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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACMILLAN
CO. OF TORONTO
CANADA,
LTD.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
BY
ARTHUR
SCJBULIi/TZE,
PH.D.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T, HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, NEW 1 ORK CUT
COPYRIGHT,
1910,
BY
May,
1910.
;
Reprinted
1913,'
February, January, 1911; July, IQJS January, 1915; May, September, 1916; August, 1917.
September, 1910
J. 8. Cushlng Co.
PREFACE
IN
this
is
made
in algebra,
with
all
While
in
many
respects
Elementary Algebra,"
this book,
owing
among
These
omitted.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible, in order to make every example a
social
however, not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized
rules,
and ingenuity
while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Typical in this respect is the
treatment of factoring in
many
textbooks
In this book
all
and which are applied in advanced work are given, but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition, shortcuts that solve only examples
real value,
specially
2.
manufactured for this purpose, etc., are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension
of
unsound are
omitted.
All
practical
teachers
vi
PREFACE
quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. Moreover, a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound ; e.g. all proofs for the sign age
of the product of
of the binomial
3.
two negative numbers, all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents, etc.
The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. For the more ambitious student, however, there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance
of
more
difficult
work.
differ
exceptions
all
the exer
cises in this
book
in the
"Elementary Alge
may
enable students
algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.
In regard
to
may
which
"Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to
the beginner, especially problems and factoring. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter
quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject, and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis
and
requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions
PREFACE
vii
and graphical methods into the first year's work, an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point
of view.
By studying proportions during the first year's work, the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most
needed,
viz. in
"
geometry
are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value,
but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of
memorized
rules.'
provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish
a shorter course
may omit
these chapters."
Applications taken from geometry, physics, and commercial are numerous, but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham
life
applications.
to solve a
It is
McKinley
than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are
genuine applications of algebra,
of the Mississippi or the height of Mt.
and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. Moreover, such examples, based upon statistical abstracts, are
frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform, and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote
is
viii
PREFACE
problems relating to physics often
offer
It is true that
a field
edge of physics, however, is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the
teacher of algebra.
The average
Hence the
field of
give as
many
The author
for
many
valuable suggestions.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
NEW
YORK,
April, 1910.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers
I
PAGB
1
1
....... ...
II
6
7
10
CHAPTER
Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials
Subtraction
15 15
10
........ ....
III
22 27
29
CHAPTER
MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication of Algebraic
Multiplication of
...
Numbers
Monomial
Monomials
31 31
Multiplication of a Polynomial by a
....
34
35
36
Multiplication of Polynomials
Special Cases in Multiplication
39
CHAPTER IV
DIVISION
Division of Monomials
46 46
47
48
61
CONTENTS
CHAPTER V
PAGE
Symbolical Expressions
Problems leading
.....,.
Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r
f
,63
55
67
to
Simple Equations
63
CHAPTER VI
FACTORING
76
I.
Type
Com77
.
78
The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms
of Factoring
....
/^
. . .
80 83
84
86
87
Summary
CHAPTER
Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple
Highest
VII
. .
89
89
91
CHAPTER
VIII
93 93 97
102
104
* ,
* .
Complex Fractions
105
CHAPTER IX
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
Fractional Equations
Literal Equations
......
.
108
108
112
.114
CONTENTS
XI
.........
CHAPTER XI
CHAPTER X
PAGE
120
120
121
Proportion
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution
Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than
....
Two Unknown
129
130
133 138
Quantities
....
140
143
CHAPTER
XII
....
.
148
164
Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities
168
160
CHAPTER
INVOLUTION
Involution of Monomials
XIII
165
165 166
Involution of Binomials
EVOLUTION
...
CHAPTER XIV
169
.
Evolution of Monomials
170
.
171
CHAPTER XV
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY
Pure Quadratic Equations
Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics
Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots
.
1*78
178
181
189
191
Form
193
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
.....
214
218
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
,
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
..
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
as illustrated in
the following
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
= 42,
and
3.
A problem
An
is
4.
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
by the
last
are employed. B
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
of two
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
9.
The sum
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
twice as
12.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
A, B, C, and
does
take, if
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2.
3.
why
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
answer
7.
8.
of
any other
practical examples
which
one?
7.
Many
greater
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
lit
4
to
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+4
45
+6
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
Thus, 5 added to
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
If in financial transactions
we
by
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
If north latitude
is
is
If south latitude
is
is
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
if
6,
and
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
how
7.
How
8.
9.
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
or
4x7 cannot be
14.
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
15.
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
is
is
the exponent of an
EXERCISE
1.
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
6.
42
10.
11.
.
(i)
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
9
.
.0001 2
4. 5.
52
83
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
13.
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
d=^
22.
a*.
20.
21.
10
.
(2 c)
ab.
26. 27.
at).
b2
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
is
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
A
17
numerical coefficient
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
When
stood ; thus a
under
INTRODUCTION
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
means 3
3
aa, while (3
=3ax
3 a.
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
numerical values of
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
is
The
[ ]
;
the parenthesis,
.
( )
the
bracket,
the brace,
10
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
They are used, as in arithmetic, to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole.
Each
10
is
of the forms 10
to be multiplied
x (4 f 1), 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5.
1],
10 x
4"+T indicates
that
(a
b) is
b."
EXERCISE
If a
1.
= 2, b = 3, c = 1, d
7. 8.
0,
Vff.
Val
\fi?.
13.
4(a
6(6
+ &).
+ c).
2
.
2.
3.
V36".
14.
V2a.
v'Ta.
\/c.
9.
4V3~6c.
15.
16.
(cfd)
4. 6.
10.
11.
5Vl6c.
aVc^.
[6c]
3
.
17.
6.
V^a6.
12.
ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS
24.
AND NUMERICAL
sym
SUBSTITUTIONS
An
bols representing
25.
some number
is
e.g.
6 a26
Vac
~*
f 9.
monomial or term
f
separated by a sign
(6
+ c + d}
is
or
Vx,
c f d).
26.
A polynomial is an
y,
term.
!^f\/03
3
ft,
+ M f c
4
f
d 4 are polynomials.
27.
A binomial is
62 ,
a2
and 
28.
A trinomial
V3
INTRODUCTION
29.
11
if it
is
treated as
were con
tained in a parenthesis, i.e. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. Otherwise
operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written
all
from
left to right.
__
E.g. 3
means 3
4
20 or 23.
Ex.
1.
28
+5
32
*^.
= 32 + 4527 = 50.
Ex.
2.
2 of 6 ab
If a = 5, b = 3, c = 2, d = 0,  9 aWc + f a b  19 a 6cd
3
2 3
6 aft 2  9 a& 2 c + f a 6  19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32  9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3  19 = 6. 5 99. 6 9 2 + I126 30 = 270  810 + 150 =  390. EXERCISE 8*

52
If
1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6.
+ 26+3 c. 3a + 56
a
2
.
5c6 2 +6ac3 a
3
17c3
hl2o;.
10.
'
f & f c
d
s
.
a 2 6. a2
11.
2
5c
+d
2
.
12.
5a2
2 a2
13.
14.
4
.
(a (a f b)
7.
8.
+12a(i
*15.
16.
a2
f
+ (a + 6)c 6+ a (2
2
2
.
).
 5 ax
50 a6cd.
4a6fVaV2^.
12
17
&
*
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
18
'
12 cr6
f
6 a6 2
6s, if
a = 2, 6 = 1. a = 2, 6 = 2.
26.
27.
23.
a =3,
6=2.
28.
29. 30.
24. 25.
6 = 4. = 3, 6 = 5. a
a=3,
a = 3, 6 = 3. a = 4, 6 = 5. a =4, 6 = 6. a = 3, 6 = 6. a = 4, 6 = 7.
6.
6,
Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.
Six
2
.
6,
35.
The quantity a
6
2 by the quantity a
minus
36.
Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.
37. 38.
representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic, geometry, physics, and other sciences.
30.
sible to state
Ex.
a, 6,
and
If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length), and the area of the
is
triangle
then
8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4 6  c) (a  6 f c) (6
+ c).
INTRODUCTION
E.g. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13, 14, 15 therefore feet, then a 13, b 14, and c
13
and
15
S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15)
= V421214.16
1
= 84,
i.e.
84 square
EXERCISE
1.
distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula
The
Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds, if v .16 centimeters per second. A train in 4 hours, if v = 30 miles per hour. b. c. An electric car in 40 seconds, if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. d. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes, if v
:
a.
2. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet, count the resistance of the atmosphere.) Assuming g
.
(a)
How
far does
seconds ?
(b)
stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J seconds. Find the height of the tree. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c)
second ?
3.
By
whose
(a) 3,
(b) 5,
(c) 4,
14
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
is
H
2
meters,
the area
etc.).
$ = 3.14
square meters,
square units (square inches, Find the area of a circle whose radius is
It
(b)
(a) 10 meters.
5.
2 inches.
(c)
5 miles.
fo
If
dollars at r
in
years, then
=p
%>
or
Find by means
(a)
(b)
6.
of this formula
The The
interest on interest
$800
for 4 years at
ty%.
3.14d (square units). (The number 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. This number cannot be expressed exactly, and the value given above is only an
surface
$=
8000 miles.
If the
(b) 1 inch.
(c)
10
feet.
feet,
then the
volume
V=
(a) 10 feet.
~
7n
cubic feet.
feet.
(c)
8000 miles.
denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale, the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula
= f(F32).
to Centigrade readings:
(b)
122 F.
32 F.
(c)
F.
CHAPTER
II
ADDITION OF MONOMIALS
31.
While
in arithmetic the
word sum
refers only to
the
result obtained
by adding positive numbers, in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative, or positive and negative numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4, but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In algebra, however, we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra
$4) =
Similarly, the fact that a loss of
loss of
+ $2.
of
$6 and a gain
$4
equals a
$2 may be
represented thus
loss
$4
( $6) + (
$4) = (
$10).
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results, we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general, or that
and
(+6) + (+4) = +
16
10.
16
32.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
These considerations lead to the following principle
:
If two numbers have the same sign, add their absolute values if they have opposite signs, subtract their absolute values and
;
The average
of two
numbers
is
is one half their sum, the one third their sum, and the sum of the numbers divided by n.
is 0.
of 2, 12,
is
3 J.
of 2, ' 3, 4, 5,
0, 10, is 2.
EXERCISE
Find the sum
of:
10
of:
20.
(17)
15
+ (14).
lf(2).
19.
+ (9). + 12.
23. 24.
21.
22.
(_
f cjc?, if :
a
a
= 2, = 5,
6
6
= 3, c = = 5, c =
4,
5,
d = 5. d = 0.
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
25.
AND PARENTHESES
d = l.
d=
3.
'
1?
26.
27.
= 22, = 13,
28.
29.
30.
31. 32.
33.
What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards, 7 yards, and 3 yards. }/ Add 2 a, 7 a, and 3 a. \\ Add 2 a, 7 a, and 3 a.
'
sets of
numbers:
13.
6,
'
37. 38.
2.
2, 3,
35.
36. 39.
 13.
13,
 3,
 7, and 4,  4,  5,
 7,
:
and
1.
and
8
F.,
F.,
40. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30, 32, 37,
:
48, 60, 09, 74, 72, 66, 55, 43, 34. 41. Find the average gain per year of a merchant, if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain, $3000 gain, $1000 loss, $7000 gain, $500 loss, and $4500 gain.
:
Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12, 10, 4, 1, 6, 10, 12, 10, 6, 0,  5, 11 (Centigrade).
42.
:
34.
6 ax^y and
7 ax'2 y, or
and
or 16
Va + b
and
2Vo"+~&,
similar.
18
35.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The sum
of 3
of
is
The sum
x 2 and
x2 .
sum of two such terms can only be them with the f sign.
The sum The sum
of a of a
Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and
a
is
is
f
a2
f (
6), or
6.
In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. Algebraic sum. b wider sense than in arithmetic. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only, in algebra it may be considered b. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and
The sum
of
a,
is
2 a&

4 ac2.
EXERCISE
Add:
1.
11
2 a +3a 4o
2.
ab
dn
6.
12
13
b sx
xY xY 7 #y
7.
f
7 a 2 frc
2 a2,
3a
,
2
,
f
4 a2,
,
5 a2
+ 6 af
10.
12
2 wp2  13 rap
25 rap 2, 7 rap2.
9(af6),
11.
2(af &),
5l
3(af6),
12(af b)
12.
13.
Vm
f ii,
5Vm + w,
12Vmfn,
14
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
Simplify
:
AND PARENTHESES
19
15.
17.
xyz
+ xyz
12 xyz
+ 13 xyz + 15 xyz. m
n
^
2
Add:
18.
ra
19.
+m
"""
20.
21.
a
a8
ZL
**,
n
x*
22.
23.
^24.
l^S
25.
2
1
26.
1
27.
i
xyz
co*
mn
mri
31.
32.
33.
"Vx + y
Vaj + y 2
2 Vi
+ + 2 Va; + / + 3 Va; + y.
2/
:
5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173.
4x9'
10x38
ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS
Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column, and to add each column.
37.
is
20
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
,
f 110WS:
26 aft 8
& c~15&c
12a&4l5a&c
20c2
flO&c
 6a&
7
6ca
a5c
4 be
6c
4
26
ca
c'
9a&
38.
Sum.
Numerical substitution
offers a
To check
c
assign
numerical values to
then
 3 a f 4
the
sum
any convenient
and
c, e.g.
f 5
f
But 7
= 10
;
is
correct.
NOTE. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g. the erroneous answer
equal
7.
to
show any
error,
It is
not
also
a406
4c would
In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter, it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers
39.
of that letter.
7 4.
of x.
6 a7
5
4
is
6c
aW
a.
EXERCISE
12
Add
1.
2a
3646
t
c,
s,
3a
2?
,
46
4z
c,
and
2
,
4a46
12 q
5
2
a;
2c.
4
2.
9 q 4 7
2
.
 3 s,
and
s.
2
,
3ar 22/2 4
3 / 2z
and
0^9 z
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
4.
</
AND PARENTHESES
2i
and
 15
5.
and
tf
^_.Ga 43x45.
2
and
9m 48m 4 7v/if 6, 56 w 7m  8 m 2m 12, m 4 6. 8. xy3xz + yz, 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz,4:xy xz 6yz, and  2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft  5 cr& + 7 6 9. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and
7.
3
2
?ft
?/z.
10a
2
.
^*
f
h
<l,
^2
1
e, e
a4
/,
3
?/
3
?
2
j
and a 2 4 a.
a.
11.
a
4ar
!
byb
8
c^c
8
,
and
/
3
?
12.
+ 50 + 62  5a^6
f 6)
 7^
2iB 8
+ 2y + 2
8
8
,
and and
13.
4(a
 (b + c)
1,
2
3(c f a),
2(6
+ c) + (c f a),
+ a + 1.  9(a + &)  12,
a2
2
14.
a4
6(a
a2
f
f
1,
a2
a,
and
v 15.
6)
5 (a
6)
+ 3,
7(a
+ 5)
4
and
6
4
a;
o^?/
4 y\
and
a;
4 ajy
17.
?/.
and 5 Vb
18.
19.
4 3
 VS 4 2 Vc,  Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc,  4 Va  10 Vc, 4 Vc. a 4 a  a, a 4 a  1,  a 4 a 4 1, and 1 4 a  a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy  3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and  3
5 Va
2
2 3
?/ ,
a)
3
rz ,
in
m n 4 3 mn
2
n8
and
22
21.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4
w + 3 m + 2 m,
5
3
f
?n
2m+2m
e,
8
,
 ra + m,
5
}
and
7 m.
22.
6
2
c,
6 f c
2
23.
16m 7/12my
3
,
1/
and 2
24.
m
3
5y
3
8
.
2
n + <w 2 ,4
2tn*
Sic
2
,
f3f
n2<w +n ,5< 3
2 s
4^4.3^* 2n
2
,
s
,
and
25.
4^ + 3t*n
l2aj
2
a,.
+ n*.
45a6
2
,
T8a;9aj
2,
and
+ 9 x + 12
26.
2fa
3
a +7a,
2
a3 a 4
3 af^, a s f3o
$ xy
and
5+a\
"27.
 11 xy + 12.
SM/Z + 2
a:?/
f
bxyz~lx,
12 xyz, and
3^2
SUBTRACTION
EXERCISE
1.
13
1,
If from the five negative units three negative units are taken, how
1,
1,
1,
1,
many
negative units
re
main ?
from
2.
What
is
when
is
taken
5?
Instead of subtracting in the preceding example, what to obtain the same result ?
total of the units f 1, f 1,
f
The sum
and
?
1, f 1,
+ 1,
1,
1,
1, is 2.
What
away
is
sum
if
two neg
away
4.
What
is
when
is
taken from
2?
When  3
taken from 2
same
result as the
6.
If
debts, does
he thereby become
richer or poorer ?
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
7.
AND PARENTHESES
23
subtraction of a negative
positive number.
State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a
40. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. In addition, two numbers are given, and their algebraic sum is required. In subtraction, the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is
The algebraic sum is given, the other number is required. called the minvend, the given number the subtrahend, and the
required number the difference. Therefore any example in subtraction
different
;
may
be stated in a
:
5 take form e.g. from What 3, may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Or in symbols, ab =
x,
if
x
Ex.
1.
+b
3.
a.
From
5 subtract
to
3 gives 5
is
evidently 8.
(3) = 8.
Ex.
2.
From
5 subtract
to
 3.
3 gives
3)
is
2.
(
6)
(
=  2.
Ex.
3.
From
5 subtract
+ 3.
41.
The
by the following
Principle.
To
add.
NOTE. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc, ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of
;
24
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
we change the
subtract 2 x
sign of each term
Ex.
From _6ar3
3z + 7
2
 3 x*  5 x + 8. Check, If x = l = 2
t
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
41. 42.
AND PARENTHESES
from
14 a
25
m and 7 m
c
10m.
f 12 b f
From 10 a
12 &
f
subtract
c,
and
3
7/ ,
From
From
$ a
3
7 x 2 ?/
a/ + ?/ subtract
f
ar f
7 a 2 ?/  5 #?/
2
2 aa
7a
2
?/
2 subtract a3
take 11 a
2 :c
+ 2 a  7 a  2.
6 6
2
2
?/
.
45.
46.
47. 48. 49.
50. 51.
8d
11 cf 17
d.
take 2
8 o#
+ qt
c
mt subtract
a2
f
mn f wp f w>t.
c f d.
From a3
From
6a
1 subtract
f
+
b
3
1.
96
subtract 10 b
2
From
From
1 f & take 1 f b
f
&
s
.
a;
+3x
f &
f
12 take 3
f
ar f
4 x + 11.
52.
53.
From
2 a
take a
&
j c.
54.
1.
?/
#?/
2 y2 .
55.
56.
57.
From 5 a 2
2 ab
?/'
subtract 2 a 2
+ 2ab
.
2y
2
.
58.
4v
From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4  4 a*& + 6 a &  4 a^ 4 & 4 subtract a
2
+4
6 a&
59.
+ 4 a&
f 6
4
.
From
+ c)
4(c
+ a)
subtract
7(af&)
REVIEW EXERCISES
1.
From
From
x2
the
sum
sum
7.
of
4 b h c
and
& f c
subtract
_ 6 _ 2 c.
2.
tract 4
x
3.
+
a
the 2 a;
of x2
4x
f
12 and 3 a2
3 #
3 sub
From a3 +
2 a2
}
a2
2a
and a 2
+ 4.
26
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
From
the difference between a?
a?
3
j
+5
a:
+ 58+1
+
cc
and 4
a?
+4x
5.
subtract
+ 1.
sum
of
Subtract the
x2 + 2 and
6 a
iE
from x3
+ a^
4
6.
Subtract the
sum
of 5 a2
+
2
7 and
2a2 + 3a
and
from 2 a2 + 2 a
7.
2.
Subtract the
sum
s
of 6
m +5 m +6m
8
4m*
m +4m
2
from 2 ra
+ 7 m.
of #
2
8.
9.
Subtract the
sum
+ f and
+ 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2
2
ar*
*/
4 6
2 c add the
To
the
3
sum
a3
4
a2
3
between 5 a
12.
+4
and 4 a
+1 +a
2
and a2
a.
+a
duce
13.
be added to 7 a 3
+4a
2 to pro
3a + 56
cto
pro
duce
14.
~2a6 + 2c?
expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce
a+6?
v
,15.
What must
be added to
b
4^ + 4^ + 2
z,
to produce
find
:
0?
= x +g
=x
18. 19.
16.
6.
6.
2y + z, + 6 + c.
6
17.
c.
20.
m
21.
How
+b
How
old was he a
b years
ago?
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
AND PARENTHESES
27
SIGNS OF AGGREGATION
43.
tractions
additions
and sub
+ d) = a + b
+ d.
Hence
the
it is
sign
may
obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol:
lowing principles
44. I. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
II.
moved
may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is
E.g.
changed.
a+(bc) = a +b  c.
6
o+(
+ c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4 b c = a a
&
f
f c.
& f
c.
45.
is
understood.
(b
c)
=a
6 4
c.
46. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation, one occurring within the other, we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. The beginner will find it most convenient
at every step to
= 4a
sss
7a
12
06
6.
66
2&a + 6
4a
Answer.
28
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 15*
x + (2yz).
6.
(a + 6).
6)
2.
3.
a(3b
a3
3
2 2
2c).
3
3
7.
8. 9.
a f (a a
 (a + 6).
4.
5.
10.
2
2a;y
(60;
11.
2a
13. 14.
(m
a2
f 7i
h jp)
(m
?*,)
5
15.
16.
m+n
+ [#
(6
(m
(r
+ M> + w
n p) ___
(
m~n\p.
m f
ft)
a;)].
17.
18.
a
a
c)
+ [3 a
{3c
(c
26
a)}
6a].
19.
[36+
(a
2c].
21.
6)+
{a
[a:
22.
By removing
Signs of aggregation
1.
may
be inserted according to
43.
In the following expression inclose the second and third, the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses,:
Ex.
Ex.
2.
last three
the
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
EXERCISE
AND PARENTHESES
16
29
In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis
:
1.
a\l>
>
d.
3.
5 a2
2.
2mn + 2q3t.
m
x
2
4.
4 xy
7 x* 49 x + 2.  2 tf  4 y*  1.
terms
5.
In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign
:
5^2
_ r  7fa. )X
6.
+ d.
7.
p + q + rs.
EXERCISES
IN"
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
17
:
EXERCISE
Write the following expressions
I.
The sum^)f
and
n.
2.
first,
The
difference of a
and
6.
'
The sum
of tKe squares of a
and
b.
4.
5.
The The
and
n.
6.
The sum
and
6.
7.
8. 9.
and
n.
of the cubes of
m and
n.
10.
Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n.
m and n.
II.
12.
13.
The square of the difference of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference
of
m and n.
Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
6 diminished
30
14.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The sum
x. 6.
dif
of the squares of
a and
b increased
by the
square root of
15. 16.
The sum
of the cubes of a,
d.
b,
and
divided by the
ference of a and
V 17.
18.
The sum
The
of a
and
b multiplied
and
b divided
by the
difference of
a and
6,
uct of a and
s
19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers.)
CHAPTER
III
MULTIPLICATION
In the annexed diagram of a balance, let us consider the and JB, and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights, applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
1. 2.
3.
4.
By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at B ?
If the
addition of five 3
plication example.
5.
two loads balance, what force is produced by the Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance,
what
What,
force is produced
therefore, is
by
A?
X 3?
6. If the two loads balance, what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What, therefore, is 5 x ( 3) ?
7.
If the
is
produced by tak(
B ? What therefore is
5)
x(
3) ?
32
8.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
11,
( 9) x
11, 9 x
(
11),
(
9)
x (
11) ?
two
fac
48. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition; 4 multi44444 12, thus, 4 multiplied by 3, or plied by 3, or
4x3 =
(_4) X
The preceding
3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.
however, becomes meaningless
if
definition,
the multiplier is a negative number. To take a number 7 times. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun
tion
Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative, and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Practical examples^
it
however, such as given in the preceding exercise, make venient to accept the following definition
:
con
49.
Multiplication
by a negative
integer is a repeated
sub
traction.
Thus,
x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12,
(
( 4) x
braic laws for negative
12.
NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers, a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.
illus
4x3 = 412.
4x(3)=12.
MULTIPLICATION
50.
33
We
shall
assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers, and obtain thus
product of two numbers with
like signs in signs is negative.
etc.
Law
Thus,
of Signs:
TJie
=+
a&;
EXERCISE
19
:
2.
3.
4.
5. 6.
is
6x7.
(2)x9. (4)X(15).
about
fac
(2)X
If
6.
NOTE.
tors
is
no misunderstanding
frequently omitted.
7. 8. 9.
5x3. 4  7.
.
13.
14.
(2) 8 ( 3)
(1)
7
2
.
_3.(4J).
15. 16.
17.
(4)'.
.
(10)
4
.
6.2f
18.
If a
cal
=
4a6c.
2, b
= 3, c =
25.
1,
x=
0,
and y
= 4,
29.
30.
values of:
21.
aW.
8 4
 (a&c)
2
2
.
22.
23. 24.
3 a2?/2
26.
27.
x.
2a6
2a
6c.
z s
11 aWcx.
8
31. 32.
Ua b
28.
(c#)
4 a2  2
f+x
2
.
34
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of 8
a8
a=2,
a=
1,
&
= 3. 4. 6 =
 1 2 a 6 f 6 aW  6 if 35. a = 2, 5 = 2. 36. a = 3, 6 = 1.
2
MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS
51.
By
3
definition,
a
23
=2
Hence 2 x 2
general, if
=2
a
a
to

2 2
x2
2 2, 2 2 2
.

and
2
25
8
,
= 2 2 2
23 + 5
.
2.
=2
a
*.<?.,
Or
in
m and
integers,
am
Xa
= (a =aa
is
(a
to
factors)
(m
fl
fl
/w
+w
This
52.
known
as
of Multiplication
:
The exponent of
is
the
equal to the
8
(ft
sum
oj
Ex.
1.
7)
(a
a8 )
&*)
d*.
53. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number, only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. Ex. 2. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2
.
.
Ex. 3. 4 x (2
25)
=8
25, or 2
100,
i.e.,
200.
EXERCISE
20
:
m*.m
a
3

