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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. . OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
Reprinted 1913. January. May. .' February. 8. July. 1910. May.COPYRIGHT. 1910 . 1916. August. 1917. Berwick & Smith Co. IQJS January. September.. September. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1911. 1915. Published Set up and electrotyped.A. .S. Mass. 1910. J. U. Cushlng Co. Norwood.
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Such a large number of methods. are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. etc. and conse . specially 2. chief : among These which are the following 1. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible." this book.. Elementary Algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. owing has certain distinctive features.
etc. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. In regard to some other features of the book. as quadratic equations and graphs. hence either book 4. Topics of practical importance. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. are placed early in the course. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. two negative numbers.g. may be used to supplement the other.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. e. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. For the more ambitious student. especially problems and factoring. Moreover. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. however.
based upon statistical abstracts. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. elementary way. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and commercial are numerous. Moreover. physics. is based principally upon the alge . the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. By studying proportions during the first year's work. such examples. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. in " geometry .' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. viz. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules." Applications taken from geometry. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.
April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. William P. NEW YORK. 1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. however. edge of physics. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible.
II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... SUBTRACTION...... Powers....... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... .
.. .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.... . .. * ... Type V.. Type IV.. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. Type III. /^ . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type II. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .114 .. Type Polynomials. Type VI.
.. .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... .. Evolution of Monomials 170 .... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
3. 27. since the parts are a . aVc^. + 1]. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. [6c] 3 .g. V36". c f d). a polynomial of two terms. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. as in arithmetic. V^a6. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 15. is 28. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. b = 3. + c). 7 = 2. 12. c = 1. some number is ." EXERCISE If a 1. 9. 10. Val \fi?. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. A binomial is 62 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. v'Ta. 13. or 9 Vx. 6. 14. V2a. 2. 8. find the numerical value of: Vff. 4V3~6c. 26. 11. 0. x 9. V3 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. d 7. 6. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 17. e. \/c. 2 . A polynomial is an y. !^f\/03 3 ft. are trinomials. (cfd) 4.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 16. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 5Vl6c. 4(a 6(6 + &). 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2.
9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 5=3.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 6.390. 12.9. 5c +d 2 . . 3 4 . a 2 6. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 52 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 3a + 56 a 2 . Ex.810 + 150 = . 3 2 If 1. a=4. find the numerical value of: 9. a2 11. 4. 14. x=^..19 = 6. 4a6fVaV2^.9 aWc + f a b . Ex. multiplication. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.INTRODUCTION 29. . __ E. 6. l 13. 3. c=l. b = 3. .4 6^9 ad. * For additional examples see page 268. 1. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. = 32 + 4527 = 50.30 = 270 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 5. 16. 8. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. + 26+3 c. EXERCISE 8*  . 2 ).2 + I126. 10.99. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2. 4 .5 ax 50 a6cd.g. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. d = 0. (a (a f b) 7. c = 2. 2.e. Otherwise operations of addition. subtraction. 5. i. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . d=Q. .
6 = 2. 6.c) (a . a = 3. if : a = 2. physics. a = 2. 6 = 7. a a=3. a = 4. 38. 33. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). Six 2 . sible to state Ex. 29. Read the expressions of Exs. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 30. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 28. 24. : 6. 6 = 4. 6 = 6. a. a =3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 22. 6 = 3. and other sciences. 6. 23. 30. 25. 26 of the exercise. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 1.6 f c) (6 a + c). Express in algebraic symbols 31. . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 34. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 4. 6 = 5. 27.6 . 26. 6 = 6. 37. 6 = 5. a =4. geometry. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6=2. 35. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.
c. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.g. 2. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 5 feet. 14. then a 13. 15 therefore feet.) Assuming g . count the resistance of the atmosphere.16 1 = 84. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v . (c) 4.e. A train in 4 hours. b 14. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. the area of the triangle equals feet. if v : a. . 13. An electric car in 40 seconds. and 15 feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and 13 inches. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 4. 84 square EXERCISE 1.INTRODUCTION E. i.16 centimeters per second. (b) 5. d. b. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. Find the height of the tree. if v = 30 miles per hour.seconds. 12.
. $ = 3. ~ 7n cubic feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the 3. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (c) 5 F. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 10 feet. meters. 5. If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 5 miles. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14 4. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. is H 2 units of length (inches. the area etc. (c) 8000 miles. square units (square inches. 32 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (The number 3.14d (square units).).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.).14 square meters. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. : 8000 miles. 2 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.
we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. however. . AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. SUBTRACTION. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 21. (17) 15 + (14). 5.3. of: 20. 2326. + (9). c = = 5. of 2. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 33. = 5. 6 6 = 3. is 2.16 32. 24. d = 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 0. + 12. 10.  0. 18. 4. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 19. . find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. '. if : a a = 2. c = 4. 23. 12. Thus. subtract their absolute values and . 5. 4 is 3 J. is 0. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. (_ In Exs. 22. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. lf(2). the one third their sum.
& 28. $7000 gain.ADDITION. . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. .. 42. 11 (Centigrade).7. . and $4500 gain. & = 15. ^ ' 37. : 48. 30. 32. 38. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 3 and 25. and 8 F. ' 1? a 26. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. and 4. 25. ' Find the average of the following 34. . which are not similar. 29. 6.5. affected by the same exponents. = 13. $1000 loss. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. c=14. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. 6. 0. 33. c = 0. 60. and 3 a.13. 74. 32. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. $500 loss. 7 a. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. and 3 yards. 37. : and 1. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. $3000 gain.3. 34. 10. 27. }/ Add 2 a. \\ Add 2 a. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 2. 55. 4 F. = 22. 66. : 34. 72. sets of numbers: 13. and 3 F. 31. 39. 10. SUBTRACTION. . 1. . are similar terms.4. d= 3. . . 13.5. 7 yards. 40. 5 and 12.. 36. = 23. and 3 a. 43. 4. 3. 6. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 12. or and .7. 09. 35. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 7 a. 10. 41..
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 12(af b) 12. 12Vmfn. in algebra it may be considered b.18 35. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 5Vm + w.13 rap 25 rap 2. 11. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign. b wider sense than in arithmetic. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. Algebraic sum. 13. or a 6. The sum x 2 and f x2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 2 a&.ii. 2 . b a f ( 6). 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. . f 4 a2. Vm f. 5 a2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. : 2 a2. 5l 3(af6). 14 . + 6 af . 3a . 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6). EXERCISE Add: 1. 10. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 7 rap2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2(af &). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.
3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. c 2 ^24. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. n x* 2 22. 6 23. 37. l^S 25. 36. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. + / + 3 Va. 2/ : Add. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . is . 30. +m """ 20. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. a a8 ZL **. and to add each column. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. SUBTRACTION. 21. 33. 1 27. 32. 2 7 1 26. 35. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. + y. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. ra 19. without finding the value of each term 34. 2 2 2 31.ADDITION. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 17.
e. and J 2 s. . 3. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. a 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 4 = 7. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 5. the erroneous answer equal 7.20 c 5 ab 4. NOTE. f 110WS: 26 aft. and 2 .g. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 Sum. 5 . s.o c and 4. 46 4z 7 c. 4 2.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.g. of that letter. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.41 = 3. x of x. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.3 s.c= 2. 7 4.8 abc . V3. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. therefore the answer is correct.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 3 a f 4 1) 4. to show any error. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . ft any convenient and c. 2 025.12 a& 4. = .7 2 . 3a 2? .15 6c. to add 26 ab . c = 1. 2 . .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2c. 2 Thus. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 6=2. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .15 abc . 9 q 4. .
18/+6y + d.ADDITION.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . + 50 + 62 . 8. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .and 6. 11.VS 4 2 Vc. . 2 2 . .(b + c) 1.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 2 2 and . . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4(a .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 4. 2 ?/. 4 ajy 17. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. and 1 4 a . a 4 a . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.4 Va . .15 5. 2 a. xy3xz + yz.7m .a . d and / 3 ? 12. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 19. m 4 6.4:xy xz 6yz. a) y ^/. 4 8 3 4 4 . .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .a 4 a 4 1. 3 2 2 3 9 .12(a 4. 7ar + 3B 5. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.Ga 43x45.2n 2 2 3 rz . .1.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.1 a 4 1 0.5 cr& + 7 6 9. and . a2 a. and 5 Vb 18.8 m 2m 12.a. + a + 1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. e a4 /.5a^6 f 6) . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. d. 16.12. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. . 56 w. a + 1> 8 2 2 . . 2 ?ft ?/z. . in 8 3 m n 4.12 6 ~5 a .10 Vc.9(a + &) . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. a2 2 14. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . 4 Vc.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . ?/ . a 4 a . and v 15. a. 2 3(c f a).6. and and 13. 2 and 9m 48m 4. and 8 3 . SUBTRACTION. 4 3 . ^2 1 e.a. 16e + 17/90.7v/if. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . v/20.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .
What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. + n*.4 2tn* Sic 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 .3^* 2n 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. and 2 24. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 45a6 2 . 8 . 13 1. 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. how 1. 1/ . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.9aj 2. and e + 6y .. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1. 22. . f 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. +d a. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If you diminish a person's debts. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . + 1. 1. and 25. 6 f c 2 23. 12 xyz. The sum and ? 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2. 1.ra + m. T8a. f number may be added 3. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . c 3 3 3 2 3 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1. s . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. .m 4m ?/?/ d.11 xy + 12. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. is 2. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. a 6 2 c. . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. f 1.22 21.
In addition. called the minvend.ADDITION. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. Therefore any example in subtraction different . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. To subtract.3. +b 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. Ex. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ( 6) ( = . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 2. This gives by the same method. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 6 (3) = 8. 7. . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. Or in symbols. NOTE. two numbers are given. SUBTRACTION. if x Ex. From 5 subtract + 3. In subtraction.2. ab = x. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. a.g. and the required number the difference. the given number the subtrahend. from What 3. 5 is 2. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 1. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the other number is required. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 41. 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. From 5 subtract to .
5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t . Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Check.f 8 .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .
5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. tract 4 x 3. 54. From 6(af. of a 4. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. + a the 2 a.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. 50. 48. 46.6)f. c f d.c. 2.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 49.4 a*& + 6 a & .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 51. . 2y 2 . 45. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.a 2 j. 41. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .2.7 a . 56. and 3 7/ .4 a^ 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 58. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 44. 52. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 6 4 a. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 43. From 2 a take a & j. 42. 53. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . check the answer. 55. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 57.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 47. From From x2 the sum sum 7. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.w>t.
Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.15. a 2y + z. + 6 + c. + 2. 2 m 21. 20. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a a + c. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. subtract # + 1. a + 6. A is n years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 16. of # 2 8. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 9. 19. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .26 4. 6 17.
& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.2 b . (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 45. I.ADDITION.g. II. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.b c = a a & f f. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. Ex. & f c.a^6)]  } . tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. a+(bc) = a +b . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. the sign is understood. 46.c. one occurring within the other.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.6 b f (. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. changed. . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. SUBTRACTION.
4. 3 3 f 7. 5. 9. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 2 2a. 271 + (814 . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 3.y (60. m f ft) a. may be inserted according to 43. find the numerical value of { 1422 . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 13. + (2a 6 + c ). 18. . 6) 2. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 16. 19. [36+ (a 2c]. a f (a a .+ 6)f (a2 b). 15. a (a + 6). Ex. 14.) 5 . 17. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2a (4a 26 +c ). (m a2 f. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.)]. : x + (2yz). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 8. ? 11. By removing parentheses. 2 2 2 a(. Signs of aggregation 1. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 6.7i h jp) (m ?*.[271 47.1422) J ] . 2.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.: Ex. 21. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.(a + 6). a (a + 26 c ).
2. p + q + rs. )X 6. 7. The product The product m and n. of the cubes of m and n.4 y* . EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.ADDITION. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 12. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 6. a\l> > c + d. The difference of a and 6. 6 diminished . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. m and n. II. ' NOTE. 4. The square of the difference of a and b.1. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 13. 3. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 7. 5^2 _ r . terms 5. The sum^)f m and n. 10. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. first. 9. . y f 8 . 3. 5. 5 a2 2. 8. difference of the cubes of n and m. m x 2 4. SUBTRACTION. 2mn + 2q3t. z + d. and the subtrahend the second.7fa.2 tf . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.) . d. 18. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . b.
let us consider the and JB. 3. what force is produced by the Ib. 4. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads what What. force is produced therefore. A A A 1. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. If the two loads balance. 2. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. two loads balance.
x 11. 48. 9 x ( 11). (. Practical examples^ it however. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 9 9. becomes meaningless if definition. (5)X4. the multiplier is a negative number. or plied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. 4x(3)=12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. however.4)(. 4 multiplied by 3. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. NOTE.4)(4) = + 12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ( (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. . thus.9) x 11.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.32 8. Thus. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 5x(4). 4 multi44444 12.
19. 17.2f 18.a)( =+ a&. 7. 3.(a&c) 2 2 .MULTIPLICATION 50. . 22. 20. 24. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. z s 11 aWcx. 1.2. 15. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. _2^ 3. 16.7. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 3. 29. c = 25.4. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 11. 8. the parenthesis frequently omitted. Law Thus. 14. 30. 2a 2 6c. 6. 4 . 27. about fac (2)X If 6. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . . If a cal = 4a6c. 6 2.2 f+x 2 . 3 a2?/2 . 4. (4)'. 3 aW. 26. x= 0. 8 31.3) (1) 7 2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (. (10) 4 . Ua b 28. 4 a2 . 32. 5x3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 6. 1. and y = 4. (4)X(15). X(5). (c#) . (2) 8 (. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 13. _2. NOTE. 10. 5. is 6x7.(4J). 9. find the numeri values of: 21. 2. 2a6 c . . . x. 12. (7) X (12). +5. b = 3. 8 4 . 23. of Signs: TJie positive. . etc. _3. (2)x9.3.
7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 78 . 11.2). 14. 5. 7.. 5(711. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 5 . 2 3 . m*. 10.  2 2. . a = 2..3). a8 a=2. 2 2 2 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 16. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 5 = 2.  and 2 25 8 . 4. 3. 200. 6. 3 2 . i. + 2/). only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.35). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. fl*" integers. a= 1.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .e. (a6) (a5) 9. & = 3. 12 U U . 53. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 100.(2. 2. 4. 6 aWc x . of the factors. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . Ex. =2 a *. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.6 if 35. 2 2 3 6 .(7). 2(14. 13. : 3a7abc. 5 3 5 3 2 . 36. 34. 2(7.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. . a = 3.503). 1. IB. 9 . B. . 6 = .257). 17.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. This 52.<?. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 3.7. 2. a 2 2 . &*) c d*. By 3 definition. or 2 . 6 = 1. . .m a 3  4 .2 2 23 + 5 . 4. = 2. 6" 127 U . 50(112. 127  127 9 7 . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. Ex.(12) . 3 3 4 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.
29.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 5. 34. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).f 2). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 25. . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 7p*q r*.A). 35. 2(5fl5f25). (. . ) 2 33. 35 4 7(6. . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 3. multiply each by the monomial. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 31.3 win ) . 7. (. _4aft. 23(10004100420). 22. /).6. c(4a ftc ). 12( + 1 4 i).7 w'W (8 n^W). . . 2. 17(10041042). . 2(645410). 2 32. and then adding : 1. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 23. 24.2 3 aft ).4a#.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. by first multiplying. This principle. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 21. 4. 19. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 20. 28. ax /) 2 4 1 (. If results ft. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 27. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 6.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 3(124342). 11(3. but we shall assume it for any number.7pqt. called the distributive law. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 26. 6(10420430).
asa product.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.^ c + 2 . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 12. ~2mn(m +n p ). 2 m(mhn \p).3 aftc). 30. 7 a 6 c(. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). .5 w*V f 7 wn). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.60 a& 10 aft. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.6 a6). 19. 9.we b) (x law. 29. Find the factors of 6 ary . By what 25. : expression must 24. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 26. .5 x 7).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.2 mn(9 mV . 11. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 20. be multiplied to give 4o. .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 17. 23. f7a. 2 2 16. 21. 2 27. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 28. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 22. 3 ). 5).
If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Check. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.4. a2 + a8 + 3 . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 b by a 5 b.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.1.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 2. Ex. Multiply 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 59.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .3 a 2 + a8 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 2a3b a66 2 a . Multiply 2 + a a. however. Since errors. . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. To multiply two polynomials. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.
36. 3. OQ OO. 2 . 41. 5. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 17. 13. (13 A. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 30. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 4. 2 . 16.4) (mnp 4. 1). ^ 2 . 2  37. l)(raf 2). 20. (4a 2 33.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 7. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 9. 32. 2) (3 A: 1). QQ O7. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 35. 4 2). 40. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.2m)(l m). 3<7). (a^26) . (2w 19. . (6i7n)(llJn). (6a~7) 2 . (6p (2 f 21. 10.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 12. 11. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (8r7*)(6r39. (2 x* x 2 . 2. 36). 15. 26. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). . 25.1 . 6.4) (x + 1). (ajf6y)(aj 23. a 5c)(2a6c). 22. 31. 12)(a?^2l). * For additional examples see page 261. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 7y). 28. I (mfn)(m4. 8. 29. 24. 18. 36) I) 14.
1) (10 + 2). (a 9) (a + 9). 27.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 8. . 24. 26. 9. (a3)(a + 2). in of the two unequal terms. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 11. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. + 5) (1000 + 4). + 60)(f2). 7.13). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. + 3) (a 7). 75 ab f 54 ft . (6 12) (6 f. 2 6) (a 3 6). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). : 23 2. 2) (1000 + 3). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (a 102 x 103.e. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (ra. + 9)(m+9). . (!)(* 5).4). 19. ft 16. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (J 23. 12. (p12)(p + ll). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 18. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 21. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. X 102. 25 a 2 . 10. 28. i. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 2) (a f 3). 6. (a (a (a. i.!!)( (a + 21). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 1005x1004. 17. 25. plus the product of the two unequal terms.25)(y+4). (*. plus the product 62. 15. 20. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .e. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2).2 6) (a f 6). 22. . _3)(a _4). 14. 3.n)(wf w). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (10+ (1000 (2. 2 a? 29. 13.
III. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. i. 3. . 77ie square of the of the first. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 34. 7 a + 10. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. p 2 p. 9.66 s. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. (a26) 2 . 31. : 24 (a 2. plus twice the product of the first and the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.e. 7.e. Ex. w 2 ro . 2 5. plus the square of the second. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15. <J>7) J . 35. 8. III. and the second. (x+3i/) 2 . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.30. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 2 (a (*5) 2 . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. a2 2 w + 2 w . . 6. 32. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. (a2) (p a . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. of the second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). + 6 a + 8.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 3) 2 . n2 10ii+16. 4. 63. i.15. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . . 49 y*. second. 37. 33.
103 36. n 2 f4n+4. 42. 16aW25. 99x101. . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 51. . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 4 53. 14. 2 . 41. 7& ) 25. 104 2 37. 28. + 3z) 2 2 . 32. 49. 34. G> +5g)*. 23. 40. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 998x1002. 9 a2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f.MULTIPLICATION 10. 15. 21. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (100 + 2) (100 2). 62 25n 2 . 18. 29. 52. + 5)(5+a). 45. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). The product of 57. 54. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . ). 35. + 5). 46. 25 a 9. (2x3yy. 17. n*6n+9. 24. (a 3) 2 2 2 . a2 9. ( 27. 48. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. I) 2 . 22 2 . 2 . (^. 12. 41 16. 44. 2 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. 22. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 J ). 33. 47. (20 f 1) . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 (4a36) 2 13. 38.998 39. . 55. By actual multiplication. 2 9a 496 2 56. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 991 2 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 11. m 2 16. 31. (1000 2 . 2 . .
42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 10. (4s + y)(32y). . 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 13. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 9. 14. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 65. ) (2 of a polynomial. or The student should note minus signs. (3m + 2)(ml). 5. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 8. : 25 2. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 7. 6. 4. (5a4)(4al).& + c) = a + tf + c . 11. sum of the cross products. (5a64)(5a&3). The square 2 (a 4. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ((5a? (10 12. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. plus the last terms. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (2a3)(a + 2). 3. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.
ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. of z : 10.(= [ Xa + 2 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.(x .5) = (7 .y? + 8 . 4.24] . 4y sf n) 2 .1 5 = 10 . 6(a 2.39. + 65) .3)(z.5). (  2 4) =  20 a. (a (. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 5.29. 8. If x = 1. . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 2 2. Hence. 7. n). + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).39. + 6)( .8 x + 15] . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 2)6. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. = .3) . 6~2(a + 7). 6. 5. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 9.3) (x . 3. 4(* + 2)5(3). 7.X2 + 2 x . (u4& + 3c'. Check. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. Find the square root 11.(>. 4(aj2)h3(7). Ex.4) . and check the answers !.24 . 12. 66. 13.i2&c) 2 . (xy+z)*.r _ 2 .(m 2 6. 8.4) . 3. 4. a. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). = 10 x .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. after multiplying the factors of a term.[a? .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . Division of the difference of two squares.11 a + 9 a .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 16. (81 m + 1 . . . 51 15.DIVISION 14. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).e.2) (3 a . v/17. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 20. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . a I. 19.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.l.2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.
52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16 . 4 b. aW 12 a. 14. 16. 9& 2 . . 100ry. 121a a 16 100 11. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 15. 1.000. . 10.49. f 13. : the following w a 4 !. r/ 1. 12.0001.
which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. =11. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. . The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the 80. Thus. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (a + ft) (a b) and b. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . hence it is an equation of condition. is said to satisfy an equation. 83. x 20. the first member is 2 x + 4. in the equation 2 x 0.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 82. second member is x + 4 x 9. . 81. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality.
. the quotients are equal. Transposition of terms. the remainders are equal. 90. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. but 4 does not equal 5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . To solve an equation to find its roots.54 84.2. 85. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the divisor equals zero. A numerical equation is one in which all . a. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.g. 5. the sums are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. x I. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 3. NOTE. If equals be added to equals. called axioms 1. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 89. A 2 a. 86. If equals be subtracted from equals. 2 = 6#f7. If equals be multiplied by equals. 2. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.e. 87. one member to another by changing x + a=.b. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 4. the products are equal. If equals be divided by equals. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. E. A term may be transposed from its sign. . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.
2 y= f . The first member.2. 2 x = 6. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Ex. a? Adding 5 to each term. 4x 1 + 6. . Check. To solve a simple equation. b c. Uniting. (4y)(6. a= a 6fc. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. 3 y . 6a5 = 185 = 13.8. Uniting similar terms. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. x = 93. 2(11 . b Adding a to both + a. The first member. x = 3. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. if 55 x members. Transposing. Unite similar terms.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.6 y f y\ . y) (5 y) unknown Ex.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Dividing by Check. Hence the answer.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. f If y 20 . if a x = b. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. and the known terms to the second. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. is correct. The second member. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 91.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.
x = 18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. a. a? a?..7. =2 = 3. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 22. 4a + 5 = 29. Dividing by Cfcecfc. If x = 18. 8.56 Ex. 7 (6 x 16). + 22. = 7. 7a? 5. Transposing. 11 ?/ a? 18.7a: = 394a. a?. 247y = 68lly. 17 7 a. it NOTE. 9 9a? = 7 13. 50. aj * See page 264. . 13a? 3a?. 4. + 16 = 16 + 17. 3. 19. 17 + 5a. f Simplifying.17 + 4y = 36. = 3. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. {(x (x The The member right member left . + 7(3 + 1) =63. 21. 4y 10. etc. 11. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 3 7 a.. Solve the following equations by transposing. 20. 7. 2. = 2 ?/.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. . J. v23. : 5# = 15+2a. 3)= 9(3 7 a. = 5a?+18. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 24. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 6. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 32 = 264. a. 14. 12. \x x 2^xfl. x x 1 . = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Uniting. 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. and check the answers 9.69. 16.
3) + . 29.3) .2) (M .1) (u . 7(7 x y 26. + 7) (.5(2 u .4) + 4 w .7) (7 x + 4) . this question.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.32. . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 31. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.5) = (a. a? 43. e. . 5) (as (a.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 30. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. .(2 + 6) (4 . 25.1) (a (a? + 3) = . . . 34. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). (aj 37. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 6(6a. + 4). .12) (2 + 5) . 33. (6 u =5 44. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 7) (a.14 = 0.5) + 199. 40. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .1 0) = 0. 35. 39. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. is the other part.3) + 14. .7.g. find the other part. 41. (a. 36. . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 2 2 * Jaj. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 38. 27. Evidently 45. . a? 28. or 70 a?. 42.
so that one part Divide a into two parts.58 Ex. is b. 7. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. one part equals is 10. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. or 12 7. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 17. 1. 4. If 7 2. find the cost of one yard. greater one is g. is a? 2 is c?. 9. is d. 15. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 10. so that one part The difference between is s. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Find the greater one. EXERCISE 1. 5. Ex. 33 2. and the smaller one parts. 13. 3. 11. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 14. 6. a. so that of c ? is p. Divide a into two parts. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. smaller one 16.
A feet wide. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . amount each will then have. If B gave A 6 25. b dimes. and B is y years old. 20. 22. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 19. How many cents has he ? 27. 26. and spent 5 cents. sum If A's age is x years. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. numbers is x. 28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 33. is A A is # years old. How many years A older than is B? old. 34. Find 35. find the of their ages 6 years hence. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. A man had a dollars. 28. ?/ 31. and B's age is y years. find the has ra dollars. 24. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents had he left ? 28.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. A dollars. 32. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. Find 21. and c cents. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B has n dollars.
and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. m is the denominator. c a b =  9. Find the number. The two digits of a number are x and y.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a 47. Find a. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours.50. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find x % % of 1000. find the fraction. . b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. he walk each hour ? 39." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). per Find 5 Find 6 45. 49. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . of m. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. of 4. A was 20 years old. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. 46. % % % of 100 of x. 48. a. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.
c. same result as 7 subtracted from . equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 80. c. The excess of a over b is c. 9. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of x increased by 10 equals x. a exceeds b by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 4. The double as 7. 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 5. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. etc. double of a is 10. by one third of b equals 100. 80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 6. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 2. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. of a increased much 8. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.
B. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 14. express in algebraic symbols : 700. (c) If each man gains $500.000. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's age 4 a. In 10 years the sum of A's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. B's age 20. x 4 If A. 11. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 18.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 3 1200 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. they have equal of A's. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. 50 is x % of 15. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. they have equal amounts. >. sum equals $20. #is5%of450. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. symbols B. . as 17 is is above a. of 30 dollars. B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. amounts. 16. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a. m is x % of n. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. and C's ages will be 100. 17. 6 % of m. a. pays to C $100. x is 100 x% is of 700. A gains $20 and B loses $40. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 12. a second sum.62 10.. and C have respectively 2 a. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.
x+16 = 3(35). Uniting. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. number. the required . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. x= 15. Ex. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the . Three times a certain no. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. number of yards. x = 20. denote the unknown 96. A will Check. 4 x = 80. Dividing. Check. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 1. Transposing. Find A's present age. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. NOTE. . number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Let x = the number. In 15 years 10. but 30 =3 x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Simplifying. be 30 . etc. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Ex. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 23 =30. 3z40:r:40z. 6 years ago he was 10 . In order to solve them. 15. Uniting. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 2. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. much as 40 exceeds the number.
47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. How many miles per hour does it run ? . then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 3. Dividing. 11.2. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Hence 40 = 46f. Let x 3. 4. exceeds the width of the bridge. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the number. 13. 300 56. Forty years hence his present age. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 5. A number added number. EXERCISE 1. by as much as 135 ft. twice the number plus 7. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal.64 Ex. % of 120. 14. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find 8. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12.
two verbal statements must be given. 1. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. the second one. Find the population of Maine in 1800. times as much as A. How many dol A has A to $40. is the equation. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. A and B have equal amounts of money. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and as 15. written in algebraic symbols. statements are given directly. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. x. which gives the value of 8. The sum of the two numbers is 14.000. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. 14. and B has $00. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. .000. B How will loses $100. F 8. If A gains A have three times as much 16. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. During the following 90 years. One number exceeds the other one by II. Vermont's population increased by 180. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. Maine's population increased by 510. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. five If A gives B $200. Ex. 97. B will have lars has A now? 17. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. 65 A and B $200. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The problem consists of two statements I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. The other verbal statement.
= B's number of marbles. to Use the simpler statement. / . which leads ot Ex. = 14. The two statements I. I. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 8 the greater number. terms of the other. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as viz. the greater number. . B will have twice as many as A. 25 marbles to B. A gives B 25 marbles. x 3x 4 and B will gain. although in general the simpler one should be selected. consider that by the exchange Hence. Uniting. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. If A gives are : A If II. A has three times as many marbles as B. . the sum of the two numbers is 14. Let x 3x express one many as A. has three times as many marbles as B. 2x a? x j = 6. If we select the first one. Let x 14 I the smaller number. + a f f 8 = 14. Statement x in = the larger number. = 3. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Then. x x =14 8. . x = 8.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 2. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. 8 = 11. A will lose. < Transposing. unknown quantity in Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. and Let x = the Then x +. = A's number of marbles. the smaller number. Dividing.
. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.550 f 310.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. is 70. 3 x = 45. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 1. dollars and dimes is $3. but 40 = 2 x 20. Dividing. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310.5 x . Dividing.$3. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Uniting.. Eleven coins. the price. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Find the numbers. the number of half dollars. Check. x = 6.10. then. x = 15. * ' . Simplifying. of dollars to the number of cents. Find the numbers. etc. by 44.10. * 98. 45 . 50. Simplifying. (Statement II) Qx . Two numbers the smaller. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. cents. The sum of two numbers is 42. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.. The number of coins II. . Check.240. have a value of $3. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 6 times the smaller. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. the number of dimes. 3. 60. The value of the half : is 11. greater is .10. w'3. 2. 40 x .75. Let 11 = the number of dimes. A's number of marbles. B's number of marbles. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). x from I. Uniting. 50 x Transposing. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. and the Find the numbers. . 11 x = 5. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.25 = 20. 15 + 25 = 40. x = the number of half dollars.
the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. Twice 14. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many volcanoes are in the 8.. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many hours does the day last ? . On December 21. Find their ages.68 4. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. A's age is four times B's. Everest by 11. and four times the former equals five times the latter. one of which increased by 9. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. as the larger one. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 11. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and twice the altitude of Mt. United States. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 6. Two numbers The number differ by 39. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. tnree times the smaller by 65. McKinley. 7. 5. How many inches are in each part ? 15. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. How many 14 years older than B. the number. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts.000 feet. 9.
then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. they would have 3. original amount. Ex. has. 8(8 + 19) to C. times as much as A. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. III. II. B. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. = 48. and C together have $80. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. x = 8. 1. I. B has three times as much as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. . number of dollars A had.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. then three times the money by I. number had. and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and C together have $80. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. The third verbal statement produces the equation. 19. and 68. If 4x = 24. has. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B. Let x II. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. bers is denoted by x. If A and B each gave $5 to C. are : C's The three statements A.
