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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. . LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
. 8. U. January. 1916. 1910. September. IQJS January. Published Set up and electrotyped.COPYRIGHT. July. J. August. . 1910 . 1910. May.' February. .S. Reprinted 1913. 1915. May. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. 1911. Mass. Berwick & Smith Co. September. 1917. Cushlng Co.A. Norwood.
" While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.. are omitted. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Elementary Algebra. Such a large number of methods. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. specially 2. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. however. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. and conse . but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1." this book. manufactured for this purpose. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. owing has certain distinctive features. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted.
g. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . two negative numbers. Moreover. however. especially problems and factoring. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. are placed early in the course. For the more ambitious student. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. etc. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. Topics of practical importance. In regard to some other features of the book. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. as quadratic equations and graphs. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. e. hence either book 4. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents.
to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. Moreover. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. elementary way." Applications taken from geometry. based upon statistical abstracts. is based principally upon the alge . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and commercial are numerous.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. viz. such examples.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. By studying proportions during the first year's work. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. in " geometry . and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. April. edge of physics. however. NEW YORK. William P. 1910. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.
... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. SUBTRACTION. Powers.. ..... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ...... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .
108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type III. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . .... Type VI. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . .. Type II.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .114 . Type Polynomials.. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Type IV... /^ . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type V.. * .
.. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... CHAPTER XIV 169 ....... Evolution of Monomials 170 ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. . . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
4(a 6(6 + &). 4V3~6c. Val \fi?. + c). are trinomials. 11. e. 13. V2a.g. as in arithmetic. 14. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. some number is . d 7. 0. is 28. \/c. 8. c f d). V36". x 9. + 1]. 27. aVc^. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. 9. 7 = 2. 16. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 3. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. (cfd) 4. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 17. 2. A binomial is 62 . since the parts are a . 6. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. [6c] 3 . 2 . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. a polynomial of two terms. b = 3. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 5Vl6c. 26. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. v'Ta. 6. V^a6.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. or 9 Vx. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 15. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. find the numerical value of: Vff. !^f\/03 3 ft. 10. V3 . c = 1. 12. expression containing more than one and a 4 term.
Ex.5 ax 50 a6cd.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .INTRODUCTION 29. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . (a (a f b) 7. 4 .19 = 6. 4. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. + 26+3 c. l 13. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. d=Q. . c=l. 5.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 8. 16. 4a6fVaV2^.2 + I126. 12. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . = 32 + 4527 = 50. 3a + 56 a 2 . d = 0. 52 . 10. 2 ).9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a=4. 6. * For additional examples see page 268. 5=3. i.30 = 270 . 3.e.4 6^9 ad. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. find the numerical value of: 9. 2. c = 2.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 3 2 If 1. . 1. x=^. 5c +d 2 .g..9.99.390. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. Ex. subtraction. 14.9 aWc + f a b . 3 4 . . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . Otherwise operations of addition. 5. 2. a 2 6. a2 11.810 + 150 = . 6. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. __ E. multiplication. EXERCISE 8*  . b = 3.
29. 6 = 5. a = 3. 37. a =3. 23. a = 4. 6. 6. : 6. 30. 6 = 6. a a=3. 6 = 6. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 26. 35. 6 = 3. = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a = 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 34. physics. if : a = 2. 27. a. 6 = 4. a =4. 22. Express in algebraic symbols 31. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 26 of the exercise. a = 3. 6 = 5. and other sciences. 25. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. . geometry.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 2. 38. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.c) (a . 30. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 28. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6=2. 6 = 7.6 . Six 2 . 24. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 1. 33. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. sible to state Ex. a = 2.6 f c) (6 a + c).
b 14. Find the height of the tree. 12. if v = 30 miles per hour. A train in 4 hours. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.INTRODUCTION E. if v . the area of the triangle equals feet. 15 therefore feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.) Assuming g . the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and c 13 and 15 = = = .16 centimeters per second. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 13. 2. and 5 feet. (b) 5.16 1 = 84. d.g. 84 square EXERCISE 1.e. if v : a. 14. i. b.seconds. . (c) 4. and 13 inches. and 15 feet. then a 13. c. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 4. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.
). : 8000 miles. 5. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.). 2 inches. square units (square inches. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. If the (b) 1 inch.14 4. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. the area etc. This number cannot be expressed exactly. the 3. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (c) 8000 miles. ~ 7n cubic feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 10 feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. .14d (square units). denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. meters. (c) 5 F. $ = 3. (c) 5 miles. (The number 3.14 square meters. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. 32 F. is H 2 units of length (inches.
CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. however. or positive and negative numbers. SUBTRACTION. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.
6 6 = 3. + (9).16 32. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. d = 0. 5. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. is 2. lf(2).  0. '. c = = 5. Thus. 19. 22. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. is 0. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 18. if : a a = 2. 33. (_ In Exs. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 4. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 5. 12.3. (17) 15 + (14). c = 4. + 12. = 5. 5. of: 20. subtract their absolute values and . 10. 24. 2326. the one third their sum. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. . 4 is 3 J. 21. of 2. 23.
35.13. c = 0. 55. . 6. 7 yards. . 4 F. $7000 gain. 42. 66. 33. which are not similar.. = 22. $500 loss. . : and 1. 38.7. : 34. . : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.7. 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 39.5. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. . . & = 15. 29. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 6. and 3 F. and $4500 gain. 3 and 25.ADDITION. 25. : 48. 09. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. and 3 a. 5 and 12. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 43. }/ Add 2 a. 2. 10. 32. c=14. 3. 32. ^ ' 37. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.5. 4. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . are similar terms. 41. 1. 10. 60. = 13. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 27. \\ Add 2 a. d= 3. affected by the same exponents.. 30. or and . 36. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 37. 11 (Centigrade). 31. 7 a. 74. 13. ' 1? a 26. & 28. 7 a. and 3 yards. and 3 a..4. SUBTRACTION.3. 10. 6. 2. sets of numbers: 13. ' Find the average of the following 34. . and 4. $1000 loss. 12. 0. $3000 gain. 72. = 23. 40. and 8 F.
7 rap2. b a f ( 6). and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.ii. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 . : 2 a2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. + 6 af . b wider sense than in arithmetic. Vm f. 12 2 wp2 . 11. 13. 9(af6). The sum x 2 and f x2 . 5Vm + w. 2 a&. 5l 3(af6). 2(af &). ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. EXERCISE Add: 1. 12(af b) 12. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 3a . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .13 rap 25 rap 2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. or a 6. 12Vmfn. in algebra it may be considered b.18 35. 14 . 10. Algebraic sum. f 4 a2. .sign. 5 a2 .
2/ : Add. 17. without finding the value of each term 34. ra 19. and to add each column. 21. l^S 25. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. SUBTRACTION. 6 23. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 36. c 2 ^24. + / + 3 Va. a a8 ZL **. 2 7 1 26. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 1 27. 2 2 2 31. 30. +m """ 20. + y. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 33. is . 35.ADDITION. 32. n x* 2 22. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 37.
3 a f 4 1) 4. 46 4z 7 c.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2 025. to add 26 ab .41 = 3. 5.15 6c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. ft any convenient and c. 4 2. NOTE. and 2 . . 2 Sum. the erroneous answer equal 7. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. and J 2 s. V3. 3. 7 4. s. 2c. x of x.3 s.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . a 4.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 9 q 4.7 2 . c = 1.g. 3a 2? .8 abc . . 6=2. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.c= 2. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.o c and 4. of that letter.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. therefore the answer is correct.15 abc . 4 = 7. to show any error.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. f 110WS: 26 aft.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 5 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.20 c 5 ab 4. 2 . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.12 a& 4. e. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2 Thus. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . = .g.
5 cr& + 7 6 9. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. and 5 Vb 18.ADDITION. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).5a^6 f 6) . . 2 ?ft ?/z.1 a 4 1 0. ^2 1 e. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .3 mn 2 2 n8 .VS 4 2 Vc. 2 a. . 16e + 17/90.12 6 ~5 a .a . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 4 3 . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 8. 2 ?/. d and / 3 ? 12.Ga 43x45. 16. 18/+6y + d. m 4 6.(b + c) 1. and and 13. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . .4:xy xz 6yz.2n 2 2 3 rz . v/20. 7ar + 3B 5.8 m 2m 12. 4 ajy 17.a. 4 Vc. xy3xz + yz. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .a. 2 2 and . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. SUBTRACTION. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.7m . + a + 1.and 6. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . and 8 3 . 2 and 9m 48m 4.4 Va . 2 2 . .12(a 4.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and 1 4 a . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 4(a . + 50 + 62 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . e a4 /. in 8 3 m n 4.15 5.a 4 a 4 1. a. a2 2 14. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. and . . a 4 a . 3 2 2 3 9 .10 Vc. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.7v/if.1. 2 3(c f a).12. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 19.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.6. . d.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a 4 a . a + 1> 8 2 2 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . and v 15. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. . a2 a. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4 8 3 4 4 . . 4.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. ?/ .9(a + &) . 56 w. .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 11. a) y ^/.
What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . T8a. 22.9aj 2. . how 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. + 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.m 4m ?/?/ d. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. + n*. 12 xyz.ra + m. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 6 f c 2 23. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and e + 6y .22 21. 8 . many negative units re main ? from 2. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .5< 3 2 s 4^4. a 6 2 c. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. f 1. f 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. c 3 3 3 2 3 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If you diminish a person's debts. The sum and ? 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.11 xy + 12. 1. 1/ .17 + 4 ?nfy . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 45a6 2 .. is 2. and 2 24. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. +d a. 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. s . 1.3^* 2n 2 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 25. . f number may be added 3. . 13 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5.
( 6) ( = . 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. and the required number the difference. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. From 5 subtract to . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. SUBTRACTION.2.ADDITION. Therefore any example in subtraction different .3. This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract + 3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the other number is required. 3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 41. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 1. Or in symbols. 5 is 2. NOTE. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. a. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. and their algebraic sum is required. 2. called the minvend. Ex. . the given number the subtrahend. if x Ex. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. In addition. two numbers are given. 6 (3) = 8.g. To subtract. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. from What 3. In subtraction. ab = x. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 7. +b 3.
3 r*5o.5 x + 8.3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . Ex. Check.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .
53. 2y 2 .c. 57. tract 4 x 3. From From x2 the sum sum 7.ADDITION. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 42. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.2. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From 6(af. 54. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .a 2 j. .4 a^ 4. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 47. + a the 2 a. 49. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 2 a take a & j. 48. 6 4 a. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 45. 44.6)f.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 55. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 58. 56. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 50. 2.4 a*& + 6 a & . of a 4. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. SUBTRACTION.w>t. 51. 52.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . c f d. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 46.7 a . 43. 41. and 3 7/ . check the answer.
6. subtract # + 1.26 4. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. +a add the difference duce 13. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 9. a 2y + z. a + 6. of # 2 8. 6 17. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 2. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11.15. A is n years old. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 2 m 21. 16. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 19. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . a a + c. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.
& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.g.c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. II.6 b f (. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 45. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. I. one occurring within the other.2 b . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. & f c.ADDITION. a+(bc) = a +b . the sign is understood. . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 46.a^6)]  } . changed. Ex. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. SUBTRACTION. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.b c = a a & f f.
9.7i h jp) (m ?*. 6.: Ex. 14.y (60. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].) 5 . a f (a a . 19. 13. 3 3 f 7. Ex.)]. 5. may be inserted according to 43. 271 + (814 .1422) J ] . Signs of aggregation 1.[271 47. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 2 2 2 a(. m f ft) a. a (a + 6). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). + (2a 6 + c ). [36+ (a 2c]. ? 11. 2 2a. 4.(a + 6). . : x + (2yz). 8. a (a + 26 c ). 17. 16. 21. (m a2 f. 6) 2. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 2a (4a 26 +c ).+ 6)f (a2 b). 15. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. find the numerical value of { 1422 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2. 18. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 3. By removing parentheses.
)X 6. The product The product m and n. The square of the difference of a and b. SUBTRACTION. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 7. p + q + rs. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. terms 5. 6. ' NOTE.1.7fa. and the subtrahend the second.ADDITION. 2. of the cubes of m and n. II. m x 2 4. 9.2 tf . 13. 2mn + 2q3t. 5^2 _ r . The difference of a and 6. 5. 3. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 5 a2 2. z + d. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. first. The sum of tKe squares of a and b.4 y* . . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. difference of the cubes of n and m. 7. The sum^)f m and n. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. a\l> > c + d. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 3. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. m and n. 4. 10. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. y f 8 . 8. 12. 6 diminished .
b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 18. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. 6 is equal to the square of b.30 14. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
4. 2. If the two loads balance. 5. force is produced therefore. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weights. two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 3. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads balance.
4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. the multiplier is a negative number. NOTE. ( (.4)(4) = + 12. 4x(3)=12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 9 x ( 11). thus. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. or plied by 3.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. (.9) x 11. To take a number 7 times. . a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 9. 4 multiplied by 3. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. such as given in the preceding exercise.4)(.32 8. Thus. 48. (5)X4. 5x(4). In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. however. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. x 11. becomes meaningless if definition. 4 multi44444 12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. Practical examples^ it however. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.
Ua b 28. 20. 32.4. NOTE. 4 a2 .3. is 6x7.2. Law Thus. 2a 2 6c. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 2a6 c . 1. . 2. the parenthesis frequently omitted. c = 25. 5x3. 30. . z s 11 aWcx. 6. 27. 4 . . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 13. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 23. If a cal = 4a6c. 7. 9. of Signs: TJie positive.MULTIPLICATION 50. x. 8. _2^ 3. (10) 4 . about fac (2)X If 6. 8 4 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. (. 3.(a&c) 2 2 .2f 18. . 1. +5.(4J). 14. (4)X(15). 4. and y = 4.2 f+x 2 . 15. _2. . 19.3) (1) 7 2 .a)( =+ a&. 17. X(5). 12. 29. 3 aW. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (7) X (12). 6. 5. b = 3. 3 a2?/2 . (c#) . find the numeri values of: 21. 22. 8 31.7. 10. _3. etc. (2) 8 (. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 26. 3. (2)x9. x= 0. 24. 6 2. 16. 11. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. (4)'.
 2 2. 127  127 9 7 .6 if 35. 6" 127 U . 12 U U .e.  and 2 25 8 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 6. This 52.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 2(14. a 2 2 .(12) . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . & = 3. 3 3 4 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. &*) c d*. 2. 5(711.2). 200. 50(112. = 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 100. 6 aWc x .3). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 5 3 5 3 2 . a = 2.(2. . 3.2 2 23 + 5 . a = 3. . 4. 14. 5. 17. 34.7. 3 2 .503). IB. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2 2 2 .(7). 2 3 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . Ex. 4. 6 = 1. 2.. 5 = 2. or 2 .257).7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . fl*" integers. Ex.m a 3  4 . : 3a7abc. 10. 13. 16. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 9 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. . 3. 53. 78 . of the factors. a= 1. 1. B.. 4. 6 = . . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. + 2/). 2(7. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. m*. a8 a=2.35). =2 a *. 36. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. (a6) (a5) 9. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. i. 11. By 3 definition. 5 . . 7. 2 2 3 6 .<?.
by first multiplying. 35 4 7(6. c(4a ftc ). .2 3 aft ). and then adding : 1.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 34. 5. ) 2 33. 4. 31. 26. 24.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. . 7. 28. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. multiply each by the monomial. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 2 32.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . ax /) 2 4 1 (. 22. 23(10004100420). 6. _4aft. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 20. . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . Thus we have in general a(b 56.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.6.7pqt.7 w'W (8 n^W). 19. This principle. 3. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 2(5fl5f25). 17(10041042). If results ft. 7p*q r*. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.A). . 25. called the distributive law. 3(124342). 11(3. (.4a#. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 35. 12( + 1 4 i). 2. . 21. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 29.3 win ) . 4 aft 5 aft 2 . . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. but we shall assume it for any number. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 6(10420430). /). (. 27. 2(645410).f 2). 23. tet^m f c) = ab +ac.
ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 19. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).^ c + 2 . . 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.3 aftc).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 29. 11. 28.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 17. . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 20. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 5).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.2 mn(9 mV . 26. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 2 27. 2 m(mhn \p).6 a6). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 2 16. 12. 9. Find the factors of 6 ary . ~2mn(m +n p ). 30. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 3 ). be multiplied to give 4o.5 w*V f 7 wn). f7a. 7 a 6 c(. By what 25. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.60 a& 10 aft. 21. . : expression must 24. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 23. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .asa product.5 x 7). 22.we b) (x law.
3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. . To multiply two polynomials. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .1. Multiply 2 a . Since errors. Multiply 2 + a a.4.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. the student should apply this test to every example.3 b by a 5 b. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 2 + a8 . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a . Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Check. 2. 2a3b a66 2 a . however. a2 + a8 + 3 . 59.
. 10. 20.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. I (mfn)(m4. 3<7). l)(raf 2). (6i7n)(llJn). 36. 2  37. 18. (6p (2 f 21. 12)(a?^2l). a 5c)(2a6c). QQ O7. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 13. 2 . 7y). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 3. OQ OO. 22. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt).2m)(l m). 40. 5. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 25. 11. 9. 8. 35. 15. 36) I) 14. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 32. 6. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 4.4) (mnp 4. (ajf6y)(aj 23. . 16. (4a 2 33. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (2w 19. 2.4) (x + 1). (2 x* x 2 . 30. 1). 4 2). 29. 26. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 17. (8r7*)(6r39. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 7. 12. ^ 2 . 36).n)(m 8 n)(m n). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (13 A. 28. 41. (a^26) . * For additional examples see page 261. 31.2).1 . 2) (3 A: 1). (a 2a + 2)(a3). (6a~7) 2 . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2 . 24.
1) (10 + 2).4). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 75 ab f 54 ft . 17. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. . 11. (a3)(a + 2). ft 16. 27.e. 3. 25 a 2 . + 2) (a f 3). (*. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 14. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 13. (ra. (a 102 x 103. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. : 23 2. 2 6) (a 3 6). 24. 8. (a (a (a.25)(y+4). 26. (10+ (1000 (2. _3)(a _4). in of the two unequal terms. 2 a? 29. 7. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (!)(* 5). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). i. 10.e. 12. X 102. 20. 2) (1000 + 3). (6 12) (6 f. + 60)(f2). 6. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (a 9) (a + 9).13).2 6) (a f 6).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 9. . . + 9)(m+9). 15. 1005x1004.!!)( (a + 21). 25. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. plus the product 62. 21. + 5) (1000 + 4). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. + 3) (a 7). 22. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.n)(wf w). (J 23. 18. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (p12)(p + ll). 28. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 19. i.
66 s. p 2 p. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I).15. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 77ie square of the of the first. III. Ex. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 63. a2 2 w + 2 w .e. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 7. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 35. 6. <J>7) J . 9. second. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. . i. plus sum of two numbers the square II. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. : 24 (a 2. + 3) 2 . 34. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.15. n2 10ii+16.e. 33. + 6 a + 8. 8. i. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. w 2 ro . . plus twice the product of the first and the second. 31. (a26) 2 . 2 (a (*5) 2 . (a2) (p a .30. 32. and the second. . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 4. 2 5. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.e. (x+3i/) 2 .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 49 y*. 37. plus the square of the second. III. 3. 7 a + 10. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. of the second.
+ 5)(5+a). 33. By actual multiplication. (2x3yy. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 18. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 40. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 . 45. 54. 21. m 2 16. 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (6afy 2 5) (a.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 41. 44. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 22 2 . 22. 48. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 7& ) 25. 104 2 37. . 55. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . I) 2 . + 5).MULTIPLICATION 10. 4 53. 51. 31. a 2 8a6+166 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. n*6n+9.30 ab + 25 6 64. 25 a 9. 17. 49. 38. (100 + 2) (100 2). ( 27. 28. G> +5g)*. (1000 2 . 9 a2 . 15. . 35. 46. 23. 99x101. 11. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . n 2 f4n+4. 34. a2 9. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. The product of 57. 41 16. 2 2 . 991 2 2 . (^. 12. + 3z) 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 32. 47. ). 14. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 J ). .998 39. 62 25n 2 . (20 f 1) . . 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 29. 24. 16aW25. 52. 42. 103 36. 998x1002.
The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). or The student should note minus signs.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (5a64)(5a&3). ) (2 of a polynomial. 8. 7. plus the last terms. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 9. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. . 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 14. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (4s + y)(32y). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 3. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.& + c) = a + tf + c . (2a3)(a + 2). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 5. 11. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a4)(4al). 65. 4. ((5a? (10 12. (3m + 2)(ml). 2 10.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 6. : 25 2. sum of the cross products. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 13.
5) = (7 . Hence.3) (x . and check the answers !. + 6)( . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). + 65) . 6(a 2. 8. 4.(= [ Xa + 2 . 7.(m 2 6. 4y sf n) 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. after multiplying the factors of a term. . (xy+z)*. n). 2)6. 8. (  2 4) =  20 a. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 4(aj2)h3(7).3)(z. 9.29. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (a (. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.39.X2 + 2 x .r _ 2 .(>.39.3) .5). Simplify (x + 6) (a . 3. = . 66. of z : 10. Check. 5.4) .[a? . 13.24] . 6. 5. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 4(* + 2)5(3). = 10 x . 2 2.y? + 8 . 4. 7. (u4& + 3c'. Find the square root 11. 6~2(a + 7). a.4) . If x = 1.(x .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. Ex.i2&c) 2 . 3. 12.24 .8 x + 15] . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.1 5 = 10 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .2) (3 a .2). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.e. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).l.11 a + 9 a . 20. 16. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . Division of the difference of two squares. v/17. . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). . 19.DIVISION 14. 51 15. (81 m + 1 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18. a I.
. 14.0001. aW 12 a. r/ 1. 9& 2 .000.49. : the following w a 4 !. 1. 4 b. 100ry. f 13. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16 . 10. 121a a 16 100 11. 16. 15. .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 12.
the first member is 2 x + 4. in the equation 2 x 0. =11. 82. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . x 20. the 80. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . (a + ft) (a b) and b. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. is said to satisfy an equation. hence it is an equation of condition.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9. 81. 83.
A term may be transposed from its sign. 3. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. x I. To solve an equation to find its roots. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. NOTE.e.54 84. the products are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. the quotients are equal. . 86. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. called axioms 1.2. 2. the divisor equals zero. the remainders are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 87. 4. If equals be added to equals. 90. Transposition of terms. 2 = 6#f7. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 5. 89. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. If equals be divided by equals.g. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. If equals be subtracted from equals. one member to another by changing x + a=. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals. the sums are equal. a. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.b. A 2 a. A numerical equation is one in which all . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 85.
91. x = (Axiom 3) 92. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Uniting. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. The second member. The first member. x = 3.6 y f y\ . a= a 6fc. (4y)(6.2 y= f .2. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Dividing both members by 2. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 4x 1 + 6. if 55 x members. Check. if a x = b. To solve a simple equation.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Transposing. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. The first member. f If y 20 . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 2(11 . Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms.8. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. is correct. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 3 y . x = 93. 2 x = 6. Hence the answer. . Ex. 6a5 = 185 = 13. b c. and the known terms to the second. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Dividing by Check. a? Adding 5 to each term. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. b Adding a to both + a.9 y + y2 = 22 . may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.
+ 16 = 16 + 17. 4. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 15. 21. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 4y 10. + 7(3 + 1) =63.17 + 4y = 36. 32 = 264.56 Ex. a. 20. 7. a?. 17 7 a. 3. 7a? 5. + 22. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 247y = 68lly. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 16. x x 1 . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 11 ?/ a? 18. . f Simplifying. it NOTE. : 5# = 15+2a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 14. {(x (x The The member right member left . etc.69. 17 + 5a. a? a?. v23. . Transposing.. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. = 7.. Solve the following equations by transposing. x = 18. 11. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 2. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 19. 4a + 5 = 29. 6. 12. If x = 18. 3 7 a. a.7. and check the answers 9. Uniting.7a: = 394a. aj * See page 264. 50.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 8. =2 = 3. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 24. = 3. 7 (6 x 16). Dividing by Cfcecfc. J. 13a? 3a?. = 5a?+18. 22. 9 9a? = 7 13. = 2 ?/. 3. \x x 2^xfl. 14y = 59(24y + 21).
1) (u . . a? 43. 6(6a. (6 u =5 44.g. . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 2 2 * Jaj. is the other part.5) = (a. 41. + 4).1) (a (a? + 3) = . 29. find the other part. + 7) (. (a. 36.14 = 0.1 0) = 0. Evidently 45.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . e. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. or 70 a?. (aj 37. . 38. 7) (a. 5) (as (a. 34. : One part is of 70 is 25 . a? 28. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. .32. 39. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 30. 40.2) (M . . 25. 27. .(2 + 6) (4 . 7(7 x y 26.3) + 14.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. . . this question.4) + 4 w .7) (7 x + 4) . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.12) (2 + 5) .5) + 199. .7. 42.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 31.3) + .3) . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.5(2 u .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 35. 33.
so that one part The difference between is s. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 14. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. one part equals is 10. smaller one 16. 13. is b. 15. 1. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 10. EXERCISE 1. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. greater one is g. If 7 2. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Find the greater one. 3. 7. find the cost of one yard. a. and the smaller one parts.58 Ex. 5. 33 2. 17. 9. so that of c ? is p. or 12 7. 6. Divide 100 into two 12. is d. 4. is a? 2 is c?. 6. 11. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . one yard will cost 100 dollars. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Divide a into two parts. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one.
?/ 31. If B gave A 6 25. Find 21. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 24. 34. 33. How many cents had he left ? 28. A dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. amount each will then have. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. b dimes. 28. A feet wide. find the has ra dollars. 26. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 19. numbers is x. Find 35. sum If A's age is x years. and spent 5 cents. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. and c cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. is A A is # years old. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 22. and B is y years old. 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 32. How many years A older than is B? old. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. and B has n dollars. How many cents has he ? 27. A man had a dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and B's age is y years.
find the fraction. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. of m. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. 48. a. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. The first pipe x minutes. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. Find a. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find the number. 49.50." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. . he walk each hour ? 39. m is the denominator. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find x % % of 1000. A cistern is filled 43. Find a 47. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. 46. A was 20 years old. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. % % % of 100 of x. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. of 4. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. c a b =  9. If a man walks ? r miles per hour.
cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. The double as 7. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. by one third of b equals 100. 80. etc. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a exceeds b by c. 5. double of a is 10. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of x increased by 10 equals x. 2. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. 4. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 3. 80. of a increased much 8. 6. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. The excess of a over b is c. c. same result as 7 subtracted from .
x 4 If A. a. 18. B. and C have respectively 2 a. a. they have equal amounts. as 17 is is above a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. is If A's age is 2 x. a second sum.. 17. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. B's age 20. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.000. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. pays to C $100. >. symbols B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 11. and C's age 4 a. x is 100 x% is of 700. of 30 dollars. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. B's. (c) If each man gains $500. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. #is5%of450. In 10 years the sum of A's. amounts. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. express in algebraic symbols : 700. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 3 1200 dollars. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old.62 10. 50 is x % of 15. 16. m is x % of n. and C's ages will be 100. B's. they have equal of A's. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 12. sum equals $20. A gains $20 and B loses $40. . 14. 6 % of m.
23 =30. Transposing. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. the required . the . x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Find A's present age. x+16 = 3(35). Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Uniting. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Transposing. number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Simplifying. etc. Ex. denote the unknown 96. Check. A will Check. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x= 15. 4 x = 80. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Three times a certain no. NOTE. much as 40 exceeds the number. number of yards. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. x = 20. Dividing. Ex. Let x = the number. Uniting. In 15 years 10. In order to solve them. 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. but 30 =3 x years. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 3z40:r:40z. 6 years ago he was 10 . equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. . 2. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. be 30 . 1.
11. 3. A will be three times as old as toda3r . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Hence 40 = 46f. . EXERCISE 1. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 300 56. Six years hence a 12 years ago.2. 13. 120. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 5. Dividing. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. twice the number plus 7. 4. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Forty years hence his present age. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. A number added number. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find 8. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Find the number. exceeds the width of the bridge. How many miles per hour does it run ? . by as much as 135 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. % of 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Let x 3.64 Ex. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14.
the second one. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. A and B have equal amounts of money. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dol A has A to $40. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and B has $00. statements are given directly. Find the population of Maine in 1800. B will have lars has A now? 17. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. During the following 90 years. The sum of the two numbers is 14. is the equation. F 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. and as 15. Ex. One number exceeds the other one by II. times as much as A. 14. The other verbal statement.000. The problem consists of two statements I. . 97.000. B How will loses $100. x. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. two verbal statements must be given. which gives the value of 8. five If A gives B $200. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. written in algebraic symbols. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. 65 A and B $200. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. If A gains A have three times as much 16. 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.
consider that by the exchange Hence. B will have twice as many as A. A will lose. . = A's number of marbles. . Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. = B's number of marbles. If A gives are : A If II. although in general the simpler one should be selected. to Use the simpler statement. A gives B 25 marbles. = 3. + a f f 8 = 14. 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. If we select the first one. A has three times as many marbles as B. . unknown quantity in Then. x x =14 8. Let x 14 I the smaller number. 2x a? x j = 6. the greater number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 8 = 11. I. which leads ot Ex. Statement x in = the larger number. and Let x = the Then x +. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = 14. / . terms of the other. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 25 marbles to B. Dividing. Let x 3x express one many as A. The two statements I. has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as viz. x = 8. the smaller number. < Transposing. Then. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. 2. Uniting.
Check. 15 + 25 = 40. Uniting. x = 15. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. * 98.5 x .$3.10. 6 times the smaller.. cents. etc. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42.. . consisting of half dollars and dimes. . 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. B's number of marbles. x from I. have a value of $3. Uniting. 50.25 = 20. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 3 x = 45. 40 x . 2. The number of coins II. 11 x = 5. greater is . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 45 . x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. by 44. * ' .75. Dividing. x = 6. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3. Find the numbers. dollars and dimes is $3. 50 x Transposing. x = the number of half dollars. Check. (Statement II) Qx . and the Find the numbers. then. w'3. the number of half dollars. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. is 70. The value of the half : is 11. Let 11 = the number of dimes. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. but 40 = 2 x 20. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Find the numbers. of dollars to the number of cents.550 f 310.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 60.10. Two numbers the smaller. 1. Eleven coins. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). the price.10. A's number of marbles.. Dividing.240. Simplifying.
tnree times the smaller by 65. 6. A's age is four times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Everest by 11. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. and four times the former equals five times the latter. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. McKinley. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.000 feet. 9. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the number. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. one of which increased by 9.68 4. How many 14 years older than B. 7. Find their ages. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 11. 5. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. as the larger one. How many hours does the day last ? . and twice the altitude of Mt. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. On December 21. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints.. United States. Twice 14. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22.