4
.
3.
2 2
6
.
5.
5
3
6"
127 U
.
a
2
2
.
4.
9
.
4
.
6.
127

127 9
7
.
(a6) (a5)
9.
(a)
(^
+
14
8
2/)
(a?
2/)
(aj
.
2/).
10.
78
.(7).7.
11.
12
U U .(12) .12
3a7abc.
4 (2 257).
14.
2(7.35),
50(112.3).
16.
17.
5(711.2).
2(14.503),
IB.
M UL TIPLICA TION
18.
19.
35
4
7(6 f
2).
27. 28.
29.
.
20.
21.
19
'
mV
2
ft
2 ran4
30.
aft
3
(
ftc
(
2
2ac).
22.
23.
 5 xy 19 aW
lla
(
3
3 tfy 2z*.
31.
4
9 afy
2 a3 ?/ ).
.
( 2
3
aft
).
2
32.
( 4
(2
a 2 ft 3) 2
3
.
24.
25.
c(4a ftc ).
)
33.
34. 35.
5
2
aft
(6
e
8
C a 2ftc).
/).
ax /) 2 4 1 ( 3 win )
26.
6 e/ a
(
(
2 a2 ) 3
If
results
ft,
= (a + 26)+(a + 2
ft)
f (a 4
ft)
+ (a + 2
ft)
55. This principle, called the distributive law, is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier, but we shall assume it for any number.
Thus we have
in general
a(b
56.
tet^m
f c)
= ab
+ac.
 3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be 
1)
=
18 a 4 6 2 c
 6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.
EXERCISE
21
Find the numerical values of the following expressions, by first multiplying, and then adding
:
1.
2(5fl5f25).
3.
2.
6(10420430).
4.
7.
3(124342). 2(645410).
5.
6.
12( + 1
4 i).
17(10041042). 23(10004100420).
36
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
5(5
52
+
2 2
5 7 ).
3
).
11.
12.
4 13 (4 9
4
4).
9.
6 (6
+6 +6
10.
7 3 (7 3 f7
+7
10
).
m(mhn \p).
2
2
16.
2
4 %Pq\
14.
~2mn(m +n p ).
19.
17.
5 x\5
pqr + 5 pr 5 x2  5 x
7).
5).
aW(
3
2
aW + 3 a
2
2
?/
6 c
 6 a6).
20.
21. 22.
23.
7 a 6
 3 aftc).
:
expression must
24.
By what
25.
26.
be multiplied to give
27. 28.
29.
30.
or*
f
x* f
arty
3 a4
ofy
2
+8
2
4 a; .
 60 a&
10
aft.
xy.
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
57.
Any
it
closing
+y
(a
polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z,we b) (x
law.
 6) (x f y
z)
= x(a = (ax
b)
+ y(a
b)
z(a
(az
b)
bx) f (ay
by)
bz)
by
az
+ bz.
37
58. To multiply two polynomials, multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.
The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns, as illustrated in the following example
:
Ex.1. Multiply 2 a  3
by a
b.
2a3b a66 2 a  3 ab
2
2 a2
10 ab
13 ab
+ 15 6 2 + 15 6 2
Product.
59. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter, the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.
Ex.
2.
Multiply 2
+ a a 3 a
3
by 2 a
:
a2 + l.
Check.
If
 3 a 2 + a8
a
a = =
I
1
=2
f
a
4 4.a
 3 a 2 + a8  2 a2 6 a8
2 a*
*
2"
a2
7
60.
a2
+ a8 + 3  a6 4 a 8 + 5 a*  a6
=2
by numerical
Examples
substitution, 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since all powers of 1 are 1, this method
tests only the values of the coefficients
the exponents. Since errors, however, are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else, the student should
38
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 22*
(2s
3y)(3a?
+ 2y).
36).
17. 18.
(2 x*
x
2
 4) (x + 1).
l)(raf 2).
2.
3.
(4af 76)(2tt
(4ra
fra
(5c2d)(2c3d).
(2w
19.
4.
5.
6.
3n)(7m
f6<7)(5^)
+ 8n).
3<7).
20.
(6p
(2
f
21. 22.
5c)(2a6c).
7.
8.
(9m2n)(4m + 7tt).
(ajf6y)(aj
23.
24.
(a
al)(2a?fl).
7y).
9.
(6i7n)(llJn).
(13
A;
25.
26.
10.
2) (3 A: 1).
4 2).
11.
(6xy + 2z)(2xy
27.
28.
29.
12.
13.
(8r7*)(6r39.
(llr + l)(12r
(rcya
(2m
(a (4 a
 1  2m)(l m).
2
.
1).
36)
I)
12)(a?^2l).
30.
2
.
(a&c
2
+ 7)(2a&c3).
31.
32.
(6a~7)
2
.
(a 2a
+ 2)(a3).
(4a
2
33.
(6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).
^
2
.
35.
36.
(m?n?p
(x
(a
//)4 lA/
//j.2 ^/
'
37.
OQ OO.
QQ O7.
40. 41.
(mfn)(m4 n)(m
8
n)(m
n).
(a^26)
39
The product
of
The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term, plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term, plus the product
62.
in
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
23
2.
3.
15.
(a
9) (a + 9).
ft
_3)(a _4).
4.
6.
+ 3) (a 7).
2 ).
(!)(* 5).
(p12)(p + ll).
(wi
2^*12)(ajy
6. 7.
8. 9.
20.
21.
22.
(a
7)
(a
8).
+ 9)(m+9).
(100
(6
(10+
(1000
(2,25)(y+4).
(J
23. 24.
25.
26. 27.
10.
11.
+ 60)(f2).
(1001) (100
(1000
+ 2).
(* !!)(
(a
+ 21).
12.
13.
14.
 2 6) (a f 6). 2 6) (a 3 6). (a
102 x 103.
1005x1004.
99
(a
2 6) (a
6).
28.
102.
2 a?
29.
3x
+ 2.
40
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of each, of the following expres
ar'Sz +
a
2
G.
34.
35.
31.
32.
33.
+ 6 a + 8. 7 a + 10. w 2 ro  15.
a2
2
w + 2 w  15. m2_ 3m _ 4
2
36. 37.
n2
10ii+16.
p 30.
63.
Some
II.
III.
Expressed
is equal to tlie square I. 77ie square of the of the first, plus twice the product of the first and the second, plus
the square
II.
of the second.
square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst, minus twice the product of the first and the
71ie
the difference
of two numbers
equal
of their squares.
(II) is only a
x3
2
i/
2 is )'
first, i.e.
,
16 y* t plus twice
49
y*.
and the second, i.e. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f 66 s; 8j/ 2 + 49 y4
first
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
24
(a
2.
3.
+ 6) (a + 2)
a)
2
.
4.
.
(a2)
(p
a
.
7.
8.
<J>7)
J
.
5.
6.
+ 3)
2
.
(a26)
2
.
(a
(*5)
2
.
9.
(x+3i/)
2
.
MULTIPLICATION
10.
41
16.
17.
11.
12.
(2x3yy. 2 (4a36)
2
13.
14.
G> +5g)*.
(2a6c)
(2a#
(4 a 6
2 2
.
2
.
(3p 9)
(6a
2
2
.
+ 3z)
2
2
.
(a
3)
2 2
2
.
15.
2
.
7& )
25.
2 2
.
18.
2
5c )
2 2
19.
(6afy
5)
(a;
2
11 # )
2
(m f
2
tt
n)(ra
w )
26
(^
(2m + 3)(2m3).
(
27.
28.
29.
2
+ 11 2 (5 r
2
2/
)
2
)
2
2 (5 r f 2 2
.
).
7)(a
2
f 7).
2 2
(5
(a
r*2t )
2
5
(cd
5)(c d
2
.
+ 5).
).
(^.ll^X^+lly
(100
30.
.
).
32.
33.
+ 1) (100 + 2)
2
.
34.
35.
104 2
37.
991
2
2
.
(1000
2
.
I)
2
.
38.
(20
f
1)
103
36. ,998
39.
22
2
.
40.
(100
+ 2) (100 2).
45.
41.
99x101.
42.
998x1002.
:
44.
2mhl.
47.
n*6n+9.
a 2 8a6+166 2
.
46. 49.
n 2 f4n+4.
48.
a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\
y?f.
51.
2
.
a2 9.
52.
16.
4
53.
62
25n
2
.
9a 496
2
56.
25 a
9.
16aW25.
The product
of
57.
9 a2
 30 ab + 25 6
64.
are similar.
By
actual multiplication,
we have
3x 5x
2y
4y
2xySy*
42
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of the result is obtained
product of 5 x
follows:
by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products, and are represented as
2 y and 4y 3 x.
or
Wxy12xy
Hence in general, the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two
terms, plus the
last terms.
sum of the
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
25
2.
3.
8. 9.
5).
2
(2x y
(6
+ z )(ary + 2z ).
2
(2m3)(3m + 2).
(5a4)(4al). (4s + y)(32y).
(5a64)(5a&3).
2
10.
11.
4.
5.
((5a?
(10
6.
7.
(x
i
2
ft
x 2 3 6 s). ) (2
of a polynomial.
2
2
65.
The square
2
(a 4 &
+ c) = a + tf + c
,f
2 a&
f
2 ac
+ 2 &c.
7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.
that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive,
or
M UL TIPLICA TION
EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
:
43
26
(mf
n+p)
2
2
.
6. 7.
8.
2
2. 3. 4.
5.
(xy+z)*.
(a
(.r
_
2
.
+ 65)
(2a36 + 5c)
(3
(,i2&c)
2
.
9.
4y
sf n)
2
.
(u4& +
3c'.
of
z
:
10.
s?
2
+
n2
2
"f
jp
f 2
mn
2 ?wp
2 np.
66. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. Hence, after multiplying the factors of a term, the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.
Ex.
Simplify (x + 6) (a
 4)  (x  3) (x  5).
Check.
If
1,
4) =
20
a;
a;
=  29.
EXERCISE
27
:
6(a
2.
3.
4(* + 2)5(3).
4.
4(aj2)h3(7).
n).
8
2(m
3(6
3
n)
2
3(m + n)H (m
2
6.
+ 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).
7. 8.
(a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
(a
faf
1)
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
hence
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
of signs
is
multiplication
70.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
for a 3
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
a monomial whose
and whose
literal
found
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
23.
25. 26.
(18
(
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
f
13.
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
25 2 )^2
<?
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b
12
aW + 9 a
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
 23 ofy
3
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
4 a
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
+ 3, we
8 a2
16 a
12,
no remainder. Hence 3 a
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)
12
2 a2 8 a
4 a 4
_
12
+3
8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
letter in
77.
Checks.
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
11
3 a2
a'
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
2 l by 26 3a& + a
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
a2
a*
8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8
+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
1,
&
1,
example since
larger
Hence we have
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
j
(5
f
6)
DIVISION
14.
51
15.
16.
v/17.
18.
&
f
f
5
1) .
(a?
s
8)
4
*(
2).
19. 20.
(aj
3aj2)^(oj2).
(81
m + 1  18 m
f
(1
m f 9 m
).
Since
=a
a
2
,
a
I.e.
f b
the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.
EXERCISE
Write by inspection the quotient
31
of
x
1
c
2
'
^.
+ 3*
'
v7
169 a<6 2
'
 81 c8
f
'
ISVftQc 8
64
'
a2 166 2
'
a?
10
1
52
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of
the following
w
a
!.
f
13.
36 a4 ?/ 4
 49.
9&
2
.
10.
b.
1.
16
.
121a
a
16
100
11.
,
aW
12
a;
100ry.
12.
r/
1,000,0001.
CHAPTER V
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
79.
The
first
member
is
that part
The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of
equality.
Thus, in the equation 2 x 0. second member is x
9,
the
first
member
is
2 x
4,
the
which
is
a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus, (a + ft) (a b) and b. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write
;
(rt+6)(aft)
b'
2
.
81. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. An equation of condition is usually called an equation.
.r
f9
= 20
is
true only
when
a;
=11;
hence
it
is
an equation
of
condition.
A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members, is said to satisfy an equation.
82.
in
Thus x
13.
20,
7 satisfy
the equation x
13.
83.
ber
An
known numbers.
54
84.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
value of the
an equation contains only one unknown quantity, an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is
+2=
is
20.
85.
To
solve
an equation
86.
A numerical
equation is one in
which
all
;
the
known quan
x) (x f 4)
tities are
 2. 87. A
2
a;
;
as (7
equation
is
known
quantities as x f a letters
88.
= bx
linear equation or
to its simplest
= 6#f7.
fol
The process
If equals be added
to equals, the
sums are
equal.
2.
equal.
3.
4.
5.
Like powers or
like roots
NOTE.
Axiom
is
not true
if
0x4
= 0x5,
90.
5.
Transposition of terms.
a.
(Axiom
2)
right
member by changing
its
sign.
55
x
members,
if
a x
= b.
b
Adding a
to both
+ a.
(Axiom
1)
the same as
the right
91. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.
may
be
changed
x\1,
a=
a
6fc.
b
c.
(Axiom
3)
92.
Ex.
Qx
6# = 4x + l + 6. 4x 1 + 6. 2 x = 6. x = 3. (Axiom
4)
When x =
3.
To
unknown terms
to the first
member, and the known terms to the second. Unite similar terms, and divide both members by the coefficient of the
quantity.
y) (5 y)
unknown
= 2 (11
3 y)
+ #*.
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing by
Check.
 8, f If y
20  9 y + y2 = 22  6 y f y\  9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 3 y  2 y= f
.
The first member, (4y)(6 y) = C4 + })(5f The second member, 2(11  3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 +
i)^ V=
2)
1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$
JI
56
Ex.
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Solve the equation  (x
4)
= \ (x + 3).
f
Simplifying,
\x
x
2^xfl.
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing by
Cfcecfc.
J,
=2 = 3. x = 18.
x
x
If
= 18.
{(x
(x
The The
 4) = + 3) =
x 14 x 21
= 7. = 7.
= 3,
it
NOTE. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.
BXEECISB 32*
Solve the following equations by using the axioms only
1.
:
5# = 15+2a;.
7a?
5. 6.
7.
2.
3.
3
7
a;
4.
a;
= 5a?+18. = 60 7 = 16 + 5
:
Xx 7 = 14. 4a + 5 = 29.
17
7
a;
a?
a?.
a?.
8.
+ 16 = 16 + 17. 3 = 17 3
a?
a?.
Solve the
following
equations
by transposing,
etc.,
and
4y
10.
11.
 17 + 4y = 36. = 2 ?/ 7. 12. 9 9a? = 7 13. 13 y 99 = 7 y 69. 13a? 3a?. 14. 32 = 264. 247y = 68lly. 15. 17 + 5a;7a: = 394a; + 22. 50. 16. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 14y = 59(24y + 21).
11
?/
a?
18.
19.
20. 21.
22.
87
9(5 x 3)
6(3
a?
= 63.
a;
v23. 7 (6 x
16).
24.
3)= 9(3
a;
57
734* = 13*~2(5*12).
6(6a;5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.
7(7 x
y
26. 27.
+ 1) 8(75
a?)
+24 = 12 (4  5) + 199.
a?
28.
29.
30.
31.
.32.
5)
(as
(a;
 1) (a
(a?
+ 3) =  5) =
(a;
(a;
+ 7)
(.7;
 3) + 14.
33.
34.
35.
36.
(aj
37.
38.
.
39. 40.
41.
42.
 12) (2 + 5)  (2 + 6) (4  1 0) = 0.  7) (7 x + 4)  (14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.  3) +  4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.  2) (M  3)  5(2 u  1) (u  4) + 4 w  14 = 0. (6 u =5 44.  +6= aj
(4
t
t
t
(5 x
(a?
(a?
Jaj.
a?
43.
SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS
94.
a?,
and
let it
be required to
If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. this question, he should first attack a similar problem stated
in arithmetical
numbers
is
only,
e.g.
One part
is
of 70 is 25
find
Evidently 45, or 70
a?,
Hence
if
one part
70
x.
WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols, he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only, and apply the method thus found to the
algebraic problem.
58
Ex.
1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
What must
be added to a to produce a sum b ?
:
What must
be added to 7 to pro
to a to give
5.
Ex.
If 7
2.
f
$> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars, one yard will cost 
Hence
if
f
100
dollars.
EXERCISE
1.
33
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 6.
9.
10.
By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7, and the smaller one
parts, so that
of c ?
is
p.
a.
Divide a into two parts, so that one part Divide a into two parts, so that one part
The
difference between
is s.
two numbers
Find the greater one. 15. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. greater one is g.
smaller one
16.
17.
is
a?
2
is
c?,
What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient
59
What must
The
Find
numbers
is x.
Find
21.
is
A A
is
# years
old,
and
is
y years old.
older than
is
B?
old.
22.
y years
How
How
sum
If A's age is x years, and B's age is y years, find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find the sum of their ages
5 years ago.
24.
has ra dollars, and B has n dollars. amount each will then have.
If
gave
25.
26.
How many
A has
dollars, b dimes,
and
c cents.
How many
cents
has he ?
27.
A man
had a
dollars,
and spent
5 cents.
How many
How many
2 feet longer
29.
floor of
a room that
is
and 3
30.
and 4
floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28.
?/
31. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field.
32. 33.
34.
feet wide.
Find
35.
is
is
is is
x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ?
the cost of 1 apple
if
60
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
wil\
36. If a man walks 3 miles per hour, how many miles he walk in n hours ?
37.
If a
man walks
?
how many
how many
miles will
he walk in n hours
miles does
will
If a man walks r miles per hour, in how many hours he walk n miles ?
40.
How many
x years ago
move
in
hours at the
was 20 years
old.
How
old
is
he
now ?
by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ?
42.
cistern
is
filled
43.
alone
fills it
by two pipes. The first pipe x minutes, and the second pipe alone fills it in
filled
y minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ?
44.
per
Find 5 Find 6
45.
48.
Find
a;
% % %
of 100
of
x.
a.
46. Find a
47.
Find x
% %
of 1000.
of 4.
of m.
49.
The numerator
If
by
3.
m is the
.50.
The two
digits of a
number
are x and
y.
Find the
number.
To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9," we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ), and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=)
95.
as
a exceeds
by as much
as c exceeds 9.
c
9.
61
and
b increased
}
a2
i<5
b'
'
80.
=
2
2
a3
(a
80.
8
b ) + 80 = a
;
80.
cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols.
In
many
word
There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words, thus:
= c may
be expressed as follows
difference between a
The
and
b is
c.
c.
c.
The
excess of a over b
is c, etc.
EXERCISE
The The double The sum
One
34
:
double of a
is
10.
c.
of x increased by 10 equals
x.
of a and 10 equals 2
c.
4.
5.
third of x equals
difference of x
The
a.
6.
The double
as
7.
by one third of b equals 100. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as
d exceeds
9.
of a increased
much
8.
The product
of the
is
diminished by 90 b divided by 7.
9.
equal to the
same
result as 7
subtracted from
62
10.
11.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Nine
is
as
much below a
13. 14.
as 17
is
is
above
a.
#is5%of450.
x
is
100
x%
is
of 700.
a.
12. 16.
of m.
50
is
x % of
15.
m is x %
of n.
is
3x
:
10,
a;
symbols
B.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Five years ago A was x years old. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.
>.,*(/)
(g)
(Ji)
Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. In 10 years the sum of A's, B's, and C's ages will be 100.
a;
17.
4
700, and
(a)
(6)
A
If
gains
$20 and B
loses
amounts.
(c)
If each
man
sum
and C's
money
(d)
(e)
will be $ 12,000.
A
If
and
B together have $ 200 less than C. pays to C $100, they have equal amounts.
18.
5x
A sum of money consists of x dollars, a second sum. of 30 dollars, a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. Express as
:
% a%
of the second
(d)
x c of / a % of
4
sum equals $ 90. sum equals $20. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by
first
(e)
of the
third
sum
equals $8000.
first
00
x % of the
63
number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact, the
;
Ex.
1.
much
Let x = the number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Three times a certain no. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. = x x
3x
40
3x
40
Or,
3z40:r:40z.
Transposing,
Uniting,
3 x or 60 exceeds 40
number.
Check.
by 20
40 exceeds 20 by 20.
Ex. 2. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Find A's present age.
Let x
The
(2)
(1) In 15 years
will
may be expressed in symbols (2). be three times as old as he was 5 years ago.
3
16
=
x
(x
p)
Or,
Simplifying,
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
Check.
In 15 years
10.
be 30
but
30
=3
years,
NOTE. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars, number of
yards, etc.
64
Ex.
Let x
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
56
is
of 120 ?
= number
W
or,
Uldbe
66
 x x
5(5 is
*.
300
56.
120,
Dividing,
Hence
40
= 46f. % of
120.
EXERCISE
1.
35
sum
of
39?
44.
 2.
3.
Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.
4.
number added
number.
to
42 gives a
sum
original
6.
A will
Find
8.
12 years ago.
How
old
is
9. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. How long is the Suez
Canal?
10. 11.
14 50
is
is
12.
13.
What number
of
350?
Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. by as much as 135 ft. exceeds the width of the bridge.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How many miles per hour does it run ?
65
and
$200, and
as
15.
How
16.
and
If
gives
times as
much
as A.
How many
dol
A has
A
to
$40, and
has $00.
must
?
give to
18.
money
wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many, and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as
A man
number
of acres.
how many
buy
19. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. During the following 90 years, Maine's population increased by 510,000, Vermont's population increased by 180,000, and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Find
97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities, two verbal statements must be given. Ill the simpler examples these two
statements are given directly, while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown
x,
given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The other verbal statement, written in algebraic
symbols,
is
x.
Ex.
14.
1.
is
The problem consists of two statements I. One number exceeds the other one by II. The sum of the two numbers is 14.
F
8.
66
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other, although in general the simpler one should be selected.
If
we
and
Let x
= the
symbols produces
#4a;
o\
(o?f 8)
Simplifying,
a
f
f
= 14. = 14.
<
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
x =14
8.
2x
a?
j
Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. the sum of the two numbers is 14.
Let
x
14
I
Then,
Statement
x
in
expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method.
= 8,
which leads
ot
Ex. 2. A has three times as many marbles as B. 25 marbles to B, B will have twice as many as A.
The two statements
I.
If
A gives
are
A
If
II.
has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles, B will have twice as
viz. I, to
express one
in
Then,
To
exchange
Hence,
A will lose,
x
3x
4
and
will gain.
26
= B's number of marbles after the exchange. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.
67
f
25 25
Transposing,
Uniting,
x x
= 2(3 x = 6x
25
25).
50.
60.
(Statement II)
Qx
 5 x   75. x = 15, B's number of marbles. Dividing, 3 x = 45, A's number of marbles. Check. 45  25 = 20, 15 + 25 = 40, but 40 = 2 x 20.
*
'
.
98.
always
Ex. 3. Eleven coins, consisting of half dollars and dimes, have a value of $3.10. How many are there of each ?
The two statements are I. The number of coins II. The value of the half
:
is 11.
dollars
and dimes
is
$3.10.
Let
11
from
I,
we
Simplifying,
50(11 660 50 x
)+ 10 x = 310.
50 x
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
Check.
.$3.10.
6 dimes
= 60
= 310.   550 f 310. 40 x   240. x = 6, the number of dimes. 11 x = 5, the number of half dollars. cents, 6 half dollars = 260 cents, their sum
+ +
10 x 10 x
is
EXERCISE
36
is five
v
v,
1.
Two numbers
the smaller.
2.
differ
times
Two numbers
by
60,
is 70.
Find
the numbers.
w'3.
The sum of two numbers is 42, and the Find the numbers.
greater
is
68
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
One number
is
six
greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number.
5.
Find
6.
Two numbers
The number
differ
by
39,
of volcanoes in
of volcanoes in the United States by 2, and four times the former equals five times the latter. How many volcanoes are
in the
8.
United
States,
and in Mexico
cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and
Ibs.,
find the
weight of a cubic
A's age is four times B's, and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Find their ages.
11. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. McKinley, and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of
feet.
What
is
mountain
12.
Two
If the smaller
much
13.
How many
14 years older than B, and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. What are their ages ?
is
A A
much
line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Twice 14. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many inches are in each part ?
15.
On December
Copenhagen
lasts 10 hours
How many
69
If a
problem contains three unknown quantities, three One of the unknown num
two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. The third
verbal statement produces the equation. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state
ment
it
by a
Ex.
1.
times as
much
as
A, B, and C together have $80, and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C, then
money by
I.
sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.
are
:
C's
A, B, and C together have $80. II. B has three times as much as A. III. If A and B each gave $5 to C, then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally.
Let
x
II,
I,
the
the
number
A
B
C
has.
has,
has.
first
According to
3 x
number
number
and according
to
80
the
express statement III by algebraical symbols, let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C."
To
x
8x
90
= number of dollars A had after giving $5. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10.
5
Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. original amount. x = 8, number of dollars A had. The solution gives
:
3x
80
Check.
If
4x
= 24, = 48,
number
of dollars of dollars
B
C
had.
number
had.
respectively.
8(8
+ 19)
70
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
man spent $1185 in buying horses, cows, and Ex. 2. sheep, each horse costing $ 90, each cow $ 35, and each sheep $ 15. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by
4,
and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ?
of horses and cows together.
The
I.
IT.
III.
The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and
x 4
the
j
= the
90 x
and,
85 (x 15 (4 x
I
+ 4)
+
8)
= the number of sheep. = the number of dollars spent for horses, = the number of dollars spent for cows, = the number of dollars spent for sheep
Hence statement
90 x
Simplifying, 90
may
be written,
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
+ 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 35 x 4 140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 185 a = 925. x = 5, number of horses. x f 4 = 9, number of cows. 4 x f 8 = 28, number of sheep.
1 1
Check.
28 x 15 or 450
5 horses, 9 cows, and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185; 9 5 = 4 ; 28 2 (9 5).
x 35
f
EXERCISE
1.
37
Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first, the third five times the first, and the difference between the third and the second is 15
2.
first,
first
Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2, and the sum of the
71
the
Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second, and the sum of the first and third is 36.
first,

4.
"Find three
is 4,
the third
2.
is five
numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first, and the third exceeds the
is
second by
5.
twice the
6.
v

Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first, and the third part exceeds the second by 10.
63.
7.
and
of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches, the second one is one inch longer than the first. If twice
The sum
the third side, increased by three times the second side, equals 49 inches, what is the length of each?
has 3,000,000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1,000,000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin, what is the population of each city ?
8.
New York
delphia,
9.
The
180.
first,
If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and
first,
10. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women, and 2 more men than women. men, women, and children together was 37, how many children
were present ?
x
11.
is
twice as old as B, and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.
12.
the
first
Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.
13. The gold, the copper, and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value
72
of
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
$ 750,000,000.
the copper.
14.
many
and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes, together.
how many
100.
If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. of 3 or 4 different kinds, such as length, width, and quantities
area, or time, speed, and distance, it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.
start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour, but stops 2 hours on the way, and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. After how many hours will they meet and how
E.g.
A and B
apart,
many
miles does
walk
Explanation. First fill in all the numbers given directly, i.e. 3 and 4. Let x = number of hours A walks, then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of
rate
and time, we obtain 3 a; and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.
Hence
Simplifying,
3x
4 (x
2)
27.
3z + 4a:8 = 27.
7
Uniting,
Dividing,
walks.
73
of a rectangular field is twiee its width. were increased by 30 yards, and the width decreased by 10 yards, the area would be 100 square yards less. Find the dimensions of the field.
If the length
The length
+ 00)
2 x2
Simplify, Cancel 2 # 2
and transpose,
10 x
The
field is
Check.
The
70x10
Ex.
or 700.
But 700
certain
= 800
2.
sum invested
larger at
at 5
terest as a
sum $200
4%.
What
in
Therefore
Simplify,
.05
x
x
.053;
.01
= =
.M(x
.04
8.
+ 200). + 8.
$ 800
74
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
38
rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first, and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards.
1.
of each.
2.
If its length
rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. were increased by 3 yards, and its width decreased
certain
sum
invested at 5
%
%.
as a
4.
sum $ 50
larger invested at 4
A sum
?
two sums
5.
Six persons bought an automobile, but as two of them were unable to pay their share, each of the others had to pay
$ 100 more.
mobile.
of the auto
and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth, how much did each cost per yard ?
6.
Ten yards
42.
For a part he 7. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1.55. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ?
8.
to raise a certain
money, but four men failed to pay their shares, and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How much did each man subscribe ?
sum
walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour, and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. After how many hours will B overtake A, and how far will each then have traveled ?
9.
two hours
75
10.
and
set out
direction, but
A has
a start of 2 miles.
of 2
far
miles per hour, and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour, how must B walk before he overtakes A ?
walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour, and from the same point, traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours will they be 36 miles apart ?
11.
sets out
two hours
later
starts
New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping, and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour, how many miles from New York will they meet?
X
12.
The
distance from
If a train starts at
CHAPTER
VI
FACTORING
101.
An
after simplifying,
expression is rational with respect to a letter, if, it contains no indicated root of this letter
;
this letter.
a2
to 6.
\
V&
is
and
102. An expression is integral with respect to a letter, if this letter does not occur in any denominator.
f
db
6
to b.
+ 62
is
103.
An
expression
is integral
a
2 ab
+ 4 c2
104.
The
factors of
<2
Ir
a2
b'
2
2
?>
,
we
vV
;
a factor of a 2
no other
and unity)
otherwise
,
it is
composite.
The prime
a, a, 6.
76
FACTORING
106.
77
Factoring
is
An
form of a product.
2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.
in the
form
4)
+3,
107.
The factors
of a
The prime
108.
factors of 12
&V
is
are 3, 2, 2,
01,
x, x,
?/,
y.
Since factoring
it fol
6)
(a
= a  62 + &)(a 2
it
follows
that a 2
 62
can be
&).
109.
or
TYPE
I.
55.)
Ex.
1.
Factor G ofy 2
 9 x if + 12 xy\
2
The
greatest factor
common
2
to all terms
flcy*
is
xy'
Divide
a%  9 x2 y 8 + 12
3 xy
f
by
xy\
is
2 x2
2
1/
.
Hence
6 aty 2
Ex.
2.
Factor
14 a*
W
21 a 2 6 4 c2
+ 7 a2 6
c2
a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2
 3 6a + 1).
78
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
39
6 abx
 12 cdx.
2
6.
6 xy
s
2.
3.
3x*6x*.
15
2
7.
&{20a
6
4
&3
2
.
8.
4.
14a
5.
Ilro8
8
.
12.
13.
14.
34
a^c 8  51
aW + 68
21.
a6c.
15.
q*q*q
2
a;
+ q.
7i
13 5
+ 13 8.
5f 2
.
19.
22
2.3.4.5 + 2.3.4.6.
2
23.
6.
20.
TYPE
IT.
111. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm, e.g. (as 3) and (ccf5), we had to add tain the coefficient of x, and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. x2 f2 x
15 we have, obviously, to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f 2. 2 Or, in general, in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q,
f
In factoring x2
2x
we have
to find
whose product
is g;
two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found, the
y
factored expression
is
(x }m)(x
+ n).
FACTORING
Ex.
or
77
l.
79
Factor a2
4 x  11.
77 as the product of 1 77, or 7 11, or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.
.
We may consider
1,
11
7,
Hence
 4 x  77 =
(a; 11) (a
7).
Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers, but only in a limited number
of ways as a product of two numbers, it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If q is positive, the two numbers have both the same sign as p. If q is negative, the two numbers
have opposite
signs,
Factor a2
 11 a + 30.
is
30 and whose
sum
is
11 are
a2
11
a = 1, a 2  1 1 a
tf
Ex.
3.
Factor
+ 10 ax  11 a
2
.
11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a a). Hence fc f 10 ax
is
10 a are 11 a
12 /. Factor x?  1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).
Ex.
4.
112.
determine whether
In solving any factoring example, the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.
EXERCISE
Besolve into prime factors :
40
4.
5.
tfa2 
3.
m 5m + 6.
2
6.
80
7.
8.
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
x*2x8. + 2xS.
16. 16.
2
?/
22.
x2
23.
24.
25.
y_ 6y
+6y
15?/
2
?/
10.
11.
12.
44.
26.
27.
2
?/
5?/14.
13.
14.
15.
28.
29.
30.
a 2 +11 a
a?
16.
17.
^
</
31.
32. 33.
2
.
ay 11 ay +24. ra + 25ra + 100. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. a 7 a 30. a? + 5 + 6 a. 100 xr  500 x + 600. 6 a 18 a + 12 a
2 2
?/
.
a;
x*y
ra
2
2
4xy
4 wia 2
2
21y.
21 a 2
2
.
18.
19.
a 2^ 2
a2
a'
34.
35. 36.
10 x y 2 200 x2
 70 x y  180
a;
2
.
20.
21.
a2
400 x
aft
a4
4 a 2  48
+ + 446
200.
2
.
TYPE
113.
ITT.
+7
Hence
a?
is
the
sum of the
13 x
cross products.
in factoring 6
x2
+ 5,
we have
to find
two
bino
The The
first
last
13
x.
By
actual trial
factors of 6 x 2
and 5
FACTORING
If
81
factors of f 5
as
must have
is
:
like signs,
13 x
6xl
x5  31 x
Evidently the
last
2
V A
6.e5
V A
x1
3xl \/ /\
is
a;
11 x
2x 5  17 x
2o?l
V A
13 a
combination
G
114.
a;
 13 x + 5 = (3 x  5) (2 x  1).
all
it is not always necessary to write down combinations, and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials
In actual work
follow
ing considerations
1.
the
If p and r are positive, the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2. If p is poxiliw, and r is negative, then the second terms of
have opposite signs.
If
the factors
a combination should give a sum of cross products, which has the same absolute value as the term qx, but the opposite sign, exchange the
signs of the second terms of the factors.
3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor, none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.
Ex.
Factor 3 x 2
 83 x
f
54.
The
and
factors of the first term consist of one pair only, viz. 3 x and x, the signs of the second terms are minus. 64 may be considered the
:
product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54, 2 x 27, X x 18, 6 x 9, 9 x 6, 18 x 3, 27 x 2, 54 x 1. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3, we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need
be considered.
82
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
3xl
3s2
x
X
115.
x54
a;
27
trinomial types, since all others (II, IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type, the expressions should be it.
arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter, and the monomial factors should be removed.
EXERCISE
Kesolve into prime factors
1.
:
41
2.
3.
19.
SoJ + llay
15
aj*
40*.
2
.
20.
21. 22.
10a2
G a2
2
 77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126
.
2
.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
23.
24.
25.
i/ .
+ 11
or
+ 12 a.
12y 2/6.
26.
9.
27.
28.
29.
30.
100^200^ + 100^.
5 a6
9 a  2 a 90 x*y  260 xy  30 y
6
4
.
2
.
31.
32.
90 a
8
 300 ab
2
f4
250
.
2
fc
.
16.
17.
18.
33.
34. 35.
2.y
+ 172/9.
2
f
14 a fa 4.
FACTORING
83
TYPE
IV.
Jr
2 xy
+/.
form are special cases of the preceding type, and may be factored according to the method used In most cases, however, it is more convenient for that type.
116.
Expressions of this
to factor
them according
a2
to
65.
2 xy
+ if = (x
2
?/)
.
A
term
when two
is
trinomial belongs to this type, i.e. it is a perfect square, of its terms are perfect squares, and the remaining
terms.
square,
16 y?
The student should note that a term, must have a positive sign.
24 xy
+ 9 y'
is
Evidently 10
&
24 xy
2VWx
x V0y2" = 24
xy.
square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the
EXERCISE
42
per
Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares, and factor whenever possible
:
1. 2.
3.
m + 2mn + n c 2cdd
2
2
.
8.
+6a6
2
f
a4
9.
a flOa&46 4
wi f
2
2/
10gf25.
10.
11.
6 m*ti
f
n*.
4.
5.
6.
x*  10 x f 16.
x>
2
a 2_4 a &
a
2
+ 462.
2
.
10a625.
25
7.
m 14ww + 49n
2
16 a
 20 xy f 4 y\  26 ab + 9 6
2
84
15.
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
16a 2 24a&4 9& 2
3<>
4 2
.
18.
17.
19.
20.
 20 ab + 10 b a  2 ofy + ofy m  6 m* + 9 m.
10 a 2
4
2
.
Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms
:
21.
u2
6& +
2
). ). ).
26. 27.
22.
x*Sx + (
64 a 4
23. a2
24.

