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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
August.. July. . Cushlng Co. September. Reprinted 1913. 1916. January. IQJS January. 1915. J. 1910. 1917. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Berwick & Smith Co. Norwood. May. 1910. .S. 1911.' February.COPYRIGHT. May. . 8. September. Mass. 1910 . U. Published Set up and electrotyped.A.
" this book. owing has certain distinctive features. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. etc.. Elementary Algebra. and conse . All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. manufactured for this purpose. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. specially 2. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. chief : among These which are the following 1.
Moreover. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. e.g. etc. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". are placed early in the course. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. In regard to some other features of the book. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. two negative numbers. however. especially problems and factoring. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. as quadratic equations and graphs. Topics of practical importance. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. hence either book 4. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . may be used to supplement the other.
the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. elementary way. viz. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. Moreover.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and commercial are numerous. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. based upon statistical abstracts." Applications taken from geometry. By studying proportions during the first year's work. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. such examples. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. in " geometry . is based principally upon the alge . physics.
1910. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. NEW YORK. April. . however. edge of physics.
.... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . Powers. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. ..... ...... SUBTRACTION...
Type V. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. /^ . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type II... Type III. * ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . . Type IV. Type VI... . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type Polynomials.. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .... .114 .
148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ..... . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. CHAPTER XIV 169 ..........CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
13. 11. as in arithmetic. are trinomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. A polynomial is an y.g." EXERCISE If a 1. c = 1. V^a6. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. since the parts are a .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 7 = 2. aVc^. 3. 9. [6c] 3 . c f d). 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. e. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. or 9 Vx. + 1]. 8. V2a. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 17. find the numerical value of: Vff. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 2 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. (cfd) 4. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 5Vl6c. 4V3~6c. 10. 12. d 7. A binomial is 62 . a2 + and   \/a are binomials. x 9. a polynomial of two terms. V3 . 14. 6. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. Val \fi?. is 28. \/c. 16. some number is . b = 3. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. V36". A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 6. 2. !^f\/03 3 ft. + c). 0. 4(a 6(6 + &). 27. 26. v'Ta. 15.
2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 14. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 ). EXERCISE 8*  .e.. 3 4 .390.2 + I126.5 ax 50 a6cd. c = 2. i. . 1. 4. subtraction.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a2 11. 6. d = 0. b = 3. * For additional examples see page 268. . Ex. 6. multiplication.9 aWc + f a b . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. Otherwise operations of addition. 8. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .9. 10.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .g. find the numerical value of: 9. __ E. l 13.99. a=4. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 4 .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .4 6^9 ad. a 2 6. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . x=^. 5=3. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 2. c=l. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 16. 5c +d 2 . . 3 2 If 1. .30 = 270 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. d=Q. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 3. 52 . 4a6fVaV2^.19 = 6.810 + 150 = . 5. (a (a f b) 7. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . + 26+3 c. 12.INTRODUCTION 29. Ex. 5. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.
geometry. 38. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).6 . = 3. 6 = 6. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a = 3. 6 = 2. a = 2. 26. 23. 6. Six 2 . Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. a. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a =4. 6 = 7. a = 4. 33. 30. a = 4. 6 = 1. 35. a a=3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 24. 37. 6=2. : 6. 28. 30. if : a = 2. Six times a plus 4 times 32. and other sciences. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 27. physics. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 4. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 5. a =3.6 f c) (6 a + c). sible to state Ex. 6 = 5. 6. 25. 29. 22. 34.c) (a . 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 26 of the exercise. a = 3. . Read the expressions of Exs. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 6 = 3.
b.) Assuming g . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v : a.16 1 = 84. and 13 inches. A train in 4 hours. 4.INTRODUCTION E. 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v . then a 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. d.g. . (c) 4.e. 12. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 15 therefore feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.seconds. and 5 feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. and 15 feet. b 14. (b) 5. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. count the resistance of the atmosphere. the area of the triangle equals feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. Find the height of the tree. 14. 2. c.16 centimeters per second. i. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. and c 13 and 15 = = = . = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.
the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). . of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the 3.14 square meters. (c) 8000 miles. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. square units (square inches.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. meters. : 8000 miles. 32 F. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 5. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. If the (b) 1 inch. (The number 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. ~ 7n cubic feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. the area etc.14 4. is H 2 units of length (inches. $ = 3. 2 inches. (c) 5 F.14d (square units).). (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 miles.
in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. however. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. . Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.
2326. . find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 33. 18. the one third their sum. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. '. d = 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 10. 5. is 0. (_ In Exs. 19. + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. c = 4.  0. 4. Thus. subtract their absolute values and . The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 21. = 5. d = 0. 12. 4 is 3 J. 22. 6 6 = 3. of: 20.3. is 2.16 32. 24. c = = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 5. lf(2). if : a a = 2. (17) 15 + (14). 23. + (9). of 2.
36. . 41. $7000 gain. 6. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 11 (Centigrade). 32. $3000 gain.. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. ' 1? a 26. 32. SUBTRACTION. 29. 74. : and 1. 7 yards. }/ Add 2 a. = 22. and 3 a. 66.3. 2.13. 33. affected by the same exponents. : 48. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.4. 42. 37. \\ Add 2 a. 12. 27. . c = 0. or and . sets of numbers: 13. 13. are similar terms. 3 and 25. and 4. and 3 yards. 39. .ADDITION. & = 15. ' Find the average of the following 34. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 34. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. . ^ ' 37. and 8 F.7. 09. 4. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 10. d= 3..5. 30. . 25. = 23. 10. = 13. $500 loss. & 28. $1000 loss. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 6. 60. 35. : 34. c=14. 4 F. 7 a. 1. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. and $4500 gain. 5 and 12. 72. 31. which are not similar. and 3 F. 40. . 38.5. 2. 6.. . . 7 a. 0. 55. and 3 a.7. 10. 3. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 43.
The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 3a . . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.13 rap 25 rap 2. 2 a&. 5Vm + w. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 5l 3(af6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 14 . : 2 a2. 12(af b) 12. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. Algebraic sum. + 6 af . 5 a2 . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 11. Vm f. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 2 . f 4 a2. 12Vmfn.18 35. in algebra it may be considered b. 13.sign. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 9(af6).ii. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 12 2 wp2 . 2(af &). 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. or a 6. b a f ( 6). EXERCISE Add: 1. 7 rap2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 10. The sum x 2 and f x2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.
+ y. is . 2/ : Add. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 35. 17. 1 27. 37. 6 23. 2 7 1 26. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 33. a a8 ZL **. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 30. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. c 2 ^24. 2 2 2 31. + / + 3 Va. n x* 2 22. without finding the value of each term 34.ADDITION. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 32. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. ra 19. SUBTRACTION. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 36. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. l^S 25. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. +m """ 20. 21. and to add each column.
It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. to add 26 ab . 3 a f 4 1) 4. 46 4z 7 c.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 3.15 6c. . x of x. and 2 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 9 q 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. therefore the answer is correct. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. e.20 c 5 ab 4. 5. of that letter. 4 2.8 abc . 7 4.o c and 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 2 . f 110WS: 26 aft. . 2 025.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .g. 6=2. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . V3.7 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. = . c = 1. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. a 4.41 = 3. the erroneous answer equal 7. 2 Sum.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. s.3 s. 2 Thus.15 abc .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. and J 2 s. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.12 a& 4. 3a 2? . 4 = 7.g. to show any error. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . ft any convenient and c. 5 .c= 2. 2c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. NOTE.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.
16e + 17/90. a 4 a .2n 2 2 3 rz . 2 ?/.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.15 5.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .VS 4 2 Vc. 2 2 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . a. 4 8 3 4 4 . d and / 3 ? 12.4 Va .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 7ar + 3B 5. 4(a .12 6 ~5 a . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . 11.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .10 Vc. .4:xy xz 6yz.8 m 2m 12. . 19. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.7m .6. d. SUBTRACTION.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. . 4 Vc. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 16. e a4 /. v/20.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2 3(c f a). and and 13. and 1 4 a . ?/ . . + a + 1. a) y ^/.a 4 a 4 1.7v/if. 8. ^2 1 e. m 4 6.a .and 6. 2 2 and . 56 w. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 4 3 .a.12.Ga 43x45. and . 4 ajy 17. a 4 a . a2 a. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 2 a. . 2 ?ft ?/z. a2 2 14.1 a 4 1 0. xy3xz + yz. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.5a^6 f 6) . a + 1> 8 2 2 . . . .12(a 4. and v 15. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . in 8 3 m n 4. + 50 + 62 .ADDITION. 3 2 2 3 9 . and 8 3 . 4. and 12a 4 15& 20c . and 5 Vb 18. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 18/+6y + d.(b + c) 1.1.9(a + &) .
What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. 45a6 2 .5< 3 2 s 4^4. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . many negative units re main ? from 2.m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. 22. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.17 + 4 ?nfy . +d a. . 12 xyz. 1/ . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . and 2 24. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .22 21. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. 8 . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. T8a. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. s . If you diminish a person's debts. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. . + 1. f number may be added 3. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.. 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .ra + m. and e + 6y .11 xy + 12. and 25. f 1. 6 f c 2 23. 1. 13 1. The sum and ? 1.3^* 2n 2 .4 2tn* Sic 2 . how 1.9aj 2. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. is 2. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. . a 6 2 c. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1. + n*. 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. c 3 3 3 2 3 .
7. 3. 1. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Ex. Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 2. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. .g. Therefore any example in subtraction different . two numbers are given. the other number is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.2. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. To subtract. 41. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. In subtraction. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. and their algebraic sum is required. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. This gives by the same method. 6 (3) = 8. the given number the subtrahend. SUBTRACTION. from What 3. NOTE. ( 6) ( = . From 5 subtract to . In addition. if x Ex. ab = x. From 5 subtract + 3.3. Or in symbols. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.ADDITION. 5 is 2. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . +b 3. and the required number the difference. a. called the minvend. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .3 x* .f 8 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8. Ex.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o. Check.
2.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 41. 44. 6 4 a. 52. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . tract 4 x 3. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 55. 46. 42. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 48. of a 4. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .ADDITION.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 45. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.4 a*& + 6 a & .w>t. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From 6(af.4 a^ 4.2. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. and 3 7/ . 58. 51. 2y 2 . . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 49.7 a . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .a 2 j. c f d.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 2 a take a & j. 56.6)f. SUBTRACTION.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .c. 53. 54. + a the 2 a. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 57. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 47. 43. check the answer. 50.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.
A is n years old. 20.26 4. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .15. a + 6. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. 6 17. subtract # + 1. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. + 6 + c. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. + 2. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 6. 2 m 21. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 16. a 2y + z. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. a a + c.
c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. changed. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 45. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. one occurring within the other.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.g.2 b . . SUBTRACTION. the sign is understood.b c = a a & f f. & f c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. II.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.c.ADDITION. Ex. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.a^6)]  } .6 b f (. a+(bc) = a +b . I. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.
Ex. may be inserted according to 43. 15.) 5 . . 9. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 14. 16. 2a (4a 26 +c ). m f ft) a. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).+ 6)f (a2 b). 271 + (814 . In the following expression inclose the second and third. find the numerical value of { 1422 .)]. ? 11. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 6) 2. 5. (m a2 f. 8. : x + (2yz). 18.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2 2 a(.: Ex. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a (a + 26 c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 3.[271 47. 13. 3 3 f 7. 6.(a + 6). By removing parentheses. + (2a 6 + c ). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. Signs of aggregation 1. 2. a (a + 6). 19. [36+ (a 2c]. 2 2a. 17. 21.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a f (a a .y (60. 4.1422) J ] .
The difference of a and 6. y f 8 . 10. 8.4 y* . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. difference of the cubes of n and m. ' NOTE. 5. SUBTRACTION. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. p + q + rs. 12. 4. m x 2 4. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6.7fa. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. II. first. . a\l> > c + d. 7. 7. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2.ADDITION. 6. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. z + d. 5 a2 2. and the subtrahend the second. 3. The product The product m and n. 2mn + 2q3t. 5^2 _ r . The sum^)f m and n. )X 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. The square of the difference of a and b. 13. m and n. 6 diminished .1. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 9. of the cubes of m and n. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.2 tf . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. terms 5.
b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 16. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. d. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.
what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 4. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads what What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 2. two loads balance. 3. weights. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 5. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . A A A 1. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. force is produced therefore.
4 multi44444 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 48. or plied by 3. however. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 9 9. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. .9) x 11. (. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. NOTE. 9 x ( 11). ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. the multiplier is a negative number.32 8. 4 multiplied by 3. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. ( (. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. Practical examples^ it however. To take a number 7 times. 5x(4).4)(. 4x(3)=12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. x 11. such as given in the preceding exercise.4)(4) = + 12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. thus. (5)X4. becomes meaningless if definition. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. Thus.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.
2a6 c . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 20. 6. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. x. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 19. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the parenthesis frequently omitted. (c#) . 3. x= 0.MULTIPLICATION 50. of Signs: TJie positive. 24.2 f+x 2 . _2. 1. z s 11 aWcx. 6 2.7. 27. 8. 7.4. . _3. 4 a2 . NOTE. 16. Law Thus. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 2a 2 6c. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 11. 29. 13. find the numeri values of: 21. b = 3. 9. (7) X (12). 10.2. (2) 8 (. _2^ 3. 8 31. 12.a)( =+ a&.(4J).2f 18. +5. 30. 17. .3) (1) 7 2 . c = 25. (2)x9. 32. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 23. 2. and y = 4.(a&c) 2 2 . is 6x7. . 6. 4. . 5x3. X(5). Ua b 28. 3. (4)X(15). 4 . 14. 8 4 .3. If a cal = 4a6c. 22. . (. about fac (2)X If 6. 1. 26. etc. 3 aW. (10) 4 . 3 a2?/2 . 15. 5. (4)'.
a = 3. 2. 4. Ex. 200. 9 .2). 12 U U . . 6. 36. . 3. 6 = . 5 = 2. This 52. 1. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2 2 3 6 . a 2 2 . a= 1.2 2 23 + 5 . : 3a7abc. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 3 2 . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 14.257). .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a8 a=2. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .m a 3  4 . 6" 127 U . (a6) (a5) 9.503). 34. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. m*. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 7.e.  and 2 25 8 . 78 .6 if 35. 10. 4. 5 3 5 3 2 . 6 aWc x . 50(112. 2. 5. B. 5(711.  2 2.(2. + 2/).35). 3 3 4 . 13. 2(14. 3.<?. . By 3 definition. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.(12) . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.7. i. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 127  127 9 7 . a = 2. 16. 17. 100. 11. 2 3 . fl*" integers.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 53. 4. 2 2 2 . 5 . of the factors. &*) c d*. or 2 . 6 = 1. =2 a *. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.. & = 3. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.(7). IB. Ex. = 2. .3).. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2(7.
. 19. 4.7 w'W (8 n^W). . This principle. 3. 2. /). If results ft. called the distributive law. 7.3 win ) . 35. 34.2 3 aft ). 31. . ax /) 2 4 1 (. _4aft. 3(124342). multiply each by the monomial. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 23.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 26. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 22. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 7p*q r*. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 28. 21. 6(10420430). 27. 12( + 1 4 i). 24. . and then adding : 1. 35 4 7(6.4a#. 11(3. . 2(645410). . 25. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 2 32.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 23(10004100420). c(4a ftc ). 29. ) 2 33. Thus we have in general a(b 56. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. by first multiplying. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 6. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.f 2). 2(5fl5f25). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).7pqt. 20. 5.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.A).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. (. (. 17(10041042).6. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. but we shall assume it for any number.
Find the factors of 5 a 6 . be multiplied to give 4o. 9.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.^ c + 2 . 19. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. .2 mn(9 mV . 7 a 6 c(. 30. f7a. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 17. 28. 3 ). 22. : expression must 24.6 a6). . 2 27.we b) (x law.60 a& 10 aft. 2 m(mhn \p). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 11. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 23. 29. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 26. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 5). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .5 x 7). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.asa product.5 w*V f 7 wn). ~2mn(m +n p ). 21.3 aftc). By what 25. 20. 2 2 16. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 12. . Find the factors of 6 ary .
4.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Since errors.1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. however. . 2a3b a66 2 a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Multiply 2 + a a. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Ex. a2 + a8 + 3 . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 59.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 b by a 5 b.a . the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. 2. To multiply two polynomials. Multiply 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Check. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .
2 .2). 9. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 12)(a?^2l). 40. 3<7). 2) (3 A: 1). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 7. 31. 2  37. 22. 12. (6i7n)(llJn). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 16.1 . (ajf6y)(aj 23. 20. 4. 36). * For additional examples see page 261. OQ OO. 13.4) (x + 1). 2. (8r7*)(6r39. 7y). 28. 35. 10. 30. 18. . (4a 2 33. (6p (2 f 21.2m)(l m). (13 A. 25. QQ O7. l)(raf 2).4) (mnp 4. 26. 2 . 3.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 36) I) 14. 32. 15. 8. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). I (mfn)(m4. (a^26) . . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 17. 36.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 29. 5. (2 x* x 2 . (2w 19. 11. 6.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. ^ 2 . 1). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 24. a 5c)(2a6c). 4 2). (6a~7) 2 . + & + 1f a^faj 1). 41. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).
27. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). . (a 9) (a + 9). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 19. : 23 2. 11. 1) (10 + 2). X 102. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 20. (6 12) (6 f. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. + 5) (1000 + 4). 1005x1004. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 10. (J 23. 21. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (p12)(p + ll). 3. in of the two unequal terms.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (*. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (a (a (a. i. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 9. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. _3)(a _4). . 6.e.n)(wf w). 2 6) (a 3 6). (10+ (1000 (2. + 9)(m+9). plus the product 62. 7. 12. (a3)(a + 2).4). 24. 75 ab f 54 ft . + 60)(f2). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 25 a 2 .2 6) (a f 6).13). 15. (!)(* 5).25)(y+4). (100 +2) (100 + 3). 25. 2 a? 29. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (ra. 26.e.!!)( (a + 21). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). + 2) (a f 3). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 22. + 3) (a 7). . (a 102 x 103. 2) (1000 + 3). 13. 18. 8. 14. 17. i. ft 16. 28. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.
. <J>7) J . (a2) (p a . 6. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 2 5. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . second. : 24 (a 2. 9. n2 10ii+16. 37.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 7 a + 10. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. w 2 ro . 31.66 s. + 3) 2 . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.15.e. III. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). + 6 a + 8. (x+3i/) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.15. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 63. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. III. i. 33.e. 49 y*. 4. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. of the second. 8. (a26) 2 . 77ie square of the of the first. . Ex. . 7. plus the square of the second.e. a2 2 w + 2 w . p 2 p. plus twice the product of the first and the second. and the second. 3. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36.30. i. 34. 32. 35.
+ 3z) 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 25 a 9. 7& ) 25. 49. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 998x1002. 35. + 5)(5+a). 22 2 . 104 2 37. ( 27.998 39. 2 9a 496 2 56. 15. 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . The product of 57.30 ab + 25 6 64. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 24. m 2 16. 52. 46. ). 12. 42.MULTIPLICATION 10. (^. 48. 45. (2x3yy. I) 2 . 23. 32. a2 9. 9 a2 . (1000 2 . . 51.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 99x101. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . . n*6n+9. G> +5g)*. 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 16aW25. (6afy 2 5) (a. 22. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (a 3) 2 2 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 . 41. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 47. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 4 53. 54. 62 25n 2 . 33. n 2 f4n+4. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 31. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 44. . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 11. By actual multiplication. . 21. 17. (20 f 1) . 103 36. 40. 14. 41 16. 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 18. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 991 2 2 . 28. 29. + 5). 55. 2 J ). 34. 38.
9. ((5a? (10 12.& + c) = a + tf + c . (2a3)(a + 2). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 4. 8. The square 2 (a 4. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). sum of the cross products. 7. : 25 2. 2 2 + 2) (10 43).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (3m + 2)(ml). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (4s + y)(32y). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. or The student should note minus signs. ) (2 of a polynomial. 6. 13. (5a64)(5a&3).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 14. 65. 3. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). . plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 5. 2 10. plus the last terms. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 11. (5a4)(4al).
4) . 6(a 2. 2)6.[a? . 7. n). 4.3) . (u4& + 3c'. If x = 1. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. after multiplying the factors of a term. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Hence. (  2 4) =  20 a.39. (xy+z)*. 6. 4(* + 2)5(3). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. = 10 x . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Find the square root 11. + 6)( .29. 3.3)(z.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.(>. 5. 4(aj2)h3(7). 13.r _ 2 .24] . 6~2(a + 7). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).24 . 2 2.39. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (a (. 3.(x . and check the answers !.3) (x . = .8 x + 15] . of z : 10.i2&c) 2 . 66. . Check. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). + 65) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 9. a. 7.5).y? + 8 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.1 5 = 10 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).X2 + 2 x . 8.(m 2 6. 5. Ex. 12. 4. Simplify (x + 6) (a .5) = (7 . 8. 4y sf n) 2 .4) .(= [ Xa + 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
a I.DIVISION 14. 16.11 a + 9 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2). 51 15. . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (81 m + 1 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.l.2) (3 a . Division of the difference of two squares. 19. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 18.e. . . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 20. v/17.
f 13. : the following w a 4 !. 12. .49. 4 b. 15. r/ 1. 100ry. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 121a a 16 100 11. 16.0001.000. 16 . 10. 14. 1. . 9& 2 . aW 12 a.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.
. Thus. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. =11. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. 82. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the first member is 2 x + 4. is said to satisfy an equation. 81.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the 80. second member is x + 4 x 9. . x 20. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . hence it is an equation of condition. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. in the equation 2 x 0. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13.
The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.b. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. . called axioms 1.g. A numerical equation is one in which all . a. E. 86. If equals be multiplied by equals. the remainders are equal. the sums are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. 87.54 84.e. If equals be divided by equals. the products are equal. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 90. 89. A term may be transposed from its sign. 2 = 6#f7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A 2 a. 2. one member to another by changing x + a=. 5. To solve an equation to find its roots. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. Transposition of terms. NOTE. 85. the divisor equals zero. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 4. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 3. the quotients are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.2. If equals be subtracted from equals. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . x I. If equals be added to equals. . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.
a? Adding 5 to each term. Hence the answer. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Check. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Dividing by Check.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . (4y)(6.2 y= f .9 y + y2 = 22 . 2 x = 6. Transposing. a= a 6fc. is correct. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Uniting similar terms. x = 3. b Adding a to both + a. 91. To solve a simple equation. if a x = b.6 y f y\ . 6a5 = 185 = 13. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 2(11 . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Uniting. Unite similar terms. 3 y . The first member. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. The first member.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. x = 93. b c. and the known terms to the second. Ex. 4x 1 + 6. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. x = (Axiom 3) 92. if 55 x members. Dividing both members by 2. . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Subtracting 4 x from each term. f If y 20 .8. The second member.
17 + 5a. : 5# = 15+2a. etc. = 2 ?/. a. 50. a?. 4y 10. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. =2 = 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 7a? 5. = 5a?+18. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 2. 11 ?/ a? 18. v23. f Simplifying. a. 4a + 5 = 29. 4. Uniting. Transposing. + 16 = 16 + 17. it NOTE. 16. 13a? 3a?. Solve the following equations by transposing. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. J. 32 = 264. Dividing by Cfcecfc. aj * See page 264. \x x 2^xfl.7. 3. 20. + 22. 247y = 68lly. + 7(3 + 1) =63. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 9 9a? = 7 13.17 + 4y = 36. 3. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 15. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 14. x = 18. 3 7 a. and check the answers 9. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 24. . 19...4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 6.69. x x 1 . 3)= 9(3 7 a. a? a?. 12. 11. 13 y 99 = 7 y. . 7 (6 x 16). = 3. If x = 18.56 Ex. 17 7 a. {(x (x The The member right member left . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 7. = 7. 21. 22. 8.7a: = 394a.
1) (u . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 25. 7(7 x y 26.2) (M . 2 2 * Jaj.(2 + 6) (4 . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. a? 43.7) (7 x + 4) . e. Evidently 45. .3) . + 4). 7) (a. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . 34. 35. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 40. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . + 7) (. . (aj 37. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 29.g.3) + . 33. 5) (as (a. . 38. 27. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. (6 u =5 44.3) + 14. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. find the other part.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.7. 39. 6(6a. . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.1 0) = 0. 36.5) = (a. (a. 31. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 41. .14 = 0. 42. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.5) + 199. a? 28.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.12) (2 + 5) . or 70 a?. .32.4) + 4 w . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.1) (a (a? + 3) = . .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 30. this question. is the other part.5(2 u .
one part equals is 10. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. is d. 7. find the cost of one yard. Divide 100 into two 12. 3. smaller one 16. so that one part The difference between is s.58 Ex. Ex. or 12 7. so that of c ? is p. 33 2. 4. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 17. 15. is b. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 6. Divide a into two parts. greater one is g. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 6. a. so that one part Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. and the smaller one parts. 13. EXERCISE 1. If 7 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 10. Find the greater one. 14. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 1. 11. 9. is a? 2 is c?. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5.
sum If A's age is x years. and spent 5 cents. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. find the of their ages 6 years hence. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 28. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. If B gave A 6 25. b dimes. and B's age is y years. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. How many years A older than is B? old. How many cents has he ? 27. and B is y years old. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. How many cents had he left ? 28. and c cents. 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 33. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. is A A is # years old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the has ra dollars. A dollars. A man had a dollars. Find 21. 26. 34. ?/ 31. amount each will then have. 22. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. Find 35. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 24. A feet wide. and B has n dollars. 32. 20. numbers is x. 28.
he walk each hour ? 39." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). 46. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. 48. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. The two digits of a number are x and y. 49. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. a. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. m is the denominator. Find x % % of 1000. Find a. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. . Find a 47.50. of 4. . The first pipe x minutes. c a b =  9. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A was 20 years old. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. of m. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find the number. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. per Find 5 Find 6 45. % % % of 100 of x. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.
The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 3. c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. a exceeds b by c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. The double as 7. etc. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 5. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. double of a is 10. 9. 80. of a increased much 8. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 4. 6. 2. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of x increased by 10 equals x. by one third of b equals 100. The excess of a over b is c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c.
and C have respectively 2 a. they have equal of A's. pays to C $100. x 4 If A. In 10 years the sum of A's. and C's ages will be 100. 11. (c) If each man gains $500. m is x % of n. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. B. 3 1200 dollars. sum equals $20. a. B's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. A gains $20 and B loses $40. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 6 % of m. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 50 is x % of 15. they have equal amounts. a second sum. symbols B. >. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 16. 12. 14. . the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. a. x is 100 x% is of 700. #is5%of450. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. 17. as 17 is is above a. B's age 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 18. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50..000. and C's age 4 a. amounts. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. B's.62 10. of 30 dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. express in algebraic symbols : 700. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.
but 30 =3 x years. Dividing. NOTE. x+16 = 3(35). x= 15. Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. the . be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Check. Find A's present age. 4 x = 80. In 15 years 10. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 3z40:r:40z. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Uniting. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 6 years ago he was 10 . the required . number of yards. x = 20. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). etc. Uniting. In order to solve them. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. be 30 . 15. 2. Let x = the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Ex. 23 =30. Simplifying. A will Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. denote the unknown 96. . = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. much as 40 exceeds the number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Three times a certain no. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Transposing. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 1. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Transposing.
14. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Dividing. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 11. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 4. 5.64 Ex. Six years hence a 12 years ago. How many miles per hour does it run ? . twice the number plus 7. A will be three times as old as toda3r . exceeds the width of the bridge. Find 8. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. . 120. by as much as 135 ft. 3. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 300 56. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. A number added number. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. EXERCISE 1. Let x 3. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 13.2. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. % of 120. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Hence 40 = 46f.
and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. The problem consists of two statements I. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers.000. 1. written in algebraic symbols. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and B has $00. F 8. and as 15. two verbal statements must be given. 97. Ex. five If A gives B $200. How many dol A has A to $40. statements are given directly. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont.000. x. 14. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. B will have lars has A now? 17. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. is the equation.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. Vermont's population increased by 180. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. One number exceeds the other one by II. Maine's population increased by 510. A and B have equal amounts of money. Find the population of Maine in 1800. . The other verbal statement. which gives the value of 8. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. the second one. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If A gains A have three times as much 16. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. times as much as A. B How will loses $100. 65 A and B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. During the following 90 years.
The two statements I. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. and Let x = the Then x +. = 3. Dividing. Uniting. = B's number of marbles. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. unknown quantity in Then. x 3x 4 and B will gain. Let x 3x express one many as A. consider that by the exchange Hence. I. terms of the other. If we select the first one. Statement x in = the larger number. = A's number of marbles. has three times as many marbles as B. 2x a? x j = 6. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = 14. < Transposing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 8 the greater number. B will have twice as many as A. to Use the simpler statement. the smaller number. 8 = 11. x = 8. / . Then. x x =14 8. . + a f f 8 = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the greater number. 25 marbles to B. A gives B 25 marbles. . B will have twice as viz. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. A has three times as many marbles as B. If A gives are : A If II. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 2.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. A will lose. . which leads ot Ex. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a.
have a value of $3.10. B's number of marbles. The number of coins II. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 15 + 25 = 40. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. x from I. but 40 = 2 x 20. cents. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Check. Let 11 = the number of dimes. . Simplifying.550 f 310. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 3 x = 45.. dollars and dimes is $3. x = 6. of dollars to the number of cents.5 x . * ' . * 98. the price. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. The value of the half : is 11. 50 x Transposing. Two numbers the smaller.240. 1. 45 . then. is 70. 40 x . Find the numbers. consisting of half dollars and dimes.10. 11 x = 5. The sum of two numbers is 42. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Dividing. Uniting. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 2. A's number of marbles. Dividing.75. Uniting.25 = 20. 60. w'3. by 44. the number of half dollars. . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.$3. greater is .. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.. Eleven coins. the number of dimes.10. x = 15. etc. (Statement II) Qx . 6 times the smaller. Find the numbers. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. and the Find the numbers. Simplifying. x = the number of half dollars. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 50.
11. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. as the larger one. How many 14 years older than B. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the number. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Everest by 11. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. On December 21.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many hours does the day last ? . Find their ages. 7. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Twice 14. 9. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. and twice the altitude of Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. A's age is four times B's. United States. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Two numbers The number differ by 39. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.68 4. one of which increased by 9. 6. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 5. McKinley.000 feet. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.
and C together have $80. Ex. The third verbal statement produces the equation. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. number had. 8(8 + 19) to C. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. If A and B each gave $5 to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. If 4x = 24. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. B. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and B has three as A. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and 68. are : C's The three statements A. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. I. number of dollars of dollars B C had. number of dollars A had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. times as much as A. 1. B. = 48. and C together have $80. then three times the money by I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. x = 8. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. original amount. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. has. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 19. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. II. has. they would have 3. III. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. . B has three times as much as A. bers is denoted by x. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. Let x II.
according to III. = the number of dollars spent for horses. III. and. cows. and Ex. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 2. = the number of dollars spent for cows. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 28 2 (9 5). x Transposing. and each sheep $ 15. and the sum of the . 4 x f 8 = 28. The I. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. Uniting. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. The total cost equals $1185. x f 4 = 9. each cow $ 35. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 9 5 = 4 . number of cows. 185 a = 925. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. the third five times the first. Let then.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x j = the number of horses. number of sheep. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 35 x 4. sheep. 9 cows. x = 5. number of horses. 1 1 Check. 90 may be written. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. + 8 90 x and. according to II. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. each horse costing $ 90. Dividing. number of cows. three statements are : IT. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. first.
7. the copper. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. increased by three times the second side. v . first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. women. first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. A 12. New York delphia. "Find three is 4. 13. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.000.  4. how many children were present ? x 11. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. twice the 6.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and 2 more men than women. the third 2. If twice The sum the third side. the second one is one inch longer than the first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. what are the three angles ? 10. twice as old as B. 9. men. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and children together was 37. equals 49 inches. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and the third exceeds the is second by 5. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. what is the length of each? has 3. what is the population of each city ? 8.000. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. The gold. and the sum of the first and third is 36.
Let x = number of hours A walks. number of miles A x x walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. and distance. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 8 x = 15. 3 and 4.000. The copper had twice the value of the gold. A and B apart. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Dividing. i. of arid the value of the iron was $300. of 3 or 4 different kinds. together. First fill in all the numbers given directly.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 7 Uniting. = 5. = 35.g. or time. how many 100. After how many hours will they meet and how E.e. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000. width. . we obtain 3 a. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. such as length. 14. speed. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. but stops 2 hours on the way. and quantities area. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of hours. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Hence Simplifying. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.000 more than that the copper. Find the value of each.
01 = = . $ 800 = 800. 2 a = 40." gives (2. or 700.053.04 8. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. .04 = $ 40. the area would be 100 square yards less. Multiplying. were increased by 30 yards. Check. The an area 40 x 20 =800. original field has Check. x + 200). But 700 certain = 800 2. $ 1000 x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 10 x = 200. 70x10 Ex. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. the second 100. Transposing and uniting. 2   and transpose.06 = $ 40.05 x x . $ 800 = required sum. l. . and the width decreased by 10 yards. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. z = 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Find the dimensions of the field. + 8.M(x .
sions of the field. What are the two sums 5. invested at 5 %. the area would remain the same.55. A man bought 6 Ibs. Find the share of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A of each. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. 1. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. as a 4. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. After how many hours will B overtake A. and a second sum. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 3. together bring $ 78 interest. A sets out later two hours B . and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. but four men failed to pay their shares. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Six persons bought an automobile. 2. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. of coffee for $ 1. twice as large. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. mobile. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Ten yards $ 42.
how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. After how many hours. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. but A has a start of 2 miles.
The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 104. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a2 to 6. as. stage of the work. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 6. consider 105. expression is rational with respect to a letter. a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. but fractional with respect 103. at this 6 2 . vV . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. An after simplifying. a. we shall not. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if. which multiplied together are considered factors.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. 76 . it is composite. + 62 is integral with respect to a. irrational. if it does contain some indicated root of . 5. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. f db 6 to b. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. this letter.
it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.) Ex. or that a = 6) (a = a .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 110. factors of 12 &V is are 3. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. y. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. it follows that a 2 . . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).3 6a + 1). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 1. 107. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . x. ?/.62 + &)(a 2 .FACTORING 106. 01. for this result is a sum. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Ex. Divide 6 a% . 2. TYPE I. Factor G ofy 2 .62 can be &). 2. x. .3 sy + 4 y8).9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .g. E. It (a. 109. 55. 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 8) (s1). in the form 4) +3.
g. 3 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . . 2. 18.5 + 13 8. in general. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.5 + 2.6.12 cdx. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.3. : 6 abx .3. TYPE IT. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.45 afy .4.5 x*y 2 17 a? . obviously. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 14.8 c a 15 ofyV . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 2 6. 20. (as 3) and (ccf5). 2 2 .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. Ilro8 9. q*q*q 2 a. 2 Or.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . .51 aW + 68 21. 12. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 + q. 15. a a 'Ja . 16. 4 8 . 34 a^c 8 . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 19. 14a 4 5. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 17. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 5f 2 . 11. 7i 13. 3. 7a & 10. ) 22  2. + llm llm. 13. e. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3x*6x*. 8.2. a6c. 3 3 5 6. 4. 4 tfy f. 2 23. 32 a *?/ .30 aty. 15 2 7.4. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.
m 5m + 6. We may consider 1.11 a + 30. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 x . 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. .6 = 20. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. a 2 . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. .11. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11 a 2 . 4. of this type. the two numbers have opposite signs. If q is positive. 79 Factor a2 4 x . or 77 l.5) (a .11) (a + 7). 2 6. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.4 . . is The two numbers whose product and 6. or 7 11. Factor + 10 ax . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Factor a2 .. can be factored. 2.30 = (a . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). and (a . tfa2  3.FACTORING Ex. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.1 1 a tf a 4.a). and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.5) (a 6). however. If q is negative.G) = . as p. + 112.77 = (a. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor x? . but of these only a: Hence 2 . 11 7. Ex. Therefore Check. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Ex.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 77 as the product of 1 77. + 30 = 20. 3. 5.
TYPE 113. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 9. or . 19. 2 2 a' 34. 27.80 7. + 5<y 24. + 44. 2 .48 + + 446 200. 26. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 .180 a. 100 xr .6. 35. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 16. a 7 a 30. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 8. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 12. . 20. 31. + 2xS. ra + 25ra + 100. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 13. 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. ITT. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 11. ay 11 ay +24. 16. 4 2 . 2 ?/ 22. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 36. + 4?/21. 2 2 . 25. 21 a 2 2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 32. 33. 21. 4 3 2 . 24. 15. 14. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 29. .17 + 30. . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. a 2 +11 a a? 16. x2 23. and 5 x. 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a.500 x + 600. 17. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14.70 x y . + 30. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 18. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 ?/ 28. a2 .
13 x + 5 = (3 x .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 6 x 9. 2. but the opposite sign. a. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5 . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 18 x 3. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. and r is negative. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . the signs of the second terms are minus. the If p and r are positive.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 27 x 2. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. Ex. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.83 x f 54. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 3. Factor 3 x 2 .1). exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. or G 114. . sible 13 x negative.5) (2 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. If p is poxiliw. 3 x and x. 2 x 27. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. viz. 9 x 6. 11 x 2x. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. X x 18. 54 x 1. and that they must be negative. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.
x54 a. 30. 12y 2/6. . 12. 10a2 G a2 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. + 4.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 144 x . 5m 26m f 5. 3. 9.260 xy . Sar' + SaG. 2 31. 2 26. 2m t7w + 3.19 a f 6. 2 2 2 23. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.163 x 2 . 2.179. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 20. and the monomial factors should be removed. 13. . 4a2 9tt + 2. 3x*Sx + 4. X 27 .2 a 90 x*y . 7. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 14.7. 18.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 6. f go. 21. 2 2 2 . 90 a 8 2 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . + 2/3. 10 a . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.30 y 6 4 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 29.y + 172/9. 25. 12^17^16. 10a?2 2 33.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 32. 6n + 5?i4. 8. 9a. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 . 16. 100^200^ + 100^.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.2) (x . 17. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 34.27). 24. 3a + 13a. 15. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.83 x = (3 . 2 fc . 4. the expressions should be it. 11. 2 . : 41 2. 10. 35.300 ab 2 f4 250 . . 14 a fa 4. 19. since all others (II. 2 28. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 22. 2x* + 9x5.83 x . 5. 9 y + 32^16.
To factor a trinomial which maining term. . 2 2 . of its terms are perfect squares. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 9. 11. 2. 14.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. and a perfect square.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . x* . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 12. . form are special cases of the preceding type. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a .20 xy f 4 y\ . it is a perfect square. however. 9 10a625. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 3. 2 9 10gf25. 10. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 116. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .10 x f 16. 2 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. and factor whenever possible : 1. 4. 25 7. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.e. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 6. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 16 y? The student should note that a term. square. i.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 8. 13. it is more convenient for that type. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. must have a positive sign.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 5. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.
84 15.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). ). 2 . 19. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. ^//c to the Ex. According to 65. 2 20. 16. 225 ofy .3 * ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 2. 3. +( )f816 30. ). 16&*. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2 . 149 a 81 8.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 9.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . a. 7. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 27. 25. 6.e. 36 2 4. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . V. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. aV .6 m* + 9 m. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 4 2 23. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 22. 2 . 6 2 .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 48 a +( ). TYPE 117. prime. 29. 9a2 . 18. 3. 26. Ex.60 a# + 4. a2 24.64 6 = 16(a . * 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). . 2. product i. !Gar 9 ( )+25. a. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. ). 4a2 l. 17.20 ab + 10 b a .2 ofy + ofy m . . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 1. + GO + 25.
d) 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 36> . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 8. 9. 2 . 16p 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. a:) 12. 6. T. 2 . 11.(I) . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. Ex. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . a2 . Factor a 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 14.FACTORING 85 118.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2. of polynomials. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 4. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 5. Ex.(c 4. 13. One or both terms are squares 1.c . (m7?) y.
Ex.and trinomials. 5) .2 ) (3 x . ma ?*a + m& nb. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 10.r.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.1.14. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 119. a? 11.a a . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 1. which may be factored according to types I. 2. . a5 + ab 6 . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. A. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 7. 6. 2. After grouping tain a the terms. 4 B. By grouping. + x + 2x + 2. 3.ab + bx. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.7 c + 2c .VI.y + 2 2). Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 5.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 12. 4:cx . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. = (3 x + y . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. x8 . 8. a 26 2 2 3 . Ex. 9.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. .
Arranging the terms. 2 7. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 3. II. 8.FACTORING Ex. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 2. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 5.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 2.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.9 a2 4 v* 2 . IV. 6 6. 3. w m 2. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. +c+ 2 2 2/ . = (a + 6)(a6). 36 9 m . 4. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 2a3/ 7. 8ra 2 + 16. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 6a4 12a2 + 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . + 2xy + y*q*.l. 4 a2 . : m 2 2 16. 4.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . . $ a8 . 6. : 46 x* 2.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.4 f .12 aaj 4 6y. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.
40. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 13. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. + 14. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 29. + 6 aft + 3 . 3 a2 23. or 3 7#2 . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 40. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 a 128. a6 36. 2 ft . 28.156. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 50^ + 45. 42 x . 80 a 2 ft 38. 32. 24. 5a' 20. 14. 22. 4 a. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 30. (^ 34. (a. 3 41. 5 a. 3 2 . a. 3 25.88 10. 2 17. 42 s 2 . 48. 12. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a3 156. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 2 3#4 3a2 36.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.13 c . 25 a + 25 aft . 35. 4 8 tt 2 z .310 x . 11. 18. a + a + a + l. 27. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 13 c .24. 19.
F.) of two or more . F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. 5 2 3 . F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 5 7 34 2s . aW. C. C. C. C. C. F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 89 . of two or more monomials whose factors . F. The H. 122. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . Two common factor except unity The H. of 6 sfyz. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 54  32 . 24 s . C. 15 aW. C. 25 W. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 8 . II 2 . The H. C. 2. of : 48 4. 13 aty 39 afyV. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 121. of the algebraic expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. 3. F. C. are prime can be found by inspection. 12 tfifz. expressions which have no are prime to one another.  23 3 . of aW.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. . 6. 2 2 . The student should note H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. 3 . F. 5. Thus the H. The highest is common factor (IT.
6 .2 y) (a.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 2.90 7. C. 65 zfyV. . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F.8 a + 16. a2 + 2a3. 15.^9. 8.?/ . 8 a 10 . To find the H. a2 + 7af!2. of + 4 if. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).5 + 6. and apply the method of the preceding article.6.6 a&. 0^80:416. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . ^a + 5^ + 6. 6 3 a. 38 #y.5 y). ^2 2 . 3). x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. Ex. 25 m27i.2 ?/) (x . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 2a f5af 2. 8 6. of polynomials. 12 w*nw 8. 9. 5. x* x2 Hence the H. F. F. C. a2 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ^707 + 12. F. 49 C.y) 123.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 2 . 2 .# 4 afy f 4 . of: . 6 a2 y? . C. a 3a4. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. ^f a. = x 2 y. 4 ?io.y + y42. . 10. 1.5 x3?/ 2 6. 11. 3^ 2 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 16 a . a2 ar* 4. 12 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 3 . 225 4a 9 . y + 3y64. 11. . 57 a>V.12 as 66 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 14. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . (a7 ?/) . 52 oryz4. aWd. a3 16 a. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 15 3ao. Find the H.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 2 . 95 2/V. 4(m+l) 3 . . 6 mx . 10. 3. 9. . 6(m+l) (m+2). 9 aj*(a? . 12. 8(?/ifl) 14. 13. a3 9a. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 2 . 12.y) . 13. 16. 8. 24 a 2 . a. 7. 1. .
M of the algebraic expressions.6)2. C. C. thus. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. =4 a2 62 (a2 . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M.6 3 ). 300 z 2 y. L. 2 The The L.C. 60 x^y' 2 . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. C. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 128. 1. Find the L. L. each set of expressions has In example ft). 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. Ex. 127. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . which also signs. C. The L. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored.M. The lowest common multiple (L. . M. ory is the L. Common 125. Ex. M. Hence the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.C. Find the L. M. M. C. M. M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of tfy and xy*.M. 126. of the general. C. but opposite . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . . To find the L. 2. &) 2 M. A common remainder. two lowest common multiples. NOTE. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. etc.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of 3 aW. a^c8 3 . C.
5. afc'cd 2 . 11. G a. x* ~5a. 40 abJ.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 7. 17.1. x2 + 4 a f 4. 2. b 2 . 3 ab. 2 . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a2 4. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 6 a. Find the L. a 2 fa6. 2 a. ic 23. 18.f 6. ) . a^1. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 24. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 14. 30 a. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 Z> . M. 4 a . a !. by.1. 22. 3(a + b). (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 . 8 d 5 . 2 10. ic 2 ?/. 21. xy\ . 8. a f 2 19. 6b 2 . 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2 x \2 y. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 13. 6 y. 2 a . a 1. + 2. a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. . #. 2 7ic+10. + 2 7i) . 3. 2 a . a& 4 +& 2 . afy. a f 3. a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. (For additional examples see page 268. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2(m 2 . 1. 3. 9. T a 3 a 2 . f b. 20 9 a. 8 afy. a { a~b. of: 4. a. or f 3 a 15 #. . 15. a2 ~ab 1. 16. x 2 5 a. + 6. y*. 3 f2. 3 6 xif. 6. 24 x. 4 a f 2. a?b. 3 . 20. a 2 a3 . 4 a 5 6cd.
thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. etc. 130. 131. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. C. a?. Remove tor. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. however. Ex.ry ^ by their H. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. F. rni Thus 132. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. as 8.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Thus. an indicated quotient. but we In arithmetic. and denominators are considered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. A f fraction is b. successively all 2 j/' . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . and i x mx = my y terms A 1.
_Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.4) Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. and cancel all factors that are common to both.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. . 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. . ^' rt ^  31.. ny 4 18. LJZJ^JL. ' ^ . 5^10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f . 29. ^+3*.' 32. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. """. 19. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. 9x + "a" 10.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 23. . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. .7 . 16. nx 17. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.*. _ 3 7i rt< 26. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. g J 21.
and (a 8). we have the quotients (x 1). C. Ex. by the denominator of each fraction.1^22 ' . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. TheL. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. and the terms of ***.  of //* 2 . Divide the L. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.C. mon T denominator.D. C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 1. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.~16 (a + 3) (x.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . of the denominators for the common denominator. . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.  by 4 6' . 2> . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.96 134. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.M.3) (!)' = . 1). take the L.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.M. ^ to their lowest com The L.C. + 3). =(z (x + 3)(z. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. . Reduce ^. . we have M^. and 135. M. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. multiplying the terms of 22 . we may extend this method to integral expressions.
i. 5?.. 2aj ~ . 3.. o o a. a? 1 5 > ^* . 8 i i. . common denominator 6.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . JL. . If the given fractions have different denominators. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.^1. 7i 2 ab* ". 22 a2 5a * . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2. j y 3.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 74).oj o* or / . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 137. 18.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2 ay IB.
ft) (a ft ft)~.. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . the student should remember that parentheses are . ft).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . 2 ^.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. (a ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.2 = a(a . as 4 aft f.ft)(a . D. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.7 . 4(2 a 3 ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. in the beginning. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.aft) Ca2 . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. D. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).g. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).3 . and adding. e. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .(a 2 6). The L. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .3 ft). L.. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. T? Ex.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . 2. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft 2).2 ' 2 _. C.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . (a . ^ is 2^JT) .
A+2_3. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a+6 a 6 2 14. 18 v 19. 46 2a 4a 12. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 5a76 4a 106 9. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 23. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 24. 20. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. + .5 18 ^4f25. 15. 6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2L + 2a 1 17. a 36 ++.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. j>0 i> 21. 1 f q * 1 m m . 1 1 f w 16. 2. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.
a ?^ 40. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 42. ic 1 + 1.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . af 1f /j. a.9. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _ + a? ?/ + y. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ! n.9 79 6 2 i. 43. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 4 31. a 30. 41. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32.
. Reduce .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .  . T.6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. 1.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. . 101 mixed expression. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a.
Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2. !. fractions to integral numbers. we may extend any e.) Ex.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. (In order to cancel common factors. Since  = a. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. integer. or. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.g. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . multiply the 142. F J Simplify .
5# 56 / c& 4.. 14.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.6 12 d6 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 2 f 5 a. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.. . 50 . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
To divide an expression by a fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. : a 41 ab * See page 272. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. Divide Xn?/ . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 8 multiply the Ex. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. .y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . 144. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 1.
afr 4. Ex. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .^c 2 2 .10 ?/ _. a a2 4.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . are fractional.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. or both. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 s + 064. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.FRACTIONS 105 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 . ga2 4 8 5 a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. l.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.a ^c c _^ a . JL.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . c +6. of their denominators. & . x* 4. 6. n a 8. M. y X 4* 2 y 3. the answer is directly obtained. Ex.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . Simplify x }. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). a m "" . 2. 9. .y 32 . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. C. i. . . 10. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 7i+~ 7.
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 i 1 2 5 .) . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. : . sy 18.
x = 6. 2x Transposing.8 x = . Transposing. Uniting. 2 3. each member is reduced to 1. 148.1. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. these Ex. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).9 x2 + 9. each member is reduced to Ex. 2.f3# + C:E=6f7212. = 6. tions. Clearing of fractions. Uniting. C. a.l)(z + 3) = .48. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 1. = 6. + 1) (a + 3) . 2z2a. If = 64. Bx 12 Qx.28 a = 5 x2 . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . If x 6. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 5(3 85 Check. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).42 + 9. 9x x Check. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.28 x + 42 = . . 4 4)  x.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. M. 108 . of the denominator.14 (a.
18. . a: 7 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .= 2. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^' 2. +1 = 5. 1 *> = 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.1 _77 a. +4 14. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 15. a. a/  5 a/ = 12. ^1 = 9. '  4 13. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 16.
 38 = 40. 33. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. J_. 32 6 . 25. 2^12 = 2 = 34.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 27 ._ _ . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 4a4l4* + l~. If two or more denominators are monomials. .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. . y+3~2 29.11_4 x 149. . 3x 35. 31 31. . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 26 26. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. ?_=_.
If a. Check. 1. the 1 5 L. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. = 9. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. a.. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Dividing. each member is reduced to ^.2 42 9 43.1. . M.2 3 ~  == 7a. 24 a.  5 = 20 x 45. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 26 a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5x x : = 9. Transposing and uniting.29 50712' 9 18 . 60. C.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 5# 10. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.
Ex.2 62 2 ab. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.& .1. ax f x f. . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.be. = l^ 9 b 4 .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Ex. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. find a in terms of b and c.m bx 2 mn) x. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = 6 a2 . 2. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting the Dividing. f ~ 5c.2 ac + 3 aft . a. 4 ac 1. fr Reducing lowest terms. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. =a 2 151. Thus. y. If 3ac L= = a ? . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. It frequently occurs that the x. jr. Uniting. = 2 f b 2 . = = 6 6c 7 6c.3 6 2 = a' . 5> a. they are united by factoring. Dividing.
IIL n b + &o. 30. f P =+!. and n the number of years. . = vt.a. _ 2. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. m a? x . = 3 (6 a). = rt. c. 15. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. r the number of $>. 31. 13.= n. 11. f ^o. * Solve the same equation for^). 10.= H. 4. The The i time. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 4. 3. p the principal. . denoting the interest.i l . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). t. 14. q solve for/. If ^^ = a 1 32. a. 17. solve for . c 18.= c a Z> . = 8 4 #. + 3a. 34. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. rate. . co?. . 5) is t =^. + xx = 1. in terms of other quantities. Ex. 9. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = 5. If * 33. solve for a. 12. If s (wi n) x =px + q. ^ ax a^ 26. 1 f. 2 solve for y a. 29. s = Vt solve for v. 3(* 8. If s If 16. mx = n. iw 21. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 6.
= 16^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.. A would do each day ^ and B j. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Ex.114 35. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.180. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 2 3 . . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days.20 C. is 36.. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. and 12 = the number over. . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 1. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. x Or Uniting. Multiplying by Dividing. 100 C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. Find R in terms of C and TT. then = 2 TT#.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the rate of the express train. = 100 + 4 x. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." : Let x  = the required number of days. Clearing. the required number of days. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. and the statement. in Then Therefore. Solving. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 4x = 80. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train." gives the equation /I). = the x part of the work both do one day. 32 x = . or 1J. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Ex. 180 Transposing. 3. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.
which was $4000. How did the much money man leave ? 11. of his present age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. money and $10. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. length in the ground. is equal 7. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. ceeds the smaller by 4. by 6. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. make 21. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.  Find their present ages. by 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and one half the greater Find the numbers. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is oO. ex What 5. and 9 feet above water. Find A's 8. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. a man had How much money had he at first? . to his daughand the remainder. and of the father's age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. to his son.
? In how many days can both do working together 23. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16.) 22. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 2. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. investments. air.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 152. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. Ex. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 1. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and it B in 6 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. A has invested capital at more 4%. ^ at 5%. and B in 4 days.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. How much money $500? 4%. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. . If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. what is the 14. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train.
: In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. n x Solving. A in 6. therefore. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. 25. and n = 3.= . 2. m and n. B in 16.g. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. is 57. B in 12. and apply the method of 170. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. The problem to be solved. . Hence. B in 30. Then ft i. B in 5. they can both do in 2 days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 26. if B in 3 days. A in 4. A in 6. . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is 42.009 918. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. To and find the numerical answer.414. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. we obtain the equation m m . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Ex. 3. e. .118 153.
(b) 149. is ?n .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 3 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. 2 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. (b) 35 miles. and the rate of the second are. Two men start at the first miles apart. 5 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 4J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. The one: 31. . by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the rate of the first. if m and n are. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 33. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 34. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 3J miles per hour. is (a) 51. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the second at the apart.721. and the second 5 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. (d) 1. After how many hours do they meet. (c) 16. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. the Two men start at the same time from two towns.000. Find the side of the square. respectively. squares 29. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem.001. squares 30. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. respectively (a) 60 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. meet.
the second term the consequent.g. . the antecedent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. b. Ex. : : 155. Simplify the ratio 21 3. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. In the ratio a : ft. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The first 156. E. b. 1.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.5. the symbol being a sign of division. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number." we may write a : b = 6. etc. 6 12 = . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b is the consequent. antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. " a Thus. the denominator The the 157. a ratio is not changed etc. is numerator of any fraction consequent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 158. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.
18. 4. b. 3:1}. 6. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. Transform the following unity 15. 7f:6J. equal 2. and c. The last first three.RATIO Ex. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 1. 3 8. : ay . term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : 1. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 16. $24: $8. 27 06: 18 a6. 61 : ratios 72:18. 62:16. 5 f hours : 2. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. J:l. 3. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 3:4. 10. 12. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. b is the mean b. terms. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 11. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. two  ratios. 17. Simplify the following ratios 7. extremes. 159. and c is the third proportional to a and . 7:4 T T 4 . proportional between a and c. a and d are the extremes. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 8^ hours. 9. 4:5f : 5. b and c the means. 16a2 :24a&.
164. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. of iron weigh . a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. = 30 grams 45 grams.) b = Vac. i. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. are : : : inversely proportional. and the other pair the extremes. : c. " we " NOTE. If (Converse of nq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. briefly. : : directly proportional may say.30 grams. pro portional.e.) mn = pq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 2 165. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days.122 162. ad = be. ccm. q~~ n . then 8 men can do it in 3 days. !.__(163. 163. 6 ccm. 3 4. of a proportion. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. Hence the number of men required to do some work. and the time necessary to do it. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. then G ccm. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. The mean proportional of their product. Clearing of fractions.
a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a:c=b:d. = 35 . I. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 12x Hence a? = 42. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. ad = be. + b:b = c + d:d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. Or IV.) = f f = 3 J. 166. then =d c. d d.PATIO Ex. (163. 1. I. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. a III. (Frequently called Inversion. bd bd. V. ad ( 163.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) (Called Alternation. (Composition. hence the proportion true.) d 167. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) II. is 4$ = 35. is Ex. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (Division. if 6 : 7.) a + b:a = c + d:c. 2.
x = 2.!=!*. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 5. = 2:3. E. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. Simplify the following proportions. 9.124 IT. . Or III. 8. 120:42 2 2 7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 20:7. . 10.g. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. = 7:2f 3J. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. : 3 = 5 f x : x. : x. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 4.e. 2. 6 =4 : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 180:125. 3.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 12 5ft. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 5 5. mx tin Apply composition and division. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = 2:x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. i. the consequents by 7. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. IV. V. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.
= 2 + x: x. 14 and 21. 23. 29. 35. 3. 9 x = 2 y. 47. 28. 6. 46. 2 a and 18 a. to: = 35:*. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 2= 5 x x. 5. 38. : 53. ratio of y. 17. = 5 x 12. w. mx = ny.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 27. a 2 and ab. 33. 21. 43. 42. = 3 43 + x. ra + landra 1. 39. a?:15 15. . 34. 2 3 = y #. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 6x = 7y. 20. 6 x = y. Find the 37. : . 4 and 16. 03:a?=135:20. 50. (a : : 45. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. = l^:18. 1 and a. to : 9 and 12. to : a and 1. ra. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 26. ra 2 . 3. 12. 44. 52. Find the mean proportional 30. 16 and 28. if : 40. terra 2:3 = 4. 4. rap. 3t. b. + fyx = cy. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 41. 31. 25. 1. 112:42 = 10:a. 7iy = 2:x. 5= 18 a? : a?. f. a. 51.:ff. 16. : a2 . = 15o. x m = y n. 2.x: 6:5 a : x. Find the third proportional 24. and 2/. rag.8:1.j>.. 14. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 18. 13. 22. x:5 = y:2.  32. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 2.
areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. A line 7^. and the time. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the time necessary for it.126 54. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the speed of the train. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 56. 57. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the area of the rectangle. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the : total cost. the area of the larger? the same. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. what 58. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. the squares of their radii (e) 55.
2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. AB = 2 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. is A line AB. x=2. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x = 66 is the first number. . produced to a point C. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. : Ex. = the second number. 2 x Or = 4. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Let A B AC=1x. 18 x = 108. Then Hence BG = 5 x. so that Find^K7and BO. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 inches long. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69.000 168. x = 6.
and 15 inches. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 14.000 square miles. Gunmetal tin. 6.000.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. : 4. How many 7. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. What are the parts ? 5. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : 197.) . 3. 11. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 9. and c inches. How many gen. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 2. 7. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 12. How The long are the parts ? 15. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 13. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.
CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. if . a? (1) then I. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. is x = 7. values of x and y. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.L x If If = 0. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. =. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. The root of (4) if K 129 .y=. However.. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. etc.e. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. such as + = 10. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. x = 1. y = 1. expressing a y. Hence. 2 y = . if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. there is only one solution.
and 3 x + 3 y =. 4y . viz. y I 171. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). the last set inconsistent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. y = 2. By By Addition or Subtraction. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Therefore.3 y = 80. 172. 6x . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ~ 50. Substitution. 21 y . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. are simultaneous equations. 3. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. to The two methods I. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.130 170. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . = . E.26. for they express the x f y 10. same relation. of elimination most frequently used II.24.X. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. unknown quantity. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 26 y = 60. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 174. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent.
= 406. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. y = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 3. 10 .2 = 6. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. whose coefficients In general. 3. 8 2. Therefore Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 37. y = 1.3 1 = 47.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 60 . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Transposing. 5 13 . = 235. 3y = 3. are like.3 y = 47.14 =8. subtract the equations. add the equations. 25 x . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). + 2. 64 x = 040. Check. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. x = 10.
