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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. . OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.
D. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
May. .A. September. 1910 . 1910. Norwood. August. .COPYRIGHT. July.S. September. 1915. May. 1910. Published Set up and electrotyped. U. Berwick & Smith Co. 8. 1911. Cushlng Co. . Reprinted 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. J. 1916. Mass.' February. 1917.. January. IQJS January.
. and conse . Such a large number of methods. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. manufactured for this purpose. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. however." this book. owing has certain distinctive features. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. specially 2. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Elementary Algebra.
the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. are placed early in the course.g. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. especially problems and factoring. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. two negative numbers. In regard to some other features of the book. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Topics of practical importance.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. e. etc. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover. as quadratic equations and graphs. hence either book 4. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.
physics. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and commercial are numerous. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. such examples. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. Moreover. based upon statistical abstracts. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. viz. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. elementary way. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations." Applications taken from geometry. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 1910. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. edge of physics. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. however.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra.
.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. .... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . SUBTRACTION.. ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. Powers. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .........
. Type Polynomials..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. /^ ... . * . .. Type II. . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type V. Type IV... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type III.. Type VI.114 ... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .
Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... CHAPTER XIV 169 .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .... . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ...... .... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
4V3~6c. 2." EXERCISE If a 1. 6. find the numerical value of: Vff. x 9. v'Ta. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. some number is . b = 3. 26. 2 . 27. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. + c). \/c. a polynomial of two terms. 11. since the parts are a . 0. 15. [6c] 3 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. aVc^. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 14. 10. 16. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). 17. 13. 5Vl6c. A binomial is 62 . 6. 7 = 2. Val \fi?. 9. V^a6. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1).g. d 7. are trinomials. A polynomial is an y. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. c f d).10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. as in arithmetic. is 28. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. + 1]. (cfd) 4. V36". V3 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. c = 1. or 9 Vx. e. V2a. 8. 12.
d=Q. . 2 ).9. 16.. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.5 ax 50 a6cd. find the numerical value of: 9.2 + I126. a=4. multiplication. 5=3. (a (a f b) 7. .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. i. x=^. 6.30 = 270 . + 26+3 c. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. subtraction.4 6^9 ad.810 + 150 = . 1. 4a6fVaV2^.g. 12. 5c +d 2 . d = 0. 3.e. 6. = 32 + 4527 = 50.99. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s .19 = 6. 10. l 13. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 52 . . c=l.390.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5. .9 aWc + f a b . 5. a 2 6. 4. Ex. * For additional examples see page 268. 8. 3 2 If 1. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. c = 2. a2 11. __ E. 14. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 4 . 3 4 . 2. b = 3. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. Otherwise operations of addition. Ex. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. EXERCISE 8*  .INTRODUCTION 29.
Six 2 . 26 of the exercise. . 6 = 1. if : a = 2. a a=3. 27. = 3. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 22. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 6. 38. a = 4. physics. 6 = 5. 25. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a =4. a = 3. 6 = 2. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Read the expressions of Exs.c) (a . 34. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6. 6 = 4. 6 = 6. 30. : 6. 6 = 5. 24. 30. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). and other sciences. 29. 23. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 28. a = 2. 26. a = 4. a.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 7. a = 3. 33. 37. a =3. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6=2. 35.6 . Six times a plus 4 times 32.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. geometry. sible to state Ex.
By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 5 feet. . and 15 feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 15 therefore feet. (c) 4.) Assuming g .16 centimeters per second. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v : a.16 1 = 84.seconds. b.e.INTRODUCTION E. then a 13. 14. if v = 30 miles per hour. the area of the triangle equals feet. i. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. if v . b 14. A train in 4 hours. An electric car in 40 seconds. d. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. (b) 5. c. 2. 4. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. Find the height of the tree.g. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. 12. and 13 inches.
(c) 10 feet. 2 inches. $ = 3. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.14d (square units). denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. meters.14 square meters. (c) 5 F. square units (square inches. If the (b) 1 inch. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 32 F. ~ 7n cubic feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 5. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 8000 miles. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. .) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. : 8000 miles.14 4.). (The number 3. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the 3. is H 2 units of length (inches. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the area etc. (c) 5 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.
Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or positive and negative numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.CHAPTER II ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.
5.3. (17) 15 + (14). of 2.16 32. lf(2). 4. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. of: 20. (_ In Exs. 23. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 4 is 3 J.  0. Thus. 33. 5. is 0. c = = 5. 2326. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. is 2. + 12. c = 4. d = 5. '. . add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 18. 21. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 19. if : a a = 2. subtract their absolute values and . d = 0. 6 6 = 3. = 5. 10. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 24. 22. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. the one third their sum. + (9).
43. . & = 15. : 34. 11 (Centigrade). . and 8 F. ' 1? a 26. 33. and 3 yards. 74. }/ Add 2 a. 55. are similar terms. 3 and 25. SUBTRACTION. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. . 31. \\ Add 2 a.. 10. 27. 42. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. affected by the same exponents. 4 F. and $4500 gain. = 13. 0. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 32.4. or and . 40. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 7 a. $7000 gain. and 3 a. 5 and 12. 72. 34. 7 yards. 2. 6. and 3 F. . 66.ADDITION. . 7 a. $3000 gain. 09. 60. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 32. 36.. 3. 10.5. 12. . & 28. 10. d= 3. and 3 a.. 13. 35. $1000 loss. ' Find the average of the following 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 41. : 48. sets of numbers: 13. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 4. 38. 1. 30. 25. 6. . = 23. and 4. c=14.7. which are not similar. : and 1. 2.13. ^ ' 37. 39.3. 6. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. c = 0. 37. . 29.7. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. = 22. AND PARENTHESES d = l.5. $500 loss.
b wider sense than in arithmetic. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. in algebra it may be considered b. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 9(af6). . 10. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only.ii. Vm f. 3a . 5Vm + w. 5l 3(af6).18 35. 14 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 2 a&. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. : 2 a2. b a f ( 6). 12Vmfn.13 rap 25 rap 2. f 4 a2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 12 2 wp2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12(af b) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. Algebraic sum. 2 . 11. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 13. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 2(af &). + 6 af . EXERCISE Add: 1. 5 a2 . 7 rap2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. or a 6.sign.
+ / + 3 Va. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 32. c 2 ^24. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 6 23. 36. 35. 2 2 2 31.ADDITION. and to add each column. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 21. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 37. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. without finding the value of each term 34. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 7 1 26. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. SUBTRACTION. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 17. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 1 27. 30. n x* 2 22. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. is . + y. l^S 25. 33. a a8 ZL **. 2/ : Add. ra 19.
a 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. c = 1.41 = 3.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 3a 2? . 2 Thus.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 2 . 3. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 6=2.3 s.g. V3. NOTE. = .7 2 .o c and 4. 2c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. and 2 .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. to show any error. s. ft any convenient and c. 4 2. of that letter. 4 = 7. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 7 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. e. .g. 2 Sum. therefore the answer is correct. 5 . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 2 025. f 110WS: 26 aft. to add 26 ab . 9 q 4. .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . and J 2 s. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.20 c 5 ab 4. x of x.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.15 abc . the erroneous answer equal 7. 5. . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.15 6c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 46 4z 7 c. 3 a f 4 1) 4.c= 2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.8 abc .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .12 a& 4.
4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.2n 2 2 3 rz . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4 Vc. 11. . a) y ^/. in 8 3 m n 4. SUBTRACTION. and 1 4 a . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. . 4. a2 a.12(a 4.(b + c) 1.1 a 4 1 0. and v 15. and and 13. ^2 1 e. ?/ . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. and 8 3 . 16e + 17/90.7m . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . m 4 6. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.and 6. 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 3 .8 m 2m 12. 2 2 . 4 ajy 17.15 5.a. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7ar + 3B 5. 2 ?ft ?/z.4:xy xz 6yz. 4 8 3 4 4 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.VS 4 2 Vc. 2 ?/.10 Vc.9(a + &) . .12. and 5 Vb 18.a .6. + 50 + 62 . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. .4 Va .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a. and . 2 a.1. v/20. xy3xz + yz.5a^6 f 6) . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 8.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. + a + 1.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.ADDITION. d. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 19.a 4 a 4 1. a 4 a . .12 6 ~5 a . d and / 3 ? 12. 18/+6y + d. . 56 w. .a.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 4(a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . and 12a 4 15& 20c . . 16.7v/if. . a 4 a . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 3(c f a). 2 2 and . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.Ga 43x45. e a4 /. . a2 2 14.
5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e.3 taken from 2 ? 5. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. + 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .5< 3 2 s 4^4. T8a.m 4m ?/?/ d. and 2 24. 1. how 1. 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . +d a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 13 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. f 1. 45a6 2 . and e + 6y . is 2. 1/ .4 2tn* Sic 2 . 8 . 6 f c 2 23. If you diminish a person's debts. .3^* 2n 2 . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 12 xyz.11 xy + 12. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 22.9aj 2. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . . 1. a 6 2 c. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 1. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . and 25. + n*. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. many negative units re main ? from 2. The sum and ? 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. . 8 f3f a n2<w +n .. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. f number may be added 3. s . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.ra + m. f 1.22 21. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.
and the required number the difference. called the minvend. ( 6) ( = . In subtraction. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. two numbers are given. SUBTRACTION.g. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . from What 3. Ex. To subtract. and their algebraic sum is required. 5 is 2. 1.ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the given number the subtrahend. In addition. Therefore any example in subtraction different . the other number is required. From 5 subtract + 3. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.2. 41. 6 (3) = 8. This gives by the same method.3. 3. 2. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ab = x. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. a. NOTE. +b 3. From 5 subtract to . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. . Or in symbols. if x Ex. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 7. Ex.
Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 r*5o.5 x + 8. Ex.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.f 8 .3 x* .
54. check the answer. of a 4.ADDITION. 57. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .a 2 j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 2y 2 . 50. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 49. 55. 46.w>t. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. SUBTRACTION. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 6(af. 52. + a the 2 a.6)f.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. . 53. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . c f d. 56. 2. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 42.7 a . 43. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. and 3 7/ .c.4 a*& + 6 a & . 48.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 58. 44. 51. From 2 a take a & j. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 6 4 a. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .2.4 a^ 4. 41. tract 4 x 3.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 47. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 45.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.
+4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. a + 6. 6. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. + 6 + c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. A is n years old. 2 m 21. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 2.26 4. 6 17. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 19. +a add the difference duce 13. of # 2 8. 9. subtract # + 1. a 2y + z. 16. 20. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.15. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.
45.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. II.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. one occurring within the other. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 46. a+(bc) = a +b . the sign is understood. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.a^6)]  } . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.6 b f (. I.c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.2 b . & f c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. changed. Ex. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.b c = a a & f f.g. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.ADDITION. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.c. SUBTRACTION.
last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. (m a2 f. 9. 2 2 2 a(. 4.y (60. 3. m f ft) a. 19.: Ex. a (a + 26 c ). Signs of aggregation 1. 18. + (2a 6 + c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 8. .[271 47. 5. By removing parentheses.7i h jp) (m ?*. 17. [36+ (a 2c]. 3 3 f 7.)]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 16.) 5 . : x + (2yz).+ 6)f (a2 b). 15. 271 + (814 . 21. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 14. may be inserted according to 43.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 13. 6. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. Ex. ? 11.(a + 6).1422) J ] . a (a + 6). 2. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a f (a a . 6) 2. 2 2a.
m x 2 4. 12.7fa. 8. 13. SUBTRACTION. )X 6. The difference of a and 6. ' NOTE. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. p + q + rs. . z + d. of the cubes of m and n. terms 5. 2. 9. The sum^)f m and n. 4. 7. II. 2mn + 2q3t. The square of the difference of a and b. 10. The product The product m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 3. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 6 diminished . 7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. y f 8 . a\l> > c + d. first.ADDITION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.1. 3. 5^2 _ r . and the subtrahend the second. 5 a2 2. difference of the cubes of n and m.2 tf . 5.4 y* . m and n.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 18.) . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. b.30 14. (Let a and b represent the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 16. 6 is equal to the square of b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . d. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.
If the two loads what What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. weights. two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. force is produced therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 3. If the two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 2. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force is produced by the Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 4. A A A 1.
4)(. such as given in the preceding exercise. becomes meaningless if definition. ( (.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. To take a number 7 times. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 4 multi44444 12. . (5)X4. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.9) x 11. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 5x(4). however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. the multiplier is a negative number. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.4)(4) = + 12. 4 multiplied by 3. Thus. 9 x ( 11). 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. x 11. or plied by 3. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.32 8. 4x(3)=12. Practical examples^ it however. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 48. thus. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. NOTE. 9 9. (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.
about fac (2)X If 6. 8 31. (7) X (12). 7. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (2)x9. b = 3. 4. 6. 29. 12. z s 11 aWcx.7. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)X(15). and y = 4.3. 14. 22. 4 . NOTE. 5. 8 4 . 4 a2 . x= 0.3) (1) 7 2 . 1. x.2 f+x 2 . 2. 32. (c#) . the parenthesis frequently omitted. Ua b 28. of Signs: TJie positive. 6 2. (. is 6x7. 3 a2?/2 . c = 25. 2a6 c . 3 aW.a)( =+ a&. 30. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 15. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. X(5).2f 18.(a&c) 2 2 . . . 26.MULTIPLICATION 50. 6. 20. _2^ 3. 9. 3.2. find the numeri values of: 21. 11. 5x3. 10. . 16. _2. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. If a cal = 4a6c.4. (10) 4 . 19. 23. (2) 8 (. 8. 13. etc. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. _3. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. Law Thus. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 24.(4J). 17. 1. +5. 3. 27. (4)'. 2a 2 6c.
or 2 .. 17. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 50(112. 4. 5 = 2. B. a8 a=2. of the factors. 5(711. 10.. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 3 2 . a 2 2 . 6" 127 U . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. m*. a = 2.2 2 23 + 5 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 7. 53. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . = 2. Ex. 12 U U . 2 2 3 6 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .6 if 35. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.  2 2.(2. & = 3. 6. 3 3 4 . 2 3 . 3. . 4.<?. 5.257). 34. 3. (a6) (a5) 9. . This 52. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.3).(7). Ex. 9 . 6 aWc x . =2 a *. 127  127 9 7 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 6 = .7. 11.e. 13. a = 3.503). i. 2(7. a= 1.m a 3  4 . 6 = 1. fl*" integers. 5 3 5 3 2 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. By 3 definition. IB. 78 . 1. 14.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 16. . 100. 200.(12) . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2.  and 2 25 8 . . : 3a7abc. 4. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 36. + 2/).2).35). . &*) c d*. 5 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 2(14. 2 2 2 .
the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. ) 2 33.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. _4aft. 29. 26. 20. (. (. 19. by first multiplying.3 win ) . 4. called the distributive law. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 35 4 7(6. 2. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. /). This principle. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 22.4a#. . .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 21. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 27. If results ft. 2(645410).7pqt. 23(10004100420).f 2).A). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. . 6(10420430). and then adding : 1. 28. . 24. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 2 32. 12( + 1 4 i). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 3(124342). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 7. 3.6. 34. but we shall assume it for any number. multiply each by the monomial. 23. 2(5fl5f25).7 w'W (8 n^W). c(4a ftc ). 25. 11(3. 31. . 17(10041042). 7p*q r*. 6. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . ax /) 2 4 1 (. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 35.2 3 aft ). 5. Thus we have in general a(b 56.
17. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 9.^ c + 2 . be multiplied to give 4o. . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 28. 20. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Find the factors of 6 ary . 21. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 12. . 11. 2 2 16. .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.6 a6). 23. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). By what 25.5 w*V f 7 wn).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. : expression must 24.60 a& 10 aft. 26. 19.5 x 7). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 2 27. 2 m(mhn \p).3 aftc).asa product.we b) (x law. 30. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. . ~2mn(m +n p ). 3 ). 22. f7a. 29.2 mn(9 mV . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 5). 7 a 6 c(.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.
the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Ex. To multiply two polynomials.3 b by a 5 b. Since errors. however. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Multiply 2 + a a. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.1. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 2 + a8 . . 59. Check.4.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 2. Since all powers of 1 are 1. Multiply 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. a2 + a8 + 3 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.
2. 2  37. 8. 35. + & + 1f a^faj 1). a 5c)(2a6c).2). 30. 22. 4 2). 5. (6p (2 f 21. 4. 29. 25. 2) (3 A: 1). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (2 x* x 2 . 10. 31. ^ 2 . (2w 19. 24. 16. 18. (8r7*)(6r39. (6a~7) 2 .4) (mnp 4. 3<7). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. . 2 . 15. 28. 41. 6. OQ OO. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). 40. QQ O7. 26. 7. 32. 9. 36. 17. I (mfn)(m4.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 3. 36) I) 14. 11. (13 A. l)(raf 2). 2 . . 20. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 1). 12. * For additional examples see page 261.2m)(l m). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2 (a al)(2a?fl).1 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 12)(a?^2l).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (ajf6y)(aj 23.4) (x + 1). 36). (a^26) . 13. (4a 2 33. (6i7n)(llJn). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 7y).
11. 12. (a 9) (a + 9). (J 23. 22. + 5) (1000 + 4). 1) (10 + 2).25)(y+4). . 3. 9. 25. + 60)(f2). 17. (10+ (1000 (2.2 6) (a f 6). 24. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). + 9)(m+9). (p12)(p + ll). 1005x1004. 25 a 2 . 8. in of the two unequal terms. i.e. (ra. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 18. 7. X 102. 13. (a3)(a + 2). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 75 ab f 54 ft . + 3) (a 7). i. 2 6) (a 3 6).n)(wf w). . 20. (*. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 26. plus the product 62. 10. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (a 102 x 103. + 2) (a f 3). 28. plus the product of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .13).e. 15. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). : 23 2. 19.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (!)(* 5). . Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2.4). 2 a? 29. (a (a (a.!!)( (a + 21). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 14. 6. (6 12) (6 f. 21. _3)(a _4). 2) (1000 + 3). ft 16. 27.
15. . 6.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. w 2 ro . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. a2 2 w + 2 w . 7. III. second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 31. 63.15. 9. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 34. 7 a + 10. 4. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.66 s. + 6 a + 8. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first.e. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. III. Ex. p 2 p. plus the square of the second.30. 8.e. 33. n2 10ii+16. (a26) 2 . 3. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 49 y*. i. : 24 (a 2. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). . plus twice the product of the first and the second. and the second. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. <J>7) J . 37. plus sum of two numbers the square II.e. + 3) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. i. (a2) (p a . . 35. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 32. (x+3i/) 2 . of the second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 2 5. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.
41 16. 29. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5)(5+a). 22 2 . 21. (2x3yy. 2 J ). The product of 57. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 9a 496 2 56. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). a2 9. 23. 12. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 44. 998x1002. 22. + 5). 49. (100 + 2) (100 2). (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 46. (^. 55. 2 . 4 53. : factors of each of the following expres y?f.998 39. ( 27. 32. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. G> +5g)*. I) 2 . 54. 34. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 62 25n 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 41. m 2 16. 48. 35. ). 16aW25. a 2 8a6+166 2 . . 14. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 9 a2 . 51. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 103 36. 104 2 37. 52. n 2 f4n+4. 15. n*6n+9. 28. 24. (6afy 2 5) (a. (20 f 1) . 47. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . . By actual multiplication. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 25 a 9. 33. 2 2 . 2 . 31. 99x101. . 45.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 18. 7& ) 25. 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 42. 17. (1000 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. + 3z) 2 2 . 38. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 11. 991 2 2 . . 40.
5. (3m + 2)(ml). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. : 25 2. or The student should note minus signs. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 6. 7. . The square 2 (a 4. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (5a64)(5a&3). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 65. 2 10. (4s + y)(32y). 8. 9.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 13. 14.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. plus the last terms. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 11. ) (2 of a polynomial. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. ((5a? (10 12. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.& + c) = a + tf + c . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. sum of the cross products. 4. (5a4)(4al). 3.
[a? . 4(aj2)h3(7). after multiplying the factors of a term. Ex. 4y sf n) 2 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 4.24 .3) (x . 6~2(a + 7). 5.r _ 2 . 6. If x = 1. Check. 4(* + 2)5(3). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 7. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.39. of z : 10. a.(= [ Xa + 2 . 66. 2)6.4) . = . 6(a 2.5) = (7 . .(>. 8. n). 2 2. 3.8 x + 15] . (a (.5). 4. (  2 4) =  20 a.y? + 8 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).(m 2 6. 9. Find the square root 11. (u4& + 3c'. (xy+z)*. = 10 x . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.i2&c) 2 .24] . + 6)( . 13.3)(z. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.1 5 = 10 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.(x .29. 12. 8. 3.39. and check the answers !. Simplify (x + 6) (a . Hence. 5.X2 + 2 x . + 65) . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.4) .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 7.3) . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 16. 51 15.11 a + 9 a . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . (81 m + 1 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . a I. 19.2).e. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . 20.2) (3 a . . 18.l.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.DIVISION 14.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). v/17. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). Division of the difference of two squares. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.
49.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 14. 9& 2 . 10. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 12. . f 13.000. 1. .0001. 15. 4 b. 16 . aW 12 a. r/ 1. 16. 100ry. 121a a 16 100 11. : the following w a 4 !.
The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. 83.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. x 20. Thus. the 80. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. =11. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. . . second member is x + 4 x 9. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. in the equation 2 x 0. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 81.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . 82. is said to satisfy an equation. hence it is an equation of condition. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. the first member is 2 x + 4.
a.b. NOTE. the quotients are equal. A 2 a. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. Transposition of terms.g. E. 89. If equals be divided by equals. 87. x I. To solve an equation to find its roots. the products are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. . 2. the remainders are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 4. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. one member to another by changing x + a=. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 5. the divisor equals zero. If equals be subtracted from equals. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 86. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be added to equals. the sums are equal. 90.2. A term may be transposed from its sign. If equals be multiplied by equals.e. called axioms 1. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 85. 2 = 6#f7. A numerical equation is one in which all . 3. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. but 4 does not equal 5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .54 84.
is correct. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 3 y . if 55 x members. and the known terms to the second. a? Adding 5 to each term. . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Hence the answer.6 y f y\ . x = 93. Uniting. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 2 x = 6. a= a 6fc. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Ex. b c. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.8. Transposing.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Dividing both members by 2. f If y 20 . 2(11 . Dividing by Check. if a x = b. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. 91.2 y= f . To solve a simple equation. Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4x 1 + 6. The first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. x = 3. The first member. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (4y)(6. b Adding a to both + a. The second member. Subtracting 4 x from each term.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.
Dividing by Cfcecfc. \x x 2^xfl. 32 = 264. etc. 12. = 5a?+18. it NOTE. 20. 50. a?. 11. 9 9a? = 7 13. 24. 17 + 5a. 7a? 5. = 3. 17 7 a. x x 1 . . 3 = 17 3 a? a?. Solve the following equations by transposing. 16. 4. =2 = 3. 3. 13 y 99 = 7 y. {(x (x The The member right member left . 14. 2. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. = 7.. 4a + 5 = 29. 3 7 a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. Transposing. J. 13a? 3a?. 7. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 19. 15. .. 11 ?/ a? 18. 6. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). Uniting. 8. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.7a: = 394a. f Simplifying. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. + 16 = 16 + 17. 21. 4y 10. = 2 ?/. 3. : 5# = 15+2a. a.69. 22. v23. 14y = 59(24y + 21). x = 18.7. + 22. and check the answers 9.56 Ex. If x = 18. 3)= 9(3 7 a. aj * See page 264. a? a?. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 247y = 68lly. 7 (6 x 16).17 + 4y = 36.
7(7 x y 26. 31.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 33. e. 38. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).5(2 u . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. a? 28. 40.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. + 4). .3) .g. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 35. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . a? 43. find the other part. 27.7) (7 x + 4) .5) = (a.2) (M . . . 42. . (aj 37.4) + 4 w . .12) (2 + 5) .1 0) = 0. 5) (as (a. Evidently 45. . (a. 2 2 * Jaj. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. (6 u =5 44. 7) (a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 36.3) + . is the other part. this question. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.(2 + 6) (4 . 6(6a. 29.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 30.14 = 0. . + 7) (.7. . or 70 a?. 39.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 41. 25.1) (u .3) + 14. 34.1) (a (a? + 3) = .5) + 199. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .32.
greater one is g. 4. 1. EXERCISE 1. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. smaller one 16. 13. 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 10. 14. so that of c ? is p. 11.58 Ex. 15. one part equals is 10. Ex. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 6. is d. 33 2. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. a. Find the greater one. one yard will cost 100 dollars. is a? 2 is c?. 6. 17. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . so that one part The difference between is s. or 12 7. Divide a into two parts. Divide 100 into two 12. so that one part Divide a into two parts. If 7 2. find the cost of one yard. is b. 3. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 9. and the smaller one parts.
Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. A man had a dollars. 20. and B's age is y years. numbers is x. is A A is # years old. 32. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 34. 28. ?/ 31. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 19. If B gave A 6 25. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A dollars. 22. find the of their ages 6 years hence. A feet wide. 26. 33. Find 35. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and B is y years old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . The greatest of three consecutive the other two. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents had he left ? 28. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 24. Find 21. sum If A's age is x years. amount each will then have. 28. How many cents has he ? 27. and B has n dollars. b dimes. find the has ra dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and c cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and spent 5 cents. How many years A older than is B? old.
50. The first pipe x minutes. of 4. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. A was 20 years old. . miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 46. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. c a b =  9. m is the denominator. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. % % % of 100 of x." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. of m. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find a. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. 48.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. Find the number. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . Find a 47. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find x % % of 1000. he walk each hour ? 39. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A cistern is filled 43. 49. a.
same result as 7 subtracted from . a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 3. 9. c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 2. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. c. of a increased much 8. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. double of a is 10. 5. of x increased by 10 equals x. 8 b ) + 80 = a . etc. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The double as 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 80. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 6. 80. The excess of a over b is c. a exceeds b by c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 4. by one third of b equals 100.
11. sum equals $20. #is5%of450. B's age 20. 3 1200 dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. 14. a. 16. amounts. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. . symbols B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. x 4 If A. B's. (c) If each man gains $500. m is x % of n. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. x is 100 x% is of 700. 18. a. pays to C $100. A gains $20 and B loses $40. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. and C's ages will be 100. of 30 dollars. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura.000.62 10. B. >. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. In 10 years the sum of A's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 50 is x % of 15. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. as 17 is is above a.. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. express in algebraic symbols : 700. B's. 6 % of m. a second sum. express in algebraic 3x : 10. they have equal amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. and C's age 4 a. 12. they have equal of A's.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.
by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. but 30 =3 x years. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Transposing. 15. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. the . x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. . A will Check. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. 4 x = 80. much as 40 exceeds the number. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 23 =30. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Three times a certain no. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Find A's present age. In 15 years 10. 6 years ago he was 10 . be 30 . In order to solve them. Ex. denote the unknown 96. Let x = the number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Uniting. Uniting. x = 20. 1. the required . NOTE. Ex. Simplifying.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Check. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x= 15. number of yards. Transposing. etc. 2. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x+16 = 3(35). number. Dividing. 3z40:r:40z.
Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the number. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Six years hence a 12 years ago. exceeds the width of the bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. A number added number. 300 56. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 120. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Hence 40 = 46f. 14. 4. 13. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. twice the number plus 7. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 3. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 11. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. by as much as 135 ft. Let x 3. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. % of 120. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.2. Find 8. EXERCISE 1. Dividing. 5. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2.64 Ex.
B How will loses $100. How many dol A has A to $40. 65 A and B $200. written in algebraic symbols. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Vermont's population increased by 180. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. One number exceeds the other one by II. . The problem consists of two statements I. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. 1. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. x. two verbal statements must be given. 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. B will have lars has A now? 17. times as much as A. which gives the value of 8. the second one. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. Maine's population increased by 510. Ex. statements are given directly. is the equation. The other verbal statement. During the following 90 years. Find the population of Maine in 1800. F 8. A and B have equal amounts of money. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and as 15.000. If A gains A have three times as much 16. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. five If A gives B $200. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 97.000.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and B has $00. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.
A has three times as many marbles as B. / . terms of the other. x 3x 4 and B will gain. to Use the simpler statement. < Transposing. Statement x in = the larger number.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. although in general the simpler one should be selected. unknown quantity in Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. + a f f 8 = 14. Then. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Let x 14 I the smaller number. = 3. . 8 the greater number. If we select the first one. = B's number of marbles. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Dividing. 2x a? x j = 6. A will lose. A gives B 25 marbles. The two statements I. the smaller number. 25 marbles to B.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. x = 8. and Let x = the Then x +. 2. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as many as A. . 8 = 11. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as viz. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. . = 14. Uniting. which leads ot Ex. consider that by the exchange Hence. If A gives are : A If II. the greater number. = A's number of marbles. I. Let x 3x express one many as A. x x =14 8. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. has three times as many marbles as B.
240. 60. 15 + 25 = 40. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Dividing. Find the numbers. (Statement II) Qx . Two numbers the smaller.10. * ' . and the Find the numbers. The value of the half : is 11.. Uniting. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). by 44. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. is 70. the price. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). cents.25 = 20.10. The sum of two numbers is 42. 40 x . . x = 15.$3. have a value of $3. 50. etc. 50 x Transposing.. 2..5 x . we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.10. Simplifying. Dividing. the number of dimes.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. . 45 . x from I. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Simplifying. x = 6. 3 x = 45. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Check. Find the numbers. Check. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. dollars and dimes is $3. the number of half dollars. greater is . Eleven coins. A's number of marbles. 1. 3. * 98. w'3. 11 x = 5.75. The number of coins II. Uniting. x = the number of half dollars. of dollars to the number of cents. B's number of marbles. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. then. 6 times the smaller. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.550 f 310. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. but 40 = 2 x 20.
one of which increased by 9.. Twice 14. On December 21. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Everest by 11. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.000 feet. as the larger one.68 4. the number. United States. tnree times the smaller by 65. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. McKinley. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 11. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 7. 5. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. A's age is four times B's. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 6. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 9. and four times the former equals five times the latter. How many 14 years older than B. Two numbers The number differ by 39. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. How many hours does the day last ? . Find their ages. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.
number of dollars A had. times as much as A. Ex. 1. If 4x = 24. III. B. then three times the money by I. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and C together have $80. If A and B each gave $5 to C. x = 8. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. and 68. has. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. Let x II. B has three times as much as A. = 48. bers is denoted by x. 8(8 + 19) to C. number had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. . and C together have $80. and B has three as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. B. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. they would have 3. are : C's The three statements A. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number of dollars of dollars B C had. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. II. original amount. 19. The third verbal statement produces the equation. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. has. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. I.
