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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH.
1916. January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co. J.S. Reprinted 1913.' February. May. Norwood. . . September. September. August. Mass. 1911. IQJS January. May. 1917.A. . U. Published Set up and electrotyped. July.COPYRIGHT. 1910. 8. 1910 . 1915. 1910..
manufactured for this purpose. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. owing has certain distinctive features. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. are omitted." this book. specially 2. Elementary Algebra.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. and conse . Such a large number of methods. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. however. chief : among These which are the following 1. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study.
TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". two negative numbers. however. especially problems and factoring. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Moreover. are placed early in the course. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. For the more ambitious student. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. hence either book 4. may be used to supplement the other.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. etc.g. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . In regard to some other features of the book. e. Topics of practical importance. as quadratic equations and graphs. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .
nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. is based principally upon the alge .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. physics. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. based upon statistical abstracts. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed." Applications taken from geometry. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. Moreover. and commercial are numerous. in " geometry . elementary way. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. viz. such examples.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE. William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. NEW YORK. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. edge of physics. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.
SUBTRACTION..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. Powers.CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...
... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type V. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . * . Type VI. .114 ...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. . ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type III.. Type II.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. /^ ... Type IV. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type Polynomials. ..
Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .... .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Monomials 170 ......
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
d 7. A binomial is 62 . 0. v'Ta. 7 = 2. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 27. V3 .g. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. aVc^. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 6. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. b = 3. V^a6. V36". 14. 9. c f d). Val \fi?. find the numerical value of: Vff. + c). 26. 16. 15. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. or 9 Vx. 4V3~6c. 8. e. 2. x 9. are trinomials. [6c] 3 . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. A polynomial is an y. some number is . 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. as in arithmetic." EXERCISE If a 1. + 1]. 4(a 6(6 + &). 17. V2a. 12. 6. !^f\/03 3 ft. 2 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. a polynomial of two terms. 11. 13. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. is 28. 5Vl6c. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. since the parts are a . c = 1. 3. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 10. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. (cfd) 4. \/c.
2 + I126. . + 26+3 c. c = 2.4 6^9 ad. i. a=4.5 ax 50 a6cd. a 2 6. 52 . b = 3. 12. __ E.. l 13. 3. 3 4 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. EXERCISE 8*  .30 = 270 . a2 11. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 10. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . . 4. 14. Ex.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . multiplication. 6.9 aWc + f a b . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 2 ). and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 3 2 If 1. 4 . 8.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. c=l. x=^. 5. 5c +d 2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . Otherwise operations of addition. . 4a6fVaV2^. (a (a f b) 7. d=Q. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2.9. 6. d = 0.e.INTRODUCTION 29. . * For additional examples see page 268. 1. subtraction.99. 5=3.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . find the numerical value of: 9. 16.810 + 150 = .g. 5.390. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .19 = 6. Ex.
6=2. 33. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 27. a a=3. Six 2 . 26 of the exercise. a = 4. 6 = 2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 28. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 6. 35. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 4. and other sciences. 38.c) (a . : 6. 6 = 5. sible to state Ex. 34. 6 = 7. a =3. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). if : a = 2. 6 = 5. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 22. 30. 26. 6 = 3. 29. 6.6 .6 f c) (6 a + c). 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 6. 6. a =4. 6 = 4. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 25. 30. = 3. 23. 24. a = 3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. geometry. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 2. . a = 3. Read the expressions of Exs. a. 6 = 1. 37. physics.
count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. and 5 feet. (c) 4. Find the height of the tree. and 13 inches. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 2. if v : a. b. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 4.16 1 = 84. then a 13. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.e.16 centimeters per second. 12. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 15 therefore feet. and 15 feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. b 14. if v . An electric car in 40 seconds. c. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. d. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. 13.INTRODUCTION E.g. (b) 5. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.) Assuming g . 84 square EXERCISE 1. i. . if v = 30 miles per hour. A train in 4 hours.seconds. 14.
Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. ~ 7n cubic feet. If the (b) 1 inch.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (c) 5 miles.14 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.14 square meters. the area etc. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 5. meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14d (square units). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 5 F. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. square units (square inches. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. . : 8000 miles. 32 F. $ = 3. (c) 8000 miles. 2 inches. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (The number 3.). This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 10 feet. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. is H 2 units of length (inches.).
In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. In algebra. or positive and negative numbers. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. however. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. . but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. SUBTRACTION.
4 is 3 J. (_ In Exs. 5.3. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. c = = 5. 19. (17) 15 + (14). is 2. if : a a = 2. 10. the one third their sum. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 5. c = 4. 2326. + 12. of 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. . 24. 18. 33. d = 5. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 6 6 = 3. 21.16 32. d = 0. 4. + (9). 22. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 23. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. lf(2). Thus. of: 20. '. = 5. is 0. subtract their absolute values and .  0.
1. 09. 4. }/ Add 2 a.13. 42. 11 (Centigrade). = 22. 43. SUBTRACTION. 72.. & = 15. and 4. and 3 yards. 7 a. 3.ADDITION. 2. ' 1? a 26.7. 39. 12. $1000 loss. : 48. 4 F. 36. . = 13. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.3. 2. 6. 3 and 25. 6. 60. & 28. and 3 F. ' Find the average of the following 34. . : and 1.. 55. 66. 30. . and 8 F. $500 loss. 5 and 12. c = 0. 10. 13. 7 yards. : 34. 0. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. which are not similar. 33. $3000 gain. 10. 29. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. . Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. or and . 35. 38. 7 a. \\ Add 2 a. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 32. sets of numbers: 13. AND PARENTHESES d = l. c=14. 27. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.7. . ^ ' 37. 40. 10.4. 34.5. = 23. $7000 gain. 25. 31. d= 3. and 3 a. 41.. are similar terms. and 3 a. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. . 32. 74. 6. affected by the same exponents. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. . 37. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. and $4500 gain.5.
7 rap2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12(af b) 12. 2(af &). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. or a 6. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. EXERCISE Add: 1. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 11. + 6 af .13 rap 25 rap 2. b a f ( 6). in algebra it may be considered b. 9(af6). 14 . 12 2 wp2 . 5 a2 . f 4 a2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. The sum x 2 and f x2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 2 a&. 5Vm + w. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. Algebraic sum. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. : 2 a2. .18 35. 12Vmfn. Vm f. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9.ii. 13. 10. 3a . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.sign. 5l 3(af6). 2 .
4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2/ : Add. is . 2 2 2 31. 36. and to add each column. +m """ 20. + / + 3 Va. 32. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. without finding the value of each term 34. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. SUBTRACTION. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 2 7 1 26. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. n x* 2 22. 35.ADDITION. 6 23. a a8 ZL **. + y. c 2 ^24. ra 19. 30. 17. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 21. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. l^S 25. 37. 33. 1 27.
2 Thus. c = 1. e.g. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . V3.g. 2 Sum. to add 26 ab . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.41 = 3.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.15 6c. 7 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 4 = 7.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. f 110WS: 26 aft.c= 2. 6=2. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.15 abc . . 3 a f 4 1) 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. and J 2 s.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. a 4. 2 025. 9 q 4.3 s.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . . ft any convenient and c. and 2 .20 c 5 ab 4. 3a 2? . of that letter. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 5 . the erroneous answer equal 7. 3. 2c. therefore the answer is correct.7 2 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. = .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.8 abc . 2 . 5. x of x. 46 4z 7 c. to show any error.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .o c and 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.12 a& 4. 4 2. NOTE. s. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. .
19.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.a. SUBTRACTION. e a4 /. a 4 a . 2 3(c f a). m 4 6.9(a + &) .15 5. 3 2 2 3 9 . .1.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 18/+6y + d. 16.3 mn 2 2 n8 .a. . a2 a. + 50 + 62 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .(b + c) 1. 2 a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. d. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 4 ajy 17. 2 2 and . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. and 8 3 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . .12 6 ~5 a . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . and and 13. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. ^2 1 e. 7ar + 3B 5. 4.a . .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 4 Vc.4 Va . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). and 1 4 a . in 8 3 m n 4.8 m 2m 12. and v 15.12.VS 4 2 Vc. a. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 ?ft ?/z. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.12(a 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .7v/if.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . v/20. a2 2 14.ADDITION.5a^6 f 6) . a + 1> 8 2 2 . a 4 a . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. + a + 1. . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .6.4:xy xz 6yz. a) y ^/.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. . ?/ . 11. 2 2 . xy3xz + yz. . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 8. d and / 3 ? 12. 2 ?/.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. and 12a 4 15& 20c . and 5 Vb 18.7m . and . 56 w.Ga 43x45. 4(a . 4 3 . . 16e + 17/90.2n 2 2 3 rz . 4 8 3 4 4 .and 6.10 Vc.a 4 a 4 1. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. .1 a 4 1 0.
. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 12 xyz. +d a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. f number may be added 3. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . The sum and ? 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . T8a.9aj 2.ra + m. 1. and e + 6y .22 21. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1.3^* 2n 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.11 xy + 12. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1. . f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 1. 13 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. and 2 24. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . many negative units re main ? from 2. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 8 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 25. a 6 2 c. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . . is 2. 6 f c 2 23. 22. how 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. c 3 3 3 2 3 . + n*. f 1. .m 4m ?/?/ d. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. s .4 2tn* Sic 2 . + 1. 45a6 2 . 1/ . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.
3. 2. 1. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 7. from What 3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Therefore any example in subtraction different . SUBTRACTION. the given number the subtrahend. From 5 subtract + 3. From 5 subtract to . Ex. . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. and their algebraic sum is required. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . ab = x. 41. NOTE. In subtraction. +b 3. 6 (3) = 8. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.2.g. To subtract. and the required number the difference. 3. if x Ex. Or in symbols. called the minvend. This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the other number is required. Ex. 5 is 2. In addition. two numbers are given. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. a. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.ADDITION. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ( 6) ( = .
Check. If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* .f 8 .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 41. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . + a the 2 a. 2y 2 . 47. 53. 50.w>t.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . tract 4 x 3.c.6)f.2. 46. . and 3 7/ . c f d.ADDITION.4 a*& + 6 a & . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 52. 57. 42. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 49.4 a^ 4. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.7 a .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 2 a take a & j. 2.a 2 j. check the answer. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 48. 45. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 44. 56. SUBTRACTION. 58. of a 4. 55. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 6 4 a. From 6(af. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 51. 54. 43.
+a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. of # 2 8. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. + 2. 20. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .15. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a + 6. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 6 17. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. subtract # + 1. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 6. A is n years old. + 6 + c. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a 2y + z. 16. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 9. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 2 m 21. 19.26 4. a a + c.
6 b f (. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. & f c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.g. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. SUBTRACTION. one occurring within the other. . II. 45. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. I. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. changed. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. the sign is understood.b c = a a & f f. 46. a+(bc) = a +b .ADDITION.c.a^6)]  } . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.c. Ex.2 b .a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.
28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. may be inserted according to 43. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. ? 11. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.7i h jp) (m ?*. a (a + 26 c ). : x + (2yz). 2 2 2 a(.) 5 . 15. 17. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). By removing parentheses. m f ft) a. 6.y (60. 16.)]. 9. 8. Signs of aggregation 1. Ex. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 3. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2a (4a 26 +c ).(a + 6). a (a + 6). . 6) 2. 21.: Ex. 5. 3 3 f 7.1422) J ] . 18. 271 + (814 . a f (a a . find the numerical value of { 1422 . 13. 2 2a. [36+ (a 2c].[271 47. 4. 19. 2. (m a2 f. + (2a 6 + c ). In the following expression inclose the second and third. 14.+ 6)f (a2 b).
7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 4.7fa. 3. and the subtrahend the second. p + q + rs.2 tf . The product The product m and n. )X 6. 8. 3. terms 5. 9. 2mn + 2q3t. m x 2 4. 12. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. SUBTRACTION. of the cubes of m and n. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. z + d. 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 6. 7. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.4 y* . The sum^)f m and n. 5. .1. 10. 5^2 _ r . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The difference of a and 6. 6 diminished . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. II. The square of the difference of a and b. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 5 a2 2.ADDITION. ' NOTE. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. first. 13. m and n. a\l> > c + d. y f 8 . difference of the cubes of n and m.
) . b. 16. d.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 18.
4. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. A A A 1. force is produced therefore. 3. therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 5. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. 2. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weights. If the two loads what What. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6.
This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. thus. becomes meaningless if definition. or plied by 3. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(4) = + 12. ( (. 4x(3)=12. 4 multi44444 12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 9 9. Practical examples^ it however. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 48. 9 x ( 11). 5x(4). To take a number 7 times. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. x 11.9) x 11. (5)X4. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.32 8. however. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. the multiplier is a negative number. NOTE. such as given in the preceding exercise.4)(. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multiplied by 3. (. . make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. Thus.
4. 32. 1. 5x3. (. _2^ 3. 11.7. _3. . (7) X (12). find the numeri values of: 21. 4 a2 . 16.3) (1) 7 2 . (10) 4 . 3 a2?/2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. of Signs: TJie positive. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers.(a&c) 2 2 . .2. 7. (4)X(15). . about fac (2)X If 6. c = 25. 20. NOTE.2f 18. _2. 6. 9. 1. 5. 15. 17. 6 2. (2) 8 (. 24. (4)'. 19. 6. b = 3. 23. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . . 30. +5.2 f+x 2 . 8 4 . Ua b 28. 14. 12. 3.3. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. the parenthesis frequently omitted. (c#) . X(5). Law Thus. 2. is 6x7. and y = 4. 10. 8. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 4 . 29.MULTIPLICATION 50. 13. etc. x. x= 0. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 2a6 c . 3. z s 11 aWcx. If a cal = 4a6c. 27.a)( =+ a&. 2a 2 6c. 8 31. . 22. (2)x9. 26.(4J). 4. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 3 aW. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.
6" 127 U . =2 a *. 1. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 2. 16.2 2 23 + 5 . 36.m a 3  4 . 11. B. Ex. 2 2 2 . .. . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 9 .. m*.7. This 52. 53.2). a 2 2 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2 3 . i. a8 a=2.  2 2. 5.35). 6. 200.(2. 7. & = 3. 2 2 3 6 . By 3 definition. . 6 aWc x . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . : 3a7abc. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 5 . a= 1. 17. 13. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 100. 127  127 9 7 . or 2 . 3. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.e.503). 5 3 5 3 2 . 78 .257). 2.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 34. = 2. 5 = 2.<?.3). &*) c d*. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .(7). 12 U U . fl*" integers.(12) .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . a = 3. of the factors. 14. 6 = 1. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 2(7. 3 2 . 6 = . 10. 4. 50(112. 4. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 3. (a6) (a5) 9.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.6 if 35. 5(711. IB. 2(14. 4. 3 3 4 . + 2/).  and 2 25 8 . Ex. a = 2.
. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.A). but we shall assume it for any number. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.4a#.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 2 32. 2(5fl5f25). multiply each by the monomial. 2(645410). . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. called the distributive law. 28. Thus we have in general a(b 56.7 w'W (8 n^W). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 24.6.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 21. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 3.2 3 aft ). /). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. . . 7. This principle. 2. 29. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 22. 27. and then adding : 1. 5. 20. 23(10004100420). c(4a ftc ). ) 2 33. by first multiplying. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 3(124342). 34. 4. 11(3. 23. 12( + 1 4 i). 35.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . _4aft. (.f 2). 31. 17(10041042). 25.3 win ) . ax /) 2 4 1 (. 6(10420430).7pqt. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 35 4 7(6. 19.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . . 7p*q r*. 6. (. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. If results ft. 26. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).
asa product. 5). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. f7a.2 mn(9 mV . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.5 w*V f 7 wn). 9.5 x 7). 7 a 6 c(. 17. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 3 ). 26.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. be multiplied to give 4o. 20. 12. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . ~2mn(m +n p ). 30.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.3 aftc). Find the factors of 6 ary . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 27. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 21.^ c + 2 . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . 29.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.60 a& 10 aft. .6 a6). 2 m(mhn \p). : expression must 24. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). By what 25. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 23. 2 2 16.we b) (x law. . 11. 19. 28. 22.
3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. To multiply two polynomials. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Since errors. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 59.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Multiply 2 a .3 b by a 5 b.1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 2. . Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Multiply 2 + a a. Check. a2 + a8 + 3 . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 a 2 + a8 . Ex. however. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example.
2) (3 A: 1). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 41. 2. ^ 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.4) (mnp 4. 25. 28. 2 . 3. (4a 2 33. 16. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 9. 7y). 30. * For additional examples see page 261. . 36. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 11.1 . 12. 4 2). 5.2). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 20. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 15. 1). 12)(a?^2l). (6i7n)(llJn). l)(raf 2). 8. 29.2m)(l m). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 24. 3<7). . 10.4) (x + 1). OQ OO. (6p (2 f 21. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 40. 2  37. 32. (6a~7) 2 . I (mfn)(m4.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 36). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 31. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (8r7*)(6r39. (a^26) . 22. (13 A. 36) I) 14. 7. a 5c)(2a6c). (2 x* x 2 . 18. 26. 2 . 6. 4. (2w 19. QQ O7. 13.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 35. 17.
. 18. 22. 19. 14. + 2) (a f 3). (a (a (a. (a 9) (a + 9). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. + 5) (1000 + 4).2 6) (a f 6). 3.e.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. X 102. 12. + 9)(m+9). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (!)(* 5). 24. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 13. 26. . (J 23. (a 102 x 103. + 3) (a 7).13). 10. (*. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 2) (1000 + 3). plus the product of the two unequal terms.!!)( (a + 21). 27. 6. (100 +2) (100 + 3). . 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 2 6) (a 3 6). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 1005x1004. 25. 11. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 21. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 75 ab f 54 ft . (10+ (1000 (2. ft 16. _3)(a _4). i.e. 9. 20. 2 a? 29. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (p12)(p + ll). 28. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. plus the product 62. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 15. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8).4). 1) (10 + 2). 8. (6 12) (6 f.n)(wf w). + 60)(f2). (a3)(a + 2). : 23 2. 25 a 2 . (ra. in of the two unequal terms. i. 17.25)(y+4). 7.
8.e.15. 33. 34. 32. 77ie square of the of the first. a2 2 w + 2 w . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .15. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. n2 10ii+16. <J>7) J .66 s.30. 2 5. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. III. 2 (a (*5) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 4.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. III. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 49 y*. (x+3i/) 2 . i. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. . 37. (a26) 2 . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (a2) (p a . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 9. 31. 7 a + 10. 35. 7. : 24 (a 2. + 6 a + 8. second. + 3) 2 . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. and the second. plus the square of the second. 3. of the second. w 2 ro .e. i. Ex.e. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. . 6. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). p 2 p. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 63. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.
2 J ). 2 . 9 a2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 23. 2 . 16aW25. 48. 33. 54. G> +5g)*. 18. 7& ) 25. 7)(a 2 2 f 7).30 ab + 25 6 64. n 2 f4n+4. .ll^X^+lly (100 30. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 38. . + 3z) 2 2 . 22. a2 9. 29. 991 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 51. + 5). a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . m 2 16. 28. 2 2 . . I) 2 . 4 53. 32. (20 f 1) . + 5)(5+a). (a 3) 2 2 2 . (^. 24. 103 36. 31. 44. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 998x1002. 49. (1000 2 . 47. 25 a 9. 41 16. 2 . 15. 41. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . ( 27. 104 2 37.MULTIPLICATION 10. n*6n+9. 34. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 21. 2 9a 496 2 56. 45. 52. (6afy 2 5) (a. 99x101. By actual multiplication. 42. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 46. 17. 11. 35. ). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 55. 14. 22 2 . . 40. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 12. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 62 25n 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 2 (4a36) 2 13. The product of 57.998 39. (2x3yy.
4. (2a3)(a + 2). plus the last terms. . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. sum of the cross products. 11. 5. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (5a64)(5a&3). (3m + 2)(ml). ) (2 of a polynomial. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 8. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). : 25 2. or The student should note minus signs. 2 10. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (4s + y)(32y). 7. 6. 65.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 14.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). The square 2 (a 4. 3. 9.& + c) = a + tf + c . (5a4)(4al). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). ((5a? (10 12. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 13. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
7. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 2)6. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.3)(z. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. + 65) . Check. 4(aj2)h3(7). 8.1 5 = 10 .(m 2 6. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 6(a 2. Hence. and check the answers !.r _ 2 .3) .4) .8 x + 15] .X2 + 2 x . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.39.39. n). 6~2(a + 7). 8. 7. 5. = 10 x . (a (. Find the square root 11. 5.5). (u4& + 3c'. 4(* + 2)5(3).i2&c) 2 .3) (x .24 . 66. + 6)( . 9. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 3. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (xy+z)*. . of z : 10.y? + 8 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 2 2.[a? . (  2 4) =  20 a. = . 4. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.(= [ Xa + 2 . If x = 1. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 4y sf n) 2 . 12. 4. after multiplying the factors of a term. 6.24] .29.(>. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 3.5) = (7 . 13. Ex.(x .4) . a.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). Division of the difference of two squares. 20.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .e. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 51 15.2) (3 a . . 19.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).l. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. v/17. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.11 a + 9 a . a I. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .DIVISION 14. (81 m + 1 . 18. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 16. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . .2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .
36 a4 ?/ 4 . 15. 4 b. 9& 2 . 16. aW 12 a. : the following w a 4 !. 12.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 14. 100ry. .49. 16 . 1. .000.0001. r/ 1. f 13. 121a a 16 100 11. 10.
An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. =11. is said to satisfy an equation. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. . . second member is x + 4 x 9. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the first member is 2 x + 4. the 80. x 20. in the equation 2 x 0. (a + ft) (a b) and b. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 83.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . Thus. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 82. 81.
an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the remainders are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. a. one member to another by changing x + a=. the quotients are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the divisor equals zero. 90. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the sums are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. 87. 2 = 6#f7. 85. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 86. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 4.54 84. E. A term may be transposed from its sign. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be added to equals. If equals be multiplied by equals. NOTE. 2. . If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be divided by equals.e. . A numerical equation is one in which all .b. Transposition of terms. the products are equal. 3. called axioms 1.g. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 5. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.2. x I. A 2 a. 89. To solve an equation to find its roots. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.
91. b c. if 55 x members. To solve a simple equation. Check. 6a5 = 185 = 13. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Dividing both members by 2. 4x 1 + 6. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. The first member. The first member. . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Dividing by Check. Ex. x = 3. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (4y)(6. Transposing. Uniting. Uniting similar terms.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 3 y . x = 93. if a x = b.9 y + y2 = 22 .2. is correct. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.6 y f y\ . Subtracting 4 x from each term. 2 x = 6. and the known terms to the second.2 y= f . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.8. 2(11 . f If y 20 . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. x = (Axiom 3) 92.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. a= a 6fc. Hence the answer.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Unite similar terms. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. a? Adding 5 to each term. b Adding a to both + a.
2. + 7(3 + 1) =63. Transposing. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. Solve the following equations by transposing. + 16 = 16 + 17. x x 1 . 15. aj * See page 264. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 247y = 68lly. and check the answers 9.7. 11 ?/ a? 18. = 7. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 = 17 3 a? a?. + 22. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 12. = 5a?+18. If x = 18. 3. 7. 50. 17 + 5a. etc. 17 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.56 Ex. 21. 19.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 14.. f Simplifying. 4. . = 2 ?/.7a: = 394a. 7 (6 x 16). 7a? 5. 4y 10. 20.17 + 4y = 36. 3 7 a. . =2 = 3. 8. 16. 3)= 9(3 7 a. a. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). a?. = 3. 13a? 3a?. v23. 4a + 5 = 29. 22. 9 9a? = 7 13. a? a?. Uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 11. a. 6. J.. 32 = 264. x = 18. : 5# = 15+2a. 24. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. \x x 2^xfl. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3.69. it NOTE. Dividing by Cfcecfc.
+ 7) (. 27. 7) (a.3) + 14. 7(7 x y 26.32.3) . 40.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. (aj 37. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). : One part is of 70 is 25 . find the other part.2) (M . a? 28.5) + 199. + 4).5(2 u .12) (2 + 5) . .1 0) = 0. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . 30. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.g. (6 u =5 44. or 70 a?. 6(6a.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.3) + . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 34.(2 + 6) (4 .1) (a (a? + 3) = . 33.5) = (a.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. .1) (u . 2 2 * Jaj.14 = 0. 25. 5) (as (a. e. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . 42. 29. this question.7) (7 x + 4) . 39. 31.7. a? 43. . . (a. . Evidently 45.4) + 4 w . . 35. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 41. is the other part. 36. 38.
x f y yards cost $ 100 . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Ex. 17. 13. greater one is g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. is b. smaller one 16. 1. 5. 3. 11. Divide a into two parts.58 Ex. 14. 15. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Divide 100 into two 12. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. so that one part The difference between is s. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that of c ? is p. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . one part equals is 10. and the smaller one parts. is a? 2 is c?. If 7 2. or 12 7. 4. 6. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 9. EXERCISE 1. is d. 33 2. 7. find the cost of one yard. 10. 6. a. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. one yard will cost 100 dollars.
33. and B is y years old. amount each will then have. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. Find 21. A feet wide. and spent 5 cents. A man had a dollars. A dollars. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 28. and B's age is y years. 19. 28. 20. 24. and B has n dollars. numbers is x. 22. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 26. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and c cents. If B gave A 6 25. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. sum If A's age is x years. b dimes. Find 35. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many years A older than is B? old. How many cents has he ? 27. 34. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. is A A is # years old. 32. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. find the of their ages 6 years hence. find the has ra dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. ?/ 31.
. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. 48.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The first pipe x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find x % % of 1000. Find a. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks 3 miles per hour." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. of 4. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. of m. . If a man walks ? r miles per hour. 49. Find the number. he walk each hour ? 39. % % % of 100 of x. Find a 47.50. A was 20 years old. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. 46. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. find the fraction. The two digits of a number are x and y. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. m is the denominator. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. per Find 5 Find 6 45. c a b =  9. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. a.
by one third of b equals 100. a exceeds b by c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. double of a is 10. of x increased by 10 equals x. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 80. 2. 80. c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a and 10 equals 2 c. 3. 4. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 6. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 5. of a increased much 8. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. The double as 7. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. etc. The excess of a over b is c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1.
A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. (c) If each man gains $500. symbols B. and C's age 4 a. B's. a. express in algebraic 3x : 10. and C have respectively 2 a. 12. x is 100 x% is of 700. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. a second sum. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. amounts.000. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. A gains $20 and B loses $40. they have equal amounts. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. #is5%of450. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. B's age 20. B's. they have equal of A's. express in algebraic symbols : 700. is If A's age is 2 x. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. 6 % of m. and C's ages will be 100. 18. .. 11. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. sum equals $20. of 30 dollars. >. 17. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. In 10 years the sum of A's. pays to C $100. x 4 If A. as 17 is is above a. 14. 16. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. m is x % of n. 50 is x % of 15. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 3 1200 dollars. B.62 10.
4 x = 80. Find A's present age. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. denote the unknown 96. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Transposing. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. A will Check. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Ex. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. the . the required . x = 20. much as 40 exceeds the number. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. number. 2. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Check. NOTE. Uniting. Three times a certain no. 1. . 23 =30. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Dividing. 3z40:r:40z. Let x The (2) = A's present age. x+16 = 3(35). be 30 . etc. 6 years ago he was 10 . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Uniting. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x= 15. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. In 15 years 10. but 30 =3 x years. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. number of yards. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Transposing. Ex. Let x = the number. 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Simplifying. In order to solve them.
Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. . What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 13. exceeds the width of the bridge. EXERCISE 1. How many miles per hour does it run ? . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Let x 3. 300 56. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. % of 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *.2. 5. 3. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. twice the number plus 7.64 Ex. 14. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the number. by as much as 135 ft. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find 8. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 11. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 120. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Forty years hence his present age. A number added number. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 4. Dividing.
then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. How many dol A has A to $40. B will have lars has A now? 17. If A gains A have three times as much 16. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. The other verbal statement. written in algebraic symbols. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Vermont's population increased by 180. five If A gives B $200. Ex. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. Find the population of Maine in 1800. The problem consists of two statements I. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. A and B have equal amounts of money. 97.000.000. and B has $00. times as much as A. Maine's population increased by 510. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. One number exceeds the other one by II. two verbal statements must be given. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. 14. statements are given directly. x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. F 8. During the following 90 years. the second one. 65 A and B $200. B How will loses $100. . numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. is the equation. 1.
= 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. Statement x in = the larger number. Uniting. The two statements I. unknown quantity in Then. 2. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Let x 14 I the smaller number. x x =14 8. / . + a f f 8 = 14. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 25 marbles to B. If A gives are : A If II. has three times as many marbles as B. the greater number. Let x 3x express one many as A. . I. the sum of the two numbers is 14. B will have twice as viz. = 3. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 8 the greater number. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If we select the first one. and Let x = the Then x +. to Use the simpler statement. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. although in general the simpler one should be selected. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. the smaller number.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. terms of the other. 2x a? x j = 6. Dividing. . A will lose. . x = 8. which leads ot Ex. 8 = 11. A has three times as many marbles as B. = B's number of marbles. consider that by the exchange Hence. B will have twice as many as A. A gives B 25 marbles. = A's number of marbles. Then. < Transposing.
Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). then.10. 60. 2. 3 x = 45. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.5 x . 1. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. x = 15. 45 .. (Statement II) Qx . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. B's number of marbles. of dollars to the number of cents. cents. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. etc. * ' .240. . How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols..75. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Find the numbers. 40 x . 15 + 25 = 40. x = the number of half dollars. 11 x = 5. Find the numbers. Eleven coins. The number of coins II.25 = 20. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 3. 50.10. the number of dimes. Uniting. Uniting. by 44.$3. is 70.550 f 310. greater is .10. Dividing. 6 times the smaller. * 98. the price.. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). dollars and dimes is $3. w'3. Simplifying. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 50 x Transposing. the number of half dollars. Two numbers the smaller. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. A's number of marbles. but 40 = 2 x 20. Dividing. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Check. have a value of $3. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42. The value of the half : is 11. x from I. and the Find the numbers. . x = 6.
and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. How many hours does the day last ? . one of which increased by 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more.68 4. and twice the altitude of Mt. On December 21. 7. Find their ages. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the number. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and four times the former equals five times the latter. tnree times the smaller by 65. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 5. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Everest by 11. 11. Twice 14. United States. 9. How many 14 years older than B. as the larger one. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley. A's age is four times B's.000 feet. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Two numbers The number differ by 39. 6.
then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. has. times as much as A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. III. number had. x = 8. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. = 48. and C together have $80. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. original amount. bers is denoted by x. they would have 3. II. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. 19. 8(8 + 19) to C. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. I. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. and B has three as A. and C together have $80. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. B. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. If 4x = 24. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. B has three times as much as A. then three times the money by I. . has. B. Let x II. Ex. and 68. 1. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. The third verbal statement produces the equation. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number of dollars A had. If A and B each gave $5 to C.
number of horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. according to III. each cow $ 35. + 35 x 4. Uniting. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. three statements are : IT. 90 may be written. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. sheep. + 8 90 x and. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 28 2 (9 5). + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. each horse costing $ 90. the third five times the first. number of sheep. 1 1 Check. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 185 a = 925. 9 cows. and Ex. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 2.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. number of cows. x = 5.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 4 x f 8 = 28. cows. and. according to II. The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and each sheep $ 15. The I. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x j = the number of horses. x f 4 = 9. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. Dividing. and the sum of the . x Transposing. 9 5 = 4 . number of cows. III. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. first. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for horses. = the number of dollars spent for cows.
is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. twice as old as B. and children together was 37.  4. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the sum of the first and third is 36. increased by three times the second side. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. first. "Find three is 4. A 12. men. women. the second one is one inch longer than the first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. 9.000. equals 49 inches. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If twice The sum the third side. New York delphia. what is the population of each city ? 8. the copper. what is the length of each? has 3. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. what are the three angles ? 10. v . and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). the third 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and 2 more men than women. 13. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. how many children were present ? x 11. The gold. first. twice the 6. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.
000. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. width. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Dividing. 14. but stops 2 hours on the way. A and B apart. The copper had twice the value of the gold. = 35.000. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 7 Uniting. Let x = number of hours A walks. how many 100. speed. such as length. we obtain 3 a. 8 x = 15. After how many hours will they meet and how E.000 more than that the copper. . or time. First fill in all the numbers given directly. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. 3 and 4. of 3 or 4 different kinds. Find the value of each. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.e. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. of arid the value of the iron was $300. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000.g. number of hours. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. = 5. together. and quantities area. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of miles A x x walks. and distance. Hence Simplifying. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. i. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.
x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. Check. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2 a = 40.01 = = . . $ 1000 x .04 8.04 = $ 40. or 700. the second 100. Transposing and uniting. x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.06 = $ 40. x + 200). 10 x = 200. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. The an area 40 x 20 =800. were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = required sum." gives (2. original field has Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. + 8. the area would be 100 square yards less. x . z = 20.053. $ 800 = 800. and the width decreased by 10 yards. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Find the dimensions of the field. l. 70x10 Ex. 2   and transpose. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. But 700 certain = 800 2. Multiplying. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.M(x .05 x x . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.
After how many hours will B overtake A. A sets out later two hours B . The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and its width decreased by 2 yards. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. What are the two sums 5. twice as large. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. 3. but four men failed to pay their shares.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. invested at 5 %. as a 4. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. 2. the area would remain the same. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 1. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Find the share of each. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1. Six persons bought an automobile. A of each.55. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. mobile. Ten yards $ 42. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. sions of the field. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. together bring $ 78 interest. and a second sum. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. were increased by 3 yards.
After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and from the same point. The distance from If a train starts at . and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.
stage of the work. vV . we shall not. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 104. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it is composite. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. as. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. this letter. a. a2 to 6. 6. An after simplifying. consider 105. it contains no indicated root of this letter .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a. irrational. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . expression is rational with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 5. + 62 is integral with respect to a. if. which multiplied together are considered factors. but fractional with respect 103. if it does contain some indicated root of . 76 . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational.
Ex. 2.g. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 109. It (a. Divide 6 a% .62 can be &). 01. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.3 6a + 1). .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 2. .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. y. 107. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. in the form 4) +3. 1. for this result is a sum. it follows that a 2 .3 sy + 4 y8). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. x. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 2. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 55. x. Factor G ofy 2 . TYPE I. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . ?/.) Ex. 110. or that a = 6) (a = a . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. E. 8) (s1).FACTORING 106.62 + &)(a 2 . 77 Factoring is into its factors.
.3.3. 19. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 14a 4 5. q*q*q 2 a. obviously. 17. (as 3) and (ccf5). 32 a *?/ . 4 8 . 34 a^c 8 . 5f 2 .51 aW + 68 21. . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.4.12 cdx. : 6 abx .6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 16. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 2 6. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 4.8 c a 15 ofyV . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.30 aty. 2 23. e. a a 'Ja . 2. + llm llm. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). in general.g. 2 + q. 3x*6x*. 15 2 7.45 afy . 14. 20.5 + 13 8. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . Ilro8 9.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. TYPE IT.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 18. 12. ) 22  2.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 7a & 10. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3 3 5 6. 3 2 . 3. 7i 13. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 4 tfy f. 13.5 + 2. 8. 15.4.2. 11. a6c. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 2 2 . 2 Or. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.
11 a 2 . Factor x? . . 5. 2 6. determine whether In solving any factoring example. Ex. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. however.6 = 20. of this type. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.4 x . 2.5) (a 6). .11 a + 30. We may consider 1.. 4. Therefore Check. 3. tfa2  3. or 77 l. and (a . + 30 = 20. the two numbers have opposite signs.11) (a + 7).77 = (a. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . If q is negative. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 77 as the product of 1 77. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. a 2 . Ex. 11 7.5) (a .G) = . If q is positive. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Factor + 10 ax . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). can be factored.1 1 a tf a 4. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.30 = (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x . or 7 11. m 5m + 6. as p. is The two numbers whose product and 6. + 112. Factor a2 . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.4 . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.FACTORING Ex.11. .a).
a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 5<y 24. a 7 a 30. 16. ITT. 2 ?/ 28. . or . 9.6. 19. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. + 2xS.500 x + 600. 29. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 100 xr . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 32. a? + 5 + 6 a. 20.48 + + 446 200. TYPE 113. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 31. and 5 x.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .70 x y .17 + 30. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 15. 13. 4 3 2 . 36. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 21. ay 11 ay +24. 2 2 a' 34. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 24. 14.180 a. 33. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 30. + 44. 17. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. ra + 25ra + 100. + 4?/21. 12. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 2 . 25. 11. . 4 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 18. x2 23. 26. + 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. . 27. 2 . 2 ?/ 22.80 7. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 16. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a2 . 2 . 21 a 2 2 . 8. 35.
Factor 3 x 2 . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.83 x f 54. and that they must be negative. X x 18.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 11 x 2x.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. sible 13 x negative. or G 114. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. a.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 54 x 1.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. the signs of the second terms are minus. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. but the opposite sign. viz. 18 x 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 27 x 2. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. Ex. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5 . 3 x and x.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 6 x 9.1). 2. 3. 2 x 27. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.5) (2 x . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and r is negative. If p is poxiliw. . 9 x 6. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. the If p and r are positive.
9.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 21. 10a2 G a2 2 .83 x . 6n + 5?i4.y + 172/9. 2 31.179. 2 26. 2 2 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 17. 3x*Sx + 4. 2m t7w + 3. . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 6. 29. 9a.2) (x . 14 a fa 4. 5m 26m f 5. 20. 2 . 32. 100^200^ + 100^. 2 2 2 23. + 2/3. X 27 . 22. 8.27).77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .260 xy . Sar' + SaG. 10. 16. 25. 7. + 4. 30. 34. 12. 9 y + 32^16. 4a2 9tt + 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 18.19 a f 6. 2 28. 3a + 13a. 2 fc . 11. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 . : 41 2. f go. 10 a . 3. x54 a.7.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 19. 2 ar* 2 i/ . and the monomial factors should be removed. 90 a 8 2 . 4. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 24. 5. 144 x . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.163 x 2 . 13. 12^17^16. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 12y 2/6. 2. 35. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . since all others (II. . 2x* + 9x5. 10a?2 2 33. the expressions should be it.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 14. 15.2 a 90 x*y . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. .30 y 6 4 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.83 x = (3 .
EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. it is more convenient for that type.20 xy f 4 y\ . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 10. of its terms are perfect squares. . 13. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. To factor a trinomial which maining term.e. 9 10a625. square. 116. 12. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 4.10 x f 16. 2 9 10gf25. it is a perfect square. i. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 5. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . however. 14. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. form are special cases of the preceding type. and a perfect square. . must have a positive sign. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 6.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 8. 3. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 11. 2 . 25 7. 9. x* . 2 2 . and factor whenever possible : 1. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .
1. 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 2 20. 6 2 .60 a# + 4. 10 a 2 4 2 . 18. * 2 .e. 2. aV . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2. 3. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. product i. . ). 22. a2 24. 149 a 81 8. 6. 29.64 6 = 16(a .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. . ). prime. 48 a +( ). a. a. 9a2 . +( )f816 30. 17. 4a2 l.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 . ^//c to the Ex.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 25. V. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 7. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.84 15. 16. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 27.6 m* + 9 m. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 5. According to 65. 3. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 26. . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.3 * ). 225 ofy . 2 . 4 2 23. 36 2 4. 16&*. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). TYPE 117.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . Ex.20 ab + 10 b a . ).2 ofy + ofy m . 19. + GO + 25. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 9.
(m7?) y. a:) 12. Ex. a2 . 2. 5. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 13. Ex. 6. 14. 4. Factor a 2 . 11. One or both terms are squares 1. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 8. 2 . 2. of polynomials.c . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 9. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c 4. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 36> .FACTORING 85 118.d) 2 . T. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 16p 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) .
3. a5 + ab 6 . 7. 4:cx . a 26 2 2 3 .ab + bx. 9. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 119.and trinomials. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.7 c + 2c . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. ive find that the new terms con common factor. After grouping tain a the terms. A. + x + 2x + 2. which may be factored according to types I.a a . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.2 ) (3 x . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Ex. 5) .r. 2. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. x8 .y + 2 2).VI. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. a? 11. 10. 6. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. ma ?*a + m& nb. 5. 8.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Ex. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. = (3 x + y .1. By grouping. . 12.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 1. 2. .14.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 4 B.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.
Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 36 9 m . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 8ra 2 + 16. : m 2 2 16. .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. $ a8 . 3. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 4 a2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8. w m 2. 3.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6. IV. + 2xy + y*q*. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6a4 12a2 + 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 2 7.4 f . 2a3/ 7. 8. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . = (a + 6)(a6).FACTORING Ex. 2. . 4. Arranging the terms. 4. 6 6. : 46 x* 2.12 aaj 4 6y.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . II. +c+ 2 2 2/ .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 5. 2.l.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.
(^ 34. 30. a3 156. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . + 14. 25 a + 25 aft . 29.24. 3 25. 3 2 .156. 2 a 128. 5a' 20. 42 x . . 14.310 x .13 c . 42 s 2 . 11. 24. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.40. 27. a + a + a + l. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 3 41. 19.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a6 36.88 10. (a. 3 a2 23. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 22. 4 8 tt 2 z . 5 a. 13. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . or 3 7#2 . 2 17. a. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 40. 13 c . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 4 a. 48. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 28. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 80 a 2 ft 38. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 18. 32. 35. 2 ft . 50^ + 45. + 6 aft + 3 .
of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of 6 sfyz. C. 24 s . The H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 8 . 3. C. of : 48 4. 122. 121.) of two or more . 15 aW. The H. of aW. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 6.  23 3 . 5 2 3 . F. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. The highest is common factor (IT. The student should note H. 25 W. aW. F. C. 54  32 . expressions which have no are prime to one another.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 13 aty 39 afyV. 5 7 34 2s . of two or more monomials whose factors . C. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. of the algebraic expressions. 89 . are prime can be found by inspection. C. II 2 . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 3 . Thus the H. . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. F. F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. F. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 5. 5 s 7 2 5. F. F. 2 2 . C. C. 2. 12 tfifz. C.
5 + 6.y + y42. 12.12 as 66 . 12 . F. . . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . ^a + 5^ + 6. Ex. F.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 2. 11. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. a2 . . ^707 + 12. 6 mx .5 x3?/ 2 6. . 11.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4 ?io. 65 zfyV. 13. 14. 4(m+l) 3 . and apply the method of the preceding article. 3). a3 16 a. 25 m27i. 8(?/ifl) 14. 6(m+l) (m+2). 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 49 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.?/ . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 0^80:416. a. 6 3 a. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. aWd.^9. 12 w*nw 8. C. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. of + 4 if. x* x2 Hence the H. 1. 9. 10.6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x .6 a&. 2 . of: . 225 4a 9 . C. a2 + 7af!2. 24 a 2 . 9 aj*(a? .2 ?/) (x .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 8 6. 1. 52 oryz4. 16 a . 2a f5af 2.y) . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 16. 8 a 10 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). C. a2 + 2a3. 3. 15 3ao.8 a + 16. 57 a>V. y + 3y64. 8. 2 . 13. (a7 ?/) .5 y). a3 9a. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 6 a2 y? .6 . 2 . To find the H.# 4 afy f 4 . F. of polynomials. . F.y) 123. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. ^2 2 . 9. 95 2/V. 8. 12. 3^ 2 4 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 10. 2 . = x 2 y. 38 #y.90 7.2 y) (a. 7. Find the H. . 15. 3 . ^f a. a 3a4. 5. a2 ar* 4.
two lowest common multiples. 2. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C.6 3 ). &) 2 M. C. M of the algebraic expressions. 300 z 2 y. M. M. 1. which also signs. etc. . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.C. but opposite . C. of the general. C. Find the L. Obviously the power of each factor in the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 60 x^y' 2 . To find the L. Hence the L. of tfy and xy*. 127. C. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . L. M. Ex.M. M. . of several expressions which are not completely factored. NOTE. The lowest common multiple (L. Find the L. C. thus. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 2 The The L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. L.M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. Ex. Common 125. ory is the L. The L. 128. C. 126. M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. a^c8 3 . 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of 3 aW. A common remainder. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . each set of expressions has In example ft).(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M.C. C. M.6)2. C.
afy. b 2 . a f 2 19. G a. 3. x 2 5 a. 3 f2. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. . 3 Z> . 2. + 2 7i) . 4 a f 2. a f 3. 2 a. 21. or f 3 a 15 #. 5. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. + 6. afc'cd 2 . 2 a . 4 a . 11. a^1. a& 4 +& 2 . of: 4. a. ic 23. 9. Find the L. 4 a 5 6cd. 2 a . . a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. by. 15.1. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a 1. ic 2 ?/. 22. a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a.f 6. y*. 16. 3 6 xif. 24 x. 20 9 a. 1. 17. x* ~5a. 40 abJ. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 3(a + b). 24. 2 . 3 ab. 6b 2 . 6. #.1. 2 . ) . 14. 8 afy. (For additional examples see page 268. 2 . a !. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 13. 2 7ic+10. 2(m 2 . a?b. a 2 fa6. f b. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 8 d 5 . 2 x \2 y. 3. a 2 f 4 a +4. 6 y. + 2. a2 ~ab 1. T a 3 a 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. (a 4)(a2) 12. a2 4. 3 . a 2 a3 . 8. x2 + 4 a f 4. 7. 2 10. xy\ . 20. 6 a. 30 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a { a~b. 18. 5 a? 5 a? y. M.
A f fraction is b. Thus. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. F. successively all 2 j/' . Ex. however. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 131. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Remove tor. a b = ma mb . C. but we In arithmetic. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . as 8. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. a?. rni Thus 132.ry ^ by their H. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. etc. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. an indicated quotient. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. and denominators are considered. 130. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.
resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.4) Ex.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Ex. . cancel factors only. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 3.
10 a + 3 2 14. 16.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . LJZJ^JL. . g J 21. . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.' 32. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 19.7 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 11 ^ Mtr f . 29. 5^10 y 30. ^" a. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.*. nx 17. 23. ^' rt ^  31. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 9x + "a" 10. ny 4 18. . ' ^ . """. ^+3*. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.
Reduce ^. C. C. and the terms of ***.96 134. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. + 3). 1). M. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.3) (!)' = . and (a 8). by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. multiplying the terms of 22 . ^ to their lowest com The L. TheL. we have the quotients (x 1).  by 4 6' . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. and 135. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Divide the L. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.~16 (a + 3) (x. mon T denominator. 2> . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . .1^22 ' . =(z (x + 3)(z. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.r 2 2 .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . by the denominator of each fraction. we have M^.C. of the denominators for the common denominator. take the L. . 1. Ex. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.M. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .  of //* 2 . .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.M.D.
2 ay IB. 5?.oj o* or / . o o a. j y 3. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 22 a2 5a * . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .. If the given fractions have different denominators.^1. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 74). 2aj ~ . 8 i i. 7i 2 ab* ".T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. . i. 3. 137.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. .. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . a? 1 5 > ^* .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. common denominator 6. 18. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. . JL.
(a 2 6).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.3 . C. e. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . and adding. 4(2 a 3 ft).7 . 2 ^. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . ^ is 2^JT) . the student should remember that parentheses are . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. (a .3 ft). in the beginning..3 ft 2).2 ' 2 _.g.ft)(a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. (a ft). L. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. The L. T? Ex. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .2 = a(a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . as 4 aft f. D. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft) Ca2 . D. 2.
6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 2L + 2a 1 17. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. + . 6 c 3a 7. 1 f q * 1 m m . 46 2a 4a 12. 24. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. A+2_3. a+6 a 6 2 14. 2. + a "" 2 6 ' . 20. 18 v 19. 5a76 4a 106 9. j>0 i> 21.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 23. 1 1 f w 16. a 36 ++. 15.5 18 ^4f25.
a 4 31. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 42. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 41. ic 1 + 1. 43. _ + a? ?/ + y. a ?^ 40. af 1f /j. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 3a 9 +. a.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 1 34. ! n. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 2 af1 32. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44.9 79 6 2 i.9. a 30.
To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a.7 5a v Ex. Reduce . . . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. .  . T.FRACTIONS 139. 101 mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .
g. (In order to cancel common factors. 2. fractions to integral numbers. we may extend any e. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. integer. or. multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Since  = a. !. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. F J Simplify .102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. 2 a Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.) Ex.
2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 f 5 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 5# 56 / c& 4..6 12 d6 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 50 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 4 8.. . 14.
. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Divide Xn?/ . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. : a 41 ab * See page 272. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  .
10 ?/ _.5 ??i 80 50 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4. or both.^c 2 2 . a a2 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Ex.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. ga2 4 8 5 a . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.FRACTIONS 105 . l. are fractional. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.
& . Ex. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). of their denominators. n a 8. 2. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Simplify x }. 7i+~ 7.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147.y 32 . JL. the answer is directly obtained. i. C. . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. c +6. . M.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 9. a m "" . x* 4.a ^c c _^ a . 6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 10. . y X 4* 2 y 3.
sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15.) . m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 . : .~l (For additional examples see page 273.
Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).48. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.14 (a.l)(z + 3) = . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Clearing of fractions. 4 4)  x.28 a = 5 x2 . 2 3. Bx 12 Qx. + 1) (a + 3) . 2. a. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Uniting. C. Uniting.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. x = 6. each member is reduced to Ex.1. 148. 1. 2z2a. 5(3 85 Check. tions. M.42 + 9. each member is reduced to 1. 9x x Check. = 6. If x 6. 2x Transposing.9 x2 + 9.28 x + 42 = . = 6. . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. If = 64.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 108 . these Ex. Transposing.8 x = . of the denominator.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.f3# + C:E=6f7212.
16. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.1 _77 a. +1 = 5. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. .= 2. '  4 13. 1 *> = 2. 15. . 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . ^1 = 9. +4 14. 18. a: 7 a. ^' 2. a. a/  5 a/ = 12. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.
2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 26 26.11_4 x 149. If two or more denominators are monomials. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 31 31. y+3~2 29. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 33. 27 . 2^12 = 2 = 34. J_. 4a4l4* + l~. 32 6 . . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.  38 = 40.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 25. 3x 35. ?_=_. ._ _ . and" the remaining one a polynomial. . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.
= 9. C. the 1 5 L. 1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. If a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 5x x : = 9.  5 = 20 x 45. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5# 10.2 3 ~  == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . a. .r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Dividing.29 50712' 9 18 . 26 a.2 42 9 43. Transposing and uniting. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 24 a. Check. M.1.. 60. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. each member is reduced to ^.
Uniting the Dividing. find a in terms of b and c. . =a 2 151. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.1. = 2 f b 2 . ax f x f. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 5> a.2 ac + 3 aft .3 6 2 = a' .be. = 6 a2 . Uniting. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. jr. If 3ac L= = a ? . Ex. It frequently occurs that the x.& . f ~ 5c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . they are united by factoring. Thus. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. y.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). unknown letter is not expressed by or z. 2.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex.2 62 2 ab.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Dividing. a. = l^ 9 b 4 . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 4 ac 1. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. fr Reducing lowest terms.m bx 2 mn) x.
13. The The i time. = 5. 4. a. s = Vt solve for v. m a? x . q solve for/. iw 21. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. Ex. 34. 31. rate. + 3a. 4. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 6. r the number of $>. = rt.= H.a. If ^^ = a 1 32. 15. mx = n. 1 f. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). If s (wi n) x =px + q. + xx = 1. p the principal. . If s If 16.= c a Z> . denoting the interest. * Solve the same equation for^).i l . 3. 11. ^ ax a^ 26. = vt. . IIL n b + &o. c. 12. in terms of other quantities. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 9. = 3 (6 a). 2 solve for y a. t. and n the number of years. solve for . co?. solve for a. 17. If * 33. 3(* 8. 29. 10. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. . 30. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . . f ^o.= n. c 18. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 14. f P =+!.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 5) is t =^. = 8 4 #. _ 2.
A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. Multiplying by Dividing. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.114 35. A would do each day ^ and B j. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 12. Ex.20 C. and 12 = the number over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. 2. x Or Uniting. 1.. Find R in terms of C and TT. 100 C. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. is 36. then = 2 TT#. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. . .. Ex. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2 3 . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. = 16^.180.
the required number of days. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 32 x = . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. 180 Transposing. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." gives the equation /I).FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. or 1J." : Let x  = the required number of days. 4x = 80. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. and the statement. the rate of the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. in Then Therefore. Solving. = the x part of the work both do one day. Clearing. 3. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train.
length in the ground.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and 9 feet above water. and of the father's age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. How did the much money man leave ? 11. is oO. make 21. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 3. by 6. to his son. Find A's 8. of his present age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. a man had How much money had he at first? . ex What 5. which was $4000. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. is equal 7. fifth Two numbers differ 2. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. by 3. money and $10. to his daughand the remainder. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and J of the greater Find the numbers. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.
A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 2. air. Ex. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 3. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 152. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ^ at 5%. Ex. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. How much money $500? 4%. investments.) 22. and it B in 6 days. and B in 4 days. 1. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. . A has invested capital at more 4%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. A in 4. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. 3. therefore. The problem to be solved.g. . n x Solving. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. B in 5. A in 6. 2.414. if B in 3 days.118 153. . and n = 3. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Ex. is 57. To and find the numerical answer. is 42. they can both do in 2 days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. and apply the method of 170. we obtain the equation m m . Then ft i.e. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. A in 6. 25. e. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. m and n. B in 12. . 26. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.= . B in 16. Hence.009 918.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days.
(c) 16. is ?n . 2 miles per hour. (d) 1. Find the side of the square. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. respectively (a) 60 miles. 34. 2 miles per hour. the rate of the first. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. : (c) 64 miles. 4J miles per hour.721. The one: 31. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. . and how many miles does each travel ? 32. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 3 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. squares 30. and the second 5 miles per hour. the second at the apart. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and the rate of the second are. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (b) 149. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. Two men start at the first miles apart.001. if m and n are. is (a) 51. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. same hour from two towns. After how many hours do they meet. 5 miles per hour.000. squares 29. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. respectively. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 33. (b) 35 miles. meet.
. the symbol being a sign of division.g. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the denominator The the 157. the antecedent. antecedent. E. The first 156. is numerator of any fraction consequent.5.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b. b. 158. the second term the consequent. 1. : : 155. " a Thus." we may write a : b = 6. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. In the ratio a : ft. b is the consequent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. etc. Ex. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. 6 12 = . a ratio is not changed etc. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. Simplify the ratio 21 3.
The last first three. extremes. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 27 06: 18 a6. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. terms. 11. 159. J:l. and c is the third proportional to a and . 16a2 :24a&. b is the mean b. 3:1}. 17. 7:4 T T 4 . $24: $8. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 3:4. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 12. and c. two  ratios. 7f:6J. Transform the following unity 15. 6. b and c the means. 16. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b. : 1. 61 : ratios 72:18. proportional between a and c. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. a and d are the extremes. Simplify the following ratios 7. 4:5f : 5. 10. : ay . equal 2. 3 8. 9. 5 f hours : 2. 62:16. 18. 4. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : is If the means of a proportion are equal.RATIO Ex. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 8^ hours. 3. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 1.
The mean proportional of their product. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.e. of iron weigh .) mn = pq. and the other pair the extremes. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of iron weigh 45 grams. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Clearing of fractions. briefly. 164. In any proportion product of the extremes. i. then G ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ad = be. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. of a proportion. 163. : : directly proportional may say.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. : c. q~~ n . " we " NOTE. If (Converse of nq. ccm. 6 ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 3 4. = 30 grams 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. are : : : inversely proportional. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.__(163. 2 165. pro portional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163.122 162. !. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.30 grams.) b = Vac. and the time necessary to do it.
These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 2. 166. + b:b = c + d:d. (Division. V. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. then =d c. d d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. ad = be. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Or IV. ad ( 163. is Ex. a:c=b:d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. hence the proportion true. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. if 6 : 7. (Frequently called Inversion.) d 167. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. (163. (Composition.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. = 35 . By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.PATIO Ex.) (Called Alternation. I. is 4$ = 35. a III. 1.) II. . bd bd.) a + b:a = c + d:c. I.) = f f = 3 J. 12x Hence a? = 42.
V. E. 5. = 20:7. x = 2. i.124 IT. 9. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. the consequents by 7.!=!*. = 7:2f 3J. 120:42 2 2 7. = 180:125.e. 6 =4 : x. 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 2:3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.g.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. Or III. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 8. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. Simplify the following proportions. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 12 5ft. IV. 4. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Apply composition. 3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 5 5. : x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 10. . 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 2:x. mx tin Apply composition and division. .
= 15o. 14 and 21. 6. x:5 = y:2. ra 2 . 25. 38. 1 and a. to : a and 1. : . terra 2:3 = 4. mx = ny.. (a : : 45. 1. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96.:ff. f. 20. ra. to: = 35:*. 6x = 7y. 2. ratio of y. rag. 39. 47. 31. + fyx = cy. = 5 x 12. if : 40. 26. 42. Find the 37. 112:42 = 10:a. 2 3 = y #. 16. and 2/. 52. = 3 43 + x. : a2 . 7iy = 2:x. a. 29. 2 a and 18 a. 16 and 28. 28. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 4 and 16. 21.8:1. = l^:18. : 53. 3t. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 5= 18 a? : a?. 3. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 9 x = 2 y. 3. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 13. Find the mean proportional 30. 23. 14. 22. to : 9 and 12. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 5.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. a 2 and ab. 4. 2. 34. a?:15 15. 41. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 03:a?=135:20. Find the third proportional 24. 27. 17. = 2 + x: x. 50. 44. rap. x m = y n. ra + landra 1. 6 x = y. b. w.x: 6:5 a : x. 12. 51. 35. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 43. 33. 18.  32. . 46.j>. 2= 5 x x. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a.
the squares of their radii (e) 55. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the speed of the train. what 58. 57. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the rectangle. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. the area of the larger? the same. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 56. A line 7^. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the time. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time necessary for it. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the : total cost.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles.126 54. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').
11 x = 66 is the first number. so that Find^K7and BO. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Then Hence BG = 5 x. is A line AB. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. x=2. 2. = the second number. : Ex. AB = 2 x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. as 11 Let then : 1. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108. 2 x Or = 4. produced to a point C. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. . 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. 4 inches long.000 168.
128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 3. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.) . 11. Gunmetal tin. 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. How The long are the parts ? 15. What are the parts ? 5. and 15 inches.000 square miles.000. and c inches. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many 7. 12. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 12. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : 197. 14. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. : 4. 6. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. How many gen. 9. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 13. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 2.
there is only one solution. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. a? (1) then I. expressing a y. is x = 7. x = 1. etc. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. However.. The root of (4) if K 129 . values of x and y. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y = 1. 2 y = . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.y=. Hence. if . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. such as + = 10. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.e. =.L x If If = 0.
3 y = 80. and 3 x + 3 y =. y = 2. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. Substitution. 26 y = 60. 172. 6x . are simultaneous equations. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations .26. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 21 y . 174. E. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent.24. ~ 50. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. Therefore. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. The first set of equations is also called consistent. to The two methods I. unknown quantity. y I 171. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they express the x f y 10. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. of elimination most frequently used II. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). cannot be reduced to the same form. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. the last set inconsistent.X. 3. same relation. viz. = . 4y . By By Addition or Subtraction.130 170.
14 =8. subtract the equations. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 2. 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. = 235. 10 . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. y = 1. + 2. 60 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). add the equations. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).3 y = 47. Check. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. x = 10. Therefore Check. are like.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.3 1 = 47. 25 x . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 64 x = 040. 5 13 . = 406. 3.2 = 6. 8 2. 10 + 5 1 = 135. whose coefficients In general. 3y = 3. Transposing.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 37.
I ~ y~~> 22. 13 61 l7a. = 41. I oj 5y = 17.4. = 24. I i 3 a. * + 3 y = 50. ] ^ . v ^ = ll. + 2/ 17. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. _. = 6. f 3# ?/ = 0. ' 12. 7 ' 1fi fl . f 3X 7x 14.v 23. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.f2/ ' = 50.3. O t K 8.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. [2o.9 *. . 13. i 3. x 11. 9 1 r 20. J I y = 1U.5 y = 2. 19< I a. I .
. = 60. x ) ^"" 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. 3. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 13. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. 8.
it is advantageous to do so in most cases.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. however. 7 y = 6. x = l. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 29 x = 29. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.3. 21z6y=9. 3 (1) Ex. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . + 212y4 = 14. Substituting in (6) . (4). 3. . 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36. 7x_2y=3. \ \6(a.6)7(y7)==18. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. simplified before elimination is possible. (7) (7) (8) . 2 y = .
f2 2. J 9. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. +y 2 . . = 3. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . 12. 10 2a?5 17. 4 11. 10. 16. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . a. yM a. 14. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.1) = 121.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. * ((* (( .and x y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.Q ^ 4 21. {. and y. <X + 20. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. f y . 180. but some expressions involving x. 22. 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y .#. e. .
