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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.
D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
A. August. Cushlng Co. September. 1910 . . Published Set up and electrotyped. . Reprinted 1913. J. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. September. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. U.S. 1917. July. IQJS January. . Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. 8. Mass. 1910. 1911. May. 1915. 1916.' February. January. May.
however. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. chief : among These which are the following 1. etc. and conse ." this book. owing has certain distinctive features. specially 2. Such a large number of methods.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.. manufactured for this purpose. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Elementary Algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. are omitted.
" The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. may be used to supplement the other. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. In regard to some other features of the book. Moreover. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. as quadratic equations and graphs. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. two negative numbers. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". etc. especially problems and factoring. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. e. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . hence either book 4. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. For the more ambitious student.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. however.g.
while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and commercial are numerous. viz.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. By studying proportions during the first year's work." Applications taken from geometry. Moreover. elementary way. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. in " geometry . and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. physics. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. such examples. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. is based principally upon the alge .
desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P. NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. however. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
. . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. .. SUBTRACTION.. Powers.... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ...... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION........
All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type IV. Type V. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ... /^ . . * . . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type VI.. Type III. . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Type Polynomials.. ..114 .... Type II.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ..
... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ............ 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Monomials 170 .. . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. + 1]. a polynomial of two terms. [6c] 3 . 14. since the parts are a . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. V36". V^a6. 16. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. d 7. V3 . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. (cfd) 4. 17. x 9. is 28. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. are trinomials. c = 1. 5Vl6c. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 9. !^f\/03 3 ft. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 15. + c). v'Ta. Val \fi?. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 2.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 27. A binomial is 62 . 6. 7 = 2. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 8. find the numerical value of: Vff. some number is . or 9 Vx. 2 . 4(a 6(6 + &). as in arithmetic. b = 3. \/c. 3.g. 10. A polynomial is an y. V2a." EXERCISE If a 1. 6. aVc^. 12. 4V3~6c. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 0. e. 26. 13. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 11. c f d).
9 aWc + f a b .9. subtraction. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 10. d = 0. EXERCISE 8*  . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 52 . 3.19 = 6. 2.g. 3a + 56 a 2 .2 + I126. find the numerical value of: 9. 16. 3 4 . 8. 6.390.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . a=4. Ex. * For additional examples see page 268. b = 3.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . .INTRODUCTION 29. 5=3. 4a6fVaV2^.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. __ E. i. 2 ). (a (a f b) 7. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 4 . + 26+3 c. c=l.810 + 150 = . 6. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . .e. 1.. a 2 6. l 13. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.5 ax 50 a6cd. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. Otherwise operations of addition. 12. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .4 6^9 ad. = 32 + 4527 = 50.30 = 270 . 3 2 If 1. 5c +d 2 . multiplication. a2 11. 2. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. c = 2. x=^. 4.99. . . 14. d=Q. 5. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. Ex.
23. Read the expressions of Exs. a = 4. 6 = 5. Six times a plus 4 times 32. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).6 f c) (6 a + c). 35. = 3. sible to state Ex. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 26 of the exercise. Six 2 . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 24. 6 = 2. 6. 6 = 5. a. a = 4. Express in algebraic symbols 31. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 30. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. if : a = 2. : 6. physics. 25. and other sciences. a =3. .6 . a =4. 6=2. 28. 6 = 6. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. a = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs.c) (a . then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 27. a a=3. 38. 37. geometry. 33. 6 = 3. a = 3. 6 = 1. 26. 6. 6 = 4. 34. 6 = 6. a = 2. 29. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 7.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 30. 22.
g. 15 therefore feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. (b) 5. if v . if v = 30 miles per hour. the area of the triangle equals feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. .e. (c) 4. A train in 4 hours. b 14. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. c. 14. 2. i.16 centimeters per second. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 12. Find the height of the tree. d. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. 13. then a 13.16 1 = 84. count the resistance of the atmosphere. An electric car in 40 seconds. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.INTRODUCTION E. 84 square EXERCISE 1. b. and 15 feet.) Assuming g . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. and 5 feet. 4. and 13 inches. if v : a. and c 13 and 15 = = = .seconds.
5. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. 2 inches. This number cannot be expressed exactly. is H 2 units of length (inches.).14 square meters. the area etc. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. ~ 7n cubic feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 10 feet. the 3. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14 4. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 32 F. (c) 5 F. $ = 3. meters. . If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (The number 3. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). square units (square inches.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. : 8000 miles. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14d (square units). (c) 5 miles.
CHAPTER II ADDITION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. .$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. however. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. SUBTRACTION. or positive and negative numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.
+ (9). the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. c = = 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 10. = 5. lf(2). d = 5. subtract their absolute values and . and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 23. Thus. 12. 18. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 24.  0. d = 0. 5.16 32. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. '. 2326. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 33. (17) 15 + (14). if : a a = 2. . 5. 4. 6 6 = 3.3. 22. 4 is 3 J. c = 4. of: 20. of 2. + 12. the one third their sum. (_ In Exs. 19. is 0. 21. is 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign.
. 74. 38. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. : 34.. 27. 6. which are not similar. 7 yards. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. c = 0. 4. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 12. & = 15. 7 a. & 28. 40. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 72. . ^ ' 37. 4 F. ' 1? a 26. are similar terms. 35. 3 and 25. 1. 32. and 3 a. = 23. . and 4. 09.5. 2. and 3 F. 2. . : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 60.5. 11 (Centigrade).. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. $7000 gain. 31. 55. 41. \\ Add 2 a.3. . or and . 66. = 22. $500 loss. : 48. 10. $3000 gain. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. }/ Add 2 a. 33. and $4500 gain. 0. 32. = 13. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 42. 39. 13. 30. SUBTRACTION.7. 25. : and 1. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 10. 5 and 12. 10. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. d= 3.ADDITION. 37. $1000 loss. .4. 34. 36. 6. c=14. . . 3. 43. 29. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 7 a. and 3 a. and 8 F. sets of numbers: 13. ' Find the average of the following 34. affected by the same exponents.7.13. and 3 yards. 6.
: 2 a2. 5Vm + w. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. + 6 af . 2(af &). in algebra it may be considered b. 5 a2 . 13. EXERCISE Add: 1. 5l 3(af6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a . 2 . 12Vmfn. Vm f. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 14 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. f 4 a2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 9(af6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only.18 35.ii. 11.sign. 7 rap2. b a f ( 6). The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. or a 6. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.13 rap 25 rap 2. 10. 12(af b) 12. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 2 a&. Algebraic sum. . 12 2 wp2 .
i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2 7 1 26. c 2 ^24. 37. 35. 33. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. ra 19. l^S 25. n x* 2 22. 32. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 6 23. 36. 30. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 21. + / + 3 Va. + y. without finding the value of each term 34. 2/ : Add. 1 27. 17. SUBTRACTION. 2 2 2 31. is . a a8 ZL **. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . and to add each column. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms.ADDITION.
o c and 4. . 3 a f 4 1) 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. to add 26 ab . 7 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. f 110WS: 26 aft.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.g.20 c 5 ab 4. NOTE. 2 025. and J 2 s.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.15 abc . = .7 2 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. e. s. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .c= 2.41 = 3. 9 q 4. to show any error. 6=2. of that letter.15 6c.3 s. c = 1.g. 2 . . x of x.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. V3. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 4 = 7. a 4. 2 Thus. . ft any convenient and c.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 3.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.12 a& 4. 3a 2? . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. the erroneous answer equal 7.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 4 2. and 2 . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 5 . 46 4z 7 c. therefore the answer is correct. 2 Sum.8 abc .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5.
. and 5 Vb 18. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . .7m . 16e + 17/90. a) y ^/.1. 2 2 and . v/20. and and 13. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.9(a + &) . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. e a4 /.VS 4 2 Vc. 4(a .a . and v 15. xy3xz + yz. 2 ?ft ?/z.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a + 1> 8 2 2 .12. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.12(a 4. . SUBTRACTION.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 2 a. + 50 + 62 .(b + c) 1. 4 ajy 17. 16. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.12 6 ~5 a . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.6. . d and / 3 ? 12. .a.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 4 8 3 4 4 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 18/+6y + d. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4 3 . a2 2 14. . and 1 4 a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . . 7ar + 3B 5. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. a. a2 a.1 a 4 1 0. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. a 4 a . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2 3(c f a).3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . .10 Vc.15 5.7v/if.Ga 43x45. 3 2 2 3 9 . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 8.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .a 4 a 4 1. 56 w. + a + 1. in 8 3 m n 4. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2 and 9m 48m 4. and .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. ?/ .2n 2 2 3 rz .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 4.8 m 2m 12.4 Va . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2 2 . 11. 19. and 8 3 . m 4 6. .5a^6 f 6) .4:xy xz 6yz.ADDITION. d.a. ^2 1 e.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 4 Vc.and 6. a 4 a . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2 ?/.
f number may be added 3. 45a6 2 .5< 3 2 s 4^4.22 21. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. If you diminish a person's debts. 8 . + n*. 12 xyz.. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. c 3 3 3 2 3 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .9aj 2. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.3^* 2n 2 . 1.11 xy + 12. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and e + 6y . 13 1. + 1. +d a. 6 f c 2 23. many negative units re main ? from 2.17 + 4 ?nfy . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and 25. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. and 2 24. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 1. how 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.3 taken from 2 ? 5.ra + m. 1. f 1. T8a. s . The sum and ? 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . a 6 2 c. 22. . 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. f 1. 1/ . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. is 2.m 4m ?/?/ d. 1.
change the sign of the subtrahend and add.ADDITION. . State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. SUBTRACTION. 6 (3) = 8. To subtract. From 5 subtract to . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. two numbers are given. +b 3.3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 41. the given number the subtrahend. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract + 3.2. This gives by the same method. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. the other number is required. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 3. In addition. called the minvend. 1. 2. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . ( 6) ( = .g. a. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. ab = x. Ex. In subtraction. and the required number the difference. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Or in symbols. NOTE. if x Ex. Ex. 5 is 2. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. from What 3. and their algebraic sum is required. 7. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.
3 x* . If x = l = 2 t .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check. Ex.5 x + 8.3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 .
2. 55. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.6)f. 44. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . + a the 2 a. . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 50. 53. 42. 41.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. and 3 7/ . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 54.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 46.2. c f d. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.w>t.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 43. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 51. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 6 4 a. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.7 a .ADDITION. 56. 52. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.a 2 j.4 a^ 4. From 2 a take a & j. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 6(af.c. SUBTRACTION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 58.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .4 a*& + 6 a & . +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 57. 45. 2y 2 . tract 4 x 3. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 49. 47. 48. of a 4.
2 m 21. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. +a add the difference duce 13. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 9. a a + c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a + 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. subtract # + 1. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.26 4. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 6 + c. A is n years old.15. of # 2 8. 16. 20. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 6. 19. a 2y + z. 6 17. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. + 2.
Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.6 b f (. 45. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. a+(bc) = a +b . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. one occurring within the other.g. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. 46. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.2 b . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.b c = a a & f f.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. SUBTRACTION. Ex. I. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.c.a^6)]  } . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.ADDITION. & f c. II. changed. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. the sign is understood.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.
+ (2a 6 + c ). 13.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.: Ex. : x + (2yz). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 19. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 271 + (814 . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 3. Signs of aggregation 1. may be inserted according to 43. 18. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). (m a2 f. m f ft) a. a (a + 26 c ). ? 11. 16. 14. 3 3 f 7. By removing parentheses. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 21.1422) J ] . 6. 15. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). find the numerical value of { 1422 .[271 47.+ 6)f (a2 b). 17. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. .(a + 6). 8. a f (a a . 9.)]. In the following expression inclose the second and third. [36+ (a 2c].y (60.) 5 .7i h jp) (m ?*. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 6) 2. 2. 2 2a. 4. 5. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. Ex. a (a + 6). 2 2 2 a(.
2. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 6. The difference of a and 6. of the cubes of m and n. 7.ADDITION. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. terms 5. 13. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 3. first. 8.7fa. 5. The product The product m and n.1. 9. m and n. 12. 5 a2 2.2 tf . II. 4. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 6 diminished . ' NOTE. y f 8 . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. and the subtrahend the second. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. z + d. 3.4 y* . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. p + q + rs. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. SUBTRACTION. difference of the cubes of n and m. )X 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. m x 2 4. 5^2 _ r . . 7. a\l> > c + d. 10. 2mn + 2q3t. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The sum^)f m and n. The square of the difference of a and b.
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6. (Let a and b represent the numbers. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 18. 6 is equal to the square of b. 16. d.30 14. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.
weights. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. If the two loads balance. A A A 1. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 2. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. two loads balance. 3. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 5. force is produced therefore. 4. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. therefore. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.
4 multi44444 12. Thus.4)(. 48.9) x 11. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. the multiplier is a negative number. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 multiplied by 3. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. To take a number 7 times.4)(4) = + 12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. becomes meaningless if definition. (. (5)X4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.32 8. NOTE. or plied by 3. . or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 4x(3)=12. x 11. however. 9 x ( 11). ( (. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. Practical examples^ it however. thus. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 9. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 5x(4).
(4J). _2^ 3.a)( =+ a&.3. 27. (2)x9. Ua b 28. 1. 16. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 5x3. 3. 12.4. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. (. (c#) . _2. 9. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 1. 6 2. 14. (2) 8 (. 7. +5. of Signs: TJie positive. 2a 2 6c. Law Thus. 3 a2?/2 .(a&c) 2 2 . 22. 30. (4)'. 23. If a cal = 4a6c. 29. x= 0. 11. 20. etc. 4. 5. 17. 13. 3 aW.MULTIPLICATION 50. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . about fac (2)X If 6. 19. z s 11 aWcx. and y = 4.2 f+x 2 . 4 . find the numeri values of: 21. . . 8. 2. 2a6 c .2f 18. 6.7. . NOTE. 4 a2 . (4)X(15). c = 25. 24. 32. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. x. 6. X(5). and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 3. 26. b = 3. 8 31. 15. 8 4 . (10) 4 .3) (1) 7 2 . _3. 10. the parenthesis frequently omitted.2. (7) X (12). . is 6x7.
3. IB. 2(7. 2 2 3 6 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 127  127 9 7 . 78 .. B.7. 4.503). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.. i. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a 2 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 1.m a 3  4 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 6. 10.257). 4. .<?.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. or 2 .(7). 6" 127 U . (a6) (a5) 9. 50(112. 5 = 2. 7. 5 . 6 = . 36. 200. =2 a *. a8 a=2. .35). = 2. 12 U U . : 3a7abc. By 3 definition. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .3). + 2/). 2. 2(14.  and 2 25 8 . . Ex.6 if 35.2 2 23 + 5 . a= 1. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 3 2 . 100. &*) c d*. . 17. 5 3 5 3 2 . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 2.(2. 34.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . m*. 16. & = 3. 4. 6 = 1. Ex. a = 3. 53. 5(711. 6 aWc x . 2 3 .2). 5. 11. 2 2 2 . 3 3 4 . a = 2. 9 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. of the factors. .(12) . fl*" integers.e. 14.  2 2. 3. This 52. 13.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .
MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 2 32. 7p*q r*. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 3(124342). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. .3 win ) . 27. 28. 29. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. ) 2 33. but we shall assume it for any number. .6. 23. 35. 7.2 3 aft ).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 12( + 1 4 i). 3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. c(4a ftc ). . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . 26. 21. multiply each by the monomial. 6. 20. This principle. 34. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .7pqt. . 5.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 22. 25. by first multiplying.A). 31. 11(3. . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. called the distributive law.7 w'W (8 n^W). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . (. 2(645410). 2(5fl5f25). 24. 6(10420430). _4aft. 17(10041042). and then adding : 1.4a#.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. If results ft.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .f 2). 2. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 23(10004100420). 35 4 7(6. 4.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. Thus we have in general a(b 56. /). (. 19.
^ c + 2 . 12. 23.60 a& 10 aft. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 11.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.we b) (x law. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 28.5 w*V f 7 wn). be multiplied to give 4o. 3 ). 17. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 26. 21. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 22.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 27. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 20. ~2mn(m +n p ).asa product. 2 2 16.5 x 7).2 mn(9 mV . 7 a 6 c(.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 29.6 a6). 19. 5). By what 25. : expression must 24. f7a. . 30. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . Find the factors of 6 ary . 9. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. . 2 m(mhn \p).3 aftc). .
Ex.3 a 2 + a8 . the student should apply this test to every example. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Since errors. To multiply two polynomials. Multiply 2 + a a. Multiply 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Check. 2. Since all powers of 1 are 1. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. a2 + a8 + 3 .4.3 b by a 5 b. however.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 59. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.a . 2a3b a66 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.1.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.
28. 4 2). 8. 36. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 26. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). * For additional examples see page 261. 6. 2 . (4a 2 33. 9. 11. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). l)(raf 2). 10. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . OQ OO.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 24. 2) (3 A: 1). 25.2m)(l m).2). (6p (2 f 21. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 36) I) 14. 3. 7y). 3<7). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 20. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 22. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 16. 40. (a^26) . 15. 18. a 5c)(2a6c). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). ^ 2 . (2w 19. (2 x* x 2 . (6a~7) 2 . 29. 31. . 2 .1 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).4) (mnp 4. 12)(a?^2l). 35. 1). (6i7n)(llJn).4) (x + 1). 41. 12. 13. 2  37. 30.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. I (mfn)(m4. 7. 4. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. QQ O7. 32. 17. (8r7*)(6r39. 5. 36). (13 A. 2. .n)(m 8 n)(m n).
(!)(* 5). . = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 15. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. i. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (100 +2) (100 + 3).13). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 20. 28. in of the two unequal terms. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 17. 21.e. 11. + 3) (a 7). 2 6) (a 3 6). : 23 2.n)(wf w). 22. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. . (J 23. 10. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. _3)(a _4). 75 ab f 54 ft . (p12)(p + ll). 2) (1000 + 3). plus the product 62. + 60)(f2). . plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. + 9)(m+9). (a 9) (a + 9). (a 102 x 103. 24. 3. 12. (ra. X 102. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 6. 14. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 25. 1005x1004. plus the product of the two unequal terms. + 5) (1000 + 4). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (10+ (1000 (2.4). 18. (a (a (a. ft 16. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 8. 1) (10 + 2).2 6) (a f 6).25)(y+4). + 2) (a f 3). 25 a 2 . 2 a? 29. (*.e. 27. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 9. 26. (a3)(a + 2). 19.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 7. i. (6 12) (6 f.!!)( (a + 21). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 13.
e.e. n2 10ii+16.66 s. . plus sum of two numbers the square II. 35. . 7. p 2 p.e. + 3) 2 . (a2) (p a . . 2 5. 37. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. and the second. 49 y*. 33. 7 a + 10. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. III. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (x+3i/) 2 .15. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 2 (a (*5) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. : 24 (a 2. w 2 ro . 77ie square of the of the first. 8. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 6. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 9. 32. i. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .30. plus twice the product of the first and the second. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. of the second. 34. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . <J>7) J . 63. + 6 a + 8. plus the square of the second. (a26) 2 . Ex. i. 31. 4. second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 3. a2 2 w + 2 w . III.15.
(m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 44. (6afy 2 5) (a. (20 f 1) . The product of 57. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 22 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 51. 54. 103 36. (1000 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 25 a 9. 40. 31.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 41 16. 11.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 J ). a2 9. 998x1002. 2 2 . . (100 + 2) (100 2). 15. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 62 25n 2 . m 2 16. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. 46. 42. (^. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 22. 2 . 7& ) 25. 55.998 39. ). 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 41. 24. 17. . I) 2 . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 29. 52. + 5)(5+a). + 3z) 2 2 . 2 . ( 27. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 28. n*6n+9. 2 . 47. 38. By actual multiplication. 49. . 45. 14. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 33. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 35. 9 a2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 21. 48. G> +5g)*. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 16aW25. 32. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. n 2 f4n+4. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 23. 12. 991 2 2 . (2x3yy. 104 2 37. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 18. 34. + 5). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 99x101. 4 53.
(5a4)(4al). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. . or The student should note minus signs.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 11. ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 13. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 3. 14. (5a64)(5a&3). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 7. 5. ((5a? (10 12. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (2a3)(a + 2). 2 10. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.& + c) = a + tf + c . 9. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 4. (4s + y)(32y). 65. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). : 25 2. 8. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. sum of the cross products. The square 2 (a 4. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 6. plus the last terms. (3m + 2)(ml).
(a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.1 5 = 10 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).3) (x . 6.39.24 .39. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 8. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.5).3) . Check. 66.4) .(x .24] . 4y sf n) 2 . (u4& + 3c'. 3.4) . 9. 7.29.(= [ Xa + 2 . Hence. 13. 4.r _ 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.5) = (7 . and check the answers !.8 x + 15] . . 5. a.(>. = 10 x . 12.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 2 2. (xy+z)*. = . of z : 10. + 65) . 5. 6(a 2. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 4(* + 2)5(3). 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.X2 + 2 x .[a? . n). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 3.(m 2 6. 2)6. (  2 4) =  20 a. 8. Find the square root 11. after multiplying the factors of a term.i2&c) 2 . (a (. Ex. + 6)( . 7. 4(aj2)h3(7). In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3)(z. 6~2(a + 7).y? + 8 . If x = 1.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
16. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. . 18. 51 15.l.2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).2) (3 a . v/17. (81 m + 1 .DIVISION 14. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .11 a + 9 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 20. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.e. Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). a I. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . 19. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).
121a a 16 100 11. 12. . 15.49.000. 10. : the following w a 4 !. . 16. 14.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 4 b. 1. 100ry.0001. aW 12 a. 9& 2 . r/ 1. f 13. 16 . 36 a4 ?/ 4 .
The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. is said to satisfy an equation.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. in the equation 2 x 0. (a + ft) (a b) and b. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the 80. 82. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. second member is x + 4 x 9. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. x 20. 81. . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 83. . =11. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . the first member is 2 x + 4.
. A 2 a.g. x I. 90.e. To solve an equation to find its roots. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 87. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.54 84. the products are equal. 3. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. If equals be multiplied by equals. . but 4 does not equal 5. the remainders are equal. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A term may be transposed from its sign. one member to another by changing x + a=. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 5. E. 85. the quotients are equal. NOTE. Transposition of terms. called axioms 1. If equals be subtracted from equals. 86. A numerical equation is one in which all . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the sums are equal.b. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 4. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 89. 2 = 6#f7. a. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be added to equals. the divisor equals zero. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .2. 2. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.
Uniting similar terms. b Adding a to both + a.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.2 y= f . Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Unite similar terms. 2(11 . The first member. Ex. 91. if 55 x members. 2 x = 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The second member. . 3 y . and the known terms to the second. The first member. 6a5 = 185 = 13. (4y)(6. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. a? Adding 5 to each term. is correct.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.6 y f y\ . Uniting. f If y 20 . b c.9 y + y2 = 22 . x = 93. if a x = b. To solve a simple equation. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. x = (Axiom 3) 92.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. x = 3. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.8. 4x 1 + 6.2. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Check. Dividing both members by 2. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Hence the answer. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Transposing. a= a 6fc. Dividing by Check.
3. 15. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. =2 = 3. : 5# = 15+2a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). = 7. aj * See page 264. = 3. 3 7 a.7a: = 394a. a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 21. 13a? 3a?. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. etc. . = 5a?+18. 2. {(x (x The The member right member left . 7. If x = 18. + 16 = 16 + 17. 17 + 5a. Uniting. 11. 19. 4a + 5 = 29. 13 y 99 = 7 y.. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 7a? 5. 3)= 9(3 7 a.56 Ex. 7 (6 x 16).17 + 4y = 36. 24. 8. a. \x x 2^xfl. 4. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). it NOTE. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. . 11 ?/ a? 18.69. 16. = 2 ?/. x x 1 . BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. a? a?. and check the answers 9. x = 18.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). a. 32 = 264. 22. 6. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 50. Solve the following equations by transposing. 17 7 a. J.7. 12. 9 9a? = 7 13. Transposing. 20. 247y = 68lly. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 14. v23. + 22. 4y 10. f Simplifying. 3.
32. . + 7) (.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.4) + 4 w . . 31. 30. 7) (a. 36.1) (u .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. this question.14 = 0. . 33.3) + 14.12) (2 + 5) .5(2 u . 2 2 * Jaj. e. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 5) (as (a. . 34.7.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 39. . 35.2) (M . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 41. 38. 7(7 x y 26.5) = (a. (a.7) (7 x + 4) . .g. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. + 4). 42. find the other part. 29. (6 u =5 44. Evidently 45. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (aj 37. a? 43. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 27. 6(6a. : One part is of 70 is 25 .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 25. a? 28. . or 70 a?. . 40.3) + . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.(2 + 6) (4 .1 0) = 0. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. is the other part.3) .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.5) + 199. .
Divide 100 into two 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 9. Divide a into two parts.58 Ex. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. is d. one part equals is 10. 14. and the smaller one parts. or 12 7. greater one is g. 7. is a? 2 is c?. so that one part Divide a into two parts. so that one part The difference between is s. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 11. 13. 33 2. Find the greater one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 5. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 6. If 7 2. 4. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. is b. so that of c ? is p. find the cost of one yard. 10. 15. 1. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 6. 3. Ex. EXERCISE 1. 17. a. smaller one 16.
feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 32. and B is y years old. and spent 5 cents. sum If A's age is x years. 19. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. numbers is x. is A A is # years old. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 33. Find 21. If B gave A 6 25. Find 35. 22. A feet wide. How many cents had he left ? 28. 28. b dimes. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and c cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. ?/ 31. 34. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the has ra dollars. 24. 20. and B's age is y years. A man had a dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. and B has n dollars. 28. How many cents has he ? 27. amount each will then have. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 26. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. A room is x feet long and y feet wide.
If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. 48. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. of 4. find the fraction. of m. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. The first pipe x minutes. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find x % % of 1000. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. m is the denominator. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. he walk each hour ? 39. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. Find the number. a. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. 46. Find a 47. The two digits of a number are x and y. .50.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. . A was 20 years old. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). c a b =  9. % % % of 100 of x. 49. Find a. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.
EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. of a and 10 equals 2 c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 80. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. of a increased much 8. 3. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. of x increased by 10 equals x. by one third of b equals 100. 6. 5. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. same result as 7 subtracted from . 80. c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . etc. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The double as 7. double of a is 10. 9. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 2. a exceeds b by c. c. The excess of a over b is c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 4.
18. and C have respectively 2 a. B's age 20. 14. . amounts. sum equals $20. 50 is x % of 15. 3 1200 dollars. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. pays to C $100. as 17 is is above a. m is x % of n.000. A gains $20 and B loses $40. is If A's age is 2 x. a. B's.62 10. symbols B. (c) If each man gains $500. 16. they have equal of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 12. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a second sum. and C's age 4 a. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. x is 100 x% is of 700. 17. >. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. #is5%of450. B. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. x 4 If A. a. they have equal amounts. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.. 11. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 6 % of m. In 10 years the sum of A's. and C's ages will be 100. B's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. of 30 dollars.
the . etc. Simplifying. denote the unknown 96. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 2. Uniting. the required . 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Three times a certain no. Uniting. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Find A's present age. Transposing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 1. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Let x = the number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. be 30 . The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 23 =30. Check. NOTE. In 15 years 10. number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 6 years ago he was 10 . but 30 =3 x years. number of yards. In order to solve them. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x The (2) = A's present age. x = 20. A will Check. 15. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Ex. x= 15. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Transposing. Dividing. much as 40 exceeds the number. 4 x = 80. 3z40:r:40z. x+16 = 3(35). Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Ex.
Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Let x 3. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. twice the number plus 7. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 3. Find the number. Dividing. EXERCISE 1. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the number. . 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 4. by as much as 135 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Six years hence a 12 years ago.2. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 300 56. A will be three times as old as toda3r .64 Ex. 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. % of 120. 13. Hence 40 = 46f. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. A number added number. Forty years hence his present age. Find 8. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 5. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 11.
statements are given directly. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and B has $00.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. five If A gives B $200. The problem consists of two statements I. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. x. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x.000. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. times as much as A. 1. B How will loses $100. How many dol A has A to $40. 97. During the following 90 years. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. Ex. Vermont's population increased by 180. . How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Maine's population increased by 510. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. If A gains A have three times as much 16.000. A and B have equal amounts of money. 14. The other verbal statement. which gives the value of 8. two verbal statements must be given. F 8. is the equation. One number exceeds the other one by II. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and as 15. the second one. written in algebraic symbols. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. B will have lars has A now? 17. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. 65 A and B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.
the smaller number. Then. x 3x 4 and B will gain. terms of the other. x x =14 8. A will lose. the greater number. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as viz. . If A gives are : A If II.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as many as A. Uniting. unknown quantity in Then. = 14. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. < Transposing. Let x 3x express one many as A. = B's number of marbles. I. = 3. = A's number of marbles. A has three times as many marbles as B. 8 the greater number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. although in general the simpler one should be selected. If we select the first one. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. . in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. to Use the simpler statement. 8 = 11. x = 8. / . Dividing. 2x a? x j = 6. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 14 I the smaller number. consider that by the exchange Hence. + a f f 8 = 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. which leads ot Ex. and Let x = the Then x +. 2. 25 marbles to B. Statement x in = the larger number. The two statements I. A gives B 25 marbles.
Uniting.$3. 15 + 25 = 40. by 44. 40 x . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). dollars and dimes is $3. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Eleven coins.10. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x = the number of half dollars. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Find the numbers. Simplifying. 1. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. have a value of $3. B's number of marbles. and the Find the numbers. 60. * 98. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Check. then. The number of coins II.25 = 20. the number of dimes. cents. A's number of marbles. Uniting. Dividing. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Check. 50 x Transposing.10. but 40 = 2 x 20. (Statement II) Qx . The sum of two numbers is 42. 11 x = 5. x from I. 50. x = 15. 2. The value of the half : is 11. Simplifying. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). x = 6.75. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. * ' . Two numbers the smaller. is 70. Find the numbers. 3.. 6 times the smaller. the price. etc. w'3.550 f 310.5 x . of dollars to the number of cents. 3 x = 45. Let 11 = the number of dimes. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. greater is . the number of half dollars.240.. 45 . . Dividing. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.10..
? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 7. What is the altitude of each mountain 12.000 feet. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the altitude of Mt.. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many 14 years older than B. How many inches are in each part ? 15. one of which increased by 9. as the larger one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 11. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the number. How many hours does the day last ? . and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. McKinley. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 6. A's age is four times B's. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.68 4. On December 21. 5. Find their ages. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. United States. Twice 14. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 9. Everest by 11. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's.
and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. = 48. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. has. Let x II. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. . or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. has. and B has three as A. 1. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and C together have $80. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 19. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Ex. If 4x = 24. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. then three times the money by I. and 68. III. x = 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. B. The third verbal statement produces the equation. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. bers is denoted by x. number of dollars A had. II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. they would have 3. I. times as much as A. and C together have $80. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. are : C's The three statements A. original amount. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. B has three times as much as A. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols.
4 x f 8 = 28. III. and each sheep $ 15. according to III. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. The I. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 185 a = 925. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. each cow $ 35. = the number of dollars spent for horses. the third five times the first. each horse costing $ 90. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 28 2 (9 5). + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Dividing. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. sheep. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 9 5 = 4 .70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. first. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 90 may be written. 2. 9 cows. number of sheep. x f 4 = 9. + 8 90 x and. The total cost equals $1185. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. + 35 x 4. number of cows.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x = 5. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. number of horses. and. and the sum of the . three statements are : IT. Uniting. according to II. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. number of cows. and Ex. Let then. x Transposing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 1 1 Check. x j = the number of horses.
and the third exceeds the is second by 5. increased by three times the second side. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If twice The sum the third side. twice the 6.  4. the third 2. how many children were present ? x 11. men. New York delphia.000.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first. 9. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and children together was 37. the copper. A 12. and 2 more men than women. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first. "Find three is 4. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 7. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. equals 49 inches. twice as old as B. the second one is one inch longer than the first. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the length of each? has 3. 13. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. v .000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). women. The gold. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. what is the population of each city ? 8. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.
Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.g.000. or time.000. number of miles A x x walks. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 35. The copper had twice the value of the gold. After how many hours will they meet and how E. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. i. together. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. but stops 2 hours on the way. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. such as length. = 5. Let x = number of hours A walks. First fill in all the numbers given directly.e. speed. . width. and distance. we obtain 3 a. Find the value of each. how many 100. and quantities area. 7 Uniting. 14. number of hours. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. of 3 or 4 different kinds.000. 3 and 4. A and B apart. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 8 x = 15.000 more than that the copper. Dividing. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Hence Simplifying. of arid the value of the iron was $300.
M(x . Check. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Find the dimensions of the field. z = 20. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. original field has Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.06 = $ 40. l. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. x . $ 800 = required sum. + 8. Multiplying. But 700 certain = 800 2. or 700. the second 100. Transposing and uniting.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify." gives (2. x + 200).05 x x . 2   and transpose. were increased by 30 yards. 2 a = 40.01 = = .04 = $ 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards.053. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.04 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. $ 1000 x . 10 x = 200. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x . . . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 70x10 Ex. the area would be 100 square yards less. $ 800 = 800.
3. A man bought 6 Ibs. and a second sum. but four men failed to pay their shares. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7.55. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. of coffee for $ 1. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. 1.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. were increased by 3 yards. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. twice as large. A sets out later two hours B . sions of the field. 2. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Ten yards $ 42. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. What are the two sums 5. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. After how many hours will B overtake A. mobile. A of each. as a 4. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. together bring $ 78 interest. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. invested at 5 %. the area would remain the same. Six persons bought an automobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Find the share of each.
how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles.
we shall not. a. irrational. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. consider 105. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. which multiplied together are considered factors. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. as. but fractional with respect 103. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it is composite. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if it does contain some indicated root of . 76 . at this 6 2 . An after simplifying. a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 104. 6. + 62 is integral with respect to a. this letter. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. a2 to 6. 5. stage of the work. f db 6 to b. vV . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . expression is rational with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.
109. 2.3 6a + 1). . 77 Factoring is into its factors. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. it follows that a 2 .g. ?/. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 1.62 + &)(a 2 . x. or that a = 6) (a = a .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. factors of 12 &V is are 3. Factor G ofy 2 . in the form 4) +3. 01. It (a. 107. 2. 55.62 can be &). 110. y. TYPE I. for this result is a sum.3 sy + 4 y8). x. 2. Divide 6 a% . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.) Ex. E. Ex. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.FACTORING 106. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 8) (s1).9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .
51 x4 2 6 xy s .30 aty.12 cdx. 34 a^c 8 . 5f 2 . 12. Ilro8 9. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. a6c.2.5 + 13 8. 19. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. . 2 Or. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. e.3. TYPE IT. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 2 + q.g.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 17. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 3. 2 2 . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 14. 4 tfy f. 15 2 7.45 afy . 32 a *?/ . 18. in general. (as 3) and (ccf5). 2 6.4. 4. 14a 4 5.51 aW + 68 21. 3x*6x*. 7a & 10. .5 + 2. 15. 13. 3 2 . 16. obviously. 11. 20. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.3. a a 'Ja . 7i 13.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .4. 2 23. 2. + llm llm. 3 3 5 6.6. 8. q*q*q 2 a. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).8 c a 15 ofyV .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 4 8 . : 6 abx . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. ) 22  2. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.
Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Factor x? .a). can be factored. If q is negative. 77 as the product of 1 77. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 . . or 77 l.G) = . of this type.1 1 a tf a 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Factor a2 . and (a . tfa2  3.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 4. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Ex.FACTORING Ex. 79 Factor a2 4 x .11. Ex.11 a 2 .6 = 20.. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. . however.11 a + 30.11) (a + 7). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 11 7. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.30 = (a . 2 6. 3. the two numbers have opposite signs. + 112. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. a 2 . We may consider 1.4 x . as p. Factor + 10 ax . + 30 = 20. Therefore Check. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.5) (a . m 5m + 6. 2. If q is positive.77 = (a. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 5.5) (a 6). 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. or 7 11. . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.
19. 100 xr . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 21 a 2 2 . TYPE 113. 35. 31. 13. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 14. 29. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 9. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 36. 25.80 7. + 44. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. x2 23. 2 ?/ 22. 18.500 x + 600. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. ITT. 32. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 4 3 2 .180 a. and 5 x. + 4?/21.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .70 x y . 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. a 2 +11 a a? 16. + 2xS. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 . 16. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.48 + + 446 200. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. a 7 a 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 33. 2 2 . + 5<y 24.17 + 30. 2 ?/ 28. ra + 25ra + 100. 30. a? + 5 + 6 a. 11. 17. or . 20. 15. ay 11 ay +24. 21. 27. 4 2 . 16. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 8. + 30. . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 24. . 26.6. 12. . 2 . 2 2 a' 34. 2 ?/ 5?/14. a2 .
31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 27 x 2. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. Ex.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. the If p and r are positive.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.83 x f 54.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.1). all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 6 x 9. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. X x 18. or G 114. and that they must be negative. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Factor 3 x 2 . 18 x 3. 54 x 1. and r is negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 2 x 27. sible 13 x negative. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 3 x and x. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. a. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 11 x 2x. 9 x 6.5) (2 x .5 . If p is poxiliw. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs. viz. . 2. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. .13 x + 5 = (3 x .
. 11. 10. 144 x . 10 a . 2m t7w + 3. 10a?2 2 33. f go. . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2 . 2 fc . 2 28. 5. . 29. 2 26. and the monomial factors should be removed. 22. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 6. 30. 9 y + 32^16. 20. : 41 2.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. + 2/3. 21. 7. 2.83 x . 24. 19. 2 . 15. 2 2 2 23. 18. 9.83 x = (3 . 90 a 8 2 .163 x 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 10a2 G a2 2 . + 4. 2x* + 9x5. 16. 100^200^ + 100^. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 12. 5m 26m f 5. 2 2 2 . 6n + 5?i4. 9a.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 14 a fa 4.300 ab 2 f4 250 .30 y 6 4 .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 17. 13. 14.2 a 90 x*y . 3. since all others (II. 32.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. x54 a. Sar' + SaG. 4. 8.y + 172/9. the expressions should be it. 4a2 9tt + 2.19 a f 6. 12^17^16.179. 35.2) (x .7. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 3x*Sx + 4. 34. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. X 27 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.27). 12y 2/6. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 3a + 13a. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.260 xy . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 25. 2 31.
of its terms are perfect squares. . 5. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. and factor whenever possible : 1.e. 2. 12. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 13. 9. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 10.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. i. square. it is a perfect square. form are special cases of the preceding type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 116. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 2 2 . it is more convenient for that type. 14. 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.26 ab + 9 6 2 . must have a positive sign. 9 10a625. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*.20 xy f 4 y\ .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 25 7. however. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2 9 10gf25. 6. 4. 3. x* . . To factor a trinomial which maining term.10 x f 16. 16 y? The student should note that a term. and a perfect square. 8. 11. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.
36 2 4. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. aV . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). a2 24. u2 6& + 2 ( ). V. 6. 27. 10 a 2 4 2 . 1. 9a2 . ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. product i. 16&*.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . ). 149 a 81 8. . 18. 225 ofy .6 m* + 9 m.64 6 = 16(a .60 a# + 4. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 26. +( )f816 30. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. prime.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 2 .84 15. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 9.e. 2. 25. 2 20. Ex. 2 . 4 2 23. According to 65. 3.20 ab + 10 b a . a. 4a2 l.2 ofy + ofy m . a. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 7. 2 . 6 2 . 17. 48 a +( ). 3. 5. 19. ). . TYPE 117. * 2 . + GO + 25.3 * ). 2. 29. !Gar 9 ( )+25.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 22. ^//c to the Ex. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.
T. (m7?) y. 2.(c 4.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . a:) 12. 14. 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Factor a 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 36> . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .d) 2 . of polynomials. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. a2 . 6. Ex.c . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2. 11. Ex. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 16p 2 . 4.FACTORING 85 118. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 8. 5. 2 .(I) . 9. 13. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .
ab + bx. 10.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. a 26 2 2 3 . 119.14. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 6. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. = (3 x + y .2 ) (3 x . 7. 8. 4:cx . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.y + 2 2).(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 3. ma ?*a + m& nb.r. .1. which may be factored according to types I. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. Ex. 1. Ex. 4 B. a5 + ab 6 . 12. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. A. x8 . a? 11. 5. + x + 2x + 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.VI. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 2.7 c + 2c . 5) . By grouping. 9. After grouping tain a the terms. ive find that the new terms con common factor.a a . 2.and trinomials. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.
2a3/ 7. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. $ a8 . 2.9 a2 4 v* 2 .4 f . . : m 2 2 16. w m 2. + 2xy + y*q*. 8. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6 6. 3. Arranging the terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 5. 4. 4.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. : 46 x* 2. 2 7. 2.l.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 6a4 12a2 + 6. First find monomial factors common to all terms. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 . 36 9 m . 6. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .FACTORING Ex.12 aaj 4 6y. = (a + 6)(a6). IV. 8ra 2 + 16. 3. 4 a2 . 8. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. II.
a. 2 17. 40. 11. 13 c . 5a' 20. a6 36. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.24. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 80 a 2 ft 38. 50^ + 45. 3 25.88 10. 32. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 28.40. 19. . 4 a. 18. 25 a + 25 aft . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.13 c . 4 8 tt 2 z . 5 a. + 14. 35. 2 3#4 3a2 36. + 6 aft + 3 . 22. a + a + a + l. 24. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 13. 3 2 . 3 41. 12. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 14. 27.156. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 3 a2 23. or 3 7#2 . 29. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 2 a 128. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 42 s 2 . (a. 30. 42 x . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 48. (^ 34.310 x . a3 156. 2 ft .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.
of a 7 and a e b 7 . of the algebraic expressions. C. EXERCISE Find the H. F. 6. 5 7 34 2s . 54  32 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 3. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 12 tfifz. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . of two or more monomials whose factors . 8 . F. 15 aW. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. The highest is common factor (IT. of : 48 4. C. F. F. C. The H. 3 . The H. 121. II 2 . 2. 2 2 . F. The student should note H. aW. C. F. 5.  23 3 . C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . . 122.) of two or more . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 13 aty 39 afyV. Two common factor except unity The H. C. 5 2 3 . 25 W. F. F. F. 89 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 5 s 7 2 5. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. Thus the H. are prime can be found by inspection. of aW. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 24 s . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. C. of 6 sfyz. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .
12 as 66 . 12. 2 . Ex. 15. 11. 9 aj*(a? . 12 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 38 #y. 8 a 10 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x .y) 123. 10.6 . ^f a. 2 .6. 9. 95 2/V. F. 8. 12 w*nw 8. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.7 xy + 10 2 = (x .8 a + 16. y + 3y64.# 4 afy f 4 . of polynomials. 24 a 2 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . Find the H. . 4(m+l) 3 . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7. . a2 . . 1. 15 3ao. 4 ?io. 65 zfyV. 1. of: . = x 2 y. 2 . 16 a . . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 13.5 + 6. a3 9a. 12.5 x3?/ 2 6. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .5 y). x* x2 Hence the H. 0^80:416.?/ . 3 . 8(?/ifl) 14. 6 mx . a2 ar* 4. 8 6. 16. 14. 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 8. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . a 3a4. 225 4a 9 . C.6 a&.^9. ^2 2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 52 oryz4. 13. C. 2. 9.2 y) (a. aWd. 57 a>V. ^707 + 12.y) . (a7 ?/) . a. . 2a f5af 2. 49 C. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. ^a + 5^ + 6.2 ?/) (x . and apply the method of the preceding article. To find the H. 10. a2 + 7af!2. 6(m+l) (m+2). F. 25 m27i. F. 3. . 11. 6 a2 y? .y + y42. 6 3 a. C.90 7. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. F. of + 4 if. 3^ 2 4 . a3 16 a. 3). a2 + 2a3. 5.
C. &) 2 M. of several expressions which are not completely factored. Ex. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. two lowest common multiples.C. 126. C. etc. L. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Hence the L. which also signs. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 300 z 2 y. . 2 The The L.M. The L. M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. A common remainder. M. M. C. ory is the L. 127. 60 x^y' 2 . C. of the general.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Ex. but opposite . To find the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of tfy and xy*. NOTE. 1. Common 125. C. C. M. M of the algebraic expressions.6 3 ). = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .M.6)2.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. =4 a2 62 (a2 . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. thus. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. The lowest common multiple (L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. a^c8 3 . L. of 3 aW. C. 128. Find the L. M. 2. C. Find the L. . each set of expressions has In example ft). resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C.
17.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a f 2 19. 6b 2 . ic 2 ?/. 8 d 5 . 1. xy\ . 2 . 3 Z> . 2 . 21. afc'cd 2 . 5. a. + 2 7i) . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 14. 6 y. 40 abJ. 4 a 5 6cd. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 20 9 a. 24. 3 ab. 15. x* ~5a. 3(a + b). 2 x \2 y. 6 a. #. 2(m 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. 18. 2 a. 6. 30 a. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a 2 a3 . 2 a . a2 4. 3 6 xif. Find the L. 4 a . x 2 5 a. T a 3 a 2 . a?b.f 6. f b. 2 10. 8 afy. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . .1. 2 . y*. + 2. afy. 8. 5 a? 5 a? y. ) . 3. a 2 f 4 a +4. x2 + 4 a f 4. + 6. 3 . a. ic 23. . 3 f2. 20. 3. 11. M. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a^1. by. a& 4 +& 2 . a2 ~ab 1. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a . a f 3. b 2 . a 1. 2. 24 x. a. 7. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a 2 fa6. 16. G a. or f 3 a 15 #. 2 7ic+10. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 22. a !. of: 4. 9. 4 a f 2. a { a~b. 13.1.
If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. 131. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . and i x mx = my y terms A 1.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. F. and denominators are considered. rni Thus 132. a b = ma mb . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. an indicated quotient. Thus. Remove tor.ry ^ by their H. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. A f fraction is b. etc. as 8. however. successively all 2 j/' . a?. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Ex. 130. C. but we In arithmetic. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.
Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. . 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 2. Ex. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .
n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. . 23. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 29. . ny 4 18. 19. ' ^ .*.' 32. ^" a. LJZJ^JL. ^+3*. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .10 a + 3 2 14. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. nx 17. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^' rt ^  31.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . """. 9x + "a" 10.7 . 11 ^ Mtr f . 16.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 5^10 y 30.. _ 3 7i rt< 26. g J 21.
C. 2> . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by the denominator of each fraction.C. ^ to their lowest com The L. Reduce ^. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. C. and 135. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. =(z (x + 3)(z. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .M.M.~16 (a + 3) (x. C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we may extend this method to integral expressions. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. we have the quotients (x 1). 1).D. .  of //* 2 .r 2 2 .96 134. and the terms of ***. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. of the denominators for the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. we have M^.3) (!)' = . mon T denominator. Ex.  by 4 6' .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. TheL. and (a 8).1^22 ' . Divide the L. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. . 1. + 3). multiplying the terms of 22 .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . take the L. .
137.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .^1. common denominator 6.. 3. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 8 i i. 2 ay IB. 22 a2 5a * .. If the given fractions have different denominators. i.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . 74). j y 3. 2aj ~ . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2. o o a.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.oj o* or / . .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. . 18. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). JL. . a? 1 5 > ^* . 5?. 7i 2 ab* ".
in the beginning.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. ^ is 2^JT) .. T? Ex. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .aft) Ca2 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). 2. C. (a ft).. L. and adding. D. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. (a . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft 2).g. 4(2 a 3 ft).3 .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. The L.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 = a(a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.2 ' 2 _. the student should remember that parentheses are . as 4 aft f. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .ft)(a . D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft).7 . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . e.ft) (a ft ft)~.(a 2 6). 2 ^. ft).
20. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 18 v 19. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + . 24. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 46 2a 4a 12. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 2. 23. 1 1 f w 16. A+2_3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. j>0 i> 21. a 36 ++. 1 f q * 1 m m . a+6 a 6 2 14.5 18 ^4f25. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 15. 6 c 3a 7.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9.
9 79 6 2 i. a ?^ 40. 41. ! n. a 4 31. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 2 af1 32. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 42. ic 1 + 1. a 30. af 1f /j. a. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.9. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 1 34. 3a 9 +. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.
2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. .  . 1.6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex.FRACTIONS 139. T. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . Reduce .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .  4 or 3 2a. 101 mixed expression. . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .
we may extend any e. 2 a Ex.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. integer. 2. fractions to integral numbers. Since  = a. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.) Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. multiply the 142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. or. !. F J Simplify . (In order to cancel common factors.g.
5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 50 .6 12 d6 4. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.. . 5# 56 / c& 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 1.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 144. . 8 multiply the Ex. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . : a 41 ab * See page 272.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. Divide Xn?/ . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.
_ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Ex.5 ??i 80 50 . are fractional. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .6 s + 064.FRACTIONS 105 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . ga2 4 8 5 a . or both.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.afr 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. a a2 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.^c 2 2 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. l.
M. & . .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. . a m "" . c +6. Ex. 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 9.y 32 . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). i. 7i+~ 7. 6. Simplify x }. of their denominators. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. JL. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.a ^c c _^ a . the answer is directly obtained. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . n a 8. . C. x* 4. y X 4* 2 y 3.
m^n* n L a 17. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13. o 15.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 . sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.
Uniting.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . If = 64.28 a = 5 x2 . Clearing of fractions. Transposing. tions.8 x = . 148.l)(z + 3) = . Bx 12 Qx. each member is reduced to 1. 108 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.14 (a. .9 x2 + 9. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). = 6. x = 6. 9x x Check. = 6. If x 6.f3# + C:E=6f7212. each member is reduced to Ex. 2.1. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. of the denominator. 5(3 85 Check.48. C. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 1. M. 4 4)  x. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.42 + 9. + 1) (a + 3) . Uniting. 2x Transposing. 2 3.28 x + 42 = . a. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 2z2a. these Ex.
+1 = 5. 15. . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. 18. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a/  5 a/ = 12. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^1 = 9. 16.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10.1 _77 a. a. 1 *> = 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. . ^' 2. +4 14. '  4 13.= 2.
If two or more denominators are monomials. 25. . 33. ?_=_. 27 . .11_4 x 149. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 31 31. 2^12 = 2 = 34. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 3x 35. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .  38 = 40.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36._ _ . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. J_. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 26 26. 4a4l4* + l~. 32 6 . y+3~2 29. . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.
2 3 ~  == 7a. each member is reduced to ^. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 26 a. M.  5 = 20 x 45. . 24 a. 60. Check. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 1. 5x x : = 9.2 42 9 43. a. Dividing. the 1 5 L. C. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.29 50712' 9 18 . Transposing and uniting. 5# 10. = 9. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . If a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.1.. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.
ax f x f.be. fr Reducing lowest terms. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 2.1. 5> a. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). f ~ 5c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Uniting. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. If 3ac L= = a ? . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Ex. a.& . jr.3 6 2 = a' . It frequently occurs that the x. = l^ 9 b 4 . =a 2 151. = 2 f b 2 . = = 6 6c 7 6c.2 62 2 ab. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. find a in terms of b and c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring. Thus. y.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Dividing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting the Dividing.2 ac + 3 aft . 4 ac 1. Ex.
5) is t =^. denoting the interest. Ex. and n the number of years.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 3 (6 a). = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). If * 33. solve for . t. _ 2. solve for a. IIL n b + &o. 17. iw 21. q solve for/. If s If 16. 6. 13. * Solve the same equation for^). rate. 29. The The i time. .a. p the principal. f ^o. + xx = 1. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. f P =+!. 11.= H. 15. c. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .= c a Z> . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. = rt. in terms of other quantities.i l . a. = 5. 4. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. c 18.= n. m a? x . . 3(* 8. 34. . 3. 14. . = 8 4 #. 2 solve for y a. 31. ^ ax a^ 26. 10. 12. r the number of $>. co?. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. + 3a. 30. s = Vt solve for v. If ^^ = a 1 32. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 1 f. = vt. 9. 4. mx = n. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal.
. x Or Uniting. and 12 = the number over. then = 2 TT#. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.114 35. 12. A would do each day ^ and B j. Find R in terms of C and TT. = 16^. 2 3 . . 2. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. Multiplying by Dividing. 100 C. 1. Ex. is 36. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.20 C. .180. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Ex..
= 100 + 4 x. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. or 1J. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. the required number of days. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 180 Transposing. Solving. 32 x = ." : Let x  = the required number of days. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. in Then Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the rate of the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Clearing. 4x = 80. Ex. = the x part of the work both do one day. 3." gives the equation /I). and the statement. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.
The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. ceeds the smaller by 4. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. of his present age. length in the ground. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and 9 feet above water. and one half the greater Find the numbers. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. by 6.  Find their present ages. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. to his daughand the remainder. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. money and $10. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. make 21. to his son. which was $4000. and J of the greater Find the numbers. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. is equal 7.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. fifth Two numbers differ 2. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How did the much money man leave ? 11. a man had How much money had he at first? . Find A's 8. ex What 5. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and of the father's age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.
At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. air.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ^ at 5%. investments. what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and B in 4 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 3. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 1.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. . Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. and it B in 6 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. after rate of the latter ? 15.) 22. 2. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. How much money $500? 4%.
. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.g. and n = 3. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. and apply the method of 170. n x Solving. 3. A in 6. The problem to be solved.= . 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. . . 2.414. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. they can both do in 2 days. B in 16. 26. Hence. B in 30. 25.e. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Ex. To and find the numerical answer. Then ft i. if B in 3 days. A in 6. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. e. therefore.009 918. is 57.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. is 42. A in 4. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.118 153. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. B in 12. B in 5. we obtain the equation m m . m and n. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.
If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. squares 30. The one: 31. . 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. respectively (a) 60 miles. is ?n . 2 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. (b) 149. respectively.000. 33. squares 29. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Find the side of the square.001. 34. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.721. is (a) 51. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. (b) 35 miles. (c) 16. the rate of the first. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. the second at the apart. 3 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and the rate of the second are. meet. 5 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. After how many hours do they meet. and the second 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 2 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. : (c) 64 miles. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (d) 1. if m and n are. 4J miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.
Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. 1. a ratio is not changed etc. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. The first 156. is numerator of any fraction consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. 158. Ex. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b is the consequent. etc. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . " a Thus. antecedent. In the ratio a : ft. : : 155. b. b. . terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the symbol being a sign of division. 6 12 = . Simplify the ratio 21 3. the antecedent. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. E. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.5.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the denominator The the 157." we may write a : b = 6. the second term the consequent.g.
16a2 :24a&. Transform the following unity 15. b is the mean b. 9. proportional between a and c. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : ay . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 1. 10. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. terms. 17. 62:16. and c is the third proportional to a and . 8^ hours. 61 : ratios 72:18. 6. b and c the means. In the proportion a b : = b : c. two  ratios. 7f:6J. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 3 8. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 3:4. 7:4 T T 4 . 4:5f : 5. 12. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 4. b. 159. and c. 5 f hours : 2. equal 2. J:l. $24: $8. a and d are the extremes. 11. 27 06: 18 a6. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms.RATIO Ex. extremes. 18. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 16. : 1. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. The last first three. 3:1}. Simplify the following ratios 7. 3.
3 4. Hence the number of men required to do some work. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 164. ad = be. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If (Converse of nq. In any proportion product of the extremes. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. q~~ n . " we " NOTE. pro portional. 6 ccm. of a proportion. !. of iron weigh . are : : : inversely proportional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. Clearing of fractions.e. ccm. i.122 162. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. briefly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. of iron weigh 45 grams.) b = Vac. 163. then G ccm. The mean proportional of their product. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. = 30 grams 45 grams.__(163. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. : : directly proportional may say. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and the other pair the extremes.30 grams. : c.) mn = pq. and the time necessary to do it. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 2 165.
(Division. Or IV.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) = f f = 3 J. a III. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Composition. (Frequently called Inversion.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.PATIO Ex.) (Called Alternation. V. I. I. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (163. is Ex.) d 167. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 1.) II. then =d c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. . AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. ad ( 163. + b:b = c + d:d. d d. 12x Hence a? = 42. = 35 . 2. 166. if 6 : 7. ad = be. a:c=b:d. hence the proportion true. is 4$ = 35. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. bd bd.
13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 2:x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25.g. : 3 = 5 f x : x. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 8. x = 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. . 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 20:7. . A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 120:42 2 2 7.!=!*. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. E. 9. the consequents by 7. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 3. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.e. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 5. = 2:3. Apply composition. 5 5. mx tin Apply composition and division. : x. IV. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 180:125. = 7:2f 3J. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 4. i. 10. 6 =4 : x. V. 2. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. Simplify the following proportions.124 IT. = 12 5ft.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. Or III.
4. 3. 9 x = 2 y. 2. 2. 47. 7iy = 2:x. ra.. 38. = 5 x 12. 6 x = y. 5. 112:42 = 10:a. (a : : 45. : 53. 33. x:5 = y:2. : . to : 9 and 12. Find the 37. 39. ra + landra 1. 6x = 7y. f. 26. a 2 and ab. to : a and 1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 6. 25. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. ratio of y. w. Find the mean proportional 30. 1 and a. 1. 28. 21. a?:15 15. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 42. 3t. 18. 14. terra 2:3 = 4. 27. mx = ny. = 2 + x: x. a. 50.8:1. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 34. 29. 43. 44. 46. 20. 51. = l^:18. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. b.:ff.  32. 31.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.j>. = 15o. . to: = 35:*. 16. 3. ra 2 . 52.x: 6:5 a : x. 03:a?=135:20. = 3 43 + x. : a2 . 17. 2 3 = y #. + fyx = cy. 13. 16 and 28. 5= 18 a? : a?. and 2/. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 4 and 16. 35. if : 40.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 14 and 21. 23. rag. Find the third proportional 24. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 41. 12. rap. 2 a and 18 a. 2= 5 x x. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. x m = y n. 22.
and the time necessary for it. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.126 54. 56. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 7^. what 58. and the area of the rectangle. and the speed of the train. the squares of their radii (e) 55. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the : total cost. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 57.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the time. the area of the larger? the same.
Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 2. AB = 2 x. Let A B AC=1x. x = 6. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex.000 168. = the second number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 inches long. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. . 11 x = 66 is the first number. x=2. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. as 11 Let then : 1. so that Find^K7and BO. : Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 2 x Or = 4.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. is A line AB. produced to a point C. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 18 x = 108.
14. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. How The long are the parts ? 15. 12.) . What are the parts ? 5. and 15 inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. and c inches. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 6.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 11. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 13. How many gen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : 197. How many 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000 square miles. Gunmetal tin. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : 4. 9. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 3. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 2.000.
Hence. y = 1.e. =. there is only one solution. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. a? (1) then I. 2 y = .y=.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. etc. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. such as + = 10. is x = 7. values of x and y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. The root of (4) if K 129 . However. x = 1. expressing a y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.. if .L x If If = 0. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.
6x . 21 y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.24. The first set of equations is also called consistent. are simultaneous equations. for they express the x f y 10. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. of elimination most frequently used II. 26 y = 60. = . and 3 x + 3 y =. 3. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. By By Addition or Subtraction. unknown quantity.26. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. same relation. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. cannot be reduced to the same form. ~ 50. Substitution. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .130 170. y I 171. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 172. y = 2. E. the last set inconsistent. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 4y . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). Therefore. 174. to The two methods I. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. viz.X.3 y = 80.
preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Transposing.14 =8. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 10 . 37. Check. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 235. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. subtract the equations. y = 1.3 1 = 47.3 y = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 64 x = 040. 8 2. 5 13 . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3y = 3. = 406. Therefore Check. whose coefficients In general. 25 x . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. add the equations. x = 10. 3. x = 10. 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.2 = 6. + 2. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). y = 2. are like.
I ~ y~~> 22. _. i 3.f2/ ' = 50. I . = 6. 13 61 l7a. J I y = 1U. + 2/ 17. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. v ^ = ll. = 41. f 3# ?/ = 0. 7 ' 1fi fl .3.v 23.4. I i 3 a. * + 3 y = 50. [2o. = 24. I oj 5y = 17. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 19< I a.3. 13. ' 12.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. x 11. 9 1 r 20. O t K 8. ] ^ . f 3X 7x 14.9 *. .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.5 y = 2.
Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. and solve the resulting equation. = 2. . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 3. = 60. x ) ^"" 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 8. = 2y + 10. = 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 4#8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. (1) (2) Transposing 2.
4* + 3y = 19.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. simplified before elimination is possible. x = l. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. \ \6(a. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (4). 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 21z6y=9. 3 (1) Ex. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . . + 212y4 = 14. Substituting in (6) . (7) (7) (8) .6)7(y7)==18. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 2 y = . 3. 29 x = 29. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. From 9 = 36.3. however.
