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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH.
1910. Cushlng Co. 8.COPYRIGHT. 1911. 1910 . 1915. Published Set up and electrotyped. September. 1917. . . Berwick & Smith Co. Norwood. January. May. July. May.' February. Reprinted 1913. August. September. Mass.S. IQJS January. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. U. 1916.A.. J.
. shortcuts that solve only examples real value." this book. and conse . chief : among These which are the following 1. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. manufactured for this purpose.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. owing has certain distinctive features. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. however. are omitted. specially 2. etc. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.
in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. however. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . For the more ambitious student. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". especially problems and factoring. two negative numbers. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. as quadratic equations and graphs. Moreover. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. are placed early in the course. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. may be used to supplement the other. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. Topics of practical importance. etc.g. hence either book 4. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. e.
in " geometry . and commercial are numerous. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. elementary way. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. By studying proportions during the first year's work. physics. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. is based principally upon the alge . Moreover. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. based upon statistical abstracts. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application." Applications taken from geometry. viz. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. such examples.
however. NEW YORK. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. . genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910. William P. edge of physics.
SUBTRACTION. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . Powers... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ..... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..... ......... .
Type III.. . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. .. Type Polynomials.. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. * . . Type VI. Type II. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .114 . Type V.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Type IV. /^ .
. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ....... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ... ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . CHAPTER XIV 169 .. Evolution of Monomials 170 .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
is 28. 0. \/c. 11. 16. + c). 5Vl6c. 15. are trinomials. e. some number is . or 9 Vx. 17. 2 . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 27. 4(a 6(6 + &). V3 . 7 = 2. 26. 4V3~6c. 9. aVc^. since the parts are a . V^a6. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. V36". Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). v'Ta. b = 3. c f d). V2a. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 12. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. d 7. 3. 10. Val \fi?. 13. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 8. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. [6c] 3 . a polynomial of two terms. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 6. 6.g. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + 1]. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. (cfd) 4. !^f\/03 3 ft.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. as in arithmetic. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. c = 1. A binomial is 62 . x 9. 14. 2. find the numerical value of: Vff. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2.
g. 6. 14. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.e. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 2.30 = 270 . 8. 5c +d 2 . 5. 6. 2. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a=4. 3 2 If 1. __ E.390. d = 0. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . d=Q. 5=3. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. multiplication.. 12. = 32 + 4527 = 50. Ex. 16.9. find the numerical value of: 9. x=^. 4a6fVaV2^. 4 .9 aWc + f a b . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. Ex.5 ax 50 a6cd. i. (a (a f b) 7. . EXERCISE 8*  .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 52 . c = 2. 4. l 13.INTRODUCTION 29. . b = 3. 3 4 . 3.810 + 150 = . . a 2 6.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . a2 11. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.4 6^9 ad. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.2 + I126. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. * For additional examples see page 268. . c=l. Otherwise operations of addition.99.19 = 6. 1. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . + 26+3 c. subtraction. 10. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 2 ). 5.
= 3. 29. 23. 6 = 5. 22. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6. sible to state Ex. 26.6 f c) (6 a + c). 33. 6 = 3. Six 2 . 35.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 5. a = 4. 6 = 7. 26 of the exercise. . 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. physics.6 . a. and other sciences. a =4. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 34. a =3. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 28. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 38. 6 = 6. 6=2. a = 4. 6 = 1. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. a = 3. 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). Read the expressions of Exs. 24.c) (a . 30. 27. a = 2. geometry. Express in algebraic symbols 31. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a a=3. 37. 6 = 6. 25. 30. if : a = 2. 6 = 2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. : 6. 6 = 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 3.
count the resistance of the atmosphere. 2. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and 5 feet. 12. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.INTRODUCTION E. the area of the triangle equals feet. c. if v : a. A train in 4 hours. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.g. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v . i. (b) 5. and 15 feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. if v = 30 miles per hour. 13.) Assuming g .seconds.e. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.16 1 = 84. d. b. and 13 inches. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 4. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 14. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. Find the height of the tree. An electric car in 40 seconds. . 15 therefore feet. (c) 4. b 14.16 centimeters per second. then a 13.
diameter of a sphere equals d feet. meters.14 4. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. ~ 7n cubic feet. If the (b) 1 inch.). : 8000 miles. is H 2 units of length (inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. square units (square inches. 32 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.14 square meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). 5. the area etc. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 10 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14d (square units). 2 inches. the 3. (c) 5 F.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 8000 miles. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. (c) 5 miles. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. $ = 3. (The number 3. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or positive and negative numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In algebra. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. however. . or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION.
if : a a = 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. (_ In Exs. is 0. 2326. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. . d = 5. 22. (17) 15 + (14). find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 23. of: 20. of 2. lf(2). 4. 33. = 5. 6 6 = 3.  0. 10. is 2.3. 4 is 3 J. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. + 12. the one third their sum. 18. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 0. 21. Thus. 24. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. '. c = 4.16 32. + (9). 19. 5. subtract their absolute values and . c = = 5. 12. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.
and 4. \\ Add 2 a. 66. ' Find the average of the following 34. 1. and 3 a. & = 15. $7000 gain. 4 F. 7 yards. 36. & 28.5. }/ Add 2 a. 2. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.13. 27. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 41. . 10.4. 43. . : 48.. and 3 yards. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. ' 1? a 26. 60..7. 37. 29. 31. 32. = 23. 55. $3000 gain.ADDITION. 6. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. ^ ' 37. 6. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors.. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. or and . 7 a. 11 (Centigrade). . 32. : 34.7. 5 and 12. $1000 loss. and $4500 gain. 40. = 13. 4. 13. $500 loss. . SUBTRACTION. 42. 2. 72. which are not similar. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 38. 25. = 22. 10. 33. 12. and 3 a. . 09. 35. : and 1. d= 3. 3. and 8 F. 0. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 3 and 25. c=14. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. are similar terms. .5. . 10. 34. c = 0.3. 74. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 39. affected by the same exponents. and 3 F. 6. 7 a. 30. sets of numbers: 13. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.
Algebraic sum. 3a . 2(af &). 13. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 5l 3(af6). EXERCISE Add: 1. 14 . f 4 a2.13 rap 25 rap 2. 2 a&. Vm f. . 10.sign. b a f ( 6). or a 6. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.ii. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. + 6 af . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . in algebra it may be considered b. 2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.18 35. 12Vmfn. 5 a2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. The sum x 2 and f x2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 5Vm + w. 7 rap2. 11. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. : 2 a2. 12 2 wp2 . 12(af b) 12. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 9(af6).
+ / + 3 Va. 2 2 2 31. 37. 21. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 35. n x* 2 22. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 1 27. 32. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. + y. without finding the value of each term 34. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 36. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 6 23. +m """ 20. c 2 ^24. is . l^S 25. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. SUBTRACTION. ra 19. 2/ : Add. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 33. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 30. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. and to add each column.ADDITION. 2 7 1 26. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17. a a8 ZL **.
the erroneous answer equal 7.41 = 3.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 2 .g. therefore the answer is correct. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 6=2. V3.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2 Sum. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 5 . 7 4. 2c. NOTE. 5. . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. = . 9 q 4. 4 = 7.15 6c. 4 2.7 2 . to add 26 ab . x of x.3 s. of that letter. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . ft any convenient and c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.8 abc .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 46 4z 7 c.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.o c and 4.g. . s. e. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. and 2 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . f 110WS: 26 aft. 2 Thus. a 4. c = 1.12 a& 4. 3a 2? . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.15 abc .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 2 025. and J 2 s. to show any error. 3 a f 4 1) 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .20 c 5 ab 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 3. .c= 2. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.
. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2 a.(b + c) 1.and 6.3 mn 2 2 n8 . .6. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 3(c f a). 19.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 16. a + 1> 8 2 2 . . 7ar + 3B 5. + 50 + 62 . a 4 a . 3 2 2 3 9 .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a 4 a .10 Vc.12. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 2 .8 m 2m 12. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.9(a + &) . xy3xz + yz. SUBTRACTION. and and 13. and .2n 2 2 3 rz . . e a4 /. in 8 3 m n 4. and 5 Vb 18. 4 8 3 4 4 . 8. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .1 a 4 1 0.a 4 a 4 1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.a. and 1 4 a . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.a. 4(a . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. a) y ^/. v/20.15 5.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . a2 2 14.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 4 Vc.12(a 4. 4 3 . 2 2 and . 56 w. 18/+6y + d. . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .12 6 ~5 a . 4 ajy 17. and 8 3 . . . and 12a 4 15& 20c .1. . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.4:xy xz 6yz.ADDITION. and v 15. . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 16e + 17/90. ?/ .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.VS 4 2 Vc. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .Ga 43x45.5a^6 f 6) .4 Va .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.5 cr& + 7 6 9. m 4 6. ^2 1 e. d.7m . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 2 ?/. + a + 1. . d and / 3 ? 12. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a. 2 ?ft ?/z. 11.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 and 9m 48m 4.a . 4. a2 a.7v/if.
11 xy + 12.4 2tn* Sic 2 . + 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. 1.22 21. f number may be added 3. .ra + m. 1. . 45a6 2 . + n*. a 6 2 c.5< 3 2 s 4^4. +d a. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and e + 6y . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.. .17 + 4 ?nfy .9aj 2. f 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. T8a. and 2 24. f 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. is 2. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 6 f c 2 23. If you diminish a person's debts.3^* 2n 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . many negative units re main ? from 2. 8 . 22. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. s . how 1. 1/ . and 25. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . The sum and ? 1. 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1. 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 12 xyz. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.
7. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. two numbers are given. 5 is 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.3. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. This gives by the same method. called the minvend. 41. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract to . ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 6 (3) = 8.g. In addition. +b 3. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 1. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. From 5 subtract + 3. To subtract. NOTE. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.2. ab = x. Therefore any example in subtraction different . In subtraction. Or in symbols. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ( 6) ( = . the other number is required. Ex. from What 3. a. the given number the subtrahend. 2. and their algebraic sum is required. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. . if x Ex.
5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t . Ex.f 8 .3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.a 2 j.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 54. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. c f d.4 a^ 4. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. tract 4 x 3. 50. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 48. 52. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . of a 4. 51.7 a . .c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 2y 2 . and 3 7/ . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 55. 58.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 41. 42. + a the 2 a.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 2. 57. 44. 6 4 a.4 a*& + 6 a & . From 2 a take a & j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 49. 45. 53. From From x2 the sum sum 7.6)f. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 56. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. check the answer. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 47.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 6(af. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 43.w>t. 46. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.2. SUBTRACTION.ADDITION.
to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.15. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. subtract # + 1. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . A is n years old. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 6. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 20. a 2y + z. 16. 2 m 21. a + 6. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. a a + c. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +a add the difference duce 13. + 2. of # 2 8. + 6 + c.26 4. 9. 6 17.
c. the sign is understood. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. I. 45. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. changed. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.2 b . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. & f c.6 b f (. one occurring within the other.g. II.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. . a+(bc) = a +b .b c = a a & f f.ADDITION. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 46.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Ex.a^6)]  } . SUBTRACTION.
14. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.(a + 6). 18. Ex. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.7i h jp) (m ?*. 16. 15.: Ex. m f ft) a. + (2a 6 + c ).1422) J ] . a (a + 6). 4. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).+ 6)f (a2 b). 2 2 2 a(. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 6. a (a + 26 c ). By removing parentheses. 8. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 9. . 271 + (814 . ? 11. (m a2 f. a f (a a . : x + (2yz). 2a (4a 26 +c ).)]. 2. Signs of aggregation 1. In the following expression inclose the second and third. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 17. 3 3 f 7. 3. may be inserted according to 43. 21.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 19. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). [36+ (a 2c]. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].[271 47. 6) 2.y (60. 13.) 5 . 5. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 2 2a.
7. 10. a\l> > c + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 7. SUBTRACTION. The sum^)f m and n. 12. first. The difference of a and 6. The product The product m and n. II. 6 diminished . 6. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. y f 8 . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. and the subtrahend the second. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. z + d. m and n. )X 6. 13. . 5 a2 2. 5^2 _ r . terms 5.4 y* . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The square of the difference of a and b.ADDITION. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 2. 9. 4. ' NOTE. 3. p + q + rs. 2mn + 2q3t. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.2 tf . of the cubes of m and n.1. 8. 3. 5. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.7fa. difference of the cubes of n and m. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. m x 2 4.
d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.) . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 18.30 14. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 16.
weights. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. A A A 1. therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads what What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 3. what force is produced by the Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 2. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 4. 5. If the two loads balance. two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB.
( (.9) x 11. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. the multiplier is a negative number. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 5x(4). such as given in the preceding exercise. or plied by 3. . Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Practical examples^ it however. 4x(3)=12. 4 multi44444 12. NOTE.4)(. 4 multiplied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. becomes meaningless if definition. 9 9. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. thus. (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. To take a number 7 times. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 x ( 11). 48. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.32 8. (5)X4. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. x 11. Thus.4)(4) = + 12.
5. 30.(4J). 4 a2 . _2^ 3. 24. _3. . 23. (4)'. and y = 4.MULTIPLICATION 50. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. _2. (c#) . 22. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 9. Ua b 28. 2. 32. etc. 5x3. NOTE. 16. 27. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 15. 3 aW. 14. 6 2. 29. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 4. 10. (4)X(15).(a&c) 2 2 . (10) 4 .2. (2) 8 (. X(5). 6. 12. find the numeri values of: 21. about fac (2)X If 6. 3. .a)( =+ a&. 17. tors is no misunderstanding possible. . 3 a2?/2 . z s 11 aWcx. 13. 7. 2a6 c .7. Law Thus. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.3) (1) 7 2 . (2)x9. +5. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&.2 f+x 2 . 3. 19. b = 3. 26. 2a 2 6c. 8 4 . 20. 11.2f 18. (. is 6x7.3. 6.4. the parenthesis frequently omitted. x= 0. 1. . 1. 4 . of Signs: TJie positive. c = 25. If a cal = 4a6c. . 8. 8 31. (7) X (12). x.
2). 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a 2 2 . 12 U U .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. m*.  2 2. 127  127 9 7 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. . 6. a = 3. (a6) (a5) 9.35). 2 2 2 .m a 3  4 . 3 3 4 .e. 14. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.<?. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.(7). 53. + 2/). &*) c d*. 6 aWc x . . 2. 6 = 1. 200.3). 34. 78 .7. . 6" 127 U . 16. 1. 6 = . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 4. 3. 3 2 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. of the factors. 4. 2(7. 7. & = 3. IB. = 2.2 2 23 + 5 . 2. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. This 52. .503).. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 13. a = 2. 50(112.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . B. i. 9 .6 if 35. 5 = 2. .(12) .  and 2 25 8 .. 10. 5 3 5 3 2 . 4. 5. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5(711. =2 a *. 2 2 3 6 .257). 5 . 2(14. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. a= 1. 36. By 3 definition. Ex. 3.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 100. Ex. 17. 11.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.(2. : 3a7abc. or 2 . a8 a=2. fl*" integers. 2 3 .
6(10420430).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.6. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 11(3. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 34.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . . . . 35 4 7(6. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 19. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).7 w'W (8 n^W). 35.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 26. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 12( + 1 4 i). . 6. 21. 2. 29. .7pqt. 20. called the distributive law. (. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. multiply each by the monomial. 4.f 2). 2(645410).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 3(124342). 27. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 3.3 win ) . _4aft. 31. 23. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. but we shall assume it for any number. 7. and then adding : 1. ) 2 33. 5. by first multiplying.A). c(4a ftc ). 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 28. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 22. Thus we have in general a(b 56. (. 2(5fl5f25).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 17(10041042).2 3 aft ). 25. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. This principle. 7p*q r*.4a#. 2 32. 24. 23(10004100420). . If results ft. /).
3 aftc). 5). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 20. 26. : expression must 24.asa product. By what 25. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). ~2mn(m +n p ). 2 m(mhn \p). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 23. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 28. 11.2 mn(9 mV .60 a& 10 aft.5 w*V f 7 wn). . 7 a 6 c(.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 29. . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .we b) (x law. 17.6 a6). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 12. 3 ).5 x 7). 22.^ c + 2 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 2 16. be multiplied to give 4o. Find the factors of 6 ary . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 2 27. 9.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . Find the factors of 5 a 6 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. f7a. 21. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 19. 30.
3 b by a 5 b. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. a2 + a8 + 3 .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 2a3b a66 2 a . To multiply two polynomials.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors. Check. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.1. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 2 + a8 . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 59. Ex. 2. the student should apply this test to every example.4. however. . Since all powers of 1 are 1.a .
I (mfn)(m4. 36). 11. 3<7). 32. (8r7*)(6r39. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 10. 1). 5. 2  37. ^ 2 . 6. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 36) I) 14.2). 28. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (2w 19. 2. 29. + & + 1f a^faj 1). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . . 9. 2 . (6p (2 f 21. (4a 2 33.4) (mnp 4.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 7y).1 . 31. 7. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 12)(a?^2l). (13 A. (6i7n)(llJn). 2 . 41. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). * For additional examples see page 261. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). OQ OO. 4. (6a~7) 2 . 25. 15. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 30. 24. 26. 22. . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2) (3 A: 1).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 4 2). 40. 20.2m)(l m). l)(raf 2). (2 x* x 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 36.4) (x + 1). 18. QQ O7. (a^26) . 35. 16. 12. 8. 17. 13.
i. 15. 7. 24.e.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 3. (10+ (1000 (2. (J 23. 19. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (6 12) (6 f. 25 a 2 . + 9)(m+9). 18. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4). 8. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (ra.2 6) (a f 6). (a (a (a. 13. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 2 a? 29. 21. + 2) (a f 3). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 27. 10. 1005x1004. _3)(a _4). 14. 22.13). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 1) (10 + 2). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 28. (p12)(p + ll). (a3)(a + 2). . (*. 9.n)(wf w). : 23 2. plus the product 62. 11. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. X 102. (a 102 x 103. (!)(* 5). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 26. in of the two unequal terms. + 5) (1000 + 4). 25.4). 2 6) (a 3 6). .!!)( (a + 21). i. 17. (a 9) (a + 9). + 3) (a 7). 20. 2) (1000 + 3). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 12. 75 ab f 54 ft . + 60)(f2). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).e. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 6. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. . plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. ft 16.
Ex. . 33. a2 2 w + 2 w . 8. 2 (a (*5) 2 . n2 10ii+16. w 2 ro .e. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 37.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. and the second. plus the square of the second. : 24 (a 2. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15. (x+3i/) 2 .66 s.e. 4. + 3) 2 . 3. III. 6. (a2) (p a . of the second.e. III. 2 5. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 63. 31. p 2 p. (a26) 2 . + 6 a + 8. plus sum of two numbers the square II. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 77ie square of the of the first.15. . 9. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 32. second. 35. 34. 7. i. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. <J>7) J . 7 a + 10. plus twice the product of the first and the second. i. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 49 y*.30. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.
17. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl.998 39. 51. ). (6afy 2 5) (a. 45. 41. + 5). 7& ) 25. 23. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. (2x3yy. 29. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 104 2 37. 99x101. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 4 53. + 5)(5+a). 2 J ). 2 (4a36) 2 13. 62 25n 2 . 2 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 54. . 52. 40. 21. 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. 14. 32. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 9 a2 . 15. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. The product of 57. 48. ( 27. 55. 16aW25. 11. 46. n 2 f4n+4. 35. + 3z) 2 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (^. (a 3) 2 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. By actual multiplication. 22. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). (100 + 2) (100 2). a2 9. 31. 991 2 2 . 49. 41 16. (20 f 1) . (1000 2 . . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. . 47. 998x1002. . 103 36. m 2 16. 38. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 28. 42. G> +5g)*. 12. 22 2 . 18. n*6n+9. 33. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 . 25 a 9. 44. 24. I) 2 . 34.
9. 4. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (3m + 2)(ml). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ((5a? (10 12. 65. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 8. 2 2 + 2) (10 43).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (4s + y)(32y).& + c) = a + tf + c . The square 2 (a 4. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 5. 2 10. : 25 2. 14. 7. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 13. or The student should note minus signs. 6. (5a4)(4al). . ) (2 of a polynomial. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the last terms. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (5a64)(5a&3). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 11. 3. (2a3)(a + 2). sum of the cross products.
5. 2)6.4) . = 10 x .5).5) = (7 . = . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 2 2.(= [ Xa + 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.39. Find the square root 11.24 .3)(z. 6. 12. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .29.8 x + 15] . 66. after multiplying the factors of a term. 3.(x . Simplify (x + 6) (a .i2&c) 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (a (. 7.3) . + 6)( . 4y sf n) 2 . Hence. 3.(>. + 65) .y? + 8 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. and check the answers !.r _ 2 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 6~2(a + 7).(m 2 6.3) (x . (u4& + 3c'. 13. 4(* + 2)5(3). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). a. Ex. If x = 1. .X2 + 2 x .4) . 6(a 2. 9. 7. 4(aj2)h3(7).1 5 = 10 .[a? . 4. n). (  2 4) =  20 a. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.24] . 8. 5. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.39. 8. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). of z : 10. (xy+z)*. Check. 4.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
20. . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .e. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .l.2) (3 a . v/17. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 18. 51 15. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 16.DIVISION 14.2).11 a + 9 a . . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (81 m + 1 . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. Division of the difference of two squares. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 19. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). a I.
12. 9& 2 . 121a a 16 100 11. : the following w a 4 !. f 13. aW 12 a. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 15. 16 .0001.49.000. 100ry. 1. r/ 1. 14. . 10.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 4 b. 16.
ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. hence it is an equation of condition. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 82. . x 20. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. Thus.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. the 80. the first member is 2 x + 4.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . 83. in the equation 2 x 0. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. second member is x + 4 x 9. is said to satisfy an equation. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. =11. 81. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.
the quotients are equal. 3. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. To solve an equation to find its roots. A term may be transposed from its sign. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. but 4 does not equal 5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.b. . x I. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 90. 87. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. If equals be subtracted from equals. A 2 a. the sums are equal. 5. If equals be added to equals.2. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 86. If equals be divided by equals. called axioms 1. the divisor equals zero. NOTE. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the products are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. A numerical equation is one in which all . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. one member to another by changing x + a=.54 84.g. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.e. Transposition of terms. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. . the remainders are equal. 4. E. 85. 2 = 6#f7. 89. 2.
= 2 (11 3 y) + #*. x = (Axiom 3) 92. x = 93. 3 y . To solve a simple equation. a= a 6fc. b Adding a to both + a. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. . a? Adding 5 to each term. b c.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 91.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. The first member. if 55 x members. is correct. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.8. 2 x = 6.6 y f y\ . 4x 1 + 6. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Uniting similar terms.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. f If y 20 .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. (4y)(6.9 y + y2 = 22 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Dividing by Check. Subtracting 4 x from each term.2 y= f . Uniting. Check. 2(11 . if a x = b.2. The second member. Unite similar terms. Ex. Transposing. and the known terms to the second. The first member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. x = 3. Hence the answer. Dividing both members by 2. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.
4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 11. 32 = 264. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 8. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 15. .. 3. J.56 Ex. + 16 = 16 + 17. a. 12. and check the answers 9. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 24. a. If x = 18.7a: = 394a. 3. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 9 9a? = 7 13. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. Dividing by Cfcecfc..69. {(x (x The The member right member left .7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). \x x 2^xfl. = 2 ?/. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. = 7. : 5# = 15+2a. 19. f Simplifying. 13a? 3a?. 7a? 5. etc. aj * See page 264. = 3. 14. Uniting. Solve the following equations by transposing. 4. x x 1 . =2 = 3. a? a?. = 5a?+18. x = 18. + 7(3 + 1) =63. v23. 11 ?/ a? 18. 50. + 22. 17 7 a. it NOTE. 3 7 a. 7 (6 x 16). 6. 4a + 5 = 29. 2. 16. 4y 10. 17 + 5a. 20. 7. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 22. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.17 + 4y = 36. Transposing. 247y = 68lly. 21. . a?.
1) (u . : One part is of 70 is 25 .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 27. 41. find the other part. 7) (a. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 5) (as (a.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 7(7 x y 26. a? 28. . 30. 40. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. (6 u =5 44. . . . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 39.12) (2 + 5) .5) = (a. . 31. 33.7) (7 x + 4) . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. + 4). 25. .(2 + 6) (4 . Evidently 45. or 70 a?. 2 2 * Jaj. 29. 42. + 7) (.2) (M . .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. (aj 37. e.3) . . 36.5(2 u .4) + 4 w . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. a? 43.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 6(6a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.3) + 14. 38. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .32. 35. .3) + . this question.g.5) + 199. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). (a. 34.1 0) = 0.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. is the other part. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.14 = 0.
$> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Divide 100 into two 12. 7. Ex. 6. 11. so that one part Divide a into two parts. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Divide a into two parts. is a? 2 is c?. 3. 10.58 Ex. 17. EXERCISE 1. so that of c ? is p. 14. so that one part The difference between is s. greater one is g. Find the greater one. 15. a. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . one yard will cost 100 dollars. or 12 7. smaller one 16. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. and the smaller one parts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. If 7 2. is d. 1. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. find the cost of one yard. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 9. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 13. 4. 33 2. 6. is b.
A man had a dollars. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 24. 28. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. Find 35. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B has n dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 33. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. How many cents had he left ? 28. and spent 5 cents. numbers is x. 20. find the of their ages 6 years hence. How many cents has he ? 27. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find 21. 34. amount each will then have. A dollars. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. If B gave A 6 25. b dimes. 19. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 28. is A A is # years old. ?/ 31. find the has ra dollars. and B's age is y years. 22. sum If A's age is x years. A feet wide. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 32. and c cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. 26. and B is y years old.
Find x % % of 1000. A cistern is filled 43. a. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. % % % of 100 of x. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. of 4. 48. 46. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. The first pipe x minutes. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. A was 20 years old. of m. The two digits of a number are x and y. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). c a b =  9. per Find 5 Find 6 45. Find the number. find the fraction. 49. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. . he walk each hour ? 39.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. m is the denominator. Find a 47. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. Find a. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.50. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.
same result as 7 subtracted from . 5. 3. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. of x increased by 10 equals x. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 2. 4. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c. 6. The excess of a over b is c. 80. a exceeds b by c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 9. The double as 7. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a increased much 8. by one third of b equals 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. etc. double of a is 10. c.
(d) In 10 years A will be n years old. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. . B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and C's age 4 a. 14.. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 50 is x % of 15. B's. In 10 years the sum of A's.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. B's. a second sum. amounts. sum equals $20. a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. x 4 If A. 11. 17. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. and C have respectively 2 a. express in algebraic 3x : 10. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars.62 10.000. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. >. x is 100 x% is of 700. of 30 dollars. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. m is x % of n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (c) If each man gains $500. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 16. as 17 is is above a. #is5%of450. 18. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. pays to C $100. 3 1200 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. A gains $20 and B loses $40. B's age 20. a. 6 % of m. is If A's age is 2 x. 12. they have equal amounts. they have equal of A's. and C's ages will be 100. symbols B.
the required . x+16 = 3(35). equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Find A's present age. but 30 =3 x years. denote the unknown 96. 4 x = 80. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Transposing. Let x = the number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 1. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. In 15 years 10. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In order to solve them. 3z40:r:40z. Dividing. 23 =30. . number of yards.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. the . 15. Check. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. much as 40 exceeds the number. Ex. number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. NOTE. Uniting. be 30 . number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. etc. 2. 6 years ago he was 10 . A will Check. Uniting. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. x= 15. Ex. Three times a certain no. Simplifying. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x = 20. Transposing.
Dividing.64 Ex. . Forty years hence his present age. Find 8. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 4. Find the number. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Let x 3. A will be three times as old as toda3r . by as much as 135 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 300 56. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14. 120. % of 120. Hence 40 = 46f. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. exceeds the width of the bridge. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. A number added number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 5. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 3. 11. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. EXERCISE 1. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find the number. twice the number plus 7. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.2. 13.
numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.000. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. written in algebraic symbols. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. and B has $00. The problem consists of two statements I. F 8. 65 A and B $200. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. two verbal statements must be given. is the equation. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. statements are given directly. The other verbal statement. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. During the following 90 years. A and B have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. 14. If A gains A have three times as much 16. Maine's population increased by 510.000. B How will loses $100. 1. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. B will have lars has A now? 17. five If A gives B $200.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. the second one. and as 15. How many dol A has A to $40. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. . Find the population of Maine in 1800. x. 97. times as much as A. which gives the value of 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. Ex. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x.
To express statement II in algebraic symbols. I. A gives B 25 marbles. and Let x = the Then x +. Dividing. which leads ot Ex. Let x 14 I the smaller number. unknown quantity in Then. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Then. 2x a? x j = 6. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. the greater number. = B's number of marbles. . . Statement x in = the larger number. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 2. consider that by the exchange Hence.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. A has three times as many marbles as B. x x =14 8. = 3. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. B will have twice as many as A. + a f f 8 = 14. the sum of the two numbers is 14. < Transposing. A will lose. to Use the simpler statement. Uniting. x = 8. 8 the greater number. . although in general the simpler one should be selected. the smaller number. terms of the other. = A's number of marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 3x express one many as A. / . 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. If A gives are : A If II. If we select the first one. The two statements I. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. 8 = 11. = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as viz. 25 marbles to B.
