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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
1916. J. U. August. Mass..S.COPYRIGHT. Published Set up and electrotyped. Cushlng Co. 1910. Berwick & Smith Co. May. January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Reprinted 1913. . May. 1910 . 1911. 1915. IQJS January. 1910. Norwood. . . July. 8. 1917.' February. September. September.A.
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Such a large number of methods. specially 2. owing has certain distinctive features. however. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. etc.. manufactured for this purpose. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. chief : among These which are the following 1. and conse . not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Elementary Algebra. are omitted.
in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. hence either book 4. however.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . Topics of practical importance. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.g. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. two negative numbers. as quadratic equations and graphs. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Moreover. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. especially problems and factoring. e. may be used to supplement the other. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . In regard to some other features of the book. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. For the more ambitious student. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. are placed early in the course. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.
elementary way. By studying proportions during the first year's work. based upon statistical abstracts. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. physics. Moreover. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. viz. and commercial are numerous." Applications taken from geometry. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. such examples. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . 1910. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. edge of physics. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. William P. April. however. NEW YORK.
.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . SUBTRACTION.... .... . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... Powers. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors...
. . Type III... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ..114 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type II.. Type Polynomials.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ... Type VI.... * . Type IV. /^ .. Type V.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ..
. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... .... ... Evolution of Monomials 170 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used." EXERCISE If a 1. since the parts are a . are trinomials. 6. A polynomial is an y. 2. v'Ta. is 28. c = 1. 2 . or 9 Vx. b = 3. + 1]. 4V3~6c. 0. 15. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 26. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. V2a. 14. (cfd) 4. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. x 9. as in arithmetic. 6. 4(a 6(6 + &). 5Vl6c.g. 16. 13. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. a polynomial of two terms. [6c] 3 . A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 10. 27. 17. some number is . + c). aVc^. 3. e. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. d 7. 11. 7 = 2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. !^f\/03 3 ft. c f d). separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V^a6. 8. 12. V3 . 9. \/c. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. Val \fi?. find the numerical value of: Vff. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). V36". A binomial is 62 .
16. Otherwise operations of addition. 2 ).5 ax 50 a6cd. 3 2 If 1.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 4 . . .9.99. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. = 32 + 4527 = 50. . (a (a f b) 7. c = 2. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 52 .2 + I126. 5. subtraction. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 6. 5.e. 12. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. __ E. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . l 13. 2. 10. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. . x=^. 5c +d 2 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. a2 11. 3. multiplication. EXERCISE 8*  .19 = 6. 4a6fVaV2^. b = 3. 2. + 26+3 c. c=l. a=4.. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.4 6^9 ad. 14.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . find the numerical value of: 9. 1. d = 0.810 + 150 = .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .INTRODUCTION 29.9 aWc + f a b . a 2 6. d=Q. 3 4 .390.g. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 5=3. 8. 6. Ex. i. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .30 = 270 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 4. * For additional examples see page 268. Ex.
26 of the exercise. 6 = 5. 30. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.6 . 6. 6=2. 6 = 6. 24. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 22. 6 = 5. a = 3. 6 = 7. 6 = 4. 30. 26. if : a = 2. 34. 23. 29. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.6 f c) (6 a + c). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 25. 27. a = 4. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. and other sciences. 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 3. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6 = 1. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. : 6. sible to state Ex. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. a =4. 28. . a a=3. a =3. a = 2. 37. a = 4. physics. 33. Six 2 . 38.c) (a . and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). geometry. 6 = 2. a.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 3. Read the expressions of Exs. 35. 6 = 6. = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs.
4.e. i. c. (c) 4. A train in 4 hours. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. if v . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. count the resistance of the atmosphere.INTRODUCTION E.16 1 = 84.g. 14. and 15 feet. b 14. and 13 inches. (b) 5. Find the height of the tree. and c 13 and 15 = = = . How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. .16 centimeters per second. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. then a 13. 12. 13. 2. if v : a.seconds. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v = 30 miles per hour. and 5 feet. b. the area of the triangle equals feet.) Assuming g . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 15 therefore feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. d. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.
If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. If the (b) 1 inch. meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). the area etc. (c) 5 F. (c) 5 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.).14d (square units). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14 square meters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 32 F. 2 inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 4. (c) 8000 miles. the 3. is H 2 units of length (inches.). then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (The number 3. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. ~ 7n cubic feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. square units (square inches. (c) 10 feet. $ = 3. . 5. This number cannot be expressed exactly. : 8000 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. SUBTRACTION. however. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. or positive and negative numbers. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. In algebra. . in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.
24. 6 6 = 3. 5. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. + (9). '. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 12. 4. 22. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 18.3. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 5. of 2. 10. (_ In Exs. is 0. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. = 5. d = 0. 19. is 2. the one third their sum. d = 5. 23. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 4 is 3 J. of: 20. subtract their absolute values and . Thus. . c = 4. 33. lf(2). (17) 15 + (14). 21.  0. c = = 5.16 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. if : a a = 2. 2326. + 12.
which are not similar. : 34. 32. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 09. c=14. 31. $1000 loss. 60. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 25. $7000 gain. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 36. 1. . & = 15. 3 and 25. \\ Add 2 a. d= 3. 30. 74. and 3 F. 2. 10. 7 a. 6. 34. 10. 13. 7 yards. & 28. and 3 yards. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 4. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.7. 33.3.4. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 37. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 11 (Centigrade). . 55. affected by the same exponents.5. c = 0. 41. = 13. ^ ' 37. are similar terms. 38. and 8 F. : 48. ' Find the average of the following 34. = 22.13. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. ' 1? a 26. 35. . and 4. or and . 42. 0. 5 and 12. SUBTRACTION. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 6. 32. 72. 2. 7 a. sets of numbers: 13. 66. and 3 a. $500 loss.ADDITION. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.. }/ Add 2 a. 40. 3. .. 12. : and 1. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 39. and 3 a. 10. $3000 gain. .. and $4500 gain. .7. 27.5. = 23. 29. 6. . 4 F. . 43.
2 a&.13 rap 25 rap 2. . 13. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12(af b) 12. Algebraic sum. 2 . Vm f. 3a . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 10. 7 rap2. 5 a2 . f 4 a2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 5Vm + w. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The sum x 2 and f x2 .ii. : 2 a2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 11. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. + 6 af . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. EXERCISE Add: 1. 14 . or a 6.sign.18 35. in algebra it may be considered b. b a f ( 6). 2(af &). 12Vmfn. b wider sense than in arithmetic. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 5l 3(af6). 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6).
35. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. without finding the value of each term 34. l^S 25. 21. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 17. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. + / + 3 Va. 36. +m """ 20. ra 19. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. a a8 ZL **. 6 23. 2 7 1 26. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 37. and to add each column. 2/ : Add. 32. SUBTRACTION. 1 27. n x* 2 22.ADDITION. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 33. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 2 2 31. is . 30. + y. c 2 ^24. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column.
ft any convenient and c. 3a 2? .3 s.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.8 abc .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. and 2 . . V3.41 = 3. to show any error. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 025. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 5 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.15 abc . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2 Thus.7 2 .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.12 a& 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. f 110WS: 26 aft.g. 5. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. . 4 = 7.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. and J 2 s. of that letter.g.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 46 4z 7 c. 6=2.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .c= 2. NOTE. = . 3 a f 4 1) 4. 9 q 4. s. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. . a 4. 4 2. x of x. e. 7 4.20 c 5 ab 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. the erroneous answer equal 7. 3.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 2c. 2 Sum. therefore the answer is correct. 2 . c = 1.15 6c. to add 26 ab .o c and 4.
8 m 2m 12. SUBTRACTION.1. a) y ^/.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.a. . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .12(a 4. .12 6 ~5 a .4:xy xz 6yz. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.a. . 2 2 and . .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 3 2 2 3 9 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.2n 2 2 3 rz . a. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4 8 3 4 4 . ^2 1 e. . 4. . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 2 and 9m 48m 4.5 cr& + 7 6 9. d and / 3 ? 12. 4(a . and . 11. 7ar + 3B 5.6. e a4 /. a 4 a . 8. a2 2 14. a 4 a .7v/if. 2 ?/. 2 2 .Ga 43x45.a . in 8 3 m n 4. .1 a 4 1 0.VS 4 2 Vc.ADDITION. 16.5a^6 f 6) . 18/+6y + d. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. .a 4 a 4 1. + 50 + 62 .and 6. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 4 3 . 2 a.4 Va . 16e + 17/90. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. v/20.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 4 ajy 17. and 5 Vb 18. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .15 5. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. . xy3xz + yz. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 56 w. and and 13. 4 Vc. m 4 6. and v 15.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .7m . 2 3(c f a). 2 ?ft ?/z.12. + a + 1. 19.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . a2 a. ?/ .10 Vc. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . d. and 8 3 .(b + c) 1. and 1 4 a .9(a + &) .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.
s . f 1. is 2.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 22. 13 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 45a6 2 . 1. . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.3^* 2n 2 . The sum and ? 1. . and 2 24. f number may be added 3. many negative units re main ? from 2. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f 1. 8 . and 25. 2 8 n + <w 2 . how 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1. + n*. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1. 6 f c 2 23. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4..11 xy + 12. 1. a 6 2 c. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 12 xyz. .22 21. T8a.9aj 2.m 4m ?/?/ d. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.17 + 4 ?nfy .3 taken from 2 ? 5.ra + m.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. + 1. and e + 6y . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. +d a. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1/ . If you diminish a person's debts. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. c 3 3 3 2 3 .
3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. In subtraction. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. To subtract. In addition. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 41. From 5 subtract + 3. and the required number the difference. the other number is required. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 7.ADDITION. 5 is 2. from What 3. called the minvend. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 2. ab = x. a. 1. NOTE. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. if x Ex. the given number the subtrahend. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. Ex. From 5 subtract to . Or in symbols. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . two numbers are given. 6 (3) = 8. 3. ( 6) ( = . Ex. +b 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. . SUBTRACTION. This gives by the same method. Therefore any example in subtraction different . and their algebraic sum is required.g.3.
5 x + 8.f 8 .3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .3 x* . Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
From 2 a take a & j. check the answer. 6 4 a.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 56. 57. c f d. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 52.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 54. + a the 2 a.2. 49. SUBTRACTION. 2y 2 . From From x2 the sum sum 7. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 50. 45. 53. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 44. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 41. 48. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. tract 4 x 3. 43.4 a^ 4. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 42. 58.w>t. 47. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 51. From 6(af. 46. 2. 55.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. and 3 7/ .6)f.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.ADDITION. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .c. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. of a 4. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .a 2 j.7 a .4 a*& + 6 a & .
a 2y + z.15. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +a add the difference duce 13. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. a a + c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 6. 6 17. + 2. a + 6. 9. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 2 m 21. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 16. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 20. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . A is n years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c.26 4. 19. subtract # + 1. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. + 6 + c.
. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. a+(bc) = a +b . 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 45.ADDITION. the sign is understood.6 b f (. II. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.2 b . SUBTRACTION. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. changed.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a^6)]  } .b c = a a & f f. 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.g. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. I. Ex. & f c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. one occurring within the other.
the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 13. a (a + 6). 3 3 f 7. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 15. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 271 + (814 . a f (a a . + (2a 6 + c ).+ 6)f (a2 b). a (a + 26 c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2 2 2 a(.(a + 6). : x + (2yz). 16. 9.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2a. In the following expression inclose the second and third.)].y (60. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. ? 11. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 19. 3. 6. [36+ (a 2c].) 5 . . 2. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 4. 5. m f ft) a. (m a2 f. 14.: Ex. By removing parentheses. 6) 2. find the numerical value of { 1422 .[271 47. 8. may be inserted according to 43. Signs of aggregation 1. 21. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).1422) J ] . 17. Ex. 18. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.
' NOTE. 10. 6 diminished . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 5^2 _ r . The difference of a and 6.4 y* . The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1.2 tf . first. 12. 7. 13. II. 2. of the cubes of m and n. . z + d. difference of the cubes of n and m. SUBTRACTION. The sum^)f m and n. 5. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. a\l> > c + d. and the subtrahend the second. p + q + rs. 8. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 3.ADDITION. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 5 a2 2. 6. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 9. The square of the difference of a and b. terms 5. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. m and n. )X 6. 3. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 7.7fa. y f 8 . m x 2 4. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The product The product m and n. 4.1. 2mn + 2q3t.
18. d. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 16. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.30 14.
what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weights. 2. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads what What. force is produced therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. therefore. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. A A A 1. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. let us consider the and JB. two loads balance. 5.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.
the multiplier is a negative number. thus. 4 multiplied by 3. . such as given in the preceding exercise.9) x 11. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. To take a number 7 times. however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4x(3)=12. or plied by 3. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Practical examples^ it however. 4 multi44444 12. 48.4)(.32 8. (.4)(4) = + 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. (5)X4. NOTE. 9 x ( 11). Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. becomes meaningless if definition. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 9 9.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 5x(4). Thus. x 11.
If a cal = 4a6c.3. 11. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 5x3. 6 2. x= 0.4. 14. 1. . 4. (4)'. Ua b 28. . z s 11 aWcx. 3 a2?/2 . 8.a)( =+ a&. (10) 4 . etc. _3. about fac (2)X If 6. 27. find the numeri values of: 21. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 32. 6. (c#) . 5. .(4J). tors is no misunderstanding possible.7. 30.2 f+x 2 . is 6x7. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 8 31. 24. of Signs: TJie positive. 15. 3. 4 . 3. and y = 4. (. 16. 22. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (7) X (12). 1. 2a6 c .2. +5. NOTE. c = 25.(a&c) 2 2 .2f 18. 23. _2^ 3. X(5). the parenthesis frequently omitted. 26. (2)x9. (4)X(15). 8 4 . 13.3) (1) 7 2 . 19. Law Thus. 6. (2) 8 (. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.MULTIPLICATION 50. 17. 3 aW. _2. 4 a2 . . 20. 2a 2 6c. x. 10. 2. 12. 9. . 7. 29. b = 3. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.
3. 9 . . 2(7. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2(14. 4..<?.2). 5 = 2. 5 . 4.(2. 6" 127 U . 100. 127  127 9 7 .  2 2. 78 . =2 a *. 2 3 . 5. 2. 7. 16. 5(711. a= 1. m*. 17. & = 3. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. . 2 2 3 6 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . IB. 6 = 1. . By 3 definition. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. . 12 U U . : 3a7abc.e.35).  and 2 25 8 . . 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 3. 11. 10.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 = . B. 14.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . fl*" integers. a = 2. &*) c d*.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 6. (a6) (a5) 9.7. 5 3 5 3 2 . a = 3.2 2 23 + 5 . 6 aWc x . 3 3 4 . 34. 53. 1. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 13. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.(12) . 3 2 . This 52.3).m a 3  4 . + 2/). Ex. a 2 2 . of the factors. 200. = 2. a8 a=2. 50(112. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. i.(7). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2 2 2 .6 if 35. Ex. 4..503). or 2 . 36.257).
3(124342).7pqt. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. called the distributive law. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 21. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. If results ft. This principle. 19. 5. 29. ) 2 33. 31. 2(645410). _4aft. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 3.3 win ) .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 24. 28. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 35 4 7(6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).6. 35. by first multiplying. 27. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2(5fl5f25). (. (. . 23(10004100420). . 11(3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .A). 6. 22. 26. 20. . 2. 7p*q r*.2 3 aft ). 17(10041042). 34.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . /). c(4a ftc ). . 4.f 2). 12( + 1 4 i). 25. . Thus we have in general a(b 56.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.4a#. multiply each by the monomial. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. and then adding : 1. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 23.7 w'W (8 n^W). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 7. 2 32. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. but we shall assume it for any number. 6(10420430).
6 a6). . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 28.2 mn(9 mV . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 22. 17. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.asa product. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 27. f7a. 3 ). 26. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 9. : expression must 24. 2 m(mhn \p).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 23. 19. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . By what 25.5 x 7). Find the factors of 6 ary . 5). 21. 29. be multiplied to give 4o.^ c + 2 .3 aftc). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.we b) (x law. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).5 w*V f 7 wn). 11. . 30. 2 2 16.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.60 a& 10 aft. 7 a 6 c(. ~2mn(m +n p ). 12. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 20. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.
a2 + a8 + 3 . 59. Multiply 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1. To multiply two polynomials. Check. . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. however.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Multiply 2 + a a.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 b by a 5 b. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Ex. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. the student should apply this test to every example.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. 2. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.1. Since errors.a .4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.
(ajf6y)(aj 23. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. I (mfn)(m4. 20. 9. 22. 10. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 13. 36. (4a 2 33. 2  37. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (6i7n)(llJn). OQ OO.1 . 25. 32. 26. . 12. 36). . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 5. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). * For additional examples see page 261. 8. a 5c)(2a6c). 35. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).4) (mnp 4.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 7. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).4) (x + 1). 28. 31. 4 2). 36) I) 14. (8r7*)(6r39. (a^26) . 29. 41. 12)(a?^2l). 18. 2) (3 A: 1).n)(m 8 n)(m n). (13 A. (6p (2 f 21. 2 . 1). ^ 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3).2). (2 x* x 2 . (6a~7) 2 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 30. 15. 2. 3.2m)(l m). 11. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 6. 17. 24. l)(raf 2). 3<7). QQ O7. 7y). 16. 2 . (2w 19. 40. 4.
ft 16. 13. plus the product 62. 17. 25. + 5) (1000 + 4). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .e. 9. i. 22. 2 a? 29. 19. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 1005x1004. (ra.25)(y+4). (6 12) (6 f. 21. 27. 1) (10 + 2). + 9)(m+9). 10. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (a 102 x 103.13). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). : 23 2.2 6) (a f 6). (p12)(p + ll). 26. 25 a 2 . (J 23.!!)( (a + 21). (a3)(a + 2). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (10+ (1000 (2. + 2) (a f 3). . 8. (a 9) (a + 9). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (*. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). X 102.n)(wf w). 15. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 12. 20. _3)(a _4). i. 75 ab f 54 ft . (100 +2) (100 + 3). (!)(* 5). (a (a (a. 28. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.4).e. 14. + 3) (a 7). 2) (1000 + 3). 11. 6. . . 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. in of the two unequal terms. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 2 6) (a 3 6). 18.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 7. + 60)(f2). 3. 24. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6.
e. w 2 ro . 32. 7 a + 10. 7. (a2) (p a . : 24 (a 2. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 33. . plus the square of the second. 35.66 s.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 37. 77ie square of the of the first. n2 10ii+16. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 9. (a26) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. i. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. Ex. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. plus twice the product of the first and the second. p 2 p. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 63. (x+3i/) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. III.e. + 3) 2 . of the second. a2 2 w + 2 w . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. III. 34. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. second.30. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 3. 8.15. 4. 31. .e. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. + 6 a + 8. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). and the second.15. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . . 49 y*. 2 5. 6. i. <J>7) J .
2 . 33. m 2 16. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 49. 42. 2 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. I) 2 . ( 27. . 991 2 2 . 11.30 ab + 25 6 64. 12. 21. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 32. By actual multiplication. 17. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 34. 40. 2 9a 496 2 56. + 3z) 2 2 . 22. 55. 22 2 . 998x1002. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. + 5). . 9 a2 . 104 2 37. 41 16. 4 53. + 5)(5+a). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 23. (1000 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 (4a36) 2 13. ). 44. 47. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 51. 35. 41. 24. n*6n+9. 62 25n 2 . 25 a 9. 31. (6afy 2 5) (a. 29. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 15.MULTIPLICATION 10. (20 f 1) . 28. (100 + 2) (100 2).998 39. 2 J ). 52. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (^.ll^X^+lly (100 30. (2x3yy. 54. G> +5g)*. 14. 45. 46. 103 36. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 38. . 18. a2 9. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 7& ) 25. 99x101. 2 . The product of 57. 16aW25. n 2 f4n+4. . 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 48. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl.
9. plus the last terms. 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (5a4)(4al). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 14. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a64)(5a&3). 3. 6. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (3m + 2)(ml). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 13. 2 10.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. : 25 2. sum of the cross products. or The student should note minus signs.& + c) = a + tf + c . 11. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. . The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 65. (2a3)(a + 2). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 5. 7. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (4s + y)(32y). ((5a? (10 12. 8. The square 2 (a 4. ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).
5) = (7 . Find the square root 11. 6. Ex.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.4) .X2 + 2 x .(m 2 6. 66.3)(z. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Hence. 7. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).(x .(= [ Xa + 2 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. . 4(* + 2)5(3). 3. Check. 12. 5. = .r _ 2 .24] . If x = 1. (xy+z)*. (u4& + 3c'.5). In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 13.[a? . 4. 3. 4. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. n). 4(aj2)h3(7). the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.1 5 = 10 . 2)6.24 . + 6)( .y? + 8 . 4y sf n) 2 . 6(a 2.4) .39. 8.3) (x . a. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. + 65) . 8. = 10 x . 5.3) . Simplify (x + 6) (a . (  2 4) =  20 a.8 x + 15] . 6~2(a + 7). 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 7. and check the answers !. after multiplying the factors of a term.29. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (a (.(>. 2 2. 9. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).i2&c) 2 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.39. of z : 10. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (81 m + 1 .l. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). v/17. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). Division of the difference of two squares.11 a + 9 a .DIVISION 14. 18. . 51 15.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).e. . a I. . 16. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 20. 19.2) (3 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .
100ry. 16. 14. f 13. 10.0001. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 4 b. 121a a 16 100 11. 16 . . aW 12 a. : the following w a 4 !. 15. r/ 1. 9& 2 . 1.49.000. 12. .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.
83.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . the first member is 2 x + 4. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. . The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . . 81. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. is said to satisfy an equation. x 20. 82. =11. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. in the equation 2 x 0. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. the 80. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (a + ft) (a b) and b.
Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be added to equals. the quotients are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. 5. 86. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. NOTE. the sums are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. E. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.2. A 2 a.b. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.54 84. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. . 85.e. If equals be multiplied by equals.g. 90. one member to another by changing x + a=. A numerical equation is one in which all . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. A term may be transposed from its sign. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 2 = 6#f7. 89. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. If equals be subtracted from equals. 87. but 4 does not equal 5. If equals be divided by equals. Transposition of terms. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . x I. the remainders are equal. called axioms 1. 3. 4. 2. the divisor equals zero. the products are equal.
a= a 6fc. (4y)(6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 6a5 = 185 = 13.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. b Adding a to both + a. x = 93. Transposing. and the known terms to the second.2 y= f .9 y + y2 = 22 .9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Check. Unite similar terms. Uniting. The first member. is correct. Ex. Hence the answer. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Uniting similar terms. if 55 x members. if a x = b. Dividing by Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.8.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Dividing both members by 2. The second member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 4x 1 + 6. f If y 20 . x = 3. 2(11 .2. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. b c. 3 y . x = (Axiom 3) 92. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 91. To solve a simple equation. . 2 x = 6. The first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. a? Adding 5 to each term.6 y f y\ . transpose the unknown terms to the first member.
24. Uniting. If x = 18. 50. 7. 11. aj * See page 264. etc.7a: = 394a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 32 = 264. = 5a?+18. 21. . 6. x x 1 . = 3. 7a? 5. J. 2. 14. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 11 ?/ a? 18. =2 = 3. {(x (x The The member right member left . 19. 4.. Dividing by Cfcecfc. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 12. 8. + 22. = 7. x = 18. 4a + 5 = 29. f Simplifying. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.17 + 4y = 36. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Solve the following equations by transposing. 17 + 5a. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 4y 10. a. 7 (6 x 16). = 2 ?/. it NOTE. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. Transposing. v23. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 7 a. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 3. : 5# = 15+2a.69. 13a? 3a?. + 7(3 + 1) =63.56 Ex. a. 20. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 9 9a? = 7 13. a? a?. 17 7 a. a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3. + 16 = 16 + 17. \x x 2^xfl. and check the answers 9. 247y = 68lly. 15.. 22. 16.
: One part is of 70 is 25 . a? 28. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .2) (M . .5) = (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 31.5) + 199. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .7. .4) + 4 w . .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 5) (as (a. 30. this question. (aj 37. . 42. + 4).1) (u . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 36.7) (7 x + 4) . 27. . 7(7 x y 26.g. e. + 7) (. 2 2 * Jaj.32. find the other part. 38. . 7) (a. (a. 34.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. (6 u =5 44.12) (2 + 5) .14 = 0. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 35. 40. 29. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . a? 43.3) + 14. is the other part.1 0) = 0. 25.(2 + 6) (4 . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. Evidently 45. 33.3) .5(2 u .3) + . 41.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 6(6a. or 70 a?. 39. .
Ex. 17. 33 2. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. If 7 2. greater one is g. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one.58 Ex. Find the greater one. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 15. EXERCISE 1. 1. 4. 11. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 10. 13. 6. is a? 2 is c?. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. one yard will cost 100 dollars. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . smaller one 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 14. 6. is b. x f y yards cost $ 100 . a. find the cost of one yard. or 12 7. and the smaller one parts. one part equals is 10. 9. so that of c ? is p. Divide a into two parts. 7. 5. 3. so that one part Divide a into two parts. so that one part The difference between is s. is d.
32. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find 21. and B has n dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and B's age is y years. and B is y years old. Find 35. numbers is x. 28. and c cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. amount each will then have. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. find the has ra dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 22. 26. 19. If B gave A 6 25. How many years A older than is B? old. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A man had a dollars. How many cents has he ? 27. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. A dollars. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 34. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 20. 24. b dimes. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . sum If A's age is x years. A feet wide. and spent 5 cents. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. is A A is # years old. 33. How many cents had he left ? 28. ?/ 31. 28.
how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. Find a. 48. of 4. A was 20 years old. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 49. per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks 3 miles per hour.50. he walk each hour ? 39. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find a 47. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. . a. 46. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern is filled 43. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. Find x % % of 1000. of m. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. The first pipe x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find the number. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. c a b =  9. find the fraction. m is the denominator.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. . The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. % % % of 100 of x.
by one third of b equals 100. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 6. etc. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 5. c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. a exceeds b by c. 80. of x increased by 10 equals x. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 80. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. c. The excess of a over b is c. same result as 7 subtracted from . equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 2. double of a is 10. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 3. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 4. of a increased much 8. The double as 7.
3 1200 dollars. sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. >. A gains $20 and B loses $40. a. x 4 If A. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 12. . express in algebraic 3x : 10. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. (c) If each man gains $500. express in algebraic symbols : 700. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. and C have respectively 2 a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. they have equal amounts. In 10 years the sum of A's. 11. 6 % of m. amounts. B's.. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. as 17 is is above a. 18. they have equal of A's. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 14. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. m is x % of n. 16.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. a. B's age 20. symbols B. and C's ages will be 100. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 50 is x % of 15. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. B. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. is If A's age is 2 x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.62 10. 17. and C's age 4 a. #is5%of450. pays to C $100. a second sum. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. B's.000. of 30 dollars.
number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 1. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. A will Check. number. 15. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x = 20. NOTE. . x= 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. In 15 years 10. 4 x = 80. Three times a certain no. the required . be 30 . Simplifying. x+16 = 3(35). much as 40 exceeds the number. 6 years ago he was 10 . Check. 2. denote the unknown 96. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Ex. Uniting. number of yards. Dividing. Let x = the number. but 30 =3 x years. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. In order to solve them. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 3z40:r:40z. the . Transposing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Uniting. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 23 =30. etc. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Find A's present age. Transposing. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Ex.
120. Forty years hence his present age. Find 8. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or.64 Ex. 4. twice the number plus 7. Six years hence a 12 years ago. A number added number. % of 120. . Dividing. 5. exceeds the width of the bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 11. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Hence 40 = 46f. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. by as much as 135 ft. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 3. Find the number. 13. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.2. EXERCISE 1. Let x 3. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 300 56. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 14. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6.
The problem consists of two statements I. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. x. B will have lars has A now? 17. During the following 90 years. statements are given directly. two verbal statements must be given. How many dol A has A to $40. is the equation. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 14. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. F 8. The other verbal statement. A and B have equal amounts of money.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. Ex.000. five If A gives B $200. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. One number exceeds the other one by II. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. the second one. written in algebraic symbols. Maine's population increased by 510. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. . 97.000. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. Vermont's population increased by 180. 1. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. If A gains A have three times as much 16. The sum of the two numbers is 14. and B has $00. B How will loses $100. which gives the value of 8. and as 15. times as much as A. 65 A and B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.
to Use the simpler statement. unknown quantity in Then. 8 = 11. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. consider that by the exchange Hence. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as many as A.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as viz. has three times as many marbles as B. < Transposing. and Let x = the Then x +. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 2. terms of the other. If A gives are : A If II. Dividing. = A's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. A has three times as many marbles as B. = 3. 25 marbles to B. = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. + a f f 8 = 14. I. Uniting. the greater number. 2x a? x j = 6. . x = 8. 8 the greater number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the smaller number. / . . . Let x 3x express one many as A. Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. the sum of the two numbers is 14. which leads ot Ex. x x =14 8. If we select the first one. Statement x in = the larger number. = B's number of marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. although in general the simpler one should be selected. x 3x 4 and B will gain. The two statements I. A will lose.
and the Find the numbers.550 f 310. Two numbers the smaller. 15 + 25 = 40. by 44.10. x = the number of half dollars. . x from I. 2. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 50. 1. x = 6. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 45 . is 70. A's number of marbles. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).25 = 20. cents. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 3 x = 45. * 98. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Dividing. the number of half dollars. but 40 = 2 x 20. The value of the half : is 11. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.. the price. The number of coins II.10. the number of dimes. Dividing. . Let 11 = the number of dimes. greater is . Check. 60. B's number of marbles. x = 15.. 40 x . w'3.$3. The sum of two numbers is 42. 3.240. Find the numbers. Simplifying. (Statement II) Qx .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Uniting.5 x . 6 times the smaller. Find the numbers. then. Uniting. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.75. dollars and dimes is $3. * ' . of dollars to the number of cents. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. etc. Check. 50 x Transposing. Simplifying. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. have a value of $3..10. Eleven coins. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 11 x = 5.
11. Twice 14. How many hours does the day last ? . How many 14 years older than B. Everest by 11. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the altitude of Mt. as the larger one. How many inches are in each part ? 15.000 feet. 5. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.. Find their ages. McKinley. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. United States. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 7. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. tnree times the smaller by 65. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. A's age is four times B's. 9. 6. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. one of which increased by 9. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Two numbers The number differ by 39. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and four times the former equals five times the latter. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. On December 21.68 4.
