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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. .
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
1910. Reprinted 1913. 1916. Berwick & Smith Co. August. . January. September. 8. . May. Mass.' February. 1911. May. July. Norwood. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1915. Published Set up and electrotyped. J. Cushlng Co.S. U. 1917. 1910. . 1910 .COPYRIGHT.. September.A. IQJS January.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. chief : among These which are the following 1.. however. specially 2. etc. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Such a large number of methods. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose." this book. Elementary Algebra. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition.
g. e. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. In regard to some other features of the book. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . For the more ambitious student. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially problems and factoring. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. Topics of practical importance. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. are placed early in the course. hence either book 4. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. two negative numbers.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. however. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. may be used to supplement the other. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. as quadratic equations and graphs. etc. Moreover.
and commercial are numerous.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. in " geometry ." Applications taken from geometry. Moreover. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. elementary way. physics. based upon statistical abstracts. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. viz. such examples. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. is based principally upon the alge . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. By studying proportions during the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.
desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. April. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. edge of physics. William P. . ARTHUR SCHULTZE. however. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910.
.. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. SUBTRACTION.... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... Powers... .. ..... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.
.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type III. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. .. Type IV. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Type Polynomials.. /^ . Type VI. Type II.. * ...... Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .114 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type V. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .
.. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . ... CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Monomials 170 .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ......... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
[6c] 3 . !^f\/03 3 ft. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V36". 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. \/c. 2. 5Vl6c. 8. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 26. 0. find the numerical value of: Vff. 4(a 6(6 + &). some number is . a polynomial of two terms. 10. 14. Val \fi?. 17. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. or 9 Vx. as in arithmetic. A polynomial is an y. 15. 9." EXERCISE If a 1. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 6. + c). 4V3~6c. 6.g. c = 1. b = 3. are trinomials. V3 . a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 3. V2a. x 9. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 11. v'Ta. is 28. (cfd) 4. 16.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. d 7. 2 . 7 = 2. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. + 1]. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. since the parts are a . e. 12. aVc^. c f d). 27. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 13. A binomial is 62 . V^a6. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials.
4 6^9 ad. a2 11.9. .9 aWc + f a b . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. multiplication. 16.810 + 150 = . a 2 6. l 13. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 2. 10. . Otherwise operations of addition. b = 3. 5. (a (a f b) 7.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 = 6. 2. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 5c +d 2 .30 = 270 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.99..9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 6. 1. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.INTRODUCTION 29. 52 . * For additional examples see page 268. . c=l. i. 8. d = 0. a=4. 4a6fVaV2^. 5=3. x=^. 3 2 If 1. + 26+3 c. 12. c = 2. Ex. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. . 3. 6. EXERCISE 8*  .2 + I126. 14. 3a + 56 a 2 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.390.e. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 4 . 5. d=Q. find the numerical value of: 9. 3 4 . 4. Ex. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . __ E.g. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 2 ). a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . subtraction.
6=2. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6 = 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a a=3. 37. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 30. Six 2 . if : a = 2. a =3. Read the expressions of Exs. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 6. 33.c) (a . = 3.6 f c) (6 a + c). Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6. 6 = 1. 34. 25.6 . 22. 23. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 28. 6 = 6. a = 2. sible to state Ex. 30. a = 3. . 27. 35. physics. and other sciences. a = 4. 6. geometry. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 5. 29. 24. a =4. a = 4. 6 = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 5. a. 6 = 7.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 38. 26. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 2. : 6.
(b) 5. A train in 4 hours. b 14. 12. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 4.) Assuming g . and 15 feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.16 centimeters per second. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 13.g. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. if v = 30 miles per hour. (c) 4. and 13 inches. if v : a. Find the height of the tree.seconds. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. b. if v . d. c.16 1 = 84. 14.e.INTRODUCTION E. 15 therefore feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. the area of the triangle equals feet. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. i. then a 13. 2. . How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 5 feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere.
the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. $ = 3. (c) 5 miles. the area etc. 2 inches. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 F. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. ~ 7n cubic feet. : 8000 miles.14 square meters.). (c) 10 feet. meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 4. 32 F. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. the 3. This number cannot be expressed exactly. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. is H 2 units of length (inches.).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. square units (square inches.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (The number 3. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. . Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. If the (b) 1 inch.14d (square units). on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 8000 miles. 5.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. . we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. however. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. In algebra. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.
lf(2). (17) 15 + (14). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 12. 5. 24. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 4. c = 4. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 23. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (_ In Exs. 5. the one third their sum. subtract their absolute values and . of: 20. 4 is 3 J.  0. c = = 5. 6 6 = 3. 21. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. is 2. . 2326.16 32. + 12. 18. of 2. Thus. if : a a = 2. 33. is 0. 19. 10. d = 5. + (9). 22. d = 0. '.
}/ Add 2 a. c=14. 09. and $4500 gain. 4. $1000 loss. 7 yards. 10. 3. 7 a. 6. $7000 gain. 35. 0. & = 15. 55. .. and 8 F. 39. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 36. 2. 66.. 5 and 12. : 34. 72. = 23. 27.ADDITION. = 22. 10. affected by the same exponents. $3000 gain. and 3 a. = 13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 10. 1. are similar terms. . 29. 37. 38. 12. ^ ' 37. & 28. 32. and 3 yards.4. 6. 74. $500 loss. 41. : and 1. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . c = 0. 13. 25. 2.. .5. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. ' 1? a 26. 40. 33. 31. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards.7. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 3 and 25. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. \\ Add 2 a. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 43. ' Find the average of the following 34. d= 3. 7 a. SUBTRACTION. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. which are not similar. . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F.7. and 4. sets of numbers: 13. 32.3. 42. 6. . and 3 a.5. and 3 F. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 60. : 48. or and . 34. 30. 4 F. 11 (Centigrade).13.
12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 a&. + 6 af .18 35. : 2 a2. 14 . or a 6.13 rap 25 rap 2. 2 .sign. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. . b a f ( 6). either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. Vm f. f 4 a2.ii. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a . 7 rap2. 12(af b) 12. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 10. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. Algebraic sum. 13. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 5 a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 9(af6). 5l 3(af6). 5Vm + w. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12Vmfn. 12 2 wp2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 2(af &).
17. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 21. + / + 3 Va. and to add each column. without finding the value of each term 34. ra 19. 30. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. n x* 2 22. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms.ADDITION. 2 2 2 31. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 35. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 32. l^S 25. 6 23. +m """ 20. 36. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2/ : Add. a a8 ZL **. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 1 27. c 2 ^24. + y. 37. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. is . SUBTRACTION. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 2 7 1 26. 33.
. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 6=2.g.15 6c. of that letter. 2 Sum. a 4. V3.8 abc . 2 025.15 abc . to show any error. 3. 3a 2? .3 s. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . x of x.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. c = 1. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 2c. 2 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . therefore the answer is correct. 4 = 7. 9 q 4. = .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . e.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 4 2. 5 . NOTE. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.7 2 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. f 110WS: 26 aft.o c and 4.c= 2. s.12 a& 4. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 5. . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 46 4z 7 c. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.g. the erroneous answer equal 7. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. to add 26 ab .20 c 5 ab 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 7 4. and J 2 s. .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.41 = 3. ft any convenient and c. 2 Thus. and 2 .
a 4 a .1 a 4 1 0. .6. 4 3 . and and 13.9(a + &) . 2 2 and .VS 4 2 Vc. . e a4 /. 2 3(c f a). d.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 56 w. and 8 3 . m 4 6.ADDITION. and .a. a) y ^/. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.a . ^2 1 e. xy3xz + yz. . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .5 cr& + 7 6 9.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .Ga 43x45.7v/if.12.a.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 2 ?ft ?/z. .4:xy xz 6yz. . SUBTRACTION. v/20. 16. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .1.10 Vc. in 8 3 m n 4. a2 a. 2 and 9m 48m 4. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. and v 15.12 6 ~5 a .and 6. and 5 Vb 18. 7ar + 3B 5.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .4 Va . + a + 1. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4 8 3 4 4 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 a. a 4 a . 11.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. and 1 4 a .a 4 a 4 1. and 12a 4 15& 20c .(b + c) 1.5a^6 f 6) . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .2n 2 2 3 rz . 16e + 17/90. 19. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 4 Vc. ?/ . .7m . 2 2 .12(a 4. 4. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. + 50 + 62 . a2 2 14. d and / 3 ? 12. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.15 5. 18/+6y + d. 3 2 2 3 9 .8 m 2m 12. . 4 ajy 17. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . a + 1> 8 2 2 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 4(a . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 8. 2 ?/.
If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. a 6 2 c. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. and e + 6y .11 xy + 12. 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4.4 2tn* Sic 2 . + 1.m 4m ?/?/ d.3^* 2n 2 . 12 xyz. f number may be added 3. many negative units re main ? from 2. 45a6 2 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.22 21. f 1. how 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 13 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. +d a. and 2 24. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . . is 2. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. .9aj 2. 1. 1. T8a. f 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1/ . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .ra + m. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. The sum and ? 1. + n*.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 8 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.17 + 4 ?nfy . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 2 8 n + <w 2 .. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. and 25. s . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.
and the required number the difference. the given number the subtrahend. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. NOTE. 6 (3) = 8. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. if x Ex. 5 is 2. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. From 5 subtract to .ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 3. +b 3. from What 3. ab = x. a. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. Ex. To subtract. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. two numbers are given. Or in symbols. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. and their algebraic sum is required. ( 6) ( = . Ex. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the other number is required. From 5 subtract + 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . This gives by the same method. In subtraction. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. In addition.g. 2. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 7. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 1. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. .3.2. called the minvend. 41.
Check. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Ex.5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.f 8 .3 x* .
50. 45. 52. 47. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 57.2.4 a*& + 6 a & . From From x2 the sum sum 7.ADDITION. 49. check the answer.6)f. 6 4 a.w>t. 2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 51.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 2y 2 . 58. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.a 2 j.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 48. tract 4 x 3. From 2 a take a & j. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 41. + a the 2 a. 43. SUBTRACTION. 55. 54. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 56. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 6(af. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . of a 4. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 53. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 42. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.c.7 a . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. c f d.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . and 3 7/ . . 46.4 a^ 4. 44.
Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 6. 2 m 21. + 2. 20. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 16. + 6 + c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +a add the difference duce 13. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. a a + c. 19. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .26 4. a + 6. subtract # + 1.15. of # 2 8. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 6 17. a 2y + z. A is n years old. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .
changed.g.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. SUBTRACTION. Ex.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. .6 b f (. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 45.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.a^6)]  } . tractions By using the signs of aggregation. one occurring within the other. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. a+(bc) = a +b . 46. the sign is understood.b c = a a & f f. I.c.ADDITION. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. II.c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.2 b . & f c. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.
17. Ex. 14.+ 6)f (a2 b). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 271 + (814 .(a + 6). Signs of aggregation 1. 21. 9. a f (a a . 2a (4a 26 +c ).) 5 . 4. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 5. . ? 11. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 2. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 19.[271 47. 2 2a. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 13. 6. 6) 2. 2 2 2 a(.y (60. 8.)]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. By removing parentheses. 16. 18. : x + (2yz).: Ex. + (2a 6 + c ). In the following expression inclose the second and third.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. [36+ (a 2c]. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].7i h jp) (m ?*. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.1422) J ] . may be inserted according to 43. a (a + 26 c ). 15. m f ft) a. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). a (a + 6). 3 3 f 7. 3. (m a2 f.
8. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 5 a2 2. 5^2 _ r . 5. and the subtrahend the second. 6 diminished . of the cubes of m and n. terms 5. 3.1. y f 8 . 7. 6. 9. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.4 y* . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. 10. II. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 13. first. 4. 2mn + 2q3t. )X 6. z + d. The square of the difference of a and b. 2. The difference of a and 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. . The sum^)f m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. m and n. a\l> > c + d. SUBTRACTION. difference of the cubes of n and m. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The product The product m and n. 12. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.ADDITION. 7.2 tf . ' NOTE.7fa. p + q + rs. m x 2 4.
) . 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. 16. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . (Let a and b represent the numbers. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. b.30 14. 6 is equal to the square of b. 18. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.
If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 4. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . A A A 1. 2. 3. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. let us consider the and JB. force is produced therefore. 5. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weights. two loads balance.
(5)X4. such as given in the preceding exercise. .32 8. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 9 9. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 48. x 11. NOTE. Practical examples^ it however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 4 multiplied by 3. 4x(3)=12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. To take a number 7 times.4)(. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. the multiplier is a negative number. (. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. becomes meaningless if definition. 9 x ( 11). 5x(4).4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. however. 4 multi44444 12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. ( (. or plied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.9) x 11. thus. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.4)(4) = + 12. Thus.
4. 3 a2?/2 . about fac (2)X If 6. 32. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. +5. 17. 2a6 c . of Signs: TJie positive. 27. Law Thus.MULTIPLICATION 50. _2. . 23.4. Ua b 28. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 14. is 6x7.3) (1) 7 2 . 22. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 6 2. 1. . (4)X(15). 8. 4 a2 . 26. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.(4J). 5. 1. 2a 2 6c. 3 aW. 13. z s 11 aWcx. 5x3. 3. b = 3. 10.2 f+x 2 . and y = 4. (c#) . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. x= 0. _2^ 3. 8 31. 4 . the parenthesis frequently omitted. NOTE. 20. c = 25. tors is no misunderstanding possible. _3.a)( =+ a&. 9. 15. etc.3. (2) 8 (. 24. . 30. 6. 19. (. 11. (2)x9.2. (4)'. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 2. (10) 4 . (7) X (12).7. 12. 6. x. 3. find the numeri values of: 21.2f 18. . 7. If a cal = 4a6c.(a&c) 2 2 . 29. 16. 8 4 . X(5).
. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. . a= 1.2). 3. 6 = . 11. 2 2 2 . =2 a *. . 5 = 2. 9 .503). 2(14. 4.<?.3).e. m*. 5 .m a 3  4 . 2 2 3 6 . fl*" integers. = 2. 16. This 52. 100. 12 U U . & = 3. (a6) (a5) 9. : 3a7abc. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 50(112.  2 2. a = 3.6 if 35. 78 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a = 2. 200. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.(7). + 2/). 2. 4 x (2 25) =8 25.7. of the factors.35). 14.  and 2 25 8 .257). 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2 3 .2 2 23 + 5 . &*) c d*. 5. 2(7. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 3 3 4 .(2. Ex. 6 = 1.. 3. i. 36.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 10. 6 aWc x . a8 a=2. 1. 5(711. 4.(12) . Ex. B. 127  127 9 7 . 53.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 4. 6" 127 U . 7. . 34. 17.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . or 2 . IB.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 13. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .. 3 2 . . a 2 2 . 6. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. By 3 definition. 2. 5 3 5 3 2 .
2 3 aft ). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2 32. 7p*q r*. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. . 3. 2.7 w'W (8 n^W). c(4a ftc ). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 29.7pqt.4a#. 35. 34. 27. called the distributive law.f 2). by first multiplying. If results ft. but we shall assume it for any number. . and then adding : 1. 19. 28. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 23(10004100420).3 win ) . 5. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 6(10420430). ax /) 2 4 1 (. ) 2 33. 24. 11(3. 35 4 7(6. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 2(645410). 26. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 20. 22. 6. . /). . 2(5fl5f25). . 21. 7. 4.6.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 17(10041042). (. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. _4aft. This principle. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 12( + 1 4 i). 25. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).A). 31. multiply each by the monomial.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 23. (. 3(124342).
Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 20. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 28.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 22. ~2mn(m +n p ). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Find the factors of 6 ary . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 30. be multiplied to give 4o. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 23. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 19. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.2 mn(9 mV . 9. 2 27. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . By what 25. 17.we b) (x law. 2 2 16. 2 m(mhn \p).5 x 7).^ c + 2 . 7 a 6 c(. 12. 5). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 26. f7a.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.asa product. 11. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). : expression must 24. . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.5 w*V f 7 wn). . 3 ). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 21. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.60 a& 10 aft.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.6 a6). 29. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .
the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. the student should apply this test to every example. 59. Multiply 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. . Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. To multiply two polynomials. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. 2.1.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. however.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 2a3b a66 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Multiply 2 + a a. Check. Ex.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a .4.3 b by a 5 b. Since errors.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 .
(2 x* x 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). (a^26) . 10. (6p (2 f 21. 35. a 5c)(2a6c). 36. 36) I) 14.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 2. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 4. 30.4) (x + 1). 5. 24. 18. 16. 20. (6a~7) 2 .1 . 32. 2) (3 A: 1). 25. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 15. 28. . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 4 2). 8. l)(raf 2). 26. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 1). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 29. 13. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (4a 2 33. 9. 41. (6i7n)(llJn). (13 A. 3<7). 6. 3. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1.2). 11. 31. 7y). 2 .2m)(l m). . 12. QQ O7. 40.4) (mnp 4. 2 . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (8r7*)(6r39. 36). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). I (mfn)(m4. (2w 19. ^ 2 . 17. 7. 12)(a?^2l). 2  37. * For additional examples see page 261. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . OQ OO. 22.
in of the two unequal terms. (J 23. 14. 1005x1004.2 6) (a f 6). + 5) (1000 + 4). 1) (10 + 2). 7. (a 102 x 103. (a 9) (a + 9). plus the product of the two unequal terms. : 23 2. 26. + 9)(m+9). . 25. 28. (6 12) (6 f. 2 6) (a 3 6).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (!)(* 5). plus the product 62. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 6.!!)( (a + 21). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.e. 9.e.13).n)(wf w). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (p12)(p + ll). 25 a 2 . i. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 22. (10+ (1000 (2. ft 16. 15. 21. 2) (1000 + 3). . (ra. i. 2 a? 29. (a (a (a. (*. 11. + 60)(f2). 75 ab f 54 ft . (100 +2) (100 + 3). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 3. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. . X 102. 18. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 20. + 3) (a 7).4). 13. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 12. _3)(a _4). (a3)(a + 2). 10. + 2) (a f 3). 19. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 27. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 17. 8.25)(y+4). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 24. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.
8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (a26) 2 . III.66 s. 37. p 2 p. + 6 a + 8.e. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 35. 32. w 2 ro . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . <J>7) J . 34.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 8. 4. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 33. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. (x+3i/) 2 . of the second. n2 10ii+16. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 63. 31.30. plus the square of the second. plus sum of two numbers the square II.e. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 2 5. 77ie square of the of the first. : 24 (a 2. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 7. . and the second.15. + 3) 2 . a2 2 w + 2 w . 6.15. 9. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. Ex. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. i. 7 a + 10. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 3. i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. III. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (a2) (p a . . 49 y*. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.e. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. second. .
(100 + 2) (100 2). 4 53. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 7& ) 25. 99x101. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 41 16. The product of 57. 46. 9 a2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. (2x3yy. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 23. (6afy 2 5) (a. 16aW25. + 5)(5+a). m 2 16. + 3z) 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 2 . 998x1002. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 49. 32. 2 9a 496 2 56. 17. (a 3) 2 2 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 62 25n 2 . 41. . I) 2 . n*6n+9. 15.998 39. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 54. 14. G> +5g)*. ). 44. 29. 22. 104 2 37. 22 2 . (1000 2 . 2 . 21. 24. 25 a 9. 31. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 45. 12. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. By actual multiplication. ( 27. 55. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. a2 9. 28. 52. 47. 18. (20 f 1) . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 11. (^. 35. . 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). n 2 f4n+4.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 J ). 40. . 51. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 991 2 2 . 38. 34. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5). a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 48. 103 36. 42. . 33.
2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). ((5a? (10 12.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 14. ) (2 of a polynomial. (3m + 2)(ml). : 25 2. 2 10. (2a3)(a + 2). (5a64)(5a&3). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 65. (4s + y)(32y). (5a4)(4al). 11. The square 2 (a 4. 4. 3. plus the last terms. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 5. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). or The student should note minus signs.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. . 13. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). sum of the cross products. 7. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).& + c) = a + tf + c . that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 6. 9. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 8.
7. and check the answers !.39. 6. 4(aj2)h3(7). 6(a 2. 8. 3. 9. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 65) . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 4. 2 2. If x = 1. (a (. (xy+z)*. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).3) . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).5) = (7 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.5).y? + 8 . (u4& + 3c'.24] . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (  2 4) =  20 a. 66. 4y sf n) 2 .X2 + 2 x . 12.i2&c) 2 . 2)6. after multiplying the factors of a term. 4(* + 2)5(3).4) . 3.3)(z. + 6)( .24 . a.(= [ Xa + 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Simplify (x + 6) (a .(>. Check. . = 10 x .3) (x .1 5 = 10 . Ex. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 6~2(a + 7).(m 2 6. 5.8 x + 15] .r _ 2 .29.[a? . of z : 10. 13. Find the square root 11. 4. Hence. n). 8.39.(x . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.4) . 5. = . 7. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
v/17.e. 16. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. . 18.2).l. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 19.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares.DIVISION 14. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 51 15.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (81 m + 1 . a I. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . 20. . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .11 a + 9 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2) (3 a .
10. 15. 12. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 100ry. 16.0001. 4 b.49. 14. : the following w a 4 !. aW 12 a. 9& 2 . . 121a a 16 100 11. 16 . r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 1. .000. f 13.
Thus. =11. 83. (a + ft) (a b) and b.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. is said to satisfy an equation. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 81. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in the equation 2 x 0. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. the first member is 2 x + 4. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. hence it is an equation of condition. 82. the 80. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. second member is x + 4 x 9. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. x 20. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. .
2. one member to another by changing x + a=. 86. NOTE. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 2. To solve an equation to find its roots. A numerical equation is one in which all . 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 2 = 6#f7. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. . an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be multiplied by equals. 3.b. 85. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be subtracted from equals. the quotients are equal. Transposition of terms. the remainders are equal. A term may be transposed from its sign. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. E. the divisor equals zero.e. called axioms 1. 4. x I. If equals be added to equals. A 2 a. 5.g. but 4 does not equal 5. 87. the sums are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 89. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 90.54 84. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . the products are equal. a. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.
b Adding a to both + a. (4y)(6. The first member.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. x = 93.6 y f y\ . 4x 1 + 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. 2 x = 6. 3 y . 91. x = 3. The second member. To solve a simple equation. and the known terms to the second. Dividing by Check. if a x = b. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. if 55 x members.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. a= a 6fc. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Uniting. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.8. The first member. Transposing. b c. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. x = (Axiom 3) 92.2 y= f . Unite similar terms. . Subtracting 4 x from each term. Check. 2(11 . Dividing both members by 2. Ex.2. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Uniting similar terms. is correct.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Hence the answer. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.9 y + y2 = 22 . f If y 20 .
Transposing. J. 17 7 a. : 5# = 15+2a. 21.. 12. x x 1 . = 5a?+18.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 14. {(x (x The The member right member left . 11. 15. 11 ?/ a? 18. 6.69. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 2. 3. 3.7a: = 394a. a. 19. = 7. 22. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 20. v23. x = 18. 16. = 2 ?/. 13 y 99 = 7 y. + 16 = 16 + 17. 9 9a? = 7 13. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Solve the following equations by transposing. a.56 Ex. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. a? a?. 3 7 a. 13a? 3a?.17 + 4y = 36. Uniting. 7 (6 x 16). 24. and check the answers 9.. If x = 18.7. 4y 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). \x x 2^xfl. = 3. 32 = 264. . etc. . 4a + 5 = 29. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 8. 247y = 68lly. 7a? 5. + 22. 7. f Simplifying. it NOTE. Dividing by Cfcecfc. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. =2 = 3. 3)= 9(3 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. aj * See page 264. 4. a?. 50. 17 + 5a. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.
1) (u . 41. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.3) + . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.(2 + 6) (4 . 35. . 29.1 0) = 0. 36. 5) (as (a. a? 28. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. + 7) (. this question.4) + 4 w . . 38. 27. .3) + 14. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 42. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . (6 u =5 44. find the other part. 6(6a. 33. 7(7 x y 26. 2 2 * Jaj.2) (M . 40.7. or 70 a?. .12) (2 + 5) .5) = (a. + 4). . 30. 34. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. is the other part. (a. 31. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 39.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. e.5) + 199. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. a? 43.3) .5(2 u .14 = 0.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 7) (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. .32. 25.g. Evidently 45. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. . . (aj 37.7) (7 x + 4) .
6. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . so that of c ? is p. 17. or 12 7. 6. 13. one yard will cost 100 dollars. find the cost of one yard. Divide 100 into two 12. Ex. is b. greater one is g. smaller one 16. EXERCISE 1. is a? 2 is c?. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. 10. is d. 15. Find the greater one. so that one part The difference between is s. If 7 2. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 4. 11. 3. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. Divide a into two parts. a.58 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. so that one part Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 1. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 14. 33 2. 9. x f y yards cost $ 100 . and the smaller one parts. 7.
feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 32. ?/ 31. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 28. 22. How many years A older than is B? old. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. A man had a dollars. amount each will then have. sum If A's age is x years. 34. How many cents has he ? 27. 19. 20. Find 21. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and B has n dollars. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find 35. and B's age is y years. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. numbers is x. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 24. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. If B gave A 6 25. and spent 5 cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. and B is y years old. 28. is A A is # years old. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 26. b dimes. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. find the has ra dollars. A feet wide. 33. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and c cents.
how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. % % % of 100 of x. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. of m. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. The first pipe x minutes. A cistern is filled 43.50. find the fraction. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. m is the denominator. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. 49. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. he walk each hour ? 39. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. of 4. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. 46. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. per Find 5 Find 6 45. a. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find the number. c a b =  9. Find a 47. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. . A was 20 years old. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. 48. Find a. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. . The two digits of a number are x and y.
cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. same result as 7 subtracted from . The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The excess of a over b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. of x increased by 10 equals x. 6. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . c. The double as 7. by one third of b equals 100. 2. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 3. c. 9. 4. 80. of a increased much 8. 5. etc. 80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. double of a is 10. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. a exceeds b by c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.
of 30 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. B's. 11.62 10. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. x 4 If A.000. B's age 20. a second sum. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. >. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C's age 4 a. a. 16. 17. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. sum equals $20. A gains $20 and B loses $40. amounts. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. . and C's ages will be 100. m is x % of n. as 17 is is above a. and C have respectively 2 a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. B's. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. x is 100 x% is of 700. 6 % of m. 18. 12. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. they have equal of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 50 is x % of 15. symbols B. is If A's age is 2 x. (c) If each man gains $500. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. they have equal amounts. In 10 years the sum of A's. 14.. B. a. pays to C $100. 3 1200 dollars. #is5%of450.
Uniting. Simplifying. 4 x = 80. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 15. 2. In order to solve them. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Transposing. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In 15 years 10. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3z40:r:40z. Check. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x+16 = 3(35). Find A's present age. 1. Ex. x = 20. number of yards. NOTE.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 23 =30. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. etc. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. the . Let x = the number. Transposing. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. be 30 . denote the unknown 96. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. A will Check. 6 years ago he was 10 . Ex. Let x The (2) = A's present age. number. the required . much as 40 exceeds the number. x= 15. Uniting. Three times a certain no. but 30 =3 x years. . Dividing. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20.
Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the number. 120. . 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find 8. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. How many miles per hour does it run ? . What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. by as much as 135 ft. Hence 40 = 46f.2. 11. exceeds the width of the bridge. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. twice the number plus 7. % of 120. A number added number. Let x 3. 4. 3. 5. EXERCISE 1. 13. Forty years hence his present age. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the number. Six years hence a 12 years ago.64 Ex. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Dividing. 300 56. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 14.
how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. the second one. Maine's population increased by 510. and B has $00. five If A gives B $200. B How will loses $100. 1. During the following 90 years. One number exceeds the other one by II. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. 14. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. Vermont's population increased by 180. statements are given directly. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. times as much as A. two verbal statements must be given. 97.000. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. Ex. The problem consists of two statements I. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. which gives the value of 8. A and B have equal amounts of money.000. F 8. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. x. How many dol A has A to $40. 65 A and B $200. and as 15. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. written in algebraic symbols. Find the population of Maine in 1800. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. The other verbal statement. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. is the equation. . B will have lars has A now? 17. If A gains A have three times as much 16.
the greater number. < Transposing. 8 the greater number. Statement x in = the larger number. . although in general the simpler one should be selected. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Uniting. the smaller number. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. x 3x 4 and B will gain. B will have twice as viz. = 3. x = 8. Let x 3x express one many as A. 2. 25 marbles to B. has three times as many marbles as B. unknown quantity in Then. Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. the sum of the two numbers is 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. The two statements I. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. Dividing. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. to Use the simpler statement. . 2x a? x j = 6. x x =14 8. which leads ot Ex. / . A has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = B's number of marbles. . If we select the first one. 8 = 11. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as many as A. I. = A's number of marbles. = 14. Let x 14 I the smaller number. A will lose. and Let x = the Then x +. A gives B 25 marbles. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. If A gives are : A If II. terms of the other. + a f f 8 = 14. consider that by the exchange Hence.
. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 1. The sum of two numbers is 42. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 50.10. 3. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. B's number of marbles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 15 + 25 = 40. * 98.5 x . 3 x = 45. A's number of marbles... but 40 = 2 x 20. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. of dollars to the number of cents. by 44. Simplifying. etc. Find the numbers. greater is . x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 45 . Uniting. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Two numbers the smaller. 2. Dividing. Simplifying. Let 11 = the number of dimes. . x = the number of half dollars. Check.. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. (Statement II) Qx . the price.550 f 310. Find the numbers.10. 6 times the smaller. The number of coins II. 60. cents. Dividing.25 = 20. x = 15.240.75.$3. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. * ' . 40 x . Uniting. and the Find the numbers. 50 x Transposing. w'3. dollars and dimes is $3. x = 6. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. the number of dimes. have a value of $3.10. 11 x = 5. then. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. The value of the half : is 11. Check. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Eleven coins. x from I. the number of half dollars. is 70.
one of which increased by 9. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. as the larger one. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.000 feet. 11. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. United States. A's age is four times B's. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 6. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 5. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. On December 21. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. tnree times the smaller by 65.. the number. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 9. How many 14 years older than B. 7.68 4. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Everest by 11. Twice 14. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and four times the former equals five times the latter. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. Find their ages. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many hours does the day last ? . What is the altitude of each mountain 12.
x = 8. Ex. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. III. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. are : C's The three statements A. number of dollars A had. original amount. The third verbal statement produces the equation. II. Let x II.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. = 48. times as much as A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and B has three as A. and C together have $80. 19. B has three times as much as A. then three times the money by I. B. I." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 1. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. number of dollars of dollars B C had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. bers is denoted by x. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. has. they would have 3. 8(8 + 19) to C. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. If 4x = 24. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. and C together have $80. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number had. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. . sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. has. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and 68.
