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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
Reprinted 1913.. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1917. U. Cushlng Co. May.' February. Published Set up and electrotyped. Norwood. J. January. September. 1910. September. 1915. 8. 1911. .A. . 1910. 1910 . July. IQJS January. Mass. 1916. Berwick & Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. August. May. .S.
Elementary Algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. owing has certain distinctive features. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. manufactured for this purpose.. shortcuts that solve only examples real value.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Such a large number of methods. are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. however." this book. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. and conse . chief : among These which are the following 1. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. etc. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. specially 2. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.
as quadratic equations and graphs. hence either book 4. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. In regard to some other features of the book. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.g. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. e. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. however. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". are placed early in the course. especially problems and factoring. Topics of practical importance.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. two negative numbers. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . Moreover. For the more ambitious student.
in " geometry .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. such examples. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. By studying proportions during the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. viz. elementary way." Applications taken from geometry. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and commercial are numerous. based upon statistical abstracts. physics.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. Moreover. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. is based principally upon the alge . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.
viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. however. . William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. edge of physics. 1910. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.
.. SUBTRACTION.. Powers. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ........ .. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ....
.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type IV. Type V. /^ . Type Polynomials..114 .... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type VI.. . Type III.. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type II.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. . .. * .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ..
. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . CHAPTER XIV 169 ......... .... ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 5Vl6c. 8. x 9. are trinomials. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. V^a6. v'Ta. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. d 7. 4(a 6(6 + &). 11. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 14. \/c. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. as in arithmetic. 7 = 2.g. 13." EXERCISE If a 1. A polynomial is an y. 26.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. Val \fi?. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 4V3~6c. 2. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A binomial is 62 . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. some number is . a polynomial of two terms. 9. 27. c = 1. since the parts are a . V3 . aVc^. !^f\/03 3 ft. 6. find the numerical value of: Vff. 6. 17. (cfd) 4. c f d). or 9 Vx. 10. b = 3. + c). e. + 1]. [6c] 3 . 2 . V36". 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 12. 3. 16. 0. is 28. 15. V2a.
EXERCISE 8*  .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .9. subtraction. 8. 5=3. = 32 + 4527 = 50.9 aWc + f a b . 4. 14. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. Ex. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. a 2 6.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.390. d = 0.5 ax 50 a6cd. (a (a f b) 7. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.30 = 270 . 2 ). 12. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 5. 3 2 If 1. 2.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . l 13. 5. b = 3.g. . . 2. c=l. 10. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 52 . Otherwise operations of addition. 1. 6.. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5c +d 2 . 6. d=Q. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. Ex.810 + 150 = .19 = 6. . .4 6^9 ad.2 + I126.e. i. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . + 26+3 c. 3a + 56 a 2 . __ E. 4a6fVaV2^. multiplication. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . * For additional examples see page 268. c = 2. a=4.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . find the numerical value of: 9.INTRODUCTION 29. a2 11. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.99. x=^. 3. 3 4 . 4 . 16. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.
6 . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6 = 5. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 27. a a=3. sible to state Ex. 6. 38. 28. 6 = 6. a = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 37. 6 = 2. 25. physics. 6 = 4.6 f c) (6 a + c). 22. a = 4. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 23. 6.c) (a . 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a =4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 7. 26. : 6. geometry. a = 2. a = 3. . Read the expressions of Exs. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a. a =3. if : a = 2. 30. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). and other sciences. 34. 30. = 3. 6 = 3. 33. 35. 6 = 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 26 of the exercise. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 5. Six 2 . 6=2. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 24. a = 4. 6 = 1. 29.
if v : a. 12.e. c. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.) Assuming g . d. then a 13. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. and 13 inches. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.INTRODUCTION E.16 1 = 84. if v . and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 5 feet.16 centimeters per second. . Find the height of the tree. the area of the triangle equals feet. 14. (c) 4.g. 4. and 15 feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. b. 13. 15 therefore feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v = 30 miles per hour. b 14. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (b) 5. A train in 4 hours. 2. i.
the area etc. (The number 3. This number cannot be expressed exactly. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.). (c) 5 F.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. meters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 2 inches. (c) 5 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. . denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 8000 miles.14d (square units). 5. $ = 3. 32 F. square units (square inches. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 square meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. is H 2 units of length (inches. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14 4. (c) 10 feet. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. the 3. : 8000 miles.
of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. SUBTRACTION. or positive and negative numbers. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. however.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In algebra. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. .
12. + (9). 21. 4. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 5. d = 0. . 19. of 2.16 32.  0. 10. 24. is 0. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. is 2. 22. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 6 6 = 3. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. '. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. (_ In Exs. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. subtract their absolute values and .3. + 12. Thus. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. of: 20. 5. 18. 4 is 3 J. the one third their sum. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. c = = 5. 2326. if : a a = 2. c = 4. 23. (17) 15 + (14). d = 5. = 5. lf(2). 33.
60. are similar terms. c = 0. and 3 a. c=14.. $3000 gain.5. . 32. 42. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. : 48. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 40. ^ ' 37. : 34. & = 15. 34. ' 1? a 26. . . sets of numbers: 13.7. 36. 43. 41. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. affected by the same exponents. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 10. and 4. . . $7000 gain. : and 1. 6. }/ Add 2 a. $1000 loss.4. 09. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. = 23. 38. 7 yards. 2. SUBTRACTION. 4 F. = 13. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. 72. 10.. d= 3. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors.5. = 22. . 0. or and . 27. 31. and 3 F. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. & 28.3. 6. 37. 35. 5 and 12. 25. ' Find the average of the following 34.. and 3 yards. 6. \\ Add 2 a. $500 loss.ADDITION. 3 and 25. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 74. 4. 66. 10. 55. . 29. and 8 F.7. 3. 11 (Centigrade). 12. 30. 39. which are not similar. 33. 32. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. . and $4500 gain. 7 a.13. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. and 3 a. 7 a. 13. 1.
sign. 12(af b) 12. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 7 rap2. 3a . The sum x 2 and f x2 . 13. 2 a&. : 2 a2. 5l 3(af6). 2(af &). 14 . . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12Vmfn. Vm f. 10. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . + 6 af .ii. EXERCISE Add: 1. f 4 a2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. or a 6. in algebra it may be considered b. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 5 a2 . 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6). Algebraic sum. 5Vm + w. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 2 . 11.13 rap 25 rap 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. b a f ( 6).18 35. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.
"Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2 2 2 31. a a8 ZL **. 36. 35. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . is . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 1 27. SUBTRACTION. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 37.ADDITION. 30. +m """ 20. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 32. 33. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 6 23. 17. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. + / + 3 Va. ra 19. + y. 21. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. n x* 2 22. 2 7 1 26. l^S 25. 2/ : Add. c 2 ^24. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. without finding the value of each term 34. and to add each column.
g. 2 025. x of x. 5. 4 = 7.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.o c and 4. therefore the answer is correct. and J 2 s. to show any error. 2 Thus.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. . 9 q 4.7 2 . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 7 4. 6=2.c= 2. = .8 abc .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .41 = 3. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. ft any convenient and c. 2 . 2 Sum. s. NOTE. . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.3 s. 4 2.15 abc . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. f 110WS: 26 aft.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 3a 2? . and 2 .20 c 5 ab 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 3.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. to add 26 ab . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. V3.g. 2c.15 6c.12 a& 4. e. a 4. c = 1. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. . 5 . 46 4z 7 c.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. of that letter.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. the erroneous answer equal 7.
9(a + &) .a.7v/if. ^2 1 e. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 16e + 17/90.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 18/+6y + d. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 2 and . v/20.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .Ga 43x45.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .a 4 a 4 1. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. and 1 4 a .7m . 2 a. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.10 Vc. . and and 13.15 5. a 4 a .(b + c) 1. 8. and . . 4 ajy 17. 2 2 . . e a4 /.and 6. xy3xz + yz. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 11. . 2 and 9m 48m 4.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. a.6.3 mn 2 2 n8 .a. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 2 ?ft ?/z. 16. 4 3 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . m 4 6.2n 2 2 3 rz . + 50 + 62 . d and / 3 ? 12.5a^6 f 6) .1 a 4 1 0. . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 4 8 3 4 4 . 3 2 2 3 9 .5 cr& + 7 6 9.4:xy xz 6yz. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 3(c f a). . a2 a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. a + 1> 8 2 2 .1. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.12(a 4.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.12 6 ~5 a . + a + 1. 7ar + 3B 5. a2 2 14. ?/ . and 5 Vb 18. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 2 ?/.ADDITION. d. 4(a .4 Va . 56 w.VS 4 2 Vc. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.12. . 4 Vc. 4. a 4 a . SUBTRACTION. and v 15.8 m 2m 12. and 8 3 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.a . a) y ^/. in 8 3 m n 4. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 19. .
f 1. +d a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1/ . 13 1.. c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. s .17 + 4 ?nfy . . many negative units re main ? from 2. + n*. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and e + 6y . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 1.3^* 2n 2 . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . is 2. and 2 24.9aj 2. The sum and ? 1. a 6 2 c. and 25. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f 1. 12 xyz.5< 3 2 s 4^4. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 6 f c 2 23. T8a. . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.m 4m ?/?/ d. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 45a6 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 .ra + m. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . If you diminish a person's debts. 1.11 xy + 12. 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.4 2tn* Sic 2 . . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. how 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. + 1.22 21. f number may be added 3. 1. 1. 22.
the other number is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. Or in symbols. 3. In addition. and the required number the difference. 6 (3) = 8. 2. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 7. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 1. from What 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. a. two numbers are given. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . From 5 subtract to . In subtraction. ( 6) ( = . if x Ex. +b 3. 5 is 2. Ex. To subtract. NOTE. This gives by the same method. ab = x. 41. SUBTRACTION. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Therefore any example in subtraction different . and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.g. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.ADDITION.2. From 5 subtract + 3.3. the given number the subtrahend. called the minvend. .
5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check. Ex.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o.
53. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 56. 55. 50. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . SUBTRACTION. c f d. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.ADDITION.4 a^ 4. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 2y 2 . 45. From 2 a take a & j. 57. 48.7 a . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 41. . 49. From 6(af. tract 4 x 3. + a the 2 a. 52. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 46. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . check the answer. and 3 7/ . 42. 43. 54.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.6)f. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.2. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 2.w>t. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 44. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.c.a 2 j. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. From From x2 the sum sum 7. of a 4. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 6 4 a. 51. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .4 a*& + 6 a & . 58. 47.
+ 2. a + 6. + 6 + c. of # 2 8. 20. A is n years old. 6 17. +a add the difference duce 13. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.15. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a a + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a 2y + z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5.26 4. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. subtract # + 1. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 9. 2 m 21. 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 19. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 16. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11.
Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.g. 45. SUBTRACTION.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.b c = a a & f f. Ex. one occurring within the other. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 46. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. & f c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.6 b f (.2 b . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.ADDITION. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.c. the sign is understood. I. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. a+(bc) = a +b . AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. II. changed.
the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.1422) J ] . 16. 17. 2. Ex. 18. : x + (2yz). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).) 5 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.y (60. 4. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 14. 271 + (814 . Signs of aggregation 1. .[271 47. 21. + (2a 6 + c ). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. [36+ (a 2c]. 6) 2. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2a (4a 26 +c ). (m a2 f.: Ex. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a (a + 26 c ). 8. 2 2a. a f (a a .(a + 6). 6. 19. 3. By removing parentheses.)]. m f ft) a. 3 3 f 7. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 9.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 2 2 2 a(. 5. ? 11. 15. a (a + 6). may be inserted according to 43. 13.7i h jp) (m ?*. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.+ 6)f (a2 b).
. terms 5. ' NOTE. 13. 3. difference of the cubes of n and m. and the subtrahend the second. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.2 tf . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The square of the difference of a and b. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The product The product m and n. of the cubes of m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. a\l> > c + d.7fa. 12. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 8.ADDITION. 4. 3. The sum^)f m and n. 2. 5^2 _ r . SUBTRACTION. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n.4 y* . y f 8 .1. II. m x 2 4. 10. first. )X 6. The difference of a and 6. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 7. 6. z + d. p + q + rs. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 6 diminished . 5 a2 2. 5. m and n. 7. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 9. 2mn + 2q3t.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6. b.) . 6 is equal to the square of b. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14. 16. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. d.
is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 3. force is produced therefore. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. 2. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads balance. therefore. If the two loads what What. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. two loads balance. 4. let us consider the and JB. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? .
Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 9 x ( 11). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. however. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Thus.4)(.9) x 11. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4 multi44444 12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ( (.4)(4) = + 12. 9 9. or plied by 3. 48. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. To take a number 7 times. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. thus. the multiplier is a negative number. NOTE. 5x(4). Practical examples^ it however. becomes meaningless if definition. (. . (5)X4. such as given in the preceding exercise. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multiplied by 3.32 8. 4x(3)=12. x 11. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.
_3.MULTIPLICATION 50. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.2f 18. . 13. 1. 12.2. If a cal = 4a6c. about fac (2)X If 6. 32. 2a 2 6c.4. 24. X(5).3. 23. 22. c = 25. (2)x9. 8 31. 27. (7) X (12). tors is no misunderstanding possible. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (10) 4 . 17. 30. z s 11 aWcx. 2. (4)'. 1. x. is 6x7. 9. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (4)X(15). 16. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3. 8. _2^ 3. Ua b 28. 10. of Signs: TJie positive. 14.2 f+x 2 . 26. b = 3. 5x3.7. .(a&c) 2 2 . 29. 3 a2?/2 . and y = 4. 6 2. NOTE. 19. (c#) . 6. Law Thus. 2a6 c . 8 4 . 11. 3. . (. 4. (2) 8 (. find the numeri values of: 21. 6. 7. 15. 3 aW. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 5. 4 . x= 0. _2. .a)( =+ a&.(4J). 20. etc. 4 a2 .3) (1) 7 2 . +5.
1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 4. 4. 2(7. 6 = . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. .2 2 23 + 5 . 5. 5(711. or 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. By 3 definition.<?. Ex. of the factors. . 11..3).6 if 35. 100. & = 3. 50(112. 6 = 1. 4.35). i. 14. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.(7).e. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 13.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 5 = 2.m a 3  4 . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 6 aWc x . a = 3. 3.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2. . 3 3 4 . 5 . IB.  2 2. 6" 127 U . 2 2 3 6 . 9 . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 36.. Ex.(12) .257). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 7. 3. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 78 . + 2/). a= 1. 10. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. a 2 2 . . m*. 127  127 9 7 . fl*" integers. 3 2 . 2. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.503). = 2. B. 6.  and 2 25 8 . 12 U U . 1. : 3a7abc. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 34.2). . &*) c d*. =2 a *. 2 2 2 . This 52. (a6) (a5) 9. 5 3 5 3 2 . a = 2. 200. 2(14.7. 17. 2 3 . 53. 16.(2. a8 a=2.
_4aft. (. 2(645410). 24. multiply each by the monomial. (. 25. . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 17(10041042). 23(10004100420). 2 32. but we shall assume it for any number. 3. 31. 5.3 win ) .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 26.6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 34.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.4a#. 7.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.2 3 aft ).A). 21. 28.7 w'W (8 n^W). and then adding : 1. 29. 2(5fl5f25). 2. 20. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). by first multiplying. 7p*q r*. 22. c(4a ftc ). 11(3. called the distributive law. Thus we have in general a(b 56. /).f 2). 6(10420430). 3(124342). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. . 35. 27. . This principle. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 23. 12( + 1 4 i).7pqt. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. ) 2 33. . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. ax /) 2 4 1 (.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 35 4 7(6. . 4. 6. If results ft. 19.
2 27. 20. 21. 17. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 9. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 12. : expression must 24. . . 5). 7 a 6 c(. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 23. 2 2 16. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .60 a& 10 aft. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 29. 22. Find the factors of 6 ary . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 30. 19. f7a.3 aftc). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .6 a6). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. be multiplied to give 4o. By what 25.5 x 7).asa product.^ c + 2 . 2 m(mhn \p). ~2mn(m +n p ). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 3 ).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . 28.2 mn(9 mV . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 11.we b) (x law.5 w*V f 7 wn). 26.
M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. a2 + a8 + 3 . Since errors. To multiply two polynomials. 59. Multiply 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 2a3b a66 2 a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Check.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 2.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. however.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Ex. the student should apply this test to every example. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. .3 a 2 + a8 .4.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 + a a.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.1. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.
29. * For additional examples see page 261. 3<7). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (6i7n)(llJn). (4a 2 33. 12. 16. a 5c)(2a6c). QQ O7. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 41. 9. (8r7*)(6r39. 2 .4) (mnp 4. (6a~7) 2 . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).1 . 1). 3. 2. 24. 31. . 28.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (6p (2 f 21. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 17. 32. 18. 35. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.2). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 4 2). 5. 10. 2) (3 A: 1). 2 . 2 (a al)(2a?fl).4) (x + 1). 15. 6. (a^26) . + & + 1f a^faj 1). l)(raf 2). (13 A.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 8. (2w 19. 22. (2 x* x 2 . I (mfn)(m4. 2  37. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 36) I) 14. 36. 26. 12)(a?^2l). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 40. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 20. 7. ^ 2 . 25. 4. (ajf6y)(aj 23.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 7y). 13. 11. OQ OO. 36).2m)(l m). 30.
13. 2 6) (a 3 6). 6. X 102. + 9)(m+9). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (6 12) (6 f. 21.2 6) (a f 6). + 5) (1000 + 4). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 25. (a 9) (a + 9).25)(y+4). . . (a3)(a + 2). (a (a (a. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (a 102 x 103.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61.n)(wf w). in of the two unequal terms.e. ft 16. 1) (10 + 2).4). 17.e. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 28. 11. 75 ab f 54 ft . 25 a 2 . 20.13). 26. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 1005x1004. + 60)(f2). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (10+ (1000 (2. 9. plus the product 62.!!)( (a + 21). . 2 a? 29. 27. 15. + 3) (a 7). 18. 7. 14. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (J 23. _3)(a _4). (*. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. plus the product of the two unequal terms. i. 8. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (!)(* 5). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (100 +2) (100 + 3). 22. 3. 24. 12. 2) (1000 + 3). 19. (ra. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (p12)(p + ll). + 2) (a f 3). 10. i. : 23 2.
6. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 49 y*. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 9. plus twice the product of the first and the second. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 63. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. (a2) (p a .e. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 37.e. 7 a + 10. a2 2 w + 2 w .15. : 24 (a 2. of the second. <J>7) J . i.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 2 5.66 s.15. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 33. 7. w 2 ro . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. Ex. . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. plus sum of two numbers the square II. and the second. plus the square of the second. (x+3i/) 2 . III. III. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 3. n2 10ii+16. p 2 p. . 34. . + 6 a + 8. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (a26) 2 . i. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 32. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.30. second. 77ie square of the of the first. 35. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 8. 31. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 4. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 3) 2 .e.
24. G> +5g)*. 103 36. 51. 54. . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 52. 46. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 47. (20 f 1) . 22. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 2 11 # ) 2 20.30 ab + 25 6 64. By actual multiplication. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 40. 41. 16aW25. (^. 2 J ). . + 3z) 2 2 . 33. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 991 2 2 . . (100 + 2) (100 2). m 2 16. 99x101. 41 16. 11. 17. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 48. 998x1002. 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43.MULTIPLICATION 10. ). 31. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 2 . 104 2 37. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.998 39. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. (6afy 2 5) (a. 21. 7& ) 25. 38. 15. 25 a 9. 2 . + 5). 18. n 2 f4n+4. 14. 42. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. + 5)(5+a). 29. The product of 57. n*6n+9. 2 9a 496 2 56. ( 27. 55. 23. 62 25n 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 . 9 a2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. I) 2 . 22 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 12. (1000 2 . 32. (2x3yy. a2 9. 34. 35. 28. 45. (a 3) 2 2 2 . . 49. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 44. 4 53.
that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. : 25 2. (3m + 2)(ml). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. sum of the cross products.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 6. 5. (5a4)(4al). . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (4s + y)(32y). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 3. 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 8. The square 2 (a 4. 2 10. 11. (5a64)(5a&3). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. ((5a? (10 12. plus the last terms. or The student should note minus signs. ) (2 of a polynomial. 14. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 7. (2a3)(a + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 65. 13. 4. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ).
(u4& + 3c'.4) .r _ 2 . 4(aj2)h3(7). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 3. a. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 2)6.[a? . If x = 1. + 65) .5).(>.39. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Hence.X2 + 2 x .y? + 8 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 6)( . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.24] . 3. n). 13. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.5) = (7 . 12.3) (x . 6(a 2.8 x + 15] . after multiplying the factors of a term. 7. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.(= [ Xa + 2 . 4. 2 2.i2&c) 2 . Check.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.3) . 8. and check the answers !. 4. = 10 x . (a (. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 66. of z : 10. 7. (  2 4) =  20 a. = . . 9. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).39. 5. 4(* + 2)5(3).3)(z.1 5 = 10 . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .24 . Ex. 6~2(a + 7). 6. Find the square root 11. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 4y sf n) 2 . 8. (xy+z)*.(m 2 6.29. 5.4) .(x . Simplify (x + 6) (a .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).2) (3 a . (81 m + 1 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . v/17.e. . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . Division of the difference of two squares. 20. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.11 a + 9 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 18. a I. 51 15.l. 16. . 19.2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .DIVISION 14.
000. : the following w a 4 !. r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16. 14. 9& 2 . 15.49. . . 10. 12. 121a a 16 100 11. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 100ry. 4 b. 1. 16 . f 13. aW 12 a.0001.
which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 83. the 80. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. the first member is 2 x + 4. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . x 20. =11. 81. . . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. (a + ft) (a b) and b. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . is said to satisfy an equation. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. in the equation 2 x 0.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. 82. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . second member is x + 4 x 9. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.
If equals be multiplied by equals. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.54 84. 3. A 2 a. 5. but 4 does not equal 5. the quotients are equal. x I. 85. 4. the sums are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. one member to another by changing x + a=. 2.2. 2 = 6#f7. . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 86.b. A numerical equation is one in which all . Transposition of terms. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. the products are equal. called axioms 1. 90.g. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . If equals be added to equals. a. E. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the remainders are equal. If equals be divided by equals. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. the divisor equals zero. NOTE.e. If equals be subtracted from equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A term may be transposed from its sign. 87. 89.
The second member. a? Adding 5 to each term. a= a 6fc. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.9 y + y2 = 22 . if a x = b.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Dividing by Check. b c. Subtracting 4 x from each term. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.2 y= f . Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.6 y f y\ . Uniting.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Unite similar terms. x = 3.8. if 55 x members. Dividing both members by 2. is correct. Hence the answer. To solve a simple equation. 2 x = 6. . and the known terms to the second. f If y 20 . Uniting similar terms. Ex.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Transposing. 91. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 3 y . (4y)(6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. The first member. Check. 6a5 = 185 = 13. x = (Axiom 3) 92. 2(11 . The first member. b Adding a to both + a. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.2. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 4x 1 + 6. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. x = 93. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.
247y = 68lly.. 3 7 a. {(x (x The The member right member left . 4a + 5 = 29. 19. =2 = 3. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 16. J. + 22. Solve the following equations by transposing. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. = 5a?+18. .69. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Transposing. x x 1 . 21. 13 y 99 = 7 y. a?. 4. x = 18. 7a? 5. 7 (6 x 16).4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3. 22. a? a?. 17 7 a. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3)= 9(3 7 a. 8. 14y = 59(24y + 21). v23. a. 12. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 9 9a? = 7 13. and check the answers 9. 15. 11. 32 = 264. 14. = 2 ?/. 11 ?/ a? 18. etc. : 5# = 15+2a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 7.7. Dividing by Cfcecfc. aj * See page 264.7a: = 394a. \x x 2^xfl. it NOTE.56 Ex. 2. . 13a? 3a?. 50. 4y 10. a. 24. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. If x = 18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.. = 7. 17 + 5a. 6. = 3. Uniting. f Simplifying. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).17 + 4y = 36.
SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . + 7) (. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.g.2) (M . .3) + . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). find the other part.3) .1 0) = 0.7. 30. . 27. 38. 35. (a.5) = (a. Evidently 45. a? 28.5) + 199.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 29.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 6(6a. 40. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. (6 u =5 44. 34. 7(7 x y 26. . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.1) (a (a? + 3) = . .3) + 14. 25. 42. (aj 37.1) (u . 31. 7) (a. 2 2 * Jaj. 39. a? 43.14 = 0.(2 + 6) (4 . 33. 5) (as (a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. . .12) (2 + 5) . : One part is of 70 is 25 . + 4). 41. . e. or 70 a?. this question.4) + 4 w .32.7) (7 x + 4) .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.5(2 u .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. is the other part. . 36.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .
9. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 11. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5.58 Ex. 6. is d. so that of c ? is p. 5. 6. If 7 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 13. 1. EXERCISE 1. 33 2. Find the greater one. 15. 4. is a? 2 is c?. greater one is g. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. one yard will cost 100 dollars. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Divide a into two parts. 17. and the smaller one parts. one part equals is 10. 7. or 12 7. find the cost of one yard. a. Divide 100 into two 12. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Ex. smaller one 16. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 10. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. so that one part The difference between is s. 3. is b.
feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 19. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and spent 5 cents. 22. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B is y years old. 32. is A A is # years old. sum If A's age is x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. A feet wide. and B has n dollars. and c cents. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 20. b dimes. 33. find the has ra dollars. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. numbers is x. How many cents had he left ? 28. If B gave A 6 25. 34. ?/ 31. 28. How many years A older than is B? old. 26. A dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find 35. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and B's age is y years. Find 21. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 24. How many cents has he ? 27. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. amount each will then have. A man had a dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two.
How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. . c a b =  9. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. m is the denominator. The two digits of a number are x and y. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. Find the number. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The first pipe x minutes. A was 20 years old. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. Find a. 48. Find a 47. 46.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. 49. per Find 5 Find 6 45.50. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. A cistern is filled 43. a. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. % % % of 100 of x. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. of 4. he walk each hour ? 39. of m. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. .
of a increased much 8. 5. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The excess of a over b is c. by one third of b equals 100. 4. a exceeds b by c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of x increased by 10 equals x. etc. double of a is 10. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 9. The double as 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 80. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 3. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 6. 8 b ) + 80 = a . same result as 7 subtracted from .
first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. amounts. 11. A gains $20 and B loses $40. pays to C $100. B's. a. is If A's age is 2 x. sum equals $20. m is x % of n. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. >. 16.62 10. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. B's age 20. B's. a. 50 is x % of 15. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. B. they have equal of A's. 17. express in algebraic symbols : 700. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. x 4 If A. express in algebraic 3x : 10. of 30 dollars. 12. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. and C have respectively 2 a. a second sum. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. #is5%of450. 3 1200 dollars. 18.. In 10 years the sum of A's. 6 % of m. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. as 17 is is above a. 14. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. symbols B. they have equal amounts. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. . x is 100 x% is of 700. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C's age 4 a. (c) If each man gains $500. and C's ages will be 100.000. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.
In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. NOTE. x = 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x= 15. number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Simplifying. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 15. Three times a certain no. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. . Ex. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. number of yards. 3z40:r:40z. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. In 15 years 10. 23 =30. the . A will Check. 1. x+16 = 3(35). Find A's present age. Ex. Let x = the number. Uniting. Uniting. In order to solve them. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. the required . Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. etc. Transposing. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 2. Transposing. but 30 =3 x years. Dividing. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 6 years ago he was 10 . much as 40 exceeds the number. be 30 . 4 x = 80. denote the unknown 96.
A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Let x 3. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number. How many miles per hour does it run ? .64 Ex. 4. 11. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. % of 120. . twice the number plus 7. Find 8. by as much as 135 ft. 5. Find the number.2. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Hence 40 = 46f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Dividing. 13. 14. EXERCISE 1. 3. 300 56. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A number added number. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Six years hence a 12 years ago. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 120. exceeds the width of the bridge.
numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. five If A gives B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. .000. F 8. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. the second one. is the equation. The other verbal statement. B How will loses $100. written in algebraic symbols.000. 97. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and as 15. times as much as A. B will have lars has A now? 17. Vermont's population increased by 180. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. 1. How many dol A has A to $40. The sum of the two numbers is 14. Ex. A and B have equal amounts of money. and B has $00. During the following 90 years. two verbal statements must be given. 65 A and B $200. x. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. The problem consists of two statements I. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. which gives the value of 8. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. One number exceeds the other one by II. 14. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. Maine's population increased by 510. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. statements are given directly.
to Use the simpler statement. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. B will have twice as many as A. Uniting. = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. / . 25 marbles to B. = B's number of marbles. the greater number. . . = A's number of marbles. If we select the first one. and Let x = the Then x +. unknown quantity in Then. = 3. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Dividing. 2x a? x j = 6. consider that by the exchange Hence. If A gives are : A If II. + a f f 8 = 14. the smaller number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the sum of the two numbers is 14. terms of the other. x 3x 4 and B will gain. < Transposing. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Statement x in = the larger number. x = 8. Then. A will lose. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. The two statements I. B will have twice as viz. x x =14 8. Let x 14 I the smaller number.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. 8 the greater number. A has three times as many marbles as B. 8 = 11. 2. although in general the simpler one should be selected. A gives B 25 marbles. I. which leads ot Ex. Let x 3x express one many as A. has three times as many marbles as B.
A's number of marbles. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.. x = the number of half dollars. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.240. Dividing. by 44. Find the numbers. Let 11 = the number of dimes.. the number of half dollars. . the price. 60. The number of coins II. The value of the half : is 11. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. dollars and dimes is $3. Uniting. Two numbers the smaller. but 40 = 2 x 20. Check. x = 15.10. x from I.550 f 310. Dividing. Uniting. the number of dimes.10.$3. 40 x .75. * 98. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Check. 15 + 25 = 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42. 11 x = 5. 50. 45 . consisting of half dollars and dimes. 3 x = 45. then. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 1. Eleven coins. B's number of marbles. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. of dollars to the number of cents. greater is . differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.. have a value of $3. 2. w'3. etc. (Statement II) Qx . * ' . and the Find the numbers. 3. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.25 = 20. 6 times the smaller. is 70. Find the numbers.5 x . 50 x Transposing. x = 6. .10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Simplifying. cents.