+ 6a + ( 9a ( ) +
144 a 2
28.
29.
2
.
16&*.
m 4a + 12a + (
2
4m
2
20
f
(
).
).
25.
+(
)f816
30.
!Gar
(
)+25.
TYPE
117.
V.
/.
According
to
65,
difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. product
i.e.
^//c
to the
Ex.
Ex.
1.
2.
10
10
Ex.
3.
a4
a2
2 f 6 is
 6 = (a
4
f b
(a
NOTE,
prime.
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
1.
:
43
tfy\
a 9.
36
2
4. 5.
4a2 l.
7.
2
.
100a2 68
a2 & 2 121.
2.
3.
149 a
81
8.
6
2
.
6.
*
2
.
9.
9a2
FACTORING
85
118.
of polynomials.
Ex.
Factor a
 (c 4 d)
2
.
a2  (c
+ d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a  c  (I)
Ex.
2.
EXERCISE 44
Resolve into prime factors
1. 2.
2
2
:
(mfn)
_p
2
8.
(m
3n)
2
( 2
2
.
(m7?)
y.
16p
2
.
9.
2
.
(2a5&) (5c9ef)
2
3.
(m f
#
2
n)
42:)
10.
11.
(a
x?
f
6)
2
.
4.
5.
(?/ 2
cc
(x
y)*.
2
?/)
16
(y f
2
a:)
12.
(x f
9 2/ 2
6.
T.
25a (&c)
(mh2n)
2
2
.
2
.
13. 14.
(2a
(2s
+ 5) (3a4)
2
2
.
36>
86
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
TYPE
VI.
GROUPING TERMS
By the introduction of parentheses, polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi and trinomials, which may be factored according to types I VI.
119.
A. After grouping
tain a
new terms
con
common factor.
1.
Ex.
Factor ax
ax
f
bx
f
ay
f by.
bx
ay
+ by
= x(a + &) +
y(a
6)
Ex.
2.
Factor
or
5 x2
x
f 5.
x8
 6z2
= z2
(.r,
5)
 (x 
5)
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
1.
:
45
ax + bx
+ ay+by.
7.
8.
9.
2.
3.
ma
?*a
+ m&
nb.
raV + nV
3 a 2ic
2
m ?/
2
2an3&n + 2ag3&?.
4:cx
 4 6 x f 3 a y 2
4.
5.
6.
+ 4cy5dx
2
5dy.
10.
a3
c
3
10ax5ay6bx + 3by.
a?
11.
12.
+ x + 2x + 2.
a5
+ ab 6  7 c + 2c  14.  a a  ab + bx.
a 26
2
2
B.
By
squares.
= (3 x + y  2
(3 x
 y + 2 2).
FACTORING
Ex.
2.
87
f
Factor 4 a2
+ 9 tf  4 f  12 aaj
6y.
 62 + 9
EXERCISE
Kesolve into prime factors
1.
:
46
x*
2. 3.
4.
5. 6.
36
9
m  6 ww + n 2 2
<
4a6 + 46 25.
2
7.
8.
a 2 10a6
4
2
+ 256 2
x ar 2a;l.
SUMMARY OF FACTORING
I.
First find
to all terms.
II.
a 2 6 2
III.
= (a + 6)(a6).
Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products, although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.
IV.
terms.
EXERCISE
47
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES*
Resolve into prime factors
!.
:
2
2
16.
4.
2. 3.
8ra
2
+ 16. w m 2.
6
6.
7.
8. $
a8  9 a2
4 v*
2
 10 xy + 4 y\
2
.
+c+
2
2
2/
.
m Gw + 9n
88
10.
11.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x*xif.
10 a 2
4a
4
26.
2
ft .
32 aft + 6
4ft
4
.
27.
28.
12.
13. 14.
49 a 4
4
29. 30.
ft
ft
tt
:J
ft
16. 2 17.
18.
or
7#2
.
4 a;
+ 14.
32.
20
>r
+ 2 ?<s
__ G4.
(a;
42 s 2
1
?v
_w
8
2
33. (^
34.
__ ft)2
n Qy 2 .
256
4
2 ?/)
.
50^ + 45.
a3
156.
35. 2
a 128.
a6
36. any
V
2
(
51 xyz
+ 50.
22.
3 a2
23.
38.
a5
a
1
39.
24.
a;
a.
40. 3
41.
3 25. a
+ a + a + l.
2
CHAPTER
VII
The
highest
is
common
two or more
.
the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. F. of a 7 and a e b 7
;
Two
common
The H.
C. F. of
The H. The H.
C. F. of
aW, aW,
+
8
ft)
and
cfiW is
2
a 2 /) 2
ft)
C. F. of (a
and (a
fc)
(a
is
(a
+ 6)
2
.
122. If the expressions have numerical coefficients, find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients, and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. F. of the algebraic expressions. Thus the H. C. F. of 6 sfyz, 12 tfifz, and GO aty 8 is 6 aty.
that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any
EXERCISE
Find the H. C. F. of
:
48
4.
33
2
7
3
22 3 2
,
23 3
,
24
s
2.
15
aW,
8
,
25
W.
5.
6.
3
,
3
,
5
7
34 2s
,
54
32
3.
13 aty
39 afyV.
5,
II
2
.
89
90
7.
8.
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
6 rarcV, 12 w*nw 8, 30
mu\
aWd,
8 a
10
,
75
2
.
16 a
,
24 a
2
,
6.
4(m f ?i)
3
5(w + w)
5
7(m + n}\m
2
ri).
6(m+l) (m+2),
6
3
a;
8(?/ifl)
14.
(a7
?/)
aj*(a?
 y)\
O+
0^(0;
3),
4(m+l)
3
.
2
.
12
 y)
123. To find the H. C. F. of polynomials, resolve each polynomial into prime factors, and apply the method of the preceding article. Ex. 1. Find the H. C. F. of + 4 if, x2
^4^
and
tf
7 xy + 10 f.
x*
x2
Hence the H. C. F.
7/
EXERCISE
Find theH.
1.
,
49
C. F. of:
.
4 a3 6 4 8 a663  12 as 66
,
5.
.
6 a2
y?
 6 a&,
2
,
5 a6
5^
2
a;?/
.
3
.
2.
3.
6.
25 m27i, 15
3ao;
9.
4
7/i
n2
10
4
mV.
4 ?io; .
7.
8.
a2
ar*
4.
3^
2
4
,
6 mx  6
2
.
a;
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
^707 + 12, 0^80:416, ^a + 5^ + 6,^9, ^f a;6. a2  8 a + 16, a3 16 a, a 3a4. a2 + 2a3, a2 + 7af!2, a3 9a. y + 3y64,y + y42, 2a f5af 2, 4a f 4a2
91
common
remainder.
Common
125.
2 multiples of 3 x
and 6 y are 30 xz y, 60
x^y'
2
,
300 z 2 y,
etc.
The
lowest
common
two or more
expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree; thus, ory is the L. C. M. of tfy and xy*.
126. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient, find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C.
The The
L. C. L. C.
M.
of 3
aW,
a^c8
3
c6 is
C a*b*c*.
&)
2
M.
of 12(a
ft)
and (a
+ &)*( 
is
12(a
+ &)(  6)2.
127. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the
given expressions.
128. To find the L. C. M. of several expressions which are not completely factored, resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.
Ex.
1.
Find the L.
C.
M.
of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4
4 a 68
2
4 a 2 &2
Hence, L. C. M.
=4 a2 62 (a2  6 3 ).
,
Ex.
2.
= (a f
last
&)'
is
(a
6) .
The
L. C.
M. of the
 (a + &) 2 (a
92
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
50
C.
.
Find the L.
1. 2.
3.
M. of:
4.
a,
a 2 a3
,
3
6
xif,
8 afy, 24
x.
3
Z>
,
afy,
xy\
,
y*.
2
,
5.
a?b,
3
,
5 a 2 ^ 2 15
,
30
a.
ic
4a
8 a.
afc'cd
2
,
6.
T a
3 a
2
,
a, a.
7. 8.
4 a 5 6cd, 20
9
a,
40 abJ, 8 d 5
3 ab, 3(a
+ b).
2
,
.
9.
2(m
2
,
7i)
3(m
+ n) 4 m
2
.
10. 11.
(a
4)(a2)
12.
13. 15. 16. 17.
18.
a;
f
b,
6 y, 5
a?
5
a?
y,
ic
?/.
{
a~b,
a;
2
.
14.
2
,
a2
4,
a 2 f 4 a +4.
+ 6. + 2, a f 3, a 1. 2 a  1, 4 a  1, 4 a f 2.
2
a,
f2, x
a;
f
19.
x2
5
f
2
3#
5
+ 2,
#,
x2
2
+ 5 a + 6,
3,
x2 + 4 a
f 4,
20. 21.
or f
3 a
15
#.
a 2 fa6, a&
4
+&
2
,
a2
~ab
1.
6b 2
22.
a !, a^1,
ic
23.
24.
7ic+10,
bx
a?
lOajflfi,
by,
x*
~5a;f 6.
ax {ay ~
3 a
b,
2 x \2 y.
CHAPTER
VIII
FRACTIONS
REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS
129.
A
f
fraction is
b.
is identical
with a
The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator
with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Thus, the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number;
the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators, etc.
In arithmetic, however, only positive integral numerators shall assume that the
all
algebraic numbers.
131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered.
rni
Thus
132.
a b
= ma
mb
and
x mx = my y
terms
A
1.
fraction
is
in its lowest
when
its
numerator
and
its
denominator have no
common
factors.
Ex.
Reduce
~
Remove
tor, as 8,
a?,
successively all
2
j/' ,
common
6
2
divisors of
and z 8
by
their H. C. F.
TT
Hence
24
2 z = 
3x
94
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
133. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms, resolve numerator and denominator into their factors, and cancel all factors that are
common
to both.
Ex.
2.
Keduce
a*
6 a'
4
*8a
6a
qs
_. 6
24 a2
tf
a*
n2 + 8 a 24 a*
_ ap 2  6 a + 8) 6 d\a*  4)
Ex.
3.
Keduce
62
~ 2 62
a2
_Q
2 6
EXERCISE 51*
Reduce
i
to lowest terms
3
95
2
*'
o 3
3T5"**
T^
12a4 "
3
K 6
'
32
78
'
'
2.33
7 a
36 arV 18 x2^'
39 a2 6 8c4
FRACTIONS
7
95
22 a 2 bc
1
4
^.
n h
'
m11
8.
J
21.
~__ 9n _ 22
9.
^+3*.
9x +
"a"
10.
LJZJ^JL.
.
23.
11
^ Mtr
f
.
04
!l
or
it*?/
+y
12.
'M
3
??i
2fi 25.
7i
rt<
26.
3a
^
^
"^
9  10 a + 3
2
14.
'
.7
x1
15
' ft<
4 xy
//(/
_.*..
+
'
2
?/
27.
12 15
m m
2
2
7 w,n
8
+
T>
wn + n
2
?i
m
"
*7 , *
OQ
3 a3
_6a
a/i
?tt
+6
^.
29.
16.
^"
a;
nx
17.
ny
4
18.
5^10
y
30.
^'
rt
31.
19.
""";'
32.
96
134.
ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA
Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied
denominator.
by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction, we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest
common
denominator.
Ex.
1.
mon
T denominator.
to their lowest
com
The
L. C.
M.

of
//*
2
,
3 a\ and 4
aW
is
12 afo 2 x2 .
,
To reduce
denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator
^lA^L O r 2 a 3
'
22
by 4
6' .r
2
,
*** by 3 ^
2
' ,
we have
M^ 1^22
' ,
2>
and
Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator, C.M. of the denominators for the common denominator. Divide the L.C.M. by the denominator of each fraction, and
135. take the L.
Ex
Reduce
to their lowest
common
denominator.
1).
TheL.C.D. =(z
(x
+ 3)(z 3)O 
we have
the quotients (x
1),
3),
and
(a
8).
Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator, we have
(a
+ 3) (a 8) (!)'
NOTE.
Since a
(z
6 + 3)(s3)Ol)'
6a;~16
(a
+ 3) (x 3) (!)'
to integral expressions,
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
52
97
common denominator
6.
5?, JL.
22 a2
5a
*
.
3.
2,^1.
8
i, i.
a?
5
>
^*
.T
n">
^'
5c
3
26
o atf
o>
5
77"
'
.,
.,
?y2"
m^
S?
7^
S*
**.
7i
2 ab*
",oj
o*
or
o o
a.
2aj ~
5a 3
zl
'
_ 2al n.
2
9a ~l' 3al
6
a
'
2 a8
*
4a
8'
'
a
jj
+ 6 a
^
,
3.T
3y
Ga1
ax
9
'
2a
;
ay
IB.
bxby
g
!
'
f5
a2
25
?,
18.
 a+2
'
a 2 3af 2
Since {c
c
= 5L^
c
common
denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.
137. If the given fractions have different denominators, they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01
subtracted).
98
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

Ex
'
Sim
C. D.
^
is
2^JT)
 3 ft)(2 a
f
+
:
Ga6
+ 3 ft),
The L.
4(2 a
ft).
Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a  3 ft), and adding, we obtain
2 a
the terms of
2(2 a
+3 3
ft
6 a
f
ft
_ 2(2 a +
ft)
ft)
(2 a
ft)
4(2 a
4(2 a
~~
ft)
(6 a ft)
_ 8 a 2 f 24 aft
20 a 2
f
f
18
+
ft
12 a 2
 20 aft
3ft)
f
ft
4(2a3ft)(2af
4
aft f
21
138.
The
results of addition
re
Ex.
2.
cr
\t
Simplify
_T__
r*
+
,
_
^
a3b
ft). ft).
a2
ab
ft2
Hence the
a a2
f
2 6
a2
 aft
a(a
aft
ft2
a2
aft
_(a +
ft)~.
(a8ft)(a~ft)
8
2
2ft)
2 =a 4
2 (2 a 4 aft)
Ca2
 4 aft +
ft
ft
a(a
ft)(a
2ft)
2
=a
...
^.
4 6
+ 2qg+6~agf4a&8
a(aft)(a 2ft)
ft
2 a2
a(a
+ 5 aft  7  ft)(a  2
'
_. (2
ft)
a(a
7 ft)fa
ft)(a
ft)
ft)
a(a
2
ft)
NOTE.
(a
ft)
In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign, e.g. (a ft), the student should remember that parentheses are
;
understood about terms ( 66) hence he should, in the beginning, write 2 the product in a parenthesis, as 4 aft f 3 ft 2). (a
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE 53*
Simplify
:
99
2a4
5
3.
2.
9m + 7n
3
6m
5n
2x + 3y
3x
15
x + 2y 45
8.
5a76
4a
106
9.
6a116
13 a
15a26
116
'
10.
a
36
++.
6
c
3a
7.
46
2a
4a
12.
36
3u
2v v 5 wv
8v
12 uv
13.
18 v
19.
30 u
+? + i
14.
20.
a "" 2 6
'
15.
A+2_3.
j>0
i>
21.
1 f
q
*
m m
.
1
1 f
16.
1*
1
mf 3
1
M.
23.
2L +
2a
1
17.
t3
m2*
a _2
6 a 4 5
18
^4f25.
24.
a2 a + 3* 2 a 7
af1
'
LOO
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
26
x*3x + 2 x2
5x
27
'
~.
x
+ 3y
x3y
Gx
x2
2x
,9.
4
31.
3a
+. a
30.
af1
32.
1
34.
_m
&
+m
6
_w
36
a2+ a ^_2&2
35.
x2
Q 3
/Yl
Qfi ou
L
"I
"I
\_
L
I
ITi ~T~ 7
TTo
O :_
'
37
_
<1
'>
a2
.9
79 6
2
i. _
'
+b
+a=
(
38.
af 1f
/j.
!
n.
/ IIlNT:
Let a
1 
39.
ic
+ 1.
a;
42.
?^
40.
_ +
a?
?/
+ y.
43.
41.
^2^+6m 3
45
'
44.
a
2
^>
x2
7x+12~x
l7x + 4:~
' }
FRACTIONS
139.
101
mixed expression.
To reduce a
fraction to an integral or
= + ceo
2
*
(S74) v '
Hence
5a2 15a7 = 5 a2
oa
5a
15a
oa
7
5a
=a
.7
5a
v Ex.
1.
T,
Reduce
or
2a; 2
+ 4tf
3
17
2x
4 x3
to a
mixed expression.
2 x2
2 g 4 6
+ 4x 4 x2  6 x + 10x4 x2
17
Therefore
3g
 17
(2^ + 2x
f
53
(2x,'3)
2
EXERCISE
expression
54
to a
mixed or
integral
+1
9a2 6a + 2 3a
*
m f 6
4
n 2 + 7n + 14
fi
102
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS
140. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator, and the product of the denominators for the
denominator;
or,
expressed in symbols:
c
_ac b'd~bd'
principle proved for
b
141.
Since 
= a,
x
b
=
numerator by
To multiply a fraction by an
that integer.
142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. (In
order to cancel
common
factors, each
Ex.
!.
Simplify 1 J
The
expreeaion
=8
6
.
Ex.
2.
F J Simplify
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
Find the following products
'
103
55
2!v! 2 4
5
a2
"
'
'
36^
21m*
'
17 ab
'
'
48
as b*'
34 ab 2
14m4
..
53 *38
"
'
'
14 b*
'
10 a 8
' "
4af86
76
5c
36C2
10 (a
7a216
a2
2
q~. 4
8.
6)
12
ot
2 ab
2
fc
a
b*
o,
5#
56
/
c&
4 6
12 d6 4 20
3a 2 6
'
GoA
ai>
56 2c
"
ar
"
'
4 ac2
V
3m
"
"
+1 "
"
o?f
2
~
'
_ 9m JO.
25n
3m +&n
15.
,. 14.
5n
a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4
a 2 5ah4
<
x2 + x
(x
I)
17.
_G
x
7
a2 5a6
a; aj
5
1
a?
18.
f
a;
50
104
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
DIVISION OF FRACTIONS
143. To divide an expression by a fraction, invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.
144.
The
reciprocal of a
number
is
dividing 1
by that number.
The The
reciprocal of a
is
a
1
f
reciprocal of J
is
.
The reciprocal of ?
Hence the
:
+*
x
is
+ + * = _*_. x a + b
obtained by inverting
reciprocal of a fraction
is
may
be expressed as
multiply
the
Ex.
1.
Divide Xn?/
* x* f xy 2
by
x*y
+y
x'
2
s^jf\ =
x'
2
x*
 y3
+
xy*
x*y~ f y
f
3
2/
x3
EXERCISE 56*
Simplify the following expressions
2
x*
'""*'*'
om
2 a2 6 2
r 
i_L#_i17
ar
13 a& 2
5
ft2
'
u2
+a
. :
a 41
ab
FRACTIONS
105
.' '
*
'
^5^+4
.
t '
a^3^4
?
4*
'
a?~ab
>
a
4a
4
a:
+3
m
12
f 1
w + 56
a
2
w
a2
4 5
??i
80 50
mm
5
a a2
6
4g2
2a
2
4g20
25
ga2
4
5 a
.T ?/
2
a*?/
15 #4 10 ?/ _._ # ~
'
45
14
in^o
2
?/
^y
"xy
15
a2
(Jf
fr
a a2
4 6
s
+ 064 6
COMPLEX FRACTIONS
146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator, or both, are fractional.
Ex.
l.
Simplify
<!
a
a2 c
4
L
4.
c
ab 2 4
&c*
&
a
,
a 6
_6
c
ac
a6 2 4 &c 2
~
a
4
a2c
4 afr 4 ^c
16
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
In
147.
many examples
the easiest
mode
of simplification
ia
multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. C. M. of their denominators.
B
If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c, the answer is directly obtained.
Ex.
2.
Simplify
xy
+y
Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y), the expression becomes
(x
EXERCISE
Simplify
:
57
x
2.
y X
4* 2 y
3.
JL.
x*
4.
i.
c
+6.
.
7i+~
7.
.
9.
&
,a
^c
_^
a
.
,y
32
.
6.
n
a
8.
10.
m ""
FRACTIONS
107
1
i
m
11.
:
o
15.
2
5
i
~T"
*
~
1
19
4
'
!^5n
a "~
12.
&
20
a46
13.
m^n* n
L
a
17.
1
+2
1
"
"
(
1
/*_i_i
4
14.
sy
18.
1+ 1
ti
flgfl
a?l
ic+1
a;~l
CHAPTER IX
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. C. M. of the denominator. 148.
Clearing of fractions.
tions, these
Ex.1. Solve
^2^ = 63
2 x
12
* + **.
2
3,
89),
2(x
2
3)
Removing parentheses, 2x
Transposing,
Uniting,
a;
= =
72 72
3
(a; 4
4)
x.
Bx
12
Qx.
2z2a;f3# + C:E=6f7212.
9x
x
Check.
If
= 64. = 6.
1.
= 6,
each
member
is
reduced to
Ex.
2.
Solve
5
I
14 x
+1
+3
I).
Multiplying by (x
Simplifying,
Transposing,
Uniting,
Check.
If
6,
each
member
is
reduced to
1.
108
109
58
^
4
_ +7
a?
32
3
10.
.
3
a?
'2
4
"
a?
"T"" 4
4 1
_77
a;
""~TiT"
'
3
12.
+4
14.
^1 = 9.
a/

5
a/
= 12.
'
4
13.
1+5
&
^0 ^
a?
= 19
11.
 = 2.
*>
= 2.
18.
15.
a:
a;
+1
= 5.
16.
= xx
a? a?
hi
+^ + 3 = 11.
^'
2,
a;
4
y
2
^
16
20
+2
334
y2
y3 ==
on
110
ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA
24.
?_=_.
y+3~2
29.
25.
26 26.
4a4l4* +
l~.
.
31 31.
27
2^12 = 2
=
34.
32
6
.
20
x+3 x3
3
o^
28
33.
13
_J_ = _J3 ._
_
.
J_.
3x
35.
3x2
51
3x*2x
23 x
3x2
22
36.
26
2^43
1
4^9
1
2a?3
A*
37.
38
=
40.
^^
'
39
7
'
x 11_4 x
149. If two or more denominators are monomials, and" the remaining one a polynomial, it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only, and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.
111
10
Multiplying each term by
tors,
5#
10, the
16 x
2( +3~
16 x
2.
Transposing and
Multiply ing by 6
uniting.
a;
20 g
5
a:
~ Jff
1
1,
26
a;
= 20 x 45.
60.
5x x
:
9.
Check.
If
a;
9,
each
member
is
reduced to
^.
5a;2
42
9
43.
,,
24
a;
f
13
8#f 2__ 2x
5
15
~~716*
6a?
44.
10 x f 6 __ 4a;r7
5
+l
6afll~~
6xflO
'
2a?~25
15
17a?~9
14
28
6414
.2
3
==
7a;29
50712'
18
112
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LITERAL EQUATIONS
150. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be
by
factoring.
jr.
Thus,
ax
f
x f m 2*
= (a f 6) mnx = (1 4 m
bx
mn) x.
Ex.1.
b
a
a
z
Clearing of fractions,
ax
+ bx ax
(a
f
IP
Transposing,
Uniting,
bx
f
6)z
ab.
.
Dividing,
l
to
= !=?_=^6?
a
f 6.
fr
Reducing
lowest terms,
a;
=a
151.
It
unknown
letter is
not
expressed by
or
z.
Ex.
2.
If
3ac
L=
a
? ,
find
in
terms of b and
c.
3(ac)
c)
Multiplying by 3 (a
 c) (3 a ac
6(rtfc)(ac)
6 a2
6 a&
+6
6c
Transposing
all
terms containing a
6 ab
6 ac
one member,
+ 2 ac
9 a&
3 ab
Simplifying,
4 ac
1,
= =
6 6c
7 6c.
f
5c.
Uniting the
Dividing, 5>
a,
and multiplying by
a(9 b
4 c
4 c)
= 7 &c.
= l^
9 b
4
113
59
*,
2.
3.
4.
21.
4 = c
a
Z>
6.
3(*
8.
9.
10.
11.
1
a).
a;
f a;
3(2a +
aj)
25
?+l
'~~ a/
1
= 2L
;i
l
.
c.
^
ax a^
26.
12.
13. 14.
15.
f
^o;
= 5.
co?.
m
a?
x
,
IIL
n
b
+ &o; = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.
a?
x!7
a ITo
_ ~
2 8.
29.
30.
If s
(wi
n) x
=px + q.
17.
If s
If
16.
 = H.
+ xx =
1.
 = n.
= vt, = rt, s =
Vt
solve for v.
solve for
,
t.
solve for y a.
, solve for a.
c
18.
31.
If
^^ = a
1
32.
If
*
33.
*
Solve the same equation for^).
f P
=+!,
q
solve for/.
34.
i
The formula
30, Ex. 5) is
=^,
denoting the interest, p the principal, r the number of $>, and n the number of years. Find the formula for:
() The
(6)
(c)
principal.
rate.
The The
i
114
35.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation
(F)
in
(ft)
C.,
100
C.,
 20
C.
is
36.
is
R,
then
= 2 TT#.
Find
R in terms of C and
TT.
PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. 1. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of
a clock together
?
is
At
hand, hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ?
Let then
x x
= the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock, = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves
over,
and
12
= the number
over.
Therefore x
Or
Uniting,
~^ = 15
11 x
'
!i^=15.
12,
Multiplying by
Dividing,
^
of
3 o'clock.
Ex. 2. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days, In how many days can both do it working together ?
If
we denote
then
/
the required
number
by
1,
A would do
j,
respectively
ff
115
more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day."
:
Let
x 
= the
required
number
of days.
in
Then
Therefore,
Solving,
= the
x
part of the
work both do
one day.
32
x
= ,
number
of days.
Ex. 3. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles, what is
the rate of the express train
?
180
Therefore,
Clearing,
180
Transposing,
= 100 + 4 x. 4x = 80.
fx
xx*
=
152
+4
(1)
Hence
36
= rate
of express train.
Explanation
If
is
Ox
j
Rate Hence the rates can be expressed, and the statement, u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train," gives the equation /I).
But
in
Distance
116
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
60
1.
together
2.
make
21.
its
fifth
Two numbers
differ
2.
ex
What
5.
are the
and one
is
^ of the other.
J
of the greater
Two numbers
differ
l to s of the smaller.
is
equal
7.
Find A's
8.
The sum
of the ages of a father and his son is 50, and of the father's age. 
post
is
a fifth of
its
length in water,
and 9
of the post ?
10
ter,
A man left ^ of his property to his wife, to his daughand the remainder, which was $4000, to his son. How
did the
much money
man
leave ?
11. A man lost f of his fortune and $500, and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. How much money had he at first?
12
left
at first?
117
The speed
of an accommodation train
is
f of the speed
of an express train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles, what is the rate of the express train? 152, Ex. 3.) (
An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train, and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train, what is the
14.
after
a clock together?
16.
hands of
a clock together ?
17.
A man
has invested
J
of his
money
at
the remainder at
6%.
more
4%.
investments.
at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ?
20. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce, and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing
20 ounces in
21.
air,
and losing
1*
do a piece of work in 3 days, and B in 4 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152, Ex. 2.)
22.
A can
A
B in 6 days.
?
In
working together
23. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays, and B In how many days can both do it working together
in
?
12 days.
118
153.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The
last three questions
and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence, by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers, e.g. m and n, it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. The problem to be solved, therefore, is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. In how
in the numerical values of the
:
many days
If
can both do
we
let
= the
method of
170, Ex. 2,
we
m m
 = . n x
Solving, 3;=
f
n
it
in
mn
f
days.
To
and
in 3 days,
make
it
i.e.
in 2 days.
In
can
and
it
working together do a
piece of
work
in the following
number
ofdavs:
(d)
A in 5, A in 6, A in 4, A in 6,
25.
26.
The
problem 27. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find the numbers if m = 24 30,009 918,414.
; ;
119
squares
29.
squares
30. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot, the area would be increased by 19 square feet. Find the side of the square.
The
one:
31.
is ?n
;
last three
The
By using the result of this problem, solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares
:
is (a)
same hour from two towns, 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour, and the second 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet, and how many miles does each travel ?
32.
Two men
start at the
first
miles
apart, the
Two men start at the same time from two towns, d miles the first traveling at the rate of m, the second at the apart, After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.
33.
meet, and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance, the rate of the
first,
and
the rate of the second are, respectively (a) 60 miles, 3 miles per hour, 2 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour, 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles,
:
(c)
4J
by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer, if m and n are, respectively, (a) 20 and 5 minutes, (b) 8 and 56 minutes,
34.
A cistern can
be
filled
(c)
6 and 3 hours.
CHAPTER X
RATIO AND PROPORTION
11ATTO
154.
The
ratio of
first
dividing the
is
second.
b.
Thus the
written a
:
ratio of a
is
 or a *
b
The
(In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4, 6 12 = .5, etc.
b,
the symbol
155.
ratio
is
numbers.
" a Thus, instead of writing
6 times as large as
?>,"
we may
write
= 6.
The
first
156.
term of a ratio
a
the
is
is
ft,
is
The
the
157. 158.
The
ratio 
is
a
Since a ratio
relating
to
fractions
if its
may
be af)plied to ratios.
E.g. a ratio
is
not changed
etc.
Ex.
6.
RATIO
Ex.
equal
2.
1.
AND PROPORTION
ratio 5
5
:
121
first
Transform the
3J so that the
term will
33
:
*~5
3
'4*
EXERCISE
Find the value of the following
1.
61
:
ratios
72:18.
J:l.
3.
62:16.
4:5f
:
5.
6.
$24: $8.
5 f hours
:
2.
4.
8^
hours.
3:4.
3:1}.
9.
7:4 T T
11.
12.
16 x*y
64 x*y
24 48
xif.
3
8.
10.
27 06: 18 a6.
ay
16:64.
16.
7f:6J,
17.
1.
18.
16a2 :24a&.
159.
proportion
is
two

ratios.
= or:6=c:(Z are
The
first
160.
and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. The last
first three.
term
is
In the proportion a b = c c?, a and d are the extremes, b and c the means. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a, b, and c.
:
is
If the means of a proportion are equal, either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms, and the last term the third proportional to the first and second
161.
terms.
In the proportion a b
:
c,
b is the
mean
b.
proportional between a
and
c,
and
is
122
162.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper
tional to quantities of another kind, if the ratio of any two of the first kind, is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two
or 4 ccm.
directly proportional
may say,
briefly,
pro
portional.'*
Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind, if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of
inversely proportional.
t/ie
is
equal
to the
Let
=c
d,
!;
Clearing of fractions,
164.
ad =
be.
bettveen two
numbers
is
equal to
Then Hence
=b = ac.__(163.) b = Vac.
:
c.
165. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means, and the
(Converse of
nq,
163.)
mn = pq, and we
divide both
members by
we have
?^~ E.
q~~ n
PATIO
Ex.
1.
AND PROPORTION
x = 12
:
123
Find
x, if
7.
12x
Hence
a?
= 42. (163.) = f f = 3 J.
is
Ex.
2.
true
rn
8 x
t:
4.
is
4$ = 35,
= 35
true.
166.
I.
If
6
:
a a
=c
:
d,
then
=d
c.
II.
a:c=b:d.
a
III.
Or
IV.
V.
+ b:b = c + d:d. (Composition.) a + b:a = c + d:c. d d. (Division.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. a+b a (Composition and
:
:
Division.)
Any
is
of these propositions
may be proved by
example
:
a method which
To prove
This
is
b
if
true
ad
Or
if
But
Hence
^ =^'
o
= be = be. ad = be.
bd
bd.
ad
163.)
167.
I.
These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the
:
last term.
By
inversion 5
=6
x.
124
IT.
its
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by
antecedents or
48:21=32:7x,
3:3
1:1
consequents by
7,
Or
III.
= 2:3. = 2:x,
i.e.
= 2.
To
5:6
=4
x.
Apply composition,
=4
x.
= 5 f x
x.
5
5, 1
3 3
= =
5
1
jr.
x.
V. To simplify
m 3n
= + *.
mx
tin
division,
= ^2x
x
Or
Dividing the antecedents by m,
.!=!*.
3n
JJ
=n x
NOTE.
A parenthesis is understood
EXERCISE
5^:8 = 2:3. = 7:2f 3J.:J
62
:
4. 5.
2.
3.
15:22=101:15.
Simplify the following proportions, and determine whether they are true or not
:
6.
120:42
2 2
7.
10.
18:19
6
2
:
= 24:25. 13 = 5f llf
:
n 2.
125
15.
16.
21
4z = 72
96.
13.
14.
17.
18.
= l^:18.
to:
21.
3, 3t, f.
ra, w,j>.
23.
ra
2
,
rap, rag.
20.
22.
to
9 and 12.
26. 27.
14 and 21.
28.
29.
and
a.
25.
16 and
28.
a 2 and ab.
to
:
a and
1.
4 and 16.