= the number of dollars spent for horses. and each sheep $ 15. x j = the number of horses. 1 1 Check. and the sum of the . Dividing. number of sheep. sheep. and. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and Ex. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. first. The total cost equals $1185. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 9 cows. 90 may be written. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. = the number of dollars spent for cows. each cow $ 35. Let then. x = 5. The I. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to III. x Transposing. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. according to II. Uniting. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 4 x f 8 = 28. 2. each horse costing $ 90. number of horses. + 8 90 x and. number of cows. 28 2 (9 5). The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. x f 4 = 9. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. the third five times the first. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. III.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 185 a = 925. number of cows. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. cows. 9 5 = 4 . x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. + 35 x 4. three statements are : IT. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep.
twice the 6. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first. and 2 more men than women. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . how many children were present ? x 11.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1.000. New York delphia. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.  4. the copper. increased by three times the second side. the third 2. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and the sum of the first and third is 36. 7. twice as old as B. what is the population of each city ? 8. and children together was 37. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A 12. v . first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. men. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. equals 49 inches. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. The gold. 13. 9. the second one is one inch longer than the first. "Find three is 4. what is the length of each? has 3. what are the three angles ? 10. If twice The sum the third side.
Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.g.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 3 and 4. A and B apart. together. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. = 35. but stops 2 hours on the way. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Let x = number of hours A walks. 14. number of hours. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. how many 100. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. or time. we obtain 3 a. After how many hours will they meet and how E. i. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. First fill in all the numbers given directly. and quantities area.000 more than that the copper.000. and distance. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. . Hence Simplifying. width. The copper had twice the value of the gold. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of miles A x x walks. = 5.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. 8 x = 15. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Find the value of each. Dividing. of arid the value of the iron was $300. speed.000. 7 Uniting. such as length. of 3 or 4 different kinds.e.
Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Transposing and uniting. + 8. original field has Check. 2   and transpose. $ 800 = required sum. But 700 certain = 800 2. The an area 40 x 20 =800. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. Multiplying. were increased by 30 yards. Find the dimensions of the field.06 = $ 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. l. the second 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. . Check.05 x x . 70x10 Ex. z = 20. x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide." gives (2. x . . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 10 x = 200. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less. or 700.M(x . $ 1000 x . 2 a = 40.01 = = . x + 200).04 = $ 40. $ 800 = 800.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8.053.
and a second sum. After how many hours will B overtake A. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 3. of coffee for $ 1. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Six persons bought an automobile. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. 2. but four men failed to pay their shares. were increased by 3 yards. twice as large. A sets out later two hours B . each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A sum ? invested at 4 %. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. 1. A of each. Find the share of each. invested at 5 %. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. the area would remain the same.55. mobile. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. sions of the field. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. as a 4. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Ten yards $ 42. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. together bring $ 78 interest. and its width decreased by 2 yards. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. What are the two sums 5.
Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. The distance from If a train starts at .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point.
as. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. vV . An after simplifying. if. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a. a2 to 6. a. stage of the work. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . we shall not. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. irrational. but fractional with respect 103. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. f db 6 to b. which multiplied together are considered factors. this letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 76 . consider 105.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. if it does contain some indicated root of . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . 6. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. it is composite. 104. at this 6 2 . 5. + 62 is integral with respect to a.
1. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. TYPE I. Ex. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . ?/. 01. Factor G ofy 2 . 8) (s1). . 2. y.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. in the form 4) +3. x.) Ex. 55. 2. It (a. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 110. for this result is a sum.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.FACTORING 106. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. x. 2. Divide 6 a% . 109.62 + &)(a 2 .3 sy + 4 y8). it follows that a 2 . 77 Factoring is into its factors.62 can be &). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 107.3 6a + 1). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. E.g. or that a = 6) (a = a .
in general. 8. 5f 2 . + llm llm. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.3. 17.5 + 2. 7a & 10. 20.3. 7i 13. 13.8 c a 15 ofyV . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 14a 4 5. 4 8 .45 afy .g. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 Or.51 aW + 68 21. 4 tfy f. 2 + q. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 19. 3 2 . obviously. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 3x*6x*. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 2 2 . 14. 2 6. TYPE IT. 32 a *?/ .30 aty. e.51 x4 2 6 xy s .4. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. Ilro8 9. 12. 4. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 34 a^c 8 . . 18. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).4. 11. 15 2 7.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . ) 22  2. 16. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . : 6 abx .5 + 13 8. 2 23. q*q*q 2 a. 15. (as 3) and (ccf5). 2.12 cdx.6. 3 3 5 6. a a 'Ja .78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. a6c.2.
Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). We may consider 1. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Ex. 77 as the product of 1 77. of this type. as p. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor x? . m 5m + 6. is The two numbers whose product and 6. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.11. Factor + 10 ax . + 112. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.6 = 20.4 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.1 1 a tf a 4.77 = (a. and (a . but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor a2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.11) (a + 7).G) = .5) (a . Therefore Check.FACTORING Ex. or 77 l. If q is positive. . 3. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. however. + 30 = 20. a 2 . 2 6. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. or 7 11. 5. Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. the two numbers have opposite signs.11 a + 30. . 11 7. determine whether In solving any factoring example.30 = (a . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.a).4 x ..11 a 2 . tfa2  3.5) (a 6). If q is negative. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 2.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. . can be factored.
48 + + 446 200. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 2xS. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. + 4?/21. . 15. 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 11. 31. 25. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 21 a 2 2 .17 + 30. + 44. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66.6. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 4 3 2 . 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 14. 29.80 7. x2 23. 17. 2 . 32. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . ay 11 ay +24. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.180 a. 2 ?/ 28. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 19.500 x + 600. 12. a 2 +11 a a? 16. and 5 x. 24. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 100 xr . . 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ra + 25ra + 100. 18. ITT. 2 ?/ 22. a 7 a 30. 35. 9. 16. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 2 2 a' 34. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 27. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . a2 . 36. . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 20. 26. 16. 4 2 . 8.70 x y . + 5<y 24. 2 2 . TYPE 113. 33. + 30. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 21. 13. a? + 5 + 6 a. or . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.
2. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 2 x 27.5) (2 x . the signs of the second terms are minus. If p is poxiliw. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. . sible 13 x negative. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 18 x 3. and that they must be negative. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 6 x 9. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.5 .1).17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. X x 18. a. Factor 3 x 2 . viz. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. Ex. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 11 x 2x. 3 x and x. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 9 x 6. and r is negative. 3. .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. the If p and r are positive. 27 x 2.83 x f 54. or G 114. 54 x 1.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.
300 ab 2 f4 250 . 21. 4a2 9tt + 2.2) (x . x54 a.163 x 2 . 10a2 G a2 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 10. X 27 . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 16.30 y 6 4 . 2. Sar' + SaG.179. + 2/3. and the monomial factors should be removed. 9a. the expressions should be it. 24. 3. 3a + 13a. : 41 2. 32. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 2 2 . 2 . f go. 30. 34. 20. 6. 14 a fa 4. 100^200^ + 100^. . 17. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 29. 2x* + 9x5. 5.83 x . 2 28. 9. 9 y + 32^16. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 12.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 2 2 23. 90 a 8 2 . 12^17^16. 2 . . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 26. 14.27).2 a 90 x*y . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. . 25. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 144 x . 5m 26m f 5.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .7. 2m t7w + 3. 7. 35. 22.y + 172/9. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 8.260 xy . 19. since all others (II. 2 fc . 13. + 4.19 a f 6. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 4. 18. 2 31. 12y 2/6. 11. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 15. 10 a .10 4a? + 14oj + 12.83 x = (3 . 10a?2 2 33. 6n + 5?i4.
FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. however. i. 16 y? The student should note that a term. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 14.10 x f 16. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 9 10gf25. 2. of its terms are perfect squares. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11.20 xy f 4 y\ . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . square. form are special cases of the preceding type. 25 7. 9 10a625. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. and factor whenever possible : 1.e. 5. 6. 2 .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 3. 12. and a perfect square. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. it is a perfect square. 2 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 8. x* . 13. it is more convenient for that type. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 4. 10. 116. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 9.
7. 3. 22. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 29. .60 a# + 4.2 ofy + ofy m . ). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2 20. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 4a2 l. According to 65.84 15. 225 ofy . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 9a2 . 1.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). Ex. + GO + 25. V. a2 24. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. aV . . TYPE 117. 6. 2. 3. 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 48 a +( ). +( )f816 30. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 4 2 23. a. 25. * 2 .20 ab + 10 b a . product i. 2 . 16. 149 a 81 8. 26. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 19. ^//c to the Ex. 9.3 * ). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 2. a.e.6 m* + 9 m. 17. 2 . 5. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. prime. 2 . 16&*. 36 2 4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . .64 6 = 16(a . ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 10 a 2 4 2 . ). 18. 6 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.
16p 2 . a:) 12. of polynomials. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . a2 .(c 4. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2. 2 . 36> . 5.d) 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 11. 14. Ex.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 9. 4. One or both terms are squares 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .(I) .FACTORING 85 118. 6. 2 . Factor a 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (m7?) y. Ex. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 8. 2.c . 13. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. T. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .
+ bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 1. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a? 11. . x8 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 119. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.7 c + 2c . After grouping tain a the terms. = (3 x + y . .a a . 8. 5. 2.VI. 3. 12. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. By grouping. which may be factored according to types I. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. ma ?*a + m& nb. 4 B. ive find that the new terms con common factor.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.14.ab + bx. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 10. 5) . Ex.r. A. 6. 7.1. 9. 4:cx . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. a 26 2 2 3 . + x + 2x + 2. 2.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.y + 2 2). a5 + ab 6 .and trinomials.2 ) (3 x . Ex.
* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. IV. 5. : m 2 2 16. 4 a2 . + 2xy + y*q*. . : 46 x* 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. l~a 2a56 2 2 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 36 9 m .4 f . 2 7. 6 6. 4.12 aaj 4 6y. II. +c+ 2 2 2/ .l. 2. 6. 6a4 12a2 + 6. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. . 3. 8. 4.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w m 2. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . = (a + 6)(a6). Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. $ a8 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 8ra 2 + 16.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. Arranging the terms. First find monomial factors common to all terms.FACTORING Ex. 2a3/ 7.
88 10. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 25 a + 25 aft . 5a' 20. 2 a 128. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 48. 30. a. 27. 42 s 2 . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. + 6 aft + 3 . 14. 50^ + 45. 3 a2 23. (a. 12. 42 x . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 5 a. 13. (^ 34. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 3 2 . 35. a6 36. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a + a + a + l.40. . 29. 13 c . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 41. or 3 7#2 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 24.24. 11. a3 156. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 40. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 19.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.156. 3 25. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 18. 2 17. 32. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. + 14. 80 a 2 ft 38.13 c . 28. 4 a. 4 8 tt 2 z .310 x . 2 ft . 22.
6. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.  23 3 . C. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 89 . C. C. Two common factor except unity The H. 24 s . C. 5. 54  32 . of two or more monomials whose factors . C. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. 5 2 3 . C. The H.) of two or more . 25 W. of the algebraic expressions. are prime can be found by inspection. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 2.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. expressions which have no are prime to one another. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 13 aty 39 afyV. The student should note H. of aW. II 2 . F. The H. of 6 sfyz. 121. EXERCISE Find the H. F. Thus the H. 5 s 7 2 5. 122. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. aW. F. C. F. 3 . F. F. 12 tfifz. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 5 7 34 2s . The highest is common factor (IT. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 2 2 . 8 . C. 15 aW. of : 48 4. C. 3. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. .
a2 ar* 4. 15 3ao.y) . 57 a>V. .2 y) (a. . a2 + 7af!2. 95 2/V. 25 m27i.12 as 66 . 52 oryz4. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.5 y). aWd. 8 a 10 . 2 . a3 9a. 0^80:416. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). x* x2 Hence the H. resolve each polynomial into prime factors.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 10. To find the H. 2 . 4 ?io. 13. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 9. 1. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 16. 2a f5af 2. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. of + 4 if. = x 2 y. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 6 3 a. 1. F.y + y42. 2 . 14. .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 24 a 2 . C.5 + 6. 5. 6 mx . 15. 6 a2 y? . 11. 6(m+l) (m+2). F. 10. 8(?/ifl) 14.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 11. 8. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 9. (a7 ?/) . .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . ^a + 5^ + 6. 13.2 ?/) (x . F. a. a2 + 2a3. ^707 + 12. 12 . 8.6 . C.90 7.6 a&. 2 . 12 w*nw 8. Ex. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 3).# 4 afy f 4 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. and apply the method of the preceding article. 7.8 a + 16. 3 . 12. 225 4a 9 . 16 a . of: .y) 123. a2 . 2. 38 #y. of polynomials. 9 aj*(a? . ^2 2 . ^f a. . .?/ . 3. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . y + 3y64.^9. 3^ 2 4 . 49 C. 65 zfyV.5 x3?/ 2 6. 8 6. a3 16 a. a 3a4. 4(m+l) 3 .6. C. Find the H. F.
M. which also signs. a^c8 3 . 128. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 300 z 2 y. M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. .M.C. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. The L. 1. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. A common remainder. M. M. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Ex. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Hence the L. L. M. M. 60 x^y' 2 . but opposite . NOTE. To find the L. &) 2 M. Find the L. 127. The lowest common multiple (L. 2 The The L. Ex. C. two lowest common multiples. etc. . M. thus. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Find the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y.6)2.C. 126. of the general.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 2. of 3 aW. M. C. ory is the L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . of tfy and xy*. L. Common 125.6 3 ). M of the algebraic expressions. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L.
or f 3 a 15 #. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2. 3(a + b). a?b. 2 7ic+10. + 2 7i) . a 1. xy\ . x2 + 4 a f 4. . 3 . by. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 2(m 2 . 15. a f 2 19. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 9. ic 23. 2 . 21. 18. a2 4. ) . a^1. 3 f2. 14. 2 .1. x 2 5 a. a f 3. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. f b. a 2 fa6. 1. 8 afy. 2 a . 17. 2 . 16. Find the L. 24 x. 2 10. 30 a. 3 6 xif. 6 a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. (a 4)(a2) 12. of: 4. (For additional examples see page 268. y*. a. afy. 3 ab. 40 abJ. afc'cd 2 . + 2. . a 2 a3 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a 2 f 4 a +4. 6 y. a. a !. 3. M. 5. 5 a? 5 a? y. 13. 11. 8 d 5 . a2 ~ab 1. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a& 4 +& 2 . 4 a . T a 3 a 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. #. x* ~5a. 6b 2 . 8. b 2 . 24. 3. 6. + 6. 20. 2 a . 2 x \2 y. 22. 2 a. ic 2 ?/. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 20 9 a.f 6. 4 a f 2.1. 3 Z> . 4 a 5 6cd. G a. a. 7. a { a~b.
A f fraction is b.ry ^ by their H. Remove tor. an indicated quotient. 131. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. Thus. Ex.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. etc. and denominators are considered. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. a?. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . but we In arithmetic. rni Thus 132. F. successively all 2 j/' . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. a b = ma mb . as 8. however. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. C.
tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. cancel factors only. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex.4) Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 3. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.
19. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. ' ^ . LJZJ^JL. ^+3*. . 9x + "a" 10.10 a + 3 2 14. 23. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . nx 17. """.*. _ 3 7i rt< 26.' 32. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 29. g J 21. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ^" a. 16. 5^10 y 30. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^' rt ^  31. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 11 ^ Mtr f . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ny 4 18. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. .7 . ..
1). . and the terms of ***. 1. 2> . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . TheL.  by 4 6' . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . M. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. mon T denominator.  of //* 2 . by the denominator of each fraction. Ex.r 2 2 .C. . Reduce ^. of the denominators for the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.M. =(z (x + 3)(z.M.D. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.~16 (a + 3) (x.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . Divide the L. . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and 135. C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. take the L. we have M^. we have the quotients (x 1). + 3).1^22 ' .3) (!)' = . and (a 8). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. we may extend this method to integral expressions. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.96 134. ^ to their lowest com The L. multiplying the terms of 22 .C. C.
7i 2 ab* ".. 2aj ~ . 18. 2. o o a. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. a? 1 5 > ^* . JL. 22 a2 5a * . 2 ay IB. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. i. If the given fractions have different denominators. 8 i i. common denominator 6. . 74).^1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 ..T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 5?. 137.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. . j y 3. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .oj o* or / . 3.
4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .ft) (a ft ft)~. C. ^ is 2^JT) . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. the student should remember that parentheses are .ft)(a . 2 ^. ft).aft) Ca2 .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . as 4 aft f. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .7 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). in the beginning. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .3 . T? Ex. D.g.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. L. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. 2. e. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft).. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. and adding.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .2 ' 2 _.. (a ft). The L. (a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.(a 2 6). D.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft 2). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .2 = a(a .
9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 6 c 3a 7. 20. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 1 f w 16. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1 f q * 1 m m . 24. + a "" 2 6 ' .5 18 ^4f25.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 15. + . 5a76 4a 106 9. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. A+2_3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. j>0 i> 21. a 36 ++. 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. 2. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 46 2a 4a 12. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.
9. a 4 31. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a ?^ 40. a 30. af 1f /j.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 3a 9 +. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 2 af1 32. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ! n. 41. 43. _ + a? ?/ + y. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ic 1 + 1. a. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 42. 1 34.9 79 6 2 i.
 4 or 3 2a. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. T.  . .6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . .FRACTIONS 139.7 5a v Ex. Reduce .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 101 mixed expression. .
each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Since  = a. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. (In order to cancel common factors. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. or.) Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .g. 2 a Ex. integer. !. 2.
6 12 d6 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5# 56 / c& 4. 50 . 4 8. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 2 f 5 a... 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Divide Xn?/ . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 8 multiply the Ex. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.
1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. or both. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . l.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. Ex.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .5 ??i 80 50 .afr 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.10 ?/ _. ga2 4 8 5 a . are fractional.^c 2 2 .FRACTIONS 105 . a a2 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.6 s + 064.
B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. .a ^c c _^ a . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. y X 4* 2 y 3. 6. 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). . JL. M. i. C. 7i+~ 7. c +6. n a 8. a m "" . Ex.y 32 . 9. & . . of their denominators. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 2. . Simplify x }. x* 4. the answer is directly obtained.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .
o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) . m^n* n L a 17. 1 i 1 2 5 . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : .~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18.
9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .f3# + C:E=6f7212. a.8 x = . = 6. If x 6. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). M. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. If = 64. 5(3 85 Check.42 + 9.28 x + 42 = . Clearing of fractions. Uniting.1.48. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. each member is reduced to 1. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). tions.9 x2 + 9. Uniting. 2z2a. of the denominator.14 (a. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 4 4)  x. 148. C.28 a = 5 x2 . + 1) (a + 3) . 108 . x = 6. . 9x x Check.l)(z + 3) = . Transposing. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Bx 12 Qx. 2 3. each member is reduced to Ex. 2x Transposing. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). = 6. 1. these Ex. 2.
1 *> = 2. ^' 2. a/  5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 18. ^1 = 9.= 2. +1 = 5.1 _77 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. +4 14. 16. . 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. '  4 13. a. . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 15. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. a: 7 a.
32 6 .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 4a4l4* + l~. ._ _ .11_4 x 149. J_. . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 27 . ?_=_. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.  38 = 40. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 33. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 3x 35. y+3~2 29. and" the remaining one a polynomial.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 26 26. . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. If two or more denominators are monomials.
Check. . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . 24 a.  5 = 20 x 45. a. the 1 5 L.2 42 9 43. 5x x : = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .. M. each member is reduced to ^. 1.1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. If a. 5# 10. 60. Dividing. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and uniting. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. = 9. 26 a.
jr. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. If 3ac L= = a ? . Ex. find a in terms of b and c. Thus. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. 5> a. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 4 ac 1. fr Reducing lowest terms. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Uniting the Dividing. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. y.3 6 2 = a' . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. 2.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = 6 a2 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. ax f x f. f ~ 5c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Dividing.2 ac + 3 aft .& . It frequently occurs that the x.be. . Uniting.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). they are united by factoring. = 2 f b 2 . a.1.2 62 2 ab. =a 2 151. Ex.m bx 2 mn) x. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = l^ 9 b 4 .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .
31. 11. + xx = 1. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . ^ ax a^ 26. 4. + 3a. 12. * Solve the same equation for^). . 3(* 8. = 3 (6 a). c. . = 8 4 #. r the number of $>. denoting the interest. 30. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 6.= n. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = 5. If s If 16. 1 f. and n the number of years. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). q solve for/. 3. The The i time. 34. 2 solve for y a.= H. co?. 13. f P =+!. 9. . solve for . iw 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.a. 17. If ^^ = a 1 32. f ^o. If s (wi n) x =px + q. solve for a. 5) is t =^.= c a Z> . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 10. 14. _ 2. mx = n. rate. 4. a. m a? x . If * 33. 15.i l . = vt. p the principal. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. Ex. IIL n b + &o. t. in terms of other quantities. c 18. 29. s = Vt solve for v. = rt. .
~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. and 12 = the number over. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. then = 2 TT#. 1. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2 3 . Multiplying by Dividing. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 2.20 C. x Or Uniting. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. is 36. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. . 100 C. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock..114 35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.. Ex.180. = 16^. Find R in terms of C and TT. 12.
hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = 100 + 4 x." : Let x  = the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. or 1J. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. Solving. Clearing. the required number of days. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 32 x = . the rate of the express train. in Then Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. and the statement. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 4x = 80." gives the equation /I). The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing.
The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his daughand the remainder. a man had How much money had he at first? . its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and one half the greater Find the numbers. and of the father's age. Find A's 8. is equal 7. which was $4000.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. How did the much money man leave ? 11. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. ceeds the smaller by 4. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his son. and J of the greater Find the numbers. money and $10. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and 9 feet above water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. by 3. ex What 5. length in the ground. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. make 21.  Find their present ages. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. is oO. of his present age. by 6. fifth Two numbers differ 2. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water.
If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and B in 4 days. and it B in 6 days. Ex.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 3. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 152. 2. Ex. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. How much money $500? 4%. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) 22. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. A has invested capital at more 4%. 1. ^ at 5%. . A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. air. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. investments.
is 42.g. m and n.414. A in 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 12. is 57. they can both do in 2 days. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. B in 16. The problem to be solved. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. A in 6.009 918. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Then ft i. . and apply the method of 170. 26. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. . e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.118 153.e. 2. if B in 3 days. n x Solving. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Hence. 25. therefore. we obtain the equation m m . . 3. B in 30.= . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Ex. To and find the numerical answer. and n = 3. B in 5. A in 4.
3 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 5 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. Two men start at the first miles apart. respectively. 4J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. : (c) 64 miles. respectively (a) 60 miles. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot.001. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (b) 149. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (d) 1. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. if m and n are.721. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. and the second 5 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (c) 16. After how many hours do they meet. meet. . 2 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. 34. is ?n . squares 30. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11.000. 3J miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the rate of the first. squares 29. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. the second at the apart. The one: 31. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. Find the side of the square. is (a) 51. 33. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.
A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. " a Thus. antecedent.5. is numerator of any fraction consequent. 1. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. b. etc. b is the consequent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. : : 155. the symbol being a sign of division. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. The first 156. 6 12 = . 158. Ex. E. the denominator The the 157.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.g. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . . the antecedent. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second." we may write a : b = 6. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.
two  ratios. a and d are the extremes. 3. 27 06: 18 a6. 12. b and c the means. and c is the third proportional to a and . 159. extremes. 3:1}. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 3 8. Transform the following unity 15. 11. 16a2 :24a&. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 18. 16. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 17. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. proportional between a and c. $24: $8. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 4. and c. J:l. Simplify the following ratios 7. 61 : ratios 72:18. 62:16. 3:4. 7f:6J. b is the mean b. 8^ hours. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 9.RATIO Ex. 6. 4:5f : 5. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 5 f hours : 2. : 1. b. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. equal 2. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 10. 7:4 T T 4 . : ay . The last first three. terms. 1.
Hence the number of men required to do some work. of iron weigh 45 grams. 6 ccm. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. are : : : inversely proportional. i. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. : : directly proportional may say. Clearing of fractions. and the other pair the extremes. The mean proportional of their product. 3 4. pro portional. ccm. 2 165. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.) mn = pq. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. briefly. and the time necessary to do it. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of iron weigh .30 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.e.) b = Vac. = 30 grams 45 grams. !.__(163.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 164. then G ccm. If (Converse of nq. In any proportion product of the extremes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. " we " NOTE. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. of a proportion.122 162. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. q~~ n . 163. : c. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. ad = be. 163. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.
if 6 : 7. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) II. . is Ex.) (Called Alternation. (Division. ad = be. d d. a:c=b:d. 2. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. bd bd. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. (Frequently called Inversion. (163. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) = f f = 3 J.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Composition. 1. hence the proportion true. ad ( 163. = 35 . then =d c. is 4$ = 35. I. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. 12x Hence a? = 42. V. a III. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) d 167. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Or IV. 166. + b:b = c + d:d.PATIO Ex. I.
3. Or III. . 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 6 =4 : x.e. Simplify the following proportions.124 IT. 5. = 7:2f 3J. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. the consequents by 7. mx tin Apply composition and division. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 120:42 2 2 7. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 2.!=!*. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. = 12 5ft. : x. V. E. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 9. = 2:3. 4. = 180:125. = 2:x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 5 5. x = 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. . Apply composition. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. IV. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 8. = 20:7. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. i. 10.g.
14. ratio of y.  32. 4. a. 20. : a2 . if : 40. 22. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 28. 6 x = y. to: = 35:*. x m = y n. = l^:18. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 9 x = 2 y. (a : : 45. a 2 and ab. : 53. and 2/. 2= 5 x x. 50. 52. 1. 2 3 = y #. + fyx = cy. 6x = 7y. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 34. 2. . Find the 37. 51. a?:15 15. Find the mean proportional 30. = 5 x 12. 4 and 16. to : 9 and 12. w. 3. ra + landra 1. 31. 46. 16 and 28. 29.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 5= 18 a? : a?.. 33. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 39. 2. ra. 1 and a. = 15o. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 6. 38. 3. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. : . to : a and 1. 7iy = 2:x. 35. = 2 + x: x. 12. rap. f. 3t. 26. rag. 23.j>. terra 2:3 = 4. Find the third proportional 24. 44. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 17. b. 41. 25.x: 6:5 a : x. 14 and 21. 21. 47. 43. 2 a and 18 a. 112:42 = 10:a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 03:a?=135:20. 18. 42. 16. 5. mx = ny. x:5 = y:2.:ff. ra 2 .8:1. 13. 27. = 3 43 + x.
what 58. and the area of the rectangle. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the area of the larger? the same.126 54. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 57. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the speed of the train. and the time necessary for it. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 56. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 7^.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time. and the : total cost. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.
Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 2 x Or = 4. 4 inches long. 11 x x 7 Ex. = the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. produced to a point C. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. x = 6. x=2. 11 x = 66 is the first number. as 11 Let then : 1. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. . 2. Let A B AC=1x.000 168. so that Find^K7and BO. AB = 2 x. is A line AB. : Ex.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 18 x = 108. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.
How many 7. Gunmetal tin. 12.) . How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 6. and c inches. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. : 4. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. and 15 inches. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12. 11. 7. 9. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How The long are the parts ? 15. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many gen.000 square miles. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.000. : 197. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 13. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. What are the parts ? 5. 2. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 14. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 3. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.
An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. Hence. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. is x = 7. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. x = 1. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.. values of x and y.L x If If = 0. The root of (4) if K 129 . y = 1. expressing a y. if . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. =.y=.e. such as + = 10. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. etc.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. there is only one solution. However. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. 2 y = . a? (1) then I.
130 170. of elimination most frequently used II. The first set of equations is also called consistent. and 3 x + 3 y =. for they express the x f y 10. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 172. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). unknown quantity. = . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 174. Substitution. y = 2. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. cannot be reduced to the same form. y I 171. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 26 y = 60. same relation.3 y = 80.X. 4y . ~ 50. to The two methods I. 6x . By By Addition or Subtraction. the last set inconsistent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 21 y . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.24. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. E. are simultaneous equations. 3. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.26. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Therefore. viz.
Therefore Check. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. are like. + 2. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. y = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). x = 10. whose coefficients In general. Check. 37.2 = 6. 10 .3 1 = 47. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3y = 3. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 5 13 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 8 2. = 406. 64 x = 040. y = 1.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3. subtract the equations. 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. 25 x . = 235.14 =8. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Transposing. 3. add the equations.3 y = 47. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).
v 23.f2/ ' = 50. 9 1 r 20.4. + 2/ 17. = 41. O t K 8. 13. ] ^ . v ^ = ll. f 3X 7x 14. I oj 5y = 17. ' 12.3.5 y = 2. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. f 3# ?/ = 0. 13 61 l7a. I . = 6. [2o. i 3. 7 ' 1fi fl .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.9 *. * + 3 y = 50. _. . I i 3 a. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.3. x 11. I ~ y~~> 22. J I y = 1U. = 24. 19< I a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.
x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 60. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. . Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#8. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 2. 3. 8. = 13.
(3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7x_2y=3. simplified before elimination is possible. x = l.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. + 212y4 = 14. . 21z6y=9. 4* + 3y = 19.6)7(y7)==18. (4).3. 2 y = . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3 (1) Ex. 29 x = 29. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 7 y = 6. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (7) (7) (8) . 3. however. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). the equation must be cleared of fractions and . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Substituting in (6) . From 9 = 36. \ \6(a.
+y 2 . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . = 3.f2 2. a. J 9. 16. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10 2a?5 17. yM a. 4 11. 10. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 12. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) = 121. . 14.
136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. . and y. 3x\" 1 23 24. <X + 20. 22.Q ^ 4 21. {. ?~y . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.#. * ((* (( . f y .and x y . 180. e. but some expressions involving x.
15 y + 8 x .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. Therefore y=4. 33 = 11 x. of this type. 137 Solve y y (1) . .4 x = 4 xy. (2) (3) a. etc. Clearing of fractions. . 1. 2* * x 2. y 4. y. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). can also be solved Examples method.3 xy. however. x 2x(2). x 3. y 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Dividing by 11 3 = #. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). (4) + (G).
. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x 8. n. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 21 9 . 4 13. x y 5. y MOi y a.= 5.= o 6. 1. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. x y 331 9. Ex.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. 6. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.
. fax f = l. s in 11. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. and I.y = = 9a + 46. x 12. Uniting. x f my = 1. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. apan cm. d. 14. Dividing. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ny = fy/ I sc 1.W. W . bmy bm}y ap cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. w. f 5. ap. From the same equations find s in terms of a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. . a Find a and terms of n. 6. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. . ax + by = 2 a&. x a. .
12 y + 6 z = . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. by 3.lf> z . 3y = Hence Check.16.3=4.2 + 4.2 + 3. 1. 4.8 = 1. 6. x + 12 y . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). = 3. .25. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. ties are Similarly. = 30.3 = 8. Ex.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. etc. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 1. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 182. 3. y =* 2.13. 4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 8 x . To solve equations containing By tions. l. f 3y 12 =s 8. (8) 2. 20.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).1+4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.by 2.15z=12 Adding. (4) (5). the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 3.
2z = 40. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. a? 11. 14. 4 = 42. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 12. == 6. 7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 10. x 13. 49. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? + 709 = 26. 2 4. ~6?/ 5. 2 . 8. + y f z = 15. 15 2 = 45.
. (3 _.6 2. 32. 22. 27. 1510 4 17. 16. 60.. = 5. 19. =s 20.2 a. . ?/ 3x = 0. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 84 21.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.3 y + . 4. ? = llz. .42 = 2. 23. = 8*. ^ = 2.
The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 1 = 2. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Find the number. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. y * z 30. M=i.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Check. Obviously of the other . + z = 2p. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1. y 31. symbols: x + y +z 8. either directly or implied. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 2 = 1(1+6). 1 digit in the tens place. Ex. + 396 = 521. however. z + x = 2 n. and to express In complex examples. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. = l. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. ( 99. # 4. . . the number. and if 396 be added to the number. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 2 = 6. = 2 m. +2+ 6 = 8. x : z =1 : 2.
From (3) Hence xy Check. By expressing the two statements in symbols. B. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. C. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. = 8. direction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the distance traveled by A. Since the three men traveled the same distance. Or (4)2x(3).144 Ex. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 2. increased by one. 5_ _4_ A. 4 x = 24. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. . ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. (1) (2) 12. y = 3. xy a: 2y 4y 2. we obtain. 3. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 6 x 4 = 24. x 3 = 24. x y = the = the x denominator . the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. = the fraction. 2. = Hence the fraction is f. Find the fraction. x 3x4y = 12. Ex.
the digits will be interchanged. If 27 is 10. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the numbers. 2. Find the numbers. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. it is reduced to J. 1. and the numerator increased by 4. its value added to the denominator. 6. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. ? What 9. 183. 5. both terms. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and its denomi nator diminished by one.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1.) added to a number of two digits. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the number. the last two digits are interchanged. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number.}. If the denominator be doubled. part of their difference equals 4. tion ? 8. and the fourth 3. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the fraction equals . the number (See Ex. . Find the number. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. number by the first 3. Find the fraction. 7. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction is reduced fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. fraction is reduced to \. the Find the fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If 9 be added to the number. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11.
If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and in 5 years to $1125. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. A man invested $750. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence .146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Find their present ages. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the annual interest would be $ 195. in 8 years to $8500. partly at 5 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 13. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest? 18. and money and 17. and 4 %. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. respectively ? 16. now. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. A sum of $10. and partly at 4 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. How 6 %. 19. 14. . and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find the rates of interest. 5 %.grams. If the rates of interwere exchanged. 12.
triangle Tf AD. for $ 740. points. BC=7. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. the three sides of a triangle E. and their difference by GO . E. B find angles a. three AD = AF. . is the center of the circum scribed circle. and F '(see diagram). what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. the length of NOTE. A farmer sold a number of horses. BE. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. On /). respectively. and GE = CF. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. An C touch ing the sides in D. 25. but if A would double his pace. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. are taken so ABC. 1 NOTE. BC = 7 inches. and e. . and angle e angle/. Find their rates of walking. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and angle BCA = 70. 24. receiving $ 100 for each horse. what is that = OF. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and CE If AB = G inches. c. and AC = 5 inches. andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. 23. and sheep. and $15 for each sheep. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. BD = HE. cows. then AD = AF. $ 50 for each cow. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and F. and F. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. angle c = angle d. ED = BE.
B. 2). PM. is The point whose abscissa is a. is the abscissa. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . PN. first 3). hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. . Thus the points A. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The of Coordinates. (3. 186. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (2. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). It' Location of a point. or its equal OM. YY' theyaxis. the ordinate by ?/. PN are given. jr. and PN _L YY'. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.. 3). (7. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and point the origin. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and r or its equal OA is . (2. ?/. the ordinate of point P. and PJ/_L XX'.
3). 0). 2).4). (5. 4) and (4. (1. 3). 4) from the origin ? 7. 3. (4. Graphs. !). 2J). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 2). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. 6. What is the locus of (a?. (0. (3. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 8. (4. 4.e. i. (0. Plot the points: (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 1). Plot the points : (0.and(l. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 1).1). (4. . 0). 3). 71 2). 12. 4). 0). 0). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 3). Plot the points (6. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. Plot the points: (4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (See diagram on page 151. 2. (2. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.2).(!. (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. . 11. 4). 6.) EXERCISE 1. and measure their distance.
D. or the curved line the temperature. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 188. C. ure the ordinate of F. B. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. By representing of points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. from January 1 to December 1. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we meas1 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . may be found on Jan. Thus the first table produces 12 points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 15. 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 10 . A.
the matics. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. and to deduce general laws therefrom. (b) July 15. the merchant. physician. . the graph is applied.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. Whenever a clear. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages. (d) November 20. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. uses them. as the prices and production of commodities. (c) January 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.
1 to Oct. (1) 10 C. 15. 1? 11 0. ?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (freezing point) ? 7. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. During what months above 18 C. is 10. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. (d) 9 0.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ? 9. When the average temperature below C. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.152 2. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. How much. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. on 1 to the average. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11.. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.
20. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw .09 yards. 19. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient.
) T circumferences of 25. A 10 wheels a day.154 24..) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. represent his daily gain (or loss)..inch. if each copy sells for $1. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. etc. the daily average expenses for rent. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 1 to 1200 copies. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 3. 4. if he sells 0. . amount to $8. function If the value of a quantity changes. the value of a of this quantity will change. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. to 27. 2 . 3. 9.5 grams. binding. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 190. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. x* x 19. 2. 28.50.g. 26. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. books from for printing.50.. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. x 7 to 9. 29. and $. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. then C irJl. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. e. etc. gas.
while 7 is a constant. 1 the points (3. 2). . Graph of a function. (2. be also represented by a graph.g. etc. x a variable. (1. as 1. to x = 4.1). however. may . and join the points in order. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Ex. 2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 3 50. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. it is In the example of the preceding article. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. 9).0). 4). 2 (1. for x=l. ( 2. a*. Q. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. If a more exact diagram is required. and (3. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 4). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . is supposed to change. 9). (1^. E. Draw the graph of x2 f.2 x may 4 from x = 4.e. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. construct '. may. J). The values of func192. 3 (0.
Ex. = 4. 1). and join(0. Thus 4x + 7. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.) For brevity. 2 4 and if y = x f. 2. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. (3. straight line produces the required graph. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.2 x .4). 7 . 4). (4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. rf 71 . etc. j/=3. = 0. as y. (2. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. r */ +* 01 .20). 194.. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus in the above example. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree... If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 4J. 5). y = 6.
22. 1J. i. 1. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. y = 2x = 4. ?/ a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . if the function equals zero. = The values of a*. 19. J.5)2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of a?. = 4. 23x. 3. 7. 5. + 4. if a. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2 2 a. 2J. 3 a 8. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. (C ) (2. 14. 4a? I.or. 2 a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. a? 1. 1J. 2. 2 a. 1 8 10. 2 or 2 20. 4 a. 2 2.8)'. fa 17. (ft) (_ 1. 6 fa. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 3. l. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 18. 2J. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 11. 1J. the function. 6. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. The smallest value of the function. if y = 2. 9. 8. 15. from x VlO'S". x+1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l.5)2. . (If) Va25. xz + x. (7i) (c) 23. 12. 16. 21. Jar . The values of a*. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. xl. a* 13. a? 2 4.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. . a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4.e. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2x + 3x a?. a ar. a?. if"a.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).24 or x = P and Q.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. . then cXj where c is a constant. 9 F. the abscissas of 3. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. y= formula graphically. then y = .where x c is a constant.e. i. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. C.158 24. that graph with the o>axis.. 32 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 14 F. Represent 26. 25.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.24. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. Therefore x = 1. 1 C.. Show any convenient number).
6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 13. viz. 8. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. + + = where a. is called a quadratic equation. 12.7 2 a 5 = 0. = 0. 3. 7. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. Such equations in general have two roots. or 5 2. 14. . 6. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. a2 2a. (a) x2 = 0. (a) (6) 9. 11. 2 and 1. 4. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 0. crosssection paper is used. (0. 197.f 9 = 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 10.
fc = 3. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 199. because their graphs are straight lines. 4) and (2.2. Ex. unknown quantities. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 2). If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Ex. y = l. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Hence. . represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2).2 y ~ 2. y y 2. (f . and join the required graph. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. T . first degree.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. ?/. ?/ =4 AB. Hence if if x x  2. Hence we may join (0. 0). == 2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 3x _ 4 . 1) and 0). y= A and construct x (  graphically.1. and joining by a straight line. if y = is 0. = 0. produces the 7* required locus. solve for ?/. locate points (0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. NOTE. i. X'2 Locating the points (2.e. If x = 0.
3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. and CD. To find the roots of the system. Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 202. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. P. (2) .57. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots.1=0.15. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . 203. viz. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. equation x= By measuring 3. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 201. linear equations have only one pair of roots.
162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. and . Solving (1) for y.y~ Therefore. In general. (4. (1) (2) C. 0) and (0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). and joining by a straight line. = 0.  4. we of the + y* = 25.e. 2. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 2 equation x 3). i. 4. 3. Locating two points of equation (2). 4. 5.5. The equations 2 4 = 0. 0. 4. 3. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 1. Using the method of the preceding para. 3x 2 y = 6. .g.0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. etc. (4.9. Measuring the coordinates of P.0). x2 . 4. 4. (2. 4. the graph of points roots.. 0.5. 3. e. intersection. 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. and + 3). the point we obtain Ex. Since the two  we obtain DE. AB the locus of (1). obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. P graphs meet in two and $. 4. y equals 3. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 1. V25 5. 2. if x equals respectively 0. 4. Inconsistent equations. Locating the points (5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. they are inconsistent. 3).
8. 7. 16 22. and solve each If there are no solutions. y 2 4. 20. if possible. 17. a+r/=6. a. 16 23. y= a2 2x y6. state reasons. . Draw system. 3. x~y=0. and.. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 4. '163 Dependent equations. 2x 3?/=6. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. vice versa. 5. y = 4. 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. \ 2x + 3^ . idengraphs indicate dependent equations. y=x + 5. 6. the graphs of the following systems. 19. 2. 10.
y). TABLE OF SQUARES. 4 a = 3(6 . 3 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.8. 30. 25.164 24. 26. 28. 29 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . CUBES.14 y = .
2. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ^4/? it According to 50. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 52. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . follows that 3. 3 f a = f a = +. Law of Signs. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( a) is positive. powers of a positive quantity are positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.a2 . 2. According to 1. etc. on to in factors 4. a special kind of product. 8.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a = a3 . fa. is may be by 207.faa a a a Obviously 1. involution repeated multiplication. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .
(2ar). 210. 2. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. the required power. (277171 )*. 4.166 To find To To power. a product to a given power. 5. \ 3 J '  MW 10.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 3 2 2 8 . . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.6 (a 8 8 . (a ) 2 5 . amVy) 3 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. raise a fraction to a power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 15. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (^^) 2 . 2 11 (afc ) . 24.6) = a . 76 : (>y. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 4 /2mV. 16. (a ) 2 4  3. 6. V V/ 13.
+ 4aj) 3 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 8. 15. 6. etc. 211.y . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.INVOLUTION Ex. 4. nent of the binomial. or*  Find the cube root of 19.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . +5a) 22. (3 (l I) 2 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 2 . An 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .) 14. 3. frequently called ex. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 12. 2. 8 (a??/) 3 . 7. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. + a 2 a. 13.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 21. = s= (2s) 8 a. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 1 f 3 2 3 . (3 x . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. Ex.y) = (3 y?y . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (a + &)8 . a. 1. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. The higher powers of binomials. 23. pansions. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 18. (3af26) 8 . 2. 3 8 . (afl) . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . : a 20.6 2 8 ft) . . 16. (aj7) . (5 (1 a) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 5. 9.3 y. 3 .
(m fl) 2 20. . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 18. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (l 8 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 9. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (?/i~w) : 16. and the powers negative. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 25. 3. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 5. (mJ) 4 11. (la&) 4 12. (2 a 4 .a) 3 19. 8. 13. 5. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. Ex. 14. 24.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 23. . 10. 4 (1for) 5 . (2 4. 3. (mnp 5 I) 5 .216 a^ 4. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . . (m 2 + n) 8 . 21. (3a f5) 5) 4. 1. mn 5 2 5 ) . The minus. . 2. . 4. 15. (m 5 I) 2 22. Ex.96 ^y f 216 o?y . Ex. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .2. 17. 78 s . (a~^) 5 . 4 . (af 5) . (p + q) 4 * 7. (tff1) (cfd) .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . ( &) 5 . (?>i?i f c)*. is the coefficient of the next term.168 3. (1 + 4 ?/) . 6. .
etc. 109 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . 27 =y means r' = 27. Since even powers can never be negative. 215. which can be simplified no further. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 4 4 . 2. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. tity . or y ~ 3. 1. V9 = + 3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/"^27=3. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. called real numbers. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. and ( v/o* = a. or x &4 . numbers. for distinction. and all other numbers are. (_3) = 27. a) 4 = a4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. V \/P 214. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. = x means = 6. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers.
extract the and denominator. fy 5 3 . Ex. Ex. 62 = V2* . for (a")" a = a mn 3.64 5 4 . = 199 + (_ 198) . 3i . 9. roots of the numerator \/18 . 82 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. v/^i2 = a*. 2. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .lL. 9. 3/0** = am . 7. 6 7 = 030. 7 . 10. 4 v. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . V5 v/2 7 2. Ex. v/2^. 2. To extract a root of a fraction.125. 2 . . 7. .(. 8. Ex. V?.1. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 6. To extract the root of a power. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 7 . . 5. Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . 6. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex 5 a" .9 = 136. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. V36 9 4.201) = 2. 3.200 . index. 3 33 53 . = V26TIT81 = 53. \/2 4 9 . 8. Ex. V25 9 16. EXERCISE 1.4. = 19472.  100 a 2 .
116. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.3 y2) ( vV . 45 V5184. 31. 5. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 29. 34.98. 2 . 1./). A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. Ex. a f2 l 2 + l. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.3 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. Find the square root of a2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .3. V20 . 33. 3. V8.6 tfif + 9 y = O . a* 4 8 2 . 32.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . . 2 . 2.4/. 6. 30. V9216. ^40^4. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .75. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.EVOLUTION 171 28. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.) by inspection.
and b. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 14. and b (2 a f b).> 13. 11. 10. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 &c. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.172 7. the given expression is a perfect square. a f. however. 15. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. + 6 + 4a&. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2 2 218. The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 ac . 2 . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2ab . 12.b 2 2 to its square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.2 ab + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 .e. #2 a2  16. mV14m??2)f 49. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . let us consider the relation of a f. i. a\b is the root if In most cases. 8 .
8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 6 a. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 /. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. First complete divisor. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. of x. 8 a 2 . . .24 afy* f 9 tf. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. The square . */'' . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Second trial divisor. 1. . Ex. First trial divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and so forth.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 10 a 4 8 a. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 2. 219. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 1.EVOLUTION Ex. Explanation. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . by division we term of the root. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the first term of the answer. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.
l 4. 3. 5. 20.16. 436^?/469a.42 a*& 4.37 a ^ .6 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4 .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 1 4. 2 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 18. 17. 5 4 16 4 iK .V430^425^ 4m 4.12 m 4. 6 11.73 a8 .9. 9. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 2 x2 3 2x. 14. 15. 36it. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.12m 5 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.25 x 4 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.40 a 22 . .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 13#4 413ar 44a. 16x6 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.4 x 4.20 o 4.25.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 24.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 19. 10. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .24 or . 729 4.10 x2 4. 16. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 6.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.73a4 440^436^460^. > 7. x 6 4 4 0^4. 8.162 a2 60 a10 4. a? 2 . 12.
The is trial divisor = 160. etc. and the complete divisor 168.000 is 1000.000 is 100. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the first remainder is. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Therefore 6 = 8.1344. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. first . 1.EVOLUTION 220.. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Ex. Find the square root of 7744. 2. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1. which may contain one or two). square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. = 80. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. of a number between 100 and 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 4. Find the square root of 524. etc. two figures. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Ex. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the first of which is 8. a 2 = 6400.000. of 10. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.000.176. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.
12. The groups of 16724. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. places.GO'61. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. Find the square root of 6/.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221.0961 are '. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1 are Ex. annex a cipher.10.70 6. in . 3.
Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .58 square 38. 30. 34.01. 32. 5. 1. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .) 40.4 square when R = radius and 11. 37. 36. 39.1410. 13. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. feet.53.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. T\. 1. feet. 33. = 3. . J. 31. whose area equals 48. JT .22.
quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation. This answer Check. or equation of the second degree. complete. 1. 6#2 = x* 24. . x 2 7. or affected. = 4. 2 ic = a. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 224. 178 . Transposing. but no higher power e. 2. 226. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. = 7^ + 5. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 2)* + 5 = 33. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. The 7 equation.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.. or incomplete.g. 225. Dividing. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. x = + 2 or x =2. A pure. 6 y2 = 17. Extracting the square root of each member. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. is 12. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Ex.
25. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 2 a.2. 2. 7. 10. 19 + 9 = 5500. or Therefore. 8. 3. 5. (a? 9. Solve 179 .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. 15^5 = 6. 2 4fc 5' 18. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 ax. 4. Dividing by Extracting the square root. . : 83 2. ax Transposing and combining. . ' =: y? b* b . 16^393 = 7. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 6(2)=10(ajl). 7 = 162.
If a 2 4. 2a f 1 23. 26. 2 : 3. 28. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 3. Find the side of each field. and their product : 150. 27. find a in terms of 6 . solve for d. . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 29. Find the side of each field. 108. may be considered one half of a rec square units. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. A right triangle is a triangle. ' 4. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 2 . 25. 22 a. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram).b 2 If s If =c . r. EXERCISE 1. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 2 . : 6. If G=m m g .) of their squares 5. solve for v. is 5(5. 24. solve for r. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . Find the numbers. 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. If 22 = ~^. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find is the number. is one of _____ b The side right angle.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 228. . its area contains =a 2 f b2 .
7 x f 10 = 0. add () Hence 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find these 10. Solve Transposing. . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The area : sides are as 3 4. x* 7 x= 10. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 .2 7 . Find the unknown sides and the area. and the other two sides are as 3 4. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 8. radii are as 3 14. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. (b) 44 square feet. is and the other two sides are equal. . we have of or m = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. 9. and the two smaller 11. A body falling from a state of rest. . and the third side is 15 inches. Find the radii. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. To find this term. Find the sides. Method of completing the square. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 24.) 13. sides. of a right triangle Find these sides. J = 12. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 4. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 2m.
x(l = . . 22 7 2 + 10 =0.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 62 x 5 = f.a. 2 a* a. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Transposing. = x\ = 2. (*~8) a = at . = 6. Transposing. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Hence Therefore Check. or x = 2. or J. Extracting square roots. Ex. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Uniting.2. = . a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Therefore. J. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.  \. 230.1. Ex.2 a2 . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. a Clearing of fractions.e.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. = \ # = ff. Simplifying. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 2  . adding member).
x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing.
=0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. . 231. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. = 12. \bx\. x la 48. and c in the general answer. Solution by formula. ao. article. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =8 r/io?. 49. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.c = 0.
2or } 5o. b =  + 20 == = 0.. 2 . a. 6. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. c p. 8. 6^+5^ 56.4 4 5 . 2 a. Reducing to general form. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 16. 21. 9. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 7. 14. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2. 17. 26. 15. 13. = 12 . 10. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 a? = 44 x .  . 6. TIO. 4. 6 Ex. 2. 19. 2 o. 18. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 1. = 64120?. 6 . 3. ?i 2 . V^tT)* . c = 5. 7^ + 9 x 90.25 x. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 5 x2 Transposing. 20. 12. 11.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2# 11 + 15 = 0.
Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 25. 23. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. orz roots. 5) = 0. x(x <2 .5 Solving (1) and (2).4) = . . 5 = 0. 3x?+x = 7. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. all or. = 0. and 6. if either of the uct is zero. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 2S3x 1 2 . = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. member can be Ex. ar>8o. a=:i^^. 1. 24. transposing terms to one member. Clearing for fractions. }.x.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. or # 5 is zero. 26. 233. Transposing. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Factoring. Bx 1 1. Eesolving into factors. x2 = 1 . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Solution by factoring. 27 x== 42a. = 0. any degree. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* .5) =0. factors Now. (5 a? !)(.2. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 0. = 14.
14.= 24. 4. x2 f 2 x . 9. 3. Ex. 5. we 9 obtain x 4. } 2 2 (5 . (aj4)(a. 3# y 5 = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. O roots are 2. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 3) = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.e. aj( 15. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.:=0. 3 or 2 a.(. 16. Or Hence the 234. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. a?10a=:24. 4or + 18a f 8a. 12. 0(02) = 7(02). 13. 8. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 2o3 f9a. 5 = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 4)(z3) = 0. + 8=s: 7. 3^ = 0(1106).24 = 0.g.3)(x + 3 3. for a: . 7. The equation I. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 6. 2. ar'Sa^ 12. + 10 a = 24. 2.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3) Factoring. a* 10a=24.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. + 100. and the equation thus formed be solved. 0^ ar> 11.6)) = 0. : 87 = 0. is 5) = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. + 6)=0. a?.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. E. 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.
2. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. 19. 27. 18. ara + ft + c*. a 2 =(x a)b. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.188 17. '3a!J  . uz + u 21. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 22. 25. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 50. 23.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (2a? 3) (a 24. 20.
of their reciprocals is 4.9. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. feet. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 52. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 8. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and the difference Find the numbers. 1. and consequently many prob 235. 2. 2. Find the number. is Find two numbers whose product 288. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. and equals 190 square inches. 55. G.3. 4. 58. 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. . and whose product 9. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 5. and whose sum is is 36.1. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 7. Find the sides. 2. 2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.0. 2. EXERCISE 1. 57. number by 10. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.2. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. The 11. The difference of . Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. two numbers is 4. 1. 5. 0. Find the number. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. Find the numbers.0.3. : 3. 3. 56. 54.
a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. 13.190 12. 19. What did he pay for 21. as the 16. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 17. watch for $ 24. he would have received two horses more for the same money. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. other. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. . sold a horse for $144. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. Find the rate of the train. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 14. dollars. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle.10. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ply between the same two ports. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. and Find the sides of the rectangle. Two vessels. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. ABCD. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 15. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. If he each horse ? . vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20.
Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. a point taken. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. is On the prolongation of a line AC. (tf. contains B 78 square inches. constructed with and CB as sides. ^3^ = 7. Find and CB. of the area of the basin. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. Ex. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. . Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. or x = \/l = 1. 23 inches long. 237. and working together.) 25. 27. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. the two men can do it in 3 days. as 0. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. By formula. Find TT r (Area of a circle . so that the rectangle. 1. 24. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.
or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. 10. 7.)+72=0. Ex. a. Hence Le. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . >.192 238. = 1. 2 h9:=0.T 2 2 . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 9. 4. 6. 19. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. aV+9o 4 =0. a 21or=100. 4 6. Solving. 4 : 89 10a.2 =4. 12. 16. a? 15 1=2*. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 8. a4 5o. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 2. 18. y8)=0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 436 3. = 13. 4 a. T 17.
the roots are irrational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Relations between roots and coefficients. and unequal. Hence the roots are real.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. negative. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. and equal.f> = 0. the roots are rational.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 240. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. . 241. is 4ac not zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 1. Ex. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.5) = 04. The discriminant =(. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.2 z .bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. 2. the roots are imaginary. 3. the roots are unequal. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . a perfect square. b 4. c the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ex.bx 4. it 2a follows 2 : 2. the roots are equal.12 x + 9 = 0. rational. the roots are real. ( 2a Hence 1.2) 2 4 3 (.
x2 7 10. 6. 2 : 3. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2 7. 4. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. ^12. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2. 9a3 = 0. : a 2 .194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 12. f 2 E. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j.19 # 20. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.. their product isf. + 2a15 = 0. 18. = Q. 17. + 2a. = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. o. lla.g. = 5x. 2a 4z5 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 3a. 2 a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 12 2  . 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. + 18 2 8. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 21. = 0. 5oj aj + l = 0. 5aj 9.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 23. 14. 15. = 0. 60 2 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 24. 22.
must be *The symbol smaller than. = a"" < ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . We assume. m IV. ~ a m f. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (ab) . provided w > n. 244. a m a" = a m+t1 . and . II. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. for all values 1 of m and n. while the second of the first. such as 2*. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. however. The first of these laws is nition of power. that a an = a m+n . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.* III. hence.a" = a m n mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . It is. Then the law of involution. > m therefore. (a m ) w . no Fractional and negative exponents.
ml. a*. 28. fractional.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. disappear. 31. n 2 a. (bed)*. 29. 0?=^. m$. = a. 3*. Assuming these two 8*. 25. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. or zero exponent equal x. (xy$. at. as. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. laws. a?*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 24. etc. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . a . e. 245. . a\ 26. 30. 4~ .g. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. '&M A 27. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 23.
7z* Find the values of 47. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. the base is zero. a . 46. 5 a* = 10. 38. equal to unity. 42. To find the meaning of zero exponent.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. Vo5 .\/n. 35. 27* = 3. e. 48. a. v'mT 36. 49. Solve the following equations 39. 37. \fi?. hence is . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. e.g. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.g. : 2' 4* = 4. ty?. a * a2 Or a=l. 41. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 43. Let a = a. = 2. v/o&cT 34. a* * = 3. 246. 50. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 44. If. 3* = 27. 45. \/xy \/m. : 197 33. = 2. however. = 49. 40.
a8 a 2 = 1 1 . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. . Or a"# = l. vice versa. an x = a. by changing the sign of NOTE. Multiplying both members by a".198 247. or the exponent. consider the following equations. e.2 = a2 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. cr n.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. 248. Let x= or". etc. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.
m . 7~ l a 2b 2 . a^ 41. : mi m~^. c 32. 3 a? * 42. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 40."* 38. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 25. . rfS. 22. 37. 2 . 3 a. ^L. . 66 45. 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. * 24. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 44. : or 5 . a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 36. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. f (2w)~i 1 . 2m~i 43. 27.
10* 5* = . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 57. = ^. 47. 61. + A_.001. + 1~* f 21 . z 5or*=10. 17' 2 51. Ex. (. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 52. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .9*.343)* + (. 48. ar = i. 10* Find the values 56. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = l. = . 49. 250. 55. = 5. z* = 1. of: 3ll4~* 60. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.1.81 f (a . 53. 54. 59.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 58. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.26)* 1 (I) 2 . (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .6). 1.008)* + A.(. .
26. 95 ^9i 5**.&. 10. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. S'sS8.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. OA 20.3 aj" a.5. 13. 6 *.$". 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.7W. Remove the negative exponents. 12. 79 . 7*. 7.6 *' 6 *25.5a. are performed. . (d) If required.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 27  28. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 16. 3 a. etc. ' 11.7*. 7~ 6 . Perform the operation indicated. a. 23.7i. 4 x^. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. . V5. 18. . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.$*.4 .&. 7~ 5 27  . 3.. 16. NOTE. 6a.4 a8 .^/5^5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . &. 14. 17. 6. 8 ' 9. #* a. remove the fractional exponents. 3sVS. 4 5. 72 . / 7fv 7.
1. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 2. Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.2 d . The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 34. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35. 40. powers of x arranged are : Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
3.2 V50. Simplify V + 3 VlS. I VJ + 3VT8 .210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^6. connect them by proper 1. 4^/4. A/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. subtract surds. if dissimilar. 26. A/2. v/3. 40. 38. ^4. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 28. 29. V3. 32. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. ^3. ^30. 2\ 3*. Arrange 35.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 30. V2. </2. \/5. 34.10 V2 =  V2. V2. Simplify V~ . ^4. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 27. (i.2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v/4.3\ . Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^2.e. 31. 36. 33. 5V2. V3. s!/3. v/3. </3. To add or form. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. \/7. Ex. v^S. + . VS. 39. V5. ^7. ^2. 37. </20. Ex. ^/IT. signs. ^126. ^5.
8VT8J2V32 7. 8. 14. 11. 12. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .3V20 + 6V5. 4V805V45. 4. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 13. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. 9. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. + 3V835V2.J a6 V4 aft. 3. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 6. . V175V28+V634V7.
26^ . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 460V35100 . and then multiplied.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 6*. y* = Ex. . 1. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. . 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 3. 23. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .
(5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 38. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V3 Vl2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 9.^/2.VSS. 3. VlO V15. V20 V30. 8. 213 98 11. 25. VTO. 10. 7. V2aV8^. 41. (V6 + 1) 1 . 6. v/18 v"3. + VB)(2V5). 37. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 21. Vll. 18. 27. \/3 \^). 6 V4 5. 2 . 28 . 14. 39. (3 20. . a?. aVa. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 15.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 40 10 30. (2V3) 8 . 13. fWa 17. 19. V42. 2. (Va Va 36. 12. 40. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (5V22V3CVS)V3. v/4. V3 V6. 34. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 4. V2 V50. 6.
(2 45. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 44. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . V3 . 49. Ex. 51. 43. Va v/a.214 42. a fraction. 52. E. 48. 46. Ex. is 1 2. 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 47. (5V2+V10)(2V51). .y. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. the quotient of the surds is If. 268. (3V52V3)(2V3V3).
73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. 3. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .RADICALS This method. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. arithTo find.73205. is illustrated by Ex.g. /~ } Ex. by V7. 1. The 2. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2..by the usual arithmetical method.57735. Evidently. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. however. Divide VII by v7. e. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. .