What is the altitude of each mountain 12. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Two numbers The number differ by 39. Find their ages. How many inches are in each part ? 15. On December 21. the number. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Everest by 11. How many hours does the day last ? . cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 5. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40.68 4. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and twice the altitude of Mt. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. tnree times the smaller by 65. A's age is four times B's. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 7. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. as the larger one. 11. How many 14 years older than B. United States. 6. McKinley. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum.. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. Twice 14. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts.000 feet. one of which increased by 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches.
has. If A and B each gave $5 to C. are : C's The three statements A. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. and C together have $80. they would have 3. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. If 4x = 24. number of dollars of dollars B C had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. II. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and C together have $80. original amount. x = 8. B has three times as much as A. 1. B. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 8(8 + 19) to C. times as much as A. Let x II. and 68. Ex. number of dollars A had. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. and B has three as A. = 48." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. III. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. then three times the money by I. has. 19. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. The third verbal statement produces the equation. . bers is denoted by x.
number of sheep. 90 may be written. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. cows. sheep. 9 cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. each cow $ 35. III. + 35 x 4.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of cows. number of horses. and. each horse costing $ 90. 4 x f 8 = 28. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Let then. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. the third five times the first. Dividing. 1 1 Check. = the number of dollars spent for horses. number of cows. The total cost equals $1185. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and each sheep $ 15. 2. according to III. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. and Ex. x = 5. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x f 4 = 9. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x j = the number of horses. Uniting. 9 5 = 4 . first. The I. according to II. 185 a = 925. 28 2 (9 5). = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. + 8 90 x and. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and the sum of the . x Transposing. three statements are : IT.
and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and the sum of the first and third is 36. 7. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. The gold.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). increased by three times the second side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. what is the length of each? has 3. A 12. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. how many children were present ? x 11.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. the copper. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. twice the 6. 13. equals 49 inches. If twice The sum the third side. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.  4. women.000. v . men. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and children together was 37. "Find three is 4. first.000. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. what are the three angles ? 10. twice as old as B. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . first. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. New York delphia. 9. what is the population of each city ? 8. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and 2 more men than women. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the third 2. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.
B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.000. together. . 8 x = 15.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 14. width. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000. we obtain 3 a. but stops 2 hours on the way. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 3 and 4. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.e. number of hours. and distance. 7 Uniting. such as length. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. speed. and quantities area. number of miles A x x walks. Hence Simplifying. A and B apart. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. = 5. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. = 35. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000. of arid the value of the iron was $300.g. The copper had twice the value of the gold. how many 100. Find the value of each. Let x = number of hours A walks. Dividing. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems.000 more than that the copper. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. After how many hours will they meet and how E. i. or time. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. First fill in all the numbers given directly. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.
2 a = 40. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. x + 200).05 x x .053. z = 20. or 700. x . original field has Check. were increased by 30 yards. $ 1000 x . 70x10 Ex. l. the second 100. Check. $ 800 = 800.04 = $ 40. x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%." gives (2. Multiplying. 2   and transpose. $ 800 = required sum. 10 x = 200. The an area 40 x 20 =800. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. But 700 certain = 800 2. and the width decreased by 10 yards.M(x . + 8. the area would be 100 square yards less.06 = $ 40. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.01 = = .04 8. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. .x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. Transposing and uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . Find the dimensions of the field. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.
were increased by 3 yards. Six persons bought an automobile. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and a second sum. together bring $ 78 interest. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A of each. invested at 5 %. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. A sets out later two hours B . but as two of them were unable to pay their share. of coffee for $ 1. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A sum ? invested at 4 %. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 1. Find the share of each. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour.55. but four men failed to pay their shares. twice as large. mobile. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. the area would remain the same. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. sions of the field. 2. After how many hours will B overtake A. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. What are the two sums 5. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. 3. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %.
will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and from the same point.
The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. expression is rational with respect to a letter. this letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a. consider 105. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . it contains no indicated root of this letter . irrational. as. which multiplied together are considered factors. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. f db 6 to b. 6. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. it is composite. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if it does contain some indicated root of . a. stage of the work. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. 104. a. An after simplifying. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. a2 to 6. but fractional with respect 103. 76 . if. at this 6 2 . we shall not. 5. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV .
55. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. Divide 6 a% . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .) Ex. . 2.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 8) (s1).3 6a + 1). x. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.62 can be &). 01.3 sy + 4 y8). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. for this result is a sum.g. y. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. . factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 1. TYPE I. E. or that a = 6) (a = a . 77 Factoring is into its factors. It (a. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 110.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 107.FACTORING 106. in the form 4) +3. 2. it follows that a 2 . Factor G ofy 2 . ?/. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).62 + &)(a 2 . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Ex. x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 109.
32 a *?/ . 2 23. 14. 19. 18. 13.3. Ilro8 9. 5f 2 . 12. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . q*q*q 2 a. 15. 2 + q. 3 2 .30 aty.3.2.4.6. + llm llm. 2 6. (as 3) and (ccf5). in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.5 + 13 8. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 8. 11. 3.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 20. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3x*6x*.5 x*y 2 17 a? . TYPE IT. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2. 2 Or. . . 4. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.4. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. in general.g.51 aW + 68 21. 4 tfy f. 14a 4 5. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 7i 13. a a 'Ja . 16.51 x4 2 6 xy s . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.5 + 2.12 cdx. : 6 abx . a6c. ) 22  2. 34 a^c 8 . 17. 2 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. e. 3 3 5 6.8 c a 15 ofyV . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 7a & 10. 15 2 7. obviously. 4 8 .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.45 afy .
Therefore Check.11. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 3. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.4 x . + 112. If q is positive.a). Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. or 7 11.4 . 11 7. If q is negative. and (a . 2. . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).5) (a 6). 4. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.G) = . determine whether In solving any factoring example. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. Factor + 10 ax . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. can be factored. as p.11 a + 30.5) (a .11 a 2 . Ex. or 77 l.FACTORING Ex.30 = (a .1 1 a tf a 4. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 77 as the product of 1 77. + 30 = 20. .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.11) (a + 7). a 2 . Factor a2 . tfa2  3. 79 Factor a2 4 x .6 = 20. 2 6. We may consider 1.77 = (a. but of these only a: Hence 2 . however. . m 5m + 6. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. the two numbers have opposite signs. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. Factor x? . Ex. of this type. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 5.
ay 11 ay +24.70 x y . a 2 +11 a a? 16. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 12. 29.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 17.6. x2 23. 11. a 7 a 30. 13. 8. 2 . 2 2 . 19. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 21. 20. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 35. 2 ?/ 28. ITT. TYPE 113. 24. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 16. 36. + 44. 2 2 a' 34. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 21 a 2 2 . 4 3 2 . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 25. . in factoring 6 x2 + 5.48 + + 446 200.17 + 30. 30. + 2xS. 9. 15. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 14. a2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. 100 xr . and 5 x. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. .180 a.500 x + 600. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 4 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 4?/21. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 32. + 30. + 5<y 24. 2 ?/ 22. 31. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 6 8 8 4 2 a. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. a? + 5 + 6 a. or . 2 . 18. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products.80 7. 26. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 16. 27. 33.
The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 18 x 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. but the opposite sign. sible 13 x negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. a. 3 x and x.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the signs of the second terms are minus. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 2.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. If p is poxiliw. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 2 x 27. or G 114. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. .17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 6 x 9.5 . the If p and r are positive. 54 x 1. 9 x 6. Factor 3 x 2 . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. Ex.13 x + 5 = (3 x .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. and that they must be negative. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. and r is negative. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.5) (2 x . X x 18. 27 x 2. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3. .83 x f 54. viz. 11 x 2x.1).
h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 15.2 a 90 x*y . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.2) (x . 35. 12^17^16. and the monomial factors should be removed. Sar' + SaG. 2 . 9. 3a + 13a. 30. 2 fc .y + 172/9. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. x54 a. 18. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2 . 9a. 22. 3. 11. 90 a 8 2 . 2x* + 9x5. 4. 3x*Sx + 4. 5. + 2/3. 5m 26m f 5. 100^200^ + 100^. 2 31. + 4.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .27).83 x = (3 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 8. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 9 y + 32^16. 2 2 2 23. 12.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. .83 x .7. 6n + 5?i4. 2 28. 2 ar* 2 i/ . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 10a?2 2 33. 34. 14. 32. 25. 144 x . 10 a . 20.163 x 2 . 2 26. 24. 17. 2 2 2 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 7. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. f go. X 27 . 29. 14 a fa 4. 21.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. the expressions should be it.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . : 41 2.260 xy .30 y 6 4 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. since all others (II. 2. 13. 19. . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 10.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 6. 2m t7w + 3. 16. .179. 12y 2/6.19 a f 6.
. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .26 ab + 9 6 2 . 116. i. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 2 9 10gf25. and factor whenever possible : 1. 2. 3.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. of its terms are perfect squares. 6. 9 10a625. 11. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 13. form are special cases of the preceding type. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 25 7. however. 2 2 . 10. 4. . To factor a trinomial which maining term.20 xy f 4 y\ . must have a positive sign. it is a perfect square.e. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 12. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 9. square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 . it is more convenient for that type.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 14. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. and a perfect square. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . x* . 8. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 5.10 x f 16. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.
20 ab + 10 b a . a4 a2 2 f 6 is .6 m* + 9 m. 48 a +( ). 29. 2 20. a2 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). .84 15. a. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 1.9& 2 3<> 4 2 .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. ^//c to the Ex. 18. prime.2 ofy + ofy m . 7. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 26.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).3 * ). ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 6. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 10 a 2 4 2 . 17. . 36 2 4. 9a2 . ). 2. 19. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 22. u2 6& + 2 ( ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 25. Ex. 4a2 l. 3. 6 2 . + GO + 25. 2 . According to 65. 2 . aV . a. 16&*. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 9.60 a# + 4. +( )f816 30. TYPE 117. 225 ofy . * 2 . 2 . 3. ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 16. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. V. . 2. 4 2 23. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.64 6 = 16(a .e. 149 a 81 8. : 43 tfy\ a 9. product i. 27. 5.
(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . a:) 12.(I) . Factor a 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 5. T. of polynomials. 4. 13. 9. a2 .(c 4.d) 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Ex. 6. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2.c . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 36> . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (m7?) y. 11. 8. 2. 14. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.FACTORING 85 118. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . Ex. 16p 2 .
r. 8. 10. 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 3.ab + bx. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 119. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 9. . which may be factored according to types I. 4 B. ma ?*a + m& nb. + x + 2x + 2. 4:cx .1. x8 .y + 2 2). After grouping tain a the terms. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.VI. A. a 26 2 2 3 . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Ex. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.14. 12. a5 + ab 6 . 1.and trinomials. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.a a . 5) . Ex.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 7. = (3 x + y . . By grouping. a? 11.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 5. 6.7 c + 2c .2 ) (3 x .
2 7.FACTORING Ex. 6. 2. 3. 6a4 12a2 + 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 4.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 2. 3.l. IV. 36 9 m .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 4. 6 6. $ a8 . : 46 x* 2. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2a3/ 7. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. = (a + 6)(a6). . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 8. : m 2 2 16. . Arranging the terms. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 8.4 f . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 5. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 8ra 2 + 16. II. l~a 2a56 2 2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms. w m 2. 4 a2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. + 2xy + y*q*. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.
a3 156. 2 17. a + a + a + l. 42 s 2 . 12.40. a6 36. 3 a2 23.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 19. 3 41. 4 a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 30. 40. 11. 80 a 2 ft 38. 27. . 28. 29. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 32. (a. 13 c . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33.13 c . 4 8 tt 2 z .24. 3 25. 13. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 22. 35. 14. 50^ + 45. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 5 a. 2 ft . 24. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.88 10. 25 a + 25 aft . + 6 aft + 3 . or 3 7#2 . + 14. 48. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 2 a 128. 42 x . 5a' 20. 256 4 2 2 ?/) .156. a. 18. 3 2 . (^ 34. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.310 x . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 2 3#4 3a2 36.
the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. II 2 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of : 48 4. The H. F. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . of the algebraic expressions. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. C. C. 12 tfifz. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. C. F. 15 aW. 8 . aW. 2. F. F. Two common factor except unity The H. . EXERCISE Find the H. The student should note H. Thus the H. F. F. 25 W. 89 . 5 7 34 2s . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 6. 5. C. of 6 sfyz. 3. 24 s . F. are prime can be found by inspection. 13 aty 39 afyV. of aW.) of two or more . 2 2 . 5 2 3 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. of a 7 and a e b 7 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 5 s 7 2 5. 3 . 122. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. The H.  23 3 . C. The highest is common factor (IT. C. 54  32 . F. 121.
7. 65 zfyV. a 3a4. a2 + 2a3. 2 . C. 12 . a. x* x2 Hence the H. ^f a. 6(m+l) (m+2). 12 w*nw 8.y) . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . (a7 ?/) . 12. a2 ar* 4.6. 12. 8 a 10 . 4 ?io. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 6 3 a. F. 2a f5af 2. 49 C. of polynomials.^9.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 1. To find the H. . . 52 oryz4. F. .90 7.5 y). 0^80:416.y + y42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. Find the H. 3 . a2 + 7af!2.5 x3?/ 2 6. . 8.2 y) (a. . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 25 m27i. 9. a3 16 a. 225 4a 9 . 6 mx . 10.?/ . C. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 5. 38 #y. C. F. 9. ^2 2 .# 4 afy f 4 .5 + 6. of: . y + 3y64. 3^ 2 4 . 8 6. 95 2/V. 2. 4(m+l) 3 . 16. 8(?/ifl) 14. 14. Ex. 13. 57 a>V. aWd. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 2 . 2 . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F. 16 a . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. and apply the method of the preceding article. 15. 15 3ao. a2 .y) 123. 11. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 10.6 a&. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 6 a2 y? . of + 4 if. . ^707 + 12.2 ?/) (x . 24 a 2 . 1. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.y)\ O+ 0^(0.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 3). ^a + 5^ + 6. 8. 11.12 as 66 . a3 9a.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . = x 2 y.8 a + 16. 13.6 . 9 aj*(a? . 3. 2 .
=4 a2 62 (a2 . 127. A common remainder. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . L. Common 125. C.C.M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . .6 3 ). M. M. C. C. 60 x^y' 2 . two lowest common multiples. M. C. The lowest common multiple (L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. etc. thus. M.M.6)2.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. each set of expressions has In example ft). find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. Hence the L. C. 128. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. To find the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 126. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. which also signs. 2 The The L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. M of the algebraic expressions. M. M. of tfy and xy*. NOTE.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. but opposite . C. L. M. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. C. of the general. The L. of 3 aW. a^c8 3 . Find the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. ory is the L. &) 2 M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 300 z 2 y. Find the L.C. . Ex. M. 1. 2. Ex.
a^1. 3 6 xif. xy\ . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. M. a. 2 a. 24. 22. + 6. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 8. x2 + 4 a f 4. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 15. a& 4 +& 2 . 6. T a 3 a 2 . + 2 7i) . 2. 3 . 9. a 2 a3 . or f 3 a 15 #. a 2 f 4 a +4. x 2 5 a. by. 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y.1. ic 23. 20 9 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2(m 2 .f 6. G a. 3. 2 a . . a f 3. 16. b 2 . 20. x* ~5a. 18. (For additional examples see page 268. 21. 3(a + b). a 1. 2 . 6b 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 40 abJ. 13. a !. 3 Z> . y*. 2 . 8 afy. 1. ic 2 ?/. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 17. 2 a . 8 d 5 . 3 ab. Find the L. 30 a. 6 y. . 24 x. 2 7ic+10. 14. of: 4. 7. 2 x \2 y. 4 a f 2. a?b. 2 10. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . ) .1. afc'cd 2 . 5. 4 a . 11. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3. f b. a f 2 19. (a 4)(a2) 12. a2 ~ab 1. a 2 fa6. a { a~b. 3 f2. #. afy. 6 a. + 2. a2 4. a. a.
successively all 2 j/' . A f fraction is b. an indicated quotient. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . 130. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . F. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. as 8. a?. Thus. 131. Ex. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Remove tor. but we In arithmetic. etc. however. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C.ry ^ by their H. rni Thus 132. and denominators are considered.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a b = ma mb .
94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.4) Ex. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. . _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 3. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.
'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 9x + "a" 10. . 29. . """.. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ' ^ . ny 4 18.*.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.7 . 23.' 32. _ 3 7i rt< 26. . ^" a. nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 16. ^+3*. g J 21. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^' rt ^  31. 19. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.10 a + 3 2 14. 5^10 y 30. LJZJ^JL.
by 3 ^ A 2 ' . ^ to their lowest com The L.  by 4 6' . Divide the L.r 2 2 . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. 1.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 . 2> . M. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. . and (a 8). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.C.C. by the denominator of each fraction. and 135. of the denominators for the common denominator. mon T denominator. C. TheL.M. take the L. C.  of //* 2 . we have M^. . and the terms of ***. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Reduce ^.3) (!)' = . and 6rar 3 a? kalr .96 134.M. Ex. + 3). To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.~16 (a + 3) (x. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.D. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. 1). 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . .1^22 ' . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.
18. 3. 8 i i. . . 7i 2 ab* ". JL.^1.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.. 2. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. If the given fractions have different denominators. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2aj ~ . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . i. j y 3. . 137. 22 a2 5a * .oj o* or / . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).. 5?.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. common denominator 6. 74). 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . o o a. a? 1 5 > ^* . .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2 ay IB. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.
^ is 2^JT) .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 ' 2 _..98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.7 . L.(a 2 6). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 ft 2).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. as 4 aft f. the student should remember that parentheses are . 2 ^. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .ft) (a ft ft)~. 4(2 a 3 ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . D.3 ft). in the beginning. (a . C. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . The L.g. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should..ft)(a . and adding. e. D. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.aft) Ca2 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.2 = a(a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. T? Ex. 2.
a+6 a 6 2 14. a 36 ++. j>0 i> 21. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 6 c 3a 7. 2L + 2a 1 17. 2. 15. 5a76 4a 106 9.5 18 ^4f25. 20. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. + . A+2_3. 46 2a 4a 12. 18 v 19. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 23. 1 f q * 1 m m . a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + a "" 2 6 ' . 24. 1 1 f w 16.
43. a. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a ?^ 40. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44.9 79 6 2 i. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 41. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j. a 30. a 4 31. 3a 9 +. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9. ic 1 + 1. 2 af1 32. 1 34. 42. ! n.
6 + 4x 4 x2 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 101 mixed expression. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. . .  . .  4 or 3 2a.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 1. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .7 5a v Ex. T. Reduce .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139.
each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. fractions to integral numbers. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Since  = a. or.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. integer. (In order to cancel common factors.) Ex. 2. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.g. !. multiply the 142.
FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. . 2 f 5 a. 5# 56 / c& 4.. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.6 12 d6 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 4 8. 50 .
104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Divide Xn?/ . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . To divide an expression by a fraction. . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 144. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 1.
a a2 4.afr 4. are fractional.^c 2 2 . or both.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. Ex.FRACTIONS 105 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.5 ??i 80 50 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. l. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.10 ?/ _.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .6 s + 064.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . C. & . n a 8. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. the answer is directly obtained. x* 4. of their denominators. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. i.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. 6.a ^c c _^ a . . . 10. c +6.y 32 . a m "" . y X 4* 2 y 3. JL. Ex.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 7i+~ 7. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). . Simplify x }. 9. 2.
: .~l (For additional examples see page 273.) . sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 i 1 2 5 . i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.9 x2 + 9. C. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .1. 5(3 85 Check. Transposing. Uniting. 148. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).28 x + 42 = . 4 4)  x.48. If x 6.8 x = . = 6. 2. 2 3. + 1) (a + 3) . a. 1. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 2z2a. Bx 12 Qx. Clearing of fractions.l)(z + 3) = . of the denominator. these Ex. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).28 a = 5 x2 . x = 6. Uniting.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. = 6. 2x Transposing.42 + 9. 9x x Check. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. If = 64. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. each member is reduced to Ex. tions. each member is reduced to 1. M.14 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . . 108 .f3# + C:E=6f7212.
^' 2.1 _77 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.= 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. '  4 13. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +4 14. 1 *> = 2. +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9. . 18. 15. . 16. a: 7 a. a.
2^12 = 2 = 34. .11_4 x 149. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ?_=_. y+3~2 29._ _ . 4a4l4* + l~. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 3x 35. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. If two or more denominators are monomials. . 27 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.  38 = 40. . 32 6 . 31 31. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 26 26. 33.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. . 25. and" the remaining one a polynomial.
29 50712' 9 18 . 1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. C. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 26 a. Dividing. Transposing and uniting. each member is reduced to ^. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. . 60.  5 = 20 x 45. the 1 5 L. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. = 9.1.2 42 9 43. If a. 24 a. 5# 10.2 3 ~  == 7a.. 5x x : = 9. M. Check.
2. jr. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = 6 a2 . Ex.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. a. Uniting the Dividing. f ~ 5c.1. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. If 3ac L= = a ? . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. . ax f x f. =a 2 151. = l^ 9 b 4 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. = = 6 6c 7 6c. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 4 ac 1.3 6 2 = a' . fr Reducing lowest terms. Uniting. = 2 f b 2 . y. Dividing. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.2 62 2 ab. Thus. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. they are united by factoring. It frequently occurs that the x.m bx 2 mn) x. 5> a. find a in terms of b and c.be.2 ac + 3 aft .& . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.
. = 3 (6 a). = 5. If * 33.= n. p the principal. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. and n the number of years. * Solve the same equation for^). denoting the interest. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. IIL n b + &o. co?.i l . + xx = 1. solve for a. = rt. = 8 4 #. m a? x . 3(* 8. + 3a. 30. 4. If ^^ = a 1 32. 9. mx = n. 15. 10. 3. solve for . 5) is t =^. If s (wi n) x =px + q. . c. The The i time. c 18. f ^o.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. f P =+!. If s If 16. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. in terms of other quantities. r the number of $>. 12.= c a Z> . 29. iw 21.a. . = vt. 4. s = Vt solve for v. _ 2. 2 solve for y a. 6. . t. 13. ^ ax a^ 26. 11. Ex. 31. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. rate.= H. q solve for/. 1 f. 34. a. 14. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 17. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .
1.114 35. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. and 12 = the number over. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. x Or Uniting. A would do each day ^ and B j. 12. is 36. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. . Ex. . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.. Find R in terms of C and TT. 2. Ex. Multiplying by Dividing. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 100 C.180.20 C. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = 16^. 2 3 .. then = 2 TT#. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
and the statement. the rate of the express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. = 100 + 4 x. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the required number of days. Solving. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Ex. 32 x = . 180 Transposing." gives the equation /I). Clearing. 4x = 80.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." : Let x  = the required number of days. or 1J. 3. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. in Then Therefore.
one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 3. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is oO. 3. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and one half the greater Find the numbers. length in the ground. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. a man had How much money had he at first? . make 21. ceeds the smaller by 4. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. by 6. to his son. and 9 feet above water.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and J of the greater Find the numbers. of his present age.  Find their present ages. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. fifth Two numbers differ 2. to his daughand the remainder. is equal 7. which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and of the father's age. ex What 5. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. money and $10. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Find A's 8.
ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. investments.) 22. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. what is the rate of the express train? 152. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. air. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. How much money $500? 4%. 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. what is the 14. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and B in 4 days. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. Ex. 1. and it B in 6 days. 2. . ^ at 5%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. Ex. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. Ex. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train.
009 918. 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. e.= . we obtain the equation m m . To and find the numerical answer. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. if B in 3 days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.118 153. they can both do in 2 days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 5. A in 6. and apply the method of 170. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 16. and n = 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 25. Hence.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. 3. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. is 42. 26. A in 4. A in 6.e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. . The problem to be solved. m and n. B in 12. B in 30.g. Ex. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. . therefore. Then ft i.414. . is 57. n x Solving. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.
the rate of the first. squares 30. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. Two men start at the first miles apart. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 2 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.721. (d) 1. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. (b) 149. if m and n are. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. meet. 34. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.000. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. : (c) 64 miles. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. is (a) 51. respectively (a) 60 miles. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour.001. is ?n . the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (b) 35 miles. Find the side of the square. (c) 16. . 33. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 4J miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. and the second 5 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. the second at the apart. squares 29. The one: 31. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. respectively. 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. 3 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28.
Ex. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 158. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b is the consequent.g. 6 12 = . is numerator of any fraction consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. " a Thus. a ratio is not changed etc. b. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. 1. the second term the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. the antecedent. b. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. : : 155. the symbol being a sign of division. the denominator The the 157. etc. The first 156." we may write a : b = 6.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. . Simplify the ratio 21 3.5. antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. In the ratio a : ft. E. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .
16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b is the mean b. 3:1}. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 5 f hours : 2. 10. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 9. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. : 1. 62:16. 159. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 7:4 T T 4 . 8^ hours. In the proportion a b : = b : c. J:l. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. terms. b and c the means. 18. The last first three. 16. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 4:5f : 5. : ay . 3:4. proportional between a and c. 27 06: 18 a6. a and d are the extremes. 3 8. 16a2 :24a&. 4. 6. Simplify the following ratios 7. 7f:6J. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. two  ratios.RATIO Ex. extremes. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 11. 3. equal 2. 17. $24: $8. 12. Transform the following unity 15. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. b. 61 : ratios 72:18. and c is the third proportional to a and . and c. 1.
ad = be. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. then G ccm.e. The mean proportional of their product. Hence the number of men required to do some work. !. briefly. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. and the other pair the extremes. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 163.) b = Vac. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams. q~~ n . Clearing of fractions. 3 4.) mn = pq. are : : : inversely proportional. 2 165. 164. of iron weigh . a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. of a proportion. : c. " we " NOTE. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. If (Converse of nq. pro portional. 163.30 grams. 6 ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. : : directly proportional may say.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.122 162. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. i.__(163. and the time necessary to do it. ccm.
(Frequently called Inversion. is Ex.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Or IV. I.) d 167. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. = 35 . . V. a:c=b:d. ad = be. + b:b = c + d:d. bd bd.) (Called Alternation. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. then =d c. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. 1.PATIO Ex. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a III. if 6 : 7. 166. ad ( 163.) = f f = 3 J. 2. (163. d d. (Division. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. 12x Hence a? = 42. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. hence the proportion true. I.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Composition. is 4$ = 35.) II.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.
x = 2. 4. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. IV. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 12 5ft. 2. the consequents by 7. . = 2:x. V. Apply composition. = 180:125. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 8. 10. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 9. E. = 7:2f 3J. 120:42 2 2 7. .!=!*.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 2:3. 3. 5. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.124 IT. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Or III. 5 5. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.g. : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Simplify the following proportions. i.e. 6 =4 : x. mx tin Apply composition and division. = 20:7.
23. 2. 9 x = 2 y. 5. 18. Find the third proportional 24. 3. = 3 43 + x. 50. mx = ny. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 39. 17. Find the mean proportional 30. w. 35. ra 2 . 4 and 16. : 53. rag. 6x = 7y.. 2 3 = y #. ra. 52. 2= 5 x x. 38. 14 and 21. 29. 4.j>. if : 40. 6. = l^:18. 112:42 = 10:a. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 34. .:ff. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. a. : . 14. 3. 2 a and 18 a. a?:15 15. 44. 3t. 12. 6 x = y. 33.x: 6:5 a : x. 1. to: = 35:*. x:5 = y:2. 27. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. to : 9 and 12. 1 and a.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 20. Find the 37. 47. 03:a?=135:20. 41. 25. x m = y n. = 2 + x: x. b. 43. 22. + fyx = cy. 42. rap. terra 2:3 = 4. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36.  32. : a2 . 28. a 2 and ab.8:1. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 16 and 28. 5= 18 a? : a?. f. 16. to : a and 1. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. = 5 x 12. 21. 26. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. ra + landra 1. ratio of y. 46. 31. 7iy = 2:x. (a : : 45. 51. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. and 2/. 2. 13. = 15o.
and the speed of the train. 57. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the : total cost.126 54. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. what 58. the area of the larger? the same. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. A line 7^. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 56.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the area of the rectangle. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the time. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).
Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. x = 6. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x = 66 is the first number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 2. 7 x = 42 is the second number. AB = 2 x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x f 7 x = 108. x=2. Let A B AC=1x. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. : Ex. 4 inches long. is A line AB. . 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.000 168. produced to a point C. 2 x Or = 4. Then Hence BG = 5 x. as 11 Let then : 1. so that Find^K7and BO.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). = the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108.
How many 7. 9.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. What are the parts ? 5. How many gen. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. Gunmetal tin. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 13. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.000.000 square miles. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 12. 3. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 6. 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. and 15 inches. and c inches. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : 4. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 14. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How The long are the parts ? 15. 12. : 197. 2. 11.) . Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.
. Hence. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. such as + = 10. =. is x = 7. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y = 1. The root of (4) if K 129 . values of x and y. if . etc. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. a? (1) then I. expressing a y. 2 y = .e. there is only one solution. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. x = 1. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.y=.L x If If = 0. However.
y = 2. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they express the x f y 10. The first set of equations is also called consistent. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 4y . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 21 y . 172. Substitution. viz.24. same relation.3 y = 80. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.26. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. E. are simultaneous equations. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 174. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. Therefore. of elimination most frequently used II. ~ 50. = . unknown quantity. cannot be reduced to the same form.X. By By Addition or Subtraction. the last set inconsistent. y I 171. to The two methods I. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 6x . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. and 3 x + 3 y =. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 26 y = 60. 3.130 170.
14 =8. 25 x . y = 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. Check.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 5 13 . whose coefficients In general. are like. 37. + 2. 64 x = 040. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 3y = 3. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 10 . Therefore Check. subtract the equations. x = 10. 3.3 y = 47. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 8 2.3 1 = 47. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 10 + 5 1 = 135. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. = 235.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Transposing. = 406. add the equations. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). y = 1.2 = 6. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3. 60 .
3. 7 ' 1fi fl . I ~ y~~> 22. I i 3 a. O t K 8. 13.4. i 3. ' 12. I oj 5y = 17.f2/ ' = 50.5 y = 2. J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 41. 13 61 l7a.9 *. x 11.3. [2o. * + 3 y = 50.v 23. v ^ = ll. 9 1 r 20. ] ^ . . I . = 6. f 3X 7x 14. + 2/ 17. f 3# ?/ = 0. = 24.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 19< I a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. _.
tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. . = 60. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 13. = 2y + 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 4#8. = 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 3. 8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. and solve the resulting equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2.
it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 29 x = 29. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. + 212y4 = 14.3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. however. 7x_2y=3.6)7(y7)==18. 3. simplified before elimination is possible. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 4* + 3y = 19.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . x = l. From 9 = 36. \ \6(a. (7) (7) (8) . Substituting in (6) . 21z6y=9. (4). 3 (1) Ex. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. . 2 y = . 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7 y = 6. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.