32.
2 a and 18
a.
.
34.
ra
+ landra
1.
31.
35.
and 2/.
33.
8 a 2 and 2 b 2
Form two
x 10
If ab
equation 6
36.
= 5 x 12.
form two proportions commencing with
x
:
= xy,
b.
Find the
37.
38.
39.
ratio of
y, if
40.
6x = 7y. 9 x = 2 y. 6 x = y. mx = ny.
41.
42.
43. 44.
45.
46. 47.
7iy = 2:x.
y
:
=x 1 =x
a.
a2
terra
2:3 = 4 x:
6:5
a
:
x.
51. 52.
22: 3
19
2
:
:
49.
50.
= 15o;:ff. 2= 5 x x.
:
53.
= 2 + x: x. = 3 43 + x. 5=
18
a?
:
a?.
a;
126
54.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each, othei
(a) Triangles
as their basis (b
and
b').
1
(6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is
circles are to
each
inversely propor
The
areas
(A and
(R and R'). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work.
the squares of their radii
(e)
55. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk, and the
:
total cost.
(b)
The time a
The length
of the train.
(c)
of the rectangle.
(d)
The sum
of
interest at
5%, and
the time necessary for it. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate, and the time.
56.
on a certain
22 miles.
57.
The
their radii.
areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as
circle is
7,
8 square inches,
what
58.
body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of
gas
is
16 cubic
feet.
What
will be the
volume
if
the pressure
is
127
The number
is
very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles
the
Metropolitan
Tower (700
feet high) ?
feet
high) ?
From Mount
McKinley (20,000
168. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n, it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx.
:
Ex.
as 11
Let
then
:
1.
7.
Hence
or
Therefore
Hence
and
= the first number, = the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108, 18 x = 108. x = 6. 11 x = 66 is the first number, 7 x = 42 is the second number.
11
x
x
Ex.
is
4
'
AC=1x.
Then
Hence
BG = 5 x. AB = 2 x.
2 x
Or
4.
x=2.
Therefore
7
14
= AC.
128
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
63
1. 2.
3.
9.
7.
5.
:
4.
A line 24 inches
long
is
5.
What
Gunmetal
tin.
How many
7.
consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun
metal ?
Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many gen, cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500
:
cubic feet?
8.
The
water as
7 18.
:
197,000,000 square miles, find the number of square miles of land and of water. 9. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of
oxygen.
How many
grams
10.
of water?
b.
11.
12.
7.
13.
14.
in the ratio x:
three sides of a triangle are 11, 12, and 15 inches, and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How
The
long are the parts ? 15. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a, 6, and c inches. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two, what are
its
parts ?
(For additional examples see page 279.)
CHAPTER XI
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
169.
An
equation of the
first
satisfied
2oj3y =
6,
a?
(1)
then
I.e. if
,L
If
If
= 0, =,y=. x = 1, y = 1, etc.
2 y =  . y =
/0 \ (2)
of values.
Hence, the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.
However,
if
there
is
different relation
between x and
*
+ = 10,
y
(3)
these
to be satisfied
y,
y must be equal.
Hence
2s 5
o
= 10 _ ^
(4)
= 3. is x = 7, which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore, values of x and y, there is only one solution.
The
root of (4)
if
129
130
170.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
A
system
of simultaneous equations is
numbers.
are simultaneous equations, for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous, for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The first set of equations is also called consistent, the last set inconsistent.
H
2y
satisfied
171. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations
;
~ 50, and 3 x + 3 y =. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent, for they express the x f y 10. same relation. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f 3 y = 80.
6x
;
viz.
172.
unknown
unknown
quantity.
The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.
174.
to
of elimination
II.
By By
Addition or Subtraction.
Substitution.
E,X.
Solve
y=6x
6x
f
Multiply (1) by
2, 3,
4y
 26.
(3)
(4)
Multiply (2) by
=  24, 26 y = 60. y = 2.
21 y
131
3x
Therefore
+ 4 = 13 x = 3. y = 2.
whose
coefficients
letter
common
multiple.
Check.
3. 8
2.
5,
3,
25 x  15 y 39 x + 15 y
Add
(3)
and
(4),
Therefore
Substitute (6) in (1),
Transposing, Therefore
Check.
5
13
(3) (4)
(6)
176.
Hence
to eliminate
will
make
the coefficients
are
like,
add
the equations.
EXERCISE
answers:
64
'
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
5.
I
a;
^ = ll. = 24. = 6.
13
61
l7a; +
2/
17.
'
1fi fl ,4.1ft
is
fl<>* r A
+ 22/ = 40,
O
t
8.
I
oj
5y
= 17.
19<
I
a;f2/
'
= 50.
9
r
20.
I
,
_.
3#
?/
= 0,
x
11.
I
~ y~~>
22.
'
12.
,v
23.
13.
3X
7x
14.
y = 1U, * + 3 y = 50.
'
94 ^4
'
15
'
25
60.
3.9
* 3.5 y = 2.3.
133
Solve
7 y in (1)
8,
(1)
(2)
Transposing
2,
x
)
^""
13.
7
(
?/
t
"
+2y=
+
4 y 25 y
Clearing of fractions,
21 y
24
Therefore
= 26. = 60. = 2.
3.
178.
Hence
to eliminate
by substitution
Find
an unknown quantity in
unknown quan
other equation,
and
EXERCISE
Solve by substitution
:
65
f5aj
l3a;
= 2y + 10, = 4#8.
134
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
179. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions, it is advantageous to do so in most cases, however, the equation must be cleared of fractions and
;
is
possible.
(1)
Ex.
Solve
(2)
43 + 8f3y +
7z
From
(3), (4),
From
Sx + 6y =
Adding
and
3S.
(7)
(7)
(8) ,
Substituting in (6)
21z6y=9. 29 x = 29. x = l. 2 y =  3. 7 y = 6.
(8)
+8
2
EXERCISE
66
""^IT
3.
\
\6(a;6)7(y7)==18.
135
"25
'
'
tsjj
'
8.
14.
9.
a;
+y
2
a;
ff
"*"
_13 ~
2'
15.
10.
16.
4
11.
;
10
2a?5
17.
12.
4^
~
3
=
13.
4~2v
3a?2^4
3
18.
yM
a;f2
2,
= 3.
136
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4_1
2'
19.
<X +
20.
l_3
4'
2/41
a;
f y  Q ^
21.
22.
?~y
3x\"
1
23
24.
((* ((
{;
180. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities, but some expressions
involving
x,
and
y, e.#.
 and x y
137
Solve
y y
(1)
x
2x(2),
(2)
(3)
a;
Clearing of fractions,
33
11 x.
Substituting x
3 in (1),
Therefore
y=4.
of this type, however, can also be solved
Examples
method.
by the regular
+ 8 x  3 xy.  4 x = 4 xy.
(4)
(6) (6) (7)
2x(5),
(4)
+ (G),
y,
Dividing by 11
#, etc.
EXERCISE
Solve
:
67
2'
1.
x
3.
1. 2*
* x
2.
4.
138
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4 6 K  = 5, x y
5.
10
"
12
25
6.
253
7.
21 9  =
o
6,
x
8.
4
13.
MOi y
a;
331
9.
Ex.
n,
6,
1.
Solve
(1) (2)
(1)
(2)
(8)
x
x
(4),
(3)
(4)
ftp.
139
(an
bm)x
en
bp.
Dividing,
(1) (2)
(7)
an
bm
(6)
(7)
x w, x a,
cm.
ap.
 W,
Uniting,
bmy bm}y
ap
cm.
apan
cm.
.
W  cm y=
EXERCISE
68
bm
f
6y
c,
ax
+ by = 2 a&,
f
6^
nx f my == m.
.y
= = 9a + 46.
5.
x f my = 1,
ny =
fy/
I sc
1.
6.
fax f
= l,
s in
11.
x
12.
Find a and
terms of
n, d,
and
I if
13.
From
and L
of a, w,
14.
a, d,
and
I.
140
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
By
tions,
eliminating one
and
is
the
unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair, the
to the solution
problem
reduced
containing two
unknown
quantities.
ties are
Similarly, four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown
quantities, etc.
Ex.
1.
= 8,
4,
l.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Eliminate
y.
4,
3,
8B12y +
17 x
16z
z
32
Oa + 12?/ 15z=12
Adding,
Multiplying (2)
20 12
2 10
(4)
Multiplying (3)
Adding,
by 3, x + 12 y  lf> z  by 2, 8 x  12 y + 6 z =  9z =11 x
(6)
(5),
17 x
100
z
Therefore
Substitute this value in (4),
= 30. = 3.
20.
1.
(6)
Therefore
Substituting the values of x and z
2
(7)
in (1),
f
3y
12 =s
8.
3y =
Hence
Check.
6.
=* 2.
(8)
141
1.
+ y f z = 15,
8.
49.
k
2/
f 2
x
a;
y
f
?/
M
2?
4.
10.
2
4.
a?
11.
~6?/
5.
== 6,
a?
+ 709 = 26,
12.
x
13.
f
i/ f
= 14,
15 2
= 45.
7.
14.
142
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
15.
60;
23.
?/
3x
= 0,
16.
5,
(3
_. 1510
4
17.
_2
3
'
0742!
18.
.2
a;
4 .3
+ .42 = 2,
^
= 2.6
2.
19.
=s
20.
27.
84
21.
?
= llz, = 8*.
22.
;
32.
143
x
29.
y
*
30.
M=i, y
31.
.
=1
2.
= 2 m, + z = 2p, z + x = 2 n.
# 4 2/
2/
unknown
every
quantity.
99.)
it is advisable to represent a different letter, and to express
unknown quantity by
Ex. 1. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits, and if 396 be added to the number, the first and the last digits
will be interchanged.
Obviously
of the other
;
it is difficult
digits in
terms
hence we employ 3
unknown
quantities.
Let
x
y z
= the
and Then
100
10 y
+z
The
now be
readily expressed in
.
symbols:
+z
8.
(1)
100s
(3)
The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125.
Check.
1
2,
= 6.
+2+
= 8;
= 1(1+6);
396
= 521.
144
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA
If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be
;
increased by one, the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin
is
reduced to
nurn orator,
2.
Find the
fraction.
x
y
= the = the
x
denominator
= the
fraction.
By
we
obtain,
2
(1)
and
These equations give x
Check.
3
xand y
I
(2)
5.
Hence the
fraction
is
f.
3+1 5+1
4_2. 5_
_4_
A, B, and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. C, who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B, starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B.
Ex.
3.
direction.
men
traveled the
same
distance,
Or
= xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. x 3x4y = 12. = 8. y = 3.
xy
a:
2y 4y
2.
(1) (2)
12.
(3) C4)
x 3
= 24,
x 4
= 24,
= 24.
145
1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33, and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the numbers,
2.
number by
the
first
3.
Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11, and the second one increased by 5 equals twice
number.
Half the sum of two numbers equals 4, and the fourth 3. Find the numbers.
If 4 be
Tf 3 be
is J.
added to the numerator of a fraction, its value added to the denominator, the fraction is reduced
fraction.
to
L
<>
Find the
If the
numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3, the fraction equals .}. both terms, the value of the fraction is fa. Find the fraction.
5.
6.
If the
its
denomi
nator diminished by one, it is reduced to J. If the denominator be doubled, and the numerator increased by 4, the Find the fraction. fraction is reduced to \.
7. A fraction is reduced to J, if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1, and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15.
tion ?
8.
The sum
18
is is
and
if
added
of the digits of a number of two figures is 6, to the number the digits will be interchanged.
?
What
9.
the
number
(See Ex.
1,
183.)
added to a number of two digits, the digits will be interchanged, and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the number.
If 27 is
10.
The sum
of the first
sum
of the three digits of a number is 9, and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. If
9 be added to the number, the last two digits are interchanged. Find the number.
146
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
11. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30, and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find their present ages. 12.
as old as
B
is
old as
how
old
is
each
now ?
at
invested $ 5000, a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the amount of each investment ?
A man
5%,
14. A man invested $750, partly at 5% and partly at 4%, and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ?
15.
sum
of $10,000
is
partly invested at
6%,
partly at
5 %, and partly at 4 %, bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5
4%
much money
is
invested at
A sum
of
money
at simple interest
amounted
in 6 years
to $8000,
and
money and
17.
What was
the
sum
of
A sum
of
money
at simple interest
amounted
in 2 years
What was
the
sum and
rates
est
The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. If the rates of interwere exchanged, the annual interest would be $ 195. Find
together 69 J grams. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.
147
20. A farmer sold a number of horses, cows, and sheep, for $ 740, receiving $ 100 for each horse, $ 50 for each cow, and $15 for each sheep. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. How many did he sell
number
of animals
was 24?
21. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20, and their difference by GO , what are the angles of the triangle ?
22.
On
/),
points,
ABC,
respectively, three
OF.
the length of
NOTE.
triangle
Tf
a circle
inscribed in the
7<7,
An C touch ing the sides in D, and F '(see diagram), then AD = AF, BD = HE, and GE = CF.
23.
sides in D,
E, and F.
BC=7, andCL4 = 8.
In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b, angle c = angle d, and angle e angle/. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50, and angle BCA = 70, B find angles a, c, and e.
24.
,
NOTE.
is
scribed circle.
25.
It takes
A two hours
longer
24 miles, but if A would double his pace, he would walk it in two hours less than
than
to travel
B.
Find their
rates of walking.
CHAPTER
XII*
Location of a point.
two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles, and PJ/_L XX', and PN _L YY', then
P3f and
185.
PN are given.
The
of
Coordinates.
lines
PM
the
called
point P.
PN,
or its equal
OM, PM,
the ordinate of point P. jr, the ordinate by ?/.
The
abscissa
is
usually denoted by
line XX' is called the jraxis, YY' theyaxis, and point the origin. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin, and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive ; hence
The
is
The point whose abscissa is a;, and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). Thus the points A, B, (7, and
respectively represented
Dare
and
by
(3 7 4),
(2,
first
3),
(3,
2),
(2,
3).
* This chapter
may
be omitted on a
148
reading.
149
NOTE. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper, i.e. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (See diagram on page 151.)
EXERCISE
1.
71
2),
2), (4,
2.
3.
(5,
 2).
(4, 1),
4.
Draw
(l,3),and(l, 2).
6.
(6,
4)
and
(4,
4),
and measure
their
distance.
6.
What
Draw
is
(3,
4)
from the
origin ?
7.
(4,1),
8.
Where do Where do
Where do
all
points
lie
whose ordinates
tfqual
4?
9.
all all
points
points
lie
lie
10. 11.
12.
What
is
the locus of
(a?,
=3?
is
known ?
13.
What
187.
Graphs.
changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other, the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented
either by a table or
by a diagram.
150
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
tables represent the average temperature
New
volumes
1
from January 1 to December 1, and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from
pound
The same data, however, may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa, and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the first table produces 12 points, A, B, C, D,
188.
ically
each representing a temperature at a certain date. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time, we obtain an uninterrupted sequence
etc.,
By representing
ABCN
To
15
find
1,
we meas1
.
may be found
on Jan.
15,
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table, but it indicates in a given space a great many more
facts than a table,
A graphic
and
it
all
the peculiarities of
151
i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3
Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments, and to deduce general laws therefrom. The engineer, the
matics.
physician, the merchant, uses them. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically, as the prices and production of commodities, the rise and fall of wages, etc. Whenever a clear, concise representation of a
number
of numerical data
is
is
applied.
EXERCISE
From the diagram
questions
1.
:
72
Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1, (b) July 15, (c) January 15, (d) November 20.
152
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
At what date
(a) G
or dates
is
New York
is
C., (1)
10
C., (c)
3. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature?
What What
is
4. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ?
5.
is
New York
6.
When
C. (freezing
point) ?
7.
From what
When
What
is
11
0. ?
9.
is
10.
How
much,
on
1 to
the
average,
1 ?
does
the
temperature
increase from
11.
June
July
rapidly
12.
rapidly ?
13.
14.
15.
Which month
is
is
Which month
16.
on the average
is it
on July 1 than
on
May
17.
is
ture
we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season, from what date to what date would it extend ?
If
153
1?
Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples, in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
NOTE.
19. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
20. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren
heit)
21.
(in
hundred thou
22. One meter equals 1.09 yards. transformation of meters into yards.
Draw
23.
Draw
.
Hour
Temperature
154
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
C
2
is
is J2,
then
irJl.
(Assume ir~
all circles
>2
2
.)
circumferences of
25.
from
to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters, if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.5
grams.
26. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.50.
to
27. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.
If
dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. the daily average expenses for rent, gas, etc., amount to $8, represent his daily gain (or loss), if he sells 0, 3, 2 ...
28.
10 wheels a day.
29.
The
initial cost of
cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates, and $.50 per copy
(Let 100 copies = about \ inch.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books, if each copy sells for $1.50.
books from
Show
is
called
2 xy
y.
190.
function
If the value of a quantity changes, the value of a of this quantity will change; e.g. if x assumes
successively the
tively
values
1,
2,
3,
4,
x*
x
19.
+7
If
will
respec
155
A
variable is a quantity
same
discussion.
is
constant
same discussion.
it is
is
various values of x
The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr, for x=l, 2, 3 50. The values of func192.
Graph
of a function.
may
may, however, be also represented by a graph. E.g. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1
tions
,
values of x2
9),
(
2, 4),
and join
the
lie
Q,
J),
(1^,
2),
etc.
Ex.
4 from x
4, to
x = 4.
a*,
To
the
following arrangement
be found convenient
156
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Locating the points(
4, 4),
ABC.
(To avoid
very large ordinatcs, the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.)
frequently represented
r
*/
+*
01
.,,
,,
rf
71
if
/*
>
1i >
>
?/
=
193.
4J, etc.
A
Y'
function of the
first
degree is an integral
rational function
involving only
the
194.
It can be
graph is a straight
of these graphs.
Ex.
2.
Draw
y
z x
the graph of
= 2x3.
= 0, j/=3. = 4, y = 6.
If
If
Locating
ing
by a
3) and (4, 5), and join(0, straight line produces the required graph.
157
Draw
1.
a?
+ 2.
a?
2
4.
5.
2x +
3x
a?.
l.
7.
23x.
1
8
10. 11.
12.
a?
1.
2. 3.
xl.
2
a;
2
2.
8.
9.
a?.
xz + x.
4a?
I.
6.
Jar
a*
13.
a;
+ 4.
2.
16.
2
a;
x+1.
a
ar.
19.
14. 15.
a;
3 a 8.
fa
17.
6 fa or. 2
or
2
20.
3. y = 2x = 4.
?/
a;
2
a;
18.
21.
Draw
the graph of
:
from
#=
4 to
05
= 4,
(d)
(^)
1 to
and from
2
;
(3.5)2;
(ft)
(_
1.5)2;
;
(C )
(2.8)';
(If)
Va25;
(/)
Vl2^
(0)
V5;
from x
VlO'S".
a?
+2
a;
= 4,
and
(a)
(6)
(c)
(d)
The values of the function if x = \, 1J, 2J. The values of a?, if a;2 4 # + 2 equals 2, 1, 1J. The smallest value of the function. The value of x that produces the smallest value
it*
of the
function.
The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (7i)
(c)
23. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine
:
#2 from # =
2 to a?=4,
(a)
(6)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The values of y; i.e. the function, if"a; = The values of a*, if y = 2. The values of a*, if the function equals zero. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l.
J,
1J,
2J.
158
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Degrees of the Fahrenheit
(F.) scale are
expressed in
(a)
Draw
the graph of
C = f (F32)
from
to
(b)
4 F F=l.
From
grade equal to
(c)
the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F., 9 F., 14 F., 32 F.
to Fahrenheit readings
:
Change
10
C.,
C.,
C.
25.
A body
second moves in
this
seconds a distance d
=3
1.
y=
formula graphically. Represent 26. If two variables x and y are directly proportional, then
cXj
where
c is a constant.
that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume
for c
27.
Show
a constant.
if c
Draw
= 12.
UNKNOWN QUANTITY
Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero, it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192), we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the
195.
that
graph with the o>axis, i.e. the abscissas of 3.24. Therefore x = 1.24 or x =
P and
Q.
159
To
+2x
used,
the points
may
be found
otherwise
by
inspection,
draw through
abscis
2 and 1.
+ =
where
a, 6,
and
represent
\3
2
1
1/2
known
quantities, is called
two
roots.
Y'
EXERCISE
4x_ 7
74
:
0.
10.
or
2.
3.
11.
12.
a2 2a;7
2
a 5 = 0. = 0.
a:
(a)
(6)
(c)
6a;f 9
= 0.
4.
6.
4x
6
a2
6.
13.
(a)
x2
= 0.
7.
8.
14.
(a)
(6)
9.
160
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Graph
of
unknown
quantities.
represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2), we can construct the graph or locus of any
Since
we can
unknown
Thus
to represent
x

L^
=2

?/,
i.e.
y=
and construct
x
(
graphically.
3x
_
4
;
?/,
Hence
if
if
2,
y y
2,
== 2.
X'2
(2,
4)
and
(2, 2),
line,
produces the
7*
required locus.
199.
first
degree,
y.
Thus
If
in
 2 y ~ 2. = 0, y = l.
(f
,
Hence we may
join (0,
1)
and
0).
0,
?/
=4
AB.
if
=
is
0,
fc
= 3.
(0,
4) and
them by
straight line
AB
NOTE. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations, because their graphs are straight lines.
161
200. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation, and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in
the locus.
201.
Graphical solution of a linear system.
To
the system.
By
the
method
of
AB
and
and
CD
of
(1)
(2) respectively.
The
every
coordinates
of
AB
in
AB
also satisfies
(2), viz.
equation
x=
By measuring
3.15,
and CD. P, the point of intersection of the coordinate of P, we obtain the roots,
AB
= .57.
202. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their
graphs intersect.
203.
parallel have only one point of intersection, linear equations have only one pair of roots.
Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous
Ex.
3.
(1)
\xy\ 1=0.
(2)
162
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
graph, construct CD the locus of (2)
of intersection,
Using the method of the preceding para, AB the locus of (1), and
.
of P, the point
we
obtain
Ex.
4.
fol
lowing system
= =
25,
(1)
(2)
C.
V25
5,
x2
4,
3,
2,
5,
1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
y equals
3, 0.
3,
4,
4.5,
4.0,
4.9,
4.5,
4,
Locating the
points
(5,0), (4,
and
+ 3), (4,
2 equation x
3), etc.,
AB C
joining, we of the
y*
= 25.
Locating two points of equation (2), e.g. (2, 0) and (0, 3), and joining by a
straight line,
3x
of
points
roots.
graphs meet in two and $, there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of
:
P and Q we find
204.
Inconsistent equations.
The equations
2
4
= 0, = 0,
(1)
(2)
cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y, i.e. they are inconsistent. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2), which consist of a
pair of parallel lines.
intersection,
and hence no
roots.
'163
Dependent equations, as
2^3
and
3x
f
==l
2y
=6
tical
have identical graphs, and, vice versa, idengraphs indicate dependent equations.
EXERCISE
75
a+r/=6.
3.
4.
2x
3?/=6.
5.
y
2
4.
7.
8.
y=
a2
2x
y6.
x~y=0.
6.
y=x + 5.
Draw
system,
9.
if possible.
the graphs of the following systems, and solve each If there are no solutions, state reasons.
17.
1
6*
+ 7 y = 3.
10.
.,
a;
= 4.
19.
20.
16
22.
16
23.
\
2x
+ 3^
164
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
"~
 14 y =  8.
26.
4 a
= 3(6  y).
25.
28.
29
30.
3
31.
Show
three equations
f
5y
5.
CHAPTER
XIII
INVOLUTION
206.
Involution
is
may be
by
207.
Law
of Signs.
fa faa a a a
Obviously
1.
2.
^4/? it
According to 50, 3 f a = f a = + a2
.
a3
etc.
follows that
3.
powers of a positive quantity are positive. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.
(
a)
is
positive, (
2 aft ) 9 is
negative.
INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
208.
According to
1.
2.
52,
8.
= a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a
(a
2 3
a2
b5
.
a2
6
6
=
?>
2+2 5
+ 2 = a. = 6+ 5 + +fi =
fi
62.
on
to in factors
4.
(
6 3 )*
= (
3 a2 6 8 )
(
3 a268 )
(
a 8 = _ (2m )
(8
____ 16 *)"" 27 n
165
166
To find To To
power.
raise
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
the exponent
given exponents.
a product
to
a given power,
raise
a fraction
to
a power, raise
its
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
76
:
(>y.
2.
(a )
2 4

3.
(a )
2 5
.
4.
2 11
(afc )
5.
6.
4
/2mV.
(277171
)*.
24.
\ 3 J
'
MW
10.
(2ar).
'
27
'
11.
V/
13.
amVy)
3
.
^/2?n?A 4
'
30.
15. 16.
(^^)
2
.
V 3xy )'
INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS
209.
The
square of a binomial
was discussed
in
63.
210.
The
&
cube of a binomial
(a
3
3
_j_
we
obtain by multiplying (a
2 2
+ 6)
by
and
= a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6)  6) = a  3 a 6 f 3 a6  6 (a
8
8
,
8
.
INVOLUTION
Ex.
1.
167
=
s=
(2s)
8 a; 3
Ex.
2.
n of 3 x*  y
(3 x
EXERCISE
77
(a
+ &)8
7.
8.
9.
.
(5
(1
a)
3
.
13.
3
.
(3af26)
8
.
2.
3.
(a??/)
3
+
a
a;)
14.
(6m+2w)
(3
8
.
(afl)
(3
(l
I)
2
8
.
15. 16.
.
a 6
2
8
ft)
.
4.
5. 6.
(m2) 8 (w+w)
3
10.
+ 4aj)
3
.
(3a
(a
(4
62
l)
3
.
lx
(7 a
(1
I)
17.
(aj7)
12.
+5a)
22.
3 8
.
18.
or*
20.
21.
3
.
1 f 3
3
.
23.
86
a8 3a2 + 3al.
211. The higher powers of binomials, frequently called ex. pansions, are obtained by multiplication, as follows :
(a
b*.
s
,
etc.
An
1.
is
binomial.
TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. nent of the binomial, and decreases in each succeeding term by L
168
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
T7ie
exponent ofb
is
and
The The
coefficient coefficient
of the first term is 1. of the second term equals the exponent of the
binomial
6. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a, and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b, is the coefficient of the next term.
Ex.
1.
Expand
(x
ic
f
5 x*y
10
^V +
5
.
10 x*y*
+
2
5 xy*
+ y5
10
x'2
(and odd
212.
The
signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive, and the
powers negative.
Ex.
3.
Expand
<?
2 (2 #
3 y3 ) 4
2
2 4
16
ic
8 4
)
.
12
EXERCISE
Expand:
1. 2.
78
s
.
(p + q)
4
*
7.
.
(1for)
5
13. 14.
(2 4 a)
3
19.
4
.
(mnp
I)
5
(w
?i) 4
.
8. 9.
&)
5
(m fl)
2
20.
.
(2w
2
fl)
4
.
3.
(tff1)
(cfd)
15. (l
8
.
mn
5
2 5
)
.
21.
(3a f5)
5)
4.
5. 6.
(1
?/)
10.
.
(?/i~w)
:
16.
(m
I)
2 22. (2 a
4
.
(mJ)
11.
.
(af 5)
17.
18.
(m
2
+ n)
8
.
23. 24.
(2a5c)
(1 f 2
4
a:)
4
.
(la&)
12.
(a~^)
5
.
(?>i?i
f c)*.
25.
(lfa
6 2 ) 5.
CHAPTER XIV
EVOLUTION
213.
tity
;
Evolution
it is
\/a
x means x n
=
y
?>
a.
V
\/P
214.
1.
27
=y
means
r'
27, or y
3.
= x means
= 6,
or x
&4 .
It follows
in evolution that
Any
may
the
be either 2wsitive
or negative.
2.
same sign as
and
2
the
quantity.
V9 = +
3,
or
3
for
(usually written
3)
for (f 3) 2
3)
equal
0.
a)
= a4
215. Since even powers can never be negative, it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers.
numbers, and
all
numbers.
Thus
170
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
are solved
by the
definition of a
Ex.1.
Ex.
Ex.
2.
v/^i2
a*, for
(a
)*
= a 12
.
3/0**
= am
for (a")"
a
= a mn
3.
v^SjW 3 = 2 a
^/gL^g = * c*
A
82
&c*, for (2
a 2 6c4 ) 8
Ex.4.
Ex
a"
.lL,for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J
2
2 b'
?*243
ft^c20
216.
index.
To
of a power, divide
the exponent
by the
roots of the
numerator
\/18
14
63
25
= V2 3* = 2 32 6
. .
2
.
82
62
= V2*
3i
6
= 030.
Ex.
7.
VT8226
= V25
2
729
.
Ex.
8.
Find (x/19472)
Since by definition
( v^)"
= a, we
have (Vl472) 2
Ex.
9.
79
2
v/2
5
.
3.
fy
3
.
5.
V5
v/2
7 2.
7.
V25
16.
2.
V?.
V36
9
4.
v/2^.
6.
33
53
8.
4
v 125 64
5
4
.
9.
100
2
.
10.
\/2
EVOLUTION
171
28.
\/d \Vab
+ b\
9.
29.
30. 31.
45
V5184. V9216.
2
.
32.
33.
VH) + (Vl9)
2
 (V200)
f ( VI5)
2
.
f
V240)
3
.
34.
VI5) x ( VT7)
2
x ( V3)
35.
(V2441) ~(V2401)
36.
(Vl24) {
NUMBERS
217.
equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.)
by inspection.
Ex.
1.
Hence
116.)
EXERCISE
80
:
a f2
l
+ l.
2
.
3.
^40^4 4/.
5.
6.
2.
2yh2/
9^ + 60^ +
2
2/ .
172
7.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a
s
.
10. 11.
2
.
+ 6 + 4a&.
2
49a 8 16 a 4
9.
mV14m??2)f 49;>
13.
14.
15.
12.
 72 aW + 81 &
4
.
#2
a2
16.
a2
218. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial, let us consider the relation of a f b 2 2 to its square, a f 2 ab + b
.
The
term
a'
first
2
.
is
first
2ab
a\b
is
the root
if
the given expression is a perfect square. it is not known whether the given
and
b,
square.
a 2 + 2 ab
+ W \a + b
EVOLUTION
Ex.
1.
173
x*
 24 afy* f 9 tf.
of x.
Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder, 8 /, we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. As there is no remainder,
Explanation.
The square
*/''
4 x2
?/
8 is
219. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 1, and consider Hence the their sum one term, the first term of the answer.
is
the
new
trial divisor;
by division we
term of the
root,
and so
forth.
Ex.
2.
16 a 4
 24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8
s
a.
24 a
25 a 2
12 a
+4
2.
10 a 4
a.
24 a 3
4f
a2
10 a 2
12 a
+4
f 2.
is
As
there
is
(4
a'2
8a
2}.
174
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
81
:
2. 3.
3 a2 a4
4
2a + a4
2 or 41
3
2 a3
+ 1.
2
x2
3
2x.
2
4.
5. 6.
24 a3
4
.
>
7.
8. 9.
25 x
f
40 afy 446 x
if 4
24 a^
4
4
i/
.
4.2^43^42^ 46
5
4
a;
4
.
10.
1 4 4 x 4 10 x2 4 20 o 4 25 x 4 4 24
or
.
4
16
4
iK .
11.
12.
13.
14.
49 a 4
 42 a*& 4 37 a ^  12 a6
2
4
4 64
15.
4
4 0^4 20
J
or
16 x
4 16.
16.
4^
3
12^.
17.
18.
4?/ 42x
3
j/
2xif
6 a5 4 a 6
x*y
2
.
19. 20.
 54 a
40 a
6
4
9 a4 .
.
4
36 a
2
12
4
4
16 a4
4
46 a
4
44 a
f
25 a
h
12 a
4
25 a6 4 40 a
22
16
_^ + 2 JX
XT
4a;
24.
a?
EVOLUTION
220.
175
The
square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic
Since the square root of 100 is 10; of 10,000 is 100; of 1,000,000 is 1000, etc., the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure, of a number between 100 and 10,000, two figures, etc. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups, beginning at the
and each group contains two digits (except the last, which may contain one or two), then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root, and the square root of the greatest square in
units,
the
consists of
group is the first digit in the root. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits, the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits, the first of which is 4.
first
;
Ex.
1.
the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits, the first of which is 8. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number, and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.
From
A
will
show the
comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.
7744 80 6400
1
+8
160
+ 8 = 168
1344
1344
Since a
2 a
Explanation.
= 80,
The
is
trial divisor
160.
a 2 = 6400, and the first remainder is 1344. Therefore 6 = 8, and the complete divisor
168.
As
x 168
Ex.
2.
[700
+ 20 + 4 = 724
2 a
a2 = +6=
41)
00 00
1400
+ 20 = 1420
4
341 76
28400
1444
57 76
6776
1T6
221.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
In marking
off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point, and if the righthand group contains only one digit, annex a cipher.
places,
we must
in .0961
are
'.GO'61.
The groups
of 16724.1 are
Ex.
3.
12.688
45 2 70
2 25
508
4064
6168 41)600
41344
2256
222.
ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator, or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.
EXERCISE
Extract the square roots of
:
82
EVOLUTION
Find
177
ing numbers:
29.
30.
37.
feet.
5.
31.
.22.
33.
1.01.
J.
35.
T\.
13.
32.
1.53.
34.
36.
JT
Find the
side of a square
38.
yards.
39.
feet.
TT
circle
1 equals irR ,
= 3.1410.)
40.
CHAPTER XV
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY
223.
is
an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number, but no higher power e.g. x 2 7, 6 y2 = 17, ax 2 + bx + c = Q.
;
224. complete, or affected, quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown
quantity.
225.
A pure,
equation.
226.
is
unknown
quantities.
is 12.
f
12
= a,
Ex.
A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.
1.
Solve 13 x2 19
etc.,
= 7^ + 5.
6#2 =
x*
24.
Transposing,
Dividing,
= 4.
=2.
2.
This answer
Check.
is
frequently written x
13(
2)2
=
7(
19
= 33
2)*
= 33.
178
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.2.
Solve
179
.=g
x2
4 a2
Clearing of fractions, ax
or
Therefore,
+ 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x =
.
.
4 ax,
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:
83
2.
3.
4.
5.
16^393 = 7.
15^5 =
6.
7.
8.
(a?
9.
6(2)=10(ajl).
10.
s3
?
+
oj
+3
= 4.
2 4fc 5'
18.
'
=:
y?
b*
180
on
__!_:L
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
a;
.
22
a;
2
,
'
4,
&
{
c#
+a
and
c.
2a
f
If a 2 4 b 2 If s
If
=c
,
find a in terms of 6
.
=
a
2
(' 2
= Trr
r.
26.
2
,
If s
= 4 Trr
'
2
,
solve for
r.
If 2
f 2 b*
= 4w
f c
sol ve for
m.
28.
If 22
= ~^,
solve for v.
29.
If
G=m m
g
solve for d.
EXERCISE
1.
84
is
equal to
its
reciprocal
144).
2.
number multiplied by
ratio of
its fifth
Find
is
the number.
3.
The
two numbers
(See
is
3,
150.
4.
108.)
of their squares
5.
3,
The
sides of
two square
fields are as
5,
of each field.
:
6. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2, and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. Find the side of each field.
228.
one of
_____
b
The side right angle. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If the hypotenuse
whose angles
a
units of length, and the two other sides respectively
c
2
contains
=a
f
b2
may
rec
square units.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
7.
181
The hypotenuse
of a right triangle
:
is
4.
Find the
sides.
8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12, and the third side is 15 inches. Find the unknown sides and the area.
9.
The hypotenuse
of a right triangle is 2,
sides.
is
two
Find these
10.
The area
:
sides are as 3
4.
24,
11. A body falling from a state of rest, passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet, in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet, (b) 100 feet?
J
12.
The area $
/S
of a circle
2
.
the formula
= Trr
whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S
(Assume
and their
2 7
2
.)
13.
Two
3850 square
feet,
radii are as 3
14.
4.
Find the
radii.
.
8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals
If the radius of a sphere is r, its surface
(Assume
ir
2  2
.)
Method
of completing the
square.
The following
ex
ample
illustrates the
method
or
Transposing,
 7 x f 10 = 0. x* 7 x=
10.
member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. To find this term, let us compare x 2
The
left
mx f m
to
2
.
2m, we have
of
or
m = .
add
()
Hence
2
,
make x2
to
which corresponds
2
.
182
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
2
Adding
( J)
to each
member,
Or
(*i)
x
Hence
Therefore
Check.
62
= f. = \ # = ff. or x = 2.
2

.
7
+ 10 = 0,
22
7
+ 10 =0.
Ex.1.
80^69^2 =
9 x2
sc
Transposing,
15 x
2
Dividing by
9,
= 6. = .  x
Q) 2
to each
(i.e.
adding
member),
Simplifying,
(*~8) a =
at
a;
= x\ = 2,

\.
J.
or
J.
230.
Hence
Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus
formed.
Ex.2.
a
Clearing of fractions,
x
x2 x
x2
+ 2 a2
x
f
= 2 ax.
2 a*
a.
Transposing,
Uniting,
2 ax
f 2 o)
 x(l
=  2 a2  a,
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Completing the square,
183
Simplifying,
 1+2?=
"*"
Vl  4
~
a2
Transposing,
= l+ * a
= 1 +2
<*
V IT
*
Therefore
Vl
<
EXERCISE
85
184
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
45
46.
2x
4.
= 12.
x
la
48.
o^
or
}
3 ax == 4 a9
7 wr
49.
=8
r/io?.
=0.
231.
Solution
by formula.
2
= 0.
article,
2a
The
roots of
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.
1.
185
Solve 5 x2
= 26 x5.
5 x2
Transposing,.
20 x
Hence
Therefore
5,
= 
+ 20
==
= 0. 26, c = 5. V^tT)*  4
4
10
2024 =6or
10
l.
Ex.
2.
Solve
j>o?
p*x
x
px*
a
2
p.
Reducing
to general form,
Hence
Therefore
=p
1
(p
1), c
p.