137 Solve y y (1) . Clearing of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. (2) (3) a. Therefore y=4. etc. 2* * x 2. (4) + (G). x 3. 15 y + 8 x . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. y 4. . however. y. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).3 xy. x 2x(2).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 1. can also be solved Examples method. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . Substituting x = 3 in (1). of this type.4 x = 4 xy. 1. 33 = 11 x.
n. Ex. .= 5. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x y 331 9. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 253 7.= o 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 21 9 . = en. 4 13. 6. x y 5.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 1. x 8.
. Uniting. apan cm. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. bmy bm}y ap cm. f 5. s in 11. . ap. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.W.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. ny = fy/ I sc 1. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. d. x a. w. x f my = 1. a Find a and terms of n. 6. . fax f = l. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. ax + by = 2 a&. x 12. and I if 13. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. . d.y = = 9a + 46. Dividing. W . From the same equations find s in terms of a.
3=4. 3.2 + 3. 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 1. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. y =* 2. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 8 x . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.25. 3y = Hence Check. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. (8) 2. f 3y 12 =s 8.lf> z . = 3. 3.16. 182. (4) (5). . etc. To solve equations containing By tions.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).by 2. = 30. by 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 4. 4. 20.13. ties are Similarly.3 = 8.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).12 y + 6 z = . x + 12 y .2 + 4. Ex. l.1+4.8 = 1.15z=12 Adding. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 6.
x 13. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 10. 49. + y f z = 15. 4 = 42. 2 . == 6. 14. 15 2 = 45. 2 4. 7. a? + 709 = 26. 8. a? 11. 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2z = 40. ~6?/ 5.
. . 27. 4. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. ? = llz. ^ = 2. 16. 60.3 y + .2 a. 32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 23. = 8*. =s 20. 19. . 22. . 84 21.42 = 2. 1510 4 17. (3 _.6 2. = 5. ?/ 3x = 0.
# 4.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. . = l. 1 digit in the tens place. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. however. . either directly or implied. y * z 30. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Check. symbols: x + y +z 8. x : z =1 : 2. = 2 m.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. z + x = 2 n. 1. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and to express In complex examples. Ex. 2 = 6. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. ( 99. 1 = 2. + z = 2p. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . M=i. +2+ 6 = 8. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 2 = 1(1+6). y 31. Obviously of the other . the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. + 396 = 521. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and if 396 be added to the number. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Find the number.
By expressing the two statements in symbols. = the fraction. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. x 3x4y = 12. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. .144 Ex. 3+1 5+1 4_2. increased by one. x 3 = 24. (1) (2) 12. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. direction. Or (4)2x(3). 2. x y = the = the x denominator . we obtain. 6 x 4 = 24. 5_ _4_ A. 4 x = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. = 8. = Hence the fraction is f. y = 3. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. B. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. xy a: 2y 4y 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 2. Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. C. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. (3) C4) = 24 miles. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. From (3) Hence xy Check. Since the three men traveled the same distance.
) added to a number of two digits. both terms. and the fourth 3. Find the fraction. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the number (See Ex. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Find the numbers. 5. the Find the fraction. ? What 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the value of the fraction is fa. . the last two digits are interchanged. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. 183. If the denominator be doubled. A fraction is reduced to J. number by the first 3. fraction is reduced to \. added to the numerator of a fraction. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If 9 be added to the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the numerator increased by 4. 2. tion ? 8. part of their difference equals 4. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. If 27 is 10. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the fraction equals . and its denomi nator diminished by one. Find the numbers.}. 1. 6. Find the numbers. 7. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction is reduced fraction. Find the number. it is reduced to J. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the digits will be interchanged.
much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 19. A sum of $10. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 14. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest? 18. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. . partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and in 5 years to $1125. Find the rates of interest. A man invested $750. and money and 17. the annual interest would be $ 195. now. 13. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. in 8 years to $8500. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. respectively ? 16. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find their present ages.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5 %. How 6 %.grams. 12. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and partly at 4 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and 4 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 5 %.
and F. for $ 740. . and AC = 5 inches. points. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and sheep. and F. triangle Tf AD.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and angle e angle/. Find their rates of walking. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. An C touch ing the sides in D. BD = HE. BE. E. and GE = CF. then AD = AF. and $15 for each sheep. the three sides of a triangle E. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. three AD = AF. $ 50 for each cow. ED = BE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. BC = 7 inches. 24. B find angles a. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. 1 NOTE. what is that = OF. . is the center of the circum scribed circle. 25. andCL4 = 8. and F '(see diagram). and CE If AB = G inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and e. BC=7. respectively. are taken so ABC. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. but if A would double his pace. cows. and their difference by GO . c. angle c = angle d. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 23. and angle BCA = 70. On /). the length of NOTE.
jr. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185.. is The point whose abscissa is a. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. the ordinate of point P. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). ?/. Thus the points A. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and point the origin. It' Location of a point. . or its equal OM. and PJ/_L XX'. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 2). PN. 3). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (7. and PN _L YY'. first 3). The of Coordinates. 186. (3. YY' theyaxis. PM. and r or its equal OA is .CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. (2. B. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. is the abscissa. PN are given. the ordinate by ?/.
. Plot the points : (0.1). (4.and(l. 2). (1. (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 11. 0). (4. 4). 6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 2. Graphs. 4) and (4.e. (2. Plot the points: (4. and measure their distance. i. 0). (3. 0). (5. Plot the points (6. 3). 3. 3).(!. (4. 0).3). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. . What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 2). !). 4.4). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4). Plot the points: (4. 2J). 71 2). 8. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (0. 6. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 1). 1).) EXERCISE 1. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. What is the locus of (a?. (0. 3). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 4) from the origin ? 7. 12. (See diagram on page 151. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.
10 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. we meas1 .. B. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. A. 1. By representing of points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. . may be found on Jan. from January 1 to December 1. or the curved line the temperature. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 188. however. ure the ordinate of F. 15. C. Thus the first table produces 12 points.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . D.
. The engineer. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (c) January 15. uses them. Whenever a clear. the graph is applied. the matics. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. physician. the merchant. (d) November 20. (b) July 15. etc. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages.
. 1? 11 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. ?  3. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 to Oct. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When the average temperature below C. is 10. How much. on 1 to the average. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8..152 2. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (1) 10 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what months above 18 C.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ? 9. 15. (freezing point) ? 7. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (d) 9 0.
19. Draw . 20. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.09 yards. Hour Temperature . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. transformation of meters into yards. Draw a graph for the 23. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
books from for printing. A 10 wheels a day. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. binding.g. 3.50. the value of a of this quantity will change. if each copy sells for $1.inch. function If the value of a quantity changes. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. e. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.5 grams. etc. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2 .. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. x* x 19. 9. x 7 to 9.50. 190.154 24. 26.. to 27. 1 to 1200 copies. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 3. gas. 4. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.) T circumferences of 25. then C irJl. x increases will change gradually from 13. if he sells 0. and $. 28. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. amount to $8. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. etc. 29. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters..) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. the daily average expenses for rent. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.
however. E. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. .2 x may 4 from x = 4. The values of func192. 2). x a variable. 3 50. it is In the example of the preceding article. may . plot points which lie between those constructed above. J). ( 2.1). Draw the graph of x2 f. 9).0). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. for x=l. as 1.g. while 7 is a constant.1). 9). be also represented by a graph. 2. (1^. (2. construct '. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 (0.e. If a more exact diagram is required. (1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 4). Graph of a function. 4). etc. to x = 4. Ex. Q. and (3. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . a*. 1 the points (3. 2 (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. may. is supposed to change. and join the points in order.
r */ +* 01 .2 x . 2. and join(0. (3.) For brevity. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Thus 4x + 7.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. (2. rf 71 . Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 7 . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. the function is frequently represented by a single letter... (4.. j/=3. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. as y. 4). 2 4 and if y = x f. 5). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. etc. Ex.4). 4J. . = 0. straight line produces the required graph. 1).. 194.20). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. = 4. y = 6.. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.
Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a* 13. 1J. 2 2 a. 8.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 1 8 10. 2 2. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 21. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. ?/ a. (If) Va25. J. a? 2 4. if y = 2. 23x. . i. 11. 14. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. the diagram find (a) (e) (3.5)2.e. 2. (7i) (c) 23. from x VlO'S". 16. The values of a*. The smallest value of the function. 3. 2 a. a?. 22. a? 1. 3 a 8. y = 2x = 4. 9. = 4. fa 17. if a. 2 or 2 20. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2J. 7. l. a. x+1. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 19.or. 18. 1. 4 a. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. The values of a?.8)'.5)2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. the function. 15. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 6 fa.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. if the function equals zero. 5. 1J. xz + x. 2. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 12. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (C ) (2. (ft) (_ 1. = The values of a*. a ar. + 4. xl. . Jar . 6. 3. 1J. 4a? I. 2J. 2x + 3x a?. if"a. 2 a.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. . the abscissas of 3.24. then y = . 14 F.. 9 F... then cXj where c is a constant. y= formula graphically. that graph with the o>axis.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. i. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.24 or x = P and Q. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.158 24. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. Represent 26. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.where x c is a constant. 1 C. 32 F.. Therefore x = 1.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Show any convenient number).e. 25. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).
13.f 9 = 0. + + = where a. 0. 6. Such equations in general have two roots. (a) x2 = 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 12. 6. crosssection paper is used. a2 2a. is called a quadratic equation. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 11. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 4. or 5 2. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 3. 197. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. viz. 10. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 7. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 2 and 1. (a) (6) 9. = 0. . de = termine the points where If the function is 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 8.
Hence. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 199. 4) and (2. fc = 3. . and joining by a straight line. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Ex. If x = 0. y y 2.1. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . = 0. 3x _ 4 .e. == 2. ?/ =4 AB. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). unknown quantities. 0). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. NOTE. Hence we may join (0. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Ex. locate points (0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. i. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. first degree. produces the 7* required locus. because their graphs are straight lines. 1) and 0). Hence if if x x  2. solve for ?/. 2). Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. ?/.2. X'2 Locating the points (2. (f . T . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. if y = is 0. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.2 y ~ 2. and join the required graph.
and CD. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. parallel have only one point of intersection. (2) . 202. P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 203. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). we obtain the roots.1=0. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. AB y = .15. To find the roots of the system. 201. linear equations have only one pair of roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. viz. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.57. Graphical solution of a linear system. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
3. and + 3). 3). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. = 0. 2. 4. 5. and .9. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. x2 . 0) and (0. 4. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. etc. In general. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.  4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Since the two  we obtain DE. if x equals respectively 0. 5. e. V25 5. Using the method of the preceding para. and joining by a straight line. intersection. (4.5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Measuring the coordinates of P. the graph of points roots. (1) (2) C. we of the + y* = 25. 3x 2 y = 6. Locating two points of equation (2).y~ Therefore. (4. 2 equation x 3). 2. AB the locus of (1). Inconsistent equations. 0. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 1. 4. 4.g. 0. Locating the points (5. (2. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. they are inconsistent.e. Solving (1) for y. 4. i. . y equals 3.0). 3.0. 4. the point we obtain Ex. The equations 2 4 = 0.5. 1. There can be no point of and hence no roots.
state reasons. 5. 2x 3?/=6. and. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 16 23. 8. 17. y=x + 5. \ 2x + 3^ . and solve each If there are no solutions. a+r/=6. y 2 4. 6. 4. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y= a2 2x y6. '163 Dependent equations. a. vice versa. 7. if possible. y = 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 10. Draw system. . EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 2.. the graphs of the following systems. 16 22. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. x~y=0. 3. 20. 9.
28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31.14 y = . CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES.164 24.y). 25. 30. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. AND SQUARE HOOTS .8. 29 . 4 a = 3(6 . 26.
3 f a = f a = +. is may be by 207. a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .faa a a a Obviously 1.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 52. follows that 3. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. on to in factors 4. ^4/? it According to 50. fa. involution repeated multiplication. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 8. According to 1. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 2. etc. 2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.a2 . Law of Signs. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. a = a3 .
raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (a ) 2 5 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. \ 3 J '  MW 10. amVy) 3 . V V/ 13. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (2ar). raise a fraction to a power. 6. 76 : (>y. 2. a product to a given power. (a ) 2 4  3. the required power. .6 (a 8 8 . 5. 16. (^^) 2 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 4.6) = a . 210. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 24. 3 2 2 8 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 15. 2 11 (afc ) . (277171 )*. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 4 /2mV.166 To find To To power.
12. 5. 21. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . + a 2 a. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 4. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 2 . 16. 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a.y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . frequently called ex. 211.3 y. pansions. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .y) = (3 y?y . 3 8 .) 14. . 8. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . are obtained by multiplication. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 9.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 15. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. nent of the binomial. 1 f 3 2 3 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. Ex. 18. 1. (a + &)8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . + 4aj) 3 . 7. (afl) . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.6 2 8 ft) . The higher powers of binomials. (3af26) 8 . (5 (1 a) 3 . (3 x . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 2.INVOLUTION Ex. 23. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. An 1. etc. a. 2. or*  Find the cube root of 19. : a 20. 6. . 3. 8 (a??/) 3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 13. (aj7) . +5a) 22.
. 4 (1for) 5 . (af 5) . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (p + q) 4 * 7.2. (1 + 4 ?/) . is the coefficient of the next term. 3. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 1.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 10. Ex. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. The minus.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . 14. 21. 18. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 9. (2 a 4 . 3. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . 25. 8. 23. (3a f5) 5) 4. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 5. Ex. 6. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (tff1) (cfd) . 4 . 2. and the powers negative. . ( &) 5 . . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (l 8 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (a~^) 5 . 5. (la&) 4 12. . 4. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (m fl) 2 20. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (mJ) 4 11. (m 2 + n) 8 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 78 s . (m 5 I) 2 22. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 .216 a^ 4. Ex.96 ^y f 216 o?y .a) 3 19. (2 4. . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 13. 17. . 15. (?/i~w) : 16. 24.168 3. (?>i?i f c)*. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.
etc. V9 = + 3. or y ~ 3. 27 =y means r' = 27. for distinction. and all other numbers are. numbers. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. called real numbers. \/"^27=3. a) 4 = a4 . 1. (_3) = 27. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 109 . which can be simplified no further. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Since even powers can never be negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 2. V \/P 214. tity . and ( v/o* = a. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 215. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or x &4 . = x means = 6. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 4 4 .
4 v. index.lL. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 5. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. v/2^. 8. 2. 2 . Ex. V25 9 16. extract the and denominator. . 7 . . roots of the numerator \/18 . 9. 6 7 = 030.64 5 4 . To extract a root of a fraction. 2. To extract the root of a power. . Ex. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. Ex. 3/0** = am . 82 .200 . Ex. 7 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . fy 5 3 . V36 9 4.1. 3 33 53 . 7. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . = V26TIT81 = 53.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 9. V?. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 3i .4.201) = 2. Ex. 62 = V2* . 79 2 v/2 5 . EXERCISE 1.9 = 136. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. \/2 4 9 . = 19472. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. V5 v/2 7 2.  100 a 2 . 3. for (a")" a = a mn 3.125. Ex 5 a" . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = 199 + (_ 198) . 7. 8.(. 6. 6. 10. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .
6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 32. 2. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . Find the square root of a2 .3. 2 ./).EVOLUTION 171 28.3 .3 y2) ( vV .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.4/. 2 . ^40^4. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 3.98. 30. V8. . Ex. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V9216. 45 V5184. V20 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. 1. 29. 5. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .) by inspection.75. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . a* 4 8 2 . 6. 116. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 34. 31.6 tfif + 9 y = O . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 33.
a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 15. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.e.72 aW + 81 & 4 .2 &c. 12. mV14m??2)f 49. let us consider the relation of a f. and b (2 a f b). + 6 + 4a&. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . the given expression is a perfect square. 10.> 13. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. The term a' first 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 14.b 2 2 to its square. 2 2 218.172 7. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. a\b is the root if In most cases. 8 . 2 .2 ac . and b. however.2 ab + b . 11. #2 a2  16. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. a f. i. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2ab .
EVOLUTION Ex. and consider Hence the their sum one term. of x. First trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 219. 8 a 2 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. The square . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. . . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Second trial divisor. . First complete divisor. Explanation. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2 . is As there is no remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf. 2. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. . 6 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . and so forth. by division we term of the root. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. */'' . 1.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 1. the first term of the answer. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 /. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.
20 o 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 8.a 6 x*y 2 . 5. 13#4 413ar 44a. 2 x2 3 2x.42 a*& 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.73a4 440^436^460^. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .9.25 x 4 4. 6. + 81 a 454 a + 81.73 a8 . 9. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . . 6 11. 18. 16x6 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 24.16.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.12m 5 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 20. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. a? 2 . 436^?/469a. 19. 16. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.37 a ^ . 14. l 4. 12.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .V430^425^ 4m 4. 2 4. 36it.10 x2 4. 4 .25.24 or .6 .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 729 4. 10.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.12 m 4. > 7. 5 4 16 4 iK . 17.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .162 a2 60 a10 4. 3.4 x 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 15.40 a 22 . 1 4.
the first of which is 4. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Ex. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. a 2 = 6400. Therefore 6 = 8.EVOLUTION 220. 2. 1.000 is 100.176. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the square root of 7744 equals 88.000 is 1000. The is trial divisor = 160. Find the square root of 7744. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. etc. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 10. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.000. and the complete divisor 168. of a number between 100 and 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. first . two figures. and the first remainder is.. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. etc.1344. of 1. the first of which is 8. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000. which may contain one or two). square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Ex. = 80. Find the square root of 524.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.GO'61. places.1T6 221. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . The groups of 16724.10. 12.7 to three decimal places. 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1 are Ex.70 6. Find the square root of 6/. in . annex a cipher.
33. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 37.53. feet. feet. 34. 1. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 13. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 5. 31. 36. whose area equals 48.1410.58 square 38. . 1. J. 30.4 square when R = radius and 11.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. = 3. 35.) 40. JT .22. 32. 39. T\.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.
or affected. x 2 7. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. = 4. = 7^ + 5. 2)* + 5 = 33. Extracting the square root of each member. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 226. or equation of the second degree.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 6 y2 = 17. Dividing. Transposing. 225. 224. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. but no higher power e. . complete. The 7 equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. ax 2 + bx + c = Q.g. 6#2 = x* 24. 1. 178 . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2. is A quadratic equation. Ex.. or incomplete. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. x = + 2 or x =2. is 12. This answer Check. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 2 ic = a. A pure. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.
. ' =: y? b* b . : 83 2. 5. 19 + 9 = 5500. 16^393 = 7. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.2. 15^5 = 6. 4.25. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 2 4fc 5' 18. 7. or Therefore. 4 ax. o. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 0^ + 1 = 1. 10. Solve 179 . 2. 7 = 162. 3. ax Transposing and combining. (a? 9. 6(2)=10(ajl).QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 2 a. 8. .
2 : 3. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 24. . 2 . If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. . 26.b 2 If s If =c . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . If 22 = ~^. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. is 5(5. 22 a. 29. Find the side of each field. find a in terms of 6 . Find the numbers.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 27. ' 4. solve for v. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 108. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. EXERCISE 1. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for d. 3. 25. and they con tain together 30G square feet. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 2a f 1 23. A right triangle is a triangle. 28. : 6. 2. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and their product : 150. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. Find is the number. 228. If G=m m g . 2 . may be considered one half of a rec square units. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. then Since such a triangle tangle. r.) of their squares 5. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). solve for r. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 4.
The area : sides are as 3 4.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. add () Hence 2 . Find the sides. and the third side is 15 inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area. radii are as 3 14. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.) 13. and the other two sides are as 3 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. and the two smaller 11. 24. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 2m. Find the radii. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. is and the other two sides are equal. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. we have of or m = . The area $ /S of a circle 2 . . (b) 100 feet? = . 8. 9. Solve Transposing.7 x f 10 = 0. J = 12. x* 7 x= 10. 4. . . (b) 44 square feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Method of completing the square. Find these 10. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.2 7 . sides. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . To find this term. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet.
Uniting. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a Clearing of fractions. Extracting square roots.a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2 a* a. Ex.1. Hence Therefore Check. (*~8) a = at . .2. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.2 a2 . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.x(l = . = 6. = x\ = 2.e. a. or J.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Ex. J.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Transposing. Transposing. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2  . = \ # = ff. 230. adding member). or x = 2. Simplifying.  \. 62 x 5 = f. = . 7 5 + 10 = 0.. Therefore.
Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . 183 Simplifying.
231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 49. . ao. x la 48. Solution by formula.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. \bx\.c = 0. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. =8 r/io?. 2x 3 4. and c in the general answer. =0. article. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 7^ + 9 x 90. 1. 20. c = 5. V^tT)* . b =  + 20 == = 0. 2or } 5o. 2. 2. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 15. 7. 21. 26. 12. 8. ?i 2 . 13. = 12 . 2 o. 19.  . 6.4 4 5 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6^+5^ 56. 3. 17. 6 Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.25 x. 2 a. 14. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 4. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 11. = 64120?. Reducing to general form. 2 . 6 . 10. TIO.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 9. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 16.. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. c p. a. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6. 2 a? = 44 x . 18. 5 x2 Transposing.
1. 25. 5 = 0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. transposing terms to one member. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 26. Clearing for fractions. x(x <2 . }.5 Solving (1) and (2). . a=:i^^. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . any degree. Transposing.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Eesolving into factors. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 24. if either of the uct is zero. 5) = 0. 27 x== 42a. 23. or # 5 is zero. = 14. = 0. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. orz roots. Bx 1 1. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. (5 a? !)(. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 0. factors Now. Factoring. x2 = 1 .5) =0.2. = 0.4) = . ar>8o. and 6. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. member can be Ex. = 0. all or. 233. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 3x?+x = 7. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Solution by factoring.x.
24 = 0. 5. 9. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 0(02) = 7(02). let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. and the equation thus formed be solved. we 9 obtain x 4.g. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. Or Hence the 234. for a: . 16. 0^ ar> 11. x2 f 2 x . 4)(z3) = 0. 2. 3^ = 0(1106). 12.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. + 8=s: 7. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 13. 3# y 5 = 0. + 100. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. The equation I. + 10 a = 24. 3. O roots are 2. a?. 4or + 18a f 8a.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.(. 2o3 f9a. : 87 = 0. 6. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. evidently (x Or 4)(x .= 24.e. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 5 = 0. 3) Factoring. E. a?10a=:24. Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 2. aj( 15. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. ar'Sa^ 12. (aj4)(a.:=0. 14. 3.3)(x + 3 3. + 6)=0. 4. 8. 7. is 5) = 0. 3 or 2 a. 3) = 0.6)) = 0. a* 10a=24. } 2 2 (5 .
20. 50. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 25. ara + ft + c*. 22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 27. '3a!J  . 23. (2a? 3) (a 24.188 17. 19. a 2 =(x a)b.3) = (s + l) (3 a). uz + u 21. 18. 2.
and equals 190 square inches. 8. 52. 58.3. number by 10. 54. 5. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the number. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2. 3. Find the numbers.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 55. 2. 5.0.3. Find the number. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The 11.1. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 0. : 3. 2. Find the sides. and consequently many prob 235. . 57. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. of their reciprocals is 4. G. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. two numbers is 4. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. EXERCISE 1. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. feet. and whose product 9. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 56.3. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and the difference Find the numbers. 7. The difference of .9. 2. 2. 4. 1. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 1. and whose sum is is 36.0. 6. 2.
and Find the sides of the rectangle. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. ply between the same two ports. ABCD. watch for $ 24. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. If he each horse ? . he would have received two horses more for the same money. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. other. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. dollars.10. 15. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Find the rate of the train. . and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. as the 16. What did he pay for 21. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 17.190 12. 14. 19. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. Two vessels. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. sold a horse for $144.
Find TT r (Area of a circle .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Ex. 237. 23 inches long. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. the two men can do it in 3 days. so that the rectangle. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. 24. . The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. or x = \/l = 1. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. By formula. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. (tf. Find and CB. contains B 78 square inches. how wide is the walk ? 23. constructed with and CB as sides.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. a point taken.) 25. 27. and working together. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 1. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is On the prolongation of a line AC. as 0. ^3^ = 7. of the area of the basin.
4 8 = 2 a* 2. 2 h9:=0. Ex. Hence Le. 10. a. 4 a. 4. Solving. T 17.T 2 2 . 436 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. a 21or=100. 7. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 18. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 16 a^40 11. y8)=0.2 =4. 16. aV+9o 4 =0. >. 4 6. 9. a? 15 1=2*. 19. = 13. = 1. 6. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 8. or y = 8. a4 5o. 12.192 238. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 : 89 10a. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a.)+72=0.
2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. c the roots are real. Ex. the roots are irrational.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . and unequal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are imaginary.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 3. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. negative. is 4ac not zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Hence the roots are real. rational. and equal.bx 4. 2.5) = 04. a perfect square. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. . b 4.2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are unequal. Relations between roots and coefficients. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 1.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.f> = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 240. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are real. ( 2a Hence 1.2 z . rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are rational. Ex. The discriminant =(. the roots are equal. 241.
= 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 21. 2. f 2 E.. 5aj 9. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2 a. = 0.g. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 9a3 = 0. 17. o. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 4. + 18 2 8. 12. 14. 2 7. ^12. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = 5x. 18. = Q. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 60 2 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 15.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5.19 # 20. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 24. + 2a15 = 0. their product isf. + 2a. 2 : 3. + 12 2  . 23. 2a 4z5 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. 6. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 22. 5oj aj + l = 0. x2 7 10. 3a. : a 2 . The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. lla.
while the second of the first.a" = a m n mn .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. We assume. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. no Fractional and negative exponents. (ab) . for all values 1 of m and n. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . such as 2*. that a an = a m+n . provided w > n. must be *The symbol smaller than. II. 244. however. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.* III. ~ a m f." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . hence. (a m ) w . It is. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. > m therefore. m IV. Then the law of involution. a m a" = a m+t1 . and . The first of these laws is nition of power. = a"" < .
(bed)*. = a. 29. 0?=^. 25. 28. n 2 a. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. '&M A 27. laws. a\ 26.g. 31. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. as. fractional. 245. a*. 30. 23. a . etc. 3*. (xy$. at. Assuming these two 8*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. disappear. a?*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 24. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. e. . m$. 4~ . ^=(a^) 3* 3 . ml. or zero exponent equal x.
48. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.g. : 2' 4* = 4. however.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 38. Vo5 . 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. If. 46. a . e. 246. Let a = a. v/o&cT 34. a * a2 Or a=l. 7z* Find the values of 47. 42. = 49.g. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 27* = 3. e. equal to unity. 40. = 2. Solve the following equations 39. a* * = 3. 3* = 27. \/xy \/m. 43. a. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 41. v'mT 36. 5 a* = 10. 49. : 197 33. = 2. 37. ty?. 35. 45. \fi?. the base is zero. 44.\/n. hence is .
248. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Multiplying both members by a". by changing the sign of NOTE. etc. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. e. vice versa. .198 247.g. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. cr n. consider the following equations. Or a"# = l. or the exponent.2 = a2 . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". an x = a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.
3 a. 22. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 39. c 32.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. rfS. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 25. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 2 . 66 45. 37. 2m~i 43. a. ^L. ^?2 y' 34. 27. 36. : or 5 . f (2w)~i 1 . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. m . 40."* 38. * 24. 2 . 44. a^ 41. : mi m~^. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a? * 42.
250. + 1~* f 21 . = ^. 1. 53. 57. 10* 5* = . ar = i. = 5. . 52. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 61.1. 55. = l.008)* + A. 58. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 47. + A_.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* Find the values 56.001. = . 54.6). 17' 2 51. of: 3ll4~* 60. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.343)* + (. Ex. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .(. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. z 5or*=10. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 48.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 59. z* = 1. 49.81 f (a . (.9*.
4 a8 . 10. V5.7W. are performed. OA 20. 79 . (d) If required. 16. 7. #* a. 6 *. 72 .3 aj" a. 17.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 16. 3 a.^/5^5. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 3sVS. 7*. . 8 ' 9.4 . 14. 27  28. NOTE.&.5a. Remove the negative exponents. 4 5.7*. 12. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 13.&. .6 *' 6 *25. &.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .7i. Perform the operation indicated. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 3. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.5. remove the fractional exponents. 95 ^9i 5**. 26.$". 18.$*. 4 x^. ' 11. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7~ 6 . 6. a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 7~ 5 27  . etc. 23. 6a.. . S'sS8. / 7fv 7.
V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 2. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1.2 d . lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35. 34. If powers of a?. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. powers of x arranged are : Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252. 40. Arrange in descending powers of Check.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
A/3. 27. connect them by proper 1. Ex. s!/3.2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^2. V5. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^4. 39. 37. v/3. ^30. ^2. (i. 28. ^5. Ex. 26. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v/3. ^7. VS. 32. ^4. V3. To add or form. ^6.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . V3.e. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 5V2. 4^/4. Simplify/a35 ~ o . Simplify V~ . if dissimilar. \/7. ^126. 2\ 3*. 34. 33. ^2. ^3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. subtract surds. 29. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.2 V50.3\ . 3. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. \/5. 36. + . </20.10 V2 =  V2. V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . A/2. 40. </2. in order of magnitude : \/7. </3. signs. 30. v^S. 31. Arrange 35. v/4. 38. V2. ^/IT.
4.J a6 V4 aft.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 6. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 8. 3. 14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V18+V32VT28+V2.3V20 + 6V5. 9. 8VT8J2V32 7. 11. 6. 10. 13. V175V28+V634V7. 4V805V45. + 3V835V2. 12. .
for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. y* = Ex. 3.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 2. 6*. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 23. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . and then multiplied.6V35 106 460V35100 . . 1.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Ex. 26^ .
(V2+V3+V4)V3. (Va Va 36. 40. aVa. 6. 14.^/2. a?. (2V3) 8 . + VB)(2V5). 25. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 18. 21. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V42. .RADICALS EXERCISE 1. V20 V30. 2. v/4. 40 10 30. 19. V3 Vl2. V3 V6. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 38. 3.VSS. 9. v/18 v"3. V2 V50. 34. VlO V15. V2aV8^. 4. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . Vll. \/3 \^). 7. VTO. fWa 17. 213 98 11. 12. 8. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). (3 20. 39. (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 41. 6 V4 5. 6. 28 . 10. 37. 13. 15. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 2 . 27.