II. B. bers is denoted by x. If 4x = 24. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. has." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. original amount. they would have 3. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. Ex. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. x = 8. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. and C together have $80. B. If A and B each gave $5 to C. are : C's The three statements A. The third verbal statement produces the equation. number had. B has three times as much as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and B has three as A. I. has. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. III. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. = 48.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. times as much as A. number of dollars A had. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and C together have $80. 19. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. . 1. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. and 68. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 8(8 + 19) to C. then three times the money by I. Let x II. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8.
A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. x j = the number of horses. each cow $ 35. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. number of horses. number of cows. 2. The total cost equals $1185. and Ex. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. Dividing. according to III. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. x f 4 = 9. Uniting. according to II. x = 5. 9 5 = 4 . and the sum of the . The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x Transposing. 1 1 Check.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. each horse costing $ 90. Let then.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. sheep. 4 x f 8 = 28. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 9 cows. 90 may be written. + 35 x 4. 185 a = 925. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. + 8 90 x and. = the number of dollars spent for cows. the third five times the first. The I. 28 2 (9 5). and. first. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. = the number of dollars spent for horses. III. and each sheep $ 15. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. cows. number of sheep. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. three statements are : IT. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.
what is the length of each? has 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.000. twice as old as B.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. the second one is one inch longer than the first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v . is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. New York delphia. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and children together was 37. 9.000. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. The gold. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. increased by three times the second side. twice the 6. the copper. and 2 more men than women. 13. "Find three is 4. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.  4. women. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. how many children were present ? x 11. 7. first. If twice The sum the third side. equals 49 inches. men. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the third 2. what are the three angles ? 10. A 12. and the sum of the first and third is 36. what is the population of each city ? 8.
7 Uniting. = 5. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. First fill in all the numbers given directly. Hence Simplifying. or time. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Find the value of each. we obtain 3 a. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. A and B apart. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. such as length.000. and distance. number of miles A x x walks. number of hours. but stops 2 hours on the way. = 35. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. speed. width. Dividing. The copper had twice the value of the gold.g. of arid the value of the iron was $300. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.000. i. 8 x = 15. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. . 14. 3 and 4. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. and quantities area. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. how many 100.e. Let x = number of hours A walks.000 more than that the copper. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. together. of 3 or 4 different kinds. After how many hours will they meet and how E.
x + 200). But 700 certain = 800 2.M(x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.05 x x . Check. $ 1000 x . The an area 40 x 20 =800. z = 20. Transposing and uniting. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 70x10 Ex. + 8. or 700. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = 800." gives (2.06 = $ 40. l.04 = $ 40. x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Find the dimensions of the field. original field has Check.04 8. the area would be 100 square yards less. $ 800 = required sum. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . the second 100. 2 a = 40. x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 10 x = 200. and the width decreased by 10 yards.053. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.01 = = . Multiplying. 2   and transpose. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.
Find the share of each. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A man bought 6 Ibs.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. the area would remain the same. mobile. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. together bring $ 78 interest. A of each. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. What are the two sums 5. and its width decreased by 2 yards. as a 4. and a second sum. twice as large. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. sions of the field. Six persons bought an automobile. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound.55. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. of coffee for $ 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. A sets out later two hours B . 2. 1. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. 3. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. invested at 5 %. After how many hours will B overtake A. were increased by 3 yards. Ten yards $ 42. but as two of them were unable to pay their share.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
An after simplifying. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. + 62 is integral with respect to a. stage of the work. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . as. a2 to 6. 6. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a. at this 6 2 . 104. f db 6 to b. it is composite. a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. irrational. 5. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . this letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. vV . if.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. consider 105. if it does contain some indicated root of . which multiplied together are considered factors. 76 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. we shall not. but fractional with respect 103.
E. Factor G ofy 2 . x. 01.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. y. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 8) (s1). Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 109. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . TYPE I. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 2. 107. Ex. 55.3 sy + 4 y8).62 can be &).3 6a + 1). x. . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.) Ex. or that a = 6) (a = a . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. it follows that a 2 .g. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 2. 1. in the form 4) +3.62 + &)(a 2 . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. It (a. 2. ?/. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. factors of 12 &V is are 3. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . .FACTORING 106. Divide 6 a% . for this result is a sum. 110. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.
a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).5 + 2.2.8 c a 15 ofyV . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. (as 3) and (ccf5).5 + 13 8. 3 2 . q*q*q 2 a. 2 6. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 4 8 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.3. 4. 18. 7a & 10.4. 11. 34 a^c 8 . 2 + q. in general. . 32 a *?/ . 8.30 aty.g.51 aW + 68 21.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 16. TYPE IT. 7i 13. 5f 2 . 3. 15. 17.4.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 3 3 5 6. 15 2 7. 2 23. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 3x*6x*. Ilro8 9. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. + llm llm. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. a a 'Ja . : 6 abx .12 cdx.51 x4 2 6 xy s .45 afy . 4 tfy f. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 13. . 14. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 14a 4 5.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .3. 20. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . a6c. 2 Or. obviously. 12. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 19. 2. e. 2 2 . ) 22  2.6.
2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. is The two numbers whose product and 6. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.11. 3. . + 112.G) = . Ex. .5) (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.6 = 20. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.4 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 2.77 = (a. + 30 = 20. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. or 7 11.11 a 2 . 77 as the product of 1 77. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.4 x . 11 7. of this type. If q is positive. We may consider 1. as p. however. Therefore Check.11) (a + 7). 79 Factor a2 4 x . 4.11 a + 30. Factor + 10 ax . and (a . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. tfa2  3. If q is negative. can be factored.1 1 a tf a 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor x? . m 5m + 6. Factor a2 . . a 2 .5) (a 6). 5. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.FACTORING Ex.a). or 77 l. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). 2 6. the two numbers have opposite signs.. Ex.30 = (a . determine whether In solving any factoring example.
By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. x2 23. 14. 2 . 36.70 x y . 2 ?/ 22. 21. 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 11. ay 11 ay +24. ITT. . 8.17 + 30. 12. 35. 20. 2 . 100 xr . 15. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 2 a' 34. + 30. 16. 2 2 . + 2xS. + 5<y 24. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 13.500 x + 600. a2 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 18. 26. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. a? + 5 + 6 a. 21 a 2 2 . a 7 a 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 9. 31. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. + 4?/21. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.6.48 + + 446 200. 4 2 . 2 . 27. 29. 16. 30.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 ?/ 5?/14. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 4 3 2 . 33. .180 a. . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. and 5 x. 19. 32. 25. TYPE 113. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.80 7. + 44. or . 2 ?/ 28. 17. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .
11 x 2x. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 27 x 2. 2. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. sible 13 x negative. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. and r is negative. 18 x 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. a. 2 x 27. or G 114. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and that they must be negative. If p is poxiliw. Factor 3 x 2 .5) (2 x . but the opposite sign.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. . the If p and r are positive. 3 x and x. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 54 x 1. 9 x 6. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.5 . the signs of the second terms are minus. 6 x 9. 3. viz. .83 x f 54.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. Ex.13 x + 5 = (3 x . X x 18. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.1).
10a?2 2 33. the expressions should be it. 12^17^16. 25.260 xy . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 2 2 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 34. 14. 19.83 x = (3 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 fc . 13. : 41 2. 2 2 2 23. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 24. 2 ar* 2 i/ .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 8. 12. 15.7. + 2/3. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 7. 6n + 5?i4.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 5m 26m f 5.83 x .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 17. 3. 2m t7w + 3. . 100^200^ + 100^.y + 172/9.163 x 2 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 2 28. Sar' + SaG.2) (x . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 20. 6. 11. 32. 3x*Sx + 4.2 a 90 x*y . 90 a 8 2 .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . and the monomial factors should be removed.27). f go. 22. . 9a.30 y 6 4 .19 a f 6. 4. x54 a. 30. 144 x . 2x* + 9x5. 18. 21.179. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 12y 2/6. 10 a . 14 a fa 4. 2.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 26. 2 31. 5. 3a + 13a. 9. since all others (II. 16. 2 . . 4a2 9tt + 2. 9 y + 32^16. 29. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 35. X 27 . 10. + 4. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.
form are special cases of the preceding type. x* . i. 9. 2. 6. 11. 2 2 . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 116. 8.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. and factor whenever possible : 1. it is a perfect square. 5. . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. square. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.10 x f 16. 10. 4.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. To factor a trinomial which maining term. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. however. 2 9 10gf25. . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 25 7. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 14.20 xy f 4 y\ .e. it is more convenient for that type. must have a positive sign.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and a perfect square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 12. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 3. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . of its terms are perfect squares. 9 10a625. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 13.
26. 6. aV . 19. 4a2 l. 149 a 81 8. ^//c to the Ex. a2 24. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.84 15. 3. . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 225 ofy . 4 2 23.60 a# + 4.e. 1. 9a2 . 25. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . 2 .3 * ). + GO + 25. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 5. According to 65. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. . 29. prime. 7. V. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 18. 9. +( )f816 30. 16. ). a. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 36 2 4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .6 m* + 9 m. ).6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). : 43 tfy\ a 9. 17. ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). . 6 2 . 2.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). TYPE 117.64 6 = 16(a . 48 a +( ).2 ofy + ofy m . Ex. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 2 . 2 20. a.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 3. product i. 22. * 2 . 16&*. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.20 ab + 10 b a . 27.
(a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 36> . T. 5. 9. 13. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . a:) 12. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2.(I) .d) 2 . 2 .(c 4. of polynomials. 4. 6.c . Ex. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 16p 2 . (m7?) y. Ex. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11.FACTORING 85 118. 8. Factor a 2 . a2 . 14.
119. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. a5 + ab 6 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 2. 8. 4 B. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.and trinomials. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. A. . 4:cx .2 ) (3 x . 2. Ex.y + 2 2). 7.a a . + x + 2x + 2. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.r. 6. 3.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.ab + bx.VI. . 5) .1. a? 11.7 c + 2c . x8 . = (3 x + y . 5. 9. 12. ive find that the new terms con common factor.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. After grouping tain a the terms. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. ma ?*a + m& nb. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. a 26 2 2 3 . Ex. which may be factored according to types I. By grouping.14. 1. 10.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.
6. + 2xy + y*q*. 4. First find monomial factors common to all terms.12 aaj 4 6y.4 f . : 46 x* 2. $ a8 . +c+ 2 2 2/ .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . : m 2 2 16. 4. w m 2. 8. 6 6. . = (a + 6)(a6). 3. l~a 2a56 2 2 . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 36 9 m . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 6a4 12a2 + 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. Arranging the terms. II.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 8. 4 a2 . . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 8ra 2 + 16. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 3. 2a3/ 7.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. IV. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 2 7. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.FACTORING Ex.9 a2 4 v* 2 .l. 5.
18. or 3 7#2 . 19. a + a + a + l. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 4 a. 27. 13 c . 29. a3 156. 5 a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 4 8 tt 2 z . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. . 5a' 20.310 x . 11. a. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 48. 42 x . 12. 3 a2 23. 28. 80 a 2 ft 38. 3 25. (a. + 6 aft + 3 . 35. (^ 34. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 2 . 24. 42 s 2 . 3 41. a5 a 1 4 2 39. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 2 ft .88 10. 32. 2 17.156. 22. 2 a 128.13 c . 13. 50^ + 45. 14.40. + 14. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. a6 36.24. 25 a + 25 aft .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 40.
13 aty 39 afyV. The H. C. The H. II 2 . 2. of a 7 and a e b 7 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 8 . C. F. The student should note H. of two or more monomials whose factors . are prime can be found by inspection. 5 7 34 2s . expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. EXERCISE Find the H. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. 6.) of two or more . The highest is common factor (IT. aW. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 12 tfifz. Two common factor except unity The H.  23 3 . 5. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. F. of 6 sfyz. F. 24 s . F. 122. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. F. 54  32 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 3. of the algebraic expressions. of aW. Thus the H. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 25 W. 15 aW. 3 . . C. of : 48 4. F. C. 2 2 . F. 89 . 5 2 3 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 121. 5 s 7 2 5. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .
30 mu\ 39 afyV. 12. 3. ^f a.y) .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . of: . 8 6.y + y42. 2 . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 11. 15 3ao. 11.90 7. 3). 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). F. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 57 a>V. 3 . 9.6 a&. F. . . a3 9a. F.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 38 #y. 16 a . 65 zfyV. 9 aj*(a? . a 3a4.y) 123. of + 4 if. 13.5 y).5 x3?/ 2 6. 2 . 3^ 2 4 . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 52 oryz4. 24 a 2 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . . (a7 ?/) . a. Ex. 4 ?io. 6 3 a. C. F. a2 + 7af!2. 10. ^707 + 12. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 1. 1.2 ?/) (x . 16. 5.8 a + 16. 15. y + 3y64. of polynomials.5 + 6. . 0^80:416.^9. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a2 ar* 4. 2. 7.2 y) (a. a2 . = x 2 y. 6 a2 y? . C.12 as 66 . 6(m+l) (m+2). 2 . 2a f5af 2.6 . 2 . 8. 12 w*nw 8. a3 16 a. 49 C. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. ^2 2 .6. aWd.y)\ O+ 0^(0. a2 + 2a3. x* x2 Hence the H.?/ . 8. 8 a 10 . 14. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. To find the H.# 4 afy f 4 . 8(?/ifl) 14. 4(m+l) 3 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. and apply the method of the preceding article. 95 2/V. ^a + 5^ + 6. 6 mx . 10. 225 4a 9 . 13. 9. Find the H. 12. 25 m27i. C. 12 . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. .
A common remainder. 127.M. 2.C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. The L. To find the L. C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. M.C.6)2. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. C. two lowest common multiples. of tfy and xy*. NOTE. Hence the L. 1. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . each set of expressions has In example ft). 126. of several expressions which are not completely factored. &) 2 M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. a^c8 3 . Ex. ory is the L. which also signs. L. M. thus. M of the algebraic expressions. but opposite . M. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. M. Find the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C. of the general. Common 125. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. The lowest common multiple (L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. 300 z 2 y. Find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.M. M. . 128. etc. 2 The The L.6 3 ). M. C. Ex. of 3 aW. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . L. C. C. C. C. 60 x^y' 2 . . 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.
+ 2. a { a~b. a 2 f 4 a +4. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 3 6 xif. (a 4)(a2) 12. T a 3 a 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. b 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. ) . x* ~5a. 14.1. 1. 6 a. a 2 a3 . ic 23. . a f 3. 2 a . 5 a? 5 a? y. a& 4 +& 2 . by. 24. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 11. a. of: 4. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. ic 2 ?/. 21. 3(a + b). a. 2 . afc'cd 2 . 2 a. 6b 2 . 2. f b. 3 Z> . #. Find the L. a2 ~ab 1. M. a^1. 6 y. 6. 20 9 a. or f 3 a 15 #. . a 2 fa6. a f 2 19. 8 d 5 . 8. 2 7ic+10. 3 ab. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 8 afy. y*. a?b. 17. 7. 3. 2 a .1. + 6. afy.f 6. x 2 5 a. 30 a. 3. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 24 x. 5. 40 abJ. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a2 4. 15. 2 x \2 y. 18. 2(m 2 . a. 4 a . a !. 13. 3 . 2 . 9. 16. xy\ . 20. 4 a f 2.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. G a. 2 10. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 . 22. x2 + 4 a f 4. + 2 7i) . 3 f2. a 1. (For additional examples see page 268.
the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. successively all 2 j/' . as 8. etc. C. Remove tor. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. rni Thus 132.ry ^ by their H. a?. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . F. A f fraction is b. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Thus. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . but we In arithmetic. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. an indicated quotient. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. however. 131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Ex. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. 130. and denominators are considered.
cancel factors only. and cancel all factors that are common to both. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. 3. Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .4) Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.
_ 3 7i rt< 26. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 16.' 32. g J 21.7 . 11 ^ Mtr f .*. 19. . .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 5^10 y 30. 29. ny 4 18. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^' rt ^  31. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.10 a + 3 2 14. . ' ^ . 9x + "a" 10. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . nx 17. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 23. ^+3*. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. """. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ^" a.. LJZJ^JL. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.
ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. + 3). Reduce ^. TheL.r 2 2 . M. by the denominator of each fraction. and 135. we have the quotients (x 1).C.3) (!)' = . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.~16 (a + 3) (x. 1. C. =(z (x + 3)(z. mon T denominator. Ex. of the denominators for the common denominator. 1). 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and the terms of ***.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .D. ^ to their lowest com The L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . we have M^. Divide the L.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. C.  of //* 2 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. . 2> . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. and (a 8). we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. we may extend this method to integral expressions. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. take the L.  by 4 6' .96 134.1^22 ' .M. multiplying the terms of 22 .M. . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.
T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 74). 7i 2 ab* ". . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2aj ~ .oj o* or / . 18.. 2 ay IB. .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 8 i i. 22 a2 5a * . j y 3. If the given fractions have different denominators. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 137.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . common denominator 6. a? 1 5 > ^* . o o a.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. JL. 3. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . i. . .. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 5?.^1.
^ is 2^JT) . as 4 aft f.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.2 = a(a .3 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).(a 2 6). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . the student should remember that parentheses are .aft) Ca2 . D. 2 ^.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . e. (a .ft)(a . L. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.7 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .2 ' 2 _. in the beginning.g.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . and adding. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 2. ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. T? Ex. (a ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. D.. C.3 ft 2). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4(2 a 3 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . The L.3 ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.
+ . j>0 i> 21. 1 1 f w 16. 20. a 36 ++. 24.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1 f q * 1 m m . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + a "" 2 6 ' . 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 2L + 2a 1 17. A+2_3. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.5 18 ^4f25. 18 v 19. 15. 6 c 3a 7. 2. 46 2a 4a 12. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 23. a+6 a 6 2 14. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 5a76 4a 106 9.
a 30. _ + a? ?/ + y. ic 1 + 1. 2 af1 32. 3a 9 +. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . a ?^ 40. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 4 31. 42. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 1 34. ! n. af 1f /j.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 43. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a.9.9 79 6 2 i. 41.
. .7 5a v Ex. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  . T. 101 mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. Reduce . 1. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 + 4x 4 x2 .FRACTIONS 139.
102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .g. F J Simplify . multiply the 142. or. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.) Ex. 2. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2 a Ex. fractions to integral numbers. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Since  = a. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. !. we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors.
FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 14..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4. 50 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.. . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a. 4 8. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 8 multiply the Ex. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. . 1. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. Divide Xn?/ . : a 41 ab * See page 272.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .
Ex.afr 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.6 s + 064. a a2 4.^c 2 2 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. or both. l. are fractional.5 ??i 80 50 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.
c +6. M. 7i+~ 7. Ex.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. x* 4. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. n a 8. of their denominators. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).a ^c c _^ a . . & . a m "" . 10. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. i. JL. . C. 6. 9. Simplify x }. the answer is directly obtained.y 32 . 2. .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. m^n* n L a 17. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : . o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.) . 2 & a 20  a46 13.
5(3 85 Check.28 a = 5 x2 . each member is reduced to Ex. Uniting. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). of the denominator.1. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 2 3. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 2. 9x x Check. . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. tions.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Clearing of fractions.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 148. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). = 6. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 4 4)  x. 2z2a. = 6. M.9 x2 + 9. C.28 x + 42 = . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 108 . 2x Transposing. a.l)(z + 3) = .48. + 1) (a + 3) . Transposing. If = 64. these Ex. Uniting.42 + 9.14 (a. x = 6.8 x = . Bx 12 Qx.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 1. If x 6. each member is reduced to 1.
= 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 1 *> = 2. ^' 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a: 7 a. . 15. a. +1 = 5. a/  5 a/ = 12. 16. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13.1 _77 a. +4 14. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. ^1 = 9. . 18.
y+3~2 29. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. J_. 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 31 31. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36._ _ . 3x 35. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 4a4l4* + l~. 2^12 = 2 = 34. . ?_=_.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. .11_4 x 149. . and" the remaining one a polynomial. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 26 26. 33. 25. .  38 = 40. If two or more denominators are monomials.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 32 6 .
Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Check. 26 a. M.29 50712' 9 18 . 60. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.  5 = 20 x 45.2 3 ~  == 7a. a. . Transposing and uniting. 24 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .1. Dividing. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .. each member is reduced to ^. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. = 9. 5x x : = 9.2 42 9 43. the 1 5 L. C. 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. If a. 5# 10.
b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = 2 f b 2 . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. find a in terms of b and c. 4 ac 1. y.& . 5> a. =a 2 151.1. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).2 62 2 ab. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. fr Reducing lowest terms. Uniting.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.m bx 2 mn) x. jr. a. = l^ 9 b 4 .2 ac + 3 aft . Ex.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. = 6 a2 . ax f x f. Ex. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. 2. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Uniting the Dividing. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.be. .3 6 2 = a' . f ~ 5c. If 3ac L= = a ? . they are united by factoring. Thus. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Dividing. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. It frequently occurs that the x.
11. . and n the number of years. 3. denoting the interest. in terms of other quantities. If ^^ = a 1 32. 12. co?. rate. f ^o. 30. = 5. . 14. a. = 8 4 #. t. IIL n b + &o. c 18. r the number of $>. 3(* 8. The The i time. 10. solve for a. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.= n. iw 21. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 31. c. * Solve the same equation for^). s = Vt solve for v. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . m a? x . 1 f. 13. + 3a. + xx = 1. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If * 33. = vt. . If s (wi n) x =px + q. 5) is t =^.i l .= H. ^ ax a^ 26. 4. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. mx = n. 9. If s If 16. 17. f P =+!. Ex. solve for . 4. = 3 (6 a).= c a Z> . = rt. p the principal. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8.a. 34. q solve for/. _ 2. 15. 29. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 6. 2 solve for y a. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?.
When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 2. A would do each day ^ and B j. and 12 = the number over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Find R in terms of C and TT.. is 36.20 C. Ex. . then = 2 TT#. Multiplying by Dividing. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. . 1. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. = 16^. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 100 C. 12.. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.180. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.114 35. Ex. x Or Uniting. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. 2 3 .
32 x = . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Solving. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. or 1J. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. = the x part of the work both do one day. 4x = 80. in Then Therefore. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. Ex. = 100 + 4 x. and the statement. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the required number of days. Clearing. the rate of the express train. 3. 180 Transposing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day.
one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. 3. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. to his daughand the remainder. is equal 7.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 3. and 9 feet above water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. money and $10. to his son. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. of his present age. which was $4000. ceeds the smaller by 4. and of the father's age. is oO. How did the much money man leave ? 11. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. fifth Two numbers differ 2. make 21. Twenty years ago A's age was  age.  Find their present ages. Find A's 8. ex What 5. and one half the greater Find the numbers. length in the ground. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. a man had How much money had he at first? . by 6.
At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 3. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. after rate of the latter ? 15.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. what is the 14. investments. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. Ex. and it B in 6 days. ^ at 5%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. How much money $500? 4%. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152.) 22. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. Ex.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 2. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 152. . and B in 4 days. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. air. 1.
by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. is 57. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 30.= . B in 5. they can both do in 2 days.009 918. A in 6. A in 4. Then ft i. . we obtain the equation m m .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. B in 12. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. therefore. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. The problem to be solved. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. m and n.118 153. A in 6.e. 2. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Ex. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. n x Solving. is 42. and apply the method of 170. and n = 3. 26.414. . . To and find the numerical answer. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. B in 16. if B in 3 days. e. Hence.g. 25. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 3. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.
. squares 30. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. is (a) 51. 4J miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. 34. (d) 1. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 3 miles per hour. (b) 149. meet. After how many hours do they meet. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. respectively (a) 60 miles. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 2 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. respectively. 3J miles per hour. and the rate of the second are.721. Find the side of the square.001. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. The one: 31. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (b) 35 miles. Two men start at the first miles apart. 2 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. same hour from two towns.000. is ?n . if m and n are. the second at the apart. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 33. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (c) 16. squares 29. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. : (c) 64 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the rate of the first.
all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. 158. b is the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the second term the consequent. 1.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.g. the denominator The the 157. b. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. is numerator of any fraction consequent." we may write a : b = 6. antecedent. E.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 6 12 = . : : 155. Ex. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. etc. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. The first 156. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . . " a Thus. b. In the ratio a : ft. a ratio is not changed etc. the antecedent.5.
61 : ratios 72:18. 4. 3 8. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. and c is the third proportional to a and . : ay . 7:4 T T 4 . 16. The last first three. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. two  ratios. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. b and c the means. 3:4. $24: $8. 27 06: 18 a6. and c. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 8^ hours. b. 5 f hours : 2. 10. equal 2.RATIO Ex. : 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 7f:6J. terms. 11. 1. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. proportional between a and c. 4:5f : 5. 62:16. Simplify the following ratios 7. 6. Transform the following unity 15. 18. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. In the proportion a b : = b : c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. a and d are the extremes. J:l. extremes. 159. b is the mean b. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 16a2 :24a&. 3:1}. 12. 9. 3. 17.
pro portional. = 30 grams 45 grams. : c. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. " we " NOTE. 3 4. Clearing of fractions. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. i. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. ad = be. q~~ n . In any proportion product of the extremes. 163. The mean proportional of their product. 2 165.) mn = pq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. and the time necessary to do it. and the other pair the extremes. 164.__(163. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. then G ccm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.122 162. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : : directly proportional may say.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work.30 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. are : : : inversely proportional. 6 ccm. of iron weigh . of a proportion. !. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. briefly. 163. of iron weigh 45 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.e. If (Converse of nq. ccm. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.
2. ad ( 163. if 6 : 7. a:c=b:d. is Ex. 166. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. Or IV. V.) a + b:a = c + d:c. = 35 . hence the proportion true. d d.) d 167. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a III. (163.) = f f = 3 J. bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. (Composition.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. I.PATIO Ex. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. (Division. ad = be. 1. 12x Hence a? = 42.) II. is 4$ = 35. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I.) (Called Alternation. + b:b = c + d:d. . then =d c.
. 120:42 2 2 7. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 12 5ft. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 180:125. E. 10. V. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.124 IT. 2. Or III. mx tin Apply composition and division. 8. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 20:7. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. the consequents by 7. . EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.g.e. 5.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. i. Simplify the following proportions. IV. x = 2. = 2:3. 4. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = 2:x. 3. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. : x. 5 5. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 6 =4 : x. 9.!=!*. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 7:2f 3J. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. Apply composition.
23. 29. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. ratio of y. ra + landra 1. to: = 35:*. 2. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 12. a 2 and ab. 28. 4. 22. to : a and 1. 7iy = 2:x. 112:42 = 10:a. b. 5= 18 a? : a?. a. = 2 + x: x. 03:a?=135:20. = l^:18. 9 x = 2 y.j>. 46. 3. 39. 6 x = y..6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. f. x m = y n. 34. rag. 3. 1. and 2/. = 15o. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. . 52. 33.:ff. 38. + fyx = cy. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 41. 2. 16. 5. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. rap. 44. : . 42. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. = 5 x 12. 21. 6. 47. 43. w. 16 and 28. 27. to : 9 and 12. 1 and a. 14 and 21. : a2 .  32.x: 6:5 a : x. terra 2:3 = 4. 25. 50. 18. ra 2 . 35. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 2 a and 18 a. Find the 37. ra. (a : : 45. 26. 2 3 = y #. 51. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 20. mx = ny. 14. 6x = 7y.8:1. 4 and 16. 3t. a?:15 15. Find the mean proportional 30. 2= 5 x x. 13. if : 40. 31. : 53. Find the third proportional 24. 17. = 3 43 + x. x:5 = y:2.
and the : total cost. and the time necessary for it. and the area of the rectangle. 56. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. A line 7^. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . the area of the larger? the same. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the squares of their radii (e) 55. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').126 54. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). what 58. and the time. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the speed of the train. 57. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.
Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. . Then Hence BG = 5 x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x f 7 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. produced to a point C. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. is A line AB. : Ex. = the second number.000 168. 2 x Or = 4. 18 x = 108. AB = 2 x. x = 6. 11 x x 7 Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 4 inches long. 2. x=2. Let A B AC=1x.
If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many 7. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 2. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.) . How many gen. : 4. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 9. 14. and c inches. 6. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. and 15 inches. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. : 197. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 13. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 3. 11. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.000. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 7. How The long are the parts ? 15. Gunmetal tin. What are the parts ? 5. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 12. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.000 square miles.
If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6.y=. there is only one solution. a? (1) then I.L x If If = 0. such as + = 10.. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.e. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence. 2 y = . etc.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. x = 1. if . y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. expressing a y. is x = 7. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. values of x and y. However. y = 1. =. The root of (4) if K 129 .
26 y = 60. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). same relation.26. The first set of equations is also called consistent. unknown quantity.130 170. the last set inconsistent. Substitution. 6x . to The two methods I. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 4y . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. viz. = . Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Therefore. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. for they express the x f y 10. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.X. 174. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. ~ 50. 21 y . By By Addition or Subtraction. of elimination most frequently used II. cannot be reduced to the same form. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 172. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. and 3 x + 3 y =. E.24. y = 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.3 y = 80. y I 171. are simultaneous equations. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 8 2. Check.3 y = 47. subtract the equations.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. y = 2. x = 10. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 64 x = 040. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. add the equations. = 406. 25 x .2 = 6.14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3y = 3. 37. = 235. 10 . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 10 + 5 1 = 135. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 5 13 . Transposing. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).3 1 = 47. are like. whose coefficients In general. Therefore Check. y = 1. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 60 . + 2.
= 6.3.v 23. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. [2o. 13 61 l7a. = 41. I .f2/ ' = 50. * + 3 y = 50. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 9 1 r 20. v ^ = ll. _. x 11.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I ~ y~~> 22. J I y = 1U. f 3# ?/ = 0. ] ^ .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. O t K 8. 13. f 3X 7x 14. 19< I a. i 3.5 y = 2. + 2/ 17. ' 12.9 *. I oj 5y = 17. = 24. . 7 ' 1fi fl .4. I i 3 a.3.
Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 60. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 2. = 13. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. and solve the resulting equation. 3. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 8. (1) (2) Transposing 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177.
Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. + 212y4 = 14. 3 (1) Ex. \ \6(a. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). x = l. 21z6y=9. however. (4). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (7) (7) (8) . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 2 y = . 29 x = 29. 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. Substituting in (6) . simplified before elimination is possible. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. . From 9 = 36.3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 4* + 3y = 19.6)7(y7)==18.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179.