13 61 l7a. . + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. i 3. I i 3 a. v ^ = ll. I ~ y~~> 22.4. 19< I a.v 23.3. I oj 5y = 17.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. O t K 8.5 y = 2. f 3X 7x 14. f 3# ?/ = 0. _. x 11. * + 3 y = 50.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. J I y = 1U. = 41. [2o.9 *. = 6. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 24.f2/ ' = 50. ] ^ . I .3. 9 1 r 20. 13. + 2/ 17. ' 12. 7 ' 1fi fl .
= 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 4#8. = 2y + 10. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. and solve the resulting equation. x ) ^"" 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 8. = 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. . = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177.
Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 7x_2y=3. 29 x = 29. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). From 9 = 36. 3. (4). however. 3 (1) Ex.6)7(y7)==18.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (7) (7) (8) . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26.3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. . 21z6y=9. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. + 212y4 = 14. 4* + 3y = 19. 2 y = . simplified before elimination is possible. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Substituting in (6) . x = l. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.
1) + 5(6 y . = 3. 12. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. yM a.1) = 121. a. 10 2a?5 17. 16. 10. +y 2 . . J 9. . 4 11. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. a. . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.f2 2. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
. ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. <X + 20.#. 22. but some expressions involving x. {. f y . and y.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.and x y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. e. 180. * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21.
Therefore y=4. x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1).3 xy. x 3. y.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. of this type. 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 1. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). etc. 15 y + 8 x . (4) + (G). however. . (2) (3) a. can also be solved Examples method. 2* * x 2.4 x = 4 xy. Clearing of fractions. 33 = 11 x. 137 Solve y y (1) .
253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. y MOi y a.= 5. 6. 21 9 . Ex. x y 5. 1. x y 331 9. n. 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x 8.= o 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . . 6w3 + bny = 6p. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). = en.
ax + by = 2 a&. a Find a and terms of n. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. d. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. w. Uniting. and I. 6. x f my = 1. From the same equations find s in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c.W. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5. ny = fy/ I sc 1. ap. . s in 11. and I if 13.y = = 9a + 46. . bmy bm}y ap cm. fax f = l. d. x 12. 14. Dividing. apan cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x a. W . . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.
f 3y 12 =s 8.15z=12 Adding.1+4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.2 + 3. Ex.lf> z . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 3. 3.8 = 1. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. etc. by 3.2 + 4.12 y + 6 z = . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 3y = Hence Check. . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. l.by 2. y =* 2. To solve equations containing By tions. = 30. (8) 2. 20. 8 x . 4. (4) (5).3=4. = 3. ties are Similarly.3 = 8. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 182. x + 12 y . 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).25.16. 6. 1. 1.13.
7. 49. a? 11. 4 = 42. 2 4. 8. 10. + y f z = 15. k 2/ f 2 x a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . 14. == 6. 12. f 2 i/ f z = 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? + 709 = 26. x 13. 2z = 40. ~6?/ 5. 15 2 = 45.
=s 20. 22. 23. .3 y + . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.2 a. 27.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0. (3 _. ^ = 2. 16. 19. . 1510 4 17.42 = 2. ? = llz. 4. = 8*. 60. . 84 21. 32.. = 5.6 2.
either directly or implied. . 2 = 1(1+6). and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. y 31. and if 396 be added to the number. ( 99. Obviously of the other . +2+ 6 = 8. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. . + 396 = 521. z + x = 2 n. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. M=i. however. + z = 2p. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Check. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. # 4. 1. the number. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. symbols: x + y +z 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. y * z 30. = l. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 = 2. x : z =1 : 2. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples. Find the number. 1 digit in the tens place. 2 = 6. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Ex. = 2 m.
Find the fraction. 4 x = 24. direction.144 Ex. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x 3x4y = 12. 3+1 5+1 4_2. the distance traveled by A. = 8. 2. y = 3. . Ex. From (3) Hence xy Check. 2. x y = the = the x denominator . 6 x 4 = 24. x 3 = 24. C. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 5_ _4_ A. we obtain. By expressing the two statements in symbols. increased by one. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. = Hence the fraction is f. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 3. xy a: 2y 4y 2. (1) (2) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . Or (4)2x(3). the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. B. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. = the fraction.
fraction is reduced to \. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. ? What 9. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the fraction is reduced fraction. If 27 is 10. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the fraction equals . to the number the digits will be interchanged. its value added to the denominator. If 9 be added to the number.}. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 1. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the value of the fraction is fa. and the fourth 3. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the number. A fraction is reduced to J. If the denominator be doubled. added to the numerator of a fraction. 6. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and its denomi nator diminished by one. tion ? 8. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. both terms. part of their difference equals 4.) added to a number of two digits. the digits will be interchanged. the Find the fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. it is reduced to J. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 7. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the numerator increased by 4. 183. the number (See Ex. Find the fraction. . 2. Find the numbers. Find the number. the last two digits are interchanged. 5. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the numbers.
What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. partly at 5 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 19. in 8 years to $8500. 12. Find the rates of interest. A man invested $750. the annual interest would be $ 195. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and 5 years ago their ages is 55. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and in 5 years to $1125. 14. 5 %. How 6 %. Find their present ages. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and partly at 4 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. respectively ? 16. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 4 %.000 is partly invested at 6%.grams. and money and 17. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. . 13. now. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. A sum of $10. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. the rate of interest? 18.
In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. Find their rates of walking. receiving $ 100 for each horse. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. c. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and CE If AB = G inches. and sheep. angle c = angle d. A farmer sold a number of horses. triangle Tf AD. and $15 for each sheep. cows. $ 50 for each cow. and F. and angle BCA = 70. E. points. An C touch ing the sides in D. but if A would double his pace. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. . 23. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. B find angles a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 1 NOTE. BE. BC = 7 inches. BC=7. 24. the length of NOTE. three AD = AF. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and GE = CF. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and AC = 5 inches. for $ 740. 25. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. the three sides of a triangle E. and F '(see diagram). A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. then AD = AF. respectively. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and e. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BD = HE. and angle e angle/. are taken so ABC. On /). . ED = BE. what is that = OF. andCL4 = 8. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and their difference by GO . The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and F.
. YY' theyaxis. The of Coordinates. PN are given. the ordinate by ?/. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. first 3). PM. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. B. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and PJ/_L XX'. 3). and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and point the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. or its equal OM. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . jr. and r or its equal OA is . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. Thus the points A. is the abscissa. (3. PN. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). and PN _L YY'. 186. is The point whose abscissa is a.. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. ?/. (2. (2. 2). It' Location of a point. (7. the ordinate of point P.
Plot the points (6. (4. 6. 6. (4. (2. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 3). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 4) and (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (4.) EXERCISE 1. (See diagram on page 151. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. !). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 71 2).2). and measure their distance. 0). 4). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 1). 2J).3). 4). 11. 1). (4.4). . 3). (3. i.(!. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 2). . What is the locus of (a?. 12.and(l.e. 4) from the origin ? 7. Graphs. (0. 3. 2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.1). 4. 2. 0). Plot the points : (0. 8. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (5. (1. 0). (0. 3). Plot the points: (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. 0). Plot the points: (4.
D. however. we meas1 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . may be found on Jan. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. from January 1 to December 1. 15. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ure the ordinate of F. B. By representing of points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date.. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 1. or the curved line the temperature. 10 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . C. 188.
the rise and fall of wages. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the merchant. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom. Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. as the prices and production of commodities. (b) July 15. the graph is applied. (d) November 20. uses them. etc. the matics. The engineer.
. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (1) 10 C. is 10. When the average temperature below C. (freezing point) ? 7. How much. 15. (d) 9 0. 1? 11 0. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what months above 18 C.152 2. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.. 1 to Oct. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ? 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C..
transformation of meters into yards. NOTE. Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 19. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw a graph for the 23. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.. 9. 3. 4. amount to $8. 3. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.50. the value of a of this quantity will change.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. books from for printing. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. and $. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 1 to 1200 copies. A 10 wheels a day.) T circumferences of 25. . x 7 to 9. binding. gas. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.g.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. etc. then C irJl. to 27.. 29. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. represent his daily gain (or loss).5 grams. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 2 .. 28.154 24. etc. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if each copy sells for $1. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. x increases will change gradually from 13. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.inch. function If the value of a quantity changes. the daily average expenses for rent. if he sells 0. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 26.50. x* x 19. 190. e.
Draw the graph of x2 f. be also represented by a graph. plot points which lie between those constructed above.2 x may 4 from x = 4. J). to x = 4. and (3. for x=l. 4). Q. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2). it is In the example of the preceding article. etc.g. Ex. Graph of a function. may . (1^. ( 2. construct '. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .1). while 7 is a constant.e.1). The values of func192. x a variable. 3 (0. (2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 3 50. 4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. and join the points in order. is supposed to change. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . E. 2 (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. . may. (1. as 1. however. 9). 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.0). 1 the points (3. 9). a*. If a more exact diagram is required.
as y. Ex. (2. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.20). and join(0. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 2 4 and if y = x f.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. (4. 4). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. (3. Thus 4x + 7. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. etc. r */ +* 01 . rf 71 . It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 194.2 x ..4).) For brevity. . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. j/=3. = 0.. 1). and joining in order produces the graph ABC. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 2. = 4. Thus in the above example. y = 6. 7 .. straight line produces the required graph. 5). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 4J..
xz + x. . 5. a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2 2. if y = 2. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. if a. 12. 8. a? 2 4.5)2. 3 a 8. 6. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 21. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2J. xl. 1J. 2.5)2. ?/ a. 1. . (C ) (2. l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 4a? I. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. y = 2x = 4. 18.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. from x VlO'S". J. x+1. 1J. if the function equals zero. (ft) (_ 1. 19. 6 fa. 2 a. + 4. = The values of a*. 16. a?. 11. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. Jar .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. a ar. 1J. (7i) (c) 23. 1 8 10. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 7. i. 2 or 2 20. The values of a?. 2x + 3x a?. the function. 3. 4 a. The smallest value of the function. = 4. 2 a. 9. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.8)'.or. 14. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 15. The values of a*. a? 1. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. fa 17. 3. (If) Va25. if"a. 2J.e. 2. 23x. 22. a* 13. 2 2 a.
.. 32 F.. that graph with the o>axis. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.e. Represent 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. y= formula graphically. 1 C. then y = . A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. Show any convenient number). C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. the abscissas of 3. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 25.. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. 14 F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. i. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. .24 or x = P and Q.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.158 24. Therefore x = 1.24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). then cXj where c is a constant. 9 F.where x c is a constant.
and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. or 5 2. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 6. 2 and 1. 7. 6. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 8. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 14. = 0. 4.7 2 a 5 = 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. Such equations in general have two roots. 3. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. is called a quadratic equation. (a) (6) 9. 10. (a) x2 = 0. + + = where a. viz. (0. 11. a2 2a. 13. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 12. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 197. . 0.f 9 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. crosssection paper is used.
y= A and construct x (  graphically. 0). = 0. if y = is 0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. If x = 0. NOTE.e. Hence we may join (0. fc = 3.2. unknown quantities. Hence. i. . ?/ =4 AB. ?/. produces the 7* required locus. first degree. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . T . because their graphs are straight lines. 199. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. locate points (0. Ex.2 y ~ 2. X'2 Locating the points (2. 2). 4) and (2.1. 3x _ 4 . solve for ?/. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 1) and 0). that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. and join the required graph. y = l. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Ex.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. == 2. and joining by a straight line. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. (f . y y 2. Hence if if x x  2.
202. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.15. we obtain the roots. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. parallel have only one point of intersection. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. and CD. viz.1=0. 203. 201. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). To find the roots of the system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . linear equations have only one pair of roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 3. equation x= By measuring 3. (2) . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.57.
2 equation x 3). 3x 2 y = 6. Solving (1) for y. Using the method of the preceding para. The equations 2 4 = 0. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. e.y~ Therefore. 0. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 5.0). we of the + y* = 25. V25 5. (4. (4. etc. In general. . P graphs meet in two and $. 4. and joining by a straight line. 1. 1. Measuring the coordinates of P.  4.5. 4. 4.. the point we obtain Ex. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. (2. the graph of points roots. 3.5. 3). There can be no point of and hence no roots.e. x2 . 0. 2.0. 4. Inconsistent equations. 0) and (0. Since the two  we obtain DE. Locating the points (5. AB the locus of (1). (1) (2) C. Locating two points of equation (2).162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 4. and . there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 2. 3. 5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. intersection. they are inconsistent. y equals 3. 4. i. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.9. = 0.g. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. if x equals respectively 0. 3. 4. and + 3).
a. 6. 10. x~y=0.. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. \ 2x + 3^ . 4. . 2. 20. 2x 3?/=6. state reasons. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. the graphs of the following systems. 5. 17. y = 4. 16 22. y= a2 2x y6. a+r/=6. '163 Dependent equations. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 19. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. y 2 4. vice versa. 8. 9. if possible. 3. y=x + 5. 16 23. 7.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. and solve each If there are no solutions. Draw system. and.
Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. TABLE OF SQUARES. 3 31. 26. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 30. 4 a = 3(6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .14 y = .y). CUBES. 28.8.164 24. 25.
fa.faa a a a Obviously 1. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . is may be by 207. Law of Signs. 8. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. a = a3 . follows that 3. . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. involution repeated multiplication.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206.a2 . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . According to 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ^4/? it According to 50. 52. a special kind of product. 2. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. etc. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . powers of a positive quantity are positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. on to in factors 4. 3 f a = f a = +. 2.
4. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 15.6) = a . \ 3 J '  MW 10.166 To find To To power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . amVy) 3 . 76 : (>y. (277171 )*. a product to a given power. raise a fraction to a power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 2 11 (afc ) . 6. the required power. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (^^) 2 . V V/ 13. 24. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 5 . (a ) 2 4  3. . 16. 3 2 2 8 . 2. 4 /2mV. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (2ar). 210.3 a 6 f 3 a6 .6 (a 8 8 . 5.
8 (a??/) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 211. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. .INVOLUTION Ex. 23. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. and decreases in each succeeding term by L .3 y. + 4aj) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (6m+2w) (3 8 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 3. 12. a. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 4. 8. 15. The higher powers of binomials. +5a) 22.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 1 f 3 2 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . . (3 x .y . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 2. 7. : a 20. Ex. (afl) . are obtained by multiplication. An 1. 5. 1. (aj7) . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. nent of the binomial. 2 . (a + &)8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 9.y) = (3 y?y . 2. + a 2 a. (3 (l I) 2 8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 6. 3 . 3 8 . 18.6 2 8 ft) . pansions. frequently called ex. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (3af26) 8 . 16. 13. 21.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. etc. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (5 (1 a) 3 .) 14.
10. . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 24.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and the powers negative. (mJ) 4 11. (mnp 5 I) 5 . Ex. (2 4. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. . 6. (la&) 4 12. 3. (af 5) . . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 17. (?/i~w) : 16.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 4 (1for) 5 . 14. . (m 5 I) 2 22.216 a^ 4.2. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 2. 21. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (w 4 ?i) 4 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (?>i?i f c)*. Ex. 9. 8. (1 + 4 ?/) . 5. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. The minus. Ex. (l 8 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. 25. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 78 s . (m fl) 2 20.a) 3 19. 4 . ( &) 5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . mn 5 2 5 ) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 5. . (3a f5) 5) 4. . 3. 1. (2 a 4 . 15. 4.168 3. is the coefficient of the next term. 13. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 18. 23. (m 2 + n) 8 . (a~^) 5 . (tff1) (cfd) . .
or 3 for (usually written 3) .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. (_3) = 27. which can be simplified no further. a) 4 = a4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for distinction. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. numbers. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. called real numbers. 109 . 27 =y means r' = 27. V9 = + 3. 4 4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. V \/P 214. 1. tity . \/"^27=3. and ( v/o* = a. etc. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or y ~ 3. 2. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. = x means = 6. Since even powers can never be negative. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 215. or x &4 . and all other numbers are. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution.
for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. . Ex 5 a" .9 = 136. \/2 4 9 . Ex. To extract a root of a fraction. V5 v/2 7 2. 9. extract the and denominator. 8. 2. 9. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 10.  100 a 2 . fy 5 3 .1. 2 .201) = 2.lL. 82 . V?. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 7 . 2. Ex. v/2^.125. 3/0** = am . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . V25 9 16. 3i . Ex. 7. 6. index. 3 33 53 . Ex.(.64 5 4 . roots of the numerator \/18 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 79 2 v/2 5 . 62 = V2* . 8. 6.200 . = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex. 7 . 5. 4 v. v/^i2 = a*. 3. 7. EXERCISE 1. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. To extract the root of a power. 6 7 = 030. V36 9 4. = V26TIT81 = 53. = 19472. .4. for (a")" a = a mn 3.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. . for (a 3 )* = a 12 .
V8. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.3 y2) ( vV ./). 29. . 33.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .3.98. 116. 2 . ^40^4.3 .75. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .6 tfif + 9 y = O . 2. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. Ex. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . V20 . 34. a f2 l 2 + l. 31. 45 V5184. V9216. 5. 2 f ( V240) 3 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 1. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 6.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.) by inspection. a* 4 8 2 . 3. 2 .4/. Find the square root of a2 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 32.EVOLUTION 171 28. 30. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.
172 7. . let us consider the relation of a f. the given expression is a perfect square. #2 a2  16. i.2 ac . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . The term a' first 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 8 . 15. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 2 218. 11. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 12. however. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. a f. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 .2 &c. 10. 14. a\b is the root if In most cases.2 ab + b .b 2 2 to its square.> 13. and b (2 a f b). + 6 + 4a&.e. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. and b. 2ab . mV14m??2)f 49.
1. The square . by division we term of the root. 10 a 4 8 a.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 /. . */'' . First complete divisor. . As there is no remainder. the first term of the answer. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. of x. and so forth. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 2. First trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. . 1. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Ex.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 8 a 2 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 6 a. . is As there is no remainder. Explanation. 219. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. . 8 a 2 . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.24 afy* f 9 tf.
9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .4 x 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 8. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.12 m 4. 14.20 o 4. l 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .12m 5 4.37 a ^ . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 18. 2 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .a 6 x*y 2 . 1 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 10. 5. 16.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.16. 6.162 a2 60 a10 4. 436^?/469a. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 15.24 or . 17.10 x2 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.73a4 440^436^460^. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.40 a 22 . 20. x 6 4 4 0^4. 16x6 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 36it. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .25 x 4 4. a? 2 . 3. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. > 7.9. 6 11. 12. 4 .25. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 729 4.42 a*& 4. 9.73 a8 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 5 4 16 4 iK . .V430^425^ 4m 4. 24. 19.6 .
176. Find the square root of 7744. the first of which is 4.000 is 100.000. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. 1. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. etc. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. of a number between 100 and 10. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . a 2 = 6400. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Ex. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. two figures. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.EVOLUTION 220. the square root of 7744 equals 88.. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000 is 1000. of 10. 2. and the first remainder is.1344. Ex. = 80. Find the square root of 524. the first of which is 8. Therefore 6 = 8. which may contain one or two). From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. The is trial divisor = 160.000. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. first . beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. of 1. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. and the complete divisor 168.
1 are Ex. Find the square root of 6/. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher.10.1T6 221. 3. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.70 6. 12.0961 are '. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. in .GO'61.7 to three decimal places.
1. 13. JT . 33. 36. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48. feet. 31.4 square when R = radius and 11. . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 30.1410. T\. 32. 5. feet. J.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 35. 37. = 3.01.22. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .58 square 38. 34. 39.53. 1.) 40.
Ex.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. = 7^ + 5. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 225. = 4. but no higher power e. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . x 2 7. or equation of the second degree. 2 ic = a. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 178 . 1. A pure. Extracting the square root of each member. or incomplete. 226. . or affected. The 7 equation. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 6 y2 = 17. is 12. is A quadratic equation. x = + 2 or x =2.g. Dividing. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.. complete. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Transposing. 2. 2)* + 5 = 33. 224. 6#2 = x* 24. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. This answer Check.
Dividing by Extracting the square root. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 7. ' =: y? b* b . . Solve 179 . 15^5 = 6. (a? 9.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 8. 2. 3. 4. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 4fc 5' 18. 6(2)=10(ajl). 19 + 9 = 5500.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 16^393 = 7. : 83 2. 5. ax Transposing and combining. 10. 0^ + 1 = 1.2. 7 = 162. 4 ax.25. or Therefore. 2 2 a. . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. o.
opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). find a in terms of 6 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. its area contains =a 2 f b2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. is one of _____ b The side right angle. Find the numbers. and they con tain together 30G square feet. solve for v. : 6. Find the side of each field. 28. 4. 108. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 3. 2. may be considered one half of a rec square units. solve for r. .b 2 If s If =c . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 27. 24. . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find is the number. r. 25. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 : 3. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. Find the side of each field. If a 2 4. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5.) of their squares 5. A right triangle is a triangle. 26. and their product : 150. EXERCISE 1. 2a f 1 23. solve for d. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). is 5(5. If 22 = ~^. ' 4. 2 . 228. 29. 22 a. If G=m m g .
7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . J = 12. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the sides. 8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. is and the other two sides are equal. 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. and the two smaller 11. . we have of or m = .) 13. Method of completing the square.2 7 . . A body falling from a state of rest. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . add () Hence 2 . 2m. of a right triangle Find these sides. The area : sides are as 3 4. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 9. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. x* 7 x= 10. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . sides. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the third side is 15 inches.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. To find this term. 24. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. (b) 100 feet? = . (b) 44 square feet. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find these 10.7 x f 10 = 0. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. radii are as 3 14. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Solve Transposing. Find the radii.
Transposing. . Uniting. 230. = x\ = 2. or J. Extracting square roots. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . = . a. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2 a2 . (*~8) a = at .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Transposing. Hence Therefore Check.. or x = 2. 2 a* a. Simplifying. Ex. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. = \ # = ff.e. = 6.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.x(l = .a. 62 x 5 = f. J. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. adding member).  \. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.2. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Therefore. a Clearing of fractions. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Ex. 2  .1.
183 Simplifying. Extracting square root. x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 49. and c in the general answer. 2x 3 4. . = 12.c = 0. x la 48. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solution by formula. article. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. ao.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. =0. =8 r/io?. \bx\.
2# 11 + 15 = 0. 16. 6. 20. = 64120?. 4. 21. 17. 5 x2 Transposing.25 x. c = 5. 6. V^tT)* . 2 a? = 44 x . 10. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 12. 2or } 5o. 3. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2. 1. a. 2 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5.4 4 5 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. c p. 26. 6 Ex. 18. 15. : 86 + 2 = 0. 8. = 12 .  . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 9.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2 o. Reducing to general form. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6 . 6^+5^ 56. 19. 14. 7.. 2. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 11. TIO. 13. ?i 2 . 2 a.
= 0. Eesolving into factors.4) = . Bx 1 1. if either of the uct is zero. 5) = 0. 5 = 0. a=:i^^. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. factors Now. Solution by factoring.2. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . or # 5 is zero. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. . Transposing. 25. 26.5) =0. 233. 2S3x 1 2 .x. and 6. member can be Ex. = 14. any degree. x2 = 1 . Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.5 Solving (1) and (2). Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. x(x <2 . transposing terms to one member. orz roots. 0. Clearing for fractions. }. 24.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 23. 1. = 0. (5 a? !)(. = 0. Factoring. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 3x?+x = 7. 27 x== 42a. ar>8o. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.
a* 10a=24. 3^ = 0(1106). 3 or 2 a. 13.3)(x + 3 3. 2. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. O roots are 2.= 24. 6. x2 f 2 x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Or Hence the 234. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 4)(z3) = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 2. The equation I.(. 3) Factoring. : 87 = 0. a?10a=:24. + 100. 2o3 f9a. 16. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. ar'Sa^ 12. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.g.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 4. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. is 5) = 0.24 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. + 10 a = 24. 5 = 0. 7. Ex. (aj4)(a. 3.:=0.6)) = 0. 5. a?. 4or + 18a f 8a. + 6)=0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. aj( 15. + 8=s: 7. for a: .3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3) = 0. E. 0(02) = 7(02). 14. 12. 3. Therefore x =3 = 2. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 9. we 9 obtain x 4.e. } 2 2 (5 . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 8.
a 2 =(x a)b. 23. 18. 25. 2. (a + 1) (a. 27. ara + ft + c*. 22. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 20. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. '3a!J  . f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 19.3) = (s + l) (3 a). uz + u 21. 50. (2a? 3) (a 24.188 17.
feet. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 4. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and whose sum is is 36.1. Find the numbers. 6. 5. Find the number.0. The difference of . 2.3. 2. Find the sides. 2. 5. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. 3. and whose product 9. . and equals 190 square inches. The 11. 1. 56. 8. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. of their reciprocals is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. EXERCISE 1. 3. number by 10. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 7.9. 2. two numbers is 4. 58. G. : 3. 52.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. and consequently many prob 235. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 1. 54. 0. 55.3. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and the difference Find the numbers.3.0. Find the number.2. 57. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.
13. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. If he each horse ? . he would have received two horses more for the same money. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two vessels. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 15. 14. ply between the same two ports. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. watch for $ 24. dollars. What did he pay for 21. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and Find the sides of the rectangle. as the 16. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. ABCD. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. 19. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster.190 12. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. 17. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. . Find the rate of the train. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. other. sold a horse for $144. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively.10. c equals 221 Find AB and AD.
and working together. as 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. contains B 78 square inches. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. the two men can do it in 3 days. 27. constructed with and CB as sides. Ex. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. 24. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. 1. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. 23 inches long. how wide is the walk ? 23. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. (tf. Find TT r (Area of a circle . and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other.) 25. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. so that the rectangle. or x = \/l = 1. ^3^ = 7. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. By formula. of the area of the basin. a point taken. is On the prolongation of a line AC. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 237. Find and CB. . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.
6. 4 : 89 10a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2. 9.2 =4. 19. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.)+72=0. 2 h9:=0. 4 a. a 21or=100. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. = 13. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 16. 12. 10. 8. a4 5o. Solving. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.192 238. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. or y = 8. a? 15 1=2*. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 18. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 16 a^40 11. Ex. = 1. 4. >. a. y8)=0. 436 3. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Hence Le. 7. 4 6.T 2 2 . T 17.
Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . ( 2a Hence 1. 240. the roots are rational. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. rational. rational. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ex.f> = 0. . and unequal. b 4. 3. 1.5) = 04.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Hence the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are equal. is 4ac not zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are irrational.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.12 x + 9 = 0. Ex. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The discriminant =(. and equal. 2. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. a perfect square.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are imaginary. 241. negative.bx 4. c the roots are real. the roots are unequal.2) 2 4 3 (.2 z . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Relations between roots and coefficients. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. the roots are real. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.
19 # 20. o. 2 a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 9a3 = 0. 3a. = 0. 12. 2. their product isf. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. tfmx+p^Q. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. f 2 E. 2 : 3. = Q. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 24. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 18 2 8. = 0.. 12~x = x 2 . + 12 2  . : a 2 . 60 2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. + 2a. 5oj aj + l = 0. 4. 17. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 6. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2 7. 23. = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 14.g. 15. 18.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. lla. 21.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 22. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. ^12. = 5x. 5aj 9. x2 7 10.
4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.a" = a m n mn . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The first of these laws is nition of power. II. must be *The symbol smaller than. ~ a m f. = a"" < . 244. provided w > n. that a an = a m+n . and . hence. no Fractional and negative exponents. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. m IV. for all values 1 of m and n." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . > m therefore.* III. Then the law of involution. however.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. such as 2*. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . (a m ) w . It is. a m a" = a m+t1 . (ab) . We assume. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. while the second of the first. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true.
disappear. 23. '&M A 27. a\ 26. ml. laws. 28. 245. 25. 0?=^. (bed)*. = a. a . m$. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 3*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. (xy$. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 4~ . n 2 a. Assuming these two 8*. or zero exponent equal x. fractional. e. a*. 29. . etc. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. as. at. a?*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.g. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 31. 30. 24.
v'mT 36.g. = 2. 40. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. the base is zero. a* * = 3. equal to unity. 3* = 27. e. If. 27* = 3. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 42. 44. \/xy \/m.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. however. \fi?. 7z* Find the values of 47. 50. 38. : 2' 4* = 4. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. ty?. 49. 43. Vo5 . 46. a. : 197 33. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. = 2. v/o&cT 34. 45. 246. 48. hence is . : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.g. e. a * a2 Or a=l. Let a = a.\/n. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. = 49. Solve the following equations 39. 5 a* = 10. 35. 41. 37. a .
Or a"# = l.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Let x= or". . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . e. Multiplying both members by a". 248. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. by changing the sign of NOTE. cr n. consider the following equations. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. or the exponent. vice versa.198 247. an x = a.2 = a2 . etc.
37. 25. c 32.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 44. f (2w)~i 1 . a. a^ 41. 22. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 3 a. : mi m~^. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 40. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 36. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2 . m . ^?2 y' 34. ^L. 27. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 66 45. rfS. . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . 39. 2 . 2m~i 43. : or 5 . * 24. 3 a? * 42."* 38.
= .343)* + (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 57. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 53. ar = i. = l.1.9*. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 58.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* 5* = . 59. 54. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.008)* + A. Ex. z 5or*=10. = 5. 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = ^. 250. 47.001. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 10* Find the values 56. . 61. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 55. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. + A_. 17' 2 51. of: 3ll4~* 60. (. 52.81 f (a . 48.6). Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 49. z* = 1.(. + 1~* f 21 .
