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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAI-I. .AS - BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.

NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.

1910. Reprinted 1913. IQJS January.. September.COPYRIGHT. May.' February. 1916. 8. . 1910 . J.A.S. 1910. Cushlng Co. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1915. July. September. 1911. May. 1917. Mass. Berwick & Smith Co. U. January. August. Published Set up and electrotyped. . .

and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many text-books In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Elementary Algebra. short-cuts that solve only examples real value. etc. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends." this book. and conse- .PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. however. Such a large number of methods. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. manufactured for this purpose. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.. are omitted. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. specially 2.

however. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis- sion to our best universities and colleges. etc. e. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. Topics of practical importance. especially problems and factoring. as quadratic equations and graphs. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.g. may be used to supplement the other. For the more ambitious student. In regard to some other features of the book. Moreover. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertext-book is logically unsound . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge- bra". are placed early in the course. two negative numbers. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.

such examples. elementary way. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. By studying proportions during the first year's work. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im- provements upon the prevailing methods. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and commercial are numerous. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. viz. is based principally upon the alge- . But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. physics. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. in " geometry . " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value." Applications taken from geometry.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.

ARTHUR SCHULTZE. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. edge of physics. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. William P. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. NEW YORK. . genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi- but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. April. 1910. however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.

Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... SUBTRACTION... ..... .. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. Powers..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...

.. /^ . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. . Type Polynomials. * . Form x'2 -f px -f q Form px 2 -f qx + r -f .... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type III.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. Type V.114 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. .. . Type II.. Type IV. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type VI.

...... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .... .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . .... Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XIV 169 .

xii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195

THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents

....

195

200

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals

205

206 210

.212

Involution and Evolution of Radicals

.....

214

218

Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations

219
221

CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM

XVIII
227

CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.

......
.
.
.
.

232
232

II.

Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic

.

.

234

III.

Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices

236
237

IV.

Interpretation of Negative Results

and the Forms

i

-,

.

.

241

Problems

243

CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.

246
24(j

251

Geometric Progression

263

CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

255

BEVIEW EXERCISE

.

268

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I

INTRODUCTION
1.

Algebra
it

may

arithmetic,

treats of

be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,

quently denoted by problem.

as illustrated in

the following

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.

Problem.
'

The sum
x

is five

times the smaller.

Let

two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of

Then
and
Therefore,

5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x

= 42,

and
3.

x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.

A problem
An

is

a question proposed for solution.

4.

equation is a statement expressing the equality of

two

quantities; as,
5.

6 a?

= 42.

In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.

Unknown numbers
;

are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,

by the

last

letters of the alphabet

but sometimes other letters

are employed. B

1

2

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1

Solve algebraically the following problems
1.

:

of two

times the smaller.
2.

numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.

is

four

twice as

and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse

A man
A

much

How

3.

and

B own

a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.

A

has

in-

vested twice as
invested ?
4.

much

How much
is

has each

The population

of

South America

9 times that of

Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.

and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.

The

rise

of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.

6 times as
7.

Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.

A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.

The sum

If

two

of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?

A

9.

The sum

triangle is are equal,

of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4

times their sum,
there in each ?

how many

degrees are

is

G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?

B

INTRODUCTION
11.

3

twice as
12.

Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.

B may

receive

twice as
13.

Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.

A
is

which
14.

line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.

How

travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.

A

sum

of the dis-

How many

miles did

each travel ?
15.

4

A, B, C, and

does

A

take, if

B

D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much

much

as B,

and

D

six times as

NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.

2

Subtract 9 from 16.

2.
3.

Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic

why

cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*

\

4.

The temperature
is

What
5.

noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at

of subtraction.

The temperature

4 P.M.

is

7, and

at 10 P.M.

it is

10

less.
6.

What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 -10?
(3

expressing the last

answer
7.
8.

Can you think

of

any other

practical examples

which

require the subtraction of a greater

number from a smaller

one?
7.

Many

greater

number from a smaller

practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in

a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,

4

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.

8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;

quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as -f- 5 or 5.
;

The

fact that a

thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 -10

below zero

may now

= -3.
is

loss of $ 60,

Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write

equal to a

$30
9.

-$90 = -$60.
number
is

The

absolute value of a

the number taken

without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.

6,

of -f 3 is 3.

It is convenient for

many

discussions to represent the

positive

a line

numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar

series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I

lit
-4
to

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-6

-5

-3

-2

-1

+\
4,

+2

+

3

+4

4-5

+6

y

Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.

to 4- 6 represents 4- 5,

resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the

The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.

Thus, 5 added to

1

equals 4, 5 subtracted from

1 equals

6, etc.

EXERCISE
1.

3

If in financial transactions

we

indicate a man's income

by

a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west

longitude, motion upstream

and downstream.

INTRODUCTION
3.

5

If north latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what

is

south latitude represented ?
4.

If south latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what
?

is

north latitude represented
5.

the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.

What

20 A.D. ?

Of an

east-

A

his total gain or loss ?
7.

merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350. - 350. (b) Find 200

(a)

What

is

higher, is 8

- +7? 8. A vessel
(6)

If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,

starts

sails

38 due south,

(a)

from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the

journey.
9.

Find 25 -38.

A
22

sails

vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)

journey,
10.

Subtract 22 from

15.
18.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.

From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From

19. 20.

21.
22.

23.
24. 25.

To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To - 8 To 7 From

add add add

12.
1.

2.

subtract 2.

add add

9. 4.

1 subtract 2.

Add

1 and 2.

26.

the one of

Solve examples 16-25 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as

motions.
27.
(a) 28.

Which is the greater number lor -1? (b) -2 or -4?

:

By how much

is

7 greater than

12 ?

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.

Determine from the following table the range of tempera:

ture in each locality

NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;

EXERCISE
1.

4
is

If the letter

t

means 1000, what

the value of

5t?
a=

2.
3.

What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?

if

6,

and

b

=

4?
is

4.
5.

What
If a

the value of 17

c,

if c

= 5?

ifc

= -2?
marbles,

many
6.

boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last

how

7.

How
8.
9.

merchant had 20 much has he left ?

A

answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m

dollars.

What

is

the

sum

of 8 &

and G

b ?

Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain

of the last

answer

if b

= 15.

10.

number, what represents 9 times

that

number ?

INTRODUCTION
11.

1

From 26 w

subtract 19 m.

12.
if

What is the numerical
From 22m
if

value of the last answer

if

m = 2?

m = -2?
13.

subtract
1

25m, and

find the numerical value

of the answer
14.

m=

2.

Add

13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.

15.
16. 19.

From

10 q subtract 20

q.

17.
18.

Add -lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=

From subtract 26 Add - 6 x and 8 x.

x.

20.

From

Wp subtract 10^).
is

What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.

The

and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.

signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have

If there is no sign between

two
is

letters, or

a letter and a

number, a sign of multiplication
6

is

understood.
written win.

x a

is

generally written 6 a

;

m

x n

Between two
(either

figures,

x

or

)

however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;

4x7 cannot be
14.

written 47, for 47

means 40

-f 7.

A product is
=

the result obtained by multiplying together

two or more
Since 24
Similarly,

quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.

7, a, 6,

and

c are factors of 7 abc.

15.

A

power
is

thus,

aaaaa

6 aaaaaa, or a ,

is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.

;

;

The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.

8
16.

ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a

power

is

the

number which

is

repeated

as a factor.

The base

of a 3

is a.

17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.

The exponent

of

m

6

is

6

;

n

is

the exponent of an

.

EXERCISE
1.

5

find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.

Write and

72

.

6.

42

.

10.
11.
.

8

(i)

.

14.
15.
2
.

25 1

.

2*.

7.
8. 9.

2*.

O

9
.

.0001 2

.

4. 5.

52
83

.

10 6
I 30
.

12.

(4|)
(1.5)

16.
.

l.l 1

.

.

13.

2

17.

22

+3

2
.

If

a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.

d=^
22.
a*.

find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.

20.
21.

c

10
.

3

(2 c)
ab.

.

26. 27.

2

at).

b2

.

d\

23.

(6cf)

25.

(4 bdf.

28.

If

29.
30.

= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
-jJg-,

In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.

is

called the coefficient of the

In 12 win 8/), 12
19.

is

the coefficient of
is

mw 8p,

12

m is the coefficient of n*p.

A
17

numerical coefficient

a coefficient expressed entirely

in figures.
In
aryx,

17

is

the numerical coefficient.
is

When

stood ; thus a

a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.

under-

=

=

INTRODUCTION

9

20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.

3 9

2

means 3
3

aa, while (3

2

)

=3ax

3 a.

= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 2-2.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty

1 abc*

7 abccc.

EXERCISES
If

a

= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the

numerical values of

:

21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is

A

6

is is

the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth

a

root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,

The nth
Va,
is

fifth root of a,

indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is

A/27

Using

this

(Va)
22.

n

= a.
The

symbol we

may
is

express the definition of root by
the

index of a root

number which

indicates

what

root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.

It is written in the opening of the radical

is

the index of the root.

The
[ ]
;

signs of aggregation are

:

the parenthesis,
.

( )

;

the

bracket,

the brace,

j

j

;

and the vinculum,

since the parts are a . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 -f 1). b = 3. 13. V^a6. A monomial or term -f- an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. + M -f c 4 -f- d 4 are polynomials. + 1]. Val -\fi?. a2 + and | - \/a are binomials. [6-c] 3 . A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. find the numerical value of: Vff. 5Vl6c. + c). V2a. !^-f\/0-3 3 ft. 4V3~6c. 12. a polynomial of two terms. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. are trinomials. e. 17. AND NUMERICAL sym- SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. c = 1. 0." EXERCISE If a 1. x 9. as in arithmetic. 15. 10. is 28. aVc^. 16. 4(a 6(6 + &). V3 . 27. 6. 7 = 2. c -f d). 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 -f 9.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. or 9 Vx. (c-f-d) 4. A polynomial is an y. 2 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 14. \/c. some number is . v'Ta. d 7. 26. 9. 8. A binomial is 62 .g. 11. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 6. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 2. V36". 3.

1. . 2.4 6^9 ad. 2.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 10. a2 -f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . * For additional examples see page 268.390. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32 - *^. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. _|_ E.INTRODUCTION 29.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .9. 2 ). 6. 5. (a (a -f b) 7. . l 13. . 14.9 aWc + f a b .e. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 16. a=4. = 32 + 45-27 = 50. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 -+12a(i *15. 12. 5=3. + 26+3 c.3-0 = 270 .9-9. 4 . d = 0. 3 4 . 4a6-fVa-V2^. c = 2. a2 11.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . multiplication.5 ax 50 a6cd.810 + 150 = . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. b = 3. 6. -5c +-d 2 . 5 means 3 4- 20 or 23. 3 2 If 1. 5. 8. 3. ' -f & -f c 3 8 -d s . 3a + 56 a 2 . d=Q. a 2 -6. x=^. find the numerical value of: 9. 5c6 2 +-6ac3 a 3 17c3 -hl2o. Ex.g. Otherwise operations of addition. EXERCISE 8* - ..2 + I-126. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con- tained in a parenthesis. Ex. subtraction. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6-a&c2 . i. c=l. 52 .19 = 6. 5a2 2 a2 -46c-f2^^ + 3 a& +. . 4.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .

29. . a = 4. 6 = 7. = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs.c) (a .6 . Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 5. 24. 6 = 1. 30. 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 34. 37. 6. physics. 38. sible to state Ex. 25. a. Six 2 . Six times a plus 4 times 32. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. if : a = 2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 28. 26.6 -f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 2. a = 3. 22. 33. 6 = 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. geometry. 30. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 12 cr6 -f- 6 a6 2 6s. a =3. 6 = 4. : 6. 35. a = 3. and other sciences. 6=2. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 27. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 2. 6 = 3. 2-6 of the exercise. 6 = 6. a =4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a a=3. a = 4. 6 = 5. 10-14 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 23.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21.

and 5 feet. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.seconds. 13.16 centimeters per second. the area of the triangle equals feet. i. count the resistance of the atmosphere. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. then a 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. An electric car in 40 seconds. Find the height of the tree. S = | V(13-hl4-fl5)(13H-14-15)(T3-14-i-15)(14-13-f-15) = V42-12-14. d. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and 15 feet. 14.INTRODUCTION E. .) Assuming g . 12. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2-J.g. b 14. 2. if v . and c 13 and 15 = = = . b. if v = 30 miles per hour. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and 13 inches. (b) 5.16 1 = 84. (c) 4. A train in 4 hours. c. if v : a. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 15 therefore feet. 4.e. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.

denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 5 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (The number 3.).14d (square units). square units (square inches. 5. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 2 inches. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F-32).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. : 8000 miles. This number cannot be expressed exactly. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. (c) 8000 miles. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 10 feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. the 3. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 5 F.14 4. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the area etc.). If the (b) 1 inch.14 square meters. 32 F. . $ = 3.

but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. however. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + (- $4) = (- $10). of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. SUBTRACTION. or positive and negative numbers. In algebra.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.

3. 23. + (-9). the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.16 32. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 4. 4 is 3 J. 22. 12. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. d = 5. of 2. is 2. 33. find the numerical values of a + b -f c-j-c?. Thus. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 5. of: 20. the one third their sum. c = = 5. subtract their absolute values and . l-f(-2). 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 10. . 6 6 = 3. (_ In Exs. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. if : a a = 2. (-17) 15 + (-14). is 0. c = 4. 19. 24. '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. = 5. d = 0. 21. - 0. 23-26. 18. + -12.

35. AND PARENTHESES d = l. }/ Add 2 a. . 6. 32. affected by the same exponents. 25.3.7. and -8 F. 3. and 3 yards. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. -' 1? a 26. . . 43. 2. . 7 a. $1000 loss.13.. 40. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 37. -11 (Centigrade). & 28. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. $7000 gain. and 3 F. 74. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 32. 34. ^ ' 37. . -4. 42.4. $500 loss. 33. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. and 3 a. .5. ' Find the average of the following 34. 2. . 10. and 4. 39. 7 yards. d= 3. \\ Add 2 a. 60. 7 a. 38. c = 0.. = 22. 10. 10. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 66. = -13. 13.7. 36. 31. 6. : 34. 5 and 12. 55. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. : 48. 12. 41. which are not similar. SUBTRACTION. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 6. and $4500 gain. and 3 a. $3000 gain. 29.5. c=14. are similar terms. 72. 3 and 25. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 30. 09. 4 F. = -23. 1. 0.ADDITION. . sets of numbers: 13. 27. & = 15.. : and 1. or and .

sum of two such terms can only be them with the -f. EXERCISE Add: 1. 9(a-f-6). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 12(a-f b) 12. 14 .18 35. The sum x 2 and f x2 . : 2 a2. in algebra it may be considered b. 2 a&. 2 . 1 \ -f- 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9.13 rap 25 rap 2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a& -|- 4 ac2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 5l 3(a-f-6). 5 a2 .sign. Algebraic sum. or a 6.ii. -3a . 13. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 11 -2 a +3a -4o 2. 12Vm-f-n. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2(a-f &). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. + 6 af . -f 4 a2. 12 2 wp2 . 5Vm + w. 11. Vm -f. . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 7 rap2. 10. b a -f ( 6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is -f- a2 .

+ / + 3 Va. without finding the value of each term 34. ra 19. 2a -4a-4 + 6a -7a -9a-2a + 8. 21. + y. 32. SUBTRACTION. c 2 ^24. 17. 3a-76 + 5a + 2a-36-10a+116. n x* 2 22. 2 2 2 31. 33. 35. l^S 25. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. a a8 ZL **. 37. 2 7 -1 26.ADDITION. 1 27. -17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. and to add each column. 2/ : Add. i xyz -co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. +m """ 20. -36. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 5x173 + 6x173-3x173-7x173. 30. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 6 23. is .

c = 1.o c and 4. . 4- 2.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.c= 2.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.12 a& 4. 2z2 -4?/ 2 -f2z 2 5 -3ar -22/2 4- 4 -3 /.8 & c~15&c -12a&4l5a&c -20c2 -f-lO&c . to add 26 ab .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . e.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. of that letter. .2z and 0^-9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 6=2. the erroneous answer equal 7. 2 Sum. . and J 2 s. V3. 5. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. a 4.g. s. 2 Thus. 7 4. NOTE. ft any convenient and c. 3.8 abc . 46 4z 7 c. and 2 . 2 0-25. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 3 a -f 4 1) 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.20 c 5 ab 4. 4a4-6 12 q 5 2 a.3 s. 2c.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . to show any error. 5 . 9 q 4.g. -f 5 c -f- But 7 = 10 .15 abc . the following polynomials : 2a 364-6 t c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. = . 2 . 3a 2? .15 6c. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 -7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac- aW a.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.7 2 . therefore the answer is correct. f 110WS: 26 aft. x of x.3 a -f 4 the sum a = 1. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.4-1 = -3. 4 = 7.

a 4 a . v/20. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 4 3 3 ^* -f- -h <l. 2 ?/. 2 2 . and . 4 8 3 4 4 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . a 4 a .2n 2 2 3 rz . and -12a 4 15& -20c .1. and 8 3 . a. a2 2 14.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . . 4 3 .12. a2 a. d. 4(a . 2 ?ft ?/z. 2 2 and . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 6a -5a &47a& -4& and 7.a -. . 4.7m . ?/ .1 a 4 1 0. 2 and 9m 48m 4. + 50 + 62 . 2 3(c -f a). .a. m 4 6. 19. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d-15e + 2/. 4 ajy 17. a4 6(a a a2 -f a -f- 1.5a^-6 -f 6) .15 5. d and / 3 ? 12. a) -y -^/.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 10a +lOa 6-ll& 10.9(a + &) . 11.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . .a 4 a 4 1.10 Vc. 2(6 + c) + (c -f a). and and 13. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 4 Vc. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .7v/i-f.and 6.12 6 ~5 a . 2 a. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. -7ar + 3B -5. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 16e + 17/-90.6. + a + 1. and v 15.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 3 2 2 3 9 . . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . and 1 4 a .4:xy xz 6yz. SUBTRACTION.5 c ll& -7c -6 4. 4 + 6) - 5 (a + 6) + 3.4 Va . .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .(b + c) 1. 2xy + 4:XZ-}-5yz. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . -18/+6y + d.12(a 4. xy3xz + yz. 8. a + 1> 8 2 2 .a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.8 m 2m -12. in 8 3 m n 4.VS 4 2 Vc. . e a4 /. . . 5-6 w. and 5 Vb 18.Ga 4-3x45. . ^2 1 e.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 16.ADDITION.

1/ .-9aj 2. 8 . 1. and 2 24. + n*. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 2 a3 -a 4 3 a-f^. 5 3 -f- 4 ?n 4 -2m+2m e. 12 xyz. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 16m 7/-12my d+e a 6. a s -f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.3^* 2n 2 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg- ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If you diminish a person's debts. 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1.22 21. -f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken -5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 22. -T-8a.5< 3 2 s 4^4. a 6 2 c. and e + 6y .3 taken from 2 ? 5. -f- number may be added 3. s . -2 8 n + <w 2 . is 2. 5 -}- and 3 m 3 7 m. + 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy .4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. and 25. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units -f 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 4^ + 3t*n l-2aj 2 a. .11 xy + 12. . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ -f x y bxyz~lx. 2-fa 3 4 -a +7a. 13 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.. how 1. 1. -f 1. +d a. .m 4m ?/-?/ d.ra + m. 8 -f-3f a n-2<w +n . The sum and ? 1. many negative units re- main ? from 2. -4-5a-6 2 . 6 -f c 2 23.

The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.ADDITION. (- 6) -(- = . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. Ex. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 2. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. In subtraction. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 7. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.g. From 5 subtract to . change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 1. 41. Or in symbols. from What 3. a. two numbers are given. 5 is 2. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. In addition. SUBTRACTION. the other number is required. +b 3. and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. NOTE.3. called the minvend.2. Therefore any example in subtraction different . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the given number the subtrahend. a-b = x. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. . 6 -(-3) = 8. if x Ex. From 5 subtract + 3. 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . To subtract. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. This gives by the same method. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence.

If x = l = 2 -t- . Check. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8. Ex. From _6ar3 -3z + 7 2 -6ar3 -3o2 +7 2 or3 .-f 8 .3 x* .3 r*-5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.

From a3 From 6a 1 subtract -f a + b 3 1. From 6(a-f. 43. From 2 a take a & -j.ADDITION.c. c -f d. + a the 2 a. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 -f mn -f wp -f. 2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(a-f&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 52. 2y 2 . 2 + 4 a& 3 -f 6 4 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.6)-f. 49. 45. 58.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a-& 59. of x2 4x -f- 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub- From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 -}- a2 2a and a 2 + 4.w>t. 50. 42.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.a 2 -j.4 a^ 4. tract 4 x 3.2.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/-' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 6 4 a. 41. 47. 48. From a3 subtract 2 a3 -f. 53. 57. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 -f a3 From a 4 . 46. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 51.4 a*& + 6 a & . From 5a-(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn -f ??/> 8d 11 c-f 17 d. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 -f & take 1 -f b -f- & s . 44. -f 12 b -f From 10 a 12 & -f 6 subtract 5 c. of a 4. and 3 7/ . +3x -f & -f- 12 take 3 -f- ar -f- 4 x + 11.7 a . . 4v From 6 subtract l-t-2a-f3& + 4<7. 56.b -h c and a & -f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. SUBTRACTION. 54. -f 2 aa -7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From From $ -a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract -f- ar -f 7 a 2 ?/ . From From x2 the sum sum 7. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . check the answer. 55.

~2a-6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce -a+6? v . 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci-66 + c and 11. + 2. + 6 + c.15. 19. a a + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4- a2 3 between 5 a 12. +a add the difference duce 13. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 -2a-7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro- expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro- duce 14. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 -j- +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. a 2y + z. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. A is n years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 20. 2 m 21. a + 6. subtract # + 1. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 6. of # 2 8. 16. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.26 4. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.

SUBTRACTION. 4a-{(7a + 6&)-[-6&-f(-2&. I. II.2 b . 45. (b c) a =a 6 4- c. one occurring within the other. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)-[-6& +(-25.b c = a a & -f- -f. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. changed.a~^~6)]} = 4 a -{7 a 6 b -[. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* -f- thesis.a -f- = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. 66 2&-a + 6 4a Answer. Ex.c. 46. a+(b-c) = a +b . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.g.6 b -f (. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4-. may be written as follows: a -f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign -f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.a^6)] - } . & -f c.ADDITION.& c additions and sub- + d) = a + b c + d.c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the -f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. . the sign is understood.

: Ex. may be inserted according to 43.7i -h jp) (m ?*. [36+ (a -2c]. 18. 2. 5.+ 6)-f (a-2 b). m -f ft)- a. 9.[271 47. + (2a -6 + c ). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n-\-p. (m a2 -f.1422) J ] . 19. 14.)]. 2a 2 + 5a-(7-f 2a )-f (5-5a). 8. find the numerical value of { 1422 . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 21. 2a -(4a -26 +c ). 17. 13. 4. 6. : x + (2y-z). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.- ? 11. .) 5 . a -(a + 26 -c ). a -f (a a . a-(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). By removing parentheses. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. In the following expression inclose the second and third. Ex. 2 2 2 a-(. 6) 2. a (-a + 6). Signs of aggregation 1. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 16. 271 + (814 . 3. 3 3 f 7.(a + 6). 2 2a. 15.-y (60. 2m 4a-f- 2 2 2 10.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.

The sum^)f m and n. . 3. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. difference of the cubes of n and m. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 2m-n + 2q-3t. m and n. 13.1. 5. 12. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : -27i2 -3^ 2 + 4r/.2 tf . first. 9. y -f- 8 . 8. 5 a2 2. terms 5. 10. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The product The product m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.ADDITION. 4 xy 7 x* 4-9 x + 2.7-fa. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. p + q + r-s. and the subtrahend the second. The difference of a and 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. of the cubes of m and n. 3. z + d. 5^2 _ r . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 7. The square of the difference of a and b. 4. SUBTRACTION. ' NOTE. 6. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. m x 2 4. 7. a-\-l> > c + d. )X 6. 2. II.4 y* . 6 diminished .

difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.) . a plus the prod- uct of a and s plus the square of -19. dif- of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. d.30 14. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6 is equal to the square of b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 6. 18. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.

what force is produced by the Ib. A A A 1.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads balance. 3. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 4. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. let us consider the and JB. weights. two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads balance. If the two loads what What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. force is produced therefore. 2.

examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 48. however. ( (. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = -(. . becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4)-(. Practical examples^ it however. (- 9) x (- 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac- tors can be obtained. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.32 8. 4 multi44-44-4 12. thus. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 x (- 11). or plied by 3.4)-(-4) = + 12. x 11. make venient to accept the following definition : con- 49. 5x(-4). 4 x(-8) = ~(4)-(4)-(4)=:-12. 4 multiplied by 3. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub- traction. Thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(-4)+(-4)+(-4)=-12. 9 9. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus- by the following examples : 4x3 = 4-12. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. NOTE. (-5)X4. the multiplier is a negative number. 4x(-3)=-12.9) x 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. (.

7. X(-5). z s 11 aWcx. Ua b 28. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.2 f+x 2 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (-a)(+6) = -a&. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. x. b = 3. 23. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 4 a2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. 14. etc. .a)(- =+ a&.-2--f 18. 3 aW. (-10) 4 . . 6. 3 a2?/2 . 32. 9. 20.-2. 8 31. 8 4 . 4 .-3. (-4)'. 15. 2a6 c . 22. Law Thus. and y = 4. 5. 1. (. (-2)x9. -1. +5. 3. is 6x-7. _2^ -3. the parenthesis frequently omitted. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. -5x-3. _3. 26. 29. NOTE. 16. 6. about fac- (-2)X If 6. 8. 3.(-4J). 2a 2 6c. find the numeri- values of: 21. 17. 19. 24. 10. 11. If a cal = 4a6c. -. 27. (-7) X (-12). x= 0.7. 6 2. . . _2. 4.(a&c) 2 2 . of Signs: TJie positive. (-2) 8 (. 4a -f-26 2 2a + 3&2 -6c* . c = 25. (c#) . 30. (-4)X(-15). 2. 13. 12. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.MULTIPLICATION 50.3) (-1) 7 2 .-4.

(a6) -(a5) 9. 3 2 . a 2 2 . 5. i. 2(14. 10.e. 200. 12 U U . 3. . 3. 2 -2 3 6 . 6 = . 50(11-2. 127 - 127 9 7 . 14.(-12) . 5 3 5 3 2 .3).7. 3 3 4 .257). Ex. This 52. a= 1. IB. a8 a=2. if =2 a a to - 2 2 x2 2 2. 1. - and 2 25 8 .<?. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 6" 127 U . : 3a-7abc. 2(7. fl*" integers. 9 . 5 = 2.. + 2/). =2 a *. 78 .2 -2 23 + 5 . 2 2 2 . . Ex.50-3). 4. - 2 2. .(2. 2. 6 aWc x . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 5 . 7.1 2 a 6 -f 6 aW . a = 3. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 6 = 1.m a 3 - 4 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.7 &*# =(6 - 7) (a 2 a8 ) . of the factors.. . 17.(-7). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) -f n) factors. 13.6 if 35. By 3 definition. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 100. a 5 (-a) (^ + 14 8 2/) -(a? + 4 2/) -(aj . m*. 2 3 . 5(7-11. a = 2. 6. . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 16. = 2. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.3-5). known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. & = -3. 53. or 2 .2). 4.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 11. &*) c d*. 34. 36. 2. 4. B.

the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 26. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) -f (a 4- 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 24. This principle. 4. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. tet^m -f c) = ab +ac. 4 aft -5 aft 2 . Thus we have in general a(b 56. _4aft. 5. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 2(645410). 35 4 7(6. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a -f 8 54. If results ft. 2. 22. called the distributive law. 3. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.3 win ) . (. ) 2 33. 2 32. but we shall assume it for any number.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 23.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be - 1) =- 18 a 4 6 2 c .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 19. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 12(| + 1 4 i). 6 e/ a (- (- 2 a2 ) 3 . 17(10041042). 3(124342). . 11(3. multiply each by the monomial. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5 - 2 ran4 30.-4a#.A). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. . . 28. (. 20. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 6. 6(104-20430). 34.6.f- 2).7 w'W (-8 n^W). and then adding : 1. by first multiplying. 35. 27. 25.-7pqt. 21.2 3 aft ). . . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). c-(-4a ftc ). 7. 29. 31. 23(10004100420). . -7p*q r*. 2(5-fl5-f25). /).6 a2 62c -f 8 a2 6.

9.2 mn(9 mV . By what 25. 7 a 6 c(. 7 3 (7 3 -f-7 +7 10 ). 21. 28. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 11. 5). 12. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* -f 3 x* -f arty 3 a4 . 17.asa product. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 4 13 (4 9 -4 5 -4). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.6) (x -f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) -f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.5 x- 7). . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.5 w*V -f 7 wn).60 a& 10 aft. 20. -f7a. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .we b) (x law.^ c + 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). 2 27. 2 2 16. .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 22.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 29. 23. -5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . ~2mn(m +n -p ). 3 ).6 a6). -: expression must 24. Find the factors of 6 ary . 26. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 19. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 m(m-hn -\-p). 30. be multiplied to give 4o.

a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 2 + a8 a a = =- I 1 =2 -f 2 a 4. Ex. 2a-3b a-66 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example.1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 b by a 5 b. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.a . 59. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . To multiply two polynomials. .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* * - 2" a2 -7 60.3 a 2 + a8 . Multiply 2 + a -a. Since all powers of 1 are 1. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.4. Check. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since errors. Multiply 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab - 13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 2. a2 + a8 + 3 . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. however.

(a-^-26) . 36) I) 14. 12)(a?^2-|-l). 1). (9m-2n)(4m + 7tt). (6i-7n)(llJ-n). 3<7). 36. 13. 25. a 5c)(2a-6c). 2 - 37. (aj-f6y)(aj 23. 35.2m)(l -m). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 29. 31. 2 . 7y). (4a-f 76)(2tt (4ra -f-ra (5c-2d)(2c-3d). 24.1 . (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . QQ O7.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 12. 26. 3n)(7m -f-6<7)(5^) + 8n). . 20. (6p (2 -f- 21. 11.2). 22.4) (x + 1). 6 2 (6a&c-5) -3a6-f-2)(2a6~l). 32.n)(m 8 n)(m n). . 30. (6a~7) 2 . 9. 28.4) (mnp 4. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (8r-7*)(6r-39. (2w 19. (a -|-2a + 2)(a-3). 8. 15. 4. 36). 41. 10. l)(ra-f 2). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. I (m-fn)(m-4. * For additional examples see page 261. 2 (a a-l)(2a?-fl). 18. 7. 5. 17. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c-3). 40. 4 2). OQ OO. -2) (3 A: -1).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp -f. 2. (13 A. (4a 2 33. 6. 3. 2 . (2 x* x 2 . + & + 1-f a^faj -1). 16. -^ 2 .

1005x1004. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (*. (ra.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 3 (a -7) 3 (a -8). 27.4). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). .e.13). (-!)(* -5). 25. 25 a 2 . + 2) (a -f 3).2 6) (a -f 6).!!)( (a + 21). 1) (10 + 2). (J 23. 12. 15. -2) (1000 + 3). 22. X 102. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. . i. : 23 2. 21. 24. plus the product 62. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (10+ (1000 (2. + 9)(m+9).-25)(y+4). (a 102 x 103. (wi 2^*-12)(ajy 6. 75 ab -f 54 ft . 2 a? 29. 11.e. 20. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (100-1) (100 (1000 + 2). (a-3)(a + 2). 2 5 b z) (a2 -f 4 (a 2 4. (a -9) (a + 9). in of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . -2 6) (a -3 6). (a (a (a. + 60)(f-2). (100 +2) (100 + 3). plus the product of the two unequal terms. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 9. 8. 26.n)(w-f w). . 6. 7. (ofy* -f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). + 5) (1000 + 4). 3. + 3) (a -7). 14. 10. _3)(a _4). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 28. i. (6 -12) (6 -f. (p-12)(p + ll). 13. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 18. 19. ft 16. 17.

33. and the second. i. 35. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. Ex.66 s. of the following expres- Find two binomial factors sions 30. . 37. : 24 (a 2. 2 (a (*-5) 2 . 34. plus the square of the second. p 2 -p. + 3) 2 . 9. 4. III. second. 7 a + 10. w 2 ro . 6.e. plus sum of two numbers the square II. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. + 6 a + 8. (a-2) (p a . <J>-7) J . i. + 6) (a + 2) -a) 2 . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 77ie square of the of the first.e. 7.e. (a-26) 2 . . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 3.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. : ar'-Sz + a 2 G. 32. . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP -f. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 31. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 63. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I).15. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 49 y*.30. a2 2 w + 2 w .15. n2 10ii+16. III. 2 5. (x+3i/) 2 . of the second. 8.

49. 4 53. 21. 2 9a -496 2 56. 12. 48. (a -3) 2 2 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . 2 + 11 -2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2 - Z ) 2 2 (5 r -f 2 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xy-Sy* . 23. . . 2 . 991 2 2 . 99x101. 33. 2 . 46. a 2 -8a6+166 2 . 2 (4a-36) 2 13. a 2 + 10 ab -f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. The product of 57. 52. (2x-3yy. 2 2 . 25 a -9. 2 J ). 32. 18. 2 2 -5c ) 2 2 19. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 103 36. (20 -f- 1) .MULTIPLICATION 10. 38. 15. 998x1002. 34. 28. 22 2 . 47. + 5). . -7)(a 2 2 -f 7). m 2 16. n*-6n+9. a2 -9. G> +5g)*. 29. (6afy 2 -5) (a. (100 + 2) (100 -2). 62 -25n 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30.30 ab + 25 6 64. 11. 42. 16aW-25. + 5)(5+a). two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 55. 2 -11 # ) 2 20. 24. 54. 41. 9 a2 .998 39. 22. (m -27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). x*+2xy+y\ a 2 -2a6 + & 2 m 2 -2m-hl. 2 (2a6-c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 . 35. By actual multiplication. 14. 45. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . . 40. n 2 -f4n+4. (m -f 2 tt n)(ra w )- 26 - (^ (2m + 3)(2m-3). 41 16. : factors of each of the following expres- y?-f. -I) 2 . 17. ). 51. 44. (^-. -7& ) 25. (3p -9) (6a 2 2 2 . 31. 104 2 37. ( 27. (1000 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*-2t ) 2 5 (c-d -5)(c d 2 .

6. 13. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a-4)(4a-l). 9. 14. ) (2 of a polynomial. (3m + 2)(m-l). (2a-3)(a + 2). 7. ((5a? (10 12. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 -7)(a & + 5). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ).-f 2 a& -f 2 ac + 2 &c. or The student should note minus signs. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the last terms. 8. 2 2 + 2) (10 4-3). (5a6-4)(5a&-3). The square 2 (a 4. . sum of the cross products. 11. 65. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 10. 3. The middle term or Wxy-12xy Hence in general. (4s + y)(3-2y).& + c) = a + tf + c . (x i- 5 2 ft x 2 -3 6 s). 5. 4. : 25 2. 2 (2m-3)(3m + 2). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.