V3 . E.y. Ex. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. . Va v/a. the quotient of the surds is If. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 52. (5V2+V10)(2V51). a fraction. 49. (2 45. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. all monomial surds may be divided by method. is 1 2. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 47. 51. 43. 48. Ex. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 44. 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 268.214 42. 53. 46. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S .
g. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. we have V3 But if 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide VII by v7. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. arithTo find.. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. . is illustrated by Ex. 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.73205. Evidently.by the usual arithmetical method. metical problems afford the best illustrations. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. by V7. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 3. /~ } Ex.57735. e. The 2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. however. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.RADICALS This method.
. V3 24 . 23 . .4142. 7. V5 = 2. and Given V2 = 1. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.7320. 271. Vn V7 ' * 8. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. A. V8 JL. 21. i. ^/H . V5 270. Vll 212*. V3 = 1. A. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 14. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. VffV?.. V2 22 . 272. V8 12. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.2361. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V48 25. 20.
s Simplify a. V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.vffi^T _ . 1.1 xVtf a.2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .= 18. . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.Vs2 . Ex. . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .RADICALS Ex. 3.
6V7.5 3 = 125. By the use of fractional exponents .4142.2361. Vo1 26. V21 = 25 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.W3. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V5V7 18> ^SVg.218 6 . J?_. : and V5 = 2. . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. v 2V3 28. 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 19. Given V2 1. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 27. four places of decimals 23 . find to _!_.7320. = V3 = 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.
introduce fractional exponents : Ex. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. it to this form. on the other hand. According to G3. the If. In other examples of involution and evolution. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 11. 5. Simplify Ex. 4.RADICALS 219 274. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9. 2. v8f 2\/15. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 2 12. viz. 1. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. V643 . 8. \/l6*. 3 (V2~u)  7. V255 . \/125" . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. .
coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 .2 \/20. Find V4 + VJ8. 12 and whose product is 20.220 Ex. 2 \/18. Find Vl2 4. 3. is 11. These Ex.6 V2.A/2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. +2 Ex. and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vll . 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. The Hence ^11 .
member to 2. . Before performing the involution. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Radical equations are rationalized. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.1. r 22. 19. 277. Dividing by Check. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. The value x =2 reduces each . = xa + 4 x f 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Ex. +=.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 5. Solve vVf!2a = 2. first involution. V48 23. (2x xrf 1. i. VT . are radical equations. 8. they are transto formed into rational equations. x2 = x f 2. : 221 Vl32V22. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 4x x = 2. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. 4.e. by raising both members equal powers..V48 4 20. Transposing and uniting. a.
viz. V24~+~l = 0. 3. V4afT~l. x = J. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. the first member = V2. they may be extraneous roots. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. tion which has two roots. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. viz. f 25 = 12. a.3. 5. one root. Transposing and uniting. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore CftecAr. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Squaring both members. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Transposing and uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Extraneous roots. 278. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing. . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Squaring both members. Therefore Check. at . a socalled extraneous root.1) = 0. Ex. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 4#f 4 = 9. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 2. Factoring. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.222 Ex. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Dividing by 24. It = 3 x .
2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .2 r. is x V. If If x 3 = 3. or x *j. 4. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Hence there is only one root. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.3) (2 x . . 2 Clearing of fractions. and to 5. viz. Therefore.RADICALS Hence x If a. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. equation it is an extraneous root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. + 6~ieT~3 . = 3. Check. \ does not satisfy the given. . 223 x = 3. Hence x = the only root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Transposing. ViTie 4 z2 .12 . for it satisfies the equation . Squaring. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. (x x = 3. NOTE.47) = 0. Solve the following equations : = G. both members reduce to 5. x root of the preceding equation. . the right member = V2. Factoring.
Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore . Factoring. Ex.
2. Substituting. + 40 = 6. = 0. x =6 or 3. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 2Va. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. = 26. 412a* = 16. 45 14VJB = .f40= 5.8 z40 = 7. members of the equation were squared. 3. 2_8z 440 = 49. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 5.8 x + 40 = 36. 4. x + Vx a? = 6.*2a.i~24 = 0. Ex. o. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. x Since both =9 or 1. = 7. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. some of the roots be extraneous. This can be seen without substituting. Q .35 = 0. 3 6. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2. Vi 2 8a. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. _ 2 y . y then x2 . Let 8 x f 40 .
or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a. 19. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 16. 17.226 11. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a. 2. +3= 6. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.a 440 = 35. 12. 14.f 18 = 24. +x . 18. 15. 20.
<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. Without actual division. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. a? R = x* . = 2. find the remainder when m. Ex. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. then (x 2)Q 0.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. ax4 4.360 = 244. Hence. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.bx? + ex2 4. however. 1. we make a? what the value of Q. even if Q is unknown. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ^ = 381+2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. If x* . no matter If.4 a. 2.2) Q . E = ax + &z + m) Q.2 + 80 = 12. Without actual division.2 + 4. 227 . by dividing 3 x* f.2 x 5 by x 3. " Or.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . does not contain a?. could." transposing. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. if Q was known. 3 2 Ex.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).
3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. hence (x divided by x 4. 2 j 7. + ^by x + b. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . If the remainder is zero. x* s 2 4. 5 (4x . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 43 3 E. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. + 7 = 632. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 8. the remainder equals 8 2 x . + 6. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. fora?. if 8 42  . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.g. } 2 by a1.3)f 11 =. The Factor Theorem. 3.228 282.4(. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 5.949.g.8'= 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x m is factor of the expression.8.
& p*. 2m 5m . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 25. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a 5x 6.e.12 = 0.9^ + 23^15. 11.1. .13m + 30 10. factors of the absolute term. 229 1. 9. a? 19. 21. 8.12. 6. 2.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 3.49 = 0. f 15 does not vanish. 5. Factor a? 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. or x 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. Therefore x ( 1).1. + 27 + 27. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. or 5 4 + 3^ . 15. 8. 3 2 : 7. 18. then x8 7 x'2 4. f 5. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. The 5. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. Let x = . x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . m f m n 14. 20. i. a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a 2a + 4. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^10^429^20=0. 1. 24. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. + 15. _ . + ttt15 = 0.7 x + 15 = 0. a + 32. 23. f 3. 7 46 = 0. 1. 17. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 2 2. is a factor. Resolve into factors 4.r6 = 0. 106 division. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. oj 5x2 f3a.7 + 16 . are f 1. a^8^ + 19a.
Factor consider m m 6 n9 . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2.xy +/). 286. If n is a Theorem that 1. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. if w is odd. ar +p= z6 e. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. xn y n y n y n = 0. Ex. 2 Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.230 285.g. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2. 1. : importance." . It y is not divisible by 287. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. For substituting y for x. By we obtain the other factors.y n is divisible by x f ?/. if n is even. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. is odd. xn f. actual division n.
Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable.i mn f w 2). 3. as 27=0. 28. x3 8=0. 26.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. since it more directly to the prime factors.= . leads 231 is The first method. 27. a. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0. however.
x y. If two of the quantities x f y. in general. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. xywe have 3. 4 xy = 16. (5) Combining (5) with (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. of quadratics. xy are given. + 6 a?V . Squaring Solve (1). Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 290. * A I. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. = 6. & + 2 xy + = 25.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (4) Hence. 232 . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.1. can be solved by the methods degree.y4 is of the fifth degree. however. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.
= .g. ' 10. 3. but can be found. I I x + y=7. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 233 y. r (" 1 = 876. ^. x and xy are not given. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. The arranged in pairs. 1. EXERCISE Solve: 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 12. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. b=3. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. " "' "' { r 8.
Ex.. la.o 18.  . . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. or JJ. + 29 = 0. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.20) = 0. . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  42 y + Transposing. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).?/ i = 6. 6 "I 14. 2 (1) From (1) we have. ' ' . 19. I x+y = a. Factoring. 3. aj = 2. or y = 1 .i/ = r 13. 4 y = 20. A system of simultaneous equations.~ y = 5. one linear and ne quadratic. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. x " (3) 49 etc. 5. 7 .a. r^ 2 as ] f. I* Jj ^ [.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.  f J.
(x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3y) : Factor (2).3 2x 2 Ex. 10. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. = 1 3 3. 1. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. ' x*. III. y* + 2y = 3. quantities. x2y. Solve . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 9. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4 f + 2 y = 3. ':il e :) . If of the preceding type. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) (2) x x 5. Solve 2. = 0. } VI09.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 15 x2 . 2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2. = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (3) (4) Subtracting.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). = Ex. 11 a2 Factoring. 109 a. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.
can be solved by special devices. Bxy9. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. ' ^ 15. 150 */2 . A.125 ay = . y? a? f . 2 xy + y2 = 10. 298.175 ay = 12. . Division of one equation by the other. E. f 1 150 a?.6.3^42^=43. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.!. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).y = 7. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.xy 4. (4) (3). and others not belonging to them. " IV.
Some simultaneous ?/. = 12 J. Solve Ex. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. (1 > (2) 1. y . 2. = 189.. we obtain by squaring. x +y y etc. x 2 . jc~ y = 9. xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. * ' 300. we have from (1). i ^ *>. from (2). i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y = 3. B. at first it is unknown quantities.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Therefore x = 16. quadratics can be solved by ?/.
F+y+ . 2. 6. M6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 7. 239 Ex. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. [2x + : y= 17.
16.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 25. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. = 198. * . f 18. + o5)(6hy) = 80.21 ^ = 15. 27. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . . . = y 1 y* . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 19 ' 26.4 y = 47 a.
Interpretation . = 48201. ^ oo . etc 302. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. as a . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . etc. . finite  =x y if = x. or ~ indeterminate. y % 9 f*K 36. hence may be any finite number. oo 301. . 30.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y .of  According to the definition of division. 7' j/ 39. 33. 31. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 3 a2 38. . ~\ OK OO. Q 7. 32. 25 34.
By making x any * assigned zero. (1) = 0. Or. The ~~f fraction . 306. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1.e.decreases X if called infinity. = 10. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.g. x f 2. i. be the numbers. Hence such an equation identity.e.242 303. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. and becomes infinitely small.x'2 2 x = 1. without exception. cancel. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.increases if x de x creases. i. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (a: Then Simplifying. and . . (1). or that x may equal any finite number. the answer is indeterminate. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. TO^UU" sufficiently small. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. is satisfied by any number. great. as + l. ToU" ^100 a. creases. I. it is an Ex. . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . 1. Let 2.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.000 a.can be If It is made larger than number. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. equation. oo is = QQ. (1) is an identity.
is their 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve x a. 1=0. . y finite QO. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.e. (2). 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 2. 4 3 x x5 a2 . * 6. The sum is of squares 2890. Hence /. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve  9 7. = oo. two numbers is 76.8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts. EXERCISE 1. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. and a. Solve . z = 1 Substituting. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 3.2 y = 4. 42 and' their product is 377.
6.) 53 yards. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Find the other two sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.quals 20 feet. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the diago(Ex. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the edge of each cube. Find the edges. 255 and the sum of 5. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 14. the area becomes f% of the original area. 12. is 6. 9. of a right triangle is 73. The area of a nal 41 feet. increased by the edge of the other. Find the numbers.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 103. Find the sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. is is 17 and the sum 4. 146 yards. of a rectangular field feet. and the sum of ( 228. equals 4 inches. Find the sides of the rectangle.244 3. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 190. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find these sides. Find the side of each square. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 10. . 148 feet of fence are required. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. and the edge of one. 8. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 13. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. p.
and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. the quotient is 2. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the number. . differ by 8 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. is 20 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. irR *. Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
11. 4. to produce the 4th term. a f d. An arithmetic progression (A.1) d. progression. To find the nth term / of an A. except the first. The first is an ascending..7. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a. and d.. of the following series is 3. series 9. : 7..) is a series.. 3 d must be added to a. . 3. a + 2 d..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. the second a descending. P. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 2 d must be added to a.. of a series are its successive numbers. . each term of which. The progression is a. a 11. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 16. to produce the nth term. Hence / = a + (n . (n 1) d must be added to a. a 3d. 17. added to each term to obtain the next one. 10. 12. to each term produces the next term. ... 19. a + d. The common differences are respectively 4. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the 3d term.. . + 2 d. P. P. Since d is a f 3 d. 309. 15 is 9 f. f .
= 2. 8. 1. 9. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 7.16. 7. Find the nth term of the series 2.. . 21... . 3. 2 EXERCISE 1. 19.. series .. 6. 3.4. series 2. 1. 3. of the series 10. the term a. 6 we have Hence .PROGRESSIONS 310.. a = 2.. 5. 2.... 2J. 24. 7. if a = 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . ? (a) 1. . .. 4^. 99) = 2600. the last term and the common difference d being given. 4. 6. 8. 115.3 a = l.. . 5. 3. P. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. 5. = I + 49 = *({ + ...' cZ == . = 99. (d) 1J. . 5. 8. d .. Find the 12th term of the 4.. (a + + (a + l) l). 5. Find the 101th term of the series 1. Find the 10th term of the series 17. d = 3. P. = a + (a Reversing the order. 10. Adding. . Find the 5th term of the 4. 2. 6.. 1J.8. 9. P.
21. 11. 8. to 20 terms. .248 Find the 10. 22. 1. P. 12. 6. 3. 2. : 3. 23. 11. to 8 terms. 31. In most problems relating to A. > 2f 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 2J. 15.1 f 3. 33. 16.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 15. and a yearly increase of $ 120.. to 16 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 17. 19. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . \n. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 18. strike for the first yard. to 7 terms. 12. 1. 11. to 15 terms. and for each than for the preceding one.7 f to 12 terms. 7. . . . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 7. . '. rf. 20. 7. hence if any three of them are given. to 10 terms. . (x +"l) 4.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. (i) (ii) . 4. 1. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. . to 20 terms. to 20 terms. striking hours only. 29. 1J. 16. . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 13. 15. Sum the following series 14. 11. + 3.
and b form an A. if s = 204. 1.. if a. = 13. J = 49. . = 1014. P. I Substituting in (I) and (II). . 45.PROGRESSIONS Ex.1). 34. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. = 144. or if x Solving. n d. Ex. s 24ft last term 144.6 n). n = 6. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. Find the series. Solving.~n~\ 408 6). 6. 204 = ^ (a + 49). I. l)e?. the second one mean between the other two. 67.. P. 312. 89. a = 12. The first term of an A. 111. 133. Findn. The series is. d = 6. 6 n2 . 100. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. or 11 J. = n(104 . (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).1) . = 1014. a = 49 6(71 .104 w + 408 = 0. = a + (w. the and the sum of all terms 1014. From (1). P. 23. 204 = ^ (98 . is 12.e.6. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 2. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 144. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 56. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 78 n Substituting in (1). hence n = 6. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 122. 12. #. 78. Substituting in (2).
n = 4. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find a Given a = 7. n = 20. n = 13. n = 17. . a+ and b a b 5. n. m and n 2. 17. s == 440. 10. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find?. 74. f J 1 1 / . = 17. 6? 9. a x f b and a b. produced. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . of 5 terms 6. has the series 82. d = 5. 7. I. = 16. I Find I in terms of a. ceding one. 16. 15. = 45. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 52. y and #f5y. How much . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Given a = .3. Find d. = 1870. = 83. T? ^. Find n. 78. n = 16. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 3. Find d. and s. 14. Given a = . n has the series ^ j . Find a and Given s = 44. f? . 4. Given a = 1. 11. Given a = 4. How much did he save the first month? 19. 8. P. Find w. 12. = ^ 3 = 1. s = 70.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 13.
. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 24. P. 108. 4. 36. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. the first term a and the ratios r being given.arn ~ l . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 4 (1) . (I) of the series 16. . 2 a. 24..g.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. .. 2. 12. E. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . or 81 315. . P. I. NOTE. <zr . ..) is a series each term of which.. A geometric progression first. 36. called the ratio. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). The progression is a. is 16(f) 4 . ar. rs = s 2 . . ar8 r.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. +1. or. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 4. is it (G. and To find the nth term / of a G. . r n~ l .. The 314. P. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. ratios are respectively 3. If n is less : than unity. of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 36...
9. series 5. f. 7. . . 144. a = I. if any three of them are given.. first term 4. (d) 5. . 4. . .. (b) 1. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.. ..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 36. 0. volved . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. fa. Hence n = 7. whose and whose common ratio is 4. .l.. 25. whose . P. or 7. 2 term 3. 18. In most problems relating to G.72. hence. 72.288. 3.. series 6. \ t series . . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 36. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 72. 6. And the required means are 18. is 3. Ex. first term is 125 and whose common . 144... Find the 5th term of a G. P. Find the 6th term of the series J.54. (it.18. 576. r^2. EXERCISE 1. P. 9. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. ..4. . 80. 10. 36. +f%9 % . 20. l. Jive quantities are in. P.5... 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. 1. P._!=!>.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 4. 144. 676. . Hence the or series is 0. fa. series .6. + 5. I = 670.. whose and whose second term is 8.5. f. 8. ? (c) 2. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.18. 288. first 5. is 16. . 9. . i 288. .*.
may be than any assignable number. = 3. a. J...J and 270. 25S series : 32. J. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. Given r = n Z 5. to 5 terms. 14. 42. . 12. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. J. Find a and Given r = 3. == 160.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find a and n = 4.. 72.i a9 . . 12 terms. J. 48. 2. I.nV> i*> !718. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 8 terms. 22. 243. 23. 1. s = 310. 20.. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Z s. and hence ~ r . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. n = 5. to G terms. to 7 terms.. to 6 terms. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. n = 5. >"> . 14. . 16 . 4. 27. 21. of r n decreases. 36. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 81. . P. = 3. Find the geometric mean between 7.. to 6 terms. 54. . 15. 81. is less than unity. + 4 . a^. 13. M. be written If the value of r of a G. s = 605. 19. to 6 terms. 1. Find a and 4. 126. 24. . to 7 .. r .
The sum r. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G...254 Ex..= _4Z* . If a = 40.. r = j.3121212.. 1... 4.191919.01 ^ . 66 Therefore .. 12.. = 990 . = . . 2.= .. 100. 1.555.3727272 . P...... 1 r = . .3 + ..00072 f . ..37272 .72. . is 9. 12... 1. 9. 6.717171. . 1. . Given an infinite series of squares.. of all squares ? . 5. . 9..Ql. 250. . .. 40. 5.99 .. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . of: 11. . . . Hence .072...272727. 7. Find the value 9. 8. .. 10. P. 14. i i J. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. I. 13. ratio 15.1. 16.27777 . 3. Find the sum to infinity. 8... and the first term is Find 17. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. (6) the sum of the perimeters. = . . P. of an infinite G. = a ..072 + . =A+ 10 i. first and the common term... what is (a) the sum of the areas. is J. 4. 2.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. . . 16. is 16.)7?7272 . 6. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. i.
4 7.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 4. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 13. 22. 29.6) . 15. (xy) : 6 . l 2. a6 8 16 in . 26. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . 2 2 24. 21. (\ 9 . (s + i). 28. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .6) 20 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . . 16. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 17. coefficient of .b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the 6th term of (x . 10. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (a 100 . 20. /2a+Y\ 8. 12. 5. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. : (1 + xy. 25.b ). 7 . (a + b) . 14. . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (a2) 6. . 11.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.
1. ft) . + 2. 4 2. if x^l. 2. 4. 3.f ac 1. 3. 3. 5. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 3. 1. 4. + 1. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. 5. 2. 1. 2. 2. . 4. 3. 2. ^+^ 3. 1. 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 1. 2 .258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 1.  8 ^ 2. 4. 2. = 2. 5. 4. 2. 1. 4. 4. 1. 2. c = = = 2. 2. 2. + 2. 1. 3. 6. 2. y 3. 1.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. l. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 6. a ft c = = 2. 3. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. . if y=2j 2. 4. 7. 3. 6. 3. + c(a  c). 1.  2. (c 3. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 3. 5. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 2.c )(fta) 1. 2. 1. 5. 3. 4. 5. 2. 1. 6. 1. 2. 2. 4.  a)(a 1. 5. 1. 3.  2. c if 7 . 2. 5. 4. 6. 2. aft 3 + 4. 3. 5. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. if = = 2. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. if = = = 2. 3. 3. 3.a(a 4. 2. 1. 2. 24 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 5. 2.
7 y 2* 4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. x 3 11. 10. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.3 a?y . 15. 20. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . = 2. 12. 2 . 1.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .2. 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 1. 16. or . a: . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. ~c)(b. a 4 + 11 a .3 xyz.4.10. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 2 x 8. c)(x a} . ' b) + 3. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 25. . 21. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 15.5.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . (5.a 5 a . 21.1. 4. x 3 x' 14. + 4 ?y . 5. 6.  a) (c 2. .2 x?/. 3.259 x c) . 5. 26.a) . 7 xy 3 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. + 2. 9. .c' 2 4 / . 4 y 13. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 17. 18. + 8 x4 *y . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . r> . x3 2 a2 . c = 3. 4 x 4 .2.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 3.8 + 2 // . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.a8 . 41. 4 z . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 7. 2.2 x2 . 29. 5. 7y 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.7 + . 2  + 12 a 8 . x = 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . a. a. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .\ yz + xz. + 4.2 a?y + 3 aty .7 ys. 6 a4 4 a8 . b(x (b 1.r 6 x  4 xy . 5. 9. 8. 40. f 8. + 3 y 2* . + 1.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2. 8 .8 3 + 7 x4 . . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4.2 z8 4 x. a /> 3. x C 4 4x y + .a 4 . 24.x 5 4 .
c 3 a.4) .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .[4 x 4. 2 x 32. c 4. f ft.{G * 2 . 5 4 7 12 . sum of . 5 10 + 7 . 542 x 2 and .#48.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].[4 z 8 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. ft. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 34.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.(x 4. . : a x . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .(x* . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. .2 3 ax 2 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .c. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .2 .6 x ] . 36. From of 2 the 4.3 . and .. ft 25. 4 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . x8 x2 2 a'2x. 33. Take the sum 4x 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.a ft. Simplify 31. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.5 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.3 .x 2 4.4 ft) 4.x 4. take the sum of G x 5 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4. c 4ft.3 x . a  ft + c.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .2) .(4 * . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. x'2 . 29.2 x 8y2 44 .1)}] . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].3.27~~7)}].(7 x 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .(4 x 2 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.7. = x y ft z.c. 0" 30. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . c =x y }~ z.(a . 7 12 . . .c 4 3 a.?> x 4 20.260 19.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 4 4 4.1). 3 ft. Take the sum of 3 x 4.(5 c . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .(5 y . 4vTT~y 3. . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. .] 26. 4 2 x2 23. of a.5.x2 . (*) a  c.2 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 35. 4 3 5 y/ .6T .2 a .4.{2 x 2 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .x .4 Vl 4.8 3 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.
54. 2 52. .1).rf)} + a [. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .5 )}] + {4 c .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 59.{2 a (ft .12). .(6 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (1 ar+a. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .(2 a + 5 a . (/> 4 .5)} + (3 a 2 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].(2 a 2 .c 2 . 2 : 7e)a}].(7 a.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (5 a 39. . 62. 63.2x + 3). a {. 2 2 x + !)(* .2 zz . + 4x + 5)(j.3 *).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.(2 x2 .(2 .Z . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 56. (1 55. (.3).4 a 2 + a 4 ).JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 4 + 2 2 + 1). . 3 x 42.3 c)]. 67.b (c . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). . 57.{2 a . 60.2c(V/ . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].REVIEW EXERCISE 37. a .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3c). (.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.2a .ab .r 2:c+ l)(ar. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 65.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).6c) (a + f c). 49.(5 y .6)}]. 46. .7). 'J 44. 43. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 48. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].3 z 2 ). 2 ft 41. )(lz a ). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . + *+!){> + 2).& + {.6 xy . 64. 45. . 13 a .4 a .(7 i + 4 r:) .2 2 + 1)(7. .3)(*5)(* 7). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. (4 + 3a 2 .2 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .2)(1 .  2 a  {3 2x a .{3 c . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (x .96 [17 a. (r (1 (a.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 50.56.c).a~^~c)K]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 68.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).(4 d . 2 53.be) (a 58. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 51.[4 x  5 .[2 . (x.ac . .0)} .
n pc). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(4 . 2 (x 2 . ft /.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(a 2) (s 4 ft.5 .{3 a .c) 2 .2 ft}) f (3 a .x + y + z). (.y)\x y).m np c .r 2 . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 70. 4.q).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). ft 78.c) . 90. .a) 2 .c) j.c)]. 88. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. Prove the following 8 4.(a 48 8 8 4. 85. 1). b 4. ar .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (p 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 89. .(c 4. 79.O (a 4(a 4.c . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .6*y . 73. 82.2 (y 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 92.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .2y)(. (a 2 ft 2n 4. xy y 2 ).c) . 86.y). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .z) .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 74.b 4. 84. (x (x ( + *) .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.v) 4.:y)( a.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).3 a . 2 + a 2 ).am&t 4 A 2 *). 77.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).ft) 4 .262 69. ft 95. 1). 75. 87. 76.3 (ft . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.3y) a (* 2 4. f 72.c .z\x 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 83.c)} . 94. ft ft ft a}. 93.ft) + 4(2 . 91.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .z)(x y + z)(. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(ft 4.<f(p . .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 71. 4 4 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.(/>  3 v)^(.2 (a .c) 4) (ft 4.y + z)(x + y .c) rr identities. ft" l Simplify 80. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.9y2).
[10( 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).2y 2 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 116. 110. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).y 2 4.y 4 . 103. 114. . . 1). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 123. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".b) 98.&).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 124. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 120. 102. 117. 121.(x 2 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 99 100.2 2% 4.5 b*).4 aft . 108.3 a"+ 4.a".5 xy). 1O4. 109. (8 x* 115. r . (.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).*) (x 8 .y 4 ) . 10). 25 4 .(2 a 2 .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 105. 118.9 x 2 .6 y 4 4. 106. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .40 />) . 2 4 41 x 4a. 113. a*.27 x* . 26 (a 4 c). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).16 a 6 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.2 xy 8 .) .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. (80 a 112.(a 1 2 8 .1). 2 (a+ . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.v/ ~ // = a: . 3*. 122.r 4 4. (2< 107.35 x 2 2 ) .xy 4.(7 xi/ .
149.2) (a: + 3). 136.3) = 12 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . y (* l x. .(1 . 138. 3(2 x 134.3(* + 4) + 9} .2(5 .(x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).a:)]}.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 1) . . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.4(0 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.5). 42(3ar 145.2) + 2(ar + 4).2 7^~5] + 1). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(x + 3) ] . 5(2 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.8 6 . 128.3(2 z .22.2(10 x .5) = 12(4 x .7) = 4 .1) .3).27 a 3" . . 148.r + 7[or .(j a? 144.9) 4. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . (5a: 150. 143.n .(x f 9).G) . 1) = 2(* . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 135. (4 x . 3) = x\x . .2(4 . . 5 146.r>) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.18 *&) (1 .2(j: . o o 140. (*+ + . 2 4(ar . 7(2 x .3) (3 x 4. x 147.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .264 125.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.1) (a? . 137.2) = 3 .4) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).19) + 5 = 4 . 129. 10(2 x 141.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). . 126.5{.4) .7(4 * . 127. 142.3).12 M 132. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 139.9) + 3.3 x). .3 a:).
5)(. find the value of F.14) (a: + 3).(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .76.? .3) (j. = 2 C. 166. (a . If the area of the frame inches.1) (s + 3). 158.2 x) = (1 .29) 2 = 1.3) = (3 x .(5 x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.a:) + 229.z) (4 . + 4) (2 x + 5). 156. (x (x a. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. . 157.7) (a.5 x) = 45 x .6 x) (3 .l)(z . = 15.r + 3) .9) + (a.2) a + 7(x . 159..) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. and the third twice as many as the first. . + 10) (ar . 163.2) (j? + 1) + (x . will produce F. 265 152. 2 4 .2). (a. (3 O + . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. (7 14 . 162. .3) (3 .25) 2 .5) = (3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.19) + 42.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. (a) If C. transformed into F.T)O .5*) + 47. these two angles would be equal. The second contains 3 first.1) O + 4) = (2 * . How many 170. f^ + ^sO. a: ar a. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.3) (a: .8) = (2 x 4. .4) (a . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 160.5(x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.2) (7 *) + (*. sheep more than the 169. 164. + 2) + (5 . 154. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.24. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) (3 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.17) 2 + (4 x . . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The sum What 171. (2 . 165. =  (F 32). 155.7) (1 x . 161.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.2 x) (4 . 153.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 5(ar x . + 5) = (9 .
187. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. power one of the two Find the power of each. . The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 189. 10x 2 192. number divided by 3. and 5 h. + 11 ~ 6. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 15 m. 186. z 2 + x . dimension 182. +x 2. respectively. 180. younger than his Find the age of the father. 181. if each increased 2 feet. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 2 2 + a _ no. two boys is twice that of the younger. 13 a + 3. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other.266 173. 179. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. How many are there in each window ? . A house has 3 rows of windows. 7/ 191.36. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. A each 177. 190. 178. was three times that of the younger. A boy is father. z 2 92. Find the number. x* 185. side were one foot longer. 12 m. Find the dimensions of the floor. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. aW + llab2&. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. + a. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. train. . ll?/102. 4 a 2 yy 42.56. 176. 188. father. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 3 gives the 174. sister .
+ 8. 221. 232.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 209. 201.21 a:  54. 212. a.19 a .3 c/> + 6 cq. + 3a 196. 203. 8 a.19 z 4 204. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .8 6 2.x + 1.(b + rf) 2 . 8 a: ar. a a: a: 237. x 5 . 195. . 5 x 2. *2 234. x*y 223. 211. y 2 194. + 198. 3 x V . 24 2 + 2 . 218. 229. a: . 60 a 2  a: // 205.6 2 ?/ . 23 12. 245. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. z 2 2. ifWy+b. . 2a te 3% ly 247.12 * . 235.14 2 . + 30 x.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a. 227. 4a 2& 2 241.10. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . . 7a 228. 210.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 3y 248.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.10 y a x* . 2 x 2 . 217. 2 200. 230.6.6 y2 + 4. 6 197. # 2  29 y + 120. 206. xm+l 243.20 z 8 a: 220. 3 ap 2 .1. 3 x 2 . . a+a* + o a +l. 208. 233. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 267 199. x 219. . a: 231.77 y + 150. + 2 .c) 2 . 7x 2 225.6s. 207. 2 . 238. 244. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 213. 222. (a + . 215.10 xy. 216. 3y 2 + ary . 4 m +^. 2 2 y f 1. 16x 4 81. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 2 a 8 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.r?/f y 2 9. a^a 226. a: 236. x* + 8 2 + 15.3 xy. a 2 . 239. a.22 z + 48. wiy + la mx + aw.6 aq . 246. . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 224. z + 5x 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . a.c) 2  (a . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . .a 2/A 214 12 x*y .28. 12 x +4.64. 202. 2 a 2 .