A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. Let then. each horse costing $ 90. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 2. 90 may be written. Dividing. = the number of dollars spent for horses. three statements are : IT. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. according to III. and. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 185 a = 925. 9 5 = 4 . Uniting. III. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. number of cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x = 5. and each sheep $ 15. and the sum of the . 4 x f 8 = 28. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. the third five times the first. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 28 2 (9 5). sheep.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. each cow $ 35. number of cows. and Ex. number of horses. + 8 90 x and. The total cost equals $1185. x j = the number of horses. cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. number of sheep. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 35 x 4. x Transposing. The I. = the number of dollars spent for cows. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. according to II. 1 1 Check. first. 9 cows. x f 4 = 9.
increased by three times the second side. first. the third 2. equals 49 inches. 7. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. twice as old as B. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.  4. and 2 more men than women. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000. what is the population of each city ? 8. women. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. twice the 6.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the sum of the first and third is 36. If twice The sum the third side. what is the length of each? has 3.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A 12. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. The gold. "Find three is 4. 13. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. 9. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and children together was 37. New York delphia. how many children were present ? x 11.000. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v . men.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. the copper. what are the three angles ? 10. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.
of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. . has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. such as length.g. speed.000.000. Let x = number of hours A walks.000 more than that the copper. Dividing. but stops 2 hours on the way. we obtain 3 a. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. = 5. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. 7 Uniting. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. together.e. 14. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. or time. = 35. and distance. width. i. 3 and 4.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Find the value of each. number of hours. First fill in all the numbers given directly. A and B apart. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000. how many 100. of arid the value of the iron was $300. After how many hours will they meet and how E. number of miles A x x walks. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Hence Simplifying. 8 x = 15. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. and quantities area.
But 700 certain = 800 2.05 x x .04 8." gives (2. x . 2   and transpose. 70x10 Ex. $ 800 = 800. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. Multiplying. . 10 x = 200. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. were increased by 30 yards. $ 1000 x .01 = = . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. The an area 40 x 20 =800. Check. 2 a = 40. Find the dimensions of the field. l. Transposing and uniting. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.04 = $ 40. the second 100. original field has Check. z = 20. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.M(x .053. + 8. x + 200).06 = $ 40. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. $ 800 = required sum.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. or 700. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less.
Find the share of each. 2. A sets out later two hours B . but as two of them were unable to pay their share. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. the area would remain the same. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Six persons bought an automobile. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. What are the two sums 5. were increased by 3 yards. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and its width decreased by 2 yards. 3. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. of coffee for $ 1. together bring $ 78 interest. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. as a 4. sions of the field.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. After how many hours will B overtake A. and a second sum. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. invested at 5 %. but four men failed to pay their shares. twice as large. A of each. Ten yards $ 42. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. mobile.55. 1. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. A and B set out direction. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. The distance from If a train starts at . but A has a start of 2 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.
if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if it does contain some indicated root of . stage of the work. vV . a2 to 6. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. 6. as. which multiplied together are considered factors. this letter. 5. 76 . it is composite.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . expression is rational with respect to a letter. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. irrational. if. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. we shall not. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. consider 105. f db 6 to b. + 62 is integral with respect to a. at this 6 2 . a. An after simplifying. a. but fractional with respect 103.
it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.g.62 + &)(a 2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Ex.62 can be &).9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . E.) Ex. 55. It (a. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 107. 2. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. x. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 2. or that a = 6) (a = a .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.3 sy + 4 y8).3 6a + 1). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. for this result is a sum. 8) (s1). 01. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Factor G ofy 2 . it follows that a 2 . 110.FACTORING 106. y. Divide 6 a% . 1. 2. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. ?/. . TYPE I. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . x. in the form 4) +3. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 109. . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.
17.5 + 13 8. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 15.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.45 afy . 3. 3 3 5 6. . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.51 x4 2 6 xy s .3.12 cdx. 4 tfy f. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 4 8 . 2 6. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 3 2 .5 x*y 2 17 a? . Ilro8 9.4. 20.3. 32 a *?/ . 15 2 7. 14. 5f 2 . e. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. a a 'Ja . 11. 34 a^c 8 . 4.4. a6c. : 6 abx . q*q*q 2 a. 18.8 c a 15 ofyV . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 23. 2 2 . in general. 16. 2.6. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.g. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. TYPE IT. obviously. 12.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 2 + q. 8. 3x*6x*. 19. + llm llm. . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. (as 3) and (ccf5). we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 13. 7i 13. ) 22  2. 14a 4 5. 7a & 10.51 aW + 68 21. 2 Or.5 + 2.2.30 aty.
m 5m + 6. can be factored. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.a). If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.77 = (a.11. 77 as the product of 1 77. as p.5) (a . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. .. Therefore Check. of this type. Factor a2 . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.6 = 20. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 79 Factor a2 4 x . If q is positive. 2.1 1 a tf a 4. 4. 5. Ex. + 112. and (a . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Factor x? . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. or 7 11.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.11) (a + 7). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.4 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. determine whether In solving any factoring example. is The two numbers whose product and 6.11 a 2 . or 77 l.30 = (a . Ex.G) = . Factor + 10 ax . We may consider 1. .4 x . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).5) (a 6). 11 7.FACTORING Ex. If q is negative. but of these only a: Hence 2 . tfa2  3.11 a + 30. . a 2 . + 30 = 20. 3. however. 2 6. the two numbers have opposite signs.
a 2 +11 a a? 16.17 + 30. 9. 4 3 2 . 32. 17. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. + 30. or . + 4?/21. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. ITT. 27. 14. 16. 2 2 a' 34. 4 2 .500 x + 600.6. 21. a 7 a 30. 29. 19. 18. 2 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 24.180 a. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 11. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.48 + + 446 200. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 13. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. and 5 x. 2 . 35. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 26. + 5<y 24. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 30. 2 ?/ 28. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 44. 2 ?/ 5?/14. . . 36.70 x y . 8. 15.80 7. 100 xr . 16. 2 ?/ 22. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 . TYPE 113. a2 . 21 a 2 2 . 33.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . ra + 25ra + 100. ay 11 ay +24. + 2xS. 20. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 12. 31. 25. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. x2 23.
Factor 3 x 2 . 27 x 2. 11 x 2x. and r is negative.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.5 . and that they must be negative.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Ex. or G 114. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. X x 18. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. but the opposite sign.1). all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. viz. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 3. 9 x 6.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 2. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 2 x 27. 3 x and x. the If p and r are positive.5) (2 x . 54 x 1.83 x f 54. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. If p is poxiliw. . 18 x 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. sible 13 x negative. then the second terms of have opposite signs. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 6 x 9. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. a.
22. . 2 28. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 3a + 13a. 2 31. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 34. 20. . 10a?2 2 33.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 19. 10.7. 29. 3. since all others (II.19 a f 6. 13. 2x* + 9x5. X 27 . 10 a .2) (x . 2 2 2 . 18.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . : 41 2. 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 12. 2 .260 xy . 2 ar* 2 i/ . + 4. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 35. 2m t7w + 3.163 x 2 . 12y 2/6.2 a 90 x*y . 16. Sar' + SaG. f go. 144 x . 9 y + 32^16. 5.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .27). 21.83 x = (3 . 4. 9a. 17. 5m 26m f 5. 12^17^16.83 x . 10a2 G a2 2 . x54 a. 90 a 8 2 . .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 9. 2 fc . 2 2 2 23. 14. 100^200^ + 100^. 14 a fa 4. + 2/3. 8.179. 11.30 y 6 4 . 30. 2 26. the expressions should be it. 25. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. and the monomial factors should be removed. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 15. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 24. 32.y + 172/9. 6. 7. 6n + 5?i4. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.300 ab 2 f4 250 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.
3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 11. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. i. x* . and a perfect square. 25 7. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. it is a perfect square. it is more convenient for that type. 8. 6. 9 10a625. must have a positive sign.10 x f 16. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. of its terms are perfect squares.20 xy f 4 y\ . 2 9 10gf25. 5. . 116. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 9. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. form are special cases of the preceding type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 12. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .e. 10. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 13. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 14. and factor whenever possible : 1.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 3. 2. however. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.
According to 65. a2 24. 2. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.64 6 = 16(a . 17. 3.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 18. 22. 7. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. Ex. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 25. ).60 a# + 4.20 ab + 10 b a . 2 . aV . .6 m* + 9 m. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. product i. 5. 16. * 2 . 2.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). + GO + 25. 225 ofy . a. a. . 26. ).6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).e. 2 20. TYPE 117. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . +( )f816 30. 10 a 2 4 2 . 16&*. ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. prime. 2 . 149 a 81 8. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 1. : 43 tfy\ a 9.3 * ).  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3. 6 2 . 4a2 l. 27. V. 48 a +( ). .2 ofy + ofy m . !Gar 9 ( )+25. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. u2 6& + 2 ( ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 36 2 4.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 6. 2 . 19. 9. 4 2 23. 9a2 . 29. ^//c to the Ex.84 15.
2. 6. Ex.(I) . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 13. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 11.d) 2 . 9. 2 . 8.c . T. of polynomials.(c 4. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Ex. 14. 4. One or both terms are squares 1. a:) 12. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (m7?) y. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 36> . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .FACTORING 85 118. Factor a 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 5. 2 . 16p 2 . a2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .
the expression becomes the difference of two squares.1. 5) .7 c + 2c . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. After grouping tain a the terms. . 4:cx . 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. a? 11. 4 B. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. which may be factored according to types I. 10. 119. a 26 2 2 3 .ab + bx. 5. + x + 2x + 2. Ex.2 ) (3 x . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb.y + 2 2).and trinomials.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. A. 7. ive find that the new terms con common factor. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 9. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.VI. 2. a5 + ab 6 . By grouping. 6. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. x8 . 12.14. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 8.a a . = (3 x + y .r. 1. . 3.
+c+ 2 2 2/ . 6 6. 2 7. : m 2 2 16.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 8. 6. 3. 36 9 m .4 f . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 3. 5. IV. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 8ra 2 + 16.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 2. 4. = (a + 6)(a6). 2a3/ 7. : 46 x* 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 2.FACTORING Ex. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. l~a 2a56 2 2 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . II. 4. First find monomial factors common to all terms. .12 aaj 4 6y. 4 a2 . Arranging the terms. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. + 2xy + y*q*. .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. w m 2. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. $ a8 .l. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.
24. 22. 13 c . (^ 34. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. (a. 28. 29. 4 a. 50^ + 45. 19. 5 a. a + a + a + l. 42 x . 42 s 2 .40. 3 2 . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. . + 14. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 4 8 tt 2 z . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 30. 25 a + 25 aft . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 80 a 2 ft 38.156.24.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 2 17. 14. 2 a 128. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 27. 32.310 x . 13. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. + 6 aft + 3 .13 c . a3 156. a6 36. a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 35. 48. 5a' 20. 3 a2 23. 11. 18. 2 ft .88 10. 40. 3 25. 3 41. or 3 7#2 . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33.
C. Two common factor except unity The H. 5. expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. F. The highest is common factor (IT. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of aW. of two or more monomials whose factors . 8 . of : 48 4.  23 3 . C. 25 W. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 2 2 . 6.) of two or more . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The student should note H. 5 7 34 2s . C. C. II 2 . 121. of 6 sfyz. 2. 15 aW. F. of the algebraic expressions.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 3. C. are prime can be found by inspection. C. 5 2 3 . . F. C. C. 24 s . 3 . 89 . 122. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Thus the H. The H. aW. 54  32 . F. 5 s 7 2 5. F. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 12 tfifz. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. EXERCISE Find the H. The H. F.
y) 123. 8. 57 a>V. a2 ar* 4.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 3^ 2 4 . (a7 ?/) . 6 mx . . 8.y) . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . F. 3).2 y) (a. 14. 8(?/ifl) 14. F. 16 a .2 ?/) (x . of polynomials. ^f a. 8 6. 38 #y. 2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. a2 + 7af!2.y + y42. ^2 2 . To find the H.5 + 6. a3 16 a. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.6. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 24 a 2 . Ex. Find the H. 52 oryz4. 12 . a2 . 6 3 a. 2.6 a&. 10. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. . 49 C. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .90 7.^9. 13. 3 . 15. C. 13. . 3. ^a + 5^ + 6. 9 aj*(a? . 12. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.# 4 afy f 4 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a2 + 2a3. 6(m+l) (m+2). aWd. a 3a4. F. 6 a2 y? . a. 2 . 95 2/V. F. 2 . 11.5 x3?/ 2 6.?/ .12 as 66 . 2a f5af 2. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 4 ?io. . a3 9a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). of + 4 if. of: . 225 4a 9 .8 a + 16. 15 3ao. 0^80:416. 11. 4(m+l) 3 . 12. 12 w*nw 8. 1. . 9. 2 . .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 10. = x 2 y. C. 8 a 10 . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . and apply the method of the preceding article. 5. 1. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. y + 3y64. 65 zfyV.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ^707 + 12. 9. x* x2 Hence the H. 25 m27i.5 y).6 . C. 7.
each set of expressions has In example ft). C. L. 60 x^y' 2 .6 3 ). C.M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. M. thus. L. C. Find the L. M. NOTE. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. of 3 aW. 2 The The L. Find the L. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. M. Ex.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. The lowest common multiple (L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. Hence the L. 127. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. Ex. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of tfy and xy*. M.6)2. of several expressions which are not completely factored.C. To find the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 2. C.M.C. but opposite . which also signs. two lowest common multiples. etc. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. M. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. M. of the general. 128. &) 2 M. ory is the L. 1. The L. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 126. . . =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. M of the algebraic expressions. C. 300 z 2 y. M. Common 125. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. a^c8 3 . M. A common remainder.
3. a 2 f 4 a +4. 3 f2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. b 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 6 y. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 7ic+10. a 2 a3 . (For additional examples see page 268. (a 4)(a2) 12. a f 3. a2 ~ab 1. by. afc'cd 2 . 16. y*. afy. ic 2 ?/. x* ~5a.1. a 1. 8 d 5 . 5 a? 5 a? y. a. T a 3 a 2 . 14. 6 a. 20. 24 x. x2 + 4 a f 4. 3 ab. 1. 2(m 2 . a2 4. a^1. a?b. 2 10. 3. 3(a + b). 40 abJ. a. 8 afy. 22. + 2. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. . 2 a . a 2 fa6. ) . #. 13. + 6. Find the L. 4 a 5 6cd. 6. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . G a. 2 . of: 4. . 24. 3 6 xif. xy\ . 3 Z> . 5. 20 9 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C.1. 21. 2 x \2 y. 15. or f 3 a 15 #. 7. a f 2 19. 30 a. f b. 6b 2 . ic 23. a. + 2 7i) . 2 a.f 6. 2 . a& 4 +& 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a { a~b. 3 . 9. 8. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 11. 4 a . M. 2 . x 2 5 a. a !. 17. 2 a . 18. 2. 4 a f 2.
ry ^ by their H. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. etc.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. successively all 2 j/' . a b = ma mb . F. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . as 8. 130. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. Thus. C. 131. Ex. however. but we In arithmetic. a?. and denominators are considered. an indicated quotient. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. rni Thus 132. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Remove tor. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. A f fraction is b. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms .
. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.4) Ex. 3.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . cancel factors only. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 2.
7 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. ny 4 18. ^' rt ^  31. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.' 32. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 19. 16. ' ^ . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. nx 17. 23. . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. g J 21. LJZJ^JL. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 29. ^" a. 9x + "a" 10. """.*. 11 ^ Mtr f . 5^10 y 30.10 a + 3 2 14. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^+3*. . _ 3 7i rt< 26. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27..FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.
and the terms of ***. =(z (x + 3)(z.C. and 135. 2> .1^22 ' .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. take the L. of the denominators for the common denominator. Reduce ^. M. + 3). To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.M. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by the denominator of each fraction. . .M. Ex. we have M^. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.  by 4 6' . 1). mon T denominator. Divide the L. TheL. ^ to their lowest com The L. .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. C.3) (!)' = .~16 (a + 3) (x.D. we may extend this method to integral expressions. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.96 134. C. we have the quotients (x 1). and (a 8).  of //* 2 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.r 2 2 . multiplying the terms of 22 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. 1. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.
74). 2aj ~ .. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. . JL. .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .^1. 3. 8 i i. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.oj o* or / . .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 22 a2 5a * . . o o a. common denominator 6.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 7i 2 ab* ".. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 18. 2. j y 3. a? 1 5 > ^* .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 137. 2 ay IB. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 5?. i. If the given fractions have different denominators.
4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .2 ' 2 _. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).. (a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 2 ^. in the beginning.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4(2 a 3 ft). ft).2 = a(a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . L.g. (a ft). and adding.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.ft)(a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .7 . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .ft) (a ft ft)~. the student should remember that parentheses are . The L. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. D. ^ is 2^JT) . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 . as 4 aft f.(a 2 6). C. D. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 ft 2).. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .aft) Ca2 . 2. T? Ex. e. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).
a+6 a 6 2 14. 24. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 46 2a 4a 12. 20. + a "" 2 6 ' . 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. j>0 i> 21.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 1 1 f w 16. 18 v 19. 1 f q * 1 m m . 5a76 4a 106 9.5 18 ^4f25. A+2_3. + . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. a 36 ++. 15. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 6 c 3a 7. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 2. 2L + 2a 1 17. 23.
41. _ + a? ?/ + y. 42. 1 34. 2 af1 32. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . a ?^ 40. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 30. ic 1 + 1.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ! n. 3a 9 +. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44.9 79 6 2 i. a 4 31. a. 43. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.9. af 1f /j.
To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 1. .  4 or 3 2a.  .7 5a v Ex.6 + 4x 4 x2 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . Reduce .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. T. 101 mixed expression.FRACTIONS 139. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . .
multiply the 142. Since  = a. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. F J Simplify .g. 2. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. fractions to integral numbers. 2 a Ex.) Ex. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. (In order to cancel common factors. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. we may extend any e. integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . or. !.
4 8. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.6 12 d6 4. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 5# 56 / c& 4.. 2 f 5 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. aj 5 1 a? 18. 50 .
The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. . Divide Xn?/ .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . 144. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 1. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.
_ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . l. a a2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.afr 4. Ex. or both.5 ??i 80 50 .FRACTIONS 105 .^c 2 2 . ga2 4 8 5 a .10 ?/ _. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.6 s + 064. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . are fractional.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .
B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. 7i+~ 7. i. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). y X 4* 2 y 3.a ^c c _^ a . JL.y 32 . M. . 6. . a m "" . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. the answer is directly obtained.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . C. 2. Ex. . 9. n a 8.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. c +6. x* 4. 10. . Simplify x }. & . of their denominators.
2 & a 20  a46 13.) .~l (For additional examples see page 273. sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. o 15. : . 1 i 1 2 5 . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
5(3 85 Check.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.48. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .l)(z + 3) = .28 a = 5 x2 . If x 6. 148. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . of the denominator. 9x x Check.28 x + 42 = . + 1) (a + 3) . 108 . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. = 6. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). C. . 2z2a.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 2. 2x Transposing.42 + 9. Clearing of fractions. = 6. Bx 12 Qx. 2 3.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 1. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Uniting.1. a. If = 64.9 x2 + 9.8 x = . each member is reduced to Ex. Transposing. each member is reduced to 1. x = 6. 4 4)  x. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). these Ex. tions.14 (a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Uniting. M.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a.1 _77 a. 1 *> = 2. ^1 = 9. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. ^' 2.= 2. +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a. '  4 13. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a/  5 a/ = 12. 18. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 16. . 15.
2^12 = 2 = 34. 26 26.11_4 x 149.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ?_=_. If two or more denominators are monomials. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 3x 35. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. J_. 31 31. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. .  38 = 40. 4a4l4* + l~. 32 6 . ._ _ . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . . 33. y+3~2 29. 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.
2 42 9 43. 5x x : = 9.2 3 ~  == 7a. . a. = 9. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.1. the 1 5 L.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.29 50712' 9 18 . 60. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 26 a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. If a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 24 a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. M. Dividing.. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.  5 = 20 x 45. 1. Transposing and uniting. 5# 10. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. C.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Check. each member is reduced to ^.
and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. y. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = 2 f b 2 . 4 ac 1. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = l^ 9 b 4 .3 6 2 = a' . Ex.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 . jr. find a in terms of b and c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. f ~ 5c. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). fr Reducing lowest terms.2 ac + 3 aft .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .1. Thus. If 3ac L= = a ? . Dividing.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. ax f x f. Uniting. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. It frequently occurs that the x. a.be. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Uniting the Dividing.& . 2. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. = = 6 6c 7 6c. . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. =a 2 151. Ex.2 62 2 ab. 5> a. they are united by factoring.
11. 2 solve for y a. f ^o. 3. c. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 13. + xx = 1. IIL n b + &o. mx = n. denoting the interest. If ^^ = a 1 32. 4. ^ ax a^ 26.i l . = 3 (6 a). 17. a. 1 f. 29. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. The The i time. . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). s = Vt solve for v. c 18. 34. 10. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 8 4 #. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. = vt. If * 33. 12. . 30. solve for . .a. = 5. 5) is t =^. 15. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. iw 21. f P =+!. If s (wi n) x =px + q. q solve for/. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . + 3a. 9. * Solve the same equation for^). rate. m a? x . in terms of other quantities. . = rt. and n the number of years. 6. 3(* 8. 14.= c a Z> .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. Ex. p the principal. solve for a. _ 2. If s If 16. 4.= H. 31. co?. r the number of $>. t.= n.
2. 1. . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = 16^. and 12 = the number over... 12. 100 C. 2 3 .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Multiplying by Dividing. then = 2 TT#.114 35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. . A would do each day ^ and B j. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.20 C. x Or Uniting. is 36. Find R in terms of C and TT. Ex. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.180. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. Ex. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.
the rate of the express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." gives the equation /I). Clearing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 180 Transposing. or 1J. and the statement. in Then Therefore. 4x = 80. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. = 100 + 4 x. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 3. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Solving." : Let x  = the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 32 x = . Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = the x part of the work both do one day. the required number of days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day.
 Find their present ages. and J of the greater Find the numbers. and 9 feet above water. is oO. a man had How much money had he at first? .116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. is equal 7. to his daughand the remainder. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. length in the ground. by 3. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. by 6. ex What 5. 3. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and one half the greater Find the numbers. ceeds the smaller by 4. to his son. money and $10. Find A's 8. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. which was $4000. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. make 21. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. of his present age. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and of the father's age. fifth Two numbers differ 2.
what is the 14. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce.) 22. and B in 4 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 3.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 2. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. investments. after rate of the latter ? 15. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 152. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. Ex. 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. How much money $500? 4%. Ex. ^ at 5%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. . A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. what is the rate of the express train? 152. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and it B in 6 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. air.
In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. . B in 30. . The problem to be solved. 2. m and n. they can both do in 2 days.= .414. therefore. 3. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 16. Hence. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. A in 4. n x Solving. . is 57.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Then ft i. A in 6. we obtain the equation m m . 26. is 42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. e. 25. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. if B in 3 days. B in 5. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. To and find the numerical answer.009 918. B in 12. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. and n = 3.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. A in 6.118 153. Ex. and apply the method of 170. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.e.
the second at the apart.001. (d) 1. and the second 5 miles per hour. if m and n are. is ?n . and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 5 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. Two men start at the first miles apart. is (a) 51. : (c) 64 miles. . solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. respectively (a) 60 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 34. 2 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. (c) 16. The one: 31. respectively. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 3 miles per hour.000. (b) 35 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. squares 30. Find the side of the square.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. meet. After how many hours do they meet. 4J miles per hour. the rate of the first.721. (b) 149. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. squares 29. 3J miles per hour. 33. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.
g.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. E. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. the denominator The the 157. 158. etc. b. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. : : 155. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 6 12 = . " a Thus. the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. a ratio is not changed etc. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b is the consequent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. b. Simplify the ratio 21 3. is numerator of any fraction consequent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. antecedent.5. Ex. The first 156. . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the second term the consequent. 1.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154." we may write a : b = 6. the symbol being a sign of division. In the ratio a : ft.
extremes. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. : ay . two  ratios. 4:5f : 5. 16. 12. $24: $8. 159. b is the mean b. terms. 27 06: 18 a6. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. J:l. Transform the following unity 15. 1. 3:1}.RATIO Ex. 3. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 9. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 11. : 1. b and c the means. 4. 16a2 :24a&. 3 8. 7:4 T T 4 . 7f:6J. 18. equal 2. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3:4. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 61 : ratios 72:18. The last first three. 17. 5 f hours : 2. and c. 6. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. Simplify the following ratios 7. 10. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. a and d are the extremes. 8^ hours. proportional between a and c. and c is the third proportional to a and . 62:16.
122 162. then G ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and the other pair the extremes.__(163. ad = be. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.) b = Vac. = 30 grams 45 grams. 163. In any proportion product of the extremes. ccm. !. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.e. 2 165.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. " we " NOTE. Clearing of fractions. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 164. and the time necessary to do it. : c. Hence the number of men required to do some work. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. 3 4. 163. of iron weigh . of a proportion. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. If (Converse of nq. 6 ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. q~~ n . pro portional. briefly.30 grams. : : directly proportional may say. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. The mean proportional of their product.) mn = pq. of iron weigh 45 grams. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. are : : : inversely proportional. i.
I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) d 167. if 6 : 7. + b:b = c + d:d. then =d c.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) (Called Alternation. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. = 35 .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. (163. Or IV.) II. 1. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. 2. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. is Ex. (Composition.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) = f f = 3 J. 166. I. ad = be. a III. hence the proportion true. ad ( 163. is 4$ = 35. (Frequently called Inversion. . d d. (Division. bd bd.PATIO Ex. V. a:c=b:d. 12x Hence a? = 42.
i. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 5 5. IV. 4. 10. = 7:2f 3J. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 5. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.g. E. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 180:125. the consequents by 7. = 12 5ft. . 3n JJ =n x NOTE. . Simplify the following proportions. 9. : 3 = 5 f x : x.!=!*. mx tin Apply composition and division. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. Or III. = 2:3. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 20:7. 3. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 120:42 2 2 7. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. Apply composition. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. = 2:x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 6 =4 : x. V. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.124 IT.e. x = 2. : x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 2. 8.
34. 38. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. Find the third proportional 24. a 2 and ab. to: = 35:*. to : a and 1. 2 3 = y #. 9 x = 2 y.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 14 and 21. and 2/. 41. 23. = 3 43 + x.j>. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. ratio of y. ra. 29. 21. 3. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 31. 46. 112:42 = 10:a. : . 1 and a. 3t. 1. 13. 5. 2. 3. = 5 x 12. 17. rap. 2 a and 18 a. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. x m = y n. 4. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 2. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. terra 2:3 = 4. = l^:18. a?:15 15. 12. 52. ra 2 . 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. x:5 = y:2. 51. 28. 6x = 7y. 7iy = 2:x. 42.  32.:ff. + fyx = cy. 44. 50. 14. 2= 5 x x. 43.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. . ra + landra 1. Find the 37. 16. 6. to : 9 and 12. 6 x = y. Find the mean proportional 30. 39. 03:a?=135:20. 25. w. 22. rag. 33. b. = 2 + x: x. 35. = 15o.x: 6:5 a : x. f. a. mx = ny. if : 40. 27.8:1. 47. 18. 4 and 16. 16 and 28. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.. 26. (a : : 45. 20. : a2 . : 53. 5= 18 a? : a?.
the area of the larger? the same.126 54. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). the squares of their radii (e) 55. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the area of the rectangle. and the speed of the train. 57. 56. A line 7^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the : total cost.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. what 58. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.
as 11 Let then : 1. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. AB = 2 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. x = 6. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 2 x Or = 4. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 2. 4 inches long. so that Find^K7and BO. . is A line AB. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Then Hence BG = 5 x. : Ex. Let A B AC=1x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 18 x = 108. produced to a point C. 7 x = 42 is the second number. = the second number.000 168. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. x=2.
what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.000 square miles. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. : 197. and 15 inches. 7. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. What are the parts ? 5. 13. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 9. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 6. and c inches. find the number of square miles of land and of water. : 4. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 14. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 2. 12. 12. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How The long are the parts ? 15.) . 11. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Gunmetal tin.000. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. How many gen. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 3. How many 7. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.
is x = 7. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. 2 y = .L x If If = 0. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. Hence. a? (1) then I.e. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. if .y=. However. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. x = 1. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. expressing a y. there is only one solution. etc. values of x and y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. y = 1.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.. =. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. such as + = 10. The root of (4) if K 129 .
to The two methods I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6x . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. The first set of equations is also called consistent.130 170.26. 4y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . cannot be reduced to the same form. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 174. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 172. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.3 y = 80. = .X. and 3 x + 3 y =. viz. Substitution. 21 y . E. 3. Therefore. the last set inconsistent. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. unknown quantity. ~ 50. By By Addition or Subtraction. same relation. are simultaneous equations.24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. y = 2. of elimination most frequently used II. y I 171. for they express the x f y 10. 26 y = 60.
are like. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 64 x = 040. 37. 3y = 3. 25 x . x = 10. 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.14 =8. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 3.3 y = 47. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Transposing.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). x = 10.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.2 = 6. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. subtract the equations. 8 2. = 406. Therefore Check. whose coefficients In general. + 2. add the equations. y = 2. = 235.3 1 = 47. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 60 . 10 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 5 13 . y = 1.
O t K 8. 13. = 6. 13 61 l7a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. I i 3 a. f 3# ?/ = 0. . I ~ y~~> 22. * + 3 y = 50. I .4.3. i 3. J I y = 1U. = 41. 9 1 r 20. f 3X 7x 14. = 24.v 23.5 y = 2. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 19< I a. [2o. + 2/ 17. ' 12. 7 ' 1fi fl .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *. I oj 5y = 17. v ^ = ll.3.f2/ ' = 50. x 11. ] ^ . _.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.
= 4#8. = 2. and solve the resulting equation. x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 8. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2y + 10. = 60. = 13. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 3. .