12. OA 20. 7~ 6 .^/5^5.6 *' 6 *25. 3 a. #* a. V5. are performed. . 27  28.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 3sVS.5.$*.$". 95 ^9i 5**. 16.. 14. 8 ' 9. &.7*.7i. 6. a. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 4 5.4 . NOTE. 23. 10.4 a8 . 6 *. etc. 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 17. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 79 . / 7fv 7. 7~ 5 27  . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 72 . remove the fractional exponents. 3. 7*. 13. 4 x^. . 18. Remove the negative exponents.&.&.5a. Perform the operation indicated.3 aj" a.7W. (d) If required. ' 11. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 26. 7. S'sS8. . 6a.
34. The 252. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. Arrange in descending powers of Check.2 d . we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1. 40. 1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 2. 6 35. If powers of a?.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V2. V2. ^126. 34. ^2.2. ^3. VS. 31. ^5. 37. ^30. Simplify/a35 ~ o . </2. 4^/4.10 V2 =  V2. \/5. 28. ^4. signs. V5. ^6.e. s!/3. if dissimilar. A/2. \/7. </3. 29. connect them by proper 1. 2\ 3*. ^7. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 26. 39. ^2. V3. Arrange 35. ^2. v/3. 33. ^4.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. V3. Ex. 38. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. To add or form. + . Ex. (i. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . </20. 36. 40. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. I VJ + 3VT8 . terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 5V2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 30. V2. 27. in order of magnitude : \/7. A/3. ^/IT.2 V50. Simplify V~ . v^S. subtract surds. v/3. v/4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 3.3\ . 32.
4. 3.J a6 V4 aft. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . V18+V32VT28+V2. 6. 11. 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. 8. V175V28+V634V7. 14. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 13. 10. 8VT8J2V32 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2.3V20 + 6V5. . 12. + 3V835V2. 9.
. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .6V35 106 460V35100 . 3.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 6*. 23. and then multiplied. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 2. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 26^ . y* = Ex. 1. Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.
37. 7. 8. (Va Va 36. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 13. 28 .VSS. 213 98 11. 34. 19. 4. (3 20. (2V3) 8 . 40 10 30. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 9. 2. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V3 Vl2. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 6. VlO V15. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). + VB)(2V5). 21. V2 V50. 2 . a?. 10. 27. 41. 25. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 40. V20 V30. .RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 18. V2aV8^. V42. V3 V6. 14. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 12. (V6 + 1) 1 . VTO.^/2. fWa 17. 15. \/3 \^). aVa. 38. v/18 v"3. 6 V4 5. Vll. 3. 6. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 39. v/4.
is 1 2. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). V3 . a fraction. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 47. 48. E. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 52. the quotient of the surds is If. 49. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.214 42. 53. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). . Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.y. Ex. 43.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 268. Va v/a. 44. (2 45. 46. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 60. 51. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.
arithTo find.73205. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Evidently. e. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 3. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. . The 2. Divide VII by v7. however. is illustrated by Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have V3 But if 1. metical problems afford the best illustrations.57735. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .RADICALS This method.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . by V7. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1.by the usual arithmetical method.. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. /~ } Ex.g.
V8 JL. VffV?. 20. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V8 12. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V5 270. 271. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 24 . ^/H . V48 25. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. Vll 212*. .4142. 23 .2361. 21. 7. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . A. Vn V7 ' * 8.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V5 = 2. 14. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. and Given V2 = 1. V2 22 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. A. i. V3 = 1. 272.. .7320.
07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 1. . Ex.1 xVtf a.vffi^T _ . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 3.RADICALS Ex. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18.Vs2 . s Simplify a.2. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . .
four places of decimals 23 . By the use of fractional exponents . Vo1 26. V5V7 18> ^SVg. 19.2361. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. . 24. 6V7. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . : and V5 = 2.W3.218 6 . V21 = 25 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 27. J?_.5 3 = 125. Given V2 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. find to _!_.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. v 2V3 28. = V3 = 1. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.7320.
V643 . 11. 3. the If. it to this form. v8f 2\/15. \/125" . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . V255 . 4. viz. 8. 2. 2 12. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15.RADICALS 219 274. 1. 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. on the other hand. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. According to G3. \/l6*. In other examples of involution and evolution. 5. 3 (V2~u)  7. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. Simplify Ex.
2.A/2. These Ex. Find Vl2 4. 2 \/18. The Hence ^11 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.220 Ex.2 \/20. +2 Ex. ^TT.6 V2. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11. Find Vll . 3. 12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .
e. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 277.1. first involution. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 19. a. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. : 221 Vl32V22. Dividing by Check. = xa + 4 x f 4. 5. by raising both members equal powers. +=. Before performing the involution. VT . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. i. Transposing and uniting. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. they are transto formed into rational equations. 8. Radical equations are rationalized. member to 2. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. . Ex. V48 23. 4. 4x x = 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. are radical equations. x2 = x f 2. The value x =2 reduces each .V48 4 20. (2x xrf 1. r 22.
278. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . . . the first member = V2. Transposing and uniting. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Transposing and uniting. one root. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. viz. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Ex. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Therefore Check. a. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Extraneous roots. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Squaring both members. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 2. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. . Factoring. It = 3 x . Squaring both members. Transposing. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. a socalled extraneous root. 4#f 4 = 9. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. viz. x = J. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.1) = 0. tion which has two roots. Therefore CftecAr. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 5. at . V4afT~l. they may be extraneous roots.3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. f 25 = 12. Dividing by 24. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.222 Ex. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. V24~+~l = 0.
+ 6~ieT~3 . Factoring.47) = 0. . 4. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. is x V. ViTie 4 z2 .2 r. . both members reduce to 5. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. equation it is an extraneous root. Squaring. \ does not satisfy the given.12 .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Transposing. or x *j. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.RADICALS Hence x If a. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. = 3. Hence there is only one root. If If x 3 = 3. and to 5. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Solve the following equations : = G. 2 Clearing of fractions. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. 223 x = 3. for it satisfies the equation . Hence x = the only root. Therefore. x root of the preceding equation.3) (2 x . NOTE. the right member = V2. Check. (x x = 3.
Ex. Factoring. Many 1. Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 4. y then x2 . = 26.i~24 = 0.f40= 5. 412a* = 16. _ 2 y . Ex. Substituting. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.8 x + 40 = 36. . 45 14VJB = .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. This can be seen without substituting. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. + 40 = 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 2_8z 440 = 49. Vi 2 8a.8 z40 = 7. = 7. 3. x Since both =9 or 1. some of the roots be extraneous. Let 8 x f 40 . o. = 0. 3 6. 5. x + Vx a? = 6. 2Va. 2.35 = 0. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.*2a. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2. members of the equation were squared. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Q . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. x =6 or 3.
+3= 6. a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 14. 18. a^x2 5 2 13. 2. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +x . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 15. 12. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .226 11. 20. 17. 19.f 18 = 24.a 440 = 35.
= 2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. 3 2 Ex. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2) Q . then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. Hence. Ex. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ^ = 381+2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. ax4 4. then (x 2)Q 0.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 2. 1. If x* .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. no matter If.4 a.2 x 5 by x 3.2 + 4. 227 . Without actual division. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. find the remainder when m. a? R = x* . to x we # = 2 3. we make a? what the value of Q.360 = 244. even if Q is unknown. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. by dividing 3 x* f." transposing. Without actual division. does not contain a?. could. however. " Or.2 + 80 = 12.bx? + ex2 4. if Q was known.
the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.3)f 11 =. the remainder equals 8 2 x . hence (x divided by x 4. + 6. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5 (4x . if 8 42  .949.228 282. 3.4(. If the remainder is zero. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. of the division 3) is m in place of x.8'= 0. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . + ^by x + b. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. } 2 by a1. 5. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632. 2 j 7.g. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.g. fora?. 43 3 E. The Factor Theorem. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x* s 2 4. x m is factor of the expression.
2. oj 5x2 f3a. Let x = .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. a^8^ + 19a. 3 2 : 7. 24. 21. The 5. . 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.49 = 0. f 5. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. is a factor. factors of the absolute term.7 + 16 . 6. Therefore x ( 1). then x8 7 x'2 4. 17. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . f 15 does not vanish. 18. 7 46 = 0. 11. 20.r6 = 0. f 3. + 27 + 27. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 15. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. or 5 4 + 3^ . 106 division. Resolve into factors 4. & p*. a? 19.7 x + 15 = 0.12 = 0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. or x 4. 8. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 9. + ttt15 = 0. a 2a + 4. 1. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^10^429^20=0. 2 2. a 5x 6. m f m n 14.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 23. 5. + 15.e. Factor a? 15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . _ . p 5^ + 8p 4.1. 2m 5m . a + 32. 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a. 25.13m + 30 10. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.12. 3.9^ + 23^15. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 229 1. are f 1.1. 8. i.
If n is a Theorem that 1. xn y n y n y n = 0. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.230 285.y n is divisible by x f ?/. : importance. It y is not divisible by 287. ar +p= z6 e. By we obtain the other factors.xy +/). For substituting y for x. 2. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Ex. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2 Ex. actual division n. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 1. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . x* f/ = (x +/)O .  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. xn f. if n is even. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.g. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . 286. is odd. if w is odd.
x3 8=0. however. a. 28.i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex. 27. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . as 27=0. 26.= . 3. preferable. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. since it more directly to the prime factors.
xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. xywe have 3. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. 4 xy = 16. however. ==5 > 1^ = 4. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.1. of quadratics. + 6 a?V . the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). (5) Combining (5) with (1). & + 2 xy + = 25. xy are given. in general. 290. = 6. 232 . can be solved by the methods degree. x y. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. (4) Hence. * A I. If two of the quantities x f y.
12. 108 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. I I x + y=7. 233 y. x and xy are not given. EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. = . " "' "' { r 8. b=3. ^. r (" 1 = 876. 1. but can be found.g. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ' 10.
i/ = r 13.  f J. or y = 1 . A system of simultaneous equations.20) = 0. 3. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. aj = 2.?/ i = 6. one linear and ne quadratic. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. x " (3) 49 etc. I* Jj ^ [. ' ' . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . r^ 2 as ] f. Ex.  42 y + Transposing.. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 2 (1) From (1) we have.~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 5. 19. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 7 . + 29 = 0. or JJ.o 18. .a.  . . la. 6 "I 14. Factoring. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). I x+y = a. 4 y = 20. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.
y* + 2y = 3. x2y. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. quantities. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. If of the preceding type.3 2x 2 Ex. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 10. 9. 3y) : Factor (2). 1. = 1 3 3. ':il e :) . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. Solve . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). III. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations.
2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. j Substituting y in (2).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. = Ex. 109 a. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. } VI09. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 15 x2 . (1) (2) x x 5. Solve 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. 2 . 11 a2 Factoring.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.
SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 150 */2 . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?. " IV. 2 xy + y2 = 10. 298.3^42^=43. . Division of one equation by the other.!. ' ^ 15. (4) (3). y? a? f . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. and others not belonging to them. A.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Bxy9.6.175 ay = 12.y = 7.xy 4. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. can be solved by special devices.125 ay = . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. E. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).
jc~ y = 9. = 12 J. i ^ *>. Therefore x = 16. * ' 300. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. = 189. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. y . at first it is unknown quantities. Some simultaneous ?/. we obtain by squaring. x +y y etc. B.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. (1 > (2) 1. Solve Ex. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we have from (1).. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. from (2). 2. xy. x 2 . considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. y = 3.
7. 239 Ex. I e. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. M6. 36* 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . F+y+ . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. [2x + : y= 17. . 6. 2. 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence = V or = 4.
2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = y 1 y* .21 ^ = 15. . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 16. . * . 25. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = 198. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 19 ' 26. f 18. 27.
finite  =x y if = x. ^ oo . . y % 9 f*K 36. . 30. 32. 25 34. Interpretation . or ~ indeterminate. as a . Q 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . = 48201. etc. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ~\ OK OO. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 7' j/ 39. 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division. . etc 302. oo 301. 31. 33. hence may be any finite number. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.
can be If It is made larger than number. Let 2. Hence such an equation identity. = 10. . equation. and becomes infinitely small. is satisfied by any number.e. be the numbers. 1. I. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Or.g. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. or that x may equal any finite number. and . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. ToU" ^100 a. x f 2. 1.x'2 2 x = 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. as + l.000 a. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1) is an identity. oo is = QQ.242 303. it is an Ex. By making x any * assigned zero. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. cancel. 306.e.decreases X if called infinity. (1) = 0. (a: Then Simplifying. i. great. (1). TO^UU" sufficiently small. without exception. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. the answer is indeterminate.increases if x de x creases. The ~~f fraction . . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. i. creases. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.
.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Hence /. no numbers can satisfy the given system. = oo. * 6. EXERCISE 1. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve . 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. two numbers is 76. third and sixth parts. Solve  9 7. and the sum of Find the numbers. 2. 4 3 x x5 a2 . The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. is their 2. y finite QO. 1=0. 3.2 y = 4. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve x a. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.8 x + 15 6. (2). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. z = 1 Substituting.e. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. and a. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4).
of a right triangle is 73. Find these sides. Find the sides.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 13. 14. 10. and the edge of one. and the sum of ( 228.quals 20 feet. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. p. Find the edges. Find the sides of the rectangle.) 53 yards. 6. 148 feet of fence are required. 12. equals 4 inches. increased by the edge of the other. 9. Find the edge of each cube. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the numbers. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 190. 103. Find the other two sides. 255 and the sum of 5. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 8. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the side of each square. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the area becomes f% of the original area. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the diago(Ex. 146 yards. of a rectangular field feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. is 6. and the hypotenuse is 37.244 3. is is 17 and the sum 4. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. two numbers Find the numbers. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514.
is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. . Find the radii. the quotient is 2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. by the product of 27 be added to the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and if the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) 17. irR *.
Since d is a f 3 d. the second a descending.. (n 1) d must be added to a.. : 7.. + 2 d. of a series are its successive numbers. 2 d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. a. 4. P.) is a series.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. a 11. . the first term a and the common difference d being given. to each term produces the next term. 17. progression.. To find the nth term / of an A. 16. 19.. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. f . 309. 3. P.. The first is an ascending. of the following series is 3. An arithmetic progression (A. to produce the 4th term. series 9. . a + 2 d. added to each term to obtain the next one.. each term of which. 3 d must be added to a. 10. to produce the 3d term. . a 3d.. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. 11. The common differences are respectively 4. . a f d. Hence / = a + (n . a + d.1) d.7. and d. P. to produce the nth term. 12. 15 is 9 f. The progression is a.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. except the first.
= 2.' cZ == ...4. 6. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). of the series 10.8. 4^. 115. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 21. . 10. 5. 7. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. series 2. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . if a = 5. = a + (a Reversing the order. 1. series . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. Adding. 5.. 6 we have Hence .. P. ? (a) 1..PROGRESSIONS 310. the term a. 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 2 EXERCISE 1. 2J. 7. 6.3 a = l. 3. = 99. 19. 9. 3. 5. 7. 3. P.. P. 8.. .. .. 24. . 2.. 99) = 2600. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Find the 12th term of the 4. 6.. Find the 101th term of the series 1... . = I + 49 = *({ + . 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . (d) 1J. a = 2.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 3. 8. Find the nth term of the series 2. d = 3.. 1J. Find the 5th term of the 4. 2. . 8... 9. (a + + (a + l) l). d . 1.16.. 4. 5.
2. 15. . 8. and for each than for the preceding one. . 1. 21. > 2f 2. to 16 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1.248 Find the 10. 16. 19. 3. rf. 17. 7. (x +"l) 4. 11.. 22. hence if any three of them are given. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 18. to 20 terms. 2J. Jive quantities are involved. 29.5 H + if f to 10 terms. Sum the following series 14. 15. 12. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. '. In most problems relating to A. 4. . to 8 terms. 16. . \n. . . (i) (ii) . to 20 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 23. striking hours only. to 10 terms.1 f 3. 31. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 15 terms. 1J. 11. 13. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 15. 33. to 20 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .7 f to 12 terms. . 11. 20. 12. 11. 7. to 7 terms. strike for the first yard. . 1. + 3.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 7. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. : 3. P. 6.
. The first term of an A. = 13. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. From (1). . is 12.~n~\ 408 6). is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 67. n d. l)e?. 2 (2) From Hence (2). hence n = 6. 133. 144. d = 6.. I Substituting in (I) and (II). Ex. a = 49 6(71 . Findn.1) . Find the series. a = 12. s 24ft last term 144. #. = n(104 .. or if x Solving. = 1014. the second one mean between the other two. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 6. 89.104 w + 408 = 0. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. The series is. 2. or 11 J. But evidently n cannot be fractional.6 n).e. and b form an A. = 1014. n = 6. if s = 204. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 78. = a + (w. 45. 204 = ^ (98 . Substituting in (2). 312.1). P. Solving. J = 49. 56. 23. 6 n2 . P. 100. 204 = ^ (a + 49). = 144. 78 n Substituting in (1).PROGRESSIONS Ex. 34. 111. if a. 1. 12.6. I. 122. the and the sum of all terms 1014. P.
n has the series ^ j . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. s = 70. 8. n = 13.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. has the series 82. 10. Given a = . 14. How much . I Find I in terms of a. P. = 1870. Find?.3. 12. n = 17. and s. n = 4. = ^ 3 = 1. ceding one. Given a = . Find d. of 5 terms 6. = 83. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 16. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . How much did he save the first month? 19. n = 20. 78. d = 5. = 45. 17. n. n = 16. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Given a = 1. y and #f5y. = 16. f J 1 1 / . 7. a x f b and a b. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find n. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 17. Given a = 4. I. Find d and Given a = 1700. produced. 3. 74. = 52. T? ^. 11. Find d. Find a Given a = 7. Find w. 4. 13. Find a and Given s = 44. . f? . s == 440. 6? 9. a+ and b a b 5. m and n 2. 15.
except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. . 36.arn ~ l . 24. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.. If n is less : than unity. is it (G. .. 2. 4. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. P. . ar. called the ratio. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . E. 36. r n~ l . or.... 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). the first term a and the ratios r being given. of a G. 4 (1) .. or 81 315. 2 a. and To find the nth term / of a G. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. The 314. . P.. A geometric progression first. ratios are respectively 3. 4. . 24. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . NOTE.g. (I) of the series 16. The progression is a. P. is 16(f) 4 . rs = s 2 ... s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. +1.. <zr . 12.) is a series each term of which. I. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. ar8 r. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 36. 108.
144. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. whose and whose second term is 8. 36.. P. 4. I = 670. Find the 6th term of the series J. . Jive quantities are in..18. Ex. 9. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^..18. whose and whose common ratio is 4. hence. .. fa. Hence n = 7. 10. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. a = I. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. P. fa.4. 4. Find the 5th term of a G. 144.. f. whose . first 5. 72. . (b) 1. 18. +f%9 % . . + 5.6. series 5. 20. series 6. or 7. first term 4.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. P. . . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 25. . r^2. l.*. i 288.72. In most problems relating to G. 3. (it. . \ t series .... f. 9. And the required means are 18. 72. EXERCISE 1. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. is 16.. 288. . 7. first term is 125 and whose common . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. if any three of them are given. 80. . 676. 2 term 3. 144. 1.54. 8. 576. ? (c) 2. . . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . 36. .288. 36. Hence the or series is 0.5. (d) 5. P. 6. P. is 3.. series .. volved .l..5. 9. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64..._!=!>. 0.
r . to 7 terms. to 6 terms. 16 . Find a and Given r = 3. 54. 14. 1. P. 4.J and 270..i a9 . a^. J. .. to 6 terms. 1. 13. = 3. . M.. 126. 2. Z s. J. 48. Find the geometric mean between 7. 27.. 12. and hence ~ r . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 22. n = 5. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 25S series : 32. may be than any assignable number. 19. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 6 terms. J. J. .nV> i*> !718. Find a and n = 4. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. s = 310. 12 terms. 81. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. to G terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 7 .. . 14. to 8 terms. 36. 21. == 160. . + 4 . 42. s = 605. 24. 23. Given r = n Z 5. 20. n = 5.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. >"> . Find a and 4. of r n decreases. I.. 72. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 15. to 5 terms. 81. a. 243. is less than unity.. = 3. be written If the value of r of a G. .
6. 10. Find the sum to infinity. r = j. . 1 r = . 9. 2..555. ratio 15.1.= _4Z* . 1.27777 .= . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . . 14... 4.3121212. 1. 66 Therefore . = 990 . of an infinite G... The sum r... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. i. . = a .. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 6.Ql. 7. Find the value 9.. . 8.99 ... 5.072 + . 4..01 ^ . and the first term is Find 17. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1... 13.00072 f . 1. The sum Find the of an infinite G... . ..)7?7272 ..254 Ex.... . . of: 11.37272 . P. If a = 40... =A+ 10 i. = . . I. i i J.072. . 9..191919.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. P. Hence . first and the common term..272727.. ..717171. ... of all squares ? . 16. 12. 100.. P. 40. 5. Given an infinite series of squares. what is (a) the sum of the areas. is 16. 2.3727272 .72.3 + . 3. 12. . 8. is J. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. . is 9. . = . . 16. 250. 1... .
. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a + b) . (a2) 6. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . l 2. . 16. . a6 8 16 in . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 25. 28. 7 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 14. 26.6) . 15. 22. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 4 7. 5.6) 20 . .b) w (a (a f (1 . coefficient of . (\ 9 . 10. 4. 13. 17. (xy) : 6 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 21. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (a 100 . 2 2 24. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ .b ). a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 29.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the 6th term of (x . 12. 20. /2a+Y\ 8. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . : (1 + xy.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (s + i). 11.
c = = = 2. 3. 1. 6. 1. 2. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 3. 3. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 5. 2. 2. 5. 1. 3. 4. 3. 2.  a)(a 1. 3.  2. 1. 4. 1. if = = = 2. 3. 6. 3. 1. if y=2j 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4.c )(fta) 1. 3. 3. 2. 2. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5. 1. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 .f ac 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 4. 2. 2. 4. + 1. if x^l. 2. 1. 1. 1. 2. 5. 2. l. 3. 4. 3. 1. ft) . 4 ft  c) 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 24 4.  2. 2. . 3. (c 3. 3. 5. 3. 2 . 5. 6. + 2. 4. 5. 5. 1. . 3. 2. + c(a  c). 4. 5. 2. 5. 2. 3. 3. aft 3 + 4. 2. 4 2. 6. 4. 2.  8 ^ 2. 2. y 3. 4. 1. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 2. 3. 2. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. if = = 2. 3. 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . ft 4 ) 5. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 6. c if 7 . *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 4. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. = 2. 1. 7.a(a 4. + 2. 4. a ft c = = 2. 2.
1. (5. 20. r> . ~c)(b. x = 4. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .2. 8.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. . 29.2 x2 .7 + . 5.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .  a) (c 2.1. b(x (b 1.r 6 x  4 xy . 15. 10. + 3 y 2* . 4 z . + 4 ?y .3 a?y . + 4. 21. a 4 + 11 a . 5.2.8 + 2 // . a /> 3. 2. . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. .2 x?/.a) . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 9. x C 4 4x y + .a8 . 41. 8 . 2 . x3 2 a2 .4. 6 a4 4 a8 . 2. x 3 x' 14. 4 y 13. 21. 4. 3. 2. 4 x 4 .c' 2 4 / .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 12.5. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. f 8. 18. + 2. 2. 2  + 12 a 8 .259 x c) .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .7 ys. = 2. 24. 7y 4 .x 5 4 . 6. + 8 x4 *y .7 y 2* 4. 1. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4.2 z8 4 x. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . c)(x a} . ' b) + 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 5.\ yz + xz.10. 40. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 9. x3 f 3 ax'2 .a 4 . + 1. 26. . 17.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . a: . 2 x 8. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .2 a?y + 3 aty . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . x 3 11. 25. or .3 xyz. 3. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.8 3 + 7 x4 .a 5 a . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. a. 7. if a 6 = = c = 3. a. 4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 16.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 7 xy 3 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . c = 3. 15.
4) . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .2 a . 7 12 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .27~~7)}].{G * 2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.(a . 2 x 32.(7 x 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . ft 25. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 5 4 7 12 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.x 4. x'2 . and .2 .c 4 3 a. of a. ft.6T .a ft.(5 c . Simplify 31.1)}] . 34. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.(4 * .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4. From of 2 the 4. 542 x 2 and . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 4 3 5 y/ .7. .(4 x 2 .8 3 4. Take the sum 4x 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.] 26.c. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .[4 x 4. 0" 30.4 Vl 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.5 . 33.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. : a x . a  ft + c.#48.2) . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.x 2 4.[4 z 8 . .260 19.x . 4 4 4.c. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. (*) a  c. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .3 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 36. 5 10 + 7 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .(5 y .{2 x 2 . 4 . .c 3 a.(x 4. f ft. 3 ft.6 x ] . 35. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.3 x . c 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . . 4 2 x2 23. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.3.. .?> x 4 20. x8 x2 2 a'2x.x2 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .5. .(x* . take the sum of G x 5 . 4vTT~y 3.2 x 8y2 44 . sum of .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 29.2 3 ax 2 .x .3 .2 .4 ft) 4. c 4ft. = x y ft z. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.1). c =x y }~ z.
(4 d .(5 y .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].96 [17 a. 51. 48.Z .c).3).12). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).7). (a:2)(r4)(a:9). (x. 'J 44. 13 a . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2c(V/ .2x + 3).& + {. . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.a~^~c)K].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 59.2 2 + 1)(7.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. . + *+!){> + 2).3)(*5)(* 7). (/> 4 . 68. 62. 2 : 7e)a}]. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 50.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 56.JT^T+1)} + (2 .3 c)]. .{2 a (ft . 49.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .[2 .3c).5)} + (3 a 2 .0)} . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 64.ab .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .1).{2 a .[4 x  5 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).2 2 . .(2 a + 5 a . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 2 ft 41. 3 x 42.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 . .3 *).b (c .2 zz .56.6c) (a + f c). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.3 z 2 ).be) (a 58. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].(2 a 2 .5 )}] + {4 c .  2 a  {3 2x a . a {.r 2:c+ l)(ar.(2 x2 .6 xy .2)(1 .(6 . . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 63. . (x . (. (5 a 39. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 2 2 x + !)(* . 54.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 57. . 2 53. 60.ac .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (r (1 (a. 43.2a . 45. (4 + 3a 2 .c 2 . 2 52.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). )(lz a ). (. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. + 4x + 5)(j. 65. (1 55. 67.6)}].rf)} + a [.(7 i + 4 r:) . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .{3 c .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). (1 ar+a. a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(7 a. 46.
2 (a . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 91.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). . b 4.{3 a .q).c) 2 .ft) + 4(2 . 79. 86. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .am&t 4 A 2 *).c) rr identities. 74. 92.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 82.y)\x y). 88.c)} . f 72. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . .x + y + z). 4.<f(p . 75.9y2).r 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 84.6*y .2 (y 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.b 4.2y)(. 2 (x 2 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).(a 2) (s 4 ft. 94.3 a .z)(x y + z)(.z\x 4.a) 2 .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). xy y 2 ).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 76. 83. (.m np c . (a 2 ft 2n 4.c .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 2 + a 2 ). 1). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .2 ft}) f (3 a .n pc).(c 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4.c) .(/>  3 v)^(. 71. 77. ar .v) 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.5 . 1). 87. 70. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(ft 4.y + z)(x + y . 90. ft 95. Prove the following 8 4. (x (x ( + *) .c) 4) (ft 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 93.O (a 4(a 4. .3 (ft . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . ft ft ft a}. 4 4 .(4 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c) j.3y) a (* 2 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .c . 89. 73. ft /.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).z) . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c)].(a 48 8 8 4.y). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. ft" l Simplify 80.ft) 4 . 85.c) .:y)( a. (p 2 .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.262 69. ft 78.
'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).1). 122.35 x 2 2 ) . . [10( 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).3 a"+ 4.y 4 ) .r 4 4.40 />) .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .(x 2 . 121.*) (x 8 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.) . 102.4 aft . 103. 2 4 41 x 4a. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 114.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 110.9 x 2 . 1O4. 3*.2 2% 4.2y 2 4.y 4 . 26 (a 4 c). (. a*. 123. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).y 2 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . .(a 1 2 8 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.5 xy).(7 xi/ . 118. (8 x* 115.(2 a 2 .5 b*). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 10).xy 4. 105. 109. 113. 120. 117. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .a". ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). r . 116. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).2 xy 8 . 108. 124.16 a 6 4. 1). 25 4 .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).&).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .b) 98. (2< 107. 99 100. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.27 x* .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 2 (a+ .6 y 4 4. 106.v/ ~ // = a: . (80 a 112.
137. 10(2 x 141. 142.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).4) .19) + 5 = 4 .a:)]}.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .12 M 132.r>) .3 x). 143. (4 x .3) = 12 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .3).3(2 z .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.2) + 2(ar + 4). 127. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). . 148. y (* l x.2) (a: + 3). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.27 a 3" . 7(2 x .(x .4(0 x .G) . 5(2 x .2(10 x . 42(3ar 145. (*+ + .(x + 3) ] . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.3(* + 4) + 9} .(1 .22.9) 4. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.3). (5a: 150. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(j: . . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. x 147.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3) (3 x 4. 5 146. 1) . 129. .3 a:).n . 149. .(j a? 144.5) = 12(4 x .2(5 . . 139.7(4 * . 3(2 x 134.(x f 9).2(4 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 3) = x\x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). o o 140.1) . 128. 138.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 136.8 6 .2) = 3 . . 2 4(ar .264 125.5{.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . .18 *&) (1 . 126.9) + 3.5).7) = 4 .r + 7[or . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2 7^~5] + 1). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 1) = 2(* .4) .1) (a? .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 135.