(2a-36 + 5c) (3 (.(>-.(m 2 6.y? + 8 .r _ 2 . Check.X2 + 2 x . Find the square root 11.5). = .24 .4) .[a? .29.39. 4(* + 2)-5(-3). (a-2)(a-3)~(a-l)(a-4). . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. = 10 x . Hence. Simplify (x + 6) (a . -2)-6. a. (a (.3) (x . 7. 9. and check the answers !. + 6)( . 7.i-2&-c) 2 . (u-4& + 3c'. 66.(= [ Xa + 2 . 3. + 6 )-2(6 + &)~(&4-& ). of z : 10. ( - 2 -4) = - 20 a. 2 2. 4.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 5. (x-y+z)*. 8. + 6-5) . 2 m 2 -+- n2 2 "-f- jp -f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 13.(x .8 x + 15] . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.4) . 3. 6. 6(a 2.24] . after multiplying the factors of a term.3) . If x = 1. n). Ex. 12.5) = (7 . 4. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. : 43 26 (m-f n+p) 2 2 . 8. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 5. 4y s-f n) 2 . 4(aj-2)-h3(-7).3)(z.39. (m-f n)(m+2)-3m(n + m).1 5 = 10 . 6~2(a + 7).

44
9.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

10. 11. 12.
13.

4(m + 2)
(a?

+ 5(w

3)

5)(oj-2)

(a;-

(n -f 5) (w

- 2) + (n - 7) (n + 4) - 2 (n* - 2)

14.
15.

6(p+2)-7(p-9)-2(i> + l)(p-l).

16.
17.

x- 2 y)(3 x -f 2 y) - (4 - y) (a3 (a -f 6) - 4 (a + &) (a -f 2 6) + (a (5
2

18.

19.

20.
21.

22.

2

(a

-fa-f

1)

(

a - 1)

- (a + 1) (a - 1).
8

CHAPTER
DIVISION

IV

is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

67.

Division

if

their product

is

Thus
by
-f

to divide
12.

12

by

+

3,

we must find
is

the
;

number which

3 gives

But

this

number

4

hence

_

multiplied

12 r +3

=4.

68.

Since

-f

a

-

-f b

-fa

_a
and
it

-f-

a

= -f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
-f-

follows that

4-a

=+b

ab

a
ab

a
69.

Hence the law
:

of signs

is

the same in division as in

multiplication
70.

Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.

Law

of
,

a8 -5- a5

=a

3

for a 3

It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8

=

.

Or

in general, if

greater than

m n, a

-f-

and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"-", for a
<

m

m

is

45

46

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent

of the divisor.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently

2x y
6

2
,

we have
z

to

find

the

2x*y

gives 10 x^ifz.

This

Therefore,
the quotient

*

,

= - 5 a*yz.
is

Hence,
sign,

of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the

a monomial whose

coefficient is the quotient

preceded by the proper
literal

and whose

literal

found

in accordance with the

quotient of their law of exponents.

parts

73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)-?-4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.
-

-

.

-

.

-

.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:

28

'

2

.

76-H-15.
-39-*- 3.
2
15

3"
7

7'

3.

-4*
'

4.
5.

-j-2

12
.

4

2

9

5 11

68

3 19 -j-3
5

10.

(3
38
-

-2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'

11.

3

(2

.3*.5 7 )-f-(
2
'

12

'

2V

14

36 a
'

13

''
y-ffl-g

35

-5.25

-12 a

2abc

15

-42^
'

-56aW
'

UafiV

DIVISION
lg

47

-^1^. 16 w
7

20>

7i

9

_Z^L4L.

22.

10 iy.

132 a V* 14 1

*

01

-240m
120m-

40

6c

fl

/5i.
3J)

c

23.

2 (15- 25. a ) -=- 5.

25. 26.

(18
(

.

5

.

2a )-f-9a.
2

24.

(7- 26 a

2

)

-f-

13.

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS

To divide ax-}- fr.e-f ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx -J- ex.
74.

But
TT

x(a
aa?

Hence

+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx -f ex = a 4- b +
-\.

,

.

c.

a?

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.

3 xyz

EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:

29

2.
5.

fl

o.

(5*

_5* + 52)

-5.

52

.

3.
97
.

(2

(G^-G^-G^-i-G
(11- 2

4.

(8- 3

+

11 -3

+ 11

-5)-*- 11.

18 aft- 27 oc

Q y.

9a

4

-25 -2 )^-2
<?

2

.

+8- 5 + 8-

7) -*-8.

5a5 +4as -2a

2

-a

-14gV+21gy
Itf

15 a*b

-

12

aW + 9 a
2

2

3a

48
,

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,

m n - 33 m n
4

s

2

-f

55

mV

- 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3

- 49 aW + 28 a -W - 14 g 6 c
4 4

15. 16.

2 (115 afy -f 161 afy

- 69
4
2

a;

4
?/

3

- 23 ofy
3

4

)

-5-

23 x2y.

(52

afyV - 39
4
?/

oryz

- 65 zyz - 26 tf#z)

-5-

13 xyz.
-f-

,

17.

(85 tf

- 68 x + 51 afy - 34 xy* -f 1 7

a;/)

- 17

as.

DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.

Let

it

be required to divide 25 a

- 12 -f 6 a - 20 a
3

2

by

2 a 2 -f 3 a, divide

4

a, or, arranging according to
2

descending powers of

6a3 -20a

-f

25a-12

2 by 2a -

The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is

If

the product of 3 a and 2

2

4 a

+

3, i.e.

6 a3

12 a 2

-f

9 a, be sub-

8 a 2 -f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have

therefore to divide the remainder,

8 a2

-f-

16 a

12,

2 by 2 a

4 a

+

3.

consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,

We

4,

the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
-I-

+ 3, we

obtain the product

8 a2

16 a

12,

which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.

no remainder. Hence 3 a

4

is

DIVISION
The work
is

49
:

usually arranged as follows

- 20 * 2 + 3 0a-- 12 a 2 +
a3

25 a
{)

-

12

I

2 a2 8 a

-

4 a 4

a

_
12

+3

I

-

8 a? 4- 16

a-

76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:

descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.

Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and

subtract the result
4.

from
it

the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.

Arrange

the

remainder in
as a

expression, consider
5.

until the highest poiver

Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less

was arranged
the divisor.

than the highest poiver of the same

letter in

77.

Checks.

Numerical substitution constitutes a very con-

venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division

was

exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.

if

the

Ex.

1.

Divide 8 a3

-f

8 a

- 4 + 6 a - 11 a
4

2

by 3 a
,

- 2.
^ _ _
,

Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4

,

,

+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8

11

a2 a2

-f

8a

4

I

3 a
2 a8

-2
-f

=
a _+ 2
.

7-r-l,

4 a2

=

7

+

-11

-

3 a2

3

a'

2

+ +

8 a 2 a

-4 + 6a - 4

50
Ex.
2.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4

- 46 -6a6
4
3

-f-

9

2

6

2

2 l by 26 -3a& + a

.

Arranging according to descending powers of

a,

we have

a<a4

6 a36
fr

-f
-f

9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2

-46*

I

a2
a*

-

8 ab 3 ab

- 3 a8

-

|

+ 2 6^ - 2 62

-46*

- 3 a^ + 9a 2 6 - 6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a - 4 6 4 - 2 a^a + 6 aft - 4
Check.
ft*

The numerical
it

substitution a

=

1,

&

=

1,

cannot be used in this
either to use

example since
larger

renders the divisor zero.

Hence we have

a

number

for a, or multiply.
2 - 8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab - 2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2 - 3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2 - 3 a&) - 2 62 ] = (a 2 -3 aft) 2 -4 6* = a2 - 6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2 - 4 5*.

EXERCISE

30 *
:

Perform the operations indicated and check the answers

2. 3.

(jf_2y-15)-i-<y-6).
2 (15 a
2

4.
5.
6.

- 46 a# -f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4- 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/

-5-

(5

a5 w).

2

-*-

(m

7.

(6^-53^ + 40)^(6^-5).
(56
2 a; -f-

8.

19 x

-15) --(8

-3).

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

2 (25 a

- 36

2
ft

)

-j-

(5

a

-f-

6

6)

* See page 263.

(a -f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . Division of the difference of two squares. . 16. 18. (aj -3aj-2)-^(oj-2).2).l.DIVISION 14. . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m -f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 -f- 2 3 -f- ) -5- 1) . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 -x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 -^. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2) (3 a . 20. (8xy + lo-22x' y)-+(2x y-3). a I. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (a? s -8) 4 -*-( 2).11 a + 9 a . v/17.18 m 2 ) -f- (1 G m -f 9 m 2 ).e. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 19.81 c8 f ' ISVft-Qc 8 64 ' a2 -166 2 ' a? 10 -1 . 51 15. + 23a& + 20)-*-(2a& + 6). b -f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (81 m + 1 .

f 13. -100ry. 4 -b. 12. 15.000-1.000. 16. 14.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. . -r/ 1. 10. 16 . aW 12 a. 121a a 16 100 11. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . -9& 2 . . 1. : the following w a 4 -!.49.

. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. in the equation 2 x 0. 81. second member is x + 4 x 9.r -f9 = 20 is true only when a. x 20. (rt+6)(a-ft) = 2 - b' 2 . =11. hence it is an equation of condition. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. Thus. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. the first member is 2 x + 4.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the 80. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 82. is said to satisfy an equation. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 83. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. .

the known quan x) (x -f 4) tities are = . the divisor equals zero. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 87. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.54 84.g. 86. To solve an equation to find its roots. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x -f a letters 88. 89. called axioms 1.2. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. If equals be added to equals. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.b. If equals be divided by equals. Transposition of terms. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 5. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A 2 a. 3. the sums are equal. E.e. 4. 2. 2 = 6#-f7. but 4 does not equal 5. the products are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the quotients are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. the remainders are equal. a. If equals be multiplied by equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 85. fol- A linear equation is also called a simple equation. A term may be transposed from its sign. A numerical equation is one in which all . x I. one member to another by changing x + a=. 90. NOTE. .

4x 1 + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. To solve a simple equation. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Transposing. x = 93. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.2 y= f . The first member. 4-fl = 12-fl = 13 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x-\1. Hence the answer. Uniting. x = 3. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 2(11 . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 91. if 55 x members. Check. a? Adding 5 to each term. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Dividing by Check. The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 -f 1. a= a 6-fc. 2 x = 6. The first member.2. b Adding a to both + a. 3 y . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. --f If y 20 . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. b c.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i + | = 26 -f f = 26$ JI . Subtracting 4 x from each term.9 y + y2 = 22 . if a x = b. is correct. Dividing both members by 2.y) = C4 + })(5-f The second member. . and the known terms to the second. 6a-5 = 18-5 = 13. Ex. (4-y)(6.9 y + 6 y = 20 -f 22. Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.6 y -f y\ .8.

7. 8. 13 y -99 = 7 y. Solve the following equations by transposing. 2. 21. and check the answers 9. aj * See page 264. etc. Uniting. = 3. 11 ?/ a? 18. 16. 19. a? a?. 17 + 5a. 20. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7 (6 x -16). a. 17 -9 x + 41 = 12 -8 17.-7a: = 39-4a. 3. x x 1 . 14. 14y = 59-(24y + 21). it NOTE. 87- 9(5 x -3) 6(3 a? = 63. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 3-2 = 26-4.. = 5a?+18. = 60 -7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. = 7. = 2 ?/. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. : 5# = 15+2a. 17 7 a. + 22. 11. . -f- Simplifying. -3)= 9(3 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. + 16 = 16 + 17..4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.17 + 4y = 36. 4y 10. 4a + 5 = 29. 15. a?. If x = 18. . 13a? 3a?. 9 9a? = 7 13. 4. 7a? 5. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). =2 = 3. x = 18. 3. a. 12. 3 7 a. -50. \x x 2-^x-fl.56 Ex. {(x (x The The member right member left . 24. 6. v23. J.7. Transposing. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation | (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 24-7y = 68-lly. 22.69.

(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) -(a-5) :=2.12) (2 + 5) . .-5)-5(7a>-8)=4(12-3a5) + l.7) (7 x + 4) . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. . Evidently 45. 2 2 * -Jaj. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. or 70 a?. : One part is of 70 is 25 .3) + . -7) (a.5) = (a. . 42. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.1) (a (a? + 3) = . (6 u =5 44. 30.g. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.4) + 4 w . + 4). .3) + 14. 27. | +6= |aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .32. 57 73-4* = 13*~2(5*-12). . .1 0) = 0.3) . 25. 31. this question. 38. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. a? 43. is the other part. 5) (as (a.14 = 0.7. 34. (aj- 37. 7(7 x y 26.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) -(2J-3)( + 2) = 12. 41. 29. e. 40.5(2 u . . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. + 1) -8(7-5 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .(2 + 6) (4 . 35. 6(6a. (a.1) (u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.5) + 199. find the other part. + 7) (.2) (M . 36.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 33. 39. a? 28.

6. is b. Divide 100 into two 12. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. smaller one 16. 4. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Divide a into two parts. 6. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro- The answer is 5. and the smaller one parts. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. or 12 7. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Find the greater one. one part equals is 10. x -f- y yards cost $ 100 . If 7 2. one yard will cost - Hence if x -f y yards cost $ 100. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 11. find the cost of one yard. Ex. 14. 33 2. 7. 15. so that of c ? is p. so that one part The difference between is s. 9. is a? 2 is c?. one yard will cost 100 -dollars. 10. EXERCISE 1. 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. greater one is g. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is d. 17. 13.58 Ex. 1. a.

How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. A man had a dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 20. and c cents. amount each will then have. and B is y years old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find 21. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. and spent 5 cents. 32. find the has ra dollars. ?/ 31. A feet wide. How many cents has he ? 27. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 26. 19. 34. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. b dimes. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many years A older than is B? old. is A A is # years old. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 28. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. numbers is x. 22. A dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 33. sum If A's age is x years. and B's age is y years. 24. and B has n dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 28.

A was 20 years old. Find x % % of 1000. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. . If a man walks ? r miles per hour. % % % of 100 of x. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. m is the denominator. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). per Find 5 Find 6 45. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. 48. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. a. c a b = - 9. of m. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. Find a 47. 49. -. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. of 4. Find a. The two digits of a number are x and y. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. he walk each hour ? 39. -46. find the fraction.50. The first pipe x minutes. Find the number.

of a and 10 equals 2 c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 5. 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 2. 4. c. 6. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. = 2 2 a3 (a - 80. etc. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased -}- a2 i<5 - b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . 8 -b ) + 80 = a . double of a is 10. c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. of x increased by 10 equals x. of a increased much 8. a exceeds b by c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. by one third of b equals 100. The excess of a over b is c. 9. -80. The double as 7.

(d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 11. express in algebraic symbols : -700. express in algebraic 3x : 10. ->. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 6 % of m. x is 100 x% is of 700. x 4- If A. and C's ages will be 100. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.62 10. sum equals $20. 14. they have equal of A's. amounts. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. a. 50 is x % of 15. a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 16. In 10 years the sum of A's. pays to C $100. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. B's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 3 1200 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 18. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C's age 4 a. 12. . a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars..000. B's age 20. is If A's age is 2 x. as 17 is is above a.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. (c) If each man gains $500. and C have respectively 2 a. symbols B. 17. B. A gains $20 and B loses $40. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. they have equal amounts. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. #is5%of450. a second sum. m is x % of n. of 30 dollars. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.

x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Three times a certain no. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Uniting. Transposing. Let x The (2) = A's present age. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. but 30 =3 x years. 1. Check. x = 20. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Uniting. Ex. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. be 30 . Ex. In 15 years 10. 3 x + 16 = x x (x - p) Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. A will Check. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 2. Transposing. denote the unknown 96. number of yards. x+16 = 3(3-5). number. Simplifying. 15. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3z-40:r:40-z. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. etc. NOTE. much as 40 exceeds the number. Let x = the number. . In order to solve them. Find A's present age. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. -23 =-30. the required . x= 15. 6 years ago he was 10 . 4 x = 80. = x x 3x -40 3x 40- Or. Dividing. the . Write the sentence in algebraic symbols.

35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. . 14. 11. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 5. exceeds the width of the bridge. EXERCISE 1. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number. Forty years hence his present age. 3. 4. Hence 40 = 46f. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Dividing. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Six years hence a 12 years ago. A number added number. Let x 3. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 300 56. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A will be three times as old as to-da3r . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.64 Ex. % of 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number.2. Find 8. by as much as 135 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Uldbe 66 | x x 5(5 is = -*-. 13. twice the number plus 7.

One number exceeds the other one by II. The other verbal statement. times as much as A. 65 A and B $200. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. statements are given directly. 97. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. 1. five If A gives B $200. During the following 90 years. x. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and as 15. A and B have equal amounts of money. The sum of the two numbers is 14. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and B has $00. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B How will loses $100. B will have lars has A now? 17. Ex. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. two verbal statements must be given. 14. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. is the equation. F 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. The problem consists of two statements I. which gives the value of 8.000. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dol- A has A to $40. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. written in algebraic symbols. the second one. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. If A gains A have three times as much 16. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.000. Find the population of Maine in 1800.

A gives B 25 marbles. . B will have twice as many as A. I. Let x 14 I the smaller number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. If A gives are : A If II. A has three times as many marbles as B. . x 3x 4- and B will gain. to Use the simpler statement. Dividing. in algebraic -i symbols produces #4a. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. / . Let x 3x express one many as A. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Statement x in = the larger number. 8 = 11. 2x a? x -j- = 6. + a- -f -f 8 = 14. x x =14 8. 2. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. A will lose. 25 marbles to B. = A's number of marbles. B will have twice as viz. If we select the first one. which leads ot Ex. although in general the simpler one should be selected. x = 8. = 14. the smaller number. has three times as many marbles as B. the greater number. 8 the greater number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. and Let x = the Then x -+. the sum of the two numbers is 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Uniting. = B's number of marbles. < Transposing. . terms of the other. = 3. The two statements I. o\ (o?-f 8) Simplifying. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Then. unknown quantity in Then. consider that by the exchange Hence.

11 x = 5. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 40 x . Eleven coins. cents.10. Simplifying. 3 x = 45. greater is . 2. A's number of marbles. the number of dimes.. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. . Uniting. Two numbers the smaller. . of dollars to the number of cents.10. B's number of marbles. x = 6. by 44.. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. * 98. * ' . Uniting. 3. Find the numbers. 15 + 25 = 40. The sum of two numbers is 42. x from I. and the Find the numbers. 67 x -f 25 25 Transposing. x = the number of half dollars. 50 x Transposing. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 45 . 1. x = 15. The number of coins II. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). have a value of $3. consisting of half dollars and dimes. is 70. but 40 = 2 x 20. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. the price. The value of the half : is 11.10. (Statement II) Qx . Check.$3. 60. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Simplifying. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. w'3. dollars and dimes is $3. 6 times the smaller. Find the numbers. Dividing. Check. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.. then. etc. Let 11 = the number of dimes.25 = 20.550 -f 310.5 x .240. Dividing. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 50. the number of half dollars.75. 50(11 660 50 x -)+ 10 x = 310.

and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many inches are in each part ? 15. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 7. as the larger one. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. the number. How many 14 years older than B. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 6. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 5. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. How many hours does the day last ? . Find their ages. one of which increased by 9. tnree times the smaller by 65. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. A's age is four times B's. On December 21. How many volcanoes are in the 8.. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Everest by 11. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. United States. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13.000 feet. 9. Twice 14.68 4. 11. McKinley. and twice the altitude of Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts.

19. Ex. III. bers is denoted by x. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. = 48. Let x II. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. number had. original amount. has. B has three times as much as A. are : C's The three statements A. I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. number of dollars A had. and B has three as A. 1. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. they would have 3. three One of the unknown num- two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. If A and B each gave $5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 8(8 + 19) to C. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. times as much as A. has. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. then three times the money by I. and C together have $80. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state- ment directly in algebraical symbols. . number of dollars of dollars B C had. B. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. x = 8. 69 If a verbal statements must be given." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. and 68. II. and C together have $80. If 4x = 24. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z-5) (90-4z) = x. B.

III. according to II. Dividing. 9 -5 = 4 . + 8 90 x and. 4 x -f 8 = 28. sheep.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 -f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 90 may be written. and each sheep $ 15. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 185 a = 925. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. and the sum of the . A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. + 35 x 4. according to III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. The I. x -j- = the number of horses. cows. The total cost equals $1185. 9 cows. + 35 (x +-4) -f 15(4z-f 8) = 1185. x -f 4 = 9. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 2. x = 5. each horse costing $ 90. three statements are : IT.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 1 1 Check. Uniting. x Transposing. 2 (2 x -f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 90 x -f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. number of horses. and Ex. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. the third five times the first. = the number of dollars spent for horses. first. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. x 35 -f + = + EXERCISE 1. number of cows. number of sheep. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each cow $ 35. 28 2 (9 5). The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4.

what is the length of each? has 3. - 4.000. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . The gold. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. 7. women. and children together was 37. first. the copper. equals 49 inches. A 12. If twice The sum the third side. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and 2 more men than women. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. what are the three angles ? 10. first. the third 2. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. twice as old as B. 9. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). New York delphia.000. v . increased by three times the second side. and the sum of the first and third is 36. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. what is the population of each city ? 8. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. 13. the second one is one inch longer than the first. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. men. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. how many children were present ? x 11. twice the 6. "Find three is 4. v - Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.

3 and 4. 14. of arid the value of the iron was $300. width. and distance. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. i. The copper had twice the value of the gold.e.000 more than that the copper. number of hours. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. speed. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. Find the value of each. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Let x = number of hours A walks. .g. After how many hours will they meet and how E. number of miles A x x walks. we obtain 3 a. Hence Simplifying. together. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Dividing. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 7 Uniting. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 8 x = 15.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. A and B apart.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 5. or time. 3z + 4a:-8 = 27. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000.000. and quantities area. how many 100. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. = 35. but stops 2 hours on the way. such as length.

2 a = 40.053. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. + 8.M(x . or 700." gives (2. original field has Check. Transposing and uniting. 10 x = 200.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. Find the dimensions of the field. x . Multiplying. 70x10 Ex.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x + 200). The an area 40 x 20 =800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. .04 8. were increased by 30 yards.01 = = . $ 800 = required sum.06 = $ 40.04 = $ 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. But 700 certain = 800 2. 2 - - and transpose. the area would be 100 square yards less. What brings the same is the capital? in- Therefore Simplify.05 x x . and the width decreased by 10 yards. Cancel 2 # 2 (a -10) = 2s -100. . $ 1000 x . Check. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. l. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. $ 800 = 800. the second 100. x . z = 20.

55. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. twice as large. and the cost of silk of the auto- and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. mobile. Find the share of each. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs. together bring $ 78 interest. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. the area would remain the same. Find the dimen- A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. Ten yards $ 42. 2. 3. were increased by 3 yards. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A of each. What are the two sums 5. and its width decreased by 2 yards. 1. Six persons bought an automobile. and a second sum. invested at 5 %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. After how many hours will B overtake A. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. sions of the field. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. but four men failed to pay their shares. A sets out later two hours B . of coffee for $ 1. as a 4. A sum ? invested at 4 %. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.

how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. but A has a start of 2 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and from the same point. A and B set out direction. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.

stage of the work. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. expression is rational with respect to a letter. it is composite. irrational. 6. -f- db 6 to b. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. vV . this letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An after simplifying. we shall not. + 62 is integral with respect to a. which multiplied together are considered factors. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. at this 6 2 . a2 to 6. as. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. but fractional with respect 103. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. 5. if.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . \- V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if it does contain some indicated root of . 104. a. a- + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 76 . consider 105.

Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.FACTORING 106. E. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Divide 6 a% . 77 Factoring is into its factors.g.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy -f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. y. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. x. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). . Ex. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. It (a. Factor 14 a* W- 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 01. it fol- lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. for this result is a sum. 2. 8) (s-1).3 6a + 1). 109. or that a = 6) (a = a . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. x. Factor G ofy 2 . 110.62 + &)(a 2 .3 sy + 4 y8).) Ex. 55.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 107. 2. in the form 4) +3. . factors of 12 &V is are 3.62 can be &). TYPE I. ?/. it follows that a 2 . 2. 1.

.45 afy . x2 -f-2 x = 15 we have. 2 23. Ilro8 9. 5-f 2 . 12. . (as 3) and (cc-f-5). + llm -llm. 2 2 .4.5 + 13 -8. obviously. 4 tfy -f. a(m-f-7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) -3 /(a + 6). 20. q*-q*-q 2 a. a -a '-J-a . 16. 13.g. 11. 15.5 + 2. -7a & 10. 14a 4 5. in factoring a trinomial of the form x -f-/>#-f q.16 a'V -f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b -f 8 6V . e. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.51 aW + 68 21.4. )- 22 - 2. 2. 3 3 5 6. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 32 a *?/ . -f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 18.6. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 Or. in general.8 c a 15 ofyV .3. 19. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 34 a^c 8 . 2 + q. 8. : 6 abx . 7i 13. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x -f 5) 15.2. 15 2 7.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 3 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 14. a6c. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is -f.12 cdx. the y factored expression is (x -}-m)(x + n). 4 8 . 3x*-6x*.3. &-{-20a 6 4 &3 2 .30 aty. 17. 4. 3. TYPE IT.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 2 6.

determine whether In solving any factoring example. Ex.4 . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.. 3.11) (a + 7). but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. and (a . If q is positive.30 = (a .11 a 2 . 5. 79 Factor a2 -4 x .1 1 a tf a 4. 11 7. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 2.6 = 20.11 a + 30. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.5) (a . Factor + 10 ax . + 112. the two numbers have opposite signs. Factor a2 .FACTORING Ex. tfa2 - 3. however. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. .77 = (a. Therefore Check. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.a). Ex. If q is negative. or 7 11. Hence fc -f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a - 12 /. 77 as the product of 1 77.G) = . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. m -5m + 6. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. . Hence z6 -? oty+12 if= (x -3 y)(x*-4 y ). is The two numbers whose product and -6.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are -4 y* and -3 y*. or 77 l. of this type. can be factored. as p. We may consider 1. 4. Factor x? .4 x .11. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 2 6. a 2 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.5) (a 6). + 30 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.

2 2 a' 34. 35. 4 2 . 20. 9. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. we have to find two bino- mials whose corresponding terms are similar. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .500 x + 600. a2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 15. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. x2 23. 27. 14. 25. + 5<y 24. + 30.70 x y . 4 3 2 . 6 a -18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 4?/-21. . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 21.80 7.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . a -7 a -30.6. ITT. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 19. 32. 2 . y_ 6y +6y -15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 29. 8. 17. 36. a? + 5 + 6 a. 2 ?/ 28. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. . 33. + 44. 21 a 2 2 . 31.17 + 30. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. . ra + 25ra + 100. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.48 + + 446 200. 2 2 .180 a. 3?/-4 + a' -2a&-24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a -30. TYPE 113. 2 . ^ </ 2 2 -7p-8. -17a& + 7(U -9a&-226 + 8 a -20. 2 . or . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 26. 100 xr . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 16. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 18. 13. 30. + 2x-S. ay -11 ay +24. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*-2x-8. 24. 16. and 5 x. 11. 2 ?/ 22. 2 ?/ -5?/-14.

11 x 2x. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.5) (2 x . . then the second terms of have opposite signs. If py? -\-qx-\-r does not contain any monomial factor. Ex. 3.83 x -f- 54. 54 x 1. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. Factor 3 x 2 . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 3 x and x. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.17 x 2o?-l V A 5 - 13 a combination the correct one. 27 x 2. or G 114. X x 18. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. and that they must be negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.13 x + 5 = (3 x . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 9 x 6. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. but the opposite sign.1). we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. If p is poxiliw. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.5 . 2. 6 x 9. sible 13 x negative. .e-5 V A x-1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. viz. the signs of the second terms are minus. The work may be shortened by the : follow- ing considerations 1. all pos- combinations are contained in the following 6x-l x-5 . 2 x 27. the If p and r are positive. and r is negative. 18 x 3.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of -f 5 as must have is : like signs. a.

83 x = (3 . 7. . 2. 2x* + 9x-5.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x -7 ay. 2 2 2 23.30 y 6 4 .300 ab 2 -f4 250 .27). 2m -t-7w + 3.2) (x .17-9. 4. 11. 12^-17^-1-6.260 xy . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 4a2 -9tt + 2. and the monomial factors should be removed. . 2 31. 18. 3a + 13a. + 2/-3. 2 fc . 6. 10 a . 24. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 5m -26m -f 5. : 41 2. 12. 9. 22. x-54 a. since all others (II. -9a. . 15. 3.163 x 2 . 10. 34. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 26. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 19.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3x-l 3s-2 x X 115. 2 . -h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 35. 12y -2/-6. 2 f-3y -4y 40a -90aV + 20aV.-7. 17. the expressions should be it. 2 28. 2 2 2 . 144 x . 14 a -fa -4. -f go. 10a2 G a2 2 .290 xy -f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 -f- . 5 a6 2 2 -9 a . 16. 8. 25. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. Sar' + Sa-G. 3x*-Sx + 4. 14. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.83 x . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.2 a 90 x*y . X -27 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a.19 a -f 6. 6n 2 -f 13w + 2. 5. 29.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 100^-200^ + 100^.y + 172/-9. 90 a 8 2 . 20. 30. 6n + 5?i-4. + 4. 9 y + 32^-16. 21. 2 .77 xy + 10 y -23afc + 126 . 10a?2 2 33. 32. 13.

THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. it is more convenient for that type. m + 2mn + n c -2cd-d 2 2 . . square. must have a positive sign. 6. 9 -10a6-25. 14.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 8. 2 9 -10g-f25. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . i. 9 +6a6 2 2 -f a4 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. it is a perfect square. 2 . 25 7. 4 6 m*ti -f 9 n*. . EXERCISE 42 per- Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. To factor a trinomial which maining term. form are special cases of the preceding type. and a perfect square. - 2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 10. 9. 4.20 xy -f 4 y\ . x* . 12. however. 5. a -flOa&4-6 4 wi -f 2 2/ 2 .e. 13. and factor whenever possible : 1. 16 y? The student should note that a term.10 x -f 16. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 3.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 11. 2. of its terms are perfect squares. 116. m -14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 2 . connect the re- square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.

2 . 16.20 ab + 10 b a .3 * ). aV . difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 -24a&4. 2 . 22. + GO + 25.6 = (a 4 -b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(a-b). ). 1-49 a 81 8. -48 a +( ). 7. +( )-f816 30. a. a4 a2 2 -f 6 is . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 -f- ( ). 2 -f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2. 2. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 3.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a -26 ).e.64 6 = 16(a . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 -/.60 a# + 4. 17.6 m* + 9 m. 3. 18. According to 65. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. !Gar 9 -( )+25. 9a2 . 16&*. x*-Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. a2 24. -* 2 . 2 . 36 2 4. 2 20. prime. 4 2 23. 225 ofy . 1. ). a. 4a2 -l. 19.84 15. ). product i. . V. 100a2 -68 a2 & 2 -121. 27. - + 6a + ( 9a -( ) + 144 a 2 28. 9. 25. 26. 6.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . TYPE 117. : 43 tf-y\ a -9. Ex. ^//c to the Ex. 5. u2 -6& + 2 ( ).2 ofy + ofy m .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29. 10 a 2 4 2 . -6 2 .

2 . 2 2 : (m-f-n) _p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. (2a (2s + 5) -(3a-4) 2 2 .(c 4.c .d) 2 . Ex. (m -f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (x -f 3 9 2/ 2 .(I) . Factor a 2 . (m-7?) -y. Ex. (a x? -f- 6) 6 2 . 11. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 5. 13. 25a -(&-c) (m-h2n) 2 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y -f 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 9. 14. 8. 36|> . T. 2. 2.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (2a-5&) -(5c-9ef) 2 3. of polynomials. 16p 2 . a2 . 4. 6. a:) 12. 2 .

By grouping. ive find that the new terms con- common factor.ab + bx.7 c + 2c . A. ma ?*a + m& nb. a? 11. 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.(x - 5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. . Ex. 4 B. 7. 5) . a5 + ab 6 . 8.1. Factor ax ax -f- bx -f ay -f by. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an-3&n + 2ag-3&?. After grouping tain a the terms. 10. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. a3 c 3 10ax-5ay-6bx + 3by. 6.2 ) (3 x . 119.and trinomials.4 6 x -f 3 a y 2 4.r. + x + 2x + 2. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.14. 9. 3. Ex. . a 26 2 2 3 . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. = (3 x + y . which may be factored according to types I.VI.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. x8 . + 4cy--5dx 2 5dy. 5. Factor 9 x*-y*-4:Z 2 -f 4 yz. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 12. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 2. 4:cx .y + 2 2). 1.a a . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x -f 5.

-l. 2. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 -4a6 + 46 -25. 87 -f- Factor 4 a2 - 6 2 + 9 tf . . 4 a2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 4. m -Gw + 9-n * See page 266. 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 -6 2 III. 6 6. = (a + 6)(a-6).FACTORING Ex. a 2 -10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x -ar -2a. 4. II. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. l~a -2a5-6 2 2 . $- a8 . 6a4 -12a2 + 6. 2 7. 8. 3. 3.4 f . 5. Arranging the terms. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 2. w -m 2. : m 2 2 16. 36 9 m . 8ra 2 + 16. 2a3/ 7. : 46 x* 2. .12 aaj 4 6y.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. + 2xy + y*-q*.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. IV.

5a' 20. 42 s 2 . _|_ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a. (^ 34. 48. 19. 4 a. 30. 5 a. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 24. . 80 a 2 ft 38.24. 29. 3 2 . 13. 2 a -128. 2 17. 42 x .310 x . 4 2 2 ft ft -2a + a*-l. (a. 27. 2 ft . 12. -50^ + 45.40. or 3 7#2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. -32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .156. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 40. 35. 3 25. 25 a + 25 aft . 28. + 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*-xif. a6 36. 2 3#4 -3a2 -36. 3 41. 11. a + a + a + l. + 6 aft + 3 . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 13 c . 14. 4 8 tt 2 z . 3 a2 23. 49 a 4 4 -42 a + 9 a 20a -90a -50. 32. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 22. a3 156.13 c . 18.88 10. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.

of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. EXERCISE Find the H. Thus the H. of 6 sfyz. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . of two or more monomials whose factors . 8 . F. F. C. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. 13 aty 39 afyV.) of two or more . 15 aW. 54 - 32 . 89 . C. C. F. 25 W. 122. 5 2 3 . 2. 5 7 34 2s . F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. of the algebraic expressions. expressions which have no are prime to one another. of aW. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 3. C. 2 2 . The student should note H. 24 s . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. C. 5 s 7 2 5. 3 . F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. Two common factor except unity The H. 5. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of : 48 4. The H. 121. F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. - 23 3 . F. The H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 12 tfifz. The highest is common factor (IT. II 2 . are prime can be found by inspection. C. aW. . C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 6. C.