28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 9 cows. and Ex. number of cows. number of sheep. and. according to III. first. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 2. The I. according to II. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. three statements are : IT. x j = the number of horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 28 2 (9 5). and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 1 1 Check. each horse costing $ 90. number of cows. x Transposing. number of horses. The total cost equals $1185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x f 4 = 9. and each sheep $ 15. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. each cow $ 35. + 8 90 x and. 90 may be written. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. sheep. III. and the sum of the . A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. Dividing. 4 x f 8 = 28. the third five times the first. x = 5. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 185 a = 925. 9 5 = 4 . The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. Uniting.
the second one is one inch longer than the first. the copper.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). twice the 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. 9. New York delphia.000. what is the length of each? has 3. 7. and 2 more men than women. 13. the third 2. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. "Find three is 4. women. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. v . The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and the sum of the first and third is 36. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. increased by three times the second side. men. A 12. If twice The sum the third side. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what is the population of each city ? 8. The gold. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. how many children were present ? x 11. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. first. what are the three angles ? 10. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . equals 49 inches. first.000. and children together was 37. twice as old as B.  4. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.
such as length. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. . Find the value of each. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. how many 100.e. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 3 and 4. and quantities area. together. number of miles A x x walks.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 8 x = 15. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. of arid the value of the iron was $300. we obtain 3 a. = 35. number of hours. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. The copper had twice the value of the gold. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. and distance. Dividing. width. Let x = number of hours A walks. but stops 2 hours on the way.000. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. speed. Hence Simplifying.000 more than that the copper. 14. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. A and B apart.g. After how many hours will they meet and how E. or time. = 5. i. 7 Uniting. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.
were increased by 30 yards. 10 x = 200. .04 = $ 40. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Find the dimensions of the field. Check.04 8. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100." gives (2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 2   and transpose. 2 a = 40. the area would be 100 square yards less. and the width decreased by 10 yards. . original field has Check. Multiplying. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. 70x10 Ex. l. Transposing and uniting. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. z = 20. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. $ 800 = required sum.053. or 700. x . the second 100.M(x .x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. But 700 certain = 800 2. The an area 40 x 20 =800.06 = $ 40. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. $ 800 = 800. + 8.05 x x .01 = = .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x . $ 1000 x . x + 200).
55. were increased by 3 yards. and its width decreased by 2 yards. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. 2. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. as a 4. and a second sum. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A of each. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. invested at 5 %. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Ten yards $ 42. Six persons bought an automobile. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. A man bought 6 Ibs. mobile. the area would remain the same. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. but four men failed to pay their shares. sions of the field. After how many hours will B overtake A. What are the two sums 5. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. twice as large. A sum ? invested at 4 %. of coffee for $ 1. Find the share of each. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. together bring $ 78 interest. 1. 3. A sets out later two hours B . If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. After how many hours.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and from the same point.
An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. An after simplifying. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. stage of the work. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. at this 6 2 . f db 6 to b. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 104. 76 . it is composite. expression is rational with respect to a letter. a2 to 6. vV .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 5. this letter. if it does contain some indicated root of . irrational. if. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. which multiplied together are considered factors. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a. + 62 is integral with respect to a. as. 6. but fractional with respect 103. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . consider 105. we shall not. a.
107. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.62 + &)(a 2 .3 6a + 1). 2. ?/. Divide 6 a% . .g. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2. in the form 4) +3. 2. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. for this result is a sum.62 can be &). Factor G ofy 2 . TYPE I. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 110. It (a. 55. 8) (s1). y.FACTORING 106. it follows that a 2 . x. E. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Ex. 01. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.3 sy + 4 y8). 1. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. x.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. . 109. 77 Factoring is into its factors. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.) Ex.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . or that a = 6) (a = a .
4. a a 'Ja . 3 2 .5 + 13 8. Ilro8 9. 16. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 12. 34 a^c 8 . : 6 abx . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.45 afy . q*q*q 2 a. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 2 2 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . (as 3) and (ccf5). e. 5f 2 .6. 7a & 10. 32 a *?/ . 13. 8. 19. 7i 13. 2 Or.2. 14a 4 5. 2 + q. 15. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.5 x*y 2 17 a? . .12 cdx.4. 4 8 .8 c a 15 ofyV . 3 3 5 6. + llm llm. 20. 11. 14.g. 3. ) 22  2.3. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). TYPE IT. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 2 23. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 2 6. 2. 15 2 7. 17.30 aty.5 + 2. 18.3. a6c. 4. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 3x*6x*.51 aW + 68 21. .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. obviously. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. in general. 4 tfy f. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).
1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. .6 = 20. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.11 a + 30. Factor a2 . Ex. Therefore Check.30 = (a .FACTORING Ex. . + 30 = 20. the two numbers have opposite signs. 3. a 2 . 2. If q is positive. 77 as the product of 1 77.11. 4. If q is negative. . We may consider 1. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. or 77 l. 79 Factor a2 4 x .11 a 2 .1 1 a tf a 4.a). the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.5) (a 6). however. determine whether In solving any factoring example. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. as p.4 . can be factored. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Ex. and (a . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.4 x . tfa2  3.11) (a + 7). m 5m + 6. Factor x? . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 11 7.77 = (a. + 112. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor + 10 ax .G) = . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 5. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 2 6. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. or 7 11..5) (a . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. of this type.
2 2 . 21 a 2 2 . 16. 12. 21.17 + 30. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.80 7. a 7 a 30. TYPE 113. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 24. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . ra + 25ra + 100. 35. 32. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. . 4 2 . a2 . 14.48 + + 446 200.6. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 4 3 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. and 5 x. 2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 18. . + 30. 2 2 a' 34. + 2xS. 100 xr . x2 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 13. + 4?/21. 20. . a? + 5 + 6 a. 27. 6 8 8 4 2 a.180 a. 2 . 2 ?/ 28. ay 11 ay +24. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 29. + 44. 11. 33. 26. 36. 19. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 9. 30. 31. 16. 15. 17. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 ?/ 22. 25. 8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. ^ </ 2 2 7p8.70 x y . + 5<y 24. ITT. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.500 x + 600. or .
FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 3. X x 18. a. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and r is negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 27 x 2.83 x f 54. If p is poxiliw. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. Factor 3 x 2 .5 . but the opposite sign. . 18 x 3.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. and that they must be negative. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. sible 13 x negative. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . Ex. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5) (2 x . or G 114.1). then the second terms of have opposite signs. 9 x 6. 2. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 6 x 9. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 54 x 1. viz. 2 x 27. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 11 x 2x. . the signs of the second terms are minus. the If p and r are positive. 3 x and x.
82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 5. 13. 144 x . 11.83 x . 4. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 3a + 13a. 10. 2 2 2 23. 12. 10a?2 2 33. . 14 a fa 4. f go. 8. 9. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.y + 172/9. 2 28. 2 ar* 2 i/ . . 29. and the monomial factors should be removed. Sar' + SaG.179.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.27). 20. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 9a. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 3x*Sx + 4. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 10 a . 22.30 y 6 4 . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 4a2 9tt + 2. + 2/3. 5m 26m f 5. 21. : 41 2. 17. 2 . 2 31. X 27 . 90 a 8 2 . 2 26.2) (x . 16. 6n + 5?i4. 34. 35.19 a f 6. 2m t7w + 3. 7. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 15. 2x* + 9x5. 10a2 G a2 2 . 25. 24. 14. . x54 a. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 6. 12y 2/6. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.7. 19. 2. 2 . 2 2 2 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. the expressions should be it.163 x 2 . 100^200^ + 100^. 32.260 xy . 30. 18. 3.2 a 90 x*y . + 4.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 2 fc .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 12^17^16.83 x = (3 . since all others (II. 9 y + 32^16.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .
9 10a625. x* . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 6. 10. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 14. 2 9 10gf25. 4. 2. . it is a perfect square. of its terms are perfect squares. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. form are special cases of the preceding type. it is more convenient for that type. 9. and a perfect square. i.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 2 . 3. 11.20 xy f 4 y\ . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 12. must have a positive sign.e.26 ab + 9 6 2 .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 8. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. however.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 5. 116. 2 .10 x f 16. 25 7. and factor whenever possible : 1. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. square. . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 13. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .
+( )f816 30. u2 6& + 2 ( ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. + GO + 25.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2. * 2 . 18. 9a2 . 3. 16. 6 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 29. . 36 2 4. a. . 149 a 81 8. product i.20 ab + 10 b a . 9. 2. 2 . 2 20. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 4 2 23. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. a. ). 48 a +( ). 1. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 3.2 ofy + ofy m . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. ).84 15.60 a# + 4. 2 .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 26. 7. 19. 27.3 * ). TYPE 117.64 6 = 16(a . a2 24.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). prime.e. 22. aV . 16&*. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. Ex. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. ^//c to the Ex. 10 a 2 4 2 . 6. 4a2 l.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 5. 225 ofy . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. . : 43 tfy\ a 9.6 m* + 9 m.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 25. V. ). 2 . According to 65. 17.
36> . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2. Factor a 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 14. 5. 2 . a:) 12. 8. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 13. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . of polynomials. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.c . 11. (m7?) y. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Ex. 2. One or both terms are squares 1. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 16p 2 . T.d) 2 . 6. 2 . 4. a2 . 9. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.(I) .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Ex.(c 4.FACTORING 85 118. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .
5. 2. 8. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Ex. By grouping.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. x8 . 1. 3.2 ) (3 x .y + 2 2). + x + 2x + 2. a 26 2 2 3 .1.ab + bx.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. 119. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.a a .7 c + 2c .VI. ma ?*a + m& nb. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.and trinomials. which may be factored according to types I. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 12. a5 + ab 6 . 5) . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 6. 7. After grouping tain a the terms. . Ex. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. a? 11. 4 B. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.14. A. 4:cx . 10.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 9. = (3 x + y .r. . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.
87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . . 4. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 3. 4 a2 . Arranging the terms. l~a 2a56 2 2 . II. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 aaj 4 6y. 3.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 4. : 46 x* 2. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 8ra 2 + 16. $ a8 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. w m 2. : m 2 2 16. 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6 6.FACTORING Ex. .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 2 7.l.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2a3/ 7. 2. 8. 6a4 12a2 + 6. IV.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 36 9 m . 8. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 5. 6.4 f . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. = (a + 6)(a6). + 2xy + y*q*.
2 ft . 12. 32. 80 a 2 ft 38. a. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 30.156. 24. 2 17. 2 a 128. a + a + a + l. 40. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 42 x .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. (a. 19. or 3 7#2 . 3 41. .40. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 22. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 50^ + 45. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 5 a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 11. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 48. 13. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 13 c . + 6 aft + 3 . 25 a + 25 aft .310 x . a6 36. 3 2 . + 14. 29. 14. 5a' 20. 4 a. 42 s 2 .24. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 27. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 35. 3 a2 23. (^ 34.13 c . a3 156. 28.88 10. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 4 8 tt 2 z . 3 25. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33.
C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F.) of two or more . 89 . C. are prime can be found by inspection. C. The highest is common factor (IT. 12 tfifz. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of the algebraic expressions. II 2 . 24 s . 13 aty 39 afyV. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. 5 2 3 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Two common factor except unity The H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 6. F. F. C. 5. F. 5 7 34 2s . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 121. The H. 5 s 7 2 5. F. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 54  32 . of 6 sfyz. 122. 8 . C. C. of aW. 3 . F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . The student should note H. aW. 25 W. 2 2 . F. 3. 15 aW. The H. of two or more monomials whose factors . . Thus the H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 2.  23 3 . C. F. C. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. of : 48 4.
8. ^a + 5^ + 6. 4 ?io. 14. . 13. 0^80:416. .?/ . 7.5 x3?/ 2 6. 3^ 2 4 . of + 4 if. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).^9. 2 . 8 6.y) 123. a2 + 7af!2. C. a3 16 a. 3.2 ?/) (x . . 24 a 2 . 25 m27i.y) .6 a&. ^707 + 12. a2 ar* 4. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F. (a7 ?/) . 12. 12 . 16 a .5 y). 10.8 a + 16. 9. 8 a 10 . 12. 3). . aWd. ^f a. a2 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 6 mx . C. F.y)\ O+ 0^(0. a2 + 2a3. 2a f5af 2.6. F.90 7. a 3a4. 15.5 + 6. 2 . a3 9a.6 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 38 #y. 95 2/V. Find the H. 5. y + 3y64. 6(m+l) (m+2). x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 49 C. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 225 4a 9 . 6 a2 y? . 2. 15 3ao. 3 . . a. ^2 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 13. To find the H. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. = x 2 y.12 as 66 . x* x2 Hence the H. 57 a>V. 5 a6 5^ 2 a.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 2 . 8. 1. 52 oryz4. of: . 10.2 y) (a. 6 3 a. 4(m+l) 3 . 8(?/ifl) 14. of polynomials. and apply the method of the preceding article. 11.y + y42. 12 w*nw 8.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . Ex. 2 . 65 zfyV. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 11. 9. 1. 9 aj*(a? . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 16.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . . F. C.# 4 afy f 4 .
2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 60 x^y' 2 . M. NOTE. . C. Ex.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. To find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. 300 z 2 y. thus. M.6)2. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. a^c8 3 . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .C. Common 125. Find the L. 2. &) 2 M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. C. of the general.C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. C. 2 The The L. C. two lowest common multiples. . The L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . The lowest common multiple (L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of several expressions which are not completely factored. M. of 3 aW. 128. C.M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of tfy and xy*. L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . etc. M. 1. M of the algebraic expressions.M. 127. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. A common remainder. 126. Find the L. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. M. ory is the L. L. M. but opposite . Hence the L. C. each set of expressions has In example ft).6 3 ). which also signs. Ex.
. 14. Find the L. a !. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a. 8 afy. 11. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. xy\ . 2 . 15. y*. 40 abJ. 3 . 16. afy. 21. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2 . ic 23. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a 2 a3 . x* ~5a. a 2 fa6. 2(m 2 . 2 x \2 y. 6 a. afc'cd 2 . or f 3 a 15 #. a 2 f 4 a +4. 4 a 5 6cd. a^1. 5 a? 5 a? y. a 1. 20 9 a. a2 4. x 2 5 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. M. 4 a f 2. 3(a + b). + 2. 20. a& 4 +& 2 . 6b 2 . 17. 6. 30 a. 3 Z> . b 2 .f 6.1. ic 2 ?/. 5. 1. of: 4. 4 a . 2. a f 2 19. 24 x. 2 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3. 2 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a f 3. 2 7ic+10. 24. 8. 8 d 5 . 18. a?b. (For additional examples see page 268. 2 a . a. 3 f2. a2 ~ab 1. 3. 7. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. #. by. x2 + 4 a f 4. G a. a { a~b. 13. + 2 7i) . (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 10. + 6. a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 3 6 xif. 22. T a 3 a 2 . 9. f b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2 a . .1. 3 ab. ) . 6 y.
a?. 131. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. successively all 2 j/' . F. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 130. and denominators are considered. etc. a b = ma mb . C. as 8. Thus. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. Ex. however.ry ^ by their H.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. rni Thus 132. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. but we In arithmetic. Remove tor. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. A f fraction is b.
Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. cancel factors only.4) Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . . and cancel all factors that are common to both. 2.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Ex. 3.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.
_ 3 7i rt< 26. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.10 a + 3 2 14. ' ^ . ^" a.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ny 4 18.7 . 5^10 y 30. g J 21. 19.. . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. LJZJ^JL. """. .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 .*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.' 32. . 23. nx 17. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 9x + "a" 10. 11 ^ Mtr f . ^+3*. 16. 29. ^' rt ^  31. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.
mon T denominator. 1). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. 1. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by the denominator of each fraction.~16 (a + 3) (x. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.C. we have the quotients (x 1). we have M^. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.C. Reduce ^. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Divide the L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. Ex.r 2 2 .1^22 ' . M. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we may extend this method to integral expressions. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. . take the L.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. multiplying the terms of 22 .D.M. ^ to their lowest com The L.3) (!)' = . and (a 8).M. C. + 3).by 3 ^ A 2 ' .  of //* 2 . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.  by 4 6' .96 134. and the terms of ***. . C. and 135. TheL. . 2> .
. 5?. common denominator 6.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . j y 3.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2 ay IB. If the given fractions have different denominators. 7i 2 ab* ". . . o o a. 137. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 22 a2 5a * . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. .oj o* or / .^1. 18. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.. 8 i i. 74). 3. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2aj ~ .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2. a? 1 5 > ^* . i. JL.
3 ft 2). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . C. (a .ft) (a ft ft)~.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. in the beginning. 2. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .ft)(a . L. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .2 = a(a . ^ is 2^JT) . and adding.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft).3 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).aft) Ca2 . as 4 aft f. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. 4(2 a 3 ft). D. e. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . T? Ex. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C..2 ' 2 _.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). The L. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.7 . D. ft). (a ft).g. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.(a 2 6). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. the student should remember that parentheses are . 2 ^. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.
2L + 2a 1 17. 6 c 3a 7. 23. 46 2a 4a 12. + a "" 2 6 ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. A+2_3. j>0 i> 21. 1 1 f w 16. a 36 ++. 24. 2. 5a76 4a 106 9. 15. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 18 v 19. 20. + . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1 f q * 1 m m .5 18 ^4f25. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. a+6 a 6 2 14. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.
2 af1 32. a 30.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 42. 1 34. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 43.9. _ + a? ?/ + y. a. a ?^ 40. 3a 9 +. ic 1 + 1. af 1f /j. a 4 31. 41.9 79 6 2 i. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ! n. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .
.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .7 5a v Ex. . T. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .6 + 4x 4 x2 . Reduce . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  .FRACTIONS 139. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 1. 101 mixed expression. .  4 or 3 2a. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.
(In order to cancel common factors.) Ex. or. fractions to integral numbers. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. we may extend any e.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. multiply the 142. F J Simplify . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2 a Ex. !. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Since  = a. integer.g. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.
53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 . aj 5 1 a? 18. 5# 56 / c& 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 14. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .6 12 d6 4... 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. : a 41 ab * See page 272. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Divide Xn?/ . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 144. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 8 multiply the Ex. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.
T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .5 ??i 80 50 . l. are fractional.10 ?/ _.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . or both. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .6 s + 064. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a a2 4.afr 4.FRACTIONS 105 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Ex.^c 2 2 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.
c +6. M. the answer is directly obtained. i. y X 4* 2 y 3. . Simplify x }. 10. 6. . .y 32 . . C. & . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. 2. JL. 9. of their denominators.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .a ^c c _^ a . a m "" . 7i+~ 7.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Ex. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : . 1 i 1 2 5 .) . m^n* n L a 17. sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. o 15. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 1. 2z2a.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. = 6. 2x Transposing. a. 108 . + 1) (a + 3) .1. . each member is reduced to 1. Uniting.28 x + 42 = . these Ex. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2 3. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).48. each member is reduced to Ex. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . of the denominator.9 x2 + 9. = 6.8 x = .f3# + C:E=6f7212. Uniting. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.14 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 9x x Check. 148.l)(z + 3) = . C. If = 64. 2. 5(3 85 Check. 4 4)  x. Transposing. x = 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.28 a = 5 x2 .42 + 9. Bx 12 Qx. Clearing of fractions. tions. M. If x 6.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. ^1 = 9. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . a/  5 a/ = 12. . 16. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. +1 = 5. '  4 13.= 2. a.1 _77 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 15. 1 *> = 2. +4 14. ^' 2. 18.
33.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . .11_4 x 149. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . J_. 26 26. 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 2^12 = 2 = 34.  38 = 40. . ._ _ . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. If two or more denominators are monomials. 4a4l4* + l~. . ?_=_. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 3x 35. 25. y+3~2 29. 31 31. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 32 6 .
f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5# 10.2 42 9 43. 24 a. Dividing. .2 3 ~  == 7a. 5x x : = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. = 9.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . M. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.  5 = 20 x 45. each member is reduced to ^. a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and uniting. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 60. 1.. Check. If a. the 1 5 L. 26 a. C.29 50712' 9 18 .
3 6 2 = a' . = 6 a2 . 2. = 2 f b 2 . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. ax f x f. fr Reducing lowest terms. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. a.m bx 2 mn) x. jr. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Ex.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = = 6 6c 7 6c.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. find a in terms of b and c. Uniting. = l^ 9 b 4 . 5> a.2 62 2 ab. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. they are united by factoring.2 ac + 3 aft . y. Dividing. Ex. 4 ac 1.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. f ~ 5c. =a 2 151. Uniting the Dividing. It frequently occurs that the x. Thus. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. If 3ac L= = a ? .1. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . .& .be.
If s (wi n) x =px + q. . c. = rt. r the number of $>. ^ ax a^ 26. _ 2. m a? x .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 3(* 8. t. a. rate. 30. . q solve for/. Ex. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 34. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 13. p the principal. 6. = 5. 10. + xx = 1. mx = n. If ^^ = a 1 32. 29. The The i time. s = Vt solve for v. 4. 1 f. * Solve the same equation for^). solve for . If * 33. denoting the interest. f P =+!. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. If s If 16. + 3a. . and n the number of years. in terms of other quantities. 5) is t =^. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.i l .= H. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. c 18. = 8 4 #. = 3 (6 a). 17. IIL n b + &o. = vt. 9. f ^o. iw 21. solve for a. 12. 31.= n. 11. 3. . 14. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 15. co?. 2 solve for y a.a. 4.= c a Z> .
100 C. 2 3 . . 1. A would do each day ^ and B j. Ex. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 2. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. . and 12 = the number over. Find R in terms of C and TT. Ex.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. then = 2 TT#. 12.180. Multiplying by Dividing. x Or Uniting. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.20 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. = 16^.. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. is 36. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.114 35. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. the rate of the express train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 32 x = ." : Let x  = the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Ex. 180 Transposing. = 100 + 4 x. and the statement. Clearing. in Then Therefore. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 3. Solving. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. = the x part of the work both do one day. 4x = 80. or 1J. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and one half the greater Find the numbers. length in the ground. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and J of the greater Find the numbers. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. which was $4000.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and of the father's age. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. is equal 7. is oO. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. make 21. 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. by 3. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. a man had How much money had he at first? . its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. ceeds the smaller by 4. of his present age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his daughand the remainder. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his son. Find A's 8. fifth Two numbers differ 2. ex What 5. money and $10. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and 9 feet above water.  Find their present ages. by 6.
If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. investments. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and it B in 6 days. what is the 14.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A has invested capital at more 4%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. air. ^ at 5%. . A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 152. and B in 4 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. Ex. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 1. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.) 22. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 3. 2. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. How much money $500? 4%.
Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. they can both do in 2 days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 2. Ex. A in 4.e. To and find the numerical answer. is 42. B in 12. A in 6. n x Solving. therefore. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. and apply the method of 170. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. is 57. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. B in 30. . Hence. . . 25. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. A in 6.g. 26. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Then ft i. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.= .118 153. The problem to be solved. if B in 3 days.414. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. m and n. B in 5. B in 16. we obtain the equation m m . 3.009 918. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. e. and n = 3.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.
and how many miles does each travel ? 32.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. squares 30. : (c) 64 miles. respectively (a) 60 miles. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 33. . (d) 1. if m and n are.000. Two men start at the first miles apart. the second at the apart. and the rate of the second are. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (c) 16. After how many hours do they meet.001.721. the rate of the first. is (a) 51. Find the side of the square. respectively. (b) 35 miles. 4J miles per hour. meet. same hour from two towns. squares 29. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 3 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. The one: 31. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 34. 2 miles per hour. is ?n . by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 5 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (b) 149. 2 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. and the second 5 miles per hour.
antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the antecedent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.g. etc." we may write a : b = 6.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. 1. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. : : 155. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Ex. is numerator of any fraction consequent. . b is the consequent. the denominator The the 157. Simplify the ratio 21 3. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b. the symbol being a sign of division. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The first 156. In the ratio a : ft.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. E. b. 158.5. " a Thus. 6 12 = .
: is If the means of a proportion are equal. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. proportional between a and c. J:l. 8^ hours. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. equal 2. 3:4. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 10. 16. 18. 11. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. $24: $8. 61 : ratios 72:18. 159. Simplify the following ratios 7. The last first three. 5 f hours : 2. 62:16. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 7:4 T T 4 . 17. a and d are the extremes. two  ratios. 4.RATIO Ex. 12. b and c the means. 4:5f : 5. 27 06: 18 a6. 9. 6. b. : ay . extremes. terms. : 1. 16a2 :24a&. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 1. Transform the following unity 15. and c is the third proportional to a and . In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3:1}. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3 8. 3. 7f:6J. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. b is the mean b. and c.
and the other pair the extremes. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. then G ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 2 165. : c. : : directly proportional may say.) b = Vac. 6 ccm. briefly. q~~ n .30 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. of a proportion.__(163. !. " we " NOTE. In any proportion product of the extremes. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. Hence the number of men required to do some work. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Clearing of fractions. If (Converse of nq.122 162. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. 3 4. 163. are : : : inversely proportional. 164. and the time necessary to do it. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. pro portional.) mn = pq. = 30 grams 45 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. of iron weigh .e. i. ad = be. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.
d d. is Ex. 1.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) II.) = f f = 3 J.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.PATIO Ex. ad ( 163. V. + b:b = c + d:d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. I. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a:c=b:d. I. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. 12x Hence a? = 42. 2. bd bd. then =d c. a III.) d 167. if 6 : 7. 166. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. ad = be. is 4$ = 35.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. (Frequently called Inversion. (163. hence the proportion true. (Composition. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Or IV. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. (Division. = 35 . .
72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. x = 2.124 IT. 3. = 12 5ft. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. the consequents by 7. . its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 10. . EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 3n JJ =n x NOTE.!=!*. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 5 5. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. E. i.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 6 =4 : x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. V. Apply composition. Or III. = 2:3. = 20:7. mx tin Apply composition and division. IV. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 9. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 7:2f 3J. = 180:125.e. 8. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 120:42 2 2 7. Simplify the following proportions. 5. = 2:x.g. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. : x. 4. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.
42. 20. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. = 5 x 12. (a : : 45. a. 5. 2.8:1.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 6 x = y. + fyx = cy. : 53. ra + landra 1. x m = y n. 3. a 2 and ab. 17. 27. 4 and 16. 29. and 2/. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 52. . ra 2 . 41. ra. : a2 . 50. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 46. if : 40. 2= 5 x x. 47. 16. 7iy = 2:x. = 15o.:ff. f. mx = ny. = 2 + x: x. rap.. 22. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. terra 2:3 = 4. : . form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. Find the mean proportional 30. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.  32. 112:42 = 10:a. 35. = l^:18. 34. 33. 3. 1. 6x = 7y. ratio of y. x:5 = y:2. 23. 1 and a. 31. = 3 43 + x. a?:15 15. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 38. 2 a and 18 a. 21. 18. to : a and 1. 3t.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 28. 44. 39. b. 6. 4. 2 3 = y #. to: = 35:*. 51. 12. 25. w.x: 6:5 a : x. 43. 14.j>. Find the 37. 9 x = 2 y. 5= 18 a? : a?. rag. 14 and 21. to : 9 and 12. 16 and 28. Find the third proportional 24. 13. 2. 03:a?=135:20. 26.
What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the speed of the train. 56. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the time. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. A line 7^. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the : total cost. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the area of the rectangle.126 54. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 57. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').
11 x x 7 Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 2. produced to a point C. AB = 2 x. = the second number. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.000 168. x = 6. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 2 x Or = 4. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 inches long. : Ex. is A line AB. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). as 11 Let then : 1. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Let A B AC=1x. 18 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. . x=2. Then Hence BG = 5 x.
: 4.000. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 11. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. and c inches. 9. 12. 3. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12. How The long are the parts ? 15.) . How many gen. 14. How many 7. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. What are the parts ? 5. Gunmetal tin. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : 197. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 7. 6.000 square miles. 2. find the number of square miles of land and of water. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and 15 inches. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 13.
the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. a? (1) then I. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. is x = 7. =..y=. there is only one solution. if . such as + = 10.L x If If = 0. The root of (4) if K 129 . However. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. etc.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. Hence. 2 y = . expressing a y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. x = 1.e. values of x and y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. y = 1. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.
viz. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. unknown quantity. 3. 21 y . y I 171. y = 2. are simultaneous equations. 174. 4y .3 y = 80.24.X. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Substitution. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170. = . 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 6x . 172. to The two methods I.26. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. E. 26 y = 60. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. of elimination most frequently used II. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Therefore. for they express the x f y 10. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. same relation. the last set inconsistent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. ~ 50. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. By By Addition or Subtraction. and 3 x + 3 y =. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1).14 =8. x = 10. x = 10. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. = 406. 37. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Transposing. + 2. 5 13 . are like. y = 2. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. subtract the equations. 3y = 3. = 235. Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3.3 1 = 47. 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 64 x = 040. 8 2. y = 1. 25 x .2 = 9 + 4 = 13.3 y = 47. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. whose coefficients In general. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations.2 = 6. 10 . add the equations. Therefore Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.
3. = 6. I i 3 a. + 2/ 17.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I . J I y = 1U. [2o. 19< I a. f 3# ?/ = 0. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I oj 5y = 17. _. ' 12. x 11. 9 1 r 20. 7 ' 1fi fl . = 41. ] ^ .3.5 y = 2. f 3X 7x 14. = 24. i 3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. . O t K 8. I ~ y~~> 22.v 23. * + 3 y = 50.4.9 *. v ^ = ll. 13. 13 61 l7a.f2/ ' = 50.
= 2. = 60. . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. x ) ^"" 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 3. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 8. = 2y + 10. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#8.
f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. x = l. 7 y = 6. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14.6)7(y7)==18. + 212y4 = 14.3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. simplified before elimination is possible. 3 (1) Ex. \ \6(a. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3. (7) (7) (8) . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 4* + 3y = 19. 21z6y=9. 2 y = . . (4). it is advantageous to do so in most cases. however. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 29 x = 29. From 9 = 36. 7x_2y=3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Substituting in (6) .