+y 2 . a.f2 2. yM a. J 9. . = 3.1) = 121. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 12. 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) + 5(6 y . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 14. 4 11. 10 2a?5 17. . 16.
but some expressions involving x. and y. ?~y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.Q ^ 4 21. * ((* (( . f y .#. {. 180. e.and x y . . 22. 3x\" 1 23 24.
x 3.3 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 2* * x 2. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 15 y + 8 x . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Clearing of fractions. of this type. etc. Dividing by 11 3 = #.4 x = 4 xy. y. however. 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). (2) (3) a. y 1. . 33 = 11 x. 137 Solve y y (1) . . (4) + (G). x 2x(2). Therefore y=4. can also be solved Examples method. y 4. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).
= 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. Ex. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 21 9 . = en. x y 331 9. x 8. 6. 253 7. 4 13. x y 5. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). y MOi y a. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 1. .= o 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .
ax + by = 2 a&. Uniting. s in 11. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ap.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 5. and I. . x f my = 1. 6. x 12.y = = 9a + 46. x a. bmy bm}y ap cm. a Find a and terms of n. and I if 13. w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.W. ny = fy/ I sc 1. apan cm. d. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. fax f = l. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 14. . Dividing. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. . W . .
4. 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). x + 12 y .25.by 2. 8 x . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.lf> z . etc. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. l.16.3 = 8. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (8) 2. To solve equations containing By tions.3=4.15z=12 Adding. = 30. ties are Similarly. 1.12 y + 6 z = . 4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. Ex. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 6.1+4. 182. . (4) (5). 3.8 = 1. 20. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). f 3y 12 =s 8.2 + 4. = 3.2 + 3.13. y =* 2. by 3. 3y = Hence Check. 1.
10. ~6?/ 5. 8. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 15 2 = 45. 14. + y f z = 15. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 7. a? + 709 = 26. a? 11. 12. k 2/ f 2 x a. 49. == 6. 2 . 2 4. 2z = 40.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. x 13. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 4 = 42.
23.3 y + .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 8*. (3 _. 60. 84 21. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.6 2. .. . =s 20. 27. 4. ? = llz. 1510 4 17.42 = 2. 22. 19. ?/ 3x = 0. . = 5. 32.2 a. ^ = 2. 16.
the number. . z + x = 2 n. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and to express In complex examples. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. symbols: x + y +z 8. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. however. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Obviously of the other . 2 = 6. x : z =1 : 2. 2 = 1(1+6). either directly or implied. y * z 30.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. . 1. Find the number. Ex. +2+ 6 = 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Check. and if 396 be added to the number. = 2 m. = l. M=i. # 4. + 396 = 521. ( 99.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 digit in the tens place. + z = 2p. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. 1 = 2. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. y 31.
= Hence the fraction is f. increased by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. = the fraction. 3+1 5+1 4_2. xy a: 2y 4y 2. (1) (2) 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Since the three men traveled the same distance. By expressing the two statements in symbols. x 3x4y = 12. we obtain. 4 x = 24. = 8. y = 3. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. direction. B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 6 x 4 = 24. 2. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x y = the = the x denominator . C.144 Ex. x 3 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Or (4)2x(3). 2. Ex. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 5_ _4_ A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 3.
5. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the digits will be interchanged. the last two digits are interchanged. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 2. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the number. the value of the fraction is fa. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction equals . the Find the fraction. and the fourth 3. part of their difference equals 4. fraction is reduced to \. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the number (See Ex. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the numbers. 7. Find the numbers. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. Find the numbers. tion ? 8. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. A fraction is reduced to J. and its denomi nator diminished by one.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 6. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 1. it is reduced to J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. ? What 9. If 27 is 10. and the numerator increased by 4. If the denominator be doubled. Find the number. 183. to the number the digits will be interchanged. . the fraction is reduced fraction. number by the first 3.}. both terms. Find the fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. its value added to the denominator.) added to a number of two digits.
A sum of $10. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. partly at 5 %. 13.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the rate of interest? 18. respectively ? 16. and in 5 years to $1125. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 19. How 6 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 12. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and 4 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. . and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.grams. A man invested $750. and partly at 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 5 %. 14. Find their present ages. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.000 is partly invested at 6%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. the annual interest would be $ 195. in 8 years to $8500. now. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find the rates of interest. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and money and 17. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. If the rates of interwere exchanged.
If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. the three sides of a triangle E. BC=7. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. triangle Tf AD. 1 NOTE. then AD = AF. 25. . BC = 7 inches. and their difference by GO . and $15 for each sheep. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. but if A would double his pace. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. three AD = AF. BE. On /).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. $ 50 for each cow. and sheep. c. for $ 740. cows. angle c = angle d. andCL4 = 8. and F '(see diagram). 23. and e. and GE = CF. points. respectively. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and CE If AB = G inches. and AC = 5 inches. An C touch ing the sides in D. 24. are taken so ABC. the length of NOTE. and F. E. ED = BE. what is that = OF. . The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and angle e angle/. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and angle BCA = 70. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. is the center of the circum scribed circle. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BD = HE. A farmer sold a number of horses. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. B find angles a. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. Find their rates of walking. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F.
PN are given. (3. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. It' Location of a point.. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2. B. is the abscissa. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate of point P. The of Coordinates. and PJ/_L XX'. PM. . or its equal OM. and point the origin. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. 3). (7. first 3). and PN _L YY'. ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 186.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. YY' theyaxis. and r or its equal OA is . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. 2). PN. Thus the points A. (2. jr. the ordinate by ?/. is The point whose abscissa is a.
1). and measure their distance. 6. (4. 2). 4. 1). (1. 4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.and(l. (0. . Graphs.4). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 0). 2. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 2). 11.) EXERCISE 1. Plot the points: (4. . (4. 3). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 0). 0). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. What is the locus of (a?. 3). (3. 3). i. Plot the points : (0.2). (4. 3.e. 4) from the origin ? 7. 2J). which of its coordinates known ? 13.3). (2. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Plot the points (6. 6. (5.(!. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 8. (4. 4). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (See diagram on page 151. (0. 0). !). 1). 71 2). (4. 12. 4) and (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. B. however. ure the ordinate of F. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. we meas1 . . 1. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. D. 15. A. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. By representing of points. 188. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 10 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds.. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. from January 1 to December 1. may be found on Jan. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. Thus the first table produces 12 points. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. or the curved line the temperature. C.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the merchant. (b) July 15. as the prices and production of commodities. the matics.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. The engineer. the graph is applied. (c) January 15. uses them. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the rise and fall of wages. etc. physician. .
During what month does the temperature change least? 14. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. How much. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (d) 9 0... is 10. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 15. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13..152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (freezing point) ? 7. ? 9. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. (1) 10 C. 1 to Oct. During what months above 18 C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. When the average temperature below C. on 1 to the average. ?  3. 1? 11 0. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.
153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. NOTE. 20. Hour Temperature . a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw a graph for the 23.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 19. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1.
inch. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 190. A 10 wheels a day. books from for printing. represent his daily gain (or loss).50. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. x increases will change gradually from 13. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if he sells 0.50. function If the value of a quantity changes. x 7 to 9. 26. if each copy sells for $1.. 2 . the value of a of this quantity will change.) T circumferences of 25. etc. 4. and $. 2. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.154 24. e. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . the daily average expenses for rent.. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. x* x 19. 1 to 1200 copies. binding. 29. 28. gas. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.. 3.5 grams. 9. . An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.g. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. etc. amount to $8.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. to 27. 3. then C irJl.
. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . plot points which lie between those constructed above. E.1). may . is supposed to change. and join the points in order. Q. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. may. 3 50. Ex. (2.g. ( 2. 2). it is In the example of the preceding article.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 3 (0. to x = 4. If a more exact diagram is required. 2 (1. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. J). and (3. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. (1^.2 x may 4 from x = 4. while 7 is a constant. Graph of a function. The values of func192. be also represented by a graph. for x=l. etc. x a variable. (1.e. 9). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 4).1). as 1. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. however. Draw the graph of x2 f. construct '.0). 2. 9). 1 the points (3. a*. 4).
and join(0. 194.. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Thus in the above example.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. r */ +* 01 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. (2. 1). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 2 4 and if y = x f. 7 .20). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. (4. = 0. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.) For brevity. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 5).2 x . etc.. 2. 4J. straight line produces the required graph. . = 4. 4). as y. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. y = 6.. rf 71 . j/=3.4). the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (3. Thus 4x + 7.. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. Ex.
or. (ft) (_ 1. the function. = The values of a*. 2x + 3x a?. ?/ a.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 2 2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 19. The values of a*. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. J. The smallest value of the function. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 6 fa. Jar . if a. (C ) (2. 2 2 a. 22. 15. 4a? I. from x VlO'S". 1. i. 3. The values of a?. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 14.e. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 21. xl. l. a* 13. 2 a. = 4. (7i) (c) 23. . xz + x. 8. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. if the function equals zero. 1 8 10. . x+1. if"a. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. if y = 2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a ar. 11. 2J. 1J. fa 17.5)2. 2 or 2 20. 2J. 2 a. 1J. 18.8)'. + 4. y = 2x = 4. 3 a 8. 3. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2. 4 a. a? 2 4. 12. a? 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. a?. 9. (If) Va25. 7. 1J. 16.5)2. 6. 5. 23x.
A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. that graph with the o>axis.24.158 24. 32 F. y= formula graphically.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. the abscissas of 3. 25. Represent 26.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 1 C. then cXj where c is a constant. Therefore x = 1. C. Show any convenient number). it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.e.where x c is a constant.24 or x = P and Q. 9 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. . GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.. i. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 14 F. then y = . to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C..
the points may be found otherwise by inspection. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. Such equations in general have two roots. 2 and 1. = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 3. 11. viz.7 2 a 5 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 6. (0. . and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 6. is called a quadratic equation. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 12.f 9 = 0. 4. (a) (6) 9. 8. 7. a2 2a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. + + = where a. 0. 14.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. or 5 2. 197. (a) x2 = 0. 10. 13. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. crosssection paper is used.
4) and them by straight line AB (3.2 y ~ 2. = 0. if y = is 0. 2). y = l. produces the 7* required locus. Hence if if x x  2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.1. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Hence we may join (0. 1) and 0). 3x _ 4 . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. because their graphs are straight lines. unknown quantities. y y 2. Ex. NOTE.2. (f . solve for ?/. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. . 199. 0). If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. first degree. T . == 2. X'2 Locating the points (2. and joining by a straight line. Ex.e. locate points (0. and join the required graph. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). i. fc = 3. 4) and (2. If x = 0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. ?/ =4 AB. ?/.
202. P. and CD. viz. 201.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).15.57.1=0. 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots. AB y = . By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. equation x= By measuring 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. 3. (2) . Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. linear equations have only one pair of roots. To find the roots of the system. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).
Solving (1) for y. i.5. (1) (2) C. 0) and (0. 2.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Using the method of the preceding para. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. and joining by a straight line.0. 4. 1. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 2. 0.e. and . 3). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 3. 4. we of the + y* = 25. 5. 3. 3. if x equals respectively 0. the point we obtain Ex. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. Since the two  we obtain DE. 2 equation x 3). 4. = 0. Locating two points of equation (2). 4. (4. Measuring the coordinates of P. There can be no point of and hence no roots. etc. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. intersection.  4. 0. 3x 2 y = 6.0). 4. e. 5.. (4. 1. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.9. (2. P graphs meet in two and $. they are inconsistent. x2 . AB the locus of (1). the graph of points roots. and + 3).y~ Therefore. y equals 3.g. Inconsistent equations. 4. V25 5. 4.5. The equations 2 4 = 0. . In general. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Locating the points (5.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 7. 19. state reasons. y=x + 5. and. y 2 4. 6. 20. 17. '163 Dependent equations. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 3. 16 22. 9. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. Draw system. a. a+r/=6.. and solve each If there are no solutions. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. vice versa. y= a2 2x y6. 2x 3?/=6. 2. \ 2x + 3^ . 10. the graphs of the following systems. . 4. 16 23. 8. 5. if possible. y = 4.
Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.8. 3 31. 28. CUBES. TABLE OF SQUARES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y).164 24. 25. 26. 30. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS .
is may be by 207. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 2. 52. 3 f a = f a = +. 2. a special kind of product. ^4/? it According to 50. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs. involution repeated multiplication. According to 1. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. etc. on to in factors 4. ( a) is positive. . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a = a3 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.a2 . follows that 3. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.faa a a a Obviously 1. fa. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 8. powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .
\ 3 J '  MW 10.6 (a 8 8 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. . 76 : (>y. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (a ) 2 5 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (2ar).6) = a . 3 2 2 8 . 15. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (^^) 2 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 4. 16. (a ) 2 4  3. V V/ 13. 2 11 (afc ) . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 24. 6. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 5.166 To find To To power. 4 /2mV. raise a fraction to a power. 2. 210. a product to a given power. amVy) 3 . the required power. (277171 )*.
y) = (3 y?y . 9. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 8 (a??/) 3 .3 y. 2. frequently called ex.) 14. 211. 3 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (3af26) 8 . 2. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 3 8 . 5. 2 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. (5 (1 a) 3 . An 1. nent of the binomial. (a + &)8 . Ex. (6m+2w) (3 8 . etc. 16. 6. 18. + 4aj) 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 1. + a 2 a. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . pansions. (aj7) . are obtained by multiplication. +5a) 22. . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. The higher powers of binomials.y . 21. : a 20. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.INVOLUTION Ex. = s= (2s) 8 a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .6 2 8 ft) . 4. 13. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 23. a. 7. . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 1 f 3 2 3 . 12. (afl) . 8. (3 x . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 3. 15.
(w 4 ?i) 4 . 24. 25. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 6. 4 (1for) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 2. 23. (tff1) (cfd) . 5.216 a^ 4. is the coefficient of the next term. Ex. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 18. (2 4. (m 5 I) 2 22. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. . . 3. 8. Ex. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . Ex. (la&) 4 12.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (m 2 + n) 8 . 9. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . (?/i~w) : 16. ( &) 5 . (2 a 4 . 4. (l 8 . . (m fl) 2 20. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (3a f5) 5) 4. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 13. 10. 3. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 21. (?>i?i f c)*.a) 3 19. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . The minus. 17.168 3. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. . .2. (a~^) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . . (mJ) 4 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (1 + 4 ?/) . (af 5) . and the powers negative. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 4 . 15.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 5. 14. (p + q) 4 * 7. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 1. 78 s .
numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. or 3 for (usually written 3) . = x means = 6. 215. called real numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. or x &4 . 109 . (_3) = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. tity . Since even powers can never be negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 2. which can be simplified no further. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. a) 4 = a4 . and all other numbers are. etc. \/"^27=3. or y ~ 3. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. V \/P 214. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and ( v/o* = a. 1. V9 = + 3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for distinction. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 4 4 .
V25 9 16. Ex. 6 7 = 030. roots of the numerator \/18 . . V5 v/2 7 2. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . To extract a root of a fraction. V?. 82 . = 19472. 3 33 53 .(. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 2.4. 6. 7. \/2 4 9 . 6. 9.200 . fy 5 3 .1. Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.  100 a 2 .125. = V26TIT81 = 53. v/^i2 = a*. 62 = V2* . 7 . Ex 5 a" . 8.201) = 2. .64 5 4 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. 5. EXERCISE 1. 7 . 9.9 = 136. 2 . . Ex. Ex. 3/0** = am . 4 v. v/2^.lL. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 2. 79 2 v/2 5 . 10. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. extract the and denominator.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . index. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V36 9 4. 3i . To extract the root of a power. = 199 + (_ 198) . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. 7. 3. 8.
a f2 l 2 + l. 34.6 tfif + 9 y = O . . a* 4 8 2 .3 y2) ( vV .3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 .4/. ^40^4. 2. V20 .3 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.) by inspection. V8.98. 30. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 6. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 33. 1. 5. Find the square root of a2 . 2 . 32. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.75. 45 V5184. 31. 29.EVOLUTION 171 28. 3./). V9216.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 116. Ex. 2 f ( V240) 3 .
b 2 2 to its square. however. . 2ab . 2 . 14. 2 2 218. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. and b (2 a f b).e. #2 a2  16. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. i.2 &c.172 7. let us consider the relation of a f. a\b is the root if In most cases. 15. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. The term a' first 2 .> 13. the given expression is a perfect square. + 6 + 4a&. 10. 12. and b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 ac . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a f. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 8 . mV14m??2)f 49. 11. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .
. of x. . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. First trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.EVOLUTION Ex. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. is As there is no remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Explanation. 8 a 2 . . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 219. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. First complete divisor. 8 /. by division we term of the root. the first term of the answer. The square . As there is no remainder. 10 a 4 8 a.24 afy* f 9 tf. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Ex. 8 a 2 2. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. */'' . . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Second trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 1. 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 1. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 6 a. and so forth.
3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. a? 2 .25 x 4 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 4 . 1 4. 6 11.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 3. . 12. 19.12m 5 4. 2 4. l 4.37 a ^ .40 a 22 .42 a*& 4. 20. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.25. 36it. 6. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.9. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 16.6 .4 x 4. 18. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 2 x2 3 2x. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .73 a8 . 13#4 413ar 44a.10 x2 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.24 or .a 6 x*y 2 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 8.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .V430^425^ 4m 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.20 o 4.73a4 440^436^460^.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 m 4. 9. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 15.16. 17. 14. 16x6 4. 729 4. > 7. 436^?/469a.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 10. 5 4 16 4 iK . 24. 5.
EVOLUTION 220. Therefore 6 = 8. Ex. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Ex. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.176.000 is 1000. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. etc. first .. of 10. which may contain one or two). then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. two figures. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.000 is 100.1344.000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the first of which is 4. the square root of 7744 equals 88. The is trial divisor = 160. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. 2. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. = 80. 1. and the complete divisor 168. of 1. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the first of which is 8. a 2 = 6400. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. Find the square root of 7744. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and the first remainder is. Find the square root of 524. etc. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. of a number between 100 and 10.
12. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. places.0961 are '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3.70 6.7 to three decimal places. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . annex a cipher.1T6 221. Find the square root of 6/.GO'61.1 are Ex. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. The groups of 16724.10. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in . or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.
TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . JT . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 31.58 square 38. 34. 33.1410.) 40. 39. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .53. 35. 36.4 square when R = radius and 11. = 3. T\. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. feet. whose area equals 48.22. 5.01. 13. 1. J. 37. .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 1. feet. 30.
2)* + 5 = 33. . The 7 equation. = 7^ + 5. Dividing. This answer Check. Extracting the square root of each member. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. x = + 2 or x =2. is 12. 2. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Ex. 178 . 2 ic = a. 6#2 = x* 24.. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. or incomplete. = 4. complete. x 2 7. Transposing. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223.g. 6 y2 = 17. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. but no higher power e. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 1. is A quadratic equation. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. A pure. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. or equation of the second degree. or affected. 225. 226. 224.
2. (a? 9. 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. . Solve 179 . 19 + 9 = 5500. 6(2)=10(ajl). 5. 15^5 = 6. o. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . Dividing by Extracting the square root.25. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4. 7 = 162. or Therefore. 8. : 83 2. 2. . 10. ' =: y? b* b . 2 4fc 5' 18. 16^393 = 7. 7. ax Transposing and combining. 4 ax.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 2 a.
29. Find the side of each field.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 3. ' 4. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. 22 a. solve for d. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. . 2 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 28. 4. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 22 = ~^. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 2 . 27. solve for r. 2. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If G=m m g . . r. 24. is 5(5. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 228. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. solve for v. and they con tain together 30G square feet. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 26. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). and their product : 150. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 : 3. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. : 6. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 108. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. If a 2 4.) of their squares 5. Find is the number. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Find the side of each field. find a in terms of 6 . A right triangle is a triangle. 25. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers.b 2 If s If =c .
To find this term. 8. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. (b) 100 feet? = .) 13. 24. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. A body falling from a state of rest. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Solve Transposing.7 x f 10 = 0.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Find the radii. 4. sides. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find the unknown sides and the area. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. of a right triangle Find these sides. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. is and the other two sides are equal. Find the sides. x* 7 x= 10. . Find these 10. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. we have of or m = .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. (b) 44 square feet. J = 12. radii are as 3 14. Method of completing the square.2 7 . add () Hence 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. and the two smaller 11. 2m. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 9.
Transposing.x(l = . Ex. or x = 2.. 62 x 5 = f. Hence Therefore Check. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .2. Simplifying. Uniting.e. Extracting square roots.a. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Transposing. 230. (*~8) a = at . a. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 7 5 + 10 = 0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.1. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. = \ # = ff. a Clearing of fractions. 2  . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = 6.  \. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = x\ = 2. = . J. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. or J. Therefore. Ex.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.2 a2 . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2 a* a. . adding member).
1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . Extracting square root.
49. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =0.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article.c = 0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula. . =8 r/io?. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. = 12. \bx\. 231. x la 48. 2x 3 4. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. and c in the general answer. ao.
c = 5.4 4 5 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6. 15. 18. 2 o. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 17. 10. 6 Ex. Reducing to general form. 2 a. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 16. 6 . 2. : 86 + 2 = 0. TIO. 2or } 5o. a. c p.25 x. 9. V^tT)* .. 14. 26. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 8.  . 6^+5^ 56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 a? = 44 x . 4. 6.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 7. 11. 7^ + 9 x 90. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 1. 12. = 12 . 2. = 64120?. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 20. ?i 2 . 13. 3. 21. 19. 5 x2 Transposing.
Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . any degree. a=:i^^. 5 = 0. orz roots. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. . Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. x(x <2 . all or. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 0. = 0. x2 = 1 . Factoring.x. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. transposing terms to one member. member can be Ex.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 1. 23. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. = 0. 26. 24. Transposing. Bx 1 1. Clearing for fractions. 2S3x 1 2 . 27 x== 42a. ar>8o. (5 a? !)(. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. factors Now. = 0. or # 5 is zero. }.2.5) =0. and 6. 25. 3x?+x = 7. Solution by factoring.5 Solving (1) and (2).4) = . = 14. if either of the uct is zero. 233. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Eesolving into factors. 5) = 0.
a* 10a=24. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3) Factoring.g. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.6)) = 0. 0^ ar> 11.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. is 5) = 0. aj( 15. 9. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4. 6. evidently (x Or 4)(x . : 87 = 0. O roots are 2. 4or + 18a f 8a. ar'Sa^ 12. we 9 obtain x 4. Therefore x =3 = 2. 2.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.e. 3 or 2 a. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. Or Hence the 234. 14. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 2. 3) = 0.(. 0(02) = 7(02). (aj4)(a. 16.24 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved.= 24. a?. Ex. + 100. 3.:=0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.3)(x + 3 3. } 2 2 (5 . 5. 7. for a: . + 10 a = 24. 8. E. The equation I. + 6)=0. 5 = 0. 2o3 f9a. 3# y 5 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 3. 12. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. x2 f 2 x . 13. a?10a=:24. 4)(z3) = 0. + 8=s: 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.
23. 22. 20. ara + ft + c*. uz + u 21. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). a 2 =(x a)b.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 19.188 17. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 2. 18. (a + 1) (a. 50. (2a? 3) (a 24. 27. 25. '3a!J  . w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.
6. 1.3.1. 55. The difference of . Find the numbers.0. is Find two numbers whose product 288. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 58. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 1. 5. number by 10. . 2. 7. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 0. Find the number.9. feet. Find the number. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. and consequently many prob 235. Find the sides. and the difference Find the numbers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. and equals 190 square inches. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and whose sum is is 36. The 11. of their reciprocals is 4. 57.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.2.3. 4. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. G. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 3. 2.3. EXERCISE 1. 2. 56. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 52. 2. two numbers is 4. 3. 2. 54. 5. : 3. and whose product 9. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J.0. 8. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.
A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. dollars. as the 16. c equals 221 Find AB and AD.190 12. ply between the same two ports. 14. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. sold a horse for $144. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. Find the rate of the train. other. 15. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. Two vessels. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other.10. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 17. . 13. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. What did he pay for 21. watch for $ 24. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If he each horse ? . ABCD. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 19. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster.
How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 23 inches long. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. contains B 78 square inches. By formula. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. or x = \/l = 1. and working together. Find and CB. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 237. 1. constructed with and CB as sides. . Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. so that the rectangle. 24. a point taken. is On the prolongation of a line AC. as 0. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 27. ^3^ = 7.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9.) 25. Ex. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. of the area of the basin. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. (tf. the two men can do it in 3 days. how wide is the walk ? 23. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.
2 =4. 19. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. T 17. a. 2 h9:=0. a? 15 1=2*. 8. or y = 8. 436 3. 10. Hence Le. = 1. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. = 13. aV+9o 4 =0. a 21or=100. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 18. 9. Ex.192 238. Solving. 7. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a4 5o.)+72=0. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 6. y8)=0. 4. 16.T 2 2 . 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 6. 4 : 89 10a. 4 a. >. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 2. 12. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a.
Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .2) 2 4 3 (. a perfect square.12 x + 9 = 0. The discriminant =(. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. b 4. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are imaginary.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.bx 4. the roots are irrational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are real. 1.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . rational. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . and unequal.2 z . c the roots are real. Ex. 241. and equal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 3. 2. is 4ac not zero. the roots are unequal. the roots are rational. Ex. Relations between roots and coefficients.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . . it 2a follows 2 : 2. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.5) = 04. ( 2a Hence 1. 240.f> = 0. negative. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are equal.
2 + 4a: + 240 = 0.g. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 60 2 = 0. 14. 12~x = x 2 . = 5x. f 2 E. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 2a15 = 0. 12. lla. their product isf. 4. 2 a. : a 2 .. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2. = 0. 3a. 6. + 2a. tfmx+p^Q. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 18. o. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 18 2 8.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. x2 7 10. 24. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 23. 22. 2 : 3. 17. 15. 9a3 = 0.19 # 20. ^12. = Q. + 12 2  . 2a 4z5 = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2 7. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 21. 5aj 9. 10 x = 25 x + 1. = 0.
(ab) . We assume. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. > m therefore. = a"" < . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. Then the law of involution. 244. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. must be *The symbol smaller than. It is. and . such as 2*. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. The first of these laws is nition of power. however. (a m ) w .* III. provided w > n." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . hence. a m a" = a m+t1 . that a an = a m+n . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . II. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. while the second of the first. for all values 1 of m and n. ~ a m f. m IV. no Fractional and negative exponents.a" = a m n mn . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.
g. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. or zero exponent equal x. = a. 25. a?*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . e. n 2 a. '&M A 27. 29. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 30. 24. (bed)*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 245. 3*. laws. Assuming these two 8*. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. a . a\ 26. 4~ . m$.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. as. fractional. 23. disappear.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. (xy$. a*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. ml. etc. 31. 0?=^. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 28. . at.
40. hence is . 50. 49. 35. a* * = 3. : 197 33. 37. 45. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. e. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 49. 246. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 41. = 2. 46.\/n. 48. 3* = 27. v'mT 36.g. Vo5 . a * a2 Or a=l. ty?. = 2. 43. 5 a* = 10. e. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 42. Solve the following equations 39. 7z* Find the values of 47. equal to unity. Let a = a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. \/xy \/m. 38. v/o&cT 34. 44. the base is zero. If. \fi?. however. a . a. 27* = 3.g. : 2' 4* = 4. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.
Let x= or". a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Multiplying both members by a". an x = a. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.g. by changing the sign of NOTE. vice versa.198 247. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. . or the exponent. etc.2 = a2 . e. cr n.
25.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. a. ^?2 y' 34. 2 . 37. 27. 7~ l a 2b 2 . : mi m~^. : or 5 . 39. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . m . f (2w)~i 1 . 3 a? * 42. 66 45. 2m~i 43. rfS."* 38. 40. 22. 44. 3 a. 36. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. a^ 41. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. . ^L. c 32. * 24.
52.26)* 1 (I) 2 . + 1~* f 21 . 250. 48. = . 10* 5* = .6). 17' 2 51. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 59.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.008)* + A. 61. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 54. 55.1. 47.81 f (a . 10* Find the values 56. 53. 49. ar = i.001. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 1. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. z* = 1. = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.(.9*. of: 3ll4~* 60. 58.343)* + (. = l. (. + A_. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. Ex. . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. z 5or*=10. 57. = 5.
79 . 72 . ' 11. 18. V5. .$*. 16. 6 *. 3 a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. etc. 4 x^. 16. a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.4 a8 . &. 17. 3.6 *' 6 *25. remove the fractional exponents.$".4 . 10. 27  28.&. 26. 4 5. 3sVS.7*. 14. 8 ' 9.&. NOTE. OA 20..4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .5a. are performed. Perform the operation indicated. 12. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. Remove the negative exponents. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.7W.3 aj" a. 7. 6a. 23. / 7fv 7. #* a. S'sS8.^/5^5. . 13. (d) If required.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 7~ 6 . 7~ 5 27  . .7i. 6. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 95 ^9i 5**.5. 7*.
Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 2.2 d . Arrange in descending powers of Check. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 40. The 252. 34. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V3. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 38. ^4. 33.2 V50. I VJ + 3VT8 . Ex. v/3. 36.3\ . ^6. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 4^/4. </3. V2. \/7. 28. </2.2. V2. Arrange 35. 3. ^126. A/2. (i. V2. Ex. V3. 27.10 V2 =  V2. 31. ^7. ^30. 26. 34. V5. v/4. 2\ 3*. Simplify V~ . reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. subtract surds. in order of magnitude : \/7. if dissimilar. VS. ^/IT. 29. ^2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^3. v/3. connect them by proper 1. </20. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. s!/3. ^4. ^2. ^2. 30. 39. 5V2. To add or form. 32.e. \/5. signs. v^S.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . + . 37.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. A/3. 40. ^5.
13. 14.3V20 + 6V5. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10. 9.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.J a6 V4 aft. + 3V835V2. 8VT8J2V32 7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 3. 6. 4. V175V28+V634V7. V18+V32VT28+V2. 8. 6. 11. 4V805V45. 12. . VJ+V8V1 + V50.
y* = Ex. 1. 3. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 26^ . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 6*. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. and then multiplied. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .6V35 106 460V35100 . 23. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. .
a?. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). aVa. v/4. (2V3) 8 . 15. V20 V30. 2 . . v/18 v"3. 28 . 6 V4 5. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. fWa 17. 3. 38.^/2. 39. VlO V15. V2aV8^. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. \/3 \^). (3 20. 18. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 37. 10. 41. Vll. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V2 V50. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 27. 213 98 11. 2. + VB)(2V5). VTO. 34. (V6 + 1) 1 . 12. 7. 9. 8. 13. 21. V42. 4. 25. 40 10 30. 6. 19. V3 V6. 6. (Va Va 36. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 14. V3 Vl2. 40.VSS.
Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 51. the quotient of the surds is If. (5V2+V10)(2V51). Ex. . a fraction. 53. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 44. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 52. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 47. V3 . E. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 43. Va v/a.y. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 268. is 1 2. Ex. 60. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 49. 48.214 42.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45. 46. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.
metical problems afford the best illustrations.by the usual arithmetical method. The 2. by V7. . we have V3 But if 1. however. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 3. e. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. /~ } Ex. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . 1.RADICALS This method.73205. Evidently. Divide VII by v7. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .57735.g.. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. is illustrated by Ex. arithTo find.
Vn V7 ' * 8.. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. and Given V2 = 1. A.4142. V3 = 1. V2 22 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20. 23 . A. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . ^/H . 271. Vll 212*. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.2361. 7. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8 JL.7320. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V3 24 . . VffV?. . 272. V5 270. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 14. V8 12. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. i. V5 = 2.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V48 25. 21.
Ex.2.Vs2 .vffi^T _ .RADICALS Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18. Ex. . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . . 3. s Simplify a.1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 1. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .
2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 27. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 24. find to _!_. : and V5 = 2. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. v 2V3 28.W3. 6V7. = V3 = 1.7320. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. Vo1 26. V5V7 18> ^SVg.5 3 = 125.2361. By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .218 6 . . four places of decimals 23 . J?_.4142. 19. Given V2 1.
the If. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 5. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 1. . In other examples of involution and evolution. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . viz. V643 . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 8. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V255 . it to this form. 4. 3 (V2~u)  7. 2 12. 2. 9. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.RADICALS 219 274. Simplify Ex. \/125" . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. \/l6*. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. on the other hand. According to G3. v8f 2\/15. 11. 2.
2 \/20. Find V4 + VJ8. and whose product is 18.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20. 2. The Hence ^11 .A/2.6\/2 = ^9 . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. These Ex. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. Find Vll . +2 Ex.220 Ex. ^TT.6 V2. 2 \/18. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is 11.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .
If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. i.1. VT . 19. = xa + 4 x f 4. are radical equations. r 22. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 4x x = 2. Transposing and uniting. Radical equations are rationalized. a. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. 8. by raising both members equal powers. : 221 Vl32V22. 277. Dividing by Check. 5.e. Ex. 4. (2x xrf 1.V48 4 20. x2 = x f 2. V48 23. +=. Before performing the involution. member to 2. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. first involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. The value x =2 reduces each . . Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. they are transto formed into rational equations. Solve vVf!2a = 2.. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7.
radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. viz. 278. a. Factoring. Extraneous roots. they may be extraneous roots. Therefore Check.3. Squaring both members. Transposing. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. f 25 = 12. viz. 3. Squaring both members. 5. tion which has two roots. Ex. one root. V24~+~l = 0. . Dividing by 24. at .1) = 0. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 4#f 4 = 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Transposing and uniting. . 2. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. It = 3 x . 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. the first member = V2. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. a socalled extraneous root. Therefore CftecAr. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12.222 Ex. Transposing and uniting. x = J. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. . \/4 jc~+~l = 5. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. V4afT~l.
. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. both members reduce to 5. If If x 3 = 3. . Solve the following equations : = G. 2 Clearing of fractions. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. (x x = 3. the right member = V2. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. .12 . Squaring.RADICALS Hence x If a. NOTE. equation it is an extraneous root. + 6~ieT~3 . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4. is x V. Factoring. ViTie 4 z2 . 223 x = 3.3) (2 x . Therefore.47) = 0. and to 5. or x *j.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. x root of the preceding equation. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. viz. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. = 3. Check. Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given. Hence x = the only root. Hence there is only one root. for it satisfies the equation .2 r.
Ex. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring.
8 z40 = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 3. 2Va. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. x Since both =9 or 1. 2. 45 14VJB = .f40= 5. 2_8z 440 = 49. 3 6. Ex. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. 412a* = 16. This can be seen without substituting. = 26.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 4. some of the roots be extraneous. o. + 40 = 6. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. . _ 2 y . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2.35 = 0. Substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Let 8 x f 40 .8 x + 40 = 36. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.*2a. = 0.i~24 = 0. Q . = 7. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. y then x2 . x =6 or 3. x + Vx a? = 6.
12. 14. a^x2 5 2 13.a 440 = 35. 19.f 18 = 24. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. 20. 4 V SB* 4 a. a. +3= 6. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 2. +x . 16. 15. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.226 11. 18.
4 a.2 + 80 = 12. even if Q is unknown. 3 2 Ex. by dividing 3 x* f.360 = 244. = 2. if Q was known. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Hence. E = ax + &z + m) Q. If x* .3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). find the remainder when m. " Or. a? R = x* . however.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 227 .2 x 5 by x 3.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2 + 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. does not contain a?. could. ax4 4.2) Q . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. to x we # = 2 3. Without actual division. Without actual division. Ex.bx? + ex2 4. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 1. then (x 2)Q 0. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. we make a? what the value of Q. 2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . no matter If. we can find the value of R by making x = 2." transposing.
x m is factor of the expression. the remainder equals 8 2 x .g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5. + 7 = 632. } 2 by a1. if 8 42  . 43 3 E. hence (x divided by x 4. 8. 3. If the remainder is zero.8'= 0.949.228 282. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. The Factor Theorem. 5 (4x . 2 j 7. x* s 2 4. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.g. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. of the division 3) is m in place of x. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. fora?. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. + ^by x + b. + 6.3)f 11 =.4(.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.8.
a. ^10^429^20=0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 15. 2m 5m . . 7 46 = 0. 5. a 8a f 19 a 12.e. + 15. 8. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a + 32. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. Therefore x ( 1). we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.7 + 16 . 3 2 : 7. factors of the absolute term. 20. 25. 17. 24. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 2 2. a 5x 6. + ttt15 = 0. a^8^ + 19a. then x8 7 x'2 4. 3.9^ + 23^15. 8. a? 19. + 27 + 27. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 23. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. Factor a? 15. Resolve into factors 4. or 5 4 + 3^ .12 = 0.13m + 30 10.49 = 0. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . or x 4. p 5^ + 8p 4.r6 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. a 2a + 4.12. are f 1. i.1. 229 1. oj 5x2 f3a. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. f 15 does not vanish. & p*. 9. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. is a factor. The 5. m f m n 14. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.1. Let x = . 1.7 x + 15 = 0. 21. 1. 6. 18. f 3. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . f 5. _ . 11. 2. 106 division.
2. 286. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . For substituting y for x. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.g. : importance. actual division n. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.y n is divisible by x f ?/.xy +/). 2. x* f/ = (x +/)O . xn f.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 Ex. 1." . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. if n is even. if w is odd. is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. Ex. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. ar +p= z6 e. By we obtain the other factors.230 285.
Hence = (m Ex.= . a. y 3 +8=0.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0. 28. since it more directly to the prime factors. as 27=0. 3. preferable. 26. 27. leads 231 is The first method.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.
232 . ==5 > 1^ = 4. xywe have 3.y4 is of the fifth degree. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. in general. can be solved by the methods degree. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. however. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. + 6 a?V . x y. Squaring Solve (1). If two of the quantities x f y. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 4 xy = 16. (5) Combining (5) with (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. = 6. xy are given. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 290. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. * A I. to equations of the fourth few cases. & + 2 xy + = 25. (4) Hence.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289.1. of quadratics.
233 y. x and xy are not given. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 108 2. ' 10.g. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. ^. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 12. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1. b=3. The arranged in pairs. r (" 1 = 876. I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 3. but can be found. 1. = .
=^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. one linear and ne quadratic.o 18. Ex. or JJ.20) = 0. 4 y = 20. 3. + 29 = 0.  f J. r^ 2 as ] f. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.i/ = r 13. . Factoring. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. aj = 2.a. x " (3) 49 etc.  42 y + Transposing.?/ i = 6. 7 . 5. or y = 1 . A system of simultaneous equations. 2 (1) From (1) we have. I x+y = a. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 19.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.~ y = 5.. 6 "I 14. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . la. I* Jj ^ [. ' ' . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).  . .
3y) : Factor (2). 10. ' x*. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). III. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . = 1 3 3. y* + 2y = 3. ':il e :) . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. quantities. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.3 2x 2 Ex. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). If of the preceding type. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. Solve . 9. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.
2. Solve 2. (3) (4) Subtracting. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (1) (2) x x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. 109 a. 2 . } VI09. = 0. = Ex. j Substituting y in (2).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 15 x2 .
150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. and others not belonging to them. .xy 4. E. y? a? f . 298.y = 7.3^42^=43. f 1 150 a?.175 ay = 12.!.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 xy + y2 = 10. Bxy9. (4) (3). Division of one equation by the other.125 ay = . A. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. can be solved by special devices. " IV. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. ' ^ 15.6.
Therefore x = 16. x +y y etc. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 12 J.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. at first it is unknown quantities. B. * ' 300. y = 3.. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . = 189. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we have from (1). f^ + 3 7/ = 133. (1 > (2) 1. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. jc~ y = 9. 2. Some simultaneous ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y . Solve Ex. x 2 . we obtain by squaring. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. from (2). i ^ *>. xy.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. 239 Ex. . 2. I e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . M6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. F+y+ . 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 36* 2. 7. Hence = V or = 4. [2x + : y= 17.
= 198. * . 16. 19 ' 26. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 27. = y 1 y* . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 25. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .4 y = 47 a. . . f 18. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.21 ^ = 15. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.
25 34. 32. 3 a2 38. 7' j/ 39. etc 302. etc. Interpretation . ~\ OK OO.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. as a . 31. y % 9 f*K 36.of  According to the definition of division. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. or ~ indeterminate.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 33. . Q 7. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. = 48201. finite  =x y if = x. 30. ^ oo . . oo 301. . . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . hence may be any finite number.
i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.decreases X if called infinity. oo is = QQ. equation. or that x may equal any finite number. without exception.242 303. 1. ToU" ^100 a. = 10. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. great. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. The ~~f fraction .can be If It is made larger than number.000 a. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. cancel.x'2 2 x = 1. (a: Then Simplifying.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.increases if x de x creases. be the numbers.e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. and becomes infinitely small. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.g. i. (1) = 0. (1) is an identity. TO^UU" sufficiently small. (1). Or. creases. By making x any * assigned zero. it is an Ex. x f 2. 306. I. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. i. Let 2. as + l. 1. is satisfied by any number. . the answer is indeterminate. and . Hence such an equation identity.
(2). 42 and' their product is 377. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. . Solve  9 7. Solve x a. and a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. The sum is of squares 2890. 3. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. = oo. * 6. y finite QO. Hence /. Solve . Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2.2 y = 4. z = 1 Substituting.e. EXERCISE 1. and the sum of Find the numbers. third and sixth parts. 2. 4 3 x x5 a2 .8 x + 15 6. 1=0. no numbers can satisfy the given system. is their 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. two numbers is 76.
The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. . The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. is 6. p. The area of a nal 41 feet. 190. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. two numbers Find the numbers. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find the side of each square. Find the sides. 9. 6. the area becomes f% of the original area.quals 20 feet. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find these sides.244 3. Find the sides of the rectangle. 13. 12. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the other two sides. increased by the edge of the other. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 8. of a right triangle is 73. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. equals 4 inches. 14. 10. 146 yards. Find the numbers. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the edges.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. and the diago(Ex. and the edge of one. is is 17 and the sum 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 103. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the edge of each cube. Find the dimensions of the field. of a rectangular field feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides.) 53 yards. and the sum of ( 228.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) 17. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. irR *. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. Find the radii. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. . the quotient is 2. differ by 8 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.
. 11. The common differences are respectively 4. . 16.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. except the first. 12. a 3d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. to produce the 3d term. Since d is a f 3 d. + 2 d. Hence / = a + (n .7. 309.) is a series.. the second a descending. .. 17. 19.. a + 2 d. 3. a. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. 10. of a series are its successive numbers. The first is an ascending. the first term a and the common difference d being given. P. each term of which. of the following series is 3. f . . 4. An arithmetic progression (A. series 9. P. . added to each term to obtain the next one. (n 1) d must be added to a. and d. The progression is a. P. a 11. To find the nth term / of an A.1) d. progression.. a f d. 15 is 9 f.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. : 7.. to produce the nth term. 3 d must be added to a. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law... to produce the 4th term. to each term produces the next term. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 2 d must be added to a. a + d..
. Find the 101th term of the series 1. P. 4. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 7.. if a = 5. 6 we have Hence . series . 9.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. . 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . .. 21. .... P. Adding. 24. 99) = 2600. 5. 3. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 8. P. 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 6. ? (a) 1. 6. the last term and the common difference d being given. 3.8. d = 3. 8. = 2. 10. 3. 8.PROGRESSIONS 310. .. = I + 49 = *({ + .. = a + (a Reversing the order.. 1. 5. a = 2. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 2J. 3. (a + + (a + l) l)... series 2. the term a. 19..3 a = l. . .. 2. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * ... Find the 5th term of the 4. (d) 1J. 7. of the series 10.. 5. d . 9. 5.' cZ == . 1. 4^. 115.4. 7. = 99... 2 EXERCISE 1. 1J. Find the nth term of the series 2. 3. 6.16. Find the 12th term of the 4.
7. 1. 13. 16. 2J. 4.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 20 terms. 1J. Sum the following series 14. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . 15. 31. 11. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . Jive quantities are involved.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 3. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 12. > 2f 2. 2. . hence if any three of them are given. 7. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. In most problems relating to A. 8. 1.. 17. \n.1 f 3. 1. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. (x +"l) 4. : 3. 21. 18. 12. . to 8 terms. '. and for each than for the preceding one. 19. + 3. . 6. 20. . 7. 15. 22. to 20 terms. P. 15. to 10 terms. . . to 20 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . striking hours only. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. strike for the first yard. 16. rf. 33. . and a yearly increase of $ 120. 29. to 16 terms. to 15 terms. 11. 11.7 f to 12 terms. to 7 terms. 23.248 Find the 10. (i) (ii) .
I. . = 1014. 1. P.1) . When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. = 13.~n~\ 408 6). But evidently n cannot be fractional. hence n = 6. 56. 312.6 n). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. The first term of an A. 2 (2) From Hence (2). = 144. = 1014. and b form an A. if s = 204.104 w + 408 = 0. 67. 6. 23. . 133. 12. 6 n2 .1). From (1). n d. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 100.. Substituting in (2). d = 6. 2. 89. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P. or if x Solving. 144.. 78. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.PROGRESSIONS Ex. a = 49 6(71 . 204 = ^ (98 . = a + (w. Findn. Solving. n = 6.e. 111. 34. the and the sum of all terms 1014. the second one mean between the other two. 78 n Substituting in (1).6. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). l)e?. J = 49. = n(104 . 122. 45. or 11 J. Find the series. s 24ft last term 144. P. if a. Ex. is 12. 204 = ^ (a + 49). I Substituting in (I) and (II). #. The series is. a = 12.
man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Given a = 1. n = 20. Find d. f? . a+ and b a b 5. How much . Given a = . = 45. 14. produced. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n. 10. T? ^. s = 70.3. 12. m and n 2. 17. d = 5. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 74. y and #f5y. Given a = . 8. 7. s == 440. Find d and Given a = 1700. of 5 terms 6. = 83. P. 13. a x f b and a b. = 17. 11. Find w. and s. n = 17. 6? 9. Find n. n = 16. Find a and Given s = 44. I. . n = 4. = ^ 3 = 1. Find d. = 1870. f J 1 1 / . = 52. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. has the series 82. How much did he save the first month? 19. 78. 15. n = 13. ceding one. 16. Given a = 4. 3. = 16. Find?. I Find I in terms of a. n has the series ^ j . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 4.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Find a Given a = 7.
. A geometric progression first. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . ar8 r.. 4 (1) . . If n is less : than unity. +1. 12.) is a series each term of which. . is 16(f) 4 . . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. is it (G. The 314. 36. The progression is a. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . 4. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. P. 4. NOTE. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 24. or 81 315. 108. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).g.. ar.. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. P. 36. 24. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. E.... of a G. P.. rs = s 2 . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 2. 36. <zr . ratios are respectively 3. 2 a.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. I. r n~ l .arn ~ l .. . (I) of the series 16. called the ratio. and To find the nth term / of a G. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . or.
117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. . +f%9 % . . Jive quantities are in. ? (c) 2. 144. is 16.l. 8. . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . fa. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. is 3. 80.5. 36. P. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. EXERCISE 1. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 9. . . 72. . hence. 1.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.. 20.. first term is 125 and whose common . Find the 5th term of a G.5.. 4. 144.. .18.4. 9. first term 4. I = 670...288.*._!=!>.. . if any three of them are given. 7. 288. (d) 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. r^2. 6. whose . In most problems relating to G. 9. whose and whose second term is 8. + 5. . (b) 1. 25. Find the 6th term of the series J. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. series . 10. 576. f.. 676.. . \ t series .. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. 36. 2 term 3. 72. i 288. volved . series 5. 4. (it. 36. . or 7.. P. And the required means are 18. Hence the or series is 0. a = I.18. . series 6. Ex. fa.. P.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.54. 18. 0. . f. first 5. 3.72. 144. P..6. l. Hence n = 7. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.
15. n = 5. 14. to 7 . .. a. P... is less than unity. = 3.. to 7 terms. Find a and n = 4. 14. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.J and 270.. Given r = n Z 5. >"> . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 6 terms.. 27. to G terms. I. 13. s = 310. J. n = 5.. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.i a9 .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. to 8 terms. r . 1. M. Find a and Given r = 3. to 6 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 81. 21. 16 .nV> i*> !718. 20. J. 19. 1. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 4. + 4 . 243. be written If the value of r of a G. 25S series : 32. of r n decreases. 2. 48. . 81. Z s. and hence ~ r . = 3. 12 terms. a^. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. . == 160. 22. 72. s = 605. 24. . 54. to 5 terms. 126. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 36. 23. J. . Find the geometric mean between 7. Find a and 4. J. to 6 terms. . may be than any assignable number. 42. 12.
717171. 118 : infinity of the following series 3..3727272 ..254 Ex. 12.. . 7. is 9. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. . I. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 6. 1. . Find the value 9.. and the first term is Find 17. 9. 4. = . 1.72. . r = j. Given an infinite series of squares.. of all squares ? .. .27777 . 100..01 ^ .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.99 . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. of: 11.. Hence . =A+ 10 i. P.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .Ql. ... If a = 40. 4. 9. ratio 15. 1 r = . 8. first and the common term.... 66 Therefore . 1. .37272 .555.)7?7272 .. 13. . i i J.072. = a . = . 5. 6. . ... 16....00072 f . The sum Find the of an infinite G. 14. P.3121212. .. . i. 2. 250. . .. 12. is J. 10. = 990 . P.. 40...272727..= . of an infinite G.. 5. .= _4Z* . 16. 3.. Find the sum to infinity.072 + . .3 + . 2. (6) the sum of the perimeters.191919..1. 1. . 8. what is (a) the sum of the areas. is 16... The sum r..
(\ 9 . 2 2 24. 10.b ). 17. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . . (s + i). : (1 + xy. 26. 12. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (a + b) . 4. . 15. l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 22. 25. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (xy) : 6 .6) .b) w (a (a f (1 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . 20. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . . coefficient of . 13. 4 7. 16. 5. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 21. (a 100 . 29. a6 8 16 in . 11. (a2) 6. /2a+Y\ 8. Find the 6th term of (x . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 14. 7 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 28.6) 20 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.
4 ft  c) 2. 3. 4. 2. 6. 3. . 3. 2. 1. (c 3. c = = = 2. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 6. 4. 5. 3. 3. 2. y 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. + 2. 1. 1. = 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4. 5. 2 . if x^l. 5. 1. 1. 1. 3. 5. 2. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 4.  2. 1. 3. 5. 3. 1. 2. + 2. 4. 3. + 1. + c(a  c). 1. 2. 2. 6. 2. 1. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. . l. 2. 2. if y=2j 2. 2. 1. 5. 1.  a)(a 1. c if 7 .f ac 1. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 7. 3. 4 2. 3. 4.  2. 4. 5. ft 4 ) 5. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 4. 3. 6. 2. 5. 3. 2. 2. 1. 5. 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3. 2. 1. 4. 2. if = = = 2. 2. 1. 2. 4. 3. 2. 24 4. 1. 2. 6. 3.  8 ^ 2. 3. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. if a ft c = = = 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. if = = 2. 1.a(a 4. 2. 1. 2. a ft c = = 2. 2. ft) .c )(fta) 1. 3. aft 3 + 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 2. 4. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. ^+^ 3. 2. 5.
1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 2. 2. 26.7 y 2* 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . f 8. 41.8 3 + 7 x4 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. r> .a) . 15. x 3 11. 2. x = 4. 5. 2. 6 a4 4 a8 .10. x3 f 3 ax'2 . x C 4 4x y + . 7y 4 . 21. 20. 18.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 17.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 7. a.2. = 2. 8 . 4 x 4 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 . 40. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. . a: . 10.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. x 3 x' 14.4. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . x3 2 a2 . ' b) + 3.r 6 x  4 xy .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 3.\ yz + xz.2 x?/.5. c = 3.2 a?y + 3 aty . + 4. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .8 + 2 // .3 xyz. 21.a8 . 4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 2 x 8. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 1.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 8. c)(x a} .2 x2 . . . 5.x 5 4 .2.259 x c) . a /> 3. 2  + 12 a 8 . 5. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .3 a?y . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.a 4 . b(x (b 1. if a 6 = = c = 3. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . a.7 + . or . 9. a 4 + 11 a . 7 xy 3 . 4. 24. 25. 3.  a) (c 2. + 4 ?y . + 3 y 2* . . 9.c' 2 4 / .7 ys. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 16. + 8 x4 *y . 5. 12. + 1.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 29. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 6. 1. 4.2 z8 4 x. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 4 y 13. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .1.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 15.a 5 a . (5. ~c)(b. + 2. 4 z .
sum of .4 ft) 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. and . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . x'2 .1)}] . c =x y }~ z. c 4ft. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 5 10 4 G 11 4. 5 4 7 12 .[4 x 4. take the sum of G x 5 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 36.x 2 4. 29. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 0" 30.(a . 3 ft. : a x .(x* .8 3 4. Take the sum 4x 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 4 2 x2 23.x . . 2 x 32.2 3 ax 2 . . of a. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .(7 x 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .(4 x 2 . a  ft + c.c.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2 .6T .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 542 x 2 and .c 4 3 a.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.2) .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. f ft.a ft. 4 4 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.(4 * .x2 .] 26.{2 x 2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4 Vl 4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].5.3.c 3 a.4) . 35. . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .3 x .2 . ft.x . 5 10 + 7 . 7 12 .(x 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. ft 25.c.(5 y . x8 x2 2 a'2x.. .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 33.4. Simplify 31.3 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.#48.{G * 2 .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .3 . . c 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .x 4. 34. From of 2 the 4.7.1). (*) a  c. 4 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.5 .(5 c .6 x ] .2 a .[4 z 8 . 4vTT~y 3. .27~~7)}]. Take the sum of 3 x 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 4 3 5 y/ . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.?> x 4 20.260 19.2 x 8y2 44 . = x y ft z.
REVIEW EXERCISE 37.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 62. + 4x + 5)(j.2 2 + 1)(7.96 [17 a. 48.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . a .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .[4 x  5 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. .(2 . 43.0)} . 51. 45.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (. 50.(4 d .4 a 2 + a 4 ).1). 46.2a .{2 a (ft . 64. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (/> 4 .(5 y .ac . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 49.6)}].[2 . a {. )(lz a ).2 zz . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).  2 a  {3 2x a . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 13 a . .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].r 2:c+ l)(ar. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).12).a~^~c)K].3)(*5)(* 7). 68.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 56. 65.(6 .3 *).(2 a + 5 a .5)} + (3 a 2 .2c(V/ . 'J 44.4 a . (1 ar+a.rf)} + a [. 2 52. . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 67.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (5 a 39.3). .2x + 3). (4 + 3a 2 . 2 53. 59. + *+!){> + 2).(7 a. (.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .7).& + {.2 2 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).3 c)]. 2 2 x + !)(* .b (c .Z .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). .(2 a 2 . 63. (r (1 (a. (x. 3 x 42.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 60.6c) (a + f c).3c).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.6 xy .(2 x2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.c).2)(1 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 57.JT^T+1)} + (2 .be) (a 58. . 54. (x .ab . (1 55. 2 ft 41.56.(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 : 7e)a}].3 z 2 ).{3 c . .c 2 .5 )}] + {4 c .{2 a .
3 a . 92. ft 95.y). 2 + a 2 ).5 . . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (a (2 b)*(a 4.9y2).<f(p .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 71.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 85. ar . 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 73. 75.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).3 (ft .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c) rr identities. 93. Prove the following 8 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .2y)(. 76.n pc).c . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 82.c) 4) (ft 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.3y) a (* 2 4. 70.(4 .c)} .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 1). (p 2 .ft) 4 .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). f 72. 84.2 (y 4.2 ft}) f (3 a .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.:y)( a.262 69.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).(ft 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. xy y 2 ).{3 a .c) . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 86. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 89.(/>  3 v)^(. (x (x ( + *) . 2 (x 2 .c) j. b 4. 88.q).(a 2) (s 4 ft.a) 2 . 91.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c) . .z) .m np c . ft 78. 1).c)]. 74.(c 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.v) 4.2 (a .6*y . 87. 77.x + y + z).z\x 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 90. 79.ft) + 4(2 .c . 83.z)(x y + z)(. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .c) 2 .y + z)(x + y . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . (. ft" l Simplify 80. . ft ft ft a}. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y)\x y).r 2 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 94.b 4. ft /.(a 48 8 8 4.am&t 4 A 2 *). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 4 4 .O (a 4(a 4.
4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).40 />) . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 110.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. (. 103.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).xy 4. . 105.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 2 (a+ .5 b*). 102.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.5 xy).a". ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 114. 1O4. (2< 107. 120.*) (x 8 . 121. 3*. 124.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .v/ ~ // = a: . 106.2y 2 4.1).(a 1 2 8 .2 2% 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 123.16 a 6 4. 99 100. 117. 25 4 . a*. 116.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. [10( 4.27 x* .9 x 2 . . 2 4 41 x 4a. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .(2 a 2 . (80 a 112. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.y 4 ) . 118.2 xy 8 .y 4 .3 a"+ 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 2 4.(7 xi/ . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).r 4 4. 113. 109.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 1).) . (8 x* 115. (a 8  8 68 8 4. r .35 x 2 2 ) .4 aft . 10).(x 2 .&). 108. 122. 26 (a 4 c).b) 98.6 y 4 4.
By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2) = 3 . 137. o o 140. 136. 148.1) . .2(j: .7(4 * . 7(2 x .(x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.3).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 143.r>) . 149.27 a 3" .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 139.8 6 .264 125. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3 x). . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .3) = 12 . x 147. (*+ + . 129.4) .19) + 5 = 4 . 1) . 10(2 x 141.r + 7[or . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.3).4) .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .(x f 9).n . 126.(1 . 135.4(0 x . y (* l x. . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2 7^~5] + 1). 127. 3(2 x 134. 142.2(10 x . . 128. 1) = 2(* . (4 x . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 42(3ar 145.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2(5 .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2) (a: + 3).22.5{.(x + 3) ] .7) = 4 . 5(2 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 138.3(* + 4) + 9} . 5 146. .3) (3 x 4.5).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). (5a: 150.12 M 132.3 a:).1) (a? .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).(j a? 144.9) + 3. .a:)]}.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.G) .2) + 2(ar + 4).2(4 . . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .9) 4. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .5) = 12(4 x .3(2 z .18 *&) (1 . 3) = x\x . 2 4(ar .
5 x) = 45 x . 156. (a . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. .2 x) (4 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. f^ + ^sO. find the value of F.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 159. 5(ar x . 153.24. The sum What 171. + 2) + (5 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 265 152. + 5) = (9 . 155. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (2 . 165.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.8) = (2 x 4.3) (j. = 15.76.z) (4 . + 10) (ar . a: ar a. 162.3) = (3 x . 166.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. (a. = 2 C. + 4) (2 x + 5). =  (F 32). . 163.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.5*) + 47. .5)(.2 x) = (1 .(5 x . 158. and the third twice as many as the first.17) 2 + (4 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (3 O + .1) O + 4) = (2 * . The second contains 3 first.1) (s + 3). (a) If C.T)O .r + 3) .25) 2 . If the area of the frame inches..19) + 42. (7 14 . sheep more than the 169.3) (3 . .5(x .5) = (3 .6 x) (3 .a:) + 229. 160. will produce F. 154. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.2) a + 7(x .2). these two angles would be equal. 157. How many 170. . (x (x a. 161.7) (a.? .9) + (a. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.3) (a: . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .4) (a .2) (7 *) + (*. transformed into F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .l)(z . 164.3) (3 .7) (1 x . 2 4 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2) (j? + 1) + (x .14) (a: + 3).29) 2 = 1.
and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 181. 4 a 2 yy 42. power one of the two Find the power of each. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. side were one foot longer. . aW + llab2&. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. train. 2 2 + a _ no. 7/ 191. was three times that of the younger. number divided by 3. z 2 + x . 13 a + 3. father. How many are there in each window ? . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row.56. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. younger than his Find the age of the father. 187. x* 185. 3 gives the 174. + a. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 188. z 2 92. 180. 178. A each 177. 15 m. ll?/102. dimension 182. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. A boy is father. 186. 12 m. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 179. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 190. sister . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. same result as the number diminished by 175. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. +x 2. 10x 2 192. respectively. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. A house has 3 rows of windows. two boys is twice that of the younger. if each increased 2 feet. . . 189. and 5 h. Find the dimensions of the floor.266 173. Find the number. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 176.36. + 11 ~ 6.