162. .2 x) = (1 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.5) = (3 .24.l)(z .r + 3) .2). = 2 C. + 10) (ar . and the third twice as many as the first. The sum What 171.? . will produce F.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.3) = (3 x . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5)(. (a .3) (3 . The second contains 3 first. find the value of F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . + 2) + (5 .. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.4) (a . 158. (7 14 . (a. 166. (3 O + . .z) (4 . If the area of the frame inches.2) (j? + 1) + (x .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.5*) + 47. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. sheep more than the 169.3) (a: . 159. 265 152.1) O + 4) = (2 * . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. f^ + ^sO. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 153. (a) If C.29) 2 = 1.2) (7 *) + (*.76.6 x) (3 . How many 170.7) (1 x . 2 4 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 156. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.a:) + 229. these two angles would be equal. + 4) (2 x + 5).7) (a.17) 2 + (4 x . 5(ar x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.3) (3 . 154.T)O .5(x .1) (s + 3).2) a + 7(x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. transformed into F. =  (F 32). + 5) = (9 . 161. . 155. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 157. (2 . . 163.9) + (a.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (x (x a.5 x) = 45 x . .14) (a: + 3). 160.8) = (2 x 4.3) (j.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.25) 2 . 165. a: ar a.(5 x . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.19) + 42.2 x) (4 . 164. = 15.
190. 181. + a. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. . ll?/102. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. A house has 3 rows of windows. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. dimension 182. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A boy is father. 13 a + 3. z 2 92. 180. Find the number. 15 m. 178. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. power one of the two Find the power of each. A each 177. 187. z 2 + x . and 5 h. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 10x 2 192.266 173. + 11 ~ 6. number divided by 3. aW + llab2&. was three times that of the younger. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h.36. 179.56. 186. 3 gives the 174. two boys is twice that of the younger. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 176. Find the dimensions of the floor. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. How many are there in each window ? . train. 2 2 + a _ no. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. if each increased 2 feet. 4 a 2 yy 42. same result as the number diminished by 175. respectively. father. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. side were one foot longer. younger than his Find the age of the father. . . 188. 12 m. 189. 7/ 191. +x 2. x* 185. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. sister .
19 a .3 xy.3 c/> + 6 cq. 3y 248. + 2 . + 3a 196. 2 x 2 . 2 a 2 . # 2  29 y + 120. 16x 4 81. 238.10. 208. 5 x 2. .c) 2  (a . 4a 2& 2 241. 206. a: 231. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. ifWy+b.19 z 4 204. a. *2 234. x* + 8 2 + 15. a. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 201. (a + .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 213.x + 1. 7x 2 225. . 7a 228. 217.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .c) 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 .10 xy. 207. 2 200. 235. a+a* + o a +l. 3 x 2 . 229. 23 12. y 2 194. x 5 .77 y + 150.21 a:  54. 210.6 aq .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.28. 2 2 y f 1. xm+l 243. 216.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.(b + rf) 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 224. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 3y 2 + ary .6 2 ?/ . 239. 2 a 8 . x*y 223. 12 x +4.6s. wiy + la mx + aw. 24 2 + 2 . 8 a. 8 a: ar. . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .64. . 203. 245. 212. a^a 226. 233. 232.10 y a x* . a 2 . 3 ap 2 .6. 202. a. 2a te 3% ly 247.22 z + 48. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 3 x V .3 xf + 3 * 2y . a: . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 244. 227. a: 236. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 246. 209. 215. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. a. . 211.1. + 30 x. 222. 267 199.6 y2 + 4. 230. 218. z + 5x 2 . a a: a: 237. 60 a 2  a: // 205. z 2 2. + 8. .8 6 2. 195.20 z 8 a: 220. . x 219. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 6 197. + 198. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .12 * . 4 m +^. 221.14 2 .
: x2 4 a: ~ + a.23 x f 20. 2 8 .6 by. ft a. 260. a: . 10 x 2 .(55. 2 a. 258.2 aft*. 264. + 8. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .16 x .x . 2 x2 .4. 2 . 30 ^ . + 8 x + 5. 251. 10 a. 5 x 2 256. x 2 .13.15 + 30. x* .3 abc . 2 + 7 r f 2.9 x .G7 x f 33.&z.2/ 2 .11 x f 28.91. x*y* 4. 270. 257.ry . 3 a% 2 . 7 12 2 2 . F. 254.4 ab + 1.11 a 2 . x* .2 z .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. x 2 f 9j: + 20.73 xy . C.120.5 ab f 2. a.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3. + 20 x 4.15. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. a 4. 3 #2 255.ry 21.10 a 4.8.3 x .14 bx a%% 8 .12.1 9 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 15 # 2 z/ /.r . 7 ax 250. 28 2 f 71 x . of: 253.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 3 ay 4. I Find the II. 6.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . of: 266.7 f 5. 18 x 2 . + 23 x f 20.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . + 3 x + 2. 265.M. 259.36. x 2 263.9 x + 14. 252. a 3 a 2 2 .23 + 12. x 2 + 2 x . .a 2 />c 2 f 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * a . Reduce to lowest terms 271. * 2 . 269.3.18 xy + 5. 1 x ar Find the L. * 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . 261. z 2 267.9. z 2 268.C. 22x2 a. x 2 + 5 f .80. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.10. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. a? a: a: // 262. x 2 4. * 2 .48 afy 2 .a + 2 4.
m 4. *2 " 2 + Oge.ar 1 279.2c a: 282.(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.!/. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.rL. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.. 8 . z2 (a 2 + c)a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 289 ' ..2* + 3 x* 280. 285 z4 n* + a.
^_2*(m 308. Lnl + ar 2 a. 4 3 301. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x 7. O(ca) 306. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2.
(a . (1 . _ x8 ..*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . (a? 4 2) 317. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.ft) 2 322.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1a: + y a. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 1 x2 + + a. . 2 + y 2 319. } .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1 _. a: 1 313.
y20  2y + 4 2 .15 33 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .5 a .6* t 328. 20 44 333.V  + y  x 3y a ..7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 2 lOx 5x.. . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.ll.7 xy + 12 x . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. a: 2 x* .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. * 3a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .9 *// + 27 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .
REVIEW EXERCISE 336. fl. 5 343. 7 ( ?f!?. +^ a: y x . (af2/. 348. (a \ + lV. if a = 3.1V.r 5 2 . 344. a: 349 _ o. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. w \. ?_2 ^ .y. (aWi + iJ. (ar \ 346.. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 338. f V. 1 345.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. a>74 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.+ r . ' 2 "l 5 .) 2 . ** i. xi 347. : 1+ i. 352. \5yl 341. + ni + . \x yj 340. ( 342. + l + IV. aj 339.
y360. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. ar xy + yl x* 358. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. I  I f 366. _ + l a 359. + x x a . 1+2 362.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
. 379.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. ^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.*2 = 15. . 4(* . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 5*8. J !__7. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 {2 x 381. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. __4 2x 3_ = !. <3 378. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.
.2 a:  1. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 40. _____ .147..* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. c . f 1 1 + a 403.6  . 399.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. ^ (a . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). . a. b 404. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 x =r f .  8 9* x ~r.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .75 x f . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.8 = .25.1 . 401. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. + 4 a. m x 398.5 ^ ~ a: a. 396. 3* 177. 397. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 400. u '2 a.  J). (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.25 x + .
a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Tn 6 hours .(5 I2x ~r l a) . hour. 18 be subtracted from the number. Find the number.c) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A .278 410. the order of the digits will be inverted. 421. (x .  a) 2 6 2a. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 411. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo. 420. and was out 5 hours.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. How long is each road ? 423. In a if and 422. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.
2 2 8 2 . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. b. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . . 438. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : If is one equal 434.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 3 and 1J. x 427. 430. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 432.a 2^ 8 + aft* .49 63). Find the length of the parts. . d.& 5 ) (a 8 . Find the fourth proportional 426. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. find : a : c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. y. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. ax is \ by  ex + dy.6 8 ). wi* + y= ny. if . 435. 433. Find the mean proportional to 429.iand 22 22 I a . a. and : b : c = 14 : 15. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 431.46 2): (15a 2 . a + 5. a  t>. find the angles of the triangle. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Solve 436. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. z 2 y. If a b : =5 n : 7. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. : i.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Which ratio is greater. 428.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.
5x+4y=lQ. 444. 8 x + y = 19. ?/ 447. a: a: + 5y). 15ar = 20 + 8y.(or l(*2y)=0. Find the value of a. /) ar a.11 7.4 12 . 3 . 5z4:# = 3. a: 2y= = 1 . 4 = 5 y + 29.7 y = 25. .rf2# = l. 42 = 15y + 137. 459. . 8 . Solve the following systems: 441. x + 17 # 53. ft. 450. .*. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 28 = 5 a . 443. 5 2 = 7 . + 5y = 59. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 21 7 = 27 + Op. />(. 16. 448. 454. 3 a. . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 451. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. c. The volumes If their diameters. 446. 56 + 10y = 7a. 9/> = 2 . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 449. 455. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 445. a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 9ar7# = 71. 452.89 = q.35. ft. 7a?y = 3. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. . 457. = 25. 453. 7jr9y = 17. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 7 a: .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 456. 458.55 y = . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).59 = 3 z. 7 442. if 2 ft : 439.. 1(3  a.11 y = 95.
473.+ =2. 468. ax by = c \ 472. ax cx by = m. (or . + eyn. x y 474.7. 475. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.?/ + 1 .. ^ + i^ = 7. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 465. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.2y) (2 = 2J.c=563y.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 8 461.  = 2. _ 469. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. i = 5.
Find the numbers. age.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the number. the Find their ages. by 4. A number consists of two digits 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the sum and the rate of interest. whose difference is 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. How much money less 484. fraction becomes equal to . had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 18 months to $2180. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and in 20 months to $275. 479. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the fraction. 483. Find the numbers. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find their ages. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 485. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and the other number least. years. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 481. 487. A spends \ of his. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 477. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. . 486. to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2.
496. . 495. y Solve : x +z= 5. a: + // = 11. 1. 1+1 = 6. 492. . 494. ~ 507. : Solve the following systems 491. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 3 a: + 5=84. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 4 506. 489. = 209. 2 e. 2 2 = 41. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2 a.z = 12. 3ar 503. 3 x 500. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a. ifi = x a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 5^ 9z = 10. x y f z = 13. = 15. + # +z= 35. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . *i. x f y f z 29 ./ 504. 4 497. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x s + y z = 18J . . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 8. z y x 25 . a: 499. 493. 490. a: f z = 79. 498. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2y + 3a = ll. . 7./ f z =a. 2a:f 7. * + 425  = . 5 + a. 7 + 2 z . + y 5 y = 101 .z = 20. = 20.5#+2z = $x a: G. 4z+3z = 20.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. a number . 2/>3r = 4. a.? + 2y = 8. z y ifi = z x 502. \ .
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. z z =3a&c. 36 + c. i=a + 6 c. ll" . !f == 2800. 523. + + 3579 2+?. 517. + : = 1472.
it is filled in 35 minutes. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. If they had walked toward each other. they would have met in 2 hours. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. in 28 minutes. if and L. L. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. . Find the numbers. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. the first and second digits will change places. In circle A ABC. How long will B and C take to do . Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. it separately ? 531. What are their rates of travel? . and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 90. Tf and run together.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and BE. AC in /). When weighed in water. 532. 527. . and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. CD. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. B and C and C and A in 4 days. BC = 5. E 533. 530. and CA=7. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. touches and F respectively. AB=6. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. M. N. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. if L and Af in 20 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number.
e. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . If to feet is the length of a seconds. if x = f 1. The values of y. 2. a. then / = 3 and write = 3. 542. 548.  3 x. the function. The greatest value of the function. formation of dollars into marks. from x = 2 to x = 4. 536. One dollar equals 4. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. z 2  x x  5. x *x + x + 1. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.e. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. GERMANY. + 3.  7. 547. x*  2 x. x 2 + x. 550. . x 2 544. x*. 2 541. The values of x if y = 2. 3 x 539. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. c. FRANCE. i. 2. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. x 8 549.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2 x + 5. b. 546. . 2  x  x2 .10 marks.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 543.  3 x. 545. 540. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. d. to do the work? pendulum.
2. a. . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 558.= 0. f. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.6 + 3 . 555. c. 564. 3 . i.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. \ to t = 5. h. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . x* .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a. g. Solve// = 0. 3 + 3 z . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.3 x . 2 x 2 560. + 5 . a. z 2 .9 = 0.15 = 0.4 = 0.1 = 0. c.5 x . 557. 562. .3 x . 2 a. x 4 .3 . Solve 552. 3 x . 3 x* .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. ' = 8.r .7 = . 2 567.4 .r 1 561.4 x 2 + 4 . a: 559.11 = 0. 556.13 = 0. z 4 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. r?. . J.= 0. j. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. + 10 x . 566. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. = 5.r a: a: x a.G . and make the unit of the b. if y =m has three real roots. 15. 18 x  4 = 0. e.  2 1 a: a. 563.0. 553. x 2 ~ 2 .17 = 0. 2 8 . a? 4 x . 568. Represent meters. 565. 572.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. x 5 .3 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. If y +5 10. 2 554.
2  2 aa: 2 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. {f_7l j? 2* + ''.2 6a: + 30 &c a. a: . 596.frf : 583. (a  8 ft) . 595.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 6 + 1) . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (aiy. 585 594. + . 9  4 fSb 607. 2 611. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 3 (f. + ^) + (air%)8. 4 a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 600. xY. x [ ?/ 577. 598. . 582.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 589. : y* or 25. 592.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. (1 (1 (1 . (a.4. 599. 5 a*. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . a. 2 943 ++ ~bx.%) 4 (aa. jj+. 579. + + 4 . a:. 3 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 597.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 604. <r)3  2 3 a:) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. [ y =10. (1 + x a. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 4 . . (# 2) . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .2 2 + y. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. j^f = 3.5 xy = 0. a 8 606. 1 . 64 a 12 603. 588. 4 (1a:) 3.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.x + 2 )'2 601. a 612. f ?>) 3 591. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. x + z2) 8 . 609. a 2a. 593. 608.(1 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.
625 : 621. 035. (x 9 x 646. 629. 637. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 630. 650. 651. + 54 'x*y* . According to Kepler's law.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 645. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. x 2 .150.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 2 + 189 z = 900. + 112 a 8 . = . 49042009. 647t x 2 648 649.30. 614. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.12 a?y + y*.*. 634. 49. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 7) 2. 40. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.V250 . 643. 4370404. Find the square root of 619. a 642.15174441. 371240. 2 2) 2 +x = 14.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 2 21 x = 100. 639. find Jupiter's period. GGff. x 2 641. = 87. V950484 . 626. 623. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 4J. 9g. + 24 a 2 4 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 21. 3a.191209. 25023844. 620. 942841.53 x ~ . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. = 0. = 70. VOIOOD + V582T09. 624. 622. 632. 2 + 21Ga. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 32 631. Find the eighth root 617.2. 638. 2. *+* = 156. 8*' + 24* = 32. /. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 44352. 636. V 635.2410.49. 615.1024 x + a: 256. 644. : 5. 494210400001.871844. 0090. 210. 9a. 628. 633. ft .\/4090.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
bx . 693.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 706. 2 702. 699. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 696. ex abc= fx 0. . 2 2 . ax 2 698.a a )jr .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 708. 692. 2 2 697. = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. a. 707. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. . 695.ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694.c = 0.
723. . 721. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 717. **13a: 2 710. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. How shares did he buy ? if 726. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 217 .292 709. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.44#2 + 121 = 0. 725.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 729. 724. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find two numbers whose 719. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 16 x* . a: 713. 722. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. A equals CO feet. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 12 4*+  8. 716. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. in value. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 727. 3or i 16 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.
42. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .1 + c. n. 37. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).)(ai + &.2? 50. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).aft* 1 + a 2*. 40. 32. (v/x).1 f ^ 2). 39. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 46.X . 33. .2)(x2 4. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). . 38. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).2 ). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 35.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 36. 43.1 + x.1 f c" ). 34. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 41. 52. 1 6.l). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 31. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).
294 753.1+J 756. [1r^ T 1 i .. 758. 761. 754. \/G86 v/lGv/128. ~ r* x . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 759. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. JU. 757. 2V2 2V3 ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 768.
a 9442V5. x 782. 103 788. 794. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.2V3* ^ 807. . 10 785. 790. 14 791. 13 799. 7512V21.12VIT. 786. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 787.2 V30. Va 809. . . 789.4 V(j. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . c 792. 3J . 16 + 2V55. 92VI5. 793.VlO. . 783. + 2V21. 3812VIO. 806. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.
+ Vx . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 833. 831.Vc^lJ . 816.13 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. /9ar a: = 17.V2 ar 10.V? = 813.f 5 = V5x + 4. = 1. VaT+lJ f ^l . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . \/12 a. 3 x + 2 . 836. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 815.79.4 = 0. V14 a.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . V3 f 1 V4a. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.g. 812. 830.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 819. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 829.\/2y  810. 814. + 103Var. 818. Va: . + ViTli + V7 . 811. 820. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. x/aT+l .
28 a 4 xy 8 80. a. 8^27^. 8 . + 216 rt aty a 10 . a 8 850. 19 x 14. 64 a 866. .  3x a.3 x . 729 867. 6. 864.x*y + 3x f 2. a. f b**. a l0m . x 11 a^ J 13 854. 868.10 = 118. . z*y 8 l64a. 4o. + 512 y8 874. 8 860. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 16 859. 8 a. V4 x 2 . f 12. a 8 873. 27 862. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . a: .3 Va: 2 . 27 y 8.12. 8 4a: 8 a. 856. 8 2a. 9. 863. 4 x* 847. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 853. 5 a 4 7 a8 . f 841. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 4 a: 2 842. 845. a. 2 f" + a/ 15. 846. a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a.ab9 ft*.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. + . y 4. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 8 8  13 a. 64. 855.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. . a: 849. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 871. +3 4 +  4.3 . 875.1000 6. 861. 275 8 l.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a*" & 6n . 852. 839. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a 8 869. a. 8 8 848. 876. + 1.a.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 865.3 a:. 4 a. x 4 + f 2 a. a 872. 851. 840. 2 x 3. a 18 4. 2 a: 64 y*. x 8 2 857. 870. 844. .1. . 4 x 8 858. a.
5 xy + 4 f = 13.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.xy + y 2 = 19.y 2) = 20. y = 28. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 895. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. . 885. x*xy. 2 = 2 + 5. M1 891 1 . a. 878. xy + y = 32. . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .sy = 198. . 886. y y 2 y 2 1121. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.298 877. 901.35. 900. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x a: lI = xz . z 2 898. 2 + xy = 10. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 3 x 2 . 2 + 2 f = 17.Vi' + 1 1_3. y 2 2 8f. a. 1 x 893. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 899. . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 + xy = 28. a# f + xy = 126. a: 2 897. 2 + y 2 . 890. 5. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.15. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y*+ xy . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. . 894. y 2 4. a: a. 889. +y f y = 7. a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 888.y 2 + V(j. 883. + ary + 2 = 37. 896. a:y . 2 . a: 884. x 882.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 887. 2 . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. + 2y=\2.1 = 2 a#. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. x 8 3 = 13:3.18. f ?/ a: a: . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.
f y 2 x 2 y = 1.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.3) 2 f (y . x + y 2 = aar. *y . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 914.3)2 = 34. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 2 5 xy = 11. a: a. or or a? a: a: . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 2 924.y) = 33. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 * 2 ~ g.y) (a? . (a. (* 918. = 8.#y + 2 = 27. 910. + ?/) . y + a:y = 180. ^ 2 . 7 y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. . 912. # + xy + y = 7. 908. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. x 4 299 xy z 904. y .y2 = 22. 907. + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 913. * + y = 444.y) (3 y . (!) * . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 911. y x 2 = by.y). a. + y)(a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 921.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 23 x 2 . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. + y = 9. x 2 ry + y = 3. 920. a:y xy 929. 906. (3 x . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 4 (a. ary y = 8. xa 903.23 = 200. Vary + y = 6.2 y) = 49 2 919. y 3 2 2 922. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x f 2 a:y = 32.x) = 21.r a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. + a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 3 :r(3 . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + 2 ary = 39. . 2 + y = 2 a 4. 905. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 915. 923.16 y 3 8 = . (o. 2 2 2 916. a: y zx 12. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. + ary = a*. 917. xy + x= 15.3(* + y) = 6.y = a(ar + y). a: * a: a: ar 928. . yz = 24. 909. + y 8 = 189.6.
is 20. and the sum of their areas 78$. a second rec8 feet shorter. 931. Assuming = y. and also contains 300 square feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. How many rows are there? 941. Find the numbers. is 3. A and B run a race round a twomile course. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. (y + *) = . two numbers Find the numbers. 935. y(x + y + 2) = 133. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. + z)=18. y( 934. Find the sides of the rectangle. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. and the difference of 936. 937.square inches. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. feet. two squares equals 140 feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. . The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. 943. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle.000 trees. s(y 932. is 3 . there would have been 25 more trees in a row. diagonal 940. + z) =108. A plantation in rows consists of 10. two squares is 23 feet. find the radii of the two circles. and 10 feet broader. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 2240. In the second heat A . much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 152. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. Tf there had been 20 less rows.102. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 944. 942. z(* + y + 2) = 76. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.300 930. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. A is 938. 34 939. *(* + #) =24.
. and if 594 be added to the number. A and B. the digits are reversed. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and travels in the same direction as A. 953. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 952. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. Find the number. and its perim 948. Find the number. P and Q. set out from two places. and that B. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. at Find the his rate of traveling. 950.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. . Find its length and breadth. its area will be increased 100 square feet. overtook miles. whose 946. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 949. triangle is 6. distance between P and Q. Find the eter 947. Find in what time both will do it. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. each block. unaltered. Two starts travelers. . is 407 cubic feet. sum Find an edge of 954. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. that B A 955. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 951. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle.
are 29 and 53.. s  88. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. (to 2 n terms). 36 963.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 4. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). ^ Vfirst five 959. (x 4 to n terms..to infinity. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. .V2 . 966.. 16 962. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. to 7 terms.  2. .. 3 . Find an A. Evaluate (a) .. 4 4 to 7 terms ..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 969. 9th and llth terms of an A. and 976. !Ll^ + n .. f + 1 .141414.. 958. Find n f (ft) . = 4. 975.454. x(x to 8 terms. .1 4 f j$V . 5.v 973. difference. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.4142 .302 956. 964. + (iiven a +  4 d . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4....3151515. Find the sum of 4. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123... \ . 971. the terms being in A. n to n terms. P. '. *" 968. 1G series . P. 961.. 970.. Find n.>/) to infinity. 3 + 5 7 + . P. . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 18th terms of an A. fourth of the unity. 957. 5. to n terms. J. Sum to 20 terms. P. 1 to n terms. ^ 1 . Sura to 24 terms.. to infinity. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 12434+ j I 967. Sum Sum to infinity.321? 965. 972. 974. Find the Find the common 977.
. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. named Sheran.. is 225. The term. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. first 984. Find the sum of the series 988.. 980. The 21st term of an A. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. P. Find four numbers in A. to oo. . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. The sum 982.1 + 2.04 + . Find n. 4 grains on the 3d.001 + . to n terms. 0. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.01 3. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 992. "(. 989. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find the first term. 5 11. to infinity may be 8? . and of the second and third 03. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 303 979. and the common difference.. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. P. 1.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.001 4.. 987.. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . : + 9   V2 + .) the last term the series a perfect number.+ lY L V.3 ' Find the 8th 983. of n terms of an A.. Find four perfect numbers. P.. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 2 grains on the 2d. to 105? 981.2 . 986. and so on. 990. 985.
AB = 1004. of squares of four numbers in G. 994. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 995. P. The sum and sum . at the same time. Two travelers start on the same road. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. ft. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. c. are 28 and find the numbers. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. P. are unequal. in this square a circle. (a) after 5 strokes. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. 999. 998. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. If a. and so forth to infinity. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. ABC A A n same sides. in this circle a square. 997. P. areas of all triangles. is 4. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. . 512 996. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The fifth term of a G. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and G. 1000. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Under the conditions of the preceding example. find the series. (6) the sum of the infinity. 1003. P. The sum and product of three numbers in G. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 1001. prove that they cannot be in A. inches. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver.
+ lQ . (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.ft) 19 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1008.iV 2i/ 5 . 1006. . . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. a: 8 7. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.o/) 14 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. ) 1021. Find the middle term of 1020. 1011. Expand  2 a. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1009. 1012.l) w f . 2 ) 5. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . x) 18 . Find the middle term of ( . (12 #) 7 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1014.
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. 246 91 " multiple.. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 129 54. . .178 Completing the square . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 158. .. . 232 mean progression . Brace Bracket Character of roots . . .108 160 " . Checks Coefficient 20. ..] Abscissa Absolute term . 232 169 807 . 54. . .. . ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. 9. . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 37. .. lowest ratio " '* . . . .193 11 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 97. 129... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds ..... . t 53 120 .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . signs of Algebraic expression ... . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. linear literal Common ** * difference . .. ... 112 54 54 251 .. ..130 . graphic tion of representa . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . ..... 249 246 20 10 23 193 . Aggregation.. 8 . 19. ..... quadratic ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. . 123 . . . numerical . 9 ** . .. simple simultaneous ...
Imaginary numbers .. 227 . Inconsistent equations .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 34.. 180. arithmetic . 195 33. directly. ... inversely 122 numbers . . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . .. Negative exponents 11 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 45 Laws of signs .. 253 28 70 1. 205 . Insertion of parentheses . . 91 . .. .. Geometric progression . . exponent . . 45. . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 45. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.108 Minuend . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . G..808 Exponent Exponents. . . 9. . 143. 189.. first and second . 23 10 91 102. . 112 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . .. .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. .. P . Mathematical induction . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . numbers . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.. 241 123 geometric .. law of Extraneous roots . . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Known numbers . . . INDEX 8 . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 120 Member..C Multiplication . . 84. Like terms Linear equation . Product '* 76 Infinite. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 17 65. 63. . 227 geometric . 114. 243 7 . L. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 212 . .154 Order of operations " of surds . addition of " square of . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 184 54.31. . 109 102 .
.. 27 17 Unknown numbers . . ... . . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... . 9... . polynomial . 129. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 45 Trinomial 240 ..... absolute 54 Variable .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . Sum. ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. algebraic Surds . .. 4 155 9 " of ......
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1910. 1917.S. 8. Norwood.. . 1913. Berwick <fe Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. Gushing Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916. December. U.A. August. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. Published September. NorfoooS J. Mass. Reprinted April.
8.3.12.. 12.000. 2.21 24. 25.000 Indians. 20 B. 12. 7. = 5 81. B $4700. 6. 20. 8 ft. 3 below 0. Page 1. 4. 14. 32. 6* 16. 37. 3 m. 13.  1. 9. 20.000 negroes. 2. i . 192.000. 9.. T . 9. 5000.000. x. 8. 12. 576. A . B $ 128. 24. ft. 18. 7. 10. Multiplication. 3. A 15. + 1. 9 14. 1. 8. 9. 3. 14. 72 = = 216. }. 25. 10g. 7. is $10. 5. 9. 6. Page?.  2 p.. 49. 32. 2. 1 16.. 3. 16. 2 ~ 15. C $60. 1. 3. 7. (a) (/>) 1. 7. 49. 17. 22. V 23. 13.000. 12. 1. 13. 27. . 13. 22. 126. 20 \. 10. 17. 11. 115. 28. 85. 15. 3. 1. 10. $100. 10. 2. 6 yd. 5. Australia ft. 14. 1. 4. 2 5. 20. loss. 12. 3. 64. Page 13. 23.150. 7. 14. 5. 4. 13 S. 3. 59. 19. 2.  1. 5. 13 d. 16. 6. 6. . 14. 8. 32. 1. 9 m. 2.000. 5. 18. 11. 16f 2. 21. 19 4. 16. 3. $40. 2. 3. 9 = 4. 6. 5. 2. 32. South America 46.C. 21.. 3. arithmetic. 1. sign. 2. 14. 15.000. 4. 3. $ 1 50 10. 1. 8 13. _ 32. 2. 13. 9. 14 11. 9.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 27. 7. 29. 25. in. 17. 512. 36. . C $ 16. ^. 2  Page 8. A $90. . 17. 4. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. per sec. 6. 19. 18. 37 S. 16. 7. 2.00000001. 1. 26z. 89.. 4. Ot 15. 28. 144. 73. 128. 0. B $20. 24.2. 3. 12.. 10. 0. 3. in 12. 3. 18. 16 in. 15. 1. 11. 12. 7. 30. 9. 11. A Bl 7. 16. A 38 mi.. 16. 20 jo.  13. 5. 14. 12. 20. 1. 8. 6. 18. 16. 48 ft. 1. 7m. B 10 mi. 16. 1. 19. x. 10. 6. 21. 9. 15. 1. 106. Page 8. 29. Yes. 6.000. 3. 3* 7.1. B $80. b. Not 5. 8. 8. 26. C $1(50. 6. 9 16  larger than 7. 3. westerly motion. 4. 27. 256. 2. sign. 2.000. c. 6. 5. 10. 16 in. 13 V. . 6. 18. 11. 25.$9400. 2. 16. 12. 3. 14. 12. Page 4.. 17. in. 24. 15. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 1. $160. 30?. 8.  22 20. 210. 150. 10.