43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). \ \6(a.6)7(y7)==18.3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. + 212y4 = 14. 3. . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 3 (1) Ex. 7x_2y=3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Substituting in (6) . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. x = l. however. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 29 x = 29. (7) (7) (8) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. From 9 = 36. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (4).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 7 y = 6. 4* + 3y = 19. 2 y = . simplified before elimination is possible. 21z6y=9.
2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 16. . . a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. J 9. +y 2 . 14. 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4 11. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.f2 2. 10.1) = 121. . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 10 2a?5 17. = 3. yM a.1) + 5(6 y .
136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.Q ^ 4 21. 180. 3x\" 1 23 24. f y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. and y. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 22. but some expressions involving x. .#. e.and x y . * ((* (( . {. <X + 20. ?~y .
4 x = 4 xy. (2) (3) a. etc. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. .3 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. of this type. 15 y + 8 x . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 4. x 3. 2* * x 2. (4) + (G). Dividing by 11 3 = #. . 33 = 11 x. y. y 1. Clearing of fractions. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. can also be solved Examples method. however. Therefore y=4.
1. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Ex. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 4 13.= o 6. 21 9 .= 5. y MOi y a. n. x y 5. 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 331 9.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x 8. 253 7. = en.
x a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. fax f = l. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . ap.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. d. apan cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. Uniting. .y = = 9a + 46. a Find a and terms of n. 14.W. s in 11. w. . x f my = 1. f 5. W . ny = fy/ I sc 1. 6. and I. Dividing. bmy bm}y ap cm. From the same equations find s in terms of a. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. x 12. d. and I if 13. . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ax + by = 2 a&. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.
etc. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.16.3=4. 3.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). To solve equations containing By tions. l. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.8 = 1.1+4.12 y + 6 z = .lf> z .2 + 3. = 30. 6. 4.15z=12 Adding. 1. f 3y 12 =s 8. = 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 8 x .25. (8) 2. Ex. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 3y = Hence Check. by 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).2 + 4. . x + 12 y .by 2. 3. 182.3 = 8.13. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. ties are Similarly. y =* 2. 20. 1. (4) (5).
8. + y f z = 15. x 13. 4 = 42. 2 . 10. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 49. ~6?/ 5. a? 11. 2z = 40. == 6. 14. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? + 709 = 26. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 12. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 15 2 = 45.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2 4. 7.
^ = 2. 4. 60. . .2 a. 16.3 y + . =s 20. 23. 27.6 2..42 = 2. 22. 1510 4 17. = 5. = 8*. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 19. 32. ?/ 3x = 0. ? = llz. 84 21. (3 _.
The sum of three digits of a number is 8. # 4. . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. z + x = 2 n. 1 digit in the tens place.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. y 31. either directly or implied. ( 99. y * z 30. Check. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in .) it is advisable to represent a different letter. = l. symbols: x + y +z 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. = 2 m. M=i. however. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. x : z =1 : 2. . + 396 = 521. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number. +2+ 6 = 8. 2 = 1(1+6). (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. and to express In complex examples. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. Ex. and if 396 be added to the number. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 1 = 2. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 2 = 6. 1.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. + z = 2p. Find the number. Obviously of the other .
6 x 4 = 24. x 3 = 24. we obtain. x 3x4y = 12. 5_ _4_ A. B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.144 Ex. 2. (1) (2) 12. By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. 3+1 5+1 4_2. = the fraction. direction. . the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. = Hence the fraction is f. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. Or (4)2x(3). Since the three men traveled the same distance. (3) C4) = 24 miles. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 2. the distance traveled by A. Ex. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. = 8. x y = the = the x denominator . 3. Find the fraction. C. 4 x = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. xy a: 2y 4y 2. increased by one. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check.
If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. 183. If 9 be added to the number. the digits will be interchanged. its value added to the denominator. fraction is reduced to \. number by the first 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. part of their difference equals 4. 2. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. . tion ? 8. and the fourth 3. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. both terms. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the number (See Ex. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the last two digits are interchanged. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 1. Find the number. to the number the digits will be interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. added to the numerator of a fraction. and the numerator increased by 4. If the denominator be doubled. 6. 5. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the number. Find the fraction. Find the numbers. If 27 is 10. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. 7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. the fraction equals .}. Find the numbers. it is reduced to J. the Find the fraction. ? What 9. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the fraction is reduced fraction. A fraction is reduced to J.
and partly at 4 %. the rate of interest? 18. Find their present ages. Find the rates of interest. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 4 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. respectively ? 16. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. now. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. 13. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. . much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. in 8 years to $8500. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.000 is partly invested at 6%. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. A man invested $750. partly at 5 %. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 12. and in 5 years to $1125. 14. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 5 %.grams. How 6 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. A sum of $10. the annual interest would be $ 195. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 19. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and money and 17.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.
is the center of the circum scribed circle. c. BC = 7 inches. 25. and $15 for each sheep. On /). but if A would double his pace. BE. and CE If AB = G inches. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. are taken so ABC. B find angles a. triangle Tf AD. respectively. and angle e angle/. A farmer sold a number of horses. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. then AD = AF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. E. and GE = CF. BC=7. the three sides of a triangle E. and sheep. and their difference by GO .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and angle BCA = 70. and e. Find their rates of walking. what is that = OF. andCL4 = 8. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. An C touch ing the sides in D. points. for $ 740. and F. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. BD = HE. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. 23. angle c = angle d. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and AC = 5 inches. three AD = AF. and F '(see diagram). what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. ED = BE. 24. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. cows. $ 50 for each cow. . and F. . 1 NOTE. the length of NOTE.
and r or its equal OA is . ?/. is the abscissa. (2. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. is The point whose abscissa is a. Thus the points A. 186. (7. B. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and PJ/_L XX'. The of Coordinates. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. . and PN _L YY'. PN are given. jr. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 2). 3). It' Location of a point. or its equal OM. (2. PN. the ordinate of point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and point the origin. the ordinate by ?/. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (3. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive .. first 3). YY' theyaxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. PM.
(4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 1). (4. and measure their distance. What is the locus of (a?. 3). 0). (See diagram on page 151. i.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 8. (0. (4. 11. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 0). . (5. 3. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.and(l. 12. Graphs. Plot the points (6. 3).2). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. . Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4. Plot the points : (0. 71 2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. Plot the points: (4. 4). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 1). (2. (0. 6. 0). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (1.1).(!. (3. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 4) and (4. (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.e. 2. 6. 2). 4) from the origin ? 7.3). 2J). 2). What Draw is the distance of the point (3.) EXERCISE 1. (4. 0). (4. !). 3).4). 4).
may be found on Jan. we meas1 . By representing of points. 15. 10 . and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. ure the ordinate of F. C. or the curved line the temperature. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 188. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 1. . representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. D.. B. however. A. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the first table produces 12 points. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.
and to deduce general laws therefrom. (b) July 15. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (d) November 20. etc. the rise and fall of wages. Whenever a clear. the merchant. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. uses them. the graph is applied. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. The engineer. .
(c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ? 9. (d) 9 0. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is 10. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 to Oct. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C.. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. on 1 to the average. When the average temperature below C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ?  3. (1) 10 C. How much. (freezing point) ? 7.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 1? 11 0. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 15.152 2.
Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . 19. One meter equals 1. NOTE. Hour Temperature . 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. a temperature chart of a patient. transformation of meters into yards.
4. A 10 wheels a day. 190.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. gas. the value of a of this quantity will change. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.154 24. to 27.inch.g. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.5 grams. 1 to 1200 copies. 26. represent his daily gain (or loss). to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if each copy sells for $1. then C irJl. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. function If the value of a quantity changes.50. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 29. 2. etc. x* x 19. x 7 to 9. the daily average expenses for rent. if he sells 0.. 3. 3. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. and $. etc.50. 9. amount to $8.. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. . books from for printing. 28. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. x increases will change gradually from 13. e. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. binding.) T circumferences of 25.
to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 4). Draw the graph of x2 f. . Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 3 (0.e. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .2 x may 4 from x = 4. 9). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. to x = 4. J). (1. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. etc. 9).0). be also represented by a graph. 1 the points (3. ( 2. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. it is In the example of the preceding article. construct '. If a more exact diagram is required.1). The values of func192. for x=l. is supposed to change. however. x a variable.1). 4). Ex. may. plot points which lie between those constructed above.g. 2. a*. and join the points in order.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. may . 2 (1. (2. (1^. and (3. while 7 is a constant. as 1. E. Graph of a function. 2). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. Q. 3 50.
hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. = 0.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.. 1). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.2 x .) For brevity. . Ex. 194. (2.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.4). = 4. 2 4 and if y = x f. etc. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. 4J... (3. rf 71 . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.20). y = 6. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 5). (4. Thus 4x + 7. and join(0. 7 . If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 2. r */ +* 01 . as y. straight line produces the required graph. j/=3. Thus in the above example.
(C ) (2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1 8 10. 11. 9. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2. 2. 1J. . a? 2 4. 2 2. (If) Va25. 1. xz + x. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 3 a 8. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 2 2 a. 2 or 2 20. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. if"a. if a.5)2. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 16. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a?. a* 13. 2 a. .8)'. 1J. x+1. a ar. Jar . Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2J. (ft) (_ 1. l.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 14. 5. 3. 23x. J. fa 17. 19. The smallest value of the function.e. 6 fa. The values of a*. 4a? I. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. xl. 2 a. 6. + 4. a? 1. 8. 7. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.5)2. = The values of a*. 18. 1J. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. a. 3. i. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. = 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 21. 12. 2J. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (7i) (c) 23. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 15. The values of a?. if the function equals zero.or. 4 a. the function. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. ?/ a. y = 2x = 4. 22. from x VlO'S". 2x + 3x a?. if y = 2.
If two variables x and y are inversely proportional... 14 F. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 32 F. Show any convenient number). 1 C. 9 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.24 or x = P and Q. y= formula graphically. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1..e. . C.where x c is a constant. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.158 24. i. then cXj where c is a constant. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. Therefore x = 1. the abscissas of 3.24. then y = . that graph with the o>axis. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 25. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. Represent 26. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.
7 2 a 5 = 0. a2 2a. crosssection paper is used. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 14. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. + + = where a. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 8. Such equations in general have two roots. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. (a) x2 = 0. 13. 7. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. . 12. 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 2 and 1. 6. viz. 10. 3. 197.f 9 = 0. (a) (6) 9. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (0. 11. 6. 4. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. is called a quadratic equation. = 0. or 5 2. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.
Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. X'2 Locating the points (2. Ex. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. ?/ =4 AB. T . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 2). 199.1. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. fc = 3. solve for ?/. ?/. y = l. = 0.e. locate points (0. NOTE. i. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. and joining by a straight line. 0). 1) and 0). because their graphs are straight lines. and join the required graph.2 y ~ 2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. . first degree. y y 2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Hence. produces the 7* required locus. 4) and (2. unknown quantities. if y = is 0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). (f .2. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Hence we may join (0. If x = 0. == 2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 3x _ 4 . Hence if if x x  2. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Ex.
3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). viz. 201. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection. P. equation x= By measuring 3.1=0. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 202.57. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. To find the roots of the system. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. we obtain the roots. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and CD.15. Graphical solution of a linear system. 203. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.
3. y equals 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Locating two points of equation (2). (4. (1) (2) C. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. the graph of points roots. if x equals respectively 0. 4.9. intersection. Locating the points (5. 5. and . the point we obtain Ex. etc. and + 3). 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 5. (2. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.5. V25 5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 1. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3). 2 equation x 3). i.0). 2. The equations 2 4 = 0. .5. In general. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. Inconsistent equations. There can be no point of and hence no roots.g. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.. 2. 3x 2 y = 6. (4. 0.y~ Therefore. 1. and joining by a straight line.0. x2 .e. we of the + y* = 25.  4. 3. they are inconsistent. Since the two  we obtain DE. Solving (1) for y. 0) and (0. 3. P graphs meet in two and $. e. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. 4. AB the locus of (1). 0. = 0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 4.
a. 2x 3?/=6. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 5. 9. y = 4. '163 Dependent equations. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y= a2 2x y6. . 16 23. Draw system. 17. if possible. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. state reasons. 4. y=x + 5. 10. 16 22. y 2 4. 8.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2. a+r/=6. x~y=0. 20. the graphs of the following systems. and. 19.. 7. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. and solve each If there are no solutions. 3. \ 2x + 3^ . vice versa. 6.
4 a = 3(6 . 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.14 y = .164 24.y). CUBES. 30.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31. 28. 26. 25. AND SQUARE HOOTS .
INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 52.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. follows that 3.faa a a a Obviously 1. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. a = a3 . fa. etc. . 2. Law of Signs. 8. is may be by 207. on to in factors 4. ^4/? it According to 50. ( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 2.a2 . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. a special kind of product. According to 1. 3 f a = f a = +. involution repeated multiplication. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .
(277171 )*. (^^) 2 . 2.6 (a 8 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 3 2 2 8 . V V/ 13. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 76 : (>y. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. \ 3 J '  MW 10. . 6. the required power. 2 11 (afc ) . 210. 16.166 To find To To power. 15.6) = a . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (a ) 2 5 . amVy) 3 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 5. 24. (2ar). The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 4. (a ) 2 4  3. 4 /2mV.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . a product to a given power. raise a fraction to a power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.
18. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. + a 2 a. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. = s= (2s) 8 a. 3. nent of the binomial. The higher powers of binomials. 3 8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. are obtained by multiplication. (aj7) . 8. 2. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (a + &)8 . . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . +5a) 22. 7. 16. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 2 . 13. etc. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 21.INVOLUTION Ex. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 9.y .3 y. 5. .6 2 8 ft) . 15. (5 (1 a) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . : a 20. 1.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. frequently called ex. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 23. pansions. 6. (3 x .y) = (3 y?y . a. (afl) .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 2. Ex. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 1 f 3 2 3 .) 14. 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . An 1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 4. (3af26) 8 . + 4aj) 3 . 12. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 211.
1.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Ex.168 3. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . 13. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 4. and the powers negative. .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Ex. is the coefficient of the next term. (?/i~w) : 16. 21. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6.2. (mJ) 4 11. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (m 5 I) 2 22. 8. (p + q) 4 * 7. 9. (?>i?i f c)*. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (af 5) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (a~^) 5 . 2. ( &) 5 . . 3. . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (la&) 4 12.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 18. (3a f5) 5) 4.a) 3 19.216 a^ 4. 17. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 25. 23. 10. (tff1) (cfd) . . (1 + 4 ?/) . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (l 8 . 14. 4 . mn 5 2 5 ) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2 a 4 . 24. 6. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 3. 15. (2 4. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 78 s . Ex. The minus.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 5. 4 (1for) 5 . (m 2 + n) 8 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . (m fl) 2 20. 5.
tity . \/"^27=3. 109 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. V \/P 214. numbers. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. and ( v/o* = a. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or y ~ 3. 215. Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 27 =y means r' = 27. called real numbers. etc. 2. (_3) = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 4 4 . = x means = 6. which can be simplified no further. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or x &4 . V9 = + 3. a) 4 = a4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for distinction. or 3 for (usually written 3) . and all other numbers are.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 1.
9 = 136. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 79 2 v/2 5 .  100 a 2 . Ex. 8. 6. 6. 5. fy 5 3 . . EXERCISE 1. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. . 9. roots of the numerator \/18 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 7 .lL. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. index. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 62 = V2* . v/2^. = 19472. 4 v.1. 10. extract the and denominator. Ex. 6 7 = 030. . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.(. 7 . V5 v/2 7 2.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.201) = 2. 2. 2. V36 9 4. \/2 4 9 . 3/0** = am . To extract a root of a fraction. Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 8. Ex. 7. = 199 + (_ 198) . 7. 9.125. 82 . 2 . v/^i2 = a*. V?. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.200 . 3i .4. To extract the root of a power. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.64 5 4 . 3. = V26TIT81 = 53. V25 9 16. Ex 5 a" .
A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.EVOLUTION 171 28. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V9216. V20 . Ex.98. 30. Find the square root of a2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 2. 1.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 116. 2 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 29. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . a* 4 8 2 . 34. 6.75.3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 45 V5184.4/.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . ^40^4. 31. 32. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . .) by inspection. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 3.3 y2) ( vV .3 . a f2 l 2 + l./). V8. 33. 5.
mV14m??2)f 49. however. let us consider the relation of a f.172 7.72 aW + 81 & 4 . i. #2 a2  16. . 2 . The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 ac . 14.> 13. 8 . 10. 15. 2ab . + 6 + 4a&.2 &c. and b. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 11.2 ab + b . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a\b is the root if In most cases.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a f. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2 2 218. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 12. the given expression is a perfect square. and b (2 a f b).b 2 2 to its square.
219. First trial divisor. 1. 8 /. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 . 8 a 2 2.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . the first term of the answer. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. by division we term of the root. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. As there is no remainder. and so forth. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. . */'' . . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 10 a 4 8 a. First complete divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . is As there is no remainder. Explanation. of x. The square .24 afy* f 9 tf. 2. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.EVOLUTION Ex. Second trial divisor. 6 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. .
4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 17. 5 4 16 4 iK .25 x 4 4. 3.42 a*& 4.25.a 6 x*y 2 . 16.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.9. 2 4. 9.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. l 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 6 11. 436^?/469a.10 x2 4. 5.12m 5 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 10. > 7. 16x6 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 15. 13#4 413ar 44a. 14. 729 4. 1 4. 18. 19. 24.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.37 a ^ .12 m 4. 20. 6.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 4 .4 x 4.40 a 22 .20 o 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.16. + 81 a 454 a + 81.V430^425^ 4m 4.73 a8 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . a? 2 .6 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 .162 a2 60 a10 4. 36it.24 or . 12. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 8. x 6 4 4 0^4.
= 80. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. a 2 = 6400. of 10. of a number between 100 and 10. Ex. of 1. etc. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the first of which is 4. first . Find the square root of 7744. Ex. and the complete divisor 168. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. and the first remainder is. The is trial divisor = 160. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.EVOLUTION 220.176. which may contain one or two).000.000 is 1000.. Therefore 6 = 8. two figures. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.1344. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Find the square root of 524. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the square root of 7744 equals 88.000. the first of which is 8. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc. 2. 1. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000 is 100.
7 to three decimal places. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.10.70 6. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 3. 12.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in .0961 are '.GO'61.1T6 221. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/. annex a cipher. places.
J. whose area equals 48. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. JT .1410. 5. 32. 39. 35.58 square 38.22. 31.01. . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .4 square when R = radius and 11. = 3. 30. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 37. 1. feet.53.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 36. feet. T\. 33. 13. 1.) 40. 34.
Transposing. Ex. 226. 2 ic = a. A pure. This answer Check. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 2. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. or incomplete. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. = 4. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. 224. 2)* + 5 = 33. 6 y2 = 17.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities.. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 225.g. x = + 2 or x =2. Dividing. 178 . is A quadratic equation. or affected. 6#2 = x* 24. The 7 equation. = 7^ + 5. but no higher power e. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is 12. x 2 7. 1. complete. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Extracting the square root of each member. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. .
. or Therefore. 6(2)=10(ajl). : 83 2. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve 179 . 16^393 = 7. 4 ax.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. o. 10. 19 + 9 = 5500. 2. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 4fc 5' 18. 7. 8. 5. . 2 2 a. 7 = 162. Dividing by Extracting the square root.25. 15^5 = 6. 4. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 3. ax Transposing and combining. 0^ + 1 = 1. ' =: y? b* b .2. (a? 9.
A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . and their product : 150. find a in terms of 6 . Find the side of each field. ' 4.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 22 a. 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. 108. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. If a 2 4. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. . 2 . Find is the number. 24. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for d.) of their squares 5. and they con tain together 30G square feet. Find the numbers.b 2 If s If =c . 26. 29. 3. 2 : 3. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 2. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Find the side of each field. If G=m m g . 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 27. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). solve for v. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). is 5(5. solve for r. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. EXERCISE 1. If 22 = ~^. 2 . 25. r. A right triangle is a triangle. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. : 6. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 28. . 2a f 1 23.
The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. J = 12. sides. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8. (b) 44 square feet. we have of or m = . The area : sides are as 3 4. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. . Find the sides. 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 9. A body falling from a state of rest. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. add () Hence 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. radii are as 3 14. is and the other two sides are equal. Find the unknown sides and the area. x* 7 x= 10. and the two smaller 11. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . .7 x f 10 = 0. 24. and the other two sides are as 3 4. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Find the radii. To find this term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 2m. Solve Transposing. and the third side is 15 inches. of a right triangle Find these sides. Method of completing the square.2 7 . (b) 100 feet? = . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.) 13.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. Find these 10.
Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0.x(l = . Ex.e.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.1. or x = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Uniting. J.2. adding member). Transposing. Therefore. a. Hence Therefore Check. 2  . or J. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Ex. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = . a Clearing of fractions.2 a2 . = \ # = ff. = 6. Simplifying. Extracting square roots.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.a. = x\ = 2. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 230.  \. 2 a* a. 62 x 5 = f. . (*~8) a = at .
Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 49. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 231.c = 0. x la 48. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. = 12. 2x 3 4. ao. \bx\. and c in the general answer. =0. article. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solution by formula. =8 r/io?. .
10. 15. = 64120?. 12. c p. 2 o. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. b =  + 20 == = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.  .25 x. 2.4 4 5 . 16. 2 a? = 44 x . 8. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 21. 7. TIO. c = 5. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 . 4. 6^+5^ 56. 1. a. 5 x2 Transposing.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 13. 3. 6 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 a. Reducing to general form. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 9. 20. 11. : 86 + 2 = 0. 18.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6 Ex. ?i 2 . V^tT)* . 14. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6. 19.. 6. 17. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 26. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. = 12 . 2or } 5o. 2.
any degree. Transposing. 23. 1.5 Solving (1) and (2). Bx 1 1. and 6. 0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Factoring. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Solution by factoring. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 5 = 0. 3x?+x = 7. }. 25. 27 x== 42a. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Clearing for fractions. transposing terms to one member. member can be Ex. if either of the uct is zero. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Eesolving into factors. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. ar>8o. x2 = 1 .x. = 0. factors Now. = 14. 233. 26.5) =0.2. = 0. a=:i^^. (5 a? !)(. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. x(x <2 . all or. .4) = . 2S3x 1 2 . orz roots. 5) = 0. = 0. or # 5 is zero. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 24.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.
2o3 f9a. + 6)=0.24 = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. 14. a* 10a=24. and the equation thus formed be solved. } 2 2 (5 . for a: . 16. + 8=s: 7. ar'Sa^ 12. 5 = 0. E.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.6)) = 0. 9. 0^ ar> 11.g. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 12. The equation I. 3) Factoring. : 87 = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. + 100. 3) = 0. is 5) = 0. a?.= 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.(. 3# y 5 = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 4. 8. a?10a=:24.e. + 9 f 20 x = 0.3)(x + 3 3. 3 or 2 a. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 2.:=0. 7. 4)(z3) = 0. 13. O roots are 2. x2 f 2 x . + 10 a = 24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 0(02) = 7(02). 3. 6. aj( 15. 5. 2. (aj4)(a. Or Hence the 234.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3^ = 0(1106). Ex. 4or + 18a f 8a.
(a + 1) (a. 20. '3a!J  . or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 22. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). uz + u 21. 18. 25.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 2.188 17. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 19. 50. ara + ft + c*. 27. 23. a 2 =(x a)b.
3.0. and whose product 9. 1. 6. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 56. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find the numbers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find the sides. 52. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . The 11. .3. 5. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 2.9. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 55. 7. and whose sum is is 36. 3.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find the number. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and equals 190 square inches. 2. 4. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. two numbers is 4. The difference of .2. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. G. 0. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. : 3. 5. 2. 54. number by 10.1. 57. feet.3. and consequently many prob 235. 58. of their reciprocals is 4. EXERCISE 1. and the difference Find the numbers. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Find the number.3. 1. 8. is Find two numbers whose product 288.
ply between the same two ports.190 12. and Find the sides of the rectangle. 15. 17.10. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. watch for $ 24. ABCD. Two vessels. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. sold a horse for $144. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. he would have received two horses more for the same money. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. What did he pay for 21. as the 16. 19. 14. Find the rate of the train. . If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If he each horse ? . dollars. 13.
^3^ = 7. contains B 78 square inches. Find and CB. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. (tf. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Ex. a point taken. of the area of the basin. Find TT r (Area of a circle . constructed with and CB as sides. By formula. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 237. 27. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 1. as 0. and working together. is On the prolongation of a line AC. how wide is the walk ? 23.) 25. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. or x = \/l = 1. 23 inches long. the two men can do it in 3 days. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. so that the rectangle. . 24. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
192 238. Ex. 436 3. = 1. 2. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. 18. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 7. a4 5o. or y = 8. 4 6. aV+9o 4 =0. 8. 12. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. T 17. 4 : 89 10a.2 =4. Solving. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. y8)=0. 6.)+72=0.T 2 2 . 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a. 4 a. a? 15 1=2*. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2 16 a^40 11. >. a 21or=100. 4. 19. Hence Le. 10. 2 h9:=0. 16. = 13. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 8 = 2 a* 2.
Hence the roots are real. is 4ac not zero. the roots are rational. rational. negative. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are irrational. the roots are equal. rational. b 4. ( 2a Hence 1.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 241.bx 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are real. and unequal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 1.5) = 04. 3. the roots are imaginary. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are unequal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Relations between roots and coefficients. 2. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. c the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . and equal. The discriminant =(.12 x + 9 = 0. 240.2) 2 4 3 (.f> = 0. Ex.2 z . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Ex. . a perfect square. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .
= 0. 5oj aj + l = 0.g. ^12. + 18 2 8. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2 : 3. 23. 15. 21. + 2a15 = 0. x2 7 10. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2 7.. 2. lla. o. : a 2 .19 # 20. tfmx+p^Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 2a. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 3a. 2 a. + 12 2  . 14. 9a3 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. = 5x. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. their product isf. = 0. 4. = 0. 18. 10 x = 25 x + 1. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 6. 24. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 60 2 = 0. f 2 E. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 5aj 9. = Q. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 22. 2a 4z5 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 17. 12. 12~x = x 2 .
Then the law of involution. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. provided w > n. a m a" = a m+t1 . no Fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than. II. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. = a"" < . while the second of the first. for all values 1 of m and n. m IV. (ab) . hence. and . We assume. however.a" = a m n mn . such as 2*.* III. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. 244." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . > m therefore. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. that a an = a m+n . ~ a m f. It is. (a m ) w . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .
^=(a^) 3* 3 . 25. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 245. 30. e. 29. n 2 a. (bed)*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a?*. 4~ . as. 24. m$. 23. = a. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 0?=^. laws. Assuming these two 8*.g. a*. 3*. ml. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. '&M A 27. . 31. or zero exponent equal x. (xy$. fractional. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. etc. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a . 28. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. at. a\ 26. disappear.
Vo5 .\/n. a . 40. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. equal to unity. = 2. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. however. : 197 33. 41. 38. Solve the following equations 39. 35. = 2. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. the base is zero. If. 37.g. 48. : 2' 4* = 4. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 42. e. hence is . 246. Let a = a. a* * = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. \fi?. 3* = 27. 43. e. ty?. 5 a* = 10. 44. v'mT 36. = 49.g. 49. \/xy \/m. a * a2 Or a=l. v/o&cT 34. 27* = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 46. 50. 7z* Find the values of 47. 45.
Multiplying both members by a".2 = a2 . .198 247. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. an x = a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. etc. cr n. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .g. 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Let x= or". or the exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. by changing the sign of NOTE. consider the following equations. Or a"# = l. vice versa. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. e.
 27. 40. 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. c 32. 44. : or 5 . . rfS. m . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 66 45. 3 a. 22. 3 a? * 42."* 38. 36. a. 25. * 24. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 2 . 2m~i 43. ^L.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. . : mi m~^. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 39. a^ 41. f (2w)~i 1 . ^?2 y' 34. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 37.
10* 5* = .008)* + A. 250. 49. 17' 2 51. 57. 53. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 48.001. . = . of: 3ll4~* 60. = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 55. ar = i. 52. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . = 5.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. + 1~* f 21 . Ex. 58.(. z 5or*=10. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .26)* 1 (I) 2 . + A_.81 f (a . 54. z* = 1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.6).343)* + (. 59. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 47. (. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. = l. 10* Find the values 56. 1. 61.9*.1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 7*.&. ' 11.7*. 4 x^. remove the fractional exponents. 14. / 7fv 7. 3.$*.7W. 7. are performed. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.5a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 23. 27  28. 6. 18. . Remove the negative exponents. . 3 a. V5.3 aj" a. 16.4 a8 .$". &. a. OA 20. 7~ 5 27  . 16. 13. 6 *. 7~ 6 .7i.6 *' 6 *25. 3sVS. 17. . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 12. (d) If required. 8 ' 9. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 95 ^9i 5**. S'sS8. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.. 72 . 10. Perform the operation indicated.4 .5.^/5^5.&. 79 . etc.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 26. 4 5. #* a. NOTE. 6a.
V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. The 252. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 2. 40. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. If powers of a?. 34.2 d . Arrange in descending powers of Check. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. </20. ^2. 29. A/3. \/5. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Ex. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^/IT. V2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. \/7. ^7. V5. Simplify V~ . 2\ 3*. v/3. VS. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^126. 39. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^6. ^4. ^30. if dissimilar. connect them by proper 1. v/4. A/2. V2. Ex. 4^/4. 5V2. Arrange 35. 26. v/3. ^2. ^4.e. 3. ^3.3\ . 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. + . s!/3.2 V50. signs. subtract surds.10 V2 =  V2. 36. To add or form. 37. v^S. 33. 27. 40. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 30. V3. 34. ^5. </3. </2. in order of magnitude : \/7. V2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25.2. 32. (i. V3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 28. 38. 31.
+ 3V835V2. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 3. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8VT8J2V32 7. 6. V175V28+V634V7. 14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 9. 6. V18+V32VT28+V2. 4.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. 11. 8. . 12. 10. 4V805V45.
2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. and then multiplied. y* = Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 3. 2.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 1. 23.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6*. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . . Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 26^ .2v/6 + IPV6 105. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 460V35100 . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.
V20 V30. 7. V3 V6. 3. VTO. 213 98 11. + VB)(2V5). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 38. 19. \/3 \^). (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 21. fWa 17. v/18 v"3. (Va Va 36.^/2. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V3 Vl2. aVa. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). . (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (3 20. 8. 37. V2aV8^. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 34. 6. 39. 25. 2 . v/4. Vll.VSS. 15. 6. 28 . 6 V4 5. 40. 18. 9. V2 V50. 13. 27. VlO V15. 14. 41. (2V3) 8 . 2. a?. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V42. 4. 12. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 40 10 30.
