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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS - BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAI-I. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .

FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.

1917. Berwick & Smith Co. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass.COPYRIGHT. 1910 . Cushlng Co. May. 1911. Published Set up and electrotyped. January. 1915. U. J.. July. . September. May. Reprinted 1913. 1916. September. 1910. August.A. 8. IQJS January. Norwood.' February.S. 1910. .

Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many text-books In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Such a large number of methods. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. specially 2. short-cuts that solve only examples real value." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.. etc. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. owing has certain distinctive features. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Elementary Algebra. are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. and conse- . " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.

there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work.g. e. as quadratic equations and graphs. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertext-book is logically unsound . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. two negative numbers.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. etc. are placed early in the course. however. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Moreover. For the more ambitious student. especially problems and factoring. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. hence either book 4. Topics of practical importance. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. In regard to some other features of the book. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge- bra". " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis- sion to our best universities and colleges.

The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. By studying proportions during the first year's work.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and commercial are numerous. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im- provements upon the prevailing methods. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. viz. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. elementary way. physics. Moreover. such examples. based upon statistical abstracts. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. in " geometry . but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt." Applications taken from geometry. is based principally upon the alge- . " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method.

. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910. however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. NEW YORK. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi- but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April.

. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. Powers. .......... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. SUBTRACTION... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .....

Type Polynomials. . Type III. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type V...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .114 .. .. .. .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . /^ ... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. * . Type VI. Type II.. Type IV. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * ..... Form x'2 -f px -f q Form px 2 -f qx + r -f ..

.......CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . CHAPTER XIV 169 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . Evolution of Monomials 170 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. .....

xii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195

THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents

....

195

200

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals

205

206 210

.212

Involution and Evolution of Radicals

.....

214

218

Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations

219
221

CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM

XVIII
227

CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.

......
.
.
.
.

232
232

II.

Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic

.

.

234

III.

Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices

236
237

IV.

Interpretation of Negative Results

and the Forms

i

-,

.

.

241

Problems

243

CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.

246
24(j

251

Geometric Progression

263

CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

255

BEVIEW EXERCISE

.

268

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I

INTRODUCTION
1.

Algebra
it

may

arithmetic,

treats of

be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,

quently denoted by problem.

as illustrated in

the following

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.

Problem.
'

The sum
x

is five

times the smaller.

Let

two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of

Then
and
Therefore,

5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x

= 42,

and
3.

x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.

A problem
An

is

a question proposed for solution.

4.

equation is a statement expressing the equality of

two

quantities; as,
5.

6 a?

= 42.

In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.

Unknown numbers
;

are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,

by the

last

letters of the alphabet

but sometimes other letters

are employed. B

1

2

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1

Solve algebraically the following problems
1.

:

of two

times the smaller.
2.

numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.

is

four

twice as

and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse

A man
A

much

How

3.

and

B own

a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.

A

has

in-

vested twice as
invested ?
4.

much

How much
is

has each

The population

of

South America

9 times that of

Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.

and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.

The

rise

of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.

6 times as
7.

Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.

A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.

The sum

If

two

of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?

A

9.

The sum

triangle is are equal,

of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4

times their sum,
there in each ?

how many

degrees are

is

G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?

B

INTRODUCTION
11.

3

twice as
12.

Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.

B may

receive

twice as
13.

Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.

A
is

which
14.

line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.

How

travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.

A

sum

of the dis-

How many

miles did

each travel ?
15.

4

A, B, C, and

does

A

take, if

B

D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much

much

as B,

and

D

six times as

NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.

2

Subtract 9 from 16.

2.
3.

Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic

why

cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*

\

4.

The temperature
is

What
5.

noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at

of subtraction.

The temperature

4 P.M.

is

7, and

at 10 P.M.

it is

10

less.
6.

What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 -10?
(3

expressing the last

answer
7.
8.

Can you think

of

any other

practical examples

which

require the subtraction of a greater

number from a smaller

one?
7.

Many

greater

number from a smaller

practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in

a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,

4

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.

8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;

quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as -f- 5 or 5.
;

The

fact that a

thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 -10

below zero

may now

= -3.
is

loss of $ 60,

Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write

equal to a

$30
9.

-$90 = -$60.
number
is

The

absolute value of a

the number taken

without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.

6,

of -f 3 is 3.

It is convenient for

many

discussions to represent the

positive

a line

numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar

series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I

lit
-4
to

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-6

-5

-3

-2

-1

+\
4,

+2

+

3

+4

4-5

+6

y

Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.

to 4- 6 represents 4- 5,

resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the

The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.

Thus, 5 added to

1

equals 4, 5 subtracted from

1 equals

6, etc.

EXERCISE
1.

3

If in financial transactions

we

indicate a man's income

by

a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west

longitude, motion upstream

and downstream.

INTRODUCTION
3.

5

If north latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what

is

south latitude represented ?
4.

If south latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what
?

is

north latitude represented
5.

the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.

What

20 A.D. ?

Of an

east-

A

his total gain or loss ?
7.

merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350. - 350. (b) Find 200

(a)

What

is

higher, is 8

- +7? 8. A vessel
(6)

If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,

starts

sails

38 due south,

(a)

from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the

journey.
9.

Find 25 -38.

A
22

sails

vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)

journey,
10.

Subtract 22 from

15.
18.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.

From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From

19. 20.

21.
22.

23.
24. 25.

To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To - 8 To 7 From

add add add

12.
1.

2.

subtract 2.

add add

9. 4.

1 subtract 2.

Add

1 and 2.

26.

the one of

Solve examples 16-25 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as

motions.
27.
(a) 28.

Which is the greater number lor -1? (b) -2 or -4?

:

By how much

is

7 greater than

12 ?

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.

Determine from the following table the range of tempera:

ture in each locality

NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;

EXERCISE
1.

4
is

If the letter

t

means 1000, what

the value of

5t?
a=

2.
3.

What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?

if

6,

and

b

=

4?
is

4.
5.

What
If a

the value of 17

c,

if c

= 5?

ifc

= -2?
marbles,

many
6.

boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last

how

7.

How
8.
9.

merchant had 20 much has he left ?

A

answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m

dollars.

What

is

the

sum

of 8 &

and G

b ?

Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain

of the last

answer

if b

= 15.

10.

number, what represents 9 times

that

number ?

INTRODUCTION
11.

1

From 26 w

subtract 19 m.

12.
if

What is the numerical
From 22m
if

value of the last answer

if

m = 2?

m = -2?
13.

subtract
1

25m, and

find the numerical value

of the answer
14.

m=

2.

Add

13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.

15.
16. 19.

From

10 q subtract 20

q.

17.
18.

Add -lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=

From subtract 26 Add - 6 x and 8 x.

x.

20.

From

Wp subtract 10^).
is

What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.

The

and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.

signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have

If there is no sign between

two
is

letters, or

a letter and a

number, a sign of multiplication
6

is

understood.
written win.

x a

is

generally written 6 a

;

m

x n

Between two
(either

figures,

x

or

)

however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;

4x7 cannot be
14.

written 47, for 47

means 40

-f 7.

A product is
=

the result obtained by multiplying together

two or more
Since 24
Similarly,

quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.

7, a, 6,

and

c are factors of 7 abc.

15.

A

power
is

thus,

aaaaa

6 aaaaaa, or a ,

is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.

;

;

The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.

8
16.

ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a

power

is

the

number which

is

repeated

as a factor.

The base

of a 3

is a.

17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.

The exponent

of

m

6

is

6

;

n

is

the exponent of an

.

EXERCISE
1.

5

find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.

Write and

72

.

6.

42

.

10.
11.
.

8

(i)

.

14.
15.
2
.

25 1

.

2*.

7.
8. 9.

2*.

O

9
.

.0001 2

.

4. 5.

52
83

.

10 6
I 30
.

12.

(4|)
(1.5)

16.
.

l.l 1

.

.

13.

2

17.

22

+3

2
.

If

a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.

d=^
22.
a*.

find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.

20.
21.

c

10
.

3

(2 c)
ab.

.

26. 27.

2

at).

b2

.

d\

23.

(6cf)

25.

(4 bdf.

28.

If

29.
30.

= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
-jJg-,

In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.

is

called the coefficient of the

In 12 win 8/), 12
19.

is

the coefficient of
is

mw 8p,

12

m is the coefficient of n*p.

A
17

numerical coefficient

a coefficient expressed entirely

in figures.
In
aryx,

17

is

the numerical coefficient.
is

When

stood ; thus a

a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.

under-

=

=

INTRODUCTION

9

20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.

3 9

2

means 3
3

aa, while (3

2

)

=3ax

3 a.

= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 2-2.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty

1 abc*

7 abccc.

EXERCISES
If

a

= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the

numerical values of

:

21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is

A

6

is is

the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth

a

root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,

The nth
Va,
is

fifth root of a,

indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is

A/27

Using

this

(Va)
22.

n

= a.
The

symbol we

may
is

express the definition of root by
the

index of a root

number which

indicates

what

root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.

It is written in the opening of the radical

is

the index of the root.

The
[ ]
;

signs of aggregation are

:

the parenthesis,
.

( )

;

the

bracket,

the brace,

j

j

;

and the vinculum,

Val -\fi?. 4(a 6(6 + &). to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. some number is . expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 12. are trinomials.g. 8. + M -f c 4 -f- d 4 are polynomials. as in arithmetic. 7 = 2. a polynomial of two terms. 3. 9. + 1]. 2 . a2 + and | - \/a are binomials. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 2. v'Ta. 5Vl6c. 10. 26. + c). 16. 6. V3 . [6-c] 3 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 14. !^-f\/0-3 3 ft. b = 3. 4V3~6c.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 13. AND NUMERICAL sym- SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 27. 6. A monomial or term -f- an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. V^a6. is 28. V36". \/c. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 -f 1). x 9. e. aVc^. or 9 Vx. V2a. since the parts are a . find the numerical value of: Vff. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. A binomial is 62 . (c-f-d) 4. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 -f 9. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 15." EXERCISE If a 1. d 7. 11. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 17. c -f d). 0. c = 1. A polynomial is an y.

9-9. 3a + 56 a 2 . 4.e. 3. . 2. 4 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 -+12a(i *15. 3 4 . 5. a=4.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .810 + 150 = .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 16. Ex.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a 2 -6.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .4 6^9 ad. . EXERCISE 8* - .390. c=l. d = 0. -5c +-d 2 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.g. 5a2 2 a2 -46c-f2^^ + 3 a& +. . l 13. subtraction. find the numerical value of: 9. 6. 3 2 If 1. 5 means 3 4- 20 or 23. a2 11. Otherwise operations of addition. 4a6-fVa-V2^. 5=3. Ex. 52 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32 - *^. i. * For additional examples see page 268. = 32 + 45-27 = 50.3-0 = 270 .2 + I-126. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con- tained in a parenthesis. 12. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6-a&c2 . 5. + 26+3 c. 5c6 2 +-6ac3 a 3 17c3 -hl2o. 2. multiplication. (a (a -f b) 7. 1. 10. 14. 8. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.9. 2 ). 6. d=Q.. _|_ E. .5 ax 50 a6cd.9 aWc + f a b .INTRODUCTION 29. b = 3. c = 2. x=^.19 = 6. a2 -f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . ' -f & -f c 3 8 -d s .

of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 23. 2-6 of the exercise. a =4.6 -f c) (6 a + c). then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6=2. sible to state Ex. a = 3. if : a = 2. : 6. a = 2. 6 = 7. . 37. a. a = 3. a = 4. 28. Six 2 . 34. 6 = 6. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 5. 22. physics. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).6 .12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 26. 35. 6 = 3. 10-14 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 1. 30. a = 4. 12 cr6 -f- 6 a6 2 6s. a a=3. 6 = 4.c) (a . 6 = 6. 38. geometry. 27. 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 29. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 2. and other sciences. a =3. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 25. 24. 30. = 3. 33. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 5. 6.

A train in 4 hours. 2. if v . S = | V(13-hl4-fl5)(13H-14-15)(T3-14-i-15)(14-13-f-15) = V42-12-14. 15 therefore feet. (c) 4. then a 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 14. c. count the resistance of the atmosphere. and c 13 and 15 = = = . if v = 30 miles per hour. the area of the triangle equals feet.) Assuming g . = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2-J. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v : a. and 13 inches. b.seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and 5 feet. 12. 4. 84 square EXERCISE 1. An electric car in 40 seconds. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.16 centimeters per second. b 14. Find the height of the tree. and 15 feet. d. .e. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.INTRODUCTION E. (b) 5. 13. i.16 1 = 84.g. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.

(c) 8000 miles. . Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F-32). the area etc. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 5 miles. the 3. : 8000 miles. 5.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. is H 2 units of length (inches. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 10 feet.14d (square units). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. This number cannot be expressed exactly. meters. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (The number 3. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.). 2 inches. (c) 5 F. square units (square inches. 32 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 4.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.14 square meters. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. ~ 7n cubic feet. $ = 3.

Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + (- $4) = (- $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or positive and negative numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In algebra. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. .CHAPTER II ADDITION. however. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.

of 2. 6 6 = 3. 21. of: 20. c = = 5. (_ In Exs. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 4. + -12. 24. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 18. 23-26.3.16 32. 22. 10. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 4 is 3 J. . 12. 19. d = 5. 23. c = 4. = 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 33. if : a a = 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. '. (-17) 15 + (-14). 5. subtract their absolute values and . Thus. find the numerical values of a + b -f c-j-c?. l-f(-2). the one third their sum. + (-9). - 0. is 2. 5. is 0. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. d = 0. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.

30. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 25. 74. }/ Add 2 a. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y.. or and . 55. 3 and 25. = 22. 7 a. 7 a. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. c = 0. 31. and -8 F. .. & = 15. 29. 10. 3. : 34. which are not similar. . & 28. affected by the same exponents. : 48.7. 36.ADDITION. 0. . 2. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. SUBTRACTION. $500 loss. ' Find the average of the following 34. = -23. are similar terms. -' 1? a 26. 13. 39. -4. . 2. sets of numbers: 13. -11 (Centigrade). 66. and 3 F. . 6. AND PARENTHESES d = l. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 43. and 3 a. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. $7000 gain. 6. 40. ^ ' 37. c=14. and 3 yards. $1000 loss. and 4. d= 3. 60. : and 1.5. 7 yards. 41. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 72. . 4 F.7. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 37. 10.5.3. and 3 a. . and $4500 gain. 42. 1. \\ Add 2 a. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . $3000 gain. 35. 5 and 12.. 33. 34. = -13. 6.13. 32.4. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 38. 32. 12. 10. 27. 09.

13. Vm -f. 2 a&. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a& -|- 4 ac2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 2(a-f &).18 35. b a -f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 11 -2 a +3a -4o 2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. : 2 a2. 14 . 5 a2 . Algebraic sum. 9(a-f-6). The sum x 2 and f x2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 2 . 12(a-f b) 12. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is -f- a2 . 12 2 wp2 . 10.13 rap 25 rap 2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. . + 6 af .sign. sum of two such terms can only be them with the -f. 5Vm + w. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 1 \ -f- 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. in algebra it may be considered b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 5l 3(a-f-6). or a 6. 12Vm-f-n. -3a . 11. 7 rap2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. EXERCISE Add: 1. -f 4 a2.ii.

21. 30. + / + 3 Va. 33. c 2 ^24. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. a a8 ZL **. 2 7 -1 26. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. ra 19. + y. 5x173 + 6x173-3x173-7x173. 17. 2/ : Add. and to add each column. 2a -4a-4 + 6a -7a -9a-2a + 8. 1 27. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 35. 2 2 2 31. l^S 25. without finding the value of each term 34. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. is . 32. -36. -17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . SUBTRACTION.ADDITION. 3a-76 + 5a + 2a-36-10a+116. 6 23. +m """ 20. 37. n x* 2 22. i xyz -co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.

NOTE. 2z2 -4?/ 2 -f2z 2 5 -3ar -22/2 4- 4 -3 /. ft any convenient and c.4-1 = -3. 2 Thus. to show any error. . 2 Sum. the following polynomials : 2a 364-6 t c.o c and 4.15 6c. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 -7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac- aW a. and J 2 s.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .8 abc .20 c 5 ab 4. 7 4. 2 . 2c.12 a& 4.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 4a4-6 12 q 5 2 a. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. of that letter.c= 2. . a 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.15 abc . . c = 1. 5 . x of x. s. 46 4z 7 c.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .8 & c~15&c -12a&4l5a&c -20c2 -f-lO&c . and 2 .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. f 110WS: 26 aft. therefore the answer is correct. 2 0-25. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. -f 5 c -f- But 7 = 10 . 3 a -f 4 1) 4.2z and 0^-9 z * For additional examples see page 259.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. the erroneous answer equal 7. to add 26 ab . 3a 2? . 5. = . V3.3 s.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 6=2.g.7 2 . 3. 9 q 4.3 a -f 4 the sum a = 1. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 4- 2. e.g.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 4 = 7.

7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.4 Va . and .Ga 4-3x45.1 a 4 1 0. in 8 3 m n 4. -7ar + 3B -5. + a + 1. 19.3 mn 2 2 n8 . m 4 6.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . ?/ .6. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 2 a.4:xy xz 6yz. a2 2 14. . . . and 1 4 a .5a^-6 -f 6) . .9(a + &) . a4 6(a a a2 -f a -f- 1. e a4 /. -18/+6y + d.8 m 2m -12. 2 2 and . a. a 4 a . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 2 3(c -f a). 2 ?ft ?/z. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 6a -5a &47a& -4& and 7.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 10a +lOa 6-ll& 10. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4 + 6) - 5 (a + 6) + 3. 4 3 . and 8 3 .a 4 a 4 1. 4 3 3 ^* -f- -h <l.12 6 ~5 a . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .a. 5-6 w.VS 4 2 Vc.2n 2 2 3 rz .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .7v/i-f. .10 Vc. and v 15. and 5 Vb 18. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 4. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .ADDITION.a -.and 6. .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2 and 9m 48m 4.15 5. 2(6 + c) + (c -f a).12. . 4 ajy 17. 2 ?/. a 4 a .(b + c) 1. 4 8 3 4 4 . and and 13.12(a 4. 2 2 . 4(a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . v/20. d and / 3 ? 12. SUBTRACTION. 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 4 Vc. d. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d-15e + 2/.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . a2 a. a) -y -^/.5 c ll& -7c -6 4.7m . 16e + 17/-90. xy3xz + yz. 2xy + 4:XZ-}-5yz. . ^2 1 e. 11. + 50 + 62 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . and -12a 4 15& -20c . 8. 16.a. .1.

4^ + 3t*n l-2aj 2 a. 1/ . 5 3 -f- 4 ?n 4 -2m+2m e. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. + n*. how 1. and e + 6y . -f 1. 1. 12 xyz. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. is 2. -2 8 n + <w 2 . 22.5< 3 2 s 4^4. c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 8 -f-3f a n-2<w +n . -f- number may be added 3. 16m 7/-12my d+e a 6. and 25. 1. a s -f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. s .-9aj 2.3^* 2n 2 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1. + 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . -4-5a-6 2 .11 xy + 12. and 2 24. 1. 8 . 2-fa 3 4 -a +7a. 1.ra + m. 1. 2 a3 -a 4 3 a-f^. -T-8a.22 21.17 + 4 ?nfy .. +d a. -f 1. . 6 -f c 2 23.4 2tn* Sic 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ -f x y bxyz~lx. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 5 -}- and 3 m 3 7 m. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken -5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.m 4m ?/-?/ d. . 13 1. If you diminish a person's debts. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units -f 1. . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . The sum and ? 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg- ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.3 taken from 2 ? 5. a 6 2 c. many negative units re- main ? from 2.

2. From 5 subtract to . the other number is required. +b 3. called the minvend.3.ADDITION. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . In addition. 41. 2. From 5 subtract + 3. a-b = x. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. if x Ex. To subtract. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. SUBTRACTION. NOTE. from What 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 5 is 2. Or in symbols. and their algebraic sum is required. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. the given number the subtrahend. Ex. a. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. This gives by the same method. (- 6) -(- = . 1. 6 -(-3) = 8.g. two numbers are given. 7. In subtraction. Ex. 3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. and the required number the difference.

3 r*-5o. If x = l = 2 -t- .3 x* .5 x + 8. Ex. From _6ar3 -3z + 7 2 -6ar3 -3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.-f 8 .

2 + 4 a& 3 -f 6 4 . -f 2 aa -7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From a3 subtract 2 a3 -f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From 5a-(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn -f ??/> 8d 11 c-f 17 d. tract 4 x 3. From 6(a-f.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 49.ADDITION.2. +3x -f & -f- 12 take 3 -f- ar -f- 4 x + 11. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .b -h c and a & -f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 4v From 6 subtract l-t-2a-f3& + 4<7. check the answer. 51. 45. of x2 4x -f- 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub- From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 -}- a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 48.a 2 -j. 6 4 a. 55. 47. 50. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract -f a + b 3 1.7 a . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 -f mn -f wp -f. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 43. From From $ -a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract -f- ar -f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 2 a take a & -j. 42. 58. 53.w>t. 54. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/-' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . and 3 7/ . 41. . 2. 44. c -f d. of a 4.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a-& 59. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 -f a3 From a 4 . -f 12 b -f From 10 a 12 & -f 6 subtract 5 c. 46.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(a-f&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.4 a^ 4. 2y 2 . 57. 56.4 a*& + 6 a & . SUBTRACTION. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 -f & take 1 -f b -f- & s .c. 52.6)-f. + a the 2 a.

to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 20. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. of # 2 8. 6 17. subtract # + 1. a 2y + z. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.15. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci-66 + c and 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 -j- +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 16. A is n years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4- a2 3 between 5 a 12. + 6 + c. 9. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. ~2a-6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce -a+6? v . 6. + 2.26 4. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. a + 6. 19. What expression must 8a3 -2a-7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro- expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro- duce 14. 2 m 21. +a add the difference duce 13.

4a-{(7a + 6&)-[-6&-f(-2&. 66 2&-a + 6 4a Answer.g.c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign -f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* -f- thesis. SUBTRACTION. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub- + d) = a + b c + d. the sign is understood. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a^6)] - } . (b c) a =a 6 4- c.2 b . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)-[-6& +(-25.a~^~6)]} = 4 a -{7 a 6 b -[. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the -f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.6 b -f (.a -f- = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. a+(b-c) = a +b .ADDITION.c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.b c = a a & -f- -f. . II. & -f c. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Ex. one occurring within the other. 45. I. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4-. may be written as follows: a -f ( 4. changed.

2a 2 + 5a-(7-f 2a )-f (5-5a). 13. 9. a -f (a a . m -f ft)- a.-y (60. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 3. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. [36+ (a -2c]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. In the following expression inclose the second and third.)]. + (2a -6 + c ). Ex. 15. Signs of aggregation 1.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. find the numerical value of { 1422 .) 5 . 17. a (-a + 6). m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n-\-p. : x + (2y-z). may be inserted according to 43. 2a -(4a -26 +c ). 14.+ 6)-f (a-2 b). 8. 2 2 2 a-(. a-(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 3 3 f 7. 6) 2.: Ex. 18. . 19. 21. 2 2a. 5. 2. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 2m 4a-f- 2 2 2 10. 6. 16.- ? 11.[271 47. 4. (m a2 -f.7i -h jp) (m ?*.(a + 6). By removing parentheses.1422) J ] . 271 + (814 . a -(a + 26 -c ).

2 tf . 8. The square of the difference of a and b. 5^2 _ r . 2m-n + 2q-3t. 6. II. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 3. 4 xy 7 x* 4-9 x + 2. 4. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 6 diminished . 10.4 y* . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. and the subtrahend the second. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 9. difference of the cubes of n and m. The sum^)f m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 7. m x 2 4. y -f- 8 . The product The product m and n. m and n. . The difference of a and 6. 5. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. of the cubes of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. a-\-l> > c + d. first. z + d. ' NOTE. 5 a2 2.7-fa. 13. p + q + r-s. 3.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION.1. 7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. terms 5. 2. )X 6. 12. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : -27i2 -3^ 2 + 4r/.

x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6 is equal to the square of b. b. (Let a and b represent the numbers.30 14. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . dif- of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. d. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 18. 6. a plus the prod- uct of a and s plus the square of -19. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.

applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. let us consider the and JB. 4. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. A A A 1. therefore. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the Ib. 5. two loads balance. 2. If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. force is produced therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. If the two loads what What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights.

the multiplier is a negative number. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub- traction. 4 x(-8) = ~(4)-(4)-(4)=:-12.4)-(.4)-(-4) = + 12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. make venient to accept the following definition : con- 49. 4 multiplied by 3. NOTE. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(-4)+(-4)+(-4)=-12. 9 x (- 11). 48. becomes meaningless if definition. (-5)X4. thus. 4 multi44-44-4 12. (- 9) x (- 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac- tors can be obtained.9) x 11. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( (. (. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 4x(-3)=-12. To take a number 7 times. such as given in the preceding exercise. . 9 9. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 5x(-4). x 11. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.32 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = -(. Practical examples^ it however. Thus. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus- by the following examples : 4x3 = 4-12. however. or plied by 3.

7.(a&c) 2 2 .2 f+x 2 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (-a)(+6) = -a&. 3 aW. 1. Ua b 28. .3) (-1) 7 2 . (-4)X(-15). 11. 24. 2a6 c . _2^ -3. (c#) . 16. If a cal = 4a6c.(-4J).-2. -. 8 31. 13. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. tors is no misunderstanding possible. etc. x.-3. of Signs: TJie positive. 2a 2 6c. X(-5). 3.-2--f 18. 10. b = 3. 26. +5. 20. 30. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. _3. (-2) 8 (. 8 4 . 9. 14. z s 11 aWcx. (-7) X (-12). -1. -5x-3. 3. (. 27.MULTIPLICATION 50.a)(- =+ a&. 5. 19. (-4)'. 6. 12. 4 a2 . 6 2. 3 a2?/2 . 2. . Law Thus. c = 25. about fac- (-2)X If 6. 4 . 8. 22. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.7. 23. find the numeri- values of: 21. (-2)x9. 6. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 32. . 4a -f-26 2 2a + 3&2 -6c* . 29. x= 0. _2. (-10) 4 . NOTE. . and y = 4. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 17. is 6x-7.-4. 4. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 15.

This 52. 4. 5 . 2 3 . 4. 5(7-11. 14. 2 2 2 . 200. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 5 = 2. a8 a=2. 2 -2 3 6 . 4. 10.2 -2 23 + 5 . a 5 (-a) (^ + 14 8 2/) -(a? + 4 2/) -(aj . 36.(2.257). i. 53. 6. 6 = . 6 = 1. . =2 a *. 50(11-2. 6 aWc x . 127 - 127 9 7 . 2(7.(-7).. 6" 127 U . 34. 11. (a6) -(a5) 9. IB. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. fl*" integers. Ex. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.50-3). 3. a= 1. m*. 2. 78 . 100. of the factors. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.6 if 35. = 2. . & = -3. 16.<?.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.7 &*# =(6 - 7) (a 2 a8 ) . .e.2). - and 2 25 8 . + 2/). 7. if =2 a a to - 2 2 x2 2 2.7. . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. . 1. B. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 13. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) -f n) factors. 3. 5 3 5 3 2 .(-12) . Ex. 12 U U . - 2 2. 9 . By 3 definition. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2.1 2 a 6 -f 6 aW .3). a = 2.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. &*) c d*. or 2 .3-5). 5. 2(14. a = 3. a 2 2 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 3 3 4 . 3 2 .m a 3 - 4 .. 17. : 3a-7abc.

31. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 2 32. 3(124342). multiply each by the monomial. (. 19. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5 - 2 ran4 30.2 3 aft ). 6. 4. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 35 4 7(6. 5. 22. 2(645410).M UL TIPLICA TION 18.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be - 1) =- 18 a 4 6 2 c . 34. 23. c-(-4a ftc ).7 w'W (-8 n^W). . 11(3. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. Thus we have in general a(b 56. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) -f (a 4- 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 6(104-20430). _4aft. -7p*q r*. . 4 aft -5 aft 2 . 12(| + 1 4 i).-7pqt. /). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a -f 8 54. 2.f- 2). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).6. called the distributive law. . tet^m -f c) = ab +ac. If results ft. by first multiplying. 7. 3. 2(5-fl5-f25). but we shall assume it for any number.A).-4a#. 23(10004100420).6 a2 62c -f 8 a2 6. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 17(10041042). (. 26. . . 24. This principle. 25. 21. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). and then adding : 1. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 6 e/ a (- (- 2 a2 ) 3 .5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 20. ) 2 33. 27. 29. 35. . 28.3 win ) .

2 mn(9 mV .we b) (x law. . 7 a 6 c(. 9. 19. 3 ).5 x- 7). 5). 2 2 16. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 7 3 (7 3 -f-7 +7 10 ). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .6 a6). -5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Find the factors of 6 ary . 23.3 aftc). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 30. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. ~2mn(m +n -p ). 28.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 4 13 (4 9 -4 5 -4).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.6) (x -f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) -f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 29. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* -f 3 x* -f arty 3 a4 . . 12. 2 m(m-hn -\-p). 20.^ c + 2 .60 a& 10 aft. 2 27. 26. 22. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 17. be multiplied to give 4o. -f7a.asa product. . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 11. Find the factors of 5 a 6 .5 w*V -f 7 wn). By what 25. 21. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). -: expression must 24.

2a-3b a-66 2 a .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. a2 + a8 + 3 . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.4. 2. To multiply two polynomials. Multiply 2 + a -a.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a . however. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 59. Multiply 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Check.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab - 13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. .3 a 2 + a8 a a = =- I 1 =2 -f 2 a 4.1. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 . Since errors.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* * - 2" a2 -7 60. Ex. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 b by a 5 b.

29. 9. 22. 2 . 3n)(7m -f-6<7)(5^) + 8n). (4a 2 33. 36) I) 14. 40. a 5c)(2a-6c).n)(m 8 n)(m n). (aj-f6y)(aj 23. 41. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 25. 36). 6. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . . 17. (9m-2n)(4m + 7tt). l)(ra-f 2). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c-3). 32. 28. 4. I (m-fn)(m-4. (a -|-2a + 2)(a-3).4) (x + 1). 2 . QQ O7. (13 A. . 8. 7. 18. 4 2). (6i-7n)(llJ-n). -2) (3 A: -1).2).1 . 2 (a a-l)(2a?-fl). -^ 2 . 13. OQ OO. 31. 10. 12)(a?^2-|-l). 3<7). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 1). * For additional examples see page 261. 3. 7y). (6p (2 -f- 21. 16. 6 2 (6a&c-5) -3a6-f-2)(2a6~l).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 5. 30. (a-^-26) . (2w 19. 15.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp -f. 2 - 37. 36. 2. (4a-f 76)(2tt (4ra -f-ra (5c-2d)(2c-3d).4) (mnp 4. 24. 20. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 35. (2 x* x 2 . 26. + & + 1-f a^faj -1).2m)(l -m). (6a~7) 2 . (8r-7*)(6r-39. 11. 12.

i. + 60)(f-2). 6. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 8.e. 75 ab -f 54 ft . (a-3)(a + 2).-25)(y+4). 9. (J 23. -2 6) (a -3 6). plus the product 62. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 12. 26.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 13. 2 5 b z) (a2 -f 4 (a 2 4. 14. . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 24. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 20. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (6 -12) (6 -f. (a (a (a. 27. 22. 21. 18.2 6) (a -f 6). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 2 a? 29.4). i. _3)(a _4). : 23 2. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. + 5) (1000 + 4).13). + 3) (a -7). (-!)(* -5).e. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (a -9) (a + 9). ft 16. 11. (a 102 x 103. (10+ (1000 (2. (ofy* -f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 10. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. + 9)(m+9). 3. 25. -2) (1000 + 3). 7. (p-12)(p + ll). (ra. 3 (a -7) 3 (a -8). plus the product of the two unequal terms. (100-1) (100 (1000 + 2). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 17.!!)( (a + 21). in of the two unequal terms. . + 2) (a -f 3). X 102. 1) (10 + 2). (*. 15. 19. (wi 2^*-12)(ajy 6. 28. 1005x1004. .n)(w-f w). 25 a 2 .

15. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. + 6 a + 8. of the following expres- Find two binomial factors sions 30. 35. 6. i. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. plus sum of two numbers the square II. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. III. i.30. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . plus the square of the second.e. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.15. a2 2 w + 2 w . p 2 -p. second.e. (x+3i/) 2 . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). + 3) 2 . Ex.66 s. . 34. : ar'-Sz + a 2 G. 4. 31. n2 10ii+16. . 9. (a-26) 2 . 37. w 2 ro . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. plus twice the product of the first and the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP -f. + 6) (a + 2) -a) 2 . . 33. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 49 y*. 3.e. 7 a + 10. (a-2) (p a . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. and the second. 8. 7. 63. 77ie square of the of the first. <J>-7) J . : 24 (a 2.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. of the second. 2 5. III. 2 (a (*-5) 2 . 32.

16aW-25. 2 2 (5 (a r*-2t ) 2 5 (c-d -5)(c d 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. m 2 16. 42. + 5). 104 2 37. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 48. + 3z) 2 2 .998 39. 33. 54. -7& ) 25. 45. The product of 57. 52. 15. (100 + 2) (100 -2). 31. 2 -11 # ) 2 20. 18. 12. 2 J ). . -7)(a 2 2 -f 7). 2 (2a6-c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (6afy 2 -5) (a. 62 -25n 2 . 998x1002. .MULTIPLICATION 10. 11. (2x-3yy. 9 a2 . (m -f 2 tt n)(ra w )- 26 - (^ (2m + 3)(2m-3). 2 (4a-36) 2 13. n*-6n+9. 14. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xy-Sy* . 22 2 . 17. -I) 2 . : factors of each of the following expres- y?-f. ( 27. 2 9a -496 2 56. 51. 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 . a 2 -8a6+166 2 . 41. 55. 35. (m -27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 23. 24. ). 47. (20 -f- 1) . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 -2a6 + & 2 m 2 -2m-hl. 22. 46. 2 + 11 -2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2 - Z ) 2 2 (5 r -f 2 2 . (3p -9) (6a 2 2 2 . G> +5g)*. 991 2 2 . 40. (1000 2 . 103 36. 2 2 -5c ) 2 2 19. 32. 49. 25 a -9. 29. a2 -9. 2 . 99x101. 4 53. a 2 + 10 ab -f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50.30 ab + 25 6 64. 41 16. 28. . (^-. + 5)(5+a). By actual multiplication. 2 . n 2 -f4n+4. 21. 44. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 38. . 34. (a -3) 2 2 2 .

that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (5a6-4)(5a&-3). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 13. 11. sum of the cross products. plus the last terms. (4s + y)(3-2y). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.-f 2 a& -f 2 ac + 2 &c. 14. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 65. 5. (2a-3)(a + 2). The middle term or Wxy-12xy Hence in general. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 -7)(a & + 5). ) (2 of a polynomial.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 7. : 25 2. The square 2 (a 4. ((5a? (10 12. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (x i- 5 2 ft x 2 -3 6 s). 4. 2 10. 2 (2m-3)(3m + 2). (5a-4)(4a-l). 8. or The student should note minus signs. 6. (3m + 2)(m-l). . 9.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 2 + 2) (10 4-3). 3.

of z : 10. (u-4& + 3c'.5) = (7 . (2a-36 + 5c) (3 (.3) (x . 8. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.29. 6(a 2. 6. 4y s-f n) 2 . : 43 26 (m-f n+p) 2 2 .y? + 8 .8 x + 15] .[a? . 3. 5. 5.(m 2 6. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.(>-.5). after multiplying the factors of a term. . 2 2. 8. ( - 2 -4) = - 20 a. Hence.X2 + 2 x . 4(aj-2)-h3(-7). Simplify (x + 6) (a . 9.24 . Ex. n). (x-y+z)*. = 10 x . 3. a. 7.(= [ Xa + 2 . 66. Check. -2)-6. 2 m 2 -+- n2 2 "-f- jp -f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 4(* + 2)-5(-3).4) .i-2&-c) 2 .39. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.(x . 12.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 7. (m-f n)(m+2)-3m(n + m).39. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.1 5 = 10 .3)(z. 13. 6~2(a + 7). (a (. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.4) . If x = 1. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Find the square root 11. = . 4. + 6-5) . + 6 )-2(6 + &)~(&4-& ). (a-2)(a-3)~(a-l)(a-4).3) . 4. + 6)( .24] . and check the answers !.r _ 2 .

44
9.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

10. 11. 12.
13.

4(m + 2)
(a?

+ 5(w

3)

5)(oj-2)

(a;-

(n -f 5) (w

- 2) + (n - 7) (n + 4) - 2 (n* - 2)

14.
15.

6(p+2)-7(p-9)-2(i> + l)(p-l).

16.
17.

x- 2 y)(3 x -f 2 y) - (4 - y) (a3 (a -f 6) - 4 (a + &) (a -f 2 6) + (a (5
2

18.