= 3. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. J 9. . +y 2 . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4 11. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 10 2a?5 17. 10. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14.f2 2. a. a. 16. 12. yM a.1) = 121.1) + 5(6 y . . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
?~y .#.and x y . * ((* (( . {. 22.Q ^ 4 21. but some expressions involving x. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. and y. 180. 3x\" 1 23 24.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. f y . <X + 20. e.
of this type. (2) (3) a.3 xy. 1. 15 y + 8 x . can also be solved Examples method. however. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . 2* * x 2. x 2x(2). y 1. Therefore y=4. Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).4 x = 4 xy. 33 = 11 x. y. 137 Solve y y (1) . x 3. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 4. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . etc. (4) + (G). Substituting x = 3 in (1).
253 7.= 5.= o 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x 8. n. 21 9 .138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 1. x y 5. = en. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. x y 331 9. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Ex. y MOi y a. 4 13. 6. .
Dividing. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x 12. apan cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. W . x a. s in 11. . ap.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I if 13. bmy bm}y ap cm.W. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. x f my = 1. d. f 5. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . . and I. a Find a and terms of n. Uniting. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. fax f = l. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. d. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ax + by = 2 a&. 6.y = = 9a + 46. 14. ny = fy/ I sc 1. . w.
1+4.2 + 4. (8) 2. . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).by 2.8 = 1. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (4) (5). 6. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. by 3. 8 x .13. 4. 20.25.15z=12 Adding. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3 = 8. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). = 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 4. 1.lf> z . etc. l. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.2 + 3. 3y = Hence Check. y =* 2. ties are Similarly.12 y + 6 z = . 3. = 30. To solve equations containing By tions. x + 12 y . 182. 3.3=4.16. 1. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. Ex. f 3y 12 =s 8.
x 13. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 2z = 40. 49. a? + 709 = 26. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + y f z = 15. + 2 y f 2 = 35. == 6. 2 4. 14. 15 2 = 45. 4 = 42. 12. 2 . ~6?/ 5. 8. a? 11. 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. k 2/ f 2 x a. 7.
27. ^ = 2. 4. . . 16. 84 21. 60. ? = llz.6 2. 23..2 a. =s 20. = 8*. . ?/ 3x = 0. 19. = 5.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. (3 _. 32. 22. 1510 4 17.3 y + .42 = 2.
symbols: x + y +z 8. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number. either directly or implied. . (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1. Check. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. 2 = 6. 1 digit in the tens place. 2 = 1(1+6). unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. x : z =1 : 2. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples. + 396 = 521.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. + z = 2p. = 2 m. 1 = 2. and if 396 be added to the number. +2+ 6 = 8. Find the number. y 31. Obviously of the other . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. # 4. z + x = 2 n. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. y * z 30. ( 99. however.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. M=i. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Ex. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. . = l.
. y = 3. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 4 x = 24. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. = Hence the fraction is f. 5_ _4_ A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. C.144 Ex. (1) (2) 12. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. By expressing the two statements in symbols. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3 = 24. B. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. Ex. 3. 2. 2. = 8. = the fraction. increased by one. 6 x 4 = 24. Or (4)2x(3). the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 3+1 5+1 4_2. direction. From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (3) C4) = 24 miles. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. x 3x4y = 12. we obtain.
the fraction equals . the value of the fraction is fa. 7. 1. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the number. part of their difference equals 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. Find the numbers. A fraction is reduced to J. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If the denominator be doubled. If 27 is 10. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the fraction is reduced fraction. both terms. fraction is reduced to \. Find the number. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If 9 be added to the number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the Find the fraction.) added to a number of two digits. tion ? 8. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. . 6. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the fraction. the last two digits are interchanged. 5. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Find the numbers. number by the first 3. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the number (See Ex. ? What 9. the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. its value added to the denominator. 2. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. and the fourth 3. Find the numbers. 183.}.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and its denomi nator diminished by one. it is reduced to J.
Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. respectively ? 16. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 14. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 12. Find the rates of interest. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. partly at 5 %. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 13. in 8 years to $8500. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and partly at 4 %. now. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment.grams. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. A man invested $750. A sum of $10. and in 5 years to $1125. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. How 6 %. and 4 %. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 19. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and money and 17. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. .000 is partly invested at 6%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. the rate of interest? 18. Find their present ages. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. If the rates of interwere exchanged. the annual interest would be $ 195.
andCL4 = 8. receiving $ 100 for each horse. Find their rates of walking. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and F. and GE = CF. and F '(see diagram). the three sides of a triangle E. points. 25. ED = BE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. three AD = AF. A farmer sold a number of horses. and AC = 5 inches. and sheep.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. An C touch ing the sides in D. and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. what is that = OF. 23. . then AD = AF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. c. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. are taken so ABC. the length of NOTE. and their difference by GO . BD = HE. and angle BCA = 70. 1 NOTE. BC = 7 inches. E. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and e. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. cows. B find angles a. angle c = angle d. but if A would double his pace. for $ 740. respectively. and angle e angle/. and CE If AB = G inches. triangle Tf AD. and $15 for each sheep. 24. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. BE. $ 50 for each cow. On /). he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. BC=7. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. .
CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. jr. PN. and PJ/_L XX'. B. and point the origin. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. . 2). ?/. and r or its equal OA is . Thus the points A. first 3). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis.. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . It' Location of a point. is The point whose abscissa is a. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (7. 186. YY' theyaxis. 3). (3. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (2. The of Coordinates. the ordinate by ?/. PN are given. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. the ordinate of point P. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). or its equal OM. is the abscissa. PM. (2.
1). 0). 1). . 4.(!. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. !). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. 3). (4. 8. (1. 3. 2).e. (3. Plot the points: (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4) and (4. 2J). Plot the points : (0.1). (4.2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4) from the origin ? 7. 4). and measure their distance.4). 3). 2. 4). 12. 71 2). (5. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. Plot the points (6. (2. What is the locus of (a?. which of its coordinates known ? 13.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. (4. 0). (See diagram on page 151. 2). (4. 6.3). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Graphs. i. 3).) EXERCISE 1. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.and(l. (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 11. . 0). 6. (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 0). (4.
. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. may be found on Jan. 188. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. C. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 10 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. from January 1 to December 1.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. we meas1 . 15. or the curved line the temperature. ure the ordinate of F. however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. B. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the first table produces 12 points. A. D. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data.
The engineer.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. (b) July 15. uses them. (c) January 15. . physician. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (d) November 20. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the rise and fall of wages. etc. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the graph is applied. as the prices and production of commodities. Whenever a clear. the matics. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.
During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (freezing point) ? 7. 1 to Oct.152 2. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. When the average temperature below C. on 1 to the average. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. How much. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. is 10. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1? 11 0. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (1) 10 C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ?  3. 15.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. During what months above 18 C.. (d) 9 0. ? 9.
20. 19. Hour Temperature . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. transformation of meters into yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Draw a graph for the 23. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw .09 yards. One meter equals 1. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
x 7 to 9.154 24. 190. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 29. 9. 2. . +7 If will respec assume the values 7. amount to $8. 2 . Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 26. e. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .. 3.50. 4. x* x 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.5 grams. 1 to 1200 copies. 3. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. the daily average expenses for rent. if he sells 0. binding.) T circumferences of 25. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.50. if each copy sells for $1. x increases will change gradually from 13. then C irJl.inch.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.g. 28. gas. and $. A 10 wheels a day. books from for printing.. to 27. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. function If the value of a quantity changes. etc. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. the value of a of this quantity will change.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.
2. The values of func192. for x=l. 9). Q. Draw the graph of x2 f. and (3. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. may. 4).1). it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. etc. 2).1). be also represented by a graph. however. while 7 is a constant. and join the points in order. is supposed to change. ( 2. 9). (1.g. Ex. plot points which lie between those constructed above. E. 3 (0. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . (1^. 1 the points (3. x a variable. . Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. J). may . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . a*. 2 (1. (2.e. If a more exact diagram is required. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 50. 4). as 1.0). Graph of a function.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. to x = 4.2 x may 4 from x = 4. construct '.
(3.. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. (4. 2. r */ +* 01 .. Ex. and join(0. . (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (2.4).. Thus in the above example. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.) For brevity. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. = 4. 5). and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus 4x + 7. 4J. rf 71 . y = 6. 4). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.2 x . = 0. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 1). straight line produces the required graph. 7 . 194. etc. 2 4 and if y = x f. as y.. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. j/=3.20). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.
a.5)2. (If) Va25. 5. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 3 a 8. 11. The values of a?.5)2. . 3. if a. the function. . a? 1. 22. 2J. 6 fa. 1J. xz + x. + 4. 2 2. J. 1J. 2. 9. 8. ?/ a. fa 17. if y = 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Jar . The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. a?. 19. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. i. a* 13. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2 2 a. = 4.e. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 15. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. y = 2x = 4. 21. The values of a*. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.8)'. = The values of a*. 2 a. if the function equals zero. x+1. 4a? I. 1 8 10. xl. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 6. 1J. (ft) (_ 1. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2x + 3x a?. 2 or 2 20. from x VlO'S". 23x. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1. 4 a. The smallest value of the function. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 3. if"a. 2J. 7. 16. (C ) (2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 14. 2 a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . l.or. 12. a ar. (7i) (c) 23. 2. a? 2 4. 18.
what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). i. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. then y = . 14 F.158 24.. y= formula graphically.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 25. then cXj where c is a constant. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 1 C.where x c is a constant. that graph with the o>axis.. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.24.24 or x = P and Q. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. 9 F.. C. Therefore x = 1. Represent 26. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. the abscissas of 3. 32 F. Show any convenient number). From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.e.
draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. (0. 6. 8. = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. or 5 2. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 10. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 2 and 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. (a) (6) 9. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. Such equations in general have two roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 14. 11. 7. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 4. 0. + + = where a. . (a) x2 = 0. viz. the points may be found otherwise by inspection.7 2 a 5 = 0. is called a quadratic equation. 197.f 9 = 0. a2 2a. 3. 13. crosssection paper is used. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 12.
3x _ 4 . i. because their graphs are straight lines. and joining by a straight line. produces the 7* required locus. unknown quantities. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. fc = 3. ?/ =4 AB. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. if y = is 0. 2).e. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. . locate points (0. Hence. Ex. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 4) and (2. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.1. (f . y= A and construct x (  graphically. 1) and 0). Hence we may join (0. X'2 Locating the points (2. first degree. If x = 0. 199. 0). and join the required graph. Hence if if x x  2. y y 2. T . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.2 y ~ 2. solve for ?/. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. = 0.2. ?/. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Ex. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. == 2. NOTE.
linear equations have only one pair of roots. (2) . P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. equation x= By measuring 3.1=0. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). To find the roots of the system. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. 203. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. and CD. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 202. 3. 201. parallel have only one point of intersection. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200.57. we obtain the roots. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. viz.15. AB y = . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.
. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. 0) and (0. 3x 2 y = 6. intersection. AB the locus of (1). 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots.  4. 3. 1.y~ Therefore. 0. 4. e. the graph of points roots. y equals 3. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.9. 0. (4. . 3. Using the method of the preceding para. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 2. 4.0). Measuring the coordinates of P. P graphs meet in two and $. V25 5. In general. 3. Inconsistent equations. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. etc. i. we of the + y* = 25.e. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2 equation x 3).0. the point we obtain Ex. 1. and . x2 .5. and joining by a straight line. 4. (1) (2) C. (2.g. 4. they are inconsistent. 5.5. Locating the points (5. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. and + 3). Solving (1) for y. Locating two points of equation (2). 3). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 2. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. The equations 2 4 = 0. (4. 4. = 0. if x equals respectively 0.
7.. 17. 5. Draw system. and solve each If there are no solutions. 2x 3?/=6. y=x + 5. 8. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. '163 Dependent equations. 19. 4. y= a2 2x y6. a+r/=6. 20. 16 23. and. 10. y 2 4. y = 4. 3. a. state reasons. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. if possible. vice versa. 2. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 9. x~y=0. \ 2x + 3^ . 16 22. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. . the graphs of the following systems.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 6.
CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = . 25.y). TABLE OF SQUARES. 30.8. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 26. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.164 24. 28. 3 31.
2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .faa a a a Obviously 1. Law of Signs. a special kind of product. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.a2 . 52. 8. on to in factors 4. involution repeated multiplication. According to 1. powers of a positive quantity are positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. is may be by 207. . follows that 3. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. fa. ^4/? it According to 50. a = a3 . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. etc. ( a) is positive.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 3 f a = f a = +. 2.
6. 4. 15. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. (2ar). the required power. 24. 76 : (>y. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . (^^) 2 . 4 /2mV. raise a fraction to a power.6 (a 8 8 .6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. amVy) 3 .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (277171 )*.166 To find To To power. (a ) 2 5 . 5. (a ) 2 4  3. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 2. V V/ 13. 210. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 3 2 2 8 . 16. a product to a given power. .
examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 23. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . = s= (2s) 8 a. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 211. etc. 12.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. a. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 8 (a??/) 3 . (a + &)8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 4. (6m+2w) (3 8 .3 y. (3af26) 8 . pansions. or*  Find the cube root of 19. The higher powers of binomials. 16.) 14. . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 3 8 . 8. 5. 1. 6. + 4aj) 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (3 x . (3 (l I) 2 8 . (aj7) . 3. 13. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.y) = (3 y?y . 9.y . (afl) . 21.INVOLUTION Ex. + a 2 a. . 15. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. are obtained by multiplication. : a 20. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 18.6 2 8 ft) . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . nent of the binomial. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . Ex.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 7. frequently called ex. +5a) 22. 2. 2. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 2 . An 1. (5 (1 a) 3 . 1 f 3 2 3 .
78 s . 13. 4. (p + q) 4 * 7. Ex. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . 8. is the coefficient of the next term.168 3. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 6. (m 5 I) 2 22. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 18. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (af 5) . and the powers negative. 1. (?/i~w) : 16. (?>i?i f c)*.a) 3 19. 5. (l 8 . (2 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 3. (m 2 + n) 8 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. Ex. (mJ) 4 11. 25. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 .216 a^ 4. (m fl) 2 20. Ex. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 10. 4 . The minus. 14. (tff1) (cfd) .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 9. (la&) 4 12. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (a~^) 5 . . 17. mn 5 2 5 ) . ( &) 5 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. . (1 + 4 ?/) . 15.2. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 3. 24. .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 2.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 21. . 5. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 23. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 4 (1for) 5 . . (2 a 4 .
215. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 109 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 27 =y means r' = 27. tity . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 2. Since even powers can never be negative. a) 4 = a4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for distinction. or y ~ 3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. called real numbers. numbers. and ( v/o* = a. or x &4 . = x means = 6. 4 4 . and all other numbers are. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. V9 = + 3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or 3 for (usually written 3) . \/"^27=3. (_3) = 27. etc. 1. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. V \/P 214.
index. 7. To extract the root of a power. EXERCISE 1.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.200 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex.125. 3 33 53 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3/0** = am . 82 . 7 . Ex.201) = 2. V?. 3. . . extract the and denominator. 6. 3i . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 2 . 6.1. 4 v. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 5.9 = 136.64 5 4 . fy 5 3 . v/2^.4.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 7. v/^i2 = a*. = V26TIT81 = 53. V25 9 16. Ex. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V36 9 4. Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = 199 + (_ 198) . 7 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 8.lL.  100 a 2 .(. = 19472. 62 = V2* . 2. Ex. 10. \/2 4 9 . . 9. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex 5 a" . 79 2 v/2 5 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. V5 v/2 7 2. 8. Ex. 2. 9. 6 7 = 030. roots of the numerator \/18 .
2 . 5. 116. V8.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 31. Ex. Find the square root of a2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 33.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 6.98.EVOLUTION 171 28.4/. 34. ^40^4. V20 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. a* 4 8 2 . V9216.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 32.75. 2 f ( V240) 3 ./).6 tfif + 9 y = O . . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 30. 3. 45 V5184.3 y2) ( vV .3. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 1. 29.3 .) by inspection. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .
12. 2 2 218. a f. however.172 7.b 2 2 to its square.2 ab + b . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 &c. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. + 6 + 4a&. i. 11. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 2 . . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.e. 10. 14. a\b is the root if In most cases. and b. the given expression is a perfect square. mV14m??2)f 49.2 ac . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 15. #2 a2  16. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. let us consider the relation of a f. 2ab . 8 . and b (2 a f b).72 aW + 81 & 4 . The term a' first 2 .> 13.
\ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . . The square . is As there is no remainder. 1. First complete divisor. . 8 /. 1.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . the first term of the answer. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . Ex. 6 a. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 219. . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and so forth. Second trial divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. First trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s .EVOLUTION Ex. */'' . 8 a 2 . Explanation. and consider Hence the their sum one term. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. by division we term of the root. 8 a 2 2. As there is no remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 10 a 4 8 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. of x. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor.
6 11.12m 5 4.25 x 4 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 436^?/469a. > 7.40 a 22 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m .16.20 J or 2 16 x 4.37 a ^ .20 o 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 8. . 3. 16x6 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 17. 13#4 413ar 44a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 12. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.9. 14. 15. 1 4. l 4.12 m 4.73 a8 .6 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 36it. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 18.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.25. 5 4 16 4 iK . 2 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .42 a*& 4. 4 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .V430^425^ 4m 4.4 x 4.10 x2 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 9. 6.162 a2 60 a10 4. 24. 10. 20.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 729 4. 16. a? 2 . 5. + 81 a 454 a + 81.a 6 x*y 2 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 2 x2 3 2x.24 or . 19.
etc. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Find the square root of 7744. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the first of which is 8.. two figures. of 1. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the square root of 7744 equals 88. etc.1344. which may contain one or two).EVOLUTION 220.176. As 8 x 168 = 1344. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 4. first .000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Therefore 6 = 8. and the complete divisor 168.000 is 1000. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 2. Ex. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Ex. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. The is trial divisor = 160.000. a 2 = 6400. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000 is 100. 1. = 80. and the square root of the greatest square in units. of 10. Find the square root of 524.
70 6.1T6 221. The groups of 16724.7 to three decimal places. places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.10.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. 3. Find the square root of 6/. in . and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.GO'61. annex a cipher. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .1 are Ex. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '.
EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.22.1410. = 3.53. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 1. 31. 5. . J. 32. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 13. whose area equals 48. 33. 39. 36. 34.01. 30. 37. 35. feet. T\. JT . Find the mean proportional between 2 and . feet.4 square when R = radius and 11.) 40.58 square 38.
is A quadratic equation. 2 ic = a. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. Extracting the square root of each member. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 224. is 12. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 1. 178 . = 4. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Dividing.. 2. 226. 6 y2 = 17. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. This answer Check. or equation of the second degree. Transposing.g. x 2 7. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. A pure. . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. but no higher power e. 6#2 = x* 24. complete. 225. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. The 7 equation. or affected. 2)* + 5 = 33. Ex. x = + 2 or x =2. or incomplete. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. = 7^ + 5. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.
EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 10. : 83 2. 7. 4.2. . 2 4fc 5' 18. 4 ax. 6(2)=10(ajl). 16^393 = 7. 8. 0^ + 1 = 1. 19 + 9 = 5500. 3. 7 = 162. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. or Therefore. (a? 9. ax Transposing and combining. 15^5 = 6. o.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.25. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 5. ' =: y? b* b . Solve 179 . . 2 2 a. 2.
then Since such a triangle tangle. 29. and their product : 150. r. 25. ' 4. 2 : 3. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 28. If 22 = ~^. Find the side of each field. 27. If a 2 4. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for d. 24. A right triangle is a triangle. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). . and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. Find the numbers.) of their squares 5. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1.b 2 If s If =c . 2a f 1 23. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 4. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 2 . solve for r. is 5(5. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. : 6. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . solve for v. 108. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If G=m m g . Find the side of each field. . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). find a in terms of 6 . 22 a. Find is the number. 2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 3. 26. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 2.
) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.2 7 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find the sides. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Method of completing the square. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. (b) 100 feet? = . sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . add () Hence 2 . . radii are as 3 14. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . J = 12. . 24. . of a right triangle Find these sides. Find the radii. Solve Transposing. 2m. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area : sides are as 3 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. To find this term. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.7 x f 10 = 0. and the other two sides are as 3 4. 4. is and the other two sides are equal. 8. Find the unknown sides and the area. and the two smaller 11. x* 7 x= 10. we have of or m = . Find these 10. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. A body falling from a state of rest. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. and the third side is 15 inches.) 13. (b) 44 square feet. 9.
Ex. Transposing. 62 x 5 = f. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. (*~8) a = at . adding member). 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.  \. Hence Therefore Check. or J. 230. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.2 a2 . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.2. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Simplifying. .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Therefore. a. = . 2 a* a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2  . Transposing. or x = 2.e. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.1. = 6. Uniting.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Ex.x(l = . = \ # = ff. = x\ = 2. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. J. Extracting square roots.a. a Clearing of fractions. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. x . 183 Simplifying.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . ao. x la 48. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. \bx\. Solution by formula. article. 231. and c in the general answer. 2x 3 4. =0. =8 r/io?. 49. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. = 12. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.c = 0.
 P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.25 x. 14. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 3. 6 .4 4 5 . 4. TIO. 2. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 10. 11. 26. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.. 19. c = 5. 17. = 12 . 6 Ex. 2 o. 6^+5^ 56. 20. V^tT)* . b =  + 20 == = 0. Reducing to general form. ?i 2 . 16. c p.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 5 x2 Transposing.  .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 18. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2 a? = 44 x . 9. 6. 2 . 2 a. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 12. 1. 13. a. = 64120?. 21. : 86 + 2 = 0. 15. 8. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6. 2or } 5o. 7.
26. factors Now. x2 = 1 . . Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 5) = 0. 233. and 6. = 0. 23. transposing terms to one member. Solution by factoring. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. all or.5) =0. 2S3x 1 2 . 5 = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). }. 0. any degree. = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 27 x== 42a.x. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 0.4) = . 1.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Eesolving into factors. 3x?+x = 7. member can be Ex. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Factoring. (5 a? !)(. if either of the uct is zero. x(x <2 . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. = 14. orz roots. 25. a=:i^^. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 24. or # 5 is zero.2. Clearing for fractions. ar>8o. Bx 1 1. Transposing. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.
(. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3. 13. O roots are 2.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Ex. 5 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 10 a = 24. is 5) = 0. 9. 0(02) = 7(02).3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.e. a?. 3) = 0. x2 f 2 x . + 100.6)) = 0. } 2 2 (5 . The equation I. 16. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. : 87 = 0. Or Hence the 234. (aj4)(a. 14. 2. + 6)=0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 6. 4)(z3) = 0. 12. 2o3 f9a. 4. 2. a?10a=:24. 3. 3) Factoring. 7. 3 or 2 a. 3# y 5 = 0. 5.= 24. + 9 f 20 x = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.:=0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. E. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. Therefore x =3 = 2. we 9 obtain x 4. 0^ ar> 11. 8. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.3)(x + 3 3. + 8=s: 7. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.24 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . ar'Sa^ 12. aj( 15.g. for a: . a* 10a=24. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.
188 17. 23. 2. '3a!J  . (2a? 3) (a 24. 27. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 18. ara + ft + c*. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. uz + u 21. 25. 50. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 20. 22. 19. a 2 =(x a)b. (a + 1) (a.3) = (s + l) (3 a).
Find the number. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the numbers. 56. 2. 2.0. 5. and consequently many prob 235. 2. and the difference Find the numbers.1. . 55. 57. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find the number. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 5. Find the sides.3. 2.9. feet. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and whose sum is is 36. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. number by 10. 1. The difference of . 58. two numbers is 4. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 6. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 8. and whose product 9.2. 4. 52. 3.3. of their reciprocals is 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 0. EXERCISE 1. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 1. : 3. 3. and equals 190 square inches. The 11. 7. G. 2. 54.
he would have received 12 apples less for the same money.10. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 14. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. Find the rate of the train. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. watch for $ 24. he would have received two horses more for the same money.190 12. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. If he each horse ? . Two vessels. as the 16. sold a horse for $144. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. other. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. What did he pay for 21. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. . he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. ABCD. 13. 15. ply between the same two ports. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 19. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. and Find the sides of the rectangle. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. 17.
and the area of the path the radius of the basin. the two men can do it in 3 days. 24. Ex.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. . so that the rectangle. as 0. 1. of the area of the basin. ^3^ = 7. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. By formula. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. how wide is the walk ? 23. 237. a point taken. or x = \/l = 1. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. constructed with and CB as sides. and working together. 27.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0.) 25. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find and CB. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. contains B 78 square inches. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. (tf. 23 inches long.
Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 18. 16. aV+9o 4 =0. Solving. a4 5o.2 =4. T 17. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2. 6. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. = 1. 7. 19. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Hence Le. 8. Ex. 4 6. a? 15 1=2*. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 a. 12. 4. = 13. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.)+72=0. y8)=0. a. 10. a 21or=100.192 238. 9. 3 a4 44s + 121=0.T 2 2 . 2 16 a^40 11. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . or y = 8. 2 h9:=0. 436 3. 4 : 89 10a. >.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 240. Hence the roots are real. . 1. a perfect square. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .f> = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients. the roots are real. it 2a follows 2 : 2.bx 4. the roots are imaginary. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are unequal. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 241. and equal. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.5) = 04. rational. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are equal. the roots are rational.12 x + 9 = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .2) 2 4 3 (.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are irrational. negative. ( 2a Hence 1. is 4ac not zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. b 4. rational. and unequal. Ex. Ex.2 z . c the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. The discriminant =(. 3. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 2. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .
2a 4z5 = 0. 17. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 18. 15. + 2a. 2 7. x2 7 10. 12~x = x 2 . + 18 2 8. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 23. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 22. 6. 12.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. lla. 5oj aj + l = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2. o. 2 a. 9a3 = 0. = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 60 2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0.g. + 2a15 = 0. 21. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 12 2  . : a 2 . their product isf. tfmx+p^Q. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = Q. f 2 E. 3a. = 5x. 14. 24. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 5aj 9..19 # 20. ^12. 4. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2 : 3.
Then the law of involution. such as 2*." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . for all values 1 of m and n. ~ a m f. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . We assume. = a"" < . (ab) . (a m ) w . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. hence. m IV. and . a m a" = a m+t1 . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. 244. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.* III. II. no Fractional and negative exponents. that a an = a m+n . > m therefore.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. It is.a" = a m n mn . while the second of the first. provided w > n. however. must be *The symbol smaller than. The first of these laws is nition of power.
0?=^. 28. (bed)*. ml. = a. '&M A 27. a\ 26. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 30. a*. 24. . To find the meaning of a fractional exponent.g.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 31. 3*. e. a?*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. at. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. (xy$. laws. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. disappear. 25. fractional. or zero exponent equal x. a . n 2 a. Assuming these two 8*. 29. m$. etc. 4~ . 23. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . as. 245. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.
\/n. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a * a2 Or a=l. If. : 197 33. e. 246. = 2. 48. 35. 43. 45. a* * = 3. 38. \fi?. however. Vo5 . = 2. \/xy \/m. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 42. 27* = 3. 7z* Find the values of 47. 49. 41. equal to unity. hence is . v'mT 36. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.g. 5 a* = 10. Solve the following equations 39. a . 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. the base is zero. 3* = 27. Let a = a. v/o&cT 34.g. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 37. : 2' 4* = 4. = 49.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a. 50. 44. 40. e. 46. ty?.
2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. etc. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. an x = a. Multiplying both members by a". e. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". consider the following equations. 248. . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.198 247. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. vice versa.g. by changing the sign of NOTE. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. or the exponent. cr n.
6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a? * 42. ^?2 y' 34. ^L. 3 a. 27. a. m . 36. c 32. 2 . 39. 37. 66 45. 22. 44."* 38. : mi m~^. 25. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. rfS. 40. 2 . : or 5 . . . f (2w)~i 1 . a^ 41. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 7~ l a 2b 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. * 24. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2m~i 43.
55. ar = i. = 5. of: 3ll4~* 60. 17' 2 51. 53. .001. 58. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 57. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = .6). 250.81 f (a . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. z* = 1.9*.(.008)* + A.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 61. 10* 5* = . Ex. 47. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z 5or*=10. 49. 54.1. + 1~* f 21 . + A_. 10* Find the values 56. = l. (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . = ^. 52. 48.343)* + (. 1. 59.
remove the fractional exponents. 13. a.. (d) If required. 4 5.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . / 7fv 7. 72 . __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 16.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. . 6 *. 6. 16.^/5^5. NOTE. . 3.4 . 27  28.5. 7~ 5 27  .4 a8 . 3 a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. etc.6 *' 6 *25. 7. 23. &. 79 . 3sVS. 10.3 aj" a.$". 4 x^. 7*. #* a. 26. 14. 18. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.7i. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.7*. 6a. 95 ^9i 5**. 8 ' 9. OA 20.7W. ' 11. . are performed. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . V5. S'sS8.5a.$*. 17. Perform the operation indicated. Remove the negative exponents.&.&. 12. 7~ 6 .
6 35.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. 34. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.2 d . Arrange in descending powers of Check. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. If powers of a?. 40. 1. The 252. 2.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
29. </2. 5V2. Arrange 35.3\ .2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . (i. 4^/4. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 30. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. s!/3. ^7.e. VS. 38. ^4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. signs. ^5. subtract surds.2 V50. v/4. V3. 3. v^S. 26.2. I VJ + 3VT8 . 34. \/5. V2. </3. To add or form. V2. v/3. ^30. \/7. A/2. V3. Ex. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V2.10 V2 =  V2. v/3. ^2. ^2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. V5. ^2. 36. ^/IT. A/3. 28. 31. </20.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^3. + . ^6. 27. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 39. ^126. if dissimilar. in order of magnitude : \/7. 40. 2\ 3*. 33. 32. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 37. Ex. connect them by proper 1. Simplify V~ . ^4.
14. 4V805V45. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 11. V18+V32VT28+V2. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 10. 13. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 9.J a6 V4 aft.3V20 + 6V5. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8VT8J2V32 7. . + 3V835V2. 8. V175V28+V634V7. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4. 3. 6.
3. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 1.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 23. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 6*. Ex. Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. and then multiplied. 26^ . 2. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.6V35 106 460V35100 . y* = Ex. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .
(VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 9. 27. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . + VB)(2V5). 19. aVa. 3.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 2 . ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 28 . 40. Vll. . 6 V4 5. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 6. (V2+V3+V4)V3. v/4. VTO. 8. 14.VSS. 38. 18. 34. 15. 40 10 30. V20 V30. fWa 17. v/18 v"3. (Va Va 36. V3 V6. a?. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). \/3 \^). 2. (V6 + 1) 1 . 10. 25. (2V3) 8 . 12. 13. 7. 4.^/2. V3 Vl2. 37. 41. 213 98 11. VlO V15. 6. 21. V42. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 39. V2aV8^. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V2 V50. (3 20.