Va v/a. 51. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V2+V10)(2V51). Ex.y. . is 1 2. 268. 49. a fraction. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 47. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 60. the quotient of the surds is If. 44. Ex. 52. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). all monomial surds may be divided by method. 43.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 53. 46. 48. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (2 45. E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. V3 .214 42.
Divide VII by v7. is illustrated by Ex. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . we have V3 But if 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. The 2.g. .73205. 3.57735. . . by V7. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.RADICALS This method. 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. metical problems afford the best illustrations. however.by the usual arithmetical method. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. arithTo find. Evidently. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. e. /~ } Ex.
VffV?. V3 24 . 7. 23 . V2 22 . 272. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.7320. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.2361. ^/H . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. A.4142. V5 270. 271. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8 12. 20. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. . V5 = 2. Vll 212*. V8 JL. V3 = 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .. 14. V48 25.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. . and Given V2 = 1. 21. A. i.
. Ex. 3. Ex.Vs2 . . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a.vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2.RADICALS Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a.= 18. 1.
it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . = V3 = 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.5 3 = 125.4142. J?_.W3. Given V2 1.218 6 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V21 = 25 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V5V7 18> ^SVg. find to _!_. . By the use of fractional exponents . v 2V3 28. : and V5 = 2.2361. four places of decimals 23 .7320. 27. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. Vo1 26. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 6V7. 24. 19.
9. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 8. v8f 2\/15. Simplify Ex. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. on the other hand. V643 . . \/l6*. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 5. viz. According to G3. 11. 2. it to this form. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 2 12. the If. 1. V255 . \/125" . 3. 2.RADICALS 219 274. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 3 (V2~u)  7. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS.
is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 \/20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. The Hence ^11 . 3.A/2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vl2 4. 2. +2 Ex. is 11. Find Vll . and whose product is 18. ^TT.220 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20. 2 \/18. Find V4 + VJ8.6 V2. These Ex.
* 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 5. they are transto formed into rational equations. member to 2. : 221 Vl32V22.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.1. i. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 19. 4x x = 2. 4. x2 = x f 2. by raising both members equal powers. (2x xrf 1. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. = xa + 4 x f 4. Transposing and uniting. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. r 22. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. ..V48 4 20. The value x =2 reduces each . V48 23. Radical equations are rationalized. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Dividing by Check. +=. a. are radical equations. Solve vVf!2a = 2. VT . first involution. Before performing the involution.e. Ex. 8. 277.
Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. a. Extraneous roots. Ex. Squaring both members. 278. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Transposing. Therefore Check. Dividing by 24. Therefore CftecAr. 3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. tion which has two roots. at . a socalled extraneous root.1) = 0. V4afT~l. one root. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. It = 3 x .3. . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. the first member = V2. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. x = J. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 2. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. viz. Transposing and uniting. V24~+~l = 0. Factoring. 5. Transposing and uniting. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. f 25 = 12. . they may be extraneous roots. viz. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9.222 Ex.
* Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. ViTie 4 z2 . NOTE. = 3. (x x = 3. for it satisfies the equation . Therefore. 223 x = 3. both members reduce to 5. \ does not satisfy the given. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.12 . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. .RADICALS Hence x If a. .2 r.47) = 0. the right member = V2. x root of the preceding equation. Hence x = the only root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. 2 Clearing of fractions. 4. equation it is an extraneous root. is x V. If If x 3 = 3. and to 5. Transposing. + 6~ieT~3 . or x *j. viz. Check. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Hence there is only one root. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Solve the following equations : = G. Factoring.3) (2 x . . Squaring.
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring. Many 1. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Ex.
o.f40= 5. x Since both =9 or 1. Let 8 x f 40 . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. = 7. Vi 2 8a. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. members of the equation were squared. = 26. = 0. y then x2 . some of the roots be extraneous. 2_8z 440 = 49. 4. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Substituting. 2. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.i~24 = 0. Q .8 z40 = 7. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 3. 3 6. 412a* = 16. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 45 14VJB = . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. x =6 or 3. 5. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. This can be seen without substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. _ 2 y .8 x + 40 = 36. + 40 = 6.*2a.35 = 0. . Ex. x + Vx a? = 6. 2Va. 2.
17. a^x2 5 2 13. 16. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +3= 6. +x .f 18 = 24. 14. a.a 440 = 35. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 18. 12. 15. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.226 11. 2. 20. 19.
Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. by dividing 3 x* f.2 x 5 by x 3. 1. could. no matter If. 227 .4 a." transposing. does not contain a?. If x* . then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. even if Q is unknown.2 + 4.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). ax4 4.bx? + ex2 4. " Or. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. if Q was known. Without actual division. E = ax + &z + m) Q.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. find the remainder when m. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. ^ = 381+2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2) Q .360 = 244. = 2. 3 2 Ex. however. a? R = x* . 2.2 + 80 = 12. Ex. we make a? what the value of Q.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Without actual division. Hence.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . then (x 2)Q 0.
if 8 42  . x* s 2 4. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 5 (4x . The Factor Theorem. 8. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. fora?.g. hence (x divided by x 4. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 2 j 7.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 3.8'= 0. + ^by x + b. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.228 282. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . the remainder equals 8 2 x . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5.8.4(. + 7 = 632. } 2 by a1. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.3)f 11 =. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.g. 43 3 E. + 6. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x m is factor of the expression. If the remainder is zero. of the division 3) is m in place of x. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .949.
25.7 + 16 . 21. 5. a? 19.1. 18. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. or x 4. 8.49 = 0. 229 1.r6 = 0. & p*. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. f 3.e. 1. Resolve into factors 4.1. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .12 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. . 24. factors of the absolute term.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 20. a 8a f 19 a 12. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. or 5 4 + 3^ . 11. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . The 5. 17. a 2a + 4. + 27 + 27. 6. 2. then x8 7 x'2 4. 9. i. 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. a 5x 6. _ .7 x + 15 = 0. 7 46 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. + 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. m f m n 14.12. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 15. Factor a? 15. f 5. is a factor. 3 2 : 7. are f 1.13m + 30 10. 106 division. + ttt15 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. Let x = . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a. 8. oj 5x2 f3a. a^8^ + 19a. 23. ^10^429^20=0. 2m 5m . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. f 15 does not vanish.9^ + 23^15. a + 32. 2 2. Therefore x ( 1). 3.
Factor consider m m 6 n9 . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.230 285. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. : importance.y n is divisible by x f ?/. ar +p= z6 e. 1. By we obtain the other factors.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. x* f/ = (x +/)O . is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. actual division n. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.xy +/). For substituting y for x. If n is a Theorem that 1. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. Ex. 2 Ex. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . It y is not divisible by 287. if w is odd. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 286.g. if n is even. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 2. xn f.
Hence = (m Ex. however. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. since it more directly to the prime factors. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.i mn f w 2).= . 28. preferable. x3 8=0. 3. 26. as 27=0. leads 231 is The first method. a. 27. y 3 +8=0.
& + 2 xy + = 25. If two of the quantities x f y. + 6 a?V . xywe have 3. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. can be solved by the methods degree. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. however. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general. (4) Hence. Squaring Solve (1).CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 4 xy = 16. * A I. xy are given. 232 . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. of quadratics. to equations of the fourth few cases. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.1. 290. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. = 6. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. x y.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. " "' "' { r 8. x and xy are not given. ^. 233 y.g. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. r (" 1 = 876. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 108 2. b=3. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 12. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. I I x + y=7. = . The arranged in pairs. 1. ' 10. but can be found. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.
6 "I 14.  42 y + Transposing. la. x " (3) 49 etc. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. or JJ. A system of simultaneous equations. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. ' ' .  f J. one linear and ne quadratic. I* Jj ^ [. 5. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.a.20) = 0. 7 . + 29 = 0. .o 18. 2 (1) From (1) we have. . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. or y = 1 . 3. 19. Ex.  .~ y = 5. I x+y = a. r^ 2 as ] f. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294..?/ i = 6. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Factoring. aj = 2.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.i/ = r 13. 4 y = 20.
(x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). ' x*. III. 9. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. y* + 2y = 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . quantities. If of the preceding type. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2). the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. Solve . 10. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 1. x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.
the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. Solve 2. 11 a2 Factoring. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0. 2. } VI09. j Substituting y in (2). 109 a. 15 x2 . (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (1) (2) x x 5. 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. " IV.3^42^=43. y? a? f .175 ay = 12. ' ^ 15.!. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). f 1 150 a?.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. can be solved by special devices. Division of one equation by the other. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Bxy9. (4) (3). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. .6. A. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4. 2 xy + y2 = 10. E. 298.125 ay = . 150 */2 . and others not belonging to them.y = 7. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
y . B.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i ^ *>. Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . Solve Ex. (1 > (2) 1. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. from (2). we obtain by squaring. jc~ y = 9. = 189. = 12 J. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. we have from (1).. xy. Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. x 2 . x +y y etc. quadratics can be solved by ?/. 2. * ' 300.
239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. [2x + : y= 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2. I e. 6. 7. Hence = V or = 4. . 36* 2. F+y+ . M6.
25. = 198. f 18. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.4 y = 47 a. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 16. 19 ' 26. 27. * .21 ^ = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. .
31. hence may be any finite number. 25 34. . . 30. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. Interpretation . Q 7.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. etc. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . ^ oo . . 32. etc 302. finite  =x y if = x. oo 301. = 48201.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. or ~ indeterminate. ~\ OK OO. 33. y % 9 f*K 36. 7' j/ 39. as a . 3 a2 38.
can be If It is made larger than number. or that x may equal any finite number. = 10. the answer is indeterminate. great. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. (1). 306. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. Let 2. The ~~f fraction . or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . ToU" ^100 a.g. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. is satisfied by any number.e. oo is = QQ.decreases X if called infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. as + l. By making x any * assigned zero. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.242 303. and .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. and becomes infinitely small. Or.e.increases if x de x creases. cancel. Hence such an equation identity. (a: Then Simplifying. x f 2.x'2 2 x = 1. . of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. i. equation. 1. without exception. be the numbers. (1) is an identity. it is an Ex. . TO^UU" sufficiently small.000 a. 1. creases. i. (1) = 0. I. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.
EXERCISE 1. . Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4).8 x + 15 6. Solve  9 7. 4 3 x x5 a2 . no numbers can satisfy the given system. and a. * 6. 3. 1=0. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. (2). and the sum of Find the numbers. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 42 and' their product is 377. y finite QO. The sum is of squares 2890. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. two numbers is 76.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = oo. Solve . z = 1 Substituting.e. third and sixth parts.2 y = 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Hence /. is their 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Solve x a. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 2.
The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the other two sides. and the hypotenuse is 37. equals 4 inches. Find the sides of the rectangle. 6. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the side of each square. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 146 yards. 12. 190.quals 20 feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. is is 17 and the sum 4.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. and the sum of ( 228. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the dimensions of the field. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. . The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.244 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 255 and the sum of 5. 8. Find the edges. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 14. 9. Find the sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edge of each cube. two numbers Find the numbers. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 10. 148 feet of fence are required. p. Find the numbers. 103.) 53 yards. the area becomes f% of the original area. 13. and the diago(Ex. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the edge of one. is 6. increased by the edge of the other. of a right triangle is 73. of a rectangular field feet. Find these sides.
245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. differ by 8 inches.) 17. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. Find the number.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. and if the digits will be interchanged. Find the radii. . their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.
.. and d. each term of which. P. . An arithmetic progression (A.. P. a 3d. Since d is a f 3 d..7. To find the nth term / of an A. 15 is 9 f. to produce the 3d term.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. f . to each term produces the next term. progression.. added to each term to obtain the next one. The progression is a. . : 7. of a series are its successive numbers.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. of the following series is 3. 2 d must be added to a. 17. 11. (n 1) d must be added to a. 3.. P.. a + d. 3 d must be added to a. a + 2 d. 4. 16. 19. series 9.1) d. a 11. a f d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. to produce the nth term. . The first is an ascending. 12. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. except the first. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. to produce the 4th term. The common differences are respectively 4. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. Hence / = a + (n . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. .. + 2 d. 309.) is a series. 10. the second a descending. a.
. 19. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Find the 10th term of the series 17. . (a + + (a + l) l).. 2 EXERCISE 1. .. = I + 49 = *({ + .4.3 a = l. 6.. 9. d . 6.. 99) = 2600. .. 3. 3. 3. 5. 1. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. the term a. 1J. P.. 5. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 4. 8.. 4^. ? (a) 1. series . = a + (a Reversing the order.... .... Adding. 8. P.. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. series 2.. 7. 5. 9. 115. 8.PROGRESSIONS 310. 21. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.8.' cZ == . a = 2. = 2. 3. 24. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 5. (d) 1J. 7. Find the 5th term of the 4. 3. 2J..16.. if a = 5. 6 we have Hence . of the series 10. the last term and the common difference d being given. . = 99. 5. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . Find the 101th term of the series 1. Find the nth term of the series 2. 2. 10. d = 3. 7. 2. 1. 6. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. P.
11. 12. 22. . . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . hence if any three of them are given. 1. 13. 11. 1.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 7 terms. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. P. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. + 3. 18.1 f 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120. . '. . 6. 15. 11. . 23. 7.248 Find the 10. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. Jive quantities are involved. to 20 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 1J. to 10 terms. 2J. 15. (i) (ii) . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 15 terms. \n. Sum the following series 14. 16.7 f to 12 terms.. 16. 29. strike for the first yard. 7. In most problems relating to A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 16 terms. 21. . to 8 terms. striking hours only. 2. 4. to 20 terms. 31. 15. 3. 19. 11. and for each than for the preceding one. 12.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 33. to 20 terms. 7. . 17. 20. (x +"l) 4. rf. : 3. > 2f 2. 8. 1.
111. is 12. 204 = ^ (98 . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. Solving. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). . and b form an A. P. Findn. Ex. 144. if a. 6. Find the series.1).~n~\ 408 6). #. d = 6. 1.104 w + 408 = 0. = 1014. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 34. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. n d. But evidently n cannot be fractional.6 n). Substituting in (2). 122. = n(104 . 45. or 11 J. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. a = 12. = a + (w. hence n = 6. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 204 = ^ (a + 49).1) . 100. 133. .6. P. 6 n2 . 78 n Substituting in (1). 2. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 67. 89. or if x Solving. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. l)e?. From (1). 23. if s = 204. a = 49 6(71 ..PROGRESSIONS Ex. s 24ft last term 144. = 13. the second one mean between the other two. = 144. 2 (2) From Hence (2). n = 6. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 78. The series is. P. = 1014. J = 49.. The first term of an A. 312. 56. I. 12.e.
12. = 16. 16. f J 1 1 / . Find a Given a = 7. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 74. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 7. Find d. 4. Find w. ceding one. How much . y and #f5y. 13. a+ and b a b 5. s = 70. = 45. = 83. How much did he save the first month? 19. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n = 4. f? . Find n. 14. T? ^. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = . of 5 terms 6. 17. 6? 9. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 8. produced. and s. n has the series ^ j . n = 20. Find d. Find d and Given a = 1700. Given a = . s == 440. = ^ 3 = 1. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.3. = 17. = 52.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 15. Given a = 4. n = 17. d = 5. 11. I. 10. m and n 2. I Find I in terms of a. n = 13. n. n = 16. = 1870. a x f b and a b. Find?. Given a = 1. Find a and Given s = 44. has the series 82. 3. 78. . P.
arn ~ l . 24. P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . E.. 2 a. 108. ratios are respectively 3. 36. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. . NOTE. is it (G. P.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. . 4 (1) . 4. is 16(f) 4 . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . or 81 315. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.g.. 12. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. . ar8 r. P.. rs = s 2 .) is a series each term of which. The 314.. or. The progression is a.. called the ratio. +1. 24. ar. 36. <zr .. . (I) of the series 16. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). the first term a and the ratios r being given. If n is less : than unity. and To find the nth term / of a G. 36. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 4. I.. 2.. A geometric progression first. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . of a G. r n~ l .
252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.288. 7. 80. + 5. 1.. 4. series 5. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.. . a = I. . is 3. or 7.5. 4. whose and whose common ratio is 4. . 25. . fa.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Hence n = 7. volved . 288. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. +f%9 % . whose . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.. 9.. P. hence._!=!>. 36. 676... . P. 3. (d) 5. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.4. In most problems relating to G. P. f. . series .. Ex. 72.6. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. I = 670. 6. l. . is 16.. P. first term is 125 and whose common .. Find the 5th term of a G.. Jive quantities are in. . 9. Hence the or series is 0. 10. first 5. f. P. 9.. 72. . EXERCISE 1. 144. . fa.*. whose and whose second term is 8. if any three of them are given.. . Find the 6th term of the series J. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 144. 2 term 3. . And the required means are 18. 576.. ? (c) 2. i 288. r^2. 8. . .5. series 6. 18.54. \ t series . 0.18. (b) 1.18.72. 36. 20. 144. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. (it.l. 36. first term 4.
to 6 terms. J..J and 270. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. + 4 . be written If the value of r of a G. . a^. s = 310. 15. and hence ~ r . of r n decreases. 54. 48. P. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 22. 14. a..PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 72. may be than any assignable number. 24. = 3. Find a and Given r = 3. to 7 .. Find a and n = 4. Find a and 4. = 3. 243. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. r . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 27. 1. J.. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. I. 42. to 5 terms. M. . 36. to 6 terms.. 20. . 16 . . . to 6 terms. 2. J.nV> i*> !718. >"> . 126. 81.. n = 5. 1. Given r = n Z 5. to 8 terms. n = 5.i a9 . 14. to G terms. to 7 terms. Z s. 13. 4. . 23. == 160. 19. 12.. 25S series : 32. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 21. Find the geometric mean between 7. J. is less than unity. 12 terms. 81. s = 605.
1.= . 1. r = j. is J.99 . 9.3 + . 13... (6) the sum of the perimeters.= _4Z* .. = a . 3. 4. 8.. i i J. Find the sum to infinity. = 990 . .254 Ex. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.3727272 . i. what is (a) the sum of the areas.3121212. ... 8. 40. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. ratio 15.072. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. = . 6.. . ...555. 1 r = . 5. first and the common term.. . 2. 12.. 5. =A+ 10 i. . . 16. P.. 9.. of: 11.717171. P. 7.72. 12. of an infinite G. 1. Hence . is 9..37272 . 10. 250. .191919. of all squares ? . The sum r. Find the value 9. ..1.. I. 16. = . Given an infinite series of squares. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. .. is 16. 2...27777 . 1.. If a = 40. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 100. . 14... . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. 66 Therefore ... .272727... and the first term is Find 17. . .Ql. 4.... P.)7?7272 .00072 f ..01 ^ .. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .072 + . . .
a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. coefficient of . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . . 4. (\ 9 . 5. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 7 . Find the 6th term of (x . 10. 26.6) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . l 2.6) 20 .b ). 11. (xy) : 6 . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . /2a+Y\ 8. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. . 16. a6 8 16 in . 2 2 24. 15. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 29. 20. 17. . 21. : (1 + xy. 22. 25. 4 7. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (a 100 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 12. (a2) 6. (s + i). 28. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 13.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 14. (a + b) . .
4. 1. 2. c = = = 2. 24 4. 5. = 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. + c(a  c).f ac 1. 4. 3. 5. 7. 3. 4. 2. 3. 1.  2. . 6. 2. 4. 2. 3. 5. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 4.a(a 4. 1. 1. 3. 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. a ft c = = 2. 1. 4 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . if a ft c = = = 4.c )(fta) 1. 4. if = = = 2. 1. ft) . 5. 2. y 3. 2. 2. + 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 5.  2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). (c 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. if = = 2. 2. 2. 5. l. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 3. ^+^ 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. 1. 3. 5. 3. 3. 6. (ca)(cft)' 4. 1. 2 . . 1. 2. 1. 1. 4. 1. 3. 2. 1. 2. + 2. 1. 2.  a)(a 1. + 2. 2. 3. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2. 3. 5. if x^l. 3. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 5. 4. 4. 1. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 6.  8 ^ 2. 4. if y=2j 2. 2. c if 7 . aft 3 + 4. 3. 4. 3. 5. 6. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.
x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . b(x (b 1.2. 21.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . or . 6 a4 4 a8 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . c)(x a} . . 5.1. 2  + 12 a 8 . + 4 ?y . 18. a.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .3 a?y . ~c)(b. 6.4. 3. 2. 10.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 17. a 4 + 11 a . x3 2 a2 . r> . 29. 3.  a) (c 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 5. 2 x 8.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .8 + 2 // .a 4 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . (5.\ yz + xz. 16.10. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.259 x c) .2 a?y + 3 aty . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 20. a /> 3. if a 6 = = c = 3.8 3 + 7 x4 . . 4.5.2 x2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.7 ys. . + 1. 41. 40. 1.a 5 a . 4.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 4.a8 . 9. 4 z . a: . + 8 x4 *y . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 8. x 3 11.2. 2. 4 x 4 . 15.2 z8 4 x.x 5 4 . 5. 1. + 3 y 2* .5 xy 3 + + 4 . x 3 x' 14.a) . 2. 7y 4 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . a. c = 3. 24. + 4. 2. x = 4. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.7 y 2* 4.2 x?/. 25. 26. 7 xy 3 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 y 13. 9.3 xyz. 8 . 12.r 6 x  4 xy . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 2 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 21. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . ' b) + 3. 15.7 + . 5. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x C 4 4x y + . . f 8. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 7. = 2.c' 2 4 / . + 2.
.x 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.(a . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 4vTT~y 3. 0" 30. .x .x 2 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.4) . 4 2 x2 23. 35.7.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(x* . and .2 . (*) a  c.] 26..27~~7)}]. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. . .#48.5 .c.(x 4.{2 x 2 .c 4 3 a. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 29.c 3 a. Simplify 31.[4 z 8 .3 .(4 x 2 .x2 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 36.(5 c . 5 10 4 G 11 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.(5 y . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.4 Vl 4. 542 x 2 and . 2 x 32.2 x 8y2 44 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . a  ft + c.2) .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.?> x 4 20. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. Take the sum of 3 x 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 7 12 .3. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4 ft) 4. Take the sum 4x 4.3 x . of a. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . f ft. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 5 4 7 12 . 3 ft.(7 x 4.a ft.1)}] . ft. . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.(4 * . x'2 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .1).5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. x8 x2 2 a'2x. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.c. c 4. 4 3 5 y/ . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .2 a .[4 x 4.5. take the sum of G x 5 . sum of .8 3 4. : a x . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 33.{G * 2 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. = x y ft z. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 3 ax 2 .4.x . 5 10 + 7 . 34.2 .3 . 4 .6 x ] .260 19. c =x y }~ z. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 4 4 4. . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.6T . c 4ft. From of 2 the 4. ft 25.
a~^~c)K].3T~2~s)} + 5 2].6 xy .{2 a (ft . (.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 2 53. 49.1). (1 55.7).  2 a  {3 2x a . a {.be) (a 58.& + {.(6 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3)(*5)(* 7).3 z 2 ). 68. 2 2 x + !)(* .b (c .[4 x  5 . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 57. + 4x + 5)(j.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). + *+!){> + 2).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. .4 a . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.2 2 .3). 54. (1 ar+a. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (/> 4 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. (r (1 (a. (x.rf)} + a [.56.96 [17 a.2 zz . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 2 : 7e)a}]. )(lz a ). 4 + 2 2 + 1). 50.{3 c .c).2c(V/ .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].5)} + (3 a 2 .(4 d . 43. . 63.(5 y . 'J 44. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3 *).2)(1 . . 48. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .[2 .ab . .(2 a 2 . 13 a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 51. 59. 56.3c). 3 x 42. 2 52. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].2x + 3). . 2 ft 41.{2 a .(2 a + 5 a .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .12).ac .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3 c)].2 2 + 1)(7.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 62. . 65. 60. (.(7 a.Z . .6c) (a + f c).JT^T+1)} + (2 . a . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.(2 x2 . 45.5 )}] + {4 c . 46.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (4 + 3a 2 . (x .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .c 2 . 64. (5 a 39.(7 i + 4 r:) .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 67.(2 . .6)}]. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). (a 2 + 2 + 9 .2a .0)} .
{3 a .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .c) . 94.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).6*y . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 85.y + z)(x + y .n pc). ft 78. 88. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.z) .O (a 4(a 4. 84.(/>  3 v)^(.3 a . 89.c) j.262 69.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).m np c . 74. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 76. 1).:y)( a. (p 2 .b 4.z)(x y + z)(. b 4. . 2 (x 2 . xy y 2 ).(4 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 4.9y2). 91.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y). 87. ft" l Simplify 80.2 (y 4.c) . ft /.z\x 4. 79.3 (ft . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .(a 48 8 8 4.y)\x y).r 2 .(c 4.2 (a .c)]. Prove the following 8 4.x + y + z).c .3y) a (* 2 4.am&t 4 A 2 *).(a 2) (s 4 ft.2 ft}) f (3 a . 82. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 93.2y)(.c) rr identities. 71. 73. 70.(ft 4. (x (x ( + *) . ft 95. 83.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.q).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). (.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 90. (a (2 b)*(a 4. .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). ft ft ft a}. 92.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.a) 2 .<f(p . 75. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .5 . 86.ft) 4 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.v) 4. ar . 1). 77.c) 4) (ft 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 4 4 .ft) + 4(2 . f 72.c)} .c . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c) 2 . 2 + a 2 ). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .
9 x 2 . 116.(2 a 2 . 121. 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4.3 a"+ 4.16 a 6 4. 26 (a 4 c).2 xy 8 .(x 2 .(a 1 2 8 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 120. r .v/ ~ // = a: .y 4 ) . 3*. 105.4 aft .) .r 4 4. 99 100.2 2% 4. 108.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).y 2 4. 118. 1O4. .6 y 4 4. 106. 102.*) (x 8 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.35 x 2 2 ) . 2 4 41 x 4a. 109.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 117.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).xy 4.2y 2 4. 1).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 124. (80 a 112.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 25 4 .(7 xi/ . [10( 4. (8 x* 115. 103. 110.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 (a+ .40 />) . (2< 107. .&). a*. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.1).5 xy).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (.a".5 b*). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).b) 98. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 123. 122. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 114.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.27 x* . 113.
with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.(1 . 143. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.2(5 .9) 4. . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.7) = 4 . o o 140.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .12 M 132. 5 146. 3) = x\x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).1) (a? .2(4 .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).3 x).7(4 * . (5a: 150.4) . 127. . .1) .3(* + 4) + 9} . 7(2 x . 2 4(ar .4(0 x .3). 128.8 6 . 1) .n .2(j: .3) = 12 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 148.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .r>) .(j a? 144.3 a:).5).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).5) = 12(4 x .3) (3 x 4.264 125.4) . 1) = 2(* .2) + 2(ar + 4). y (* l x. 42(3ar 145. .G) .r + 7[or . 135. 3(2 x 134. .2(10 x . 139.(x + 3) ] .27 a 3" . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3). 136. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.9) + 3.(x f 9). 137.19) + 5 = 4 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 149.(x . (*+ + .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. . 5(2 x . (4 x .22. 10(2 x 141.3(2 z .2 7^~5] + 1). . 138. 129.5{.18 *&) (1 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 126. 142.2) (a: + 3). x 147.a:)]}.2) = 3 .
and the third twice as many as the first. = 15. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 156. . 157.3) (3 .2).8) = (2 x 4. The sum What 171.19) + 42.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. + 2) + (5 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.9) + (a.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 158. (a.6 x) (3 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.2) (j? + 1) + (x . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.7) (a.3) = (3 x .(5 x .17) 2 + (4 x .5)(.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. . (3 O + .14) (a: + 3).5*) + 47. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 265 152.5) = (3 . =  (F 32).z) (4 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.3) (3 . .7) (1 x . = 2 C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. (a .2 x) (4 .3) (j. a: ar a.a:) + 229. 160.. transformed into F. these two angles would be equal. 2 4 .4) (a .3) (a: . find the value of F. The second contains 3 first. 154.5 x) = 45 x .l)(z . + 10) (ar . If the area of the frame inches.2) a + 7(x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.r + 3) .29) 2 = 1. 161.1) (s + 3).2) (7 *) + (*.? . 155. 162.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. will produce F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.76. (2 . 5(ar x . . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. How many 170.1) O + 4) = (2 * . (7 14 . + 5) = (9 . 165.2 x) = (1 . f^ + ^sO.T)O . 166.24. + 4) (2 x + 5). (a) If C. 153. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5(x . sheep more than the 169.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (x (x a. . 164. 159. 163.25) 2 .
13 a + 3. 4 a 2 yy 42. A boy is father. 181. 3 gives the 174. x* 185.36. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. same result as the number diminished by 175. A each 177. side were one foot longer. 10x 2 192. A house has 3 rows of windows. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 186. 180. z 2 + x . How many are there in each window ? . train. dimension 182. the sum of the ages of all three is 51.266 173. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. . two boys is twice that of the younger. 179. respectively. 187. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 176. z 2 92. and 5 h. was three times that of the younger. + a. 188.56. . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. + 11 ~ 6. 178. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. . 190. aW + llab2&. 7/ 191. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. sister . 2 2 + a _ no. if each increased 2 feet. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. +x 2. Find the dimensions of the floor. 189. father. ll?/102. number divided by 3. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. Find the number. 12 m. 15 m. power one of the two Find the power of each. younger than his Find the age of the father.
. . *2 234. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 215. x* + 8 2 + 15. 6 197. + 30 x. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 233. 2  5 xy 13 y a.64. x 5 . 3y 2 + ary . x*y 223.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.10 xy.28.14 2 .19 a . z + 5x 2 . 3 x V . 12 x +4. 2 a 8 . 245. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 201. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a. + 8. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 16x 4 81. a: . a: 231. 239. 7x 2 225. 8 a. 7a 228. .(b + rf) 2 . a 2 . 3y 248. a.c) 2 . 213. 221. 267 199. 207.77 y + 150. 4 m +^.10. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 203.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 217. a+a* + o a +l. 238. a: 236. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.6s.21 a:  54. 23 12. 2 a 2 . 3 x 2 . a.c) 2  (a . 2 x 2 . + 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 3 ap 2 . a a: a: 237. ifWy+b.3 xy. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 209. 232. 2a te 3% ly 247.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 2 . 244. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.1. 216. (a + . 227. 211. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . . 2 200. 235. z 2 2. 230. 4a 2& 2 241.6 y2 + 4. 212.6 2 ?/ . + 3a 196.6 aq . . a^a 226. wiy + la mx + aw. . 224.3 c/> + 6 cq.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 24 2 + 2 . 218.8 6 2. 195. 5 x 2.6. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .20 z 8 a: 220. 222. 246. xm+l 243.12 * . . a. 229. 210. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 60 a 2  a: // 205.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.10 y a x* . 8 a: ar. # 2  29 y + 120. y 2 194.x + 1.19 z 4 204. + 198.22 z + 48. 2 2 y f 1. 208. 202. 206. x 219.