V8 12. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 7. V5 = 2. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. . V8 JL. V3 24 . 14. A. Vn V7 ' * 8. . 23 . 21. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V5 270. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.2361. and Given V2 = 1. VffV?. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.4142. Vll 212*. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 272. 20. ^/H . i. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V3 = 1.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1..7320. V2 22 . 271. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V48 25. A.
RADICALS Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a. 3. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.= 18. V82 2V3 1fVS . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 1. Ex.Vs2 .1 xVtf a.2.vffi^T _ . . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex.
27. find to _!_. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.4142. . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .W3. Vo1 26. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.2361.218 6 . Given V2 1. v 2V3 28. V21 = 25 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. four places of decimals 23 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. J?_. = V3 = 1. By the use of fractional exponents .7320. 19. 24.5 3 = 125. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 6V7. : and V5 = 2.
1. . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V643 . 11. According to G3. the If. viz. 5. it to this form. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 2 12. \/125" . 2.RADICALS 219 274. v8f 2\/15. on the other hand. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/l6*. 9. V255 . 2. Simplify Ex. 3 (V2~u)  7.
is 11. ^TT. Find Vl2 4.220 Ex. These Ex.A/2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find V4 + VJ8. and whose product is 18. 12 and whose product is 20.6\/2 = ^9 . 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 3.6 V2. +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. The Hence ^11 .2 \/20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vll . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 2 \/18.
5. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7.V48 4 20. i. x2 = x f 2. The value x =2 reduces each . +=. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Ex. Dividing by Check. Radical equations are rationalized. a. 8. they are transto formed into rational equations.. member to 2. are radical equations. 19. by raising both members equal powers. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. . 4x x = 2. Before performing the involution.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. VT . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. (2x xrf 1. Transposing and uniting. : 221 Vl32V22. Solve vVf!2a = 2. first involution. 277.1. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. V48 23.e. r 22.
Extraneous roots. Therefore CftecAr.1) = 0. the first member = V2. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Ex. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. . Therefore Check. a socalled extraneous root. Dividing by 24.3. . . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. V24~+~l = 0. Transposing and uniting. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. one root. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. x = J.222 Ex. Factoring. V4afT~l. Transposing. 2. 278. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. f 25 = 12. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Squaring both members. tion which has two roots. viz. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. at . 4#f 4 = 9. Transposing and uniting. viz. a. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. It = 3 x . 3. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Squaring both members.
(x x = 3. Transposing.47) = 0. viz.12 . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. 223 x = 3.2 r. = 3. both members reduce to 5. Check. Squaring. NOTE. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. . . 2 Clearing of fractions. \ does not satisfy the given. and to 5. equation it is an extraneous root. or x *j. for it satisfies the equation .RADICALS Hence x If a. If If x 3 = 3. the right member = V2. is x V. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. x root of the preceding equation. Hence there is only one root. . Therefore. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 4. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. ViTie 4 z2 .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Factoring. Solve the following equations : = G.3) (2 x . + 6~ieT~3 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Hence x = the only root.
Many 1. Solve af*.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. Therefore .
8 x + 40 = 36. 3 6. Vi 2 8a. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 3. some of the roots be extraneous. x Since both =9 or 1.i~24 = 0.f40= 5. y then x2 . Substituting. 4. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. This can be seen without substituting. 2_8z 440 = 49. 2Va. = 0. 2. 412a* = 16. members of the equation were squared. = 26.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x + Vx a? = 6. + 40 = 6. x =6 or 3.8 z40 = 7. . it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2. _ 2 y .35 = 0. = 7. Q . 45 14VJB = .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Let 8 x f 40 . Ex. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. o. 5.*2a.
19. 17. 18. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 16. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. a^x2 5 2 13. 20.a 440 = 35. 2. +3= 6. a.f 18 = 24. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.226 11. 12. 15. 14. +x .
<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. 2.bx? + ex2 4. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. could. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. Hence. E = ax + &z + m) Q.4 a. does not contain a?. Without actual division. = 2.360 = 244. 3 2 Ex. a? R = x* . no matter If.2 + 80 = 12.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). however. by dividing 3 x* f.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .2 + 4. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Without actual division. we make a? what the value of Q. even if Q is unknown. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. ax4 4. if Q was known. ^ = 381+2.2 x 5 by x 3.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. to x we # = 2 3.2) Q . " Or. 227 . find the remainder when m. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. If x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. then (x 2)Q 0." transposing. 1. Ex.
of the division 3) is m in place of x. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 5 (4x . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x m is factor of the expression. The Factor Theorem. if 8 42  . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.949. 3.g. If the remainder is zero. 43 3 E.4(. 5. 2 j 7.8. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.8'= 0. 8. + 6. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.g. } 2 by a1.228 282. hence (x divided by x 4. fora?. + ^by x + b. + 7 = 632. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. the remainder equals 8 2 x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x* s 2 4.3)f 11 =. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.
11. 2m 5m . 25. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. 3. 23. 2. 9. + 27 + 27. 106 division. . 7 46 = 0. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.e.7 x + 15 = 0. a 2a + 4. 20. a 5x 6. 21. f 3.13m + 30 10. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 8. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. & p*. _ . ^10^429^20=0. then x8 7 x'2 4. 2 2. 6. 15. Factor a? 15. Resolve into factors 4. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . Therefore x ( 1). or 5 4 + 3^ . a 8a f 19 a 12. 1. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.1.r6 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 5. m f m n 14. 3 2 : 7. i. 229 1. a^8^ + 19a. + 15. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. oj 5x2 f3a.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.12. 17. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .1. or x 4.7 + 16 . 24. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. is a factor.12 = 0. f 15 does not vanish. Let x = .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. The 5. factors of the absolute term. a? 19. are f 1.9^ + 23^15. a + 32. a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 1. + ttt15 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 18.49 = 0. 8. f 5.
Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. if w is odd. Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O . ar +p= z6 e. is odd." . It y is not divisible by 287. For substituting y for x. actual division n.xy +/). 286. By we obtain the other factors.g. : importance. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n is even. xn f. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.230 285. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 1. 2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.
since it more directly to the prime factors. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. x3 8=0. however. as 27=0. 3. 27. y 3 +8=0. leads 231 is The first method.= .THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. a. 28.i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex. preferable.
can be solved by the methods degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. * A I. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. & + 2 xy + = 25.y4 is of the fifth degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. of quadratics.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 232 . The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.1. + 6 a?V . however. (5) Combining (5) with (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. (4) Hence. 290. in general. Squaring Solve (1). xywe have 3. x y. xy are given. 4 xy = 16. = 6. If two of the quantities x f y. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.
EXERCISE Solve: 1.g. 233 y. but can be found. I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ' 10. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . 3. " "' "' { r 8. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 12. b=3. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. r (" 1 = 876. The arranged in pairs. 1. ^. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 108 2. x and xy are not given.
. or JJ.i/ = r 13.  . r^ 2 as ] f. aj = 2.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.~ y = 5. 7 . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. I* Jj ^ [. la.?/ i = 6.o 18. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 6 "I 14.  f J. . 2 (1) From (1) we have. x " (3) 49 etc. I x+y = a. A system of simultaneous equations. 4 y = 20. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. ' ' .  42 y + Transposing. 19. 3.20) = 0. 5. Factoring. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).a. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.. Ex. + 29 = 0. one linear and ne quadratic. or y = 1 .
8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ' x*. If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). y* + 2y = 3.3 2x 2 Ex. 4 f + 2 y = 3. Solve . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 1. x2y. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 3y) : Factor (2). quantities. 9. III. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. ':il e :) . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3).
If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) (2) x x 5.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2 . = 0. 109 a. j Substituting y in (2). 2. = 0. 11 a2 Factoring. } VI09. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (3) (4) Subtracting. = Ex.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 15 x2 . Solve 2. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.
125 ay = .175 ay = 12. 2 xy + y2 = 10. " IV. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. can be solved by special devices. .3^42^=43. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?.y = 7. and others not belonging to them.6.xy 4. ' ^ 15. 150 */2 . 298. Division of one equation by the other. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Bxy9. E. A. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).!. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. (4) (3). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.
Solve Ex. x +y y etc.. i ^ *>. * ' 300. = 12 J. Therefore x = 16. jc~ y = 9. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. we obtain by squaring. Some simultaneous ?/. x 2 . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . = 189. y = 3. from (2). (1 > (2) 1. xy. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we have from (1). Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. y . at first it is unknown quantities. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. quadratics can be solved by ?/.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. 2. B.
I e. 239 Ex. 7. F+y+ . 6. [2x + : y= 17. Hence = V or = 4. 36* 2. . 4. M6. 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .
240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 25. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f.21 ^ = 15. 19 ' 26. = y 1 y* .4 y = 47 a. . . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = 198. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 16. f 18. * . 27. + o5)(6hy) = 80.
25 34.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. ~\ OK OO. Q 7. . or ~ indeterminate. Interpretation .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 7' j/ 39. . ^ oo . as a . y % 9 f*K 36. 30. hence may be any finite number. 31. 32. . etc 302. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . oo 301. . etc. 33. 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x. = 48201. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.
I. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. . cancel. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. i. Or. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.increases if x de x creases. .g. (a: Then Simplifying. Let 2. (1). oo is = QQ. (1) is an identity. (1) = 0. creases. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. The ~~f fraction . great. ToU" ^100 a. 1. Hence such an equation identity. TO^UU" sufficiently small.e. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . = 10. x f 2. or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1.000 a. is satisfied by any number. 1.242 303.e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.decreases X if called infinity. it is an Ex. be the numbers. without exception. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. and becomes infinitely small. By making x any * assigned zero. as + l. 306. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. the answer is indeterminate. and . i. equation.can be If It is made larger than number.
Solve x a. no numbers can satisfy the given system. third and sixth parts. Solve .8 x + 15 6. and the sum of Find the numbers. and a. Hence /.2 y = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve  9 7. y finite QO. EXERCISE 1. The sum is of squares 2890. = oo. * 6. z = 1 Substituting. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.e. (2). 3. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. two numbers is 76. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 1=0. is their 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. .
Find the edge of each cube. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the numbers. of a rectangular field feet. increased by the edge of the other. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. is 6. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the sides of the rectangle. two numbers Find the numbers. 190. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the edge of one. Find the edges. 6.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. equals 4 inches. Find the side of each square. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 12. of a right triangle is 73. Find the sides. 10. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. the area becomes f% of the original area.244 3.) 53 yards. Find the other two sides. 13. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. The area of a nal 41 feet.quals 20 feet. . is is 17 and the sum 4. and the diago(Ex. Find these sides. 14. and the sum of ( 228. 146 yards. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. p. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 255 and the sum of 5. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the dimensions of the field. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 8. 9. 103.
is 20 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. . by the product of 27 be added to the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. irR *. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged.) 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. differ by 8 inches. Find the number. Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.
progression.. + 2 d..7. 10. Since d is a f 3 d.. to produce the 3d term. to each term produces the next term. . added to each term to obtain the next one. 19.. P.1) d. f .... P. a. a 11. The common differences are respectively 4. .11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. each term of which. 2 d must be added to a. series 9. . and d. P.) is a series. except the first. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. a + d. to produce the 4th term. The progression is a. Hence / = a + (n . : 7. 12... to produce the nth term.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. (n 1) d must be added to a. of the following series is 3. 15 is 9 f. a + 2 d. . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a f d. the second a descending.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. The first is an ascending. 3. a 3d. An arithmetic progression (A. 17. 11. 16. To find the nth term / of an A. 3 d must be added to a. 309. 4. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. of a series are its successive numbers.
247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. Find the 5th term of the 4.. 10... P. 8. P. 1. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. = 2. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.4. series 2. = I + 49 = *({ + . 2. . d . 2J.. P.. . 5.. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .3 a = l. 5. 5. of the series 10.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 8. 3.. 8. 7.PROGRESSIONS 310. . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 4. 3. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 9. . 24.. 7... 7.8. the term a. . = 99.. series . 19. = a + (a Reversing the order. 3.. if a = 5. 3. ? (a) 1. d = 3. 1. 6 we have Hence . .. (d) 1J. Adding. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Find the nth term of the series 2. . 2. 3. 5. 1J.16...' cZ == . 21. a = 2. 5. 6. 6.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. (a + + (a + l) l). Find the 12th term of the 4. 6. 4^. 115. 9. 99) = 2600. 2 EXERCISE 1.
> 2f 2. 22. 11. + 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120. . 20. 15. 1. 15. 29. 13. 1J. 6. 3. \n. Jive quantities are involved. 16. hence if any three of them are given. 7. 23. 7. to 15 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. (x +"l) 4. . . 7. 11. to 20 terms. (i) (ii) . 1. . In most problems relating to A. 18. Sum the following series 14. . 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . to 16 terms. to 20 terms. 16. 12..5 H + if f to 10 terms. : 3. 4.7 f to 12 terms. rf. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 2J. strike for the first yard. 15. 11. 21. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 33. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. striking hours only. . 1. 31. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 10 terms.1 f 3. 12. to 20 terms.248 Find the 10. 8. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . and for each than for the preceding one. to 8 terms. . 2. . P. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 11. 19. '. to 7 terms.
6 n). n d. 45. 6. 12. .1) .e. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 1. 67. or if x Solving. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.104 w + 408 = 0. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 133. 78.. s 24ft last term 144. Find the series. n = 6. l)e?. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 111. hence n = 6. #. I. But evidently n cannot be fractional.1). the and the sum of all terms 1014. Findn. a = 12. d = 6. a = 49 6(71 ..PROGRESSIONS Ex. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 23. 56. = 13. = 1014. P. 122. 2. 100. 34. P. P. 89. if s = 204. The first term of an A. Ex. J = 49. and b form an A. if a. Substituting in (2). From (1). = 144. Solving. 144. = a + (w. 312. the second one mean between the other two.6. 6 n2 . or 11 J. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014. = n(104 . . I Substituting in (I) and (II). is 12. The series is. 204 = ^ (98 .~n~\ 408 6).
= ^ 3 = 1. 17. I. = 52. 78. n = 13. ceding one. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 4. I Find I in terms of a. 74. = 17. y and #f5y. and s. 12. d = 5. Given a = . f? .3. P. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. s = 70. = 1870. has the series 82. Find d. Given a = 4. T? ^. produced. n = 20. Find?. 6? 9. of 5 terms 6. s == 440. Find d and Given a = 1700. m and n 2. a x f b and a b. Given a = 1. = 16. n = 17. How much did he save the first month? 19. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 8. 11.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. . n = 4. f J 1 1 / . Find a and Given s = 44. Find n. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 16. 16. = 45. How much . 3. 15. 14. n. Given a = . 13. 7. 10. Find a Given a = 7. Find w. = 83. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n has the series ^ j . Find d. a+ and b a b 5.
Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.. and To find the nth term / of a G. ar. ar8 r. is 16(f) 4 . 108. 2 a. 24.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . 4. The 314. 4. 36. A geometric progression first. 36.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. <zr . .arn ~ l . . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. +1.. the first term a and the ratios r being given. . called the ratio. .. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. ratios are respectively 3. 2. I.. 4 (1) . . 36.) is a series each term of which. or.. P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). E. (I) of the series 16. 24. rs = s 2 . of a G. or 81 315. P. The progression is a. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 12. r n~ l . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . If n is less : than unity.. P. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .g... is it (G. NOTE. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.
a = I. 2 term 3. or 7. 144. whose . 72. Ex. (it. EXERCISE 1. first term is 125 and whose common . 36. 20. f. 36. volved . 18. I = 670..l.. fa. +f%9 % .. . Hence n = 7.5.. 4.. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. . . \ t series . first term 4. (b) 1. series 5. .288. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2._!=!>.72. 6. .5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 10.*. 0. Hence the or series is 0. series . 8. hence. f. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. ? (c) 2. first 5. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 144. . 80.18. . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. . is 16. 1.. is 3. . .. (d) 5.4.. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Find the 5th term of a G. In most problems relating to G. 4. 9. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . 576. 7. Find the 6th term of the series J.6. . + 5....18.54. 676. 9. P. 9. 25. whose and whose second term is 8. Jive quantities are in. fa.. 36. . P. series 6.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 288. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 72. r^2. And the required means are 18. P. P. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. l. 144.. if any three of them are given.. 3. i 288.
. 48. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 14. . J. to 6 terms. 54. 22. Find a and n = 4. = 3. Find a and Given r = 3.nV> i*> !718. n = 5. 2. J. 24. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. I. 20.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. . to 8 terms. == 160. 243. to 7 . Find the geometric mean between 7. 19. to 6 terms. >"> . Z s. J. Find a and 4.. + 4 . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 7 terms. is less than unity. 81. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 16 . 1. P. 14. 27. . of r n decreases..i a9 . 81. 36. 23. 13. 12 terms. to 6 terms.J and 270. may be than any assignable number. 72. = 3. a^. r . 4.. 1. to G terms. and hence ~ r .. Given r = n Z 5. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 21.. 25S series : 32. n = 5. 126. M. be written If the value of r of a G. s = 310. s = 605. 12. to 5 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. J. .. . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 42. 15. a. .
12. .27777 . 250. 9. 6. 16.3 + . 16. first and the common term. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. The sum r.= .. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.1.... and the first term is Find 17.072.72. 7. .072 + .. ...37272 .717171... = .. ratio 15.. P. 9. .. = a . 5.. . 1. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 4.. =A+ 10 i. i i J.555. 4.. I. . Hence . 3.. 66 Therefore .3121212. . 1 r = ..254 Ex. = 990 .Ql.. 6. of: 11. 8. ...3727272 . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. . = .. 13.191919. 100.99 . Find the sum to infinity. . P.272727. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 14..)7?7272 . . P. 5. .00072 f . of an infinite G. 40. If a = 40. 1. 2. of all squares ? . i. Given an infinite series of squares.. 1. . is 16.. is 9. is J... .= _4Z* .. 2. 10. 1. 12... r = j. Find the value 9. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.. . 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. .. .01 ^ . The sum Find the of an infinite G.
22. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 4 7. l 2. 29. 14. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 21. 25. . 2 2 24. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . coefficient of .6) 20 . 20. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (a 100 .b ). 12. . (\ 9 . (a2) 6. 5. . 11. . 4. a6 8 16 in . 15. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 17. 10. 28. (s + i).b) w (a (a f (1 . (a + b) .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18.6) . Find the 6th term of (x . 26. 13. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 16. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (xy) : 6 . : (1 + xy. 7 . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. /2a+Y\ 8.
ft 4 ) 5. 7. 2. 2. 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 .c )(fta) 1. 4. 3. 1. 6. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. if = = 2. 5. 1. 3. 3. c = = = 2. 2. 3. 2. 5. 4 2. 1. 2. 6. 2. 3. 1. 5. ^+^ 3. 2 . 2. 2. 1. 3. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 6. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 6. 1. 3. 1. 1.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3.a(a 4. 3. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 6. 1. 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 3. 3. 1. 2. 2. 3. 2.f ac 1. 2. 2. 4. 2. 2. 4. 3. + c(a  c). 3. l. 5. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 1. = 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. 1. 3.  8 ^ 2. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 3. 5. 2. 4. 3. 1. ft) . .  2. 3. if y=2j 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 24 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 4. if = = = 2. 1. + 2. y 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. (c 3. 5. 2. 4. 4. 4. if x^l. + 1.  a)(a 1. 4. 2.  2. aft 3 + 4. 4. 2. 2. 1. 5. 5. 5. 2. 3. 3. . + 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 1. 5. c if 7 .
7 ys. 9. (5. 7 xy 3 .a 4 . 4. a: .  a) (c 2. 4 z . 21. 1. x3 2 a2 . 4. 41. = 2. . f 8.10. 26.a 5 a . 2. x3 f 3 ax'2 .c' 2 4 / . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 8.2. ' b) + 3. x C 4 4x y + . 2  + 12 a 8 . 21. x 3 x' 14. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 8 . 12. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. + 4 ?y .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 x 4 . 24. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .2 z8 4 x. a /> 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 40.2 a?y + 3 aty . + 3 y 2* . c)(x a} . + 8 x4 *y .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. x 3 11.1. 3. a. 5.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .7 y 2* 4. if a 6 = = c = 3.a) .2.4. 15. 4. 5. 15. 16. . r> . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 2. or . 5. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. ~c)(b.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.3 xyz. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 1. + 4.5 xy 3 + + 4 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .7 + .2 x?/. 10.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 5. 18. 7. 4 y 13. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .8 + 2 // . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .a8 . b(x (b 1. c = 3. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 2 x 8. 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 25. 7y 4 . 2. 1.2 x2 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.x 5 4 . 6 a4 4 a8 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .259 x c) . a. + 2. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . x = 4. 20.r 6 x  4 xy . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 9.5. 2 . . a 4 + 11 a .\ yz + xz.8 3 + 7 x4 .3 a?y . 6. 17. 29. . 3.
3 .c.4 Vl 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 0" 30.2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. 2 x 32. . . 4 4 4. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.{G * 2 .2) .260 19. 4 3 5 y/ . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 5 4 7 12 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. Take the sum of 3 x 4. of a. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 29. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.7.6T . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.(x* . 4 2 x2 23. ft.4) .#48. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . c 4ft. : a x . f ft. .c 4 3 a.. c 4. . . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 7 12 .2 a . Take the sum 4x 4.(7 x 4.(5 y . 4vTT~y 3.x2 . Simplify 31.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . = x y ft z.(a .2 x 8y2 44 .[4 z 8 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 3 ft.(x 4. 5 10 + 7 .] 26. c =x y }~ z.x 4.(4 * .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].4\/i + x 3Vl 4. sum of . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . ft 25.{2 x 2 .5 .6 x ] . take the sum of G x 5 .27~~7)}]. 4 . (*) a  c. 33.3 .8 3 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.[4 x 4. 34. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].?> x 4 20. 542 x 2 and .2 3 ax 2 .4 ft) 4.2 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. From of 2 the 4.a ft. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .5.c.(4 x 2 .1)}] .c 3 a.x 2 4. 36. and .x .x .3 x .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(5 c .1). 35. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . a  ft + c.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. x'2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.3. x8 x2 2 a'2x.4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.
6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).e '/)}] (2a + 2b .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 49.ab . .(2 a + 5 a . 68. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).JT^T+1)} + (2 . .96 [17 a.2c(V/ .2 2 .6c) (a + f c). 51. (1 ar+a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].[4 x  5 .56.{3 c .{2 a (ft .12). 54. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 43. .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . + *+!){> + 2). (5 a 39. 2 52.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].4 a .3 *). 64.c 2 .a~^~c)K].3 c)].5)} + (3 a 2 .c).0)} .{2 a . (1 55. 2 : 7e)a}]. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 56. (.4 a 2 + a 4 ). .6 xy . (r (1 (a. .(7 i + 4 r:) .2)(1 .(4 d .2 2 + 1)(7.3)(*5)(* 7).(5 y . 'J 44. 2 f [3 c 7 a .3c). 2 53.2 zz . .(7 a.5 )}] + {4 c .2x + 3).6)}]. a {. . + 4x + 5)(j. 45.r 2:c+ l)(ar. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2a . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). )(lz a ). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 63.3). . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (. (x.ac .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 46.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (x . .(2 . (4 + 3a 2 . 48.Z .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 67. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .  2 a  {3 2x a . 4 + 2 2 + 1).7).rf)} + a [.1). (/> 4 . a .be) (a 58. 65.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 3 x 42. 2 2 x + !)(* . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.(2 x2 . 59. 13 a . 2 ft 41. 60.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).3 z 2 ). 62.[2 .(2 a 2 .(6 .& + {.b (c . 50. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 57.
c .c) 2 . 90. ft ft ft a}. 75.2 ft}) f (3 a . 70. . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.y)\x y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 89.2y)(.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c)} . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .z) .r 2 .y + z)(x + y . (.O (a 4(a 4.c) . xy y 2 ). 2 + a 2 ). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.y). 93. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 85. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). (x (x ( + *) . 79.5 . 76. ar .2 (y 4. f 72.c)].6*y . ft 95. 1). 2 (x 2 .c) .c) 4) (ft 4.m np c .9y2).c . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.3y) a (* 2 4.b 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).2 (a .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 74. 86.3 a .n pc).(4 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 88.a) 2 .ft) + 4(2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).x + y + z). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 82. 4 4 . 84.{3 a .ft) 4 . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 71. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. b 4. 77. (a 2 ft 2n 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). Prove the following 8 4.(/>  3 v)^(.(ft 4. ft 78.c) j.(c 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(a 48 8 8 4. ft" l Simplify 80. . .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .3 (ft . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .z\x 4.c) rr identities.am&t 4 A 2 *).:y)( a. 87.262 69. 94.q). 83. 1). ft /.v) 4. (p 2 .<f(p . 73. 92.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .z)(x y + z)(.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 4. 91.
b) 98. (a 8  8 68 8 4. 120. 105. (2< 107. [10( 4. .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.a".(a 1 2 8 . 10). 2 (a+ . 25 4 .2 xy 8 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).v/ ~ // = a: .) .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 3*.r 4 4. 1O4.1). 124. (80 a 112. 2 4 41 x 4a. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 26 (a 4 c). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 110. 123.40 />) . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.3 a"+ 4. (. . 116. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 102.(x 2 . 121. 114.2 2% 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). r .9 x 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 117. 106.y 2 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".xy 4.(2 a 2 . 118. 108.y 4 . 1). a*.5 b*). 109.5 xy).35 x 2 2 ) . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 122. 113.y 4 ) . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).4 aft . 99 100.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 103.6 y 4 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .27 x* .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).&).(7 xi/ . (8 x* 115.16 a 6 4.*) (x 8 .2y 2 4.
4(0 x . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.8 6 . 42(3ar 145.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3(* + 4) + 9} .5{.4) . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.5) = 12(4 x .2) + 2(ar + 4).(x f 9). 7(2 x . o o 140. 10(2 x 141. 138.a:)]}.(1 .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).n .4) .9) + 3.3 a:).2(j: .22.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .7) = 4 .264 125.3) (3 x 4. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 139. .3). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2) (a: + 3).3(2 z . 148.(j a? 144.27 a 3" . .3) = 12 .2(5 .18 *&) (1 . y (* l x. 126.9) 4. . 142.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .5).3).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 3(2 x 134.19) + 5 = 4 . 5(2 x . 137.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).(x + 3) ] . 128.2) = 3 .1) .2 7^~5] + 1). 149. 129.(x . 5 146.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . (*+ + . (4 x .2(4 . .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. . 1) = 2(* .7(4 * . 135.r + 7[or . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). . 143.3 x).r>) .1) (a? . x 147.G) . (5a: 150. . 127.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 1) . 2 4(ar . 136.12 M 132.2(10 x . 3) = x\x .
= 15. .3) (3 .2 x) (4 . 166. .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 265 152. =  (F 32). 157. (2 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. If the area of the frame inches. = 2 C.5 x) = 45 x . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .l)(z . (a.29) 2 = 1. 154. 164.2 x) = (1 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. transformed into F.76. 158.5*) + 47.25) 2 .3) (j. + 10) (ar .3) (3 . these two angles would be equal. + 4) (2 x + 5). how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 163. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.8) = (2 x 4.3) = (3 x . 5(ar x . How many 170.? .z) (4 .14) (a: + 3). and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.24.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . + 2) + (5 .2) (7 *) + (*.. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.r + 3) .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.9) + (a.a:) + 229.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. find the value of F. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.T)O . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.7) (1 x . (3 O + . . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. f^ + ^sO.4) (a .17) 2 + (4 x .3) (a: . a: ar a. 161. (a .5)(. The sum What 171. 159. . . sheep more than the 169. and the third twice as many as the first.1) (s + 3). (a) If C. 162. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.5) = (3 .7) (a. 155. (7 14 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.2).5(x . + 5) = (9 . 153. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.2) a + 7(x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . 156.6 x) (3 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. The second contains 3 first. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 160.(5 x . will produce F. 165. (x (x a.19) + 42. 2 4 .1) O + 4) = (2 * .
respectively. 190. two boys is twice that of the younger. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. father. 7/ 191. dimension 182. power one of the two Find the power of each. Find the number. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 181. + a. A boy is father. ll?/102. number divided by 3. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. Find the dimensions of the floor. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. sister . + 11 ~ 6. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183.56. 12 m. z 2 + x . 188. younger than his Find the age of the father. 179. A house has 3 rows of windows. 187. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 180. aW + llab2&. 186. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. and 5 h. 2 2 + a _ no. x* 185. 3 gives the 174.266 173. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 15 m. 4 a 2 yy 42. +x 2. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. was three times that of the younger. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. . same result as the number diminished by 175. train. 10x 2 192. 176. z 2 92. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 189. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 178. side were one foot longer. if each increased 2 feet. How many are there in each window ? .36. 13 a + 3. A each 177. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.
217. 267 199. 224. 7x 2 225. 215. 2  5 xy 13 y a.20 z 8 a: 220.6 aq . 60 a 2  a: // 205.19 z 4 204. + 30 x. .1.6.3 xf + 3 * 2y . a. 8 a: ar. 244.8 6 2.10 y a x* . 246.10. 213. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .x + 1. 238. a+a* + o a +l.6s. 6 197. 232. 3 ap 2 . . a. 8 a. 233.c) 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. 5 x 2. 208.12 * . + 3a 196. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 210. 2a te 3% ly 247. 201. (a + . 216. 4a 2& 2 241. 235. + 198. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . x* + 8 2 + 15. 3 x 2 . 24 2 + 2 . 206. a: 231. 2 a 8 . 245. ifWy+b.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .21 a:  54. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .10 xy. 2 200. 221. + 8.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.6 2 ?/ . 212. 3 x V . a.22 z + 48.(b + rf) 2 . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. xm+l 243. 2 a 2 . + 2 . # 2  29 y + 120.3 xy. 2 . a^a 226. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . a: . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 12 x +4. x 5 . 2 x 2 . wiy + la mx + aw. 7a 228. 218. 23 12. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 3y 248. . z 2 2.6 y2 + 4.64. 3y 2 + ary . 195. 2 2 y f 1. *2 234.14 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. . x*y 223. a. a: 236. y 2 194. 209. 239. 4 m +^. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. z + 5x 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.19 a . 222. a a: a: 237. a 2 .77 y + 150. 16x 4 81.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 211.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 227. 207.28. 229. 202.r?/f y 2 9. 230. 203. . x 219.c) 2  (a . .