+y 2 . 10.1) = 121. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 16. 10 2a?5 17. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. a. = 3. 14. . J 9. 4 11. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 12. yM a. . a.f2 2. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y .
e. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. . {. <X + 20.and x y . 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. * ((* (( . f y . and y.Q ^ 4 21.#. 180. 22. but some expressions involving x.
15 y + 8 x . 1.3 xy. . y 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. Clearing of fractions. 33 = 11 x. y 4. 137 Solve y y (1) . .4 x = 4 xy. of this type. (2) (3) a. (4) + (G). can also be solved Examples method. etc. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 2* * x 2. x 2x(2). x 3. Therefore y=4. Substituting x = 3 in (1). however. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.
x y 331 9. n. 1. = en.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 4 13. x 8.= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 6. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 . Ex.= 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 253 7. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). . x y 5.
amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. . bmy bm}y ap cm. . From the same equations find s in terms of a. . 6. s in 11. Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I. fax f = l. Dividing.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. a Find a and terms of n. f 5. x a.y = = 9a + 46. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ax + by = 2 a&. ap. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. d. apan cm. W . x 12. x f my = 1. and I if 13.W. ny = fy/ I sc 1. 14. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. w. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c.
3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 4.2 + 3. = 30. 6.1+4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.2 + 4. l. x + 12 y . 182.25.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).3 = 8.16. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3y = Hence Check. To solve equations containing By tions. 3. y =* 2. by 3.lf> z . 8 x . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 1. etc. 4. . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).15z=12 Adding. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.12 y + 6 z = .140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Ex.by 2. = 3.13. f 3y 12 =s 8. (4) (5). (8) 2.8 = 1. 20. 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.3=4. ties are Similarly.
a? + 709 = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. k 2/ f 2 x a. + y f z = 15. == 6. a? 11. 8. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5. 49. 15 2 = 45. 10. 2z = 40. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 7. x 13. 2 . y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 2 4. 12.
. 60. 84 21. = 8*. 23. ..3 y + . 16. =s 20. . ^ = 2. 4. (3 _.6 2. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 32. 19. 22. 1510 4 17. ?/ 3x = 0. 27. ? = llz.42 = 2.2 a. = 5.
and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Find the number. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. y * z 30. M=i.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. however. + 396 = 521. and if 396 be added to the number. 2 = 6. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. y 31. symbols: x + y +z 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Ex. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. the number. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. = l. +2+ 6 = 8. # 4. . Check. 1 digit in the tens place. 1. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. z + x = 2 n. = 2 m. 2 = 1(1+6). Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and to express In complex examples. + z = 2p. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. .y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. either directly or implied. ( 99. Obviously of the other . x : z =1 : 2. 1 = 2.
Ex. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 3. 2. the distance traveled by A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. (1) (2) 12. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. = the fraction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 2. y = 3. Or (4)2x(3). = 8. increased by one. . Find the fraction. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Since the three men traveled the same distance. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 4 x = 24.144 Ex. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 5_ _4_ A. x 3 = 24. x 3x4y = 12. we obtain. C. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. From (3) Hence xy Check. B. By expressing the two statements in symbols. direction.
to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. fraction is reduced to \. the number (See Ex. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the fraction. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the last two digits are interchanged. 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the digits will be interchanged. A fraction is reduced to J. 183. Find the numbers. 2. added to the numerator of a fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. 6. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the fraction is reduced fraction.}. If 9 be added to the number. . both terms. If the denominator be doubled. and the fourth 3. the Find the fraction. ? What 9. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. part of their difference equals 4. 7. Find the number.) added to a number of two digits. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the numerator increased by 4. to the number the digits will be interchanged. 5. Find the number. tion ? 8. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. it is reduced to J. number by the first 3. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. its value added to the denominator. the fraction equals . If 27 is 10. Find the numbers.
Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find their present ages. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. A man invested $750. in 8 years to $8500. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260.000 is partly invested at 6%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530.grams.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the annual interest would be $ 195. Find the rates of interest. 5 %. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. A sum of $10. and in 5 years to $1125. . and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. 13. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and money and 17. respectively ? 16. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and 4 %. the rate of interest? 18. partly at 5 %. 14. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and partly at 4 %. now. 19. How 6 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 12.
c. what is that = OF. are taken so ABC. and F '(see diagram). 24. cows. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. is the center of the circum scribed circle. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and GE = CF. and angle BCA = 70. . If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. Find their rates of walking. BE. and e. and F. triangle Tf AD. BC=7. B find angles a. 23. ED = BE. 25. for $ 740. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. three AD = AF. points. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. $ 50 for each cow. On /). It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and AC = 5 inches. and their difference by GO . E. and sheep. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. A farmer sold a number of horses. 1 NOTE. BC = 7 inches. but if A would double his pace. respectively. the three sides of a triangle E. the length of NOTE. and angle e angle/. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. . andCL4 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and $15 for each sheep. and CE If AB = G inches. An C touch ing the sides in D. then AD = AF. and F. BD = HE. angle c = angle d.
lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 186. (3. It' Location of a point. ?/. 2). and PN _L YY'. the ordinate by ?/. PM. is The point whose abscissa is a. .. and PJ/_L XX'. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN. YY' theyaxis. PN are given. is the abscissa. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and r or its equal OA is .CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and point the origin. jr. (2. Thus the points A. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. or its equal OM. B. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. first 3). 3). (2. (7. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate of point P. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The of Coordinates. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive .
) EXERCISE 1. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 4).e. 4. (4. 2). 0).3). 12. 4) and (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (1. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points (6. Graphs. (0. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 3). 1). . 2).(!.4). 6. (See diagram on page 151.and(l. 2. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (5. 0). i. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Plot the points: (4. (0. What is the locus of (a?. (2. 0). 71 2). and measure their distance. 3). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. !). .1). 3. 8. 2J). 6. 3). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (4. Plot the points : (0. 0). (3.2). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 4). 1). 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4) from the origin ? 7.
from January 1 to December 1. 1..150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. B. may be found on Jan. 15. D. 10 . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 188. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. By representing of points. C. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. Thus the first table produces 12 points. A. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. we meas1 . however. or the curved line the temperature. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. .
and to deduce general laws therefrom. etc. uses them. (b) July 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. Whenever a clear. the rise and fall of wages. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the graph is applied. (c) January 15. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. physician. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . The engineer. (d) November 20.
How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (d) 9 0. (freezing point) ? 7. on 1 to the average.152 2. 1 to Oct. 1? 11 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. 15. ? 9.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. is 10. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.. When the average temperature below C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much.. ?  3. During what months above 18 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.
09 yards. transformation of meters into yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw a graph for the 23. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. NOTE. Draw . Hour Temperature . 20. One meter equals 1. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. a temperature chart of a patient. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
etc. then C irJl.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.g. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 26.) T circumferences of 25.50. 29. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.5 grams. 28. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 9. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 1 to 1200 copies. 2. x increases will change gradually from 13. 4. the value of a of this quantity will change. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 190. e. . 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. x* x 19. the daily average expenses for rent.154 24.. A 10 wheels a day. +7 If will respec assume the values 7... books from for printing. gas. if each copy sells for $1. amount to $8. 3. function If the value of a quantity changes.inch. if he sells 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 . 3. and $.50. binding. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. etc. represent his daily gain (or loss). to 27. x 7 to 9. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.
Graph of a function.0). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. a*. 2 (1. Ex. construct '. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . it is In the example of the preceding article. 4). is supposed to change.1). may . values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 3 (0. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. and (3. may.1). Draw the graph of x2 f. . and join the points in order.e. ( 2. (1. The values of func192. 2). 4). however. 9). Q. 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. If a more exact diagram is required. (2.2 x may 4 from x = 4. as 1. J). for x=l. 9). etc. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. E. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 1 the points (3. 3 50. to x = 4. (1^.g. while 7 is a constant. be also represented by a graph. x a variable.
etc. 2 4 and if y = x f. y = 6. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.20). 194. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 4). straight line produces the required graph. . 2.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. Thus in the above example. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. as y.. and join(0. (2.. j/=3. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 7 . (3... 5).4). (4. 4J. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 1). = 4. r */ +* 01 . rf 71 . Ex. Thus 4x + 7. = 0. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.2 x . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.) For brevity. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.
Jar . 2 or 2 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. if a. = 4. 4 a. 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.or. 8. 21. 16. 1J. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. y = 2x = 4. xl.5)2. 2 2 a. 19. fa 17. 7. 23x. The values of a*. 2. a? 2 4. xz + x. The smallest value of the function. 9. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. J. 2 a. = The values of a*. 3 a 8. ?/ a. (If) Va25. 22. 18. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . from x VlO'S". 2x + 3x a?. a. 2 a. i. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. (C ) (2. 12. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2.e. 2. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. a* 13. 5. a? 1. (ft) (_ 1. 6 fa. . if y = 2. 1J. 6. a?. if"a. 2J. (7i) (c) 23. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 2 2. 3. the function. 1J. . 15. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4.8)'. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. + 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. a ar.5)2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2J. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 3. 4a? I. l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. x+1. 1 8 10. 11. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. if the function equals zero. The values of a?. 14.
if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 32 F. 1 C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.24 or x = P and Q. 25. Show any convenient number). then cXj where c is a constant. that graph with the o>axis.24. then y = . we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.where x c is a constant. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Represent 26. the abscissas of 3. y= formula graphically.. 9 F. i.e.158 24.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Therefore x = 1. 14 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. C. . A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1....
7 2 a 5 = 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. crosssection paper is used. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 8. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. (a) x2 = 0. 0. 14. 3. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. = 0. 13.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 6.f 9 = 0. . (a) (6) 9. 197. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. or 5 2. viz. (0. + + = where a. Such equations in general have two roots. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 2 and 1. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 11. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 10. 4. a2 2a. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 12. 7. is called a quadratic equation.
produces the 7* required locus. ?/.2 y ~ 2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Hence if if x x  2. i. (f . Ex. = 0. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. unknown quantities. 1) and 0). y = l. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 3x _ 4 .160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. ?/ =4 AB. 2). Hence we may join (0.2. 199. locate points (0. first degree. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. X'2 Locating the points (2. and joining by a straight line. because their graphs are straight lines. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. if y = is 0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . T . . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.e. and join the required graph. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. == 2. solve for ?/. 4) and (2. 0). Ex. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. NOTE. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). fc = 3. Hence. y y 2.1. If x = 0.
202. equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. linear equations have only one pair of roots. P.57. To find the roots of the system. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 201. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). (2) . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. parallel have only one point of intersection. 203. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). viz.15. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. and CD. AB y = . Graphical solution of a linear system. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.1=0. we obtain the roots.
Locating the points (5. etc. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. There can be no point of and hence no roots.. if x equals respectively 0. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. Measuring the coordinates of P. 0. 0) and (0. 3. 4. i. we of the + y* = 25. 0. (1) (2) C. P graphs meet in two and $. Using the method of the preceding para. the graph of points roots. 4. 1. The equations 2 4 = 0. 4.5. and . (2. 2.0).0.y~ Therefore. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 1. the point we obtain Ex. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 2. AB the locus of (1). 4. 3). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. . and joining by a straight line. V25 5. e.e. 2 equation x 3). (4. In general.9. 3x 2 y = 6. Inconsistent equations. they are inconsistent.  4. = 0. y equals 3. 5. Solving (1) for y. 4. 5.5. Locating two points of equation (2). Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. x2 . (4. 3. 3.g. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). and + 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. intersection.
. . x~y=0. and.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 5. y 2 4. state reasons. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2. Draw system. 17. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. a. 10. a+r/=6. and solve each If there are no solutions. \ 2x + 3^ . 2x 3?/=6. vice versa. 6. y= a2 2x y6. the graphs of the following systems. 3. 16 23. 8. if possible. 19. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4. 9. '163 Dependent equations. 7. 20. y = 4. y=x + 5. 16 22.
CUBES.y). 28. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.164 24. 29 .14 y = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31.8. 30. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 26. 25.
a2 .faa a a a Obviously 1. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 8. ( a) is positive. involution repeated multiplication.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. follows that 3. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 2. a special kind of product. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 52. a = a3 . on to in factors 4. . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. fa. According to 1. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. is may be by 207. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. etc. Law of Signs. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .
(a ) 2 5 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 24. raise a fraction to a power. 210. (a ) 2 4  3. . (2ar). the required power. 3 2 2 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (277171 )*. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. amVy) 3 . 6. 5. 15. 76 : (>y. a product to a given power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 4 /2mV.166 To find To To power. 4. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 2. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. V V/ 13.6 (a 8 8 . 2 11 (afc ) . \ 3 J '  MW 10. (^^) 2 . 16.6) = a .
Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 1. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 21. etc. 7. 211. 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 18. (a + &)8 .y) = (3 y?y . 1 f 3 2 3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . a. Ex. 8. + 4aj) 3 . +5a) 22. 3. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 15. An 1.) 14. nent of the binomial. (6m+2w) (3 8 . pansions. 8 (a??/) 3 . 2. . 16. .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . = s= (2s) 8 a. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 2 .INVOLUTION Ex.y . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. : a 20. The higher powers of binomials. frequently called ex. (aj7) . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 4. (3 x .3 y. 6.6 2 8 ft) . 23. 2. (3af26) 8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 13. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. + a 2 a. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 3 8 . 5. 9. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (5 (1 a) 3 . 12. are obtained by multiplication. (afl) . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .
15. 14. (af 5) . (?/i~w) : 16. 4. 5. (1 + 4 ?/) . (2 4. (2 a 4 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 24. . . (m 5 I) 2 22. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (tff1) (cfd) . (a~^) 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. and the powers negative. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 23. 1. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 6. (la&) 4 12. ( &) 5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 4 (1for) 5 . 25. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 21. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. Ex. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (m 2 + n) 8 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (?>i?i f c)*. 13. mn 5 2 5 ) . (m fl) 2 20.a) 3 19. Ex. (3a f5) 5) 4.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 3. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .216 a^ 4. .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . .2. 3. 9. (p + q) 4 * 7. . 8.168 3. (w 4 ?i) 4 . . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 5. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (mJ) 4 11. The minus. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 4 . 2. 78 s . is the coefficient of the next term. 17. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (l 8 . 10. . Ex. 18.
and all other numbers are. etc. 4 4 . V9 = + 3. called real numbers. and ( v/o* = a. 1. (_3) = 27. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. for distinction. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 27 =y means r' = 27. = x means = 6. 2. numbers. or y ~ 3. \/"^27=3. V \/P 214. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. tity . 215.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 109 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. which can be simplified no further. a) 4 = a4 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or x &4 .
\/2 4 9 .125. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 5. v/2^.201) = 2. Ex. 2 . V36 9 4. V25 9 16. fy 5 3 . = V26TIT81 = 53.64 5 4 .lL. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.4. Ex. v/^i2 = a*. 7 .1. 3 33 53 . V?. 10. extract the and denominator. To extract a root of a fraction. . Ex. 3.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. = 19472. 2. roots of the numerator \/18 .9 = 136. 82 . 7 . Ex. 62 = V2* . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 6 7 = 030. = 199 + (_ 198) . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . 6. 3/0** = am . Ex. Ex 5 a" . . 3i . To extract the root of a power. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 7.  100 a 2 . 7. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 4 v.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . . index.200 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 9.(. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 9. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. EXERCISE 1. 6. 8. V5 v/2 7 2. 2. 8.
In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 32./).3 . 3. ^40^4. V9216. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.6 tfif + 9 y = O .3 y2) ( vV . 5. 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 29.EVOLUTION 171 28.4/. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 1. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. a* 4 8 2 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. V8. Find the square root of a2 . V20 . a f2 l 2 + l. 31. 33. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 2. 116.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 45 V5184. 2 . Ex. 6. 34.98.75.) by inspection. 30.3.
and b.172 7. 14.2 ab + b . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. + 6 + 4a&. mV14m??2)f 49. 8 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square. and b (2 a f b).b 2 2 to its square. 2ab . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 12. 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . let us consider the relation of a f.2 &c.2 ac . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .72 aW + 81 & 4 . The term a' first 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.e. #2 a2  16. 10. a f. .> 13. 11. a\b is the root if In most cases. 15. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. i. however. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.
2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Explanation. and so forth. . . by division we term of the root. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. the first term of the answer. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Ex. is As there is no remainder. of x. 2. First trial divisor. .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . 6 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. The square . 219. First complete divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. 8 a 2 . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 1. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 8 a 2 2. */'' . and consider Hence the their sum one term. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . As there is no remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Second trial divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 8 /.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . 1.EVOLUTION Ex. 10 a 4 8 a.
9. 16x6 4. 18. 20. 16. 6.a 6 x*y 2 .25. 729 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.24 or .V430^425^ 4m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . + 81 a 454 a + 81.73 a8 .42 a*& 4. 36it. 15.12 m 4. 19. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 6 11. 24. > 7.20 o 4. 2 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.6 . l 4. 8. 3. .12m 5 4.10 x2 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 436^?/469a. 14. 1 4. 12. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . a? 2 . x 6 4 4 0^4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.16.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 13#4 413ar 44a.40 a 22 . 2 x2 3 2x.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 17.25 x 4 4. 5. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.73a4 440^436^460^. 4 .4 x 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.37 a ^ . 10.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.9.
and the complete divisor 168. Ex. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Find the square root of 524. the first of which is 8.EVOLUTION 220. and the square root of the greatest square in units. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . etc. 1. of a number between 100 and 10.. first . etc. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. and the first remainder is. Find the square root of 7744. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000.1344. Ex. = 80.176. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000 is 1000. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Therefore 6 = 8. which may contain one or two). of 10.000.000 is 100. the square root of 7744 equals 88. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. a 2 = 6400. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. the first of which is 4. two figures. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. As 8 x 168 = 1344. The is trial divisor = 160. of 1. 2. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.
The groups of 16724. 12.10.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1T6 221. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Find the square root of 6/. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. places. in .1 are Ex. annex a cipher.7 to three decimal places.70 6.0961 are '. 3.
1. 39. feet. 13.22. 37. 35. 5. 33. 31. 32. T\.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. JT . 30. feet. . 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.53. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. J.) 40.01. 34. = 3.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .58 square 38. 36.1410. whose area equals 48.
. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . = 7^ + 5.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.g. x = + 2 or x =2. x 2 7. 224. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.. is A quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. A pure. or equation of the second degree. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. The 7 equation. 226. Dividing. This answer Check. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . 2 ic = a. 6 y2 = 17. but no higher power e. or incomplete. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. = 4. complete. or affected. 2)* + 5 = 33. Transposing. 1. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 225. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Ex. Extracting the square root of each member. is 12. 6#2 = x* 24.
16^393 = 7. : 83 2. 5. 8. 2 2 a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 ax. 10.2. 19 + 9 = 5500. o. Solve 179 . 7 = 162. .25. 15^5 = 6. 2 4fc 5' 18.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing by Extracting the square root. or Therefore. 0^ + 1 = 1. ' =: y? b* b . 4. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. (a? 9. 2. ax Transposing and combining. 6(2)=10(ajl). 7.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 3. .
its area contains =a 2 f b2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. ' 4. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A right triangle is a triangle. EXERCISE 1. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 25. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for v. is 5(5. solve for d. 2. 2 : 3. Find is the number. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 28. . and they con tain together 30G square feet. 24. find a in terms of 6 . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. is one of _____ b The side right angle. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram).b 2 If s If =c . : 6. solve for r. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . and their product : 150.) of their squares 5. 2 . 27. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 2a f 1 23. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If G=m m g . 228. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . Find the side of each field. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). then Since such a triangle tangle. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. Find the numbers. 108. 4. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. r. Find the side of each field. 29. 2 . If 22 = ~^. . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 22 a. 26. If a 2 4. 3.
) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Method of completing the square.7 x f 10 = 0. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 2m. 4. sides. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 24.2 7 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Find these 10. Solve Transposing. x* 7 x= 10. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. Find the unknown sides and the area. . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. is and the other two sides are equal. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . we have of or m = . and the third side is 15 inches. Find the sides. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. add () Hence 2 . of a right triangle Find these sides. 9.) 13. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. . (b) 100 feet? = . and the two smaller 11. A body falling from a state of rest. J = 12. radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 8. Find the radii. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. (b) 44 square feet. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. To find this term.
80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = x\ = 2. Transposing. = 6. Ex. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Hence Therefore Check. Uniting. a. = \ # = ff.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Ex. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .2.  \. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. . adding member).  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 a* a. 230.a.e.x(l = .2 a2 . (*~8) a = at . 7 5 + 10 = 0. Simplifying. or J.1. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. J. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. = . Extracting square roots. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 62 x 5 = f. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. or x = 2. Therefore. a Clearing of fractions. Transposing.. 2  .
183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
2x 3 4. 231. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . \bx\. = 12. 49. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. . and c in the general answer. article.c = 0. x la 48. ao. Solution by formula.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. =8 r/io?. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
 P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.. = 64120?. 2 . 19. a. 26.  . c p. c = 5. 4. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6 Ex. 2 a? = 44 x . 2 o. 21. 9. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 2. Reducing to general form. 6. 17. V^tT)* . 8.25 x. ?i 2 . = 12 . 13. TIO. 6 . 16. 12.4 4 5 . 2 a. 20. b =  + 20 == = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 18.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 11. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 7^ + 9 x 90. 5 x2 Transposing. 7. 10. 6^+5^ 56. 14. 1. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 15. 2or } 5o. 6. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2. 3.
Transposing. 3x?+x = 7. 27 x== 42a. orz roots. Eesolving into factors. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 25. all or.4) = .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. ar>8o. 26. a=:i^^. factors Now. if either of the uct is zero. = 0. 23. x2 = 1 . 5) = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. (5 a? !)(. 5 = 0. and 6. 1. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Bx 1 1. any degree. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. . Solution by factoring. x(x <2 . Factoring. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. = 14. = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.2. member can be Ex. 0. Clearing for fractions. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). }. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 233.x.5) =0. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 2S3x 1 2 . 24. transposing terms to one member. or # 5 is zero. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.
+ 9 f 20 x = 0. + 100. a?10a=:24. 14. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 2. a?. 16. The equation I. Or Hence the 234. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 7. Ex. 2o3 f9a.3)(x + 3 3. 4. : 87 = 0. 13. 5 = 0. + 8=s: 7. 8. 3 or 2 a. 2. Therefore x =3 = 2. 12. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.24 = 0. a* 10a=24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. aj( 15. E. 6. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 0^ + 21 = 10 10. is 5) = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. O roots are 2. 3^ = 0(1106). EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. for a: . 4or + 18a f 8a. 3) = 0. 0^ ar> 11. 0(02) = 7(02). Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. ar'Sa^ 12.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. x2 f 2 x . } 2 2 (5 . 4)(z3) = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. + 6)=0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 3) Factoring. and the equation thus formed be solved. 3# y 5 = 0. + 10 a = 24. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 9.:=0. 3.(. 5. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.6)) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. (aj4)(a.e.= 24.g.
or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. ara + ft + c*. 20. (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. 23.188 17. 27. '3a!J  . 19. uz + u 21. 25. 50. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 2. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 22.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 18.
3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 6. 3. 2. 1. and whose sum is is 36.3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 2. number by 10.3. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 2. : 3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. two numbers is 4. Find the number.0. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. G. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 5. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 1. feet. 7. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and whose product 9.3. 57. 55. The 11.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find the sides. 58. 4. 2. and consequently many prob 235. 54. Find the number. and equals 190 square inches. . The difference of . 56. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.9. 0. 8.1. EXERCISE 1. and the difference Find the numbers. 5. of their reciprocals is 4. 2. 52. Find the numbers.
and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. Find the rate of the train.190 12. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. sold a horse for $144. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 17. Two vessels. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. ply between the same two ports. dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. other. watch for $ 24. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. as the 16. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. he would have received two horses more for the same money. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. . A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. If he each horse ? . At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. What did he pay for 21. and Find the sides of the rectangle. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 14. 15. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. 13. ABCD.10. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple.
If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 27. the two men can do it in 3 days. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. as 0. a point taken. is On the prolongation of a line AC. . of the area of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. By formula. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. ^3^ = 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26.) 25. how wide is the walk ? 23. Ex. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 237. (tf. so that the rectangle. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find and CB. contains B 78 square inches. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. or x = \/l = 1. 23 inches long. and working together. 1. constructed with and CB as sides. 24. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.
T 17. 16. Ex. 19. 436 3. a. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. = 13. 4. 8. 2 h9:=0. 18. aV+9o 4 =0. 7. y8)=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Hence Le. 4 a. 6. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. Solving. 12. 9. a4 5o. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a 21or=100.T 2 2 . 4 : 89 10a.2 =4. = 1.)+72=0. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 6.192 238. 10. 2. a? 15 1=2*. >. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.
the roots are equal.f> = 0.2) 2 4 3 (.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.5) = 04.2 z . negative. rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. rational. Ex. Hence the roots are real. 240. ( 2a Hence 1. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 241. the roots are unequal. is 4ac not zero. it 2a follows 2 : 2. and unequal. . the roots are real. and equal. a perfect square. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .bx 4. the roots are imaginary. 2. 3. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. c the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . The discriminant =(. Ex.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are irrational. the roots are rational. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.12 x + 9 = 0. b 4.
+ 2a. 15. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 14. tfmx+p^Q. their product isf. + 18 2 8. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 21. 18. 2 7. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.. 5oj aj + l = 0. 17. + 12 2  . 10 x = 25 x + 1. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. = 5x. 23. f 2 E. x2 7 10. o. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2 : 3. 12~x = x 2 . 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 22. = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 4. 5aj 9. 2 a. = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 60 2 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. 12. lla. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. : a 2 . 9a3 = 0. = Q. 2. 3a.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0.g. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 6. 24. ^12.19 # 20. = 0.
must be *The symbol smaller than. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. II. that a an = a m+n . The first of these laws is nition of power. 244. however. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (ab) . hence. > m therefore. m IV." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . It is. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. while the second of the first. for all values 1 of m and n. (a m ) w . provided w > n. no Fractional and negative exponents. and . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.a" = a m n mn .* III. We assume. ~ a m f. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . a m a" = a m+t1 . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. such as 2*. = a"" < . Then the law of involution.
'&M A 27. 3*. = a. fractional. a . 0?=^. or zero exponent equal x. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 4~ .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. Assuming these two 8*. 29. (bed)*.g. as. 245. etc. (xy$. . Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 31. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 25. 23. m$. at. 28. e. a?*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 24. laws. 30. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . a\ 26. disappear. a*. n 2 a. ml.
38. 40. 27* = 3. however. hence is . ty?. If. a. Vo5 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. : 197 33. = 49. a . 49. \fi?. Let a = a. 35. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 41. the base is zero. 45. 5 a* = 10. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 37. e. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. v/o&cT 34. 50. 3* = 27. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a * a2 Or a=l. 42. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 246. Solve the following equations 39. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 2' 4* = 4. a* * = 3. \/xy \/m.\/n. 43. v'mT 36. 46. 7z* Find the values of 47.g. e.g. 44. equal to unity. = 2. = 2. 48.
a8 a 2 = 1 1 . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. etc. Multiplying both members by a".198 247. an x = a. Let x= or".2 = a2 . consider the following equations. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. cr n.g. e. . 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. or the exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. vice versa.
""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. ^?2 y' 34. 22. 2 . 36. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. . rfS. 3 a? * 42. 37. 66 45. : mi m~^. 27. c 32. 2 . 44. 2m~i 43. 40. a. f (2w)~i 1 . 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. m . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. * 24. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci ."* 38. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a. : or 5 . ^L. 7~ l a 2b 2 . . 25.
. 61.343)* + (. z* = 1. 58. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 49. 53. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 54.001.6).81 f (a .26)* 1 (I) 2 . Ex. = . of: 3ll4~* 60. + 1~* f 21 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. z 5or*=10. 1.(. 10* 5* = . 250. 47. 52. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.008)* + A. + A_. 55. = 5. 48. 17' 2 51.1. = ^. = l. ar = i. 59. 57. 10* Find the values 56.9*. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. (.
3sVS. (d) If required. .5a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.$". a. 17. 27  28. 7. &. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.7*. 23. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.4 a8 . 16. 10.4 . NOTE. Perform the operation indicated. remove the fractional exponents. 7~ 6 .&. / 7fv 7.7W. 8 ' 9. 7*. 13. 7~ 5 27  .&. 6. ' 11.^/5^5. are performed. 6 *.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .3 aj" a. 12. S'sS8.. 6a. 3. 14. 18. 79 . 4 x^. OA 20. #* a. 95 ^9i 5**. Remove the negative exponents.6 *' 6 *25. V5. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 26.7i. 3 a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .$*. 16.5. etc. 72 . . . 4 5.
1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.2 d . 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 6 35. 1. The 252. 1. 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 34. If powers of a?. powers of x arranged are : Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. Arrange in descending powers of Check. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
4^/4. 36. ^6. ^7. ^126.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . \/5.2 V50. V2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. VS. 30. ^/IT. v^S. V2. A/3. ^2. in order of magnitude : \/7. s!/3. 27.e. signs.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 39. 2\ 3*. V5. (i. 26. 37. ^4. </2. 33. Arrange 35. + . ^2. ^5. subtract surds. ^4. A/2. 32. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Ex. Simplify V~ . 38. v/3. V3.2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 3. 28. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^30. if dissimilar. 31.10 V2 =  V2. V3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 40. connect them by proper 1. 29. 34. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.3\ . </3. </20. 5V2. \/7. ^3. v/3. Ex. To add or form. ^2. v/4. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.
3V20 + 6V5. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 8. V175V28+V634V7. 12. 3. 13. 9. 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50. + 3V835V2. V18+V32VT28+V2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. . V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4. 11. 4V805V45. 14.J a6 V4 aft. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 10. 8VT8J2V32 7.
26^ . 6*. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 3. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . y* = Ex. 2. .6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . and then multiplied. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 1. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex. 23. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . .
(3 20. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 38. aVa. 13. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 19. V42. a?. (V6 + 1) 1 . Vll. 39. 9. 10. 3. 213 98 11. 6. V20 V30. 41. 18. (5V22V3CVS)V3. v/4. 6 V4 5. V2 V50. 15. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V2aV8^. (6V23V3)(6V23V3).VSS. 12. (Va Va 36.^/2. 27. V3 V6. VlO V15. fWa 17. VTO. 28 . . v/18 v"3. 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 8. 4. 40 10 30. 6. 40. \/3 \^). 37. + VB)(2V5). 2 . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V3 Vl2. 7. (2V3) 8 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 21. 25. 2. 34.