* 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.14 bx a%% 8 .11 a 2 .18 xy + 5. 10 x 2 .8.5 ab f 2. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.12. + 8. a 3 a 2 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. + 23 x f 20.2/ 2 .3.1 9 .23 x f 20. x 2 f 9j: + 20.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. a 4. 10 a. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 270. + 20 x 4. 3 ay 4. 18 x 2 . 2 . a: .a 2 />c 2 f 3. x 2 + 5 f . + 8 x + 5. of: 266. x*y* 4.2 z . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .C.10 a 4. 265. 264. + 3 x + 2. z 2 268. 3 a% 2 .7 f 5. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . a. 22x2 a.120.&z.36.48 afy 2 .9 x . 2 8 . 1 x ar Find the L.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. * 2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .10. 7 ax 250. 258.3 abc . 260. .x . * 2 . F.6 by. z 2 267.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.G7 x f 33. x 2 263. 257.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 28 2 f 71 x .4 ab + 1.M. 2 x2 .15 + 30. 7 12 2 2 . x 2 . x 2 + 2 x .23 + 12. x 2 + 4 + 3. * a . 269.ry 21. 259. Reduce to lowest terms 271. x* . x* . I Find the II. 30 ^ .3 x . 6. 261. C. 2 a. 251. ft a. 15 # 2 z/ /.16 x .80. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).4.73 xy .(55. 5 x 2 256.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .11 x f 28.15. 254. a? a: a: // 262.91. 8 2 + 10 x . x 2 4. of: 253.13. 3 #2 255.r .9. 2 + 7 r f 2.2 aft*.9 x + 14.ry .a + 2 4. 252.
2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. + ac .2c a: 282. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2* + 3 x* 280. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .ar 1 279. a.(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .rL. *2 " 2 + Oge.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a.. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 285 z4 n* + a. 8 .!/.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 289 ' .
a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a (: a) (x 2. * 19 23 19(23 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x 7. ^_2*(m 308. Lnl + ar 2 a. ^. O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 6) _ ~ i 305.
.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. a: 1 313. (a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 . 1a: + y a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.(a . } . 2 + y 2 319. 1 x2 + + a. . (1 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 1 _.ft) 2 322.
250 5 10 2 325. .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. a: 2 x* .y20  2y + 4 2 . * 3a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 lOx 5x. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .15 33 .5 a .. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .9 *// + 27 .ll.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.7 xy + 12 x ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.2 +lOar 2 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.6* t 328. 20 44 333. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.V  + y  x 3y a . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 ..
7 ( ?f!?.r 5 2 . 1 345. a>74 . 338. xi 347. 5 343. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (a \ + lV. fl.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.. ** i. aj 339. + ni + . + l + IV. 344. a: 349 _ o. (ar \ 346. 352.) 2 . w \. ' 2 "l 5 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. f V. (aWi + iJ.y.1V. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. if a = 3. +^ a: y x . 348. \x yj 340. ( 342. \5yl 341.+ r .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. ?_2 ^ .
_ + l a 359. ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. y360. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (a a b yx c yabc 361. a2 4 . + x x a .
a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 4(* . . <3 378. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 379. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. ^ .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. + 1) 45 O 377. . 5*8. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 {2 x 381. __4 2x 3_ = !.*2 = 15. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.
277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. u '2 a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.147. . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. _____ . m x 398. .  J). ^ (a . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q..REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 401. a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. c . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).5 x =r f .8 = . 397.  8 9* x ~r.6  . 40.. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.2 a:  1.1 . f 1 1 + a 403. 3* 177.25 x + .25. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 ^ ~ a: a. 400. 396. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).75 x f . + 4 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 399. b 404. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.
a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. the order of the digits will be inverted. and was out 5 hours. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 411. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.c) .278 410. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 420. 18 be subtracted from the number. 418 ~jo.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. hour.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Find the number. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. In a if and 422.  a) 2 6 2a. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. (x . far did he walk all together ? A . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. How long is each road ? 423. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 421. Tn 6 hours .
279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 431. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.a 2^ 8 + aft* . : i. 2 2 8 2 . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. z 2 y. 435. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). d.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. y. 3 and 1J. a  t>. Solve 436. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Find the mean proportional to 429. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the length of the parts. . 430. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. wi* + y= ny. a + 5.iand 22 22 I a . : If is one equal 434. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .46 2): (15a 2 . find the angles of the triangle. find : a : c.& 5 ) (a 8 . 432.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . a. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. If a b : =5 n : 7. if .6 8 ). 428. Which ratio is greater. . Find the fourth proportional 426. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. b.49 63). 438. and : b : c = 14 : 15. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 433. . x 427. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.
. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).4 12 .. = 25. x + 17 # 53. 453. 42 = 15y + 137. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 9/> = 2 . />(. 1(3  a. . 444. 4 = 5 y + 29. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .11 y = 95. 8 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 454. 450. 16. 459. 3 . ft.rf2# = l.59 = 3 z. Find the value of a. 28 = 5 a . 5z4:# = 3. 7 a: .3 y = 3 5 f 7 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 443. 452. a: 2y= = 1 . 5 2 = 7 . a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 445. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 8 x + y = 19. 451. c. 9ar7# = 71.89 = q. 458. 449. 455. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 5x+4y=lQ. ?/ 447. .*. 15ar = 20 + 8y. . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. a: a: + 5y). if 2 ft : 439. 456. ft. 56 + 10y = 7a. + 5y = 59.35. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.(or l(*2y)=0. 7jr9y = 17. Solve the following systems: 441. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).11 7. /) ar a. 457. 446. 7a?y = 3. The volumes If their diameters.55 y = .7 y = 25. 448. 7 442. 3 a. . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 21 7 = 27 + Op.
+ eyn. ax cx by = m.+ =2.2y) (2 = 2J. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . (or . 475. ax by = c \ 472.?/ + 1 . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ^ + i^ = 7. 473.c=563y. 468. 8 461. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. x y 474. i = 5.. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. _ 469.  = 2. 465.7.
and the other number least. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 487. Find the number. Find the numbers. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. and in 18 months to $2180. How much money less 484. Find the sum and the rate of interest. age.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. the Find their ages. Find the fraction. 481. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. to . if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. by 4. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 486. and in 20 months to $275. 477. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find their ages. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. whose difference is 4. years. . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the numbers. A spends \ of his. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 485. 483. 479.
4 497. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 493. = 15. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. + y 5 y = 101 . a: f z = 79. 492. 4z+3z = 20. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 7 + 2 z . . * + 425  = . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. ./ 504. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 ./ f z =a. = 209. a. a: + // = 11. z y ifi = z x 502. a: 499. a number . 8. : Solve the following systems 491. 1. z y x 25 . a.5#+2z = $x a: G. 498. x s + y z = 18J . 3 a: + 5=84. 2a:f 7.z = 20. 494. 2 2 = 41. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. of two the sum of the digits also if number. *i.z = 12. and the difference of their Find the numbers. x y f z = 13. 496. 2 e.? + 2y = 8. = 20. + # +z= 35. \ . . x f y f z 29 . 3 x 500. ~ 507. y Solve : x +z= 5. 5 + a. ifi = x a. . 7. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 495. 1+1 = 6. . 2 a. 2y + 3a = ll. 2/>3r = 4. 4 506. 489. 5^ 9z = 10. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 3ar 503. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 490.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. 36 + c. ll" . 523. + : = 1472.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. i=a + 6 c. 517. z z =3a&c. + + 3579 2+?.
it is filled in 35 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number. If they had walked toward each other. 90. BC = 5. touches and F respectively. 527. and BE. L. N. Find the numbers. CD. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . When weighed in water. How long will B and C take to do . 530. if and L. . and CA=7.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. What are their rates of travel? . AC in /). 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 532. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. B and C and C and A in 4 days. it separately ? 531. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Tf and run together. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. In circle A ABC. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. if L and Af in 20 minutes. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. in 28 minutes. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. they would have met in 2 hours. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. M. the first and second digits will change places. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. Find the present ages of his father and mother. E 533. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. AB=6.
How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . c. 2. x*  2 x.  3 x. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 547. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. i. to do the work? pendulum. GERMANY. x 8 549. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. x 2 + x. the function. 545. 548. The values of y. 2. One dollar equals 4. x 2 544. FRANCE. formation of dollars into marks.e.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. 542. if x = f 1. b. 2 x + 5. . .  7. 543.10 marks. x*. The greatest value of the function. 546. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 536. 550. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. from x = 2 to x = 4. then / = 3 and write = 3. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. d. + 3. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.  3 x. e. If to feet is the length of a seconds.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. The values of x if y = 2. a. z 2  x x  5. 2  x  x2 . x *x + x + 1. 540. 3 x 539.
i. = 5. 555. 2.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. c. J. Solve// = 0.13 = 0. 3 x . 556.6 + 3 . 2 a.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. z 4 . + 10 x . x* .3 = 0. \ to t = 5. ' = 8.r . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 3 + 3 z . a? 4 x . 2 8 . 3 x* .REVIEW EXERCISE 551.G .4 x 2 + 4 . z 2 . 553. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. h. if y =m has three real roots. 558. + 5 . x 2 ~ 2 . 565. 566.4 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. . c. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Represent meters. 557. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. g.11 x* + + 2 8 569. a.= 0.3 . x 4 . 15.15 = 0.= 0.  2 1 a: a.3 x . 563. If y +5 10.r a: a: x a. a: 559. 3 .5 x . a.3 x . 2 567. 562.9 = 0.11 = 0. r?. x 5 . 568. a.17 = 0. 564.0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. Solve 552. 2 554.1 = 0.7 = . . and make the unit of the b. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .4 . f. e. . 18 x  4 = 0. j. 2 x 2 560. 572.r 1 561. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.
+ %) (a* + *) 5 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . (a  8 ft) . 4 a. 579. (a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 609.4.(1 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a 8 606. [ y =10. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 1 . + + 4 . 582. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 598. 608. 595. 2 611.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .2 2 + y. 588. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 5 a*.%) 4 (aa. . f ?>) 3 591. 64 a 12 603. a: . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. jj+. 3 (f.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . x [ ?/ 577. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 4 (1a:) 3.5 xy = 0. 6 + 1) . a 612. (1 + x a. (# 2) . (aiy. 597. + ^) + (air%)8. 604.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 600. 4 . 2  2 aa: 2 . x + z2) 8 . (1 (1 (1 . j^f = 3.2 6a: + 30 &c a. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a. a:.x + 2 )'2 601. a 2a. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 592. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 3 . 9  4 fSb 607. : y* or 25. . + . 599. xY.frf : 583.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 596.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 585 594. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 593. 589.
651. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 21. V950484 . 4J. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . VOIOOD + V582T09. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. GGff. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 624. 614. 210.150. 620.191209. 630. 632. Find the eighth root 617. 638. 2 + 189 z = 900. + 54 'x*y* . 644. 2 + 21Ga. x 2 641.8 aft 6 + 8 21G.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 628. 636.12 a?y + y*.\/4090. 7) 2. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 622.*. 49042009. + 2 21 x = 100. 2. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. = 87. 639. 8*' + 24* = 32. 625 : 621. (x 9 x 646. ft .V250 . 637. 643. 3a. 942841.15174441. 4370404.53 x ~ . + 112 a 8 . 32 631. 44352. /. 650.871844. 626. 615. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 0090.30. x 2 . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 25023844. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.2.1024 x + a: 256. : 5. 645. Find the square root of 619. According to Kepler's law. 623. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. V 635. 9g. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 9a. 371240. 494210400001. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 24 a 2 4 . find Jupiter's period. 634. = . 035. *+* = 156. 647t x 2 648 649. 629.49. 49. = 70.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 40. = 0.2410. 633. a 642.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 693. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . a.ax .c = 0.a a )jr . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 2 . 1 __ : )'*' _i. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. . 2 702. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ax 2 698. . 706. 708. = 0. 692.bx . 699. 707.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 694. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 696. ex abc= fx 0. 2 2 697. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 695.
717. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. **13a: 2 710. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. and working together they can build it in 18 days. sum is a and whose product equals J. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.292 709. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.25 might have bought five more for the same money.44#2 + 121 = 0. 723.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 12 4*+  8. 16 x* . needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A equals CO feet. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. in value. 729. a: 713. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 217 . 722. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 716. Find the price of an apple. 727. 721. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 3or i 16 . 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 724. Find two numbers whose 719. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 725. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.
(^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 36. 42. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).aft* 1 + a 2*. 39. 41. 43. .2)(x2 4. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).)(ai + &. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 33. 38.1 f c" ).l). n.X . 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2? 50.1 f ^ 2). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 37. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 46.2 ). 40.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (v/x). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).1 + x. 34. 32. 52.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. . 35.1 + c. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 1 6. 31.
. ~ r* x . 758. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 761. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. [1r^ T 1 i .1+J 756.294 753. 759. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. JU. 754. 757. 768.
87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 783. x 782. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . + 2V21. . 789. 16 + 2V55. .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.4 V(j. 787. 794. 14 791. 13 799. 10 785. 806. .12VIT. 103 788. 7512V21.2V3* ^ 807.2 V30. c 792. 790. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. . a 9442V5. 3812VIO. 793. 92VI5. Va 809. 786. 3J .VlO. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.
V2 ar 10.f 5 = V5x + 4. 816. 829. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . + Vx . 811. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 812.V? = 813. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 819. + 103Var.g.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 3 x + 2 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 836. \/12 a. /9ar a: = 17.79. Va: .\/2y  810. V3 f 1 V4a. x/aT+l . 818.Vc^lJ . 831. + ViTli + V7 . 814. 830. = 1. (x a: 2 ) 4 .13 = 0. 833.  5 + V3 f 12 817.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 820. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 815. V14 a. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.4 = 0.
3 x . a 8 850. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 870.3 . 8 2a. a. 856. 2 a: 64 y*. a l0m . 864. 8 8 848. 876. f b**. 64.ab9 ft*. 5 a 4 7 a8 . . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 27 862.x*y + 3x f 2. 27 y 8. 865.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a. a 18 4. 846. 8 8  13 a. 871. z*y 8 l64a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 855. 6 2 f 3 6 s.3 a:. a 8 869. a 8 873. 845. +3 4 +  4.  3x a. .7x + 3 = 3ar(a.3 Va: 2 . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 4 x 8 858. a*" & 6n . 868. 19 x 14. . 2 f" + a/ 15. 6. 4 a: 2 842. + . 861. f 841. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 4o. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 852. a. 4 a.10 = 118. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 4 x* 847. 8 4a: 8 a. a: 849. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a. 839. 840.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 875. 853. 8 860. a. 64 a 866. 851.1000 6. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 40 x 2 7 f 49. f 12. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 275 8 l. x 8 2 857.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . + 512 y8 874. 8 a. a: . y 4.1. 2 x 3. V4 x 2 . x 4 + f 2 a. + 1. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. . 844. . 16 859. 8^27^.28 a 4 xy 8 80.a. 863. 8 . a 872. a. 729 867. 9.12.
1 x 893. a: 884. a: 1 1 _ 5 892.y 2 + V(j. x 882. 889.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: 888. 5. 2 . x*xy. a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a# f + xy = 126. y 2 2 8f.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. M1 891 1 .35. 2 = 2 + 5. 896. y = 28. x a: lI = xz . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.sy = 198. y*+ xy . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 3 x 2 . a: + y 2 = 34. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 887. a. 900. 2 + xy = 10. a: a. 886. 883. 899.1 = 2 a#. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 901. + ary + 2 = 37.298 877. 895. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y 2 4. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 + y 2 . 878. 890. a:y . . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 .15.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy + y = 32. a. . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 + 2 f = 17. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a: 2 897.xy + y 2 = 19. y y 2 y 2 1121. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.Vi' + 1 1_3. . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. + 2y=\2. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 2 = 16 y. z 2 898. 2 + xy = 28. 885. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. f ?/ a: a: . . 894. x 8 3 = 13:3.y 2) = 20. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.18. +y f y = 7.
a:y xy 929. 2 + y = 2 a 4. . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 923. *y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 3 :r(3 . x + y 2 = aar. x f 2 a:y = 32. y x 2 = by. (!) * .3) 2 f (y . 23 x 2 . * + y = 444. + ?/) .y = a(ar + y). 3 y 2 + xy = 1.6. + ary = a*. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 2 2 2 916. 908. + y = 9. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 906. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + 2 ary = 39.y) (a? . y + a:y = 180. + a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. x 2 ry + y = 3. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. x 4 299 xy z 904. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy + x= 15. + 2 a:y + = 243. . (o. y . 4 (a. 907. 911. 3 y 8 ) =1216.x) = 21. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.23 = 200. 2 915. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.3(* + y) = 6.3)2 = 34. 912. . (a. 7 y . yz = 24.#y + 2 = 27. 921. 909. 905. 920. 2 5 xy = 11. Vary + y = 6. (* 918.y) (3 y . 914. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 2 * 2 ~ g. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 924. a: y zx 12. ^ 2 .16 y 3 8 = . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. a: * a: a: ar 928. 910.r a. xa 903. a. y 3 2 2 922.y).y) = 33. 917. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. + y 8 = 189. (3 x .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ary y = 8. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.2 y) = 49 2 919. = 8. a: a. or or a? a: a: . + y)(a. 2 913. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y2 = 22. x + y}(x + y) = 273. # + xy + y = 7.
= ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933.300 930. two squares equals 140 feet. is 3 . y( 934. y(x + y + 2) = 133. + z) =108. and the sum of their areas 78$. 931. 942. A plantation in rows consists of 10. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. .square inches. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 937. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. Assuming = y. and 10 feet broader. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. is 3. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and also contains 300 square feet. diagonal 940. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the numbers. and the difference of 936. A is 938. two squares is 23 feet. (y + *) = . 152. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 935. a second rec8 feet shorter. rate each man ran in the first heat. In the second heat A . z(* + y + 2) = 76. is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. How many rows are there? 941. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 943. two numbers Find the numbers.000 trees. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 34 939. s(y 932. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 2240. 944. + z)=18. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A.102. Find the sides of the rectangle. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. *(* + #) =24. feet.
A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find in what time both will do it. its area will be increased 100 square feet. and its perim 948. What is its area? field is 182 yards. overtook miles. that B A 955. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. distance between P and Q. triangle is 6. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find the number. and if 594 be added to the number. Find its length and breadth. . Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Two starts travelers. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. each block. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. whose 946. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A and B. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. sum Find an edge of 954. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . 952. and that B. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. set out from two places. P and Q. 950. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. and travels in the same direction as A. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the digits are reversed. is 407 cubic feet. 949. 953. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. unaltered. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the number. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the eter 947. . at Find the his rate of traveling. 951.
969. 958. Find n. 18th terms of an A.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 3 .. 975.V2 . the terms being in A. (x 4 to n terms. 3 + 5 7 + . 5. . \ . 16 962. P.to infinity. fourth of the unity. 961.. 1G series .. 1 to n terms.321? 965.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 12434+ j I 967. Find n f (ft) . '. 971.. Sura to 24 terms. to infinity... are 1 and sum of 20 terms.v 973.1 4 f j$V . !Ll^ + n . + (iiven a +  4 d .. Find the Find the common 977.454. 972..141414.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 9th and llth terms of an A. ^ Vfirst five 959..302 956.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 957.. . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. n to n terms. difference. .. 970. x(x to 8 terms. to 7 terms.4142 . Sum Sum to infinity. 4.3151515. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. P. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. J. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. = 4.. 964. and 976. P. . f + 1 . s  88. *" 968. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. (to 2 n terms).. ^ 1 ... 36 963. Find an A. 974. 966. Sum to 20 terms.>/) to infinity. Evaluate (a) . 5. P.  2. 4 4 to 7 terms . to n terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . are 29 and 53. Find the sum of 4.
such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.1 + 2. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .) the last term the series a perfect number. 985. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 0. to 105? 981.. . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. of n terms of an A...001 4. 303 979.001 + .. The 21st term of an A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.04 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Find the first term. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 4 grains on the 3d. Find n. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. P. and of the second and third 03. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 980. 987. and the common difference. P.2 .3 ' Find the 8th 983. The term. "(. to infinity may be 8? .. Find the sum of the series 988. named Sheran. 1. Find four perfect numbers.+ lY L V. first 984. 989. 992. 990. 5 11. : + 9   V2 + . 986. Find four numbers in A.. and so on. to oo. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to n terms. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.. is 225.01 3. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. P. The sum 982.
Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 1000. in this square a circle. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The sum and product of three numbers in G. areas of all triangles. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Two travelers start on the same road. are 28 and find the numbers. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . many days will the latter overtake the former? . third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. 999. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. inches. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. AB = 1004. in this circle a square. ABC A A n same sides. 997. c. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. (6) the sum of the infinity. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. are unequal. 998. and G. find the series.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. at the same time. (a) after 5 strokes. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. . The sum and sum . The fifth term of a G. 1001. 995. Under the conditions of the preceding example. P. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. of squares of four numbers in G. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1003. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. is 4. and so forth to infinity. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. prove that they cannot be in A. 512 996. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. ft. 994. P. If a. P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares.
) 1021.l) w f . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1012. Find the middle term of ( . 1011. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (1 1018. Find the middle term of 1020. 1006. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. (12 #) 7 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the expansion of (3 1007. . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the two middle terms of 1013. a: 8 7. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . + lQ . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". x) 18 . Expand  2 a. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.iV 2i/ 5 . 1014.ft) 19 . . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .o/) 14 . 1008. 1009. 2 ) 5. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.
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.... . 8 . . .. .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . ..... graphic tion of representa . . .. . . . ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .. lowest ratio " '* . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. 123 .178 Completing the square .193 11 . ... . 232 169 807 .. 37. ... Checks Coefficient 20. signs of Algebraic expression .. ... 97. 9.108 160 " .. .. 246 91 " multiple.. Aggregation. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 9 ** . 232 mean progression ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . 19.. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 129 54.. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. quadratic ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 158. numerical .. simple simultaneous .130 . linear literal Common ** * difference . 129. . . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. 54. . 112 54 54 251 . Brace Bracket Character of roots ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .] Abscissa Absolute term .... t 53 120 . .. .
. . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.108 Minuend . 241 123 geometric . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.C Multiplication . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 253 28 70 1.. . exponent . 114. Mathematical induction .. .31. . 184 54. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . ... arithmetic . . 212 . 109 102 . Product '* 76 Infinite. 84. 34. . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 45. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . numbers .. .. Like terms Linear equation . inversely 122 numbers . Imaginary numbers .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . L. 112 .. . . 17 65. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.154 Order of operations " of surds . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 45 Laws of signs . . 91 . 23 10 91 102. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. addition of " square of .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 9. INDEX 8 .808 Exponent Exponents. 45. . 143. . P . 189. . . . 180. ..251 Graphic solution of simultane. law of Extraneous roots . first and second . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Inconsistent equations . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . 227 geometric . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions... . G. 63.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 205 .. Insertion of parentheses . Negative exponents 11 . 243 7 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. directly. Geometric progression . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 120 Member. 195 33. Known numbers . 227 .. . .
. .... .. 45 Trinomial 240 .. absolute 54 Variable ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. 9... 27 17 Unknown numbers . . polynomial . ... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. Sum... binomial Third proportional Transposition ... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. . 129.. 4 155 9 " of . algebraic Surds ..
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
August. 1910.A. 8. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd.. . Published September.S. U. 1913. Gushing Co. 1910. Norwood. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1917.COPYRIGHT. Mass. Reprinted April. NorfoooS J. December.
29. 2. 9. 2. 6. 16. 73. 36. 20.000.000. 16. 16. 13 S. 6. 29. 14. 3. ^. 15. 28. 3. 13. 3. 14. 25. 14.000 negroes. 10. $40. 14. 20. A $90. 1 16. 11. 14. 27. 144. 8 ft. 3.. 1. 6. 10. 10g. 106. 7. 12.. 20 jo. 5. Page 8. . 5. 4. 24. 3. 11. 19. }. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 3 below 0. 12. sign. 17. 4. 9. 14.8. 30?. 8. 9. 3 m. 6. 16. arithmetic. 13. 7. 27. 2. 16. 28. 9.. B 10 mi. 192. 6 yd. 3.21 24. 49.1. 4. 2. c. 17. 8. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 18.000. 48 ft. 13.. 256. 11. B $4700. 8 13.  1. 64. $160. 0. 19. 12. 1. 21. 8. 24. B $ 128. 1.. 1. Australia ft.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 576. 25. 14.$9400.000 Indians. 15. 128. 9. 9. 8. 3. 10. 150. 16f 2. 20. 9 16  larger than 7. C $60. 13 V. 3* 7. 3. 3. 17.000. 12. 14 11. 3. 85. 15. 4. 12. 5. 1. 89.000. 9 m.000. 2. 32. 1. 8. Page 1. 12. 5. 3. Multiplication. 115. $100. 18. 7. 11. westerly motion. 19 4.. 32. 1. 7. 11. 16. South America 46. in. 13 d. 7. 14. 4. 1. 15. 3. 16. 18. 3. 32.000. 20 \. A Bl 7. 18. 1. 25. 16 in. V 23. 512. 7m. 5. 6* 16. . . 1. 10. 9. per sec. 3.00000001. x. 6. Not 5. 27. 13. 8. 22. 2. 6. 25.3. (a) (/>) 1. 17. $ 1 50 10. 72 = = 216. 2.000. 12. _ 32.. 37 S. 7. C $ 16. 18. 10.  22 20. 30. 10. 7. 1. 5. 5. 8. 3. 12. 21. i .150. 13. is $10. 16 in. 5. sign. 21. 15. Yes. 2  Page 8. 3. 16. 17. Page?. 6. 1.12. Page 4.  2 p. x. 26z. 6. B $20. A 38 mi. 2. 32. 19. 7. 2. 126. A . 6. 18. 1. 37.C. 3. 1. loss. 26.  1. 10. ft. 6. 1. 9. 0. 20. 4. in 12. T . 6.. Page 13. 2.  13. 210.2. 9 = 4. 7. + 1. Ot 15. . 4. 5000. 20 B. 9 14.. 2. 6. 2. 10. 2 5. C $1(50. 2 ~ 15. 22. A 15. 23. 49. 12. 2. b. . 59. 9. = 5 81. 12. B $80. 2. 24. 16. in.
1. 38 ab. 3.~4. 51 f. 11. 13. 20(. 11. 5.1. Page 7. 9. a ft c. 4. 2. 3(c4a). o^ft.. 20. #1111. 22. 237. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 28.94(>. 11. 2. 39. 13.a . 7. (a) 50. 13. 21 a 3 4 10.ab. 8. t.  0. 2. 57. Page 23. 3. 14. 26.6) 38. 49. i:5.. 12. 14. (a) <> sq. (a) r>23ifcu. 3 . 6.  1. 13. (59. (<7) (a) 314 sq.ft. 36. 38. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 8. 17. 16. 33. ft. 27. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . + v> 2 . 1. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). Va'+Y2 8^2 . ft.4  2ft 2 33. 31. a 32. I. ft. 25. . jrif 4 9. 31. 13. 19.r 2 . 10. :J!>r'. Trino inial. 22. y. 20. 32. 3. Page 21. 2oVmf?i. w.q 4. r/ \(\xyz. 04. 10. 1. 14.4 ft. m 24. ^. 12.ii ANSWERS Page 11.  40. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 15a. 15. 27.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 4 y/ . Polynomial. 28. 5. f  5e 35. 5. 23. ft' 3 . 2. 19. 17. 8. 6. a2 4 15^44. (c) S(i. (r) 2. 1. 3. 17. 5x+3. 28. ft f 19.'JO ft. 173. 3. ft. 17. 8.000 sq. 12yd. +/2(/. (r) 2000 m. 1. c. 3rf 27. 104. 2ftx. 0. . r+l. It. 1. r:A 29. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 0.900. 6<t. 1.  2 4 13 ft 2 .. 9. 21. 1. (ft) 7. 14. (ft) $40. 9. 1. 34.  3. 11. + ft). 43w//2 17. 8. 18. 8. . (r) 78. 16. 33. Polynomial. 13. 5. 29. 0. in. 3 a* + 2 at*. 22( 19. in.r~ f 34. rt. $3000 Page 6. 15. 4. 6. 2x' 2 5 . 14. 2. 0.  12. yyz+xyz*. 22. in. 30. 36. . mi. 21. 4.14 sq. 16. 32 2 ftc. (c) 8. 13 cu. 92. (ft) 12. 2. Binomial. 18. (ft) mi. 12. ft n. Pagel4r. 17.'J.5f> sq. (b) 135 mi. 18.5 (ft) sq. 30. (r) 2G7. 4. ^). :. . 7. 0. .. 12. + 5. 10. 12. //'.. 16. 5. 3. 34. m + 3(a. 9. 35. \'\ 4. 15. 27. (ft) Page 2. = 81. in.. 31. 24. 240. x^ 20. 15. 42. ??i??. 0.GOG.. 29. 8. II. 30.. 15.  xV 3 y. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 32. 18. 41. 21^. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 5. Page 31. 7.<>Gq. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 25. 58. 20. 22. 3a. Monomial. 15... = ()501. 21.  11. 00 24 04 ft.9?/2 8. 14:). WIN + wiw. 37. 12 a.000 . 50. 26. 18. _ 4 . 14. 27. 3. 24. . 9. 25. 4 9/^/rl 2. 4. ft. 0* Page 3 w" 0. . ]*. 35. . (a) 200. 35. (a 4 4. 5. 7.rty8. 12. 0. 5. 0. 3. 16. 0. 27.. arty 1 20. 14.r f 15. 8. 3. 4.ft) 4. sq. vi 14. 314 sq. <i~ 26.x. 19. 23. 27.32 c2 > ft 3 . Page 18. 7 7. $80. 7...
