ] 2 ri 42. . y 2z p= 3 (a c. 57. (a) ' 12. / + y + a// 12 yr. 800 = x + 1300. 2. 13. 5. 16. + 4x 3y 34. y 50. 1. 7. y ?>i x + 26. 12. </ 20. s. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 10. x + 1=a. x 2y 10 act. b. 32. 0. 4 f 39. 15. f 6)(o 62. 29. 26. a 10. + f + b 2. 47.r ct. 37. 14.rr2. d. 2 ct. 0. !). 30. 33. f = eZ 2 x. 44. 3..  6 10. 39. 20. 18. 13. a 8. 27.  9 = 17 a. 5. 23. (2 a. 100 2. 15. f (I. 13. 4(a ft) c = 8. 10 >_&. 42. Page 13. 19. 11. 17. 43. 2. 4. 100 14. 38. 24. Page 6. 22. r>?imi. (</) 2a. 4^ = 100. 20. 4. 37. 16. 8. (A) 3 x f (4 x . = 5 ?i x 460. 21 2. . lOx 10 + w. m +~m 3. m+ 11. 36.
Page 79.2. 10 yd. (ro3)(w2).210^. 12. 6. 28yr.. (a + 6) (a + 3).5p + 7 g ).3aftc + 4). 78. 10. 8.6). 11. 9.. 8 in. 10. 16. 2). 10 Cal. 90 mi.  PageSO. 6. 10. 7a*fe(2a & l). 3. 70. 2. 18. 7. 8. 1.411.. 6. 1313. 10. 480. ( + 4)(*2). 11 in. (*4)( + 11. 4. 2.000. w (/) 64. 45 in. 52. 13. (p + 7)(3a5&). 30. 1. (m + n)(a + 6).2). 10 yr.000 Phil.11. (y 13.000 ft. 11.3. 300. a 12. 4. . 12 mi. 25.000. 10.. 30. 1.21.. (y7)(y + 2). by 12 yd. 2 2 ?/ 21. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 40 yr. . (a + 5)(a + 6). Oaj(o62cd). 11 pV (2 p8 .. 13. 8. 1200. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). ?(g ? g+ 1). + 7)(y3).7.. 22.10. 8.16. 6. 9. (a + 4)(a + 8).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. ^ . 15 yd. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 5. 8. 6. 2 2 2 5. 24J.. (y8)(y + 2).13.000 N. 3. 20. 4. 05. 7.24. 30 mi. 4. 55. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 200. (yll)(y4). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 12. 9. 10.000. Page Page 480 12. 1250. 67.000 ft.5. 12. 6. 100. 9. 4. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 13.000 copper. 5. 25 yr. 12. 250. 8. 8. 15. 100 1.. 3 hr. a a (a 8 a+l). 14. 3x (3r. 15 mi. 4. 82 mi.0. 1. 5$ hr. 9. 13. 78. (a5)(a4). 7. 68. 90. 50. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 1.. 5. 5 lb.. 29. . 21. 7. 3. 15.000 Berlin. Page 5. 5. $40. 2$. 5pt. 2. 19. 10 yr. Pace 65. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 7 hr. Ib. 4pt. 2. 7. 17. 10. 20. (e) i* + A. 8.000. 14.0.000 gold. 600.. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 3.8.000 pig iron. ~=90. 11. 3. 5 Col. 2 3 6 7. 15.3). 1 lb. 15. 30 yr. Page 7.. Y.. 9 in. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 6. 23. . 3. Page Page 4.. 160 lb. 2. 71.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. Page 7. 85 ft. 3 (a +&)(*. 150. 2. 6rt 2 11. 70^. 14. 8 2 19. 12. 15 in. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 20. 1. 3. 1. 14. 17.y").000. (a 4) (a. 10 Mass. 14. 180. 42yr. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.22. (z5)(z2). 20 yr.3. 11.5.79. 18. 9. 11 w(w' + wi . = _?_(2ar + 1). 13. 200. 25. 15.000.1). 9. 75. 8 12. 6.000. 20 yd. 80 A.. 1200. 72. 20 yr. 12. 14. 74. (y + 8)(y2). Page Page 4. 5. 18. 2. (c) ^ v ' .(5z . 7.
30.6) 2 2 . Page 82.4p). 20. (4 18. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). Page 83. 22. 2. (6 a. 9. a*(5a f l)(flr . (3*2)(.1). 8. (ft + ll)(aftll). (0 + 6)(66). (a 6 6) (a 4. (w ~ n (x .. . 30. a . .c 2 ). . 6. (4y3)(3y + 2). 22. 10. Yes. . + 8)(g3). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 29. Yes. . + 0(90 Page 85. (4a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . f 2). 14. 28. + y + .11 6) (a 4. + 5) a.9*). Yes.1). y) 2 29.7) (a. 12. 8) (a. (m7n) (a. 2 3 by2 Yes. 24 9. 5. (y8) 2 2 . 1. (2 a? 4. Page 84. (13a +10)(13a 10).1). 3a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). . 2. (15ay2) 2 . . 11. 3(x + 2)(zl). 14. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 5. 20. 19. 7. 24. 100(x.y) 2 aft.y (6x + 4)(5x4).3)(z2). Yes.6) 2 1. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (w + 20)(w + 5). 23. 35.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 2 No 4. 23. 10(2 30.2). (* + y)(zy). 28. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 34. (a 3 + 10)(a. 26.ANSWERS 16.4. 27. 36. 34. No. (4 13. 6. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (:52y)(2a!3y). (m + n +p)(m + wp). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (ay8)(ay3). Yes. 7. 12.  x (5 a. 18. 8. (y + 4)(yl). 9. 26. 14. 7. 16. 9. 2 2 15. ( 2 4 19. 25. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 27. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (7 a + 4) (2 a . Yes. (5x . (6n + l)(+2). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 21. 4 (a . 40 x. No. (m + w) 2 5. 29. 28. No. . 25. 31. (2 *+!)(* 9). (a a: 19.3). (a + 8)(a3). (3a. 20. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 12.2 by2 6. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 32. (az + 9)(ox2).r2).7)(2z f 1). 26.2 y). + 9^)(oxy . 23. 17. 18. 10. 16. Yes.1). . 24. (2yl)(y + 9). 25. 17. 13.2). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (0 (l+7a)(l7a). ix 18. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). x\x 24. 11. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 15. (2o + l)(2l). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 16. 10 a 2 (4 . (15z2y)(x5y). 8.+4 y)(3x4 y). . (5wl)(m5). 100 (a. 25. 22. 33. Yes. (3#y)(+4y). 1. 9. 2 17. 3. 11. 1. 26. 4. 35. + 2y). + 3). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3).4 6). 21. 3)(3a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 17. 3. 27. Yes. (9y4)(y + 4).* (2 y + 3)(y. 24.   . 4. (5a +l)(5a l). 21. 216 aft. 10(a + ft)(aft). Yes. 21. 33. . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 15. (4al)(a2). 2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. a(2u. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (x + y4 )(x .8). Yes. No. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (2xl)(x + f>). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 3. (a (p8)0> + l). 9. 31. + 3)(c44). 32. 10. (<7 20. 2. 10(a . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). . (g . . 7 6) (a 10 6). 103x97. + 4) (a. x(x +y)(x y). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). y) (a. (10a + ft)(10aft). y(x. 25. (a. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 23. 22. 13x7.11 ft)(a6). (w* (3a26).5y)(3a.2 ft). No. 19.y4 ). Yes. 10.
2 2 3 . a (a + 2 6). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 8. 10(8x' 4l) 4. . 4 6.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.^ 48. 2. y(2x?/). 8. 11. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (c. 30. (^ 7. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). + 3. (^ + ?>_8).y '2 2).1). 8. 14.  (w' 4.  29.5 m2 x2. a x 3 10. (14.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 40. a 4. a8 . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. . 17. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). b) (r 4.?/). 13. (r420(4 10. 6.8) ( (16. Page 12.?50)(xt/z. 18. 5. ?>). x(x f y)(jr . ?i(w 4y) .y)(fi a . 11. 8x. Page 86. 20.9).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 2 8(w . 13.y.4. y )(. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .n).y). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (* _ 2 )(a 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 6.0+ 12). 24x sy s 9. 4. 6. (5a+l)(9a). 15 M. ( rt 23. 17(x43//)(x2y).3)(x 4. 4). x 4. 2(m4l)' . 4 a8 . 7. 4 a s &8 . . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). a 4. 38.1) 3. Page 89.2)(x 1. x  1). 4. 27. (m  I)' 6.'})(c .'J)(' . (2 a ~ f> b 4.7)(^ {I 12.?>) H. 7. 13 x 8 2 . . 8. y6. 3(.&). 2. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 3.7s) (2 a. 450. Page 92. ah}. 10. 4. 32. .r(3x' 2 4 (14.3. 12. (> 1. 14.3.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 5  (2 2 . (!__/>). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 8). 2 k (wi 4. (5 26.4). (2x7)(x 2 2). a 41. 9. 4. ( (<> r4y3 . ( a ^)(^3. 13( 33. (5 31. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 10(2 (3 4. 4. 14. Exercise 47.8).  WIM. Gp).. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 5. 2 21.1). 2 . ( y).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 6. ^ . 16. 11. 9. 5. 28.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 3 x4 . 7. 42a 3 x. (a />.) j). 24. x43. l. 15. 4.X 5.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).8) n 43*).42 x 4. 2. 4. n  r)(5a 10. 37. r x 2 */3 . 4. Page 90. + 2 //). 16. (w * . 5. 41. 7.e 4. 2. (f> + fo 7. (a 4. 1(V/ 88. 39. 1. (w4w) 2 1. (. 12.2 y). 2. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.2).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 6. 8.b.36). 6. (a 9.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 5 x8 3. 36. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 19. (16 4  2(5 n . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.!) (x42)(x2). 12. Exercise 46. a 2 (a9).2). (x//. 22. 4  9.4. 2 1.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . ( { &). 8. 6 f c). (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 2 10. y). fi(c426). 14.'/)('< 4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . . 7.l)( a 25.4). (5^4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 15. (x. ofc)( fid). 42). 35.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 4 3. 11. x . 2 y) ^ .&). 2 (a 4. 7. Page 87. 2 + . 8. 3x(x?/) 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (a &4. a + a b. 13.