C.^-9. 16. 9. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 2 . aWd. of polynomials. 8. 8. a2 + 7a-f!2. 13. 11. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 65 zfyV. 2a -f5a-f 2.# 4 afy -f 4 . 15.6 a&. a2 ar* 4. a2 . 0^-80:4-16. -3^ 2 4 . ^-707 + 12. x2 ^-4^ and tf -7 xy + 10 f. .6 .5 x3?/ 2 6. 24 a 2 . 2 . 15 3ao. 4 ?io.2 ?/) (x . To find the H. F. 49 C. 25 m27i. 11. and apply the method of the preceding article. 15 x-y^ 2 10 arV . 13. C. ^2 2 .y) 123. F. 12. Ex. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .12 as 66 . 12. 8(?/i-f-l) 14. 7.5 + 6. 6 3 a. a -3a-4. a3 -9a.-6. a. 6(m+l) (m+2). 2 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 4(m+l) 3 . a2 + 2a-3. 38 #y. ^-f a. 2. 12 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 75 a&X -15 bed 11 . Find the H.8 a + 16. 16 a . (a7 ?/) . 5 a6 -5^ 2 a. F. C. of + 4 if. 4(m -f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). x* x2 Hence the H. 1. 8 a 10 . 95 2/V. = x 2 y. a3 -16 a.y) . . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.90 7. F. 5.2 y) (a. 4a -f 4a2 2 2 a 2 - . of: . 2 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .y + y-42.?/ . 3.5 y). 225 4a 9 . y + 3y-64. 9. 1. 6 mx . 10. . 8 6. ^a + 5^ + 6.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 6 a2 y? . . 14.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. . 3 . 10. 12 w*nw 8. 9 aj*(a? . 3). 52 oryz4. . 57 a>V.

thus. . C. of as -&2 a2 + 2a&-f b\ and 6-a. 60 x^y' 2 . of tfy and xy*. Hence the L. but opposite . 127. etc. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . a^c8 3 . M. M. L. C.C. Ex. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. L. of 3 aW. 300 z 2 y.M. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 128. each set of expressions has In example ft). &) 2 M. Find the L. Find the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 2. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M of the algebraic expressions. which also signs. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*( - is 12(a + &)( . M. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.6)2. .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. ory is the L. The lowest common multiple (L. To find the L. 126. 2 The The L. C. C. = (a -f last 2 &)' is (a - 6) .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 -4 a 68 2 . M. C.6 3 ). C. C. 1. Common 125. C. of the general. Ex. A common remainder. NOTE. two lowest common multiples.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. The L.M.C. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y.

afy. #. 6. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . + 2. 6 y. x2 5 -f 2 3# 5 + 2.-f 6. (For additional examples see page 268. 22. 2(m 2 . 4 a -f 2. + 2 7i) .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. + 6. 24 x. 20. . afc'cd 2 . 2 7ic+10. bx a? 8 2 lOaj-f-lfi. 2 a . 2. ax -{-ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a -f 3. 14.1. a.1. 2 a?-b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a-2b. ) . a 2 -fa6. 17. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 8. a?b. a. 4 a 5 6cd. 18. 5 a? 5 a? y. of: 4. M. 2 x -\-2 y. Find the L. a -{- a~b. by. a2 4. 2 a. x* ~5a. xy\ . 3 Z> . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 5. a. a 2 -f 4 a +4. 7. a 1. T a 3 a 2 . 2 . ic 23. a -f- 2 19. G a. 11. b 2 . a -!. 21. 2 . 16. 8 afy. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a^-1. y*. 6 a. 9. 3 ab. 1. x2 + 4 a -f 4. ic 2 ?/. a 2 a3 . a2 ~ab 1. a& 4 +& 2 . 3 (a-2)(a-3) ( a -3)(a-4) 2 2a?b-'2ab 2 a. or -f- 3 a 15 #. (a -4)(a-2) 12. 4 a . 13. 3 . 3 6 xif. . 40 abJ. 2 10. 30 a. 3. -f b. 24. 20 9 a. 3. 3(a + b). 2 . 15. 2 a .- 3 -f2. x 2 5 a. 8 d 5 . 6b 2 .

as 8.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. F. C. but we In arithmetic. 130. etc. Reduce ~- to its lowest terms. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a?. Remove tor. TT Hence 24 2 z = -- 3x . If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. rni Thus 132. 131. and denominators are considered. a b = ma mb . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . A -f- fraction is b. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number.ry ^ by their H. Thus. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. however. thus - is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Ex. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. an indicated quotient. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina- and z 8 (or divide the terms .

_Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 9-5 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Ex.33 -7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce -62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.4) Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a* - n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 3. .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . cancel factors only.

nx 17. . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 29. ' ^ . ^" a. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 3a ^ ^ "-^ 2 -9 . "-""-.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " -*-7 . . ny 4 18. ^' rt ^ - 31. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.10 a + 3 2 14. 5^-10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f .*. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.FRACTIONS 7- 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4- ^-. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 16.7 . ^+3*. LJZJ^JL. '-M 3 ??i 2fi 25. . 23. 19.' 32.. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. g J- 21. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 9x + "a" 10. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.

To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 1). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. 2> . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.C. mon T denominator.3) (-!)' = . Ex.-1^22 ' . by the denominator of each fraction.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .M. Ex - Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . and (a- 8). - of //-* 2 .M. Reduce -^-. we have (a + 3) (a -8) (-!)' NOTE. and 135. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have -M^. TheL. of the denominators for the common denominator. C. . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.r 2 2 . + 3). . take the L.3)O - Dividing this by each denominator. we have the quotients (x 1).96 134. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. C. 1. =(z (x + 3)(z. ^ to their lowest com- The L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Divide the L. - by 4 6' . we may extend this method to integral expressions. Since a (z -6 + 3)(s-3)O-l)' 6a.D. M.C. and the terms of ***. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . multiplying the terms of 22 .

2aj ~ . 2..T 3y Ga-1 ax 9 ' 2a . . 8 i i. bxby g ! a 5 ' a -f-5 a2 25 ?--. j y 3. 2 ay IB. common denominator 6. 18. . 5?. 7i 2 ab* ".^1. a? 1 5 > ^* . 137. 22 a2 5a * . 74). . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. JL. If the given fractions have different denominators.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . i. 3.a+2 ' a 2 -3a-f 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2a-l n. o o a.oj o* or / . . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. Since --{-c c = 5L^ c (Art.. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2 3 9a ~l' 3a-l 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a- 9 ^ .

aft - _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 -2 aft :=(.ft)(a . (a-8ft)(a~-ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a -4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.20 aft 3ft) -f 3 ft 2 4(2a-3ft)(2a-f 4 aft -f 21 2 138.g. 4(2 a 3 ft).. C. cr -\-t Simplify _T__ -r* + . D. 4 6 + 2qg+6~ag-f4a&-8 a(a-ft)(a -2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . the student should remember that parentheses are .3 ft). ft).2 = a(a . in the beginning. L. (a .3 . (2 ~ a ft) a(a - + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft) - ft) a(a -2 ft) NOTE. The results of addition and subtraction should be re- duced to their lowest terms. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA - Ex ' Sim C.ft) (a ft ft)~. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2 - 2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a-2ft) +a (2q + a(a . ^ _ ^ a-3b ft).3 ft)(2 a -f + : Ga-6 + 3 ft). (a ft).3 ft 2). a -3 2a + "~ a2 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 -f 2 6 a2 .aft) Ca2 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. ^ is 2^JT) .(a 2 6). e. and adding..7 . as 4 aft -f. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. The L. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 -3 ft 6 a -f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) -f (2 a .2 ' 2 _. D. 2. 2 ^.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a - ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a -ft) _ 8 a 2 -f 24 aft 20 a 2 -f -f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . T? Ex.

18 v 19.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a-4 5 3. a-2 a + 3* 2 a -7 a-f-1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. 1 1 -f w 16. 1 -f q * 1 m m . 20. 6a-116 13 a 15a-26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 30 u -+? + i- _H_ + _*_. 24. A+2_3. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. j>0 i> 21. 5a-76 4a 106 9. t-3 m-2* a _2 6 a 4. 6 c 3a 7. -1* 1 + m-f 3 1 M. a 36 ++. 15. + . 2L + 2a 1 17. + a "" 2 6 ' . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 2.5 18- -^4-f25. 46 2a 4a 12. a+6 a 6 2 14.

a 2 ^> 2 x2 -7x+12~x -l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26 - x*3x + 2 x-2 5x 27 ' ~. / IIlNT: Let a 1 - 39.9. 3a 9 +. a 4 31. 2 a-f-1 32. a ?^ 40. 43.9 79 -6 2 i. 1 34. ! n. a-f 1-f /j. x + 3y x-3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ^-2-^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 41. 42. ic 1 + 1. -_ + a? ?/ + y. a 30. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. x-2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 IT-i ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1 - 1 i 1 '> a2 -. a.

'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 -6a + 2 3a m 2 *- 5 m -f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .7 5a v Ex. - . Reduce .6 + 4x 4 x2 . 1. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * *- (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 -15a-7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . .FRACTIONS 139. 101 mixed expression. .17 (2^ + 2x -f 5-3 (2x-. T.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. - 4 or 3 2a. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.

expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Since - = a. -x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. we may extend any e. or. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. integer. each numerator and denomi- nator has to be factored.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. 2 a Ex. F J Simplify .g. (In order to cancel common factors.) Ex. fractions to integral numbers. multiply the 142. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. !.

5n a2 4-3a-4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 -5a-h4 < - x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4a-f-86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a-216 a2 2 q~. 4 8. 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. 50 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?-f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 -5a-6 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 14.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 -f 5 a... 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 -25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.

x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.y3 + xy* x*y~ -f y 8 y -f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'-*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r - 3 i_L#_-i-17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 8 multiply the Ex. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 -f- reciprocal of J is | |. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 4-1 a-b * See page 272. Divide X-n?/ . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 144.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. * x* -f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. .

Simplify <! c a a2 c 4- -L 4. or both.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.10 ?/ _.FRACTIONS 105 -. a a2 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4-g-2 2a 2 4-g-20 25 .' ' * ' ^-5^+4 . c ab 2 4- &c* & a . l.&c 2 ~ a 4- a2c 4.5 ??i 80 50 . Ex.^c 2 2 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. t ' a^-3^-4 ? 4* ' a?-~ab > a 2 a- 4a 4- 4 a: +3 m 12 2 -f.afr 4. are fractional. ga2 4- 8 5 a .

10. C. M. JL. of their denominators. . Ex. 6. . i. 2. the answer is directly obtained. Simplify x -}.a ^c c _^ a -.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . y X 4* 2 y 3. -n a 8. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. c +6. . 9. 7i+~ 7. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. x* 4. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.y 32 . a m "" . & .

-~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . o 15. m^n* n L a 17. -i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^-5n a "~ 12. 1 i 1 2 5 . 2 & a 20 - a4-6 13.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. : . s-y 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flg-f-l a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*-_i_i 4- 14.

CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. each member is reduced to 1.48. = 6. . C. a. 9x x Check. 2 3. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Solve ^-2^ = 63 2 x 12 -* + *-*. of the denominator.14 (a. + 1) (a + 3) . 2z-2a.8 x = .42 + 9.l)(z + 3) = . 1. 148. -!)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Transposing. Uniting. 108 . - 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 2x Transposing.1.-f3# + C:E=-6-f72-12. Clearing of fractions. If x 6. Uniting. If = 64. 4- 4) - x.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to Ex. Bx 12 Qx.28 a = 5 x2 . Solve 5 -I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Multiplying by (x Simplifying. M.9 x2 + 9. tions. these Ex. = 6. x = 6. 5(3 85 Check. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 6 = = 72 72 -3 (a. 2.

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. --. a: 7 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y-2 y-3 == on . +4 14. 1 *> = 2. . = xx a? a? hi- x +^ + 3 = 11.1 _7-7 a. ^-1 = 9. 16. ' - 4 13. +1 = 5. 15. 3 a? '2 4 " - 2 a? "T"" 4 4. a. 1+5 & ^0 -^ a? = 19 1 11.= 2. a/ - 5 a/ = 12. 18. ^' 2.

_ _ . 25. 4a4-l4* + l-~. + 26 2^4-3 1 4^-9 1 2a?-3 A* 37. 26 26. 2 20 x+3 x-3 3 o^- 28 . - 2 - 13 _J_ = _J3 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. y+3~2 29. 32 6 . 31 31. 3x 35. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. J_. . - 38 = 40. If two or more denominators are monomials. ?_=_. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 27 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 33. 3 3x-2 51 3x*-2x 23 x 3x-2 22 36. . . and" the remaining one a polynomial. .11_4 x- 149.

-r-7 5 +l 6a-fll~~ 3 6x-flO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 64-14 . -f 13 8#-f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~7-16* 6a? 44. 5x x : = 9. = 9. Check. If a. a.1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 24 a. 5# 10. each member is reduced to ^. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. . Transposing and uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3-~ x 16 x - 2.-2 42 9 43. - 5 = 20 x 45. 26 a. 1. 60.2 3 ~ - == 7a. 10 x -f 6 __ 4a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. M. the 1 5 L.-29 507-12' 9 18 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C.. Dividing.

=a 2 151. a. = 6 a2 . Ex. find a in terms of b and c. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. jr. bx -f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. It frequently occurs that the x.m bx 2 mn) x. Uniting the Dividing. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. = 2 -f b 2 . = -l^ 9 b 4- . y. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 4 ac 1.2 62 2 ab.be. l to = !=?_=^6? a -f 6. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Thus. 5> a.& .2 ac + 3 aft . ax- + bx ax (a -f IP Transposing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting. fr Reducing lowest terms. If 3a-c L= = a ? .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. 3(a-c) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .m 2* = (a -f 6) mnx = (1 4.c) (3 a ac 6(rt-fc)(a-c) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3a-c).3 6 2 = a' .1. -f ~ 5c. . = = 6 6c 7 6c. Dividing. ax -f- x -f. they are united by factoring. 2.

c 18. 4. co?. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If s (wi n) x =px + q. and n the number of years. 29. = 6 (m -f n) = 2 a + (m-?i)a?. 34. 13.= c a Z> . = 2(3a = aaj-ffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). a. 9. solve for .a. 17. iw 21. = rt. a? x!7 - a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. t. Ex. -f- ^o. -4-. 12. . If * 33.= H. If ^^ = a 1 32. in terms of other quantities. = vt. 5) is t =^. -. If s If 16. 11. m a? x . 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . rate. _ 2. = 5. 10. mx = n. + 3a. r the number of $>. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. . q solve for/. f P -=-+!.i l . 6. 3. 1 -f. = 3 (6 a). = 8 4 #. 2 solve for y a. c. 31. IIL n b + &o. * Solve the same equation for^). s = V-t solve for v. The The i time. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 30. ^ ax a^ 26. + xx = 1. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. denoting the interest. p the principal.= n. 15. solve for a. 3(*- 8. 14.

. = 16^.20 C. . Multiplying by Dividing.180. Ex.114 35. x Or Uniting. 1. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 2 3 .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. and 12 = the number over. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. . 12. Find R in terms of C and TT. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. A would do each day ^ and B j. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then /- the required number by 1. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2. 100 C. is 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. then = 2 TT#.

The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the rate of the express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. and the statement. = the x part of the work both do one day. or 1J. in Then Therefore. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = 100 + 4 x. Ex. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Solving." : Let x - = the required number of days. 4x = 80. 32 x = |. 3. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." gives the equation /I). the required number of days. Clearing. 180 Transposing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.

Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and one half the greater Find the numbers. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. to his son. a man had How much money had he at first? . and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and J of the greater Find the numbers. by 6. is oO. and of the father's age.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. of his present age. length in the ground. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. J- of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ceeds the smaller by 4. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Twenty years ago A's age was | age. money and $10. ex- What 5. How did the much money man leave ? 11. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 3. which was $4000. 3. fifth Two numbers differ 2. and 9 feet above water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. is equal 7. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. -| Find their present ages. make 21. to his daughand the remainder.

A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. Ex. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. . Ex. air. and B in 4 days. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 152. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses -fa of an How many ounce. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. what is the 14.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. How much money $500? 4%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A man has invested J- of his money at the remainder at 6%. what is the rate of the express train? 152. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 1. ^ at 5%. and losing 1-*- ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. Ex. and it B in 6 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. after rate of the latter ? 15. investments. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. If the rate of the express train is -f of the rate of the accommodation train. and an ounce of silver -fa of an ounce. 2.) 22. 3. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17.

n x Solving. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. they can both do in 2 days.118 153. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. we obtain the equation m m -. Then ft i. The problem to be solved. . and apply the method of 170. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.g. therefore. m and n. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.009 918. 26. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. is 57. B in 16. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.= -. B in 5. e. B in 12. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Hence. . A in 6. and n = 3. B in 30. 3. A in 6.= m -f- n it Therefore both working together can do in mn -f- n days. A in 4. 25. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. is 42. . Ex. 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. if B in 3 days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.414. To and find the numerical answer.

(b) 8 and 56 minutes. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. respectively. 34. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. meet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. respectively (a) 60 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. Find two consecutive numbers -the difference of whose is 21.721. if m and n are. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.000. (b) 35 miles. . the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 2 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. same hour from two towns. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.001. 2 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 33. 3J miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (d) 1. Two men start at the first miles apart. is (a) 51. squares 29. 5 miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. the rate of the first. (c) 16. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. the second at the apart. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Find the side of the square. (b) 149. the Two men start at the same time from two towns.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. : (c) 64 miles. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. squares 30. is ?n . The one: 31. 4J- miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour.

etc. is numerator of any fraction consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. a ratio is not changed etc. In the ratio a : ft. the denominator The the 157. the second term the consequent. The ratio - is the inverse of the ratio -.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. : : 155. b.5. Simplify the ratio 21 3|.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. 1. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. antecedent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6." we may write a : b = 6. Ex. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. 6 12 = . the antecedent. E. 158. The first 156. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. .g. the symbol being a sign of division. " a Thus. b is the consequent.

terms. 62:16. two | ratios. 3. 11. 16. b is the mean b. 4. 4|-:5f : 5. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 17. 5 f hours : 2. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 6. 61 : ratios 72:18. 3 8. a and d are the extremes. : 1. The last first three. 3:4. 27 06: 18 a6. 1. and c is the third proportional to a and . In the proportion a b : = b : c. b. 7|:4 T T 4 . : a-y . 12. equal 2. Simplify the following ratios 7. $24: $8. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 18. proportional between a and c. 159. and c. extremes. = |or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 10. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3:1}.RATIO Ex. J:l. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 7f:6J. 9. 8^- hours. Transform the following unity 15. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. b and c the means. 16a2 :24a&.

In any proportion product of the extremes. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. ad = be. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 163. ccm. 6 ccm. of iron weigh 45 grams. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. If (Converse of nq. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. !-.__(163. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. " we " NOTE.e.122 162. are : : : inversely proportional.) mn = pq. and the other pair the extremes.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.30 grams. and the time necessary to do it. of a proportion. : c.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. i. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. The mean proportional of their product. : : directly proportional may say. 163. briefly. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of iron weigh . 3 4. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. = 30 grams 45 grams. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 164. q~~ n . Clearing of fractions. 2 165. then G ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. pro- portional.

a III. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. d d. if 6 : 7. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 166. . (Composition. 12x Hence a? = 42. then =d c. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (Division.) II.) a + b:a = c + d:c. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4|. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a:c=b:d. (163. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 2. 1.) (Called Alternation. + b:b = c + d:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad - Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is Ex. V. = 35 . ad = be.) d 167. (Frequently called Inversion. hence the proportion true.) = f f = 3 J.) a b b=c b = c-)-d:c d. is 4$ = 35.PATIO Ex. Or IV. ad ( 163. bd bd. I.

E. x = 2. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.e. = 180:125. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. : x. 9.!=!*.g. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25.124 IT. 6 =4 : x. V. the consequents by 7.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. . IV. = 20:7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 4. 5. i. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. mx tin Apply composition and division. . 120:42 2 2 7. Apply composition. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 10. Or III. 2. = 2:x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. Simplify the following proportions. 5 5. = 7:2f 3J. = 12 5ft. : 3 = 5 -f x : x. = 2:3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l-^. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 8. 3.

1. 3. 35. x m = y n. . 29. a. 6x = 7y. 14 and 21. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. ra.8:1. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 17. Find the mean proportional 30. if : 40. 25. ra 2 . 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 39. 46. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 41. 6. 38. (a : : 45. mx = ny. 34. 18. 16. = 3 43 + x. 47. : 53. 2= 5 x x. 5= 18 a? : a?. 22.j>. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2 3 = y #. terra 2:3 = 4. rap. and 2/. to: = 35:*. 3. 2. 12. 44. = l^:18.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 7iy = 2:x. 16 and 28. Find the third proportional 24. 13. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. = 5 x 12. 20. 33. a 2 and ab. 5. |- 32. + fyx = cy. : . 21. a?:15 15. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. ra + landra 1.. 51. 2. x:5 = y:2. 4 and 16.x: 6:5 a : x. b. 14. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. to : 9 and 12. : a2 . = 15-o. 6 x = y. = 2 + x: x.:ff. 27. 23. to : a and 1. 52. ratio of y. 26. 9 x = 2 y. 03:a?=135:20. 4. 28. w. Find the 37. f. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 50. 42. rag. 43. 2 a and 18 a. 112:42 = 10:a. 3t. 31. 1 and a.

and the time. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 56.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). A line 7^. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the area of the rectangle. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the time necessary for it. the squares of their radii (e) 55. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 57. and the : total cost. and the speed of the train. the area of the larger? the same. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor- tional to the pressure (P). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.126 54.

7 x = 42 is the second number. . 11 x x 7 Ex. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. as 11 Let then : 1. 4 inches long. AB = 2 x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. : Ex. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.000 168. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. is A line AB. = the second number. 2. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2 x Or = 4. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x -f 7 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. x=2. x = 6. produced to a point C. 18 x = 108. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Let A B AC=1x.

Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Gunmetal tin.000 square miles. : 4.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many 7. 2. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun- metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. What are the parts ? 5. How many gen. 13. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 9. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 7. How The long are the parts ? 15. find the number of square miles of land and of water. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.) .000. and c inches. 6. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and 15 inches. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 14. 11. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 12. 3. : 197. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.

is x = 7.y=--|. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.-. Hence 2s -5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. Hence.e. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj-3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. there is only one solution. a? (1) then I.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. x = 1. However. y = 1. values of x and y. etc. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. if . =. expressing a y. The root of (4) if K 129 . 2 y = . such as + = 10. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.-L x If If = 0.

= . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. viz. Substitution. 30 can be reduced to the same form -f 5 y Hence they are not independent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 174. the last set inconsistent.26. The first set of equations is also called consistent.3 y = 80. Therefore.130 170. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by - Subtract (4) from (3). 3. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. to The two methods I. y I 171. 172. Solve -y=6x 6x -f Multiply (1) by 2. unknown quantity. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x -f. and 3 x + 3 y =. are simultaneous equations. 6x . for they express the x -f y 10. 21 y . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. x -H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. same relation. E.X. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 4y . cannot be reduced to the same form.24. By By Addition or Subtraction. of elimination most frequently used II. 26 y = 60. ~ 50. y = 2. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.

3 1 = 47. 3y = 3. Check.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). y = 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. subtract the equations. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 3-7. add the equations. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. y = 1. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 25 x . Transposing. are like. whose coefficients In general. 8 2.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 3. x = 10. x = 10. 64 x = 040. 60 . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 10 .2 = 6. 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.3 y = 47.14 =-8. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 235. Therefore Check. 5 13 . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. + 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. = 406.

3. v ^ = ll.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 19< I a. _. J I y = 1U. = 41. + 2/ 17. -I i 3 a. = 24. [2o. i 3. x 11. 13- 6-1 l7a. 13.9 *. I ~ y~~> 22.3.4. I . . ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^ - 25 * -60. = 6.v 23. + 3?/ { 3 x -f 2 y = 39.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 9- 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. O t K 8.5 y = -2. ] ^ . I oj 5y = 17. f 3X 7x 14. * + 3 y = 50. ' 12. 7 ' 1fi fl .-f2/ ' = 50.

8. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. x ) ^"" 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 4#-8. and solve the resulting equation. = 60. = 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (2-7. 3. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2. = 2y + 10. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan- other equation. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.

however. Substituting in (6) . x = l. 43 + 8-f-3y + 7z From (3). 3 (1) Ex. (7) (7) (8) . + 21-2y-4 = 14. 2 y = . 21z-6y=-9. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. \ \6(a. f8(z-8)-9(y-9) = 26.-6)-7(y-7)==18. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 4* + 3y = 19. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . simplified before elimination is possible.3. (4t(x-\-) ' ""^IT 3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 7 y = 6. (4). (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. . From 9 = 36. 7x_2y=-3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 29 x = 29.

4 11. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 10.1) = 121. J 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.1) + 5(6 y . . 4~2v 3a?-2^4 3 1 18. . 14. a. +y 2 . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.-f-2 2. 12. 10 2a?-5 17. y-M a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. = 3. . 16.

but some expressions involving x. 180. -f y .#. * ((* (( . . and y. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 3x-\" 1 23 24. {. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA -4_1 2' 19.Q ^ 4 21. <X + 20.and x y . e. l_3 4' 2/4-1 2 a. ?~y .

x 2x(2). y 4. 33 = 11 x. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 1. 2* * x 2. however. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Therefore y=4. Substituting x = 3 in (1). 137 Solve y y (1) . (2) (3) a. x 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. .4 x = 4 xy. can also be solved Examples method. y.3 xy. 1. . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 15 y + 8 x . of this type. (4) + (G). etc. Clearing of fractions.

Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). n. 253 7.= 5. 21 9 --.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K --. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 331 9. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x 8. 6. . = en. 4 13. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 1.= o 6. y M-Oi y a. Ex.

.W. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x a. . s in 11. 14. and I if 13. x 12. amx + bmy amx -f any = any (an cm. -f- 6^ [ nx -f my == m. Uniting. w. . a Find a and terms of n. ny = fy/ I sc 1. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. ap. ax + by = 2 a&. f 5. Dividing. apan cm. 6.y = = 9a + 46. W . d. and I. d. fax -f = l.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm -f- 6y = c.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. bmy bm}y ap cm. x -f my = 1. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.

2 + 4. 4. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3y = Hence Check. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. l. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.15z=-12 Adding.3=-4. 1. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 182.by 2.1-6. -4.12 y + 6 z = .8 = 1. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (4) -(5). by 3. = 30.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).lf> z . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 6. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 3. -f 3y 12 =s 8.2 + 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. (8) 2.1-3. Ex. To solve equations containing By tions.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. etc.2-5. 8 x . 3.3 = 8. 20. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 1. x + 12 y . 8B-12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. y =* 2. . ties are Similarly.1+4. = 3.

+ 2 y -f 2 = 35. -f- 2 i/ -f- z = 14. a? + 70-9 = 26. 2 4. k 2/ -f 2 x a. ~6?/ 5. 4 = 42. 49. a? 11. 15 2 = 45. + y -f z = 15. == 6. 14. 2z = 40. y -f ?/ -M 2? = 4. 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 10. 7. 2 . x 13. 8.

42 = 2. 22. . = 8*. 32.3 y + . 19. x _2 3 ' 074-2! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . = 5. . 1510 4- 17.. 84 21. 27.6 2. 23. 4. 16. (3 _. =s 20. ^ = 2. 60.2 a. ? = llz. ?/ 3x = 0.

Find the number. either directly or implied. 2 = 1(1+6). Ex. the number. Check. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. x : z =1 : 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. The digit in the tens' place is | of the sum of the other two digits. = l. # 4.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 digit in the tens place. . however. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. +2+ 6 = 8. 2 = 6. symbols: x + y +z- 8. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. .2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. Obviously of the other . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. y 31. + z = 2p. y * z 30. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . ( 99. and to express In complex examples. + 396 = 521. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. z + x = 2 n. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 1. and Then 100 + 10 y +z- the digit in the units' place. M=i. 1 = 2. and if 396 be added to the number. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. = 2 m.

x 3 = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. y = 3. 8 = xy + x xy = xy -f 3 x 2 y = 2. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (1) (2) 12. we obtain. Or (4)-2x(3).144 Ex. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. = 8. x 3x-4y = 12. direction. . Ex. the distance traveled by A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 5_ _4_ A. the fraction is reduced to | and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin- ished by one. xy a: 2y 4y 2. Find the fraction. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 4 x = 24. From (3) Hence xy Check. C. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. increased by one. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 3. 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . By expressing the two statements in symbols. = the fraction. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 2. B.

fraction is reduced to \-. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. tion ? 8. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 6. Find the numbers. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. Find the fraction. part of their difference equals 4. . and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the Find the fraction. ? What 9. Find the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. 5. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and its denomi- nator diminished by one. Find the number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the number (See Ex. the value of the fraction is fa. to the number the digits will be interchanged. 1. If 27 is 10. the fraction equals . and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 7.) added to a number of two digits. If 9 be added to the number. both terms. it is reduced to J.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. its value added to the denominator. Find the numbers. the digits will be interchanged. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. If the denominator be doubled. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. A fraction is reduced to J. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the numerator increased by 4. 183. and the fourth 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. number by the first 3. 2. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.}. the fraction is reduced fraction. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3.

and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. 13. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90.grams.000 is partly invested at 6%. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and money and 17. the rate of interest? 18. respectively ? 16. 5 %. 12. now. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. A man invested $750. partly at 5 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 19. 14. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find their present ages. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and in 5 years to $1125. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. in 8 years to $8500. How 6 %. A sum of $10. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . the annual interest would be $ 195. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find the rates of interest. and 4 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and partly at 4 %.

the three sides of a triangle E. 23. and GE = CF. triangle Tf AD. then AD = AF. . and sheep. BC=7. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. is the center of the circum- scribed circle. and AC = 5 inches. points. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. On /). The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BE. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F. Find their rates of walking. E. ED = BE. and CE If AB = G inches. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and e. 1 NOTE. the length of NOTE. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. but if A would double his pace. $ 50 for each cow. for $ 740. and angle e angle/. and F '(see diagram). An C touch ing the sides in D. BD = HE. BC = 7 inches. three AD = AF. cows. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and angle BCA = 70. angle c = angle d. . B find angles a. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. are taken so ABC. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. 25. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and $15 for each sheep.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. c. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F. what is that = OF. andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. respectively. A farmer sold a number of horses. and their difference by GO . 24.

(2. PM. the ordinate of point P.. or its equal OM. first 3). and PN _L YY'. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PN. YY' they-axis. Thus the points A. (3. PN are given. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). 2). . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and PJ/_L XX'. 186. It' Location of a point. the ordinate by ?/. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jr-axis. B. is the abscissa. and point the origin. The of Coordinates. -3). (7. and r or its equal OA is . (2. and ordinates abore the x-axis are considered positive . ?/.

4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 4) from the origin ? 7. 3. 0). (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. -2). 3). -!). whose coordinates are given NOTE. (0. (-5. 6. (-2. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. Plot the points (6. Graphs. (4.1). 3). Plot the points: (4. i. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 4).2). . 0). Plot the points: (-4. and measure their distance. 0). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 0). 12. 4.e.(!.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. -4). (4. 2J-). 6. 2. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 1). 71 2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of cross-section paper. What is the locus of (a?. 8. (-3. 11. (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187.and(l. (See diagram on page 151. -2). (0. (-1.3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (-4. . Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (-l. 4) and (4. 1).) EXERCISE 1. (-4. -3). Plot the points : (0.

we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. . 1. however. we meas1 . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. C. D.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. ABCN y the so-called graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. By representing of points. or the curved line the temperature. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 15. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 188. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. from January 1 to December 1. may be found on Jan. B. 10 . ure the ordinate of F.. Thus the first table produces 12 points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.

as the prices and production of commodities. uses them. etc. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. . Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (b) July 15. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. (c) January 15. physician. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. the merchant.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utt|s33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the graph is applied. The engineer. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.

? is is the average temperature of New York 6. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. During what months above 18 C. When the average temperature below C. 1? 11 0. is 10.152 2. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ? - 3. ? 9.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . on 1 to the average. 1 to Oct. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (d) 9 0. 15. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. (1) 10 C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. (freezing point) ? 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. How much. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.

Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou- sands) of the following states 22. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. NOTE. 19. Draw a graph for the 23. One meter equals 1. 20. Hour Temperature .09 yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 1-18. transformation of meters into yards. Draw . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren- heit) : 21.

etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 28.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 4.50. 29..g. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 . Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. the value of a of this quantity will change. represent his daily gain (or loss). amount to $8. 2 x -f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 190. then C irJl. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. x increases will change gradually from 13. binding. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if he sells 0.50. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. if each copy sells for $1. gas. +7 If will respec- assume the values 7.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 9. 1 to 1200 copies. 3. and $.) T circumferences of 25. .154 24. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. to 27. function If the value of a quantity changes. x 7 to 9.. x* x 19. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 26. e. books from for printing. etc. the daily average expenses for rent.5 grams. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 3. 2. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . A 10 wheels a day.inch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.

4). and join the points in order. . (1. Q-.2 x may 4 from x = 4. may . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of -3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .1). for x=l. 3 50. Ex. -J). Draw the graph of x2 -f. be also represented by a graph. it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 -A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. and (3. The values of func192. 9). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. to x = 4.1). E. If a more exact diagram is required. however. 1 the points (-3. (- 2. x a variable. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. is supposed to change. 9). Graph of a function. as 1. a*.g. 2 (-1. 3 (0. etc. while 7 is a constant. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. construct '. plot points which lie between those constructed above. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 2). may.e. (2.0). (1^. 4). 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.

2 x . 2. = 0. 2 4 and if y = x -f. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 7 . 194. and join(0. 5). = 4..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.) For brevity. etc. 4). or ax + b -f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. Ex. r */ +* 01 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x-3. (-2. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. j/=-3.20). (-3.-. y = 6. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. straight line produces the required graph.. 4J. rf 71 . Thus in the above example.4). as y. Thus 4x + 7.. -1). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (4. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. . the function is frequently represented by a single letter.

6 -fa. The smallest value of the function. . 15. 3.5)2. The roots of the equation 2 -f 2 a a*2 = 0.e. if a. 5. 2 a. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2-3x. The values of a*. a? 1. if"a. 1-J-. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. a* 13. 18. 1-J-. 12. 2 2. 2. = The values of a*. = 4. . -fa-- 17. -J-. 21. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. x-l.5)2.-or. 9. 11. 4a? I.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2 2 a. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. a. 2 or 2 20. Draw the graph ofy=2-j-2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. ?/ a. l. 3. x+1. 19. + 4. 2x + 3x a?. a? 2 4. 2 a. 2J. The roots of the equation 2 -{-2x a*2 = l. (C ) (-2. 2J-. 6. 4 a. y = 2x = -4. (-If) Va25. 1 8 10. -Jar . 14. from x VlO-'S". (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x -f 2 = 1. if the function equals zero. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. (7i) (c) 23. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. xz + x. (ft) (_ 1.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The values of a?. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . i. 16. a ar.8)'. 7. if y = 2. 2 4 x -f 2 = 0. 2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 1. -3 a -8. 22. a?. 1J-. 8. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x -f 2 = 2.

then cXj where c is a constant. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that graph with the o>axis.. Show any convenient number). 14 F.158 24. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. Represent 26. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.24. .) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F-32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. the abscissas of 3. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. y= formula graphically. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.. Therefore x = 1.e. 9 F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. i. 1 C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi-1 F.where x c is a constant. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).. C. then y = . 25.24 or x = P and Q..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.. 32 F.

a2 -2a. . 14. a: (a) (6) (c) -6a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 12. and c represent \-3 -2 --1 1/2 known quantities. 6. 7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 0. 2 and 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #-axis. 3. 8. 13. de- = termine the points where If the function is 1. = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.-f 9 = 0. is called a quadratic equation. and determine the abscis- 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. (a) (6) 9. 11. 10.-7 2 -a -5 = 0. + + = where a. or 5 2. (a) x2 = 0. Such equations in general have two roots. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. viz. 6. 4. 197. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. (0. cross-section paper is used. z 2 4x 6 a2 6.

4) and them by straight line AB (3. 3x _ 4 . 199. locate points (0. Hence if if x x - 2. NOTE. Represent graphically Solving for y ='-"JJ y. X'-2 Locating the points (2. Ex. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence we may join (0. 4) and (2. first degree. If x = 0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x - - -L^- \ x =2 - graphically. = 0. Ex. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . i. solve for ?/. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. T . unknown quantities. y y 2. (f . ?/. because their graphs are straight lines. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. .1. y = -l. produces the 7* required locus. 2). ?/ =4 AB.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. == 2. and join the required graph. Hence. and joining by a straight line.2 y ~ 2. fc = 3. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2).2. 0). if y = is 0.e. 1) and 0). y= A and construct x ( - graphically. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y.