+ 8. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 260. 259. 15 # 2 z/ /.a + 2 4. x* . * 2 .8.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 10 x 2 .2/ 2 .C.6 by. 3 ay 4.G7 x f 33.10 a 4.9.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 18 x 2 .14 bx a%% 8 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . Reduce to lowest terms 271.3 abc .3.18 xy + 5.(55. + 3 x + 2. x 2 263. 10 a. .36. a.9 x . a 4. ft a. 251. x 2 .2 aft*. 22x2 a. 3 a% 2 .r .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 5 x 2 256.7 f 5.23 + 12. of: 266.23 x f 20.2 z . 252.ry 21. 269. x*y* 4.11 a 2 . a? a: a: // 262.91. 254.15 + 30.12. 2 8 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 + 4 + 3.16 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . * 2 . 258. 265.120. a 3 a 2 2 . + 23 x f 20. x 2 f 9j: + 20.x . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .&z. 2 a. x* .5 ab f 2. 1 x ar Find the L. 7 ax 250. + 8 x + 5. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 28 2 f 71 x . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 257. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. * a . 2 x2 . x 2 + 5 f .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 3 #2 255. z 2 268.3 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .a 2 />c 2 f 3.4. C. z 2 267. x 2 + 2 x . 2 . 6. 30 ^ .M. F. 2 + 7 r f 2. 264. 7 12 2 2 . + 20 x 4. I Find the II. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. of: 253.48 afy 2 .15.13.9 x + 14. x 2 4. * 2 .4 ab + 1.73 xy . a: .11 x f 28. 261.80.ry . 8 2 + 10 x . 270.1 9 .10.
a..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .!/.2* + 3 x* 280.ar 1 279. m 4. + ac . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 8 .. *2 " 2 + Oge.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 285 z4 n* + a.2c a: 282. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . 289 ' .rL.(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. z2 (a 2 + c)a.
2 + 7 _ 44 3. * 19 23 19(23 23. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . O(ca) 306. ^. 4 3 301. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x 7. ^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. Lnl + ar 2 a. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. a (: a) (x 2. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" .
} . . 2 + y 2 319. 1a: + y a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.ft) 2 322._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. a: 1 313.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 x2 + + a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .(a . _ x8 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. (1 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 _.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. (a? 4 2) 317.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .
.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ..6* t 328. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.9 *// + 27 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . . ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . 2 lOx 5x.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .V  + y  x 3y a .2 +lOar 2 a.7 xy + 12 x .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 250 5 10 2 325.15 33 . a: 2 x* .5 a . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. * 3a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 20 44 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .ll.y20  2y + 4 2 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.
( 342.r 5 2 .+ r . (a \ + lV. (af2/. : 1+ i.1V. (ar \ 346.) 2 . + ni + . + l + IV. 1 345. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. a: 349 _ o. xi 347. \x yj 340.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 7 ( ?f!?.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.. \5yl 341. if a = 3. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. a>74 . ** i. (aWi + iJ. ' 2 "l 5 . +^ a: y x . 338. ?_2 ^ . 352. w \. fl. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. aj 339. 348.y. 5 343. f V. 344.
ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. I  I f 366. y360. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. _ + l a 359. (~ 364.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374.
r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . . <3 378. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 5 {2 x 381. 4(* . . ^ . 379. 8  376. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. J !__7. 5*8. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.*2 = 15. __4 2x 3_ = !. + 1) 45 O 377. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.
n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. . _____ .. u '2 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 40.6  . .25. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). JLg:== 7wa: c c } q..  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.2 a:  1. c . + 4 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. f 1 1 + a 403. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 3* 177.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.1 .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. m x 398. 401. 400. 399. b 404. 396.25 x + .5 x =r f .75 x f .147. 397.5 ^ ~ a: a. ^ (a .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .  J).  8 9* x ~r. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.
Tn 6 hours . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number. How long is each road ? 423.  a) 2 6 2a. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 418 ~jo. 420. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. In a if and 422. and was out 5 hours. 421. the order of the digits will be inverted. (x . hour. 411. 18 be subtracted from the number.(5 I2x ~r l a) .c) .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.278 410. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412.
When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. Find the mean proportional to 429. Solve 436. Find the length of the parts.6 8 ). 433. If a b : =5 n : 7. Which ratio is greater. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. : If is one equal 434.& 5 ) (a 8 . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).49 63). . x 427.iand 22 22 I a . find : a : c. : i. 3 and 1J. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 431. and : b : c = 14 : 15. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . find the angles of the triangle. 438. y. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. wi* + y= ny.a 2^ 8 + aft* . a. 432. 435. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. a + 5. 2 2 8 2 .46 2): (15a 2 . Find the fourth proportional 426. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). b. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . d. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. if .REVIEW EXERCISE 424.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . ax is \ by  ex + dy. . z 2 y. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 428. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 430. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . a  t>.
a.(or l(*2y)=0. . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 450. 448. 457. 5z4:# = 3. 5 2 = 7 . ?/ 447. ft. 8 .*. 5x+4y=lQ.4 12 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 7a?y = 3.59 = 3 z.11 7. . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . a: a: + 5y). Find the value of a. 8 x + y = 19. /) ar a. c.89 = q. 443. 455. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 42 = 15y + 137. The volumes If their diameters. 16. />(.7 y = 25. 3 . 456. 454. 445. 449.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. ft. 458. 7 a: . 1(3  a. . if 2 ft : 439. 4 = 5 y + 29. 452. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. = 25. 9/> = 2 . 444.35. 7 442. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. . 453..11 y = 95. 451. 15ar = 20 + 8y. a: 2y= = 1 . x + 17 # 53. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 7jr9y = 17. 446. 9ar7# = 71. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 56 + 10y = 7a. + 5y = 59. 28 = 5 a . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 3 a. 459.55 y = . . 5j + 7 7 = = 2.rf2# = l. Solve the following systems: 441.
. ax cx by = m. ^ + i^ = 7. + eyn. 475. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 8 461. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.  = 2.c=563y.2y) (2 = 2J.+ =2. 465.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 473. (or . _ 469.7. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . x y 474. ax by = c \ 472. i = 5.?/ + 1 . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.
Find their ages. age. and the other number least.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 479. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 481. and in 20 months to $275. A number consists of two digits 4. A spends \ of his. years. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. by 4. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. 487. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. fraction becomes equal to . to . and in 18 months to $2180. 485. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the number. How much money less 484. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find the numbers. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 483. 477. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. . In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. the Find their ages. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the numbers. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find the fraction. 486. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . whose difference is 4.
3ar 503. = 20. 489. 4 506. 2/>3r = 4. a: + // = 11. 492.5#+2z = $x a: G./ 504. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 498. : Solve the following systems 491. a. 494. 2 2 = 41. a: 499. + # +z= 35. 2a:f 7. 490. ifi = x a.? + 2y = 8. . 2y + 2z = a: 2. x y f z = 13. of two the sum of the digits also if number. z y x 25 . and the difference of their Find the numbers. \ . 1+1 = 6. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. The sum of two numbers squares is b. *i. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. ~ 507. 3 a: + 5=84. = 15. y Solve : x +z= 5. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 4 497. 4z+3z = 20. * + 425  = . z y ifi = z x 502. 7. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. x f y f z 29 . 496. 2 e. x s + y z = 18J . 5^ 9z = 10. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.z = 20. 2y + 3a = ll. 495. . + y 5 y = 101 .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 2 a. . 3 x 500. . ./ f z =a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 7 + 2 z . = 209. a. a number . 5 + a. 8. 1.z = 12. a: f z = 79. 493.
+ + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. 523. + : = 1472. 517. z z =3a&c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. 36 + c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" .
When weighed in water. AC in /). if the number be increased by Find the number. 530. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. What are their rates of travel? . Find the present ages of his father and mother. and CA=7. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. N. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. M. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . E 533. . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. if and L. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. BC = 5. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 527. 90. B and C and C and A in 4 days. it separately ? 531. the first and second digits will change places. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. If they had walked toward each other. . and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. L. and BE. they would have met in 2 hours. Find the numbers. 532. touches and F respectively. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. it is filled in 35 minutes. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. How long will B and C take to do .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Tf and run together. in 28 minutes. AB=6. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. CD. In circle A ABC.
The greatest value of the function. z 2  x x  5. 546. 548. 2  x  x2 . to do the work? pendulum. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The values of x if y = 2. formation of dollars into marks. the function. If to feet is the length of a seconds. then / = 3 and write = 3. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. + 3. The values of y. One dollar equals 4. 542. i. 540. b. 550.  3 x. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. x 2 544. x *x + x + 1. e. from x = 2 to x = 4. 547. x 2 + x. . x 8 549. a. if x = f 1. 543.e. 2 541.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2. 2. x*  2 x. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 545. c. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. . Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.10 marks.  3 x. FRANCE. GERMANY. 2 x + 5.  7. d. x*. 536. 3 x 539. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.
REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 566.0. 562.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 2 554.4 = 0.3 x . 3 x .7 = . 2 567. 3 + 3 z .  2 1 a: a. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 558. c.1 = 0. 568.G . 3 x* .3 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.r a: a: x a. ' = 8. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 15. j. 2 x 2 560.3 x . J. 565. x 5 .r . if y =m has three real roots.= 0. h. a. . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. a. // Solve y Solve y = 5. .4 . = 5.5 x . 572. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. i. x* . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . Represent meters. + 5 .r 1 561.4 x 2 + 4 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.6 + 3 . z 2 . 2 8 . 2 a. 3 .3 = 0. a: 559.11 = 0. e. and make the unit of the b. c. 2. f. z 4 . 18 x  4 = 0. + 10 x . If y +5 10.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a? 4 x . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.17 = 0. \ to t = 5. 556.9 = 0. g. 553.15 = 0. 563. 555. x 2 ~ 2 . Solve 552. a. 557. r?. 564. Solve// = 0. x 4 .13 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. .= 0.
592.%) 4 (aa.frf : 583. 3 (f. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2  2 aa: 2 . x [ ?/ 577.4.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 596. 4 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. f ?>) 3 591. 5 a*. a: . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 588. (1 + x a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. xY. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. (aiy. . 3 . 4 a. 609.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 6 + 1) .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. : y* or 25. a 8 606. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a. (# 2) . 599.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 597. 600. 604. (a. 585 594. j^f = 3.5 xy = 0. + . a 612. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 598. 582. 4 (1a:) 3. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 608. jj+. 9  4 fSb 607. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 1 . [ y =10. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 589. (a  8 ft) . 595. + ^) + (air%)8. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. . a:. 579. (1 (1 (1 .2 2 + y. + %) (a* + *) 5 . a 2a. 593.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.(1 . + + 4 . 64 a 12 603.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. x + z2) 8 .x + 2 )'2 601. 2 611.
the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 624. V950484 . 210.30. 644. + 2 21 x = 100. 40. find Jupiter's period.53 x ~ . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 620. 626. + 112 a 8 . 21. 4J. Find the square root of 619. 622. According to Kepler's law. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 639. 035. 371240.8 aft 6 + 8 21G.\/4090. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 628.2.15174441. 651. = 87. a 642. 9a. x 2 641.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. : 5. 49. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. ft . 615.871844.12 a?y + y*. 623. 8*' + 24* = 32. 49042009. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 0090. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 632. VOIOOD + V582T09. 2 + 189 z = 900.V250 . 44352.49. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 7) 2. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. + 54 'x*y* . = . 637. 494210400001. 614. 2. 942841. 32 631. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 634. + 24 a 2 4 . V 635. /. 638. 9g.150. 643. 636. 2 + 21Ga.2410.*.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . *+* = 156.191209. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 629. 3a. (x 9 x 646. 630. Find the eighth root 617. = 70. 645. 4370404. x 2 . 633. 625 : 621.1024 x + a: 256. GGff. 25023844. = 0. 650. 647t x 2 648 649.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 702. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 692. 693. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 2 697.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. a. 2 2 .ax . 695. 707.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 696. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 706. ex abc= fx 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. ax 2 698. . 699. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 694.bx . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 708. = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i.c = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.a a )jr . . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.
If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. A equals CO feet. 724. a: 713. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 729. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 725. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.292 709. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 722. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 716. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 717. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. sum is a and whose product equals J. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.44#2 + 121 = 0. in value. Find two numbers whose 719. 16 x* . Find the price of an apple. 217 .40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 3or i 16 .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 721. 12 4*+  8. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. How shares did he buy ? if 726. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 727. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. and working together they can build it in 18 days. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. . 723. **13a: 2 710.25 might have bought five more for the same money. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.
1 + c.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 34. 43. 33. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). .)(ai + &. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 38. 31. 41.1 f ^ 2). n.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 35. 40.2? 50. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 42.2)(x2 4. (v/x). 46. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 ). 36. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 f c" ).1 + x. 32. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 39.aft* 1 + a 2*. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .X . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 37. 52. 1 6. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.l). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).
4\/50 4 SVlOOO.294 753. \/G86 v/lGv/128._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. [1r^ T 1 i . JU.. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2V2 2V3 . 761. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ~ r* x . 768. 758. 759. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754.1+J 756. 757.
16 + 2V55. . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 3J . 790. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 783. a 9442V5. + 2V21.4 V(j. 7512V21. 786. x 782.VlO. 793. 794.12VIT. 10 785. 806. 14 791.2 V30. Va 809.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 787. 103 788. 789. 3812VIO. . 13 799.2V3* ^ 807. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 92VI5. . c 792.
 5 + V3 f 12 817. V3 f 1 V4a. 3 x + 2 .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V? = 813. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. x/aT+l . 812.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . + ViTli + V7 .g. 815. + 103Var.f 5 = V5x + 4. Va: . 818. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 811. 816. = 1. 814. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .Vc^lJ . \/12 a. V14 a. 820. 830.4 = 0.\/2y  810. 829. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . /9ar a: = 17. 833. (x a: 2 ) 4 .79. + Vx .V2 ar 10. 836.13 = 0. 819. VaT+lJ f ^l . 831. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.
a 8 869. a. 870. 875. a.10 = 118.3 . 8 2a.3 a:. a 8 850. 852. a 8 873. a l0m . x 8 2 857. . 8^27^. 861. x 4 + f 2 a. a. 846. 2 f" + a/ 15.12. a*" & 6n . 855. . 4 x 8 858.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 275 8 l. a 18 4. 845. . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 2 x 3. 8 8  13 a.1. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 865. . a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. f b**.  3x a. + 512 y8 874. 6. 16 859. 27 862. 844.x*y + 3x f 2. 851. f 841. z*y 8 l64a. 871. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .3 x . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 868. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.3 Va: 2 . y 4. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a. 8 8 848. 64 a 866.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a. a 872. 856. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 a. f 12. 2 a: 64 y*. a: 849. 863. 8 860. 876. 8 4a: 8 a.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 . 864. 9. 729 867. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.1000 6. 4 x* 847. 4o. a: . + . 839. 4 a: 2 842.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 853. +3 4 +  4. V4 x 2 . 19 x 14.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. . 5 a 4 7 a8 . x 11 a^ J 13 854. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 4 a.ab9 ft*. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 27 y 8. 840.a. + 1. 64.
883. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 900. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 .298 877. . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. y y 2 y 2 1121. 899. a: 888. . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: a. . a: 884. 2 + xy = 10. 894. . y = 28. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 2 = 16 y. y*+ xy .1 = 2 a#. 887. xy + y = 32. 889.15. M1 891 1 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. 895. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 1 x 893. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. .y 2 + V(j. 886.Vi' + 1 1_3. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. x 8 3 = 13:3. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. +y f y = 7. a. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 878. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 . 3 x 2 . y 2 4. + 2y=\2. 885.y 2) = 20. 901. a:y . f ?/ a: a: . 2 + y 2 . x a: lI = xz . 896. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 5. 2 + xy = 28. a.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a# f + xy = 126.sy = 198.35. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a: + y 2 = 34.18. a. y 2 2 8f.y 2 = 2 y + 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + 2 f = 17. 890. z 2 898. x 882. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. . x*xy. + ary + 2 = 37.xy + y 2 = 19. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 2 = 2 + 5. a: 2 897.
921. + y = 9. xy + x= 15. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 23 x 2 . # + xy + y = 7. y 3 2 2 922. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.y) (a? . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. y + a:y = 180.y = a(ar + y). (o. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.r a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + y)(a. 3 y 8 ) =1216. ^ 2 . ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 906. x 2 ry + y = 3. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.y). = 8. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.16 y 3 8 = . + y 8 = 189. * + y = 444.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.23 = 200.6.2 y) = 49 2 919. 914. 2 + y = 2 a 4. a. . y . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. + ary = a*. 923.y) = 33. a: * a: a: ar 928. a:y xy 929.y) (3 y . a: y zx 12. 2 915. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. Vary + y = 6. (!) * . + 2 a:y + = 243. ary y = 8. 908. 911. x + y 2 = aar. 2 * 2 ~ g. 4 (a. a: a. y x 2 = by. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. x + y}(x + y) = 273. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.3) 2 f (y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 2 2 916. 2 913. . x f 2 a:y = 32.x) = 21. (a.y2 = 22.3(* + y) = 6. (* 918. *y . 3 :r(3 .#y + 2 = 27.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. (3 x . 2 5 xy = 11. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 905.3)2 = 34. + 2 ary = 39. 907. 7 y . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. . + a. xa 903. 2 924. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 910. + ?/) . 909. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. or or a? a: a: . 912. 917. yz = 24. 920.
and also contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = .square inches. . 34 939. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 943. 935. two numbers Find the numbers. 944. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and the difference of 936. 942. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. How many rows are there? 941.300 930. is 3 . feet. two squares is 23 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. 152. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. and the sum of their areas 78$. + z)=18. *(* + #) =24. 931. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. diagonal 940. In the second heat A . Tf there had been 20 less rows.000 trees. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. If each side was increased by 2 feet. y( 934. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. a second rec8 feet shorter. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. A and B run a race round a twomile course.102. 2240. and 10 feet broader. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. A is 938. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Assuming = y. 937. feet. + z) =108. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. two squares equals 140 feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. rate each man ran in the first heat. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 20. z(* + y + 2) = 76. y(x + y + 2) = 133. is 3. s(y 932.
When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. sum Find an edge of 954. Find the eter 947. and its perim 948. each block. . the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the number. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 952. . distance between P and Q. P and Q. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and travels in the same direction as A. and that B. 950. that B A 955. Find its length and breadth. and if 594 be added to the number. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find in what time both will do it. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. set out from two places. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. Two starts travelers. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. 949. is 407 cubic feet. overtook miles. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. 953. whose 946. at Find the his rate of traveling. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. unaltered. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. A and B. . triangle is 6. 951. the digits are reversed. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards.
. 3 + 5 7 + .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. (to 2 n terms). 961.  2.. 964. 9th and llth terms of an A. . (x 4 to n terms. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. *" 968.454. 12434+ j I 967. ^ 1 . 972.. 966. 974. Find n f (ft) . Evaluate (a) .321? 965. 1G series .v 973. 970. '. 16 962.. the terms being in A. Sum to 20 terms.4142 . the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 957. to n terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4..302 956. are 29 and 53. Sum Sum to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 975. 971. 4 4 to 7 terms .141414. difference..V2 . P. Find n. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. P. = 4.. P. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. to infinity.1 4 f j$V . + (iiven a +  4 d . P. to 7 terms. x(x to 8 terms. fourth of the unity.. 969. 18th terms of an A. Find the Find the common 977... Find the sum of 4. 4.3151515. f + 1 . \ . s  88.. 958. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 5. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 5. and 976. 1 to n terms. n to n terms. ^ Vfirst five 959.. 3 . Sura to 24 terms. .>/) to infinity.. J. .to infinity... !Ll^ + n .. 36 963.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Find an A.
and the common difference. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid..01 3. 303 979. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 985. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to oo. is 225. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .001 + . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 986. to n terms. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . of n terms of an A.. 980. Find the sum of the series 988. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. P. : + 9   V2 + . all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 5 11. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .04 + .2 . 4 grains on the 3d.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. 0. and so on. "(. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. P. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find four numbers in A.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. .. 987. Find n. 989. named Sheran. The term. and of the second and third 03.) the last term the series a perfect number.. Find the first term. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. 1.. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. to 105? 981. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 990. to infinity may be 8? . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.+ lY L V. 2 grains on the 2d. The 21st term of an A. The sum 982. 992. first 984..001 4.1 + 2. Find four perfect numbers.
and G. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 512 996. many days will the latter overtake the former? . find the series. and so forth to infinity. 1001. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. in this square a circle. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. are 28 and find the numbers. 997. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. 994. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. in this circle a square. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. ABC A A n same sides. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 1003. The sum and sum . Under the conditions of the preceding example. ft. (a) after 5 strokes. areas of all triangles. P. . P. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. at the same time. 998. are unequal. P. inches. 1000. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The fifth term of a G. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. of squares of four numbers in G. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. AB = 1004. If a.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. c. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. (6) the sum of the infinity. Two travelers start on the same road. prove that they cannot be in A. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. is 4. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 995. 999. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2.
2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1009. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . (1 1018. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1008. 1011. (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of 1020.o/) 14 . .l) w f . Find the middle term of ( . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. + lQ . 1012. a: 8 7. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. ) 1021.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Expand  2 a. . 1006. 1014. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. x) 18 .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).
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. quadratic . 158. . . .... Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . . 129 54..210 130 " Addition value 4 15. simple simultaneous .. 232 mean progression . 232 169 807 ..... ... . . Aggregation. 160 in quadratic form 191 . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 123 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . graphic tion of representa . numerical . 9 ** .. .. 246 91 " multiple. .. .. . . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 37.. Brace Bracket Character of roots ...130 . 112 54 54 251 . lowest ratio " '* . .. . . linear literal Common ** * difference . .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . signs of Algebraic expression .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 8 .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . .178 Completing the square ........ ..] Abscissa Absolute term .108 160 " . 97. 54. ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 129. Checks Coefficient 20. . .193 11 . .. ... . t 53 120 . 9.. .. . 19..
P . inversely 122 numbers . law of Extraneous roots . Geometric progression . 34. . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.C Multiplication . 227 geometric . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . . 243 7 . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. INDEX 8 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 120 Member. Known numbers . 45. . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Mathematical induction .. 253 28 70 1. numbers . 91 .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. . . . 84. . 109 102 .108 Minuend .. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . 212 .. Negative exponents 11 . first and second . 143. Imaginary numbers . . 63.. . 112 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. arithmetic . L. . . 205 . 227 . 184 54.154 Order of operations " of surds . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 ... addition of " square of . 45 Laws of signs . . directly. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Like terms Linear equation ..808 Exponent Exponents...31. 23 10 91 102. .. . ... . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 180. . . G. . 9. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. exponent . . 114. Insertion of parentheses .. . 241 123 geometric .. 45. Product '* 76 Infinite. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 189. 195 33. . Inconsistent equations . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . . 17 65.
. . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .... binomial Third proportional Transposition . . . 45 Trinomial 240 . 4 155 9 " of .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . .... .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. algebraic Surds .. absolute 54 Variable .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. polynomial .. Sum.. .... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. .... 129. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 9.
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
. Norwood. December. August. 1910. 8. NorfoooS J. 1913. U. Set up and electrotypcd. Published September. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. Reprinted April.COPYRIGHT.A. Mass. Gushing Co. . 1910. 1916. 1917.
22. 5. 2  Page 8. 17. 48 ft. 11.21 24. 6. 8. is $10. 5. 1. 2.3. _ 32. 36. 9 m. westerly motion. 0. Page 4. 1. 19. 1. 1. 17. 3. 18. 17. 8.000. 20. Page 13. 11.8. 15. 29. A 38 mi. B $ 128. 5000. c. 29. 24. 14.. 192. 12. 37 S. 49.000 Indians. 0.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 126. 5. 49. 64. 3. 12. 8. 4.000. 12. 2. 6. 19. 9 = 4. 16. 10. 106. 11. 1. 20. 25. 6.000. 12. 16. 3. }. 2. 16. 19 4. 14. 2 ~ 15. 1. 9. 24. 6. 23. ^. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 37. 30. C $1(50. 13. . 13. 3* 7. 3. 6. 6.. 3. 9 16  larger than 7. 12. 2. 7.000. 5. 3. 14. T . 7. 8 13. 11. 2. 8. 20 B. Multiplication. 2. 144. Australia ft. 9 14. Yes. 18. 14.. 5. in 12. 2. arithmetic. 4. 32. 5. 24. 16. 27. 6. 15. 10. 2.$9400. 1. 1. 7. 25. 7. 16. A 15. 9. 6* 16. 3. 6. 3. 59. Not 5. 6. 12. 13. 3 below 0. C $60. 3. 21. 20. 4. 32. 17. 15. b. 13 d. 4. 18. 26z. 150. 6. 4. 16. x. 5. 12. in. 16. 13. 14. 1. 27.000. 8. sign.. 30?. Page?. 22. . 1. 18. 28. 576. 2 5. 7. B $80. 1. $40. 3. 16. 9. 10g. 1. . + 1.12. 19. 3. 7. 10. Page 8. 18. 4. 11. 32. 14. 4. 6. 15.. A $90. 9. 9. 7m.000. A Bl 7.  22 20. 7. 3. 256. 8 ft.2. 3 m. 3. 1. 14. $100.  1. . ft. 9. 2. 10. 13.000 negroes. i . 27. 3. in. 89. 8. 3.000. 25. 5. C $ 16. x. 32. . 2. 28.  1. 512. B $20. 210. 1. per sec. 20. South America 46. = 5 81. 10.000. 18. 115. 21. 2. 16f 2. 21. 17. 13 S.C.  13.. 12. 14. 8. 10. 13 V. $160.150. 20 \. 72 = = 216. 2.. $ 1 50 10. 14 11. 3.. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. B 10 mi.1. A . 73. 2. 6 yd. 20 jo. 15. 9. 1. 85. 25..00000001. 3. 16. Page 1. 10. 2. 7. 16 in.  2 p. V 23. 16 in. Ot 15. 9. loss. 12. 7. (a) (/>) 1. 9. 128. 1 16. B $4700. 6. 10. 12. sign. 26.
7. 27. 27. r+l. 8. 32 2 ftc. 2.  11. (c) S(i. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 2x' 2 5 . rt. 31. :. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 10. II. 5. 7.900. 26. $80. 6. 19. 13. 4. (ft) 12. . 8. 6. 2. 0. 7. 14. .. 13. 17. 0. 58. 8. 21. r:A 29. 8. 31. 11. 14. 3. 29. 38.'JO ft. 36.  xV 3 y. 0. 3. 14. ^). (a) 200. 22. 4. r/ \(\xyz. in.r~ f 34. 29.ft.. 34.  12. (a 4 4. ft. 7. (ft) mi. 9. (ft) 7. 27. 22. ft. ft f 19. 16. _ 4 . 30.a . = ()501. yyz+xyz*. 12yd. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 104. +/2(/. 5.32 c2 > ft 3 . 35. sq. 32. 1.4 ft. 5x+3. Binomial. Trino inial. 27. 22. ft n. 9.ab. 13. 15. 1. 3. 9. a2 4 15^44. 5. 21^. x^ 20. 00 24 04 ft. 15a. . 43w//2 17. <i~ 26. 14. 16. (ft) $40. 22( 19. 17.. vi 14. 17. 39.000 ..~4. o^ft. 13. 26.6) 38. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 20. .x. 3. 8. (a} 100 1(5 cm. (ft) Page 2. (r) 2. .GOG. 17. 12.. 14:). 22. 18.. 10. 19. 0. 2ftx. 173. 10. 57.  40. Page 18. 28. a 32. 4. 20. 12. 2oVmf?i. 1. 3 . 20. 20(. 1. 2. 50. . 12. . ^.rty8. 35. 9. 2. 6. 2. 18. . $3000 Page 6. Polynomial. 49.000 sq. 33.1.. in. //'. 8. 04.94(>. 11. 1. ft' 3 . y. 1. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 21. m + 3(a. 27. + ft). 8. 42. 16. 5. 13 cu. ??i??. ft. 5. \'\ 4. 37. 15. (r) 78. w. 38 ab. 35. 3(c4a).  2 4 13 ft 2 . 21 a 3 4 10. arty 1 20.'J. 14. 7. 3rf 27. 4 y/ . 28. 12 a. 1.. 11. Pagel4r. 9.  0. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 30. in.4  2ft 2 33. 14. 13. (a) r>23ifcu. (r) 2G7.9?/2 8. (a) 50. 240. 12. It. m 24. 21. 31. ft. 27. = 81. 3a. 5.5f> sq. 23. 14. 18. 34.. WIN + wiw. 12. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6..  3. 19. Page 31. 2. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . (c) 8. 3. 8. 237. 30. 16. 0. 0. in. 6<t. 15. Page 21. 314 sq. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 16. 18. 33. . 1. 24. (b) 135 mi. 3. #1111. + 5.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 23. 1. 4.<>Gq.r 2 . 15. 32. 92. I. mi. Page 7...14 sq. 0. ]*. 4.q 4. c. (a) <> sq. 25. 0. 36. 3. + v> 2 . 25. 51 f. 28.  1. (r) 2000 m. f  5e 35. 3. 4 9/^/rl 2.. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 0. Polynomial. t. Monomial. 15. a ft c. 12.r f 15. 17. 3. 11. 24. 3 a* + 2 at*. 15.ft) 4. 41. 5. 25.5 (ft) sq. :J!>r'. 7 7. Page 23. (59. i:5. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 5. ft. 18.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 13. 4. jrif 4 9.
t). /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 32 w 2 w. 16. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 26. 2 . Page 7. 2 a f 6 414. 5x 2 rt ft. . \ :{ 2 a 48. ' 12 m?/'2 27.. 2 3. 22.  17.aft. 20. 1. 24 b 46. 12. 12. 31. 2.4c 3 8 8 J.2. 0.11. a 3a 4 2 &.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 12. 0.  14 afy . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 3. M + 10.4. s_r>a5. 10 m. 18. 5. 42. w* ( . 3 m. 2 2 2 6. G. 40. 43.a'2 .3 6. 26. 2 3x f z. a a. a). 26. 8 + 2 a . 25. 2 6. 2. a 3 .r 2.c. _ Page 30. 2. . Page 28. + a 2 f 2 a 4. a4 4 4. 13. + 2y. 16. 814. x  + 3z. 5. 25. 58. 33. 28. 2 + a4l). 14.  G J8 r  4 a <?.a f 54. . . 5. 2a: 2 4x.  23. 8. 14. 55. 2. a 4 + ft. a 10w. 6. (yz~d}. 7  a + 2 + c. 8. Exercise 16. + 6. 36. 29. f 2 ?/  2. 5 2 Page 29. r. ?/i 13.2 a2 2m 2 4. 8 b. Page 44.(2 x2 . 7  # + 12. 2. 2. 7 a5 1 . 15. 34 39.  b* 4 r 1 . ab a. 9. 3.x f 1 2 .a~.2 57. '  . a  ISjfat. 2. 5. 1. 6.2 ft 2 r2 10. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.a . 2x 4 a 13. ri\ 18. 1. ti. 1. lOrt 15w4.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . ( 7. a 52.1. w 17. (5x47 3. 19. c.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 14. 6. 21. ?>4tl 53. ?> 22. 24. 7. 20. ft Exercise 17. 37. 7. 2m + 2w. 59. a + (ftc4df). 4.  12.Oa: + 10.l.  b. 10 x. 12. 17.. 19.6 x + 0) 16. 30. ?/.ws 2 ft) . . 34. . 7. x3 . x a8 1. 4r 2 . . !  </ . . 1. 1 + 45. 4. 4 21.1 . 2 4. . ^ <. 7. m*  n*. 50. 3 a . 2// 16. 31.7. 4.'U4j>. 0. c2 .4x. 1 4.8(c + a). 4ft ~. 22. 10. c.3x 2 2 tf. 15. 24. 2a. a 6 2 . 18. 21. . + 4 c. 36. 35. 3. (w4w)(ww). G a bd. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 25 47. . ar. 2 . 11. 2.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 4. _5a<>&43c. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 19.4 d. 18. 8 . 1. &. 2 2. ii\ 22. 2. 20. a 3& . a f 2 f 2 9.abc. + 8. 3 Ji 8 . f ft 9. 10. 2.2 a.5 4 2 3 ?/ . . 24. . 8. . Page 8. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 21. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 4. mn. a  49. n*. 32. a + a. . 15. 56.h.  a: 2. 4wipg>' 27. 17. a2 9. 4.2 . 2m.  1. j)(g1.5.a*. 11. :5 41. 2 a 37. a' 4ab + ?/. a. 13.(7x2 Ox2). 8 8 .5 z?/ + 3 y . 51. . (mn} 11. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 3 a3 & 41. 11. a2 24. 14.r. 25. 2 y' 4 . 364c. 6. 38. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2 17.  4 b 17 y*. 10.