13. x 12. a 10 25. 6a2&(rt6). 1). 11. + &) 2 ( . + y) (a: y). (a2)(a + 2)2.  1). + &)(&) ( . 18. a 23. +5 1. +8b a 4 3 / ^. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . ?_!&. x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. 2(2al) + l). x 24. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.ANSWERS 10.6).
^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.. 6. + lH + . 4c 10. _*^p5_^^_. 4 L 8 2 . ' 2 7. A^. i^. 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.  **/* + 84 _. 4. Page 100. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 6. + 2H 1 ^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. a 5. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. c 8.50 ~ 1/2 . i. xy 43. Page 101. 6a5f^. . ^~ 29. w1 + ac w 4 7. 28.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 0. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 30. 1. 6. 2 a. 26. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 11. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .
45. 4. 46. 43. y(x + x ?/). 7. c 8. n . a2 2. Page 111. 14. b a f +c 14. 16. 3. 0. 40. 3. 38. 31. 1. 15. 3. ! 4 20. 4. 20. 1. 6. 3. 4. 4.y 7.  V o 4. x 1. 6 . 3. A. 21. 4. 14. + f. 1. 42. 9. 29. 35. 7. Of. ^i 11. 11. n m a + 13. 34. J. 16. 4a3ft. 5. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 6. +3 ( + 15. 6. 36. n 16. 37. 23. 8. . 6. 5. 18. 9. 1. 2 47. 1. 7. 11. ^_. 26. 4. 25. 1. 1. I) 2 3z 1. Page 106.L+ft. 30. . x\. ac mp lf> n 12. (y + (z 12. an 18. 7. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 0.ft . 21. 1. 1.^U\WF### X<6. (>. 14. f 7. 4. 6. 21. flf. . 12. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. a 17. 5. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. ' 6. 9. f Page 107. 2ft a i m x. a. 11. 27. 12 28.  10 X + u. x 05m ' 5. w^x 2 b Page 105. ft. 19. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. ?. 17. ?+_!?>. 24. Page 113. 5. 41. J. 15. 10. 8. 32. 15. m 9. J. 17. 44. 5 be _J_. 13. 1. 39. 12. 2) 19. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13.^_. 11. 33. 11. . pf n 6 1. 10. 3 7 i o. 3. Page 110. j L . 8j_m 7 3. b 2.
. ^m . 3.. 21. (d) 4 da. 500. xy.  C .137.. w 44. 3. 19. 8. 13. 2. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 9J oz. Yes. 7 . P+ ^ 33. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 119. (d) 500. 18. 10.  29. nm. 15. 81. 7. 5. 20. 7. 1 : 12. #V ~~ 34. 27. No. (ft) 28. 4fl M_. 1. :2. 10. 3. . (c) 8300. (a) 25. 26. 7. 1:3. 4.000 If da.000 1 = 23. . 8.001. '"I 22. Yes. w 21. 30 mi. 5 25. 12. 21. 6. Page 118. . Page 121. 4~r~ n . 2. = A's../hr. (r) 3^ da. 23< &n b ' . ^p^ r ~ 7. 6. Yes. (c) 2 hr. 1:4. dn ~ mi. (ft) 104. 18. 3. 0.002.. 300.. 15. 1:1 = 1:1. 40 yrs. 3. 32. 13. 24 mi. 10. 33. 15. ^?i min. after $12. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 10 yrs. silver. (a) 4 min. 2x:3y.0 & .10. 4. min. 1. 30. ANSWERS 16. 00. 10. 8.XIV '/ .9. 16. 212. after 18. 4. 10.004. 19. (ft) 5 hr. 11 hrs. f. 15.11. 17. 13. 7. 21ft min. 16. 10. 9../hr. 1. 4. 14. 10. 10. 5. (ft) 5 da. 9ft. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 1: ~. 12. 28. J ^'. J. 1 da. 33.139.000. 11. 24. 31. (a) 30. 74. jj. 15. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. Yes. min. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 7.000.} da. Yes. 9$. 26 mi. 9. 17. Page 125. Page 117. 8. 1:1=1:1.2. 7T 2 Page 116. f . 22. Yes. 16. 20. [>> ^ a .003. 8301 hr. 3. 75 . 6. 13. 9. 1^'. 5. $30. 1:1 = 1:1. $00. 24. 5. 19. " 0.  + . 14.. 2:1. 2 20. 19. 15. 18. 38ft min. 20. ~m . gold. 5 2. 7} 18. after 20. 35. 55 mi. .x + y. 30ft. 17.138. 14.2. . 3:2. 9. . 14. (ft) (r) 8 hr. $45. . 10^ oz. 12. No. IV s.000. ft. 40 mi. 15. 7. a 4 ft.. 1. 300. $0. n 32. w 18. _JL. 3 da. 275:108. 11. 4. 8. (a) 12 hr. 40wn.. 26 30.15. Yes. $40. Yes. 5ft 30mi.000. 300. 34. 36. 17. 11. Page 124. 10.0. 30 yrs. * 7:9. () 2.
6.15 x. y . 5. 32+ mi. 31J. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 21. 9. (a) Directly. 6.' : : : : <>. 19. : .000 sq.2. 2. ' 55.840. 4. J.3. 10. 5.2 oz. 5:0 = 10:12. 7.5. 7. 2. 14. 945 11 10 . (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 27. 19. 7. 3  24. 9. 1. 3 2=3 x. 13. Page 131.r.5. 57. 8.4. 14.20.15. 10.12. in n. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 23.  28. Page 134. (</) ft. 38. 10. 7. 2. 6 10 = 12. 3. 52. Page 135. J pq.3. . 29. "lO. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 55. b x 37. . 11 w a 13. 5.5. 41.3. a~. . 41. 35. 9  15. 49.) 31. 36. . 7. 9. : 23.7. 6. 1. a 3. Inversely. 5.3. 7. x +y x + 74 7 \. 45. 22. 32j. copper.C ?/ a . 46. w 8. 3.46.1. 8. 17. 18. 4. . OJ. 3. 2. 13. 3. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2. . 4. 7. 2. 15> 9. 5. 8. 13.1. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 3. 11. I. Page 9. ig 6. . : : T 1' : /> : . 25. Of. OJ. water. 7.ANSWERS 22. 1 rt * vm^1. 2. 12. 1(5. 3. 13J. 59.5. 14. 2. mi. J. 43. 44.2.3. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 4. (I. 2. 2.  ?. 4. 24 1 (e) Directly. 25. 2. 4. 39. () 7 Page 126. *. 3. s<i. 8.2.3. . 1. 16. 4. 36./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 3. : XV 27. 11." ^ 2. 4. 1. : : . 26.a. 1. w. 138. 16. 3}.. + 7>i//  ft 1 .*.5.57. 2. 31. 11. 7.5. 7. 4.^ 0?j ' gms.x a. 53. 2. Page 132. in.36. Page 136. 9. 20. 22. mi. 26. ft. y a y = 7 0.7.1. 47.3. 19 OJ. x:y a: b. 2. 9.4.. 174+ Page 128. 48.3. 17. 8. 7. 50. 14. 20 cu. 4.5. 2. 40. 11. 4. $. 19 3 . 4. 4. 2. 3. + W.6. 5:3 = 4: x. a +b 1. 1 18 = 3 51. 30.4. 6. Page 133. y :y =. : />.J 3. 5 2. 2. Page 5. 24. 5. 7.8 oz. i. 7^. 3. 16.000 sq. 2. 56. 1. 20. 7. 23. 17. 2. x y y . 5. \. 9.3.2 x. 3. 6*. 2. l. y 1. 2. 1.1. .J. 3. 2. x 42. . 2. ~ 1.17. 7. 5. 12. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. t 5. Page 137. \\. . J.3. = 7 b'. 12. 7. 40. 3.2. 19. ini. 21. 12. 2 n . 127. 28. (b) C C' = fi JR'.li. jc:y = n:m. 10. 3.].9. 9.12.. 5. 25. . tin. 9.4. 5. 15. 1. 11. 20 20 J ^.1. 15."2:1. lo mi. 2.5. /. 2. () Directly. 5. 13. 58. + b 7 . (b) Inversely. 1.3. 141. cu.22.160. 8. . 6. 8. 24. . land. 4. 30.5. 7. 2. 54.4. 1. 11 5 . 200 mi.  19.