P +
VQ^+T? ^4^
EXERCISE
Solve by the above formula
1. 2.
3.
:
86
+ 2 = 0. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.
2or
}
5o;
11.
12. 13. 14.
a?
= 44 x  15 x9 25x* =
21
a;
4.
6.
6.
15.
16.
7. 8.
= 64120?.
17.
18.
a;
2
.
TIO;
?i
2
.
9.
19.
10.
20.
21.
2
o;
186
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
to
two decimal
22. 23.
24.
25.
x2
= 1  x.
26.
x(x
<2
 4) =  2.
2S3x
1
2
.
3x?+x = 7.
ar>8o;
= 14.
27
x==
42a; a=:i^^.
a?
28
7al=7s
be required to solve the
232.
Solution
by
factoring.
Let
it
e(l uation:
5^ + 5=26*;
all
or,
transposing
!)( 5) =0.
factors
Bx
1
1,
or #
is zero,
a? 5
Solving (1) and (2),
= 0, = 0.
we
x
=^
or x
= 5.
any degree,
233. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other
factored.
member can be
Ex.
1.
Solve a*=
7a? + 15x
2 2*
=7
x
se
2
2
16 x.
Transposing,
Factoring,
2a^7x
sc(2
16rc
Therefore
+ 3) (x 2xf3=0, orz
roots, 0,
5)
= 0. = 0. 5 = 0.
and
6.
},
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.
2.
187
Solve x?
3x
x*(x
4x
+ 12 = 0.
3)
Factoring,
3)
2
4 (x
= 0.
Or Hence the
234.
roots are 2,
2, 3.
members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity, the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. In order
If both
to obtain all roots of the original equation, such a common divisor must be made equal to zero, and the equation thus
formed be solved.
E.g. let
it
be required to solve
If or x
we
divide both
= 2.
3,
we
9
obtain x 4 3
=5
or
=
2
equation x
(x
is also
a root, for
a:
 3)(x + 3
3.
is
5) = 0.
Therefore x
=3
= 2.
3)
= 0,
Ex.
Form an
6.
The equation
I.e.
evidently
(x
Or
EXERCISE
Solve by factoring
6
2.
3.
:
87
= 0.
a?.
9.
0^
21
= 10
10.
4.
11.
12.
13. 14.
5.
6.
7.
8.
a?10a=:24.
aj(
15.
16.
2o3 f9a;
3
or
a;
(5
188
17.
f
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
tt(3tt
+ 7tt)=6tt.
2.
19.
w(w
x2
w)=6tt.
a 2 =(x
a)b.
18.
uz + u
21.
20.
(a
+ 1) (a 3) = (s + l) (3 a).
22. (2a?
3) (a
24.
25.
+ 2)=
(y( j_
?
(+ 3)(a?+2).
27.
23.
or
a 2
2
a?
26.
ara +
ft
+ c*.
50.
'3a!J 
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Form
51.
52.
189
3,1.
3,
2, 5.
0,9.
55.
1,
2,3.
57.
58.
1,2,3.
2,0, 2.
4.
54.
56.
2,3,0.
235.
EXERCISE
1.
88
its reciprocal
equals
6J.
2.
3.
The
difference of
.
of their reciprocals is
4.
288,
is 36.
5.
The sum
of the squares of
85.
6.
What
are the
numbers
of
?
is
The product
210.
Find
the numbers.
7.
8.
its
square by
is
.
G,
and whose
product
9.
Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the number.
its
sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches, and equals 190 square inches. Find the sides.
area
a perimeter of 380
rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. feet.
190
12.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The length
1
AB of a rectangle, ABCD, exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet, and the line BD joining
two opposite
vertices (called "diagonal")
feet.
c equals 221
Find
AB and AD.
13.
The diagonal
:
of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches.
A man
A man
sold a
watch for $ 24, and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch.
as the
16.
watch cost
sold a watch for $ 21, and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. dollars. sold a horse for $144,
A man
Two steamers
and
is
of 420 miles.
other,
ply between the same two ports, a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. At what rates do
of the train.
19. Two vessels, one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other, start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively, and the slower reaches its destination one day
How many
If 20. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2.10. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple, he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for each
apple ?
A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. had paid $ 20 less for each horse, he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for
21.
If he
each horse ?
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
22.
is
On the prolongation of a line AC, 23 inches long, a point taken, so that the rectangle, constructed with and CB as sides, contains B 78 square inches. Find and CB.
AB
AB
2
191
grass plot, 30 feet long and 20 feet wide, is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot, how wide is the walk ?
23.
24.
A rectangular
by a path 5
feet wide,
Find
TT r (Area of a circle .) 25. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work, and working together, the two men can do it in 3 days. In how many days can B do the work ?
26.
equals 3 inches.
27. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ?
236.
if it
contains only two unknown terms, and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the
other, as
0,
^3^ = 7,
(tf I) 4(aj*l)
= 9.
237. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
Ex.
1.
Solve
^9^ + 8 =
**
0.
By formula,
=9
Therefore
\/8
= 2,
or x
= \/l = 1.
192
238.
stitute
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.
2.
Ex.
Let
+ 15 =
J
<
Then
or
or
rf 15
0,
y8)=0.
Hence
Le.
Solving,
>,
or y
8.
1,
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
4
a; 4
:
89
10a; 2 h9:=0.
436
3.
6.
6.
8 = 2 a*
2.
a;
= 13.T
2
2
.
4.
7.
8.
3 a4
44s + 121=0.
4
2
37aj 2 = 9.
2
16 a^40
11. 12.
aV+9o
=0.
10.
(a:
+aj)
18(x2 +a;)+72=0,
2 (^Z) 
"3
14.
a?
15
1=2*. T
17.
18.
19.
16.
^^
~ 28
(a?
^ 2:=Q>
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
193
oa/*
2
f
bx
f
2a
Hence
1.
it
2a
follows
2
2.
If b Ifb* 2 If b
Iflr
4 ac
is
is is
4c
4 ac
a positive or equal to zero, the roots are real. negative, the roots are imaginary. a perfect square, the roots are rational.
kac
4 ac
is 'not
3.
Ifb 2 Jfb
is zero, is
4ac
4 ac
is
= 0.
Ex. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2  2 z  f> = 0. The discriminant =( 2) 2 4 3 ( 5) = 04.
.
real, rational,
and unequal.
12)
= 0,
c
241.
If the roots of
by
'
i\
and r2 then
,
b 4 Vfr 2
4 ac
T*
b
Vi
,
4 ac
2a
Hence
/ 1
4r2
=
a
Or
194
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
2
a?
these results
x +a += a
0,
If the
(a)
coefficient
ofx
in
a quadratic equation
is
is
unity,
equal
is
to the coefficient
of x with
the
sign changed.
(b)
5 x
=:
is
j, their
product
isf.
EXERCISE
89 a
3.
4.
lla; + 18
2
8.
5aj
9.
x2 7
10.
a;
a?3
'
~ ==
5.
6.
^12.
3a;2
+ 4a: + 240 = 0.
12.
10 x
= 25 x + 1.
2
7.
9x2 ~
the
In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots:
13.
14. 15.
= Q. 9a3 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.
x2 !i>x + 2
z2
2
16.
17.
18.
Ooj
a 2  19 #
20.
21.
ar
+ ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0.
60
2
= 0.
22. 23.
24.
x2 4 x
0^
or
j
205
= 0. = 0. +
12
2
CHAPTER XVI
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
242. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters
:
I.
II.
provided
w > n.*
III.
IV.
(ab)
The
first
of these laws
is
no
Fractional and negative exponents, such as 2*, 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power, and
,
we may choose
for such
is
con
244.
We assume,
>
m therefore, that a
an
= a m+n
of
m and n.
of involution, (a m ) w
;
= a""
<
must be
*The symbol
smaller than."
similarly
means "is
196
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
true for positive integral values of n, since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.
laws,
we
meaning of
In every case we
unknown quantity
and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative, fractional, or zero exponent
equal
x,
disappear.
245.
To
find the
meaning
of
a fractional exponent;
a*.
e.g. at.
Let
is
The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.
Hence
Or
Therefore
Similarly,
^=(a^)
3*
3
.
= a.
0?=^.

we
find
a?
Hence we
m$.
a?*.
24. 25.
a\
26. (xy$.
28.
(bed)*.
30.
'&M
27. 3*.
29. as.
31. ml.
197
33.
v/o&cT
34.
ty?.
38.
35.
v'mT
36.
Vo5
37.
\/xy
\/m.\/n.
2'
4*
= 4.
41.
a*
*
= 3.
43.
3*
= 27.
45.
5 a*
= 10. = 49.
= 2.
42.
= 2.
44.
27*
= 3.
46.
7z*
4*
48.
49.
50.
64*
+ 9* + 16* + (32)*.
246.
To
find the
meaning
a.
Let
a = a.
is
The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a, e.g. a *
a2
Or
a=l.
is
equal
to unity.
is
zero,
5L is indeterminate
Indeterminate.
hence
is
198
247.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
To
find the
meaning
cr n.
Let
x=
or".
a",
an x = a.
Or
a"#
= l.
248. Factors
may
be transferred
from
the
numerator
to
the
denominator of a fraction, or
the exponent.
vice versa,
NOTE.
each
is
The
fact that a
if
=
we
members by
a.
a8 a
2
1
1
.
= =
a a a
a1
a 2
=
a2
etc.
199
or 5 .
25.
6 or 2
^^ ^. 3
a;
27.
24.
7~ l a 2b 2
""^T"*'
* 31
l>
'
<W*
arV
8
30.
^L. c
32.
^?2 y'
34.
mi
m~^.
40.
f
(2w)~i
1
.
44.
a^
41.
66
45.
1 L
?>i""i
cci
,
2
.
a;"*
38.
39.
a?
42.
.
2
.
2m~i
43.
rfS.
200
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
48.
49.
= l. ar = i. 2 =f 3* = f
x~
l
50.
17'
51.
52.
53.
z*
= 1. = 5.
= .001.
54. 55.
10*
5*
= .1. = ^.
5or*=10.
10*
of:
3ll4~*
60.
61.
+ 1~* f 21  9*. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 *  81 f (a  6).  (.008)* + A. + A_. (.343)* + (.26)*
1
(I)
75
that:
may
be treated by the
same
Examples relating
examples con
Ex.
1.
(a*&~*)*
(aVM = a*&~* +
'
'*&*
Ex 2
201
follows
(a)
(6)
(c)
Write
all radical
Remove
(d) If required,
Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division, etc., are performed.
NOTE.
EXERCISE
Simplify
:
92
2.
&.&.&.$".$*.
72
.
OA 20.
3.
79
7~ 5
27

7~ 6
4
5.
6.
25
26

2~ 8
2~ 9
22.
a 3
aj"
a 4
a8
3sVS.
/ 7fv 7.
3 a 4
2 a?
2 ar 1
23.
7.
6a.5a.
6 * 6 *' 6 *25.
'
9.
7*.7i.7*.7W.
.
,
26.
4 x^.
10.
#*
a;
'
11.
12.
13.
V5.^/5^5.
95 ^9i
5** 5.
27
28.
14.
16. 16. 17.
S'sS8.
__ 29
/m '=V
a9 ia 4
14an
(4**(Va)
4
.
18.
202
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
32.
V ra
4/
\/m
33.
34.
35.
40.
we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that, the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The
252.
If
powers of
a?,
Ex.
1.
1 Multiply 3 or
+x
5 by 2 x
x.
1.
Check.
lix
2xl
=+1
Ex.
2.
Divide
by
^
2a
3 qfo
4 2 d
203
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
r
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
^>~
18. 19.
Vor
2 x h or
2
2 or
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
va
\/2
/
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
is
unity; as
Va,
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
may
be solved by the
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
*x+y
38.
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
42.
V16a
:
2
.
44.
2\
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Ex.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
same
lowest order.
Ex.
3.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
210
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
V3,
</2.
29.
2\
3*.
32.
26.
A/2, s!/3.
v/3,
30. 31.
V2,
A/3,
^5.
^7.
33.
V3,
</3, ^4.
27.
28.
^2.
V2.
v^S, \/5,
34.
^2, ^4,
</20.
\/7,
Arrange
35.
v/3,
in order of
magnitude :
\/7,
V2.
^6.
37. 38.
VS.
^/IT,
39.
5V2, 4^/4.
^2,
36.
v/4,
V5,
^126.
40.
^3, ^30.
To add or
form. terms
their
subtract surds, reduce them to their simplest add them like similar
add
them by
proper
1.
signs.
Ex.
Simplify
V + 3 VlS 2 V50.
I
VJ + 3VT8  2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2  10 V2 = 
V2.
Ex.2. Simplify/a35
~
o  3\
+
,
3:
\/=^8
v~
8ft 2 s/a;
3 
s/
3ft 2
^y
Ex.
3.
Simplify
V~
RADICALS
EXERCISE
97
:
211
2.
2V87Vl8f5V72V50.
VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
3.
4.
V18+V32VT28+V2.
V175V28+V634V7.
6.
6.
VJ+V8V1 + V50.
4V805V45.3V20 + 6V5.
8VT8J2V32
7.
8.
+ 3V835V2.
9.
10.
11. 12.
13. 14.
V45c3
3 abv'ab
V80~c~3
f
V5a c + c
2
+ 3 aVo^
3 Va^
;J
a6 V4
aft.
212
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
23.
98 ab
^"
fab
"
.fab
\~\
jab
FW
MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS
266.
the
Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational
factors,
for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order, and
then multiplied.
Ex.
1.
2
.
26^
5 4/6072
16^6272.
6*. y*
Ex.
2.
Multiply
V2 by
3\/l.
Ex.
3.
 2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 5 V7
8\/7
105 6V35
106
+ 44\/36.
RADICALS
EXERCISE
1.
213
98
11.
12.
13.
14. 15.
2.
3. 4.
6. 7.
VlO V15.
Vll.VSS. V20 V30.
v/4.^/2.
\/3
\^).
v/18
v"3.
8.
9.
V5 Va
VaV?/
V
Vr
16.
VTO.
V42.
aVa; 6 V4
5.
10.
a?.
fWa
17.
18. 19.
V2aV8^.
25.
(V2+V3+V4)V3.
(5V22V3CVS)V3.
(3
20. 27.
21.
28
+ VB)(2V5).
40
10
30.
(VmVn)(Vm+Vn>
33.
Vm
\
Vm) (Vmf 1
6(Vaf Va
{
Vm).
6.
34.
(Va
Va
36.
(6V23V3)(6V23V3).
37.
38.
(5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2).
(VmVn)
(V3V2)
8
.
40. 41.
(V6 + 1)
1
.
39.
2
.
(2V3)
8
.
214
42.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA
(3V55V3)
S
.
43.
44.
(3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).
(2
45.
V3  V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).
46.
(5V72V2)(2VT7V2).
(5V2+V10)(2V51).
47.
48.
49.
(3V52V3)(2V3V3).
60.
51.
52.
Va
v/a.
53.
v/a
DIVISION OF RADICALS
267. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the
surd factors.
E.y. a
VS
f
a?Vy
= \/ 
x*y
this
all
method.
Ex.
Ex.
268.
is
1
2.
(V50f 3Vl2)4V2==
however, the quotient of the surds
is
If,
a fraction,
it
more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.
RADICALS
This method, called rationalizing the
the following examples
:
215
divisor, is illustrated
by
Ex.
by V7.
1.
Divide
VII by v7.
we have
to multiply
VTL_Vll '
~~"
\/7_V77
;
/~
Ex.
The
2.
Divide 4 v^a by
is
rationalizing factor
evidently \/Tb
hence,
4\/3~a'
36
Ex.
3.
Divide 12 V5
+ 4V5 by V.
is
Since \/8
12 Vil
\/2,
V2 V2
269. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators, arithTo find, e.g., metical problems afford the best illustrations.
V3
But
if
1.73205
we
simplify
JLV^l
V3
*>
^>
division
Either quotient equals .57735. Evidently, however, the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by
1.73205.
Hence
in arithmetical
work
it
is
always best to
216
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
99
Simplify :
1.
^/H
.
7.
V8?^
V7 xy
13
11 n
V7
~
VH
5 2.
Vn
V7
'
8.
VffV?.
14.
2V5
'
2 V3
o
vfi*
'
^
Va
12.
Vll
212*.
.
and
Given
V2 = 1.4142, V3 = 1.7320,
i.
20.
V5 = 2.2361,
21.
find to
A.
V3
24
.
V2
22
.
V8
12..
23
A.
V8
JL.
V48
25.
V5
270.
if
4=V50
Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate, they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.
Va + Vb
and
Va
Vb
271.
is
rational
272.
To
whose denom
inator is
a binomial quadratic surd, multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.
RADICALS
Ex.
1.
217
Simplify
2V3V2
'
V3V2
~
= 4 + V5.
Ex.2.
s
Simplify
a;
Ex.
3.
V2 + 2 2V21
e
EXERCISE
Eationalize the denominators of
:
100
V82
2V3
1fVS
218
6
.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
13
~3
V51
14
16.
6V7.W3.
19.
V52
17
1Va?
Vg+v/2
5V77V5
'
V3V2
15.
V5V7
18>
^SVg.
2V5V18
mVm
Va
22.
V3 = 1.7320,
:
and
V5 = 2.2361;
27.
find to
_!_.
V21
=
25
J?_.
Vo1
26.
v
2V3
28.
24.
V3 + 1
1+V5
3V5
'
V5+2
31.
V32*
to 1
+ V2
and 3
f
2V2.
By
it
can easily be
RADICALS
219
Ex.
1.
Simplify
Ex.
2.
of
EXERCISE
Simplify
1.
:
101
(3Vmw)
2
.
5.
V643
9.
2.
3.
(V2~u)
7.
\/l6*.
11.
4.
V255
8.
\/125" .
12.
To
by
inspection.
According to
G3,
(
V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3
2
= 8 + 2 VIS.
v8f 2\/15, the If, on the other hand, we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form
v52V3 5 + 3.
To reduce
is
220
Ex.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
l.
Find
Vl2 4 2 \/20.
is
12
is 20.
These
Ex.
2.
Find
Vll  6 V2.
coefficient of the Irrational
term
is 2.
^TT 6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.
is 11,
2 \/18.
is 18.
The
Hence
^11  6\/2
+2
Ex.
3.
Find
V4 + VJ8.
EXERCISE
102
:
RADICALS
Simplify the following expressions
18.
:
221
Vl32V22.
19.
+=. r
22.
4
2 V6
VT 4. V48
23.
VT  V48
4
20.
.
V4 + V12
RADICAL EQUATIONS
276.
radical equation is
root of an
unknown number.
5,
\/x
Vx =
+ 3 = 7,
(2x
xrf
1,
i.e.
necessary in most
as possible,
much
and
to
member.
If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.
first
involution,
Ex.1.
Solve
vVf!2a = 2.
a;,
Transposing
Vsc2
+
f
12 12
x2
= x f 2. = xa + 4 x f 4.
8.
4x
= 2.
member
to 2.
The value x
=2
reduces each
222
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA
Solve
V4 x + 1 f V4
f
1
,
a; f
25
= 12.
V4afT~l.
24 \/4 #
Transpose
V4 x
25
f
25
4x
f
25.
V24~+~l
= 0. f V/2TT25 = 5 +
x
12.
278.
Extraneous
roots.
new
one
root, viz. 5.
4#f 4 = 9, an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. tion which has two roots, viz. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1, a socalled extraneous root.
radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members, the roots found are not necessarily roots of
they
may
be extraneous roots.
The
results
of
the solution
Ex.
3.
Solve Vx
f
+ 2 Vx'2 +
(.
Therefore
Check.
It
= 3 x  3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.  1) = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3, or =
VzMx2
7
f
f 7
9.
at
J,
the
first
member
= V2.
member =\/2
+ jV2=v^;
RADICALS
Hence x
If
a;
;
223
= 3,
\ does not satisfy the given, equation it is an extraneous root. both members reduce to 5. Hence there is only one root, viz.
3.
If the signs of the roots were not restricted, x root of the preceding equation, for it satisfies the equation
.
NOTE.
would be a
VaT+T
Ex.
4.
4
VxT~0 = \/8 x
f 1.
Solve
Vz+T + V2aT+3 =
+ "b"x
f
A5_
15.
42x43
Transposing,
Squaring,
Transposing,
Factoring,
Therefore,
4 z2
Check.
If
If
x
3
= 3,
is
V,
tlie Jeft
to 5.
the right
member
V2.
Hence x
= G.
* Exclude
all
make
224
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
280.
Many
1.
radical equations
may be
of
238.
Ex.
Solve
af* 33
af*
+ 32=0.
Factoring,
Therefore
RADICALS
Raising both members to the
 power,
225
= 32~*
or 1"*
= ^ or
1.
Ex.
2.
Solve x*
8x
x*
8 x f 40
 8 x + 40 = 36,
+ 40 =
Vz2
$x + 40 = y,
y
then x2  8 x
2
Hence
y'
2y
= 35.
_ 2 y  35 = 0.
= 7,
or y or
Therefore
2
5.
 8 z40 = 7,
Vi 2 8a;f40=
5.
= 26.
x
Since both
=9
or
1.
=6
or
3.
members of the equation were squared, some of the roots be extraneous. Substituting, it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation, while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. This can be seen without substituting, for 6 and 3 are the roots of the
may
2 equation Vx'
8x
it
positive values,
its
x + Vx
a?
= 6.
3
6.
2Va;
= 0.
3.
4.
5.
o;*2a;i~24 = 0.
make
the given radicals
226
11.
or
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
8a
f
40
V*
8.a
440
= 35.
12.
a^x2
5
2
+x
;
SB*
4
a;
+3=
6.
ar
fll x 3x
12 V5l?
+1 1^7^30 =
1
+ G V2^"^I + 2 =
4.
19.
a;
7a?HV^
3
7a;f 18
= 24.
2.
20.
Va?~3o~
= y?
3 x f
CHAPTER
XVIII
2
and there
is
3 x2 f 4 a;
f
(a?
2)
x Quotient
f
Remainder.
"
ani^
^
2
respectively for
Quotient
"
and
Remainder,"
transposing,
a?
R = x*  3 x + 4 + 8 As
72
(a?
 2) Q
does not contain a?, could, if Q was known, assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. = 2, then (x 2)Q 0, no matter If, however, we make a? what the value of Q. Hence, even if Q is unknown, we can find the value of R by making x = 2.
to x
we
find the
remainder obtained
= 3,
^ = 381+2.360 = 244.
Ex. 2. Without actual division, find the remainder when m. ax4 4 bx? + ex2 4 <fo f e is divided by x
Let
then
2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w, R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.
E = ax + &z +
m) Q.
227
228
282.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The Remainder Theorem. x is divided by x
The remainder
6
sion involving
m in place of x.
5
(4x
 4x411)^0 +
(
3)
 4( 3)f
11
= 949.
+ 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X 
1)
+7
by x 
1 is 6*
3
+ 7 = 632.
EXERCISE
Without actual division
dividing
:
105
find the
remainder obtained by
2.
3.
4.
5.
4
48 a2
b.
}
2 by
a1.
x5 a^
7
by x
6.
+ ^by x + b.
+ 6.
2
j
7. 8.
a f b 7 by a
^14y
~132/

283.
If the remainder
is zero,
the divisor
is
a factor of the
dividend.
when
2 x
m
is
3
E.g.
if
42
 8'= 0,
hence (x
00 *.
fora?.
229
1.
Factor a?
15.
7
2
a?
f
7a?f 15.
i.e.
+ 15, _
,
15, are f 1,
1,
f
3,
8, f 5,
Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a; f 15 does not vanish. Let x =  1, then x8 7 x'2 4 7 x + 15 = 0. Therefore x ( 1), or x 4 1, is a factor. x8
By
dividing by x
a?8
f 1,
we obtain
7
x2
16
= (x +
l)(x
a;
f
16)
EXERCISE
Without actual
1.
106
division,
show that
divisible
4x
2
+3x
2
a?
as
is
or
2
by
is
a;
1.
2.
3.
or
+ 3^  7
f
5a
18
divisible
by x
2.
x*
34
ar
225
is
divisible
by x
5.
7.
2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 8. a 5x 6. a 2a + 4. 9. 2m 5m  13m + 30 10. a 8a f 19 a 12. p 5^ + 8p 4. 11. & p* 9^ + 23^15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. m f m n 14. a + 32.
8
}3
t
ar*f 6aj
o?5ar
3
+ lla;r6 = 0. + ttt15 = 0.
21.
2 2.
23. 24.
25.
17.
18.
^10^429^20=0.
oj
5x2 f3a;49 = 0.
a?
19.
20.
f
or*
2
a?
aj?
a?
a?
230
285. If n is a Theorem that
1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
positive integer,
it
is
odd.
By
factors,
and have
for
If n
is
odd,
ar
+p=
z6
e.g.
(x
y is
not divisible by
287.
Two
importance,
x* f/
= (x +/)O  xy +/),
2
Ex.
1.
Factor 27 a* f
27 a 6
8.
2 8 (3 a )
+8=
288.
The
difference of
Ex.
2.
Factor
consider
m
m
n9
We may
dif
* The symbol
231
is
The
first
method, however,
preferable, since
it
more
Hence
= (m
Ex.
3.
f
n)(m
mn
f
w 2 )(wi
;i
mn
f
w 2).
Factor a 12
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
:
107
x3 8=0.
26.
+8=0.
27.
as 27=0.
28. a;=
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
289. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
xy
x*y
f
290.
known
quantities lead, in general, to equations of the fourth few cases, however, can be solved by the methods degree. of quadratics. *
I.
+y
AND xy
291. If two of the quantities x f y, x y, xy are given, the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy
Ex.1.
Squaring
Solve
(1),
==5
>
1^ = 4.
& + 2 xy +
= 25. 4 xy = 16.
2
2/
(1)
(2)
(3)
(2)
4,
(4)
Hence,
xywe have
3.
(5)
= 6,
Hence
"
/

X
y
= =} 4.
*The
232
233
y,
and
F* Lx
'
(1)
'
(2)
(3)
(4)
2 + 3 =
293.
1.
The
arranged in pairs,
roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g. the answers of the last example are
:
r*=2,
b=3.
EXERCISE
Solve:
1.
108
2.
'
10.
3.
r
("
1 = 876.
"
"'
"'
{
8.
I I
x + y=7.
12.
^, =
4
[
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x
4 i/
13.
"I
14.
,o 18.
I
x+y
= a.
19.
I* Jj
^
[.
=^
18*
A system of simultaneous equations, one linear and ne quadratic, can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown
uantities
by means
of substitution.
Ex.
Solve 2 x
3y
= 7,
2
(1)
From
(1)
we
have,
7
,
Substituting in (2)
Simplifying,
( \
~^V\ +
2
/
2y
2
?/'
 ~ y = 5.
x
"
(3)
49
etc.,
42 y
Transposing, Factoring,
9 y2 17 y 2
+
)
(y
40 y
(17 y
Hence
Substituting in (3),
4 y = 20. + 29 = 0.  20) = 0. or y =
1
,
f J.
aj
= 2,
or JJ.
EXERCISE
Solve
:
109
47/ = 0.
3.
r^
2
as
]
f a;?/ i
= 6,

5.
or*
f
4 xy
= 28,
la;
'
'
235
>
'
1
lla
8
12~
10
13.
9.
10.
III.
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown
295.
quantities. 4^ 3 x 2 y
3 y3
and # 2
2 xy
5 y2
are
homogeneous equations.
one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous, the example can always be reduced to an example
296.
If
x* 3
2x
2
Ex.
1.
Solve
.
y*
+ 2y = 3,
(1) (2)
7 xy
+ G if = 0.
3y)
:
Factor (2),
(x
to solve the
2t/)(2 x
Hence we have
two systems
(3)
(1)
From
(3),
x2y.
3 y2
Substituting in (1),
4 f
+ 2 y = 3,
V~80
Hence
=1
y
,
3 3,
':il e :)
236
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra, the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.
=
Ex. 2
Solve
2,
(1)
x x
5,
2,
15 x2
 20 xy +
15 y 2
= 2 x 5.
(3)
(4)
Subtracting,
11 a2
Factoring,
= 0. = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y)
16 xy f 5 y 2
(3)
Hence
solve
(2)
From
(3),
Substituting y in (2),
109
a;2
^
EXERCISE
Solve:
6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0,
}
VI09, y
110
10^370^ + 7^ =
16^7^
237
m
U.
'
<""
=m
_
14
'
& 3^42^=43.
'
15.
"
IV.
298.
SPECIAL DEVICES
Many examples belonging to the preceding types, and others not belonging to them, can be solved by special devices, which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the
student.
Some
of the
299. A. Division of one equation by the other. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.
E,!.
Solve
* + '*
{
y? a?
f
 xy 4 y = 7.
2
(3)
(4)
Squaring (2),
(4) (3),
2 xy
+ y2 = 10.
Bxy9,
238
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
111
Solve
*
fajy=152,
i
*>.
f^ +
3
7/
= 133,
= 189,
* '
300.
B.
Some simultaneous
?/,
quadratics can
be solved by
?/,
considering not x or
as
, xy,
2
,
+y
etc., at first
it is
unknown
quantities.
In
such expressions.
Solve
Ex.
i"
<Vx
f
'
unknown
6,
2.
(1 >
(2)
1.
Considering
V# +
y and
y as
quantities
and
solving,
Vx
4 or
V^^y = 3
x
4
or
we
obtain by squaring,
Therefore
239
Ex.
2.
Solve
(1)
(2)
Let
Then
r
__
17^ + 40.
,
Hence
=
V
or
4.
I e.
Hence we have
to solve the
two systems
U)
x
!
*/
17.
[2x +
:
y=
17.
The
EXERCISE
Solve
:
112
5.
36*
2.
6.
M6.
4. 7.
F+y+
240
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
+ a^lSG,
= 198.
'
**
5x+ 7y =
13
'
'
f 21 ^ =
15.
16.
or
CCT/
+ 3 f + 3  4 y = 47
a;
xy
(7
n*.
18.
25.
+ o5)(6hy) = 80, =
y
1
y*
19
'
26.
x
1
20'
41
400'
=34,
'
x2
6 xy
= 15.
27.
241
Q
7,
~\
OK OO.
30.
f*K
36.
31.
32.
3 a2
38.
33.
25
34.
.
7'
j/
39.
= 48201, 203):
ix
oo
301. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation, as a
,
,
^
oo
etc. etc
302.
Interpretation .of
division,
finite
=x
if
x.

is satisfied
by any
is
value of
a?,
hence
may
be any
finite
number, or ~
indeterminate.
242
303.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Interpretation of ?
e.g.
The
~~f
fraction  increases
if
de
creases;
ToU"
^100 a,
great.
= 10,000
a.
By making x
any * assigned
zero,
TO^UU"
sufficiently small,
 can be
If
It is
made
larger than
number, however
be
comes
infinitely large.
by the equation ~
The symbol
304.
creases,
oo is
= QQ.
 decreases
X
if
called infinity.
Interpretation of
QO
The
fraction
if
x
x
inis
infinitely large.
305.
I,i
solving
a problem
the result
If in an equation
terms containing
unknown quantity
306.
The
solution
=
is indeter
If all terms of an minate, or that x may equal any finite number. equation, without exception, cancel, the answer is indeterminate.
is satisfied
by any number,
i.e. it
is
an
Ex.
1.
Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.
x
f 2,
Let
2,
as
+ l,
be the numbers.
(a:
Then
Simplifying,
Or,
I)
x2
'
f
2x
1.
1.
(1)
= 0.
(1),
i.e.
Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.
(1)
is
an
identity,
and
243
(1)
(2)
From
Or,
(2),
Substituting,
1=0.
y
finite
QO,
Hence
/.e.
and
a;
oo.
no
numbers can
EXERCISE
1.
113
is
One half
of a certain
number
equal to the
sum
of its
Find the number. third and sixth parts. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.
3.
Solve
~o 3 x
v
~K 6 x
r x
6
4.
Solve
x
a;
3
x
x5
a2  8 x
+ 15
6.
Solve
 2 y = 4.
*
6.
Solve