If A and B each gave $5 to C. = 48. has. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. If 4x = 24. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. original amount. 19. and C together have $80. 1. and 68.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. times as much as A. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. ." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. III. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. x = 8. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and B has three as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. Let x II. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B has three times as much as A. number had. number of dollars A had. Ex. and C together have $80. are : C's The three statements A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. has. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. bers is denoted by x. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. I. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. they would have 3. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. then three times the money by I. number of dollars of dollars B C had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. II. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. B. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. B.
and each sheep $ 15. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. = the number of dollars spent for cows. x j = the number of horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. according to II. according to III. first. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The total cost equals $1185. Uniting. number of cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and Ex. sheep. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. cows. 4 x f 8 = 28. Let then. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 2. + 35 x 4. three statements are : IT. + 8 90 x and. 185 a = 925. x Transposing. x = 5. and the sum of the . first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 9 5 = 4 . = the number of dollars spent for horses. 28 2 (9 5). each cow $ 35.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. Dividing. 9 cows.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. x f 4 = 9. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. number of sheep. and. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. each horse costing $ 90. 1 1 Check. number of cows. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. number of horses. 90 may be written. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The I. III. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. the third five times the first.
the copper. 9. what are the three angles ? 10.000. 7. The gold. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. first. what is the length of each? has 3. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. increased by three times the second side. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and children together was 37.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. the second one is one inch longer than the first. first. and the sum of the first and third is 36. New York delphia. equals 49 inches. A 12. what is the population of each city ? 8. 13. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice the 6. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. v . men.  4. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. twice as old as B. "Find three is 4. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and 2 more men than women. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). women. how many children were present ? x 11. the third 2. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. If twice The sum the third side.000.
together. width.000. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 3 and 4. Dividing.000. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 7 Uniting. of arid the value of the iron was $300. or time. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 14. Hence Simplifying. Let x = number of hours A walks. = 5.g. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. Find the value of each. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. number of hours. but stops 2 hours on the way. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 35. .000.e. how many 100. speed. and distance. A and B apart. and quantities area. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. number of miles A x x walks. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 8 x = 15. such as length. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. First fill in all the numbers given directly. i. After how many hours will they meet and how E. we obtain 3 a. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.000 more than that the copper.
73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. The an area 40 x 20 =800. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.05 x x . x . z = 20. Multiplying. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. . 2 a = 40. But 700 certain = 800 2. or 700. l. x . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. $ 800 = 800. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 10 x = 200.053.01 = = ." gives (2.06 = $ 40. the area would be 100 square yards less. x + 200).M(x . 70x10 Ex. $ 800 = required sum. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. $ 1000 x . Find the dimensions of the field. the second 100. Transposing and uniting. original field has Check. Check.04 = $ 40. 2   and transpose.04 8. were increased by 30 yards. + 8.
and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. as a 4.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and a second sum. together bring $ 78 interest. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A of each. What are the two sums 5. and its width decreased by 2 yards. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound.55. but four men failed to pay their shares. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. 3. mobile. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. 1. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. A sets out later two hours B . and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A sum ? invested at 4 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. Ten yards $ 42. 2. invested at 5 %. twice as large. the area would remain the same. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Six persons bought an automobile. of coffee for $ 1. were increased by 3 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. sions of the field. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Find the share of each. After how many hours will B overtake A.
and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and from the same point. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if it does contain some indicated root of . 76 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 104. it is composite. this letter. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a2 to 6. if. which multiplied together are considered factors. stage of the work. + 62 is integral with respect to a. but fractional with respect 103. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. at this 6 2 . vV . we shall not. consider 105. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. as. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 5. irrational. a. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. An after simplifying. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 6. it contains no indicated root of this letter .
.62 + &)(a 2 . it follows that a 2 . 1. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2.g. 8) (s1).3 sy + 4 y8). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). or that a = 6) (a = a .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. Ex. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 77 Factoring is into its factors. TYPE I.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . factors of 12 &V is are 3.3 6a + 1). y.FACTORING 106. . x. 110.) Ex. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. E. 01. ?/.62 can be &). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 109. 107.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . in the form 4) +3. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 55. Factor G ofy 2 . for this result is a sum. 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Divide 6 a% . 2. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . It (a.
18. . 2. 3 2 . 20. 8.5 + 2. 2 Or. a a 'Ja .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 4 8 .3. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 2 23. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 12. 15.4. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 4 tfy f. 16.5 + 13 8. TYPE IT. 3. : 6 abx . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 13.3.5 x*y 2 17 a? . . in general. 2 6. obviously.8 c a 15 ofyV . q*q*q 2 a. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 14a 4 5. 17.30 aty.51 x4 2 6 xy s .6. 15 2 7. 11. 32 a *?/ . 4.g. 34 a^c 8 . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3x*6x*.51 aW + 68 21. + llm llm.4.2. 7i 13.12 cdx.45 afy . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 5f 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 19. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). ) 22  2. Ilro8 9. 2 + q. 14. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 2 . 7a & 10. 3 3 5 6. (as 3) and (ccf5). e. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. a6c.
a).4 x . 3. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. . however. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. or 7 11. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. as p. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. . Factor a2 . 5. but of these only a: Hence 2 . a 2 . If q is negative. or 77 l. of this type.11 a + 30.. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.11 a 2 . If q is positive. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.5) (a . determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 . We may consider 1. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.1 1 a tf a 4. 4. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Ex.6 = 20.77 = (a. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. . Factor + 10 ax .G) = .FACTORING Ex. and (a . tfa2  3.11) (a + 7). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. the two numbers have opposite signs.5) (a 6). + 112. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 79 Factor a2 4 x .11. 77 as the product of 1 77. Factor x? .30 = (a . Therefore Check. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. m 5m + 6. + 30 = 20. 2. 2 6. Ex. 11 7. can be factored.
2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 29. + 2xS. x2 23. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 31. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. and 5 x. 11. 9. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 26. a? + 5 + 6 a. 4 3 2 . 25. or . 36. 100 xr .500 x + 600. 30. 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 4 2 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 14. 17. + 4?/21. 21 a 2 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 21. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 24. 32. 13.70 x y . 33.6. 12. 35.17 + 30. a 7 a 30. + 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 15. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. + 5<y 24. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 16. 2 2 a' 34. 2 ?/ 28. 8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. . 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 2 . + 44. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 19. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 16.80 7. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. ITT. TYPE 113. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.180 a. a2 . 2 ?/ 22. 27. 2 . ay 11 ay +24. 20.48 + + 446 200.
but the opposite sign.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the If p and r are positive. and that they must be negative. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. sible 13 x negative. Factor 3 x 2 . viz. a. then the second terms of have opposite signs. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. If p is poxiliw. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .1). exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. or G 114.5 .5) (2 x . the signs of the second terms are minus. 2 x 27. 18 x 3. 27 x 2.83 x f 54. . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 2. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 9 x 6. 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 11 x 2x. 6 x 9. X x 18. 3 x and x. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 54 x 1. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. Ex. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. and r is negative. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.
2 . 29. 8. and the monomial factors should be removed. 90 a 8 2 . + 4. Sar' + SaG. 17. 18. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 3.260 xy .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 34. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.179. 2m t7w + 3.163 x 2 . x54 a. 100^200^ + 100^. since all others (II. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 14. 20. 35. the expressions should be it. 11. 16. 7. .2) (x . 9 y + 32^16. : 41 2. 10. 32. 144 x . 9a. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 4.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 28. 2 fc . f go. 6n + 5?i4. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 3a + 13a. 22. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 10a?2 2 33. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 5m 26m f 5. 2. 24. 30.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 . 12^17^16. + 2/3. 9. 15.2 a 90 x*y . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 ar* 2 i/ . . X 27 .y + 172/9.19 a f 6. 2 26.30 y 6 4 . 3x*Sx + 4. 5. 25. 2x* + 9x5. 21. 12y 2/6.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . . 10a2 G a2 2 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.83 x = (3 . 6. 12. 2 2 2 23.7. 19. 2 2 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 10 a . 2 31. 13.27). 14 a fa 4.83 x .
it is a perfect square. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. square. 12. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 116. and a perfect square. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 4. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 8. and factor whenever possible : 1. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 9. form are special cases of the preceding type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 11.20 xy f 4 y\ . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. . 25 7. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . of its terms are perfect squares.10 x f 16. 2 . must have a positive sign. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.e. 2. 2 2 . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 9 10a625. however. i. 13. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. it is more convenient for that type.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 5. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 3. . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 6. x* . 14. 2 9 10gf25. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 10.
16. u2 6& + 2 ( ). According to 65.60 a# + 4. 4a2 l. 3. 25. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. !Gar 9 ( )+25. * 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 22. 2 . 7. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.2 ofy + ofy m .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. + GO + 25. 3. 6 2 . ). 9.64 6 = 16(a .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. . 225 ofy . 2 . 2. 149 a 81 8. 2. 48 a +( ). 36 2 4. 1. 9a2 . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 19. TYPE 117. +( )f816 30.6 m* + 9 m. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 27. 26. prime. 18. : 43 tfy\ a 9. a. a2 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ^//c to the Ex. V. 4 2 23. ). 2 20. a. ). 16&*. 10 a 2 4 2 . aV . 5.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29.84 15. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.3 * ). 17.e. 6. product i.20 ab + 10 b a . . Ex.
25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .FACTORING 85 118. T. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 8. One or both terms are squares 1. of polynomials. a2 . 14.(c 4. 36> . 6. 2 . Ex.(I) . 9. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (m7?) y. 2 . 2.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 16p 2 . 13.c . Ex. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 11.d) 2 . 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . a:) 12. Factor a 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 5. 4. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .
and trinomials.14. = (3 x + y . ive find that the new terms con common factor. .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 5) .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. a? 11. 6. x8 .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 4:cx . a 26 2 2 3 . which may be factored according to types I.ab + bx. After grouping tain a the terms. Ex. Ex. 9. 1.2 ) (3 x . 7. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.y + 2 2). . A. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 119. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a5 + ab 6 .r. By grouping. 4 B.VI. ma ?*a + m& nb.a a . 10. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.7 c + 2c . 2. 8. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.1. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 2. 12. + x + 2x + 2. 5. 3.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.
62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 36 9 m . 3. : 46 x* 2. II. 4.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.FACTORING Ex.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8. 8. 3.4 f . 2. 2 7. w m 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 4.l. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2a3/ 7. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : m 2 2 16. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.12 aaj 4 6y.9 a2 4 v* 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 6 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 6. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . Arranging the terms. 2. + 2xy + y*q*. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8ra 2 + 16. = (a + 6)(a6). l~a 2a56 2 2 . . 4 a2 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . IV. 5. $ a8 . .
42 x . (a. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 13 c . 42 s 2 .310 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 11. 14. a6 36. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.13 c . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 30. 29. 2 ft . 3 25. 28. (^ 34. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 4 8 tt 2 z . 50^ + 45. 24. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.40. . 27. 3 2 . 32.156. 3 41. + 6 aft + 3 . or 3 7#2 . 18. 2 17. 19. a. 5a' 20. 40. 13. 12. 2 a 128. a + a + a + l. 22. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. + 14. 25 a + 25 aft . 4 a. 2 3#4 3a2 36.24. 80 a 2 ft 38. 5 a. 3 a2 23. a3 156. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .88 10.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 48. 35.
6. 2. EXERCISE Find the H. of the algebraic expressions. F. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. Thus the H. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. II 2 . 122. F. F. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 5.  23 3 . 2 2 . are prime can be found by inspection. 15 aW. C. C. C. The highest is common factor (IT. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. . C.) of two or more . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. Two common factor except unity The H. 3. F. aW. 8 . 25 W. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 12 tfifz. F. 121. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 5 7 34 2s . 13 aty 39 afyV. The student should note H. of : 48 4. The H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 89 . C. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. 5 2 3 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. of 6 sfyz. of aW. 5 s 7 2 5. 24 s . F. 3 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 54  32 . The H. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C.
16. x* x2 Hence the H. of: . . 11.6 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a.y)\ O+ 0^(0. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.90 7. 2 . a. a2 ar* 4. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. . 7. a3 16 a. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. C. F. 4(m+l) 3 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 .5 x3?/ 2 6. C. 6 mx . 12. 49 C. 5.8 a + 16. 2 . 12 w*nw 8. 10. 52 oryz4. ^a + 5^ + 6. 3 .12 as 66 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . Ex. . 2. 6 3 a. 3). F. of polynomials. a3 9a. C.5 y). 9. 2a f5af 2. 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 4 ?io. . 12 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 6(m+l) (m+2). 65 zfyV. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . ^2 2 . 3. 15 3ao. ^707 + 12. 38 #y. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . and apply the method of the preceding article. a2 .y) . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 24 a 2 . 1. 225 4a 9 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .# 4 afy f 4 . 8 a 10 . a2 + 7af!2. 8. (a7 ?/) . of + 4 if. 1. y + 3y64. F. 12.?/ . a 3a4. To find the H.^9. = x 2 y. 25 m27i. 6 a2 y? . 15. 10. 8(?/ifl) 14. 8.5 + 6. 3^ 2 4 . ^f a. 9. 13. 95 2/V. . 0^80:416. 57 a>V. .2 y) (a. aWd. 2 . a2 + 2a3. 14.6 a&. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . F. 16 a . 9 aj*(a? . 13.y + y42.2 ?/) (x .y) 123.6. Find the H. 8 6. 11.
C. =4 a2 62 (a2 .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. etc. To find the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . M. M. Find the L. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. C. . C. Ex. M. M. 127. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. 2 The The L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 2. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 128. of the general. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 126. L. C. M. M. NOTE. &) 2 M. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . Ex. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . . of tfy and xy*. of 3 aW. A common remainder.M. M. M of the algebraic expressions. ory is the L. M. but opposite .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 60 x^y' 2 . L. C. 300 z 2 y. Common 125.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. two lowest common multiples. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.6 3 ).C. The lowest common multiple (L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. a^c8 3 . Find the L. C. C.C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. thus.6)2. The L. which also signs. Hence the L. 1.
xy\ .f 6. a. 21. 4 a .1. (a 4)(a2) 12. . a& 4 +& 2 . ic 2 ?/. 18. (For additional examples see page 268. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 8 afy. 24 x. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. or f 3 a 15 #. 16. 7. a f 3. a. 2 10. a 2 a3 . 20. 3. 24. 3 Z> . G a. 2 a . 17. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 30 a. 6 a. 2 . 4 a f 2. a. 14. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 3 .1.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 3 6 xif. a 1. x 2 5 a. a^1. ic 23. 3. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. x2 + 4 a f 4. 15. M. 6b 2 . 9. 6. T a 3 a 2 . + 2. . 5. 13. a f 2 19. 3 ab. Find the L. + 6. a?b. 8 d 5 . afy. 2 x \2 y. 2(m 2 . a2 4. a 2 f 4 a +4. f b. a2 ~ab 1. 3(a + b). #. y*. 40 abJ. 8. + 2 7i) . 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. x* ~5a. a !. 22. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2 a. of: 4. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 4 a 5 6cd. 3 f2. by. 2 a . 5 a? 5 a? y. a { a~b. 20 9 a. ) . afc'cd 2 . 2 7ic+10. 2. 2 . 6 y. a 2 fa6. 1. b 2 . 11.
common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Ex. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . a b = ma mb . A f fraction is b. C. rni Thus 132. Thus. 131. a?. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. etc. 130. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. but we In arithmetic.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers.ry ^ by their H. and denominators are considered. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. F. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . however. as 8. Remove tor.
and cancel all factors that are common to both.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. 2. Ex. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.4) Ex. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. cancel factors only.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. .
* OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^" a. 5^10 y 30. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . .7 . ' ^ . 23. 11 ^ Mtr f .*. LJZJ^JL. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 9x + "a" 10. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 19.. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. g J 21. .' 32. nx 17. . """. ny 4 18. 16. 29. ^+3*.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 .10 a + 3 2 14. ^' rt ^  31. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.
Reduce ^. multiplying the terms of 22 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.C. TheL. Divide the L.96 134. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.M. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L. . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.D.3) (!)' = . we have the quotients (x 1). . 1.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 2> . mon T denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. we have M^. and 135. and (a 8). we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.  of //* 2 . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. M. + 3).~16 (a + 3) (x. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . =(z (x + 3)(z. 1). of the denominators for the common denominator. we may extend this method to integral expressions. .1^22 ' .  by 4 6' . Ex. C. and the terms of ***.M.C. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . take the L. C. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.
j y 3. 3.. 18. common denominator 6.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . 7i 2 ab* ". 2 ay IB. a? 1 5 > ^* . 137. . . 22 a2 5a * .oj o* or / . o o a. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 5?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 74).. 2aj ~ . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 8 i i. JL.^1. i. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. If the given fractions have different denominators.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2.
(a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a ..2 ' 2 _. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 2 ^. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . L.g. in the beginning. and adding. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should..3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 .ft)(a . D.7 . (a ft).3 ft 2). the student should remember that parentheses are .3 ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . T? Ex.2 = a(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. e. The L.ft) (a ft ft)~.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) .(a 2 6). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 2. ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). C. D. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 4(2 a 3 ft). as 4 aft f.aft) Ca2 .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.
5 18 ^4f25. + . + a "" 2 6 ' . 15. 24. A+2_3. a+6 a 6 2 14. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. a 36 ++. 18 v 19.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 2. j>0 i> 21. 1 1 f w 16. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 46 2a 4a 12. 6 c 3a 7. 20. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 23.
x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a 4 31. 41. a ?^ 40. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 42. 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 2 af1 32. ic 1 + 1. 3a 9 +. af 1f /j. 43.9 79 6 2 i. a. a 30. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ! n. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .9.
'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 101 mixed expression.FRACTIONS 139.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. Reduce . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. T.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . .  . . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .7 5a v Ex. 1.  4 or 3 2a.
integer.) Ex. fractions to integral numbers. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. multiply the 142.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors. or. !. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex.g. Since  = a. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.
. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5# 56 / c& 4. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 4 8. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. aj 5 1 a? 18. 14. 2 f 5 a.. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 50 .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 ..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.6 12 d6 4.
8 multiply the Ex. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. : a 41 ab * See page 272. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 1. 144. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 s + 064. a a2 4.afr 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.^c 2 2 .FRACTIONS 105 . or both. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. ga2 4 8 5 a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.5 ??i 80 50 . Ex.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.10 ?/ _. are fractional.
16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . 10.a ^c c _^ a . the answer is directly obtained. & . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.y 32 . 7i+~ 7. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). JL. y X 4* 2 y 3. Ex. 6. x* 4. 9. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. of their denominators. C. c +6. Simplify x }. a m "" . 2.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . n a 8. . M. i. .
: . 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 i 1 2 5 . m^n* n L a 17. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) .~l (For additional examples see page 273. sy 18. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.
1. If x 6. of the denominator. 1. C.f3# + C:E=6f7212.48. x = 6. . 9x x Check. tions. Uniting. 2. each member is reduced to 1. Clearing of fractions.8 x = . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).28 x + 42 = . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. M. 148. 2x Transposing.42 + 9. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. these Ex.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Bx 12 Qx. 2z2a. = 6. Transposing. = 6. 4 4)  x. 2 3. 5(3 85 Check. If = 64.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. a. + 1) (a + 3) .28 a = 5 x2 . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 108 .9 x2 + 9. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). each member is reduced to Ex. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Uniting.l)(z + 3) = .14 (a.
. +4 14. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +1 = 5. ^' 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 15. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a/  5 a/ = 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1 *> = 2. 18. .1 _77 a. a. '  4 13. a: 7 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .= 2.
. 2^12 = 2 = 34.  38 = 40._ _ . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and" the remaining one a polynomial. If two or more denominators are monomials.11_4 x 149. 27 . y+3~2 29. 3x 35. 25. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . ?_=_. 4a4l4* + l~. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. . . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. J_. 26 26.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 32 6 . 31 31. 33. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. .
r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 24 a. M. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.  5 = 20 x 45. 1. = 9.. 60.1. a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. If a. 5# 10. C. Transposing and uniting.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 26 a. each member is reduced to ^.29 50712' 9 18 .2 3 ~  == 7a.2 42 9 43. . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. the 1 5 L. Check. Dividing. 5x x : = 9. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .
Ex. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. ax f x f. fr Reducing lowest terms.2 ac + 3 aft . Uniting the Dividing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. .2 62 2 ab. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. It frequently occurs that the x. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = l^ 9 b 4 .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. jr. y. f ~ 5c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. they are united by factoring. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Thus. a. Uniting. If 3ac L= = a ? . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 4 ac 1.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Dividing.be. Ex. 5> a. 2. =a 2 151. = = 6 6c 7 6c.& . find a in terms of b and c.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 .3 6 2 = a' .1. = 2 f b 2 .
Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 13. = 5. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. 15. m a? x . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. mx = n. s = Vt solve for v. = 3 (6 a). _ 2. 11. iw 21. 12. . 10. = rt. . If s If 16. 5) is t =^. If * 33. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . = 8 4 #. Ex.i l . . c. 31. and n the number of years.= H. 1 f. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. + 3a. 14. solve for . c 18.a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If s (wi n) x =px + q. f P =+!. * Solve the same equation for^). 3. 9. a. p the principal. 4. solve for a. 17. 34. 6. in terms of other quantities. 30. = vt. 2 solve for y a. 29. 4. The The i time. r the number of $>. f ^o. q solve for/. t. denoting the interest.= n. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. + xx = 1. If ^^ = a 1 32. 3(* 8. co?. rate.= c a Z> .
of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. x Or Uniting. then = 2 TT#. Ex. is 36. 2 3 . and 12 = the number over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 1. . = 16^. .180. Find R in terms of C and TT. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 100 C. 12.. Ex. 2. Multiplying by Dividing.20 C.114 35. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.. A would do each day ^ and B j. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.
what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. Clearing. Ex." gives the equation /I). But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 32 x = . = 100 + 4 x. or 1J. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. the rate of the express train. Solving. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. 4x = 80. = the x part of the work both do one day. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. and the statement.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. in Then Therefore. 180 Transposing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.
to his son. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and 9 feet above water. of his present age. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. and of the father's age. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6.  Find their present ages. by 6. which was $4000. and one half the greater Find the numbers. ex What 5. make 21. is oO. to his daughand the remainder. is equal 7. ceeds the smaller by 4. money and $10. and J of the greater Find the numbers. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 3. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. length in the ground. How did the much money man leave ? 11. a man had How much money had he at first? . fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. 3.
ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. Ex.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. what is the 14. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A has invested capital at more 4%. How much money $500? 4%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 1. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. . In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and it B in 6 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. investments. 2. and B in 4 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 3. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.) 22. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. air. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. after rate of the latter ? 15. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ^ at 5%. 152.
A in 6. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Then ft i. e. To and find the numerical answer. is 42. is 57.009 918. 26. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. and apply the method of 170. n x Solving. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. therefore. A in 6. they can both do in 2 days. we obtain the equation m m . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. .118 153. 3. B in 12.g. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. . 2.414.= . 25. Hence. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. The problem to be solved. m and n. B in 5. A in 4. . if B in 3 days. B in 16. B in 30. and n = 3.
squares 29. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.001. and the second 5 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. squares 30. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. : (c) 64 miles. the rate of the first. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. is ?n . 2 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. 34.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 3 miles per hour. (d) 1. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. . (c) 16. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (b) 149. Find the side of the square. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. same hour from two towns. if m and n are. meet. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 33. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 2 miles per hour. the second at the apart. After how many hours do they meet. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. The one: 31. 4J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32.721. and the rate of the second are. respectively (a) 60 miles. is (a) 51. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 5 miles per hour.000. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. respectively. (b) 35 miles.
In the ratio a : ft.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. E.5. antecedent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. 6 12 = . Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the antecedent. the second term the consequent. The first 156. a ratio is not changed etc. etc. : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the denominator The the 157. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. Ex. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b is the consequent. .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. " a Thus. b. b." we may write a : b = 6.g. 1.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. 158. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the symbol being a sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent.
The last first three. extremes. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and c. 9. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3:1}. 4:5f : 5.RATIO Ex. a and d are the extremes. 3. 5 f hours : 2. b is the mean b. 10. 27 06: 18 a6. terms. 16. 17. : 1. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : ay . In the proportion a b : = b : c. 11. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. proportional between a and c. 3:4. 159. Simplify the following ratios 7. 1. 62:16. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b and c the means. b. two  ratios. equal 2. 61 : ratios 72:18. 7f:6J. $24: $8. 4. J:l. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 8^ hours. 7:4 T T 4 . 6. and c is the third proportional to a and . 12. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 3 8. 16a2 :24a&. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 18. Transform the following unity 15.
!. In any proportion product of the extremes.__(163. 163. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. Hence the number of men required to do some work. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.30 grams. of iron weigh . : : directly proportional may say. ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 2 165.122 162. of iron weigh 45 grams. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.) b = Vac. of a proportion. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 6 ccm. i. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. then G ccm.) mn = pq.e. 3 4. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 164. briefly. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. : c. The mean proportional of their product. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. are : : : inversely proportional. and the other pair the extremes. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. q~~ n . " we " NOTE. pro portional. and the time necessary to do it. ad = be. 163. Clearing of fractions.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.
is Ex.) d 167. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. = 35 . is 4$ = 35. 1. then =d c. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. + b:b = c + d:d. (Division.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (Frequently called Inversion. 166.) (Called Alternation. d d. hence the proportion true. ad ( 163. I. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 12x Hence a? = 42. . ad = be. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. I. (Composition. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Or IV. a:c=b:d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. if 6 : 7.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a III. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. (163.) = f f = 3 J. 2.) II.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. V.PATIO Ex. bd bd.
and determine whether they are true or not : 6. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. E. 5. V. 2.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. Simplify the following proportions. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 8. Apply composition. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.g. 120:42 2 2 7. the consequents by 7. 5 5. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. = 2:3. = 12 5ft. : x. = 2:x. mx tin Apply composition and division. Or III. 4. 10. 3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. . 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 7:2f 3J.124 IT.e. = 180:125. i. 6 =4 : x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. IV. = 20:7. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. . 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.!=!*. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. x = 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 9. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.
ra 2 . ratio of y. = l^:18. Find the 37. 47. 21. 6. b. 42. . 12. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 51. 29.:ff.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 1. 7iy = 2:x. f. 52. 6x = 7y. = 15o. to: = 35:*. 31. 16. 16 and 28. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. w. 33. 4 and 16. 39. 44. 2. 46. 2. rap. 41. 14. 50.8:1.j>. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 34.. = 5 x 12. 2 3 = y #. 25. Find the third proportional 24. 3t.  32. = 2 + x: x. 14 and 21. terra 2:3 = 4. 20. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 23.x: 6:5 a : x. ra. x:5 = y:2. 1 and a. 22. 5= 18 a? : a?. a?:15 15. 4. mx = ny. to : 9 and 12. 13. 9 x = 2 y. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 2= 5 x x. 18. 26. a 2 and ab. ra + landra 1. and 2/. 6 x = y. 5. rag. 3. 17. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. : a2 . : . Find the mean proportional 30. 112:42 = 10:a. (a : : 45. 03:a?=135:20. x m = y n. 2 a and 18 a. 35. 28. if : 40. = 3 43 + x. a. 27. 38. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. : 53. to : a and 1. 43. + fyx = cy.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 3.
and the time. and the time necessary for it. and the : total cost. the area of the larger? the same. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the rectangle. 56. what 58. A line 7^. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .126 54. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. 57. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the squares of their radii (e) 55. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the speed of the train. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles.
000 168. so that Find^K7and BO. 2 x Or = 4. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. x = 6.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 2. 4 inches long. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. Let A B AC=1x. x=2. . it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. = the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. as 11 Let then : 1. AB = 2 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. is A line AB. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. : Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. produced to a point C. 18 x = 108.
Gunmetal tin.000 square miles. 9. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 13. 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 12. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 2. How many 7.) . Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many gen. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12.000. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 3. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. How The long are the parts ? 15. : 197. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 11. What are the parts ? 5. 6. and c inches. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. and 15 inches. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 14. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : 4. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.
CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. However. is x = 7. if . expressing a y. 2 y = . The root of (4) if K 129 . there is only one solution. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.e. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.y=. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. x = 1. values of x and y..L x If If = 0. =. a? (1) then I. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. etc. such as + = 10. y = 1.
6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 174.X. 172. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. same relation. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. cannot be reduced to the same form. y I 171. unknown quantity. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.3 y = 80. 21 y . of elimination most frequently used II. By By Addition or Subtraction. = . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. y = 2. the last set inconsistent. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . viz. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.130 170. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.24. are simultaneous equations. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. and 3 x + 3 y =.26. to The two methods I. for they express the x f y 10. Therefore. The first set of equations is also called consistent. ~ 50. 26 y = 60. 3. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 6x . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). E. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Substitution. 4y .
whose coefficients In general. y = 2. 25 x . = 235.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 37.2 = 6. x = 10. 10 . Therefore Check. Transposing. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 1. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 5 13 . are like. = 406. 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. subtract the equations. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 1 = 47. + 2. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.14 =8. 3. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 64 x = 040. Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 8 2. 3y = 3. x = 10. add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .3 y = 47.
f2/ ' = 50.3. I ~ y~~> 22. + 2/ 17. x 11. = 41. 7 ' 1fi fl . I . I oj 5y = 17.4. . 13. J I y = 1U.3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. * + 3 y = 50. = 24.9 *. ] ^ .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. i 3. f 3X 7x 14. O t K 8. 13 61 l7a. 9 1 r 20. 19< I a.v 23.5 y = 2. I i 3 a. [2o. v ^ = ll. f 3# ?/ = 0. _. ' 12. = 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.
This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 2y + 10. = 2. = 60. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 3. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. x ) ^"" 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 13. = 4#8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. and solve the resulting equation.
the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. + 212y4 = 14. (4). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. x = l. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. \ \6(a. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (7) (7) (8) . Substituting in (6) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 21z6y=9. 2 y = . however.6)7(y7)==18. 3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 29 x = 29. simplified before elimination is possible. 4* + 3y = 19. 3 (1) Ex. From 9 = 36. .
12. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10. 4 11. a.1) = 121. = 3. 10 2a?5 17.f2 2. . +y 2 . 16. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . . J 9. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. yM a.
but some expressions involving x. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 3x\" 1 23 24. e. f y . ?~y .#. <X + 20. * ((* (( . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. and y. 180. . {. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.and x y .Q ^ 4 21.
. however. Therefore y=4. Clearing of fractions. (4) + (G). etc. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 4. 2* * x 2. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. x 3. Dividing by 11 3 = #.4 x = 4 xy. y 1. can also be solved Examples method. y. . x 2x(2). 33 = 11 x.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. of this type. (2) (3) a. 15 y + 8 x .3 xy. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1).
= en. x y 5. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).= o 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 253 7. 21 9 . x y 331 9. 6w3 + bny = 6p. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. . x 8. 4 13. Ex.= 5. 6. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 1. n.
Dividing. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ax + by = 2 a&. x f my = 1. bmy bm}y ap cm. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. w. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. . f 5. and I if 13.y = = 9a + 46. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . apan cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. x 12. . s in 11. ny = fy/ I sc 1.W. x a. d. 6. fax f = l. W . d. ap. 14. Uniting.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. a Find a and terms of n. and I.
(1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.2 + 3. f 3y 12 =s 8. To solve equations containing By tions.1+4. (4) (5).lf> z . (8) 2.3=4. x + 12 y .2 + 4. etc. ties are Similarly. Ex. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.12 y + 6 z = . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.25. 1. 182. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).by 2. = 30. .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.15z=12 Adding. 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. = 3.16. l. 1.13. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.8 = 1. 3y = Hence Check.3 = 8. 4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 8 x . by 3. 6. 20. y =* 2.
2 . 10. 2z = 40. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2 4. == 6. + y f z = 15. f 2 i/ f z = 14. ~6?/ 5. 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. + 2 y f 2 = 35.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 15 2 = 45. 8. 49. 7. a? 11. 4 = 42. 12. x 13. a? + 709 = 26.
(3 _.6 2. 84 21.3 y + . 23.2 a. 4. 22. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 60. . ?/ 3x = 0. 16.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 5. ? = llz. . =s 20. 1510 4 17. = 8*.. ^ = 2. 27. 32. 19.42 = 2. .
+ 396 = 521. however. 1 = 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. Obviously of the other . Find the number. # 4. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and to express In complex examples. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. the number. 2 = 1(1+6). the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = l. y 31. M=i. . +2+ 6 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. = 2 m. z + x = 2 n.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1 digit in the tens place. x : z =1 : 2. Ex. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and if 396 be added to the number.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Check. 2 = 6. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. either directly or implied. ( 99. y * z 30. 1. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. + z = 2p. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. . The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.
(3) C4) = 24 miles. . Since the three men traveled the same distance. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. increased by one. y = 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. By expressing the two statements in symbols. C. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. Or (4)2x(3). 5_ _4_ A.144 Ex. Find the fraction. = the fraction. 6 x 4 = 24. = 8. 2. 3+1 5+1 4_2. From (3) Hence xy Check. direction. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3x4y = 12. (1) (2) 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. xy a: 2y 4y 2. = Hence the fraction is f. Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. x 3 = 24. we obtain. 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 4 x = 24. 3. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the distance traveled by A. B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.
2. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. tion ? 8. Find the number. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the value of the fraction is fa.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.) added to a number of two digits. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the number (See Ex. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. number by the first 3. If the denominator be doubled. 5. both terms. part of their difference equals 4. ? What 9. Find the numbers. . the fraction is reduced fraction.}. fraction is reduced to \. Find the number. and the fourth 3. the digits will be interchanged. to the number the digits will be interchanged. If 9 be added to the number. it is reduced to J. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and the numerator increased by 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 183. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the fraction. 6. Find the numbers. 7. its value added to the denominator. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. and its denomi nator diminished by one. added to the numerator of a fraction. the Find the fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the fraction equals . If 27 is 10. A fraction is reduced to J.
Find the rates of interest. now. 13. How 6 %. the rate of interest? 18. 5 %. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.grams. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find their present ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. A man invested $750. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 19. 14. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the annual interest would be $ 195. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and money and 17. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. respectively ? 16. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. partly at 5 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. in 8 years to $8500. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 12. . and 4 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and partly at 4 %.000 is partly invested at 6%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. A sum of $10. and in 5 years to $1125. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence .
In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. is the center of the circum scribed circle. the three sides of a triangle E. points. B find angles a. An C touch ing the sides in D. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. respectively. 24. are taken so ABC. E. 23. andCL4 = 8. cows. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and CE If AB = G inches. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. Find their rates of walking. c. . for $ 740. and F.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and F. A farmer sold a number of horses. $ 50 for each cow. and angle BCA = 70. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. . what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. angle c = angle d. and F '(see diagram). then AD = AF. and their difference by GO . BC = 7 inches. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. BD = HE. 25. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and AC = 5 inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and $15 for each sheep. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. triangle Tf AD. and angle e angle/. 1 NOTE. ED = BE. and e. BC=7. and sheep. what is that = OF. receiving $ 100 for each horse. the length of NOTE. but if A would double his pace. and GE = CF. On /). three AD = AF. BE.
(7. the ordinate by ?/. and PN _L YY'. Thus the points A.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (3. YY' theyaxis. 186. . hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. (2. ?/. is The point whose abscissa is a. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). or its equal OM. (2. PN are given. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . 2). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. first 3). jr. It' Location of a point. and point the origin. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). PM. The of Coordinates. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PJ/_L XX'. is the abscissa. 3). Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. the ordinate of point P. PN. and r or its equal OA is . B..
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 12. (4. 8. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. . 2.3). (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 4) from the origin ? 7. which of its coordinates known ? 13. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. Plot the points (6. Graphs. 0). (2. i. whose coordinates are given NOTE. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.1). 3). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 6.) EXERCISE 1. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (4. (4.e. 4) and (4. !). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 3).4). (See diagram on page 151. (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 0). 6. What is the locus of (a?. 0). 4).(!. Plot the points: (4. (5. and measure their distance. 4). 2). 0). 4.and(l. (4. 1). 3). .2). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (1. (4. Plot the points : (0. 2J). 1). 71 2). (3. 3. 11. (0. Plot the points: (4.
15..150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. B. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. from January 1 to December 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. Thus the first table produces 12 points. A. C. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. D. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . By representing of points. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 10 . in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. may be found on Jan. however. 188. or the curved line the temperature. 1. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we meas1 . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ure the ordinate of F.
the graph is applied. physician. the matics. etc. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer. (b) July 15. uses them. (d) November 20. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (c) January 15. the rise and fall of wages. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. Whenever a clear. the merchant. .
. ? 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.152 2. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . is 10. 1 to Oct..? is is the average temperature of New York 6. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. How much. 15. (freezing point) ? 7. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. (d) 9 0. ?  3. (1) 10 C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. During what months above 18 C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When the average temperature below C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. on 1 to the average. 1? 11 0.
19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.09 yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 20. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
e. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. etc. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. A 10 wheels a day. the daily average expenses for rent.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. amount to $8.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. then C irJl. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. the value of a of this quantity will change. 29. 28. to 27. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. x 7 to 9. 2. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 3. x* x 19.) T circumferences of 25. gas. function If the value of a quantity changes. 1 to 1200 copies. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 .50. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 4.g. 26. x increases will change gradually from 13. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . etc. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. books from for printing. . 9. if each copy sells for $1.50. 190.5 grams. binding. if he sells 0.154 24. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 3.inch. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. and $. represent his daily gain (or loss).
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 2). Draw the graph of x2 f. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 2. may .2 x may 4 from x = 4. 1 the points (3. Graph of a function. it is In the example of the preceding article. etc.e. (2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. (1^. 4). 3 50. is supposed to change. .1). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Q. however. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 9). If a more exact diagram is required.1). as 1. may. Ex. 4). while 7 is a constant. J). and (3. to x = 4. 3 (0. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. be also represented by a graph. ( 2. E. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 2 (1.g. for x=l. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. The values of func192. and join the points in order. (1. construct '.0). x a variable. 9). a*. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.
4).20). 2 4 and if y = x f. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. y = 6. Thus 4x + 7. = 0. 194.. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Thus in the above example. 4J. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. as y. . (4. etc. (2. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 7 . r */ +* 01 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. rf 71 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.2 x . 5).) For brevity. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. (3. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. j/=3. 2.. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs... straight line produces the required graph. 1). and join(0. 4). = 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. Ex.
xl. = The values of a*. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. y = 2x = 4. a ar. 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 1J. a? 2 4. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 1J.5)2. .5)2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. + 4. 23x. 2 a. a? 1. 14. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. i. (C ) (2.8)'. Jar . 3 a 8. from x VlO'S". the function. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. l. fa 17. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 16. a?. = 4. ?/ a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 4 a. x+1. (If) Va25. 2x + 3x a?. 2J.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 9. (ft) (_ 1.or. 2J. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 1 8 10. The values of a*. 1. if y = 2. 19. 5. 22. 3. 15. 21. 2 a. 2. if a. if the function equals zero. if"a. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 2 or 2 20. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 11. 12. 7. a. The smallest value of the function. The values of a?. 8. 6. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 2 2.e. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2 2 a. . (7i) (c) 23. 6 fa. J. 1J. 18. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 4a? I. xz + x. a* 13.
. Show any convenient number). 14 F. . 9 F... what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).24 or x = P and Q. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. 25.e. the abscissas of 3. then y = .158 24. i.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. that graph with the o>axis. Therefore x = 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12..24. Represent 26. y= formula graphically.. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. 32 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.where x c is a constant. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 1 C. C. then cXj where c is a constant.
a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. is called a quadratic equation. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. + + = where a. 8. (a) (6) 9. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.f 9 = 0. 3. 0. 2 and 1. (a) x2 = 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 10. 6. viz. crosssection paper is used. 7. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. or 5 2. 4. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 197. Such equations in general have two roots.7 2 a 5 = 0. = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 12. a2 2a. 13. 11. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.
and join the required graph. Hence. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. solve for ?/.1. unknown quantities. produces the 7* required locus. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. i.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. y = l. 2).2 y ~ 2. 0). Ex. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . X'2 Locating the points (2. ?/. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 4) and (2. 199. . if y = is 0. and joining by a straight line. If x = 0.2. y y 2. 1) and 0). Hence if if x x  2. ?/ =4 AB. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. NOTE. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. T . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. first degree. 3x _ 4 . == 2. (f . Ex. fc = 3.e. y= A and construct x (  graphically. locate points (0. = 0. because their graphs are straight lines. Hence we may join (0.
The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). linear equations have only one pair of roots. viz.57. AB y = . To find the roots of the system. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. (2) . we obtain the roots. parallel have only one point of intersection. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.15. and CD. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).1=0. 203. equation x= By measuring 3. 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 201. P. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Graphical solution of a linear system.
they are inconsistent. we of the + y* = 25. 4. 4. (4. and . x2 .162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. i. and + 3). 4. 5.5. the point we obtain Ex. e. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3x 2 y = 6. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. etc. 2.5..g. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 3). 1. . 2. 3. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Inconsistent equations.0. (1) (2) C.y~ Therefore. the graph of points roots.e. (4. Locating two points of equation (2). (2. 0) and (0. intersection. 2 equation x 3). In general.  4. if x equals respectively 0. y equals 3. Using the method of the preceding para. = 0. V25 5. 4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. AB the locus of (1). Measuring the coordinates of P. and joining by a straight line. Since the two  we obtain DE.0). Locating the points (5. 4. 1. 0. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 4. Solving (1) for y. 3. The equations 2 4 = 0. 4.9. 5. 0. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.
17. '163 Dependent equations. state reasons. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. the graphs of the following systems. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. \ 2x + 3^ . 16 23. y=x + 5.. a+r/=6. . y = 4. 6. 19. 16 22. 5. 10. x~y=0. 2. 8. 4. if possible. a. 2x 3?/=6. vice versa. 7. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and solve each If there are no solutions. and. y 2 4. Draw system. y= a2 2x y6. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 9. 20. 3.
14 y = .y). 28. 30. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 25. CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES. 26.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31. 29 . 4 a = 3(6 .164 24. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. on to in factors 4.faa a a a Obviously 1. 52. is may be by 207. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a = a3 . According to 1. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 8. Law of Signs. . follows that 3. etc. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. a special kind of product. 3 f a = f a = +. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . involution repeated multiplication. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ^4/? it According to 50.a2 . fa. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.
V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (a ) 2 5 . 15. (a ) 2 4  3. V V/ 13. (2ar). The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . (^^) 2 . 5. 2. \ 3 J '  MW 10. . 4. 24. 76 : (>y. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 16. the required power. raise a fraction to a power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 6. (277171 )*. 210. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. a product to a given power.6) = a .166 To find To To power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. amVy) 3 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 3 2 2 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 . 4 /2mV. 2 11 (afc ) .
7. 1. pansions. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 12. 6. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . nent of the binomial. 4. 8. . 1 f 3 2 3 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. frequently called ex. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. + 4aj) 3 . 2. 9. 16.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 13. 15. (3af26) 8 .6 2 8 ft) . The higher powers of binomials. (3 x . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . . 18. 2 . 21. 5. + a 2 a. (6m+2w) (3 8 . An 1. (5 (1 a) 3 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.y . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.INVOLUTION Ex.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. Ex. a.y) = (3 y?y . 3. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (afl) . (a + &)8 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 3 . 3 8 . +5a) 22. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .) 14. etc. or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3 (l I) 2 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 23. (aj7) . 8 (a??/) 3 . 2. 211. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . : a 20.3 y.
9. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (mJ) 4 11. 8.168 3. 24.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . Ex.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 3. 23. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2 4. (2 a 4 . (a~^) 5 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . is the coefficient of the next term. (tff1) (cfd) . (m 2 + n) 8 . 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. Ex. (la&) 4 12. 4 . (1 + 4 ?/) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. mn 5 2 5 ) . (3a f5) 5) 4. ( &) 5 . and the powers negative. 78 s . 4 (1for) 5 . The minus. (p + q) 4 * 7. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. Ex. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 3. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 2. (l 8 . 10. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 21. .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 25. 6.a) 3 19. (?/i~w) : 16. 13.216 a^ 4. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 5. .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 17.2. (m 5 I) 2 22. . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 5. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 14. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 18. (?>i?i f c)*. . . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 1. 4. . (af 5) . (m fl) 2 20. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .
tity .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. V \/P 214. numbers. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or x &4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 1. 4 4 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. etc. and all other numbers are. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. = x means = 6. a) 4 = a4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . V9 = + 3. called real numbers. (_3) = 27. which can be simplified no further. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. and ( v/o* = a. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. Since even powers can never be negative. or y ~ 3. 109 . for distinction. 215. \/"^27=3. 2.
for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 7 .4. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . To extract a root of a fraction.  100 a 2 .lL. EXERCISE 1. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 6.1.201) = 2. Ex. Ex. 4 v. 2 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 7. 9. 5. 2. v/^i2 = a*. 6 7 = 030. 6. 3/0** = am . 3i . Ex. 8.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 9. Ex. 82 . . 7 .(. V25 9 16. V?. 7. v/2^. 79 2 v/2 5 . = 19472. V5 v/2 7 2. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .9 = 136. V36 9 4. fy 5 3 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. Ex. \/2 4 9 . extract the and denominator. = V26TIT81 = 53. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 62 = V2* . Ex 5 a" . Ex. 2. = 199 + (_ 198) . 8.125. index. 3. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. roots of the numerator \/18 . 10. . .200 .64 5 4 . To extract the root of a power.
4/. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .98. 33.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 2 . Ex. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. a* 4 8 2 . 1. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 30. V8. 6. 34.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1./). V20 .) by inspection. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 2 f ( V240) 3 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 32. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . a f2 l 2 + l. 5.75. 29. V9216. 31.3.3 y2) ( vV . 45 V5184. 2. 2 .3 . Find the square root of a2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .EVOLUTION 171 28. .6 tfif + 9 y = O . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 3. ^40^4. 116.
the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a\b is the root if In most cases. 14. 10. mV14m??2)f 49.172 7. 8 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. . 2ab . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . and b (2 a f b).b 2 2 to its square.2 &c.2 ac . 2 .e. let us consider the relation of a f. however. and b.> 13. + 6 + 4a&. 12. #2 a2  16. 15. 2 2 218. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . The term a' first 2 . a f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 11. i. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.2 ab + b . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.
First trial divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. The square . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf.EVOLUTION Ex. As there is no remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. and so forth. */'' . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . . of x. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 6 a. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Second trial divisor. First complete divisor. 8 a 2 . Explanation. 10 a 4 8 a. 219. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2 2. Ex. 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . . the first term of the answer. . by division we term of the root. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 1. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 1. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. 8 /.
14. 15. 18. 10. x 6 4 4 0^4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 9.a 6 x*y 2 .V430^425^ 4m 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.16. 2 x2 3 2x. 20. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.25. 17.73 a8 .37 a ^ .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.12m 5 4. 3. 24.4 x 4. > 7.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 4 . 1 4.12 m 4. a? 2 .25 x 4 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 436^?/469a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 2 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 729 4.73a4 440^436^460^.9.20 o 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.6 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.162 a2 60 a10 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.42 a*& 4.24 or . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 36it. 6 11.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . l 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . . 12.40 a 22 . 16x6 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 8. 19.10 x2 4. 16. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 6. 5.
the first of which is 4. etc. 1.000 is 100. Ex. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.. a 2 = 6400. and the complete divisor 168.176. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.1344. Ex.000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. and the square root of the greatest square in units. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Therefore 6 = 8. and the first remainder is. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc. = 80. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. two figures. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 2. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. of a number between 100 and 10.000. The is trial divisor = 160. of 1. first . Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.EVOLUTION 220. the first of which is 8.000 is 1000. Find the square root of 524. which may contain one or two). then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Find the square root of 7744.
places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .70 6. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1 are Ex. 12. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher.GO'61. 3. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.10. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.0961 are '. in .
4 square when R = radius and 11. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 13. 37. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 5. feet. J. JT .58 square 38. 36. = 3. whose area equals 48. 32.22. 31. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 35.1410. T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. feet.53. 1. 34. 39. 30. .01. 33. 1.) 40.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.
but no higher power e. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 2 ic = a. is 12. x 2 7. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Ex. x = + 2 or x =2. or affected. = 4. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Transposing.. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 225. is A quadratic equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Extracting the square root of each member. 226. complete. or equation of the second degree. 1. . 6 y2 = 17. or incomplete. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 224.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. The 7 equation. = 7^ + 5. Dividing. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2.g. This answer Check. 2)* + 5 = 33. 178 . 6#2 = x* 24. A pure.
8. . 2 4fc 5' 18.2. ax Transposing and combining. 0^ + 1 = 1. 15^5 = 6. ' =: y? b* b . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4 ax.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 2 a. 10. (a? 9. o. 6(2)=10(ajl). 7.25. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . or Therefore. 2. 16^393 = 7. 7 = 162. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. . 5. : 83 2. Solve 179 .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 4. 3. 19 + 9 = 5500.
84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). may be considered one half of a rec square units.b 2 If s If =c . ' 4. If a 2 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. r. 2 . 24. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 29. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. find a in terms of 6 . is one of _____ b The side right angle. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . solve for d. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If 22 = ~^. A right triangle is a triangle. is 5(5. 4. : 6. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If G=m m g . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 2. 228. Find the side of each field. solve for r. 2 : 3. Find the numbers. 28.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 3. Find the side of each field. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . solve for v. 26. Find is the number. 108. then Since such a triangle tangle. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and their product : 150. EXERCISE 1. 22 a.) of their squares 5. 2 . 25. 2a f 1 23. . 27.
Find these 10. 9. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. and the other two sides are as 3 4. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. A body falling from a state of rest. 24. x* 7 x= 10. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. sides. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 4. 2m. Find the unknown sides and the area. 8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. we have of or m = . J = 12. . of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 44 square feet. (b) 100 feet? = . To find this term.2 7 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. . and the third side is 15 inches. radii are as 3 14. and the two smaller 11. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet.7 x f 10 = 0. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Find the sides. Solve Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Method of completing the square.) 13.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. add () Hence 2 . Find the radii. is and the other two sides are equal. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square.
Transposing. = . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Extracting square roots. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. or J. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Simplifying. 230. Ex. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2  . Therefore.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 a* a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Hence Therefore Check. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. = x\ = 2.x(l = .1. (*~8) a = at .2 a2 . 62 x 5 = f.. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. = 6.  \.2. or x = 2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. J. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Uniting. a. 7 5 + 10 = 0. . Transposing. Ex. adding member).e.a. = \ # = ff. a Clearing of fractions.
183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.1+2?= "*"   Vl . Extracting square root.
. article. 49. \bx\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. ao. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. x la 48. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. and c in the general answer. Solution by formula.c = 0. 231. =0. = 12.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =8 r/io?. 2x 3 4. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .
16.. 1. 20. 21. b =  + 20 == = 0. 26. 3. 2or } 5o. 19. = 64120?. 6. c = 5. c p. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 15. 9.25 x. 7. 5 x2 Transposing.4 4 5 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . TIO. 13. 2 a. Reducing to general form. 7^ + 9 x 90. a. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 2 . 6 Ex. ?i 2 . 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 17. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2. 2 a? = 44 x . 6 . : 86 + 2 = 0. V^tT)* . 2. 6. 12. 18. 2 o. 8. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. = 12 .  . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6^+5^ 56. 14. 11.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.
26. }.4) = .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Factoring. member can be Ex. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 25. Bx 1 1. x(x <2 . = 0. orz roots. and 6. 24. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. transposing terms to one member. 3x?+x = 7. 2S3x 1 2 . a=:i^^.2. all or. (5 a? !)(. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . = 0. = 0. 233. ar>8o. . = 14. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 23. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 0. 5) = 0. x2 = 1 . if either of the uct is zero. Eesolving into factors. Solution by factoring. any degree. 1. 5 = 0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.5) =0. or # 5 is zero. 27 x== 42a. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Transposing.5 Solving (1) and (2). Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. factors Now.x. Clearing for fractions.
a?10a=:24. 6. : 87 = 0. + 8=s: 7.e. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. + 9 f 20 x = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. } 2 2 (5 . E.3)(x + 3 3. Ex. + 6)=0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 3. 4.24 = 0. 12. 5 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. O roots are 2. (aj4)(a. + 10 a = 24. 2. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3. Or Hence the 234. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. ar'Sa^ 12. 7. 5. 8. 3^ = 0(1106). is 5) = 0. 2. 0^ ar> 11. The equation I. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 16. 3) Factoring. for a: .g. Therefore x =3 = 2.6)) = 0. 14. 4)(z3) = 0. 3) = 0. 13.= 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 4or + 18a f 8a. 2o3 f9a. 0(02) = 7(02). we 9 obtain x 4. 9. x2 f 2 x . a* 10a=24.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. and the equation thus formed be solved.:=0. + 100. 3 or 2 a. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.(. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. aj( 15. evidently (x Or 4)(x . a?.
'3a!J  .3) = (s + l) (3 a). uz + u 21. 22. 23. 2. 27. 50.188 17. 25. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. ara + ft + c*. a 2 =(x a)b. (a + 1) (a. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 19. 20. 18. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.
and the difference Find the numbers. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 57.0. of their reciprocals is 4.3. EXERCISE 1. 2. 6. 5.0. G. and consequently many prob 235. 8.2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 4. 2. and whose sum is is 36. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. . 0. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 52.3. Find the number. 1. 7. 3.1. 54.3. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. : 3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. The difference of . The 11. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2. feet. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. and equals 190 square inches.9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 5. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. and whose product 9. Find the numbers. Find the sides. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. 3. number by 10. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 1. Find the number. two numbers is 4. 56. 2. 58. 55. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.
and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. as the 16. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. other. ply between the same two ports. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and Find the sides of the rectangle. watch for $ 24. 19. Two vessels. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 14.190 12. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.10. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 13. sold a horse for $144. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. What did he pay for 21. 15. 17. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. . If he each horse ? . ABCD. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Find the rate of the train. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively.
so that the rectangle. 237. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. (tf. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. a point taken. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 23 inches long. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. contains B 78 square inches. of the area of the basin. Find TT r (Area of a circle . By formula. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0.) 25. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. constructed with and CB as sides. or x = \/l = 1. 1. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. how wide is the walk ? 23. ^3^ = 7. . How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Find and CB. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 24. Ex. 27. as 0. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. and working together. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. is On the prolongation of a line AC. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26.
7. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a 21or=100. >. 12. 6. = 13. T 17.192 238.2 =4. y8)=0. 4. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. 436 3. 4 a. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 6. 2 h9:=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 : 89 10a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Hence Le. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a4 5o.T 2 2 . 10. 2. 8. Ex. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a? 15 1=2*.)+72=0. 18. 9. Solving. a. 19. aV+9o 4 =0. 16. = 1. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.
b 4. it 2a follows 2 : 2.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are real. the roots are unequal. negative. . 2. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 3.bx 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .12 x + 9 = 0. Ex. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are rational.f> = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. and unequal. Relations between roots and coefficients. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 1. 241. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are irrational.2 z .2) 2 4 3 (. Hence the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. the roots are imaginary. and equal. a perfect square. 240. is 4ac not zero. Ex. ( 2a Hence 1. rational. the roots are equal. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. The discriminant =(.5) = 04. c the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. rational.
5a 26a? + 5 = 0. : a 2 . x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 9a3 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 2 7. 15. tfmx+p^Q. 2 a. 24. 6. 14. 5aj 9. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 22. + 2a15 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = 0. = 0. lla. = Q. 5oj aj + l = 0. + 12 2  . The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 18. 2 : 3.19 # 20. + 18 2 8. 2a 4z5 = 0. 17. 23. 4. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0.g. o. = 5x. 21. f 2 E. 10 x = 25 x + 1. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 12. ^12.. 2. = 0. 3a. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. x2 7 10. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 60 2 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 2a. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. their product isf.
244. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. It is. must be *The symbol smaller than. that a an = a m+n . m IV. We assume. (ab) . a m a" = a m+t1 . Then the law of involution. such as 2*.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. however. II. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. while the second of the first. hence." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . for all values 1 of m and n. = a"" < . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . and . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. > m therefore.a" = a m n mn .* III. provided w > n. no Fractional and negative exponents. ~ a m f. The first of these laws is nition of power. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. (a m ) w .
n 2 a. as. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 3*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. etc. at. a*. Assuming these two 8*. a?*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 24. (bed)*. laws. 29. 4~ . m$.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. = a. '&M A 27. (xy$. 31. e. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. . 25. fractional. ml. 0?=^. 245. or zero exponent equal x. 30.g. a\ 26. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. a . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 28. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 23. disappear.
Let a = a. = 2. 27* = 3. equal to unity.\/n. 44. however. = 49. the base is zero. 48. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. e. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a . 37. 40. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 49. ty?. Vo5 . Solve the following equations 39. \fi?. e. a * a2 Or a=l.g. = 2. 3* = 27. If. 43. 50. 246. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. : 197 33. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a. 45.g. 42. 38. a* * = 3. 35. 7z* Find the values of 47. v'mT 36. 5 a* = 10. \/xy \/m. v/o&cT 34. : 2' 4* = 4. hence is . 46. 41.
Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. vice versa. Multiplying both members by a". Let x= or". consider the following equations. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. . e. etc. cr n.198 247. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . or the exponent.2 = a2 .g. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.
2m~i 43. 2 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . 3 a? * 42. ^?2 y' 34. 37. 27. ^L. a^ 41. 40. 2 ."* 38. 25. 66 45. . : or 5 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. m . 22. * 24. .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . c 32. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. rfS. : mi m~^. 44. 36. 39. a. 3 a.
26)* 1 (I) 2 .6). 48. 49. = l. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 52. 10* Find the values 56. ar = i. z 5or*=10. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . (.9*. 57. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. = . + 1~* f 21 .(. .1. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 1. = 5.81 f (a . 47. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 17' 2 51. 61. of: 3ll4~* 60. 53. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 55.343)* + (. 250. z* = 1. 58. + A_. Ex. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 54. 10* 5* = .008)* + A. = ^.001. 59. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.
&. 8 ' 9. 4 5. 14. 72 .$". Remove the negative exponents. 10. 6a.6 *' 6 *25. remove the fractional exponents. #* a.5. V5. are performed. 6 *.3 aj" a. S'sS8. &. NOTE. 18.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . . 7*.5a. 95 ^9i 5**. Perform the operation indicated.&. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. (d) If required. 16.4 a8 . 3 a. etc. / 7fv 7. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 3.$*. 13.7i.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 79 . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . ' 11.^/5^5. 7~ 5 27  . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 17. 3sVS. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 23.4 . . 7.7W. 16. 4 x^. OA 20. 12. 27  28. 26. .. 7~ 6 . 6.7*. a.
2. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 34. 1. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 40. 6 35. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. If powers of a?.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^5. </20. To add or form.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . \/7. v/3.e. v/3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Simplify V~ . ^/IT. 3. 33. Ex.10 V2 =  V2. VS. A/3. signs. 4^/4. V3. </2. V3. Ex. ^126. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 5V2. ^3. 34. s!/3. \/5. v^S. v/4. 30. Arrange 35. ^4. 28. 38. V2. subtract surds. + . connect them by proper 1. ^2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 31. 2\ 3*. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^4. 39. 29. 32. 40. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 26. V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^7. ^2. A/2. ^30. 37.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. </3. if dissimilar. in order of magnitude : \/7.2 V50. (i. ^6. ^2. 27.2. V5. 36. V2.3\ . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.
3. 9. 4V805V45. V175V28+V634V7.J a6 V4 aft. 10. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4. . 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. VJ+V8V1 + V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 13. V18+V32VT28+V2. + 3V835V2.3V20 + 6V5. 6. 12. 11. 8. 14.
. 2.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 26^ . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Ex. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . y* = Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 . and then multiplied. 6*. 1. 23.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 3. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
^/2. (5V22V3CVS)V3. v/4. 7. v/18 v"3. a?. V2 V50. 34. 3. Vll. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . + VB)(2V5). 14. 8. aVa. 41. 213 98 11. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 4. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 2.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (2V3) 8 . 9. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V20 V30. 21. 39. 6. V42. 19. 37. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 40. fWa 17. V2aV8^. 28 . 25. 40 10 30. \/3 \^). (3 20. 38. 12. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V3 Vl2. . VlO V15. 27. VTO. 6 V4 5. 6. (V6 + 1) 1 . 2 . 10. (Va Va 36. 15. 13. V3 V6. (V2+V3+V4)V3.VSS. 18.