19.

20.
21.

22.

2

(a

-fa-f

1)

(

a - 1)

- (a + 1) (a - 1).
8

CHAPTER
DIVISION

IV

is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

67.

Division

if

their product

is

Thus
by
-f

to divide
12.

12

by

+

3,

we must find
is

the
;

number which

3 gives

But

this

number

4

hence

_

multiplied

12 r +3

=4.

68.

Since

-f

a

-

-f b

-fa

_a
and
it

-f-

a

= -f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
-f-

follows that

4-a

=+b

ab

a
ab

a
69.

Hence the law
:

of signs

is

the same in division as in

multiplication
70.

Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.

Law

of
,

a8 -5- a5

=a

3

for a 3

It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8

=

.

Or

in general, if

greater than

m n, a

-f-

and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"-", for a
<

m

m

is

45

46

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent

of the divisor.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently

2x y
6

2
,

we have
z

to

find

the

2x*y

gives 10 x^ifz.

This

Therefore,
the quotient

*

,

= - 5 a*yz.
is

Hence,
sign,

of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the

a monomial whose

coefficient is the quotient

preceded by the proper
literal

and whose

literal

found

in accordance with the

quotient of their law of exponents.

parts

73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)-?-4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.
-

-

.

-

.

-

.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:

28

'

2

.

76-H-15.
-39-*- 3.
2
15

3"
7

7'

3.

-4*
'

4.
5.

-j-2

12
.

4

2

9

5 11

68

3 19 -j-3
5

10.

(3
38
-

-2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'

11.

3

(2

.3*.5 7 )-f-(
2
'

12

'

2V

14

36 a
'

13

''
y-ffl-g

35

-5.25

-12 a

2abc

15

-42^
'

-56aW
'

UafiV

DIVISION
lg

47

-^1^. 16 w
7

20>

7i

9

_Z^L4L.

22.

10 iy.

132 a V* 14 1

*

01

-240m
120m-

40

6c

fl

/5i.
3J)

c

23.

2 (15- 25. a ) -=- 5.

25. 26.

(18
(

.

5

.

2a )-f-9a.
2

24.

(7- 26 a

2

)

-f-

13.

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS

To divide ax-}- fr.e-f ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx -J- ex.
74.

But
TT

x(a
aa?

Hence

+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx -f ex = a 4- b +
-\.

,

.

c.

a?

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.

3 xyz

EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:

29

2.
5.

fl

o.

(5*

_5* + 52)

-5.

52

.

3.
97
.

(2

(G^-G^-G^-i-G
(11- 2

4.

(8- 3

+

11 -3

+ 11

-5)-*- 11.

18 aft- 27 oc

Q y.

9a

4

-25 -2 )^-2
<?

2

.

+8- 5 + 8-

7) -*-8.

5a5 +4as -2a

2

-a

-14gV+21gy
Itf

15 a*b

-

12

aW + 9 a
2

2

3a

48
,

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,

m n - 33 m n
4

s

2

-f

55

mV

- 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3

- 49 aW + 28 a -W - 14 g 6 c
4 4

15. 16.

2 (115 afy -f 161 afy

- 69
4
2

a;

4
?/

3

- 23 ofy
3

4

)

-5-

23 x2y.

(52

afyV - 39
4
?/

oryz

- 65 zyz - 26 tf#z)

-5-

13 xyz.
-f-

,

17.

(85 tf

- 68 x + 51 afy - 34 xy* -f 1 7

a;/)

- 17

as.

DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.

Let

it

be required to divide 25 a

- 12 -f 6 a - 20 a
3

2

by

2 a 2 -f 3 a, divide

4

a, or, arranging according to
2

descending powers of

6a3 -20a

-f

25a-12

2 by 2a -

The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is

If

the product of 3 a and 2

2

4 a

+

3, i.e.

6 a3

12 a 2

-f

9 a, be sub-

8 a 2 -f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have

therefore to divide the remainder,

8 a2

-f-

16 a

12,

2 by 2 a

4 a

+

3.

consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,

We

4,

the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
-I-

+ 3, we

obtain the product

8 a2

16 a

12,

which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.

no remainder. Hence 3 a

4

is

DIVISION
The work
is

49
:

usually arranged as follows

- 20 * 2 + 3 0a-- 12 a 2 +
a3

25 a
{)

-

12

I

2 a2 8 a

-

4 a 4

a

_
12

+3

I

-

8 a? 4- 16

a-

76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:

descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.

Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and

subtract the result
4.

from
it

the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.

Arrange

the

remainder in
as a

expression, consider
5.

until the highest poiver

Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less

was arranged
the divisor.

than the highest poiver of the same

letter in

77.

Checks.

Numerical substitution constitutes a very con-

venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division

was

exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.

if

the

Ex.

1.

Divide 8 a3

-f

8 a

- 4 + 6 a - 11 a
4

2

by 3 a
,

- 2.
^ _ _
,

Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4

,

,

+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8

11

a2 a2

-f

8a

4

I

3 a
2 a8

-2
-f

=
a _+ 2
.

7-r-l,

4 a2

=

7

+

-11

-

3 a2

3

a'

2

+ +

8 a 2 a

-4 + 6a - 4

50
Ex.
2.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4

- 46 -6a6
4
3

-f-

9

2

6

2

2 l by 26 -3a& + a

.

Arranging according to descending powers of

a,

we have

a<a4

6 a36
fr

-f
-f

9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2

-46*

I

a2
a*

-

8 ab 3 ab

- 3 a8

-

|

+ 2 6^ - 2 62

-46*

- 3 a^ + 9a 2 6 - 6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a - 4 6 4 - 2 a^a + 6 aft - 4
Check.
ft*

The numerical
it

substitution a

=

1,

&

=

1,

cannot be used in this
either to use

example since
larger

renders the divisor zero.

Hence we have

a

number

for a, or multiply.
2 - 8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab - 2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2 - 3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2 - 3 a&) - 2 62 ] = (a 2 -3 aft) 2 -4 6* = a2 - 6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2 - 4 5*.

EXERCISE

30 *
:

Perform the operations indicated and check the answers

2. 3.

(jf_2y-15)-i-<y-6).
2 (15 a
2

4.
5.
6.

- 46 a# -f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4- 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/

-5-

(5

a5 w).

2

-*-

(m

7.

(6^-53^ + 40)^(6^-5).
(56
2 a; -f-

8.

19 x

-15) --(8

-3).

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

2 (25 a

- 36

2
ft

)

-j-

(5

a

-f-

6

6)

* See page 263.

. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.DIVISION 14. 18.2). b -f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. . 19. (aj -3aj-2)-^(oj-2). a I. 20.11 a + 9 a . 51 15. v/17. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m -f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 -f- 2 3 -f- ) -5- 1) .l. + 23a& + 20)-*-(2a& + 6). 16.2) (3 a . (a -f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (8xy + lo-22x' y)-+(2x y-3).18 m 2 ) -f- (1 G m -f 9 m 2 ). Division of the difference of two squares.e. (a? s -8) 4 -*-( 2).81 c8 f ' ISVft-Qc 8 64 ' a2 -166 2 ' a? 10 -1 . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 -x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 -^. . (81 m + 1 .

f 13.000. 12. : the following w a 4 -!.000-1. aW 12 a. . 10. -100ry. 14. 16.49. -r/ 1. . 16 . 36 a4 ?/ 4 . -9& 2 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 4 -b. 15. 121a a 16 100 11. 1.

The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. is said to satisfy an equation. . 81. in the equation 2 x 0. (rt+6)(a-ft) = 2 - b' 2 . the first member is 2 x + 4. .r -f9 = 20 is true only when a. hence it is an equation of condition. 83. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 82. =11. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. second member is x + 4 x 9. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. (a + ft) (a b) and b. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. the 80. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. x 20.

fol- A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 2 = 6#-f7. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. NOTE. . A numerical equation is one in which all . the products are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. If equals be added to equals. E. a. 3. the remainders are equal.b. the sums are equal. the known quan x) (x -f 4) tities are = . an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. one member to another by changing x + a=. If equals be multiplied by equals. the quotients are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals.e. 89. 86. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 87. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x -f a letters 88.2. A 2 a. 2. 4. 5. but 4 does not equal 5. To solve an equation to find its roots. x I. A term may be transposed from its sign. called axioms 1. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. Transposition of terms. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be divided by equals. the divisor equals zero. . 90. 85.g. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.54 84. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.

x = 3. is correct. The first member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Unite similar terms. The first member. and the known terms to the second. 6a-5 = 18-5 = 13.9 y + y2 = 22 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x-\1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 -f 1. Uniting. (4-y)(6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. . if a x = b.2 y= f . 4-fl = 12-fl = 13 3. b Adding a to both + a. Subtracting 4 x from each term. x = 93. To solve a simple equation. if 55 x members. x = (Axiom 3) 92. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 91.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2(11 . Hence the answer.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i + | = 26 -f f = 26$ JI .2. a= a 6-fc.8. 3 y . --f If y 20 . The second member. Uniting similar terms. 2 x = 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.6 y -f y\ .9 y + 6 y = 20 -f 22. Ex. Dividing both members by 2. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Transposing. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Check. b c. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. 4x 1 + 6. Dividing by Check.y) = C4 + })(5-f The second member.

= 2 ?/. a. : 5# = 15+2a. . 19. + 16 = 16 + 17. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. J. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 22. 87- 9(5 x -3) 6(3 a? = 63. 6. 17 + 5a. 4y 10. = 60 -7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. and check the answers 9. . 3. {(x (x The The member right member left . Dividing by Cfcecfc. 13a? 3a?. If x = 18. aj * See page 264. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation | (x 4) = \ (x + 3). \x x 2-^x-fl. a?. v23. 14. a. 7a? 5. x = 18. 14y = 59-(24y + 21). 7 (6 x -16). 17 7 a. 4. Solve the following equations by transposing. 11. =2 = 3.56 Ex. 17 -9 x + 41 = 12 -8 17. -50.. 21. 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 24. Transposing. 9 9a? = 7 13. = 7. 4a + 5 = 29. + 22. = 5a?+18. 7. 15. x x 1 . + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). it NOTE. -3)= 9(3 7 a. 2. 13 y -99 = 7 y.69.. 3-2 = 26-4. = 3. etc.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. -f- Simplifying. 3 7 a. 12. + 7(3 + 1) =63.-7a: = 39-4a.7. 24-7y = 68-lly. a? a?. Uniting.17 + 4y = 36. 8. 11 ?/ a? 18. 20. 16.

12) (2 + 5) . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 25. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) -(2J-3)( + 2) = 12. 40. | +6= |aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 57 73-4* = 13*~2(5*-12). .32. . .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) -(a-5) :=2.3) + 14. : One part is of 70 is 25 . Evidently 45.5) = (a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. + 7) (. 2 2 * -Jaj.5) + 199. 33.2) (M .3) .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 35. 31. 41.(2 + 6) (4 . 42. 7(7 x y 26. is the other part.1) (a (a? + 3) = .14 = 0.1) (u . 6(6a.5(2 u . find the other part. 38. a? 28. -7) (a. 39. . .7) (7 x + 4) . 5) (as (a. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.3) + . a? 43. . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 27. . 29. + 4).g. or 70 a?. (6 u =5 44. . . this question. (aj- 37.4) + 4 w .-5)-5(7a>-8)=4(12-3a5) + l. 36. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. e. 34.1 0) = 0. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. (a. + 1) -8(7-5 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 30.7.

one yard will cost - Hence if x -f y yards cost $ 100. Ex. one part equals is 10. smaller one 16. or 12 7.58 Ex. find the cost of one yard. is a? 2 is c?. so that one part The difference between is s. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. Divide a into two parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Divide 100 into two 12. is d. 7. 4. 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro- The answer is 5. 10. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 13. 5. so that of c ? is p. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. If 7 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts. is b. 17. 6. 9. 11. x -f- y yards cost $ 100 . 33 2. Find the greater one. a. 1. 3. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 6. one yard will cost 100 -dollars. EXERCISE 1. 15. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. and the smaller one parts. greater one is g.

Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A man had a dollars. 19. numbers is x. 28. and B is y years old. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find 21. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B has n dollars. is A A is # years old. 32. How many years A older than is B? old. 22. amount each will then have. A feet wide. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. sum If A's age is x years. and spent 5 cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. b dimes. 26. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 20. 24. find the has ra dollars. and c cents. and B's age is y years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. ?/ 31. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 33. A dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 34. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 28. How many cents has he ? 27. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two.

" we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). A was 20 years old.50. find the fraction. of 4. 49.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. -. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. The two digits of a number are x and y. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. of m. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. m is the denominator. Find x % % of 1000. 48. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find a 47. a. % % % of 100 of x. -46. A cistern is filled 43. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find the number. Find a. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. The first pipe x minutes. c a b = - 9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. he walk each hour ? 39.

c. 5. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 4. by one third of b equals 100. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 8 -b ) + 80 = a . Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The double as 7. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of a increased much 8. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. etc. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The excess of a over b is c. 6. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of x increased by 10 equals x. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased -}- a2 i<5 - b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 3. double of a is 10. 80. -80. 9. a exceeds b by c. same result as 7 subtracted from .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 2. = 2 2 a3 (a - 80.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. ->. 17. 12. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. . and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. they have equal of A's. express in algebraic symbols : -700. a. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. and C's ages will be 100. x is 100 x% is of 700. 50 is x % of 15. B's. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 18. 14. In 10 years the sum of A's. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. they have equal amounts. A gains $20 and B loses $40. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. express in algebraic 3x : 10. sum equals $20. symbols B. B.62 10.000. a second sum. amounts. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. (c) If each man gains $500. x 4- If A.. pays to C $100. of 30 dollars. B's age 20. 11. m is x % of n. and C's age 4 a. 3 1200 dollars. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. and C have respectively 2 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. B's. #is5%of450. is If A's age is 2 x. 16.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. as 17 is is above a. 6 % of m.

exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. much as 40 exceeds the number. 1. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Dividing. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Transposing. x+16 = 3(3-5). denote the unknown 96. Let x The (2) = A's present age. = x x 3x -40 3x 40- Or. etc. Simplifying. Check. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. NOTE. 6 years ago he was 10 . 2. x= 15. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. x = 20. Let x = the number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x - p) Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3z-40:r:40-z. be 30 . Three times a certain no. Ex. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. . Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. number. the . -23 =-30. Ex. but 30 =3 x years. 4 x = 80. number of yards. Uniting. Find A's present age. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Uniting. the required . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In 15 years 10. Transposing. In order to solve them. A will Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15.

Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number.64 Ex. 4. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14. A number added number. Find the number. Hence 40 = 46f. Dividing. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Let x 3. 13. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. twice the number plus 7. A will be three times as old as to-da3r . 3. exceeds the width of the bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Uldbe 66 | x x 5(5 is = -*-. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find 8. % of 120. 5. EXERCISE 1. 11. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 300 56. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. .2. by as much as 135 ft. 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Forty years hence his present age. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal.

97. B How will loses $100. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. . F 8. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. two verbal statements must be given. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. The other verbal statement. x. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. B will have lars has A now? 17. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Vermont's population increased by 180. which gives the value of 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. One number exceeds the other one by II. statements are given directly. 65 A and B $200. is the equation. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. How many dol- A has A to $40. If A gains A have three times as much 16. Maine's population increased by 510. During the following 90 years. 14.000. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. written in algebraic symbols. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. five If A gives B $200. times as much as A. the second one. The problem consists of two statements I. and B has $00. 1. Ex. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.000. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. A and B have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.

and Let x = the Then x -+. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. consider that by the exchange Hence. A has three times as many marbles as B. If we select the first one. 2x a? x -j- = 6. Statement x in = the larger number. = B's number of marbles. . + a- -f -f 8 = 14. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 8 = 11. / . < Transposing. although in general the simpler one should be selected. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. x x =14 8. Then. = 3. terms of the other. unknown quantity in Then. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. in algebraic -i symbols produces #4a. o\ (o?-f 8) Simplifying. Let x 3x express one many as A. = 14. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. . B will have twice as many as A. If A gives are : A If II. Let x 14 I the smaller number. I. 2. 25 marbles to B. x 3x 4- and B will gain. The two statements I. 8 the greater number. which leads ot Ex. A will lose.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. has three times as many marbles as B. Uniting. A gives B 25 marbles. x = 8. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. the greater number. the smaller number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. = A's number of marbles. to Use the simpler statement. B will have twice as viz. Dividing.

* 98. w'3. Simplifying. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. etc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Find the numbers. Find the numbers.240.25 = 20. 6 times the smaller. . A's number of marbles. cents. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.. The number of coins II. Dividing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). the number of half dollars. x = 15. 40 x . Dividing. The value of the half : is 11. Check. (Statement II) Qx .10. of dollars to the number of cents. Simplifying. 11 x = 5.10. Two numbers the smaller. x from I. . 3 x = 45. 50 x Transposing. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Uniting. have a value of $3. dollars and dimes is $3.10. but 40 = 2 x 20. 67 x -f 25 25 Transposing. then. greater is .$3. and the Find the numbers.. Let 11 = the number of dimes. 2. the price. 15 + 25 = 40.. 50. 50(11 660 50 x -)+ 10 x = 310. 60. The sum of two numbers is 42. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. is 70.5 x . Eleven coins. 1. 3. 45 . x = the number of half dollars.550 -f 310. by 44. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. B's number of marbles. Check. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. the number of dimes.75. * ' . consisting of half dollars and dimes. Uniting. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. x = 6.

7. How many 14 years older than B. one of which increased by 9. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.68 4.000 feet. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Everest by 11. and four times the former equals five times the latter. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 11. McKinley. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 5. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. Twice 14. How many hours does the day last ? . it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. A's age is four times B's. and twice the altitude of Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 6. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. tnree times the smaller by 65. Find their ages. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. On December 21. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. as the larger one. Two numbers The number differ by 39. the number. 9.. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. United States.

three One of the unknown num- two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. II. are : C's The three statements A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. has. III. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. they would have 3. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the money by I. If 4x = 24. number of dollars A had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 8(8 + 19) to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. The third verbal statement produces the equation. 1. number had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and 68. 19. x = 8. and C together have $80. B. . Ex. has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. original amount. I. B has three times as much as A. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and B has three as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. bers is denoted by x. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Let x II. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. times as much as A. B. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z-5) (90-4z) = x. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. = 48. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state- ment directly in algebraical symbols. and C together have $80.

9 -5 = 4 . each horse costing $ 90. Uniting. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 4 x -f 8 = 28.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x Transposing.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. three statements are : IT. according to III. number of horses. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. sheep. x 35 -f + = + EXERCISE 1. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. and Ex. x -f 4 = 9. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x = 5. 28 2 (9 5). + 35 (x +-4) -f 15(4z-f 8) = 1185. The I. and the sum of the . 90 may be written. 1 1 Check. Dividing. x -j- = the number of horses. 9 cows. The total cost equals $1185. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. and. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 -f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and each sheep $ 15. 2. according to II. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. first. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. Let then. 2 (2 x -f 4) or 4 x Therefore. number of sheep. 90 x -f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for horses. cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. number of cows. III. + 8 90 x and. each cow $ 35. the third five times the first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. number of cows. 185 a = 925.

twice as old as B. 9. 7. women. and children together was 37. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. what is the population of each city ? 8. what are the three angles ? 10. If twice The sum the third side. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. A 12.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. "Find three is 4. The gold.000. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. the third 2. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). increased by three times the second side. New York delphia.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. what is the length of each? has 3. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. 13. v - Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. twice the 6. the copper. equals 49 inches. first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000. - 4. how many children were present ? x 11. v . and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and 2 more men than women. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. men. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.

Hence Simplifying. 14. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Let x = number of hours A walks.000 more than that the copper. i. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. of 3 or 4 different kinds. such as length. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. or time. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 7 Uniting. 3z + 4a:-8 = 27. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. speed. and quantities area. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. number of hours.g. and distance. how many 100. First fill in all the numbers given directly. Find the value of each.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Dividing.e. . After how many hours will they meet and how E.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 8 x = 15. The copper had twice the value of the gold. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. together. but stops 2 hours on the way. = 5. 3 and 4. we obtain 3 a.000. number of miles A x x walks. = 35. A and B apart. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. width.

the second 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. z = 20. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. x . The an area 40 x 20 =800. were increased by 30 yards. 2 - - and transpose. Check. + 8. .M(x . Find the dimensions of the field. 70x10 Ex.04 = $ 40." gives (2.01 = = . x . l. 10 x = 200. and the width decreased by 10 yards. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. x + 200). the area would be 100 square yards less. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. But 700 certain = 800 2.06 = $ 40. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Multiplying.053. original field has Check. $ 800 = required sum.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8. 2 a = 40. $ 1000 x .05 x x . or 700. . Cancel 2 # 2 (a -10) = 2s -100. $ 800 = 800. What brings the same is the capital? in- Therefore Simplify. Transposing and uniting.

mobile. A of each. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. together bring $ 78 interest. Six persons bought an automobile. Ten yards $ 42. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but four men failed to pay their shares. 1. invested at 5 %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and the cost of silk of the auto- and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A sets out later two hours B . but as two of them were unable to pay their share. were increased by 3 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. After how many hours will B overtake A. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sions of the field. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. 2. and its width decreased by 2 yards. of coffee for $ 1. 3. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. the area would remain the same.55. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and a second sum. Find the share of each. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. twice as large. Find the dimen- A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. What are the two sums 5. as a 4. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. The second is 5 yards longer than the first.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide.

how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. The distance from If a train starts at . but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11.

stage of the work. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 5. which multiplied together are considered factors. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. this letter. as. consider 105. it is composite.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. -f- db 6 to b. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a. a- + 2 ab + 4 c2 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . + 62 is integral with respect to a. 76 . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a2 to 6. vV . we shall not. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. An after simplifying. irrational. \- V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. but fractional with respect 103. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . at this 6 2 . if. 6. a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if it does contain some indicated root of .

FACTORING 106. Divide 6 a% . Ex. 1. x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .62 + &)(a 2 . 2. factors of 12 &V is are 3. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. E. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2. TYPE I. . . Factor G ofy 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . it fol- lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.3 sy + 4 y8). Factor 14 a* W- 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.) Ex. ?/. y. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 01.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . it follows that a 2 .g. 8) (s-1). 110. x. 109. 55. or that a = 6) (a = a .3 6a + 1). for this result is a sum.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy -f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). It (a. 2. 107. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.62 can be &). in the form 4) +3.

11. 4. 17. 2 Or. the y factored expression is (x -}-m)(x + n). a -a '-J-a . obviously. -7a & 10. 14. a6c. 3. 32 a *?/ . 4 tfy -f. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 14a 4 5.12 cdx. 15 2 7. a(m-f-7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) -3 /(a + 6). e. &-{-20a 6 4 &3 2 . . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x -f 5) 15.2. . : 6 abx . 34 a^c 8 . 2 + q.4. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 5-f 2 . 16. Ilro8 9. 2 23. 20.4. 13.6.8 c a 15 ofyV . 18. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 3 3 5 6.5 x*y 2 17 a? . -f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. (as 3) and (cc-f-5). )- 22 - 2. x2 -f-2 x = 15 we have.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 8. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. in general.16 a'V -f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b -f 8 6V .5 + 13 -8. 2.30 aty. 3 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s .3. 12. 3x*-6x*. + llm -llm.45 afy . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is -f. 4 8 . 15. 19.g. TYPE IT. q*-q*-q 2 a. 2 2 . 2 6.5 + 2. 7i 13. in factoring a trinomial of the form x -f-/>#-f q.51 aW + 68 21.3.

4.77 = (a.6 = 20. Hence z6 -? oty+12 if= (x -3 y)(x*-4 y ). 5.5) (a 6).5) (a . and (a .11. 2 6. 79 Factor a2 -4 x . a 2 .G) = . or 7 11. however. . Factor a2 . . 77 as the product of 1 77. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. determine whether In solving any factoring example. + 30 = 20. m -5m + 6. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. of this type. Factor + 10 ax .FACTORING Ex. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. the two numbers have opposite signs.11) (a + 7). Therefore Check. We may consider 1. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 11 7.. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are -4 y* and -3 y*. or 77 l.4 x . . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. as p.11 a 2 . Hence fc -f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a - 12 /. If q is negative. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Ex.1 1 a tf a 4. 3. can be factored. tfa2 - 3.4 . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. is The two numbers whose product and -6. 2. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.11 a + 30.30 = (a . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. Factor x? .a). If q is positive. + 112. Ex.

+ 4?/-21. 35. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 12. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 25. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 .180 a. a? + 5 + 6 a.70 x y . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 16. a -7 a -30. 6 a -18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ .48 + + 446 200. 36.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 2 . 31. y_ 6y +6y -15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 44. 30. we have to find two bino- mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 18. 19. 32. 9. . 14. + 30.17 + 30. 26. 11. 2 ?/ 28. and 5 x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*-2x-8. 13. 4 3 2 . + 5<y 24. 2 2 a' 34. ra + 25ra + 100. 100 xr . ^ </ 2 2 -7p-8. 2 ?/ 22. 4 2 . 20. -17a& + 7(U -9a&-226 + 8 a -20. 3?/-4 + a' -2a&-24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a -30. 2 ?/ -5?/-14. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 21 a 2 2 . TYPE 113. 16. 29. . . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 33. x2 23. 24. 2 . or . 27. ITT. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 21. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 17. 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.500 x + 600. a2 . 2 .6. 15. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. ay -11 ay +24. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 2x-S. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 8.80 7.

18 x 3. and r is negative. or G 114. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 3. the If p and r are positive. 27 x 2. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. all pos- combinations are contained in the following 6x-l x-5 .13 x + 5 = (3 x .1). . Factor 3 x 2 . X x 18. If py? -\-qx-\-r does not contain any monomial factor.83 x -f- 54. sible 13 x negative.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of -f 5 as must have is : like signs. . If p is poxiliw.17 x 2o?-l V A 5 - 13 a combination the correct one.e-5 V A x-1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.5 . 9 x 6. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.5) (2 x . 2. but the opposite sign. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 3 x and x. a. Ex. viz. The work may be shortened by the : follow- ing considerations 1. and that they must be negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 6 x 9. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 54 x 1. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. then the second terms of have opposite signs. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 11 x 2x. 2 x 27. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.

77 xy + 10 y -23afc + 126 . 2x* + 9x-5. since all others (II. 2 28. 30. 17.30 y 6 4 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 6n + 5?i-4. 5 a6 2 2 -9 a . 6n 2 -f 13w + 2. X -27 .290 xy -f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 -f- .2) (x . and the monomial factors should be removed. -9a. 5m -26m -f 5. the expressions should be it.2 a 90 x*y . 19. . 14 a -fa -4. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 10 a . 32.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3x-l 3s-2 x X 115. -f go. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x -7 ay. 35. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 3x*-Sx + 4. 2 fc . 8. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 34.-7. 2. 2m -t-7w + 3.83 x . 4.163 x 2 . 9 y + 32^-16. -h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 3. Sar' + Sa-G. 10a?2 2 33. 12y -2/-6. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 4a2 -9tt + 2. 24. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 12^-17^-1-6. 6. 2 31. 13. 15. 11. 20.y + 172/-9.300 ab 2 -f4 250 . 2 . + 4. 14.17-9. . 90 a 8 2 . 2 f-3y -4y 40a -90aV + 20aV. 3a + 13a.83 x = (3 . 2 . 2 2 2 . 5. 100^-200^ + 100^. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 21.260 xy . 7. 22. + 2/-3. 2 2 2 23.27). 25. 12. 18. 144 x .19 a -f 6. 9. 10. x-54 a. 16.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 29. : 41 2. . 2 26.

8. 13. connect the re- square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9 +6a6 2 2 -f a4 . EXERCISE 42 per- Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 12. 9 -10a6-25. i. 2 . . 25 7.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.e. 14. 5. a -flOa&4-6 4 wi -f 2 2/ 2 . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. x* .20 xy -f 4 y\ . 2 9 -10g-f25. 4 6 m*ti -f 9 n*. m + 2mn + n c -2cd-d 2 2 . must have a positive sign.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 3. To factor a trinomial which maining term. and factor whenever possible : 1. it is a perfect square. 6. 2 2 . form are special cases of the preceding type. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . square. m -14ww + 49n 2 16 a . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 11. however. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 10. 4. 116. 16 y? The student should note that a term. . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. it is more convenient for that type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 9.10 x -f 16. - 2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 2. and a perfect square. of its terms are perfect squares.

aV . 1. Ex. 3. 100a2 -68 a2 & 2 -121. 27. ). TYPE 117. product i.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a -26 ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. +( )-f816 30. + GO + 25.60 a# + 4. !Gar 9 -( )+25. . 16&*. . 6. 3. u2 -6& + 2 ( ). 22. 2 . 2 20.20 ab + 10 b a . 9. x*-Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 36 2 4. .64 6 = 16(a . a2 24.3 * ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 -/.6 m* + 9 m. 2. 2. ^//c to the Ex. 16. 2 . ). 18. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. -48 a +( ).6 = (a 4 -b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(a-b). : 43 tf-y\ a -9. 19. 4a2 -l. a. 25. -6 2 . - + 6a + ( 9a -( ) + 144 a 2 28. a4 a2 2 -f 6 is . 29. a.e. 26. prime. V. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 -f- ( ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 -24a&4. 1-49 a 81 8.2 ofy + ofy m . 225 ofy .84 15. 9a2 . 2 -f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. According to 65. 17.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 10 a 2 4 2 . 5. 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 4 2 23. ). 7. -* 2 .

36|> . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 11. 13. 16p 2 . 2 .(c 4. 14. (x -f 3 9 2/ 2 . Ex. Factor a 2 . 4.d) 2 .(I) . (a x? -f- 6) 6 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (m-7?) -y. (m -f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2 . (2a (2s + 5) -(3a-4) 2 2 . (2a-5&) -(5c-9ef) 2 3. 5. 2. 6. of polynomials. 25a -(&-c) (m-h2n) 2 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y -f 2 . 2.FACTORING 85 118. 2 2 : (m-f-n) _p 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. a2 . a:) 12. 8.c . 9. Ex. T.

12. which may be factored according to types I. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.a a . + x + 2x + 2. a 26 2 2 3 . 2.7 c + 2c . Factor 9 x*-y*-4:Z 2 -f 4 yz.14. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. .and trinomials. 7. 6. a3 c 3 10ax-5ay-6bx + 3by. 5. Factor ax ax -f- bx -f ay -f by.y + 2 2). the expression becomes the difference of two squares.2 ) (3 x . 1.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. ive find that the new terms con- common factor. x8 . 8. . 10. a5 + ab 6 . a? 11. By grouping. 5) . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an-3&n + 2ag-3&?. A. + 4cy--5dx 2 5dy. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb. 9.VI. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x -f 5. Ex. = (3 x + y .4 6 x -f 3 a y 2 4. 4 B.r.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Ex.ab + bx.(x - 5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. After grouping tain a the terms. 119. 3.1. 2. 4:cx .

12 aaj 4 6y. 2 7. 6 6. : m 2 2 16. 8ra 2 + 16. : 46 x* 2. 36 9 m . 3. 8. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. IV. Arranging the terms. 2. w -m 2. + 2xy + y*-q*. $- a8 . m -Gw + 9-n * See page 266.-l.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. .FACTORING Ex. 6. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 -4a6 + 46 -25. 2a3/ 7.4 f .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 8. 5. 4. = (a + 6)(a-6). SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 -12a2 + 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 3.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 -6 2 III. . l~a -2a5-6 2 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 4. 4 a2 . II. a 2 -10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x -ar -2a. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 2. First find monomial factors common to all terms. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 87 -f- Factor 4 a2 - 6 2 + 9 tf .

42 s 2 . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 40. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 3 41. 4 2 2 ft ft -2a + a*-l. 35. 22. 4 8 tt 2 z . _|_ ft)2 n Qy 2 .156. 5 a. 4 a. a3 156. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 2 17. . 32. -32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 18. 48. -50^ + 45. 2 a -128. a.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 13. (a. 12. 2 ft . a6 36.310 x . 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*-xif.24. + 6 aft + 3 . 3 25. 24. (^ 34. 29. or 3 7#2 . 30. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 11. 5a' 20. 49 a 4 4 -42 a + 9 a 20a -90a -50. + 14.88 10. 19. 13 c . 2 3#4 -3a2 -36. 3 a2 23. 14. 42 x . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 27.40.13 c . 80 a 2 ft 38. 3 2 . 25 a + 25 aft . a + a + a + l.

of aW. 89 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. 3 . C. 6. C. 2 2 . C. The student should note H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 25 W. 122. F. F. F. 8 . of two or more monomials whose factors . of a 7 and a e b 7 . Thus the H. EXERCISE Find the H. are prime can be found by inspection. 5 2 3 . F. F. The H. - 23 3 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 5 s 7 2 5.) of two or more . 5 7 34 2s . C. C. F. 121. expressions which have no are prime to one another. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. aW. . 3. 2. of the algebraic expressions. 54 - 32 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. Two common factor except unity The H. The highest is common factor (IT. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 24 s . 15 aW. of 6 sfyz. C. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. The H. 12 tfifz. II 2 . of : 48 4. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 5. C. F. F.

30 mu\ 39 afyV.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 9.5 y). ^-707 + 12.5 x3?/ 2 6. . -3^ 2 4 . 12 . C. 15. y + 3y-64. 8. 8. 1.2 y) (a. 3). Ex. 15 3ao. 4a -f 4a2 2 2 a 2 - . 0^-80:4-16. 16 a . F. a -3a-4. 5 a6 -5^ 2 a.2 ?/) (x .6 a&. To find the H. 11.y) 123. ^a + 5^ + 6.# 4 afy -f 4 .y + y-42. 6 mx . C. 14.y) .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 9 aj*(a? . 52 oryz4. (a7 ?/) . 3. x* x2 Hence the H. 38 #y. 95 2/V.6 . 9. 6 3 a. F. 12 w*nw 8.?/ . 10. 225 4a 9 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 16.5 + 6. ^-f a. 12.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . of: . 2. 13. F. . 1. 49 C. 75 a&X -15 bed 11 . of polynomials. . of + 4 if. 57 a>V. a2 . x2 ^-4^ and tf -7 xy + 10 f. and apply the method of the preceding article. a. 6(m+l) (m+2). 13. . 5. aWd. a3 -9a. 2 . a2 + 2a-3. 2 . 25 m27i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 8 a 10 . a2 ar* 4. Find the H.-6. F.90 7. 8 6. 8(?/i-f-l) 14. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 4(m -f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 11. 65 zfyV. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. . . 7. a2 + 7a-f!2. 12. 10. 15 x-y^ 2 10 arV . 3 . 2 . 4(m+l) 3 . C.8 a + 16. 2 . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 4 ?io. 6 a2 y? . = x 2 y.^-9.12 as 66 . 24 a 2 . a3 -16 a. 2a -f5a-f 2.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ^2 2 .

128.M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 127. C.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of tfy and xy*. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*( - is 12(a + &)( . Find the L. 2. The lowest common multiple (L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. M. which also signs. ory is the L. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 1. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 -4 a 68 2 . C. a^c8 3 . Hence the L. C. To find the L. The L. etc. of 3 aW. Common 125. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. = (a -f last 2 &)' is (a - 6) . L. . two lowest common multiples. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C. M. M.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 126. NOTE. C. each set of expressions has In example ft). M of the algebraic expressions. but opposite . of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. Ex. 2 The The L.M. M. C. 60 x^y' 2 . C.C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. M. M.6)2. Ex. M. Find the L. thus. of as -&2 a2 + 2a&-f b\ and 6-a. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. A common remainder. .C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 300 z 2 y.6 3 ). L. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of the general. &) 2 M.

5. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 7. 2. 2 . a -!. 14. 6. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 3. (For additional examples see page 268. a -{- a~b. a?b. y*. 6b 2 . a 2 -fa6. 2(m 2 . a. 24. 22. a 2 -f 4 a +4. Find the L. 15. a -f 3. a2 4. 3. by. 11. a. a 2 a3 . 2 .1. 20. 4 a 5 6cd. 3(a + b). 2 a .- 3 -f2. 3 ab. 18. 30 a. a^-1. 24 x. 2 x -\-2 y. x2 + 4 a -f 4. . 4 a -f 2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 40 abJ. 3 (a-2)(a-3) ( a -3)(a-4) 2 2a?b-'2ab 2 a. 3 . bx a? 8 2 lOaj-f-lfi. 1. ax -{-ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 a . x2 5 -f 2 3# 5 + 2. . 2 a. 2 10. -f b. ) . ic 23. a 1. 21. afy. G a. 16. 17. xy\ . + 2 7i) . b 2 . 2 7ic+10. or -f- 3 a 15 #. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 9. 8 afy.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 4 a . a& 4 +& 2 . M. a. 2 . 13. a2 ~ab 1. #. 3 6 xif. + 2.1. + 6. a -f- 2 19. 20 9 a. afc'cd 2 . 6 y. 8 d 5 . x* ~5a.-f 6. 6 a. 3 Z> . T a 3 a 2 . 2 a?-b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a-2b. x 2 5 a. ic 2 ?/. of: 4. 8. (a -4)(a-2) 12.

a?. Ex. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Reduce ~- to its lowest terms. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Thus. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers.ry ^ by their H. a b = ma mb . but we In arithmetic. as 8. thus - is identical with a divisor b the denominator. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. rni Thus 132. 131. Remove tor. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. however. C. TT Hence 24 2 z = -- 3x . successively all 2 j/' . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. an indicated quotient. A -f- fraction is b. etc. F. 130. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina- and z 8 (or divide the terms . and denominators are considered.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129.

Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. tf a* - n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Keduce -62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. cancel factors only. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. . 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 3. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.33 -7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Ex.4) Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 9-5 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.

23. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ny 4 18.. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 16.*. "-""-. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. . . LJZJ^JL. ^' rt ^ - 31. 9x + "a" 10.FRACTIONS 7- 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4- ^-. '-M 3 ??i 2fi 25. .' 32.10 a + 3 2 14. _ 3 7i rt< 26. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 3a ^ ^ "-^ 2 -9 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. g J- 21. 29. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 19.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " -*-7 . ^" a. 11 ^ Mtr f . nx 17. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.7 . 5^-10 y 30. ' ^ . ^+3*.

3) (-!)' = . we have the quotients (x 1). .C. 1). we may extend this method to integral expressions. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. 1. Ex. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. M. by the denominator of each fraction. Reduce -^-. + 3). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and (a- 8). and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we have -M^. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have (a + 3) (a -8) (-!)' NOTE. Divide the L. mon T denominator.M. Since a (z -6 + 3)(s-3)O-l)' 6a. and 135. - by 4 6' . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. . Ex - Reduce to their lowest common denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 . of the denominators for the common denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.D. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. =(z (x + 3)(z.M.~16 (a + 3) (x. take the L.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 2> . C.96 134. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.3)O - Dividing this by each denominator. C.C.r 2 2 . ^ to their lowest com- The L.-1^22 ' . . TheL. - of //-* 2 . and the terms of ***.

2 3 9a ~l' 3a-l 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a- 9 ^ . 2. 7i 2 ab* ". 137. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2a-l n. .oj o* or / . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). bxby g ! a 5 ' a -f-5 a2 25 ?--. common denominator 6. 5?. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. Since --{-c c = 5L^ c (Art. .a+2 ' a 2 -3a-f 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 18.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2aj ~ . JL. . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 22 a2 5a * ..T 3y Ga-1 ax 9 ' 2a . a? 1 5 > ^* . 2 ay IB. j y 3. .. 8 i i. .^1. i.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . o o a. 3. 74). If the given fractions have different denominators.

we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 -3 ft 6 a -f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) -f (2 a .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a - ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .. and adding. 2 ^.ft)(a . e.20 aft 3ft) -f 3 ft 2 4(2a-3ft)(2a-f 4 aft -f 21 2 138. L. 2. as 4 aft -f. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.aft) Ca2 . C. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2 - 2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a-2ft) +a (2q + a(a . ^ is 2^JT) .3 ft 2). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .2 ' 2 _..3 . (2 ~ a ft) a(a - + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft) - ft) a(a -2 ft) NOTE.(a 2 6).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a -ft) _ 8 a 2 -f 24 aft 20 a 2 -f -f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ft). 4(2 a 3 ft).7 .g. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.2 = a(a . in the beginning. D.ft) (a ft ft)~. ^ _ ^ a-3b ft). The L. D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re- duced to their lowest terms.3 ft). T? Ex. 4 6 + 2qg+6~ag-f4a&-8 a(a-ft)(a -2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a ft). (a . (a-8ft)(a~-ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a -4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. cr -\-t Simplify _T__ -r* + .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA - Ex ' Sim C.3 ft)(2 a -f + : Ga-6 + 3 ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.aft - _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 -2 aft :=(. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 -f 2 6 a2 . a -3 2a + "~ a2 ft). the student should remember that parentheses are .

30 u -+? + i- _H_ + _*_. a 36 ++. -1* 1 + m-f 3 1 M. + a "" 2 6 ' . 20. a-2 a + 3* 2 a -7 a-f-1 ' 2) * See page 270. t-3 m-2* a _2 6 a 4. 18 v 19. + . 24. 46 2a 4a 12. j>0 i> 21. 6a-116 13 a 15a-26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 5a-76 4a 106 9. a+6 a 6 2 14. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a-4 5 3. 1 -f q * 1 m m . 2L + 2a 1 17. 1 1 -f w 16.5 18- -^4-f25. 2. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. A+2_3. 15. 23. 6 c 3a 7.

a ?^ 40. 42. ! n. ^-2-^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 30. 43. x-2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 IT-i ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1 - 1 i 1 '> a2 -. a. 2 a-f-1 32. a 4 31. 1 34. 3a 9 +.9. x + 3y x-3y Gx x2 2x .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26 - x*3x + 2 x-2 5x 27 ' ~. a-f 1-f /j. -_ + a? ?/ + y. 41. a 2 ^> 2 x2 -7x+12~x -l7x + 4:~ ' } . / IIlNT: Let a 1 - 39.9 79 -6 2 i. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ic 1 + 1.

Reduce . 101 mixed expression. .7 5a v Ex. . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. - .FRACTIONS 139. - 4 or 3 2a. 1. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 -6a + 2 3a m 2 *- 5 m -f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . T. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * *- (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 -15a-7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .17 (2^ + 2x -f 5-3 (2x-.

Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.) Ex. Since - = a. or. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. F J Simplify . Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors.g. !. integer. 2 a Ex. -x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. fractions to integral numbers. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. each numerator and denomi- nator has to be factored. multiply the 142.

2 -f 5 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. 2 -25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. _G x 7 a2 -5a-6 a. 4 8.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?-f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO..FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . aj 5 1 a? 18. 5n a2 4-3a-4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 -5a-h4 < - x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. . 50 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4a-f-86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a-216 a2 2 q~.

* x* -f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. : a 4-1 a-b * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. . 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Divide X-n?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ -f y 8 y -f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'-*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r - 3 i_L#_-i-17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 -f- reciprocal of J is | |. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 1. 144.

^c 2 2 . a a2 4. l. t ' a^-3^-4 ? 4* ' a?-~ab > a 2 a- 4a 4- 4 a: +3 m 12 2 -f.10 ?/ _.' ' * ' ^-5^+4 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4- -L 4. are fractional.afr 4. c ab 2 4- &c* & a .FRACTIONS 105 -. or both.&c 2 ~ a 4- a2c 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.6 s + 064.5 ??i 80 50 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4-g-2 2a 2 4-g-20 25 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Ex. ga2 4- 8 5 a .

7i+~ 7. x* 4. a m "" . Simplify x -}. JL.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 6. & . C. M. . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . 9. y X 4* 2 y 3.y 32 . 2. i. . Ex. of their denominators.a ^c c _^ a -. 10. the answer is directly obtained. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). c +6. -n a 8.

1 i 1 2 5 . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*-_i_i 4- 14. -i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^-5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flg-f-l a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20 - a4-6 13.-~l (For additional examples see page 273. : . m^n* n L a 17. o 15. s-y 18.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) .

28 a = 5 x2 . = 6. 108 . - 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Solve 5 -I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 148. Solve ^-2^ = 63 2 x 12 -* + *-*.9 x2 + 9.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. If = 64. 9x x Check. M. + 1) (a + 3) . Bx 12 Qx.14 (a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . x = 6. 2z-2a. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).42 + 9. 6 = = 72 72 -3 (a. 1. C. 2 3.48.8 x = . Clearing of fractions. 2x Transposing. If x 6.-f3# + C:E=-6-f72-12. a. Uniting. 5(3 85 Check. Uniting. = 6.l)(z + 3) = .1. 4- 4) - x. -!)(&+ 1) (x + 3). tions. each member is reduced to 1. Transposing. these Ex. .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 2. of the denominator.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to Ex.

+4 14.1 _7-7 a. a/ - 5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 -^ a? = 19 1 11. = xx a? a? hi- x +^ + 3 = 11.= 2. ^' 2. ^-1 = 9. 18.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16. 15. . 3 a? '2 4 " - 2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y-2 y-3 == on . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. --. a. 1 *> = 2. ' - 4 13.

3 3x-2 51 3x*-2x 23 x 3x-2 22 36. - 38 = 40.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 4a4-l4* + l-~. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. J_. - 2 - 13 _J_ = _J3 . 2 20 x+3 x-3 3 o^- 28 . ?_=_. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 33. 2^12 = 2 = 34. If two or more denominators are monomials. 32 6 .11_4 x- 149._ _ . . 3x 35. 31 31. + 26 2^4-3 1 4^-9 1 2a?-3 A* 37. . 26 26. . 27 . y+3~2 29. 25.

10 x -f 6 __ 4a.2 3 ~ - == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 26 a. Dividing. -f 13 8#-f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~7-16* 6a? 44.1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3-~ x 16 x - 2. . the 1 5 L. M.. = 9. 5# 10. Check. Transposing and uniting.-2 42 9 43. 5x x : = 9.-r-7 5 +l 6a-fll~~ 3 6x-flO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 64-14 . each member is reduced to ^. 24 a.-29 507-12' 9 18 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C. 1. a. If a. 60. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. - 5 = 20 x 45. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.

ax -f- x -f. If 3a-c L= = a ? . =a 2 151.c) (3 a ac 6(rt-fc)(a-c) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3a-c). jr. = = 6 6c 7 6c. . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. fr Reducing lowest terms. 5> a. 2. = 2 -f b 2 . b a a a z Clearing of fractions. find a in terms of b and c.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. = 6 a2 .3 6 2 = a' .2 62 2 ab. they are united by factoring. Ex. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. -f ~ 5c. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. 3(a-c) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.be. 4 ac 1.& . bx -f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Uniting the Dividing.m 2* = (a -f 6) mnx = (1 4. It frequently occurs that the x.m bx 2 mn) x. Dividing. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. l to = !=?_=^6? a -f 6. Thus. = -l^ 9 b 4- . Uniting. ax- + bx ax (a -f IP Transposing.2 ac + 3 aft . a.1. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. y.

10. c 18. . 12. * Solve the same equation for^). p the principal. co?. = 3 (6 a). IIL n b + &o. 17. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . m a? x . -f- ^o. 1 -f. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. If ^^ = a 1 32. s = V-t solve for v. ^ ax a^ 26.a. -4-. 13. . = 5. 9. c. + 3a. Ex. and n the number of years. 4. . denoting the interest. 3(*- 8.i l . a? x!7 - a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. -. iw 21. 5) is t =^. = 2(3a = aaj-ffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 31. If * 33. = 8 4 #. = rt. 34. 29. rate. 2 solve for y a. solve for a. 15. 30. solve for . mx = n. a. = 6 (m -f n) = 2 a + (m-?i)a?.= n. The The i time. f P -=-+!.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 3. t. 11. _ 2. 14. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. If s (wi n) x =px + q. + xx = 1. in terms of other quantities. q solve for/. = vt. 6. r the number of $>.= c a Z> . If s If 16.= H.

is 36. Multiplying by Dividing. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 2. then = 2 TT#. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.. = 16^. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then /- the required number by 1. . . Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 12.180.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Ex. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. A would do each day ^ and B j. x Or Uniting. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 1. Find R in terms of C and TT. 2 3 . 100 C. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.114 35.20 C.

180 Transposing. Clearing. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = the x part of the work both do one day." gives the equation /I). 32 x = |. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. and the statement. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. in Then Therefore. 4x = 80. the required number of days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. = 100 + 4 x. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Solving. 3. or 1J. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . the rate of the express train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." : Let x - = the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore.

and one half the greater Find the numbers. by 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and 9 feet above water. which was $4000. Find A's 8. ex- What 5.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. length in the ground. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. J- of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. How did the much money man leave ? 11. to his son. money and $10. -| Find their present ages. Twenty years ago A's age was | age. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 3. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. is equal 7. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. and of the father's age. ceeds the smaller by 4. make 21. a man had How much money had he at first? . 3. of his present age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50.

A man has invested J- of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. investments. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. If the rate of the express train is -f of the rate of the accommodation train. 2. . and an ounce of silver -fa of an ounce. and B in 4 days. 152. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. How much money $500? 4%. ^ at 5%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days.) 22. Ex. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 1. what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses -fa of an How many ounce. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A has invested capital at more 4%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and it B in 6 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. air. and losing 1-*- ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. 3.

is 42. e. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. .e. A in 6. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. Then ft i. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.118 153. and n = 3. 26. . m and n. A in 4. The problem to be solved. . Ex. we obtain the equation m m -.= -. B in 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. 25. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. they can both do in 2 days.009 918. n x Solving.g. To and find the numerical answer. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. 2. A in 6. therefore. is 57. and apply the method of 170. B in 30. Hence. B in 12.= m -f- n it Therefore both working together can do in mn -f- n days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. 3. B in 16. if B in 3 days.414.

and the second 5 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 33. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (d) 1. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. is ?n . (b) 149. (c) 16. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. : (c) 64 miles. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. respectively. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. is (a) 51. if m and n are. Two men start at the first miles apart. meet.001. 5 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 2 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. squares 30. the second at the apart. and the rate of the second are. 3J miles per hour. Find the side of the square. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 3 miles per hour. 4J- miles per hour.000. Find two consecutive numbers -the difference of whose is 21.721. respectively (a) 60 miles. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. the rate of the first. same hour from two towns. (b) 35 miles. The one: 31. . solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 34. squares 29.

The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. " a Thus. b. the second term the consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. 1. b is the consequent. In the ratio a : ft. 158. b." we may write a : b = 6. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. E. The first 156.g. 6 12 = . etc. The ratio - is the inverse of the ratio -. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. : : 155. is numerator of any fraction consequent. a ratio is not changed etc. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the denominator The the 157. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the antecedent. Simplify the ratio 21 3|. the symbol being a sign of division. Ex. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.5. antecedent.

AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. terms. 1. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. $24: $8. 3:4. b and c the means. b. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. J:l. 3:1}. 159. 16. 11. 6. a and d are the extremes. 4. Simplify the following ratios 7. = |or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 27 06: 18 a6. 7f:6J. 61 : ratios 72:18. 3. 5 f hours : 2. two | ratios. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 4|-:5f : 5. equal 2. 9. 12. 62:16. proportional between a and c. : 1. extremes. 7|:4 T T 4 . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161.RATIO Ex. 16a2 :24a&. 17. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 18. Transform the following unity 15. The last first three. : a-y . 8^- hours. and c is the third proportional to a and . 3 8. b is the mean b. 10. and c. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions.

30 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes. are : : : inversely proportional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. of iron weigh . Hence the number of men required to do some work.) mn = pq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. 6 ccm. : : directly proportional may say.122 162. The mean proportional of their product. 2 165. briefly. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. and the other pair the extremes. pro- portional. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. : c. 164. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 163. of a proportion. and the time necessary to do it. ad = be. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. then G ccm.) b = Vac. 3 4. = 30 grams 45 grams.__(163. ccm. i. " we " NOTE. 163.e. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. If (Converse of nq. Clearing of fractions. !-. q~~ n .

V. (Composition.PATIO Ex. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. if 6 : 7. is 4$ = 35. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. . ad ( 163. = 35 . 1. + b:b = c + d:d. a III.) = f f = 3 J. d d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. then =d c.) II.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a:c=b:d. hence the proportion true.) a b b=c b = c-)-d:c d. (163. 166. bd bd. is Ex. ad = be.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad - Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. (Frequently called Inversion. I. 2. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4|. I. (Division. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. Or IV. 12x Hence a? = 42.) d 167.

= 20:7.g.124 IT.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. : x. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 9. = 2:3. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 180:125. 4. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. . To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. V. the consequents by 7. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 10. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 5 5. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 2. E. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 12 5ft.!=!*. 8. . mx tin Apply composition and division. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 3. i. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 5. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Simplify the following proportions. IV. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. Or III. = 7:2f 3J. x = 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l-^. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.e. Apply composition. = 2:x. 120:42 2 2 7. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 6 =4 : x. : 3 = 5 -f x : x.

. 20. 41.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 3. 5. 2. 21. x m = y n. a?:15 15. 17. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. Find the 37. ra + landra 1. 39. 25. 23. ratio of y. 47. 14. 29. 12. terra 2:3 = 4. mx = ny. = 15-o. 2 3 = y #.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 22. = 5 x 12. 52. 27. 112:42 = 10:a. 43. to : 9 and 12. 18.j>. 31. : a2 . 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 33. to: = 35:*. f.x: 6:5 a : x. 3. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3t. 42. 4 and 16. ra. 16 and 28. if : 40. 4. a. 35. (a : : 45. 28. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 1. 6x = 7y. Find the third proportional 24. Find the mean proportional 30.:ff. 6 x = y. ra 2 . 03:a?=135:20. 7iy = 2:x. rag. x:5 = y:2. = 3 43 + x. b. = l^:18. 46. 51.8:1. 6. w. 1 and a. : . 38. 34. |- 32. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. + fyx = cy. = 2 + x: x. and 2/. 5= 18 a? : a?. 2= 5 x x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 14 and 21.. rap. a 2 and ab. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 9 x = 2 y. to : a and 1. 2 a and 18 a. : 53. 26. 16. 2. 44. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 13. 50.

and the time. the squares of their radii (e) 55. the area of the larger? the same. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor- tional to the pressure (P).126 54. and the time necessary for it. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. 57. and the area of the rectangle. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the : total cost.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the speed of the train. 56. A line 7^. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. what 58. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.

Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 18 x = 108. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. so that Find^K7and BO. produced to a point C. Let A B AC=1x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 2. 11 x x 7 Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 11 x = 66 is the first number. AB = 2 x. is A line AB.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 2 x Or = 4. = the second number. x=2.000 168. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 4 inches long. . When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. : Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x -f 7 x = 108. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.

and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. How many gen. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. : 4. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. How The long are the parts ? 15. What are the parts ? 5. Gunmetal tin. 11. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12.000 square miles. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. and 15 inches. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b.000. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun- metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 12. 9.) . 7. 2. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 3. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. : 197. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 14. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 6. and c inches. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 13.

-L x If If = 0. x = 1. Hence. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. The root of (4) if K 129 . etc. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. However.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y = 1. Hence 2s -5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. =. expressing a y.-. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. 2 y = .y=--|. if . is x = 7. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.e. values of x and y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. there is only one solution. a? (1) then I. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj-3y = 6. such as + = 10.

174. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.3 y = 80. Therefore. same relation. for they express the x -f y 10. 6x . to The two methods I. y = 2. the last set inconsistent. The first set of equations is also called consistent. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. and 3 x + 3 y =. 4y . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . ~ 50. 172. = . cannot be reduced to the same form.26. 3. 30 can be reduced to the same form -f 5 y Hence they are not independent. viz. of elimination most frequently used II. Solve -y=6x 6x -f Multiply (1) by 2. E.130 170. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x -f. unknown quantity.X. 26 y = 60. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by - Subtract (4) from (3). Substitution. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. x -H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. are simultaneous equations.24. y I 171. By By Addition or Subtraction. 21 y .

3. 25 x . 60 .3 y = 47. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 10 + 5 1 = 135. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. = 406. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Transposing. Check. 8 2. whose coefficients In general.2 = 6. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. x = 10. add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . subtract the equations. Therefore Check.14 =-8. 10 .3 1 = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). y = 1. 3-7. 5 13 . = 235.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 3y = 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3. y = 2. + 2. are like. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 64 x = 040.

v 23. . I . [2o. O t K 8. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^ - 25 * -60. f 3X 7x 14. I ~ y~~> 22. = 24.9 *. = 41. = 6. x 11. _. + 2/ 17. ] ^ . 7 ' 1fi fl . 13- 6-1 l7a.-f2/ ' = 50. f 3# ?/ = 0. 19< I a.3. I oj 5y = 17. v ^ = ll.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.3.4. + 3?/ { 3 x -f 2 y = 39. -I i 3 a.5 y = -2. 9- 1 r 20. 13. * + 3 y = 50. J I y = 1U. i 3. ' 12.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.

(1) (2) Transposing 2. = 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan- other equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 3. = 2. = 13. = 4#-8. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 8. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (2-7. .

2 y = . (4). + 21-2y-4 = 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 3.-6)-7(y-7)==18. f8(z-8)-9(y-9) = 26. 7x_2y=-3. From 9 = 36.3. (4t(x-\-) ' ""^IT 3. 7 y = 6. simplified before elimination is possible. 21z-6y=-9. 4* + 3y = 19. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. \ \6(a. however. Substituting in (6) . 29 x = 29. 43 + 8-f-3y + 7z From (3). Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. x = l. 3 (1) Ex. . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (7) (7) (8) . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.

.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 16.1) = 121. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 12. 4 11. J 9. a. 14.-f-2 2. a. +y 2 . y-M a. = 3.1) + 5(6 y . 4~2v 3a?-2^4 3 1 18. 10. 10 2a?-5 17. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.

Q ^ 4 21. -f y .and x y . 3x-\" 1 23 24. but some expressions involving x. . 22. 180. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA -4_1 2' 19. e. {. ?~y . l_3 4' 2/4-1 2 a. <X + 20. and y. * ((* (( .#.

y 4. (4) + (G). . etc. 1. y.4 x = 4 xy. y 1. x 3. x 2x(2). .3 xy. Clearing of fractions. Therefore y=4. Dividing by 11 3 = #.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 2* * x 2. 33 = 11 x. can also be solved Examples method. (2) (3) a. Substituting x = 3 in (1). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. however. 137 Solve y y (1) . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. of this type. 15 y + 8 x .

10 " 12 25 U y 6. y M-Oi y a. x y 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). .138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K --. x 8. n. Ex. 21 9 --. 1.= 5. 4 13. 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p.= o 6. 253 7. = en. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 331 9.

14. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. x 12. w. apan cm. . Uniting. ap. fax -f = l. W . Dividing. x a. . f 5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I. amx + bmy amx -f any = any (an cm. a Find a and terms of n. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.y = = 9a + 46. ny = fy/ I sc 1. x -f my = 1. 6.W. -f- 6^ [ nx -f my == m. s in 11. bmy bm}y ap cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm -f- 6y = c. . and I if 13. d. d. ax + by = 2 a&.

ties are Similarly. 4. -f 3y 12 =s 8. -4.lf> z . To solve equations containing By tions. Ex. = 3.1+4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.15z=-12 Adding.2-5. 6.3 = 8.2 + 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 3. 8B-12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.8 = 1.12 y + 6 z = . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 3y = Hence Check. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.1-6. 182. (8) 2. = 30. 1. y =* 2. l. (4) -(5). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 20. 3. 8 x . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). by 3.2 + 3.1-3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. x + 12 y .3=-4. 1.by 2. . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. etc.

+ 2 y -f 2 = 35. 15 2 = 45. 49. 2 4. 2 . ~6?/ 5. 12. 8. + y -f z = 15. x 13. a? 11. 7. -f- 2 i/ -f- z = 14. y -f ?/ -M 2? = 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 4 = 42. k 2/ -f 2 x a. 2z = 40. a? + 70-9 = 26. 10. 14. == 6.

x _2 3 ' 074-2! J 18. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 5. ^ = 2.. .42 = 2. 27.6 2. 60. 32. = 8*. 23. 22. 84 21. ?/ 3x = 0. (3 _. . 19.3 y + .2 a. 1510 4- 17. 16. =s 20. ? = llz. 4.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. and to express In complex examples. The digit in the tens' place is | of the sum of the other two digits. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. + 396 = 521. Find the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. M=i. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 2 = 1(1+6). symbols: x + y +z- 8. the number. x : z =1 : 2. . ( 99.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 2 = 6. 1 = 2. 1. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. # 4. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. and if 396 be added to the number. . = 2 m. +2+ 6 = 8. y 31. Check.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Obviously of the other . z + x = 2 n. and Then 100 + 10 y +z- the digit in the units' place. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Ex. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. = l. however. y * z 30. + z = 2p. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 digit in the tens place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. either directly or implied.

From (3) Hence xy Check. 6 x 4 = 24. Find the fraction. 3. y = 3. C. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. direction. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. x 3 = 24. = 8. x y = the = the x denominator . Ex. Or (4)-2x(3). 8 = xy + x xy = xy -f 3 x 2 y = 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. the distance traveled by A. increased by one. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 2. (1) (2) 12. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x 3x-4y = 12. B. the fraction is reduced to | and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin- ished by one. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 2. 4 x = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. we obtain. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. . = the fraction. = Hence the fraction is f. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (3) C4) = 24 miles. 5_ _4_ A.144 Ex.

Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. it is reduced to J. the last two digits are interchanged. number by the first 3. If 27 is 10. Find the numbers. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. fraction is reduced to \-. 1. If the denominator be doubled. Find the fraction. ? What 9. the number (See Ex. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. . Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the numbers. 5. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the fourth 3. 7. the fraction is reduced fraction. to the number the digits will be interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. both terms. and its denomi- nator diminished by one. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. its value added to the denominator. tion ? 8. 2. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the number. 183. part of their difference equals 4. the Find the fraction. the value of the fraction is fa.}. 6. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the digits will be interchanged. the fraction equals . Find the numbers. If 9 be added to the number. A fraction is reduced to J. added to the numerator of a fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and the numerator increased by 4. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15.

the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. in 8 years to $8500. A sum of $10. and in 5 years to $1125. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. the rate of interest? 18. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Find the rates of interest. 19.000 is partly invested at 6%. the annual interest would be $ 195. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 13. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. respectively ? 16. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. .146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5 %. 14. and partly at 4 %. 12. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. How 6 %. now. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 4 %. A man invested $750.grams. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. 5 %. and money and 17. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find their present ages. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.

and F. is the center of the circum- scribed circle. three AD = AF. . points. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and e. are taken so ABC. then AD = AF. A farmer sold a number of horses. triangle Tf AD. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. . andCL4 = 8. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. E. ED = BE. BE. On /). and angle BCA = 70. but if A would double his pace. 24. BD = HE. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC = 7 inches. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. respectively. BC=7. and $15 for each sheep. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. the length of NOTE. $ 50 for each cow. for $ 740. angle c = angle d. and their difference by GO . 1 NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. 25.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and AC = 5 inches. receiving $ 100 for each horse. the three sides of a triangle E. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and GE = CF. and angle e angle/. and F. 23. and sheep. B find angles a. and F '(see diagram). Find their rates of walking. An C touch ing the sides in D. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. what is that = OF. cows. c.

and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). PM. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jr-axis. or its equal OM. B. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). . (7. (3. 186. (2. PN. and point the origin. 2). and r or its equal OA is . (2. jr.. ?/. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and ordinates abore the x-axis are considered positive . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN are given. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. YY' they-axis. is The point whose abscissa is a. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and PJ/_L XX'. is the abscissa. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. It' Location of a point. first 3). the ordinate by ?/. The of Coordinates. the ordinate of point P. -3). Thus the points A.

=3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points: (4. (-1. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 1). (-3.e.(!.2). (4. (4. (See diagram on page 151. 11. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (-l.and(l. and measure their distance. 3). 3. Graphs. 8. 1). i. -2). 6. 4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 0). -!). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of cross-section paper. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. Plot the points: (-4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. . -2). which of its coordinates known ? 13. (-2. 2J-). (0. Plot the points (6.) EXERCISE 1. (4. 4) from the origin ? 7. (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (-5.1). 2. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 0). 4. (-4. (-4.3). Plot the points : (0. (0.4). -3). 71 2). 0). 3). 4) and (4. 0). whose coordinates are given NOTE. . -4). 6. 12.

representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ABCN y the so-called graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. By representing of points. 15. 10 . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 188.. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. we meas1 . C. from January 1 to December 1. A. . ure the ordinate of F. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. may be found on Jan. or the curved line the temperature. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. B. 1. D. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the first table produces 12 points.

Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the graph is applied. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer. etc. the matics. the rise and fall of wages. uses them. the merchant. (b) July 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utt|s33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments.

? 9. 15. on 1 to the average. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. During what months above 18 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. ? - 3. (freezing point) ? 7. When the average temperature below C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8..152 2.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. is 10. 1 to Oct. (1) 10 C. 1? 11 0. How much. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (d) 9 0. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12..

Draw a graph for the 23. One meter equals 1. a temperature chart of a patient. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw . 20. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. NOTE. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren- heit) : 21. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. transformation of meters into yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou- sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 1-18.09 yards.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 26. A 10 wheels a day. to 27.154 24.50. function If the value of a quantity changes. 1 to 1200 copies.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. then C irJl. 28. 4.) T circumferences of 25.inch.g. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. . 9. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.5 grams. +7 If will respec- assume the values 7. if he sells 0. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. books from for printing. 29. and $. the value of a of this quantity will change. amount to $8. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if each copy sells for $1.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 190. x 7 to 9. gas. e. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. x increases will change gradually from 13. 3. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. binding. 2 . etc. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 3... etc. 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 2 x -f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.. x* x 19. represent his daily gain (or loss). (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . the daily average expenses for rent.50.

To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 155 -A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. is supposed to change. Graph of a function. The values of func192. Q-. If a more exact diagram is required.1). (- 2. (1^. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 9). 4). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of -3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . etc. 2). may . while 7 is a constant. to x = 4. Ex. 2. construct '. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 3 (0. 4). may. be also represented by a graph.1). plot points which lie between those constructed above. for x=l. (2. 1 the points (-3.e.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 -f. as 1. (1. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. . and (3. -J). x a variable. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 50. however. 2 (-1.g.0).2 x may 4 from x = 4. a*. E. 9).

Thus 4x + 7. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. -1).. = 4. 5). the function is frequently represented by a single letter.. (-3. = 0. straight line produces the required graph. (4. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 7 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.4). y = 6.) For brevity. j/=-3. 4).. etc. or ax + b -f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. rf 71 . It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 2. Ex.20). 4J. 2 4 and if y = x -f. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x-3. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. as y. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.2 x . r */ +* 01 . . 194. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. and join(0. Thus in the above example.-. (-2.

14. if y = 2.5)2. a?. The values of a?. The roots of the equation 2 -f 2 a a*2 = 0. 4a? I. 1. 1J-. a* 13. (C ) (-2.e. 1-J-. 2J-.-or. a ar. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 7. x-l. -3 a -8. 2. l. 9. 12. 6. The roots of the equation 2 -{-2x a*2 = l. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x -f 2 = 2. x+1. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x -f 2 = 1. (-If) Va25. if a. 5. 2 a. 18. 2x + 3x a?. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 16. 2 a. (ft) (_ 1. (7i) (c) 23. 19. -fa-- 17. Draw the graph ofy=2-j-2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 3.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. -Jar . (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2J. 21. 2 2 a. 1 8 10. 1-J-. 22. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. = The values of a*. 6 -fa. . 4 a. from x VlO-'S". 8. a. 2 2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. y = 2x = -4. if"a. = 4. -J-. a? 2 4. 11. 15. The smallest value of the function. a? 1.8)'.5)2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. the function. 2 or 2 20. if the function equals zero. i. + 4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. ?/ a. xz + x. The values of a*. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 3. 2-3x. 2 4 x -f 2 = 0. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 2. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.

24 or x = P and Q. 25.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F-32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. then y = .. C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi-1 F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 1 C. the abscissas of 3. Therefore x = 1. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. then cXj where c is a constant. .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. y= formula graphically. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. i..e. Represent 26.where x c is a constant. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 9 F.158 24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 32 F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that graph with the o>axis. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. Show any convenient number).24. 14 F... that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.

(a) (6) 9. 4. 6. (0. 11. viz. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #-axis. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 14. 8.-7 2 -a -5 = 0. 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. Such equations in general have two roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. de- = termine the points where If the function is 1. 3. 7. 10. and c represent \-3 -2 --1 1/2 known quantities. 2 and 1. cross-section paper is used. 6. and determine the abscis- 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. + + = where a. 197. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 13. a: (a) (6) (c) -6a.-f 9 = 0. 12. a2 -2a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. = 0. . (a) x2 = 0. or 5 2. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. is called a quadratic equation.

and joining by a straight line.e. 2). Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. NOTE. Hence we may join (0. y = -l. first degree. T .1. if y = is 0. y y 2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 1) and 0). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x ( - graphically. If x = 0. ?/ =4 AB. unknown quantities. ?/. Represent graphically Solving for y ='-"JJ y. produces the 7* required locus. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 0). fc = 3. solve for ?/. Hence if if x x - 2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s .2. 3x _ 4 . i. Ex. Hence. and join the required graph. because their graphs are straight lines. = 0.2 y ~ 2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). that can be reduced Thus to represent x - - -L^- \ x =2 - graphically. X'-2 Locating the points (2. (f . 199. . 4) and (2. locate points (0. Ex. == 2.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.

Solve graphically the equations : (1) \x-y-\. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. 3. To find the roots of the system. Graphical solution of a linear system. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). and CD. viz. (2) . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.1=0. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 203. parallel have only one point of intersection.15. equation x= By measuring 3. 202.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P. 201. AB y = . Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. we obtain the roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).57.

construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Measuring the coordinates of P. etc. 4.. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. Solve graphically the : fol- lowing system = = 25.5.5. the graph of points roots. The equations 2 4 = 0. = 0. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. and + 3). (-2. Since the two - we obtain DE. and joining by a straight line. 2. Using the method of the preceding para. 3x 2 y = -6. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). x2 . 3. if x equals respectively 0. 4.e. e. 3. - 4. intersection. 5. Locating two points of equation (2). (4. 1. In general. 2 equation x 3). 2. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. (1) (2) -C. 3).9.0). V25 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. i. 0. y equals 3. they are inconsistent. 4.y~ Therefore. 3. 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 1. 5. we of the + y* = 25.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. (-4. 4. . Locating the points (5. Solving (1) for y. 0.g.0. 4. 0) and (0. AB the locus of (1). there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Inconsistent equations. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. and . the point we obtain Ex.

x~y=0. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. and solve each If there are no solutions. 20. a+r/=6. '163 Dependent equations. if possible.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. the graphs of the following systems. Draw system. 16 22.. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 10. vice versa. 5. as 2^3 and 3x -f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 3. 6. y= a2 2x y6. and. 9. y 2 4. 2. 19. 17. 8. 2x 3?/=6. a. state reasons. . 7. 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. \ 2x + 3^ . y = 4. 16 23. y=x + 5.

8. 26. 3 31.164 24. AND SQUARE HOOTS . CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = . 30. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x -f 5y = 5. TABLE OF SQUARES.y). 28. 25. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .

All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. a special kind of product. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ^4/? it According to 50. is may be by 207. 2.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. (- 3 2 6 3 )* = (- 3 a2 6 8 ) . 52. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( a) is positive. -fa. powers of a positive quantity are positive. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. (- 3 a268 ) (- a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . According to 1. 2.-faa a a a Obviously 1. involution repeated multiplication. a = a3 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.a2 . etc. 3 -f a = -f a = +. . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 8. on to in factors 4. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. follows that 3.

166 To find To To power. 3 2 2 8 . 2 11 (afc ) . 6. 5. (-2ar). 16. a product to a given power. 210. raise a fraction to a power. the required power. (-a ) 2 5 . 24. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (-a ) 2 4 - 3. .3 a 6 -f 3 a6 . V V/ 13. 4. am-Vy) 3 . 15. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (-277171 )*. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. The &- cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 2. 76 : (>y. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (-|^^) 2 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. ^--/-2?n?A 4 ' 30.6) = a .6 (a 8 8 . 4 /2mV. \ 3 J ' - M-W 10.

2 a8 -3a2 + 3a-l. Ex. 8. 1. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.y . etc. (3 x . 8 (a?-?/) 3 . - lx - (7 a (1 -I) 3 17. 4. or* - Find the cube root of 19. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 3 . + a 2 a. (a-fl) . frequently called ex. 2 . a. (5 (1 -a) 3 . pansions. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. are obtained by multiplication.y) = (3 y?y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 -126 + G6-l. 7. . (a + &)8 . 23. 167 Find the cube of 2 x -f. 16. (3a (a (4 62 -l) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 -f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.3 y. An 1. 3. 12. 211. 15. 9. + 3a 6 + 3a& -f-& ^-Sx^ + S^ -^ 3 2 2 3 . nent of the binomial. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 18. 1 -f 3 2 3 . 21. 13. 5. 2.INVOLUTION Ex. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 .6 2 8 ft) . (3 (l -I) 2 8 . : a 20. (6m+2w) (3 8 . .) 14. (3a-f26) 8 . + 4aj) 3 . The higher powers of binomials. (m-2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 3 8 . (a-j-7) . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . +5a) 22. 6. 2.