270.a + 2 4.9 x . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. a? a: a: // 262. * 2 .3 abc .48 afy 2 . + 8 x + 5.ry 21. a 4. + 20 x 4. + 23 x f 20. 6.120.3.6 by. 2 a. z 2 268. x 2 4. * a . * 2 . 7 ax 250.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .23 + 12.8.80. x* .12.13.15.G7 x f 33.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 1 x ar Find the L. 264. 3 a% 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x 2 . 257.15 + 30. 3 #2 255. a 3 a 2 2 .4.16 x . 3 ay 4. 260. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .10.73 xy .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.2/ 2 .5 ab f 2.ry .&z. 2 8 . 261.C. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 10 x 2 . + 3 x + 2.r .9. 254. 15 # 2 z/ /. x 2 263.10 a 4.9 x + 14. I Find the II. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x*y* 4.11 a 2 .23 x f 20. 2 x2 . 18 x 2 .2 aft*. z 2 267. Reduce to lowest terms 271. * 2 .36. 5 x 2 256.1 9 . 7 12 2 2 . 251. x 2 f 9j: + 20. C. a. ft a. 269. a: . 28 2 f 71 x .M. x 2 + 4 + 3.14 bx a%% 8 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. of: 266. of: 253. 258. F. x 2 + 2 x . 8 2 + 10 x .7 f 5. 2 + 7 r f 2.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 10 a.4 ab + 1. 2 .91. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).(55. 252. x* .18 xy + 5.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .3 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .x . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 30 ^ . 259. 22x2 a.11 x f 28. + 8.2 z . x 2 + 5 f . . 265.
n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.. + ac . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 289 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. m 4.ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280.. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . z2 (a 2 + c)a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . *2 " 2 + Oge. 8 .rL.(y 2 z) * t (j.2c a: 282. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . a.!/.
Lnl + ar 2 a. O(ca) 306. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^. a (: a) (x 2. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x 7. * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . 4 3 301. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
2 + y 2 319.ft) 2 322.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. . 1 x2 + + a. (1 . 1 _. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.(a .. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. (a? 4 2) 317.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. } . . _ x8 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . a: 1 313.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1a: + y a.
28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .ll.V  + y  x 3y a . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .y20  2y + 4 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.9 *// + 27 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.7 xy + 12 x .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . a: 2 x* .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.5 a .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 250 5 10 2 325. . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 20 44 333. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 +lOar 2 a..6* t 328.15 33 . * 3a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.. 2 lOx 5x.
y. 7 ( ?f!?.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. + l + IV. 348.) 2 . 1 345. 352. (af2/. ?_2 ^ . w \. (a \ + lV. 5 343. ( 342.r 5 2 . if a = 3. fl. (aWi + iJ. ** i. + ni + .. ' 2 "l 5 . f V. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. a: 349 _ o. 338. aj 339. 344. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (ar \ 346. \5yl 341.+ r . \x yj 340. +^ a: y x . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.1V. a>74 . xi 347.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.
274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. _ + l a 359. a2 4 . ar xy + yl x* 358. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. 1+2 362. (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . y360. I  I f 366. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.
REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. b c 368. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.
276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. J !__7. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 5 {2 x 381. + 1) 45 O 377. <3 378. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. __4 2x 3_ = !. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 379. 4(* .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . . 5*8.*2 = 15. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. ^ .
f 1 1 + a 403.6  .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. a.  J). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.5 ^ ~ a: a.2 a:  1.25 x + . 3* 177. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. + 4 a. . b 404. m x 398. _____ . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.147. ^ (a . 40. 397. . 401.1 .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.  8 9* x ~r. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 396. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.25.75 x f .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i)..8 = . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). u '2 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 399. c .5 x =r f . 400..
18 be subtracted from the number. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. Tn 6 hours .(5 I2x ~r l a) . far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.c) .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. How long is each road ? 423. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. Find the number. 420. the order of the digits will be inverted. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 411.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 421.278 410. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.  a) 2 6 2a. In a if and 422. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. and was out 5 hours. (x . 418 ~jo.
A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 435.a 2^ 8 + aft* . a  t>. d. find : a : c. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). ax is \ by  ex + dy. a. 2 2 8 2 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 433. 432. z 2 y. 438.iand 22 22 I a . wi* + y= ny. if . and : b : c = 14 : 15. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Find the fourth proportional 426.46 2): (15a 2 . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. find the angles of the triangle.& 5 ) (a 8 . If a b : =5 n : 7. 431. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 428. b. x 427. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). a + 5. Which ratio is greater. . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . . Find the mean proportional to 429. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 430.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. y. . Solve 436.6 8 ). a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. : If is one equal 434. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. z2  y\ x* xy + y*.49 63). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. : i. Find the length of the parts.
1(3  a. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).. 7jr9y = 17. 445. . 3 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 5x+4y=lQ. 443. c. ft. 8 x + y = 19.89 = q. 452.(or l(*2y)=0. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 446. if 2 ft : 439. 453.35. 16. x + 17 # 53. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7 a: . /) ar a. . 457.59 = 3 z. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 456.rf2# = l.*. 5z4:# = 3. 449. a: 2y= = 1 . 28 = 5 a . . x + 5 y = 49 3 x .11 y = 95. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 21 7 = 27 + Op. />(. 9/> = 2 . 450. 459. 3 a. 4 = 5 y + 29.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. Find the value of a. 7a?y = 3. 8 . 448. a. The volumes If their diameters. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 455. Solve the following systems: 441. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 7 442. . a: a: + 5y). 444. 454. 42 = 15y + 137. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. + 5y = 59. 5 2 = 7 .11 7.55 y = .3 y = 3 5 f 7 .7 y = 25. 9ar7# = 71. 451. ft. 56 + 10y = 7a. .4 12 . ?/ 447. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 458. 15ar = 20 + 8y. = 25.
car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 465. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. i = 5.. (or .+ =2. 468. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 473. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax cx by = m. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . _ 469.  = 2. 8 461.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ^ + i^ = 7.7. 475. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.2y) (2 = 2J. x y 474.c=563y.?/ + 1 . + eyn. ax by = c \ 472.
fraction becomes equal to . Find the sum and the rate of interest. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. years. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. whose difference is 4. How much money less 484. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 487. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 483. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 485. age. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find their ages. 481. 477. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. Find the number. Find the principal and the rate of interest. A spends \ of his. . had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 486. Find the numbers. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and the other number least. and in 20 months to $275. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. by 4. 479. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. to . Find the fraction. the Find their ages. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A number consists of two digits 4. Find the numbers. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and in 18 months to $2180. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted.
of two the sum of the digits also if number. 495. z y ifi = z x 502. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 5^ 9z = 10. . 5 + a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. = 20. ~ 507. y Solve : x +z= 5. = 15. \ . 490. 492.5#+2z = $x a: G. 2a:f 7. *i. 498.z = 12. z y x 25 .? + 2y = 8. x y f z = 13. 2 a. . 3 x 500. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 4 497. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 489. ./ 504. 1. . ifi = x a. 2y + 3a = ll. . 493. a: f z = 79. : Solve the following systems 491. 1+1 = 6.z = 20. 7. 4z+3z = 20. 494. 2y + 2z = a: 2. * + 425  = . The sum of two numbers squares is b. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 496. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. a number . x s + y z = 18J . 2 2 = 41. a: 499. 3 a: + 5=84. 3ar 503. + # +z= 35. = 209. a. + y 5 y = 101 . 7 + 2 z . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a: + // = 11. 8./ f z =a. 4 506. 2 e. x f y f z 29 . 2/>3r = 4.
+ : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 523. 36 + c. !f == 2800. ll" . z z =3a&c. 517. + + 3579 2+?.
Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. 532. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. 530. When weighed in water. and BE. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. touches and F respectively. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. How long will B and C take to do . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. L. If they had walked toward each other. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. if and L. they would have met in 2 hours. in 28 minutes. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Tf and run together. the first and second digits will change places. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . In circle A ABC. 90. N. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. What are their rates of travel? . . BC = 5. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. E 533. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. it is filled in 35 minutes. and CA=7. 527. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. B and C and C and A in 4 days. M. . CD. Find the numbers. AC in /). AB=6. if the number be increased by Find the number. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. it separately ? 531. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528.
One dollar equals 4. e. z 2  x x  5. . formation of dollars into marks. i. 2 x + 5. the function. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. a. x 2 + x. If to feet is the length of a seconds.e. 536. to do the work? pendulum. GERMANY. The values of x if y = 2. from x = 2 to x = 4. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 542. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2.  3 x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 2 541. if x = f 1.  7. 545. d. b. then / = 3 and write = 3. 546. x*. 543. The greatest value of the function. x 8 549. 548.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2. 550. x *x + x + 1. 547. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The values of y. c. FRANCE. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x 2 544. . The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. x*  2 x. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 3 x 539.10 marks. + 3. 540. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.  3 x. 2  x  x2 .
557. 555. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.17 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. if y =m has three real roots. x* .0.3 x . h. 556. + 10 x . // Solve y Solve y = 5. g.r .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 3 + 3 z .3 x . 562. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 3 x* . 15. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.3 = 0.= 0. 2 554. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. = 5.= 0.1 = 0. . 563.4 x 2 + 4 . 3 x . e. a. \ to t = 5.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 2 x 2 560. c. i. 553. Solve// = 0.  2 1 a: a. Solve 552. 564.4 .G . Represent meters. 3 . and make the unit of the b.r 1 561. x 5 . j. r?. . a? 4 x .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. a: 559. ' = 8. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 558. If y +5 10.13 = 0.3 . 565. 568. 2 a.4 = 0.15 = 0. 566.11 = 0. c.r a: a: x a. a. f. J. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. x 4 . 2.7 = . 2 567.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. x 2 ~ 2 .5 x . a. 572. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. + 5 . . z 4 . 18 x  4 = 0. 2 8 . z 2 .9 = 0.6 + 3 .
2 943 ++ ~bx. f ?>) 3 591. 3 (f. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 589. (1 + x a.5 xy = 0. . 604. x [ ?/ 577. 2 611.frf : 583. 600. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a 612.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 579. a 8 606. 3 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. (1 (1 (1 . 596. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. [ y =10. (a  8 ft) . 595. 64 a 12 603.2 2 + y.(1 . a:. x + z2) 8 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 582. + ^) + (air%)8. + + 4 . a. 9  4 fSb 607.4. 597. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 4 a. jj+. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 588. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 609. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 608. (# 2) .x + 2 )'2 601.%) 4 (aa.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 5 a*. a: . 585 594.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . j^f = 3. (a. 1 . xY. 4 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 598. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 599. : y* or 25. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 6 + 1) . .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. (aiy. a 2a.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 2  2 aa: 2 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 592. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 593. 4 (1a:) 3.
645. 630. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . find Jupiter's period. 49. 626. 620. 643.150. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 651. = 0. 632. 628. = . a 642. ft . the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 633. 644. GGff. = 70. 49042009. x 2 .1024 x + a: 256.53 x ~ . 624. 638. 629. = 87. 8*' + 24* = 32. + 54 'x*y* .2410. 647t x 2 648 649. + 2 21 x = 100. 32 631. 625 : 621.15174441. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. Find the square root of 619.2. 25023844. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. VOIOOD + V582T09.*. V950484 . + 112 a 8 . 2 + 21Ga. 2 + 189 z = 900. 0090.V250 . Find the eighth root 617.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. V 635. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 7) 2. 614.30.191209. 942841.\/4090. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 494210400001. 40. x 2 641. 637. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9a. 622. 4J. 650. 615. : 5. 44352. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.871844. 371240.49. + 24 a 2 4 . *+* = 156. 4370404.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . (x 9 x 646. 21. 3a.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 636. 634.12 a?y + y*. According to Kepler's law. 210. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 2. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. /. 035. 9g. 639. 623.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
+ ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 702. 707. . = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 708. ex abc= fx 0. a. 693. 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 699. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.ax . 2 2 . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 695. 2 2 697. 706. ax 2 698.bx .c = 0. 694. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 696. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.a a )jr . .
if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 729. 717.292 709.25 might have bought five more for the same money. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. A equals CO feet. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. How shares did he buy ? if 726. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 716. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 725. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find two numbers whose 719. 217 . 16 x* . 727. 722. 12 4*+  8. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. sum is a and whose product equals J.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. . 721. in value. 724.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 723.44#2 + 121 = 0. **13a: 2 710. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 3or i 16 . a: 713. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find the price of an apple. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.
+ a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 40. 52.1 f ^ 2). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 1 6.1 + x.1 f c" ). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 42. 35.l). 34.X . f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 31. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).2 ). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2)(x2 4. 37. n.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 43. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). . 38. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .1 + c.)(ai + &. 39. 36. 33. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (v/x). . 32. 46. 41.aft* 1 + a 2*. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.2? 50. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .
2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 761. JU.294 753. ~ r* x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. [1r^ T 1 i . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 768.1+J 756. 754. 759. 758.. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128. 757.
16 + 2V55. 13 799. 794. 790. 787.2V3* ^ 807. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . c 792. 7512V21. + 2V21. 789. 10 785. 793.4 V(j. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 103 788. .12VIT. 92VI5. 786. 783. 3J .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Va 809.VlO. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 806. . a 9442V5. x 782. 14 791. .2 V30. 3812VIO. .
814. Va: . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. + ViTli + V7 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .g. 811.  5 + V3 f 12 817. x/aT+l .79. 818.V2 ar 10.f 5 = V5x + 4. 820. 836. V14 a. 819. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 816. 829.\/2y  810. /9ar a: = 17. + 103Var.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.4 = 0. (x a: 2 ) 4 .Vc^lJ . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.13 = 0. 3 x + 2 . 812. 815. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . \/12 a. 833. = 1.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 831. 830. + Vx . VaT+lJ f ^l .V? = 813.
x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 865. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 729 867. x 4 + f 2 a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.ab9 ft*.x*y + 3x f 2. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 875. a: . a 8 869. x 8 2 857. a. a. 845. f b**. 8 a. a 18 4. . 868.  3x a. V4 x 2 . 8 2a.10 = 118. + 1. 840.1. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 871. + . 16 859. 8 8  13 a. 6. a: 849. 4 x 8 858. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a 8 850. a. 275 8 l.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 863. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. + 512 y8 874. 8 . +3 4 +  4. f 841. z*y 8 l64a. 8 4a: 8 a. 853. 852. 861. 8 8 848. 839.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.3 x . 4 a: 2 842. 2 x 3.1000 6. . f 12. 27 y 8.3 a:. a 8 873. a. 2 a: 64 y*. 9. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . . 855. 2 f" + a/ 15. 19 x 14. 27 862. . a. y 4. 844. a*" & 6n . 40 x 2 7 f 49. 4 x* 847. 8 860. . a 872. 8 + a: 5 8 a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 64 a 866.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a l0m .12. 8^27^. 5 a 4 7 a8 .3 Va: 2 . a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 851. 64. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 4 a. 846.a.3 . 864. 856. 870. 876. 4o.
. 5. a: 2 897. M1 891 1 . a. x 8 3 = 13:3. x*xy. y 2 2 8f. y y 2 y 2 1121. . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 900.y 2 + V(j. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.xy + y 2 = 19. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 1 x 893. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + xy = 28.Vi' + 1 1_3. 889. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. . 2 = 2 + 5. +y f y = 7. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.y 2) = 20. 2 + y 2 . a: a. + ary + 2 = 37. y*+ xy . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 895. xy + y = 32. z 2 898. 2 2 = 16 y. y = 28. 894. 2 . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 890. . f ?/ a: a: . 886. a: + y 2 = 34.5 xy + 4 f = 13. x a: lI = xz . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. . a# f + xy = 126. 883.35.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a. a: 884. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. x 882. . 878. 899. a. y 2 4.15. a: 888.298 877. 3 x 2 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 885. 2 + xy = 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. + 2y=\2.sy = 198. 901. 887. a:y . 2 + 2 f = 17. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.1 = 2 a#.y 2 = 2 y + 2.18. 896.
(* 918.2 y) = 49 2 919. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 * 2 ~ g. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. y 3 2 2 922. y . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 7 y . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. Vary + y = 6. + ary = a*. a: * a: a: ar 928. 907. 908. + ?/) . a. (3 x . . ^ 2 .3(* + y) = 6. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. + 2 a:y + = 243. 910. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 3 :r(3 . 2 915.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. x + y}(x + y) = 273. x f 2 a:y = 32. 905. xa 903. 921. x 4 299 xy z 904. 909. ary y = 8. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. + y = 9. + a. y + a:y = 180. . 917. (!) * . a: y zx 12. a: a. + y)(a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. or or a? a: a: .6. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.y = a(ar + y). 911. + 2 ary = 39.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. xy + x= 15. 912. + y 8 = 189. 906.r a.y2 = 22. *y . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. y x 2 = by. a:y xy 929.y) (a? . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 923.3)2 = 34. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.16 y 3 8 = . yz = 24.x) = 21. 2 5 xy = 11. # + xy + y = 7. 2 + y = 2 a 4.23 = 200. = 8. x + y 2 = aar. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 924.3) 2 f (y .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y). 4 (a.#y + 2 = 27. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 914. 920. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.y) = 33. 2 2 2 916. 2 913.y) (3 y . (a. * + y = 444. x 2 ry + y = 3. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. (o. 23 x 2 .
931. and also contains 300 square feet. is 20. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. rate each man ran in the first heat. 943. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. y(x + y + 2) = 133. A and B run a race round a twomile course. two numbers Find the numbers. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 34 939. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and the difference of 936. feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. 2240. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. In the second heat A . 942. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. two squares is 23 feet. feet. two squares equals 140 feet. y( 934. Assuming = y. find the radii of the two circles. + z)=18. Find the numbers. + z) =108. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. is 3. How many rows are there? 941. 937. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. is 3 . diagonal 940. A plantation in rows consists of 10. (y + *) = . and 10 feet broader.square inches. A is 938. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933.102. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Tf there had been 20 less rows. Find the sides of the rectangle. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.000 trees. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 935. s(y 932. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. . *(* + #) =24.300 930. 944. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. z(* + y + 2) = 76. a second rec8 feet shorter. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 152.
Find the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet. . Two starts travelers. sum Find an edge of 954. 950. 953. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the digits are reversed. whose 946. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. 952. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. at Find the his rate of traveling. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. and if 594 be added to the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find its length and breadth. Find the eter 947. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. set out from two places. . If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. triangle is 6. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and travels in the same direction as A. unaltered. each block. that B A 955. and its perim 948. 949. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 951. . P and Q. overtook miles. Find the number. A and B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. is 407 cubic feet. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. and that B. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find in what time both will do it. distance between P and Q.
Sum Sum to infinity.. 5. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. are 29 and 53. 12434+ j I 967. . 970. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 5.141414. 16 962. difference.. f + 1 .. Sura to 24 terms.3151515. to n terms. 972. 971... + (iiven a +  4 d . 4 4 to 7 terms . Find the Find the common 977.V2 . and 976. Find an A. Evaluate (a) .  2.. P. 958.. . 3 + 5 7 + . 3 . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.454. to 7 terms.to infinity. 36 963. Find n. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .302 956. Find n f (ft) .. *" 968. J. P. P. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Find the sum of 4. 1G series . P. the terms being in A. !Ll^ + n . 18th terms of an A.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.>/) to infinity.1 4 f j$V . .4142 . \ .. 974. fourth of the unity. to infinity.. 964. = 4. . '. ^ 1 . are 1 and sum of 20 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 9th and llth terms of an A. 966. 961.. (x 4 to n terms.v 973... 975. 957. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Sum to 20 terms. 4. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). ^ Vfirst five 959.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. n to n terms. 969. (to 2 n terms).. 1 to n terms. s  88. x(x to 8 terms.321? 965. the first term being Find the sums of the 960....
How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . to infinity may be 8? . Find four perfect numbers. 985. to oo. Find the sum of the series 988.04 + . Find n. 303 979. 0. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.01 3. .. first 984. Find the first term. 2 grains on the 2d. 4 grains on the 3d. and so on.+ lY L V. 5 11.001 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978.1 + 2. 986. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .) the last term the series a perfect number. named Sheran.. P. P. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. is 225. 987. The term. 990. The sum 982. "(. and of the second and third 03. P. and the common difference. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. to n terms. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to 105? 981.. The 21st term of an A. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find four numbers in A. of n terms of an A. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. : + 9   V2 + .001 4.2 . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.. 980. 1. 989.. 992. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + ..3 ' Find the 8th 983...
(6) after n What strokes? many 1002. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. prove that they cannot be in A. P. 1001. 999. 998. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. P. inches. AB = 1004. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 995. The sum and sum . 1003. is 4. and G. are unequal. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . Under the conditions of the preceding example. The sum and product of three numbers in G. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. ABC A A n same sides.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. of squares of four numbers in G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. at the same time. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The fifth term of a G. ft. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. (a) after 5 strokes. 994. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. c. P. in this circle a square. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 997. are 28 and find the numbers. in this square a circle. P. find the series. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. areas of all triangles. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. and so forth to infinity. 1000. 512 996. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. (6) the sum of the infinity. If a. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Two travelers start on the same road. P.
Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. . 1008. Expand  2 a. + lQ .l) w f . Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . . 1011. a: 8 7. 1012.ft) 19 .o/) 14 . (12 #) 7 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . x) 18 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of 1013. 1014.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1006. (1 1018. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.iV 2i/ 5 . ) 1021. 2 ) 5. 1009.
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232 mean progression . . . 112 54 54 251 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. .. .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 37. Checks Coefficient 20. 8 .. linear literal Common ** * difference . 232 169 807 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 19. . .. lowest ratio " '* . simple simultaneous .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. ... .. .. 246 91 " multiple.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . . Aggregation. ... .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 123 ..... .. .108 160 " .] Abscissa Absolute term .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. .. . . .. 9 ** ....130 . .. signs of Algebraic expression . . . 129. numerical . . graphic tion of representa .. 97.181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . . 54....INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.178 Completing the square .. t 53 120 . . 129 54.. ..... quadratic . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 9..193 11 . 158.. . ..
195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. INDEX 8 . 63. . Mathematical induction . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . . .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 84. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . . Inconsistent equations . 23 10 91 102. 241 123 geometric ..154 Order of operations " of surds . L.251 Graphic solution of simultane. 212 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 34. . . first and second .. . . . . .. .. 205 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean.. 227 . Imaginary numbers . Geometric progression .. . 253 28 70 1. 109 102 . 45 Laws of signs .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 112 .. Product '* 76 Infinite. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals ... addition of " square of . P . . directly. . arithmetic . Negative exponents 11 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 45. 143. 184 54.31. inversely 122 numbers . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 45. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . 114.C Multiplication . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .108 Minuend .808 Exponent Exponents. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Like terms Linear equation .. 9. 91 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . 17 65. 189. law of Extraneous roots . 120 Member... . G. . . 195 33. 227 geometric . Known numbers .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . Insertion of parentheses .. 243 7 . exponent . 180. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . numbers .
. polynomial . binomial Third proportional Transposition ... . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 45 Trinomial 240 . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . algebraic Surds . 4 155 9 " of .. 9.. 27 17 Unknown numbers . . ... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . .. Sum...... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. .. absolute 54 Variable .. .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.... . 129.
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
8. NorfoooS J. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910.. December. August. Reprinted April. 1916. . Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Mass.A.COPYRIGHT.S. Published September. 1917. Set up and electrotypcd. U. 1910. Norwood. 1913.
16. 8.. in. $100.000. 16.00000001. 64. 36. 10. 5. B $ 128. 4. 2. in 12. Not 5. 7. in. 24. c. . 9. 11. 22. 7. 27. 12.. arithmetic.  1. 9. sign. b.000. 37. 8 13. $160. 12. 11. 1. Page 13. 19. 49.3. 24.. 16. C $ 16. 25.000. 16. 4. 2. 1. Page?. 9 = 4. 8. ft.000. 26z. Yes. 8. 1. 128. 192. A $90. 2. 16. 21. 6. 2. 6. + 1. 10. 0. 3* 7. 3. A 38 mi. 106. 20. 13. 7m.000. A 15. 27. 126. 3. 5.  1. 13. x. 5000. 11.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.. 13 S. 9. 115. 2. 85. 14. westerly motion. . 256. 2. 12. 20. 13. 3. 1. 576. 25. 16. 15. 18. 29.000. 2. 9 14. . 4. 14. 28. 12. 15. 4. 2. 3. 20 B. 3. 25. B $80. C $1(50.  22 20.000 negroes. 20. 2. per sec. 7. 8. 9. 6 yd. 3.  13. 10. 37 S. 15. 16f 2. 18. 10g. B 10 mi. 89. 27. 12.2. 15.. }. 12. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 9. 7. 6. is $10. 12. 5. 18. 25. 12. 1. 5. sign. 9. = 5 81. 10. 1. Ot 15. 14. A Bl 7. 6. 3. 4. 20. C $60. 8. 12. 3. 13. 3. 16. 18. 13 V. 150. V 23.  2 p.000. T . 7. 5. 49. 32. A . 20 jo. 3. 14 11. 2. Australia ft. 26. ^. 3. 3. 1. 2 ~ 15. 22. 5. 1. loss. 2. . 16 in. 2. 2. 30?. 72 = = 216.000. $ 1 50 10. 14. 15. 14. 18. 29.1. 9. 32. 9 m. 6. 23. 0. B $4700. 11. 13. Page 8.$9400. 30. 8 ft.C. 3. 16. 17. x. 3. 512. $40.8. 14. 6. 1. 6. 3.150. 4. 32. 21. B $20. 6. 16 in. 28.000 Indians. 59. 8. 7. 1. 13 d. 19. 9. 5. 3. 14. 2  Page 8. 6. 2 5. 1. 3. 10. 4. 1. . 7. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 10. South America 46. 10. 6. Multiplication. 8. 11. 17. Page 4.. 2. 210.. 73. _ 32. 7. 5. 1. 9 16  larger than 7. 12. 9. 20 \. 6. i . 17. Page 1. 18. 19.21 24. 3 below 0. 17. 7.12. 24. 10. 48 ft. 16. 3 m. 14. 144. 1. 19 4. 1 16. 32. 6* 16. 17.. 6. 1.. (a) (/>) 1. 21.
. 41. 50. 28. 1. 29. y.. 0. 3. 3. 19. 25. 9.<>Gq.  1. ^.. a 32. 4. 3(c4a). (r) 2G7. 18. 51 f. 27. + v> 2 . Page 23. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 23.q 4. r/ \(\xyz.9?/2 8. 31. 8.ft) 4. 12.  0. 19.ii ANSWERS Page 11. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 27. 30. ft. (r) 2000 m. 31. 92. 2x' 2 5 .32 c2 > ft 3 . 2. 7. (ft) Page 2. (c) 8. 2. 6<t. (a) <> sq. yyz+xyz*. 17. 20. 5. 33. 15. 5. 17. . in. +/2(/. 173. (r) 78. 22.. 16. r+l. 21^. ^). .~4. 15. 35. 27. 25. 13. 39. 1. . 30. 240. #1111. 3.. 0. 13.1. 18. 15a. 12. m + 3(a. 37. Trino inial.  11.. 32. 20. (b) 135 mi. (a 4 4. 8. 8. 30. 58. . 4 9/^/rl 2. c. 12 a. 34. <i~ 26. 57. 04. mi. 19. Polynomial. 28. 237. 16. 13. 314 sq. 24. rt. 22. Binomial. 3. 27.94(>. 7. 12. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 14. 22. \'\ 4. = 81.  xV 3 y..GOG. 1. 26.'J. 9. Page 31. 17.. w. . ft n. 33. 0. 13 cu. 10. (ft) mi. 9.000 .  2 4 13 ft 2 . 14:).. 21. a ft c. 9. jrif 4 9. 1. 32. 2ftx. ??i??. 8. 0. :. 8. $80. 26. 11. ft. 7. 13.'JO ft. Page 21. 31. 9. 4. 11. 21. 12. 24. m 24. Page 7.r f 15. 2oVmf?i.. (a) 200.ab. ]*. . 1. 1. r:A 29. 00 24 04 ft. (r) 2. 25.x. 13. ft. 35. 32 2 ftc. 36. Polynomial. 3rf 27. ft f 19.4 ft. 15. 1. WIN + wiw. . I. arty 1 20.4  2ft 2 33. 6. 4. = ()501. 42. a2 4 15^44. 43w//2 17. 16. 8. 0. (59. 17. . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 3 . 21 a 3 4 10. 2. 18. 15. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 23. 5.r 2 . 11. 7. + 5.5f> sq. $3000 Page 6. . 7. 12yd. 2. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 8. 35. 0. f  5e 35. 4 y/ . 14. 5. _ 4 .  3. (ft) 12. 18.r~ f 34. 18. i:5. :J!>r'. Monomial. 3. 16. 3. 15. vi 14. 22. 6. 4. 3. 10. ft. 20(. + ft). //'. (a) r>23ifcu.5 (ft) sq. (a) 50. 3. 2. in. 34. (ft) 7. 5. 38. 8. 29. 3. 21. 1. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. It. 2.14 sq. 0. 14. 6. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 3a. sq. 20. in.3 * 10 r5 <3 .. Page 18.ft. 5. II. 11. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 0. x^ 20. (c) S(i. 17. 12. 14.a . 4. 36. 15. in. 16. 3 a* + 2 at*. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 10. 13.  12. 49. 0. Pagel4r. 27. (ft) $40. ft.rty8. 22( 19. 104. 4. 12.900. 1.. 28. 38 ab.6) 38. 27. o^ft.000 sq.  40. 7 7. 14. 14. ft' 3 . 5. 14. 5. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 5x+3. t..