7.
Solve
(aj
+ 1)
(x
+ 2) = ( + 3)
114
(a?
+ 4).
EXERCISE
PROBLEMS
1.
The sum
is
of
squares
2890.
their
is
377.
244
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The
difference between
is
of their squares
325.
is
17 and the
sum
5. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet, and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.quals 20 feet. Find the side of each square.
6.
The hypotenuse
is
103.
228.)
The area
and the
hypotenuse
is 37.
sides.
8. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area, 148 feet of fence are required. Find the dimensions of the
field.
9.
The area of a
nal 41 feet.
10.
feet,
The diagonal
is
is
perimeter
11.
146 yards.
Find the
sides.
is 6,
the
The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the numbers.
and
is
The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and
12.
is
the breadth
f%
of
Find the
13. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches, and the edge of one, increased by the edge of the other, equals 4 inches. Find the edge of each cube.
14. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters, and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edges.
245
The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches, their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. irR *.) (Area of circle
and
16.
The
radii of
two spheres
is
is
20 inches.
differ by 8 inches, and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere
If a
number
of
two
digits be divided
its digits,
the quotient
is 2,
and
if
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
307.
to
A series
is
some
fixed law.
of a series are its successive numbers.
The terms
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
308. An arithmetic progression (A. P.) is a series, each term of which, except the first, is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.
The common
Thus each
difference is the
to each
7,
17,
a,
10, 3,
4, a
11,
f
....
d,
2 d, a
3d,
....
The common differences are respectively 4,  7, and d. The first is an ascending, the second a descending, progression.
309.
To
find the
nth term
term a and
the
f
d.
added to each term to obtain the next one, 2 d must be added to a, to produce the 3d term, 3 d must be added to a, to produce the 4th term, (n 1) d must be added to a, to produce the nth term.
Hence
= a + (n  1) d.
series 9, 12, 15 is 9 f 11 246
(I)
or 42.
PROGRESSIONS
310.
247
first
To
find the
sum s
19
of the first
term
a,
= a + (a
Reversing the order,
Adding,
2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l)
2s = n
*
.
(a
+ + (a +
l)
l).
Or
Hence
Thus
from
(I)
= (+/). 2
sum
of the first 60
I
(II)
to find the
' '
odd numbers,
1, 3,
we have
Hence
= I + 49 = *({ +
EXERCISE
1.
115.
Which
(6)
(c)
(a) 1, 3, 5, 7, .;
2,4,8,16,...;
3,
1,
5,
9,..;
(d) 1J,
6 terms of an A. P.,
if
a = 5, d = 3; a = 2,' cZ ==  3 a = l, d
= 2.
series 2, 5, 8,
.
3.
4.
5.
....
series
6.
7.
8.
series 1, 3, 5,
9.
series 2, 4, 6,
248
Find the
10.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
last
3, 7, 11,
to 8 terms.
6,
,
11.
2,
4,
',
to 7 terms.
12.
13.
8, 12, 16,
to 20 terms.
to 10 terms.
:
3, 2J, 1,
Sum
to 20 terms.
,
to 16 terms.
16.
17.
18.
to 20 terms.
1,
1J,
to 15 terms.
>
2f
2.5
H + if
f
to 10 terms.
,
19.
+ 3.1 f 3.7 f
to 12 terms.
,
20.
21.
(x +"l) 4 (#
1
2) f (x f 3) H
to
a terms.
+ 2f3 + 4 H
hlOO.
\n.
22.
23.
1+2+3+4H
first
n odd numbers.
for the first yard, and for each than for the preceding one.
$1
For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all
together ?
^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000, and a yearly increase of $ 120. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ?
j
311. In most problems relating to A. P., Jive quantities are involved; hence if any three of them are given, the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations
.
rf.
(i)
(ii)
PROGRESSIONS
Ex. 1. The first term of an A. P. is 12, the and the sum of all terms 1014. Find the series.
s
24ft
last
term 144,
1014, a
= 12, = 144.
I
(1)
1014
= ^(12 + 144).
2
(2)
From
Hence
(2),
78 n
Substituting in (1),
= 1014, or 144 = 12 + 12
d=ll.
n
d.
= 13.
The
series
is,
12, 23, 34, 45, 56, 67, 78, 89, 100, 111, 122, 133, 144.
Ex.
2.
Findn,
if s
= 204, d = 6, J = 49.
= a + (w 1) .6. 204 = ^ (a + 49).
49
(1)
(2)
Substituting,
From
(1),
Substituting in (2),
6).
= n(104  6 n). 6 n2  104 w + 408 = 0. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. n = 6, or 11 J. Solving, But evidently n cannot be fractional, hence n = 6.
312.
When
is
three numbers are in A. P., the second one mean between the other two.
is
Thus x
the arithmetic
6, if a, #,
and
b form an A. P., or if
Solving,
I.e.
x=
the arithmetical
is
equal
to
250
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
116
:
a x
f
and a
b.
3.
and
n
2.
y and #f5y.
4.
a+
and
b
a
b
5.
Between 4 and 8
means)
so
that an A. P. of 5 terms
6.
produced.
Between 10 and 6
insert 7 arithmetic
means
,
7.
8.
j
,
T?
^,
f?
,
6?
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
= 16, s == 440. Find a and Given s = 44, n = 4, = 17. Find a Given a = 7, = 83, n = 20. Find d. Given a =  3, n = 13, = 45. Find d. Given a = 4, n = 17, = 52. Find d and Given a = 1700, d = 5, = 1870. Find w. Given a = , = ^ 3 = 1. Find n. Given a = 1, n = 16, s = 70. Find?.
f
J 1 1
/
Find
in terms of a, n,
and
s.
man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. ceding one, and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. How much did he save the first month?
19.
$300
is
divided
among 6 persons
in such a
way
that each
one.
How much
PROGRESSIONS
251
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
313.
A geometric progression
first, is
it
(G. P.)
is
multiplying
derived from the preceding one by by a constant number, called the ratio.
E.g.
4, 12, 36, 108,
....
4,
2 a, or, <zr ,
The
314.
,
and
To
find the
nth term
/ of
The progression is a, ar, a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by
,
.
n~ l
.
Hence
Thus the 6th term
= ar
n~l
.
(I)
.,
is
16(f)
4
,
or 81
315. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.
= a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r, rs =
s
 arn ~ l .
4
(1)
,
arn
(2)
(2),
s(r
1)
8
= ar"
7*
JL
a.
Therefore
Thus the sum
= ^ZlD.
.
(II)
of the
8 =s
first
lg[(i)
l]
==
32(W 
1)
= 332 J.
NOTE.
If
is less
:
than unity,
g==
it is
nf +
q(lr")
1
252
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
may
(I)
/=<!/',
,_!=!>.
Ex.
l.
(it,
To
insert 5 geometric
number
of terms is 5
+ 2,
or
7.
Hence n
7,
=
I,
9, I
= 670.
676
t
Substituting in
= r6 = 64.
r^2.
Hence the
or
series is
0,
0, 18, 36, 72, 144,
288, 676,
576.
 18,
36,
 72,
144,
 288,
And the
required
means are
18, 36,
72, 144,
i 288.
EXERCISE
1.
117
Which
(a)
2,6,18,54,.;
...
;
f,l,,4,
....
....
(b) 1, 4, 9, 25,
(d) 5,
 5, + 5,* 5,
term
3.
is 3,
Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. whose and whose common ratio is 4.
first
term
4.
is 16,
Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. whose and whose second term is 8.
Find the 6th term of the
series J, f, 1,
series
.
first
5.
6.
Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the
Find the 9th term of the
^,
fa,
series 6,
4, 3,
fa,
,
+f%9 %
....
.
7.
8. 9.
Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the
ratio is
^,
,
series
10.
first
term
is
125 and
whose common
PROGRESSIONS
Find the sum of the following
11.
25S
series
..,
to G terms.
,
12.
13.
14.
to 6 terms.
..,
,
to 8 terms.
to 7 terms. to 6 terms.
15.
..,
16  nV> i*>
!718.
>">
, to
7
, ,
to 6 terms.
M,i
a9
,
12 terms.
to 5 terms.
Z
s.
a^,
a;
19.
20.
21. 22.
23.
= 3, == 160. Find a and n = 4, = 3. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2, n = 5, s = 310. Find a and Given r = 3, n = 5, s = 605. Find a and
4,
Given r =
5.
J,
J.
I.
7,J
and 270.
24.
of r n decreases, be written
If the value of r of a G. P. is less than unity, the value The formula for the sum may if n increases*
= _
fl
flf
made
taking n sufficiently large, r , and hence ~ r , may be than any assignable number. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is
By
less
r^Ex.
1.
J,
J,
Therefore
8^
=
1
=1
1
' .
254
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Find the value of .3727272
.;)7?7272
...
....
=
a
.3
.072
.00072 f
....
first
form an
infinite G. P.
= .072,
1
= .Ql.
Hence
.= _4Z*  =
.01
^
.99
.
= .72. =
990
66
Therefore
.37272
. . .
=A+
10
i. 65
= 1L
110
EXERCISE
Find the sum to
1.
118
:
1,
i
i
J,
.
....
5. 6.
5, 1, I,
....
2. 7.
8.
1,
1,
4.
 1,
i,
.
...
9, 6, 4, ....
If
= 40, r = j.
of:
11.
infinity.
.555....
.191919...
13.
14.
.27777
....
10.
.717171...
12.
.272727..
is 9,
.3121212..
ratio
15.
is J.
The sum
Find the
of an infinite G. P.
first
term.
is 16,
16.
8.
The sum
r.
of an infinite G. P.
and the
first
term
is
Find
17. Given an infinite series of squares, the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. If the side of the first square is 2 inches, what is (a) the sum of the areas, (6) the sum
BINOMIAL THEOREM
EXERCISE
119
257
Expand
the following
3.
(1
+ xy.
7
.
5.
(s
+ i).
4
7.
2.
(xy)
:
6
.
4.
(a2)
6.
/2a+Y\
8.
(z2
^
Simplify
9.
4 (1+V#) + (1
Va)
4
.
10.
(\
9
.
11.
12. 13.
+ b)  b) w (a
(a
f (1
12
ri)
11
.
14.
15.
+ a)
7 (a f 2 b) .
.
16.
17.
Vx + ^r
18.
^Y
Va/
19.
Find the
Find the
u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .
coefficient of
.
20.
21.
22.
23.
a6
16
in
 6)  b ). (a
100
.
24.
25. 26.
f
f
}\8
:
27.
28. 29.
Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of
.
(a
+ b)
258
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
REVIEW EXERCISE
Find the numerical values
1.
of
27 x*
27 xy
or
f
9 xy~
8
,
if
y=2j
2.
*=M

M
3J
f
2
]
2
]
2
1
3
1
3
1
M.
5J
lj
2j
3}
8
4j
y
8
,
2J
4J
16 x*
32 afy
24 afya
1,
^
2,
3,
+
2, 4,
if
x^l,
y
3.
2,
3,
3,
3,
4.
2,
3,
2,
4,
5.
4 *2
4 xy
^+
a:
?/
2
?/
2
3,
^+^
3,
2
,
if
= = =
2,
1,
2,
2,
1,
3,
4,
4,
1,
4,
3, 3,
5.
4,
1,
2, 2,
3,
2.
2,
2,
6.
4.
4 (2 a
13 a a b
+
a
ft
31 a 2 ft 2
38
3, 1,
aft
+
4,
2,
24
4,
ft
)
5,
6.
2 (2 a
aft
f
2
ft
), if
= =
2,
1,
2, 2,
3,
2,
4,
2,
3.
5.
a8 + ~T
3
2
ft'
a2
+ 3T r C + + c2 + 2
;]
a 2^
aft
r
3 a l} 2
be
4,
1,
,f
ac
1, 2,
a
ft
= =
2,
4,
5,
1,
5,
1,
5,
5, 5,
5. 6.
2,
3,
3,
3,
2,
2,
4,
2,
7.
6.
(ft
c)(c
4
3,
2, l,
(c
3,
1,
a)(a
1,
+
2,
1,
ft)
 a(a
4,
1,
4
ft
c)
2. 3.
c(a

c), if
a
ft
= = =
4, 2,
1,
2,
3,
2,
2,
3,
3,
(aft)(ac)
a
6
(ft c )(fta)
1,
(ca)(cft)'
4,
2,
= = =
2,
1,
2,
1,
1,
3, 2,
4 2,
1.
2,
2,
1.
3,
3,
4,
2.
259
x
c)
.
b(x
(b
1,
c)(x
a}
c(x
(c
g)(x
6)
= 1, = 2, c = 3, x = 4,
a
/>
3,
2, 5,
~c)(b a)  1,  2, 3, + 1, f 8, 4,  2,  4, 5, + 2, + 4,
(5,
a) (c
2.
'
b)
3,
2,
6,
1,
4,
5,
2. 1.
2,
3,
9.
a, by
The
and
c is represented
Find
r, if
a
6
= = c =
3, 4,
5,
10,
8,
25,
24,
7,
29, 21,
20,
41.
9.
21,
26,
17,
15,
40.
Add
10. x 3
11. x 2
+ 
2 ax*
f
a zx
+
2
?/
a8
x3
f
3 ax'2 ,
2 a3 7 y4
3
//
f
ax'2
2 x 8. 6 y4
+
3
z8
,'
4 x2
2
5 z3
8
.c'
4
/
,
10 z 8
12
6 2 8.
12.
x
C
4x y
+
.r
6 x
4 xy
,
4
?y
,
4 x
4
.
xy 2
12 xy*
G y4
4 xy*
zy +
12 xy*
4 y4
13. x 3
x'
14.
15.
+ x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2  7 ys,  x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2  2 x?/, 4 z  \ yz + xz, 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8  x 5 4  2 x2  8 3 + 7 x4  4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8  11 x 5 12
z
7/
ary,
a:
a;
r>
or
16.
11 z 4
x4
12
17. 4 a 5
9
8 x4
*y
+ 12 a 8  10, a 4 + 11 a  a 5
a
,
6 a4
4 a8
 a8  7 +  a 4  5.
x3
2 a2
4a
9 a2
3 a5
18.
11 x 8
14
x^ij
,
7xy* +
z 3,
2 x 2//
2 x?/
7 y3
260
19.
6 VI
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4X5V14 #48,  4\/i + x 3Vl 4 x 4 4 Vl 4 4 3, and 2 Vl 4*/
2VT+7  ?>
x
4
20.
of 2 x 8
4
4 x2
4
and 4 x  2
3 ax 2
.
4vTT~y 3.  x 2 4 4 x 8 from
ax 2
4
6 x8
4
21.
Take
the
sum
of
G a8
4
4
4 a 2x
4
x8
x2
a'2x,
and
7 x
a 2x
2
ax'2 4 3
x 3 from G a 8
2 a 2x
4 x8
22.
4
2 x2
23.
2,
4
2 x8
4
4 5,
x'2 .
and 4
4
2 xs
4
and 5 x 3
y
5
,
4
From
44
the
3
//
and
G x 4y
2 x2
2
,
sum of  3 .n/ 4
4
12 x 5
4
x?y
4
2 x6
f
4 x 4 ?/
x//
5
?/
,
4
5
y/
,
take the
sum
of G x 5
.
2 x2
2 y5
24.
2
xy
4
the
^V
4
G x5
From
take 4
sum sum
2 c
of
 2 x 8y2 44  x  x2
,
/
x5
2x
3 y5
G x
x*,
542 x 2 and
,
7 x
x
the
ft
4 x2
11 x.
of
a,
ft
25.
From
of 2
the
4 c 4
3 a,
c 4ft,
ft,
and a
2
ft
4
ft
3 c take
sum
2 c
4
2 a
and 2 a
5 x
c.
;]
26.
to 3 x 2
2 x
4
3 will give
27.
the
From sum of 2
1
sum
2 c
of
ft
4 c
a,
c 4 a
ft,
ft,
and a
ft
4
ft
3 c take
a,
2 c
2 a
and 2 a
3 x2
28.
3 x
4
 2  c.  3 x  1 and x 8 G 11
4
3 x2
from
G x2
4
x.
29.
Add
9
Ifcc
2
7 12
,
5 10
4
G 11 4 3
7 12
3
4
5 10 2

7 12
.
7 12
5 10
0" 30.
and
 5 10 b
3
\
G 11
=
ft
x4y42,
f
ft,
y
ft
z,
=x
}~
z,
and
d=
c
c
4
x4#4z
</,
find
(a) a
(ft)
(c) a 4(</)
4 c,
(*) a
c,
ft
c,
(/) a
+ 
ft
4
rf.
Simplify
31. 2 x
32.
33.
 [3
if
(3
_^
ft
6
ft
f
c)}]
a:
4
4 1).
34.
35. 36.
3 x2
I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].
REVIEW EXERCISE
37. 7 a 2
261
{5
2
a2
2 a + (2 a 2 i
j
38. (5 a
39.
2 a
{3
2x a
 [3 y [2
ft
2 z
+ {4
(3 a
ar
40.
f [3 c
41. 3 x 42.
43.
 [4 x 
 (2 x2  (7
a;
+ 2) 
(4 x
2 x
7)}].
'J
44. 45.
46.
5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a 3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^  {2 a (ft  a~^~c)K]. a { b (c  rf)} + a [ & + { 2c(V/  e '/)}] (2a + 2b  3c).  (7 i + 4 r:)  [0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c  {2 a  (6  2a  6)}]. 13 a  96 [17 a 56 [7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. a  [2  {3 c  (4 d  5 )}] + {4 c  (2 ,Z  2 <?)}
13 ft
ft
_[&{2c(3d +
Perform the operations indicated
47.
2
:
7e)a}].
48.
49.
50.
51. (1 ar+a; )(lz a ). + *+!){> + 2). 2 52. (.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2  2x + 3). (;r 2:c+ l)(ar 1). 2 53. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). + 4x + 5)(j;  3). (x  6 x + 5 x'2) (2  3 *). 54. (/> 4  2 2 + 1)(7, 4 + 2 2 + 1), (1 55. (4 + 3a 2  2)(1  4 a 2 + a 4 ). 56. (a 2 + 2 + c 2  ab  ac  6c) (a + f c).  c). 57. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac  be) (a 58. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.c 2  2 2  3 z 2 ). 59. (a 2 + 2 + 9  3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 60. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2  6 xy  2 zz  3 yz)(2
a
(*
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
?/
ft
ft
ft
?/
a:
61.
(ar
7)(ar
5)(a:
3).
62. 63.
64.
65.
a) (2:
+
7/
a)(x
2
66.
67.
(r
(1
(a;
+

^+
y)(x
(x
+ a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).  ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/
*V +
*)(! +
ar)(l
^ 2 )(1
**).
68.
262
69.
70.
8
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(a
2
z 3) (a 8
2 a
z 3 )(a 6
2
a:
(a
12
a
(a
l)(a
2
f
2a
l)(a
+ +
(
a:
12
).
1).
71.
(a
(2
b)*(a
4 ft)
4
73.
74.
f
72.
75. 76.
77.
ar
 y)\x
y).
2
(x
2
(a
2
2a +
+
"
4
l)(u
2a
n
f
(:r
a;y'*4y
2m
)OK
y
I)(a m
).
(rtP+i 4
2 6)(a^+  am&t
4
A 2 *).
ft
78.
79.
(a
ft
2n
4 c
c
4
2 am
20
(??2
+
:
6
f
p ) (w
 ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft
n
an b
c)(a"*
?n
+ + c).  m np c  n pc).
ft"
l
Simplify
80. 4 (a
ft)(a
2
81.
p(p +
?)
/;
a 2 ).
82. a(2
+
4
3ft)
(2a
4
4
^)
83.
84. 85. 86.
87.
(x
4
2 y) (2 ^
3 y)2(/
y) (^
3 V)
,v) 4 (a? 4
y)*(x
y).
(p
 (/> 
3 v)^(;>
2 2
+
2
3 9).
O
(x
(a
+
4
y
y)
J
4
 (x 42
y)
O
2
4
y) (^
44
).
4
4
 (^
4
4 ^/(.r
2
.
xy
).
b 4 c)
 (a
2) (s
4
ft c)
j;
88. 89.
90.
(x (x
(
+ *)  2 (y 4 z)  z\x 4 y). 4 y + z)(x + y  z)(x y + z)( x + y + z). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4 c)  a) (a? 4(c
4
y) (y
c)(ar
2
ft
+
8
a).
91.
92.
93.
94.
4
2
^>)
c)
44
a2 a8
4
2 4 c .
ft
8
ft)
4
ft
4 c
ft
ft
ft
a}.
ft
95.
identities,
side
of the equality.
(a) (a
(ft)
a8
4
ft
4 c
4
3(6
c)(c
4
a)(n
+
2
ft).
(.:y)( a;2y)(.r3y)4l)y( a
:y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46
8
//
REVIEW EXERCISE
Simplify
:
263
96.
[10(
4 &)
5(a
n
4
6)
]
5(a
4
&)
6 (a
4 b)
98.
3* 5 a 21 (10 a
4
5 a*)
Qafl^
=
5 a*.
99
100.
O3a
n
O2a
4~
O4a
2a
T
(3'
3m n
~*~
3 3n
3")
3".
102.
103.
4 (6 x
4
23 x s 33 z
43
42
a;
4
41 x
4a;
20)
*
(3 a*
4
a?
5).
(20 x*
4
72 x 2
35
4 '30)
~ (4 ^ 
5 x
4
10).
1O4.
105. 106.
(2<
107.
108.
109.
110.
(x*
9 ax 8
44
12
(2 y
44
2 y
2 4
02 y 23 a
4
16 y a 50
4
48)
2
3 a
4
5 a
3
 (y 2 ~ (a 2 )
5 y
6 a
12).
10).
114.
25 4  16 a 6 4 40 />)  (2 a 2  4 aft  5 b*).  6 y 4 4 27 x*  35 x 2 2 )  (7 xi/  9 x 2  2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25  2 2% 4 y 4  2 xy 8  21 x*if) (4 ^ 2  y 2 4 5 xy). (8 x* 115. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 116. (.r 4 4 2y 2 4 y 4 )  (x 2  xy 4 y 2 )
4 a 2// 2
/>
a,v/
//
=
a:
117.
118.
(a
8
44
16 a 2
4
4
256)
s
~4
(a
4
4a
^
4
16).
(a
8
^4
+
8
& 8)
2 2
119.
120. 121.
(a
8
8 68
8 4 c 4
6 afo)
f
+ ^ 4 ). 26 (a
4
c).
1).
Cr
(z
r
2
(a:
4
xy
4
).
122. 123.
124.
1).
r
264
125.
(1
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
+
a8
3
G ax
z8
8 z 8)
5
(1
2 x).
126.
127.
128.
129.
f
&).
remainder when a
3 a b
12
a 2 6'2
b* is
divided
By what
expression must a:
f
3 be multiplied to give
4
x*7
8 a*b + 4 a 131. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2
ttfc
+ 2187?  12 M
132.
x*
G x2
a:
be divided to give
x2
5 #
9 as quotient, with 8 as
remainder?
133. 3(2 x
134.
135. 136. 137. 138.
2
4(ar
 4(0 x  5) = 12(4 x  r>)  22.  3) = 12  (x f 9). 5(2 x  3) 2(j:  2) = 3  2(5  9) + 3. 7(2 x  9) 4 7(4 *  19) + 5 = 4  3(2 z  3). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x  4)  2(10 x  7) = 4  (x  5).
1)
.
3)
a:
a:
a:
+?+4=
o
13.
139. 1 o
+ 5 + 1=15.
o
o
140. 10(2 x
141.
9)
7(0 x
a?
32)
4x
3(2 j
3).
142.
143.
 3 a:).  G)  2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x  3(* + 4) + 9}  (1  3 x). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a:  1)  (x + 3) ]  5{.r + 7[or  2(4  a:)]}.
 (j a?
144. 42(3ar
145. 5
146. x 147. 148.
149.
 (3 a?
2 [2 x
 2 7^~5] +
1).
3)
= x\x  2) +
2(ar
+ 4).
(5a:
150. (4 x
 3) (3 x 4 7) =
(7 x
1 1)
(3 x
 4)  (9 x +
10)
(a:
3)
REVIEW EXERCISE
151.
265
152. 153.
154.
155.
156. 157.
+ 4) (2 x + 5) (* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (*  3) (3  5*) + 47.  2) (j? + 1) + (x  1) O + 4) = (2 *  1) (s + 3).  3) (a:  4) (a  5) = (3  l)(z  14) (a: + 3) 24. (a  2) (7 *) + (* 5)(.r + 3)  2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (a;  7) (a; + 5) = (9  2 x) (4  a:) + 229. (2  6 x) (3  2 x) = (1  3) (3  2). (7 14   5(x  3) (j; + 2) + (5  z) (4  5 x) = 45 x  76.
(x
(x
a;
a:
ar
a;
158.
159.
160.
161.
+ 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.  2) a + 7(x  3) = (3 x  7) (1 x  19) + 42. 5(ar x  17) 2 + (4 x  25) 2  (5 x  29) 2 = 1. (3 O + ;T)O  9) + (a; + 10) (ar  8) = (2 x 4 3)(* (ar
2
7)
113.
162. 164.
^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o
163.
f^ + ^sO. 2 4
;j
of
which y
is
the
greatest.
By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.
165.
166.
;
169. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. The second contains 3 first, and the third twice as many as the first.
How many
170.
eacli flock Y
The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first, and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first, these two angles would be equal.
The sum
What
171.
A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. If the area of the frame inches, how wide is the picture ?
surrounded
108 square
is
172. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. =  (F 32). (a) If C. = 15, find the value of F. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers?
(c)
F. will produce F.
= 2 C.?
266
173.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
A A
number increased by
3.
3 gives the
same
result as the
numbet
multiplied by
174.
number divided by
3.
same
result as the
number
diminished by
175.
train.
An
The two
express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 12 m. and 5 h. 15 m.
respectively.
What
is
the distance?
if
square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. side were one foot longer.
176.
each
177.
sister
;
A
the
boy
is
and
3 years
sum
the father.
178. A house has 3 rows of windows, 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row, and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. How many are there in each window ?
;
;
179. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now, and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years
hence.
180.
is
of 80 horse
16 horse power
other.
181.
The length
is
by 2
feet;
if
each
increased 2 feet, the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. Find the dimensions of the floor.
dimension
182.
The age
of the elder of
it
two boys is twice that of the younger; was three times that of the younger. Find the age
5 years older than his sister
183.
father.
boy
is
father; the
sum
184. x*
185.
+x
2.
187.
2
2
_ no.
190. 4 a 2
yy
42.
188.
186. z 2
92;36.
13 a + 3. + 11 ~ 6. z 2 + x  56.
a;
REVIEW EXERCISE
193. y 2
194.
267
199. 2
200.
 77 y + 150. 2 a 2  19 a  10.
+
3a
196. 6
197.
a;
5 xy
13 y
a;
 6 y2
+
4.
3y 2
+ ary  10 y a x*  12 *  64.
a;
195. a 2
 28.
+
198. x*
15.
201. # 2
29 y
120.
a:
//
205.
14x 2 25ary + Gy 2
3 x* x 2
216. 2 x 2
 22 z +
48.
206.
12 x
+4.
217. 2 afy
13
28
a:
ary
66 y.
218. x
219.
209.
210.
211.
ifWy+b.
11 2 + 10 20 x 4  20 z 8 a:
220. 221.
a:
ar.
+ 30 x. 2 + x 2 ) 2  (a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a;y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a  6.
.
5 x 2.
222. x*y
223.
212. 3 x
 21
a:
54.
224.
7x 2
225. a^a
226.
a;
f
yx*
+ z*x + z*y.
230.
15 x 2
26 x
a
.
8.
227. 7a 228.
a:
231.
232.
233.
9a4a6
(a
+ b  c) 2 
(a
 c) 2
229. *2
234. 235.
a;
a;
a:
236. 24
+ 2  1. 23 12.
a
a: a:
237. 238.
a:
a:
a:
V
2
a:
 x + 1. 2 2 y f
1.
239.
(13z
5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6
(12
c 2 ) 2.
2
a:
+ 4y2) 2 +
240. 4a 2& 2
241. (a +  xm y + xym 
(a
c)
(c
rf)
242. xm+l
243. 4
m +^.
245. 3 ap
2
.
3y
248.
246. 3 x
244. 2a
te
3%
ly
247.
a+a* + o a +l.
wiy
+ la
mx +
aw.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
249. 7 ax
250.
251. 252.
a;
I
Find the
II.
C. F. of:
253.
G(x+

l)'\
9(x
1).
a;
254. 3 #2 255. 5 x 2
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.
261.
+ 23 x f 20. + 20 x 4 8. 2 2 + 39 xy 4 15. x*y* 4 18 xy + 5, 18 x 2  11 a 2  10 a 4 9. a 4 10, a 3 a 2 2  5 ab f 2, 3 a% 2  4 ab + 1. 10 x 2  23 + 12, 30 ^  G7 x f 33. x 2 4 16 x  13, 28 2 f 71 x  (55. 7 12 2 2  1 9 ;ry 21,48 afy 2  73 xy  91.
10
a;
8,
7 r
f 2,
15 # 2
z/
/;
a?
a:
a:
//
262. x 2
263.
264.
265.
ar
267. z 2
268.
269.
270.
+ 3 x + 2, x 2 + 4 + 3, x 2 + 5 f  3 x  4, * 2  x  12. * a  23 x f 20. 2 x2  7 f 5, 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5, 8 2 + 10 x  3. x 2  18 ry + 32 y 2 2  9 xy + 14 y 2
ar ar
a: ;r
,
6.
a:
x2
4
a:
~ +
a;
8 xf
<
3 xy
+ a;
40 y 2
272
f
f
!8a:
 77 + 77
'
2?5
5
'
a:
7  17
6
*
14
273
P a 5y>+4. ^27/7 + 12
2?6
28 x 2
12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .ry  2/ 2
REVIEW EXERCISE
277
8
agg
269
a;
9
'
2Q4
4 *2
'
8x+8
'
278.
_
"*
m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f
sa
285
z4
n*
a;
 ar
279.
*2
"
2
+ Oge. 9
286
2*
3 x
f
*2
ar
 2* + 3 x*
280.
4 J' 4
w mp  n 2
)P
287
"
281
2 q^(
a:
288
'
 2c
a:
282.
z2
(a
c)a;
+ ac
.
289
'
 (y 2
z)
*
t
(j;
y)'
z2
283
t
290
'
x'2
y*
z2
+ 2 0:2
291
*2
+
0;2
22
+
2
2 yz
4
2 zx 2
ary
_ 22 _
292
^
?/.rL.!/...
a;
fr
293
'
y
<?
294
2 2
+ 2 cV +
2 a 2^ 2
ft*
c4
295
296
'
297
'
270
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
298
23.
*
19
23
19(23
23. + 19)
2Lz + 3 x
"
2 99
'
+4
*3
+7
300.
Lnl +
ar
a;
^. 4
3
301.
(a:
l)(ar
2)
(x
l)(ar
2)(*
3)
302.
a?
__ + *_ + + la?la?
*
a
303.
(a
+
a
b
c) (a
+
^
ct)
(a
+
a
c)(a
f e)
304.
x x
~~
+^
i
~
''^
.
x
7.
(:
a) (x
2.
6)
_
305.
O(ca)
306.
X2
(ca)(ai)
1
x2
4
(a
+9
i_ 20 a
.
_L
12 x
1
35
307.
2
+ 7 _ 44
3.
^_2*(m
308.
^n
m+n
"*"
+ n) 2
g
309.
+
3
^ ""
310
a:
2
a:
2
a:
17
a:2
ar3
x 2 5a:i6"
BE VIEW EXERCISE
311.
i
271
a2
ft
312.
x8
.
x2
+ +
a;
_. a:
313.
2ft 2
a8
314.
.,+ a
10 z 2
*2
9*+
20
*2
8*
15
315.
(1
,2
1 f
*2
2 x'
316.
(a?
4
2)
317.
nl
g(jL+ 2 )
^^^_
318.
1a:
a;
319.
Dx
x(l
*)
8(1*)
4(1
+*)
8(1
4(1
 *) + * 2)
321
c) 2
 (a  ft) 2
322.
(
ftc
g~ft
(
6_
c)
2_ (a._
'(a6)*(a:r)a
323.
272
Simplify:
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
~
324.
2 x*
8 x2
4 r8
i
2
a;
z2
4 x
^ "" 12 *.
250
10
325.
*
3a; 2
lOx
5x 2
+lOar
a;
a2
2 a
'
03
i^+^T
42
^2
l5rt~+~54*
327
8
'
^  28
8
11
J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2
12 a 4 a
6~7**
27^12^7  5 a  6*
t
328.
^ ""
1B x
40
*2
5 x
3;B
1037
329
4
a;
?/
4g~0yg
10 o#
2
6 a*
x'
2
24 y 2
1
 9 *// + 27  7 xy + 12
x
.y
(a?4y)
3(2 x
' _
^/
3 y) 2
330
.V
x 3y
 ll.y20

2y
2
;/
3 y
6
(
331 g gy
'
f
a
3y
6 q
2
y/
?/
fl
y~4y+
15
^e
10
6y
332
3
a:
+lly10
4 xy 8
a;
4 y2
2
5 x8
2 z6
10
a:
+ 8 2  4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+  19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a:
?/
'
~"
6
333.
a:
x*
 7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2
. '
a:
5 sy
a:
f
zy
+ 4 y*  2 y2
'
334
*2
'
2 y
8
a;
 15 33
.a:
'
2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a...
20 44
333.
REVIEW EXERCISE
336.
278
C