To find the roots of the system. (2) . we obtain the roots. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 201. parallel have only one point of intersection. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. AB y = .57. equation x= By measuring 3. Graphical solution of a linear system. viz.15. 203. 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \x-y-\. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. linear equations have only one pair of roots. and CD. 3. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. P.1=0. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.

Using the method of the preceding para. 1. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (4. 4. and . = 0. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. and joining by a straight line. The equations 2 4 = 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3. Since the two - we obtain DE. Measuring the coordinates of P. 5. (1) (2) -C. 0) and (0. 4. V25 5. 4. 4. if x equals respectively 0. y equals 3. we of the + y* = 25. 2 equation x 3).. 3x 2 y = -6. (-4. x2 . 4.0. P graphs meet in two and $. the graph of points roots. Solve graphically the : fol- lowing system = = 25.g. e. . 2. 5.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.5. 0. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). Solving (1) for y.5. 0. In general. 3. Inconsistent equations.e. 2. - 4. etc. intersection. 4. the point we obtain Ex. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 3). 4. they are inconsistent. (-2. AB the locus of (1). 3.0). 1. There can be no point of and hence no roots.y~ Therefore.9. i. Locating the points (5. Locating two points of equation (2). and + 3).

7. x~y=0. 19. a. as 2^3 and 3x -f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. the graphs of the following systems. a+r/=6. 16 23. 5. y= a2 2x y6. 2. 8. y=x + 5. and. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. vice versa. y 2 4. y = 4. 3. 20. 6. 16 22. '163 Dependent equations. . 10. 2x 3?/=6. and solve each If there are no solutions. \ 2x + 3^ . EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 4. 17.. state reasons. Draw system. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. if possible.

25. CUBES. 26. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 30.14 y = . 3 31. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . TABLE OF SQUARES. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x -f 5y = 5.164 24.8. 29 .y).

= a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 8.-faa a a a Obviously 1. (- 3 a268 ) (- a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . on to in factors 4. 2. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ^4/? it According to 50. a special kind of product. 2. ( a) is positive. involution repeated multiplication. 52. 3 -f a = -f a = +. (- 3 2 6 3 )* = (- 3 a2 6 8 ) . -fa. a = a3 .a2 . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. etc. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. is may be by 207. powers of a positive quantity are positive. follows that 3. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. . According to 1. Law of Signs.

(-2ar).166 To find To To power. 15. 3 2 2 8 . (-|^^) 2 . V V/ 13. (-a ) 2 4 - 3. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. the required power. 24. 16. The &- cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . am-Vy) 3 . . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 76 : (>y. 2. raise a fraction to a power. (-a ) 2 5 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. \ 3 J ' - M-W 10. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.6 (a 8 8 . 210. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ^--/-2?n?A 4 ' 30. 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (-277171 )*. a product to a given power. 4.3 a 6 -f 3 a6 . 4 /2mV. 5.6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) .

a. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 -126 + G6-l. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1. (3 x . 2 a8 -3a2 + 3a-l. (3 (l -I) 2 8 . (m-2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.INVOLUTION Ex. 9. (a-j-7) . - lx - (7 a (1 -I) 3 17. + 3a 6 + 3a& -f-& ^-Sx^ + S^ -^ 3 2 2 3 . 23. 5. pansions. +5a) 22. are obtained by multiplication. 3. 8. 211. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 2. (3a-f26) 8 .3 y. 6. etc.6 2 8 ft) . Ex. (a + &)8 . + a 2 a. or* - Find the cube root of 19. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 8 (a?-?/) 3 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 -f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. The higher powers of binomials.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. . An 1. 1 -f 3 2 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (6m+2w) (3 8 . (5 (1 -a) 3 . nent of the binomial. 18. frequently called ex. 16. (3a (a (4 62 -l) 3 . 2. 15. 2 . (a-fl) . 167 Find the cube of 2 x -f. 7. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 3 8 . 4.y . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .y) = (3 y?y . 21. 13. : a 20. . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .) 14. 12. + 4aj) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 3 .

(l-a&) 4 12. 14. (1 + 4 ?/) . 10. (m 2 + n) 8 . (m 5 I) 2 22.a) 3 19. and the powers negative. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 15. . 2. 21. (2w 2 2 -f-l) 4 . (l-fa 6 2 ) 5. (tf-f-1) (c-fd) . . 23. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 78 s . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (3a -f5) 5) 4. 4 (1-for) 5 . 13. 5. (?/i-~w) : 16. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (m -fl) 2 20. (m-J) 4 11. (w 4 ?i) 4 . Expand (x = ic 5 -f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (2 4. 8. ( &) 5 . (a-f 5) .168 3. Ex. Ex. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 5. . (2 a 4 .216 a^ 4. . 3. is the coefficient of the next term. (p + q) 4 * 7. . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 4. 6. 4 . The minus. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 3. . 17. 24. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212.4(2 * )'(3 *f) -f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 9. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.2. Expand <? 2 (2 # - 3 y3 ) 4 2 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term.96 ^y -f 216 o?y . (2a-5c) (1 -f 2 4 a:) 4 . (l 8 . 1. 18. (?>i?i -f c)*. (a~^) 5 . Ex. mn 5 2 5 ) . 25.

and all other numbers are. a) 4 = a4 . 27 =y means r' = 27. V9 = + 3. 1. numbers. 4 4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 109 . etc. which can be simplified no further. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. (_3) = -27. 2. or y ~ 3. \/"^27=-3. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. or x &4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. V \/P 214. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. tity . = x means = 6-. or -3 for (usually written 3) . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. for distinction. Since even powers can never be negative. 215. and ( v/o* = a. for (-f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. called real numbers.

1. . index. 10.lL. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.64 5 4 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. = 199 + (_ 198) . 5.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 8. 7.4. Ex 5 a" . Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. = V26TIT81 = 5-3. 6- 7 = 030. 4 v. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . To extract the root of a power. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. -v/2^.200 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 82 . = 19472. for (a")" a = a mn 3. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. EXERCISE 1.125. Ex. 6. extract the and denominator. V25 9 16. 9. - 100 a 2 .9 = 136. 3 33 53 . 2. 7 . Ex.(. V36 9 4. 3/0** = am . 9. 79 2 -v/2 5 . V5 -v/2 7 2.201) = 2. V?. . \/2 4 9 . 7. 3. 2. -fy 5 3 . 3i . 8. . 2 . 62 = V2* . 7 . To extract a root of a fraction. Ex. Ex. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . roots of the numerator \/18 . v/^i2 = a*. 6.

98. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . . a -f2 l 2 + l. (Vl24) -{ 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.3 y2) ( vV . 31.) by inspection. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 .75. 1. 2y-h2/ 4 - 9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . Ex. 5. 2. 34.6 ofy 2 -f 9 y4 . Find the square root of a2 .3. 6. 30. 33. 29. V8. 116. -\/d -\-Vab r + b\ 9.EVOLUTION 171 28. a* 4 8 2 . 2 ./). (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.(V200) -f ( VI5) 2 . Hence _ 6 ary -f 9 y = (s . V9216.3 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 2 -f ( V240) 3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 45 V5184.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 3. 32. V20 . ^-40^4. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.4/.

e. 12. let us consider the relation of a -f. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the so-called trial divisor. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . and b (2 a -f b). 2ab .172 7. 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. the that 2 ab -f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.2 &c. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 11. 8 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. i. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.b 2 2 to its square. #2 a2 - 16. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 -44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 ac . the given expression is a perfect square.> 13. 2 2 218. 10. mV-14m??2)-f 49. a -f. a-\-b is the root if In most cases. The term a' first 2 . and b. 14.2 ab + b . + 6 + 4a&.72 aW + 81 & 4 . . however.

. . and so forth. 8 a 2 . 6 a. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 219. First complete divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 1.24 afy* -f 9 tf. First trial divisor. . 8 a 2 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. the first term of the answer. 1. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Ex. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. of x. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. */'' . and consider Hence the their sum one term. . 2. is As there is no remainder. 8 /-. \ 24 a 3 4-f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.24 a + 4 -12 a + 25 a8 s . The square . 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 - 12 a +4 a -f 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Explanation.EVOLUTION Ex. . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Second trial divisor. - 24 a 3 + 25 a 2 - 12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. As there is no remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. by division we term of the root. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder.

6 11. 24. a? 2 . 36it. 8. 3 a2 a4 4- 2a + a4 2 or 4-1 3 2 a3 + 1. 17. > 7.14^4-4 ic 4^ 3 12^.4 x 4. 3.12 m 4. 4 4-?/ 4-2x- 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 1 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .37 a ^ . + 81 a 4-54 a + 81. l 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 10. 4-12 a& -f 37 a' 6 . .162 a2 60 a10 4. 14. 20. 12. 4 .73a4 4-40^4-36^4-60^. 36a 4-60a 4-73a 4-40a 4-16a 3 2 13. 13#4 4-13ar 4-4a.12 a6 2 2 3 4- 4 64 . x 6 4- 4 0^4. 729 4. 5 4- 16 4 iK .6 .9. 16x6 4. 5.25.16. 6. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.40 a 22 . 2 4.42 a -f 49 a 6 16 a4 -|- 24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.73 a8 .42 a*& 4.V4-30^4-25^ 4m 4. 18.a 6 x*y 2 .20 o 4. 19. 2 x2 3 2x. 4- 36 a 2 12 4- 4- 16 a4 4- 46 a 4 4- 44 a 8 -f 25 a -h 12 a 4- 4 25 a6 4.10 x2 4.2^4-3^4-2^ 46 5 4 a.12m 5 4. 16. 9. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4-36^?/4-69a.54 a 40 a 6 4- 9 a4 .24 or . 25 x 4 -f- 40 afy 4-46 x 2 if 4- 24 a^ 8 4- 9 4 i/ . 15.25 x 4 4.

the consists of group is the first digit in the root. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the square root of 7744 equals 88. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Ex.EVOLUTION 220. the first of which is 4.000 is 1000. which may contain one or two).000 is 100. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.000. a 2 = 6400. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. and the first remainder is. = 80. The is trial divisor = 160. Ex. etc. of 10. Find the square root of 7744.. the first of which is 8. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. and the square root of the greatest square in units. two figures. 2.000. Therefore 6 = 8. 1. and the complete divisor 168. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. first . etc. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. of 1. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Find the square root of 524. As 8 x 168 = 1344.176. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.

7 to three decimal places.10. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .GO'61. The groups of 16724. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 12.70 6. places. 3. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1 are Ex. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid- ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. Find the square root of 6/.0961 are '.1T6 221.

Find the mean proportional between 2 and .1410.4 square when R = radius and 11.01. 5. feet. 35.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow- ing numbers: 29. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 37. feet.22. 31.53. whose area equals 48. 30. T\. 32. 36. J-. 33. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 34.) 40. = 3. 39. 1. 13. 1.58 square 38. JT .

x = + 2 or x =2. 225. Extracting the square root of each member. 6#2 = x* 24. Ex.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.. The 7 equation. complete. 1. . 226. is 12. x -f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or incomplete. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7( - 19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5. 2 ic = a. Transposing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. or equation of the second degree. Dividing. 2)* + 5 = 33. = 4. 6 y2 = 17. is A quadratic equation. x 2 7. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 224. This answer Check. A pure. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e.g. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 2. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. + bx -f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. or affected. Solve 13 x2 -19 etc. 178 . ax 2 + bx + c = Q.

ax Transposing and combining. (a?- 9. 2 4fc -5' 18. : 83 2.25. 2 2 a.2. . 4 ax. 15^-5 = 6. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 -f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . s-3 -? + oj x +3 = 4. Solve 179 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 19 + 9 = 5500. -7 = 162. 16^-393 = 7. 7. 3. or Therefore.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 10. 6(--2)=-10(aj-l). ' =: y? b* b . 4. 5. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.

) of their squares 5. If 22 = ~^-. 25. ' 4. 4. solve for v. 9 & -{- c# a x +a and c. is one of _____ b The side right angle. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144).b 2 If s If =c . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 27. 2 . solve for r. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. If G=m m g . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. . r. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. : 6. its area contains =a 2 -f- b2 . 29. 3. solve for d. If a 2 4. may be considered one half of a rec- square units. . and they con- tain together 30G square feet. 228. Find the side of each field. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 24. 22 a. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. find a in terms of 6 . is 5(5. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 2. If 2 -f 2 b* = 4w 2 -f c sol ve for m. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2a -f- 1 23. 26.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 108. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 28. 2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and their product : 150. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). Find is the number. 2 : 3.

member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 2m. and the third side is 15 inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Solve Transposing. we have of or m = |. and the other two sides are as 3 4. is and the other two sides are equal.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 4. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the radii.7 x -f 10 = 0. 24. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx -f m to 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 8. Find the sides. Method of completing the square. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . radii are as 3 14. To find this term. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. The area : sides are as 3 4. 9. of a right triangle Find these sides. -J- = 12. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.) 13. . sides. (b) 44 square feet. . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.2 7 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. x* 7 x= 10. Find these 10. A body falling from a state of rest. add (|) Hence 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. The following ex- ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area. (b) 100 feet? = . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the two smaller 11. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . The area $ /S of a circle 2 .

Uniting.x(l = . or J. (*~8) a = at . . Transposing. Therefore. 80^69^-2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 a* a. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x -f a = 2 ax.e. or x = 2. = |.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. | x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Hence Therefore Check.2 a2 . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. | \. 2 -| . -7 5 + 10 = 0. = 6. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Or (*-i) x Extracting square roots.. Simplifying. 2 ax -f 2 o) s a . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*-\-px==q. = x-\ = 2.a. Ex.1. 230. Ex. J. a. = \ # = ff. Transposing. Extracting square roots. 22 -7 2 + 10 =0.2. 62 x 5 = f. a Clearing of fractions. adding member).

x . 183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*" - - Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT -* Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.

49. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. and c in the general answer. =8 r/io?. x la 48. . 231. ao. o^ or -}- 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =0. -\-bx-\. = 12.c = 0. article. Solution by formula. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.

2. 2 o. 4. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x-5. 13. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 12.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 1. 5 x2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 21. 14. c = 5. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2 a? = 44 x .25 x. 6^+5^ 56. 16. 8. V^tT)* .4 4- 5 . - P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 9. 17. : 86 + 2 = 0. 19. c p. 6 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 18. 26. a. 2or } -5o. Reducing to general form. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6. 6. 2 . 10. 3 x -11 + 10 = 0. = 64-120?. 11. 20. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6 Ex. 15. - . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2. ?i 2 . 7. TIO. 3.. 2 a. 7^ + 9 x 90. = 12 . b = - + 20 == = 0.

2a^7x sc(2 --16rc Therefore a = 0. Eesolving into factors. .4) = . 27 x== 4-2a. factors Now. 233. 2S-3x 1 2 . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. member can be Ex. 23. ar>-8o. = 14. any degree. 5 = 0. Bx 1 1. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.x.5) =0. 0. = 0. 25. 1. 5) = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. a? 28 - 7a-l=-7s be required to solve the 232. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. x(x <2 . a=:i^-^. = 0.2. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 24. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2x-f3=0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Factoring. or # 5 is zero. Transposing. }. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. and 6. orz roots. (5 a? -!)(. Solution by factoring. transposing terms to one member. x2 = 1 . 3x?+x = 7. all or. if either of the uct is zero. Clearing for fractions. 26. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. we 9 obtain x 4. a* 10a=24. a?. + 8=s: 7. 14. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. a?-10a=:-24. 3^ = 0(110-6). 3.6)) = 0. 5. 9. 13. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 2. E. 3 or 2 a. 6.g.24 = 0. : 87 = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. -4)(z-3) = 0. + 6)=0. x2 -f 2 x . EXERCISE Solve by factoring -|-6 2. for a: . (aj-4)(a. Therefore x =3 = 2. The equation I. aj( 15. 2. 4or + 18a -f 8a. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.3)(x + 3 3. and the equation thus formed be solved. + 9 -f 20 x = 0. 5 = 0.(. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. Or Hence the 234. 12.:=0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 4.= 24. 3) Factoring. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. O roots are 2. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 10 a = 24. Ex. 16. + 100. - 3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. 7. is 5) = 0. 187 Solve x? -3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 8. } 2 2 (5 . ar'-Sa^ -12. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 2o3 -f9a. (*-2)(x + 2)(a-3)=0.e. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3) = 0. 0(0-2) = 7(0-2). 0^ ar> 11.

188 17. (a + 1) (a. 22. 50. 20. 27. (2a? 3) (a 24. 25. or 3 -a -2 2 a? 26. '-3a!J - . a 2 =(x a)b. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 19. ara + ft + c*. uz + u 21. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 23. 2.3) = (s + l) (3 -a). 18.

but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 5. Find a number which exceeds its square by is -|. . Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 56. -2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. feet. -2. 2.0. and whose sum is is 36.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. G. and whose product 9. 1. 55. Twenty-nine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 54. 8. Find the number. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the numbers. and equals 190 square inches. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and the difference Find the numbers.2. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The 11. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 57.3. EXERCISE 1. 58. 7. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 6.3. Find the number.0. The difference of |. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. : 3. 3. 1.9. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. -4. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and consequently many prob- 235. 52. 3. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. -2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. number by 10. two numbers is 4.1. 0. -2. -5. Find the sides.

it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively.10. and Find the sides of the rectangle. watch for $ 24. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. dollars. ply between the same two ports. 19. 14. 15. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. ABCD. 13. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. other. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. Find the rate of the train. . one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. If he each horse ? . At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received two horses more for the same money. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. What did he pay for 21. Two vessels. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet.190 12. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. as the 16.

as 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. constructed with and CB as sides. Ex. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. By formula. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. B AB AB -2 191 grass plot. and working together. 27. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. so that the rectangle. 24. contains B 78 square inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22.I) -4(aj*-l) 2 = 9. a point taken. 23 inches long. how wide is the walk ? 23. 1.) 25. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Solve ^-9^ + 8 = ** 0. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is - by a path 5 feet wide. . Find and CB. Find TT r (Area of a circle . and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. ^-3^ = 7. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. (tf. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. of the area of the basin. 237. or x = \/l = 1.

12. or y = 8. 4-36 3. 4 : 89 -10a. = 13. (a: +aj) -18(x2 +a.T 2 2 . 7. 4. 9.192 238. Ex. 2 (^-Z) - "3 14. 4 2 4 -37aj 2 = -9. y-8)=0. a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 10. = 1.)+72=0. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. a4 -5o. 4 6. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or r-f 15 = 0. Hence Le. >.2 =-4. 6. ^^ ~ 28 (a?- ^ 2:=Q> . 16. Solving. 2 -h9:=0. 8. a? 15 1=2*. a -21or=100. 18. T 17. 2. 2 16 a^-40 11. 4 -8 = 2 a* 2. 3 a4 -44s + 121=0. 19. aV+9o 4 =0. 4 a.

Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4-r2 = a Or . and equal. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 -f- bx -f- c = has two roots. a perfect square. 3.bx 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 2. negative. it 2a follows 2 : 2. 240. Relations between roots and coefficients. 1.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are irrational. b 4.2 z .5) = 04. Ex. the roots are rational.f> = 0. The discriminant =(. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . c the roots are real. and unequal. 241.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are real. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are unequal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.12 x + 9 = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . ( 2a Hence 1. is 4ac not zero. rational. the roots are imaginary. the roots are equal. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. rational.2) 2 4 3 (. Ex. Hence the roots are real.bx 4- by ' i\ and r2 then .

+ 2a-15 = 0. 15. ar + ^ + 2^-2 = 0. + 2-a. 21. = Q. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 2 7. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. n a?-3 ' ~ == l 5. 18. = 0. 2 a.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 2. 2 : 3. = 0. 12~x = x 2 . EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 3a. : a 2 .g. -9a-3 = 0. 12. ^-12. tfmx+p^Q..19 # 20. 14. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. -lla. 17. = 0. 23. 4. + 18 2 8. x2 -4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 60 2 = 0. 6.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : -x +a +-= a 0. 5aj 9. 2a -4z-5 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 22. + 12 2 - . = 5x. their product is-f. x2 -!i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5oj -aj + l = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. -f 2 E. 5a -26a? + 5 = 0. o. 24. x2 -7 10. 10 x = 25 x + 1.

= a"" < .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. provided w > n. hence. (ab) . II. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con- venient for other work. It is. for all values 1 of m and n. The first of these laws is nition of power. and . > m therefore. m IV. We assume. 244. Then the law of involution. such as 2*." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. while the second of the first. (a m ) w . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .* III. must be *The symbol smaller than.a" = a m n mn . a m a" = a m+t1 . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. no Fractional and negative exponents. ~ a m -f. however. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. that a an = a m+n .

Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 24. 3*. a . 245. a?*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. e. 30. etc. (xy$. . at. m$. fractional. as. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . ml. disappear. (bed)*. 28. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. a\ 26. '&M A 27. a*. - we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. or zero exponent equal x. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 23. Assuming these two 8*. 0?=-^. 4~ . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. = a. laws. n 2 a. 29. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 31. 25.g.

44. 246. a* * = 3. -v/o&cT 34. 38. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 40. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. If. 48.\/n. a. 37.g. 41. however. a * a2 Or a=l. : 2' 4* = 4. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 3* = 27. equal to unity. 64* + 9* + 16* + (-32)*. 49. 35. = 2. Vo5 . Let a = a. the base is zero. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. v'mT 36. e.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.g. e. -\fi?. 50. a . ty?. 42. 45. 7z* Find the values of 47. = 2. 5 a* = 10. 43. Solve the following equations 39. : 197 33. 46. hence is . 27* = 3. -\/xy- -\/m. = 49. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.

a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Or a"# = l. etc. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. e. Let x= or". by changing the sign of NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.198 247. consider the following equations. an x = a. 248. or the exponent.g. vice versa. Multiplying both members by a". in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.2 = a2 . cr n.

2 . : or 5 . 66 45. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 25. ^L. : mi m~^. rfS. f (2w)~i 1 -. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. 3 a. . 6 or 2 ^-^ ^. 2m~i 43. 36. 39. ^?2 y' 34. .- 27. 3 a? * 42. * 24. 2 ."* 38. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 22. 37. m . c 32. 1 -L ?>i""i 3 cci . 40. 44. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30.

54. 55. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . of: 3-ll4~* 60.(. 57. 48. 49.343)* + (. 58. = . (81)* + (3f)*-(5 TV)*-3249 + 16 * .6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.1. 250. z 5or*=10. 53. 1. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con- taining fractional exponents.26)* 1 (I-) 2 . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. = l. 17' 2 51. + 1~* -f 21 . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 10* 5* = . 10* Find the values 56.001.9*. 5 - 75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = -^. = 5.81 -f (a . 61. 47. + A_. ar = i. 52. (. z* = 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.008)* + A. . Ex. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 59.

__ 29- /m -'-=V a9 -i-a.7W. 12. S-'-s-S-8. 8 ' 9.5. 13. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.&. . 3.5a. 3-s-VS. etc. 4 5. &.7i. NOTE.. 17. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. (d) If required. #* a. 7~ 5 27 - .3 aj" a. 26. a.7*.^/5-^5. 10. 4 x^. 27 - 28. 6 *. 7.4 a8 . Remove the negative exponents. V5. 6a-.6 *' 6 *25. . 3 a. remove the fractional exponents. 18. 23. 7~ 6 . 6. 7*. / 7-f--v 7. OA 20. 16. 14.&. 25 26 - 2~ 8 2~ 9 22. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.$-*. 95 -^9i 5-*-*.4 . Perform the operation indicated. ' 11. 72 .$-".THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 14an- (4**(Va) 4 . 16. . are performed. 79 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .

1.2 d . lix = 2x-l =+1 Ex. 34. 1. 2. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. If powers of a?. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. V ra 4/ 3 -\/m 33. The 252. powers of x arranged are : Ex. Arrange in descending powers of Check.

THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
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1

-f-

3.

V25 #

- 2()"ar r+ 34 - 12 x -f 9 x*.

20.

^^
l

21. 22.
23. 24.
25.

+2
a?
8

(l+4^-flO^ + 20oT-f 25^T -f-24-\/i?-f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V2-2). (5+V3)(5-2V3).
26. 27.

)*.

(1-3VS)(2 + V5).

(VU - V2)(Vn~3V2)

204

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:

Find by inspection
28.
29.

(x*

+ 3)(tf*-f 2).

35.
36.

8 (a;*

yi)

.

a*

+ 3l-5.
V2

(5*-2*

2
.

30.
31.
32.

38. 39.

(3^
(#* ^
(fl

2*)
-f-

.

33. 34.

5) (x*

5).

40.

(m

n)

-f-

(m*

11
-f-

n 5 ).

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.

A

radical is the root of

a quantity, indicated by a

radical sign.

254.

The

radical is rational, if the root can be extracted

exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.

^9
4^
\/2,

(*

+ V) *

are radicals.

= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4a-f
b are irrational.

255.
root.

The

order of a surd

is

indicated by the index of the

va
\/2

/-

.

is
is is

of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.

Vc

256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.

An
257.
factor.

entire surd is

one whose coefficient

is

unity; as

Va,

Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6

which contain the same irrational
are similar.

av^

3V2 and

3 V8 are dissimilar.

206

206
258.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.

All even roots
e.g.

may

be positive or negative,

VI = + 2

or

2.

Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict

the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.

Thus

5 V4 4- 2 V4

= 7 VI = 14.

If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;

=-

(oj- 2).

259.

Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional

exponents, all examines relating to radicals

may

be solved by the

methods employed for fractional exponents.

Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T

1

1

(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.

(242).

to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the

factors.

TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.

A radical is simplified when the

expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.

Ex.

1.

Simplify

= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4

Ex.

2.

Simplify

-v/16.

-J/lB^^.

4/2

= 2^.

RADICALS
.

207

261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.

Ex.

3.

Simplify V|.

Ex.

4.

Simplify

EXERCISE

94

208

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s

37.

39.

j

*x+y
38.

n

\ 2m

262.

An

same manner

imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;

42.

V-16a
:

,

2
.

44.

2\-

Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.

VJ.*

49.
50.

Vf.

VJ.

VA

263.

Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.

Ex.

Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.

EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:

95

4V5.

3.

2-\/lL

5.
6.

7.

2.

3V7.

4.

3^5.

a VS.

8.

* See table of square roots on page 164.

RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.

209

Ex.

1.

Transform -\/uW into a surd of the 20th order.

Ex.

2.

Transform

\/2,

V3, and

\/5 into surds of the

same

lowest order.

V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. |^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1

Ex.

3.

Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.

Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by

same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.

96
:

to surds of the 6th order
2.

Va?.

-fymn.

3.

\/ v

4.

v'c?.

5.

\|

z

\

^3

6.

mn.

Reduce
7.
8.

to surds of the 12th order
9.

:

V2~a.

\/a4 6 2c.
-\/3ax.

11.
12.

-\/oP6.

13.
14.
a.

^v/mV

10.

\/5a5V.

Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:

15.

-v/o

5
.

16.

\/oW.

17.

-v/IaT .

2

18.

-\/

20.

A/^

22.

VSlmV.

24.

V3. 39. -^7. 5V2.10 V2 = - V2. 3. in order of magnitude : \/7.3-\| . </2. ^2. -\/7. signs. 27. V2. </3. V3. V2. + . -^4. -^6. ^126. 26. 31. -v/4. ^2.e. s!/3. ^30. 40. VS. -v/3. 38. Simplify V|~ . if dissimilar. A/2. -v/3. 33. 29. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 34. A/3. (i.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 .2 V50. To add or form. 4^/4.2. 28. Ex. Ex. 30. -\/5. Simplify V| + 3 VlS. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 36. ^5. 37. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. -v^S. V2. 2\ 3*. Arrange 35. 3 - s/- / 3ft 2 - 3 ^y Ex. ^4. 32. ^/IT. ^3. </20. -^2. connect them by proper 1. subtract surds.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. V5. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . I VJ + 3VT8 . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.

V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 -f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VT2 + 2V27 + 3V75-9V48. 8.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 13. 2V8-7Vl8-f5V72-V50. . V18+V32-VT28+V2. 12.3V20 + 6V5. 14. 9. V175-V28+V63-4V7. 11.J a6 V4 aft. 10. 4. VJ+V8-V1 + V50. + 3V8-35V2. 3. 6. 4V80-5V45-. 8VT8-J-2V32 7. 6.

23. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. . 26^ .100 = -f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. and then multiplied. 2.6V35 106 4-60V35-100 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 3. . 6*. y* = Ex. Multiply 3-\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 1.

41.^/2.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 14. Vll. 38. 40. V2a-V8^. 7. (5V5-8V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (Vm-Vn) (V3-V2) 8 . V3 V6. 25. 21. -VTO. 10. 15. (2-V3) 8 . 3. V42. 37. ( Vm -\- 1 Vm) (Vm-f 1 6(Va-f Va -{- Vm). . (6V2-3V3)(6V2-|-3V3). 2. 34. VlO V15. aVa. fWa 17. -v/4. 9. (5V2-2V3-CVS)V3. -v/18 -v"3. 19. 213 98 11. V3 Vl2. 6. 6 V4 5. V20 V30. (3 20. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2 -V50. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. + VB)(2-V5). 8. 18. 27. (V2+V3+V4)V3. (Vm-Vn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 13. 28 . a?. 12. 2 . 40 10 30. (Va Va 36. 4. 39.VSS. -\/3 -\^). 6.

is 1 2.y. V3 . 48. the quotient of the surds is If. 51. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 53. (3V3-2Vo)(2V3+V5). 52. 268. (5V2+V10)(2V5-1). 44. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (V50-f 3Vl2)-4-V2== however. (3V5-2V3)(2V3-V3).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). a fraction. 49. 60. 46. Va -v/a. 47. (2 45. 43. all monomial surds may be divided by method. -v/a - DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex. E. a VS -f- a?Vy = -\/ - x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V5-5V3) S . (5V7-2V2)(2VT-7V2). .214 42.

g. is illustrated by Ex. The 2.. e. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. /~ } Ex.73205. . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Evidently. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JL-V^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . by V7. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 1. however. . 3. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. arithTo find.57735. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.by the usual arithmetical method. Divide VII by v7. we have V3 But if 1.RADICALS This method. metical problems afford the best illustrations.

21. V8 12. V48 25. 271. 14. and Given V2 = 1. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom- inator is a binomial quadratic surd. . Vf-f-V?.2361. -i. V2 22 . A. V5 270. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. ^/H .7320.4142. 272. 7. V3 24 . 20. --. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V3 = 1. V5 = 2. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V8 JL.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 -2-. 23 . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Vn V7 ' * 8. Vll 212*.

V8-2 2-V3 1-fVS . Ex. 3.vffi^T _ . Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. .= 18.1 x-Vtf a. 217 Simplify 2V3-V2 ' V3-V2 ~ = 4 + V5.2. .07105 = 7 7 2V2-1 2V2-1 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V2-1 e .RADICALS Ex.Vs2 . 1.

V2-1 -= 25 . 24. V5-V7 18> ^-SVg. = V3 = 1.218 6 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. By the use of fractional exponents . . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3-V5 ' V5+2 31. 6V7-. 19.4142. -J?_. Vo-1 26. four places of decimals 23 .2361. V5-2 17 1-Va? Vg+v/2 5V7-7V5 ' V3-V2 15.W3. 2V5-V18 m-Vm Va 22. Given V2 1. : and V5 = 2. v 2-V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V5-1 14 A 16.5 3 = 125. V3-2* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 -f- 2V2. find to _!_. 27.7320. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .

3 (V2~u-) - 7. . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v5-|-2V3 5 + 3. 8. 9. 2 12. Simplify Ex. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 11. 5. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/125" . 2. -\/l6*. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. According to G3. 1. on the other hand. we must find 8 and whose product is 15.RADICALS 219 274. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. viz. V255 . v8-f 2\/15. 2. V643 . In other examples of involution and evolution. it to this form. 3. the If.

Find Vll . ^TT. 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9-A/2 = 3 .A/2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. +2 Ex.2 \/20. 2 \/18.6 V2. Find Vl2 4.220 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find V4 + VJ8. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 3. and whose product is 18. is 11. These Ex. The Hence ^11 .

e. Dividing by Check. V48 23. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. 8. . Radical equations are rationalized. 5. first involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. * 4-- * 2 V6 VT 4. -\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. a. VT . r 22. : 221 Vl3-2V22. 4x x = 2. by raising both members equal powers. Ex. Transposing and uniting. are radical equations. (2x xrf 1. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Before performing the involution.V48 4 20. 4. = xa + 4 x -f 4. 19. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.. they are transto formed into rational equations. member to 2. -+=. x2 = x -f 2. 277. Transposing Vsc2 + -f 12 12 Squaring both members. The value x =2 reduces each . i.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Solve vV-f!2-a = 2.1.

= 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 278.1) = 0. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Extraneous roots. V4afT~l. . a so-called extraneous root. . a. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Vitf 4x -f 25 -f- 25 4x -f- 1 25. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 -f V4 -f 1 . Transposing and uniting. member =|\/2 + -jV2=|v^. Ex. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Factoring. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 4#-f 4 = 9. Therefore Check. Squaring both members. at . tion which has two roots. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. x = J. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 24 \/4 #-|- Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. or = VzMx2 7 x -f -f 7 x + 9. 2. one root. Squaring both members. Solve -Vx -f- Squaring both members. 5. Dividing by 24. Therefore CftecAr. they may be extraneous roots. . the first member = V2. V24~+~l = 0. It = 3 x . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25x-f3 = 0. viz. -f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. viz. 3.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1.222 Ex. -f- 25 = 12. Transposing and uniting.

. + 6~ieT~3 . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. and to 5. Therefore. . 4- VxT~0 = \/8 x -f 1. 4. \ does not satisfy the given. Hence there is only one root. or x *j-. is x V. Check. both members reduce to 5. (x x = 3. viz. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . equation it is an extraneous root. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. 2 Clearing of fractions.RADICALS Hence x If a. 223 x = 3. = 3.2 r.3) (2 x . Transposing.12 . V2x' 8 4-2x4-3 Transposing. Hence x = the only root. Solve the following equations : = G. ViTie- 4 z2 . Squaring. Factoring. NOTE. . for it satisfies the equation . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.47) = 0. If If x 3 = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 -f 141 = 0. the right member = |V2. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x -f A5_ 15. x root of the preceding equation. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.

Therefore . Ex.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. Solve af*.

or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 2_8z 4-40 = 49. Vi 2 -8a.35 = 0. This can be seen without substituting. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 4-12a* = 16. 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2. . x =6 or 3. some of the roots be extraneous. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. x Since both =9 or 1. _ 2 y .8 z-|-40 = 7. Let 8 x -f 40 . = 0. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. y then x2 . o. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2Va. = 26.-f40= 5.*-2a.i~24 = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. Q . 3 6. + 40 = 6. 2. members of the equation were squared.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 3. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. = 7. 4.RADICALS Raising both members to the | power. Ex. Substituting. 5. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. x + Vx a? = 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.

or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a -f- 40 2 V* 2 8. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x -f . 2 7a?H-V^ 3 7a. 19. 12. +3= 6. +x .226 11.a 4-40 = 35.-f 18 = 24. 17. ar -fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7-^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"-^I + 2 = 4. 4 V SB* 4- a. 14. 18. 16. a^x2 5 2 13. 20. 2. 15. a.

does not contain a?. ax4 4. E = ax + &z + m) Q. " Or.<fo -f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: -f (to + e (x = w.2 + 8-0 = 12. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.4 a.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Without actual division. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. even if Q is unknown. could. then (x 2)Q 0. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). no matter If. If x* . Hence. if Q was known. however. 227 . -f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient -f Remainder. to x we # = 2 -3. find the remainder when m. 3 2 Ex. we make a? what the value of Q.2) Q . 1.2 x 5 by x 3. then or* -2 and there is a 3 x2 -f.2 + 4. = 2. by dividing 3 x* -f. ^ = 3-81+2. a? R = x* . 2. Ex. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Without actual division.bx? + ex2 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.3-6-0 = 244." transposing.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .

+ 7 = 632. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. If the remainder is zero.949. + 6. fora?.g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.3)-f 11 =.g. + ^by x + b.4(. 8. + 3x3 -2x* 32x12 by a?-3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . a100 -50 a47 4- 48 a2 b.8'= 0. if 8 42 - . x* s 2 4. x m is factor of the expression. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. a -f b 7 by a ^-14y ~132/ -- 283. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x*-x + 4x -Tx + 2\)y x + 2. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x - - - 00 *. 43 -3 E. 3.8. 5. hence (x divided by x 4. of the division 3) is m in place of x.228 282.4x4-11)^0 + 4 (- 3) . The Factor Theorem. 5 (4x . -}- 2 by a-1. 2 j 7. the remainder equals 8 2 x . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X - 1) +7 by x - 1 is 6* -3 .

are -f 1.9^ + 23^-15. Let x = . Factor a? 15. -f- 3. 106 division. we obtain 7 - 7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2 - 8 a. a -2a + 4. 5. a + 32. 15. The 5. 6. i. + 27 + 27. 8 -}3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 -t- .12. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. x -4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* -f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .1.-12 = 0. is a factor. Therefore x ( 1). _ . 24. 23. -7 2 a? 2 -f 7a?-f 15. 18. x8 By dividing by x a?8 -f 1. 229 1. 8. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 17.7 + 16 . 2 2. -f 5.e. a -8a -f 19 a -12. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.-r-6 = 0. 11. 3. 1ft : ar*-f 6aj 2 o?-5ar 3 l + lla. & p*. a? 19.7 x + 15 = 0. 8. factors of the absolute term. ^-10^4-29^-20=0. 2. -f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. then x8 7 x'2 4.7 -f -5a 18 divisible by x 2. 1.13m + 30 10.1. or x -4. p -5^ + 8p 4. Resolve into factors 4. 3 2 : 7.4-9 = 0. a^-8^ + 19a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 2m -5m . . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m -f m n 14. ^ + 7y + 2y-40 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. or 5 4 + 3^ . 20. a. 25. 9.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 21. -f 15 does not vanish. 1. 7 4-6 = 0. + tt-t-15 = 0. oj 5x2 -f3a. + 15. 2o? m -6ra -fllm 6. a 5x 6.

g.xy +/). The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 1. - y 5 = (x - can readily be seen that #n -f either x + y or x y.y n is divisible by x -f ?/. xn y n y n y n = 0. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif- * The symbol means " and so forth to. ar +p= z6 e. : importance. is odd. 2 Ex." . 2. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. By we obtain the other factors. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. x* -f-/ = (x +/)O . Factor consider m m 6 n9 . if n is even. if w is odd. Ex. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. actual division n.230 285. Factor 27 a* -f 27 a 6 8. For substituting y for x. if n For ( y) n -f y n = 0. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1. xn -f. 286.

27. 26. preferable. however. a. Hence = (m Ex. as -27=0. 28. x3 -8=0.i mn -f w 2). -f n)(m 2 mn -f w 2 )(wi . 3. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. since it more directly to the prime factors. leads 231 is The first method.= .

= 6. ==5 > 1^ = 4. + 6 a?V . of quadratics.1. Squaring Solve (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (oj-j-y) 2 4 xy Ex. xy x*y -f y = 4 is of the second degree. 290. in general. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.y4 is of the fifth degree. If two of the quantities x -f y. Hence " / | X y = =} 4. 4 xy = 16. x y. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND x-y 291. x-ywe have 3. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un- known quantities lead. 232 . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. can be solved by the methods degree. (5) Combining (5) with (1). & + 2 xy + = 25.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy are given. * A I. however. (4) Hence. to equations of the fourth few cases.

g.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. b=-3. 233 y. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) -2 + 3 = 293. but can be found. I I x + y=7. " "' "' { r 8. 108 2. ^. x and xy are not given. ' 10. = . the answers of the last example are : r*=-2. 12. In many cases two of the quantities x -f y. The arranged in pairs. r- (" 1 = 876. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 1. 3.

. + 29 = 0. - 42 y + Transposing.20) = 0. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. or y = 1 .o 18. Ex. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . A system of simultaneous equations. ' ' . . aj = 2. ^ f or* -f 4 xy = 28. I* Jj ^ [. 7 . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y - 40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). or JJ. 3. I x+y = a. 5.~ y = 5. one linear and ne quadratic.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x -4.?/ i = 6. 19. .i/ = r 13. - f J.a. la. EXERCISE Solve : 109 -47/ = 0. Factoring. x " (3) 49 etc. 4 y = 20. 2 (1) From (1) we have. r^ 2 as ] -f. - . 6 "I 14.

HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. 1. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 4 f- + 2 y = 3. 8 V-~80 Hence y =1 y . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235 - > ' 1 lla 8- 12~ 10 13. If of the preceding type. ' x*. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).3 2x 2 Ex. x-2y. III. 3y) : Factor (2). y* + 2y = 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. = 1 3 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve . quantities. ':il -e :) . 10.

2 . (rc-2/)(llx-5y) 16 xy -f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = Ex. 109 a. j Substituting y in (2). 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 2. 15 x2 . Solve 2.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar --7aK/4-27/2 ==0. } VI09. y = 110 f 10^-370^ + 7^ = 16^-7^ . = 0. (1) (2) x x 5.

can be solved by special devices.6. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.!. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. and others not belonging to them.xy 4. (4) -(3). Bxy-9. 298.3^4-2^=43. " IV. 150 */2 .175 ay = 12. Division of one equation by the other. A. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. ' <"" -=m _ 14 ' &. E. . Solve * + '-* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).y = 7. y? a? -f . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. ' ^ 15.125 ay = . f 1 150 a?.

we obtain by squaring. = 12 J. xy. x 2 . x +y y etc. Therefore x = 16. (1 > (2) 1. Solve Ex. y = 3|.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : faj-y=152.. 2. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. B. i ^ *>. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4- or But the negative roots being extraneous. at first it is unknown quantities. * ' 300. quadratics can be solved by ?/. y . we have from (1). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i" <--Vx -f -' unknown 6. = 189. Some simultaneous ?/. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x -. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. jc~ y = 9.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . [2x + : y= 17. F+y+ . |. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e. 7. M-6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 239 Ex. 4. 36* 2. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 4-0. Hence = V or = 4. 6.

' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 16.4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6-hy) = 80. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 19 ' 26. = 198. 25. f 18. 27. = y 1 y* .21 ^ = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. * . .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . ( xy (7 m 2 n*.

or ~ indeterminate.of - According to the definition of division. ^ oo . 30. as a --. . Q 7. oo 301. hence may be any finite number. -- But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . 32. etc. 25 34. 7' j/ 39. 3 a2 38. finite - =x y if = x. -. 33. = 48201. Interpretation .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. y % 9 f*K 36. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ~\ OK OO. . 31. etc 302.

x'2 2 x = 1. .can be If It is made larger than number. Hence such an equation identity. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. i. and . I.e. or that x may equal any finite number. however x approaches the value be- comes infinitely large. By making x any * assigned zero.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. without exception. i. creases. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.000 a. be the numbers. (1).g. TO^UU" sufficiently small. cancel. is satisfied by any number. 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.242 303. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.decreases X if called infinity. x -f 2. and becomes infinitely small. + I) 2 x2 ' -f 2x + 1 -x(x + 2)= . it is an Ex. ToU" ^-100 a. 1. the answer is indeterminate. Let 2. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. The ~~f fraction .increases if x de- x creases. (1) = 0. oo is = QQ. Or. great. equation. as + l. The solution x =- indicates that the problem is indeter- If all terms of an minate. (a: Then Simplifying. = 10. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. . 306. (1) is an identity.e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.

3. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Hence /. The sum is of squares 2890. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve | 9 7. third and sixth parts. z = 1 Substituting. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. and the sum of Find the numbers. and a. no numbers can satisfy the given system. is their 2. y finite QO. = oo.e. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 1=0. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve ~o -3 x v ~K -6 x r x 6 4.8 x + 15 6. (2). two numbers is 76.2 y = 4. EXERCISE 1. . Solve x a. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. * 6. 2. Solve . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 4 -3 x x-5 a2 .

of a right triangle is 73. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 148 feet of fence are required. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. . the area becomes -f% of the original area. p. 8. 12. 190. and the edge of one. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 255 and the sum of 5. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. of a rectangular field feet. 103. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Two cubes together contain 30| cubic inches. and the sum of ( 228. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 146 yards. Find these sides.244 3. 10. Find the edges. increased by the edge of the other. and the hypotenuse is 37. 14.quals 20 feet. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. equals 4 inches. 9. Find the edge of each cube.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 6.) 53 yards. is is 17 and the sum 4. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the diago(Ex. Find the other two sides. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the side of each square. Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. is 6. 13. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the sides.

Find the radii. Find the number. differ by 8 inches. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. by the product of 27 be added to the number. irR *.) 17.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged.

the second a descending. and d.. except the first. To find the nth term / of an A. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. The progression is a. 10. : 7. The common differences are respectively 4. a + d. 17.7. added to each term to obtain the next one.. An arithmetic progression (A... P. the first term a and the common difference d being given. a 11. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. P. 3. + 2 d.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. .. each term of which. 2 d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. -4. 11. to each term produces the next term.. 12. The first is an ascending. of the following series is 3. series 9. P. to produce the 3d term.. a -f d. Hence / = a + (n . a. . Since d is a -f 3 d... . -f .) is a series. to produce the nth term.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. (n 1) d must be added to a. 15 is 9 -f.1) d. . 3 d must be added to a. to produce the 4th term. 309. of a series are its successive numbers. a 3d. 16. 19. a + 2 d. progression.

7. -7. 99) = 2600. 1. Find the 12th term of the -4.. = I + 49 = *({ + . 3. .. 9. = 99. -10.. .-. 6. P. . 6. P. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 1. d . the term a. series 2.8. = -2. 3. ? (a) 1... 6. -24. Find the 5th term of the 4.. 5. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. = a + (a Reversing the order. 19. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 5. of the series 10. series .16.3 a = -l.. 2J. -3. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 21.. Find the 101th term of the series 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A... 3.- (a + + (a + l) l). 5. 8. d = 3. . 2. the last term and the common difference d being given. 8.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/)... 5. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 7. 1-J..' cZ == . -4^. . 2 EXERCISE 1.PROGRESSIONS 310.4. . 8. Find the nth term of the series 2. P... (d) 1J. 4. if a = 5. 115. Adding. 3.-. 2.. a = 2. -|. 6 we have Hence . 5. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 9.

15. 7. 7.248 Find the 10. 1|. 20. + 2-f-3 + 4 H hlOO. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . and a yearly increase of $ 120. 31.(# 1 2) -f (x -f 3) H to a terms. to 7 terms. strike for the first yard. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 16 terms. 11. 16. 18. -. to 20 terms. Sum the following series 14. . hence if any three of them are given. to 15 terms. : 3. 19. . 1J. 33. (i) (ii) .5 H + i-f -f- to 10 terms. 7. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 11.. 15. In most problems relating to A.1 -f 3. . 23. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 13. 15. 17. 3. striking hours only. 4. + 3. . 8. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 2J. to 8 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. 1. '. 16. (x +"l) 4. 11. 12. rf. 29. P. > 2-f 2. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.7 -f to 12 terms. 12. . to 20 terms. 21. 1. to 10 terms. 11. 2. \-n. to 20 terms. . Jive quantities are involved. 22. 6.

144. The series is. 204 = ^ (a + 49). the and the sum of all terms 1014. #. 2 (2) From Hence (2). Find the series. d = 6. 100. 6.104 w + 408 = 0. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. hence n = 6. 122. 78.1) . = 1014. and b form an A. l)e?. The first term of an A. = 1014. 204 = ^ (98 . n d. or if x Solving.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 34. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 111. if s = 204. 67. P. if a. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 312. s 24ft last term 144. Substituting in (2). 12. 89. . x= - 4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. a = 49 -6(71 . J = 49. = n(104 .6 n). Findn.e. = 144. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). P. I. the second one mean between the other two. n = 6.. . is 12.1). 56.6. P. 1. 133. Ex. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 23. = 13. Solving. 6 n2 . is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = a + (w. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 2. 45.~n~\ 408 6). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. From (1).. a = 12. or 11 J. 78 n Substituting in (1).

Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 45. of 5 terms 6.3. 4. d = 5. 14. Given a = 4. Find n. ceding one. Find?. 6? 9. m and n 2. 10. n = 17. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. f J 1 1 / . Find d and Given a = 1700. n has the series ^ j . Find a and Given s = 44. 78. n = 16. = ^ 3 = 1. I Find I in terms of a. n = 20. 15. 13. 3. has the series 82. Given a = . Find d. Given a = |. 74. 7. 12. Find w. How much did he save the first month? 19. 16. n. = 16. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 8. and s. 17. s = 70. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . I. = 1870. . Find a Given a = 7. n = 4. f? . a+ and b a b 5. How much . a x -f- b and a b. s == 440. n = 13. produced. T? ^. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. y and #-f-5y. = 83. = 52. = 17. 11. P. Find d. Given a = 1.

|.. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . ar. 4. the first = a + ar -for ar -f ar Multiplying by r. is 16(f) 4 . 12. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. 2 a.. The 314. the following form 8 nf + q(l-r") 1 r . 24.) is a series each term of which. r n~ l . ratios are respectively 3. P.arn ~ l . +1.. rs = s 2 -. 36. the first term a and the ratios r being given. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. (I) of the series 16. . 36. 36. called the ratio.. or 81 315.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. NOTE.. 24.g. E. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. P. <zr . . -2. -I. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. or. The progression is a. 108. . If n is less : than unity. A geometric progression first. of a G. P. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. and To find the nth term / of a G. 4- (1) . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . fl lg[(i) -l] == 32(W - 1) = 332 J.. ar8 r.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. 4. is it (G.

. .5.. 1..18. if any three of them are given. first 5. 2 term 3. 0. f.l. 36. 9.. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. +-f%9 % .. series .. P. In most problems relating to G. 9. whose .. 576._!=!>.*. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/-'. Find the 5th term of a G. -fa. Hence the or series is 0. ? (c) 2. 676. 36.. i 288. 36.. Jive quantities are in.54.. first term is 125 and whose common . a = I. 25.18. whose and whose common ratio is 4. .. series 6. And the required means are 18. + 5.288.6.. \ t series . f. . . 288. 4. 8. 7. volved . P. (it. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 144. P. |. first term 4. is 16. . whose and whose second term is 8. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.. Ex. EXERCISE 1. P. 72. 4.4. is 3. . 6. . . I = 670. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 20. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . 144. 3. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. r^2. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. hence. l. 72. 80.72. (d) 5. series 5. or 7.5.-. P. 9. 10. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. -fa. (b) 1. 144. 18. . Find the 6th term of the series J. Hence n = 7. .

J. to G terms. .i a9 . 15. 21. == 160. 27. Z s. 243. is less than unity. 54. -. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. M. n = 5. 12. .. s = 310. 25S series : 32. 48. a^. Find a and n = 4. 14. 19..J- and 270. 126. 36. and hence ~ r .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. of r n decreases. Given r = n Z 5. n = 5. r . . s = 605. = 3. to 6 terms. 1. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less -r^Ex. be written If the value of r of a G. to 6 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. . 13. to 8 terms. Find a and Given r = 3. to 7 .. 4.. 23. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.-. 12 terms. >"> -. 72. = 3. P. 81. -J-. a.-. to 5 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 2. 1. J. 22. 14.nV> i*> !718. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. I. 81. + 4 . 42. may be than any assignable number. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. . Find a and 4. to 6 terms. 24. to 7 terms. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 16 . -J.-. 20.

Find the value 9... 16. 2. -. 100.3121212-.. .. . 1. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.Ql. 12. P.= _4Z* .= . 13.. 66 Therefore . 2. 6... 5. = . = a . Hence .. 1 r = . (6) the sum of the perimeters. 250. If a = 40.072. The sum r. 1. P... .99 . ratio 15.. 3.272727-.72. Find the sum to infinity. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. 4. 5.. 10.)7?7272 .191919-. 4.. 1. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 8. r = j.. 9. is 9. 7.27777 .00072 -f . .01 ^ . Given an infinite series of squares. 16.254 Ex. -. P. i i J.37272 . . first and the common term. .. . 14. .. . . = . 40.. = 990 ... I. is J. 1. of all squares ? ... =A+ 10 i. . -.... 6... is 16. of an infinite G. i. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 8.3 + . 9.. 12. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. what is (a) the sum of the areas. of: 11.555. ...072 + .717171-. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.3727272 .1.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.. and the first term is Find 17. .

2 2 24.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 4. 26.b) w (a (a -f (1 . a4 b 12 in (a -f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 13. : (1 + xy.6) . . (a 100 . 17. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a -f 2 b) . . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a -f 5) . 4 7. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 3d term of fa -f V -^Y Va/ - 19. 14. 10. (s + i).a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + -^r 18. 15. 11. 28. (a-2) 6.6) 20 . (x-y) : 6 . (a + b) .b ). . 20. 7 . 12. coefficient of . . 5. 22. 16. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 29. /2a+|Y\ 8. l 2. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (z2 -^ Simplify 9. (\ 9 . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 25. 21. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. a6 8 16 in .

4. 2. 2. 1. 2. + 2. 2. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T -r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. + 1. -3. i (a-ft)(a-c) a 6 (ft. 3. -4 2.f ac 1. 3. 1. 4. -5. 3. 2. 3. 3. 3. l. 6. 5. 1. 3. 2. 3. 2. 1. 1. 4. 2. 1. 2. 4. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. if y=2j 2. aft 3 + 4. 4. -1. 3. 4. 2. 2. -1. 5. 7. 1. c = = = 2. 2. 5. 2. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 5. + 2. -6.] a 2^ aft + -r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4 (2 a - 13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2 - 38 3. + c(a -|- c). (ft c)(c 4- ) 3. 24 4. if x^l. 4. 4 *2 - 4 xy - 4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 2 (2 a - 3 aft -f- 4 2 ft ). - 8 ^ 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 2. 4. 2. 4. y 3. -3. - 2. 1. 3. ft) . c if 7 . 3. 3. 3. 2. 6. 2. 2. 6. 6. 2. 5. -1. a ft c = = 2. 2. 5. 2. *=M - M 3J -f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. if = = = 2. -3. 1. 2. - 2. = 2. 4. 4. -2.a(a 4. 3. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . - a)(a 1. 2. if = = 2. (c-a)(c-ft)' 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 x-y or -f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4. . . ^+^ 3. 1. 5. 5. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. -3.c )(ft-a) 1. 2. 3. 3. 2 . 4- ft - c) 2. 1. 1. (c 3. 5. 1. 2.

3.c' 2 4 / . 40. and 3 y 8 -f 12 z 8 . + 8 x4 *y . 4a + 9 a2 - 3 a5 . . .259 x c) . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 4. a 4 + 11 a . + 1. a. x C 4 4x y + . 2 x 8.3 a?y .8 3 + 7 x4 .a) . 1. 4 z . 3. 10. 7y 4 . 15. 18. 1. x3 2 a2 . c(x (c g)(x 6-) = 1. . x 3 x' 14. 5. 6 a4 4 a8 . b(x (b 1. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .3 xyz. 2.8 + 2 // .4. 25. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy* - zy + 12 xy* - 4 y4 . 24. 2 - + 12 a 8 . = 2. 2. 4. + 3 y 2* . 41.4 x'2 -f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 8 . -f 8.\ yz + xz. 26. 16.a 4 .a8 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .a 5 a .2 a?y + 3 aty . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 8. - a) (c 2.2 x2 . a /> 3. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 7.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. c)(x a} . r> .2 x?/. 5. x = 4.10.7 ys.4 yz\ -7xy* + z 3. ~c)(b.x 5 4 . (5. 5. 4 x 4 . 29. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // -f ax'2 . 9. 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 21. x 3 11. + 4.7 y 2* 4.2. 2. c = 3.5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 9. 4 y 13. a: . 17. + 2. x 2 + - 2 ax* -f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 11 z 4 x4 -12 17.1. ' b) + 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 10 z 8 12 - 6 2 8. 2 .' 4 x2 2 - 5 z3 8 . 6. + 4 ?y . x3 -f 3 ax'2 .r 6 x - 4 xy . 7 xy 3 . or . 12. - 2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/ - 7 y3 . 5. a.7 + . 21. 20. if a 6 = = c = 3. 15.2 z8 4 x.

Take the sum of 3 x 4. 34. x8 x2 2 a'2x. ft. take the sum of G x 5 . 4- 3 From 44- the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .(5 c . 36.{G * 2 .[3 if - (3 _^ ft 6- ft -f- c)}] a: .3 x .[4 z 8 . and a 2 ft 4- ft 3 c take sum - 2 c 4- 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 5 10 + 7 .1). From of 2 the 4.5 .6T .(4 * . .6 x ] . of 2 x 8 4- 4 x2 4- 9 and 4 x . Simplify 31. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.x 2 4. .#4-8.x 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 33.c 4- 3 a.2 _[5ft-{^ 2 8 4 x* . a - ft + c. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4- 3 will give 27. 4 . 4- 2 x8 x 4- 4. 7 x -x the ft 4 x2 11 x.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. : a x .5.x2 .1 and x 8 G 11 4- 3 x2 + - from G x2 4- x. of a.x . c 4ft. /- x5 -2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.(4 x 2 . Take the sum of G a8 4- 4- 4 a 2x 4- . c =x y -}~ z.2 x 8y2 44 . = x y ft z. 4- 3 5 y/ .4. 2 x 32. and 7 x a 2x -2 ax'2 4. 3 4- 5 10 2 - 7 12 . 4vTT~y 3..3.1)}] . ft 25. Take the sum 4x 4.2 3 ax 2 .[4 x 4.4 Vl 4.4 ft) 4. (/) a + - ft 4- 6 + - rf.4) . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 29.2 .(x* . and d= c c 4- x4-#4-z </. sum of .2) . 2 c - 2 a - and 2 a 3 x2 28.(5 y . and a ft 4- ft 3 c take - 6 a.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x - 4 x8 22. 4- 4 4. 4- 2 x2 23. 54-2 x 2 and .{2 x 2 . . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4- G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .8 3 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.7.2 .260 19. 3 x2 13-3ft-[l7a-5ft^[7fl-3ft-{4fl~4ft-(2a-3ft)}]]. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . .x . 35. . x'2 . 5 4 7 12 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4- 6 x8 4- 21.?> x 4- 20. 3 ft.(a .3 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 0" 30.c. [4 I 2a4-7c-(7ft4-4c)-[6a-3ft4 2~c4-4c-{2a-(ft-2T-2)}]. .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.5 10 b 3 -\- G 11 = ft x4-y4-2. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4- .n/ 4 4- 12 x 5 4- 4 x?y 4- 2 x6 -f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .(7 x 4. 5 10 4- G 11 4. and .27~-~7)}].3 .a ft.(x 4.2 a .] 26.c 3 a. c 4.c. -f ft. (*) a - c. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4-X-5V14. 7 12 .

3 x 42. . 45.3~ft -f 2 c + 4 ^ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .0)} . - 2 a - {3 2x a . 4 + 2 2 + 1).{2 a -(ft .[4 x - 5 . 'J 44. + - ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). a -{. (5 a 39.4 a 2 + a 4 ).2 zz .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. . 57. 2 2 x + !)(* . (x . (.e -'/)}] -(2a + 2b . 2 53.2x + 3).2c-(V/ . 67.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&-{2c-(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 . 54. (1 55. 13 a .3)(*-5)(* -7).JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. . a . (x.(2 x2 . 50.r -2:c+ l)(ar. (1 -ar+a.rf)} + a -[.3 *).{3 c . (a:-2)(r-4)(a:-9).6-)}].3).3 c)].c 2 .c).4 a . 63.3c).6c) (a + -f c). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 68.5)} + (3 a 2 .[7 a 36 -{4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 60.b -(c .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + -*)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 2 : 7e)-a}]. 43.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (4 + 3a 2 . (/> 4 .(5 y .(2 a 2 .[2 .{2 a . .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).(2 a + 5 a .1).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (r (1 (a. 5a-(7ft+4c) + [6 a. )(l-z a ). 2 52.2)(1 .(7 i + 4 r:) .a~^~c)K]. + *+!){> + 2). 64. .(6 .3 z 2 ). 59. + 2) - (4 x 2 - 2 x -7)}].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 2 -f [3 c 7 a .2 2 . 65.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).7).12). .& + {.ac . (. 51.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.(4 d .6 xy . + 4x + 5)(j. . 48. 7 a 2 261 -{5 2 a2 -2 a + (2 a 2 i j- 38. 46.2 2 + 1)(7.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (2 x 2 -3 ar+ 1)(3 z -2 x+ 1).56.96 -[17 a. 62.(7 a. . 49.2a .be) (a 58.ab . 2 ft 41. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 56. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .5 )}] + {4 c .Z . .

a) (a? 4--(c 4- y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 88.c)]. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 82. (x (x ( + *) . 86.r-3y)4-l)y( a :-y)^-2y)4-18 // (2r-y)4-6 8 // .(^ 4- y 2 ) - 4 ^/(. 93.3 (ft .c .z\x 4.{3 a . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 90. ft 95.q). 73.9y2).c) rr identities.6*y .(4 . 94. 1). 84.2 (y 4. (.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).2 (a . Prove the following 8 4.(a? 4- y)*(x - y). (x 4- 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V) - .c .z) .c) . xy y 2 ).n pc).<f(p . ft 8 ft) 4- ft 8 4. 74. ft ft ft a}. 2 + a 2 ).3 a . 4.ft) 4- . a(2 + 4- 3ft) 2 -(2a 4- 4- 8 ^) . ar . a (a 2 -2a + + " 4- l)(u 2a n -f (:r a. 71.z)(x -y + z)(. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.:-y)( a. ft /. (a (2 b)*(a 4.c) 4) (ft 4. b 4. 70.b 4.am&t 4- A 2 *).c) j. ft 78. 4- 4- .(c 4.y). 79.-2y)(. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4- 2 2 ^>) c) 44- a2 a8 4- 2 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. .c) . (a) (a (ft) a8 4- ft 8 4. 77.a) 2 . -f 72.(/> - 3 v)^(.c 8 4- 3(6 c)(c 4- a)(n + 2 ft).3y) a (* 2 4. (p 2 . by multiplying out each 4- side of the equality. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (b-c)(x + ft) (a: 4.c)} .c c 2 4- 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 -f- p ) (w .ft) + 4(2 . 85.y + z)(x + y .(x 42 y) O 2 4- y) (^ 44- y ).262 69.O (a 4(a 4.2 ft}) -f (3 a . O (x (a 2 + 4- y y) 2 a J 4 . .5 .y)\x y). 83. 1).(a 2) (s 4- ft.r 2 .m np c .(a 48 8 8 4. 92.(ft 4. .c) 2 .v) 4. 2 (x 2 . 87. 91. ft" l Simplify 80. 76.x + y + z).y'*4-y 2m )OK --y I)(a m ). 75. 89. + (rtP+i 4- 2 6)(a^+ .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2 - z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a - + l)(a 2 -f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).

109. Cr (z -27y -l-9a:y) -(a:-3yy 6 ) -r- 2 (a: 4- xy 4- y 2 ). 2 (a+ .2 xy 8 .*) -(x 8 . (4 4 3 a - 4- - 5 a 3 . 113. 117. 121. 25 4 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .27 x* .35 x 2 2 ) .(7 xi/ . 108.b) 98.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.5 b*). 3*. a*. 120.r 4 4. -r- . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a -T- (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (a 8 - 8 68 8 4. 1O4. (80 a 112.v/ ~ // -=- a: . 106. 2 4- 41 x 4a.c 4- 6 afo) -f- + ^ 4 ).5 xy). 102. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) ( - 2 2 119. 122. 103.y 4 ) .1). 1). 114. 118.6 y 4 4. 99 100.a". (2< 107.9 x 2 .(a 1 2 8 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a - 12).y 2 4. 123. (8 x* 115. 110. (2 y 44- 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4- 3 16 y a 50 4- 48) 2 111. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44- 12 .y 4 .2 2% 4. [10( 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .3 a"+ 4.(x 2 . -26 (a 4- c).) . . 20) -*- (3 a* 4- 4 a? + 5).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a - 1).5 a 21 (10 a 4- 5 a*) Qa-f-l^ -=- 5 a*. .xy 4.(2 a 2 . 116. 124.'30) ~ (4 ^ - 5 x 4- 10).&). 4 (a 8 44- 16 a 2 4 4- 256) -s- ~4 2 (a 4- 4a ^ 4- 16).2y 2 4.40 />) .16 a 6 4.4 aft . 105. (. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 10).&) 8 - 5(a n 4- 2 6) ]- 5(a 4- &) 6 (a 4. (20 x* - 4- 72 x 2 - 35 4. 4 (6 x 4- 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.

.(x -f 9). 148. 136. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.3 x).22.8 6 . (5a: 150. 10(2 x 141.264 125.7) = 4 . 4-2(3ar 145. 1) .12 M 132. 5 146. . 2 4(ar . 143.2 7^~5] + 1).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).2(j: . .r>) . (*+ + . o o 140. 135. x 147. 5(2 x .2(4 .G) .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .5).(1 . 139.3(* + 4) + 9} .(j a? 144.2(10 x . y (* l x.2) = 3 .4) .(x + 3) ] .1) (a? . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2 - b* is divided By what expression must a: -f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3 a (1 + *- l l 1 3 -f- 2 &).3). What is the 2 by a*-ab + 26 ? 130.r + 7[or . - 9) - 7(0 x a? - 32) + 5 = 4x - 3(2 j - 3). 128. 142.3) (3 x 4.3). .4) . 127.27 a 3" .a:)]}.5{.2) (a: + 3).4(0 x .3(2 z . 3) = x\x . .18 *&) (1 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2 - 2 6 2 - 8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .9) + 3. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3 - G ax z8 - 8 z 8) -5- (1 - a - 2 x).19) + 5 = 4 . 149.3 a:). 126. (4 x .(9 x + 10) (a: - 3) . 7(2 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.1) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar- 2 4} = 2(3 x .2) + 2(ar + 4).n . 129.9) 4. 138. 137. . . -1) = 2(* .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.(x . 3(2 x 134.3) = 12 .7) = (7 x - 1 1) (3 x .5) = 12(4 x . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. By what expression must x* + G x2 - 4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.7(4 * .2(5 .

154. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.z) (4 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.l)(z .9) + (a.2 x) = (1 . 161. find the value of F. The second contains 3 first.7) (1 x . 156. 159.3) = (3 x .T)O .. 153.2) (7 -*) + (*. and the third twice as many as the first. these two angles would be equal. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.2 x) (4 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.1) O + 4) = (2 * . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.3)(* (ar 2 7) - 113. sheep more than the 169. (a) If C.19) + 42. (2 . = 15. transformed into F. 157.5) = (3 . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.6 x) (3 . + 5) 2 -(4-a:) 2 =r21a:.24. + 4) (2 x + 5). . . + 5) = (9 . (3 O + .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.14) (a: + 3).r + 3) .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.3) (a: . f-^ + ^s-O.5*) + 47.5)(.3) (j. 165. = | (F 32). . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.25) 2 .1) (s + 3).3) (3 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2) (j? + 1) + (x .3) (3 . How many 170. (a . 160. 163.8) = (2 x 4.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .76.7) (a.2) a + 7(x .29) 2 = 1. If the area of the frame inches.(5 x . The sum What 171. (7 14 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 265 152. (x (x a. 166. 155.5 x) = 45 x . + 2) + (5 . . (a. . 5(ar x . will produce F. a: ar a. = 2 C. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 164.2).17) 2 + (4 x .5(x .a:) + 229. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.4) (a . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. + 10) (ar . 162.? . 2 4 . 158.

Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. sister . 15 m. A house has 3 rows of windows. same result as the number diminished by 175. side were one foot longer. .56. younger than his Find the age of the father. A boy is father. and 5 h. x* 185. power one of the two Find the power of each. father. 2 2 + a _ no. if each increased 2 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. train. 179.266 173. 178. Find the number. 189. 13 a + 3. z 2 + x . +x- 2. 180. 176. z 2 -92. 186. Find the dimensions of the floor. How many are there in each window ? . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. -ll?/-102. 7/ 191. 188. 181. 190. was three times that of the younger. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. + 11 ~ 6. 4 a 2 y-y -42.-36. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. . 187. aW + llab-2&. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. two boys is twice that of the younger. 12 m. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. number divided by 3. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. and | as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 3 gives the 174. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. + a. 10x 2 192. respectively. A each 177. dimension 182. .

+ 8. 195. . a. 211. -23 -12. 3 x 2 . + 30 x. 12 x +4. 4a 2& 2 241. a. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 213. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . # 2 - 29 y + 120. . 2 . a.3 c/> + 6 cq. .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 227.r?/-f y 2 -9. 239.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 3 x V . 6 197. 233.22 z + 48. a: 231. + 198. -11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 246. + 3a 196.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. if-W-y+b. . 2 2 y -f 1. . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 8 a: ar.10.3 xy. 206. 215. 216. 3y 248.28. a. 2 a 2 . (a + . 2 200. xm+l 243. a: 4 - a: 2 a: V 2 . 230. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. x 5 . 222. y 2 194. 9a-4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 - 5 xy 13 y a. 7a 228. 16x 4 -81. 207.10 y a x* . 7x 2 225.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .12 * . 217. 209. 2 a 8 . 238.xm y + xym - + (a c) - (c rf) 242. 202.c) 2 - (a .6s. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 4 -f yx* + z*x + z*y.14 2 . 2 x 2 . 235. 14x 2 -25ary + Gy 2 3 x* -x 2 . a^a 226. 203. a a: a: 237.(b + rf) 2 .6 aq . 3 ap 2 . wiy + la mx + aw. z + 5x 2 . 244.19 a . 5 x 2.6 2 ?/ .6.19 z 4 204. 210.20 z 8 a: 220. 2a te 3% ly 247. 267 199. a: . 212. 4 m +^. 232. 24 2 + 2 . + 2 . . 208. *2 234. x* + 8 2 + 15.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.21 a: - 54.77 y + 150. x 219.8 6 2.1. a 2 . 224. 3y 2 + ary . 8 -a. . a+a* + o a +l.64. 218. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . z 2 -2. 221. x*y 223. 60 a 2 - a: // 205. 201.6 y2 + 4.10 xy.c) 2 . a: 236. 229.x + 1. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 245.