(5V72V2)(2VT7V2). . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. a fraction. Va v/a. 52. is 1 2.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 268. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.y. all monomial surds may be divided by method. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. V3 . (2 45.214 42. 49. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 48. 46. Ex. 44. Ex. the quotient of the surds is If. E. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 60. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 43. 51. 53. 47. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (3V52V3)(2V3V3).
. Divide VII by v7. we have V3 But if 1.57735. is illustrated by Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.73205. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. however. 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. 3. e. . by V7.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .RADICALS This method. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. arithTo find. The 2. metical problems afford the best illustrations. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.g.by the usual arithmetical method. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. /~ } Ex. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Evidently.
find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V5 = 2. . V3 24 . Vll 212*. . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V48 25. 20. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 271. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V2 22 . and Given V2 = 1. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate.2361.. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. A. 272. V3 = 1.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V5 270.7320. A. VffV?. 23 . 14. i. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. ^/H . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V8 JL. V8 12. 21. 7.4142.
RADICALS Ex. Ex.2.1 xVtf a.= 18.vffi^T _ . .Vs2 . Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 3. .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS . s Simplify a. 1. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
: and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .W3. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. . 24. V21 = 25 . 27. 6V7. = V3 = 1. J?_. Given V2 1.2361. 19. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. find to _!_.5 3 = 125. V5V7 18> ^SVg.4142.218 6 . By the use of fractional exponents . Vo1 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. v 2V3 28.7320. four places of decimals 23 .
the If. on the other hand. In other examples of involution and evolution. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS.RADICALS 219 274. 4. 8. 9. 5. 11. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V255 . \/l6*. . it to this form. v8f 2\/15. 3 (V2~u)  7. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. According to G3. 3. 1. \/125" . 2. 2. viz. Simplify Ex. 2 12. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. introduce fractional exponents : Ex.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 2.6\/2 = ^9 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 2 \/18. 12 and whose product is 20. ^TT. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11. Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.A/2. Find Vll . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 V2.220 Ex. These Ex.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . +2 Ex. and whose product is 18.2 \/20. The Hence ^11 . 3.
V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.e. Before performing the involution. VT . . they are transto formed into rational equations.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 8. V48 23. : 221 Vl32V22.1. are radical equations. 4x x = 2.. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. The value x =2 reduces each . a. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. Radical equations are rationalized. 19. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. by raising both members equal powers. Ex. member to 2. Solve vVf!2a = 2. r 22. 5. (2x xrf 1. Transposing and uniting. +=. = xa + 4 x f 4.V48 4 20. 4. x2 = x f 2. Dividing by Check. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. first involution. 277. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.
The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. . 2. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing and uniting. 4#f 4 = 9. V4afT~l. x = J. Extraneous roots. Factoring. Transposing and uniting. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.222 Ex. Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0.3. one root. Therefore CftecAr. f 25 = 12. a socalled extraneous root. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore Check. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. they may be extraneous roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Squaring both members. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Ex. viz. 5. Dividing by 24. viz. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 3. Transposing. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. a. .1) = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. tion which has two roots. It = 3 x . at . 278. the first member = V2. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.
(x x = 3. equation it is an extraneous root. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.47) = 0. Hence there is only one root. Transposing. 223 x = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.RADICALS Hence x If a. the right member = V2. Solve the following equations : = G. 4. Squaring. 2 Clearing of fractions. NOTE. ViTie 4 z2 . and to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. If If x 3 = 3. or x *j. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Hence x = the only root. = 3. + 6~ieT~3 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. . \ does not satisfy the given. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.3) (2 x . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . is x V. both members reduce to 5. Check. x root of the preceding equation.12 . for it satisfies the equation . Therefore.2 r. Factoring.
Therefore . Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. Many 1. Ex.
Substituting. . x Since both =9 or 1.8 x + 40 = 36. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. x + Vx a? = 6. 4.8 z40 = 7. 2. Let 8 x f 40 . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. = 0.*2a. = 26. 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 2. some of the roots be extraneous. Ex. y then x2 . for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 3 6. Q . 2Va. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. x =6 or 3. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.i~24 = 0. = 7. Vi 2 8a. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 412a* = 16. 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. + 40 = 6.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 3.35 = 0. members of the equation were squared. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. _ 2 y . o.f40= 5. 2_8z 440 = 49. This can be seen without substituting. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.
4 V SB* 4 a. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +3= 6. 15. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 2.f 18 = 24. a^x2 5 2 13. +x . 19. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.226 11. 18. a. 17. 20. 14.a 440 = 35. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 16.
^ = 381+2.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. = 2. 1." transposing.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. does not contain a?. 2.bx? + ex2 4. Without actual division.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . then (x 2)Q 0. E = ax + &z + m) Q. " Or. no matter If.2 + 4. even if Q is unknown.4 a.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). to x we # = 2 3. find the remainder when m. we make a? what the value of Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Hence. a? R = x* . could.2) Q . 3 2 Ex. ax4 4. however. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.2 x 5 by x 3.2 + 80 = 12. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. by dividing 3 x* f. If x* .360 = 244. Without actual division. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Ex. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. if Q was known. 227 .
Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. hence (x divided by x 4.g. 5 (4x . if 8 42  . If the remainder is zero.g. } 2 by a1. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.949. fora?. 2 j 7.8'= 0. of the division 3) is m in place of x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + ^by x + b. 43 3 E. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. The Factor Theorem.3)f 11 =. the remainder equals 8 2 x . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 8. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. + 6. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.228 282. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 5. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x m is factor of the expression. 3. x* s 2 4.4(.8. + 7 = 632.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .
1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 15. or x 4.12 = 0. a^8^ + 19a.9^ + 23^15. 2m 5m . 21. or 5 4 + 3^ . Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. + ttt15 = 0. factors of the absolute term. 11.e.13m + 30 10. 106 division. 8. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.7 x + 15 = 0. 17.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. a 2a + 4. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. _ . 18. 9. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. oj 5x2 f3a. m f m n 14. 1. a 5x 6. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. then x8 7 x'2 4. + 27 + 27. f 15 does not vanish. a + 32. is a factor.12. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . Therefore x ( 1). f 3. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. Resolve into factors 4. 2.r6 = 0. The 5.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 2 2. are f 1. 3. f 5. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 5. & p*. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.49 = 0. + 15. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. ^10^429^20=0. 24. Let x = . 23. Factor a? 15. 8. 25. i.1. 6. a. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. a 8a f 19 a 12. . 229 1. 7 46 = 0. 20. p 5^ + 8p 4. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 1. a? 19. 3 2 : 7.7 + 16 .
x* f/ = (x +/)O . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2. 286. actual division n. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 2 Ex. : importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1. It y is not divisible by 287. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.230 285." . By we obtain the other factors. Ex. if w is odd. For substituting y for x. ar +p= z6 e. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . xn f. 1.g. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/). is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. if n is even.
= . Hence = (m Ex. 27. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. since it more directly to the prime factors.i mn f w 2). however. 28. 3. a. as 27=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . leads 231 is The first method. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable. 26. x3 8=0.
& + 2 xy + = 25. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. in general. 4 xy = 16. xywe have 3. (4) Hence. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. (5) Combining (5) with (1). however. x y.y4 is of the fifth degree. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. = 6. + 6 a?V . can be solved by the methods degree. 232 . If two of the quantities x f y.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. of quadratics. ==5 > 1^ = 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. * A I. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 290. xy are given. to equations of the fourth few cases.
roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 12. " "' "' { r 8. ^.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. r (" 1 = 876. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 1. x and xy are not given. ' 10. = . but can be found. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. The arranged in pairs. b=3.g. EXERCISE Solve: 1. I I x + y=7. 233 y. 108 2. 3.
EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.i/ = r 13. ' ' . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 5. 3. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.o 18. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. one linear and ne quadratic. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 19. I x+y = a. aj = 2. r^ 2 as ] f. Ex. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .  f J. . x " (3) 49 etc.. or y = 1 . 6 "I 14.?/ i = 6.20) = 0. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 4 y = 20. A system of simultaneous equations. . + 29 = 0. la. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 7 .  42 y + Transposing. Factoring.a.  . I* Jj ^ [. or JJ.
(x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. y* + 2y = 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 1. III. 9. If of the preceding type. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. quantities. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3. Solve . = 1 3 3. ':il e :) . 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations.3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 10. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3y) : Factor (2).
y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. } VI09. 11 a2 Factoring.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. 15 x2 . j Substituting y in (2). (1) (2) x x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. 2 . 2. Solve 2.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. = 0. 109 a.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).
E. ' ^ 15. 150 */2 . f 1 150 a?.!. y? a? f . 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). can be solved by special devices. A. 298. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. .3^42^=43. 2 xy + y2 = 10.125 ay = . Bxy9.y = 7.xy 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. (4) (3). Division of one equation by the other.175 ay = 12. " IV. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. and others not belonging to them. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.6. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
(1 > (2) 1. x +y y etc. jc~ y = 9. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Some simultaneous ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . y . at first it is unknown quantities. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. quadratics can be solved by ?/. = 189. from (2). we have from (1). y = 3. i ^ *>. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. x 2 . we obtain by squaring. * ' 300. 2. = 12 J. B. Therefore x = 16. xy. Solve Ex. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous.
. F+y+ . M6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 7. 6. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. I e. 4. [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . 16. .21 ^ = 15. . 25.4 y = 47 a. * . 19 ' 26. f 18. = 198.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 27. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.
= 48201. 7' j/ 39. etc. y % 9 f*K 36. . hence may be any finite number. 33. ~\ OK OO. finite  =x y if = x. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 3 a2 38. 32. 25 34. . as a .of  According to the definition of division. . ^ oo . or ~ indeterminate. 31. Interpretation . . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. etc 302.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. Q 7.
(1) = 0.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. By making x any * assigned zero. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 1. as + l. 306.decreases X if called infinity.g. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. . Hence such an equation identity. be the numbers.242 303.000 a. and .increases if x de x creases. i. i. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. or that x may equal any finite number. The ~~f fraction . the answer is indeterminate. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1).e. and becomes infinitely small. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. creases. equation. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. x f 2. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. = 10. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . I. Or.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. cancel. Let 2. ToU" ^100 a. it is an Ex. (a: Then Simplifying. great. is satisfied by any number. (1) is an identity. TO^UU" sufficiently small. without exception. .can be If It is made larger than number. 1. oo is = QQ.x'2 2 x = 1.
and a. = oo. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Hence /. 1=0.e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. third and sixth parts. two numbers is 76. is their 2. * 6. (2). Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve . EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve  9 7. y finite QO. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve x a. 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. z = 1 Substituting. EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. The sum is of squares 2890. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 42 and' their product is 377. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 3. . and the sum of Find the numbers.
Find these sides. increased by the edge of the other. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 9. . 255 and the sum of 5. Find the numbers. 190. and the hypotenuse is 37. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. the area becomes f% of the original area. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the side of each square. and the sum of ( 228. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 12. 103. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the edge of each cube. Find the edges. 10. Find the sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the other two sides. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. is is 17 and the sum 4.) 53 yards. of a rectangular field feet. 14. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.244 3. of a right triangle is 73. p. 8. 13.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the dimensions of the field. and the edge of one. 6.quals 20 feet. is 6. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 148 feet of fence are required. equals 4 inches. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the diago(Ex. 146 yards. two numbers Find the numbers.
differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. is 20 inches.) 17.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. . the quotient is 2. irR *. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the number.
. 15 is 9 f. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. f . a + 2 d. to produce the 3d term. a f d. a + d. . . added to each term to obtain the next one. to produce the nth term. The first is an ascending.) is a series. The common differences are respectively 4.. the second a descending.... 309. each term of which. progression. series 9..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. + 2 d.. a 3d. The progression is a. of a series are its successive numbers. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 3.7. 11. . of the following series is 3. 16. except the first. P. (n 1) d must be added to a. P. 19. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. and d. 3 d must be added to a.1) d. . 4.. to produce the 4th term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. to each term produces the next term. 2 d must be added to a. a. 10. a 11. the first term a and the common difference d being given. Hence / = a + (n ... 17. 12. To find the nth term / of an A. : 7. P. Since d is a f 3 d. An arithmetic progression (A.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.
2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. P.. 8. the last term and the common difference d being given. = 2.. 3.. 6. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 7. 2. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 9. Adding. series 2. 99) = 2600..... 2J. 21. P. 6 we have Hence .. . = I + 49 = *({ + . 10.. 24. the term a.. 8. 6. d . .. if a = 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 5.PROGRESSIONS 310. d = 3. 7. (d) 1J. 3. 9. 7. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). of the series 10.. 115. 3.. 3. 5. . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Find the 10th term of the series 17. a = 2. . = a + (a Reversing the order. 1J.. 2. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. . 8.8.. 1. 2 EXERCISE 1. P.. 3.4. . ? (a) 1. Find the nth term of the series 2. (a + + (a + l) l).' cZ == . = 99.16.. 5. 5. Find the 5th term of the 4. series . Find the 12th term of the 4. 5. 1. 4. 19.3 a = l. 4^. 6.
12. In most problems relating to A. to 20 terms. 23. hence if any three of them are given. 17. 7. 20. rf. 8. '. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 19. 15. to 16 terms.7 f to 12 terms. . . 33. and a yearly increase of $ 120. > 2f 2. . Sum the following series 14.248 Find the 10. 22. (x +"l) 4. 1. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. to 20 terms. . 1. : 3. P. 11. . . 15. Jive quantities are involved. 4. 11. 6. to 7 terms. strike for the first yard. 7. \n. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 20 terms. 1J.1 f 3. 12. 18. (i) (ii) . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. striking hours only. 31. 15. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . and for each than for the preceding one. to 10 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 8 terms. 3. 16. 11.. 29. 7. 21. 16. 2. . 11. 13. 1. 2J. to 15 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . + 3.
45.PROGRESSIONS Ex. Find the series. 6 n2 . Findn. s 24ft last term 144. n = 6. 133. 89. Substituting in (2). 78. a = 49 6(71 . J = 49. if a. l)e?. The first term of an A. . 56. = a + (w. 67. Solving. a = 12. 2.6 n). if s = 204. 100. 78 n Substituting in (1). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. The series is.6. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). But evidently n cannot be fractional. is 12. P. 111. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. d = 6. 1. 23. I.. 122. 6. the and the sum of all terms 1014. = 1014. 34. or if x Solving. From (1). = 13.. = n(104 .104 w + 408 = 0. = 144.~n~\ 408 6).1) .e. = 1014. 12. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 204 = ^ (98 . hence n = 6. P. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. #. 312. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. or 11 J. n d. Ex. 2 (2) From Hence (2). P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 204 = ^ (a + 49). .1). and b form an A. the second one mean between the other two. 144.
n = 20. Given a = . a+ and b a b 5. Find a Given a = 7.3. . n. 16. 7. of 5 terms 6. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. d = 5. 15. 8. 11. Find?. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. f? . 12. 14. 13. Find d and Given a = 1700. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 4. I Find I in terms of a. n has the series ^ j . T? ^. = 16. has the series 82. ceding one. Given a = 1. = 52. = 1870. n = 4. m and n 2. How much did he save the first month? 19. n = 13. = 45. 3. 10. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Given a = 4. n = 17. Given a = . f J 1 1 / . y and #f5y. I. 78. n = 16. produced. 17. = ^ 3 = 1. Find w. Find d. Find n. = 17. P. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Find a and Given s = 44.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 83. How much . s == 440. a x f b and a b. s = 70. 74. and s. 6? 9. Find d.
4 (1) . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. is it (G. (I) of the series 16. P. 4. ar. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 2 a. NOTE. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 4... The 314. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . and To find the nth term / of a G.. is 16(f) 4 . of a G. called the ratio. ar8 r. . r n~ l .) is a series each term of which. +1. P. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . I. 108..g... 12. .. rs = s 2 . If n is less : than unity.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 36. .. E. P. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 36.. 2. or. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. or 81 315. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. The progression is a. <zr . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 24. ratios are respectively 3. A geometric progression first. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.arn ~ l . 36. . . 24. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .
5. Hence the or series is 0. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 36. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. Find the 5th term of a G. is 3. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. (d) 5. fa. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.5. 4. 676. . . 25. if any three of them are given. first term is 125 and whose common . l. Ex. 7. i 288. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . . P. whose and whose second term is 8. 3. hence.. f. 18.18.6. Jive quantities are in..l. +f%9 % . 144. 288. 10. series ._!=!>.18. f. In most problems relating to G.*. EXERCISE 1. P. Find the 6th term of the series J. series 5. 72. 2 term 3. . . I = 670. whose and whose common ratio is 4.54.. 72. .72. 1... ..4. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. is 16.. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. + 5. . 20. . or 7. 6.288. fa.. 9. 80. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. P.. 9.. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. whose . . 144.... 36. P. series 6. volved . P. (b) 1. 144. first term 4. first 5. And the required means are 18. r^2. a = I. . 9. ? (c) 2.. 4. Hence n = 7. 36. \ t series . 8. 576. (it. 0.
126. 48. J.i a9 . . J. 243. to 7 terms. 20. and hence ~ r . 54. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. of r n decreases. 15. J. >"> .. 81. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 12. to G terms. may be than any assignable number. to 8 terms. . M.. to 6 terms. a^.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 14. 21. 25S series : 32. 36. 2. 12 terms. Find a and 4.. Find a and n = 4. n = 5. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. Find the geometric mean between 7. a. 24. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Given r = n Z 5. 27. 22. Find a and Given r = 3. == 160. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 1. 1. 4. . is less than unity. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to 6 terms. . s = 605.. 16 . P.. 81. I. Z s. J. .J and 270. 42.. to 5 terms.nV> i*> !718. 13. r . be written If the value of r of a G. to 7 . = 3. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 23. + 4 . .. n = 5. 14. s = 310. 72. 19. = 3.
. .. 7. .27777 .37272 .= _4Z* ....272727. P. .072. 40. = . and the first term is Find 17. I.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 4. . what is (a) the sum of the areas. i i J. of an infinite G.254 Ex.072 + . 3..= . is J. 6. Find the value 9.3727272 . . Given an infinite series of squares. i.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 16... is 9. The sum r.191919.3121212.717171.. 4. 1 r = . Hence . =A+ 10 i.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . The sum Find the of an infinite G. 9. .00072 f . . 2. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 8.. 13... 5. of all squares ? . . 66 Therefore . 250. = 990 . 1.. .. If a = 40. 100. . 2. 14.01 ^ . P. 8.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3... 16. 5.3 + ...72. . . . (6) the sum of the perimeters.)7?7272 .. Find the sum to infinity.. P. 1. 9.. ratio 15. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. .. . is 16... . = .Ql. of: 11.555. 1.. 1. 6.1. 12... first and the common term. 10.99 .. .. 12. = a . r = j.
4. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 15.6) 20 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (xy) : 6 . 26. . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. coefficient of . a6 8 16 in . 14. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 5.b ). Find the 6th term of (x . 22. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (a2) 6. 12. 21. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 2 2 24.b) w (a (a f (1 . 7 . . . l 2. /2a+Y\ 8. 16. (\ 9 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. : (1 + xy. (a + b) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9.6) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 13. 29. 17. . 28.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 11. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (s + i). Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (a 100 . 4 7. 25. 20. 10.
5. 5. = 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 1. 1. 3. 2. 6. 4. 1. 5. 3.  2. 2. 4. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). ft 4 ) 5. 3. 3. 2. 2. 1. 3. 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. 2. 3. 2.  a)(a 1. 2. 3. a ft c = = 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 4. 3. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 5. 4. 2. 5. 6. ^+^ 3. 2. + 2. 2. 1. c if 7 . . 6. . + 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 3. 3. 1. 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . + c(a  c). 1. y 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 1. 1. if x^l. 4. 2. 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . ft) . 2. + 1. if y=2j 2. 5. 2. 2. 5. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6.a(a 4. 1. 3. 3. 2. l. 3. 3.  2. 24 4. 7.  8 ^ 2. 3. (c 3. 4. 3. 4. 2. c = = = 2. 6. 4 2. 4. 5. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 1.f ac 1. if = = 2. 5. 5. 3. 1.c )(fta) 1. 3. if = = = 2. 4. 3. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2 . (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 4. aft 3 + 4. 2. 1. 1.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3.
= 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. x = 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . a: . a. 4 x 4 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . a 4 + 11 a . 4. x3 f 3 ax'2 .  a) (c 2. 5. 15. 21. 3. 8 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.8 + 2 // . 10.2 z8 4 x. 17. 40.2 x2 . 18. 29. c)(x a} . 4. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 26. a /> 3. 4. . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .c' 2 4 / . 2. a. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. b(x (b 1.2 a?y + 3 aty .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. + 2. 2. ' b) + 3. 16. x3 2 a2 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 4 y 13. + 4. 5.2. 24.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .8 3 + 7 x4 .4.a 4 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 7 xy 3 .5 xy 3 + + 4 .2. .5. if a 6 = = c = 3.a8 . + 1. 7.a) .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 41. 8. 21. .259 x c) .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 1.x 5 4 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 4 ?y . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .3 a?y .1. 2.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 25.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2 . + 8 x4 *y .\ yz + xz. 9. r> . 1. x C 4 4x y + . + 3 y 2* . 6.a 5 a . 2. c = 3. 2 x 8. 4 z . x 3 11. 6 a4 4 a8 . f 8. 12. 15.7 + . 2  + 12 a 8 . 7y 4 . or . 3.10. (5. 9. ~c)(b. 20.2 x?/. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. x 3 x' 14. 5.7 ys.7 y 2* 4. .3 xyz.r 6 x  4 xy . 5. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .
2 3 ax 2 . . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .a ft. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 4vTT~y 3. 5 10 4 G 11 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . sum of . . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .2 .8 3 4. c 4. 4 4 4.x2 . 3 ft.x .4 ft) 4.1).c. Simplify 31. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.(4 * .27~~7)}]. 33. : a x .3 x .] 26.?> x 4 20.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. x'2 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .4) .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . .4 Vl 4.x 2 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 5 4 7 12 . 2 x 32.(5 y .(x* .x 4.1)}] . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. .3.{G * 2 . f ft. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.2) . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 7 12 . 36.(7 x 4.[4 z 8 .{2 x 2 . 4 2 x2 23.260 19.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 35.5. Take the sum 4x 4. 4 3 5 y/ .5 . ft. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 29. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.6 x ] .2 .x .7. x8 x2 2 a'2x.4.3 . . 4 . take the sum of G x 5 . 542 x 2 and . c 4ft.2 x 8y2 44 . 5 10 + 7 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. = x y ft z. (*) a  c.(a .2 a . and . ft 25.(x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. a  ft + c. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.[4 x 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.c 4 3 a.6T . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 34.c. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 0" 30. of a.(4 x 2 .c 3 a.#48. c =x y }~ z.(5 c . From of 2 the 4.. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.3 .
(6 . 67.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].(2 a 2 .2a .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.{2 a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).3 z 2 ). 4 + 2 2 + 1).12). )(lz a ).[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].ab . 43.3c). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].ac . 13 a . (4 + 3a 2 .rf)} + a [. (.(2 a + 5 a .6c) (a + f c). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (/> 4 . 57.{2 a (ft . 2 : 7e)a}].[4 x  5 . + 4x + 5)(j. 63. (x .c). 65.4 a 2 + a 4 ). 2 2 x + !)(* . . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). . (x.2 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).3 c)]. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 54.5)} + (3 a 2 .4 a . 'J 44.7). .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a . (r (1 (a.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 45.2)(1 .6 xy .(2 .1).0)} . 48.3).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.(5 y . 2 ft 41. 56.(7 i + 4 r:) .& + {.r 2:c+ l)(ar.{3 c .2 zz . . (1 ar+a.56. . 62. . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(2 x2 .[2 .2 2 + 1)(7.3 *).be) (a 58. 3 x 42. 60.(7 a. . a .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 49. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 50.2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 64.5 )}] + {4 c . 59.96 [17 a.2x + 3).Z . (5 a 39. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (1 55. . 51. 2 52.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .b (c . 46. 2 53.a~^~c)K]. a {.JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (.3)(*5)(* 7).(4 d .c 2 . + *+!){> + 2).6)}]. 68.
c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .z) . 82. 2 + a 2 ).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 83. ft 78. (a (2 b)*(a 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).m np c .6*y .ft) + 4(2 .5 . .c) j.(ft 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .3 (ft . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.y + z)(x + y . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .c)].:y)( a. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .(c 4. 71. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.y)\x y).3y) a (* 2 4. 73. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(/>  3 v)^(.c) rr identities. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 87.z)(x y + z)(. 74. (p 2 .c) . 89.{3 a .c)} . . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c) 2 . ft 95. 84.r 2 .2y)(. 90.2 ft}) f (3 a .am&t 4 A 2 *).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 94.ft) 4 . ft /. 70.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 77. f 72. 88.c) 4) (ft 4. (x (x ( + *) .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 4.(4 .q). 93. 4 4 .<f(p .9y2). ft" l Simplify 80. 91. 92.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).3 a . 75. ar .x + y + z). . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.c .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 85.c . b 4.c) .2 (y 4.a) 2 . 2 (x 2 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).2 (a . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.n pc). 79.(a 48 8 8 4. 1). xy y 2 ). 76.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (.y).262 69.v) 4. Prove the following 8 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 86. 1). (a 2 ft 2n 4.b 4.z\x 4.O (a 4(a 4. ft ft ft a}.
(x 2 . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 114.35 x 2 2 ) . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).3 a"+ 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .16 a 6 4.b) 98. . 124.(a 1 2 8 . 105. [10( 4. 109.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (80 a 112. .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 25 4 . 113. r . 103.(2 a 2 . (2< 107.&).*) (x 8 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 1).a".9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 4 41 x 4a.r 4 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.xy 4. (8 x* 115. 121. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.(7 xi/ . 10). 116. 120.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 2 4.) . 26 (a 4 c). 2 (a+ . 117. 3*. (a 8  8 68 8 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 123. 110. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).2 xy 8 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.40 />) .6 y 4 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 108. (. 106.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 .v/ ~ // = a: .1).5 b*).4 aft .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.y 4 ) . 99 100.2 2% 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". a*.5 xy). 118. 102.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).27 x* .2y 2 4. 1O4. 122. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).
10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .9) + 3.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2(4 .3 a:). y (* l x. 128.4(0 x .2) = 3 .r + 7[or . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).5). (4 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 149.3) (3 x 4.3).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 148. 127.(j a? 144. 3) = x\x .2(5 .2 7^~5] + 1).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .5{. 136.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 137.1) .22.7) = 4 .3(2 z .3(* + 4) + 9} .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 1) .8 6 .9) 4. x 147. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .n .r>) .1) (a? .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2(10 x . . 42(3ar 145. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.5) = 12(4 x .(x + 3) ] . . 126.a:)]}.2) + 2(ar + 4). . 10(2 x 141.4) .(1 . 129.2(j: . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 2 4(ar . 142. . 143. o o 140. 1) = 2(* .12 M 132. . 138. (*+ + .264 125.(x f 9). 139.3) = 12 .27 a 3" .3 x).19) + 5 = 4 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2) (a: + 3). 135. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. .G) . (5a: 150.18 *&) (1 . 5 146.3).7(4 * . 5(2 x . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 7(2 x . 3(2 x 134.4) . .(x .
are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. .2) a + 7(x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2) (j? + 1) + (x . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 156. these two angles would be equal. + 10) (ar .76.25) 2 .8) = (2 x 4.9) + (a. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. =  (F 32).7) (a. 165.(5 x . and the third twice as many as the first. The sum What 171. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.17) 2 + (4 x . .? . 154.2 x) = (1 . 163. (a) If C. 160. sheep more than the 169.z) (4 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 2 4 .a:) + 229. 158. + 5) = (9 . 166.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. = 2 C.5)(.2 x) (4 . (x (x a. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.19) + 42.7) (1 x . (a . (a. How many 170.5*) + 47. transformed into F. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. . 162.14) (a: + 3).5(x . f^ + ^sO.2) (7 *) + (*. 164.T)O . + 4) (2 x + 5). (7 14 . 157.3) (3 . 159.3) = (3 x .3) (3 . + 2) + (5 . If the area of the frame inches. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 155.1) (s + 3). . (3 O + .24. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. find the value of F.3) (a: . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 265 152. The second contains 3 first.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 153. .4) (a . will produce F.2).29) 2 = 1. = 15.6 x) (3 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 5(ar x .r + 3) ..l)(z .5 x) = 45 x .3) (j. a: ar a. 161. (2 .5) = (3 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .
A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. +x 2. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. z 2 92. 186. if each increased 2 feet. 178. A boy is father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 189. 180. 4 a 2 yy 42. dimension 182. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. same result as the number diminished by 175. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184.36.56. 12 m. train. 181. + a. 187. . A each 177. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. z 2 + x . 176. 10x 2 192. and 5 h. 7/ 191.266 173. ll?/102. 179. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the number. power one of the two Find the power of each. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. father. . Find the dimensions of the floor. respectively. aW + llab2&. was three times that of the younger. 3 gives the 174. sister . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. younger than his Find the age of the father. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 188. How many are there in each window ? . . 13 a + 3. two boys is twice that of the younger. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 2 2 + a _ no. 190. side were one foot longer. A house has 3 rows of windows. x* 185. number divided by 3. + 11 ~ 6.
218. *2 234. 2 200.3 xy. 212. 233. 2 a 2 . + 3a 196. ifWy+b.12 * . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 229. . 12 x +4.14 2 . + 30 x.21 a:  54. a^a 226. x*y 223. 16x 4 81. 207. 267 199.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.1. 209.20 z 8 a: 220. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . xm+l 243. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 244. 8 a: ar. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2a te 3% ly 247. a. 2 2 y f 1.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2 x 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. 4 m +^.6 2 ?/ .6 aq .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 213.c) 2 . y 2 194. wiy + la mx + aw. 239. 3y 248. 7x 2 225. 201. a a: a: 237. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . + 2 . a.6. a: 231. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. x* + 8 2 + 15. . + 198.c) 2  (a .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 246.r?/f y 2 9.(b + rf) 2 . 210. 227. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 235. a+a* + o a +l. 2 . 216. 2 a 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 217. 230.8 6 2. .6s. 202. . 221. # 2  29 y + 120. 3 ap 2 . . 7a 228. . a.19 z 4 204. a 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . + 8. 5 x 2. 203.19 a . a: . a. 211. 215. 224. (a + . 6 197. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .x + 1. 4a 2& 2 241.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 232. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 3 x 2 .10 xy. 3y 2 + ary .28. x 219. . z + 5x 2 . a: 236.77 y + 150.10. x 5 . 222. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 3 x V . 245. 208. z 2 2. 23 12. 206. 24 2 + 2 .22 z + 48.6 y2 + 4. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10 y a x* . 195. 8 a. 238.64.