~
a
c*
\
c*
~
b
a2
q2
h
~
a
q

*
\
1
\
337.
(af2/,)
2
.
338.
(a
\
+ lV.
aj
339.
fl.1V. \x
yj
340.
V.
\5yl
341.
ni + .
1
345.
342.
(aWi + iJ.
(ar \
346.
343.
+ IV.
xi
347.
344.
?f!?.y.
348.
w
\.
a:
349
_
o;
**
i. '
"l
5
;
'
~ ~ x2 + 8 +
76
2"
350.
a>74
.;r
5 2 .13
13 s
11
1+
i, if a
3.
352.
Simplify
353
^3
*
pE+1
a
/2x~l
V
5a:~2
10
354.
?_2
^
 +
r
+^
a:
274
355
f
5
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
U<>3)
356
fl V
1* YTx
2
357.
ar
xy
+ yl
x*
358.
_
+
l
359.
y360. (a
a
b
yx
c
yabc
361.
1+2
362.
i+5
1+1
9 x2
f
363.
(~
364.
365.
I

f
366.
a2
4
REVIEW EXERCISE
2
275
367.
\b*
+ c*
b
+
b
b*c*)^
c
^\
b
(b* f c*) }
4
368.
(1
+ab)(l+bc)
369.
a
+
.
a
c
1
'
~ _^
.
370
'
(/')(&o)
372.
373
"1*7
374.
276
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
375.
3
Solve the equations
:
or
a:
2
(a;
376.
5*8,*2 = 15.
+
1)
45
O
377. 20
iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.
<3
378. 2(3 x
(x
+ 4) +
10)
+
1
(x
7)
= 0,
379. 4(*
.
+ 6)+

(* +
J
=
_j_
j(* v/
O
+ 5)10
^\:)
/
380. 5 {2 x 381.
r
3(*
1)}
!
' .
^  ^^ +
f
51)
+2J
0,
J !__7.
a:
5"^
10
xf x 
382.
#
k
_j
a:
a:
383. __4 2x
3_ = !.
5
vC
a:
385
10
17
387
L*J> _
14
1
7ar =
(5 ar
10ar
15
"""
2J
7
'
28
ear7 + i3JTo^
,
,
+ 16ar_63 24 g
2T~~~ia
7
12f
8 a'
389
5
14(arl)
18
105
390.
REVIEW EXERCISE
391.
277
_x
_ _
a:
ar 5
^
~
a:
a; 6~a:
7 _ x 8~a; 
8
9*
~r;
"i
37370 ^ x
i
x x
a?
R