120. 265. x* . -I- Find the II.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.13.36. 3 #2 255. x 2 + 5 -f . 7 12 2 2 .r .G7 x -f 33.7 -f 5.3 abc .r + a# + az -f 2 6z fry 4. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.a 2 />c 2 -f 3.3. 6.5 ab -f 2.10. + 8 x + 5.x . z 2 267. + 20 x 4. 2 a.12.1 9 . 1 x- ar Find the L.M. ^2-7/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a 3 a 2 2 .80. + 23 x -f 20. * 2 .73 xy .ry -21. * 2 .23 + 12.9 x + 14.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 2-2x2 a. x*y* 4. 2 8 . 251.2/ 2 . x 2 263.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 -7 . C. x* . 2 + 7 r -f 2. 7 ax 250. a: . 15 # 2 z/ /.4 ab + 1. x 2 + 2 x . 3 ay 4.3 x . 8 2 + 10 x .10 a 4. Reduce to lowest terms 271.48 afy 2 .a + 2 4.9 x .6 by. + 8.91. x 2 + 4 + 3. 18 x 2 . a. 254.4.2 z . 2 . G(x+ -|- l)'\ 9(x 2 - 1). 257.8. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 z 2 -f 13 x + 1 5. 261. of: 266. ft a.16 x . 10 a.15 + 30. _ 40 y 2 272 -f -f- 2 !8a: . x 2 4. 258.C. a? a: a: // 262.14 bx a%% 8 . 30 ^ .2 aft*.15.ry .(55. * a .23 x -f 20. 252. 260. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.11 x -f 28. a 4. 264.11 a 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a -5y>+4. of: 253. 28 2 -f 71 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 269.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 2 x2 . x 2 -f 9j: + 20.18 xy + 5. . z 2 268. 3 a% 2 . * 2 . + 3 x + 2. x 2 . F.&z. 10 x 2 . 5 x 2 256. 259.9. 270.

.rL. z2 (a 2 + c)a. y)' z2 283 t- 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. + ac .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2 - a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 285 z4 n* + a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2 - 4 - ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 289 ' .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269 - 6 a.2* + 3 x* 280. a. - 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' -8x+8 ' 278.. m 4.J' 4- 2 2 w mp . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 -f sa .!/.2c a: 282.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4- 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^ - ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j.ar 1 279. -9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x -f *2 ar + a . *2 " 2 + Og-e. 8 .

X2 (c-a)(a-i) 1 x2 4- (a- +9 i_ 20 a . Lnl + ar 2 a. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. + 19) 2Lz| + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *-3 a +7 300. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a -f e) 304. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a? __ + -*_ + + -la?-la? * a l 303. * 19 23 19(23 -23. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. O(c-a) 306. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: -2 a: 2 -2 a: - 17 a:-2 ar-3 x 2 -5a:-i-6" . x 7.

2 1 -f 1 + : *2 1 - 2 x' 316. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 -9*+ 20 *2 - 8* + 15 315. 2 + y 2 319. .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. Dx x(l *) * 8(1-*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .ft) 2 322. ( ft-c g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.*) + * 2) 321 - c) 2 . a: 1 313. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. (1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1a: + y a.._ '(a-6)*-(a:-r)a 323.(a . 1 _. _ x8 -.- 1 x2 + + a. (a? 4- 2) 317. } . .

7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.B ~ 1037 - 329 4 a. -* 3a.9 *// + 27 .15 -33 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325.. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 -i- + 2 a.V - + y - x 3y a . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .ll. 2 a2 - 2 a - ' 03 i^+^T- 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 -lOx 5x.6* t 328. a: 2 x* .5 a .. . .28 8 2 - 11 2 + J?_ x fl^-^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a - 4 6~7** 27^-12^7 .y 2 x (a?-4y) 3(2 x - ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: -f zy + 4 y* . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 20 44 333. z2 - 4 x - ^ "" 12 *.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x - 3.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.y-20 - 2y + 4 2 ./ - 3 y - 6 ( 331 g gy ' -f a 3y ~ 6 q - 9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4-y+ 15 ^e - 10 6y 332 3 a: +lly-10 4 xy -8 2 - a.

?_2 ^ . 352.) 2 . a: 349 _ o. fl-. +^ a: y x . + l + IV. 278 C | ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q | q c 6 *| \ : f 1 \ - { 337. a>74 . (ar \ 346. 7 ( -?-f!?. ' 2 -"l 5 .y.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 1 345.+ r . (a-Wi + iJ.. 338. 344. ** -i. (a-f2/. aj 339. f V. 5 343. : 1+ i--. + ni + -. Simplify : 353 ^-3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. \x yj 340.1V. (a \ + lV. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.r -5 2 . 348. xi 347. w \. ( 342. \5yl 341. if a = 3.

+ x x a . a2 4- . _ + l a 359. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 -f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360. I - I -f 366. 1+2 362.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>-3) 356 fl V ___ _/| 2(*-l)J + ya xl x 1-* YTx 2 1-10*W*-1 1-** JUa-l + xy 357. (a a b y-x c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358.

REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . 2 - m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (-/')(&-o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. b c 368. a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*-c*)^ c ^\ b (b* -f c*) } c 4- c a b .

^ . + 6)+ - -(* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^-\:) / 380. r 1 - 3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 1) 45 O 377. <3 378. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 -7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . .*-2 = 15. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear-7 + i3JTo^ . 5 {2 x 381.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. # k 1 _j- j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8 - 376. . 379. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^ - 10 x-f x - 382. 20 iLf-5 + !*=! = 2 J. 5*-8. __4 2x 3_ = !.^-^ + x -f o 51) +2J = 0. -3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. J !__7. 1 + 16ar_63 -24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5 - 14(ar-l) 18 105 390. 4(* . 2(3 x |(x + 4) + 10) + 1 |(x + 7) = 0.

1 .6~a: 7 _ x -8~a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. JLg:== 7wa: c c -}- -q. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. - J). - ft) = 2(ar - ) (a. 401.. 397. 40. 396. a:- a)(a: - &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. ^ (a .75 x -f . (8 x - 3) (x 2 - 1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x - 5).147.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.8 = . . . 399. (x ~ a)(x -f 6) -f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 3* 177. l)(x - a) (a: - 3) 42 3(4 * - 2)(ar + 1). c .5 1 -f 1 x - 2 = x . 400. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. m x 398. - 8 9* x ~r. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.2 a: - 1. + 4 a.25. b 404.6 - . a. ____-_ .5 x =r -f .5 ^ ~ a: a. n a 4O5 b b x f -(a: - a) + a-(a. u '2 a.25 x + . -f 1 1 + a 403.. "i 2 3737-0 ^ x i x x + 1 a? - R - 7 ~r * 1 a.

Find the number. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . and was out 5 hours. 421. -f a x -f x -f c 1 1 a-b b x 415. (x -f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z - b) = a 2 alb = a (x -f b)(x 2 . 418 ~j-o. Tn 6 hours .c) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. 411. a x a x b b x c b _a b -f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. In a if and 422. far did he walk all together ? A .(5 I2x ~r l a) . - a) -2 6 2a. 420. the order of the digits will be inverted. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.278 410. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 18 be subtracted from the number. 2 a x c x 6 -f c a + a + a + 6 -f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. hour. (x . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.(c rt a)(x - b) = 0. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.

Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .6 8 ). A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. find the angles of the triangle. Find the fourth proportional 426. 435.49 63). 428. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the mean proportional to 429. if . |.iand 22 22 -I a . 438. . . Which ratio is greater. Solve 436. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. x 427. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^- - miles. : i. a - t>. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . ax is -\- by - ex + dy. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 433. : If is one equal 434.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. find : a : c. 430. 431. 432. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. a + 5.& 5 ) (a 8 . d. Find the length of the parts. If a b : =5 n : 7. and : b : c = 14 : 15. z 2 y. a8 -f 2 ab -f 6 2. b. a. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. wi* + y= ny. 2 2 8 2 .2 (a + &*) (a -h & ) = (a ) (a -6). y. z2 - y\ x* -xy + y*. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a-26):(3o-46).46 2): (15a 2 . 3 and 1J.

445. 459.35. if 2 ft : 439.59 = 3 z. x + 17 # 53.*. 450. 7a?-y = 3. 5z-4:# = 3. 456. Find the value of a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 3 a.89 = q. 448. . a: -2y= = 1 . 5#+ 10 = -27 a.11 7. 7 a: . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. .7 y = 25. 56 + 10y = 7a. The volumes If their diameters. 444. 452. /) ar a. . 453. . 7jr-9y = 17.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.(or |-l(*-2y)=0. 4 = 5 y + 29. 5 2 = 7 . . + 5y = 59. 458. 8 . 9ar-7# = 71. 1(3 | a. c. 455. 2 (3 a + 2 ab - 8 ft) : 2 (5 a -f 4 ai - 12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a - 6 ft). 454. ?/ 447. 28 = 5 a . 21 7 = 27 + Op. ox -f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 8 x + y = 19.55 y = . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 7 442. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. Solve the following systems: 441.r-f-2# = l. 9/> = 2 . 42 = 15y + 137. 449. 5x+4y=lQ. = 25. 451. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 3 . a: a: + 5y). what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.3 y = 3 5 -f 7 . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3 - ) 19(a - &). 443. a. ft.11 y = 95. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 457. 446..4 12 . 16. />(. ft.

i- 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.?/ + 1 . ^ + i^ = 7. 475. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.. (or . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 473. _ 469. 468. + ey-n. -_ & +y 3 dx+frj- c\ . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.7. 465.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. - = 2.2y)- (2 = 2J. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . x y 474.+ -=2. car = 4- rf cte - ey =/. --i = 5. 8 461. ax cx by = m. ax by = c \ 472.c=56-3y.

Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A spends \ of his. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and the other number least. age. fraction becomes equal to |. to . A number consists of two digits 4. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find their ages. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and in 20 months to $275. the Find their ages. 487. and in 18 months to $2180. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 485. 479. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. How much money less 484. by 4. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. years. 483. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j| 478. Find the number. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the fraction. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. whose difference is 4. Find the numbers. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. . 486. Find the sum and the rate of interest. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 481. 477.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476.

1. . = 20. of two the sum of the digits also if number./ 504. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 2/>-3r = 4. and the difference of their Find the numbers. + # +z= 35. : Solve the following systems 491. 492. y Solve : x +z= 5. a: -f z = 79. z y x 25 . 3 a: + 5=84. 7 -4#+ 3z = 35. 490. * + 425 - = . x s + y z = 18J . a number . 495. a: + // = 11. . 7 + 2 z . 2y + 2z = a: 2. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 8.z = 20. 489. 496.z = 12. 5^ 9z = 10. 2 e. ~ 507. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 1+1 = 6. 2 a. 7. x -f y -f z 29| . 3ar 503. i-f-i = x a. *i. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a. = 15. 2 2 = 41.-5#+2z = $x a: G. + y 5 y = 101 . 498. 2a:-f 7. . a. z y i-fi = z x 502. -f- + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x y -f z = 13|. 493. 494. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2y + 3a = ll. 4 497. --\ . 3 x 500. . a.? + 2y = 8. = 209. 4 506. 30 -2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=-9. a: 499./ -f z =a.

523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3a-f& + r. + : = 1472. 517. z z- =3a-&-c. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800. 36 + c. ll" .284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.

it separately ? 531. the first and second digits will change places. BC = 5. touches and F respectively. AB=6. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. if and L. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. N. E 533. if the number be increased by Find the number. it is filled in 35 minutes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. B and C and C and A in 4 days. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. When weighed in water. CD. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. in 28 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. they would have met in 2 hours. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. Find the numbers. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. In circle A ABC. What are their rates of travel? . A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . and CA=7. AC in /). 90.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. If they had walked toward each other. and BE. L. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 527. . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. . 530. 532. M. Tf and run together. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the present ages of his father and mother.

545.10 marks. GERMANY. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. + 3. One dollar equals 4. the function. 536.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2 - x - x2 .e. 3 x 539. x 2 + x. e. FRANCE. d. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x *-x + x + 1. 2. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x* - 2 x. c. 2 x + 5. x 2 544. then / = 3 and write = 3. . a. formation of dollars into marks. 550. to do the work? pendulum.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. - 7. 546. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. If to feet is the length of a seconds. of Draw a graph for the trans- The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. - 3 x. The values of x if y = 2. b. The greatest value of the function. 548. The values of y. 547. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 2 541. z 2 - x x - 5. 542. 2|. if x = f 1. from x = 2 to x = 4. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. x*. 543. - 3 x. x 8 549. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. i. . 540.

x* .5 x . j.4 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 568. 556.0.r a: a: x- a. 564.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*-"2x-7 = Q. x 4 .G .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. - 2 1 a: a. 563.3 .4 x 2 + 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 562. a: 559.= 0. h. J. 557. e.r -1 561.11 = 0.4 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.17 = 0.= 0.9 = 0. a. 3 + 3 z .6 + 3 . a. f. x 5 .' 2* + Z - 4 = 0.r . Solve 552.3 = 0. = 5. and make the unit of the b. 3 . Solve// = 0. . + 5 . + 10 x . a? 4 x .7 = . 558. 2 8 . 3 x .3 x .3 x . 2 x 2 560. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 a. z 4 . a. 2 554.11 x* + + 2 8 569. i. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 2.13 = 0.1 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. If y +5 10. 3 x* . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. x 2 ~ 2 . c. ' = 8. 572.15 = 0. 18 x - 4 = 0. g. 555. \ to t = 5. z 2 . r?. 565. Represent meters. 15. 2 567. 553. . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. . 566. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. c.

+ %) (a* + *) 5 . x [ ?/ 577. 2 943 +-+ -~-bx. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 5 a*.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 2 - 100 aW + 100 aW.%) 4 (aa. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 4 . jj+.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA |4. (1 (1 (1 .(1 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x -f 13 2 . <r)3 - 2 3 a:) . {f_7l j? 2* + |''. 4 (1-a:) 3. 9 - 4 fSb 607. 596. a: -f ~+ x [ 10 ^i - 1 V 6x + 4 --+ 610. -f ?>) 3 591.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y -4 a: 10 2 + x^f .-5 xy = 0. 2 - 2 aa: 2 . 585 594. (1 + x a. . : y* or 25. a. 4-8 xf + a: 4 - 04 aty 6 a: // 16 -2 605. a: . + ^) + (air-%)8. (a. 1 . . a:.2 2 + y. 6 + 1) .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .x + 2 )'2 601. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . a 8 606. (a-iy. 2 + -f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac - a6.o 2 [ ?/ > 3' - 578. 582. 3 (f-. - 128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a 2a. -f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 600. 604.-4. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: -f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 3 . 609. 597. + + 4 . j^-f = 3. (# 2) . 588.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 589. (a - 8 ft) . 593. [ y =10. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 4 a. 598. 64 a 12 603.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 599. 2 611. f-MV -- 586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 608. 592.frf : 583. 595. x + z2) 8 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) -f (2 -3 x + -f.2 6a: + 30 &c a.4 8 -f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 -f (a 1 . a 612. xY. 579. + .

494210400001. 614. find Jupiter's period. 643. 44352. 4J. 624.12 a?y + y*. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 112 a 8 . 622. x 2 .49. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s - 108 afy 616.15174441. + 2 -21 x = 100. 651. 32 631.V250 .871844. 9g. V 635. /. VOIOOD + V582T09. -f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 49042009. According to Kepler's law. 632. 620. 637. 035. a 8 of: - 8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2 - 50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4 - 50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 625- : 621. 639. 634.30. 638. 942841. 628.448 z + 1120 a: 4 - 1792 x* + 1792 2 . Find the square root of 619. 0090. -f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . : 5. 647t x 2 648 649. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 650. 4370404. 645. 633. 2 + 189 z = 900. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 371240. = 70.2.\/4090. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. V950484 . x 2 641. 644. 49. = 87. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 626. 4 289 of : 4- 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 7) 2. + 54 'x*y* . 629. GGff. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 40. 210. Find the eighth root 617. *+* = 156. 623.2410. 636. 9a.191209. 8*' + 24* = 32. 2. + 24 a 2 4 . = 0.*.53 x ~ . 615.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. a- 642. (x 9 x 646.150. x 2 -f x ~ - 16 = 0. 2 + 21Ga. 25023844. 3a.1024 x + a: 256. 21. 630. = . ft .

290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .

708.c = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 692. 699. 2 702. 2 ' 3 2 a:) - 28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 707. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :c-f 1) = 42.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b - ~ " x 690. 693. (x 2 +3a:) 2 -2a. 1 + V* -2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 706. 2 2 . 2 2 697. . . = 0.a a )jr . ex -a-b-c= fx 0. 694. 1 __ : )'*' _i.bx . 696. a. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.ax . ax 2 698. 695.2V3:r 2 V5 a: -f + fa + 1 = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ -6a:x2 8 701.2 a(l + & )z -fa 2 (1 ax + to -f ru: 2 . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.

Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money.l + 8 -8 + ft)' (J)-* (3|)* + (a + 64- + i. 717. Find two numbers whose 719. a: 713. . 16 x* . Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 722. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 724. 729. ___ _ 2* -5 3*2-7 715. 217 . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 725. 12 -4*+ - 8. 723. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. sum is a and whose product equals J. 2n n 2 2 -f-2aar + a -5 = 0.44#2 + 121 = 0. 727. **-13a: 2 710. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16 | 25 a2 711. 716. 721. A equals CO feet.292 709. 3or i -16 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.

37. 41. 52. 43. 39. 1 -6.aft* 1 + a 2*. + &-2)( a -2_ 1 j-2). 31. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 42.-l).2? 50.2 d*m* + 4 d-)(w* + 2 rfM + .)(a-i + &.- 1 + l)(>r 2 - -i + 1). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y -f- y*) * + -* (x* - y*). 293 (y* (a* + -f y* + y*+l)(y*. 36. 35.1 -f ^ 2). . (v/x). (4 a: 2 - 12 x* 28 x + 9 x* - 42 x* + 49)*. 46. (64 x~ + 27 y -r- (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 33. n. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + - - c* + 2 + ^ + cb-f 44.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.2 ). .1 + x.aM ?n^n^ -f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). -f- + M 6* -f 6) (a* U*") -4- a*6^ (<i* &*). 40. (x* (i* (a-2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 32. 34.1 + c.2)(x2 4. 38.1 -f c" ).X . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (x* 2 a M+ -f a8) (x* - 2 aM" a).

[1r^ T 1 i . + V22 + + 12 V2b8 - 760. 761. 4\/50 4- SVlOOO. vff + V^~ 4^ -2^/2 776. 757. ~ r* x ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 758. JU. 754. 768.1+J 756. \/G86 v/lG-v/128. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2-V2 2-V3 ..294 753. 759. 2^3(^-2^21 + 4^-3^:0.

+ 2V21. 806. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7 - 3 V'5 ( 2 4 7-3V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4 | 5 . 14 791. . . 9-2VI5.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 -f 780. 38-12VIO. 794. 786. 16 + 2V55. c 792.2 V30. 3J- . 87 ac + 6t - 12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. x 782. .4 V(j. 10 785. 103 788. a 94-42V5. 793. 790. . 783. Va 809. 13 799.VlO. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 787. -f x Va z Va -f x + Va a.2V3* ^ 807. 789. 75-12V21.12VIT.

1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~-K5 + V5. 812. V3 -f 1 V4a.4 = 0. 3 x + 2 . Va: + 28 -f + V9 x .g. = 1.\/2y - 810. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor-7 = V25 . - 5 + V3 -f 12 817. 820.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 811.V? = 813. VaT+lJ -f ^l . Va: . 819. x/aT+l . 829. 836. /9ar a: = 17. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2y-x 2)* and 1. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 815.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.-f 5 = V5x + 4. V14 a. \/12 a. -f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 830.V-c^lJ . (x a: 2 ) 4 . 833. + ViTli + V7 . 831. + Vx .79.V2 ar 10. + 10-3Var. 818. 816.13 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 814. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar -2 Vx -f 1 834.

3 x . . 2 -f" + a/ 15. 853. 845. y 4.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. z*y 8 l-64a. 870. 729 867. a: 849.1. 40 x 2 7 -f 49. 846. 8 . 4 x 8 858. 6. 2 a: 64 y*. + 216 rt aty a 10 . + 1. 840. + . x 6 x4 -f + + a: x -f 1. . . a l0m . 8 8 - 13 a. 5 a 4 7 a8 .3 Va: 2 . 4o.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a. 863. 6 2 -f 3 6 s. 4 a. 8 8 848. 19 x 14.3 . x 8 2 857.a. 16 859. -f b**. a 8 873. 861.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 a. -f 12. 856. -f 841.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x -f 5 = 7 . 275 8 -l. a 8 869. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 855. 8 -2a.-12. a 872. a*" & 6n . a. 871. 852. 8^-27^. 27 y 8. -64. 844. 2 x 3. 839. V4 x 2 . 27 862. 875. 8 + a: 5 8 a. -8a: 2 4 -f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8 860. 2 -f 2 18a: -f + 16. a 18 4. - 3x a.12\/(ar4-4)(5z~ = 36. 4 x* 847. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. x 4 + -f 2 a. 876.10 x -f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 64 a 866. 4 a: 2 842.ab9 ft*. 8 + 4- 4 ar 2 2 a. a. 5 x* -f 297 9) 11 x . + 512 y8 874. a. 868. 865. .10 = 118. a: .1000 6. .3 a:. 864. 9. a. +3 -4 + - 4. 8 4a: 8 a. x 11 a^ -J- 13 854. a 8 850. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.x*y + 3x -f 2. a. 851.

2 = 2 + 5. M1 891 1 . x a: l-I = xz . 901. xy + y = 32. 886. a# f + xy = 126. a. 3 x 2 . -f- a: a: 4 ?y = 481. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.15.1 = 2 a#.35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + y 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + -f ary + y = 37. a. 5. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 885. y 2 2 8f. 895. 2 -f ary = 8 + 3.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. a: 884. . +y -f y = 7. y*+ xy . 1 x 893. 889.Vi' + 1 1_3. y = 28. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. + 2y=\2. . 890. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 2 = 16 y. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + xy = 10. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx -f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 . a: 888. a:y . 894. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x - 880. 896. 887. 878.xy + y 2 = 19. a: 2 897. a: + y 2 = 34. y 2 4. 899. . -f ?/ a: a: . x 882. -. 883. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . xy(a:y + 1) = 6.18. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. --.298 877. + ary + 2 = 37. x*-xy. 2 . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y y 2 y 2 1-1-21. a. 900.sy = 198. a: a.y 2 + V(j.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 + xy = 28.y 2 = 2 y + 2. . z 2 898.y 2) = 20.

2 915. yz = 24.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . (o.#y + 2 = 27.6. 4 (a. 912.3(* + y) = 6. 917. (* 918. 921. 3 -|-y 8 ) =1216. *y . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. . a: * a: a: ar 928. # + xy + y = 7. 911. (0 Vx -f 10 -f v^+T4 = 12. . a: a. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. (3 x .y) = 33.3) 2 -f (y . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y x 2 = by. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 920.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. Vary + y = 6. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. + a.y) (a? . x + y}(x + y) = 273. ary y = 8.3)2 = 34. + ary = a*. + y 8 = 189. 2 913. 907. y 3 2 2 922. 9 -f 8 y -f 7 ay/ = 0. (!) * . 908. 923. * + y = 444. + y = 9. + 2 a:y + = 243. + 2 ary = 39. 914.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 7 y .23 = 200. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 * 2 ~ g. xy + x= 15. 2 y 2 -f ay/ = 16. ny ft- ma: = * a 2 m*. a: y zx 12.x) = 21. y # 2 2 -f -f y = 84. = 8. a:y xy 929.y = a(ar + y). x -f 2 a:y = 32. 2 5 xy = 11. + ?/) . x + y 2 = aar. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. ?/ ^: ^-f!i^2. x* + ary -f y 2 = 9.r a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x 4 299 xy z 904. 23 x 2 . y + a:y = 180. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + y)(a. 2 2 2 916. 7 + 4 y -f 6 ary = 0. 910. 905.y2 = 22. a.y) (3 y . a o o- 2 j + a:y = 2.16 y 3 8 = . -f y 2 x 2 y = 1. .y). ^ 2 . x 2 ry + y = 3. 906. 2 + y = 2 a 4.2 y) = 49 2 919. 2 924. 2 2 -f 4 a: ar// or -f- a. 909. y . or or a? a: a: . (a. xa 903. 3 :r(3 .

A is 938. Find the sides of the rectangle. and 10 feet broader. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Find the numbers. 34 939. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. two squares is 23 feet. (y + *) = . A plantation in rows consists of 10. 935. 152. is 20. two numbers Find the numbers. 942.square inches.102. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76.300 930. How many rows are there? 941. 944. is 3 . The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. . In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 2240. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. A and B run a race round a two-mile course. *(* + #) =24. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. is 3. and the sum of their areas 78$. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. In the second heat A . y( 934. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. find the radii of the two circles. + z) =108. 943.000 trees. = ar(a? -f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. diagonal 940. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. Tf there had been 20 less rows. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. rate each man ran in the first heat. a second rec8 feet shorter. + z)=18. feet. feet. and the difference of 936. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. s(y 932. 937. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. two squares equals 140 feet. 931. Assuming = -y. y(x + y + 2) = 133. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. and also contains 300 square feet.

whose 946. and travels in the same direction as A. Find the eter 947. its area will be increased 100 square feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Two starts travelers. and its perim- 948. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the number. at Find the his rate of traveling. is 407 cubic feet. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. set out from two places. that B A 955. Find its length and breadth. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. triangle is 6. Find in what time both will do it. sum Find an edge of 954. the digits are reversed. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. 952. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. and if 594 be added to the number. 953. unaltered. . . if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. overtook miles. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. and that B. each block. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. 949. 951. P and Q. . 950. A and B. distance between P and Q. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find the number. What is its area? field is 182 yards.

and 976. 1 to n terms. '. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).321? 965. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.302 956. (to 2 n terms). f + 1 ....4-142 .. to n terms. Find n. Sum Sum to infinity. 12434+ j I 967. 975.3151515.. Sum to 20 terms. *" 968.-. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. ^ 1- . 961. - 2. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 3 + 5 7 + -.-. 957. x(x to 8 terms.V2 . (x 4- to n terms.x*(x 3 -f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. P.1 4- f -j$V ..141414. ^ Vfirst five 959. 972. P. .. are 29 and 53. to 7 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 969. + (iiven a + - 4 d . : + -f 24 21 24 4-f 32 36 1G 10.. 4. \ . Find an A.. 5.454. Evaluate (a) . . J. difference. 974.. P. n to n terms. . 971. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4- 4. 1G series . the terms being in A. Find the Find the common 977.. . !Ll^ + n .>/) to infinity. 5.. 3 . 9th and llth terms of an A. Find n -f (ft) . Sura to 24 terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. 16 962. s - 88.. to infinity. 966. 958. -^-1 + V-j 1 2 - . 4 4- to 7 terms ..to infinity. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x-(x 2 4 y 2} 4. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 36 963. 964. Find the sum of 4. 18th terms of an A. 970.. = 4. fourth of the unity. P.v 973.

of n terms of an A. 987.. 990. and so on. 1.001 + .1 + 2. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. The term. to infinity may be 8? . . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7-! v^5 .-. 980. 2 grains on the 2d.+ lY L V. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . P. 986. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chess-board. and of the second and third 03. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find n.--- : + 9 - - V2 + . The sum 982.2 ... The 21st term of an A.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 0. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 992. Find the first term. and the common difference. Find the sum of the series 988. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. to n terms. 5 11. to 105? 981. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. first 984.. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Find four perfect numbers. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. "(. 303 979. 989. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. P.) the last term the series a perfect number.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.04 + . 985.001 4. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and -. Find four numbers in A. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.01 3.. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . is 225.. P. 4 grains on the 3d. named Sheran.-. to oo. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.

Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 998. (6) the sum of the infinity. at the same time. many days will the latter overtake the former? . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. are unequal. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The sum and sum . prove that they cannot be in A. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. 1003. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 1001. AB = 1004. of squares of four numbers in G. P. find the series. P. 1000. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. and G. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 512 996. inches. . Under the conditions of the preceding example. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ft. are 28 and find the numbers. ABC A A n same sides. and so forth to infinity. c. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. 995. (a) after 5 strokes. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 994. Two travelers start on the same road. in this square a circle. areas of all triangles. is 4. P. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 999. 997. The fifth term of a G. in this circle a square. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. If a. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles.

Find the middle term of ( . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Expand - 2 a. 1011.-i-V 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the two middle terms of 1013.ft) 19 . ) 1021. 1014. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the fifth term of (1 - a:) 1015. + lQ . 1006. 1012. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1008. 1009. Find the coefficient a: X ---- \88 1 in 1019. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. a: 8 7. 2 ) 5. x) 18 .o/) 14 . . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of - *)". Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. (1 1018. .l) w -f . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 -7 . Write down the 1 5a - 6 |V . (1-2 #) 7 .

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232 169 807 . 54. Aggregation.. 232 mean progression .. ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. quadratic .. Brace Bracket Character of roots .. graphic tion of representa- .... . 123 ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. .178 Completing the square .130 . .. . .. signs of Algebraic expression . . ..193 11 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 -10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . numerical . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 158. . linear literal Common ** * difference . . . . 129. . lowest ratio " '* .. . ... 9 ** .] Abscissa Absolute term ... 19. ... simple simultaneous ... 246 91 " multiple.. 9. .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . .. 112 54 54 251 . . 8 . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 37.. 97. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. .. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . t 53 120 . . . 129 54. . .. Checks Coefficient 20......210 130 " Addition value 4 15..108 160 " . . . . ..

17 65. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 91 ... 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 227 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . . L. Known numbers . G. 180.C Multiplication . Insertion of parentheses . 109 102 . . first and second . numbers .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.808 Exponent Exponents. 114. . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . .. addition of " square of . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.. . INDEX 8 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. Like terms Linear equation . exponent . 195 33. . 205 .31.. .. Negative exponents 11 . Geometric progression . . Mathematical induction .. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. law of Extraneous roots . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 45 Laws of signs .. 184 54. 189. . Imaginary numbers . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 45. . 253 28 70 1. 84. . . inversely 122 numbers .. . 45. . 212 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. 241 123 geometric . . 112 .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . . . 243 7 . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .154 Order of operations " of surds . 63. directly. Product '* 76 Infinite. . 9. arithmetic . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 227 geometric . ..108 Minuend .. 34. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals ... 23 10 91 102. . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . P . 143. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 120 Member. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Inconsistent equations ..

polynomial .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. . absolute 54 Variable .. 129. 45 Trinomial 240 .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. binomial Third proportional Transposition . . 4 155 9 " of . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... ...... . Sum.... 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. ....... 9. ... algebraic Surds .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .

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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.

A. Norwood.S. Mass. 8. NorfoooS J. . August. 1913. 1917. Gushing Co. December. Berwick <fe Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. 1910. U. 1910. Published September. 1916. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. Set up and electrotypcd.

16f 2. 9. 18. Page 1. -26z. 1. in 12. 12. 9. x. Seattle 12 Philadel- 9. sign. 29. 115. 2. 6. 10. 2. 20 jo. 18. 20 \. Page?. 2. A 15. 2. 2. 7. 5. B $ 128. + 1. - 13. T .. |.000 negroes. 18. -3. 6 yd. 3. 126. 1. 5. 25. 8 13.12. 3* 7. 4.. 3. 25. 19. b. 32. 6. 3.1. 9. 4. 22. $ 1 50 10. 16. 8. 5000. 13. . 10. 36. 5. 9 m. 1. 12.. 9. 17. 11. Yes. per sec. 6. 12. 3 m. 49. 18. 59. 8. 12.000. 5. 9 16 - larger than 7. 3. 12. 3. 25. Multiplication. Page 4. 8. South America 46. 3. 30. 18.C. 6.150. 7. = 5 81. 10. 1. 73. 2. 1 16.000. in. 9. 11. 1. 4. - 22 20. 19. $40. 10g. c. 6.$9400.00000001. 1.2. Page 13. 6. 4. 2. 13. ft. 7. -2. 210. 9. 7m. 72 = = 216. 64. Not 5. 11. 9. -14.. 11. 13. 2 - Page 8. 20. 1. 1.000. 6* 16. . 89. -32. 14. 1. 5. 0. 14. 9. 24. 16. A Bl 7. C $ 16. 12. 14. 144. 14. 7. A 38 mi. 23. 7.000. 49. 8. 2. 3. 9. 20 B. 15. 1. 10. 1. 6. 17. -37. 21. 1. Australia ft. 5. 2 5. 12.3. 32. (a) (/>) -1. 17. 3. 8. -30?. . -3.000 Indians. westerly motion. 3. 19 4. A . 2.000. -2. 10. - 2 p. _ 32. 16. 19. 9 = 4. loss.000. 27. sign. 29. 7. 15. 6. 16. 4. V 23. }. 6. 5. 48 ft. 28. 192. C $1(50. 14. -10.. 3. -2. 12. 14 11. 7. is $10. 16. arithmetic. - 1. 6. 22. 8 ft. Ot 15. 13. 4.21 24. 6. 3 below 0. 9 14. 12. 3. 28. B $4700. 512. 8. 0. 3. 4. 8. 1. 1. 21. 17. 20. 27.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 27. B $80. 13. i . 11. 13 d. in. 16 in. 106. 13 S. 10. 1. $160. 15. 32. - 1. B 10 mi. 26. 24. 10. 16. 128. 14.000. B $20. 21.. . 85.8. 2. 25. -15. 2. 18.000. 2 ~ 15. 16. 3. 15. -7. 7. 13 V.. 37 S. 16. x.. 16. 12. 16 in.. 3. $100. 14. ^. A $90. 20. 6. Page 8. 5. 256. 24. -3. 17. 150. 576. Page Page Ilis expenditures. C $60. 20.

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/ 4. . 4. 6. :r !>. -13. 8.1.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .> 10. . . 5. 12. -125. 2 .5 a . 18.2 ftc . 2.2 1 //. 8 ?/ . 8. - 3 c. . r/2 4. -9. 11. 4 x. 2. 4- n2 4- +p ft 2 4-2 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \- x* 4- 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 -f 25 - 2 np.+ 77 15. 14 r 2 .4. + 4. - 5 z* . Exercise 2 a:// 26. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . m'2 3. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 13. 1. i 2 tji. _ 2 a .2 ac . 5.rw.000.1. r 7. *3 -y 4 . 01. -6x 3. aft 4 tt ac -2 ftc. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.8. 10.25 c . a. 2 4- 2 x 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. -3. 23. l 4 .3 x 2 2 4.1. r ft.r?/ j/. a 8 4.34. 5.3 3. 3. 6. 15. z.9 4. /r . 14. + x?/ 2 1. -5.1. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 17. x 4. 11. Page 22.2 <</. 5 a - (5 ft. 10 ft.3 a 4-1. - . a r'4-3 ll'a^-S 15. 4. 9.2 . 9.n.2-1 2 2 -f + -. 2.r . f>r* 4.5 n*. 2 ?/ 4. -4xy + 13 <) . Page 7. - 12 y 25. '. 5^4-18(7. 6 <z 2 4- ft 3 .2 . 8 r<ft -4 2 . 2 4. ft. 17. aft. 19. ft* ft /- . 2 ?/' .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.r" 20 S? . m L 4. Page 11. 5. a 2 4-4 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 6. -49. w . 4x4-3?/. 7a-3ft. 12. 4. a 2 4-10 + 9 r -8 + w-2l ftc. 2 1. 16. Page 13. ti'jry-1 7. Os-y.r ?/ ??i ?). 12. -14. 2. 16.8. . w 2 . 5 4 a Oft. +w .3 5.1. 2 ? 14 . 1. 1. 7a 2 ftc 4 -4c4-2a. j) . 8. 10. 1. 17. 20.15 21.3 w 4-*7 m 2 3 mn .1. .3^V. 21. -G. 14. 13. 19. 7. a 10. ?/2.c ft*/ 1 -|- ft' ?/ . 2 12. .r?/.27 x 2 4. sr 11. 3 a-. 4 c m . x-4. 21. 3. 8 x . . 1. 3 5 a4 - 4 a2 4.25. 12.x^. 9.1. 4 a-c-. 4. 1/*. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 47. 3 aft 20. 5. 135. 14. 3 l4-8m4-7?n 2 20. 22. 3*y2 w + 1. Exercise 27.2 . 5.1*5 2 r 2 .w. // 19. 2.2 2 .6 :rs 4. as _ 10 16. a2 x 8 4- ft 8 . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 13. 3. Page 48. -i 9. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.2 2 2 8 .9 d.29. 15. ?--?.lit x + 4. 2 . 8 ?/ . .12 aft 4 20 ac . 5. 50.2 ar.2.VI ANSWERS 43. 3. -5. . r//.r'^ 15. 9. a 2 ft 4- 9 c3 . 7 r . . 4 a 2 4. x 2 + 2r f J.30 ftc. 10. 4 a* 4 9 11. 13. .r' ~ 16. 26. 1.10 2 + z 2 410. 4. 2 a -3 ft. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. ft ? ft' ft ft. c-3.rw -f 8 . 12. c 12. 8 x5 ? + 4- 1. 4. 6. 2. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 14. 1000 1000 . 13. 8.15. 4 d 2 4.3 ry. 6. 8. 4 pq.7. 1. 24.2 wZ 4. . 4. 2 2 + 2 a. 4. 75 a 2 29. a 4- 4 ft. aft 12.- - 11. y-fl. 44. ft 17. .10 xy*.y3. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 18. + c 2 -4 aft-2 ac + 4 ftc. 4ft. Page 51. 8. aftc 52. 11 4. + 3. 20 15.5 mp.24 . 16. y 7. 2 4- 3 9.8 yn . 46.7 arty 4- 4 x 2 //V2 - 3 Z2 3 1. . abc 7. - 10.2 aft 4. a 2 .23. 3.8 y. .