Two numbers the smaller. x = 15. Uniting. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 3. Uniting. consisting of half dollars and dimes. B's number of marbles. dollars and dimes is $3. x = 6. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. the price.5 x . The number of coins II.75. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.550 f 310. Check. and the Find the numbers. * 98.25 = 20.. x from I. Find the numbers. 1. Check. The sum of two numbers is 42. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. . Dividing. * ' . the number of dimes.$3. (Statement II) Qx . 3 x = 45.10. Eleven coins. 50. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 11 x = 5. the number of half dollars. Let 11 = the number of dimes.. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. The value of the half : is 11. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Simplifying. x = the number of half dollars. 45 . etc.240. . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. of dollars to the number of cents. have a value of $3.10. is 70. cents.. greater is . Simplifying. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 15 + 25 = 40. 40 x . Find the numbers. 6 times the smaller. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.10. 2. 60. by 44. but 40 = 2 x 20. 50 x Transposing. then. Dividing. w'3. A's number of marbles.
Find their ages. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. the number. Everest by 11. 11. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 5. How many 14 years older than B. 6. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Two numbers The number differ by 39. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. one of which increased by 9. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.000 feet. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. On December 21. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. McKinley. Twice 14. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. How many inches are in each part ? 15. How many volcanoes are in the 8. tnree times the smaller by 65. and twice the altitude of Mt.. A's age is four times B's. as the larger one. United States. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22.68 4. How many hours does the day last ? . cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 9. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 7. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.
69 If a verbal statements must be given. and B has three as A. If 4x = 24.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. . 1. B has three times as much as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. The third verbal statement produces the equation. they would have 3. II. I. B. Ex. and 68. = 48. bers is denoted by x. has. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. Let x II. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. number had. original amount. 8(8 + 19) to C. B. and C together have $80. has. times as much as A. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. are : C's The three statements A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If A and B each gave $5 to C. x = 8. 19. and C together have $80. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. number of dollars A had. III. then three times the money by I. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements.
+ 8 90 x and. 4 x f 8 = 28. 1 1 Check. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x Transposing. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 may be written. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for horses. the third five times the first. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 2. Uniting. each horse costing $ 90. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. The I. number of cows. 185 a = 925.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 9 cows. and. x f 4 = 9. 28 2 (9 5). x = 5. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. x j = the number of horses. 9 5 = 4 . according to III. each cow $ 35. according to II. number of sheep. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. first. and the sum of the . and each sheep $ 15. and Ex. + 35 x 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of horses. III. sheep. = the number of dollars spent for cows. number of cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. three statements are : IT. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The total cost equals $1185. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. cows. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. Dividing.
"Find three is 4. what is the length of each? has 3. 13. the third 2. and 2 more men than women. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000. increased by three times the second side. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.  4. 9. and children together was 37.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). twice as old as B. v . the copper. The gold. what are the three angles ? 10. first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. how many children were present ? x 11.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. New York delphia. 7. first. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . women. twice the 6. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. A 12. If twice The sum the third side. what is the population of each city ? 8. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. equals 49 inches. men. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000. the second one is one inch longer than the first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.
statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. or time.000. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and distance. After how many hours will they meet and how E. Let x = number of hours A walks. = 35. 7 Uniting. . we obtain 3 a. such as length. The copper had twice the value of the gold. of arid the value of the iron was $300.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. but stops 2 hours on the way.000 more than that the copper. Hence Simplifying. Find the value of each. width. A and B apart.g. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and quantities area. number of miles A x x walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. how many 100. speed. 8 x = 15. together. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 14. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.e. 3 and 4.000. First fill in all the numbers given directly. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. i. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Dividing. = 5. number of hours. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. of 3 or 4 different kinds. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.
x . Multiplying.053.05 x x . l. . the area would be 100 square yards less. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Check. $ 1000 x . z = 20. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. $ 800 = required sum. . But 700 certain = 800 2. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 2 a = 40. Transposing and uniting. 10 x = 200. 2   and transpose. + 8." gives (2. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.01 = = .M(x .04 = $ 40. The an area 40 x 20 =800. original field has Check.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.04 8. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. or 700. 70x10 Ex. $ 800 = 800. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. x .06 = $ 40. were increased by 30 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. x + 200). the second 100.
but as two of them were unable to pay their share. of coffee for $ 1. twice as large. A man bought 6 Ibs. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A sum ? invested at 4 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. mobile. A sets out later two hours B . Six persons bought an automobile. sions of the field. 1. were increased by 3 yards. After how many hours will B overtake A. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A of each. as a 4. but four men failed to pay their shares. together bring $ 78 interest. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. What are the two sums 5. Find the share of each. invested at 5 %. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and a second sum. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and its width decreased by 2 yards. 3.55. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. 2. the area would remain the same. Ten yards $ 42. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. After how many hours.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.
if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. consider 105. a. at this 6 2 . a.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 76 . f db 6 to b. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. expression is rational with respect to a letter. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . vV . it is composite. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a2 to 6. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . 6. this letter. irrational. if it does contain some indicated root of . which multiplied together are considered factors. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. we shall not. 104. stage of the work. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . An after simplifying. as. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. + 62 is integral with respect to a. 5. if. but fractional with respect 103.
3 sy + 4 y8). 1. 110. 109.) Ex.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Ex. for this result is a sum.62 can be &).FACTORING 106. 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 8) (s1).9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Divide 6 a% .62 + &)(a 2 . E. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. or that a = 6) (a = a . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 55. it follows that a 2 . It (a. 107. factors of 12 &V is are 3. . 2. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.3 6a + 1). 2. TYPE I. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . x. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. ?/. in the form 4) +3. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.g. Factor G ofy 2 . . 01.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . x. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 77 Factoring is into its factors. y.
4. 32 a *?/ .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 + q. Ilro8 9. 2 23. 15. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. a a 'Ja . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 13. 2 6.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 14a 4 5. 2 Or. TYPE IT.5 + 2. 8.2. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 3 2 . 3. 2. 11. 3 3 5 6. 5f 2 . q*q*q 2 a. 15 2 7.5 + 13 8.45 afy . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 4 tfy f.51 aW + 68 21.3. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 3x*6x*.4. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. e. 19. 7i 13. 7a & 10. .12 cdx. . ) 22  2. 18.3.g. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. (as 3) and (ccf5).4. 4 8 . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 16. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. in general. 2 2 . 34 a^c 8 . : 6 abx . + llm llm. 14.6.8 c a 15 ofyV . a6c. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 12. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. obviously.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 17. 20.5 x*y 2 17 a? .30 aty.
1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.1 1 a tf a 4. Factor + 10 ax .G) = . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.4 x . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. tfa2  3. 2.4 . Factor a2 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 3.11 a + 30. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 4. of this type. If q is negative. as p..5) (a 6).77 = (a. 11 7.FACTORING Ex. We may consider 1.a).11) (a + 7). . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. + 112. m 5m + 6. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.6 = 20. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Therefore Check. 77 as the product of 1 77. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 30 = 20. determine whether In solving any factoring example. or 7 11. .11. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.5) (a . 2 6. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Factor x? . however. 5. a 2 . the two numbers have opposite signs. Ex. can be factored. . or 77 l. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. but of these only a: Hence 2 .30 = (a . and (a . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Ex. If q is positive. 79 Factor a2 4 x . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.11 a 2 .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 16.180 a. 14. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 4 2 .70 x y . 2 . 13. . 27. a? + 5 + 6 a. ITT. + 4?/21. 31. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 33. 26. 12.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 19. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 . 16. + 2xS.48 + + 446 200. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 36. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a 7 a 30. 18. 32. 2 ?/ 5?/14. x2 23. . 100 xr . or . 9. 24. + 5<y 24. 15. 2 2 a' 34. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ay 11 ay +24. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 35. and 5 x. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 4 3 2 . 29. 21. + 30.6.500 x + 600. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x.80 7. 2 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. ra + 25ra + 100. 20. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 ?/ 28. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 17. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 2 ?/ 22. 21 a 2 2 . a2 . 25. + 44. 8. TYPE 113. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 30.17 + 30. 11.
The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. X x 18.1). 54 x 1.13 x + 5 = (3 x .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 9 x 6. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 3 x and x. the signs of the second terms are minus. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. viz. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5 . 11 x 2x.83 x f 54. 6 x 9. and r is negative. Ex. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.5) (2 x . 27 x 2. then the second terms of have opposite signs. a. the If p and r are positive. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. but the opposite sign. . sible 13 x negative. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . Factor 3 x 2 .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2 x 27. 2. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. If p is poxiliw. or G 114. and that they must be negative. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 18 x 3. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.
+ 2/3.y + 172/9. 2m t7w + 3. 16. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 25. and the monomial factors should be removed. 11. 2 .2) (x . 10a?2 2 33. . x54 a. 9a. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 .19 a f 6. Sar' + SaG. 4.83 x . 2 fc . 10a2 G a2 2 . 3. 20.2 a 90 x*y . 2 2 2 23. 32. 13. since all others (II. 4a2 9tt + 2. 7. 100^200^ + 100^.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 35. 2 31. . 2 28.30 y 6 4 . 21.27).13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. + 4. 14. 30. 2 2 2 . 12y 2/6. 6n + 5?i4. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 15. 5.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 34. 3a + 13a. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 10 a . 144 x . 18. 2.179.163 x 2 .83 x = (3 . 19. X 27 . 9. 14 a fa 4. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. the expressions should be it. 24. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 6. 12^17^16. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 90 a 8 2 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 17. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2x* + 9x5. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 22.300 ab 2 f4 250 . f go. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 29. 10. 12.7. 8. 9 y + 32^16. .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .260 xy . : 41 2. 2 26.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 5m 26m f 5. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .
Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 3. 2 9 10gf25. . 116. square. 9 10a625. 5.20 xy f 4 y\ .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and a perfect square.10 x f 16. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 25 7. form are special cases of the preceding type. 4. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. and factor whenever possible : 1. 12. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 11. x* . it is a perfect square. 2 2 . 13. i. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 8. it is more convenient for that type. 10. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .e. 9. 2. however. . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. must have a positive sign. 6. 2 . of its terms are perfect squares. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 14.
48 a +( ). 6. ^//c to the Ex. . 25. 10 a 2 4 2 .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 5. product i. 2 20. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 1. +( )f816 30. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 18.60 a# + 4. 3. 2. 16&*. TYPE 117. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 19. 4a2 l. 9a2 . 17. 2 . 4 2 23.6 m* + 9 m. prime. + GO + 25.20 ab + 10 b a . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a2 24. a. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 36 2 4. 2 . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. V.2 ofy + ofy m . 3. 2 . 27. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). aV .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 16. 29.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . Ex. .3 * ).64 6 = 16(a . According to 65. 9. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 6 2 . 2. ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . * 2 . 26. u2 6& + 2 ( ).e. 225 ofy . 7. a. 22. ). 149 a 81 8. ).84 15. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. !Gar 9 ( )+25.
(m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. of polynomials.c . 11. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . Factor a 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .(c 4. 2 . T. 36> . 5. 2. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Ex. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 4. a:) 12. a2 . (m7?) y. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(I) . 8.d) 2 . One or both terms are squares 1.FACTORING 85 118. 16p 2 . 13.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 . 6. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 9. Ex. 14. 2.
r. A. x8 . 7. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 6. 12. .a a . a 26 2 2 3 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. ive find that the new terms con common factor. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 10. 4 B. 5. 5) .ab + bx. After grouping tain a the terms. Ex.2 ) (3 x .14. 1. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a? 11.and trinomials.1. which may be factored according to types I. 2. 8. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. By grouping.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ma ?*a + m& nb. Ex. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 119. 9. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.y + 2 2). = (3 x + y .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. + x + 2x + 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 2. 3.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.7 c + 2c . a5 + ab 6 . 4:cx . .VI. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.
8ra 2 + 16.12 aaj 4 6y. . 3. Arranging the terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 2 7. IV. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. II. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. : 46 x* 2. + 2xy + y*q*.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. $ a8 . = (a + 6)(a6). w m 2. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 4.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 36 9 m .4 f . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.FACTORING Ex. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 4. 2. First find monomial factors common to all terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 6 6.l. 2a3/ 7. 5. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. : m 2 2 16. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 3. . 4 a2 . 2.
32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 4 a. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.88 10. 2 a 128. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a6 36. 80 a 2 ft 38. 28.13 c . 3 a2 23. 24. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 25 a + 25 aft .156. 42 x . 30.40. a3 156. 11. 5 a. 13. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 3 25. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 48. 40. 3 2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 2 ft . 13 c . . 5a' 20. 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 17. a + a + a + l. 18. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .310 x . 35. 22. or 3 7#2 . + 6 aft + 3 . 29. (a. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 3 41. 12. 32. (^ 34. 27. 42 s 2 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 14. + 14. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 50^ + 45. a. 19.
The highest is common factor (IT. aW. II 2 . C. of 6 sfyz. 25 W. F. of the algebraic expressions. F. of aW. 3. 121. 12 tfifz. F. F.  23 3 . F. F. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 24 s .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. The H. C. C. 54  32 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . 5 s 7 2 5. 6. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 5. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of two or more monomials whose factors . 122. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. 5 7 34 2s . C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. C. C. C.) of two or more . The H. are prime can be found by inspection. 2. Thus the H. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 5 2 3 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. . EXERCISE Find the H. The student should note H. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 3 . 89 . of : 48 4. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. C. 15 aW. 8 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 2 2 .
8. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.^9. 65 zfyV. y + 3y64. a 3a4. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. F. . 6 3 a. 11. aWd. 25 m27i. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . of + 4 if. F. 12 w*nw 8. ^f a. 9 aj*(a? . a3 9a. 14.8 a + 16. 12. C. a2 + 7af!2. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . ^707 + 12. 6 mx . . 95 2/V. = x 2 y. 2a f5af 2. ^2 2 .?/ . 3.y) .y) 123. 8(?/ifl) 14. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 6(m+l) (m+2). 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 0^80:416.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 5. a. 15 3ao. a2 + 2a3. 5 a6 5^ 2 a.2 y) (a. 12.6.5 x3?/ 2 6. 1. 49 C. 10. 24 a 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). of: . 8 a 10 . To find the H.y + y42. 3).5 + 6. . (a7 ?/) . 7. 2 . 9.y)\ O+ 0^(0.5 y).90 7. 2. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 2 . Find the H. a2 ar* 4. . 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 16 a . 15.6 a&. a2 . 8. 16. x* x2 Hence the H. 225 4a 9 . 38 #y. 57 a>V. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . of polynomials. C. F.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 4(m+l) 3 .6 . 12 . C.2 ?/) (x . . 3 . 1. F. Ex. 11.# 4 afy f 4 .12 as 66 . 2 . a3 16 a. . 3^ 2 4 . ^a + 5^ + 6. 52 oryz4. 6 a2 y? . 8 6. 2 . 10. 13.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . and apply the method of the preceding article. 9. 4 ?io.
6 3 ). of tfy and xy*. M. of several expressions which are not completely factored. To find the L. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . each set of expressions has In example ft). 127. which also signs.C. M. C. 60 x^y' 2 . NOTE. 2 The The L. etc. M. of 3 aW. 2. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. of the general. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.C. 1. L. Common 125. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. ory is the L. . C. M of the algebraic expressions.M. . =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. two lowest common multiples. M. M. 128. Hence the L. C. Find the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. thus. but opposite . Ex.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. a^c8 3 . C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. Find the L. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. The lowest common multiple (L.6)2. A common remainder. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.M. 300 z 2 y. The L. &) 2 M. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . Ex. C. L. 126. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C.
ic 2 ?/. a2 ~ab 1. a. afc'cd 2 . a 2 a3 . . 9.f 6. 20 9 a. a 1. x* ~5a. 16. xy\ . #. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2 a. 2 . 3 f2. 3 ab. 13. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. + 2 7i) . 4 a 5 6cd. 2 10. 15. a& 4 +& 2 . x 2 5 a. 24. 6. 2(m 2 . 20. 4 a f 2. or f 3 a 15 #. by. 2 7ic+10. (a 4)(a2) 12. 5. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 8 afy.1. 1. 3 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 . 3 Z> . a f 2 19. . a 2 f 4 a +4. 6 y. 3 6 xif. 2 a . 3. 2. a 2 fa6. 7. 40 abJ.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. + 2. 6b 2 .1. 3(a + b). x2 + 4 a f 4. 2 x \2 y. G a. of: 4. a. ic 23. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 22. 2 a . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. f b. a !. 4 a . 24 x. a?b. afy. 17. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . M. b 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y. T a 3 a 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. ) . 8. 6 a. a2 4. a f 3. 21. 18. a. a { a~b. a^1. y*. + 6. 11. 30 a. 2 . Find the L. 8 d 5 . 3. 14.
CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. but we In arithmetic. and denominators are considered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. however. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Ex. a?. C. A f fraction is b. successively all 2 j/' . Remove tor. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . a b = ma mb . F. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. an indicated quotient. etc. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. rni Thus 132.ry ^ by their H. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. 131. Thus. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. as 8. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number.
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Ex.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . cancel factors only. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. . 3.
FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^+3*. 9x + "a" 10. ^" a. 16.. LJZJ^JL. 19.7 . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. . """. ' ^ . . 5^10 y 30. g J 21. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.' 32. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 23.10 a + 3 2 14. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. ^' rt ^  31. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 29. ny 4 18. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . _ 3 7i rt< 26.*. nx 17.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . .
mon T denominator. C. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Ex.M. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Reduce ^.C. of the denominators for the common denominator. 2> . multiplying the terms of 22 . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.96 134. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. + 3).r 2 2 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. . we have the quotients (x 1).3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. M. .M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. Divide the L.D. and 135.  of //* 2 . and (a 8). and the terms of ***. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.3) (!)' = .1^22 ' . =(z (x + 3)(z. take the L. TheL. C. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .  by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . . we have M^.C. we may extend this method to integral expressions. 1). 1. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . ^ to their lowest com The L.
7i 2 ab* ". Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. i. .. . 18.oj o* or / . 2aj ~ . o o a. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 137. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 3.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. JL.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . a? 1 5 > ^* . 2 ay IB. 2. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 22 a2 5a * . 74). j y 3. If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). common denominator 6.^1. 8 i i.. . . .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 5?.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.
(a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. T? Ex. (a ft). as 4 aft f..3 ft 2). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. L.2 ' 2 _. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .ft)(a . and adding.g. e. 2 ^. 2. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). in the beginning.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). (a .aft) Ca2 .3 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . ^ is 2^JT) . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.(a 2 6). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . 4(2 a 3 ft).3 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . C.7 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . D. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 = a(a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. The L. the student should remember that parentheses are . ft). D.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .ft) (a ft ft)~.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.
6 c 3a 7. j>0 i> 21. a+6 a 6 2 14. a 36 ++. 2L + 2a 1 17. + . 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. 1 1 f w 16. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. + a "" 2 6 ' . 1 f q * 1 m m . 2. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.5 18 ^4f25. 24. A+2_3. 5a76 4a 106 9. 18 v 19. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20.
a. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 4 31. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 43.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. 3a 9 +. a ?^ 40. 41. ! n. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a 30.9. 2 af1 32.9 79 6 2 i. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ic 1 + 1. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 42. af 1f /j. 1 34.
2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 1. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  4 or 3 2a.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.7 5a v Ex. 101 mixed expression. T.  . . Reduce . .6 + 4x 4 x2 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. .FRACTIONS 139.
and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Since  = a. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.g. multiply the 142. (In order to cancel common factors. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.) Ex. 2. 2 a Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. or. we may extend any e. F J Simplify . !.
50 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5# 56 / c& 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 14. . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.6 12 d6 4.. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
To divide an expression by a fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. 1. To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. : a 41 ab * See page 272. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Divide Xn?/ .
Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.10 ?/ _. are fractional. a a2 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. or both.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.^c 2 2 .6 s + 064.5 ??i 80 50 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. Ex. ga2 4 8 5 a .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. l.afr 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .FRACTIONS 105 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. of their denominators. 6.a ^c c _^ a . 2. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. the answer is directly obtained.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . c +6. 9. JL. . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). y X 4* 2 y 3. a m "" . . Simplify x }. . . Ex. 7i+~ 7. 10. i.y 32 . x* 4. C. & . M. n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. o 15. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 i 1 2 5 . m^n* n L a 17.) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. : . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. sy 18.
 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. each member is reduced to Ex. of the denominator. 2.28 a = 5 x2 . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).f3# + C:E=6f7212.42 + 9. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). = 6.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . a. C.9 x2 + 9. 9x x Check. x = 6. 1. 148. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Clearing of fractions. Transposing. tions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. .48.14 (a.1. 2 3. + 1) (a + 3) .8 x = . Uniting. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Uniting. each member is reduced to 1. If = 64. Bx 12 Qx. If x 6. these Ex. 108 . 5(3 85 Check.l)(z + 3) = . 4 4)  x. = 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. M. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2z2a.28 x + 42 = . 2x Transposing.
15. a: 7 a. 1 *> = 2. ^1 = 9. +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . ^' 2. . 16. +4 14. a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.1 _77 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. . a/  5 a/ = 12. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 18. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. '  4 13.= 2.
. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 32 6 .  38 = 40. 25. y+3~2 29. and" the remaining one a polynomial. . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 .11_4 x 149. 4a4l4* + l~._ _ . If two or more denominators are monomials. 3x 35. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . ?_=_. 27 . . 31 31. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 26 26. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 33.
. each member is reduced to ^. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 5x x : = 9. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. the 1 5 L. .r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and uniting.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. If a.  5 = 20 x 45.29 50712' 9 18 . 26 a. M. Check. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. C. 5# 10. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Dividing.1. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. a. 1. = 9.2 42 9 43. 24 a. 60.
b a a a z Clearing of fractions. . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. =a 2 151. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. If 3ac L= = a ? . = 6 a2 . Uniting the Dividing. = = 6 6c 7 6c. 5> a. y. 4 ac 1.2 ac + 3 aft .3 6 2 = a' . 2. jr. f ~ 5c. fr Reducing lowest terms. they are united by factoring. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting. It frequently occurs that the x.2 62 2 ab.be. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = 2 f b 2 . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.& .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Dividing. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = l^ 9 b 4 . Ex. a. ax f x f.1. Ex. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . find a in terms of b and c. Thus.m bx 2 mn) x.
a. If ^^ = a 1 32. If s If 16. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. If * 33. 15. in terms of other quantities. rate. = rt. . and n the number of years. 34. 9. 12. If s (wi n) x =px + q.= H. f ^o. 6. c. 17. IIL n b + &o. denoting the interest. s = Vt solve for v. 4. 14.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 5. = 8 4 #. 30. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 5) is t =^. solve for a. q solve for/. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. . f P =+!. = vt. t.i l . iw 21. 29. c 18. mx = n. = 3 (6 a). Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. r the number of $>. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). + 3a. 3(* 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 3. m a? x . . ^ ax a^ 26. . 10.= n. _ 2. The The i time. 11. 4. solve for . p the principal. * Solve the same equation for^). co?. + xx = 1.= c a Z> . 13. 2 solve for y a. a. Ex. 1 f. 31.
20 C. A would do each day ^ and B j. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Ex. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 100 C. and 12 = the number over. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. . 2 3 .114 35. is 36. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = 16^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. x Or Uniting. Multiplying by Dividing. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.180. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. then = 2 TT#. Ex. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. Find R in terms of C and TT. 1.. 12.
the required number of days. and the statement. Solving. = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing. in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x. 4x = 80. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 3. Clearing." gives the equation /I). what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore." : Let x  = the required number of days. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 32 x = . u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the rate of the express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. or 1J. But in uniform motion Time = Distance .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day.
Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and 9 feet above water. ceeds the smaller by 4. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. is equal 7. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ex What 5. money and $10. to his daughand the remainder.  Find their present ages. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. of his present age. by 6.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers. is oO. a man had How much money had he at first? . its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and of the father's age. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. to his son. which was $4000. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and one half the greater Find the numbers. by 3. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find A's 8. make 21. length in the ground. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.
) 22. How much money $500? 4%. air. 3. . Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 2. what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and it B in 6 days. ^ at 5%. after rate of the latter ? 15. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A has invested capital at more 4%. 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. 1. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. investments. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B in 4 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.
118 153.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Then ft i. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.414. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.009 918.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. m and n. if B in 3 days. 3.= . it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.g. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. The problem to be solved. and apply the method of 170. e. A in 6. . they can both do in 2 days. . therefore. 2. To and find the numerical answer. B in 16. B in 12. Ex. we obtain the equation m m . is 42. Hence. B in 5. is 57. n x Solving. 25. and n = 3. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. A in 6. B in 30. 26. . A in 4. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.
000. the second at the apart. 33. 4J miles per hour. the rate of the first. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (d) 1. and the rate of the second are. (c) 16.001. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. : (c) 64 miles. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. same hour from two towns.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. if m and n are. . Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 3J miles per hour. respectively. After how many hours do they meet. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 34. Find the side of the square. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Two men start at the first miles apart. 2 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. squares 29. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 5 miles per hour. is ?n . The one: 31. (b) 35 miles. squares 30. meet. and the second 5 miles per hour. is (a) 51. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (b) 149.721. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the area would be increased by 19 square feet.
a ratio is not changed etc. 1. antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. In the ratio a : ft.5. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the second term the consequent. etc.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.g. E. b. the symbol being a sign of division. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. 158. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The first 156. 6 12 = . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. b is the consequent. the denominator The the 157. the antecedent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second." we may write a : b = 6. b. " a Thus. Ex. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .
a and d are the extremes. terms. : ay . Transform the following unity 15. 5 f hours : 2. two  ratios. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 7:4 T T 4 . 4. J:l. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 27 06: 18 a6. 159. 6.RATIO Ex. 16. 61 : ratios 72:18. $24: $8. 12. b. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 3:1}. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. equal 2. b is the mean b. 62:16. The last first three. 4:5f : 5. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 10. extremes. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3. 17. proportional between a and c. 7f:6J. 11. 3 8. 8^ hours. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 1. 9. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. Simplify the following ratios 7. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. and c is the third proportional to a and . 18. 3:4. 16a2 :24a&. b and c the means. : 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. and c.
163. 3 4.__(163. !. i. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.30 grams.e. pro portional. 164. If (Converse of nq. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. ccm.122 162. Hence the number of men required to do some work. ad = be. are : : : inversely proportional. and the time necessary to do it. Clearing of fractions. then G ccm. 2 165. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. In any proportion product of the extremes.) mn = pq.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. briefly. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 163. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 6 ccm. The mean proportional of their product. q~~ n . t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. and the other pair the extremes. of a proportion. : : directly proportional may say. : c. of iron weigh 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. = 30 grams 45 grams.) b = Vac. " we " NOTE. of iron weigh . if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.
1. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) (Called Alternation. (Composition. bd bd. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.PATIO Ex. a:c=b:d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 166. is 4$ = 35.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Division. . a III. I. = 35 . ad = be. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. is Ex. ad ( 163. d d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. then =d c. hence the proportion true. (163. I.) d 167.) II.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. if 6 : 7. Or IV. V. 12x Hence a? = 42. (Frequently called Inversion. + b:b = c + d:d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) = f f = 3 J. 2.
to simplify 48:21=32:7x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. = 20:7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. = 2:x. : x. 3. i. 5.124 IT.!=!*. 6 =4 : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. : 3 = 5 f x : x. IV. the consequents by 7. 10. V. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 2. = 12 5ft. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. E. 9. Simplify the following proportions. 5 5. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. x = 2. = 2:3.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1.e. 8. Apply composition. . 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 180:125. 4. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. Or III. 120:42 2 2 7. = 7:2f 3J. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.g. .
8:1. 2= 5 x x. 2. w. 16 and 28. 6. a. = l^:18. terra 2:3 = 4. 33. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 2 a and 18 a. a?:15 15. Find the 37. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 4.  32. = 3 43 + x. 28.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 16. + fyx = cy. 12. 44. Find the mean proportional 30. 27. Find the third proportional 24. 17. 13. 5.j>. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 46. 1. : a2 . 6x = 7y. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 3. 2. 23. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. rap. 39. = 5 x 12. . 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 112:42 = 10:a. if : 40. rag. x m = y n. 52. 42. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 43. 21. ratio of y. 51. mx = ny. = 15o. 14 and 21. 03:a?=135:20. 41. to : 9 and 12. ra 2 . b. 47. 6 x = y.:ff. (a : : 45. 2 3 = y #. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 34. 26.. 29. a 2 and ab.x: 6:5 a : x. to : a and 1. and 2/. 18. : . 20. : 53. ra. 4 and 16. 38. to: = 35:*. 5= 18 a? : a?. 50. x:5 = y:2. 14. 1 and a. = 2 + x: x. f. 9 x = 2 y.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 3. ra + landra 1. 22. 7iy = 2:x. 3t. 31. 25. 35.
and the : total cost.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the speed of the train. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). A line 7^. and the time. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the time necessary for it. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 57. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 56. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. the area of the larger? the same. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the area of the rectangle. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. what 58. the squares of their radii (e) 55. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.126 54.
2. 18 x = 108. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. : Ex. AB = 2 x. . 7 x = 42 is the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 inches long. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Let A B AC=1x. x = 6. produced to a point C. so that Find^K7and BO. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x x 7 Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. x=2. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. = the second number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2 x Or = 4.000 168. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. is A line AB.
Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. find the number of square miles of land and of water. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many 7. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 13. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 6. Gunmetal tin.000 square miles. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many gen. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.) . 3. : 4. and 15 inches. 9.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 7. 11. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 2. How The long are the parts ? 15. 12. What are the parts ? 5. 12. : 197. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 14. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.000. and c inches. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.
y = 1. expressing a y. =. such as + = 10. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. 2 y = . values of x and y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.L x If If = 0. x = 1.. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. Hence. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.e. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. However. if . The root of (4) if K 129 . there is only one solution. etc.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. a? (1) then I. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. is x = 7.y=. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.
3. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. of elimination most frequently used II. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. the last set inconsistent. The first set of equations is also called consistent. = . Substitution. E. for they express the x f y 10. 26 y = 60. ~ 50. 172. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. By By Addition or Subtraction. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. to The two methods I. 4y . 6x . y = 2. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.X. Therefore. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.26. unknown quantity. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.3 y = 80. 174.130 170. and 3 x + 3 y =. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 21 y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. same relation. y I 171. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. are simultaneous equations.24. viz.
25 x .2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.14 =8. 10 .2 = 6. = 406. y = 2. + 2. add the equations. Check. = 235. 37.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 64 x = 040. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Therefore Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 5 13 . y = 1. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. x = 10. whose coefficients In general. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. x = 10. 3y = 3. Transposing. 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 60 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.3 1 = 47. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. are like. subtract the equations.3 y = 47. 8 2.
I oj 5y = 17. 9 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. 19< I a. + 2/ 17. [2o. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.f2/ ' = 50.5 y = 2. 13. ' 12. ] ^ . * + 3 y = 50.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. . _. 13 61 l7a.v 23. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I .3. = 24.9 *. = 41. x 11. 7 ' 1fi fl . f 3X 7x 14. O t K 8. J I y = 1U. v ^ = ll. I i 3 a.3.4. = 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. i 3. I ~ y~~> 22.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2. = 2y + 10. . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#8. = 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 3. = 60. 8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .
the equation must be cleared of fractions and .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 7 y = 6. however. 4* + 3y = 19. (7) (7) (8) . Substituting in (6) . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 2 y = . 29 x = 29. . + 212y4 = 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 7x_2y=3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.3. From 9 = 36. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. x = l. 3. (4).6)7(y7)==18. \ \6(a. 21z6y=9. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. simplified before elimination is possible. 3 (1) Ex.
16.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. = 3. a. J 9. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. yM a. . 12. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.1) + 5(6 y .1) = 121. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 10 2a?5 17. a. +y 2 . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4 11. . 10. 14.f2 2.
f y .#.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 180. ?~y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. <X + 20. and y. but some expressions involving x. .Q ^ 4 21. 22. {.and x y . 3x\" 1 23 24. e. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. * ((* (( .
2* * x 2. (2) (3) a. . of this type. y 1. 137 Solve y y (1) .4 x = 4 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy. . x 3. etc.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. can also be solved Examples method. however. x 2x(2). Dividing by 11 3 = #. 1. 33 = 11 x. Substituting x = 3 in (1). y. Clearing of fractions. y 4. Therefore y=4. 15 y + 8 x . (4) + (G).
Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x y 5. Ex. x 8. 253 7. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. = en. 6. . x y 331 9. y MOi y a. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 1. 21 9 .138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= 5. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= o 6. 4 13.
ny = fy/ I sc 1.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. bmy bm}y ap cm. ap. d. . a Find a and terms of n. fax f = l. Uniting.W. . . W . f 5. 14. s in 11. x a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x 12. apan cm. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. Dividing.y = = 9a + 46. d. ax + by = 2 a&. x f my = 1. w. and I. 6. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I if 13.
Solve the following system of equations: = 8. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. = 30.1+4. 3.25. etc. by 3. y =* 2. x + 12 y . 3. 182. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3=4.2 + 4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 20.8 = 1. 4. 1. 6.by 2. 8 x . 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.3 = 8. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.13.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. . (4) (5).15z=12 Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8. Ex.16.12 y + 6 z = . = 3.lf> z . Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.2 + 3. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 3y = Hence Check. ties are Similarly. To solve equations containing By tions. l. (8) 2.
k 2/ f 2 x a. 2 4. 2 . 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 49. 14. x 13. a? 11. + 2 y f 2 = 35. ~6?/ 5. 4 = 42. 10. 2z = 40. == 6. a? + 709 = 26. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 15 2 = 45. 7. 12. + y f z = 15.
32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 4. 16. ? = llz.3 y + . = 5. 84 21. 23. 27. ?/ 3x = 0. 60. . 22. 19. = 8*. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. ^ = 2.42 = 2. =s 20. . 1510 4 17.6 2.2 a. . (3 _..
Find the number. ( 99.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1. x : z =1 : 2. and to express In complex examples. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. however. either directly or implied. . 1 = 2. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. z + x = 2 n. Check. + z = 2p. y 31. 2 = 6. = l. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. . The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 digit in the tens place. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 2 = 1(1+6). the number. # 4. + 396 = 521. = 2 m. Obviously of the other . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. +2+ 6 = 8. y * z 30. Ex. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. M=i. symbols: x + y +z 8. and if 396 be added to the number. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.
starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 5_ _4_ A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. direction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 3+1 5+1 4_2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 4 x = 24. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.144 Ex. x 3x4y = 12. B. the distance traveled by A. Ex. Or (4)2x(3). the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. . = 8. y = 3. 3. = the fraction. 2. 2. Since the three men traveled the same distance. increased by one. x 3 = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. By expressing the two statements in symbols. xy a: 2y 4y 2. (1) (2) 12. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. From (3) Hence xy Check. C. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . 6 x 4 = 24. Find the fraction. we obtain. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one.
tion ? 8. its value added to the denominator. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and its denomi nator diminished by one. 1.) added to a number of two digits. 2. 5.}. If 27 is 10. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. number by the first 3. the digits will be interchanged. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. fraction is reduced to \. If 9 be added to the number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the number (See Ex. . Find the numbers. Find the numbers. and the fourth 3. the value of the fraction is fa. added to the numerator of a fraction. ? What 9. the fraction equals . 7. Find the number. Find the fraction. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 183. If the denominator be doubled. the Find the fraction. part of their difference equals 4. Find the number. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the numbers. the fraction is reduced fraction. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. it is reduced to J. 6. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. both terms.
19. the annual interest would be $ 195. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . respectively ? 16. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A man invested $750. now. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.grams. partly at 5 %. 5 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. How 6 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 13. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and 4 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. If the rates of interwere exchanged. in 8 years to $8500. and money and 17. A sum of $10.000 is partly invested at 6%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find the rates of interest. Find their present ages. . and in 5 years to $1125. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 12. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. the rate of interest? 18. and partly at 4 %. 14.
and F. and CE If AB = G inches. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. respectively. 1 NOTE. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. B find angles a. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and angle BCA = 70. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. ED = BE. and F '(see diagram). It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. E. the three sides of a triangle E. 24. and sheep. andCL4 = 8. and AC = 5 inches. and angle e angle/. three AD = AF. are taken so ABC. $ 50 for each cow. BC = 7 inches. is the center of the circum scribed circle. On /). the length of NOTE. 23. c. BD = HE. cows. triangle Tf AD. An C touch ing the sides in D. and e.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. then AD = AF. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. receiving $ 100 for each horse. . angle c = angle d. and F. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. what is that = OF. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and GE = CF. A farmer sold a number of horses. BE. for $ 740. . The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. points. Find their rates of walking. but if A would double his pace. and $15 for each sheep. 25. BC=7. and their difference by GO .
?/. is the abscissa. is The point whose abscissa is a. 3). (3. (2. and PN _L YY'. and r or its equal OA is . and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . PM. 186. or its equal OM. The of Coordinates. (7. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. Thus the points A. and point the origin. PN are given. (2. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PJ/_L XX'. first 3). . and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. B. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. jr. 2). PN. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). the ordinate of point P. YY' theyaxis. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles.. It' Location of a point. the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184.
and measure their distance.1). which of its coordinates known ? 13. 2J). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. . (3. 4) and (4. Plot the points: (4. 0).4). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. !). 6. (0. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 1). 1). Plot the points (6. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 2). 4.2).and(l. 0).(!. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 12. 3.3). 3). (4. 4).e. (4. (0.) EXERCISE 1. (4. 0). (4. 4) from the origin ? 7. 11. (2. 3). Graphs. What is the locus of (a?. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (5. 6. 2. i. (1. 2). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. . (See diagram on page 151. 0). 71 2). Plot the points : (0. 8. 3). Plot the points: (4.
By representing of points. 10 .. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. however. A. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 1. B. ure the ordinate of F. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. or the curved line the temperature. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 188. may be found on Jan. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. . Thus the first table produces 12 points. 15. we meas1 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. C. D.
(d) November 20. and to deduce general laws therefrom. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. uses them. physician. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (c) January 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (b) July 15. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. Whenever a clear. the rise and fall of wages. the graph is applied. the matics. etc. The engineer.
(1) 10 C. on 1 to the average. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (freezing point) ? 7. ? 9.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1 to Oct. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is 10. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C. 15. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. When the average temperature below C. 1? 11 0. (d) 9 0. ?  3. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. How much.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.152 2.
09 yards. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . NOTE. transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 20. Hour Temperature . Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.
50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. the daily average expenses for rent. etc.. gas. if each copy sells for $1. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. x increases will change gradually from 13. 3. binding.) T circumferences of 25. represent his daily gain (or loss). function If the value of a quantity changes. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 . 190. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.50. if he sells 0.154 24. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.5 grams.g. 4. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2. 29. 9.inch. 26. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. then C irJl. 1 to 1200 copies. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. the value of a of this quantity will change. to 27. x 7 to 9. 3. e.50.. . 28. A 10 wheels a day. books from for printing. x* x 19. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. amount to $8. etc. and $.
is supposed to change.e. If a more exact diagram is required.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Graph of a function. 2). Draw the graph of x2 f.0). may. and join the points in order.1). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. J). and (3. 9). 9). plot points which lie between those constructed above. (2.2 x may 4 from x = 4. (1^. x a variable. ( 2. for x=l. . hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 4). E. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2 (1. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2. as 1. 3 (0. (1. The values of func192. may . 4). construct '.g. 1 the points (3. a*. 3 50. it is In the example of the preceding article. be also represented by a graph. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Ex. while 7 is a constant.1). Q. to x = 4. etc. however.
. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Thus in the above example. Ex. = 0. straight line produces the required graph.. 5).) For brevity. y = 6. 4). rf 71 . (4.4). 194. 4J. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. = 4. 2. 1). and joining in order produces the graph ABC. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. etc. . as y. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. r */ +* 01 .20)... the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (2. Thus 4x + 7. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 2 4 and if y = x f. and join(0. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.2 x . j/=3.. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. (3. 7 .
21. a. (7i) (c) 23. + 4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 4 a. = 4. 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. i. = The values of a*. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2 2 a. 6. 2 or 2 20. if"a. a? 2 4. 1J. l. if a. 8.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. J. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 12.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. x+1. The values of a?. if the function equals zero. a* 13. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (C ) (2.5)2. (If) Va25. 18. 4a? I. 14. from x VlO'S". a ar. 15. . y = 2x = 4. 16. Jar . xz + x. 7. ?/ a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. the function. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. xl. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a? 1. .or. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if y = 2. 3. 9. a?. 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 3.8)'. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (ft) (_ 1.5)2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0.e. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 23x. 2J. 5. 2 2. 1J. 2x + 3x a?. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 11. 1J. The values of a*. 1 8 10. 2. The smallest value of the function. 2 a. 2 a. 6 fa. fa 17. 22. 2J. 19. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 3 a 8.
it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.24 or x = P and Q. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). 1 C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.. the abscissas of 3. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. then cXj where c is a constant. that graph with the o>axis. then y = .. Therefore x = 1.e. 14 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.24.where x c is a constant.158 24. 25. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. . 9 F. y= formula graphically. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. i. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. Represent 26. 32 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.
f 9 = 0. 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 13. viz. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. (a) (6) 9. 7. 10. Such equations in general have two roots. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 11.7 2 a 5 = 0. (a) x2 = 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. a2 2a. 2 and 1. 3. . 12. 197. 8. 14. or 5 2. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. is called a quadratic equation. = 0. 4. crosssection paper is used. 6. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 6. + + = where a. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1.
because their graphs are straight lines. first degree. 0). T . unknown quantities.2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. ?/ =4 AB. If x = 0. == 2. y = l. and joining by a straight line. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). produces the 7* required locus. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. NOTE. solve for ?/. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. X'2 Locating the points (2. 199. Ex. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 3x _ 4 . if y = is 0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. (f . ?/. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . y y 2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence if if x x  2. Hence we may join (0.1. 2). = 0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 1) and 0). fc = 3. locate points (0.e.2 y ~ 2. . Ex. and join the required graph. i. 4) and (2. Hence.
1=0. Graphical solution of a linear system. To find the roots of the system. (2) . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. P. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). we obtain the roots. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 3. and CD.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB y = . equation x= By measuring 3. viz. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.15. 201. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. 203.57. 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
P graphs meet in two and $. 0. Using the method of the preceding para. Locating the points (5. (2.y~ Therefore. 4. 1. 3x 2 y = 6. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. i. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. (4. 0) and (0. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. 3. 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. y equals 3. 2. The equations 2 4 = 0.0). 4. 5. 2. etc. = 0. 4.0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).. if x equals respectively 0.9.e. 4.g. (1) (2) C. 4. Solving (1) for y. the point we obtain Ex. . we of the + y* = 25. 1. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 3). parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 3. 2 equation x 3). the graph of points roots. Since the two  we obtain DE. 3. e.5. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. and . 4. 0. (4. 4. x2 . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. AB the locus of (1). they are inconsistent.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. and + 3). Locating two points of equation (2).  4. intersection. and joining by a straight line. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.5. In general.
19. . vice versa. y=x + 5. state reasons. 10. y= a2 2x y6. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y = 4. 2x 3?/=6. 9. 16 22. 16 23. '163 Dependent equations. 7. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. if possible. and. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. a+r/=6. 3. 17. 6. Draw system. 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 2.. and solve each If there are no solutions. a. y 2 4. the graphs of the following systems. 8. 5. x~y=0. \ 2x + 3^ . 20.
Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y). 30. 26. 28.14 y = .164 24.8. 25. 4 a = 3(6 . 3 31. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES.
a2 . According to 1. fa. . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 52. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a special kind of product. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 3 f a = f a = +. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . follows that 3. 2. Law of Signs. 8. ^4/? it According to 50. is may be by 207. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. etc. 2. on to in factors 4. involution repeated multiplication. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .faa a a a Obviously 1. a = a3 .
210. 24. 16. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 2 11 (afc ) . (a ) 2 4  3. 15. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 3 2 2 8 . V V/ 13. \ 3 J '  MW 10. .6) = a . (^^) 2 . raise a fraction to a power. 6. 4 /2mV. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2. 5. 76 : (>y. amVy) 3 . (2ar).6 (a 8 8 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . a product to a given power. (a ) 2 5 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (277171 )*. the required power.166 To find To To power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 4. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.
6 2 8 ft) . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. = s= (2s) 8 a. 9. Ex. . 12. + a 2 a. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 3. (afl) . + 4aj) 3 . An 1.) 14. 18. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (3 x . 2. (3 (l I) 2 8 . pansions. frequently called ex.y . 211. 2. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 23. are obtained by multiplication. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 5. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. +5a) 22.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 13. 8 (a??/) 3 . . 3 . a. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.y) = (3 y?y . (a + &)8 . (3af26) 8 . 15. 1. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 8. 16. 7.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. or*  Find the cube root of 19. nent of the binomial. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 21. 2 . 6. The higher powers of binomials.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.3 y.INVOLUTION Ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . : a 20. 1 f 3 2 3 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (aj7) . etc. 4. 3 8 .
(1 + 4 ?/) . . 18. 13. (m 2 + n) 8 . 15. (m 5 I) 2 22. (?>i?i f c)*. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (m fl) 2 20. (af 5) . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . Ex. (2 a 4 . 78 s . is the coefficient of the next term. 21. (3a f5) 5) 4. (l 8 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .168 3. . 23. (?/i~w) : 16.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 8. 25. .2. (a~^) 5 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 4 (1for) 5 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . Ex. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Ex. (p + q) 4 * 7. 17. (mnp 5 I) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (2 4. (la&) 4 12. 1. 10. (mJ) 4 11. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. . (tff1) (cfd) . 4. and the powers negative. 2. 14. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 9. The minus.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 5. 3. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 5. .216 a^ 4. 24. ( &) 5 . . 6. mn 5 2 5 ) . 3. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6.a) 3 19.
Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. (_3) = 27. V \/P 214. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. numbers. V9 = + 3. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. tity . which can be simplified no further. called real numbers. 2. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 109 . 215. 4 4 . or y ~ 3. and ( v/o* = a. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for distinction. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. = x means = 6. \/"^27=3. 1. a) 4 = a4 . Since even powers can never be negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. or x &4 . and all other numbers are. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.
V?. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex.(. V5 v/2 7 2. 79 2 v/2 5 . \/2 4 9 . = V26TIT81 = 53. To extract a root of a fraction. . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 62 = V2* . V25 9 16. 2. 82 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 2.201) = 2. EXERCISE 1. Ex. 4 v. 6. .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. V36 9 4. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . = 19472. = 199 + (_ 198) . fy 5 3 . 7 . v/^i2 = a*. 3/0** = am . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 8. 3i . 8. Ex. Ex. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 2 . Ex. 6.  100 a 2 . 5. Ex 5 a" . 7 . To extract the root of a power.1.200 . 9. roots of the numerator \/18 .9 = 136. 7. index. 9. extract the and denominator. 3 33 53 .lL. v/2^. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 6 7 = 030. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .64 5 4 . 3. . 10. 7.125.4.
EVOLUTION 171 28. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 34. ^40^4./). 116.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 45 V5184. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . V20 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 2 . .3. 32. Ex.) by inspection. a* 4 8 2 .98. V8. V9216. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.3 y2) ( vV .4/. 2. 6.6 tfif + 9 y = O . a f2 l 2 + l. 31. 30. Find the square root of a2 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 29. 33. 1. 5.75. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 2 . 3.3 .
The term a' first 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.2 ac .2 ab + b . + 6 + 4a&. a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 15. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.> 13.172 7. 8 . 10. the given expression is a perfect square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.2 &c. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 12. and b. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.e. and b (2 a f b). 2 2 218. a\b is the root if In most cases. however. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2ab . 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .b 2 2 to its square. mV14m??2)f 49. 14. . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 11. i. let us consider the relation of a f. #2 a2  16.
by division we term of the root. 8 a 2 . and consider Hence the their sum one term.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Second trial divisor. 2. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. .EVOLUTION Ex. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 1. 6 a. The square . is As there is no remainder. */'' . 1. . 219. . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 10 a 4 8 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.24 afy* f 9 tf. of x. . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. As there is no remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 8 /. the first term of the answer. Ex. and so forth. First complete divisor. First trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Explanation.
20 J or 2 16 x 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 15. 17. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 5. a? 2 . 6 11.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .162 a2 60 a10 4.20 o 4.24 or . 436^?/469a.25. 1 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 8. + 81 a 454 a + 81.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .12 m 4. 19.4 x 4. 6. 2 x2 3 2x.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 2 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 10. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.10 x2 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 16. > 7. 18. 12.73 a8 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.6 . x 6 4 4 0^4. 24.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 14.25 x 4 4. 36it. 729 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.12m 5 4.9.40 a 22 . 16x6 4.V430^425^ 4m 4.42 a*& 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .16. 3. l 4. 9. .a 6 x*y 2 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 4 . 20.37 a ^ .
etc. and the complete divisor 168. the first of which is 8.. first . and the square root of the greatest square in units.000. the square root of 7744 equals 88.EVOLUTION 220.000 is 1000.000. etc. the first of which is 4. and the first remainder is. two figures. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 10. of 1. Ex. The is trial divisor = 160. Ex. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . a 2 = 6400. = 80. Find the square root of 7744. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 1. Find the square root of 524. which may contain one or two). square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.000 is 100. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.176. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Therefore 6 = 8. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 2.1344. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.
7 to three decimal places.70 6. The groups of 16724.GO'61. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1 are Ex. annex a cipher. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Find the square root of 6/.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221. 12. places.10. in .0961 are '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.
feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. T\. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 30. 13.4 square when R = radius and 11. 5. feet.22. 37. 36.1410.) 40. 31. whose area equals 48. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.58 square 38. 34. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .53. 1. 1. . 39. 35. 32. JT . 33. J. = 3.
ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2. complete. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Ex. is A quadratic equation. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 1. or incomplete. 225. = 4. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. A pure. = 7^ + 5. or affected. x = + 2 or x =2. Dividing. 224.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 178 . quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 226. 2)* + 5 = 33. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.g. 6 y2 = 17. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. but no higher power e. This answer Check. or equation of the second degree. 2 ic = a. The 7 equation. . x 2 7. Transposing. is 12. Extracting the square root of each member. 6#2 = x* 24..
Solve 179 . 10. 19 + 9 = 5500. . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .2. 4 ax. o. ' =: y? b* b . 8. or Therefore. 2. 0^ + 1 = 1. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 4fc 5' 18.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 16^393 = 7. 2 2 a. (a? 9. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 7. 4. 5. . 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 15^5 = 6. 6(2)=10(ajl). ax Transposing and combining. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. : 83 2. 7 = 162.25.
If 22 = ~^. may be considered one half of a rec square units. find a in terms of 6 . 26. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 2 . ' 4. 4. Find the side of each field. solve for r. Find the numbers. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. . 24. 2a f 1 23. EXERCISE 1. 29. If G=m m g . A right triangle is a triangle. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 2 : 3. is 5(5. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If a 2 4. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram).) of their squares 5. then Since such a triangle tangle. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 22 a. 228. . Find the side of each field. 108. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. : 6.b 2 If s If =c . 2. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 28. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. r. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 3. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for d. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 2 . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find is the number. 27. solve for v. 25. and their product : 150.
and the other two sides are as 3 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. we have of or m = .) 13. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. A body falling from a state of rest. and the two smaller 11. add () Hence 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . Find the radii.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 2m. Method of completing the square. Find these 10. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.2 7 . and the third side is 15 inches. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 9. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. sides. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . J = 12. Find the sides. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. x* 7 x= 10. To find this term. (b) 44 square feet. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 24. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 4.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Find the unknown sides and the area. is and the other two sides are equal. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. .7 x f 10 = 0. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . . radii are as 3 14. Solve Transposing. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .
= .1. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Simplifying. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Hence Therefore Check. a.a. Transposing. Ex. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 7 5 + 10 = 0. Extracting square roots. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. a Clearing of fractions. = x\ = 2. (*~8) a = at .. Ex.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. adding member). .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.2. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. or x = 2. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 230.x(l = . = 6.e. Therefore.  \. Uniting. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2  .2 a2 . or J. = \ # = ff. J. 62 x 5 = f. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2 a* a. Transposing. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.
4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.
and c in the general answer. =0. =8 r/io?.c = 0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 49. Solution by formula. . x la 48.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2x 3 4. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. article. ao. 231. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. \bx\.
b =  + 20 == = 0. 2 o. = 12 . 18. 11. 6 . 2 a? = 44 x . 8. 2or } 5o. TIO. 7. ?i 2 . 7^ + 9 x 90. 6 Ex. 14. = 64120?. 21. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2 . c = 5. 16. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). c p.25 x. : 86 + 2 = 0. 13. Reducing to general form. 1. 2. 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.. 4. 12. V^tT)* . 6. 10. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 20. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2 a.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6^+5^ 56. 9.  . 17. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 19. 2.4 4 5 . 3. 5 x2 Transposing.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 15. a. 26.
. or # 5 is zero. Transposing. Bx 1 1. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. }. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. ar>8o. 2S3x 1 2 . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 26. any degree. = 0. 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. and 6. orz roots. 233. 5) = 0. 24. factors Now. 23. transposing terms to one member. x2 = 1 . 3x?+x = 7.5 Solving (1) and (2).2. Clearing for fractions. = 0. (5 a? !)(. Factoring.5) =0. 5 = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.x.4) = . if either of the uct is zero. = 14. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Eesolving into factors. member can be Ex. 25. 27 x== 42a. 1. = 0. all or. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solution by factoring. x(x <2 . a=:i^^.
5 = 0.:=0. 3) = 0. 12. 13. 4. we 9 obtain x 4. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 0^ ar> 11.e. is 5) = 0.= 24. Ex. } 2 2 (5 . let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. a* 10a=24. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. for a: . 16. 3# y 5 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 100. a?10a=:24. + 8=s: 7. O roots are 2. 3.6)) = 0. 3) Factoring. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3 or 2 a. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. The equation I. (aj4)(a. 2. 0(02) = 7(02). 9.g. E. : 87 = 0. + 6)=0. ar'Sa^ 12. a?. Or Hence the 234.3)(x + 3 3. x2 f 2 x . such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.24 = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 2o3 f9a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 8. + 10 a = 24. 4or + 18a f 8a. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. aj( 15.(. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 7. and the equation thus formed be solved. 2. 14. 6. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 4)(z3) = 0. 5.
(2a? 3) (a 24. (a + 1) (a. ara + ft + c*. 23. uz + u 21. 27.3) = (s + l) (3 a). + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 22. 18. 19. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 50. 25. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 20. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. a 2 =(x a)b. '3a!J  .
5. 0. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.9. : 3. 2. Find the numbers. 58. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 8. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and the difference Find the numbers. and consequently many prob 235. 2.1. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 57. two numbers is 4. 2. 55. and equals 190 square inches. 2. 3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 1. 54. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. G. Find the number. 52. feet. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 6. and whose product 9. 2.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Find the number. . EXERCISE 1. 3.3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.3. 5. number by 10. is Find two numbers whose product 288. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 1.0. Find the sides.3.2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. and whose sum is is 36. 7. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 56. The 11. of their reciprocals is 4. 2. 4. The difference of .
190 12. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. If he each horse ? . Two steamers and is of 420 miles. 17. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. as the 16. Find the rate of the train. ABCD.10. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. Two vessels. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ply between the same two ports. other. . 15. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. What did he pay for 21. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. watch for $ 24. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. dollars. 19. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and Find the sides of the rectangle. 13. 14. sold a horse for $144. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet.
and working together. Ex. 237. constructed with and CB as sides. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. (tf. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. a point taken. is On the prolongation of a line AC. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. contains B 78 square inches. Find TT r (Area of a circle . A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. how wide is the walk ? 23. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 24. 1. By formula.) 25. so that the rectangle. 27. the two men can do it in 3 days. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 23 inches long. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. as 0. Find and CB. of the area of the basin. . Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. or x = \/l = 1.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. ^3^ = 7.
Hence Le. 18. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . Ex. 12. a4 5o. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. aV+9o 4 =0. y8)=0. a? 15 1=2*. 2. 4.T 2 2 . >. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4 6. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. = 13.)+72=0. a. 16. T 17. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 2 16 a^40 11. 19. or y = 8.192 238. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 h9:=0. 9. 7. 4 a. Solving. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 10.2 =4. = 1. 8. 4 : 89 10a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 6. 436 3. a 21or=100.
The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. ( 2a Hence 1.2 z . Ex. it 2a follows 2 : 2. is 4ac not zero. a perfect square. the roots are irrational. and unequal. c the roots are real. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. 3. . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are unequal. b 4. the roots are equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .bx 4. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are imaginary. and equal. 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Hence the roots are real. Relations between roots and coefficients.f> = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .5) = 04. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. rational. The discriminant =(.2) 2 4 3 (. 2.12 x + 9 = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 241. the roots are real. Ex. the roots are rational. 240. negative.
+ 12 2  . + 18 2 8. = Q.19 # 20.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 21. o. 22. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 18. 14. = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 6. ^12. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. + 2a. 2 a. 60 2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. lla. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. = 0. 17. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 12. 2 : 3. = 5x. 15. 12~x = x 2 . f 2 E. 23. 2a 4z5 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. their product isf. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0..g. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 9a3 = 0. : a 2 . 24. 3a. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5aj 9. 4. x2 7 10. 2 7.
provided w > n. It is.a" = a m n mn . 244. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. a m a" = a m+t1 . The first of these laws is nition of power. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. We assume. however. > m therefore. II. no Fractional and negative exponents. while the second of the first.* III. for all values 1 of m and n. such as 2*. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. and . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . = a"" < . must be *The symbol smaller than. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. that a an = a m+n . Then the law of involution. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. hence.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. m IV. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . (a m ) w . ~ a m f. (ab) . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.
since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. fractional. 25. or zero exponent equal x. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. disappear.g.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. etc. (bed)*. 24. 4~ . 0?=^. m$. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. e. 30. 28. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. (xy$. n 2 a. at. ml. as. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . Assuming these two 8*. laws. a . a?*. a\ 26. 245.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. = a. 31. 29. 3*. a*. '&M A 27. 23.
the base is zero. Solve the following equations 39. 48. 43. = 2. equal to unity. \/xy \/m. hence is . 40. 246. 35. a . \fi?. e. 49. To find the meaning of zero exponent. = 2. 44. 41. 46. however. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.\/n. 50. : 2' 4* = 4. e. 3* = 27. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. = 49. a * a2 Or a=l. 38. Vo5 . If.g. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 42. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a* * = 3. v/o&cT 34. 37. : 197 33. 5 a* = 10. 7z* Find the values of 47.g. ty?. 27* = 3. 45. Let a = a. v'mT 36. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a.
248. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. etc. cr n. or the exponent. consider the following equations. Multiplying both members by a". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. vice versa. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . an x = a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.g.2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. e. . Let x= or". each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.198 247. by changing the sign of NOTE.
: or 5 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . a^ 41. . c 32. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 44. 22. 27. 36. 3 a. 25. f (2w)~i 1 . 2m~i 43. ^L. m . ^?2 y' 34. 40. 37. 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. rfS. a. * 24. . 39. 3 a? * 42. 2 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. : mi m~^.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21."* 38. 66 45. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35.
1. + A_. Ex.6). 53. 47. of: 3ll4~* 60. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 10* Find the values 56.81 f (a . 59.(. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 250. 58. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . ar = i. 52. 48. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. . 61. 55. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. (. 57. = .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = l. 54. = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. z 5or*=10. 49. + 1~* f 21 .001. 10* 5* = . 17' 2 51. = 5. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 1.008)* + A.26)* 1 (I) 2 .9*. z* = 1. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.343)* + (.
. 16. V5. 95 ^9i 5**. . Remove the negative exponents. 6a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.$". 6. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. / 7fv 7. a. 18. NOTE. 7~ 5 27  . 23. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. etc.6 *' 6 *25. 72 . &. 4 5. 10. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.4 . 17. ' 11.&. 3 a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. . 13. 8 ' 9. 4 x^. 27  28.5.7W.5a. S'sS8. 26. 7*.7i.^/5^5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 6 *. Perform the operation indicated.$*. OA 20. 7~ 6 .. 79 . 16. remove the fractional exponents.4 a8 .7*. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.3 aj" a. 7. #* a. 3. 3sVS.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . (d) If required. 14.&. 12. are performed.
1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 2. 1.2 d . V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 34. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. The 252. Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 6 35. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. powers of x arranged are : Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. ^6. s!/3. ^5. 31. 3. if dissimilar. Simplify V~ . 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 34. A/3. 4^/4.10 V2 =  V2. subtract surds. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . VS. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. v/4. 26. </20. in order of magnitude : \/7. connect them by proper 1.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. signs. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.2. 28. 37. ^4. 38. 30. V5. 5V2. 39. </3. V3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 27. To add or form. \/5. A/2. Ex. V2. Ex. Simplify V + 3 VlS. v/3. ^3.2 V50. Arrange 35. ^30. V2. 32. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^7. \/7. ^126. ^4. v/3. ^2. ^/IT. V2. </2. 36.e.3\ . 29. 33. V3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 2\ 3*.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^2. 40. (i. + . v^S.
6. 8. 14. V18+V32VT28+V2. 9.J a6 V4 aft. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. 6. + 3V835V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 3.3V20 + 6V5. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 12. 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V175V28+V634V7. 11. 10. . 13. 4.
2. . Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. y* = Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 23.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2v/6 + IPV6 105. and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 1. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 6*. 3. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex. 26^ .
27. 2. v/18 v"3. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (V6 + 1) 1 . V20 V30. 213 98 11. 41. 3. a?. 6. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 15. 14. 21. fWa 17. 12. (3 20. V2 V50. 6. aVa. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V3 V6. V2aV8^. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (Va Va 36. 4. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 10.VSS. 40. 34. + VB)(2V5). 25. 39. VTO. 9. 19.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. VlO V15. 18. 28 . 38. \/3 \^).^/2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 7. V42. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 8. v/4. 6 V4 5. (2V3) 8 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). V3 Vl2. 37. 2 . 13. Vll. 40 10 30. .
. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 52. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). Ex. 47. 268. is 1 2. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. the quotient of the surds is If. 44. (2 45. Va v/a.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 48. 46. E. 53. 49. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).214 42. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). V3 . (5V2+V10)(2V51). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. Ex. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 51. 43. a fraction.y.
To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.RADICALS This method. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1. The 2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations.g. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.57735. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205. Evidently. . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. /~ } Ex. e. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . . 3.by the usual arithmetical method.. is illustrated by Ex. arithTo find. however. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide VII by v7.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . we have V3 But if 1. by V7.
V8 12. Vll 212*. A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.. A. V5 = 2. . i. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. ^/H . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. V3 24 . 23 . 272. and Given V2 = 1.7320. V5 270.4142. 14. . V3 = 1. V2 22 . V48 25. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 7.2361. 271. 20. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8 JL. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 21. VffV?.
3. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 1.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.vffi^T _ . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex.Vs2 . Ex.1 xVtf a. .RADICALS Ex.= 18. V82 2V3 1fVS .2. s Simplify a.
. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. By the use of fractional exponents . 19. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. Vo1 26. four places of decimals 23 .7320. = V3 = 1.W3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. find to _!_. V5V7 18> ^SVg.5 3 = 125. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .218 6 . V21 = 25 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 6V7. 24. v 2V3 28. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.2361. J?_. 27. Given V2 1.4142.
11. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 4. In other examples of involution and evolution. it to this form. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. . 1. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. V255 . v8f 2\/15. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. \/l6*. viz. According to G3. 2. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. on the other hand. 3 (V2~u)  7. 2. \/125" . 9. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Simplify Ex. 3. 8. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 5.RADICALS 219 274. 2 12. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V643 . the If.
12 and whose product is 20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . and whose product is 18. ^TT.220 Ex. 3. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. The Hence ^11 . Find Vll . is 11. +2 Ex. Find V4 + VJ8.2 \/20. Find Vl2 4.6 V2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 . These Ex. 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .A/2.
Before performing the involution. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Transposing and uniting.e. 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. r 22. member to 2. . examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 8. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. a. : 221 Vl32V22. they are transto formed into rational equations. 19. Ex. 5. Dividing by Check. = xa + 4 x f 4. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. by raising both members equal powers. The value x =2 reduces each . \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. VT . Radical equations are rationalized. Solve vVf!2a = 2. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. x2 = x f 2. are radical equations. (2x xrf 1. 4x x = 2. +=. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 277.V48 4 20.1. V48 23. first involution.. i.
2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Therefore CftecAr. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. a socalled extraneous root. Ex. f 25 = 12.1) = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Transposing. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. It = 3 x .222 Ex. 2. viz. Dividing by 24. 278. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Therefore Check. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0. at . Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. viz. Transposing and uniting. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Squaring both members. one root. 5. 3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. V4afT~l.3. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . . Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. . x = J. tion which has two roots. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. the first member = V2. Transposing and uniting. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Extraneous roots. Factoring. a.
Therefore. .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. viz. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. NOTE. Transposing. or x *j. Squaring. . both members reduce to 5. and to 5. is x V. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Check.3) (2 x . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.47) = 0. x root of the preceding equation. = 3. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Solve the following equations : = G. If If x 3 = 3. Hence there is only one root. + 6~ieT~3 . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. (x x = 3. . the right member = V2. Factoring.RADICALS Hence x If a. ViTie 4 z2 . 2 Clearing of fractions. Hence x = the only root. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. equation it is an extraneous root. 223 x = 3. \ does not satisfy the given. for it satisfies the equation .2 r.12 .
Many 1. Ex. Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Solve af*.
= 0. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. o. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 4. some of the roots be extraneous.i~24 = 0. 3. _ 2 y . 2. This can be seen without substituting. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.8 z40 = 7. x =6 or 3. = 26. 412a* = 16. . Q . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. y then x2 .*2a. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. x Since both =9 or 1. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.35 = 0. 2Va. 45 14VJB = . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 3 6. + 40 = 6. 5. Ex. 2. Substituting. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 x + 40 = 36.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Let 8 x f 40 . x + Vx a? = 6. = 7. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 2_8z 440 = 49.f40= 5.
14. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a. 18. +x . a^x2 5 2 13. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.a 440 = 35. 16. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .226 11.f 18 = 24. 4 V SB* 4 a. 19. 12. 2. +3= 6. 20. 15. 17.
if Q was known.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.bx? + ex2 4. Without actual division. even if Q is unknown. by dividing 3 x* f. we make a? what the value of Q.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. could. 1. then (x 2)Q 0.2) Q . a? R = x* . " Or. find the remainder when m.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division.2 x 5 by x 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ^ = 381+2.2 + 4. Ex. Hence. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. If x* . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 2. to x we # = 2 3.4 a.360 = 244. we can find the value of R by making x = 2." transposing. however. no matter If. 227 . ax4 4. = 2.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. E = ax + &z + m) Q. 3 2 Ex. does not contain a?. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.
8. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.8'= 0. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. The Factor Theorem. 2 j 7. 8.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. of the division 3) is m in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 5 (4x .3)f 11 =. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. if 8 42  . If the remainder is zero.g. } 2 by a1. hence (x divided by x 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. fora?.4(. x* s 2 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.949. 5. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 43 3 E. 3. + ^by x + b.228 282. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. + 6. + 7 = 632. x m is factor of the expression.g.
a^8^ + 19a.49 = 0. & p*.1. Therefore x ( 1). 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . f 3. p 5^ + 8p 4. _ . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. Let x = . i. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 6. oj 5x2 f3a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.9^ + 23^15. a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 17.13m + 30 10. 23. 9. Factor a? 15. a + 32. 106 division. a 8a f 19 a 12. 7 46 = 0. are f 1. 2 2. + 15. Resolve into factors 4. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.1. 15. then x8 7 x'2 4. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.7 + 16 . 11. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. or 5 4 + 3^ . The 5. 229 1. 2. a? 19.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 3 2 : 7. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. m f m n 14. factors of the absolute term. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.12 = 0. 1. + 27 + 27.e. 20. 5. 2m 5m . 24. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 25. f 5. 21. ^10^429^20=0. a 5x 6. . 18. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 8. or x 4. 3. is a factor. 8.12.7 x + 15 = 0. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. + ttt15 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. f 15 does not vanish.r6 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. a 2a + 4.
it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 1. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.g. if n is even. 286. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.xy +/). and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. 2. xn f. For substituting y for x." . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.230 285. if w is odd. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2. actual division n. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. ar +p= z6 e.y n is divisible by x f ?/. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . If n is a Theorem that 1. : importance. Ex. is odd. By we obtain the other factors. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2 Ex.
x3 8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors.i mn f w 2). 28.= . preferable. a. y 3 +8=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 26. Hence = (m Ex. 3. as 27=0. however.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. 27.
2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. of quadratics.y4 is of the fifth degree. Squaring Solve (1). + 6 a?V . *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. xy are given. * A I. xywe have 3. 4 xy = 16. & + 2 xy + = 25. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. x y. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. ==5 > 1^ = 4. however. If two of the quantities x f y. in general. 232 . 290. (4) Hence.1. (5) Combining (5) with (1). = 6. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. can be solved by the methods degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289.
233 y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ^. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. x and xy are not given. The arranged in pairs. but can be found. 3. ' 10. 12. b=3. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. I I x + y=7. " "' "' { r 8. r (" 1 = 876. 1. EXERCISE Solve: 1. = . 108 2.
6 "I 14. 7 . 19.a. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.o 18. I x+y = a. x " (3) 49 etc. or JJ. ' ' . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. Ex. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.~ y = 5. I* Jj ^ [.20) = 0.. 2 (1) From (1) we have. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. la. + 29 = 0.  42 y + Transposing. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. A system of simultaneous equations. 4 y = 20. .  . or y = 1 . Factoring. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 5.i/ = r 13. .?/ i = 6. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. one linear and ne quadratic. r^ 2 as ] f. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. aj = 2. 3.  f J.
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. Solve . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. quantities.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. x2y. ':il e :) .3 2x 2 Ex. 9. III. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 10. 3y) : Factor (2). = 1 3 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. y* + 2y = 3. 1. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3.
j Substituting y in (2). the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = Ex. = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. = 0. 109 a. 15 x2 . 2. 2 . } VI09. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . Solve 2.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.
Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. (4) (3). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).125 ay = . Division of one equation by the other. f 1 150 a?. .xy 4. 298.175 ay = 12. and others not belonging to them.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.6. 150 */2 .3^42^=43. can be solved by special devices.y = 7. ' ^ 15.!. 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. E. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Bxy9. y? a? f . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. " IV. A.
. we obtain by squaring. B. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. = 12 J. Therefore x = 16. y . * ' 300. x +y y etc. we have from (1). = 189. xy. y = 3. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Some simultaneous ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . (1 > (2) 1. at first it is unknown quantities. jc~ y = 9. from (2). Solve Ex. 2. quadratics can be solved by ?/. i ^ *>. x 2 .
I e. M6. 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . F+y+ . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. . 7. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. [2x + : y= 17. 6. Hence = V or = 4. 4. 239 Ex. 36* 2.
' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 16.4 y = 47 a. 25. . * . . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = 198.21 ^ = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. + o5)(6hy) = 80. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 19 ' 26. = y 1 y* . 27. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18.
30. hence may be any finite number. 32. or ~ indeterminate.of  According to the definition of division. etc 302. y % 9 f*K 36. ^ oo . ~\ OK OO. = 48201. Interpretation . Q 7. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. oo 301. . finite  =x y if = x. 31. 33. 25 34. etc. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 7' j/ 39. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 3 a2 38. as a . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . .
of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (a: Then Simplifying. . the answer is indeterminate. i. 306. (1). or that x may equal any finite number. without exception. 1. I. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.decreases X if called infinity.can be If It is made larger than number. .g. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. x f 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.e.242 303. creases. great. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. and becomes infinitely small. it is an Ex. TO^UU" sufficiently small. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. By making x any * assigned zero. Or. and . ToU" ^100 a. equation. oo is = QQ. The ~~f fraction . = 10. cancel. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. is satisfied by any number. Hence such an equation identity. i. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. as + l. (1) is an identity. (1) = 0.e.000 a. 1.increases if x de x creases. Let 2.x'2 2 x = 1. be the numbers.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Hence /. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. EXERCISE 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. 42 and' their product is 377.2 y = 4. third and sixth parts. y finite QO.8 x + 15 6. Solve  9 7. is their 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve x a. 3. = oo. * 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 2. Solve . z = 1 Substituting. (2). The sum is of squares 2890. 1=0. two numbers is 76. and a. no numbers can satisfy the given system.e. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4).
8. Find the sides of the rectangle. is is 17 and the sum 4. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the edges. and the edge of one. 9. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.quals 20 feet. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 146 yards. is 6. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the dimensions of the field. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the hypotenuse is 37. of a rectangular field feet. Find the other two sides. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the edge of each cube. 103. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 6.) 53 yards. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514.244 3. 190. Find the numbers.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 14. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. of a right triangle is 73. equals 4 inches. 12. and the sum of ( 228. and the diago(Ex. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 10. p. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. the area becomes f% of the original area. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. increased by the edge of the other. Find the sides. Find the side of each square. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find these sides. . The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.
and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. Find the radii. the quotient is 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . Find the number. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. irR *. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) 17.
The progression is a. : 7. P. to each term produces the next term. An arithmetic progression (A. (n 1) d must be added to a.. a + 2 d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a 11. 2 d must be added to a. P.7. to produce the nth term.. a.1) d. 16.. . of a series are its successive numbers. 10. added to each term to obtain the next one. of the following series is 3. 309. 15 is 9 f. 4. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. To find the nth term / of an A. a f d. 17. and d. a 3d... . 3 d must be added to a. + 2 d. Since d is a f 3 d. progression. f .) is a series. to produce the 4th term. The first is an ascending.. The common differences are respectively 4. . to produce the 3d term. 11. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. . each term of which. 19. a + d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.. P. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number... series 9. Hence / = a + (n . 12. 3.. except the first. the first term a and the common difference d being given. the second a descending.
3 a = l. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 2. Find the 12th term of the 4. Find the 5th term of the 4. 9.. . ? (a) 1.. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 6. 3. . a = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. P. 5.. series 2...8. 10.. 6.. Adding.16. = 99. 8.PROGRESSIONS 310. 7. 6 we have Hence .. of the series 10. 2.. 5. . 8. P. d = 3. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. 2 EXERCISE 1.. 1. 5. 99) = 2600. 7.. . . 2J.. 8. 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . the last term and the common difference d being given. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. d . if a = 5. 5. 1.. 1J. 3.. . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 7.' cZ == . = I + 49 = *({ + . 19. (d) 1J. 3. = 2. P. 9. 3.4. series . . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 24. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 21. 4^. (a + + (a + l) l). 5. 4.. 115.. = a + (a Reversing the order. the term a. 6.
11. to 20 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 23. . '. 31.5 H + if f to 10 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 6. + 3. 18. 33. 7. 11. . 1. 8. 15. . 1. (i) (ii) . . to 20 terms. P.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 20 terms. 1. 21. striking hours only. rf. 1J. to 8 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 2.7 f to 12 terms. \n. : 3. 17. 22. 4. . 11. to 15 terms.1 f 3. 29. 13. 16. and for each than for the preceding one.248 Find the 10. Sum the following series 14. . 12. 20. to 16 terms. 7. 11. hence if any three of them are given. 7. to 10 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. (x +"l) 4. . 19. 16. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 3. to 7 terms. > 2f 2. 2J.. . strike for the first yard. 12. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 15. 15. Jive quantities are involved. In most problems relating to A. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000.
6. 23. 100. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 204 = ^ (98 . is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. s 24ft last term 144. 67. Ex. 12. = n(104 . 2. n = 6. .PROGRESSIONS Ex. or if x Solving. if a. 133. P.104 w + 408 = 0. 6 n2 . Findn. the second one mean between the other two. a = 12. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. hence n = 6. = 13.. #. 144. From (1). = a + (w. n d. . 2 (2) From Hence (2). I Substituting in (I) and (II). P. if s = 204. The first term of an A. = 144. P. 34. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. l)e?. 111. Substituting in (2).~n~\ 408 6). 312. J = 49. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 1. 78. 89.1). The series is. Find the series. 122. 56. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 6. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. = 1014. = 1014. or 11 J. a = 49 6(71 .. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 78 n Substituting in (1). 45. is 12. d = 6.1) .6 n). I. 204 = ^ (a + 49).e. and b form an A. Solving.
78. n = 16. 16. 6? 9. . 13. 12. Find?.3. of 5 terms 6. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. and s. T? ^. n = 17. P. Find d. f J 1 1 / . Find a and Given s = 44. Find w. 11. Find a Given a = 7. a x f b and a b. I Find I in terms of a. a+ and b a b 5. 15. 74. Find d and Given a = 1700.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. s == 440. 8. 14. Find d. Given a = 1. 4. Given a = . Given a = . = 52. n = 4. 3. 10. ceding one. = 83. = ^ 3 = 1. f? . produced. m and n 2. Find n. n has the series ^ j . has the series 82. 17. = 16. = 1870. How much did he save the first month? 19. 7. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n. I. = 17. n = 13. n = 20. = 45. s = 70. How much . y and #f5y. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Given a = 4. d = 5.
. the first term a and the ratios r being given. ratios are respectively 3.. of a G. ar8 r.) is a series each term of which. 36. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. is it (G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. 24. P. The 314.. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. ar. A geometric progression first. or 81 315. rs = s 2 .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. <zr . P. . 108. I... except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. or. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 4 (1) . .. P. called the ratio. (I) of the series 16. 4. . 4. 36.. r n~ l . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . +1.. NOTE. and To find the nth term / of a G. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 24. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .. 36. is 16(f) 4 .g. 2 a. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 2.. If n is less : than unity. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 12. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. E.arn ~ l . The progression is a.
. (it. 20. . . first term is 125 and whose common .. f.. Find the 5th term of a G. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 72. ._!=!>. 1. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. volved .. series 6. And the required means are 18.*. . P. 8. 576. . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.72.54. P. Hence n = 7. r^2. 10.. +f%9 % . series . 9. (b) 1. whose and whose second term is 8. 36. . . fa. if any three of them are given. ? (c) 2. 0. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 4. 80.. 676.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 144. . 3. 36. Hence the or series is 0. 7.6. . . 144. first term 4. 2 term 3. + 5.18. 72. whose and whose common ratio is 4. is 3. is 16.. a = I.. first 5. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. \ t series . fa.. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 6. (d) 5.5. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.l. 18.4. 9.. Find the 6th term of the series J.. . In most problems relating to G.5. 25. 9. l. i 288. .. f..288. Jive quantities are in.18... 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 144. 36. . series 5. I = 670. EXERCISE 1. hence. 4. P. or 7. whose . Ex. P. 288. P.
1.. 24. P. to 5 terms. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 6 terms. 22. is less than unity. Z s. Find the geometric mean between 7. to 8 terms. J. 12. . Find a and Given r = 3. 21. .J and 270. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find a and 4. = 3... may be than any assignable number. 126.. . 12 terms. 48.. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. . J. 81.. + 4 . 72. to 7 terms. I. 81. to G terms. Given r = n Z 5. 54. be written If the value of r of a G. 19.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. J. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.i a9 . 36. 2. = 3. 20. >"> . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 7 . 23. == 160. 16 . of r n decreases. s = 310. r . M. n = 5. 243. a. . 27. Find a and n = 4. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 6 terms. 14. and hence ~ r . 4. 14. 25S series : 32. n = 5. J.. 13. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 42. 15. .nV> i*> !718. 1. s = 605. a^. to 6 terms.
16. 8. . P. .37272 . of all squares ? .3 + .717171. 1.... what is (a) the sum of the areas. i.. 6. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1...1.. . 8. If a = 40. 1.99 . .. 10. I.. 250. 40.072.072 + .01 ^ . 100.. 4. 16. . i i J. The sum Find the of an infinite G..191919. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 3. 14. . . = a . 4. is 9.27777 . = 990 ..3121212. 12. of: 11.555.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.72. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.... Find the value 9. 13. 2.00072 f . ratio 15.. 5.Ql.. ... 6.. first and the common term. 1.= _4Z* .. . of an infinite G.254 Ex. 2. r = j. ..3727272 .. 7. ... . is 16. = .. P.. P. 12.... . Find the sum to infinity. . = . Hence ..= .)7?7272 . and the first term is Find 17. 5. Given an infinite series of squares. . . 9. The sum r. . 66 Therefore .. is J. 9. =A+ 10 i. 1 r = . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.272727. (6) the sum of the perimeters. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 1.
4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (a 100 . : (1 + xy. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. l 2.6) 20 . . 13. 2 2 24. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 21.b) w (a (a f (1 . 15. (s + i). Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 4. .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 25. (a + b) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (a2) 6. . 20. 17.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 28. coefficient of . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. (\ 9 . . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . a6 8 16 in . 4 7. 10. 29.6) . 22. 16. 14. /2a+Y\ 8. Find the 6th term of (x . 5.b ). + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 11. 7 . 12. 26. (xy) : 6 .
4. 3. + 1. c if 7 . 4. 2. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3. 1. if x^l. = 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 5. 1. 4. 2. 6. 3. 3. c = = = 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 3. 1. 1.f ac 1. 1. 5. 1. 3. 1.a(a 4. 2. + c(a  c). 2 .  a)(a 1. 5. 7. l. 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 5. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 5. 4 2. if = = = 2. 1. 1. ^+^ 3. 4. 2. 2. 3. if = = 2. y 3. aft 3 + 4. 6. ft) . 2. 3. 4. 4. 3. 5. 3. . 2. . of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. + 2. 3. 4. 3. 4. 24 4. 1. 2. 3. 5. 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. 2. 2.  8 ^ 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 1. 2. + 2. 3. if y=2j 2. 2. 2. 5. 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 5. 1. 2. 4. 6.  2. 5. (c 3. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. a ft c = = 2.  2. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 4. 4. ft 4 ) 5. 6. 1. 2. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 2. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. 2. 2. 1. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 .
6 a4 4 a8 .10. 12. c = 3.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 .3 xyz.3 a?y .a) . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 3. 2. 4. + 2. 1.7 y 2* 4. f 8.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .1. 2 x 8. 17. 10. (5. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.a 4 . 21. 2. 4 z . 5.2 a?y + 3 aty .x 5 4 . x = 4.a 5 a .c' 2 4 / . 3. 6. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .8 3 + 7 x4 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 26. x3 2 a2 . 8. = 2.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . .2.\ yz + xz. c)(x a} . 5. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. x 3 x' 14.7 + .r 6 x  4 xy . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. ~c)(b. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.2 z8 4 x. 7. 4 y 13. 1. x 3 11.2. 15. 41. or . 2  + 12 a 8 . . r> . a: .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 25.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . if a 6 = = c = 3. b(x (b 1. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .8 + 2 // . + 4. 24. + 4 ?y . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . ' b) + 3. 2. 18. a /> 3. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 4 x 4 . 9.2 x2 . 21. a 4 + 11 a . 40. + 3 y 2* . 9. + 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 5. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .  a) (c 2.259 x c) . 20. 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.2 x?/. 7 xy 3 . + 8 x4 *y . x C 4 4x y + . 8 .4. 16.5. 4. 7y 4 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . 29. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .7 ys. a. 4.a8 . a. 5. 15. .
a ft.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4 2 x2 23.4 Vl 4. 0" 30. ft.x . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .c.3.(5 c .1)}] . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . take the sum of G x 5 .2) .2 .x 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .3 x . 33. 7 12 . f ft.c.x . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.5.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. . 5 10 + 7 .(7 x 4.2 x 8y2 44 . 35.27~~7)}]. From of 2 the 4.2 .3 . x'2 . 2 x 32. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.{G * 2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.4.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 4 4 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. c 4.(a .c 4 3 a. Take the sum of 3 x 4. and . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Simplify 31.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . = x y ft z. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .] 26.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 5 4 7 12 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.5 .(5 y . .[4 x 4.2 3 ax 2 .[4 z 8 .(x 4. 34. . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. ft 25. a  ft + c.3 .x2 . 36. x8 x2 2 a'2x. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .(x* .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21..(4 x 2 . 4vTT~y 3. 542 x 2 and .8 3 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. (*) a  c. 4 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .4 ft) 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.1). 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. c 4ft.{2 x 2 . 5 10 4 G 11 4.6T . 3 ft. sum of . 29.(4 * . : a x . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.#48.7.x 2 4. Take the sum 4x 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.6 x ] .4) . . c =x y }~ z. 4 3 5 y/ .2 a .260 19. .c 3 a.?> x 4 20. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . of a.
2 zz . 2 52.Z . 65. . 2 53. . .3 *). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. a {. )(lz a ). + 4x + 5)(j.[4 x  5 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(7 i + 4 r:) .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. a .r 2:c+ l)(ar.ac .ab .(4 d . 68.6)}].2 2 . 60. . (5 a 39. 49. 57. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 4 + 2 2 + 1). .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).12). 56.(2 a + 5 a . 67. (4 + 3a 2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(5 y . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .c). 62.3).2a .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 51.2x + 3). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.2 2 + 1)(7. . 2 ft 41.6c) (a + f c).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).5)} + (3 a 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(2 a 2 .3 z 2 ).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 43.6 xy . (. 63. 45. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a . 48. .1). (1 55.c 2 . + *+!){> + 2).be) (a 58. 'J 44. 50.(2 .rf)} + a [.56.7).a~^~c)K]. 2 : 7e)a}]. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (x .3)(*5)(* 7). 2 f [3 c 7 a . (. (1 ar+a. 13 a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 64.(6 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .2)(1 .b (c . . (r (1 (a.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 54. 2 2 x + !)(* .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).{3 c . (/> 4 .3 c)].& + {. 46. 59.0)} .(7 a.5 )}] + {4 c . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (x.3c).{2 a .[2 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].2c(V/ . .{2 a (ft .JT^T+1)} + (2 .  2 a  {3 2x a .96 [17 a.(2 x2 . 3 x 42.
(a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(a 48 8 8 4.3 a .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 87. 79. 82. .262 69.a) 2 .c .y + z)(x + y . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . xy y 2 ). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . (x (x ( + *) .b 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.<f(p . Prove the following 8 4.y)\x y). 74.2y)(. 4. 85. (a (2 b)*(a 4. 70.(c 4. 84.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).{3 a . . ft" l Simplify 80.am&t 4 A 2 *). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.O (a 4(a 4.(/>  3 v)^(. ft 78. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 77.z)(x y + z)(.(a 2) (s 4 ft.c) rr identities. ft /.c) . 93. 88.2 ft}) f (3 a .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). ft 95.c) j. 1). ar .:y)( a. 89. (a 2 ft 2n 4.q).n pc).3y) a (* 2 4. 83.5 .c) .3 (ft .m np c . 94. 73. 2 + a 2 ).c) 4) (ft 4. ft ft ft a}.r 2 .c .z) . (p 2 . 76.2 (y 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 91.2 (a .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). f 72.ft) 4 .y). 86.(4 . (. 2 (x 2 . 1).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 90.(ft 4.9y2). 4 4 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 75.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c) 2 .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.z\x 4.v) 4. 92.c)].ft) + 4(2 .x + y + z).c)} .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .6*y . . 71. b 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).
114. 121. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.5 b*).) .(7 xi/ . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 120. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 116. (.16 a 6 4.3 a"+ 4. 109. 2 4 41 x 4a.a".c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).2 xy 8 . 110. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).y 4 .2y 2 4.r 4 4.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. [10( 4.9 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 117. a*. 105.27 x* . 113.b) 98.35 x 2 2 ) . 2 (a+ . 123.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).1). 25 4 . 108. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). .5 xy).xy 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 124. 118. 1O4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.40 />) .&). (80 a 112.2 2% 4. 10). . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 106. 26 (a 4 c).(a 1 2 8 . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 102.6 y 4 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). r . (2< 107.(2 a 2 . 122.y 2 4. 99 100.y 4 ) . 3*. (8 x* 115.(x 2 . 103.4 aft .*) (x 8 . 1).v/ ~ // = a: .