. 46. 60. is 1 2. 53. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Ex.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).214 42. (2 45.y. 48. V3 . 52. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). the quotient of the surds is If. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (5V2+V10)(2V51). E. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. a fraction. 268. 44. Va v/a. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 43. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 47. 49. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Ex. 51. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.
e. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. arithTo find. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Evidently. by V7. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 1.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .g. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. metical problems afford the best illustrations. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. Divide VII by v7. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 3. . is illustrated by Ex. however. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.RADICALS This method.73205. we have V3 But if 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . /~ } Ex. . The 2..57735. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.
The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . Vll 212*. i. V5 270. V3 = 1. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V5 = 2. A. and Given V2 = 1. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 272.7320. 7. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 23 .2361. V3 24 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.4142. 21. . V8 JL.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. 14. V48 25. V2 22 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 20. 271. ^/H . V8 12. A. VffV?. .
1.vffi^T _ .Vs2 . 3. s Simplify a.1 xVtf a. V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.RADICALS Ex.2. Ex.= 18.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.W3. 6V7. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .218 6 . four places of decimals 23 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.4142. V21 = 25 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. : and V5 = 2. 27. 24.2361. Given V2 1. 19. find to _!_. By the use of fractional exponents . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. J?_. Vo1 26. . v 2V3 28. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. = V3 = 1.5 3 = 125. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.
: 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 4. V643 . 5. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Simplify Ex. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. V255 . 8. it to this form. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.RADICALS 219 274. viz. \/l6*. v8f 2\/15. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 2. 2. 2 12. According to G3. 3 (V2~u)  7. on the other hand. 3. . 11. \/125" . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 1. 9. the If. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. In other examples of involution and evolution.
2 \/18.6\/2 = ^9 . The Hence ^11 . These Ex. and whose product is 18. +2 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT. Find Vll . Find V4 + VJ8.2 \/20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6 V2. is 11.A/2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. 3.220 Ex.
277.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Solve vVf!2a = 2. . Dividing by Check.. 4x x = 2. 4.e. a. +=. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. r 22. The value x =2 reduces each . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. member to 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. they are transto formed into rational equations. are radical equations. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. i. 5. (2x xrf 1.V48 4 20. 19. Transposing and uniting. Radical equations are rationalized. first involution. = xa + 4 x f 4. V48 23. Before performing the involution. 8. by raising both members equal powers. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. : 221 Vl32V22. VT . A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. x2 = x f 2. Ex.1. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.
It = 3 x . Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. a socalled extraneous root. one root. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. viz. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.1) = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. Squaring both members. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. x = J. Therefore CftecAr. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. tion which has two roots. Transposing and uniting. Ex. the first member = V2. Extraneous roots. f 25 = 12. 2. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Squaring both members. . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2.3. 5. they may be extraneous roots. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Therefore Check. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. V4afT~l. 278. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. V24~+~l = 0. Dividing by 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing and uniting. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Factoring. a. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. viz. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. at . .222 Ex.
RADICALS Hence x If a. Check. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. \ does not satisfy the given. Squaring.3) (2 x . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Therefore. is x V. viz. (x x = 3. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. NOTE. . Factoring. Hence there is only one root. Transposing. = 3. 4. and to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. or x *j.47) = 0. both members reduce to 5. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. + 6~ieT~3 .12 .2 r. the right member = V2. 223 x = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Solve the following equations : = G. ViTie 4 z2 . Hence x = the only root. equation it is an extraneous root. . . for it satisfies the equation . x root of the preceding equation. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. If If x 3 = 3.
Many 1.33 af* + 32=0.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*. Ex. Factoring.
x Since both =9 or 1. 2Va. x =6 or 3. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.f40= 5. . Vi 2 8a.8 x + 40 = 36. members of the equation were squared. 2. 45 14VJB = . + 40 = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Ex. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.8 z40 = 7. 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2. = 0.*2a.35 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 2_8z 440 = 49. This can be seen without substituting. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 4. 3. = 26. _ 2 y . y then x2 . Substituting. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.i~24 = 0. some of the roots be extraneous.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Q . = 7. 3 6. 412a* = 16. x + Vx a? = 6. o. Let 8 x f 40 .
2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. +3= 6. a^x2 5 2 13. 12. 20. 16. 4 V SB* 4 a. 14. +x .226 11. 19. 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.f 18 = 24. 2.a 440 = 35. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. a. 15.
if Q was known. we make a? what the value of Q. a? R = x* .360 = 244. " Or.2 + 4. Ex. ^ = 381+2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. 227 . 1. even if Q is unknown. does not contain a?. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 3 2 Ex. = 2. then (x 2)Q 0. 2.2) Q .2 + 80 = 12. to x we # = 2 3. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. no matter If. could. find the remainder when m.bx? + ex2 4.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. If x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2 x 5 by x 3." transposing.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.4 a. E = ax + &z + m) Q. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. ax4 4. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Without actual division. Hence. however. Without actual division. by dividing 3 x* f.
the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + ^by x + b. + 6.228 282. If the remainder is zero. } 2 by a1. x* s 2 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .4(. 5 (4x . 43 3 E. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. of the division 3) is m in place of x. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 8.g. x m is factor of the expression.3)f 11 =.8'= 0. 5.8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. hence (x divided by x 4. fora?. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 3.949. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .g. 2 j 7. if 8 42  . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. + 7 = 632. The Factor Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.
is a factor. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + ttt15 = 0.49 = 0. 15. 17. a? 19. 229 1. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. f 15 does not vanish. 25.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. f 5. 3. Therefore x ( 1). or 5 4 + 3^ . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 8. 23. The 5.12.9^ + 23^15. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.12 = 0. 11. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. oj 5x2 f3a. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.1. & p*. a^8^ + 19a. _ . 7 46 = 0. Let x = . 5. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. factors of the absolute term. 24. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 1. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. a 2a + 4. 106 division. a + 32. Resolve into factors 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. i.7 + 16 . 6. 1. a 5x 6.1.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.13m + 30 10. Factor a? 15. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^10^429^20=0. 2. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 21. then x8 7 x'2 4. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. f 3. . 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 3 2 : 7. 2m 5m . 9.r6 = 0.e. or x 4. + 27 + 27.7 x + 15 = 0. 20. 2 2. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. p 5^ + 8p 4. 8. m f m n 14. are f 1. + 15. 18.
The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.xy +/). 2.230 285. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Ex. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n is even.g. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. By we obtain the other factors. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2. 1. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. xn f. is odd." . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . It y is not divisible by 287. : importance. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. actual division n. 286. if w is odd. For substituting y for x. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.y n is divisible by x f ?/. ar +p= z6 e.
Hence = (m Ex.= . preferable. as 27=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. 27. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . a. 28.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. 26. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0. 3. however.
& + 2 xy + = 25.1. xy are given. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 290. of quadratics. (4) Hence. 232 . If two of the quantities x f y. xywe have 3. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). + 6 a?V . 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. in general. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. can be solved by the methods degree. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. however. x y. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. * A I. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. = 6. ==5 > 1^ = 4. 4 xy = 16. to equations of the fourth few cases.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289.y4 is of the fifth degree. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. r (" 1 = 876. = . 12. ^. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 3. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. The arranged in pairs. x and xy are not given.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. b=3. 108 2. I I x + y=7. but can be found. 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ' 10.g. 233 y.
I x+y = a. . or JJ. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.a. or y = 1 . 5. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).?/ i = 6. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 3. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  f J. la. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. one linear and ne quadratic. + 29 = 0. Factoring. 2 (1) From (1) we have.20) = 0.  42 y + Transposing. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 4 y = 20.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.i/ = r 13. 7 .o 18. ' ' . r^ 2 as ] f. 19. I* Jj ^ [.  . A system of simultaneous equations.. 6 "I 14. Ex. x " (3) 49 etc. aj = 2.~ y = 5.
III. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3y) : Factor (2). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. quantities. 1. 10. If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. ':il e :) . y* + 2y = 3.3 2x 2 Ex. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 9. x2y. ' x*. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. Solve .
2 . 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) (2) x x 5.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 11 a2 Factoring.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. } VI09. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 109 a. = 0. 15 x2 . Solve 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).
298. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Division of one equation by the other. Bxy9. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.3^42^=43.!. 150 */2 . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. " IV. and others not belonging to them.125 ay = .xy 4.y = 7. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). E.6. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. A. (4) (3). y? a? f . 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. . ' ^ 15. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?.175 ay = 12.
i ^ *>. 2. quadratics can be solved by ?/. x 2 . * ' 300. xy. we obtain by squaring. Some simultaneous ?/.. x +y y etc. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. f^ + 3 7/ = 133.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. jc~ y = 9. from (2). (1 > (2) 1. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. B. = 12 J. y . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. at first it is unknown quantities. y = 3. Therefore x = 16. Solve Ex. = 189. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1).
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 36* 2. M6. I e. 7. 2. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. 4. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. [2x + : y= 17. . F+y+ . 6.
4 y = 47 a. = 198. . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. 16. 27. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . + o5)(6hy) = 80. * . = y 1 y* . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 25. . 19 ' 26. ( xy (7 m 2 n*.21 ^ = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.
. 32. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 3 a2 38. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . etc 302. or ~ indeterminate. 7' j/ 39. Q 7. y % 9 f*K 36. Interpretation . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.of  According to the definition of division.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 33. hence may be any finite number. as a . finite  =x y if = x. oo 301. etc. 30. 31. ^ oo . . 25 34. = 48201. . ~\ OK OO.
equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.decreases X if called infinity. as + l. ToU" ^100 a. it is an Ex. . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. i. i. without exception. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. . Or. (1) = 0. 1.000 a. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. I. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Hence such an equation identity. great.242 303. the answer is indeterminate. (1) is an identity. 1. oo is = QQ. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . TO^UU" sufficiently small.can be If It is made larger than number. 306. and becomes infinitely small. cancel. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. is satisfied by any number.increases if x de x creases. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. and . (a: Then Simplifying. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.g. creases. x f 2. be the numbers. The ~~f fraction . Let 2. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. or that x may equal any finite number.e.x'2 2 x = 1.e. By making x any * assigned zero. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (1). = 10.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve x a. Solve .8 x + 15 6. z = 1 Substituting. and a. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 1=0. y finite QO. 3. Solve  9 7. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). * 6. two numbers is 76. . and the sum of Find the numbers. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.2 y = 4. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. (2). Hence /. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. EXERCISE 1. 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. = oo. third and sixth parts. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.e. The sum is of squares 2890. is their 2.
14. of a rectangular field feet. Find the edge of each cube.244 3. 255 and the sum of 5. The area of a nal 41 feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. is 6. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 13. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 12. and the edge of one. is is 17 and the sum 4. 103. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the numbers. and the hypotenuse is 37. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the other two sides. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 10. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the edges. p. increased by the edge of the other. of a right triangle is 73. Find the side of each square. 8. 146 yards. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 190. . But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the diago(Ex. Find the dimensions of the field.) 53 yards. Find these sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the sides of the rectangle. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 148 feet of fence are required. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. two numbers Find the numbers. equals 4 inches. the area becomes f% of the original area. 6. Find the sides.quals 20 feet. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 9. and the sum of ( 228.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet.
The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. . by the product of 27 be added to the number. is 20 inches.) 17. the quotient is 2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii. differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. irR *. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.
309.. 10. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.) is a series..1) d. 11. a + 2 d. 16. progression. 4... Hence / = a + (n . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. P. of a series are its successive numbers. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 19. . 3 d must be added to a. to each term produces the next term. a 11. a. + 2 d. (n 1) d must be added to a. 15 is 9 f. the second a descending. The common differences are respectively 4. a 3d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. added to each term to obtain the next one. a f d.. To find the nth term / of an A. to produce the nth term. each term of which. P.. The first is an ascending. f .7. series 9. The progression is a. 12. An arithmetic progression (A.. 3. to produce the 4th term.. . of the following series is 3. . . : 7. 2 d must be added to a. 17. Since d is a f 3 d.. except the first. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. P. the first term a and the common difference d being given.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. to produce the 3d term. a + d. and d.
. 7. 4... Find the 10th term of the series 17. 2J. 10. Adding. . 8. 6.PROGRESSIONS 310. the last term and the common difference d being given. 1J. 5.' cZ == . 8. d . 99) = 2600. 4^. .. 2. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. the term a. ? (a) 1. = 2.. a = 2. 9. (a + + (a + l) l). P. P. 8... Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2. 5. 3. 6. 1. P. 5. 7. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). if a = 5. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.16. 2 EXERCISE 1. 115. 3. of the series 10.4. Find the 12th term of the 4. series 2.. Find the nth term of the series 2.3 a = l. 3. 21. . Find the 5th term of the 4. d = 3.8. 6 we have Hence .. series .. 3.. = I + 49 = *({ + . = a + (a Reversing the order. 19... 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . 6. . . 7.. 24.. 9. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 1.. = 99.. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 5. (d) 1J.. 3.
18. 1. to 20 terms. 1J. . \n. to 7 terms. 12. to 8 terms. 1. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . rf. . to 15 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 33.5 H + if f to 10 terms. > 2f 2.7 f to 12 terms. (x +"l) 4. (i) (ii) . : 3. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 11. '. 21. to 16 terms. 23. . 1.1 f 3. hence if any three of them are given.248 Find the 10. and a yearly increase of $ 120. striking hours only. 19. . . 20. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 16. 2J. 7. 13. 11. Sum the following series 14. 15. and for each than for the preceding one. Jive quantities are involved. P. 16. 17. 8. 2.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 7. 15. 11. 15.. strike for the first yard. In most problems relating to A. 31. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 3. 4. . + 3. 11. . to 10 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . to 20 terms. to 20 terms. 12. 29. 6. 7. 22.
or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 2.. 67. J = 49. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 12. and b form an A. 23. P. or 11 J. = 144.1).~n~\ 408 6). 45. 133. 1. Substituting in (2). P. . or if x Solving. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014. #. 312. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 204 = ^ (a + 49). 6 n2 . 122. . = 13. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. The series is.. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 6. if a. Ex. Findn. hence n = 6. = 1014. 100. a = 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. n = 6.1) . 78. = a + (w. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 89.104 w + 408 = 0. P. 111. Solving. The first term of an A. 204 = ^ (98 . From (1). if s = 204. a = 49 6(71 . 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 56. 144. = n(104 . I Substituting in (I) and (II). the second one mean between the other two. s 24ft last term 144. n d. d = 6. 34.6. I. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x.e. Find the series.6 n). l)e?. is 12. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).
= 83. a+ and b a b 5.3. a x f b and a b. of 5 terms 6. Find d. 12. Find?. 6? 9. y and #f5y. f J 1 1 / . n = 20. = ^ 3 = 1. .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. P. Find n. s = 70. Find d. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . and s. How much did he save the first month? 19. ceding one. m and n 2. Given a = . = 17. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 11. n. I. 10. s == 440. Find a Given a = 7. Find w. 7. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 3. Given a = 1. 4. Find a and Given s = 44. produced. How much . n has the series ^ j . 8. = 16. Given a = . = 45. Given a = 4. T? ^. 78. f? . 17. 14. n = 17. = 1870. d = 5. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n = 4. n = 13. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. n = 16. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. has the series 82. 15. Find d and Given a = 1700. 16. 13. = 52. I Find I in terms of a. 74.
+1. 24. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . ar8 r. If n is less : than unity.. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. . 36. called the ratio.arn ~ l . 2 a. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .) is a series each term of which.. NOTE. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 108. or 81 315.. 36. ratios are respectively 3... The 314. 12. 4.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. A geometric progression first. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 4. E. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . and To find the nth term / of a G. 4 (1) . 2. or. the first term a and the ratios r being given. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. <zr .. . (I) of the series 16. . 36. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). P. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. is it (G. is 16(f) 4 .. I. rs = s 2 . P. of a G. . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 24. P. ar. The progression is a.g.. . r n~ l ..
Find the 6th term of the series J. first term is 125 and whose common . 676. . l. 0. 144. 144. a = I.l. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 80. first term 4._!=!>.. And the required means are 18.. P. +f%9 % . volved . . P. Find the 5th term of a G. .4. f. 3. . series 6. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^... 1.18. is 3. 9. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. I = 670.. 4.5. 4. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 72.288... 6. . 25. 36. 288. 8. Hence n = 7. whose . i 288.72. . . 7. . if any three of them are given.6. 72. P. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 9. . hence. Hence the or series is 0. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 18.5. . first 5. EXERCISE 1. Ex. \ t series . fa. In most problems relating to G. 576. 36.18. 144.. is 16. whose and whose second term is 8. ? (c) 2. 9. f. r^2. (it. Jive quantities are in. 10...*. or 7. series 5. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. (b) 1.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. .54.. fa. .. 20. 36. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. (d) 5. P. P. series . + 5. 2 term 3.. .
>"> . 36. is less than unity.. and hence ~ r . 4. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. + 4 . J. 21. J. of r n decreases. 42. be written If the value of r of a G. Find the geometric mean between 7. .. J. Find a and 4. . to 7 terms. n = 5. Given r = n Z 5. 126. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. = 3. Find a and Given r = 3. 1. M. 72.nV> i*> !718. 48. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 6 terms. == 160. 1. s = 605. 2.. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 81. 81. 12. 19. 27. a. 15. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. . 22. 13. Z s. 20.i a9 .J and 270. . 14. to 8 terms. 24.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 23. P. to 5 terms. r . a^. to 6 terms.. 25S series : 32. to 7 . . I... to 6 terms. 12 terms. may be than any assignable number. s = 310. 14. 243. 54. = 3. J. Find a and n = 4. n = 5. . to G terms. 16 .
250. 4. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 7.72.... Given an infinite series of squares.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 40.. = . Find the sum to infinity. 8. . = . . . (6) the sum of the perimeters. Find the value 9. P.)7?7272 . 10. is 16.072 + ..191919. is J.01 ^ . 2. 12. 13. . Hence . 6. 4. . 1. i i J..= _4Z* .Ql. = 990 ... . ... I. 14. .. 5. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.. 16. 9. P. If a = 40... 3.... P. . 6..37272 . 66 Therefore .. 16... . of all squares ? .272727. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 5.99 . . 8... is 9.3727272 . 9. and the first term is Find 17. of: 11. 1.254 Ex.. .27777 . 1.00072 f . 1 r = .. 1. 100. =A+ 10 i. i. r = j. ratio 15.. . first and the common term. .555. 12. 2. of an infinite G...1. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .717171. The sum Find the of an infinite G. ..072. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. The sum r.= . = a . 118 : infinity of the following series 3.3 + . ...3121212..
+ a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 15. 11. . (a 100 . 14. 22. (\ 9 . 25.6) 20 .6) . (xy) : 6 . . coefficient of . 29. /2a+Y\ 8. 17. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 5.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 13. 20. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .b) w (a (a f (1 . (a + b) . . 16. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 2 2 24. l 2. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 4. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 4 7. 10. : (1 + xy. a6 8 16 in . 7 . (s + i). (a2) 6. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 26. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 12. 28. .b ). 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 21. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the 6th term of (x .
2. if = = = 2. 3. 1. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. a ft c = = 2. 3. 5. 2. 3. 1. . 1. 3. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. ft) . 1. 2. 3. if = = 2. 2. 2. if y=2j 2. = 2. 6. 3. 5. 4 ft  c) 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 2. 5. 2. 2. 3. 1. 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3.  2. 4. 1. 3. 4. 6. 1. 3. 4 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 6. 4. 3. c if 7 . 2. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 4. 4. 5.f ac 1. (c 3. 2. 3. 5. 7. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. ^+^ 3.  2. 2. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 6. 1. 2. 2. 1. 2. 24 4. 4.  8 ^ 2. 4. 2. 5. 3. 4. 3. if x^l. 3. ft 4 ) 5. c = = = 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 6.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. + 2. 5. + 2. 5. 2. 3. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4.c )(fta) 1. 2. 4. + 1. l. 2. + c(a  c). 2 . . 1. aft 3 + 4. 1. 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 3. 5. 5. 3. 2. 1.  a)(a 1. 2.a(a 4. y 3. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 1. 4.
4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . r> .259 x c) .  a) (c 2.7 y 2* 4. x 3 11.3 xyz.2. 25.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . + 3 y 2* . ~c)(b. x = 4. 10. if a 6 = = c = 3. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 9. a. x C 4 4x y + . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. ' b) + 3. 2 x 8. 6 a4 4 a8 . c)(x a} . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 6. 20. 2. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 40. + 4 ?y . 2. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 2 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .8 + 2 // .7 + . 5. 4. 5. 4 z .5.1. 9. x3 2 a2 . 2  + 12 a 8 .4. 4 y 13.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.\ yz + xz. + 4. + 8 x4 *y . a /> 3. 1. 5.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .2 x?/. 17.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 16. 4 x 4 . 15. 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. = 2. (5.8 3 + 7 x4 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 41. 8.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .x 5 4 . 26. a 4 + 11 a . b(x (b 1.2 a?y + 3 aty .a) . 24.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . a.2. . 18. 7 xy 3 . 21.7 ys.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2 x2 . 2.c' 2 4 / . . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17.2 z8 4 x. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . + 1. 21.10. + 2. . 7y 4 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .a 4 .3 a?y .r 6 x  4 xy . 12. x 3 x' 14. 5.a8 .a 5 a .5 xy 3 + + 4 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 3. 4. 8 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 29. or . f 8. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . c = 3. 7. a: . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 2. 15. 1. 3.
sum of .2 x 8y2 44 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.c 3 a.4 ft) 4. . 5 10 + 7 .3 . . c 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.c.(4 * . 4 4 4.{2 x 2 . 4 .(5 c . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.8 3 4. Take the sum 4x 4.] 26. = x y ft z.(x 4.4. .3 x . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 33. c =x y }~ z. 34.?> x 4 20.2) .2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. and .1)}] . 29. .(4 x 2 . 5 10 4 G 11 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.#48. ft. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].x . f ft.4 Vl 4.(5 y . ft 25.27~~7)}].. 5 4 7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 4vTT~y 3.2 3 ax 2 . x'2 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 4 2 x2 23. of a.c. Simplify 31. 3 ft.a ft.5 .2 .c 4 3 a. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].(x* .(7 x 4.x 2 4. 36.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.3 .x . a  ft + c.x2 .{G * 2 .3. 542 x 2 and . (*) a  c.2 a . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . c 4ft. . : a x . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .7. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.5.4) . 2 x 32.1).[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .[4 z 8 . take the sum of G x 5 . . 4 3 5 y/ . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.6T . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .6 x ] .x 4. From of 2 the 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 0" 30. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 35. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 7 12 .[4 x 4.260 19.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(a .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.
2 : 7e)a}].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . + *+!){> + 2). 67.[2 . 65. (4 + 3a 2 .3 c)].2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 'J 44. (1 55. 2 ft 41.ac .& + {.3 z 2 ).5)} + (3 a 2 . (. 43. 2 2 x + !)(* .6c) (a + f c).ab .(2 a 2 . 48. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .b (c . .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.0)} .12).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . .a~^~c)K]. . a {.Z . a . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).3).c).rf)} + a [.{2 a (ft .(2 x2 . (r (1 (a.be) (a 58. 56. 49. . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 13 a .3 *). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].2 zz .56.(7 i + 4 r:) .2 2 + 1)(7.(2 . (x. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).{3 c .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .JT^T+1)} + (2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 63.2)(1 . (5 a 39. 68.1). 45. 59.2c(V/ .{2 a . . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 62.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . + 4x + 5)(j.(5 y .7).r 2:c+ l)(ar. 3 x 42. 51.2x + 3).(2 a + 5 a .6 xy . (.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(6 .96 [17 a. 46. .2 2 . 2 52. .  2 a  {3 2x a . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 54. 64. (/> 4 . 60.[4 x  5 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3c). 57. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). . (1 ar+a.4 a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 2 53.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 50. )(lz a ).(4 d . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a 2 + a 4 ). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.c 2 .6)}].3T~2~s)} + 5 2].2a . . (x .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).5 )}] + {4 c .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).(7 a.3)(*5)(* 7).
(x (x ( + *) .2y)(.c .2 (y 4. 1). 88. (p 2 .(a 48 8 8 4.:y)( a. 89. . ft 78. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ft ft ft a}. 86.(c 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 92. (a (2 b)*(a 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).y)\x y).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). Prove the following 8 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. .n pc). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.y + z)(x + y . xy y 2 ).(ft 4.ft) 4 .m np c .a) 2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).c) j. 2 + a 2 ).y). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. ft /.3y) a (* 2 4.z) . 84. 74. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. b 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .{3 a . 73.5 .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c) . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . ft" l Simplify 80. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .q). (a 2 ft 2n 4. 2 (x 2 .O (a 4(a 4.x + y + z). 94. 75.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c) .262 69. f 72.3 (ft . ar . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .c)} . ft 95.am&t 4 A 2 *).6*y . 71. 4 4 . . 83.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).3 a .(/>  3 v)^(.c) 2 . 79.ft) + 4(2 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .z\x 4.z)(x y + z)(.v) 4. 82. 4.2 ft}) f (3 a . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.2 (a .(a 2) (s 4 ft.r 2 .b 4. 70.c)].c) 4) (ft 4.c) rr identities.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.9y2).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 85.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 91. 90. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c . 77. (. 93. 1).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.(4 . 76.<f(p . 87.
6 y 4 4. 10). 3*.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). (80 a 112.40 />) . 124.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 105.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 118. 123.27 x* .v/ ~ // = a: .5 xy).2 xy 8 . 108. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 1).y 4 .2y 2 4. a*. 113.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 120.xy 4.y 2 4. 116. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".(2 a 2 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).&).2 2% 4.16 a 6 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 2 (a+ .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).(x 2 . 1O4. 102. (8 x* 115.) .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.3 a"+ 4. . 114. 121.a".4 aft . 106.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .(a 1 2 8 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .*) (x 8 . 110.1).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.(7 xi/ . 103. r . 109. 117.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.9 x 2 . 99 100. (2< 107.b) 98. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (.r 4 4. [10( 4.y 4 ) . . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 122. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.35 x 2 2 ) . 26 (a 4 c). 25 4 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.5 b*).
2(10 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .(x + 3) ] . 143. 126.8 6 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.12 M 132. 142.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2(4 . 139.3(* + 4) + 9} . 2 4(ar .5) = 12(4 x . .3) (3 x 4. 10(2 x 141. 3) = x\x . .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).4) . 1) = 2(* . 127.22. 138.3(2 z .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 5(2 x . o o 140. .27 a 3" . 7(2 x .7(4 * . y (* l x.(j a? 144.1) (a? . (4 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. (5a: 150.3). .(1 . 42(3ar 145. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 148. x 147.n . 1) . (*+ + .2) = 3 .264 125.3) = 12 . .a:)]}. 149.r>) .2) + 2(ar + 4). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2(5 .2) (a: + 3).4(0 x .r + 7[or . 135.5).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 137. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.9) + 3.4) .G) .5{. 128.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3 x).9) 4.3 a:). 129.7) = 4 . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 5 146.3).18 *&) (1 .1) . . .19) + 5 = 4 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.2(j: .(x .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).(x f 9). 3(2 x 134. 136.2 7^~5] + 1).
3) (a: . 156. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. .5*) + 47. =  (F 32).5(x .T)O . 160.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 158. these two angles would be equal. . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.3) = (3 x .l)(z .2 x) = (1 . (3 O + .2) (j? + 1) + (x .19) + 42.1) (s + 3). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. The sum What 171. . = 2 C.24.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2). (a .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. + 10) (ar .29) 2 = 1.2) (7 *) + (*. + 4) (2 x + 5). 162.5) = (3 . will produce F. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. . 155. 154.25) 2 . sheep more than the 169. find the value of F.2 x) (4 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. The second contains 3 first. (x (x a.6 x) (3 . transformed into F. 161.. If the area of the frame inches.76.3) (3 .14) (a: + 3). f^ + ^sO. and the third twice as many as the first.4) (a .a:) + 229. 165.3) (j. 265 152.5 x) = 45 x . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. (2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. + 2) + (5 . a: ar a.z) (4 . 2 4 . (a) If C. = 15.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 164. . 157. 5(ar x .8) = (2 x 4. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.3) (3 .9) + (a.7) (1 x . 166. How many 170. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. (a.2) a + 7(x .1) O + 4) = (2 * .(5 x .r + 3) . 153. + 5) = (9 .? .17) 2 + (4 x .7) (a. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.5)(. 159. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (7 14 . 163.
13 a + 3.56. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. A house has 3 rows of windows. sister . aW + llab2&. 188. x* 185. . 15 m. 3 gives the 174. z 2 + x . two boys is twice that of the younger. was three times that of the younger. 187. 2 2 + a _ no. 7/ 191. ll?/102. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. number divided by 3. +x 2.36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. . respectively. father. 10x 2 192. 186. 190. 4 a 2 yy 42. younger than his Find the age of the father. z 2 92. 178. side were one foot longer. dimension 182. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. A boy is father. 176. power one of the two Find the power of each. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. + 11 ~ 6. . An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 180. How many are there in each window ? . A each 177. 179. 12 m. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. Find the number. and 5 h. if each increased 2 feet. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass.266 173. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. train. + a. 189. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 181. Find the dimensions of the floor.
11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 . 212. 4a 2& 2 241. 3y 2 + ary .19 z 4 204.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .19 a . 218.6 2 ?/ . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.22 z + 48. 232. 5 x 2. . . 2a te 3% ly 247. 7x 2 225.c) 2  (a . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . + 3a 196. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 210. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 195. 211. 3 ap 2 . ifWy+b. 222.20 z 8 a: 220. *2 234.10 xy. y 2 194. a+a* + o a +l. 2 x 2 .6. wiy + la mx + aw. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 230.8 6 2. a. 2 a 2 . 209.3 xy. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. x 5 .(b + rf) 2 . . . 221. # 2  29 y + 120. 60 a 2  a: // 205. .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a a: a: 237. 235. 215.28. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . .10 y a x* . 2 200. x*y 223. 2 a 8 . 8 a: ar.14 2 . 238. a 2 . 224.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 216. . 3y 248. 16x 4 81. 246. x* + 8 2 + 15. 12 x +4. 201. 6 197.c) 2 .10.12 * .3 c/> + 6 cq.64. x 219.r?/f y 2 9. a: 236. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 4 m +^. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.x + 1.77 y + 150. 233. a^a 226. 23 12. 267 199. 3 x V . + 8.1. 227. 203. 208.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . a: .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. + 198. 2 2 y f 1. a. (a + .6 aq . 207. 229. 202. 8 a. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .21 a:  54.6 y2 + 4. 217.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 213. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . + 30 x. a. 244. 206.6s. 245. a: 231. 3 x 2 . 24 2 + 2 . 239. a. + 2 . 7a 228. z + 5x 2 . xm+l 243. z 2 2.