15. 251. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .8. 7 ax 250. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 8 2 + 10 x . * a . + 23 x f 20. a. 259. 28 2 f 71 x . 2 . 10 a. x*y* 4. a 3 a 2 2 .(55. 6. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. of: 253.a + 2 4.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . + 20 x 4. x 2 f 9j: + 20. F.ry . * 2 . of: 266.5 ab f 2. 10 x 2 .9. 254.13. 258.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.18 xy + 5. 30 ^ . 2 a.73 xy . 2 + 7 r f 2.4.48 afy 2 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 22x2 a. 3 #2 255.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 18 x 2 . + 8 x + 5.C. x 2 + 4 + 3.3.a 2 />c 2 f 3.1 9 .ry 21.11 x f 28. a: . z 2 268.3 x .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.10. 2 8 . 260. x 2 + 2 x . 1 x ar Find the L. 270. 5 x 2 256. * 2 . I Find the II.2/ 2 . 265.11 a 2 . 3 ay 4.36.2 aft*.6 by. 3 a% 2 . + 8. a? a: a: // 262. 7 12 2 2 . x* . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 261.2 z .15 + 30.23 x f 20.9 x .91.3 abc . 252. 269. ft a. + 3 x + 2. x 2 .7 f 5. 15 # 2 z/ /.&z. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x 2 + 5 f . a 4. * 2 .23 + 12.10 a 4.M. 2 x2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .120. x 2 263. x 2 4.9 x + 14. z 2 267.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.14 bx a%% 8 .80.12. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).16 x . 257.x . C. 264.r . .4 ab + 1. x* .G7 x f 33.
2c a: 282. a. + ac . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. *2 " 2 + Oge..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .!/. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2* + 3 x* 280.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 289 ' . 8 . 285 z4 n* + a.rL.ar 1 279. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.(y 2 z) * t (j.J' 4 2 2 w mp ..
6) _ ~ i 305. ^_2*(m 308. * 19 23 19(23 23. Lnl + ar 2 a. ^. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x 7. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a (: a) (x 2. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. O(ca) 306. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 4 3 301.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .
Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. (a? 4 2) 317.(a . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 1 _. 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2 + y 2 319. .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.. a: 1 313. . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } .ft) 2 322. (1 .
' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .6* t 328.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . * 3a.. 250 5 10 2 325.9 *// + 27 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.y20  2y + 4 2 . 20 44 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .15 33 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 lOx 5x. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . a: 2 x* .7 xy + 12 x .ll.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.5 a .V  + y  x 3y a .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. .2 +lOar 2 a.
a>74 . ** i. (af2/. 344.+ r . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. aj 339. if a = 3. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.1V. \x yj 340.y. 348.. ?_2 ^ . w \. f V. 352. xi 347.) 2 . (ar \ 346. 1 345. 7 ( ?f!?.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. a: 349 _ o. ( 342. : 1+ i. 5 343. + l + IV. (aWi + iJ. ' 2 "l 5 . +^ a: y x .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (a \ + lV. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. fl. 338. + ni + .r 5 2 . \5yl 341.
+ x x a . (~ 364.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. _ + l a 359. 1+2 362. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. I  I f 366. ar xy + yl x* 358.
. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
# k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !. + 1) 45 O 377. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5 {2 x 381.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 8  376. 5*8. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.*2 = 15. . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 379. . <3 378. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 4(* .
 8 9* x ~r. . u '2 a.5 ^ ~ a: a. 396. 400.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.8 = .75 x f .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 40.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).6  . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.1 . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.. 3* 177.2 a:  1. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. f 1 1 + a 403. 399. c .147. + 4 a. b 404. 401. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 x =r f . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.25 x + .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. _____ . m x 398. . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a..  J). ^ (a . a. 397.25. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).
Find the number. 420. 18 be subtracted from the number. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.278 410.  a) 2 6 2a. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. far did he walk all together ? A . How long is each road ? 423. 411. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.c) .(5 I2x ~r l a) . 421. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. (x . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 418 ~jo.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. the order of the digits will be inverted. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. Tn 6 hours .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. In a if and 422. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. and was out 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. hour.
of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. . Find the fourth proportional 426. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Find the length of the parts. .6 8 ). If a b : =5 n : 7. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 430. y. 428. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 431.49 63). and : b : c = 14 : 15. a. z 2 y. . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a  t>.iand 22 22 I a . if . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 2 2 8 2 . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : i.& 5 ) (a 8 .46 2): (15a 2 . 432. b. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 433. find the angles of the triangle. Find the mean proportional to 429. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : If is one equal 434.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).a 2^ 8 + aft* . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 3 and 1J. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Which ratio is greater. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. x 427.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 438. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. wi* + y= ny. d. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. find : a : c. a + 5. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 435. Solve 436. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.
(or l(*2y)=0. 444.59 = 3 z. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 456. The volumes If their diameters. 9ar7# = 71. 452. . . 454. 451.55 y = . 8 . 21 7 = 27 + Op. 3 a. 9/> = 2 . 3 . 457. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . .89 = q. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 445. /) ar a. ft. 28 = 5 a . 5x+4y=lQ. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 450.35. + 5y = 59. 5 2 = 7 . Find the value of a. if 2 ft : 439.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . a. 453. 56 + 10y = 7a. 455. 448. Solve the following systems: 441. 1(3  a.11 y = 95.4 12 .rf2# = l.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 5j + 7 7 = = 2.11 7. 446. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).7 y = 25. . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. = 25. a: a: + 5y). ?/ 447. 7jr9y = 17. 5z4:# = 3. 458. . 16. 42 = 15y + 137. 459. x + 17 # 53. 7a?y = 3. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. a: 2y= = 1 . 7 a: . ft. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. />(. 4 = 5 y + 29. 443. 8 x + y = 19. 7 442. 449. c.*.
x y 474. 8 461. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .c=563y. 473.7. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax cx by = m. 465.  = 2. ^ + i^ = 7..?/ + 1 . (or . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. ax by = c \ 472. 468. i = 5. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.2y) (2 = 2J. + eyn. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 475. _ 469.+ =2.
if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 487. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 485. Find the fraction. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and in 18 months to $2180. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A number consists of two digits 4. 483. A spends \ of his. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 486. years. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the sum and the rate of interest. fraction becomes equal to . also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 477. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. age. Find their ages. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the principal and the rate of interest. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and the other number least. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and in 20 months to $275. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. whose difference is 4. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find the numbers. How much money less 484. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. by 4. the Find their ages. . to . Find the number.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the numbers. 479.
x f y f z 29 . 4 497. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 3ar 503. 2y + 3a = ll. 3 x 500. 2 2 = 41. 3 a: + 5=84. . + # +z= 35. a: f z = 79. 7. 2/>3r = 4. z y x 25 . \ . 8. 1+1 = 6. 492. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. ~ 507. *i. The sum of two numbers squares is b. x s + y z = 18J .z = 12. 2y + 2z = a: 2. ifi = x a. 2 a. a number . 493. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 489. : Solve the following systems 491. 2a:f 7.? + 2y = 8. = 209. 494. = 20. = 15. 4 506. a. x y f z = 13. 5^ 9z = 10. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 5 + a. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.z = 20.5#+2z = $x a: G. y Solve : x +z= 5. a: 499. 4z+3z = 20. 2 e. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . z y ifi = z x 502. a. 1./ f z =a. * + 425  = . . . 498. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. + y 5 y = 101 . a: + // = 11. 495. of two the sum of the digits also if number.REVIEW EXERCISE 488./ 504. 7 + 2 z . 490. and the difference of their Find the numbers. . . 496.
36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. !f == 2800. z z =3a&c. 523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. ll" . 517.
532. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. they would have met in 2 hours. N. Find the numbers. BC = 5. it is filled in 35 minutes. and BE. M. and CA=7. AC in /). his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. in 28 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. When weighed in water. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. In circle A ABC. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. 527. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. How long will B and C take to do . the first and second digits will change places. . CD. if the number be increased by Find the number. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. it separately ? 531. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. L. E 533. Find the present ages of his father and mother. touches and F respectively. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. if and L. 530. Tf and run together. What are their rates of travel? .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 90. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . If they had walked toward each other. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. AB=6.
547. . + 3. a. then / = 3 and write = 3. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 550. 3 x 539.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2. 546. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 536. 540.10 marks. One dollar equals 4. If to feet is the length of a seconds. to do the work? pendulum. The values of x if y = 2. The values of y. 543. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. c. if x = f 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. GERMANY. the function. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x 8 549. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2 x + 5. . e. 545. The greatest value of the function. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 542. 2  x  x2 . formation of dollars into marks.  3 x. x 2 + x. z 2  x x  5. 548. FRANCE. from x = 2 to x = 4. x 2 544. b.e. i. d. 2 541.  7. x*  2 x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x*.  3 x. x *x + x + 1.
= 0.0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. f. 558. 572.r 1 561. a? 4 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. a: 559.1 = 0.7 = .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. .9 = 0. ' = 8. 2 554. 556. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Solve 552.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 3 x* . 553. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 3 x . // Solve y Solve y = 5.3 x . 563. 2 a. 15. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. e. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. = 5. . + 10 x . 565. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 568.4 x 2 + 4 . x 5 .4 = 0. z 4 . . a. r?. c. h. 557. 18 x  4 = 0.13 = 0. 2 567. 2 x 2 560. 562. J.5 x . a.3 = 0. c.= 0.15 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2. 3 . x 4 .11 = 0.4 . 555.17 = 0.3 . \ to t = 5.r . g. Solve// = 0. 3 + 3 z . x* .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. if y =m has three real roots. 564. Represent meters. 566.G . 2 8 . a. + 5 . If y +5 10. and make the unit of the b.6 + 3 .  2 1 a: a. j.r a: a: x a.3 x . z 2 . i.
6 + 1) . 588. 3 . 4 .frf : 583. 600. 4 (1a:) 3. 4 a. 595.%) 4 (aa. a 612. . 604. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 585 594.4.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 592. 593.x + 2 )'2 601.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . j^f = 3. 1 . + ^) + (air%)8. 9  4 fSb 607. 3 (f.2 2 + y.5 xy = 0. a:. <r)3  2 3 a:) .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. x [ ?/ 577. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (a. 579.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2  2 aa: 2 . 2 611.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + . (1 + x a. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 597. (a  8 ft) . 64 a 12 603. 608. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 943 ++ ~bx. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 589. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (# 2) . (1 (1 (1 . xY. . 598. 609. a.(1 .2 6a: + 30 &c a.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. + + 4 . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. f ?>) 3 591. 596. jj+. a 2a. [ y =10. x + z2) 8 . 5 a*. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 582. a 8 606. (aiy.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. a: . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 599. : y* or 25. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.
632. + 24 a 2 4 . 633. 651. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. = 87. 21. Find the square root of 619.\/4090. 629. *+* = 156. 624. 644. 645.30. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. According to Kepler's law. V 635.*.53 x ~ .2. 2 + 189 z = 900. 8*' + 24* = 32. + 54 'x*y* . 035.V250 . If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 2. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.871844. 2 + 21Ga. + 112 a 8 . GGff. 637.1024 x + a: 256. 7) 2. 638. 494210400001. x 2 . 9a. 622. 3a. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 371240. 0090. x 2 641. find Jupiter's period. 643. 942841. 636. 628. 32 631. 626. 620. V950484 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 40. (x 9 x 646. 4370404. 639. Find the eighth root 617. + 2 21 x = 100.191209. 25023844. 49. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.150. ft . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . /. 615. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 4J. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 630. 650.12 a?y + y*. = 0. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 614. : 5. 623. 9g. a 642.15174441. 210. 634. VOIOOD + V582T09.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 647t x 2 648 649. = .49. 44352. = 70.2410. 49042009. 625 : 621.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
a. 706. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 2 697. 693. 694. ex abc= fx 0. 707. . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.bx . 708. 2 702. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.ax .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.c = 0. 2 2 . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. ax 2 698. 699. 1 __ : )'*' _i. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 696.a a )jr . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 692. = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. . 695.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .
___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 716. 724. 723. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. **13a: 2 710. 16 x* . a: 713. sum is a and whose product equals J. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 12 4*+  8. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 722. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. in value. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 721. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 3or i 16 . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. and working together they can build it in 18 days.44#2 + 121 = 0.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.292 709. 729. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Find the price of an apple. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. A equals CO feet. 217 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. 727. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 725. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 717. .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find two numbers whose 719. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.
aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 1 6.1 + c. 35. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .)(ai + &. n. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 33. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).1 + x.X .2? 50. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 41. . 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f ^ 2). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 52. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 ). 34. (v/x). . 38.l). 39. 37. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 43. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 46. 32. 40.2)(x2 4. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 42. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.aft* 1 + a 2*.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f c" ). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 31. 36.
~ r* x . 761. JU. \/G86 v/lGv/128. [1r^ T 1 i . 757. 2V2 2V3 .1+J 756. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 768.294 753. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.. 754. 759._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 758. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.
103 788. 3J . + 2V21. 789. 806. .VlO. 13 799. c 792. 790. 783. 794. 787. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.2V3* ^ 807. a 9442V5.2 V30.12VIT. . 7512V21. . 10 785. 3812VIO. 16 + 2V55. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . f x Va z Va f x + Va a.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. Va 809. 92VI5. 793. 14 791. x 782. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.4 V(j. 786.
= 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. Va: .79.4 = 0. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 816. 814. x/aT+l .Vc^lJ .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . + ViTli + V7 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. + 103Var. 833. 831. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.\/2y  810. 830. \/12 a. + Vx . V14 a.  5 + V3 f 12 817.V2 ar 10. 819. 815. 3 x + 2 . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812. /9ar a: = 17.g. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 820. 811.V? = 813. VaT+lJ f ^l .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.13 = 0. 836. V3 f 1 V4a. 818. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 829.
6 2 f 3 6 s.1. + 512 y8 874.1000 6.3 x . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a.3 Va: 2 . + 1. 844. f 841.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .x*y + 3x f 2. a. .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 27 862. 840.  3x a. V4 x 2 . . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 275 8 l. 5 a 4 7 a8 .10 = 118. a 8 869. 4 a. . y 4. +3 4 +  4. 8^27^. a 872. 8 8 848. 861. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 9. 4o. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a: . 2 x 3. 852. f 12. + . 4 a: 2 842. 864. 2 a: 64 y*. a 8 873. 8 8  13 a.3 . 845. 839. 64 a 866. 851. 846. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8 4a: 8 a. 6. 856.ab9 ft*. 871. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 868. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 865. a: 849.a. 4 x* 847. a l0m . z*y 8 l64a. 64. 27 y 8. 855. 8 860. 2 f" + a/ 15. a*" & 6n . 4 x 8 858.3 a:. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 870. x 11 a^ J 13 854.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 a. 8 2a. a. 876. x 8 2 857. f b**. + 216 rt aty a 10 .28 a 4 xy 8 80.12. a 8 850.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 863. a. x 4 + f 2 a. a. 19 x 14. a 18 4. 16 859. 853. . 8 . 729 867. a. . 875.
. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13.35. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 899. a. a# f + xy = 126. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 883. 5. y = 28.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 + xy = 28. a: 2 897. x 882. 886.18. 878. 2 .y 2 = 2 y + 2.15. 890. 889. a. . a: 884. 2 + xy = 10. 896. a: a.y 2 + V(j. +y f y = 7. f ?/ a: a: .298 877. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + y 2 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 888. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 2 = 16 y. 885.sy = 198. M1 891 1 . y 2 4. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. + 2y=\2. . 900.xy + y 2 = 19. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. y 2 2 8f. 894. 901. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x 8 3 = 13:3. . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . a:y . 2 = 2 + 5. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. + ary + 2 = 37. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 887. a: + y 2 = 34.y 2) = 20. 895. x*xy. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 1 x 893. z 2 898. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. xy + y = 32. y*+ xy . 3 x 2 . 2 + 2 f = 17. a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.1 = 2 a#. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. x a: lI = xz .
910. x 4 299 xy z 904. 3 :r(3 . 917. 2 2 2 916. + a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. + y 8 = 189. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.y). y x 2 = by. + y)(a. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 906. a:y xy 929.3)2 = 34. 3 y 8 ) =1216. (o. *y . ary y = 8.2 y) = 49 2 919.y) (3 y . (* 918. yz = 24. 914.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 920.y) (a? . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 911. . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). # + xy + y = 7. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. + ary = a*.x) = 21. xa 903. 2 913. ^ 2 . x + y 2 = aar. a: a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 2 5 xy = 11.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 * 2 ~ g.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 909. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.3) 2 f (y . (3 x .y2 = 22. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 907. 2 915.16 y 3 8 = . 905. a: y zx 12. 7 y . y 3 2 2 922. + y = 9. y + a:y = 180. * + y = 444. (a. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y) = 33. Vary + y = 6. + 2 a:y + = 243. . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.6.r a. + 2 ary = 39. or or a? a: a: . x f 2 a:y = 32. 4 (a. x 2 ry + y = 3. y .3(* + y) = 6. (!) * .y = a(ar + y). a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. . 908.#y + 2 = 27. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 924. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 23 x 2 . 912. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. a: * a: a: ar 928. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.23 = 200. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 921. xy + x= 15. a. 923. = 8. + ?/) . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.
931. z(* + y + 2) = 76. s(y 932. 152. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 942. y(x + y + 2) = 133. and the sum of their areas 78$. *(* + #) =24. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. rate each man ran in the first heat. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 2240.square inches. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. 944. Tf there had been 20 less rows. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. In the second heat A . Find the sides of the rectangle. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. two numbers Find the numbers. and the difference of 936. is 20. 943. A plantation in rows consists of 10. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. How many rows are there? 941. 34 939. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and also contains 300 square feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 935. and 10 feet broader. (y + *) = . Assuming = y. 937. two squares is 23 feet. feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. diagonal 940. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. + z)=18. is 3. + z) =108. y( 934. feet. find the radii of the two circles.000 trees. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. A and B run a race round a twomile course. a second rec8 feet shorter. . The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Find the numbers. is 3 . A is 938. two squares equals 140 feet.300 930.102. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.
the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. the digits are reversed. and that B. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. sum Find an edge of 954. Find in what time both will do it. Find the number. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. What is its area? field is 182 yards. whose 946. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. unaltered. set out from two places. triangle is 6. and its perim 948. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. . 951. . distance between P and Q. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. P and Q. that B A 955. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. each block. 949. Find the number. at Find the his rate of traveling. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. A and B. its area will be increased 100 square feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and travels in the same direction as A. Two starts travelers. 953. overtook miles.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. and if 594 be added to the number. . The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. 952. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find the eter 947. Find its length and breadth. 950. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet.
970. to 7 terms. Find n f (ft) . P.. 3 + 5 7 + . '..302 956. . to infinity. Find the sum of 4.. x(x to 8 terms...>/) to infinity. are 29 and 53. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras..  2..141414. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.v 973. 5. 974.. *" 968.. J..1 4 f j$V . the terms being in A.. 958. 3 . (x 4 to n terms. P.. 972. 1 to n terms.321? 965. + (iiven a +  4 d .. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). !Ll^ + n . Sum Sum to infinity. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. and 976. . . . Evaluate (a) . 957. 4. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. ^ 1 .. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 1G series .. \ . s  88. P. f + 1 . 964. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. = 4. Sura to 24 terms. 18th terms of an A. (to 2 n terms). to n terms. 9th and llth terms of an A.454.3151515. Sum to 20 terms. 961.. fourth of the unity. 36 963.V2 . 966. 975.4142 . Find an A.to infinity. difference. 969. ^ Vfirst five 959. Find n. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. P. Find the Find the common 977. 16 962. 4 4 to 7 terms . 971. n to n terms. 5. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 12434+ j I 967.
303 979.01 3. 4 grains on the 3d. 2 grains on the 2d. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to oo.. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. Find four numbers in A. . of n terms of an A. 989.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 980. P. named Sheran.. 0.001 + .04 + . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 ..2 . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find the first term. The sum 982. 987. Find n. and the common difference. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 990. is 225. P. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . : + 9   V2 + . to n terms. 985.. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. The term. Find the sum of the series 988.. "(. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . P. and so on. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 986. to 105? 981.+ lY L V.) the last term the series a perfect number. first 984. 5 11. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . and of the second and third 03. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid..001 4. 992. Find four perfect numbers. The 21st term of an A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.. to infinity may be 8? .1 + 2. 1. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible..
P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. inches. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. and so forth to infinity. c. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. ABC A A n same sides. 512 996. is 4. ft. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. prove that they cannot be in A. (6) the sum of the infinity.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. If a. find the series. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. many days will the latter overtake the former? . The fifth term of a G. 997. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. Two travelers start on the same road. 1003. 995. P. 1001. in this square a circle. areas of all triangles. 994. are unequal. of squares of four numbers in G. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. and G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . AB = 1004. 998. in this circle a square. Under the conditions of the preceding example. are 28 and find the numbers. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. . P. The sum and sum . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 1000. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The sum and product of three numbers in G. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. (a) after 5 strokes. 999. at the same time.
+ lQ . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1008. 1012. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . . (1 1018. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Expand  2 a. 2 ) 5. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.o/) 14 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . a: 8 7. 1009. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1014. (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of ( . x) 18 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1011. Find the two middle terms of 1013. 1006.iV 2i/ 5 .l) w f . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.ft) 19 . ) 1021. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the middle term of 1020. .
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.. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 37. ... 8 . 246 91 " multiple.] Abscissa Absolute term . .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . ... . . Aggregation. . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . .. . . signs of Algebraic expression .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . graphic tion of representa . 232 169 807 . .... .. . linear literal Common ** * difference .. . 232 mean progression .. . . 112 54 54 251 . . 129 54.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .193 11 . numerical .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . quadratic .. 54. 9.130 . . 19.. 9 ** .. ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . Brace Bracket Character of roots . t 53 120 .. lowest ratio " '* . . .178 Completing the square ..... . . simple simultaneous .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ...108 160 " .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 129. .... 158. .. . ....... 97. 123 . Checks Coefficient 20..
Negative exponents 11 . . 212 .31.. . . inversely 122 numbers . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions..154 Order of operations " of surds . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 143. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. Inconsistent equations . . 84. 63. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 227 geometric . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . Mathematical induction . Like terms Linear equation . arithmetic . 189. .. numbers . . . directly. 184 54. .. . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . Known numbers . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. 120 Member.. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. first and second . exponent .. 23 10 91 102. . P . . . G. 180.. 45 Laws of signs . .108 Minuend . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. 243 7 . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. . . 45. . 205 . 227 . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .808 Exponent Exponents. 17 65. . .C Multiplication . Imaginary numbers . 109 102 .. 241 123 geometric .. Product '* 76 Infinite. 34. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . Geometric progression .251 Graphic solution of simultane. .. 45. 253 28 70 1. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. . Insertion of parentheses . 195 33. addition of " square of . 9. 91 . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .. INDEX 8 . law of Extraneous roots . L. . . 112 . 114..
. . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . polynomial ... .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 9...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... Sum.. 45 Trinomial 240 ... .. .. ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... algebraic Surds . 27 17 Unknown numbers ... 4 155 9 " of . . 129.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. absolute 54 Variable .. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1910.A. . December. U. 1916. Gushing Co.. 1910.COPYRIGHT. 1917. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Published September. Reprinted April. 1913. 8. Norwood. Mass. Set up and electrotypcd. August. NorfoooS J.
7. 14. 29. 11.3. 16. C $1(50. Page?. 14. 10. 16f 2. 10. 14. 13. 4. 17. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 1.000. c. 14. 16 in. 6. 14. 7. A 15. 3. 7. 4. 9 m. 11. 19. 23. 3. 9. 3. 6. 7. 16 in. sign.00000001. 18. 7. 10.. 32. C $ 16. 27. 2. 192. 16. 18. 2. 24. 3. $100. 2. 48 ft. 10. 18. 1. 11. 64. 20.000. 150. 5.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 18. Ot 15. 3. 2. 8.000. 5. 28. 15. 16. $160. 3. 210. 2. 21. sign. 2. 7. 576. 17. 3 m. 12. 6. 14. 9 16  larger than 7. Page 4. B $ 128. 9 = 4. x. 16. B $80. 26z. loss. 144. V 23. $ 1 50 10. 14. South America 46. 6. 29. 10. 17. in 12. 1. 36. 9. 16. 3. 49. 6. T . + 1. x. 6. 3. 6. 13. 14.$9400. 8. 6. 2. 9. 5. 3* 7. Multiplication. 30?. 9. 1. 72 = = 216. .C. . 4. A $90. 89. 16. 26. 3. 25. Page 8. Not 5.2. 12. 1. 1. 3. 27.. Page 13.  1. . 3. 19. 6. 6. 20. 6* 16. 4. 6. 13 S. ^. 32.. 7. 18. 9. 37. westerly motion. 2 5. 0. . 2  Page 8.000 negroes. 106.000. 49. 2.. 59. 12.000 Indians. B 10 mi. 9 14. 7.. 21. 7m. 14 11.000. 10g. is $10. 2. 13. 20 jo. 5. 32. 2. 15. 15. Yes. 28. 15. }. 8.150. 12. 0. 1. Australia ft.  2 p. 512. 18.21 24. 2 ~ 15. b. 4. 24. 3. 22. 5.8. 9. 22. 12.000. 8 13. 19 4. ft. 9. = 5 81. 20. 8 ft.1. 6. A 38 mi. 17. 4.000. 2. A Bl 7. in. 1. 3. 8. 24. 32. 8.  13. 1. 256. 3. 19. 9. 128. 30. in. 85. 11.  22 20. 13 d. 126. 3 below 0. 16. 5. 11. 1. 12. C $60. _ 32. 1.000. 2. 25. 12... 16. 5000. arithmetic. 13. 6 yd. 5. 9. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 20 \. 20. $40. 12. 25. 10. 13.  1. 1 16. B $20. 115. 7. 20 B. 16. 8. 10. 13 V. 10. 1. 1. 2. 3. B $4700. 21. 25. 2. 8. 4. 1. 17. . 1. 27. 12. 73. 5. 12. 3. (a) (/>) 1.. A . 3. Page 1. 15. 37 S. per sec. i ..12.
16. 17. 5. 42. 21^. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 1. vi 14. 3. 18. 5. 3. 0. 17.r~ f 34. 34. 17. 104. 29. 27.5 (ft) sq. 4. 14. 33. m + 3(a. 23.  11. 2x' 2 5 . 19. 0* Page 3 w" 0. (r) 2G7.32 c2 > ft 3 . 9.. 2. 9. 26. 5. 6. 0.. 21 a 3 4 10. 5. 20(. 35. 18. 31. 7. 26. 16. 20. 22. 43w//2 17. Monomial. 8. 22. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 5. in. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 12. 15. 13. 12 a. t. _ 4 . 17. (r) 78. 33. 3 a* + 2 at*. 15. mi. (b) 135 mi. 28. Page 7. (<7) (a) 314 sq. :J!>r'. 18. 4. 1. 21.x. ??i??. 35. 1. 12. 22. 1.<>Gq. 0.. (r) 2000 m. 41. 8. = ()501. 314 sq. . 0. 8. \'\ 4. 30. ^). .3 * 10 r5 <3 . r:A 29.q 4. //'.ii ANSWERS Page 11. y. 19. 57. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. x^ 20. 22.. 2oVmf?i. 4. 13. 8. ft n. I. 00 24 04 ft. 11. 1. 11. 18. 36. 14. ft' 3 . Page 23. 13. (ft) 7. 38 ab. 1. 12. 6. 3 . 18. 24. 14:). 3.ab. 27. 8.  12. 13. 25..  0. 27. 16. 12. Binomial.ft) 4. (a) 50. in. 25.'J. 2. (ft) 12.. = 81.ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). jrif 4 9. WIN + wiw. (a) r>23ifcu. 51 f. 4 9/^/rl 2. 1. . 13 cu. 24. (ft) Page 2. 11. 15. m 24. #1111. 3.900. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 10. + ft). in. . 0.. 8. Polynomial. (ft) mi. f  5e 35. . 6<t.GOG. It. 19. 9. 16. 50. 29.rty8. 6. in. 0. 9.4  2ft 2 33. 2. 0. ]*. 15. r+l. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. arty 1 20. 3. <i~ 26. r/ \(\xyz. (r) 2. ft. . 20. 7. o^ft.r f 15. ft. 1. 22( 19. 5. 7. 1. 30. 21. 14. 15. 9.5f> sq. (a 4 4. 8.~4. .  40.94(>. 31.  xV 3 y. + 5. 32. 4. ft.000 . 17. 38. 12.'JO ft. 31. Page 21. 14. 0. (59. 2. 3. 12yd. 4 y/ . 240.000 sq. 7. 2ftx. 23.. (c) S(i. Pagel4r. 13.4 ft. w. 11. II. $3000 Page 6. . 5x+3..  2 4 13 ft 2 . 28. 14. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 36. sq. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 14. . i:5. 15a. 2. 49. 35. 3. ft..r 2 . 27. 37.a . 5. (a) 200. 237. 20. ft. rt. 3a. Trino inial.14 sq. 28. Page 18.  3. ft f 19. 27. (c) 8. c.. 25.. 2.  1. 4. 10. 16. 32. 4. 7 7. 3rf 27.6) 38. 3(c4a). 7. a 32. 27. 5. :.9?/2 8. +/2(/. yyz+xyz*. 14. 92. a2 4 15^44. 173. 34. 12. ^. 10. 3. 04. 30. 13. 3. 0. Polynomial. 15. (ft) $40. Page 31. 8. 21. $80.1. + v> 2 . 32 2 ftc. 58. 39.. (a) <> sq. a ft c.
/> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 4.  17. &. w 17. 50. 13. 58. ri\ 18. 8. . 36.2 a. 7  a + 2 + c. 2. 19. Page 28. '  . 2 . a + a.8(c + a). 2. 16. 42. 20. 7. 1. a 3& . 9. 7. 2// 16. 12. 12. 814. 2. 17.(2 x2 .'U4j>.2 57. 4. 4ft ~. 7 a5 1 . a f 2 f 2 9. 2m + 2w.ws 2 ft) .  14 afy . 31. 15.2 ft 2 r2 10. a.5 z?/ + 3 y . 38. a + (ftc4df).4 d. 33. 4.  23. 24 b 46. ft Exercise 17. 2.6 x + 0) 16. c. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.5. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 24. 2 . 36.h. 18.c. 7. ti.4x. \ :{ 2 a 48. a2 9.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 10. x3 . 10. 5. 55. + 6.  a: 2.  b* 4 r 1 . . 43. 4.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . :5 41. 59. 1. a4 4 4. 2m. 16. 14. 56. 15. . ii\ 22.  4 b 17 y*.3x 2 2 tf. 1. t). 32 w 2 w. _ Page 30. 2. 25. 20. 21. 24.1.a .  b. a 6 2 . .abc. 8 8 . a  49. 13.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.x f 1 2 .2. 14. 7  # + 12. Page 8. 18. a  ISjfat. 26. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . G a bd. 12. 5. 17. 2a. 25 47. 2. f ft 9. 31. 21. x  + 3z. 5.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2. 22. . + 8. 6. (yz~d}. s_r>a5. 6.7.5 4 2 3 ?/ . ?/i 13.a~. 10 x. 14.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 34 39.a*.r 2. . ^ <. 4. ?>4tl 53. . 3. 2 6. ?/. 4. . m*  n*. 29. 2 a 37. _5a<>&43c. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 3 a3 & 41. 19.aft. . 0. 2 3x f z. 2 17. c. 32. c2 . 11. . 8 b. .r. . 25. 40..(7x2 Ox2).2 .. 8. 3. 3. 4 21.l. 26. 6. 5x 2 rt ft. (5x47 3. ( 7. . Exercise 16. 28.a'2 . . 2 3. 26.11. !  </ . a a. 3 Ji 8 . 10 m. 5 2 Page 29. G. . a 3 . 1. j)(g1. Page 44. 6. x a8 1. a2 24. f 2 ?/  2. 4wipg>' 27. 37. (w4w)(ww). a 4 + ft. 2. 2. mn. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2x 4 a 13. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2 y' 4 . 2 2 2 6.  1. a' 4ab + ?/. lOrt 15w4. 1 4. a 3a 4 2 &. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. + 2y. 2 4.a f 54. a 52. a). 2 2. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 35. 8. 2 a f 6 414. 11. (mn} 11. w* ( . Page 7. 2. ab a. 1. 51. 8 . 15. 1.  12. 21. 4r 2 . 5. M + 10. + 4 c. 24. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 1 + 45. 0. 2 + a4l). 0.2 a2 2m 2 4. 22. ?> 22. 30. ar. n*.Oa: + 10. a 10w.3 6.4. 8 + 2 a . 3 a . 34. 11. 364c.4c 3 8 8 J.1 . . 14. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 20. r. 12. 18. (2n' 43p 47 ). 7. 10. 2a: 2 4x. 19. 3 m. 25.
7. 28. 2.18 w w + 10 WI M . 1904. f 26. a. . 60. 17. 27. 27. . 3. etc. 3 a 2 46. 25. 24. 18a% y. 19. 18. 17.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 35. 4aWy. 9. 19. 2 w +2 2 .:>/ . 102. 120. 4 jcy*z*>.44 aWc 16 abxy. 6 . 14. 16 lb. ! 2. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.25 + 14.12. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 27. 2 7t A. 22.12. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 216. 21. 9 w 2 + 13 n .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 7G . 27. s 9 ww. ci 5 . 30. 2. 18.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 770. 18. 3. iSx8 .7(50.14 w 2 2 . 8. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 4 a8 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 14 m 2 . 17. 37. 1. 360.16 x2/ 5 4. 36.6 2 .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 2. . 2*8f x2 6x4. Page 36. 15 lb. 16. 64. 2 2 2 .28 p'^/. 83 In + 1 n*. 16. 33. 13. 10. 2''.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 343. +15. 15. 29. 12 x2 2 . 10. 15.6) =a2 31. 4. m. 3(*+0 + 2). 6. 0. 8. 4. 2 . 4. 20. 21.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. x2 xy42^. 29. 25. 2 ). 9. 8 . Page 7. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 33. 9. 18. 18. 32. 66 8W 34. 12 ^. 9 13.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 15.1. 90. 16 51. 2 8 xy f 4 a. . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 66 39 k* . 3. 34. 13. 25. 161b. 23. 34.21. 20. 2 ). . 30. 19.14 . 4200. 76 8 a' 1 . fa 2. 27. 38wiw.8 12. 30 j9 jt?g j .000.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 13. 14. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 8. 23. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. +.19p" + 19^ 10 . 52 + 6s 12.. 15 q\ 6. 5. 7. a*b*c. 12.(3x2_4^+7). 7. 1. n (a6) 125. 20. 34. 40 r 2 . 11. 24. 29. 15. 31. a + ft. 28. 25. 33. 60. . ISartyW e*f*tj. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 21 a'&c.. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20 aW. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 1. 2 * 80 . 4. 3. 1. 7. 108. 24. 23. a. 20. 3 a 3 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 22. 28.>(/ r . 4. 18. 25 4 4. 15. 11. .14 xyz + 14 a:y0.. a: . 1. 6. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 5aft(a 126 2). 30 n?b*c*. a 8 . Page 5.. 3300. 28. 4 a2 . 16. 20. 127"'. 31. 16.r% 2 2 ry. 8. 18> ^* = a . . 0. . 30. 11. ft 17. 26. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 1.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 42.64 190 p6. + 7. .21 a 3 c2 21. 19.19 + 2.36 35. 161b. . 26. . 13. Page 38. 84. 10. 10. ?> 4 . 30. //. 22. 24.20 xyz . ?/ . 216.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 20. 8.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 30. 29. ^^ = 20. 1.2. 32. + 58 . 42. 2 a2 (y 2 .57 p6 3 2 4 25. 14f 5. 21. 5. 12. 04. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 4 fc. ll 2 i.32 y s s G . 1400. 14. 13.32. 4 7> 4 :j !} . + O4 66 .15. . (+3)x6=+16. Page 3. 6". 30. 14. 16. 108.11 xyz .26. 22. Ox a 5 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 17. 2. 210. 12. 4. a. 11. 24. Page 35. 6. . 23. 6.
24. 5. 30 x + 19 x3 . Om2 4 6m 6. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 4 + 25 q*. 2 62 V2 132. 4.606. (p 2.098. 4 21. .009. . 1. 36 a 4 . 39. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). p 2 . 36.^ + a? + 1. a 2 .810. 55. 7. 1). 10. (a (3 54. 2 12. 2 m3 + 4m2 . x* . 2 a' y' . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 29.2. 9990. 38. 40. 7 . 30 /><. . 36.6 y4 10. . 31. 2 4 a + 4. 35. r. 2. 10 a 4 ?. 4.20. 14. 4 . 26.201. 40. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.4 a&+ 4 &*.2 6 + 13. 26. 2 +10s281. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. ) 4' 6/ 49. ?/H)0.25.6 x2 13. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. (w+4)(m4). 10 a' 2 . y. 1. 10. 27. 19. 10. 25 a 2 6 2 . + 4 a +4. 2 . 34. 3. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2 fr . 14.. m 3 j) 3 .001.2 x + 2 x. 9 4 /> . w'n 2 //^ + 25. 16.r* 2 30.x2y22. n2 a4 6. 45. 990. 8. G a6 2. m 2 . 42. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 5. 44. 57. a + 25.35 ab 9.^. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 20a 2 21a + 4. 3. 37.020. (m + 6)(m3). 2 4 2 2 64 . 10. + 10 + 121 y*.10 x + 25.49. 32.4 12. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. Page 39.r . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.000. 24. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 17. 2 (5 a 3). + 12.ANSWERS 28. 11. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). ./ . 27. 2. +4 34. fo*. lflrt 2 8 + l.2 y*. 2). 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. x2 GiC+5. 8. a4 4 ?/ .^V"' . 31. 4x21. . 1.6. + 7 6)(3a~76>.6 xy .. 33. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 52. 56.4 n. 484. 33. 29.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 28. 4. 166. s rc 47. 9. 25 25. . V + o ft . 6. a + 25. 31. +   5). 6 2 + 6lf>0. ab .3. 1. 9999. 15. 10. ^V^4 . ^' J  7 f 12.14 jp + 49. ~ 6 20 . .020. ' 46. ab. a + 56. 7> . 24 ab + 9 & 2 .16 a3 f 50. + 4 t*. (w4)(w + l). 21 2 .p132. 23. . 10. 10. 998. (n 2 5.000.996. 36.10 35. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. ft' 11. .54 p 2 + 81. 3wi2 m Page 42. 12 x2 .994. 10. 40. 2 1: 21. a2 ' + 48Z100. x*2^f I. 37. +  m' 1.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. (a + 4) (a + 2). 7.004. 10.009.500. 8. 4 .5 ~ 81. 8 38. 441.m 30 6 4 1. x 48.00 + 37.r . 4 x2 13.1. 32. 8 a W .8. 999. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). p4 + .ri 17.ab . 10. I/). 1. + 3)(3). 10. + 2 9. 15. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 9801. 53. 2 .712. a3 0.404. x4 28. 34. 41. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .15. 9. 2 0)(p + 5).008. . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . 30. 19. 2 a 2 + a . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 6. . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 25. 7. n + 2. 11. . 14. 2 j3 Z . 18. a' .84 a' 9. 41. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 39. 1. 33. . 2 6' . Page 12. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. . 4 2 //. 51. 35. ^/> 8 4 .
2 1 //.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.3 x 2 2 4. 22. /r .24 . 2 a 3 ft. 4x43?/. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 6x 3.3 ry. 10.10 xy*. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. i 9. 14 r 2 .23. 5. .VI ANSWERS 43. 3. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .2.3 5. 20. 4. 3 a. ft.2 aft 4. 1. 13.> 10.2 .8. 24. . aftc 52. +w .r ?/ ??i ?).2 2 2 8 . 14. a 2 .10 2 + z 2 410. 4. ?/2. . x 4. ti'jry1 7. 4.rw.1. 13. 7a3ft. 11. 18.r?/. . + x?/ 2 1.2 2 .r'^ 15. 13.w. 23. 4.3 a 41.r?/ j/.lit x + 4. 4xy + 13 <) . + 4. 135.9 4.25 c . 1.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 47.n. 6. 2.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4 pq. 12.9 d. 46. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . as _ 10 16.  . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4 c m . r ft.  12 y 25. c 12. 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 125.x^. 5 4 a Oft.  3 c. aft 12. 14.6 :rs 4. 19. Page 13. 4 x. 3. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 49. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 13. 11. . sr 11. 8. 16.1.1*5 2 r 2 . '. 4 ac. . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 9. 2 4. r/2 4. 17.+ 77 15. 5^418(7. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 ^r ???' 2 . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .r" 20 S? . 2. 14.2 ftc . 2 ?/' . 3 aft 20. Page 7.2 <</.5 a . 6. 2. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.1. 7 r . 1. 12.  5 z* . Exercise 2 a:// 26.21 2 2 f + .1.15 21. 1/*. 12.27 x 2 4.34. 1000 1000 .2 . 13. 8. 2 ? 14 . 2. ./ 4. + 3. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. . 5. a. 21. 75 a 2 29. ft 17.4. l 4 . x 2 + 2r f J. 18.rw f 8 . 5. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.  10. 16. 2 . 26. 5 a  (5 ft. r//. 20 15. 10 ft. yfl. 19. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. w 2 . 21. f>r* 4. Page 51. 1. 2. 12. 8 x .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 3. 13. w . 17. ft ? ft' ft ft. 2 2 + 2 a. 4ft. x4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .1. 4 a 2 4. 9.2 ar. Page 11.30 ftc. 4 d 2 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.8. 8. 6.2 wZ 4. . Page 48. r 7. 5. 9. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. .  11. 6. // 19. m L 4.8 y. z. 4. . abc 7. j) . 5. 2. a 4 4 ft. 11 4. .5 n*. 5. 01. 44.8 yn .1. 1. 3. 14. 4 a* 4 9 11.5 mp. *3 y 4 . 2 4 2 x 4.15. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 2 ?/ 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 3. a 10.3 3.2 ac . ??. .r . 1. 4. ft* ft / .29. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 12. 8 ?/ . 8. 10. 6.2 . 2 1. 16. 9. 2 4 3 9. . aft. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.000.3^V. :r !>. a 8 4. 5. 15.7. 4. Page 22. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.12 aft 4 20 ac . 50. 9. Osy. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 7. 5. _ 2 a .25.y3. i 2 tji. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 2 .r' ~ 16. G. 5. 15. 1. m'2 3. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.1. . 8. 17. 3. Exercise 27. 10. 2 12. 8 ?/ . 14. . y 7. 8. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. c3.
4^ = 100.(3x+ = rraxlO. 1. 2. ^ 12 sq. 33. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 9. ( a f 4.  6 10. x 48. 32.. 43.. 50= L 100 15. l. / + y + a// 12 yr. 100= ^. 25. 7. 44. 16. 47.x700. 3x  1700) = 12. y 50. ft. + 3x + 2y + 32. 7. + f + b 2.10) 100. 34. 16. 17. 7. 'nj 100 a 28. 15. lO. 7. v (6) 2x. 30. 14. 5. Page 13. 29. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 38. 23. 10. 13. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 100 14. 8 n  10 yr. 30. y ?>i x + 26. ct. m+ 11. # + 20yr. 7.r1. .  9 = 17 a. 17. d. 3. f 6)(o 62. ft. (</) 2a. d + !. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 5. 8. 4(a ft) c = 8. vil 56. '^ . 3. 5. 13. 4 f 39. 7x 2 Page 21. 6. 36. 00. 19. 10 yr. 4.. 12. 14. 29. rn mi. 2b 22. 19. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 23. !). 37.6 = *. = 5 ?i x 460. 5.200) f(^ + (e) 200.p+7. 11. 18. 15. 6.  1$. 6. 100 2. 46. 4. 2=10. 10 x sq. 20. 31. 10 >_&. 20. iL*. 1. 10. 2. 6. 25. 26. 60 25 1. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. Jj12.rr2.(3x  700) = 5. 13. 5. + 10 b + c ct. (c) 2x. 42. . " lir. x y $ 6 yr. xy ft.. f (I. 3x2. Page 40. . 22. 7.ANSWERS Page 9. 5. ft. 40. 10 a. 16. Page 31. 1. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 21 2. 10. 2. 57. 0. sq. (> 27. a 10. 2. ] 2 ri 42. ? 43. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. x. r>?imi. ct. 9. 41. <>.  />) a = all. Page 6. 7. I. x + 1=a. 38. (a) ' 12. . 44. 41. 2 ct. . 11.000. 3 9. 0. ct. 1. . 4. 58. (>. 22. b. a 8. 1&. 11. 4. y 100 a 24. 17. 36. x = m. n M. 3. I. 12. 10. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 24. </ 20. b. 800 = x + 1300. 4. 33. y yr. 100 d ct.r ct. 1. 59. "mi. 2x + 35. 8. 45. 27. 18.ab a. 2b. X 60. Page 61. . s.100. 2. f = eZ 2 x. 39. + 4x 3y 34. 37. x 49. 35.  2\. fix. y 2z p= 3 (a c. r tx mi.7). x 2y 10 act. 2. (A) 3 x f (4 x . % 4. + 3 = 2(3* . 28. 6. lOx 10 + w. m +~m 3. (2 a. 20. }f.
7.000. (z5)(z2).y"). 2). 10 yr.. 70^. 3. 5 lb. 18. 75. 20. 4. 25. 24J. 6. 8. (a5)(a4). 14. 50. 30 yr. ?(g ? g+ 1). Page 79.210^. Page 7. 90. 3.000. Oaj(o62cd). 16. 7. (yll)(y4). w (/) 64. 7. 15 in. $40. 15 yd.000. 11 in.. (y 13. 9.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 3. 9. 600.21. 12. 13.000 gold. 82 mi. Y.. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 9. 2 3 6 7. 15.24.5p + 7 g ).0. 1.. a a (a 8 a+l). + 7)(y3). 14. 52. 5. 10.000. (a + 4)(a + 8).0. 7a*fe(2a & l). 72. 150. (e) i* + A. 30 mi.3. 10 Cal. 22. 70. 2. 12. 10 Mass. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 6. (a + 5)(a + 6). 5 Col. 3. 11 w(w' + wi .30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.000.000 ft. 45 in. 42yr. 10 yr. 2. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 4. 11 pV (2 p8 . a 12. 55.000 pig iron. 15.3. 200. 1 lb. 74. 20 yd. 11. 7 hr. 10.000. 6. 14.. 3 hr. 3x (3r. 250. 21. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 67. 8.8. ( + 4)(*2). Page Page 4. 5. 100. 13.(5z ... (m + n)(a + 6). Page 7. (c) ^ v ' .3).. 5pt. 5. (y + 8)(y2). 29. 15.11. (a 4) (a. 14. 8. 23. 1.16... (y8)(y + 2). Page Page 4. 19.. 9. 5. 12. 25 yr. 8 in. 180. 6. 10. 1. 2$. 6. 15. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 2. 78.6). 18. 10 yd. 05. 18. 4.000 Berlin.22. 17. 20..2). 3 (a +&)(*. 71. 10. 15. 20.5. 3. . 9. 300. 7. 4. ~=90. 7. 25. Pace 65.3aftc + 4).000 copper.000 ft. 4. 12. 200. 1313.411. 8. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 2. ^ . 8. 1. 28yr. 2. (ro3)(w2). 9. z?/(4^ + 5xy .13. 3. 6. (*4)( + 11. 20 yr. 7. by 12 yd.  PageSO. 13. 480. 1200. . 8 12. 20 yr. 3. Page 5. (p + 7)(3a5&). . 11. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 5$ hr. 9 in. 4pt. 80 A. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. (6) (6 a 30) =20. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 1. 160 lb. 85 ft. 17. 6.1).000. 13. 4. 1250. 30. = _?_(2ar + 1). 30. 9. 12 mi. Ib.000 Phil. 6. 11. (a + 6) (a + 3). 8 2 19. 11. 2 2 ?/ 21. 10. 14.. 12. 10.5. 6rt 2 11. 90 mi. 2.. 78. 1200. 8. 1. . 100 1. 2.10. 2 2 2 5. 1. 13.79. 68.. 10. 5. Page Page 480 12. 15 mi. 14. 40 yr. (y7)(y + 2).000 N. 12. 7. 8.2. 8.
(y + 4)(yl). 31. (10a + ft)(10aft). 15. 17. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. 11. (a a: 19. (g .6) 2 1. 9. No. (x + y4 )(x . 2 2 15.1). 2.11 6) (a 4. (13a +10)(13a 10). (15z2y)(x5y). 25. 2. 7. 16. 8. 17.3). Yes. 30. 28. (w ~ n (x . 100 (a. 15.  x (5 a. + y + . a*(5a f l)(flr . . (2 a? 4. (4 18. 2). + 5) a. x(x +y)(x y). a . + 3). 216 aft. 6. a(2u. 28. 7. 33. ix 18. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 24. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 5. . (5 a 2) (2 a 3). .9*). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).2 by2 6. 35.4. 5.r2). 24. (2xl)(x + f>). 33. 10(2 30.ANSWERS 16. (m + w) 2 5. (a + 8)(a3). Yes. y) 2 29. (3a. 34. (a. . 21. 20. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 10 a 2 (4 .7) (a. a. 28. . 8. (* + y)(zy). 1. (3#y)(+4y). (6 a. 4 (a . 2 3 by2 Yes. x (z + 2)(x + 3).y) 2 aft. Yes. y(x. 25. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 21. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (9y4)(y + 4). Page 82. 8.+4 y)(3x4 y). + 8)(g3). 1.1).4p). (a 6 6) (a 4. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 17. Yes. Yes. 4. 25. + 9^)(oxy . (0 + 6)(66). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 22. (ay8)(ay3).6) 2 2 . 24. 20. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (ft + ll)(aftll).1). (a (p8)0> + l). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 26. No. Yes. 3. . 29. (5a +l)(5a l). 40 x. 10. + 3)(c44). (w* (3a26). No.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 21. (2o + l)(2l). Page 84. 3. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 16.. 12. 3)(3a. 23. Yes.2 ft). 14. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 27. 18. (5wl)(m5).8). . 21. 3(x + 2)(zl). (m7n) (a. 13. No. (6n + l)(+2). (a 3 + 10)(a. (2w+l)(ro + 3).y (6x + 4)(5x4). (4 13. + 4) (a. 2.c 2 ).2 y). (w + 20)(w + 5). . 10. 14. . 19. 22. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 24 9. 11. (m + n + 4p)(w + .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Page 83. (y8) 2 2 . 25. 23. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). . . x\x 24. (az + 9)(ox2).5y)(3a. 100(x. 35. 19. (5x . Yes. 22. ( 2 4 19.11 ft)(a6). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 3.2). 27. Yes. 10(a + ft)(aft). 26. 9. 6. 10. 3a. 8) (a. (4a. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 9. 25. 18. (2 *+!)(* 9). 36.7)(2z f 1). (4al)(a2). 26. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 12. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 9.2). 32. Yes. y) (a. 10.* (2 y + 3)(y.   . (:52y)(2a!3y). (15ay2) 2 . 22. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2 No 4.3)(z2). 7. + 2y). 12. 2 17. . 31. (<7 20. (3*2)(.y4 ). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 16.4 6). (4y3)(3y + 2). 4. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 7 6) (a 10 6). + 0(90 Page 85. 103x97.1). 23. 30. 11. . 20. 10(a . 27. 29. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 13x7. 1. Yes. 34. 9. 23. (2yl)(y + 9). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 26. 14. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 32. No. f 2).
2. (r420(4 10. 18. 2(m4l)' . 4. a 41. 6. 17(x43//)(x2y). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). ( y). 17. 2 21. 12. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).^ 48.b. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).7)(^ {I 12.8) ( (16. (a 9. b) (r 4. 7. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .4).))(x  ^OC 1 1).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). l. 8. + 2 //). y(2x?/).y). + 3. r x 2 */3 . 2 k (wi 4. 5 x8 3. 2. 38. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (14. 8). 1. Gp).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 5. 8. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 6. 14. x  1). 8x.&). 1(V/ 88. 4. y6. (5 31. . (* _ 2 )(a 4. 13 x 8 2 . 4. 32. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 6.  29. Exercise 46. 9. 4. 7. 13. 40. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). . 6. (^ + ?>_8). 12. Page 87.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 5.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4  9. 2 8(w . .4. ofc)( fid). 2 (a 4. fi(c426). 7. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). (16 4  2(5 n .3. 2 . (> 1. Page 86. 8. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 4. Page 92. 3. 7.8) n 43*). . 4 a s &8 . y). 13. 6.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 11. a x 3 10. (a &4. 6 f c). 9. 16. (a 4. 4. 35.2). 10(2 (3 4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 5  (2 2 . 3p (^9)(j) 4). 4. x .l)( a 25.y '2 2). x(x f y)(jr . ?i(w 4y) . 2. 3 x4 . (. 42). Exercise 47. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.n).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (!__/>). a 4. 7. 12.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 28. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 14. 2 2 3 . 24x sy s 9. 8. 10. 15. 20. n  r)(5a 10. (x. ( a ^)(^3.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 11. ah}. .2)(x 1. 2 1.'/)('< 4.?50)(xt/z.36).) j).y)(fi a . 2 + . (5 26. 42a 3 x. Page 12. x43. 41. 37. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 15. 8.y. (w * . 8.'})(c . 2. 39.3.2 y). 27. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.X 5.4).  WIM. 36. 11.1).8). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 13( 33. 7. 14.4. a 4. ( rt 23.7s) (2 a.1). ^ . a 2 (a9). a (a + 2 6). 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 14. 3x(x?/) 4. x 4.2). 22.&). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . a + a b.!) (x42)(x2). 11. (m  I)' 6. (^ 7. 8. (a />. 2 2 10. (x//.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2 y) ^ . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 4 6. . 19. 4 a8 . 5.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (f> + fo 7.?/).3)(x 4. 24. ?>). (7/1 2) (m 41). 2. 15 M.  (w' 4. a8 .0+ 12). (w4w) 2 1. 13. (5^4.e 4. 16.1) 3. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).'J)(' .?>) H. (c. 4.42 x 4. y )(. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 4). 6. Page 90. 4 3. Page 89.5 m2 x2. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (5a+l)(9a). 450.9). ( (<> r4y3 . 30. 3(. ( { &). 5.
x 24. x 22. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 11. (a2)(a + 2)2. x 12.6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. a 23. 2(2al) + l). a 10 25. 30(3 2 (a 15. // m+1 !+*?.  1). 1).ANSWERS 10. b ! 21. 13. ?_!&. + y) (a: y). + &) 2 ( . 6a2&(rt6). + &)(&) ( . +5 1. 18.
c 8. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. xy 43. 4 L 8 2 . ' 2 7. i. . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ^~ 29.  **/* + 84 _. 0. 1. A^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 11.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 26. 28. 4. a 5. 4c 10. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. i^. 2 a. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.50 ~ 1/2 . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6a5f^. 7.. _*^p5_^^_. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . + 2H 1 ^. w1 + ac w 4 7. Page 101. Page 100. + lH + . 6. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 6.
45. flf. ft. a.^U\WF### X<6. 9. 1. 4. 34. x 05m ' 5. 6 .ft . 4. a 17. 5. 40. 6. J. n m a + 13. b a f +c 14. ' 6. Page 111. 43. 6. 7. 1. 11. x\. 5 be _J_. 39. j L . 10. ac mp lf> n 12.  V o 4. pf n 6 1. x 1. A. 16. 26. 2ft a i m x. 15. 17. an 18. f 7. +3 ( + 15. 2) 19. 1. 21. 20. 3. 1. 1. 0. 31. 3. 18.^_. 8. 2 47. . 6. 3. 23. 5. 12 28. 3 7 i o. Page 110. 3. 35. w^x 2 b Page 105. m 9. Page 113. 4. 44. 11. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 37. J. ^i 11. 5. 10. 11. 13. Of. 9. 41. 12. J. 3. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 21. 14. 1. 4. 7. y(x + x ?/). 4. b 2. 17. 30. 7. 15. 46. 8j_m 7 3. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. a2 2. 11. 4. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. Page 106. 3.  10 X + u. 6. 4. 9. n . 33. (y + (z 12. . 6. 12. 8. 36.y 7. 38. 1. 14. 5. + f. ?+_!?>. 32. 1. 25. 24. 15. 14. 1.L+ft. 11. c 8. 42. 1. ?. 19. n 16. . 16. 0. . 27. I) 2 3z 1. 21. 4a3ft. ! 4 20. 7. ^_. f Page 107. (>. 29.
24.138. 30 mi. 24 mi.000 1 = 23. 1:1 = 1:1. f. Yes. 3. 10.} da. (c) 8300. w 18. (d) 500. 8.. 2x:3y.XIV '/ . 6. 7} 18. n 32. min. Yes. (ft) 28. 75 . f . 13. 8301 hr. ~m . xy. 7T 2 Page 116. 2 20. 21. 00.x + y. 16.0 & . 18. 10.  C . 1.9./hr. = A's. No. 15.. (a) 4 min.137. 13.. Yes.. 20.139. min. 8. Page 125. 10. 14. 18. 8.000. ft. (ft) 5 hr. 9. 3 da. 2:1. nm.. 12. jj. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 4fl M_. 13.002.000. . ^m . ANSWERS 16. . $30. 2. 15. 7 . 30. 10. 30 yrs. 7. 1 : 12. No. 55 mi. 17. 14. 35. 26. 14. J. (a) 30.004. 11.. 26 mi. :2. 15. 18. 0. (ft) 5 da. 19. 16. 7. 7. 1^'. 17. 1:1 = 1:1. 15. 500. 28. . 13. Yes. w 21. 4~r~ n . ^?i min. Yes. Page 119. (r) 3^ da. 9$. (a) 12 hr. $0. 3. " 0. $40. 1:3. 9. 10.001. 4. 32. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. P+ ^ 33. _JL. 11.000. 17. 27. $45. 11 hrs. [>> ^ a . #V ~~ 34. 15. 300. 10. 5. 21. (c) 2 hr.2. after 18. (d) 4 da. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25./hr. 10 yrs. 3.000. 20. 3:2. 7. 33. after 20.10. IV s. 9J oz.11. 5.2. 15. 4. 19. 11. 74. * 7:9. $00. after $12. 81.  + . 20. '"I 22. 36.. 40wn. 5 25. 14.000 If da. 3. 1:1=1:1. ^p^ r ~ 7. 10. (ft) 104. 212.0. Page 121. 23< &n b ' . (ft) (r) 8 hr. 40 mi. 7. 12. 19. 6. Yes.. 1. Page 117. 5 2. 5. 7. 31. 10. 6. 33. 1 da. 24. 34.  29. 4. 10^ oz. 8. 2. 15. silver. Yes. J ^'. 9ft. 300. () 2. 10. Yes.15. 17. gold. a 4 ft.. 1. .003. 5. 26 30. Page 118. Page 124. 9. 30ft. 1:4. 4. 40 yrs. w 44. 12. 8. 5ft 30mi. 4. 275:108.. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 19. 300. 38ft min. 16. 1:1 = 1:1. 3. 3. 22. (a) 25. 9. 1. . 1: ~. 21ft min. dn ~ mi. . .