138. 143.5) = 12(4 x .2(5 . (*+ + .2) (a: + 3). 149.9) 4. 7(2 x . 3(2 x 134.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 1) .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .a:)]}. (5a: 150. 126. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .2(4 . 127.2(j: . 135.G) .(x f 9).(x . .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 42(3ar 145. .3). 129. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 1) = 2(* . 137. o o 140. .3) (3 x 4.5{.3 x).4) .4(0 x . 142.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).18 *&) (1 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .7(4 * .(x + 3) ] . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.22.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .12 M 132. 136. x 147.5). 2 4(ar .9) + 3. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.n . .r + 7[or .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 10(2 x 141.19) + 5 = 4 .1) . 3) = x\x .2) = 3 .264 125.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3(* + 4) + 9} .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.(1 . 5 146.4) .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(j a? 144. y (* l x.1) (a? .8 6 . (4 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). 139. 148.3).2(10 x . 128. .27 a 3" .3 a:).3(2 z .r>) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.3) = 12 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 5(2 x . . .2 7^~5] + 1). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.7) = 4 .
=  (F 32).2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. and the third twice as many as the first. + 4) (2 x + 5). (a.z) (4 . 158. (a) If C. How many 170.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 153.1) O + 4) = (2 * . . If the area of the frame inches.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.l)(z . (x (x a.5) = (3 . 157. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.3) = (3 x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 166. 5(ar x . The sum What 171.8) = (2 x 4.2).? .2 x) (4 . (3 O + .19) + 42.1) (s + 3). A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.9) + (a. transformed into F. will produce F.a:) + 229.5*) + 47. f^ + ^sO. 155.(5 x . = 2 C. 2 4 . The second contains 3 first.5)(. 160.. 161. 265 152. + 2) + (5 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.24.3) (3 .4) (a . = 15.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.2 x) = (1 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.5(x . 164. . . 154. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. .T)O .76.17) 2 + (4 x .3) (a: . 162. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) (j.25) 2 . + 10) (ar .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.r + 3) . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. sheep more than the 169. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.29) 2 = 1. 165. (7 14 .2) a + 7(x . 163.6 x) (3 .7) (a. 159. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.2) (j? + 1) + (x .3) (3 .5 x) = 45 x . + 5) = (9 . find the value of F. . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.14) (a: + 3). a: ar a.2) (7 *) + (*. these two angles would be equal.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.7) (1 x . 156. (a . (2 .
A house has 3 rows of windows. 4 a 2 yy 42. Find the number. . 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 187. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 15 m. 180. same result as the number diminished by 175. z 2 92. number divided by 3. and 5 h. ll?/102. 10x 2 192.266 173. 181. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 3 gives the 174. A each 177. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. dimension 182. x* 185. z 2 + x . 178. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. . 2 2 + a _ no. 176. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. father. . the sum of the ages of all three is 51. side were one foot longer. aW + llab2&.56. 190. 189. if each increased 2 feet. younger than his Find the age of the father. two boys is twice that of the younger. 186. 12 m. +x 2. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. power one of the two Find the power of each. train. + a. was three times that of the younger. A boy is father. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 13 a + 3. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. respectively. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. How many are there in each window ? . 179. + 11 ~ 6. sister .36. 7/ 191. 188. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Find the dimensions of the floor.
(b + rf) 2 .8 6 2. a^a 226. 2 200.21 a:  54.20 z 8 a: 220.19 z 4 204.6 y2 + 4.14 2 . 235. a. 201.77 y + 150. 208. .6 2 ?/ . 2 a 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. .10 xy. # 2  29 y + 120. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 16x 4 81. 24 2 + 2 .c) 2 . 210. + 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247. a. 217. 245. 246.28.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.1. 2 . wiy + la mx + aw. x*y 223. (a + . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . . 215. 216. z + 5x 2 . 229. 203.3 xy. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. + 30 x. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 23 12. a+a* + o a +l. a: . xm+l 243. a 2 . . 3y 248. 2 2 y f 1. 7a 228. z 2 2.x + 1.6. 4a 2& 2 241. 212. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.10.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 221. x 5 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a: 231. x* + 8 2 + 15. .22 z + 48.64. 2 x 2 . 3y 2 + ary .r?/f y 2 9. + 198. 195.12 * . y 2 194.10 y a x* . 222.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 4 m +^. a a: a: 237. a. 202.3 c/> + 6 cq. 3 x 2 . + 3a 196. 2 a 8 . a: 236. 224. 238. 7x 2 225. 244. x 219. 12 x +4. 6 197.6s. 3 x V . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .19 a .c) 2  (a . 227. 5 x 2. 3 ap 2 . .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 230. 233. 267 199. 207. 239.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 206. + 8.6 aq . 211. . 8 a: ar. 209. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . a. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 8 a. ifWy+b. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 232. 213. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 218.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . *2 234.
14 bx a%% 8 . F.3 x . C. Reduce to lowest terms 271. a? a: a: // 262. 252. 3 ay 4.4. x 2 + 2 x . 1 x ar Find the L. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 18 x 2 .16 x .a + 2 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 2 x2 .1 9 . * 2 .12. 270. 7 12 2 2 . x 2 .73 xy .ry . 260.2 z .3. x* . 264.10 a 4. a 3 a 2 2 .M.x . 265. 259. 2 + 7 r f 2.ry 21.91.80. z 2 267. 269. x 2 + 5 f .9. of: 266. * 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.G7 x f 33. 5 x 2 256. z 2 268.7 f 5. a 4.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 261. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x*y* 4. 251. + 3 x + 2.r . 2 a.36.&z. + 8. 3 a% 2 .15. 257. 10 a.2 aft*. + 8 x + 5. 22x2 a. 10 x 2 . a: . 2 8 . * 2 .9 x + 14.6 by.9 x .15 + 30.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .48 afy 2 . 254.3 abc . * a . ft a.a 2 />c 2 f 3. of: 253.(55. 6. 7 ax 250. 15 # 2 z/ /. x 2 263. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 8 2 + 10 x .5 ab f 2. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.11 a 2 . 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3. + 23 x f 20. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. + 20 x 4. . 258.23 + 12.8. 30 ^ . I Find the II.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 28 2 f 71 x . 3 #2 255.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.13. x* .2/ 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .10.18 xy + 5.11 x f 28.4 ab + 1. a.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .23 x f 20.C.120. x 2 4.
2c a: 282. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. *2 " 2 + Oge. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . m 4.ar 1 279.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 289 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j..2* + 3 x* 280.. 8 .!/. 285 z4 n* + a. + ac . z2 (a 2 + c)a.
x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^_2*(m 308. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. O(ca) 306. Lnl + ar 2 a. 6) _ ~ i 305.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. * 19 23 19(23 23. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 4 3 301. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^. a (: a) (x 2. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
(a .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a. 2 + y 2 319. . 1 _. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .ft) 2 322. a: 1 313.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (1 . (a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 . } . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.
6* t 328.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.y20  2y + 4 2 ...28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .2 +lOar 2 a.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . .7 xy + 12 x ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . a: 2 x* .15 33 . . 20 44 333.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. * 3a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .5 a . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.9 *// + 27 . 2 lOx 5x. 250 5 10 2 325.ll.B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .V  + y  x 3y a . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.
w \. +^ a: y x . a: 349 _ o.) 2 .. fl. xi 347. 352. 1 345. \x yj 340. ( 342. (a \ + lV. 338. : 1+ i. ' 2 "l 5 . + ni + . if a = 3.1V.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. ** i.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. \5yl 341.+ r . 348. a>74 . ?_2 ^ . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.r 5 2 . (af2/. 344. f V. (ar \ 346.y. aj 339. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (aWi + iJ. 7 ( ?f!?. + l + IV. 5 343.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. (~ 364. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366. 1+2 362.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. + x x a .
370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368.
""" 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 8  376.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. ^ . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 4(* . + 1) 45 O 377. J !__7. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.*2 = 15. . <3 378. 5 {2 x 381. 5*8. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. . __4 2x 3_ = !. 379. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.
.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 399.2 a:  1. 400. m x 398. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 401.6  .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . .  8 9* x ~r. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. b 404.75 x f . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 x =r f . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).25 x + .. 3* 177. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. c . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.25. + 4 a. _____ .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. a. 397. u '2 a. f 1 1 + a 403. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..147. ^ (a . 40. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.5 ^ ~ a: a.  J).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 396.1 . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).8 = .
In a if and 422.c) . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. far did he walk all together ? A . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. How long is each road ? 423. Tn 6 hours .(5 I2x ~r l a) . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. (x . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. Find the number. hour. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 420. 18 be subtracted from the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. and was out 5 hours. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 421. 411.  a) 2 6 2a. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. the order of the digits will be inverted. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.278 410. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.
& 5 ) (a 8 . Which ratio is greater. : If is one equal 434. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.46 2): (15a 2 . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 431. . and : b : c = 14 : 15.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find the fourth proportional 426. 432. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find the length of the parts. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.6 8 ).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. b. : i. Find the mean proportional to 429. wi* + y= ny. if . a.a 2^ 8 + aft* . x 427.49 63). a  t>. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.iand 22 22 I a . a + 5. . d. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 438. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 430. find : a : c. Solve 436. 428. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. find the angles of the triangle. 433. z 2 y. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. . If a b : =5 n : 7. 2 2 8 2 . 435. y. 3 and 1J. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.
456. 21 7 = 27 + Op. . 448. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 443. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). x + 17 # 53. Solve the following systems: 441. 1(3  a. 458. />(. ft.(or l(*2y)=0. 3 .rf2# = l. a: 2y= = 1 . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 28 = 5 a . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 9/> = 2 . 450.89 = q. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5 2 = 7 . . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 455. if 2 ft : 439.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . ft.4 12 . 8 x + y = 19. . 7 442.11 7. ?/ 447. 16. 7jr9y = 17. 7 a: . 3 a. 446. 7a?y = 3. 457. 8 . = 25. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 9ar7# = 71. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 459.55 y = . 445. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 4 = 5 y + 29.59 = 3 z. 42 = 15y + 137.11 y = 95. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. Find the value of a. /) ar a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 5x+4y=lQ.7 y = 25. 444. 56 + 10y = 7a.35. a: a: + 5y). 453. 452. The volumes If their diameters. 451.*. c. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. a. 5z4:# = 3. .. 449. + 5y = 59. 454.
i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. 473. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ax by = c \ 472. 465. + eyn.  = 2. (or . 475.2y) (2 = 2J. 468.c=563y.+ =2. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.?/ + 1 . 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .7. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i = 5. ^ + i^ = 7. x y 474. 8 461. _ 469. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467..
In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 486. whose difference is 4. and in 20 months to $275. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the numbers. How much money less 484. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. fraction becomes equal to . Find their ages. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. to . If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. years. A number consists of two digits 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 483. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 477. A spends \ of his. 487. Find the fraction. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. by 4. . half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 481. Find the number. and in 18 months to $2180. age. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. the Find their ages. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the numbers. 485. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 479. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and the other number least.
5^ 9z = 10. 4 497. . and the difference of their Find the numbers. * + 425  = . a number . 489. 498. 493. 2 2 = 41.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 7. a: f z = 79. 2/>3r = 4. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . z y x 25 . = 209. 496. 490. 2 a. a: 499. ifi = x a. *i. a: + // = 11. ~ 507. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 2y + 2z = a: 2. x f y f z 29 . 8. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 7 + 2 z . z y ifi = z x 502. = 15.? + 2y = 8. 2y + 3a = ll. 1. 2 e. + # +z= 35. 495. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 4z+3z = 20. 1+1 = 6. x y f z = 13. 494.5#+2z = $x a: G. a. + y 5 y = 101 . a. ./ 504./ f z =a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. .z = 20. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.z = 12. . 5 + a. 2a:f 7. \ . 492. 4 506. = 20. : Solve the following systems 491. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 3 a: + 5=84. 3ar 503. . y Solve : x +z= 5. 3 x 500. x s + y z = 18J .
i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c. + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 523. ll" . 517. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
if the number be increased by Find the number. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. N. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. B and C and C and A in 4 days. the first and second digits will change places. Tf and run together. if and L. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. L. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and CA=7. 532. and BE. touches and F respectively. it separately ? 531. M. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. in 28 minutes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. BC = 5. CD. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 530. If they had walked toward each other. . Find the numbers. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. How long will B and C take to do . they would have met in 2 hours. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. AB=6. In circle A ABC. . it is filled in 35 minutes. When weighed in water. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. AC in /). (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. 527. E 533. 90. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. What are their rates of travel? .
of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. i.  3 x. 550. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.  7. x 2 544. e. One dollar equals 4. 543. 546. x 8 549. The values of y. 2  x  x2 . GERMANY. z 2  x x  5. 540.  3 x. 536. to do the work? pendulum. the function. d. 2. FRANCE. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x*  2 x. The greatest value of the function. from x = 2 to x = 4. The values of x if y = 2. b.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. .e. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x 2 + x. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. then / = 3 and write = 3.10 marks. x *x + x + 1. c. . The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 548. 542. + 3. 3 x 539. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. formation of dollars into marks. if x = f 1. x*. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . a. 2 x + 5. 545.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2. 547. If to feet is the length of a seconds.
' = 8. Represent meters.  2 1 a: a.3 x . 566. 568.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a. g.4 x 2 + 4 .4 .11 = 0.3 = 0.3 . 2 567. a.6 + 3 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. a? 4 x .0.17 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. x 5 . 565. 15. 2. h. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.= 0. If y +5 10. z 4 . 2 x 2 560.1 = 0. a: 559. c.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. Solve 552. x 2 ~ 2 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.5 x . 3 x . 2 554. 572.r a: a: x a.r 1 561.13 = 0. + 5 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x* . e. 564. 558. c. if y =m has three real roots. and make the unit of the b. 2 8 . \ to t = 5. 18 x  4 = 0. .15 = 0. 557.G .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.9 = 0. Solve// = 0. . 562.= 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. = 5. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. J.3 x . r?. 555. 556. x 4 . 3 x* . 2 a. f.r . . j. a.4 = 0.7 = . i. 3 + 3 z . 3 . z 2 . 563. + 10 x . 553.
2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + ^) + (air%)8. x + z2) 8 . 585 594. f ?>) 3 591. 592. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 593. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 598.(1 . 4 (1a:) 3. 3 . (a. a. 604. [ y =10. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 64 a 12 603. 5 a*.frf : 583. 4 a. 589. + + 4 . 2  2 aa: 2 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. xY.x + 2 )'2 601. a 2a. 9  4 fSb 607. (# 2) . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.2 2 + y.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .2 6a: + 30 &c a. + .5 xy = 0. 597. j^f = 3. 595. a 8 606. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. jj+. 3 (f. 6 + 1) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a: . .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. a 612. 608. 2 943 ++ ~bx.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .%) 4 (aa. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 611. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 4 . (aiy. + %) (a* + *) 5 . (1 + x a. 609. 588. : y* or 25. 599. 596. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. (1 (1 (1 . 1 . 600. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 579. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . x [ ?/ 577. 582. a:. (a  8 ft) .4.
2. 9a. GGff. + 2 21 x = 100.12 a?y + y*. 630. + 24 a 2 4 . 7) 2. 615.191209. 650. 629. : 5.30. 494210400001. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 623.2410. 651. 624. 4J. 942841. 8*' + 24* = 32. 625 : 621. 637. 44352. 371240. 3a. Find the square root of 619. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. According to Kepler's law.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 4370404. 210.V250 . x 2 641. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.*. 49.150.1024 x + a: 256. x 2 . + 112 a 8 . 49042009. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 638.2. 626. 632. VOIOOD + V582T09. 25023844. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . V950484 . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 647t x 2 648 649. = 87. 636. Find the eighth root 617. 639. find Jupiter's period. 2 + 189 z = 900.871844. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 21. 32 631.53 x ~ . 035. /. = 70. 633. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 40. 645. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 620. 644. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. + 54 'x*y* . 0090. 628. 622. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 9g.49. = 0. 614. 2 + 21Ga. = .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. (x 9 x 646. a 642.15174441. V 635. *+* = 156. ft . 643. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.\/4090. 634.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 702. 693. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 708. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ex abc= fx 0. 699. . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. . 696. 695. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. ax 2 698. 2 2 697. 2 2 . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 706. 692. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. a. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 707.a a )jr .c = 0. 694. = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .ax .bx . 1 __ : )'*' _i.
and working together they can build it in 18 days. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 722. sum is a and whose product equals J. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 721. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 723.44#2 + 121 = 0.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 3or i 16 . What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 716. 725. Find the price of an apple. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.292 709. 724.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. . 217 . 729. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 727. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 12 4*+  8. **13a: 2 710. in value. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. Find two numbers whose 719. 717. 16 x* . A equals CO feet. a: 713. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.25 might have bought five more for the same money.
n. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.)(ai + &.1 + c. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2? 50. .1 f ^ 2). .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.aft* 1 + a 2*. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 34. 1 6. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 + x. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).2)(x2 4.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 35. 32. 36. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 31. 46.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52. 43. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 42. 33. 38. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).X .l).1 f c" ). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.2 ). 39. 41. 37. 40. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . (v/x).
2V2 2V3 . 757. 759. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758. 754. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.1+J 756. 768. ~ r* x . [1r^ T 1 i . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.. \/G86 v/lGv/128. JU._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.294 753. 761. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.
103 788.4 V(j. . 786. . c 792.12VIT. 789. 790. 10 785. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 787.2 V30. 7512V21. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. . 783. 16 + 2V55. .VlO. 806. 13 799.2V3* ^ 807. 794. Va 809. 3812VIO. 14 791. 3J .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . a 9442V5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. + 2V21. 92VI5. x 782. 793. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.
28 = 4 V2 ar 14. Va: . (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/12 a. 819.V2 ar 10. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 811.g. + 103Var. V14 a.4 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.\/2y  810.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 812.V? = 813. 815. 3 x + 2 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . 829. 814. 831. 836.Vc^lJ . 816.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + Vx . 818.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 830. + ViTli + V7 .79. 833. = 1. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. V3 f 1 V4a.13 = 0. /9ar a: = 17. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.f 5 = V5x + 4. 820. VaT+lJ f ^l .
 3x a.12. 839. 8 860. a 18 4.a. 9. 8 a. a 8 850. a 8 869. 871. 275 8 l. 844.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.x*y + 3x f 2. 861. 6. x 4 + f 2 a. 64. 8 4a: 8 a.1. 863. 2 x 3. +3 4 +  4. + .1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .3 a:. 851. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a: 849. f 841. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 729 867. 845. + 512 y8 874. x 8 2 857. z*y 8 l64a. 2 a: 64 y*. 8 8 848. f 12. a. a: . + 1. a l0m . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 8  13 a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 876. a 872. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 4 x 8 858. 8 + a: 5 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 4 a: 2 842. a. a. a 8 873. . 64 a 866. a*" & 6n . . 4 x* 847. 868. 4 a. a.1000 6. a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 . 875.10 = 118. . 846.3 Va: 2 . 27 y 8. y 4.ab9 ft*. 865. 8 2a. 852. 853. 4o. 840. 855. f b**.3 . 27 862. 16 859. . + 216 rt aty a 10 . x 11 a^ J 13 854. 864. a. 856. 19 x 14. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.3 x . . 870. 2 f" + a/ 15. V4 x 2 . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 8^27^.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.
+ 2y=\2.298 877. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 + xy = 28. 2 + y 2 .y 2 + V(j. 890. . 895.1 = 2 a#. f ?/ a: a: . +y f y = 7. 3 x 2 . 886. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a. 878. y*+ xy . + ary + 2 = 37. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a.35. 2 . 2 f ary = 8 + 3.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 2 897. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 894. a# f + xy = 126. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 901. . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 899. a:y . . .y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.15. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. z 2 898. 2 = 2 + 5. x*xy.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + 2 f = 17. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. a: 888. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. y = 28. 885. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 889. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 . a: + y 2 = 34. y 2 4. xy + y = 32.sy = 198. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 900. a: 884. x a: lI = xz . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a.xy + y 2 = 19. x 882. a: a. 1 x 893. 896. 5. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 887. a.18. . x 8 3 = 13:3. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 + xy = 10.y 2) = 20. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. y 2 2 8f. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. M1 891 1 . 2 2 = 16 y.Vi' + 1 1_3. 883. .
16 y 3 8 = . + ?/) . ^ 2 .#y + 2 = 27. yz = 24. 909. (o. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 23 x 2 . x 2 ry + y = 3. 4 (a. 3 :r(3 . (3 x .x) = 21. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. a.y) = 33. a: y zx 12. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). y # 2 2 f f y = 84.y2 = 22. = 8.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. *y . 7 y . + y 8 = 189. + 2 ary = 39. 923.3)2 = 34.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 915. 914. + y = 9.3) 2 f (y . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. # + xy + y = 7. (!) * . y .y) (a? . (a.y) (3 y . . 905. 907. .y). xy + x= 15. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.23 = 200. x f 2 a:y = 32. 911. x + y 2 = aar. 912. 2 * 2 ~ g. + y)(a. 2 913. . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + 2 a:y + = 243. a:y xy 929. * + y = 444. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.6. (* 918. ary y = 8. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 2 2 916. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x 4 299 xy z 904. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. y 3 2 2 922. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 908. 917. y x 2 = by. 2 924. xa 903. Vary + y = 6. 921. a: a.y = a(ar + y). + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. y + a:y = 180. 910. 2 5 xy = 11. x + y}(x + y) = 273. or or a? a: a: . 920. 906. a: * a: a: ar 928.2 y) = 49 2 919. + a. + ary = a*.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . f y 2 x 2 y = 1.r a.3(* + y) = 6.
(y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. How many rows are there? 941. + z) =108. Find the sides of the rectangle. 2240. y(x + y + 2) = 133. feet. y( 934. and also contains 300 square feet.300 930. Assuming = y. A and B run a race round a twomile course. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = . . diagonal 940. A plantation in rows consists of 10. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. and 10 feet broader. *(* + #) =24. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. z(* + y + 2) = 76. two numbers Find the numbers. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 944. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. Find the numbers. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 942. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 943. 935. Find the side of each two circles is IT square.102. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 34 939. two squares is 23 feet. feet. find the radii of the two circles. + z)=18. a second rec8 feet shorter. s(y 932. two squares equals 140 feet. 931. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. In the second heat A . 152. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.square inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. is 3. rate each man ran in the first heat.000 trees. is 3 . A is 938. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 937. and the difference of 936. is 20.
A and B. 950. whose 946. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and that B. and if 594 be added to the number. overtook miles. and travels in the same direction as A. each block. 949. triangle is 6. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. at Find the his rate of traveling. What is its area? field is 182 yards. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. is 407 cubic feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . Two starts travelers. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. . 953. set out from two places. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. unaltered. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. sum Find an edge of 954. Find its length and breadth. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. distance between P and Q. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. that B A 955. Find the eter 947. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find the number. . Find in what time both will do it. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 952. its area will be increased 100 square feet. the digits are reversed. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. and its perim 948. 951. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards.
fourth of the unity. Find n. 969. 961. 5.. = 4. 966. to 7 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. Evaluate (a) . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10... . ^ Vfirst five 959.. Sum Sum to infinity. 12434+ j I 967. the terms being in A... 975. s  88. 971. . Find the sum of 4. ^ 1 . are 29 and 53. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). difference. x(x to 8 terms..4142 .. 4. 36 963. Find the Find the common 977. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. !Ll^ + n .. 4 4 to 7 terms .to infinity. 1G series .. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . P. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.321? 965. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 1 to n terms. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. J. 3 . Find an A.. 3 + 5 7 + . 5. + (iiven a +  4 d . . P.3151515. 970. n to n terms. 974. 972. P..v 973. to infinity.. 958. (to 2 n terms). *" 968.1 4 f j$V .>/) to infinity.302 956.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. . to n terms... P. '. and 976. (x 4 to n terms. 16 962. Sum to 20 terms.V2 . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. f + 1 . \ . 18th terms of an A.454. Sura to 24 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 9th and llth terms of an A.  2. 957.. 964. Find n f (ft) ..141414.
0.. Find n. and of the second and third 03. 985. and the common difference. 1.. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. named Sheran. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.) the last term the series a perfect number. 986. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 987.. . is 225. first 984.01 3. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 2 grains on the 2d. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 989. to infinity may be 8? . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.04 + . 990. to 105? 981. P. : + 9   V2 + . of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to oo. 980. "(. The term.001 + . Find four perfect numbers. of n terms of an A. The 21st term of an A.. P. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .2 . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find the first term. 992.. and so on. The sum 982.1 + 2. Find the sum of the series 988. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 4 grains on the 3d. 5 11. 303 979.. to n terms.+ lY L V. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Find four numbers in A..001 4.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P.. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.
P. at the same time. ABC A A n same sides. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. areas of all triangles. of squares of four numbers in G. in this square a circle. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Two travelers start on the same road. P. P. c. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1001. 997. 1003. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 28 and find the numbers. The sum and product of three numbers in G. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. (6) the sum of the infinity.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 999. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 512 996. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 1000. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (a) after 5 strokes. are unequal. If a. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 994. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. . The fifth term of a G. find the series. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. and so forth to infinity. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. inches. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. prove that they cannot be in A. 995. is 4. AB = 1004. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. ft. many days will the latter overtake the former? . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. 998. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Under the conditions of the preceding example. in this circle a square. and G. P. The sum and sum . third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity.
Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . a: 8 7.ft) 19 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1011.o/) 14 . ) 1021. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the middle term of ( . 1012. 1006. 1009. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1014. .l) w f . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. (1 1018. x) 18 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1008. + lQ . 2 ) 5. .iV 2i/ 5 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Expand  2 a. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of 1020. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .
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... Checks Coefficient 20.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. . . numerical .. 19. .. . lowest ratio " '* .. signs of Algebraic expression ... . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots .. ... t 53 120 .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . graphic tion of representa . 129. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .. ... 9.. .. quadratic . .. ..193 11 . 123 ... . 158.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. 246 91 " multiple.. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. 97.108 160 " . . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . simple simultaneous . .. .. . 8 . 129 54..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 37. 232 169 807 . . . Aggregation. 112 54 54 251 . 54. .. . 232 mean progression . 9 ** . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ... . .178 Completing the square .] Abscissa Absolute term . .. ... linear literal Common ** * difference .130 . . ..
addition of " square of .. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. Negative exponents 11 . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. arithmetic . inversely 122 numbers .. 63. 189. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 205 . ... 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 180.. L. 184 54. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . . 241 123 geometric . Insertion of parentheses . . 84.. . Geometric progression . Mathematical induction . 112 . . .. . 212 . first and second . INDEX 8 . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Like terms Linear equation . 91 . Imaginary numbers .. 253 28 70 1. Product '* 76 Infinite. . . . . exponent .. 120 Member. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest .. law of Extraneous roots . numbers . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .108 Minuend . 45 Laws of signs . G. Inconsistent equations .. . . directly.808 Exponent Exponents. . . 243 7 ... 227 geometric . 114. . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.251 Graphic solution of simultane. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Known numbers . 143. 195 33. 34. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 45. 23 10 91 102. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals ..31. P . . 227 . 109 102 . 9. ..105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 17 65. . .C Multiplication . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. .154 Order of operations " of surds . 45. .
. polynomial . .... .. . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . algebraic Surds . 129. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... absolute 54 Variable . 4 155 9 " of .... .. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. Sum. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value..... . . ... 45 Trinomial 240 . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 27 17 Unknown numbers .... 9... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Berwick <fe Smith Co. 8. 1913. Gushing Co. December. August. 1917. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. U. NorfoooS J. Mass. Reprinted April. Set up and electrotypcd. 1916. 1910. Published September. .S.A. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910..