. 1 (d) Apr. 11.. 16.  11. through point (0. July. May 5. 25. 147. 6. 26. M 2. 1. 23. 4. Page 142. 21.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 7. 7. 19. 100. 6. (ft) 20.3. & part of Feb. 1. 3. B's 40 yrs. 11. 6. 9. $ 1000. 18. SL=J o ft r^2. 1. 10. ^. ' 6 3 a. & May. &. 2. Aug. 23. 30. 16. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . . 3. C's 10 yrs. 2.8. 10. 2. 4.65. 8.. . 5. (c) . 0.$2000. 0. 9. 3.2. Page 153. 29. 2. 25. 4. . 2t2. 3. 11. Page 22. 1 (c) Jan. 6. 15. 7. Jan. 5. 16. Oct. $3000. 2. yrs.^. . 24. 25. 6. 1... 4. 7. Jan. 2. 3. 18. 3. 90.0.XVI Fagel39. 3. a =J (n  1) rf. 6 cows. 13. 1. 25. 4. Apr. 3. 8. $900 5%. be 10. m . 2. . 2. 1. 2. 8. 20. Feb. 20 & Oct. $250. 1. A a parallel to the x axis. 2. Page 143. 12. 5. 3.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 3. 11. 6. 18. 1. 3. 1. 24. 6. 3. 15. 24.33. 3. 17. 5. On the y axis. A's 30 18. 7. 19. 14. 14.1J. ad _(?jrJL. 2. 2.$5000. 4. parallel to the x axis 0. 3. (5. 13. $500. 6%. 7. = ^ a Page 141. 8. m + n p.l. 3. Jan. Page 145. 12. . About 12f. Page 152.1. 22. Nov. 10.  17. 15.4. 19 gms. The ordinate. 4. 31. 5. 2. Apr. 4 ' q. Jan. 5%. 4. a. 3. Page 146. $6500at3Ji%. (ft) 23 J. 4. On the x axis. 9. 30. 5. ft 3. be 7. 1. 2 a. 24. July 20. 26. 4. at 15. Page 149. 20. 1. 6. 14. 4. 12.. m f 8. 4. 2 horses. 18. 20 to Oct. 9.3.n + p. July. 7. 0. 423. 13. . 3. 2. 10 sheep. 27. ad AzA. 2. 5. 30. 4. yrs. . 21. (<f) 13. 16. 40. 10. 2. 1. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. $4000. 5.7. C's 30 yrs. 11. . <*ft/ bd 1. 9. 40. Nov./hr. 00. 2.2. 17. 7. & part of Sept. 4. 20. J. 17. 9. 2. . 3. 4. 23f . 11.4.0. June. 12. . Apr. 20. .3.1. A's 50 13. 16.10. 32. u 2ft. (a) 12. 12. 10. Page 151. ' . 20. 28. 7. 16. B's 15 yrs.4. 5. 3. 16 to July 20. On 11.. 3). Nov. Nov. m f 9. Jan. 7.9. 10^ gms. (a) Apr. 3. 4 mi. 72. 5.
5 and 2. 2. 9. 2. 2. (ft) (d) 2. 30.1. 13 . .4.5 (ft) 3. . 4. . 5. .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 3. 3. 20. 27 19.79. G.41 and 23. ImW. 2ft4 Page 168. (c) 7. \ft) 5. 11. 2.83.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. 4. 2. . 27 27 81. 125 a 8 12. (c) 2. 3. 1. 22.27. 11. (a) 2. 0. . 2. 12. 15. 1^. 3. 8mW. 19. 3. 8. 8 a1. 1 23. (ft) 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 6. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3.2 (ft)  1. 14. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. .79.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . . 3. 14. 13.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. ft . 1 4. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4.59.75 (ci) 3^. 2 l. 3. (gr) 21. 1. 20. f. 13C.5. 4}. .64. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 16. . ' :=_!. (a) 12. 13.73. 10. (/) 3.59 . Page 158. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. (ft) (ft) 2. 4 ) 21. 17. 2. 27. (/) 3. 5. (ft) and (d) 2. 24.34F. 18C. 14. SlstyW 7. .. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 13. 2.41 and ." 23. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.  1. m. 3.. a + ft. 2.24. 1. 3. 3. f.75. . 1. 8 1 f f g*.7.25. 1. 9. (<?) 2. 30. Page 164. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.84. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2. 7. . 3. 10 C.  12 ft xW  26 31. 32F. 5. 3 .83. Indeterminate. 14. * 16. 15 . 1. xW. 8.1. . 21.. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 5. 1. 18. +3 4. . . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1. (c) 14 F. Page 163. 3. 1.24 . 4. Indeterminate. a 6o&i85 c i5o . jgiooyiio 17.. Page 159. 2.17 (ft) (c) 2.73. 10. 15. 2.25. ft 2 4. 19. 4. 125a 28. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 5. xy. . 125 16. 2. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .  . 1. 15. (e) 2. 25. 4.75.73. 1. H. . 9 and Page 166.24. 3. 1. . 81 ". 6. 3. 10.25. () (rt) 3.25. 2 a&m Page 167. 2 2 22. 2. 8. H. 3.64. + a 4 ft* . 3. f12 wi 9. (a) 4.25. 1. xg . 4wn8 + n4 5. . 1. 2. 11. 26.6. 12.73 ami . f 10. 4. 83. . 2. (e) 3. 1. . 1. 1. a 29. 5. 5. . 28. Inconsistent. . 24. 0C. 1. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.  1. (a) 5.13. 22.5. 2.75. 2. 3.3.3.67. Inconsistent.
5. (x + y\ 90. c 10 6 :l 20. 28. 15. 84. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 20. 30. 30. 309.  +X '. 10. 17. + y). 15. 18. 2 49 . + i)). 15. 90. + Z). 2. (l + x + . 9. 35. +35. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). .5. AN S WE no . 7. 16. 3 6 23.94. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 24.x ). 420. 17. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 21. 247. 180 . + l). 22. 9. + + ?V 22. 9. 3. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 40. 64. 20. 10 x G a 4 . 119. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 17. + 29. (2 a + ft). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. (a + y+l). 14. 76. . 2 4 8 2 . (Gx + (i + 2a.6. 1.83. 11. /> 4 ).3 ab + 2 2 ).^). Page 170. 4. 16.2). 19. 6. ? : 1 . 1247. . . 99. ? . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 14. 2 12. 10. . 8. GOO 2 c 2 . 3. 71. 8.037. 25 19. 12. I 8x2). 9.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.i c 6 15. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 21. 36.10 a~ + 5 a . ^i. 34. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 11. 763. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 8.a b 22. ). 33. 5. 18. 1. 4. 8. 31. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 1. 14. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 27. 1 1 ?>). (a + 2 +l).1.r 2 + 6jt).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 9. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 2. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 10. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. (48 + 6. 12. 6. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 2 2 4. a. 1. r> 4 : 1 . 57. a: l . (3a. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 12. 9.GO a c + 23. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 2038. 2. fe *?>' ?> fi . 16 6 w . 18. 7. 2 2 7. 5. 3 2 8 3 12.y2 ). 300. ( Page 174. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 00. 7. 6. Zll. 6. a. 5 5 8. 72. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). ??i ?i . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). . rt . 98. 10*. (4a2 9& 2 13. 14. 8 /. .f 1 m 9 16. (1 (x2y). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 11.1. a 2 .+3^ + 4. 8. 25. (x' l). 6. 237. 3M. 13. 13. 70. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 32. 20. .7 /)). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .5). 11. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 5. (ly). 3. 4. Page 171. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 3 2 ^. 101. 3. 2.XV111 7. 20. Page 172. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 978. 19. 2. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. a ). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. +3 + 5 4. 15. (ab + c). 4. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. m 13. . 23. (a 2. 6 (\x 3. 5. 26. + (win . . 16. 90.  x. Page 176. 0.
f f V. 1. 2. 4 W**.18. or 3. 7 in. 2. 1. *. 3. 4. 3. 16. 30. 6561. 22. 19.. 10. 12. 7. 21. 24. (< + ?>). . 6V21. 15. 14.6. 4. 6. 21 28 ft. Page 185.  f. f ^ is. >TT 26.*. 29. . 21. 15. 2. 11.6.6. 47. " ^_ 22. m. 20. 13.  5. 23. 1 7.5. 1. 28. xix 26. 12. 3. 12. vV'TA 24. 4.60. 9 15 ft. If ^. 3. 3. * 1. . 6.  14. 44. v 17. 21. 3.367. 3J. 7. 10. . 10.469. l~8. 33. 4 a. 4. 9.Sn. a + 61. 2] see. 37. 5. 40. 36.  3. 7. w. 3. 13. 9. 35. or 5.5. Page 177. 40. 5f. 6. 9. 18. 26. i ^. 3. V2. 21yds. 5.. 12. 7}. Page 181. 46. 31. 1. 6. V J l.  43. (afl).236.13. 7563. f. 7. 5. 2 sec. 4. .742 in. 1.6. 15. 13. 4. 7 45. 27. 4. ~ V^3. 6. 6. 42. 25. 4J. ^^7m. 4. i.ANS WERS 22.4. 11. 2. 2. 17. 8.. Page 180. . 2. ^. 1.  f. 6. 9. 1&. 24. 17. 39.. 13. 23. ft. 3. 5. 16.a. 11. \/3. 4. f. 9. 4 n. 5. () 2. 10. 3. 39.4. 2. 29. 6J. ii :J _7. 5. 2.}. J. 12. Page 183. 2. 49. 4. 10. 270 sq. V35 1. vYb. V2.  2. 5. 29.522 38. 8. . 10. 9. 6yds. 12. 12. 6. 6V'2J.237. / 11. 23. 12.. 30. 2. _ iVaft. 3. 15. 4. 16. 1 38. ZLlAiK 19. 2. 33. 36. 18. 28 in. a. 7. 28. 34. 1.?. 1. 8. 7. 32. 37.005.  1. f . > w ft. 7. 3. 5083. }. 35.. 6 f !.. 20. 25 J.916 yds. 16. 11.i. 36 in. 25. m. 32.1. 34. . 11. 9. 14. 1. 7. 5. 10.. . 5. 3. 10. {. Af^. 7. ft. 14. . JJI.798 yds.6. 3. 20. 5. V. . (6) Vl4 3. 1 f Vl3. 4.w 18. 8.925 ft. 21 in. 9. 1. 27.4.690. 48. Page 184. 8. 50. >i 27. 14..645. . 1. 17. 15 1 10. 41. 19. /. 4 TT M 28. V17. 14. f 3. 31.935. 2.1. 7. ^. 10. 39 in. ft. 8.243. 5. 13. 2. 5. 5. 5. 15.. 7. 16n. 4. Page 179.V 8j.