4 11. . 14. 12. J 9. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17. a. 16.1) = 121. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. yM a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . +y 2 . 10.f2 2. a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. = 3. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. .
136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.#. and y. <X + 20. {. f y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. ?~y .and x y . . e. 180. but some expressions involving x. 22. 3x\" 1 23 24. * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.
can also be solved Examples method. y.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).3 xy. Clearing of fractions. y 4. x 3. Therefore y=4. 33 = 11 x. Dividing by 11 3 = #. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . 2* * x 2. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. etc. of this type. y 1. x 2x(2). however. 15 y + 8 x . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. .4 x = 4 xy. (4) + (G). (2) (3) a.
21 9 . x y 5.= 5. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . Ex. = en. 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. y MOi y a. . 1. 253 7. 4 13.= o 6. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. n. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x 8. x y 331 9.
. w. Uniting.W. x f my = 1. . 14. . Dividing. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.y = = 9a + 46. ax + by = 2 a&. bmy bm}y ap cm. d. ap. From the same equations find s in terms of a. s in 11. a Find a and terms of n.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. . and I if 13. and I. d. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ny = fy/ I sc 1. 6. apan cm. x a. fax f = l. W . x 12. f 5.
. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. ties are Similarly. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. l. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. 6. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. = 30.13.1+4. Ex.12 y + 6 z = .8 = 1. etc. by 3. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (8) 2. 182.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).25. 4. 4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). f 3y 12 =s 8. (4) (5). four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 8 x . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 3y = Hence Check.3=4.15z=12 Adding.3 = 8. 1. 3.2 + 3. x + 12 y .lf> z . To solve equations containing By tions. 1.by 2. = 3. 20.16. y =* 2.2 + 4.
14. 4 = 42. == 6. a? + 709 = 26. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 2z = 40. x 13. 15 2 = 45. 8. 2 . + y f z = 15. 10. 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 49. 2 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? 11. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 7. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. ~6?/ 5.
16. . . 84 21.42 = 2. 1510 4 17. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. (3 _. = 5. ? = llz. 60. = 8*. ^ = 2. 32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.2 a. . 4. 27. 19. 22. 23.3 y + .. ?/ 3x = 0. =s 20.6 2.
+2+ 6 = 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. 2 = 6. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. x : z =1 : 2. 1 = 2. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. M=i. symbols: x + y +z 8. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. # 4. Check. however. z + x = 2 n. . = 2 m.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and if 396 be added to the number. 1. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. + 396 = 521. = l. Ex.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . . ( 99. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. + z = 2p. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 2 = 1(1+6). as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Obviously of the other . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. 1 digit in the tens place. either directly or implied. the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. y * z 30. and to express In complex examples. y 31.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Find the number.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.
4 x = 24. Ex. x 3 = 24. 5_ _4_ A. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3+1 5+1 4_2.144 Ex. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x y = the = the x denominator . y = 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. C. = Hence the fraction is f. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. From (3) Hence xy Check. Find the fraction. increased by one. Or (4)2x(3). + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. x 3x4y = 12. direction. 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. (3) C4) = 24 miles. = 8. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3. B. the distance traveled by A. . we obtain. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 2. = the fraction.
its value added to the denominator. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. ? What 9. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. If the denominator be doubled. Find the number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the numbers. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If 9 be added to the number. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the number. the fraction is reduced fraction. fraction is reduced to \. it is reduced to J. 7. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. both terms. If 27 is 10. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. 2. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the value of the fraction is fa. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the number (See Ex. and the fourth 3. Find the fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3.) added to a number of two digits. 1. 5. added to the numerator of a fraction. the Find the fraction. tion ? 8. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the fraction equals . The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. 183. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the last two digits are interchanged. . If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the digits will be interchanged. 6. part of their difference equals 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.}.
Find the rates of interest. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. respectively ? 16.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. A man invested $750. and in 5 years to $1125. in 8 years to $8500.000 is partly invested at 6%. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 4 %. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . A sum of $10. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and money and 17. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. . partly at 5 %. How 6 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 13. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 12. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 14. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. the annual interest would be $ 195. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 5 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the rate of interest? 18. now.grams. 19. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and partly at 4 %.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 1 NOTE. receiving $ 100 for each horse. BC=7. and angle BCA = 70. 24. but if A would double his pace. and F '(see diagram). and F. BC = 7 inches. angle c = angle d. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. then AD = AF. BD = HE. . 23. and angle e angle/. . 25. are taken so ABC. the three sides of a triangle E. andCL4 = 8. and F. An C touch ing the sides in D. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and AC = 5 inches. is the center of the circum scribed circle. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and sheep. respectively. and GE = CF. the length of NOTE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and e. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. E. what is that = OF. On /). three AD = AF. for $ 740. A farmer sold a number of horses. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. B find angles a. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. BE. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. Find their rates of walking. cows. ED = BE. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. c. and CE If AB = G inches. and their difference by GO . triangle Tf AD. and $15 for each sheep. $ 50 for each cow. points. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180.
and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and point the origin. the ordinate of point P. . ?/. It' Location of a point. and PN _L YY'. PN are given. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . The of Coordinates. and r or its equal OA is . PN. or its equal OM.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. 186. first 3). B. jr. YY' theyaxis. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. PM.. (2. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. (2. 2). (3. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and PJ/_L XX'. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. the ordinate by ?/. 3). Thus the points A. is The point whose abscissa is a. is the abscissa. (7. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading.
4). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Plot the points: (4. 2. 1). 4). (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. . 12. 0). (4. 6. (1. (3. 0). 3). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 0).1). 1). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 8. 3).and(l. What is the locus of (a?. 4) from the origin ? 7. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (See diagram on page 151. 4) and (4. (5. which of its coordinates known ? 13.) EXERCISE 1. 2J). (0. 3. 2). !).2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (2. (4. . What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 6. (0. (4. and measure their distance. Plot the points : (0. (4. 2). Plot the points (6. 4). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 11. 0). 71 2).3).e. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Plot the points: (4. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. i.(!. 3). Graphs.
may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. 10 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 1. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 188. Thus the first table produces 12 points. or the curved line the temperature. B. may be found on Jan. ure the ordinate of F. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. By representing of points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. A.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data.. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we meas1 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . C. . from January 1 to December 1. D. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 15. however.
The engineer. Whenever a clear. as the prices and production of commodities. physician. the rise and fall of wages. uses them. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (b) July 15. (d) November 20. (c) January 15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . etc. the merchant. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. How much. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. 1? 11 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (freezing point) ? 7. 1 to Oct. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 15.. is 10. When the average temperature below C. (d) 9 0. During what months above 18 C. ? 9. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. ?  3.. (1) 10 C. on 1 to the average.152 2.. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.
in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. One meter equals 1. Draw . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Hour Temperature .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards. 19. NOTE. transformation of meters into yards. 20.
29. books from for printing. if each copy sells for $1.. x 7 to 9. and $. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. e. x* x 19.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 . 28. represent his daily gain (or loss). Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.5 grams. 1 to 1200 copies. to 27. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 3. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. A 10 wheels a day. etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 190. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.) T circumferences of 25. etc.. the value of a of this quantity will change. the daily average expenses for rent.154 24.inch. then C irJl.. 26. 2.g. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 4. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. binding. amount to $8. if he sells 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. function If the value of a quantity changes. gas.50. 3. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. x increases will change gradually from 13.50. 9. .
The values of func192. (2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . plot points which lie between those constructed above. 1 the points (3. 4). while 7 is a constant. and join the points in order. a*. be also represented by a graph. may . construct '. may. (1. etc. 4). Ex.1). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. and (3. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . however. If a more exact diagram is required. (1^.e.2 x may 4 from x = 4. E. 9). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. Graph of a function. Draw the graph of x2 f. 3 (0.0). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. it is In the example of the preceding article. J). as 1. 9). 2 (1. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.g. Q. 2). is supposed to change. x a variable. to x = 4. for x=l. . 2.1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. ( 2. 3 50.
Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. rf 71 . (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Thus 4x + 7. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. straight line produces the required graph... It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.) For brevity. j/=3. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. y = 6.4).. 1). . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 4J. (4.20). = 4.. 4). = 0.. Thus in the above example.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 2 4 and if y = x f. 5). as y. (2. Ex. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.2 x . r */ +* 01 . etc. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 2. 7 . 194. (3. and join(0.
2J. a ar. 2 or 2 20. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. l. 2 a. 3. 1 8 10. 2J. a* 13. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. = 4. 3 a 8. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. if a. . 4a? I. if the function equals zero. if"a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 18. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. xz + x. 6.8)'. 1J. 1. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. from x VlO'S". fa 17. (If) Va25. 2x + 3x a?. The values of a?. 4 a. 2 a. 8. 1J. . The smallest value of the function. ?/ a.5)2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 12. = The values of a*. i. 14. (C ) (2. 22. 2 2 a. + 4. Jar . xl. 23x. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 9. 11. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .5)2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 19. 2. 5. 3. The values of a*. 7. 2 2.e. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a. x+1. 21. if y = 2.or. 16. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (7i) (c) 23. 15. a? 1. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a?. 6 fa. (ft) (_ 1. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2. J. y = 2x = 4. the function. a? 2 4. 1J.
if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Show any convenient number). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.24.. Represent 26. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.158 24. the abscissas of 3. then cXj where c is a constant. . 32 F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.e.. Therefore x = 1. 25.where x c is a constant. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. y= formula graphically. 14 F. 1 C. 9 F. that graph with the o>axis. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. C.. then y = .. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.24 or x = P and Q.
de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 7. (a) (6) 9. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (a) x2 = 0. crosssection paper is used. 13. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 6. = 0. is called a quadratic equation. 2 and 1.7 2 a 5 = 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 0. viz. 4. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a2 2a. 8. . 197. (0. 12. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 14. or 5 2. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1.f 9 = 0. + + = where a. Such equations in general have two roots. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 11. 10.
y y 2. 0). y = l. locate points (0. ?/ =4 AB.2 y ~ 2. i. first degree. = 0. and join the required graph. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 1) and 0). Hence we may join (0. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 4) and (2. ?/. solve for ?/. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Ex. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.1. because their graphs are straight lines. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 3x _ 4 . Ex. unknown quantities. If x = 0.e. T . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 199. Hence. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. NOTE. 2). fc = 3.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. X'2 Locating the points (2. and joining by a straight line. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. == 2. if y = is 0.2. Hence if if x x  2. (f . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . produces the 7* required locus. .
(2) . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.15. 3. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots. viz. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. To find the roots of the system. 202. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and CD. equation x= By measuring 3. AB y = . Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. P. 201. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.57.
V25 5. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. e. etc.0). Inconsistent equations. 4. 5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. y equals 3.y~ Therefore. 5. Using the method of the preceding para. (2. 0) and (0. Solving (1) for y. 3). and joining by a straight line. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 3. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. In general.  4. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.g. 4. and + 3).5. 4. = 0. 0. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. (4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Locating the points (5.5. Locating two points of equation (2). 2. they are inconsistent. 1. AB the locus of (1). 3. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.9. 3x 2 y = 6. 1. i. 2 equation x 3). 4.. the point we obtain Ex. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.0. Measuring the coordinates of P. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3. Since the two  we obtain DE. we of the + y* = 25.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 0.e. and . (1) (2) C. intersection. x2 . 4. 4. 2. . (4. if x equals respectively 0. the graph of points roots.
19. vice versa. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 17. a+r/=6. the graphs of the following systems. 6. and. 7. 16 23. 2.. y=x + 5. x~y=0. y 2 4. 16 22. '163 Dependent equations.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. a. 2x 3?/=6. 8. y= a2 2x y6. 10. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 4. if possible. state reasons. 3. . and solve each If there are no solutions. 20. y = 4. 9. \ 2x + 3^ . 1 6* + 7 y = 3. Draw system. 5.
164 24. 28. 4 a = 3(6 . 3 31. TABLE OF SQUARES. CUBES. 29 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .8.14 y = . AND SQUARE HOOTS .y). 30. 26.
To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. fa. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. etc. ^4/? it According to 50. a special kind of product. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . on to in factors 4. ( a) is positive. is may be by 207.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 8. . According to 1. involution repeated multiplication. 3 f a = f a = +. Law of Signs. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. powers of a positive quantity are positive.faa a a a Obviously 1. 2. 52. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. follows that 3. a = a3 . 2. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.a2 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.
(277171 )*. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 5 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.166 To find To To power. 76 : (>y. 4 /2mV. (2ar). a product to a given power. 2. (^^) 2 . raise a fraction to a power. V V/ 13. 6. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 2 11 (afc ) . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. the required power. 210. \ 3 J '  MW 10. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. . 15. amVy) 3 . 5. 16. 24.6) = a . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 3 2 2 8 . 4. (a ) 2 4  3. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .
6. are obtained by multiplication. 16. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (afl) . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . Ex. 4.y) = (3 y?y . = s= (2s) 8 a. 1 f 3 2 3 . 2 . frequently called ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . (3af26) 8 . 18. 1. (6m+2w) (3 8 .y . 8 (a??/) 3 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. +5a) 22. . The higher powers of binomials. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 15. (a + &)8 . nent of the binomial. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.6 2 8 ft) . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 9. + 4aj) 3 . 3 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .3 y. 3 8 . 13. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.INVOLUTION Ex. 12. 7. 5. (3 x . : a 20. pansions. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . etc. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. An 1. 8. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . . 3. (aj7) . 2.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.) 14. 23. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 211. 21. + a 2 a.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (3 (l I) 2 8 . a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 2.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .
(3a f5) 5) 4. (mnp 5 I) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (?/i~w) : 16. .168 3. 3. (la&) 4 12. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.2. 4 (1for) 5 . 4. The minus. 13.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .216 a^ 4. . 18. mn 5 2 5 ) .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . Ex. (af 5) . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 14. 5. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. Ex. . 9. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212.96 ^y f 216 o?y . . (?>i?i f c)*. (mJ) 4 11. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b.a) 3 19. (l 8 . 3. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 24. 5. 25. 17. . 78 s . ( &) 5 . and the powers negative. is the coefficient of the next term. 10. 8. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (tff1) (cfd) . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (p + q) 4 * 7. . (a~^) 5 . 6. 21.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 15. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (m fl) 2 20. 2. (2 a 4 . 1. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 23. (2 4. (1 + 4 ?/) . (m 5 I) 2 22. 4 . (m 2 + n) 8 . Ex.
numbers. \/"^27=3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. and all other numbers are. Since even powers can never be negative. tity . a) 4 = a4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. = x means = 6. or x &4 . 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. called real numbers. V9 = + 3. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or 3 for (usually written 3) . etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. (_3) = 27. V \/P 214. 1. 2. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. which can be simplified no further. 27 =y means r' = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 215. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or y ~ 3. 109 . for distinction. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers.
6. Ex.  100 a 2 . 6 7 = 030. 7 . 6. EXERCISE 1. for (a")" a = a mn 3. fy 5 3 . 7.125. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. = 19472. To extract a root of a fraction. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex. 2. = 199 + (_ 198) .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .200 .64 5 4 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 .9 = 136. 4 v. 82 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. To extract the root of a power.(. 2 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3 33 53 .lL. 3.201) = 2. . 3i . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. = V26TIT81 = 53. 9. index. 8. Ex. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.4. v/2^. 9. Ex. V?. 2. 5. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. . 79 2 v/2 5 . 10. Ex. V25 9 16. Ex 5 a" . 8. .1. V36 9 4. 3/0** = am . \/2 4 9 . 7 . 62 = V2* . V5 v/2 7 2. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . extract the and denominator. 7.
2. 31. 3. Ex. 34./).EVOLUTION 171 28. 2 . Find the square root of a2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ^40^4.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.3 y2) ( vV . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 30.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 6. 32. 116. V9216. 45 V5184. 1. 33.4/. 29. .) by inspection. V20 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 5.98.75. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. a* 4 8 2 . a f2 l 2 + l.3.3 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. V8.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O .
> 13. 10. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.e. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. let us consider the relation of a f. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 15. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . #2 a2  16. The term a' first 2 . the given expression is a perfect square. 11.2 ab + b . + 6 + 4a&. a f.2 ac .172 7. 14. a\b is the root if In most cases. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 8 .b 2 2 to its square. 2 . 12. and b. and b (2 a f b).72 aW + 81 & 4 . however. 2ab .2 &c. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. . mV14m??2)f 49. 2 2 218.
. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 /. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. As there is no remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. 8 a 2 . . */'' . The square . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Second trial divisor. First complete divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . the first term of the answer. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 1. 219. 2. 1. 10 a 4 8 a. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 6 a. First trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Ex. . 8 a 2 2. by division we term of the root.24 afy* f 9 tf. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. and so forth. is As there is no remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Explanation. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . of x. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.
73a4 440^436^460^.6 .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .20 o 4.12m 5 4. 5 4 16 4 iK .24 or . 6.12 m 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 13#4 413ar 44a. 15. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 8. 6 11. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.40 a 22 . 19.42 a*& 4. 3.73 a8 .a 6 x*y 2 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 18. 17. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.4 x 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 14. .20 J or 2 16 x 4.25. > 7.16.10 x2 4. 20.162 a2 60 a10 4. 9.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 5. 24.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 12. 2 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. l 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 16.V430^425^ 4m 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .37 a ^ . 436^?/469a. 4 . 16x6 4. 1 4. 10. a? 2 . 2 x2 3 2x. 36it.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .9. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .25 x 4 4. 729 4.
Ex. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. = 80. the square root of 7744 equals 88. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.EVOLUTION 220. two figures.176.. Find the square root of 524. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Find the square root of 7744. the first of which is 4. etc. and the complete divisor 168. the first of which is 8. of a number between 100 and 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000. etc. Ex. a 2 = 6400. and the first remainder is. Therefore 6 = 8. which may contain one or two). the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. 2. first .000 is 100. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000 is 1000.1344. 1.000. of 10. and the square root of the greatest square in units. As 8 x 168 = 1344.
Find the square root of 6/.10.7 to three decimal places.0961 are '. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .70 6. places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher. The groups of 16724.1 are Ex. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3.1T6 221.GO'61. in .
36.01.1410. 37.22. 34. T\. .53. JT . whose area equals 48. feet. feet. 5.4 square when R = radius and 11. 1. = 3. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 1. 33. 31. 13. 32.) 40. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 39.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 30. J. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .58 square 38.
= 4. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Dividing.g. = 7^ + 5. is 12.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x 2 7. The 7 equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Transposing. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . or equation of the second degree. . A pure. Extracting the square root of each member. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. This answer Check. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 2.. 225. or incomplete. 6#2 = x* 24. 2 ic = a. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. but no higher power e. complete. or affected. 226. Ex. x = + 2 or x =2. 178 . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 6 y2 = 17. is A quadratic equation. 224. 2)* + 5 = 33. 1. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.
' =: y? b* b . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 2 a. 15^5 = 6.2. . : 83 2. ax Transposing and combining. (a? 9. 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. 3. 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). 19 + 9 = 5500. or Therefore. 5. 4 ax. 8. 7. 10. 7 = 162. 2 4fc 5' 18. 16^393 = 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Solve 179 . o.
If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. solve for v. ' 4. EXERCISE 1. 3. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). r. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards.b 2 If s If =c . 27. 26. 4.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 22 a. . 2 . find a in terms of 6 . 29. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2. 25. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 108. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. : 6. Find the side of each field. then Since such a triangle tangle.) of their squares 5. 24. and their product : 150. 2 . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . Find is the number. A right triangle is a triangle. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . is 5(5. . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for r. solve for d. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . may be considered one half of a rec square units. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. If 22 = ~^. 2 : 3. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If G=m m g . 2a f 1 23. 28. and they con tain together 30G square feet. Find the numbers.
and the two smaller 11. J = 12. of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 100 feet? = . add () Hence 2 . Find the radii. Find the unknown sides and the area. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. is and the other two sides are equal. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. A body falling from a state of rest. The area : sides are as 3 4. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Find these 10. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.7 x f 10 = 0. we have of or m = .2 7 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . x* 7 x= 10. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .) 13. Solve Transposing. 4. (b) 44 square feet. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. and the third side is 15 inches. radii are as 3 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 24.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 8. . 9. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. Method of completing the square. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. 2m. To find this term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the sides. sides.
230. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2 a* a.a. adding member). = 6.  \. Extracting square roots. Transposing. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.e.x(l = . Therefore. Simplifying. Uniting. a Clearing of fractions. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = x\ = 2. Ex. Ex.1. a. or x = 2. 2  . 62 x 5 = f.2. J. = \ # = ff.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Hence Therefore Check.. Transposing. (*~8) a = at . = . or J.2 a2 .
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x .1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying.
.c = 0. 231. = 12. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao. x la 48. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. article. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. \bx\. =8 r/io?. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =0. 49. 2x 3 4.
6. 19. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. V^tT)* . 7.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2 a. 14. Reducing to general form.4 4 5 . c p. 4. ?i 2 . 12. 6^+5^ 56.. 10. 2 . 11. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 7^ + 9 x 90. 18. = 12 . b =  + 20 == = 0. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 9. 21. 6 Ex.  . 2or } 5o. : 86 + 2 = 0. 13. 16.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. TIO. 2. 6. 20.25 x. 2. 17. a. 2 o.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 8. 1. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2 a? = 44 x . = 64120?. 3. 6 . 26. c = 5. 5 x2 Transposing. 15.
Bx 1 1.2. (5 a? !)(. Eesolving into factors. = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . a=:i^^. all or. 26. orz roots. if either of the uct is zero. Clearing for fractions. = 0. 3x?+x = 7. 23.5 Solving (1) and (2). a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 24. . = 14. member can be Ex. 5) = 0. Transposing. x2 = 1 . 1. ar>8o.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 27 x== 42a. or # 5 is zero. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. and 6. = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. transposing terms to one member. 25. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Solution by factoring.5) =0. Factoring. 0. x(x <2 . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.x. any degree. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. factors Now. }.4) = . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 233. 5 = 0. 2S3x 1 2 .
In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. for a: . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 2. + 100. } 2 2 (5 . 9. 3. is 5) = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3# y 5 = 0. 12.6)) = 0. 4)(z3) = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 0^ ar> 11. a* 10a=24. and the equation thus formed be solved.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.= 24. Or Hence the 234. Ex. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. x2 f 2 x . 3^ = 0(1106).QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.3)(x + 3 3. + 6)=0. 14. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 8. (aj4)(a. 16.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3) Factoring. 5. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 10 a = 24. ar'Sa^ 12. 3 or 2 a. 2o3 f9a. O roots are 2. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 6.24 = 0. 5 = 0.(. E. 2. a?. 0(02) = 7(02). Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. aj( 15. 13.e. 3) = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x .g. 4or + 18a f 8a. we 9 obtain x 4. The equation I. 3. : 87 = 0. 7. a?10a=:24. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.:=0. + 8=s: 7. 4.
23. 22. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 27. 50. a 2 =(x a)b. (a + 1) (a. 18. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. 25. 19.3) = (s + l) (3 a). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). ara + ft + c*. 20. '3a!J  .
Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 54. 56. and whose sum is is 36. 2. of their reciprocals is 4. and consequently many prob 235. Find the number. 7. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and whose product 9. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. 5. 52. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. : 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 5.0. 4. The 11. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 2. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.0. Find the numbers. 2. and equals 190 square inches. 2. 57. two numbers is 4. 8. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.9.3. 1.1. 3. number by 10. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J.3. G.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. The difference of . Find the number. 3. 0. 58. 55. is Find two numbers whose product 288. EXERCISE 1. . Find the sides.2. 2. 1. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 2.3. feet. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .
If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 17. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. 19. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. watch for $ 24. 14. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. Find the rate of the train. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two vessels. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. If he each horse ? . c equals 221 Find AB and AD.10. 13. ply between the same two ports. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.190 12. ABCD. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. sold a horse for $144. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. other. 15. . as the 16. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. What did he pay for 21. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.
Find and CB. or x = \/l = 1. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 237. so that the rectangle. Find TT r (Area of a circle . and working together. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 27. 23 inches long. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. (tf. contains B 78 square inches. ^3^ = 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.) 25. Ex. of the area of the basin. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. how wide is the walk ? 23. 1. By formula. constructed with and CB as sides. a point taken. as 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. the two men can do it in 3 days. 24. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. .
(a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a 21or=100. 16.192 238. 8. or y = 8. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. aV+9o 4 =0. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Solving. 6. 12. = 1. 18. 2 16 a^40 11. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. >. a4 5o.2 =4. Hence Le. T 17.)+72=0. 4 6. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. y8)=0. 9. 2 h9:=0. 436 3. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 : 89 10a. 4 a. 2. a? 15 1=2*. = 13. 19. 10. a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.T 2 2 . 7. 4. Ex.
Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. and equal.12 x + 9 = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are irrational. b 4.2) 2 4 3 (.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 241. c the roots are real. 240. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . a perfect square. rational. negative. 2.f> = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Relations between roots and coefficients. 1. Ex.bx 4. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. and unequal. 3. the roots are rational. the roots are imaginary. . The discriminant =(. the roots are real. Hence the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . ( 2a Hence 1.2 z . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are unequal. Ex.5) = 04. the roots are equal. rational. is 4ac not zero.
+ 2a15 = 0. ^12. 5aj 9. 3a. = Q. = 5x. 24. = 0. 6. 4. 2 : 3. + 18 2 8. 12. 17. 15. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2 a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 23. lla. 5oj aj + l = 0. + 2a. f 2 E. 12~x = x 2 . 21.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. = 0. 60 2 = 0. 2. their product isf. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 9a3 = 0. 14. : a 2 . n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. x2 7 10. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 18. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.g. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. + 12 2  .19 # 20. o. tfmx+p^Q. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2 7. 22.
no Fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 . must be *The symbol smaller than. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . ~ a m f. II. provided w > n. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. It is. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.a" = a m n mn . and . m IV.* III. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. Then the law of involution. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. We assume. > m therefore. (a m ) w . for all values 1 of m and n. 244.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. = a"" < . while the second of the first. that a an = a m+n . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. (ab) . however. such as 2*. hence.
3*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . = a. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 23. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. or zero exponent equal x. at. 4~ . 245. a\ 26. laws.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. ml. 28. as. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 24.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. e. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.g. 31. '&M A 27. 29. fractional. (xy$. 30. disappear. Assuming these two 8*. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. a*. 0?=^. etc. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. n 2 a. 25. . a . (bed)*. m$. a?*.
however. v/o&cT 34. 40. 49. ty?. 46. Vo5 . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. \fi?. the base is zero. e. : 197 33. a* * = 3. Solve the following equations 39. 7z* Find the values of 47. 42. = 2. e. 45. 246. 44. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. = 49. 5 a* = 10.g. = 2. 43. If. a. \/xy \/m. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 37. hence is . 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 3* = 27. : 2' 4* = 4. a * a2 Or a=l. 38. 35. equal to unity. Let a = a. v'mT 36. 41.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 48.g.\/n. a . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 27* = 3.
Let x= or".g.2 = a2 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. by changing the sign of NOTE. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. 248. e. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". or the exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. an x = a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations.198 247. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. cr n. etc. . vice versa.
37. ^?2 y' 34. 39. : or 5 . a^ 41.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. f (2w)~i 1 . 2 . 2 . 3 a? * 42. 22. 25. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 36. : mi m~^. 27. . 2m~i 43. m . 7~ l a 2b 2 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 40. 3 a. c 32. 66 45. . 44. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . a. ^L."* 38. rfS. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. * 24.
58. 10* 5* = . 1. . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.1.008)* + A. + A_. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 55.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 17' 2 51. = 5. z* = 1. 54. 48.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.(. = . + 1~* f 21 . z 5or*=10. 47. (. 53. ar = i.343)* + (. 59. 57.81 f (a . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . = l. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. Ex. 10* Find the values 56.6). Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 250. 49. of: 3ll4~* 60. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.9*. 61. 52.001. = ^.
6. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 3 a. (d) If required. 6 *.7*. / 7fv 7. OA 20.&. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.5a. etc.$*. Remove the negative exponents.4 a8 . 27  28. are performed. 14.^/5^5. a. ' 11. 16.3 aj" a. 18.7i. 12. 79 . 16. 7~ 5 27  . 26. 3sVS.4 . V5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . . 7*. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7. &. 7~ 6 . #* a. 17. 72 . 3. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 4 x^..4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 8 ' 9.&. remove the fractional exponents. 13. 10. 6a. Perform the operation indicated. 95 ^9i 5**. .$". 4 5. .7W.6 *' 6 *25. S'sS8. NOTE. 23.5. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.
34. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. If powers of a?.2 d . 2. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 40. Arrange in descending powers of Check. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. The 252. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
10 V2 =  V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .2 V50. v/4. 34. 5V2. Ex. Ex. V2. V2.e. 37. 39. 26. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. </2. 28. 27. ^3. 40. 2\ 3*. ^2. V5.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. V2. 29. v^S. ^5. Arrange 35. To add or form. VS. ^6. if dissimilar. 30. 31. ^4. ^4. + . 3. \/7. 32. ^126. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 38. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . A/3. A/2.3\ . s!/3. </20. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. V3. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^30. Simplify V~ . \/5. v/3. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^7. ^/IT. 33. ^2. 4^/4. V3. signs. connect them by proper 1. subtract surds. (i. v/3. 36. ^2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . </3.
11. 8. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. V175V28+V634V7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VJ+V8V1 + V50. . 14. 6. 10. 13. 3. 8VT8J2V32 7. 4.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. V18+V32VT28+V2. + 3V835V2. 6. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 12.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45.
.6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 23. y* = Ex. 26^ . 1. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 6*. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . . 3.2v/6 + IPV6 105. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. and then multiplied.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 2. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Ex.
14. 40 10 30. 19. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 4. V3 V6. 37. 7. V2aV8^. 38. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. \/3 \^). 213 98 11. 10. Vll. 9. V42. v/18 v"3. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 27. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 39. 12. 18.^/2. 15. + VB)(2V5). 6. 6 V4 5. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 41. 28 . a?. . 34. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). VlO V15. (V6 + 1) 1 . 13. 25. 2. 40. (2V3) 8 . (Va Va 36. (3 20. 3. V2 V50. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 2 . 21. VTO. 8. 6.VSS. V20 V30.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. V3 Vl2. (V2+V3+V4)V3. fWa 17. v/4. aVa.