3. 13. 3. 6. 7. 72 = = 216.. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 10g.000. 30. Page 13. 6. A 38 mi. 1.. 21. . 18.000. $160. 1. 6. $100. 15. 4. 3 below 0. 24. 1. 27. 7. 37. in 12. 15. 26z. 6.. 6* 16. 48 ft. 6. 8. 10.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 18. B 10 mi. 11. b. 23. 9. 1. 12. 10. Ot 15. }. 0. 17. 5. 6. 32. 7m. 2. 20. 14. 21. 4. 9. 1. 10. 8 13.000. 17. 3. 9.  22 20. 20. 27. . 16. 12. 4. 12. C $1(50. 128. 144. 9 16  larger than 7. 16. 9 = 4. 12. 1. A Bl 7. 10. 106. = 5 81.2.. 85. 3. 3. C $ 16. 126. 24. 1. 13. 6. ^. 9. 2..000 negroes. 14. 17. 11. 16f 2. 19. _ 32.000 Indians. 7. 14. 3.12. 11. 22. 7. 29. 8. 4. 3. 5. 9. 2. 6. c. 28. 16. 32. 20 jo. 576. 36. 3. 8 ft. B $80. C $60. 11. 6. A . 16. 150. 13. 8. + 1. 10. 4. is $10. 32. 3. 30?. 32. 12. 6 yd. 2.  2 p. 3* 7. 512. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 5. 7. 3. 29. 1. 7. Page?. 14. 256. 192. (a) (/>) 1. 49. 64. 2. 17. 20. 15. 22. 115. 13 V. per sec.3. 1. 10. westerly motion. in. 2 5. 4. 25. 12. 9 m.000. 59. 28. $40. 16. 13 S. 3. 8.C. 2. 18.$9400. 9. . 2. 3. 12. 17. 1. 26.. 6. 5. 16. $ 1 50 10. x. 16. 6. 2. B $20. 9. B $ 128. arithmetic. 2. Page 1. 16. 16. 10. A 15. 20. 49. 14. 3. 37 S. 13 d. 5. . 13. 1 16. 9. A $90. 18. 25. 2 ~ 15. T . 14. 15. 1. 8. 1. 7. 19 4. 11. Page 4.00000001. 2. 5000. 7. Not 5.  1. B $4700. 19. 15. 14. 3.  1. . 210.  13. loss. 14 11. 89.. 27. 1. 12. 10.000. 5. 20 B.000.000. 2. Page 8. 25. 8. 16 in.000. 6. 18. V 23. 3. sign. i . 14. 7. 18.150. 12. 21.1. ft. 8. 2  Page 8. Multiplication. 73. 1.8.21 24. 19. Yes. x. 3. 3 m. 2. 2. 2. 20 \. in.. Australia ft. 5. 16 in. 3. 24. 4. 9. South America 46. sign. 1.. 0. 13. 25. 9 14. 5. 12.
9. Page 23. 17. (r) 2000 m. 16.r 2 . yyz+xyz*. 14. I.. Page 21. 23.  1. 0.  2 4 13 ft 2 .  40. 8. (ft) mi.. 13. (ft) $40. 17. in. rt. 3 . 18. ft. t. 0. 17. 18. ft' 3 . r:A 29. 25. (r) 78. 14. 31. 12 a.. 27. 43w//2 17. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 5. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. (r) 2G7. :. 41. 29. 24. in. 12yd. ft f 19. arty 1 20.. 1. 2. Page 18. 2oVmf?i. 21^. Monomial. 27. 20.ab. . 9. 0. 35. 7.. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 6. 3 a* + 2 at*. (a) 200. 3.. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. ft n. 3. 32. 26. Pagel4r. . 39. 15a. 8. 8. 19.  xV 3 y. m 24. .000 sq..6) 38. 0. II. . :J!>r'. 4. 31. 7.ii ANSWERS Page 11. in. 3a. 9.  11..r f 15. .3 * 10 r5 <3 . 30. Polynomial. 21. ft. 14. 38. <i~ 26. 5. 30. 12. 5x+3. ??i??. 13 cu. 50. 0. 240. o^ft. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.'J. 16. (ft) 7. 38 ab. a2 4 15^44. 7. in. Trino inial. 23. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 7. jrif 4 9.. 20. 18. $80. r+l. 33. 22. //'. + v> 2 .'JO ft. (c) 8. 6<t. 15.900.94(>. ^. 58. ft. 3rf 27. 6. 19. 8. 35. 237. 36. 27. 51 f. 11. 14:). 0. 2. 3(c4a).1. 4. Page 31. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 15. 8. 0.  12. 0. 15. (a 4 4. vi 14. 17. . Polynomial. 9. 3. m + 3(a. w. 5. 2ftx. 49.5 (ft) sq. 28. $3000 Page 6. 32 2 ftc. Page 7. 1.4  2ft 2 33. (<7) (a) 314 sq.~4. 27. 2. 92. 37. x^ 20.5f> sq. 31. 2. 16. a ft c.q 4.. 5. 57. 34. 4 y/ . 04. 16. 4 9/^/rl 2. 12. 25. 14. _ 4 . 13.rty8. 173. (ft) 12. 3. +/2(/. 15. 15. 21. 2. ^).000 . 20(. 24.r~ f 34. 10. 25. 22( 19. 1. 5. 10. 27. = ()501. 7 7. r/ \(\xyz. 7.x. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 2x' 2 5 .GOG.<>Gq.4 ft. ft. sq. Binomial. 5. #1111. c. 30. 21 a 3 4 10. (59.a . 22. ft. (b) 135 mi. 10.14 sq. f  5e 35. 9. 8. ]*. 1. 13. (r) 2. 27. \'\ 4. 11. (a) <> sq. 12. 17. 22. 2. . y. 36. 4. 12. (a) 50.9?/2 8. 8. 19. 42. 13. 4. . (c) S(i. 5. 5.ft) 4. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 15.  0. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 3. 32.. 20. 28. 314 sq. 13. 34. 3. 3. 16. 13. 12. 14. (ft) Page 2. 4. 1. WIN + wiw. 29. + 5. 18. . 14. 8. 18.ft. 22. 00 24 04 ft. 11. (a) r>23ifcu. 104. a 32. 4. + ft). 11. 6. 33. 26. 1. 1.. 3. = 81.  3. 14. 1. 0. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 1. 28.. 3. mi. i:5. It. 12. 35.32 c2 > ft 3 . 21.
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35. Om2 4 6m 6. G a6 2. + 3)(3). 2 fr . ) 4' 6/ 49. ^' J  7 f 12. 36 a 4 .14 jp + 49.009. ab . . 26. 166. .. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 35.49.4 a&+ 4 &*. . Page 39. 9999. 10.^. + 7 6)(3a~76>.m 30 6 4 1.35 ab 9. . . ^V^4 . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 1). 3wi2 m Page 42. 9. w'n 2 //^ + 25. + 12. 1. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 32. 9990. 25. a 2 . 29.810. 21 2 .r . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. (m + 6)(m3). .2 6 + 13. . (a (3 54. 8. 2 62 V2 132.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . a + 25. 19. 484. 39. 2 a 2 + a .404. x2 GiC+5. 12 x2 . .098. 2 6' . + 4 t*. 2 4 2 2 64 . a2 ' + 48Z100. a' . 20a 2 21a + 4. + 2 9. (w+4)(m4). x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 16. a + 25. 4 . p4 + . 9. 11. . 10. 4 .00 + 37. 441. 5. 11. +4 34. 1. 2 m3 + 4m2 .606./ . 57. 10. ~ 6 20 .009. 7. .x2y22. x 48. (a + 4) (a + 2). 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. x4 28. 10.ab . 6 2 + 6lf>0. 30. 2 4 a + 4.201. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 14. 10. 2 a' y' .ri 17. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).25. 4. +   5). 33.. 10 a' 2 . 31. . 4.3. 10. + 4 a +4. y.996. 41. 15.r* 2 30. m 2 .994. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 17. 2 (5 a 3). n2 a4 6. . 34. ab. 15. 6. +  m' 1. x* . 7.r . 4 21. 23. a4 4 ?/ . 1. 32. 27.54 p 2 + 81. 25 25. 40.15. 14. 999. x*2^f I. V + o ft .6 x2 13. fo*. 33. 36. 8 38. 3. 5. 4 + 25 q*. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . (w4)(w + l). 1. 1. Page 12.500. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.^ + a? + 1. 27. 4 2 //. 998. 9 4 /> . 55.16 a3 f 50. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 37. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 24.008. 10 a 4 ?. n + 2. 2 j3 Z . 36. 26.020.6. 4. + 10 + 121 y*. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. .6 y4 10. 41. 7 .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 38.^V"' . 7> . 990.ANSWERS 28. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 14. 56. (n 2 5.6 xy .004.000. 10. 53. 1. 2. 10. a + 56. 24. 2 1: 21. 45.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. x 4 ?/4 + ab . a3 0. ft' 11.2 y*. lflrt 2 8 + l. 2 0)(p + 5). 8. .8. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . m 3 j) 3 . 33. 30 /><. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. ?/H)0. 18.712.84 a' 9. ^/> 8 4 . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. I/).10 x + 25. 6. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). (p 2. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 40. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 2. 31. 8 a W . p 2 . 3.10 35. 31. 9801.4 n. 10. r. 28. 36. 2 . 30 x + 19 x3 . 34. 10. 19. 2 +10s281. 2 12. 39.4 12.1. ' 46. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 44. 4 x2 13. 2 . .001. 52.p132. 2).000. 42.2 x + 2 x.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 40. s rc 47. 4x21.20. 7. 37.2. 29.5 ~ 81. . 10. 8.020. 51.
1.2 2 2 8 .  3 c. 2 ^r ???' 2 .r?/ j/. '. 11. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 2 1. abc 7. 14. as _ 10 16. 4 d 2 4. 6. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 16. 13.5 n*. 4x43?/. y 7. 2. c 12. 8 r<ft 4 2 .1. a 2 . 6x 3. 18. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. l 4 . r 7. . 24. Page 13. 5.2 1 //. 4. a 8 4. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 125. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 4.3 ry. 20.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . . 1. 15.r" 20 S? .  11. 4 a 2 4.34. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4. 4ft.x^.2 . 19. 8. 11 4.25 c .30 ftc. i 2 tji. . 7 r .12 aft 4 20 ac .2 <</.1. . 7.1. 4 x.9 d. 20 15. z. a.27 x 2 4. 1.2 ac . :r !>. a 10. 15. Page 22.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . . 4 a* 4 9 11. ft. 10. 5^418(7. 3. . 14.2 aft 4.1.1. 14. 8. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. x4.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2 ?/ 4. m'2 3. aft. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. sr 11. 8 x .29.r ?/ ??i ?). 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 10. 10 ft.8. 5. . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8 ?/ . 8 ?/ . . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 12. + x?/ 2 1.5 mp.rw. 2.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. . 6. + 4. 17. 10. 14. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 12. 16. 1. 2. 5. Page 7. 4. f>r* 4. 3*y2 w + 1. 5 4 a Oft. .2 ftc . 6.7. 26. 23. 12. 13. 13. 01. 21.2 . Page 48. 75 a 2 29. 5. 5. 8.3 5. ti'jry1 7. . 2 4. r/2 4. 12. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 6.1.2 2 .21 2 2 f + .25. 3. 9. 1. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.6 :rs 4. 17. w . 19. 2.> 10. c3. 3. Page 51. 9. 12.1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 2 2 + 2 a.y3. 22. m L 4. 1000 1000 . 5. _ 2 a . 3.15 21.10 xy*. 17. 3 aft 20.5 a . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 4 3 9.3 x 2 2 4. 13. 14 r 2 . aft 12.9 4. ft 17.2 . 3. i 9. 4. 21.r . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 8. w 2 .000. 9. 13./ 4. 2 a 3 ft. 4 pq. 9. ??. 47. 46. 7a3ft.VI ANSWERS 43.24 . 4.2 ar.23. 3. x 4. 3 a. 135. . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. Page 11.  12 y 25.8.3^V.r?/.lit x + 4. 12.1*5 2 r 2 . 18. 14. Osy.  5 z* . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 4 ac.r' ~ 16.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 5. 2 ?/' .rw f 8 . ft* ft / . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.15. . a 4 4 ft. Exercise 27. + 3. // 19. 1. 8.3 a 41.w. 5. G. 13. 1/*. /r . +w . 16.  .  10. 11. ft ? ft' ft ft. 2.2 wZ 4. . + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 5. 4. 50. 2 ? 14 . 2 . x 2 + 2r f J. r ft.2. 2 4 2 x 4. j) . 2.+ 77 15. .8 y. 9. 1. 49. 2 .10 2 + z 2 410. 4 c m . . ?/2. yfl. 4xy + 13 <) . r//.8 yn . aftc 52. 8. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .n. 6. *3 y 4 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20.3 3.4. 5 a  (5 ft. 4. 44. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.r'^ 15.
(> 27. f = eZ 2 x. 17. x + 1=a. 7. 2b. 5. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 4(a ft) c = 8. ? 43. x. 4. 37. (</) 2a. 100 d ct. 19. 30. Page 31. 10. 23. lOx 10 + w.rr2. m +~m 3. ct. vil 56. 6. 59. (A) 3 x f (4 x . m+ 11. 00. ( a f 4.. 1&. Page 6. ct. 15. 7. y 50. 41. 32. ] 2 ri 42. / + y + a// 12 yr. 2=10. 10 x sq. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 36. 44. n M. 0. f (I. 6. 39. 10. . 10 >_&. s. 4.(3x  700) = 5. }f. 12. 43. . . 'nj 100 a 28. v (6) 2x. <>. 10. 6.. 2. 800 = x + 1300. 3. 19. 41. 6. (>. 7x 2 Page 21. a 10.r1. 10 a. x y $ 6 yr. 1. l. 33. iL*. 2. . 28. 7.p+7. y ?>i x + 26. 100 14. 14. I. r>?imi. 21 2. 13.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 2.100. f 6)(o 62. 26. 37. 30. % 4. . . y 100 a 24. 1. 9. xy ft. 11. + 4x 3y 34. 1. 100 2. 7. 60 25 1. 5. 18. 16. a 8. 2x + 35. fix. x 49. 17. ft. 100= ^. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. # + 20yr. 5.  2\. 2 ct. 3 9.10) 100. 4 f 39. . 7. 13. 1. "mi. x 48. rn mi. !). '^ .6 = *. 2b 22. ft. 22. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 20. 29. 7. 0. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). d + !. Page 13. 50= L 100 15. y yr. 31. 11.  />) a = all. ^ 12 sq. 29.ab a. + 3x + 2y + 32. " lir. 11. 8. + 3 = 2(3* . 2. 18. d.ANSWERS Page 9.  9 = 17 a. X 60. Page 40. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 58.7).000. 3x  1700) = 12.  6 10. 25. Jj12. ft. b. 2. 25. sq. 44. Page 61. 3. 12. 8. 35. 16. 7. 27. (a) ' 12. </ 20. + 10 b + c ct. y 2z p= 3 (a c. (c) 2x. 22. 33. 5. + f + b 2.x700. 15. 17. 57. ct. 34. 9. = 5 ?i x 460.. (2 a. 38. x 2y 10 act. 20. 24. 4^ = 100. 10. 42. 5.r ct. 3x2. 8 n  10 yr. 3. 1. I. 10 yr. b. 23. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 16. 4. 6. 20. 14.. (d) 2a + 10 = n. x = m. r tx mi. 4. 13.(3x+ = rraxlO. 36. 47.  1$. 5. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 4. 38. 2. 46. 40. 45. lO.
2. . ( + 4)(*2). 10.0. 7a*fe(2a & l). 11 in.  PageSO. 29. Page Page 4.. 7. Y. (z5)(z2). 3. 3. 5$ hr. 52. Ib. 23. 5. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). (m + n)(a + 6).. 15 yd. 10 yd. 1. 15. 200. 3. 20.000 N. 2. 7. a a (a 8 a+l). 1200.10. 28yr. 18. 10. 25 yr. (yll)(y4). 2. 7 hr. 10 yr. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 16. 2$. 9 in.. 6. 3. 2 2 ?/ 21. 180. 15. 6. 3 hr. 15 mi. 8. 50. 7. + 7)(y3)..3.000. 25. 5. a 12. (a + 4)(a + 8). 8. Pace 65. (a 4) (a. 480. 6. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. (e) i* + A. ?(g ? g+ 1). $40. 6rt 2 11. 90 mi. 20. 13.. (a + 6) (a + 3). 71. 12. 1. 5. 2.8. 74. 10. 24J.(5z . 12 mi. by 12 yd. 1 lb. 8. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 4. 9. 67. Page 5. 9. (y + 8)(y2). 78. 11. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 4. 160 lb. Page 79.. 6. 75. 3. 9. 8. (c) ^ v ' . 15. (p + 7)(3a5&).. 15. 8.22.24.3.2). 70^. 20 yr. 30 mi. 7..21. 22.3aftc + 4). 1. 12. 14. 72. 14. 9. 4pt.000. 10. ~=90.. 11. 68.16. 21.. 1. 10.7. 150. 1250. 25. = _?_(2ar + 1). .000 gold. 17. 2 2 2 5. 5pt. 12. 8. (a5)(a4).13. 30. 05. 2). 13. (y7)(y + 2).. 12. (y8)(y + 2).6).5.11. 7. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 17. 3. 2. 8. 10. 9. ^ . 55. 14. (y 13. 5 Col. 200. 1. 600. 13.5. 12.000 Berlin. 250. 90. 7. 11. 11 pV (2 p8 .30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 18. 9.000.000 ft.000 pig iron. 10 Cal. 10. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000. 1313.. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 20 yr. 300. 20 yd. 6.79. 8 12.000.000 copper. 70. 10 Mass. 4. Oaj(o62cd). 3x (3r. 14. 2. Page Page 4. 100.411. 13. 11 w(w' + wi . 100 1. 13.000 Phil. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).2. 19. 6. 5 lb. 78. 1. 3 (a +&)(*. Page 7. 2. 1.5p + 7 g ).210^. .y"). 4. 20.000. 85 ft. 80 A. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 5. Page Page 480 12.. 10 yr. 2 3 6 7. . 14. (*4)( + 11. 3. 45 in. 6. w (/) 64. 30. 40 yr.. 9. 12. 4. 8 in. (ro3)(w2).0.. 6. 30 yr. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.. 1200. 82 mi.1).000 ft. 4. 8 2 19. 18. 14. 5.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. Page 7. 8. (a + 5)(a + 6).3). 15 in. 42yr. 15. 11.000.
8. (2o + l)(2l).1). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). a(2u. 21. (y + 4)(yl). (13a +10)(13a 10). 16. 3. 25. Page 83. 2. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 11. (g . 12. 103x97. 9. Yes. (:52y)(2a!3y). 26. 17. Yes. 20. + 0(90 Page 85. (2xl)(x + f>). y) 2 29. Yes. (3*2)(. . 8) (a. 7 6) (a 10 6). . 22. 1. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 8. (2 a? 4.* (2 y + 3)(y. 28. 32. (w ~ n (x . 20. Yes. 28. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 31. Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al).11 ft)(a6). 22. 4. 29. 24. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). Yes. (9y4)(y + 4). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). + y + . (<7 20. 17. (4a. (4 18. (6n + l)(+2). Page 82. a. x(x +y)(x y). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5).y) 2 aft. 27. 27. 16. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (x + y4 )(x . 22. 9. + 5) a. 35. (3#y)(+4y). 5. (w* (3a26). (ay8)(ay3). 3)(3a.3)(z2). 10(a + ft)(aft). 3(x + 2)(zl). 19.5y)(3a. 32. 25. 10. . 26. ( 2 4 19.7)(2z f 1). 34. (10a + ft)(10aft). 3. . (az + 9)(ox2).2 by2 6. (5x . (ft + ll)(aftll). 14. 3. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 30. 21. 2 17. Page 84. 13.1). 15. No. (a (p8)0> + l). 2 2 15. (4 13. . 25.2 y). (w + 20)(w + 5). 21. 25.r2). (5wl)(m5). + 2y). 31. 6. (m + w) 2 5. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (15ay2) 2 . Yes. (5a +l)(5a l).1). (y8) 2 2 .y (6x + 4)(5x4). No. No. 14. No. 23. 29. 12.. 36. . + 4) (a. (m7n) (a. 27. 26. 9. 18. .1). (a + 8)(a3).6) 2 1. 6. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).6) 2 2 .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (4y3)(3y + 2). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 34. 15. 9.9*). 3a. (2yl)(y + 9). 24. y) (a. (0 + 6)(66). 13x7. (7 a + 4) (2 a . . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 7. 2. Yes.c 2 ). 8. 33. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 14. 26. 10 a 2 (4 . Yes. 12. 2 3 by2 Yes. 11.  x (5 a. x\x 24. ix 18.3). (a a: 19. 10. 23. 40 x. y(x. 21. (6 a.4 6). 10(3 5 6) 2 . . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 2 No 4. (a. 10(2 30. 5. 4 (a .7) (a.ANSWERS 16. 19. 100(x. 28. 18. 11. . 7. Yes. (2w+l)(ro + 3). f 2). 35. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 7.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).2). 16. Yes. (* + y)(zy). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. + 3)(c44). a*(5a f l)(flr . 20. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Yes. 24. (15a + 46*)(16a46).2 ft). (2 *+!)(* 9). 10(a . (3a. 22. 10. (15z2y)(x5y). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).4. 30. 2). (a 3 + 10)(a. 4.2). 216 aft. 33.+4 y)(3x4 y). .y4 ).4p). 23. No. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 23. 25. 1. a . . (a 6 6) (a 4. 17. + 3). (4al)(a2). . 100 (a. 9. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 1. + 9^)(oxy . 10. + 8)(g3). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3).11 6) (a 4.8). 24 9. 2.   .
11. 37. (f> + fo 7.8) n 43*). 24x sy s 9. a + a b. 6. 36. (r420(4 10.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).n). (16 4  2(5 n .9). 4. 6. 19. 4). 2(m4l)' . 13( 33. ah}. 41. r x 2 */3 . x(x f y)(jr . 40. 13.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).1). 11. 6.  29.1). Page 89. a 2 (a9). 5. 2 k (wi 4.&). 1. 8. 30. 2 1. 14. (5a+l)(9a).'})(c . 4 6. Gp). a8 . l. 8x.8).3)(x 4.&). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 11. . 4. 6 f c). 16. 3p (^9)(j) 4).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . ^ . (2 a ~ f> b 4. x . 13 x 8 2 . 28. 8. 32. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. Page 90.l)( a 25.4). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 5. (!__/>). 4  9.!) (x42)(x2). (m  I)' 6. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).b. 42). 3.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 2. (14. 2 8(w .4.4). .?/). 4 3. (a />. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 42a 3 x. ( y). (a 9.X 5.'/)('< 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). 22. 39. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (5 26. 8.3.7)(^ {I 12. 2 2 3 . 12. 16. (w4w) 2 1. 3x(x?/) 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (c. 15.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).42 x 4. Exercise 46. 1(V/ 88. Page 86. a 4. (^ 7. .2). x 4. (7/1 2) (m 41).))(x  ^OC 1 1). 9.2 y). (. 4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 10. 3 x4 . 2 21. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). ( a ^)(^3. (x. Page 87. 18. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4 a s &8 .i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (5 31. n  r)(5a 10. fi(c426). Page 12. (w * . ( (<> r4y3 . Page 92. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.2). 14. 8.4. 14.^ 48. 4 a8 . 24. 6. 27. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 7. 7. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). b) (r 4.y). (> 1. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.y '2 2). 8).?50)(xt/z. 2 .7s) (2 a. (a &4. x  1). 10(2 (3 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 9. y6. 2 y) ^ . 14. 38.1) 3. 2.e 4. 7. 13. 17(x43//)(x2y). 7. . 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 8. . 6. 2 a 2 13x 3 y.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 450. + 2 //). 12. a (a + 2 6). 4. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).36). 5. ( { &). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 2.r(3x' 2 4 (14.) j)..?>) H. (* _ 2 )(a 4.0+ 12). a 41. 2 (a 4. 20. 4. 7. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 13. 15 M. (a 4. 17. 8. (x//. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .'J)(' .//)(5y x(x4ti<0.  (w' 4. ?>). Exercise 47. 8. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ?i(w 4y) . y )(. 5  (2 2 .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . y). 2.3. ofc)( fid). + 3. 11. 5.8) ( (16.y)(fi a . 7. 4. 2. ( rt 23. a x 3 10.  WIM. 6.y. 2 2 10.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 3(. 5 x8 3. a 4. (^ + ?>_8). x43. 4.2)(x 1. 12. (5^4. . 15. 35. y(2x?/).5 m2 x2. 2 + .
x 22. (a2)(a + 2)2. 1).  1). 18.ANSWERS 10. b ! 21. + y) (a: y). ?_!&. x 24. + &)(&) ( . 2(2al) + l). 30(3 2 (a 15. 11. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +5 1. // m+1 !+*?. +8b a 4 3 / ^. a 10 25. x 12. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 6a2&(rt6). + &) 2 ( . a 23. 13.6).
6. + lH + . 7. 26.  **/* + 84 _. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ' 2 7. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 28. xy 43. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.. 6a5f^. 4c 10. i^. _*^p5_^^_.50 ~ 1/2 . 30. 1. 4.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . c 8. a 5. .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 2 a. ^~ 29. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 0. 6. Page 101. 6. w1 + ac w 4 7.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 11. + 2H 1 ^. A^.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . i. 4 L 8 2 . Page 100. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.
15. 4. Of. 7. 4. 12. 11. flf. 6. ac mp lf> n 12. 17. ?+_!?>. 41. f Page 107. 9. (>. y(x + x ?/). A. 19. 11. 0. . 46. w^x 2 b Page 105. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 7. 16. 39.ft . 1. 6. 30. 15. 10. Page 113. 21.^U\WF### X<6. 8j_m 7 3. 26. 1. 17. 21. 11. J. +3 ( + 15. 40. 5. 24. x 1. 6. 11.^_. x\. 3. 13. 18. 29. . 3. 5. x 05m ' 5. a2 2. 7. J. 14. 1. n 16. pf n 6 1. 35. m 9. 25. j L . 20. 14. 9. 15. 43. 1. 3. 2ft a i m x. 10. 6. f 7. . a 17. (a + y) 2 Page 104. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. an 18. 37. 21. + f. 1. 0. J. 1. ?. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 1. 38. ! 4 20. ^_.y 7. Page 106. 32. 44. 14. 12. . 5 be _J_. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. n . 3. 3. (y + (z 12. n m a + 13. 16. 5. 4. 2 47. 4. 9. 34. 45. 12 28. ' 6. 4a3ft. 4. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 11. I) 2 3z 1. ^i 11. 8.  10 X + u. 4.  V o 4. ft. 1. 5. 3 7 i o. Page 110. 33. 31. 8. 27. 7. 23. 2) 19. 3. b a f +c 14. 1. 4. Page 111. a. 6 .L+ft. 42. c 8. b 2. 6. 1. 36.
Yes. () 2. 12. 9..11. 26 mi. 12. $45. f. Page 117. 38ft min. 32. 3. 8301 hr. 9. w 44. w 18. _JL.138. 19. 15. 212. 74.. 1:3. 21. 21. a 4 ft. (ft) 5 hr. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. ^?i min. jj. (ft) 5 da. $0. = A's. 9$. min. 1:1 = 1:1. 8. 17. 4fl M_. 275:108. 20. 10. . No. 15. (ft) 28. ANSWERS 16. (ft) 104. after 20. 40wn.003. 11 hrs. 33. 34. Yes./hr. 14. 1^'. (d) 500. Page 119. after 18.. 36. 15. 4. w 21. 300. 20.15. Yes. 30ft.  + . Page 125. (d) 4 da. 5ft 30mi. 35. 5 2. 6. 7. 1.139. 14. 11. 10. n 32. 3:2. 24 mi. 7.  29. 8. 7. 16. 9J oz.9. #V ~~ 34.. 7. 24. 14. 4. 15. 75 . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.10. 4. 17. 15. 11. :2.001. 18. dn ~ mi.. 5. 33. 30 yrs. xy. 0./hr. 1:4. 17. 22. 17. Yes.. 27. 10 yrs. 16.2. 13. 10. 3. 7T 2 Page 116. 14. 4. 20. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 40 yrs. 18. 4. 55 mi.0. [>> ^ a . 7.000. (a) 30. 3. 11.2. (a) 12 hr. . 3. 4~r~ n . . J. ~m .137. ^p^ r ~ 7. 1. " 0.} da. 28. 300.002. Page 124. 5.0 & . 6. 30 mi. 26 30. . 15. 5.. 9. 2 20.000 1 = 23. 18. 12. 10. . 30. Yes. ^m . (a) 4 min. No.000.000.  C .004. '"I 22. 19. 1. 3 da.x + y. $30. 7. 16. 10. $00. 5.000. 2x:3y. 1. min. 1:1 = 1:1. 10. $40. 2:1. 13. Page 121. 31. 8. after $12.. (r) 3^ da. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. * 7:9. 26. 7} 18. Yes. 1 : 12. 8. 10.000 If da. Page 118. 13. IV s. Yes. 00. 15. f . ft. 7 . 3. 9ft. 5 25. 1:1 = 1:1. 6. J ^'. (c) 8300. Yes. 10^ oz. (c) 2 hr. .XIV '/ . 81. 10. 19. . 1: ~. nm. (a) 25. 2. 1 da. 300. 10. 40 mi. 13. 2. P+ ^ 33. silver. 500. 21ft min.. gold. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 23< &n b ' . 3. 1:1=1:1. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 8. 9.. 24. 19.