8. ' 1. . 36. 9. 3. 56. $80. f 6 52 a. a.7. Page 190. Page 189. 49.4. 0.Oa. 31.l. 1.'. Real.  2. a + 1. . equal. x2 + B . f. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. ANSWERS 22.12 = 0./hr. 2. 64c. 1). 2. 27. 18.4. 40. 11.2. 42. 10 or 19.1. Real.62. 20 nii. 17.  Page 194. 21. #<7=3. equal. 0. 35. rational. 18. r* i.6 = 0.XX Page 186. equal.1.1. 0.17. 3. ft. 1. 0. 0. . 1. . 2. Real. 2. a. 120 ft. 48.  9x <). 5 ft. orf. Real./hr. 7. 24. x*4x=0. 2.2. 52. 1. 15.5 x + 6 = 0. rational. 1. 1. unequal. s 11. 29. 5. 1. 4. 4. 20. 44. .$40 or $60. 1.3. unequal. Real.a 3 a. 4. Imaginary. 1. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 13. 3. 20 eggs. 4. 46. 11. 39. 6. 58.  1. jr . 12. . 8 or 12 mi.59. 3. 5. 16. 3. 23. Imaginary. 10 mi. f. 2. 7. 5. 3. Real. 2. *'' 12. If. . 1. 2.5. x* 51. 4. unequal. 3. 7. 1. 3. 9. 6. . 7. 16. 3. 23. 2. 23. irrational. 15. . unequal. 3.74. 0. 37. v^^fcT"^.0*8. 4. 3. 20. 5.70. 2. 26. 9. 27. 45.  5. 18.2. . V7. 1 3.a.. 8. 3. (5 10. in.. VV11. . 3.a.  6. 3./hr. V^l. 3. 4. 25.4.  1. 4. 13.. 0.3. 8. 25. 3if. 7. 2. 0.10. 2. + 11 x. 2.5^. t is.2. 57.48. 0. 6. Imaginary. 10 in. 3. 25. 2 V3 in. 3.7. 28.12. 2. 22.6. a + 6. 50.02. 20. 14. . 2. 16. V ~ 16 4 2. 3. 2 ft.. x 14. 21. 0. i.2. AB = 3. unequal. 12. 6. i . 4. Page 187. rational.  13. 10.2 x2 . 2. 10 mi. . 0. Page 191. .. Page 192. 35. 1. 10. 0. 1. . 34. '  f 5.  i.  1. 41. 0. ^l/>> = 85 ft. U. 26. . Real. unequal. H. 24. 0. 6. 19.]. 12.2. . 33. 14. 12. 5. 3. 21.41. 2. 4 da.7.4. 25. 19. 6V64.  24. 1.48 3.3. 28. . irrational. V^~2. 1. . 8\/2 17. 64. 7. 3.37. 1 . V2.  1. 2 . 1_^L ft 14. a8 . rational. 47. 2. 26. 0. rational. . 53. 3. V^l. 43. $30 or $70. 22. 6.2.2. 2. 3. unequal.* 2. 1.. . 32. 27. 1. Page 188. 6. 70 ft.  5. Imaginary. Real. 1. 26. 9. 10. 1. 19 in. 2.2.  2. 24.23. 7. 15 ft. 30. 28. 38. 7. unequal. 2. 6. 2. 55. 8. AB = 204 ft. 12. = 0.  1. 6. V2.23. 15. 6^2 in. 6. unequal./hr. %. 4.2. _ 19.4. 3. $ 120. 1. . 2. 0.
11. 4. 40. 29. 45. 20. aW\ 40.^7. 'J. 2. Page 196. 38. 50. ^49. 2. 2. 1. 9. 8. 6. 25. 33. 22. 4. 5. 2. 10. 47. 4. 8. 23. 41. 12*2 61. 2.  a'2 . vm. _! V3. 44.32. 2. y . 28. $7.2. 5. 30. 5. 14. 4. 3. 24. 3 4 11. 13. 2. 21. 20. 9. 55. 49. 10. 1. 10. 49. 19. 10. r. p. ). 3. 14. xxi 15. \ . v^T4 m. 9. *V..  f . 5. 25. 20. (m 26. 58. 52. . V^ 34. . 25. y. 6  AAf. 56. 11. 8. m'. v/3. . 13. 4. . 39. JV37. 4. 29. 3.ANtiWEUS rational. J. I. 16.17.  5. 3. ) 2 >J i 10. &. . 49. Page 197. \/. 30 a. 37. \/3. 1. 19. . 18. 13. 9. \. 24. 1V1. 7V7. 18. . 8. 3. Page 201. 32. 33. 22. J 3. 36. 27. 3. i. 0. 30. 0. 33. 4. 2. 46. 20.6. 1." 17. . z + 22. 2 L ( V. 1. 7 . 1. v'frc 18. 60. 84. 1. 48. 16. 8. n\/* Page202. 125. 18. 1. Vr. 27. 1 39. J. 17. 9. 19. 43. 7. x$. 31.//^. m. 28.1 5 15. 9. 24. jV 10. 54. ^Sf 3 38. 21. ar 1 . \. 7. 3. 21. ifa. 3. : . .  J j. . fx'^z'l 23. 17. 8. 8. J. wA 46. 59. Page 200. 15. 3. 47.  f. 2. 12. J. 2. 13. 15. 35. 2. 7. 50. \/r\ 11. 3. 16. x. 1. 1. 1. 16.  48. l  5 12. 51. 0. v'frW. 31. ? . Page 199. 3. 53. x/25. 14. a. 17. r*. 57. 6. a 18 . 15. 3. 23. 1. 26. 5\/5. 5. 19. Jb \. 49. 29. 243. 2V a. 32. v. 12. 5. 14. 4. 8. \a\ \/^. vV. 42.
4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 40. 8. + + ft. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). ). r c . JIV6. ^7 \AOx. 2 x* 15. 11V3.692. 11. 5. ?tV?w.r. yV35. T. 31.XXii ANSWERS 1. 31. 43. 40. 2. 20. x. a 3. 5 22. a 4 +* + !. 11. 2>X2. 13 35. 34. 135V6. 2. 26.'\ 14. x 7  34. 19. 37. 7. 16. . 2 a?>V2 a. 24. Va 2 "ft. 27.  a Vft 2 121 b. 9. 23. 195V3. V63. 13. . 28. 19. 39. v'TM. 3 a~ 3 (x (.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 48. 18. v/^r 5  A/^~. + 1. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3 \ 39. 6. a^ + 2^+1. 24.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 25. 3 42. ^88". 32. Page 208. 1. 37. 36. 2. . 15. V.f.3 + 40 3 . 3 x^y 33. 1) 3V3. 2\/7. 33. 49. x y. 38. k/2. 1 2 or 1 ?. + Vic + 25. 3V5. ftV 46. 62V(J. 41. 17. 28.x^y* + y%. . 51. 3^ + 2). V2 + 4 V22. 22. v^. 30. + 2 ar 1 ). 8a6V5.rV:r. 34 r 6..648. 2 '"V5. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 3^2. abVab. 30. 2 4 z2 l 3. 2.577.  2 3:r. Page 207. (o* 2. x^ . 20&V6. 9. r 17  Page 204. V. 16. V80. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 13. 20. 4. 5. x + 5 x3 + 0. 29. y (a + ft) V2. 9 .). / V3. 3. Page 203. 3V^T. x%  3 ^+ 1. V 5 47. . l 5. . 50. x 25. (a 27. 10. Vr 8.707. 3. 3 4\/2. 7. 2. 8V/) 15. + 2). . 10.2 18. 9. 12. a2 4. 13 a. 26. + 2 V22. 8. 32. 5 ( .Vxy 35.yl : . 03r* 7. 17.2 VlO. . 10. 2v (T 2aVf. m* n*. 21. 101 1. 6. 2. 29. + . Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 3.632. 4. ^: V2c. 21. y. 4aV^J 16. (x' (l 1+x). 45.
x/8. 32. D 45. 35. x/4. aVa. r)\/(l Vrtr. 24. 2\/7. Vat. 20. 25. Page 210. 46. \/8. 52. v^30. ^\/3. 6x2?/. 14. a^\/a7>. 31. x/w^ 8. 18. VJla. 33. 7. vT). 2 V'3. \^6. 41. 5v/2. \^r^bVabc. 13. 14c 4 V5. 8. 16. 3 V2. 53. V5. 6. \XOfl6Vi5. 38. 8V2. W). . 13\/3. 19. 10V(). 36. ^v 7 15. 2 1. 5. 6V2. 3v^2. fl^Vac. Page 216. v7^.30 2. VT5. 4\/5. 49. 29. xx 1. 23. 27. 43. . 37. 4. 42. . 2. Page 214. "v/wi ??. 13. 39. 2 \/2. 4 >/3. 2 28.r v/^ v^fr*. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . ^9. Vtf +3+ 33. 2. 0. 4. 21. 1. 48. 5. v^4. v^f. 17. 14. a\/5c. 3. 22. v/9. 18. v^lf. 32m27n.J Page 212. 3. . v 25^4714 V2"a. Page 211. 9 VlO + 4. V3"m. 10. 8  \/15. 27. 8v2T 12. V/. 23. 8V73\/IO. 15. . 32. : ^32. 17. + VlO  v y (5. x/8L v/27. V2. 3\/wi. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 21. x/8l. v"3. 30. 24. 4VO. 9. 38. 6+2V5. V3. v/l2. x/27. m ?i2Vm/t. 39. v/lO. 40. 6 2\/0. / \/w/t 4 13. 3\/15  6. 7\/(l 7VTO. 8. Vdbc. w?i. v/i). 2. v"5. 36. 1. Page 213. \V3. ^27.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 18. 3\/2. V3. 4 a*. 3. 5. V8. 14. 1V5. rtv/5. b. 3 V15  47. 31. 5V2. 34. 17. 19. \/128. 11. 16. 22. V2. 7. 40. 25. "^8000. + 20. 6. 10. 0..  3. 11. 3. 28. 6. v^a. 16. . V5. v/8. 44. 37. x/3. '. \^6. 9. 74\/Jl 120 46. \/04a. ^ 3 b 5 24. \/a6c. v^O. 30 Vl4. 6aV2\^. 51. 50. 9. 6. 2. 2yV2?/. 12. 5V2. \/2. 35. a2  b. 2 ate. 12. Vn. 2. . 5 \/2. 10. 3 Vl5 30. 6. 1.T*. x/125. 21 23. \/abc*. 11. 26. ab 4. 34. 15. % 29. 26. 7. 3.