^). 12. 24. 12.. 4. 17. //'. 5. 32 2 ftc. 8. 1. 1.. 4 y/ . 1. Polynomial. 9. (r) 2. (a) 50. 5x+3. 104. 14. 13. rt. 25. 10. Page 23. 20(. 2. 30. (r) 2000 m. 28. 16.r~ f 34. 2. 2ftx. 7. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (ft) 7. sq. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 37. + 5. $3000 Page 6. It. 2. I. in. Polynomial. :.~4. 22. 12yd. . 16. m + 3(a. 36. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 7. 20. 1. 31. 19. 35. 32. (ft) Page 2. 0. 30. 31. (c) S(i.3 * 10 r5 <3 . + ft).. ft n. 9. 5.  40. 10. 11. 314 sq. 5. 15. _ 4 . 19.. 173.ab. 11. 0. 3a. 25. 14:). 12. 3. a2 4 15^44. 22( 19.. 92. 21 a 3 4 10. + v> 2 . 04. \'\ 4. $80. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 7. 3. vi 14. 34. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 7. (r) 2G7. 28. 14. 18. 1. 12. 0.GOG. II. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 27. (a) r>23ifcu. t. (r) 78. (a) <> sq. 20. r:A 29. :J!>r'. 22. 14. 8. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. o^ft. f  5e 35. 38. 3. Page 21. 18.94(>. 5. 6. Trino inial.. yyz+xyz*. 32. +/2(/.. (ft) $40.  0.r 2 . (ft) mi. ^. 38 ab. 10. 18. 1. jrif 4 9. 42. (a 4 4. w. 4. 2x' 2 5 . 13. 4. WIN + wiw. 2. (c) 8. 13. 24. .'JO ft. 28. ft. Page 31. 13. 43w//2 17. 8. Page 18.  1. = ()501. 9. 6<t. m 24. 15. 14. . 14.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 3. 5. c. 3.. 1. #1111. 26. ft. . 23. ft' 3 . 27. 8. 0.  11. 8. Binomial. a 32. 13. 5. (a) 200. 33..  xV 3 y.5 (ft) sq. 31. 11. 17. 51 f. 21.6) 38. 17. (59. = 81. 2oVmf?i. 34.900.rty8. 16. ]*. i:5. 20. 4.q 4. 6. 15. mi.'J. 49. 35. 21. in.1. in. 17.x. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). arty 1 20. 9. 240. 27. (b) 135 mi. 36. 23. 12. (V) (rf) (ft) 50.. 5. 41. 11. 14. 25. 27. Page 7. .ii ANSWERS Page 11. 21^. 5. 8. 16. Monomial. r/ \(\xyz.32 c2 > ft 3 . 1. ft. y. 12. 3 a* + 2 at*. 4..a . 58. . 2. 8. 21. 13 cu. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 0.. 14. x^ 20. 3.9?/2 8. 33. Pagel4r. 27. 22. . 0. 9. 18. 29. 7. 19. 15. 15. 39. 3. 0.14 sq. 2. (ft) 12. 4 9/^/rl 2. 0. 26.<>Gq. 1. ft. 35. .  3.r f 15.000 sq. 0. . 22.ft. 7 7. <i~ 26. 00 24 04 ft.  12. 18.. 30. 3 . 6. 16. r+l. 8. ft. 4. 17.4 ft. a ft c.ft) 4. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 3(c4a). 15a. in. 57. 29. 237. 12 a.5f> sq.000 . 3. 50. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . ft f 19. 3rf 27. 27. 15. ??i??.4  2ft 2 33. 3. 13.
!  </ . a..11. t). . . 0. a 10w. (mn} 11. 10 x. ab a. 4. 2 + a4l). 5. 55. 12.  23. 8. 59. c2 . 3 a3 & 41. _5a<>&43c. 20. (2n' 43p 47 ). 25. 2 17.h. f ft 9.Oa: + 10.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 12.  14 afy . . 17. '  . 3 a . 0. 32 w 2 w. 8 . + 6. .. c.abc. 26. 5 2 Page 29. ii\ 22. 37. 5. 30. 2. 3. ' 12 m?/'2 27.1. 18.a . (5x47 3. a2 24. 8.  1. _ Page 30. lOrt 15w4.2 a2 2m 2 4. 8. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 17. . c. ^ <. 21. a  ISjfat. a 3& .2.  b* 4 r 1 . 2m + 2w. M + 10. 19.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 4r 2 . 28. 1.3x 2 2 tf. 7. 26. . . mn. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . ti. 4. 2 . 1. 10. 36. 34 39.a f 54. a 52. + a 2 f 2 a 4. w* ( . Exercise 16.(7x2 Ox2).  a: 2. 5x 2 rt ft.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2. 34. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .  17. 6. 20. 8 b. 2. x3 . a + (ftc4df). Page 44.4. 4ft ~. m*  n*. 2 . 2x 4 a 13. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 8 8 . 5. a2 9.4 d. :5 41. 2a. G a bd. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 2 6. 25.2 a.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 29. 38. 2 2 2 6.1 . 814. . . 7  a + 2 + c. a f 2 f 2 9. 32. 2. a4 4 4. + c 4 d x + 6 e. a + a. x a8 1. 6. 14. 24. a 4 + ft. 16. .4x. 15. 33. 4. 24. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2 y' 4 . 3 Ji 8 . 1. 50. 58. 14. ( 7. 3 m.(2 x2 .r. 6. a  49. 2. 2a: 2 4x. x  + 3z. 43. 14. ar. a 3a 4 2 &. 364c. 2 4.'U4j>. .3 6.ws 2 ft) . 36. 16. + 8. 4. 25 47. 7 a5 1 . 19.a~. 2// 16.2 . 3. 2m. 6.7. 2 2. 7. 13. 15. 19. 18. 2. . 22. 2 3. 9. 4wipg>' 27. f 2 ?/  2. 1 + 45. 56. 7  # + 12. 20. 2.4c 3 8 8 J. 7.l. r. . 8 + 2 a . ?>4tl 53. ri\ 18.  12. 10. 51. Page 7. 13.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ?/. 4 21. 15. 2 a 37.a'2 . 7. 25. 11.5 z?/ + 3 y . n*. \ :{ 2 a 48. 2.r 2. 18. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. (yz~d}. a 6 2 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 1.2 57. 21. 10 m. 4. 12. 1. a 3 . 21.5. 31. (w4w)(ww). ft Exercise 17. 11. 5. 2 3x f z. Page 28.6 x + 0) 16. 31. ?/i 13. 2. 1. 22. G.  b. 1 4. a). + 2y.8(c + a). 35. 26. 4. 2. a' 4ab + ?/. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 0.a*.c.2 ft 2 r2 10. 10. a a. 11. .x f 1 2 . 2 a f 6 414. 40. 24 b 46. w 17. 24. &. 42.aft.  4 b 17 y*. . + 4 c. . 3. ?> 22. s_r>a5. 12. Page 8. 14. j)(g1.
Page 35. 30. 2 8 xy f 4 a.:>/ . 2 * 80 . 25. 5aft(a 126 2). . ci 5 . Page 5. 15 q\ 6. 18. 37. 40 r 2 . ! 2. 16. 108. 3300.6 2 . 20.20 xyz . (+3)x6=+16. 4.26. 10. 17. 23. 161b. .>(/ r .6) =a2 31. 30. 15. 4. 27. 20. 30. .14 w 2 2 .19 + 2. 64. 17. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 14. 20 aW. 21 a'&c. ISartyW e*f*tj. 14 m 2 . 9.1.12. 14f 5.25 + 14. 8 . 4. . 30 j9 jt?g j .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 27. 30. 28.14 . 18a% y. 34. 360. Page 36. 12 ^. Page 3. 18. 3(*+0 + 2). 6. 4 fc.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 8. 22. 30. 6.69 rt + 21 132 + r .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 4 a8 . 2 ). ^^ = 20. 27. a. 210. 4200. x2 xy42^. + 7. 34. 3. 16. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 14. 2.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 2 ..2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 23.18 w w + 10 WI M . 10. 7. +15. 26. 22.36 35.000. iSx8 . 52 + 6s 12.7(50. 30.19p" + 19^ 10 .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . +. 1. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 9. 32. 60. 10. ll 2 i.. 90. 4. n (a6) 125.(3x2_4^+7).iv ANSWERS + &)(. 24. 14. 9 13.32 y s s G . 31. 2''. . 11. 3 a 3 . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 12. 127"'. 18.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . .16 x2/ 5 4. 3 a 2 46. 4aWy. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 38wiw. 19. 6". 1904. 2 ). 04. 25. 24. 9. 1. Page 7. 6. 120. 6. 26. + O4 66 . 2*8f x2 6x4. 27. 36. 29. 8. 25. 15 lb. a 8 . Ox a 5 . 14. 33. a + ft. 17. 25 4 4. 16 lb. 2 w +2 2 . 2 7t A. 4. Page 38. 5. 76 8 a' 1 . 6 . . 34.32.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. f 26.r% 2 2 ry. a: . 12. 20. 3. 18. 8. 7. 4 jcy*z*>. 2 a2 (y 2 . 343. 15.8 12. 29. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 216. 16. 12 x2 2 . 4 7> 4 :j !} .12. 0. 13. 60. 20. 35.21. 17.28 p'^/. . 25. 2.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. a*b*c. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. ?/ . 1400. 7. 108. 2 2 2 . 28. . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 8. 22. 2. 21. 10. 770. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 15. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 13. 1. 28. 84. 23. 30 n?b*c*. //. + 58 . . 20. 29. 83 In + 1 n*. 13. 0. 4. . 11. 11. 24.21 a 3 c2 21. . 21. 13. ?> 4 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 13. 66 39 k* . a. 5. 33. 18. 16. 42. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .16 a 2 + 32 a . 22. 33. 102. 7. 161b. 19. fa 2. m. 16 51.. etc.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 15.. 18. 24.64 190 p6. 1. 29. 19. s 9 ww. 8.11 xyz . 1. 19. 27. 16. 4 a2 . 216. 12. . 20.44 aWc 16 abxy. 24. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 18> ^* = a . 32. 42. 28. 23. 2. 3. 31.15. 11. 1. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 7G . 66 8W 34. ft 17. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 15. 3. . 21. a.
9990. 38. 31. a 2 . 31. (m + 6)(m3). 998. 23. 2 fr . 27. V + o ft . . 1. 35. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 8. 1. p4 + . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 40. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 1. ?/H)0.994. m 3 j) 3 . + 2 9. 14.ab .6 y4 10.6 x2 13.500. 2 12. . 24.ANSWERS 28. 2 j3 Z . ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 1. 4 . 41.49. a + 25. (a + 4) (a + 2). x4 28. 34. 29. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 9 4 /> .1. fo*. 2 0)(p + 5). 41.000.8. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. . 39. (w4)(w + l). 10..20.009. 12 x2 .6 xy . +  m' 1.x2y22. 52. Om2 4 6m 6. 11. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 19. a2 ' + 48Z100.2 y*. 15. 999. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.00 + 37. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 21 2 . ' 46. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.14 jp + 49. a + 25. ^V^4 . lflrt 2 8 + l.35 ab 9.4 n. 30 /><. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.001. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). r. 4.2 x + 2 x. . 19. 10 a 4 ?. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. y. 10. 17.5 ~ 81. G a6 2. 51. 6. 4 + 25 q*. + 10 + 121 y*. 34. 45. 2 6' . 2). 484. 8. 24.^V"' . 4. (w+4)(m4). 5. 25 a 2 6 2 . 35. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 37. 1).54 p 2 + 81. + 12. 8.020. a + 56. 44. (n 2 5. 10. 4.84 a' 9. 8 38.6.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.ri 17.996. 10. 7.4 a&+ 4 &*. 7. 16. 441. 10. 6. 55. 10. 7> . . 36. 53. a3 0. 4x21. 8 a W .^ + a? + 1. x 48.2.712. 57. .3. 27. 3wi2 m Page 42. Page 12. ^/> 8 4 . m 2 . 4 ./ .009. 25 25. ab . 26. p 2 .^. ~ 6 20 .. ^' J  7 f 12.606.16 a3 f 50. + 4 t*. 10. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 36. 9801. ft' 11. 9999. 3. (p 2. 1. 9. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 36. 7 . 42.15. 2 1: 21. . n + 2. 2 a' y' . 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 62 V2 132. . + 4 a +4.p132. 10. a' . 10.25.r . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 40. 30. 4 2 //. 2 +10s281. 31. 39. 56. 10 a' 2 . . 2 a 2 + a . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 2 . 37. 29.404. +4 34. .810. x*2^f I. a4 4 ?/ . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 18. 2 (5 a 3). 26. I/). n2 a4 6. 990. 32. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 40. 9. 2 4 2 2 64 . 10. 2. 166.020. . .004. Page 39. 15.4 12. 33. 14.000.m 30 6 4 1. (a (3 54.r* 2 30. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . x2 GiC+5. s rc 47. 7.10 x + 25. . 4 21. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 4 a + 4. 5. 1. 2.10 35. ab. 32.098.r . 36 a 4 . 11. 2 .201.008.2 6 + 13. 33. . 3. x* . 33.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 25. + 3)(3).+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 28. +   5). 14. 10. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 4 x2 13. 30 x + 19 x3 . .
??. 16.4. 3. m L 4. 7a3ft.  3 c.1. f>r* 4. as _ 10 16. 4.rw f 8 . 4 a* 4 9 11. a 2 . 2 ^r ???' 2 .2 2 . 1/*. Page 22.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .8.29. 2 2 + 2 a. 47. ?/2. + x?/ 2 1. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 2 ?/' .  12 y 25. 9. . Page 48. 1. 4. . 8.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 4 x. . 2.2 <</. + 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . . 9. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 21. Page 11.25 c . r 7. 4 ac. . 1000 1000 . 12. 14.> 10. 4. 9. 5 a  (5 ft. // 19. w 2 . .24 . 2 4 2 x 4. 14 r 2 . :r !>. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 14. 12.10 xy*. 8./ 4.3 ry. 5. 5. 6. 5. 4 c m . 8. a. Exercise 27. 5.9 d.27 x 2 4.r?/ j/. 2. 2 .lit x + 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .3^V. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 4 pq. 9. 5. 9. 4xy + 13 <) . 125.  10. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. .10 2 + z 2 410.+ 77 15.21 2 2 f + . 18. 11. .3 5. Page 51.r'^ 15. 4.2 wZ 4. 10. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. . 3 aft 20.3 x 2 2 4. 3. 1. 14. z. 4.7. abc 7. 20.n. 2 . ft* ft / .2 . 8 x5 ? + 4 1.r' ~ 16. 17. Page 7.8. 5 4 a Oft. 12. 15. 8 ?/ . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 135. '.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. w . . 10.2 . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4.6 :rs 4.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .w. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. Page 13. 13. 44. 01.5 mp.r" 20 S? . 13. 13.000. 6.r?/. 12.x^. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 11 4. _ 2 a . 4. 3. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 24. 19. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . c 12. 14. 50.2 ftc . a 4 4 ft. 5^418(7. 2 4 3 9. . 23. r/2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.23.15.2 ac . 13. ti'jry1 7.1.  5 z* . 6x 3. 16.r . 8. *3 y 4 . 8 x . j) .rw. 1.  11. 3. m'2 3. l 4 . . 2. 4 d 2 4. 2.15 21. x 2 + 2r f J.2 ar. 10. . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 1. 2 12. 16.2 aft 4. 5. sr 11. Osy. 3 a.1*5 2 r 2 . 15.5 a . 5.5 n*. r ft. 3. 2 a 3 ft. 1. 1. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 8 ?/ . ft ? ft' ft ft. y 7. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.8 yn . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. c3.3 3. aft. G. . 7. 4ft. 6.2 2 2 8 . /r . 49. 17. yfl.9 4. 4x43?/.2. 2. 3.r ?/ ??i ?).VI ANSWERS 43.2 1 //. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. i 9. 26. 7 r .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.  . 4. a 10. 5. 19. 2 1. 18.3 a 41. 20 15. 6.2 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. .y3. 14. 5. 21. +w . x4. 6. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.30 ftc. 13.8 y.1. 2 ? 14 . r//. ft. 2 4. 12. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 1.12 aft 4 20 ac . i 2 tji. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 3*y2 w + 1. ft 17. + 4.1. 8. 8. 4 a 2 4. 2. 46.34.25. 22. . aftc 52.1. 2 ?/ 4. 10 ft.1. x 4. 17. 13.1. 11. 75 a 2 29. aft 12. a 8 4.
37. 9. x 2y 10 act. 12. 37. 25. 5. + 10 b + c ct. a 10. 6. 58. (> 27. 47. 00. xy ft. 11. 7. 2. 46. . I. 2=10. . 50= L 100 15. ct. 7. 8 n  10 yr. 40.100. X 60. 27. 10. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 10. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 7. 1&. lO. 10) + = (a) 2 x .. 14. % 4. !). '^ . 38. ? 43. / + y + a// 12 yr. 21 2. 800 = x + 1300. 1. I. 1. 100 14. 6. 14. 3. y yr. 6. 100 2.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 3x  1700) = 12. # + 20yr. + 3x + 2y + 32. v (6) 2x. 59. 5. ft. 26.ab a.r1. y 100 a 24. fix. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 34. vil 56. (c) 2x. 15.ANSWERS Page 9.  />) a = all. rn mi.7).(3x+ = rraxlO. 4(a ft) c = 8.  1$. 11. b.x700. d. 7. 2. f = eZ 2 x. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 5. s. 7. ^ 12 sq. 32. " lir. m +~m 3. 17. 3x2. x + 1=a. 16. 38. (</) 2a. 10 >_&. 12. 10. 4 f 39. 11. 41. 33. 19. </ 20. Page 6. lOx 10 + w. 13. }f. Page 31.6 = *. y ?>i x + 26. . 3 9.p+7. 8. f 6)(o 62. 2b. 57. b. <>. Page 13. 2. 4^ = 100. 5. 1. 15. 30. 13. 10 x sq. (2 a. 23. ct. 42. 45. 4. 10.rr2. + 4x 3y 34. r tx mi. 3.. y 50. ( a f 4.10) 100. (>. "mi. 0. sq. 2 ct. 13. 18. 16. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. = 5 ?i x 460. (a) ' 12. ft. 43. . 'nj 100 a 28.000.. Page 61. 1. 10 yr. n M. x y $ 6 yr. 20. 29.r ct.. 5. 7.  9 = 17 a. 31. 2b 22. Jj12. 4. a 8. 41. l. 35. 19. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 0.  6 10. x 48. iL*.  2\. 20. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 6. Page 40. 44. 100= ^. 44. 2x + 35.(3x  700) = 5. d + !. x = m. + f + b 2. ct. ] 2 ri 42. ft. 16. 36. 2. 22. 10 a. 9. 2. 23. 20. m+ 11. 22. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. x 49. 25. r>?imi. 17. + 3 = 2(3* . 29. 4. 5. 6. 33. 100 d ct. 8. 7. 1. 39. f (I. 18. . 28. . x. . 4. 36. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 4. 30. 17. 7x 2 Page 21. 2. 3. 24. 60 25 1.
160 lb. 3. 5 Col.3. 1. 4.210^. (a + 6) (a + 3). 3. 70^. 90. (*4)( + 11. 2. 2 2 2 5. (ro3)(w2). 8.. (a 4) (a. 2. ?(g ? g+ 1).000 ft. 3. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 67. 200. 2. 13... 10 Mass. 6. 10 yd. 7. 11. 4.22.000. 600. 6. 25. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). Pace 65.000. = _?_(2ar + 1). 10 yr. 30 yr. 50. 100. 11 in. 7.3aftc + 4). Ib. (y + 8)(y2).. by 12 yd. 85 ft. 1 lb. (p + 7)(3a5&). 2. ( + 4)(*2).(5z . 6. 100 1. 5. 13.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 14. 6.. 200. 19.3). 23.5. 2$.000 pig iron. 6. 15 yd. Page 7. 17. 10. 1. 18.6). (c) ^ v ' .000. 15. 15.5p + 7 g ).000. 9. 10 yr. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 7a*fe(2a & l). 9. 5. 4. 22. 150. 80 A.000 gold.16. 11.11. 1. 3. 7 hr.. 25. 16. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . ~=90. 1200.0. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10 Cal. 29. 2. 8 12. 20 yr. 6. Page Page 4. 1. 12. 5 lb. 6rt 2 11. a 12. 10.0. 05. 12. Page 79.1). 180. 7. (yll)(y4). 3. 71.79. 9 in.7. 70. (y8)(y + 2). 14. Page Page 480 12. (a + 5)(a + 6). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).000 N. 5.y"). . 13.  PageSO.. 15 mi. Page 7. 20 yd. 12. 2 3 6 7. 12.411. 7. (a + 4)(a + 8). 21. 72. . 8. 4. 8. 11. (y 13. 17.24. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 30.000. 12 mi. 42yr. 1313. 74.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 40 yr. 52. Page 5. 6. 3. 18. 9. + 7)(y3).000. 8 2 19. 14. 12.000. 8. 24J.. w (/) 64.21. a a (a 8 a+l). Oaj(o62cd). 7. 6. 28yr. 3 (a +&)(*. 30. 3. 20. 8 in. 8.2). 7. 2. 4. 8. 9. 11 w(w' + wi . 12. 11. 20 yr.. Page Page 4. 10. $40. (z5)(z2). 15. 10.. (y7)(y + 2).. 480. 1. 250. 9. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.. 4.. . 90 mi.000 Berlin.. 9. ^ . 8. 1250.5. 2). 14. 14. 2 2 ?/ 21. 300. 18. 3x (3r. 11 pV (2 p8 . 1.10. 4pt.000 Phil. (e) i* + A.000 copper. 9.. 30 mi. 10. z?/(4^ + 5xy .2. Y. (m + n)(a + 6). 3 hr.8. 10. 8. 5pt. 82 mi. 78. 45 in. 13. . 20. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 5$ hr. 75. 14.3. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 68. 25 yr. 55. 20. 78. (a5)(a4).. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 15. 1200. 2. 15.13. 10.000 ft. 13. 1. 5. 5. 15 in.
16. (4 13. 31. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 2 3 by2 Yes. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 3)(3a. 2 2 15. y) 2 29. No. (13a +10)(13a 10). 23. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 103x97. 29.4 6). 23. 26. (2 *+!)(* 9). + 4) (a. x(x +y)(x y).9*). (0 + 6)(66). 5. ( 2 4 19. (9y4)(y + 4).y (6x + 4)(5x4). (m + w) 2 5. 2.y4 ). a . 7. . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (a 3 + 10)(a. 1. 8.ANSWERS 16. (y8) 2 2 .w*)(l 2 n 2 ).7) (a. Oa 2 (a2)(al).. + 3). 34. 18. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 22. 18. (4 18. + 9^)(oxy . 216 aft. 20. (4a. 24. 4. No. 22. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 7. + 3)(c44). Yes. Yes. (2 a? 4. (w + 20)(w + 5). 21. (15z2y)(x5y). 15. . (y + 4)(yl). (a (p8)0> + l). a(2u. (:52y)(2a!3y). (ay8)(ay3). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 2. (3*2)(. 17. 100(x.2). 11. 29. Page 82. 22. + y + . No. 6. 9. . . 24. (5wl)(m5). (x + y4 )(x . Yes. 10(a . . (g . (2w+l)(ro + 3).   . 16. . . 200 (x + l)(x + 1).11 6) (a 4. 8. 23. 20. 8. 4. (az + 9)(ox2). (w ~ n (x . 9. 28. 16. 25. 35. 24. 35. ix 18. (a. + 0(90 Page 85. 4 (a . 11. 40 x. 7 6) (a 10 6). 33.2). Yes. 21. + 5) a. 26. 25. (3a. No. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 23. 10 a 2 (4 . .* (2 y + 3)(y. 10(3 5 6) 2 . + 2y). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 17.c 2 ). 2 No 4. 28. 36. 28. + 8)(g3). Page 83. 2 17. 13. 1. x\x 24. 3(x + 2)(zl). 100 (a.5y)(3a. 10. 9. 32. 9. 10. 3a. 10(2 30.1). 20. (5a +l)(5a l).4p). 25. 14. Page 84. (2o + l)(2l). (<7 20. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (0 (l+7a)(l7a).2 ft). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). . 17.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. Yes. 10. 11. 2.2 y). 3. 26. 19. 26. Yes.  x (5 a. 19. 5. y) (a. 30. 31. (a 6 6) (a 4.6) 2 2 . . 10(a + ft)(aft). Yes. (15ay2) 2 . a*(5a f l)(flr . 25. 32. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 24 9. 15.8). a.2 by2 6. 14. (a a: 19.1). 25. . 12. No. (m7n) (a. Yes. 34. y(x. 3.3)(z2). (2xl)(x + f>). (10a + ft)(10aft). (2yl)(y + 9). 14. 12.+4 y)(3x4 y). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).3).7)(2z f 1). 3. Yes. 6.1). (w* (3a26). 21. .6) 2 1. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (3#y)(+4y). Yes.y) 2 aft. 30. 33. 1. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (ft + ll)(aftll). 8) (a. 2). 22. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 12. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 10. . 27. (m + n + 4p)(w + .4. Yes. (a + 8)(a3). (6n + l)(+2). (4al)(a2). (* + y)(zy). (5x . Yes.r2).11 ft)(a6). 13x7. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 7. f 2). 9. 21. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 27. 27. (4y3)(3y + 2). (6 a. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2).1).
5.^ 48. Page 89. 7. 16. y(2x?/).'})(c . 5.  (w' 4. Page 92. 4. 11. 22. 4  9.3.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 16. . 20. (a />. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 7. a 4. Page 90. a8 .4.3.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 2. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). x 4.1). 8.y '2 2). 10.3)(x 4. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). (w * . 3p (^9)(j) 4). 2 . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).5 m2 x2. fi(c426). .y). 13( 33. (2x7)(x 2 2). 6. 6. 2 8(w . 2. 2 y) ^ .1). (w4w) 2 1. x(x f y)(jr .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .))(x  ^OC 1 1). Page 86. 12. 19. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 15 M.!) (x42)(x2). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 28. 4. (!__/>). 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.n). 7. 8. 35. 6.8) n 43*). 3x(x?/) 4. 4. 6. (5 31. Page 87. 14.0+ 12).y. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (a 9. 11. y )(. 2. . (> 1. (7/1 2) (m 41).X 5. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 42). 36. (x//. (5^4.'/)('< 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).?/).42 x 4.4). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 2. 4.) j). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. a 41.9). (f> + fo 7.36). Exercise 47.7s) (2 a. (m  I)' 6. 5  (2 2 . 8. 8). (. ah}.8). 6. + 2 //). 4. ?i(w 4y) .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). Page 12. a 2 (a9). 9. 17. 10(2 (3 4. (5a+l)(9a). 13. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 14. 17(x43//)(x2y). 5. 4). x43. 15. 12. 2. 1. 8.2).e 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 4. 2 2 10. 32. 3(. 2 (a 4. 8x. (16 4  2(5 n . 4. 24x sy s 9. 4 a8 . (a &4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.'J)(' . ofc)( fid).b. l. 2(m4l)' . 13. 14. 1(V/ 88.?>) H. ( rt 23.2 y). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 38. n  r)(5a 10.8) ( (16. 10(8x' 4l) 4. ( { &). 42a 3 x. ( y). 8. 13. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 3 x4 . Exercise 46.. 13 x 8 2 . (x. 39. . x  1). a + a b. 4 a s &8 . 7. 2 2 3 . 7. ( (<> r4y3 . .  WIM. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). a x 3 10.&). 2 k (wi 4. (14. 2 21. 27. 15. (^ 7. (c. 2 + .l)( a 25. 9. 30. 18.?50)(xt/z. ?>).y)(fi a .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (5 26. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 5 x8 3. y). (^ + ?>_8). a (a + 2 6). 11. 5. 24. + 3. 11.2)(x 1. 3.7)(^ {I 12. x . 40. 14. 450. 4 3. 2 1. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. . (a 4.4).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). b) (r 4. ^ . r x 2 */3 . 41. ( a ^)(^3. 4 6. 6. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). y6. 8. 8.4. 37. 7.&).1) 3.  29. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (r420(4 10. a 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 12. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .2). 6 f c). Gp).
11. a 10 25. + y) (a: y). 2(2al) + l). 18. x 12. a 23.6). x 24. (a2)(a + 2)2. 1). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 6a2&(rt6). 13.ANSWERS 10. + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. +5 1. 30(3 2 (a 15. b ! 21. +8b a 4 3 / ^. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + &)(&) ( . // m+1 !+*?.  1). x 22.
' 2 7. . w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 1.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . xy 43. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. + lH + . A^. 0. 28.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. + 2H 1 ^. 7. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. _*^p5_^^_. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 4c 10. 11. 26. Page 100.. 4 L 8 2 . 4. i^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. a 5.  **/* + 84 _. 30. 2 a. ^~ 29. i. 6.50 ~ 1/2 . 6a5f^. c 8. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 6.
ac mp lf> n 12. x 05m ' 5. 33. 7. b a f +c 14. 4. f Page 107. 3 7 i o. 1.  10 X + u. x\. 3. 9. 38. 8j_m 7 3. 5. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. a.L+ft. ^_. 39. pf n 6 1. 34. 1. 1. A. 43. 6. Page 111. 9. I) 2 3z 1. . 15. 14. . 2ft a i m x. a 17. 11. 3. 32. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 0. 4. 13. 5. 12. 4. ' 6. 4. n . m 9. 14. +3 ( + 15. 31. 1. f 7. ft. + f. 15. 6. 21. 25. 4a3ft. 4. Page 110. 27. 3. 7. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. . 6. J. a2 2. n 16.ft . 42.^U\WF### X<6.  V o 4. b 2. 11. (a + y) 2 Page 104. Page 106. 12 28. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. an 18. 7. 15. 0. ?. 26. 10. 1. 11. 24. 17. ^i 11. 6. 30. 9. 4. 6 . j L . 1. 23. 2) 19. 10. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 2 47. w^x 2 b Page 105. Of. 44. 7. 14. 4. 35. 20. J. 1. flf. ?+_!?>. 37. 40. 5 be _J_. 19. 1. 3. c 8. 11. 18. 1. 12. ! 4 20.y 7. x 1. 29. 45. 46. 1. 3. 6. 8. 5. 41. (>. 16. J. 16. 5. y(x + x ?/).^_. . 21. 3. 8. Page 113. 11. 36. 17. (y + (z 12. 21. n m a + 13.