14 2 . 233. 195. . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 244. 23 12. xm+l 243. . 216. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.x + 1. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . . 2 a 8 .21 a:  54. a. *2 234. + 30 x. a: . x 5 . 208.6s. a+a* + o a +l. 2a te 3% ly 247. ifWy+b. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .12 * . y 2 194. 8 a: ar. 8 a. a. 211. + 198.20 z 8 a: 220. a^a 226. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 2 . 207. 2 a 2 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.6 aq .c) 2  (a . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 245. x 219.6. 6 197.r?/f y 2 9. 7x 2 225. 3 ap 2 . 206. 3 x 2 .19 z 4 204. 7a 228. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a: 236. (a + . 202. 235. 239. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 210.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 203. . 230. 227. .10 xy. 3y 2 + ary . . wiy + la mx + aw. 12 x +4. a.10. 224.77 y + 150. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 218.3 xy.8 6 2. 4 m +^. 4a 2& 2 241. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 232.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.22 z + 48. x*y 223. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . a a: a: 237. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. + 8. 209. 213. a: 231. 2 200. 215. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 3y 248.3 c/> + 6 cq. 2 x 2 .19 a .64. . a.28. 212.1. 2 2 y f 1.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 16x 4 81. 221.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 246.(b + rf) 2 . 3 x V . 238. 24 2 + 2 . 217. x* + 8 2 + 15.6 y2 + 4.c) 2 . z 2 2. a 2 . 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . + 3a 196.10 y a x* . 267 199. z + 5x 2 .6 2 ?/ . # 2  29 y + 120. 222. 5 x 2. 201. 229.
x 2 + 4 + 3. 257.G7 x f 33.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 2 a. 3 #2 255. + 8 x + 5. + 23 x f 20. x* . 1 x ar Find the L.91.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 15 # 2 z/ /.15. of: 253. 5 x 2 256. 22x2 a. x 2 + 5 f .120.14 bx a%% 8 .2/ 2 .10. 261. 270. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 18 x 2 . C. 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . 260. 10 x 2 . * 2 .36. a. 8 2 + 10 x . a: .48 afy 2 .73 xy . 10 a. * a . 258. 252. x 2 . 264. x* . 2 + 7 r f 2. z 2 268. 28 2 f 71 x . 7 ax 250. a 4.18 xy + 5. 6. a? a: a: // 262.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . + 3 x + 2. * 2 .a 2 />c 2 f 3. of: 266.2 aft*.(55.4 ab + 1.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x 2 f 9j: + 20.C. x 2 263. 2 x2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 30 ^ .ry .x . + 8.11 a 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.ry 21.12.10 a 4. 265.3 abc . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .23 + 12.11 x f 28. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 7 12 2 2 . 2 8 . ft a. 3 a% 2 . 269. . x 2 + 2 x .8.4.80. x 2 4.23 x f 20. x*y* 4. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.5 ab f 2.9. + 20 x 4.6 by. I Find the II. z 2 267.7 f 5.1 9 .9 x .&z. 259.13.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .M.15 + 30. 254.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. F.a + 2 4.16 x . 251. 3 ay 4.3 x . * 2 .9 x + 14.2 z .3.r . 2 2 + 39 xy 4.
REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 8 . *2 " 2 + Oge.ar 1 279.!/. a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' ..rL. 289 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.2* + 3 x* 280. m 4.(y 2 z) * t (j. + ac .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. z2 (a 2 + c)a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2c a: 282.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa ..
270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^. Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^_2*(m 308. * 19 23 19(23 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. O(ca) 306. x 7. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 4 3 301. a (: a) (x 2. 6) _ ~ i 305. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300.
i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1a: + y a. .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. _ x8 . a: 1 313.. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. (a? 4 2) 317.ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. } . 1 _. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.(a .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. (1 . 2 + y 2 319.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1 x2 + + a.
272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . * 3a.9 *// + 27 ..4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 20 44 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.. a: 2 x* .6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.ll. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .y20  2y + 4 2 .7 xy + 12 x . .V  + y  x 3y a . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 lOx 5x.5 a . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 +lOar 2 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.15 33 .
r 5 2 . 344.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. ' 2 "l 5 .1V. + l + IV. 7 ( ?f!?. xi 347. fl. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (a \ + lV. \5yl 341. ( 342.. (aWi + iJ. +^ a: y x .+ r . f V. (ar \ 346. 352. a>74 . ** i. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 338. ?_2 ^ . 1 345. + ni + .) 2 . \x yj 340. : 1+ i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. aj 339.y. 348. if a = 3. 5 343. w \. (af2/. a: 349 _ o.
i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (~ 364. (a a b yx c yabc 361. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. y360. _ + l a 359. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. + x x a .
a + . .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368.
3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 379. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.*2 = 15. . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . . 5*8. 8  376. <3 378. 4(* . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 5 {2 x 381. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. J !__7. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. __4 2x 3_ = !.
(x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 3* 177. ^ (a .6  . f 1 1 + a 403.2 a:  1.  8 9* x ~r. 400. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. b 404.5 ^ ~ a: a.8 = .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.. 401. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .75 x f .. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. c .147. a. m x 398. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 396. u '2 a. _____ . 40.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.1 .5 x =r f .  J).25. . + 4 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 397. 399.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.25 x + . .
2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.c) . a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 420. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 421. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.(5 I2x ~r l a) .278 410. (x . hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. the order of the digits will be inverted. 411.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 418 ~jo. Find the number.  a) 2 6 2a. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . In a if and 422. Tn 6 hours . and was out 5 hours. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.
2 2 8 2 . : If is one equal 434. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). if . If a b : =5 n : 7. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 438. 3 and 1J. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. and : b : c = 14 : 15. 433. b. find the angles of the triangle. z 2 y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.& 5 ) (a 8 .iand 22 22 I a .49 63).6 8 ). 428. . x 427. find : a : c. Solve 436. a + 5. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .a 2^ 8 + aft* . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Find the fourth proportional 426. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. y. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. ax is \ by  ex + dy. d. : i. . 431. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 432.46 2): (15a 2 . a. Find the length of the parts. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a  t>. Find the mean proportional to 429. wi* + y= ny. 435. Which ratio is greater. 430.
8 x + y = 19. c. .55 y = . 451. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 448. 5 2 = 7 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .35. 450.. 7a?y = 3. 56 + 10y = 7a. 456. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. if 2 ft : 439.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 443. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).89 = q. 453. 1(3  a. 8 . 455. 21 7 = 27 + Op. ft. 5x+4y=lQ. .11 7. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. Solve the following systems: 441. a. 452. 9/> = 2 . 458. 459. = 25. + 5y = 59. 7 a: . a: a: + 5y). . 28 = 5 a . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). The volumes If their diameters.7 y = 25. a: 2y= = 1 . 446. 449.(or l(*2y)=0.11 y = 95. x + 17 # 53. 7jr9y = 17. 444. 3 a. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. /) ar a.59 = 3 z. ft. 42 = 15y + 137. 3 .4 12 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 5z4:# = 3. />(. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 15ar = 20 + 8y.*.rf2# = l. ?/ 447. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 9ar7# = 71. 4 = 5 y + 29. 454. 457. . 7 442. 16. Find the value of a. 445.
ax by = c \ 472. ^ + i^ = 7. + eyn. (or . x y 474. _ 469. 8 461. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.c=563y..  = 2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 468.7.?/ + 1 . 473.+ =2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 465. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.2y) (2 = 2J. 475. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax cx by = m. i = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.
least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the sum and the rate of interest. . If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 479. 486. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the fraction. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and in 20 months to $275. years. Find the number. by 4. fraction becomes equal to . and in 18 months to $2180. the Find their ages. 477. 487. and the other number least. 483. to . Find the principal and the rate of interest. How much money less 484. A number consists of two digits 4. Find the numbers. whose difference is 4. age. Find the numbers. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. A spends \ of his. 485. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 481. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find their ages.
495.z = 20. 490. ./ 504. a number . 5^ 9z = 10. 496. 492. x y f z = 13. 4 497. \ . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. * + 425  = . 493. 3 x 500. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 2a:f 7. of two the sum of the digits also if number. . . 7. 1+1 = 6. 3ar 503. *i. + # +z= 35. : Solve the following systems 491. 489. The sum of two numbers squares is b. z y x 25 . a: + // = 11. ifi = x a. 8.z = 12. ~ 507. + y 5 y = 101 . = 20. = 209. a: 499. 1. x s + y z = 18J . 494. = 15. a: f z = 79. 4 506. 7 + 2 z . 4z+3z = 20. 3 a: + 5=84. a. . 498. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2y + 2z = a: 2. a: + ?/ 2z = 15./ f z =a. a. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 e. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. x f y f z 29 . 2/>3r = 4. 2 2 = 41.? + 2y = 8. . z y ifi = z x 502.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2y + 3a = ll. y Solve : x +z= 5. 5 + a.5#+2z = $x a: G.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. z z =3a&c. i=a + 6 c. 517. + + 3579 2+?. 36 + c. + : = 1472. ll" . 523. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.
Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . 530. If they had walked toward each other. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. they would have met in 2 hours. BC = 5. N. it is filled in 35 minutes. How long will B and C take to do . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. the first and second digits will change places. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Find the present ages of his father and mother. B and C and C and A in 4 days. What are their rates of travel? . CD. M. if L and Af in 20 minutes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. if and L. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. L. . and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. In circle A ABC. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 532. AB=6. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. touches and F respectively. 90. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 527. in 28 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. E 533. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and BE.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. . AC in /). if the number be increased by Find the number. When weighed in water. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. it separately ? 531. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Tf and run together. and CA=7. Find the numbers.
550. 545. to do the work? pendulum. 546.  3 x. The values of x if y = 2. if x = f 1. x*. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. b.10 marks. The values of y. z 2  x x  5. 536. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. GERMANY. a. d.e. then / = 3 and write = 3.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.  7. The greatest value of the function. 2 541. x 2 + x. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 2 x + 5. e. One dollar equals 4. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x 8 549. 2. x*  2 x. 540. 548. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. x *x + x + 1. . FRANCE. 2. 2  x  x2 . If to feet is the length of a seconds. . i. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. from x = 2 to x = 4. formation of dollars into marks. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.  3 x. + 3. the function. 542. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x 2 544. 543. 3 x 539. c. 547.
= 5. a.17 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 2. + 10 x . 3 + 3 z . x* . Represent meters. 2 a.13 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 3 x* . 2 8 . . 563. c. ' = 8. c. x 2 ~ 2 . 555.3 x .11 = 0. a: 559. J. 2 x 2 560.11 x* + + 2 8 569.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.  2 1 a: a.1 = 0.0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 562. 566.15 = 0. \ to t = 5. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.3 x .9 = 0. r?.= 0. x 4 . 565.r 1 561.r . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . Solve// = 0.= 0. e. z 4 . Solve 552.3 . 2 554. x 5 . f. a. If y +5 10.3 = 0.4 = 0. 572. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.6 + 3 . 553. . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 558. if y =m has three real roots. + 5 . g. a. 18 x  4 = 0.7 = . j. z 2 . . 3 x . 3 .r a: a: x a. 557.4 .5 x . i.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 556.4 x 2 + 4 . 2 567. and make the unit of the b.G .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. h. 568. 15. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. a? 4 x . 564.
o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 2  2 aa: 2 . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 5 a*. 582. <r)3  2 3 a:) . {f_7l j? 2* + ''.x + 2 )'2 601. 4 (1a:) 3. 9  4 fSb 607.(1 . (1 + x a. 2 943 ++ ~bx.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 597. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + %) (a* + *) 5 . + ^) + (air%)8. 4 a. 585 594. + + 4 . 6 + 1) .2 2 + y. j^f = 3. a. 589.5 xy = 0. 595. 600. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 579.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. (# 2) . (a.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. (1 (1 (1 . (aiy. [ y =10. + . 2 611. x + z2) 8 . a: . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. a:. 596.%) 4 (aa.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . f ?>) 3 591. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 64 a 12 603. 604. a 612.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4. 1 . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 593. a 8 606. a 2a. : y* or 25. xY. x [ ?/ 577. 3 (f. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 3 . 592. jj+. 588.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 4 . (a  8 ft) .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.frf : 583. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 599.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 608. 598. 609.
V250 . 7) 2. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.871844. = . = 87. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 623. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. V950484 . 3a. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9g. V 635. Find the square root of 619. According to Kepler's law.\/4090. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 622. 4J. 632.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 630. ft . 25023844. 0090. 624. 9a. 44352. Find the eighth root 617. = 0. 615. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 620. 645. 2 + 189 z = 900. 21. 639. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . VOIOOD + V582T09. 638. 32 631.8 aft 6 + 8 21G.49. + 54 'x*y* . 49042009. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 942841. : 5. 625 : 621. 636.12 a?y + y*. find Jupiter's period. x 2 641. 633. 49.2410. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 2. 626. 629. + 24 a 2 4 . 2 + 21Ga. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.150.191209. 8*' + 24* = 32. + 112 a 8 . 210. 614. (x 9 x 646. 647t x 2 648 649. 634. 371240. = 70.*. /. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 40. 644.30. a 642. *+* = 156.15174441. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 651. 4370404. GGff.53 x ~ . 643. 650. 035. x 2 .1024 x + a: 256. 637. + 2 21 x = 100. 494210400001. 628.2.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
1 __ : )'*' _i.bx . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 706.a a )jr . 707. 692. 693. 699. ax 2 698. 2 2 697. . = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.ax . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 696. 695. 708. 2 2 .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .c = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 702. 694.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ex abc= fx 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. a.
The area the price of 100 apples by $1. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 217 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. a: 713. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 729. Find the price of an apple. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 723. 12 4*+  8. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 721. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. in value. 725.292 709. 716.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 724. 727.25 might have bought five more for the same money.44#2 + 121 = 0. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. 717. A equals CO feet. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find two numbers whose 719.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. . 3or i 16 . 722. **13a: 2 710. 16 x* .
+ &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). . 41. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 40. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2 ). 31.1 f c" ).2? 50.)(ai + &. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).X . 52.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 38.aft* 1 + a 2*. n. (v/x).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 39.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 + x.1 + c. 42. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 46.l). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).1 f ^ 2). . 36. 33.2)(x2 4. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 37. 1 6. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 43. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 35. 32. 34.
4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. 761. ~ r* x .294 753. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.. 754. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. [1r^ T 1 i . 2V2 2V3 . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 758. JU. 759.1+J 756. 757. \/G86 v/lGv/128.
Va 809. 790. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . x 782. 103 788.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. + 2V21.2V3* ^ 807.4 V(j. 13 799. .12VIT. 783. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 7512V21. 10 785. 787. . 794. 793. 92VI5. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . 16 + 2V55. 806. 3J . 14 791. . a 9442V5. c 792. 3812VIO. 786.2 V30.VlO. 789.
Vc^lJ . = 1.\/2y  810. x/aT+l . 836. 814. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.4 = 0. \/12 a.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 812.V2 ar 10. 830. + Vx .f 5 = V5x + 4. 819. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. + ViTli + V7 .V? = 813. Va: . 815. 829. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. (x a: 2 ) 4 .79. V3 f 1 V4a. 3 x + 2 . /9ar a: = 17. 820. 816. 833.13 = 0. V14 a. + 103Var. 831.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 811.g. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.  5 + V3 f 12 817. VaT+lJ f ^l . 818. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .
8^27^. 871. 8 2a.3 Va: 2 .10 = 118.1. 876. 16 859. + . 8 + a: 5 8 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 860. a 8 850. f 12. a. 729 867. 845. 4o. a 872. a: . V4 x 2 . .1000 6. a*" & 6n . 27 862. +3 4 +  4. a l0m . 64. a 8 869. a. 8 8  13 a. + 1.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 865.  3x a. 868. 844. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 . 8 a. . 40 x 2 7 f 49. 855. x 8 2 857. 839. x 11 a^ J 13 854. f 841. . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 275 8 l. 875. 9. 2 x 3. 4 a: 2 842.12. 840. 870. 27 y 8.ab9 ft*. 851.3 x . y 4. 4 a. 861. 2 a: 64 y*. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.3 . 4 x 8 858.x*y + 3x f 2.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 64 a 866. 864. 856. a 8 873. 6. .a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. . 846. 19 x 14. a: 849.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 4 x* 847. a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 2 f" + a/ 15. a 18 4. z*y 8 l64a. 853. 863. a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.3 a:. 8 4a: 8 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. f b**. x 4 + f 2 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 852. + 512 y8 874. 8 8 848.
885. z 2 898. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 887. 2 = 2 + 5. 878. a: 888. 2 + xy = 10.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 3 x 2 . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . 2 + 2 f = 17. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.18. 2 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. y 2 4. a.y 2 + V(j. +y f y = 7. a: + y 2 = 34.Vi' + 1 1_3. 1 x 893. a:y . x a: lI = xz .xy + y 2 = 19. 901.298 877.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.y 2) = 20. y = 28. . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 900. 2 + xy = 28. + 2y=\2. a. a: a. . 896. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 889. a# f + xy = 126. y*+ xy . x 882. 2 . 5. 2 + y 2 . x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. f ?/ a: a: . 899. 886. 895. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.1 = 2 a#. 2 2 = 16 y. . 890. + ary + 2 = 37. 883. M1 891 1 . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a: 884. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. y 2 2 8f.35. a: 2 897. x*xy. 894.15. a. y y 2 y 2 1121.sy = 198. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. . xy + y = 32. .
y 3 2 2 922. (o. y . 920. 910. (3 x . a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 924.#y + 2 = 27. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. a: y zx 12. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.y).2 y) = 49 2 919.y) (3 y .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. xy + x= 15. . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + ?/) . + 2 a:y + = 243. 923. 23 x 2 . 2 915. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 906. ^ 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + 2 ary = 39. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.3(* + y) = 6. 908.y) = 33. y + a:y = 180. * + y = 444. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 3 :r(3 . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 * 2 ~ g. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. Vary + y = 6. + a. x + y}(x + y) = 273. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 2 + y = 2 a 4. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. + y = 9.16 y 3 8 = . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. or or a? a: a: . xa 903.23 = 200.3)2 = 34.r a. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 4 (a. 911. *y . + y)(a. . a: a. 907. 921. 2 5 xy = 11. a:y xy 929. = 8. (!) * . (a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 913. 2 2 2 916.y) (a? . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + ary = a*.3) 2 f (y .y = a(ar + y).x) = 21. a. x + y 2 = aar. 7 y . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 905. x 2 ry + y = 3.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y2 = 22. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 914. 909. (* 918. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 912. y x 2 = by.6. x 4 299 xy z 904. x f 2 a:y = 32. + y 8 = 189. ary y = 8. 917. yz = 24. # + xy + y = 7. . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).
The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the sum of their areas 78$. A is 938.300 930. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 3 . (y + *) = . In the second heat A . 944.square inches. is 3. If each side was increased by 2 feet. two squares is 23 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 931. a second rec8 feet shorter. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. is 20. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. find the radii of the two circles. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 943. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. two numbers Find the numbers. 34 939. 152. and 10 feet broader. 942. s(y 932. + z) =108. How many rows are there? 941. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 937. *(* + #) =24. Tf there had been 20 less rows. . Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 935. feet. and the difference of 936. 2240. two squares equals 140 feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.000 trees. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. y( 934. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. Find the sides of the rectangle. rate each man ran in the first heat. and also contains 300 square feet. + z)=18. Assuming = y. A and B run a race round a twomile course. diagonal 940. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.102.
The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. that B A 955. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find its length and breadth. overtook miles. What is its area? field is 182 yards. at Find the his rate of traveling.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. . was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. and that B. its area will be increased 100 square feet. is 407 cubic feet. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. A and B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. whose 946. P and Q. 951. the digits are reversed. 949. distance between P and Q. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and travels in the same direction as A. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. 952. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. set out from two places. triangle is 6. Two starts travelers. . the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. unaltered. Find the eter 947. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. and its perim 948. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. each block. sum Find an edge of 954. 950. and if 594 be added to the number. Find in what time both will do it. 953. Find the number. . A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53.
4. to n terms. x(x to 8 terms... : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 16 962. 966.V2 .. to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 1G series . 971. .. 975. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. (to 2 n terms). 5. . s  88. are 29 and 53. and 976. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. Sum to 20 terms.. 957. 4 4 to 7 terms .. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 970.  2. (x 4 to n terms. Find n f (ft) . are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. 3 + 5 7 + . 18th terms of an A.302 956.454... + (iiven a +  4 d . Find the sum of 4.1 4 f j$V ..>/) to infinity. 9th and llth terms of an A. 961. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). fourth of the unity.. . J. 974.. f + 1 . *" 968. 964. P. to 7 terms. n to n terms.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.4142 . ^ Vfirst five 959. the terms being in A. 3 . 972. Find n. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. = 4. 12434+ j I 967. Find an A. 969. P. 1 to n terms. Sum Sum to infinity. P.321? 965. Find the Find the common 977. ... such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 958.to infinity. P. difference. 5. \ .141414. !Ll^ + n . ^ 1 .v 973..3151515. Evaluate (a) . '. Sura to 24 terms. 36 963..
001 + . to 105? 981. 990. first 984. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.. 985.04 + . P. 303 979. and the common difference. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. named Sheran. Find the sum of the series 988. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 5 11. 987. of n terms of an A. and of the second and third 03. Find four perfect numbers.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. "(. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . P. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. to oo. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 989.. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 0. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.. : + 9   V2 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 980. 986. Find the first term. .. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. to infinity may be 8? .1 + 2. and so on. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + ..01 3. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 992. Find n.001 4.. 2 grains on the 2d. P.+ lY L V. to n terms. The 21st term of an A. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 4 grains on the 3d. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.3 ' Find the 8th 983. The term. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.2 . The sum 982. is 225. 1. Find four numbers in A.) the last term the series a perfect number..
areas of all triangles. 512 996. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 1001. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 998. Two travelers start on the same road. . If a. ABC A A n same sides. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 1003. 997. P. ft. find the series. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. P. are 28 and find the numbers. Under the conditions of the preceding example. and G. many days will the latter overtake the former? . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. c. and so forth to infinity. prove that they cannot be in A. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 999. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. of squares of four numbers in G. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The fifth term of a G. P. in this circle a square. 994. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. The sum and sum . after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 995. AB = 1004. The sum and product of three numbers in G. are unequal. (6) the sum of the infinity. at the same time. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. is 4. P.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 1000. in this square a circle. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. inches. (a) after 5 strokes. P.
ft) 19 . 1006.o/) 14 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . a: 8 7. Find the middle term of ( . (12 #) 7 . 1008. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of 1013.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. + lQ . 1011. 2 ) 5.l) w f . 1009. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. . x) 18 . 1012. Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of 1020.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. ) 1021. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1014. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". . (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .
.
. linear literal Common ** * difference .193 11 ... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . quadratic .130 . 158. .. . . . 112 54 54 251 . .. ... .. . Aggregation... . . Checks Coefficient 20. 232 169 807 . 246 91 " multiple... 97.. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 ... lowest ratio " '* . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . 232 mean progression .. 54...181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 129 54. .. 129. 160 in quadratic form 191 .. ... . . ... signs of Algebraic expression .. 9 ** . numerical . . . 123 . .. .. graphic tion of representa .. ... 19... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. t 53 120 . simple simultaneous . 8 . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES..178 Completing the square ..108 160 " . .. 9. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 37..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .] Abscissa Absolute term .. .
. Like terms Linear equation . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 17 65. . law of Extraneous roots . Mathematical induction . 184 54. .154 Order of operations " of surds . 63.. 227 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . .. 34. . arithmetic . directly.. P .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . Imaginary numbers . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . L. . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.C Multiplication . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . INDEX 8 . . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 84. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 120 Member. 114. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . . first and second . . 205 . Known numbers . 241 123 geometric . 243 7 . exponent .105 Monomials 03 Multiple... . Geometric progression . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 212 . 9. . . . 227 geometric . ..108 Minuend . numbers . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 23 10 91 102.808 Exponent Exponents. 180.. . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Inconsistent equations . . 45 Laws of signs . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. addition of " square of . 45. .. G. . 195 33... . C Factoring 222 Literal equations ... . 112 . 91 . Insertion of parentheses .31.. .. 253 28 70 1. . inversely 122 numbers . 109 102 . . Negative exponents 11 . 143. Product '* 76 Infinite. 189. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 45.
... ...... ... . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ... 4 155 9 " of .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. Sum. .. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 9. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. absolute 54 Variable ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 129.. . . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 45 Trinomial 240 ... ... algebraic Surds . polynomial .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
1917. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. August. 1910.S. Set up and electrotypcd. 1913. 8..COPYRIGHT. December. 1916. NorfoooS J. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Published September. U. Reprinted April.A. Norwood. 1910. Gushing Co.
9 m. 10. 12. 22. 512. 1.1. 11. 2. 1 16. 115. 37. 15. 9. 20 B.00000001. 14. 27. 12. 8. 6. 3. c. 12. 19.  22 20.. 4. x.. 14. Page 4. 5000. 8. . 2. 144. 16. 12. 14.000. 0. sign. loss. 11. 20. 3. 128. 3. x.000. $100. 28. 18. 2. 72 = = 216. + 1. 24.  1. 15. Australia ft. 16.3. 3. 2 ~ 15. 6. $160. 49. 8.C. A 38 mi. 3. 16.8. 11. $40. 4. 0. . 37 S. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 3. . 73. 17. 5.2. 14 11. 10. 85. 16 in. 59. 12. 9. 30?. 15. 10g. 5. 5. 29.. 3. 5. 17.. 20. 14. Not 5. 21. 5. 36. 8 13. 10. 9 14. ft. 18. 9. 2.. 192. 23. 13. 1. 21. 15. 6. 14. 2. 1. C $ 16. 9. Page?.000 Indians. 25. (a) (/>) 1. 1. 13. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.150.000.$9400. 48 ft. ^. 18. 28. sign. 13 S. 16. 19. 3 m. 7.. 3. Ot 15. 3. 2. 10. 7. 29. A . 3. arithmetic. 13. Page 13. 32. 20 jo. 10.12. 8. 3. 17. 3. 9 16  larger than 7. 27. Multiplication. 4. 20 \. 13 d. 14. 6 yd. 5. 7. 20. 16 in. 2. 106. 16. 1. 64. 126.  2 p. 2. 18. 7m. 5. 6. 1. 22.  13. 18. 10. in 12. 6. 12. South America 46.000. 9. 256. 32. 13. i . 7.. 9. 32. 1.21 24. B 10 mi. 12. 12. 25. 6. 1. 89. b. 14. 7. 8. B $80. 1. 7. 13. 2 5. C $60. 2. 17. 2. 3. 21. . 9. 16. 10.000. 2  Page 8. 8. 6. 6. _ 32.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 25. 30. 3. 4. 13 V. 3. 10. 27. 150. 576. 7. 1.000 negroes. 1. 210. 7. 16f 2. 49. 9. 11. 6. T . = 5 81. B $ 128. 11.  1. 26z. in. B $20. A 15.000. B $4700. Yes. 4. 3 below 0. 6* 16. 5. 2. 19 4. 15. is $10. 3* 7. 2. 3. 2. . 24. 17. 18. westerly motion. 2. C $1(50.. 12. 24.. 1. 12. 26. 6. 1.000. 4. 4. 16. 16.000. $ 1 50 10. 8 ft. 6. 25. per sec. A Bl 7. 1. 32. 1. in. 9. 6. Page 8. 16. }. 19. V 23. Page 1. A $90. 9 = 4. 14. 7. 3. 20. 8.
(c) 8. 3. 43w//2 17. 57. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 14. 16. 12 a. = 81.<>Gq. #1111. 2. 1. ft.. 25. 37. 10. 7. 1. i:5. 9. 7. 31. 3.r f 15. 314 sq.GOG. 20. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 1. 0. 15. 27..ft) 4. 31. 21^. 1. 15. a 32. 18. 0. 11. 26. 23. (<7) (a) 314 sq.ft.  1. 18. jrif 4 9. 27. 0. 0. 25. _ 4 . 4. 33.900.~4. 1. 13. c. 5. (a) <> sq. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.r 2 . 5. 104. 20. 27. m 24. 9. (ft) 7.q 4. 2. yyz+xyz*. (ft) Page 2. (r) 2G7. <i~ 26. ft n. 42.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 17. ]*. 30. 22( 19. 30. 3. 8. 15. 240. 16. 4 9/^/rl 2. ft. 39. 22. 27. \'\ 4. (b) 135 mi. 1.4 ft. r+l. 15. 36. 5. 34. 2. 21. 5. 35. 3. 14. (a) r>23ifcu. 29. WIN + wiw. 8. 35. 20. t. :J!>r'.'J. 15a.14 sq. 18. + 5.  0.5 (ft) sq.000 ... a2 4 15^44. ft. 4. 0. (a) 50. 50. 2. in. (ft) mi. y.  3.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 1. 8. 3. 92. 22. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. (ft) $40. 21. 26. 9. 0. 6<t. 00 24 04 ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). ^. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 12. 28. 6. ??i??. 2. 17. 17.. 10. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 25. 7. 12.. 36. 14. 5. II. 0. . $3000 Page 6. 237. 12. 33. 12. Page 21. Trino inial. 58. 30. 21. 8. (r) 2000 m. 9. 27. 12.  11. 3. 14. 51 f. 17. 3rf 27. 0. ft' 3 . 3. 5. Page 31. 3 .. 49. 32.  xV 3 y. 1. 11. (a 4 4. 22. arty 1 20. 35. 19. + ft). 8.  40.. 14. Page 7. 8. 12. 7. ft. (r) 2. 32. 13. ft f 19. w. //'.ab. 6. m + 3(a. (c) S(i. 19. x^ 20. 13. in. 34.rty8. I. . f  5e 35. 20(.4  2ft 2 33. . sq. Pagel4r. 14:). +/2(/. It. 2oVmf?i. 8. 13. mi. Page 23.1. 28. 7. Monomial. vi 14. Page 18. (r) 78. + v> 2 . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (a) 200. 32 2 ftc.r~ f 34. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .000 sq. r/ \(\xyz. .x. 38 ab. 3. 3(c4a).. 11. $80.5f> sq. 4. 18. 14. = ()501. a ft c.94(>. . 04. . . 4. rt.32 c2 > ft 3 . 22. 29. 28.. ft. Binomial. 13 cu. 5. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 0. . 27. 16. 4. in. 18. . 5x+3. 5. 3 a* + 2 at*. 4. 38. :. Polynomial. 3a. 23. 21 a 3 4 10. 24. 17.  2 4 13 ft 2 .. 13. r:A 29. ^). 173. (59. 19. 6. 4 y/ . o^ft. (ft) 12. 2ftx. 12yd. Polynomial. 1.a . 11. 7 7.9?/2 8. 3. 15. in. 16.. 16. 24. 8. 2. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 13. 2x' 2 5 . 41..'JO ft. 31.  12. 10. 9. 14. 15.6) 38.