48. 47. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. is 1 2. Ex. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 53. 43. 44. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 46.y. Ex. 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Va v/a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E. V3 . (5V2+V10)(2V51). . 51. all monomial surds may be divided by method. a fraction. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45. 52.214 42. 49. 268. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. the quotient of the surds is If.
73205. arithTo find. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .by the usual arithmetical method. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. The 2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. /~ } Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations.g. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . is illustrated by Ex. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V..RADICALS This method. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.57735. 1. e. . by V7. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have V3 But if 1. . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Evidently. however. Divide VII by v7. 3. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.
and Given V2 = 1.2361. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V8 12. Vll 212*. 7. . 21.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 272. A. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 . VffV?. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. . 23 . ^/H . V8 JL. 20. V48 25. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.4142. i.. 14. Vn V7 ' * 8. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V5 270. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V2 22 . 271. A. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V5 = 2. V3 = 1.7320.
3.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . Ex. s Simplify a.vffi^T _ .2. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.= 18. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . Ex. .RADICALS Ex. . 1.Vs2 . V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . . Given V2 1.W3.5 3 = 125. 27. By the use of fractional exponents . : and V5 = 2. V21 = 25 . v 2V3 28.7320.2361. 19. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 6V7. Vo1 26. four places of decimals 23 . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 24. = V3 = 1.218 6 . find to _!_.4142. J?_. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.
( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 2. viz. the If. 2. . V643 . 8. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. Simplify Ex. According to G3. it to this form. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2 12. on the other hand. \/125" . 9. 3 (V2~u)  7. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 11. In other examples of involution and evolution. 1. 5. v8f 2\/15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/l6*. 4. we must find 8 and whose product is 15.
12 and whose product is 20.A/2.6 V2.6\/2 = ^9 . Find Vll .2 \/20. ^TT. 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find V4 + VJ8. +2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is 11. Find Vl2 4. and whose product is 18. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 2 \/18. 3.220 Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. The Hence ^11 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .
Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 4x x = 2. Dividing by Check. x2 = x f 2.e. Ex. 277. V48 23. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. : 221 Vl32V22.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. . by raising both members equal powers. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. member to 2.V48 4 20. a. Before performing the involution. first involution.1. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. (2x xrf 1. VT . Solve vVf!2a = 2. +=.. r 22. i. they are transto formed into rational equations. Radical equations are rationalized. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. 8. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. are radical equations. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. The value x =2 reduces each . 19. 5. Transposing and uniting.
Therefore Check. f 25 = 12. . V24~+~l = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. they may be extraneous roots. . radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 4#f 4 = 9. Therefore CftecAr. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. It = 3 x . \/4 jc~+~l = 5. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (.1) = 0. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. x = J. Squaring both members. Factoring. 5. Ex. Squaring both members. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. V4afT~l. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . tion which has two roots. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. a socalled extraneous root. 278. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the first member = V2. a. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 2.3. Transposing. Transposing and uniting.222 Ex. one root. Extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 3. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. viz. viz. at . Dividing by 24. .
Hence x = the only root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .47) = 0. viz. equation it is an extraneous root. If If x 3 = 3. the right member = V2. \ does not satisfy the given.2 r. Solve the following equations : = G. Factoring. NOTE. Squaring. Transposing. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.3) (2 x . . . Therefore.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. + 6~ieT~3 . or x *j. 4.12 .RADICALS Hence x If a. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence there is only one root. ViTie 4 z2 . 223 x = 3. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. both members reduce to 5. and to 5. 2 Clearing of fractions. Check. = 3. x root of the preceding equation. . (x x = 3. is x V. for it satisfies the equation .
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring. Many 1. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*. Ex.
2Va. 2_8z 440 = 49. 5. 412a* = 16. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. Let 8 x f 40 . = 0.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.8 x + 40 = 36.i~24 = 0.*2a. x =6 or 3. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. + 40 = 6.f40= 5. = 7. 3. y then x2 . it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. some of the roots be extraneous. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Q . 2. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.35 = 0.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Ex. _ 2 y . 2. 3 6. = 26. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x + Vx a? = 6. Substituting. .8 z40 = 7. o. 4. 45 14VJB = . x Since both =9 or 1. This can be seen without substituting. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.
20. a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a. 18. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. a. 14.a 440 = 35.226 11. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. +x . 19. 2.f 18 = 24. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 12. 16. 15. +3= 6. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.
Without actual division. If x* . Without actual division. no matter If. however.2 x 5 by x 3. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. ^ = 381+2. 1.2) Q ." transposing. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. by dividing 3 x* f. if Q was known. a? R = x* . 2. ax4 4. = 2.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).4 a.2 + 80 = 12. Ex. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. to x we # = 2 3. find the remainder when m.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . " Or. E = ax + &z + m) Q.2 + 4. could. we make a? what the value of Q.360 = 244. 227 . 3 2 Ex. Hence. even if Q is unknown.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. then (x 2)Q 0. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.bx? + ex2 4. does not contain a?.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.228 282.4(. + 7 = 632.8. The Factor Theorem. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.8'= 0. } 2 by a1. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. If the remainder is zero.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 6.g. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 8. 2 j 7. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.949. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3. 5 (4x . fora?. the remainder equals 8 2 x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + ^by x + b.g. 43 3 E. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .3)f 11 =. x m is factor of the expression. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. hence (x divided by x 4. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 5. if 8 42  . x* s 2 4.
1. 2. The 5. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. Therefore x ( 1). 5. a? 19.1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 3 2 : 7. a. m f m n 14. a 5x 6. Factor a? 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 106 division. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. a 2a + 4. 9. Let x = . ^10^429^20=0. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 18. factors of the absolute term. Resolve into factors 4.12 = 0. 11. or x 4. a + 32.7 x + 15 = 0. 229 1. 8. 2 2. 23. f 3.9^ + 23^15. 2m 5m . 7 46 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. f 5. are f 1. 20. & p*. a^8^ + 19a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.r6 = 0.7 + 16 .13m + 30 10. 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.e. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 21. 24. + 15. 17. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 8. i. or 5 4 + 3^ . 3. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 25. a 8a f 19 a 12.1. .49 = 0. is a factor. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. oj 5x2 f3a. + ttt15 = 0. f 15 does not vanish.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. _ . + 27 + 27.12. 15. 6.
Ex. if n is even. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . actual division n.g. 2. By we obtain the other factors. 1. If n is a Theorem that 1.y n is divisible by x f ?/. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. xn f.230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer." . The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. For substituting y for x. if w is odd. ar +p= z6 e. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 286. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. : importance. 2 Ex.xy +/).
f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . however.= . x3 8=0. 28. leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. 3. preferable. a. Hence = (m Ex. 27. 26.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.i mn f w 2). as 27=0.
The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. 4 xy = 16. = 6.y4 is of the fifth degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. 232 . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. + 6 a?V . in general. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. x y. of quadratics.1. xywe have 3. however. Squaring Solve (1). *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. * A I.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 290. xy are given. If two of the quantities x f y. (4) Hence. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. to equations of the fourth few cases.
3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. EXERCISE Solve: 1. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. = . ' 10. x and xy are not given. 1. b=3. I I x + y=7. r (" 1 = 876. but can be found. ^. The arranged in pairs. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 12.g. " "' "' { r 8. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 108 2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 233 y.
THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.20) = 0. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. I x+y = a.?/ i = 6. 3. Ex. one linear and ne quadratic. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. r^ 2 as ] f. + 29 = 0. 4 y = 20. or y = 1 .i/ = r 13. or JJ. .  . aj = 2. I* Jj ^ [.~ y = 5. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. Factoring.o 18. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.. 7 . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. A system of simultaneous equations. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 5.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). x " (3) 49 etc. la.a. 6 "I 14. .  f J. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . ' ' .  42 y + Transposing. 19.
8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 4 f + 2 y = 3. ' x*. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 1. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. y* + 2y = 3. ':il e :) . quantities. 9. x2y. 3y) : Factor (2).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 10. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve . III. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. If of the preceding type. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.3 2x 2 Ex. = 1 3 3.
(3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. 2. 2 . = Ex. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. j Substituting y in (2). 109 a. } VI09.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . 11 a2 Factoring. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. Solve 2.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.
f 1 150 a?. can be solved by special devices. 298. (4) (3).y = 7.!. y? a? f . 2 xy + y2 = 10. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.125 ay = .xy 4. . Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Division of one equation by the other. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.175 ay = 12. A. and others not belonging to them. ' ^ 15. Bxy9. " IV.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.6. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. E. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.3^42^=43. 150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 12 J. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . jc~ y = 9. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. quadratics can be solved by ?/. y = 3. = 189. 2. * ' 300. i ^ *>. Some simultaneous ?/. from (2). Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. B. (1 > (2) 1. xy..238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. x 2 . y . we have from (1). x +y y etc. Solve Ex. we obtain by squaring.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. 2. 6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . M6. . 239 Ex. Hence = V or = 4. 36* 2. [2x + : y= 17. 7. F+y+ . I e.
f 18. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 25.4 y = 47 a. 19 ' 26. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . 16. . = 198. * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. .21 ^ = 15. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.
y % 9 f*K 36. 33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. finite  =x y if = x. 25 34. or ~ indeterminate. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 30. 31. hence may be any finite number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division. etc. Q 7. etc 302. oo 301. 32. ~\ OK OO. ^ oo . = 48201. as a . . . 7' j/ 39. . Interpretation . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . 3 a2 38.
while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. (1) is an identity. the answer is indeterminate. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.000 a. be the numbers. 306.g. without exception. TO^UU" sufficiently small. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.decreases X if called infinity. cancel. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. (1). of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.x'2 2 x = 1. as + l. and becomes infinitely small. equation. is satisfied by any number.e. By making x any * assigned zero. = 10. great.increases if x de x creases. I. i. Hence such an equation identity. x f 2. or that x may equal any finite number. Or. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. 1. and . . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. ToU" ^100 a.e. 1. oo is = QQ. Let 2. (a: Then Simplifying.can be If It is made larger than number.242 303. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1) = 0. creases. it is an Ex.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. . The ~~f fraction . i.
and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. and a. is their 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. EXERCISE 1. two numbers is 76. 42 and' their product is 377. (2). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 4 3 x x5 a2 . = oo. * 6. . The sum is of squares 2890.2 y = 4. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4).e. 1=0. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. z = 1 Substituting. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 3. Hence /. third and sixth parts. y finite QO. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 2. Solve x a.8 x + 15 6. Solve . Solve  9 7.
and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 14. increased by the edge of the other. equals 4 inches. Find these sides.244 3. . 13. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the numbers. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 9. and the sum of ( 228. Find the dimensions of the field. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. 148 feet of fence are required. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. two numbers Find the numbers. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 12. and the diago(Ex.) 53 yards. of a right triangle is 73. Find the side of each square. 10. the area becomes f% of the original area. 8. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the sides of the rectangle.quals 20 feet. Find the other two sides. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the edge of each cube.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 6. 146 yards. of a rectangular field feet. Find the sides. and the edge of one. Find the edges. p. 190. 103. is is 17 and the sum 4. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. is 6. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.
and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. differ by 8 inches. Find the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17. irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the radii. .) (Area of circle and = 1 16. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches.
a + d. to produce the 3d term. added to each term to obtain the next one. . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.7. to each term produces the next term. . The first is an ascending... f . the second a descending. Hence / = a + (n . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. progression. to produce the 4th term. 15 is 9 f. a 11. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 16.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. except the first.. . 3. The common differences are respectively 4. (n 1) d must be added to a.) is a series. 17. + 2 d. each term of which.. a + 2 d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. P. the first term a and the common difference d being given. Since d is a f 3 d..1) d.. 309. to produce the nth term.. P. a 3d.. An arithmetic progression (A. 3 d must be added to a. . of a series are its successive numbers. To find the nth term / of an A. 12. and d. 2 d must be added to a. 11. of the following series is 3. 19. P. The progression is a. a f d. 10. : 7. a. series 9.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 4.
P. 1. P. 2 EXERCISE 1. 5... 9.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. 2.3 a = l. = 2.. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 6.PROGRESSIONS 310.. 10... 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 21. 5. 7.. a = 2.. 5. 5. .. 7. 6. = 99. . 3. d = 3. 4^. . = I + 49 = *({ + .' cZ == . if a = 5. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. . 115.. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5.. 19. series . of the series 10. .. 99) = 2600. 2J. ? (a) 1. (d) 1J. 8.. 1.4.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 7. (a + + (a + l) l). Find the 10th term of the series 17. 8. d . 2.. P. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 1J. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 3. Find the 12th term of the 4. Find the nth term of the series 2.16. = a + (a Reversing the order. 24. the term a.. series 2. 3. 4. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Adding. . 9. Find the 5th term of the 4. 6 we have Hence . 8.8. 6. 3.
7. 29. 19. > 2f 2. . striking hours only. 3. 15. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 1. 13. 17. 16. . 4. 31. and for each than for the preceding one. 1. 18. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . (x +"l) 4. 1J. to 7 terms. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 12. . 6. . (i) (ii) . 23. + 3. to 10 terms. : 3. 8. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.7 f to 12 terms. strike for the first yard. . 11. 2J.248 Find the 10. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 7. . Sum the following series 14. 16. to 15 terms. 11. 20. 21. rf. 1. \n..5 H + if f to 10 terms.1 f 3. '. to 20 terms. 7. to 8 terms. hence if any three of them are given. P. Jive quantities are involved.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. In most problems relating to A. 11. 22. to 20 terms. 11. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 33. to 16 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 20 terms. 2. 12. 15.
. 56. 204 = ^ (98 . the second one mean between the other two. J = 49.~n~\ 408 6).PROGRESSIONS Ex. Find the series. 78 n Substituting in (1). x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 204 = ^ (a + 49). From (1). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. or 11 J. = n(104 . 122.1) . P. 12. 144. 2. But evidently n cannot be fractional.. n d. 2 (2) From Hence (2). d = 6. I Substituting in (I) and (II). Ex. Solving.104 w + 408 = 0. = 1014. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 6. 89. s 24ft last term 144. l)e?.e. The first term of an A. 133. 1. 78. a = 12. 34. n = 6. The series is. if s = 204. and b form an A. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = a + (w. if a.6. 312.1). = 13. Findn. or if x Solving. a = 49 6(71 . 111. P. 67. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 100. 23. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). I. 45. Substituting in (2). is 12. = 144.. #.6 n). . P. hence n = 6. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. = 1014. 6 n2 .
I. P. Find a Given a = 7. Find w. n has the series ^ j . I Find I in terms of a.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 16. 7. 6? 9. 14. 4. = 17. . 74. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 10. Find d. n = 20. 15. 12. y and #f5y. Find d and Given a = 1700. = ^ 3 = 1. 78. and s. d = 5. s = 70. ceding one. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 13. n = 17. of 5 terms 6. = 52. n = 13. n = 4. n = 16. 16. has the series 82. Given a = 4. 11. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. m and n 2. 3. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 17. = 83. Given a = . Find a and Given s = 44. How much . a+ and b a b 5. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . f? . Given a = . = 1870. Find n. 8.3. How much did he save the first month? 19. a x f b and a b. s == 440. Given a = 1. = 45. produced. Find d. Find?. T? ^. f J 1 1 / . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n.
The progression is a. E. 36. +1. 2 a. The 314. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.) is a series each term of which. or 81 315. . I. .. or. If n is less : than unity. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. .. 4 (1) . rs = s 2 .. 2. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). of a G. r n~ l .. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. P. ratios are respectively 3. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. <zr . called the ratio. P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 4. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. .. 36.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. is 16(f) 4 . (I) of the series 16. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. P. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. and To find the nth term / of a G. 36. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . ar.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. 4. is it (G.g..arn ~ l . 24. A geometric progression first. NOTE. ar8 r. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 12.. 108. 24.. the first term a and the ratios r being given.
80. 7.*. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . if any three of them are given. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^._!=!>. 9. (it. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 144. is 3.5.288.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. i 288. . l. 72. 36. whose and whose second term is 8. Find the 6th term of the series J. . 3.18. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 20. 0. fa. 4. 288. . 676. .l.. 9.72. or 7. \ t series . r^2.4. 9. Jive quantities are in. .. Hence n = 7. 2 term 3.. 576. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. f... +f%9 % . 72.. f. whose and whose common ratio is 4.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 10.18. 144. ? (c) 2. first term is 125 and whose common . (b) 1. EXERCISE 1.. . P.. 144. And the required means are 18. . is 16. Hence the or series is 0. I = 670. 6. In most problems relating to G. . a = I. hence. fa. (d) 5. series 5. 18. 8. first 5. 4. first term 4. 1.. P.... 25. whose . P. volved . Find the 5th term of a G. P.54. series . series 6. P.6.5.. 36. . . Ex. + 5. . 36.
21. 1. . may be than any assignable number. a^. of r n decreases. 42. to 6 terms.. J. 23. r . + 4 . 72. . . to 8 terms. is less than unity. be written If the value of r of a G. 14. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. J. to 5 terms. to 7 terms. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 15. M. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. 48. Find a and 4. to G terms. 27. 22. 1. 13. Find the geometric mean between 7. J. . Find a and Given r = 3. 126. a. Find a and n = 4. n = 5. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 20. 24. s = 605. to 6 terms.. . Given r = n Z 5. >"> . s = 310. to 6 terms.i a9 . 243. 81. 36. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex... = 3. 81. n = 5. and hence ~ r . J. = 3. 12 terms. 12.nV> i*> !718. 2. P. 4.. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 19. I.. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. == 160. 25S series : 32. to 7 . 16 . 14.J and 270. 54. Z s.
. is 9. 100. . . 1. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 10. 1. 2. first and the common term.99 . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one...= . 9.555. =A+ 10 i. P. .717171. = . 6.. . P.. 4..072 + . 7.072. . 13.)7?7272 . P.... 40.00072 f . . . (6) the sum of the perimeters..1.. 5. .. 12.72. .. . Hence . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. . r = j..191919. 1 r = . .3727272 . 16. 4.. 8.. = . i.. of: 11. I. The sum r. .= _4Z* . 16.3121212. is 16. and the first term is Find 17.. 3.. = a . 12.. 6.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. of all squares ? . 250.. . .272727. of an infinite G. i i J. 2. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. Find the sum to infinity. 1... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. what is (a) the sum of the areas.. 1...37272 . ..01 ^ .27777 .. is J.Ql.3 + . 5. 8. .. 66 Therefore ... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . Find the value 9.254 Ex. = 990 . 9. 14. Given an infinite series of squares. If a = 40. ratio 15.
4 7. 4. 10. 15. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 17. (xy) : 6 . (s + i). Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 12. Find the 6th term of (x . 20. (\ 9 . 5. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 16.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . l 2. (a + b) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 13. 7 . a6 8 16 in . . 28. (z2 ^ Simplify 9.b ). 11. 14. (a2) 6. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 21. coefficient of . /2a+Y\ 8. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b) w (a (a f (1 . . (a 100 .6) 20 . : (1 + xy. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .6) . 2 2 24. 29. 22. . 26. 25. .
(ft c)(c 4 ) 3. if y=2j 2. 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . l. if x^l. 2. 3. 3. 4 2. 1. 4. 5. 3. 6. 2. 3. + 2. 3. 2. 2. 1. 3. 4. (c 3. 5. 1. 2. 1. 6. 4. . 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 2. 2. 2. 2 . 3. 1. aft 3 + 4. 6. ^+^ 3. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 2. c = = = 2. 4. + c(a  c). *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 6. 2. if = = 2. 3.c )(fta) 1. 5. 2.  2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.  8 ^ 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. c if 7 . ft) . 6.a(a 4. 1. 5. 2. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 1. 7. 2. + 2. 4. 3. 1. 3. 1. = 2. if = = = 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. 1. 3. 1. 2.f ac 1. 2. 4. 4. 4. 1. a ft c = = 2.  a)(a 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 5. 2. 2. 2. 5. 3. 2. 3. 24 4. y 3. 5. 2. 5. 1. 1. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 2. 4. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 4.  2. 3. 2. 2. 1. 2. 5. + 1. . 1.
4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . a /> 3. 9. 4. 12.x 5 4 . f 8.10. r> . 5. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 8. 4. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .a8 .a 4 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 2.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . if a 6 = = c = 3.2 x2 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .8 3 + 7 x4 . 3. . 4 y 13. + 4 ?y .8 + 2 // . 17. 5. 1. 21.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 2. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. .3 a?y . 41.c' 2 4 / .1.7 ys. x = 4. 6. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 15.2. 5.7 y 2* 4. 24. 26. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. c)(x a} . 4 x 4 . 21. a 4 + 11 a . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .259 x c) .a 5 a . ' b) + 3. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . x3 2 a2 . 40.2. 9.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 7. + 8 x4 *y . a. 7 xy 3 . a. x 3 x' 14. 7y 4 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.7 + . 15.2 z8 4 x. or . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 5. x 3 11. 3. 6 a4 4 a8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.2 x?/. 10. . a: . c = 3. + 1. b(x (b 1.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 16. 2. 1.\ yz + xz.3 xyz. 25. 4.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2 x 8.  a) (c 2. 4 z . 20.r 6 x  4 xy . 29. 18. + 3 y 2* .a) . = 2. 2 . + 2. ~c)(b. x C 4 4x y + . (5.4. + 4.2 a?y + 3 aty . 8 .
Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . ft. a  ft + c. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .8 3 4.] 26.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 4 4 4. From of 2 the 4. Take the sum 4x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24..6 x ] . and . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.2 3 ax 2 .7.x .[4 z 8 .3 . . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.c 4 3 a.[4 x 4.2) .c. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. . f ft. 36.#48.{G * 2 .a ft.4 ft) 4.1)}] . 5 10 + 7 . 4 .2 x 8y2 44 .260 19.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .2 a . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. : a x . 7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.5 .x 2 4.(4 * .4) . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 34.(4 x 2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.?> x 4 20. take the sum of G x 5 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .4 Vl 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .{2 x 2 . sum of .3 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 35.c. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . . 33.x2 . 4 3 5 y/ . 29. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.x . 4 2 x2 23. 2 x 32.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 .2 . 5 4 7 12 . 0" 30. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.c 3 a. c =x y }~ z.1).3 x .x 4. c 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. . 5 10 4 G 11 4.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . of a. Take the sum of 3 x 4. Simplify 31. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 3 ft.(a . = x y ft z. 542 x 2 and . x'2 . .5.3.27~~7)}]. c 4ft.(x 4.(5 c . . (*) a  c.4. 4vTT~y 3.6T . ft 25.(x* .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .(7 x 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.(5 y . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.
3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3).& + {.3c). a {. 'J 44.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. .(2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (x .1).6c) (a + f c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 2 53. 62.JT^T+1)} + (2 . 56. 2 f [3 c 7 a .2 zz .4 a .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 3 x 42. 51.2c(V/ . (1 55.0)} . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 63. (/> 4 . .ab . 13 a .c 2 . 67. . (4 + 3a 2 .Z . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].3 *).12).3 z 2 ). .(4 d . + 4x + 5)(j.3 c)]. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.[4 x  5 .rf)} + a [. 48.5)} + (3 a 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 4 + 2 2 + 1). (x.6)}].(2 x2 .{2 a (ft .r 2:c+ l)(ar.3)(*5)(* 7). 49. 2 : 7e)a}]. + *+!){> + 2). . . 46. 59. 2 52.be) (a 58.[2 . 65.ac .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.5 )}] + {4 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 57.2x + 3).(2 a + 5 a .2 2 . .b (c .(7 i + 4 r:) .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .96 [17 a.  2 a  {3 2x a . )(lz a ).c).{2 a . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). a . 50. .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).{3 c . 2 2 x + !)(* .a~^~c)K].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .6 xy .(7 a. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.2)(1 .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 43. 64. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).56. (r (1 (a.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].(5 y . 45. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.(2 a 2 . 60.2 2 + 1)(7. 2 ft 41. (.(6 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).2a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 54. 68. (5 a 39. (1 ar+a.7).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. .
73.(c 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).5 .c)} .ft) 4 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft /. Prove the following 8 4.3 a . 94.c)].n pc).(/>  3 v)^(.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.v) 4. ft 95. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.9y2). 2 (x 2 .y)\x y).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(ft 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. ar .3y) a (* 2 4. 91.2y)(. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 76. (a (2 b)*(a 4. xy y 2 ). 90. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).a) 2 . 74.2 ft}) f (3 a . ft" l Simplify 80. 87. 77.y).(4 .6*y .(a 48 8 8 4. ft 78.x + y + z). (. 4 4 .c) 2 .c) .O (a 4(a 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 92. b 4.c . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.q).<f(p . 84.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 86. 75. 1). . f 72.{3 a .c .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .(a 2) (s 4 ft. 2 + a 2 ).c) 4) (ft 4. 88. 85.z\x 4. 4. 82. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 71.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. .2 (a .y + z)(x + y .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).r 2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 83. (x (x ( + *) . ft ft ft a}.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 79.b 4.am&t 4 A 2 *). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .z)(x y + z)(. 70.2 (y 4. 1). (p 2 .262 69.c) j.m np c . 89. (a 2 ft 2n 4. . 93. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c) rr identities.ft) + 4(2 .z) .:y)( a.3 (ft .c) . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.
(80 a 112. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.y 2 4.(2 a 2 . 109. 25 4 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 2 (a+ . 120.1). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . r . 108.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (8 x* 115.(7 xi/ . 124. 113. 110. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 3*. 103. (.*) (x 8 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .r 4 4.5 xy). 102. 26 (a 4 c).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).) .y 4 ) . a*.xy 4.&). 99 100. 2 4 41 x 4a.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.2 2% 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.4 aft .5 b*). 105.b) 98. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 10).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 123.y 4 .3 a"+ 4.9 x 2 .6 y 4 4. [10( 4. 117.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).27 x* . .v/ ~ // = a: .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 106. . 114.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).a". 122.2y 2 4. 1O4. 1). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 116. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".(a 1 2 8 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.2 xy 8 .35 x 2 2 ) .40 />) .16 a 6 4. (2< 107. 118. 121. (a 8  8 68 8 4.(x 2 .
5) = 12(4 x .12 M 132. 148. y (* l x. 129.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 149. 138. 142. 126. 143.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . o o 140.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 137. (*+ + . . .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).7(4 * .r + 7[or .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3) = 12 .2(4 . . 128.2) = 3 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). (4 x .(x f 9). 7(2 x . .27 a 3" .3 x).(1 .3 a:). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.8 6 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.18 *&) (1 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 1) = 2(* . .a:)]}.n .7) = 4 . 135.3).3(2 z . 3(2 x 134. 5(2 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .5{.(x + 3) ] .9) 4.4) . . . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2) (a: + 3).2) + 2(ar + 4). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 42(3ar 145.2(10 x .2(j: . 139.22.r>) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.1) .2 7^~5] + 1). 127. 5 146. 2 4(ar . 10(2 x 141.3). x 147.9) + 3. 136.2(5 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .G) .5).264 125.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(j a? 144. 1) .4(0 x . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).3) (3 x 4.19) + 5 = 4 . 3) = x\x . (5a: 150.(x .4) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .1) (a? .
154. = 15.2 x) (4 .2) a + 7(x .24. sheep more than the 169. (x (x a. will produce F. 155.(5 x . . a: ar a. (2 .5(x . (a.7) (a. and the third twice as many as the first. The sum What 171. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . . 166.3) (3 . (7 14 . + 4) (2 x + 5).3) (j. 161.19) + 42. .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 265 152.29) 2 = 1. If the area of the frame inches.25) 2 .r + 3) .. How many 170. f^ + ^sO. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.5)(. + 10) (ar .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2) (7 *) + (*.14) (a: + 3).6 x) (3 .l)(z . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. The second contains 3 first.? .5 x) = 45 x . 157. 160.1) O + 4) = (2 * . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.5) = (3 . these two angles would be equal. 5(ar x .a:) + 229. (a) If C.z) (4 .3) (3 .3) (a: .7) (1 x .3) = (3 x .2). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 163. 164. 162. transformed into F. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5*) + 47.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 165. 2 4 . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.1) (s + 3).2) (j? + 1) + (x . 156.17) 2 + (4 x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.76.2 x) = (1 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.T)O . .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (3 O + . 153. find the value of F.4) (a . 159. =  (F 32). 158. + 2) + (5 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. (a .9) + (a. + 5) = (9 .8) = (2 x 4. = 2 C.
6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. was three times that of the younger. and 5 h. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. side were one foot longer. + a. . and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. dimension 182. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass.56. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. z 2 92. 187. 186. How many are there in each window ? . 3 gives the 174. . 188. train. two boys is twice that of the younger. 7/ 191. A each 177. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. z 2 + x . 176. ll?/102. 180. 178. younger than his Find the age of the father. number divided by 3. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. aW + llab2&. + 11 ~ 6. Find the dimensions of the floor. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. respectively. 190. 189. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 179. power one of the two Find the power of each. 181. sister . if each increased 2 feet. 13 a + 3.36. A boy is father. 12 m. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 2 2 + a _ no. A house has 3 rows of windows. Find the number. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. +x 2.266 173. father. 4 a 2 yy 42. 15 m. 10x 2 192. x* 185. same result as the number diminished by 175. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet.
x* + 8 2 + 15. x*y 223. a. + 3a 196. 216. . 3 ap 2 . z + 5x 2 .14 2 . xm+l 243. 210. wiy + la mx + aw. 4 m +^. 211.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 8 a: ar. (a + . 207. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 5 x 2.3 xy. 2 200.64. 202. 218.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . + 30 x. 232. 215. x 5 . 229.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 213. 2 a 2 .22 z + 48.6s. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3 x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .8 6 2. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . a a: a: 237. 2  5 xy 13 y a.c) 2  (a . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 244.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 3y 248.28. 227.6 aq . 2a te 3% ly 247. 7x 2 225. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 3y 2 + ary . 246.20 z 8 a: 220.6 y2 + 4. .1.77 y + 150. a: 236. a+a* + o a +l. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . .10. 6 197. a.3 c/> + 6 cq. 7a 228. a: .6 2 ?/ .c) 2 . *2 234. 235. 217.x + 1. 224.6. 230. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 233.19 a .10 xy. 12 x +4.19 z 4 204. + 8. . 267 199.3 xf + 3 * 2y . . ifWy+b. 2 . 2 a 8 . 239. 8 a. 201. 16x 4 81. 24 2 + 2 . a: 231.r?/f y 2 9. a.12 * . 3 x V . 23 12. 208.21 a:  54. 195. a 2 .(b + rf) 2 . 2 x 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 209. . 212. 222. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 4a 2& 2 241. z 2 2. 245. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . y 2 194. 238. . a. 206. a^a 226. 2 2 y f 1. # 2  29 y + 120. 221. + 198. 203.10 y a x* . + 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . x 219. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .
265.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 3 #2 255. + 20 x 4. x 2 + 4 + 3.r . 30 ^ . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .ry 21. of: 266.(55. x* . 10 x 2 .80. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 257. z 2 267. x 2 + 2 x .2/ 2 .15.2 z .1 9 . a. 7 12 2 2 . 2 x2 . * 2 . 22x2 a.10 a 4. 10 a. 258. of: 253.120. 3 a% 2 .M.23 + 12.16 x .12. ft a. 3 ay 4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .91.11 x f 28.4 ab + 1. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. I Find the II.&z. + 3 x + 2.a + 2 4. x 2 .48 afy 2 . * 2 . 261. 252.23 x f 20.9 x .ry . + 8. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 269.9. a 4. + 23 x f 20. 2 . 264.6 by. 1 x ar Find the L.15 + 30.C. x*y* 4.5 ab f 2.4.3 abc .36.2 aft*.3. 251.x .a 2 />c 2 f 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 2 8 . 28 2 f 71 x .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . .18 xy + 5. x* .11 a 2 . 18 x 2 . 259. F. Reduce to lowest terms 271.14 bx a%% 8 . * 2 . 7 ax 250. 5 x 2 256. x 2 263. 15 # 2 z/ /.10. 8 2 + 10 x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .13. a: . 6.9 x + 14. C. 2 + 7 r f 2.73 xy . a? a: a: // 262. a 3 a 2 2 . * a . x 2 + 5 f .7 f 5. + 8 x + 5.3 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. z 2 268. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 a. 260. x 2 4. 254.8.G7 x f 33. 270.
9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . *2 " 2 + Oge.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.J' 4 2 2 w mp .(y 2 z) * t (j.ar 1 279.!/. 8 . 289 ' ..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. + ac .2* + 3 x* 280. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa ..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .rL. 285 z4 n* + a.2c a: 282.
a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 4 3 301. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. * 19 23 19(23 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^_2*(m 308. O(ca) 306. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x 7. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 6) _ ~ i 305. Lnl + ar 2 a. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a (: a) (x 2.
a: 1 313. 2ft 2 a8 3 314._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. . 1 _.(a . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 x2 + + a. } .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. (a? 4 2) 317.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1a: + y a. 2 + y 2 319. (1 .. . _ x8 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . . .15 33 .7 xy + 12 x .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 lOx 5x.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. a: 2 x* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* ..6* t 328.2 +lOar 2 a.. 20 44 333.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. * 3a.9 *// + 27 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .ll. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.V  + y  x 3y a .5 a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.y20  2y + 4 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.
REVIEW EXERCISE 336.) 2 . f V. xi 347. fl. aj 339. + l + IV.+ r . ?_2 ^ . 348. \x yj 340. a: 349 _ o. 352. a>74 . 7 ( ?f!?. + ni + . +^ a: y x . 344. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.1V. if a = 3.y. ( 342. ** i. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ' 2 "l 5 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (aWi + iJ. (af2/. (ar \ 346. (a \ + lV.r 5 2 . \5yl 341. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.. 1 345. w \. 5 343. 338.
_ + l a 359. y360. (a a b yx c yabc 361. a2 4 . + x x a .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. ar xy + yl x* 358.
b c 368. a + . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374.
1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15. J !__7. <3 378. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 4(* . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . 5 {2 x 381. ^ . . 5*8. __4 2x 3_ = !. 379. 8  376.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.
JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.REVIEW EXERCISE 391..5 x =r f .75 x f . 3* 177.1 . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). m x 398. 401..5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 397.2 a:  1. c .6  . u '2 a. . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. _____ . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 396. f 1 1 + a 403. 399. 40. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 ^ ~ a: a. . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.147.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.8 = . a.  J). ^ (a .  8 9* x ~r.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 400. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.25 x + .25. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. + 4 a. b 404. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.
he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. and was out 5 hours. Find the number. 418 ~jo. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . In a if and 422. 18 be subtracted from the number. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. the order of the digits will be inverted.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. How long is each road ? 423. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. far did he walk all together ? A . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Tn 6 hours .c) .278 410. 421. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 420. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.  a) 2 6 2a. (x . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 411.
. : i. a + 5. x 427. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).iand 22 22 I a . Find the fourth proportional 426. Solve 436. y. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. b. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 431. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Which ratio is greater. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 432. if . ax is \ by  ex + dy.46 2): (15a 2 . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 428. If a b : =5 n : 7.& 5 ) (a 8 . find : a : c. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 3 and 1J. 2 2 8 2 . wi* + y= ny. d. 438. 435. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 433. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).6 8 ). a. Find the length of the parts. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 430. z 2 y. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find the angles of the triangle.49 63). The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). : If is one equal 434. Find the mean proportional to 429. . a  t>. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.
7 442.4 12 . The volumes If their diameters. 42 = 15y + 137. />(. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 456. 5 2 = 7 . c. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 458. .59 = 3 z. 451. Solve the following systems: 441. 3 a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 28 = 5 a . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . . a: 2y= = 1 . + 5y = 59. Find the value of a. 1(3  a.(or l(*2y)=0.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 9ar7# = 71. if 2 ft : 439. 9/> = 2 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. ft. 3 . 7jr9y = 17.*. 455.55 y = . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 452. 4 = 5 y + 29. 445. x + 17 # 53. 56 + 10y = 7a. a: a: + 5y). 8 . 5x+4y=lQ.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 449. 443. 454. 453. .11 y = 95. 8 x + y = 19. 459.89 = q. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). a. = 25. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. . 7a?y = 3. 448. ft. 16. ?/ 447. /) ar a..7 y = 25.rf2# = l.11 7. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 444.35. 457. 7 a: . 450. . 446. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 5z4:# = 3.
. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . (or . x y 474. 468. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . _ 469.  = 2. 475. 8 461.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.2y) (2 = 2J.?/ + 1 . 465. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 473. ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.+ =2. i = 5.7. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. + eyn.c=563y.
. Find the sum and the rate of interest. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and the other number least. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the fraction. Find the numbers. least The sum of three numbers is is 21.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. A number consists of two digits 4. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. age. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find their ages. 485. Find the number. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find the numbers. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A spends \ of his. and in 18 months to $2180. 486. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 487. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . to . Find the principal and the rate of interest. by 4. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 483. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. fraction becomes equal to . How much money less 484. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. the Find their ages. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and in 20 months to $275. 477. 481. 479. whose difference is 4. years.
2y + 3a = ll. *i. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 .z = 12. ./ 504. ifi = x a. a. a. a: f z = 79. 3 x 500. 2 a. 2 2 = 41. . 8./ f z =a. a: 499. 494. 4 506. 4z+3z = 20. x s + y z = 18J . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 2a:f 7. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. : Solve the following systems 491. . 3 a: + 5=84.z = 20. 7. a number . \ . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 493. 490. 2 e. and the difference of their Find the numbers. = 20. 2/>3r = 4. 498. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 5^ 9z = 10. a: + // = 11. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 1+1 = 6. z y x 25 . = 209. 7 + 2 z . 495. + # +z= 35. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. x f y f z 29 .? + 2y = 8. 489. of two the sum of the digits also if number. . + y 5 y = 101 . 492. y Solve : x +z= 5. 496. * + 425  = . z y ifi = z x 502. x y f z = 13. ~ 507. 4 497. 1. . = 15.5#+2z = $x a: G.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 3ar 503. 5 + a.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. 523. z z =3a&c. ll" . i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 517. 36 + c. + : = 1472.
L. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. 530. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. in 28 minutes. . Find the numbers. AB=6. Tf and run together. if and L. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. and BE. the first and second digits will change places. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. In circle A ABC. BC = 5. B and C and C and A in 4 days. How long will B and C take to do . and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. touches and F respectively. AC in /). and CA=7. CD. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 532. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. . M. E 533. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. it separately ? 531. they would have met in 2 hours. Find the present ages of his father and mother. When weighed in water. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 90. 527. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. What are their rates of travel? . N. if the number be increased by Find the number.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. If they had walked toward each other. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. it is filled in 35 minutes. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds.
Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*.  7. 2. z 2  x x  5. 2  x  x2 . The values of y.  3 x. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 550. from x = 2 to x = 4. the function. 3 x 539. formation of dollars into marks. then / = 3 and write = 3.10 marks. GERMANY. One dollar equals 4. x 8 549. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 2 x + 5. 2. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. i. 542. x*  2 x. b. If to feet is the length of a seconds.  3 x. 546. c. . e. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. + 3. 2 541. d. a. The values of x if y = 2. x 2 + x. 548.e. FRANCE. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x*. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. to do the work? pendulum. x *x + x + 1. 540. . The greatest value of the function. 545. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 547. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 543. if x = f 1. x 2 544. 536.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.
568. z 2 .11 = 0. 564.1 = 0. a.G . a: 559. + 5 . \ to t = 5.3 . a.r 1 561.9 = 0. 2. if y =m has three real roots.4 x 2 + 4 . r?. 555. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. h. . a? 4 x . x* .11 x* + + 2 8 569. 562. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.15 = 0. 3 x* .r a: a: x a. J. Solve// = 0. 3 + 3 z . j.= 0.r . x 4 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. f. 556.13 = 0. 2 a. c. 572. 18 x  4 = 0. and make the unit of the b. c.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.3 = 0.17 = 0.  2 1 a: a. x 2 ~ 2 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.3 x . x 5 . 553. 558.4 . . z 4 . If y +5 10. a. 2 x 2 560.4 = 0.3 x . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . ' = 8. 563.6 + 3 . Solve 552. Represent meters. g.0. 565.5 x . . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. = 5. 3 x . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 566. 2 8 . 15. i. e. + 10 x .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.7 = . 3 . 2 554.= 0. 2 567. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 557.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.
2 2 + y. + %) (a* + *) 5 . <r)3  2 3 a:) .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. (1 + x a. 4 . 5 a*. 3 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.(1 . a. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 582. 608. . 589.frf : 583.2 6a: + 30 &c a. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.5 xy = 0. 600. 3 (f. 595. 598. a:. + ^) + (air%)8. 2 611. x [ ?/ 577. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 596. (a  8 ft) . 2  2 aa: 2 . 4 (1a:) 3. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 604.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 609. j^f = 3. jj+. 593.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 585 594. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . (1 (1 (1 . 6 + 1) . a 8 606. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. x + z2) 8 . : y* or 25. 579.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 9  4 fSb 607. 4 a. a: . [ y =10.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .x + 2 )'2 601. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (aiy.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 599. + . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 592. 597. (# 2) .4. 1 . (a. a 2a. a 612. xY. + + 4 . 64 a 12 603. f ?>) 3 591.%) 4 (aa. 588.
30. According to Kepler's law.*.191209. 639. 647t x 2 648 649. 625 : 621. Find the square root of 619. V950484 . 49042009. x 2 . 4370404.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 2. x 2 641. VOIOOD + V582T09. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 615. 40.2410.15174441. 630. 636. 494210400001. 8*' + 24* = 32. = . 623. find Jupiter's period. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 44352. 035. 620. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. /. 650. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft .448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . Find the eighth root 617.49. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.871844.53 x ~ . = 70.2. 210. 643. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .150. 9g.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.12 a?y + y*. (x 9 x 646. 634. 2 + 21Ga. ft .\/4090. 49. 21. 645. 32 631. 628. 3a. 644. 614. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . + 24 a 2 4 . 9a. 651. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. + 112 a 8 . : 5. 624. 633. a 642. 25023844. 638. 2 + 189 z = 900. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 632. 371240. + 54 'x*y* . 4J. = 87. 637.1024 x + a: 256. 622. = 0. 629. 0090. 7) 2. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. V 635. 626. 942841. GGff. *+* = 156. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.V250 . + 2 21 x = 100.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
a a )jr . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 702. 693. 708. = 0. . a. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 2 . 696.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 __ : )'*' _i. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.c = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. ex abc= fx 0. ax 2 698.bx . 699.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 695. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 694. 2 2 697. . 706. 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 707.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.ax .
25 might have bought five more for the same money.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 722. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 725. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 721. 729.292 709. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 217 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. sum is a and whose product equals J. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 12 4*+  8. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 716. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find two numbers whose 719. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 727. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. How shares did he buy ? if 726. **13a: 2 710.44#2 + 121 = 0. A equals CO feet. 724. 723. Find the price of an apple. a: 713. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. in value. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 16 x* . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 3or i 16 . 717. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.
37.2)(x2 4.l). 31.1 f c" ).aft* 1 + a 2*.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 42. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 + c. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 33. 41. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (v/x). . 38.1 + x. 52. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.1 f ^ 2). 43.)(ai + &. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .X . 34. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 35. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). . 39. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 1 6. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 46. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 36.2 ).2? 50. n. 32. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 40.
1+J 756. 754. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 768. [1r^ T 1 i .294 753. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 761. 758. JU. ~ r* x ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 757. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.. 2V2 2V3 . 759.
y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . 787. 13 799. 793. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 789. . 3J . 14 791. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 10 785.2 V30. 786. 783.4 V(j.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . 92VI5. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 103 788. a 9442V5. . c 792. + 2V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . x 782. 794. 790. Va 809.VlO. 16 + 2V55.2V3* ^ 807. 7512V21.12VIT. 3812VIO. 806.
28 = 4 V2 ar 14.Vc^lJ . /9ar a: = 17. 831. (x a: 2 ) 4 .79. 811. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 836. + Vx . 812. Va: . V14 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .V? = 813. 833. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.13 = 0. 3 x + 2 .4 = 0.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 818. + ViTli + V7 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . = 1. 819. 829.f 5 = V5x + 4. 830. 816. 815.g. VaT+lJ f ^l . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. \/12 a. + 103Var. 814.  5 + V3 f 12 817.\/2y  810. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. V3 f 1 V4a.V2 ar 10. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . x/aT+l . 820. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.
870. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 2 f" + a/ 15. . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 8 4a: 8 a. a. 8^27^. 9. 8 . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . z*y 8 l64a. f b**. 853. 16 859. a. 864. 19 x 14. a: . 846. 856.ab9 ft*. + 1.10 = 118. a 872. . 4 a: 2 842. 4 a. 863. 861. V4 x 2 . a l0m . 844. 5 a 4 7 a8 .1000 6. . 8 860. 852. 845.3 x . 729 867.28 a 4 xy 8 80.x*y + 3x f 2. a. x 4 + f 2 a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. + 512 y8 874. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 839. 8 8  13 a. 64 a 866. a*" & 6n . f 12. 868. 64. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. f 841. 4 x 8 858. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. . x 8 2 857. 855. 865. 4 x* 847. a 8 869.a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. a. 8 2a.12. a 8 850. a. a.3 . y 4. 8 a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 2 a: 64 y*. 2 x 3. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.  3x a. 6.3 a:. 27 y 8. a 8 873. 871. 275 8 l.3 Va: 2 . 851.1. + . 27 862. 876. . 8 8 848. 4o. +3 4 +  4. 875. a 18 4. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 840.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a: 849.
2 + xy = 28. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.sy = 198. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 = 2 + 5. 886. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 896. 3 x 2 . 2 2 = 16 y. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. f ?/ a: a: . x 882. 885. y = 28.35.y 2 = 2 y + 2. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. z 2 898. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 1 x 893. 2 . a# f + xy = 126. a. 901. a: 2 897. a: + y 2 = 34. y y 2 y 2 1121. a:y . a: 884. 878. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 895. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 890. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 5.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 + 2 f = 17.1 = 2 a#. + ary + 2 = 37.298 877. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 894. a: a.y 2 + V(j.18. a: 888. a. y 2 4. xy + y = 32. x a: lI = xz . 899. 889. 2 + y 2 . M1 891 1 . + 2y=\2. . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.y 2) = 20. 887. x*xy. . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.15. . . . y*+ xy . y 2 2 8f.xy + y 2 = 19.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + xy = 10. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.Vi' + 1 1_3. 900. a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 883. +y f y = 7.
y + a:y = 180. + y = 9. 910. 907. x 2 ry + y = 3.y2 = 22. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.3)2 = 34. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. xy + x= 15.y) (3 y . Vary + y = 6. a. 2 915. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 913. 2 5 xy = 11.3(* + y) = 6. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 908. 917.y) (a? . 23 x 2 . y . 4 (a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. + y)(a.#y + 2 = 27. a: * a: a: ar 928. y 3 2 2 922.y). x + y}(x + y) = 273. x 4 299 xy z 904.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. (* 918. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). (!) * . 906. # + xy + y = 7.16 y 3 8 = . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. xa 903. (o. + 2 a:y + = 243. 3 :r(3 . = 8. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.6. a: a. 912. x f 2 a:y = 32. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y) = 33. ^ 2 . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. (3 x . + ?/) .3) 2 f (y . + y 8 = 189. 2 2 2 916. a:y xy 929. a: y zx 12. . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. *y . or or a? a: a: . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 914. . ary y = 8. 905. 2 924. 911. + 2 ary = 39. . + a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. * + y = 444. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 2 * 2 ~ g. 920. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 3 y 8 ) =1216.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 923.y = a(ar + y).x) = 21. + ary = a*. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 909.r a.23 = 200. (a.2 y) = 49 2 919. yz = 24. 921. y x 2 = by. 7 y . 2 + y = 2 a 4. x + y 2 = aar.
rate each man ran in the first heat. two squares equals 140 feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 944. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 943. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. (y + *) = .102. and also contains 300 square feet. 942. feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. y( 934. and 10 feet broader. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.300 930. s(y 932. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. . feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. two numbers Find the numbers. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. 931. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 937. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.square inches. 34 939. and the difference of 936. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. If each side was increased by 2 feet. In the second heat A . The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. diagonal 940. 935. a second rec8 feet shorter. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. is 3 . is 3. 2240. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A and B run a race round a twomile course. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Assuming = y. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. 152. *(* + #) =24. and the sum of their areas 78$. is 20. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. How many rows are there? 941. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. + z)=18. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. A plantation in rows consists of 10.000 trees. A is 938. find the radii of the two circles. + z) =108. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet.
Find the number. . If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 951. set out from two places. each block. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find the eter 947. the digits are reversed. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. and if 594 be added to the number. and its perim 948. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. . The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. 953. 950. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and that B. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. overtook miles. sum Find an edge of 954. whose 946. and travels in the same direction as A. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. What is its area? field is 182 yards. P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. 952. 949. . Find its length and breadth. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. unaltered. that B A 955. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. is 407 cubic feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Two starts travelers. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. triangle is 6. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. A and B. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. distance between P and Q.
Find the Find the common 977.. P.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Find the sum of 4. (x 4 to n terms.. *" 968.1 4 f j$V . 5. and 976.  2. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Find n.. to n terms. to infinity.>/) to infinity. P. . x(x to 8 terms. . 18th terms of an A. 3 + 5 7 + ...454.v 973. . P. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 3 . 36 963. Find an A. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.302 956. 966. 1 to n terms.. Sum to 20 terms. 970. ^ 1 .V2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 4 4 to 7 terms .4142 . '. 1G series . Sura to 24 terms. fourth of the unity.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4... 9th and llth terms of an A. 969. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. (to 2 n terms). !Ll^ + n . 4.. P.. J. are 29 and 53. to 7 terms. Sum Sum to infinity. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Evaluate (a) .. \ . + (iiven a +  4 d . ^ Vfirst five 959.to infinity. s  88. 971.141414... 12434+ j I 967. 958.3151515. 16 962. 961.. the terms being in A. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms... 974. 964. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 972.321? 965. n to n terms. 5. difference. . 957. f + 1 . Find n f (ft) . 975. = 4.
001 4. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 1. The term. 990. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 992. 5 11. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 989.) the last term the series a perfect number.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .2 . named Sheran. is 225. 987. . and of the second and third 03. Find the sum of the series 988. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54..04 + . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . first 984. and the common difference. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 986. 985.. : + 9   V2 + . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . of n terms of an A. The 21st term of an A. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. to infinity may be 8? . Find n. The sum 982.. Find four perfect numbers. 2 grains on the 2d.1 + 2. P. to oo. 0. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. and so on... 980.+ lY L V. P. Find the first term.001 + .3 ' Find the 8th 983.. to n terms. P. Find four numbers in A.. to 105? 981. 4 grains on the 3d.01 3. "(. 303 979. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.
prove that they cannot be in A. ft. 999. is 4. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 995. The sum and sum . (a) after 5 strokes. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The fifth term of a G. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 994. in this circle a square. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. ABC A A n same sides. 1000. are 28 and find the numbers. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Two travelers start on the same road. . Under the conditions of the preceding example. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1003. many days will the latter overtake the former? . and G. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. P. P. inches. find the series. 998. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. areas of all triangles. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. of squares of four numbers in G. at the same time. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. are unequal. in this square a circle. 1001. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to infinity. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. (6) the sum of the infinity. 997. 512 996. P. c. If a. AB = 1004.
Find the middle term of ( . 1014. 1011. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Expand  2 a.o/) 14 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. + lQ . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. (1 1018. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the middle term of 1020. ) 1021. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1006. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .ft) 19 .iV 2i/ 5 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 2 ) 5. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). a: 8 7.l) w f . 1012. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. . 1009. x) 18 . (12 #) 7 .
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232 mean progression ... lowest ratio " '* . graphic tion of representa . . . 246 91 " multiple........ . . 232 169 807 . Checks Coefficient 20.. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ... quadratic .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . ..210 130 " Addition value 4 15..... .. 8 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . . .] Abscissa Absolute term .. t 53 120 ... .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . 123 . . signs of Algebraic expression .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 9. . ... . . . .. 97. . simple simultaneous .. numerical . . 129.. linear literal Common ** * difference . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 54. 129 54.. Aggregation.. 112 54 54 251 . Brace Bracket Character of roots .108 160 " .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . .130 .. 19..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .178 Completing the square . . 9 ** ... . 37..193 11 . 158.. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . ..
. 114. L. G. numbers . .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . 227 .. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . Product '* 76 Infinite. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . Geometric progression . 205 . .. . 109 102 .. 34. 195 33. addition of " square of . 180. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . 184 54. 112 .. Insertion of parentheses . Known numbers . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . Imaginary numbers . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .31. . directly. . . . Like terms Linear equation .. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 189. 212 . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Negative exponents 11 . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 91 . . 45. . 42 7 Independent equations Index .. . . 45 Laws of signs . inversely 122 numbers . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 63.808 Exponent Exponents. Mathematical induction . arithmetic .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. P . . INDEX 8 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . first and second .C Multiplication . 253 28 70 1. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . exponent . 241 123 geometric . . . . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. 243 7 . 9. .. 227 geometric . 23 10 91 102.. .. Inconsistent equations . 45. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. . . law of Extraneous roots . 120 Member.251 Graphic solution of simultane.105 Monomials 03 Multiple.108 Minuend . . .. 17 65. 143. 84.. .
INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... . polynomial ... 4 155 9 " of ... . . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. . 9... algebraic Surds ... . . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. Sum. absolute 54 Variable .. 45 Trinomial 240 . 129........ binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1916.A. U. Reprinted April. 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. Mass. Norwood. Set up and electrotypcd. Published September. Berwick <fe Smith Co. December. 1917. August. 8.S. . NorfoooS J. 1910.. 1910.COPYRIGHT.
Page Page Ilis expenditures. 29. 4. per sec. 192. 12. C $60. 17. i . T . 17. 1. 2. 3. 13. }. 3. 26. _ 32. 18. 4. 20 \. 20 jo.000 negroes. 16. 128. 4. 24.. 19. 22. 14. 2 5. 10.  1. 10. 2. 16. 9. 12. 2. 150. 6. 2. 32.000. 89. $40. 15. 7. 19. 17. 7. 5. 16 in.3.000. 14 11. A $90. 9 14. . ft. 64. 6. 30.. 7. 16 in. 37 S. 24. 12. 3* 7. 1 16. $160. 7. x. A 38 mi. 5. 6. 13 d. 6* 16. 14. westerly motion. 3. 106.21 24. 25. 15. .. 8 13. 18. 12. 20. 30?. 12. 11. 3.000. . 1. b. Page 13. 7.. 512. 10. 6. 15. 24. 37. 3. 73. B 10 mi.  13. 32. 48 ft.. 21. $100. B $ 128. 8 ft. 16. 9. 8. 10.000. 5. 3.000. 16. 9. 1. 25. 3. 11. 12. 2. Not 5. 4. 9. 7. 59. C $1(50. 4. = 5 81. 29. 20. 21.000. 16f 2. 16. Page 8. 6. 1. 36. 11. in.1. 5. 3. 9. 9 m. 26z. 13. 0. 6.  1. 6. 2. 6. 3.. 27. A .. 256. 2 ~ 15. 4. 3 m. 6. 19. Yes. c. 16. 5. 20 B. 1. A 15. 1. C $ 16. A Bl 7. .12. 18. 2. 13. 3.$9400.000 Indians. 7. 14. 13 V. 126. 6 yd.2. 1. 6. 12.. Ot 15. 85. 10. 16. 10. 5. 28. 9 16  larger than 7.  22 20. 2.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 19 4.  2 p. 49. 5. 15. Multiplication. 8. 14. 16. ^. 25. 10. 12. loss.C. 9. 14. South America 46. 144. 18. 14. 7.. 6. 4. 210. 72 = = 216. 3. 20. 3. x. 11. Australia ft. Page?. 1. 13 S. 16. 18. 2. 27. 1. 15. 21. 2. 2. arithmetic. B $4700. 7. 9. 9. 8. in. 0. 8. 8. 1. . 576. 1. 13. 2. 2. 27. Page 1. 7m. 10. 13. 10g. is $10. + 1. 28. 2  Page 8. 9 = 4. B $20. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. sign.000. in 12. 3. 6. 2. 1. 1. 3. 12. 3 below 0. 3. 8. (a) (/>) 1.8. 12. 1. $ 1 50 10. 32. 9. 32. 25. 23. 49. 14. 3. 17.000. 3. 11. B $80. 115. 14. Page 4. 8. 17.150. 22. sign. V 23. 1. 5000. 20. 18.00000001. 5.
21. (a 4 4. 2. jrif 4 9. ]*. (a} 100 1(5 cm. Page 31.ft. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 42. Binomial. _ 4 . 41. 21^. Polynomial. 17. yyz+xyz*. Va'+Y2 8^2 . . 1. 14. 8.'J. 1.. 6.ft) 4..  11. 14:). 57. 34. 5.000 . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 15. 15. 50. a 32. 12.ii ANSWERS Page 11. . 4 y/ . 38 ab. 18. 20. +/2(/. 58. 2. 17. 11. 1. in.. 14. f  5e 35. 18. 14. Page 23. = ()501. 26. w. 1. 19.  3. 3. 28. ??i??. :. Trino inial. 27. 27. 2x' 2 5 . 22( 19.r 2 . 10. 4.<>Gq. . v'ft a4 4 a a 41.. i:5. (b) 135 mi. 12. 7. 13. 12 a. ^). 5. (r) 78. (ft) 12. 27. ft f 19.4  2ft 2 33. 27. 28. (ft) mi.6) 38. 15.x. ft' 3 . + 5. 15.. Monomial. 8. 1. 4 9/^/rl 2. 16. 13. 11. 8. . 16. 173. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. ft. 1. ft. Pagel4r. 4. ft. 9. 8. 2oVmf?i.1. . 17. r/ \(\xyz. 3 . //'. 25. 11. 23. 4. 20.q 4. 3a. (ft) Page 2. vi 14.. 6.GOG. 2ftx. 20. 3. . Polynomial. It.. 8. 19. :J!>r'. 12. 13. 17. <i~ 26. in. 7. 0. (c) S(i. 5. a3 a2 4 a 4 1..  1. 29. 15. 22.rty8. y. o^ft. 14. 21 a 3 4 10. 14. 27. 16. 36. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 13. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. mi. m + 3(a. Page 7. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 35. rt. 23. ft. 3. + ft). 32. 13. (r) 2000 m. 8. 29. (a) 50. \'\ 4.r~ f 34. 33. (a) <> sq. 9.a .94(>. t. x^ 20. 6.  0. 15a. 5x+3. 12. 0. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. Page 18. 8. 240. 5. (c) 8. r:A 29.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 2. a2 4 15^44. 3.. 18. in. (a) 200. r+l. 3(c4a). II. 13. 2.4 ft. 7. 2. (59. (ft) $40.. 3. 18. 3. 12. 22.'JO ft. 3. 9.  12.5f> sq. 17. $3000 Page 6. 10. 32 2 ftc. 3rf 27.32 c2 > ft 3 . 7. 30. = 81. 24. 24. 14. 237.  40. (r) 2G7. 30. . 11. WIN + wiw. 51 f. 4. 37. 9. 14. 1. 12yd. 21. 33.. 0. ft. 0. 21. 5. 49. 6<t. + v> 2 . 5. #1111. . 25. 9. 15. 0. 32.9?/2 8. 3.~4. ^. 31. 16. 104. 00 24 04 ft. 4. (a) r>23ifcu. 92. 13 cu. Page 21. 18.r f 15. 22. 31. 10. 0. 04. 5. 30. 1. $80. 34. 28. 39. ft n. sq.ab.  xV 3 y. 0. . 38. 26. 27. 31.  2 4 13 ft 2 .14 sq. 12. 43w//2 17.. 3. 16.5 (ft) sq. (ft) 7. (r) 2. I. 35. a ft c. 7. 22. 1. 8. 7 7.900. 2. arty 1 20. 20(. 19.000 sq.. 5. 4. c. 3 a* + 2 at*. 314 sq. 0. 36. 35. 25. m 24. in. 0.
r 2. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 14.  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 3 Ji 8 .'U4j>. a f 2 f 2 9.  b. 10 m. 6. 13. a2 9. a). 16. 7. 11. 31. n*. 7  a + 2 + c. 3 a . 2.  17. 2.r. 42.a~. 2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . a 3 . 19. 18. ?> 22. 4. 7 a5 1 . 51. 14.abc. 2 a 37. 4.5 z?/ + 3 y . s_r>a5. 2.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 5x 2 rt ft. f 2 ?/  2. 20. 2 6.  a: 2. . 364c. 2 . 8 . 2 3x f z. ri\ 18. 4wipg>' 27. 17.x f 1 2 . 36. mn. a + (ftc4df). 30. 5 2 Page 29.  4 b 17 y*. 2. 1.. 5. 43. 20. a  49. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.5.3x 2 2 tf. 1. w 17. 7. 17. w* ( . 2 y' 4 . . 4r 2 . 3. 2 2. 8. :5 41. 1. 19. 35. a 6 2 .4 d.ws 2 ft) . 15. 22. 25 47.  23.  14 afy . 55. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . &.4c 3 8 8 J.a*. 34 39. 56. 1.c. a2 24. .2 . 8 8 .(7x2 Ox2). (2n' 43p 47 ). 1.2 ft 2 r2 10. 4 21. 18. c. ?/.11. . 26. 2. 50. 5. 2m + 2w. 2 17. 0. + 2y. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . j)(g1. 21. 37. 24. 11. 31. a a. G a bd. 1 4. . 4. 8. + 6.4x. a 3& . 8 b. 10. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2 a f 6 414. + 4 c. 12. ti. !  </ . c2 . 5. ii\ 22.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). r. 29. 814. t).2 a.aft. 2a: 2 4x. Exercise 16. . 3 m. 7. . Page 7. ab a.1 . 15. 24 b 46.6 x + 0) 16. _ Page 30. x  + 3z. 2 4. . 3. ^ <.3 6. . 2// 16. x3 . 2 3. 24. 59. 21. 32 w 2 w. ft Exercise 17. 18.2 a2 2m 2 4.a'2 . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 11.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 40. M + 10.7. 1 + 45. 6. 58. 12. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. (mn} 11.2. x a8 1. (yz~d}.8(c + a). . 4. 8. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. _5a<>&43c. m*  n*.1. G. 2 + a4l). 0. 28. a 4 + ft. Page 44. 1. 14. 20. a. 14.a . ( 7. 9. 2. Page 28. 10. 12. 21. 36. 10. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 6. a4 4 4.  b* 4 r 1 . a 52. 5. . 4ft ~. 26. 7. a 10w. 4. . a' 4ab + ?/. 2..AXSH'EJtS Page 23.a f 54. 15. + 8.4. (w4w)(ww). 4. . 2. . '  . 2a. ar. 34. + c 4 d x + 6 e.  1. 2 2 2 6. 33. (5x47 3. 16. a 3a 4 2 &. 19. lOrt 15w4. Page 8. f ft 9. 25. 32. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.  12. a + a. \ :{ 2 a 48. 3. 13. 3 a3 & 41. 2m. 26. 7  # + 12. a  ISjfat.l. 8 + 2 a . ?/i 13. 25. 24. 22. 38. 2.(2 x2 . 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ?>4tl 53. 10 x. c. . 25. 6. 2x 4 a 13.2 57. 2 . 12.Oa: + 10.h. 0.