(3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). V3 . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex. is 1 2. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. Va v/a. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. a fraction. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 60. . E. Ex. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 53. the quotient of the surds is If. 268.214 42. 44. 51. 46.y. 43. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 47. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 48. 49. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 52. (2 45.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).
Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.by the usual arithmetical method. e.57735. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Evidently. . is illustrated by Ex. 1.73205. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.g. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. arithTo find. we have V3 But if 1. by V7. Divide VII by v7. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.RADICALS This method. 3. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. The 2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. /~ } Ex. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. ..73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . metical problems afford the best illustrations. however.
and Given V2 = 1. i. Vll 212*. V5 270. V3 24 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 271. V48 25. VffV?. V5 = 2. . V8 JL. ^/H . 14. A. 23 . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 20. 272. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .2361.. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. . V2 22 . V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 = 1. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 7.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. A. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 21.7320.4142.
217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. 1.1 xVtf a.2.vffi^T _ .= 18.RADICALS Ex. Ex. . s Simplify a. . Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.Vs2 . 3.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V82 2V3 1fVS .
By the use of fractional exponents . 24. Vo1 26.5 3 = 125. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 .218 6 . . 19.7320. 6V7.2361. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. v 2V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. Given V2 1.4142. J?_. 27. = V3 = 1. : and V5 = 2. find to _!_. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .W3. V21 = 25 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg.
. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. Simplify Ex. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . it to this form. 2. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. 1. In other examples of involution and evolution. 4. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 3.RADICALS 219 274. the If. on the other hand. 11. 2 12. V255 . 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/125" . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V643 . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. \/l6*. 2. viz. v8f 2\/15. 5. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 8. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection.
12 and whose product is 20.220 Ex. The Hence ^11 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. ^TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. +2 Ex. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find V4 + VJ8.6\/2 = ^9 . and whose product is 18. These Ex. 3. Find Vl2 4. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 \/20. 2. 2 \/18. is 11.6 V2. Find Vll . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .A/2.
V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. : 221 Vl32V22. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Solve vVf!2a = 2. i. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 5.. Ex. Before performing the involution. first involution. 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. are radical equations. Dividing by Check. = xa + 4 x f 4. Transposing and uniting. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. 277. 19.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. r 22. a. . (2x xrf 1. +=. Radical equations are rationalized. V48 23. 4x x = 2. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. VT . they are transto formed into rational equations.1. 8.e.V48 4 20. The value x =2 reduces each . by raising both members equal powers. x2 = x f 2. member to 2.
Extraneous roots. tion which has two roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Factoring. viz. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. they may be extraneous roots. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Therefore CftecAr. . f 25 = 12. 3. Therefore Check. a. Dividing by 24. 278. V24~+~l = 0.222 Ex. 4#f 4 = 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12.1) = 0. one root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. x = J. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. 5. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. the first member = V2. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. . Solve Vx f Squaring both members. V4afT~l. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. viz. Squaring both members. at . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Transposing. 2. Squaring both members.3. Transposing and uniting. a socalled extraneous root. It = 3 x . . Ex. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279.
+ 6~ieT~3 .2 r. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . Solve the following equations : = G.3) (2 x . If If x 3 = 3. viz. Factoring. x root of the preceding equation.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. = 3. 223 x = 3. . or x *j. \ does not satisfy the given. NOTE. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Check. Hence there is only one root. Therefore. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . for it satisfies the equation . and to 5. the right member = V2.RADICALS Hence x If a. Hence x = the only root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Squaring. ViTie 4 z2 . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. both members reduce to 5. (x x = 3. is x V. 4. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.12 . 2 Clearing of fractions. Transposing. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.47) = 0. . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. equation it is an extraneous root.
Factoring. Ex. Solve af*. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.35 = 0. 3.f40= 5. Let 8 x f 40 . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. y then x2 . members of the equation were squared.8 z40 = 7. + 40 = 6.i~24 = 0.8 x + 40 = 36. _ 2 y . 2.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. x + Vx a? = 6. = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. 5. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. Vi 2 8a. Q . 2Va. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 4. = 7. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Ex. This can be seen without substituting. x =6 or 3. x Since both =9 or 1. = 26. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. some of the roots be extraneous. . 412a* = 16. Substituting. 3 6. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. o. 2.*2a.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 45 14VJB = .
14. a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 20. a^x2 5 2 13. 15. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.226 11. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. +3= 6. 19. 12. 4 V SB* 4 a. 18. 2.a 440 = 35. 16.f 18 = 24. 17. +x . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.
Without actual division. 2.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2 + 4. Hence.2 x 5 by x 3. ^ = 381+2. then (x 2)Q 0. find the remainder when m.bx? + ex2 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. does not contain a?. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. 227 . 1. could. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. by dividing 3 x* f.4 a.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. however. = 2.2 + 80 = 12. to x we # = 2 3." transposing.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2) Q .3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Ex.360 = 244. a? R = x* . E = ax + &z + m) Q. if Q was known. we make a? what the value of Q. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. Without actual division. " Or. 3 2 Ex. If x* . even if Q is unknown. no matter If. ax4 4.
2 j 7. 8. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.949.8'= 0. the remainder equals 8 2 x . } 2 by a1. + ^by x + b. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. x* s 2 4.3)f 11 =.228 282. If the remainder is zero.8. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 3. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.4(. hence (x divided by x 4.g. x m is factor of the expression. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 6. 43 3 E. The Factor Theorem. + 7 = 632. 5 (4x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. of the division 3) is m in place of x.g. if 8 42  . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. fora?.
& p*. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. a 5x 6. 25. f 3. or 5 4 + 3^ . a + 32. Factor a? 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . a 2a + 4. 7 46 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 2 2. ^10^429^20=0.12 = 0.1. 23.7 x + 15 = 0. 20. i. 5. m f m n 14. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.7 + 16 . 17.12. f 15 does not vanish. 106 division. a 8a f 19 a 12. . f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 9. Therefore x ( 1). is a factor. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 6. 1. f 5. factors of the absolute term.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. + ttt15 = 0. 3 2 : 7. + 27 + 27.e. Resolve into factors 4.9^ + 23^15.r6 = 0. 1.49 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . a. 8. + 15. then x8 7 x'2 4. a^8^ + 19a. _ . The 5. 229 1. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 18. 2m 5m . Let x = . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. oj 5x2 f3a. 8. are f 1. 11. 2. a? 19. 24. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.13m + 30 10. or x 4. 21. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 3. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.
The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. if n is even.g. is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/).  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. : importance. 2. xn y n y n y n = 0. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y." .230 285. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. Ex. If n is a Theorem that 1. actual division n. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . By we obtain the other factors. ar +p= z6 e. For substituting y for x. xn f. 286. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2.y n is divisible by x f ?/. if w is odd. 1. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2 Ex. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.
a. 27.= . Hence = (m Ex. however. x3 8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable. since it more directly to the prime factors. 28. 3.i mn f w 2). f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. as 27=0. leads 231 is The first method.
EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 232 . Squaring Solve (1). 290. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. & + 2 xy + = 25. If two of the quantities x f y. of quadratics. + 6 a?V . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. in general. x y. (4) Hence. 4 xy = 16. xywe have 3. to equations of the fourth few cases. (5) Combining (5) with (1). can be solved by the methods degree. xy are given.1. however. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. = 6.y4 is of the fifth degree. * A I. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.
F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. b=3. but can be found. 12. The arranged in pairs. 108 2. 3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. I I x + y=7. ' 10. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. " "' "' { r 8.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. r (" 1 = 876. 233 y. x and xy are not given.g. 1. = . In many cases two of the quantities x f y.
A system of simultaneous equations.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. or y = 1 . . + 29 = 0. x " (3) 49 etc. aj = 2. Ex.  f J. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.  .?/ i = 6. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ' ' . I x+y = a. r^ 2 as ] f. 3.i/ = r 13.a. or JJ. 4 y = 20. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 7 . 6 "I 14. 19. I* Jj ^ [. one linear and ne quadratic.20) = 0. Factoring. . 2 (1) From (1) we have.  42 y + Transposing. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.o 18. la.. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 5.~ y = 5.
3 y2 Substituting in (1). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4 f + 2 y = 3. y* + 2y = 3. x2y. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.3 2x 2 Ex. ' x*. If of the preceding type. 10. 1. ':il e :) . 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . quantities. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. Solve . 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. III. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9.
(1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = Ex. (3) (4) Subtracting. 15 x2 . = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. j Substituting y in (2). 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . Solve 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 109 a. } VI09. (1) (2) x x 5.
Division of one equation by the other.6.3^42^=43. 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.y = 7. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 150 */2 . A. " IV.125 ay = .xy 4. ' ^ 15. (4) (3). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). . E. 298. Bxy9. f 1 150 a?. and others not belonging to them.!. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.175 ay = 12. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. y? a? f .
quadratics can be solved by ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. x 2 . from (2).. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y . at first it is unknown quantities. xy. jc~ y = 9. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. = 189. y = 3. Solve Ex. we obtain by squaring. (1 > (2) 1. * ' 300. we have from (1). Therefore x = 16.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. i ^ *>. B. Some simultaneous ?/. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . x +y y etc. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 12 J. 2.
Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. F+y+ . . I e. 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. M6. [2x + : y= 17. 4. 2.
= y 1 y* . 27. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 19 ' 26. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. . 16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. + o5)(6hy) = 80.21 ^ = 15. 25. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . * . f 18.4 y = 47 a. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. . = 198.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.
.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. or ~ indeterminate. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 25 34. 33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. = 48201. 31. . .of  According to the definition of division. Q 7. finite  =x y if = x. ^ oo . 32. Interpretation . as a . y % 9 f*K 36. etc. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. 7' j/ 39. etc 302. ~\ OK OO. 3 a2 38. 30. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. hence may be any finite number.
creases. 306. (1). ToU" ^100 a. oo is = QQ. is satisfied by any number. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (1) is an identity. and becomes infinitely small. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. I. = 10.increases if x de x creases.000 a. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. Or. x f 2. and .e.can be If It is made larger than number.x'2 2 x = 1. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Hence such an equation identity. the answer is indeterminate. 1. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. The ~~f fraction . be the numbers. TO^UU" sufficiently small. equation.242 303. or that x may equal any finite number. without exception. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. . i. (a: Then Simplifying. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.e. By making x any * assigned zero. (1) = 0. as + l. . it is an Ex. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.decreases X if called infinity. 1. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.g. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . cancel. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. great. i. Let 2.
2. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve x a. 1=0. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve  9 7. Solve . (2). * 6. and the sum of Find the numbers. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 3. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. third and sixth parts. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. is their 2.2 y = 4. EXERCISE 1.8 x + 15 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 42 and' their product is 377. = oo.e. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. z = 1 Substituting. two numbers is 76. . and a. y finite QO. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Hence /.
Find the dimensions of the field. and the sum of ( 228. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 6. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. increased by the edge of the other. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. is 6. Find the edge of each cube. 255 and the sum of 5. 146 yards. Find the side of each square. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the other two sides. 103. and the edge of one.quals 20 feet. 9. 10. 12. Find the sides. the area becomes f% of the original area.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. equals 4 inches. Find the numbers. The area of a nal 41 feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. .) 53 yards. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find these sides. of a rectangular field feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edges. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the diago(Ex. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 148 feet of fence are required.244 3. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. of a right triangle is 73. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 14. 190. two numbers Find the numbers. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. p. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 8. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 13. is is 17 and the sum 4.
Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. irR *.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. is 20 inches. the quotient is 2.) 17. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and if the digits will be interchanged. by the product of 27 be added to the number. . and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.
CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 3.. 19.) is a series. P.. 17. (n 1) d must be added to a. a. 2 d must be added to a. + 2 d. P.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the nth term. . each term of which. The progression is a.. 15 is 9 f.7. series 9.. . f .. a + 2 d. of the following series is 3. a 11. to produce the 4th term. 309. The first is an ascending. 16.1) d. The common differences are respectively 4. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 4. to each term produces the next term. progression. the second a descending. To find the nth term / of an A. Hence / = a + (n .. and d. P. except the first. 10. a f d. a + d. .. : 7. of a series are its successive numbers. 12. to produce the 3d term.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. 3 d must be added to a.. Since d is a f 3 d. An arithmetic progression (A. a 3d. 11. . added to each term to obtain the next one. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.
2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 4^. 8. the last term and the common difference d being given. 7. 3. . d . . 3.PROGRESSIONS 310.. P.. 5. = a + (a Reversing the order. 4. 6. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 8.4.. . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 5. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 5. Find the 5th term of the 4. 2J. = 2. 6 we have Hence .. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. .... 99) = 2600.' cZ == . 3. if a = 5. P.. 7. 24. the term a.. of the series 10. series 2. ? (a) 1. Find the 12th term of the 4. 5.. = I + 49 = *({ + . 7.. series . .3 a = l..8. 9. 1. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 2. 1. Adding. = 99. 10. 21. .. 6. (a + + (a + l) l). 1J.. . 3. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 19. 5. 3.. (d) 1J. 2. 9. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . d = 3. 8.16.. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 6.. a = 2. P. 115.
. 33. 3. 7.1 f 3. 20. 22. 21. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. . 2J. 1.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 15. to 8 terms. rf. 12. to 16 terms. . 23. '. 17. 1. striking hours only. : 3. and for each than for the preceding one. to 15 terms. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 1.248 Find the 10. Sum the following series 14. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. to 7 terms. 11. 7. 11. 4. to 20 terms. 11. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. P. (i) (ii) . 16. 7. hence if any three of them are given. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .7 f to 12 terms. 6. 13. strike for the first yard. 15. 8.. (x +"l) 4. . . 31. 15. \n. 19. to 20 terms. to 20 terms. . 12. to 10 terms. 29. In most problems relating to A. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. + 3. . Jive quantities are involved. > 2f 2. 18.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 16. 1J.
= a + (w. 34. or if x Solving.e. 204 = ^ (a + 49). n d. l)e?.PROGRESSIONS Ex. Findn. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 56. The series is. Solving.104 w + 408 = 0. hence n = 6. 45. 78 n Substituting in (1). 133. The first term of an A. = 13. 144. 6 n2 . 2. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. and b form an A. 23. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. if s = 204.1).6. the second one mean between the other two.1) . = 1014. a = 12. n = 6. if a. 89. 122. = 144. 6. 312. From (1). I.6 n). 67. = 1014. d = 6.. . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the and the sum of all terms 1014. Substituting in (2). s 24ft last term 144. P. 1. . or 11 J. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 12. J = 49. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x.. a = 49 6(71 . 204 = ^ (98 . = n(104 . 111. I Substituting in (I) and (II). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll.~n~\ 408 6). is 12. P. #. 100. Ex. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. Find the series. 78. P.
17. Given a = . = 45. = 83. = ^ 3 = 1. produced. Find n. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Find a Given a = 7. Find a and Given s = 44. How much did he save the first month? 19. f J 1 1 / . 11. s == 440. s = 70. 14. Find?.3. How much . 6? 9. Given a = 1. a x f b and a b. n = 4. n has the series ^ j . of 5 terms 6. 78. 10. f? . T? ^. Find w. y and #f5y.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 17. 16. has the series 82. 7. = 52. 12. ceding one. Find d and Given a = 1700. 15. Given a = . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. and s. n = 17. Find d. n = 16. 3. n = 13. I Find I in terms of a. = 1870. 74. a+ and b a b 5. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. . P. Given a = 4. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = 16. n. Find d. n = 20. 13. 8. d = 5. I. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 4. m and n 2.
and To find the nth term / of a G. ... 2 a. 36. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. P.. ... 108. NOTE. A geometric progression first. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 24. The progression is a. 36. (I) of the series 16. P.) is a series each term of which. . . ratios are respectively 3.. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 2. is 16(f) 4 . called the ratio. is it (G.. rs = s 2 .arn ~ l . If n is less : than unity. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. E. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). r n~ l . .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. ar8 r. or 81 315... of a G. 36. 12. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 4 (1) . the first term a and the ratios r being given.g. 4.. The 314. ar. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. I. P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . or. 24. +1. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 4. . <zr . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.
r^2. . is 16. . 7.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 8.. 576. f.18. . ? (c) 2. 6. hence. series 5. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2..288. In most problems relating to G. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 3. or 7. fa. 4. I = 670. And the required means are 18. 144. 36. 0. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 36. . series . 72. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. + 5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. \ t series . +f%9 % . Ex.5. 144. i 288. 676. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 9. Hence the or series is 0.4. Find the 6th term of the series J. 288. . volved .. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G.. 72..5. . 36. . 25.54. . . 18.. (it.*. 4. Hence n = 7.6. Jive quantities are in. . first term 4. 1. . l. P. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. first 5.._!=!>. f... 144. first term is 125 and whose common . fa. 20. P.72.. P. 2 term 3.18. (d) 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 80. a = I.. EXERCISE 1. if any three of them are given. .. 9. 9. is 3. P. P. Find the 5th term of a G. whose . series 6.. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. whose and whose second term is 8. 10.l.. (b) 1.
PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find a and 4. J. be written If the value of r of a G. 20. 15. . 2. I. 19.J and 270. to 5 terms. >"> . 21. Find the geometric mean between 7. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 12 terms. 81. 54. . 36.. J. s = 605. 81. 126. a. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.. 12. J. Find a and Given r = 3. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. M. to 7 . 27. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. is less than unity.i a9 . 14. and hence ~ r . Find a and n = 4. . Given r = n Z 5. n = 5. 4. . 22. to 8 terms.nV> i*> !718. of r n decreases. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. = 3. 1. to 6 terms. = 3. P. a^.. to 6 terms. n = 5. may be than any assignable number. to G terms. 42. 23. to 6 terms. 16 .. + 4 . to 7 terms. 13. 24. .. 14. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 243. s = 310.. r . 48.. == 160. 1. J. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 72. . 25S series : 32. Z s.
. Given an infinite series of squares. 1. 16. P. 40. = . i i J. . 250. 12. I. .. is 16. . ..... 5.01 ^ . . 1 r = .. 9.. . i. . of all squares ? . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. .= _4Z* ..37272 . 7. of: 11. 5. 8. 6.. is 9.)7?7272 ..072 + .717171. Hence . .. ratio 15. 12.. = .3727272 . 10. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. . = 990 . =A+ 10 i.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of ...254 Ex. 66 Therefore ..= . (6) the sum of the perimeters. 4.. of an infinite G. is J.072. 13. 3.99 .. 9. . first and the common term.... 2.. The sum Find the of an infinite G.00072 f . . . . 1..1. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 100.Ql... If a = 40..27777 . 1.. 1.3 + . 4. The sum r. r = j..191919.3121212. 8. what is (a) the sum of the areas. = a . . P. 6. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. Find the value 9. 14. and the first term is Find 17.. P.72. 2. .272727.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. Find the sum to infinity.555... 16..
Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . . 4. 4 7. . coefficient of . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . l 2. 29. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 25. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 13.b ). . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (s + i). 11. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . . 17. (a 100 .b) w (a (a f (1 . (xy) : 6 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 12. 15. 21. (a2) 6. 7 . 10. 16. 22. /2a+Y\ 8. 2 2 24. a6 8 16 in . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. : (1 + xy. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18.6) 20 . (a + b) . 28. 5. Find the 6th term of (x . 20. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 14.6) . (\ 9 . 26.
4. 3. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 5. 4. 2. 2. 3. if = = = 2. 3. 1. 2. . 1.  2. 2.  a)(a 1. ^+^ 3. 1. 3. 3. c if 7 . 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 2. + c(a  c). 2. c = = = 2. l. 3. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. + 1. 2. (c 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 1. 7. 3. 1. 6. 2. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 6. 4. if x^l. 24 4. 5.f ac 1. 4. 1. 2. 2. 5. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5.  8 ^ 2. 1. 2. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 4 2. 4 ft  c) 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 6. 2. 1. 2.  2. 3. 3. aft 3 + 4. 5. 2. = 2. 4. 3. 5. 5. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. ft 4 ) 5.c )(fta) 1. 1. 1. . 4. 2. if = = 2. 1. 4.a(a 4. 5. 5. 1. 3. 3. + 2. 3. 4. 1. 6. 3. 1. 4. 6. 2. 2 . 4. y 3. if a ft c = = = 4. 5. + 2. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 2. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 4. 1. 1. ft) . if y=2j 2.
(5. ' b) + 3. 4 x 4 . x 3 11. 2.2.  a) (c 2. 12. 3. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. c)(x a} . 40. + 1.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . f 8. 6. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. .7 ys. 17. x = 4.r 6 x  4 xy . 8. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 5. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 16. = 2. 2. 1. 21. x3 2 a2 . 5.a) . 4 z .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 4 y 13. 2 x 8.8 + 2 // . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . or . . 4. 9.\ yz + xz.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 24. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 10. 15.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. a /> 3. 2. 2 . 25. a 4 + 11 a . 4. 7y 4 . b(x (b 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 20.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.4. 7 xy 3 .3 a?y .c' 2 4 / . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 5. a. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.2 x?/. 15.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . a.a 5 a . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 18.2 x2 .3 xyz. 41. if a 6 = = c = 3.2 a?y + 3 aty . 7. 8 .5. + 4 ?y . 5. + 3 y 2* .a 4 . 1. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . 6 a4 4 a8 . 21.2 z8 4 x. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 9. c = 3. 29. x C 4 4x y + . + 8 x4 *y . a: .x 5 4 .7 + . 3. x 3 x' 14. + 4.259 x c) .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 2.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .10. ~c)(b. 2. r> .8 3 + 7 x4 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . . 26. 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.1.2.a8 .7 y 2* 4.
and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .(4 * . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.5 . f ft.{2 x 2 . ft.8 3 4.] 26. = x y ft z.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 3 ft.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.x2 . . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 5 10 4 G 11 4.(5 y . 36.a ft.(x 4. 29. c 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.5. 5 10 + 7 .c 3 a.2 . . 4 . c =x y }~ z.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 4 4 4. .[4 x 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. : a x .2 a .(a .{G * 2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.1)}] . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. sum of . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 34.(7 x 4.4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 4 2 x2 23. ft 25.x 2 4.c. 4 3 5 y/ .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. . 7 12 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 2 x 32.2 3 ax 2 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. c 4ft.c 4 3 a.6 x ] . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 35.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .3.3 x .(5 c .3 .#48. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. (*) a  c. 542 x 2 and .c. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.7.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.4 ft) 4.27~~7)}]. 33.6T .3 . and . Take the sum 4x 4. Simplify 31. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.2 .1).x 4. 4vTT~y 3. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].(x* .(4 x 2 . From of 2 the 4.4) .4 Vl 4. a  ft + c. take the sum of G x 5 . 5 4 7 12 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 x 8y2 44 . 0" 30.2) .[4 z 8 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.?> x 4 20. x'2 .260 19.. x8 x2 2 a'2x. of a.x .x .
1).3).5)} + (3 a 2 .[2 . .7).a~^~c)K].96 [17 a.3 c)]. 3 x 42.(5 y . 45.4 a . (4 + 3a 2 . . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 4 + 2 2 + 1).(7 i + 4 r:) .c 2 . 51.Z . (r (1 (a.ab . 68. 62.(2 a + 5 a .{2 a .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. )(lz a ). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 50.[4 x  5 . .2a . + 4x + 5)(j.JT^T+1)} + (2 .3)(*5)(* 7). 56. + *+!){> + 2). (1 ar+a.2c(V/ . 67.ac . 2 52.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(2 a 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .rf)} + a [.(2 . 48. a .2 2 + 1)(7.{3 c . 63.4 a 2 + a 4 ).5 )}] + {4 c .2 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . a {. (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 46.6c) (a + f c). . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. . (x.(6 .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. . (/> 4 . 49. 2 2 x + !)(* .b (c . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.{2 a (ft . 2 53. 54.be) (a 58. . 64.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .56.3c).c). 60. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 59. . 2 f [3 c 7 a .3 *).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).12).REVIEW EXERCISE 37.(7 a.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 2 : 7e)a}].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).  2 a  {3 2x a . (x . 43.2)(1 .6)}].(4 d . 'J 44.r 2:c+ l)(ar. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (5 a 39. (.3 z 2 ).& + {. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].6 xy .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2x + 3). (1 55.(2 x2 . 57. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2 zz . . 65.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 13 a .0)} . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 ft 41.
(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. ft 95.3y) a (* 2 4.(/>  3 v)^(.c) 4) (ft 4. ft 78.n pc).y).2 ft}) f (3 a .z)(x y + z)(. 82. 86. 83.c) rr identities.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 90.2 (y 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .m np c . 74.c) j. .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .6*y . ar .9y2).b 4. 75.q). ft" l Simplify 80. (a 2 ft 2n 4. ft /.y + z)(x + y . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.3 a .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).ft) 4 .a) 2 . 1).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c) . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 77. 4 4 .c) 2 . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .5 .262 69.c)} .(4 .c .v) 4. (p 2 .y)\x y).z\x 4. 1).{3 a . . .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 94.z) .(ft 4.c)].x + y + z).ft) + 4(2 . 85. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . ft ft ft a}. 71. 79.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 88. (x (x ( + *) . f 72.c) . 91. 2 + a 2 ).O (a 4(a 4. 73. xy y 2 ). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).3 (ft . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 87. 76. 2 (x 2 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 93.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.<f(p .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).2y)(. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).(c 4. 89. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c . (. 92.:y)( a. 70. 4.(a 48 8 8 4.r 2 . 84. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.2 (a . Prove the following 8 4.am&t 4 A 2 *). b 4.
1).*) (x 8 . (8 x* 115.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 106. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 102.(2 a 2 .5 b*). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 105. 118. 114. 117. 109. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).35 x 2 2 ) . 103.1).a".2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 (a+ . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 99 100.v/ ~ // = a: . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 26 (a 4 c).6 y 4 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (80 a 112. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 124.y 2 4.3 a"+ 4.4 aft .(a 1 2 8 .(7 xi/ . 113.2y 2 4.) .2 2% 4.r 4 4. a*.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 116. 10).y 4 ) .16 a 6 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.9 x 2 . (2< 107. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . [10( 4.2 xy 8 . (. 110.y 4 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 122.b) 98. 108. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 2 4 41 x 4a.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). . 121.40 />) .xy 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 120. 123.27 x* . .&). 1O4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 3*. 25 4 .(x 2 . r .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .5 xy).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.
1) . x 147.18 *&) (1 .27 a 3" . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2(4 .2(10 x . (*+ + . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . . . 138.9) 4. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 149.r>) . 135.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 42(3ar 145. 3) = x\x .3) = 12 .2 7^~5] + 1). 7(2 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 1) . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 143.7(4 * .19) + 5 = 4 .3).2) = 3 .4) .a:)]}. 126. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 128.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2(5 .(x .3(2 z . 129.3 a:).2(j: .8 6 . 142. . 5 146. (5a: 150.5{.n .264 125. 136. .22. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2) + 2(ar + 4). . y (* l x.(1 .4(0 x .2) (a: + 3).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.9) + 3.3) (3 x 4. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.r + 7[or .4) . (4 x . 139.3(* + 4) + 9} . 10(2 x 141. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. .1) (a? . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. .12 M 132. 148. 1) = 2(* .7) = 4 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 137. 5(2 x .(j a? 144. 127.G) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).(x f 9). 2 4(ar .3 x).3).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).5) = 12(4 x . 3(2 x 134.5). o o 140.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(x + 3) ] .
(a.z) (4 . . (2 .25) 2 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 155. 160. 2 4 .5(x . The second contains 3 first.24. . + 5) = (9 .5) = (3 .2 x) (4 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. these two angles would be equal. transformed into F.9) + (a. (x (x a.2) (j? + 1) + (x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.7) (1 x . . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. If the area of the frame inches. sheep more than the 169.7) (a. (a . 161. =  (F 32).l)(z . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 164. will produce F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 154. The sum What 171. a: ar a.2 x) = (1 . = 2 C. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .5*) + 47. 153.3) (a: . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.3) (3 . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.1) (s + 3). 165.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.2). 162. 265 152.5)(. find the value of F. 5(ar x . f^ + ^sO.19) + 42. and the third twice as many as the first. + 2) + (5 . 163. . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.14) (a: + 3).76. 157.3) (3 . (7 14 ..6 x) (3 . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. (3 O + . = 15.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.5 x) = 45 x . (a) If C.2) a + 7(x .? .29) 2 = 1.17) 2 + (4 x . How many 170. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .r + 3) .2) (7 *) + (*.3) = (3 x .T)O . + 4) (2 x + 5). 156.3) (j. + 10) (ar .8) = (2 x 4. 166. 158.(5 x .4) (a .a:) + 229. . 159. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.1) O + 4) = (2 * .
181. respectively. x* 185.266 173. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 3 gives the 174. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 12 m. 7/ 191. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 180. was three times that of the younger. 10x 2 192. 178. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. dimension 182. 188. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. .36. How many are there in each window ? . A each 177. younger than his Find the age of the father. A house has 3 rows of windows. 189. number divided by 3. . z 2 + x . aW + llab2&. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.56. 179. + 11 ~ 6. + a. father. Find the number. and 5 h. 4 a 2 yy 42. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. ll?/102. 187. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. z 2 92. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 2 2 + a _ no. Find the dimensions of the floor. power one of the two Find the power of each. +x 2. 186. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. side were one foot longer. 176. A boy is father. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 13 a + 3. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. if each increased 2 feet. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 190. . sister . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. two boys is twice that of the younger. train. same result as the number diminished by 175.