2 6. Page 8. ^ <. x  + 3z.1 . 3 a3 & 41.  G J8 r  4 a <?. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. . 2. 2. a 52. 9. 22. 16. 1. 18. 36. 24. a + (ftc4df).a~. 5. . 24. 2 a f 6 414. 25 47.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 17. Exercise 16. 31. 33. 25. 11. 2a: 2 4x.2 a. 15. 2 y' 4 . 24 b 46.4. + 4 c. 18. 40.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 2. w 17. w* ( . 32 w 2 w. 5. 11. 42. 1. a2 24. \ :{ 2 a 48. 28. 2 3x f z. + 2y.r 2. M + 10. '  .5. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 7 a5 1 .r.  23. 21. 7. 30. 4wipg>' 27. 2. 18. 4.4c 3 8 8 J. 2 .  4 b 17 y*. 21. 2 4.l. 5 2 Page 29. 2. .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). n*. + 6. ti.(2 x2 . 8 . 4r 2 . 3. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 1. c. 10. 1 + 45. 22. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2 2 2 6. 3. 4. r. 8 + 2 a . 14. 58. 32. 50. 31. 2 . 26. _5a<>&43c. 2a. 11. 7  a + 2 + c. 26. a2 9. c. . . . 19. 19. 4.(7x2 Ox2). 8.  12. 10. 38.a . 37.  17. 2 2. 36. m*  n*. 364c. ( 7. 6. 15. ft Exercise 17.c.1.2 . 20. ' 12 m?/'2 27. _ Page 30..4 d.3 6. t).aft. 17.4x. 4. 2 17. a 10w. 12. 5. 2.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2 a 37.2 a2 2m 2 4.a*. (yz~d}. a 3 . 2x 4 a 13. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. x a8 1. c2 . 6. 0.  14 afy .5 z?/ + 3 y . 13. ri\ 18. 10 x. a + a. . . a 4 + ft. 56. 16. 3. . 1. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ii\ 22. a. a). 5. 3 a . 4 21. 51. (w4w)(ww). 43.6 x + 0) 16. . 20. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 2 3. 59. 35. 2. 7. 34 39. 8 8 . . s_r>a5.2. 4. 2. ?/.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 3 Ji 8 . 7. 12.  a: 2. 12. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. . 6. + 8. a f 2 f 2 9. . 12. 2. 7  # + 12. 4ft ~. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . Page 7. 2m + 2w. !  </ . lOrt 15w4. 34. a 6 2 . 1.3x 2 2 tf. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 5x 2 rt ft. f ft 9.h.a'2 .  b. 14.11.  1. ab a.'U4j>.a f 54. 814. j)(g1. (5x47 3.. Page 44. 2m.x f 1 2 .Oa: + 10. 15. (mn} 11. ?> 22. 8. 14. 14.ws 2 ft) . 1. ?/i 13. 25. 2 + a4l). . 25. f 2 ?/  2. 29. Page 28. ?>4tl 53. 10 m. 19. 0. a4 4 4. :5 41. 13.abc. 20.8(c + a). 24. 2. a  49. 2// 16. 8. a 3& . 7. mn.  b* 4 r 1 . 10. . 21. . 4. 1 4. a' 4ab + ?/.2 57. 6.7. x3 . 55. &. 26. a 3a 4 2 &. a  ISjfat. (2n' 43p 47 ). G. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 3 m.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 0. a a. 8 b. G a bd. ar.
13. 9. 19. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 30 n?b*c*.64 190 p6. 3300. 20. . 4. 42.32 y s s G . 120. 16. 8. 28. 6. (+3)x6=+16.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 108. 161b. 27. //. 90. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 0. 28. 1. 4 a2 . 84.6) =a2 31. 25 4 4. a. 216. 5.16 a 2 + 32 a . f 26. +. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 38wiw. 4 fc. 2 ). 17. 108. ll 2 i.. 25. 4aWy.8 12. 9 13.2. 25. 18. n (a6) 125. 15 q\ 6. . 20. + 7.21 a 3 c2 21. 1. 2*8f x2 6x4. 2. 2 8 xy f 4 a.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. ISartyW e*f*tj. 20. 14. 23. 17. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19. 2 ). 26. 4 a8 . 3. 30. x2 xy42^. 66 39 k* . 12 ^. 16 lb.(3x2_4^+7). 3. 18.>(/ r . 1. .26. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 21. 31. 25.14 . 27.19 + 2. 20. a. 3 a 3 . 8. 27. 13. .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 27. 15. 216.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 210. 9. 13.:>/ . 15. 52 + 6s 12.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 1. 13. 5. 1. a*b*c. 8. . 64.1. 2 ll9HH 2) + .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 30. 83 In + 1 n*. 18. 42. s 9 ww. 19. 2 7t A. 2.. 22. 9. 25. 8. 24. 14. . 14. 360. 0. Ox a 5 . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 28. 13. 7.36 35. 12.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 16 51. 15. 29. 20 aW. 34. 7. 15 lb.32. 27. 33. 2''. 22. 8 . 24. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 161b. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.. 1. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 31.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 34. 7. 4. 12.44 aWc 16 abxy. ! 2.21. 20. 4200.000. 21. 14. 14 m 2 . 10.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 26. a: . 7. 17. 10. 4. 18. 6. Page 35. 15. a.14 w 2 2 . 2. 37. 28. 127"'. 29. 9 w 2 + 13 n . r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 32. .16 x2/ 5 4. 30.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 18a% y. Page 38. 6 . Page 5. 16. 2. iSx8 . 22. + O4 66 . 6. 16. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. . 20. 12. 11. 4 jcy*z*>. 35. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 3 a 2 46.25 + 14. 102.11 xyz . 23. 3. ft 17. 18. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 04. Page 36. 6". 36. 21 a'&c. ?/ . 30. 23. 24. 23. 34. . ?> 4 . 10.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. Page 7. . ..20 xyz . 30. 6. 2 w +2 2 . 33. 18> ^* = a .28 p'^/. 40 r 2 . 7G . 22. 12 x2 2 . ^^ = 20. + 58 . 4. 24. 2 .18 w w + 10 WI M .12. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 770. 60. 343. 14f 5. m. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . etc.12. 5aft(a 126 2). 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 11. . 76 8 a' 1 . fa 2. . 4. 29.15. 24. 1904.19p" + 19^ 10 .6 2 . 29. 11.r% 2 2 ry. 4. 18. 10.7(50. 15. 16. . 16. a 8 . 30 j9 jt?g j . 32. 11. 3.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 21. 30. Page 3. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 17. 19.iv ANSWERS + &)(. ci 5 . 1400. 33. a + ft. 2 * 80 . 2 2 2 . +15. 66 8W 34. 60. 1. 3(*+0 + 2). 8.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.
5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 9801.^. ab . 2 j3 Z . 10.6.4 a&+ 4 &*. + 10 + 121 y*.10 35. x*2^f I. 11.25. 5. 10. 37. x 48. r. (w+4)(m4). x4 28.49. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.r .84 a' 9. 29. 9 4 /> . 4 21. (a (3 54.15. ~ 6 20 . fo*. 8 a W . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 11. 10 a' 2 . . 30 /><. 8 38. 998. 38. + 4 a +4. 1.m 30 6 4 1. 25 25. . (a + 4) (a + 2). Om2 4 6m 6.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. + 12. 2 . 36. 33. 55. 32. 1. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 9. y. 7. 9. 2 1: 21. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.020. 4.ab . 2 62 V2 132.008. + 2 9. 14. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.4 n.35 ab 9. 30 x + 19 x3 . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 3. x* . 34. 40. 484.3.10 x + 25. 2). r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 29.2. 4x21. 36.009.6 xy . p 2 .20. 10. 7.6 y4 10. 999. 26. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 23. 36 a 4 . 2 +10s281. m 3 j) 3 . 7> .606. n2 a4 6. n + 2. 35.098.16 a3 f 50. 53. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 15. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 33. 27. 4 2 //. a 2 . 34. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 19. 441. 10. (m + 6)(m3). 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. ?/H)0. 990. 1.5 ~ 81. 10. 17.996. ^' J  7 f 12. ab. (n 2 5. ' 46. 4. 10. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.. 27. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 6 x6 + 13 x3 . s rc 47. 10. V + o ft . 2 0)(p + 5). 14. 35. . 56. p4 + . w'n 2 //^ + 25./ .x2y22. 51. 28. . a4 4 ?/ . . 44. 5. 8)(?i (x2)(x3).ri 17.4 12.6 x2 13. 16. .020.r* 2 30. 2. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 31. a + 25. 12 x2 . (p 2. 41. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 3wi2 m Page 42. 2 fr . .004. +   5). 10. +4 34. 32. 42. 8. 31. 14. 2 4 2 2 64 . 25. 8.14 jp + 49.994. 10. 2 a' y' .r . 1. 4 . 30. . 40. 2. 1. a3 0. ft' 11. 4 . Page 39. 6.^ + a? + 1.2 6 + 13. 24. 9999. 2 .1. ^V^4 . 45.p132. 4 x2 13. 25 a 2 6 2 .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 39. lflrt 2 8 + l. . 9990.54 p 2 + 81.009. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 2 12.000. 33. 3. . 10. ) 4' 6/ 49. 7 .. 4. 8. a2 ' + 48Z100. . . (w4)(w + l). . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 39.2 y*. ^/> 8 4 .810. 37.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.2 x + 2 x. 31.^V"' .001.00 + 37. a + 25. 6. 2 (5 a 3).000.8. 19. m 2 . 10. 2 6' . 18. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 24.201. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. + 4 t*. 26. 7. 40. x2 GiC+5. 2 4 a + 4. a + 56. Page 12. 1). +  m' 1.712. 41. G a6 2. 15. 1. a' . 52. 4 + 25 q*. 20a 2 21a + 4.ANSWERS 28.404. 2 a 2 + a . 21 2 . 166. . 57. I/). 36. .500. + 3)(3). 10 a 4 ?. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .
12.3 a 41. i 9. 4 a 2 4. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 3*y2 w + 1. 5. 4 pq.3^V. ft. 135. 2.1. 1/*. 17.r'^ 15. 4 a* 4 9 11.34. Page 13. 1.3 3. a 2 .2 aft 4. x4. 12.1. w .21 2 2 f + . 49. 2 . x 4. Page 11.lit x + 4.y3. 2. m L 4.23. 10.30 ftc. 11. 8.1.  3 c. r 7.5 mp. r//.2 .5 a . 6. 1000 1000 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.3 5.r . 1. 5. 3 a. 2 4 3 9. 2 ?/' . 9. + 3.  11. f>r* 4. 4 c m . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 8. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 10.n. 2 2 + 2 a. 2 a 3 ft.9 4.  . :r !>. ft 17. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.000. Page 48. ti'jry1 7. 15. 4. 2 ? 14 . *3 y 4 . 2 . 4.2 2 . r ft.5 n*.2 2 2 8 . 3. 5^418(7. 18. 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 4.8 y. 1. 14. 3. 2.8 yn . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 2. 16.15 21.1.1.3 x 2 2 4.2 . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. a. 13. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 8 x5 ? + 4 1.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 21. 21. '. r/2 4. yfl. c 12.r" 20 S? .r ?/ ??i ?). . 16. . 13. ??. . .2 wZ 4. 14. 9. . 14. ?/2. 2 ?/ 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 11 4. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . . 6. 01. 50.25 c . 4./ 4. c3. 9.r?/ j/. 2 1. . 4ft. 13. Page 22.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. aft. 6. a 4 4 ft.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 2 4. 3.10 2 + z 2 410. 125. .2 ftc . y 7. 2 12. 13.1. + x?/ 2 1. 9.7. 5. abc 7.9 d. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.r' ~ 16. 3. 8.VI ANSWERS 43. 1. 7. _ 2 a . 19. 5 4 a Oft. .8.rw f 8 . 7 r .2 ac .8.  10.+ 77 15. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. // 19. . 5. Osy. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.10 xy*. 10. 4 x. 4 ac. 8. 11. 5. 17. 1. 13.15. 12.3 ry. sr 11.4. 6. 20. 47. 2.24 . 4x43?/. 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 8 ?/ . G. 18. x 2 + 2r f J. 6.2 <</. 1.25. 2 4 2 x 4. a 10. 17. 8. l 4 . +w . Exercise 2 a:// 26. 22. 14. 7a3ft. 9. 16. 4. j) . m'2 3. .w. . 23. .rw. 75 a 2 29. z. Exercise 27. 8 ?/ . 4. 4xy + 13 <) . 14.2 . ft* ft / . 24. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. + 4. 26. .> 10.29. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.12 aft 4 20 ac . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 8. Page 51. as _ 10 16. 3.2 ar. aft 12. ft ? ft' ft ft.2. 4.6 :rs 4. . w 2 . 12. 46. 20 15.1. 6x 3. 15. 2 ^r ???' 2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 19.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . Page 7.2 1 //. /r . 12. 10 ft. 3 aft 20. 5. 5 a  (5 ft.x^. 44.  12 y 25. 14 r 2 . .27 x 2 4. a 8 4. aftc 52. 1. i 2 tji.1*5 2 r 2 . 4 d 2 4. 5. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .r?/.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.  5 z* . 5. 5. 2. 13. 8 x .
19. 00. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 11. + 4x 3y 34. d. 15. 57. (2 a. 23. 5. ct. + 3x + 2y + 32.ANSWERS Page 9. 21 2. 9. 20. 10 x sq.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 10 yr. x. sq. 4. (A) 3 x f (4 x . xy ft.r ct. 30. 25. (d) 2a + 10 = n. x y $ 6 yr. fix. 1. 4.r1. 2 ct. 18.p+7. 'nj 100 a 28. + 10 b + c ct. (c) 2x. I. b. 45. 14. 42.  />) a = all. 47.. I. 0. 29. 36. 7. 35. y 100 a 24. ft. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 20. / + y + a// 12 yr. d + !. 2. x 48. b. x + 1=a. 31. 30. . Page 31. ^ 12 sq. 17. vil 56. f (I. 6. x 49. 12. 37. 6. (a) ' 12. 33.rr2. 2. 39. 2b 22. 3. 3x  1700) = 12. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 100 2. r tx mi. Page 40. . 17. 1. 41. . . }f. 4. 24. 12. 3 9. ? 43. .x700. 100= ^. v (6) 2x. a 8. '^ . 9.6 = *. 4. 16. 3. ft. 58.  2\. + 3 = 2(3* .  6 10. 10 a. 1&.7). 5. 13. 60 25 1. lO. 4 f 39.(3x  700) = 5. 4. Page 6. = 5 ?i x 460. l. 100 14. 25. m +~m 3. (</) 2a. 3. 13. 44. f 6)(o 62. 5. 7x 2 Page 21. 11. y 50. 26. ct.(3x+ = rraxlO. ] 2 ri 42. 10. 800 = x + 1300. </ 20. 2b. 29. 18. Jj12. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 41. "mi. 4^ = 100. 27. 40.  9 = 17 a.  1$. 1. 37. (> 27. ft. Page 61. 46. 7. 13. 6. 6. 43. 100 d ct. lOx 10 + w. % 4.10) 100. Page 13. 34. n M. 38. 10) + = (a) 2 x .100. ct. 5. x = m. 7. 28. 59. 10. s. 16. 5. " lir. y yr. 14. 36. X 60. 10 >_&. 32. 33. x 2y 10 act. 22. 7. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 5. 0. 15.. 1. iL*. 6. rn mi. 7. 8 n  10 yr. # + 20yr. <>. y ?>i x + 26. 16. 20. 10. 8. m+ 11. ( a f 4. 2. 2. 44. f = eZ 2 x. 22. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 17.ab a. 7. 2. 23. 19. 8. !). + f + b 2. .. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 38. 3x2. r>?imi. (>. 2x + 35. a 10.. 7. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7.000. 50= L 100 15. 11. 1. 4(a ft) c = 8. . 2. 10. 2=10.
. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 2). 50. 11 w(w' + wi . 5$ hr. 22.5. 30 yr. Page 5. 6. 7a*fe(2a & l). 300. 21. 7 hr.000 ft. 78. 3. 90 mi. (ro3)(w2). 2. 5. Page 7. 16. a 12. 7.5p + 7 g ).. 1. 200. 8. 15 mi. 150. 13. 11.5. ^ . 12. 05. (a 4) (a. 13. 15. (a + 4)(a + 8). . 1. 3 hr. 8. ?(g ? g+ 1). 5. . 10 Cal. 9.. 85 ft. 100. 7. 13. 3. (c) ^ v ' . 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 14. Page 79. 20. a a (a 8 a+l). 12. 15. 600.13. 2. 11. 160 lb.000 ft. 5pt. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 18.y"). 68. 14. 25. w (/) 64. 15 yd.000. 2. 17. 52. 12 mi. 15.3.411. 2. 20 yr.21. 8 in. 42yr. 1. 25 yr. 11 in.210^. 8. 8 2 19. 14. 75. 14.000 N.2. 4. 6. 74. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 72. 1 lb. 6. 4. 6.000 Phil. z?/(4^ + 5xy .000. 5. 78. 67.000 Berlin. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. ( + 4)(*2).. 10. . 15.16. 17. 2. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). (y7)(y + 2). 3. (y8)(y + 2). 1. 11. 14. 12. 4pt. 20 yr. 1. 30 mi. 3x (3r. 10 yr. 45 in.. 7. 82 mi. 15. 4. Oaj(o62cd). (a + 6) (a + 3).22. 10. (m + n)(a + 6). 40 yr. 9. 10 yr. 1200..000. 90. 28yr.. 2 3 6 7. Page Page 4. + 7)(y3).3).1). MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 100 1.. 20.. 30. 2$. 10. 9.000 gold.000 copper. 8. 2. 200.000 pig iron.7. 4.000.79. 5. 1200. 10. 10. 3. 24J. $40. 14. 18. 9 in. 20. 70. Page Page 480 12.000. 1313. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 11. 3. 25. (z5)(z2). 70^. 7. 8 12. 30. (*4)( + 11. 5 lb. 2 2 ?/ 21. 7.10. 23. 71. 6. 10 yd. Y. 1250.0.. 55. 11 pV (2 p8 .(5z . 10.2). 2. 180. 13.. ~=90. 6. 5. 8. 20 yd. (a5)(a4). 1. .vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 12. 6.  PageSO. 13. 80 A. Page 7. Pace 65. 4. 2 2 2 5. 3. 9. 5 Col. Ib. 6.. (a + 5)(a + 6).6). 480. 1. 8.3. (yll)(y4).. Page Page 4.24. (y + 8)(y2). 10 Mass. 12.3aftc + 4).000.. 10. 6rt 2 11. 9. 29. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. by 12 yd. 19. 15 in. 8. 18. 4.. (e) i* + A.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 9. (p + 7)(3a5&).11.000. 12. 8.0.8. = _?_(2ar + 1). 250. 7. 3. (y 13. 9. 3 (a +&)(*.
(a + 8)(a3). 14. (4 18.6) 2 2 .2 ft). + 3). 8. 3. 12. . (y8) 2 2 . 26. 7. 29. (w + 20)(w + 5).. + 0(90 Page 85. No. (ft + ll)(aftll). 8. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 27.+4 y)(3x4 y). (2o + l)(2l). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (a (p8)0> + l).2). (x + y4 )(x . .1). 30. 5. (w ~ n (x . 24. 1. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 29. . 24 9. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). ix 18. 15. No. 10(a + ft)(aft). 10(a . 10. 23. 17. 24.11 6) (a 4. Page 83. + 2y). (5a +l)(5a l).3)(z2). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (ay8)(ay3). 13x(a + ft)(aft).2 by2 6. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). No. . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 26. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (m + w) 2 5. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 100(x. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 35.y) 2 aft. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 9. 15. 11. Yes. (4al)(a2). 23. + 9^)(oxy . y) 2 29. 103x97. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (* + y)(zy). 25. No. 17. 21. 23.7) (a. 35. 8) (a.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 11. Yes.5y)(3a. 22. 14. 13. 24. (2 a? 4. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 27. 26. 9. 4. 10 a 2 (4 . 3. 28. 27. 2.* (2 y + 3)(y. No. 2. 7. Yes. (3#y)(+4y).6) 2 1. 26. . + y + . (5wl)(m5). (2xl)(x + f>). Yes.7)(2z f 1). + 5) a. 3a. 216 aft. 9. + 8)(g3). 14. . 4.y (6x + 4)(5x4). + 3)(c44). (15ay2) 2 . 100 (a. (4y3)(3y + 2). (<7 20. 13x7. (a. 1. (g .4. (13a +10)(13a 10). a . a(2u. (w* (3a26). 3)(3a. 25.4 6). 22. (5x . 2. 21. 34. 18. 23. 25. 28.1). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 1. 5. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 31. 20. Page 84. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 33. 25. 6. Yes. Yes.3). 30. a*(5a f l)(flr . 12. 3(x + 2)(zl). Yes.1). 2).   . 22. 32. y(x. 9. 2 3 by2 Yes. .4p). . 40 x. 4 (a . (2yl)(y + 9). . x(x +y)(x y). 20. (m7n) (a. 36. . Yes.11 ft)(a6). (az + 9)(ox2). 21. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (:52y)(2a!3y). (3*2)(. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). + 4) (a.9*). 2 2 15. a. 7. 11. (10a + ft)(10aft). Page 82. 25. (0 + 6)(66). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 3.1). x (z + 2)(x + 3).ANSWERS 16. (y + 4)(yl). Yes. Yes. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 32.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 31. 10(2 30. 18. 10. x\x 24. 16. . 21. (6 a. 17. 20. (4a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 10. 33. 19. (a 6 6) (a 4.c 2 ). Yes. 28. . (15a + 46*)(16a46). 12. 22. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). .2). 9. (2 *+!)(* 9). (15z2y)(x5y). 7 6) (a 10 6). 16. 8. 2 17.r2). (9y4)(y + 4). y) (a. 19. (a a: 19. Yes. ( 2 4 19. f 2). 2 No 4. (a 3 + 10)(a.2 y). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (3a.y4 ). 16. 6. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (6n + l)(+2). 34.  x (5 a.8). (4 13. 10.
Page 90. + 3. ( (<> r4y3 . 5 x8 3. 6.X 5.2)(x 1. a 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 6. Page 87.1). Exercise 47. (a &4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 36. 3x(x?/) 4. 3. 8x. ^ . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 24. 4. 27. Page 12. 12.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 24x sy s 9. (r420(4 10.'/)('< 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). 17.&). 4 a s &8 .2). 39. (16 4  2(5 n . (5 26. 7. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 28. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. . 11. 7. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). . (5^4.l)( a 25. 7. 2 1. 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 2. 42). 7. 8. 35.  29. 13. 2 . 11.e 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 16.?50)(xt/z. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 14. 2. a8 . Page 86. x 4. 4). (w * .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (a 4. 37. 14. 2. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (c. 2 2 3 .4. 4 a8 . (m  I)' 6. 14.9). r x 2 */3 . 6. (5a+l)(9a).0+ 12). 12. (a 9. x  1). 19. 2 (a 4. Page 89. Gp). b) (r 4. (x//. 6 f c). 6. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .2 y). 8).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 2 21.4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 1. ?>). x(x f y)(jr .b. 5. (x. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. y(2x?/). 7. 4 6. 6. (^ + ?>_8). 18. 2. 7. ah}.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.&). 4.8) ( (16.))(x  ^OC 1 1).^ 48. (> 1.8). 1(V/ 88. 22. 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (14. 450. 2 y) ^ . ?i(w 4y) .2). 13. a 2 (a9). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (. x43. 4. 11.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 8. a (a + 2 6).'J)(' .'})(c . 5  (2 2 . 4.n). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (^ 7. 2 + . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.?/). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 5. 8..3. a + a b.36). . ofc)( fid).y '2 2). 4. l. 40. ( a ^)(^3. + 2 //). . 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 5. 10(2 (3 4. ( y).) j). 10. 8.?>) H. Page 92. 2 k (wi 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 17(x43//)(x2y). . (f> + fo 7.42 x 4. 41.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 14. 30. 12. y). n  r)(5a 10. 13 x 8 2 . 2(m4l)' . 13( 33. 11.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 15. (w4w) 2 1.4).  WIM. (2x7)(x 2 2).5 m2 x2. (a />.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .4). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 2 8(w . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4  9.y.y)(fi a . y6.1).1) 3. 9. x .3. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). Exercise 46. 38. 3 x4 . a x 3 10. 8.!) (x42)(x2).y). 3p (^9)(j) 4).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 16. (5 31. a 41. fi(c426). 15. 8. 5. 15 M.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).7s) (2 a.3)(x 4.  (w' 4. . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .7)(^ {I 12. 20. (!__/>). 9. 2 2 10.8) n 43*). 4 3. ( rt 23. 8. 3(. 32. 2. 13. ( { &). 6. 4. y )(. 42a 3 x. a 4.
+5 1. 13. 11. a 10 25.  1). x 22. + &)(&) ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + &) 2 ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. (a2)(a + 2)2. ?_!&. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21. a 23. + y) (a: y). +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 2(2al) + l). x 24.ANSWERS 10. 18.6). 6a2&(rt6). x 12.
26. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + 2H 1 ^.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . _*^p5_^^_.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 2 a. 6a5f^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 1. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 11. Page 101. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.  **/* + 84 _. 4 L 8 2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .50 ~ 1/2 . 30. 6. + lH + . . a 5. 7. w1 + ac w 4 7. 28.. 6.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. Page 100. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 0. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ^~ 29. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 4. A^. i. 4c 10. c 8. xy 43. 6. ' 2 7. i^.
a2 2. 38. 4. ^i 11. 33. 3. ^_. f Page 107. 29. 4. x 05m ' 5. 4. y(x + x ?/). ac mp lf> n 12. 36. 6 .L+ft. a 17. 6. 15. 32. + f. J.y 7. 10. 26. m 9. a. 41. 0. 31. j L . 27. ' 6. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 21. ft. 1. 3. 5. . 7. 7. w^x 2 b Page 105. 1. 1. 7. 4. 18. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 0.  10 X + u. 3.^U\WF### X<6. 11. 43. 13. 9. . 6. 9. ! 4 20. 6. (y + (z 12. 3. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 1.ft . 9. 1. 3. 20. 1. 44. Page 113. . 4. 6. n . 2ft a i m x. flf. . 1. 30. 16. 21. 1. 8j_m 7 3. b a f +c 14. 14. A. 11. x\. 1. n 16. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. I) 2 3z 1. 2 47. Page 111. +3 ( + 15. 46. 8. 45. 8. x 1. Page 106. an 18. 14. (>. ?+_!?>. 34. 23. 37. 12. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109.^_. 12 28.  V o 4. 35. 14. 11. c 8. 42. Page 110. 16. 10. 40. 4. pf n 6 1. 3. 24. 17. 12. 4a3ft. 3 7 i o. J. 6. 1. b 2. 5. 15. 2) 19. 7. f 7. 5. 21. 15. Of. 17. 5. 5 be _J_. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. n m a + 13. J. ?. 4. 11. 11. 25. 19. 39.
32. 18. 5 2.. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. 55 mi. silver. 8. 12.137. 3. 7 . 7} 18. 18. 13. 8. 1. 14. (ft) 104. 10. 81. 26 mi. ^m . 10. #V ~~ 34. 14. 8. 38ft min. 30 mi. 19./hr.. 10^ oz. 1^'.0. Yes. " 0. 4~r~ n . dn ~ mi. ft. after 18. 4.000 If da. 9. 75 . 300. 4. a 4 ft. 20. 9J oz. 3. 16. 20. 27. 212. P+ ^ 33. Yes. 40 mi. * 7:9. f . 34. . 15. 4.10. J. 9. . ~m . 74. 7. 7. 23< &n b ' .003. Page 119. 19. 5 25. 17. 40wn. 10. 6./hr. 24. 1. 14. 7. $0.  29. 16. 5ft 30mi. 6. 30 yrs.. 5. 7T 2 Page 116. (a) 25. 21ft min. 1:4. (ft) 28. '"I 22. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 40 yrs. 5. 15. (ft) 5 hr.  + . Yes. 13. 300. (d) 4 da. 4. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 24 mi.x + y. 8301 hr.  C . (ft) (r) 8 hr. 35. $00. 12. 11. jj. 10 yrs. ^?i min. No. 15. 17. 1: ~. 9$.. 00. after $12. 3:2. ANSWERS 16. 17. = A's. 3. 21. . w 18. $45.. 4. 24. 1:3. 16. Yes. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. (d) 500. 1 da. Page 124. w 21. 28. 15. n 32. 33.001. 7.11. ^p^ r ~ 7. 275:108. 8. 13. (a) 12 hr. min. 7. (c) 2 hr. 300.138. 31. $40.0 & . gold. Yes. 17. 12. xy. 14. 10. 1. 15.. Page 125.. 9ft. 0. 13. 9. 21. Yes. 19. 10. 10. 11.000. Page 117. 2x:3y. Yes. (c) 8300. min. 36. 26 30. f.} da. 3. 18. 11 hrs. 6. 2. [>> ^ a .15. 15. (a) 4 min. 22. . Page 121. 2. 26. 1:1=1:1. 1:1 = 1:1.. 11. No. 30. 3.. 2:1.000. (r) 3^ da. 1 : 12. 10.9. _JL.002. 30ft.XIV '/ . 9. 5.. . 3. Yes. J ^'. . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . IV s.004. w 44. 10. after 20. 15. () 2. 33.000. 500. 5. 3 da. 4fl M_. Page 118. :2. (ft) 5 da.139. 2 20. nm.2.000 1 = 23.000. 10. 1. $30. (a) 30. 1:1 = 1:1.2. 19. . 20. 8.