'  .  4 b 17 y*. . 2a. 12. G. Page 28. 17. 58. 43. 55.  b* 4 r 1 . 19.h. 0. 26. s_r>a5. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 2. 11. 15. 6. 51. 31. a4 4 4.a f 54.2 57. x  + 3z. 25.aft. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. Page 8. 5x 2 rt ft. 1 + 45. 1.  12.2 a. 21. 2 6. 19. + 2y. 1. + 6. 2.1. 36. 2x 4 a 13. a + a. 12. a2 9. 8 b. + 8. 25 47. 2. 2 y' 4 . 1.x f 1 2 .2. 8 . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2 + a4l). a 3 . 1. 0. 8 8 . ?/i 13. c. a  ISjfat. 4 21. 24. c. 18. 28.a~. 5. 5 2 Page 29. 364c. ab a. a).3 6. 2. a + (ftc4df). . j)(g1. G a bd. 37. 31. 34.r 2. 2. . ' 12 m?/'2 27.3x 2 2 tf. m*  n*. 20. 25. 2. 2 .. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 8. r. _ Page 30. 16. 1. 24. _5a<>&43c. 4. ii\ 22. 35. (2n' 43p 47 ). x a8 1. 2 3x f z. w 17. 4. 42. . 4. ar. + 4 c.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. a 3a 4 2 &. Exercise 16. . 6.5 z?/ + 3 y . \ :{ 2 a 48. c2 . 40. 2 a f 6 414. 3 m. &. 21. . . 10. (5x47 3. ?>4tl 53. 3 Ji 8 . 4. + c 4 d x + 6 e. n*. 3. 2m. a a. 16. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. ?/.7. .  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2 3. 15. 4wipg>' 27. ri\ 18. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. . 2 4. 20. 3 a3 & 41. .4 d. 32. 13. 19. a  49. 2 . 10 m.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 14. ( 7. a. f 2 ?/  2. 8. 7  # + 12. 4. 6.  17. a 6 2 . 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .r 2 + 4?/ 4l).  14 afy . 26. 8 + 2 a . 2. 10. ft Exercise 17. 13. 2. . a' 4ab + ?/.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 814. 2. . ^ <.6 x + 0) 16. Page 44.2 .  1. 25. t). 9. 14.4x. 1. 4ft ~. 7  a + 2 + c. 5. 6. 2// 16. (yz~d}. 2 2 2 6.Oa: + 10. 7 a5 1 . 14. 4. 17.  23.2 a2 2m 2 4. 11. 30. 18. 20. 32 w 2 w. a2 24. a 52. mn.a*. 14. :5 41.r. 3. 29. . 7.  a: 2. 0.c. 12. 5. !  </ . 2m + 2w. a 4 + ft. 2 17. a 3& ..11. 2a: 2 4x.8(c + a).4. . 21. 2.ws 2 ft) . Page 7.1 . 4r 2 .(7x2 Ox2). 24 b 46.'U4j>.(2 x2 .5. 8. 22. .a'2 . 33. . 10 x. 2. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. a f 2 f 2 9. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. w* ( . 36. 10. a 10w. 5. 26. 2 a 37. 1 4. (mn} 11. x3 . 59. 7. 11. 38. 3. 7. 7. f ft 9. 56. 50. ?> 22.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. lOrt 15w4.2 ft 2 r2 10. 34 39.  b.l. 3 a . 18.a . (w4w)(ww). M + 10. 12. ti. 22. 24. 15. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.abc.4c 3 8 8 J.
14. 343. 26. 4 a2 .6 2 . 29. 6.. 2*8f x2 6x4. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. ! 2. 28. 30. 1. 5. fa 2. 11. 12. 34.19p" + 19^ 10 . 15. 32. 2.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 31. 52 + 6s 12. 2 2 2 . 2''. 1. 17. 34.12. 4 fc. Ox a 5 . 31. 19. 3. . + O4 66 . 102. 17. Page 38.12. 9. 32. . 15. 29. 40 r 2 . 29. 120. 14. 216. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 90.. 20. 13. 26.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 22. 4200. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7G . 3. 12 ^. 12 x2 2 . 16. 18. 6.6) =a2 31. 24. + 58 . 18. 10.. 18. .. Page 5. 10. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 34. 24. 14. 1. 21.32 y s s G . 16.36 35. 14f 5. 30. 16.14 w 2 2 . 25. 21. 76 8 a' 1 . 8. 4 jcy*z*>. ISartyW e*f*tj. . 13. 3. 29. 17. 13. 13. ^^ = 20. 1400.1. 161b.44 aWc 16 abxy.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 7. 3 a 3 . 15.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . a: . . 18. 7.15. 2 8 xy f 4 a.21. 35.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 9. . 18> ^* = a .r% 2 2 ry. 14. 24. 18. m. 8. +. . 10.64 190 p6. 2 . Page 7. 20. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 5aft(a 126 2). 16. 16. 15. . +15. 2 * 80 . a 8 . 60. a. 4. 3 a 2 46.18 w w + 10 WI M .2. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 161b.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2. 13. 4aWy. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. ?> 4 . 0. 1. 2 a2 (y 2 .7(50.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 127"'. 66 8W 34. 60. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . s 9 ww.26. 23. 7. 30.32. 2 ). 16 lb. 18a% y. 7.21 a 3 c2 21.>(/ r .10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 0. 23.28 p'^/. 10. 360. a. 36. 20. 27. 38 a*b 6 : 24.25 + 14. 8. 27. 210.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 23. 108. 6 . 16 51. 8. 6". 04. ll 2 i. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. ci 5 . . 22. 20. 42.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 23. 64. 66 39 k* . 28. 4. 20. . f 26. (+3)x6=+16. ?/ . 25. 1904. 14 m 2 . 22. ft 17. 4 a8 . 12.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 17. 84. 27.(3x2_4^+7). 11. 3300. //. 30. 83 In + 1 n*. 8 . 38wiw. n (a6) 125. a + ft. 9. 1. 30. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 20 aW. 28. 25 4 4. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .:>/ . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 4. 19. 770. 28. . 19. 1.000. etc. 27. 3.16 x2/ 5 4. 8. 2. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 24. a*b*c. 15. + 7. 4.8 12.20 xyz . 108. 2 n8 29 a + 30. Page 3. 19. 2 7t A. iSx8 . 4. 4. 33. 21 a'&c. 216. 25. 33.19 + 2. . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. x2 xy42^. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 27. Page 36.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 20. 9 13. 2. 21.69 rt + 21 132 + r . . 15 lb. 6.14 . 37. 2 w +2 2 . a. 2 ). 11. 11. 30 n?b*c*.16 a 2 + 32 a . 22. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 15 q\ 6. Page 35. 33. 25. 24. 1. 3(*+0 + 2). 12. 30. 18. 6. 42.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 30 j9 jt?g j . 5.11 xyz . .
^/> 8 4 . 14. x* . 19. x 4 ?/4 + ab .00 + 37./ . + 12. . +   5).6 x2 13. + 3)(3). m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 24.712. . 1. 36. 32. 2 . . ^' J  7 f 12. 41. 23. 28.8. 2 j3 Z . 4x21. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. (p 2. 2 a 2 + a . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 2 4 2 2 64 . 441. 10. 5. a3 0.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 33. + 7 6)(3a~76>.996. 8. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 2 a' y' . I/). 35. x4 28.x2y22. 7. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.009. 36. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2 1: 21. 39. ^V^4 . 3wi2 m Page 42.r . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 5. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 8.000. 26. 35. 40. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 7> . r. . 1.54 p 2 + 81. 11. 2 6' .2 6 + 13. (n 2 5. 10. 42. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. + 4 a +4. 4. 2 0)(p + 5). 10. 10.009. 27.6. 10. (w4)(w + l). . 36. 1. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 8. y. x*2^f I.r . 38. 44.35 ab 9. . 31. 32. 2). 9801. 998. a + 25. 56. p 2 . G a6 2. 3. 9999.10 x + 25.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. . 40.606. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.810. ?/H)0.098. 41.. 10. lflrt 2 8 + l. + 4 t*. 8 a W .25. . (a (3 54.. 40. . 39. 484. . . Om2 4 6m 6. (w+4)(m4). 25 a 2 6 2 . p4 + . 21 2 . 12 x2 . . 7. 57.16 a3 f 50. 55.m 30 6 4 1. 26. 34. n2 a4 6.ANSWERS 28. . 31. 2 (5 a 3).6 y4 10. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 4 x2 13. . . 1. Page 39. 2. Page 12. 14. 10. 4 + 25 q*.2 y*. 34.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . ft' 11. 4 2 //.008. . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.201. 4. 20a 2 21a + 4. 14.004.r* 2 30. 10. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 1.6 xy . a' .000. .2 x + 2 x.^ + a? + 1. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 10.2. + 2 9. 52. a + 56. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. +  m' 1.49. a4 4 ?/ . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 25. 8 38. 2 62 V2 132. a 2 .3. 9. + 10 + 121 y*. 4. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 11. 29. a + 25. 9990.^V"' . 2 4 a + 4.500. ~ 6 20 .14 jp + 49. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 18. s rc 47. 33. (a + 4) (a + 2). 37. 9.4 a&+ 4 &*.4 12. 2 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.020. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 30 x + 19 x3 . 7.001. 4 . 17. 33.4 n. 37. 19. 29.ab . ab . 53.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 15. 10. a2 ' + 48Z100. 4 21. 1).5 ~ 81.15. 999. m 2 . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . x2 GiC+5. 1.10 35.404. 166. x 48. fo*. 2. 2 +10s281.1. ab. V + o ft .ri 17. (m + 6)(m3).20. 27. 4 . 9 4 /> . 24. 2 fr .84 a' 9. 45. 36 a 4 . 31. 2 12. 30 /><. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 25 25. 3. 10 a 4 ?.994. 6. 30. 16. 51. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.^. 10. ' 46. 15. 6. m 3 j) 3 .p132. n + 2. 990. 10 a' 2 .020. 7 . +4 34. ) 4' 6/ 49.
x 2 + 2r f J. 4.1. 8 ?/ . /r . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. a. 6. 7a3ft.2 <</. Page 22. 50. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.3 5.2 2 . 3.rw f 8 . .24 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. '. 19. 2.9 4.15 21. 3*y2 w + 1. ft. 44. a 4 4 ft. .8. 9.2 ar.4. 01. ft* ft / . 5. 7 r . c 12.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .2 wZ 4. :r !>.23. 1.10 2 + z 2 410. 16. // 19. 5 4 a Oft. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 1. . 2 ft 2 ?nc w .2 ac . 12. r 7.> 10. 11. 1. 10. . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.y3. 8.7. 2 4 3 9. c3.+ 77 15.x^. 20. +w . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 4. 10. 26. 2 12. x 4.5 mp. 6. f>r* 4. 16. 8. yfl.12 aft 4 20 ac . 5 a  (5 ft. . i 9. 18. Page 7. 24. 6. 135.9 d. 6. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.  11. .  3 c. 11 4. Page 48. ?/2. 4 pq.8 y. 49. .1. j) . 8 x . 12.21 2 2 f + . i 2 tji. 5. 14. l 4 . 13. 17.1. x4. 1000 1000 . aft 12. 3. 2 . 10. 5. as _ 10 16.27 x 2 4. 1. 10 ft. 14. r/2 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. .2 ftc . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.r' ~ 16. w 2 .3 ry. 2. 12. 2 4.2 . 8. .1. 2 2 + 2 a. 2 ?/' .1. ft ? ft' ft ft. 7. ??.25. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 1.3 3. 1/*.lit x + 4. G. a 10.  12 y 25.r . . 6x 3. 2. 9.30 ftc. 14 r 2 . 2 . 1. abc 7. 20 15. ti'jry1 7. 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4 a* 4 9 11.34. Exercise 27. ft 17. 4 c m .3 x 2 2 4.2 1 //. 3 aft 20. 4. m'2 3. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. . r//. 14. 3. 4ft.w.15. 14. 2. 11.2 2 2 8 .VI ANSWERS 43.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 9. 14.n.r?/ j/. 17. 3. 2. 23. 13. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 2. 19. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 5^418(7. 4 ac. w . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 2 1.2 . 4 x.r" 20 S? . + 4. 8.3^V. 13.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 75 a 2 29. 5. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . . 2 ? 14 . sr 11. 13.2 aft 4.5 a . 3. 18. 9. 5./ 4. a 8 4. 21. 4. 4.r?/. 2 4 2 x 4. Osy. 15. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.  10. 4xy + 13 <) . 4 d 2 4. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.r'^ 15. *3 y 4 . 16. 46.25 c . 2 ^r ???' 2 . + x?/ 2 1.000. 3. a 2 . 4. aftc 52. aft. . Page 13. 1.3 a 41. . _ 2 a . 5. + 3. 125.6 :rs 4. 4 a 2 4. 3 a. . 21. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .8. 17.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .29. 12. Page 51. 13. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.2 . m L 4.  5 z* . 2 ?/ 4. 4x43?/.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 5. 15. r ft.rw.2. Page 11. 4. 9.1*5 2 r 2 . 8 ?/ . 22.1.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 12. 13. z.10 xy*.8 yn . 8. Exercise 2 a:// 26. . 47.5 n*. 2 a 3 ft.r ?/ ??i ?). 5. 6. 8.  .1. y 7. 5.
20.. 2.7). 13. 31. 39. 4^ = 100. 8. 24. 5. b. 13. 25. x + 1=a. "mi. lO. 34. 5. s. 44. 1. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 12. 27. 36.x700. 15. 10. = 5 ?i x 460. 8. ct.6 = *. (c) 2x.r ct. 17. 50= L 100 15. 19. 37. Page 13. 28. 47. y 50. ft. x 49. + f + b 2. 19. '^ . 'nj 100 a 28. x. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. + 3 = 2(3* . 25. (</) 2a. 29. ^ 12 sq. vil 56. 11. + 3x + 2y + 32. 4 f 39. 16. 10.200) f(^ + (e) 200. d + !. 2. 46. I. 1. 42. </ 20. 6. / + y + a// 12 yr. 2b 22. X 60.  1$. 7. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. . 2. (> 27. 45.(3x+ = rraxlO.ab a. 2. # + 20yr. 6. 59. rn mi. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 6. xy ft. 7. 7. . 20. 10 >_&. 3. ft. x y $ 6 yr. 58.  2\. 1. (>. 100 d ct. 44. 10 yr. 7. Page 6. 5. 40. sq. 00. 100 2. 14. fix. 4. 33. 14. 9. ( a f 4. 3. 1&. 0. % 4. 10 a. 3x2. 1. 3x  1700) = 12. 6. I. + 10 b + c ct. 100= ^. r tx mi.10) 100. 26. 15. 38. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 800 = x + 1300.  6 10.. Page 61. r>?imi. l. !). 29. 3 9. v (6) 2x. ? 43.ANSWERS Page 9. (d) 2a + 10 = n. x = m. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 2 ct. 100 14. }f. 7x 2 Page 21. 16. Page 40. d. 5. 2b. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 32. 23. 33. 5. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 4(a ft) c = 8. 16. a 8. 8 n  10 yr. 1.p+7. 23. (a) ' 12. b. m+ 11. m +~m 3. ct. 17. 30. 22. 9. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. Jj12. 10. y yr.r1. . 2. 57. 21 2. 20. 41. 13.100. ft. 43. " lir. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.. 11.. 4. 10 x sq. 2x + 35. 2. 11. 60 25 1. f = eZ 2 x. (2 a. 30. <>. 7. 5. 0. x 2y 10 act.rr2. 7. 41. 3. 2=10. . 36. . 17. f (I.  9 = 17 a. n M.000. 18. 4. 7. 35. 10. 37. 22.(3x  700) = 5. + 4x 3y 34.  />) a = all. ct. 4. 4. 12. lOx 10 + w. 18. y 100 a 24. y ?>i x + 26. Page 31. 6. iL*. . . f 6)(o 62. ] 2 ri 42. a 10. 38. x 48.
z?/(4^ + 5xy . 1250.22. (e) i* + A. (yll)(y4). 11 pV (2 p8 . 05. 42yr. 1. 4pt. 12. 7. 2. 18. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1. 7. 480. 3. 10 yr. + 7)(y3)..2). 3..5. 9 in. 2 2 2 5.(5z .000 ft.2. (y 13.. 10. 2. 78. 1200. 5.000. 1. (a 4) (a. Oaj(o62cd).3aftc + 4). 10.000 pig iron. 1. 8. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 1.21. 8. 11 in. 15.5. 8 2 19. 12. Page 7. 70^. 15. 200..000 Phil. 2. 18. 150. 7a*fe(2a & l). 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 11 w(w' + wi . 74. 6. a a (a 8 a+l). 30 mi. 55. 6.000 Berlin. 10. 2.000.5p + 7 g ). 25 yr. 17. 72.  PageSO. Page 7. 16. 20 yr. 6. 8 12. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 11. 4. 18. w (/) 64. 15 mi. 7. 8. 17. 13.. 10 Mass. = _?_(2ar + 1). .7.. 9. ^ . 5. 10. (a + 6) (a + 3). 10. 100 1. 5 Col. 25. 40 yr. 80 A. 68. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). Page Page 4.11. . 9. 1313. (p + 7)(3a5&). 13. 30 yr. 10. (a + 4)(a + 8). 50. 67. 3. Page 5. 20 yr. (y7)(y + 2). 45 in. 300. 14. 2 3 6 7. 10 Cal. 15. 29. 13. (*4)( + 11. 12.000.. 20. 15. 8. 82 mi. 30. 70. . 2).000.. 14. 20.16. 12. $40. 12. 19.000 N. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.. 6. 4. 24J.000 copper.210^. (a + 5)(a + 6). 20 yd. 9. 3. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. (y + 8)(y2). (a5)(a4). 3 (a +&)(*. Page 79. Page Page 4. 160 lb. 10. 8.. 6. 10 yd. 23. 10 yr. 52.3. 90 mi. Pace 65. a 12. Ib. 5. 12. 9. 3 hr.1). 1200.24. 21. 15 in. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 2. 100. 9. 15 yd. 11.0. 14. 28yr. 1. 11. 8 in. 85 ft.000. 3.3. 11. 4. 6. 6. 5pt.000. 6rt 2 11. Page Page 480 12. 9. 9. 2.8.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 2 2 ?/ 21.000 gold. 12 mi. 3. 8. (y8)(y + 2). 4. 5. 8. 22. 7 hr.. 200. by 12 yd. 600. 7. 14. 6. 78. 1 lb. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.79. 250. 14. 15.3).000 ft.y"). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 30..13. (ro3)(w2). 8. 5. 13. 180. (z5)(z2). 4. 5$ hr. 75. 25. 7. 2$.. 71. 3x (3r. 13..10.6). 90.. 3. (c) ^ v ' .411.0. 2. (m + n)(a + 6). ( + 4)(*2). . 5 lb. ~=90.000. Y. 4. 14. 20. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 1. 7.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.
(g . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (a2 + 10) (a2 2).. 13.3)(z2). Yes. 14.y4 ). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 24 9.* (2 y + 3)(y. y(x. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (15z2y)(x5y). 18. . 6.9*).1). a(2u. 2 3 by2 Yes. . 100(x. (a (p8)0> + l).2 by2 6. 22. 11. Yes. No. (w* (3a26).6) 2 2 . 12. 31. Yes. 8. 3. 18. + 3)(c44). (:52y)(2a!3y). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 17. 34. 2. No. 22. .  x (5 a. 11. (5a +l)(5a l). x\x 24. 30. Yes. Page 84. 20. 24.ANSWERS 16. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (2 a? 4. 10. 12. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 3. (ay8)(ay3). 103x97. 32. No. (a + 8)(a3). 27. 26. 100 (a. 5.c 2 ). 17. (4y3)(3y + 2). 10(a . 3a. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 9. . 34. 1. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (a 3 + 10)(a. 7. 29. 216 aft. 22. 10(3 5 6) 2 .y) 2 aft. 26. 10. a . 33. Yes. (<7 20. (5x .3). 33. y) 2 29. 4 (a . Yes. Yes. + 5) a. + 0(90 Page 85. + 4) (a.4. 9. 23. 24. (2xl)(x + f>). . 28. 6. 40 x. (0 + 6)(66). 2). (* + y)(zy). 32. a. . 27. 10. ( 2 4 19. 16. 27. 24. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 19. 26. . 16. Page 82. (2yl)(y + 9). 9. 8) (a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). a*(5a f l)(flr . 25. 10(a + ft)(aft). (m7n) (a. 9. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 23. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (13a +10)(13a 10). 15.2 ft).1). (a a: 19. 10(2 30. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 2 17. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 25.7) (a. Yes. (w + 20)(w + 5).2). 7 6) (a 10 6).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 7. 35. (ft + ll)(aftll).2 y). 4. 20. . . (15ay2) 2 . . 13x7. . 21. 21. 31. f 2).6) 2 1. 2 2 15. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 7. (m + w) 2 5.+4 y)(3x4 y). 2. (3a. (3*2)(. (2 *+!)(* 9). 30. 26. 28. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . ix 18. (6n + l)(+2). (y + 4)(yl). 2 No 4. (m + n + 4p)(w + . (a 6 6) (a 4. 21. (9y4)(y + 4). + 9^)(oxy .1). 2. (az + 9)(ox2). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 9. (2o + l)(2l). (4 18. 3(x + 2)(zl). Yes. 5. 16. 17. (y8) 2 2 .r2).8).1).4p). 12. (4al)(a2). (10a + ft)(10aft). 20. (5wl)(m5). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 11. (a. 36. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 28. x(x +y)(x y). 8. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 22. + y + . 14. 25.5y)(3a. 25. 1.7)(2z f 1).4 6). 8. 3. 14. Yes. 23. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 10 a 2 (4 . 1.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. + 2y).11 ft)(a6). y) (a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). Page 83. 15.2). + 3). 21. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (4 13. Yes. (x + y4 )(x . (w ~ n (x . + 8)(g3). 23. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). Yes. (3#y)(+4y). No. 25. 35. 29. 10. (6 a. (4a. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). No.11 6) (a 4.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 19. . . 3)(3a. 4. (m + n +p)(m + wp).   .
8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 8. 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 13. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). r x 2 */3 .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .  WIM. 5. (^ 7. x43. 37. 2 k (wi 4.4). 8). 14. 8. 27. 5. l. (5 26. 14.X 5. 24x sy s 9.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).) j). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 10. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (m  I)' 6. 4. ( { &). 7. 6. Page 86.4).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 2 2 10. y(2x?/). x(x f y)(jr . 2 (a 4. 36. .1). 19.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).1). Page 92. 4. 6.&). 5 x8 3. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 20. 18.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 22. y )(.y. 13 x 8 2 .b. y). 12.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 2. 7. a8 . 3(. 13. 42). . 15 M. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 4 6. 2 8(w . 8. x  1). 13( 33. 4. 12. 38. ^ .7)(^ {I 12.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . y6. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). Exercise 46. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). a (a + 2 6). 7. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 4 a s &8 . 17(x43//)(x2y). (16 4  2(5 n . b) (r 4. 2. (* _ 2 )(a 4.4. 7.4. 4). 2 y) ^ .8).'})(c . Gp). (w4w) 2 1. Page 90. 4 3.8) n 43*). (^ + ?>_8). 32.y)(fi a . (.  (w' 4. + 3.&).?50)(xt/z.?/). 3x(x?/) 4. 42a 3 x. 14. 4  9. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (!__/>).1) 3. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. a x 3 10. a 4.3)(x 4. 10(2 (3 4. 6. 28. 5. 2. 1. 11.0+ 12). (x.y '2 2). 2.?>) H. a 41. . ( rt 23.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . a 4. Exercise 47. 13. 4 a8 . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). ?i(w 4y) . (5 31.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). ah}. 2 + . 5. 2 1. 4. 39. (7/1 2) (m 41). ( a ^)(^3. x . n  r)(5a 10. 30.8) ( (16. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (a &4. ( y). (a 9. 35.2)(x 1. 17.n). ofc)( fid). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 8.7s) (2 a.3. 15.2). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.'J)(' . 6. x 4. 16. 14. Page 12. 8x. 11. ?>). 11. 6. 4. (c. 450.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (a />.^ 48. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 3 x4 .y). (14. 12. 3. (5^4. (f> + fo 7. (w * .5 m2 x2. 1(V/ 88. 7. ( (<> r4y3 .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 8. . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.9).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 4. 5  (2 2 . 2 2 3 . 2(m4l)' . 6 f c).  29. 7. (x//. 41.2). 40. Page 89. 6. 15. 8.'/)('< 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). 8.. 11. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (a 4.42 x 4.))(x  ^OC 1 1).!) (x42)(x2). 2 . 2. (r420(4 10. 4.e 4. 16. Page 87. + 2 //). 2 21. 24. a + a b. 9.36). (5a+l)(9a). (> 1. a 2 (a9). . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .2 y). .3. (2 a ~ f> b 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 9.l)( a 25. fi(c426).
// m+1 !+*?.6). + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6). + y) (a: y). x 22. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 30(3 2 (a 15.  1). x 24. +5 1.ANSWERS 10. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). b ! 21. 13. (a2)(a + 2)2. + &) 2 ( . a 23. 11. 18. 2(2al) + l). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . ?_!&. x 12. a 10 25.
0.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i. + 2H 1 ^. w1 + ac w 4 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 4 L 8 2 . ' 2 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.50 ~ 1/2 . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 2 a. 6. 6. c 8. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . a 5. 7. Page 100. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .. A^. 11. i^. Page 101. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.  **/* + 84 _. 4. xy 43. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 6. 28.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. _*^p5_^^_. 30. 26. . 6a5f^. 4c 10. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. ^~ 29. + lH + . 1. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.
8j_m 7 3. 14. f Page 107. 5 be _J_. J. 4. 12 28. I) 2 3z 1. 3. a 17. 23. ?+_!?>. 39. 12. (>. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 29. 32. 1.  10 X + u. 6. 4. 9. 10. +3 ( + 15. x 1. Page 113. ! 4 20. n . 3 7 i o. 4a3ft. 9. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. Of.ft . 4. J. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 5. 6 . j L . 20. 4. 31. 26. 16. ^_. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 11. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 11. 19. 15. 43.^U\WF### X<6. 1. 35. 11.L+ft. 14. 3. 21. 6. ' 6. J. 25. x\. 33. 16. ?. 1. 1. . b 2. 18. m 9. 9. 17. 7. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 14. a2 2. 21. 5. 3. b a f +c 14. Page 106. 34. 45. 37. 3. 10. 15. . 7. 24. 6. 1. 4. 4. an 18. a. 7. 0. 3. w^x 2 b Page 105. 6. ft. 0. f 7. 1. 4.^_. 38. pf n 6 1.y 7. . 5. A. ^i 11. Page 110. n 16. 42. 17. 8. 11. 6. y(x + x ?/). n m a + 13. 11. 7. 1. 8. 15. 13. 3. + f. 1. 21. 1. 27. 2ft a i m x. Page 111. c 8.  V o 4. ac mp lf> n 12. 41. 12. 30. flf. 1. (y + (z 12. 44. 5. 46. 2 47. 36. . 40. x 05m ' 5. 2) 19.
9. w 44. 5. 19. 10. (a) 12 hr. 27. 9J oz.000 1 = 23. 8. Yes. 17. 30 yrs.. after 18. 31.137. w 18. (d) 500. 2x:3y. _JL. 13. min. 4. '"I 22. = A's. $0. 10. 16. 35.  + .. 2. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.. 11. 12. 55 mi. 4. 300. 1:1 = 1:1. 13.000. 22. 26 mi. 7T 2 Page 116. 4. (ft) 28. Page 125.15. 1^'.139.001. 4. a 4 ft. 17. 74. silver. 24. 1. 4~r~ n . 5 2. 10.000. 5ft 30mi. IV s. 10. 20. 81. f. No. after 20. 13. Page 121.000 If da. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 5. 15.. 8.} da. (d) 4 da. 12. . 7. . 1.0 & .. 3. 1: ~. 7. $00. 11 hrs. 12. 9$. 14. 32. dn ~ mi. 0.  C ./hr. 18. . 18.XIV '/ . Yes.000. xy. ANSWERS 16. 5. * 7:9.004. 1:1 = 1:1. (a) 25. () 2.. . 10. Yes. 38ft min. No. [>> ^ a . w 21. 21ft min.x + y. 2. 3. 75 . 3. :2./hr. 6. 9. Page 124. (a) 4 min. 28. 500.10. P+ ^ 33. 10 yrs. $45. jj. 10. 7. 4. 1:4. . Yes. " 0. 212. ^p^ r ~ 7. 3. 15.002. Page 118. ~m . 17. 1 : 12. 13.138. 20. 300. 9. 2 20. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.0. 16. 40wn. #V ~~ 34. Yes. n 32. ^?i min.2.9. 18. gold. 10. f . 14.. (ft) 5 da. 5. Page 117. 9ft. J. 10^ oz. 21. 3. min. 19. 7. 2:1. 1:3. 19. 3:2. 30 mi. 275:108. 33. 11. 26. 20. 14. 26 30. 21. Yes. 6. 11. 3 da.2. 15. nm. (r) 3^ da. 8301 hr. 6. 24. 5 25. (a) 30. 7} 18. ^m . (c) 8300. ft.11. 15. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 1:1=1:1. 8. 3. 24 mi. Yes. 17. 7. 16. . (c) 2 hr.. 40 yrs. J ^'. Page 119. 23< &n b ' . Yes. 9. 30. 19. 00. 7. 15. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. $40. 1:1 = 1:1. 30ft. 10. (ft) 5 hr. 15. 14. (ft) 104. 33.. (ft) (r) 8 hr.. 15. 4fl M_.  29.000. . 36. 40 mi. 8. 7 . after $12. 300. 10. 1. 34. 1. $30. 8.003. 1 da.