64.19 a . a: . 215.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . . a^a 226. 24 2 + 2 . 221. 2 x 2 .28. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6. 2a te 3% ly 247. 239. 227. 2 2 y f 1. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3 x V .(b + rf) 2 . 238. 3y 248. 6 197.c) 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a.12 * . 2 200. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 202.6 aq . a. 210. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 213. 235. a. z 2 2. xm+l 243. 232.3 c/> + 6 cq. z + 5x 2 . (a + . x 5 . a a: a: 237. 2 a 8 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.r?/f y 2 9. 5 x 2. x 219. 7a 228.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.14 2 . + 2 . 212. 60 a 2  a: // 205.x + 1. .10. 203. . 245. 195.19 z 4 204. 8 a: ar. 222. a: 231. x* + 8 2 + 15. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 2 a 2 . 7x 2 225. . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 233. 267 199.10 y a x* . + 30 x.3 xy.77 y + 150.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 206. a. wiy + la mx + aw. 211.3 xf + 3 * 2y .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. a+a* + o a +l. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 217. 230. 208. 201. + 8. 4a 2& 2 241. 224. 207.21 a:  54. 216. 23 12. a 2 .6 y2 + 4. 209. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 2 . x*y 223. 218. 4 m +^.10 xy. ifWy+b. 3 ap 2 . 8 a.6s. 12 x +4.6 2 ?/ . 246. 244. a: 236.8 6 2. y 2 194.20 z 8 a: 220. a. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . 3 x 2 .22 z + 48. 3y 2 + ary . 16x 4 81. 229.1. # 2  29 y + 120. + 3a 196. + 198.c) 2  (a . *2 234. .
of: 266. a.9.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . * a . 261.13. 264. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. + 8 x + 5. x 2 263. 265. + 20 x 4.C.10 a 4. 259.73 xy .3 x . 252. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 269. 3 #2 255. 2 . 260.11 x f 28.6 by.a + 2 4. 3 a% 2 . x 2 + 5 f . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x* . 258. 257. 2 + 7 r f 2. 7 12 2 2 . x 2 4.M. a 4.91. a 3 a 2 2 .18 xy + 5.r . Reduce to lowest terms 271. + 23 x f 20. 251. .4. 30 ^ . 270.2 z . 5 x 2 256. x* . 10 a. ft a.2/ 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.9 x . 2 x2 . x 2 + 4 + 3.3 abc . 3 ay 4. x*y* 4.36. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x 2 .80.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .48 afy 2 . a? a: a: // 262.16 x .23 + 12.7 f 5.4 ab + 1. x 2 + 2 x .15. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.14 bx a%% 8 .8. 10 x 2 . 6.ry . + 3 x + 2. of: 253. 7 ax 250. a: . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). C. * 2 .ry 21. 1 x ar Find the L.10.23 x f 20. 254.a 2 />c 2 f 3.(55.G7 x f 33. * 2 . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 2 8 .x . 28 2 f 71 x . 8 2 + 10 x . I Find the II.11 a 2 .2 aft*. 22x2 a. * 2 . z 2 267. F.15 + 30. 2 a.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.5 ab f 2. 15 # 2 z/ /. 18 x 2 .120. x 2 f 9j: + 20.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . z 2 268.&z.3.12.1 9 .9 x + 14. + 8.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.
y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. *2 " 2 + Oge.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 289 ' . a.rL.J' 4 2 2 w mp . m 4.2c a: 282. + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j.2* + 3 x* 280. z2 (a 2 + c)a.ar 1 279..  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.!/. 8 . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .
a (: a) (x 2. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^_2*(m 308. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x 7. Lnl + ar 2 a. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 4 3 301. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. O(ca) 306. ^. 2 + 7 _ 44 3.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23.
a: 1 313. .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . (1 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 _. (a? 4 2) 317._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. } .ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 1a: + y a. . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a . 1 x2 + + a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . _ x8 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 2 + y 2 319.
B ~ 1037  329 4 a.7 xy + 12 x .ll. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.y20  2y + 4 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .6* t 328. . 20 44 333. * 3a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.9 *// + 27 . . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.V  + y  x 3y a .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ..7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .5 a . 2 lOx 5x.15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 250 5 10 2 325. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .2 +lOar 2 a../  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. a: 2 x* .
\5yl 341.r 5 2 . ?_2 ^ . +^ a: y x . ** i. aj 339. f V. ' 2 "l 5 . + l + IV.1V. (a \ + lV. a: 349 _ o. \x yj 340. 7 ( ?f!?. 344. xi 347.. fl.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ. 1 345. 5 343. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 338.+ r . (af2/. 352. if a = 3. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 348. + ni + . ( 342. : 1+ i. w \. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. a>74 .) 2 .y.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (ar \ 346.
(a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. (~ 364.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360. + x x a . a2 4 . 1+2 362.
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
379. + 1) 45 O 377. 8  376. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5*8.*2 = 15. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . 5 {2 x 381. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7. 4(* . __4 2x 3_ = !. . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.
a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 400. 40.8 = . 397.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. m x 398. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). + 4 a. . f 1 1 + a 403.  J). c .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.1 . .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.75 x f . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.5 x =r f .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 399. b 404.5 ^ ~ a: a.25. ^ (a . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 396. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.147. _____ . u '2 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 3* 177. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.25 x + . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).  8 9* x ~r. a.2 a:  1.6  .. 401.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .
c) . (x . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.  a) 2 6 2a. 418 ~jo.278 410. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. and was out 5 hours.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. Tn 6 hours . 411. How long is each road ? 423. Find the number. 421. 420. far did he walk all together ? A . the order of the digits will be inverted. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. In a if and 422. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(5 I2x ~r l a) .
Find the mean proportional to 429. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. . a. 430. . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 435. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 431. 432. If a b : =5 n : 7. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). ax is \ by  ex + dy. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). x 427. d. z 2 y.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . wi* + y= ny. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. a + 5. . 2 2 8 2 . Which ratio is greater. Find the fourth proportional 426. 433. : If is one equal 434.6 8 ). y.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. find : a : c. find the angles of the triangle. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.46 2): (15a 2 .iand 22 22 I a . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. if . 428. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 3 and 1J.& 5 ) (a 8 . 438. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . b. Find the length of the parts. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. : i. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). z2  y\ x* xy + y*.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Solve 436.49 63). a  t>.
+ 5y = 59. . 5j + 7 7 = = 2.35.7 y = 25. 3 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 4 = 5 y + 29. />(. 5 2 = 7 . 3 a. 9ar7# = 71. a. 457. 448. 9/> = 2 . 1(3  a. . ?/ 447. 445. 28 = 5 a . The volumes If their diameters. /) ar a. 451. c. . 456. 5z4:# = 3.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.(or l(*2y)=0. if 2 ft : 439. Solve the following systems: 441.59 = 3 z. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ft.*. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 8 . 446.11 y = 95. ft. Find the value of a. a: 2y= = 1 . 7 a: .4 12 . 7a?y = 3. = 25. 454. x + 17 # 53. 444.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.89 = q. 7 442. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 452. 455. 458. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 450. 459. 16. 7jr9y = 17. 5x+4y=lQ. a: a: + 5y). 449. 443. 56 + 10y = 7a. 453. .55 y = . .. 15ar = 20 + 8y.rf2# = l. 8 x + y = 19.11 7. 42 = 15y + 137.
^ + i^ = 7. 475. 468..c=563y. + eyn. (or .REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 473.+ =2. x y 474. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 8 461. ax by = c \ 472. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.?/ + 1 . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ax cx by = m. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 465.  = 2. _ 469.2y) (2 = 2J. i = 5.
had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find their ages. 487. Find the fraction. 485. and in 20 months to $275. Find the numbers. and the other number least. and in 18 months to $2180. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the numbers. . age. fraction becomes equal to . In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 477. by 4. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. years. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 479. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . the Find their ages. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 483. Find the number.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. to . 481. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the principal and the rate of interest. A number consists of two digits 4. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. whose difference is 4. How much money less 484. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. A spends \ of his. 486. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3.
z = 20. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. a: f z = 79. : Solve the following systems 491.? + 2y = 8. z y x 25 . x y f z = 13. 7. 498. 2y + 3a = ll. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d./ 504. 1+1 = 6. . 3 x 500. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a: 499. ~ 507. * + 425  = . 494. z y ifi = z x 502. = 15. 4z+3z = 20. 2/>3r = 4. *i. and the difference of their Find the numbers. x f y f z 29 . 5 + a.5#+2z = $x a: G. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. . 3ar 503. 2y + 2z = a: 2. y Solve : x +z= 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. + y 5 y = 101 . 4 497. 8. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. a. . 495. 492.z = 12./ f z =a. x s + y z = 18J . 496. 5^ 9z = 10. 489. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 493. 2 e. . = 20. 1. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . a: + // = 11. 4 506. a. 2 2 = 41. = 209. 2a:f 7. 490. a number . 7 + 2 z . \ . 3 a: + 5=84. + # +z= 35. . 2 a. ifi = x a.
284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800. + : = 1472. 523. 517. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. z z =3a&c. ll" .
if and L. B and C and C and A in 4 days. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and BE. 530. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Tf and run together. In circle A ABC. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. AB=6. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Find the numbers. M. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. touches and F respectively. N. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. the first and second digits will change places. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. What are their rates of travel? . and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. 532. E 533. BC = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. AC in /). If they had walked toward each other. When weighed in water. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. CD. it is filled in 35 minutes. . Find the present ages of his father and mother. 90. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it separately ? 531. 527. and CA=7. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. in 28 minutes. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . L. How long will B and C take to do . . they would have met in 2 hours. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. if the number be increased by Find the number.
formation of dollars into marks. GERMANY. 542.10 marks. 2. i. 2. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 547.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. 550. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x*  2 x. 2 x + 5. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. c. x *x + x + 1. 545. b. 2  x  x2 . e. from x = 2 to x = 4. then / = 3 and write = 3. if x = f 1. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.  7. FRANCE. The values of y. The values of x if y = 2.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet.e. d. z 2  x x  5. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . The greatest value of the function. 543. the function.  3 x. 546. to do the work? pendulum. x 2 544. . x*. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. + 3. 540. x 8 549. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2 541. a. x 2 + x. 3 x 539. 548. One dollar equals 4. . Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 536.
= 0. a? 4 x .11 = 0.= 0. 568.G . = 5.0. r?.r 1 561. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 554.3 x . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.17 = 0. . 18 x  4 = 0. 565. Solve 552. c. z 4 . J. Represent meters.3 x .5 x . a. 2 8 . a: 559.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. f. 553. 3 x* . 15. g. 557. ' = 8. 562.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5.13 = 0. 3 + 3 z . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 572. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. z 2 . 3 x . + 5 . i. 563. e. 2 x 2 560.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 556. j.r . h.4 x 2 + 4 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 564. 558.9 = 0.4 .r a: a: x a. a. if y =m has three real roots.3 = 0. 555. and make the unit of the b.15 = 0.7 = . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 566. 3 . x 2 ~ 2 . x 5 . c. . 2 567.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. x 4 . 2.3 . 2 a.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. + 10 x . If y +5 10.4 = 0.  2 1 a: a.6 + 3 . Solve// = 0. x* . a. . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. \ to t = 5.1 = 0.
Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.(1 . 4 a. + %) (a* + *) 5 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . j^f = 3. 4 (1a:) 3. 4 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 582.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 608. 3 (f. : y* or 25.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 599.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.4. x + z2) 8 . 598. jj+. 589. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 64 a 12 603.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .frf : 583. {f_7l j? 2* + ''.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 6 + 1) . 596. 595.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + + 4 . 600. 579. a 2a. 609. a. (a  8 ft) . . . 2  2 aa: 2 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. f ?>) 3 591. (1 + x a. a 8 606.2 2 + y. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.%) 4 (aa. a 612. 2 611. 3 . x [ ?/ 577. (a. xY. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. a:. 5 a*. 604. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 585 594. [ y =10. (1 (1 (1 . a: . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. (aiy. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . <r)3  2 3 a:) . 588. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . + ^) + (air%)8. 592. (# 2) . + . 597. 1 .5 xy = 0. 9  4 fSb 607.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 593.x + 2 )'2 601. 2 943 ++ ~bx. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.
REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 21. 4J. (x 9 x 646. GGff.*.2410.2. 624. x 2 641. 9g. 371240. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 633. 636. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 644.49. According to Kepler's law. 650. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 632. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. Find the square root of 619. = 87. V 635. 625 : 621. 035. 643. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 44352. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 647t x 2 648 649. 49. : 5. 3a. ft .V250 . 629. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. + 112 a 8 . 210. /. 494210400001. 9a. 645. 2 + 21Ga. 628. x 2 . 620. + 54 'x*y* . 7) 2. 614. 615.15174441. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. = . 49042009. 25023844. 651. 32 631. 638. 4370404. 630. 634. *+* = 156. a 642. 0090. = 0. 2 + 189 z = 900. + 24 a 2 4 . Find the eighth root 617.30.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 8*' + 24* = 32. 626.1024 x + a: 256.12 a?y + y*.53 x ~ .448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 2 21 x = 100. 942841.\/4090. 623.191209.150. 637. V950484 .871844. 2. 40. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. VOIOOD + V582T09. find Jupiter's period. = 70. 622. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 639.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
699. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 707. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. = 0. 694.ax . a. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 2 697. 706. . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.bx .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ex abc= fx 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.a a )jr . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . ax 2 698. 2 2 .c = 0. 2 702. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 692. 693. 695. 708. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 696.
25 might have bought five more for the same money. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 722. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two numbers whose 719. 725. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.44#2 + 121 = 0. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 716. 717. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. in value. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 217 . sum is a and whose product equals J. Find the price of an apple. 16 x* . 724.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 729. 723. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 727. 721. How shares did he buy ? if 726.292 709. **13a: 2 710. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 12 4*+  8. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. a: 713. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. A equals CO feet. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 3or i 16 .
39. 35. 38. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.1 f c" ).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 33. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).l).2? 50. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 43.X . .aft* 1 + a 2*. 1 6. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2 ). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 37. 41. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 34. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).)(ai + &. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 40. 31. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 32. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 36. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 + c. 52. (v/x). n.2)(x2 4.1 f ^ 2). 42. 46. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.1 + x. .
768. 761. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. [1r^ T 1 i .1+J 756._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759. JU. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753. 754. 757. 758. ~ r* x .
7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . . .4 V(j. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. a 9442V5. 3J . 789. 13 799. 787. 793. c 792. 14 791. x 782. 103 788.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 10 785. .12VIT. 783.2V3* ^ 807.VlO. 7512V21. 790. Va 809. + 2V21. 786.2 V30. 794. . 3812VIO. 16 + 2V55. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 92VI5. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 806.
\/2y  810.Vc^lJ .V2 ar 10.13 = 0. + Vx .79. 814. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. V14 a. 812. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 816. 3 x + 2 . 831. 818.  5 + V3 f 12 817. \/12 a. + ViTli + V7 . 833. 836. 819. 811. Va: . x/aT+l .4 = 0. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 815.f 5 = V5x + 4. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. = 1.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.V? = 813. + 103Var.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 829. V3 f 1 V4a. /9ar a: = 17. 820.g. 830. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.
7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a. 4 x 8 858. f 12. 846. . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a 872. 8 860. 2 x 3. y 4. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.  3x a.12. 870.3 x .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.ab9 ft*. a 8 850. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 852. 4 a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . z*y 8 l64a. 864. 851.3 Va: 2 .1. 275 8 l. 876. 27 862. 6. a. 8 a. 8 4a: 8 a. 64. 4o. a: . .a. 868. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 5 a 4 7 a8 . 4 x* 847. + 1. 9. a.x*y + 3x f 2. . a 8 873. 865. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.3 a:. 8 2a. 64 a 866. 6 2 f 3 6 s. V4 x 2 . 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. + . 16 859. . a l0m . + 512 y8 874. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 845.1000 6. 844. 19 x 14.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a: 849. a. 8 8  13 a. a*" & 6n . a. a. . x 8 2 857. 729 867. 853. 840. 2 a: 64 y*. 871. 27 y 8.28 a 4 xy 8 80. f 841. 8 8 848. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. +3 4 +  4. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 863. 8 + a: 5 8 a.3 . + 216 rt aty a 10 . 4 a: 2 842.10 = 118. 856. 855. 875. f b**. a 8 869. 8 . 2 f" + a/ 15. 861. 839. x 4 + f 2 a. 8^27^. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a 18 4. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.
: x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 890.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. x*xy. 2 + xy = 28. 883. 895.xy + y 2 = 19.298 877. 889. y 2 2 8f.15. 2 + y 2 .1 = 2 a#. 1 x 893. 894. a: 884. 887. .35. 899. a: 2 897. . 5. 2 + xy = 10. 2 + 2 f = 17. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. y 2 4. 2 . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 2 = 16 y. +y f y = 7. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 3 x 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. z 2 898. a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.18. a. .sy = 198.Vi' + 1 1_3. a# f + xy = 126. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. x 882. 2 = 2 + 5.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 888. .y 2 + V(j. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 896. a. xy + y = 32. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. y*+ xy . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. y y 2 y 2 1121. 885. y = 28. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a: a.y 2 = 2 y + 2.y 2) = 20. x 8 3 = 13:3. + 2y=\2. a:y . 900. 878. x a: lI = xz . 886. . M1 891 1 . + ary + 2 = 37. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 901. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a: + y 2 = 34. . f ?/ a: a: .
3) 2 f (y .#y + 2 = 27. (* 918. 3 y 8 ) =1216. . x 2 ry + y = 3. + a. 7 y . 914. 909.3)2 = 34.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 3 :r(3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y = a(ar + y). 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.y). 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 915. a. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. = 8. (o. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.x) = 21.2 y) = 49 2 919. yz = 24. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 2 * 2 ~ g.y) (3 y . 23 x 2 . + y 8 = 189. 2 924. + y = 9. 4 (a. a: y zx 12. * + y = 444. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 2 2 916. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y2 = 22. 917. # + xy + y = 7. Vary + y = 6. a:y xy 929. x f 2 a:y = 32. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. . ^ 2 . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.23 = 200. + y)(a. 923. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 907. y + a:y = 180.6. ary y = 8. or or a? a: a: . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. (a. + ?/) . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 2 5 xy = 11. y 3 2 2 922. 2 913. y x 2 = by.y) = 33. + 2 a:y + = 243. y . 912.3(* + y) = 6. + ary = a*. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. + 2 ary = 39. xa 903. x + y 2 = aar. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.r a. (3 x . 921. a: a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 906. x 4 299 xy z 904. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.y) (a? . 905. *y . 908. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. a: * a: a: ar 928. (!) * . 920. 911.16 y 3 8 = . xy + x= 15. 910. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.
feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. A is 938. 935. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Find the sides of the rectangle. rate each man ran in the first heat. a second rec8 feet shorter. . is 3 . *(* + #) =24. z(* + y + 2) = 76. (y + *) = . the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Assuming = y. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. feet. two numbers Find the numbers. is 3. 944. two squares is 23 feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. and the sum of their areas 78$. two squares equals 140 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and the difference of 936. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. s(y 932. 931. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. Find the numbers. How many rows are there? 941. + z)=18. is 20.square inches. 943. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.300 930. 34 939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. + z) =108. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 2240. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 937. y( 934.000 trees. 152. and 10 feet broader. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Tf there had been 20 less rows. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 942. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. and also contains 300 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. In the second heat A . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.102. diagonal 940.
Find the number. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. overtook miles. and its perim 948. each block. 952. and that B.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. set out from two places. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. that B A 955. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two starts travelers. 951. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. whose 946. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. P and Q. . triangle is 6. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. . was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find the eter 947. sum Find an edge of 954. 950. and if 594 be added to the number. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find in what time both will do it. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. . the digits are reversed. distance between P and Q. unaltered. What is its area? field is 182 yards. at Find the his rate of traveling. 949. and travels in the same direction as A. A and B. is 407 cubic feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 953.
(x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. !Ll^ + n .1 4 f j$V . P..141414.. 36 963. 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum to infinity.3151515. f + 1 . P.. J. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 970...to infinity. 5. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. x(x to 8 terms. 1 to n terms. Find n.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. ^ 1 . Find the Find the common 977.302 956.... Find the sum of 4. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. P.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . the terms being in A. ^ Vfirst five 959. 4. to 7 terms. 975.. 961. to n terms. + (iiven a +  4 d . fourth of the unity. 18th terms of an A. P. (to 2 n terms).v 973.454. *" 968. Sum to 20 terms. 972. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 974. 957... Sura to 24 terms.>/) to infinity. 1G series . \ . . 971. . 16 962.321? 965. = 4. are 29 and 53. Find an A. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. difference.. 4 4 to 7 terms . 966. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. (x 4 to n terms.V2 . . .. 964. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. and 976. 5. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. to infinity. 3 + 5 7 + . 969. 3 . 958. Evaluate (a) . s  88. n to n terms. 9th and llth terms of an A. Find n f (ft) .. '.  2.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms..4142 .
then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. P. 985. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . P. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .. 987.) the last term the series a perfect number. 1.2 . 990. Find the sum of the series 988. to 105? 981.. 303 979. Find n.. The sum 982. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.04 + .01 3.. to n terms. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. named Sheran.3 ' Find the 8th 983. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 989. to infinity may be 8? .. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. "(. 980. 992. and the common difference. of n terms of an A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.1 + 2.+ lY L V. Find four numbers in A. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. is 225. to oo. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 2 grains on the 2d. The term. Find the first term. P. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.001 4. 5 11. and so on. and of the second and third 03. The 21st term of an A. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.. first 984. 986.001 + . Find four perfect numbers. : + 9   V2 + ... 4 grains on the 3d. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 0. .
1003. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. and G. prove that they cannot be in A. 997. 1001. 1000. 994. 998. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 512 996. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. . P. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. and so forth to infinity. P. are unequal. 999. (a) after 5 strokes. Two travelers start on the same road. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. in this square a circle. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. AB = 1004. at the same time. are 28 and find the numbers. 995. ft. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. find the series. in this circle a square. is 4. The sum and product of three numbers in G. ABC A A n same sides. The sum and sum . If a. of squares of four numbers in G. c. Under the conditions of the preceding example. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. (6) the sum of the infinity. inches. The fifth term of a G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. areas of all triangles. many days will the latter overtake the former? .
Expand  2 a. 1006. 1008. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 2 ) 5. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". (1 1018.l) w f . a: 8 7. 1011. . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the middle term of ( . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . ) 1021. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. + lQ . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1012. (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. x) 18 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the two middle terms of 1013.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1009. 1014.o/) 14 . .ft) 19 .
.
.193 11 . 129. 9. . . . . Aggregation. .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . . . 158.. 9 ** . .. t 53 120 . ...178 Completing the square .... simple simultaneous .108 160 " ... . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 160 in quadratic form 191 . graphic tion of representa .210 130 " Addition value 4 15..] Abscissa Absolute term . 19.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ... 97. 246 91 " multiple. . . . . Checks Coefficient 20.. . quadratic . ...... 37.. . lowest ratio " '* .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ... 54.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 232 mean progression . 112 54 54 251 .. 123 . 8 .. .. .... 129 54.. . signs of Algebraic expression . numerical . 232 169 807 .. . . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution..130 . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . linear literal Common ** * difference . . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ... Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . . .. ..
. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . .C Multiplication .. Known numbers .. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 120 Member. 109 102 . . first and second . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . Inconsistent equations .. Like terms Linear equation . numbers . 45 Laws of signs . Geometric progression . INDEX 8 . Imaginary numbers . 180. Insertion of parentheses . 227 geometric . 212 . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 84. . . 63. 45.. addition of " square of . 253 28 70 1.. .. 205 . 227 . 91 .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . law of Extraneous roots . . . . 42 7 Independent equations Index .31. P . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 9. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.251 Graphic solution of simultane. 241 123 geometric . arithmetic . . . 243 7 . Mathematical induction . inversely 122 numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . ... . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . Product '* 76 Infinite. 112 . G.. 23 10 91 102. .808 Exponent Exponents. 189.108 Minuend . 195 33. . . . exponent . . . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. . 17 65. 184 54. directly. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 114. L. Negative exponents 11 ..154 Order of operations " of surds . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. 143. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 34. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. .. .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 45. ..
255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. algebraic Surds . absolute 54 Variable . 9. . polynomial .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .... ....... Sum.. ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.... 45 Trinomial 240 . .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . 129. 4 155 9 " of . 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
S. 1916. U. Gushing Co. 1910. Norwood. December. Mass.COPYRIGHT. 1917. Reprinted April. August. .A. Set up and electrotypcd. 1913. NorfoooS J.. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Published September. 1910. 8.
C $ 16. 1. 11. 6.. 22. 19. Yes. 72 = = 216. 5. 89. 16 in. 13. 2. 26z.000.. 13 S. 3. 14. 1. 8. 115. 1. 16. 3. 1. 6. sign. 59. 9 = 4. 18. 2. Australia ft. 17. 12. B $ 128. 3.000. 10. 16. 5000. 3. A 15. 32. 9 14. $40. 9. 20 B. 27. 6* 16. 192.8. 11. 8. 6. 24. 9.. 9. 17. 24. 256. 13. 1. 2. 6. 10.000. 25. 28.. 106. 1. 2. 8 13. 14. 9. 12. 18. Not 5. 7. 16. B $4700. 5. 1. b. _ 32. . 48 ft. 15. x. $ 1 50 10. 15. 7. 27. loss. 3. 2 ~ 15.$9400.  1. V 23. . 16... 6. 4. 128. B $20. 37 S. 17. Page?. C $60. 3 m.  2 p. 5. 21. 10g. 14. 2. A Bl 7.. 126. 16. 16 in. 73. 4. . 24. 6. 32. 20 jo. Page 13.21 24. 3. 25. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 16. T . 9. 3 below 0. 12. 8.12. 6. 6. 2  Page 8.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 27. 12. ft. x. 9 16  larger than 7. c. (a) (/>) 1. 14. 2. westerly motion. 9 m. 36.00000001. 144. 0. 13.000 negroes. 8. B $80. 5. 14. 37. 28. 3. 150.  22 20. 14. 14. 6. 9. 0. }. 18. 6 yd. 17. is $10. 4. 3. 85. 7. 20 \. 9. 12. 4. 2. 26. 15. 512. per sec. 2. 11. 4. South America 46. 16. 2. 20. 4. 1. A . 10. A 38 mi. 18. 3. 1. 3. 4. $100. . 29. 10. 20. 20.000. 12. 12. 3* 7. in. 32. 10. 10. 18. 2. 1. 21.000. 3.3. Page 8. 20. 30. 7. . 8. 14. Page 4. 49.000. 11. 15. 3. 17. 11. 30?. 2 5.. 29. = 5 81. 14 11. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 3. in. 13 d. 1. 16f 2. Ot 15. 9. 9.C. 1. 13 V. 32. 13. 7. 15. 3. 2. 210. i . 1. 7m. 3.000 Indians. 1. $160. B 10 mi. 12. 8 ft. 6. 16.000. 3. in 12. 2. arithmetic. 7. 16. 19 4. 5. 1 16. 7. 6. 21.150. 2. 18. 5.. 12. Page 1. 3. 8.1. 25.000. 19. A $90. 64. 6. 22. Multiplication. 10. 576. 1. 12. 49.  1. 10. ^. 2. + 1. 7.2. sign. 5. 25. 8. 13. 23.  13. 7. C $1(50. 5. 19.