4. 6. 9. . 1. 5 2.2. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 25.7. in n. cu. 3. 9. 3. (b) Inversely. 10.5. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. Page 134. 10.' : : : : <>. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 19. 7. . 7. 7. Page 9. 2." ^ 2. 8. 2.2. 2. a~.3. () Directly. 2.4.160. 3. 26. 3 2=3 x. 31. . 19 3 . Inversely. 13. $.li.  19. 6 10 = 12. 1. 5. 200 mi. 1. 3}. 13J. *. "lO.9. 2.20. 3.x a. 2.2. J. 7.. land. a 3. 6./':</ c a f :y=2:9. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 14. 4.3.) 31. y :y =. /. 2. 4. 45. 13. : XV 27. 12. 15. 4. 8. 57. : : . 4.8 oz. 38. 7.. 2.5. 9. 7. 40. 1. 21. Page 136. 1 rt * vm^1. 13. 8. 23. () 7 Page 126. 3  24. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 29. 20 20 J ^.12.46.57.36. OJ. Page 132. 9. 2. 46. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 9. 19. 5. 2. 58. a f 2 2 = 5 x. y 1. 36. 13. 21. J. 4. 5.5. 44. 32j. 7. . 7. 9  15. 4. 5. 5. \. 1. lo mi. 2. 2. 26.5. \\. l. ft. mi.000 sq. 59. 2.]. 11. 1 18 = 3 51.ANSWERS 22. 2. 7. : : T 1' : /> : . 2. 1. 11 w a 13. 20. Page 135. : 23.J.J 3.000 sq. 23. . 11 5 . 3. 16. y a y = 7 0. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 2. . s<i. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 174+ Page 128. x 42. y . 7. 8. . t 5. 24 1 (e) Directly. 25. 3. 2. 11.7. 4. 17. (I. 43. 17. b x 37. 2. J.2. 20 cu. 4.5. 14. 7.a. x +y x + 74 7 \. 54.  28. 5. 7. 6.4. 35. Page 133. 4. 2. 7. 5. 9."2:1. 2.2 oz. w 8. 2. . 24. . 3. 56. 2. 14. . . 2. in.4. x:y a: b.C ?/ a . 5. i.1. 30. 5. 55. 138. . a +b 1. 3.5. 3. 41. 945 11 10 .r. Page 137. 7. 1. 4. 15> 9. 49. 12. 20. (a) Directly. 8. 22. 11.12. + b 7 . 19 OJ. 6*.3. water. 16.. 12. 18. 40.840. 9. 5. : .1. ig 6. 1. 4. 27.^ 0?j ' gms. 3.22.15. . 19. + W. OJ. Of. 32+ mi. x y y .5. 7^. 9.3. = 7 b'. 30. 2 n .3. 1. 4. ~ 1. ' 55. 36. 22. 8.*. 50. 2. 3.4. 48.3.5. 14. mi. 6. 31J. 25. 52. jc:y = n:m. Page 131.1. 3.5. 7. 39. 10. 12.  ?.3. 41. 11. 15.17. 6.6. 141.15 x. 16. . tin. 4. 127.3. w. J pq.1. 2. 17. 7. copper. 24.4. 5:0 = 10:12. 3.2 x. 1(5. 47. 2. : />. 53. 5:3 = 4: x. Page 5. 5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . (</) ft.3.3.3. 10. 11. 28. 4. 3. 8. I. x y = 1 = 3 2.1. 1. ini.
6. (ft) 20. 1. & May.3. 20. 3. 4. A's 50 13. 5.65. 2. 9. 23f . Apr. 423. 1. 24. 4. 8.7. 28. 20. 5. Oct. Page 142. . $500.$5000. $4000. 7. 3. 6. 15. Jan. 7. 24. 25. 2t2. 23. ' .l./hr. 1. 16 to July 20. 7.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 19 gms. 3. 7. 17. (a) Apr. 16.3. $250. ad _(?jrJL. 10. 11. 1. m f 8. 2. 12. 19. A a parallel to the x axis. 10. 9. 6. 90. Nov. July. 30. Page 146. Page 22. Nov. 3. Page 151. Jan. 6. A's 30 18. 3. 3). $ 1000. Apr. 9. through point (0. On the x axis. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 2.  17. 2. 21. a. 4. 10 sheep. 2.10. 12.8. 21. 3. 3. 3. (<f) 13. July 20.$2000. 1 (c) Jan. &. 1. . 30. 5. 4. Aug. (5. Page 149. 5. 4 mi. 4 ' q.0. 6%. The ordinate. . 3. $900 5%. 1. 2. 6 cows. m . <*ft/ bd 1. 10^ gms. 22. parallel to the x axis 0. Page 152. 25. m f 9. 1. Nov. 14. 9. Page 153. 26. 25. 20. 2. 9.^.4. 7.0. 5. 31. 7. 5. yrs. 5. 12. 2. 4. 16. 18. 40. 8. SL=J o ft r^2. 1. (c) . 19. Feb. 5. m + n p. 4. 14.2. . 3. 16.. 2. (ft) 23 J. 6. 29. 20 & Oct.n + p. 15. 9. 7.. 10. . 5%. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 32. 147. 3. 1.1. Jan. 3.  11. Apr. 26. Nov. 18. ad AzA.. 3. 8. 23. 16. B's 40 yrs. 24.  Zn  "(^ll 14.1. 00. 12. 18. 11. July. at 15. 0. 4. 10. 7. 10. 2 a. ^. u 2ft. Jan. 17.3. 13. . About 12f. Jan. 3.. 30. 13. 4. 13.. 17. 6. 27. 4. J. 0. 1 (d) Apr. . 3. On the y axis. ' 6 3 a. C's 10 yrs. 7. 24. M 2. . 6. 16. 2. 4. $6500at3Ji%.33. Page 145. .4. 72. Page 143. 5. 25. 1. 1. 100. & part of Feb.4. 4. 7. 4.1J. 40. 2 horses.XVI Fagel39. May 5. 12. B's 15 yrs. June. 2. 4. ft 3. C's 30 yrs. a =J (n  1) rf. 5. & part of Sept. 8. 14. 11. 2. 18.2. 2. .. . 3. On 11. 11. yrs.9. 20. 20. 1. 3. . 3. 11. $3000. 2. 0. 3. . 2. 11. 16. 6. 20 to Oct. be 10. 4. = ^ a Page 141. 2. 3. 15. 4. be 7. (a) 12. 2. 2.
30. 2. 3. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 14. 28. 22. (/) 3. 3 . 1. 5 and 2. 2. 125a 28. 8 1 f f g*. . f. . Indeterminate. (ft) (ft) 2. 1. 1. 2 l. . (e) 3.2 (ft)  1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . m. 25. 2ft4 Page 168.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 8. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.  1. 5. 4.17 (ft) (c) 2. 10.5 (ft) 3. 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1.34F.25. 1.27. . 1. SlstyW 7.25. Page 159. . ft . ft 2 4.1. 15.75. 6. (a) 12. +3 4. f. 16. a 29. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 15 . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 32F. a 10 ' a ll V&.75. . Inconsistent. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.  12 ft xW  26 31. * 16. 3. 83.59 . 3. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. . 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . 3.73. 4.24 .5. 21. (a) 4. 1. 10 C.25. 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 8. 3. 13. 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.75 (ci) 3^.64. 20. 9. 24. \ft) 5.. 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. a + ft. 5. Page 158. 14. Page 164.67.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . . 3.3. 30. . 4. xW. 18C. 2. 14. 4. 3. (gr) 21. 13 . (ft) 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 5. Indeterminate.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 1. 2. 1. 11. 1 4. 2. () (rt) 3. 24. 3. 26. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . 11. jgiooyiio 17.73 ami . 3. 1. .1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . (a) 5.25.. 2 2 22. 2. 3. 125 a 8 12.59.24. 1. 3. 1. 13. . 6. 2. Page 163.5. 1. 5. 22. . 2. (c) 7. 7. 17. 2. Inconsistent. ' :=_!. 11.79. (c) 14 F. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 19. 27 19. 3.13. xy. 1. 2. 8. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. . 5.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 18. 2. 1. 2. 5.73.24.. 1. xg .64. . 3. (/) 3. 27. 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. + a 4 ft* . 19. . (c) 2. 2. . .41 and 23. 8 a1.25. 9 and Page 166.  . 3. 81 ". 2. 4. 8mW. 1^. 2. 0. . 13. f 10. 4. . 10.4. 13C. 4}.83.73. 0C." 23. (<?) 2. 9. ImW. 125 16. 3. 1 23.7. (a) 2.6. 12. . .41 and .83. . (ft) (d) 2. . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 4.. 3.84. 20. 14. 2. (e) 2. 3. 4 ) 21. 27 27 81.  1. 15. 12. (ft) and (d) 2. 3. f12 wi 9. 15. H. G.79.3. 10.75. . 5. 1. H.
5.a b 22. 22. . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 12. a: l . + 29. (a + 2 +l). 36. 30. 9. (48 + 6. 3. ??i ?i . 3M. 6. 21. 309. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 17. 3. 16 6 w .+3^ + 4.  x. 25. 12. 10.3 ab + 2 2 ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 6. 3 2 ^. AN S WE no . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 8. 18. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 20.  +X '.5). 13. a. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 7. ? . 7. 18. 1. 72. . 15. 17. 5. +35. (a 2. 14. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .r 2 + 6jt). 2 49 . 10*. 2. 2 4 8 2 . 23. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). Page 171.XV111 7. 763. 1. . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 3. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2038. 14. 5.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 00. 8. 84. r> 4 : 1 .10 a~ + 5 a .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. .83. 6. . . 19. 99. . I 8x2). ^i.2). a ). 11.1. 0. 1. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. . 6 (\x 3. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. Page 172. 10.1. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 300. 13. 35. + l). 10. 1247. Page 176. (4a2 9& 2 13. 14. (ly). 24. 9.y2 ). 71. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13.6. 1. 5. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 4. (x + y\ 90. 12. 21. .x ). 20. (a + y+l). 27. 2 2 4. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 33. 17. ). 8. 4. GOO 2 c 2 . 11.f 1 m 9 16. 19.7 /)). 64. 2. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2 2 7. 9. 18. 3. 3 6 23. + y). a 2 . rt . 31. 2. (l + x + . 8. ? : 1 . 15. + + ?V 22. fe *?>' ?> fi . 2. (1 (x2y). 14.GO a c + 23. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. +3 + 5 4. 90. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .i c 6 15. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 3 2 8 3 12. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 5.037. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). m 13. (3a. /> 4 ). (2 a + ft). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 57. 978. 1 1 ?>). 5 5 8. 7. 8. 30. Page 170. 9. 9. 16. 9. 40. 34. + (win . 5. 76.^). + i)). + Z). 11. 98. 119. 420. 25 19. 8 /. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 20. 4. 237. (ab + c). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 90. 6. 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. 28. 2. 16. (x' l). a. 32. 247. 11. 26.94. 70. 16. 2 12. 4. 10 x G a 4 . 101. 180 . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. . Zll. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 15.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 15. 20. c 10 6 :l 20. ( Page 174.
10. 19. 13.4. a. 10. 4. 12. 6. 3. ft. 11. 12. 12. {. 14. 15. 2. m.237. 7 in.  5. ii :J _7. 10. 29.935. 2. 1&. 4 n. . f f V. 16. 4. 6. 13. 1 f Vl3. 44. or 5. 3. 12. 3.916 yds. f 3. 10. V J l. 25 J. 6. 29.  43. 21. 1. 23. 11. a + 61. 39. 33. 27. 7. 7. 4.?.243. 7563.4. 3. . 14. 7 45.367. 30. 7. 2] see. 39 in. 6. Page 180.i. 18. 4 W**. > w ft. 2.6.6.. 31. 1. 36 in. 40. . 7.6. 5. 7}. 37. 8. 7. 2. Page 177. Page 184. Page 179. 8. 10. 46. 40. 1. 21 28 ft. 1. 6yds. f. ^^7m. () 2. 15.13. If ^. V2. 6 f !.. 6. 4.  14.6.005. 5. 6.a. 14. 5. 2. Page 183.5. 20. f. >TT 26. . / 11. 10. 9. 16n.  f. f . * 1. 2. 16. 2. J. 37. 4. 15. 7. 4. Page 185. 17. Page 181. 21. v 17..1. 6. 5. 9. ^. 50. 10. 9. 4. 8. . 4 a. }. 6V'2J.V 8j. 20. 2. 3. (< + ?>). 16. 6V21. >i 27. 3.. 10. 39. 2.5. 4. _ iVaft. ft. 32.. m. V17. 8. i ^. 34.  2. 9. 5f. 42. 5. 17. 5. 5. 7. 41.1.  3. 28. 7. 18. 1. /. 28 in. l~8.. 270 sq.690. 3. (afl). 5. 22. 1. 13. 30. 5. 9 15 ft. 25. ZLlAiK 19. 9. 5083.  1.. ~ V^3. Af^. 48.6. vV'TA 24. 28. 1. 9. 12. 2. 4. . 8. 2. 33.469. 31. . 4. 11. 36. 24.236. 4 TT M 28. or 3. 14. 29. 23. . 7. 15.*. 2. 34.  f. 1. . *. 5.925 ft.645. 3. ^. 13. 6J. 16. V2. ft. 3. 10.Sn.ANS WERS 22. 7. 1. 11. 2. i. 1 38.4. 1. 3. V. 12. xix 26. . JJI. (6) Vl4 3. 3J.60. 47. .742 in. 4.}.w 18. 4J.. 24. 26.. 3. 13. 20. 11. 15.18. 5. 36.522 38. V35 1. 3. 4. 1 7. 1. 27. 3. 6561. 9. 12. 5. 6. 35. 9. 2 sec. w. vYb. 5. " ^_ 22. 19. 35. 7.. 21 in.798 yds. 12. 23. 32. 25. 21yds. 8. 17. 4. 49. 15 1 10. 3. f ^ is. 21. \/3. 14. . 5.
62. 4. t is. 1. 4.2. 25. 2. 16. 10. unequal.a.4. . equal. $80. 3.  1. 6. 0.02. 0. 33. 0. 14. 9. 23. 3. 0. rational. 120 ft. 24.4.  2. a. x 14. 3. 25. rational. 26. 2. 19. 0.3.23.59.Oa.  24. . 49. 15. 4.2 x2 .23. 29. 28. 18. .10. 2.  1.2. 41. .12 = 0.6. 1. 38. 37. 3. 3. 46. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 16. 56.7.a 3 a. 20 eggs. 20. (5 10.. 8.. a + 1. .3. 21.  5./hr. 5. rational.. *'' 12. ./hr. 3. 9. 23. = 0.XX Page 186. Imaginary. 32. 53. 3. 1. unequal. AB = 204 ft. 2. 2. 1 3. 2. 70 ft. i . 2 ft. unequal. 6. 3. 0. 27. . 3. 57. 36. Imaginary.$40 or $60. 2. 10. 9. 1. 4. 6. Page 191. 1. 42.70. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 15. 2. 13. Page 187. 6. ANSWERS 22. 1. 7. 8\/2 17. irrational.48. . ' 1.  1. a + 6. 4. 0. 2.7. 5.37. 19. 27. 22. 25. . V2. If. 8./hr. 2. Imaginary. x* 51. 18.l.74. 20 nii. . 26. unequal. 1. Real. 7. 24. .1. 0.* 2. unequal. 0. 2. 6.]. 3.5. 20.  1. x*4x=0. 55.  13. 10 mi. 6. 24. Real. 1.  6.2. V ~ 16 4 2. 1. f 6 52 a.4. 2. 0. 39. 35. rational. 64. 3. r* i.  i. 3. 7. 8 or 12 mi. 4. Real.6 = 0. 2.41.2. 1. 0. 2. 12. 44. 2 . equal. 6V64. 43.12.2. $ 120. V^~2. ^l/>> = 85 ft. ft. 3. 35. 26. s 11. 0. 28. 19 in. a8 . 5.2. 0. 6. 31. 6. 22. #<7=3. 7. V^l.1. 8. 12. equal.4. 1. VV11. 1. $30 or $70. 2.1. . 25. 4. 64c. . 40. 2. 0. i. unequal.17. unequal. 7. 1).. Real. jr . 3. 3. '  f 5. 4 da.4. V2. 34. 30. . 48. 3. . 5 ft. 9.3. 27. 1. Imaginary. 15 ft. 2. f. 3if. 3. 11.2. 7. 52.2.  5.2. 15. 11. Page 192. 4. . 3. Real. 50. f. 6^2 in. 3. 10 mi. 6. 12. 23. 1. 12. Page 189. . 1. 4. 1_^L ft 14. 2.2. 45. Real. . 10 or 19.7. . 2. 2 V3 in. 2. 3. 7. 2../hr. irrational. . 8. 3. Real. 5. 2.0*8. 20. Real. orf. a. 28. 13. AB = 3. 16. 3. 58.a. 1. in. + 11 x. 1. 2.5^.  Page 194. 1. 0. 21. 26.. rational. . _ 19. 1. 17. 7. 21. %. v^^fcT"^. 10 in.48 3. Page 190. 1 . Page 188. 0.  1. V^l. H. 1. unequal. 6.'. U.5 x + 6 = 0. 10. 4. unequal. 12. . V7. 18.  9x <).  2. 14. 3. 47. 5. x2 + B .
9. 3. 39. 49. 9. wA 46. 25. 8. Vr. 20. 2.6. aW\ 40. 49. J. 4. x/25. 1 39. 15. 21. 13. Jb \. 49. 26. \/r\ 11. 1. 16. 8. 17. i. . 44." 17. 5. : . 1.  f. 3. 36.  a'2 . 38. Page 199. 8. 2. 9. 10. 29. 53. 3. 28. 47. V^ 34. 13. 19. . *V. 10. 30. 2. 58. 15. x$. 2. 7V7. 49. 45. m'. 2V a. r*. Page 201. 51. 55. 60. 40. Page 197. 8. 18. . 11. ^49. (m 26. &. 4. 17.  48. y . 56. 47. 2. 3. 59. 8. 31. 4. 3. 1. . JV37. 22. 52. J 3. v'frW. a 18 . 3 4 11. 'J. \/3. 16.//^. 27. 2 L ( V. 14. 10. 19. 25. 22. 9. 31. 12. . 6  AAf. 4. 4. 3. 1. 32. J. 48. \. \ . y. 7. a. 1. 33. 4. 2. 2. 12*2 61. 57.^7. 1. 46. 18. 13. $7. \. ). 18. 0. x. 24.32. jV 10. 15. 19. 3. 2. 54. . 5\/5. 12.2. 35. ? . 33. 24.ANtiWEUS rational. 3. m. 14. J. 1. . 30. 2. n\/* Page202. 20. 1. 20. 125. 16. ^Sf 3 38. \/.  f . . p. r. ifa. 43. vm.17. 8. v'frc 18. Page 196. 84. 9.1 5 15. 42. 5. ) 2 >J i 10. 7 . 1. 4. 6. 6. 37. xxi 15. 29. 23. z + 22. I. 29. 50. v. 7. 21. 28. 24.  J j. 32. _! V3. 14. v/3. . 4. 243. . 3. 30 a. 16. 3. 0. 1V1. 8. ar 1 .. 21. \a\ \/^. 0. 25. 19. 10. 5. 27. 14. 41. 8. v^T4 m. vV. 9. 13.  5. 50. 7. 17. J. 5. 1. 2. 20. 3. 1. 5. 3. 2. 23. fx'^z'l 23. 33. l  5 12. 1. 5. 11. Page 200.
11. 25. + 2 V22. 30. 20&V6. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V. 3 4\/2. yV35. (o* 2. 23. . 2. ). 17. 31. 2. 8. l 5. 4.r. 2. ^88". k/2. 8V/) 15. 38. 24.2 VlO. 27. T. + 2 ar 1 ). x 7  34.'\ 14. . 2. 17.2 18. / V3. 3V5. ^7 \AOx. 9. 9.3 + 40 3 . 13. JIV6.707. 24. 26. 3^ + 2). 2v (T 2aVf. + .  2 3:r. V63. 7. 45. 50. + + ft. 11V3. x + 5 x3 + 0. 51.. 41.yl : . v/^r 5  A/^~. 13. a2 4.f. 6. Page 203. 31. ^: V2c. (a 27. 10.x^y* + y%. 40. V80. x y. 2\/7. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 32. 19. V2 + 4 V22. V 5 47. 3^2. 32. r c . 9 . 2. + Vic + 25. 9. x. 34 r 6. 5 22. v^. 1 2 or 1 ?. 26. 11. m* n*. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 43. . 33. x%  3 ^+ 1. 3 42. 34. 10. ftV 46. Va 2 "ft. v'TM.577. 5. Page 208. 39. 2 a?>V2 a. abVab. (x' (l 1+x). 3 \ 39. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). a 3. 5. 2 '"V5. 2 4 z2 l 3. 16. 8a6V5. 48. . 5 ( . y. + 2 Vzy + y 1.XXii ANSWERS 1. 3. 195V3.Vxy 35. a 4 +* + !.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 135V6. 15. 12. 29. 3 x^y 33. 1. 6. 21. + 1.  a Vft 2 121 b. 03r* 7. . ?tV?w. 4. 101 1. 3V^T. 20. a^ + 2^+1. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.692. 3 a~ 3 (x (. y (a + ft) V2. 13 a. Page 207.). . x 25. 28. 40. 2 x* 15. 4aV^J 16. 1) 3V3. . 28. V. 16. 49. x^ . Vr 8. 2. . 37.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. + 2). r 17  Page 204. 29. 36. 30. 19. 18. 13 35. 2>X2.648. 37. 62V(J. 7. 22. 8. 3. 21. 10. 3.rV:r.632. 20.
3. 2. ^9. 7\/(l 7VTO. 6. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 52. 12. \XOfl6Vi5. 32m27n. 5v/2. Vat. 1V5. v/lO. v^f. 36. 16. \^6. Page 213. 8v2T 12. 2. 15. 35. 2. \/a6c. \^r^bVabc. / \/w/t 4 13. Page 211. 6x2?/. 46. \/128. 3 Vl5 30. 9. 38. 17. 30 Vl4. : ^32. 4\/5. 16. 34. v/l2. 12. 4 >/3. 53. 32. V3"m. \/8. 7. 5. 6+2V5. 34. fl^Vac. Vtf +3+ 33. 32. x/8l. \/04a. 13. v^a. 36. 22. m ?i2Vm/t. 14.J Page 212. 2 1. 13.. 44. 9. 9 VlO + 4. 10V(). 3. x/4. 37. 21. 15. 6. 3\/wi. 4VO. \V3. 6.  3. V5. \^6. 2yV2?/. 5V2. v^30. 49. 8V2. 14. 5V2. VT5. x/125. ^v 7 15. 26. 37. 24. 35. ^27. 23. Page 210. x/8L v/27.ANSWERS _ Page 209. V3. + VlO  v y (5. x/w^ 8. 4 a*. Vn. 13\/3. w?i. 11. v"5. 27. % 29. 41. 7. 20. V/. a2  b. . r)\/(l Vrtr. ^\/3. v/i). Vdbc. 42. 4. 3\/2. 19. 18. 10. x/3. V5. 40. 6. . . aVa. V2. 21. D 45. 14. 5 \/2. 48. xx 1. 8. 25. ^ 3 b 5 24. 29. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 17. 1. 31. 40. v 25^4714 V2"a. 11. 51. v/9. 22. 3. 39. v"3. 26. v^lf. 18. 3v^2. + 20. 2. 8V73\/IO. 24. \/2. W). 9. 2 \/2. 18. 2\/7. 5. 16. 3\/15  6.T*. . 10. 28. 3. 6. . 23. 2. 39. '. rtv/5. 50. vT). 1. 6aV2\^. 33. V8. 10. x/8. 4. 3 V2. . b. v^4. 2 28. 17. 19. 31. \/abc*.30 2. 43. 3 V15  47.r v/^ v^fr*. 1. 11. 0. Page 214. 3. ab 4. 27. 0. "v/wi ??. x/27. 8. 30. 7. 14c 4 V5. V2. 6 2\/0. v^O. a^\/a7>. a\/5c. 74\/Jl 120 46. V3. VJla. 8  \/15. "^8000. 25. Page 216. . 2 V'3. v/8. 6V2. 2 ate. 5. 38. v7^. 21 23.
4. 9. . 2. 11. 3. 8 V3V2.7071. 13.1. 100. 9. . 4.5. 27. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 2. 9. 19. 224. x 20. 28. 12.13. Vf6fVtf. 26. 7. V3 . i(Vf Vft). 30.4142.81. 16. 17. 23. 10. 16.732. 512. 10. 9 mn. 2!5_. V. J. 5. 2. 36. m f. 9.6 V3. Page217. 8.\/TO). ^(VlO\/2).2. . Va.. \.601. V35. (2f V"5). 216. 5.4722. . 6.5530. 11. 15.389. 10. 4. 14. . 17. 12. 7. V2. f. 11. +3 V2). 16. 81.w 6. 6. ' 22 i . 5. 7 Page221.3. 8. 2. ~ Vac _c 0. ^. 14. 19. n*. 27. 22. j. 33. 12. (\/5V2). 21.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 25. 14. 4. 2ajV2*. Page220. 26. 16. (2Vll). 15. nVTl. 13. 10. 2V3. Va. 7. j 15. (V5f 5. (Vf + (4 V2). (2V2). .732. 21. 14.  13. 1. 4. + 5V2. 5 f. 4. 1. 15. 9. 2. 9. 27. 23. 10. 5. 4.1547. Page 223. 25. 3(7+3V5).^ (\/22 4. 1. 19. 25. 20. 4. * 3. 6 (V2 + 1). (V8 + V2. 15 f 3 V2L 4.2828.3535. 7. 3. 125. 5. 4. 23. 7. 18. (V21). 2x^2^. i^Lzi. ANSWERS 8.V3). V3. !^ 6 4. 15. (2. 12. 9.6. 22. 7. 1. 4. 0. 30. 31. 4. 18. 4V3 + 6. \/3). 24. 8. 10. 10. 20. V^TTfc. 35. 17. 4. 25. ^r. 13. (\/3f 1). 12. 20. 5. 4. V3. 5 + 2 vU 17. 7. 18. J. 19. 3. . Page 28. 6. xy 2. 16. 8.1805. (VllV2). 34. Page 226. ^\/2. 16. 2. 81. 1. . (V51). 21. Page 219. 37. 24. 23. p 6 13. 16.XXIV 7. . 8. \/57t. V6c. 6. 1. 8. 3. 23. + 6) 2 . Page 225.0606. 4. ^.3.7083. 6. 4 14. 1. 9. 24. 22.  f. 1. 1. 6 V. 29. 18. 12. 9. 1. 8. 1. 5 V65. 2V3. Page 218. 21 ' Vob 26.9. 19. 0. V3. 11. 3. 16. 20. 18. (a 1. 24. 15. .625 10. 2. A . fV2. 3V23. 11. 4. 29.464. 5.  . 5. 32. 25. 17. 2 . 5. V5. 2V2. 25. (VaT^v a). _^JflJ?.2. (V6 + 2V2).  2. 64. (3+ v/2). 7. 3. 25. 3. 8. 7 f 5 4. K>/0 + \/2). 11. {.64. .
15. 8. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3. 24.4. XXV 4. 12. 7. 1. . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 4. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 19. 25. 17.w 4 + 1). 10. .  16). 3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 5. 4. 3. 8.  4.3 2.2)(m. 3. 2. 4 . 21. (a 4.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 6. 2. 4. 5. 30. 17. J. 1. 7. 0. 2.3.22. 3. 1. 30. //. (4 mn .2)(* . 2.1. 13. 4. 2. 1. 4. 10. 5. 56l). 73.l)(m . 1 3. 4.2. =A^Z3. 5. 4.1.0. 8. 4. 1. 3.5 xy + 25) 22. 2 <? 4a2 . (a.3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2. . (a+&)( 2 14. 3. 100. 2 &. 3. 4 4. 4. 11. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 16. f>. 13. . 5. (&y2a#H4). 2. 2 > 1. 4. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).  3. a: :} . 4 20. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 4. 3.Y. (+!)( 2) 10. 1 (?> x/^3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). V3.5. (63)(6' t 18. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 13.  3. 2.10. 1. 2. 6 2 2a + 2). 2.2. 11. 14. 3. 7. 8. (m 4 + l)(ro. 2. 10. 9. 0. 12. 1. . 4. 1.12. 15. 2.  1.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 10. 19. 10. 8. .l)(a 2 + a f 1). (a. 0. 4.4. 3. 3 . 50.  J. 8. 87 .r . 1. J Page 235.4. 12. Page 236.3. qpl. 2 .7. 0. 21. 14. (2 a. 1 . 3. 5. 2.  1. 73. 2 V^ . 24.^a. (a . 0. (r. .4). o. ( 16. 2. & + 6 2 ). 11. 1. 4. 16. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 28. 2. 3 5. 9. 4 1. 12. 9. 13. 3.  2.l)(a3)(a . ' J. 18. 30 . 3. 4. 14. . 11. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). (pl)(p2)(p2). 3. 3. 1 .+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 3. . . 1. . 2. 1. 3. 2 6. 1. 6. 2. 2. 3. 2 . 3. 2.. 13. J 24. 19. . 1. 3. 5. 1 6. 15. 0. 17. . 3. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 3 9.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 30 30. Page 233. l. 7. 25. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2. 6. 2. 5. 10. (rt. 2. (w . . 1.  f . 7. 2.3). Page 234.  3. 7. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). . f . 1 . (pl)(p3)(p6). t/ 23.ANSWERS Page 228. 7. 25. 3. 4. 1. 5. 3 . a . 18.3. 0. 6. 4. 23. 1 . . 5. 4. 2. 1. . 4 . (8.8a 18.2. 11. 5.nl^EI. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 6. 2. 8 6 & 0. 3. 6. 22. . 1. 25. 2. 7. a(. 1. 6. . ~ f7. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). . J. 22. y.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 11.  5. b .3. a  . 3 . 26. 1 . 20. 2. 12. 2 . 12 24 y . (B43). 5.3. 5. . .  . 20. P. 2 . \/0. 0. . 2 6. 5. 20. 4. 1.