. 20 aW. 14. 19.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 3.7(50. 24.25 + 14. 19.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 2 w +2 2 . 16 51. + O4 66 . 4 a2 . 6. 3 a 2 46.2. 7. 28. 60.21 a 3 c2 21. 26. 30. 32. . 2 a2 (y 2 . 30 n?b*c*. 4. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 16. 27..3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . . Page 7. 90.6) =a2 31. ci 5 . ll 2 i. 30.r% 2 2 ry. ?> 4 . 3 a 3 . Ox a 5 . 2 * 80 . 24. 6.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 0.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 9. 64. 37. 19. a 8 . ft 17. 35. 12. 17.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.1. 3(*+0 + 2). 2. 14f 5.000. 21. Page 5. 1904. f 26. fa 2. 23. 4. 25 4 4. 11. 8. 16. 1. 25. 2 2 2 . 2 7t A. 2.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . s 9 ww. +15. 210. 4 jcy*z*>. 4 fc.44 aWc 16 abxy. 17. 1. 3. 25. 14. 6". 30. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 20. 28. 76 8 a' 1 . 8 . 7.18 w w + 10 WI M . 28. 18. .57 p6 3 2 4 25.19 + 2. . 30. 14 m 2 .16 x2/ 5 4. 27. 23. 15. 38wiw. 12 ^. . 15. 3.12. 34. 1. 22. 2''. 29. 1. 28.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .8 12. 7. 17. 17. x2 xy42^. 360.15. 18. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 13. 770. 21 a'&c. 161b.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 34. . 30 j9 jt?g j . a + ft. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 66 8W 34. 9. 33. 15 q\ 6. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 0. 3. 19. . 21. a. 29. 23. 18> ^* = a . 4. 10. a*b*c. a. 11. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 4200. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. + 7. 21. 2 . 27. 216. 10. 20. 52 + 6s 12. 7G . 66 39 k* . 15. 120. 42. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 13.19p" + 19^ 10 . 8.16 a 2 + 32 a .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 24.21. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 10. 18. 18. 20. 11. 2. a. 15. 20. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 12. 2.iv ANSWERS + &)(.. 22. 12. 1. 16. 2*8f x2 6x4. 31.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 4. 29. 161b. 9 13. 84. 4. 6. Page 35. 4 a8 . . + 58 . 8. 38 a*b 6 : 24. Page 36. 40 r 2 .14 .:>/ . 4aWy. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 11. 42. 1. 2 8 xy f 4 a.(3x2_4^+7). 343. . etc.14 w 2 2 .11 xyz . 7. 6 .12. 29. 13. 24. a: . 127"'. 4. 8. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 18. 33.36 35. 10. 32. . ISartyW e*f*tj. Page 38. m. 3300. 04. 8. 108.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . . 60. 25. 16. 5. 24.20 xyz . 14. 16. 30. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 14. 31. . 1400.28 p'^/. 9. 1.. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. ?/ . 16 lb. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 108. 6.6 2 . (+3)x6=+16. ^^ = 20. Page 3. 2 ). 25. 27. 36. . . ! 2. 83 In + 1 n*. 13. 102. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 26. +. 15 lb. 27. 5aft(a 126 2). 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 216. 18a% y. 15. 22.32. 20. 34. 33. 20.26.32 y s s G . 22. 12 x2 2 . 13. 5. 2 ). //. 30.64 190 p6. n (a6) 125. 23.>(/ r . 4 7> 4 :j !} . iSx8 . 18.
5 ~ 81. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). + 10 + 121 y*. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.994.6 x2 13. 10.ri 17. 7. 29.^. 33. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.000.020. +4 34. . . (n 2 5.49. 2 62 V2 132. 29. 11. 10.404. x*2^f I. 39. 16. 6 2 + 6lf>0. a3 0. 8 a W . 998. (m + 6)(m3).15. + 12.4 a&+ 4 &*. 37. ft' 11. r. 8.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 10. 4 .4 n.009. y. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. (a + 4) (a + 2). n + 2. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. .500. 31.009. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 18. 2 1: 21. 32. 4 + 25 q*.4 12. . 35. 5. 45. 40. x 48. 5. 6. 9 4 /> . 34. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 10. 10 a 4 ?. m 3 j) 3 . 2 (5 a 3). 2). +  m' 1.m 30 6 4 1. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 2 fr . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 11.54 p 2 + 81.810. 3wi2 m Page 42./ .ANSWERS 28. 10 a' 2 . 41. 26. . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. Page 12. 166.3. 7. ' 46. 4. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.r* 2 30. V + o ft . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 36. 15.00 + 37.6 xy .. 484. 10. ab . 2 4 2 2 64 . 36. 55.004. a' .8. 41. 9801.712. a 2 . 25 25. . a + 56. 38. (p 2.25. 2 j3 Z . 1.2 6 + 13. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 31. 10.020. 25.008. 10. 52. 36. 33. 2.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 37. G a6 2. 53. ^' J  7 f 12. 1). 30 x + 19 x3 . x* .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 2 . 32. 8. 1. x2 GiC+5.000. 12 x2 . ^V^4 .p132. a + 25. 4.6 y4 10.1. 10. m 2 . 2 a' y' . (w+4)(m4). 28.098.606. +   5). ab. 1. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 23.35 ab 9. 990. 24. s rc 47. 9990. . . 2. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 36 a 4 . 14. . Page 39. 441. 7. 27. 10.. 21 2 . (a (3 54. + 2 9. 51. . 2 6' .6. 42. p4 + . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .x2 + 6 x2y 2 .14 jp + 49. 14. 1. n2 a4 6. 2 . 19. 57. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. . fo*. 15. 44. 6. 9999. + 4 a +4. x4 28. 40. 30 /><. 31. 4 x2 13. ?/H)0. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. Om2 4 6m 6.r . 33. . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 24.10 35. 30. x 2 f xy + 9 41.ab . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.201. .20.r . 2 a 2 + a . ^/> 8 4 . ) 4' 6/ 49.^ + a? + 1. ~ 6 20 . a4 4 ?/ . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 25 a 2 6 2 . 4 . 4 2 //.^V"' . + 4 t*. 4 21. 2 +10s281. 27. 4. 14.001.996. 8 38. . 2 12. 2 4 a + 4. 4x21.10 x + 25. 56. I/). 7 . 10. . lflrt 2 8 + l. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 9. 35.2 x + 2 x. a2 ' + 48Z100. . p 2 . 10. 17. a + 25. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 1. 8.16 a3 f 50. 9. . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 40. 7> .x2y22. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . + 3)(3). 2 0)(p + 5). 34. 3. 20a 2 21a + 4. 19. 3. 999. 39.2.2 y*. (w4)(w + l). 26.84 a' 9. 1. w'n 2 //^ + 25.
34.2 ar. 8. 9.9 d. a. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. a 10. . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 ?/ 4. 4 c m .1. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.3 5.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 5. 4 a 2 4. aft. m L 4.3^V.12 aft 4 20 ac . +w . ft. G. r 7.  10. 7a3ft.rw f 8 . 19. . 11 4. .5 n*.  5 z* . 26. 3. 10. 6. 21.9 4. 125. 13. 13. w 2 . 2. 18.n. j) . 14.+ 77 15. 5. a 2 . ti'jry1 7. x 2 + 2r f J.2. 3. 5. 13.4. . 8 x . 8 ?/ . 1. 2 . 11. 4 ac.23. .2 . 16. 6. // 19. . 2. ??. _ 2 a . 2 ^r ???' 2 . '. 4xy + 13 <) .lit x + 4. 14. 44. x4. 12.5 mp.1.25 c . 2. 2 1.r?/. c 12. 14. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4x43?/. 1. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 5.r'^ 15./ 4.30 ftc. 2 .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 49. 5. 4 a* 4 9 11. 1/*. 75 a 2 29. 3*y2 w + 1. x 4.2 aft 4. . 46. 5^418(7. 4.1*5 2 r 2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 8. 8 ?/ . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. . 4.8 y.3 ry.2 <</.000. 5. Page 11.21 2 2 f + . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 4. /r .2 wZ 4. 135. 3. 13. 9. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 8. . 2 12. 5 4 a Oft. 23. 2 4 2 x 4.7. 6. f>r* 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 5 a  (5 ft.  3 c. 50.w. 12. 5. Page 7. Page 22. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.10 2 + z 2 410.24 .  11. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.2 ac . 4.15 21.r ?/ ??i ?).3 3.  . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .2 . 12. 20. 17. yfl. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 24. 9. 2. 16. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 9. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. + 3. 12. 6.r" 20 S? . 6. . 8. ft 17.6 :rs 4. Page 51. 4. 2 ?/' . 2 a 3 ft. i 9. + 4. 10. w . . 13. Exercise 2 a:// 26.3 a 41. Osy. 2 4 3 9. 7 r . :r !>.27 x 2 4. 47. 9. a 8 4. Exercise 27. r ft. 3 a. 2 ? 14 . 3. 14. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 2 4. 11. 22.15. 6x 3. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 20 15. Page 48. 01.> 10. aft 12.1.1. 1. 1000 1000 . Page 13.5 a .1. 13. 1. 5. r/2 4.x^. 18.VI ANSWERS 43.1. 4 d 2 4. 2 2 + 2 a. . . 7.r' ~ 16.10 xy*. aftc 52. 4. *3 y 4 . 8. r//.y3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .rw. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 3. i 2 tji. z. abc 7. ?/2. a 4 4 ft. 2. 1.r . 3. 10.2 ftc . as _ 10 16. 5. 16. 4.2 2 2 8 .1. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . . a r'43 ll'a^S 15.29. 1. 17. 8.25. l 4 . . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.8 yn . 19. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4 x. y 7. 4ft.r?/ j/. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 14. 17. 12. sr 11. 15. m'2 3.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . + x?/ 2 1. 4 pq.2 1 //. c3.2 . 2. 1. 10 ft. 21. ft* ft / .2 2 .  12 y 25.8.3 x 2 2 4. 4.8. 14 r 2 . 15. . 3 aft 20.
2. 46. 41.rr2. 39.(3x  700) = 5. r>?imi. Jj12. <>. 10. 10. 3x2. 7. 12. a 10. r tx mi. 57. . 4. (a) ' 12. 13. 27. 22. 11. xy ft.  1$.10) 100. y 50. 8. 50= L 100 15. 2. 10 >_&. 100= ^. x. 9. ct. 6. x y $ 6 yr... 3. 15. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). "mi. = 5 ?i x 460. . 5. 00. 12. ^ 12 sq. 20. 9. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740.200) f(^ + (e) 200.7). 800 = x + 1300. 4. + 10 b + c ct. 16. 60 25 1. 2b 22. .r ct. . 17. 13.. b. 7. iL*. 24. + f + b 2. I. 6. f (I.x700. ft. 33. X 60. 7. }f.  2\. 7. 7. 21 2. 5. y 100 a 24. 'nj 100 a 28. 4. 59. 3x  1700) = 12. y ?>i x + 26.ab a. (>. 3.r1. 16. 25. 4^ = 100. sq. 1. Page 61. 3 9.6 = *. 10. s. . 13. 1&. rn mi. 23. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 6.  />) a = all. 16. 47. 19. 3. " lir. 2. 10) + = (a) 2 x . x 2y 10 act. 33. Page 6. Page 13. 10 yr. f 6)(o 62. 10 x sq. 1. 0. 25. . 35. l. 37. ] 2 ri 42. lO. y yr. 2=10. x = m. I. m+ 11. 8 n  10 yr. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 20. 0. 6. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 18.100. v (6) 2x. 100 14. 4. 4. 42. 10. . 2. f = eZ 2 x. # + 20yr. 5. 7x 2 Page 21. 44. '^ . (</) 2a. 100 d ct. 11. 18. 29. Page 31. (2 a. 26.. 40. 5. 1. !).  9 = 17 a. vil 56. 5. d.ANSWERS Page 9. 17. 8. 14.  6 10. a 8. 10 a. 34.(3x+ = rraxlO. 45. 1. 36. ft. 17. ct. 14. 2x + 35. + 3 = 2(3* . 44. 2. ( a f 4. 23. y 2z p= 3 (a c. ct. 36. 38. 41. (c) 2x. 22. 5. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 28. x 49. 38. 1. 58. 19. </ 20. 2 ct. d + !. 100 2. fix. + 4x 3y 34. x 48. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. + 3x + 2y + 32. 30. % 4. 43. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 29. lOx 10 + w. 32. (> 27. 37. 7. n M. 2b. ft. 20. x + 1=a. 7. b. ? 43. 2. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 4 f 39. 15. 6. / + y + a// 12 yr.000. Page 40.p+7. 11. 30. m +~m 3. 4(a ft) c = 8. 31.
19. Oaj(o62cd). 6. by 12 yd. 2 2 ?/ 21. 1 lb. 100 1. 3. 80 A. 3 (a +&)(*. 20. 7 hr. (p + 7)(3a5&). (z5)(z2). 78. ^ . 160 lb. 74. 10. 68. 7. 6. 6rt 2 11. (m + n)(a + 6). 4. 29. 3. 3. + 7)(y3). 480. 30. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. 9. 2. 2. . 5 lb. 5. 6. 1200. 20 yr. 2 3 6 7. (e) i* + A. 9. 3. 4. 10. (*4)( + 11. 2.. Page Page 480 12. 71. 13. .411. ?(g ? g+ 1).24. 15. 14. 12 mi. 5pt. a 12. Page 5. (c) ^ v ' . 1. 10. 7a*fe(2a & l). 70. 55. 18. 9.. 5$ hr. Pace 65. Page 7. 15.2..210^. 18. 6.000.y"). 13. 85 ft. 90. 8. 100. 11 in.000 Berlin. 13.5. (y 13. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).. Page 7. 12. 15. 9. 3. 200.11. 8. 30. 10. 12. 14. 3. 42yr.000. 14. 17. 12. Y. 1250. 4. 21. (a + 4)(a + 8). 9. 30 mi. . 6.. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). $40. 8.3). (y8)(y + 2). 12.000 N.2). 1.5p + 7 g ). 7.10. 20 yd. 6. 9. 1. 2. (a + 6) (a + 3).000. 11 pV (2 p8 . 16. 15 mi. Ib. 52. 12. 10 yr. 67. (6) (6 a 30) =20.16. 3x (3r. a a (a 8 a+l). 2 2 2 5. 20. 25. 10. 11 w(w' + wi . 250. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 1313. (ro3)(w2). 5. 300. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000 gold. 25..(5z .3aftc + 4).. 7.000 Phil.7. ( + 4)(*2). 20 yr. 22. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 20. 14. . 15 in. 75. 6. 18.000. = _?_(2ar + 1). 40 yr. 90 mi. 50.79. 200.. 13. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).3. 600.0.21. 11.0. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 28yr. 3. 2. 72.. 2$. 8. 7.8. 30 yr. 10 Mass. (a 4) (a. 10 yd.3. (a5)(a4).. 10 Cal. w (/) 64. 5. 7. 6. 17. 12. 10. (yll)(y4). 1. ~=90. 25 yr. 5. 13. 78. 8. 9 in. 10. 14. 180. 10 yr.. 15. 4. Page 79. Page Page 4. 1200.000 ft.000.000. 2. 8 2 19.000 copper. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 4. 8 12. 05... 14. 2). 3 hr. 23. 15 yd. 4pt. 15. 45 in. (a + 5)(a + 6). 1.000 ft. 11.1). 5 Col. 70^. 24J..000 pig iron. 5.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 4. 8 in. 8.13. (y + 8)(y2). 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .  PageSO. 9. 8.000. 7. (y7)(y + 2). 11. 150. 1. 1.6). 11.. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.22. 2.5. Page Page 4.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 8. 82 mi.
+ 8)(g3). y) 2 29. 103x97. 2). (a + 8)(a3). 24. No. + 9^)(oxy . Yes. (4a. (4 13. 7. 3.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). No. (x + y4 )(x . 27. 17. Yes. 14. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 33. 15. 18. (2 a? 4. a*(5a f l)(flr . x(x +y)(x y). 10. . (4y3)(3y + 2). (2w+l)(ro + 3). (2xl)(x + f>). (a a: 19. Yes.11 ft)(a6). 4. . + 2y). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . 3a. 24. Yes.. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). .* (2 y + 3)(y. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 3)(3a. 9. a . 7. 9. 21. 216 aft. . 10(3 5 6) 2 .2 ft). 22. 34. 2 No 4. . 10(a + ft)(aft). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 23. 22. 32. 25. 19. 10. 28.4 6). 3. 1. 9. 23. 26.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (* + y)(zy). (15ay2) 2 .2). 2 2 15. 25. Yes.7)(2z f 1). 2. (2o + l)(2l). 5. 16.4.6) 2 2 .2 y). 4. + 0(90 Page 85. (ay8)(ay3). Yes. (3a. 1. Yes.9*). .6) 2 1. 36. (w ~ n (x . (a 6 6) (a 4. Page 83. 10. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). No. 12. Yes. 25. 100 (a. 15.c 2 ). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 14. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 34. + 3)(c44). (az + 9)(ox2). 22. Yes. 26. (3*2)(. (5a +l)(5a l). 8. 10(2 30.r2). (w + 20)(w + 5). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (0 + 6)(66). (m + w) 2 5. Oa 2 (a2)(al). (10a + ft)(10aft).1).8). 2. (6n + l)(+2). 35. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).1). 20. 13x(a + ft)(aft). ix 18. 8. 8. (g . y(x. . a. + 5) a. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 26. 2 17. 20. 4 (a . (4al)(a2). 22. 31. (ft + ll)(aftll). 29. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 35. . y) (a. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). x\x 24. 13. (4 18. Page 82. 3(x + 2)(zl). 1. (5x . 9. a(2u. 6. (a (p8)0> + l). 33. 5. 9. 14.2 by2 6. (15z2y)(x5y).1).+4 y)(3x4 y). 24 9. 17. 17. (y + 4)(yl). (y8) 2 2 . 28.4p). (2 *+!)(* 9). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 10(a . + 3). 28. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . .5y)(3a. Page 84.y4 ). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (a. 7 6) (a 10 6). 29.   . 30. 27. 100(x. (m7n) (a. 18. 10 a 2 (4 .y) 2 aft. 8) (a. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (<7 20. 6. 3. 30.3).ANSWERS 16. 20. Yes. 32. 10. 12. (:52y)(2a!3y). 11. (2yl)(y + 9). 23. ( 2 4 19.3)(z2). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). f 2). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (5wl)(m5). 23. 11. 26. x (z + 2)(x + 3). (3#y)(+4y). . 7. 40 x. 31. (9y4)(y + 4). 2 3 by2 Yes. No. Yes. + 4) (a. (13a +10)(13a 10). 13x7. (6 a. . 2. . 21. (m + n +p)(m + wp).11 6) (a 4. 12. 21. 11. + y + .2). 19. 25. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. No. Yes.  x (5 a.7) (a. 25.1). (w* (3a26). 21. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 24. 16. (a 3 + 10)(a. 27. 16.
Exercise 46. 3 x4 .!) (x42)(x2).?>) H. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (m  I)' 6. x43. 2(m4l)' . 6. 36.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).7)(^ {I 12.2). 19.X 5. 4.8) n 43*).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).4.7s) (2 a. 9. 4. 8. 13. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).e 4. y). . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ?>). 2.3. 17.'})(c . ofc)( fid). 8. . (a />. (5a+l)(9a). 7. 2 8(w .2).y '2 2). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (w4w) 2 1. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. Page 89.  WIM. 2 (a 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 6 f c). 4. 13. 8. 3x(x?/) 4. 18. (* _ 2 )(a 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. Page 92. 4. 12.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . a 4. 4 a s &8 . 30. 7. 1. (a 4. 2. 6. 22.2)(x 1. 35. (5 26. 7. (. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .l)( a 25. 5 x8 3. . 14. Exercise 47. 4. ah}.4. l. a 41. .3. a 4. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). a (a + 2 6). 7. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 2. 8x. 15. 4.1).4).4). 41. (14. . 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).y. 37.&). 13 x 8 2 . Page 12. 2 2 10. (f> + fo 7. 24. (^ 7. 14. (!__/>). (^ + ?>_8). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). y )(.?50)(xt/z. x 4. 8. 12.1) 3. 3(. (a &4. 2 1. (a 9. 8. 2 + . x  1). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).&).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .'/)('< 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 13( 33. 10(2 (3 4.y)(fi a . 6. 4). 17(x43//)(x2y).1). ( rt 23.  (w' 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 4 a8 . 14. 16. y6. 1(V/ 88. 11.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 20. 2 k (wi 4. . a x 3 10. 4. 15 M. 450. 11. Page 87.b. (5^4. (r420(4 10. 6. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 2 . 5. + 3. y(2x?/). 24x sy s 9. 8. a + a b. 38.42 x 4.3)(x 4. 9. 42). 2. 32. (x//. ( (<> r4y3 .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 28. 13.5 m2 x2. (w * . 5. 12.. 27. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4 3. 11. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 7. (> 1. a8 .r(3x' 2 4 (14. ( a ^)(^3. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).8).y). (c.  29. + 2 //). ?i(w 4y) . ^ . (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 2.0+ 12).?/). Page 86. 15.^ 48. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. Page 90. 8. 2 2 3 . n  r)(5a 10.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ( { &). 2 21.n). (5 31. 5. 42a 3 x.'J)(' . 7. 3. 8). 5  (2 2 . 14. b) (r 4. 6. ( y). 4 6. (16 4  2(5 n .36). 2 y) ^ .9). 39.))(x  ^OC 1 1). (x. fi(c426).8) ( (16. a 2 (a9). Gp). 4. 11. x(x f y)(jr . 10. r x 2 */3 . (7/1 2) (m 41).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).2 y). 16. 40. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .) j). 6. 5. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 4  9. x . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.
// m+1 !+*?. + &) 2 ( . + y) (a: y). a 10 25. 2(2al) + l).ANSWERS 10. + &)(&) ( . ?_!&. (a2)(a + 2)2. +8b a 4 3 / ^. b ! 21. 6a2&(rt6). x 24. 30(3 2 (a 15.6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . x 22. 1). 11. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. a 23. 18. +5 1. x 12.  1). 13.
3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i. c 8. A^. 30. 11. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.  **/* + 84 _. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . + 2H 1 ^.. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 4. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. w1 + ac w 4 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ^~ 29. 6. Page 101. 26. 7. xy 43. 0. i^. a 5. 6. 2 a.50 ~ 1/2 . 6a5f^. 6. ' 2 7. Page 100. 1. 4 L 8 2 . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 4c 10. 28.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. _*^p5_^^_. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. . + lH + .
20. . 10. (y + (z 12.  V o 4. ?+_!?>. . 6. Of.L+ft. 1. A. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 36.^U\WF### X<6. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. 4a3ft. a 17. 0.y 7. 39. 5. 18. 12. a. 42. 9. 12 28. ^_. 3 7 i o. 11. 37. 4. 1. 17. 43. Page 113. 8. 0. 17. 21. 3. x\. ac mp lf> n 12. 10. 5. ' 6. 9. (>. 6. 44. 6. 7. 4. 45. m 9. Page 110. 1. 5. 2ft a i m x. Page 111. f 7. 3. . x 1. 11. I) 2 3z 1. 1. 16. 14. 35. 32. 46. c 8. 41. 4. 6 . 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 5 be _J_. 19. . 4. 1. pf n 6 1. 3. Page 106. 30. 8. y(x + x ?/). 15. an 18. 12. + f. J. n m a + 13. b a f +c 14. flf. 24. 29. ft. 1. 21. 1. 23. 4. 27. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. J. 33. 14. n 16. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 34. 15. 21. b 2. x 05m ' 5.ft . 8j_m 7 3. 25. n . 40. 38. 9. w^x 2 b Page 105. j L . ^i 11. 5. 11.^_. 15. 7. 1. a2 2. 4. 13. 3. +3 ( + 15. 14. 1. 16. J. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 3. 1. 4. 7. 7. 11. 6. f Page 107. 2) 19. ! 4 20. ?. 11. 31. 6.  10 X + u. 26. 2 47.
* 7:9. 1:1 = 1:1. 1:1=1:1. 26 30. 4. 55 mi. 5. n 32. No. 38ft min. 28. jj.004. 9. 4. 20. 1. 75 . 14. 5. 11. 21. 1. 1:4. 18. gold. w 44. 9. 5 25. 30ft. Yes. 40wn.. Page 125.. 3. 15. 22. 34. 7. (ft) 5 da.15. 1. 20. 5. 9ft. 7. 11 hrs. 0. IV s. 10 yrs.0 & . 1: ~. 13. 7T 2 Page 116. Page 121. f . a 4 ft. 9J oz. 7. ^m . ^?i min. 5. 19. 3. 8301 hr. 18. 19. Page 119. 40 mi. 7 .000. 20..XIV '/ . ~m . 4. dn ~ mi. . 31. 7. 17. 10^ oz.001.9. 19. 17. 15. . 3:2. P+ ^ 33. 1:3. 2. 1 da. 8. (ft) 28.  29. min. 24. :2. Yes. 6.000. Yes. $00./hr. 10.. 26 mi. (ft) (r) 8 hr. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . (a) 12 hr. () 2. 1^'.. . . 1:1 = 1:1. 10.139. (a) 25. .. 26. after $12. 19. 24. 8. (r) 3^ da. 15.10. 3. 21ft min. 17. (ft) 5 hr.  C . w 18. 6. 3. 500. 5 2. 10. 74. '"I 22. . 13. 32. Page 124. 2x:3y. 15. 3 da. 15. ^p^ r ~ 7. 1 : 12. [>> ^ a . Yes. (c) 2 hr. (a) 4 min. w 21. " 0. $40. $30. 15.x + y. 16.2.} da. 1. f. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .000 If da. 11. Page 117. 30 mi. 18. _JL. 9$. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 7} 18.0.000. 10. 8. ANSWERS 16. Yes. 8. (d) 500.002. 30. J.000 1 = 23. 17. 300. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 7. 33. after 20. xy. min. (ft) 104. 212. 12. 23< &n b ' .. Page 118. 10. silver.11. 6. 81. 3. 9. 40 yrs. after 18. ft. 10. (c) 8300. 4fl M_.003. 35. 21. 7. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 14. Yes.. 2 20. 300. #V ~~ 34./hr. 4~r~ n . 15.. .138. 275:108. 10. 36. 00. 16. 30 yrs.137.2. 4. 12. 4. Yes. 300. 10. $45. J ^'..000. 5ft 30mi. = A's. 1:1 = 1:1. 9. 8. 27. 2:1. 10. 12. 11. Yes. nm. 16. 24 mi. No. (a) 30. 33. (d) 4 da. 13. 13.  + . 14. 14. 3. 2. $0.