3. (a) 200.. 12. ^. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 2. 16. 29. rt. jrif 4 9. 17.4 ft. 6. 15.5f> sq.r 2 . = ()501. 0. 24.000 sq. 237. 22( 19. 13.  xV 3 y. 27. 28. Va'+Y2 8^2 . . . 14:). 12 a. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 16. 8. 25. 19. 32 2 ftc. (a) 50. 13. w. 22. 15a. 11. Page 31. ^). a 32. 32. 11. (a) <> sq.  12. + 5. 27. 9. 23.ab. 20(. 21^. 9. 6<t. 22. 13. 5. Polynomial. 1. 12yd. mi. ft. (a 4 4. 1. 17. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 14. 92. ??i??. 32.6) 38. 4. 41.  11. :J!>r'. 25.  1. 33. 12. _ 4 . 2ftx.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 21. (r) 2000 m. 27.ii ANSWERS Page 11. II.x. ft.rty8. 12. a3 a2 4 a 4 1.. ft. 10. Binomial. It. . ]*. (a) r>23ifcu.<>Gq. ft. .14 sq. ft n. 4. 314 sq.q 4. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. arty 1 20. 4 y/ . 19. 4 9/^/rl 2. 2. 26. 18. 18.r~ f 34. 8. 2. 0. in. 18. 5. c. 18. 24. WIN + wiw. <i~ 26. 0. 13. 10. #1111.. 21 a 3 4 10. 22. 58. 104. 36. (ft) Page 2.. 13. 1. 3 . 25. 7. Page 18. 35. 3. 3rf 27. 7. Page 23. 8. 15. 8. o^ft. 0. 2. 7. 0* Page 3 w" 0.. 7. 28. (ft) mi. \'\ 4. (ft) 12. 8. 31.000 . Polynomial. t. 3. 1. 1. 2oVmf?i.GOG. 4. 3. 9. in.. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 34.9?/2 8. 30. 57. + ft). Trino inial. (b) 135 mi. 4. 0. 14. 16. (ft) 7. 5. 26. 38 ab. 0. r/ \(\xyz. Page 21.ft. x^ 20. 9. 5. (<7) (a) 314 sq. $80. 15..  40. 31. 5. y.'J. 3. 0. 39. 11. 7. 35. 49. ft' 3 .'JO ft.. . 240. (r) 2. 13 cu. 2x' 2 5 ..~4.a . 10. 17. 29. 20. 3. i:5. 3.. 18. Page 7. 21.r f 15. a2 4 15^44. sq. 5. 22. (c) 8. 27. 00 24 04 ft. 20. . 8. (ft) $40. 0. 30. 6. 4. 5. 1. . 17. 15.. 15. 1. vi 14. :. Monomial. 3.. 3(c4a). 17. 13. f  5e 35. . yyz+xyz*. 38. (r) 2G7. ft. 14. 23. r+l. 30. 37.ft) 4. 35. 12. 16. 15. 2. 12. (r) 78. (a} 100 1(5 cm. in. 50. 173. 6. 51 f. I. 3.4  2ft 2 33. //'. 8. 3a. ft f 19. 36. in. + v> 2 . 31.  3. 1. . 11. 8. m + 3(a. 7 7. r:A 29. 28. 34. = 81.32 c2 > ft 3 . a ft c.  0. 16. 5x+3.900. 2. 5. 14. 0. (59. 43w//2 17. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 12. 14. $3000 Page 6. 14. Pagel4r. 21. 19. 3 a* + 2 at*.1. 42. 4.94(>. (c) S(i. 20.. +/2(/. 1.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 27. 9. 14. m 24. 04. 33.5 (ft) sq. 27.
l. 11. . :5 41. 3 m. 9. 18. Page 8.a .5 4 2 3 ?/ .2 ft 2 r2 10. 2x 4 a 13. a 6 2 . a 52. 7  # + 12. 2 2 2 6. \ :{ 2 a 48. 2 a 37.r. . 6. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 7. Page 44. 2..3x 2 2 tf.  1. a4 4 4. f 2 ?/  2. 4.. 4wipg>' 27. &. 2// 16. 8.4.5 z?/ + 3 y . 59.a~.  4 b 17 y*. 1. 2 3x f z. 5x 2 rt ft. a  ISjfat. 16. M + 10. 51. Page 28. '  . Page 7. a2 9. a. 1 4. w* ( . a2 24.4c 3 8 8 J. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 13. 58.  12. 3. 35. 0. a f 2 f 2 9. _5a<>&43c.(7x2 Ox2). 17. a + a. 2a. 26. a  49. 5. (yz~d}. + 8.x f 1 2 .2 . 5. 25.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 28. 10 m. .r 2. 7.  17. ?/. 2. 31. 34. 56. s_r>a5. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 2 17.1 . 4 21. 7.4 d.7. mn. 4. 0.2 a. 2m. 42. c. 2 3. 2a: 2 4x. 4. 1. a 3& . 12. 36.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 19. 2 6.3 6. x  + 3z. 6.h. .2 57. a 3 . 364c.a*. 12. 55. 4. 1 + 45. ?> 22.4x. 5 2 Page 29.  b* 4 r 1 . 1.  G J8 r  4 a <?. x a8 1. !  </ . 10 x. .1. 10.  b. 7  a + 2 + c. 18. 31. 8 + 2 a . 40. ri\ 18. 36. 4ft ~. 19. 24. 14. a). 25. 8 .aft.c.a f 54. 11. 8. 4r 2 .5. 24 b 46. 6. 12. 8 b. 14. ii\ 22.2 a2 2m 2 4. 7. . . + 6. ?>4tl 53. 2.  23. c. 22. (2n' 43p 47 ). 24. x3 . 5. 26. 38. r. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 21. 11. 0. (w4w)(ww).r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.6 x + 0) 16. . 7 a5 1 . 8 8 .ws 2 ft) . 5. 14. t). 19.  a: 2. 3 a . j)(g1. 17. 2 2. a 4 + ft. 1. + 4 c. . 4. 50.a'2 .'U4j>. . (5x47 3. G. a a. ^ <. 2 a f 6 414.11. ar. 2. 1.Oa: + 10. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. _ Page 30. 814. a 10w. 2 + a4l). ti. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 4. ab a. 8. 22. ( 7. 20. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2. 26. 29. + c 4 d x + 6 e. G a bd. 20. 2. 15. ?/i 13.abc. . . 32 w 2 w. 16. 2. 2 . 25. 12. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 3. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 32.  14 afy . . w 17. 3 a3 & 41. 2m + 2w.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 30. 24. 37. a' 4ab + ?/. ft Exercise 17. 15. 20. 21. Exercise 16.8(c + a). 15. 2. 2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. a 3a 4 2 &. 34 39. 6. 25 47. f ft 9.2. . 10. (mn} 11. . 33. 10. + 2y. 21. 1. 2 4. 2 y' 4 . c2 . 2. + a 2 f 2 a 4. n*. 2 . 3 Ji 8 . a + (ftc4df). lOrt 15w4. m*  n*. . 14. 43.(2 x2 . 13. 18. 3.
a. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .19p" + 19^ 10 .:>/ . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 8. 13. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 7. 11. Page 3. 30. 3300. . 2 * 80 . 27. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 15 lb. 15. 15. 20.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 11. 26. 6. 30. 6.25 + 14. 6. 40 r 2 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.000. 2 a2 (y 2 . Page 5.iv ANSWERS + &)(. a: . x2 xy42^. . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 21. 3(*+0 + 2).(3x2_4^+7). 35.19 + 2. 16. . 8 . 52 + 6s 12. 17.36 35. 25. 28. 8. 12. 21. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 34. 4 jcy*z*>. 33. 161b. 7. 2 ). 29. 1. 9. 15. . 17.. 1. Ox a 5 . 4. 18. 31. 8. 21 a'&c. 28. . + 7. 15 q\ 6. 9.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. Page 7. 2. 21. 3 a 3 . 24. +15. 24. ?/ . 18. 770. iSx8 .>(/ r . 120. ?> 4 . 28. ^^ = 20. 5.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . s 9 ww.69 rt + 21 132 + r . ISartyW e*f*tj. 2 n8 29 a + 30. ll 2 i. + 58 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 4. 2.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 216. 23. 15. 14 m 2 . 12. 1.6 2 .16 x2/ 5 4. 04. 7G . 66 39 k* . 19.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . . 1.28 p'^/. 30 j9 jt?g j . 3. (+3)x6=+16. 10. 4. a + ft. ft 17. . 3. 5.7(50. 2*8f x2 6x4. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 4.r% 2 2 ry. 12 ^. 30 n?b*c*. 16. 7. +. a. 6".. 9 13. 76 8 a' 1 . 14. 1. 14. 23. 2''. .44 aWc 16 abxy. 20 aW.14 . a*b*c.14 w 2 2 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 25. 60. 16. 22. 2 . 22. 27. 14.21 a 3 c2 21. 1400. 4 a8 . 4. 64. 30. 13. 2 7t A.26. 1. 2 ). 33. 23. 2. 19. 2 2 2 .. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . . 22.8 12.32 y s s G . + O4 66 .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. Page 38. 4aWy. f 26. 0. Page 35. 8. 30. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.32. 12. 4 7> 4 :j !} .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 3 a 2 46. 2 ll9HH 2) + . ! 2. a 8 .20 xyz . 84.21. 108. 34. 10. 28. 16.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 210. //. 343. 42.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 10. 83 In + 1 n*. 6. 16 lb.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 11. 26. 1. 32.12. 6 . 36. 23. 4. 66 8W 34. Page 36. 17.11 xyz . . n (a6) 125. 20. 32. 27. 2 w +2 2 . 16 51. 102. 20. . 27. 4 a2 . 8.6) =a2 31. 33. 161b. 9. 13. 20. 15. 22. 24. etc. . . 16. 29. 10.15. 3. 3. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4200. 42. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 90. 14. 25.2. 29. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 24. 19.12. 18. 30. 29. 4 fc. . 34. 25. 25 4 4. 30. 127"'. 12 x2 2 . 60. ci 5 . 13. 37. 5aft(a 126 2). 24. 31. 108.1. 13. a. 38wiw. 11. 20. 216. 360. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 18a% y. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18> ^* = a . 14f 5. 18. 18. fa 2. 19. 0. 17. 1904. 20. 7. 18. 2. 27. m.64 190 p6..
<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 999. 1. 25. + 4 a +4. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 4x21. 3wi2 m Page 42. 2 . 10. 25 25.14 jp + 49. 57. 41. fo*.25. 19.^V"' . 1.35 ab 9. 4 21. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. + 2 9.ab .r . 33. m 3 j) 3 . 20a 2 21a + 4. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. (m + 6)(m3). 9 4 /> . (w+4)(m4). a + 56. . 15. 2 +10s281. 37. 19. 5. 9999. 166.000. 7. 32. (a + 4) (a + 2).2. 51.00 + 37. 1. ft' 11. 10. x4 28. 1. 15. x*2^f I. Page 12.20. Page 39. 2 a' y' . 37. 11. 990. 2.2 y*.009. 12 x2 . 4. 2 j3 Z .^ + a? + 1. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 2. 35. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 10. 23. V + o ft . 33.6 x2 13. . ?/H)0. 6. 31. 40. x 48. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 52. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 2 1: 21. m 2 . 6 2 + 6lf>0.10 x + 25. 36. . 56. a 2 . 41. 30 x + 19 x3 . 7. 39. ~ 6 20 . + 10 + 121 y*.009. 34. ) 4' 6/ 49. x* .r .098.810. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 11.2 x + 2 x. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. (a (3 54. . ^V^4 . .500. 28. (n 2 5. Om2 4 6m 6. . 55. a2 ' + 48Z100. 9990. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 9. r. + 3)(3).r* 2 30. 4 x2 13. 16. 484. 10.p132. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.m 30 6 4 1. n + 2. ^' J  7 f 12. .8. 18. 1. 17.1. 2 6' . . a' .49.020.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2 (5 a 3). a + 25.. 2 4 a + 4.ANSWERS 28. 1. 26. . 441. 3. 30.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 10. 14.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 4. 1).^. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 10. 45. 27. 42. 14. 30 /><. 7.3. a + 25.54 p 2 + 81. 4 + 25 q*. .6 y4 10. 2 4 2 2 64 . 44.2 6 + 13. 8. 8. 29. +  m' 1. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2 0)(p + 5). a4 4 ?/ . 2 62 V2 132. ab .84 a' 9. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 25 a 2 6 2 . 10. ab.404.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. + 4 t*.000. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. . 4 . 2 12. s rc 47. 998. x2 GiC+5. 6 x6 + 13 x3 .5 ~ 81.996. 3. 29. 10. . . . a3 0. 9801. ^/> 8 4 .6. 53. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.712.004. +   5). y. 8 a W . 10.008. 4 .020. (w4)(w + l). 34. 8. 24. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 2 a 2 + a . 21 2 . 5.201.6 xy . 36. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 10. 26. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 36./ . 14. 8 38.ri 17. 32. 36 a 4 . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 7 . 10 a' 2 . p4 + . 2 fr . 35. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 38. 27. I/). 7> .x2y22.606.16 a3 f 50. lflrt 2 8 + l. 10. . + 12. 2). 40. G a6 2.15. 33. 6.4 12. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . +4 34. 9. p 2 . n2 a4 6. (p 2. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . 31. 24. 4. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).994. 40.001.10 35. 39. 31. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2 . . 4 2 //.4 n. 10 a 4 ?. ' 46.4 a&+ 4 &*.
'. 6.2 ac .23.2. 13.r' ~ 16.000. 17.2 <</. c3. 12.3 ry.8 yn . 14. 9. + 3.2 ar. 2 . ft. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.  10. _ 2 a . 4ft.5 n*. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 10./ 4. 3. 4. 6x 3. a.8. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 5 4 a Oft.3 x 2 2 4. m'2 3. . yfl. /r .29.30 ftc.  11.n. abc 7. 26.25 c . ft 17.1*5 2 r 2 . 14 r 2 . 5. 11. +w . 14. w . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. a 8 4. r/2 4.r'^ 15. 4 ac. 23. 1000 1000 . f>r* 4. 18. 3. 2 4. Page 51. a 10.3^V.5 mp. 2 2 + 2 a. *3 y 4 . 16. 1. 2. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 9. 14. Page 13.1. 8 ?/ .rw.1. 5.r ?/ ??i ?). .w.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . . 1. 6. 12.10 xy*. ??. .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.r" 20 S? . 1/*. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. aftc 52.9 4. 10 ft. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 11 4. 5. 2.6 :rs 4. 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 8. ?/2. r ft. 10. 3.7.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 13.1. 5. 2 1. . 8 x .2 .15 21. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. z. as _ 10 16. 3 aft 20. 46. ti'jry1 7. 2. 1. r 7. 8 r<ft 4 2 . ft ? ft' ft ft. 2 ?/ 4. 2 4 3 9. 13. a 4 4 ft. i 9. 12. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. Page 48. . 20 15.10 2 + z 2 410.  5 z* . 3*y2 w + 1. + x?/ 2 1. 7. 4 a* 4 9 11.24 . Page 7. 135. . i 2 tji.8 y. 5. 1. 49. // 19. 11. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. Page 22. aft. 8.2 2 .8. 15. 12. Exercise 27.1. 4x43?/. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 19.3 3.x^. 5. 5.21 2 2 f + . r//. 8. 16.r .1. 7 r . 1. 6. 6. 3. 21. 2 ? 14 . 47. 4 d 2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. a 2 . 10. 2 4 2 x 4. 5 a  (5 ft. 14. 8 ?/ . 44. 4.27 x 2 4. 75 a 2 29. . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .r?/ j/. 4 c m . 4. 3. 2 . 4 pq.2 aft 4.3 a 41.2 wZ 4. y 7.5 a .  . . 2. 01. 4xy + 13 <) . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 12.34. 13. x4.2 ftc . 4.3 5.rw f 8 . Osy. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4. 21.VI ANSWERS 43. 8. 22.r?/. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 17. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 50. 1. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . G. 3.1. sr 11. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. w 2 .+ 77 15. 2. 4. Page 11. 16. 9.  3 c. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .2 2 2 8 . l 4 . ft* ft / . 8. . 4 x. x 4.y3.12 aft 4 20 ac . + 4.25. j) . c 12. x 2 + 2r f J. 17. 5. 13.9 d. 14. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 9. 2. 3 a. 2 12. 1.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 8. 9. 24. . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 19. 4 a 2 4. 15.15.4. 13.2 .> 10. 20. . 4. :r !>.  12 y 25. 125. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. . 18. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.2 1 //.1. 5.lit x + 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 6. m L 4. . . aft 12. 7a3ft. 2 a 3 ft.2 . 2 ?/' . . 5^418(7.
I. 23. r>?imi. 7x 2 Page 21. 11. 2x + 35. r tx mi. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. x y $ 6 yr. + 10 b + c ct. 26. 60 25 1.200) f(^ + (e) 200. ct. 46. 39.6 = *. v (6) 2x. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 58. 9. 36. rn mi. lO. ^ 12 sq. 8. y 50. 'nj 100 a 28. (d) 2a + 10 = n. (A) 3 x f (4 x .10) 100. "mi. 4. y yr. 4 f 39. 3x2. 14. 37. (>. X 60. 21 2.. % 4. 8 n  10 yr. Page 31. x 48. 4. ft. y ?>i x + 26. 7. ft. 17. 2. (> 27. 10. 9. 13. x 2y 10 act. 20. <>. 59. 10 x sq. 1.. 7. </ 20. 1&. 1. 7. Page 13. . a 8. 7. # + 20yr. 38. fix. 0. + 3 = 2(3* . 16. 44. 32. 17.ANSWERS Page 9. 11. 7. 5. x = m. . 100 14. m +~m 3. Page 61. " lir. d. !). 34. 50= L 100 15. 10 yr. 1. 6. 4^ = 100. 1. 2=10. 57. vil 56. 12. 4. 45. 15. 5. 19. / + y + a// 12 yr. 3. 17. Jj12.p+7. n M. 4(a ft) c = 8. 30. 37. d + !. 3. Page 6. s. 25.ab a.  6 10. + f + b 2. I.r1. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 5. 28. 29.(3x  700) = 5. 35. 10 >_&. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 40.000. y 100 a 24. 3. + 3x + 2y + 32. 41. lOx 10 + w. x. 10. x 49. 43. ct. a 10. 10 a. 36. 10. 47. 22. 6. 41. iL*. 100= ^. b. . 44. m+ 11.(3x+ = rraxlO. 7. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x.x700. 2. 13. . f 6)(o 62. 18.  1$. 1. x + 1=a. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 0. }f. l. 800 = x + 1300. 4. 5. 42. 100 2. 5. 12. 3 9. ] 2 ri 42. 19. Page 40. ( a f 4. 27. 15. f (I. xy ft. 2. 6. 31. 7. 4. 25. b. 3x  1700) = 12. 38. 16. . 33. 14. 22. 29. (</) 2a.. . = 5 ?i x 460. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 23. 20.  9 = 17 a.  />) a = all. 6. ct. 18.. + 4x 3y 34.rr2. f = eZ 2 x. 11. 2b. 16. 2. 24. 33. 2b 22. 100 d ct. 8. 13.7). (a) ' 12.r ct. 10. 20. 5. '^ . . ? 43. 00. 6.  2\. (2 a. 30. 10) + = (a) 2 x . ft. sq. 2. (c) 2x. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 2.100. 2 ct.
3. . (p + 7)(3a5&). 1313. 3.000 N.10. 25. (*4)( + 11. 3. 1. 14. 12. 14.000. 22. (yll)(y4).3.. 6. 90. 90 mi. 2).000. 7a*fe(2a & l). 10. 3. Page 5. (m + n)(a + 6). 78. 30 yr. 5pt. 12. 40 yr. 6. 19.79. 21.13.210^. 6rt 2 11. (y7)(y + 2). 160 lb. 12. ~=90. (ro3)(w2). 9. 4. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1. 13. 5. 42yr. 13. 74. Page Page 4. 23. 15 in. w (/) 64. 7. 9. 20. 14. 15. 2$.000 Phil. 5. Oaj(o62cd).21.. 10 Mass. 67. 7. 9. 30. (y 13. 1200.. 8. (y + 8)(y2). 28yr. 25. 2. 200.. 11 pV (2 p8 . 20 yd. 15 yd. 80 A.3aftc + 4). MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 11. 16. 6.. 250.24.22. 10. 13. 2 3 6 7. 55. 70. 1.. 3 (a +&)(*. 8. 6. 1200. $40. 7. 12. Page 7.000 copper. 13. 10. . 24J.. 11.  PageSO. 75. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).3. 20. 200. 4. 72. 30 mi. (a 4) (a. 05.000. 8.411. 11 w(w' + wi . 1.5. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 10. 10. 18.000. 10.. 82 mi.000. Ib. a 12. 12. + 7)(y3). 1250. 52. 20 yr. 8. 5. 14. (a + 6) (a + 3).0. 9.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 5 lb.000.. (z5)(z2). 8. 4. 13. = _?_(2ar + 1). 4..8. 15 mi. 1. 11. 15. 30. 100. 78.5. 180. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 10 yd.1). 600. 8 2 19. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 9 in. 6. (y8)(y + 2). ( + 4)(*2).0. 3. 9. 18. Page 7. Y. 5. 12 mi. 8. 70^.. 8 in. 17..6). Page Page 480 12. 2. 68. 50.(5z . 15. 15. 6.2). Pace 65. 45 in. 300. 7 hr. 3.11.000 Berlin.. 2. 6. 29.y"). 5. 10 yr. 4pt. Page 79. 4. 7.000 ft. 85 ft. 14.000 pig iron. 4.. 1. 2. 6..16. 11 in. 20. 480. 7. 2 2 ?/ 21. 18.000 gold. 12. 100 1.000. 3. 20 yr. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 5$ hr. 8 12. by 12 yd. 3x (3r.. 11. . 9. 1. 25 yr. . z?/(4^ + 5xy . 10. 8. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. ^ . 150. (a5)(a4). 2. 71. 10 Cal.5p + 7 g ). 15. 8.2.3).vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 17. (a + 4)(a + 8). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. a a (a 8 a+l).000 ft. 7. (e) i* + A. Page Page 4.7. 3 hr. 10 yr. 14. 9. 2 2 2 5. 2. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 1 lb. 2. 5 Col. (c) ^ v ' . 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). (a + 5)(a + 6).
(g . (3#y)(+4y). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx).3). 13x(a + ft)(aft). + 9^)(oxy .4p). 3. a . 7. y) 2 29.6) 2 1. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 32. Yes. 26. 12. 2 2 15. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 10(2 30. Yes. 26. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 1. (w ~ n (x . 10. Page 82. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .11 ft)(a6). 6. (m + n +p)(m + wp). a(2u. (10a + ft)(10aft). . 36. 16.4. (m7n) (a. 9. 25.7)(2z f 1).1). . 26. a*(5a f l)(flr . 10(a . 19. (m + w) 2 5. 30. ix 18. 21. 3.  x (5 a. (5x . No. Yes. 14. 8. 40 x. Oa 2 (a2)(al). Yes. 25. 5.3)(z2). 100 (a. 9. (y + 4)(yl). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . . 24. (a 3 + 10)(a. 24. Yes. 7 6) (a 10 6).2). 19. 10. 100(x. (ft + ll)(aftll). (0 + 6)(66). 2 3 by2 Yes. 8. 13x7. 24 9. 11. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 21. 34. 20. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 22.y4 ). 4. 26. + y + . (13a +10)(13a 10).7) (a. (2 a? 4. 16.2). 10(a + ft)(aft). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 27. (9y4)(y + 4). Page 83. Yes.2 y). 2. . (3a. 2). 31. 11. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). + 3). (w* (3a26).1). 11. 14. Yes. 18. 32. 9. Yes. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (4 18. 23. (a + 8)(a3). 3a.1). (4 13.2 ft). 10. No. + 5) a. 31. (a 6 6) (a 4. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). a 2 (w7)(w + 3).6) 2 2 . 12. 27. . (az + 9)(ox2). 23. (a a: 19.1).4 6). Yes. 27. 22. 28. 10 a 2 (4 . 10(3 5 6) 2 . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 22. (2yl)(y + 9). (15z2y)(x5y). (a. (ay8)(ay3). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (4y3)(3y + 2). . 15. (3*2)(.. 24. (6 a. y(x. + 3)(c44). 13. . . 2 No 4.* (2 y + 3)(y.y (6x + 4)(5x4). No. 23. 17. 18. 17. y) (a. . + 4) (a. 17. (2 *+!)(* 9).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 20.11 6) (a 4.   . 7.r2). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Yes. f 2).2 by2 6. 23. 20. 30. (2xl)(x + f>).c 2 ).8). (4al)(a2). 2. 34.5y)(3a. 3(x + 2)(zl). (x + y4 )(x . (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 10. x\x 24. 25. 103x97. 29. Yes. + 8)(g3). 35. (6n + l)(+2).ANSWERS 16.9*). (* + y)(zy). (5a +l)(5a l). 21. (:52y)(2a!3y). . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (<7 20. 7. 4. 3.y) 2 aft. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2. (w + 20)(w + 5). 15. 4 (a . 22. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 28. (15a + 46*)(16a46). Yes. (15ay2) 2 . (a (p8)0> + l). + 2y). 29.+4 y)(3x4 y). + 0(90 Page 85. No. x(x +y)(x y). 33. 5. 1. . 35. a. (y8) 2 2 . No. Page 84. . (m + n + 4p)(w + . 14. 216 aft. 25. 21. 8. 3)(3a. 16. 2 17. 33. (4a. 9. 9. ( 2 4 19. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 1. 25. 28.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (2o + l)(2l). 6. . 12. (5wl)(m5). 8) (a.
8. 11. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 10. 8. (a 4. 24. 24x sy s 9.2)(x 1. a 4. Page 12. ( (<> r4y3 . 12. 27. . r x 2 */3 . 8. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 4 a s &8 . Page 89.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (a 9. 2 21. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 3(. 14. ah}. 35. 8. 13. 7. 2. 450.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).'J)(' .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (5 26. . 8).'})(c . 39. 41.8). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 6. 42). 6. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (^ + ?>_8).y '2 2). ?i(w 4y) . 17. 2 + .!) (x42)(x2). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.9). (a &4. fi(c426). 5.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 13. 8. (r420(4 10.4). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 3 x4 . Page 92.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 5 x8 3.1) 3. (w * . 28. b) (r 4. a 4.1). 7. 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 8(w . (2x7)(x 2 2). a 2 (a9). ( y).7)(^ {I 12. 20. 5. 7. 2. 19. 8. y). (!__/>). 3p (^9)(j) 4).  29. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 11.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (a />. 7. 10(8x' 4l) 4.3. . 4 a8 . (14. + 3. 8. y )(.  WIM. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2.&). 2 2 10. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .) j).l)( a 25. 4). (x.4.2 y). 1(V/ 88. x . a x 3 10. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 10(2 (3 4.1).5 m2 x2. a 41. 5.36). 2(m4l)' . 11. 14. 38. 42a 3 x. 13 x 8 2 . ^ . Page 87. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (w4w) 2 1. 16. 4. 16. 12. 9. 2 2 3 . (> 1.n). 6.^ 48. 30. a + a b.y)(fi a . 2.2). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).4). 2 (a 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).?50)(xt/z. .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . + 2 //). l.?/).8) n 43*). (m  I)' 6. Page 90. (. (f> + fo 7.e 4. 5  (2 2 .X 5. ?>). 15.  (w' 4. 2 k (wi 4. 15.42 x 4. 8x.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). a (a + 2 6).4. ofc)( fid). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 11. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (16 4  2(5 n . 13( 33.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 4 6. 4. 22.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.2). . x 4. 4. 40. 2 1..))(x  ^OC 1 1). 6 f c).8) ( (16. y6. 2 y) ^ . 7. 2 .0+ 12). 6. x(x f y)(jr . 2. 32. 6. Gp). 18. 5. 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. x  1). 4. ( { &). (x//. (c. Page 86.3)(x 4. (5a+l)(9a). 6. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).'/)('< 4. (5^4. 13. ( rt 23. Exercise 46.y. 12. y(2x?/). 4. 4 3. 37. 14. 9.b. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .&).7s) (2 a. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 36. 14. (5 31. 7. 3. 4  9. 15 M.?>) H. (^ 7.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. x43. 1. n  r)(5a 10. 17(x43//)(x2y). 3x(x?/) 4. ( a ^)(^3. a8 . Exercise 47.3.y).
a 10 25. +5 1. 11. 30(3 2 (a 15.ANSWERS 10. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . // m+1 !+*?. (a2)(a + 2)2. + y) (a: y). b ! 21. x 22. + &)(&) ( . a 23.  1). +8b a 4 3 / ^. 6a2&(rt6). 1). ?_!&. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.6). 2(2al) + l). x 12. x 24. 13. + &) 2 ( . 18.
xy 43. a 5.. 4. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ' 2 7. i^. + lH + . c 8. 6. 0. ^~ 29. 2 a.  **/* + 84 _. Page 100. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. A^. 26. 6.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. Page 101. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + 2H 1 ^. i. 6a5f^.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . .50 ~ 1/2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. w1 + ac w 4 7. 7. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 1. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 28. 4c 10. 11. 6. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 4 L 8 2 . _*^p5_^^_.
Page 106. J. 2) 19. 8. 4. ! 4 20. 31. 1. I) 2 3z 1. 15. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. n m a + 13. 4. x 1. 4a3ft. 7. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 34. ac mp lf> n 12. 5 be _J_. 8j_m 7 3. 4.^_. b a f +c 14. 2 47. 5. 1. j L . (>. a. w^x 2 b Page 105. 3. 41.  V o 4. A. 11. 4. 9. . ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 6. 15. 4. n . 17. 10. pf n 6 1. 14. 20. 12. . 26. x\. 5. (y + (z 12. 32.L+ft. flf. b 2. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 43.y 7. 0. . 21. 2ft a i m x. +3 ( + 15. 38.ft . Page 113. 12. 5. . 5. 1. 4. 3. 11. ?+_!?>. 21. ?. 10. 14.^U\WF### X<6. J. 46. 3. 17. 7. 1. 3. 6. 7. 1. 44. 1. 21. 14. 6. 12 28. 1. Of. J. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. a 17. 6. 13. a2 2. 9. 7. 1. 36. 11. 37. 3. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 16. m 9. 11. 1. 23. 11. 6 . 33. 42. 1. 29. 25. 19. c 8. ft. 4. 35. 3 7 i o. 45. 39. 30. 16. 8. 6. ' 6. Page 111. + f. f Page 107. x 05m ' 5. ^i 11. ^_. 3. 9. 15. 24. 27. an 18.  10 X + u. 0. 18. f 7. 40. n 16. Page 110. y(x + x ?/).
74. 26. 00. 6. Yes. 10. 17. 1: ~. 10. '"I 22.x + y. 2. . 27.  29. xy. 30. 1. ^m .. 3:2. 1. 8. Page 118. 12. 9ft.001. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4~r~ n . 3. 1:1 = 1:1. 19. . J. 17. 14. 8. ^?i min. 15.10.002. 28.. 16. 9. silver. 2x:3y. 13. 31. Yes. 5. . 3. 18. ANSWERS 16. (a) 4 min. 15. 8. 8. 10. 1 : 12. 24. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 9$. 7 . after $12. w 18.. 10. 3. 17. J ^'. 4fl M_. 15. Yes. 15. 15. 24. 11.11. 21ft min. Page 121. 1:3. 5 2.004. 24 mi. ~m . 2 20./hr. 5 25. . Yes. 1. 9J oz. Page 117. 36. 10. (d) 500. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 10. 7. (c) 8300. 3. . 14.XIV '/ . . 15. 21. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 15. 1:1=1:1.2. 3. = A's.2.138. 38ft min. 19. jj. 30 yrs. 300. 30 mi.. No. 13. P+ ^ 33. 20. :2.. Yes. 4. 20. 1:1 = 1:1. 2:1. 10^ oz. 7. 4. (r) 3^ da. 11. $40. 40 yrs. #V ~~ 34. 19. 14. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 2. n 32. 30ft.000. 7} 18. (c) 2 hr. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. Yes. 13. 14. f . IV s. 0. 12. (d) 4 da.} da. 35. 7./hr. 40 mi. 1:4. $0. w 21.003.. 1. (ft) 5 da. 212.000. 17. 19. 5ft 30mi. Page 124.0.000. 10. min. 33. 26 mi.9. after 18. 10 yrs. 18. nm. $45. 7T 2 Page 116. 55 mi... Yes. (a) 12 hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 32.139. 9. " 0. 6. 1 da. 3. 13.. gold. (a) 30. . w 44. 7. 300. f. 5.000 If da. 75 . 7. 23< &n b ' . dn ~ mi. 40wn. 26 30. (a) 25. 21. 10. 16. (ft) 28.. [>> ^ a . 11. $30. Page 119. Page 125. 4. 7.  C . 16. 4. 12. after 20. 6. _JL. * 7:9. $00.0 & .000 1 = 23.  + . (ft) 104.15. 10.137. 20. 275:108.000. ^p^ r ~ 7. () 2. 4. 11 hrs. (ft) 5 hr. 34. 81. 22. 5. a 4 ft. 300. Yes. min. ft. 1^'. No. 8301 hr. 8. 9. 3 da. 33. 5. 500. 9. 18.
y . 14. b x 37. : />. 8. + W. 2. 22. . 4. 12. 9.3. 27. : : .  28. 11. *.2. 57. in. ft. 24 1 (e) Directly. Page 135. 55. 6. . () 7 Page 126. ig 6. 7. 58. 6. 2. 19 3 . 11 5 . 127. 25. 5:0 = 10:12. 19 OJ.15.3. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 25. 6. 2. 7. 5. J. 945 11 10 . 7. 9. 174+ Page 128. 26. 25. 19. copper. 5. 19. 3.000 sq. 2. 7. 6. 24. 3. 4. 7.2 oz.]. 29. 48.5. . 10. 45. 16. 2. : 23.. (</) ft. 4. 17. 14. 7. 1. 17.4. 30.a.  19. 6. 3. 5. 46. 6 10 = 12. 7. 38. 40. 41. 141. 7. Page 133.840. 138. 35. OJ. 49. 3. 4. 32j.3. 15> 9. x +y x + 74 7 \.' : : : : <>.C ?/ a .12. 2.3. 5. .2. 3. 21. 7. \\. ini. : . Inversely. 4. 4. . 3. 11. 20. 8. 1. x:y a: b. 7. (b) Inversely. 1. 5. 40.36. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 9. 1 18 = 3 51. 200 mi. 56. 1. 2. 4. 8.1.2. 4. Page 131.160. w. 1.J 3. 5. 11. + b 7 . 2. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 14. 32+ mi. 9  15.5. 8. 3. 39.3.  ?. 13. 15.000 sq. ~ 1. 26. 3. 2. 4. i. 21. 9. 2.3.li. 5. = 7 b'.57. 24. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 8. tin.x a. 5. 6*.5.3. 5 2.3. . 52. 10. 36. 16. : : T 1' : /> : . 4. w 8. 4. 7^. 13. 2.5. ' 55. 4. (I. 41.6. 3. 50. (a) Directly. I. 2. 4. (b) C C' = fi JR'. x y = 1 = 3 2. 23. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 28.5. 31J.r. a 3. 3 2=3 x. 53. 3  24. 2. /. . y 1. . 4.20. s<i. in n.3. a +b 1. 18. 31. 3. 4.. 20 cu. a f 2 2 = 5 x. . 9. 44.17.5. 22. 2. 7. 1.8 oz.5. y :y =. J. 13. 1.4. . 30. Page 136. 2. 54. 11.5."2:1. 17. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2. Page 132. 16.3.12. 1 rt * vm^1. l. 2.3. 13J.4. $. 9. 2. . Page 137. jc:y = n:m. 2. 47.9. 36.1. mi. 5. 8. 1(5. ." ^ 2. 3}. 59.2. "lO.. 10. 5. 7.5. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. J. 11. Page 134. 20 20 J ^. OJ.J.1. 3.1. 43. 2 n .4. t 5. : XV 27. 1. 7.15 x. 2. 10. 7. 12. Of. 1. 8. Page 5. 14. mi. 3.46. water.7. land. 2. 19.*. J pq. () Directly. lo mi. x y y . 5:3 = 4: x. 5. 3.1. 15. 12. x 42.4.22. y a y = 7 0. Page 9. 2. . . 20. 3. 7.2 x. 23.^ 0?j ' gms. 9. 13. \.) 31. a~. 11 w a 13. 7.ANSWERS 22. cu. 9. 2.7. 1. 12. 2.