17. 4 . (2 a 4 .96 ^y -f 216 o?y . (?/i-~w) : 16. 78 s . 3. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Ex. 14. (a~^) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 5. (m-J) 4 11. (a-f 5) . .216 a^ 4. 4. . Ex. 10. 6. and the powers negative.168 3. (m 2 + n) 8 . (2w 2 2 -f-l) 4 . 13. Expand <? 2 (2 # - 3 y3 ) 4 2 . 8. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 25. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 18. The minus.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (1 + 4 ?/) . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (?>i?i -f c)*. (m 5 I) 2 22.2. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a -f5) 5) 4. . (l-a&) 4 12.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . 1. (l 8 . 3. (2 4. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 24. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 9. (p + q) 4 * 7. (m -fl) 2 20. mn 5 2 5 ) .a) 3 19. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (l-fa 6 2 ) 5. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 23. 2. (tf-f-1) (c-fd) . 21. 4 (1-for) 5 . Ex. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212.4(2 * )'(3 *f) -f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 15. . 5. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. Expand (x = ic 5 -f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . . is the coefficient of the next term. (2a-5c) (1 -f 2 4 a:) 4 . . ( &) 5 .

or y ~ 3. and ( v/o* = a. 4 4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 1. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. V9 = + 3. called real numbers. \/"^27=-3. 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. V \/P 214. tity . which can be simplified no further. a) 4 = a4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (-f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 27 =y means r' = 27. etc. 109 . Since even powers can never be negative. (_3) = -27.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. numbers. or -3 for (usually written 3) . 215. or x &4 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. and all other numbers are. = x means = 6-. for distinction.

7 . \/2 4 9 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 7. v/^i2 = a*. = 199 + (_ 198) . extract the and denominator. 2. Ex 5 a" . 3/0** = am . = 19472. .9 = 136.200 . = V26TIT81 = 5-3. -fy 5 3 . To extract the root of a power. 2 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex. roots of the numerator \/18 . 7. 7 . Ex. .1. 9.201) = 2. -v/2^. EXERCISE 1. Ex. V36 9 4. To extract a root of a fraction.64 5 4 . 4 v. index. 6. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.4. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 8. 2.(. 82 . V?. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V5 -v/2 7 2. 5. 3. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . - 100 a 2 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3i .125. 10. 79 2 -v/2 5 . 3 33 53 . Ex. 6. Ex. 9. 62 = V2* . for (a 3 )* = a 12 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . . 6- 7 = 030. V25 9 16. Ex. 8.lL.

2 . 2 . V8. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. Ex. 2. 34. -\/d -\-Vab r + b\ 9.98. 2y-h2/ 4 - 9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .EVOLUTION 171 28.3 . V20 .6 tfif + 9 y = O ./).75. 2 -f ( V240) 3 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 1. V9216.3 y2) ( vV . 6. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 116. 5.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. .3.(V200) -f ( VI5) 2 .4/. a -f2 l 2 + l. a* 4 8 2 . 45 V5184. 33. ^-40^4.6 ofy 2 -f 9 y4 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 3.) by inspection. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Find the square root of a2 . 32. 29. (Vl24) -{ 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. Hence _ 6 ary -f 9 y = (s . 30. 31.

2 2 218.2 ac . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.b 2 2 to its square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 . . let us consider the relation of a -f. The term a' first 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the so-called trial divisor. 10. 15. 2ab . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. however. and b (2 a -f b). a-\-b is the root if In most cases. the that 2 ab -f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. and b. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. mV-14m??2)-f 49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 -44a?> + 121V2 4a s . i. 11.172 7. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 &c. 8 . the given expression is a perfect square. #2 a2 - 16.> 13.2 ab + b . + 6 + 4a&. 12. a -f.72 aW + 81 & 4 .e. 14.

*/'' . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 219. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. the first term of the answer. . and so forth. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . 2. 8 /-. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . by division we term of the root. Ex. First complete divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. of x. Second trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 - 12 a +4 a -f 2. . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. The square . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. \ 24 a 3 4-f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 6 a. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 8 a 2 .24 afy* -f 9 tf. As there is no remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Explanation.24 a + 4 -12 a + 25 a8 s . .EVOLUTION Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. 1. . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 8 a 2 2. - 24 a 3 + 25 a 2 - 12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. First trial divisor.

37 a ^ . 4- 36 a 2 12 4- 4- 16 a4 4- 46 a 4 4- 44 a 8 -f 25 a -h 12 a 4- 4 25 a6 4.6 . 2 4.42 a -f 49 a 6 16 a4 -|- 24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .25. 6.10 x2 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.16. > 7. 4 4-?/ 4-2x- 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 3 a2 a4 4- 2a + a4 2 or 4-1 3 2 a3 + 1. 14. 4 . 2 x2 3 2x.12 m 4. 12. 24. 25 x 4 -f- 40 afy 4-46 x 2 if 4- 24 a^ 8 4- 9 4 i/ . 5. 4-12 a& -f 37 a' 6 .12m 5 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .73a4 4-40^4-36^4-60^. 15. 36it.25 x 4 4.2^4-3^4-2^ 46 5 4 a. + 81 a 4-54 a + 81. 9.54 a 40 a 6 4- 9 a4 .20 o 4.V4-30^4-25^ 4m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 13#4 4-13ar 4-4a.a 6 x*y 2 . 5 4- 16 4 iK . 20. 6 11.20 J or 2 16 x 4.14^4-4 ic 4^ 3 12^. a? 2 . l 4. 10. 3. 19.9. 17. . x 6 4- 4 0^4. 1 4.40 a 22 .12 a6 2 2 3 4- 4 64 .4 x 4. 18. 16. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 729 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.42 a*& 4. 16x6 4. 8. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 4-36^?/4-69a.73 a8 . 36a 4-60a 4-73a 4-40a 4-16a 3 2 13.24 or .

of 1.000 is 100.176. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the first of which is 4.000. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. two figures. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. etc. the first of which is 8. = 80. etc.000 is 1000. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . As 8 x 168 = 1344. Ex. Therefore 6 = 8.000. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. of a number between 100 and 10.. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of 10. 1. Find the square root of 7744. Find the square root of 524. and the square root of the greatest square in units. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the first remainder is. which may contain one or two). and the complete divisor 168.1344. The is trial divisor = 160. Ex. 2.EVOLUTION 220. first . Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. a 2 = 6400.

1 are Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.1T6 221. places.0961 are '. in . Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid- ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places. Find the square root of 6/.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. annex a cipher. The groups of 16724.70 6.GO'61. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . 3. 12.10.

feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 5. 33. 13. 31.4 square when R = radius and 11. T\. = 3.53. 39. 35. 1.58 square 38. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 34. J-. 30. .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow- ing numbers: 29.1410.01.) 40. 32. JT . whose area equals 48. 37. 1. 36.22. feet.

CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.g. x -f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. This answer Check. or incomplete. Transposing. 178 . x 2 7. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. = 4. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. + bx -f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Ex. = 7^ + 5. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7( - 19 = 33 . 226. is A quadratic equation. or equation of the second degree. The 7 equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 1.. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. is 12. 2)* + 5 = 33. 225. 2 ic = a. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. complete. 224. 6 y2 = 17. A pure. Dividing. 2. 6#2 = x* 24. but no higher power e. or affected. Extracting the square root of each member. . Solve 13 x2 -19 etc. x = + 2 or x =2.

=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. .2. 7. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 -f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . ' =: y? b* b . 5. 2. -7 = 162. .25. 2 4fc -5' 18. 4 ax. 2 2 a. 15^-5 = 6. ax Transposing and combining. 3. Solve 179 . 6(--2)=-10(aj-l). or Therefore. Dividing by Extracting the square root. s-3 -? + oj x +3 = 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 1 = 1. 10. : 83 2. o. 8. 19 + 9 = 5500. (a?- 9. 16^-393 = 7.

4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 26. and their product : 150. its area contains =a 2 -f- b2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. then Since such a triangle tangle. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 3. 25. If a 2 4. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. EXERCISE 1. 24. find a in terms of 6 . Find the side of each field. solve for r. solve for v. 2. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length.b 2 If s If =c . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 22 a. 9 & -{- c# a x +a and c. Find is the number. solve for d. ' 4. may be considered one half of a rec- square units. 108. 228. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. r. . 27. 2 . . 2a -f- 1 23. A right triangle is a triangle. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and they con- tain together 30G square feet. : 6.) of their squares 5. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 29. 2 : 3. If G=m m g . 28. Find the side of each field. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If 2 -f 2 b* = 4w 2 -f c sol ve for m. If 22 = ~^-. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 2 . Find the numbers. is 5(5. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers.

x* 7 x= 10. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. A body falling from a state of rest. 8. is and the other two sides are equal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . sides. 9. add (|) Hence 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. Solve Transposing. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 2m. radii are as 3 14. . and the third side is 15 inches. we have of or m = |. -J- = 12. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Find these 10. Method of completing the square. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 .) 13. The area : sides are as 3 4. 24. Find the sides. 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. (b) 100 feet? = . . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx -f m to 2 .7 x -f 10 = 0. (b) 44 square feet. Find the unknown sides and the area. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The following ex- ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find the radii. and the two smaller 11.2 7 . To find this term. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.

2 a* a.a.2 a2 . Extracting square roots.. Transposing. 62 x 5 = f. 230.x(l = . 80^69^-2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Uniting. = x-\ = 2. = 6. (*~8) a = at . | x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2 -| . = |. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 ax -f 2 o) s a . a Clearing of fractions.1. Ex. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*-\-px==q. Therefore. Transposing. Or (*-i) x Extracting square roots. = \ # = ff. | \. adding member).e. or J. . a. 22 -7 2 + 10 =0.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. or x = 2. -7 5 + 10 = 0. J. Ex. Hence Therefore Check. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.2. Simplifying. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x -f a = 2 ax.

x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT -* Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*" - - Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.

=0. -\-bx-\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48. 231. o^ or -}- 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =8 r/io?. 49. 2x 3 4. = 12. .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao. and c in the general answer.c = 0. Solution by formula.

= 12 . 9. 2 a? = 44 x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 16. 19. ?i 2 . 6^+5^ 56.4 4- 5 . 17. a. b = - + 20 == = 0. 14. - . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. Reducing to general form. 2. TIO. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 11. 7^ + 9 x 90. c p. 2 . 2 o.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 8. 5 x2 Transposing. 12. 20. 6 . 10. 3. = 64-120?. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 6. 2or } -5o. 6 Ex. : 86 + 2 = 0. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 4. 1. 15. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. V^tT)* . 26. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 3 x -11 + 10 = 0. 18.. c = 5.25 x. 6. 13. - P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x-5. 21. 7. 2. 2 a.

27 x== 4-2a. if either of the uct is zero. = 0. . Eesolving into factors. = 0. 24. Factoring. x2 = 1 . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Bx 1 1. or # 5 is zero. ar>-8o. 5 = 0. orz roots. 2S-3x 1 2 . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . all or. and 6. = 14. 2a^7x sc(2 --16rc Therefore a = 0.x. member can be Ex. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 23. = 0. 0. 25. (5 a? -!)(. Transposing.4) = . 3x?+x = 7. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2x-f3=0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 26. 5) = 0. factors Now. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.5) =0.2. x(x <2 . a=:i^-^. Clearing for fractions. a? 28 - 7a-l=-7s be required to solve the 232. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.5 Solving (1) and (2). Solution by factoring.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. transposing terms to one member. }. 233. 1. any degree. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.

EXERCISE Solve by factoring -|-6 2. 4. + 100. Therefore x =3 = 2. 187 Solve x? -3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 5.(. 3. : 87 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. (aj-4)(a. 3# y 5 = 0. 2. - 3) 2 4 (x = 0. 5 = 0. E. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 3 or 2 a. a?-10a=:-24. 8. The equation I. (*-2)(x + 2)(a-3)=0.e.= 24. + 6)=0. 0^ ar> 11. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 13. 2. we 9 obtain x 4. + 9 -f 20 x = 0.24 = 0. O roots are 2. 3^ = 0(110-6). members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. is 5) = 0. 3. -4)(z-3) = 0. 4or + 18a -f 8a.:=0.6)) = 0. 0(0-2) = 7(0-2). In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 12. } 2 2 (5 . members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3) Factoring. 3) = 0. a* 10a=24. 16. Or Hence the 234. ar'-Sa^ -12. + 8=s: 7. + 10 a = 24. 9.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 7. x2 -f 2 x . and the equation thus formed be solved. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 2o3 -f9a. 14.g. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. a?. 6.3)(x + 3 3. aj( 15. Ex. for a: .

19. '-3a!J - . (a + 1) (a. 2. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. 50.188 17. 23. 22. 20. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 25. ara + ft + c*. 18. a 2 =(x a)b. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). or 3 -a -2 2 a? 26. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.3) = (s + l) (3 -a). 27.

Twenty-nine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. -4. feet. Find the sides. -5. 58. and whose product 9. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. Find the number. 57.0. 1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. two numbers is 4. 6. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 55. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. : 3. 3.9. Find the number. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and consequently many prob- 235. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The 11. number by 10.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. and whose sum is is 36. Find a number which exceeds its square by is -|. 7. 2. .3. -2.1. 56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 0. and equals 190 square inches. -2. 52. EXERCISE 1. 1. 5. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. -2. 8. -2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.3. of their reciprocals is 4. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. The difference of |. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.0. Find the numbers. and the difference Find the numbers. 54. 3.2. G.

The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. If he each horse ? .10. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 15. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200.190 12. 14. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. . watch for $ 24. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. Two vessels. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ABCD. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and Find the sides of the rectangle. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. as the 16. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 13. 19. Find the rate of the train. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. What did he pay for 21. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. dollars. 17.

How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is - by a path 5 feet wide. 23 inches long. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. a point taken. of the area of the basin. 27. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.) 25. constructed with and CB as sides. 24. By formula. how wide is the walk ? 23. Find TT r (Area of a circle . In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. contains B 78 square inches. 1. Find and CB. (tf. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. the two men can do it in 3 days. Solve ^-9^ + 8 = ** 0.I) -4(aj*-l) 2 = 9. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. ^-3^ = 7. or x = \/l = 1. so that the rectangle. B AB AB -2 191 grass plot. and working together. is On the prolongation of a line AC.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. . Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Ex. 237. as 0.

4 6. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.192 238. 19. 2. Solving. 2 (^-Z) - "3 14. ^^ ~ 28 (a?- ^ 2:=Q> . 16. y-8)=0. 4 : 89 -10a. (a: +aj) -18(x2 +a. 4.2 =-4. 12. = 13. T 17. 4 -8 = 2 a* 2. a? 15 1=2*. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.T 2 2 . 7. >. 8. 6. 3 a4 -44s + 121=0. 4-36 3. Ex. Hence Le. 2 16 a^-40 11. 9. a -21or=100. a. 10. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or r-f 15 = 0. 4 a. 18. 2 -h9:=0. aV+9o 4 =0.)+72=0. 4 2 4 -37aj 2 = -9. = 1. or y = 8. a4 -5o.

Ex. 2. the roots are imaginary. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4-r2 = a Or . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are irrational. . the roots are unequal. 3. rational. is 4ac not zero.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are real.bx 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 240. the roots are rational. a perfect square. negative.f> = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.5) = 04. it 2a follows 2 : 2. 1. rational. and unequal.12 x + 9 = 0. 241. Ex. The discriminant =(. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .bx 4- by ' i\ and r2 then . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 -f- bx -f- c = has two roots. b 4. c the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.2 z . and equal. ( 2a Hence 1.2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .

= 0. 2a -4z-5 = 0. 2 7. 5a -26a? + 5 = 0. 6. tfmx+p^Q. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. x2 -7 10. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. x2 -!i>x + 2 z2 2 16. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. -f 2 E.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : -x +a +-= a 0. n a?-3 ' ~ == l 5. : a 2 . 4. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 22. 2. o.19 # 20. 12. 60 2 = 0. = 0. 15. = Q. = 5x. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 17. ^-12.. 3a.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2 : 3. 21. 24.g. x2 -4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. their product is-f. + 18 2 8. 14. 18. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. -lla. + 2a-15 = 0. 23. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 12~x = x 2 . + 12 2 - . -9a-3 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^-2 = 0. 5aj 9. 2 a. = 0. + 2-a. 5oj -aj + l = 0.

very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. ~ a m -f. Then the law of involution. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. 244. (a m ) w . (ab) . that a an = a m+n . It is. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con- venient for other work." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . provided w > n. while the second of the first. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. however. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. We assume. no Fractional and negative exponents. m IV. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. such as 2*.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. The first of these laws is nition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . and . = a"" < . a m a" = a m+t1 . II. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. > m therefore. for all values 1 of m and n.a" = a m n mn .* III. must be *The symbol smaller than. hence.

24. 4~ . 30. etc. 245. m$. e. 28. fractional. . 0?=-^. (xy$. n 2 a.g. 3*. '&M A 27. 25. Assuming these two 8*. a . Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. a\ 26. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. ml. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . or zero exponent equal x. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. - we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 31. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a?*. (bed)*. a*. laws. = a. at.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. disappear. 23. as. 29.

27* = 3. 7z* Find the values of 47. 35. 5 a* = 10. : 197 33. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a * a2 Or a=l. 46. v'mT 36.g. 42. Let a = a. = 2. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 48. however. e. 40. 64* + 9* + 16* + (-32)*. Solve the following equations 39. = 49. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. the base is zero. 37. -\fi?. 49. hence is . ty?. Vo5 . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. = 2. a . If. 38. 50. e. : 2' 4* = 4. 45.\/n. equal to unity. a. 3* = 27. a* * = 3. 44. 41.g. -v/o&cT 34.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. -\/xy- -\/m. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 43. 246.

198 247. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. by changing the sign of NOTE. Or a"# = l. vice versa. e. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . .2 = a2 . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. 248.g. Multiplying both members by a". etc. an x = a. Let x= or". cr n. or the exponent. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations.

"* 38. : mi m~^. f (2w)~i 1 -. m . 40. . 37. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. a. . 2 .- 27. 22. ^?2 y' 34. c 32. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2 . 1 -L ?>i""i 3 cci . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a? * 42. 3 a. a^ 41. : or 5 . 39. 25. 66 45. 36. ^L. 6 or 2 ^-^ ^. 7~ l a 2b 2 . rfS. 2m~i 43. * 24.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 44.

52. 57. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 5 - 75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. + A_. z 5or*=10.001. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 58. 1.26)* 1 (I-) 2 . 55. = l. 250. ar = i. = -^. 47.008)* + A. (81)* + (3f)*-(5 TV)*-3249 + 16 * . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con- taining fractional exponents. 54. 10* Find the values 56.6). + 1~* -f 21 . 49. 59.1. 61. 53. .343)* + (.81 -f (a .9*. of: 3-ll4~* 60. = 5.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 17' 2 51. Ex. z* = 1. (. 48.(. 10* 5* = . = . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .

$-". 6 *. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.6 *' 6 *25. S-'-s-S-8. Remove the negative exponents.$-*. 25 26 - 2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 13.&. 7~ 6 . 4 5. ' 11.5. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.7i. &. 23. . 3-s-VS. (d) If required. 95 -^9i 5-*-*. 72 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. are performed. 7~ 5 27 - . 18. etc.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. . 4 x^.&. 14. #* a. 16. 79 . 12. .7W.. 14an- (4**(Va) 4 . 27 - 28. 7. 17. 6. V5. OA 20.3 aj" a. 6a-. 7*. a.4 a8 . NOTE.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 10. 16.4 . 3 a.7*.^/5-^5. __ 29- /m -'-=V a9 -i-a. / 7-f--v 7. 26. 3. Perform the operation indicated. remove the fractional exponents.5a. 8 ' 9.

1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 6 35. 40. powers of x arranged are : Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 2. V ra 4/ 3 -\/m 33. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1.2 d . we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. The 252. lix = 2x-l =+1 Ex. If powers of a?. 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 34.

THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93

203

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1

-f-

3.

V25 #

- 2()"ar r+ 34 - 12 x -f 9 x*.

20.

^^
l

21. 22.
23. 24.
25.

+2
a?
8

(l+4^-flO^ + 20oT-f 25^T -f-24-\/i?-f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V2-2). (5+V3)(5-2V3).
26. 27.

)*.

(1-3VS)(2 + V5).

(VU - V2)(Vn~3V2)

204

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:

Find by inspection
28.
29.

(x*

+ 3)(tf*-f 2).

35.
36.

8 (a;*

yi)

.

a*

+ 3l-5.
V2

(5*-2*

2
.

30.
31.
32.

38. 39.

(3^
(#* ^
(fl

2*)
-f-

.

33. 34.

5) (x*

5).

40.

(m

n)

-f-

(m*

11
-f-

n 5 ).

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.

A

radical is the root of

a quantity, indicated by a

radical sign.

254.

The

radical is rational, if the root can be extracted

exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.

^9
4^
\/2,

(*

+ V) *

are radicals.

= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4a-f
b are irrational.

255.
root.

The

order of a surd

is

indicated by the index of the

va
\/2

/-

.

is
is is

of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.

Vc

256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.

An
257.
factor.

entire surd is

one whose coefficient

is

unity; as

Va,

Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6

which contain the same irrational
are similar.

av^

3V2 and

3 V8 are dissimilar.

206

206
258.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.

All even roots
e.g.

may

be positive or negative,

VI = + 2

or

2.

Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict

the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.

Thus

5 V4 4- 2 V4

= 7 VI = 14.

If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;

=-

(oj- 2).

259.

Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional

exponents, all examines relating to radicals

may

be solved by the

methods employed for fractional exponents.

Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T

1

1

(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.

(242).

to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the

factors.

TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.

A radical is simplified when the

expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.

Ex.

1.

Simplify

= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4

Ex.

2.

Simplify

-v/16.

-J/lB^^.

4/2

= 2^.

RADICALS
.

207

261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.

Ex.

3.

Simplify V|.

Ex.

4.

Simplify

EXERCISE

94

208

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s

37.

39.

j

*x+y
38.

n

\ 2m

262.

An

same manner

imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;

42.

V-16a
:

,

2
.

44.

2\-

Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.

VJ.*

49.
50.

Vf.

VJ.

VA

263.

Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.

Ex.

Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.

EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:

95

4V5.

3.

2-\/lL

5.
6.

7.

2.

3V7.

4.

3^5.

a VS.

8.

* See table of square roots on page 164.

RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.

209

Ex.

1.

Transform -\/uW into a surd of the 20th order.

Ex.

2.

Transform

\/2,

V3, and

\/5 into surds of the

same

lowest order.

V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. |^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1

Ex.

3.

Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.

Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by

same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.

96
:

to surds of the 6th order
2.

Va?.

-fymn.

3.

\/ v

4.

v'c?.

5.

\|

z

\

^3

6.

mn.

Reduce
7.
8.

to surds of the 12th order
9.

:

V2~a.

\/a4 6 2c.
-\/3ax.

11.
12.

-\/oP6.

13.
14.
a.

^v/mV

10.

\/5a5V.

Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:

15.

-v/o

5
.

16.

\/oW.

17.

-v/IaT .

2

18.

-\/

20.

A/^

22.

VSlmV.

24.

3-\| . -v/3. V3. V5.e. 4^/4. Arrange 35. s!/3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 5V2. -^7. Simplify V| + 3 VlS. -v^S. V3. -^4. ^126. 36.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^/IT. 29. I VJ + 3VT8 . (i.2 V50. </2. To add or form. -\/7. 38. V2. ^2. ^30. 31. 3 - s/- / 3ft 2 - 3 ^y Ex. 34. 3. 2\ 3*. Ex. VS. </20. A/3. 27. + . 39. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^4. 28. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .10 V2 = - V2. </3. 26. signs. V2. 40. 30. 33. ^3.2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. -^6. A/2. connect them by proper 1. Simplify V|~ . subtract surds. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 37. 32. ^5. if dissimilar. -v/3. Ex. -v/4. -\/5. V2. -^2.

6. 12. 8VT8-J-2V32 7.J a6 V4 aft. V18+V32-VT28+V2. 13. . V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 -f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 10. 4. 2V8-7Vl8-f5V72-V50. + 3V8-35V2. 9. V175-V28+V63-4V7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V75-9V48. 11. 3. 6.3V20 + 6V5. 14. 4V80-5V45-. VJ+V8-V1 + V50. 8.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2.

Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 23. and then multiplied. Ex. y* = Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 2. . . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 3. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .100 = -f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply 3-\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 6*. 26^ . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.6V35 106 4-60V35-100 .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.2v/6 + IPV6 105. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Ex. 1.

fWa 17. 9. 7. 6. V2a-V8^.VSS. (5V2-2V3-CVS)V3. -v/18 -v"3. 2 . 6. 25. 37. V2 -V50. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 10. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 6 V4 5. (5V5-8V2)(5V5 + 8V2). -VTO. Vll. aVa. VlO V15. (3 20. 13. 40. 12. 34. 39. (Vm-Vn)(Vm+Vn> 33. .^/2. 19. (Va Va 36. 14. 21. 27. 8. -v/4.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 40 10 30. 3. 4. ( Vm -\- 1 Vm) (Vm-f 1 6(Va-f Va -{- Vm). -\/3 -\^). (Vm-Vn) (V3-V2) 8 . 18. 41. V20 V30. (6V2-3V3)(6V2-|-3V3). 28 . V3 V6. 2. V3 Vl2. + VB)(2-V5). 213 98 11. a?. (2-V3) 8 . (V6 + 1) 1 . 38. V42. 15.

. (2 45. Ex. (3V5-2V3)(2V3-V3).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 53. a VS -f- a?Vy = -\/ - x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. E. Va -v/a. 51. 44. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 46.y. 43. the quotient of the surds is If. 52. a fraction. (3V3-2Vo)(2V3+V5). 49. 48. (5V2+V10)(2V5-1). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V5-5V3) S . is 1 2. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (V50-f 3Vl2)-4-V2== however. -v/a - DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.214 42. (5V7-2V2)(2VT-7V2). all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. V3 . Ex. 47. 268.

Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. by V7.57735.by the usual arithmetical method.RADICALS This method.. . arithTo find. however. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . 1. The 2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. /~ } Ex. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Evidently.73205. Divide VII by v7.g. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. metical problems afford the best illustrations. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JL-V^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 3. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. is illustrated by Ex. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . we have V3 But if 1. e. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.

V5 270. A. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom- inator is a binomial quadratic surd. Vn V7 ' * 8.. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . and Given V2 = 1. V3 24 . 272. Vll 212*. 271. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. --. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate.2361. V8 12. A. 21. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 23 . 14. ^/H . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V48 25. 7.7320. V3 = 1. -i. Vf-f-V?. V2 22 . V5 = 2. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. .4142. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 -2-. V8 JL.

Vs2 . Ex. . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 217 Simplify 2V3-V2 ' V3-V2 ~ = 4 + V5. s Simplify a. Ex. 3.07105 = 7 7 2V2-1 2V2-1 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .2.1 x-Vtf a. 1. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V2-1 e .RADICALS Ex. .= 18.vffi^T _ . V8-2 2-V3 1-fVS .

V2-1 -= 25 . . V5-V7 18> ^-SVg. By the use of fractional exponents . -J?_. = V3 = 1. 27. Given V2 1. four places of decimals 23 . V3-2* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 -f- 2V2. v 2-V3 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V5-1 14 A 16. 19. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. Vo-1 26.218 6 . : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V5-2 17 1-Va? Vg+v/2 5V7-7V5 ' V3-V2 15.5 3 = 125.W3.2361. 2V5-V18 m-Vm Va 22. 24. 6V7-. find to _!_.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3-V5 ' V5+2 31.7320.

Simplify Ex.RADICALS 219 274. \/125" . the If. 2 12. 2. 5. 11. . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 8. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 2. V643 . on the other hand. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. V255 . According to G3. -\/l6*. v8-f 2\/15. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v5-|-2V3 5 + 3. 4. viz. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 9. it to this form. 3 (V2~u-) - 7. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 3. 1.

Find Vll . The Hence ^11 . ^TT. 2.2 A/2 = V9-A/2 = 3 .220 Ex.6 V2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 . These Ex.A/2. +2 Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11.2 \/20. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. and whose product is 18. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. Find Vl2 4. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 3.

much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.1. 4x x = 2. Transposing Vsc2 + -f 12 12 Squaring both members.V48 4 20. member to 2. Transposing and uniting.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 19. 8. * 4-- * 2 V6 VT 4. a. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. . Ex. The value x =2 reduces each . 4. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 277.e. Radical equations are rationalized. by raising both members equal powers. : 221 Vl3-2V22. = xa + 4 x -f 4. V48 23. -+=. they are transto formed into rational equations.. -\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Before performing the involution. first involution. 5. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Solve vV-f!2-a = 2. i. are radical equations. r 22. x2 = x -f 2. Dividing by Check. (2x xrf 1. VT .

Transposing and uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 -f V4 -f 1 . 278. viz. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. . Squaring both members. Therefore Check. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. viz. a so-called extraneous root.222 Ex. tion which has two roots. Dividing by 24. It = 3 x . V4afT~l. 24 \/4 #-|- Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. -f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Extraneous roots. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Vitf 4x -f 25 -f- 25 4x -f- 1 25.1) = 0. at . Transposing. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 2. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Factoring. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 4#-f 4 = 9. x = J. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25x-f3 = 0. 3. -f- 25 = 12. Squaring both members. Ex. member =|\/2 + -jV2=|v^. 5. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. the first member = V2. a. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Solve -Vx -f- Squaring both members.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. or = VzMx2 7 x -f -f 7 x + 9. Transposing and uniting. one root. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. . Therefore CftecAr. they may be extraneous roots.

viz. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.2 r. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x -f A5_ 15. Solve the following equations : = G.RADICALS Hence x If a.47) = 0. and to 5. for it satisfies the equation .12 . Squaring. is x V. 2 Clearing of fractions. . Hence there is only one root. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Transposing. Check. both members reduce to 5. Hence x = the only root.48 x + 2 x2 53 -f 141 = 0. . 4- VxT~0 = \/8 x -f 1. the right member = |V2. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. = 3. ViTie- 4 z2 .3) (2 x . V2x' 8 4-2x4-3 Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. If If x 3 = 3. (x x = 3. 223 x = 3. equation it is an extraneous root. + 6~ieT~3 . NOTE. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Therefore. x root of the preceding equation. Factoring. 4. . or x *j-.

Many 1. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring.

2.35 = 0. members of the equation were squared.8 x + 40 = 36.*-2a. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Q . 2_8z 4-40 = 49. 2. + 40 = 6. Vi 2 -8a. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. . _ 2 y . 4-12a* = 16. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. some of the roots be extraneous. Substituting. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 4. 3. 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x =6 or 3. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. x + Vx a? = 6.8 z-|-40 = 7. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 0. x Since both =9 or 1.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. = 7. o. = 26. Let 8 x -f 40 . Ex. 2Va.-f40= 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the | power. y then x2 . for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.i~24 = 0. 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 3 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. This can be seen without substituting.

+x . ar -fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7-^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"-^I + 2 = 4. 14. 12. a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a -f- 40 2 V* 2 8. 20.226 11. 2. 4 V SB* 4- a. a^x2 5 2 13. 2 7a?H-V^ 3 7a. 15. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x -f . 16. 17.-f 18 = 24. 19.a 4-40 = 35. 18. +3= 6.

2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.2 x 5 by x 3. -f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient -f Remainder. " Or.bx? + ex2 4. if Q was known. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 3 2 Ex. Without actual division. 227 . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. to x we # = 2 -3. = 2. a? R = x* . then or* -2 and there is a 3 x2 -f. however.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Ex. no matter If. E = ax + &z + m) Q.2 + 4. Without actual division. If x* ." transposing.<fo -f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: -f (to + e (x = w. 1. does not contain a?. ax4 4. Hence. we make a? what the value of Q. ^ = 3-81+2. even if Q is unknown. could.3-6-0 = 244.2 + 8-0 = 12. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. then (x 2)Q 0.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . by dividing 3 x* -f. find the remainder when m.4 a. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2) Q .

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + 3x3 -2x* 32x12 by a?-3. 2 j 7.8'= 0. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X - 1) +7 by x - 1 is 6* -3 . fora?. if 8 42 - . + 7 = 632.8. x*-x + 4x -Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 43 -3 E.g.g. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.4x4-11)^0 + 4 (- 3) .4(. 5. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. + 6. 5 (4x . hence (x divided by x 4.3)-f 11 =. a100 -50 a47 4- 48 a2 b. The Factor Theorem. x m is factor of the expression. -}- 2 by a-1. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 3.228 282. If the remainder is zero. + ^by x + b. a -f b 7 by a ^-14y ~132/ -- 283. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x - - - 00 *. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. the remainder equals 8 2 x . of the division 3) is m in place of x. 8. x* s 2 4. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .949.

oj 5x2 -f3a. 8 -}3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 -t- . -f 15 does not vanish. . Resolve into factors 4. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. p -5^ + 8p 4. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 8.-12 = 0. then x8 7 x'2 4. ^ + 7y + 2y-40 = 0. 106 division. 1ft : ar*-f 6aj 2 o?-5ar 3 l + lla. a -2a + 4. -f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.4-9 = 0. 8. 3. a^-8^ + 19a. 23. 5. or 5 4 + 3^ . 20. The 5. i. 11. Factor a? 15. & p*. ^-10^4-29^-20=0. 25. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a + 32.1.-r-6 = 0. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. -f 5. factors of the absolute term. 2 2. 18. _ . Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. or x -4. is a factor. a 5x 6.7 -f -5a 18 divisible by x 2. 2m -5m . x8 By dividing by x a?8 -f 1. a. are -f 1. 7 4-6 = 0. + 27 + 27. 3 2 : 7. 1. 15. a -8a -f 19 a -12. 2. 9. a? 19. 17. + tt-t-15 = 0. -f- 3. Let x = .1.12.7 + 16 . 6. 229 1. + 15. we obtain 7 - 7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2 - 8 a. Therefore x ( 1).7 x + 15 = 0.9^ + 23^-15. 2o? m -6ra -fllm 6. m -f m n 14. x -4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* -f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .e. 24. 1.13m + 30 10. -7 2 a? 2 -f 7a?-f 15. 21.

if n For ( y) n -f y n = 0. By we obtain the other factors.xy +/). xn -f.230 285.y n is divisible by x -f ?/. Factor consider m m 6 n9 .g. : importance. 2 Ex. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif- * The symbol means " and so forth to. 286. Ex. 1. xn y n y n y n = 0. It y is not divisible by 287. x* -f-/ = (x +/)O . 2. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. is odd. if n is even. - y 5 = (x - can readily be seen that #n -f either x + y or x y. For substituting y for x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Factor 27 a* -f 27 a 6 8. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y." . actual division n. If n is a Theorem that 1. 2. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. ar +p= z6 e. if w is odd.

Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0. as -27=0. a. -f n)(m 2 mn -f w 2 )(wi . 26.i mn -f w 2). 27. since it more directly to the prime factors.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Hence = (m Ex. leads 231 is The first method. x3 -8=0. however. 3. 28.= . preferable.

y4 is of the fifth degree. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. of quadratics.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. + 6 a?V . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND x-y 291. Hence " / | X y = =} 4. If two of the quantities x -f y. 290. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. can be solved by the methods degree. * A I. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (4) Hence. (5) Combining (5) with (1). & + 2 xy + = 25. x y. 232 . Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un- known quantities lead. the third one can be found by means of the relation (oj-j-y) 2 4 xy Ex. 4 xy = 16. xy x*y -f y = 4 is of the second degree. in general. xy are given. Squaring Solve (1). to equations of the fourth few cases. = 6. however.1. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. x-ywe have 3.

In many cases two of the quantities x -f y. 108 2. I I x + y=7. 12. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. b=-3. " "' "' { r 8. 233 y. x and xy are not given. the answers of the last example are : r*=-2. ' 10. r- (" 1 = 876. 1. = .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) -2 + 3 = 293. but can be found.g.

one linear and ne quadratic.~ y = 5. - f J. I* Jj ^ [. A system of simultaneous equations. I x+y = a. 7 . Factoring.a.. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 4 y = 20. la. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. - . 5. . r^ 2 as ] -f. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y - 40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).?/ i = 6.i/ = r 13.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x -4. ^ f or* -f 4 xy = 28. x " (3) 49 etc. Ex. . aj = 2. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 3. 19. EXERCISE Solve : 109 -47/ = 0.20) = 0. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. or JJ. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . - 42 y + Transposing. or y = 1 . 6 "I 14.o 18. ' ' . + 29 = 0. 2 (1) From (1) we have.

the example can always be reduced to an example 296. quantities. III. 235 - > ' 1 lla 8- 12~ 10 13. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4 f- + 2 y = 3. Solve . 1. 9. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. ' x*. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2).3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V-~80 Hence y =1 y . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10. x-2y. y* + 2y = 3. ':il -e :) .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7.