2 4. f ft 9. 17. n*. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 1. lOrt 15w4. 364c. 5. . 4. 2. 38. 34. 1. 35. 22. Exercise 16. r. 21.2 57.(2 x2 . 814. 24. 43. 4. 8. 22. 50. 19. _ Page 30. ar. ^ <. 14. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.ws 2 ft) . 2. 42.3x 2 2 tf. 7. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 0.  a: 2. 2. 7  a + 2 + c. . 1. M + 10. . 24 b 46. a 3 . 2 . . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 6. 2a.1. 10.3 6.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 4. 2 a f 6 414. ?/. a a.2 ft 2 r2 10. 12. c. 16. 5 2 Page 29. 3 m. '  . 14. (mn} 11. 8. 7  # + 12.8(c + a). (yz~d}. 59.l. 2 . 11. a2 9. 25. + 8. 18. 3.a f 54.Oa: + 10. 8 8 . 51. a 10w. 28. a 4 + ft. 1.5.  17.7. t).. 2 y' 4 . 30. 2x 4 a 13. 4ft ~. 6. 12. 17. 18.  b. w 17. + 6. 2. . 25. 56. 19. . 15.  4 b 17 y*. 3 Ji 8 . 12. 20. a4 4 4. 4wipg>' 27. 2// 16.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 6. 34 39. 10.11. 24. 25.  14 afy . 4. 19. :5 41. x a8 1. 16.4x.a .  23. a). x  + 3z. . 8 + 2 a . . Page 7. 13. ab a. .2.c. 2. 10 x. j)(g1. 2 2. 7 a5 1 . 20. 15. .a*. 2 6.4c 3 8 8 J.abc. 13. 26. 37. (2n' 43p 47 ).5 z?/ + 3 y . 1 4. 10. 25 47. 2 3. \ :{ 2 a 48. 58. 11. 11. 2 17. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. Page 44. 2 a 37. 14. 2. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 26. 36. 32 w 2 w. 10 m. 55. 2m. 29. 8. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2. (5x47 3. Page 28. 0. 14. a + (ftc4df).a'2 . G a bd. a2 24. 36. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .h. a 6 2 . 21. a 3& .2 a.2 .  12. ti. 15. 8 . &. ?/i 13. (w4w)(ww). 33. . . 24.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. mn.(7x2 Ox2). + c 4 d x + 6 e. a f 2 f 2 9. 3. 26. 4. 2a: 2 4x. ii\ 22. w* ( .4. 3 a3 & 41. 1 + 45. 2 + a4l). 7. m*  n*.r. ?>4tl 53. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . . 21. 2m + 2w..1 .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2. s_r>a5. a  ISjfat. 6.a~. .aft. 3. a 3a 4 2 &. 5x 2 rt ft. 40. a  49. 20. x3 . ft Exercise 17. a + a. ri\ 18. !  </ . 1. 4 21. G.'U4j>. 9. 5.  b* 4 r 1 . Page 8. 31. 0. 5. a' 4ab + ?/.2 a2 2m 2 4. 7. 2. 32. 1. c. _5a<>&43c.  1.4 d. . 2 2 2 6. 2 3x f z. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 12. 7.6 x + 0) 16. 4r 2 . 18. 4. f 2 ?/  2. + 4 c.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . c2 . ?> 22. a 52. a. 31. 3 a . + 2y.x f 1 2 .r 2. . ( 7. 5. 2. 8 b.  G J8 r  4 a <?.
40 r 2 . a. 1. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . . 4 7> 4 :j !} .21 a 3 c2 21. 0. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 15. 23. 16. 16. 2*8f x2 6x4. 20. 1. 4.>(/ r . 8 . 7. 23. ! 2. .44 aWc 16 abxy. 24. . 2 7t A. 3300. 28. 27.14 w 2 2 . 3. 4 a8 . etc. ci 5 .25 + 14. 36. 6. ISartyW e*f*tj. Page 5.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 10.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 14 m 2 . 16 lb. 12.32 y s s G . fa 2. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 2 . iSx8 . 11. 9. 1904. + O4 66 .(3x2_4^+7). 83 In + 1 n*. 18. 04. 7.16 x2/ 5 4. 11. 37. 22.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .20 xyz . 18. 7. //. 8. 17. 343. 2. 30. 1.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 6. 6". . 27. 29.. 216. 14. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 21. ?> 4 .:>/ . 22. 38wiw. 20. 210. 4 a2 .32. 161b. a. 2. 102. 2 * 80 . 4 fc. 4. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. Ox a 5 . 52 + 6s 12. n (a6) 125. 14. Page 7. 8. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 76 8 a' 1 . 16 51. 30. 30 j9 jt?g j . .18 w w + 10 WI M . 6. 12 x2 2 . 17. 33. 3 a 3 . 23. 3 a 2 46.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 66 8W 34. 25 4 4. 29. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 26. . 1. 30. 1. 34.28 p'^/.19p" + 19^ 10 .7(50. 25. 2. 0. 1400.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 127"'. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . a*b*c. 4aWy. . 30. . 120. 216. 3(*+0 + 2).8 12. a. Page 35. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 4. . ft 17. 10. 13. 13. m. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 60.. 27. 4 jcy*z*>.64 190 p6. + 7. 19. 770. 66 39 k* . 12 ^. 32.. 17. 31.36 35. 3. 28. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 16.1.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 28. 1. 2 w +2 2 . 2 ). ?/ .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 5. 12.14 . f 26. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 4. 17.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 24. 9 13. x2 xy42^. 27. s 9 ww. 14. 6 . 108. a 8 . 42. 360.iv ANSWERS + &)(. . 18> ^* = a . 9 w 2 + 13 n .11 xyz .19 + 2. +15. 14. 18. 18. 15. 20. +. 20.12.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 30 n?b*c*. 12. 161b. 16. 8. 30. 23. 2 2 2 . 11.. . 7. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 34. 21. 19. 4. + 58 . 42. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 13. 13.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 14f 5. 10. .26. 18a% y. 24. 4. 10. 34. 2''. 27. 28. 11. 4200. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . a: .2. 3. 35. ^^ = 20. 5aft(a 126 2). 19. 31. 84. 20. 19.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.12. 108. 29. 24.6) =a2 31. 64. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. Page 36. 9. 22. 25. . 8. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 2 a2 (y 2 . 21 a'&c. 21. 22. a + ft.6 2 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 18. 15.21. 2. 24. . 15 lb. 1. 25. 29. (+3)x6=+16. 13.000. 18. Page 3. 5. 15. 30. 3. Page 38. 16. 26. 60. ll 2 i. 33.15. 15 q\ 6.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 20. 6. 2 ). 9. 25. 33. 20 aW. 8. 90.r% 2 2 ry. 7G . 32. 15.
484. 45. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).606. 7> .p132. 25 a 2 6 2 . 8 38. s rc 47.009.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . lflrt 2 8 + l.20. G a6 2. 1.404. 9990.2. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 4 2 2 64 .3. +  m' 1.2 x + 2 x.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .009. (m + 6)(m3).810. .4 a&+ 4 &*. (a + 4) (a + 2). 10. a + 56. 4. ^V^4 . 1. + 4 a +4. 25 25. ) 4' 6/ 49. p 2 . 14.10 35. 2 1: 21. 39. 36 a 4 . 10.x2y22. 10. + 4 t*.ab .^. 7. + 2 9. 5. 19. 41. .35 ab 9. 11. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.^V"' .ANSWERS 28. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 10. 2 12. 36. 27. 2 0)(p + 5).+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 6. 9. ab.712. 29. (w+4)(m4). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 5. ft' 11. 1. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. (p 2.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2. 4 2 //. m 3 j) 3 . n + 2. 8. 4. 33. 34. (n 2 5. 3. x2 GiC+5.4 n.r* 2 30. r. 31. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 7. 44. 1. 9999. 41.008.001. 10. ?/H)0. a 2 . 42.84 a' 9. 40.14 jp + 49. fo*. 11. 36. ab . 2 a' y' . x 48.10 x + 25.. 2 (5 a 3). . 37.49.8.54 p 2 + 81.25. 18. 10.r . 2 62 V2 132. . 26. x4 28. ^/> 8 4 . 8. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 35. 24.996.00 + 37. 4 . 20a 2 21a + 4. 990. 4x21. . 38. 35. 32. 3wi2 m Page 42. 27.1. 2 . 9.. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. . 166. 12 x2 . 30 x + 19 x3 . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. a2 ' + 48Z100.2 6 + 13. 56. +4 34.004. 2. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .^ + a? + 1. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 34. 9801. . 441.16 a3 f 50.000. 2). 8 a W . (w4)(w + l). 55. 10. . V + o ft . 29. +   5). .000. 17. + 12. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 10. 30 /><. 32.6 x2 13.020. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 57. 2 fr . 1. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 1). a + 25. 998.5 ~ 81.201. 40./ . ~ 6 20 . 9 4 /> . + 10 + 121 y*.994. a' . 33. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 1. 28. 53. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. . 7. 33. m 2 . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. . . 999. 7 . 31. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. . 30. .500. w'n 2 //^ + 25. ^' J  7 f 12. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 2 6' . 25. 21 2 .6 y4 10.15. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . n2 a4 6. 3.020. 10 a' 2 . Page 39. 6 2 + 6lf>0. y. 2 a 2 + a . 14. a3 0. p4 + . Om2 4 6m 6. ' 46. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. I/). 14. 2 .2 y*. 52. 6. . 4 21.6. 2 j3 Z . 8.4 12. 51. 4 . 15. 16. 39. 10. 23. 10. 40. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 31. Page 12. 36. 10 a 4 ?. . a + 25. x 2 f xy + 9 41. (a (3 54. x*2^f I. 37. 15. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. + 3)(3).r . 4 x2 13. x* . 4 + 25 q*. 4.098.6 xy . 19. a4 4 ?/ . 2 4 a + 4. 2 +10s281. 24. 10.m 30 6 4 1. + 7 6)(3a~76>.ri 17. . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 26.
2 aft 4. 16. w .10 2 + z 2 410. r 7.8 yn . 4 x.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 6.VI ANSWERS 43. 2 4. ft.1. Page 7. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 2 1. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 3. . Exercise 2 a:// 26. 135.5 mp. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.n. 8.lit x + 4.1*5 2 r 2 . 3 aft 20. 5.rw f 8 . 20 15. 2.3 ry.+ 77 15. ti'jry1 7. 8.25 c .30 ftc. 125. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. Page 51. 2 2 + 2 a. aftc 52.  3 c.27 x 2 4. 3.1. 2 4 2 x 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 2 4 3 9. 5.  10.5 a . 7a3ft. 4. i 9. 6. 1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. Osy.r' ~ 16. Page 13. ft 17.r'^ 15. 4. a. . /r .  . 5. 1. 18. ?/2. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .3 a 41. 2 a 3 ft. 10 ft. 5. . 22. Page 22.2 <</. ft ? ft' ft ft.15 21. 12. yfl. 2 12.2 2 2 8 . 2. 9. 3.r?/. 1000 1000 . 11. 5. 8.25.23. 4. 13. 8 r<ft 4 2 . r//. 1.r" 20 S? . 5. as _ 10 16. Page 11. 6. 8.1. .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.1. 2. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 5 a  (5 ft. 4. 7. 2.24 .2 . 23. 12. sr 11. w 2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 2 . 17. 6. 2 . 1. . 19. 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . Exercise 27. 14. 4ft./ 4.000. .x^. 13. aft. l 4 .3 x 2 2 4. 5. 14. 11 4. . aft 12. 21.3 3. .  12 y 25. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.9 d. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. _ 2 a . i 2 tji. 10. 01. 15.8 y. + x?/ 2 1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 14. 15. 3. 5^418(7.2 ar.15. x4. 12. 17. + 4. 3. c 12. 3*y2 w + 1. a 8 4.9 4. 2 ? 14 . 12. 10. 8 ?/ . . 2. 1.29.2 2 .rw. f>r* 4. 20. 4.2 wZ 4. G.2 1 //.3^V. 10.2 ac .2. 6x 3. // 19.12 aft 4 20 ac . 26. :r !>. 11. a 4 4 ft. 9.8. 4 d 2 4. 3. 8 ?/ . 4. . 12. .> 10. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 14 r 2 . + 3.34. x 2 + 2r f J. 2 ?/ 4. 24. 50.8. 13. 3 a. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 46. 13. 2. 14. 8 x . 4 a 2 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 5. 9.1. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . ft* ft / . +w . 19. abc 7. . r ft. 4x43?/.r ?/ ??i ?). z.2 ftc . 9. 17. 7 r . 4.1. .  5 z* .21 2 2 f + . 5 4 a Oft. r/2 4. y 7.  11. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 4 pq. 49.4.3 5. 9. 13. 8. a 2 . 16. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 13.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . '. 1/*. m L 4. 47. m'2 3. 1. 75 a 2 29. 44. 18. 6. Page 48. 4 a* 4 9 11.w. 14. 4xy + 13 <) . 1.10 xy*.r . 2 ?/' . 21. 4 ac. j) . .r?/ j/. 16. ??.2 .5 n*. . c3. 5. *3 y 4 . .6 :rs 4. x 4. 4 c m . 8.1. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.y3.7. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 10.2 .
60 25 1. + f + b 2. 5. 4. r>?imi. x + 1=a. ^ 12 sq. 17. ? 43. 21 2. }f.000. 6. 15. 3. 7. fix. 2. 2. sq. 6.. (2 a. 39. 29. '^ . 17. 8. (> 27. 10. 2. 27. 22. 5. 19. 25. s. 45. 34. xy ft. 13. 6. 4. b. x = m. 29. 23. % 4. + 4x 3y 34. 8. ( a f 4. 35. 18. 32. iL*. 36. 12. a 10. 0. X 60.  1$. . 18. 3x2. 10.6 = *. 13. + 3 = 2(3* . 33. 16.. ct. + 3x + 2y + 32. 58. 9. 0. 1.  6 10. 11. 30. 41.7). 10 x sq. r tx mi. 4^ = 100.r1. lOx 10 + w. 16. 2x + 35. 2. 46. (</) 2a. 4(a ft) c = 8. 3. 22.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 5. 4 f 39. 7. 1. ft. <>. 15. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). ] 2 ri 42. x y $ 6 yr. 38. 10. 25. l. y 100 a 24. 10. 7. Page 31. 36. x 48. Page 13. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. v (6) 2x. 100 2. / + y + a// 12 yr. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 4. 43. 20. !). 100 14. "mi. 10 a. 3 9. Page 6. 1. f 6)(o 62. I. x. . 'nj 100 a 28. 100 d ct.  9 = 17 a. ct. 10 >_&.rr2. 40. b. 5. y ?>i x + 26.  />) a = all. 50= L 100 15. # + 20yr. ft. 2b 22. 3. (a) ' 12. 2b.ANSWERS Page 9. 2=10. 24. 6. </ 20. 4. 57.(3x+ = rraxlO. 19. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 9. 20. 8 n  10 yr. d + !.x700. 37. (>. (c) 2x. " lir. 7. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 44. f = eZ 2 x. d. 800 = x + 1300. 31.(3x  700) = 5. 17. . .ab a. m+ 11. 28. 1. 12. 100= ^. 11. 11. Page 61. 16. 2 ct. x 2y 10 act. 41.  2\. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60.. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. lO. 42. 38. y yr. vil 56. 2. 14. + 10 b + c ct. 7x 2 Page 21. 5. y 50. 10 yr. 33. 3x  1700) = 12. 13. f (I. I. 7. 59.p+7. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 00. ft. 4. 1&. m +~m 3. 5. Jj12. 44.. ct. 37.10) 100. 47.r ct. 1. 6. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. x 49. 20. a 8. . 7. .100. n M. 26. 7. = 5 ?i x 460. . 23. 30. rn mi. 2. 14. Page 40.
45 in. 160 lb. 67. 2$. 16. 2. 9. 2). 24J..vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. Oaj(o62cd). 9..3. ^ . 8 in..1). 10 Cal. 2. 8 12. 13. 80 A. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 11. Page 79.. 10. 200. (a + 5)(a + 6)..30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 3. 9. 11 pV (2 p8 . 1.000 Berlin. 05. = _?_(2ar + 1). 9. 1250. 3 hr. 13. 18. 18. 5. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 14. 12.0. 300..000 N. 12.. .(5z . . 4. 11 in. 75. 3.5p + 7 g ). 150. 2. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 22. 14. 10 yr.y"). (e) i* + A. 10.000. 20 yd.8.13. by 12 yd.000 copper. ?(g ? g+ 1). 9. 23.. 10. (z5)(z2).000 gold. (y + 8)(y2).. 3. 3. a a (a 8 a+l). 6. . 4.3aftc + 4). 25. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 15. Ib.. 7. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 7. 3. Page Page 4.000.79. 14. 12. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). Pace 65.000. 19. 12. 20 yr. 10. 28yr. 10 yd. 6. 15. Y. 90. $40. 7. Page 7. 5 lb. 17. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 8. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). (a5)(a4). 4. Page 5. 85 ft. 52. 10. 1. 15 in. 30. 6. 480.6).5.10. 1200. 10 Mass. 82 mi. 1313. 70. 14. 15 yd. 55. 14. 250. 29. 1. 7 hr.16. 4pt. Page Page 480 12. 8.21. 2 3 6 7. 50. 2. 100. 4..  PageSO. 600. 5pt. 10. 100 1. 2 2 2 5. 3 (a +&)(*. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.000. 8. . 71. 3x (3r.. 180. (a 4) (a. 40 yr. 30 mi. 5$ hr. 11. 5. (p + 7)(3a5&). (y 13. 7a*fe(2a & l).11. 25 yr.2). 9.000 ft. 18. 2. 8. 15. 42yr. ( + 4)(*2). 5. 10 yr. 13. 15 mi.3). 200. ~=90. 12 mi. 20.411.000 pig iron.210^. 6. + 7)(y3). 3. 14. 5.. (ro3)(w2). 13.000. 30. 4. 15. 9. a 12. (m + n)(a + 6). 1 lb. 6. 7. 8. 25. 7. 13. 30 yr. (y7)(y + 2). 11 w(w' + wi . 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 8. 78. 10. 8. 90 mi.000. 21. 17. 1. 2. 4. 6. 20 yr. 3. 70^. (a + 6) (a + 3). 11. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .. (yll)(y4).3. 2 2 ?/ 21.7. (y8)(y + 2). (c) ^ v ' . 11.. w (/) 64.22. 72. (a + 4)(a + 8). 6rt 2 11. Page Page 4. 1. 7. (*4)( + 11.000 ft. 8 2 19. 9 in. 20.000. 5 Col. 20. 78..5. 2.2. 8. 1200. 6.0.000 Phil. 1. 12. 1. Page 7. 5. 12.24. 68. 74. 15. 6.
No. 100(x.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 12. 15. 8. . 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 9. (13a +10)(13a 10). 22. + 0(90 Page 85. 24 9. a . (4 18. 33.11 ft)(a6). 35. 2 No 4. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (10a + ft)(10aft). 17.1).8). 30. 11. Yes. . (m7n) (a.4 6). 16. 27. 23. Page 84. (6 a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . Yes. 4 (a . (2o + l)(2l). 3(x + 2)(zl). (4al)(a2). 26. 3. Yes. (w ~ n (x . 14. 10(2 30.1). 21.   . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). Yes. 21. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 25.1). (a + 8)(a3). 22. (2 *+!)(* 9). .7)(2z f 1). 26. 1. (az + 9)(ox2). 13x7. 9. 31. . 23. 40 x. Yes. (a a: 19. 2 17. (a 6 6) (a 4. 15. (ft + ll)(aftll). 2 2 15. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 22. 17. 11. 25. + 3). 27. 20. 4. 27.9*).2). .4. 4. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). a*(5a f l)(flr . Yes. No. (3#y)(+4y). 2 3 by2 Yes.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (4 13. 3)(3a. ix 18. 6. 3a. 7. Yes. No. (a (p8)0> + l). 2. 28. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 12. (15z2y)(x5y).3). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). x\x 24. 3.y4 ). . (m + n +p)(m + wp). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (a2 + 10) (a2 2).r2). 28.6) 2 2 .* (2 y + 3)(y. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 10. 10(a . 23. (5wl)(m5). 10. 35. (6n + l)(+2). 32. 32. 9. 10 a 2 (4 . 17.. + y + . 34.2 ft). (4y3)(3y + 2). (2 a? 4. y(x. 33. (* + y)(zy). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 7. 8. 18. 19.2 y). 29. 12.ANSWERS 16. + 5) a. 20. 8. + 8)(g3). (w* (3a26). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 2. 13.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).4p). 24. . 14. 10. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (a 3 + 10)(a. . 28. + 9^)(oxy . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (ay8)(ay3). (5a +l)(5a l). a(2u. Yes. 25. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (4a. Page 83. (y8) 2 2 .5y)(3a. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 11. y) 2 29. 16. 10. No. 1. (0 + 6)(66). 10(3 5 6) 2 . f 2). 31. 6. 7. (y + 4)(yl). 9.y) 2 aft. 36. (m + w) 2 5. 34. 14.2). 30. 29. Yes. (5x . 5.6) 2 1. 9. + 2y). (3a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 100 (a. 2. (<7 20.7) (a. 18. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). ( 2 4 19. . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13.2 by2 6. 23. 103x97. . Yes. Yes. (m + n + 4p)(w + . + 3)(c44). 20. 10(a + ft)(aft). 24. 21. 26. (9y4)(y + 4). + 4) (a. 24.1). 25. 21. 22. (2xl)(x + f>). 5. Page 82. 7 6) (a 10 6).11 6) (a 4. (15ay2) 2 . 8) (a. y) (a. (g . . (2yl)(y + 9). 25.+4 y)(3x4 y).3)(z2). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (w + 20)(w + 5). x(x +y)(x y). 216 aft. . No. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (:52y)(2a!3y). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). a. (3*2)(. (x + y4 )(x . 3. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 2). 26. 16. 19. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . Yes.  x (5 a. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 1.c 2 ). (a.
13( 33.  29.8). ( a ^)(^3. 2 2 10. 10(2 (3 4. 6.&). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (a &4. 24. 2 y) ^ . (w4w) 2 1.X 5. 8. 7. 15. (^ 7.!) (x42)(x2). 8. ( (<> r4y3 . 2 . (r420(4 10.b. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). . 7. (a 4. 4 3. 11. 8. 8. 4.2 y). y6. .y).) j). (a 9. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. a 4.  (w' 4. n  r)(5a 10.'J)(' . 5. (5^4. a8 . Page 87. 1(V/ 88. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).4. 5. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 11. 1. 14.?>) H. 19. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). (!__/>). 3 x4 . 12. 22.y '2 2). ( { &). (14. a 2 (a9). (5a+l)(9a).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. b) (r 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2 8(w . 14.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 9. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (. x  1). (a />.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (5 31. (m  I)' 6. 4  9. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 6. (f> + fo 7. 38. 3x(x?/) 4. 4 a s &8 .3. 450.9). (^ + ?>_8). . 6. 11. 2 21. ?>). 8x. 14. 13 x 8 2 . + 3. 7.1). Exercise 47.7s) (2 a.4). 17. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 24x sy s 9. 10. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.^ 48. 4). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 30. 8.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .2). 15. 3. 16. l. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 13. (> 1. 2 2 3 . 6.7)(^ {I 12.&).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).42 x 4.4). 2 k (wi 4.4. Page 92. x43.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 39. (16 4  2(5 n .r(3x' 2 4 (14. 32. 2. a 41.8) n 43*).2)(x 1.0+ 12). x 4. 2. 4. 2. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .'})(c . 2 1.?/). Gp).8) ( (16. 37. 4. fi(c426). (5 26. Page 89. Page 86. 7. 42a 3 x. 27. 11. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. a 4. 14. 5 x8 3. Page 12. ^ . y )(. 9. 3(. (x. (7/1 2) (m 41). 4 6. ofc)( fid). ah}. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 12. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 8).>*)(:> 4 lj 4.3)(x 4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (x//. a (a + 2 6). ( rt 23. 7.y.1) 3. 40.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).3. 13. .i4l)(x4l)(x~l).y)(fi a . (c.. 16.))(x  ^OC 1 1). y). 5  (2 2 .?50)(xt/z.  WIM. 12. 4. 6. 13. 17(x43//)(x2y). 6.e 4. 2 + . 4. a + a b. 7.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 8. Exercise 46. 20. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). x(x f y)(jr . 2. 15 M. y(2x?/). (w * . 36. .'/)('< 4. 4 a8 . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). x . 28. 6 f c). (2 a ~ f> b 4. .2). 42). 5. (* _ 2 )(a 4. + 2 //). 2(m4l)' . 5. a x 3 10. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 4. 35. 2 (a 4. Page 90. 41. 4.l)( a 25. 2.36).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. ( y).n). ?i(w 4y) . 18.5 m2 x2. 8.1). r x 2 */3 .
b ! 21.6). + y) (a: y). // m+1 !+*?. 1). + &)(&) ( . + &) 2 ( .  1). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 30(3 2 (a 15. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . a 23.ANSWERS 10. x 12. ?_!&. 11. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 13. 6a2&(rt6). (a2)(a + 2)2. x 24. +5 1. 18. 2(2al) + l). a 10 25. x 22.
6. 4 L 8 2 . 28.50 ~ 1/2 . 4. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. + lH + . 6. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ' 2 7. Page 100.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . _*^p5_^^_. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^..80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 7. 4c 10. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.  **/* + 84 _. 11. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. . 6. i. 26.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. ^~ 29. 0. 30. i^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2 a. c 8. 1. a 5. w1 + ac w 4 7. + 2H 1 ^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. A^. xy 43. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. Page 101. 6a5f^.
14. 1. j L . 8. 6. f 7. +3 ( + 15. b 2. a. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. (a + y) 2 Page 104. a2 2. 17. ?+_!?>. 4. 12 28. 10. 11. Page 113. n m a + 13. 10. J. 9. 3. c 8.  10 X + u. 4. flf. 8j_m 7 3. 4. 30. 25. 11. m 9. 1. 3. 16. 1. 6 .L+ft. 8. x 1. . 6. 1. n 16. y(x + x ?/). 4. 35. Page 111. 46. + f. 5. ! 4 20. 1. 1. 0. I) 2 3z 1. 7. 3. 16. ?. 6. 9. 11. 17. 7. 37. . 0. 5. 6. an 18. (>. 24. 29. 2ft a i m x. w^x 2 b Page 105. 14. ^_. 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. Of. b a f +c 14. 4. 34.y 7.ft . A.^_. 4a3ft. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 2 47. ac mp lf> n 12. ft. J. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 20. . 39. 12. 32. 15. 3. 4. 7. 21. f Page 107. 42. 11.  V o 4. 1. 18. 15. 19. Page 110. 2) 19. 6. 21. 5 be _J_. 40. n . 3 7 i o. pf n 6 1. 33. . 11. 3. a 17. 9. 13. 31. 26. (y + (z 12. 1. 7. x 05m ' 5. ^i 11. 44. 5. 21. 4. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo.^U\WF### X<6. 38. 36. 12. x\. 45. 3. 41. ' 6. 43. 15. 23. 27. 5. Page 106. J. 14.
1 da. . 16.10. 7 . jj. 5.. 3. 16.2. ANSWERS 16. 8. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 40 mi. . 17. 300. 10. 5 2. ~m . Page 121. $45. 6. 30ft./hr. 7. $00. * 7:9.. 33. (d) 4 da. 12. . No. 7. 10. f. " 0. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. Page 117. 1:1 = 1:1. 212. 35. w 21. 23< &n b ' . 40wn. 8. 28. 9J oz. 20. (ft) 104. J ^'. Yes. 13. (d) 500.003. Yes. 15. 1:4. = A's.000 1 = 23. 17.000.XIV '/ .15... 11 hrs. 30 mi. J. 15. 11. min.. Page 124. . (ft) 5 hr. 10. 26 mi. 19. 40 yrs. 17.. a 4 ft. w 18. (r) 3^ da. 4. (ft) 28. . 3. 55 mi. 6. 10. IV s. 14. 15. 7. 33. 31. Yes. 300. 14. 9. 2x:3y. 10. . after $12. 26 30.002. 6. 18.0. 10^ oz.004. 8. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. after 20. 1: ~. 4fl M_. 4. f . 74. Yes. ^?i min. 13.. 20. 5. ft. 2:1.. '"I 22. dn ~ mi. 5 25. 3. Yes. nm. 1:1 = 1:1.137. 9. (ft) 5 da. 1.2. Page 125. (a) 30. 10. silver. 5. 24. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 11. 21ft min. $30. 13.000. 4~r~ n . 24.138. ^p^ r ~ 7. 4. 1 : 12. 22. after 18. 3. #V ~~ 34.  + . 19. $40. 2. 1^'. Yes. 24 mi. 19. 4.000 If da. 12.139.000. 27. 13. 16. 5. [>> ^ a . 19. 15.. 9ft. min. 10. 500. 30. 9.} da. 3. 21. P+ ^ 33. 75 . ^m . 5ft 30mi. No. 14. 275:108. _JL. 30 yrs. 3:2. (a) 4 min. xy. 21. 32. n 32. 15. 81. () 2. Yes. 1. Page 119. 7. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 300. 10 yrs. 20. 2 20. 2. 34. Page 118. 3. :2.  29.9. 1:3. 36. 10. 15. 1. (c) 8300. 00. .000. (a) 12 hr. 38ft min.x + y. (c) 2 hr. Yes. 1:1 = 1:1. 1. 15. 18. w 44./hr. gold. 0. $0. 8.  C .0 & .001. (a) 25. 7. 1:1=1:1. 7T 2 Page 116. 14. 8301 hr. 7} 18. 8. 4. 10. 7. 26. 11. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 9. 3 da. 17. 12. 9$.11.. 18.