0. parallel to the x axis 0. . 2. 1.3. &. 6. 11. Page 22. 20. 26. 5. 4. 4. u 2ft. 24. 147. 23. 29. 12.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 3. through point (0. May 5. About 12f. & May. Apr. 15. July.3. 23f . 11. 16. 5. 5. 25. 14. 3. A's 50 13.  17. 7. 20. 24. 6 cows. 9. ft 3. Page 151.4. 3.XVI Fagel39. 3. Page 149. 9. 25. 3. 00. (a) 12. 2. . 8. 1. at 15. 1. (<f) 13. 3. 16. 12. 8. 28. (c) . 2. Feb. 1. 19. July.. 40. 19. 5. . & part of Sept. Jan. (a) Apr. 3. Apr. ' 6 3 a. ^. 7. ad AzA. 10. Nov. Jan. 20. yrs. $ 1000. 13. $6500at3Ji%. 2. $3000. C's 30 yrs. 7. 7. 4. 17. 5.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 5%. 17. On the x axis. $900 5%. 1. 7. 22. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 4. 20 & Oct. ad _(?jrJL. 100. 4. 3. SL=J o ft r^2. 3). 17. 19 gms.. 26. 6.$5000. On the y axis. 2. 1. 8.. 20. 1. Page 142. $500. a =J (n  1) rf. be 10. 4. (ft) 20. 11. The ordinate. Jan. 16. a. 6.1. 9. Apr. 2. 14.2. 2. 21. Page 145. 6. 4. B's 40 yrs. 3. .10.1J. 2 a. m + n p. 25. 10. 3. 20 to Oct. Nov. 1 (d) Apr.3. 2. 2. $4000. 7. . 3. 4. Nov. 6. & part of Feb. 10 sheep. 2. Aug. ' . 13. J. 1. 7. 12. 10. 72. 3. 2 horses. 11. 2. 4..7. . m . 12. 7. 18. 9. June. (5. (ft) 23 J. July 20. A's 30 18. 90. 16 to July 20. 18. 27. 16. 3.^. 5.4. = ^ a Page 141./hr. 3. 3. 4. 32. 0. 2. 4. . 6. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 8. 25. Nov. 6. 24. 6. 18. 31. 9. 2t2. 15. 7. 4. 40. On 11.8. 2. 4. 2. be 7. 30. . 1 (c) Jan. Oct. Page 143. 1. . 5.4. 2. $250. 13. 20.n + p. 30. 2. 2. 3. 15.  11. . 2. B's 15 yrs. 423. 1.. 11.0. Jan.l. 5. 1. 10. 10. m f 8.33. 3. 3. .2. A a parallel to the x axis. 4 ' q. 24. 5. Page 153. 1. 16. 18. 4 mi. 0. <*ft/ bd 1. 6%.0..$2000. 5. Page 152. C's 10 yrs. 11. . 12.9. 10^ gms. . 23. 30. 4. 9. 3. 3. 14. Page 146. m f 9. M 2. yrs. 21. 4.1. 16. Jan.65. 7.
. . xW. _ 9 x ^27 1 .75. 11.79. 15 . 17. 7. 2. 3. 2.84. (<?) 2. Inconsistent. 12. . ft .5. . 3. 1. 3. 1. 4. . . 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.64. . . (a) 12. . 15.  1. 10 C. 2 a&m Page 167.  . 18C. 4. . .24. 14. (/) 3.41 and 23. 13 . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 20.2 (ft)  1. 3. 2. . 14. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 2. 24. 4.. 3. 30. 2. ImW. 8mW. Page 158. (e) 3. f12 wi 9. 27.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 3. 2. 13C. 8. 83. a 29. 5.24. . a + ft.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.1. (a) 2. 11. m.3. 1. 1. (ft) (d) 2.34F. 5. 5. 4wn8 + n4 5.27." 23. 2.75. .. xg . 4. 2. 2. 3.. 5. 10.83. 2ft4 Page 168. 13. 27 19. 4. 1. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 13.7.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. Page 163. 32F. 4. H. a 6o&i85 c i5o .4. 3. 28.6. SlstyW 7. 5 and 2. 2. 3. H. 22.24 . 1. 1.75. G. . 19. f. (ft) (ft) 2.1. 5. 3. 1. .59 . 25.5 (ft) 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 1.75 (ci) 3^. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . Page 159. 0C. 18.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . jgiooyiio 17. +3 4. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 14. 8 a1. 1. 1. 6. Inconsistent. 6. 9. . (ft) and (d) 2. 1^. 1 23. 3. 1 4.73. . 15. 81 ".4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . (c) 7.41 and . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 0. 3. 5. 9.73. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 2. 11. 3.67. 1. 2. . 125 a 8 12. + a 4 ft* .73 ami . ' :=_!. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 10. () (rt) 3.3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 125a 28. 20. .25. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 2. 3. 19. . f. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 21. 12. 1. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4}. ft 2 4. 22. 3. 1. (a) 5. 2. * 16. xy. 13. 27 27 81.83. Indeterminate. 26. (c) 2. 3. 1. (c) 14 F. 2. (a) 4. (ft) 2. . . .  1.73.25. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.5. 2. 1. 4 ) 21. 125 16. 8. 30. 3.79. 15. 24.59. 8 1 f f g*. 3. 2. 1.. 10. 5. 16. 4. 3. Indeterminate. . 9 and Page 166.13.25. . \ft) 5. 2 l. 2. 2 2 22. f 10. 1. 14. 8.  12 ft xW  26 31. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.17 (ft) (c) 2. (gr) 21. (e) 2. (/) 3.64. Page 164.25.25. 3 .
18. 1247. 4. 17. 20. AN S WE no . 2. 0. 9. a. 9. 2.GO a c + 23. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 33. 28. 2. 6 (\x 3.r 2 + 6jt).6. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 2 2 7.+3^ + 4. 99.3 ab + 2 2 ).1. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 8. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). ^i. . 5. + 29. 2. 20. 3. + i)). 2. 10 x G a 4 .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. c 10 6 :l 20. 14. 21. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .7 /)). 8. ? : 1 . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 26. (4a2 9& 2 13. (ly).+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 64. 20. wi 8 + 3m 2 . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 .x ). 18. 34. 90. 76. 15. 2 4 8 2 . 25. (x + y\ 90. 6. + y). 1. 15. 9. (l + x + . . 98. 8. 3. 2 12. 17.037.a b 22. 8. .1. . 5. 12. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). I 8x2). .94. 00. 14. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 8 /. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (ab + c). rt .^). 1. 6. Page 171. 11. 978. 20. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 7. 11. 180 . 309.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 4. fe *?>' ?> fi . 18. (a + y+l).XV111 7. . Page 176. +3 + 5 4. 16. 10. (a 2. 22. 90. (Gx + (i + 2a. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 420. (2 a + ft). r> 4 : 1 . a.83. 247. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 7. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. Zll. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . + l). /> 4 ). ( Page 174. 14. 9. 6. 12. 1. + Z). 36. 32. 84. 2038. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 31. (3a. 13. 10. 5. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 3M. (1 (x2y). 11. 1. 7.y2 ). ).2).5. 72. 5 5 8. a ). 70. 24. m 13. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . (a + 2 +l). (x' l). 15. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 237. 4. +35. 40. Page 172. 3 2 8 3 12. 14. 3. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 5. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 11. 17. . 57. 3 6 23. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 1 1 ?>). 6. 16.5). 5. 13. 16. Page 170. 9. 763. 19.  x. . 15. . 25 19. 8. 2 49 . 30. 300. 6. ? . (48 + 6. 27. 30. a 2 . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 21. 23. 9. 101. 35. + + ?V 22. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).f 1 m 9 16. 12. 3.  +X '. ??i ?i . 119. a: l . . 10. GOO 2 c 2 . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 4. 3 2 ^. 16 6 w . 71. ?7i 1 1 3 1. + (win .i c 6 15. 10*.10 a~ + 5 a . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 19. 2 2 4.
44. 4. 5. 36 in. 30. . 2. 9. 9 15 ft. . 20. 5083. 4. . a. V2. ^^7m. 34. 1&.  1. _ iVaft. * 1. 16. 17.*. l~8. m. (afl). Page 184. 5. 4. ^. 6. >i 27.. 34. 10. 4 TT M 28. 10.. 12. 2] see. 1. 5f. 32.6. 33. 8. 21 in. 10. i. 18. 25. 10. V J l. 3. 10. 5. () 2. 6 f !. 5. 46. If ^. 13. 7. 11. V35 1. 2. 7. 23. vV'TA 24. 4 a. 12. V. 37. 1. 6V21. 7. 9. 22. 15. 9. 33. 19. V17. m.6. 3. 15.. .367. 3. ft. 6. 31. \/3. 1. 7 in.ANS WERS 22. ft. 17. xix 26.  2. 9. 2. 6. 50. 7. 40. 16. . 15. 10.60. 5. 1. 20. 1. 2.5. 8.690.i. 26.4. 14. 25 J. 9. " ^_ 22. Page 181. 10. 11. 16. 7. 5. 3. 31. 37. 6. (< + ?>).a. 1. 16n. 4 n. Page 179. 7563. 14.  3.  f. 17. 7. 5. 30. 3. 3. Page 177.. f ^ is. 29.916 yds. 13.742 in. 27.798 yds. 4. i ^. 5. 28. 28 in.925 ft. {.Sn. 15. 3. 2. 7. 4. 9.. 11. 8. *. 4. V2. Page 185.6. 9. 12. J. . . 7. 35. 2. 8.V 8j. 7. 13. / 11. ^. 25. 1. 2. 23. . 6561. 49. > w ft. 20.}.. 35. 42. 3.. 15.13. 14. 28. 3J. v 17. 15 1 10. or 3.  f. 5. or 5. 29. 6V'2J. 4. 10. a + 61.  14.  5. 4. 2. 3. 4 W**. >TT 26. 11.  43. 14. 4J.645.4. 27. 12. 12.522 38. ZLlAiK 19. 1. 6.. 23. f. 3. 36. 29. 16. 4.469. 4. 1 38. 5. /. 8. 3. 19. 7 45. f . Af^. ft. 13. 2. 2.4. 1. 2. . 2. w. 40. 41. 12. 2 sec.6.w 18. 7. 3. ~ V^3. 12. f f V. Page 180. 1. 39. 6.5. 10. 6. }.. 6yds.236. 5. f. 21. 18.18. 21 28 ft. 1 f Vl3. 32. 39 in. 7}.1. . 6J.935. 12.1. 21.005. Page 183.. 47. 6. 9. f 3. (6) Vl4 3. . 4.6. 3. vYb. 4. 1. 21. 5. 24. 7. 2.243. 4. 8. 39. 14. . 270 sq. 1 7. ii :J _7. 21yds. 24. 3.?. 48.237. 5. 36. JJI. 13. 5. 11.
6V64. unequal.  1. 43. V2.  9x <). in.2. 6. 0. 0.4.23. 16. 7.2.2. 11. 9. 22.  1. 28.a. 16. . 1. Page 188.'. 40. 3. 36. 3. 3.12 = 0. 26. 8. 1. 39.2 x2 . 1. x* 51.1. 4. 21. 38. 8.. x*4x=0. 4. unequal. 1.5^.2. 7. 50. 6. Page 190. Real. 70 ft. 2. 26. 0. 13.l. 10. 0. unequal. _ 19. #<7=3.  1.2.7. 3. 57. .  13. VV11.37. 17. 3. unequal. 1. + 11 x.23. 0. 64. 8.0*8. V7. 6.1. 1 . 6. 9. 2. 44. irrational. 10 in. 46. . 16. 1.XX Page 186.74. 1. 0. $80. 6. 3. a8 .. 45. 34. $30 or $70. 1. 2. 0. 2 ft. i. 19. rational. Real. 25. . 5. 52. 5. 1).12./hr.3. v^^fcT"^. 26. r* i. 3./hr. . 5. equal. 47. 2. 1. 7. . Imaginary. 3.3... %. a + 6. 20. Real. 1. 10 mi. 2. = 0. . 2. 7. 0. 15. 48. rational. 120 ft.  Page 194. 26.  6.7. 20 nii. 1. V^l. 0. V2. 13. 4.4.5. Page 192. rational.4. 2. 23. AB = 3. 18.. 0. 28. (5 10. 0. . 21. 12. a.2. x 14.Oa. 37. 12.  5. 5 ft. equal. 3. 1. 55. Page 189.70. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. . 24. 35. 10 mi. 15. 3. 33. 64c. . 1. a. V^~2. . Real. Page 187. 5./hr. 7. 3. AB = 204 ft. 7.  2. f. 14.2. ANSWERS 22. $ 120.59. 8. .* 2. 25. 27. 2. 2.1. orf. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. f. 23. 3if. x2 + B . t is. Imaginary. . 0. 6^2 in. 6. 2. 18. 1. 4 da. If. 12. unequal.48 3. Page 191. 3. 8 or 12 mi.2. 6. ' 1. 6. 35. 4. 3. *'' 12. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  24. 4. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 18. 10. 3. irrational. 2. 6.6 = 0.2. 4. 7. U.17. 32.48. 25. 14. 3. unequal. 3. 9. 9. 3. 11.62. 2.  1.3.  1.a. 0. 27. 41. 31.4. unequal.  5. s 11. 2 . 2. 2. unequal. 8\/2 17. 19 in.7. 1. 2. 1 3. 15. 3. 7. . 42. 2. 20. '  f 5. 4. 29. 1. 2. Real./hr.  i. 24. 5. 2 V3 in.4. 3. 1. rational. jr . 21. 12. 4. Real. 4. 20 eggs. Imaginary. 30.  2. 2. . 4. 19. 6. ft.5 x + 6 = 0. . 2. 24. 23. 56. equal. 1. 0. 27.41. f 6 52 a.02.2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 1_^L ft 14.a 3 a. 28. H. 0. Imaginary. .6. 22. 58. 1. 25. 15 ft. 0. . . 53. Real. 10. 49. 3. 10 or 19. rational. 3.$40 or $60. unequal.. Real. a + 1. .10. 20. 2.]. 1. i . V^l. . 12.
4. 14. 49. v'frc 18. 2. v. 2. 51. J. y. 9. 6.^7. n\/* Page202. 8. 4. ^49. 3. 22. 19. *V. V^ 34. 5. 2 L ( V. 4. 16. 54. 5. . 8. : . r*.  f . 29. 40. 47. 18.  J j. 9. 5. r. 7. 8.ANtiWEUS rational. 13. 7 . Page 201. 14. 14. . 3. 3. 38. 49. 16. 1. . 20. 7. v'frW. y . a 18 . 10. 30. . 20. 50. \ . 8. vm. _! V3. 21. 47.32. 7V7. 6. 16. 11. 4. z + 22.. v/3. 36.//^. 7. jV 10. 29. 8. Page 196. J. 14. . 2. 2. 15.17. 44. 53. . 8. 19. 25. Page 199. \/. vV. Vr. J. 10. \/r\ 11. 2. 3. 29. . 17. 37. 9. 3. 19. 13. 5. 1. 1. 3. Jb \. 2V a. 2. xxi 15. 2.  5. 3. 1.6. 4. 25. 35. 57. 23. 56. fx'^z'l 23. 5. 48. 2. 1. 22. 1. 0. 27. 6  AAf. 42. 1. $7. 10. 33.  a'2 .  48.  f. 33. \a\ \/^.2. x$. \. l  5 12. a. ). 3. 'J. 31. 30 a. 55. 4. 32. 84. 1. 49. 2. 28. 28. ? . 43. 5\/5. 17. 17. 20. 1. 13. m. 12. 46. I. 19. \. ar 1 . 31. 21. 3. ^Sf 3 38. 0. 23. p. 26. 13. wA 46. 16. 32. 12. 18. 41. (m 26. 3 4 11. 243. 4. 24. 49. 3. x/25. 11. Page 197. 24. 33. 39. &. 45. 1. 1. 2. Page 200." 17. ) 2 >J i 10. 0. 1. \/3. JV37. 4. aW\ 40. 8. i. 125. 58. 27. 21. 1 39. 50. x. 9. 60. 15.1 5 15. . 25. 3. 9. J. . J 3. 30. m'. 59. 20. 8. 24. ifa. 2. v^T4 m. 3. 52. 5. . 9. 15. 18. 10. 1V1. 12*2 61.
3. 45. ). 32. 19. 135V6. (x' (l 1+x).12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. x 25. ^88". 21. 10. 24. 3^2. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2>X2. 27. 11. Page 208. 2. 36. k/2. ?tV?w. 3 \ 39. 13 35. 5.f. (a 27. l 5. . 3^ + 2). V63.648.x^y* + y%. + + ft. . 50. 4. 5 22. 2.692. 31. + .632. 1. 8.r. r 17  Page 204. . 9. 3. . V80. 2 4 z2 l 3. 18. a 4 +* + !. 2. a^ + 2^+1. ^: V2c.rV:r. 29. 13. 2.3 + 40 3 . 23. 30. / V3. x 7  34. 31. . abVab. 1) 3V3. 25. 24. 28. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. V2 + 4 V22. 16. 19. + 1. 10. T. 3 4\/2. 10. 48. x + 5 x3 + 0. 26. 26. 101 1.  a Vft 2 121 b. r c . x. v/^r 5  A/^~. a2 4. Vr 8. 8. V 5 47. 37. 34. 3 42. + 2 Vzy + y 1.'\ 14. 33. 20&V6. ^7 \AOx. x%  3 ^+ 1.yl : . 21. 3. 2\/7. 28. 03r* 7. yV35. 29. 43. 32. 22. 7. 11. + Vic + 25. JIV6. . Page 203.).. + 2). 39. 2 '"V5. 30. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . Va 2 "ft.XXii ANSWERS 1. 7. 12. v'TM. 16. m* n*. (o* 2. 20. 34 r 6. y (a + ft) V2. y. 9. 5. 40. 20. Page 207. 3 x^y 33. 195V3. x^ . V. 2 x* 15.2 18. 6. 3V^T. V. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. ftV 46. 2. 2v (T 2aVf. 40. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.707. 13. 6. 4aV^J 16. 49. x y.2 VlO. 2. 8a6V5. 38. 2 a?>V2 a. 17. + 2 V22. 9. 51.Vxy 35. 9 . 4.577.  2 3:r.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. v^. 8V/) 15. + 2 ar 1 ). a 3. 62V(J. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 17. 37. 11V3. 41. 13 a. 5 ( . 3V5. . 15.
4VO.r v/^ v^fr*. Vdbc. 1. 2 1. 53. \/a6c. x/8. x/3. 11. 37. rtv/5. . D 45. \^6. 18. . x/8l. 6. \/8. 8. 4. v/lO. v"3. 3. ^v 7 15. 31. 36. v/l2. v^30. 5. 3. 11. 33. Vn. 8V2. 32m27n. 8v2T 12. 23. 17. 2 \/2. v/i). \/04a. a2  b. 7. 0. 46. 3. b. 9. ^27. 31. 2 28. 28. 22. 24. 36. 52. Page 214. v^a. 18. 3 V2. 3\/15  6. 40. . 24. Vat. Page 211. 3\/wi. v^f.ANSWERS _ Page 209. . 9 VlO + 4. 8V73\/IO. v/8. 20. 6. 50. \/abc*. 6aV2\^. 3 V15  47. 9. 8  \/15. 6x2?/. a\/5c. 3. 1. 3\/2. 6+2V5. "v/wi ??. 10. 21 23. 2. 12. 41.30 2. . V8. xx 1.J Page 212. ^ 3 b 5 24. V/. 21. 30. 4 a*. aVa. 2 V'3. 16. v/9. 13. v^4. 2. 6 2\/0. 3v^2.  3. 14. 22.T*. + VlO  v y (5. 26. 4. Page 210. 35. \^r^bVabc. 1V5. . 3. 16. V2. 5 \/2. 9. 0. x/w^ 8. ^\/3. 26. 14c 4 V5. v 25^4714 V2"a. 7\/(l 7VTO. V3. vT). 17. 6. 19. \^6. 34. : ^32. 1. 74\/Jl 120 46. '. 5V2. 18. 2yV2?/. v"5. 7. Page 216. \XOfl6Vi5. 51. 27. 13\/3. 5. 14. ^9. 39. x/125. 40. 17. 37. x/27. 13. ab 4. 38. V3. \V3. 15. r)\/(l Vrtr. W). / \/w/t 4 13. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 34. 19. 29. fl^Vac. 42. 5V2. 4 >/3. 3 Vl5 30. + 20. x/8L v/27. 4\/5. % 29. a^\/a7>. 6V2. 11. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 5v/2. 44. Vtf +3+ 33. 2\/7. V5. 2 ate. . \/128. VT5. V3"m. 32. 38. 23. 10. 12. 32. V5. "^8000. 15. 6. v7^. v^lf. 25. 16. 8. 49. 6. 10. 2.. 43. V2. 27. \/2. 14. 35. x/4. 5. m ?i2Vm/t. 25. 10V(). 2. 39. v^O. 21. w?i. 2. 30 Vl4. 48. 7. Page 213. VJla.
^\/2. 7. 18.  f. 3(7+3V5). . 8. 23. 2x^2^.2. . 3. 2V3. Va. 12. Page 28. 9. 14. 11. 1. 2V3. f. 30. J.XXIV 7. . 25. 24.1547. 6.0606. 21. 35. 4. 13. (\/3f 1). ANSWERS 8. V5. Vf6fVtf. 7 f 5 4. (V6 + 2V2). 81. V2. 32.7071. 6 (V2 + 1). 2. 22. 15. 7. 25. 8. 18. ^. 23. 216. 4.  2. 7. 8. 6. 26. 125. 2. 4.2. Page217. 15. (3+ v/2). 24. * 3. 3. 1.389. 2. 33. 5 V65. 13. 8. 29. .. 4. 20. 4 14. 9. 30. V35. 17. 36. 512. {. 20. V6c.^ (\/22 4. (V21). . j. 16. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 17. 16. (VllV2). 16. (2V2). ^(VlO\/2). 9. 8. 11. J. 1. 17. 29. + 6) 2 .1. 1. 16. 4. 1. n*. 1. (V51). (2. i(Vf Vft). 6. 10. 3. 16. 4.7083. 1. 24.4142. 7. 27. 21.81. 18.2828. 4. 6. j 15. 15. 2.4722. (Vf + (4 V2). V3. 3V23. 37. +3 V2). (a 1. 5.3. (V5f 5. 19. 7 Page221. . + 5V2. 18. 13. 23. 7. 22. K>/0 + \/2). (V8 + V2.w 6. 9. 5. 19. 64. 4.3. 3. 24. 4V3 + 6. 25. . nVTl. 10. 8. 15.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . A . 31. 9. 5. 1. 27. 12. 0. Page 219. 34. 22. 100. 15 f 3 V2L 4. (VaT^v a). ' 22 i . 16. !^ 6 4. 5. \/3). 6.1805.6 V3. 11. 23. 10. 10.  . \/57t. 25. p 6 13. (\/5V2). ~ Vac _c 0. 25. 224. x 20. 5 + 2 vU 17. 19.601. . . .64. 5. Page 218. (2Vll). 4. 4. m f. 14. 27.732. 1. 21 ' Vob 26. 11. 4. 12. Page220.625 10. Page 225.6. 5. 0. 20. Page 223. 19. 9 mn. Page 226. 2.732. 17.13. 8. V^TTfc. 1. . V3. i^Lzi. 2ajV2*. 14. 12. \. 7. 3. 5. 2 . 5. xy 2. 25. 4. 6 V. V3 .9. Va. 25. 8. _^JflJ?. 10. ^. 81. 28. ^r. 9. 11.464. 2. 8 V3V2. 16. fV2. 3. 1.5. 10. 9. V3. 26. 10. 21.V3). 16. 7. 12. 2!5_. 14.\/TO). 9. 7. 2. 20. 11. 4.5530. 5. 23. 3. 12. 15. 18. (2f V"5).3535. 4. 19. 9. V. 4. 2V2.  13. 5 f.
7.2)(* . (&y2a#H4). 11. 3. 8. . 4. . 10.12. 8. 11. 4. 3.nl^EI. 1. 20.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 30 30. 24.l)(m . 0. y. (8. 2.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 3. 6. 2. 1. 3 . 15. (2 a. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). Page 234. (a .5 xy + 25) 22. 2.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 13. 3 . .3. 30. 22. 3. 1. 21. 1 . (+!)( 2) 10. 18. 10. 28. 4.7.  3. =A^Z3. 1.8a 18. 13. 1.  f . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 2. 0.  16). 12 24 y . 2. 4 20.  4. 10. . 12. 1. 56l). . 2 . 2.3 2. 4. 6. (4 mn . 19.l)(z 2 + z + 1).r . (a+&)( 2 14.3). 2. 8. 12. 3. 25. . . .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 20.ANSWERS Page 228. 0.1. t/ 23.2. 2 > 1. 0. (r. . 3.1. f>. 8 6 & 0. .10. . 17. 1. 30. 4.2)(m. 13. (a 4. 1 .0. 2. 7. (pl)(p2)(p2). 2 . 1 . J. . 4 4. ( 16. 8. 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). (63)(6' t 18. 17.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). P. 0. 7. 2. 7. 1 (?> x/^3. 5. 3. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1. 14. 3 5. 2. 2. 2. \/0. 4 1. J. 5. 3 . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 2. 3. 1. 5.3. V3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 6. 3. .  2. 2. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 14. .l)(a3)(a . 15. 2. 2. ~ f7. 2. 4. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). .3. 16. 3. 11. 3. 4. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).2. 50. 25. 18. 12. 7. 17. 1. 4. 3 9. . qpl.4). 2.22. . 2. 4 . 20. a . 25. (a. J Page 235.  1. 12. 5.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 7. 2. 26.^a. 4. 1 3. 3. 9. 10. 13. 1.. 4. & + 6 2 ). 8. (rt. 9.3. 7. 12.  3. 2 V^ . 2 6.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 5. 73. ' J. l. 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 4. 19. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 2. 4 .2. 5. 2. 19. 1 6. 2 <? 4a2 .  . 10. b . 100. 5. (w . 3. 7. 22. 25.  1. 5. 4. 2. 87 . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).w 4 + 1).  5. 2 . 13. 30 . 5. 1. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 10. (B43). 1. a(. 0. 6. 16. 9. 0. 6. 1 . . 14.4. 4. 1. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).4. 3.3. . (a. 3.  3. . 6.Y. 4. 73. o. 11. 3. 3. f . . 3. . //. 1 . 4. 2. (pl)(p3)(p6). 6. 4. 4.5. (m 4 + l)(ro. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 3. 2 &. 2. 5. 3. a  . 2. Page 236. 11. 0. . 23. 4. 3. 1. J 24. 1. 3. 4.3. 5. 21.  J. 8. 5. Page 233. 3. 11. 2 6. 5. a: :} . 24. 6 2 2a + 2). 5. 1. 2 . XXV 4. 3.4. 15. 2. 1.