2''. 8. etc. +. 13.44 aWc 16 abxy. a*b*c.16 a 2 + 32 a .:>/ .. Page 7. 12 x2 2 . 2. . . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 7. 7. 16. . . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 102.15. 2. 13. Ox a 5 .21 a 3 c2 21. 3300. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 17.32.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 42. 33. 343. 1. 18. 7. 30. 3. 10. 40 r 2 . 4. 1. 31. 15. 42.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 27. 4200. a.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 30. 3. 216.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 90. 3(*+0 + 2). 12. 2 ). 4. 360. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .000. 161b. 30 n?b*c*.6) =a2 31. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 1. 15. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 19. 84. 20. x2 xy42^. + O4 66 . .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 18> ^* = a . 1904.1. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 31. . 18. 2 a2 (y 2 . 17. 3 a 2 46. 28. 20. 0. 6.25 + 14.21. 14 m 2 . 1. 5aft(a 126 2). 16. 120. 15..14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 16. 3.11 xyz . a. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 27. ci 5 . 6. 17.36 35. 12. +15. 3 a 3 . 7. 23.7(50. 2*8f x2 6x4.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 8. 27. m. Page 5. . 32. 28. 19. 0.16 x2/ 5 4. f 26. 9. ft 17. Page 38. 4 fc. 24. 25. 11. . 34.64 190 p6. 4 a2 . 20. 34. 25.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 15. 2 7t A. 37. 15 q\ 6. 4 jcy*z*>. 28.12. 14. 2 n8 29 a + 30.12. 16 lb. 34. 14.6 2 . 8. 2 ). s 9 ww.28 p'^/. ^^ = 20. 2 2 2 . 1. 20 aW. 76 8 a' 1 . 14f 5. 21 a'&c. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 25 4 4. 21. 23. 15. 32. 2 w +2 2 . 770. 6. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 12 ^. 28. .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 04.>(/ r . n (a6) 125. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. iSx8 . 14.. Page 3. 8.32 y s s G . a: . . 16. 22. 27.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 17. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 20. 18.. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 19. . 1. 14. 11. 9. 21. 66 8W 34.(3x2_4^+7). ! 2.8 12. 10. Page 35. 1.18 w w + 10 WI M .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 29. 18a% y. 60. 30.19p" + 19^ 10 . 36. Page 36. //. 24. 5. 8 . . 52 + 6s 12.r% 2 2 ry. 8. 33. 29. 35. 2 . 1400. 30. 24. 25. 64. 4.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 27. 16. 13. 22. a + ft. ll 2 i.14 . 7G . 2 * 80 . 20. 33. 24.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. ?> 4 . 4. 60. 10.2. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 127"'. (+3)x6=+16.14 w 2 2 . 16 51. 83 In + 1 n*. 6 . 30. fa 2. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18. 29. a. 11. 108. 2 8 xy f 4 a. + 7. . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 20. 18. 161b. 4 a8 . 5. 9. 6. 13. 25. 30 j9 jt?g j . 19. 2. 10. + 58 . 210. 2. 12. 108. 38wiw.20 xyz . 9 13. 4. ?/ . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 21. 13. 29. 3. a 8 . 6". 30.19 + 2. 22. 24. . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 26. 4aWy.26. 18. 11. 23. 216. 26. 15 lb. 66 39 k* . 4. ISartyW e*f*tj. 23. 22.
2 a' y' . 10. 42. ) 4' 6/ 49. x*2^f I. 31. 2 . 15.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .^ + a? + 1. 8.84 a' 9. 27. 53.r* 2 30. 10. 10. 8 38. 21 2 . .r .001. 7. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 10. (w4)(w + l). 990. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . (p 2. 9. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 7> . x2 GiC+5. 7 . 36. 1. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 2 4 2 2 64 . 14. 12 x2 . a4 4 ?/ . 4 21.25.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .2. 4 x2 13. 32. w'n 2 //^ + 25. +   5). 51. 10.6 x2 13. 5. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.10 x + 25. a 2 . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 2 1: 21.ANSWERS 28. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 39. s rc 47. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.5 ~ 81. 2. 40. 10. 2 (5 a 3). a + 56. 4 . ab. . Om2 4 6m 6. ^/> 8 4 .000.6. 10. ' 46. 23. 4 . 36.14 jp + 49. 10. 8. 9801. 14. 4 2 //.4 12. 1. 3wi2 m Page 42.098. . 10. ft' 11. a + 25. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 11. Page 12. ^' J  7 f 12. 2 fr .201.606. . G a6 2. 39. 2 4 a + 4. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.994. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 4 + 25 q*. 26. 10 a 4 ?. 31. 4. 41.996. 9990. 57.008. 41. 6. 9. 441. 16.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . + 2 9. + 12. 34. 38. (a (3 54. 1. 30 x + 19 x3 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 .004. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 36 a 4 . ( 5) O5)(w + 3).6 y4 10. 4. 999. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 1). (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 24. 36. .810.ab .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.2 6 + 13. a' .4 a&+ 4 &*. + 3)(3). . 3.35 ab 9. 2).2 x + 2 x. 33. 11. + 4 t*. 24. 2 +10s281. . 4x21. +  m' 1. 2 12. 33. 26.x2y22. 1. 35. 32. 20a 2 21a + 4. 25 25. 29. . 2. n2 a4 6. ..ri 17. 2 .8.020. 484.00 + 37.6 xy . . 2 j3 Z . 33.1. (w+4)(m4). 8)(?i (x2)(x3). ^V^4 . 25. lflrt 2 8 + l. a3 0.r . V + o ft . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 8. 7.p132. 5. . 10. +4 34. 34. 52. 30 /><. 4./ . 19. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).3. 6 2 + 6lf>0. (m + 6)(m3). 15. x* . x4 28. a + 25. .500. m 3 j) 3 .16 a3 f 50. 6.. (a + 4) (a + 2). 56. 3. 35.000. 45. m 2 .2 y*. n + 2. + 10 + 121 y*. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. p 2 . (n 2 5. 19. r. 30. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. fo*.712. 9999. . y.^V"' .009. 37. 18. 2 a 2 + a . 28. 29.54 p 2 + 81.4 n.49.m 30 6 4 1. I/). 8 a W .15. 27. 55. Page 39. 2 0)(p + 5).020. 2 6' .^. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. a2 ' + 48Z100. 1. 998. 9 4 /> . ab . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 37. 40. + 4 a +4. ~ 6 20 . 40. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 14. p4 + .404.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 44. 7. 10 a' 2 . 10. . . 166.20. x 48. . 31. 2 62 V2 132. ?/H)0. .10 35. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.009. 17. 1. 25 a 2 6 2 .
x 2 + 2r f J. + 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 6.  3 c. 4 a 2 4. . 8 ?/ . 4.7. 8 x . 3 aft 20. 3. 10.1. 2. i 2 tji. i 9.rw f 8 . 12. 4 ac. c 12. 24. 3.3 5. r/2 4. 11./ 4. 12.1. 15. Page 13.2 ar. 8. 8. 2. + 4.21 2 2 f + . r ft.> 10. . 6.2 1 //. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.r . ti'jry1 7. 2 12. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 2 2 8 .3 x 2 2 4. 20 15. 12.23.r" 20 S? . 1. 13. 4 c m . 2 2 + 2 a. ft* ft / .6 :rs 4. 19.2 aft 4. 75 a 2 29. 3.3 ry.r ?/ ??i ?). 135. Page 48. 2 ?/' . 3.5 n*. 8. 9. aft. 5.r'^ 15.9 d. '.  12 y 25. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 1. x4.8 yn . 4x43?/. 14 r 2 . ft ? ft' ft ft. 14. . . 5.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 14. 4 x.25 c . 4 pq. 8. 3. 7 r .2 ftc .  5 z* . f>r* 4. a 8 4. 12.1. 2 . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 2 1. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 4. 26. r 7. 4. Page 11. . 13. 4. .2 wZ 4. w . 9. . 16. .10 2 + z 2 410. 15. 1. 17. 7. 7a3ft.VI ANSWERS 43.2 . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.2 . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 4 a* 4 9 11. :r !>.  . Exercise 27. Page 22.1*5 2 r 2 .8 y. 8. 2 4. 2 a 3 ft. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.8. 13. 21. 10.1. 1000 1000 . 1/*. a. aft 12.5 mp. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.3 a 41.r?/.1.y3. 11 4. 6.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 23. 8 ?/ .24 .2 ac . 11. _ 2 a . 5. 14. a 4 4 ft. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 18. a 10. 13.3^V. 5 a  (5 ft. 01. 16. m L 4. 10 ft. 12. aftc 52. 5^418(7. 1. abc 7. 5 4 a Oft.5 a . 4xy + 13 <) . 125. G.  11.4.lit x + 4. 47. . 14. 2. 17. 18. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. z.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.12 aft 4 20 ac .10 xy*. 6.9 4. 4 d 2 4. 8. a 2 . 4. 5. 9. 1. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.  10.15 21. 3*y2 w + 1. 5. 49.25. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.+ 77 15. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 5. *3 y 4 . . . 6x 3. 2. +w . 2 4 3 9.3 3. ?/2. 2.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .34.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 20. 19.n. 9. Page 7. sr 11. c3.2 2 . 2 ? 14 . . l 4 . Osy.29.15. ??.w. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 22. j) . 2 4 2 x 4.r' ~ 16. 6. 3. as _ 10 16.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . ft 17. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 44. 13.2.1. 4. 2 ^r ???' 2 . y 7. m'2 3. yfl. 5. // 19. x 4. 5.r?/ j/.000. 4. 13. 9. .27 x 2 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26.2 <</.1.8. 2 ?/ 4. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. . 21. 17. 3 a. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 4.30 ftc. /r . w 2 . ft. r//. 5. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 10. 2. Page 51. 50. 1. .rw. 4ft.2 . + x?/ 2 1. 16. . 1.x^. 46. 14. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 2 . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .
xy ft. 6. n M. 11. m +~m 3. x 48. 1. ft.r1. 59. x y $ 6 yr. . 10 >_&. 25. 4^ = 100. 45. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 37. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 10. x 2y 10 act. fix. 12.. ct. y 100 a 24.  2\. 23. ct. 15. 19. 7. = 5 ?i x 460. 5. ] 2 ri 42. (> 27. 14. 0. 5.r ct. 42. 33.. 4. . 18. 22. r>?imi. 8. 41. 1. 0. 40. 28.. 6. 2b 22. f 6)(o 62.100. Page 13. 44. " lir. x 49. 2b. b. y ?>i x + 26. I. 57. !). 1. 20. 2. rn mi.(3x+ = rraxlO. 17. # + 20yr. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 41. 29. 27. 13. f (I.  1$. 12. 32. 13. Page 40. lO. <>. ct. 11. 50= L 100 15. 8. (c) 2x. . ? 43. 20. lOx 10 + w. 16. 58. s. 19. 20. r tx mi. 6. 2. 'nj 100 a 28.10) 100. 23. 10) + = (a) 2 x . }f. 37. y 50. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 2 ct. . 26. ( a f 4. f = eZ 2 x. 3. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 2. 10. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.ab a. 100 14. Jj12. Page 31. '^ . 17. 7. 1. iL*. l.6 = *. % 4. 31. 38. 44. (2 a.  9 = 17 a.. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. y yr. 22.000. I. . 18. 10 a. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 5. ft. 2. 30. a 8. a 10. 9. d. y 2z p= 3 (a c. sq. (a) ' 12. 100= ^. 47. 11. + 10 b + c ct. 24. (>.  6 10. 33. 9. 8 n  10 yr. "mi. 800 = x + 1300. 3 9.7). 35. 17. 4(a ft) c = 8. 10. 4. 4. 10. + f + b 2. 10 x sq. 6. / + y + a// 12 yr. 4. vil 56. 5. (</) 2a. + 4x 3y 34.(3x  700) = 5. 2. . 2=10. X 60. 43.rr2. 7x 2 Page 21. 6. 7. 4. + 3x + 2y + 32. 2. 3x  1700) = 12.  />) a = all. 15.ANSWERS Page 9. 00. v (6) 2x. 25. x. 14. 21 2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 30. 5. 100 2. d + !. 46. 36. Page 61. 7. 1. Page 6. x = m. 34.200) f(^ + (e) 200. ^ 12 sq. 39. 100 d ct. 7. 60 25 1. 13. 3. 1&. b. 4 f 39. ft. </ 20.x700. 7. 2x + 35. 7. x + 1=a. 3. 3x2.p+7. 5. + 3 = 2(3* . 29. 38. 16. . m+ 11. 16. 10 yr. 36.
9. Page Page 4. 6. 1. (a + 4)(a + 8). 8. 20 yd. 5$ hr. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.79.5. 72..7. 5pt. 10. 12. 30 yr. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.. Pace 65. by 12 yd.000 N.. 9 in.1). 3. 13. 21. 22. 10.000. 7 hr. 5.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. Y. 14. 90. 25. 3x (3r. 3. 30. 13.. 5 lb. 2. 7. 8 in. (a5)(a4). 5. 1200. a 12. 25 yr. 600. 78.0. 71. 3. 15. 8. 11. 18. 12. 8 2 19.000 Berlin. 42yr.(5z .3.11. 6. 2. 29. 4. ?(g ? g+ 1). 200. 7. 14. w (/) 64. $40.22. 4.000 pig iron. . ( + 4)(*2). 13.000. 6. 10.24. (y7)(y + 2). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). (a + 6) (a + 3). . 15. (ro3)(w2). 82 mi. 40 yr.. 7. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). (yll)(y4). 6. 70. 30.. 7. 23. (e) i* + A. = _?_(2ar + 1). 18. 20. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 4pt.2). 45 in. 15 in. 1. 80 A. 13. 1 lb.13. 6. 100 1.3aftc + 4). 11 w(w' + wi . (y 13. (p + 7)(3a5&). 3. + 7)(y3).5. 100.2. 9.6). 8. 5. 70^..5p + 7 g ). 5.. 8. 1.000 copper. 9. 12. 52. 3 hr. 9.. 17. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 12. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 55. 1200. 68. (y8)(y + 2). 7. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 11.. 1. 14. 05. 200. 8. Page 7. ~=90.3.8. (a 4) (a. 3. 2. 14. 4. 1313. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 20.000. 67. Page 79. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. (a + 5)(a + 6). 19. 6. 11 in. 11. 300. 14. 2 2 2 5. 11. (*4)( + 11. 10. 5 Col.000 gold. 25.3).000 Phil. 2.10.0.21. 90 mi. 10. a a (a 8 a+l). 11 pV (2 p8 . 30 mi. 2.. 10 Cal. 1250. 8 12. 150. 74. . 10 yd. (y + 8)(y2). (m + n)(a + 6). 15 mi. 8. 180.. 1. 4. (c) ^ v ' . 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 9. 160 lb. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 24J. 10 yr.210^. 18. ^ .  PageSO. 12 mi. 480.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 7. Oaj(o62cd). 17. 14. 78. 6. 20 yr.y"). Ib. 20. . 20 yr. 2). 2 2 ?/ 21. 2$. 2 3 6 7. Page Page 480 12. 3 (a +&)(*.000. 15. 12.000 ft.000 ft. 6rt 2 11. 8. 1. 2. 16. 15 yd. 6. 250. 10.. 2. 50.000..000. 8. 10. Page 7.000. 10 yr.411. 9. 13. 12. 5. (z5)(z2). 4. 7a*fe(2a & l). 3. 15.. Page Page 4. 28yr. 10 Mass. 85 ft. 75..16. 15. 3. 4. 1. Page 5. 9.
r2). 27.c 2 ). 21. 10(3 5 6) 2 . Yes. Yes. (6 a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 22. 17. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). + 5) a. 20. 12. (4y3)(3y + 2).   . Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 21. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 28. 14. 11. No.6) 2 1. 10(a + ft)(aft). a(2u. f 2). Page 82. (a a: 19. 11. 34. 216 aft. a*(5a f l)(flr . 25. (a + 8)(a3). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 2 2 15. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). Yes. 30. . 3(x + 2)(zl). y) (a. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 24.  x (5 a. 28. 23. (* + y)(zy).2). (5a +l)(5a l). 9. (15a + 46*)(16a46). + y + . Yes. 10. 9. 32. 26.2 ft). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 24 9. 23. (a. (4a. (w* (3a26). 2 17. 8. 100(x. a. Yes. (<7 20. 22. 5. 4. ix 18. . 33. . (m + w) 2 5. Page 83. 7 6) (a 10 6). .6) 2 2 . 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 25. 3a. No. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 10.3). . (y8) 2 2 .4p).1). 2). . 16. (g . 27. 21. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (5wl)(m5). (2 a? 4. 30. (x + y4 )(x . 9. 10 a 2 (4 . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 36.9*). (m7n) (a. 20. (3#y)(+4y). 10.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 12. + 0(90 Page 85. Yes. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 35. 21. 2 3 by2 Yes. (2yl)(y + 9).+4 y)(3x4 y). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . .11 ft)(a6). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). y) 2 29. 24. 14. (2xl)(x + f>). 10. 22. 11. 7. ( 2 4 19. 103x97. 14. 4 (a . + 4) (a. y(x. (a 6 6) (a 4. + 3)(c44). Yes. Yes. 3. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). Yes.. 28.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (3*2)(. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 40 x. (5x . (6n + l)(+2). (ft + ll)(aftll). (ay8)(ay3). 16. 3. (4al)(a2). 18.y (6x + 4)(5x4). x(x +y)(x y).ANSWERS 16. (4 18. (9y4)(y + 4). 32. a . 31. (w ~ n (x . 19. 5.2 by2 6. No. 8) (a. (2o + l)(2l). 18. 1. + 9^)(oxy .4. 19. 27. 17. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (4 13. 1. 15. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 34. 20. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 1. (az + 9)(ox2). 26.7)(2z f 1). 100 (a.y) 2 aft. 3. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 10(2 30. 29. 12. No. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . . 13.8).2 y). (a (p8)0> + l). 25. . 2 No 4. 7. x\x 24. 22. (13a +10)(13a 10). 13x7.3)(z2). 3)(3a.1). 8. + 8)(g3). 16. . 7. 10(a . 26. (w + 20)(w + 5). . Page 84. + 3).1). (15z2y)(x5y). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). Yes. (3a. 2. (:52y)(2a!3y). 9. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 33. (a 3 + 10)(a. 15. . No. . (0 + 6)(66). 6. 9.11 6) (a 4.* (2 y + 3)(y. 24. + 2y). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (10a + ft)(10aft). 23. (15ay2) 2 . (y + 4)(yl). 6. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 25. 4. 35. 26. 31. 29. 17.1). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (2 *+!)(* 9). 2. 25. 8.4 6).2).y4 ). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 2. 13x(a + ft)(aft). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).5y)(3a.7) (a. 23. Yes.
r(3x' 2 4 (14.2 y). 8.y. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 9. 41. (5 31.  WIM. 6.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 38. a 41.&). (w4w) 2 1. 4  9. fi(c426). 2 a 2 13x 3 y..y)(fi a . 15. x  1). 16. 4 6. ( y). 2 8(w .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 3(. 24. Page 90. 6. (c. 10(2 (3 4.8) ( (16. 13( 33.4.5 m2 x2. 10. (^ 7. b) (r 4. 450. y )(. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (5a+l)(9a). a 4. 28.y). Page 87.0+ 12). 4. 39.36). 3.8) n 43*). 10(8x' 4l) 4. y6.4).'})(c . r x 2 */3 .7s) (2 a. 4. 7. 3x(x?/) 4.7)(^ {I 12. 2(m4l)' .  (w' 4. 7. 2 1. 2. 20. a 4. 9.1) 3. ah}. 5. 11.1). 24x sy s 9. 22. (16 4  2(5 n . 7.2)(x 1.^ 48. + 3.1). 8. (7/1 2) (m 41). + 2 //). (r420(4 10. x 4. . Page 92.n). y). 4 a8 . 15.4).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 40. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 4.?>) H.!) (x42)(x2). (> 1. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 19. 14. 14. ( a ^)(^3. 2. 2 21. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 8. x . y(2x?/). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 4 a s &8 . ^ . a x 3 10. 35. 6 f c). 13. x43. 5 x8 3. 13. 11.3)(x 4. Page 89. 11. ( (<> r4y3 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 12. 37. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 8x. (^ + ?>_8). ?i(w 4y) .4.2). (x. 42). (a 4. 4).3. 11. Exercise 47. 2 2 3 .2). ( { &). 14. 4.8).?/). 1. 36. (a 9.3. 12. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. . 12. 30. 5. 7. 2 2 10. Gp).e 4. 32.  29. 2 y) ^ .l)( a 25. (f> + fo 7. 8. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.?50)(xt/z. 18. 2 k (wi 4. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . (x//. 6. l. n  r)(5a 10. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).X 5. 8. 2. 7. a8 . 13 x 8 2 . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.9). Page 12. .'/)('< 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 6.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ofc)( fid). 7. 15 M. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 4. a (a + 2 6). 5  (2 2 . . 8. . 5. 17. Exercise 46. 2.y '2 2). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). a 2 (a9). 8). (. 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . Page 86.&). (w * . 4 3. 16. 14. 6. (a &4. 8. 3 x4 .42 x 4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). (5 26. 13.'J)(' . a + a b. 2 + . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 17(x43//)(x2y). 27. (m  I)' 6.) j). 42a 3 x.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (5^4. (!__/>). .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). ?>). (a />.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (14.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 5. 2. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 2 (a 4. 6.b. ( rt 23. 4. 1(V/ 88. x(x f y)(jr . (2 a ~ f> b 4. 2 .
+5 1. a 23. + &) 2 ( . 13. (a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15. ?_!&.ANSWERS 10. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + y) (a: y). 2(2al) + l). 18. 11. + &)(&) ( . x 22. a 10 25. 6a2&(rt6).6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. +8b a 4 3 / ^. x 12. // m+1 !+*?.  1). x 24. b ! 21. 1).
4.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ^~ 29. xy 43. c 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 11.50 ~ 1/2 . Page 100. + lH + . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 26. 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2 a.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . A^. i. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4 L 8 2 . 1. .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 0. 6. 6. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + 2H 1 ^. ' 2 7. _*^p5_^^_. a 5. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 4c 10. Page 101.. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 6a5f^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 30.  **/* + 84 _. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 28. w1 + ac w 4 7. i^.
33. ?. 19. Of.ft . 2) 19. 7. 25. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 12. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5. 9. 23. 1. a2 2. + f. ^i 11. 21. ?+_!?>. 35. 9. . +3 ( + 15. 12 28. 4. 11. 44. 43. 3. 6. c 8. 5. 15. 39. 3. 24. 6 . 11. a 17.y 7. 8. 1. 16. I) 2 3z 1. 45. 4. . 42. f 7. 3 7 i o. (y + (z 12. . n 16. 2 47. 0. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 13. Page 113. 2ft a i m x. b a f +c 14. 14. y(x + x ?/). x 05m ' 5. 21. 1. 31. 21. n m a + 13. 20. 17. 32. 7.  V o 4. 1. 6. 14. 10. 36. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 4. 10. 7. J. 9.  10 X + u. b 2. 7. Page 106. A. 5 be _J_. 3. x 1. 1. 6. 1. 40. 30. 4. 34. J. 6. flf. 15. a. 1. 27. 8j_m 7 3.^_. an 18. 16. 11. w^x 2 b Page 105. 37. J. 18. ' 6. ft. 26. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. 4. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 14. 12. 38. 3. pf n 6 1. 5. 46. 8. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. . n . ^_. 17. 3. 15.L+ft.^U\WF### X<6. x\. 1. 0. 11. 29. Page 111. 4. 5. j L . ! 4 20. 6. (>. 41. Page 110. 1. f Page 107. 4. m 9. 3. 1. 4a3ft.
002..15. 27. 34. 12. 10.0 & . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. gold. 2:1. 19. 3. 21. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 30ft. 5.. 7. 14. 1 : 12. Page 124.000. () 2. 4. min. [>> ^ a . 17.9.. 5. ^p^ r ~ 7.x + y. n 32.138.2. 300. 20. 6.139. 1. 40 yrs. 26. 1:1 = 1:1. 1. IV s. 7. 9$. after 18.XIV '/ . 3. (d) 4 da. Yes. 00. 3 da. 9. 8. . :2.0. 2. 18. w 44. 38ft min.. (ft) 5 hr.000. dn ~ mi. 4. 5ft 30mi. 18.001. 4fl M_. 7. after $12. No.000.. 14. 16. 2 20. ^?i min. 1:1 = 1:1. 74. 10.11.. 8. 19. ~m . 13. 10. 8. 2x:3y./hr. ANSWERS 16.003. 55 mi. $45. 4. J. 31. ^m . P+ ^ 33. Yes. 10. 5. 11. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 11. 24. 3. 1:3. (a) 30. 1:1=1:1. 81. 28. 26 30. . 17. 1 da. 3:2. 13. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 30 mi. 3. Page 125. 24 mi. 4. 10. = A's. 0. 1:4. 4~r~ n . 9. 15. 22. (r) 3^ da.} da. 30. a 4 ft. 30 yrs. 21ft min. (ft) 28. '"I 22.000. 300.137. 33. 8301 hr. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. ft. 8. 5. 13. Yes. 1. w 18. nm. 7 . 16. $40. (ft) 104. 212. after 20. J ^'.000 If da. 15.. (a) 25. 75 . 36. 1^'.004. 10. (ft) 5 da. 8. 9. $30. 3. Yes. 3. 19. f. Page 119. No. 17. min./hr. _JL.. (c) 2 hr. 26 mi. 24. 7. 9ft. 11 hrs. 20. . 15. 23< &n b ' . 35. Page 121. w 21. . (d) 500.  29. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. $00. xy. 33.  C . 9J oz. 15. . 7. 13. jj. 10.. 18. #V ~~ 34. 10. 7T 2 Page 116. 500. 5 2. 5 25.10. 12. 19.. 275:108. Yes. * 7:9. 20. 21. (c) 8300. Yes. f . 10.000 1 = 23. 4. 2. 6. 40wn. 12. 7. 32. Yes. 6. (a) 12 hr. 15. 1: ~. Page 117. $0. 40 mi. 300. Page 118. 7} 18. 11. . silver. 14. (a) 4 min. 15. 16. 17. 9. 10 yrs.2. 1. " 0. 15. Yes. .  + . 10^ oz. 14.
s<i. 13J. 47. 127. (b) Inversely. a f 2 2 = 5 x. a 3. 11. 9.  19. .2. 3.12. 1. 8. 2. 26. : XV 27. Page 137. 22. 2 n . 10.5.3. OJ.J. 174+ Page 128. 12. 3. J pq. 20 cu. 14. 7. 36.12. 2. 2. 40. . 1.6. 6. 11. 18. 10. 8. 2. b x 37. 7. 2. 3. J.5. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.) 31.4. lo mi.7. 6. 1.3. t 5.5. 2.3. . = 7 b'. 23. 8. 1 18 = 3 51. 2.17. 11. Page 131.15. 20 20 J ^.. 3. 5. Page 5. 31J.160. 4. in n. Page 9. 21. 2. 3. 15.46.2. 39. 20. 5:0 = 10:12.  28. .. mi. 3. 13. 2. 11 w a 13.2. ' 55. 9. 31. () Directly. : />. 45. x +y x + 74 7 \. 7. 10. . 7. 54. (I.4. 9. 41. 5. .3.000 sq. 7. 1. jc:y = n:m. 49. 4.22. 6. \\.]. 4. 7.57. y 1. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. w 8. 17. 3. water. 2. 3. 7.a.840. 4. 7. + b 7 . 13. (</) ft. 5 2. 8. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 .3. 52. 138. 1(5. 3. /. Page 136. 5. 5."2:1.5. 14.1. 44. 1. "lO. 6*.7. 945 11 10 . 32+ mi.2 x. 4. 2.li. 15. 43. 46." ^ 2. ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. Page 133. 25. 7. y . 11.ANSWERS 22. ig 6. 24. 2. copper.5. 5. Page 134. 1. 14.3. 20. 6. 2. Inversely. 7. : : . 5. 38. w. 2. 30.4. Of. 4. 41. 23. 53. 8. 5. 4. 22. . $. \. 57. 19. 2. 2. : . 19 OJ. x 42. 200 mi. 40.5. 7^.' : : : : <>.1. 141. 14.3.4. 6.9. x y y . 16. 4. 1. cu.20. 2. Page 132. 16. 50. 25.5. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 24.3. 59.8 oz. 15> 9. a +b 1. 5. 56. 9. 24 1 (e) Directly. 1. . 7. 25. i. 10.000 sq. 4. 19.1. 2. 48. . I.3. 8.1. . 9. 2. 9. : : T 1' : /> : . 17. 4. + W. . Page 135.. land. 29. 6 10 = 12. 17.*. 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 12. *. 3 2=3 x. 9. 5. 12. x:y a: b. ~ 1. 9. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. a~. 13.1. ini. 26. 30. 5. 2.3. 3. 32j. 1. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 2. . OJ. (a) Directly.2.2 oz. J. 3. 2. 28. 3. ft.x a. 4. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 13. : 23. 3}. y :y =. 7. y a y = 7 0. 9  15. l.15 x. 21. 4. 4. 55. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 1.5.  ?. 3.4. 11 5 .3.^ 0?j ' gms. 58. 7. 2. 3. in.36. 1 rt * vm^1. 4. 35. 7. 2. 2. 11. 5. () 7 Page 126. mi. 7.5. 4. 16. 19 3 . tin. J. 7. 8. 27. 19. x y = 1 = 3 2.r. 3  24.C ?/ a .J 3. 5:3 = 4: x. 12. 36. .