11. 2. b x 37. 12. 3. 4. () Directly. 11 5 .3. 2. 3. 29.2 x. 6 10 = 12. y :y =. 8.7.1. 1(5. 5. 58. 54. 3 2=3 x. J pq. 9. 4. 11 w a 13.1.^ 0?j ' gms. water. 3. 15> 9. Page 5. in. 2. a 3. 41. 20.15 x. 38. . 127. Page 134. 8.) 31. 10.12. 2. . + b 7 . 26. 27. 6. : . 31J. 8.5. 30. 14. 4.' : : : : <>.3.3. "lO. 41. 5.3. 9. 1.1. 9. : 23. 3. 59. lo mi. 1. w. J.7. 1. *. . a~. J. tin. 9. 19 OJ. 3. 17. $. 200 mi.3. 2. 7. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 17. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 2.46. 5. 43. 6. 2. 2. . 2. 14. 8. 141. 24. . 44. () 7 Page 126. 13J. 5./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 49. 5. 6..36. 16. 56.2. \\. . 19. 23. s<i.3. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5. w 8. 13. 50.12.2. 24. 5. 3}. 2. 21. 4. 26. 2.4. 20 20 J ^. 7. (I. . (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. I. 7. 9. 32j. 9.J 3.x a.4. 3.5. 36. 5 2. 5:0 = 10:12. 40. 22. 4. 55. 7. a f 2 2 = 5 x. .4. : : T 1' : /> : . 24 1 (e) Directly. jc:y = n:m. 21.3.20. 20. 7^. 25. 7. 19. + W. mi.3. 6*.3.5.5. 2. ini. 6. 11. 3  24. 4.2 oz. 16. 39. x:y a: b. x y y . 10.  ?. 7. Page 131. 4. /. 1 18 = 3 51.r. 2. 46.J. : XV 27. 945 11 10 . 4. 13.8 oz. .22. 7.17. 22. . Page 132. 15. x y = 1 = 3 2. 2. 12. 7. 4. 20 cu. 9. 40. 13. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. . 47. 1. . 4. (a) Directly. 14. 5.  28. 53. 1. Page 133. 12. 13. 3.5. 10. 52. 174+ Page 128. y a y = 7 0.5. 18. 19 3 . 25. 11. 11. mi.a. t 5." ^ 2. 2. 3. : : .2. 1. 3.5.6. 7. land. y . 8. 2. copper. 6. 1. 30. 28. 7. 36.160. Page 135. (</) ft.840. 19. 2. 7. 4."2:1.15. i. 3.5. 8. 31. Of. 4. 35. 9  15. 45. 15. 2. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 23. in n. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. cu. 2. 4.000 sq. 32+ mi.4. y 1. : />. 7. 3. OJ. ~ 1. 1.1. 4. . 2. 1. 2.2. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2 n . ' 55.. 10. 7. J. 2. .4..9. 1 rt * vm^1.57.000 sq. Inversely. x 42. 14. 5. 7.3. a +b 1. 5:3 = 4: x. 25. 5.5. 11. (b) C C' = fi JR'. Page 136. 2. 2. 16. l. 5. 9. Page 9. 17. ig 6. 3.].3. 1. 48.C ?/ a .  19. 3. (b) Inversely. 8.*. 57. 12. ft. 4. Page 137. 7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 3. \.li. 138. = 7 b'.1. 7. 2. OJ.ANSWERS 22.
. $900 5%. 10. 7. . 3. 20.3. 5.$2000. 1. 3. Feb.7. (c) .. & part of Sept. 5. 20 & Oct. 14. 14. m f 8. &. (<f) 13. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 28. 30. 00. 5. 17. 8. 3. 3. 3. 5. 13.. 3. 0. 10. 6%. . 4.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 5. Page 145. (ft) 20. 26./hr. 13. Apr. 4. 10. a. 2. 1. 1. 4. 2. 4. 40. 4. 6. <*ft/ bd 1. 16 to July 20. . 3. 5. 7.2. yrs. m .  Zn  "(^ll 14. 7. 2. (5. 1. B's 40 yrs. 24. 10. May 5. 12.1J. Page 153. . 2. 26. 3.0.. 2. 2. 11. A's 50 13. 12. 19. 18. 20. 4. m f 9. 31. 15. 24. ft 3. J. 4.l.8. 1. 1. m + n p. 18. ' . 7. 6. Page 152. 1 (d) Apr. 147. 2.XVI Fagel39. C's 10 yrs. 19 gms. 11. Nov. 6. 2. 5. 5%. 2 a. 2. 11. ad _(?jrJL. 20 to Oct. July.3. be 7. 9.0. 23. 1. ^. 2t2. 6.10.4. 10. 2. 18. Apr. $6500at3Ji%. About 12f. 25. 40. ad AzA. Page 143. & May. Page 151.2. 72. $3000. 12. 19. 21. Oct. a =J (n  1) rf. 12. 4. 11. 0. 3. 2. 1. 32. 17. 11. 7. parallel to the x axis 0. 4 mi. 4. 5. 24.9. C's 30 yrs. 16.3. . 6. . ' 6 3 a. 23. 7. 23f . 20. 423.  17. 4. 9. 2.65. 27. On 11. 3. u 2ft. 9. 20. 6 cows. 9.. . 21. Nov. 24. yrs. Nov. 4. through point (0. A a parallel to the x axis. Jan. 16. 1. . 2. $ 1000. 20. 3. June. Jan. July 20. Jan. = ^ a Page 141.. . SL=J o ft r^2. . 3.  11. 11. 4. 30.n + p. 6. be 10. 6. 5. On the x axis. 15. 17. Apr. 8. 22. 16. . 4. 90. 8.^. Page 142. 3).4.1. M 2. 3. 3. . 12. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. Nov. & part of Feb. 16. 7. 29. 2. 2. Jan.. 9. 4 ' q. 100. A's 30 18. 3. Page 22.$5000. 1. at 15. 1 (c) Jan. 3. $4000. 7. $500. Jan. (a) 12. 2. 3. Page 149. 2. 9. 3. On the y axis. July. 7. 30. 3. 7. 18. (ft) 23 J. 4. 10 sheep. $250.1. 16.4. 14. 2. 25. 10^ gms. 25. 1. 4. 1. 5. 16. Page 146. (a) Apr. 25. 8. Aug.33. 15. 3. The ordinate. B's 15 yrs. 0. 2 horses. 13. 6.
7.. . 13. 19. 1. Indeterminate. (<?) 2. 1.2 (ft)  1. 1. 2. 2. 28. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 2..75. 3. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .  .59 .5. Page 164. (ft) and (d) 2.  1. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 13C. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 8. 2 l. 8mW. 2. Page 158. 1^.75.5 (ft) 3. 12. .41 and .1. 14. +3 4. 3. jgiooyiio 17. 15. ' :=_!. 2. 22.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.73 ami .24 .25.84. 1. 1 23. (a) 5. 2. 5. 1.27. 1. 25.64. 3. 9. 15. 20. 125 a 8 12. . 4}.5. 11. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (gr) 21. 0. (c) 7. . 125 16. a 6o&i85 c i5o . . 14.73. (ft) (d) 2. 26. _ 9 x ^27 1 . H. .1. 3. ft . 1. 6. ImW. 3.59. (ft) 2. .75 (ci) 3^. 27 27 81. 27 19. 27. . (/) 3. (a) 2. xy. a 29. 3. 5 and 2.25. 10.34F. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 11. 5.41 and 23. 10. () (rt) 3. . . 1. 13 . 3. 2.79. 17. 2. 3. 4wn8 + n4 5. 8 1 f f g*. 125a 28. 4. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. (e) 3. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 5. 3. 2. Inconsistent. + a 4 ft* . 4. Page 159. 5. 1. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 2 a&m Page 167. 5.83.25. 3.13. . .. (a) 4.6. 14. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 2. 1. 1. a + ft. \ft) 5. 11.4. . 2. . 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 18. 0C. SlstyW 7. 1. (a) 12. * 16. 13. 8.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 21. Inconsistent.25.3. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. ." 23. ft 2 4. 13. 3. (ft) (ft) 2. 15 .25. (e) 2. H.  12 ft xW  26 31. 19. .79. 22. 4. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.  1. 8 a1.7. 9 and Page 166. 3. 81 ". 2. 5.24. 3. 3. . 1. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. .3. xW. 1 4. 2. 2.67. 5. 2. f 10. a 10 ' a ll V&. 12. 10. 30. 1. 3. (c) 2. m. .73. 2. 24. 4. 20. 1. 4 ) 21. 3. 4. 3. f. . 32F. . 2ft4 Page 168. 18C. 14.17 (ft) (c) 2. 1. 1. 8. Page 163.24. f12 wi 9. 6.. 9.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (/) 3. f. 1.73. 3. 1.75. 83.64. 4. . 2 2 22. 16. xg . 10 C. (c) 14 F. . 3. 30. 15. .83. 3 . Indeterminate. G. 4. 24.
11. 12. a.2). (1 (x2y). 15. 2. 8. 3. 90. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 9. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 2 2 4. 20.f 1 m 9 16. 119. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 8 /.7 /)). 5 5 8.y2 ). 420. 7. 5. 2 4 8 2 . Page 171.83. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 5.1. + 29. 18. c 10 6 :l 20. 13. 11. 16 6 w . 3. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2. 26. (48 + 6. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 3M. .5. 84. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 9. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 23. 6. 9. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 36. 2. (3a. 33. 15. r> 4 : 1 . (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10.GO a c + 23. 20. 19. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. +35.94. 13. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). ). . 64. . 20. . 9. 309. 21. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 6. (4a2 9& 2 13. fe *?>' ?> fi . (ly). 1. a ).  +X '. 17. + l).1. 20. . 14. Page 172. 11. 70. 9. 71. + (win .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . + Z). 15. 14. (2 a + ft). 6. 1247. 6. 19. 12. 27.a b 22. 1 1 ?>). 10. 2038. a. 18. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 24. 3 2 ^. 2. (a 2. ( Page 174.037. 14. 6. 21. 98. AN S WE no . +3 + 5 4.10 a~ + 5 a . 2. 7. 31. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 10*. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 99. ? : 1 . 12. 7. 247. 2 2 7. m 13. 300. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 17.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. (a + 2 +l). GOO 2 c 2 . + y). (l + x + . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 8. a: l . 5. + + ?V 22. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . I 8x2). 4. (x + y\ 90. 72. Page 176. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 17. 1. 101. . 5. 16.5). (x' l). 40. 8. 11. 16. 10. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 5. . 2 12. 8. 8. Zll. 18. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 6 (\x 3. 3. 978. + i)). ? .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 57. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 35. 2 49 .  x. 76. 16. . 4.^). 3. 4. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 14. 90. 25. 180 . 9.+3^ + 4. 10 x G a 4 . . ^i. 30. 00. rt . /> 4 ).i c 6 15. a 2 . ??i ?i . (a + y+l). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.6. 237.3 ab + 2 2 ).x ). 30. 10.XV111 7. 763. 4. 1. 1. 25 19. 34. 32. (Gx + (i + 2a. (ab + c). 28. Page 170. 0. 3 6 23. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 15. 3 2 8 3 12. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 22.r 2 + 6jt).
11. 7. 1. 31. . 3. 30. >i 27. 44. 4. 3. ^.  1. . 6. 2. V35 1. . 11.798 yds. 4 a. 10. 4 W**. 12.13. 12. . 5083. 20. 5.925 ft. 8. 12. 9. 1 7. 25. 13.  5.  2. ^^7m. 6. 3. 9.4.  43. 5. . 34. 8. 36. V2.. 15. vYb. 10.6. 6. 32. 6yds. (afl). 10. or 3. 2. 23..469. 22. 5. Page 179. 40. 4 n. 17. 5.005.916 yds.*. 16. 15.18. 7. 8. Page 184. Af^. 10.237. Page 177. 1. 5. 3. 13.1. w. 14. 33. 1. 26. 9 15 ft.645. 5. 14. 10. /. 10. >TT 26. 2. 1. 19. JJI. 8. 12. 8. 36 in. () 2. (6) Vl4 3.. 16. 4. 2. 47. " ^_ 22.}. * 1.a. 2. 4. J. 3. 9. 7. 6J. 6. 2 sec.742 in.. m.236.. 37. f.522 38. 14. 5. . 3. 4J. 48. 25. If ^. 12. }. l~8.935. 5. 5. f . 7563. 4. 12. 34. 7. 4.5. 11. 17. 20. 1. 3. f. 2. _ iVaft. 4. 3. 3. 5. 21. Page 183. 7 in..i. m.  3. 1 f Vl3. 15. 8.1. a + 61. 46. 4. 1&. 3. 39 in. 7.367. 21 in. (< + ?>). 6. ft. 39. vV'TA 24. . 7. f ^ is. 6V21..w 18. 3. 25 J. 28 in. or 5.6. 3. 7}. ft. 16. {. 6V'2J. 14. f f V. i ^. 40. 28.690.. 4. 29.4. 13. 12. a. ^. 21 28 ft. 11. 13. i. 6 f !. 36. Page 180. f 3. 7 45. 2. 29. 1. 42. 50. 9. 13. 4. 15. 2. *. 19. \/3. 7. xix 26. 31. 15 1 10. Page 181. / 11. 6.  14. 1.Sn. 2] see. 1. 270 sq. 1. ZLlAiK 19. Page 185. . 17. 21. 6. 5. 29.  f. 16. . 3. 9. V17. 41. 10. > w ft.60. ~ V^3. 1. 24. V. 4. 2. 21yds.6. 11. 15. 21. 5f. V J l. 3J. 30. 37. 9. 28. 5. .?.243. 2. 39. ft. 6.. 35.6.V 8j. 4 TT M 28.. 2. . V2. 10. . 18. 27. 3. 14. 20. 7. 9. 49. 7. 2. 4. 9. 7. 7. 18. ii :J _7. 35. 5.ANS WERS 22.4. 6561. 5. 27.5. 32. 4. 1 38. 33. 1. 23. 16n.6.  f. 24. 4. 23. v 17. 12. 10. 2.
3. 24. 49. 3. 2. 2. 12. 3. unequal. a + 1. 43.2. 4. 10 in. t is.48. 2. 2. 6. 32. unequal. 47. 0.4. 21. Real. 19. 0. 1_^L ft 14. 3. 20 nii. 2. 27. 9.2. . 23. 11. 1. 3. r* i. 3. 44. 6. 12.  24.2. 6. 0. 22. 8\/2 17. Page 191. 3. _ 19.4. 2. 0. 0. AB = 204 ft. $30 or $70. V7. 2. rational. H. .  1. 19. 2.  2. Page 190.74. 1. VV11. rational. 45. Real. 37. ft. 64c. 13. 53. 10 mi.. jr .12. 7. 3.3. 35. 2 V3 in. 120 ft. f 6 52 a. 7. V^l. AB = 3. 1.2. 26. 1. 30. 4. 1. 36. irrational. Page 189.4. #<7=3. .  6./hr. 6. 39. 20 eggs. 2.37. unequal. 64.  i. rational. 13. 6.l. 1. 41. 2. Page 192. 23. 4. 0. 25. 40. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .0*8. 3.6. a. %. 15. unequal. 2. . 0. irrational. Imaginary. equal.1.7. 25. unequal. Real. 5.02. a8 . 1. V^l. .2.23.41. 15 ft. 6. 28. 12. 2.7. 38. 3. . 3. 1. 70 ft. '  f 5.70. orf.23.6 = 0. 1.a. ' 1.Oa. 10 mi. Page 188. 3if. 2. 3. 6. 8. 24. 25. 1). 0. 16. 24.$40 or $60. . 18. Page 187. V2. V^~2. i .. 22.  5. 8. 46. 58. 3. 4. 0.  1.2./hr. x*4x=0. 18.a. U. 2.5 x + 6 = 0. 4 da. 1.2 x2 . 1. .5^. 6V64. . 21. rational. 4.  1.59. 1. 33. V2. 2.4. 25. 8 or 12 mi.  13. 7. 1.7. 1. 26. 2. 1 3. $80.62. 6. 3. equal. 2. f. . 42. . 10. unequal.]. rational. . a + 6. 0. 1.  5. 14./hr. = 0. Real. . 2 ft. 1 . 20. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 7. unequal.. equal. . $ 120. 3. x2 + B . 0. 2. 50.3.  1. Real. 0.10. 15. 10. 26. 57. 0. 9. . 56. 52. 2 . unequal.XX Page 186. 23. 1.2. 4. Imaginary.12 = 0. 3.  9x <). 17. 16.5. Real. Real.. 1. 3. 27. 2. 2. 4. . . 28. 21. (5 10. 10. 3. If. .48 3. 9.'. . 27. 28. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. Imaginary. Imaginary. 12. 7.17. 15.2. 0. in. 0. 0. . . 34. 2. 6. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. 6^2 in. 7. 55. 20. i. 19 in. 4.. 1. 35. .* 2. x* 51. 12. 16. 2.  2. 3. 2. 5. 8. 9. 4. a. 26. x 14.a 3 a. *'' 12. 8. 5. 3. Real. 18. 14. 20.2.4. f. 4. s 11./hr. ANSWERS 22.3. 31.1. 5. 7. 11.2. v^^fcT"^. 6.. 3. 1. + 11 x. 7. 48. 3.1.  1. unequal. 1. 29. 5. 5 ft. 10 or 19.  Page 194.
16. 21. 1. . m. 17. 4. m'. 45. 5. r*. 56. 30 a. xxi 15. 2. 55. 4. 84. 29. 28. 5. a.ANtiWEUS rational. 21. J. 49. J. \ . v/3. 19. 11. 2. 3. . 8. J. 'J. 5. J. 29. 7. 18. 5\/5. 6. 19. 38. 1 39. 39. 0. 5. 1. 14. l  5 12. 44.  48. 15. 1. ) 2 >J i 10. 2. Page 196. 20. 33. 3. Page 200. 30. 4. 47. 1. 3. vV. 2. 7V7. 47. 13. ifa. 8. 58. 9. 18. \. ar 1 . 12. 33. 43. Page 201. 9. vm. 25.. _! V3.  f. p. 22. 20.  a'2 . *V. 2. 2V a. 54. 9. 17. \/r\ 11. Page 199. 14. . 37. r. 7. 2. 20. 31. 1. 2.//^.1 5 15. 49. &. 14. \a\ \/^. 23. 11. 3. . 49. 16. y . JV37. 20. y.  5. 41. fx'^z'l 23. n\/* Page202.^7. 42. 32. 49. 23. \/. 1. 60. 0. z + 22. 30. 3 4 11. 6  AAf. 9. v^T4 m. 7. 3. 125. 3. 59. 2. 51. 2. 19. 1. : . 50. 5. 8. ^49. 2. 15. 25. 18. 19. x. 7 . 22. 16. 4. 8. v. 10. 3. \/3. . 28. 31. . I.  f . 13. 4. 9. 8. 1V1. (m 26. 53. Page 197. 8. 4. 46. 3.32. 6. 52. . 13. 48. \. J 3. ^Sf 3 38. 1. 24. 10. 8. 1. 5. ? . . 1. ). jV 10. . 2 L ( V." 17. 10. V^ 34. 24. 27. 57. x$. 10. 1. 12. Jb \. 33. 50.17. v'frc 18. Vr. 4. 4. 21. x/25. wA 46. i. 3. 40. 36. $7. 1. 35. 15. 16. 2. v'frW. 13.6. 3. 27. aW\ 40. 3. 12*2 61. 3.  J j. 243. 8. a 18 .2. . 9. 29. 14. 32. 26. 25. 17. 0. 24.
(x' (l 1+x). 43. v/^r 5  A/^~. 49. x y. V. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).707. . 24. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. Page 207. 25. 32. v^. 31. l 5.r. 15. 34. 18. 135V6. a 3. . 12. 29. 8V/) 15. 20&V6. + 2 V22.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 48. x 25. 3^2. r 17  Page 204. 21. 40. T. r c . ftV 46.  a Vft 2 121 b.2 18. 28. 2. 9. k/2. 40. 5 22. + + ft.2 VlO. Page 203. 26. 10.648. Page 208. 17. 10. 27. ^88".Vxy 35. 2. V2 + 4 V22. 6. 28. 26. 8a6V5. x + 5 x3 + 0. y (a + ft) V2. 16. 9. 7. 3. 10. 13 35. ^: V2c. 3 x^y 33. 22. 19. 16. 4aV^J 16. 5.yl : . 1. (a 27. . . 29. x 7  34. 11V3.577. (o* 2. 101 1. 34 r 6. x%  3 ^+ 1. x. 24. + 1. 37. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3. 2v (T 2aVf. 5 ( . . 2 x* 15.  2 3:r. 13 a. V.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . 11. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 5.). 2. Va 2 "ft. 21. 3 a~ 3 (x (.rV:r. + 2). . 2 a?>V2 a. 19. a2 4. 13. 6. 2. 2\/7. 8.XXii ANSWERS 1.3 + 40 3 . 3. 38.632. v'TM. a^ + 2^+1. 3 4\/2. 37. 41. 50. 36. + . 20. 13. y. ^7 \AOx. 2. 2>X2. 17. V63. x^ . V 5 47. 45. + Vic + 25. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 03r* 7. 8. 2 '"V5. 51. 1) 3V3. 2. V80.'\ 14. 3 \ 39. yV35. 30.x^y* + y%. 33. 30. 20. .f. 39. abVab. 23. 9. 3V5. + 2 ar 1 ).. 32. 62V(J. 7. 4. 9 . ?tV?w. 3V^T. 3 42. 1 2 or 1 ?. ). a 4 +* + !. JIV6. 11. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. m* n*. 2 4 z2 l 3. Vr 8. / V3.692. 4. 31. 195V3. 3^ + 2).
0. x/w^ 8. v/l2. 52. 3 V15  47. 24. v^4. 3 V2. x/27. ^27. \/2. 14. 5V2. 25. 32. 28. v/lO. 27. b. 32m27n. x/125. 11. 10V(). 8v2T 12. 11. Page 216. 3. 37. \/8. \/a6c. 74\/Jl 120 46. 7. 5. 3. + VlO  v y (5.J Page 212. 4. 8. 27. . 43. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 4VO. 26. 19. 9. v^lf. 10. 33. v^f. / \/w/t 4 13. v/9. 49. x/3. 1V5. 2 V'3. 39. 6x2?/. "v/wi ??. 17. v7^. v^O. v^a. 38. 32. Vn. 8. v"5. ab 4. 3. 14.T*. 31. 53. 44. 21. 1. 3\/15  6. 9 VlO + 4. r)\/(l Vrtr. 8V2. 8V73\/IO. \/128. x/8. 12. 2 ate. . VT5. v"3. 2. ^\/3. 3\/2. V3. 3 Vl5 30. \/04a. 22. 29. 34. 31. 18.30 2. 6 2\/0. . v/i). 3. 2yV2?/.ANSWERS _ Page 209. m ?i2Vm/t. 34. \XOfl6Vi5. 11. . : ^32. 22. 5. % 29. 2 1. 5. x/8L v/27. ^9. 16. 40. ^ 3 b 5 24. V5. 38. 8  \/15. . 18. 30. 15. 6. a2  b. 4. 30 Vl4. 25. 41. \^r^bVabc. 26. 1. Page 210. 42. 39. 51. 50. 6. aVa. V8. 2. 21. 48. D 45. 10. 1. Vtf +3+ 33. . Vat. 5v/2. 35. 7. xx 1. 14. Page 214. 35. w?i. 14c 4 V5. 17. 7. 4\/5. \V3.  3. 24. 3. V3"m. 6+2V5. 5 \/2. 23. '. v 25^4714 V2"a. 3\/wi. 10. rtv/5. 16. 2. 12. 2 \/2. 6. V3. 6. 9. 15. 6aV2\^. Vdbc. V2.. 13\/3. 0. 40. fl^Vac. Page 211. x/4. 36. 3v^2. 2 28. vT). \/abc*.r v/^ v^fr*. 5V2. . 2. 46. \^6. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 9. V5. 17. 19. V/. 4 >/3. 23. 2\/7. 36. \^6. 6V2. 18. V2. 2. 13. 6. x/8l. 4 a*. a\/5c. 13. a^\/a7>. v/8. 21 23. 37. VJla. W). 16. + 20. 20. Page 213. "^8000. ^v 7 15. 7\/(l 7VTO. v^30.
^r. . 9. fV2. 18. 24.81. 2. V5. 4. 2ajV2*. 5. 1. 10. (V6 + 2V2). 12. V3. 15.3. . 17. 13.w 6. 25. 3. {. 1.13. Page217. _^JflJ?. 5. . 8. 23. 5 f. 12. 25. i^Lzi. 1. 81.2828. 34. 0. 2V2.625 10.6 V3. 23. 5 + 2 vU 17. 26. V3 . 21. . (V8 + V2. 18.5530. 20. 4. 512. 10. 2. 10. 25. 23. 2. 125. 5. f. 2V3. 64. 25. 7.  . 12. 2x^2^.3.64. 16. 5. 224.464. 4. 17.6. J. 12. (V21). 9.^ (\/22 4. 11. Vf6fVtf. 3. 8. 28. 3.601. 14. p 6 13. 5. . 11. 25.V3). 14. 10. 9. 10.2. 2. Page 223. 2. 7. V3. 5. V35. 6 V. 1. 24. 19. V6c. Page220. (2f V"5). V^TTfc. 23. ~ Vac _c 0. \/3). 5 V65. (a 1. 16. 7. 7. 2!5_. 4. 21. Page 218. 30. ^\/2. i(Vf Vft). 22. 3. 8. 18. ^. 9. 2V3. 9. (\/5V2). 4.2. 6 (V2 + 1). 26. 27. . 32. 16. 9 mn. 25. j. 1. 8 V3V2. 35. 30. 2 .0606. 100.XXIV 7. 4. 16. 3.9. + 5V2. . (V5f 5. 27. 4.1. !^ 6 4. 6. 1. x 20. 4. 12. 9.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . m f. 16. nVTl. 20. 15 f 3 V2L 4. Page 219. 20. K>/0 + \/2).7071.\/TO). 7. Page 226. 6. \/57t.7083. 8. ^(VlO\/2). Page 28. 19. . 10. . . 36. 17. 27. 1. n*. 23. ' 22 i . (Vf + (4 V2). 24. 3V23. ANSWERS 8. 10. 4V3 + 6. 8. 15. 7. 1. 0. 15. 22. . +3 V2). 21.  f. 4. 11. 33. 16. 25. 18. 9. (V51). 20. 11. 3(7+3V5). 19. xy 2. \. 22. * 3. 2.4142. 5. A . 216.4722.5.1805. 24. + 6) 2 . 4. 4. 9. 5.  13. V3. 15. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 7. 1. 19. 4. 12. j 15. 16. V. 6. (2. (2V2). 13. 6. Page 225. 1. 18. 4 14. 19. 9.732. 6. 15. 4. 31. 16.. 7 f 5 4. (VllV2). (3+ v/2). 14. 1. 17. 37. 2. 29. 11. J. 29.3535. (2Vll). 4. 8. Va. 81. Va. 11. 3. 4. V2.1547. 14. (VaT^v a).389. 7 Page221. 5.732. 8. ^. 13. (\/3f 1). 21 ' Vob 26. 8.  2. 7. 3.
1. 73. . 25. 3. 3.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 12. (m 4 + l)(ro.nl^EI. 5. 2. 25. 11.  J. V3. 1. 2. 2. t/ 23.2. 16. 4 . . 3. 1. .  f . 12. (a. 24. 2. J Page 235. 1 . 3. P. 56l).^a.  3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (a . (63)(6' t 18. 10. 0. 19. 5. 4. 2 &. 2 . 18. Page 233. 9. ' J. 14. ( 16. 2 6. . 2. 3. 1. 1. 12. 30. f . 4. 5. 30 . 21. 10. 18. (pl)(p2)(p2). . (w . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 2. a: :} . 19. (2 a. 1. 13. 2. 4 1. 15. 1. 7. 13. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (pl)(p3)(p6). 10. 7. 20.l)(m .  . 7. 5. 2.  3. . & + 6 2 ).1.  5. 4.12. (4 mn .Y. 2. 16. 7. 1. 1. J. 22. 4. 2. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). (a + 2) (a Page 229.2)(* . Page 234. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. 0. 3. 11. 2 > 1. 3.4). 3. a(. 19. 2. 6. 3. 5. 3. 3 9. 0.r . 6.3. 5. 3 . 25. 14. 3 . 2 <? 4a2 . . 5. . 4. 1. 15. 0. 4. 17. 100. 3 5. (a 4. 3. (a.. 1 . 1 3. 12.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2. 4 20. 1 . 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. 4 4. 2. . 4. 7. 73. 3.10. 8 6 & 0. (8. 2 . 5.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 11. 0.  2. 30 30. f>. 1. //. 13. 87 . 0. a  . 2 V^ . 7.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 5. 8. 9. 2. 4. 30. 26. 2. . .  16).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 3. 9. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 4. 3. 3. 12 24 y . a . 22. 5.4. 2. (rt. 7. 2. 13. 3. 28. 4.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 11. 2. 3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2. 2. 6.1. 6. 1. 24. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).2. 4. (+!)( 2) 10. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. 4. b . =A^Z3.3). 6 2 2a + 2). (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 6. 11.  4. 3.22. 1 . . 17. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1 . (r. 11. 4. 8. 3. 4. 1 6. 23.l)(a3)(a . 2 . 13. y. 4. 21.ANSWERS Page 228. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 50.  1. . 14. . 5. 20. .2)(m. 2 6. 5. 8.8a 18. 8. 1. J. (B43). 8.2.0. XXV 4.7. J 24. 3 . . 4. 12. 20. 1.5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). \/0. 3. 4. 25. 8. 0. 17. 6.3. 4 . 3. 1. Page 236. 15. 1. 2.  1. 10. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 0. 2.3. . 10. 4.3 2. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 1.5 xy + 25) 22. l.3.3.w 4 + 1). 3. 7. 2 . ~ f7. 10. . 3. (&y2a#H4).  3. . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 6.4.3. 5. 2. 1 (?> x/^3. o. .4. . 5. 2. . qpl.
in. 1. 3.6.. 1. 1. 1. 201. 0. 1. oo . ft. 17. 5.3 . 1J. 11. in.5. 30. 9. 55. 10. 7 3. . (a) $3400. 24. 5. 41. 10. 2. = QO 6. 29. .. 1. 3 . 2. 2>/3. 7. \. 21. 2. 4. 17. 10.4. . 69. 17.30. 3. 2 . 1. 23. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft. . 40. 1. }. 25. 2. . 2. 9. J. 9. 12 1. 17. 5. x 4. 15. $46. 6. 1. 3 . 3 2.. 8 3. 12.. j.4. 8.3. 1. 3. 20 7. 2. 19.. 8. 1. ^~2. 6. f. . m28. 2 26. 4. 4. 2V7. oo . 1. 12ft. 2. 4.1. . 3.1. 15. 6. 35 ft. i.. 18. Page 239. 11. 11. 12 ft. 5. 3. i j. 512. 2. \/6. 2 10. 1. 17. 4. 1. . oo. 3. . . . 14. f*. 9. $. 4. jj. . 11.xxvi Page 237. 14. 5 cm.3. . 1. .  1. 13. 13. Page 244. 3. . 11. 4 34. . 6. 2. 3. 4 8. 5. tn 2. . 3. m27. 3 3. 6. no co . V7. . 3V5. 5. 38. 4.136. 2. Page 240. 12. GO . in.13. 24. Page 238. 2. ' j. 3. J. 15. in. 4. 12. 2 16. ^ }. 5. 22. .3. 1 . 4 6.020. . 32. Page 243. 2 . 15. 1. Indeterminate. 1. _ 13 (0 6. 3 cm. 20. 15. 30. 5. 31. Exercise 114. 0.e. co . 1 . 28yd. ( 3. 19. 2. 2. . 84. and _ 4. 8 . 8ft. 4. 4. 40 in. . 37. 3. 5. 20 in. 5. 1 . _ 10.4. 5.3. 1. i'ljVU. ri*. 1. $VO. Page 248. 2.6. 1. 15.0. . 18. in.y. J. 1. 4. 16. 30 13. 2. 1 . 7. 1. m + n. 2 2. 11. 16. 22. ANSWERS 2. 39. 8. 16. 5 . 35. 14. . 1. 21. 1. 48. .. 512. Indeterminate. 33. 3. } . 0. 10. 2 ft. 1. 3.1. 3. . _ 5. 35^ 5. J.3. 8. 4.3. . 3. f>. (a) 5. 7. 4. 5. (/>) "_. n . 2 Y> V . +  n.18. . 7. 5. 1. 2. 900. 5. 31. 50. 5.. 36. 3. . 5. 4. 5. 3. 8.  11. . 4. 4. 3 .5. 3. 40 25 in. Exercise 113. 18. 12. 5050. 14. c. 4. . 17. 12 d. V3~. 12. Page 241. 4. 2. 1 2. 2 . . . 23. ft. 8. 3. 3. 3. (>. 5..3. 14. 4. 26. 1 .  2 . 2. 1. (&) 2. 7. 400. '>.. Page 247.200.  . 7. 45yd. 14. 8. _ 7. 1. 50. 2n. 14. 1. 78. . n. 15. 1. 1. 9. 288. 3. 7. 20. 2 1. 4 . 2. 2.0. 2. 37. 4. $. 8.2. . 13. 3. 9. 2. 125 125. 4. i i i . Page 245. 35 a. 7f solution. ft. 3 4. 3. 3. . 2. 37. 12. 3. 1. 5 4.4. 21 30.