3. 10. 16. 12. V2. 2V3. 6. J. 64. 4. 19. 4. 24. {. 20. . 7 Page221. 2. 1. 6. (Vf + (4 V2). 19. 12. 5 f. 14. 14. (\/3f 1).  2. 15. ~ Vac _c 0. 26. 27. 3. 23. 2. ^r. j. 10. 12. m f. 6. . \. 11. f. 2x^2^. A . 26. 9. Page 219. (\/5V2). 25. 1. 20. 17. 22. 7 f 5 4. Vf6fVtf. 4.732. . 2. (2V2). K>/0 + \/2). 3. 12. 81. nVTl. 216. 1. 25. 7. 9. 4. 5. 2ajV2*. 11. ^\/2. 11. V3. 1. V3 . xy 2.XXIV 7.4722. 8. 13. . ANSWERS 8. Page 218. 30. 4. V. 29. .5. 3. Page 28. 15. * 3. 5. 21. 25. 5. (VaT^v a). Page 225. 5. \/57t. 20. 22. 35. (V5f 5. 8 V3V2. (V21). 16. 2. 24. 20. 9.3. 14. . fV2. ^. 9. 2 . 8.4142. 8.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 10. (2. 13. 36. 18. V3. +3 V2). 9.7071. !^ 6 4. 25.389. 22. 9.732. 2V3. 23. 3. 10. i^ ~ 1 v ^. ' 22 i . 10. 27. (3+ v/2).1. 4. 13.\/TO). Page 226. Page217. 2V2. n*.1805.3535. i(Vf Vft). 7. . 28. V^TTfc.64. + 5V2. 25. 4.1547. 8. (V6 + 2V2).5530. 21 ' Vob 26. 7. _^JflJ?.13. 4.9. 24. . 16.2. 8. 7. 8. 1. 7. j 15. 9.. 4 14. 16. 7. (2f V"5). 6.81. 125. 23. V35. 7.w 6. 16. ^. 3. 4. 1. 34.^ (\/22 4. 19. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. Va. x 20.625 10. 224. 15. 33. 4V3 + 6. Page220. 16. V6c.464. 31.2. 24. 5. 25. 9. 23. 12. 32. 6 V. i^Lzi. . 30. 29. 4. 9. 15. 6 (V2 + 1). 6. 5 V65. 19. 1. 3. 17. 4. 0. 10. + 6) 2 . . 16. 4. 3V23. 1. 8. 100. 81. ^(VlO\/2). 5.6 V3.V3). 0. 4. 5. 512.  f. p 6 13. (VllV2). 14. V5. 17. 16. 11. 3. 17. 2.  . 2. 19. 18. 11.7083.  13. V3. 3(7+3V5). (a 1. 25. 15. \/3). 18. 5. 18. 23. 7. .2828. Va.6. 21. 1. 12. 1. 18.601. (2Vll). (V51). Page 223. 2. (V8 + V2. 2!5_. 4. 9 mn. 5. 21. J. 10. 27. 4.0606. 1. 11. 37. 8.
3 . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1 . (w . (a 4. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 10. (m 4 + l)(ro. 4. 2. 9. 15. \/0.12. 4. ~ f7. 3. 5. 1. 12. 6. 1. 26. 4. 9. 5. (a . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (&y2a#H4). 3. 6. 1. (4 mn . 6. 6.2)(m. 3. 3. 30. 0. 30 . 4. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). (a+&)( 2 14. . (+!)( 2) 10. 5. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 18. 3. (8. 0. (a. 7. 2 <? 4a2 . 4 . 11. 4. 19.7. 4. 4. . 11. 11. 2.  J.22.l)(a3)(a . 2. 1.ANSWERS Page 228.4.3.3. 3 9. 3. 73. 7. 21.Y. 25.3.  3. 2. 13. 2. 5. (63)(6' t 18. 17. 87 . . 23. (rt. & + 6 2 ).. (2 a. 5.  3. 2. 13. 1. J 24. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).4). 12. 4 . 1. 8 6 & 0. 4. P. 3. qpl. 2. 1. 1. 4. 2 V^ . 2. . 2. 15. 13. 8. 14. a  . 3 5.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 12. 1.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). y.3 2. 4. 2 6.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 3. 1 (?> x/^3. 1. 1. 0.3.  1.2. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 30 30. 16. 24. 2. (B43). 18. 3. 2. 5. 1 6.^a. f . J. (pl)(p3)(p6). 19. 1 . 73. . Page 233.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 21. 4. 12.2. 3. 50. 5.4. 0. 13. 28. .  5. 3.5. 5. 7. 2. 11. 5. 5. 11.  2. 1. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 16. 1. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 17. 12 24 y . . 1 . 2 &. 22. 5. 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 5. 3.1. 1 . 0. 6. =A^Z3. (a. 7. 14. . 2. 0. l. 3 . 4 1. 9. 2 . b . t/ 23. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2.8a 18.3. 3. . a: :} . 6. 4. 3. 0.5 xy + 25) 22. 14. Page 236. 3. 2 .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 2. 3. 6.2. 1. 2. f>. 2 6. 56l). 7. J Page 235. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). . . 10. 2. 2 > 1.3. 15.  3. . . 1. ( 16. 2. 10. 4. 25.  16). 7. 19. 1. 11. 17. V3. . 10. 4 20. 22. 20.1. . . 7. 30.  . 4 4. 3. 2. 4. 8.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. .10. 0. . 3. 2.  1. o. 100. 3. 3. a(. 2. //. 4. 1 . 25.0. 2. 12. . 2 . 2.2)(* . 25. 2. 1 3.  f . . (xy + 5) (x*y* . Page 234.3). 20. 4.l)(m . XXV 4. 1. 3. ' J. 2. (pl)(p2)(p2). 24. 10. (r. 4. 3.l)(z 2 + z + 1).nl^EI.w 4 + 1). 5.4. 1. 5. 8. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).  4. J. . 2. a . . 4.r . 3. 1. 8. 8. 6 2 2a + 2). 8. 7. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 13. . 20. 3 . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 3. 2 . 10.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2. 4.
1 . 1. 1. 4 34. 1. 6. 2 10. 1. 6. 3. 11. ft. 5. 11. 14. 4 . 30. 4. 12 ft. Page 245.4. Page 238. 31. 4. 3. 2. J. 17. 5. 1. 36. 4. 50. 8 . 3. 1 2. 7. 8. 17. 23. 2. = QO 6. 8ft. 30 13. 4.. 1.1. .3. 55. 2.13. 4.1. ft. 14.5. }. 7. 1. i j. i'ljVU. 26. . 2 1. 4 6. 2n. Indeterminate. 21 30. oo . 4. x 4.3 . 8. 15. 2. ri*. _ 5. 3.020. . 5. 4. 2. . 4. } . 1 . 3. c. J. 1. 16. $. Page 247.3. 2. 7. _ 10. m28. 1. GO . j. 3. 125 125. 4. . 2. 8. \. m27. V3~. 9. 1. 1. 5. 1. n . 5. 17. 4. 5. in.4. 2. Exercise 114. 4. 19. 1.. ANSWERS 2.. 3. 2.. 32. 1.136. 12 d. 24. 22. . 16. 9. $VO. 21. 10. $46.xxvi Page 237.. 1. 6. oo . 5. 50. . 1. . 2. (&) 2. tn 2. 4. 1.y. 17. 5. 1.4. 35 ft. 4. 38. 15. . 2. . 11. (a) $3400. 14. . V7. 2.6. 1. 3. 31. 2V7. . 3. 2. Indeterminate. 3. . 201. . 0. 29. 5050. 1. 8. jj. J. 2. 3. 40. 18. 3. 78. 15. 11. 2. (/>) "_. 3 2. 12.. 37. 3 4. 37..18. 1. 3. 2. 3. . . 3. 7. ' j. +  n.  .3.. 2 . . 17. 23.30. . 12 1. 3. 3. 30. f>. 5. in. n. 4. .  11. f*. 1 . 16.1. 2>/3. 40 25 in. 18.4. 7. Page 240. 20. . 7. 0.2. 40 in. 4 8.0. . 512.5. in. 37. ^ }. 13. 2 ft.. 288. 4. 1. 4. 900. (>. f. m + n. 5. 84. 41. 3. 5. 5. in. 12. 2. 4. '>. 35^ 5. 2 Y> V . 45yd. 3 . 6. 3 . 2. 2. 2 .3. .  2 . Page 243. 14. 1J. 3 3. . 21. 1 . 39. 3.  1. 35 a.3. J.3. . 18. 7 3.3. _ 13 (0 6. 24. 8. 12. 3. 20. 4. 512. 14.e. 15. 15. i.200. 14. 1. 9. 69. 5. 2 2. 3V5. 8. 1. 3. 12. 1. 17. 2.. 8. 2. 8 3. 4. 19. 28yd. 6. 15. 1. 3 . 48. 3. 3. 15. . . 8. 4. 5. 3. and _ 4. 5. Page 241. 7f solution. 20 7. . 9. 10. 4. 5. 9. Exercise 113. 2 26. 4. Page 248. 1 . 3. 1. 1. 14. 35. 9. in. 33. 3 cm. 2. 10. oo. 2 16. _ 7. 13.6. . co .0. 3. 10. 11. Page 244. i i i . 1. 0. ^~2. $. 12ft. 5. . no co . ( 3. . 13. ft. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2. . . . 5 . 2 . 1. 12. 7. (a) 5. . \/6. 22. 20 in. 25. . Page 239. 5. 5 4. 1. 1. 12. 400. 5 cm. 11. .