18 x 2 . x 2 + 2 x . x* .4 ab + 1. a? a: a: // 262. 3 #2 255. 254. 1 x ar Find the L.14 bx a%% 8 . z 2 268.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.3 abc .&z. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .2/ 2 .12. + 3 x + 2. 5 x 2 256. ft a. x 2 .C. * 2 .15 + 30. * 2 .36.1 9 . a 4. x*y* 4. 2 x2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .11 a 2 . 265. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x 2 f 9j: + 20.2 z . 8 2 + 10 x .73 xy .ry . 270. x 2 + 4 + 3. I Find the II. .2 aft*. + 23 x f 20. + 20 x 4.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.23 x f 20.48 afy 2 .120.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 3 ay 4. 10 a. 264. 2 + 7 r f 2.15.16 x .x . * a .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . x 2 + 5 f . a 3 a 2 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 260.6 by. 3 a% 2 . 269. 15 # 2 z/ /. a: . 6.9 x + 14.5 ab f 2. of: 266.23 + 12. 28 2 f 71 x .9 x .7 f 5.80. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).9. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. + 8. 258.8. Reduce to lowest terms 271. * 2 .91. 252.13. 2 . a.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 257. x 2 263.18 xy + 5. + 8 x + 5. F. 7 ax 250.10 a 4.G7 x f 33. 2 8 . of: 253.3. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 22x2 a. 2 a.10. 259.ry 21.4.r .M. 7 12 2 2 . z 2 267.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.3 x . 261. 30 ^ .11 x f 28.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . C. 10 x 2 . x 2 4.a + 2 4. x* .(55. 251.
. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2* + 3 x* 280.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278..2c a: 282.rL. a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .!/. 289 ' . + ac .ar 1 279.J' 4 2 2 w mp . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . *2 " 2 + Oge. m 4. 8 .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.(y 2 z) * t (j.
6) _ ~ i 305. * 19 23 19(23 23.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 4 3 301. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x 7. Lnl + ar 2 a. a (: a) (x 2. O(ca) 306. ^. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^_2*(m 308. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .
(a? 4 2) 317. 1 _. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.(a . . 2 + y 2 319. . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . (1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.. a: 1 313.ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. _ x8 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . } .
19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. .7 xy + 12 x .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .2 +lOar 2 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. * 3a.V  + y  x 3y a .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.ll.15 33 . 2 lOx 5x.5 a ..a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 20 44 333.6* t 328. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .. . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 250 5 10 2 325.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.9 *// + 27 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. a: 2 x* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 .
(aWi + iJ. \x yj 340. a>74 .+ r . \5yl 341. 7 ( ?f!?. fl. ' 2 "l 5 . (a \ + lV.) 2 . 5 343. 338.r 5 2 . 348. +^ a: y x . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. : 1+ i. a: 349 _ o. + l + IV. if a = 3. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 352. + ni + . ?_2 ^ .1V. (af2/. 1 345. ( 342. w \.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. xi 347. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. aj 339.. (ar \ 346. f V.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ** i.y. 344.
a2 4 . (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. I  I f 366. 1+2 362. y360.
2  m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
J !__7. 8  376. . . 5*8. ^ . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.*2 = 15. 379. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 4(* . + 1) 45 O 377. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. <3 378. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5 {2 x 381. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.
3* 177. f 1 1 + a 403. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 397.5 ^ ~ a: a.  J). (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).. c .  8 9* x ~r.5 x =r f . b 404.147.25 x + . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 396.25.1 .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 401. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 400.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. + 4 a. _____ . ^ (a . m x 398.6  . .2 a:  1. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 399.. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.75 x f . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 40. . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. u '2 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.8 = .
far did he walk all together ? A .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 421.  a) 2 6 2a. How long is each road ? 423.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 411.278 410. and was out 5 hours. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Find the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 18 be subtracted from the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Tn 6 hours . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x . In a if and 422. 420. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . the order of the digits will be inverted. 418 ~jo. hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .c) .
Solve 436. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 2 2 8 2 .46 2): (15a 2 . Find the mean proportional to 429. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. y.a 2^ 8 + aft* . . Which ratio is greater. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). : i. 438. a + 5. . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 3 and 1J.49 63). find the angles of the triangle. a  t>. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. a. if . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .6 8 ).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. find : a : c.iand 22 22 I a . ax is \ by  ex + dy.& 5 ) (a 8 . Find the fourth proportional 426. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. : If is one equal 434. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 433. 428. Find the length of the parts. . d.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 432. If a b : =5 n : 7. 431. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 435. z 2 y. b. x 427. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. wi* + y= ny. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 430. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).
456. Find the value of a. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 7 a: . x + 17 # 53. 4 = 5 y + 29. />(. 7jr9y = 17. 56 + 10y = 7a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. if 2 ft : 439.rf2# = l. . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 457. ?/ 447. + 5y = 59.*. 3 . 452. = 25. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 21 7 = 27 + Op. 5x+4y=lQ. 453. 443. 5z4:# = 3. 449.. 9/> = 2 . . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 3 a. /) ar a. 446. 454. ft. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.11 7. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 451. 455.89 = q. a: 2y= = 1 . 8 x + y = 19.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.35. 448. 450.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .55 y = . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 458. 8 . a. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.(or l(*2y)=0. 9ar7# = 71.7 y = 25. Solve the following systems: 441. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7a?y = 3. 5 2 = 7 . 1(3  a. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 7 442. 459. 42 = 15y + 137.11 y = 95. ft. . c. The volumes If their diameters.59 = 3 z.4 12 . . 16. a: a: + 5y). . 445. 444. 28 = 5 a .
_ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax by = c \ 472.?/ + 1 . ax cx by = m. 468. _ 469. + eyn. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. x y 474. 475. 8 461.7.+ =2. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 465. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.2y) (2 = 2J. 473. i = 5.c=563y. (or .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.  = 2. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ^ + i^ = 7.. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.
age. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. whose difference is 4. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 483. 481. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . by 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and in 20 months to $275. fraction becomes equal to . latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the fraction. years. and the other number least. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. 479. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 477. Find the numbers. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. to . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 485. the Find their ages. Find the number. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. How much money less 484. A number consists of two digits 4. Find the sum and the rate of interest. . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 487. A spends \ of his. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and in 18 months to $2180. 486. Find their ages. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260.
4 497. ~ 507. 7 + 2 z . = 209.z = 12. 7. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 4z+3z = 20. 489. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2 e. \ . a. 3ar 503. 490. + y 5 y = 101 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. . 4 506. x s + y z = 18J . 2y + 3a = ll. 494. 1+1 = 6. 2y + 2z = a: 2. ifi = x a. 5^ 9z = 10. 493. = 15. 5 + a. a: + // = 11. 8. a: f z = 79.REVIEW EXERCISE 488.5#+2z = $x a: G. z y x 25 . 2/>3r = 4. 1. 492. 2 2 = 41./ f z =a. x y f z = 13. : Solve the following systems 491. . 3 a: + 5=84./ 504. a: 499. 496. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 20. 495. z y ifi = z x 502. . * + 425  = . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2a:f 7. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + # +z= 35. 2 a. .? + 2y = 8. a. 3 x 500. . x f y f z 29 .z = 20. *i. a number . y Solve : x +z= 5. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 498.
517. 523. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + : = 1472. !f == 2800. ll" . 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. z z =3a&c.
. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. What are their rates of travel? . If they had walked toward each other. Tf and run together. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. AB=6. it is filled in 35 minutes. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 532. they would have met in 2 hours. M. How long will B and C take to do . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. if L and Af in 20 minutes. it separately ? 531. if the number be increased by Find the number. N. AC in /). Find the present ages of his father and mother. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. In circle A ABC. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. the first and second digits will change places. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. When weighed in water. and BE. E 533. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. in 28 minutes. if and L. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and CA=7. BC = 5. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. touches and F respectively. Find the numbers. 90. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 527. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. L. 530. . B and C and C and A in 4 days. CD. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days.
FRANCE. b. 2 541.  3 x. 550. 548. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. the function. i. 543. then / = 3 and write = 3. c. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. z 2  x x  5. if x = f 1. GERMANY. 546.  3 x. e. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.10 marks. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.  7. . The values of y. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2. a.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. x *x + x + 1. The values of x if y = 2. d. x 2 544. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 540. 2  x  x2 . One dollar equals 4.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. formation of dollars into marks. 542. + 3. 536.e. 545. from x = 2 to x = 4. x*. 3 x 539. x*  2 x. The greatest value of the function. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 547. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. x 2 + x. 2 x + 5. 2. x 8 549. to do the work? pendulum. .
r a: a: x a. 557. c.= 0. c.6 + 3 . 555. z 2 . 3 x* . e. Represent meters. 2. + 10 x . 2 567. x 5 .4 = 0.3 = 0. . g. Solve 552. 562.G .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 2 x 2 560.  2 1 a: a. f.11 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. j. x 2 ~ 2 .15 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. x* . z 4 . Solve// = 0. 3 x . a? 4 x .5 x . x 4 . . 572. a. 2 8 .= 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 564. h.9 = 0.r .13 = 0. ' = 8.4 . r?. a. i. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.17 = 0.3 x . . \ to t = 5.r 1 561. + 5 .4 x 2 + 4 . a: 559. 563. and make the unit of the b. 2 a. 15. 566.3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 553.3 x .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 3 + 3 z .1 = 0.7 = .11 x* + + 2 8 569. J. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 556. = 5. 568. If y +5 10. 18 x  4 = 0. 2 554. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 3 .0. 558. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 565.
609.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 579.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 4 a. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 596. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a 2a.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 589. 6 + 1) . a 612.(1 . <r)3  2 3 a:) .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.x + 2 )'2 601. 604. (1 (1 (1 . 64 a 12 603. f ?>) 3 591. 582. 2 943 ++ ~bx. [ y =10. + . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 598. 3 (f. 599. xY. a 8 606. (a  8 ft) .%) 4 (aa. a: . 588. . a. 9  4 fSb 607.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + + 4 .2 2 + y. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. x [ ?/ 577. a:.5 xy = 0. (a. 3 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 593. j^f = 3. + %) (a* + *) 5 . x + z2) 8 . 4 . : y* or 25. 2 611. 597. (# 2) .frf : 583. jj+. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 608. 5 a*. 585 594. 4 (1a:) 3. 595. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 2  2 aa: 2 . 592. + ^) + (air%)8.2 6a: + 30 &c a. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. (aiy. . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (1 + x a. 1 . 600.
+ 2 21 x = 100. 632. 644. 4370404.12 a?y + y*. = 70. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. *+* = 156. 494210400001. Find the square root of 619. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 651. 0090. 2 + 189 z = 900. + 24 a 2 4 . 371240. 210.2410.191209. 615.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. (x 9 x 646. a 642. 21.15174441. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 634.150. V950484 . + 54 'x*y* .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 25023844.30. + 112 a 8 . 32 631. 9g.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .2. 626. 4J. 942841. = 0. 639. 647t x 2 648 649. 623.1024 x + a: 256. find Jupiter's period. 8*' + 24* = 32. V 635. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . ft . 630. 49. 645. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 620. = 87. x 2 641. 629. 643. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. x 2 . 7) 2. 636. /. 637.871844. : 5. 3a. 624. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.53 x ~ . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.V250 . 035. 44352. 638. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.*. According to Kepler's law. 2 + 21Ga. 628. 633. 40. VOIOOD + V582T09. 2. 625 : 621.\/4090. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = . 650. 9a. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 622. GGff. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. Find the eighth root 617. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 49042009. 614.49.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.bx . 696. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. a. 2 702. 695. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 694. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 1 __ : )'*' _i.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 699. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 692. ax 2 698.c = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 708. . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 2 . 706.ax . 707.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. = 0. .a a )jr . ex abc= fx 0. 693. 2 2 697.
16 x* . Find two numbers whose 719. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 724. 12 4*+  8. 3or i 16 .25 might have bought five more for the same money.292 709. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 717. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.44#2 + 121 = 0. 723. in value. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 217 . a: 713. 721. Find the price of an apple. 725. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 722. 716. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. **13a: 2 710. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 729. How shares did he buy ? if 726. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 727. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. A equals CO feet. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.
aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 32. 37. 35.2 ).1 f ^ 2). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 38.aft* 1 + a 2*.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).X .2)(x2 4. (v/x). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 f c" ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 36. 34. 31. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. . 1 6.1 + x. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 + c. 43. 41. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 39. . 52. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 33. 40. 46. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 42. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). n.2? 50.l).)(ai + &.
759.294 753. [1r^ T 1 i . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 2V2 2V3 . 758. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 754. JU.. 761. ~ r* x . 757.1+J 756. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.
c 792. 794. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 103 788. 10 785. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 3J . 783. 13 799. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 790. 793. 806. a 9442V5. 16 + 2V55. Va 809. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 7512V21.VlO. x 782. 787.2 V30. 92VI5.4 V(j. 14 791. 789. + 2V21.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.2V3* ^ 807. . . 3812VIO. . 786. .12VIT.
/9ar a: = 17. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.13 = 0.f 5 = V5x + 4. V14 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 814.g. 829. 819. 3 x + 2 .V2 ar 10. VaT+lJ f ^l . Va: . + 103Var.Vc^lJ . 816. 812.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 815. = 1.79. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. x/aT+l . 831.\/2y  810. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 811. V3 f 1 V4a. + ViTli + V7 .4 = 0. 833. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 820.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 830. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. + Vx .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. \/12 a. (x a: 2 ) 4 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 818.V? = 813. 836.
. a. f b**. 2 f" + a/ 15. x 4 + f 2 a. 4 a: 2 842. 851. 27 y 8. 845. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 729 867. 6. 865. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 870. x 8 2 857. y 4. 871.1.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 4 x* 847.3 .x*y + 3x f 2. a 8 873. 64. 275 8 l.12. 4 x 8 858. 852. a l0m . 8 . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. z*y 8 l64a. +3 4 +  4. 8 2a. a*" & 6n . a. + 512 y8 874. 864. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 8 8 848. 855. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 8 860. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a: . a. . 2 a: 64 y*. 16 859. 856. 8 8  13 a.1000 6. 853. + 1. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.3 x . 875. a. + . 5 a 4 7 a8 . a 872. a 18 4.a.10 = 118. f 841.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 4o. 846.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 9.3 Va: 2 . 27 862.ab9 ft*. . 19 x 14. a 8 850. a 8 869.3 a:. 863. . 2 x 3.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. f 12. 844. V4 x 2 . . a. 64 a 866. 840. a. 8^27^.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a: 849. 861. 868. 4 a. 8 4a: 8 a. 839. 8 + a: 5 8 a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.  3x a. 6 2 f 3 6 s.
ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 + xy = 10.y 2) = 20.xy + y 2 = 19. a: 888. y y 2 y 2 1121. a: + y 2 = 34.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.298 877. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 . + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 895. 889. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 896. y*+ xy .35. y 2 4. 3 x 2 . 885. a: 2 897. a: a. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 886. 2 . . y 2 2 8f. 890. 894. a# f + xy = 126. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.sy = 198. 878. xy + y = 32. 2 2 = 16 y. x 8 3 = 13:3. . x a: lI = xz . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. +y f y = 7. . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 5. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. x*xy. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 + 2 f = 17. . . 887. y = 28. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.18.1 = 2 a#. 883. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 899.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a. 2 + y 2 . f ?/ a: a: . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + xy = 28. M1 891 1 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 884.y 2 + V(j. z 2 898. a. x 882. 2 = 2 + 5. a:y . 900.15. + 2y=\2.Vi' + 1 1_3. 901. 1 x 893.
906. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.3)2 = 34. 921. y . 907. 909.x) = 21.y) (a? . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.r a. . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. y + a:y = 180. a:y xy 929. . xa 903. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ary y = 8. (!) * . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 2 915. + y = 9. a: y zx 12. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 910. y 3 2 2 922. * + y = 444. ^ 2 . *y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 924. or or a? a: a: . 911. 2 + y = 2 a 4. yz = 24. y x 2 = by.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. + 2 ary = 39. a: a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 920. + 2 a:y + = 243.23 = 200. 917. a: * a: a: ar 928. 914. 3 :r(3 . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 908. 23 x 2 . (a. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.y) (3 y . 923. .16 y 3 8 = . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.#y + 2 = 27. 4 (a. 912. (3 x . x 4 299 xy z 904. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 * 2 ~ g.y). + y 8 = 189. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y = a(ar + y). x f 2 a:y = 32. (* 918.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y2 = 22.2 y) = 49 2 919.6.3(* + y) = 6. x 2 ry + y = 3.3) 2 f (y . + y)(a. 2 913. xy + x= 15. x + y 2 = aar. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. = 8. 2 5 xy = 11.y) = 33. Vary + y = 6. + ?/) . 7 y . 905. # + xy + y = 7. a. + ary = a*. 2 2 2 916. 3 y 8 ) =1216. (o. + a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.
152. two squares is 23 feet. (y + *) = .102. and the difference of 936. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 3. 937. two squares equals 140 feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows.300 930. 34 939. is 3 . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. Assuming = y. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. a second rec8 feet shorter. 943. rate each man ran in the first heat. feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. two numbers Find the numbers. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. 942. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. A and B run a race round a twomile course. feet. 2240. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. *(* + #) =24. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. + z) =108. s(y 932. and the sum of their areas 78$. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. y( 934. Find the sides of the rectangle. diagonal 940. How many rows are there? 941. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and also contains 300 square feet. + z)=18. and 10 feet broader.000 trees. is 20. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. find the radii of the two circles. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 931. z(* + y + 2) = 76. In the second heat A . The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 935. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. A is 938.square inches. 944.
triangle is 6. that B A 955. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. and that B. Two starts travelers. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 950. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. distance between P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. whose 946. 951. . at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 949. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. P and Q. set out from two places. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and travels in the same direction as A. overtook miles. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. . its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. A and B. Find the eter 947. the digits are reversed. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find its length and breadth. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. 953. sum Find an edge of 954. Find the number. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and if 594 be added to the number. unaltered. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find the number. and its perim 948. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. each block. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. at Find the his rate of traveling. 952. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. . was 9 hours' journey distant from P.
such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. *" 968.. Sura to 24 terms....302 956. 9th and llth terms of an A. 957. 1G series . x(x to 8 terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 975. 970.  2. 1 to n terms. 974.4142 . \ . 966. Sum to 20 terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. the terms being in A.. fourth of the unity. 969.321? 965. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Find n f (ft) . P.to infinity. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. are 29 and 53. 36 963. to infinity. s  88. P.v 973. 4 4 to 7 terms . ^ 1 . = 4. to n terms. !Ll^ + n . Evaluate (a) .>/) to infinity.. + (iiven a +  4 d ... ^ Vfirst five 959. 971.1 4 f j$V .. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 4. f + 1 . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. 961.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Find an A. Find n. n to n terms. 18th terms of an A. .. and 976. 12434+ j I 967. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras... How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 5. 3 . Find the Find the common 977.. to 7 terms. 958. 16 962.V2 . ^1 + Vj 1 2  . difference. J. 3 + 5 7 + .. 964.. (x 4 to n terms. 972. (to 2 n terms).3151515. Find the sum of 4.. . P. '.454. Sum Sum to infinity.. P. 5.141414. .
What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . to oo.. Find four numbers in A. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . of n terms of an A.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 986. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received... 303 979. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.. to infinity may be 8? . and of the second and third 03. 980. 1. Find four perfect numbers. 992.04 + . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find n. and the common difference. 989.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. is 225. and so on. 985.01 3. 4 grains on the 3d. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.2 . "(.001 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . : + 9   V2 + . named Sheran. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.1 + 2. 2 grains on the 2d. to 105? 981. P. P. The 21st term of an A.. 990. The term. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find the first term. 0.+ lY L V. . first 984. 5 11. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 987. The sum 982. P.001 4. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54... Find the sum of the series 988.) the last term the series a perfect number. to n terms.
in this circle a square. ft. 1001. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. and G. Under the conditions of the preceding example. and so forth to infinity. Two travelers start on the same road. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The sum and sum . (6) the sum of the infinity. P. 997. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. are unequal. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. If a. inches. 1000. at the same time. AB = 1004. in this square a circle. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. c. The fifth term of a G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. find the series. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. are 28 and find the numbers. prove that they cannot be in A. P. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 998. . In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. 994. 1003. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The sum and product of three numbers in G. ABC A A n same sides. (a) after 5 strokes. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. is 4. 512 996. areas of all triangles. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. P. 995. of squares of four numbers in G. 999. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second.
Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. a: 8 7. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1009. 1008. 1012. . 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.ft) 19 . 1011. Expand  2 a. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of ( . ) 1021. Find the two middle terms of 1013. 1006. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).l) w f . + lQ . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. (12 #) 7 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (1 1018. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the middle term of 1020. 1014.o/) 14 . x) 18 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. .
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54.. Checks Coefficient 20. 232 mean progression . . lowest ratio " '* .] Abscissa Absolute term . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 19.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 9...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . 129 54. 246 91 " multiple.. 9 ** . 8 . 112 54 54 251 .. .. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .. 158. 129. . .. . . 232 169 807 .. linear literal Common ** * difference . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . ... t 53 120 . simple simultaneous .... Aggregation. 97... Brace Bracket Character of roots . graphic tion of representa .193 11 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 ... . . 37.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.... 160 in quadratic form 191 .130 . ... .. signs of Algebraic expression . .. . . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . . . numerical .... ...108 160 " . 123 . .. ... quadratic . . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ....178 Completing the square . .. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. .
. arithmetic ..808 Exponent Exponents. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 227 geometric . first and second ..105 Monomials 03 Multiple. G.154 Order of operations " of surds . . 45. Product '* 76 Infinite. directly. Inconsistent equations . . . P .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . Imaginary numbers .. Like terms Linear equation . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Negative exponents 11 . law of Extraneous roots . .31. . .. exponent .. 120 Member.. . 91 . Mathematical induction . . 212 . 253 28 70 1.108 Minuend . addition of " square of . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Insertion of parentheses . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 243 7 . . 45 Laws of signs . INDEX 8 .. . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . 112 . .. 45. 227 . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.251 Graphic solution of simultane.C Multiplication . 23 10 91 102. 189. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 143. . 184 54. 17 65. 205 . L.. 109 102 .. 9. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . . inversely 122 numbers . Geometric progression . numbers . 34.. .. 84. Known numbers . .. . 63. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 180. .. 114. . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 195 33.. . 241 123 geometric .
. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 45 Trinomial 240 . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.... ... . 129.... 9... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. . . binomial Third proportional Transposition .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76..... Sum.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . .. algebraic Surds . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. absolute 54 Variable .. 27 17 Unknown numbers ... polynomial .. 4 155 9 " of . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... . ..
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
S. August. Set up and electrotypcd. Gushing Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. 1910. Mass. Norwood. Published September.A. 1913.COPYRIGHT. December. U. 1910. 1917. NorfoooS J. 8. Berwick <fe Smith Co. . Reprinted April. 1916.
A $90.  22 20. 13 d. 2. 7. T . 27. 13. 28. 2. x. 3. 20 jo. 8. 12. 9. 5000. 24. 20. . 1. 10. 144. + 1. 3. A . 2. 19. 16.  1. 22. 512. . 23. _ 32. 3. 17. C $1(50. 26z. 25. in. 3. 8 13. . 4. 7. 14. 12. 2. 6. 12. 10. 11. 8. 1.21 24. 18. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 9. 8. ^. 8. 8 ft. 13 S. 73. arithmetic. 11. 3. 9.  2 p. 115. 85. 3. 30. 5. 4. 9 14. 5.150. 2. 12. 32. 3. 2. 32. 2. 37. 28. 1.. 6.. 3. = 5 81. 13 V. ft. Multiplication. 0. 5. 17. 6 yd. 26.000. 18.. 16. is $10. 15. 36. 30?. 20 \. 18.1. 1. $40. 14. 7.000. 21. 29. 25. 9. 16 in.000. 16f 2.3. 1.. 12. 64. 3. 12. 12. 13. 1. westerly motion. }. b. 11. 12. 150. 6.C. B 10 mi. 49. 1. 6.. 15. 16. 4. 2.. 6. 13. A 15.2. 6. Ot 15. 1. 20. Yes. 10. Not 5. $ 1 50 10. 14 11. 22. 13. 14. 15. 7m. 27. 7. 16. Page 1. Page 4. South America 46. 8. 16. C $60. 7.000. 19 4. 18. 3 below 0. 18. 6. 1. 2.. 576. 10. 10. 25. 4. 3 m. 32. 14. Australia ft. 21. 4. 8. 2. 3* 7. 4. 14. 89. 16 in. 18. 24. 14. 10g. 49.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 5. 3. 17. 2  Page 8. 16.000. in 12.000. 6. 9. V 23. 9 16  larger than 7. 5. A 38 mi. 2. 7. 16. 10. 8. x. 3. 25. 9 = 4. 1. 6. 9 m. 7. 14. B $4700. per sec. B $80. 3. 5. $100. 3. 192. 1. 32. 10. in. B $ 128.000 Indians.000. 5. 6. 126. 210. B $20. 19. 2 ~ 15. 11. 21. 14. 2. 20 B. C $ 16. 19. 7. 17. 13. loss. 9. i . 0. 16.  13. 3.$9400. sign. Seattle 12 Philadel 9... 1 16. 72 = = 216. .12. 2. 12. sign. 15. A Bl 7. 20. 1. 17. 48 ft. 2. 6. 3. 20. 4. 106. $160. 16. 24. 27. 256. 9. 1. 59.000. Page?. 37 S. (a) (/>) 1. 2 5. 5. 1. c. 9. 6* 16. 10. . 11. 3.00000001. 3. 9. 1.8.  1. 6. 12. 128. Page 8. 7. 29. Page 13. 15.000 negroes.
9. 7. 18. 14. 4. 28. yyz+xyz*. ft. 3. 1. Trino inial. + 5. mi. 30.q 4. 6. (a) 200. 6<t. . 4. 0.r 2 . m 24. 28. . 5. + v> 2 . 3. 57. 26. I. in. 4 y/ . 39. 15.. arty 1 20. 3a. 1. 38. :. +/2(/. m + 3(a. 31. 15. WIN + wiw. 14. (ft) Page 2. (c) S(i. . 3. 6.4 ft. 12. 0. (r) 78. 8. (ft) 12. 33. 10. 0. .1. 34. r:A 29.94(>. It. 35. <i~ 26.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 21. 30. . 0. 27. 32 2 ftc.x. 3. ]*. 21. 104.. 7. c. 00 24 04 ft. 18. 51 f.ft) 4. 42. 173. 9. 5. 16. ft n.. 11. 5. 9. 25. 92. 17. in. $80.5f> sq.  3. 0. 14. f  5e 35. . Va'+Y2 8^2 . 11. 14. r/ \(\xyz. 20. 25. 34.000 sq. 22. 32. 17. (a) r>23ifcu.<>Gq. 36. ft. 2ftx.. 2. t. ft. 26. 314 sq. . 29. 15. 14. 14:). Binomial. 2. 22. _ 4 . 18. 13. 10. 13 cu. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 7.'JO ft. :J!>r'. 7. 11.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 2. 1. 18. 5x+3.  11. (c) 8. 27. 3 . (a) 50. = 81. 37. 29. ft' 3 . 237. 15. Page 18. (b) 135 mi. 27. (ft) mi. 49.  0. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 3 a* + 2 at*. + ft). 3. 13. Page 23. r+l.a . 31. Page 31. 36. (59. 24. 8.r~ f 34. 31. 25. 30.14 sq. 3. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 27. 18. (r) 2G7. in. = ()501. vi 14. //'. 3. 27.ab. 16. 5. 35.. 20(.. 0. ft. 8. 13. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 19. 2.rty8. 4. 16. 58. 24. 6. 12. 1.  40. sq. ??i??. 14. 16. 3. o^ft. 8. . 2x' 2 5 . \'\ 4. 7. w. 23. II. 33. 1.~4.GOG. 21.  1. 8. 3(c4a). a ft c. 7 7. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. rt. (ft) $40.9?/2 8. 12. 20. (a 4 4. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 17. 41. a 32. 12. 0.4  2ft 2 33. 1.32 c2 > ft 3 . 10.. 5.. x^ 20. 1.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 5. 3. in.. (r) 2000 m. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 12 a. 20. 12. 19. 28. 4.r f 15. 4 9/^/rl 2. 12yd.900. 22.ft. 16. 8. a2 4 15^44. ft. 21 a 3 4 10. $3000 Page 6. 50. 2. 0.. 21^. y. 9. (a) <> sq. Page 21. 23. 17. 3rf 27. ^. 13. 8.. 5. 1. i:5. 35.  12. 13. 27. (r) 2. . 2oVmf?i.. Polynomial. 17. 13. 9. ^). Page 7.5 (ft) sq.'J. 32. 12. 11. 43w//2 17. 04.000 . 2. Polynomial. 19. (ft) 7. 1. 15a.6) 38. 38 ab. Pagel4r. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 4. ft f 19. 5. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 22( 19. 15. 14. 8. 4.. 15.  xV 3 y. jrif 4 9. 0. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). Monomial. 22. #1111. 240.