2. Solve 2. = Ex.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar --7aK/4-27/2 ==0. (3) (4) Subtracting.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. (1) (2) x x 5. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 11 a2 Factoring. 2 . j Substituting y in (2). the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. = 0. } VI09. 109 a. 15 x2 . (rc-2/)(llx-5y) 16 xy -f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). y = 110 f 10^-370^ + 7^ = 16^-7^ .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.

f 1 150 a?. (4) -(3).y = 7.xy 4.6. Division of one equation by the other. 298. . A. ' ^ 15. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.175 ay = 12. can be solved by special devices.3^4-2^=43. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Solve * + '-* { Dividing (1) by (2).!. Bxy-9.125 ay = . " IV. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. 2 xy + y2 = 10. y? a? -f . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' <"" -=m _ 14 ' &.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. and others not belonging to them. 150 */2 . 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). E.

f^ + 3 7/ = 133. jc~ y = 9.. (1 > (2) 1. quadratics can be solved by ?/. from (2). considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x -. B. * ' 300.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : faj-y=152. y . 2. i ^ *>. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. we obtain by squaring. i" <--Vx -f -' unknown 6. = 12 J. y = 3|. Some simultaneous ?/. Solve Ex. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4- or But the negative roots being extraneous. we have from (1). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 189. at first it is unknown quantities. xy. x 2 . x +y y etc. Therefore x = 16.

Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. |.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . I e. 7. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4. 36* 2. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 4-0. 239 Ex. 6. M-6. [2x + : y= 17. Hence = V or = 4. F+y+ .

27. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = 198. 19 ' 26. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 16. .21 ^ = 15. 25. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. ( xy (7 m 2 n*.4 y = 47 a. . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. + o5)(6-hy) = 80. = y 1 y* .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. f 18. * .

31. or ~ indeterminate.of - According to the definition of division.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. ~\ OK OO. = 48201. 7' j/ 39. . -- But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. etc. . etc 302. hence may be any finite number. finite - =x y if = x. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . y % 9 f*K 36. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. as a --. Interpretation . 32. -. 33. 30. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. Q 7. ^ oo . 25 34. 3 a2 38.

be the numbers. cancel. TO^UU" sufficiently small. oo is = QQ. Let 2. x -f 2. as + l. is satisfied by any number.decreases X if called infinity. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. By making x any * assigned zero. i.x'2 2 x = 1. . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. without exception. 1. 306. and . and becomes infinitely small. The solution x =- indicates that the problem is indeter- If all terms of an minate.e.000 a. (1).g. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. = 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.increases if x de- x creases. ToU" ^-100 a. or that x may equal any finite number. great. . + I) 2 x2 ' -f 2x + 1 -x(x + 2)= . however x approaches the value be- comes infinitely large. Hence such an equation identity. The ~~f fraction . Or. 1. (1) = 0. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. the answer is indeterminate. equation. creases.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.242 303. i. (a: Then Simplifying. I.can be If It is made larger than number.e. it is an Ex. (1) is an identity.

113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 4 -3 x x-5 a2 . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 1=0. = oo.e. z = 1 Substituting.2 y = 4. . EXERCISE 1. Solve x a. 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system. third and sixth parts. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. The sum is of squares 2890. * 6. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Solve ~o -3 x v ~K -6 x r x 6 4. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. (2). Solve .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 42 and' their product is 377. 3. and a.8 x + 15 6. Solve | 9 7. is their 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). y finite QO. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Hence /. two numbers is 76.

and the hypotenuse is 37. 12. of a right triangle is 73.244 3. Find the edge of each cube. 13. increased by the edge of the other. 255 and the sum of 5. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 9. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 103. Find the side of each square.) 53 yards. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. equals 4 inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the area becomes -f% of the original area. of a rectangular field feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. The area of a nal 41 feet. 10. Find these sides.quals 20 feet. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 190. and the diago(Ex. and the edge of one. Find the edges. Two cubes together contain 30| cubic inches. is is 17 and the sum 4. . Find the dimensions of the field. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. is 6. 146 yards. two numbers Find the numbers. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 6. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the sides. 8. and the sum of ( 228. p. Find the other two sides.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet.

the quotient is 2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. differ by 8 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. is 20 inches. irR *. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii.

progression. to produce the 3d term. to produce the 4th term. P.. to produce the nth term. 2 d must be added to a.. 19. The common differences are respectively 4.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. except the first. 16. + 2 d. 12.. a + 2 d. (n 1) d must be added to a. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 3.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. series 9. -4. of the following series is 3. The progression is a. a -f d.7. 3 d must be added to a. 15 is 9 -f. P. to each term produces the next term. 11. of a series are its successive numbers. . The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. -f . a.) is a series. and d. P...1) d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 17. Since d is a -f 3 d. 10. a 3d. the second a descending.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. a 11.. . . added to each term to obtain the next one. a + d. To find the nth term / of an A. Hence / = a + (n . each term of which. : 7.. An arithmetic progression (A. . the first term a and the common difference d being given. 309. The first is an ascending..

. -24. the last term and the common difference d being given. . 5... = a + (a Reversing the order.4. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 4. 2J. Find the 12th term of the -4.- (a + + (a + l) l). 1. 7. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . -10.. . 8. . . ? (a) 1. 3. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).. 3.PROGRESSIONS 310.. 7. 115. 2. 5. 6. Find the 10th term of the series 17.16. 5.. of the series 10. if a = 5. 2 EXERCISE 1.' cZ == . . Find the nth term of the series 2. Adding.. = 99. series . d = 3. 3.. P. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 9. -4^. series 2.. 3. 9.-. 5. = -2. 19.. 6 we have Hence . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . = I + 49 = *({ + . 8. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. P.. 8. the term a. 2.8. 1-J. -7. Find the 5th term of the 4. 6. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 21. 1. . d . -|. (d) 1J. 99) = 2600. -3. a = 2.3 a = -l.-. P. 6. 5....

$1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 12. 1|. to 20 terms. 1.5 H + i-f -f- to 10 terms. 21. + 2-f-3 + 4 H hlOO. : 3. . (i) (ii) . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . Sum the following series 14. to 8 terms. 2. 7. (x +"l) 4. to 15 terms. 33.248 Find the 10. 7. 20. 29. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . P. 15. > 2-f 2. 6. '. and for each than for the preceding one. to 16 terms. 4.. 7. 31. hence if any three of them are given. 16. to 7 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 1.1 -f 3. . strike for the first yard. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 20 terms. . . 23. 18. rf. 3. 11. 13. 15.(# 1 2) -f (x -f 3) H to a terms. + 3. 11. to 20 terms. 17. 1J. In most problems relating to A. 15. 16. \-n. 8. . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 11. 12. striking hours only. to 10 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.7 -f to 12 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. -. 22. 19. 11. 2J. .

hence n = 6. 144. #. = n(104 . the and the sum of all terms 1014. 56. if a. 12. the second one mean between the other two. Ex. = 1014. = 144. 89. 45. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. The first term of an A. I Substituting in (I) and (II). But evidently n cannot be fractional. . 49 (1) (2) Substituting. P. 111. Substituting in (2). l)e?. Find the series. 122. is 12. From (1). = 13. The series is.6 n). 6 n2 . or 11 J.e. 23. . and b form an A.PROGRESSIONS Ex. Solving. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 78 n Substituting in (1). s 24ft last term 144. d = 6. a = 49 -6(71 ..1). if s = 204. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 2.6. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 204 = ^ (98 . 100. 1. a = 12. or if x Solving. P. P. 78. 34. n d.~n~\ 408 6). = 1014. Findn.. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 2 (2) From Hence (2). n = 6. 67. J = 49. = a + (w.1) .104 w + 408 = 0. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). I. x= - 4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 133. 6. 312.

s == 440. = 1870. d = 5. Given a = . 14. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find d. Find?. n. n = 13. Find n. 16. = 16. n = 17. 11. a x -f- b and a b. 7. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 13. n = 16. How much did he save the first month? 19.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 74. f J 1 1 / . y and #-f-5y. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 78. . Find a Given a = 7. produced. Find w. I. 4. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. of 5 terms 6. I Find I in terms of a. f? .3. n = 4. and s. Given a = |. 17. Given a = 4. Find d. = ^ 3 = 1. = 45. has the series 82. 10. 6? 9. P. 3. 8. Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = 1. ceding one. = 52. T? ^. s = 70. n has the series ^ j . How much . 12. 15. a+ and b a b 5. m and n 2. = 17. Find d and Given a = 1700. n = 20. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = 83. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.

the first = a + ar -for ar -f ar Multiplying by r.. 108. or. +1. -2. 36. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.arn ~ l . The progression is a. |. <zr . P. fl lg[(i) -l] == 32(W - 1) = 332 J. of a G. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). . ar.. is 16(f) 4 . 36.. 24. E..... (I) of the series 16. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . NOTE. A geometric progression first. 4- (1) . ar8 r. . 36.. 12. called the ratio. the following form 8 nf + q(l-r") 1 r . 2 a. ratios are respectively 3. 24. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 4. or 81 315. and To find the nth term / of a G. r n~ l . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. P. is it (G. rs = s 2 -. If n is less : than unity. -I.. . the first term a and the ratios r being given.g. 4. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.) is a series each term of which. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . . P. The 314.

117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. first term is 125 and whose common . is 3. Ex. 576. Find the 5th term of a G. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. r^2.288..*.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.72.. -fa. And the required means are 18. 288. hence. . P. . 9. 4. 144.4.. 72. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 25. 4. f.5. or 7. .6. series 5. . In most problems relating to G. 9. + 5. first 5. volved .-._!=!>.18. \ t series . i 288. 3. series 6. -fa. P. f. Hence the or series is 0. EXERCISE 1. 144. 80. 676... .. ? (c) 2. P. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/-'. P.. first term 4. . .54. 72.. (it. a = I. 18. whose . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . 2 term 3. . P. . 7. (b) 1.. 36. if any three of them are given. is 16..18. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . 10. 0.. 8. 144. Hence n = 7.5. 20.. whose and whose common ratio is 4. +-f%9 % . (d) 5. 36. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.. . Find the 6th term of the series J. series . whose and whose second term is 8. . l. 1. |. 6. Jive quantities are in. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. I = 670. 36. 9.l. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.

to 8 terms. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Find a and n = 4. r . Given r = n Z 5. 27.-. to 6 terms. 1.. 24. 81. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. n = 5. P. may be than any assignable number. 13. .nV> i*> !718. 19. I. to 7 . 36. M. a. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less -r^Ex. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 14. 243. . and hence ~ r . 23. == 160. to G terms. to 6 terms.. Find a and 4. to 5 terms. be written If the value of r of a G. = 3. a^. 4.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. J. . 15.. 72. to 6 terms. . s = 605. 126.. >"> -. Find a and Given r = 3. 21. 42. -J-. to 7 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 16 . 20.i a9 . -J. 81. s = 310. Z s. 1.-. 12. 14. + 4 . . 22. -. Find the geometric mean between 7. 54. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. = 3.-. 25S series : 32. of r n decreases. J. 12 terms. n = 5. 2. is less than unity. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 48.J- and 270.

14.27777 .01 ^ . 1.. = a . 8. ratio 15. 7. 3. is J.3121212-. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.1. = . . what is (a) the sum of the areas. 13.. (6) the sum of the perimeters.. 16.. Given an infinite series of squares. P. .. first and the common term.. 5. = 990 . i. of all squares ? . 1 r = . =A+ 10 i. Find the value 9. ..3727272 . ... 10..072. -. ... P. .... Hence . . . 6. .555.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 4. Find the sum to infinity.37272 .. 40. 118 : infinity of the following series 3..3 + . 2..99 .Ql. 9. 16. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. is 9.... 1..254 Ex. 1. 12. 1. ...= .. of an infinite G. 66 Therefore .. i i J. . 12.717171-. and the first term is Find 17.. 6.= _4Z* . 5. 8. -. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 9. = . is 16.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 100.00072 -f . If a = 40.)7?7272 . .72. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. P. of: 11. The sum r. . 250..191919-.272727-... 4. 2. r = j. .072 + . -. I.

l 2. 4 7. : (1 + xy. (s + i). 29.6) . . a4 b 12 in (a -f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 28. .6) 20 . 26. 20. 17. (\ 9 . 15. 7 . 2 2 24. Find the 3d term of fa -f V -^Y Va/ - 19. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . (a-2) 6. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . a6 8 16 in . 21. /2a+|Y\ 8. (z2 -^ Simplify 9. 11.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 4.b ). 22. (a 100 . 12. coefficient of . 5. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a -f 5) .b) w (a (a -f (1 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + -^r 18. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 13. 16. (a + b) . (x-y) : 6 . 14. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 25. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a -f 2 b) . . 10. Find the 6th term of (x .

3. -5. 3. 3. 4. 4. 2. . 3.] a 2^ aft + -r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 5. 2. 24 4. 2. 3. 3. y 3. 4 *2 - 4 xy - 4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. *=M - M 3J -f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 4. - 2. 1. 1. 5. + 2. 5. 3. 2. 1.f ac 1. 2. 4- ft - c) 2. 3. 1. 4. 3. 3. 2. 5. 2. ft) . 1. if a ft c = = = 4. l. 2. -4 2. -6. if y=2j 2. 2 . 2. 1. 2. -3. 2. = 2. 2. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. if = = = 2. 4. 2 (2 a - 3 aft -f- 4 2 ft ). 2. -3. 3. . - 8 ^ 2. 3. 2. 1. 5. 2. 1. if x^l. -2. 2. -1. 4. 1. 3. 5. 5. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. (c-a)(c-ft)' 4. a ft c = = 2. 1. 6. 4. + 2. + 1. -3. (c 3. 5. 2. 4. 1. 2. c = = = 2. 7. 3. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. - 2. if = = 2. ft 4 ) 5. aft 3 + 4. 3. 6. 6. 1.c )(ft-a) 1.a(a 4. 3. 4. - a)(a 1. c if 7 . 2. (ft c)(c 4- ) 3. 6. 2. 5. -1. i (a-ft)(a-c) a 6 (ft. 2. 2. ^+^ 3. 4. -1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 x-y or -f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4 (2 a - 13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2 - 38 3. -3. 1. 2. + c(a -|- c). 2. 1. 1. 4. 4. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T -r C + + c2 + 2 . 3.

24.a 4 . -f 8.\ yz + xz.c' 2 4 / . 21. 17. a: . = 2. a.a8 .4.2 z8 4 x. 15. 29. 20. (5. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . a 4 + 11 a .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 8 . 9. 7 xy 3 . 2. and 3 y 8 -f 12 z 8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 5.8 3 + 7 x4 . c = 3. 5.7 + .7 y 2* 4. x3 2 a2 . ' b) + 3. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy* - zy + 12 xy* - 4 y4 . 4. + 4. 2. 11 z 4 x4 -12 17.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. c(x (c g)(x 6-) = 1.2. + 3 y 2* . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . x 3 x' 14. 5.1. 2 . a.5 xy 3 + + 4 .8 + 2 // . x 2 + - 2 ax* -f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4 z . 2 - + 12 a 8 . x 3 11.2 a?y + 3 aty .5. a /> 3. 2 x 8. + 1.10. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2. 2. b(x (b 1.r 6 x - 4 xy . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // -f ax'2 . . 6 a4 4 a8 . c)(x a} . 7. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.4 yz\ -7xy* + z 3. 26. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 7y 4 .7 ys. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 10. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. r> .2 x2 . 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.2 x?/.3 xyz. if a 6 = = c = 3. 15. ~c)(b. 4a + 9 a2 - 3 a5 . 18. 21.2. 4 y 13. 3. .' 4 x2 2 - 5 z3 8 . + 4 ?y . . 25. 4. x = 4.a 5 a .4 x'2 -f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .259 x c) . - 2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/ - 7 y3 . 12. 4 x 4 . 1.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . x C 4 4x y + . or .3 a?y . . + 8 x4 *y . 5. 16. 8. 4. 40. + 2. - a) (c 2.a) . x3 -f 3 ax'2 .x 5 4 . 10 z 8 12 - 6 2 8. 41. 6. 1. 9.

of 2 x 8 4- 4 x2 4- 9 and 4 x . 4vTT~y 3. 5 4 7 12 ..4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 33.1).c.(4 * . 4- 2 x2 23. . 0" 30.{G * 2 .(x* . 4- 2 x8 x 4- 4.2 .8 3 4.5 10 b 3 -\- G 11 = ft x4-y4-2. x'2 . and d= c c 4- x4-#4-z </.3.?> x 4- 20. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4-X-5V14. take the sum of G x 5 .2 a . 54-2 x 2 and . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4- .(x 4. 34. 29. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .3 . 36. 4- 4 4. 2 x 32.2 3 ax 2 . 5 10 + 7 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. From of 2 the 4.c 3 a. a - ft + c. Simplify 31. /- x5 -2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.27~-~7)}]. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4- G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . c =x y -}~ z.260 19.[4 x 4.[3 if - (3 _^ ft 6- ft -f- c)}] a: .6T .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. .(a .5 .x2 . 5 10 4- G 11 4. 2 c - 2 a - and 2 a 3 x2 28. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. (/) a + - ft 4- 6 + - rf. and a ft 4- ft 3 c take - 6 a. 3 x2 13-3ft-[l7a-5ft^[7fl-3ft-{4fl~4ft-(2a-3ft)}]]. 4- 3 5 y/ .5. [4 I 2a4-7c-(7ft4-4c)-[6a-3ft4 2~c4-4c-{2a-(ft-2T-2)}]. x8 x2 2 a'2x.4) . 4 . sum of . (*) a - c.7.[4 z 8 .] 26. c 4ft. of a.4. -f ft.3 .2 . 3 4- 5 10 2 - 7 12 . Take the sum of G a8 4- 4- 4 a 2x 4- .{2 x 2 .x . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4- 3 will give 27.(7 x 4.(4 x 2 . c 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4- 6 x8 4- 21. 7 x -x the ft 4 x2 11 x.c. and 7 x a 2x -2 ax'2 4.2) .1)}] . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4 ft) 4. . 3 ft.x 4.2 _[5ft-{^ 2 8 4 x* .c 4- 3 a. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.2 x 8y2 44 .(5 y . 4- 3 From 44- the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 7 12 . = x y ft z. . ft 25.x .3 x .#4-8.x 2 4.(5 c . . and a 2 ft 4- ft 3 c take sum - 2 c 4- 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4- 3 x2 + - from G x2 4- x. : a x . and .4 Vl 4. 35. Take the sum of 3 x 4. Take the sum 4x 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x - 4 x8 22.6 x ] .n/ 4 4- 12 x 5 4- 4 x?y 4- 2 x6 -f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . .a ft.

2 2 x + !)(* . 59.7). 62.2 2 + 1)(7.2c-(V/ .3)(*-5)(* -7). (.(6 . + 4x + 5)(j.56. (1 55. 54.(5 y . a -{. 51. 67.ac . .6c) (a + -f c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (5 a 39.3 c)]. . 7 a 2 261 -{5 2 a2 -2 a + (2 a 2 i j- 38. 2 53. . 63. . + *+!){> + 2).JT^T+1)} + (2 . 45.1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 60. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a 2 + a 4 ).r -2:c+ l)(ar.{2 a . 43. (4 + 3a 2 .(2 a + 5 a . 46.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.(7 a.be) (a 58.2)(1 .96 -[17 a. 2 52. 64. . (x .3). 5a-(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 4 + 2 2 + 1). - 2 a - {3 2x a . + 2) - (4 x 2 - 2 x -7)}].& + {. (1 -ar+a. 13 a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.c). 'J 44. 2 : 7e)-a}].rf)} + a -[.{3 c .[4 x - 5 .5 )}] + {4 c . 57.3~ft -f 2 c + 4 ^ . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2a . (r (1 (a.12).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).2 zz .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 3 x 42.[2 . + - ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (/> 4 . 2 -f [3 c 7 a .e -'/)}] -(2a + 2b .(7 i + 4 r:) .(2 .c 2 . 48.{2 a -(ft .2 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&-{2c-(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .3 z 2 ).6-)}].3 *). . a . (. (x.[7 a 36 -{4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. . )(l-z a ).5)} + (3 a 2 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 56.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 2 ft 41.3c).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + -*)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 68. 50.b -(c .Z . .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 65. 49.(4 d . (2 x 2 -3 ar+ 1)(3 z -2 x+ 1). (a:-2)(r-4)(a:-9).a~^~c)K].ab .2x + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .(2 x2 .6 xy .(2 a 2 .4 a .0)} . .

O (a 4(a 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4- y) (^ 44- y ).y).(4 . 86. (a (2 b)*(a 4.z)(x -y + z)(. ft ft ft a}.r-3y)4-l)y( a :-y)^-2y)4-18 // (2r-y)4-6 8 // .-2y)(.c)} .{3 a .n pc). 85.(a 2) (s 4- ft. 84. by multiplying out each 4- side of the equality. ft 78.3y) a (* 2 4.9y2). (a) (a (ft) a8 4- ft 8 4. 87.b 4.c) 2 .z\x 4. 93.a) 2 . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2 - z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a - + l)(a 2 -f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).c) . b 4. 74.(a 48 8 8 4.6*y .<f(p .262 69.(^ 4- y 2 ) - 4 ^/(. O (x (a 2 + 4- y y) 2 a J 4 . 4- 4- . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 71.ft) 4- .2 (a .c) . (.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c)]. 73.c) j.(a? 4- y)*(x - y).am&t 4- A 2 *).(ft 4.r 2 .2 (y 4.z) .(/> - 3 v)^(. . .v) 4. 76.x + y + z).c) 4) (ft 4.c) rr identities. ar .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 92.2 ft}) -f (3 a . 4. 1).c c 2 4- 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 -f- p ) (w .3 (ft .c . ft" l Simplify 80. ft 95. ft 8 ft) 4- ft 8 4.:-y)( a. + (rtP+i 4- 2 6)(a^+ .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 77.q). 82. 91.m np c . a(2 + 4- 3ft) 2 -(2a 4- 4- 8 ^) .5 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4- 2 2 ^>) c) 44- a2 a8 4- 2 4. (x 4- 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V) - .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 70. 2 (x 2 . 89. 88. xy y 2 ).3 a .c . ft /. 94.y'*4-y 2m )OK --y I)(a m ).a) (a? 4--(c 4- y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . Prove the following 8 4. 90.y + z)(x + y . 75. (x (x ( + *) . 1). . (p 2 . 83. 79.y)\x y).(c 4.c 8 4- 3(6 c)(c 4- a)(n + 2 ft). -f 72. 2 + a 2 ). a (a 2 -2a + + " 4- l)(u 2a n -f (:r a. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (b-c)(x + ft) (a: 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.ft) + 4(2 .

&). 124.&) 8 - 5(a n 4- 2 6) ]- 5(a 4- &) 6 (a 4.1). 106. 4 (6 x 4- 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 122. [10( 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 2 (a+ . 105. .2y 2 4. (20 x* - 4- 72 x 2 - 35 4.'30) ~ (4 ^ - 5 x 4- 10). Cr (z -27y -l-9a:y) -(a:-3yy 6 ) -r- 2 (a: 4- xy 4- y 2 ). 1O4.4 aft . 102.5 xy).xy 4.2 xy 8 .5 b*). 25 4 . (2 y 44- 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4- 3 16 y a 50 4- 48) 2 111.(2 a 2 .y 4 . 114. 103. 99 100.6 y 4 4.r 4 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a - 1). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44- 12 . 4 (a 8 44- 16 a 2 4 4- 256) -s- ~4 2 (a 4- 4a ^ 4- 16). (80 a 112. .b) 98. (2< 107.c 4- 6 afo) -f- + ^ 4 ). 113.v/ ~ // -=- a: .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .y 2 4.*) -(x 8 .) .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .(x 2 . 120. (8 x* 115. 116. 117.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a - 12).35 x 2 2 ) . 20) -*- (3 a* 4- 4 a? + 5).(a 1 2 8 .40 />) .y 4 ) . 108. a*.5 a 21 (10 a 4- 5 a*) Qa-f-l^ -=- 5 a*. 123. 1). 110. (. (a 8 - 8 68 8 4.16 a 6 4. -26 (a 4- c). 2 4- 41 x 4a.9 x 2 . -r- . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a -T- (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 10). ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 118. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) ( - 2 2 119.(7 xi/ . 109. (4 4 3 a - 4- - 5 a 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 3*.a".27 x* .2 2% 4. 121.3 a"+ 4.

4) . .2(5 . (*+ + .8 6 .18 *&) (1 . 7(2 x . 129.3(* + 4) + 9} .3 a:). 136.(x -f 9). 143. 2 4(ar . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. x 147.a:)]}.2) + 2(ar + 4).3). . .1) (a? . 128.1) . 148. -1) = 2(* .2 7^~5] + 1).n .r>) . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2 - 2 6 2 - 8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .4) . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2 - b* is divided By what expression must a: -f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 3(2 x 134. 10(2 x 141.2(4 .G) .(9 x + 10) (a: - 3) . 139. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3 - G ax z8 - 8 z 8) -5- (1 - a - 2 x).3 a#z) (ar + y + s). o o 140.3 a (1 + *- l l 1 3 -f- 2 &).7) = 4 .3) (3 x 4. 5(2 x . 5 146. 135. 137.9) + 3. .9) 4. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .5{.19) + 5 = 4 .2(10 x . - 9) - 7(0 x a? - 32) + 5 = 4x - 3(2 j - 3).22. 1) . 149. . .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. (4 x .4(0 x .3).3(2 z .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(1 .(x .2) = 3 .5). 3) = x\x .r + 7[or .7(4 * .(j a? 144.5) = 12(4 x .2(j: . . 4-2(3ar 145. 142. What is the 2 by a*-ab + 26 ? 130. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2) (a: + 3). y (* l x.3 x). 127.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar- 2 4} = 2(3 x . 126. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.12 M 132. (5a: 150.27 a 3" .7) = (7 x - 1 1) (3 x .264 125.3) = 12 . 138.(x + 3) ] . By what expression must x* + G x2 - 4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .

265 152.(5 x .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. + 2) + (5 .T)O . 155. 163. (a.25) 2 . 164. will produce F.3) (3 . 165.17) 2 + (4 x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.6 x) (3 .3) (3 .5) = (3 . 162.2). .4) (a . If the area of the frame inches. (x (x a. 159.1) (s + 3).7) (a. . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 161. (2 . The second contains 3 first. + 10) (ar .14) (a: + 3).7) (1 x . 158. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. (3 O + . .z) (4 . a: ar a. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5(x . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. .2 x) = (1 .8) = (2 x 4. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.29) 2 = 1.5*) + 47.76. = 15. 157. f-^ + ^s-O. 156. (a . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167..1) O + 4) = (2 * . find the value of F.3) = (3 x . 153.? .a:) + 229.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.9) + (a. The sum What 171. (7 14 .3) (j. + 4) (2 x + 5). 5(ar x . (a) If C.2) (7 -*) + (*.2) (j? + 1) + (x .3)(* (ar 2 7) - 113. 2 4 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 166. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. sheep more than the 169. + 5) = (9 .3) (a: . and the third twice as many as the first. these two angles would be equal. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.24.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . How many 170.19) + 42. .r + 3) . = | (F 32). sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. transformed into F. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 154. + 5) 2 -(4-a:) 2 =r21a:.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.l)(z . 160.2 x) (4 .5 x) = 45 x .2) a + 7(x . = 2 C.5)(.

+ 11 ~ 6. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. number divided by 3. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. and 5 h. and | as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 176.266 173. 188. . 189. A boy is father. was three times that of the younger. x* 185.56. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. A house has 3 rows of windows. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. z 2 -92. 2 2 + a _ no. + a. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 178. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A each 177. 181. z 2 + x . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 180. Find the dimensions of the floor. same result as the number diminished by 175.-36. 187. aW + llab-2&. 10x 2 192. power one of the two Find the power of each. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 3 gives the 174. if each increased 2 feet. 13 a + 3. 12 m. +x- 2. 179. Find the number. two boys is twice that of the younger. younger than his Find the age of the father. . 4 a 2 y-y -42. . An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. side were one foot longer. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 186. sister . father. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. How many are there in each window ? . respectively. train. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 190. 7/ 191. -ll?/-102. dimension 182. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot.

227.28. + 8. 210. 230. 244.10 y a x* .20 z 8 a: 220. 208. .6 aq . 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .19 a . a. 215. 2 - 5 xy 13 y a.12 * . + 198. a a: a: 237. 207. . 8 -a. . + 2 . 24 2 + 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . . 3y 2 + ary .r?/-f y 2 -9. 3 x 2 .x + 1. 2 a 8 . a: 236. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 14x 2 -25ary + Gy 2 3 x* -x 2 . 7a 228.6. xm+l 243. 7x 2 225. (a + .1. 4a 2& 2 241. a. 12 x +4. 211. a+a* + o a +l. 2 200.77 y + 150. 3y 248. 238. 6 197. 9a-4a6 (a 2 + b . 217. 2a te 3% ly 247. .8 6 2. x 5 . 239. z + 5x 2 . a: 4 - a: 2 a: V 2 . 212.14 2 . if-W-y+b. 3 ap 2 . a. 218.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .22 z + 48.3 xy. 221. 5 x 2. 3 x V . 267 199. 229. x*y 223. + 3a 196.10. x* + 8 2 + 15.3 c/> + 6 cq. y 2 194. 16x 4 -81. 2 a 2 . 206.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 233.c) 2 - (a .xm y + xym - + (a c) - (c rf) 242. 224. x 219. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 213. a. *2 234.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.19 z 4 204. 232. 203. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .6 2 ?/ . a 2 . -23 -12. 195. a^a 226.(b + rf) 2 . 202. 2 2 y -f 1. z 2 -2. 201. 235. wiy + la mx + aw. # 2 - 29 y + 120. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 2 x 2 . a: .6s.64. -11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 4 -f yx* + z*x + z*y.6 y2 + 4.21 a: - 54. 4 m +^. 8 a: ar. 209.10 xy.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 222.c) 2 . 246. + 30 x. a: 231. 216. 245. . . 60 a 2 - a: // 205.

257. z 2 267.7 -f 5. 15 # 2 z/ /. 270.4 ab + 1. 261.9 x + 14. x*y* 4.a + 2 4. 3 a% 2 . 2 8 . 258.M.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 -7 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 3 #2 255. a 4.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .9. 10 x 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . 7 ax 250.ry . . x* .120.10. * 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . -I- Find the II.5 ab -f 2.10 a 4. 254. G(x+ -|- l)'\ 9(x 2 - 1).15.12.73 xy . Reduce to lowest terms 271. + 3 x + 2. 28 2 -f 71 x . ft a. z 2 268.ry -21. 2 z 2 -f 13 x + 1 5. x 2 + 4 + 3. + 23 x -f 20.x . ^2-7/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .r .2 z .3 x . 10 a. 7 12 2 2 .15 + 30. x 2 263. x 2 + 2 x .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 5 x 2 256.16 x .13.11 a 2 . 252. 2 + 7 r -f 2. C. x 2 . of: 266. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.48 afy 2 .9 x .80. * a .2/ 2 . a? a: a: // 262. a. 2 a. * 2 .18 xy + 5.6 by. x 2 4.11 x -f 28. 2 . 269.a 2 />c 2 -f 3. 265. 30 ^ .r + a# + az -f 2 6z fry 4. 260.1 9 .4. + 20 x 4. x 2 + 5 -f .36.G7 x -f 33. 251. a: .14 bx a%% 8 . 6.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .C. x* .2 aft*. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.8. 1 x- ar Find the L.3.23 + 12. _ 40 y 2 272 -f -f- 2 !8a: . 18 x 2 . 2 x2 . 2-2x2 a.&z.91.23 x -f 20. 264. + 8 x + 5. x 2 -f 9j: + 20. 3 ay 4. 259.3 abc .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a -5y>+4. F. * 2 .(55. + 8.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . of: 253.

2* + 3 x* 280. -9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x -f *2 ar + a . 8 .J' 4- 2 2 w mp . *2 " 2 + Og-e.rL.ar 1 279. y)' z2 283 t- 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 -f sa . m 4. + ac ..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4- 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^ - ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j. - 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' -8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2 - 4 - ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 285 z4 n* + a. a.!/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2 - a: 2 ) m 288 ' .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269 - 6 a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 289 ' ..2c a: 282.

_L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. O(c-a) 306. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a -f e) 304. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: -2 a: 2 -2 a: - 17 a:-2 ar-3 x 2 -5a:-i-6" . x 7. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (c-a)(a-i) 1 x2 4- (a- +9 i_ 20 a . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. Lnl + ar 2 a. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. a? __ + -*_ + + -la?-la? * a l 303. ^_2*(m 308. + 19) 2Lz| + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *-3 a +7 300. ^. * 19 23 19(23 -23.

Dx x(l *) * 8(1-*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .- 1 x2 + + a. .(a . . } .ft) 2 322. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. (1 . 1a: + y a..BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. ( ft-c g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a._ '(a-6)*-(a:-r)a 323. 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4- 2) 317. _ x8 -. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.2 1 -f 1 + : *2 1 - 2 x' 316.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 -9*+ 20 *2 - 8* + 15 315. a: 1 313. 1 _.*) + * 2) 321 - c) 2 .

ll. -* 3a. 20 44 333.B ~ 1037 - 329 4 a. .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.5 a . . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 -lOx 5x. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 a2 - 2 a - ' 03 i^+^T- 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .9 *// + 27 .V - + y - x 3y a .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.15 -33 .2 +lOar 2 a.6* t 328. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 -i- + 2 a. z2 - 4 x - ^ "" 12 *.. 250 5 10 2 325.28 8 2 - 11 2 + J?_ x fl^-^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a - 4 6~7** 27^-12^7 .y 2 x (a?-4y) 3(2 x - ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333./ - 3 y - 6 ( 331 g gy ' -f a 3y ~ 6 q - 9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4-y+ 15 ^e - 10 6y 332 3 a: +lly-10 4 xy -8 2 - a..7 xy + 12 x . a: 2 x* . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x - 3.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.y-20 - 2y + 4 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: -f zy + 4 y* .

REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 5 343.+ r . w \. + ni + -.r -5 2 . 338. : 1+ i--. 344. ( 342. +^ a: y x .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. f V. (a \ + lV.. \5yl 341. xi 347. Simplify : 353 ^-3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (ar \ 346. ** -i.) 2 . \x yj 340. (a-f2/. if a = 3. 348. ' 2 -"l 5 . ?_2 ^ . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 278 C | ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q | q c 6 *| \ : f 1 \ - { 337. aj 339. a>74 .1V. + l + IV. 7 ( -?-f!?. a: 349 _ o. (a-Wi + iJ. 352.y. fl-. 1 345.

_ + l a 359. (a a b y-x c yabc 361. 1+2 362. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4- . I - I -f 366. i+5 1+1 9 x2 -f 363. y360. + x x a .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>-3) 356 fl V ___ _/| 2(*-l)J + ya xl x 1-* YTx 2 1-10*W*-1 1-** JUa-l + xy 357.

\b* + c* b + b b*-c*)^ c ^\ b (b* -f c*) } c 4- c a b . 2 - m 373 "1*7 374. . a + . b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (-/')(&-o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.

.*-2 = 15. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^ - 10 x-f x - 382. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear-7 + i3JTo^ .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. + 1) 45 O 377.^-^ + x -f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. 8 - 376. 5*-8. + 6)+ - -(* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^-\:) / 380. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 -7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . -3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. J !__7. __4 2x 3_ = !. <3 378. 20 iLf-5 + !*=! = 2 J. # k 1 _j- j a: 2 a: 3 383. 1 + 16ar_63 -24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5 - 14(ar-l) 18 105 390. r 1 - 3(* + 1)} ! ' . ^ . 4(* . 2(3 x |(x + 4) + 10) + 1 |(x + 7) = 0. 5 {2 x 381. .

c .5 1 -f 1 x - 2 = x . JLg:== 7wa: c c -}- -q.1 .6~a: 7 _ x -8~a..75 x -f . (8 x - 3) (x 2 - 1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x - 5). 40. 3* 177. 396. -f 1 1 + a 403.2 a: - 1. u '2 a. "i 2 3737-0 ^ x i x x + 1 a? - R - 7 ~r * 1 a. 397. - ft) = 2(ar - ) (a. - 8 9* x ~r. (x ~ a)(x -f 6) -f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). ____-_ .5 ^ ~ a: a. . - J). m x 398.147. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. a:- a)(a: - &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. a. 401. 399..REVIEW EXERCISE 391.8 = .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. n a 4O5 b b x f -(a: - a) + a-(a.5 x =r -f . l)(x - a) (a: - 3) 42 3(4 * - 2)(ar + 1). 400. ^ (a .25. .6 - . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.25 x + . b 404. + 4 a.

A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 411. and was out 5 hours. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. In a if and 422. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Tn 6 hours . hour. 420. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. (x . 18 be subtracted from the number.278 410. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~j-o. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.c) .(c rt a)(x - b) = 0. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. (x -f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z - b) = a 2 alb = a (x -f b)(x 2 . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. the order of the digits will be inverted. a x a x b b x c b _a b -f x 414. -f a x -f x -f c 1 1 a-b b x 415. far did he walk all together ? A .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 2 a x c x 6 -f c a + a + a + 6 -f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 421. Find the number. - a) -2 6 2a. How long is each road ? 423.