8. (a) Apr. C's 10 yrs. 4. 5. 20. ..  11. 5. 100.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. . 2. 1. 9. 9. SL=J o ft r^2. 7. On the x axis. Apr. . . Page 152.0. 15. 3.1J. 4. 16. 4. 2t2. 16. & part of Feb. 6%. 23. 4. 1. ft 3. Aug. 90. 3. 9. $500.10. 6.3. at 15. 40. $4000.1. 21.l. 147. 6. 15. Page 143. 8. Apr. 10. 3. 00. The ordinate. 18. 5. On 11. 7. 10 sheep. 2. u 2ft. 19. 4. 10. 4. 1. 18. 4. 16. 8. 4. 25. 25. 11. 10. Page 142. . 29. (ft) 23 J. 3. 11. 2. About 12f. B's 40 yrs. 20. M 2. 7. Jan.65. 7. Jan. 6.  Zn  "(^ll 14.. May 5. Page 146.3. (<f) 13. 12. ^.0. 26. through point (0. Feb. 2. $250. 6. 18.3. 0.$2000. 31. 20 & Oct. 25. 4. 32. 30. 5. 7. B's 15 yrs. 5.2. 9. 20.1. 4. be 7. ad _(?jrJL. July 20. June. 4. yrs. 30. be 10. 2 a. a. 28. 12. Oct. 3. 0. 3)./hr. 8. 5%. ad AzA. Jan. 2. 1 (c) Jan. 23. $900 5%. & May. . 1.. Nov. 2. 2. 16. Nov. 2 horses. Jan. 6. 6. 16. 16.  17. 14. 6. 3. 3.2. m f 8. 3. 12. 11. 0. 4 ' q. 6 cows. 2. . 423. 3. 4. Page 151. 4. 21. & part of Sept.7. 3. 10^ gms. 1. 5. . 19. Page 149..4. 7. 1. 14. $6500at3Ji%. 2. = ^ a Page 141. 5. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 11. J. 24. 7. 10.. Nov. A's 50 13. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 14. 17. 7. 3. 40. &. 4. m . 2. 24. m f 9. 4. Apr. 3. 25. 13. Page 145. 5. A a parallel to the x axis. $ 1000. July. . A's 30 18. 13.n + p. . <*ft/ bd 1. 12. 3.4. 3. 1. C's 30 yrs. Page 22. 26. 1. 3. (c) . 7. 1 (d) Apr.8. 10. 3.. 9. 5. 2. $3000.XVI Fagel39. On the y axis. 2. . 18.4. July. 17. 3. 16 to July 20. 1.$5000. 3. Jan. 5. 6. ' . Nov. 27.^. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. 23f . parallel to the x axis 0. 20 to Oct. 9. 24. 2.33. 3. 20. 13. 12. Page 153. 15. 20. 22. . (ft) 20. 11. 7. 2. 1.9. 2. . 72. (a) 12. 24. 17. 11. 30. 1. 2. 2. (5. m + n p. 1. yrs. 19 gms. 2. ' 6 3 a. 4 mi.
15.1.83. Indeterminate. (c) 2. 125 a 8 12. 2 2 22. ' :=_!. (e) 2.64. 20.73. 8mW. 10. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2.3.3. Page 158. . 8 1 f f g*. _ 9 x ^27 1 .  1.5 (ft) 3. 3. 2. . 4. . 11. 3 . 10.41 and 23. 3. . 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 1. 4. . 21. 3. (c) 7.25. 3. 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 3.67. 2ft4 Page 168.75 (ci) 3^. 15 . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .24.5. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.  12 ft xW  26 31.79. SlstyW 7.83.75.59. 5. (a) 5. (c) 14 F. a 10 ' a ll V&. 13C. 26. . ft 2 4. f. 1. Indeterminate. 1^.73. 3. .4. 1.73 ami . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.6. 3. . 19. 0C. G. (a) 2. 3. (a) 4.27. 2. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 4.75. 5. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 4. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 11. . (ft) 2. 4 ) 21. 30. 1. 22. 15.25. 1. + a 4 ft* . 30. 14.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. Page 159.25. f 10." 23. 2. jgiooyiio 17. 2. . 13 . 1. (/) 3. 81 ". f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 125a 28. 1. 2. 3. 4. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 83. . . .25. 5. 14. m. 1. 22. 27 27 81. 10 C. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. Page 164. 1. 14.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 2. +3 4.13. (<?) 2. 32F. 4}. 13. . Inconsistent. . ft .17 (ft) (c) 2. 2. . 14. 17.. 5. () (rt) 3.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. 5. 18. * 16. 18C. 3.  1. 3.73. (ft) (ft) 2. . . 27 19. (a) 12. 1. 15. 12. a + ft.84.25. 2. 3. . 1. \ft) 5.. 9. 6. 11. (ft) (d) 2.64. 7.2 (ft)  1.34F. 1. . 1. . 9. f. 1... 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 8 a1. (ft) and (d) 2. 10. 1. . 9 and Page 166. . 13. 3. 8. . 8. 3.1. 3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. xW. 2.24.7. 2. 24.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 1 4. 2.  . 8. 16. 1. 28. 4. 3. H. Inconsistent. 6. 5.79. 3. 24.5. 2. 2. f12 wi 9. 5. 2. 5 and 2. 1 23. 4wn8 + n4 5. Page 163. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.75. (/) 3. xg .59 . 2. 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 19. 12. 13. 125 16. ImW. 2 l. 4. 1. 0. (e) 3. H. 27. xy. 20. 1. 25. (gr) 21.41 and .24 . 2 a&m Page 167. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. a 29. .
1.y2 ). 5. 12. . 14. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 10. + + ?V 22. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. +35. 3. GOO 2 c 2 . 4. 90. (a + y+l). 10*. 4. 9. 15. 21.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.XV111 7.+3^ + 4.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .  +X '.a b 22. 34. 20. 8. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 15. 8. 64. (48 + 6. 12. 13. ^i. 11.83. 3 2 8 3 12. (x + y\ 90. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a).x ). 98. 16. 25. 101. 7. 9. Page 172.i c 6 15. (x' l). 420. 00. (ly). 2 12. (a 2. 5.2). 247. 12. 4. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 3. + l). 84. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 90. 6. 17. 30. 19. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 6. (1 (x2y). .10 a~ + 5 a . 15. 5. 20. 25 19. 15. 20. 9. 6. 978. +3 + 5 4. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). AN S WE no . 35. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). . 13. 76. 8. (a + 2 +l). r> 4 : 1 . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 99. a 2 . 36. rt .037. 21. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 57. 2.r 2 + 6jt). 2 49 . . 23.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 3 6 23. Page 170.5. 16.7 /)). 1. wi 8 + 3m 2 . a: l . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. + Z). 1. + (win . 18. 10 x G a 4 . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 7. (4a2 9& 2 13. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (3a. (2 a + ft). 2038. 2. . . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 17. 32. 18. 72. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. ? : 1 . 1247. a. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. /> 4 ). 16 6 w . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 237. 309.f 1 m 9 16. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 763. 5 5 8. 3. 24. 1 1 ?>). m 13. 33.3 ab + 2 2 ). 8. 3. 6 (\x 3. 19. 11. I 8x2). 3 2 ^.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 1. a ). 2. 17.GO a c + 23. 2. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). (Gx + (i + 2a. 11.  x. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 6. Page 176.^). 5. 300. 18.5). 2. ). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . . + y). 9. 9. 70. ? . 14. 9. 4. 2 4 8 2 . 71. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. . Page 171. (l + x + . 5.6. 22. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 7. + 29. 16. 11. (ab + c). fe *?>' ?> fi . 10. 14. 2 2 7.94. 8. 27. 10. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 14. 2 2 4. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. + i)). 8 /. 20. 28. 1. 31. 3M. c 10 6 :l 20. 40. 26.1. . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 180 . a. ??i ?i . 119. 30. 0. ( Page 174. Zll. 6.
5f. 10. 25. 29. 30. 1. 2. 3. 10. 37. 15.690. {. 39. xix 26. 8. l~8. 4 a. 4. 9. 1 7..  2. 5. 1. If ^. 42. 27. 5.}. >i 27. 6V'2J. 7 45. 14.798 yds.i. . f ^ is. 40. 4.. or 5. 1. 1. 7.. 24. 11. 24. 1. 4. f. . 3. 3. () 2.645. }. .. 12. 2.. 3. 14.. 4 n. 5083. Page 184. J. a. 3. 35. V17. 2. 2 sec. 6.V 8j. 39 in. 37. 6. . Page 185. 4J. /. 16. 3. 4. 21. 7. 13. 40. 34.1. 18. 26. 2. 1 f Vl3. a + 61. ft.005. 14. 16. 8. 5. 10. 4.a. 1 38. 47.Sn. 9. 7. 31. 14.4. 20. ~ V^3. 13. 35. f .. 21 in. 15 1 10. 7. f 3. 36.60.. > w ft. 29. 15. 4. 12. 6 f !. 5.243. 28. 270 sq. w.ANS WERS 22. 4. 1.237. 9. 11. (6) Vl4 3. JJI.742 in. 21yds. 12. ZLlAiK 19. _ iVaft.  3. 5.6. 31. 10. 1. . vV'TA 24. or 3. >TT 26. * 1. 5. 7563. 8. 13. 9. 7. 8. 1&. 34. 15. 1.4. 19. 16. v 17. 25.13. Page 180. 44. ^. 7. 4 W**. 30. 11. 9. .6. V2. 10. 18. 12.. 6yds. 48. / 11. 2.  f. 33. 4. 4. 5. 3. 46. 5. 6. 12.*. 25 J. 3. 13.469. 4. 20. 7}. (afl). 9. 15. 11. 2. 6. 2.935. \/3. 16n. Af^. 28. 23.  5. 3. 28 in. 15. V2. 22. Page 181.4. . Page 177. ^. 7. 29.6. f f V. 9. 6J.236. 32. 3. V35 1. 2] see. 13. ft.916 yds. 23. 7 in. 1.  14. .  f. 6561.5. 6. 5. ii :J _7. 20. 5. m. 33.522 38. 7. 5. 8. 1. 6V21. . 19. 12. vYb. 36 in. . 9 15 ft. 1. 32. .6. 50. 8. 41. 10. " ^_ 22. 49. V.  1.?. 9. 7. 21. 21 28 ft. m. 4. 11. 5. 7. f.5. i. 12. 23. 10. 2. 2. 3.925 ft. 5. 6.367. (< + ?>). 4. 27. 36. Page 183.18. 2. ft. 21. 2. 14. 6. 2. 17. 17. 10. i ^. 7. 10.6. Page 179. 3J.w 18. 12. 16. V J l. 4.  43. ^^7m. 39. *. 3. 6. 2.. 3. 4 TT M 28.1. 17. 5. . 3.
10 mi. 14. 15 ft. 4. rational. 1_^L ft 14. 10. 1 3. 70 ft. 10. 7. Real. orf.41. 48. 42. 24. 8. 15. 56. Real. rational. x2 + B .  1. 4. 8. . . ANSWERS 22. .0*8. 1. 3. 55. rational. 3. 7. 15. 8\/2 17. 4. 26. 3. 2. 3. s 11. 7. 0.  9x <)../hr. %. 2. t is. 34. 22. 120 ft. 1.. unequal. 40. Real. 2. 3. 28. $80. 0. r* i.2. 23. 33. 36. 1. Real. f. (5 10. unequal. 8 or 12 mi. 23. 7. U. Page 191. rational. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .5^. unequal.4. 2 V3 in. Page 188. 3. 2. 37.1. 2.a. 12. 21. 6. unequal. 3. unequal.02. 58. 8. 8. 1. 10. 12./hr. 6V64.  2. 12.2 x2 . a. V2. 4.a 3 a. 25. 6. 2.10.  6. 11. irrational. unequal... 2 ft. 27. 0. 2.4.6. Page 192. 1. 20.2. 5 ft. 3.  13./hr. Imaginary.4. 1. i. 3.4. 1. 3if. 19 in. $30 or $70. Imaginary. 0. 6.  1. 2. 1. 3. 64c. 49. 0. . If. irrational.7. V^~2. 0. 16. 14. 3. 2.5. 35. 3.62. 27. 24. 10 mi.2. 32. 47. .XX Page 186.17. . i . 4.  Page 194. x 14.  5. 25.3. 24.4. 0.59.Oa. 4 da.  1. 1. 2. 45. 1. 50. 2. 26.. 5. 5. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. .1. . 35. 6. 26. 12. 1.  2. 2. .. 52. 7. 6. 1. 1.70. 0. Page 187. 2. 1. a + 6. 7. . 20 nii.7. 3. 3. 9. 29.3.2. 1). x* 51. . 3. 9. _ 19. 38. rational. 2. 2.2. 4. 6. 1. 19. ft. 16. 6^2 in.2.  i.l. 0. 3. + 11 x. 39. 6. unequal./hr. 2. 10 in. 3. 31.2. 2. 27. 64. 44.5 x + 6 = 0. 18.7. 3.48. 4. f.23.48 3. v^^fcT"^. AB = 3. V7. 21. 2. 15. H. a + 1.1. . 0. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 13. equal. Page 189. $ 120. . 5.2. 1 . 7. . 9. 6. 1. 19. 0.2. 2. . 4.12 = 0. AB = 204 ft. 20 eggs. 5. 11. Real. 3. 3. 1. 10 or 19.$40 or $60. V^l.  1. 25. f 6 52 a. Imaginary. 21. unequal. . = 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 1. 25. 3. a.23. 7. 41. . unequal. 43. 17. 30. 46. ' 1. 26. .a. '  f 5. 13.6 = 0. a8 . 1. Real. . 0.37. 1. Real. in. 0.12. 9. 6. 18. 2. 20. 23. x*4x=0. 0. equal. 0. . 22. 57. jr . 28. 2. 5. 28. . equal. *'' 12.* 2. Real. #<7=3. 2.]. 2 . . 0. 20. V2. VV11.3.'. 4.  1. 53. 3. 2. 6. 18.  5. 12. 16.2.74. 4. V^l. Imaginary. Page 190.  24.
1. 7. 18. 8. 2. 49. 12. 20.^7. 2. 2. I. 1 39. 16. 32. p.  a'2 . _! V3. 15.1 5 15. 8. 3. 1. 40. 4. 2. 8. l  5 12. 20. 1V1.. 38. 17. . 46. ifa. 10. 0. J 3. 54. 31. . J. 59. jV 10. 3. 125. 41. vm. 32. n\/* Page202. 18. 5. 1. 29. 243. aW\ 40. 11. Jb \. 9. 4. 9. 0. 42. 1.ANtiWEUS rational. 50.6. \/3. .32. 10. 13. 17. V^ 34. 8.  48. 44. 19. 25. &. 1. 22. 9. fx'^z'l 23. 5. 4. 56. 21. 55. 19. 8. Vr. J. 20. 4. 24. 13. 16. 51. 33. 49. 5. 25. 24. 2. 7. 7 . 10. 8. . . 22. 24.  f. 16. Page 200. *V. y . 5\/5. 23. 1. 6  AAf. 27. 19. 3. 33. 0. 2. 58. 1. 13. 5. 28. (m 26. J. 26. m. Page 201. 3. 28.//^. a. 30. 57. v. i. y. 6. x$. . ? . r. J. 4. 5. 5. 36. 14. . 12*2 61. \/. v'frc 18. 7V7. 20. : . 1. 33. vV. 1. 2V a. 9. 4. 84. v^T4 m. 14. 49. ar 1 . ^49. x/25. $7. 47. 4. 48. 11. 8. 31. 30. 1. 39. 19. v'frW. 2. 53. 3. 37. 17.  5. 25. 3. 3. 3. . ). 16. 18. 15. 21. 3. 9. . 23. v/3. 9. 14. 35. \a\ \/^.17. 27. a 18 . 2. m'. 52. Page 196. 15. 29." 17. r*. z + 22. \ . \. wA 46. \. 7. 43. 60. 1. 2. 12. 30 a.2. Page 199. 2. 6. 3 4 11. Page 197. 8. 1. 10. x. . 21. \/r\ 11. 29.  J j. 13. xxi 15. 2. 3. 4. 47. 49. JV37. 3. 3. 14. ^Sf 3 38.  f . 'J. 45. 2 L ( V. ) 2 >J i 10. 50.
2 18. + + ft. 15. 8V/) 15. ^88". . 34 r 6. 2. 10.'\ 14. 39. . Page 203. V2 + 4 V22. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. a2 4. 4. 13. 2 '"V5. 20. k/2. x^ . + 2 V22. x y. 13 35. (x' (l 1+x). + 2). 8. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.r. . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 29. 10. 18. 135V6. x. 10.692. 6.XXii ANSWERS 1.x^y* + y%. 32. Va 2 "ft. 11. l 5. 28. 23. 21. 7. x + 5 x3 + 0. 37. x 7  34. 2. x%  3 ^+ 1. 16. 1 2 or 1 ?. 101 1. . . . ?tV?w. abVab. a 3. V 5 47. 19. 2.632. y. 31. 43.648. 17. a^ + 2^+1. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 31.707. ftV 46. T. 3V^T. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 48. + 2 ar 1 ). r 17  Page 204. 9 . 5 22. 25. 3^2. 3. Page 207.). 8a6V5. + 1. ^7 \AOx.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 19. 1. 37. 34. 12. 9.  2 3:r. a 4 +* + !. 49. ^: V2c. 27. V80. 24. 33. / V3.2 VlO.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 50. 38. . 20. 16. 28. 30. 51. 2>X2. 5 ( . yV35. 7. 3 \ 39. 2. 2 a?>V2 a. 20&V6. 62V(J. x 25.577. 21. r c . 17. 2 x* 15. v^. 36. 1) 3V3. 26. 26. V63.3 + 40 3 . 13. . 3V5. 9. 41. 2. m* n*. 13 a. 29. 32. ). 195V3.yl : . + Vic + 25. 3^ + 2). V. 3 42. 4aV^J 16. 8. y (a + ft) V2. v'TM. (o* 2. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 5. 45. 03r* 7. 2 4 z2 l 3. 40. 2\/7. 11V3. + . 11. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 24.f. 3 4\/2.Vxy 35. 4. v/^r 5  A/^~. 2. V. 2v (T 2aVf. Vr 8. 6.  a Vft 2 121 b.. (a 27. 40. JIV6. 22. 3 x^y 33. 3. Page 208. 3. 30. 9. 5.rV:r.
3\/2. v/8. 74\/Jl 120 46. 30 Vl4. 21 23. 19. V5. V5. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 6.ANSWERS _ Page 209. \^r^bVabc. 21. V/. 9. VJla. 34. 22. 6. 26. v^30. 18. 2. 50. 3\/15  6. 6. 11. 2 1. x/125. b. 17. V3. rtv/5. 3 V15  47. 9. 2. a2  b. 7. 10V(). 2 ate. Vat. 32m27n. 49. Page 211. 30. "v/wi ??. 6 2\/0. 6. 6. 18. 0. . 48. 39. 7. Page 210. aVa.  3. 8. v^f. 27. \/04a. 7\/(l 7VTO. 1. 5v/2. 5V2. / \/w/t 4 13. 10. 17. . 16. 2. 6aV2\^. v^4. 19. 4VO. . v/l2. . 18. xx 1. Vn. 8  \/15. fl^Vac. 9. 21. v/9. 40. 5. 8V2. Vtf +3+ 33. 41. \XOfl6Vi5. 37. 14. 24. 9 VlO + 4. Page 214. 3. % 29. Vdbc. 36. 17. 13. 35. x/27. \/abc*. 38. 26. 33. V3"m. 37. ^ 3 b 5 24. 2. 14c 4 V5. 24. 7. v/i). + 20. x/8. 28. 3 V2. \/2. v^lf. V2. 8v2T 12. 12. ^\/3. 6V2. 23. 1. 16. 31. ^9. 32. 6+2V5. \/8. 32. 14. . 16. m ?i2Vm/t. w?i. 15. x/w^ 8. 3.r v/^ v^fr*. 4 a*. Page 216. 13. v/lO. 13\/3. 29. a\/5c. 2 28. 2\/7. Page 213. 42. VT5. V8. 1V5. "^8000. ab 4. vT). + VlO  v y (5. v7^. \^6. 36. 52. r)\/(l Vrtr. D 45. 3\/wi. 25. 4\/5. 44. . 25.30 2. v"3. 4. 5V2. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 8. ^v 7 15. \^6. 43. 5 \/2. 0. v^a. 20. a^\/a7>. \V3. \/128. 51. \/a6c. 11. 1. 35. v 25^4714 V2"a. . 46. x/8l. 23. 10. 2. x/4. 15. 4 >/3. x/8L v/27. 2yV2?/. ^27. '. W). 3. v^O. 2 V'3. 31. 27. 11. 6x2?/. 12. V3..T*. 5. 3. 3v^2. 10. 3 Vl5 30. 39. 53. 34.J Page 212. 22. V2. 8V73\/IO. 4. 38. 40. x/3. v"5. 5. 2 \/2. 14. : ^32. 3.
3. (Vf + (4 V2). 11. 5. 11. 14. 23. 15. 6. ^\/2. 5. (2Vll). 16. 3.4722.. 8. 1. !^ 6 4. . 2V2. 5. j.2. 23. 17. J. 64. 8. 4. x 20. .7083. V35. 25. 1. . V3. 2. ^r. 25. K>/0 + \/2).W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 4. 1. 8. m f. 21.13. A . 3. V. (V6 + 2V2). (V5f 5. 11. 30.5530. 7. V2. 0. 4. 27. 14. 22. 3(7+3V5). 22. 12. fV2. 19. 25.601. 19. Page 225. 2 .2828. 9. 3. ~ Vac _c 0. ^(VlO\/2). 5 V65. 1. 19. V3. 9. 9. 13. 12. Va. Vf6fVtf. 6. ^. (2.64. 17. 1. . 5. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 2V3. 4. 34. Page217. 21 ' Vob 26. 3V23. 6 V. 1. 2x^2^. . 10. 27. 10.732. 17. 11.3. 16. 15. 2V3. 19. 20. 7.9. (VllV2). 7. Page220. 8. 7 f 5 4. 7. i^Lzi. 8 V3V2. 23.2. 35. 30. 7. 4.732. + 6) 2 . 4.0606. 24. 14.81. 8. . 8.464. 125. 7. . {. 512. 20. 4. 9. 5. . V3 . 13. +3 V2).4142. 9. (V8 + V2. 1. . 4. xy 2. 29. p 6 13. 21. 2ajV2*. (2f V"5). 12. 10. 18. 16. 16. 0. 2. Page 219. 25. j 15. J.1547. 19. (a 1. 2. 37. + 5V2.  13. 9. 18. 20. 24. Va. 4. V5. 2. V6c. 224. 216. 25. 3.  2. 7.3535. . 4. n*. . 15 f 3 V2L 4. ' 22 i . 7. 25. 2. 11. \/57t.^ (\/22 4. 10. 18. 8. i(Vf Vft). 1. 7 Page221. 1.V3). 12. 29. 4V3 + 6.\/TO). 1. (2V2). Page 226. 4 14. 4. _^JflJ?. 23. V^TTfc. 25. 11. 2!5_. 6 (V2 + 1). 13. 5. V3. Page 28. 24. 36. (\/5V2). 18. 17. (V21). 10. 28. 15. 4. (VaT^v a). 5 f. 5. 12. Page 218. 33. 6. 2.625 10. 4. 100. 5. 6. 4.1. 16.w 6. 6. 2. 27. (3+ v/2).5. 16.7071.6. 18. 22.  f. nVTl.3. 16. 9. 26. 31. 15. ^. 3. f.XXIV 7. 9. 9. ANSWERS 8. 10. (\/3f 1). 26.1805. 10. 21. 14.  . 1. * 3. 23.6 V3. 81. 8.389. 32. 15. \/3). 5 + 2 vU 17. \. 81. 12. 20. (V51). 4. 9 mn. 16. 3. Page 223. 24. 5.
2 6. 24. 4. 8. 8. //. 2. 1 . 3 9. 10. 4. 5. 2 6. 2 &. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 4. 8. 3. 3 5. (pl)(p3)(p6). 18.22. 7. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 17. 13. 25. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).4. 10. 1.2. 3 .2. 22. 1. 17.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. 12 24 y . 1. 2. 13. . 8 6 & 0. 1.5. 2. 4 4. . 0. 5. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 19. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). . . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).3. 15. 2 > 1. . 20. 5. 13. 3. . (r.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 25. 2. 14. ~ f7. . & + 6 2 ). 2. 1. 12. 12.  1. (m 4 + l)(ro. 3. 2.  3. 1. 1. 2. f .. XXV 4. 30 . 11. 4. 12. 10.3 2.  3. .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 0. 1. V3. 19. o. 3. 10. 3. 1 . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 11. 4 .12. 1. 2.2)(* . 11. 2 . P. ( 16. . 10. 0.ANSWERS Page 228. 14. f>. 12.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 20. y. 0. 7. 1 6.^a. 2.2.0. 4. 5. 11.nl^EI. 3. . 17. 100. 2. 3. . 2. 5. 1. 2.  f . 2. 20. Page 234. 15. 4. 12. (pl)(p2)(p2). 5. 25. 2 . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 3. 3. 7.w 4 + 1). 1. 50. 5. 6.l)(a3)(a . 1 3. . a . 4. l. a: :} . 3. \/0. 2. (rt. J 24. (&y2a#H4). 2 V^ . 2.l)(m . 1 . (4 mn . 2. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 1. 6. 9. 2. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 0. 2 . . 73. 2. a(. 3. 21. 2. 5.3. . 1 . 3. 4. 0. (+!)( 2) 10.3. 13. Page 236. 3 .  4. 30. 3.1.  2. 9.5 xy + 25) 22. . 13. Page 233. 21. 4 .8a 18.  J. 6.r . 8. 7. .l)(z 2 + z + 1). 1 . 4. 3. J Page 235. 11.l)(a 2 + a f 1).  3. b . 1. (a . . 6.4. 6. 4. 11. qpl. 10. (8. 73. 1. 3.  1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 15. 16. 26.3. =A^Z3.2)(m. 87 .3. 3. 2. 30. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2. J. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44).  . 1. 3. J. 1. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (63)(6' t 18. 1. 3. 2. . 56l). 3. 28. 6. 3 . 4. 2. 2. ' J. 8. 2. 4. 2.4. 0.3. 3.  5. .7.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).1. (xy + 5) (x*y* . (B43). 7. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). .Y. 2. . 1 (?> x/^3. 16. 5. 5. (a+&)( 2 14. 5. 1. 2. 24. t/ 23. 4. 5. 23. 5. 3. 0. 22.3). (w . 6. 2 . 7.4). 8. (a. 3. 6 2 2a + 2). 14.10. a  . 4 1. 4. (2 a. (a 4. 4. 25. 3. 19. 4. 4. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 9. 7. 4. 5. 4. (a. 18. 4 20. 3. 1. . 7.  16). 30 30.