Page 241. 8. 2.4. 2. 36. 2. 7. 2 . 7. 23. 15. 6. . 3 3. oo. 6. 5. 1. 3. 1. ft. 2. 7. 1. 3. 5. 12. 4. 7. . 19. m27. 14. 1. +  n. 5. 50. Page 240. 2V7. 16. \/6. 4. 14. . 3. 3. 23. . c. 17. 2. 20 7. 3. . 4. 3 . 18.xxvi Page 237. 2. 5. 17.e.136. 29. ^ }. 7. 35 ft. Indeterminate. 26. 4. . f. in.4. 8. 1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 37.200. 4. 1. . 1. . j.4. 3. jj. 14. 4. 35 a. Page 248. 4. n. 3. (&) 2. 3 2. 3.  1. 17. . 14. 4. 5. . 3. 3. 400. 15. 9. (>.. 39.  2 . 15. Page 247. 4. ( 3. 3. 12. Exercise 113. 17. . = QO 6. 84. Indeterminate.3. 9. . 2 26. 2. 1. 3. 40 25 in.3. 12 d.5. ' j. 6. . 3V5. 10. 20. 45yd.3.3. . 1. 900. 78. . 1. 8. 30 13.2. i i i . . 0. 1. . 5. 18. 3. 3 . 17. 6. 2 2.3. 10. 22. 16. 2. }. 7. 5. 2. 22. 24. 2 ft. 2 1. 11. 13. 1 .18.6. 25. } . 31. 1 . 16. 12. 9. 9. ft. 1. 13. 8. 3. 11. 21 30. oo . 3 cm. 19. 5. . '>. 8 3. 1 . . 0.. 50. in.  . 3. 9. 512. 5. 4. 5. 1. 5. 2 Y> V . 1.y. . 4 34.3. Page 239. 2. 1.3. 12ft. . . in. 1. 38. 37. 8ft. 2. 4 6. 4 8. 33. 2n. . . 1. 2. 12 1. . 4 . ri*. Exercise 114. 14. 8 . 37.1. 21. 512. 7. 6. 8. 9. 4. ft. 18. 12. ^~2. 28yd. 1. 30. 2. 2. . J. 7 3. 8. $46. 4. 3. 55. J. Page 243. 15.13. no co .1..0. 1. 2>/3. 41. 32. 5.5. 8. 3.1. 2. 12 ft. 15. $.. m28. _ 13 (0 6. . 2. . 3. 1. 17. 125 125. _ 5. 3. 1 2. (a) 5. ANSWERS 2.. 1. 12. 24. J. . 4.30. f>. 5. 5050. 15. Page 245. 2. V3~. GO .  11. 3. 3. 10. f*. 35^ 5. 21. 8. 20. 40. 4. 1. 3. 1. 3 4. 1. Page 244. 4. (/>) "_. 40 in. 288. 1. _ 7. J. 2 10. 1 . 2. 1. 11.6..0. 2 16. 4. and _ 4. i. (a) $3400. 3. 7f solution.020. 10. 15. 5. $. 5. . 201. V7. . oo . x 4. 3. 1. 2. 31. . 12. 2. 13. 2.3 . 1. 11. 5 4. 5 . 2 . in. _ 10. 2. 14. i'ljVU. 3 . \.4. in. Page 238. 5. . 5. 0. 5. i j. 4.. n . 3. 1. . . . 11. 4.. 48. 1 . 2. 69. 30. 1. 1. 4. 4. 14. tn 2. m + n. 5 cm.. 4. $VO. 2 . 35. 1J. co . 11. 3.. 20 in. 1. 4.
5. 5. \ w 4 . xxvii 1. 2. 11. 1. 0. Page 252. 0. 125. 12. 19. 7. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6i. 10. 1. 22. 13. . 1. 405. 3.0.470. J 2 //2 25. 7. 27. 17. 8. Page 258. 9. 27. <. 16. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 6. 21. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 7 2 x 4 x8 .5y 4 . JSg.r 4. 7.870 m*n*. 2. 2. 32. 18. . 8. 44. 7. . 4. 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 19. 81. 7. 3. . ^a 8. 8. 70. 0. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).4. 708. '23. 6. 19. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . c.v Page 253. 3. a4 4 14. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1.  101. 04. 10. 4. Page 259. r 5 4. 35. sq.r* 4 70 . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . } $ 50. 2i* 7f. x4 . 53. 70. 192. 8. 21. 4. 15.384. 8J. 3. 70. 100. . 10. 3. 11. 0. 8. . 18. 8.2 9. 12.680. 27. 8. 12.  20 flW. 5. 35. 75. 2. 15. 0. 1. 1820.5. 27. 9. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 23.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. G. 8 4x' 2 . 16. 16. 10. 495. 5. 1. 9. 6. 2. 343. 2. 18. . 8. w9  8. 2. 1. 1000 aW. 4. 105. 2. ?/i 6 x llj . 8 . 1JH. 12.920. 20. 16 11. 6. 3. 5. 9. a. . 3. 50. . B . 45. 05.419. 45.ANSWERS Page 250.8. 3.5 x. />*. 0.  17. I. Ja. 15. 0. 7.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 6.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. d. x r 4. 9. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 7. 2. 8. REVIEW EXERCISE . Jj? 45. 4 0.504. 11. 12. 55. 2. 0. 26. 327. in. 12. 1.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. vy. 12. 6.210. 15. 17.12 x*y 16. **+. 13. 16.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .192. 3. 128. 29. . 4. 4. 16. 410. 4. 280 53. 0. 6. 2. 10.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 4. 13.3 ays. . 5. Y11. 4. .6. 48.4 &z x>&. 45 Page 257.2 45 a 8 /). . r r j.700. 25. 2.5. 120 aW.6 . . (). 125.7 10.x' 10 . i 10. 7 x4 17. 43. 04. &' 14. 4. 28. 8 1.170. 5 13. 1. 14.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 1 7 4. ~v 9. 1. . 3. 16. ~ an . and 1.13. f y 8 + z* . 10 14. 18. 5. 6. 20.120. ' 1.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. A. 4. 22. 15. 20. 3. 005. 5. 9. 4.r x>/ 7 3. 16. 7. 343. 2.<2 4. 304. x + Vy.1. 220 . 12. 8.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 6. 1. 5. 4. 4. Page 254. 5. 17. 4. 10. 3. 3. 910.130 x30 189 a 4 24. y ^ 5  ^\ ). .53.^ ?>i 2412x4. 5. 1 14.
2 x2 108. 5 42.  4 a3 85. 52. 130.3 a 2 '6 w 4. . .105.2 c . 110. 3~ n 4. !! 71. . 127. x 2 . 88.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.7.41. 4 fee 4. 4 15 x 5 . 1 121. 25.c 3 4. x 8 + x 4 68.1. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 29.6 b.18 x?/0.5 b + c .2 xy + 4 y2 106.ac 44 aft. 39. 7 + 3 xf 2. x2 471x4. . . 3 36 b c . 46. 3a'2 Page 261. 70.x. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.a6 2 4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. . 14 x . 5x 2 2x43. 243x4729. 93. . a4 x.a 2 x 2a . 94. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 8x3 8x. + a 4. + 3 a?. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.fee 2 4. I 57. . (a + ft)" 98. 96. 133. 100.y*.15 4 62 x  72.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 3 a 44. 12 a/. x8 x2 55.rty x2 4 123.^a . 21.18 ?/ 5x4. 22. 30. .x24 73. 131. 38. . a* 4. . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 122. 6 c 47. 13 + 2 s. 4 2 . 4ft y3.4. 26.x4 + y'2 z 4. 9 2w 128. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 36. 76. () 2 x 33. . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. .4 x y 87. 12 x.x x*  f 2 ax 4. x* . 4 . . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. c3 4 58. Page 260. 0.2. a 3m 4. 2 x2 4. 24. ^ . t 81. 2 q. 99. ft2ft 4 4l.4 x 2 . 49. 72.1. x' . m " + n + P3c . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .4 ac. 4. x4 f + 23 .a'2 c. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 6 a2 97. 2 x'V2 90. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 1 a"* 4 an . 0.2 x^.c.2 x 4. 4. .  12 a. * 60. 125. 4 69. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 62. 31. 102. 37. 35. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 86. 1 x 45. 1 . x' 79. a2 2 aft 2 2. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . a' 111. 4 115. 5x + 2y~z.ft). 4 65. ?/ . 28. _55_7c 48. 2 . &p 84.x 51.7 x   15. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 120. xyxzyz. 27.a*ft 2 126. x 3 41. ?/ 3. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. .a. . . 2 113. a* a 8 a aftc. 2 .2.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 16t/. df. +^ + ft W. 2 . 91. 3 a ..3 . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. ?> .5x4.3 x 2 + 3 x .1. . 2 2/' . 2 53.c. 104.1w 77.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. x 8  a8 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. x2 5r*x ft 5 . a~b 89. x2 2 . 3 c . ft n . a J . 5 4 4. 2 a. 118. 124.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .6 am b\ 129. 2 30 .3 103.9 b. 3 a 5 a 5. 4 ! . /> 4 83.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . 6a6c.4 2 4 c2 42 . 61. + z. 40. .1. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x 4.9 x . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. as 20. . 32. 8 .3 aftc. 109. x 3 4. az 4. x } 4.3 y. 23.a' 'ft 4. . 0.1 4 jry 4 x . ft /> 78.  + 3 x2 . 64. 10 4.5. 107. 132. 4 Page 264. 80. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  .3 b . 82. 1 + 4 xy.4. 16. 63.4. 50. 43. . 105.5 3n 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. y 4 z* 0.{ 54.3 a'ft.4 x?/2 3 4. 9x. x .x 2 4. f5+7. 114. Page 263. 4. 66. a 4 .4.2.  3 x2 . 3a~2c.  e +/. 10 a 12 b. x2 a2 1 .
+ 2) + 9a. y3. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). z(x10)(xl). p. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.r + 4). 170. 4.2) (3 x . (a& 192. 20. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . fc'2a+62c). 146. 149.1). 30 yr. 184. 1. 211. Page 267. a(a. 173. 240. a. 2. 238. 218. 178. (.9)(xf 2). xxix 139. 164. 205. 181. G7. a 2 (15. (x . (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 162. 239. ?.r . HI. 177. 10). 19. . 232. 138. 2^. (ab + 8) ( 7). (3x2?/)(2.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 20. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 179. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 140.l)(a 2 +3).m)(x + a). 191. 189. 241.  1. 153. 199.2). (y 7f))(y 196. 6. (8x + 3)(3x4).y + 3)(r (. y.. as 194.ANSWEKti 135. 2. 12 yr. 156.6 . 147 mi. 22. 1. 1.6)(4 + 6). 202. 236. 1. 1.6) (2 x + 1). 2a(42ft)(2fo). 12) (j. 158. 163. . 15. (6) 40. 237. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.2ac + 229. 222. (y  17)(y + (>). Page 265. 12. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 217. a + 2x2 ). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 144. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (a 2 + 2a6. 24. 148. r>x 2 (4x. 212. 197. 235. (JT y 225. 10.3 y). 201. (r^x + 1). 137. 21. (a} 59. 174. 142. 150. 12 yr.l)(y + 1). 12 6 panes. 231.y). 247. 3. 1. 6. 157. 185.4xl). (?/+l)(yl). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 193. p. . 50.3. 30 + xyr. ft. (x^ + x1) 234. (y _ ft)(y 4. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 3(x . 214.3).y2 ).2 )(x+y) 228. . aft. 186. + 3).2). 136. 37 1. (y7)(y + 188. 171. (r7y)(ai. 12. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). x(x + 6) 213. 147. y  y 165. 224. (5 x . 226. +)(x2 x^+2. 15  a. 1. Or (a + 2)0el). (y_24)(y5). 216.I2y). 2 (4 x . (at (4 a +!)( + 3). . (c) 160 C. 190. (3x  . 215. 32 h. 2. 10). 159.. 18. (x + 6)(x6). 183. . + 22). 154.1). 160. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (x  42 yr. 161. 182. + 11) (a 10). 2 xy(3 x . 172. ( + 2y)(2x3y). Iff 145. 152. 151. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (/ 246. 2(x8)(x3). m. 15. 10 ft. 208. y 245. 180. Page 266./_4). 143.3) (2/3y). (2 198. (233). 2. 175. 6). + 7)(rt4). 166. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 209.. + y. 10 in. 23 18. 169. 30. 48 h. (2a + l)(a . 4. + 3) (x f f>) . 2. 210.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 155. (x 227. 167.3 y)(a .1(5) 200. . 1.1). 36ft. 3. 176.2. 218. 244. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (7 c 2 ). 75. 8 204. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 195. 219. 40 yr. (x + 2)(x . 2 2 (a.y)(jc + 7 y). 7. 8(ar}(/)27). C3 y _l)(. 220..l)(x8 + x2 . (7x2//) 203. 5. k.y) (\r3y). 233.y)(z . 206. 187. 207. 168. yr.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 230.
7. 3). 4 5. a. 43 '^rJ'. 258. x12. 259. ? 1) 302. 268. 10. &). 2 4 300.  7. 263.1. 2 x  3. ?^ZLiZ 308. a~ ' b*). 301. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 3  262.2* i^^ !^. 256. ^/>J.. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 3. 307. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 269. x 283. 3). ^ 299. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. *>). Ca&c 1)(M 253. 279. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . > 4. x 267. 310. o(x4l).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 0. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .4). 7^T 2 .   . *. 305. 250. 254. 2. 266. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 306. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. (7 255. 260. 264.(x  4) (x4 304.^^^^^^^^. 5. 303. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 261. x ?/ z 1. o. 251. x .^ ^^. 7 x 265. 0.4) 1) (3 x . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 295. 249. + f.  3xyf x// 257. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 298.
1. 382. 1. 13 391. 364. 325.". 4.vin a /r " 337. 2(q. S. 1.XXXI Page 272. 379. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. . 380. 370. 4 rw. 0. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 385. 395. 404. 329. 355.  1 356. 2 ?/ 363. f. y 4 I 340. 4.!. 1. ?>*. 0. 20. 9^. + 4 & 4 \ b. 377.1. 1. a +6. . + x 362. _*L'L+.7. 0.  1. 360. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 386. 12. (a + b + c\ . Page 274. 3. 399. 0. 392. 376. 4 A.3. 336. 361. 389. 398. 2. " 4 378. 326. m. 400. 390.J . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 6a.H ' 2wi ^' /' . a + b + 6). 396. . ?=. 408. 2 r36 384.(5 a . 394. 401. T\. c 402.. 405. ab. ?/ + 3 332. Page 277. * 357. 366.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 3. 333. 2 ab  a Page 276. 406. 383. . l'j. 387. + 335. 407. If. 11. . 397. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 2. 339. 3. 2 327. T+^. 393. l . 1 i 2 ^. ^ 3 // . <L 409. 7. L . 2(a i 403. a 2 . 7/i ^ _ . 343 00 351. 334. 375. ^"" 4 s .. A^L5L. x 54 359. 365. a) A^_. 6 ?/+:>.)Cr4)__ . 388. j 328. 324. 2 ). . ^_:r f> 331.
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2. 1$.24. . 554.r8 596. 3 . 1 580.. 3 da. (6) 3.04.  3. 531. o> . 24 da.52.3. 6435. 4.10. 2 imag. a+ Page 286. (e) 570. 571. 1. 569.3. .8.  557. (6) . 576. + 6 tf f 3 . 2. .5. (d) 537. 2(4 602. 525. 4. (ft) 4.3. 1.4.  (a) (d) 1. 562.  1.15. 2. 2(6 597. 2 1.4. 3.6. da.88. 5. 3f 4f.02.2. 3. . . 4. 558.  2ft da. . 3. 1 .5. 1. 553. If 572. Page 287.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 551.37. 1. 1.8.f 1. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.03.3. 564.3.24 sec. _ 3.3. 4. a*8a + 24tf 82a.5 f. + 12 x .6. 568. 1 . 5.4.5+.83.8.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. T .25m. 2 2. 2 . 1 600. (c) 3. . 2 10. 4. 0.54.3.7.xj/ f xV . 31. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . 1. _^ 2754x . 513. f36a28x8 592.15. 574. y 4.  J(a f + 2c). (a) 74 Ib. tin. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. f. a + ft  a  f c. 532. 1. Page 285. 7^ da. 3.56 sec. a f ft + c. 2. 559.54. 563. 528.6. S82 c. .00.0. + 26 + . 6. . 3. 1. xxxin 511.35.33.1. 1. (e) (c) 2. Roots imaginary.  2.3. (gr) 10 1. 552. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4. 512. (i) 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .1. 40 Ib. 530. . 1.7. .5.75. 2$. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.   (h) 8. 579.. ^ ft 4. 514.8 x3^.0.30. 1. 1. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 3. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 27 y* f\4 .25. 509._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 565. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).  (a) 2. 5. 115 Ib.53. . 4 0. f ? a f ft __ + c C). .  . . 1. .02. 1. 21*_. 4. 2 1. .37. lead. x8 .  + + c. 598. 4. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.78.75.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 3. 1.  4. 526. 560. .05.1. 1. J7] min.0.14.5. 7. H. 6. 556.  7. 3. 577. 2. 3. 515. . 0000. 14.1. . 529. lead. 533.03. 578. . 8 mi. 3. . per hour.83. 1.78. f.1. per hr. or 8.ANSWERS Page 284. (c) 4.0. 4.21. 573.16. 536. 3. 3.4.02. 527.31. . 232.4 x + .31.51. 3. 1. 555. 1.20.4. (ft) Ill Ib. 2. 566.24.12. ft 584. 599. . 4 mi.62.1. 550. . 5. 591.8. 2. _ 4.7.73. 2 . 518. 2.. 583.15. 2.  imag. .02.5. 3.38. tin. 516.4.  ft*. . 581. 1J. 567. 593.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 575. Page 288. . g(rc+ 6c). M ft c 2 ft 3465. > ^ . <z ft 1.62.. 561.10.55. 1. 582. y% Z * 586. 510. 603.04.. 1.% rr\* 585. 24. 1. (/)  10 to 8.6.9. 4* da. 8.6 2. imag.
25. . ab.203. 616. 669. 1 V5 1. 625.  1. 683. a + b. 2f. 637. z  1. 78. i. 653. 4 V 0. 655. 626. 2..  684. V^~3). 613. l/'3. 670.14 If 1.f 3 V^3).. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 654.43^4. 7. c. a ' 2 + .002.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2. 650.3. 2 ab + a  &. 705. (*_ + a: 611. 2. 660.2f Page 290. 5.25. 5002. 4. 607. . 628. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 1 ~a . I}'/. 2092. 0. 3 681. ft). 2 a: 4. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 700. 1 704. ^^ 695. 009.  ft. 10.0. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. If f 667.  2f r 659. 6 685. 657. la6 2. 1 2. 638. a 4.702. 4$. . 4. 11. / V^+lO^M"^. 614.y. 3 x2 . 1010. 5. 651. b . 2. 644. 623. 696. 9*. 698. 3.2f (5 4. 7. 620. 5 3. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2 a  6*. 8 6 fo . 677 680. 4330 da. 621. a 1J. 5.04. <T! . 641. 679. 11. 633. . Page 289. 649. 3. 630. 624. 13. 210. J^^.3. 1. ^ 1. 8 f 3. ^. 631. 608. 2. 635.  13. . 648. 622. . 12. . o. 645. If 665. /> 4. 1m*. If b. 661. 0.049.c ) 697. 618. 9. 3 a. a. 1$ 639. (a3&45rj. . If . V"^TJ. 678< 682. . V7.XX XIV 606. 971. 14.  6. 636. 642. 6. . ix 2 . be ac \. 898. y  619. 647. 2.303. a 673. 627.  3.  4. 643. b. 5. 656. 612. 2. 8. 4. . V2. .001. 646. 691. . 615. 2. 0. K 5 2 V2.3. 640.001. V2. 2&). 662. 706. 634. 629. 708. 632. fe + a. + ~^'2 + a 1.3. 7003. 1.3f l 668. a 2. 0. 1. 702.b. ' fe 2 ). b 664. If. . 4 676. 25. 2 x 44 ^/. 2 a 688. n^l +^. ' 674. 617. 50. fta a/> ^A. if 4/> 671. If 658. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 672.  4. 6.  a2  a (ab).>A 610. 3. 1. 690. ^. 2f. 0. 666. 701.a~ {Z 663.  . 703. 2. 692. 4. 652.b 686. ab 689. \+ab 699. 0. \. 703. 2 / 2 4.
v/7 / . v'll. i^. 24..1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 749. . 724.11.9. 34. 725.9. 788.4 . 342V3. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 729. VT14V5. 733. 778.rJ w L 754. + < 735. 3V72V3. rt3 2 ^i^. 732. 2 V2 . 709. 00. . 5. . 1 752. i 2. 730. 796. 728. 711. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 753. 1. cr*lr*. . 30\/10 764.ANSWMHti Page 292. Page 293. a db Va^T < 45da. 776. 773. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. VIO\/3. 750.r. 3^. 7  3V5. 47. 3.V/^ 741. 8. ^7xy.1 . 8..257. 751.12 af V^ 4 744. + 6 2 tf'c. 777. 24V2. Hi a. 15 shares. 719. ^ ?>. a:* . 1.4 . 782 785.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 29\/3. 1. 712. x i f^' . 740. 4 104 v/2.~ . 1 747. 39. 300. 2x3^ a. a 2  x2 . iv/Jj.^ 743. 763. 1 I . 59.2. ^ . 3 720. . 734. 726. 794. 13ft. > 748. 737. 716. 768. 755. 717. 789. 736.. 767. 25. 723. / 787. a 5 . a 2 6^. T%. 3 VlT 795. fyaw&cu. 769. 2\/53V2.r+y> 759. x\y. 731. 738.8. 793. 1 [ + '> J. 3V7. mn. 746. 32>/2. 3V72VO. J(v'lO2V 791. 33^2. 713. a".10. 710. 739. 718. VV> L4V34. 3V52V3.V2. 758. 790 2v 3v 2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 17ft. Page 294. 5. "V313. 715. y  1. 24 4 .. 792. 721. 1^ _ 760.^. j 742. 756. 714. r. 722. 727.
2. 883. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 4. 848.3)(x + 4). Page 297. 5. 6. + d)*. ((' 1). 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 830. ) (a' 874.XXXVI 797. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. Va. 2 854. a 42)(x . 799. 3. 811. 19. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).. 10. 890. .  ' . (2 x + 3 y} .1). 823. 891.2w . n =  29. . (2 a . . X4 1). 7. 4. Hoots . 5. 826. (3 b . 0. 840. 800. 2 *x 807. 812. 835.5 b) 4 1).f. m 875. (2 4. 810. Va 803. 868. 3 . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . Hoots are extraneous. 831. 4 818.l)(x + 2). 13. a2 ^E*!. 825. 2. 14. 4. 17. f. 2. 4. (x 4. 813. (a 4 871. 2 . 1. 3. 880. . 867. 822. 1. (x 2 . 2. 2  2. 0. o 828.l)(x .25 ?>2).4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. (xl)(^~3)(. o. 1. 872. 20). 851. 2 j 889. 896. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 2/ 856.10 ab 4. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 5. 814. 832. +j!>. 842. 884. 897. 3.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). m = 2.a 3 " 4. 0.y) 852.l)(x . ANSWERS 798.3. 4. (x + 0X024. 833. (x . 836.7).om 441) (a 855. jV3 f 3. 816.2) (x 4 2). 5).r4).0.. (x 845. 841. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 6+V7. db 7. 804. 2. 820. . ( 869. 1. .l)(x + 3)(2x43). (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . \/5. 886./>") (a'. 7. 6. 3. 1. 4. 2. 3. 1 . 861. 847.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). (:r 11. (a 1) (x 4. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 3. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 843. 849. (x 2 f r .4. 48. 888. (x*y*ryz + z*). 876. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2 (x 4*4.1.3. 4. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).1) . 4. 3. 23. 2. 819.7)(4 x. x . (3 862.  + l(l^).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 4. 3. 2 m . 834. (a m . 3. 2 . (2x (r. 2. 8. 8. ^.rae) (4 . 879. $. a(ry + 864. are extraneous. 827. 858.+ m f ") (a* ). 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 3. 2 . 1C. 2. $. . 894. H. \/2. 817. . 8 09. 25. 801. . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).  839. 859. ^ V}. 5. 900. 17. 898. 4 . 4 885. 892. 857. a(ft)( 873.7).2 ax 4. 1 1. . 899. J V. (4 c 4. (1 . 887. 5. 11. a* 4.7 4 1) 846. (.1) (a 8 .  1. 863.4) 860.a 2 2 ). **. 893. 838. 881. 11.1)(V 2 . . 6. 829. 844. 4.1)(0 865. x. . 0. 895.5) (x + * 853. 2 806.  tt 815. 837. ( 4 4. ^VG.7.a 4 + 1).r . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 7. 7. b' 2 821. 882. 824. (x3).. (x . 6 $. Page 296. 2 2 . 2. 808. V 3.
1 XXXVll ' a 1. Y. 1 2. 12. 4. 930. '3 3 in. 0.  1 . .01. 2. . 3. 1 1. 4. 5. 6. v/(ai !)(&910. 939. 934. . 920. . 904. Page 300. 0. 8. ^y. V5 T 2 . 2 1. ft. 6./hr. 952. 978. 111.446. ?/i 6. 983. . Page 302. 4..744. 2 yd. ft. 333.709. 1. 2. 14 . 80.  1. Page 303. 1 . 333. 10. . 4 in. . 954. 2 ft..V~~3). 905. 912. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 923.. Z ^. 3. 8. 28. 987. 3. 5l4f. 985. .  26j. 11. tt2 19. 6 da. 960. 6 a 915. 4.1. 7. 8 . f. 20 19 ft. 5 .. w 3. 11. 951. 2 w 914. yd. 984. 4. $(l 4. 5. J(_ ft. f ft 4 . 986. 2 i ' a V. 8. 7 ft. 2. S07.651.. 8.. J. 2. 18. =F J. 1). 60 949. T 6. 11. . ft. 12 in. 3). 916. V^3).760 sq. ft. i(6 in. 8. 7. 6 . 12.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. V5 fj. 961.1. . 955. 908. 950. 7.. 982. 5. 902. 7 or 30. 906. ft. 2. 917. dL 4. 940. 941. 66 924. 979. i1" 913. 935. i 8. 4. 4. 5. 938. ft. 959. 2. . 936. 943. 0. 944..2. T3. 6 1 1. i 3. 6. 3.0. . 0. 958. i>. 6. 480 8 sq. 927. 964. 329. 11. 12 mi. 903. 280. 100 rows. 15 16 ft. 919. 40 16 in. 963. 3 4 . 6. 2. 918. T 6. . 4.. 980. 947. 981. 921. 945. 932. 9 in. 1 + V953. 1.2.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 977. 8.. 956. 8128. 15 946.615.111. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 28. . . 115. 942. 3. 931.... 4 . 4 6 mi. 6. . 933. 2. 2. a. 1 _2 . Page 301. 957. 56. 962. 4. w.. 937. 3. 1. 922. 248. 948. .073. r ft ' < Page 299. 911. 5. 28.I. %* . 12. Va926. J. 4. 10. 496.1 = 9. 6. a + . 8. 909. 3 . . 8. 7. 925. ft. . ft. 2. 108.. . 3. 73.
1 1004. Page 304. () 12(2+V3).  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 24.378 1015. X. .92. 192. 1 8 8 2. 1013. 1016. + 448 . 1007. (6) 8(1 .378 <W and 92. 1001. (J. r = 2.870 a 6 1011. (5. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1018.. 1000. 12.18. 991. 1012. 2(2 v/2). 990. ~ \. 996. 1019.'^^ } ( . 1009. ^f (2f3V2). 9 da. 162.  5&7 1021. 992. . 0. 988. 0.870 z8 . 1008. 12. 994.51. 1005. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1017. ^Trsq. in. 1006. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (Z>) 999.. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 120 a. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 8.128 I. 997. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 4. 72. Page 305. 995. 1003. 1(5. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 6 70 . 993.192rt?)r 120 *. 1010. 1014. 48. 108. 3003. .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. + v 2). 120 i^l^. 4 and 1020. 2 .
Ph. HEW TOSS . physics. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. great many work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. A examples are taken from geometry. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. than by the .25 lamo. Half leather.D. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. comparatively few methods are heretofore. The more important subjects tions. etc. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. xi 4 373 pages. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Half leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. given. save Inequalities. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. xiv+563 pages. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. so that the Logarithms.
10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. HatF leather. comparatively few methods are given. In Factoring. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Logarithms. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. save Inequalities. xi f 373 pages. Half leather. etc. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. 12010. The author grade. $1.25 i2mo. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. Ph. so that the tions. $1. HEW YOKE . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xiv+56a pages.
SEVENOAK. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. Cloth. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. These are introduced from the beginning 3. under the heading Remarks". guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. NEW YORK . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Half leather. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SCHULTZE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.10 L. 4. 7 he . Ph. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. aoo pages. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . lines. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 9. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. xii + 233 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: .D. i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Cloth. . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7.r and.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 10. iamo. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. izmo.. more than 1200 in number in 2. $1. wor. 6.
New York City. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. and not from the information that it imparts. $1. 12mo. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . 370 pages. of these theoretical views. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. .
Cloth. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Maps.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. diagrams. photographs. $1. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. " This volume etc. An exhaustive system of marginal references. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . and a full index are provided.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. diagrams. Topics. i2mo.
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