Find the length of the parts.& 5 ) (a 8 . 433. : i. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. |. z 2 y. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).2 (a + &*) (a -h & ) = (a ) (a -6). 435. 432. . 438.a 2^ 8 + aft* . d.46 2): (15a 2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^- - miles. and : b : c = 14 : 15. ax is -\- by - ex + dy. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. . x 427. 431.6 8 ). Find the fourth proportional 426. Find the mean proportional to 429. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a + 5. 430. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . find the angles of the triangle. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a-26):(3o-46). b. If a b : =5 n : 7. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Which ratio is greater. Solve 436. a. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 3 and 1J. z2 - y\ x* -xy + y*. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. find : a : c. wi* + y= ny.iand 22 22 -I a . if . a - t>. a8 -f 2 ab -f 6 2. y.49 63). : If is one equal 434. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 428. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 2 2 8 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 424.

.7 y = 25.r-f-2# = l. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 444. 42 = 15y + 137.55 y = .11 y = 95. 9/> = 2 . 8 .89 = q. . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 443. 449. Find the value of a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. Solve the following systems: 441. 56 + 10y = 7a. /) ar a. 456. ft. 457. 448. 445. 451. = 25. 5#+ 10 = -27 a. 446. 9ar-7# = 71. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 5x+4y=lQ. 459.*. ox -f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7 a: . 450. 3 a.3 y = 3 5 -f 7 .35.(or |-l(*-2y)=0. ?/ 447. . 453. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3 - ) 19(a - &). if 2 ft : 439. />(. 1(3 | a. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 7a?-y = 3. a: a: + 5y).59 = 3 z. .4 12 . a. 28 = 5 a . 7 442. 5z-4:# = 3. 4 = 5 y + 29. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 5 2 = 7 . 2 (3 a + 2 ab - 8 ft) : 2 (5 a -f 4 ai - 12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a - 6 ft). 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .. 452. The volumes If their diameters. 7jr-9y = 17. + 5y = 59. 3 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.11 7. x + 17 # 53. 455. c. 16. ft. 454. a: -2y= = 1 . 458. . 8 x + y = 19.

--i = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ax by = c \ 472.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.2y)- (2 = 2J. car = 4- rf cte - ey =/. (or . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. + ey-n. i- 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.+ -=2. -_ & +y 3 dx+frj- c\ . 468. 473. 475.?/ + 1 . 465. - = 2. 8 461.c=56-3y. ax cx by = m. x y 474.. ^ + i^ = 7. _ 469.7.

In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and in 20 months to $275. and the other number least. fraction becomes equal to |. and in 18 months to $2180. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the numbers. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. by 4. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the numbers. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the fraction. whose difference is 4. 486. 477. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 479. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. the Find their ages. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. How much money less 484. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . A spends \ of his. 483. 485. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find their ages. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the number. 481. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 487. A number consists of two digits 4. years. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j| 478. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. to . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. age. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. .

8./ 504. z y i-fi = z x 502. 7. 3 a: + 5=84.-5#+2z = $x a: G. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 4 497. 30 -2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=-9. 5 + a. 7 + 2 z . = 20. 3ar 503. 498. y Solve : x +z= 5. z y x 25 . = 15. = 209. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a. . 4 506. 3 x 500. + # +z= 35. .? + 2y = 8. 490. 1.z = 20. 7 -4#+ 3z = 35. x s + y z = 18J . i-f-i = x a. 493. 494. 492. ~ 507. of two the sum of the digits also if number. *i. + y 5 y = 101 . 2a:-f 7. . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2 a. . * + 425 - = . 495. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. a: -f z = 79. x -f y -f z 29| . 2 2 = 41. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 1+1 = 6.z = 12. : Solve the following systems 491. 2/>-3r = 4. 496. a: 499. 2 e.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. a number . . a. 2y + 3a = ll. a: + // = 11. 489. x y -f z = 13|./ -f z =a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 4z+3z = 20. --\ . -f- + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 5^ 9z = 10.

523. + : = 1472. 517. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . i=a + 6 c. z z- =3a-&-c. 36 + c. + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3a-f& + r.

532. and CA=7. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and BE. 90. . What are their rates of travel? . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. If they had walked toward each other. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. AB=6. Find the numbers. When weighed in water. M. if the number be increased by Find the number. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. if and L. L. they would have met in 2 hours. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . AC in /). 527. How long will B and C take to do . A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. the first and second digits will change places. it separately ? 531. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. in 28 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. it is filled in 35 minutes. Tf and run together. 530. . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Find the present ages of his father and mother. B and C and C and A in 4 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In circle A ABC. BC = 5. N. CD. E 533. touches and F respectively. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born.

545.10 marks. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x 2 544. . a. 2 - x - x2 . e. from x = 2 to x = 4. z 2 - x x - 5. FRANCE. of Draw a graph for the trans- The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. the function. x* - 2 x. 2. - 3 x. 3 x 539. then / = 3 and write = 3. 543. formation of dollars into marks. - 3 x. x*. . 2 x + 5. The values of x if y = 2. One dollar equals 4. 540. 550. b. x 8 549. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 536.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 546.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. GERMANY. + 3. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. If to feet is the length of a seconds. i. to do the work? pendulum. if x = f 1. 548. - 7. x *-x + x + 1. d. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 + x. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 547. 2|. 542. The values of y. The greatest value of the function. c. 2 541.e.

graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. ' = 8.11 = 0. 557. 566. x 5 . 2 567.3 x . j. 18 x - 4 = 0. . 3 + 3 z . 2 x 2 560. // Solve y Solve y = 5. .1 = 0. 3 . 2 a. x 2 ~ 2 .4 x 2 + 4 . 564. 3 x* . g. i. 3 x . c. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. x* . 565. 558.4 .G .15 = 0.0.r -1 561. c. f. 572. + 5 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.r . 556. a. 563. and make the unit of the b. J. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. \ to t = 5.r a: a: x- a. r?. z 4 . Solve 552.3 .4 = 0.7 = . 2 8 .9 = 0. h. a. - 2 1 a: a.' 2* + Z - 4 = 0. if y =m has three real roots.5 x .17 = 0. a? 4 x . 568. = 5.6 + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. a: 559.= 0. z 2 . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. x 4 . 553.13 = 0. Represent meters.= 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Solve// = 0. e.3 = 0. + 10 x . 2 554. 2.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 555.3 x . 15. 562. a. If y +5 10.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*-"2x-7 = Q.

582. -f ?>) 3 591. (# 2) . 4 (1-a:) 3. 593. . 588. x + z2) 8 . 2 611. a: . + %) (a* + *) 5 . + .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .(1 . jj+. 585 594. 597. (1 (1 (1 . a 8 606. 5 a*. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 6 + 1) . [ y =10. 595.frf : 583. .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a 612. - 128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 9 - 4 fSb 607.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 604. 596.%) 4 (aa. 608. 2 + -f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac - a6.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) -f (2 -3 x + -f. 2 - 2 aa: 2 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 4 a. -f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (a. 600. (1 + x a. 1 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3' - 578. 579.4 8 -f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 -f (a 1 . f-MV -- 586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 64 a 12 603. : y* or 25.2 2 + y.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 2 - 100 aW + 100 aW. a. (a-iy. 4 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA |4. 599. a: -f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 2 943 +-+ -~-bx. 592. 3 (f-. <r)3 - 2 3 a:) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 598. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .x + 2 )'2 601.-5 xy = 0.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y -4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 3 . j^-f = 3. + + 4 . + ^) + (air-%)8. 609. 4-8 xf + a: 4 - 04 aty 6 a: // 16 -2 605. {f_7l j? 2* + |''. (a - 8 ft) .-4. x [ ?/ 577. a:. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x -f 13 2 . a 2a. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. a: -f ~+ x [ 10 ^i - 1 V 6x + 4 --+ 610. 589. xY.

= 70. 3a. ft .15174441. x 2 -f x ~ - 16 = 0. 49. 21. + 112 a 8 .53 x ~ . the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. GGff. 630. 624. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .150. Find the eighth root 617. : 5. 494210400001. 632. 639. 644. 44352. 628.871844. 25023844. 620. 4 289 of : 4- 4 a*b + a2 2 /. (x 9 x 646. 4370404. According to Kepler's law. + 24 a 2 4 . 210.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.448 z + 1120 a: 4 - 1792 x* + 1792 2 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s - 108 afy 616. /. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 4J. 650. *+* = 156. = . 371240. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. -f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 49042009. 2 + 189 z = 900. 035. = 0. Find the square root of 619. x 2 . and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 629. 637. 32 631. 2.1024 x + a: 256. + 2 -21 x = 100. 9g. + 54 'x*y* . 643. 615. 626. 636. 614. V 635.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 645. 625- : 621. 623. VOIOOD + V582T09. 2 + 21Ga. find Jupiter's period.V250 . a 8 of: - 8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2 - 50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4 - 50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .191209. 651. 634.*. 638.\/4090. -f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 647t x 2 648 649.30. 942841. 40. 7) 2. 8*' + 24* = 32.12 a?y + y*. 9a. a- 642. 0090. 633. = 87. 622.2. V950484 .2410. x 2 641.49.

290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .

bx . ex -a-b-c= fx 0. 693. 2 2 . 2 702. (x 2 +3a:) 2 -2a. 2 ' 3 2 a:) - 28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.c = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 692. 708. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :c-f 1) = 42.2 a(l + & )z -fa 2 (1 ax + to -f ru: 2 . 696. . = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: -f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 2 697. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 4 a: + 4 ^^ -6a:x2 8 701. ax 2 698. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 694.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b - ~ " x 690. 699.ax . 706. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 695.a a )jr . 707. . a. 1 + V* -2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .

723. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. ___ _ 2* -5 3*2-7 715. Find the price of an apple. a: 713.l + 8 -8 + ft)' (J)-* (3|)* + (a + 64- + i. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 717. 729.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16 | 25 a2 711. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 725. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 722. 217 . .44#2 + 121 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 3or i -16 . 724. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 716. sum is a and whose product equals J. 2n n 2 2 -f-2aar + a -5 = 0. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. In how many days can A build the wall? 718.292 709. 12 -4*+ - 8. 721. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 16 x* . **-13a: 2 710. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find two numbers whose 719. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. A equals CO feet. 727. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.

(^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y -f- y*) * + -* (x* - y*).1 -f c" ). (x* 2 a M+ -f a8) (x* - 2 aM" a).aft* 1 + a 2*. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 46.-l). 40.X . 1 -6. (4 a: 2 - 12 x* 28 x + 9 x* - 42 x* + 49)*. .2 d*m* + 4 d-)(w* + 2 rfM + .2)(x2 4. 31. 38. + - - c* + 2 + ^ + cb-f 44. -f- + M 6* -f 6) (a* U*") -4- a*6^ (<i* &*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 39.)(a-i + &.2? 50.1 + x. 34.1 + c. 41.- 1 + l)(>r 2 - -i + 1). 52. (x* (i* (a-2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 293 (y* (a* + -f y* + y*+l)(y*.1 -f ^ 2). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).2 ). . n. (64 x~ + 27 y -r- (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 35. 32.aM ?n^n^ -f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 43. 42. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 36. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . + &-2)( a -2_ 1 j-2). (v/x). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 37. 33.

2-V2 2-V3 . ~ r* x . 761. 4\/50 4- SVlOOO.1+J 756. 758. \/G86 v/lG-v/128. 754. 759. + V22 + + 12 V2b8 - 760. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.294 753. 757. 768. 2^3(^-2^21 + 4^-3^:0. [1r^ T 1 i ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. JU. vff + V^~ 4^ -2^/2 776..

-f x Va z Va -f x + Va a. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 10 785. . 75-12V21. 794. 87 ac + 6t - 12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7 - 3 V'5 ( 2 4 7-3V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4 | 5 . 16 + 2V55.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 -f 780.12VIT.2 V30. + 2V21. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 783. x 782.4 V(j. 14 791. a 94-42V5. 103 788. 787. 3J- . 38-12VIO.2V3* ^ 807. 806. . .VlO. 793. 786. c 792. Va 809. 789. 13 799. . 9-2VI5. 790.

-f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.79. = 1.V2 ar 10. 3 x + 2 . 820. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 818. V3 -f 1 V4a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2y-x 2)* and 1.g. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 833. + ViTli + V7 . /9ar a: = 17.4 = 0.V-c^lJ . 814. Va: . 816.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .\/2y - 810. 829.13 = 0. x/aT+l . 811. 836. + 10-3Var. V14 a. VaT+lJ -f ^l .-f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor-7 = V25 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar -2 Vx -f 1 834.V? = 813. Va: + 28 -f + V9 x . 812. + Vx .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~-K5 + V5. 830. \/12 a. - 5 + V3 -f 12 817. 831. 815. 819.

+3 -4 + - 4. 40 x 2 7 -f 49.3 a:. + 512 y8 874. 840.x*y + 3x -f 2. z*y 8 l-64a. 2 x 3. 865. a 872. 4 x* 847. a. -f b**. 8^-27^. 5 x* -f 297 9) 11 x . a*" & 6n . y 4. a. x 8 2 857. 871. .12\/(ar4-4)(5z~ = 36.3 . 876. 8 8 - 13 a. 27 y 8. 846. -64. a. 4 x 8 858. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 16 859. .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 + 4- 4 ar 2 2 a. 8 a. a 8 873. - 3x a. 875. 861.ab9 ft*.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 856. 6 2 -f 3 6 s.3 x . 845. 64 a 866. 8 860. 864. 2 a: 64 y*. 9. 19 x 14.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x -f 5 = 7 . 27 862.10 = 118. 863. + . 844. 4o.1. V4 x 2 . 839. a. 275 8 -l.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a l0m .-12. 2 -f" + a/ 15.a. 8 8 848. . 870. + 1. a 18 4. 8 -2a. 2 -f 2 18a: -f + 16. 729 867. -8a: 2 4 -f 8 a: + 2 19a. 852. x 4 + -f 2 a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a 8 869. a. 8 4a: 8 a.3 Va: 2 . 6. x 11 a^ -J- 13 854. 868.10 x -f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 4 a: 2 842. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. . a: 849. 5 a 4 7 a8 . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 6 x4 -f + + a: x -f 1. -f 12. 853. 855. 8 .1000 6. . a. 851. a: . a 8 850. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. -f 841.

xy + y = 32. 885. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. y 2 2 8f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 -f ary = 8 + 3. 883.15.xy + y 2 = 19. 2 + y 2 . y y 2 y 2 1-1-21. 886. 896. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x - 880. y = 28. 2 . y 2 4. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .1 = 2 a#. 2 + xy = 28.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. + 2y=\2. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + -f ary + y = 37. a. 5. 3 x 2 .298 877. a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx -f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 887.Vi' + 1 1_3. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 894. -f- a: a: 4 ?y = 481. . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a# f + xy = 126. a:y . -. 889. 878. + ary + 2 = 37. 901. x 882. .y 2 + V(j. y*+ xy . a: a. z 2 898. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. a: + y 2 = 34.5 xy + 4 f = 13.sy = 198. +y -f y = 7. a: 888. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. x a: l-I = xz . -f ?/ a: a: . --. 2 + xy = 10. . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 .y 2) = 20. 1 x 893.18.35. 899. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + 2 f = 17. . 2 = 2 + 5.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. x*-xy. M1 891 1 . 900. a. 895. 890. x 8 3 = 13:3. a: 884. a: 2 897.

= 8. a: y zx 12.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 3 :r(3 .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. * + y = 444. + ?/) . y # 2 2 -f -f y = 84.3) 2 -f (y . 912. 7 + 4 y -f 6 ary = 0. y .23 = 200. . 2 * 2 ~ g. 923.y) (3 y . or or a? a: a: . a: * a: a: ar 928.2 y) = 49 2 919. .r a. xy + x= 15. 2 913. x + y 2 = aar. -f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 3 -|-y 8 ) =1216. 905. 2 915. y + a:y = 180. 2 y 2 -f ay/ = 16. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 908. + a. Vary + y = 6. 4 (a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. # + xy + y = 7.y = a(ar + y). + ary = a*. (* 918. (0 Vx -f 10 -f v^+T4 = 12. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.y). ^ 2 .6. 907. (3 x . 910. 917. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. (a.3)2 = 34. x* + ary -f y 2 = 9. 911. a:y xy 929. 9 -f 8 y -f 7 ay/ = 0. a: a. + y 8 = 189. *y .y) (a? . x 4 299 xy z 904. 909. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. (o. 906. 914. a. .y2 = 22. + 2 ary = 39. 2 + y = 2 a 4. a o o- 2 j + a:y = 2. + y = 9. x + y}(x + y) = 273. yz = 24. (!) * . y x 2 = by.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 920. 2 2 -f 4 a: ar// or -f- a. ny ft- ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 5 xy = 11. 2 924. x -f 2 a:y = 32. 2 2 2 916.16 y 3 8 = . 7 y . y 2 + 3 ary = 2.x) = 21. + y)(a.3(* + y) = 6. ary y = 8. 23 x 2 . xa 903. + 2 a:y + = 243.y) = 33. y 3 2 2 922. 921. ?/ ^: ^-f!i^2. x 2 ry + y = 3. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a.#y + 2 = 27. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).

the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. two numbers Find the numbers. 944. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. . and the difference of 936. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. A and B run a race round a two-mile course. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and also contains 300 square feet.102. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. s(y 932. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. In the second heat A . (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 2240. (y + *) = . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. How many rows are there? 941.300 930. 943. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. + z) =108. feet. 935. two squares is 23 feet. Tf there had been 20 less rows. a second rec8 feet shorter. If each side was increased by 2 feet. 931. is 3. diagonal 940. *(* + #) =24. Find the numbers. is 20. Assuming = -y. A is 938. 34 939. find the radii of the two circles. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. y( 934. two squares equals 140 feet. 152. + z)=18. = ar(a? -f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. and the sum of their areas 78$. Find the sides of the rectangle. and 10 feet broader. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. feet.000 trees. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. 942. rate each man ran in the first heat. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 3 . The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet.square inches. 937. y(x + y + 2) = 133. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.

Find in what time both will do it. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. triangle is 6. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and travels in the same direction as A. . and its perim- 948. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. . A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. P and Q. A and B. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and that B. Two starts travelers. its area will be increased 100 square feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find its length and breadth. each block. Find the number. the digits are reversed. at Find the his rate of traveling. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. is 407 cubic feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. 949. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. set out from two places. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the eter 947. 950. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the number. . the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 951. unaltered. sum Find an edge of 954. 953. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. distance between P and Q. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. whose 946. that B A 955. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 952. overtook miles. and if 594 be added to the number.

s - 88... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 961. x(x to 8 terms. ^ 1- . P. to n terms. . 5. 16 962. (to 2 n terms). J. to infinity. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.454. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4- 4.4-142 .. ^ Vfirst five 959..-. 957.3151515. 18th terms of an A. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 36 963. -^-1 + V-j 1 2 - . 5.. 3 + 5 7 + -.. P. 972. Find the sum of 4. difference. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x-(x 2 4 y 2} 4.321? 965. 4 4- to 7 terms . 3 ..141414.v 973. to 7 terms. : + -f 24 21 24 4-f 32 36 1G 10.V2 . - 2..to infinity. Find the Find the common 977. *" 968. 9th and llth terms of an A.. = 4. n to n terms. 975. 966. P. f + 1 .>/) to infinity. and 976. + (iiven a + - 4 d . Find an A.. Evaluate (a) . 4. 974. . (x 4- to n terms.x*(x 3 -f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. are 29 and 53..302 956. fourth of the unity.. . the terms being in A. 1G series . !Ll^ + n . Find n -f (ft) .. 958. 964. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 970. Sum to 20 terms. 971. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. 1 to n terms. Sura to 24 terms.. P. 969. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. '. Sum Sum to infinity. \ . 12434+ j I 967.-.. Find n.1 4- f -j$V .

. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chess-board.04 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978.001 + . to n terms. of n terms of an A.1 + 2. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7-! v^5 . 987.) the last term the series a perfect number.3 ' Find the 8th 983. to 105? 981. Find the first term. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. is 225. 303 979.. Find the sum of the series 988. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.+ lY L V. first 984. "(. Find n. The term. 992. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and -. to oo.--- : + 9 - - V2 + . 986. P. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 5 11. Find four perfect numbers. The 21st term of an A..001 4. and of the second and third 03.. named Sheran. 985. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 980. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . .-. and the common difference.01 3. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 989. 1.-. 0. 2 grains on the 2d. 990.2 . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. P. to infinity may be 8? .. P. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.. The sum 982. and so on. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find four numbers in A. 4 grains on the 3d.

If a. P. ABC A A n same sides. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. areas of all triangles. (6) the sum of the infinity. (a) after 5 strokes. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. at the same time. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 997. AB = 1004. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 994. find the series. 998. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. Two travelers start on the same road. c. many days will the latter overtake the former? . One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. in this square a circle. The fifth term of a G. P. 995. . is 4. 512 996.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. are 28 and find the numbers. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and so forth to infinity. 1001. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. ft. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. The sum and sum . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 1003. in this circle a square. 1000. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. inches. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. and G. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. are unequal. 999. Under the conditions of the preceding example. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. of squares of four numbers in G. prove that they cannot be in A. P.

2 ) 5. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of - *)". Write down the 1 5a - 6 |V . 1006. 1009. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Expand - 2 a. x) 18 . (1-2 #) 7 . Find the fifth term of (1 - a:) 1015. 1011. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 -7 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the coefficient a: X ---- \88 1 in 1019. .o/) 14 . ) 1021.l) w -f . 1008. + lQ . (1 1018.-i-V 2i/ 5 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1014. a: 8 7. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1012. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.ft) 19 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. .

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. lowest ratio " '* .. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . 129.. 232 mean progression . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . signs of Algebraic expression .. .. .. Aggregation.... simple simultaneous ... 129 54. . linear literal Common ** * difference . graphic tion of representa- .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . 246 91 " multiple. 158...193 11 . 9 ** .. 232 169 807 . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . Checks Coefficient 20. 123 . numerical . .....210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 97.... . . .. 160 in quadratic form 191 .178 Completing the square . 9.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. t 53 120 . .. . .. .. 8 . . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . .. . .. . .130 ... . quadratic .. ... .] Abscissa Absolute term ... 54. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. ...108 160 " .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . Brace Bracket Character of roots . . . 19. 37. .. 112 54 54 251 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 -10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .

Negative exponents 11 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. .. first and second . Geometric progression . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 ..C Multiplication . 109 102 . . . . 241 123 geometric ..108 Minuend . 45 Laws of signs . 212 . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . 23 10 91 102. arithmetic ..31. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 34. 243 7 . inversely 122 numbers . Imaginary numbers . 184 54.. 9. . . 91 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . . 120 Member. . 112 . 189.. . directly. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 42 7 Independent equations Index . Product '* 76 Infinite. .. 227 geometric . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions... G. 17 65. 180. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . 143. Known numbers .. 63. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Inconsistent equations . numbers . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.251 Graphic solution of simultane. Mean " 81) proportional Mean.. L.. . 84. . . Mathematical induction . ..808 Exponent Exponents. addition of " square of . . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Like terms Linear equation . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . INDEX 8 . . 195 33. 45. 45.. exponent . 205 .. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . 253 28 70 1. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . law of Extraneous roots . .. 227 . Insertion of parentheses . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . . . P . 114. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .

. .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. polynomial ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 129.. 27 17 Unknown numbers . 4 155 9 " of .... .. . Sum. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 9. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America... ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . .. algebraic Surds . .. 45 Trinomial 240 . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. ..... absolute 54 Variable ..

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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .

. NorfoooS J. Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916. Mass. Norwood. Published September.COPYRIGHT. 1910. Set up and electrotypcd. December.A. 1910. . Gushing Co.S. 1917. 1913. 8. Berwick <fe Smith Co. U. August.

15. 2. 12. b. South America 46. 1. 16.. 0. 10g. 9. Page?. B $4700. 3. 64. 4. 4. 8. Multiplication. 11. in. 32. 144. 19. Page 4. 37 S.21 24. 6. ft. 7. 126. 5. 11. 3.$9400. loss.00000001. 28. 16 in. -3. 3. per sec. A . 7. -15. 6. 1. 36. 12. 49. 25. 9. -30?. + 1. -14. 20. 7. 19 4. 30. 10. 72 = = 216. Seattle 12 Philadel- 9. 7. 21. 6 yd..000 negroes. 59. x. 8. 13 d. Page 8. 10. 1. 17.. 14. 10.. 3. 73. 20. -3. 24. 2. C $ 16. 1. 210. 7m. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 2 ~ 15. 576. 9 = 4. 19. -2. 6. in.000. 1. 2. 1. - 22 20. -2. 29.1. 49.. 16. 16. 8.000 Indians. Page 1. 5. 3 m. 7. 20. 17. 20 \. 4. 4. Yes. 6. 32. 6. 27. 4. 3. 128. 29. Ot 15. 9. 3. 28. 9 14. 17. is $10. 15. 25. 6. 8 ft. 6. 106. 89. 9 m. 1. 3. 2. 9. 27. 16. 19. 5. 15. 12. 14. 8.000. Page 13. 9. -2. 2. 5. 6.000. . c. 14 11. 11. - 2 p. 32. 9. 13 V. 1. 18.000. A $90. 13. 12. 16 in. 25. A 38 mi. -32. 11. 8. . $100. ^. x. 10. 12. 21. 21. arithmetic. 10. 3.8. C $1(50. -7. 1. 16. 5. 1. V 23. 10. B $80. 14. 4. 18. -10. in 12. 14. Not 5. 13. 16. . C $60. 3. 16f 2. 13 S. 15.. 9. 13. 14. 6. 3. 1. 26. T . 5. 18. 8. 12. 23. 9 16 - larger than 7. 2. 2. Australia ft. - 1. 192. 6.150. 115. - 1. 0.. 7. 8 13. A 15. i . - 13. 1. 3 below 0. B $20.3. 16. -3. 9. 12. 11. 256. 2. 18. 10. -26z. 16. }. 24. A Bl 7.2. 5. 2. 13. 24. 7. 150. sign. 12. 8. 3. 3. 1. B 10 mi.000. = 5 81.000. 2. |. 20 jo. 3. 17. 1.. 1 16.000. (a) (/>) -1. 2. sign. 22. westerly motion. -37. 2 - Page 8. 3* 7. 5. 16. $ 1 50 10. 48 ft. 20. 14. 5000. $40. 6. 17.C. 2 5. 12. 18. 85. 6* 16. _ 32. 22. 13. B $ 128.000. $160.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 14.12. 4. 3. . 18. 7. 12. 512. 25.. 27. 1. 9. 20 B. 6.

. . 9. 16. 3. - 11. ft. 34. 17. 4. 19.<>Gq.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 6<t. 3 . -3a.000 sq. (ft) mi. m + 3(a. 237. 10. 39. -I. 17. 31.9?/2 8. 24. 12. 4. - 12. 10. 27. 41. 2. 4. 1. (r) 78. 22. - 0. (59..4 ft. 9. 57. 21.x. Polynomial. 21 a 3 4 10. 13 cu. 20(. 3. 12yd. 38.5f> sq. (c) S(i. 11. sq. ft -f- 19. ft-)- - 3 /A - 8x :i (/* 4- ft)(X- 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a -ft)-. It. 18. Pagel4r. 27. 33. a 32. 13. 18. 27. (ft) 12. 0. -4. -15. -32 2 ftc. 20.. 240. -5. -38 ab. 3. (r) 2000 m.. 16. $80. 30. . 14.'J. Monomial.r~ -f 34. x^ 20. Polynomial.-~4.ab. 7 7. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. #1111. 2. 5. 4. 22. r+l. 6.000 . 12. (a} 100 1(5 cm. $3000 Page 6. 17. 14:). 14. 7. 30. 24. 3. 35. y. -2. w. 12. 8. -- 40. _- 4 . 29. + ft). 00 24 04 ft. 23. (a) <> sq. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 4. 0.5 (ft) sq. 0. 2.14 sq.94(>. 0. - 3. 2x' 2 5 . arty 1 20. 27. 3. 8. 14.a . 13. . 8. 5. in. 6. 17. v'ft a4 4- a a 4-1. 314 sq. 04. 17. -0.1. . 28. Page 31. ^. 26. (a) 50. r:A 29. 5. in. 8. 19. ft. 30. -f - 5e 35. Binomial. 13. -43w//2 17. II. a3 a2 4- a 4- 1. 20. 12. -2. 21. mi. 25. 42. 18. (ft) 7. 3. 8. 12 a. 27. $r*y 4- 3x?/ 4 m* run- - . ft n. 5. 3rf 27. -5x+3.6) 38. 9. <i~ 26. Page 18. 11. i:-5. 2V^4-^/ 8 x* 6.32 c2 > ft 3 . Page 7. 32. 7.900. ??i??.rty8. + 5. 173. 25. r/ \(\xyz.. (a) r>23ifcu. Page 23. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 15. (a 4- 4. 34. (r) 2.. 10. 51 f. t. ^). (ft) Page 2. 1. - 1. -15. rt. 13. c. 27. 1. 1. 4 9/^/rl 2. 14. 23. 36. -3(c4-a). 13. (ft) $40. 7.4- - 2ft 2 33. WIN + wiw. - 2 4- 13 ft 2 . 35. ft' 3 . 5.. 3. Trino- inial. :. -2ftx. 16.ft) 4. 28. - x-V 3 y. . vi 14. = 81.r 2 . 8. 0. . 12. 16. 33. 1. (a) 200. +/-2(/.r -f 15. -21^. 0. . 20. -3. 4 y/ . = ()501. 0. 26. in. 21. 16. 12. 25. 50.'JO ft. 18. 13. in. 2. 3 a* + 2 at*. 7. 1. -14. -o^ft. 32. a ft c. 6. :J!>r'. 8. ft. 92. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 8. -31. 36.. 31. 104. + v> 2 . ft. 14. 5. (r) 2G7.. 9. 11. 15. 15.q 4. -2oVm-f?i. 18. 9. ft. 3. 11.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 15a. 28.. 1.. -22. (c) 8. m 24. 35. (b) 135 mi. . 37.GOG. 19. . 7.. jrif 4- 9. 49. ]*. Page 21.. 15. -1. 58. a2 4- 15^4-4. Va'+Y2 8^2 .ft. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. -yyz+xyz*. 22( 19. 29. //-'. 22. 5. 14. 1. \'\ -4. 0.

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y. a + 25. 10. 19. 998. (p 2.^V"' . 2 4 a + 4. 4 2 //. Om2 4 6m -6. 36. 3wi2 -m Page 42. . . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 56. 1). 1.x2y22. 3. 4. 38. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. ft' 11.10 35. 45. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.2 6 + 13. 4 . Page 12. 14. 484. 990. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.14 jp + 49. ~ 6 20 . 8 a W . ^' J - 7 -f 12.. a2 ' + 48Z-100.3. 4 + 25 q*. 10. -21 2 . 7 . 40. + 2 9. x* .25. V + o ft . . 37. 6.6 xy . 32.2. 2).996. 8. 30 x + 19 x3 . 2. (n 2 5. s rc 47. . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 27. 2 +10s-281.2 x + 2 x.. 28.20. . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 42.009. 2 a 2 + a . 19.020.4 a&+ 4 &*. 1.1. 8)(?i (x-2)(x-3). 34. 166. x4 28. + 10 + 121 y*. 16. 33. 2 .000. 31. + 4 t*. 9.p-132. + - m' 1. 2 a' y' . 23. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y- + 121 x4 29. 7. 41. 1. 2. 7. 12 x2 .008.6 y4 10.^. 9.54 p 2 + 81. x 2 -f xy + 9 41.001. 29. . 2 0)(p + 5). 18. 5. 25.020. 10.004. p4 + . 441. 1.84 a' 9.-/ . Page 39. 2 1: 21. (a (3 54.404. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 2 62 V2 132.r* 2 30. +4 34. 2 .ab . (x - 2) (x Page (rt-2). .m 30 6 4 1. ) 4' 6/ 49. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. ' 46. + 4 a +4.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 3. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 10. 41. . I/).000. m 3 j) 3 .16 a3 -f 50. . 2 fr . a3 0. a' .098. 35. .10 x + 25. 6 2 + 6-lf>0. ?/-H)0. 10. 14. 53.ANSWERS 28. 31. 33. a4 4 ?/ . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. -8 38. 20a 2 -21a + 4. 24. 9990. 10.606. G a-6 2. . 27. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .35 ab 9. 52.500. 36. x 48. 39. fo*. 11.r . 2 4 2 2 64 . lflrt 2 -8 + l. 1. 35. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 7. . 40. - 12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. . 2 j3 Z -. 2 (5 a -3). 10 a 4 ?. + 3)(-3). 10. 33. 25 a 2 6 2 . 17. 10. 36 a 4 . a-b. a + 56. 29. -4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 9 4 /> . 8. + <z 22 2 4 20 r-t2 32. 24. (m + 6)(m-3).+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 -()Or 2 20. (w-4)(w + l). 57.8. 10 a' 2 . ^V^4 . 34. .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .712. 25 25.810. -4 . 40. 39. 9801. 51. a2 >2 2 2 - 84 a a + 49.49. a + 25.6. 8. 32. 37.00 + 37. 36. 9999. 4 21.5 ~ 81. n + 2. 5. 10. 10. . 999.994. .201.6 x2 13. 1. r.^ + a? + 1. + 12. n2 a4 6. x2 -GiC+5. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 30. -4x-21. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 26. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a-66)(3a-6&).009. 11. 14. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. p 2 . -7> . m 2 . 15. (a + 4) (a + 2). 6.ri 17. 44.15. x*-2^-f I.2 y*. ab .4 12. 4. 55. a 2 . 15. (w+4)(m-4). 2 12.4 n. 10. ( 5) O-5)(w + 3). 4 x2 13. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 30 />-<. + - - 5). w-'-n 2 //-^ + 25. . ^/> 8 4 . 2 6' .r . 4. 31. -2 m3 + 4m2 . 26.

a 2 4-10 + 9 r -8 + w-2l ftc. j) . r 7. 20. -13. 12. f>r* 4.23. r//. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .r ?/ ??i ?). 8.c ft*/ 1 -|- ft' ?/ . c 12. 7 r . - 5 z* . 5 a - (5 ft. a 4- 4 ft. 3 l4-8m4-7?n 2 20. 5. -i 9.1. aft. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 4. 19. abc 7.5 a . 14. 8. ft ? ft' ft ft. ft. 12. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . Exercise 2 a:// 26.r . -6x 3. 4 d 2 4. 8.rw -f 8 . 5.25 c . a 8 4. 135. 1.1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4./ 4. 1/*. 2 4- 2 x 4. 20 15. 8 ?/ . 22. '. .VI ANSWERS 43. as _ 10 16. 2 ?/ 4. 2.r' ~ 16. 8 ?/ . . 3 aft 20.2 1 //.9 4. ft* ft /- . 14 r 2 . ?/2. 14. 1. - 3 c. 15. 47. -5. . Page 7. .2 <</. 3 5 a4 - 4 a2 4. 4x4-3?/. 4 x. . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 4 a* 4 9 11. 8. i 2 tji. 18. 4 c m . Page 51. 5.1*5 2 r 2 . 18.rw. 21. -49.000. 2 ? 14 .2 . 11. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. *3 -y 4 .29. r ft. x 4. a2 x 8 4- ft 8 . 16. 12.2 ac . -4xy + 13 <) .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. . 2 ?/' . 6.10 xy*. 1. 3. 23. 2. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.2 wZ 4. . 1000 1000 . 2 .15.3 a 4-1.10 2 + z 2 410. 1. ft 17. 8 x5 ? + 4- 1. 44. 6. Os-y. - 12 y 25. 17.3 3. + x?/ 2 1. 9.1. 3. 1. -125. 2 12. 4. 1.7 arty 4- 4 x 2 //V2 - 3 Z2 3 1.2 . -5. r/2 4. m'2 3.1.27 x 2 4.2-1 2 2 -f + -. l 4 . . 13. 11. -14. 4. 2 .5 n*. 13. 10. 13.1.3 ry. . .r?/.4.- - 11. + 4.> 10. aft 12. 2. 4. a 2 . Page 13.+ 77 15. 4 a 2 4.1. .lit x + 4.x^. +w .2 2 2 8 . m L 4. 26. 2. - . 7a 2 ftc 4 -4c4-2a. y 7.34. 4. 4- n2 4- +p ft 2 4-2 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \- x* 4- 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 -f 25 - 2 np. x 2 + 2r f J. /r . . 14.8 yn . 10. Exercise 27.y3.5 mp. :r !>. 5^4-18(7. -9.2 ftc . w 2 . Page 22. Page 11. 9. 2 2 + 2 a. . 19. a r'4-3 ll'a^-S 15. 4 a-c-. 17. -G.3 5.r?/ j/. 3.2.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 4. 2 a -3 ft. 9. aftc 52. 4ft. 01. 21. . aft 4 tt ac -2 ftc. a. 3 a-.r'^ 15. 3.2 aft 4. 46. 1. 6.n.8 y. sr 11.25. 8. a 2 4-4 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 3*y2 w + 1. + 3.8.1. 10 ft.3^V. ti'jry-1 7. 6 <z 2 4- ft 3 . w . 4 pq.30 ftc. 6. 13. 16. 4. 13. 3. 75 a 2 29. 14. 6. 2.24 .6 :rs 4. 4.9 d. 12. ?--?. 5. 7. 50. // 19. 8 r<ft -4 2 . z. 5.2 .3 w 4-*7 m 2 3 mn . 5. 2. 11 4. c-3. . 9. 8 x . 7a-3ft. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. x-4.12 aft 4 20 ac .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 12. 2 1. _ 2 a . 17. 2 4- 3 9. 5. 5 4 a Oft. - 10. a 10.8. 2 4. + c 2 -4 aft-2 ac + 4 ftc. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 10.2 2 .3 x 2 2 4.7. a 2 ft 4- 9 c3 .r" 20 S? .w. . 15. 8. 16.15 21. -3.2 ar. Page 48. 24. y-fl.