. 13. 32+ mi.5. 18. 3. 57. s<i.5. ig 6. . 5 2. 3  24. 5. 8. 5. 6 10 = 12. 45. 3. . 3.5.*. 4. OJ. 16. 31J. lo mi. : XV 27. 3.17.3. J. 3.5. 53. 59. b x 37. 27. 49. 56. 3. 12. = 7 b'. 7. 4. *.J. 2. 4. 2. 4. J. 7.15 x. 6. 2. 9. 10. + W. 5:0 = 10:12. mi. 7. 6. 11 w a 13.J 3. 9. 28. 52. Page 5.x a. 11. . . 13J. . a +b 1. 4. 2. : : . a f 2 2 = 5 x. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . w. 2.  19. 7. 46. 2. Page 9. Page 134. 6. 5. 40. 39. 21. 35. 9.2. 50.3. y 1. 30.57. 2. 7.4. 23. 36. 7. 3.) 31. 58. 7.2.8 oz. 15.3. 22. 22. 14. 8. in n. 2..3. 19. 24.]." ^ 2. 2. copper. : : T 1' : /> : . (b) C C' = fi JR'.15. 19 OJ. . 38. 2.r. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 17. + b 7 .. 15. 7. 14.' : : : : <>. 1. 20 20 J ^. (a) Directly. 945 11 10 . 1. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 4.ANSWERS 22. "lO. 3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 9. 2. 25. 2. y a y = 7 0. 4. (I.7. Page 133. Inversely. 2 n . y :y =. . 11. 5. water. . mi. 11. 4. 2. . 44. 17. jc:y = n:m. 4.5. 14. 2. 141. 1. a 3. 23.2. 174+ Page 128. 2. 7. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.C ?/ a . 17. 5. 8. ' 55. () Directly. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 13. 29. 12. 11 5 . 2. 1. 2. 1. $./':</ c a f :y=2:9.3.. () 7 Page 126. i. w 8. 15> 9. 5.1.4. 2. 4. 5. : />.3. 2. 26. 25. 5:3 = 4: x. 54.46. 4. OJ. 24 1 (e) Directly. ini. 55. Page 135. 13. 10."2:1.5.5. \. 11. .12. 26. 5. 19. . x y y . tin. 7. 1(5.1. 1 18 = 3 51.000 sq.160. 20 cu. 3. 6. 13. 21.  ?. 31. 20. 2. 41. x 42. 20. 36.2 oz. 47. 7. x:y a: b. 9  15. land.1. 41.12.7. (b) Inversely.840.  28. 8. : .a. 1.2. 2. 7. 10. a~. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 25. 3. 1. 200 mi.36. (</) ft. . 5. 8. I. 1.2 x. : 23. ~ 1.5. 3. 2. 2. 6. 138.3.000 sq. 3. 2. 2. l. 19 3 . 1. 24. J. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 9. x y = 1 = 3 2. . 9. 43. 4. 5. 4.6.3. 12. 3}. 127. 11. 7.1.4. 30. Page 137. 16. 3.3. ft. 7.3. 4. \\. 7.li. 4. 12.4. 2. 10. Page 131. in. 19. x +y x + 74 7 \. 3 2=3 x.5.20.^ 0?j ' gms. 48. 8. 40. 6*. 9. t 5.9. Page 136. y .22. /.1. 9. Page 132. 7^. cu. 32j. 1 rt * vm^1.4. 7. 14. Of. 16. 3. J pq. 1. 8.3. 5.
(ft) 20. 32.0. Page 142. 30. 1. be 7. 3. 13. 9. Jan. Page 152. . 12. &. 14. 21. About 12f. Feb.  17. 23. 12. 5%. July 20. 6. u 2ft. 6. 18. 11. m + n p. 13. Nov. 4. Page 151. Page 146. 90. 15./hr.0. . 4. 4. 2 horses. 1. <*ft/ bd 1.10. be 10. 7. 30. 3. 2. 26. 16. Aug. 16. . 20 & Oct. 3. a. 8. July. 1. 5. Page 22. C's 30 yrs. 7. at 15. 18. 11. 1. (<f) 13. 2.n + p. 2.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 5. 3. 1. 9. July. 3. 4 ' q. M 2. 9. 4. 1 (c) Jan. On the x axis. 3. 25. 2. through point (0. . 2. 0.. 5. 3. 10.1. 10.65. B's 40 yrs. 11. 4. 31. yrs. & part of Feb. 4 mi. Nov. . 14. 2. 29. $900 5%.XVI Fagel39. 1.3. A a parallel to the x axis. C's 10 yrs. 00. 2. B's 15 yrs. 19. 4. 3. 3. The ordinate. A's 30 18. 2.4. 10 sheep. Page 149. (5. J. (c) . On 11. 6%. 7. Jan. 2. 1. 28. 3. 15. 2.. 10^ gms. 7. 6. 21. 25. 13. 3.3. a =J (n  1) rf. 40. 20. 18. 1. 12. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 72. 4. 20. 17. A's 50 13. 22. (a) 12. 6. May 5. 5. 23f . yrs. 6. 9.4. ad _(?jrJL. ad AzA. 7. 24.1J. 9. 5.. 4. 2. $250. .7. 2. 3. 20. ft 3. 1. 1. 7. 11. Nov. 16 to July 20.. 2. 25. 27. 10. 1. 11. m f 8. 4. 15. 9. Page 153. 2. m f 9. 24.2. 7. 12. ' . ^. $4000.3. June. 16. 10. 20. 7. . SL=J o ft r^2. 4. 4. 4.  11. . 12. ' 6 3 a. 2. 16. . 3. 6. 2. 1 (d) Apr.1. 24. 4. 8. 14.$2000. 19 gms. 24. 17. 16. Jan. 6 cows. On the y axis. 30. Apr. 8. Jan. 10. Oct. 147. 3. parallel to the x axis 0. 6. 7. 0. Apr. 5. 26. 3. 5. 11. 1. 7. $ 1000. 3. .. Jan. Page 145. 40. . 3.2. 17. .l. 5.. 3. 16. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . & part of Sept. 8. 4. 20. $500.^. 4.9. $6500at3Ji%. (a) Apr. 5.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. m . 25. 2t2. & May. 3. 0. 423. . 20 to Oct. 18. 3.33. $3000. 2. 23. 2 a. 6. Nov. = ^ a Page 141. 3).4.$5000.8. 2. 100. 19. 5. Page 143. (ft) 23 J. Apr.
26. 125 16. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. m. 2. (a) 4. 25. 4. 27 19. . 2ft4 Page 168. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.. 14. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .3. (ft) (ft) 2. (gr) 21. 30. 12. 125 a 8 12. 20. 27.75 (ci) 3^. 13. .6. 5.75.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . f12 wi 9. . a + ft. . 1. 14. 4. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.. 32F. 24. 13. 10. _ 9 x ^27 1 . . 1.4. ' :=_!.27. Inconsistent. G. 19. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.. 22. . . 2. 3.84. 1.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 15 . 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 9 and Page 166. 2. . 11. (/) 3.59 . 3 . 19.24 . 83. . 13. 3. .73.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2. 2 a&m Page 167. 10. 4}. 3.  12 ft xW  26 31. 1. () (rt) 3. 1. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (ft) and (d) 2. 3. (c) 14 F. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. (e) 3.25. 7.5 (ft) 3. 2. 8 1 f f g*.  .41 and 23. 0C. Page 159. \ft) 5. . 2. ImW.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. xg . 2. (/) 3. .  1. a 10 ' a ll V&. ft . 1. 2. jgiooyiio 17.75. 8. 1. * 16. 21. . 1. 1. 16.25. 5. 15. 2. 4. 17. . 1. 1.64. 3. 2.75. 5. 2. (a) 12. a 29. 3. 1^. + a 4 ft* . . 28. ft 2 4.. 8mW.17 (ft) (c) 2. Page 158. 1. xW. 5 and 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . (e) 2. 1. 2. 3. 13C.5. Page 164. . 10 C.25. 2. 6.25. 125a 28. 15. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 8. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 20. 3. . 1. 2 l. 81 ". SlstyW 7. .  1.83. ." 23.59. 12. 3. 5. .79. . .83. Page 163.1. 30. 3. (ft) (d) 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. H. Inconsistent.41 and . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.64. 11. 11. 8. 1. 6. 4. 10. xy.73. 24. 3. 3. 15. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . 18C. . 9.34F. (<?) 2. (a) 5. 1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1 23. 2. 1. 13 . 8 a1. 3. 4 ) 21. (c) 7. Indeterminate. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 22. (ft) 2. 3. . 14. 5. 18. Indeterminate. f. 27 27 81.73. 14.79. f 10. 3. 4. 2. 1 4. 5.73 ami . 3. 3.7. 2. 1.13. 2 2 22.3. f. 4.2 (ft)  1. H.67. 9. 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. 5.24.25. +3 4.24.5. 4. 1. (a) 2.1. (c) 2. 3. 0. 3.
1. 18. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 12. 3 2 8 3 12. 16. 36. 309. 8. a 2 . (1 (x2y). 21. Page 172. 15. (2 a + ft). 8.  +X '. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 20. 9. 4. 6. 4. 2 2 7. 34. 5 5 8. 16. wi 8 + 3m 2 . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 12. 8. 17. + l). 16 6 w . ? . . 4. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 35. . + i)). (a + 2 +l). +35. 22.x ). 10. 25. 9. 3 2 ^. 101. 420. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 237.  x.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.f 1 m 9 16. . m 13. 15. . 64. 2. 33. 14. 1. 11. 76. a ). (ly). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 9. 0. Page 176. AN S WE no .5). a: l . 8 /. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .i c 6 15. 24. + 29. 6 (\x 3. 6. 9. 9. 4. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. ??i ?i . 1247. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 70. + y). ^i. ?7i 1 1 3 1. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 2. /> 4 ). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.r 2 + 6jt). 13.94. 31.XV111 7.3 ab + 2 2 ). 99. Zll. 300. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 8. 15. 2. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 90. 3. 10 x G a 4 . 11. 57. 17. 10. 3. (4a2 9& 2 13. ? : 1 . 30. r> 4 : 1 .037. 763. 21. a. (ab + c).1. 1 1 ?>). 5. 2 4 8 2 . 15. Page 171. 119. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 6. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 2 2 4. 18. 25 19. 71. Page 170. 7. 9. 3M. (3a. 2038.83. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. (x + y\ 90. (Gx + (i + 2a. 3.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 1. 84. 5. . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 2. 10. 16. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5. + + ?V 22. 2. (a + y+l). 18. 40. 1. 11. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 2 12. (x' l). (l + x + . (48 + 6. 14. + (win .+3^ + 4. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 30. 247. 180 . 32.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). a.6. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 20. 00.7 /)). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 20. rt .y2 ). fe *?>' ?> fi . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 10*. 6. . 12. +3 + 5 4. 26. 98.10 a~ + 5 a . 23. ( Page 174. 6. 2 49 .2). 5. 72. 978. . 17.^). c 10 6 :l 20. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 5.5.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. GOO 2 c 2 . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 19. 3.1. 7. 13.a b 22. 20. 28. I 8x2). . 27. 14. 2 ?>i?< >2 10.GO a c + 23. (a 2. 3 6 23. 8. 19. 11. + Z). ). . . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 90. 14. 7.
29. Af^. 9. 3. 7. 18. 9. l~8. ft. 15. 5. . " ^_ 22. 10. 4 n. 21 in.6. 16. 3. 23. vYb.  14. 29. f 3. ZLlAiK 19. ft. 10. 4. 13. f. 2. ft. 3. 1. 50. 2. . i ^. 6. Page 179.V 8j. . 11. vV'TA 24. 4J. i. 33. 39 in. Page 181. 29. 2. 7. 6yds. Page 180. 21yds.}. 25 J.. 10.*. 3. 31. 40. 21. 3.935. 1. / 11. 9. 34. 13. 21.6. 2. }. ~ V^3. V. 4. 15. V2. 9. 15.18. 23.  1. 7. 8. 4. 24. 12. 5. 4 TT M 28. ^. 1. >i 27. V2. 35. 28. 7 45. 12. f .4. . {. 1 7.  2. 26. .237. 27. 5. 25.645. 12. 27. 14.. 20. 270 sq. or 5. 28 in. 37. 40. 6V'2J. 5. 5. 2. 44. 10.. 6J. (afl). 22.925 ft. 6. a. 2. 11. 17. Page 183. 19.798 yds. 25.60.6. 32.4. 1. 17. 1. 48. 8. 10.?. 7. 49. 32. 36. 12. 16. v 17. xix 26.i. . 7}.1.1. 19. 16. 3. (6) Vl4 3. 8. 5f.522 38. 2. Page 177. 4. 5. 2] see.4.  f. 5. 1. Page 185. 5. f ^ is. 7563. \/3. 36. 5. V17. 3. 7. .469. 12. 1. 7. 1 f Vl3. 11. 1 38. 21 28 ft. 9. 2. 17.13. 8. 6. 42. 6. 10. 14. 6561. 7. 24. 3. 5. 13. 14. 2. 39. m.916 yds. * 1. 31. If ^.w 18. 1. f. . 5. 2. _ iVaft. 7 in. 2 sec.. 4. 34. JJI. 1. 36 in. 3J. 4. *. 11.367.243. 3. 15. 33. 9.. 4 W**. 8. 1&. 4. 20. 46. ii :J _7.  3. 20. 5083. 3. 7.005. V35 1. 11. 13. 16... 1.a. 35. ^. a + 61. 4.. V J l. 15 1 10. . 6.5. 6V21. 12.6. 6. 9.ANS WERS 22.. 5. 10. 6. w. 41. 12. 37. 6. . 7. 14. 47. 12. 10. 30.6. 30. 39. 16n.  f. 13. 9 15 ft. >TT 26. or 3. 10. 2. 3. 4.  43. f f V.Sn. 2. 28. . ^^7m. 4. 4. 8. 18.690. 23. 4 a. 15. 1. 4. (< + ?>). m..236. . () 2.742 in. 3. 21. J. 6 f !.5. 5. 7. 14. 3. 5. 9. > w ft. /. 2. Page 184. 4. 7. 3.  5.
10. Real. Page 190. 16.48 3.17. 2. 8. 4. 2. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 2.12 = 0. equal. 2. unequal. 6^2 in. 25.2. Imaginary./hr. 3. Real. 34.]. 2. equal. 11.  13.'. 14. 23. 0. 1. H.. 45. t is. 7. irrational. . . Real.  1. r* i. f. 12. 41.  Page 194. 3if.7. 25.5^.2. 27. Imaginary. 15.  6. 3. 3. unequal. 13. 35. Page 187. 1.  2. . 1. 1. x 14. 56. 28. 4. 15. AB = 204 ft. 1. . 3.6. . f. 3.* 2. 6. 33. 10. $30 or $70. 11./hr.7. x2 + B . 2. 7. unequal. rational..59. 2. 0. Page 188. 8\/2 17.4. 7. 28.2. 3. 4. 18. 2 . 12. 3. 3. 35.  2. 6V64. 1.. 49.7. unequal. 24. 1.l. 4. 44. s 11. 21. 1. orf. 9. V^~2.  1. 26. a. 8. 13.12. 8 or 12 mi. 6. 5. unequal. 6. 2. 8.a. Imaginary. 6. in. 21. 26. 46. 6. .4. 1 . #<7=3. 0.a 3 a.02.5 x + 6 = 0. If. 20.48. 2. Page 191. 19. 1. 15 ft. 53. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 20 nii. VV11. 12. 3.  1. 58.0*8. 15.4. 25. 36. 1. 32. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 7.37. 3. 6. 6. 1. $80. irrational. 3. a8 . 20. 9./hr. 4. Real. 3. 2. 0. 3. 1. . 2. 7. . 23. 2. .5. 3. 40. . a + 6. 1. 0. 5. = 0. 39. 19. 7. Real. . 47. 1.23.3. V^l. 10. 38. unequal. AB = 3. 3./hr. 0. 1. 14. 64.. 3. V ~ 16 4 2. 1.  1. V^l. 9. 17. V2. jr . %. $ 120.1.2.2. rational. 19 in. 2 V3 in. 0. 6.  5. 4. . . 16. v^^fcT"^.62. a + 1. U. 24. 12. 2. .1. 28. 3. 5.a. 1). Real.. 10 or 19. 7. 5 ft. 1. Imaginary. 37.  1. 18.. . 10 mi. rational. ANSWERS 22. 2. 52. Page 192. 7. Real. 3. *'' 12. a. 16. 20 eggs.1. 42. 55.  24. 10 mi. unequal.41. unequal. rational. 0. 5. 5. 3. 27. 0. . 2. 4. 2. 48. 0. . 2. i. 3. 1. f 6 52 a. equal. 3. .3.$40 or $60. 29. 30. 2. 4.  9x <). 23. 0.2. 0. 18. 1. unequal. 25. 0. ' 1. 50.2. 2. 8. V2.  5. 4. .XX Page 186. 26. 22. 26.3. _ 19. 4. 1. 22. Real. 70 ft. 10.6 = 0.2. + 11 x. . 21. 1 3. . 2.70. 6. 64c. 1_^L ft 14. 20. 43. 27. x* 51.2 x2 . ft.  i.4. 3. 31.Oa. 2. (5 10. 0. Page 189. 2. 6. 120 ft. rational. 2. 9. 2 ft. '  f 5. 12.74.4. i . 4 da.2. x*4x=0. . 0.2. V7. 0.23. 24. 10 in. 3. 57.
31. . 7. 2. 3. 18. 22. 41. 44. . Page 199. 2. $7. m. 3. 7. J. 2. 17. vm. 11. &. 3. m'. v. 19. jV 10. 10.  f. 9. . x. 0. 59. . 26. Page 200. 9. 3. 4. 7V7. J. 49. a 18 . 2V a. ifa. 56. 11. v/3. 6. 20.2. 2 L ( V. 46. 49. 5. 0. 15. 84. 9. 50. 4. 17. 24. 125. 4. 20. Jb \. 25. a. 38. 12*2 61. 8. 1. 51. 5.//^. 29. V^ 34. 1. 43.  J j. *V. xxi 15. 3. J. 3. 0. 2. 32. 243. 4. \/3. 48. 2. 21. 13. .  f . 2. l  5 12. 1. 1. 1. 29. 30 a. . 13. aW\ 40. 3. 13. 3.^7. 1. 4. 13. 27. 2. 1V1. 10. v'frW. 19.1 5 15. 40." 17. 16. vV. ^Sf 3 38.  5. 30. v'frc 18. 25. 10. 20. 1. 50. 25. 32. 8. 3. JV37. 29. 8. 33. r. 12. 9.ANtiWEUS rational. 54. 55. 39. 1. \a\ \/^. 57. 60. 23.  48. 2. 23. 4. 5. \ . 14. 27. 4. 21. 2. (m 26. Page 201. 14. \. 5. \. 18. 47. wA 46. 30. 5\/5.  a'2 . 7. 3. 35. 58. J 3. 20.17. 33. fx'^z'l 23. 7 . 37. ^49. 31. z + 22. 3. 'J. 21. 6. 6  AAf. 15. y. ar 1 . \/. 16. 9. ). 42. 1. 8. 15. 1. 49. 16. . 45.. 17. n\/* Page202. y . 3. 3 4 11.32. 9. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. 4. 8. 12. J. I. 53. 24. : . 28. 2. 24. x$. \/r\ 11. 8. 8. 1. x/25. 1 39. 52. ? . 19. Vr. p.6. v^T4 m. 19. . 10. 16. 18. 22. 36. 28. 33. 8. r*. 5. 14. . 49. Page 197. 14. Page 196. 47. . 5. 2. i. _! V3.
48. ftV 46. 2\/7. 2. ). 3 a~ 3 (x (. 16. 26. JIV6. x%  3 ^+ 1. 17. 8V/) 15. r c . (x' (l 1+x). + . 37. 9. 3^2. 5 ( . 3V^T.. 2. 28. 31. x + 5 x3 + 0. l 5. x 25. 19. 2 x* 15. 2 '"V5. + + ft. 51. 1. Page 208. 27. Va 2 "ft. 3 42. 16. + 2). 26. 24. v/^r 5  A/^~. 3.3 + 40 3 . 4. 45. 10. 23. x^ . V80.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. ^: V2c. 3 \ 39. 5. 28. 40. 32. 31. 8. . a 4 +* + !.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. y. 20&V6. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 2.f. 101 1. 2. 11. 29. a^ + 2^+1.  a Vft 2 121 b. 22. a2 4. 20. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. V. 34. 18. ^7 \AOx.XXii ANSWERS 1. V2 + 4 V22. V 5 47. . 9. . abVab. 4aV^J 16. 03r* 7. 29. Page 203.). 50. 25.'\ 14. ^88".648. / V3. 11. 30. 1 2 or 1 ?.rV:r. 3. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. T. 49. 135V6. . 24. yV35. + Vic + 25. 15. 9 . 6. 2v (T 2aVf. 33.2 18. 30. 3 4\/2. 5 22. x 7  34. 34 r 6. V63. 1) 3V3. 7. 7. m* n*. 38. Vr 8. 13 a.2 VlO. 10. 40. (o* 2. . Page 207. (a 27. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 2 4 z2 l 3. 13. x y.707. . 2. r 17  Page 204. y (a + ft) V2. ?tV?w. + 2 ar 1 ).r. v^. . 4. 11V3. 13 35. x. 43. 5. 2 a?>V2 a. 2>X2. 21. 195V3.Vxy 35. 37. 8. 9. 41. + 2 V22. 6.yl : .577. 19. + 1. . v'TM. 20. 32. 8a6V5. 36. V. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).  2 3:r. 62V(J. 12. k/2. + 2 Vzy + y 1. a 3.x^y* + y%.632. 3. 17. 13. 39. 21. 10. 2. 3V5. 3^ + 2).692. 3 x^y 33.
7. \V3. x/w^ 8. 32. ^27. 17. Vn. 36. 44. 12. a2  b. 38.. w?i. \/a6c. 8V73\/IO. 18. 49. \^r^bVabc. 52. 16. 40. 30. v^f. 21 23. ab 4. 24. 43. 19. x/8L v/27. \/8.T*. 27. 36. 74\/Jl 120 46. 10. "v/wi ??. 3. 25. 9. 24. 6. 13. \/abc*. VT5. V2. m ?i2Vm/t. 17. 5V2. rtv/5. V/. ^\/3. 11. 32. 8v2T 12. 3v^2. : ^32. 0. 41. 37. 22. 5 \/2. v7^. 35. 21. 13\/3. 2 \/2. 6. 23. 3 V15  47. 25. 11. V3. \^6. 10. 14. x/125. 3\/wi. 6. 2yV2?/. 8V2. 50. 6aV2\^. Page 210. ^v 7 15. a^\/a7>. 20. Vdbc. vT). 40. 5. 2 ate. b. 1.r v/^ v^fr*. 31. 51. v/i). V8. 3 Vl5 30. 4VO. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 38. 30 Vl4. Page 213. 10. 2 V'3.ANSWERS _ Page 209. . 14c 4 V5. D 45. v^30. 35. 16. 4. 3\/15  6. 34. 4 a*. 9 VlO + 4. x/3. 4. 1V5. Page 216. 48. 15. 28. 3. V2. 27. \/2. 11. x/27. 2\/7. . v 25^4714 V2"a. 8. 2 28. 33. 34. 26. 3 V2. 6. 3\/2. 3. Vat. \/128. 37. 5V2. v/8. 14. 13. . 2 1. v/lO. 32m27n. . 7. ^ 3 b 5 24. 2. \^6. 6. \XOfl6Vi5. 18. Page 214. 1. 26. 4\/5. "^8000.J Page 212. v^4. V3. x/4. xx 1. v/l2. 9. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 9. . 31. 17. 10V(). 21. 5. W). 18. '. 0. Page 211. V5.  3.30 2. 19. fl^Vac. / \/w/t 4 13. 14. 22. 2. 2. Vtf +3+ 33. 29. % 29. x/8. . 3. 2. 5v/2. 5. x/8l. 6V2. a\/5c. V5. 39. 6x2?/. 15. ^9. v"3. 1. VJla. 8  \/15. 2. v/9. 7\/(l 7VTO. 23. 4 >/3. v^lf. 8. \/04a. r)\/(l Vrtr. 12. v"5. aVa. . + VlO  v y (5. 53. V3"m. 6 2\/0. + 20. 3. 39. 42. 6+2V5. v^a. 16. v^O. 46. 7.
Page217. . Va. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 24. xy 2. 25. 15. ^. 33. 216.1547. 23. (V21). 7.\/TO). 20. 17. 1. V2. 5.3.4142. 1. {. 4V3 + 6.2828. 6. 7. * 3. 11. (V8 + V2. Page 223. 32. 16. Page220. 29. 18. 12. 14. 26. 24. 4. ^\/2. 20. 16. 2. V^TTfc. 9. 4 14.1805.389. 8. 21 ' Vob 26. 5. 8. 36. 3. 9.6 V3. 3. 3(7+3V5). 1. 23. 125.9. 4. (V6 + 2V2). V35. ~ Vac _c 0. 19. V3. 37. 19. 4. Page 218. 13. 2.. 8. 29. Page 225. V3. 31. K>/0 + \/2). 2 . Page 219. 16. 1. 9. 25.2. 5 f. 19. 10.XXIV 7.5. ^. 0. p 6 13. 15. 2. 15. ^(VlO\/2). . (2Vll). 27. (a 1. 11. 5. x 20.732. 4. 34.3535. j 15. 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . V5. fV2. Va. (2V2). 5. 6 (V2 + 1). 19. 9. 13. 35. i^Lzi. . .2. (V5f 5. 18. 224. 25. i(Vf Vft). . \. ^r. 21. 5. 10.0606. !^ 6 4. 24. V3 . 25. +3 V2). 2.  13. 17.7083. 4. 7. 6 V. 22.625 10. Page 28. 12. . 10. \/3). A . n*.4722.  . 8. 9. ' 22 i . 7 Page221. 6. . 15.  f. . 30. 0. (\/5V2). 3V23. 5. 21. 10. 16. . 23. 5 + 2 vU 17. 9. . 2V3. 18. 5.7071. (V51). 6. 4. 16. (VllV2). 10. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 7. 9. V6c. 24.732. 13. (2f V"5). 15.1. 64. 10. 23. f. _^JflJ?. \/57t. nVTl. Vf6fVtf. 4. 4. 9 mn. 1. 5 V65. (\/3f 1). Page 226. 81. 8.81. 18. 12. 22. 7. 6. 22. 4. 18.^ (\/22 4. + 6) 2 . 14.64. 3. 20. 2ajV2*.3. (VaT^v a). 12. 7 f 5 4. j.  2. V3. 2V2. ANSWERS 8. 16. 1. 100. 14. 4.13. 3. (2.6. J. 16. 26. 1. 2x^2^. 3. . 4.601. 27. 4. (3+ v/2). 512. J. 7. 21. 9. 9. 2V3. 4. 1. 11. 17.5530. 10. (Vf + (4 V2). 25. 3. 2!5_. 5. 11. 30. 20.464. 81. 25. 2. 14. 1. 7. 19. 3. 17. 2. 11. 25.V3). 1. 11. m f. 8 V3V2. 6. 16. 8. 12. 8. 2. 12. 27.w 6. 28. 23. 1. 8. + 5V2. 7. V. 5. 4.
6. (8.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). J. 8. . b . 11. 2.r . 2. 1. 2. 12. 0. (a . . f . 16. 10.  16). 20. . 3. 3. 3. 12. 25. . 1. 6. 0. .l)(a3)(a . 4. .0. 7. 30 . 4. 1. 1 6. (a+&)( 2 14.ANSWERS Page 228. 3.3 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 3.w 4 + 1). 2 V^ . 4. XXV 4.2. 5. 5. 6. 30. 5. J Page 235. 0. 12 24 y . a  .4. .4). 7. . ' J. 7. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2. 19. 18. 6 2 2a + 2). 13. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. 7. 11. 0.nl^EI.  1. . 3. V3. 10.3. 2. 5. qpl. 10. 4. 5. 28. 2. 1 . 2 6. 2. 3. 21. 24.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). =A^Z3.  4. 2 . 14. y. 2 .1. 23.  2. Page 233. o.  3. 2. 4. 5. 30. (&y2a#H4).  f . 1 3. 4.3). (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 3. 6. 1. 4 20. 1. . 13. 4. 2. 2.7. 9. 3. & + 6 2 ). 8 6 & 0. ~ f7. 20. 25. (2 a. 8. 2. 1 . l. 6. 2 . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). a .Y. 5. 5. 3.5. 2 <? 4a2 .1. 6. (m 4 + l)(ro. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 18. (r.3. 1. a(. 30 30. 2. 3. 3 5. 16.10. 8. 0. 5. 8. 9. 1. a: :} . . 2 &. 10. 11. 4. 3. 24. 3.  1. 15. . 7. 3.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 0. 3. 3. 4. 10. 7. 3. 2. 2. 2. (pl)(p2)(p2). 3. 5.2)(* . 73. 12. 4 .3. 1 (?> x/^3. 6. . 4. 13. 17.  3. 1. 11. 0. 20. 4.5 xy + 25) 22. 87 . 14. . 1. 7. 3. 2 > 1. 0. 2. 5.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). P.22.l)(m . 9. 2. (+!)( 2) 10. . 2. 2. 3. 1. 2 6. 2. Page 234. 2. . 12.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). t/ 23. 22. (a. (pl)(p3)(p6). 73. 15. 2. 8. 10. 4. 4.  J. 1 . . . ( 16. 3. 12. 2. 1 . 1. 26. 19. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 15. (rt. (a 4.  . 3. 1. . 4. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 25. 1.^a. 7. 4 1. 1.. 4. 5. (a. 4 . 13.3. 3. 21. 4. 3. 1 . 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 2 .4. //. 14. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 3.4. J. 11. J 24.3. 1. 2. 22. f>. 25. 3 . 17. 19.2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 56l). (B43). (w . 4. 4 4. 5. 100. (4 mn .  5. 4. 17. 3 9. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 3 . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . . 1. 5. 50. 13. (a + 2) (a Page 229.  3. \/0. 1.3. .12. 2. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (63)(6' t 18.2)(m.8a 18. 8. Page 236. 4. 11. .l)(a 2 + a f 1). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3 .2. 1. 2.