4. 7.18. 4. 14.3. i. 31. 900. 15. 8. 5050. 0. \.. 12ft. 35 ft. 10. 4. 5. 4. 84.. 12. 2V7. 15. 1J. $46. 14. j. 2. 19. 4. .. 3. 1. V7. Page 245. 125 125. $VO. 5 cm. '>. (a) $3400. 2 10. . n .3. . 4. 30 13. . 3V5. . 9. 8. 512. 3. (&) 2. m + n.. 15. . . and _ 4.y. 23. 4. 2 Y> V . 7. oo . 4. 35^ 5. . 4 6. 1. . 33. 2. J. 1. 1 . 10. 3. . 15. 2.4. .. 7. 3. 2 1. 78. oo . 2. 37. 5. 17. 1. 30. Page 238. 8. 15. ' j. 3. 4 8. 1. . _ 7. 36. 2 26. 1 2.4. 1. f. . 30. Page 239. 69. 8 .2. Page 244. Exercise 114. 22. 1. 3. 2. 1. 5. 17. Indeterminate. 40 in. 21 30. 3.020. J.0. . 11. 23. Page 248. 4.5. _ 5. 4 . 2. 3.xxvi Page 237. 7. $. 1. in. 3 . 7f solution. . (a) 5. n. 2.1. 5.  11. in. 8. 3. 3. . x 4. 1.6. 26. GO . m27.30. 6.4. 3. 41. 3 2. 4.4.. 9. 2 2. 3. . 2. 11.. Exercise 113.0. i i i .3. 8. 21. 1. 1. +  n. } . . 7. 9. 3. 12. 4. tn 2.136. 24. ft. 8. $. 20 in. 4. 3. 3 3. 3 4. 17. 16. 12. . . no co . . 15.3. m28. . 12. 1. in. 1. 11. 4. 37. 2. 2>/3. ri*. 2. oo. 50. 20 7. 3. 2 . 6. co . 1. 8. 4. 13. . 14.5. 20. 15. 3. 2. 3. . 12. ft. 1 . 11. 5. 2. 8 3. 7. f*. 50. 1. 45yd. 2n. ^~2. 2. 2. i'ljVU. 8ft.1. _ 10. i j. 2. . 5. 1. . 1. 1 . 12 d. . f>. 12 1. 2. 0. c. 22. 4. 39. 32. 2. 4 34. 1. 35 a. 14. 1. 28yd. 1. 17. 1. 14. 38. 8. \/6. Page 241. 18. 3. . 5. 37. 1. 3. 10. Page 243. J.  . 2. 2. 11. 6. 4. 9. 19. 5. 3 . 55.  1. 25. 18. 9. 17. 11.3. 7. 3. jj. 5. 4. 2. (/>) "_. 13. 29. 3. 5. 3 cm. 2 . 3. 16. 5. 10. 5. 1 . . 1. 5. 2 .200. 1. 3 . ( 3. 3.e. . . 5.. 512. 1. ANSWERS 2. 288.3 . 17. }. 3. Indeterminate. 1 . 5. 7 3. 35. 0. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 48. 2 16. V3~. 21. 40 25 in. 24. Page 240. 5 4. 4. 4. 31. 1.6. 5 . . in. ^ }. ft. 2.1. 4. (>. 201. in. 12 ft. Page 247. . J. .  2 . 9. 18.3. 1.. 2. _ 13 (0 6. 4. 4.3. 3.13. 20. 5. . 3. 2. 14. 6. 5. 1. 40. = QO 6. 5. 6.. 12. 2 ft. 1. 13. . 1. 400. 16. 1. 14.
170. 4. 11. 15. 19. 3. 35. 2. 20. 1.  20 flW. a. f y 8 + z* . Page 252. 0.120.13. 304.0. 17. 18. 2. 7. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 2. 0.^ ?>i 2412x4. 70. 6. 22. 12. 2. 1. 5. 8 1. 1000 aW. 2. 04.1. 4. 0.6. 1. . i 10. 4. 5. 4950 M 2 b y *.4 &z x>&. 50. 11. 26. .210. 8. d. 8.7 10. 3. 327. 27. . 15. 9. 45. a4 4 14. 15. 10. REVIEW EXERCISE .5. 16. 0. J 2 //2 25. 1. 75. 8.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 11. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 910. 53. 32. 1. .2 45 a 8 /).<2 4. 10.419. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 21. 1. 2. 3. ?/i 6 x llj .r x>/ 7 3. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 9. 4. 9. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .680. 27. . 70. 6. 05. 55. 3. 10. 10. 28. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 7. 9. 4. 125. in. } $ 50. 4 0. 6.5 x. 18.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 8 . 5. 21. 45.2 9. 5. 4. 3. 3. 5 13. vy. x r 4. 280 53. 3. 343. 5. 6. 1 7 4. I. 1. 25. 16. 4.920. 4. 1. ~ an .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. &' 14. 0.ANSWERS Page 250. 120 aW. 3. ^a 8. 3. 2. 9. 6i.504. 8. 3. 5. Ja. 7. 16. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 04. 44. 15. 2. 2.5. 343. 16. 18. 3. Page 258. 4. 13. 1. 0. 2i* 7f. 12. 10 14. 0.  17.470. 7. 8. . 2. 12. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . sq.192. ~v 9. 4. 5. 6. 405. .6 . 29. . 17. c. 43. 16 11. 128. 7. JSg. 8. 192. 7 x4 17. 15.384.5y 4 . 19. 22. x + Vy. '23. 17.r* 4 70 . 495. . 8 4x' 2 . 7.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 1JH.700. 70. **+. . <. 12. r r j. . 8.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 8. 16. x4 . 2. w9  8.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .12 x*y 16. 13. 20. 35. 220 . G.3 ays. 8. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 10. 0. 27. 3. 16. B . ' 1. 6. 2. (). 23. Page 254.8. 8J. 708. .53. 9. and 1. Jj? 45. Y11.v Page 253.870 m*n*. 100. 20. 4. 1. . 4. 6. 105. 6.  101. 12. 1 14. A. 4. 8. 48. 13. 6. 27. 16. 410. xxvii 1. 19. />*. 14.4. 1820. 4.x' 10 . . 005. 5. 4. 5. 4. 10. 5.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 0. 12. 5. 125. 4. 7. . 45 Page 257.130 x30 189 a 4 24.r 4. 81. .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 2. 12.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 1. 18. 7. Page 259. 12. \ w 4 . 3. r 5 4.
ft2ft 4 4l. 2 x2 4. 10 4. df. x2 a2 1 . 93. 5 4 4. 24. c3 4 58.1 4 jry 4 x .2. 66. . .3 a'ft. 8 .  . 114. 3a~2c.c. x 2 . 1 121.6 b. 88.7.3 103. 130. 0. a2 2 aft 2 2. 110. . 7 + 3 xf 2.1w 77. 12 x.ft). 0. 43.4 ac. 82. 122. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 94. 120. ft /> 78. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 52.4.a' 'ft 4. ?/ . . ?/ 3. 12 a/. 72. Page 263. 26. 132. ?> . a4 x. + a 4.4 x y 87. 105. . 2 30 . 3 36 b c . + z. 0. 4 115. 63.  12 a. 8x3 8x. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.2 x^.5 3n 4. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .  3 x2 . 27. 13 + 2 s. !! 71. x 3 4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. a J . 2 a. 6a6c.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. . a 3m 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .7 x   15. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. .15 4 62 x  72.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. ^ .5x4. 102. a* a 8 a aftc. 22. 1 . 4 fee 4. x* . 5x + 2y~z. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. _55_7c 48. a* 4. t 81. 25. x2 471x4.c 3 4. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. . x 3 41. x 8 + x 4 68.1. 62. 2 113. 125. f5+7. 30. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .3 b . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 4 65. 1 + 4 xy. 2 2/' . 118.rty x2 4 123.4 2 4 c2 42 .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. x 8  a8 .6 am b\ 129. 80. 243x4729. 1 a"* 4 an . 49.5 b + c . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 29. 21. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 2 53.4.y*.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 99.. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().a. . .  + 3 x2 . a' 111. 32. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.x 2 4. 2 . . 133.fee 2 4. x4 f + 23 .c. (a + ft)" 98. . 38.  e +/. 5x 2 2x43. 2 . 23. . 4 15 x 5 . 31. . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 127. 46.4 x 2 . 16. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. I 57.9 x .2 x 4. 131.xxviii ANSWERS 19. x . 3 a . 4ft y3. 4 Page 264.2 c . as 20. 2 x2 108. * 60. 96. 6 8 j27 40 ab. . 76. .x 51. 14 x . + 28 x2 13x 3 56.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . Page 260. /> 4 83.105.x24 73. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 91. . x' .1. x' 79. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. () 2 x 33. 70.41. 4 ! . 2 x'V2 90. 107. 4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . x } 4.4 x?/2 3 4. + 3 a?. . 4 69.9 b.x4 + y'2 z 4. 100. x2 2 . 2 q.^a .x x*  f 2 ax 4. xyxzyz. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 64. 6 a2 97. . 5 42. 9x. ft n .2. 36. 86. 61. 104. az 4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 28. 3a'2 Page 261. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 .1. 10 a 12 b.{ 54. 1 x 45. 50. 4 2 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 4 .3 aftc. 9 2w 128.a'2 c.a 2 x 2a .1. a~b 89. . 124. 40. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.ac 44 aft. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . . 35. 16t/.a6 2 4. m " + n + P3c . a 4 . 3 c . 37.2. y 4 z* 0. 3 a 44.4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . +^ + ft W. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.5.18 x?/0.  4 a3 85. 3 a 5 a 5.3 x 2 + 3 x . &p 84. . x8 x2 55.3 y. 39.a*ft 2 126. 4. 4. 6 c 47. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 109.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 3~ n 4.3 .x.18 ?/ 5x4.4.
21. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 170. 20. (y _ ft)(y 4. 50. 1. 19. 12 6 panes. 193. (6) 40.2. + y. (x^ + x1) 234. Page 266.6 . r>x 2 (4x.4xl). . ry(x (a (y + + * 221.l)(y + 1). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. ( jc // a 2 (a1).1). 150. (a} 59. 199. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 190. 143. 206.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 15. 2^. (a& 192.2). 24.y). (7x2//) 203. aft. + 3) (x f f>) .. x(x + 6) 213.6) (2 x + 1). 154. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 10). 8 204. 2. (y 7f))(y 196. 32 h. 15. p. 210. 6. Page 267. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 157. 217.6)(4 + 6). + 2) + 9a. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 2a(42ft)(2fo). (8x + 3)(3x4).y)(z . (3x  . (3x2?/)(2.2) (3 x . 160. Iff 145.ANSWEKti 135. 224. y. HI. yr. (y_24)(y5). 197. 233. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 10. 169. . 208. + 11) (a 10). (7 c 2 ). 186. 1. 8(ar}(/)27).3 y). 18. 159. 2. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). . 140. 167. k. (x 227. 239. 241. . 156. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4.3). (r7y)(ai. Page 265. 174. 158. a. ( + 2y)(2x3y).1(5) 200. 2 2 (a.1). + 3). 164. 137. 1.3.  1. (c) 160 C. 178. 36ft. 202. 205. (?/+l)(yl). 4. (x . 172. 183. 226. 149. 179. fc'2a+62c). a + 2x2 ). 220.1). 151. 177. 147. xxix 139.. 142. +)(x2 x^+2. + 7)(rt4). 215. (x  42 yr. 144. 244. Or (a + 2)0el). y3. 216. (xyX^+y" )1 243. p. ?.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). + 6 y) (x 2 y) .m)(x + a). 189. (y7)(y + 188. 15  a. 161. 12. 166.l)(a 2 +3).2 )(x+y) 228. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). as 194. (2a + l)(a . a(a. 2. 3..y + 3)(r (. m. 136. 218. (a 2 + 2a6. 1. 247. (. 240. 176. 1. 232. y 245. (JT y 225. 48 h. 155. 138. (/ 246. 195.3) (2/3y). 2(x8)(x3). (x + 2)(x . 184. (233). 12 yr. . 231. a 2 (15.y2 ). C3 y _l)(. 187. 3(x . (ab + 8) ( 7). 6. 23 18. 146. 37 1.l)(x8 + x2 . 1.r + 4). 218. 180. 162. 12. 40 yr. 238. 2. 212. 222. 147 mi. 182. 5. (r^x + 1).9)(xf 2).2). 235.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 2 xy(3 x . . (5 x .I2y). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 153. 1. 163. 230. + 22). 12) (j. 191. 30 yr. 209. 12 yr. 10). 30. (y  17)(y + (>). 207. 201. 75. 10 ft. G7.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).3 y)(a . 173. (x + 6)(x6). 2. 237. 20. y  y 165. 6). (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (2 198. z(x10)(xl).. 30 + xyr. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 1. 4. 10 in. 214. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 2 (4 x . 148. 7. 185. 152. 211. 22. 3. 171./_4).2ac + 229. 175.y)(jc + 7 y). 168. 181. . 236. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 219.r . ft.y) (\r3y).
306. x ?/ z 1. *. x 267. 261.4). x12. 254. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.2* i^^ !^. ?^ZLiZ 308. 266. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. o(x4l). x 283. x . 307. 264. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . (a 4 A)(2 x 5.  7. + f. 250. 259.1. ? 1) 302. 7. 260. Ca&c 1)(M 253. a~ ' b*). (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 10. 310. 5. *>). a. 279. &). 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 4 5. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 305.. 263. 268. ^/>J.^^^^^^^^. ^ 299. 0. 256. 3  262. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 2. 301.4) 1) (3 x . 249.  3xyf x// 257. 0. 269. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 2 x  3. > 4.^ ^^. 7^T 2 . (7 255.   . 251. 43 '^rJ'. o. 303. 3. 3). 7 x 265. 295. 2 4 300. 258. 298.(x  4) (x4 304. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 3).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.
1.!.  1. 401. . 4 rw. 2 ). **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 334. ?=. . . 396. 325. 13 391. _*L'L+. 387. 395. + 335. . ab. 6 ?/+:>. L .3. l . " 4 378. a 2 . ?/ + 3 332. 12. 2 ?/ 363. 386. 394. x 54 359. l'j. 390. T\. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. . 11.7. 361. 1. 326.. 1. 4. a) A^_. 375. 2 ab  a Page 276. 393. 2. 339. + x 362. 7. 2 r36 384. 392.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 382. 364. j 328. 0. 408. y 4 I 340. 380.XXXI Page 272. 398. ^"" 4 s . ^_:r f> 331. 4. 379. 397. 405. 389. a +6. . 4 A. 355. Page 277. 1 i 2 ^. Page 274. ?>*. <L 409. + 4 & 4 \ b. 365. 329. A^L5L.)Cr4)__ .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 366. 343 00 351. 2(q. 407. 20. 388. 6a. 370. 406. 324. ^ 3 // . S. 2 327. 2(a i 403. c 402. 3.".J .  1 356. 377. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 360. 404.. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 383. 376. 400. 0. 7/i ^ _ . T+^.1. 3. m. 333. 1. 2. f. 3. * 357. (a + b + c\ .(5 a . 0. a + b + 6). 336. If. 399. 0. 385.vin a /r " 337. 9^.
*+. .  505. 460. 40. 10. 53 yr. 20. (d) true. 2 a 2. 2. A 5 mi . 0. 6. 421. 476.. '. . Page283. 456.1. 7. L (c) I.te + . 12. 495. 50. 0. 467. 497. fj. 2. 4. 1. 2. 499.0. 10. 2.}. 487. 7. 3. 0. 6. 6. 426. 1. 435. 500. 498. 445.5. Page 282. 10. 423. . a + + ft c. 0.2. . . 10. 418. 503.  2. B $ 2500. !L=4.7. . 468. 28 yr. (a  c).} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.7. i. 485. 479. 11. (&) true.  2. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 10. 440. 84. ^V.46. 1. 5. . 429. 490. (a) 1. 8. 450.. 436.3. ISjmi. 430. 18. 482. 2. 439.  10. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 3a 4 5. 494.. 7. 444. 464. m. . 442. 459. 7. Page 280. 0. (&) 443.. 448. 462. 63. 452. 507. . 412. 20 yr. c. . .12. 24 days..2.rz Page 279. . 17. 5J. 461.  .55. 10$. ^r?i 434. 7. not true. 432. L2 a  6 . 9. 463.7. 32.3.7.  7. 7 : . ISJini. a 22 . <L+ 6 (. 466.0. 472. 6. 17. 496. 5. . 447. 2.vz in.489. 3.4. 465. 2. + () 433. . A $ 3500. . 0. $2000 at 0%. 2. \ 1. ' $260 at 0%. & 491. \. m 1 : wi. 8. b 449.  1. 6. 441. ^. 506. 486. 454. Page 278. 2 438..488. 4. (d  6) f. 40 oz. 22. 427. fc. 492. 410. 501. 411. . 493. 90. 4. * .4.  2f 504. . 483.}. 446. B 4 mi. a* 424. 425. 502. 21. .m  m+ M in. 1 a /?$+&?. 1. 10. 5. ft 5. 0. 33. 2$. 457. 428. z8 +?/ 3 431. 413.  453. 1$. 3. 5. 51. 1. 419. 478. I. 14 miles. 508. 420. 2. c 6fc 10. 8. i a b 451. 4. 8. (c) not true. 480.  2. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 32 yr. 3 . 10. Page 281. 477.7. : />a. 481. 484. 42.  1.  f>.  7. 2. 455. 5. 458. 6. 6. 422. />c c(f be. 5.
04.54. 2 2.6. (6) . 2 . 603. f ? a f ft __ + c C).15. 530.  7. + 12 x . (ft) Ill Ib. 2 10. imag.  557. . . 4.  (a) (d) 1. . 1.9.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 558. tin. a + ft  a  f c. lead. 533.5. 5.3. 1. Page 285. 0000.  2ft da. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. . 2 1. 1. _ 4.3.62. 5. Roots imaginary. or 8. 513. 593. 1.0. .  1. tin. 6435.37.3. 24 da.83.1. 2. 1. _^ 2754x . > ^ .5. 4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . H. 3. 567. per hr. 555. 4. 515. 566. 4 mi.6. 7^ da. .05.02.5 f.1. . 2 1. 556.5. (c) 3.16. 3. 3. y% Z * 586. . .8. (d) 537. (ft) 4. 1J. 3.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.21. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 514. 4. 565. 3. 1. 516. 2$.25. (/)  10 to 8.15. 569. 1. 1.12.6 2.4. .3. _ 3.8. 24. ft 584.5. 2. 4. 564. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. da. <z ft 1. 553.54. 8.02. 3. 562. 582.02.03. 527. 574. g(rc+ 6c).7. 7.0.38.10. 581.24 sec.7.1.02. 3. 1 . 8 mi. (a) 74 Ib. . lead.53. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. x8 . 3.20.  J(a f + 2c).10.8 x3^.  4. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.4.3. 2 imag. 1 600. . 573. f36a28x8 592. Page 288. . . o> . ^ ft 4. .  + + c. 598.4 x + .. 583. T .. 531. a f ft + c. (e) 570. 1.  . (gr) 10 1. 1. 560. 1. . 5..35.ANSWERS Page 284.0.75. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.88. 4. 1 580. f. 3 . . (6) 3.3.8. 3. 1.25m. . 576. . f. 6. 2. 536. 591. 2(4 602. 3. 3f 4f.37.03.14.4.5.3.83. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 559.4. . y 4. 1. 3. .31.51. 2. 561.1.  ft*.73. S82 c.1. 40 Ib. xxxin 511. 4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4* da. per hour.75.00. (c) 4. 2. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . . 532.04.8. (i) 3.33. 579.3. + 6 tf f 3 . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.52. 2 .xj/ f xV . 551.   (h) 8.55. 1.7. .24. 509.62. 526. 552.f 1. 2(6 597.r8 596. 512.78.  (a) 2. 554. 529.78.  3. 563.15. 4. . a+ Page 286.4. If 572.30. 528.24. 1. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 14.. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 115 Ib. 3. 550._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.. 510. (e) (c) 2. 1 . 2. 0. 518.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 1. 3. 1.% rr\* 585. 4 0. 1. Page 287.  2. . 577. 575.31. 2. 31. 3 da. 1.4. 2. 4. . 1. 1.5+. 578. 5. 3. 232. 568. 525.0. 6.  imag. 599.2. 27 y* f\4 . 2.6. . 1$. 571. .6.56 sec.1. J7] min. 21*_. 1. + 26 + .
5. 7003. a 2. 679. y  619. 648. 612. 630. (a3&45rj. .2f (5 4. 13.XX XIV 606. 2f. 702. 0.. 624. 656.049. 2 / 2 4. 2f. 50. 653. c. 1 2. ix 2 . 898. 25. 2 a: 4. 607. 708. a. 6. ^. 650. <T! . + 2 A (i f Page 291. 1m*. 632. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 2. 2&). 627. 696.  6. 4330 da. If 658. la6 2. 6. ft). b . 971.f 3 V^3). . 10. 009.  2f r 659. 5. 0. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 6 685. 649. 2. 14. 2092. 629. J^^. 655. 701. 644.  ft. I}'/. V"^TJ. If . a ' 2 + . 4 676. fta a/> ^A. 660. 1. 1 704. If b.. . 3 681. 7. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. if 4/> 671. 613. 652. 705. fe + a. 647. 2. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .3.203. . 628. 0. 669. 616. 666. 4 V 0. 661. If 665.  4. 5002. 0. 690. 691.  a2  a (ab).b. 4$.001. 646. 621. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 643. . 615. 2. . 637. be ac \. ab. 11.>A 610. 0. 5. 617. b. i. .001.3.b 686. 651. a + b. z  1. n^l +^.a~ {Z 663. \.3. 642.c ) 697. 700. 626. 8 6 fo . 683. 2. .0. 3. 3. a 4.2f Page 290. 634. V7. ^. 623.  13. a 673. 2 a  6*. 8. 3 x2 . 618. 25. 1. 633.  1. 210. 678< 682. ^^ 695. 645. 2. (*_ + a: 611. K 5 2 V2. 657. /> 4.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. ab 689.  4. 631. 677 680.3f l 668.14 If 1. 7. 1. 1. 614. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.25. 608. 2. 1 V5 1. If f 667. . 0. 641. 672. 706. 670. Page 289. 4.04. 2. 654. 662. 9*.303. 692. . V^~3).y. ' fe 2 ). 1$ 639. b 664. 4. 703. If. .43^4. 4. V2. 620. 12. 5. 638. 9. ^ 1. 636. . 2 ab + a  &. 4. + ~^'2 + a 1. V2.3. 3. 640. 698. 2. o. 11. 3 a. 78. 703.  684. 8 f 3. .  3. 1010. / V^+lO^M"^. 2 a 688. a 1J. 2 x 44 ^/. ' 674. 625.  . 622.002. .702. l/'3. 5 3. 635. 1 ~a . \+ab 699.
710. 59. 756. 734.r. 8. 2x3^ a. 3V72V3. 731.4 . 342V3. 716. 777. a 2  x2 . 728. 792. 712. 13ft. 746.9.V/^ 741. a:* . 24V2. 1 I . y  1. x i f^' . 732. 713. a 2 6^. VT14V5. 15 shares. 776. 3^. i^. . 709. i 2. 755. 1. J(v'lO2V 791. 778. 773.~ .. 39. 751. 29\/3. + 6 2 tf'c. 715. 740.r+y> 759. Page 293. 767. 300.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 725. 34. rt3 2 ^i^. .rJ w L 754. 721. T%. 719. r. 726.1 . / 787. a db Va^T < 45da. 723. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. VV> L4V34.257. 727.^ 743. Hi a. 2\/53V2. ^7xy. . 4 104 v/2. a 5 . 1. ^ . 788. 714. 00. 717. 1^ _ 760.4 . 1 [ + '> J. 769. 738. 724. . 7  3V5. 718. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .10. 47. 17ft. 711. Page 294. x\y. 3 720. 793. > 748. 730. 24 4 . 758. 33^2. 736. 2 V2 . 739. 3V72VO.. 25. 1. iv/Jj. 32>/2. 722.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid... 782 785. 24. 8. 768. . 737. fyaw&cu.11.12 af V^ 4 744. 3 VlT 795. v'll. 1 747. j 742. 796. 5.9. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 1 752. 3V7. 790 2v 3v 2.^.V2. 3V52V3. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. + < 735. v/7 / . "V313. 750. ^ ?>.ANSWMHti Page 292. 789. 5. 729. mn. 763. VIO\/3.2. 753.8. a". cr*lr*. 3. 749. 794. 30\/10 764. 733.
rae) (4 . 6. .7). 843. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 3. 6. 3. . 1. .1)(0 865..r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2. J V.5 b) 4 1). 4 818.7 4 1) 846.3. + d)*. 863. (3 862. .7)(4 x. . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.2w . (a 4 871.a 4 + 1). x . 814. 3. (x*y*ryz + z*). 840. 817. 898.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 2 m . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).  tt 815. 894. 1 1. o. Va. 4.4. 2 *x 807. 867.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 2 . 838. (3 b . 827. 0. 857. . 861. (2 x + 3 y} . a 42)(x . (x 2 . 8. m = 2. 900. 841. 813. 1 . 11. 891. 4. 8. 0. 14. $.l)(x . (x + 0X024. 804. (x 2 f r .2) (x 4 2). ( 4 4. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.0. 25. 876.1) . 3. 2. 2. ((' 1). 830. (xl)(^~3)(. 6+V7. . 3. +j!>. (2 4. Va 803. **. 897. 7.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 4. 881. 2 . Page 297. 4. H. 4. x.  839.1)(V 2 . 801.2 ax 4. 886. 858. 808. 5. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 5. 835. o 828. 17. 17. 20). \/5. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 2. 2. 0. 837. 847. 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 5.  1. . _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 806. 4.y) 852. (4 c 4. 10. ^VG. (x3). 3.4. 844. (  ?>) (a + ^> . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.+ m f ") (a* ). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 7. 6 $. 868. Hoots are extraneous. 848. 851. 890. 2/ 856. a(ft)( 873. a* 4. 842. a2 ^E*!. b' 2 821. 895. (x 4.a 2 2 ). 2. 810. 4 885.om 441) (a 855. 2 (x 4*4. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 6.7. 822. (1 . . (a m .5) (x + * 853. (x . f. (a 1) (x 4.. 800. 4.l)(x . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 820. 823. Hoots . (x 845. 879.r4). 23. 1. m 875. 899. 880. (. 4. 3.r . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).l)(x + 2). ANSWERS 798. 2. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 1. 3. 2. $. 893. 799. 4. 825. 7.a 3 " 4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.f.  ' . 824. 887./>") (a'. 0. 8 09. 2  2.4) 860. 826. 3. n =  29. . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . jV3 f 3. (x . 1. 19. 883. (2 a . ^.7). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).1). ) (a' 874. 2 2 . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). \/2.3. are extraneous. a(ry + 864. 5).XXXVI 797. 2 . 2.1) (a 8 . 872. db 7. 7. 1C. 3 . 896. ( 869. (2x (r. X4 1). 882. 833. V 3. 812. (:r 11. Page 296.  + l(l^). 892. 3. 4. 811. 819. . 859. 1. 2.3)(x + 4). 5.1. 884. 2 854. 11.10 ab 4. 4 . 5. 832. 13. 831. 849. 48.. 836. .25 ?>2). 829. 816. 888. ^ V}. . 2 j 889. 834.
. 4 in. 108. 1. V^3). 12 in. 15 946. 9 in. . 5l4f. 0. 2. 935. 904. 4.1. 934. 1 + V953. 2. 918. 5.2. 902. . =F J. 912. 4. 11. 6. 6 a 915. 919. 2 i ' a V. 5. 2 1. 955. 4. 11. ^y. . 2. Page 303. 3. 8. 960. 932. 947. . ft. 981.. i1" 913. f ft 4 . 984. 979. 6.01. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. . 8. . '3 3 in./hr. ft. . 944. 905. J.2. T3. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.1. 7 or 30. w 3. 978.651. i(6 in. 931.' ifcVira^ 2 3.744. 8. . 4. 1 _2 . 954. 6 da. 115. 480 8 sq. 3. . i>. 3. 12 mi. 6. 111.. 945. 56. 2. 5 . 4 6 mi. 2.. 7. 4. 930. 942. 8 . 2 yd. 4. 2. 922. tt2 19. ft.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 936.. V5 fj. 8. ?/i 6. $(l 4. 986.073. 60 949. 1 2. 11. 28. 3. 985. 982. 4.. 12. 6 . 248. 943. 10. 15 16 ft. dL 4. 0. 11. 6. 948. ft. 28. 959. . 2. 933. Page 301.I. 1. 963. 903. S07. V5 T 2 . 4. 12.1 = 9. %* . yd. 939. 5. 916. 940. . 925. . 938. 3 . 40 16 in. 20 19 ft. 958. 909. Va926. . 7.  1 . 927. 28. 7. 923.760 sq. Z ^. 8128. 8. 80. 3 4 . 5.. 6. 333. 1. 0.615.  1. r ft ' < Page 299. 908.. 4. 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. J. 962. 8. 956. . 2 ft.111. Y. 937. J(_ ft. T 6. 3.446. 950.0.V~~3). f. 2. ft. 987.. . 329. 3. 0. 8. ft. ft. . 957. 6. 7. 496. ft. 8. 906. 980.709.. 964. 921. 3).. 66 924. 18. T 6. a + . 6. 917.. 977. 12. .. 280. 1 1. 961. 1 . 10. 911. 983. 2. 941. 920. 951. . 4 . 7 ft. Page 300. 952. Page 302. 73.  26j. 333. 14 . 5. 6 1 1.. 1).. 100 rows. v/(ai !)(&910. 2 w 914. w. 2.. i 8. . a. i 3. 4.
. 1019. 0.92.'^^ } ( . (6) 8(1 . () 12(2+V3). 8. 48.378 1015.192rt?)r 120 *. (J. 990. 1 1004. 1012.  5&7 1021.51. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .. 1010.870 a 6 1011. 2 . 2(2 v/2). 988. 12.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1009. r = 2. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 12. Page 304. 192.. X. 1017. ^Trsq. 1000. 997. 120 a.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 4 and 1020. 1003. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1013. 24. . 993. 994. 72. 995.870 z8 . 6 70 . 1(5. 1018. 108. + 448 . 1005. 991. (Z>) 999. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . ~ \. 1014. 996. 4. ^f (2f3V2). 1001. + v 2). (5. Page 305. 1008. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).378 <W and 92.18. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1006. 1007. 0. 162. in. 3003. 1016. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . . 992. 1 8 8 2. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 120 i^l^. 9 da. (a) (6) ^ 1002.128 I.
Half leather. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. given. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. physics. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. A examples are taken from geometry. xiv+563 pages. great many work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. i2mo. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. than by the . $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The more important subjects tions. etc. save Inequalities. and commercial life. HEW TOSS . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Ph.D. xi 4 373 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. $1. comparatively few methods are heretofore. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. so that the Logarithms.
HatF leather. comparatively few methods are given. Half leather. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. great many A examples are taken from geometry.D. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The author grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. save Inequalities. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. xi f 373 pages. HEW YOKE .ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. xiv+56a pages.25 i2mo. Logarithms. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. and commercial life. In Factoring. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. so that the tions. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. Ph. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. physics. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 12010.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.
of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Cloth. State: . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. lines. NEW YORK . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 7 he . 6. xii + 233 pages. Cloth. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 10. SCHULTZE. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . more than 1200 in number in 2. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. iamo. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value.r and. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .10 L. i2mo. izmo. 9. SEVENOAK. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE.D. Half leather.. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. wor. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. aoo pages. 4. under the heading Remarks". $1. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. Ph. $1. These are introduced from the beginning 3.
370 pages. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. $1. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. New York City. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . 12mo. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and not from the information that it imparts. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . of these theoretical views. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. .
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. $1.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. and a full index are provided. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. " This volume etc. Cloth. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. diagrams. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Topics. diagrams.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. i2mo. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. photographs.