. 36. 9. 6. 8. 4. 1&. 22. 2. 1. % 4. 17. 1. 8 n - 10 yr. 3x2. 3. y 100 a 24. 800 = x + 1300. x 2y 10 act. 29. !). (c) 2x. m+ 11. 12. 13. y 50. m -+~m 3. ) 2^ x 20 =a- 7. I. 37. 33. 2. + 3x + 2y + 32. 6. 5. n M. .000. - 1$. 100 2. d + !. 60 25 1. ft.7). ( a -f- 4. s. 17. 58. 30.rr-2. x 49. 18. fix. 20. 11. lO. 15. 42. 29. (</) 2a. vil 56. 5. + 10 b + c ct. 2x + 35. . 3x - 1700) = 12.(3x+ = rrax-lO. 13. 100 14. r tx mi. ? 43. (c) (2z-f 600) (3 =4. b. 43. 4.ANSWERS Page 9. 7. Page 31. 3. -f (I. 2=10. 10. 5. 2 ct. X 60. -f 6)(o 62. 40. 10. I. 21 2. r>?imi. (>. 6. 57. 3 9.100-. (A) 3 x -f (4 x . lOx 10 + w.-. 25. 9. 44. y yr. 0. 4 -f 39. 10 yr. 32. 10 x sq. ft. 20. 5. 7. a -10. 0. 36. ct.10) 100. <>. 17. 33. 15. + 3 = 2(3* . 23. d. 8. x 48. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x -f 1200) - x. l. 28. . . 00. 19. 4. ct. 1. 2. 26. 7. 45. 7. 11. 6.. 1. 2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. . 5. 22. "mi. Page 40. 27. 24. 3. -f = eZ 2 x.a-b a. Page 13. 10 a. 16. + 4x 3y 34. " lir.. y ?>i x + 26. 10) (6) 2 z-f 20 3^-740. 100 d ct. 1. 5. x + 1=a. 50= L 100 15. 41. / + y + a-// 12 yr. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 2b. ^ 12 sq. iL*.r-1. (> 27. }f. 38. 16. 2b 22. 4-^ = 100. 59. 12. 34. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl5-8)-h(8ar-ia)=60.x700. Page 61. 16. 11. 2. - 2\.(3x - 700) = 5.6 = *. . 'nj 100 a 28. 7. 7. 4. b. 4(a -ft) c = 8. (a) ' 12. 31. 30. 37. = -5 ?i x 460. 4.p+7. 47. -13. 39. rn mi. 100= -^. (2 a. 7x 2 Page 21. - 9 = 17 -a. sq. 6. 41. ct. 25. 44. x. ft. 20. 19. y 2z p= 3 (a c. Page 6. v (6) 2x. - />) a = all-. m= -- 100 2x=2(3x~10). - 6 10. 2. 14. 18. 46. 23. ] 2 ri 42. a 8. 38. 35. -Jj12. x = m. .200) -f(^ + (e) 200.r ct. 10. 14. 10) + = (a) 2 x . + -f + b 2. '^ . 10. 10 >-_&. 7. x y $ 6 yr. </ 20. xy ft. # + 20yr.

3 hr. 3. 12.1). 15. 14.y"). - PageSO. (ro-3)(w--2). by 12 yd. 17. 67. 10 yr. 71. 18. 2. 10 Mass. (z-5)(z-2). 1200. 6. 22. 1200. 1250. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. = _?_(2ar + 1). 52. 23. 17. 8. 12. Page Page 480 12.000 ft. 10. ~=90. 200. 300. 5 Col. 8 in. 160 lb. 100. (a + 6) (a + 3). 9.. (m + n)(a + 6).8. 15.000 Phil. 74. 3.10. 17z8 (l-3z + 2x-'). 180. 14. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.3aftc + 4).5. 5pt.. 9. 10. 150. 9. 20.. w (/) 64. 9.000 copper. Oaj(o6-2cd).79.. 2 2 2 5. (y 13. (c) ^ v ' .000. 3x (3r. 11. 2. 29. 8. 4. 5. 3. 6. 3. 2 2 ?/ 21. 7. 6rt 2 11.. Page 7. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 100 1. (*-4)( + 11. 70. 14. ^ .3. 12. 25 yr. 3.11. 68. 4. 7. (y-7)(y + 2).. 1.24. 13.0.22. 82 mi.210^.0.000 N. 13. 20 yd. 8 12. 11 w(w' + wi . 6. 20. (6) --(6 a -30) =20. 4. 7.000 Berlin. 45 in. 2 3 6 7. . 11 in..16.. 2. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 14. 8 2 19. 20 yr. 2. 30. 20 yr. Page 79. 7 hr. $40. (a -4) (a.2.3.4-11. 8. Ib. 7a*fe(2a & -l). (e) -i* + -A. 9. 12 mi. 14. 10 yr. 480. 55.000. 50... 15 in. 1. 13. 11. 11. (a + 5)(a + 6). 10. 9 in.000. ? 2 - = SJL+J10 13. 85 ft. + 7)(y-3). ?(g -? -g+ 1). 14.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 10 Cal. 25. 16. 8. 15. (p + 7)(3a-5&). 30 mi. 15 yd. 18. . 11 pV (2 p8 . 9. 4.13.. 10. (a-5)(a-4). Page 7. 80 A. 2. 6. 7. 78.-2). MOO HXT 100 100 -^-~ -(5z-30) =900. 18. 75. 3 (a +&)(*.21. 05. 5.3). a a (a 8 -a+l). 78.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.. 6. 13. Pace 65. 30. 4. 19. 5$ hr. 40 yr. 250. 90. 8(a6 2 +6c2 -c2 a2 ).000. 1. 20. 2. (y-8)(y + 2). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (5-3 xyz + x y'W).. 13. 3.000 pig iron. 1. 1. 1. 6. 2$. Page 5.000. 24J. 15. 10. 9. 28yr. 8. 12. 2). 600. 10 yd..000. ( + 4)(*-2). 5 lb. Y.. 7. 200. 5. 11. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 -ay4-3y 2 ).7. (y + 8)(y-2).(5z . 4. 42yr. 7. 10. 21. 3. 8. (2a6-3?2_4 a /^) 16. 6. 13-13. 30 yr. 5. 8. 4pt. . 90 mi. 72. 10. 12. (a + 4)(a + 8). 5. 70^. 6.6).5. 25. (y-ll)(y-4). 8. Page Page 4. 12. 15.000. . 2.000 ft. 15 mi.5p + 7 g ). 1. a 12.000 gold. Page Page 4.. 1 lb.

100(x.4. 7. 36. 24. 216 aft. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 27. 22. (<7 20. 12.+4 y)(3x-4 y). (x + y4 )(x . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(l-x). 8. (:5-2y)(2a!-3y). Oa 2 (a-2)(a-l). (2 a? 4. 27. 21. 13x(a + ft)(a-ft). (4y-3)(3y + 2). (2o + l)(2-l). -3)(3a. (5w-l)(m-5). 25. 16. 21.11 ft)(a-6). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 5.. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 7. (15z-2y)(x-5y). 18. 10. No. (3*-2)(. Yes. (2y-l)(y + 9).-5y)(3a. 9ft w(?-3) 140 w 2 27.3)(z-2). 11. 24. 3(x + 2)(z-l). 19.c 2 ). 35. 23. . 9. (g .7)(2z -f 1).7) (a. 2 2 15. (13a +10)(13a -10). (15a-y-2) 2 .y (6x + 4)(5x-4). (5a-4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (0 (l+7a)(l-7a). 21.w*)(l -2 n 2 ). 40 x. (m + w) 2 5. 25. 100 (a. x(x +y)(x -y). 30. (a -6 6) (a 4. (4 18. -7 6) (a -10 6). + 9^)(oxy . 15. (5x . No. 13. 10. No. (9y-4)(y + 4). 26.1). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft -3). 19. (a a: 19. (m + n + 4p)(w + . . (w + 20)(w + 5). 28. 22. . . (3a. (ft + ll)(aft-ll). (y-8) 2 2 . 22. 34. 11. (4 13.1). 1. (y + 4)(y-l). x (z + 2)(x + 3). Page 82. . 2. 33. 2 -y' (2y-3)(2y-l). . 32. 23. 28. 20. 10(a + ft)(a-ft). + 4) (a. -y) (a. . 3a. (a (p-8)0> + l).2). 3. 34. (4a. 10(2 30. (10a + ft)(10a-ft). 27. 21. 14. (15a + 46*)(16a-46). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).9*). + 2y). 15. 6. 29. -y) 2 29. (5 a -2) (2 a -3). 9. (a 3 + 10)(a.6) 2 1. 23.11 6) (a 4. .ANSWERS 16.r-2). 2. Yes. 26. 7. 17. 8. 1. y(x. 2 No 4. 22. 9. 10(3 -5 6) 2 . ( 2 4 19.1). 11. 20. Yes. a 2 (w-7)(w + 3). 26. (m + n +p)(m + w-p).8). 10(a . (3#-y)(+4y). 103x97. 31. Yes. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 25. 4.* (2 y + 3)(y. 10. 10. . Yes. (w* (3a-26). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (0 + 6)(6-6). (6 a. 5. -8) (a. 3. (2x-l)(x + f>). 23.2 y). 20. 2(9a:-8y)(8a:-0y). 24 9. + 5) a. (* + y)(z-y). + 8)(g-3).y4 ). Yes. 2 3 by2 Yes. a(2u. + 3). 16. No. + y + . -f 2). 12. (a 4 -10) (a 4 + 3). + 3)(-c4-4). (az + 9)(ox-2). Yes. Yes. No. a*(5a -f l)(flr . . 2 17. 33. a. Yes. - - . 31. 10 a 2 (4 . Yes. Yes. (ay-8)(ay-3). . 6. 14.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 -f y'2 )2 3 Yes.4 6). . 35.4p).2 ft). 32. . + 3?i) 2 (5x-2y) 2 .3).1). 2. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . a- . 25. 10x2 (y-9)(y + 2).2). 9. Page 84. ix 18. (m-7n) (a. + 0(9-0- Page 85. + 2 )(a + ft)(a-ft). 28. 4 (a . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (a. (5a +l)(5a -l). 12. -2). 3. 9. (a2 + 10) (a2 -2). 1.y) 2 aft. 8. 29.2 by2 6. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 14. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (4a-l)(a-2). Yes. 30. (6n + l)(+2). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12-y 2 ). 18. 16. 17. 26. (a + 8)(a-3).6) 2 2 . (w ~ n (x . 17. 13x7. 4. 24. Page 83. 25. x\x 24. - x (5 a. (2 *+!)(* -9).

(5a+l)(9-a). 4. 8 4- 15 ?>)(a 34. (. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).2). 42a 3 x. 13. (w * . - (w' 4. K + l) a (a 5 />-z 9. 12. x(x -f y)(jr . 10(8x' 4-l) 4. (-> 1. a (a + 2 6). (r4-20(4 10. 8. y). O + ?/4-<?)O ?> 4- q). 6.5 <: - 9 </) (2 a 12. 4 - 9. 2 2 (3a -4// )(x4->/). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 14. 2. Exercise 47. 2 + . y(2x-?/). 7. x4-3. 24x sy s 9. 12.//)(5y- x(x4-ti<0. 2(5 a - ft) (a -3 ?>). 30. 37. 15. ^ . 3(4-7>4-4)(^4-'> -22/)((3-x). Page 89. 6. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 4 a8 . (* _ 2 )(a 4.y. 450. 4- 6. 13 x 8 2 . Page 92. 3 x4 . 11. (^ 7. .-?/).&). (a 9. 14. r x 2 */3 .3.y '2 2). 2 8(w . (!__/>). ?>).?>-) H.a + (< (3 7>)(3 - a l fo). (a 4. 6..42 x 4. 4 a s &8 . 22. 28.4).9). ofc)( fid). Exercise 46.2 y).1). (^ + ?>_8). 39. 16.& (a 5 & 4-# - 2 y) (a 1. 5 - (2 2 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .1). 38. 7. 8. Page 86. ah}.4). 2 21.36). 36.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 2. -8). 5.4.) j).^ 48. 9. 4. 2. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 4. a x 3 10.>*-)(:> 4- lj 4. y-6.8) n 4-3*). 27. 7. (x.7s) (2 a. 11. ANSWERS -r)(4x (4x 4.))(x - ^OC 1 1). (a + (2a-3fc)0*+ tf)Or 4-1) (^4-2).e 4. ( y). 2 2 10. ( (<> r4-y-3 . x - 1). 4. 10(2 (3 4.1) 3.0+ 12).y). 4. 9. . ( 4- 1 ) (2 m . 14. 17(x4-3//)(x-2y).n). 2 (a 4. 8x. 13. 4-2). . (14. y )(. Page 12. 4. + 3. Page 87.^4-6) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 2 k (wi 4. 3p (^-9)(j) -4).4)(? - 5 (6a 4-l)(a +)2( 2x-2/)(x-2?/).?-50)(xt/z. 5. 13. 4-& 2 )(tt4-/>)('e 62 2 2 4-l)(a' & -&) 5). 15. l. (f> + fo 7. b) (r 4. 2 a 2 13x 3 y.'})(c . 6. 11.3)(x 4. (w4-w) 2 1. 2. 40. a + a b. 10. . . (a &4. 3. (5 26. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 6 -f c).b.2). 5 x8 3.5 m2 x-2. 20. 6. 1. 2 . (5 31. 19. a -4. 4. fi(c4-26). 5. 2 y) ^ . - WIM. 3(.'/)('< 4. 2(m4-l)' . 8. a8 . a 4-1.X 5. n - r)(5a 10. (16 4- - 2(5 n .&). 8. (2x-7)(x 2 -2). Gp). 80a6 4- 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 7.8) ( (16. 5.y)(fi a . (a />. 4. (c. 32. + 2 //).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + -\- . 1(V/ 88. 13( 33. 41.3. ( a -^)(^3. x . - (m3n + a + b)(m 3n-ab). 14. 6.^ c)((> 4- 3 (3 w 2 w 4- m - ). 7. a 2 (a-9). 11. 17.8). 2 1. ( -{- &). - 29. 8. Page 90. ?i(w 4-y) . 24.4. 4- 3. 15 M. 2 2 3 .l)( a 25. (m - I)' 6. 3x(x-?/) 4. 12.!) (x4-2)(x-2).2)(x 1. (5^-4. ( rt 23. .w )(l 4- w 2 )(l 3 + ( y)- r)(x- ( . 16. 19- 13> -(7rt-3)(7a~3).'J)(' . 35. 8.7)(^ {I 12. 2. 8. 18. 7. a 2_rt4-l)(a -rt- 1). (x-f!/)' 3 4- w)(m. (7/1 -2) (m 4-1). a 4. (x//.i-4-l)(x4-l)(x~l). (Ox - 7 ?/)(7 x4- y/). 4). x 4.

ANSWERS 10. 2(2a-l) + l). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^-1 rr Pace 991 20 . b ! 21. 30(3 2 (a 15. x 24. // m+1 !+*?. a 10 25. 18. ?-_!&. + &)(-&) ( . 1). 6a2&(rt-6). + &) 2 ( .6). x 12. + y) (a: -y). - 1). (a-2)(a + 2)2. +5 1. 11. x 22. 13. +8b a -4 3 / ^. (a-2y2 (a-3) 2 (a-4) 2 14. a 23.

x-y 43. ab121 12 ft 2 -8 a 2 196 a2 8. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 26. 6. 0. c 8. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi-8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft - 1>* - 10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . . -A^. a 5. _*^p5_^^_. 6a-5-f^. 2 a. 4 L 8 2 . + 2H 1 ^. r > 'a2 -f an -f ft' ' 2(cz-ft) (x 2. 6. 11. 1. 4c 10.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 2x1 + 5x 12 + -^-. 28. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41..2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . w-1 + ac w 4 7. -^-~ 29. ^i 2n a 22 9x * -T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ' 2 7. Page 101. + lH + .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. Page 100.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 4. 6. rt 3a-2 + ~3a a 3. - **/* + 84 _. 30. i^. i.50 ~ 1/2 . 7.

a. . 11. x 1. 21. . j L . 6. -f Page 107. ^_. flf. 4. ft 2 -f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 0. 4. p-f n 6 1. b 2. -3. 12 28. 45. 3. -3. 11.L+-ft. y(x + x ?/). 23. +3 ( + 15. 7. 16. 1. 46. Page 110. 25. 1. 2-ft a i m x. 42. 5. 6. I) 2 3z 1. x-\. b a -f +c 14. 15. n m a + 13.y 7.^_. 19. 9. 16. 17. 5 be _J_. n . 5. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 1. 8. 14. 3 7 i o. an 18. A. 4. 1. 5. 1. ^i 11.ft . J. 3. w^x 2 b Page 105. 15. 43. a2 2. 12. 15. 1. J. 8j-_m 7 3. 4. Page 111. 33. 7. (>. ! 4 20. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 37. 9. 38. a 17. 29. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. ' 6. ?. 41. 31. 5. 4a-3ft. ?-+_!?>. Page 113. 3. 1. ac mp lf> n 12. x 05m ' 5. n 16. 6. 21. -Of. 11. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. - V o 4. 14. 20. 10. 26. 4. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 13. 2 47. 32. 30. 34. 12. 6. 10. - 10 X + u. 17. 44. 36. (y + (z 12. + f. c 8. 1. Page 106. 6. 7. 4. 40. 35. 0. J. ft. 8. 1. 3. 27. 9. f 7. 24. 11. 6 . 21. 7. 14. m 9. 18.^U\WF### X<6. . 4. 1. 39. 11. . 2) 19.

300. No. 26.. 1:1 = 1:1.XIV '/ . 36. 4. 19. w 18. - C -. Page 124. 23< &n b ' . -4. 10. 31. ^p^ r -~| 7. 15. 7T 2 Page 116. 20. 2 20. 9. 10.. 3. (ft) (r) 8 hr.. min. (r) 3^ da. 7. 16. 1 : 12. = A's. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . (a) 12 hr. 20. 275:108. 4. 14. 8. 4~r~ n . 1:4. 10.} da. Yes. - 29. 15. " 0. f . a 4- ft. 3. 1. 40wn. 9$. . No.9.000.000 If da. 1|. . 14. 9J oz. 5. 3:2.000 1 = 23. 13. 2. 19. (d) 4 da. 33. silver. 8301 hr. 81. 30 yrs. $40. 3|. 27. 22. 24. (ft) 104. 2. 40 yrs. 1 da. 21ft min. 55 mi. w 21. 30ft. 16.. 12. ----- + . Page 125. _JL. 12. 1. 24 mi. dn ~ mi. 10. gold. n 32. 5 25. Yes. 5ft- 30mi. 11.0 & . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .11. nm. 1: ~. 15. jj. 10.000. 0. $45. 30 mi. $00. 300. 17. 7. Yes. 19. ANSWERS 16. 4.10. 9. . min. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. .003. 5. * 7:9. 21.15.139. 10. Yes. 2x:3y. 5 2. 6. :2. 10^ oz. 7. after 20. (ft) 28. 18. after $12.2. 4fl -M_. 11. IV s. 13. 17. 28.. Yes. 1:3. 19. 3. 14. Page 121. Yes. -#V ~~ 34. 12. (d) 500. 21. 6. 10. (c) 8300. Page 119. 10 yrs. 26 mi. -^?i min. a 4- ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.x + y. 1:1 = 1:1. 3 da. 33. 15. J. ~m . x-y. 10.000. 00. 500.. 14. 9. (a) 25. after 18. -'"-I- 22. w 44. 5. 8.002.138. 6. (a) 4 min. 1:1=1:1. (ft) 5 da.001./hr. 20. . 5. 13. 7. 3. 15. 10. 1. 17. 18. Yes. 9. 24.0./hr.004. $30.2. -^m -. ft. Page 117. 30. 32. 3.. 18. . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 75 . 13. Yes. (a) 30. 74. 8. 26 30. 15. 40 mi.. Page 118. 8. 7 .. $0. --1^'.000. 16. 35. f. J ^'.137. 7. 38ft- min. 2:1. 8. (ft) 5 hr. . r/ i - PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 15.. [>> ^ a . 11. 300. P+ ^ 33. 17. 212. 11 hrs. 4. 34. 9ft. () 2. (c) 2 hr. 7} 18.

16. 11.3. 29. . mi.5. 59. 3. 41. \. 32j. 141.- 1 1 : : : : : : (I. -1. 8. 3. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 41.5. + W. 2. 5. -. 20. 53.5. 3. 2. 7. 36. l. "lO. 6. 6*. 5:3 = 4: x. 2.3. .' : : : : <>. a 3. 52. OJ.*. 43. 2. 4. 55. 31. ~ 1. . -2. 9. 7. 7^. Page 137. cu. 2. () Directly. -4. -7. 4. 24. 14. y a y = 7 0. 1. /. 4. 138. 4. 6. 2. 174+ Page 128. 5.r. -3. 22. s<i. in n... w. 7. 21. 1. 3 2=3 x. 48. 10. : 23. 9.36. 2. 14. 9. : />. 8. 30.3. 9. 2. 4. 11 5 . 9 - 15. 25. 1. 4.1.1.6. Page 131. 7. 39.57. y :y =.5. J pq. 200 mi. 13. - 28. + 7>i// - ft 1 . 15> 9.li. 1. : . 2. -7.a.ANSWERS 22. 30.2 x. 10. 5."2:1. i. 3. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 44.000 sq. 46.5. 5. a~. 21.5. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. x y = 1 = 3 2. mi. 7. . 1. 6. 5. (b) Inversely. .12. 1. OJ.. 4. 32 - <>' 33 - 4 <^: 34 : : . 4. 13J. 4. *.2. (b) C C' = fi JR'. water. 19. 3.5. -1. 2|. 7. 2. 19 3 . -2. 12. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 19 OJ. 5. . 5:0 = 10:12. 3. 11.22.5.46. Page 134. .7. 8. 7. land. 49. 6 10 = 12.20.7. 20 cu. 5. b x 37. 17. x 42. 8. 10. 2.9. 3.160. 15. (</) ft. . 45. 38. 36. . 7. 16.17. 11. 14. - 19. = 7 b'. 7. 3. ig 6.3.4. in.840.4. 19.3. 27. J. 5 2. 3. 8./':</ c a -f :y=2:9. 20. 7. () 7 Page 126. -2. Page 5.4.12. . y .4. x y y . 2 n . 11 w a 13. Page 135. 2. 2. 7. 7. 9. a +b 1.3. 6. I. : : T 1' : /> : -. 4. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.J -3.15 x. 28. lo mi. : : . 57. 2. 17.1. 17.2.3. tin. jc:y = n:m. 1. 12. 6. t 5.x a. 1. 26.000 sq. 1 rt * vm-^1. 24. 22. 5. 13. 1(5.1. x +y x + 74 7 \. 14. 25. 2. + b 7 .4. 24 1 (e) Directly. 2. 8. 3 - 24. (I. 32+ mi. 1 18 = 3 51.3. 18. Inversely. 58. 31J.2 oz. 20 20 J -^. 7. ' 55.C ?/ a . Page 136. 9. 2. 13.2. 4. Of.]. 945 11 10 . 56. 50. . x:y -a: b. . 3}. 15. ft. Page 133. Page 132. 12. 4. -3.3. 127. -J. 5. ini. 3. - ?. copper. 19. 40. 47. a -f 2 2 = 5 x. 11. 9. 2. $.5. 5. 3. -7. y 1. 23. 4. . 12. 35. 54. 26. 8.15. 13. 23. 11. J. 40. 16. : XV 27.-) 31. 2.3. w 8. Page 9. 2. \\.3. 4. 9.J. 3.^ 0?j ' gms. (a) Directly. 2." ^ 2. 25.8 oz. 5.1. 2. 10.2.

4. 2. $ 1000. u 2ft. 3. On the x axis. Page 153. 1. 24. 20. 20. 3. Nov.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 11. 25. yrs. ' 6 3 a. 10 sheep. A's 50 13. 4. 7. $500. 2. 0. &. A a parallel to the x axis. . 5. . 23.8. 4. (a) Apr. 25. 2. 8.1. July 20. 21. 4. 13. 5. $250. 14.$5000. 26. 6.0. & part of Feb. 4. 3. A's 30 18. 20. 20 & Oct. Nov. Feb. 2t2.1J. (<f) 13. 18. Jan. 10. <*-ft/ bd 1. 9.10. - 11.2. Oct. 10^ gms. 2. C's 30 yrs. 1. 17. ^. 11. 4 ' q.7. be 10. a. 3. 2. 2. 3. J. 12..65. 2. 2 horses. & part of Sept. 11.3. 30. 147. 4. $3000. 5. 6. May 5. 19. 1. . 9..3. 5. 6. 7. 4. -3. M 2. 26. 4. . 31. 20 to Oct. 19. through point (0. 3. 20. 3. Nov. Page 145. 2. $4000. 00. 3. 3. 6. 6.33. 7. 3. 10. Nov. 2. 7. ' w_i 7 fr-^ m -w ' 2 m+w . at 15.n + p. . Apr. 15. 17. ad AzA-. 2. Aug./hr. . Page 146. 9. 7. 2. 27. Page 142. 72. 16. -4. 6%. 15.XVI Fagel39. 29. . 3). 12. Jan. 1. 28. ad _(?jrJL. 7. 5%. 22. $6500at3Ji%. 3. 11. 3.. Page 152.. 4. 32. 7. 1. . Jan. 12. About 12f. 0. . 8. June.4. 5. 16. be 7. 13. 25. 8. 14. 14. 2. . 100. 16. July. yrs. 40. 4. 13.3. (ft) 23 J.4. - Zn - -"-(^-ll 14. 1. 1. 40. 4. 1 (d) Apr. Page 22. 11. 4. Jan.0. 1. 17. 8. & May. Page 149. 7.$2000. C's 10 yrs. 0. 4 mi.2. 16. 16 to July 20. 3. parallel to the x axis 0. B's 40 yrs. B's 15 yrs. (ft) 20. On the y axis. The ordinate. |.9. 20. 18. 1. m + n -p. 24. 30. m -f 8. (5. On 11. 6. 21. 5. 2. 30. 10. 16. m . 15.^. 23f . 2 a. 423. 5. 18. Page 151. $900 5%. Page 143. 23. 4. 5. 3. 6 cows. Apr. 2. . 12. ' . 25. 4. 1 (c) Jan. 2. 24. 24. 3. 5. 5. 3. 12. 2. 10. 3. 2. (c) .1. -. 1. 6. 11. 7. 7. July. - 17. = ^ a Page 141. ft 3. 9. 3. a =J- (n - 1) rf. 90. 18.-l. 1.. SL=J o ft r^2. 2. Jan. Apr. (a) 12. 3. 10. 9. 19 gms.. 6. af-cd ae ftd 8 ft. 9.4. m -f 9. 1. 16.

3 . 3.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 9. 8. a- 29. ft 2 4. 14. 3.59. \ft) 5.83.3. (e) 2. 2. -3. jgiooyiio 17. 8. (a) 5. 3. 5. x3 -3x2y + 3x?/2 -2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. |.. x-y. 24. m + 8 m% -f 60 win2 4. 2|. 1|. f. 2. 14. 1. - 1. 17. 13. 2. 1. 8 a-1.79. Inconsistent. 5. 20. () (rt) 3. 2. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n -f 2. 10. - 12 ft xW - 26 31. 27.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 3. xW. 1. 27 27 81. 1. 7. -2. +3 4.25. 6.25. 4-4 + 6t/2 m4 -4m8 H-6m2 -4m4-l. 30. -f-4p 7+6p g -f-4pg 6. . * 16. 11. 10. 5. -f-12 wi 9.7. -27 19.75. Inconsistent. 5. ImW.79. -1.64. 27 a6 ft - 9a 2 1. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. Page 158. 2. 4. 2. 5. 3. 18. -4. (a) 2. f. .5 (ft) 3. - 1. a + ft. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t - 9- 11.25. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 22. 2 2 22. 11. 5.25. 2. 1. 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. -.. . . m.83. (ft) (ft) 2. 19. -125 a 8 12.5.24. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' -1 125 29. 3. 24. 2 a&m Page 167. 3. . 13. 21. 9 and Page 166. 1. 11. 83. 8 1 -f -f g*. . 2. (/) 3. ft . 3. 13. . 125a 28. 4 |) 21.25. 13 .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 -f 8. 15 . -2. 10 C. - . 81 -". ' :=_!. 5 and 2. .24 .41 and 23. . 26.. 1 23. 1. 8. Page 163.73.. + a 4 ft* . . . x*-f 4x 8 + 6x2 -f-4 x-f 1. 16. 3.6. 4}.34F.67.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 28. 2. 3. 27a 3 -27 343 a 6 27 2 +9a-l. 2ft4 Page 168. 4. .1. -1. (c) -2. -a 10 ' a ll V&. 3. (e) 3. 32F. H. 22. 1. Indeterminate. 2 -l.64. xg . (/) 3. H. 20. 0. (c) 14 F. _ 9 -x ^27 1 . . .84. 30.73. 1. 1. 10. -4. -1. 9.27. 4. |. -18C. 12. 1^.75 (ci) 3^. 2. 3. 15. 14. 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (c) 7.41 and . (ft) and (d) 2. 14. 3.4. -2.24. -13C. 4. SlstyW 7. 19. -f 10.59 . 12. . 1. .5. . .75.73.3. 3. 2. Indeterminate. 0C. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a-135a2 ft4-225aft2 -125ft8 . 6.73 ami . (<?) 2. -8mW. 25. 4. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 1. 15. 2. (a) 4.75. 125 16. (ft) 2. 15. 3. -.1. . 3.2 (ft) - 1. G. . 3. (gr) 21." 23.17 (ft) (c) 2.4 aft -h a 2 ft 2 . 1. 2. 2. (ft) (d) 2. -1.13. Page 159. Page 164. . 4wn8 + n4 5. 1. 5. (a) 12. 1 4.

1. 2(> + ( 2 7>). . m 13.XV111 7. ? . 8. 18. 20. 6.a b 22. 8.1. (1 (x-2y). 7. 20. ). (Gx + (i + 2a. -^i. 71. 40. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 8 /. 5. 2 2 4. 9. . 99. 12. I 8x2).5. 1. 3. 30. 10*. - x. 2 12.-2). 6. 7. 90. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2. . 2 4 8 2 . 180 . (l-y). 978. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . - +X '-. -20. 14. 7. 15. 9. 2. 10. (2-3 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 25 19.y2 ). 11. 36. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 763. 12. ? : 1 . 11. 5. 34.94. 25. AN S WE no . +3 + 5 4. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 2 49 . 26. 15. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 5 -5 8. 27. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 6 (\x 3. 3. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. c 10 6 :l 20. 17. +(^ 2 -3^ + 2). 14. 4. (a-b + c). (4a2 -9& 2 13. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 -fa 5 14. Page 170. (a 2.037. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 420. 19. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 84. a 2 . (rt'- (2 a (7 4 10.GO a c + 23. rt . a ). 13.x ). 17. 35. + y). (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 8. -/> 4 ). 64. (x + y\ 90. 4. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). ?7i 1 1 3 1. (48 + 6. 57. 16. 2.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). a. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 1 1 ?>). 22. 16. 28. 21. + (win . r> 4 : 1 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 -G mw 6 + w 6 11.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >-/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. + l). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + 29.+3^ + 4.r 2 + 6jt). ??i ?i . + + ?V 22. 309. 21.6. 2. . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). . 300. GOO 2 c 2 . 10. . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 3. (a + y+l).10 a~ + 5 a . 18. Page 171. 2. -5.83. Page 176.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.^). 119. 3 2 8 3 12. 247. 90. 9.i c 6 15. 3. 5. 76. a: l . Page 172. 4. 11. 20. 24. 17. 16 6 w . 72. (3a. (2 a + ft). 101. 6. 31. 32. 12. 0. 1. 3 6 23. . 14. + i)). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. -3M. 16. fe *?>-' ?> fi . 9. 2 ?>i?< >2 10.3 ab + 2 2 ). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 10 x G a 4 . 8. Zll. 13. 3 2 ^-. -f 21 rt'-6 + 7 -f 6 13. 00. 15. +35. 15. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 98. 6. 9. 11. (a + 2 -+l). 33. + Z). (l + x + . ( x + 2 x -2z + 4). 1247. a. 30. 5. . 18. 70. 1.1. 19. (:' + (2a-3a: 2 + a.5). . 2038. (x' -l). 23. 6. 14. 2 2 7.7 /)). 10. ( Page 174. 4.-f 1 m 9 16. 8. 237. fr -ft i/ /> ^ | 23 . . 9.

19. 23. 10. 29. 15. 31.18. or 3. 7. 4. 39 in. 12. 2. 4. 17. 4. 32. . 9. . 3. 270 sq. 8.645. 21. 1. 8. 1. 27. 7 45. -4J. 25- J. 1 -f Vl3. 40. 12. 2.60. 5. 2. -6. 3. 5.--w 18. 6. 14. 4. 10. - 2. 13. 5. 31. 7. 9. 3. 15 1 10. " ^_ 22. vYb. -5. |. If ^. - -|f.13. ft. 24. 34. f. . 1. .916 yds. 33.1.236.-6. 36. 5. 5. -3. 6V'2J. Af^.. 1. 36 in. 4. 8. 25. 11. 1.4. 11.925 ft. 5. 14. . 2. a + 6-1. 7. 18. ^-. f ^ is. 9. . 6.005. 32. 23. 6J. 37. 8.6. 3. 5. -V. 7. JJI. -m. 21. 7. 35. 2. 13. > w ft. Page 184. 2. }. 20.798 yds. 11. or 5. 9. - 43. 3. 14. (a-fl). 13. 5. 20. 5. 2. Page 185. 19. -i ^. 44. >i 27. Page 177. ZLlAiK 19.. 7}. \/3. 12. 15. 1 -7. 39.. _ iVaft. 11. 23. 3. 6. 34. 5. 17. /. 7.}. 29.. 27. . {. 4 n. 15. 4 a. 26. 1. v 17. 9. ~ V^3. 4. 12.*. 21yds.S-n. 10. 5f. i-i :J _7. 1&. -2. Page 179. 4. Page 180. 35. f -f -V. 12. - f. 12. 6yds. 5083. 4 W**. 14. 14. 3. f. 5. 1. 3. i. 7. 6.5.243. 21.469. 21 in. 3. 16. 50. f . J. * 1. 3J. -10.ANS WERS 22. V35 1. 7 in. V- J l. 7. 17. V2. V17. - 1... () 2. -4. 37. 28. 42. 13. 6|.-4. 6. 21 28 ft. 1. . 3. .. 7. 1.6. 13. 10. . 41.4. - 3. 9. 8. |.. 5.5. -^.367.a.237. 30. 4.1. 16. 5. / 11. 46. vV-'-TA 24. 20. 1. 12.. 16. 28. 2. 9. 48. -9. 28 in. 2 sec. 9 15 ft. 49. 3. 4. 36. l~8. 22. *. 7563. 10. -16.. 11.i. 30. -^-^7m. 6. 47. 29.690. 40. 4. 1. -4. (6) Vl4 3. ft. 10. 7. 6- f !.935. 25. 10. -2. m. 18. - 5. 4 TT M 28.V 8-j. 3.-?. w. 6V21. Page 181. -16n. 24. 2. 39. 2] see. V2. Page 183. 7. 3. 2. 1 38. 15. >TT 26. - 14.522 38. 33. -f 3. a. (< + ?>). 15. 6561.6. ft. 12.742 in. 10. 2. 8. xix 26. 4.6.

41. 3. 3if. x 14. 20.-6. 3. 10 mi. 6. 0. 19. - 1. 0.2. 30. . 5 ft.. - Page 194.48. 9. 36. V ~ 16 4 2. - 1. 35.Oa. 26. 46. 7. V^l. r* -i. unequal. . 17. 1. 0. 1.62. rational. 2. 28. 9. 2.4. 12. Real. Real. 8. a. 3.2. 2 . 120 ft. 0. 4. -0. .5^. ft. .59. 24. - 6. - 2. 53. 0. . V7. rational. 0. Imaginary. 5. 1. = 0./hr. 1 . irrational. 6. 1. 7. . . 3. 3.. 15 ft.. 45. -4. 3. V^l. -3. - 5. 9. . 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.l. 3. Real. Real. 6.2. 2. 6. 2. 5. 10. 32. 18. - 1. 7. 1. 20. 10 or 19. unequal. 3. 3. 2.3. 2. rational. 1. 4. 43. 1). 1. 15./hr.2. VV11. 26. $80. 64-c. 2. 13. 2. 52. 24. 7. 26.. 2. 1. i . -12. 27.1. #<7=3. - 5.5 x + 6 = 0. Page 191. .2.4./hr. equal. 10 mi.2.7. - 2. 6. Real.4. 64. . 3. -1|. -2. jr . 1. 23. unequal. 1 3. 2. 8 or 12 mi. 3.a. 29. ' - f 5. 18. . 1. 20 eggs.. 2. 11. 11.a.. f. 26. ' 1. 0. 7.5. 70 ft. 16. 19. 6.2. 1. 0. Imaginary. 47. 2. -2 ft. 24.02. 8. rational. rational. f. 2 V3 in. -1.1.$40 or $60. -4. 6^2 in.0*8. Real. - i. Imaginary./hr. 12. a + 6. 5. x*-4x=0. + 7 x + 10 = x*-x 2 -6x = or . . 27. V^~2. 0. a + 1. 0. 49. 16. 3.12. unequal. 21. . V2. 25. U.a 3 a. unequal. 1. Imaginary. 39. 4. 21. 1_^L ft 14. 31. 2. v^^fcT"^. 55. . . ANSWERS 22.7. 20 nii. 6. $ 120. - 24. 2.23. 3. 38. 44. 2. -3. 2. i. 23. 0. 1. equal. 3. 7. AB = 3. x2 + B . 12.70. a8 . 25. a. -4.23. 0. 3. 15. 1. 27. Page 187. 5. . + 11 x. equal. 0. 1. 1.* 2.41. 13. 4 da. If. 18. 22. t is. 3|. .3. 4. - 1. unequal. 8. 40. 6V-64. . 3. unequal. 0. 33.17. 6. in. 14. 1. 48. 50. .]. 10. - 13. 16. 14. 34. orf. 2. 15. 2. . 8.3. 28. 2. Real. %. 5. 23. 3. Page 192. V2. -f 6 5-2 a. -7. Real. 3.2. 6. irrational.2. 3. ^l/>> = 85 ft. -3. 20. $30 or $70. s 11. 4.4.1. 37. 25. Page 190. 9.XX Page 186. unequal. 35.10. 4. 58. x* 51. 57. unequal. 42. AB = 204 ft. 6. 1. 7.6 = 0. 8\/2 17. 2. 10.7. |.2 x2 .'. Page 188.4. (5 10. 25. 10 in. 2. *'-' 12.2.74. _ 19. - 9x <).12 = 0. 56. -21. 12. 2.48 -3. - 1. . 22. Page 189. 28. H. 4.37. 0. 19 in.

13. 5\/5. Jb \. a. v'frW.^7. 33. 35. aW\ 40. 25. i. 38. - f . 40. 8. 5. m. 4. 51. ^Sf|- 3 38. 8. 44. 21. 6. 12*2 61. . 39. 23. 2. 14. 17. 50. ? . JV37. 23. 1. 19. 19. 2. 3. 18. 9. '-J. 20. 2. 31. ). 1. 7. 19. 0. 8. -1. 10. 2. 53. 2. 8. 20. r." 17. . -1. - a'2 . 59. Page 197. -2. 47.1 5 15. Page 201. 58. *V. 1. 29. 31. 19. Page 196. 5. 0. \/3. 8. 18. 6. 5.17. 15.ANtiWEUS rational.//^. 3.-32. 30. J. ^49. 55. 9. 4. \a\ \/^. 4. 26. 4. 10. 12. 49. 33. 24. 43. a 18 . $7. 4. \/. 5. 45. I. 1 39. 12. 29. Page 199. &. 2 L ( V. 49. 28. 5. 1. 46. 13. 48. -jV- 10. 11. 1. -_! V3. 3. 14. 9. J 3. 3. 36. J. p. 2. 84. 15. ) 2 >J i 10. 56. 16. 8. n\/* Page202. 3. -3. 25. 15. ar 1 . 17. 14. 60. - 48. 20. 49. 8. \ -. : . 1. 3. 7. fx'-^z'l 23. 27. 22. 4. . 243. 57. vm. v/3. - J j. 50. x$. -ifa. 24. Page 200. 2. 30. 16. 25. 54. -2. r*. 24. - 5. z + 22. 42. 10. 1. 22. \. -3. -3. 10. . -2. 5. 13. vV. 2. 7 . \. 7. -3. . 7V7. . 30 a. 28. 9. v. V^ 34. Vr.2. 1. . 47. 32. 11. 52.6. 37. wA 46. 125. 9. 1. 1. 17. 0. m'. 6 - AAf. 4. 21. (m 26. 27. 14. 16. . xxi 15. l - 5 12.. 8. J. 41. . 13. J. v'frc 18. 3. 2V a. \/r\ 11. 20. y . -1V-1. 3 4 11. 3. x. 21. 16. 18. 9. x/25. 29. 33. 4. |. - f. v^T4 m. 32. 49. y.

+ 2 ar 1 ). 20&V6. V. ^88". 13 35. x^ . 17. 3 42. 19. 2. Vr 8. 18. 45. (a 27. 5 22. + Vic + 25.707. 2 4 z2 l 3. k/2. x 25. 37. 9. abVab. 11V3. l 5. 30. Vz2 -?/ 2 44. 32. 2. 24. -13-5V6. 1) 3V3. 2>X2. 8. (x' (l 1+x). 3V^T. x + 5 x3 + 0. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 4. . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. . 37. - 2 3:r. 1 2 or 1 ?.648. 11. 40. 11.r-^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft.yl : . .r. 9 . 2 a?>V2 a. V2 + 4 V22. + 2 Vzy + y 1.. 3^ + 2). 7. Page 203. + + ft. ). - a Vft -2 121 b. 3 x^y 33. 7. 25.). . 13. a^ + 2^+1. + 2). a2 4. V80. 3 4\/2. v^. 4. 51. x 7 - 34. 2 x* 15. 23. y. 8. 22. 27. (o* 2. 6. 5. a 4 +-* + !. 2. 19-5V3. 10. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 21. 34 r 6. 41.632. 10. V 5 47. 28. 4aV^J 16. 20.692. 2 '"V5. + 2 V22. 5 ( . 16.x^y* + y%. 28.2 18. y (a + ft) V2. -T.XXii ANSWERS 1. 1. 16. 3. 3. 26. + . 40. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. x% - 3 ^+ 1.2 VlO. 6-2V(J.Vxy 35. 32. 2. 43. 12.f. Page 207. m* -n*. v'TM. 9. . -2. 31. -v/^r 5 - A/^~. a 3. 36. ftV 46. 6. 26. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). V63. . Page 208. 2\/7. 8V/) 15. 13 a. r c . 3^2. 19. 49.3 + 40 3 . ?tV?w.12 *^ + x 7/> x - a-** + or " 2 + 1. yV35. 03r* 7. 20. 34. 13. 39. 9. 3 \ 39. 5.'\ 14. 17. 48. / V3. . . ^: V2c. 3V5. 15. 2v (T 2aVf. 24. 31. ^7 \AOx-. x. 3. 2. Va 2 "ft. 101 1. 21. 10. 8a6V5. 38. r 17 - Page 204. 33. 29. + 1. 30. V. 50.577. 29.rV:r. JIV6. x y.

-V-Jla. 3\/15 - 6. v^4. 6. 12. 1. - 3. 17. -21 23. 26. 2\/7. . 4. 4 a*. x/125. 3\/2. 6x-2?/. 37. 6. 5. 10V(). 27. Page 216. -^ 3 b 5 24. 6 2\/0. x/8l. 2 28. \V3. \^6. V2. v7^. 20. V5. 40. ^\/3. rtv/5. v/9. 10. 25. 2. 3. / \/w/t 4 13. 30 Vl4. 10. 21. 46. 2 1. v^a. 3 V2.r v/^ v^fr*. \XO-fl-6Vi5. 32. 7. 6V2. 1-V5. 16. b. 42. 8V2. \/04a. . v/l2. Vdbc. 31. 17. 5V2. 2 \/2. 3. V3"m. 28. 4 >/3. 50. 9. 4\/5. 6aV2-\^. v 25^4714 V2"a. v^O. 5v/2. 38. v^lf. 13. Page 211. 35. 22. x/8. 44. 36. 9. 5 \/2. 6+2V5. 4. 2. v/8. 52. 4VO. VT5. 14. 11. D 45. Vn. 8. 37.30 2. 19. '-. a^\/a7>. 5V2. x/8L v/27. v/lO. . 0. 2 V'3. Page 214. . v"5. \/abc*. 9. 12. 1. V3. 39.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v^f. __ rw 3- \~s~' ] * . . 3.. 14. 7. 31. 34. V2. 6. a2 - b. 22. \/a6c. \/2. 25. 2 ate-. xx 1. . 8. 9 VlO + 4. 27. w-?i. 40. x/4.T*. V/. 43. 3 Vl5 30. 15. 3\/wi. r)\/(l Vrt-r. 8 - \/15. 41. Page 210. 3v^2. aVa. 19. v/i). 15. Vat. 35. 6. 30. 2yV2?/. 49. 2. 18. 18. 29. ^9. -13\/3. 32. "v/wi ??. W). 3. 33. x/27. 36. V5. 14. 0. 3 V15 - 47. 2. 51. 34.J Page 212. \/8. : ^32. + VlO - v y (5. 48. . x/3. 17. 13. \^r^bVabc. 7. 53. v"3. 24. 26. 10. 8V73\/IO. "^8000. 23. 5. v^30. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . vT). 7-4\/Jl 120 46. fl^Vac. 24. 16. 38. 18. ab 4. 8v2T 12. 16. Page 213. 14c 4 V5. m ?i-2Vm/t. 1. V8. a\/5c. \/128. 32m-27n. 5. x/w^ 8. 39. 3. 6. % 29. ^27. 11. + 20. ^v 7 15. 2. 11. 7\/(l 7VTO. 21. \^6. 23. Vtf +3+ 33. V3.

36. 8. i(V-f Vft). 25. . (2-V2). (V8 + V2. 9 mn. 2V2. V2. . 1. Page217. x 20. 3. 512. . 4. ^(VlO-\/2). 29. 15. 30. 125. V3 . 25. 9. 13. 12. 16. V3. 4. 16. 24. 16. . -3. j 15. 224. 6. 14. 7. 6 |(V2 + 1). fV2. 9. Page 28. ^. 1. . 7 -f 5 4. 3V2-3. (3+ v/2). Page 218. 9. p 6 13. 6. 21. 1. 32. 12. Page 223. ' 22 i . 3(7+3V5). 4. 17. 12. 1. 5. J. 9.2. 4 14. 7 Page221. 4. 21. -. K>/0 + \/2).W + 12 v/7 - 3 \/15 . 1. 5 + 2 vU 17. 4. 35. 10. 25. _^JflJ?. A- . 6. 27. 12. 11. 16.5530. 7.. 18. 16. 6 V. (\/5-V2). 2x^2^. (Vf + (4 V2). 5.601. 15. Page 226. 17. 24. . (\/3-f 1). (2. 3. \. 5. 0. 4. V^TTfc. (VaT^-v a). . 10.4142. 16. - 2. 11. 8. 7. i^ ~ 1 v ^-. 9. \/57t. 12. 4. (a 1. 5. nVTl. 216. 2. 7. 5. 2ajV2*. 7. 21. 11. 20. 2V3. 1. V5. 23.5.389. 100. 19.625 10.7071.2. . 9. !^ 6 4. 0. 15 -f 3 V2L 4. 15. 25. 5.6. 5. 3. ^r. (2-Vll). 5 V65. 5. 21 ' Vob 26. 14. 23. . 2. Va. 19. 4. 4V3 + 6. V3. 14. 25. 2. 31. 24. Page 225. 30.0606.464. - 13. 8.1805. 7.9. * 3. ~ Vac _c 0. 12. i^Lzi. (Vll-V2). 10. 11. 28. 20. 25. (V5-f 5. 18. j. 2. x-y 2. 1. + 5V2. 81.7083. 23.2828. 27. V6c. 7. -1.XXIV 7.4722.w 6. 6. 11. 2. 25. 20.^ (\/22 4. 3. 10. 3. 18. 8 V3-V2. 8. (2-f V"5). V35. 8. 23.V3).3535. 9. Va. 29. 17. 1. 19. 2. 9.3. 81. 8.732. ^\/2. 37.13. 6.\/TO). 1. Page220. 22. f. 13. V. - f. -4.732. 4. ANSWERS 8. 34. 16. 19. -2!5_. 4. \/3). 1. (V2-1). (V5-1). 22. 18. 17.1547. 64. 10. V3. 23. +3 V2).3. 2 . 4. 19. 14. Page 219. - . 5. 4. 9. 2-V3. 8. 11. 27. 5 f. ^. J. 33. + 6) 2 . 3. . 4. 15. 8.81. 2. 15. m -f. 10. 26.6 V3.1|. n*.64. 7. {. 18. -26. 20. 24. 16. 22. 4. 10. (V6 + 2V2). 13. Vf6-f|Vtf.

3. 2. 10. a - . 3. 2. 7. - 3.4). 4. 4. 6. . a .12. -73. \/0. 1. 1 . 11. 6. 8 6 & 0. (l-a&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). -1 (-?> x/^3. 4 20. 3. 2. - 5. Page 234. 1. -7. 1 . l. t/ 23. 1 . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 4. .3). 2. -11. (8. 14. 19. 12. 4. 2 6. - J. (a . 2. 50.2. Page 233.5 xy + 25) 22.w 4 + 1). 2. 5. 8.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). + 6 4 )(a*-a' 6 + a 2 6 2 -a& 8 H-6*). (4 mn . 15. 2. 2. 12. 0. J 24. 1. V3. 4. 28. 3. 25. 14. 8.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 8. 10. 17. 5. 2. 2. 3. 3. ( 16. 3. -20. 1 6. 1. 1. (p-l)(p-2)(p-2). 5. -P. 3. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 2. a(. (6-3)(6' -t- 18. (w-2)(m-3)(2m + 5).l)(a 2 + a -f 1). 2 -V^ . 1. 21. 3 . 2. (m 4 + l)(ro. Page 236. .2)(* . . 6. 2.4. 3. a: :} . 6. . 7.22. 1. 20. - 3. (s + l)(x2 -:r + 1). 3 . 2 . (10 -#0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).nl^EI. 1. 5. 1.8a 18. qpl. 2. 4 . (a 4. ~ f7. 16. 8. 23. 8. 8. 1. 17. 3. 3. 1.Y. |. (w . (a. 5. 5. 4. 30. 7. 3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 6 2 2a + 2). . 3.l)(m . . //. (a. 4. 4. 2. 87 . 9.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 -f 4 winy 2 Page 231.3.2. 13. -2. 13. (rt. . 30 30. 6. 73. 3. 2 . 3. 17. 1. 2 > 1. 1 3. (p-l)(p-3)(p-6). 3 5. 15. 14. 1. 2 &. 4 . . 26. 12 24 y . o. - 2.4. 24.ANSWERS Page 228.3 2. 2 . 4 4. 7. 12. 7. 7. 3. J Page 235. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. 4. 18. (w-p)(w-2p)(wi-3p)(w*4-2p).-f 2)(sc 2 -2 r + 4). 1.2. 25. 4 1. 100. 30.3. 3. 3. ..3. 10. 25. 3. 5. 4. 2. . 3. 2. 13. 27(2 a 4-fc)( 4 2 -2 (a -4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). - 16). 11. - 1. 0. J.r . 9.^a. y. 16. 2. 20. (+!)( -2) 10.3. 0. 3. 0. 1 . 11. 2. 2 6. 18. & + 6 2 ). =A|^Z3. 24. 2. (2 a. 5. . 22. 5. 4. 1. b . 2.7. 1. - 3. 10. (r. -0. 2. 2. -10. 3. 3. . 7. '- J. (a-2)(:iB2 -f 2a44). . 4. 10. .l)(a-3)(a . - . 6.1. .0. 5. 4. 11. 25. 4. 1. 15. 2 <? 4a2 .3. a(l+a)(l_a-fa 2 ). (&y-2a#H-4). . 6. 4. 0. 1. 2. 4. 3. 3 9. (a + l)(a*-a 8 + a--a + l). (a+&)( 2 14. f>. 12. 5. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l -a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). (B4-3). 19. . 0. 5. - 4. 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 -f a -f 1). 13. 4.5. XXV 4.10. 1 . - 1. 2. 19.4. J. 30 . 5. 2 . (2a + l)(4a*-2a + l). -12. -13. 3. . 22. . 2. 1. -3 . 9.1. .2 + (ro-w)(w-4w)(w a + 6mw -f w 2 ). 2. 21. -56-l). . - f . 1. f . 11.+ ^)( 4 -a 2 6 2 -h6 4 ).2)(m. 5. 0.

e.2. . 4. 1.18. 50.. 28yd. 3. 1 .4. co . (&) 2. Page 241. 1. 4. 21. . -1J. Page 243.3 . 20 in. 12. 10. -2. 31. f. 45yd. ^~2. 7. 2. 4. 38. 16. J. 1. 3.13. . 21. 2 1. 9. 3 . in. 2 . tn 2. 14. (a) 5. 8. 11. 4. 4. 900.3. . 1. 2. 2. 1. 1. - 2 . 14. 2n. 3. 1 . 37. 3. n . m + n. f>. 4. 17. 69.4.1. 17. 3. no co . . 17. 1. 3. 22. 20. 35^ 5. 48. 3 . 19. 2. 2. 125 125. 16. 1 . 7. . 13. . 1. 24. 15. 3. 21 30. 4|. 15. 7. $. . _ 7. 288. 12. 5. Page 244. 1. 1. 2>/3. - 11.0. Indeterminate. 7f solution. 36. 1. 4. .020. .. 3. 2 2. 5. 3. 15. -50. 3. 5. 11.6. 12 ft. 4. 4 8. . 0. -$VO. Page 239. 5. 12. 10. 2. 5. . } .3. 3. 8.3. 12.3. 8. V7. in.. 5 .5. . 2 . 2. ri*.. 12 1. - 1.0. $. 2.4. 2. 5050. 11. 29. 24. 1. -5. 1. 4. + - n. 5. . 2 Y> V . 3 ..30. ft. ANSWERS 2.6. 2. 2. 3. 4. _ 10. Page 238. i i i . i. i j. 1 . 14. 3.xxvi Page 237. |. Exercise 113. 6. 1.200. 1. oo . 20 7. 13. 4..3. 5.. m28. 2V7. 2. 1. -14. -3. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1. 11. 55. . 0. ft. 4 6. 14. = QO 6. 6. in. }. 17. 2. V3~. 2 26. . 1. 5. 32. 3 4. \. 7. 40. 9. 1. 5. 4. . -3. 2.1. 40 in. 18. 7.1. . GO . 5 4. \/6. 40 25 in. 5. 1 2. 3V5. 35 a. 11. 2. 13. . -37. 7.. J. 1. 35 ft.4. 16. 41. . J. Page 245. 10. ft.-y. 3. 3 3. in. 3. _ 13 (0 6. 9. 4. i'ljVU. 14. 17. (/>) "_. 2. 3. 9. . 8. 2. . 5 cm. . 7. '>. 3. 5. 3 2. 512. 35. 5. 9. 1 . 39. 12. f*. 3. 5. 4. . 1. 3. ' j. .3. c. . . 25. 30. 6. 4 34. 19. 2. 12. 4. 3. 1.. 8. 4. 30. 4. J. . 512. j. 11. 9. 1. x 4. |. 30 13. Page 247. 2 -10. 15. 3. 2 ft. 23. 20. 15. 7 3. 8 3. in. 6. 17. Page 248. 3. 8 . 14.3. 1. 2. Indeterminate. 2 16. 15. m27. 2 . 6. 23. 37. 1. 4.. . 18. 1. 5. 4. 12ft. | . 5. and _ 4. 4 . . 8. 0. 1. 4. Exercise 114.136. 3. ^ }. $46. 2. 1. 3. 8ft. 78. oo . 22. 5. n. (a) $3400. 84. 1. 1. 33. ( 3. 15. 31. 10. Page 240. 8. 5. 8. 1. _ 5. -400. 26. (>. 1. . 3 cm. 201. 12 d. .5. oo. jj. 2. 2. . 18. |. 4.

6 . 10. 4- 0. 16.2 9. 9. 6. 9. \ w 4 . 1. 304. 8 . 16.192. 23. 0.0. 3. ~v 9. 2.384. 6. 6.4 &z x>&. '23.130 x30 189 a 4 24. J 2 //2 25. ^a 8. REVIEW EXERCISE . 7. 8. 10.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 4. in. 9. 1. 2i* 7f. -f y 8 + z* . 16 11. 10 14.8. 7 2 x 4 x8 .470. 12. 8. ~ an . 70. 0. 05. 5. 4. x4 .53. 0.170. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 3. 500 x3 10 4 4- 072 a? 3 . 105. 3.4.210. 3 4- 15 a 8 11 4- 14 a - 1 - 2 y* .870 m*n*. 27. 5. 708. 35. 5.5 x. 4. vy. 4. Jj? 45. 16. 4. 1. 2. 2. 55.5. x + Vy.700.x' 10 . 45 Page 257.2 45 a 8 /)-. . a. - 20 flW. xxvii 1. B . } $ 50. 4. 3. r 5 4. 6i. 2. 8. 5. Page 259.x^ 4- x8 15 x 4. 9|. 3.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . x r 4. 7. 04. . 48. 495. 1. 16.r 4. 16. I.^ x2 ^x w- ^2 ? . 1. . 70.120.v Page 253. 13. 20. 15. ' 1. **-+-. . 2. 6. . 8. 12.5 J4 10 47- d*b 6 4- 4. 8 1. . 27. 16. -f r6 4- - 20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . i 10. 5. 2. 6|. 45. Ja. />*. 44. r r j.13.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. . 220 . 343. 6. 6. 120 aW. 6. 19. 15.920.6.r^ - 280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 405. 0. 04. 1 7 4. 0. w9 - 8. 26. 7. . 4. 18.r x>/ 7 3. 11. 4. 2. 1000 aW. 3. 2 1 x 4- 6x'2 12. 1JH. 343. . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 6. 17. 5. 25. 2.504.5y 4 . 20. 8. 005. 12. 3. 22. 2.3 a-ys. 35. 5 13. 0. 12. 128. 8. 1. 27. 15. y ^ 5 - ^\ ). 20. JSg. 910. 7. 18. 4. 1820. 8. 10. 4. 1. 12. 2. 1. (). |- 17. 1 14. 19. 13. 3. 19. 125. . c. -8. -15. 4. . 4. 9. 8. 0. . 10. 1.K 4 4 50 x 5 4- 28 x 4- 4- ^8 1 -g ! . 5. 22. 8 4x' 2 . 192. 18. Page 254. 3. 10. 7|. 29. 1. 5. 2. <|.r* 4- 70 . 4. 10. 4. - 101. 3. 45. 12. 15. 75. 0. 8J. 410|. 327. 11.1. 21. 4. 16. 3. -. :r 4 4- 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 2. 0.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4- Z> 4. 17.<-2 4. 7 x4 17. 13. 8. ?/i 6 x llj . 3. 1. 14.5.^ ?>i 24-12x4. 32. 18. 5. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4| .ANSWERS Page 250.7 10. 7. 9. 21. 17. . sq. 7. 81. &' 14. 70. and 1. 125. 5. A. 12. 50. 11. 100.680. . 4950 M 2 b y *. G. 3. . 43. Page 252. 7. 280 -53. 5. 27. 28. Y11. 53. 2|.12 x*y 16. d. 12. 4. a4 4- 14.419. 4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. Page 258.

x 8 + x 4 68. 3 36 b c . x?/ 2 2/V2 4- 2 x2z2 4- 92. 2 2a -2 2 2(a. . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy-?/. 4ft y-3. 26. az 4. 4- 115. 4- 15 x 5 . 4- 69. 32. 4- 65. 102. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. df.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4- 2 aft 4- ft-. a' 111. 6a6c. - 4 a3 85. 43.1. 131. + 3 a?. t 81. 16. 4- 2 . 88.a6 2 4.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 109. 107. 2 2 *- - 3 2n 101. a4 x.5x4. &p 84.4 x 2 .5 3n 4. 27.4. 14 x . . 0. . 6 c 47.7.a'2 c. ?/ . 2 2 -9 ^4 2 59. fc' 6 p'2 q - 54 ? 3 . 105. 2 a2 -4 aft -5 116. ft n .5 b + c . 122. * 60.2 x 4. 3 a . 243x4-729. .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4- 8 y4 .x24 73. 61. x4 -f- + 23 . x2 2 . 94. x4 3 4- 2 x 2 4 0. - ft 3 - 13 a 4 + ll a 2 -2. 96. 5 42. 4. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 62. .ft). 3 r2 2 ?/ -2 - ax . 52. x3 - 15 x 2 48 ?/ .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 70. - . 82. 127. 2 113. .4-1. 125. x 3 41. ft x6 - 3 x5 4- 9 x4 - 27 x 3 1|. x 3 4. 9 2w 128. 5 4 4-.1 4- jry 4- x . + a 4. 3 c . 2 .4 ac.18 x?/0. 1 x 45. 3 a -5 a -5. . + -f 2 2 (/) 2 34. -16t/. r 5 VF-Tx + vTfy + 1. 2 x2 4. . 100. 133. - 3 x2 .{ 54. 1 . 3~ n 4. 2 x2 108. 1-x 4 x3 xt-y6 a 24 3 - Page 262. x2 4-71x4. . x 4. ?/ 3. . 80.6 am b\ 129. 3 a 44. . +^ + ft W. x 8 - a8 .9 b. 1 a"-*- 4- an . 6 a2 97. -36 + 9c-9 a x3 4- + 8. 25.4. - + 16 a/> 8 - a*-2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 2 a.4. 3a~2c.4.c. 2 30 -. 37.c. 31. .4 x?/2 3 4. 10 4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 124. 110. 15 ab 4- Oac 4- 6 be. 114. 2 2/' .x x* - -f- 2 ax 4. 50. 4- 4- 4 ft*" 3 4- + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. ft-2ft 4 4-l. 0. x2 + 4- x7 9 y2 x4 4- 4.1. x8 x2 55.x. -8x3 -8x. 2 x'V2 90.6 b.3 aftc. 64. Page 260. a~b 89. 7 + 3 x-f 2. . x2 a2 1 . .a"- xy 2 2/' 3 . 76. 5x 2 -2x4-3.2. () 2 x 33.^a .c 3 4.a*--ft 2 126. 35. . 6y 2 a2 _52 4-5 = 73(). 24. ft /> 78. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. x2 -3x2/-?/ 2 112. /> 4 83. 39. x3 - 15 x 2 71 x - 105. 30. .3 b .ac 44- aft. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4- 63 4 ?/ . 99. 8 . -9x. 2 q.3 a'ft-. 0.4 2 4- c2 4-2 . 22. 21. 49.9 x . 4 -!- .a. 91. 93. x* . ?> .2 xy + 4 y2 106. - 12 a. 10 a -12 b. 2 53.3 x?/ 2 1/ -4a 3 a o_a 4 -a2 +l. x' 79.a' -'ft 4.2 c .2. a 4 . 12 x. fi :ry 42 4 - a 2 4- a 2 ft 2 3 119. .4 x y 87. . 46. a* a 8 -a aftc. x 2 . 72. 4- Page 264.+ 4- 2 ft) -(a 4. 4 . x' . 28.x 51.2.7 x - - 15. (d) x - (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4- ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4- 3 2 . 4 fee 4.2 x^. 1 121. 38. Page 263. . 66.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. xy-xz-yz.x 2 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 120. 132. x } 4.fee 2 4.1. . ^ .3 .105. _55_7c 48.3 x 2 + 3 x . !! 71. c3 4- 58. a 3m 4. 13 + 2 s.5 a 2x-8 x 3 . m " + n + P3c .x4 + y'2 z 4. . -- + 3 x2 . - e +/. -. 104. as 20. a* 4. -f5+7. 2 . 63.a 2 x 2a .3 y. 2 aft 3 4- 3 ft 4 . 118. -I- 57. 6 8 -j-27 4-0 ab.1w 77. x2 -5r*x ft 5 . 23. 29. a2 -2 aft -2 2. x . -5x + 2y~z.3 103. a J .15 4- 62 x - 72. y 4 z* 0. 36. + z. 40.y*. 2 . 86.rty x2 4- 123. 1 + 4 xy. 3a'2 Page 261. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 4.1. (a + ft)" 98. .5.18 ?/ -5x4. 4. .. 12 a/. 130.

+ 6 y) (x 2 y) . HI. . 12. 238. 152.l)(a 2 +3). 4. 163. (y 7f))(y 196. 170. (JT y 225. 182.3) (2/-3y).9)(x-f 2). 154. (8x + 3)(3x-4).6)(4 + 6). (c) 160 C. 15. (7x-2//) 203. 183.y2 ). 138. (3a + 4?> + o(5c-rt). 172. 208. x(x + 6) 213. 144. (6) -40. 2 xy(3 x . (23-3). 30 yr.-4x-l). 210. 40 yr. 151. 247. ( jc // a- 2 (a-1). 199. 205. 224. 8 204. (y_24)(y-5). 173. 184. m. 171. 201. 174.. 237.3 y)(a . + 11) (a -10). 176. 2. 240. as 194. 50. 6). (x - 42 yr. . (x + l)(x-l)(y + l)(y-l). 143. -1. 206. 211. 5.6 .2) (3 x . 158. 1. p. a.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + )- + 3y). (r^-x + 1). 215.3. 3(x .1(5) 200.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a-2ft). (3-2)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.. 3. 191. fc'2a+6-2c). 37 1. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 1. - 1. -. 186. (a} 59. 214. (x-yX^+y" )1 243. 3. ft. -1. 175. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . Page 267./_4). 153.1). 6. (2 198. . (5x + 2) (3 x yfor-y) +4). 32 h.3 y). ?. 136.y)(jc + 7 y). 193. 241. 2(x-8)(x-3). 181. 195. 146. (2a + l)(a . 21.y) (\r-3y). 1.2 )(x+y) 228. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 160. 23 18. 162. a + 2x2 ). 4- 2 ?/(x - ll)fx -3). Page 266.ANSWEKti 135. 2a(4-2ft)(-2fo). 7. 207. 20. 2^. (x^ + x-1) 234.r . 75.3). + 7)(rt-4). 36ft. 219. 218. G7|. (. 177. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.m)(x- + a). . 2. 149. (7 c 2 ). 185. 1. (y-7)(y + 188. . 1. (5 x . 48 h. 2. + 22). 1.1). 18. (ox + /)(5x-y)(x+3 y)(x-3 y). 180. (x + 2)(x . 232. xxix 139. 217. a(a.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 12 yr. (r-7y)(ai. 216. (y _ ft)(y 4. 233. 12.y + 3)(r (. (/ 246.2).. Page 265. 10. y. 178. 202. (2x-3y) 3 xy(x. C3 y _l)(. 6. 218. 187. (?/+l)(y-l).y)(z . 209. 147. + 3) (x -f f>) . 142. 157. 222. .1).I2y). 20. 12 yr. + y. 235.2.2ac + 229. (a& 192. 15. (x + 6)(x-6). 189. 10). 4. ( + 2y)(2x-3y). 164. 30 + xyr. 10 ft. 12) (j. -k. 161. Iff 145. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 168. 147 mi. 8(a-r}(/)-27). yr. (ab + 8) ( -7).--c2 )(-a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 236. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 2. 2(-d)(rt + + c+c2). 230. (x . y 245. 2 2 (a. 159. + 3). -166. (x 227. (3x - . 150. 244. 10 in.l)(x8 + x2 . 231. (y - 17)(y + (>). 167. r>x 2 (4x. 239. 220. z(x-10)(x-l). 2. 197.r + 4). y-3. 19. 22. 169.. Or (a + 2)0e-l). 24. (3x-2?/)(2. 30. (a 2 + 2a6. 15 - a. 156. + 2) + 9a. y - y- 165. 179. 212. 226. 148. 140.y). +)(x2 -x^+2. 2 (4 x .l)(y + 1). 137. aft. 155. a 2 (15. 190.6) (2 x + 1). 10). 12 6 panes. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). p.2).

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481. 2. . 21. Page283. 462.2. 5. 0. 466. c. 10. 507. 8. ISJini. 24 days.7. -^r?i 434. 1. 498.3. ft 5. 10. 3. 1.0. - 2f 504. 17. .5. 421. <L+ 6 (. 3. 8. 413. Page 280. Page 278. 499. - 1.3. - 7. * . (&) 443. '. 1. 0. - 7. : />a. 10. 441. 2$. 432. 2. fj. 28 yr.4. 508. 1$. 492. 1. 497. 487. !L=4. 50. 6. 472. 428. . 12.46.55. 418. - 1. 429. 476. $2000 at 0%. 450. . 0. 2 a 2. 444. . 1. 420. & 491. 425. 1 a /?$-+&?. 411. 495. 84. L2 a - 6 . 426. 6. i a b 451. 502. I.2. i. 2. B 4 mi. 6.7. 448. . 427. 454. 485. 2. 477. fc. - 2. 10. ' $260 at 0%. c 6-fc 10. 457. 3 . 2. 506. 32. 32 yr. 4. 458. 486. 500. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w -f w 417. 468. 5-1. 42. 5. 90. 7.-488. 5.. - 2.7. 4. 467. |. 412. |. 0.. 2. 6. 7 : . 452. B $ 2500. 494.489. 5. 456. . 435. 430. 8. 18. 2. 53 yr. 17. 11. 7|. 5.. 2. 484. 419. not true. />c c(f- be. 455. a + + ft c. 4. A 5 mi . 6. 40. 2. 5.0. \ 1. 483. - 453. 6 -f- c a + ? & ~ a 0. 459. 6. . |. (a) 1. - f>.1. . . 445. ^.7. |. 442.rz Page 279. 22. *+-. 7. 7. 10. m. - .XXX11 ANSWERS ab. - 505. 493. (d) true. 8. 10. Page 282. 439. a* 424. + () 433. 464. b 449. 423. ^V. 463. 3. 40| oz. 503. 63. 460. 3a- 4 5. . 14 miles. - 2. 422. A $ 3500. 480. 482. 5J.-. 496.-vz in. 447. a 22 -.} ' c^ac-j-d} ^ fcfZ a/- ?>rf + 86 (. (&) true. (d - 6) f. 10$.12. L (c) I. 479.}.4. (c) not true. --. 2 438. 6. 20. 461. 10.m - m+ M in. (a - c). z8 +?/ 3 431. 0.. 465. 2. 0. 4. 440. 9. 7.}. 33. |. 478. \.7. Page 281. . 490. 20 yr. 0. 436. m- 1 : wi. .te + . ISjmi. - -10. 501.. -410. 446.

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but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. comparatively few methods are heretofore. xi 4- 373 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. Half leather. than by the .D. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. great many work. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. given. HEW TOSS . xiv+563 pages. Half leather. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. 64-66 FIFTH AVBNTC. i2mo. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. physics. $1. so that the Logarithms. $1. A examples are taken from geometry. Ph. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. save Inequalities. The more important subjects tions. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. xiv+56a pages. $1. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.D. Ph. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and commercial life. save Inequalities. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. HatF leather. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. 12010. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. etc. In Factoring. great many A examples are taken from geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. xi -f- 373 pages. so that the tions. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HEW YOKE . proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. Logarithms. physics. 64-66 7HTH AVENUE. comparatively few methods are given. The author grade. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.25 i2mo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.

under the heading Remarks". These are introduced from the beginning 3. 10. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . SEVENOAK. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. text-book in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Cloth. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. aoo pages. . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 4. izmo.. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. xii + 233 pages. 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the text-book. $1. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Ph. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Half leather. The numerous and well-graded Exercises the complete book.10 L. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. NEW YORK . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. 7 he . xtt-t PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Cloth. 6. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: . Attention is invited to the following important features I. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for class-room work. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most text-books in Geometry 8. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. wor. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. more than 1200 in number in 2.D. $1. iamo. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 9. i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.r and. SCHULTZE. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . lines.

. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . of these theoretical views. . .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. 370 pages. 12mo. . $1. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach- ing . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . New York City. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. and not from the information that it imparts.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Students to still learn demon- strations instead of learning how demonstrate." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords.

AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.40 is distinguished from a large number of American text-books in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. photographs. This book is up-to-date not only in its matter and method. and a full index are provided. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. $1. diagrams. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Cloth. " This volume etc. diagrams. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Topics. i2mo.

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