4. = 7 b'.3. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 11 5 .C ?/ a . 20 cu.3. 4. Page 133. 174+ Page 128. l. Of. 2 n . 127. 26. 54. 15. 47. 1(5. 1. 10. 2. 36. 10. 6*. OJ.5.  ?. Page 136. 32+ mi. 6. 44. 1. 945 11 10 . 3.3.5.7. 8. ig 6. . 3. 4.12. 24 1 (e) Directly. 25.1. 22. 15. 7.4.3. Page 137. 8. 17. w.1. 1. 2. 4.2. 4. 2. 2. 9. 7. 4. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 2. 36.5.36. 43.3.6. 7. 3  24. in. 3. 200 mi. x +y x + 74 7 \. 11. 56. x 42. 2. 23. 9. 41.r. 14. 25. 31J.17. 7. 2." ^ 2.3. Page 131. 2. 8. 27.2. J. 30. 57. . 4. . 7. () 7 Page 126. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5. *. jc:y = n:m.840.5. 5. 19. Inversely. ~ 1. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 5:0 = 10:12. 1. b x 37. 2. 24. 49. 15> 9.' : : : : <>. : XV 27. 16. "lO. . : . .3. 6. \.5. s<i. 6. : 23. . Page 134. 9. .5. 8. 2. tin. + W. 32j. 5. 3 2=3 x.. 2. 6 10 = 12.8 oz. OJ. 38.J 3. 25. .3.*. 2.4. 58. \\. . 4. J. t 5. 3. 7. 3. 2. 39. 12.J. 2. 9  15. 35. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 8. 14. 2. 4. ini. 46. y a y = 7 0.4. 6. 1. I. x y = 1 = 3 2. 1 18 = 3 51.2 oz. 2. 3. 21. 6. 12. 41. 4.12. Page 5.a. 3. y . : : T 1' : /> : .2. 7./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 1. 4. 3}.4. J pq. 1.2 x. 19 OJ.1.2. Page 132. 9.1. a 3. 13. (a) Directly. 24. 10. 16. (I. 2. 55. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 17. 20. 59. 3. 28. 8. y 1. 3. i. 22.x a. 48. 11 w a 13. ' 55."2:1. 11. 2. 29.5. 7. . 13.  19.15 x. 3. (b) Inversely. 53.22.3. 9. 141. 2. 4. 30. 12. . 13. 2. 7. 5. 52. 2. 14. mi. x:y a: b.9.46. 5. 7. 7. 13. (b) C C' = fi JR'. copper.3. 20 20 J ^. 138. . 20. water. 5. 5. : : . 1. a +b 1. cu. () Directly. 7. Page 9. 13J. 5. 2. 4.000 sq. 17. 21. 16.ANSWERS 22. 45. 1.160. + b 7 . 31.1. J. land. 18.15. 11. 8. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. a~.5. 4. 9. 50.li. 12.5. 2.7. lo mi. 4. 1. 40. in n. 1 rt * vm^1. 3. 5. 11. 26. 10. 40. /. 11.^ 0?j ' gms. 7. 23. y :y =. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 5. 9.000 sq. 19 3 .) 31. 7^. 5:3 = 4: x. 9. 19. 2. 7.. 3. . $.57. 14.20. 19. (</) ft. 2.. 3. 7. ft.3. Page 135.  28. 4. mi. 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.]. 5. x y y . w 8. : />. 5 2. 7. . 2.
14. 13. 3. . Page 151. 6. A's 50 13. 0. 3. . 9.l. Feb. 5. 4. 1. On the x axis. ad AzA. 20 to Oct. 15. . 32. (a) Apr. Apr. 1. 25. 3.  17. 23. 2. $500. 40. 16. . 11. A a parallel to the x axis. 25. 3. Oct. 4. 18. July 20.3.65. 7. 8. m .. 18. Page 22. 24. be 7. 1 (c) Jan. 3. 3. SL=J o ft r^2. 2. C's 10 yrs.0. July. 4.9. 9. 2. 2. 6. 4. 10^ gms. yrs. m + n p. (5. J. 0. 7. 2. 6. 4. 3. 3. 2 horses. 9. 3. 2. 1. 23f . Jan. . On 11. 10 sheep. 15.1. 3. 1. (ft) 20. 5%.$2000. ^. 6 cows. 11. 4. 147. 21. 3. 2. 14. 6%. Jan. 7. 12. 2t2. 5.4. 40. 31. (<f) 13. 16. 11. 19. a =J (n  1) rf. Aug. 90. 20. Page 153. 17. 72. . <*ft/ bd 1. $900 5%.0. 16. m f 8. The ordinate. 24. 5. (ft) 23 J. 25. 10. (a) 12. . 2. $250. Page 142. 12. About 12f. 3. 12. Apr.. 1. 30. Page 143. 22. 3. 2. Apr.n + p. 23. 7. Nov. 7. 1. 4. 5. 00. 2. 30. Nov. 5. 1 (d) Apr. 4 mi. 21. 100. & part of Sept. 7. 3. 10.. 4.XVI Fagel39. May 5.1J.. a. Nov. 11. 5. 17. 6. 4. 10. 15. ad _(?jrJL. = ^ a Page 141. 24. ' 6 3 a. 2. A's 30 18.4. 20. C's 30 yrs. & May. 25. 13. 29. 6. parallel to the x axis 0. 423. (c) . 27. 0. 5. 5./hr. .33. 16. 3. 20 & Oct. Page 145. June. 7. 2.3. 3. 9. 2. 2. 4 ' q.$5000. 3. 20. Page 152. 6. $3000. ft 3. 19.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 8.  11. 18. 8. 4. M 2. . 20. Jan. 19 gms. . 18. 26. 4. 13. 9. 16. Page 146. 24. 1. 10. m f 9. . 11. 30. 3. Page 149. 26.10. 4. 14. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w .8. 6. & part of Feb. yrs. 1. B's 40 yrs. 5.2.4. 7. 5.. 3. $ 1000. at 15. 9. be 10. 12. ' . July. $4000. 2.^.3.7. 2. 20. u 2ft. 1. 4. 1. 6. 2. $6500at3Ji%. &. 4. 2 a. 1.1. . afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4. Jan. B's 15 yrs. Jan. 28. 8. On the y axis. 2. 12. . 3). 3. through point (0. 11. 7. Nov. 17..  Zn  "(^ll 14. 16 to July 20.2. 7. 16. 1. 10.
15.25. . 28.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 3. . G. . .  1. 8. ImW. 22. 2. 2ft4 Page 168. . 4. (c) 7. 27 19. xW.59 . 3. 3. . 5. 30. 13C. 19. 7. .17 (ft) (c) 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2. 3.25. f. 5. 2. 10 C. 27." 23. Indeterminate. 3. 0C. 13. 15. (ft) (ft) 2. 19. 83.25. 3.13. H. 3.73. 13. 2 2 22. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .  . 2. Page 164. 20. (ft) 2. 1. 3.4. 1.2 (ft)  1. () (rt) 3. . 3. 1.75.75. 2. 14. m.84. 10. Inconsistent. . 2. (/) 3. . f12 wi 9. a 29. 13 . 2. (gr) 21.59. (ft) (d) 2.. (/) 3. (c) 2. 3.. . ' :=_!. 3 . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 8 1 f f g*. jgiooyiio 17. 3. 2. 22. .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. f 10. 1. Page 159. . 14. 125 a 8 12. 26.5. 1.24 . 2. (c) 14 F. 1. 11. 21. 3. SlstyW 7. (a) 2. +3 4. 16. ft 2 4. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 1. 8.3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 1. 1 4. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. xg .1.1. 4. H.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 4. . (ft) and (d) 2.5 (ft) 3. 24.41 and .34F. 14.3. xy. 3. 5. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. . 4. 3. . _ 9 x ^27 1 . 1. (e) 3.5.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.27. 9. .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 0. (<?) 2. 3. 2. 11. 1. 4}. 3.73.24. 9 and Page 166. 1. . 10.73 ami . 27 27 81. 18. 6..83. 4. 2.64. \ft) 5.75 (ci) 3^. 3.  1. 2. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . a + ft. 18C. 125 16. 5 and 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 2.24. 2. Indeterminate. 1.. 4wn8 + n4 5. 4 ) 21. 3. 1. 2 l. ft .41 and 23. 12.64. (a) 12. 14.  12 ft xW  26 31. . . f. 24.67. 1. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 2. 10. 1^. 1. 5. 11. Inconsistent. 13. 2. 5. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 6. 5. Page 163. 15 . 4. . 30. * 16. (e) 2. 4. 1. 81 ". 9. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. . 8 a1. 1 23.25.7.83. 1. 2.79. 125a 28. 8mW. 12. . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. (a) 5.6. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.25. 25. Page 158.79. 1. 20. (a) 4. + a 4 ft* . 17.73. 15. 32F. 3. 5. 2 a&m Page 167. . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. a 10 ' a ll V&.75. 2. 8.
+ 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. + 29. (x + y\ 90. rt .6.f 1 m 9 16. ( Page 174. 6. 763. 2. (l + x + . 2 ?>i?< >2 10.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 5. 12. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 2.^). 10*. 7. (Gx + (i + 2a. ^i. . 3 6 23. .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 15. 57. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.10 a~ + 5 a . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 13. (a 2. 27. /> 4 ). 7. Page 176. 16. 6. 309. 3. 9. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 6 (\x 3. 11.  x. 8.3 ab + 2 2 ). . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. + + ?V 22. 24. 71.1. 6.  +X '. (a + y+l). 34. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (2 a + ft). 72. 3 2 ^. +35. (ab + c). 7. 31.83. 3 2 8 3 12. . 3. ? . a. 180 . (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. + l).037. + Z). 101. 3M. 2 2 4. m 13. 5 5 8. 16 6 w . 9. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 4. 25. 32. 10 x G a 4 .y2 ). + (win . 5. 14. 5. 14. 99. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 17. 300. 12.XV111 7. 98. 19. a. I 8x2). c 10 6 :l 20.i c 6 15. wi 8 + 3m 2 . Page 170. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 1. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 247. 2038. 9. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 8 /. .2). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 70. 5. 15. (x' l).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 20. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 9. . (a + 2 +l). (4a2 9& 2 13. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.7 /)). 4. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 8.x ). 2 2 7. 8. 1. 6.GO a c + 23.r 2 + 6jt). 76. 30. 9.5. 420. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 11.+3^ + 4. 4. 2 4 8 2 . ? : 1 . 84. 1 1 ?>). 4. (ly). +3 + 5 4. (3a. 10. 90. 0. + i)). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 35. (1 (x2y). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . AN S WE no . 64. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 978. 2 49 . (48 + 6. 33. 23. 15. 90. 5.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w.94. Page 172. 237. 18. 22. 40. 14. 11. 17. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 13. 2. a: l . 1247. 8. . 00. 10. 6. . 14. 21. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 16. a ). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 36. ). 26. 30. a 2 . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 2. 119. 3. 20. 18. 28. fe *?>' ?> fi . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 15. 3. 20. 1. + y). Page 171. 19. . 25 19. GOO 2 c 2 .a b 22. 2 12. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 21. . 11. Zll. 10. 1.1. 18. 17.5). 20. 12. ??i ?i . 9. 2. 8. 16. r> 4 : 1 .
m. or 5. 1. 40.. 4. ft. ZLlAiK 19. 6.a.4. 1&.916 yds. 1. >i 27. 25. 39 in. 1 f Vl3. a + 61.6.  14. 3. 18. 25 J. 30. * 1. 22. ^. 4. 21. 6yds. 10. 6V'2J. 15.ANS WERS 22. 31.  43. ft. 14. 2. 2 sec.1. 6561. 2. 5. 18.243. 3.4. 6. 7. 7}. 1. V35 1. Page 185. 4. 2. 8. 36. 16.1. 21 28 ft.925 ft..V 8j. 1. Page 181. 3. 3.237. . 6. 20. 49. 10. 4. 29... 10. 13.  3. 37. 34. 4. 3. 28 in.469. 9. 26. ~ V^3. Af^. V2. 2. If ^. i ^. 16. J.6. 16. 1. 20. 16. 10. 7. 12. 14. 2. 12. ft. Page 179. 7. Page 180. f..  5. 39. >TT 26. 5f. 12. 4J. 5. *. V2. 21. / 11. 21. 5. V17. 5083. 4.w 18. JJI. .522 38. a.. V J l. 7563. f. 24. _ iVaft.}. 6. 7. 23. i. 1. 32.5.i. 2. 6. f . 40. 21 in. 5. 11.  f. 10. 9. 5. 2. 11. 11. 6V21. 1.13. 7. 9.. 14. . 4. 13. }. 15. 17. 5. . 3. 10. 6 f !. 15.798 yds. 7. 27. 7. 12. 50. 21yds. 4.  f. 1. 2. 4. .367. 3. .18. 4. 47. (6) Vl4 3. 44. 19. xix 26. 6J. 4 n. 10. 11. 29. 30.236. 36 in. 12. f f V. 8. 24. 7. 2. ^^7m. Page 184. 5. 42. 4 W**. 8. . 7 in. 23. . 3. 7. 9.. 34. 2. ^. 13. w. 3. 8.005.*. 12.. 4 TT M 28. 5. 2. 3. 4.645. 1.?. f ^ is. 9. 11. 1. ii :J _7. 5.  1. 8. 23. 39. 33. 15. 46. 28.6. 32. 3J. 1. (afl). 4. 7 45.  2. vV'TA 24. " ^_ 22. 270 sq. 27. 14. 8. 9 15 ft. . 10. 4 a. 4. /. 35. v 17. l~8. V. 5.5. 16n. . 19. 6. 3. {. 28. 35. 48. 2] see. .4. 5.60. 25. 17. 12. 7. 6. 33.Sn..742 in. . 10. or 3.6. 9. 9. 3. \/3. f 3.935. 3. () 2. 15 1 10. 7. 5. 41.6. 20. 6. (< + ?>). 31. 14. 15. Page 177. 12. 1 7. 2. vYb. 29. Page 183. m. > w ft. 37. 1 38.690. 5. 3. 2. 36. 13. 5. 17. 9. 13.
5. 18. 15. unequal. 7. 7. 21. 29. unequal. 2. 40. 9.  1. 1 . 10 mi. s 11. 26. 0. 2.1. 41.  Page 194. 24. 24. 7. 3. 5. 1. 38. . 6. 9. 43. 14. 4. 36.]. unequal. 0. 13.XX Page 186. 3.6. 22. $30 or $70. 15. 64. 3.0*8. 19.59. unequal.. Real. 26. 6. . 2. 18. a + 6. Imaginary. 1. 8. 11. ^l/>> = 85 ft.37. 4. r* i. equal. 35. 18. 26. 70 ft. 34.4. 25. 10.  13.2. 2. 23. V^l. 27. Real. 1. 4.2. 5. 16. 3if. Page 188. 4 da. 1. H.  1. 3.7. 2 V3 in. 6. 15 ft.  5. 5. 3. . Page 192.  2. 12. 1). . 31. 0. Real.. . 3.* 2. f 6 52 a. 17.3. 2. 10 mi. 30. ' 1. 14. = 0. 58. a.a.12.2. V2. *'' 12. 11.2. 56.4.. 3. ANSWERS 22. 2.23. 1. 1. V7. + 11 x. 2. 6. 0. 4. 1. V^~2.. unequal. a + 1. 39.a. . unequal. 2. 20 nii. 21. rational. 4. 2. 8.. rational. 7. 3. 2 . 0. 28. rational.62. 3.2. 1 3. 2. x* 51. 9. 23. Page 190. rational. 19 in. rational. 10. 3. 2. 3. 48. 3. 44. ft. %. . 0.23. . #<7=3. 1.  2. 3.4. 10 in. 2. . 4. 1. Imaginary. 1. 42. unequal. irrational. 28. a8 . 3. x*4x=0.6 = 0. 5 ft. 0. v^^fcT"^. 6. 35. f.$40 or $60. 3. Real. Page 191. 2. equal. . t is. 2 ft. 20.  1.12 = 0. 1. 4. 12.10./hr. 26. V2. 7. 1. i . 0. Real. . unequal. 46. irrational. 25. 12.70.2. x2 + B . V^l. Real. jr . 5. 22. 7.  9x <). 9.  1./hr. 2. 53. 8\/2 17. 1. . 0. 13.4. 4. 3. unequal. V ~ 16 4 2. i. Imaginary. 4. Real. 27. 0. .3. 20. 33. 1. 10 or 19. equal. 1_^L ft 14. 25. $80./hr. 1.a 3 a. $ 120. . in. 3. orf.2. .1. If. 5. 2. . 45. 7. 2.  i. 0.7. 25. 6. 1. 7.48 3. AB = 204 ft. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 64c. 12. 6. 49. Page 187.74. 2. 4. U.5^. . 10. 20 eggs. 16.48. _ 19. 52. 3.1. 6^2 in.2 x2 . 2. 6. a. 0. 47. 2.17. 15.  5.  6. 1. 6. 28.'.5 x + 6 = 0. 0./hr. Imaginary. 50. 24.  1. 57. 27. 1. 3. Real. 6. 8 or 12 mi. 6V64.4. 55. 21. 2. . f. AB = 3. x 14.  24.02. (5 10. 120 ft. VV11. 8. 1. 1. 8. 3. 0. 32. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 2.7. 12. 19. .Oa. . 23. 16. 2.2. 20.2. 3. Page 189. . . 0. 2.l. 0. 3.3.41. 3.2.. 37. '  f 5.
19. \. 57. 1. 16. \/r\ 11. 0." 17. 1. 9. 3. 32. 125. _! V3. 3. 21. x/25. 3.^7. 24. 18. 31. x. . 18. 3. jV 10. 58. 8. y. 10. 3. 19. 9.  f . 3. 3. 22.1 5 15. 20. v^T4 m. 28. 6. 17. 1. 9. aW\ 40. 10. \ . ^49. 40. 39. v'frc 18. . 47. 3. 20. . \/3. 18. 8. ar 1 . v/3. 56. 1. 5. 243. 35. J. 2. 25. 8. 16.  5. 13. 5\/5. \. 41. 3. 60. 3. 2V a. 17. 47.6. 20. 17. 7V7. Page 196.17. 2. . p. 50. J.  48. 26. 52. 30 a. 50. 15. 59. 23. r*. n\/* Page202. Vr. 12*2 61. . 4. 37. 44. 22. v. 8. 3. 9. ) 2 >J i 10. 2. vm. 31. 5. fx'^z'l 23. 30. 12. m'. 5. 2. 4. ). 36.ANtiWEUS rational. 51. 25. Page 197. Page 200. 24. 16. 33. 16. 4. 2. 30. ifa.  f. 10. 4. 13. v'frW. 13. . 1. xxi 15. 27. 29. 1.32. 42. 2. 2. 29. 29. 6. : . x$. 49. i. 84.  a'2 . 4. 49. 1. $7. 49. 1. 25. 4. Page 199. . 19. 2. 4. 1. 2. 7 . 1V1. 14. 1. 2. 11. 20. 21. 0. 43. 23. 14. a 18 .//^. 6  AAf. 27.2. J 3. 5. 'J. a. 9. 48. 54. 33. 19. m. . 5. 3 4 11. 9. *V. 32. 45. 11. 2. 15.. 14. &. 46. 0. 49. 38. 8. 21. ? . 12. 14. \/. (m 26. 10. . r. 55. J. 7. y . JV37. 33. 8. 1. l  5 12. 3. Jb \. 53. ^Sf 3 38. 1 39.  J j. z + 22. 1. 4. 28. wA 46. 13. I. J. . \a\ \/^. Page 201. 8. vV. 24. 7. 2 L ( V. 15. 5. 7. 8. V^ 34.
24. .'\ 14. 9. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 2. Va 2 "ft. 2v (T 2aVf. 3 \ 39. Page 207. V. 15. 40. 3 4\/2. 1) 3V3.2 VlO. + 1. 18. 33. T. 30.632. 29. 13 a. y. r c . 40. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3 x^y 33. 9. . 11. . . v'TM. ^88". 8. 8a6V5.r. x^ . V2 + 4 V22. 23. Vr 8. 2>X2. 20. . 34 r 6. 21. 11V3. 195V3. x.x^y* + y%. 2. 49. r 17  Page 204. 20. ftV 46.  2 3:r. 13 35. 39. 1 2 or 1 ?. x 7  34. 29. 19. x 25. V80. 31. yV35. 37. x y. y (a + ft) V2.rV:r. abVab. JIV6. 135V6. 28. 9. + . 101 1. 3. 2\/7. (a 27.2 18.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. V. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.yl : . 19. 16. / V3. + 2). 13. ?tV?w. 32. 7. 24. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. a2 4. 45. . 16. (x' (l 1+x). ^: V2c.648. 3. 2. a^ + 2^+1. 4aV^J 16. 43. . + + ft. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 03r* 7. 3^ + 2). 38.  a Vft 2 121 b. 12. 48. + 2 V22. 26. 50. 36. 34. 20&V6. Page 203. V63. 21. 8V/) 15. 4. 37.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 10. 10.Vxy 35. 3. x + 5 x3 + 0. 3^2. 31.577. 17. + Vic + 25. 5 ( . 32. m* n*. 27.692. l 5.. 3 42.3 + 40 3 . 30. 51.XXii ANSWERS 1. 7. + 2 ar 1 ). 5 22. 5. ). 11. 1. 6. ^7 \AOx. 17. 3V^T.). 13. 3V5. . (o* 2. Page 208. 5. 26. 25. v^. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 2. v/^r 5  A/^~. 2 a?>V2 a. 41. a 3. 8. 28. 2 '"V5. 22. x%  3 ^+ 1. 2 4 z2 l 3. V 5 47. 2 x* 15. k/2. a 4 +* + !. 2. 6. 62V(J.f. 4. 10. 9 .707. 2. + 2 Vzy + y 1.
6V2. ^\/3. 53. 6. a^\/a7>. 32m27n. 27. 7\/(l 7VTO. 29. 11. \/04a. v/9. ^ 3 b 5 24. 2. 14. D 45. v/lO. V5. 43. V/. 40. 23.T*. 4 >/3. 6. \^6. 6x2?/. 22. 1. v^a.ANSWERS _ Page 209. x/8l. \^6. 7. ^9. 24. 22. a2  b. 26. 40. 34. b. . 6. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 17. 3. 6+2V5. + VlO  v y (5. 15. 1V5. 18. 3\/2. 5. 74\/Jl 120 46. 52. % 29. v7^. 8V73\/IO. 9. v 25^4714 V2"a. 2yV2?/. 2. . 36.r v/^ v^fr*. . 41. xx 1. Page 214. fl^Vac. 2\/7. 11. '. \V3. / \/w/t 4 13. 51. : ^32. 0. v^30. 2. "v/wi ??. 2. a\/5c. VT5. 36. V2. 31. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 50. v/i). v"3. 13. 37. 15. 38. "^8000. 19. 42. 5. 37. 6. Vdbc. 21. x/27. V3"m. . 2 \/2. \XOfl6Vi5. 24. v^O. VJla. 10V(). 10. x/125. x/3.30 2. 4 a*.. 8V2. x/8. 10. V5. 9 VlO + 4. 21 23. 2. aVa. 3 V2. 12. 7. 3. 8  \/15. 1. 8v2T 12. 35. Vtf +3+ 33. 28. 6. 46. 9. V2. rtv/5. 3. 5V2. 9. W). 33. 3\/wi. 7. 6aV2\^. 8. 13\/3. 3 Vl5 30. 18. \/abc*. v^4. 4\/5. V3. 34. 8. 30 Vl4. 3v^2. 35. x/8L v/27. 26. v^f. 11. 13. 39. 49. 2 28. 30. V8. V3. 5V2. x/4. 3\/15  6. 14. 2 V'3. 3. 44. 5v/2. 4VO. \/2. 17. ^v 7 15. 3. 16. . . m ?i2Vm/t. + 20. 5. \/8. 6 2\/0. 4. Vn.J Page 212. 39. 10. x/w^ 8. 38. 14. 25.  3. \^r^bVabc. Page 211. 23. 32. v/l2. w?i. 27. . v/8. ab 4. ^27. r)\/(l Vrtr. v"5. 20. 18. 16. 1. \/a6c. 48. 3 V15  47. v^lf. 25. vT). \/128. 5 \/2. 2 ate. 31. 4. 2 1. 12. Page 210. 16. 19. Vat. Page 216. 14c 4 V5. 21. 0. 32. 17. Page 213.
6. 3. + 6) 2 . 25. 30. 2V3. 21 ' Vob 26. 23. (\/5V2). 25. J. Page 225. 9. (3+ v/2). 3.3535. V^TTfc. 9.  2. Page 219. 6. 20. (V8 + V2.  . 10. 25. 34. 27. 18. 15. 7. 35. 5. Page 218. 25. 29. 3. V35. 9.732. 18. 2V3. 1. 4. 2!5_. 20. !^ 6 4.625 10. 2. 19.4722. 2. 5. 64. 7. Page 223. 7 Page221. x 20. 3V23. ^(VlO\/2).2. 23. 16. 30. j. 10.0606. 4. 4. \/3). 125. ^. V5. 14.w 6. 2 . 18. j 15. 5. 25. 2. 5. 2. 9 mn. * 3. 10.64. 11. ^\/2. (2f V"5). 11. (V5f 5. 14. 32. 216. 2. 37. 5. 3. . 1. 14. 1. 27. 0. 18. (a 1. 21. 6. 15. 21. 4V3 + 6. 18. 13. 5. (2. 9. i^Lzi. 7. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). V2. 7. 9. 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. 5 V65. 13. 224. A . 8. _^JflJ?.3. . 4 14. 1. Vf6fVtf. 8. 16. 20.389. 22. 4. V3. 8. . 19. 24. 27. 23. 17.7083. 8. . 2. 16. 2. Page 28. 16. 8.5. (V21). 24.81. 7. 28. 12. +3 V2). 1. (2Vll). 4. 1. (VllV2). 4. 11. (VaT^v a). 9. 2V2. 9. 29. 11. ~ Vac _c 0. ' 22 i . 6. 33. Page217. 4. 81. 7.  f. 2x^2^.5530. 7. 10. 12. 26.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 1. 24. 4. \. 1.601.1547. fV2. 17. 12. Page 226. xy 2.7071.1805. + 5V2. 25. 12. 19. 5. 12. (\/3f 1).4142. 11. 16. 15. 9.2828. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 5. 10. 10. V3 .  13. 8. 31. V3. . i(Vf Vft). 81. 6 V. 11.2. 36. 17. 14. 4. J. . .\/TO). {. 100. n*. f.1. 8.464. (V6 + 2V2). Va. 20.. 2ajV2*. 4. 8 V3V2. 13. ANSWERS 8. 3. 19. V. 23. Page220.732. (V51). 19. 3. 512. 10. i^ ~ 1 v ^.3. 23. 5 f. ^. 26. V3. 9. nVTl. 22. . 1. 21. K>/0 + \/2). 3(7+3V5). 6. 7. V6c. (Vf + (4 V2). 15. 15. Va. p 6 13. 7 f 5 4. \/57t. 0. . 3. 4. 4. 16.XXIV 7. 1. 12. 16. m f. 24. 22.6. . .V3).^ (\/22 4. 4. 17.9.6 V3. 8. 1.13. 5. 4. ^r. (2V2). 25.
4 . (rt. 2 6. Page 236. 2. 21. 20. 3 .  5. 2. (2 a. l.  4. 2. 13. 11. 30. 1 . 24. 0. f . qpl. 22.3). 3. 10. . ~ f7. 1. Page 234. 1.l)(m . 6.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 4 20. 17. 25. (+!)( 2) 10. 25. 13. 15. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).Y.  16). 1. 3. 18. .3. 1.ANSWERS Page 228. 25. 7. 2 6. 3. 7.3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).8a 18. (pl)(p2)(p2). 0. 8 6 & 0. (pl)(p3)(p6). 10.1. 12. 5.22. . 5. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 5.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3 9. (&y2a#H4). 2 . 3. 3. (63)(6' t 18. . P.4. (a. 3 5. \/0. 11. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 14. 1. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 3 . . 1. (B43). 100. (a. 22.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 12. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 1. 1 . J. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). . 10. 1 .3 2. 13. 5. 5.5. a: :} . 2. .  3. 3. .4. 2.^a. 4. 4. 8. 2. 25. 12 24 y .3. 7. 19. =A^Z3. 1. 2.nl^EI. 4.2)(m. 15.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 13. 8. 2. (r. 4. 8. 3.l)(a3)(a . 0. . (4 mn . 3. 10.3. 1. 1. 4. 6. 4. 2. 1. 21. 4 . f>. 4. (a 4. (w .w 4 + 1). 14. 5. V3. 16. 2 > 1. 73. 4.  J. b . a  . 6. 2. 3 . 5. 3. 3. 12.r . 0. 2.2. 1.  2. 20. 3. 3. 24. 2 . 3. . (m 4 + l)(ro. . 2. 4. 4.  f . 12. 18. 1. 2. 16. 1 6. . 5. . 5. 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 4. 4. 13. 11. 5. 9. 2. 3. 14. .  . 4.10. 8. 3.3. a(. 2. 12. 5..  1. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1. 2. 5. . 2 V^ .1. y. 17. 4 1. 9. 6. 2.5 xy + 25) 22. 2.12. 7.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 1 3. 6. 7.  3. 4. 6 2 2a + 2). 1. //. ( 16. 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. J. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 6. 8. 1 (?> x/^3. 3. 3. 10. 17.  1. 1 .2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). . .l)(a 2 + a f 1). ' J. 6. 15. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 2. 0. 0. 4. 3. 2. . 4. 30 . (8. 30 30.3. 2. 26. J Page 235. 1 . 2. 3. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). & + 6 2 ).4. 3. . 8. 3. 19. 3. 2. 23. XXV 4.4). . 1. t/ 23. 56l). 3. 2 . 11.2)(* . 7. 1. 2 &. 4.7. (a+&)( 2 14. 3. 4 4. 20. 11. 9. 7.0. 7. 73. 0. 4. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . . 1. 2. a . 4. 10. 50. 11. 2 <? 4a2 . J 24. 87 . 2. o. 2. . 2 . 1.2.  3. 5. 30. 5. 28. 19. (a . 0. Page 233.