26. 41. 1.9. 13J. 10. 50.160. ~ 1. 945 11 10 .840. /..000 sq. . w 8. 55. 24. 3  24. 3. 8.1.J. tin.12. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 9. 9. mi. 23. : />.3. 1.15 x. 14. 35. Page 5. in n.4. 6 10 = 12. x +y x + 74 7 \.3. 2. y :y =. t 5.5.4. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 20 20 J ^. 1. 56. 3. 11 5 . 17. 6. 1 rt * vm^1. . . "lO. 7. 36. 7. *. Page 134. 2. 11. 43.x a. 4.ANSWERS 22. 45. 20.5. cu.3. 3. 5:0 = 10:12. 3.5. . 1.5. OJ.2.3. Page 133. 4. 13. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . . 10.  19. lo mi. 40. ini. 7. 1.57. ft. Page 136. 3. jc:y = n:m. 4. 4. 3. 19 3 . 6. 12.a.]. ig 6. () 7 Page 126.. 200 mi.12. x y y . 25.5. in. 2. 8. ' 55. 3. 7. 15> 9. 4.' : : : : <>. 13. 2. 21. 2. 2. 6*. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 4. 13. 2. 2.. 41. 24./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 26. 16. Page 135. 13. 2.17.3. 40. b x 37. 4. 4. y . . 7. 5. 30. 7. 48. 49. 7. Page 9. 32+ mi.15. 59. 2.3. + b 7 . OJ.) 31. 4.5. 9.  ?.*. 2. $. 3. 22. 7. 12. 4. l. () Directly.1. 2. 7. 2.3. 2. 1 18 = 3 51. 7. 19. i. 1. 36.1. \. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 23. : XV 27. 5 2. 138. 6. (a) Directly. 2. 2. 2. 30. 44. 17. s<i. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 5. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.22. 12. w. 9  15. 11. copper. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 9. Inversely. 127. 25. 3. 10." ^ 2.J 3.r. a 3. 11 w a 13. 8. 20. 38. 1. 7.3. 54. 8. 52.4.20. 46. 24 1 (e) Directly. 9. 14. land.46. 5.8 oz. 4. 5. 28. 5. 16. 7. 14. : . 21. 31. : : T 1' : /> : . 5.3. 18. 11.^ 0?j ' gms. 3. y 1. 3}. 7. I.36. 3. 9. 5:3 = 4: x. 1(5. . Page 132. = 7 b'. 15. 58. + W.5. x 42. Page 137.2 x. 6. 5.2. 10. 29. a~. . 7.  28.7.2. J. 2. 1. \\. 39. (I. 8. (</) ft.000 sq. J.7.5.3. . 4."2:1. 27.4.4. 2.3. 19. 12. water. 8. 2. 4.li. : 23. 2. 57. mi. 2 n . : : . 3. (b) Inversely. J. 31J. Of. x y = 1 = 3 2. 11. 4. 2. 5. 3 2=3 x.2. 20 cu. 1. . . 22.1. 1. . 11. 19. 6. J pq.2 oz. 4. 3. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 5. 15.5. 174+ Page 128. 3. 9. 14. 53. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 9. Page 131. 47. 17. x:y a: b. 5. 5. 2. 7. 32j. .1. 25.6. 2. 2. 7^. 2. 19 OJ. 16. a +b 1. 141. 7. 8. . y a y = 7 0.C ?/ a .
B's 15 yrs. 3. . ' 6 3 a. Apr. Aug.8. 20. 12. 24. 5.10. 6 cows. 6%. . Page 22. 3. 25. 3.3. 10. 3. Oct. 4. 0. 3). 1 (d) Apr. 6. &. 4. 3. B's 40 yrs. Page 153. through point (0. 19.4. 12. 4. The ordinate. 18. 2. 6. 6.7. On the x axis. Page 149. Nov. 7. Page 143. 1. 4. Page 151. . 5. 20.2. . 3. 1. C's 10 yrs. 24. ft 3.0. 2. 4. 7.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2. 21. 3. J. 16. 15. . 10. 7. 90. 16. ^. 13. be 10. 4. 9. 2. 3. 10 sheep. 3. 5.. 17. 4./hr. 2. 7. Apr. 3. $250. a. 5.. 7. 14. 9. 26. 5. 11. 25. $ 1000. Page 146. 2. 7. 16 to July 20. 1 (c) Jan.. m . 16. 17. be 7. Nov. 12. 2. A's 50 13. (<f) 13. 15. & part of Feb. 2. 18. (ft) 20.1. $3000. Jan. Jan. 11. 147. 7. 19. . 2 horses. 5.4. 8. 6. parallel to the x axis 0. 1. 27. 3. 6. 24. Apr. July. 30. 6. 20 to Oct. 12. 10. Page 152. 26. 3. 19 gms. 0.9. 3. yrs. 16.3. 8. a =J (n  1) rf. Nov. 4. Jan. = ^ a Page 141. Page 145. 5%. $6500at3Ji%. M 2. (a) 12. 8.. 24. 14. 4.^. 23. 20.3. 9. 3. 4. 9.. July 20. 100. 15. 72. (a) Apr. (5. 21. 9. 2.1. 14. 12. 9. 2. 5. 5. 3. About 12f. 40. Nov. 20 & Oct. 1. m f 9. Jan. 3. 2. 25. 11. A's 30 18. 4. 13. 1. 1. 2. 11. 30. 4. 1. 7. .  Zn  "(^ll 14. 0. . 5. 00. 7. 17. 1. (c) . 8. . 10.33. 2 a. 25. 423. 3. 29. . 2. 22. On the y axis. 2. May 5.65. 5. 32.. On 11. 1. 40. 11. A a parallel to the x axis. 28. <*ft/ bd 1. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . Page 142. 6. Feb. . 2. 31. 3. 3. 4 ' q. 1. m + n p. 18. & part of Sept.0. . 10. 18. 2. ad AzA. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.l. at 15. yrs. 2. $500. 23f . ' . 10^ gms. 4. 13.$5000. (ft) 23 J. 7. 30. u 2ft. 11. 2t2. 2. Jan. 16. ad _(?jrJL. 4. 20. July. 16. 1. 23. 3. SL=J o ft r^2. C's 30 yrs. 20. $900 5%. $4000.XVI Fagel39.$2000. .4.2.  11.  17. 4. June. & May.1J. m f 8. 4 mi.n + p. 1. 6.
2. 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 26. 8mW. (/) 3. 14.34F. 83. f12 wi 9. + a 4 ft* . 2. . (ft) (ft) 2. 4 ) 21. 3. 8. (e) 3.73 ami . 13.3. 5. 16. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.1. 5.  1. 27 27 81. f 10. .83. . 13. 3.4. 1. 125 16.  12 ft xW  26 31. 25. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. SlstyW 7.. 3. 15. . 2 a&m Page 167. 13. (a) 4. 5 and 2. 3. 19. xW. a 10 ' a ll V&. . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. 2.5 (ft) 3. 2. 2 2 22. +3 4.24. 2.25. . 19. 3. 2. 11. . 14. 1 4. ft 2 4. 17. . 2. . a + ft. (e) 2. 1.7. 15. .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 1 23. 125 a 8 12.. 2. jgiooyiio 17. 4.75. ft . xy. 0.41 and . 3.3. 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.5. 4. 3.64. . 18. 125a 28. 2. H. H.  1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . * 16. \ft) 5. 3. 2ft4 Page 168.25. 4.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 3. 22. 3. 1. 8. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .59 . 3. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. . 13C. 30. 1. 3. 1. Page 159. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 10 C. (c) 7. (a) 12. 8 1 f f g*. 3. Indeterminate. 1. 13 .17 (ft) (c) 2.67. 1. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.41 and 23. G. Page 163. 1.83. xg . Page 164. . 1.73.73. . (ft) (d) 2. 18C. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 15 ." 23. 11. 4}. a 29.2 (ft)  1. 1. .79. 5. 3. 2. 2.24 . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 10.. 2. ImW. 6. 1. 1. 2. (gr) 21. 14. f. 21. .73. . 9.75. Page 158.1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .6. 4wn8 + n4 5. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (c) 14 F. 32F. 20. 10.75.59. (/) 3.25. 1. 2 l. 27 19.25. f. . 2. . 5. ' :=_!. 11. . 0C. 12. 2. 8.64. 24.25. 3. 28.13. (ft) 2.  . 3. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . 7. 1. (a) 5. 12. m.79. Indeterminate. Inconsistent. 4. 8 a1. (ft) and (d) 2. 5. 1^. 24. 10. 4. 4. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 20.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 5. 3. 22. 6. 3. 1. 2. . 15. 30. (a) 2. 9.84.24. 14. 27. 81 ". .27. 1. . 9 and Page 166. 1. (c) 2. 5. 4. Inconsistent.5. (<?) 2. 3 . 2. .75 (ci) 3^. () (rt) 3..
5. + + ?V 22. 15. + (win . 40. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.i c 6 15. (ab + c). 30. 101. Page 170.  x. 20. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 72. . 9. 11. 14. 180 . + Z).2). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (3a. 36. 9. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 1. 16.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 17. 4. 14. + l). 31.3 ab + 2 2 ). 15. . 2038. (x' l). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 32. 21. 20. a ). (l + x + .^). 8 /. 10. 4. rt . 33.5). 9. 1247. 18. ? : 1 . 6. 71. 16 6 w . 34. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 2 4 8 2 . 8. . AN S WE no . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 9. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2(> + ( 2 7>). . 1. Page 176. 2 2 4. . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 23. 3 6 23. 12. 11.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 420.83. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). a. /> 4 ). (a 2. (x + y\ 90. 16. wi 8 + 3m 2 . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 309. 5. 8. 2. 3. +35. a 2 . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 98. 5 5 8. 00.5. 300. 10. 4. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 3. 27. ??i ?i .f 1 m 9 16. + y). a: l . 6. 6.1. . 18. 8. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip.6. (48 + 6. 70. 7. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + 29. 8. a. 64.1. 2 49 .a b 22. 84.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 12. 2 12. ). 978. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. (2 a + ft). 7. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). Page 172. 3 2 8 3 12. + i)).94. 5. 3. 25 19.7 /)). 17. 16. 1. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 28. 20.GO a c + 23. Page 171. 15.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 10 x G a 4 . 20. 4. 15. Zll. (Gx + (i + 2a. 17. I 8x2). 119. 8. 12. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.037. 3.XV111 7. 6. r> 4 : 1 .y2 ). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 14.x ). 22. fe *?>' ?> fi .+3^ + 4. . 5. 763. 11. 35. . 76. 6. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 90. 7. (1 (x2y). 13. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2. 9. 9. 25. 2. 2 2 7. ( Page 174. 10. 237. 11. 10*. 1. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). (a + y+l). ^i. 99.10 a~ + 5 a . 3 2 ^. (a + 2 +l). 30. 90. 2. 2. 247. 26. c 10 6 :l 20. 19. 14. 5. 0. m 13. 1 1 ?>). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).r 2 + 6jt). (4a2 9& 2 13. 24. 57. .  +X '. 3M. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 6 (\x 3. GOO 2 c 2 . . 13. ? . +3 + 5 4. 21. 18. (ly). 19.
40. 6. 31. 5. 3. 9.  5. * 1. 39.690. 26. 5. 10. 3. 3. 35. 8.522 38. 3. 27. ZLlAiK 19. ft. 5. 3. 22. 12. 7. 7563. 6. 7. 14. 4. 46.1. 10.. 1. i ^. 4.6. 6. 9. 9. 4 W**. 27. *. 7. 33. 7.. 5. 23.6. 4.. 4. 37. 1. 5. 20. 10.6. 8. 19. 2.}. 10. 4. 4 n. f f V. 21yds. m. . 5083.935. 6. f 3. 9 15 ft. 21. 39 in. 11. 21. 23. If ^. 9.w 18. 8. 15. 18. 28 in. . 16. 25. 2 sec. 2. 6J. 14. 6. a + 61. / 11. \/3. 7. 7. V. 7}. 7 in. w. 5.4. 10.6.. ft. 33. 37. 13. 3J.ANS WERS 22. 1 7. 17. vYb.. 34. 16. 9. a.. _ iVaft. 6. 21. 3. 4 a. 6yds. 4. 12. 29. Page 185. 6V'2J. 5.798 yds. 20.i. 28. 14. 40. 12. 19. 13. > w ft. 14. ft. 20.5. 4. 2. . 17. ^. /. Af^. 12. 2. l~8. ^. >i 27. 15. 2. 47. 5. .60. ~ V^3.005. . 4. 1. 9. xix 26. 36. 35. 7. 6561. 25. 49. 3. 1&. 9..4.?. 48. 5. 1.1. 2. 2. . }. V17. 2. 6V21. 5. 11. 11. . 24.. 1.367. 7.5.469.6. 32.13. 21 28 ft. 11. vV'TA 24. 18. 15 1 10.237. Page 184. 270 sq. . 29..916 yds. 7. 12. 34. 8.a. 4 TT M 28.236. 14. or 3. 50. 3. 1. 12. 15. 1 f Vl3. 15. () 2.  1. 3. Page 177. 24. 6 f !. 21 in. 8. V2..  f. 2.*. 23. V35 1.  f. 1. . 10.  3. 16. 5f.  43. 44. 3.243. 28. 30. 30. JJI. 16. 5. 7. 4J. 5. 16n. >TT 26. 1 38. 6. 31. 17.  2. 7. 13. . 2. " ^_ 22. 3. 39. ^^7m. Page 180. 1. ii :J _7. 10. 25 J. 29. 42. 6. 13. 5. m. V J l. 2. f. .18. 7 45. Page 181. 12. i.4. 9. 2. 1. (afl). 3.  14.742 in. 32. Page 179. f ^ is. 41. J.925 ft. 13. 36 in. 12. (< + ?>). 8. 3. 2. 4. 1. v 17. 11. Page 183. 4. 10. 15. f.645. {. 4. 10. 4. 2] see. 3.Sn. or 5. V2. 4. 36.V 8j. (6) Vl4 3. 5. 1. f . .
If. 8. .4. 27. 10 in. 6. 21. . 44. rational. 22. 36. #<7=3./hr.  1.  1.a. x*4x=0.. $80.a 3 a. unequal. x* 51. 8. 0. Real. 20. a. 2. unequal. rational. 26. 6. 43. 4. 2. 56. 1. Real.. 28. rational. 3.. 18. 5.2. 2.2. i . 9. .  i. 6. 22. 18. 13.  2. 1. equal.2.Oa.02. 25. . 70 ft. 4. 26. 1. 1.48 3. 21. 27. 2. 12.2. 3. f. 14. 35. 2. Page 188. unequal. . 24. .. 20. 32.  1. 9. 1 .* 2. 2. 4. 4. 4 da. 12. 11. 0. 5. 7. x2 + B . 57.  1. a + 6. 8. ft. 10 mi. 120 ft. 15. 10. 0.2./hr. 1. 1.0*8. 0. 38. 13.2. 20 eggs. 3. 9. 7. Real.  Page 194. 35.5^.70. 37. 0. Page 190. 10 mi. 19. 1.4. 53. 1. a.59. 19 in. 0.  9x <). AB = 204 ft..a.2. 3if. Real. 8 or 12 mi. 15. Imaginary.23. 64. 3. 46./hr. 12. irrational. equal. 3. . 50. 42. 2.2.  13.5 x + 6 = 0.  5.3. 0. 1. unequal. 55. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. *'' 12. . 2.37.XX Page 186. Imaginary. f. 3.3. 10. 1.  24. 1. unequal. U. 3. 15 ft. 49. 24.1. unequal. 4. 3. 2. 7. r* i. 25. 7. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 23. 27. 29. 2. %. 1_^L ft 14. . orf. 2. 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 33. 2. 39. 5. $30 or $70. . 26. Real. 3. 0. i. Real. in. 1. 12. 1. = 0. 2. 3. 8\/2 17. 2 . 0.6. 4. 6.12. Page 191. 5. 0. unequal. 1.  2. 23.  6. V2. 3. 1. 4.12 = 0. 34. Imaginary. 2. rational. . x 14. 0.2. 7. Page 192.10. 25. 15. 31. .62. 6. 3. 1. 2 V3 in. . 6. 2. . 12. . $ 120. 3. 6. 10 or 19. 20.23. 41. 2. 2. Page 187. 4. Real. 3. 8. 64c. f 6 52 a. 6^2 in.2. 0. 3. . V^l.2 x2 . . 1.l. 2. V^l. 2. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 28. + 11 x.4. 0.41. 16. 4. 45. 3. 17. V2. 52. 7. unequal.48. VV11. '  f 5.]. 2. 1.4. 48. 2. 3. 1). Imaginary.  1. 3. rational. 26. 16. 0.17. (5 10.. 3. 6. a + 1.  5. v^^fcT"^.3. 0. V^~2. Page 189. 19. 23. unequal.$40 or $60. irrational. 58. 4.7. .5. 1. 3. 9. 24. 7. 6. jr . 7. . 5 ft. 1.4. 3. 21. 11. 47. a8 . equal. 2.7.'. 6. . t is. 3. s 11. 18. V7. H. .1. 2.74.1. 1 3. 3. 28. 40. 30. 10. 5. . 16. 6V64.7. AB = 3. ANSWERS 22. 14. 2 ft. 25./hr. Real. _ 19. ' 1. 20 nii.6 = 0.
51. 2. 2. 1. 4. 3. y . 37. x/25. 0. 46. J.  48. 57. ) 2 >J i 10. . &. ^Sf 3 38. 15. 7. v/3. 59. 33. Page 201. 55. 8. 5. J. 8. ifa. 3. 21. Page 199. 17. J 3. m'. a. ^49. 30. 17. 16. Jb \. 15. 12. Vr. 3. 39. r*. 7 . 8. 48. v'frW. 1. 60. 40. 41. 125.ANtiWEUS rational. 49. 25. 9. 9. 1. JV37. jV 10. . \/r\ 11. Page 200.  a'2 . 14. 27. 20. 2. 31. 58. 33. 1. 18.  J j. 6. 1V1. 7V7. 3. . 5\/5. 8. . 'J. \ .  f. 15.//^. 10. . 14. 42. \/3. 22. 13. 3. (m 26. 23. 13. v'frc 18. 1. 1. 43. 4.1 5 15. 3. 4. 50. *V. 13. \/. _! V3. 1. 9. l  5 12. 47. x$. 19.2. 2. 23. 2 L ( V. Page 197. 10. 36. 3. ). 6.6. 19. . 14. 84. 2. 49. 47. v. 12*2 61. 4. 16. 30 a. V^ 34. 24. 2V a. \." 17. 4. 3. 24. 3. 9. 8. 18. 53. J. 0. 44. aW\ 40. 243. 8. 8. fx'^z'l 23.^7. 21. 5. i. $7. 38. 2. J. 7. 29. 1. 9. 4. : . 22. 20. 2. 29. 28. m. 2. r. p.  f . 19. 32. vm. n\/* Page202. 5. 6  AAf. . 54.  5. 26. vV. 25. 1. 30. . 18. 1. x. . 20. v^T4 m. 9. ar 1 . 19. 24. xxi 15. 11. 1. 5. 45. 29. 10. \a\ \/^. 12. 3. 28. \. 49. 2. 5. 3 4 11. I. 20.17. . 17. 1. 16. a 18 . 35. 13. 50. 7. 4. wA 46. 2. 3. 4. 1 39. 8. 52. 0.32. 14. 3. 56. 11. Page 196. 49. 10. 21. 25. 5. 2. z + 22. 33. ? . 27.. 31. 32. y. 16.
1) 3V3. 40. / V3.yl : . 26.f. 3 x^y 33. 2 '"V5. V 5 47.Vxy 35. 43. 2. 39. x y. 3V5. 41. v/^r 5  A/^~. 20. v^. 4. abVab.648. 10. 2>X2. (o* 2. 20&V6. 6. 2.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 18. 62V(J. 101 1. 24. 8. Page 208. 48.). 9 .r. ). 29. 1 2 or 1 ?. 8a6V5. (x' (l 1+x).XXii ANSWERS 1. 3. 3V^T. l 5. 31. 34. 21. 22. 23. v'TM. 49. 37. V. 11. 40. 13. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 5. 5 ( . 9. . 2. 3 \ 39. 13.2 VlO. 31. 17. Vr 8. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 13 35.  a Vft 2 121 b. V63.. 11. 10. 3 42. 30. JIV6. 135V6. 9. 17. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 45. a^ + 2^+1. 37. 195V3. k/2. ^7 \AOx. 32. 27. 3. V80. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 15. 2. 5 22.2 18. + . 28. 5. x 25. 32. 2 4 z2 l 3.rV:r.577. . y. 2\/7. 2.'\ 14. 16. 12. T. 13 a. 7.  2 3:r. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 19. 38.692. 3^ + 2). 50. 8. 3^2. 4aV^J 16. 10. + 2 V22. 2. . Page 203. V. 7. 36. + + ft.3 + 40 3 . 8V/) 15. y (a + ft) V2. m* n*. V2 + 4 V22. + 2 ar 1 ). 28. 4. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). yV35. (a 27. x 7  34. 16. 3. 6. ?tV?w.707. Va 2 "ft. x%  3 ^+ 1. 25. 29. 2v (T 2aVf. ^88". 30. x^ . x.632. 21. . 3 a~ 3 (x (. r 17  Page 204. 20. ftV 46. Page 207. 51. + 2). 11V3. . 2 a?>V2 a. 33. . 1. a 4 +* + !. 9.x^y* + y%. r c . a 3. 26. + Vic + 25. 2 x* 15. 03r* 7. a2 4. 34 r 6. 19.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . ^: V2c. 3 4\/2. 24. + 1. + 2 Vzy + y 1.
32. 11. 35. 17. 30 Vl4. V3. 37. xx 1. 1V5. \^6. x/3.30 2. V5. 4. 26. Page 213. v^30. V5. 24. \/2.T*. . 3. 21. 2. 7\/(l 7VTO. 36. 4 a*. 3. 31. 9. 3 V15  47. 5. 21. 31. 39. 27. 36. '. 6x2?/. v^a. . 42. 5V2. ^ 3 b 5 24. 19. 38. 15. 4VO. . 35. Page 216. 0. v/l2. 33. 22. v"3. 27. 1. 6V2. 43. 6 2\/0. 34. v^lf. 74\/Jl 120 46. 3 V2. V8. 12. 1. 41. 12. 8V2. v/9.  3. 19. x/8l. 16. x/8L v/27. V/. 3v^2. 2yV2?/. W). \/04a. x/4. v/i). 52. 16. 1. 2. a^\/a7>. % 29. 51. 50. ^9. x/125. a2  b. "v/wi ??. 6. 17. 18. Page 210. v"5. v^O. 8V73\/IO. 5. x/w^ 8. . 21 23. 40. 46. 10. v7^. 14c 4 V5. x/27. \/a6c. VJla.ANSWERS _ Page 209. a\/5c. V3. 6. \/8. 9 VlO + 4. . \XOfl6Vi5. 5. 11. 4\/5. 2\/7. 14. 13. 9. 18. 3 Vl5 30. 13\/3. . "^8000. r)\/(l Vrtr. Vat. 3. v^f. Vdbc. 3\/2. 18. 6. V3"m. 32m27n. 5 \/2. 24. 20. 15. 10. x/8. v/8. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 6. 2. 7. \V3. 40. 44. V2. Vtf +3+ 33. 3\/15  6. VT5. 4. 17. 34. \^r^bVabc. 16. 0. 14. 6. 25. \^6. + VlO  v y (5. 29. 3\/wi. Page 214. Vn. v/lO. w?i. 22. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . rtv/5. 8. 6+2V5. 2 \/2. Page 211. 23. 25. V2. 5V2. 8. 4 >/3. 2 ate. D 45.r v/^ v^fr*. 11. 2 V'3. v 25^4714 V2"a. 6aV2\^. 32. ^27. 39. 53. 28. ^\/3. . fl^Vac. 38. 8  \/15. 2. : ^32. 2 1. 3. 8v2T 12. / \/w/t 4 13. 26. ^v 7 15. 49. 2. 13. 48..J Page 212. 10V(). vT). 5v/2. 37. m ?i2Vm/t. + 20. 2 28. \/128. 7. ab 4. v^4. 10. 14. \/abc*. aVa. 9. 3. b. 30. 7. 23.
3.464. 12. 22.5. 9. 2 . 33. 32. . (V6 + 2V2).64. ^(VlO\/2). 35. 19. 5 V65.7071.389. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 16.w 6. V3. 27. 7. 8. 20. . Vf6fVtf. 2x^2^. 19. (VllV2). 1.0606. 23. Va. +3 V2). i^ ~ 1 v ^. 14. V^TTfc. 9. 14. nVTl. 9. 0. 18. 11. V3. 25. 2!5_. 11.3. p 6 13.81. \/57t. Page 218.4722. 16. (V8 + V2. 25.2.  13..1. (2f V"5). 29. 30. 17. 13. 4. 2. ' 22 i . 23. 10. 25. 7. . 18.^ (\/22 4. 1. (2Vll). 5 f. 14. 15. 5. V3 . 2. V2. 15. 5. (\/5V2). 3.9. 20. m f. 9. 216. 6. . 7. 2. 5. 2V3. . ^r. 4. 224. 11. 10. . 23. 4. 512.4142. i^Lzi. (2. 5. 16. 16. 3. 2. 2. (V5f 5. 22. 30. 4. 1. 10.3535. 4. (a 1. Page220. 64. J. 8. 9. J.732. K>/0 + \/2). 34. 24. V5. + 6) 2 . 6. . 7. 15. Page 226. (2V2). 3V23. 0. 16. 11.5530. 27. . 9. (Vf + (4 V2). j. 2V2. 81. * 3. 7. 19. 9. 5. ^\/2. 6 (V2 + 1). 7 f 5 4. 11. 4. 21. + 5V2. 9. 7. fV2. f. 15. (V51). . 15. . 25. !^ 6 4. 7 Page221. 25. n*. 18. 1. Page 28. 31. 1. 18. 8.XXIV 7. 4. 19. 24. 26. 6. 29. 1. 4. 27. (V21). 36.2. 10. 4V3 + 6. 24.6 V3. (3+ v/2). 21 ' Vob 26. x 20. 26. 25. A . 14. 4. xy 2.  2. Page217. ~ Vac _c 0.601. j 15. 17. 21. 3. 3. 12. 2. {. 20.13.V3). 23. 81. 17. Page 225.6. 16.  f. . 8. 16. 9. 8. 5. 7. 4.1805. 13. V3. \/3). 8. 1. 4. 22. 12. 10.3. ANSWERS 8. 7. 16. 6. 3(7+3V5). 2.\/TO).  . 19. 1. 2ajV2*. 4. 4.2828. 13. Va. 24. i(Vf Vft). 9 mn. V35. Page 223. 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . ^.625 10. \. 1. 21. 3. 12. _^JflJ?. 25. (\/3f 1). 6 V. 5. V6c. 8 V3V2. 20. Page 219. 5 + 2 vU 17. 4 14. 12. 11.732. 8. 10. 3. 2V3. 5. 6. 125. 18.7083. (VaT^v a). 17. 12. 23. 8. V. 37. 1. 100. ^. 5. 1. 10.1547. 4. 28.
. 2 &. 8. 1. 3. 10. 5. 14.  16). 0. (r. 25. 22. 1. 3. 17.  2. 1. 4. 2.^a. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 4 1. 2.22. 4 . & + 6 2 ). 1. 4. 11. 4.2. 12. (rt. .l)(a 2 + a f 1). 9. 4. 0. J 24. 12. 13. 8.3. 14. a(.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).0. 14. .Y. 11. 4.2)(m.4. 1.  J. J. //. 2 . 5. 1. 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 17. 11. 50.3). XXV 4. 4. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). (63)(6' t 18. 4. 26.3. 16. 3. 17. 2. . . 6. 2. 12. 5. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (xy + 5) (x*y* . .  1. qpl. t/ 23. b . 5. 100. (a+&)( 2 14.4.3. 5. (B43). 1 6. 2. 5. 12. (a. 15. 73. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). =A^Z3. 1 . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 1 3. 8. 3. 2. 1. 2. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1.  5.2. 28. 1 .5 xy + 25) 22. 2. 10. 5. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 7.  3. 19.. 20. a  . 8. 2. 3. 1. 0.r . 3. 87 . 20.4. P. f>. y. 2.4). 3. 16. 2. 7. 3. 4. 11. 7. 8 6 & 0. 4. (8.3. J. . . 2 . 19. 1. 1. 4 . 5. 5. 12 24 y . (a .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).w 4 + 1). 11. 2 6. 0. 1.5. 1. . . 3. 4.8a 18.3. 4. 30 30. f . . 2. 10.10. 6. J Page 235.  1. 21. 3.3 2. 13. 4. 20. 10. 3. Page 233. 4. .  f . 3.7. 4. 4. 10.l)(a3)(a . 10. 2. 3. 21.nl^EI. 6. 8. 2 > 1. 3. 5. 1. 6. 15.3. 4. V3. 7. 1 . Page 234.  3. Page 236. 3. (2 a. . 1. 13.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1.  . 2 . (+!)( 2) 10. 2. 4 4. . 3. 2 V^ . 13. 3 . 4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 2. 7. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2. 3. (pl)(p3)(p6). 4. . 6 2 2a + 2). . 30 . 3. ~ f7. o. (a. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (w . 73. 3 . 25. 1. 3 9. 2. 5. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 2 .  3. 2.l)(m . 11. 4. (pl)(p2)(p2). 2. 5. \/0. . l. 3. 2. 3. 25. 0. 2 6.  4. . . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. 0. 2. 3.2)(* .1. 2.12. 23. 7. 30. 3. . a: :} .2. 3 5. 3. 1 .ANSWERS Page 228. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 4 20. 22. 6. 5. 1 (?> x/^3. 2. 30. 18. 15. ' J. (m 4 + l)(ro. 24. . 2. (4 mn . 9. (a 4. ( 16. 2 <? 4a2 . . 2. 25. 2. 7.1. 24. 13. 1. 12.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1. 5. a . 1 . 56l). 2. 7. . 9.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 3. (&y2a#H4). 3 . 18.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 6. 0. 0. 6. 19. 8.