14.2. 4wipg>' 27.a .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 36. 4. . 31. 10 x. 1. 22. 24. 37.r 2. 2m + 2w. 15. 4r 2 . 15. 7.2 a. 2 3. Page 7. . r. (yz~d}. 19. 0. a  ISjfat. . 2.'U4j>. M + 10.  23. ( 7. 34 39. 11. 51. 8. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 6. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 21. 7. 2 2. + 6. 14. 59. (2n' 43p 47 ). a + (ftc4df). 2 3x f z. 31. 2 a 37. 10. 32..1. 5. 13. 7. 1. 3. 0. . 4. lOrt 15w4.2 57. 4 21. 2. c. 2 . 55. 1. :5 41. _5a<>&43c. 2.2 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. x3 . s_r>a5. (mn} 11. ?> 22.a f 54. a2 9.  4 b 17 y*.l. . 4.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 6. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. !  </ . 3 a3 & 41. 10 m.  b.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2. 12.1 . 25 47. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2. &. + 8. a 6 2 . 4ft ~.h. 21. 2 + a4l). 10.ws 2 ft) .  b* 4 r 1 . 40. 8 8 . 26.5 z?/ + 3 y . x  + 3z. ri\ 18. '  .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 11. 2a: 2 4x. 58. . a 52. 2. .5. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 3. ab a. 2 17. a  49.abc. 4. a 3a 4 2 &. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 17. 2 4. 20. 4. 50. 15. 6.4c 3 8 8 J. ?>4tl 53. 2 a f 6 414.4 d. 3 a . 5 2 Page 29. 2 y' 4 . G. 2x 4 a 13. . 1 + 45. 2.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 8.a*. 364c. j)(g1. 16. .(2 x2 . 21.. ii\ 22. 6. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2m. (w4w)(ww). 17. 5. 13. . c.a'2 . 29. ?/i 13. ?/. 12.c. 19. 24.  14 afy . 2 . 5. 32 w 2 w. 14. . . ^ <. 1. 22. 36. _ Page 30. a). 56.4x. 1 4. 5x 2 rt ft. w* ( . 14. a 10w. 3 Ji 8 . a 3& .a~.x f 1 2 . Exercise 16. ft Exercise 17.  1. 8.2 a2 2m 2 4. a2 24. 814. ar. 7  a + 2 + c. (5x47 3. 42.11. 4. 8 . ti. Page 28. 9.Oa: + 10.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 34. 33. 24.4. 35. 30. f ft 9. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .  12. . 8 + 2 a . 28. Page 44. a 3 . 10. 1. Page 8. 7  # + 12. 18. a' 4ab + ?/. 2 2 2 6. 25. 2// 16.  a: 2. 11.  17. w 17.8(c + a). . 25. 26.r. 8 b. 38. 12. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .6 x + 0) 16. 2. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2 6. a. 2. a f 2 f 2 9. 16. 3. \ :{ 2 a 48. 7 a5 1 . 18. 7. n*. 20. a 4 + ft. a4 4 4.7. 26. G a bd. 2. . 12. 1. t). 20. mn. x a8 1. 2a. + 4 c. m*  n*. 24 b 46.(7x2 Ox2). 0. 3 m.  G J8 r  4 a <?. + 2y. 43. a a. f 2 ?/  2.aft. . c2 . 18. a + a. 19.3 6.3x 2 2 tf. 5. 25.
90. 16.19p" + 19^ 10 . 21.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2 a2 (y 2 . . 6 ..21. 33.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a: . 1. 22. 8 .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 24. 3.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. + O4 66 . 3 a 2 46. ll 2 i. 24. 22. 29. 14. 11. 20 aW.7(50. 216.16 x2/ 5 4. 0. 16. 23. (+3)x6=+16. 34. 3(*+0 + 2). 3300. 16. 3. 38wiw. 28. 4 a2 . 29. 15 q\ 6. 18. 27. 17. 30. 4aWy. f 26. 13. 15. 8. 13. 11. 2 8 xy f 4 a.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. ! 2. 16 51. .26. . 6.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 36. 2 2 2 . 30. iSx8 . + 58 . 30. 24.14 w 2 2 . 13. 14 m 2 . 4. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.1. 127"'. . ?/ . 20. 60.32 y s s G . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 13.000. 12 ^. 1. 04. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 84. 12 x2 2 . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 76 8 a' 1 . . 5aft(a 126 2). ft 17. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7. 14. 3. 11. 28. n (a6) 125.14 . 26.36 35. + 7. a*b*c. 21 a'&c. 34.6 2 . ci 5 .. . ?> 4 . +15.32. a. 6". 83 In + 1 n*. 17. 7. ^^ = 20. 25. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 10. 360. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 27. 9. a + ft. 770. 31.15. 120. 0.:>/ . 2 * 80 . 24. 2 . 13. Page 38. Page 36. 4 a8 . 6. 19. fa 2.64 190 p6. 37. 18. 20. 7. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 22. 2''. 12. . 18> ^* = a . .10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 16. 24. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 19. 4 jcy*z*>. 4. 3. +. 1. 30. 8. 12. 1. 9. 2 n8 29 a + 30. Ox a 5 . 14f 5. 4. 2*8f x2 6x4. . 20. //. 27. 29. ISartyW e*f*tj. 18a% y.18 w w + 10 WI M . 4. a 8 . 30 j9 jt?g j .2. 14. 2 7t A. . 15. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 15. 20.6) =a2 31.12. 60. 31. 25. 343. 8. 30. 18. 2 ). 14. 52 + 6s 12. 9 13. 23. 7G . 35. 20. 40 r 2 . 42. 16. 23. 7. 12.12. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 27. . 3 a 3 . 21. 18.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . s 9 ww. . 210. 30. 19. 32.11 xyz . 66 8W 34. 33.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. Page 5. 22. 9. 18. 108. 25 4 4. 25.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 5. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 15. 10. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 5. 20. . 2. 161b. 2 ).. 4 fc. 108. 42.28 p'^/. 6. 15 lb. 19. 15. 30 n?b*c*. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 2. 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.21 a 3 c2 21. 161b. 17. 102.r% 2 2 ry.>(/ r . 32. a. 29. 27. a. 8. 11. 18. 1904. 17. 2. 16 lb. Page 35. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 6. 34.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 28. Page 3.iv ANSWERS + &)(.20 xyz . 21. 26.44 aWc 16 abxy. 23. m. 25. 33.8 12. 1. 216..(3x2_4^+7). 64. Page 7. 66 39 k* . .25 + 14. 28. 10. 4200. 4. 4. etc.16 a 2 + 32 a . 1. x2 xy42^. 8. 2 w +2 2 . 10. 1400.19 + 2.
4 . m 3 j) 3 . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 8 a W .14 jp + 49. 2 a 2 + a . 56. 7> . 10.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . . 1.810. 1). 8. a + 56. ' 46. 18. a3 0.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2 m3 + 4m2 .2 y*.^ + a? + 1. 1. 36. 9.r . . 31. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 53. + 2 9.r* 2 30. . 4 + 25 q*.5 ~ 81. Om2 4 6m 6. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. + 3)(3). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 29. . 36 a 4 . 41. 25 a 2 6 2 . 25 25. . 15. 23. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 33. 10. 2 a' y' .008. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 38. 57. 42. .6. 4 2 //. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 2 4 a + 4. 15. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 21 2 . 9990. .35 ab 9. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. ~ 6 20 .54 p 2 + 81. p 2 . . fo*. 4. (a (3 54.020. . 24. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 14. +4 34.x2y22. 8 38. 10. 2 1: 21. 24. 9 4 /> .6 x2 13. + 10 + 121 y*.009. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.712. (w4)(w + l). Page 39. 10. 44. 6.ANSWERS 28.m 30 6 4 1.ab . 45. 4 21. 484. a4 4 ?/ . 14.10 x + 25. 39. 2 (5 a 3). a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. . 33. 37.009. 41. 5.020.996. 35. 9801. x*2^f I. 8. 1. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. x 48. 2 . 19. 2 0)(p + 5). 2 . a 2 .6 xy . ^V^4 .20. s rc 47.^. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.1. 2. 2 j3 Z . +  m' 1. 30 /><.25.2 x + 2 x. 37. 40.. 32.r . 28. 40. 2 fr . 2. r.16 a3 f 50.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. + 4 t*.p132.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 30 x + 19 x3 . 31.49. 998. 39. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.098. 11. 26. 32. . 10. ?/H)0.000./ . 2 6' .4 12.500. V + o ft . 166.000. 19. 35. 3. 2 +10s281. a' . 4x21. 16. 10. . + 12. 999. 29. ) 4' 6/ 49. 10. 990. + 4 a +4. 34. Page 12.ri 17.4 a&+ 4 &*. 7. 3.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . +   5). ^' J  7 f 12. 2 12. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 30. a + 25. y. ft' 11. 27. ab . 7. 40. + 7 6)(3a~76>. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 55. 51.6 y4 10. 6. 36. ab. . 25. 17. 36. 7 . 11. G a6 2.201. 9. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 5. n + 2. 4. 26.15. 27. 4 x2 13. (w+4)(m4). 10 a' 2 .001. . 31. (a + 4) (a + 2). 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. m 2 .994.10 35.84 a' 9.2 6 + 13.2. 9999. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 34. x* .3. 4 . 12 x2 .8. a2 ' + 48Z100. 10..00 + 37. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 10 a 4 ?. x2 GiC+5. 7. x 4 ?/4 + ab . . 52. 6 2 + 6lf>0. (p 2.404. 10. I/). 1. 14. 8. 10.606. a + 25. 20a 2 21a + 4. x4 28. lflrt 2 8 + l. 4. . 441. 1. 2 4 2 2 64 . 2). ^/> 8 4 . x 2 f xy + 9 41. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 10.^V"' . 1. n2 a4 6. 3wi2 m Page 42. (m + 6)(m3).4 n. 2 62 V2 132.004. (n 2 5. 33. p4 + .
11 4. 14.r' ~ 16. a. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4 a* 4 9 11.  3 c. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.2 .2 2 . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. r/2 4. 10. 6.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2.7. 19. 11. aft. l 4 .24 . 5 a  (5 ft. 5. 2 2 + 2 a. 4 d 2 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.1. 6. r 7. 6x 3. 75 a 2 29.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. Page 11. '. 2 . abc 7. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 8 r<ft 4 2 .y3. 7 r . 2.  5 z* .2 wZ 4. i 2 tji. 6. 8 x . 10. 49. 2 a 3 ft. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. *3 y 4 . 5. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 12.30 ftc. x 4. . a 8 4. 1/*. + x?/ 2 1. 4xy + 13 <) . yfl.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.r ?/ ??i ?).c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 1. 22. aft 12.2 . 9. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . + 4. 2 12. as _ 10 16. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. ?/2. 13.9 d. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 16. 2 4. 3.34.2 .3 5. c3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 2 1. 9.x^. 1000 1000 . 3*y2 w + 1.2 ftc . 1.+ 77 15.1. +w . 13. Osy. . 4. 3.r'^ 15.5 a .15. 18. m'2 3. 3. 2.r?/. 4 c m . 2 4 2 x 4. 3. 47. 13. 13.1.2 2 2 8 . 1. 4. w 2 .3 x 2 2 4. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 2 . 01. . z. 12. 17.21 2 2 f + .29. 9.1.r?/ j/. Exercise 2 a:// 26.2 aft 4. 4 x.15 21.1*5 2 r 2 . 12. 3 aft 20. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 4. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 8. 2 ?/' . 1. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . w .2 1 //. 2. i 9. x4. 4 pq. 2 4 3 9. 44. 5. 8. 13. 8.  12 y 25. . 9. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 9. Page 22. 5. 7a3ft. 5. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.3 a 41. _ 2 a . 5. 4 ac. .27 x 2 4. 14. . 4. 20 15. 4 a 2 4.n.2. 12. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 46.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.10 xy*. ft* ft / .> 10. aftc 52. 14.25. y 7. 6. ft. Page 51. 5. . 3. Page 13.4. . . ??. 4.5 n*. 21. 20. 8 ?/ . . 18. m L 4. 7. 4x43?/. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.  11. 3. 21. x 2 + 2r f J. + 3.lit x + 4. 17. 15. 1. 2 ?/ 4. . Page 7. 13. G.2 <</.VI ANSWERS 43.2 ac . a 10.1.9 4. 5 4 a Oft.2 ar. ft 17. a 4 4 ft. 16. 14.23.1.1. 2.12 aft 4 20 ac . . 135. 4.r .3 ry. 2. c 12. 15./ 4. 4ft. 24. . 17. r ft.6 :rs 4. 4. 6. a 2 . 3 a.5 mp. 10 ft. 2 ? 14 . 4.3 3. 12.8 y.w. Exercise 27.8. ti'jry1 7. 5. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.8.000. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 1.rw f 8 . f>r* 4.25 c . 50. 14.10 2 + z 2 410. 5^418(7. 8. 5. 19. . 10. r//. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 1. 26. .8 yn . . sr 11. 8. j) . 8. 11.  10.rw. 16.  . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 23. :r !>.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .3^V. 14 r 2 .r" 20 S? . /r . 125. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 8 ?/ . // 19. Page 48.
25. ^ 12 sq. 7x 2 Page 21. 10. . 13. 18. 33. 100= ^.  9 = 17 a. x = m. 50= L 100 15. 2=10. b. 2 ct. 6. 45. 27. Jj12. 60 25 1. 24. 7. 1. 5. 7. Page 40. y ?>i x + 26. xy ft. 0. '^ . = 5 ?i x 460. . 12.7). 32. 38. 21 2. 3. 12. 23. x 2y 10 act. . Page 6. / + y + a// 12 yr.000. Page 31. % 4. (A) 3 x f (4 x .x700. lOx 10 + w. + f + b 2. 10 a. 100 d ct. ? 43. 18. y 100 a 24. 4.ANSWERS Page 9. 19. r tx mi. 57. 16. I. 4. 11. 10. 40. 5. .r ct.. d. fix. 00. 10 yr. 37. 37. "mi. vil 56. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 20. 20. 47. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. X 60. ( a f 4. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. (</) 2a. 0. 36. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 3 9. 9. x + 1=a. 30. # + 20yr. f (I. 25. 2.  2\. 8. 2. r>?imi. m+ 11. 15. (c) 2x. 8. 5. 6. 2b. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). ct. ft. 4(a ft) c = 8. y yr.(3x  700) = 5. 22. d + !. v (6) 2x. I. <>.6 = *. 100 2. x 48. 15. 2.. 1. lO. 10 >_&. x 49. (>. 16. 13. 7. 44. 9. 2. rn mi. b. 6. ct.rr2.p+7. 2. 36. 35. 41. f = eZ 2 x. (> 27. 11. 30. 10 x sq. 10. 5. 8 n  10 yr. 38. 3x2. 22. 'nj 100 a 28. 29. 4. 14. 6.  />) a = all. 1. 4. 58. 41. 33. iL*. y 50. 43. ] 2 ri 42. (a) ' 12. Page 13.100. x. . 29. 13. 4 f 39. a 8. . 5.ab a. 39. 34. 3. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.  6 10. 100 14. f 6)(o 62. !). 31. " lir. Page 61. 17.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 28.  1$. 7. 14. 44. 26. 19. + 3x + 2y + 32. . 6. 1. n M. 7. 11. + 10 b + c ct. 10. y 2z p= 3 (a c. (d) 2a + 10 = n. a 10. x y $ 6 yr. (2 a.r1. 42. 17. 20. s. 4. 7.10) 100. 2. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 46. 2b 22. 23.. l. 3x  1700) = 12. 2x + 35. 1&. }f. + 3 = 2(3* . 5. + 4x 3y 34. ft. </ 20. 800 = x + 1300. 17. 3. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. sq. 1. m +~m 3. 16. 4^ = 100.. 7. ft.(3x+ = rraxlO. ct. 59.
(a 4) (a. 20 yd. 9. 11. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 20 yr. 10 yr. 9.1). 18. 17. 1. 13. Ib. 600. w (/) 64. ( + 4)(*2).411. 8. 2. 180. 7. 2. 10 Cal. 10. 6. 1. 14. 4.y").2). 3. 5. 9.000 gold. 85 ft. Page Page 4.5.210^. 20. (y8)(y + 2). (a + 5)(a + 6).11. 7. 52. (y7)(y + 2). 15 yd. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).. 250. 200. (y + 8)(y2). 16. 50. a a (a 8 a+l). z?/(4^ + 5xy . 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000. 22.3.13.6). 90. Page Page 4. 28yr.000.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 12. 75. 1.  PageSO.21.3aftc + 4). 2. 15. 4. 8. 9. 11. 3. 14. 150. 4. 68. 70^.24. . (6) (6 a 30) =20. 9. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 1. 67. 3. 42yr. 8 2 19. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. (z5)(z2). 30 mi... 3 hr. 21. 13. 2.000 Phil. 6. 12. 8 in. 11.. 8. 23. 7. (y 13. 30. 6. 45 in. 200. (a + 6) (a + 3). + 7)(y3). 8. Page 79.. 2. (c) ^ v ' . 12.79. Page Page 480 12. 14. 10 Mass. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 6. 6. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. (e) i* + A. .000 ft.000 N. Page 7. a 12. 2$. 15 in. 80 A. 6..16. (yll)(y4). 15. 82 mi. 12. 9. 7 hr. 5$ hr.. 05. 1313. 2. 25 yr. 10. 480. 74. (ro3)(w2). Page 5.10. 14. 19. 5 lb. 10 yr. 71. 3 (a +&)(*.8.2. 29. 8 12. 2 2 ?/ 21. 8.000 Berlin. 7a*fe(2a & l).. Page 7. 15. 1200. 10. 78. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 4pt. ~=90.5p + 7 g ). 10. 9 in. (p + 7)(3a5&). 3. 6rt 2 11. $40. = _?_(2ar + 1). 3. 5.000 copper. 15. 12 mi. 17.000. 7.. 8.. 6.. 5 Col. 3. Y. Pace 65. 25.0. 40 yr. 20.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 13.000. 90 mi. 1 lb. 5. 5pt. 4.3). 4. 13.(5z . 11. ^ . 5. (a + 4)(a + 8). 10. 13.22. 300. 12. 11 in. 24J. 10. 14. 4. 1... 72. ?(g ? g+ 1). 2).000 pig iron. 70. 15. 14. 20 yr. 12. 7. 100.000 ft. 15 mi. (m + n)(a + 6). 160 lb.3. 25.7. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 8. 10. 30 yr. Oaj(o62cd). 3. 6. by 12 yd.000. 8. 1. 2 2 2 5. 78. (*4)( + 11.000. (a5)(a4).. . 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 20.000. 2. 2 3 6 7. 18. 1200.5. 5. 11 w(w' + wi . 11 pV (2 p8 .. 100 1. 10 yd. 18. 9. . 1.0.. 1250. 7. 3x (3r. 55. 30.
9. y(x. + 4) (a. 23. 18. (4al)(a2). a*(5a f l)(flr . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 10(2 30. (2xl)(x + f>).4p). 24 9.y) 2 aft. + 3). (2 a? 4. (a. (5a +l)(5a l). 15.1). 25. 7. (x + y4 )(x . (m7n) (a. 9. (3*2)(. 12. 14. 2 No 4. 14. 22. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 29. 20. (a + 8)(a3). 21. 21. Yes. (7 a + 4) (2 a . Yes. (5wl)(m5). 20. (* + y)(zy). 13x7. 25.11 6) (a 4. 9. (6n + l)(+2). 34. a . (a 6 6) (a 4. (4 13. + 3)(c44). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 10. (2yl)(y + 9). (4 18. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). + y + . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). Yes. + 2y). (0 + 6)(66). (6 a. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 35. .6) 2 1. 25. . 24. 17. 2). (5 a 2) (2 a 3).2 by2 6. 100 (a. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). . (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). . a. 10. + 0(90 Page 85. 23. No. 1. f 2). (13a +10)(13a 10). 26. 18. + 5) a. .2). (15z2y)(x5y). 216 aft.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 15. (az + 9)(ox2). Yes. 10 a 2 (4 . a(2u. 4. 29. Page 83. . . Yes. 24.2 y). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 11.   . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 3. 30. No. 20. 5. (<7 20.1).1). ix 18. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 28. 3. 7. (w + 20)(w + 5). 28. + 8)(g3). 23. 22. 21. 8. 24. (a a: 19. y) 2 29. 17. No.11 ft)(a6). 36. 100(x. 31. 35. 8) (a. 16. 16. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 30. . 16. No. (15ay2) 2 . Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 34. (10a + ft)(10aft). (15a + 46*)(16a46).5y)(3a. 2 2 15. Yes. Yes. 23. 7. 7 6) (a 10 6). . 26. (y8) 2 2 . 3a.9*).y (6x + 4)(5x4). Page 82. 31. 26. 103x97.. 10(a + ft)(aft). y) (a. 11.1).ANSWERS 16. 8. 2.3). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 9. 22. 2 17. 25. 33. (w ~ n (x . (5x . 13. 22. Yes. (y + 4)(yl).y4 ). 27. 12. 25. 10. 26.  x (5 a. . 3)(3a. 27. 32. 6. 9. 28. 6. . (m + n + 4p)(w + . .4. 12. 1.7) (a. x(x +y)(x y). 32. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 10(a . 19. (ay8)(ay3). (2 *+!)(* 9). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (w* (3a26).r2). (4y3)(3y + 2). 3. 4 (a . Yes. 1. 2. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 11. Yes. x\x 24. (ft + ll)(aftll). 10(3 5 6) 2 .* (2 y + 3)(y. 21. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5).2 ft). 27. 2 3 by2 Yes. (a 3 + 10)(a.8). 10.2). Page 84. 33.7)(2z f 1).3)(z2).6) 2 2 . 17. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 40 x. (3a. (m + w) 2 5. (a (p8)0> + l). 5.c 2 ). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 2. 8. ( 2 4 19. + 9^)(oxy . x (z + 2)(x + 3). Yes. . (3#y)(+4y). (4a. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (2o + l)(2l). (g . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (9y4)(y + 4). 4. No. 3(x + 2)(zl).4 6). 19.+4 y)(3x4 y). 14. (:52y)(2a!3y).
'J)(' .4. (w4w) 2 1.9). Page 92. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2. 12. (r420(4 10. 18. 27. (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 2 10.  WIM. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 4.l)( a 25.8).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.42 x 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (m  I)' 6. 20. 42a 3 x. 1. r x 2 */3 . a8 . 4  9.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 5. 6 f c).X 5. 28. a (a + 2 6).y '2 2).b. Gp).'})(c . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (5a+l)(9a).3. x 4. (x//.))(x  ^OC 1 1). (5^4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 13. 6. 13. Page 12. 3x(x?/) 4.?>) H. 7.y)(fi a . y(2x?/). x(x f y)(jr . 4. 4 6. 7. .3. ( { &). (f> + fo 7. y). 8. 5  (2 2 . .36). ^ . 5. b) (r 4. y )(. 10(2 (3 4. (x. (5 31. 1(V/ 88. n  r)(5a 10. 4. 2 (a 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4.1).8) ( (16. 41. 8.e 4. 24x sy s 9. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 3. (!__/>). Exercise 46. 2(m4l)' .4). (> 1. 4 3.0+ 12). 6. . (* _ 2 )(a 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). .2)(x 1.y. 4). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). a 2 (a9). 7. a 4. 2 y) ^ . 42).>*)(:> 4 lj 4.y). 2 1. 32. ?>). 2 .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .2). 15. 7. 9.4).?50)(xt/z. (^ + ?>_8). 36. 5 x8 3. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 8. 8. (a 9. 17(x43//)(x2y). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 8. a x 3 10. 11. 8x. Exercise 47. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 12. (5 26.?/). 39.  29. 3(.8) n 43*).5 m2 x2. (a />. 40. ( (<> r4y3 . 8. ( rt 23. 2. 13( 33. 10. x . a + a b. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). y6. 17. + 2 //).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.1) 3. (a 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). Page 89. 4 a8 . + 3. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 16. (c. 450.) j). 13. (^ 7. ( y). 14. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 6. 5.!) (x42)(x2). 5. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 15. 4. 35. 11.3)(x 4. . 38.&).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 16. ofc)( fid). 14.^ 48.'/)('< 4. . 4. Page 86. 4.n). 2 + .7s) (2 a. 2. 6. Page 90. (16 4  2(5 n . 11. 4. 6.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.4. ?i(w 4y) . 8). 4 a s &8 . (. 8.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).2 y). 14. Page 87. 3 x4 . fi(c426). 13 x 8 2 . 30. 19. l. 22. ah}. (14. 2 2 3 .&).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 2 21. x  1). a 41. 2 8(w .  (w' 4. a 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 9. 15 M.7)(^ {I 12. 4. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.. 11. 3p (^9)(j) 4). x43.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).2). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 12. 37. 2 k (wi 4. 7. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 24. 7. (a &4. (w * . 6. 2.1). ( a ^)(^3. 14.
13. x 22. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( .6). a 10 25. a 23. x 24. // m+1 !+*?. 1). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. +8b a 4 3 / ^. + &) 2 ( .  1). 6a2&(rt6). 18. x 12. ?_!&.ANSWERS 10. 11. (a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15. +5 1. b ! 21. + y) (a: y).
ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.. 6. 26.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. a 5. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . A^. 4c 10. 30. 6. 0. Page 101. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 7. 2 a. 4.  **/* + 84 _. 1. Page 100. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. c 8. i. 28. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w1 + ac w 4 7. ^~ 29. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. . ' 2 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6. + lH + . 6a5f^. _*^p5_^^_.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 4 L 8 2 . + 2H 1 ^.50 ~ 1/2 . i^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 11. xy 43.
+3 ( + 15. 27. 21. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 35. 5. (y + (z 12. flf. n . 10. 1. 4. 11. n 16.y 7. 42. 3. 8. 15. 45. a. y(x + x ?/). 39. 36. 11. 46. 8. 44. 6. Page 113. an 18. 5 be _J_. 0. ^i 11. 6 . 7. 12. 6. 19. 14. 4. ' 6. 21. I) 2 3z 1. 8j_m 7 3. 6. 25. . 11. J. 26. 3. c 8.^_. 32. 3. 1. 9. 17. w^x 2 b Page 105. 3. 4. x 1. f 7. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. A. 3 7 i o. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. a 17. 16. 15. 41.ft . . 7. J. 3. 0. 43. 6. 5. 16. 2 47. 9. 4a3ft. 40. 1. 1. 6. 5. b 2.  10 X + u. 12. 4. Page 110. 12 28. (>. J. 38. 17. pf n 6 1. . ac mp lf> n 12. a2 2. 11. b a f +c 14. f Page 107. 1. 14. 11. 14. ! 4 20. x 05m ' 5. Page 111. 9. 1. 18. 1. 1. ^_. 33. 4. 24. + f.^U\WF### X<6. ?+_!?>. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 34. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 4. 37. x\. ft. 23. 15. 2ft a i m x. 2) 19. 7. 1. 13. j L . 31. 3. ?. 7. .L+ft. 21. 1. 4. 30. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 29. n m a + 13. m 9. Of. 20. 10. 5.  V o 4. Page 106.
(a) 25. 28. 7. 8301 hr. 9. min. 5 25. 24. (d) 4 da. jj. 11 hrs. 6. 20. 6. IV s. 21ft min. 30./hr. Yes.. 31. () 2. 3. Page 117. ~m . 5ft 30mi. 13. after $12. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.001. 19. Yes. '"I 22. 13. 4. " 0. 4. 15. w 44. 2x:3y. 5 2. 3:2. 75 .000. 30 yrs. 26 mi. 3. nm. 9ft.0. (a) 4 min. 7} 18. Yes.. 3. 2:1. 1:1 = 1:1. ^?i min. 6.  C . 212. 9$. 10. 21. 14. 7. Page 119. 9J oz.2. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 74. 12. 3. $0. 18.. J. min. 8. 15. n 32. 1. 18. 26. 33.004.  + . 30 mi.000. 14.139. 2. 15. 1:1=1:1. = A's. . (a) 30. (ft) 5 da.. w 18.x + y. 34.138. 1: ~. * 7:9. 10. 40 yrs. J ^'. 18. a 4 ft. silver. 1^'. 10. [>> ^ a . 7. 17.XIV '/ . 7 . 4fl M_. Page 124. 7. 10^ oz. 0. 14. after 20. 17.000. Page 121. . (ft) (r) 8 hr. . 9. 4.002. 1. 10. No. ANSWERS 16. 3. 16. 21. 14. 00. 10. 3. 40wn. 10. . 24.000 If da. #V ~~ 34. 38ft min.. (ft) 28. 7. 10 yrs. 12. after 18. No. (ft) 104. 35. (r) 3^ da. xy. 15. 24 mi. (ft) 5 hr. 10. ^m .. 11. Yes. 500. 15. 2 20. Yes.. 5. 275:108. ^p^ r ~ 7. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .000 1 = 23. 32.. Page 118. Yes. (d) 500. 81. 10. 300. Yes./hr. (a) 12 hr. . 19. 300. 30ft.. 1:1 = 1:1. 4~r~ n . (c) 8300. 300.15. w 21. 7. 1 : 12.2. (c) 2 hr. 1.11. Page 125. 19. 9. 33.. 11. 9. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. f. 15. _JL. 1:3. 8. $00. 22. 1 da. .000.} da. 16. 16.003. 8. $45. 36. $30. 12. 4. gold. 26 30.137. 7T 2 Page 116. 1:4. dn ~ mi. 4. 8.9. ft.  29. f . 5. 5. P+ ^ 33. 20. .0 & .10. 13. 19. 17. 11. Yes. $40. 40 mi. 13. 55 mi. 3 da. 1:1 = 1:1. 1. 2. :2. 8. 27. 15. 23< &n b ' . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 10. 5. 17. 20.
a f 2 2 = 5 x. (I. 2. 200 mi. 5.3. 5. 28. : XV 27.  28. 16. 11. 2. 20. . 6 10 = 12. 3.]. . + W.1.2.5. 9. mi. 1." ^ 2. 7. 10. 11. 26. 36. 53. 17.6. 4.J 3. 20 cu.' : : : : <>. 1. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.*. 4. a +b 1. 2. 7. 3. 2. .5. 8. 13. 49. 7. 5. y 1.5. 11. 50. Page 5. /. 4. Page 132.12. 3. 14. 12. \.3. 9  15. 41. ini. 3. b x 37. 8. 3. . 12.3.1. 7. . 17. 10. 141. 2. 2 n .5. 13. 14. 4.1. 26.7. 52. 3. (b) Inversely. 19 3 . Page 135. 3 2=3 x. 2.1. . Page 136. Page 134. 127. 9.15. 7. x y = 1 = 3 2. 36. 3.000 sq.. 4. 9. 8. 16. 7. 7^.. 2. 25. 2. 3. Page 9. 16. in. 3. 22. : : T 1' : /> : . 18.3.7. 7. 4. 31. a~. in n. 15> 9.20. 13. 23. 32j. mi. $. 20 20 J ^. 3}. 1(5. 2. 6.15 x. 2. 4.ANSWERS 22.36. 30. 48. 2. () 7 Page 126. *.5. land. 2. ft. J. w. 13. 7. 3. 5. a 3.  ?. 7. 2. 1. Page 131.J.22.r. 2. . 21. 9. 12.4.3. 1. 9. 7. 4. 14. \\. J. x +y x + 74 7 \.C ?/ a . 7.5. 7.a. 55. y :y =. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 11."2:1. 138.3.46.000 sq. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 4. (a) Directly. 19. x:y a: b. 1. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.x a. 54. 8. 9. 25. 2. 35.2. OJ. 23. 1 18 = 3 51.^ 0?j ' gms. 38. 2. : 23. 27. x 42. 5. .9.2. ~ 1. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 41. 4. 1. 56.li. 30. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 25. 1. 24 1 (e) Directly. 11 w a 13.4. 5. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 43. 24.1.5.4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . w 8. 1. jc:y = n:m. 21. 13J. . 5. . 31J.3. 12.5. J pq. copper. 9. cu. 6. 2. 4. 2. : />. 5.160. 2. 10. Of. . 5.2 x. 1. 40. 2. 4.4. . Inversely. l. 3. 174+ Page 128. 10. 11. 2. 15.17. 4. 1. 6*.2. tin. 11 5 . . 2. 2. I.  19. OJ. 5:3 = 4: x. 7. ' 55. : . () Directly. 7. s<i. 17.4. 15. 5. 7. 19 OJ. 59.12. 5:0 = 10:12. 1 rt * vm^1. 20. lo mi.5. J. 44.3. 6. . 8. 32+ mi. 5 2. : : . water. i. 46.. 39. 40.57. 58. 3. 3  24. Page 137. Page 133. y a y = 7 0. (b) C C' = fi JR'.3. 8. 4.3. 45.2 oz.8 oz. 22. + b 7 . 2. 2. 19. 24. "lO. 9.) 31. 945 11 10 . (</) ft. 57. 8. 3. 29. 4. t 5. 3. 19. 14./':</ c a f :y=2:9.840. 47. 5. y . = 7 b'.3. 6. ig 6. 2. 6. 7. x y y .