2. 16. # + 20yr. 1. 33. .rr-2. 1. xy ft. lO. 6. X 60. -13. 16.a-b a. 5. d. Page 31. x 48. + 4x 3y 34. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. (</) 2a. x y $ 6 yr. 40. Page 40. ft. (c) (2z-f 600) (3 =4. b. 1. 10. 37. . 9. 18. v (6) 2x. ct. 5. 100 2. 11. 'nj 100 a 28. 7. 17. 2. 4 -f 39. <>. 2b 22. y 2z p= 3 (a c. x. </ 20. 7. 6. 2b. 11. y yr. + -f + b 2. 17. 9.200) -f(^ + (e) 200. 16. 7. 22. 29. 27. 7. 10 >-_&. (c) 2x. !). 8. 24. 18. 1. 36. x 2y 10 act.. - 1$. }f.(3x - 700) = 5. 0.000. . 3. 32. 1. 13. 60 25 1. 44.-.r ct. 45. + 3x + 2y + 32. 21 2. 22. ] 2 ri 42. 8 n - 10 yr. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x -f 1200) - x. d + !. . fix. iL*.ANSWERS Page 9. 4. 2. 15. ^ 12 sq. 4. -f = eZ 2 x. 58.10) 100. a 8. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 6. 19. . 35. 10) (6) 2 z-f 20 3^-740. (2 a. 4-^ = 100. rn mi. 5. 7. 5. s. 800 = x + 1300. 37. 5. 33. 25. 11. " lir.7). 50= L 100 15. y 100 a 24. 4. 3 9. 30. = -5 ?i x 460. 5. 6. -Jj12. 34. (> 27. 14. n M. vil 56. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl5-8)-h(8ar-ia)=60. x 49. '^ . 20. % 4. 3. a -10. 2=10. m -+~m 3. 57. 26. 2 ct. + 3 = 2(3* . (>. 59. 6. 4(a -ft) c = 8. m= -- 100 2x=2(3x~10). 42. 41. sq. 28. 2. 20. -f (I. "mi. y 50. 17. 2. 30. . 00. I. ct. 2x + 35. 4. 0. + 10 b + c ct. y ?>i x + 26. 7. 46. r tx mi. ? 43. 36. 15. 20. 38. 10 a. 100 14.6 = *. 4. 2. 100 d ct. 39. I. 10. 10. ft. 3.. 19.r-1. 13. 12. 31. ct. . r>?imi. / + y + a-// 12 yr. m+ 11.100-. - 6 10. ft. 10 yr. (a) ' 12. 10 x sq. 3x - 1700) = 12. 3x2. 10. l. (A) 3 x -f (4 x .p+7. 38. - />) a = all-. 1&. 29. 25.. 23. Page 6. 7. ( a -f- 4. -f 6)(o 62.(3x+ = rrax-lO. 43. 100= -^. x = m. 44.x700. - 2\. 12. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 8. Page 61. ) 2^ x 20 =a- 7. Page 13. 47. 14. lOx 10 + w. 41. 23. x + 1=a. - 9 = 17 -a. b. 7x 2 Page 21.

3.. 15. (y-7)(y + 2). 15. 25. 13. 480.000. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 17. 85 ft. 11 in. = _?_(2ar + 1). 200. 23. 14.000 ft. 70. 3x (3r. 6. 13. 13. 14. 05. 20. 2. Page Page 4. 3. 75. w (/) 64. ^ . 7. 5. 13.000 copper. 74. 17z8 (l-3z + 2x-'). 6. 20 yr. 4. 68. . 1.. 30.000 gold. 50. 82 mi. 10.(5z . (p + 7)(3a-5&).5. by 12 yd. 12. 4. 20. 4.000 N. 12 mi.11. 15 in.. - PageSO..3aftc + 4). 9. (y-ll)(y-4). 90. 5 lb. 2.000 pig iron. 30 mi.24.22. 8 12.000. 12..5p + 7 g ). 13-13. . 200. 9. 8. 67. 1200. 9. 5pt. 18.0. 7 hr. 12. 6. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 70^. 1. Page 7. 4pt.16. 20 yd. 4. 11 pV (2 p8 . Page Page 4. (6) --(6 a -30) =20. 2 2 ?/ 21.21. 6rt 2 11.000. 2. 4. 4. 6.5..8. 12. 9 in. 2. (m + n)(a + 6). (y 13.. 72. a 12. + 7)(y-3).. 8 in. 3. 18.000. 15. 11. 7. 7a*fe(2a & -l). 3 hr. 10 Cal.000.000 ft.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 12.0. (z-5)(z-2).. (a + 4)(a + 8). 1.. 5. 15. ?(g -? -g+ 1). 10 yr. 2). 45 in. 55. (c) ^ v ' . 10. 3 (a +&)(*. 9. 3. 9. 24J.3). 8.000. 20 yr.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 10. (a + 6) (a + 3).000. 6. 5. 5$ hr. 9. 1.210^. 10 yd. 180. 28yr. 9. 29. 19. 11. Oaj(o6-2cd). 2 3 6 7. 250. 8. 15 yd. 14. Y. ~=90. 1200. Page 79. 160 lb. . 11. (2a6-3?2_4 a /^) 16. $40. 14. MOO HXT 100 100 -^-~ -(5z-30) =900. 71. 2 2 2 5. 2.000 Berlin. 40 yr. 25 yr. 52. 100 1.1). 78. 10.. (a + 5)(a + 6). 600. 3. 300. 14. 2.79. 10. ? 2 - = SJL+J10 13. 5 Col. 25. 11 w(w' + wi . 22. 20. 21.000 Phil.. 7. 42yr. 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 8. 7. (a -4) (a. 1. 10. 12. (y-8)(y + 2). 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 8 2 19. 3. 18. 8.y").. 3. 8. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 -ay4-3y 2 ). 8(a6 2 +6c2 -c2 a2 ). 2. 11. 5. 6. (ro-3)(w--2). Pace 65. 5. . Page 7. 1 lb. 15. 78. Ib.3. 7. 30. 8. 10 yr.3.7. 1250.-2). 16. a a (a 8 -a+l). 2$. 8.10. 13.4-11. 30 yr..6). (e) -i* + -A. 100. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (5-3 xyz + x y'W). Page Page 480 12. (a-5)(a-4). 10. 80 A. 7.2.13. 90 mi. 14.. 6. ( + 4)(*-2). (*-4)( + 11. 15 mi. 1. 1.. (y + 8)(y-2). 150. 10 Mass. 17. Page 5.

19. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12-y 2 ). (4a-l)(a-2). .4p). (4 18. 24. 9.. (y-8) 2 2 . - x (5 a. 8.4. Yes. 20. Yes. 25. (5 a -2) (2 a -3).11 6) (a 4. . 21. 13x(a + ft)(a-ft). 5. 14. . . 13x7. + 4) (a. -8) (a. 4 (a . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .ANSWERS 16. 18. (3#-y)(+4y). 216 aft. 22. (2 a? 4. ix 18. + y + . 10(2 30. . 7. 32. 5. 8.r-2). (m + n + 4p)(w + . -y) (a. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 23.2 by2 6. 40 x. 10. + 3). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 12. Yes. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(l-x). 28. (a 4 -10) (a 4 + 3). 2 No 4.* (2 y + 3)(y. (4 13. + 2 )(a + ft)(a-ft). 27.w*)(l -2 n 2 ). Yes. 30. 11. Yes. Yes. 16. (2 *+!)(* -9). 28. (ay-8)(ay-3). x(x +y)(x -y). x\x 24. 17.9*). 30. . (:5-2y)(2a!-3y). (m + n +p)(m + w-p). 16. 23. 2. 23. 27. + 5) a. 14. (a2 + 10) (a2 -2). 25.c 2 ). Page 83. 1. 35. 4. (a -6 6) (a 4. + 8)(g-3). No. 4. (15a-y-2) 2 . (w* (3a-26). ( 2 4 19. (a + 8)(a-3). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 2 17. 20. (a. (y + 4)(y-l). x (z + 2)(x + 3). No. 35. 6. 10. 9. -2).3)(z-2). No. (2o + l)(2-l). 100(x. a(2u. Yes. 10. -7 6) (a -10 6). 16. Yes. + 9^)(oxy . 100 (a. No. (4a. 24 9. 24. + 3?i) 2 (5x-2y) 2 . y(x. . (4y-3)(3y + 2). (5a-4ft)(2 a~3 ft).8). 26. 27. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . Page 84. (6 a. 22. .11 ft)(a-6). 3. 18.y (6x + 4)(5x-4). 29. 8.1). 24. (* + y)(z-y). 21. (3a. . (x + y4 )(x .2 ft). 34. 28. 12. 31.+4 y)(3x-4 y). 6. + 0(9-0- Page 85. 9. 3. Yes. 11.6) 2 2 . . (15z-2y)(x-5y). (a (p-8)0> + l). Yes. (w + 20)(w + 5). 9. 29.y4 ). 3a.2). 1.1). 11. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 33.-5y)(3a. (a 3 + 10)(a. (<7 20. No. 3. Yes. 25. Yes. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 26. 13.4 6). 19. (6n + l)(+2). 33. -f 2).3). 17. 14. (ft + ll)(aft-ll). Oa 2 (a-2)(a-l). (g . 25.1). 9ft w(?-3) 140 w 2 27. a- . (w ~ n (x . + 2y).2 y). 36. (5x . 7. 10x2 (y-9)(y + 2). 22. 32. 10 a 2 (4 .7) (a. (5w-l)(m-5). 2 2 15. 21. 26. (a a: 19. 15. . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 12. (2x-l)(x + f>). (2y-l)(y + 9). -3)(3a. 103x97. -y) 2 29. (10a + ft)(10a-ft). 17. 2 3 by2 Yes. 10(3 -5 6) 2 . 10(a + ft)(a-ft).6) 2 1. 15.2). 21. 26. (5a +l)(5a -l).y) 2 aft. 31. a 2 (w-7)(w + 3). a*(5a -f l)(flr . 22. 20. + 3)(-c4-4). (m + w) 2 5. 23.7)(2z -f 1). 10(a . 3(x + 2)(z-l). (3*-2)(. . (m-7n) (a. 2. (0 + 6)(6-6). 1. (az + 9)(ox-2). 9. 34. 2. 2(9a:-8y)(8a:-0y).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 -f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft -3). (0 (l+7a)(l-7a). 7. 2 -y' (2y-3)(2y-l). (13a +10)(13a -10).1). 10. a. (9y-4)(y + 4). Page 82. - - . (15a + 46*)(16a-46).

6 -f c). (m - I)' 6. 4 a8 . 8. a 2_rt4-l)(a -rt- 1). r x 2 */3 .7s) (2 a. 2 1. 37.2). 450. 11. (a 9. 17. (c.&).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 27. Page 89. 6. ( y). 6. 20. (5 26. 12. 2 y) ^ .y)(fi a .-?/). 19. 30.4.!) (x4-2)(x-2). 80a6 4- 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. - 29. 2.'})(c . 10(2 (3 4.8) ( (16.?>-) H. Page 87. ah}. 3p (^-9)(j) -4). - (m3n + a + b)(m 3n-ab). x(x -f y)(jr . (Ox - 7 ?/)(7 x4- y/). y )(. . 7. fi(c4-26). .) j). 16.^ 48. ( -{- &). a x 3 10. 6. - WIM.l)( a 25. (2x-7)(x 2 -2). 4-2). 2 2 10. 13( 33. ?>).y). 4.'/)('< 4. (x-f!/)' 3 4- w)(m. 2 21. ( a -^)(^3. a -4. + 2 //). ?i(w 4-y) . ( 4- 1 ) (2 m . 9. y-6.& (a 5 & 4-# - 2 y) (a 1.2)(x 1. 13. 2 2 (3a -4// )(x4->/).X 5. 8. 40. 3 x4 . (2 a ~ f> b 4. 15. (^ 7. Gp). 13. 8. a 4-1. 14.2). 12. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 16. 11. 22. 2 k (wi 4.8).9). (a 4. 8x.0+ 12). Page 86. 42a 3 x. 2 2 3 . n - r)(5a 10. 2(5 a - ft) (a -3 ?>).5 m2 x-2.42 x 4. ( rt 23.y. 41. 36. (a />.i-4-l)(x4-l)(x~l). 3(.3.3)(x 4. 7. x - 1). x .>*-)(:> 4- lj 4. 10. 4. 2(m4-l)' . 8 4- 15 ?>)(a 34. 14. 38.a + (< (3 7>)(3 - a l fo). 3x(x-?/) 4. 11. 4 - 9.36). 13 x 8 2 . (!__/>). . Page 92. (w * . . .4). 7. ^ .n). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4-& 2 )(tt4-/>)('e 62 2 2 4-l)(a' & -&) 5). K + l) a (a 5 />-z 9.4. 2 . (x//. 24. Page 90.1).. (14. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .^4-6) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).^ c)((> 4- 3 (3 w 2 w 4- m - ). 4.5 <: - 9 </) (2 a 12. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 19- 13> -(7rt-3)(7a~3). 15 M. .8) n 4-3*). a 4. 8. ofc)( fid).7)(^ {I 12. 14. x 4.e 4. (-> 1.))(x - ^OC 1 1). 15. (a + (2a-3fc)0*+ tf)Or 4-1) (^4-2). (w4-w) 2 1. 24x sy s 9. 6. Page 12. (.2 y). 12. 5 x8 3. 8.'J)(' . 2 + . 14. (16 4- - 2(5 n . 32. 8. 8. l. 5. 11. 4 a s &8 . 4. 18.1) 3. 7. 4- 6. + 3. a + a b. 7. 7. 35. (* _ 2 )(a 4. ANSWERS -r)(4x (4x 4. (5a+l)(9-a). (r4-20(4 10. 28.4). 2. a 2 (a-9). 5. 39. y). (x. 4- 3. (5^-4.4)(? - 5 (6a 4-l)(a +)2( 2x-2/)(x-2?/). 4. O + ?/4-<?)O ?> 4- q). 1(V/ 88. Exercise 47. 4. (^ + ?>_8).w )(l 4- w 2 )(l 3 + ( y)- r)(x- ( . y(2x-?/). x4-3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 3(4-7>4-4)(^4-'> -22/)((3-x). 5. 5. (f> + fo 7. 13. -8).1). Exercise 46.?-50)(xt/z. 4). ( (<> r4-y-3 . 1. 4. 6. 2. 6. (a &4. a8 .//)(5y- x(x4-ti<0.3. 2 8(w . 9. (5 31. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .y '2 2). 2. 2. 2 (a 4. 5 - (2 2 . 17(x4-3//)(x-2y). b) (r 4.&). 4. 10(8x' 4-l) 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + -\- . - (w' 4. (7/1 -2) (m 4-1).b. a (a + 2 6). 3.

- 1). + &) 2 ( . + y) (a: -y). 30(3 2 (a 15. 6a2&(rt-6). a 23.6). x 22. 11. + &)(-&) ( . 13. (a-2y2 (a-3) 2 (a-4) 2 14. ?-_!&. 2(2a-l) + l). 1). a 10 25. b ! 21. x 24. +5 1. +8b a -4 3 / ^. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^-1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a-2)(a + 2)2. // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. 18. x 12.

6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6a-5-f^. 0. Page 101.50 ~ 1/2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 26.. -A^. 1. r > 'a2 -f an -f ft' ' 2(cz-ft) (x 2. 4 L 8 2 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi-8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2 a. 7. ^i 2n a 22 9x * -T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ' 2 7. Page 100. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft - 1>* - 10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 6. 30.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ab121 12 ft 2 -8 a 2 196 a2 8. i^. c 8. rt 3a-2 + ~3a a 3. a 5. i. + 2H 1 ^. - **/* + 84 _. + lH + . 2x1 + 5x 12 + -^-. -^-~ 29. . x-y 43.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 4. 28. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. _*^p5_^^_. w-1 + ac w 4 7.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 6. 11. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 4c 10.

2) 19. 3 7 i o. ?. ^i 11. J. J. 1. (y + (z 12. 4. 4.L+-ft. x 05m ' 5. 10. Page 110. 10. 8j-_m 7 3. Page 113. 26. 4. 16. 25. 0. 35. ac mp lf> n 12. 15. - V o 4. x-\. 43. 1. ' 6. 24. . 29. 4. 33. 17. 14. -f Page 107. 8. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 19. 32. 44. ! 4 20. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 27. 21. I) 2 3z 1. 36. 7. w^x 2 b Page 105. ft. 12. 12 28. 31. 39.ft . 41.^U\WF### X<6. 21. 11. 2 47. n 16. 1. 6. 1. 3. + f. f 7. 7. 30. 4. +3 ( + 15. 11. 6. 15. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 5. 45. m 9. Page 111. 3. a. 9. 7. 1. 42. -Of. n m a + 13. . -3. - 10 X + u. b a -f +c 14. Page 106. ft 2 -f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. ?-+_!?>. .^_. 9. A. 2-ft a i m x. 18. 7. 6. p-f n 6 1. 4. 1. . 11. j L . 13. 0. 46. 6. 12. 38. 3. 5. c 8.y 7. y(x + x ?/). 17. 1. 8. a2 2. 9. 40. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5. 4a-3ft. flf. 14. 11. (>. 11. 23. 6 . 5 be _J_. n . 20. b 2. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 1. 14. 4. -3. 21. J. 16. 15. x 1. 1. 3. 5. a 17. 1. 6. ^_. 34. an 18. 37.

31. Page 119. after $12. 35. 7. -4. 20. 33.. 14. ^p^ r -~| 7. 1. after 18. 5. 10^ oz. 1:3.11. w 21. 10. 14. IV s. 5 2. - 29. $0. (ft) 5 hr. 7. w 18. 9ft. () 2. 12. 11. 9. 1. 1. (ft) 28. 300. (ft) 5 da. 12. 36. 3:2. (c) 2 hr. 15.003. x-y. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. = A's. 18. Yes. a 4- ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 1:4. 40 yrs. after 20. " 0. (r) 3^ da. 40 mi. 55 mi. 11 hrs. 24 mi. 17. Yes.2. 14. 26 mi. 2:1. No. 4. Yes. 19.. 18.15.x + y.XIV '/ . 13. 7 . [>> ^ a . 24. Page 125. 27. 3. Yes. 15. -#V ~~ 34. 8. 4. 300. 10. 16. . 212.000. 10. 2x:3y. P+ ^ 33. 16. 1:1 = 1:1. n 32. 4. 500. 00. 8. $40. min.001.000. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . jj.0. Yes. 17.000 If da.. 13. 9. . 12. 9J oz. 10. 21. . Yes. 1 : 12.10. ~m . 9$. 5 25. silver. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 17. 10. 19. 1:1 = 1:1.000 1 = 23. w 44. 3 da. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 30ft. 1: ~. 15. 2. 74. f. 26 30. 1|. 6./hr. 2. . 18.138.139. gold. 8301 hr. 9. ft. :2.. 32. (a) 12 hr.000. 4~r~ n . 6. (d) 4 da. - C -. (ft) 104. 33. 15. No. 8. 3. -'"-I- 22. 5ft- 30mi. 30 yrs. 6. ANSWERS 16. ----- + . 300. 26. 15. 21ft min. 40wn. 7} 18. a 4- ft. 5. 5. -^?i min.137. 7. 8. 5.9. f . 10. 17. 10 yrs. min. 81. 9.. 14. 13. * 7:9. 15.0 & . 7.} da. (c) 8300.. 20. 8. 7. Yes. 7T 2 Page 116. 19. 15. 1:1 = 1:1. 75 . 11. r/ i - PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. dn ~ mi. 1:1=1:1. 34.2. --1^'.000. . 10. 3|. 23< &n b ' . -^m -. 2 20. $45. 7. Page 124. Page 117. 30 mi. 28. 16. 21. 0. 30. 3. (a) 30. Yes. 22. J ^'.. 13. 4fl -M_. 24. Page 118. $00. nm. 38ft- min.004. . 3.. _JL. 275:108.. 10. 20. (a) 25.002. 4. 10.. (d) 500. Page 121. . (a) 4 min. 11. $30. 1 da. 19. 3. J./hr.

6 10 = 12. 4. 7.4. ini. 5. 5. .1. 43. 5. 12. cu. -7. 3. 127. w. -J. 6. 19 OJ.ANSWERS 22. -4. 26. 17. 9. 1 rt * vm-^1. 8. 2. 2. 6. 41. . 7. 4.. 28. 3. 9 - 15.C ?/ a . 4. 45. . 5.4. 5. 2. 24. 30. 38. 16.]./':</ c a -f :y=2:9. 8. .46. 32 - <>' 33 - 4 <^: 34 : : . J pq. 11. 8. . 20. 22.3. Of. 16. Page 9. 44.3. Page 137. a -f 2 2 = 5 x. 8. 2. 10. 17. 32+ mi. 5. 5. 1. . 31J.2. 18. 2. -2. ft. 2.5. 1. 4. \\. - 28. Page 132. mi. mi.^ 0?j ' gms. 7. 19. + W. 56.2 x. 13. J. . $.3.4. y 1. 8. tin. 11 w a 13. . b x 37. 6.160.J -3. 9. 2. 7. copper. 6. l.J. 2 n . 27. 4. x 42. w 8.7. 6*.5. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. (b) Inversely. 4.4. 3. -1. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 11 5 .22.15 x. 58. 50. 20. 200 mi. 3 2=3 x. in n. 1.5. + 7>i// - ft 1 . 4.3. x y y . 7. 7. J. x y = 1 = 3 2.840. ~ 1. 19 3 . 2. : : . : />. 39. 2.3.3. 54. : 23. 7. -7. i. 36.5. 25. 5:3 = 4: x. y . 49. 11.000 sq. a +b 1. 2.3.000 sq. I. 2. 4. 41. 26.. 19. 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'.5. 9. 20 20 J -^. \. 3.li.x a. Page 133. 24 1 (e) Directly. 4. . 5:0 = 10:12. 46. 2. 40. Inversely. 23.1. 13. 1 18 = 3 51. 11.2 oz. - 19. 29. a 3. (I.7.12. : XV 27.4. 8. 1. 25. 5 2. water. -. in. 2.6. 15> 9. 3}.17.12. = 7 b'."2:1. 3. (</) ft. 36. 3. Page 136. - ?.3. 9. 16. -7. 19. -2. land.1. 31.a. 945 11 10 . 3. . 5. 2. 35. 47. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.3. 141. y a y = 7 0.9. 13. 23.-) 31. 13J. 55. 4. 13. 21. 6. 14. 2. 12. 24.2.5. : : T 1' : /> : -. 2. 25. ig 6. 7.*. 138. .3. -2. 4. 174+ Page 128.8 oz. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 ." ^ 2. s<i. .2. *. 1.36. 22. -3. 32j. t 5. Page 135. 5.r. 11.57. 40. 8.5. 3. 3.' : : : : <>. 3. jc:y = n:m. x:y -a: b.5. 57. Page 131. Page 134. /. y :y =. 10.1. 10. 2. 14. : . 2|. 2.. 4. 48. 9. a~. 12. 11. 7. 5. 12. 2. 4.2. 9. () 7 Page 126. 5. lo mi.20. (a) Directly. 2. 52. -3. 3 - 24. 9. 2. 4.3. Page 5. 15.1. ' 55. 14. 7. 10. 21. 3. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2. 3. -1. 1. 7^. OJ. 53. 30. 7. . "lO. 14. 7. + b 7 .- 1 1 : : : : : : (I.15. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 9. 1. 20 cu. OJ. 59. 15. () Directly. 17. 1(5. 1.5.

9. ft 3. 6. &. 9. 19. Jan. 00. 32. 1. 3. 6. 40. Jan. m -f 8. 6. ' w_i 7 fr-^ m -w ' 2 m+w . J. SL=J o ft r^2. 1. . 18. 15. About 12f.$5000.33.$2000. 20.. 12. af-cd ae ftd 8 ft. 5. 10. 11. 3. 20. 17. 5. (a) 12. 2. 6. ' 6 3 a. 12. 0. 25. 6. 7. 30. |. 28. 10. & May. (ft) 23 J. 8. 4. B's 40 yrs. 1. ' .2. . 1. 1. 3. 20. 31. . June. 7. m . Nov. Page 22. 1. 25. 2. ad AzA-. 8. Apr. . 3. 9. On the x axis.. On the y axis. m -f 9. 1. 5.3.2. 23f . 3. 27. Page 143. 3. yrs. 2. 1. at 15. - 17. 4. . $250.9. ^. Page 146. Page 152. $3000. 16. . 2. 2. A's 50 13. 11. 25. 6 cows. 6. A a parallel to the x axis.. 9. 5. 8. 13. 25. On 11. 3. 24. 15. 6. Page 151. 11. & part of Sept.XVI Fagel39. 19 gms. $6500at3Ji%. 7. .1. 10. 14. 18. 5. ad _(?jrJL. 5%. 5. 2. 1. 11. 3. 2.1J. Jan. 4. 7. 10. . May 5. (c) . 3. 11.0. 30. 2. 2 horses. 10^ gms. 24. C's 30 yrs. 12. 5. m + n -p. 10. Aug. 1. 2. 10 sheep. 4. 9. Nov. Page 149. a.7.65. 19. - 11. 13. 4. 16 to July 20. 2. B's 15 yrs. 23. 24. Page 153. u 2ft.-l. 2t2.0. 5.. 8. 147. 3). 3. parallel to the x axis 0. 3. M 2. (a) Apr. = ^ a Page 141. 90. 20. 16. 4. 2. 2. 1. 1 (d) Apr. $ 1000. (<f) 13. 9. 7. 7. 4. Oct. 4. <*-ft/ bd 1. 3. 0. . 7. & part of Feb. $500. 4. (ft) 20. 14.3. 22. 16. 4 mi. - Zn - -"-(^-ll 14. 2. 1 (c) Jan. 4. 16. 5. yrs. through point (0. 7./hr. -3.1. Page 142. 3. 0. 4. 21. a =J- (n - 1) rf. 20 to Oct. 18. 23. be 7.n + p.4. 423. 3. The ordinate. July 20. . 7.. 15. 2. 2. 1. -4. Feb.^. 16. 17. 29. 13. (5. $900 5%. Jan. A's 30 18. 24. 2. July. 2. Apr.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. Page 145.. 26. 20 & Oct. 72.8. 16. -. 6%. 3. 4. Jan. 5. 20.3. 40. 26. 2 a. 30. 3. 7. 4 ' q. 17. 12. 4. 21. Apr. 18. . 3. 6. C's 10 yrs. 4. 2. be 10.4. Nov. 12. 3.10. 3. July. $4000. Nov. 14.4. 100. 11.

18. 2. (e) 2. -f-12 wi 9. ImW. 2. |. 1|. 9. 2. . 13. 1.59.75 (ci) 3^.3. 1. 1. xW. 27 27 81. 4. -18C. 20.75. 2.24. (ft) and (d) 2. G.64.73. 12. -8mW. 2 2 22. 27. 83.5.75. . -2. -4. \ft) 5.64. jgiooyiio 17. 3. 6. (a) 12. .5. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t - 9- 11. |. 10. 3. 1. (<?) 2. 24. 9 and Page 166. 10. .24. 4. (c) 14 F. 13 . 2 -l. x3 -3x2y + 3x?/2 -2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4 |) 21.79. xg . (a) 2. m. 3. -. 2. 1.73 ami . SlstyW 7. 10 C. (c) 7. 7. 5." 23. a + ft. H. 14. 2.13. 15. m + 8 m% -f 60 win2 4.2 (ft) - 1. .17 (ft) (c) 2. () (rt) 3. . 1. . 13. . 5 and 2. _ 9 -x ^27 1 .84.. 30. 1 23. Page 163.41 and . Page 164. . (ft) (d) 2. 3.. -3. -2.7. . -125 a 8 12. -1. 27 a6 ft - 9a 2 1. 2.73. 2. 8. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. Inconsistent. 15. 2. . -f-4p 7+6p g -f-4pg 6. 1. 2.1. 21. 19. 22. 10. 12. 3 . a- 29. +3 4. . -2. Indeterminate.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 4. 27a 3 -27 343 a 6 27 2 +9a-l. (gr) 21.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. . 19. 4wn8 + n4 5. . 24. 0.25. 5. -a 10 ' a ll V&.34F.25. -f 10. 8 1 -f -f g*. 26. - 1. 1. 6. - 1. x*-f 4x 8 + 6x2 -f-4 x-f 1. 14.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. Indeterminate. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.6. 3. ft . 1. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' -1 125 29. 3. 11. 5. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 17.73. 1. 14. 2. -4. 8 a-1.79. 3.83.24 . 4-4 + 6t/2 m4 -4m8 H-6m2 -4m4-l. 2.. 4}. 2|. 1. 5. 1. . -13C. 2. 3. 9. 81 -". 32F. * 16. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. .27.59 . (a) 5. -27 19. 25. (ft) (ft) 2.4 aft -h a 2 ft 2 . -. Inconsistent. 3. 5. 3.25. -1. a 6o&i85 c i5o .. 3. 3. .3. 3.83. 5.25. 11.67. ' :=_!. 20. 13. (a) 4. . x-y.4. - 12 ft xW - 26 31.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 8. (/) 3. . 15. Page 158. 1. Page 159. 4. 2. 22. H. .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 -f 8. 125a 28. 1 4. 16.25. 15 . 14. 2ft4 Page 168. (/) 3. - . + a 4 ft* . 5. 3. . (ft) 2. . -1.5 (ft) 3. 11. 1^. 28. (c) -2. 8. f. -1. 3. 2.41 and 23. 0C. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n -f 2.1. 3. ft 2 4. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a-135a2 ft4-225aft2 -125ft8 . 4.75. (e) 3. f. 30. 3. 125 16.

5. 15.-f 1 m 9 16. 1247. - +X '-. (a 2. 90. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 10. 30. Page 170.r 2 + 6jt). 12.037. Zll. ( x + 2 x -2z + 4). -20. 99. ). 15. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. -f 21 rt'-6 + 7 -f 6 13. ( Page 174. + y). -5. 10. 119. 14. 8 /. 18. Page 172. r> 4 : 1 . 16. 21. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 19. + l). 18. 4. m 13. 5. 9. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 4 8 2 . 76. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).i c 6 15. 40. 18. 2038. (3a. . 57. 20. 31. 3. 10. . .+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >-/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. . 71. 1. 2. 6 (\x 3. (x' -l). (l-y). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. - x. 9. 1. Page 176.^). I 8x2).83. 3. 84. 8. +3 + 5 4. . 9. -/> 4 ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). c 10 6 :l 20. 34. 11. (:' + (2a-3a: 2 + a. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 00. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 -G mw 6 + w 6 11. 6.-2). + (win . 1 1 ?>). fe *?>-' ?> fi .10 a~ + 5 a . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 3. 11. 17.GO a c + 23. 35. 2 2 4. 3 2 8 3 12. 5. (1 (x-2y). 20. a. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 12. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 2 2 7. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 23. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. . 8. 2 12.y2 ). 180 .1. Page 171. 7. ?7i 1 1 3 1.6. + Z). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 -fa 5 14. ? : 1 . 3. 9. +(^ 2 -3^ + 2). (a-b + c). (rt'- (2 a (7 4 10. 26. 9.x ). rt . GOO 2 c 2 . 2(> + ( 2 7>). . (Gx + (i + 2a.3 ab + 2 2 ). 12. 13. 8. -^i. 420. 247. (a + 2 -+l).7 /)). (x + y\ 90. 763. 64. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 90. 8. +35. ??i ?i . 5. (a + y+l). 978. 72. 2. 2 49 . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 16 6 w . 3 6 23. 30. 101. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 6. 6. a 2 . 8. 9. 17. + i)). 3 2 ^-. 11.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 14. (2 a + ft).94. 28. 14. 300. 10*. 16. 20. 309. 13. 19. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . + + ?V 22. 2. 24. . 70. 1. 36.XV111 7. 22. 25 19. (4a2 -9& 2 13.+3^ + 4. 237. 27. 4. (l + x + . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 6. 7. . ? . 2. + 29.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 14. 11. 2. 98. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 32. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 17. 10 x G a 4 . 5 -5 8. 16. 33. 6.a b 22. 21. 4.5. -3M. 7. AN S WE no . . (2-3 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 15. a. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. a ). 25. 0. 1.5). 4.1.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. a: l . 15. fr -ft i/ /> ^ | 23 . (48 + 6.

645. ^-. 7. 35. 2 sec. 18. 27.. 11. 5. 7563. 4. 13. 12. If ^. 15. - -|f. 25. 10.742 in. 3. 16. 2. 16. 29. 28. 3. /. 3. -4. 2] see.925 ft. 30. 1. -16n.5. V2. / 11. 4.a. 9. 2. 13. 9. 6.4. 3J. i. 6- f !. (< + ?>). Page 179.469. 17.-?.*. f. -f 3. 5. 7. 48. 40. 5. ~ V^3. (6) Vl4 3. 7}. 9. .367. * 1.. m. -16. . 6561. 7. 13. 10. -2.. 1. 37.-6. 23.. -4. 12. - f. . 3. 3. 5.--w 18. Page 181. 7.690. - 2.-4. 28. 6|. 1. v 17. 15. 11. |.522 38. 3. a. 25- J. 42.60. 4. 6. . 5. 29. 4. 41. 7. 4 W**. - 14. 5. 4 n. 12. 39 in. 30. 13. 4 a. -3. >TT 26. 44. V35 1. .6. 6. 19. 4 TT M 28. Page 177. 9. 2. 7. 21 in. 1 -7. 32. Page 180. 2. 1. . 2.4. 20. 15.13. 35. vYb.18. 6V'2J.. - 5. 5.5. 4. " ^_ 22.005. 47. V17. 3.6. 15. - 43. - 1. 7. 7 45. . 15. 14. 1 38. 31. -9. w. 5083. 7. 21. 25. 5f. 3.243. 6yds. 3. 21. 49. 8. ft. f. 10. 4.i. 17. 20. 4.}. 8.237. 12. 36. -m. Page 184. ft. 27. 34. 16. 1. 2.1. - 3.. i-i :J _7. 270 sq. 5. f ^ is. }. f . 5.1. Af^.236. 6V21. 9. 1. 12. 23. Page 185. . 8. 1. 33. 12. J. 20. 1&. 24. 6J. 33. 6.. -10. 11. 1. 32. 37. 24. -i ^. or 5. ft. 22. 9. 8. 18. 31. >i 27. > w ft.. -5. 39. 2. a + 6-1.V 8-j. or 3. 1.6. . 11. 21 28 ft. 17. 10. 4. 2. ZLlAiK 19.ANS WERS 22. 1 -f Vl3. 10. 8. 4. \/3. 21. 1. 14. 14. 19. 3. {. 8. l~8. 13. 6. 3. 39. 26.. 11. 3. 7. 36 in. 28 in.S-n. f -f -V. 29. -4J. 1. 9. 46. V- J l. JJI. 12. 36. 50.. 14. 10.935. 12.798 yds. -V. -2. 10. 40. . 9 15 ft. 5. 3. 2. -^. 2.916 yds. -6. vV-'-TA 24.6. 34. 7. V2. 2. 23. 7 in. (a-fl). 15 1 10. 5. () 2. 7. 14. _ iVaft. |. Page 183. 21yds. 4. 6. 5. 10. xix 26. 5. -^-^7m. 4. *.