9. 10. 13.001. 3 da.. (ft) 5 da. 1:1=1:1. 30 yrs. $30. a 4 ft.000 1 = 23. 4. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 2x:3y. 2. 12. 6. 1. 7. 19.000. (r) 3^ da. = A's. 1 : 12. 15. 10. 13.000. No./hr. No. ... after 18. 10^ oz. 9. 00. 15. 4fl M_. (ft) 5 hr. 5 25. Page 124. 7. 4. 15. 20. 11. 1:3. 3. (c) 8300. 10 yrs.000. 5.  + . 4~r~ n . 1 da. 30 mi. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. Yes. 5. 18. 21. 2. 8. 1. ~m . . 36. 9ft. 21ft min. n 32. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 10. 24.138.000. 1:1 = 1:1.XIV '/ . Yes. 74. Yes. 20. 13. ^?i min. Yes. 24 mi. 14. 15. 300. #V ~~ 34.. 7T 2 Page 116. 30ft. [>> ^ a . 16. Yes. 9. 9. 275:108. 26 30. . 40wn. Yes.. 8. 22. 15.15. 8. 2:1. $0. 16.10.2. 23< &n b ' . (d) 4 da. 0..2./hr. 31. w 21. 5.11.0 & . _JL. 14. min. 10. 20.} da. 17. 3. (ft) 104.000 If da. 38ft min. :2. 10. 40 yrs. 19. (d) 500. " 0. Page 121. 26 mi. 10. 19. (a) 30. () 2. after $12.002. Yes. Page 125. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4. $00. 35. 7} 18. 300. 16. 2 20. 15. . 10. silver.003. 7. after 20. 33. 28.004.. 1^'. 6.. gold. 7. 9J oz. 12. (c) 2 hr. 10. (a) 12 hr. min. 12.0. w 18. 18. ^m . dn ~ mi. Page 118. 3. 17. f. (a) 4 min. IV s. Page 117. (a) 25. '"I 22. 6. 3:2. xy. 4. 55 mi. (ft) 28. 9$. 18.137. 1.139. 500. J ^'. 300. 13. P+ ^ 33. 4. 5ft 30mi. * 7:9. . 5. nm. 1:1 = 1:1. 14. 24. 7 .  29. 26. 8. 11. Yes. ^p^ r ~ 7. 19. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 17. 32. 11. 8301 hr.9. 81. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. . 15. J. $45.. $40. 1: ~. 21. f . 3. 8. 7. ANSWERS 16. Page 119.. 1:4. 212. 1. 3. ft. 75 . 34.x + y. 5 2. 17. 27. 30. 10. w 44. 3. 14. 7. . 33. 11 hrs. jj.  C . 40 mi.
35.) 31./':</ c a f :y=2:9. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 23. 4. J. 1(5. 40. 6 10 = 12. Of. 6*.. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. .3. : : T 1' : /> : . 28. I. 8. 16. y :y =. b x 37. 7. 15. 2. 4. 11.4. y . + W. 36. Page 133. 7. 19. 7. 4. 17. 6.2 oz. 4. 3. 22. 7^. 5:0 = 10:12. 5. 55. 2. tin. 10. 1. 21. 24 1 (e) Directly.*. 41. 13. a f 2 2 = 5 x. J pq.^ 0?j ' gms. 29. 7. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. ." ^ 2. 43. 13J.46. 1. 2. 25. 8. 39. 6.3. J. Page 132. 2. 5 2. a +b 1. 5. 11 5 . 7. ' 55. 14.. "lO. 25.4. . . 9. 5.2. 46. OJ. 13. 2. 7. 47. 127. 174+ Page 128.12. 7.1.4. 9. : . 9  15.5. 9. land. 1. . 12. 44. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.20. in. 5. 32+ mi. 9.5. 11.840.a.5. x 42.2. 1 rt * vm^1. 3. 19 OJ. 945 11 10 . in n. 23. Page 131. 1. 3}. 48. 2.]. 27. 3. 11 w a 13.3. *. 58. () Directly.. 14. . 8. 53. . 5:3 = 4: x. 3. Page 134. 2. : 23. 11. 5. + b 7 . jc:y = n:m. 2. 17. : XV 27.5. 2. . . 13. 8. 5.3. : />. \.5. 3. 24.1. 3. 7.3. .3. 2 n . Page 9. 6.' : : : : <>. 25. 20. $.7.  ?. 7. 4. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . t 5. 3. mi. 2.2. 6.C ?/ a . 26. x:y a: b. Page 135. 9. (b) Inversely.  19.5. 30.36. Page 136. : : . y a y = 7 0. copper. 2. ig 6. 19. mi. 12. 54. Page 5. 5.1. 11. 7.000 sq. w 8. 22. 7. ~ 1. 8. Inversely. (I. 4.000 sq. /. 26. 8. 7. 15. 5. 4. 21. water. 2.3. i. 31J. 3  24. 40. 3. 2.3. 16. 19. 5.3. 7. s<i. 10. 36. 31. y 1. 12.J. 17. 1 18 = 3 51. 4. a 3.22.r. (</) ft. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 1. 2. 20 20 J ^. ft. 3. lo mi. 52. 7. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 4. 2. 1. 59.15. .2. 4. 20 cu. 2.3.6.x a. 20. 14.9.  28. 3."2:1. 141. 32j. 10.ANSWERS 22. 30.4.2 x. 2. 2. 2. 7. 200 mi. Page 137. 16. 2. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 24. 5. 13. 19 3 . 2. cu. 4.3.57. 2. (a) Directly. 2. a~. x y y . 57. 3. 7. 3. 9. 11. 5.5. 6. 9.17.160. 2. . l. x +y x + 74 7 \. 3 2=3 x. 18. 1. 41. 8. 1. 56. \\. 14. 4.7. 50. 3. 15> 9. . 4. 138. () 7 Page 126. 3.J 3.4. 12. . = 7 b'. J. 45. 2.5. + 7>i//  ft 1 .5.1. w. 1. 1.8 oz. 4. 2.li. 9. 10. x y = 1 = 3 2.1. 49. 38.12. ini.15 x. OJ. 4.
On the x axis. Page 143. 3.$2000. $250. = ^ a Page 141. 72. 16. be 10. 7. Apr. 10. . 20. yrs. 8. 7. 4. 25.4. . 2. 26. 5. 10. 21.^.. 5. (a) 12. 26. 4. 16.3. $ 1000. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 00. 20. 16 to July 20. 23.0. 20 & Oct. 1. 1. yrs. &. Page 146. 4.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 1. 1. 1. 12. 2. 3. .2. be 7.4. 10. 11. 5. 4. ^. 7. 2. Feb.. 423. 3. B's 15 yrs. $900 5%. 40. 30. 40. m f 9.8. 3. A's 30 18. 5. 20. . 2.$5000. 30. 13. J. 5. 3. 4. Jan. 2. 147. On the y axis. Page 149.3. 2t2. 0. 90.2. Jan. 18. 18. 16. 4. 15. The ordinate. 5. 2. 3. 25. 10 sheep. 2 horses. Oct. 1 (c) Jan. 17.. 9. 11. ad AzA. 12. 9.1. . 1. 3. 7. u 2ft.l. 5%. m f 8. May 5. 2. 2. 18. 7. 21. Page 145. 7. 6. 15. 8. 25. 22. 12. 2. 14.9. . 13. 27. 6. 24. 6. 8. July. & part of Feb. a. 2. 24. . (5. m . 16. Nov. 13. 2.. 24. Page 22. m + n p.33. Apr. Page 151. (c) . . 0. A's 50 13. 19. 6.  17. On 11. 7. 8. 3. 17. 4. July. 9. through point (0. 4. 3. 7. 3. $500. 5. 1 (d) Apr. 6.4. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 11. July 20. 6. 32. ' 6 3 a. Page 152. (<f) 13. 11. (ft) 23 J. 9.  11. ft 3.7. SL=J o ft r^2. 11. (a) Apr. (ft) 20. 14. 10^ gms. 28. 1. 3). 2. at 15. 10.10. a =J (n  1) rf. 23. 4 ' q. 2. 1. Nov. 3. 3. 2. 7. 5.65. . 19 gms. 1. 12. 11. 20. <*ft/ bd 1. 3. 30. 5. A a parallel to the x axis. 18. C's 30 yrs. 3.1. C's 10 yrs. 16. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 6%. 1. & part of Sept. June. 4. 2. 1. 9. 4 mi./hr. 6.n + p. 5. 3. Nov.3. 9. 6 cows. . 7. 20.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 0. 3. 3. 17. $3000. 100. 4. Page 153. 31. Jan. 29. Apr. 25. 6. M 2. 24. . 3. 4.0. Page 142. 14.XVI Fagel39.1J. 23f . 2. $4000. 16. Jan. 15. 20 to Oct.. 4. 12. parallel to the x axis 0. 2 a. ' . 3. & May. 4. 3. 2. B's 40 yrs. 4. About 12f.. 4. 10. 19. Jan. Nov. ad _(?jrJL. . . Aug. 1.
(gr) 21. 8. 81 ".3. 32F.73. 1. 1.25. 1. 10.41 and 23. \ft) 5.41 and .75 (ci) 3^. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.27. f." 23. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (ft) (ft) 2. . 30. 1. 2. 1. 2. 125 a 8 12. (a) 12. 2. 3 . f 10. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 8 1 f f g*. Page 164. 1.64. 14. 30. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.. 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. .84. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.5. 24. 13C.67.25. 17. 4. 2. 15 . 2. 3. (c) 7. . . 1. 3. a 29.25. 19. (a) 4.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. Inconsistent. 21. . (/) 3. 1. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 1. f12 wi 9. . (ft) 2. (ft) and (d) 2.34F.  1. 25. 1^. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.7. 20. 4. 3. 27 27 81. 2ft4 Page 168. 22.1. 28. 24. Indeterminate. Inconsistent.24. 1. 11. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 5. 14.73. 83. 12. 2.64.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. Indeterminate. ft . 2. 22.83. 3. 5. 2. 1 4. 1.73. f. 13 . 3. 4 ) 21. xW. () (rt) 3. 1. 2. 18. . (c) 14 F. 26.73 ami . 3. 11..79. 2 2 22.59. 3. 125 16. 3. . 16. 4. ' :=_!. 1. 13.59 . (c) 2. 2 a&m Page 167. 2.5 (ft) 3. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. (e) 2. ImW. . . 10. . 4. 2. H. 8. 5. Page 163. .6. 13. m. + a 4 ft* . 1. 13.24. 2. (e) 3.17 (ft) (c) 2. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29.25. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 4. 8mW.83. 1. 2.1. . 0C. 4}. 5.13. .24 . . 15. (<?) 2. 8 a1. 2.  12 ft xW  26 31. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 10. 1.75. 3. 9. 1 23. 2. 3. 3. 27. 11. xg . 15. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. Page 159. 12. 3. SlstyW 7. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 14.4. . (a) 5. 27 19. . (/) 3. 1. +3 4. 14. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4wn8 + n4 5. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 10 C. (a) 2. xy. 18C. 5. .  . 19. 3. . .  1.79. 6.2 (ft)  1. jgiooyiio 17. 15. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 125a 28. 2. . 20. 9 and Page 166. 6.25. 2 l. 1. 3. 8. 5 and 2. 7. * 16. (ft) (d) 2. . 4.. G..5. 5. 9.75. a + ft. 2. 0. 3. . H. 2. 3. Page 158.75. 3.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 2. ft 2 4. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. . 3.3. 3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 5. 1. .
25 19.5. 98. 15. . 5. a 2 . a ). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . +3 + 5 4. (ab + c).x ). 20. ??i ?i . 90. 3 2 ^. 2. 15. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.10 a~ + 5 a . 2 49 . ^i. 9. 24. 8.XV111 7.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 5. 2038. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.f 1 m 9 16. 00. 5. . 119. 6. . 22. I 8x2). 6. 28.^). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . ? . 3. 17. 15.037. 8. Page 176. 4. (ly). 11. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 300. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 11. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 12. 64. 35. + y). 16 6 w . (x' l). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 8.6. 31. 13. 57.  +X '.y2 ). 2. 36. 32. 9. 76. 17. . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. a. 4.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 23. 10. 4. (3a. (1 (x2y). 6.i c 6 15. 18.1. 20. +35. 20. 1 1 ?>). 3. 40. . 11. (x + y\ 90. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 19. 21. 1. 14. m 13. 11. 0. 5. 16. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 9. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). rt . (a + y+l). Page 172. ( Page 174. c 10 6 :l 20. 13. 14. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 7. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 9. r> 4 : 1 . 247.a b 22. 6. + l).3 ab + 2 2 ). +(^ 2 3^ + 2). a: l . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 2. (Gx + (i + 2a. 5. 12. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 6. 2 12. 10*. 309. 18. 1247. + (win . 30. 101. 18. 34. . fe *?>' ?> fi . 3M.GO a c + 23. 6 (\x 3. 7. . (l + x + . 71. 2. 3 2 8 3 12. 2. Page 170.7 /)). ?7i 1 1 3 1. 25. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 10. 10 x G a 4 . 99. 14. 72. 21. 3.  x. 12. 15. 3. 978. 9. 1. . + Z). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.83. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 8. (a + 2 +l). (4a2 9& 2 13. /> 4 ). 2 4 8 2 . 763.5). 14. 5 5 8. 9. (48 + 6. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. a. 3 6 23. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 27. 237. AN S WE no . 90. 1. 7. 10. 16. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 20.r 2 + S:r2/2 ).+3^ + 4. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 4. Page 171. 84. GOO 2 c 2 .1. ). 8 /. (a 2. 33. 2 2 7.94. 26. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 2(> + ( 2 7>). + + ?V 22. 180 . . 70. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 19. 8. + 29. 16. . 2 ?>i?< >2 10. + i)). 2 2 4. 420.2). 1.r 2 + 6jt). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. (2 a + ft). 17. 30. Zll. ? : 1 .
}. 6V21. 18. 5083. (6) Vl4 3. .925 ft. 8.  f. (< + ?>). 8. \/3. 7. 48.4. () 2. JJI. 2. 8. 7. 12. ^^7m. 3.. 28 in. i ^. 12. 11.60. 19.6.  14. 3J. V35 1. 13. 5. 12. V J l. 7. 4. 14. 2] see.. 7. 23. 270 sq. 3.367.18. 7563. 4. 3. 4 n. 7 45. 22. 10. 5. Page 181. 16n. 6. 1. 9. 4J. 28. 28. 3. vYb. 2. . or 3. 18.*. 31. 46. >TT 26. or 5. 3. 9 15 ft. 14. 10. J. . 16.  5.645. ft.6. 1. 23. 36 in. 32. 29. 9. 7. 40. 10. a. 2.4. 24. 40.13. 39. 37. 12. ft. 12. 13. 11. 33.916 yds. 1 38. 21 in. 7 in. 9. > w ft. 6. 3. 27. 1. 5. 39. 1. 4. 11. 5. 3. 1. 12. 14. 5. 3. 1. 13. 10. ^. 4. 21 28 ft. 3. 21yds. 1 f Vl3.6. vV'TA 24. _ iVaft. v 17. 15.6. . 20.. 26. 37. 3. 3. * 1. 2. 8.005. 8.742 in. 16. Page 184. 29.237.Sn. (afl). 5. 7. 44. ii :J _7. 21. 12. 5.522 38. / 11. 4. 1 7. V17. 33. 6. 36. 15. 4.}. 6.. 30. 2 sec. *. f f V. 3. f. 2. 2.935.. . 2. 29. 6561.1. 50. f 3. a + 61.798 yds. 7. 8. " ^_ 22. V. 6. 1. 2.690. 7}. 19. V2. 39 in. ^. 14. 11. 6J.  2. . 9. 10. 10. ~ V^3. 15. 4. 27. If ^. 32. 34. 16. 3. 31. 49. 10. 21. 4. Page 179.. 13.  3. 4 TT M 28. 1.236. 17. m. 15 1 10. i. 5. .w 18. 36. 5. 2.ANS WERS 22. 6yds. 35. 25. l~8. 16. Page 183. 7. 1&. w. 4. 6. . 25 J. 3.V 8j. 42.. 5. 4. 9. 7. 6V'2J. xix 26.5. 23. . . 14. 20.  f. 2.1.  43. 10.?. 15. {. 1. 4 a. /..i. 4. 5. ZLlAiK 19. 7. Page 185. Af^.6. 24.5. >i 27.469. 9. Page 180. 17. m. 5. 11. 9. 25. 34. 13. 2. 6. 30. 2. 9. 5.. 15. 5. 47. 6.  1. 21. 1. 12. 2. V2. 4. 4 W**.a. 6 f !. ft. 17. . . 41. 10.243. 5f.. Page 177. 1. 35.4. f . f. 20. f ^ is. 7. 4.
1. 50. Real. 5. 64c. . 4 da. 52. 48. r* i. Page 187. 8.2. Real. 6V64. unequal.37. .4. 9. 21. 1.4.7.2. 2. unequal. 3. equal. 3. Page 190. 33. x2 + B . 12.  i. unequal. AB = 204 ft. 4. f.0*8.a. 3.59. 53.]. 3. 1 3. 2. 1. in.2. orf. 26. 6^2 in. 0. 22. 9.2. 1. 1. 2 ft. H. 0. . 14.4. . 10.48. i . 3. 12. .2. 70 ft. 31. v^^fcT"^. 8\/2 17. AB = 3.a 3 a. 3. 47. 4. 20.41. V2. 10 or 19. 6.6. 4. equal. 0. Real. 10. 2. 12.  1. x*4x=0. 3.1. 2.$40 or $60. = 0. 37. V7.  Page 194. 15. '  f 5. Imaginary. s 11. 56. ANSWERS 22. 0.2. 45. 2. 2 V3 in. equal./hr. 64. 3. 36. 0. 3. 21. 1. 18. 40. 2.1. 15. 30. 1. 3. 2.10.  13. Page 189. 32.. . 17. 2. 1. VV11. 23. 4. 57.Oa.a. 4. V^l. x* 51. 10 mi. . 7. 6. 42. 11. 12.6 = 0. 0. 26.. f 6 52 a. unequal. 3. 27. 5. 2. 16. *'' 12. a. 10. 5 ft. 7. 10 in. 49.4. 2.2.l. 3. 3. 3. 8. . 26. 5. 8 or 12 mi.5 x + 6 = 0. 41. 15 ft. 0. 8. 1. 2. 0. #<7=3. 26. 35. 44. 19. Imaginary. i. 2./hr. $ 120.1. 2. 2. Imaginary. 14. $80. 3. 3. 7. Page 191. 2. 25. 43.2 x2 .12. unequal.. V ~ 16 4 2. f. 2.3. 7. 12. . 6. 0. 35. 23. 13. 27. rational.  9x <). 16.12 = 0. . 1. 22. rational.  1. 20. . If. 1.  5. 3.  1. 3. ' 1. 29. 9. 2. 46. 1. 18.5. 25. unequal. 3.23. 4. 6. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 4. 3if. 19. 6. . a. .. 38. V2. Real.7. 34. . 25. 4. 20. irrational. 7. 1. 23. 9. ft. 13. 2. 6. Imaginary. rational. 1). Real..02. $30 or $70. 6. 25.48 3.  24.5^.  2. 28. 27./hr.* 2. 0. 5. .. 7. rational.3. 24. . 19 in. 2. Page 192.  5. . . 2. 21.2. 1.  6. 2. 3. . 8. 120 ft.17. jr . unequal. 10 mi. Real. 28. . 1 . 15.3. 20 eggs.70. a + 6. 24. 0.7. 3. 16.XX Page 186. . 3.62. 5. unequal. 0. 6. Real. 2. 1.  2. Page 188. 18.  1. a + 1. 0. 1.'. t is. Real. _ 19. %. 1. 4. 2.74. 1.  1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 6. + 11 x. 55. 0. unequal. 0. 7. irrational. 1. 28. 4. 1_^L ft 14.4.23. 0. 58. 39. 3. 7.2. V^l. U. x 14. rational. 2 . (5 10. a8 . 6.2. 11. 20 nii. ./hr. V^~2. 1. 24.
27. 41. 9. 56. 7. p. 6  AAf. 30 a. 8. m. 8. v. 12. 3. 0. 10. _! V3. 40. 1. I. 13. 13. 3. . 1. 1. 18. 20. 16. 45. 15. y . x$. 55.  f . ar 1 . v'frc 18. 25. 30. ). ? . 25. 2V a. 8. 15. 9.  f. 2. 10. 2. 8. 52. a. fx'^z'l 23.17. 47. 46. 13. 4. m'. 16. . JV37. 23. 1. 2. 2. r*. 24. x. 51. 17. 2. 5. 22. 23. 9. Page 201. J. 16. v/3. l  5 12. aW\ 40.ANtiWEUS rational. 8. 1. . 3. Jb \. 3. 31. \/. 9. 3. 33. 5. ^49. $7. . 8. 27.^7. 4. 84. 14. 3. 20. 2. n\/* Page202. 12*2 61. 30. 17. 29. 3. 42. 10. 2 L ( V. 44. . Page 200. 16. jV 10. 32. 59. 2. 19. 20. i. 5. 15. 11.2. Page 196. 6. 58. 125. 3. 'J. 36. 4. 1. ifa.  48.. v'frW. 6. . 29. 4. Page 199. 9. 31. 3. ^Sf 3 38. 5\/5. V^ 34. 0. 24. 2. 19. 1. xxi 15. 28. 4. 60. 18. y. ) 2 >J i 10. . 25. 10. 17. 3 4 11. 50. 48. 12. vm. 3. 24. 22. 57. 35. 50.1 5 15. 18. 19. J 3. r. \. J. 7. 2. 7 . 7V7. : . 4. \ . . *V. 4. vV. 5.//^. 2.  J j. 33. 5. 3. \a\ \/^. 49. 13. 0. 14. \/r\ 11. 53. 21. 8. \/3. wA 46. &. 54. 37.32. 1. \. z + 22.6. 5. 1. (m 26. 1. 243. 49. 33. 43. . J. 21. 39. v^T4 m. 11. 4. 1. Vr. 9.  5. 7. 1V1. J. 3. 28. 26. 19. 20. 1 39. 14. x/25. 14. 1. 38. 32. . a 18 .  a'2 . 8. 29." 17. 47. Page 197. 49. 21. 49. 2.
3V^T. 2. + 2 Vzy + y 1.  a Vft 2 121 b. x%  3 ^+ 1. ). 4. 13 35.  2 3:r.rV:r. 28. JIV6. + Vic + 25. 3^ + 2). 20&V6. 2. v/^r 5  A/^~. v^. x 7  34. 195V3. V.2 18. 16. 20. r c . 13. 40. 21.f. 4aV^J 16. Vr 8. 45. x. 10. 29. 3V5. 38. x y.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 20. 8a6V5. 3. 10. 5 22. (o* 2. 13. . 9. ^: V2c. V63. 21. 50.'\ 14. 5 ( .577. 22. 19. y (a + ft) V2. ^88". 3 x^y 33. + + ft. r 17  Page 204. 30. 15. 9. V 5 47. 4.3 + 40 3 . (a 27. .XXii ANSWERS 1.707.648. v'TM. abVab. 36. ftV 46.r. V. 25. 6. a 4 +* + !. 24. 34. Page 203. 2. 8. 03r* 7. 8V/) 15.632. 49. 24. 31. a2 4. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 135V6. 26. 27. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 39. 6. 2\/7. + 2 ar 1 ). ^7 \AOx. 2 '"V5. 17. / V3. Va 2 "ft.2 VlO. Page 207. 3 42. 1 2 or 1 ?. 13 a. 43. 11V3. 37. 12. 23. k/2. 41. 101 1. T. 18.x^y* + y%. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 2. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.yl : . a 3. 7. + 2). + 2 V22. 11. 16. (x' (l 1+x). 11.692. m* n*. . . 62V(J. 8. 3 \ 39. x^ . 29. 2 a?>V2 a. 5. V2 + 4 V22. 3 4\/2. 28. 30. 37. 17. . a^ + 2^+1. 2>X2. 7. 19. y. 2. 2 x* 15. 3^2. 10. x + 5 x3 + 0.). 31. yV35. 3. 1.Vxy 35. 5. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 26. 3. ?tV?w. Page 208. 2 4 z2 l 3. x 25.. 48. . 34 r 6. 33. 9. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. V80. 1) 3V3. l 5. + 1. 9 . 51. 2. 40. 32. 32. 2v (T 2aVf.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . . + .
^v 7 15. . v7^. 8. 6. 30 Vl4. Page 214. \/128. 9. ^27. Vat. \/abc*. ^9. \/8. 6. V2. v^O. v^30. 34. 3\/15  6. V3. 4 a*. 10. 15. 8v2T 12.  3. V2. 49. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 13. 3\/2. 0. 5V2. 52. V8. 4. 6. \XOfl6Vi5. x/8. x/w^ 8. 28. 20. 4 >/3. 3 Vl5 30. 3. w?i. Page 210. 10. 5. 0. 25. 30. + VlO  v y (5. 1.30 2. 18. "v/wi ??. 3 V2. 8. : ^32. 17. 16. 2. 14. 1. fl^Vac. 5V2. 2\/7. 24. \^6. 5. 4. 35. . 6+2V5. 3. 7\/(l 7VTO. a2  b. 22. vT). 2. 2. 22. 34. aVa. V3"m. 33. 40. 38. 5 \/2. m ?i2Vm/t. 8  \/15. 9. v^lf. 53. 26. 23. 7. 6x2?/. W). ab 4. 21 23. 41. 6aV2\^. Page 211. 36. . 44. / \/w/t 4 13. Vdbc. 2 28. . 27. 38. Page 216. 6V2. 32m27n. 13\/3. 7. 3 V15  47. 15. 14. 23. 8V2. Vn. 6. "^8000. 46. 14. 14c 4 V5. 2. 6 2\/0. D 45. 42. 48. r)\/(l Vrtr. 13.T*. V/. v^f. v/lO. v"5.r v/^ v^fr*. rtv/5. v^a. v/l2. V5. \/04a. 74\/Jl 120 46. VJla. 5v/2. xx 1. 3\/wi. 11. 35. v/9. 4VO. 2 ate. 17. 1. \/a6c. 3v^2. x/8L v/27. \V3.J Page 212. \^6. 27. 32. 10. 18. 3. v/i). 18. ^\/3. 2. 40. % 29. '. 4\/5. 16. 32. V5. 2 V'3. 39. 31. 37. 31. 5. v"3.. x/3. V3. VT5. 24. 19. 6. x/27. 10V(). v 25^4714 V2"a. 9. 7. 21. 16. + 20. a\/5c. 39. v/8. 25. 12. 19. v^4. x/8l. 17. x/4. Page 213. 11. \^r^bVabc. 9 VlO + 4. 26. . 21. \/2.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 43. 29. x/125. ^ 3 b 5 24. b. Vtf +3+ 33. 37. 2 1. 1V5. 2 \/2. . 2yV2?/. 3. 8V73\/IO. 50. 12. 3. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 11. 36. a^\/a7>. . 51.
V2. 31. 5. 20. 9.w 6. 8. 10. 1. 5. 4. 8. \/57t. V3.3.6 V3. 25. \. 7. 16. Page 226. 2. 2V2. 3(7+3V5). . 2 . 6. 4. 16. 22. 18. 24.9. 19. 4. 15. 29. 4. 4. 16. . 23. 20.  f. . 1. 4.732. {. 11. 3. 13.V3). 3. V. 2. i^Lzi. ^r. 10. 2. V3 .2828. (V51). 3.7071. Page 223. (\/3f 1). 6. 7. 7. f. 25. V3.464. 64. . 12. (2Vll). 24. 7. 9.3535. 33. (V5f 5. 3.XXIV 7. 8. 512. 7 f 5 4. Page 219. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 0. (V6 + 2V2). 15. 25. 8. 22. 125. 11. 25. + 6) 2 . 5. nVTl. 17. 1. Page 218. (2. 5. 24. 12. 35. . 3. ^. . 100. (VaT^v a). (V8 + V2. 18. 13. \/3). 4V3 + 6.4722. 1. 5 + 2 vU 17.3. 2V3. 8. Page217. 4 14.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .\/TO). K>/0 + \/2). + 5V2. (a 1. !^ 6 4. 14.. 216. 2.1. 3. 3V23. 25.389. 14. 224. J. J. 9. 10. 36. 24. 1. 8. 25. 30. 28. (2V2). 5. 27. 81.732. 21. 18. 6. . 14. 2. 19. 6. _^JflJ?.5530. i^ ~ 1 v ^. fV2. 10. 4. 12. V6c. V3. 5. A .64.  13. 1. 23. . 23. 4. 9. 27. 4. Page 28. 5.2. 18. . 6. 8. 11. 0. 30. p 6 13. ^\/2. . V35. j 15. 5. 6 V.7083. 4. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). 19. 7.^ (\/22 4. * 3. 18. (\/5V2).4142. Va. 16. .5. 2ajV2*. 9. 8 V3V2. 23. (V21). 12. 25. 26.601. (Vf + (4 V2). 11. 15. 12. 15. 2.1805. 81. Vf6fVtf. 1. ~ Vac _c 0. 9 mn. 2. 10. 5. 17. ' 22 i . 4. 2x^2^. 11. 19.  . 7. 37. ^(VlO\/2). 12. 32. 4.1547. 9. 16. i(Vf Vft). ^. 15. (VllV2). (3+ v/2). 19. 29. 7 Page221. 3. 5 V65. n*.0606. 34. Page 225. ANSWERS 8. 2!5_. m f.  2. 17. 2V3. 7. 21. 7. 9. 26. 4. 20. 21 ' Vob 26.2. Va. Page220. 21. 23. 13. 27.6.81. xy 2. 9. 20. 11. 4. 16. 5 f. x 20. +3 V2). 10. 22. 1. 16. 1. 8. 4. 10. 9.625 10. 17. V^TTfc.13. 1. j. 14. 1. (2f V"5). V5.