25. 3. *. 5. 25. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 5.' : : : : <>.  19.15. I. $. 2. OJ. 3 2=3 x. 43. 50. 29. Page 5. 4. : . 12. 6*. b x 37. 6. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 3. ini. 20 20 J ^. 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x. (a) Directly. (b) Inversely. 6. 2. 3. 22. = 7 b'. 23. J. 19 3 . 35. 4. mi. 16. x y = 1 = 3 2. 9. cu. x:y a: b. 12. 1. in n. 2.57. 7. 2. 47.5.) 31. 5. 9. 7. J. 2. Page 132. 11 w a 13. 7.3. 2. 13. .12. 54. 24.2.. 1 18 = 3 51. 7. 3. a~. () Directly. 2 n . 48. ' 55. jc:y = n:m. 9. Page 9. 41.3. . 16. 5 2.1. \. 13. 8. 2. 3.3.4. 4. 2. 19.li.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. 17. 9  15. 14. . i. : />.  28.160. 2.4. 23. 7. 9. 141. 15. 10. 56. 14.15 x. 7.. 36. 44. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 18. 45. 1(5. 1. 10. y a y = 7 0. 5. ig 6. 2.C ?/ a . in. 3.J. y :y =.5. 7. y . 4. . 4. J. 4. 8.a.6. 30.5.2 x. OJ. 3  24. 138. 7. 2. 13J. 20. (b) C C' = fi JR'. lo mi. 52. 20 cu. 1. mi.1. 1. 5.22. 5:0 = 10:12.7. 7. 4. a +b 1. 8.000 sq.*."2:1.3. 3}. 3. tin. 11. 3. 14. Page 137.4. 40. 4. w. 2.3.840. 8.. Page 131. 38. 9. 31J. 2. Page 136. 11. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.4. 24. 3.4. s<i. 2.9. 26. . 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 41.  ?. 7. /. 2. 32+ mi. 6. 19. water. 7^. J pq. Inversely.]. 40.3. 1. 36. 19 OJ.2. 17. y 1. \\. 5.3. 4. 58. land. 46. 53. x 42.2. 945 11 10 . 3. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 16." ^ 2. ~ 1. 6. 21.5. 5:3 = 4: x.J 3. 31. 11. 22. 10. Of.x a. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 55. 7. . 59. 27. 13.000 sq. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2.5.5.3. 5. 2. 28. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5.17. 12. 9. t 5. 2. 4. 11. ft. . + b 7 . 49. 21. : : T 1' : /> : . 11. 6 10 = 12. : : . "lO. 2. 57. Page 133. 2.46. . 11 5 .5. 174+ Page 128. a 3. 17. 8. 7. 7. 14.1. + W.20. () 7 Page 126. 12.1. 3.7. 13. 1 rt * vm^1. 30. 2.1. (I. 3. 15. 5. (</) ft. 2.r. .ANSWERS 22.5.8 oz. . .5. 7. 1. 200 mi. 1. Page 135. 3. 1. 6.3. 1./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 8. 20. 2. 5. 4. 4. 2.12.36. 10. 9. 39. . w 8.2 oz. : XV 27. . 19. 5. 1. 7. 3.3. 32j. 26.3. x y y . 7. 9. 25. 127. 4. : 23. Page 134. . 2. 8. 24 1 (e) Directly. copper.2. 15> 9. 4. l.
& part of Feb. 9. Aug. 2.0. ' 6 3 a. 11. 20. 7. m f 9.  17. 26.65. 1. 21.1J. 13. 9. 3. (a) 12.$2000. 00. Page 142. 27. 8. 20. 3. 11. 5. Nov. 1. through point (0. 11. ad _(?jrJL. M 2. 7. 2. Page 22. 4. 4. 14.4. $500. 4. 16. 7. 3. 1. 20 & Oct. 7. 30. 3. 4. (ft) 23 J. 16. 24. 2. 14. On the y axis. 6 cows. 1. $3000. 12.. J. &. & part of Sept. About 12f. 1.$5000. 4. Page 145. C's 30 yrs. Feb. 8. 25. 4. 2. 6. 10 sheep. 23. 100. 1 (d) Apr. 5. 20. 6%. be 10. 7. May 5. ad AzA. 9. Page 151.3. 24. 3. Page 146./hr.9. 3. 23f . 423. ^. . at 15. 3. 5. 5. 12. 2. Page 143. On 11. $250. July. 2 horses. 9. . 3. 30. 8. 2. 20 to Oct. a. 29. $4000. C's 10 yrs. 2. Apr. 72. 2 a. 5.  11. 3. 12. . 17. (ft) 20. . 6. = ^ a Page 141. .. 3.. Jan. 2. 18. 26. 7. 4. 7. . 2. 4. B's 15 yrs. 7. Jan. Page 153. 90. $ 1000. 17. 6. 5. 1. Apr. . 25. 4. 2. 3. 6. 11. 4. 3). 13. 8. 4 ' q. 19 gms. 21. 15.. 17. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . ' . parallel to the x axis 0. (5.7.2. ft 3. 4.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 0. 5. 15. a =J (n  1) rf. yrs.l. Oct. 3. $6500at3Ji%.2. 2.XVI Fagel39. .  Zn  "(^ll 14. . 6. A a parallel to the x axis. 7. 4. Nov. 24. 4. 4 mi. 5. Nov. Jan. B's 40 yrs. 16 to July 20. Page 149. 2. 2. 1. Jan. 6. 10. 6.. 19. . 13. m . 2t2. 147. Page 152.4. 25. 18. 10. 10. (<f) 13. 2. 18. .10. 40. 3. 12. 3.4.1. 20. July. SL=J o ft r^2.n + p. 7. 10^ gms. 6. 19. 1 (c) Jan. 4. 24. July 20.. 1. 23. The ordinate. 1. 30. 11. m f 8. Apr. (a) Apr. u 2ft.3. 3. 2. 40. 16. .0. A's 30 18.3. 1. 31. On the x axis. 14.^. 5. 4. 16. 3. 2. & May. 18. 3.33. 22. 16. 11. 2. 2. yrs. 28. 32. 1. m + n p. 0. 3. 10. 15.1. 20. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 12.8. 1. 9. 3. Jan. Nov. (c) . 9. . be 7. A's 50 13. 3. 5%. 25. 5. 10. $900 5%. 16. 0. <*ft/ bd 1. June.
. 2 l.25. 3. 1. 8. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 5. ' :=_!. 3. 1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 20.64. 1. 1. 2. 10. 2.41 and . ImW. .7.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 9 and Page 166. 2.25. 10 C. ft . . 1. . 2.24 . 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 2ft4 Page 168. 2 a&m Page 167.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .5 (ft) 3. 30.83. 25. xg . 1. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.1. . 2.2 (ft)  1. . 14.34F. 9.5. 81 ". 3.25. 5. 8.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 3. (ft) 2. . (a) 5.83. xW. 19. 3. H. 13C. 2. 12. H. 27. 1. 10. SlstyW 7. (a) 2. . 3. (c) 7. 13. 1. 8mW. 1^. \ft) 5.75. 1. f12 wi 9.73. 18C. 2 2 22. 4. . 2. 5.73. * 16. Page 158. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . +3 4. a 29. 4. (gr) 21.  . 8. a 10 ' a ll V&. 83. 2.59. f. 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.59 . Indeterminate.  1.5.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1. 3.41 and 23.6. .84. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. . 8 1 f f g*. . (e) 3.. 1 23.27.24. 1. . 1. 1 4. . () (rt) 3. 2. 3. 6. 2. 24.13. Page 164. 19. 15. 1. 5 and 2. 27 19. 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 3. (c) 14 F.75 (ci) 3^. (a) 4. 3. (<?) 2. 125 a 8 12. 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 18. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.. . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 0C. 0. a + ft. 8 a1. 3. 11.3. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 3. 22. 13 . a 6o&i85 c i5o . . 3. Inconsistent. 125a 28.3. . . 2. 13. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. ft 2 4. 24. 1. f 10.  1. 15.. (a) 12. 26. 7.64. 11.24. jgiooyiio 17. 3. 32F. (ft) and (d) 2. 5. 28. 4. 5. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .67. . 5. 3. (c) 2. 125 16. 20. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. m. 16. + a 4 ft* . Page 159.1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.25. (ft) (d) 2. 4 ) 21. Page 163.. . 6. 5. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.73. 3. xy.73 ami . 1. 1. (/) 3. 2.75." 23. G. 11.25. 13. . 4. 4. 3 . 3. 15. 9. 12. (/) 3. 2. Inconsistent. 1. 4wn8 + n4 5. 10. 30. 14. 21. (e) 2. (ft) (ft) 2.79. . 15 . 2. Indeterminate. 14. f. 22. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.75. 17. 27 27 81. 3. 4.4. 14. 4. 4}. 1. . 3. . .79.
(6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. + y). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 5. . 247. 1. 7. 70. 3. + i)). 33. 20. 2. 2 2 4. 6.5). 17. (Gx + (i + 2a. 10 x G a 4 . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 16. 3.1. 28. (a + y+l). 36. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . . 13. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.  x. 3.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. I 8x2). 3. (1 (x2y). (4a2 9& 2 13. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 18. 72. m 13. 237. 99. 14. fe *?>' ?> fi . 15. 3M. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 10. ?7i 1 1 3 1. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. ^i. + + ?V 22.XV111 7. (48 + 6. Page 171. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 8. 14. 9. 3 6 23.a b 22. 90. 26. 11. 16. 4. + Z). 6. 16. .y2 ). /> 4 ). 31. 15. 64. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. GOO 2 c 2 . 14. 5. 9.94. 9. 6. 25 19.5. ). 12. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 19. (l + x + . 180 . (a 2.  +X '. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 2. AN S WE no . 6. 2 4 8 2 . (3a. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 30. 8 /. a. . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 90. 84.3 ab + 2 2 ). 57. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5. 00.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). ? : 1 . + l). 5. 1247. 9. 11. (ab + c). 2. 19. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). (x' l). . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 20. 14. 40. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 35. 300. . 17.GO a c + 23.x ). 13. 4.037.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.^). 1. . (x + y\ 90. 32. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 27. 2038. . 8. ( Page 174. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 22. 10. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 .7 /)). 23. 18.r 2 + 6jt). 119. + (win . 7. 6 (\x 3. 20. 2. 71. 978. 2.6. 1. Zll. 3 2 ^.83. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 2 2 7. 3 2 8 3 12. 9. 1 1 ?>). Page 170. 8. c 10 6 :l 20. 0. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 8. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). . r> 4 : 1 . 15.1. 8.i c 6 15. 10*. 763. 12.2). 2 12. 12. (ly). 16 6 w . 309. +3 + 5 4. Page 176. 98. (2 a + ft). 6. rt . 4.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 15. a.f 1 m 9 16. 5. 21. 420. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .10 a~ + 5 a . 11. 4. (a + 2 +l). 17. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 34. + 29. 25. Page 172. 10. ??i ?i . 20. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 21. ? . +35. 9. . 24. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 76. 11. a: l . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). a 2 . 5 5 8.+3^ + 4. 1. 2 49 . 101. 30. 18. 7. a ).
/ 11.005. 36 in. 20. 7. 5083.935. 1 38. 29.  2. 16. Page 179. xix 26. If ^. 9. 20. or 5. ft. 28 in. 3. 13. . 24. 2. 2. w.w 18. 18. 3. 24. 12. 16. 7. 4 a. 7. 15.. 1. 6. 44. Af^. f . 6J. 36. 5. 3. 7 45. 17. 1. Page 184. 1. 6. 2.}. 1. 14.4. 21. 2. 4. m.1.i. 2. 41.469. 21. _ iVaft. 9. 25. * 1. 4. 6. > w ft. m.Sn. 2.*.690. 5. /. 26. 37.4. . 6. 3. 10. 12. 6. 13. 2.60. 13. 12. 15. ft. 11. 21yds. 31. 3. 12. 7. 1. 1&. *. 5. 10. a + 61. Page 185. 11. 2. 6. .a. 39. 19. 7. 4. 30. . . 23..237. 9. 7. {.. ^. 50. 10. 1 7. 5. 8. 21. 3. . 27. 14. 5. 8. Page 183.  14. V2.5.  1. 3.?. vYb.798 yds. 4. 5. 35. 3. V17. 7563. 8. 9.. 15. 23. V. 5. V J l. Page 177. 13. (6) Vl4 3.522 38.ANS WERS 22.6. 3. . 8. ~ V^3.236. >i 27. f. 21 in.. 4. 8. 4J. 14. 1. 33. 17. 7. 28.742 in. 4 W**. 1. 9 15 ft. 5. 39. 18. 30.  43. 12. " ^_ 22. 9. 33.243. . V2. 5. i ^. 270 sq. (< + ?>). 4. 9. 12. 23. 25. ft. ZLlAiK 19. 21 28 ft. 9. 40. 12. 46. 4. 7}. 3.6. 29. 2. 34. 5. 16. 5. .V 8j..  f. J. 3. 1. 2.6. 10.. 6yds.925 ft. 15 1 10. ii :J _7. 34. 40. vV'TA 24.  5.. 36. 3J.367. 2. 5f. 1. 4. l~8. 3.. 2] see.4. 4 TT M 28. 16n. 5. 8.. f. 47. 4 n. 4. . 17. 22. () 2. 10. 37. 29. 20. . 48. 10. a. or 3. Page 180. ^^7m. 15. ^. 10. f 3. 11. 6 f !. 14. 35.1. V35 1. 3.916 yds. 6561. \/3. 6V'2J. 11. 6. 2. 4.6. v 17. 25 J. 7. . 32. 32. 11. 7 in. 19. Page 181. 6V21. 1. JJI. 4. 13.  3. 27. f f V. 2 sec.5.18. 3. 1. 15. 5. 31. 4. (afl). 5. 7. 7. 7. 10. >TT 26. 6. 1 f Vl3.13. 28. f ^ is.6. }. i.  f. 2. 49. 39 in. 42.645. 12. 16. 10. 9. 14. 4.
48.74. 2. 0. 3. 33. jr . V7. 1. 21.4. 6.a. 26. 22. orf. x*4x=0. V2. 23. ' 1. 0. 55. '  f 5. . 1.4. 9. 21.3./hr.2 x2 . 13.2. 6. + 11 x. 7. 3. 0. 25. 0. 5.1. 42. 3. Imaginary. 3. 46. 6. 1).2. 1. 10.2. 25.6. 6. 0. 3. i. 47. v^^fcT"^.. 8. 64c. 6. 20 nii. . unequal. 1.  5. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 2. 1. . 2. 6. 53.$40 or $60.2.17. 34. 37. 3.12. . V ~ 16 4 2. . 0.  5. 2. 8. 7. 6. in. 6.2. Real. a. 3.. 2. 25. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .70.  6. 19.Oa. 8. 7. 1_^L ft 14.1. . 28. 1./hr. 16.48. rational. unequal. 10. 10 or 19. 8 or 12 mi.  1. 1. 1.. unequal. 4. . %. Imaginary. Page 191.  Page 194. unequal. $30 or $70. 24. 26. 26. 18. 3. 2. 2. 3. 28.2.3. rational.a. 26.4. 24. H. 58.  13. 2. 0. 3. 24. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 7./hr.23. 2. ft. . 30. 32. (5 10. 2 . .* 2. 9. 3if. 0. 2. equal. 28. 0.1.  1. 4. . 5. 9. 4. V^~2. r* i. 12.23. 2 V3 in. a8 . 21. 29. . 45. x* 51.4. 43.  i. . f. 2. ANSWERS 22. Real. 3. Real. unequal. 20. 3. 6..3. 4. a + 1. equal. $80.37. 57. 3. 18.. 2. 3. 2. 20.5^. 19 in. 56.2. 2 ft. . 3. 19. 0. 1. 0. unequal. 18. 3. 44. 7. 5.02. 16. 3. a + 6. 6V64. 4. 4. 1.2.7.l. 0. 3. 2. Page 192. unequal. 8. 20 eggs.. 2.12 = 0. _ 19. 23. x 14. V^l.]. 15. 27. Page 190. 35. $ 120. 22. 15. 3. Page 188. #<7=3. 25.7.XX Page 186. 4 da. Imaginary. 5 ft.'. Real. a. Page 189.  2. AB = 204 ft. 52. 13. 23. 3. 1.  1. 31. 0. Imaginary. 41. 2. 3.  24. 3.10. 1.a 3 a. . 35. 39. 7. VV11.59. 3. 4.6 = 0./hr. If.48 3. Real. i . 5. 15 ft. . 27.62. Real. 20. . unequal.41. 2. 12. irrational. AB = 3. rational. 17. 6. 14. 14. . 12. *'' 12. 10 mi. 6^2 in. 4. 120 ft. . 15.  1. x2 + B . = 0. . 12. 4. f 6 52 a. . 5.0*8. 10 mi. 1. Real. 1. 49. 10 in. t is.5. 2. 4. 7. 0. 1 3. 2. irrational. unequal. 10.7.  2. 27. 0. 11. 70 ft. 1.  1. 1. V^l. 7.2. 16. 64. 8\/2 17. 1. equal. 36. 2.2. 0. 12. rational. 11. 9.  9x <). s 11. 2. 1 . 2.4. Page 187. f. 38. U. rational. 50. Real. V2. . 1. 1. 1. .5 x + 6 = 0. 40. 2.
a. r*. a 18 . ^Sf 3 38. 1. 51. 5. 12. 22. 4. 37. 3. x/25. 10. 22. 48. 13. v'frW. 36. 4. \a\ \/^. 1. Page 196. 1. J. 50.  5. 49. 5. I. 10. 41. 30 a. 59.1 5 15. 20. 8. 8. 4. \ . 8. 0. l  5 12. 29. 20. 'J.  f . \/r\ 11. 32. 14. wA 46.  a'2 . xxi 15. aW\ 40. 4. 2. v'frc 18. 5. \/3. 0. 29. J. Page 197. 50. 4. 12. 46. . JV37. 29. 56." 17. (m 26. 58. 16. 19. 23. jV 10. ^49. 27. 19. 18. 13. 3 4 11. Page 200. Page 201. 4.6. 2. 19. Jb \. 8. 2V a. 1. 49. 6. y. 28. 6  AAf. 11. J 3. V^ 34. . $7. 243. Page 199. 3. 28. 4. 1. 3. 5. i. &. 15. n\/* Page202. 21. 19. 33. 2. 39. *V. 2. v^T4 m. J. 23.  48. 44. 1 39. 2. . 54. p. 2. \/. . 5\/5. vV. x$. 2. 30.  J j. 24. 4. 13. 10. ifa. 8. fx'^z'l 23. 84. 16. . 18. 31. m'. r. 1.  f.32. 8. 18. J.//^. m. x. z + 22. y . 1. 14. 26. 12*2 61. ). . 33. Vr. 6. . 2 L ( V. 3. 3. ? . 9. 21. 8. 7. 9. 14. 25. 7. 7 . 15. 47. 17. 11. ar 1 .. : . 57. 3. 49. . 53. 5.2. _! V3. 16. 7. 49. 3. 9. 17. 20. 16. . 38. ) 2 >J i 10. . 30. 20. 47. 2. 1V1. 40. 25. 5. 43. 9. 15. 42. 17. 3. 125. 1. 25.ANtiWEUS rational. v. 31. 3. \. 3. 2. 1. vm. 3. 52.^7. 60. 0. 7V7. 21. 1. 1. 24. \. 13. 27. 9. 32. v/3. 8. 24. 55. 45. 35.17. 3. 10. 1. 14. 33. 2. 9. 2.
x. 10. 7.). 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 28. .'\ 14. + 2). 8. 24. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.632. 31. y (a + ft) V2. r 17  Page 204. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 34 r 6. 4aV^J 16.Vxy 35.2 VlO.692. 13. v/^r 5  A/^~. 40.577. a 3. 2. k/2. 33. 13 35. 20. Vr 8. 2. 3 4\/2. 9. 2v (T 2aVf. 20&V6. 37. a2 4. 23. . l 5. 37. 5. a 4 +* + !. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. ). 11. 29. V80. 9. 26.  a Vft 2 121 b. 43.XXii ANSWERS 1. 11V3. a^ + 2^+1. 8V/) 15. 19. 9. 3^ + 2).3 + 40 3 . 16.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1.648. . x^ . 2 x* 15. Page 208. Page 207. ^88". abVab. 5 ( . 2 '"V5. + + ft. . 4. v^. 17. 1) 3V3. 45. V63. 31. 7. 29. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3V5. 32.f. / V3. 28. 10. 1. + 1. V2 + 4 V22. 5. v'TM. 3. 51. 3 42. 5 22. JIV6. m* n*. yV35. 50. ftV 46. 20. 13 a. x y.2 18. 16. V 5 47. 8a6V5. 3 \ 39. 3V^T. 6. 3. 22. 101 1. 6. T. 135V6. + .yl : . V. (a 27. 3 x^y 33. ?tV?w. x 7  34. 36. r c . (x' (l 1+x). . 13.  2 3:r. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).x^y* + y%. 2>X2.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 18. + Vic + 25. ^7 \AOx. 24. .r. x 25. .rV:r.. x%  3 ^+ 1. Va 2 "ft. 40. 49. 9 . 8. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 62V(J. 34. 21. 21. 1 2 or 1 ?. V. 38. (o* 2. 2. 48.707. 10. 32. 39. 2. 30. 2\/7. . 2 a?>V2 a. Page 203. 15. y. 03r* 7. 2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. ^: V2c. 19. 4. + 2 V22. 12. + 2 ar 1 ). 2. 17. 30. 3^2. x + 5 x3 + 0. 27. 41. 195V3. 25. 26. 11. 3.
J Page 212. ^v 7 15. \XOfl6Vi5. 9. 37. 6. 11. 19. 33. 23. 0. 6. 46. \/8. 4 a*.  3. 2. 0. 41. 30 Vl4. 3. 7. 6. 13. v^a. V3. 2 ate. 16. \/128. \/04a. x/8l. 10. 3. 2 \/2. 6. 52. x/8L v/27. v^f. 10V(). 26. 17. 16. 4. 9. 15. 9 VlO + 4. ^ 3 b 5 24. 1. Page 216. 5V2. 6 2\/0. w?i. \V3. 3\/2. 32. V/. 29. 8V73\/IO. 7. Vn. 13. v^30.r v/^ v^fr*.T*. 2 1. '. 14. 44. ^27. "v/wi ??. v/i). 22. v^lf. a^\/a7>. 30. v"3. D 45. 9. V5. \^r^bVabc. 10. . Vtf +3+ 33. 8. 2. . 50. x/27. 48. 8v2T 12. 34. 2. v"5. 17. a\/5c. V3. 2 28. 21. 2yV2?/. 1V5. 2\/7. 6+2V5. x/125. 21. rtv/5. v 25^4714 V2"a. 3. v/9. 6V2. 4\/5. 2. 27. 3\/15  6. 21 23. 17. v7^. 3 V2. Page 210. . 42. 18. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 31. 6x2?/. 32m27n. Page 211. 74\/Jl 120 46. 5. 40. \/abc*. 7. V8. 10. % 29. 38. 8  \/15. vT). Vdbc. 12. V2. 13\/3. 43. 28. x/8. 7\/(l 7VTO. . 39. b.ANSWERS _ Page 209. V2. 25. 1. 5 \/2. Page 213. 24. Page 214. . x/3. 6. v^4. 5.30 2. 3 Vl5 30. 4. v/lO. VT5. 36. : ^32. 25. fl^Vac. 51. V5. . v/l2. 27. 22. 5V2. 32.. 1. 26. 31. + 20. / \/w/t 4 13. 3v^2. 5. 23. 8. 19. 40. \/2. 12. 3. 8V2. 34. 3\/wi. Vat. \/a6c. VJla. 3. 5v/2. x/4. ^\/3. \^6. . 49. ab 4. 14. 24. 2. 53. 16. xx 1. 35. W). 39. V3"m. 4VO. 38. + VlO  v y (5. 11. 6aV2\^. 36. v^O. "^8000. m ?i2Vm/t. \^6. x/w^ 8. v/8. a2  b. 18. 37. 15. 2 V'3. aVa. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 35. 18. 4 >/3. ^9. 11. 14. 14c 4 V5. r)\/(l Vrtr. 3 V15  47. 20.
5. 15. .6. 4.w 6. 10. 6. 21 ' Vob 26. 2. 20. . (VllV2). 4. 25. 15. 3(7+3V5). (V8 + V2. . {. 22. 2. 4. 22. .^ (\/22 4.2. 21. 81. 31. 12. 7. 6. Vf6fVtf. x 20. 9. 25. 9. 100. 2 . 5. 512. j 15. . J. _^JflJ?. 2!5_.389. 1. n*. 34. 26. 9. 4. 15. . \/57t. V3. 18. 2x^2^. V2. 6 V. 12. (a 1.4722. 5. 18. 2. 224. Page 223. (Vf + (4 V2). i(Vf Vft). + 5V2. .0606. Page 218.XXIV 7. 19.2. 23. 5. 23. (2Vll). 12. ^\/2.13. V3. 1. 4. 16. 7. 1. 27. . Va. 24. 8. 17. nVTl. 2. 13. 4. 3. ^(VlO\/2). (V6 + 2V2). ^r. 5. 35.1805. 10. 1. 5 + 2 vU 17. 16. 17. (2.3.5530. A . 16. 1. 2V2. 14. 9.81. 11. 23. 2V3. 7. 8.V3). 24. 19. 10. 16. 8. (\/3f 1). 12. 4. (V51). 13. .464. i^ ~ 1 v ^. Page 226. Page 28. ~ Vac _c 0. i^Lzi. 22.  2. 0.\/TO). 3. 25. 4. 8. 4. 18. 3. 29. Page217. 16. 8. V35. 10. 27. Page 219. 1. j. 37. (2V2). ' 22 i . 5 f.9. \. +3 V2). .7083. 5. 19.  . 30. xy 2. ^. V3. 10. 16. 7 f 5 4. Page220. 25. 4. 5 V65. 5. p 6 13. V5. 2. 6.3. 4. ANSWERS 8. 3V23. 36. 11. 9.625 10. 8. 25. !^ 6 4. . V3 . 21. 16. 21.732. 17. 1. 18..2828. 20. 24. Va. 81. 15. 1. 4 14. V6c. 11. 6. 1. 3. 7. 9. 15 f 3 V2L 4. K>/0 + \/2). 4. 16. 4V3 + 6.  13. 64. 23. f. 5. 14. \/3). 11. 19. fV2. 9.  f. 27. 11. 7 Page221. 10.3535. 2. 4. 12. 10. * 3.4142.601. 1. 23. 25. Page 225. m f. V. 6.732. 125. 9 mn. 14. 20. 30.1547. 32. 24. J. (2f V"5). 15.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .1. V^TTfc. + 6) 2 . 3. 4. 33. 3. 25. 1. 7. ^. (3+ v/2). (V21). 11. 2ajV2*. 20. 17. 8 V3V2. (VaT^v a). 7. 19. (\/5V2). 29.64. 13. 18. 0. 2V3.7071. 7. 5. 14. 12. 26. 9. 7. 216.6 V3. 8. 3. 8. 28. 9. 4. (V5f 5.5. 6 (V2 + 1). 2.
2 &. (a.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 15. 2. ' J. 4. 1 . 16. 7. (pl)(p3)(p6). 3.8a 18. (8. 56l). 3 9.3. 2. 5.12. 2. . 2 . .4. 20. (r. 24. 1. 1. 9.2)(* .4). 2.10. t/ 23. 2 . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).3. 3. 3. 23. 2 . =A^Z3. 2. 2.22. 3. 8 6 & 0.3. 3. 20.4. 0. a(.4. . 1 . 0. Page 233. \/0. & + 6 2 ). 4 1.  1. 17.  3. 1.  2. 7. 7. 30. . ( 16. 2. Page 236. 1. J 24. 2 6. 5. 3 . 4 . 4. 1 (?> x/^3. 10. 2. 5. 3 . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 22. 11. 30. 10. 19. 1. 2 V^ .nl^EI. 5. 6.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 1. 5. 2 . (2 a. 1.  1.^a. 13. 28. 7.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 1.Y. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).3 2.l)(a3)(a . 4. . 4. 13. 30 . . 2. 2. 4. //. 17. . 3. 18. 14. 4. 30 30. 6. (&y2a#H4).r . (pl)(p2)(p2). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 13. 5. 11. 3. l. 2 > 1. 4. 3.w 4 + 1).f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 7. .5 xy + 25) 22. 4. 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 12. 10. 4 4. 4. . 2. 2. 1. (a + 2) (a Page 229. f . 2. 50. 21. 16. 3.2. . 6. 22. a  . 10. a: :} . 2. 7.2. 4. (4 mn . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 6 2 2a + 2). 11. 73. 1. 4. 1. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). y. 25.l)(m . 1 3. . 8.7. 3. 6. 4 20. 2.3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 0.3. 2. (+!)( 2) 10. 3. (a+&)( 2 14. 14. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 11. (a . .  16). 17. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 0. 12.  3. 8. o. (rt.ANSWERS Page 228. 2. 18. 4. Page 234.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. (w . 3.  3. 1. 14. qpl. 19. J Page 235. 2. 1. . P. 8. .  . 3. 8. f>. 2. .  f . 3. 3.l)(z 2 + z + 1).. 4. 5. 0. 8. 3. 5. 19. 1. 5. . 12 24 y . . 4. 0. 2. . . 4. 87 . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 13. 8. 73. . 11. 5.1.  5.3. 100. 3. 2. 4 . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. 2. 2 <? 4a2 .0. 3. 1. (63)(6' t 18.2. 3. 10. 2. 15. 7. 24. 6. (B43). 4. 4. 26. 5. 1. 3. 25. (m 4 + l)(ro.1. (a. 20. 1 6. 6. 2. 15. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 25. 0. 2. 13. 1. 1 . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). XXV 4. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 1. 25. 0. 1. 21. 3.  J.2)(m. 12. 4. 1. 6. 11.3). 5. 2. 2.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 10. 1 . 5. b . (a 4. . 4. 2 6. 12. 1 . . V3. 3 . J. 9. a . ~ f7. 3. 9. . 3 5. 3. 7. (xy + 5) (x*y* .5.  4. 12. 5. J.