Page 259. 708. 4. 35. 16.r 4. 5. 2i* 7f. 3. />*. } $ 50.  17. I. 4. 4. Ja. ' 1. 5. 3. 2. 0. 6. 0. 0. 20. 17. 53. 2. 15.192. 27. 45 Page 257. . 14. 4. 7. 5. 495. 7. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 2. 20. 8.5.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. . 04. 3. 3. 8. Y11.5y 4 . 10. 70.<2 4. Page 254. JSg. ?/i 6 x llj .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 3. . 12. xxvii 1. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. in.2 45 a 8 /). . 12. 19. . 8 4x' 2 . 9.r* 4 70 . 8. 327. 8. 6. 2. 15. 2. 10.2 9. 16. 5 13. 15. 18. 3. 2. 15. 0. a4 4 14.3 ays. . 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 18.0.5 x. 23. .53. 10.680. 192. ~v 9.920. 6. 16. 5. 4.ANSWERS Page 250. 43. 16. 3. Jj? 45.8. 3. 3. 105. 4. . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .  20 flW. 4 0. 9. 9.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 12. 1. 3. x + Vy. . 13. 6. 29.7 10. vy. ^a 8. 22. 4. 4.5. \ w 4 .4. 16 11.170. 125. 8. Page 258. 7. 1JH. . 11. 405. d. 1.470. 12. and 1. 5. 9.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 4. 8. 3.1. **+. 220 . 1. 2. a. 2. 70. 17. 18. 8. 26. 55. ~ an . 100. 5. 45. . 44. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 1 7 4. 1. 27. 9. 8 1.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 13. 7 x4 17. r 5 4. 10.870 m*n*.6. 6. 8. 7 2 x 4 x8 .419. 5. 6. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 15. 17. 7.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 343. 25. . 35. 7. 0. 6. 81. 12. 04.210. 1. 1000 aW. 8.120. 6. 32. 4. 125. 20. 2. . 0. 4. c. 1. 3. 4. x r 4. . 45. REVIEW EXERCISE . 7.700. 1. f y 8 + z* . 75. 4. 2. 0. 50. 10. J 2 //2 25. 22. x4 . 0. 343. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 7. &' 14. 27. 1820. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 4. sq.504. Page 252.r x>/ 7 3. 18. 10 14. 0. 5. G. A. 2.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.  101. .6 . 910. 2. 2. 1. 8J. 1 14. 8. 12. 4. 05. 1. 005. 19. 13. 8 . i 10. 5. 19.384. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . <. 9. 1. r r j. B . 5.x' 10 . 120 aW.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 280 53. 28. 6. 6i. w9  8. 16.12 x*y 16. 16. . 7. 21.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .^ ?>i 2412x4. 11. '23. 70. 10.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 5. 12. 128. (). 27. 1.13. 410. 3.v Page 253. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 48. 16.4 &z x>&. 304. 11. 4950 M 2 b y *. 12. 4. 21.
63. . 2 30 . 29. az 4. 2 x2 4. 35. 14 x . 3 a .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 40. 39. y 4 z* 0.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. .a' 'ft 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 110. 2 . 4 65. 3 a 5 a 5.4.4. df. xyxzyz. 3a~2c. m " + n + P3c . a J . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 4. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .1. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 6 a2 97.5. x2 5r*x ft 5 .2 x 4. 0. 118.4. x 8 + x 4 68. 4 . 76.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.3 aftc. 80. 46.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 6a6c. ^ . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 23.ac 44 aft. 132. 26. x2 a2 1 .c. 9 2w 128. ft /> 78.1.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . x 4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 93.15 4 62 x  72. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 28. 107. 91. 6 c 47. as 20. 1 a"* 4 an . 4ft y3. 61. 2 x'V2 90. t 81.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. &p 84. 22.y*. . x8 x2 55.4 ac. 0. 99. 32. .  3 x2 . +^ + ft W. 105. 96.. 2 113. 4. 133. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .9 b. I 57. 10 4. 2 2/' . 131. . x } 4. 3 c . a 3m 4. () 2 x 33.2. 102. 7 + 3 xf 2. 86. a* 4. 5 42. ?> . 10 a 12 b. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. .5 a 2x8 x 3 . + z.  + 3 x2 . 4.18 ?/ 5x4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 2 53. x 2 . 104. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. /> 4 83. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .rty x2 4 123. 72.18 x?/0. 4 115.x 2 4.xxviii ANSWERS 19. . 3 36 b c .2 x^. 88.a. 4 69. x . ?/ 3.7. 5x 2 2x43. * 60. 4 ! . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 6 8 j27 40 ab.x24 73. a* a 8 a aftc. a~b 89. 2 q. 5x + 2y~z. + a 4.c 3 4. 124. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.3 a 2 '6 w 4.41. ft n . 3~ n 4.1 4 jry 4 x .4 2 4 c2 42 .ft). ft2ft 4 4l. 2 . 127.5 b + c . 16t/. . ?/ .  e +/. .5x4. . a' 111.  12 a. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.x 51. Page 263. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. . .{ 54.2. a2 2 aft 2 2. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 4 15 x 5 . c3 4 58. x' 79. 4 Page 264. Page 260. (a + ft)" 98. 70. 4 2 . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 13 + 2 s. 21. 43. _55_7c 48. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. . 3a'2 Page 261.5 3n 4. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .3 x 2 + 3 x .x.3 y. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.a 2 x 2a .a'2 c.x4 + y'2 z 4.  4 a3 85. 12 a/.9 x . 66.1w 77.3 103. 37. 120.3 . 109. + 3 a?. 0. 100. .1.4 x y 87. 52.1. 36. . 114. . 243x4729. .^a . 94. 2 . x2 2 . 12 x.2 c . 122. . 5 4 4. 24. x 3 4. 1 x 45. a 4 .4.7 x   15. . x' . 1 + 4 xy. 31.3 b . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 a. x4 f + 23 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 3 a 44.fee 2 4. 1 121. 62. f5+7. x 3 41. . 30. 16. x 8  a8 . !! 71.4 x 2 .4 x?/2 3 4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 8 .3 a'ft. 8x3 8x.2 xy + 4 y2 106.6 b. . 25. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 50. 2 x2 108.105. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 130. 27. a4 x. 125.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 49. x* .a6 2 4. . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.a*ft 2 126. 9x. .  . 1 . 64. 38. 4 fee 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. x2 471x4.6 am b\ 129.c. .2. 82.
167. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). fc'2a+62c). 177. y3. 36ft. 75. (y7)(y + 188. 30.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 6. (ab + 8) ( 7). .2) (3 x . 1. 232. 140. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).2). 175.1). 209. 136. 18. 142. 8 204. 137. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.r .c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (6) 40. 236. 218. 182.3. y. 1. a + 2x2 ). 207. aft. + 2) + 9a. 185. Page 265. 7. 146. 247. 148. 197. 138. z(x10)(xl).3) (2/3y). 20.l)(a 2 +3). 212. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 4. x(x + 6) 213. 150.  1. (8x + 3)(3x4). 1. (x^ + x1) 234. xxix 139. + 11) (a 10). 2. 155. 174. (3x  . 189. 173.l)(y + 1).9)(xf 2). 184. (a} 59. 4. 12. (y 7f))(y 196. k.y2 ). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 3. (y _ ft)(y 4. 153. + y./_4). (2 198. 30 yr. 151. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 199. 211. 23 18.y). 193.4xl).2).r + 4). (at (4 a +!)( + 3).3 y)(a . r>x 2 (4x. Page 267.ANSWEKti 135. 187. (r^x + 1). (a 2 + 2a6. 214. 143. . (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 15. 224. 149. . (x  42 yr. 206. 171. 2(x8)(x3). 159. (7 c 2 ). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.I2y). x(x f 3)(x+ 2).. 201. (x . 6). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 2a(42ft)(2fo). 30 + xyr.2ac + 229.y)(jc + 7 y). C3 y _l)(.l)(x8 + x2 . . 2. . 19. 12. 2 (4 x . 12 6 panes. 186. 6. (a& 192. (. + 3) (x f f>) . 205. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 24. 180. 176. 226.6)(4 + 6). (r7y)(ai. p. 144. y 245. (y  17)(y + (>). Page 266. 1. 2 2 (a. 22.6 . 222.m)(x + a). 2^. 12) (j. (?/+l)(yl). 2.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 158.1). (233). 162. 241. 235.y + 3)(r (. 237..1). 15. (y_24)(y5). HI. 3(x . (x 227. 169. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .y) (\r3y). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 170. 156. 10. 239. 172. 2. 217. 20. 163. 168. 215. Iff 145. 152. 183. 244.3). . 3. 178. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 21. a 2 (15. (xyX^+y" )1 243.2 )(x+y) 228. 164. 15  a. 12 yr. 50. 233. 1. Or (a + 2)0el). 202. m. 208. 10).6) (2 x + 1). 32 h. (x + 6)(x6). 160.3 y). 157. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (c) 160 C. 210. yr. +)(x2 x^+2. 166. + 22). 230. 1.y)(z . 5. . y  y 165. ?.2. p. G7. (3x2?/)(2. 8(ar}(/)27). 10 in. 1. 240. ft. (5 x . 12 yr. 40 yr. (2a + l)(a . 147 mi. 218. 48 h. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 231. 190. 154. + 7)(rt4). 216.1(5) 200. 181. 191. + 3).. 195. 2. a(a. as 194. 238. (7x2//) 203. 161. 10 ft. 220. ( + 2y)(2x3y). (JT y 225.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 179. 147. 37 1. (/ 246. (x + 2)(x . 219. 1. a. 2 xy(3 x . 10)..
10.^ ^^. 254. 307. 268.. Ca&c 1)(M 253. x .1. ^/>J. 251.  7. 260. a~ ' b*). 4 5. 305. 306. ?^ZLiZ 308. 269. x ?/ z 1. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 43 '^rJ'. 249. 3  262.2* i^^ !^. 2 x  3. 2 4 300.4) 1) (3 x . x 267. *>). 310. 301. > 4. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (7 255. 5. 7^T 2 . 3). 261. &). 295. *. 0. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 259. 3. 298. ? 1) 302.(x  4) (x4 304. 2. 250. 264. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 263. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . o(x4l). 279. 3).AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 266. 7. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 7 x 265. 256.  3xyf x// 257. 258. o. 303. ^ 299.   . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. a. + f.4). x 283. 0. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . x12.^^^^^^^^.
376.XXXI Page 272. 360. + 4 & 4 \ b. 4 A. 395. 377. a) A^_. 382. 9^.J . ?>*. 2 r36 384. 404. m. 0. 392.. 1.vin a /r " 337. Page 274. 400. 386. 325. 387. 2. 11. 383. 2(q. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 4 rw. 2 327. ^ 3 // . 1. 6a. 365. 3. 4. j 328. ?=. ^_:r f> 331. . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 7. 408. 405.H ' 2wi ^' /' . ab. 397. 406. 0. . 20. 7/i ^ _ . 385. 396. 380. 4. 398. 339.7. 1 i 2 ^. a 2 . l . 6 ?/+:>. 1. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 393. A^L5L. 1. 13 391. 2 ab  a Page 276. 390.(5 a . T\. T+^. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. Page 277. + 335.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 366. 2. If. . . 334. 375. l'j. 399. S. 401.3.)Cr4)__ . 1. 329.. 2 ). 379. 364. + x 362. a +6. <L 409. 0. 388. 326. y 4 I 340.1. . 2(a i 403.". 0. 355. * 357. x 54 359. ?/ + 3 332. 343 00 351. a + b + 6). L .  1. 2 ?/ 363. (a + b + c\ . ^"" 4 s . 389. . " 4 378. 3. 333. 324.  1 356. 336. _*L'L+. 370.!. 12. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. f. 3. 394. 361. c 402. 407.
Page 282.12. .0. 418.3. 446. m. 477. 2 a 2. 42. 33.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 494. a + + ft c.  2. 495. 478. 20. 3.7.2. 7 : .. 2.  2f 504.4. (c) not true. 486. 4. 10.}. 445.489. c 6fc 10. & 491. (d) true. Page 281. 500.. 2. \ 1.. 482. 411. '. 53 yr. A 5 mi . />c c(f be. 12. (&) 443.7. b 449.  453. 6. 441. 483. fc. L (c) I. . 2. 0. 442. 10. 468. 17. 1. 2 438. 496. 2. 5.  505.vz in. 6. 497. Page283. 32.0. 461. 465. 1. ^V. 4. 7. . 481.7. 1. 490. 28 yr. \. 422. ^r?i 434. 452. 1$. ISjmi. 4.  1. 440. . 429. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 3.m  m+ M in. 3. 476. 32 yr. . 436. 10. <L+ 6 (. 1. 503.te + . (a) 1. 0. * . ft 5. 427. 7. 10$. 447.rz Page 279. 2$. 2. 420. . 506. 40 oz. 421.. a 22 . 455. 3 . ^. z8 +?/ 3 431. . 430. 5. ISJini. 0. 444. 454.  1. 435. 462. B $ 2500. . 425. 22. 472. 507. 8. 487. . 0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 493. 6.  f>. 456. 485. 6. a* 424.46. !L=4. 2. 467. . 5J. $2000 at 0%. 18.1. 460.}. 6. 412. 5. 0. m 1 : wi. 6. 20 yr. not true. 7. .4. i a b 451. (d  6) f. c. 423. 51.  7. 21.488.5. 14 miles. : />a.  . 499.2. 428. 2. 508. 458.. 432. 479. 2. 463. (a  c). 2. 9. . 459. 466. 502. A $ 3500. 426. B 4 mi. 439. . 498. 17. 11. 1. . 8. fj. 90. 419. 2.7. 464. 7. 450. 40. 413. 410. .  2. 501. 84. 5. . 50. 480. i. Page 280. 1 a /?$+&?. 24 days. 5. 63. Page 278. 448. 8. ' $260 at 0%. 0. .3. . (&) true. 457. 5. 3a 4 5. I.. 10. 492.7.  7. 8. 484.  2. + () 433.  10. L2 a  6 . 6. 0.55. 10. 4.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. . 10. 7. 10. *+.
4. a + ft  a  f c. 1. 593. 8.4. . 232. 512.14.03. 4. 2.4. 3.. 3. (e) (c) 2. 533. 2(6 597. <z ft 1. 558. 3. (6) 3.  2ft da. 4* da. 555. 0.4. 582. 565. o> .5. 1. 4 mi.24. 40 Ib. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .24. 575.15.30. (/)  10 to 8.8.  7. 1. 2 1. 525. 2(4 602. .8. T .4. 8 mi.  3. 591. (d) 537. 567.3.6. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 1. 6435. 554. xxxin 511.12. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 2.54. 1. 598. or 8. H. . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . tin. _ 4. lead. 2 .3.8. (c) 4. . _^ 2754x . 3f 4f.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . .  557.  4.04.25m. tin. 21*_.83. 561. .  imag. 3.. 2 2.38. 527. 3. . 3.25. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). .% rr\* 585. .31.6.37. 579.1. 1.03.  J(a f + 2c). . .   (h) 8. a*8a + 24tf 82a. Roots imaginary. 6. 4. .5.6. lead. . 599. 4.2.3. 1. . 566. 564. 573. 1.35. 550.33. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 509.5 f. 5. 1 . f. Page 285.31. 2.02.0. 2 10. 4. f.0. 115 Ib.  (a) (d) 1. . 553. 4. (a) 74 Ib.20. J7] min. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 2.10.83.02. 1$.9.. 576. 7^ da. 0000. . per hr. 2 .. 536. 583. .r8 596.6.5+. ^ ft 4. 514. 3. 1. . (gr) 10 1. If 572.0.3. + 6 tf f 3 . 5. 532.21. a f ft + c. 4. .02.75.78. 31. 3 da. 563.4.3. 5.7.ANSWERS Page 284. (c) 3.  . 1 .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 556.24 sec. . 513. 3.1.55. 1. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.78. .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 1J.3. (ft) Ill Ib.52. y% Z * 586. 571. 1. 3.3. 2$. + 12 x . 1.  1.62.15.7. 531. f36a28x8 592. 3.xj/ f xV . y 4. 559. 577. 530. 2.10. 529. 528.51.4 x + . 560.1. M ft c 2 ft 3465. g(rc+ 6c).1. 14.8.62..  + + c. 552. 24 da. 568.56 sec. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 1._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. . 1. 3.37. 3 .1. (e) 570.02.8 x3^. ft 584. 3. imag. 7.6 2. 578. . 5.54. 562. 581. per hour.05. 3. 27 y* f\4 . 2. 1 580.5.88.75. (6) .  (a) 2. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. . 516.00. 510.0.04. 4. (ft) 4. 6.73.15. 515.3.  2. 1. 2 imag. _ 3. . 2. 526. 551.5. 4 0.f 1. x8 . . S82 c. 1. 24. 4. 518. Page 288.7. da. 2.1.53. + 26 + .  ft*.16. > ^ . (i) 3. Page 287. 574. 2. 1 600. 1. 4. a+ Page 286. 1. 3. 1. 603. 1.5. 2 1. 569. 1.
(*_ + a: 611. 703. 652. 4330 da.2f (5 4. 3. 971. 1m*. 621. 2 ab + a  &. 612.3. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 651. a 2. 9. n^l +^. b . . 703. 705. ' fe 2 ).04. ^^ 695. 7. 0. <T! .  4.  1.a~ {Z 663. 1 2. 700. 672.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. ft). 650.  4. fta a/> ^A. . 1 V5 1.3. 661. 4$. 622.  684. J^^. a.  13. 613. 10. ^. ab 689. 662.049. 2.14 If 1. 2092. 0. i. 6.b 686. 2. 618. 8 f 3. 1 ~a . af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 683. V"^TJ. 2. 620. 25.0.3f l 668. . 643.25. a 4. 25. . 653. 646. 5002. 608. 2 a  6*. 647. fe + a. a 673. z  1. 692. If f 667..c ) 697. 3 a. 2.203. . 1. 2 a: 4. V7. . 2&). 679. 708. ^. 702. 615. 0. be ac \. 649. 1. 678< 682. If. 645. 628. ab.702.>A 610. V^~3). 655. 640. 4. 2 x 44 ^/.b. 629. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 642. 0. 3 681. 2f. 4.3.002. 624. 657. 2f. V2. 1$ 639. 701. . 654. + 2 A (i f Page 291. l/'3. .  a2  a (ab). 648.43^4. If . b 664. 3. 3. 669. 696. 632. If b. 617. 8. . 009. \. 625. 630.XX XIV 606. 5. . .303. 4. /> 4. I}'/. + ~^'2 + a 1. 50. 0.. . 6 685. 4 V 0. 7. 633. 898. 634.001. 1010. 210. ' 674. 627. 4 676. 607. ^ 1. 2 / 2 4. 2. If 665. 7003. if 4/> 671. \+ab 699. 691. a 1J. (a3&45rj. 5 3. 3 x2 . 2. 623.y. 638. 78.  6. b. o. 8 6 fo . / V^+lO^M"^. . 1. 635. la6 2. a ' 2 + . 1 704. 9*. K 5 2 V2. 12. V2. 1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 636. 660. 14. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.3. c. 637. 2 a 688. 5. 656. 2.001. If 658. 698. a + b.  3. 690. 13. 2.  ft. 677 680. y  619.f 3 V^3). 666. 2. 11. 5. 670. 641. 631.  . 706. 0. ix 2 . 4. . 6. 626. 644. Page 289. 5. 11. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 614.  2f r 659.2f Page 290. 616.
718.r.rJ w L 754. 13ft. 59. 767. VT14V5. ^ . 789. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 722. 796. 3V72VO. y  1. 00. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 716. 5.~ .^.ANSWMHti Page 292. fyaw&cu. 727. 1 752. 729. 29\/3. / 787. i^.10. 1 [ + '> J.12 af V^ 4 744. 47. 730. 1 I . 755.r+y> 759. 777. 792. a db Va^T < 45da. 736. 1 747.^ 743.. T%. 724. 769. 788. 710.257. 3 VlT 795. 739. 34. 712. 342V3. + < 735. 778. 793. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 1^ _ 760. 768. 715. ^ ?>. 2x3^ a. 713. 773. a:* .. 734. 721. 33^2. mn. j 742. + 6 2 tf'c. a 2  x2 . 300. 7  3V5.2. 751... 8. a".4 . rt3 2 ^i^. 8. 782 785. 3V72V3. 3^. . "V313.9. Page 294. 709. 714. 711. 5. 30\/10 764. 24. 726. . 1.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.4 . i 2. . x i f^' . 3. 723. 728. Page 293. 756. 758. > 748. 719. cr*lr*. 794. 15 shares. x\y. 725. v'll. 3V52V3. 25.V/^ 741. 2\/53V2. 763. 1. 3V7. 733.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. a 5 . 3 720. 750. 749. a 2 6^. 738. 731. 32>/2. 737.8. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . VV> L4V34. 717. iv/Jj. ^7xy. 17ft. VIO\/3.V2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 24 4 . v/7 / . 776. 732. . 2 V2 . 24V2. . 746. 790 2v 3v 2.9. 1. J(v'lO2V 791.11. 740. Hi a. 753.1 . r. 4 104 v/2. 39.
1. 857. 868. 813. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 2.7). 2.3. 851. 23. 0. 0.  ' .2 ax 4. 888. 887. 10. 897. 882.2w . 2 *x 807. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 810. 11. a(ry + 864. (x ./>") (a'. 5). 816. 8 09. m = 2.3)(x + 4). 48. 0.3. 848.r . \/5. 2. 808. 11.5) (x + * 853.4. 5.7)(4 x. 4. 1C. 831. 863. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 3. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2. 20). 826. 5. 1. 3. . 3. + d)*. 900. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^)..a 2 2 ). 811. 1. (x . Hoots are extraneous. 4. . 2. ((' 1). 2 m . 899. o 828. . 6+V7. b' 2 821. jV3 f 3.25 ?>2). 799. 896. 13. 804.1) . 827. 4 885.1).. 1. 883. (3 862. 6. 1 1. 801. 6 $. 4. Page 297. 2/ 856. 825. 1 . 2  2. 4.a 3 " 4. a* 4. 840. (x 4. 7. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 4.  839.5 b) 4 1). (  ?>) (a + ^> . 832. 7. 19. 847. 3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 6. 25. ( 869. 5. . 2 . 879. ^ V}. 812. 7. a 42)(x .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.1)(0 865. 2. 3. 835.XXXVI 797. ^VG. 814. (x 2 f r . 867. ( 4 4. a(ft)( 873. 819. 17. (x 2 .r4).4) 860. 881. (a 1) (x 4. (a 4 871. 0. 4 818. . 2. (3 b . 2.y) 852.1. 4. 898. 833. Hoots .om 441) (a 855. ^. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).a 4 + 1). 893. 2 2 . 6(a6)(o a + + &). (:r 11. Va 803. V 3. 3. $.10 ab 4. 841.l)(x . 2 (x 4*4. 843.  tt 815. 892. 820. (1 . 3. 8.1) (a 8 . 836.l)(x + 3)(2x43).7). 4. 859. 4.rae) (4 . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. +j!>. 822. 1. \/2. . 5. 2 806. 837.l)(x . 872. Va. (2 a . 4. . are extraneous. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).0. (xl)(^~3)(.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 6. 17. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (4 c 4. X4 1). ) (a' 874.. 2. m 875. 834. (a m . 844. $. (x 845. Page 296.7. 858. 8. db 7. 4. (x + 0X024. 891. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. **. 2 j 889. 890. 2 . J V. (2 4. H. x . (. 3 .4. f.+ m f ") (a* ). 861. 838. 4 . 823. 884. . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 880. (2 x + 3 y} . x. 5.l)(x + 2). 2 854. 894. a2 ^E*!.1)(V 2 . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).  + l(l^). .7 4 1) 846.2) (x 4 2). 3. 842. 800. . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). (x*y*ryz + z*). 14. . 2. o. (x3). 3. 895. 824. . 817. 849. 876.f. ANSWERS 798.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 4.  1. n =  29. 886. 7. 829. . 2 . (2x (r. 830. 3.
2 1. ft. 20 19 ft. 906. v/(ai !)(&910. . V5 T 2 . 1. ft.. . 932. 942. 5 . 917. 8. 7 or 30. V5 fj. T 6. 923. 111. 978. 982. 1 2. i(6 in. Z ^.111. 8. 931. 5. 944.760 sq. . 948. 28. 6 da. 80. ft. ft. 0. 10. J. 11. 4. 938.. . %* .  26j. 4. 960. 6. 8. 986. 56. dL 4. 919. S07. 11.  1 . 5. 100 rows. 912. 2.. T 6. ^y. . . 2 yd. 0. 916. 1). . 3). 248.651.0. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. . 6 . 936. 8128. r ft ' < Page 299. 7. 1 _2 . 4. 3 . 28. 7. 4. 1 1. 8.. 980. 0. 951. 902. 904. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 908. 5. 4.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. . 2 ft. 930. 3. 943. i>. 4. 5. 12.. 3. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 7./hr. f ft 4 . 984. 903.. Y. 40 16 in.I. 6.1 = 9. ft. 333. 1 + V953. . 3. a + . 12 mi. . 933. =F J. 911. ft. J(_ ft. 3 4 . 959. . i1" 913. 2. .. 6. $(l 4. 14 . 2. i 3. tt2 19. . . 2. 6. 11. 11. 9 in.. 918. T3. 4.2. 947. 905. 108. 2 i ' a V. 12 in. 10. 961.. 1 . a. f. 941.V~~3). 480 8 sq. J. 8. 8. 66 924. 7. 2. 927. w. 962.' ifcVira^ 2 3. w 3. 955. 921. 4.709.01. 6 1 1. 73. 922. 0. 6. 954. 2. 2. 329. '3 3 in. 7 ft. 6. 5l4f. 8. 2 w 914. 8. 4. 8 . Page 301. 950. 6. 3. 925. 935. Page 302.1. 964. 12. 5. 979. . 28. 934. 957. ... 2. 60 949. ft. 2. Page 303. . 956. i 8. ft. 280.1.  1. 920. Page 300. ?/i 6.. . 1.2. 937. 987. 4 in. V^3). 977. 2. 909. 963. 4. 3.. 15 16 ft. 939.446.744. 496. 15 946. 981. 958. 6 a 915. 985.073. 952. 18. 940.. 4 . 115.. 983. yd. 1. 945. 12.615. 4 6 mi. . 333. 3. 3. Va926.
1007. (a) (6) ^ 1002.378 1015.378 <W and 92. ^Trsq. 12. Page 305. 192. 72. 1017. 1006. 1009. 992. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.51. ^f (2f3V2). 12. . 6 70 .. 4. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .870 z8 .128 I. . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1001. 1019. 8. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 3003.  5&7 1021. 0. 1(5. 1005. 2 . r = 2. 24. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). + 448 . 4 and 1020.92. 991.'^^ } ( . 1012. 120 i^l^. 996. 32 13 (tx 4V3. (5. 9 da. 994. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 48. 1 8 8 2. 990. in.870 a 6 1011. 988. (6) 8(1 . + v 2). ~ \. 108. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1010. (J. 995. (Z>) 999. 1014. 1008. 1 1004. Page 304.18. 0. 1016. 997. . () 12(2+V3). 1003. 1018. 1013.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1000.192rt?)r 120 *. 2(2 v/2).. 993. 162. X. 120 a.
$1. so that the Logarithms. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. save Inequalities. than by the . given. HEW TOSS . but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. comparatively few methods are heretofore. physics. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+563 pages.D. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. great many work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.25 lamo. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. and commercial life. xi 4 373 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. A examples are taken from geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Half leather. $1. The more important subjects tions. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. etc. i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather.
The author grade. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. and commercial life. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. xiv+56a pages.25 i2mo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW YOKE . In Factoring. Logarithms. great many A examples are taken from geometry. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. xi f 373 pages. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. save Inequalities. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Ph. HatF leather. $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. 12010. physics. so that the tions. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1.D. Half leather. comparatively few methods are given. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.
Ph. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 6. Cloth. i2mo. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. $1. iamo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 9. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Half leather. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. more than 1200 in number in 2.. NEW YORK .10 L. SCHULTZE. State: . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 10.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. 7 he . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Cloth. under the heading Remarks". $1. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book.D. SEVENOAK. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. izmo. xii + 233 pages. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.r and. aoo pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. wor. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. lines. 4.
. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. and not from the information that it imparts.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages. . . . 12mo. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . $1. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . New York City. of these theoretical views." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical.
An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Maps. diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. photographs. Topics. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. i2mo. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. " This volume etc. Cloth.
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