11. 19. 14. 38. Indeterminate. (&) 2. 3 . }.1. c. 78.3. 1. 24. oo. 3 3. . 9. f. f>. 2V7. 2. 28yd. 3.. 2 10. 5 cm. . 125 125. 1. 2 Y> V . _ 5. in. +  n. 12 ft. 4. 16. 5 4. 4. 3. 15. . 15. 1. 36. (/>) "_. 14. 4 6. Indeterminate. 1. 5. 7 3. 512. . 2. 12ft. 1..3. n.020. 2. 1 . 2. . 21. 3V5. . 12. 2 1. 2 2. Page 238. Page 239. 25. . . Page 244. 5. 4. oo . 8. 7. in. . 4.. 3 . Page 240. . 1.  .3. 1 . 14. 3. 3 . 14. i j. 6.3. . . = QO 6. 11.5. Page 243. 3. 1. 29. 3. ri*. 0. . J. 1. 2. 12. 4. GO . 23. 7.. 21 30. 1. 2.4. 30 13. . . 1 . 7f solution. 55.4. tn 2. Page 248.2. 5. 1. 17. 1. 2. 5. 20. 1. 11. 10. 16. 9. 0. 1. 20 in. 14. 3. 5. 69. 84. 3. J. 22. \/6. 30. . 4. 3. 2 . . 3 cm.4. in. 30. 10. in. 1. 35 a. 31. 15. 2. 400. . oo . . 17. 5 . n . 1. 12 1. (a) 5.y. 11. 4 8. V3~. . 35 ft. jj. 11.136. 37. 3. 14. } . 6. 3. Page 241. 1. 4. 48.  1. '>. 3 2. 3. 41. 8. ft. 2. .5. 0. 40 25 in. 3. 2 . 2. 1. 1. Page 247. 201. 5.1. 1. 5. j. 26. . 4. ^ }. 16.. _ 13 (0 6.30. 3. 8. (a) $3400. 3.3. 40 in. 5. . m27. 35. 9. 17. 18. .xxvi Page 237. 1. and _ 4. 3. 5. 35^ 5. 2. . 5. 5.3. 2 16. . 40 1} 9 3 ft. 5. 512. Exercise 113. 1. 6. 4. 4 . 8. . 3. m28. 15.6. 4. 5050. Exercise 114. 7. 33. 2n. 40. 2. 8.  11. 2.0. \. 15.. 2. 13. 3 4. J. 13. 20 7. _ 7. 6. 1. 1 .200.. 2. 1. 2. 5. $. 1. 2 26. 1. . Page 245.1. 7. 2. 5.. 3. ANSWERS 2. . 4. . 14. no co .13. V7. 2. 17. (>. 37. 3. 20. 5. 21. 3..  2 . 15. 45yd. i.e. 8. 10. ( 3. 4. 4. 12. . . 6. 2. 10. 11. 24. 2. 5. 8. 8 3. 3. 1. 3. 7. 1J. 1. m + n. 4. 3. 9.4. x 4. . 1.6. 3. 2 ft. 12.18. $46. 17. 9. 12.3 . 23. 50.0. 8ft. in. ' j. _ 10. 18. co . $VO. 50. 9. 7.3. ^~2. 1. . 12 d. 900. 32. 2. . 4. i'ljVU. . 31. ft. 4. i i i . 4 34. 4. ft. 37. 1. 1 . 4. 17. 13. 8 . 18. 4. 4. 12. 22. 4. 4. 1.. 3. 1 2. 3. 1. f*. J. 2>/3. 19. 5. 8. 15. 39. 5. 7. 288. 2. 3. 2 . 2. $.
1. 3. . 18. 9. in. 128. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1.680. 22. r r j. . ^a 8.4. x r 4.170. 22. a.6. 28. 27. 19. J 2 //2 25. 4 0.v Page 253. 1. 3. 4.2 45 a 8 /). 8. 15. 35. 343. &' 14. 26. 1. 43.ANSWERS Page 250. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 3. sq. 4. (). f y 8 + z* . 10. 7. 16. 7. 1000 aW. 13. 16. 5. 2. and 1. 70. 8 1. 12.6 . 15. REVIEW EXERCISE .470. 20. 120 aW. 2. 4. 6.2 9.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7. 8. 4. i 10.5y 4 .4 &z x>&. 6. 17. 12. 8. 14. 27. Y11.504. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 10. 708.5.5. 3. 0. 6. 05.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 16. 15. 81. 100. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 9. Ja. 5. 12. 125. 4. . 9. 6. 4. 9. 3. 2. 13.8. 5. 1. Page 252. 0. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 21.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . a4 4 14. 4.r x>/ 7 3. . 44. 2. 5. 12. ?/i 6 x llj . 005. xxvii 1. } $ 50. 1. 0.  101. 4. 1. 11. 6. 8. 495.13. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 1 14.3 ays. 18. I. 6. 18. Jj? 45. 304. 13. . 16. 8 . 7. 343. 5.120.700. <. 19. 8. 5.870 m*n*. 3. 6.  17. 55. 20. 32.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 5. 2i* 7f.r* 4 70 . Page 258. 2. 12. 3. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. . 125. 11. 7.  20 flW. 5.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. vy. . 6. 280 53. '23. 48. 19. 4. 9. 10. 10. 20. 0. 5. . 2. 15.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 327. . 1 7 4. . 1JH. . 29. 910. 8 4x' 2 . r 5 4. Page 254. 3. 0.7 10. ' 1. 1. 0. 4. 3. 1. 12. 23. 4. 16. 4. 0.r 4. 4. 70. .5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 25. 4. 35. 4. 4.53. 45. 0. 7 x4 17.12 x*y 16. 105. 6i. 8J.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 9. 5 13.210. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . A. 3.x' 10 . x + Vy. 220 . 04. 8. 8. 8. 6.<2 4. d. 45. 3. 12. 8. 192. 50. .^ ?>i 2412x4. 2. 5.1.419. 2. 16 11. 18. 16.384. 27. 10. 7. 2. . 12.5 x. 410. B .920. 7. w9  8. 1. 3. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 8. 10. 15. 4. 16. . 27. 2.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 1820. 10 14. 17.192. 4950 M 2 b y *. \ w 4 . 04.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . G. JSg. 7. 17. 3. 21. 75. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . . 1. 45 Page 257. 11. 2. 70. 0. Page 259. ~ an . **+. />*. ~v 9. 2. c. 53.0. 5. x4 . 2. 405.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .
a 3m 4.6 b. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.3 a 2 '6 w 4.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 37.5 b + c .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. a* a 8 a aftc.  e +/.9 b. 21.c.a. 3a~2c. 32. 104. x2 a2 1 . +^ + ft W. 88.4 ac.3 . 91. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 86. ^ . . 100. . . 114. a J . ..{ 54. ?/ 3. 10 a 12 b. x . x4 f + 23 .3 a'ft. x 8  a8 . 131. t 81.3 aftc. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. . 107.x. 105. 1 . x 3 41. . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. /> 4 83. (a + ft)" 98.  . () 2 x 33. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 122. 23. 4. + z. 5 4 4. ?> .5. 3 a . 10 4.3 b .1. .2 x 4. 1 x 45. . y 4 z* 0. x8 x2 55. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.3 103.rty x2 4 123. 243x4729. c3 4 58. 118. x' . ft /> 78. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 46. 5x + 2y~z.4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.ac 44 aft. 39. a 4 . 125. 35. x } 4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .fee 2 4. 96. . 43. 31. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.105. 50.9 x . m " + n + P3c . 24. 29. 28. x2 471x4. ?/ .7 x   15. 2 2/' . 72. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 3 36 b c . 132.  12 a.2. . 2 2a 2 2 2(a.7. . az 4. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 3 c . 40. x 3 4.2 c . x 2 .1. . 36. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 3 a 5 a 5. 2 30 . 4 Page 264. . a2 2 aft 2 2.1. a' 111.1w 77. I 57. a* 4. 2 113. a~b 89. .a6 2 4. . 16t/.x 2 4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 0. df. 4 fee 4. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .18 ?/ 5x4.15 4 62 x  72. 4 2 . 2 a. . Page 260. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 1 121. . 22.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 2 q. 4ft y3.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 13 + 2 s. 6 a2 97. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.6 am b\ 129.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 27. &p 84. 30.4 2 4 c2 42 . 25. 2 . !! 71. Page 263.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 6a6c. 94. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.2. 70. 2 .a'2 c. 0. 4.3 x 2 + 3 x .4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.4. ft n . + a 4. x* . x 4. . 110. . 102. 124. 130.3 y. as 20. x 8 + x 4 68. 120. . .4 x y 87. 8x3 8x. 3a'2 Page 261. + 3 a?. 14 x . 80. 2 53. .^a .4. 76. 52. 109. 49. 63. 127.4 x?/2 3 4. 133. 4 115.  + 3 x2 . 0. a4 x.1. ft2ft 4 4l.a 2 x 2a . * 60.5x4. 4 15 x 5 .1 4 jry 4 x .41. 7 + 3 xf 2. 4 65. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 12 x.c. 4 69. f5+7. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 x'V2 90.  3 x2 . 3~ n 4.a*ft 2 126. 1 + 4 xy. 6 8 j27 40 ab.4 x 2 . 99. xyxzyz.5 3n 4. 38.a' 'ft 4. 62. .2. x2 2 . 6 c 47. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 12 a/.x24 73. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.c 3 4.18 x?/0. 8 . 1 a"* 4 an . 82. 2 . 64. 3 a 44.y*. _55_7c 48.x 51. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .  4 a3 85. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.x4 + y'2 z 4. 9x. 9 2w 128. 16. x' 79. 5 42. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 4 . .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 5x 2 2x43. 2 x2 4. 2 x2 108.ft).2 xy + 4 y2 106. 26. 4 ! .2 x^. 61. 93. 66. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .
r .6) (2 x + 1). 167. 1. 2 2 (a. 12. ( jc // a 2 (a1). y3.y)(jc + 7 y). p. 179. (. 37 1.1).I2y). (x 227. + 11) (a 10). 2a(42ft)(2fo). 30 + xyr. 1. 2. 236. (a} 59. 18.l)(y + 1).y2 ). 186. 1. 153. ?. Page 267. + 3) (x f f>) . (x . 2. (/ 246.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 50. fc'2a+62c).l)(a 2 +3).r + 4). G7. 222. 208. r>x 2 (4x. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 148.2. 174. (y _ ft)(y 4. 209. 10 in. y. a. (c) 160 C.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). Or (a + 2)0el). 157.y) (\r3y). (?/+l)(yl). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . y 245. 147.6)(4 + 6). 2 xy(3 x . 140. 161. Page 266. 202.6 . m. 233. 12 yr. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 2. Iff 145. 224. 201. (a 2 + 2a6. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (8x + 3)(3x4). 1. . (JT y 225. (r^x + 1). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 191. 239. 147 mi. 4. Page 265. . 218. y  y 165.y)(z . 177.3) (2/3y). 6. 22. 218. (5 x . (6) 40. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). (y  17)(y + (>). 178. 12. 166. 40 yr. 163. 214. 2. z(x10)(xl). 176. 230. 241. 12) (j. 10.1). + 22).3 y)(a . a 2 (15. 180. (3x  . 7. 24. 138. 160. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (y_24)(y5). 2 (4 x .1(5) 200. 235. (7 c 2 ). (x + 6)(x6). 164. 237. 231. 136. 226. 162. 172. 20. (2 198. 173. (x  42 yr. (y 7f))(y 196. 195.2). 210. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 1. 142. 30 yr. 155. 10 ft. 3. . 1. ft.m)(x + a). 205. 170. 1. 150. 184. 181. 3(x . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 10).3).. (a& 192.3.4xl). 232. 152.2) (3 x . + 6 y) (x 2 y) .2 )(x+y) 228. (ab + 8) ( 7). 2^. 159.. 23 18. 2(x8)(x3).y). a + 2x2 ). 2.ANSWEKti 135. 211. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 146. (x + 2)(x . + y. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. ( + 2y)(2x3y). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 190. 6). (2a + l)(a .9)(xf 2). 6. aft.y + 3)(r (. 158. 193. 156. 212. 217. 216. 189.2). 21. 240. 206. (233). 151. 12 6 panes. xxix 139. (r7y)(ai. 169. 15  a. 48 h. 75. 8 204. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 199. 247.3 y).1). as 194. (x^ + x1) 234. 5. 215. C3 y _l)(. 238. .. 171. . 3..11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). yr. 154. 32 h. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 36ft. +)(x2 x^+2. 10). 143.2ac + 229. 144. . + 3). 15. 4. 19. 15. + 2) + 9a. 219. 197. 1. 149.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 175. . HI. (y7)(y + 188. 168. 20. 187. 185. 182. k. (7x2//) 203. 183. 137./_4).l)(x8 + x2 . 220.  1. 244. 12 yr. x(x + 6) 213. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 8(ar}(/)27). + 7)(rt4). 30. a(a. p. (3x2?/)(2. 207.
303. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 307. 254. 3). 295. 10. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. *>). 5. 266. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 269.(x  4) (x4 304.2* i^^ !^. 263. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 0. ? 1) 302. a.   . ^ 299. 264. 2 x  3. ^/>J. ?^ZLiZ 308. x . 251. 3). 3. 256. 259. 310. Ca&c 1)(M 253. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 2. 305. 2 4 300. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 260. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. o. 268. > 4. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .. 4 5.  3xyf x// 257. 3  262. x 267. 261. x ?/ z 1. 298. 43 '^rJ'. 0. 249. 250. 7^T 2 . a~ ' b*).^^^^^^^^. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.1. x 283. 258. 7 x 265. + f.^ ^^. x12.4).  7. (7 255.4) 1) (3 x . (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 279. 7. 306. &). 301. *. o(x4l). 4 II 4 )rt 5x42.
. 11. <L 409. _*L'L+. l . 2(a i 403. 376. 393. 0. 0. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 355. 2 327. 375. L . 326. 401. 389.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 400. . 360. 4 rw. 377. ^"" 4 s . + x 362. 2. " 4 378. 406. a) A^_. 0. . 1. 2 ab  a Page 276. 6 ?/+:>. 9^. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 407. 385. m. 383. 343 00 351.  1.". 324. 339. 0.vin a /r " 337. A^L5L. 397. 379. 404. f. y 4 I 340. 2(q. 392. * 357. ?>*. 364. . 390. 396. a + b + 6). + 4 & 4 \ b. . (a + b + c\ . 7/i ^ _ . T\. 382. 329.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. c 402. 1. 395. 336. 2 r36 384. Page 274. 1 i 2 ^. 2. 20.!. + 335.. 405. 4 A. 361. 7. ?=. j 328. ?/ + 3 332. 398. T+^. ^ 3 // . l'j. 408. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.3. 370.J . 394.7.  1 356.(5 a . 2 ). 365..XXXI Page 272. If. 325. 386. S. . 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). ^_:r f> 331.1.)Cr4)__ . a 2 . 2 ?/ 363. 1. Page 277. ab. 399. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. x 54 359. a +6. 387. 3. 12. 4. 13 391. 6a. 333. 388. 334. 4. 1. 3. 3. 380. 366. 1.
L2 a  6 . 4. 461. 7 : . 63. fc. ISjmi. 493. 442. 10. 0. + () 433. 1. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. ^V. 10. 467. 432. 497. 2. : />a. 24 days. 481. 5.1. 472. 430. 2. 6. 12. (a  c). 447. 10. 20. 21. . . 22. (a) 1. a* 424. 490. 2. 7. 50.7. 502. 28 yr. * . 3. 4.. 448.vz in. 479.3.12. 492.  2. 455. 5. 421. 9.46. 10. 1. 3. 1. 508. 412. fj. .  1. 410. 463. . 440. 496. Page283. 1. '. ^r?i 434. 20 yr.. 2. 458.}. 418.5. B $ 2500. 8. 501. 40. A $ 3500. 483. 419. . 2 a 2. 477. ^.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 411. 436. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 464. 1$. 8. 413.7.}..rz Page 279. 486. 457.0. <L+ 6 (. 6. 498. 3a 4 5. 7. 10. 6. Page 278. m. 506.0. 459. 0. . 420. 487. 507. 7.489. 465. 17. ISJini. 14 miles. 33. 11. 2$. 7. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 90. 5J. 5. . 2.3. 3. 10. 5. 503. 1 a /?$+&?. 452. 2.7. 2.  2. 439.2. 428. . 6.4. A 5 mi . (d  6) f.. not true. 462. 500. 4. 2 438. 476. 1. 478. i. !L=4. 466. 10. 32 yr. 0. (c) not true. 2. . 485. 468.4. 8. />c c(f be. 4. 446. m 1 : wi. & 491. Page 282. a 22 . I. \. 499. 5. (&) 443. . 422.  . 484. ft 5. 429.m  m+ M in. ' $260 at 0%. 8. . i a b 451. 6. 0. 32. 480. 10$.  7. 40 oz. 18. 494. . a + + ft c. 423. 0..  2. 426. 84. 450. 0. 427. Page 280.7. . . . 456. (d) true. 454.  2f 504. 7.  505.. 435. c 6fc 10. B 4 mi.55. 482. 445. L (c) I. 444.488.  7. 6.te + .  1. *+. 2. 425. . Page 281. $2000 at 0%. \ 1. z8 +?/ 3 431. 460. c.  f>. 0. 495.2. 51.7. (&) true. 53 yr. . 3 . 5. 6. 17.  453. 42. 441. 2. b 449.  10. .
3f 4f. 525. 2. 2 . + 26 + . 516.10.5. or 8.0. 513.4. 0. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 563.75. .02. . . a f ft + c. 5. 3. _^ 2754x .  4. (6) 3.24 sec.83. 1. .14.03. g(rc+ 6c).1. 512. 2. 3. 2 1. 555. o> . 4 mi.02. 1. f. 1.  (a) (d) 1.33. > ^ . 582. 4. 2(4 602. 14. 558. 5. 232. 529.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.  . 550. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. (a) 74 Ib. 591.8. da. 7. 4.5.  3.56 sec.5.31. 1 .37. . 24. 2 imag. 4. 5.4. (e) (c) 2. 4. 1. 1$.4. 509.  imag. + 12 x .5 f.37. Page 285. If 572.9. 568.% rr\* 585. 2(6 597. 31. (ft) Ill Ib. 3. 3. H. 578. (ft) 4.3. 533. 566. 3 . T . 1. 4. (d) 537.20. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 1. 2. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 552.6 2.1. 4. 2.35. per hour. Roots imaginary. lead. a*8a + 24tf 82a. tin. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. _ 4. S82 c.f 1. . 1 600.02. 2. (6) . 559.2. 573. (i) 3. 1. 569. .04.0. 599. 6. 536. .25m. 574.54.3. 2 10. 1.6. 4* da. . 2 2.  7. 532.21. 27 y* f\4 . 1.. y% Z * 586.5. 510. 562. (c) 3. lead. ^ ft 4.8. 577.7. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.  ft*.3. . 1. f. (c) 4. 2.. 1. <z ft 1.0. f36a28x8 592.8 x3^. 3. a+ Page 286. 576. + 26x2 + 10 x4 )._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.   (h) 8. 556.73. 3 da. .  + + c. 1. 2. 3. 1. .  1. 3. 3. 1. y 4. 21*_. 1. .7.75.5+. 40 Ib. 554. 2. 603. 2$..4. 1.53. . _ 3. 1 .00.7.15.83. 515. 115 Ib. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .1.. imag. . 1.  2ft da.31. . 560.15. 583.30. 3. . (gr) 10 1. . .5. 4 0.3.55. . 565.04. a + ft  a  f c. 2 1.78. 581. 551. .16. 528. . 1J. 593. 4.62. J7] min.  (a) 2.0. 2.3.  557. .51.02.25. 4.1. + 6 tf f 3 . Page 288.62. 8 mi. (/)  10 to 8.24. 6435. 1.r8 596. 571.24.4 x + .8.. Page 287. 530.78.88.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.10. tin. 0000.  J(a f + 2c). 564. xxxin 511. 598.4. 4. 1.38.6. 527. 1. 553. per hr. 1 580. 3. 518.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 24 da.4.15.3. 531. 3. 514. 2 . 1. . 7^ da. f ? a f ft __ + c C).1.ANSWERS Page 284. M ft c 2 ft 3465.03. . 567. 8. ft 584. 575. . 579.54. 3. 6. 3.  2.6.1. . 5. x8 .3.xj/ f xV .05. (e) 570.52.8.12.6.3. 561. 3. 1.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. . 526.
002.  ft. b 664. 4$. 3 a. 78. . 642. 2. V7.2f (5 4. 645. 696. 637. <T! .  13. 4.3. If 665. c. 14. . ix 2 . 25.3f l 668. 615. ^. 628. 627. 617. 1010. 2092. 7. a 4. 5.2f Page 290. ft). 648. fe + a. a 2. 703. 4 676. If b. .  4. 703. 5. 50. 2 a  6*. 1 V5 1. a + b. 2.XX XIV 606. 1. 2 x 44 ^/. l/'3. + 2 A (i f Page 291.203. 1. 646. ^^ 695.  1. (*_ + a: 611. 6. 2&). ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 623. 660.  2f r 659. 2f. 3. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). K 5 2 V2. 3. If .303. 624. I}'/. 640. a 1J.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3.  a2  a (ab).3.3. 672. a ' 2 + . 643. If. J^^. i. 11. 2 a 688. . . If 658. ^. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. ' fe 2 ).  684. 2.y. 621. V^~3). ^ 1. 2 / 2 4. 618. 9. 0. Page 289. 679. 5 3. . 636. ab 689. + ~^'2 + a 1. la6 2. 661.25. 3 x2 . 2. 2.f 3 V^3). \. 0. . 25. 614. 669. 634. 626. 635. 608. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 644. 620. 656. fta a/> ^A. /> 4. 4330 da. 5002. ' 674. 7. 653.b. b. 700. 1 2.3. 654. 1 ~a . 3 681. 612.14 If 1. 898.001. V"^TJ. 657. 632. 210. 13. o. 706. 649. 666. z  1. 670. 702.b 686. b . 5.0. V2. if 4/> 671. be ac \. 2f. 629. 1. 0. 708. 1 704. 4. 2.04.  . 655. 631. (a3&45rj. 1. 698. 12. 678< 682. . . 4 V 0. 2 ab + a  &. 0. 662. 607. V2. 1$ 639. 2 a: 4. 630. 692.a~ {Z 663. ab. 3. 622.  4. 705. 691. . x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 8. 9*. 6 685. . 616. 6. 1m*. a. y  619. 641. 8 f 3. 11.001. 677 680. 8 6 fo . 0. 650. 0. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 7003.049. 2. .  6. . 2.. 2. 613.>A 610. a 673. . 625.c ) 697. 690. 009. 651. 10. n^l +^. 683.43^4. If f 667. 971. 647. 638. 652. 5. 4..  3. 701. / V^+lO^M"^. \+ab 699. 633. 4.702.
758. 727. 715. VT14V5. 713. 721. 793. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 729. 17ft. 3V72V3. cr*lr*. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 342V3. 1. 34. 749. + < 735. . 00. 723. 3V72VO. VIO\/3. 3^. . 2x3^ a. 769. 716. 3V52V3.11. 724.4 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 8. 737. 792. T%. 1 I . a 2  x2 .~ . 790 2v 3v 2.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. x i f^' . v'll. Hi a. 726. . 39. . 776. 8.2.1 . 732. 29\/3.4 . 768. 710. Page 294. 719. / 787. 717. 15 shares.. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .r.257. 3 720.ANSWMHti Page 292. mn. 7  3V5. + 6 2 tf'c. 740. a db Va^T < 45da. 788. a 5 . 789.8. 30\/10 764. 1 752. a". ^ . J(v'lO2V 791.^. 300. 1.V2.12 af V^ 4 744. Page 293. 773. 738. 736. 3V7. 756. 767. 746. 1 747. 711..^ 743. 24V2. 734. 32>/2. ^7xy. . 777. 731. 725.rJ w L 754.9. 59. 33^2.10. 750. 755. 13ft. 796. 739. v/7 / . 25.V/^ 741. 24. rt3 2 ^i^.. 1. 709. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 794. a:* . 753. 24 4 . 3 VlT 795. 718. 728. 730. 782 785. 712. > 748. fyaw&cu. 1 [ + '> J.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 3. i^. VV> L4V34. 5. a 2 6^. 714. j 742. iv/Jj. 5. 2\/53V2.. "V313. ^ ?>. r. 4 104 v/2. i 2. 778. 1^ _ 760. 2 V2 . y  1. x\y.r+y> 759. 751. 47. 763.9. 722. 733.
5. 4.+ m f ") (a* ).  + l(l^).l)(x + 2). 2 2 . 4. 842. f. 867.l)(x .7 4 1) 846. 6 $. 1. 825. 0. 10. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 886. (3 b .a 3 " 4. 2. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 5. . 1. 844. 2.4. 7. 2 j 889. 17. Hoots are extraneous. . 3. 3. (:r 11. 826. (a 4 871.4. 849. 882.1). 811. 884. 808. 843. 799. a 42)(x .  ' . 5. 834. 800. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).1) . (1 . 2 m . (x 4. 0. 3. \/5. ) (a' 874. 827. 823. (4 c 4. 899.5) (x + * 853. +j!>. 1 1. 820. 2. 1.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. Hoots .r .7)(4 x. 833. 2 *x 807.5 b) 4 1). 3. 857. 4. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 801. 891. 6. a2 ^E*!. 868. 822. 817. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). . 7. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3. . 863. 812. + d)*. 8. 25. 11. 859. 840. 4.1) (a 8 .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). a(ry + 864.3)(x + 4).10 ab 4. V 3. 816. 2. 3 . 6. (x . . a(ft)( 873. (x + 0X024. 6. 4. H. n =  29. ^ V}. 813. ( 869. . 881. 887. 4.7). 835. (.l)(x . 4. 890. ^. 2 806.a 4 + 1).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. ANSWERS 798. 829. . (x .4) 860.  839. Page 296.2 ax 4. (3 862.. x. 804. $.  tt 815. 830.1. 13. Va 803. (a 1) (x 4. 4 885. jV3 f 3. \/2. 876.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). m 875. (a m . 23. 1. x .XXXVI 797. 4. 4.f. 2 .7.25 ?>2). 2 . 48. 2 854. 814. 3. 3. 892. 894. (x3). .a 2 2 ). 8 09.1)(V 2 . 819. 837. 2. 2. 4 818.3. 2. are extraneous. 900. 0. a* 4.2w . (x*y*ryz + z*). 2. X4 1). b' 2 821. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 4 . $. (x 845.rae) (4 . 838. 3. 897. . (  ?>) (a + ^> . 895. 810. 888. 2/ 856. . 8.2) (x 4 2).  1. 831. 861. 872.0. 824. Page 297. 3.r4). (2 4. 7. 4. o.y) 852. . 898. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 19. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 0. 2. 4. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 2  2. m = 2. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . Va. (x 2 . 879. 880. ^VG. 3.1)(0 865. . 2 ./>") (a'. 6+V7. 5. ((' 1). 841. 5). 1 . ( 4 4. 1C. 851. (2 a .. 893. .. 896. 883. 7.7). 848.3. (2 x + 3 y} . 20).l)(x + 3)(2x43). 14. 2. 6(a6)(o a + + &). (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 858. 836. 847.om 441) (a 855. (2x (r. 2 (x 4*4. 832. (xl)(^~3)(. (x 2 f r . 11. o 828. 5. 17. **. J V. 1. db 7. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.
. 11.744. r ft ' < Page 299. .V~~3).. Page 300. 909. J. 2. 10. . 3 4 . 986.. ft. .1. 3. . w. 111. 964. 2 yd. 911.615. 2 i ' a V. 985. ?/i 6. 977. 66 924. 14 . ft. 0. 1 2. 28. 944. 961. 1 . 920. 11. 2 1..2. 2. 905.446. 15 16 ft.651. 8. 80... 917. 981. ^y. 28. 6. '3 3 in. 1 1. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 3. 1. 982. . ft. 2 w 914.I. 56. 3. 100 rows. ft. 957. 962. i1" 913. 0. 7 ft. 908. 937. 8. v/(ai !)(&910. . 3). 955. 984. 6 . i(6 in. 959. 108. 4. 912. 8. 10./hr. 903. 40 16 in. 6. 18. 4 6 mi.1 = 9. . V5 fj. 942. 6.760 sq. 6. $(l 4. 4. 931. 11. i>. 1. 3. 115. Z ^. =F J. 8. 3 . 2 ft. 2. 935. 28. . 8. 958. 4. 4. 6 da. 5. 1 + V953. V^3). 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.. ft. 12 mi. J(_ ft. 923. f. 983. 8. a + . dL 4. 7. 7. 956. 918. 932. 329. 2. a. ft. 921. 73. 4. 333. 947. 930. 11. 978. . 60 949. 2. 12. f ft 4 . .01. w 3. 480 8 sq. . 1). T 6. 945. 4 in. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 927. 12. . . . 15 946. 934.709. 9 in. J. 2. 6 a 915. 3. 902. yd. 333. 5. 952. 248. 4. 4. 7.  1 .. 3. 6. 8 . 8. %* . . 936. 940. 496. V5 T 2 . 8128. .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 4. . T 6.  26j.. 904. 5. 6 1 1. 12.. 12 in. 1 _2 . 8. 987. Va926. . 5 . 7 or 30. 1. 922.. 5l4f.. 20 19 ft. 2. 2. 919. 950. 5. 280. 938.  1. 951. T3. 954. Y. . 0.2.073. 5. 979. 4. 948. 916. 6. i 8. 925.111. 2. 906. 2. 0.. ft. 939. i 3. 963. 960. ft. S07. 4. 933.0. 943.1.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. .. Page 301. 980. 3. tt2 19.. 6. Page 303. 941. 4 . Page 302. 7.
996. 992. 1003. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1019. 120 i^l^. 8. 1007. + 448 . 1008. 108. (5. 1012.  5&7 1021. 990. 4 and 1020. 12. 0. 24. . (a) (6) ^ 1002. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (6) 8(1 . 1010.51. in. 1000. 0. 1013. 994. 1006.. 993.'^^ } ( .92. + v 2). 3003. 1005. 995. 162. 997. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).870 a 6 1011. ^f (2f3V2).18. 2 . ~ \. 2(2 v/2). (J. Page 305. 120 a. 1014. 1001. (Z>) 999. 1 8 8 2. 991.378 1015.128 I.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . .192rt?)r 120 *. 48. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .870 z8 . 1018. 1(5. Page 304. . 4. 12. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 72. 1 1004. 1016. 9 da. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .378 <W and 92. 6 70 . ^Trsq. 1017. 32 13 (tx 4V3.. X. 192. 988. r = 2. () 12(2+V3). 1009. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .xxxviii ANSWERS 989.
great many work. HEW TOSS . and commercial life. xiv+563 pages. $1.25 lamo. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xi 4 373 pages.D. etc. so that the Logarithms. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. save Inequalities. $1. given.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Ph. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. comparatively few methods are heretofore. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. The more important subjects tions. Half leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. physics. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. i2mo. than by the . A examples are taken from geometry. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.
physics. great many A examples are taken from geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. so that the tions. 12010. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. save Inequalities.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. Half leather. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. xiv+56a pages. and commercial life. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. $1. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1. comparatively few methods are given.25 i2mo. HatF leather. Ph. Logarithms. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. The author grade. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. In Factoring. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HEW YOKE . etc. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xi f 373 pages.D. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.
xii + 233 pages. lines. under the heading Remarks". 6. NEW YORK . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Ph. Attention is invited to the following important features I.D. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. SCHULTZE. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . i2mo. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. 9. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. more than 1200 in number in 2. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.r and. izmo.10 L. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Cloth. Half leather.. These are introduced from the beginning 3. State: .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. iamo. aoo pages. SEVENOAK. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. 4. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. $1. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . wor. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 10. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Cloth. . $1. 7 he .
a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . . . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York City. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. and not from the information that it imparts. of these theoretical views. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 12mo. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. 370 pages. .
" This volume etc. and a full index are provided. Cloth. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Topics. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Maps. diagrams. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. i2mo. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . photographs. $1.