5. Page 245. 3 cm. .1. 1. 3. . 7. 12. 1 2. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2. .30. 2. co . 33. 24. 1. 3. 11.. 5. 8. 2 .. 3. 1. _ 10. 2. 3. m + n. . }. 5. Indeterminate. m28. (a) $3400. Page 238. 2. 35^ 5. 3. 1 . 2. 17. 12 1. . 5. 2n. . 2. = QO 6. 45yd.3 . 4. . 15. 35 ft. J. 2. 32. 5. 3. 8 . 3. 37. 8. 50. 400. 1J. c. 39. 3. 24. 22. 4 8. 5. Page 240. 2>/3. 5. 3 . Page 241. 0. 14. Exercise 114. . 2.5. 7. 8ft.3. 14. 12. f. } . 3. 1 . 17. 3 . 41. in. 5050. _ 13 (0 6. 2. 20. 1. 7. 4. 4.3. 2. 4. 31. 30. 10.  1. 5. ^ }. 3 2. 5 . 3. 2 10. 20 7. 13. 18.3. 22. . J. 2. 2 ft. 1.0.6. 3. 6. 7. 13. 4. 1. and _ 4.  2 . 78. 512.e. 4. Indeterminate. 1. 50. ANSWERS 2. 6. 36.  11. 7. 3 3. 14.5. 3. 7 3. 4. 10. 15. 25. 12 d. 21 30.200. in. 14. +  n. 4. 4. 6. 7f solution. 12. 35 a. 4. . 31. 1. 11. 7. 2 Y> V . $VO. f>. no co . . 23. i. GO . 7. 2. 40 in. 288. . in. 4 .4. 1. 1 . 12.4. (a) 5. 8.3. 5. 4.. 10. . $. 2. j. 14. 5 cm. 8 3. 8. 11. 30. 4 34. 1. 1. . 1. 2 1. 0. . J. 8. jj. 4. 17.. . in. 900.. 8. 1. 3. V3~. 15. ri*. (&) 2. 9. Exercise 113. 3. in. tn 2. 9. 48. 1. 3V5. 3. 1. 37. 14. ' j. Page 248. 5. ^~2. . . . 1. 4.1. Page 243. ft. Page 239. 5. . n .4. (>... i'ljVU. 11. 11. 21. 2. 23.1. 5. m27. 1.4. . 5. 18. 3. 12 ft. 2 2. 2. 28yd. n. 2.18. 38. ft. x 4. 3. i j. 2V7. . 10.. 4. (/>) "_. . 3. 512. 4. 1. 125 125. 16. . 12. 21. _ 5.13. 16. 1.3. 37. \. 15.3. 1. 9. 8. 9.  . 4. 11. oo. 3. ( 3. 2. 1 . 8. 2. 5. 2 .136. 1. 5 4. 2. 4. 3. 15.. . . 6. 2 16. 4. 2. 26. 4. \/6. . 15. 16. . 4. 6. oo . $46. Page 244. 3 4. 17.. 4 6. '>. 30 13.0. 4. oo . 69. . . 3 . 1. 5. 2.020. 14.2. 2. 19. 15. 201.6.3. 35. . 5. 19. . 17. V7. 12. 3. . 40 25 in. 9. 2 26. 17. f*. 3. 1. 29. ft. 3.y. 1. 9. 1. 1. 40. 1. 84.xxvi Page 237. 18. 13. 1. 1. J. . 3. 5. 20. 1 . $. 1. 1. 12ft. _ 7. 2. . Page 247. 3. 55. i i i . 1. 20 in. 3. 5. . 4. 2 . 0.
22. xxvii 1. 26. 5. 2. 6. 2. 4 0.2 45 a 8 /). 18. 8.4 &z x>&. 12.4. 32. 11. 10. 04. 6. . 9. 9. 6. 3. 8.504. 8 1.5. 2. 5.1. 25. 1000 aW. 2. x + Vy. Page 258. 8. 17. 12. 10. 410. r 5 4. 35. 48.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. REVIEW EXERCISE . 21. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . . 2. y ^ 5  ^\ ). . 20. 9. 1. 13.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 4. 7.920. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . ?/i 6 x llj . 10.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .^ ?>i 2412x4. 304. w9  8. 005. ~v 9. 5 13. 1.6. 70. 120 aW. 2. 9. 708.120. 1. . 910. 11.r x>/ 7 3. 220 .53. 3.r* 4 70 . '23. 4. 27. 17. 28. 17. 4. 12. 10. 3. 45 Page 257. 2. x4 .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 19. J 2 //2 25. 18. 05. 1 14. 1. 7. 7.470.384. 5. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 5.419. 128. 1 7 4. i 10. 343. 7. f y 8 + z* .5. 15. 7. 4. 10. 192. 18. &' 14. 5. 3. 70. 105. \ w 4 . 27. 6. 1. 16. . 280 53.5 x. 45. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 04. B . JSg. 15. 4. 4. Page 259. 10.192. 3. 4. 19. 343. 1. I. 0. 3.3 ays. 2. 405. . 3. 70. 16 11. 0.210. 23. . a4 4 14.x' 10 .10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 1. 20. 16. 8. 2i* 7f. 12. .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 2. .8. 2. 6i. 3. 0. . 45. and 1. 6.870 m*n*. 1. 5. 12. 16. 1820. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. A.ANSWERS Page 250. in. r r j. 1. x r 4.r 4.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 35. 8. **+. . 4. sq. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 55. 22. 5.v Page 253.  20 flW. 10 14. 13. 4. 5. ~ an . 53. 7 x4 17. 9. ' 1. 27. 0. 12. 2. 8.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.680. 100. 8. vy. 75. 12. . 9.12 x*y 16. 43. 27. 4. 3. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 16.2 9. Page 254. 13.6 . 2. 15. 5. 4.  101. 0.700. 3. 495. c. 15. 7. 125. />*. G. 1JH. 8. 8 . Page 252. 8J. 125. 7 2 x 4 x8 .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 2. 15. 29. 327. . 6. 3. 4. d. 0. ^a 8. <.0. .5y 4 .130 x30 189 a 4 24. .13. 19. 8 4x' 2 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 50. 7. 4. 8. 0. 21. } $ 50.  17.7 10. Jj? 45. a. Y11. 0. 4. 3. 0. Ja.<2 4. (). 3. 5. 4. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 14.170. 4. 11. 12. 4. 18. 6. . 1. 7. 6. 1. 81. 16. 5. 8. 16. 16. 20. 44.
a4 x. t 81. . 4 Page 264. 4 69. .6 b. . 5 42. 3a~2c. x } 4. . .{ 54. . x' . 5x + 2y~z. . 93.  + 3 x2 . 50. 2 . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. Page 260. 40. x8 x2 55. 14 x . 114.a*ft 2 126. I 57. 1 x 45.y*. 38. 3 a 44. 2 30 .c.x4 + y'2 z 4. m " + n + P3c . ft2ft 4 4l. 76.4. 3a'2 Page 261. + z.3 aftc. 243x4729. a J . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . . 107. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .ac 44 aft. 4ft y3. 4.a'2 c.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 4. 6 c 47.5. 43. 2 x2 4.3 b .6 am b\ 129. . 94. x 2 . y 4 z* 0. 3 a . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 125. x2 5r*x ft 5 .a.2. .5x4. 127. 91. 102. 130. x2 2 . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.7. 61. f5+7. 27.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. a' 111. 32. . 1 + 4 xy. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 80. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 5x 2 2x43. 2 .9 b.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . .2 c .4 2 4 c2 42 . 7 + 3 xf 2. 26.a' 'ft 4. 2 113. 4 15 x 5 . + 3 a?. 3~ n 4. df. 72. 8 .15 4 62 x  72. 23. 4 65.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 105. ?> . 6 a2 97. x 8  a8 .1.2.1 4 jry 4 x .  . 109. 21. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 124.5 a 2x8 x 3 . * 60. 13 + 2 s. 16t/.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.4 x y 87. 10 4. 24. 120. _55_7c 48. 118. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 35. 3 36 b c . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 88.1w 77. x2 471x4. 10 a 12 b.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.c 3 4. 9x. x* . x 3 41.18 ?/ 5x4. 0.41. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 62. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 2 53. c3 4 58.x 2 4. x . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 25.4 x 2 . /> 4 83.  e +/. a* 4. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 100.  12 a. 37. 4. 30. a~b 89.2 x 4.ft). 9 2w 128. &p 84. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x' 79. a* a 8 a aftc.2. 4 2 . (a + ft)" 98.4. 122. Page 263. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.rty x2 4 123.1.  3 x2 . + a 4. 1 a"* 4 an . 2 q. 16. 82. 8x3 8x. 64. x 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. . 70.  4 a3 85. +^ + ft W.3 103.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 3 c .3 y. x4 f + 23 . a 4 .^a . 31. 3 a 5 a 5. az 4. . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 52. 99. 2 . .3 a 2 '6 w 4.x24 73. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 4 115. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .1.2 x^. x2 a2 1 . 133. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. . .9 x . 132. 39..x. 22.4 x?/2 3 4. xyxzyz.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.4. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 2 2/' . ft /> 78. 2 x'V2 90. 0. x 3 4. 4 ! . 28. 2 a. 0. 12 x. 86. . ?/ . ?/ 3. 104. 2 x2 108.4 ac. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.a6 2 4. 96. 5 4 4. 66.4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.a 2 x 2a .x x*  f 2 ax 4.3 .3 a'ft. . x 8 + x 4 68. 1 121. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. a2 2 aft 2 2. 1 . 12 a/. 36. 49.x 51. a 3m 4.105. . () 2 x 33. 4 .5 b + c . . . !! 71.7 x   15.18 x?/0. 63. 110. ft n . as 20.c. 6a6c. . 4 fee 4.xxviii ANSWERS 19. .3 x 2 + 3 x .1.5 3n 4. 46. ^ . 131.fee 2 4. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 29.
158. + 3). . 164. 212.  1. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 190. 4. 8 204. 24. 30 yr.1). 195. Page 265. 30. 10 ft.1(5) 200. 12. 206. 21. + 11) (a 10). 172. z(x10)(xl). 10). 137. 173. r>x 2 (4x. 211. 1. 37 1. (x 227. 168. 6. (x + 6)(x6). + 2) + 9a. 179. 147 mi. 226. 231. 142. 224. 187.2. 2. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).3) (2/3y). 237. xxix 139. 20. 178. 138. 209. (ab + 8) ( 7). p. (a} 59. 232. . 163. 230. 214. 30 + xyr. 12. 8(ar}(/)27).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).3. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (5 x . 169.4xl). 22. 12 yr. a + 2x2 ). a 2 (15. a. (a 2 + 2a6. 2 xy(3 x . Iff 145. 174.2ac + 229. 157. 3. 2. 152. (?/+l)(yl). . 233. (x  42 yr.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (y _ ft)(y 4. 147. +)(x2 x^+2. 23 18. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 15. 166. 19. 32 h. 6). (r7y)(ai. Page 267.1). + 7)(rt4). 15. 143. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 155. 1. 191. 235. 197.6 . 151.2) (3 x . 2. + 22). (/ 246.. (7x2//) 203. (6) 40. fc'2a+62c). 20. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 241. . 189. ?. (. 40 yr. 170. 156. as 194. 207. k. 15  a.l)(x8 + x2 . 10). (3x  . 210. 238. 3. 218. (c) 160 C. (7 c 2 ).3).. 247.2).9)(xf 2).y). ft.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 2. 148.I2y). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 154. 150. 146. Or (a + 2)0el). (x . 182. (2 198. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 176.r . 1. (x^ + x1) 234. 171. 7. (JT y 225. 10 in. 177. 1. 240. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (3x2?/)(2.6) (2 x + 1).y2 ). 1. Page 266. (2a + l)(a .. 181. . 6. 149. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).1). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (8x + 3)(3x4). (a& 192.2 )(x+y) 228. 161. 3(x . (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 2^.6)(4 + 6). 217. 218. (y  17)(y + (>). (y_24)(y5). 136.l)(a 2 +3). 222. 199. 50. 48 h. (x + 2)(x . 10. 1. 4. .y)(z . 185. 208. 18. 244. y3. 215. 186.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 153. 220. (y 7f))(y 196. 1. 216. p.3 y)(a . 162. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 1. 2(x8)(x3). y  y 165. 36ft. 201. 75. 236. a(a. (xyX^+y" )1 243./_4). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). C3 y _l)(. y.y) (\r3y). 193. 239.y + 3)(r (.m)(x + a). HI. 12) (j. 2 2 (a. 180. x(x + 6) 213. m. (y7)(y + 188. 219. 12 yr. 205. 184.. y 245. aft. yr. + 3) (x f f>) .y)(jc + 7 y). 5. 159.l)(y + 1). (233). 202.2).3 y).r + 4). 2. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 183. 140. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 2 (4 x . 167. G7. 175. (r^x + 1). 12 6 panes. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). + y. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 144. . 160.ANSWEKti 135.
7^T 2 . \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .^^^^^^^^. 264. 305. 250. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 7. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .4). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ? 1) 302. ?^ZLiZ 308. 3. 3). 260. 43 '^rJ'. &). 303. *>). ^ 299..AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 266. 307. 3  262. a~ ' b*). 306. 0.(x  4) (x4 304. 251. 279. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 295. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 249. 268. 0. 269. 301. o(x4l). x12. 298. 310. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. > 4. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 259. x 283. 3). 10.^ ^^. x 267. 2.   . *. 254. 2 4 300. 256. + f.2* i^^ !^.  3xyf x// 257.4) 1) (3 x . x ?/ z 1. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.  7. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 261. o.1. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 263. 7 x 265. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 2 x  3. 4 5. a. 258. 5. (7 255. ^/>J. x .
)Cr4)__ . 0. 326. + 4 & 4 \ b. 377. y 4 I 340. . 382. a 2 . 398. a) A^_. 365. 343 00 351. ?=. 405. 325. m. 11. 9^. 7/i ^ _ . * 357. 7. 2 ). 2 ?/ 363. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. _*L'L+. 336. l .1. 408. 375.  1 356. 383. L . 4. ?>*. 1. 404. 12. T+^. 3.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 2. 2(q. 2(a i 403. f. 2 r36 384.XXXI Page 272.. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 379. 0. 406. 389. ^_:r f> 331. 397. 394. 6a. A^L5L. 333. 388. 0. 387. ab. 386. . 399. ?/ + 3 332. ^"" 4 s . 376. 334. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 339. a +6. 2 ab  a Page 276. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 2 327. 4 A. . T\. <L 409. 390. 393. 3.3.". Page 277.7. 4 rw. 0. l'j. 370. 392. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 2. .J . S. .  1.!. + 335. 1 i 2 ^. 1.. 407. 1. 6 ?/+:>. 385. 355. If. + x 362.vin a /r " 337.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 401. 360.(5 a . ^ 3 // . x 54 359. 1. Page 274. c 402. 396. 366. 361. 4. a + b + 6). (a + b + c\ . 324. " 4 378. 380. 20. 395. 3. 364. 1. j 328. 329. . 400. 13 391.
454. !L=4.0. 10. . 90. 3 .3. 8. 3. ^V. (&) true. 446. 20.7.5. 484. 2. 2. . 5. 1. 6. 32. 4. ..  2. 432.55. 6. . 477. . 410. .. 33. 481. 6. 1 a /?$+&?. 6. 2. 2 438. 467. '.  505. 7 : . 10.. 0. Page 282.  2. i. 472. 436. 7. A 5 mi . 422. 439. 425. 492. 6. B $ 2500. 10. . 486.vz in. . 5. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. ISjmi. 3. 9. 20 yr. 490. 428. 2$. 440. 4. 6. 0. 28 yr. 412. 494. 441. 421. 461. 496. L (c) I. L2 a  6 . 2. .  2f 504. 507. fj. . a + + ft c.m  m+ M in. 455. 459. ^r?i 434. 506. 460. 482. Page 280. 493. A $ 3500. 457. a 22 . 50. 476. 7. 2. not true. . 3a 4 5. 462. ' $260 at 0%. b 449.  2. 7. 430. 499. 63. 1. . (a) 1. 11. 448. 10. i a b 451. 498. 5.te + . 24 days.  1. 5. 2. *+.0.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. (d) true. ^. 0. 42. 483. 500. 0. 463. 452. 1. 478. 1. + () 433. c. 40.  1. 508.rz Page 279. 10$. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. m 1 : wi.. m. .489. 427. 426. 1$. 495. 450.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 503. (d  6) f. 435. 0. . 5J.7. 0. 18. 17. Page 278. 2. fc. 4. 8. 447. (a  c). ISJini. 0. 445. : />a. 487. 442. 2.488. \ 1. 1. * .4.  f>. 411. 458. 502. 2 a 2.  7. 22.}. 2. 501. 466. a* 424. 429. \. . 17. 6. 418. <L+ 6 (.2.7. 5.4.12. 53 yr. Page 281. 7. 10. (c) not true. 4. 444. 8. 479. 2. $2000 at 0%. 485.  . 456. c 6fc 10.7.  10. 5.. 3. 51. 468. 423.  7.  453. I. 7. 12. 21. 464.}. 84.1. 480. 497. 10. . 419..46.2. />c c(f be. ft 5. . 40 oz. 10. .7. (&) 443. 413. B 4 mi. . 465. z8 +?/ 3 431. 8. 32 yr. 420. & 491. 14 miles. Page283.3.
1 .  (a) (d) 1. 1. _ 4. .24 sec.  .55. per hr. > ^ . 525.  557. 530.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 4. (e) (c) 2. Page 285. 3. y 4.4. . . 27 y* f\4 . Page 287.88.  1.73.3. 1. + 6 tf f 3 . . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 509.5. 1. 578.52. 2 10.05. . 2.8. 3. 518. 1. 552. 3.6 2. da.xj/ f xV .6. a f ft + c.3. lead. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 232.37.1. 562. 1 .78. 2.   (h) 8.21. 577. . 1.33. .00.38. 571. 565.  3. S82 c. a+ Page 286. (i) 3.4. H.0. 2. 1. 550. 1J. 3. 0.53. 515. ft 584. 6.6.3.. 5. 7^ da.25m.8 x3^. 591. 583. 4 mi. imag. 1 580.54.  (a) 2. 569. . tin. Page 288. 566. 3 .10.1. J7] min. 510. _^ 2754x .3.31. 536. .6. 2. a + ft  a  f c.  2ft da. 2 imag. . 576. (6) 3. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 567.14. . 21*_. 593. . a*8a + 24tf 82a. 514.56 sec. 512. 527. 2 . xxxin 511. . 2. .7. 603.16. (6) .10. 14. 1. 2$.  + + c. 1.0. 2.5. . 2 .3.. (gr) 10 1.62. . .0._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.  ft*. 1. Roots imaginary. 3. 3. 2. 2(4 602.03. 1. 1. g(rc+ 6c).5.  4. 2 1. 24 da.12. 599. 560. + 12 x . 1 600.51.25. 115 Ib.. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .8. per hour. 5.r8 596.4. 1. T .02. <z ft 1.4.  imag.5.2. 1.54. . 3. or 8. 1. (ft) 4.4 x + . 2 1. 3. 573. . 8. 555. 2 2. 574. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.75. (c) 4.6. (d) 537.8. 5. . lead.37. f36a28x8 592. .62. 40 Ib. 1. 3.3.02.5.5 f. 1.02. 598.4. 7. 4.% rr\* 585.78.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. . 1. 4 0. 3. 4. y% Z * 586.  J(a f + 2c). 529.1.31.20. tin. 533. 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .24. 553.1. 4. If 572. _ 3. ^ ft 4. 3 da. 4* da. 2. o> . 575.35. 1. 528.. 556. (ft) Ill Ib. f.15.3. 4. 516. 561.15.  2. 3. . + 26 + . 532.5+. (c) 3. 559.83.30. 3f 4f. 1$. 551. . 3. 581.4. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 2.f 1. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  7. 6.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 8 mi. x8 .9. 579. 531.04.8. 554. f.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4.04.1.3.7. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 4.03. . 564. 5. 3. (a) 74 Ib. M ft c 2 ft 3465.7.83. 513.24. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.02. 4.. 24. 582. 563. 3. (e) 570.75. 1. 4.15. 1.1. 31. 6435. 558. 1. 568.0. . 526. . 2(6 597. (/)  10 to 8.ANSWERS Page 284. . 0000.
631. 4 V 0. 2. 657. 4. 0. l/'3. . ^. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. . 4330 da. .303. 669. 1 ~a . a 2. If 658. 5. . y  619. . ab. 629. 647. 009. 4. ' 674. 2 a: 4. 634. 13. 621. 6. 1. 2. 626.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2 ab + a  &. 1. 5 3. 624. . 678< 682. 627. fta a/> ^A. \+ab 699. ' fe 2 ). ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 3 a. 9*. b . 6 685. / V^+lO^M"^. a ' 2 + . 616. 5. 620. 11. a 1J. 25. 1 V5 1. 643. n^l +^. 14. 1 704. be ac \. 2 a 688. V2. 698. 4. 2 / 2 4. 617. . 3. . 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 637. + 2 A (i f Page 291.  1. fe + a. 1$ 639. 0. 2&). ix 2 . 656.  2f r 659. b 664. 691. 644. . 0. 615.a~ {Z 663. 4$. J^^.2f Page 290. 645. 614. 78. 701.04. 2. 50. 7. 25. 4. 633. 700. 625.049. If 665. . 5. 2f. 2.43^4. 666. 679. 652.f 3 V^3). 653.b 686. 10. V2. 630. ab 689. 8 f 3. . 8 6 fo .3. 677 680. 0. 622.002.  . 612. 2 x 44 ^/.  684. . 696. 0. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 650. If. ^ 1. Page 289. 670.14 If 1. 703. 703. 2092. 613. 632. 1 2. . 649. <T! . 635.0. 692.2f (5 4. 642. 3 681.25. a. 6. 971.3.  6. /> 4. a + b.XX XIV 606. 7003. 648. 623. If f 667. 9. 210. 8. 655. 11. 662. 706. if 4/> 671. 3.3. 2. 654. 651.b. 2. 661.001. 672. ^^ 695.3. 7. 3 x2 .203. 2f. ft). a 673. 1m*. If . + ~^'2 + a 1.  4. 618.. \. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 0. 1. 1. 2. ^. 2. 2 a  6*. (*_ + a: 611. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. (a3&45rj. 12. K 5 2 V2. 702.. If b. c. 5002. 607. 2. i.702. 898.001. 5. 641. z  1. 705.y. a 4. 628. V"^TJ. 1010.  a2  a (ab).c ) 697. b. 3. o.  13. 683. 708. 4 676.>A 610. I}'/.  3. 660. 608.3f l 668. V7. 638. V^~3).  ft. la6 2. 690. 646. . 640. 636.  4.
/ 787. 59. 749. + < 735. 1^ _ 760.9. 5. 2 V2 . 710. ^ ?>. 1. cr*lr*. v/7 / . a". 2x3^ a. 1 752.rJ w L 754.11. . 711. 796. 1 I . 3. 709. iv/Jj. 342V3.10. Page 294. 1. 739. 715.12 af V^ 4 744.ANSWMHti Page 292. 3 VlT 795. 732. VIO\/3. + 6 2 tf'c. 5.. ^ .4 . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. . 2\/53V2. x\y. 724. 727. 789. 746. 733. 750. 737.. 721. J(v'lO2V 791. 24 4 . 717. 3V72VO.^. > 748. a 2 6^. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .257.V/^ 741. 722. 773. a db Va^T < 45da. 29\/3. 3 720. v'll. Page 293. x i f^' . 13ft. 34. 790 2v 3v 2. 24. 24V2. 713. 794. ^7xy.9. 32>/2. fyaw&cu. .^ 743. 788. 1 [ + '> J.r+y> 759.V2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 753. a:* . 728. 3V72V3. i^. 768. VV> L4V34. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.2. 25. a 5 . 734.~ . 756. 778. 719. 714. 3^. 1. 730. 3V7. 712. 8. 792. 725.. 736. 7  3V5. 777. 30\/10 764. 740. 763. 767.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. mn. rt3 2 ^i^. r. 718.4 . j 742. 1 747. 731. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 3V52V3. 776. 15 shares. 726. 793.r. VT14V5. 33^2. 47.1 . 755. 723. T%. "V313. Hi a. 716. 782 785. a 2  x2 . 738. 39. .2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 729.. 758. . 8. 17ft. 769. 4 104 v/2.8. i 2. 300. y  1. 751. 00.
4.l)(x . **. 822. (a 1) (x 4. a(ry + 864. 879. are extraneous. m 875. .  1. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.7). 1. (2 4. 2. o. 19. 858. 8 09. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . + d)*. (1 . ((' 1). 17. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). Hoots . 3. 833. (  ?>) (a + ^> .5) (x + * 853. ( 869. 813. 2. 6. 868. V 3. 820. 841. 5. 1. Va. 6 $.2) (x 4 2). (x3).1) (a 8 . . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 884. 48. 13. 851.rae) (4 . 886. 17. 817. 4. 20).25 ?>2).r . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 893. . 11.XXXVI 797. 847. 899. (2x (r. 826. (. 0.7. 2 (x 4*4.1) . 1C.2 ax 4. 2 j 889. b' 2 821. +j!>. 888. 810. 2  2.. 4. 6+V7. a* 4. 2. 834. 887. 880. 3. 2 2 . 0. 2.  + l(l^). 4. 848. 823. 11. 3 . ^. 0.1).1)(0 865. 4 . . 883. n =  29. \/2. 2 . (a m . . 3. 25.a 2 2 ).a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 10. J V.10 ab 4. (x 2 . $. . 4. 2 m . (x . Page 297. 3.5 b) 4 1). 829.3.7 4 1) 846.3. 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .7). (3 862. m = 2. jV3 f 3. 4. 5). 882. 832.a 3 " 4. 3. (a 4 871. . 3.  ' . 5.4. ^ V}. 14. f. 2. 867. Va 803. 819. .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 8.r4). 2/ 856. .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). a(ft)( 873. 838. 6.4. 2. 4. 872. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 824. 891. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 835. 896. 2 *x 807. 3.0. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 842. 808. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . Page 296. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 4 818. x .  tt 815. 876. \/5. 2 .+ m f ") (a* ). 2 806.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 1 1. 827. . X4 1). o 828.1. (x 845. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). (x . (2 a . 5. Hoots are extraneous. 844. 2 .  839. 890. (x*y*ryz + z*). 843. 4.f./>") (a'. ) (a' 874. 1. 2... 804. 837. 2 854. 900. 898. ( 4 4. .l)(x + 2). 8. 7. 892.y) 852. 3. 2. 895.3)(x + 4).4) 860. 7. 881.7)(4 x. ANSWERS 798. 836. 816. 840. (3 b . 799. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 7.1)(V 2 . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .a 4 + 1). (xl)(^~3)(. db 7. a 42)(x .l)(x . 4. 1. (2 x + 3 y} . 859. 825. 4 885. (4 c 4. (x 2 f r . 894. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 1. 2. 830. 3. 7. 863. (x + 0X024. 897.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 800. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 812. 3. 831. ^VG. 814. 1 . 857. 23. 849. (:r 11.om 441) (a 855. $. 5. x. .2w . a2 ^E*!. (x 4. H. 6. . 861. 801. 4. 5. 811. 0. 2.
. 6. i1" 913. 4 in. 987. 4. 937. 944. Va926. . . 941. 916. 11.. 920. 3. 912. 5l4f. ft. . 7. 15 16 ft.651.I. 925. 5. 6 da. 6. 918. 962. 4.V~~3). 6 1 1. 1. . 248. 939. 923. f. . 3. 978.446. 18. 80. 4 6 mi. %* .  1. 8. 6.. Page 301. 917. 60 949.1. 942. 1 2. 73...111. 14 . yd. 2. 8128. 956. 979. 3. $(l 4. . 935. =F J. 8. 8 . '3 3 in. 902. 333. 2. 7. 1. 959. 908. Page 303. 1. 2. 0. 5. 11. S07. 280. J(_ ft. 3 . 985. 2.01. 2. 3.. 952. 1 + V953./hr.. V5 T 2 . 56. 12. 938. 4. 333. 980.. 2. V5 fj. 945.. .. 1 . 4. 8. 0.. 3). 1 XXXVll ' a 1. V^3). 15 946. 954. v/(ai !)(&910.744. .. 919. 0. i 3. 7. 2. 4. Z ^. ft. Page 302. 2 1. . 1 1. 955.. 930.2.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901.2. 8. 2. 905. 3. 957. 911. . . 2. 8. i 8. T3. 3.  1 . 100 rows. T 6. 20 19 ft. 2 w 914. 329. 5 . . 111. 2 yd. 3 4 . 28. 1). 66 924. 12. 4. 958. 5. 936. ft. dL 4. 2 i ' a V. ft. 933. 4. . 6. 940. w. 12 in. . 982.1. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 7. 960. 4. 4. 10. 934. 981.073. 5. 7 ft. 115.. 8. Y. 983. 28. ft. 4. r ft ' < Page 299. 964. 480 8 sq. 951. a. ft. 11. 922. i>. 12 mi. . 961.760 sq. 6 . 8. 906. ft. 11. 943. 932. 6. 3. . 4 . 948. 921. ?/i 6. 6. Page 300. 108. a + . 947. 977. 2 ft. J. 6.1 = 9. 0. 909. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 986. 1 _2 .' ifcVira^ 2 3. f ft 4 . 12. 984.. ft. 903. . 963. 927. 6 a 915. . 28. J. ^y. 7 or 30. 5. 950. 496.  26j. tt2 19.615. 904. w 3. i(6 in. 2. T 6. 8. 10. 931.0. . 40 16 in.709. 9 in.
378 1015.378 <W and 92. 12. 48. 9 da. 1(5. 1 1004. ^Trsq. (5. ~ \. 997. 995. 4. 8. 1007. r = 2.. 1010.'^^ } ( . 1000. . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . + v 2). 1016. 1012.  5&7 1021. () 12(2+V3). 0. 1003.18. 990.870 a 6 1011. 1009. ^f (2f3V2). 1019. 192. 12. 4 and 1020. 993. 6 70 . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1017. 994. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . . X. 2(2 v/2). 988. 108. (6) 8(1 . . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .870 z8 .128 I. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. in. 1005. 162.192rt?)r 120 *. 1006. 24. 120 i^l^. Page 305. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1 8 8 2.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 72. 1014. 1001. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . (J. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1013. 120 a.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 996.92. 992.51. (Z>) 999. 0. + 448 . 1018.. 2 . 3003. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). Page 304. 1008. 991.
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Ph. A examples are taken from geometry. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. given. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. etc. HEW TOSS . 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The more important subjects tions. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. than by the . Half leather. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. save Inequalities. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xiv+563 pages. physics. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. xi 4 373 pages. great many work.D. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and commercial life. so that the Logarithms.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. i2mo.
$1. 12010. great many A examples are taken from geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. In Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. physics. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.D. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. HEW YOKE .25 i2mo. Logarithms. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Ph. xiv+56a pages. xi f 373 pages. etc. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. comparatively few methods are given. save Inequalities. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. HatF leather. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. so that the tions.
$1. wor. NEW YORK . State: . i2mo.D. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 10.. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. iamo. . more than 1200 in number in 2. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value.10 L. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Ph.r and. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 4. under the heading Remarks". The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Cloth. lines. izmo. Half leather. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 6. aoo pages. $1. Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. SCHULTZE. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 9. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 7 he . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Attention is invited to the following important features I. xii + 233 pages. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. SEVENOAK.
Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . $1. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 370 pages. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. 12mo. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. of these theoretical views. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York City. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . . and not from the information that it imparts. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.
Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. $1. diagrams. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . " This volume etc.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and a full index are provided. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Topics. Cloth. An exhaustive system of marginal references. i2mo. photographs. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.
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