. 2i* 7f. 327.2 45 a 8 /). 6.120. 005. 8. 9. 21. 910. . 0. 343. 0. 4. 12. 4. 7. i 10. 2. 04. 4. . 0. and 1. 18. 4. 2. . 9. 70. 1. a. 6. 6i. 5 13. 5. . 2.ANSWERS Page 250.680. 280 53. 27. . ^a 8. . 192. 4. 53. 105. 10. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 10 14. vy.r* 4 70 .53. REVIEW EXERCISE .3 ays. 16. 9. 8.0.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 12.210. 11.6. 13. 120 aW. 22. 8.870 m*n*. 304.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 13. 2. 3.470. 25. 4950 M 2 b y *. 1. 10.v Page 253. 6. 128. in. 4. 04. 5. 27. (). 35. 10. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 4. '23. . 125. 19.4 &z x>&. 17.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 11. 4. 8 4x' 2 . 16. 28. 3. 8. 3. 0. 45 Page 257. 11.5. 12.  17. 70.5y 4 .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 29. 1. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 20. 125. 5. 1. 27. .504. 8. 7 2 x 4 x8 .  101. 35. 4. 14. 2. 12. 19. 4. 6. 2. } $ 50. sq. 43.5 x. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .920. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 18.2 9. 50.13. 4 0.192. 1. ' 1. 6. 4. 20. 15. 1 14. Page 254. 8. 2. 9. 8 . 5. 8. 2. 7. />*. 8. 26. 16. 05. 6. 410. 3. r 5 4. 495. 8. 6. 13. 16. . 1. 3. 1. 15. 7.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 1820. 5. 5. 10. 12. x + Vy. x4 . c. 1.8. 17.7 10. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . . 0. 3.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .r 4. 8J. 20. 7. 5. \ w 4 . 15.r x>/ 7 3. 7. . 55. 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. I. 8. 75. 22. 220 .5. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 9. 70. 4. . 16. Y11. 12. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . **+. 1 7 4. 12. 2. <. 2. Page 259. J 2 //2 25. 16.384. a4 4 14. . 1. 7.^ ?>i 2412x4. 5. 0. 45. 2. 9.x' 10 . 3. 2. 4. 3.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.170. &' 14. 10. 44. Ja. 6. 1. 19. JSg. 15. Jj? 45. 7. 4.4. 0. 32. 48. 10.12 x*y 16. 7.6 .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. B . 100. ~v 9.419. 7 x4 17.  20 flW. 0. 405. 708. r r j. ~ an . 17. 23. 18. 3.<2 4. 5. 12. 15. 45. . 3. 1JH. 6. x r 4. Page 252. G. 343. 4. Page 258. 16 11. ?/i 6 x llj . 81. 1000 aW. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). A.1. 5. 0.700. 3. d. . w9  8. 4. 18. f y 8 + z* . 1. 21. 8 1. xxvii 1. 27. 2. 3. 3. 16.
28. 104. . x 4. 100. 1 . a~b 89. 35.3 y.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. ft /> 78.4 ac. 2 q. ft n .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 3a'2 Page 261. 3 36 b c . a2 2 aft 2 2. 27. + z. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 38.x 2 4. a4 x.1 4 jry 4 x . x' . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. . 102. 3~ n 4. /> 4 83. 2 53. 91. .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.x x*  f 2 ax 4.a. 21. 4 15 x 5 . 4 2 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . . 16t/. t 81. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 13 + 2 s.2 c . 5x 2 2x43. 2 . xyxzyz.a 2 x 2a .  4 a3 85. 243x4729. ?> . 86.  .2.rty x2 4 123. 61. I 57. 43. 8x3 8x. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . Page 263. x2 a2 1 . . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. . 66. 23.3 x 2 + 3 x . 37.105. 1 a"* 4 an . 80. . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x . 131. 110. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.4 x y 87. a' 111.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 6a6c.1. . 2 30 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 8 .c 3 4. (a + ft)" 98. 32.1w 77. as 20.4. 2 x2 4.  3 x2 . a* 4.  + 3 x2 .4. a J . x2 5r*x ft 5 . . 50.2. 2 . 62. 1 121. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. + a 4. x 3 41.9 b. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 64. &p 84.ft).^a . x' 79. .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 0. 114. 0. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.3 aftc. 2 113.a6 2 4. 4ft y3.a*ft 2 126.a'2 c. 6 c 47. y 4 z* 0. 133.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.5 3n 4.4 2 4 c2 42 . . 40.x 51. 93. . +^ + ft W. 76.9 x .a' 'ft 4.7 x   15.18 ?/ 5x4. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.41. 12 x.  e +/.c.c. . 109. 82. 99. 4 fee 4. x 3 4.3 . ?/ 3. x2 2 . 36. ft2ft 4 4l. x2 471x4. 120. 3a~2c. 9x. 4 69. 4 115. * 60.3 a'ft. 3 a . 124. 132. 4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.3 103. . 10 a 12 b.4. 2 x'V2 90. . 5 4 4.x24 73. 46.  12 a.15 4 62 x  72. 9 2w 128. ^ . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.2 x^. . 49. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 26. 2 2/' . 4 . 5x + 2y~z. 1 + 4 xy.7. Page 260.2. 0.5 b + c .{ 54. 2 a. 94.6 am b\ 129.1. x 8  a8 . 4 Page 264. 107. 4.6 b. 2 x2 108. 39. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 52. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 127. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 24. . 3 a 44.. 118. c3 4 58.x4 + y'2 z 4. 1 x 45. 7 + 3 xf 2. x* .4. x8 x2 55. 25.y*. 14 x . 4. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 22. 105. m " + n + P3c . 6 a2 97. _55_7c 48. a* a 8 a aftc. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 5 42. 122.ac 44 aft. . 12 a/.fee 2 4.5 a 2x8 x 3 .x. 29. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 4 65. 31. df. 125.2 x 4. . 30. 3 a 5 a 5. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .3 b . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . ?/ . !! 71. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.1. 70. 88. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x } 4. x 2 . a 3m 4. . + 3 a?. 16. 63. .4 x?/2 3 4. 72.5x4. x 8 + x 4 68. x4 f + 23 . . 96.5. az 4.1.18 x?/0.4 x 2 . 2 . . 4 ! . a 4 . () 2 x 33. f5+7. 130. 3 c . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . . 10 4.
+ 22). (/ 246. + 3). 220.l)(a 2 +3). 10 ft. 240.2 )(x+y) 228.. 3(x . 1. (y_24)(y5). 218.1). fc'2a+62c). (ab + 8) ( 7). 199.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 148. (y  17)(y + (>). 1. . 2. 6).y2 ). Page 267. 144. (r^x + 1). (y7)(y + 188. m. 8(ar}(/)27). 187. yr. y  y 165. (7 c 2 ). 15  a. 211.3 y)(a . 181.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). a(a. (a} 59. 30 yr. (5 x .1). 147. 1. 184. 20. 197.3. 2^. 3. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 12) (j. 210. 15.2) (3 x . 186. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).r + 4). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 173. 212. 170. . ( jc // a 2 (a1). 190.l)(x8 + x2 . 183. (x^ + x1) 234.r . 22. 206. 214. 235. 168.2). + 3) (x f f>) . (233). 75. 153. 2. 10). 158. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 151. 161. 157. 239. 154.. 155. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 3. (a& 192.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 241.4xl). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 10. (2a + l)(a . 182. 32 h. 162. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 48 h. (x 227.  1.6 . Page 265.3). 247. a 2 (15. (. y 245. (x . 4. a. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. .m)(x + a)./_4). (c) 160 C. 224. 159. 177.l)(y + 1). 171. xxix 139. 172. 215. (x + 6)(x6). 143.2). 195. 137. 12 6 panes.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 208. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 15. 8 204. + 2) + 9a. (JT y 225.6) (2 x + 1).ANSWEKti 135. k. 1. 1. Or (a + 2)0el). 231. . 50. 36ft. 12. 30. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 149. Iff 145. 216. 30 + xyr. 10 in. 244. 142. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).. 175. (r7y)(ai. r>x 2 (4x. 179.2ac + 229. aft. (x + 2)(x . 2. 193. (6) 40. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 178. 23 18. +)(x2 x^+2. . p. 1. 2 (4 x . 140. 166. + 11) (a 10). 2 xy(3 x . x(x + 6) 213. 5. 217. (7x2//) 203. 12. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). as 194. 147 mi. 2 2 (a. 21. 201. 237. 12 yr. ?. (?/+l)(yl).9)(xf 2). 185. (y _ ft)(y 4.3) (2/3y). 222. z(x10)(xl). 238. 232. y3. 138. (xyX^+y" )1 243. (x  42 yr. (y 7f))(y 196. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). y. 163. 6.1(5) 200. ( + 2y)(2x3y). (2 198.y)(jc + 7 y).y) (\r3y). a + 2x2 ). 174. 207. Page 266. C3 y _l)(. 209. 10).2. 2. 1. (3x2?/)(2. 18. 37 1. HI. 164. 219. 156. 226. 202.1). . + 7)(rt4).y)(z . 4. 191. 160. 150. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 136. 40 yr. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). G7.y). 152. 12 yr. 218.I2y).y + 3)(r (. 180. 167. 2.6)(4 + 6).3 y). 189. 169. 24. (3x  . 6. 146. + y.. 205. 19. . 2(x8)(x3). (a 2 + 2a6. (8x + 3)(3x4). 176. ft. 1. 236. 230. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). p. 7. 20. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 233.