.4. 1. . -2 ft. 8 or 12 mi. 47./hr. 12. 6. 6. 16. 23. 31. 4 da. 0. 2.4. 25. Real. 1).1. 10 mi.7. 6.].59. 3. 22.5^.2. 2. 2. r* -i. 5.37.0*8. 12. 57. 35. 3.a. Real. ' 1.a. 8. 32. 3. 4. 2. |. f. 19.2. Real.. 1.12 = 0. 2. 48.7. . 26. 0. a + 1. irrational. unequal. 37. unequal. - 2. = 0. .3. 30. equal. unequal. 0. 6V-64. 25. - 1.2 x2 . . 3. #<7=3. _ 19. x* 51. a. -4. 2. 0. rational. - 9x <). 24. 5 ft. 36. 18. - 1. 1. (5 10. - 24. 45.Oa. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 2. 20 eggs. 3.2. 1. 3.-6. a8 .62. 19. rational. 1 3. Page 192. 52. 7./hr. 10 or 19.. 2 V3 in. 13.2. + 11 x. 70 ft. x2 + B .* 2.23. -0.2. -3.2. 20. 2. i . 43.23. 0. . 4. 27. -f 6 5-2 a. 5.2. 55.'. 1.. - 1. 20. Imaginary. Imaginary. 3. 49. 28. 7. V^l.10. . - 1. equal. VV11. 28. 3. -21. 6. 12.41. -3. . unequal. 7. 2. 50. 11.4. 1_^L ft 14. 4. U. 5.2. Real. Imaginary./hr. 25. - 5. rational. -4. 38. 3. If. Page 190. 26. 6. 23. rational. 0. -7.4. unequal. 1. Real. 0. - 2. AB = 3. 56. 21. 0. orf. 24. 2. 13. 27.6 = 0.2. Real. -1|. 19 in.7.48 -3. 44. 22. 21. 10 mi. Page 188. ft. 5. x*-4x=0. 2. . 58. rational. . 7. 6. 18. 14. 10. 2. 14. equal. a + 6. 6. %.48. - i. 0. 6. 2. 2. Real. 24. 28. . 0. 18. s 11.a 3 a. 40. . - 6. 8. 3. 3. 0.4. 3. 3.02. 0. ANSWERS 22. V2.5 x + 6 = 0.74.1. 15. 33. jr . f. 15. 3. 3. 1. 1.70. 120 ft. Real. 11.3. . - Page 194. AB = 204 ft. 4. 1. unequal. x 14. 35. 41. 3.5. 6^2 in. unequal. 1 . 6. . 9. 1. 1. 15 ft.. unequal. 8. 2. 1. 7. 2. . 42. 10 in. $ 120. 1. 46.1. V7.17. V ~ 16 4 2. $80. unequal.12. Page 189. 2. 0. 29. 23./hr. 39. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3if. 4. 53. 1. 5. H. . 16. . 1. 1. .3. v^^fcT"^. 9. 3. irrational. in. -3. $30 or $70. 2. 2.l.XX Page 186. 10. *'-' 12. + 7 x + 10 = x*-x 2 -6x = or . 10. . 4. V2. 26. 34. . 9. 12. 2. 7. 17.. 1. 3. 26. 27. -2. -1. -4. 64. 2. - 13. 20 nii. 2. 15. 6. Imaginary. 1. 25. ' - f 5. V^l. 3|. a. V^~2. 64-c. 20. 3. 2 . 4. Page 191. 8\/2 17. Page 187. - 1. t is.$40 or $60. 0. - 5. 16. 0.. -12.2. . 9. 8. i. 7.

J 3. . 16. . 41. aW\ 40. vV. 20. 27. 3. 37. 18. 9. r*. 27. 49. 24. 4. 2V a. 5. -ifa. 1. 50. m'. 8. ) 2 >J i 10. 6.17. *V. ? . 16. 8. -_! V3. 13. 3. - f. 28. 2. -2. 43. 58. i. 4. 4. 5\/5. 9. 22. 1. Page 196. 12*2 61. |. - 48. 26. 1. Page 200. 53. 29. - 5. vm. 4. '-J. 6. 54. 3. 31. 16. 28. 14. 20. 21. v'frc 18. \/r\ 11.. 30 a. 7. 13. 30. 14. ar 1 . 7. 2. 8. 14. fx'-^z'l 23. -3. v'frW. 4. 4. -jV- 10. 12. a. . 44. ^49. 5. .2. r. 7 . 46. 32. 1. 42. 8. 25. 125. 60. 31. 24. 5. 48. -1. 23. -1V-1. v^T4 m. z + 22. 4. I. 25. 13. 9. 56. 20. Page 201. 52. 21. -3. \/. 1. 20. 51. 10. p. 10. 1. y. 5. 50. . 40. 36. v/3. 2. 8. 2. J. \. 9. 13. &. 29. V^ 34. 33. 33. 3. 8. 2. J. : . xxi 15. 24. 23. 5. \a\ \/^. . 15. 49.6. 9. 10. x. 1. 3 4 11. 49. 8. \ -. 10. (m 26. 19.1 5 15. 45. 3. 16.//^. y . -3. 33. 0. 1 39. 17. 7V7. 21. 2 L ( V. 243. \.-32. 17. l - 5 12. 14. 15. v. 3. 38. 4. a 18 . . . Page 197. 0." 17. 22. 39. 49. 18. Page 199. 17. -2. JV37. - J j. m. 5. 12. 1. n\/* Page202. 2. 35. ). 7. x$. J.ANtiWEUS rational. 18. 19. 19. wA 46. 2. J. 1. 0. -3. 47. - a'2 . 84. 9. 3. Jb \. \/3. 11.^7. 3. 19. x/25. 25. 47. 30. -2. - f . 2. 32. 57. 8. Vr. 1. 11. 29. 55. 15. . ^Sf|- 3 38. $7. -1. 59. 6 - AAf.

. . JIV6. 3.2 VlO. Page 203. 9. 43. . 38. .f. 1. V2 + 4 V22. a 4 +-* + !. (o* 2. V 5 47. + Vic + 25.707. - 2 3:r. 20. 3 x^y 33. 3 4\/2. 03r* 7. 37. 2 a?>V2 a.). 10. 41. 2v (T 2aVf. 51. / V3.rV:r. m* -n*.3 + 40 3 . 5 22. 3 \ 39. x + 5 x3 + 0. 28. 40. 3. 6-2V(J. V80. ^: V2c. 19-5V3. 9. x 25. 4. 8. 2. y.Vxy 35. ^7 \AOx-. 19. a2 4. x% - 3 ^+ 1. 33. 3^2. + 2 ar 1 ). 13. 37. 19. k/2.. 13. + + ft. 34. 13 a. 32. 17.12 *^ + x 7/> x - a-** + or " 2 + 1. 2 '"V5.648. 31. 5. x^ .r. 21. 10.r-^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. + 1.x^y* + y%. 3 42. (x' (l 1+x). . Va 2 "ft. ). 22. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 24. 101 1. 3. 18.yl : . 39. 25. 3V5. 11V3. 8V/) 15. Vr 8. x 7 - 34. 1) 3V3. 6. + . 6. 30. l 5. 11. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 30. 5 ( . 48. v'TM.632. x y. a^ + 2^+1. x. -v/^r 5 - A/^~. 4aV^J 16.'\ 14. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 34 r 6. V. ftV 46. 21. 4. 45. 13 35. -2. 3V^T. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2. 24. 17. 11. 15. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 20. -T. 5. 2.2 18. 28. 26. + 2 V22. yV35. 8a6V5. 10. 2>X2. 31. ^88". V. 12. ?tV?w. 7. Page 208. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 20&V6. 3^ + 2). 26. 16. 29. 50. 2. 32. 2 4 z2 l 3. 2\/7. 27. 36. 40. . 49. 9. 9 . 2 x* 15.577. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 29. 7. 8. . + 2). 2. 16. v^. Vz2 -?/ 2 44.692. V63. a 3. - a Vft -2 121 b. r c . . (a 27. 23. Page 207.XXii ANSWERS 1. y (a + ft) V2. r 17 - Page 204. abVab. -13-5V6.

4VO. 5V2. 41. V3. 2 ate-.r v/^ v^fr*. 6. v/9. VT5. \XO-fl-6Vi5. 48. \/04a. V3"m. 0. 36. + 20. 2\/7. -13\/3. 46. x/3. 49. __ rw 3- \~s~' ] * . . 8V73\/IO. Page 211. - 3. 14. "^8000. 11. 6aV2-\^. 6 2\/0. 13. 27. r)\/(l Vrt-r. a2 - b. 6x-2?/. 8 - \/15. 9. 40. 2 V'3. 28. 15. 10. V5. 53. 3\/15 - 6. 6. v^O. 11. xx 1. . ^\/3. \V3. 9. 17. 2. \/abc*. 34. 32m-27n. + VlO - v y (5. 35. 10. 22. 6. -^ 3 b 5 24. 9 VlO + 4. 2. 2 1. 5. . 4\/5. rtv/5. 1. / \/w/t 4 13. 7. v^4. v"3. 24. 6. 19.T*. 2 \/2. Page 213. v/lO. 2 28. 2yV2?/. 31. 33. -21 23. \/2. 3v^2. \/128. \/a6c. 8v2T 12. ab 4. 39. 12. 1. 3 Vl5 30. 11. 35. m ?i-2Vm/t. v^a. v/8. 44. Vdbc. 2. 7. . 38. . 5v/2. 2. 50. 15. 5 \/2. 10. ^v 7 15. 24. a^\/a7>. 18. 5. . 31. 42. 30. 32. 17. \/8. 34. 23. 6V2.30 2. ^9. "v/wi ??. x/4. v"5. 36. b. 32. x/125. 7. 29. 26.. a\/5c. 16. 37. v^30. 21. 8. 3. v^lf. 8V2. 3. 12.ANSWERS _ Page 209. w-?i. % 29. v7^. 3 V2. 30 Vl4. W). 6. Page 214. 13. 2. 1-V5. 19. V/. Page 216. V3. x/8. v/l2. Vat. 3\/2. V8. 16. 3. 23. 5. V2. 6+2V5. vT). 5V2. 14c 4 V5. Vtf +3+ 33. 4 a*. 16. 17. 40. ^27. 7-4\/Jl 120 46. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . Vn. v 25^4714 V2"a. 4. . 4 >/3. 14. 3. 14. 22. 38. 21. 26. 18. 52. 20. 9. \^6. x/8l. 3 V15 - 47. 51. x/8L v/27. \^6. 8. v/i). : ^32. 3\/wi. -V-Jla. 37. 39. 4. 43. 10V(). 25. \^r^bVabc. 7\/(l 7VTO. fl^Vac. 27. V2. v^f. x/27. '-. D 45. 1. Page 210. x/w^ 8. 3.J Page 212. 0. V5. aVa. 25. 18.

1. 18. 27.732.389.9.6 V3. V. ^r. 5 V65. (2-f V"5). 9. 25.601. 25. . 0.2.2. (Vll-V2). 4. Vf6-f|Vtf. i^Lzi. 8. 21 ' Vob 26. n*.2828. (2-Vll). 13. ^(VlO-\/2). 34. 4 14.7083. 28. (V6 + 2V2). .1|. 24. 4. 8. K>/0 + \/2). 10. 6 V. 2. 20. 3. -1. fV2. 17. 5. 10. (VaT^-v a). 8 V3-V2. 24. 4. 8. 11. 216.3. 10. 17. 0. (V2-1). J. . 13. 30. 5. 19.w 6. (a 1. 23. 14.3. 2. (Vf + (4 V2). 4. 1. 5 f. 6. . 23. + 5V2. 1. 15. 19. 3. 18.5. 9. 8. * 3. 15 -f 3 V2L 4. 1. 3. 4V3 + 6. 9.732. 18.^ (\/22 4. (\/5-V2). 12. 7. 16. 2. Page 218. 7. 4. ANSWERS 8. 2ajV2*. 3. +3 V2). 100. V2.4722. 16.7071. 12. \/3).5530. 10.64. 15. 6. 8. 35. 1. !^ 6 4. - 13. 11. 7. 10. 5. 33. 16. 16.0606. -. i^ ~ 1 v ^-. . 1. ^. p 6 13. 25. -26. 512. 6. 25. 5. 4. Page 223. 11. . i(V-f Vft). A- . 4. (3+ v/2). 14. \/57t.6. J. 3. x 20. 12. 29. 9. 8.XXIV 7. 32.81. 24. . + 6) 2 . Page 226. (V5-1). V^TTfc. 9 mn. (2-V2). 4. V3. V3. 5. V3. V35. j. 9. V3 . 29. - 2. 1.1547. 2. 9. 8. (V8 + V2.3535. 24. 22. 7. - . 17. 6. 7 -f 5 4. 14. Va.V3). 15. 31. 81. 16. 25. x-y 2. -2!5_. Page 225. . 1. V6c. 8. j 15. 7 Page221.W + 12 v/7 - 3 \/15 . 4. 3(7+3V5). 81. 2 . 15. 19. 11. 7. nVTl. . 22. 23.. V5. 17. -3. 14. 25. _^JflJ?. 21. ^. 19. Page220. 16.464. 5 + 2 vU 17. 6. Page 28. - f.4142.625 10. 12. 1. (2. 10. 4. 18. 1. 13. 4. {. 6 |(V2 + 1). 12. 9. 2. 37. 4. . 9. 21. 36. 16. Page217. 2. 64. 20. 9. 4. 27. 7. m -f. 18. 11. 224. 2V3. (\/3-f 1).\/TO). 12. 26. -4. 10. 30. 16. ' 22 i . 4. 23. 5. 125.1805. 20. 19. 20. 11. 27. \. 7. 23. ^\/2. 5. f. 3V2-3. 21.13. 5. 5. 2. 15. 2x^2^. ~ Vac _c 0. 7. Va. 3. 2V2. 2-V3. 22. 25. (V5-f 5. Page 219.

- 3. - 4. 4. . 3. 7. 3 9. 1 . (a 4. 10.2. 3. 2 &.3. (+!)( -2) 10. (rt. 8. 1. 1 . 7. l. f . J. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 50. 10. |. 9. 2. (p-l)(p-2)(p-2). 12. . 20.5. 17. (w-2)(m-3)(2m + 5).2)(* . 6. 2.Y. 3 . 0. - 3. 5. 13. 3.l)(m . -7. 11. 15.4. -2. 4. =A|^Z3.3. 5. a(l+a)(l_a-fa 2 ). t/ 23. 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 0. 10. 9. 1. V3. . //. - 3. 1 .w 4 + 1). J Page 235. 7. 3.7. 4 . 24. 2. 17. 4. 4. 2. (2 a. 13. a(. . 30 . 14. 4. -56-l). -0. 5.0. a . 2 -V^ . 6. . 3.nl^EI. . 4. '- J. 2 . 2 . 2. 3. 4. 3. (w-p)(w-2p)(wi-3p)(w*4-2p). . Page 236. - f . 12. y.3). 4. 4. 13.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 -f 4 winy 2 Page 231. \/0. 17. 6. . 4 4. 12. 3. 4. 3. 30 30. 22. 18.l)(a-3)(a . 87 . 0.2. 2. 1. 4. . 30. 3. (10 -#0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 4.-f 2)(sc 2 -2 r + 4). 0. 10. - . 5. 11. 5. 1. 3.10. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3.12. 3. o. 2. 15. 4. 2 > 1. J. (l-a&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). . 6. -73. 13. 4 . . 5. -3 .2. - J. . 19. - 1. 16. -12. 8. 5.2 + (ro-w)(w-4w)(w a + 6mw -f w 2 ). 2. . 27(2 a 4-fc)( 4 2 -2 (a -4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).1. ( 16. 2. 15.1. 1. 19. (&y-2a#H-4). 5. 3. 6. a: :} . 2. 4. 3 5. - 5. 1. 21. 1. 23. 8. 5. 16. 5.ANSWERS Page 228. 12 24 y . 1.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 -f a -f 1). 30. 5. . 1 . 1 3. 11. -10. 20. 3. 5. 1. 7. 2. 2.4). 4. 2. 3 . -20. (a + l)(a*-a 8 + a--a + l). 2 6. 2. (m 4 + l)(ro.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 6.3.4. 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l -a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 4. 2. 3. f>. (a. 26. -11. 12. 4.3 2. -P. 14.+ ^)( 4 -a 2 6 2 -h6 4 ).^a. 1.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 8. 73. 3. 2 <? 4a2 . 9. 1. 3. 3. 6 2 2a + 2). (B4-3). (8. 2. 3.3. 5. 3. 4 20. 3. 2 6. 21. 2. (a. 2. 28. . 24.22. XXV 4. 1. (a-2)(:iB2 -f 2a44). Page 234. a - . qpl. 1. 8 6 & 0. . + 6 4 )(a*-a' 6 + a 2 6 2 -a& 8 H-6*). (2a + l)(4a*-2a + l). 8. (w . 6. -1 (-?> x/^3. 5. 1. 2. 2. 11.3. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). (s + l)(x2 -:r + 1). 2. 2 . - 1. -13. Page 233. 1. ~ f7. 4 1. . (6-3)(6' -t- 18. 22. 7. 1. - 16).8a 18. (p-l)(p-3)(p-6).l)(a 2 + a -f 1). 11. 1. 0.4. (r. 1 6. 0.2)(m. 2. 2. 0. . 25. 25. 2. . 2 . . (4 mn . b . (a+&)( 2 14. . 14. 7. 2.r . J 24.. 4. 4.3. 18. 8.5 xy + 25) 22. 3. 2. . 100. 1. & + 6 2 ). (a . 2. 10. 1. 7. 19. 25. 3. - 2. 1 . 25.

18. 1. 4.3. 29. |. 11.3. 3 2. 5. . $46. i'ljVU. 2 -10. 3 cm. -3. ft. 12 1. 20 in. 2. 12 ft. 8. 3V5. 2. oo .3. in. 6. 8ft.4. 14. 5. 6. 21. 24. V7. (/>) "_. 18.. 41. 4. 8. .5. ANSWERS 2. J. 3 4. 4. 2V7. 2. + - n.6. 1. 22. 1.. 5. (>. . 78. 12. 40 in. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 12ft. }. 7. 1. 19. _ 13 (0 6.2. 0.18.. 3. 20. |. 37. in. 4. 3 3. 1. 4. 2 16. 3. ^ }.4. 1. 35. 3. 35 ft. .1.1. oo. 1. 8. 2. 1. 3. 0. J.. Exercise 114. 5. Page 245.6. 12. 2. 69. Page 240. 2 . 3. 2 2. in. 22. . 4. 3. 1. 12. 5. J.136. 4. 28yd. 3. ' j. 5. 2 Y> V . Indeterminate. 33. 20 7. 16. 16. 9. 3. 5. 8. . Page 238. 1. . j. 3. 15. 4.e. 1 . ri*. x 4. 23. Page 247. 4. 12 d. 4. -400. -$VO. 7. 15. 17. 11. 1. n . Page 243. -5. 30. 2. 55. 11. 6. 15. ( 3.. 4 8. 3. 2. 4. 8. and _ 4. 1. 16. . .020. 4. 4 6. 2n. . 17. 9. 1. n. 8. (a) $3400. 32. 35^ 5. 5. 3. - 11. 7 3. 2. 2. 1. | . m + n. 5. 2 . in. 18.3. 3. 2. Indeterminate.3 .-y. 1. 3. 9. . 9. 5. 1 .. 7. 4. 512. . -50. 5. 7f solution. i i i . 15. 1.. 30 13. -1J. 2 ft. 8.xxvi Page 237. _ 5. 5 cm. Page 244. 35 a. 2. 1. i j. . 1. 201. 125 125..3. _ 7. |. - 1. V3~. . 2 26. 1. 48. 19. oo . 14. 11. 3. \/6. 24.1.. 3. 1 . f*. 4.3. (&) 2. 10.. 2. 2>/3. . 17. $. 12. 6. 1. 1. 8. 4. 2. = QO 6. 2. 288. m28. - 2 . 3. 14. 30. 512. 11. 1. 23. . 21. $. . 39. 2 1. 1. _ 10. 2. 1. f>. 3. 50. 3. 1. 15. 1. 3. '>. ^~2. 5 . 7. -2.4. jj. Exercise 113. 1. 4. 1. 4. 7. 2. 2. ft. 4. . 3 . 10. .200. 3 .0. Page 248. m27. 15. 2. 14. 4 . 8 . 15. 2. 9. 7. . . 37.0. 3. 14. 10. 3. 2. in. 13. c. . . 17. \. 45yd. 12. tn 2. 5. 1 . } . 5. 4.3. 13. 2 . Page 241. (a) 5. 8 3. -14. 5. Page 239. . . 11. . .13. 5 4. . 4. 2. 5. 2. 17. -37. 31. . 84. 5050.30. 13. 3 . 26. . .4. 1. 3. . 12. 3. 4 34. 40. 10. . 31. 9. ft. 0. 3. 4|. co . 38. 1. 36. 5. 1 2. 21 30. i. J. -3. 17. 7. 5. 20.5. 14. 25. 1. 6. 1 . f. 4. no co . 40 25 in. GO . 1. 900.

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049. 654. . 646. 634. 647. 4. 705. 625. x3 4- 3 x x ' 4- X* 609.04. i. 706. \. 631. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a -+^ 694. 660. 703. ^. 1 ^ - 7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 641. 623. 7003. 653. V7. 649. 4 V 0. fe + a. 971. 009. 2 a: 4. 692. 1|. 13. 2f. ft). 9*. a 4. 701. 11. 670. 1 V5 1. . 633. c. 5. 691. 2 a - 6*. 648. . -8. 624. 2 x- 4-4 ^/. 2. 677 680. 613. K- 5 2 V2. 645.. 1m*. 2 a-b + a - &-. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 2. J^-^.001. 4- 676.a~- {Z 663.3. - 2f r 659.b 686. If . 14. . - . 4. 1. 1. 662. 0. 1 2. 1. 3 681. 2 a 688. If 658. 3. 3 a. 1 ~a .f 3 V^3). a + b. y - 619. 5. 620.14 If 1. 657. / V^+lO^M-"^-. 2. 637. ' 674. 669. 608. 4330 da.303. . 635. 629. 1 704. 0. 2. 898. /> 4. - ft. -if 4/> 671.3f l 668.b. (*_ + a: 611. If f 667. 2092. -0. ab 689. 703. 672. z - 1. 6. 615. . b. a-f6-fc __ __ ( a 4.203. + ~^'2 + a 1. 696.4-3^4. ' fe 2 ). 644. 666. a ' 2 + . 636. \+ab 699. ft-a a/> ^A. 2. 621. - 4. - a2 - a (ab)-. 3.702. 626. 702. If b. 617. 6 685. 25.y. 5. 708. 650. |o. 627.>A 610. . 607. 78. |. 0. 10. - 1. 622. b 664. . 9. 1010.3. 5002. 210. 3 x2 .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.002. If 665. 2f. I}'/. 690. ^-^ 695. 656. . . 700. . b .c ) 697.- 678< 682. V"^TJ. a 2. 612.XX XIV 606.25. 2. 1$ 639. 8 6 fo . -a. 616.3. 2. l-a6 2. -11. 655. + 2 A (i -f- Page 291. ^ 1. - 684. 2 / 2 4. <T! . 638. V2. 50. If. 630. 640. 652. a 1J.2f Page 290. 2. 683. 679. n-^l +-^. l/'3. 7. 628. 0. 12. 698. - 13. Page 289. ix 2 . 614. 3. 618. 2.001. -6. (a-3&4-5rj.3. a-b. 632. ^. 4.0. . - 6. V2. 0. 7. 642. be ac \. 643. 25. 5 3. V^~3). 651. 2&). 8 f 3. . a 673. ANSWERS -(- 3 -x 2 -S 2 . 661. - 4. 4$.2f (5 4. 4. - -3.|. 5.

8. 710. 725. 730. 15 shares. 3-V7.12 af -V^ 4 744. 7 - 3V5. 721. y - 1. 749. 1. 30\/10 764. 731.9. 33^2.ANSWMHti Page 292. 756. 733. 724. Page 293. 1. 718. ^ ?->. 750. *+V( x 2 -"r 2 )' ^ 786. Hi a.-. 778. + 6 2 tf-'c. -. 792. . a 2 - x2 . 5. ^^ -f ^3 _ r} t 2 -i-3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 769. a db Va^T < 45da. 723. r. 719. T%. 3 VlT 795.^ 743. 709. 1 752.~ . . 24-V2.1 .. 3V5-2V3. 736. 4-7. i 2.r+y-> 759. v'll. a". 3V7-2VO.4 .r. 1 747. 776.10. 746.4 . 29\/3.1 -/>--f f- + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 00. 1 I .8. m-n. -5. 3-2>/2..257. 782 785. 726. 2\/5-3V2. 753. 739. 788. Page 294. 740. x i f^' . 715. 713. 768. x-\-y. 763. ^7x-y. v/7 / . 716. 34. 732. J(v'lO-2V 791. j 742. VT14-V5.V2. 4 x' 5 -x 4- 3 x~* -(- 2 ar- 1. rt3 2 ^-i-^-. 729. / 787. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 1 -[- + '> J.9. 24 4 . 737. 2x-3^ a. a- 5 . 728. "V313. 755. 794.. 3 720. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. . 777. 17ft. 793. 1. fya-w&cu. 734. 773. -3^. cr*-lr*. VV> -L4V-34. 738.r-J w L 754. 714. iv/Jj. 789.2. a 2 6^. 2 V2 . 767. 300. 4- 104 v/2. 8. + <- 735. 25. 790- 2v 3-v 2. 24.-V/^ 741. .11. a:-* . -^ . 34-2V3. VIO-\/3. 3V7-2V3. > 748. 1-^ _ 760. i^.- 711. 727. 796. 758.^. 3. 59. 717. 722. 751.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 39. 712. 13ft.

11. 800. 6(a-6)(o a + + &).3. 900. 898. 890. 861.. 2. m = 2. 1 . . 2|. 4. 3. (2x-3?/^)(4x2 4-Ox^ + 9//%2). 3.3)(x + 4). 2.. Hoots |. Hoots are extraneous. (2 x + 3 y} .r-4). 2 . 4. 3. 816. 10. 895. 4 . 820. 830. 896.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).. 48. 892.4)(1 -f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). + d)*. - tt 815. -f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). - 839. +j!>.1)(0 865. (x4-2?/)(x-2y)(4x -. 1. (1 . 2.r |. 872. -1. 848. Page 297.2w . 832. (x 2 -f r . 4- 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .4. 3. 6. Va. 822. -X4 1). (x + 0X0-24. 4 885. 897. 894. 2. 863. -5).7. 4.1) (a 8 . 3. 6 $. 2 j 889. 801.1). 3. 17. 891. (a 1) (x 4. (2 a . (x . 16xyV2*/^-~x2 . 840. a* 4. o. 825. 858. 851. 810. b' 2 821.7). 19.0.y) 852.r?/ 50(i ( -2)(5 04.rae) (4 . 8. are extraneous. 833. 876. 880. 2 m .a 4 + 1). 2 . 3. $. 7.7).1) . 0. 4. 3 . 811. Va 803. 6+V7. 2 - 2. 4. H. 5. 887. 4. (x 845. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4- 5 -f- 8). (x-3). 857. ^VG. 813. 1 1. (x-l)(^~3)(. 842. m 875.l)(x + 3)(2x4-3). ( 869. 847.2 ax 4.7)(4 x. 1. | ' . 7. 6. 868. 0. 1. (:r 11. 17. 843. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 799. 2. n = - 29./>") (a'. 1. 4 818. 831. ( 4 4. - + l(l^). **. 8 09. Page 296. 0. 2 (x 4-*4. (x . 888. 6. 23. . db 7. 838. \/5. 859. . (x*y*-ryz + z*). 899. 6 4- V& - e " X/^-^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. x .5) (x + * 853.4) 860. 814. J V|.5 b) 4 1).+ m -f ") (a* ). %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc -f- 1 '* Page 298. Va + 6 + Vtt-"fc. 882. (3 862. (a m . 823. 4. . 3. 3. \/2. 4. 7. 812. 2. . ) (a' 874. 2 806. . (3 b . a(-ft)( 873. (. 7. ANSWERS 798. 836. o 828. 827. ( - ?>) (a + ^> . 2. . 13. 867. .a 3 " 4.XXXVI 797. f. V 3.l)(x . 2 . ^. (a 4 871. . 834. 3. 5.10 ab 4.f. 835. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 5. (2 4. 2 2 . 837. 14. 879.om 441) (a 855. 2 *x 807. (2x (r. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).3. a^*4l)(a-a 4 + l). (x 4. a(ry + 864.25 ?>2). ((' 1). 5. 881.7 4 1) 846.2) (x 4 2). $. 884. 1C. 4. 25. . (x 2 . 2 854.l)(x . 826.a 2 2 ). 11. (x + y) (x -f y) (x + y) (x . 2. 841. ^ V}. 849. 817. 0.1)(V 2 . 5. 2/ 856. 4. 883. 886. 4. a- 4-2)(x . 893. jV3 -f 3.1. x.l)(x + 2). - 1. a2 ^E*!. 2. . 824. 804. 808.a 2m W" 4 ^ m -f & 2m 870. 819. (4 c 4. . 844. .4. 8. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 829. 20). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .

Page 301. 12. 12. i-1" 913. 0. 5l4f. . 983. 10. 0. 56.. 904. 962. 959. 28. 28.. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.1. Y. 7. Page 302. ./hr. 111. 5.2. 933. 920.760 sq. 4. 4. 8. '3 3 in. 923. 1. 4. 922. 1). 909. 8.. i 3. 8. ?/i 6. 935. 4. T 6. 480 8 sq. 4 in. 11. v/(ai- !)(&910.. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. - 26-j. 7. 911. $(l 4. 7. . 916. 11. T 6. 6 da. 280. 936. . |. 927. 958. 2. 902. 12 mi.2. .. J. 3. 941.01. 905. . .744.. 2. 919. 2. 942.709. 1 . 7. 937. - 1. 2 1. 8. 248. 3.. 4. 115. 979. 1. dL 4. 11. 960. 5. 9 in. 0. Va926.ANSWERS oJ--V 41 6 901. w. =F J. J. Page 303. 2. 2| ft. 964. 987. 2 i ' a V. 20 19 ft. 5. . 66 924. 931.V-~~3). 329. 906. 1 _2 .. 944. 957.. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 12 in. 954. ft. ^y. . ft. 4. 28. 333. 918. 932. 2. 903. ft.. J(_ ft. 496. Page 300. - 1 . 951.. 6. 4. 981. S07.. 18. 6 a 915. ft. 40 16 in. V^3). 6 . 2 yd. ft. 4. i>. . -5 .. 10. 3. 15 946. . 5. . 3. 963. 982. i(6 in. 5. 985.651. . 60 949. 943.073. 947. V5 T 2 . -333.0. 8. 978. a. f. 952. 6 1 1. 940. 4 . V5 fj. 108. 961. 2. -. 4. 1 2. ft. 2.. 8128. 945. 8. 4 6 mi. 986. 8. 977. 7 ft. 4. a + . 912. 917. ft. %* . 6.446. r ft ' < Page 299. 980. 100 rows. -f ft- -4 . 939. 7 or 30. 80. 955. . 2 w 914. 948. 6. Z ^. i 8. 6. 921.1 = 9.' -i-fcVira^ 2 3. 934. 950. 14 . 1 1.615. 1 + V953. 3. 8. tt2 19. 3). 11.1. 908. 984. 3 4 . . 2. 6. 930. . 956. 15 16 ft. 938. 12.. 2. 8 . ft.111. w 3. 73. 6. . 6. 2. 3 . 3. T3. 3. |. 0. yd. 1. 925.I.

a- a 13 - 13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . (a) (6) -^ 1002. 1005. 6 70 . 2 . 12. + v 2). 1014. 78 n+ a' x 2 t - 13 . ^Trsq. 24.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1008.51. 192. Page 305.128 I. . ^f (2-f-3V2). 1006. 994. 990. (a) 2^ + --1 \/2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 992.'^^ } ( . (Z>) 999. 12. + 448 . X. 996. - W1W -JI + 1 / 1 _ -_L\ a . 1012. (5. ~ \. 1010. - 5&7 1021.192rt?)r 120 *. 72. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . . 1- 1004.18. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 5 :J2 r 10 - 14 y + 84 y* - 280 + 5(>0 - 72 C- K 4- 2 MJ--iy 8 r? -" 8 . 1000. r = 2.. 1(5. 988.92. () 12(2+V3). 1 8 8 2. 108. 9 da. 2(2 -v/2). in. 8. 1019. 995. 1018.. 32 13 (tx 4V3.870 z8 . 0. 1016. 4.870 a 6 1011. 1007. Page 304. (6) 8(1 .378 1015. 1001. 48. 991. 1009. 4 and 1020. (J. . 1017. 1003. 3003. 993. 997. 0. 120 i-^l^. 162. 120 a.378 <W and 92. 1013.

25 lamo.D. great many work. xi 4- 373 pages. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. comparatively few methods are heretofore. and commercial life. physics. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. than by the . Half leather. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. etc. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Half leather. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. xiv+563 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. HEW TOSS . $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. i2mo. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. so that the Logarithms. given. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this grade. The more important subjects tions. A examples are taken from geometry. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. 64-66 FIFTH AVBNTC. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.

which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.D. save Inequalities. great many A examples are taken from geometry. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. physics. HEW YOKE . In Factoring. etc. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The author grade. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. comparatively few methods are given. Half leather. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. so that the tions. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.25 i2mo. $1. Ph. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. xi -f- 373 pages. 12010. xiv+56a pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. and commercial life. 64-66 7HTH AVENUE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Logarithms.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. HatF leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.

$1. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for class-room work. These are introduced from the beginning 3. State: . The numerous and well-graded Exercises the complete book. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. wor. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most text-books in Geometry 8. Cloth. NEW YORK . SEVENOAK. under the heading Remarks". 9. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 4. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Attention is invited to the following important features I. aoo pages. izmo.. more than 1200 in number in 2. lines. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . text-book in Geometry more direct ositions 7.D. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 7 he . . Cloth. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE. 10. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. SCHULTZE. i2mo. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . $1.10 L. 6. Half leather. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. xtt-t PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. iamo. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. xii + 233 pages.r and. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the text-book. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Ph. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .

370 pages. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach- ing . . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . Students to still learn demon- strations instead of learning how demonstrate. and not from the information that it imparts.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . . . . New York City. of these theoretical views. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 12mo. $1. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.

" This volume etc. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. i2mo. Maps. photographs.40 is distinguished from a large number of American text-books in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Topics. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. This book is up-to-date not only in its matter and method. Cloth. and a full index are provided. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. $1. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. diagrams.

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