4 ' q. 20. m .1. 7. 6. 23. 5. 5. 9.1J. 16. 4. 28. Jan. Feb. 10 sheep. $ 1000. 1. & part of Sept. . 16. yrs.  11. 2. 5. m f 9. 00. 32. 2. $3000. Jan. 25. 19. 16. A's 50 13. 16. 12. 11. C's 30 yrs. 25. 1. Apr. 7. at 15.. 2. Apr. 5. (a) 12.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. Page 143. . 2. 4.2.n + p. 17. 24. 90. $6500at3Ji%. 11. . J. 3. 6. 2 horses. On the x axis. 7. 1. 9. 423. 1. 18. July. 2t2. 15. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 2. 5.33. 2. (5. 21. 6. 16. 15. 4.1. m f 8. Page 151. 12. 40. 13. 12. &. About 12f. B's 40 yrs. 2. <*ft/ bd 1. $900 5%. 2.4.. 4. 11. . 6. Nov. 26. 4. 10^ gms. 30. (ft) 20. 25. 5. 26. (c) .XVI Fagel39. 7. 1. . 7. 17. ft 3. 9..4. 4. 1.$2000. 4. 3. 3. 7. Jan. 6.^. 3. 7. M 2. 21.3.0. 8. 10. ad AzA. 9.  17. 4. 1 (c) Jan. 3. 19 gms. B's 15 yrs. Page 149. 20. Aug.4. 10. A a parallel to the x axis. 3. Nov. 27. $4000.2. 72. 6. 11. 9. July 20. 4. (ft) 23 J. (<f) 13. C's 10 yrs.0. Page 152. 1.. 20. $250. be 10. 3. 18. 30. 2. . 2.9. 1. Page 153. yrs. June. 7. u 2ft. 3. 19. 1. Nov. through point (0. 11. A's 30 18. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 18. 13. On the y axis.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 24.8. 6. 12. m + n p.3. 25. 3. 4. The ordinate. 24. 22. 1. 4. 7. 147. 30. 1. 3. . 3). . 3. 6%. & part of Feb. 24. 4./hr. Apr. . 10. 40. 17. 14. 2. 23f . 4 mi. 29. 6. 2. 12. 3. a. 8. 2. 16 to July 20. 6 cows. 2 a. . 2. 3. 10.$5000. 0. Jan. $500. 0. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. 3. . 100. = ^ a Page 141. 4. 10. Page 142. 8. Page 145. 3. 4. 1 (d) Apr. 3. 8. 13. 16. ' 6 3 a. 20. 4. 5. 5. 7. On 11. Oct. Jan. .. 2.3. 14. May 5. ^. 1. 5. SL=J o ft r^2. parallel to the x axis 0. 20. 5. Page 22. Page 146. 3. Nov. 23. (a) Apr.7. 9. 31. 15. 3. 5%. ad _(?jrJL. 0. July. 20 & Oct.65. 11. 14. 2. be 7. & May. ' . 20 to Oct. 2.l. 18.10. 2. 3.. .
24.1.  1. 20. 13. 83. Page 164. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . xW. 10.25. 11. (gr) 21. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1 23. . 81 ".7. 22. 3. 4.73. .6. 18C. 14. 4. 2. 24. SlstyW 7. 21. 13. 9. 1. . 5 and 2. 2. 13C. jgiooyiio 17. 2. 30. * 16. (a) 5. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . Page 163. f. 9 and Page 166. 28. 30. 17.5 (ft) 3. 125a 28. a 10 ' a ll V&.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 2. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . a + ft. 8.5. 3. .41 and 23. 3.64. . 32F. ImW. (e) 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. xy.5. . 1. (a) 12. (c) 2. 1. 14.59 ." 23. 3. 0C. .AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.2 (ft)  1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . 4 ) 21. 4wn8 + n4 5.. 2 a&m Page 167. 1.79.75 (ci) 3^. 2.73 ami .25. 2. 3.83.83. 11. 6. 3 . 10. () (rt) 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 3. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. ft . 11. . . Inconsistent. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. (ft) 2.  .84. 1. 15 . 8 1 f f g*. (<?) 2. 2. 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (/) 3. 5. 4. 19. 2.25. 1. 1. 26.25.75. 12. ft 2 4. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . . 2.3. 1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. . 5. (c) 7. 13 . (ft) (ft) 2. (ft) (d) 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 4.24. 2 l. 18.75. 14. 5. 3. 3. 27 19. 3. 4. Inconsistent. 22. 2ft4 Page 168. . .3. . 19. 7.. f. .79. 1.. f12 wi 9. + a 4 ft* . 8 a1. 3.24 . 15.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 0.64. 2. . 8. 5. . 3.73. a 6o&i85 c i5o . (a) 4. (c) 14 F. 1 4.59. 27. xg .27. \ft) 5. 4. (a) 2. 9. Page 159. G. 25. 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.75. 15. 3.25.  1. 5. a 29. . m. Page 158. f 10. (/) 3. 1. 1. 2. 1.  12 ft xW  26 31. 16. 14.1.41 and . 2. . 8mW. . . 125 a 8 12. 4}. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.67. 1. . 10 C. 24. 3. 2. (e) 3.34F.73. 27 27 81. 3. 1. .4. 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 13. 15. 12.. 2. 1. 6. Indeterminate. H. 2. 2. H. 2. 1. 8. 3. 5. . 2. 4. 20. Indeterminate. 1. 2 2 22. +3 4. 125 16. 3. (ft) and (d) 2. 10. 5. 1^. ' :=_!.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1.13.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.
27. /> 4 ). (l + x + . 5. 14.10 a~ + 5 a . 10. 20. 10. + Z).  +X '. a ).XV111 7. a. 17. 4. ^i. 20. + l). 15. +3 + 5 4. 4. r> 4 : 1 . AN S WE no . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 3 2 ^. 70.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2 12. 64. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 10 x G a 4 . 5. (a + y+l). 16. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. . 9. . GOO 2 c 2 . 6 (\x 3.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 978. 2 4 8 2 . 19. 3. 8.1.  x.f 1 m 9 16. 40. . . 3 6 23. 14. 1. 26. 00. 2 2 4. c 10 6 :l 20. + (win . (3a. Zll. 3M. 13. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 8. 1247. (1 (x2y). ). 9. 28. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 1. 90. Page 171. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 10*. 98. 101. 18. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 1. fe *?>' ?> fi . 2. 9. 2038. ? : 1 . 4. 763. 31. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 21. I 8x2). 90. 2 2 7. 8. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (a + 2 +l). 6. 33. 7.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.5. 32.3 ab + 2 2 ). a 2 .94. 237. 300. 11. (48 + 6. 35.y2 ). 2(> + ( 2 7>). 20. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 72. 2. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 30.6. 22. 34. 119. 13. 180 . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 3. (x + y\ 90. 7. (ly). 20. 4. 3. 5. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 57. 76. 6. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 309. 25. 6. 0. ? . 7. 6. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 15. 17. 11.7 /)). 9. (4a2 9& 2 13. 11. 420. 3 2 8 3 12.i c 6 15. 16. 2. 15. 84. 19. 30. .x ). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 12. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. Page 172. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 8 /. 9. 1. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 247. a: l . (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 99. + 29. 18. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 3. (a 2.a b 22. a. 15. ??i ?i .+3^ + 4. 2 49 . 25 19.5). 16 6 w . . 14.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. m 13. . 36. 10. 23. 11. 8. 12. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). (Gx + (i + 2a. 5.83. 24.GO a c + 23. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (ab + c). 12. . . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. ( Page 174. (x' l). 8. 21.2). 17. + + ?V 22. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.1.r 2 + 6jt). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 18. 2. 5 5 8. + i)). 16. 14. rt . 9. . 1 1 ?>). 6. 2.^). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. Page 176. Page 170. 71. (2 a + ft). + y). +35.037. 5.
. w. 23. 5. 6. 14. 6. 10. 2. 1. 10. 10. 9. 9. 21 28 ft. 9. 50. 2. 5f. Page 177. 2. 30.i. 32. 6. . (afl).916 yds.935.6. f ^ is. 5. 15. 36. 6. 32. 3. 3. 2. 5. 28. 10. f. 8. 4. Page 179. 12. 7. Page 184. 4. vV'TA 24.645. /. 12. 29. V2. 2.w 18. 3. 7. 2. \/3. 4. 2. 26. 8. 24. {.236. 36 in. " ^_ 22. 5.  f. 34. i ^. 8.798 yds.. a + 61. 7 in. 21 in. 39 in. a. > w ft.  1. 5083.6. 20.005. 27.1. 15. 8. 6. 5. 17. 31. 13. . 5.60. 12. 6J. 23.6. ^. V.  14. (< + ?>). 18. 1&. 20. 7. 2] see. 2. ft. Page 185. 1. 5. 4 a. 28. 33. 13. 34. 1 7. _ iVaft. 7563. 39. JJI. 3.742 in. i. . 47. 7}. 1. 3. 16. 9.a.}.4. 33. 3.6. 2. 4. 14. 3. 37. 21. 4. 27. 41. 4. 4 TT M 28. 29.13. ft. 3.237. 5. 270 sq. 11. 11. 3. 1. . 11. 7. 1.  5. 7.  3. (6) Vl4 3.V 8j.  f. f . 21.5. 7.367.*. or 3. 3J. 4. Af^... 40. 49. 10. 6. 4. or 5. 3. 2.  43. . 36. 46. 5.690. 30.925 ft. 7. 21yds. 4. ~ V^3. 9. . v 17. 7 45. 12.6. 16n. 6561.. 14. 5. 5. 7. 16. 15 1 10. .522 38. 10. V17. 6. 37.5. 5. 6. 9. f f V. 42. 7. 4. J. 3.?. 5. . 13. 2 sec. 4. 13. 3. 15. 24. 10. ^^7m. 12. 12. V35 1. 5. 9. >TT 26. If ^. Page 183. m. 25. 1. 1. 9. 6V21. 1. 48. 12.243.1. / 11. 20.4. 12. 28 in.  2. 25. V J l.ANS WERS 22. 10. 40. 6V'2J. 8. 31. l~8. 9 15 ft. }. * 1. Page 181. 13. 6 f !. 35. 16. () 2.Sn. 1. 3. f 3. ZLlAiK 19. 1 38. . V2. 17. 1. *. 44. 23. 6yds. 19.. 21. vYb. ^.. .469.. 4J. 22. ft. 39. 7. 4 W**. 7. 2. 17. Page 180. 3.4. 4.. xix 26. 10. ii :J _7. 19. 4. m. 4 n. . 35. 2. 16. 15. 2.18.. 18. 11. 14. 11. 15. 8. 1. . 29. 1 f Vl3. f. 25 J. >i 27. 14.
3. i. 3. 21. 26. 0. 12. 48. V^~2.17. V2. 2. unequal. 7. 3. 6.0*8. 0..a. 8. unequal. Page 191. Real. 24.  2. x2 + B . 3./hr. 25. Page 192. 0. 20. equal. s 11. 3. 2. 26. jr .2. 5.3. r* i.  13. ' 1. 34. 6^2 in. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  5.12. 15. 42.2. 0. 46. unequal. 24. 39. a8 . . . 1.]. v^^fcT"^. . 20. 43. 38.1. 3.  Page 194. 1. $ 120. . . 2. 4. x 14. 4. 3.3. 7. rational. _ 19. 5. 52.2.37. 1.l. 3if.3. 19 in. 29. H.XX Page 186.12 = 0. . in. 1. 2. 8\/2 17. 3. rational. 3. . 1 . If. 1.  1. 3. V2. . 3.6. 4. 20 eggs. 6. 13. 2. 4. 3. 9. 1 3. 11. 15. 4. 64c.2. 22.6 = 0. 10. 2. + 11 x. AB = 3. 15 ft.  1. 36. unequal. Real. .Oa. 10 mi. unequal. 2.2. U. 3. . 0. 4. 27. $80. f.59. 58. 23. 45. 0. V^l. 25. Imaginary. 13. 1.2.62.. 4 da.4. t is. 28. rational. . 23.$40 or $60. 3. Real. 16. 70 ft. 21. *'' 12. 6. 8. 4. 10 mi. 1. 35. 53. 1. 6.7.48.. Page 187. Real. 5. 0. 9. Real. 26.* 2. 12. 2. 2.a 3 a. 0. 0. 10. Real. V7.  6.48 3.2.5^. ft. 7. 26. 1. 18.5 x + 6 = 0. 3. Page 188. 10. ^l/>> = 85 ft. V ~ 16 4 2. 7. irrational. 0. 1. 7. rational. Imaginary. 4. 10 in. 5 ft. 1. 16. . 3. 1. 7. . 1. 41. irrational. 6V64. a + 1. Real. 9. unequal. V^l. 24. 64.7. 44.5. . 19. 3. 12. a. 6.41.  1. VV11. 3. 18. 35.. 2. (5 10. 6. 40./hr. 2 . 1). 3. unequal. .7. 20. 12.  1. %. a. ANSWERS 22. 120 ft. 22. 6. 3. 56. 3. 25. 3. 18. 14. 55. 2. 0. 1. 2. 33. '  f 5.  9x <). 0. 6. 7. 1. rational. 2. 1. 21. 28. x*4x=0.74. 2. equal.  1. 25.4./hr.a. 14. #<7=3. 20 nii. . 0.2 x2 . . equal. . 11.  i. unequal. 6. 4.4. 1. 4. orf. 8 or 12 mi. Page 189. 0.10. 47. .. 37. 12. 2. 8. unequal. 17. . AB = 204 ft. 2. 16./hr. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 1_^L ft 14. . 27. Real. 31.70. 49. 2.2. $30 or $70.4. 0. 50. 10 or 19.2. 30. 1. a + 6. i .'. 8.  5.. 2 V3 in.4. 1. 2.1. x* 51.  24. 27. 2. .02. 2 ft.2. = 0. Imaginary. 19. 6. 5.23. 23. Page 190. Imaginary. 28. 15. 2. 3. 2.  2. 2. 7. 57. f 6 52 a. f.23. 9. 32.1. 0. 5. 1.
19. v'frc 18. 2. \/. 2. 49.17. 2. 52. J. 9. 2V a.  5. v^T4 m. 19." 17. 6. 15. 8. 84. 4. 9. 49. Page 200. r*. 1. v. 58. 10. 1. 8. 4. 3. 28. aW\ 40. 14. 13. 47. y . Page 196. 53. 28. 41. 30. 2. 6  AAf. y. . 6. 12*2 61. 10. 10. 5. 5. 56. 0. 125.  f . 3. 9. V^ 34. 16. Page 197.  f.ANtiWEUS rational. 4. \/3. 0. p. 4. _! V3. 17. ? . 25. . 2. 11.^7. Jb \. 4. *V. 8. r. 5. 16. 9. 11. 18. I.. 44. 'J. 3. 38. 3. . 7. 243. Page 199. v/3. a. 36. ^Sf 3 38. . $7. 21. \ . 7V7. ^49. 3. 17. 25. 1. 25. 8. 16. . 33. 21. 43. 39. (m 26. 19. 15. J. 60. 12. 51. 24. vV. 8. 29. 1 39. J. 55. . 2. 46. 14. 13. : . 3. 30. 13. 3. 50. 27. 3. 18. 9. 4. 1V1.//^. 42. 1. 20. 47. 7.1 5 15. J. J 3. 27. . 33. 31. 24. i. 48. 35. 2. 45. 1. 50. 1. 24. . 5\/5. fx'^z'l 23. ifa. 14. x/25. 8. 3.2. 4. 5. 1. 2 L ( V. 1. 3. \/r\ 11. 2. m'. 7 . l  5 12. 32. 33. 1. ar 1 . jV 10. 20. 21. ) 2 >J i 10. 37. x. \a\ \/^.  J j. 32. 5.  a'2 . vm. 16. 23. . a 18 . 10. 22. 9. 18. 3 4 11. 1. 29. 5. 22. 20. m. 31. x$. 8. n\/* Page202. 23. 49. z + 22. 1. 26. JV37. \. 59. 29. 0. 57. 4. 20.32. v'frW. 7. 30 a. 1. 3. 12. . 14. Vr. ). 49.6. &. 3. 2. 2. 2.  48. wA 46. 13. 17. Page 201. 15. \. 19. xxi 15. 8. 40. 54.
34 r 6. ^88". + + ft. 31. x%  3 ^+ 1. 11. v'TM. Va 2 "ft. 4. 30.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. + 2 V22. V. 2. 3 x^y 33. 43. r 17  Page 204. x. 19. v^. . 8. 1 2 or 1 ?. 38. 26.707. 9. 1) 3V3. 3 4\/2. m* n*. y (a + ft) V2. 20&V6. 26. 31.3 + 40 3 . 6. y. 24. 48. 3^2. 16.632. 5. k/2.577. 25.x^y* + y%. 36.r. 62V(J. 24. 49. 28. 11. ftV 46. l 5. . / V3. 3V5. . 2 '"V5. 37. 29. 195V3. 9. 33. + 2 ar 1 ). 32. 2. a 4 +* + !. 17. x 25. Page 207. ^: V2c. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 03r* 7.. 21. 3. 5. 12. 3 42. 23. 30. 22.rV:r.2 VlO. Page 208. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. + Vic + 25. 135V6.XXii ANSWERS 1. 13 a. (x' (l 1+x). 17. V 5 47. 29. a^ + 2^+1. v/^r 5  A/^~. . 2 x* 15. 20.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. abVab. 28. 50. .yl : . Page 203. x y. 2. 2>X2. 34. 10. 2 4 z2 l 3. r c . 6. 10. 4aV^J 16. 5 ( . 11V3.  2 3:r. 13. .'\ 14. 39.692. 27. 2. + 1.  a Vft 2 121 b. ). x + 5 x3 + 0.648. yV35. 5 22. (o* 2. + . a2 4. 40. 10. JIV6. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 20. 2. 41. 51. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). x 7  34.). 2. 1. 18. 37. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3V^T. . .Vxy 35. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 19. 3 \ 39. x^ . 7. 8V/) 15. V2 + 4 V22. 9 . V80. 8a6V5. 45. 2v (T 2aVf. 3. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 13. 4. V63. 2 a?>V2 a. 9. (a 27. 16. ^7 \AOx. 101 1. 7. V. 21. 40. 3. 8. 3^ + 2). Vr 8.f. 2\/7. 15. 32. T. 13 35. ?tV?w. + 2).2 18. a 3.
. 27. 48. 6.r v/^ v^fr*. x/8l. 37. 14. 9 VlO + 4. ^ 3 b 5 24. \/2. 2 ate. 2 V'3. ^27. ^\/3. 74\/Jl 120 46. x/w^ 8. 13\/3. 26. V2. 7. 40. VT5. \/a6c. VJla. \/abc*. 2yV2?/. 3. 15. 10V(). Vn. V5. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . v"5. 10.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 1. x/8L v/27. 19. v/9. rtv/5. 25. r)\/(l Vrtr. vT). 13. aVa. 11. 5v/2. w?i. 4. "^8000. 18. 5. 18. 49. 51. 1. 50. b. Page 216. 16. '. 3\/wi. 32m27n. 13. 5 \/2. ab 4. 3 Vl5 30. a^\/a7>. 43. 6. V3. \^6. 28. . 21. 3. 39. v"3. 5. 1. x/8. Vat. 21 23. 15. 10. ^9. 30 Vl4. v^f. v^4. 4 >/3. v^a. + VlO  v y (5. a\/5c. V3"m. 53. 0. 38. 3 V15  47. W). \/04a. 5V2. 2. . 37. 2. 25. D 45. 16. 16. 14. Page 210. 31. x/4. . 4VO. 35. V8. 30. 6x2?/. 29. 23. 3. 12. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 24. 42. 17. 8V2. x/27.J Page 212. 38. 35. . 52. 2 28. 3. v7^. 9. 6. 6 2\/0. 6V2. 19. % 29. / \/w/t 4 13. 4. 32. 3v^2. 41. 4\/5. 14. 32. a2  b. 31. . 27. 2\/7.T*. 8v2T 12. 2 1.30 2. Page 211. 6. \XOfl6Vi5. 2 \/2. 11. \^r^bVabc. . 39. 34. x/125. 4 a*. + 20. V3. v/8. v^O. \V3. xx 1. "v/wi ??. 14c 4 V5. 7. 18. 36. 6+2V5. v 25^4714 V2"a. Page 213. 22. 2. 24. Vdbc. 10. 44. m ?i2Vm/t. 8V73\/IO. 8. 17. \/128. 9. 17. 2. 20. 46. v^30. v^lf. \^6. 7. 2. v/lO. V/. Vtf +3+ 33. 1V5. \/8. Page 214. 8  \/15. 3 V2. . ^v 7 15. v/l2. 3\/2. 34. 9. 11.  3. fl^Vac. 7\/(l 7VTO. 22. 6. 23. 3\/15  6. 8. V5. 3. 12. : ^32. 21. 0. 5V2. 33. 40. v/i). 6aV2\^. 26. V2. x/3. 5. 36.
19. 11. 5. 20.XXIV 7. 4 14.w 6. Page 28. 20. 13. 0. 512. (V8 + V2.0606. . 18. . 8. 5. 16. 3. 23. . 14. 25. 21. 1. 5.7083.7071. 15. 6. 16. V^TTfc. \/3). 7 Page221.2. 10. 1. 10. Va.1. 64. 23.V3). 16. 4.^ (\/22 4. 15. 7 f 5 4. 13.. 18. x 20. 29. 7. 9. 7. 22. . 5. 0. 5. 7. ^\/2. + 6) 2 . 12.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .5. 4. 16. 23. V5. fV2. * 3. 9 mn. 2x^2^. 5. 2. 4. 20. 25.  2. 5. 10. 8 V3V2. 21. Page 226. 37. (VllV2). (\/5V2). A . 15. 2V3. 1.4142. i(Vf Vft). 3. 1. 2. V2. 29. 13. . 7. 21 ' Vob 26. 21. V35. J. 9.625 10. 9. 14. 12. \/57t. 8. ^(VlO\/2). (V51). 4. 2ajV2*. 11. m f. 11.4722. 15. !^ 6 4. 24. 17. 2 . 216. 1. ANSWERS 8. 36. 27. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 19. (a 1. 25. (V21). 125. 1. 9. 11. 2. (V6 + 2V2). 4.2. 3. 4. . 8. 12.5530. 224. 32. V3. 24. (VaT^v a). \. 4. 1. 27. Page220. 4. 16. . 25. 7. V.9. 6. 27.13. . 3. ' 22 i . 1. 26. 4. 16. 8. 2V2. 10. 14. Page 218. 2. K>/0 + \/2).81. (\/3f 1). 28.1805. Page 223. 1. 18. . 31. ^. 5 + 2 vU 17. {.64. ~ Vac _c 0.2828. 9.  f. 17. Page 225.6. f. J. 100. 1. 10.3535. 2!5_. 15. 4. V6c. (V5f 5. + 5V2. 7. 3(7+3V5). 16. 8.3. 2. 10. 5. ^r. 30. 11. 6. (3+ v/2).  13.\/TO). . xy 2. 3. n*. 10. nVTl. 19. 9. Page217. 7. 23. (2V2). 12. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 35. 5.1547. 2V3. (2f V"5).3. V3. 12. 30. 11. 3. ^. 34. . 6 (V2 + 1). 19. 5 f. p 6 13. 25.  . 16. 25. 12. 6. 4. 8. 17. Vf6fVtf.732.732. _^JflJ?. 14. 33. 6. 4V3 + 6. j.601. 22. 2. 4. 9.389. 26. (Vf + (4 V2). 18. (2.6 V3. 1. 4. 9. 25. 9. 8. 18. 3. 2. 81. j 15. 4. 23. 17. 81. 24. 5 V65. 24. V3.464. 7. Page 219. 4. +3 V2). 20. 3V23. Va. 8. 6 V. i^Lzi. 19. V3 . 22. (2Vll).
(4 mn .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). a  .3 2. 12. 10. 73. qpl. 1. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). .10. 3. 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 8. 1.  J. . 2 <? 4a2 . 17. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (m 4 + l)(ro. J. =A^Z3. 5. 13. 25. V3. 1 . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 4. 2. 7. 3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 30. (a 4.^a. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).8a 18. 5. 4. 1. 3. 2. 19. . f>.4.2. a: :} . . 14.w 4 + 1). 2. 0. 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).3. 3 . .3. 2 &. 28. 8. J 24. 50.nl^EI. . 0. 11. 0. 15. a(.l)(a3)(a . 6. 2.Y. 1. 24. 25.ANSWERS Page 228. 1. 4. 4. 3. Page 233. 12. 17. 6. 10.  4. 3. 5. 30 30. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). . 2.3. 4. ' J. 14. 21. 22.. 9. 23. 0. 10. 1 (?> x/^3. 3 . //.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 15. 1.2. 0. 19.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 2. 2. 3. 0. 22. (&y2a#H4).l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 3. l. 10. 4. 4.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. (63)(6' t 18. 3 9.2)(* . b . & + 6 2 ). ~ f7. 8. 2 . 12. 3. 4 20. 8. 5. 4. . 1 6. 2. 7. 5. 1.0.  2. 19. 0.r . 16. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). (B43). 9. 18. 6. 1.2)(m. 1 . 3.22. 6 2 2a + 2). . . 2 . 11. Page 236. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 30. . 1. 0. 2 > 1. 3.12.2. 12. J Page 235. 2. 6. 4. 4 1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).4. 2. 3. 10. 5. 14. J. 20. 15. 2. 25. 4.4. 5. 87 . 3. 73.3. 1. 2 6.  . 7. 16. 7. 21. 7. (w .3. P. 2. 2. 8. . 4. 4. 4. (rt. 6. 2.4). (a. 6. 4. 20. 1. 2. 30 . o. 20. 12 24 y . 2. 2 V^ . 3. 7. 1 3. 11. 13. 2. 1. (a . 7. 3. (r. 9.  1. 2 . 56l). 1. 2. . 11. 2. (+!)( 2) 10. 4 . f . 3. 26.3. 4.5.  f . (pl)(p3)(p6). 2. t/ 23.  3. 100. 13. 1 . 3. 3 5. 2 6. (a. 3.5 xy + 25) 22. 1 . 6.  3.  16). 3. 25. 24. 2. 4. 5. 13. 1. 8 6 & 0. . 3. 11. 10. . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 17. 2. (a + 2) (a Page 229. y.1. 4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 3 . 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. (pl)(p2)(p2).l)(m . 2. a . (8. 4. . 1. 4 . XXV 4. 13. 5. Page 234. 18. 2. 2. 4 4. 5. 2 . 7. 5.  5. 8. (a+&)( 2 14. \/0.1. 3. . .7.  1. 5. . . 3.l)(z 2 + z + 1). . 3. 5. 1. 2.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). ( 16. 1 .3). 4. 3. . 12. 11. 1. (2 a.  3. 5.