+ f. 254.   . (7 255. 3). 306. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 251. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 7. a.. 7 x 265. 307.^ ^^. 264. x 267. 305. 295.(x  4) (x4 304. 310. ?^ZLiZ 308. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 301. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o(x4l). 259. a~ ' b*). 250. 3). 263.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.1.2* i^^ !^.  3xyf x// 257. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. *>). 269. 2 4 300. 0. x 283. > 4. ^/>J. 43 '^rJ'. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. *.  7. 0. 303.4). o.4) 1) (3 x .^^^^^^^^. 249. ^ 299. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 256. 2 x  3. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 2. 268. x12. 4 5. 261. 279. 7^T 2 . 266. &). x . 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 3. x ?/ z 1. 260. 298. 3  262. 5. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. ? 1) 302. 258. 10.
)Cr4)__ . a 2 . 1. 336. ab. . 2(a i 403. ?=. 2 ?/ 363. Page 277. 401. . a + b + 6). 355. ^ 3 // . 379. A^L5L. x 54 359. 0. . 2 327. 13 391. 2. 1. a) A^_. . 3. ?/ + 3 332. 4. 325.vin a /r " 337. 343 00 351. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 396.XXXI Page 272. m. 382. ^"" 4 s . L .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 7/i ^ _ . 324. 326. 407. 1. + x 362. 1 i 2 ^. 395. ?>*. 4. l . 20. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 387. 6 ?/+:>. .(5 a . 334. 4 rw. 2. 377. 4 A.7.  1 356. 389.  1. <L 409. 3. 380. T+^. 386. 404. 390.. 361. (a + b + c\ . T\. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). _*L'L+. 9^. * 357. + 335. 1. 408. 366. 360. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. j 328. 329. 365. 376. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 339. 393. 7.H ' 2wi ^' /' .!. l'j. 3. . 333. 406. 370.". 2 ). 383.. 1. ^_:r f> 331. 0. c 402. 0. a +6. 375. 0. 397. Page 274. " 4 378. y 4 I 340. 12. S.J . 364. 405. 6a. 388. 2 r36 384. 399. 392. 2 ab  a Page 276. 394. 385.3. 400. 11. 2(q.1. 398. + 4 & 4 \ b. If. f.
. 468.  453. 2.489. . 21. a 22 . 445. 1. 0.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. <L+ 6 (. ^r?i 434.  10. 2. . 2 a 2. : />a. 6. 421. 465. + () 433. . 20 yr.0. c. 1 a /?$+&?.te + .5.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 478. i.m  m+ M in. 2. (c) not true. L (c) I. 435. 1. 7 : . not true.  7. 477. 5J. . 0. B $ 2500. . 84. 1. 481. 413.7. (d) true. 457. 508. 418. \ 1. 1.vz in. 3. 8.  7. Page283. ISJini. 50. 10. 6. 490.rz Page 279. 24 days.0. 0.  2f 504. c 6fc 10.1. 6. 2. .  f>. 484. a* 424. fc. 444. 2 438. 8. 429.. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 426. 436. 2. 446. 420. .7. 419. m 1 : wi. 450. 7. 439. 10. 467.  2. $2000 at 0%.. . 461.  505. 1. 423.2. m. 455. 464. 14 miles.12. 411. 456. 5. 18. z8 +?/ 3 431. 0. 422. 432. 40. 17. \. 10$. 452.  1.55.488. ft 5. . A $ 3500. 448. . 472. 7. 32 yr. 22. 33. 500. 506. 42. B 4 mi. .. (&) 443. 430. 3 . '. i a b 451. . 5. 495. 0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 483. I. 10. 2$. 6. 3. Page 278.4. 4. 2.3. 90. 17. 493. (d  6) f. 12.7. 10.  . 4. 442. 3a 4 5. 6. 459. ^V.}. 10. 2. . 507. 479. 497. 6. *+. 4. 5. 5. 51.  2. 63. 487.2. 440.. 410. 7. (a) 1. . 3. 499. ^. 485. 40 oz. 428. (a  c). (&) true. 447. * .7. L2 a  6 . Page 280. 427. a + + ft c. ISjmi. 496. 0.46. 1$. 2.}. 5. !L=4.. 10. 503.4. 4.  2. 482. 2. 492. Page 282. 476. 7. 9.  1. 480. 425. 460. 32. 494. 10. 412. . 0.7. 2. fj.3. 458. 454. b 449. 6. 486. 501. . 466. Page 281. 498. 5. 28 yr. & 491. />c c(f be. 502. 7. 11. 441. 8. 20. 53 yr. A 5 mi . ' $260 at 0%. 8. 463.. . . 462.
565.5.4. per hr. y 4. . a+ Page 286. 578. 4 mi. 574.56 sec. . 2$.75. 5. (i) 3. Page 287. Page 288. 526.1. 4.8 x3^.% rr\* 585. 3.10. tin. 1. 3 . 554.1. (d) 537. 1. 4.. T .  1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 564.  3.00. 2. (ft) Ill Ib. (6) . 3.  ft*. . S82 c. 3.78. 1 . 1 . 2.75. 4.  2. 4.6. If 572. 569._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.02.24. 1. 525. 550.4. J7] min. 3. 510.1.15. (6) 3.31. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 8.8. 1.1. 2. 24 da.62. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.30. (c) 3.r8 596. 1.25.52.0.21. 2 1. 1. (a) 74 Ib. 2 10.6. 1.3. 2. f. 2(4 602. ^ ft 4.33. 2 . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 518. 559. 577. Roots imaginary. . 512. 8 mi. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 3. 4* da. > ^ . 527.54. 7. 3. 27 y* f\4 .38. 591. 2. 31. 1. 40 Ib..  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . . 566. y% Z * 586. 515.  557. f36a28x8 592. 3.4. 528. 531. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. _ 3. 1. 2 1.6 2.53. ft 584. 2 imag. . x8 .0. . _ 4. 115 Ib.6.8. 3. .15.5.2. 551. or 8.20. 555. 529. 4.12. (e) (c) 2. 1.24 sec.  7. 5. o> . Page 285. 603. 4.ANSWERS Page 284. (ft) 4. 4 0.4.3. 1. . 516.3. 14. per hour. 2. 561.5. 536.05. 593. 3. + 26 + . (e) 570..6.16.5 f. 552.5+. 3.31. . 3 da. (gr) 10 1. . . 6435.02.7. 4. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 509. g(rc+ 6c). 582. 1. 576. 598.73. 583. . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.02.62.15.5.3.  + + c. lead.3.   (h) 8.04. 2. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 599. 1. 533. 579. 2 2.8. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 556.24. 571. a*8a + 24tf 82a.25m. 514. 563. 6. imag.4. 562. 24. . + 6 tf f 3 . f.83.3. 1. <z ft 1. .03. . 0. . 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 2 .  2ft da.  (a) 2. .0. 3.. .1. 1. 5. 7^ da.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 0000. .  4.  . 1.  J(a f + 2c).5.35. 1 580.02. 232. 1.54.8. da. .04. 5. f ? a f ft __ + c C). tin. . 3.83.88. + 12 x . xxxin 511.3.9. a + ft  a  f c. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.10.  imag. 568. 558. a f ft + c.03. 581. 560. 575. 21*_. 1J.14..  (a) (d) 1. 2(6 597. 532.7.37. 1. . 553. . 1 600.1. lead. 2. 530. 567.55. 1$. 513.37. 1. 3. (/)  10 to 8. _^ 2754x .3.78. 4.7. 3. 1. H. 4. .0.xj/ f xV .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 573. . (c) 4.f 1.51. 2. 1. 3f 4f.4.4 x + . 6. .
50. 7. 4 676. 5 3. 628. 78. 701. 638. 2 a 688. 1m*. ab 689. 1 V5 1. 7. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.04. ft). V"^TJ. 644. 690. 4. 649. 2.  3. a + b. 703. \.2f (5 4. a.c ) 697. 25. 696. 645. 4. 631.3f l 668. . 613. / V^+lO^M"^. + 2 A (i f Page 291.2f Page 290. 624. 2092. 13. 2 a  6*. 2. 629. i. 637. 0.b.25..303. + ~^'2 + a 1. . ^^ 695. if 4/> 671. 4. 971. 700. 706. 2f. fta a/> ^A. 657. 3. 25. 615. 2. 626. 623. 2. be ac \. ab. If b.001. 653.3. 662. o. l/'3. 0. (a3&45rj. 705. 2 x 44 ^/.002. 2 a: 4. 8 6 fo . 9. 2f. K 5 2 V2. 708. 5. 4 V 0. 10.3. If f 667. 5. /> 4. 608. 612. 009.43^4. 11. 2&). 640.  1. 617. 2. . .049. 622. 620.XX XIV 606. 677 680. 4$. ^.a~ {Z 663.  a2  a (ab). V2. 5. 632. . af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 618. 650.>A 610. 646. 698. If 658. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 3 x2 . b 664. 636. J^^. 670. ^ 1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 614. 641. 643. 1. z  1. 652.  13. V7. (*_ + a: 611. 12. 2 / 2 4. 2. . 1. 654. 666. 1 704. . 3 a. b .  2f r 659.702. .203. 625. 8. 0. 692. 2. . 634. 4330 da. 679. 0. 656. ^. 661. ' 674. 621.14 If 1. 8 f 3. 616.. 669. If 665.f 3 V^3). 6. c. V2. V^~3). n^l +^. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. a 4.0.3. 607. . 3 681. 1 2.  6. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .3. 1$ 639. 1. 655. 633. 627. 703. Page 289. 647. 635. la6 2. 683. 0. 651. 5002. a 2. 648. y  619.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 1 ~a . 898. 630. . 9*. 2.001. .b 686. a ' 2 + .  684. 0. 2. 2 ab + a  &. . 6 685. ix 2 . 1. \+ab 699. 7003.  ft.  4. a 1J.  . If . 3. 642. I}'/. 678< 682. 672. a 673. 14. fe + a. 1010. 11. . <T! . 702. 4. 210. ' fe 2 ). b. 660. If. 6. 5. 3.  4.y. 691.