7 ~r
a;
'2 a;
^
2
1(5
a;
a;*
*2
"
H 1
^ (a .
l)(x
a)
(a:
3)
42
3(4 *
2)(ar
1).
396.
(8 x
3) (x
1) = (4 x
a:
1) (4 x
5).
397.
x
398.
.5
f 1
=
x
.25 x
.2
a:
1.
399.
.5
x
=r
f .6
.8
.75
f .25.
400. 3*
177,147.
c
.
401. y
rt
^=
&
402.
a;
f
403.
JLg:==
7wa:
c
c
}
q.
b
404.
4O5
b b
f
(a:
a)
a(a;
ft)
2(ar
) (a;
J).
40,.
a:
a)(a:
&)(>:
+ 2a +2&) = (a: +
2 a)
408. (x
a)(x
f 6) f c
=
^
(z
a:
+
2
a)(a:
a:
i).
_____
278
410. 411.
(x
f
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
a)(z
b)
=
a
2 alb
=
a
(x
f
b)(x
2
.
a)
2
6 2a.
(x
 a)(x b
b)
(x
412.
x
b
c
b
_a
b
f
x
414.
f
f
f c
ab
b
x
415. x
1
x1
ab
1
x
a
c
+
b
x
a
b
416
417.
mx ~
nx
(a
mx
nx
d
c)(:r
lfi:r
b)(x
 c)  (5 I2x
~r
l
a)
 (c rt
a)(x
b)
0.
418 ~jo.
a
x
)
~
a
2 b
ar
IJ a;
4x
a
2 c
6
Qx
3 x
c
419.
2 a
x
c
x
6
f c
f
walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.
420. Tn 6 hours
;
in 9 hours
B walks
11 miles
number of two digits the first digit is twice the second, 18 be subtracted from the number, the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
421. In a
if
and
422.
hour.
A man
Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour, he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. How long is each road ?
423.
down again
How
person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour, and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour, and was out 5 hours. far did he walk all together ?
REVIEW EXERCISE
424.
279
A
in 2
lowed
steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. When will
425. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.
i,
y,
.
z2
y\
x*
xy + y*.
428. a
5,
t>,
a8
f
2 ab
f
6 2.
and
1J.
430. z 2
y, if
 iand
22
22
I
a
7y
wi*
+ y=
ny; ax
is
\
by
ex
dy.
432.
line
10 inches long
Find
433. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two, find the angles of the triangle.
:
If
is
one
equal
434. If a b
:
=5
n
7,
and
:
14
15, find
:
c.
435. Solve
436.
n(n
x)
=p
:
m n(p
:
x).
Which
ratio
is
greater, 5
7 or 151
208?
437. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation
of h feet
is
miles.
438.
a.
b.
Which
(9
c.
d.
+ 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).  46 2): (15a 2  31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2  49 63), 2 2 8 2  2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b*  a 2^ 8 + aft*  & 5 ) (a 8  6 8 ), (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a
(3a
2
2
: :
fc
280
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x, if
2
ft
:
29(a
&)
551 (a 3 
19(a
&).
c.
2 (3 a
2 ab
8 ft)
2 (5 a
f
4 ai
12
ft
a?
(5 a
ft).
of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces, what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ?
440.
The volumes
If
their diameters.
441. 7
442. 443.
a:
2y=
=
a;
5y
59.
x + 17 # 53; 8 x + y = 19. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 *  55 y = ;
16.
444. 445.
446.
7jr9y =
17;
9ar7# =
71.
a;
?/
447.
448.
453.
454.
455.
456.
457.
458. 459.
x + 5 y = 49 3 x  11 y = 95. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5z4:# = 3;rf2# = l. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 28 = 5 a  4 12  89 = q. 5j + 7 7 = = 2; 42 = 15y + 137. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y; 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 56 + 10y = 7a;; 15ar = 20 + 8y.  11 7; 21 7 = 27 + Op. 9/> = 2  7 y = 25; 4 = 5 y + 29. 3  35. 8  59 = 3 z; 5 2 = 7
;
/>(.*;
ft.
ft;
/)
ar
a;
a:
a:
REVIEW EXERCISE
460.
3 x
28i
~~~^ = 5;7;c=563y. 8
461.
a?
a?
3 y
12
15
~~10
__
10
"10
463.
465.
4 g
~
2
7g
.?/
.
'
a:
2 g
3 y
467.
= 2;
(or
 2y)
(2
= 2J.
468. ^
i^
= 7; + =2.
_
469.
i = 5; i
47O
3~12
}
4*
471. ax
by
472. ax
cx
by
= m;
473.
car
=
4
rf
cte 
ey =/.
+ eyn.
474.
475.
_
&
+y
dx+frj
c\
282
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
476. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12, and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. fraction becomes equal to .
477. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1, and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ?
j
478.
to
,
If 1
if 1
fraction.
479.
least
The sum
of three
numbers
is
is
21.
half the
480. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2, also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the numbers.
481. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age
;
years, and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find their ages.
latter
son's
then has
as
much
less
484. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30, and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3.
485. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100, and in 18 months to $2180. Find the sum and the rate of
interest.
486. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260, and in 20 months to $275. Find the principal and the rate of
interest.
487.
number
consists of
two
digits
4,
whose difference
is
4;
if
the
sum of
Find
the number.
REVIEW EXERCISE
488. There
is
283
digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.
number
;
of
two
the
sum
of the digits
also
if
number.
489.
equals d.
and the
difference of their
491. x
f
f
29
x
s
18J ; x
f z
13.
492. ,
493. 494. 495.
5
+
a;
2
2
41; *
425

=
;
*i, ,
3
a:
+ 5=84.
f
3 y
62
4a;5#+2z =
$x
a:
G; 2
ar
3 y
2 z = 8  z = 20;
;
a;
2y + 2z =
a:
2.
4#+
3z
35.
496. 4
497. y
Solve
:
+z=
5; z
25 ;
a;
+z=
35.
498.
a:
//
11;
;/
f
=a;
1;
a:
499. 3 x 500.
+
y
5 y
101
2 z
 z = 12. = 209; 2
e.
a: f
= 79.
ifi
a;
1+1 = 6; z
y
ifi =
z
502. 3ar
4r=9.
4
506. 2
a;
8;
5^
9z
10;
a:
?/
2z
= 15.
507. \
284
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
516.
517.
+ + 3579
2+?.
523.
!f
== 2800,
ra?
y
2
524
x
\
+y + = +
t
jx [y +
9
= 3af& + r, 36 + c, i=a + 6 c,
z
z
=3a&c.
1472.
ll"
REVIEW EXERCISE
285
525. When weighed in water, 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds, and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air, and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ?
in 3 days,
and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days, B and C and C and A in 4 days. In how many days can each alone do the same work?
526.
527. Throe numbers are such that the
the
first
and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Find the numbers.
sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and
the
sum
528. A vessel can be filled by three pipes, L, M, N. Tf and run together, it is filled in 35 minutes; if and L, in 28 minutes; if L and Af in 20 minutes. Tu what time will it be filled if all run
together?
529. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born; his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Find the present ages of his father and mother.
;
530. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. How long will B and C take to do
;
;
it
separately
531. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits; if the number be increased by Find the number. 90, the first and second digits will change places.
532. In
circle
A ABC, AB=6, BC = 5,
AC
in /),
touches
and
F respectively.
and CA=7. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD, CD, and BE.
533. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart, and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. If they had walked toward each other, they would have met in 2 hours. What are their rates of
travel?
286
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES, FRANCE, GERMANY, AND BRITISH ISLES
535. One dollar equals 4.10 marks. formation of dollars into marks. 536.
of
Draw
The number
in
of
workmen Draw
work
days
it
is
from
1 to
D=
12.
How
is
t /
long will
I
take 11
men
2
t' .
to
do the work? pendulum, the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0
537. If
to
3.3
Draw
down
pendulum
of length
8 feet.
Draw
538. 3 x
539. 2 x
5.
542. x
x.
546. 2
x2
7.
543. x 2 544. z 2
x x
5.
547.
x*.
540. 2 541.
3 x.
3.
2.
548. x 8
549. x*
x.
3 x.
545. x *x
1.
2 x
x*,
from x
2 to x
= 4,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The values of y, i.e. the function, if x = f 1, 2. The values of x if y = 2. The greatest value of the function. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.
,
REVIEW EXERCISE
551.
287
by a falling body
is
The formula
2
] f/f
a.
Represent
to t = 5. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale
.)
How
In
far does a
how many
x*"2x7 = Q. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 553. 2 554. + 5  = 0. 555. x*  5 x  3 = 0. 556. z 2  3 x  = 0. 557. x 2 ~ 2  9 = 0. 558. 3 x*  3  17 = 0. 566. x 4  4 x 2 + 4  4 = 0. 2 567. x 5  4  11 x* + + 2 8 569. If y +5 10, a. Solve// = 0. = 5. J. Solve
552.
a:
559. 2 x 2
560. 2
a;
.r
1
561.
562.
a;
a?
4 x  15 = 0. + 10 x  7 =  13 = 0. 3 x  G  3 x  1 = 0. 3 + 3 z  11 = 0. 2 8  6 + 3  0. z 4  10 x 2 + 8 = 0.
j;
a:
a;
.r
.r
a:
a:
x
a;
18 x
0.
568.' 2*
= 0.
a;
c.
r?.
//
Solve y Solve y
5.
15.
2.
e.
f.
Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie, if y
=m
has
Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ?
:
Solve graphically
570
'
571.
572.
'
8.
288
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4,5 xy = 0.
[
y =10,
+ ,4, j^f = 3. x
[
?/
577.
(f,
=
2 \*> + a: [
^
=
4'
=
581.
{f_7l j?
2* +
'' o 2
[
?/
>
3'
578.
: y*
or 25.
582.
a:.
579.
jj+;frf
:
583.
jf:ji f590>
(2
(3
(1
fMV

586
'
^
(a
6)T
'
587.
(aiy.
f ?>)
3
591.
+ + 4
.
<r)3 
3
a:)
,
585
594. 595;
588. 589.
(a
8
ft)
.
592.
593.
xY.
4
(1a:)
3.
(#
2)
596.
600.
597.
598.
(1
(1
(1
.
+
+
x) (l
^)
.
599.
4
a;
a:'
z2) 8
128 a 10 6
30
3
a:
+
2
?/
'
100 a 8
/;
100
10 6.
1
.
48 xf +
a:
04 aty 6
a:
//
16
2
605. a 8
606. 9
4 fSb
607.
2 (2 a ft 6
+ + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2  4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1  2 & 2 ) (4
a:
?/
14
a:
?y
4
a:
9(5
a:
//
fe
a;
a:
1) . 5 a*.
608. 609.
a:
f
~+
x
[
10
^i 
V 6x
+
+
610. a 2a; 2
611. a
612.
a:
f
2
2
aAa:
2 ?/
 2 6a: +
30 &c
a;
aa: 2 .
+
f
9 6
25 c
10 ac
a6.
943
++
~bx.
3
REVIEW EXERCISE
Find the fourth root
613. 614.
615.
4
289
of
4
4 a*b
a2
2
/;
f
aft
4
ft .
10:r 4
+ 9G* 3 +
HI x s
108 afy
616.
10 a 4
32
fe
21Ga;
/;
ft
of:
8 tvb
28 a 6 //2
50 a c ft 8
70 a 4 ft 4
50 a 8 ft 6
28 a 2ft
618. a 8
10 a*
aft
ft
8
,
112 a 8
 448 z +
1120
a:
1792 x*
+ 1792 2  1024 x +
a:
256.
621. 0090.2410.
623. 49042009.
624. 44352.30.
622. 4370404.
626.
VOIOOD + V582T09.
V950484
 V250  \/4090.
629. 035.191209.
630. 210.15174441.
32
631. 494210400001.
632.
2.
638. GGff.
633. 21.
634.
635. 4J.
636.
9g.
637. 40.
639. According to Kepler's law, the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. If the distances of Earth and
Jupiter from the sun are at 1
days, find Jupiter's period.
:
5.2,
640. x 2
641.
a
642.
643. 644.
645.
= 70. + 2 21 x = 100. *+* = 156. x 2  53 x ~  150. 8*' + 24* = 32. 9a; 2 + 189 z = 900. 651. (x 9 x
646. x 2
f
~

16
= 0. = 0. =
.
647t x
648
649.
x2
+ 9x _ 5x _
22 66
? * + 9 , = 87.
650. 3a; 2
2)
2
+x = 14.
7)
2.
f
(x
5)
= (x +
290
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
"""
ar
ab
REVIEW EXERCISE
~
291
X+ x
1>
+c
~ a
i~
i
c ~ b
"
x
690.
~T~
=
rj* 2
4(5
4 x + + Ox + 4
691.
692.
693.
ft
fi
0.
697. ax 2
698.
699.
a;
2 2
 2V3:r
2 V5
a:
f
+ fa + 1 = 0. =
0.
ex
abc=
fx
0.
a:
^^
6a:x2
8
=
a:
0.
'
a:)
28
21
5
'^
0.
1
__
)'*' _i.
7^^
^3"
^^ ^T
704.
2
(:r
:r)O
:cf 1)
42.
706.
707. 708.
292
709. **13a: 2
710.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
+36 = 0. 16 x*  40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.
714
2
*2
'
+
25
4
16

25 a2
711.
a:
713. 3or
i
___ _ 2* 5 3*27
715.
716. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 717. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.
sum is a and whose product equals J. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B, and working together they can build it in 18 days. In how many days can A build the wall?
718. Find two numbers whose 719.
equals CO feet.
of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 721. Find the price of an apple, if 1 more for 30/ would diminish
720.
The area
722.
217
;
The
is
find them.
723. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 724. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 725. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for
$375;
in value, he
many
312?
he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.25 might have bought five more for the same money. How shares did he buy ?
if
726. 727.
sum
is
47 and product
A man
10 pounds more of coffee, paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee, what is the
price of the coffee per
pound ?
:
4*+

8 l
8
+
ft)'
(J)*
(3)*
(a
64
+ i.
REVIEW EXERCISE
implify :
30.
31.
32.
293
(y* (a*
+ f
y*
+ y*+l)(y*.l).
+
a*x*
x*)(a*
/^
(a*
(rrr
c^
M
'
+ x*).  aM ?n^n^
f
ft*c*)(a*
6*
c*).
33.
+w
5 n*
+w
n )(m*
n^).
34.
35.
4 d*).
36.
37.
38.
39.
&2)( a
2_
1
j2).
1
(4 x~*
+
l
3 ar 2
+
2
2
)
a;
l)(>r
i
1).
40.
(64 x~
27
r
(4 x~^
3 y"*).
41.
42.
43.
(^ (a*
(a^
ary*
x^y
f
y*)
* +
*
(x*
y*).
f
M
6*
f
6)
(a*
U*")
4
a*6^
(<i*
&*).
+ 
c*
^ + cbf
44.
(x*
2 a
M+
f
a8)
(x*
aM"
a).
46.
(4
a:
12 x*
28 x
9 x*
42 x*
49)*.
48
^i?
x T
^2?
sT~
.2?
50.
n.
52.
(v/x) X
294
753.
754.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
755.
[1r^ T
1
i
;.
r* x ._
1 4j "r
O/lf * ^ ^ II r*
4"*"
1 A "1
1.
JU.1+J
756.
757.
758.
759.
2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.
+ V22
+ +
12 V2b8

760. 4\/50
4
SVlOOO.
761.
\/G86
v/lGv/128.
768.
vff +
V^~ 4^ 2^/2
776.
2V2
2V3
IIEVIEW EXERCISE
y/a
295
f
780.
782.
y/a
+ Va
Va
x x
781.
783.
+ 2V21.
789.
3812VIO.
794.
3J
 VlO.
786.
787.
16 + 2V55. 92VI5.
790. 14
791.
 4 V(j.
 12VIT.
103
788. 13 799. a
9442V5.  2 V30.
c
792.
7512V21.
793. 87
ac + 6t
12 ^
+ 2 Vab
Simplify
801.
806.
+ 3 V5
(
7
7
3 V'5
(
2 4
73V5
+ 3V5
+ V3 + V3
4

 2V3*
807.
Va
809.
f
Va
Va
f
+ Va
a;
296
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
 \/2y 
(x
a:
811.
812.
x/aT+l
 V? =
813.
VaT+lJ
f
^l  g.
814.
815.
816.
\/2(r+
/3
a:
1)
+ v/2 x +
a:
15
13.
+ V3
f
12
817. 818.
819.
= 17. = 1.
820. 3
 Vc^lJ  V2 ar
10.
829. 830.
831.
Va:
28
f
+ V9 x  28 = 4 V2 ar
14.
V14 a;
\/12
a;
+ V3a:+ = 0. + ViTli + V7  13 = 0.
f
2 VaT+1
a:
832.
833.
V2a:
Va:
+
3
+
ar
2 Vx
f
834.
V3
f 1
V4a;f 5
= V5x + 4. + Vx  4 =
0.
836.
Va:
KEVIEW EXERCISE
838. 5 x*
f
297
9)
11 x
 12\/(ar44)(5z~
36.
6.
839. 4 a;
840.
a:
841. 4 a: 2
842.
V4 x 2  10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2  3  3 Va: 2  3 x  10 = 118.
a:
:
843. x 4
+
f
a;
+
a:
5
8
a;
f
2
18a:
f
+ 16.
844. x
x4
f
a:
f 1.
845. 5 a 4
7 a8
 28 a 4 xy 8
80.
846. 4 x*
847.
a;
 x*y +
3x
f 2.
2
a:
64 y*.
8
8
848.
a:
849. a 8
850.
a;
+3 4
+ 
4.
6 2 f 3 6 s.
+
4
4 ar 2
2
a;
2 x
3.
851. x*
^
8
2 a#*
a;
4.
852.
a;
2a; 2
f"
+
a/
15.
4o.
853. x
11
a^
J
13
854.
a;
8
8
13
a;
f 12.
855.
a;
8a: 2
4
f
8
a:
+
2
19a;12.
19 x
14.
856. x 8
a;
3x
a;
9.
40 x 2
f
49.
27 y 8.
a;
868. a 8
869. a* *
1
+ a8
8 a;
f
b**.
861. 27
862.
64.
870. a*"
& 6n .
863. z*y 8
l64a. +
.
871. a
872. a 8 873.
866. 729
867.
a:
 1000 6. + 512 y8
874.
875. a 18
4 a.
8^27^.
876. a l0m
 1.
298
877.
878.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Show
Show
3 ?
that 99
1 is divisible
by 100.
that 1001 79
of
1 is divisible
by 1000.
5x 3 exactly divisible
879. For
what value
is
2 #3
mx*
by x
880.
3?
881. x
882.
883.
a:
884. 885.
886.
887.
a;
a;
+ 2y=\2, xy + y = 32. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y = 28, x 8 3 = 13:3. +y f y = 7, 2 + xy = 10, y*+ xy  15. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37,
f
a:
a:
4
?y
481.
.
a:
888.
889.
a:
a;
890.
a:
a;
M1 891
;Vi'
+
1
1_3. =
? + p"iaL+L=13.
a:
892. 1 x
893.
894.
895. 896.
5;
y
y
1121; x
a:
lI =
xz
;
y
2
8f.
8 8
y y
9
9
a:
= =
37
a:
152,
a:
897. z 2
898.
899.
900.
901.
x*xy 35, a# f + xy = 126, y 2 4 sy = 198. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43, 2 + xy = 28. 2 + 2 f = 17, 3 x 2  5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 2 = 16 y, y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy  y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6
a;
a;
a:
a:
REVIEW EXERCISE
902. xa
903. x 4
299
xy
z
904.
905. 906.
907.
908.
909.
910.
+ 2 a:y + = 243, x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y # 2 2 f f y = 84, Vary + y = 6. x + y}(x + y) = 273, (!) *  y) (a?  y) = 33. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12, * + y = 444. x + y 2 = aar, y x 2 = by. + y = 9, ^ 2  #y + 2 = 27. 23 x 2  y2 = 22, 7 y  23 = 200.
f
2 y
1,
xy 2
2 x 2y
0.
a;
f
a:
ar//
or
f
a;
?/
^:
^f!i^2, ny
ft
ma:
=
*
m*.
911. 912.
L/ay =
a:
5?
g = ^ + g. a o
o
+ a:y = 2, 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 913. + 2 ary = 39, xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 5 xy = 11, y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 914. 2 915. x f 2 a:y = 32, 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 2 2 916. x 2 ry + y = 3, # + xy + y = 7.  3) 2 f (y  3)2 = 34, *y  3(* + y) = 6. 917. (* 918. (3 x  y) (3 y  x) = 21, 3 :r(3  2 y) = 49 2 919. (a; + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20, 4 (a; + ?/)  16 y 3 8 =  y). 920. (o; + y)(a; 3 y 8 ) =1216, y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 921. a;y = a(ar + y), y 3 2 2 922. + y 8 = 189. y + a:y = 180, 923. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0, 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 2 924. + ary = a*, y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy + x= 15, ary y = 8. 2 * 2 ~ g.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a?  y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 2 + y = 2 a 4 6, ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a
2
a:
a:
a;
.r
a;
a:
a;
or
or
a?
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
ar
928.
a:
y
zx
12,
a:y
xy
929. yz
24,
8.
300
930.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(*+s)(* + y)=10,
931. s(y
932.
933. (y
(* + y)(y +*)= 50, (y + *) =  102, *(* + #) =24. 152, y(x + y + 2) = 133, z(* + y + 2) = 76. + z) =108, (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96,
y(
934. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the numbers.
935.
is
The
is
difference of
their cubes
270.
is 3,
and the
difference of
936.
2240.
is
tangle
certain rectangle contains 300 square feet; a second rec8 feet shorter, and 10 feet broader, and also contains 300 square feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.
937.
is
938.
The sum
of the perimeters of
sum
two squares is 23 feet, and the Find the sides of the and
its
is
squares.
34
939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. feet.
feet,
diagonal
940. A plantation in rows consists of 10,000 trees. Tf there had been 20 less rows, there would have been 25 more trees in a row. How many rows are there?
941.
the
The sum
of the perimeters of
sum
two squares equals 140 feet; Find the side of each two
circles is
IT
square.
942. The
sum
of the circumferences of
44 inches,
Assuming
= y,
find
943. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet, the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Find the sides of the rectangle.
944. A and B run a race round a twomile course. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. In the second
heat
A
;
increases his speed 2 miles per hour, and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B.
rate each
man
ran in the
first
heat.
REVIEW EXERCISE
301
945. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet; if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet, its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find its length and breadth.
whose
946. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its
is
length increased by 2 inches, the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.
unaltered.
Find the
eter
field is
its
perim
948. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the number.
is
950. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14; the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits, and if 594 be added to the number, the digits are reversed.
952. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches, the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. triangle is 6.
953. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks
the
of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. each block.
is
sum
Find an edge of
954.
Two
starts
travelers,
;
A and
P and
Q, at
A
it
starts
and
from
with the design to pass through Q, and travels in the same direction as A. When
from
was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before, and that B, at Find the his rate of traveling, was 9 hours' journey distant from P. distance between P and Q.
overtook
miles, that
955. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards.
302
956.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Sum
to 32 terras, 4,
',
J,
\
,
....
3
,
2.
Sum
to 20 terms,
P.
5,
^ Vfirst five
959. Find an A.
fourth of the
unity.
terms
is
one
sum
term being
series
,
+
f
24
21 24
4f
32
36
1G
10,
4
4
to 7
terms
961. 16 962. 36
963. 964.
..,
to 7 terms;
(iiven a
+ 
4
d
...,to infinity.
4, s
88.
Find
n.
How many
Sum Sum
amount
to
123,454,321?
965.
to n terms, 1
to n terms,
+
.
966.
12434+
j I
sum
of
4 1 4
f
j$V
to infinity.
*"
968. 969.
970. 971.
972.
Sum
Sum
to infinity,
+
1
;>/)
to infinity,
^1 +
Vj
1 2
 V2
 4142
....
to 10 terms, (x 4
to n terms, x(x
to 8 terms, (x
.v
(ft)
.3151515....
1
to n terms, the
terms being in A. P.
5 n
+ !Lni
n "
4
4.
!Ll^ +
n
...
(to 2 n terms),
and
976.
first
n+l(n + l)
The 10th and
The
term and the
T +
(
+!)
V (to
J' infinity).
common
977.
sum
of 20 terms.
REVIEW EXERCISE
978. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.
303
and
,
0.
980.
How many
sum
terms of 18
17
10
amount
,
to 105?
of n terms of 7
+ 11+
is
is
40,
Find
n.
of n terms of an A. P.
983. The 21st term of an A. P. is 225, and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find the
first
common
difference.
first
984. Find four numbers in A. P. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55, and of the second and third 03.
985. Find the value of the infinite product 4
v'i
v7!
v^5
....
986.
all
perfect number
is
of
2
of
integers + 2 1 + 2'2
by which
is
it
is
the
sum
of
the series
sum multiplied by
(Euclid.)
the series
a perfect number.
numbers.
987. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah, named Sheran, who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on
Sessa for the
the 1st square of a chessboard, 2 grains on the 2d, 4 grains on the 3d, and so on, doubling the number for each successive square on the board.
Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. Find the sum of the series
988.
989. 5
11 
9

V2
+
.
..,
to oo.
v/2
1
+ +
+
+
+
3>/2
to oo
.2
.04
..,
990.
1.1
2.01
3.001
4.001
.,
to
n terms.
992.
What
2 a
sum
of
av/2
+
V2
to infinity
may
be 8?
304
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
994. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 995. The
fifth
term of a G. P.
is 4,
and the
fifth
term
is
8 times
512
996. The sum and product of three numbers in G. P. are 28 and find the numbers.
;
997.
of squares of four
numbers
in
G. P. are
45 and 765
find the
numbers.
998. If a, ft, c, are unequal, prove that they cannot be in A. P. and G. P. at the same time.
999. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed, in this square a circle, in this circle a square, and so forth to infinity. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences, (I) the sum of the perimeters of
all
squares.
1000. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first, the sides
of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second, and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters, (6) the sum of the infinity. areas of all triangles.
pump removes
of the
of air
is
fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver, (a) after 5 strokes, (6) after n
What
strokes?
many
1002. Under the conditions of the preceding example, after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original
density ?
a circle is inscribed. 1003. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.
third circle touches the second circle and the
to infinity. inches.
ABC
A A
n
same
sides,
and
if
so forth
What
is
the
sum
AB =
1004. Two travelers start on the same road. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. many days will the latter overtake the former?
REVIEW EXEHCISE
1005. Write down the
(a
first
305
*)".
a;
5.
(12 #)
the
first
four
terms
in
the
expansion
of
#).
 o/) 14  l) w
f
bfy.
( (
9
.
 ft) 19
+
lQ
.
x)
18
fifth
term of (1
a:)
b)
x)
9
.
(1
1018. Find the
coefficient
a:
X 
\88
1
in
5a
V
coefficient of
x 9 in (5 a 8
7
.
a:
8 7.
 iV
2i/
INDEX
[NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.]
Abscissa Absolute term
.
148
178
....
.
t
53
120
.210
130
"
Addition
value
4
15, 19, 97,
.
....
sum
Consequent
Consistent equations
210
27
10
18
....
Aggregation, signs of
Algebraic expression
....
9,
Constant
Coordinates
Cross product
155
148
41
"
Alternation
123
Antecedent
Arithmetic
*'
120
Degree of an equation
Difference
232
mean
progression
.
. .
249
246
20
10
23
193
. .
Discriminant
Discussion of problems
.241
45 45
Dividend
Division
Divisor
Axiom
.Base of a power Binomial " theorem
54
8
45
130
10
255
9
Elimination
Equations
'
63
consistent
fractional
.
Brace
Bracket
Character of roots
**
.130 .108
160
"
.
graphic
tion of
representa
.193
11
.
....
Checks
Coefficient
20, 37, 49
108 8
'
Common
**
*
difference
....
.
.
.
246
91
"
multiple, lowest
ratio
"
'*
54, 129
54, 112
54
54
251
.
.178
.181
105
"
Complex
fraction
"
Evolution
Composition
...
...
123
........
simple simultaneous
129, 232
169
807
808
Exponent
Exponents, law of Extraneous roots
.
INDEX
8
.
Like terms
Linear equation
. .
17
65, 184
54, 112
.
Extreme
Factor " theorem " II. C
Factoring
91
...... 227
....
.
. .
Mathematical induction
Mean
"
81)
346 120
338
341
53
70,
227
geometric
. .
u
Fractions.
exponent
120 Member, first and second .108 Minuend .105 Monomials 03 Multiple, L.C
Multiplication
. .
23
10
91
102, 212
.31,
Negative exponents
11
195
4 13
ous equations
100
158
.
. .
numbers
.154
205
148 148
27
86 Ordinate Origin
.
common
factor
Homogeneous equations
Identities
......
.
9,
83
10
19
Polynomial
Polynomials, addition of " square of
.
Imaginary numbers
109
102
Inconsistent equations
42
7
130
9
Power
Prime factors
Problem, Product
'*
76
Infinite, G.
P
.
253
28
70
1,
Insertion of parentheses
Progressions, arithmetic
241
123
geometric
246 251
121
Inversion
Involution
Irrational
Proportion
105
numbers
.
205
.
.
Known numbers
....
178
45 221
205
Law
of exponents
Laws of
signs
INDEX
Ratio
national
Rationalizing denominators
76,
.
309
171
133
120
Square root
Substitution
205
Real numbers
Reciprocal
22
....
...
.
.
Sum, algebraic
Surds
......
23
18
228
27 9
205
10
Term
"
absolute
54
193
178
Theorem, binomial
Third proportional
Transposition
....
255
120
54
10
of
193
Rule of signs
Series
Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms
Similar surds
33, 45
Trinomial
240
...
9,
.
27
17
Unknown numbers
....
4
155
9
"
of
129, 232
Vinculum
Zero exponent
40 42
197
ANSWERS
TO
WILLIAM
P.
MANGUSE
STrtn
gork
COPYRIGHT,
1910,
BY
NorfoooS
J. 8. Gushing Co.
ANSWERS
Page
phia
8 in.
2.
1.
32,8.
2.
$160.
3.
.$9400,
5.
$4700.
ft.,
4.
South
5,000,000.
Seattle 12
Philadel
9.
8. 16 in., 16 in., 7. 48 ft., 8 ft. 6. A $90, B $ 128, C $ 16. 10. 150,000,000 negroes, 15,000,000 Indians. 18, 18, 144.
Page
13.
1.
3.
11.
Bl
7.
in.,
16f
2.
in.
12.
15.
is
$10, $100.
$20,
$60.
Not
5.
arithmetic.
3. 6.
16
larger than
7.
3.
7.
4.
=
4.
7.
1.
below
0.
 3.
sign.
7.
7,
Page Page
Ilis
expenditures.
sign.
4.
5.
5.
3.
6.
$ 1 50
10.
loss,
 150.
7.
1.
1,
10.
16.
11.
3.
17.
2.
18.
6.
13.
15.
14.
15.
32.
1.
21.
1,
27.
(a)
(/>)
22.
5.
23.
2. 3.
19.
1.
1.
24.
3.
25.
Page
1.
6.
8.
29.
2.
5000.
85,
_ 32.
3 m, 2
5.
13 d.
6.
Yes.
7.
9 m.
14
11.
210.
12.
9
14.
c.
15.
Page?. 30?.
20
jo.
7m.
16.
14,
13.
x.
36.
14. 19.
2 p,
x.
10g.
49, 6*
16.
17.
26z.
18.
22
20.
21.
1.
Multiplication.
Page
4.
8.
5.
72
216, 3*
7.
5 81, 2
~
15.
32.
2.
9.
49.
1.
3.
32.
.
25.
0.
512.
6.
16. 14.
8.
1,000,000.
10.
11.
17. 25.
12.
20 \.
27.
12.
1.
13.
19.
4.
24.
20.
25.
21. 29.
T
.00000001.
22.
9.
16.
9.
1.21
24. 8
13.
6.
18.
1.
23.
26.
9.
9.
27.
16.
16.
2.
28.
3.
2.
3.
}.
30.
5.
3.
Page
8.
8.
4.
4. 12.
12.
13.
6.
1.
64.
7.
16.
10.
10.
576.
17.
2. 2.
11.
18.
3.
16.
256.
14.
Ot
15.
128.
16.
192.
1.
^.
2.
19
4.
Page
8.
10.
9.
3.
3.
2.
5.
1.
6.
6.
7.
2.
3.
12. 12.
10.
20.
11. 6.
12. 0.
13.
20.
14.
24.
15.
16.
8.
17.
ii
ANSWERS
Page
11.
8. 1.
13.
9.
2.
57.
10.
3.
i:5.
4.
II.
5.
(59.
6.
104.
7.
7.
237.
50.
17.
58.
92.
11.
240.
12.
14:).
13.
14.
15.
27.
17.
8.
7.
16.
49.
18.
1.
Page
23.
31.
35.
12.
24.
4 4
ft.
11.
19.
35.
27.
20.
27.
]*.
21.
8.
27,
0.
:;
22.
30.
8.
t.
.
04.
25.
<i~
26.
27.
33.
28.
//'.
29.
32.
ft)
3 /A

8x
:i
(/* 4
ft)(X
36
"'*
~ 5V (a ft).
_
;r~ f
34.
m +
3(a 6)
38.
Polynomial, Trino
inial,
Page
2.
00
24
04
ft.,
(a} 100
1(5
(rf)
(ft)
50,000
.'JO
ft.
ft.,
o^ft.
3.
(a)
<>
sq.
It.,
sq. in.,
(c)
S(i. ft.
Pagel4r.~4.
5. (<7)
(a) 314
sq.
6.
in.,
(ft)
12.5f>
sq.
in.,
(r) 78.5
(ft)
sq.
mi.
in.
$80,
(ft)
$40.
(a)
200,900,000 sq.
(ft)
mi.,
3.14
sq.
(c)
8.
314 sq.ft.
(a) 50,
(ft)
7.
(a) r>23ifcu.
(r)
2. 9.
ft.,
14.
13 cu.
ft.,
(r) 2G7,94(>,GOG,<>Gq.
0,
1.
15.
Page
7.
8.
,'J.
16.
8.
1.
1.
22.
15.
3.
0.
4.
0.
0.
13.
19.
10.
11.
0.
9.
0.
2.
16.
6.
15.
12.
5.
18.
0.
12.
1.
21. 26.
5.
22.
34.
23.
24.
9.
5.
Page
31.
37.
3.
17.
25.
14.
27.
6<t.
3.
28.
14.
3.
35. 41.
4.
9.
29.
30.
3.
12yd.
38.
32.
12 a.
39.
33.
4.
#1111.
5.
36.
42.
I.
\'\
4.
1.
7.
^.

40.
51 f.
$3000
Page
6.
18.
18.rty8.
9/^/rl
2.
2ftx.
10.
.
43w//2
17.
11.
22(
19.
w.
ft).
20(.r f
15.
^).
:J!>r'.
??i??,
13.
16.
2.
2oVmf?i.
Page
18.
vi
14.
38 ab.
21^.
21.
r/
\(\xyz.
ft
f
19.
m
24.
ft
n.
20.
ft'
3
.
22.
1.
23.
r+l.
yyz+xyz*.
3rf
27. 31.
28.
+ v>
2
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(a
c.
b.
+ 1=a.
90
7
+ 10 = c. 4^ = 100.
3
9.
f
=
eZ
2 x.
9.
7.
4(a
ft)
8.
f
6)(o
62.
/>)
= all.
)
2^ x
20
=a
7.
Page
13.
10.
17
a.
11.
= 5 ?i
x 460.
16. (a) '
12.
m.
14.
50=
L
100
15.
m= 
100
2x=2(3x~10), v
(6)
2x (3x+ =
rraxlO,
(A)
3 x f (4 x  10) 100. 17. (2 a; 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740, (c) (2zf 600) (3
=4, (c) 2x 6 = *, (d) 2a + 10 = n, (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60, (</) 2a; + 3 = 2(3*  7),
10)
(a) 2 x
 (3x 
700)
5,
(d) 2 x
(3
sc
700)
(x
f
1200)
x 200) f(^ +
(e)
200,
3x 
vili
ANSWERS
(a) V J^. = _?_(2ar + 1), ~=90, (6) (6 a 30) =20, (c) ^ v ' ; MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900, (e) i* + A (5z  30) + (2s + 1) v v '
'
18.
'
ft
v J (d)
100
100
'
'
'
100
100
100
=^8000,
w (/)
64.
2

= SJL+J10
13.
2.
100
1.
Page
7.
15.
3.
25. 10.
4.
18.
5.
7.
6.
9.
8.
9.
90 mi.
2$.
11.
1250.
12.
24J.
Pace 65.
250.
16.
2.
300.
17.
$40.
3.
18.
80 A.
19.
150,000.
Page Page
480
12.
Ib.
67.
68.
9.
55,11.
12,2.
13.
5.
05,5.
30,0.
4.
13,7.
6. 52,13. 8. 160 lb., 7. 8,10. 78,79. 10. 40 yr., 10 yr. 11. 29,000 ft., 20,000 ft.
4pt., 5pt.
70.
1.
42yr., 28yr.
2. 4.
14.
45
in.,
15
in.
15.
7 hr.
Page
5, 10, 25.
6, 12, 14.
Page
7.
71.
9
in.,
3.
12,8,24.
8.
1,3,5.
5.
3,0,16.
6.
20,21,22.
in.,
11 in.
9.
1,000,000 Phil., 2,000,000 Berlin, 4,000,000 N. Y. 10. 21. 11. 20 yr., 10 yr., 25 yr. 12. 6, 7, 8.
13.
180,000,000 copper,
Page
Page
4.
8.
74.
15 yd., 20 yd.
5.
2.
10 yd.
6.
600,
4.
1200.
9.
1200.
by 12 yd. 70^,210^.
82 mi.
3.
200.
1 lb.
7.
5 lb.,
Page Page
4.
7.
75.
78.
12 mi.
11.
5$ hr.
a
12.
3. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 3x (3r.2). Oaj(o62cd). 2 2 2 5. 11 w(w' + wi  1). 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy  6). 7a*fe(2a & l). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 9.
.
10.
13.
15.
a a (a 8 a+l).
6rt 2
11.
17.
14. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2  3aftc + 4). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 11 pV (2 p8  5p + 7 g ). 8 2 19. 3 (a +&)(* y"). 18. (m + n)(a + 6). ?(g ? g+ 1).
'2
>
10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).
8
12.
?/
21. 1313. 23. 2 3 6 7. 22. 2.3.411. (p + 7)(3a5&). Page 79. 1. (a 4) (a 3). 2. (a + 4)(a + 8). 3. (ro3)(w2). 5. 6. 4. (z5)(z2). (a5)(a4). (a + 6) (a + 3). 20.
.

PageSO.
10.
7.
(*4)( +
11.
14.
2).
(y
13.
(y
+ 8)(y2). + 7)(y3).
8. ( + 4)(*2). (yll)(y4).
9.
12.
(a
5)(a
+ 6).
15.
ANSWERS
16. 19.
ix
18. (az + 9)(ox2). + 8)(g3).  11 6) (a 4 2 ft). 21. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 23. (w + 20)(w + 5). 24. (y + 4)(yl). 22. 26. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 25. (a 6 6) (a 4 4 6). 27. (a 3 + 10)(a 3). 29. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 30. 100(x 3)(z2). 28. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 32. y(x 7) (a; + 3). 33. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 31. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 35. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 36. 4 (a  11 ft)(a6). 34. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Page 82. 1. (2xl)(x + f>). 2. (4al)(a2). 3. (3*2)(.r2).  1). 5. 6. 4. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (5wl)(m5). 8. 9.* (2 y + 3)(y 1). 7. 3(x + 2)(zl). (4y3)(3y + 2). 10. (2 *+!)(* 9). 11. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 12. (9y4)(y + 4). 15. (4 13. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 14. (5x  7)(2z f 1). 3)(3a;  2). 18. (7 a + 4) (2 a  1). 16. (6n + l)(+2). 17. (2yl)(y + 9).
(a
17.
(<7
20. (a
a:
(3#y)(+4y).
a(2u; + 3)(c44). 100 (a; y) 2 29.
.
20.
(15z2y)(x5y).
23.
21.
(:52y)(2a!3y).
(4a;5y)(3a; + 2y).
26.
10(3
5 6) 2
32.
x (5 a;
+ 4) (a;
f 2).
27. 10(2
30.
34.
2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 35. (2 a? 4 3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes, (g  6) 2 1. 2 No 4. No, Page 83. Yes, (m + w) 2 5. Yes, (a 2 by2 6. No. 7. Yes, (m7n) (a; 8) (a; 2).

8.
No.
9.
No.
13.
10.
Yes, (w*
(3a26).
Page 84.
(15ay2)
2
.
Yes,
+ 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2
.
11. 14.
16.
Yes, No.
(y8) 2
2
12.
Yes,
15.
.
a
19.
23.
21. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 9. 1. (* + y)(zy). 4. (2o + l)(2l). 7. (10a + ft)(10aft).
22.
28.
10.
 y) 2
aft.
5)
a.
.
17.
20.
Yes,
25.
26.
25.
2.
5.
29.
9.
40
x.
3.
(a
+ 8)(a3).
(0
(l+7a)(l7a).
6.
(0
+ 6)(66). + 0(90
Page 85.
12.
14.
16.
18.
20.
23.
25.
1.
9. (3a;+4 y)(3x4 y). 8. (ft + ll)(aftll).  8). 11. + 9^)(oxy  9*). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft  c 2 ). (5a +l)(5a l). 2 2 15. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (13a +10)(13a 10). 2 17. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). ( 2 4 19. 10(a + ft)(aft). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 22. (x + y4 )(x  y4 ). 21. x(x +y)(x y). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 24. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2  1). 3a;y (6x + 4)(5x4).
10.
(5xy
ft
B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).
26.
13x7.
27.
2.
103x97.
3.
(w ~ n
(x
.4.
X
5.
ANSWERS
r)(4x (4x 4 y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m +
\
.y
'2
2).
6.
8.
(f>
fo
7. 9.
r)(5a
10.
6 f
c).
Gp).
(2
f>
b 4 5
<:
</)
(2 a
12.
5 b
+ 9 iZ)
a (a
2 6).
11.
14.
x(x4ti<0.
13.
(5a+l)(9a).
(w *
,)
j).
b) (r
4.
4
3. 6.
y).
2.
(r420(4
10.
ofc)(
fid).
8.
(2
2
 y)(fi a  36).
y )(.?/).
4 2).
{
&).
(.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).
(a
9.
(w'
4 >*)(:> 4
lj
4 ?>)
H. (c 7)(^
{I
12.
^)(^3.
?>).
Exercise 46.
(a
/>; (>
1.
O + ?/4<?)O
?>
4
q).
2.
(14.^46)
a?/
/>
+ o) (ff
n
T>).
4.
(
(<>
r4y3
.^
c)((>
4
(3
w
2
4
).
ah}.
6.
4 ^ 48.
4 .'/)('< 4 &
(a
5 & 4#
2 y) (a
1.
y).
Exercise 47.
4.
8.
2
k
(wi 4 4)(?

(x 42
4 1)
3.
2
.
(^
7.
1).
2.
2
8(w
.
42).
(7/1
2) (m 41).
a 2 (a9).
(m 
I)'
6.
(xf!/)'
4
w)(m 3 n).
11.
Page
12.
1(V/
88.
2 2
10.
x(x
f y)(jr
 y).
15.
2(5 a
ft)
(a
3
?>).
4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e
62
2 2 4l)(a' &
&)
5).
17. 19
13>
(7rt3)(7a~3).
14.
16. 18.
10(2
(3 4 a
+
(<
(3
7>)(3
a
l
fo).
(2x7)(x 2 2).
?i(w 4y)
.r(3x'
2
4 (14 w )(l
4
w 2 )(l
3
y)
r)(x
,))(x
^OC 1
1).
20.
4).
l.'J)('
 0+ 12).
2
21.
23.
10(8x' 4l)
4 l)(
a
25.
(a
4 1).
(5
26.
a 2_rt4l)(a rt
1).
27.
(Ox
7 ?/)(7
x4
y/).
28. (5
31.
(
4
(2
m  9).
8
4
15 ?>)(a
34.
29. (5 al)
3)
(f> a/>
15
?>).
32.
35. 2 (a 4 8) ( (16 4 2 y). 8). 36. (x//,?50)(xt/z 1). 37. 17(x43//)(x2y). 38. (* _ 2 )(a 4 &). 2 2 3  2). 39. fi(c426). 40. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 41. 3(.e 4 3)(x 4 2)(x 1. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 4. 12. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 5. 450. Page 89.
(^
?>_8).
(16
4
2(5 n
 7s) (2
a;
4 8).
+ .'})(c  4).
(a
&4 8)
n 43*).
2 y)
6.
7.
12.
7.

WIM.
13.
8.
13 x 8
2
.
^
.
4

9.
19.
10.
8.
15
M.
11.
4 a8
2(m4l)'
.
14.
3x(x?/)
4.
4 a s &8
7.
+
a
b.
8.
13.
4 3.
3 x4
5.
a x
3
10.
 4.
16.
,
11.
 b. + 3.
6.
.
6.
4 y.
12.
a 4.
a 41.
3.
8.
a
4.
4
6.
a8
2.
r
x 2 */3
8x.
24x sy s
9.
5.
80a6
4
40
aV>*>c >d\
!)&(<*
4 &).
12
m 2 (m
n)
2
.
ANSWERS
10.
x
12.
13.
30(3
2 (a
15.
+ l).
18.
1).
1).
x
22.
+5
1.
10
25.
?_!&.
a
23.
x
24.
+8b
4
3 /
^. //
m+1
!+*?.
b
!
21.
w
2
(!L
5
+2 3 i
+
63
3^1
rr
Pace
991
20
Xll
ANSWERS
21
2
.
ab121
12
ft
8 a 2
196 a2
8.
^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa
bc
9
11
92
aft
1>*
10
12
+ qc + ab
'
238
.

**/*
+ 84 _ y~ z
'
5 x2 y
:j
y;2g
ftc
46
?t
~ 30 y  50
~
1/2
 80 MP 2
30
?/
^
2ft
"'
180 wv
15.
3a 2
2)
'
i
(x
'
t+3)
5x
(wi8)(w
go
a
3ffl
13
+ *2)(x + 3)'
19
'
rtv+Ji:'.
ft
21
ft'
4m m2
26
fi
,,
Page 100.
28.
26.
_*^p5_^^_.
'
2 7.
30.
^~
29.
^i
2n a
22
9x * T
94 4<i
^
33
9 ^
37
(a
2
b)'
(a
ft)
a
42.
+
^8
a
2
~
41.
xy
43.
r >
'a2 f an f
ft'
'
2(czft)
(x
2.
Page 101.
4.
1.
6a5f^.
a
5.
rt
3a2 + ~3a
a
3.
w1 +
ac
7.
w + _ i + _J? a
w+4+
?
3
8.
2 a;
+ lH
+
.
6.
2H
^. 2x1
5x
12
+ ^.
6.
L 8
7.
i^.
c
8.
6.
0.
A^.
4c
10.
i.
11.
^U\WF###
X<6.
xiii
in
<l
~
2b
18.
a
17.
1.
10 X + u.
j
L
.
x
1.
+3
15.
I)
2
3z
1.
16.
(a
y)
Page 104.
6
.L+ft.
1.
?.
05m
'
5.
1.
w^x
Page 105.
7.
^i
11.
1.
(y
(z
12.
a.
1^)2 ' 2
1)
2
13.
14.
15.
1.
Page 106.
' 6.
1.
2.
4.
be
_J_.
x\ y
7.
9.
ac
mp
lf>
n
12.
re
+3y
mn 10 lo.
an
18.
f
Page 107.
14.
11.
2ft
a
i
m
x.
n
16.
y(x
+
x
?/).
15.
17.
2)
19.
!
4
20.
f.
21.
^_.^_.
a2
2.
ft
f 1
Page 109.
7.
1.
23.
9.
11.
3.
flf.
4.
5.
J.
5.
1.
6.
21.
.
8.
8.
5.
12.
10.
(>.
5.
11.
6.
J.
12.
13.
f
7.
14.
15. 3.
16.
6.
17.
18.
19.
A.
20.
21.
6.
Page 110.
30. 37.
4.
1.
24.
3.
0.
25.
4. 0.
4.
26.
33.
3.
J.
27. 34.
3.
12
28. 35.
9.
29.
3.
36.
7.
31. 38.
32.
11.
39.
40.
42.
4.
V
o
4.
1.
Page 111.
46.
7.
41.
6.
Of.
43.
44.
45.
47.
Page 113.
pf n
6
1.
8j_m
7
3.
ft.
4.
m
9.
?+_!?>.
3
7 i
o,ft
.
c
8.
4a3ft.
5 6
Q
5
a
12.
10.
11.
13.
f
+c
14.
XIV
'/
.
ANSWERS
16.
15.
nm.
.
17.
18.
4
ft.
19.
20.
~m
.
21.
'"I
22.
[>>
^
a
.
"
0.0
&
.
23<
&n
b
' .
24.
0,
4~r~
n
.
25
'
mft
26
'
27
^
'
~i~
n
32.
4
ft
29
30
'
5T
(a)
^
10
(ft)
31.
1^'.
4fl
M_.
P+
^
33.
#V
~~
34.
^', r/
i
PM
xx
HXH
/>/
Page 114.
35.
1.
(a)
30.

+
;
5
2.
8.
(ft)
104, 212,
8,2.
9.
4.
4.
36.
C .
7T
Page 116.
6.
00.
3.
18,15.
$0,000.
7.
11.
40 yrs., 10 yrs.
21,9. 30ft.
5.
15,10.
10.
$30,000.
Page 117.
16.
19.
40 mi./hr.
7.
14.
17.
5ft
30mi./hr.
min. after
20.
7.
15.
4.
38ft
min. after
$12,000.
$40,000
If da.
A's, $45,000
1
=
23.
IV s.
3 da.
21.
22.
24.
da.
Page 118.
14, 15.
()
2.}
25.
13,
26.
27.
^p^
~
7, 8,
9; 10,002, 10,003,
Page 119.
(ft)
28.
5,0,
;
74, 75
33.
_JL.
26 mi.
7
;
^m
,
29. 10,11. 31. (a) 25, 26 30. 9ft. 32. 11 hrs., 33, 55 mi. (d) 500,000, 500,001. dn ~ mi. (a) 12 hr., 30, 24 mi.; (ft) 5 hr.,
;
10,
(ft)
30 mi.
34.
w 44.
^?i
min.
(a) 4 min.
min.
(c) 2 hr.
1.
Page 121.
7.
4.
2.
3.
3.
f.
J.
5.
3.
6.
7:9.
4x'2 :3?/ 2
1
.
8.
2:1.
13.
9.
275:108.
14.
10.
3:2.
15.
11.
2x:3y.
16.
1
:
12.
1:3,2.
xy.x + y.
1:4.
jj.
17.
:2.
18.
1:
~.
Yes.
7.
2.
Page 124.
6.
1.
Yes.
3.
No.
4.
8.
Yes.
5.
Yes.
1:1
1:1, Yes.
Yes.
11.
9.
1:1=1:1,
Page 125.
17.
10.
19
25, No.
10.
ft.
3.
13.
19,
9$.
15.
14.
1. 12.
15.
7.
16. 20.
7}
18.
40wn.
20.
81.
ANSWERS
22.
30.
:
XV
27.
6*.
w;

?.
w
8.
:
23.
J
pq.
3

24.
1(5.
25.
40.
26.
31.

28.
a~.
29.
1
rt
vm^1. 35. 5:0 = 10:12; 6 10 = 12. 36. b x 37. y  x a. y a y = 7 0. 40. jc:y = n:m. 38. 41. ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 39. x y = 1 = 3 2. 45. y :y =."2:1. in n. 5 2. 43. 44. x 42. x y y  a 1. 48. 5:3 = 4: x. 49. 11 5  15 x. 46. x:y a: b. 47. 52. 1 18 = 3 51. 19 3  2 x. 50. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 53. 3 2=3 x. = 7 b'. 54. () 7 Page 126. (b) C C' = fi JR'. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (,)
31.
32
<>'
33
4 <^:
34
:
/;
.'
<>.
/>.
;r.
?/
tf
?/
sr.
1'
/>
.
.
(I.
55.
(a)
Directly.
56.
()
Directly.
(e) Directly.
s<i.
(</)
ft.
Inversely.
in.
ini.
58.
20 cu.
Page
5.
127.
59.
1.
200 mi.,
8,36.
6.
32+
mi., 174+
Page 128.
OJ, 3}.
8.
OJ, 32j.
7.
9.
4.
9,15.
cu.
ft.
945
11
10
,
'
55,160,000 sq. mi. land, 141,840,000 sq. mi. water. 20 20 J ^ ^ 0?j
'
gms.
11
a
13.
+
W.C
?/ a
,
+
7>i// 
ft
1
,
.
..
+m
'
12
3_a
'
7^
10
'
1
,
+ m*
<7^'
10
7)C
14.
+y
74 7 \,
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Page 258.
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1.
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2.
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4. 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 9, 4, 6.
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xxviii
ANSWERS
19.
22.
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28.
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;
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Page 261.
40. 3
a 44. 3 a
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4 mi.
421. 42.
422.
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423.
14 miles.
425. 51,55.
430.
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Page 279.
428.
a*
424. 24 days.
429.
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441. 3, 10.
446. 1$, 2$.
439. (a)
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1,
2.
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ANSWERS
Page 284.
509.
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511.
515.
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10,6,0.
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1.
3,0,5.
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512. 516.
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ft
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Page 285.
525.
a+
Page 286.
(6) 3.24,
536.
2ft da.
(d)
537.
1.
1.56 sec.
(e) (c)
2.4,
550.
1.24.
(c) 3.
(a) 2.75,
 3.25,
1.5.
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Page 287.
553.
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551. 554.
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;
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576. 4.3,1.4; 1.8, 3.4. Page 288. 1.15. 578. 4.8. 4.8, 1.3; 1.3, 1 580. Roots imaginary. 581.  7, 583.
577.
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;
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XX XIV
606.
ANSWERS
(
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S
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612.
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617.
613.
a
2.
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a:
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618. y
619. 971.
620. 5002.
626. 898.
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624. 210.0.
625. 1010.
631.
627. 7.002.
629. 25.203.
635. 2.049.
703,001.
638. 8 f
3.
632.
637. 0.303.
If
1,
2,
4.
642.
12,
13.
643. 50,
644.
4.
645. 4,
650. 2,
8.
10.
647. 2,
11.
648. 11,
0.
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9*.
7,
 25.  2f
Page 290.
656. 661.
666.
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ft.
653. 2,3.
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4$.
If
b.
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b.
3,
.
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2f
r
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V
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+ b,a~
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664. 4, 0.
669. 5,
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l
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.
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4
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+w
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.
678< 682.
ix
2
'
+
,
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687. a
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684.
^, ^.
6
685.
0,
+ ~^'2 +
a
1.
'
fe
).
4 b
686. o, 3 a.
2 A
(i f
Page 291.
691. 2 a
688.
c,
n^l +^.
ab
689.
fe
a,
6.
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be
ac
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6,
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af6fc
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700.
703. 705.
z

1,
^
1,
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2f.
V2.
 2f (5
4,
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1,
4.
702.
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1,
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3 V^3).
5
3, 2,
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704. 706.
1
2,
.
 3,
K
V2,
V2.
708. 1
7Q7>
b
j(_
(_
x/^15).
V7,
V"^TJ.
ANSWMHti
Page 292.
712. 715. 719.
724.
709.
3,
2.
710.
i^,
;
711.
VV> L4V34.
1, 1,
713.
v'll,
iv/Jj.
5.
714.
718.
?>.^.
3
720.
725.
717.
db
Va^T
<
45da.
17ft., 13ft.
722. 8,9.
723. 8,9,10,11.
"V313,
15 shares.
726.
39,8.
727.
300.
728.
,.
729.
Page 293.
733.
730.
1.
731. a 2
x2
732.
+cx*
2
(t'
3
1
a*&M.
mn.
cr*lr*.
w" +
d" + Hid.
+
<
735.
738.
1
[
+
'>
J 4
736.
+
6
2 tf'c 1 />f
f
lr'~
+
_L
a 4 6 4
739. 4 x' 5
x
4
3 x~*
(
2 ar
1.
740.
Hi
a;~
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744. x i
f^'
.,V/^
741. x\y.
j
742. ^ Ti
i
a*tj~
4 ^
743.
^^
f
^3
r} t
i3x
rt
+
+
2u: 8'o'a
+a2
3
.
746.
2x3^
a;1
,
47.
747.
rt3
^i^ ,
>
748.
a
5
,
a:*
1.
749.
r,
a 2 6^.
750.
V2
24
4
,
.rJ w
L
754.
751.
1
752.
755.
Page 294.
753.
.r.
^
;r+y>
759.
756.
34.
1^ _
760.
758.
5.
29\/3.
763.
30\/10
764.
4
104
v/2.
33^2.
768.
59,257.
769. T%.
767.
fyaw&cu.
3^.
773. ^7xy.
776.
24V2.
777.
342V3.
778.
32>/2.
782
785.
*+V(
x
"r 2
)'
^
786.
789.
793.
VT14V5. 2\/53V2.
v/7
/
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/
787. 7
3V5.
788.
VIO\/3.
790
2v 3v 2.
J(v'lO2V
791. 3 VlT
795.
3V72VO.
794.
XXXVI
797.
800.
ANSWERS
798.
6+V7.
Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.
801.
\/5.
799.
Va 803.0.
6 4
V& 
" X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l
V
2
802.
^VG.
808.
804.
\/2.
+j!>..
2
806. 48.
2
*x
807.
**.
a2
^E*!. x
.
8 09. x.
811. 817.
1C.
10.
Page 296.
812.
1.
810.
19.
8(?/
+ 2x2 ?/
x 4 ), 16xyV2*/^~x2
.
813.
814.
820.
13.

tt
815.
17.
816. 23.
823.
17.
7.
4
818. 4.
825. 7. 819.
11.
b'
821.
6.
822. 3.
824. 7.
830. 833.
826. 0.
827.
Va.
o
828.
1.
829.
832.
25.
Hoots
.
are extraneous.
834.
o.
831.
1).
835.
0,3.
838.
d)*.
837.
Page 297.
841. 0, 2.
2 (x 4*4 1)(V
2
 7,
843.
H.
(x 845.
842.
839. 2, 3,
.r
, $.
840.
4, 1.
(:r
11, 14.
X4 1).
2
+ 2)^ 3 +
(a
4
f
8).
844.
a* 4 7
1)
846.
848. (x
2
 l)(x  l)(x + 2). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3)  1). 851. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x  y) 852. (x 2 f r  5) (x + * 853. (x + 0X024. 2 854. (x  l)(x  3)(x + 4). 5). (x3).
(x42?/)(x2y)(4x
.r?/
50(i
(
2)(5
04.
20).
l(l^).
847.
(a
1) (x 4 2) (x
2).
849.
?>)
(a +
^>
(,
a
42)(x  7). 857. (x  1)  7)(4 x 7). 859. (2 x + 3 y}  4) 860. (2 4 rae) (4  2 ax 4 a 2 2 ). 861. (3 862. (1  4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 863. a(ry + 864. (3 b  1)(0 865. (2 a  5 b) 4 1). f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (4 c 4 10 ab 4 25 ?>2), 868. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 867. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2 m  a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ( 869. (a m  />") (a' + m f ") (a* ). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 872. (a 4 871. ( 4 4 1) (a 8  a 4 + 1). ) (a' 874. a(ft)( 873. 6(a6)(o a + + &). m 875. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 876. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m  a 3 " 4 2w  om 441) (a
855.
(xl)(^~3)(.r4).
858.
2/
856.
(x 4 l)(x
(r. 4
1)(4 x
jc
jr
::}
?>
?>
%7
?/
>wt
2wt
ft
ft
rc
f
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Page 298.
882.
3,
879.
4.
880.
5,
m = 2,
2, 5.
= 
29.
2, 3.
881. 4, 4
885.
888.
 4,
4,
;
8.
3,
1, 3.
883.
2,
884.
3,
4.
886.
;
1,
2,
5,
2,
 1.
896.

'
1,
V
3,
887.
5, 4 3.
,
2, 1
1,
889.
6
$.
897.
 f.
^, 2.
db 7,
890. 894.
11.
5,
f,
891.
895.
4, 2.
3, 6.
892.
$,;,
7,
2.
893.
4,
3,
 4.
jV3
f
3;
898. 4, 3;
899.
8,
J V,
^ V}.
900.
0,
ANSWERS
oJV 41
6
901.
1
XXXVll
'
a
1;
6
1
1,
2
'
a
V.I.
12.
,
+
,
r
ft
'
<
902.
8,
2, 1
2, 8.
1,
$(l
4,
V^3),
3
;
903.
906.
3,
2;
905.
;
115,
1).
S07. 0,
909.
v/(ai
!)(&910.
I)
v/Ca^T)^ 2
5.
?/i
6;
6, 3.
tt2
19,01;
912.
V5
fj,
^y.
w, w
3,
2 w
914.
1,
911.
^.
,
a
915.
918.
4, 3,
, i1"
913.
2, 1
1, 2
1,
V5
Y,
8,
=F J.
2. 2.
916.
 2, 
 1,  2.
5,
917.
6, 8.
919.
2.
920.
922.
3
4
3, 6.
4, 5.
921.
0,0;
0,
;
6,
923.
4,
 1.
28, 66
924.
925.
3,
5, 2.
Va926.
8,
f
ft
4
;
4,
56, 28.
927.
a, 6
+
3
ft
'
4
3
&
928.
1, 1
_2
;'
ifcVira^
2
3,
7,
2,
4,
6.
Page 300.
7,
930.
T
6.
2.
931.
0,
6,
8. 7, 4.
932.
8,
dL 4.
933.
3,
4,
934.
i>,
6.
935.
936.
12, 8.
937.
20
19
ft.,
ft.,
15 16
ft.
3
in.,
ft.,
2
ft.
939.
480
8
sq. ft.
ft.
940.
100 rows.
941.
ft.
in.
ft.
943. 15
946.
3),
ft.,
Page 301.
yd.
951.
948.
73.
945.
60
949.
ft.,
40
16 in., 9
in.
i(6
in.
+ V953.
J(_
ft.
 V~~3).
954.
11,760 sq.
950.
955.
2,
248.
6 da.
952.
12
in.,
4.
7 ft., 4
6 mi.
1,
2 yd.
Page 302.
960.
956. 961.
957.
333.
962.
958.
108.
26j.
959.
4.
5
....
280.
5l4f.
963.
964.
11,111.
977.
80.
Page 303.
981.
4.
978.
3.
10, 12, 14
....
979.
984.
, J, f,
.
J.
980.
11.
7 or 30.
982.
983.
5, 11.
5,
7,
986.
6,
987.
%*  1 =
9,
985.
8.
18,446,744,073,709,651,615.
xxxviii
ANSWERS
989. 993.
994.
988.
992.
^f (2f3V2).
2(2 v/2).
0.
990.
W1W
JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\
a
991.
(5,18,51.
995.
Page 304.
997.
X,
(J,
\, r
2.
996.
4, 8,
1(5.
12, 24.
(Z>)
999.
(a)
2^ +
1
+ v 2).
0.
2 ...
1000. 1003.
() 12(2+V3), ^Trsq. 32
13
(tx
4V3.
9 da.
1001.
1005.
(a)
(6)
^
1002.
in.
1
1004.
a
a 13
13
ax + 78 a3
4y*>
78
n+ a' x
2
t
13
Page 305.
1007.
1008.
1009. 1012. 1014. 1017.
1006.
243
?/
810 x 2
+
y
1080 x*
4
5
?/
720 *
240 r 8
7
?/
. 5
:J2
r 10
14 y
84 y*
280
5(>0
72
C
4
2 MJiy
8
r?
"
8
.
192,192rt?)r
120
*.
1010.
9 /> l 6 /> 6
. .
8 8 2,870 a 6
1011.
6
70
 92,378 <W
and 92,378
1015.
1013.
"
252
35.
1016.
120
a;
and
1020.
120
i^l^.
3003.
1018.
1019.
12,870
z8
5&7
1021.
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA
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In Factoring, comparatively few methods are heretofore. given, but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further
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Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner, especially
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Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the
given, but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further
work, than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded; there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many
examples are taken from geometry, physics, and commercial life, but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of
time for the teaching of physics or geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board, proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course, but the work in the latter subject
who
may omit
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ADVANCED ALGEBRA
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The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board
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