3. 1. 1 . 1.0. 5. 15. 16. 2.. 23. 24. 12. 3. 2. 3. 50.. 2 10.. . 4. 1J. 1 . . . 9. 3. 26. 23.5. 14. 4. 24. 4 8. 29. 5. 16. f. 3. 0. m + n. 15. 10.  11. 4. 17. 19. 15. . 1. 8. . 3. 4.e. Page 240. f>.y. x 4. 1. _ 7. +  n. 20. 7. 15.1.. 3. Page 244. 2. = QO 6. 84. ANSWERS 2. 7 3. 11. . 3. . 15. 3 .  2 . . 12. 3. c. 21. . 1. 11. m27. 7. i.1.0. \. Indeterminate. 3 4. 14. 1. . 1. 6.30. 18. 40. (/>) "_. 22. . 30. 17. _ 5. n . 69. 512. i'ljVU. 3. ri*. jj. 2. 1. 1. 8.. 11. 5. 3. Page 248.. 40 1} 9 3 ft.xxvi Page 237. 2. 50. 4.020. 10. 11. 39. 17. . (a) 5.200.6. 13. 5. J. 9. 3. 1. 3. 4. ( 3.3. 16. 4 6. 2 16.4.4. 4. 6. 2. 13. 8. 8. Page 245. 19.3 . 288. 8. J.. 2. 33.5. 17. 4. 4. 5 cm. tn 2. 2 1. 1. 35^ 5. 2. 2. 7. 2. 12. 5. 2. 12. Page 241. 32. 31. Page 247. (>. 15. no co . 20 7. 37. 2. 78. 3. 1 . oo. 30 13.1. 13. 5. ' j. 8. 40 in. in. 1. 4. 5 4. 35 a. i j. 1. . 2 26. oo . ^~2. 31. 40 25 in. 1. 8ft. 2. V7. . 28yd. 5. 5. 1. ft. 3 cm. 3 2.3. . . $. 1. 2. 0. _ 10. 2 Y> V . 5. 14. 3. 10.  1. . 1 . 12ft. i i i . 12 d. 2 . V3~. 1. 6. 14. 7. 21 30. 3. 3 . 400. 4. $. $VO. 5. . m28. 1 2. in. ft. . 4 34. . . 8. 1. 7. Indeterminate. 4. 12.4. . 8. Exercise 114. 1.3. '>. 1. 5. 201.3. 2. 4 . 2. 17. 4. 3 3. 7. 18. 17. 512. (&) 2. 2. 1. 3. 5050. _ 13 (0 6. }. 18. 1. 3. 2n. 5. 0. 37.3. 2 .13. 9.. 15. 1. 14. 4. 3.. Page 239. 125 125. Exercise 113. . . 1. 5. 1. 35 ft.6. . 3. 20 in. . . 37. 35. 2>/3. 3V5. 12 1. 2. 8 3. 1. . . 11. 1. J. n. GO . 4. f*. 1. 3 . 38. 2. 2.18. 900. 4. 1. 41. 10. . in. } . 6. 2. 5. in.3. 2V7. 1 . 6. 3. . (a) $3400.2. Page 243. and _ 4. 25.. J. 21. 5 . 1.136. 2 ft. 4. 4. \/6. $46. 3. . 5. ft. . 3. 4. 1. 55. 4. 20. 5. in. Page 238. 4. 9. co . oo . 3. 12. ^ }. . 11.  . 2. 8 . 9. . . 1. 3. 2. 14. 12 ft. 14. 2 2. 3. 9. 5. 30. 5. j. 36. 7f solution. 2 . 3.4. 7. 45yd. 48. 4. 22.
13. 13. 10. 3. 12. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 6. B . 1. 10. ' 1. 100. 15. 12.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .53.5. d. 8. vy.  20 flW. sq. in. A. 0.4. xxvii 1. r r j. J 2 //2 25. 3. 7. 3. . 2. 6i. 192. 2. 10. 27. 45 Page 257. 910. 8. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 44. . 19.920. 8. 2i* 7f.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. REVIEW EXERCISE . <. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. \ w 4 . 16.210. 35. 11. 8J. 327. 22. Jj? 45.192. . 8 4x' 2 . 10 14. 16. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 3. . 5. 48.12 x*y 16. 120 aW.680. 75. 280 53. 2. 12. 4. 1. 6. w9  8.6. 7. 4.r 4. 4. 04. 2. 70. 19.1. and 1. 9.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 1 14. Page 252. ?/i 6 x llj . 7 2 x 4 x8 .384. (). f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . } $ 50. 26. 17. i 10. '23. .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. x + Vy. x r 4. 304.470.^ ?>i 2412x4. 4. 29.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 2. . 005. 7. . 7.4 &z x>&.v Page 253.2 45 a 8 /). 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 8. />*. 12. 4. 4. r 5 4. 4. . 16. 7.130 x30 189 a 4 24.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 4. 4. 3.2 9. 4.ANSWERS Page 250. 55. 17. 3.120. 12. 45. 1.0. 8. 10. 15. 9. 7. 3.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .8. 0. a. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 2. 5. 6. 6.  17.7 10.3 ays. 1. 8. 12. 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 6. 27. G. 1. 1. 12. 4. . I. 410. 2. 19. .870 m*n*. 0. . 5. Ja. 9. 23. 4. 21. 0. 15. . 16 11.13.5y 4 . Page 259. 70. 13. 27. 45. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 9. 22. 5. 1 7 4.<2 4. 3. 105. f y 8 + z* .5 x. 05. 0. 1. ^a 8. 53. 5. 10. 8.r x>/ 7 3. 7. 125. 708. &' 14. 6.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 20. .x' 10 . 5 13. 125. 5. 1. 70. .r* 4 70 .  101. 5. 18.5. 7 x4 17. 8. 18. 27. 81. 4950 M 2 b y *. 28. 15. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). JSg. 6. ~v 9. 2. 3. 32. 15. a4 4 14. 495. 10. 6. 1820. 8 . 9. 0. Page 254. 43. 14. 16. 1. 8 1. 0. Y11. 9. 35. 3. 128.419. 2.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 4 0. 343. 20. 17. 3. x4 .170. 4. 6. 04. 4. Page 258. 21. 25. 18. 8. 405. 1. 16. 18. 2. c. 20. 8. 4. 3. 1. 12.504. 16. ~ an . 5. 2. . **+. 343. 11. 5. 0. 1JH. 50. 7. 2.700. 2. . 4. 16.6 . 1000 aW. 5. 5. 11. 220 . 3. 0.
x2 5r*x ft 5 . 132. 22. x2 a2 1 . 50. 4 69. . 26. 4 65. ft /> 78. 3a~2c. 82. 13 + 2 s. x8 x2 55. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 2 x2 108. 32. 3 a 5 a 5. ?> . 27. 29.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.4. .3 103. 127. . 43. 21. 109. 38. ft2ft 4 4l.1.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 0. . 10 a 12 b. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .4 x 2 . x4 f + 23 . 5x + 2y~z. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. a2 2 aft 2 2. &p 84. . 6 8 j27 40 ab.4 2 4 c2 42 . x .1. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .1w 77.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .2.a6 2 4. a4 x. 91. .5. .15 4 62 x  72.18 ?/ 5x4.2.3 . x 3 41. /> 4 83. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 96.  4 a3 85. 102. 4 2 . a* 4. 31. x2 2 . 4. 105.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .4 x?/2 3 4. 70. * 60. x 4. 24. 1 x 45. 37. 243x4729. 4 Page 264. 64. 86. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.fee 2 4. . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.41. 0. 1 + 4 xy. 35. 6a6c. 3 36 b c . Page 263. a 3m 4.x24 73.c. . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. x2 471x4.ft).x 51. . 14 x . a J . .3 x 2 + 3 x . 72. !! 71. 36. 46.4 x y 87. 120.x 2 4. 122. 2 .2 x^. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . a* a 8 a aftc. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 4. 133. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .4.  . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .a*ft 2 126. . 114. a' 111. x' . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.2 xy + 4 y2 106. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. df. .3 aftc. 6 a2 97.x x*  f 2 ax 4. as 20. 80. az 4. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.5x4.a' 'ft 4. 0. .1 4 jry 4 x .2 c . 4. . . 12 a/. _55_7c 48. 88.y*.  3 x2 . 7 + 3 xf 2. 125. 5 4 4. 3 a 44. 2 . 39. ft n .1.105. x 2 . 4 115.a 2 x 2a . c3 4 58. 16. 3~ n 4.9 b. x 8  a8 . 9 2w 128. 5x 2 2x43. x' 79.4. a~b 89.5 3n 4. 2 x2 4. 3 c .2. 62. 2 .a. 49. 40. .3 y. 63. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.2 x 4. . 130.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). (a + ft)" 98. 118.a'2 c. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 4 fee 4. . 124. 2 x'V2 90. 4 15 x 5 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 4 . 94.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.7. 2 q. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 104. 16t/. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 2 53.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. ?/ 3. t 81.  12 a. 3a'2 Page 261. 4ft y3. m " + n + P3c .3 a 2 '6 w 4.4 ac. 2 113.. . 12 x.rty x2 4 123.x. 61. 52. 1 121. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 1 a"* 4 an . x 3 4.  e +/. x* . 25.3 b . 3 a . 28. I 57. 93. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 100. 23. . x } 4. () 2 x 33. ?/ . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. xyxzyz.7 x   15. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. + 3 a?. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .6 b. . + a 4.x4 + y'2 z 4. 30.4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. y 4 z* 0.5 b + c .9 x .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.c 3 4. 76. 66.c. . 99.  + 3 x2 . +^ + ft W. x 8 + x 4 68.ac 44 aft.3 a'ft.^a . 8 . 107. a 4 . 6 c 47. 131. 110. f5+7.1.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . ^ . + z.18 x?/0. 1 .6 am b\ 129. 2 2/' . 2 30 . 4 ! . 5 42.{ 54. 9x. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 2 a. Page 260. 10 4. 8x3 8x.
(3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 244. (?/+l)(yl). (3x  .6 . 140. + 2) + 9a. 247. (x 227. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 6. 174. (233). 22. 205. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).6) (2 x + 1). 8(ar}(/)27). 3. 170. 214. (8x + 3)(3x4). 142. 4. Page 265.2ac + 229. 197. 8 204. 239. 218. (y 7f))(y 196.2. 150. 1.ANSWEKti 135. 193. (r^x + 1).1).1). 12.y). 1. (xyX^+y" )1 243. + 3).4xl). 206. 12. a + 2x2 ). (a 2 + 2a6. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. a. 211. 208. (x  42 yr.6)(4 + 6). 6). 18.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). (y  17)(y + (>). 1. 179. k. 224. (JT y 225. 50. 172. 2. 3. 2. 163.y) (\r3y). 1. ( jc // a 2 (a1). ?. 19. 209.l)(x8 + x2 . 207. 220. 147 mi. aft. Or (a + 2)0el). 184. + 3) (x f f>) . xxix 139. 168. 12 yr. 182. 2(x8)(x3).l)(a 2 +3).I2y). 6. 164. 166. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 235.  1. 195. m. 181.9)(xf 2). + y. 10. 7. 151. 183. 2 2 (a. (ab + 8) ( 7). y3. HI. 157. 144. 36ft.. yr. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).y2 ). (7 c 2 ). 231.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 10 ft. ( + 2y)(2x3y). . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). x(x f 3)(x+ 2)..y)(z . 12 6 panes. 226. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . . (y _ ft)(y 4. 180.3 y)(a . 215. 186. Page 266.3. y 245. 15. 187. 241. 1.l)(y + 1). 30. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). p. 10).m)(x + a). 48 h. (x + 6)(x6). 15  a. (3x2?/)(2. (. p. 2. 191. 10 in. as 194. 176. 237. . 189. 162.. 15. 2^. ft. 2 (4 x . 147.r + 4).2).2). a(a. 212. 143. (x^ + x1) 234. 240. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).2) (3 x . 169. 4. 199. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 148. . (7x2//) 203. 146. 217.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). r>x 2 (4x. 219. 30 yr. 20. 138. 238.3)./_4). y. 171. 232. 185. (/ 246. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 218. 236. 75. 1. 156.1(5) 200. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. y  y 165.2 )(x+y) 228. z(x10)(xl). 178. 210. 12 yr. (6) 40. 136. . 10). + 22). 40 yr. 202. + 11) (a 10). 2a(42ft)(2fo). 137. 160. 1. 153. Page 267. a 2 (15.3 y). 23 18. 30 + xyr.y + 3)(r (. 201. + 7)(rt4). C3 y _l)(. 20. (x + 2)(x . 161. 216. (a& 192. 1. (2 198. Iff 145. (c) 160 C. . 32 h. (y7)(y + 188. 233.y)(jc + 7 y). (5 x . +)(x2 x^+2. 159. 3(x . (x . G7. fc'2a+62c). 2 xy(3 x . 167. (a} 59. (r7y)(ai. 158. 149.3) (2/3y). (2a + l)(a . 222. 177. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 152. 230. 175. x(x + 6) 213. . ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 5. 21. 154.r . 24. 37 1. 12) (j. 2. 2. 155. 190.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (y_24)(y5).1). 173.
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a) A^_. <L 409. 334. 4.!. ?=. 394. 3. 375. 1. 404. 3. * 357. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 7/i ^ _ . 326. 2 ). a 2 . 6 ?/+:>. 2 r36 384. 1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. . L . 2(a i 403. (a + b + c\ . 390. 399. 380. 1 i 2 ^. 388. 392. 365.. 13 391. 405. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 396. 7. _*L'L+. 0. If. ?>*. ab. . + 335. Page 274. 336. 360. 3.7. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 9^. 383. S. . f. 1. 11. 6a. 1. 329. 20. 2 ?/ 363. + x 362. j 328. 395. c 402. T+^. 333. 398. 325. T\. 387. . 355. m. ^_:r f> 331. 4 A.XXXI Page 272. 0. 1.)Cr4)__ . l . 12.3. 2 327. 376. y 4 I 340. 377. a +6. ^ 3 // . l'j. 4 rw. 324. 366. 407. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.  1. 364. " 4 378. 382. Page 277. 4. 343 00 351. . 397. 0. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. ^"" 4 s . 2. 400. 379. 393.(5 a . 370.vin a /r " 337. 2(q.. 406. 389. 401.1.  1 356.". . 361.J . 2. 0.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 2 ab  a Page 276. 408. 339. ?/ + 3 332. 386. x 54 359. a + b + 6). 385. A^L5L. + 4 & 4 \ b.
0. .vz in. B $ 2500. 442. 435. 2. *+. 6. 1.  2. Page 282. !L=4. 10. 463. (c) not true. 421. I. ft 5. 419.2. ISjmi. a + + ft c. 22. 478. m 1 : wi. 420. A $ 3500.5. .. 14 miles.  10. 503. 8. 497. * . 9. L (c) I. & 491. 51. 84. 2.12. 477. 447. 10. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. (d  6) f. Page 280. 90. 2. c 6fc 10. 2 438. 454. 486. 1. . 63. c. 459. 412.. 3 .55. 496. (d) true. 493.. 429. 1. 499. 7. 450. 2$. 3. 12. . 4. 467. 7 : . 452. 426. 457. 487. fc.  2f 504. 10$. 7.1. 4. 448. Page 278. not true. 432.7. 476. 425. 1$. 430.2. 0. 32 yr.7. 508.4. 2. 464.46.7. 427. 498. 10. 1 a /?$+&?. 5J. 0. 480. 492.488. (a  c). 0. 21.  1.3.  7. 5. 6.489.  7.m  m+ M in. .3. i a b 451. 5. ISJini. 413. 0. 423. 5.}. '. . 5. \ 1. (a) 1. 490. 446. b 449. 3. Page283. 485. 5.. 2. 0. z8 +?/ 3 431. 481. 1. 411. 465. 2.te + . 462. fj.. . 33. 495.  1.  f>. a* 424. 479. . 10. 440. 20 yr.  505. 8. ^. (&) 443. 2. . \. Page 281. + () 433. />c c(f be. ^V. i. . 1. 506. 6. 4. 2 a 2. 460.0. 5. 42. 24 days. 28 yr.}.7. 2. 3a 4 5. 50. 6. 0. 468. 422. 10. 436. 10. $2000 at 0%. (&) true. B 4 mi. 466. 483. . 456. .7. 507. 8. m. 441.  . 472. : />a. 445. 40. 10. 418. . 410. 458. . 484. 3. .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. A 5 mi . 32. 500. 7.  2. 502. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. ^r?i 434. 455. 40 oz.rz Page 279. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 0. 6. 6. 494. 17. 20.  453. 4. ' $260 at 0%. 17. . 11. 482. 461. 2. 6. 444. 8.. 501. 53 yr. 2. . 439. 7. 7. L2 a  6 .4. 18.  2. <L+ 6 (. a 22 . 428. .
2.  7.04.75. Page 288. 0. .02. 509.ANSWERS Page 284. 556. 555.3.5.  1.3. ^ ft 4. 232.1.53. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 510.4.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 2.. lead. 1. 562.56 sec.6.35. (gr) 10 1. Roots imaginary.4. 1.3. g(rc+ 6c). 566. 577.f 1. 1. x8 . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 525. . 567.10. a + ft  a  f c. 599. . 514. ft 584.03.62. . 598.  2ft da. per hour.02. 533. 528. 1. H. lead. (/)  10 to 8. (i) 3. 2 . 2(4 602. S82 c.52. . 3. (ft) Ill Ib.  (a) 2. 532. 2 2. 8 mi. 575..4. tin. 2. (c) 3. 593. 578.9. 21*_. 4. 563. 2 1. 1J.15. 4. da. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1 600. Page 285. 1.  3. 582.  ft*. 3. 3. 14.54. 2 imag. 7. 554. 553.6.5.12.37. 560.  4. 4. .1. 4. a f ft + c. 27 y* f\4 .0. . _^ 2754x . 3. 3. 2 1. 1.05.7.5..14. 3. 518.4. 3 . 3. 4.r8 596..   (h) 8.25.  J(a f + 2c). J7] min. 24 da.20. 574. (e) (c) 2. 558.10. T . 552.3. 3.5.16.% rr\* 585. 4. 31. 2 .15.31.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. + 6 tf f 3 .4. .5 f.0.00. 8. 5. 4 mi. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. <z ft 1.37. 1. 2 10. f36a28x8 592. 5. o> .3. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.6 2.  (a) (d) 1.30. 1. If 572.6. y 4. . 512. .  + + c. 4 0.21. 1. 573. _ 4. . (6) . 5. 3 da. 550. 529.0. 2$.78. 564.7. imag.88. .5. 1.24..04. 2. 3.55.1.1. (a) 74 Ib._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 1 580. 1.1. 4. 569. f. a+ Page 286.4. 3. 6. 40 Ib. 1. per hr. (e) 570. 516. . .6. .5+. 2. f. 3.75. .33. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 2. 583. 513. tin. . 24.8 x3^. 1 . a*8a + 24tf 82a.8. 515.  imag.1. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 559. 2. 526. 7^ da. f ? a f ft __ + c C).38. 565. 579. 1. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. y% Z * 586. 3. . 1.83. or 8. 536.3.51. .25m. 591.15. 3f 4f. 2(6 597. 1. 1 . 0000. 3.24. 551. _ 3.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 603.02. (6) 3. Page 287.73. 4. 1. 5.83. (c) 4.24 sec.2.02. . 2. + 12 x . 527. . 1.62.xj/ f xV . 530. 2. 1. > ^ . .  2. (d) 537.4 x + . .7. + 26 + . i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 6435. 115 Ib.0.  557. xxxin 511.8. 581.8. . 1.  . 1. 571. 576.54. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 1.8. 6.3. 4. 1.78. . 561. 531.31. . 3. . 568. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1$.03. (ft) 4.3. 4* da.
703. be ac \. 2&). 8 6 fo . 1 ~a . ' fe 2 ).  . 701. 631. 4 676.001. ft). 607. 2f. 0. . 0. b . 703. 2. 690. 4330 da. .>A 610.002. 9. . 5002. 2. 649.  3. If f 667. 7. 6. V2. 670. 2092. 627. + ~^'2 + a 1. 3. . ^ 1. 613. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. . 5.2f Page 290. 612. i. b 664. 1 V5 1. If. 2 x 44 ^/. o. 6.XX XIV 606. if 4/> 671. ab. 706. 679. 654. Page 289. 5. 0. 656. /> 4. 25.25. <T! . . If 665.  2f r 659. 1 2. V7. 698.43^4.3.3f l 668. 702. If 658.  a2  a (ab).a~ {Z 663. 692.y. 50. 666.  6.  684. If . n^l +^. 625. 2 / 2 4.04. 6 685.3.  1. 2. 669. 636. 624. 678< 682. 4. 1. 0. 660. 4$. .3. 1 704. 8. 7.14 If 1.. 11. 2 a  6*. 12. 2 ab + a  &. 642. 2. 615. . 708. 3 681.303. 009. 705. K 5 2 V2. 2.001. 623. 628. 672. 4. 677 680. a 2. 696. . 2 a: 4. 2f. 700. l/'3. 653. 3. 2. 643. 5. 1m*. 5 3.c ) 697. 7003. V^~3). 13. 620. 657.2f (5 4. fe + a.049. . 1. . a. 10. I}'/. 652. z  1. .203. 641. ix 2 . b. 626. 647.  4. 629. 78.  4. 616. 14. . 4 V 0. / V^+lO^M"^. fta a/> ^A. + 2 A (i f Page 291.b. 1010. 655. 2 a 688. 633. 621. 661. 898. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. y  619. ^. V"^TJ. 648. 0. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. \+ab 699. 644. 1. 618. 8 f 3. 622. V2.b 686. 11. 614. 5. If b. a 673. 971. 25. a ' 2 + . 3 a. 1$ 639. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. ' 674. 635. 662. 638. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 637. 691. 4. \. 3.  ft. c. 2. 1.702. la6 2. 630. a 1J. 3 x2 . 645. 617. a + b. 2. 4.  13. ^.f 3 V^3). 608. 9*. .3. 0. 683. (*_ + a: 611. ab 689. ^^ 695. J^^. 650. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 646. 632. 640. 2.0. 651.. 634.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. a 4. 210. (a3&45rj.
768. . 792. 342V3. 32>/2. . 3 720. 726. 3V7. 1. cr*lr*. 8. 769.9. 1. Page 294. mn.rJ w L 754. 712. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 725.^ 743. 8. 739. 788. 3 VlT 795. 15 shares. 300. .~ . 30\/10 764. T%. 730. v'll. x i f^' . 794. i^. a 2  x2 . 751. 1 752. 756.4 . 746. 749. 729. iv/Jj. 33^2. 2x3^ a. 740. 13ft. 750. 767.257. 755. 1 747. 717. > 748. 789. 793. 5. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 773. 5.ANSWMHti Page 292. 721. a 2 6^.2. 727. 734. ^ . 711. 733. 3^. 738. 24. Page 293. 796. v/7 / . VV> L4V34. Hi a. 2 V2 . 719. 17ft. 778. 724. 713..^. 1 [ + '> J. 2\/53V2. a:* . + 6 2 tf'c. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.r+y> 759. 25. / 787. VT14V5. i 2. 722. 3V72V3. 714. 790 2v 3v 2.V/^ 741. ^ ?>.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. a". 728. 716. J(v'lO2V 791. 47.4 . . 731.. j 742. 732. 29\/3. 782 785.10. 3V52V3. 1 I .8. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 7  3V5. 753. 1. 3V72VO.. y  1. 723. 34. "V313.1 . . 710. 777. 1^ _ 760. + < 735.9. rt3 2 ^i^. 715. 59. 00. 763. 24V2. 709. VIO\/3. ^7xy.r. x\y. a 5 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 776. fyaw&cu. 737.. 718. 3. 758.V2.12 af V^ 4 744. 4 104 v/2. 736.11. a db Va^T < 45da. r. 39. 24 4 .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.
(am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 2. 5.r4). 834. 7. 2. Page 296.1)(V 2 . 827. 4. 837. 872. Va. 826. 817. \/5. x. 814. n =  29. 800. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 2 2 . (x . . 1C. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 10. 859. 816. 2.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 4 818. 804. a 42)(x . 2. . 811. 857. . +j!>. 881. (x 845. 4. x . 833. ^ V}. (a 4 871. . 4. b' 2 821. 7. 832. 4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 4. . 3. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 0.XXXVI 797. (x 2 f r . 3.. J V. 812.r . 7. 6+V7. 2 (x 4*4. 813. 2.5) (x + * 853. (2x (r. H. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).a 4 + 1). 1. 3. (2 a . 4 .. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 844. 3. 824. 896.  + l(l^). . ) (a' 874. Page 297. 820. 868. + d)*. 825.a 2 2 ). (:r 11. ((' 1).7). ^. a(ry + 864. 48. are extraneous. 1 1. 830.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). (x*y*ryz + z*). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). f. 867. 2. 4.7. 4. 5.10 ab 4. 2 *x 807. 1 .  tt 815. . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 900. 1. 2. 3.1).a 3 " 4.l)(x . 2 . 6.7). 891. . 829. (xl)(^~3)(. 11. 4. 895. 2 . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 14.5 b) 4 1). 13. 801. 840. a2 ^E*!. (3 b .1) (a 8 . 836. 1.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). $. 5).rae) (4 . 25. 848. 897. o. 4.4. 2 806.3.4) 860. 842. 3. 876. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).1. 2 . 11. 3. (x . (. 8. (4 c 4. 0.0.3. (3 862.7 4 1) 846. 887. 19. 819. 888. 838. jV3 f 3.3)(x + 4). 8 09. 4 885.2w . 4. 2 m . m = 2. 6.. 2  2. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 898. 3. (x 4. 863.  ' . .l)(x + 2). 831./>") (a'. 23. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 2/ 856. 5.  1. (a m . 808. 841. 6(a6)(o a + + &). o 828. $.f. **. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 849. . Va 803. 810. (2 x + 3 y} .2) (x 4 2). 0. (x3). 1. 6. 851. 879. 884. a* 4. V 3.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 17. ( 4 4.1) . 2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 2 854. ANSWERS 798.7)(4 x. X4 1). . 0. 8. 882. 835.4. m 875. 886. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 3. 5. 5. 858. Hoots are extraneous.1)(0 865.om 441) (a 855. 880. ( 869. 20). 892. 2 j 889. db 7. .2 ax 4. (x 2 . 894.y) 852. 890. (1 . 847.l)(x . 893. 17.  839. 861. 6 $. (2 4. 883. 823. 3. 2. (x + 0X024. 822.25 ?>2). Hoots . 1. ^VG. 843. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . a(ft)( 873.+ m f ") (a* ). 4. 799. 7. 3 . \/2. (a 1) (x 4. 2. 899. .
930.V~~3). 5. 927. 2. . 977./hr. . 1 1. . ft. .  1. 909. 982. 912. 958. 951. 0. ft. 1 _2 . 11.651.01. 7. 4 6 mi. i 3. 11.744. 248. dL 4. 961.1 = 9. 937.615. 960. ft. 904. 939.760 sq. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.. 957. 940. 18. 8. 6. 28.. 903. 40 16 in. 6. 943. Y. 15 16 ft. w 3. 12 mi. 9 in. 5. 12. 916. 0. 921. 111. 2. 10. 4. 978. . 12. 918. tt2 19. 280. 952. 8128. . ft. 1 2. 2.0.446. 963. 954. Page 300. 3). 986. 28.. V5 T 2 . 4. . 14 . 4. 980. 60 949. ft. 947.. 981. 2 ft. 100 rows. 1).I. Va926. 4. . 959. i>. 944. w. 4. 908. 2 w 914. 6 1 1. 8. 12 in. 12. 3. 933.1. 15 946. . 1 + V953. =F J. 7. 945. 73. 1. 2 1. 2 i ' a V. Page 302.2. 5.. 0. a. 3. 28. 4 . 934. 925. %* .. i(6 in. 919.073. i 8.. 3. Page 303. . 935. . 956. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 5. 6. 905.' ifcVira^ 2 3. ft. 902. 480 8 sq. 2. Z ^. 911. . a + . 936. S07. 11. 941. 8 . . 931.. . 0. $(l 4. 6 da.. 942. 2. 983. 3 . 333. 1. . r ft ' < Page 299. 2.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 938. 948. 5l4f. 6. ft. '3 3 in. 115. 4. 333. T 6.  1 . 3 4 . 4 in. 8. 4. 108. 7. 56. 920.. . 8. 10. 3. J. yd... I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 6. 923. 7 or 30. 2.1. 979. V^3). 2 yd. T3. 8. 7. 5 . 5. 496. 8.. J(_ ft. 922. 8. 2. 984. 329. v/(ai !)(&910.. 1. 80. T 6.709. 8. 3. 987. 964. 7 ft. 1 . 20 19 ft. f. 985. 2.. 950. 4. 66 924. V5 fj. Page 301. 955.111. ft. . 917. 6. 4. 2. 11. 962. 6 a 915. . ^y. 3. 6. 3.  26j. f ft 4 . 906. J. 4. .2. 6 . ?/i 6. . i1" 913. 932.
0. 1007. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 9 da.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1000. 1005. (a) (6) ^ 1002.'^^ } ( . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1012. 1 1004. 1010. 1008. 12.870 a 6 1011. 1018. 1009. 997.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 994. 4 and 1020. 1 8 8 2. 1006. Page 304. . (J. 120 i^l^.51. 1001. 1016. 996. 2(2 v/2).92..870 z8 . . 4. 24. in. 992. X. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (Z>) 999. Page 305. 192.. 993. () 12(2+V3). 1003. 1017. 12.192rt?)r 120 *. 120 a. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 988. ^f (2f3V2). 72.128 I. r = 2. 8. 990. 108. 0. 162. ^Trsq. 3003.378 1015. (6) 8(1 . (5. 6 70 . 48. 995. + v 2). ~ \. 1019. 1014.18. 2 .378 <W and 92.  5&7 1021. . 1(5. + 448 . 1013. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 991.
10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. great many work. HEW TOSS . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. $1. Half leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather.25 lamo. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. given. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. xiv+563 pages. i2mo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. than by the . 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xi 4 373 pages. A examples are taken from geometry. so that the Logarithms. save Inequalities. Ph. etc. comparatively few methods are heretofore. physics. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. $1. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. and commercial life. The more important subjects tions.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.
10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.D. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Ph. HEW YOKE . so that the tions. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. great many A examples are taken from geometry. 12010. physics. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The author grade.25 i2mo. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. xiv+56a pages. Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. In Factoring. $1. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. comparatively few methods are given. save Inequalities. and commercial life. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1. xi f 373 pages. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. etc. HatF leather. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. Half leather.
Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. $1. 9.D. 4. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. SCHULTZE. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. . lines. SEVENOAK. wor. i2mo. iamo. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. $1. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.10 L. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Cloth. 10. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Cloth.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. These are introduced from the beginning 3. State: . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Ph. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Half leather. more than 1200 in number in 2. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. NEW YORK .r and. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . under the heading Remarks". The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 7 he . izmo. aoo pages. 6.. xii + 233 pages.
Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . 12mo. of these theoretical views. New York City. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. 370 pages. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . and not from the information that it imparts. . $1. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.
The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Topics. Cloth. diagrams. " This volume etc. Maps. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. i2mo. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. and a full index are provided. photographs.
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