4.3 2. 4 .5. 4. 4. 13. 3. 3. . 2 &.3.2. 18. . 87 . 5. 3 . t/ 23. 4.  16). 12. 24. 2.  3.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 3.  J. & + 6 2 ). 4.  3. 3. 3. 5. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 3. 6 2 2a + 2). J Page 235. 2. 3. 2 .  f .  . 1. 5. 7. 6. 8. 12. qpl.3. 8.2)(* . ( 16. 0. V3. 2.3. 5. XXV 4. . 56l).r . J. 3. 25. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 9. 2. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 5. 3. J. 16. 15. 13. . 4 20.1. 1. (+!)( 2) 10. 17. 2. 1.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3 9. 10. 1. 23. J 24. . 2. 30 30. 2. 73.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). (4 mn . 30 . 3. 0. 1 3. 2.  1. 14. 5. 2. 11. 5. 1. 10. 0. 13. . 100.4). 4 1. 1. 30. 2. 0.3. 2 <? 4a2 . 4. 3. l. 2. 4.  4. (2 a. 10. 6. 10. o. 1. 4. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 6.nl^EI. 3. 3 . 1. 4. (a + 2) (a Page 229. . . 1 .. 20. 5. 1.12.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 22. 12.4. b . . 11. 28. 2 V^ . (pl)(p3)(p6). 7. . 5.8a 18. 5. 4. 2 > 1. 11. 19.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 10. 14. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).l)(m .3). (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 26. 3. 30. 73. 20. 4.5 xy + 25) 22. 3. 4. 2. (rt. 1. 16. Page 234. . 4 . 8 6 & 0. 2. a  .ANSWERS Page 228. 7. 1. 0. 1 . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 9. P.Y. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 18. 2 . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 3. 7. Page 236. 4.22. 2. 1. a . 1.  5. 1. . 25. 12. 21. 2 . 9.3. 3. 1 .+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 1. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (63)(6' t 18. 50.  2. //. 1. 1. 22.4. (w .7. 3. 3 . 20.^a. 2 6. ' J.l)(a3)(a . 7. 6. 11. . 19.1. . a: :} . 2. . . 2 6. 7. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). y. 17. 15.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 19. ~ f7. 1 (?> x/^3. 2.  1. . 3. 2 . 2. 8. f>. (a+&)( 2 14. 4. (a . 7.2)(m. (m 4 + l)(ro. 14. 0. Page 233. (a.4. 4. 3 5. 8.3. 2. 3. 10. 12. 4 4. 7. 3. \/0. (pl)(p2)(p2). 1 6. 2. =A^Z3. 4. (a.10. 0. 6. 4. 3. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). a(. 25. 15.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). (a 4. 5. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1 . 2. 8. 2. 0. . 3. 21. 13. 3. 2. f . 12 24 y .w 4 + 1). . 2. 5. . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 5. (8.2. 3. 8. 2. (B43). 13. 1. 5. 2. 4. 1.  3. .2. 2. 1. 24. 2. (r. 11. 4. 6. 11. 1 . . . 25. 2. 6.0. 17. (&y2a#H4).
0. 7. _ 5. 2. no co . $. 22. 3. 1J. 11. 1. 30 13. ri*. 1 . 4. 4. 2>/3. . ^ }. J. 12 d. Exercise 114. (&) 2. 2 Y> V . c. }. 29. 3. Indeterminate. 4. 4. V3~. 40 in. 0. .. 2.3 . 14. 24. 20 7. 21 30. in. 69. 1. 39. 3. i i i . 3.5. m + n. 5. 1. 50. 4. 1. 11. 1. 3. . 5. 2. co . 512. 20. 15. 2 16. GO . 15. 1. 8. 1. . 15. 16. 4. 1. 31. 201. 35 ft.136. 3 2. 11. 6.. x 4. 32. . 14. 2. 1. 5. 4. 15.30. in. 4. J. 9. jj. . ANSWERS 2.  11. . f*. 17. Indeterminate. $. . 10. 5. 84. 2.0. 3. 5. 8ft. . 400. . 1 . 1. .y.  2 .  . 4. 15. 6. 14.. . 5050. 31. 7f solution. and _ 4. 3 4. 35. 40 25 in. 9.3. 13. 12. . 15. (a) $3400. 14. 1. 13. 3. 15. 20. 3 . 1. 2V7. 5 . 16. +  n. J. 14. 12 ft. 7 3. f>.020. 33. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 12 1. f. 1. V7. 2. 2. 10.1. 1. 3. 2. 3. 4. 3. 4. 12. 21. . Page 245. . 900. . in. 1. 50. = QO 6.3. 8. 3. ^~2. 1. 1. . 2. 5. 48. . Page 240. 1 . 17. 3V5. 17. 2 . 7. 40. 2. 1. 17. (a) 5. 37. 2. oo.6. 3.13. 4. 4. 7. 5. i'ljVU. ' j. . 5. 1. 30. 1. 23. 4 6. 16. 5. 14. 2n. 14. $46. . 4. 3 . . 2 . 2. (>. 6. 4. 1 . 8. Page 247. 6. Page 244. 5. 125 125. 1. 13.xxvi Page 237. 2.2. 2 ft.4. 5. . . 2. . 18. 3. 3. 1. J.. 7. 2. m27. 25. 5. 3. 1. 12ft. 35^ 5. oo . m28.. in. 2. 1 2. 8 . 2. 9. '>.200. ft. . 1. _ 7. 2 . 11. 5. . Page 243. 3. 37.3..4. 21. 3. 18. 12. 24. 5. 19.e. 1.0. 26. 4. 1.3. 2. 3 cm.4. ( 3. 4 8. 3.. (/>) "_. 8. 55. i. . 20 in.18. 19. 12. 8. Exercise 113. 18. . 45yd. $VO. 8.. 3. 1. . 2. ft. 3 3.5. 2 2. oo . 38. 22. n. 4. 11. 2 26. 5 cm.1.3. 3 . 78. _ 10. 1. 10. 9. . . 2 10. 23. 35 a. 12. 2 1. 12. 4. 1.. 37. \/6. 2. 36. n . tn 2. 3. 2. 3. 5 4. 3.  1. 3. . 8.1. 4. 9. i j. Page 239. Page 248. 1 . . 4. \.. _ 13 (0 6. . 7. 6. 2. in.6. 4. 4. 1. 11. j. 10. 5. 3.4. 3. . 3. Page 238. 7. 1. 7. 9. 288. 5. 17. Page 241. ft. } . 1. 30. . 512. 0. 17. 5. 41. 5. 2. 4 34.3. 8 3. 8. 4 .3. 28yd.
2. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 45. 1. \ w 4 . 495. 18. 1. ?/i 6 x llj . 4. 11.504. 25. in. ^a 8. 2. 28. 12. 0. 35. 5. 19. 3. 4. '23. 280 53. sq. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . i 10. 125. 70. 0. 2.700. 13. 8. 4.470. 708.  17. 6. 8. 4950 M 2 b y *. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . (). 1JH. . 6i. 120 aW.0.53. 4. 26.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 53. />*. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . and 1. 81. 15. 6.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. . 4. 12. 4. 16.920. 8. 5. vy.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 17. Page 252. 12. 22. . Page 258. . J 2 //2 25. 5. 9. 6. 2. 5. 12. Page 254. 16. 12. 6. Jj? 45. 005.8.870 m*n*. 8 . 27. x4 . 410. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 27. 1. 125. 8.5y 4 . 13.r x>/ 7 3. ~v 9. 05. 10. a.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.384. 1. 04. 7. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 17. d. 70. 2. 5. 7. 12. 12. 343. ~ an . 48. . 7. 5. 9. JSg. 7. 4. 5.4 &z x>&.6. 45 Page 257. 75. 5. . 3. 15. 16.680. 3. 0. Ja. 128.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 10.210. 2. B .3 ays. 192.5 x. 2. 20. 7. 21. 16. 15. w9  8. 4. &' 14. 0. 3. . 1. 4. 8. 9. 20. 220 .  101. 1000 aW. 12. . 5. 19. 27. 1 7 4.ANSWERS Page 250. 3. 15. 0. f y 8 + z* . 2.x' 10 . 27. 4. 3. 343. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).<2 4. . 2. r r j. 4 0. 4. 0. 7 x4 17.13. 16. 5 13. 16. 6.12 x*y 16. 4. A. 5. 1. 20. 0. 2. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 1. ' 1. 9. 3. 32.6 . 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .4. 327. 1.7 10. 7. 16 11.192. 2. . 8 1. 3.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.v Page 253. 23. 105. 55. 10 14. . 8.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.170. 405. 3. 9. 10. 50.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 45. Y11. c. . 1. } $ 50. 7. xxvii 1.2 45 a 8 /). 1. Page 259. 44. 8. 3. 0. 43. 4.1. 8.^ ?>i 2412x4. 11. 6. 8. 17. 22. x + Vy. 11. . 1820. REVIEW EXERCISE . 5. 1. 19. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 6. 304. 16. 3. 70. 8. **+. x r 4. G. 100. 8J. 3.5. 13. <. 2. r 5 4. 4. . I. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .5. . 4.r* 4 70 . 2i* 7f. 6.  20 flW. 0.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 18. 3. 4.419. 21.120. . 8 4x' 2 . 10. 15. 29. 910. 10. 10. 18. 2. a4 4 14.r 4. 18.2 9. 35. 9. 1 14. 04. 14. 7. 6.
2 xy + 4 y2 106. 2 30 .6 am b\ 129.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . x2 471x4. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 35. 24.7 x   15. . . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. (a + ft)" 98. x 4. 4 Page 264.c 3 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.3 x 2 + 3 x . a 4 .3 .2 x^. 26.9 b.2. 6 c 47. ?/ 3. x 2 . . . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . x8 x2 55.1. 21. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 88. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. ft /> 78. . 2 x2 108. 3a'2 Page 261.2 c . 49. .3 a 2 '6 w 4.6 b. 4 2 . 2 113. x . 102. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. ?> .a*ft 2 126.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 32. /> 4 83. 118. 13 + 2 s. a4 x. 62. Page 260.ac 44 aft. 4 69. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. . 131. 22.1 4 jry 4 x . 40. !! 71. 2 x'V2 90. 133. m " + n + P3c .rty x2 4 123. 52. 109.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 46. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.5x4.  + 3 x2 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.y*. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 37.  3 x2 . 2 x2 4. .ft).a'2 c. 2 53. 94.  e +/.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 3 c . 2 .1. 9 2w 128. 25. 120.3 103.x. 28. 36. . a~b 89. x 8 + x 4 68. 99. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 16t/. a* a 8 a aftc.9 x . 6a6c. * 60. 30. 2 . as 20. 122. 5 4 4. 1 . () 2 x 33. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.18 x?/0. 2 q. + z.2. 2 2/' . 93.5 3n 4. 14 x . 114. xyxzyz. 23.2. az 4.{ 54. 70. 5 42. 31. x* .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 3~ n 4. . . 86. . c3 4 58. 4. 12 x.xxviii ANSWERS 19. ft2ft 4 4l. 3 a . 5x 2 2x43.4. . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . .105.15 4 62 x  72. 10 a 12 b.a6 2 4. . 8x3 8x. 50. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 8 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 4. 4 fee 4. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . .x24 73. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 82. 27. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 2 . a* 4. 6 a2 97. . .  .18 ?/ 5x4. 96. ^ . 1 x 45.a' 'ft 4. 7 + 3 xf 2.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 64. 9x. x 3 4. x2 a2 1 .a 2 x 2a .5. f5+7. &p 84.4 2 4 c2 42 . 1 + 4 xy.  12 a. 63. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. y 4 z* 0. 72. 4 ! . a 3m 4.4 x 2 . + 3 a?. 0. 10 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 243x4729. 107. .4.x4 + y'2 z 4. 130. 91. 4 .fee 2 4. 43.3 aftc. ft n .2 x 4.3 a'ft. df. ?/ .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.4 x?/2 3 4.x 51. + a 4. x' .. 80.41. a' 111. 100. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().1w 77. x } 4.x 2 4. 61. 3a~2c. 3 a 5 a 5.3 b . 16. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 124.a.c. 127. 29. 38. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. . x4 f + 23 . 0.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 76. x 3 41. 4. 5x + 2y~z.1. 110. . 4 15 x 5 . 3 36 b c .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.c. 1 a"* 4 an . 132. +^ + ft W. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. _55_7c 48.4 ac. 4 65. I 57. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.3 y. a2 2 aft 2 2. . x 8  a8 .4 x y 87.^a . a J . 4 115. x' 79.1. 39. 104.5 b + c . 1 121.4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .4. 2 a. 105. 125. 66. . 3 a 44.  4 a3 85. t 81. x2 2 . Page 263. 12 a/. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 4ft y3. 0.7.
183. 218. (2 198.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). ( + 2y)(2x3y).r . 3. + 11) (a 10). 167. 235. 144. . 215. + 2) + 9a. 1.  1. 10). aft.1).. 6).6 . 15. 184. 160. 5. 210. 2 xy(3 x . 199. 177. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.3). 30 yr. (x 227. 207.l)(y + 1). a. 152. 187.6)(4 + 6).2) (3 x . 209. 218. 193. 4. + 3) (x f f>) .y)(z .r + 4). (a 2 + 2a6. 244. 20. 36ft. 158. 220. 40 yr. 149. 3.2).2. 37 1.6) (2 x + 1). 2. + 3). 172. Iff 145. 10.2 )(x+y) 228. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (/ 246. 150.y). (3x  . 48 h. 75. 12 6 panes. 166. 238. + 22). HI. Page 265./_4). 10 in. (y _ ft)(y 4. 32 h. xxix 139. 159. Page 267. 174. (x + 2)(x . 3(x . 162. (r7y)(ai. a(a. y3. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 197. (2a + l)(a .y2 ). 212. 19. 1. 156.4xl). 154. 30 + xyr. 1. 226. 2 2 (a. 211. (r^x + 1). (3x2?/)(2. . 181. 232. 237. 30. (233). 208. 12) (j. 155. 201. x(x + 6) 213. 219. 8 204. 173. 153. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 217. 247. 2. 231. (x  42 yr.3 y)(a . 171. 2. 21. 1. 206. 157. + 7)(rt4). 195. m. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).3) (2/3y). 151. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). ft. + y. 138. 1. 205. 10 ft. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).1). r>x 2 (4x. 241. 170.I2y).1(5) 200. as 194. 20. (y_24)(y5). . 182. (xyX^+y" )1 243.l)(x8 + x2 . +)(x2 x^+2. 15  a. Or (a + 2)0el).l)(a 2 +3). fc'2a+62c). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 169. 8(ar}(/)27). 12.2). 4. y. . (?/+l)(yl).c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). C3 y _l)(. 2. 175. 179.9)(xf 2). z(x10)(xl).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). p.y)(jc + 7 y). (7 c 2 ).. G7. 168. 163. 2. 191. 148. 185. 190. . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). y  y 165. (5 x . (7x2//) 203. 23 18. 22. 1. 24.ANSWEKti 135. 7. (y  17)(y + (>). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 186. . 140. 6. 236. k. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (6) 40. 146. 176. 189. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 12 yr. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 233. (. (c) 160 C. 136. 180. 147.y) (\r3y).m)(x + a). 6. 2a(42ft)(2fo).2ac + 229. 222. (x . 1.3. (y7)(y + 188. yr. 216. 202. 2 (4 x . 137. 10). (y 7f))(y 196.y + 3)(r (. (JT y 225. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 147 mi. (x^ + x1) 234.. ?. 240. y 245. 15. 142. 12.1).3 y). . p. 230. a + 2x2 ). 50. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 2^. 2(x8)(x3). Page 266. 161.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 18. 239. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). a 2 (15. 164. (a} 59. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (8x + 3)(3x4). 143. 214. 12 yr. (x + 6)(x6). 224. 178. (a& 192.. (ab + 8) ( 7). 1.
310.^ ^^. 256. 3. x 283. 301. 249.(x  4) (x4 304. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. &). o(x4l). 7. x12. 254. 306.   . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.. o. 251. ^/>J. 10. 2. 43 '^rJ'. 298. 279. 269. x .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.^^^^^^^^. 7 x 265. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 307. 258.2* i^^ !^. 303. 268. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. a. 263. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 3). ? 1) 302. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . > 4. *. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 0. 3  262. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. ?^ZLiZ 308. x 267.1. 250.4) 1) (3 x . ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 264. (7 255. 305. 3). 266. 261. 7^T 2 . *>). 260. 259. + f.  3xyf x// 257.4). 4 5. 5. a~ ' b*). ^ 299. 295.  7. 2 4 300. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 2 x  3. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. x ?/ z 1. 0.
!. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 2. 355. 1. 343 00 351. m. 333. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. j 328. 0. 398. 394. ^ 3 // . 366. 4. 4 A. 387.7. + 4 & 4 \ b. 388. 2(a i 403. 377. 13 391. 379. 6 ?/+:>. 1. Page 274. 365. 1 i 2 ^. 376. 393. . 396. 375. 3. 12. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 325. 329. l'j. c 402. 395. 407. . 0. 324. 400. 2 r36 384. + 335. 404.)Cr4)__ . L .  1 356.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 383. 11. 6a. 406. 0. <L 409. 1. 385. 386. ?/ + 3 332. _*L'L+. . l .(5 a . S. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341.J . 336. 397. 360. If. * 357. 401.XXXI Page 272.vin a /r " 337. 2(q. 7/i ^ _ . 0. T+^. ^_:r f> 331. 405. 399. a 2 . Page 277. 408. . 3. . 382. 2 ).H ' 2wi ^' /' . x 54 359. 390. 364. 326. 370. T\. 2 ab  a Page 276.".1. 20. + x 362. 1. 1. 2 327. 9^.3.. 3. 361. ?=. (a + b + c\ . f. 4. 334. 389. 380. a) A^_. ab. . A^L5L. ?>*. 2 ?/ 363. a +6. 2. 7. 339. a + b + 6). " 4 378.  1.. 392. y 4 I 340. ^"" 4 s . 4 rw.
20 yr.46. 0. 1. fj. ^r?i 434. 0.4. 482. 494. . 5. 7. 0. !L=4. 496. 502.7. c. Page 282. 478. ISJini. 1$. 0.te + . (a  c). 427. 17. 53 yr. a* 424. .rz Page 279. 8. 14 miles. 0. \. 464. 3a 4 5. 467. 412. 11. .. 411.. ^V. (c) not true. 4.7. . 450. m 1 : wi. . 506.  453. . 10. . 6. 457.  2. (d) true. A $ 3500. 465. B 4 mi. 6. 492.  7.4. 2. 10.488.55. . 421. & 491. Page 280. . 3.5. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. ISjmi.m  m+ M in. m. 484. 435. (&) 443. ' $260 at 0%. 10. 495. 4. 454. 461. . 428. A 5 mi . 3 . 499. . 10. 6. ^. '.2. (&) true.7. 460. 10$. 476.. Page 281. 1. 444.}.1. 0. 90. 455. 2. I. 10. 8.. 20.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 33. 8. 441.  1. <L+ 6 (. 2.7.12. . 2. 497. Page283. a + + ft c. 3.7. 432. L (c) I.0. 493. i a b 451. 6. 42. 458.. b 449. . 468. 5. 1. 472. 418. 10. />c c(f be. 63. 5.  . 430. 17. . 447. 1. 477.vz in. 452.}. 32. Page 278. 7. * .  2f 504. 8. 28 yr. fc. 2. 462.. 436.3. 440. 9. . 446. (d  6) f. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 12. $2000 at 0%. 7. 480.  2. 7. 21.489. 507. 32 yr. B $ 2500. 22. . 479. 50. 456. 51. 483. 426. \ 1. 2. 487. 2. 7 : . 463. *+. 413.  2.  7. 501. a 22 . 429. not true. + () 433. 6. 6. 419. 1. 503. 2. 508. : />a. 5J. (a) 1. 445. . 6. 18. 4. 2. 422. 423. L2 a  6 . 1 a /?$+&?. 2. 24 days. 2$. 439. .  1.  f>. 420. 2 438. 500. 40 oz.  10. 490. 410. 3. . 7. z8 +?/ 3 431. 84.  505. 5.0. 40. c 6fc 10. 498. 448. 486. 2 a 2. 425. 5. 0.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 10. 459. 4. i. ft 5. 466.3.2. 442. 481. 485. 5.
00.75. or 8.4. 4* da. . 1$. 514. imag. 0. 2. 6. 583. 3.78. 27 y* f\4 .5 f. If 572. 1. 525. 1 600.04.5. . . 3. f. 2. 529. . . . 510. . 2.16. 1. 528. 582.62. 4. 1.24. 1 .75. .15. 1. 1. . 567. 5. 1J.1. 4. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.51.3. 2 10. 1.54.4. J7] min. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. T . 3. 7.3. . 563. 564. (e) 570.. 6435. xxxin 511. (c) 4. (a) 74 Ib. 5. o> .14. (ft) Ill Ib. . 3.24 sec. 2. 533.  2ft da. a + ft  a  f c.33.  . 4.03.20. 1.25m._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 578..7. 1.  (a) 2.15.1.37. 573. 4. > ^ . 562. 536. H. 575.6 2. 509. 232.  7. 24. 1.02.4. 1 580.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .6. . 560. 1. 5. 565. 1 . 3. y 4. 3. a+ Page 286. tin.3. 2(6 597.5.31. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.  (a) (d) 1.56 sec.12. 1. 2$.4. 1. 558.54.04. 3. 571. da. ft 584.6.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. (/)  10 to 8. 0000. 581. 7^ da. 3. x8 . 551.1. 1. 530. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.7..   (h) 8. 1.21.8. 4.8.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.3. 4. 566. 4 mi.4.02.r8 596. <z ft 1. 3 . 2 imag. (gr) 10 1. 2 2.6. 3 da. 1. (ft) 4. . (c) 3.  ft*. . + 6 tf f 3 . . 579. 526. 1. per hr.1. _ 4.5+. . 2. 515. 554.02. 598. 115 Ib. 2 . 4 0. a f ft + c.3. Roots imaginary.3. 531. f ? a f ft __ + c C).. 574. 6. 5. 2(4 602.1. g(rc+ 6c).8. 513. 4. .7.  2.0. . . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). _ 3. 553. 599.52. 4.0. y% Z * 586. 527. . 593. .4 x + .03.9. 1. 3.5.5. per hour. lead. ^ ft 4. Page 285.2. .24.10. (6) 3. 561.5. 569. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 2 1. 1.88.02.37. 31. 2.  + + c. 2. 512.8.83. 2.73. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 577.15. 40 Ib. 3.1. 3. _^ 2754x . 2.55.83. 2 1.ANSWERS Page 284. 591. . 3.6.35. . 1.xj/ f xV .25. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.78.. 556. Page 287. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 8.0.8 x3^. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . . (6) .  3. tin. .31.  557. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. f.38. (d) 537.% rr\* 585. f36a28x8 592. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.f 1. 550.0.  imag.4. + 12 x . 532.30.3. (i) 3. 555. 518. 2 . 24 da. 516. lead.  J(a f + 2c).3. 8 mi. . 568. 3. (e) (c) 2. 559.  4.53.10. 1. 1. 603. 3.05.62. Page 288. 1. S82 c. 14. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 576. 3f 4f.  1. + 26 + . 21*_. 552. 4.
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^. 731. 736. 753. y  1. T%. 740. 719. 33^2.2. 776. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 793. . 5. . 739. 713. 29\/3. 3. 714.257.V2. 715. 790 2v 3v 2.4 . 1 [ + '> J. ^ . 729. j 742. 3V72VO. 788.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 1. . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. Hi a. 724. 792.10. v/7 / . Page 293. 1. 727. ^7xy. 756. 768.. 8. 734. 1 747. rt3 2 ^i^. .12 af V^ 4 744. 796. 794. 711. 24. 725. 34. 767. 789. a". VIO\/3. r. "V313.r.rJ w L 754. 716. a 2  x2 . 721..4 . 773. 737. a db Va^T < 45da. J(v'lO2V 791.. iv/Jj. 730. 755. 751. 24 4 . 24V2. 769. 723. 712. 3V72V3.11. 3V7. 777. x\y. 782 785.ANSWMHti Page 292. 3V52V3. 300. 1 752. 710. 59. cr*lr*. 746. fyaw&cu. 15 shares. 2 V2 . *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 718. 5. 763. 1. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.8.V/^ 741. 733. v'll. 1 I . 728. + < 735. VV> L4V34. 2x3^ a. 17ft. 13ft. 32>/2. 00. a:* . 3 VlT 795..9. 1^ _ 760. 342V3. 750. x i f^' . 3 720. 717.r+y> 759. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. mn. . 47. / 787. 8. 726. 732. 3^.^ 743. 778.1 . 7  3V5. 758.~ . + 6 2 tf'c. 2\/53V2. i^. 722. 39. 749. VT14V5. 25. a 5 . a 2 6^. 738. Page 294. 30\/10 764. i 2. 4 104 v/2. 709.9. ^ ?>. > 748.
25 ?>2). 19. 4. 3. **. ( 869. jV3 f 3. +j!>. 2 m . 4.. 816.  ' . 900. 857. (a m . 6+V7. Page 297.7 4 1) 846.7)(4 x. 7. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 882. 867. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 0. 8. 886.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 841.1. (x3). a2 ^E*!. 883. f. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4 885. 858.  839. 887. Va 803.  tt 815. 3 . a 42)(x . 899. 880. a(ft)( 873. db 7. 836. 890. (. 2 . 814. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 1. 2 . 8. 11. 835.a 2 2 ). 4. 13. 25. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).a 4 + 1). (x 845.2w . 868. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).y) 852. 2.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. \/5. (x . 823. 5. 6. 817.0. 14. 4 818. (:r 11. 2 2 . 2. (a 1) (x 4. (x + 0X024. 20). 3. H. 863. b' 2 821. ( 4 4. 848. .2) (x 4 2). 5). 894. (x . 859. 17. 10. 17. 837. . a(ry + 864. 876. 2/ 856. . 799. 3.a 3 " 4.10 ab 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). (  ?>) (a + ^> . 829. ((' 1). a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).7). 5. 811. 832. (2 a ./>") (a'. 819.5 b) 4 1).l)(x . 3. 5.om 441) (a 855. 838. 834. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 3. 6 $. 2 .1)(0 865.XXXVI 797. 820. X4 1). 2 j 889. 6. 7. 893. 825. Va. Hoots are extraneous. m = 2. 4. (4 c 4. 808. o. 2.3)(x + 4). 822. 2 (x 4*4. 826. 892. 831. . ^. 843. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 3. 8 09. (x 2 . 1C. 4. 851.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. (x 4. 840. 891. 3. x . 830. 1. (1 . 2. 898. 824. 6(a6)(o a + + &). J V. 3. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .7.r . (x*y*ryz + z*). are extraneous.4. 861. 1. 5. 4. 0. . 804. (xl)(^~3)(. .1)(V 2 . (3 b . Hoots . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 800. 5. 1 1.3. . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 813.1) (a 8 . . 2. . 4 . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . . \/2. 7.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 4. 2 854.. 833. 801. 2 806. 895. 2  2. 897. 881. 842. 4. 810.r4). m 875. 888.1). 827. 48.5) (x + * 853. (x 2 f r . 0. 3. 3.1) .2 ax 4. 4. 2. (2x (r. ANSWERS 798. 879. 2. 6.rae) (4 . 812. (2 x + 3 y} .+ m f ") (a* ). 1. $. Page 296. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . (2 4.l)(x + 2). $.. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2. ^ V}. ) (a' 874. 0. x. 4.f. 847. 11. 2 *x 807. .  1. 896. n =  29. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). + d)*. 1 . 849.7). a* 4. 884. ^VG. 7.l)(x . 2. 872.3. 4. V 3. 23. 1. 844. o 828. . 2. . (a 4 871. (3 862.  + l(l^).4.4) 860.
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xxxviii ANSWERS 989. Page 304. 988. ~ \. 995. Page 305.'^^ } ( . ^f (2f3V2). 1014. 994. 24.192rt?)r 120 *. 4 and 1020.92. 2(2 v/2). . 1000. (J. 4. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. . 3003. 1009. 1010. 1005.378 1015. 6 70 . ^Trsq. + v 2). (5.. 997.51. 993. 990. 1019. 991. 162. 1 1004. 1001.128 I.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 8. 12. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 996. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1003. in.870 z8 . 108. 1018. () 12(2+V3).870 a 6 1011. 72. . 1 8 8 2.378 <W and 92. X. 1017. 1016. 1013. 120 a. + 448 . 12.. 192. 0. (Z>) 999. 2 . 0. 120 i^l^.  5&7 1021. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1007. 992. 48. 1(5. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1008. (6) 8(1 .18. 1006. 1012. r = 2. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 9 da.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. xi 4 373 pages. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. comparatively few methods are heretofore. save Inequalities. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Ph. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. physics. $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. i2mo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+563 pages. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.25 lamo. Half leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the Logarithms. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc.D. Half leather. A examples are taken from geometry. than by the . HEW TOSS . especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. given. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. and commercial life. The more important subjects tions. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. great many work.
great many A examples are taken from geometry. and commercial life. xi f 373 pages. In Factoring. save Inequalities.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. so that the tions. Ph. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. HatF leather. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. Half leather. $1. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Logarithms. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The author grade. HEW YOKE . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 12010. comparatively few methods are given.D.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.25 i2mo. $1. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. xiv+56a pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. physics. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.
more than 1200 in number in 2. These are introduced from the beginning 3. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. $1. aoo pages. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . NEW YORK . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. lines. Attention is invited to the following important features I. under the heading Remarks". guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Cloth.10 L. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 6. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE.D. 4. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .r and. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. SEVENOAK. Half leather. 9. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. wor. 10. xii + 233 pages. $1. State: . izmo. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 7 he . SCHULTZE. Cloth. Ph. . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. iamo. i2mo. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.
New York City. 12mo. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. of these theoretical views. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. and not from the information that it imparts. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages.
Maps. i2mo. diagrams. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Topics.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. " This volume etc. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Cloth. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. diagrams. $1. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. photographs. and a full index are provided. An exhaustive system of marginal references. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.