746. ^ ?>. . 711. 717. 00. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 4 104 v/2. 3 VlT 795. + < 735.ANSWMHti Page 292. 13ft. i 2. 725. 8. 709.2. 3 720. 300. 732. 736. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. a 5 . . 726. 753. 777. 782 785. 790 2v 3v 2. 714. cr*lr*. 763. i^. x i f^' . 5. 710. Page 294.257.9.~ .4 .r. Hi a. 1 747. 740. 794. 727. 729.rJ w L 754. a db Va^T < 45da. 769. 24 4 . 751. . VT14V5. 3V72VO. 724. / 787. 767. 773. 15 shares. VV> L4V34. a 2 6^. 3V52V3. 2x3^ a. 758. 342V3. 29\/3. mn. VIO\/3. a". . 2\/53V2. 1^ _ 760. 739. 768. 721. 719.10. 789. ^7xy. 7  3V5. 8. 730. rt3 2 ^i^. 1. 33^2. j 742. 796. a:* . 30\/10 764. 39. "V313. 718. 793.. iv/Jj. 715. 733. x\y.. 731. v/7 / . 3. 1 [ + '> J. 59. 778.4 . 17ft. 2 V2 . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. Page 293..11. 3V72V3.9. 24V2. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 25.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.12 af V^ 4 744. 737. 756. 728.. + 6 2 tf'c. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.r+y> 759. a 2  x2 . 1 752. 24. 734. 3V7. 722. 792.V2. 776. J(v'lO2V 791. 755. 3^. ^ . fyaw&cu. 1 I . 712. 713.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.^. 47.1 . 723. 1. 5. .V/^ 741. v'll. 34. r. 750.^ 743. 738.8. T%. 32>/2. > 748. 1. 716. y  1. 749. 788.
a 42)(x . 892. a* 4. 820. 881.l)(x + 2). 858. 841. 2.5 b) 4 1). H.XXXVI 797. 1C. 4 . 832. . (x .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).  1. 1.y) 852.l)(x + 3)(2x43). ( 869. 4. 17.rae) (4 . 1. V 3. a2 ^E*!. 2 854. . 822. 5.1) . (2 4. 1. 4.r . 11. (xl)(^~3)(. 823. 840. 896. 5. 812. 857. 895.25 ?>2). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). (2x (r. db 7. 14. 886. 4. 851. 8. 890. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). a(ft)( 873. 4 885. 819. 898.1)(V 2 . 810. 893. 1. 7. 6. 884. . (x 2 . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2 j 889.l)(x . 4. 804. 808. +j!>. 11. 7.. ANSWERS 798. 3.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 848.3)(x + 4). 824. . 2 2 . 879. (1 . 3.7). 1.5) (x + * 853.  ' . . **. jV3 f 3. 829. 13. 4. 882. 844.2w . 867. 3 .. 838. 6. . 899. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 48. 7. 842. . J V. Va. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (a 1) (x 4. 17. (x . 3.a 3 " 4. 3.1). 2 . 897. 8 09. $. 0./>") (a'.1. 3. 876. 2. Hoots are extraneous. b' 2 821.1)(0 865. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 6. 3. (4 c 4. 2.+ m f ") (a* ).10 ab 4. (x + 0X024. 2 m . 859. 6+V7. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .3. 23.7)(4 x.a 4 + 1). .  tt 815. ) (a' 874. (2 a . \/2. 2. 3. (3 862. 843. ( 4 4. 7. (a 4 871. 5. 8. .  + l(l^). 2. 2.7.. 3. (2 x + 3 y} .0. \/5. 4. 3. ^. f. 5. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . o 828. (:r 11. 20). Page 296. ^VG. 849. $. x . 2. 836. ^ V}. 4. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 6(a6)(o a + + &).  839. ((' 1). 5. a(ry + 864. 4. 830. 868. 0. X4 1). . 2 (x 4*4. 837. (. 1 . 5).2 ax 4. 817. (a m . 814. n =  29.4) 860. 825. 800. 2/ 856.2) (x 4 2). + d)*. . 888. .7). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 834. are extraneous. 811. (x 2 f r .l)(x . 831. 816. 3. 861. 0. 1 1. 801. 887. (x3). 880. Hoots . x. Va 803. 872.3. 813. 2 . (x*y*ryz + z*). (x 845. 2 *x 807. 799. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 4.f.om 441) (a 855.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 891. 826.4. o. 2 . Page 297.1) (a 8 . 2.7 4 1) 846. 894. 847. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 900. (x 4. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 10. (3 b . . 4 818. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 827. m 875. 25.a 2 2 ). 833.r4). 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 19. m = 2. 4. 4. 883. 0. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 863. 6 $. 2  2. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 2.4. 2. 2 806. 835.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).
. 8. 60 949. 111. 280.651. 977. 981. V5 fj. Y. ft. 933. i(6 in. T3. 11. 2. ft. 108. 5. 934. 8. '3 3 in. ?/i 6.  1 . Page 300. 951. 28. . 73. f. 7. J. 3). 56. 7 or 30. 8. 920. .615.1 = 9. 938. 916. 950. 911. 943. 4. 9 in. 4. 982. 4. i 3.I. 5. 4. 963. 980. 3.. 927.V~~3). 7 ft. V^3). 918. 1). 11. 6. 100 rows. a + . 12. . 6.744. 3. 956. 932. 959. 922. . ft. 1 . 4.111.. 948. . 0. 8. T 6. 12 mi. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 917. 2. 4 . ft. 3. 0. 930. 5. 986. tt2 19. 5.. 333. 0. . . v/(ai !)(&910. 940. 1 + V953. 6 . 480 8 sq. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 2 i ' a V. 3 4 . .446. =F J. 909. Page 301. i1" 913.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 923. . 496.073. . ft. 11. 935. Page 303. 2. . 7. 958. 11.. 4. 1 2. 5 . 248. 28. yd. 985. 40 16 in. 6 a 915. 2. 15 946. 1 _2 . V5 T 2 . 903. 12. w 3. w.. 1. . . 904.760 sq. f ft 4 . . 3.  1.. Z ^. 7. 4. 936. 3. 955. 4.1. i>. 952. 983. T 6. 8.  26j. 937. 3. 978. 962.2. 941. 925. 6. 4 in. 0. .. dL 4. S07. 906. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 8 . 8128.0. 1. 984. 2. 931. 5l4f. 2. 6 1 1. J(_ ft. ft. 6 da. 66 924. 964. 4 6 mi. 10. 6. . Page 302. %* . 115. a. 7.. 80. 2. 957. 2. 979.. 947. 333. 908. 18. J. 2. 912.709. i 8. 2 1. 10. 329. . 4.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 8. 4. 954.1. ft. 3. 944. 5. r ft ' < Page 299. 3 . 28.. 919. 6. 960. ft. 2.2. 8. 20 19 ft. 945. 8. 1 1. . 6.01. 15 16 ft. 12 in. $(l 4. . Va926. 12.. 2 w 914./hr. 921. 2 ft.. ^y.. . 942. 939. 14 . 2 yd. 1. 987. 6. 902.. 961. 905.
378 1015. 992. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 12. 988. 2(2 v/2). 32 13 (tx 4V3.  5&7 1021. 4. ^f (2f3V2).128 I. 3003. 1(5. + 448 . . X. 108.870 z8 . ^Trsq.192rt?)r 120 *. 997. 1001. 1000. 162. 996. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1018. (a) (6) ^ 1002. () 12(2+V3). (J.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.92. ~ \.378 <W and 92. 1005. + v 2). in. 120 a. 2 . 72. Page 304. 48. 993. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1019. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .18.51. 1008. 990. 192. . 1009. 1007. 1 8 8 2. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .. 1006. 8. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 120 i^l^. 995. 1017. 0.. 1016. 4 and 1020. 1003. 24. (5. 0. 6 70 . .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 9 da. 1014. (Z>) 999. r = 2. 1 1004. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 12. 994. 991. Page 305.'^^ } ( . 1012. 1010. (6) 8(1 . 1013.870 a 6 1011.
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. A examples are taken from geometry. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.25 lamo. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. Half leather. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xiv+563 pages. comparatively few methods are heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. great many work. HEW TOSS . etc. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xi 4 373 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Half leather. The more important subjects tions. physics. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. i2mo. than by the . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and commercial life. Ph. so that the Logarithms.D. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.
etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Half leather. xiv+56a pages. Logarithms. Ph. physics. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xi f 373 pages. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.D. 12010. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. great many A examples are taken from geometry. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The author grade. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. so that the tions. HEW YOKE . there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1. HatF leather. and commercial life. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE.25 i2mo. comparatively few methods are given. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. In Factoring.
80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.D. izmo. . SEVENOAK. These are introduced from the beginning 3. $1. xii + 233 pages. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Half leather.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. i2mo. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5.r and. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Ph. under the heading Remarks". Attention is invited to the following important features I. $1. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Cloth.. SCHULTZE.10 L. iamo. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 9. State: . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . NEW YORK . 10. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . lines. more than 1200 in number in 2. 7 he . 6. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Cloth. aoo pages. wor. 4.
12mo. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . New York City. . .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. of these theoretical views. $1. 370 pages.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and not from the information that it imparts. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.
Maps. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. $1. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. diagrams. Topics. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Cloth. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. photographs. and a full index are provided. diagrams. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " This volume etc. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation.
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