4 . 3. . 4. 2 Y> V . 2. 17.1. 8. .. 11. 5. 3. 1. i j. 1. 35 ft. 3. 13. '>. 55. 2. 0. . 1.  1. m27. 3. 12. 3 cm. 1. . 4. 2. .200. .1. . (a) 5. 5. 1 . 14. .. 5. 37. } . 1. 5. 3 . 2 .3. 12 ft.  2 . 1. 14. 31. 1 2. 3. 1. 14. Page 244. 48. ft. 3. ^~2. 1. 21. 37. tn 2. 1. Page 240. 0. 2.3. 2. 17. 2.13. in. 3. 8. 40 25 in. 10. 12.. 288.4. x 4. (&) 2. 1. 3. . 15. \. f*. . 5. 2. 4. 1 .. 2.0.. 2. . = QO 6. 1. 3. 78.e. 17. _ 13 (0 6. 1. 1. 5. 7. 15. 8. 4. 4. j. oo. _ 7. 4 6. 13. 20 7. 5050. 16. . 50. 2V7. 3 .0. 12. 36. 1. 69. 4.. . 1J. 1. 9. 3. ri*. 12 d. 2 . 3. Exercise 113. 2. 30 13. 4. 23. 18. 15. 4.. in. 45yd. in.3. ft.5. 2. 4. 1. . }.3. 8.y. . 2. 0. f. (a) $3400. 84. 11. 1. 7. 2 1. m28. 1. 512. 7. 12 1. 29. 21.4. 512. 4. 30.. ( 3. 1. _ 5. co . 4. . . 11. 3. 6. 125 125. 6. oo . $46. in. 5 4. $VO. 3. 8. 5. 15. 2. 1 . 5. $.3. 5. 21 30. 1. . and _ 4. 3. 40 1} 9 3 ft. c. 8ft. 40 in. i'ljVU. 4. 9. 5 cm. . 1 . 4. J..020. . GO . .2. 2. 1. Page 239. 11. 12. 9. 11. 1. 5. J. 8 3. 19. . 8. 15. no co . 20. Page 245. in. 32. 1. 2. 39. J.4. 5.6. 31. 8. 9. f>. 24. $. 35 a. Page 241. 2 26. 4. 5. . ' j. 7f solution.4. . . 10. 201. 16. 7. . 7. V3~. 8 . 1. 30. 12. 5. (/>) "_. \/6. 28yd. 2>/3. 8. 14. 15. 35. 1. 3. 6.6. 3 3. 1 . 2 16. 1.1. 2n. 5. 7.. Exercise 114. 2. 4. J. 3V5. 3. 20 in. 1. 1. 3. . 2 ft. . 5. 2 2. 3. 2. Indeterminate. 5 . 4. 10. 6. 9. 4 8. 2. +  n. ft. 3. 41. 25. 14. Page 238. i. 11. 50. . . 3. 20. 22. 3. 1. Page 247. 19. . jj. 9. 2.136. 4. 2 10.18. 7 3. _ 10. 16. i i i . 17. 1. 3. 18.3 . 3 . Page 243. Indeterminate. 5.3.5. . 14. 5. 900. 24. 4 34. 15. 35^ 5.xxvi Page 237. 13. 2 . 5. 33. 6. 17. 4. 4. 14. 4. m + n. 2. Page 248. 40. oo . 26. 22. 2. 4. (>. n. 18. V7. 1. .3. 3. 23.30.  11. 7.  . 38. 37. 3. 4. 3. 17. 3 4. 12ft. 12. 1. ANSWERS 2. . . 400. 3 2. 2. n . 3. ^ }. 2. 10. .
5. sq. 4. 21. 6. JSg. 0. 19.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.r x>/ 7 3. 19. 100. 3. 5. 0. 410. 7. and 1. **+. 43. 1. 2. x + Vy. 12.  17. 2.1. 8. 1. 0. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 12. 2.6 . 10. 3. 6. 10 14. 9.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 3.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 12. 1 7 4. 22. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 16. 12. 2. 1. 8. Page 259. 8.192. 18. 6. . A. 18. . 4. 2. 0. 8. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . Jj? 45. 70. 19. 15. Page 258.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. } $ 50. &' 14. .5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 120 aW. 28. 20. 11.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 3. 12.5y 4 . 44. 16. a4 4 14. 1. 343. . 1000 aW.120. 11.3 ays. 125. 13. 1. 22. . vy. 7. 27. 81. 27. 8. 10.x' 10 . . 4950 M 2 b y *. 8.680. 3.870 m*n*. 29. Page 254. 3. 280 53. 0.ANSWERS Page 250. 5. 4. 15. \ w 4 . 5. . 4. 16. B . 12. <. 3. 16.53. 220 . 2. 17. d. 2. 405. />*. 5. 35. 1. 20. 7. 26. 48. 4. 3. 20. . 6. 6. 2i* 7f. 5. i 10. 4. 4. 4. 1. 4. 10. . 8. ' 1. 3. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 9. 16.  20 flW. 4. 192. 4.r* 4 70 .504. 0. 1. 5. 8. 18.2 45 a 8 /). 32. 3. 5. 5. 04. x4 . ^a 8. 5. 128. 9. 15. Ja. 0.2 9. 55. 4 0. 9. .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 04. 708.170. . 4. 0. 53. 6i. 7. 17.384. (). . 14. 7 x4 17. 3. 4. 45. ~ an . 910. 10. 125. REVIEW EXERCISE . G. 6. 1820. ~v 9. 327. 2.5 x.419. 12. . 3. 6.8.12 x*y 16. c. 8J.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 7 2 x 4 x8 . 343. 2.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. . 35. 21. 5 13. f y 8 + z* . 15. 45. 70. 27.r 4. in. 1 14. 13. 8. 17. 10. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).470. ?/i 6 x llj .0.4. 45 Page 257.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 8 1. J 2 //2 25. 6. 15.<2 4.920. 16 11. 50. 70. 25.v Page 253. 75. 7. Page 252. 7. 16. 7. 0. 13. 4. . 9. 16.13. 6. r r j. I. 9.7 10. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. x r 4. Y11. 11. 8 . 4. 105. a. 4. 005. 495.6. 8 4x' 2 .4 &z x>&. xxvii 1. 8. w9  8. 12. 1.5. . 23. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12.  101. 2.210. 2.5. 1JH. 27. 05. 304. 2. 2. r 5 4. 1. 7. '23.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 1.700.^ ?>i 2412x4. 4. 10. 3. 5. 18.
x 8 + x 4 68. 1 a"* 4 an . 1 . ft n . &p 84. 13 + 2 s. 52. 6 a2 97. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.xxviii ANSWERS 19. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.x. x } 4. 88.1. 2 53.  12 a. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. . 26. 31.3 a'ft. 4. . 22. 2 113. 93.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 130. 132. 124. 122.  3 x2 . ft2ft 4 4l. + z. x 8  a8 .6 b. +^ + ft W. 76. 6a6c. Page 260. 131. 125. y 4 z* 0.c 3 4.^a . 43. 2 30 . 91.4 x 2 .c. 110. 2 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 23. 25.a. ?> . 14 x .15 4 62 x  72. _55_7c 48. 99. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. . 2 a.x 2 4. .9 b.a*ft 2 126.5. () 2 x 33. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 3 c . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 .4 ac. xyxzyz. + 3 a?.  4 a3 85. .105. 4.5 a 2x8 x 3 .c. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 16.2 xy + 4 y2 106.1.41. 3 a 5 a 5. 4 65. 3a~2c. 243x4729. 4 ! . 109. . 120.5 b + c . . c3 4 58. a2 2 aft 2 2.18 ?/ 5x4. 3 36 b c . a* a 8 a aftc. . x2 5r*x ft 5 . ?/ 3. a 4 . 2 x'V2 90. 114. x2 a2 1 . x 4.2 c . 5x 2 2x43. ft /> 78. 38. . 105. + a 4. ?/ . 107. x' . 4 15 x 5 . 40. 118. 66.x 51. 4 69.a'2 c.2. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. x 2 .2. (a + ft)" 98. . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .1w 77. a' 111.1 4 jry 4 x .4 2 4 c2 42 . a* 4.ft).3 b . 3a'2 Page 261. 28. 5x + 2y~z.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.x4 + y'2 z 4. .y*. 10 a 12 b.1. m " + n + P3c . 63. .2. 30. x2 471x4.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 9 2w 128. as 20. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 39. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . x' 79. 3 a . 61. x 3 41. 9x. x2 2 .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 64.2 x 4. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 36.3 y. 2 q. 5 4 4. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. I 57.9 x .a6 2 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 12 a/.18 x?/0. x .2 x^. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 62. 4 115. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 72. . 4ft y3. 2 2/' . 86.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.4. 10 4. 2 .4 x?/2 3 4. 100.1. 27. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().3 . * 60. 80.ac 44 aft.{ 54.x24 73.fee 2 4. 4 2 . . /> 4 83. x 3 4. 12 x.4 x y 87. 8 . x* . x8 x2 55. 16t/.  + 3 x2 . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. a~b 89. 4. a4 x. 8x3 8x.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. . Page 263.  e +/. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.7 x   15. 133. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 50. 1 x 45.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .a' 'ft 4. 46. 2 x2 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 104.4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 6 c 47. . 0. 21. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. . 1 + 4 xy.4.. 96. 4 Page 264. a J . . az 4. . .7. 2 x2 108.3 aftc.4.3 a 2 '6 w 4. !! 71. x4 f + 23 . 7 + 3 xf 2. 1 121. . 37. 4 . 82.5 3n 4. 0.a 2 x 2a .5x4. . 94.rty x2 4 123. 0. 70. f5+7.  . 29. 102.3 103. ^ . 24. 4 fee 4.3 x 2 + 3 x . 3 a 44. a 3m 4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. t 81. 49. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 32. df. 35.6 am b\ 129. 5 42. . 127. 3~ n 4.
1. 151. 184. 199. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2^. 247... ( jc // a 2 (a1). 3. 48 h. . p. 32 h. 12. (y _ ft)(y 4. 10). (7 c 2 ). 6).y) (\r3y).9)(xf 2). 154. . + 2) + 9a. 12 6 panes. a + 2x2 ). (r^x + 1).y)(jc + 7 y).  1. 22. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 224. y3. 8(ar}(/)27). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 161.y + 3)(r (. 148. Page 267. 209. y 245. (6) 40. 195. 166. (. 175.1). xxix 139. 231. 75.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 1. 191. 211. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). Iff 145. 218.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).6) (2 x + 1). (2 198. 181. (7x2//) 203.2).1). 186. 205. 170. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 183. x(x + 6) 213. 4. (a 2 + 2a6. +)(x2 x^+2. HI.y2 ). 37 1. 214. 1. a(a.r . 3(x . 5. .I2y). y. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 1. 178. 8 204. (a& 192. (x^ + x1) 234. 179.2). (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 30.3) (2/3y).2ac + 229. (x + 2)(x . 2 (4 x . 164. 12. 222. 10 in. 206. 237. r>x 2 (4x. 2. 210. 167. 180. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (a} 59.l)(a 2 +3). 177. 182.l)(y + 1). 153. G7.m)(x + a). 238.. 147. 235.ANSWEKti 135.2) (3 x . 2(x8)(x3). p. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 169. . . 136. 15  a. 156. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 216. (x  42 yr. 143. 187. 142. (y7)(y + 188. 10 ft.1). 176. 12 yr.3 y)(a . 137.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 160. 226. 158. 2. 230. + 7)(rt4). 6. 21. 171. 147 mi. Or (a + 2)0el). 20. (x + 6)(x6). (2a + l)(a . 215. 24. 144. 140. 162. 193. + 11) (a 10). 201.4xl). 2 xy(3 x . 240. 239. (/ 246. 40 yr.. 220. + y.2 )(x+y) 228. 219.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 10). 1. 10. 172. 1. 50. (x 227. . 2 2 (a. (8x + 3)(3x4).3 y). 232. 152. 149. 197.1(5) 200. (r7y)(ai. 236. Page 265. + 3) (x f f>) . 30 + xyr. 2. (233). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).2. a. 217. 20. 150. C3 y _l)(. 3. (y 7f))(y 196. k. 212. 12) (j. z(x10)(xl). 185. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 36ft. (y_24)(y5)./_4). 12 yr.3). a 2 (15. Page 266. m. 189. yr. (5 x . (?/+l)(yl). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 207. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). + 22). aft. 30 yr. 174. 159. 15. 202. 233.l)(x8 + x2 . fc'2a+62c). y  y 165. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (y  17)(y + (>).y). ( + 2y)(2x3y). 208.y)(z . 168. 163.6)(4 + 6). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 146. 18. 157. (3x2?/)(2. 244.r + 4). (ab + 8) ( 7). 19. + 3). (c) 160 C. 173. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 2. 241. 138. 1.3. 218. 15. 1. ft. 2. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 155. (JT y 225. 190.6 . as 194. 23 18. (x . 7. 6. (3x  . . 4. ?.
^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. a. 2 4 300. ^ 299.4) 1) (3 x . x .4). 2 x  3. 258. 305. (7 255. 0. 254. 298. ? 1) 302. 3  262. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 7 x 265. 301. x 267. 261. 3). 3. x ?/ z 1. 0. 256.^ ^^.  3xyf x// 257. 259. ^/>J. 5. 250. &). x 283.   . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 7^T 2 . (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .  7. 3). \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . Ca&c 1)(M 253. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 295. o. 260. o(x4l). > 4. 4 5.2* i^^ !^. 2. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. *>).1. 43 '^rJ'. 303. + f. 263. 264. x12. 279. 249. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 310.(x  4) (x4 304. ?^ZLiZ 308. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.^^^^^^^^. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 251. 307. *. 268. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 266. 306. a~ ' b*). 7. 10. 269..AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.
333. y 4 I 340. ab. ?=. 389. 387.)Cr4)__ . 370. Page 274. 401. x 54 359. 397.1. 0. m. a + b + 6). L . 408. 2 r36 384. a) A^_. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.3. 2 327. 13 391. 393. 1. 375.. 2. 2 ab  a Page 276. 336. ^"" 4 s . 377.J . 380. 7/i ^ _ . T\. 2 ).. . 1. 399.vin a /r " 337. 4 rw. 329. 364. 394. 0.7. l'j. 355. ?/ + 3 332. 0. l . 386. a +6. a 2 . j 328. " 4 378.". c 402. . 2(a i 403. 1. . 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 2(q. + x 362. + 335. ^_:r f> 331. If. 324. A^L5L. 407. ?>*. * 357. 392. .(5 a . 382. 385. 406. 390. 366. 12. 388. T+^. 6a. 343 00 351. . 1 i 2 ^. 405. 0. (a + b + c\ . 4. 379. f. 11. 400.H ' 2wi ^' /' .XXXI Page 272. 383. 2 ?/ 363. Page 277. 395. <L 409. 4. 398. 365. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. + 4 & 4 \ b. ^ 3 // . 1. 334. 7. . 339.  1. 396. 3. 376. S.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 326.!. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. 6 ?/+:>. 325.  1 356. 2. 9^. _*L'L+. 20. 3. 360. 361. 404. 3. 4 A.
1. (c) not true. + () 433. 2 a 2. 490.  1. 63. 500. 2. . a 22 .3. 1.55. 496. 10. 467. . 40 oz. \ 1. 2. ^V. 484. 7 : . 436. 3. 492. 441. 506.  7. 435. 468. 411. ft 5. 33. 6. 466. 498. 2 438. 42. 6. 481. 2.. . c.  2f 504. 2.  .12. 3a 4 5. 412.. 7. 479. 5. 483. 478. 446. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 427. 428. c 6fc 10. (&) 443. 90.m  m+ M in. Page 278. . 419. \. 20. 51. $2000 at 0%. 6. A $ 3500. 17. 422. fc. . 1.4. . 0. fj. 4. 444. 423.489. Page 282. 8. . . A 5 mi . 12. 497. 3 . i a b 451.  2. 5. 430. (a  c).  f>. ISjmi. 32 yr.7. 455. 7. (a) 1.. (d) true. . 3. 7.0. 7.. & 491. ^r?i 434.  1. 464. 454. 21. m.  7.2. 487. 1.0. 425. m 1 : wi. />c c(f be.3. Page 280. 2. 2$. 507. 5J. 5. ^. : />a. . 0. 50.7. 447. 11. 40. ' $260 at 0%.rz Page 279. 477. 0.. 18.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 429. . 458. 457. L2 a  6 . 452. .7. 5. 4.}.te + .  2. 418. 0. 10. 502. 501. 4. 465. 1$. 10. 14 miles. 482. a* 424. 6. 493. 508. 2.}. . . 2. 2. 4. 456.488. 440. 472. 439. 476. 0. 410. i.1. 450. 442.  2. 2. . 432. (d  6) f.  10.7.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.7. 495. 426. 480. 499.46. 485.2. '. 459.vz in. 6. 8. 28 yr. a + + ft c. 1. z8 +?/ 3 431. 448. B $ 2500. 6. (&) true.  505. 5. 84. <L+ 6 (. 10. b 449. 462. . * . !L=4. *+.5. 503. 2. 8. 445. 20 yr. 5. 463. L (c) I. 24 days.4. 3. 413. 460. 7.. Page 281. not true. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. . ISJini. 0. 53 yr. 9. 421. . 486. 8. 0. Page283. 420. 10. 461.  453. B 4 mi. I. 32. 10. 10$. . 10. 494. 6. 22. 1 a /?$+&?. 17.
 1.5. 1. 4.88. M ft c 2 ft 3465. f. 3. 552. 6435..03. 509. a*8a + 24tf 82a.21.6 2.1. 560. . 4.9.4. 1. > ^ . 577. + 12 x .  2ft da.4.54. 510. 566.  ft*. 1. <z ft 1.55. 3.4.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. . 582. 554. .f 1.1. 5. 4. . Page 288. .xj/ f xV . 551. a + ft  a  f c.14. 526. 1. _ 3.24.8. 591. (c) 3. 2 2. (e) (c) 2.1. . 4. lead. 1. 0. 2 imag. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .% rr\* 585. . _^ 2754x . 1. 599.52. 583. 579. 3. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. (gr) 10 1.7. 24. 1.10.  + + c. 1 580. 24 da. 3 .0. + 26 + . (i) 3. 3f 4f. 573.75.  (a) (d) 1. 1.3.   (h) 8. 576. 559. 2.ANSWERS Page 284.02. 1. 593.31. 4. 568. 516. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. tin. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).8. 527. 575. 512. 562. 4. 2. 3. 14. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. y% Z * 586.54. 40 Ib.15. 567.35.  4. 1 . ^ ft 4. 2. 3. (e) 570. 4* da. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 3. 6. 3 da. 3.5 f. .5.5+. _ 4.  2. .02. .0.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4.. 514.8. 558. 528. .53. 569. 4 mi. 533. 4. 536. 1. Page 287.2.3. 3. a+ Page 286. ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.73. 555.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.. 5. 530.. 3. 2.33.  (a) 2.  J(a f + 2c).8. . 529. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. T . 553. .7. 3.04.6. .12.3.15.6. 565.3.56 sec. 531. 2 . 598. . . tin. 1.5. (d) 537. 1. 2.1. S82 c. 571.05. .78. .16. imag. 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . . 518.31. .02.62. 550..25. 6. 3.00.04.  557.25m. f. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. x8 . 3.51. 1. 1. 3.03. 1 . y 4. .83.4.3. (a) 74 Ib.  . 2 1. 1. (ft) Ill Ib. If 572.1. . 3. 5.24. per hr.5. 5. 563.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .83.6. + 6 tf f 3 . lead. (/)  10 to 8.  7.10. f36a28x8 592.7. 1. o> . . 2 . 8 mi. 2. 21*_. 1.8 x3^.4 x + .37.78. 1.20. . 2(6 597. (6) 3. 2$.4. 1. 2(4 602. 515.38.  3.3. 27 y* f\4 . 4 0. 7^ da. da. a f ft + c. 525. Page 285.0. 0000. 2. J7] min.6. 31. or 8. 513. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.3. ft 584. xxxin 511. (c) 4.r8 596. 4. 8. H.4. .1.15.3. 2. 1.02. 7. 574.75.30. Roots imaginary.24 sec. g(rc+ 6c). 2. 581.  imag. 1$. 603.37. 1 600. 578. 564.5. per hour. 2 1. 532. 1J. (ft) 4.0. 232.62. (6) . 556. 561. 2 10. . 1. 115 Ib.
001. 7003.  a2  a (ab). n^l +^. 1010. 1. 635. . + ~^'2 + a 1.0. 654. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.702. 6 685. o. 646. b . 5002. 6. 0. 615. 3.3. 10. ix 2 . 4. 5. 708.  1. 617. la6 2. z  1. If 658.04. if 4/> 671. 14. . 2&). ab.  4. K 5 2 V2. ^. 652. . 661. If 665. 656.002. . . 0. 2. 698. 644. <T! . 696. a 1J. 626. 25. 2. 7. 607. If. 4 676. 655. 9. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 5. 651. fta a/> ^A.3. ^^ 695. 2 a 688. 703. 683. 669.y. 5. 50. i. 4 V 0. 0. V2. 624. . 4330 da. 009.25. ' fe 2 ). V^~3). x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.43^4. 3 x2 . 0. 633. l/'3. 1$ 639. 8 6 fo . b. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). . 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 632. . /> 4. 647. 638. \. J^^. 2.3. 5 3.. . 7.a~ {Z 663.b. 700. 614. ft).  2f r 659. . 623. 2092.14 If 1. 8. 3. . 616. 3 a. 78. 3 681. 634. a 4. I}'/.>A 610. .  3. 622. 1 704. 613.203. 625. / V^+lO^M"^. 6. 650.049. V7. 640. 2f. 1m*.f 3 V^3). 4$. 690. Page 289. c. 11. 703. 9*.c ) 697. 649. a.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.  6. (*_ + a: 611. 629. \+ab 699. 653.3. 662.  . 898. 0. 2. + 2 A (i f Page 291. b 664. 677 680. 642. 692. (a3&45rj. 670. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 621. fe + a. 666.  4.3f l 668. 701.  ft. 618. 2. 612. 645. 620. . 702. a 2. 660. 2 ab + a  &. a + b. 1. 679.XX XIV 606.2f (5 4. 637.303.2f Page 290. 25. 691. 2 x 44 ^/. ab 689. 8 f 3. . 627. 641. 13. a ' 2 + . 12. 706. 2. If . 657. 1. 210.. 1 2. 678< 682. 608. 2 a  6*. 3. be ac \. 705. 4. 2 / 2 4.b 686. 2 a: 4. 636. ^. 630. 2f. 1 ~a . 971. 2. 5. 672. 2. ^ 1. If f 667. 0. If b. 643. V2. 648. y  619. V"^TJ. 2. 1. 11. ' 674.  684. a 673.001. 1 V5 1.  13. 631. 4. 4. 628.
32>/2. J(v'lO2V 791. 300. 715. 773. a db Va^T < 45da.9. a:* . . 5. 1 I . *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 8. 792. 726.^ 743. 3. a 5 . . 790 2v 3v 2.11. 758. 714. Hi a. 796. 746. i 2.^. cr*lr*. v'll. ^7xy.V2. 1 747.4 . 24. 8. 776. 724. i^. 767. 30\/10 764. 736.. 768. 778. iv/Jj. 782 785.. T%. r. 1 [ + '> J.257. 17ft. Page 294. a". 3V52V3. 3V72V3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 33^2. 733.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 1. 342V3. fyaw&cu. 749. mn.r+y> 759. 1 752. VV> L4V34. 13ft. . 00. 730.12 af V^ 4 744. 34. .ANSWMHti Page 292. + < 735.rJ w L 754. v/7 / . a 2 6^.. 721. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 712. 793. 769. 711. 719.9. ^ ?>. 732. 3 720. 2x3^ a. VT14V5. 24V2. 1. 739. ^ . 717. 2\/53V2. 763. 718. 3V72VO. 25. + 6 2 tf'c. Page 293.10. 710. 24 4 . 47. a 2  x2 . x\y. 5.r.8. 1. 3V7. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 1^ _ 760. 722. 740. 788. 789. 727. 737. 729. j 742. 2 V2 . 794. 751. 750. 713. > 748. 3^. 39. 716. "V313. 777. 709. VIO\/3. 4 104 v/2. 15 shares. 756. 723. 731. 725. 738.~ . 734. 755. rt3 2 ^i^.2. y  1.4 . . 3 VlT 795.1 . 728. / 787. 7  3V5. 29\/3. 753. 59..V/^ 741. x i f^' . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.
883. 897. 2.10 ab 4. 8. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 0.7. are extraneous. 2. 4 818.4. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 20). 867. 857. Va. 3. ( 869. 813. 6. 859.4) 860.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2 2 . 804. 2 854. 879./>") (a'.25 ?>2). 8. 847.  839.l)(x . . 820. 17. 2. 837. (3 b . 11. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4. ( 4 4. 900. 2 *x 807. 880.3. 841.XXXVI 797.om 441) (a 855. (3 862. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. ^. 2 . 2/ 856. 826. 799. . 831. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.1)(V 2 . + d)*. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 886. 825. a 42)(x . 849. 833. 1. $.3. 4. (x . 800. 3. 4. a* 4. 840. (x 2 f r . 801. (4 c 4. (x .r . (2 x + 3 y} . x. Hoots are extraneous. H.4.a 2 2 ). n =  29. 48. $. 7. . (x 4. ^VG. 10. ((' 1). 2. Page 296. 814. 888. 7. 3. 2. . 17. 5). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2. +j!>.2w . 0.l)(x . 811.  1. 7.r4). f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 2. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).7). 2 806. ) (a' 874. 843. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 823. 1. (x3). 868. (1 . 836. .1) . 851. 884. 872. 4. jV3 f 3.. (. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 895. 8 09.5 b) 4 1). (2x (r. 7. 3. 829. (:r 11.1). m 875. 11. 881.7). 6+V7. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 861. 1 .0. 816. **. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 2 (x 4*4. 4. (x + 0X024. 898. 1C. 1 1. 819. 834. 3 . 844. 808. 23. 3. 4. x . (2 4. 4. Va 803. 896.a 3 " 4. (2 a . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 830. ANSWERS 798. 882.7 4 1) 846. 876. 822. .. 3. (x*y*ryz + z*). 835. 4. 5. 6. Hoots .  tt 815. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .y) 852. Page 297.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 4.l)(x + 2). .rae) (4 . 14.1. (a 4 871. 2. 891. 893. 848. (xl)(^~3)(. 0. .a 4 + 1). 1.f. 2. 6. 838. 3.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. o 828.2 ax 4. 1.2) (x 4 2). 5. 3. 5.5) (x + * 853. a2 ^E*!. 2. 858.+ m f ") (a* ). . . 5. 832.3)(x + 4).7)(4 x. 892.1)(0 865. \/5. 3. (x 845. J V. 817. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 810. . o. ^ V}. 4 885. 13. m = 2. \/2. 2  2. 4 . 887. 812. 2 . 863. (a m . 6 $. a(ft)( 873. 1. f. . 4. X4 1). 25.  ' . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 0.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. V 3.  + l(l^). 2 . 827. 2 m . 2 j 889. db 7. (x 2 . 899.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 890. 19. 842. a(ry + 864. b' 2 821. . 4. (a 1) (x 4. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 824. 3.. 5. 894.1) (a 8 .
J(_ ft.. . 7 ft. 5. 8. .. 909. . 935.709. 2.. 978. 911.. 2 yd. 977. . 111. 3). ft. . 115. 2. 944. 3.744. Page 303. 948. ^y. V5 fj. 280. 905. T3. Page 302.01. 3 . . 957. 980. 961. 3... 8. 8... 6 a 915.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 2 1. 952. . . 1. 917. V5 T 2 . 3. 4. 945. i>. 7. 987. 40 16 in.1. 959. 4. 4. 100 rows. 8. %* . 981.. i(6 in. 2. 4 . ft. 14 . 1). 480 8 sq. 8. 9 in. 6. ft. ?/i 6. ft. . J. 4. 908. 954.2. ft. 927. 6. dL 4. 0. 4.651. 2. 248. 28. 1 2. 960. 931. 12 in. 932. 12 mi. 8. 937. 922. 2 i ' a V. 947. i 3. 962. 56. 1. 6. 4. 942. 6. 912. $(l 4. 28. 12. 11. 3. V^3). . 919. . 66 924. 12. 20 19 ft. 1 + V953. .. 958. 6 da. 7. 4. 10. 963. J. i1" 913. 4. 941. 984.1. a. 979.. 4 in. 930. 936. 2 ft. 8 . 951. . f. 925. 333. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. tt2 19. 3. Page 300. 80. 15 16 ft.760 sq. 1 . T 6. 3 4 . 5. 6. .111.073. .  1. w.446. 983. 921. Z ^. 0. 955. 496. 2. 5l4f. 940. 7. 73. 8. a + . 5. yd.I. 904. .. Page 301. 6 . ft. 7 or 30. 986. i 8. 2. 2 w 914.  26j. 15 946. 906. 2. 964. 3. 11. 108. 3. 18. 2. 0. 918. 943. 6. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 329. 11. 938. v/(ai !)(&910. 2.615. 4 6 mi. 4. 5. f ft 4 . 4. 28. w 3. r ft ' < Page 299. ./hr. 6. Va926. 12. 902.. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 333. 1 1. T 6. 0.V~~3). .. 956. 8. '3 3 in. 60 949. 1. ft.0. 982. 6 1 1. 950. 934. . 1 _2 . 10. . 5.  1 . 7. 903. 916.' ifcVira^ 2 3. Y. ft. 2. 923. 939. 8128.2. 920. 11.1 = 9. 985. 933. 5 . S07.. =F J.
0. 1018. + 448 . 992. 1007. () 12(2+V3).'^^ } ( . .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 993.. (6) 8(1 . 1012. 996. 1009. 1(5. 1 8 8 2. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1000. 3003.51. 1008. 108. . 12. (5. 72.378 1015. 48. 995. (Z>) 999. 991. 1005. 32 13 (tx 4V3. r = 2. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 120 a. 4. Page 304.870 z8 . 162. + v 2).192rt?)r 120 *.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1003. 1019. ~ \. 12. Page 305. 988. 2 . 1010. 1001. 994. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . ^Trsq. 1006.870 a 6 1011. 8. (J. 2(2 v/2). 990. X. in.  5&7 1021.92. 24. 0. 997. 1014. 1 1004. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1017. 192. 1016. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.128 I. 4 and 1020.18.. 1013.378 <W and 92. 9 da. ^f (2f3V2). 120 i^l^. 6 70 .
To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. save Inequalities. than by the . The more important subjects tions. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. so that the Logarithms. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. physics. A examples are taken from geometry. Ph. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. great many work. etc. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. xiv+563 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. comparatively few methods are heretofore. given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. $1. Half leather.25 lamo. i2mo. and commercial life. $1.D. Half leather. HEW TOSS . book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. xi 4 373 pages. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.
6466 7HTH AVENUE. xiv+56a pages. Half leather.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. physics. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. HEW YOKE . 12010. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. etc. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. Ph.25 i2mo. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Logarithms. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xi f 373 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. HatF leather. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. $1.D. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. save Inequalities. In Factoring. The author grade. comparatively few methods are given. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. so that the tions. and commercial life. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.
ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Ph. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. aoo pages.r and. 7 he . State: . $1. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. $1. xii + 233 pages. Cloth. 9. 6. SEVENOAK. Cloth.. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.D. . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. lines. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 10.10 L. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. more than 1200 in number in 2. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Attention is invited to the following important features I. i2mo. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. izmo. under the heading Remarks". at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 4. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . SCHULTZE. NEW YORK . iamo. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Half leather. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. wor.
New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . 370 pages. . 12mo. $1.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. New York City. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. of these theoretical views. and not from the information that it imparts. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. .
but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. photographs. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. " This volume etc. and a full index are provided. Topics. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. diagrams. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. Maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.
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