400. 4 6.. 19. J. 3. 5050. 37. 1 . 84. 18.. f. '>. 5. 9. ' j.xxvi Page 237.0. _ 10. 23. . 2. 3. m + n.020. ri*. 4. 1. 2. f*. 5.3. 12 1. 1. 5. 3 3. 2 . 1. 3. 20 in. . 1 .4. 1. . 31. V7. 3.  .30. 3. = QO 6. 2. 8 3. Page 245. 6. 1. 9. 29. 31. $. GO .. 33. 8ft. 37. m28. . . 5. 4. 1. 4. 8. 1. oo . . 17. 1. 3. 6. . 4. 1. 1. 7. 45yd. oo .3. Page 239. . 15. 11. 7. (&) 2. 10. 3. 5.3 . 9. .3. 15. 15. oo.3. 32. . 14. 2. ft. 10. 1. } . 69.6. . 2. 12. 4. 30. i j.. 1. 12 ft. 2. . 5.5. 3. 5. 10. 5 4. 8. 8. 3V5.6. 5. 55. 4. 1. J. in. 4 8. 3. i i i . 1. 2. 40. Indeterminate. 5 . 3. 4. 3. V3~.2. 3. 8. 14. 0. 5. 1 . . 0. 3. 4..y. 1. 22. . 41. 4. 4. 15. 12ft. 4. 8. . 19. (>. 16. 11. 2. 3. 1. i. 40 in. 4. 6. 7. 22. 512. 20. 4 34. 38. 24. 2. in. . . 1.. 125 125.. 18. 2 10. . 0. 14. 13. 13.13. 2 26. . c. 2 . 7. 2 Y> V . 2 2. 2.1. 23. ( 3. 3. 5 cm. .3. 7. 4. \. _ 7. 2. in. 20 7. }. 21. 1 . m27. 35^ 5. Exercise 114. 1. 36. 2. 17. 2. 3. 1. 4. 11. 9. 5. Exercise 113. 12. 8. . . +  n. 3 4.3. 14. 17. 7. no co . . 8. 1. 35 ft. 4. 50.1. 14. 4. . 2. Page 241. _ 5. 3 . J. J. 2. (/>) "_. . 1. 48. \/6. i'ljVU. 4. 2. 78.  11. . 4. 1. 2 16. Page 238.4. 15. . in. 3. 2 1. ANSWERS 2. 1. 14. 5. $. 2n. 1. 2 . and _ 4. Indeterminate.0. 7 3.136. 11. Page 243. . 3.3. 10. ^ }.4.18. 2. 3 cm.  2 .5. ft. 3. 12 d.1.. 12. 1. 21 30. (a) 5. 8 . 3. 12. 3 . 21. 2. (a) $3400. . 1. co . 4. 24. 16. 512. 3. Page 244. 2. 201.4. 4. 35 a. _ 13 (0 6. 3. 2>/3. . 1 2. 9. 13. 3. 8. tn 2. f>. 28yd. in.. . . 5. 17. 17. 16. 5. 5. 15. 5. x 4. ^~2. 12. n. 15. 3. 3 2. 1. 4. 37. 1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 17. 1. 2. 50. 1. . Page 247.e. 4. 900. $46. Page 240. 12. 6. ft.200. 7f solution. 2. . 30. $VO. 11. 1 . 26. 4 . 18.  1. 3 . 9. 14. . 40 25 in. 5. 1J. 35. j.. jj. 3. Page 248. 30 13. 25. 5. 1. 2. . 288. 20. 3. 1. 5. 2 ft. n . 39. 7. 2V7. 2. 6. 11.
y ^ 5  ^\ ). 4. 4. 19.192. 15. 7. 13. 2. xxvii 1. 4. 6. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 20. . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 7 2 x 4 x8 . 6. . 8. 105. 12. 8. 343. B . 1. 25. a4 4 14. 2. 0. 16. <.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 2. 21.^ ?>i 2412x4.r x>/ 7 3. . . 4. 1JH. . 15. 70. 6. 18. 27. 4. 6. 2. 0. 48.  17. . 8. 8. 11. 27. Page 254. 1. 5. x r 4. 343. 4.13. &' 14. 8J. 6. 5.v Page 253. 27. 16. 1. 8 1. 11.870 m*n*. 8. 125.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 4.r* 4 70 .5. 53. Page 259. 10. 45. 16. 11. 4 0. 10. vy. JSg. . 5. ^a 8.  101. 3. 0. 4. 13.680. 32.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .x' 10 .8. a.920.7 10. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .419. 5.6. 6. 13.<2 4. 20. 005. 15. 21. 3.  20 flW. . 6i. 18. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 4950 M 2 b y *. 4. 7. sq. 3. in. 2. 4. 45. ' 1. 28. 70. 12.r 4. 1820. 44.210. ~v 9. . 9.1.2 45 a 8 /). Page 252. 17. 280 53. . 0.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .2 9.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 6. 5. 0. 5 13. 16. 12. 5. 12. 495. 4. 26. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 125. 05. 1 7 4. 2. 16. 6. 75. A. 3. 1. . 17. **+. 2. 22. 2.6 . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 3.5. 100. 2. 27. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 5. 9. 0. 18. } $ 50. 3.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 1 14. 0. c. 304. 1000 aW.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.470. 1.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 405. 19. Y11. 8. 70. ?/i 6 x llj .5 x. ~ an . 2. 4. 8 4x' 2 . 35.4 &z x>&. />*. 10. 192. 220 .10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. x4 . 16. 15.700. 0. \ w 4 . 43. Page 258. . 1. 5.120. 5. 8. 22.170. Jj? 45. 8 . 3. and 1. 12. d.53. I. 9. 7. 10 14.384. 2. J 2 //2 25. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 29. 0. 1. 17. 4.504. 9. . 1. REVIEW EXERCISE . '23. 12. 20. x + Vy. 04. (). 9. 7. 7 x4 17. 3. 9.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 23. 120 aW. 327. i 10. Ja.12 x*y 16. 16. 35. . 708. f y 8 + z* . 410. r r j. 81. 5. 12. G. 12. 8. 3. 6.3 ays. 10. 19. 4. 16 11. 3. r 5 4.0. 2. 04. 7. 2i* 7f. 50. 8. 1. 3. 3.ANSWERS Page 250. . 4.4. 14. 7. 2. 1. 15. 7. 45 Page 257. 4. 7. 5. 55. 10. 1. w9  8. 3. . 910. 18.5y 4 . 10. 8. 4. 128.
132. 127. 3 a . 0. 1 x 45. 6 c 47. 16. 63.2 c . 94.1 4 jry 4 x . 2 2/' . .4 x y 87. +^ + ft W. 99.4.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 50. 2 q.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. . 9 2w 128. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x4 f + 23 .1. 66. 109.a. 62. 5 4 4.  e +/. a* a 8 a aftc.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.3 a'ft.x 2 4. 118. !! 71. a~b 89. 1 121.3 y. 4. 130. a4 x. 29. x 3 41. 23. () 2 x 33. /> 4 83. 1 + 4 xy. (a + ft)" 98. 39. . 105. 21. 12 a/. a 4 . df. 43. * 60. x 4. a J .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 4 2 . ?/ . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 2 . . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.y*. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 2 x2 108.4 x?/2 3 4. x 8  a8 . x* . x2 471x4.  . 1 . 86.3 x 2 + 3 x .5 b + c . 35. 4 fee 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 52.41. 26. 30. 110.a' 'ft 4. ^ . a' 111. 0.5 3n 4. 31.5. 7 + 3 xf 2. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. c3 4 58. 3~ n 4. 3a~2c. ft /> 78.a6 2 4. 88. 64. 120. .x24 73.105. 5 42. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 38. 3a'2 Page 261.c. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 72. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .3 . . 61. 2 113. 4 .  4 a3 85. Page 263. x8 x2 55. 22. + a 4. 27. 102.3 aftc.4. 6 a2 97. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 6a6c.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 16t/. ?> . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.  + 3 x2 . . 5x + 2y~z. 4 65. 2 . 114. Page 260. t 81.5 a 2x8 x 3 .a'2 c. 24.3 b . 4 115. . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 124. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.2 xy + 4 y2 106.x4 + y'2 z 4. 107. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.1. x2 a2 1 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 .2 x^.1.. x 2 . 3 36 b c . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 x2 4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. x } 4. 40.ft). 91. 49. . ft n . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.2. 2 30 .4 x 2 . a 3m 4. + 3 a?. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.x 51. 28. 46. 133. + z. .rty x2 4 123. .^a .18 x?/0. 80. 2 x'V2 90. x' 79.x x*  f 2 ax 4.7 x   15. 14 x . 4 69.5x4. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x . 122.3 103. f5+7.ac 44 aft. .9 x . .2 x 4.a*ft 2 126. a2 2 aft 2 2. 8x3 8x. x 3 4.2.6 am b\ 129. xyxzyz. _55_7c 48. . 2 53. y 4 z* 0. 10 4. ?/ 3. 104. .4. . .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 131. 5x 2 2x43. . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . m " + n + P3c .c 3 4. . 4 15 x 5 .fee 2 4.15 4 62 x  72. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 36. 10 a 12 b.c.9 b. 100. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 2 . 25. 4ft y3.18 ?/ 5x4. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . .4 ac.2. 2 a. . 4 ! . . 82.  12 a. 1 a"* 4 an . + 28 x2 13x 3 56.a 2 x 2a . as 20. 3 a 5 a 5.4.6 b.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 96. 9x. 32. x 8 + x 4 68. 76. 243x4729. 8 . 37.1w 77.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. .4 2 4 c2 42 . 0. . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 93. a* 4. 12 x. 4 Page 264. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 3 a 44. 4. 3 c . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().1.{ 54. x' . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. az 4. 70. ft2ft 4 4l. 13 + 2 s. 125. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.  3 x2 . x2 2 . I 57.x. &p 84.7.
169. 30. (a} 59. 36ft. (JT y 225. 10). 18.I2y). (x 227. yr. 151. (233). 235. 244. 237. + 11) (a 10). 219. 3(x .3) (2/3y). 206. + 2) + 9a. 1. 185. (2 198.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 177. 170. 1. r>x 2 (4x. 32 h. 10 in.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 218. 3. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).3 y)(a . 2a(42ft)(2fo). 155. 197. 2 2 (a. 147.l)(a 2 +3). x(x f 3)(x+ 2).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 1. 179. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 2. p. 2. 142. (r7y)(ai. 201.2). (. 218. 1. 166.y + 3)(r (. (6) 40. (y7)(y + 188. 30 + xyr. 150. 216. 15. 167. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (7 c 2 ). 6). + 3) (x f f>) . + 22). 230.ANSWEKti 135. 12 yr. aft. 140. (r^x + 1).y)(z . 10). 40 yr. 180. 22. 146.3. 195.9)(xf 2). 156. 209. 30 yr. (c) 160 C. 12. Page 267. ?. y. k. 1. 2 xy(3 x .y2 ). 15  a. 174.3 y).l)(y + 1). (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). HI. y 245. 161. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).1(5) 200. ft. (3x  . (y_24)(y5). (5 x .. (x . . 189. 233./_4). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 149.3). 162. 211. Or (a + 2)0el).. 6. 222. 226.m)(x + a). 12 6 panes. 171. (x + 2)(x .y) (\r3y). 10. 1. 143. 50. 2. x(x + 6) 213. 4. 199. 178. 239. 247. G7.l)(x8 + x2 .2ac + 229. 12. 238. m. 168. 190. 160. (y _ ft)(y 4. 20. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.1). 231. p. y3. Page 266. 137. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.4xl).1). 210.6)(4 + 6). 158. (ab + 8) ( 7). 2(x8)(x3). z(x10)(xl). 23 18.y). 21. 217. 202. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 240. (y  17)(y + (>). 148. 1.2).r + 4). 2. (7x2//) 203. 2 (4 x . Page 265. 176. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 147 mi. . 2. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 12 yr. fc'2a+62c). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). (8x + 3)(3x4). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).  1. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 205. 154.6 .. 207. 12) (j. 15. 172. 215. 8(ar}(/)27). (3x2?/)(2. (a 2 + 2a6. ( + 2y)(2x3y). + 7)(rt4). 48 h. xxix 139. 182. 191. 153. 5. +)(x2 x^+2. 224.y)(jc + 7 y). as 194. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 3. 136. a 2 (15. a + 2x2 ). .6) (2 x + 1).2) (3 x . 181. . 175. 159. . 4. 6. (/ 246. 7. 220. 184. (x^ + x1) 234. 232. 20.2. 19. (xyX^+y" )1 243. + 3). (x + 6)(x6). 236.. 187. 1. 212. 173. 214. + y. (?/+l)(yl). Iff 145. a. 10 ft. 144. a(a. 193. (a& 192. y  y 165. 241. . 183. 164. 24. 163. 37 1. C3 y _l)(. (at (4 a +!)( + 3).2 )(x+y) 228. (x  42 yr. 75. 152. 138. 208. 157. (2a + l)(a . . ( jc // a 2 (a1). (y 7f))(y 196. 186. 2^. 8 204.1).r .
4). + f. 3. > 4. 266. 3). 10. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 269. 249. *>). x12. 260. x ?/ z 1. &). 301. 298. 3). 268. 306. 0. a. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 3  262.  3xyf x// 257. 310. 295. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. ^ 299. 43 '^rJ'.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 263. 7 x 265. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 250.^^^^^^^^. 307. x . ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 264. ^/>J. o(x4l). 5.   .(x  4) (x4 304. 2 4 300. 303. 279. *. 254. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x 283.^ ^^. 305. 259.. o. a~ ' b*). Ca&c 1)(M 253. x 267. 0. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 7^T 2 . (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . ?^ZLiZ 308. ? 1) 302. 256.1. 7. 251. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.4) 1) (3 x . (7 255. 2. 2 x  3. 258. 4 5.  7.2* i^^ !^. 261.
. " 4 378. . <L 409. . 2 ab  a Page 276. 2(a i 403. 393. 0.  1. If. 397. 325. 7. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 377.". 2(q. 392. + 335. 382.J . a) A^_. a + b + 6). 6 ?/+:>.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 407.7. A^L5L.XXXI Page 272. 385. 360. j 328. a +6..H ' 2wi ^' /' . 386. 6a. 2 ). 1. 408. + 4 & 4 \ b. 4 A. . 336. L . 395. 0. . 2 327. ?/ + 3 332. 389. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 400. Page 277. 405. 394. 361. f. 2 ?/ 363. x 54 359. . c 402. 365. * 357. m.3.(5 a . 383. S. 366. 9^. 376. 339. 7/i ^ _ . 379. ^_:r f> 331. 3.vin a /r " 337. 401. 364. ?>*. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 13 391. 1 i 2 ^. 388. T+^. a 2 . T\. 1.1. 406. 399. 326. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 4 rw.  1 356. + x 362. 4. 0. 2. 0.)Cr4)__ . 380. 333. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 11.!. 1. 20. l . ^ 3 // . 343 00 351. 396. 375. 324. . 355. 398. _*L'L+. 370. 3. 334. 387. 2. ^"" 4 s . l'j. 4. ab. 404. 329. 2 r36 384. ?=. 1. 3. 1. (a + b + c\ . 12. y 4 I 340. 390. Page 274.
i. $2000 at 0%. 14 miles.}. 1. 0.. . : />a.7. *+. 441. ISjmi. . fj. not true. 3. A $ 3500. 498. 7. 442. (d  6) f.  1. 497. 418. . 455. <L+ 6 (. 5. 2.12. 490. 0. 40 oz.te + . 7 : . 5. 507. 446. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 2$. 429. a 22 . 18. 496. '. 461. 2. 11. 5. 444. . .55. . 432. 436.488. 423. a* 424.. 90. \ 1. ^r?i 434. 454. 460. 503. 466. * . 506. 493.3. 463. A 5 mi . 1. fc. 411. 17.489. 10. Page 281. 10. 495.3. 2. 425.}. 6. 483. 5J. c. b 449. 420. 50.  7.  453. B 4 mi. . 499. 51. 458. 502. 410. 457. 1. 2 a 2. .  1. \. 477. 5. 10. 10. 467. 494.1. 7. . ^V. 0. 484. 4. 450. i a b 451. 12. 6. (a  c). a + + ft c. 6. 430.0.. 3 .  10. . z8 +?/ 3 431. 2. 485. 8. Page 280.  2. 32 yr. I. 53 yr. 10. . 21. 10. . Page 278. 3. 8. 468. 492. 412.  7. 481. 421.  505.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 459. 3a 4 5. 422. 508. 1. 6. 501. 482. 22. />c c(f be. & 491.. 427. (&) true. 0. ^. 28 yr. 447.  2f 504.m  m+ M in.4. c 6fc 10. 486. 2. 1$. 487. 6. 5. ft 5. L2 a  6 ..4. (d) true. 440. 8.7.2.46. 7.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 448. 464. 1 a /?$+&?. 4. 480. 2. 20 yr. .7. 33. 8. L (c) I. m. 428. 4. 63.7. m 1 : wi. 10. 32.vz in. 2. 419. (&) 443. 479. Page283. 42. 0. 472. (a) 1. . . 4.  2. 5. 2 438.7. . 7. 500. 445. Page 282. 6. (c) not true. 17. 456.5. 7. . 435. 452. . 0. 10$. 84. 9. 20. 2. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 24 days.0.2. ' $260 at 0%.rz Page 279. 40. !L=4. 478. 465.  . . 462. + () 433. B $ 2500. 2. 6. 439. 0.. ISJini. 2. 476. 426. 413. 3.  2.  f>. 1.
^ ft 4.  1.7. 1. or 8. f. 556. 560. 3. 1.25. 1. 4. f36a28x8 592. <z ft 1. . 1. a + ft  a  f c. 1. H. (gr) 10 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4.  imag. 4.1. 2. . 3. 3f 4f.02.03. . . > ^ . 2(6 597. 583. .62. . 3. per hour. 3.6. 2.1.  2ft da. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 509. .37.  2. . 512. 518. 7^ da.  557. 4. 555. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.51.  . 7. Page 288. Roots imaginary.5 f. . 5. . a+ Page 286. . 2. 3.4. 591.0.02. 232. .7.  + + c.0. 578. (a) 74 Ib.55. 550.4. 1. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.r8 596. 1. 14.8. 582. 562. . 567. 3. _^ 2754x . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.5.3. 1$. (6) 3. 2.20. 1. lead. 559.8 x3^. 1. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). (/)  10 to 8.31.0.5. 577. _ 3.04.1. 2 1. 529. 4.10.24. 574.30. 558.2.3. .24. (ft) 4.14.9. 1. 575. 531. 2$.8. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 4* da.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 0000. 4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 564. 603.5.02.4. 1. (6) . T .4. 2 10. 2(4 602. 1. 527. tin. 1. 515.35. 4. . 2. 31.21. 565. (e) (c) 2. 554. .% rr\* 585.8. .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.15. 0. J7] min. 3.05.73. 1.83.. per hr.. 21*_. 552.8. 8.75. 568.ANSWERS Page 284. 573. 510. 1 .62. 2. 1 600. + 6 tf f 3 .78.03.02. 533. 3. 593. 525. g(rc+ 6c).53. 2 . . 2 imag.78. . 1 .31.12. 1. 566. 563.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .6. + 26 + .15. 24 da. 1.0. If 572. a f ft + c. y 4.88. 530. . 532.16. 553.33.3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. (c) 3..5. 6. 3. 3.75.56 sec. 2 1. 526. 579. _ 4. (e) 570.25m.4 x + .. 561.  (a) (d) 1.38. 1.37.3. 6. 571.00. o> .. . 2. 24. (ft) Ill Ib. 3.15. + 12 x .  7.3.7.3. Page 287. ft 584. 3. 1.  3. 598. 1. da. (i) 3. 6435. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. f. 599. 4._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.1. 8 mi. .6 2. Page 285.10. 115 Ib. 516. 1. . f ? a f ft __ + c C).83.54. 528.1. . 4 mi.24 sec.   (h) 8. . imag. 513. lead. xxxin 511. x8 .f 1.xj/ f xV .5+. 27 y* f\4 . 536.1. 3 . 2 . y% Z * 586.6. 514.4.4. 569. 2. 4 0. 3 da.52. 1J.  4. . 3.6. a*8a + 24tf 82a. (c) 4. 5. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 2. 1 580. 581.04.3. S82 c.  J(a f + 2c). 1. 5.  ft*. .5. tin.  (a) 2.3. 2 2. 4. 40 Ib. 5. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 1. .54. 3. 551. 576. (d) 537.
1 V5 1. 2. 5 3.. 8 f 3.b. 654. 636. 4. 692. 645.  4. 622. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. V"^TJ. fta a/> ^A. 7. V2. (a3&45rj. 615. 631. 2 ab + a  &. 14. 13. 647. 0. . 3 a. 4 676. / V^+lO^M"^. 50.  13.049. 2. ^. if 4/> 671.  a2  a (ab). 616. 701. a 1J. 0. ' fe 2 ). 4 V 0. 703. 2 a 688. 4. 5002. 2. /> 4. fe + a. a. 5.2f (5 4.001. 655. 705. z  1. 10. y  619.3. 2 a: 4. 638. 2f.25. 2. 1. V2. 1$ 639. 0. . 708. 683. 651.0. 660. 2f. a + b. 0. J^^.  4. . 7003.702. 210. Page 289. + ~^'2 + a 1. .303. 5. 653. ^ 1. 2. 0. 625. 613.>A 610. 11. 3 681. 691. . i. 9. 4. 648. 696. 621. 12. a ' 2 + . V^~3)..  1. be ac \. 2. 607. If b. 3. 1 ~a .  2f r 659.3f l 668. V7. 656. 670. 635.  . 5. 2 x 44 ^/. 637. 3 x2 . . 1010. 608. . ft). If. 618. 669. 624. 78. 612.y. 0. 1 704.XX XIV 606. 898. 25. 661. 630. (*_ + a: 611. 3. 666. b 664. 2&). 6.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.  3.  ft. 702. ^^ 695. ' 674. 662. 628. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2. . 623. \+ab 699. ab 689. 2.001. a 4. 690. 700. 644. 1 2.  6. 633. 5. 6. ix 2 . 7. . l/'3.43^4. la6 2.b 686.2f Page 290. 626. 971. b . .04.  684. 617. 25. 4. K 5 2 V2. . . 649.3. 641. <T! . 634. ^.f 3 V^3). 1m*. 009. 646.3. 11. a 673. 657. 2092. n^l +^. 627. 1. a 2. 1.c ) 697. 1. 642.002. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 643. I}'/. 677 680. . 2 a  6*. 698. ab.14 If 1. b. 672. 678< 682. 632. 650. 3. 8. 2 / 2 4. 706. 4330 da. . If 658. 703. 620. 640. If 665. 2. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 4$. 629. If . o. \.a~ {Z 663. 614. 6 685. 9*.3.203. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 652. c. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 679. If f 667. 8 6 fo .
24.11.1 . a".9.r. Page 294. . cr*lr*.9. 756. 782 785. 793. Page 293. 739. y  1. 3 720.^. 47. 740. 749. 7  3V5. 777. 3V72V3. 718.~ . 4 104 v/2. 3.ANSWMHti Page 292. 5..rJ w L 754. .257. 776. 790 2v 3v 2. 24 4 .8.. 39. 758. 729. 715. 721. ^ ?>. ^ . 736. 33^2. 34. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 789. v/7 / . / 787. 342V3. rt3 2 ^i^. 1 752. a:* . 726. 734. 738. 1. 5. 733. 2x3^ a.V2. i^. mn. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. > 748. 722. 719. ^7xy. 59. 768. 00. r. 2\/53V2. VT14V5.V/^ 741. 730. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. j 742. 773. a 5 . 8. . 1 [ + '> J. 717. 724. 753. 32>/2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 15 shares. 713. 25. 17ft. 8. 767. 725. . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 727. 788. 300. 723. fyaw&cu. 30\/10 764. 763. 732. 1^ _ 760. 3V52V3. i 2. VIO\/3. 712. 755. 3 VlT 795. 710.10. 769. + 6 2 tf'c. + < 735.. 1. .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. a 2  x2 . T%. x i f^' . 751. 2 V2 . 731.4 . 716.2. a db Va^T < 45da. 1 747. 714. 796.r+y> 759. 3V72VO. 728. 746. 1 I . VV> L4V34. 737.12 af V^ 4 744.^ 743. iv/Jj. "V313. 24V2. 1. 29\/3. 709. 13ft. 794. v'll. 750. 778.4 . 792. J(v'lO2V 791. x\y. 711. 3^. 3V7. Hi a. a 2 6^..
. 3. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 810.l)(x . . 5. 1 1. 799. 900. 2. 7. 838. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 841.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 2. 824. 857. (3 862.  1. Page 297. (xl)(^~3)(. 848. 2 .1) . 7. (2 a . 2/ 856. Hoots are extraneous. (2x (r. 1.10 ab 4. \/2. 1. 879. m = 2. 3. 3 . 812. 883. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . H. 1C.1) (a 8 . ( 869. . 851. 820. 4. (x 845.7). 2. 827. 814. 3.7)(4 x. 3. 8 09. 5. (x . V 3. 2 . (x*y*ryz + z*).  ' . 847. 2 m . 19. Va 803.1. m 875. 813. 832. 896. a(ft)( 873. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 829. (1 .2 ax 4. 4 . (:r 11. (x3). 13. 3. 834. \/5.1)(V 2 . 23. 6 $. J V. 7. 4. 861. . 4. 4. 884. 1.  839. 2. $. a 42)(x . . X4 1). 837. 17. are extraneous. 2  2. 867.rae) (4 . 849. a(ry + 864. 4.+ m f ") (a* ). (2 4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).5 b) 4 1). Va. 3. 2 j 889. 1. 6+V7. 6. 2 (x 4*4. .3.a 4 + 1). 11. 2 2 . ^. (x 2 f r .r . 893.a 3 " 4.7). 804.0. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 20). 808. 7. . 890. a* 4.  + l(l^). 858. 2 854. 817. 5. 48.r4). 830. Hoots .f. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . ( 4 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) .7 4 1) 846. 1 . 825. 2 *x 807. 876. ) (a' 874. jV3 f 3. 899. 835.3)(x + 4). 819.4. b' 2 821.y) 852. 5. 859. o. 801. 2. 4./>") (a'.7. . 882. 0. 11. (x . 2. +j!>. + d)*. 25. 2. ANSWERS 798. 2.25 ?>2). 811. 4. 844. 0. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 5).2w . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 880.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 4 885. 872. 4 818. 843. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 887. 2 . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (x 4..  tt 815..4. 6. . 895. n =  29. 3. x .2) (x 4 2). (a 1) (x 4. . a2 ^E*!. 4.XXXVI 797. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 2. 888. x. (a 4 871. 831. 822.1)(0 865. 886. (2 x + 3 y} . 840. 891. 836. 5.a 2 2 ). (4 c 4.4) 860. f. **. 4. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 842. ((' 1). 3.1).3. (a m . 1. 3. 863. . 6. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 800. (x + 0X024. ^VG. 823. 10.l)(x + 2).l)(x . 826. 17. 8. 833. 0. . 868. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (3 b .om 441) (a 855. 892. Page 296. o 828. 0. 881.. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. ^ V}.5) (x + * 853. 2 806. . 894. db 7. 8. 2. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 4. 4. 14. 3. $. (x 2 . 816. 898. 897. (.
1. Va926. 100 rows. 9 in. 934. 957. 908. 7 ft.01. 8. 2 w 914. J. V^3). 0. 4. i 8.1 = 9..111. 8. 5. 0. 28. 10.. . 496.1. V5 T 2 . 955. 4 in. 4. 3. 15 16 ft. 6 1 1. 2. 5l4f. ?/i 6. 2. v/(ai !)(&910. 8. 3. 8. 2. 3. . 4. 916. 2. 248. 7. 12. ft. 4 6 mi. 978. 920. 904. 954. . . 6. 1 1. 4. 280. 4.. ^y. 2. 8. 906. . 6. 951. . . a + . i>. T 6. ft. ft. T 6. .651. 947. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 11. ft. 984.  1 . . 980.. Y. 40 16 in. . 935.. 329. . 20 19 ft. . . 11. ft. 3 4 . 12. 985.  1. . 115. 963. 979. =F J. 8 . 5. i 3. 932. Page 301. T3. 6. 2.. 960. $(l 4. tt2 19. 977. 917. 4. 3 . 925. 911. 2. . 923. 931.V~~3). 945. . 983. 1 2. 918. 108. . 2 i ' a V. 6. 4. 922.709. '3 3 in. . 952. w 3. 12 in.2. 2 yd.. 6 da. 333. 3. 1. 4. 4. i(6 in. 6. 981.. 944.. 905. J. 956. 333. 930. 7. 111. 6 a 915. ft. 5. Page 302.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 941. 4 . 919. 903. J(_ ft.. dL 4. 5. 962. 1 + V953. 66 924. 921. 1). 948. 0. 28. 73. V5 fj. 958. 961.. 2. 7 or 30. 0. 937. 986. r ft ' < Page 299.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901.. 6. ft. i1" 913. 987. 56. 12.  26j. 909. 480 8 sq.615. 940. 964. 18. 902. S07.I. 11.. 3). 4. 6 . 5. 15 946.0.2.1. 10. 912.760 sq. 8. %* . 938. 1. 7. 7.446.744. 943. 939. . 5 . 3. ft. 959. 28. 80. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. yd. 1 _2 . w. Page 303. 1 . 2. a. f./hr. 14 . 936. 6. 3. 2 1. 8. 927. 942. . f ft 4 .073. 8128. 982. 3.. 60 949. 933. 950. Z ^. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. Page 300. 8. 11. 2. 12 mi.. 2 ft.
(Z>) 999.192rt?)r 120 *. X. 2(2 v/2). ~ \. 12. 1018. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 120 i^l^.. 1014. Page 305.128 I. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 993. (a) (6) ^ 1002.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . () 12(2+V3). 1006. (5.378 <W and 92. 48. 1000. 0.18. 108.92. (6) 8(1 . 995. 2 .870 z8 . 996. .870 a 6 1011.  5&7 1021. 1003. 0. 3003. 1 1004. 4 and 1020. 24. 1(5. 162. 8. in. 1016.51. 1017. 990. 992. 12. 4. 1001. 1019. 988. 1005. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . Page 304.378 1015. 192. 120 a. + 448 . 991. 994. 1013.. 1009. + v 2). a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1008. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1010. 1 8 8 2. 1012. ^Trsq. . ^f (2f3V2). 997.'^^ } ( . 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1007. r = 2. . 9 da. 72. (J. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 6 70 .
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. than by the . Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Half leather. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. great many work. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.25 lamo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. i2mo. physics. xi 4 373 pages. so that the Logarithms. comparatively few methods are heretofore.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The more important subjects tions. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. A examples are taken from geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Ph. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.D. HEW TOSS . xiv+563 pages. given.
physics.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xiv+56a pages.25 i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.D. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. 12010.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. HEW YOKE . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. save Inequalities. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. so that the tions. Logarithms. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and commercial life. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. xi f 373 pages. etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. comparatively few methods are given. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The author grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Ph. HatF leather. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. $1. In Factoring.
Cloth. Ph. $1. 6. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Half leather. 10. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. . xii + 233 pages. $1. under the heading Remarks". NEW YORK . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . SEVENOAK. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 9. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 L.. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. lines. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Cloth. Attention is invited to the following important features I.r and. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. more than 1200 in number in 2. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. SCHULTZE. i2mo. 7 he . 4. wor. These are introduced from the beginning 3. aoo pages. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7.D. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . State: . izmo. iamo. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .
. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. $1. . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. 12mo. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. of these theoretical views. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 370 pages. and not from the information that it imparts. New York City. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. .
Topics. diagrams. diagrams. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. i2mo. $1. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. and a full index are provided. photographs.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. An exhaustive system of marginal references. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Maps. " This volume etc.
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