. . Exercise 114. 30. 3 .3. 3 .. 48. 3. 31. . 4. 11. 1. 2 ft.1. 17. 4. 16. 3. 2n. 10. 12. 15. 512. V3~. 2. 9. 33. 1 . 8. 3. 2. 4. f. 12.4. 7 3. _ 13 (0 6. 1. ( 3. oo . 38. ri*.30. 35. 4. 2. . 18.13. 5. in. 29. ANSWERS 2. . ^ }. Page 239. (a) 5. '>. . m27. 4.3. 4... 3. ^~2. . 4 6. 9. 9. 5. 24.3. J. 1.6. 3 2. \/6. . 3.200. 5. 5. 2.6. ' j. . 7. 3. } . _ 7. . 2 . 18. 16. 5. oo. 1. . 5 cm. Page 238. 3 3. 25. 3. 2. 50. 13. 7. 10. . . 40 25 in. 8. 40 in. 26. 1. 6. $. 9. Indeterminate. 1. 30. . 8. 6. 4. 11. 3. 22. Indeterminate. 125 125. 14. 3. 5. (>.1. 12 1. Page 244. 5050. 17. 3 4.  11. 1. Page 247. 4. 7.5. 24. m + n. x 4. 4. 18. 2>/3. 2 Y> V . 1. 14. 1. Page 243. 21 30. GO . 14. 5. 5. 1. . 17. 2 2. . 1. 20 7. Page 248. . 8. 1.e. . 9.y. Exercise 113. 2 . i. 0. . 3. 4.3. 14. 8ft. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2. 5. 4. 3. 0. 2. 15. 28yd. 55. 7. 15.4. 37. 15. . 12ft. oo . m28.18. in. f*. 35^ 5.. 1 2.3 . 1. .4. 13. co .. 4 34. . 4.xxvi Page 237. 21. 7. 12. J. 2 1. 1.3. 2. 23. 1. }. 3. 5. 78. 400. \. 5.136. 45yd. . 14. J. 4.3. 2 10. 20. 37. tn 2. 3. 1. . 7.. 3. 2. 2. 84. 8. 32. 3. 2 16.3. (/>) "_. . 16. 5 . 1.4. 14. $VO. 1. 1. 5. 8. J. 512. n . f>. i'ljVU. in. 1. ft. 69. ft. 12. 30 13. 19. 1. 10. 8 . 2. 20 in. +  n. 2. $. 7. 3. 21. 3. 288. 8 3. 2. 1. 17. 2 .0. 2V7. 1. 8. . 10. . 4. 5. 5. _ 10. 15.  .0. . . = QO 6.020. i j. 1 . 36. 37. 5 4. 5. 2. 3. 5. 1 . . 6. 15. 6. _ 5. . jj. 0. 4. 1.. . 15. 2. 5. Page 245. 39.2. 3. 2. 2 26. 3. 3.5. 4. 4 . 11. 3 cm. . 3V5. 1. 22. 12 d. 40.1. 5. 1J. 6. n. and _ 4.. i i i . 31. in. 201. 8. 19. 1. 4. 35 a. . 2. 35 ft. $46.. 3. 7f solution. 3 . no co . 50. 17.  2 . (&) 2. 4. 4. 14. . 4. 12. 1. ft. 900. 11. . 13. 1. 3. j. . 9. 23. 12. 1. 1 . 11. 20. 4 8. Page 241.  1. 2. (a) $3400. 41. 3. 2. 2. 4. 1. 2. c. 1. V7. 11. 3. 3. 1 . 1. Page 240. 2. in. 2. 4. 17. 12 ft.
0. 23. 05. 1. 3.^ ?>i 2412x4. 1. 0. 04. 4. 9. 2. . Y11. 19. 6. 6.2 9.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. r r j. 5 13. 304.r 4. r 5 4. sq. 0.5. 120 aW. 0. 1 7 4. 5. Page 254. i 10. and 1. . 27. . Ja. . 2. 16 11. 4. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 27. 2. . d. 10. 280 53. 2. 2. 18. 708. . 8. 13. 4950 M 2 b y *. 2. 16. JSg. 8. 1. 25. 3. 18. 105. 0. 3. 20.700.8.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 100. 3. 125. 9.<2 4.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 5.504. 48. 45 Page 257. .192. 17. 14. 15. 15. 0. 4. 45. xxvii 1. 8.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6.920. 6.5 x. 3. 1820. 8. G. 910. 1.120.12 x*y 16. 6. 125. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 4.870 m*n*. Jj? 45. 6. 4. 19. 53. I. x r 4. 4. 1. 12. 16. 327. 27. 5. 3. 4. 16.470. a4 4 14.4 &z x>&. . 1JH.r* 4 70 . 12. 2.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 2i* 7f. 10. 17. 1. 7. 9. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 4.  17. 5. 12.3 ays. 5. . 3. 4. 405. 6i. 1.v Page 253.  101. Page 259. 1 14. 2.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 43. . 10. 2. 10. 1. REVIEW EXERCISE . 44. 1. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 11.384. 15. 3. f y 8 + z* . <. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 10 14. 15. 9. 8. A. 4. 27. 5. 410. 18. **+. 8. 4. vy. 0. 192.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 6.4. ~v 9. Page 252.0. in. 7. 29. B .2 45 a 8 /). 16. 5. />*. 11. 4. 32. 2. 7 2 x 4 x8 . y ^ 5  ^\ ). (). 16. 12.680. 81. ~ an . 12.ANSWERS Page 250. 8 1. 20. 7 x4 17. &' 14. 2. 70.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 3.6.7 10. 495. 8 4x' 2 . 8. . \ w 4 . 9. 12. 7.1. 7.210.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. Page 258.  20 flW. 10. 21. 6. 35. 8. 50. w9  8. 5. 0. 15. ?/i 6 x llj .419. 2. 3. 16. 45. . 128. 7. 21. 4.13. 3.6 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 8J. 3. 22.5. 343. 8 . 8.5y 4 . 13. 1. 4. 4. 0. 75. 6.r x>/ 7 3. 70. 35. 28. 20. 5. J 2 //2 25. 1.x' 10 . } $ 50. 16. 4 0. 13. '23. c. . 55. 11. x + Vy. 4.53. 2. 005. 26. 1000 aW. 8. 3.170. 04. 7. . 19. 5. . 12. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. x4 . a. ' 1. 10. 4. . 6. 220 . 17. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 7. 22. 7. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 12. 18. 70. ^a 8. 9. 343. 5.
fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .  3 x2 . 14 x .a.x 2 4. 32. 124. 9x. . . 4 2 . 2 x2 108. 131.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 46. ?> . x4 f + 23 . 62. 100.. df. a' 111.2. 61. xyxzyz. 4ft y3. 5x 2 2x43. !! 71.4 x y 87. y 4 z* 0. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 122. 2 a. 1 x 45. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 1 . . . 70.3 aftc. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 2 . &p 84. a J . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. Page 263. 6 8 j27 40 ab. .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.4 ac. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. x2 a2 1 . 10 4. 24. 130.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4. 0. 66. x2 471x4. .  e +/. c3 4 58. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.rty x2 4 123.ft). . 50.a 2 x 2a .3 b . . 3a~2c. ft /> 78. 2 30 . . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 132. 4. 38.c. 2 113. 52.a'2 c.1. 1 121. .c 3 4. 39. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 133. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 91. x 3 4. 16t/. .1. x2 5r*x ft 5 .2 c . 31. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. _55_7c 48. a 4 . 4 fee 4. 2 x'V2 90.{ 54. 3 a 5 a 5. 94.fee 2 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.  + 3 x2 . 2 53. 49.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. Page 260.105. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .x x*  f 2 ax 4. az 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 8 . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 2 . 64. 86. . 80. 4 69. 4.  4 a3 85. a 3m 4. 82.xxviii ANSWERS 19.x4 + y'2 z 4. 3 a . 76. 40.1.ac 44 aft. 118. 105.15 4 62 x  72. a* a 8 a aftc. 30. 27.a6 2 4.4 x?/2 3 4. 0.5 a 2x8 x 3 . x* . 9 2w 128. ?/ . () 2 x 33. m " + n + P3c . 96. 109. 5x + 2y~z.18 x?/0.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 3~ n 4. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . 7 + 3 xf 2. 4 65. ft n . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 36. . 22. 21. f5+7.y*. 5 4 4. x8 x2 55. 10 a 12 b. 93.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 13 + 2 s.1. 107. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 6 c 47. 2 . 2 x2 4.3 a'ft.2 x 4.18 ?/ 5x4. x } 4. 23. 8x3 8x. + z. 12 x. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 72.5. . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. x 8 + x 4 68.2 x^. +^ + ft W. t 81. 4 15 x 5 . 102.3 .2. + 3 a?.4. 110. 99. . . . 26.x 51. x2 2 . ?/ 3. . 4 ! . 2 2/' . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.9 x . a4 x.1 4 jry 4 x . 35. + a 4. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.4. 125. 88. 114. 4 Page 264. x 8  a8 . 127. 4 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 6 a2 97. x . 6a6c. 3 36 b c . . 120. 0.4.5 b + c . a* 4.4 2 4 c2 42 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 16. a2 2 aft 2 2. I 57.3 y. (a + ft)" 98. 1 + 4 xy. 5 42. 1 a"* 4 an . a~b 89. as 20. 63.5 3n 4. 3 c . 29.3 x 2 + 3 x . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . x 4.7 x   15.7. 28.a' 'ft 4. x 2 .4 x 2 . . . ^ .6 b. .9 b. 243x4729. x 3 41.^a . 12 a/.  . x' .  12 a. 3a'2 Page 261.2. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. .41.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 37. /> 4 83.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 104.5x4. 2 q. ft2ft 4 4l. x' 79. 4 115.a*ft 2 126.c. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 25.x24 73. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.x.4. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.3 103. 43.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 3 a 44. * 60.6 am b\ 129.1w 77.
216. a(a. (a 2 + 2a6. 140. 36ft. . a 2 (15. 40 yr. (y_24)(y5). ( + 2y)(2x3y). m. 149. fc'2a+62c).y + 3)(r (. 1. 146. +)(x2 x^+2. ?. (x + 2)(x .3 y)(a . (2a + l)(a . 32 h.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 1. 233. 10 in. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). Page 266. (8x + 3)(3x4). (y  17)(y + (>). 136. 175. y 245. p. 186. 189. 2. + 7)(rt4). 2 (4 x . 2a(42ft)(2fo). 3. 151. 244. 167. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 1. 24.2. 220. (a& 192. (r^x + 1). 199. . 162. (x + 6)(x6). 1. + 3) (x f f>) . Page 265. 173.3).2ac + 229. 182. 143. (x  42 yr. (2 198. . 2 2 (a. 190. 137. aft. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 10). (c) 160 C. 206. 168. 1. (y 7f))(y 196. 37 1. 153. 2. 2(x8)(x3). . 3. 181. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 158. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. yr. 144. 218. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 210. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 15. 12 6 panes. 237. 172. 4. 193. 8 204.r . 156.2 )(x+y) 228. + y. 195. (ab + 8) ( 7). 202. (x . 201.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (.6 .y) (\r3y). 161. 2^. 147. 21. 2 xy(3 x . y3. 184. . as 194. 154.I2y).2). 160. Or (a + 2)0el). (y _ ft)(y 4. k. 170. 12 yr. 218. 176. (a} 59.3 y). 174. 171. (5 x . 169. 224. 138. 155. 75. 191. xxix 139. 20. 217. 230. 6.6) (2 x + 1). (7 c 2 ). (JT y 225.r + 4). 12) (j. 208. 22. (/ 246. 142. 179. 12 yr. 30 + xyr. p. 50. 177.ANSWEKti 135. 15. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 150. 18.1). (?/+l)(yl). C3 y _l)(. r>x 2 (4x. + 11) (a 10). 180. 166.2). 8(ar}(/)27).y)(jc + 7 y). 235. 10).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). a + 2x2 ). 211./_4). ft.. 23 18. + 3). 157.l)(a 2 +3). 12. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 215.3) (2/3y). 222. 226.. 5. 30.6)(4 + 6). (7x2//) 203.  1. 10. (3x2?/)(2.4xl). x(x f 3)(x+ 2).. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (y7)(y + 188. 185. (233). 20. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). y  y 165. 4. 231. 159. 3(x . 219. . 212. 152. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). y. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . G7. 30 yr.. 148. 247. 6). 209. 241. (xyX^+y" )1 243. (x 227. 236.l)(x8 + x2 . 205. 1. Iff 145. 2. 12. + 2) + 9a. 19. 10 ft. 7. HI.y2 ). 164.y)(z . 1.m)(x + a).1). (r7y)(ai. + 22). (at (4 a +!)( + 3).y). 197. 48 h. 6. z(x10)(xl). 239. 147 mi.2) (3 x . (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 163. 187.3. (6) 40. 183. 207. x(x + 6) 213.l)(y + 1). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 1.9)(xf 2). 238. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .1(5) 200.1). 214. 178. 2. 15  a. 232. 2. Page 267. . (3x  . a. (x^ + x1) 234. 240.
*>). 261. 298. 7^T 2 . (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.4). 301. ?^ZLiZ 308. 3  262. ^/>J. a~ ' b*). 5. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 307.4) 1) (3 x . 2. 259. 279. 266.   . 303. 305.. ^ 299. (7 255. 258. 0. 3. 263. 251. x12. 7 x 265. 295.  3xyf x// 257. 269. 254. o(x4l). (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 0. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 306. x 267. 10.^^^^^^^^. 249. 7. 3). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 260. + f.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . &). 43 '^rJ'. a. > 4. x ?/ z 1. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309.  7. 256. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 250. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. x 283.(x  4) (x4 304. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 4 5. x . 310. 2 4 300.2* i^^ !^. 264. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 268.^ ^^. 2 x  3. *. ? 1) 302. o. 3).1.
vin a /r " 337. 20. l'j. 397. T+^. S. a 2 . ?=. T\. + 4 & 4 \ b. 0. 2(a i 403. 365. a + b + 6). 2 327.XXXI Page 272. . 400. 2. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. (a + b + c\ .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 399. Page 274. 2 ab  a Page 276. 7. 396. 389. x 54 359. ?>*. + 335. If. + x 362. 360. 1. 398. . ^"" 4 s . 1. 9^. .!. 3. " 4 378. 405. 1. 390. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 380. L . ab. 2 ). 379. 376.". 2 ?/ 363. 333.. * 357. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 6a. ^_:r f> 331. <L 409. 336. 0.)Cr4)__ . 375. 392. 404. 377. 1. a +6. 343 00 351. Page 277. . 387.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 1. . 6 ?/+:>. 329. y 4 I 340. 393. 4. 4 A. 326.  1. 406.. 2. 408. 3.1. 325. 7/i ^ _ . j 328. 0. 2(q. 3. f. ^ 3 // . A^L5L. 401. 334. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.J . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 361. _*L'L+. 394. m. 383. 382. 388. ?/ + 3 332. 395. 385. 12.3. 364. 13 391. 366.(5 a .7. . 355.  1 356. a) A^_. 11. 370. 386. 324. l . 4 rw. 4. 339. c 402. 2 r36 384. 407. 1 i 2 ^. 0.
422. 7.2. . 420. 5. 33. 8. 427. 419. (&) 443. Page 280. 457.te + .  1. 476. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 2$. 2.}. . 423. & 491. a* 424. 501. 5. 440. 468. 484.  505. 21. A 5 mi . 436. 464. 2.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.  2f 504.  f>. 500. \ 1. 7. 466. . 4. 8. 90. 495.7. 458. . 6. . 430. 5. '. ft 5. ' $260 at 0%. 7.  2. z8 +?/ 3 431. Page283. 462. 4.vz in. <L+ 6 (. 6.. 0. 7 : . \. 53 yr.  . 2. not true. 2. 5. (a) 1. 2.}. 456. 485. 10.3. 2 438. . L2 a  6 . 11. 2. 442. ^V. b 449. 10. 1.0. 465. 32. . 20. i. 10. 432. 40. 4. 3.7. 3 .  10. 0. 7. 421. i a b 451.7.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 448. 447. 428. 32 yr. 4. 3. 460. 445.4. 425.rz Page 279. (c) not true. 2.489. $2000 at 0%. 418. 480.  2. 8. 2. 28 yr. Page 282. .. ISjmi. 3. 8.  7. . 413. *+. 498. . 455. .46. I. Page 281. 2. 17. 486. + () 433. 2 a 2. 1.m  m+ M in. 467. 18. 51. 0. 499.  453. 63. 0.55. 10. m 1 : wi.4.1. 24 days. ^. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.7. 6. 1. 14 miles. 472. 412. 493..2. 1 a /?$+&?. 494. 40 oz. : />a. 6. (a  c). />c c(f be. 497. 444. . 10$.3.0. 507. 10.12. . 426. 10. 446. . 10.  1. 5J. 492. 487. 439. a 22 . c 6fc 10. ISJini.  7. 0. 411. 6. 441. 2. 22. 502. B 4 mi. a + + ft c. 435. 482. 506. 1. (d) true. 479. 508. . . . 459. 461.  2. Page 278. ^r?i 434. 9. 463. . B $ 2500. fj. fc. 1$. 3a 4 5. !L=4. c. .. A $ 3500.488. 42. 0. 410. 12. 0. 5. (&) true. 7. 429. 452. 481. 6. 20 yr. 5. 483. 503. 496.5. 6.7.. 1. 84. * . 478. 477. L (c) I.. 490. 450. 50. 17. m. 454. (d  6) f.
 J(a f + 2c). 552. . . 1J. 1.7. 509.30. 582.0. _^ 2754x .. 24 da. 583. 514.03. 2.52. 566. . (c) 4. a + ft  a  f c. x8 .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. _ 4.53.  1. 4. _ 3. 3. 2 10. 530.4.  2ft da. . a+ Page 286. 2(6 597. 550.5.r8 596. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 576. 3 da. 599.4. 115 Ib.16. . 2 . 556.73.0. 2. 559.24. 1.6.02.15. (d) 537. 515. 6. 4. 3. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . 2 2. 3.12.1. 573. 1. T . xxxin 511.31. 2(4 602. o> .0.3. 1$. 529. Roots imaginary. 1. 567. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 7.3. 4. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).8 x3^. 565. 3 . 5.3.  557. 1.  7. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . 555. 569. 526. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1 . 3.  (a) (d) 1.3. .05. 527. . 1 580.33. 1.1. 8 mi.02. 581.  3.8. + 26 + .3. 525. 3. ^ ft 4. da. y 4. 6.1. .  2. 6435. 603._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 561. 0000. 574. 510.5+. 3. . M ft c 2 ft 3465. 1. 7^ da. 2.04. 232. 27 y* f\4 .1. (6) . (e) 570. 513. 2.03. 2 1. ft 584. 31.15. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 3.5.4.21. Page 285.. imag.83.24 sec.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. If 572. f. 531. a f ft + c. . (ft) 4.55. 575.1. a*8a + 24tf 82a..20. 1. 551. lead. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1. 3f 4f. 1. g(rc+ 6c).2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4.  . 4 0. 518. (/)  10 to 8.xj/ f xV . 1.  + + c.24.  4.8.15.83.f 1. .31.4. 528. 1.25m. 4. 4. 14. f36a28x8 592.75. . . 4. 5.75. 3. 577. per hour. 40 Ib.56 sec.37. S82 c. . 5. (ft) Ill Ib. . 0.4.5.02.6.0. 2$. 4* da.78. . .% rr\* 585. 4 mi.ANSWERS Page 284. 2.   (h) 8.8. 591. 5. 560. 3. lead. 8. 1. 571. (c) 3. 579. > ^ . 1.6.2.4.62. 2. 3.00. Page 287. 3.10.3. 564. 554. or 8.38. (gr) 10 1. 3. (a) 74 Ib. H. 2. . 568.35.25. 532.5. 24. 1. 1.7. f.5 f. 516. per hr. 593. 4.54.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .78. 598.14. 21*_. 1.3. f ? a f ft __ + c C).51.3. Page 288.54. + 6 tf f 3 . . . (6) 3.02.6 2. 4.37. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . (i) 3.5.10. <z ft 1. 563. .62. (e) (c) 2. tin. 533. y% Z * 586.9. 562.  imag. + 12 x . . 578. 2. J7] min. tin. 1. . . 1.6.04. 3.  ft*. 1 600. 1. 536. 2.. .  (a) 2. 2 1.7. 2 .88.. 558.1.8. 553. 2 imag. 1. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 1 . 1. 512.4 x + . 3. .
627.3. 2. 651. 618. 650.04. 642. 5. ab 689. 614. V"^TJ.c ) 697. 632..203. a 2. 3. 2.  2f r 659. I}'/. 9. 5002.2f Page 290. 2 ab + a  &. 678< 682. 4. .702. 625. 8 6 fo . 700. ix 2 . V7. 621. . 898. 666. 644. 1010. 11. ' 674. ft).303. 623. 5. 2. . 708.f 3 V^3).3f l 668. 654. 4 676. 3 681. 0. 5. 3 a. ^^ 695. 631. J^^. 7. 0. 2092. ^ 1.y. 637. 662.  684. 635. 615. /> 4. 2 / 2 4. ^. if 4/> 671. c.25. 626.b. 2 a  6*.  13. 692. (*_ + a: 611. If. 670. 648. 0.0. b 664. 698. 672. 703. 1 V5 1. 629. . .2f (5 4. 620. 12. 3. 4. 660. 624. If 665. fe + a. 607. a 673.3. 641. . 0. 9*. 630. 649. + ~^'2 + a 1.b 686. 3 x2 .14 If 1. 6.>A 610. . 009.049. . V2. ' fe 2 ).7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 646.3.3. 613. 677 680. If f 667. 1 2. 971.  6. 4. 653.  ft. a 1J. 0.a~ {Z 663. 3. V2. a. 78. 655. 2.001. 10.43^4. . 6. . 640. 210. 8. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.XX XIV 606.  4. 4330 da. 7. 657. 634. 633.. \+ab 699. fta a/> ^A. . 608. 661.  3. 14. 7003. 2 x 44 ^/. ab. 1. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 2 a 688. y  619. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. <T! . 4 V 0.  4. 679. 1m*. 2f. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. ^. 656. 2. 652. 703. 11. 25.  . 2. 1 ~a . 636. (a3&45rj. 645. 50. o. 616. \. la6 2.001. 647. . a ' 2 + . 612. be ac \. 1$ 639. 1. b. If b. 2. 13.  1.002. Page 289. 5 3. 4. i. b .  a2  a (ab). 691. . 1 704. 701. / V^+lO^M"^. 702. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 643. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 706. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 8 f 3. V^~3). K 5 2 V2. 1. 2. 638. 2&). 4$. 0. 622. If . 5. . 2f. n^l +^. 2 a: 4. 617. 1. 669. l/'3. 6 685. 705. If 658. 683. a 4. 628. 2. 690. z  1. 25. 696. a + b.
 711.8.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 756. 713. T%. 796. 718. 777. 1 752.4 .2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 33^2. 13ft. / 787. 789. 749. a 5 . 724. 751.9. a 2 6^. 5. 59. ^ . 5. 738.ANSWMHti Page 292. 1^ _ 760. 763. 790 2v 3v 2.2. iv/Jj. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 740.^ 743.rJ w L 754. 719. 758. 8. Page 294.4 . + 6 2 tf'c. 3 720. Page 293. 3^. 768. VV> L4V34.. a". cr*lr*. + < 735. .1 . 4 104 v/2. 737. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.~ . x\y. 731. 3V72V3. 746. > 748. 728.12 af V^ 4 744. 342V3. 3 VlT 795. 1 I .V2.r. 739. 722. 2\/53V2.9. 709. 716. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 1. VT14V5. x i f^' . 725. 47. 782 785. ^7xy. 1. 732. 17ft..V/^ 741. 34. 736. y  1. 3V52V3. J(v'lO2V 791. . 750. 3V7. 721. VIO\/3. v'll. 24V2. 788. 24. 769. i 2. 755.. 727. . 729. 1 [ + '> J. a db Va^T < 45da. j 742. 1. 792. fyaw&cu. v/7 / . 767. 793. Hi a. 29\/3. r. 24 4 . 25. 717. 730. 714. . 753. 8. 00. 723. 773. rt3 2 ^i^. 794. 776. 3V72VO. 300. 726..257.r+y> 759. i^. 715. 712.11. 30\/10 764. 39. . 778. mn. 2x3^ a. a:* .10. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. a 2  x2 . 734. ^ ?>.^. 710. 3. 32>/2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 1 747. 15 shares. 2 V2 . 733. 7  3V5. "V313.
7 4 1) 846. 832. (x 2 f r . 2. 14. 1. (3 862. 2. 813..l)(x + 2). . \/5. 836. (2x (r. \/2. a(ft)( 873. . 868. 825. ^VG. (x . 4. 2 *x 807.4) 860. 6. Hoots . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 2 m . 799. (x . ^ V}. 1. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 1 1. 4. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. (xl)(^~3)(. 838. . 17. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . . 880. 2 806. (2 4. H. 834. 893. 8 09. (a 4 871. (2 a . 0.5 b) 4 1). 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 891. 804. 5.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). (  ?>) (a + ^> . 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . m = 2. 876. 10.7)(4 x. 847. 895. 17. 5. (x + 0X024. 11. 2.5) (x + * 853.3. (:r 11. 3. 851. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 879.1) . (3 b . 2 . f. 888. 8. 6(a6)(o a + + &).1) (a 8 . (4 c 4. $. 823. 882.2w . 19. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 4. are extraneous. 0. 4 .l)(x . 5. 844. 3 . (x*y*ryz + z*).3. a(ry + 864. (x 4. 6. 5. 842. 0. 4 885. m 875. 1C. 826.  tt 815. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 822. ( 869. 884. 7. 2. 824. db 7. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 858. 867./>") (a'. 3. 848. 4. (x 2 . 800. J V. a* 4. 2/ 856. 6.1.f. 13. . 48.7). 1. 6 $. 1.2) (x 4 2). 7. 20). 835. 814.a 2 2 ). (x3)..4. Page 297. (.  839. 829. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 899. 810. (x 845. 4. 817. 808. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 0. 2. 2.a 4 + 1). 7. 7.1)(V 2 .1)(0 865.  1. a 42)(x . o.10 ab 4. 2. 4.y) 852. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .+ m f ") (a* ). 2  2. 819. jV3 f 3. . Page 296. 898. 3.r4). Hoots are extraneous. X4 1). 23. 3. V 3. 849. 5). 892.a 3 " 4. 4. 1. 4 818. 859. 4.om 441) (a 855. ( 4 4. o 828. 841.2 ax 4. 4.l)(x .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 3. 827. 833.7). . x. ) (a' 874.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). Va 803. $. 840. 3. x .  ' . 816.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ^. ((' 1).. 831. 857. 25. 11. (1 .r . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 3.7. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. + d)*. 2. . 1 . . 887.XXXVI 797. 2 854. 897. 2 . 5.rae) (4 . b' 2 821. 900. (a m . 894. 2. 896.3)(x + 4). . 863. 2 j 889.25 ?>2). 3. 883. 3. Va. 811.0. 2 (x 4*4. n =  29. 890. (a 1) (x 4. 861. 886.1).4. 2 2 . . 837. 2. 4. 3. ANSWERS 798. 881. a2 ^E*!.  + l(l^). 820. 8. 2 . . (2 x + 3 y} . 830. 872. +j!>. 801. 6+V7. 812. **. 843. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). .
8128. 73. 10.073. . 978. r ft ' < Page 299. Page 303. 902.2. 944. 2 yd. 3. ..V~~3). 100 rows.651. 937.. 4. ^y. . 0. 28.1. . 66 924.709. 6. 7. 56. T3. 3. 28. 945. V5 fj. 1 2. 8. 957.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 977. 983.. 5. 7 or 30. 6 . . 8. . 964. dL 4. . 111. 6. 6 da. 958. i>. 2 ft.615. . 955. 5 . 8. 8. ft. ./hr. 920. V^3).. 8. 3. 2. 918. v/(ai !)(&910. 948. 4. . 908. . 956. 14 . . 3 . . 2. Va926. 1. 3. 333. 5l4f. Y. 10.. 2 w 914. ft. 7. 984. 329.744.  26j. 4. ft. 5. 2 i ' a V. . 2. 932. 960. 8. 925. 954. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. V5 T 2 . 4. 11.. Z ^.. 942. $(l 4. S07. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.760 sq. 981. 496. 7 ft. 916. J(_ ft. 8. 12. i(6 in. 6 1 1.1 = 9. 18. 9 in. i1" 913. 15 946. 952. T 6. 986. 6. 1. w 3. 6 a 915. 11. 1 . 3. 11. 0.  1.  1 . '3 3 in. 2.2. 7. . Page 301.. 979. J. 912. 7. i 8. 980. . 60 949. 987. 8. 930.. 927. 941. 1). 921. 4. 6. 943. 3. 5. 903. 2. 4. 11. . 3). 947. 2. 12.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. a. 0..0. w. 936. 248. 6.1. 4. 919. 1. 12 mi. . 985. 2 1. 80. 931. 3. 5. 4. f ft 4 . 5. 2. %* . i 3. 4. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.01. 4 in. 480 8 sq. 938. 933. 935. 963. T 6. 4 .I. 4. 280. 922.. 923.. 2.. ft. . 333. Page 302. 115. a + .111. 909. 959. 982. 950.. 3 4 . 917. 40 16 in. 20 19 ft. 28. 12. 1 + V953. ft. J. 951. ft. 905. 6.446. ?/i 6. 939. 961. . 1 1. 4 6 mi. 8 . 940. 6. 12 in. 108. ft. 2. 934. f. 962. tt2 19. yd. 15 16 ft. 2. =F J. 904. 1 _2 . Page 300.. 0. 911. ft. 906.
^Trsq. 0.870 z8 . 120 i^l^. X.18. 32 13 (tx 4V3.. 1013. 1008.. 991. 4 and 1020. 1005. + 448 . 24. 8.92.378 1015. 108. 4. 0. .128 I. 1000. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (a) (6) ^ 1002. ~ \. 990. 994. Page 305. () 12(2+V3). (Z>) 999. 1017. 2 . 992. 1006.51. 1(5. 162. 9 da. 192. 1018. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .378 <W and 92. 995. 1001. 1010. 1007. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . . 1012. 72. 48. 1003.  5&7 1021. 993. 1 8 8 2. 1016. (J.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1019. r = 2. + v 2).'^^ } ( . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 6 70 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 996. 1014. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . . ^f (2f3V2). 997. 2(2 v/2). 3003. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).870 a 6 1011. 12. Page 304. (5.192rt?)r 120 *. 120 a. 1009. 988. 12.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1 1004. in. (6) 8(1 .
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. great many work. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.25 lamo. HEW TOSS . but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. xi 4 373 pages. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. etc. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. save Inequalities. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. A examples are taken from geometry.D. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Ph. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The more important subjects tions. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the Logarithms. and commercial life. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. i2mo. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. than by the . $1.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. comparatively few methods are heretofore. physics. xiv+563 pages. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. given. Half leather. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.
so that the tions. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. HEW YOKE . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Logarithms. Ph. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. and commercial life. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.25 i2mo. Half leather. save Inequalities. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. $1. xiv+56a pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xi f 373 pages. HatF leather. 12010.D. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. In Factoring. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. comparatively few methods are given. etc. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.
iamo. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 6. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. State: . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. i2mo.D. 4. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 7 he . Ph. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . SEVENOAK. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Cloth. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 10. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. izmo. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. under the heading Remarks". aoo pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . xii + 233 pages. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. NEW YORK . . $1. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. $1.10 L. SCHULTZE.r and. lines. more than 1200 in number in 2. Half leather. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. wor.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 9. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country..
. 370 pages. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. and not from the information that it imparts. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . $1. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. of these theoretical views. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . New York City. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. 12mo. .
is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. " This volume etc. Maps. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. and a full index are provided. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Topics. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. i2mo. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. An exhaustive system of marginal references.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Cloth. $1. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation.