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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. .AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.
PH.D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
July. 1910. 1915. Berwick & Smith Co. IQJS January. September.COPYRIGHT. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1911. Reprinted 1913. August. Cushlng Co. 1910. J. September. 1916.S. 8.' February.. . 1917. Published Set up and electrotyped. May. . January. Mass. 1910 . May. Norwood. U.A.
and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. etc. chief : among These which are the following 1. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Elementary Algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. are omitted.. specially 2. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study." this book. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. owing has certain distinctive features. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and conse . The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. manufactured for this purpose. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. however. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject.
all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. as quadratic equations and graphs. Moreover. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work.g. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". hence either book 4. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. etc.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. two negative numbers. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. may be used to supplement the other. For the more ambitious student. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. In regard to some other features of the book. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . e. especially problems and factoring. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. however. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Topics of practical importance.
McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed." Applications taken from geometry. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. is based principally upon the alge . By studying proportions during the first year's work. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. physics. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. in " geometry . of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. viz. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. elementary way.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. such examples. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and commercial are numerous. based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.
viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK. April. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. . William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. edge of physics.
... Powers..... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. SUBTRACTION....... ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .
.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . * ... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type V. .. Type VI... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .114 . . . Type IV.. Type III. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . /^ .. Type II.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type Polynomials...
CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. ... CHAPTER XIV 169 ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ...... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ..... . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. Evolution of Monomials 170 ..
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
V36". x 9. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 5Vl6c. 4(a 6(6 + &). Val \fi?. 13. aVc^. 2 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials.g. [6c] 3 . + 1]. V^a6. c f d). 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 27. 16. 26. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. or 9 Vx. d 7. V2a. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. a polynomial of two terms. b = 3. 17.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 14. V3 . 15. 7 = 2. are trinomials." EXERCISE If a 1. !^f\/03 3 ft. since the parts are a . 11. \/c. 6. 8. A polynomial is an y. 4V3~6c. 9. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. find the numerical value of: Vff. (cfd) 4. v'Ta. + c). to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. is 28. 10. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. A binomial is 62 . A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. c = 1. 12. as in arithmetic. 6. 0. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 3. 2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. e. some number is .
9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a2 11. 3 4 . 1. 3 2 If 1.4 6^9 ad. d = 0. 12. c = 2. + 26+3 c. 6.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . .9 aWc + f a b . 2. 52 . 5. Ex. b = 3.30 = 270 .2 + I126. 5. d=Q.390. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . EXERCISE 8*  . * For additional examples see page 268. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.9. find the numerical value of: 9. multiplication. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 8. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . subtraction. 10. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 6. __ E. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 3a + 56 a 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 5c +d 2 . . 16.5 ax 50 a6cd.e. 4a6fVaV2^.g. i. x=^. 4 . c=l. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 3. 2. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .INTRODUCTION 29. 5=3.810 + 150 = . (a (a f b) 7. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 4.99. Otherwise operations of addition. a 2 6.19 = 6. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. . 14.. Ex. 2 ). . l 13. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. a=4.
6. 24. 6 = 6. 33. Six 2 . then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. physics.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. = 3. : 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 37. a = 4. 6 = 5. 6 = 2. . 6 = 5. 25.6 . 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 3. if : a = 2.6 f c) (6 a + c). of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. a = 3. and other sciences. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 4. geometry. 6 = 4. 30. a =4. Read the expressions of Exs. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a. 29. 30. 6 = 1. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 28. 6 = 7. 27. 6=2. 6. 23. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 22. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). sible to state Ex. a a=3. 35. 38. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 26 of the exercise. 34.c) (a . a = 3. 6 = 6. a =3. a = 2. 26. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.
. 12.g. 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v : a. d. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.e.) Assuming g . if v = 30 miles per hour. 84 square EXERCISE 1.seconds. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.INTRODUCTION E.16 centimeters per second. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. 2. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. b. A train in 4 hours. b 14. the area of the triangle equals feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v . i. then a 13. 14. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.16 1 = 84. and 13 inches. An electric car in 40 seconds. Find the height of the tree. 15 therefore feet. (c) 4. 4. and 15 feet. c. (b) 5. and 5 feet.
then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. is H 2 units of length (inches. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 square meters. $ = 3. This number cannot be expressed exactly.). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.14 4. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). diameter of a sphere equals d feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 5.14d (square units).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 2 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 10 feet. If the (b) 1 inch. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. ~ 7n cubic feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 32 F. : 8000 miles. (The number 3. (c) 5 miles. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. . square units (square inches. meters. the 3. the area etc. (c) 5 F. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. SUBTRACTION. In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. or positive and negative numbers. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . however.
'. 33. 22. Thus. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 24. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 5. 10. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 18. 19. . 23. subtract their absolute values and .3. d = 5. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. + 12. lf(2). (17) 15 + (14). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. c = 4. (_ In Exs. is 2.  0. 4 is 3 J. 4. 6 6 = 3. is 0.16 32. 12. c = = 5. + (9). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. if : a a = 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. the one third their sum. 21. d = 0. 5. = 5. 2326. of: 20. of 2.
1. 5 and 12. 31. 38. 10. 40. 7 a. . 10. : and 1..3. : 34. 6. . 35.. 13. 7 a. 12. $7000 gain. and 3 F. sets of numbers: 13. 72. 09. ^ ' 37. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 3 and 25. = 23. 55. 29. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. . 0. 41. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.7. \\ Add 2 a. 2. are similar terms. & 28.. c = 0. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. $3000 gain. 39. and $4500 gain. : 48.ADDITION. 34. . . = 22. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F.5.4. and 4. c=14. 4 F. 32.5. ' Find the average of the following 34. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 30. $500 loss. 27. . SUBTRACTION. 10. 11 (Centigrade). 60. 32. 42. 25. 6. 6. 3. }/ Add 2 a. . d= 3. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 37. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. which are not similar. or and . & = 15. and 3 a. 66. $1000 loss. 33. and 3 a. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 2. ' 1? a 26.13. 4. and 8 F. = 13. 74. 43. 7 yards. and 3 yards. 36. affected by the same exponents.7.
2(af &). 10. 14 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. + 6 af . . b a f ( 6). 7 rap2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 12Vmfn. 13. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. or a 6. 9(af6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 3a .sign. f 4 a2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. Vm f. The sum x 2 and f x2 .18 35. 5l 3(af6). in algebra it may be considered b. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 11.13 rap 25 rap 2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 12(af b) 12. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. : 2 a2. 2 a&. EXERCISE Add: 1. Algebraic sum. 5Vm + w.ii. 12 2 wp2 . 5 a2 . 2 .
and to add each column. 32. 36. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 17. 37. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. +m """ 20. 2 7 1 26. c 2 ^24. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. l^S 25. 21. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. ra 19.ADDITION. 33. 2/ : Add. n x* 2 22. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2 2 2 31. is . 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 6 23. a a8 ZL **. 1 27. without finding the value of each term 34. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. + y. + / + 3 Va. SUBTRACTION. 35. 30.
g.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.41 = 3. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. = .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . . 2 .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 9 q 4. 5 .15 abc . . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 025.8 abc . ft any convenient and c. 5. therefore the answer is correct. 3 a f 4 1) 4. a 4. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.7 2 . 46 4z 7 c. x of x. the erroneous answer equal 7.c= 2. f 110WS: 26 aft. e. .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. to show any error. c = 1. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 4 = 7. 7 4.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.20 c 5 ab 4.15 6c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2c. NOTE.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 Sum. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 6=2.o c and 4.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 4 2. V3. 3. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. to add 26 ab . and J 2 s.g. 2 Thus.12 a& 4. and 2 .3 s. 3a 2? . s. of that letter.
2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . and . 2 2 and . + a + 1.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a2 2 14.4 Va .and 6. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.9(a + &) . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 7ar + 3B 5. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. . 16e + 17/90. and and 13.6. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .8 m 2m 12. ^2 1 e. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.12. in 8 3 m n 4. 4(a .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 4 ajy 17. and 8 3 . 3 2 2 3 9 . .5a^6 f 6) . 2 ?ft ?/z.Ga 43x45. ?/ . 4 Vc. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. .a .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.a. e a4 /. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . v/20. 4.1 a 4 1 0. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.10 Vc. and 1 4 a . . 2 2 .(b + c) 1.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. xy3xz + yz. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 4 8 3 4 4 .1. 2 and 9m 48m 4. and 12a 4 15& 20c .7v/if. a 4 a . 19. and 5 Vb 18.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . + 50 + 62 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.VS 4 2 Vc. 4 3 .5 cr& + 7 6 9.12(a 4. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. a 4 a . . . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .3 mn 2 2 n8 . . .7m . a2 a. SUBTRACTION.2n 2 2 3 rz . d and / 3 ? 12. 8. m 4 6.ADDITION. and v 15. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 2 3(c f a).a. .a 4 a 4 1. 11. d. 2 ?/. 16. 56 w. a. . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 a.12 6 ~5 a . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 18/+6y + d. a) y ^/.15 5. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.4:xy xz 6yz.
5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 12 xyz. 45a6 2 .22 21. The sum and ? 1. and 25. 22. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. many negative units re main ? from 2. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. If you diminish a person's debts. and 2 24. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. +d a. how 1. and e + 6y .3^* 2n 2 . 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 8 . 13 1. f 1. a 6 2 c. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. + 1. 1/ . 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.5< 3 2 s 4^4. . 1. 6 f c 2 23. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . . 2 8 n + <w 2 . + n*. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.m 4m ?/?/ d. T8a. f number may be added 3. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . is 2. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.11 xy + 12. s .ra + m.17 + 4 ?nfy .. f 1.9aj 2. c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.
To subtract. the other number is required. In addition. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. called the minvend.2. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence.3. the given number the subtrahend. From 5 subtract + 3. From 5 subtract to . 5 is 2. two numbers are given. 41. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. Or in symbols. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 7. a. NOTE. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of .ADDITION. 2. if x Ex. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. and the required number the difference. and their algebraic sum is required.g. from What 3. SUBTRACTION. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Therefore any example in subtraction different . In subtraction. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Ex. ab = x. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. ( 6) ( = . This gives by the same method. 1. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 6 (3) = 8. 3. Ex. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. +b 3.
5 x + 8.f 8 . Check. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. If x = l = 2 t .3 r*5o.
2.7 a . From 2 a take a & j. 6 4 a.4 a*& + 6 a & . 48. 57. c f d. 53. From From x2 the sum sum 7.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 41. 44.a 2 j.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 58. 45.2. + a the 2 a. 50. 56. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 55. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.w>t. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. tract 4 x 3. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 51. 42. 43.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 6(af. SUBTRACTION. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 2y 2 .c. 46.6)f. of a 4. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 54.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 52. 49.ADDITION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 47. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . and 3 7/ . check the answer.4 a^ 4.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .
2 m 21. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.15. 20. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. a 2y + z. +a add the difference duce 13. a a + c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a + 6. 16. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 19. A is n years old. 9. of # 2 8. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 6 17. + 6 + c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.26 4. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 6. + 2. subtract # + 1. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.
a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.b c = a a & f f. SUBTRACTION. & f c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. one occurring within the other. a+(bc) = a +b . Ex.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.6 b f (.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. changed. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. 45. I. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. the sign is understood.ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.g. 46. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.c. II.a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. . tractions By using the signs of aggregation. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.2 b .
a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).: Ex. a f (a a . 4. 271 + (814 . 6. ? 11. 15. a (a + 26 c ).1422) J ] . Ex. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. : x + (2yz). 2.y (60.)]. 2 2a. 18.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 21. 3 3 f 7. In the following expression inclose the second and third. m f ft) a. By removing parentheses. 9. 2a (4a 26 +c ). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. + (2a 6 + c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 17. 8. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).+ 6)f (a2 b). may be inserted according to 43. (m a2 f.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2 2 a(.) 5 . 14. a (a + 6). 13. 3. 19.[271 47. . 6) 2. Signs of aggregation 1. 16.(a + 6). 5. [36+ (a 2c].
terms 5. 13. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1.ADDITION. 7. first. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 2mn + 2q3t. 5 a2 2. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 12.7fa. p + q + rs. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. )X 6.1. a\l> > c + d.4 y* . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 4. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 5. 3. II. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The sum^)f m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. of the cubes of m and n. z + d. 10. 3. difference of the cubes of n and m.2 tf . 5^2 _ r . 9. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The product The product m and n. . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. SUBTRACTION. The square of the difference of a and b. The difference of a and 6. 2. 6 diminished . y f 8 . 8. m x 2 4. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. ' NOTE. and the subtrahend the second. m and n. 6. 7.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.) . and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b.30 14. 6. 18. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 16. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. d. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19.
applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 2. 3. weights. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. therefore. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. A A A 1. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. what force is produced by the Ib. force is produced therefore. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 5. If the two loads what What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 4. If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? .
4)(. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. (5)X4. or plied by 3. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 4 multi44444 12. Practical examples^ it however. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. x 11. Thus.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. however. NOTE. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. becomes meaningless if definition.32 8. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. the multiplier is a negative number. 48. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(4) = + 12. ( (. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 9. 5x(4). such as given in the preceding exercise. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 4x(3)=12. 4 multiplied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. thus. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 9 x ( 11). To take a number 7 times. .9) x 11. (.
2a 2 6c. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . b = 3. +5. 6. 13. 5. about fac (2)X If 6. 12. 23. X(5). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 8 4 . Ua b 28. _2. 14. 4 a2 . (2) 8 (. 16. (. 11. 8 31. 17. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 9. 2. 6. 5x3. _2^ 3. 26. 24. 15. . (7) X (12).7. 22. 4 . 20.2.3) (1) 7 2 . x.(a&c) 2 2 . EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. . _3. c = 25.a)( =+ a&. is 6x7. 8. (2)x9. . 3. (c#) . 7. 19. . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (10) 4 .4. 3 aW. etc. 10. NOTE. and y = 4. 1. 27. (4)'.MULTIPLICATION 50. 2a6 c . . 3. of Signs: TJie positive. z s 11 aWcx.2f 18. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 1. If a cal = 4a6c. find the numeri values of: 21. 29. 4. 30. Law Thus.(4J).2 f+x 2 . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 3 a2?/2 . x= 0.3. 6 2. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)X(15). 32.
. 100. .6 if 35..35). B.  2 2. 5 3 5 3 2 . 4. 7.503). 2(14. 6 = . 5 = 2. 12 U U .<?.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. By 3 definition. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. m*. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .12 Perform the operation indicated 12.(7). MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. This 52. 10. i. a= 1. 2.(12) .2 2 23 + 5 .2). 4. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .(2. of the factors. 2 2 3 6 . 127  127 9 7 . 53. . = 2. a = 2. 3.  and 2 25 8 . 5. 1. 6" 127 U .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 3 3 4 . 5(711. =2 a *. a = 3. 4.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 50(112. 16. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. or 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. (a6) (a5) 9. 3. + 2/). 14. 6 aWc x . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. IB. 6. 5 . 36. fl*" integers. 200.257). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 34. . 2(7. 2. : 3a7abc. 2 3 . a 2 2 . 6 = 1. Ex. Ex.7. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.. 3 2 . & = 3. 78 . 11. 13.e. 9 . . 2 2 2 . a8 a=2.m a 3  4 .3). 17. &*) c d*. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.
3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 29. by first multiplying.7pqt.f 2). 2(5fl5f25). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 24. 17(10041042). ) 2 33. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. .7 w'W (8 n^W). _4aft. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 5. 7p*q r*. 7. 3. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. This principle. 4. . 2 32. 19. multiply each by the monomial. If results ft.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 20. 34. but we shall assume it for any number.4a#. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.A). 23(10004100420). 22. ax /) 2 4 1 (. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 3(124342). .M UL TIPLICA TION 18. called the distributive law. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. (. 12( + 1 4 i). . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).3 win ) . 21. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 28. . 31.6. 2. 25. and then adding : 1. 27. (. . 35 4 7(6.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 35.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 23. 6(10420430). 6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). c(4a ftc ). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 11(3. 26. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.2 3 aft ). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . /). 2(645410). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.
20. 22. . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. .5 w*V f 7 wn). 23. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).6 a6). 12. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. ~2mn(m +n p ). 5). 26. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 27. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 2 m(mhn \p). 2 2 16.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.asa product. 29. f7a. Find the factors of 6 ary . 30. 28. 21. 17.^ c + 2 . By what 25. . : expression must 24. 3 ). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. be multiplied to give 4o.5 x 7). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 9. . 7 a 6 c(. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.2 mn(9 mV .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 11. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.60 a& 10 aft. 19.we b) (x law. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.
a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since all powers of 1 are 1. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. 2. . however.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .1. Check.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 b by a 5 b. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. Multiply 2 + a a.3 a 2 + a8 . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Since errors.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. To multiply two polynomials. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. the student should apply this test to every example. a2 + a8 + 3 . 59.4.
31.2). 41. 18. ^ 2 . QQ O7. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4 2). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 17.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (4a 2 33. 30. 24. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 9. (6p (2 f 21. 2  37. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 1). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 13. 36. 22. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 8. (8r7*)(6r39. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 6. 2. 32. l)(raf 2). (a^26) . * For additional examples see page 261. 15. (6a~7) 2 . 3. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 25. . 5. 4. 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 7y). I (mfn)(m4. 20. (2 x* x 2 .1 .4) (x + 1). 26. 29. (6i7n)(llJn). 16. 2 . OQ OO. 11. 40. a 5c)(2a6c). 2) (3 A: 1).2m)(l m).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 36). 3<7). (2w 19. 7. 10. (13 A. . 28. 12)(a?^2l). 36) I) 14. 35. 12.4) (mnp 4.
6. (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 2) (a f 3). i. 9. in of the two unequal terms.13). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. plus the product 62. .e.25)(y+4). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. + 5) (1000 + 4). plus the product of the two unequal terms. (ra. 17. (a (a (a. 1) (10 + 2). (J 23. 3. + 60)(f2). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.2 6) (a f 6). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. .!!)( (a + 21). (p12)(p + ll).n)(wf w). 20. 19. 21. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (a 102 x 103. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (!)(* 5). 7. 10. 15. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 8. 18. 26. 1005x1004. 27.4). 28. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. X 102. 25. 14.e. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 22. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . + 3) (a 7). 2 6) (a 3 6). (a 9) (a + 9). _3)(a _4). (10+ (1000 (2. 24. i. 2) (1000 + 3). : 23 2. + 9)(m+9). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (6 12) (6 f. (a3)(a + 2). 25 a 2 . ft 16. 2 a? 29. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 75 ab f 54 ft . 12. 11. (*. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. . 13.
and the second. p 2 p. : 24 (a 2. a2 2 w + 2 w . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 6 a + 8.15. <J>7) J . i. 7 a + 10. 4. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. Ex.15. . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. III. 37. 33. (x+3i/) 2 . 3. 8. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 49 y*.66 s. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 35. of the second.e. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. i. 9. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 77ie square of the of the first. 6. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.e. + 3) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . w 2 ro . III. 7. 34. second. (a26) 2 . plus sum of two numbers the square II. (a2) (p a . .e. plus the square of the second. 32.30. 2 5. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 63.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. n2 10ii+16. 31.
24. 54. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 45.998 39. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 52. ( 27. . 23. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 49. 55. 7& ) 25. 31. . . 46. 22 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 34. 11. 44. 4 53. 38. 33. G> +5g)*. 2 2 . m 2 16. 998x1002. 99x101. 29. 40. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . I) 2 . (^. 103 36. 16aW25. 15.MULTIPLICATION 10. 104 2 37. 48. 62 25n 2 . 41. (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 35. . (20 f 1) . By actual multiplication. 9 a2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . a2 9. n 2 f4n+4. 42. 2 J ). The product of 57. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 . 17. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 32. n*6n+9. 28. 22. 2 . 51. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 9a 496 2 56. 14. + 5)(5+a). (2x3yy. 991 2 2 . 25 a 9. + 3z) 2 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 12. + 5). (1000 2 . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 21. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 18. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3).30 ab + 25 6 64. 41 16.ll^X^+lly (100 30. ). 47. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 .
the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 8. 13. 2 10. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 7. 14. plus the last terms. 4.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 3. (4s + y)(32y). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ).& + c) = a + tf + c . The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 9. (5a64)(5a&3). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. or The student should note minus signs. ((5a? (10 12. : 25 2. ) (2 of a polynomial. 6. 11. sum of the cross products. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (5a4)(4al). (3m + 2)(ml). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 5. 65.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. . (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 2 + 2) (10 43).
: 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . n). Ex. 4y sf n) 2 .(x . + 6)( . (a (. 2 2. 8. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. a. 9.3) (x . 7.4) . If x = 1. .29. 3. = .4) .i2&c) 2 . 8. 3. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. Hence.3)(z. Simplify (x + 6) (a .39.8 x + 15] . 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.24] . after multiplying the factors of a term.(= [ Xa + 2 . 66. 6. 13.(m 2 6. + 65) . 5. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.24 .5) = (7 . 6(a 2. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. and check the answers !. 4. (xy+z)*. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (u4& + 3c'.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 2)6.r _ 2 . (  2 4) =  20 a.y? + 8 .3) .[a? . Check. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.(>. of z : 10.39. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.X2 + 2 x . = 10 x . 7. 4(aj2)h3(7). 5. 4(* + 2)5(3). 6~2(a + 7). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).5).1 5 = 10 . Find the square root 11. 12.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
Division of the difference of two squares. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . 20. a I. 19. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2). (81 m + 1 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).DIVISION 14. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).2) (3 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 18. v/17.l. 16.11 a + 9 a . . 51 15.e.
1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 10. 16 . 121a a 16 100 11. 15.49. 14. f 13. . 4 b. : the following w a 4 !. aW 12 a.0001. r/ 1. 12. 9& 2 . 16. . 100ry.000.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.
. second member is x + 4 x 9. Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. 83. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. x 20. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. the 80. is said to satisfy an equation. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. hence it is an equation of condition. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. =11. 82. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in the equation 2 x 0.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. . 81. the first member is 2 x + 4. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.
called axioms 1. a. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 4. one member to another by changing x + a=. x I. the products are equal.54 84. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.b. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . E. A numerical equation is one in which all . . A term may be transposed from its sign. If equals be subtracted from equals. 89. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.g. 87. If equals be multiplied by equals. the quotients are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. . 2. 85. If equals be divided by equals. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. but 4 does not equal 5. 3. the sums are equal.e. 90. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 5. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Transposition of terms. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 86. If equals be added to equals. the divisor equals zero. NOTE. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2 = 6#f7. the remainders are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.2. A 2 a. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.
x = 3. The first member. 2 x = 6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. if 55 x members. b c. Check. x = 93. a= a 6fc. 91. Hence the answer. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. if a x = b.2 y= f . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. x = (Axiom 3) 92. . Ex.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Transposing. To solve a simple equation.8. Dividing both members by 2. 3 y . 4x 1 + 6. The first member.2. a? Adding 5 to each term. Dividing by Check. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. f If y 20 . The second member. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. b Adding a to both + a.6 y f y\ . 6a5 = 185 = 13. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. 2(11 . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. and the known terms to the second.9 y + y2 = 22 .3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Uniting similar terms. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. (4y)(6. is correct. Uniting. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Unite similar terms.
19. x x 1 . 247y = 68lly. 17 7 a.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. it NOTE. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3)= 9(3 7 a. f Simplifying. = 7. =2 = 3. Solve the following equations by transposing. {(x (x The The member right member left . BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 9 9a? = 7 13. etc. = 3. .17 + 4y = 36. 11. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 32 = 264. 50. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. + 16 = 16 + 17. 4a + 5 = 29. a?. 24. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 7 a. 3. 20. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.69. J. a. 7a? 5. 6. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 2. \x x 2^xfl. v23. and check the answers 9.. 12. a. 3.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 17 + 5a. 22. a? a?. + 22.7.7a: = 394a. 11 ?/ a? 18. : 5# = 15+2a. Transposing. 13a? 3a?. Uniting. 4. 16. 8. 7 (6 x 16). 21. If x = 18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. aj * See page 264. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). x = 18. 15.56 Ex. 4y 10. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. = 5a?+18. = 2 ?/. 7. 14. . + 7(3 + 1) =63.
. 7) (a.5) = (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. e. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. . 2 2 * Jaj. (aj 37. . (a.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. (6 u =5 44. a? 43.3) . 40. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 36.1) (u . .7. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. this question.3) + 14.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.g. a? 28. 25.5) + 199.1 0) = 0. .5(2 u . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 27.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 41.4) + 4 w . 34.12) (2 + 5) . .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 38.32. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 29.7) (7 x + 4) . . 35. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. Evidently 45. 33. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 31. 5) (as (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. . + 4). or 70 a?. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(2 + 6) (4 . 7(7 x y 26.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 39. . find the other part.3) + . 6(6a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . + 7) (. 42.2) (M . is the other part. 30.14 = 0.
9. a. or 12 7. and the smaller one parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 10. 17. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. If 7 2. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 14. is a? 2 is c?. is d. 1. 3. Ex. 7. Divide a into two parts. 11. 6. EXERCISE 1. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Find the greater one.58 Ex. 4. 13. Divide 100 into two 12. is b. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 15. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . find the cost of one yard. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. 5. so that one part The difference between is s. greater one is g. one part equals is 10. smaller one 16. so that of c ? is p. 33 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts.
find the has ra dollars. amount each will then have. A dollars. 20. and B's age is y years. How many cents had he left ? 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . A feet wide. 24. If B gave A 6 25. 19. 32. is A A is # years old. b dimes. ?/ 31. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many years A older than is B? old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. How many cents has he ? 27. 28. Find 35. 28. 22. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. sum If A's age is x years. find the of their ages 6 years hence. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and B has n dollars. 26. and spent 5 cents. and B is y years old. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find 21.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 33. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 34. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. numbers is x. and c cents. A man had a dollars.
The first pipe x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. he walk each hour ? 39. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. a. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. c a b =  9." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). A was 20 years old. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. m is the denominator. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. of m. of 4. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. . 49. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. 46. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find a 47. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. per Find 5 Find 6 45. find the fraction. If a man walks 3 miles per hour.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find a. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9.50. Find x % % of 1000. A cistern is filled 43. . Find the number. 48. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.
equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 2. 3. etc. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. c. a exceeds b by c. 4. The excess of a over b is c. 6. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. of x increased by 10 equals x. same result as 7 subtracted from . 80. c. 5.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. by one third of b equals 100. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 80. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 8 b ) + 80 = a . The double as 7. 9. of a increased much 8. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. double of a is 10. = 2 2 a3 (a  80.
the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. #is5%of450. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic 3x : 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. they have equal of A's. m is x % of n. >. B's age 20. as 17 is is above a. pays to C $100.62 10. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old.000. they have equal amounts. 17. 12. 6 % of m. In 10 years the sum of A's. x 4 If A. 11. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 16. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 18. x is 100 x% is of 700. B. sum equals $20. of 30 dollars. and C's age 4 a. . is If A's age is 2 x. amounts. 50 is x % of 15. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.. 14. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. symbols B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. a second sum. 3 1200 dollars. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's. (c) If each man gains $500. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C have respectively 2 a. a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. and C's ages will be 100. B's.
In order to solve them. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. x= 15. the . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Find A's present age. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Ex. 4 x = 80. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Check. 6 years ago he was 10 . 15. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. but 30 =3 x years. Let x = the number. number of yards. Transposing. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. be 30 . Transposing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. denote the unknown 96. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Uniting. In 15 years 10. NOTE. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. the required . Simplifying. Dividing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Ex. Uniting. 23 =30. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. much as 40 exceeds the number. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. A will Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 2. 1. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x = 20. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x+16 = 3(35). number. 3z40:r:40z. etc. Three times a certain no.
11. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Hence 40 = 46f. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find 8. Dividing. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 300 56. 4.2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 13. EXERCISE 1. by as much as 135 ft. 14. A number added number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 120. twice the number plus 7. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Forty years hence his present age. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. % of 120. Let x 3.64 Ex. 3. Find the number. . exceeds the width of the bridge. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. 5. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44.
make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. B will have lars has A now? 17. 14. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. which gives the value of 8. The problem consists of two statements I. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and as 15. times as much as A. The sum of the two numbers is 14. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Vermont's population increased by 180. x.000. . numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. 1. During the following 90 years. statements are given directly. A and B have equal amounts of money. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 65 A and B $200. two verbal statements must be given. Maine's population increased by 510. is the equation. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. written in algebraic symbols. How many dol A has A to $40. F 8. the second one.000. five If A gives B $200. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. and B has $00. One number exceeds the other one by II. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. B How will loses $100. Ex. 97. The other verbal statement.
to Use the simpler statement. = A's number of marbles. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. = 3. . + a f f 8 = 14. Then. Let x 3x express one many as A. B will have twice as viz. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. terms of the other. 8 = 11. 2. x 3x 4 and B will gain. < Transposing. If we select the first one. 8 the greater number. . A will lose. 25 marbles to B. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. = B's number of marbles. consider that by the exchange Hence. Dividing. = 14. the smaller number. / .= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. A has three times as many marbles as B. which leads ot Ex. the sum of the two numbers is 14. x = 8. has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Uniting. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. The two statements I. Statement x in = the larger number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. If A gives are : A If II. I. A gives B 25 marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. . unknown quantity in Then. 2x a? x j = 6. although in general the simpler one should be selected. and Let x = the Then x +. x x =14 8. B will have twice as many as A. the greater number. Let x 14 I the smaller number.
dollars and dimes is $3.$3. A's number of marbles. the number of half dollars. The number of coins II. etc. Eleven coins. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Dividing. 11 x = 5.240.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Simplifying. greater is . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. 45 . x = 6. Check. B's number of marbles.75.. * ' . The value of the half : is 11. 3 x = 45.10. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 1. Uniting. of dollars to the number of cents. (Statement II) Qx . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Check. w'3. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. x = 15. . cents. the number of dimes. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. * 98. 50. Find the numbers. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. by 44. 2.10. 3. 40 x .5 x . . 15 + 25 = 40. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x from I. 50 x Transposing. is 70. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Uniting. have a value of $3. Find the numbers. and the Find the numbers. 60. Dividing. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Simplifying.550 f 310.10. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. x = the number of half dollars..25 = 20. 6 times the smaller. but 40 = 2 x 20. Two numbers the smaller. the price. The sum of two numbers is 42. consisting of half dollars and dimes. then.
it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Everest by 11. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 9. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Twice 14. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. as the larger one. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. A's age is four times B's. How many hours does the day last ? . United States. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find their ages. 6. On December 21. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. tnree times the smaller by 65.000 feet. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 11. How many 14 years older than B. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and twice the altitude of Mt. 5.68 4. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. one of which increased by 9. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. McKinley. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number.. Two numbers The number differ by 39.
has. number had. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. Ex. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. I. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. they would have 3. x = 8. II. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. number of dollars of dollars B C had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. If 4x = 24. The third verbal statement produces the equation. 19. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. B. B has three times as much as A. then three times the money by I. and 68. number of dollars A had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. Let x II. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. III. and C together have $80.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and B has three as A. and C together have $80. 1. has. bers is denoted by x. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. original amount. are : C's The three statements A. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. = 48. . B. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. times as much as A.
= the number of dollars spent for horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. and the sum of the . and each sheep $ 15. Let then. The total cost equals $1185. three statements are : IT. number of sheep. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. according to II. 9 cows. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 28 2 (9 5). first. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x = 5. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. + 35 x 4. according to III. = the number of dollars spent for cows. + 8 90 x and. 2. x Transposing. sheep. each horse costing $ 90. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. III. The I. 90 may be written. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. cows. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. 9 5 = 4 . number of cows. x j = the number of horses. and Ex. Uniting. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of horses. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. x f 4 = 9. 4 x f 8 = 28. each cow $ 35. Dividing. number of cows.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 185 a = 925. and. the third five times the first. 1 1 Check. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185.
is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. what are the three angles ? 10. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. women. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. increased by three times the second side. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and children together was 37. first. twice the 6. v . 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. the second one is one inch longer than the first. what is the population of each city ? 8.  4. 13.000. how many children were present ? x 11. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000. what is the length of each? has 3. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. "Find three is 4. men.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 7. the third 2. New York delphia. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first. equals 49 inches. The gold. A 12. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and 2 more men than women. the copper. 9. If twice The sum the third side. twice as old as B.
. 14. 8 x = 15. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and distance. width. but stops 2 hours on the way. Dividing. of arid the value of the iron was $300. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. how many 100. Hence Simplifying. or time. The copper had twice the value of the gold. i. such as length. After how many hours will they meet and how E. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and quantities area. 7 Uniting. 3 and 4. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.000 more than that the copper.000. speed. Find the value of each. = 35.g. of 3 or 4 different kinds. together.000. Let x = number of hours A walks. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.e. = 5. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. First fill in all the numbers given directly. number of miles A x x walks. number of hours.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. A and B apart. we obtain 3 a. then x 2 = number of hours B walks.000.
70x10 Ex. Find the dimensions of the field.04 = $ 40. z = 20. Check. $ 800 = 800. 2   and transpose. or 700. . 10 x = 200. l. Multiplying. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.06 = $ 40.053. and the width decreased by 10 yards. Transposing and uniting. The an area 40 x 20 =800. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.04 8. $ 1000 x . + 8. the second 100. $ 800 = required sum.01 = = . But 700 certain = 800 2.M(x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. original field has Check. x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x + 200). the area would be 100 square yards less. . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 2 a = 40.05 x x .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. were increased by 30 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width." gives (2.
Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and its width decreased by 2 yards. the area would remain the same. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A of each. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. but four men failed to pay their shares. After how many hours will B overtake A.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. together bring $ 78 interest. 2. sions of the field. 3. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. were increased by 3 yards. Find the share of each. A sets out later two hours B . 1. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. invested at 5 %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. Ten yards $ 42. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. as a 4. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.55. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. What are the two sums 5. mobile. and a second sum. twice as large. A man bought 6 Ibs. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Six persons bought an automobile. of coffee for $ 1. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. After how many hours. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A and B set out direction.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.
The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. at this 6 2 . consider 105. 76 . + 62 is integral with respect to a. 5. stage of the work. f db 6 to b. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 6. a. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . An after simplifying. 104. if it does contain some indicated root of . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a2 to 6. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. as. but fractional with respect 103. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. this letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. irrational. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . it is composite. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . which multiplied together are considered factors. we shall not.
FACTORING 106. for this result is a sum. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 8) (s1). since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. it follows that a 2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. ?/. x. . It (a. . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.3 6a + 1). 55. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . or that a = 6) (a = a . 2. 1. 109. Factor G ofy 2 .9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . TYPE I. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.) Ex.3 sy + 4 y8). Divide 6 a% . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Ex. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 107. E. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 2. 2. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 01.62 can be &).g. 110. in the form 4) +3. factors of 12 &V is are 3.62 + &)(a 2 . y.
5 + 13 8. 32 a *?/ . TYPE IT. 34 a^c 8 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.3. 3x*6x*.4. Ilro8 9. 4 tfy f. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. + llm llm. 19. 2 23. 18. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 2 Or. 3 2 . 13. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. e. 15 2 7.5 + 2. 2 6.3.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 12. 8. 20.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 7a & 10. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. a a 'Ja .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 11.30 aty.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 3 3 5 6. (as 3) and (ccf5).g. 5f 2 .45 afy . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. : 6 abx . 2. 3. ) 22  2.6. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. . in general. 2 + q.4. 2 2 . 14. 16. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). a6c. 17. q*q*q 2 a.51 aW + 68 21. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 7i 13. 14a 4 5. . 4.2.8 c a 15 ofyV . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 4 8 . obviously.12 cdx. 15. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.
tfa2  3. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). or 7 11.FACTORING Ex. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. determine whether In solving any factoring example. as p. 77 as the product of 1 77. 2.5) (a . Ex. 2 6.. however. and (a . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. of this type.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. We may consider 1. Factor a2 . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. If q is negative. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If q is positive. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.11) (a + 7). can be factored. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.1 1 a tf a 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 3. Therefore Check. a 2 . 5. + 112. + 30 = 20. is The two numbers whose product and 6.G) = . or 77 l. 79 Factor a2 4 x .6 = 20.11 a + 30. Factor + 10 ax .11 a 2 . . 4.5) (a 6). . m 5m + 6.77 = (a. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.30 = (a . Factor x? . .4 . the two numbers have opposite signs. 11 7.a). the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Ex.11.4 x .
8. 25. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 2 . 33. + 30. 26. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ITT. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.80 7. x2 23. 9. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 21 a 2 2 . 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 36.500 x + 600. 12. + 2xS. 2 2 a' 34.180 a. 2 ?/ 22. 21. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. a 2 +11 a a? 16.48 + + 446 200. + 4?/21. 31. 29. a 7 a 30. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 ?/ 28. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 19. or . 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 15. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 24. 100 xr . ay 11 ay +24. 16. 14. 17. 4 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 16. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5.6. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 5<y 24. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 32. 11. 35. 4 3 2 . 20. . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. . 2 ?/ 5?/14. a2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 27. 18. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. + 44.17 + 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.70 x y . . TYPE 113. 13. 2 . 2 . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. and 5 x.
the signs of the second terms are minus. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. the If p and r are positive. and r is negative. 2.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. but the opposite sign.13 x + 5 = (3 x .17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. then the second terms of have opposite signs. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. viz. X x 18. 3 x and x. sible 13 x negative. 11 x 2x.1). Factor 3 x 2 . all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 9 x 6. 54 x 1.5) (2 x . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 2 x 27.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. and that they must be negative. If p is poxiliw.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. a. 27 x 2.5 . Ex. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. or G 114.83 x f 54. 6 x 9. 18 x 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.
290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. X 27 .2 a 90 x*y . 12. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 8. . 10. 2 31. + 4. 2x* + 9x5. 2 28.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . the expressions should be it. 2 2 2 . 2 . x54 a.y + 172/9. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.163 x 2 . 19. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. Sar' + SaG. 24.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 13. 2m t7w + 3. 7. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 29. 10 a . 14 a fa 4. 18.19 a f 6. 90 a 8 2 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 6n + 5?i4. 22. 4. 144 x . 5m 26m f 5. 12^17^16.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 100^200^ + 100^. 3x*Sx + 4. 2.179.30 y 6 4 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12.260 xy . 2 26. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 32.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 11. + 2/3.27). 9. 14. . 9a. 20. 9 y + 32^16. 34. 17.2) (x . : 41 2. 15. 16. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.7. 2 2 2 23. 3a + 13a. 4a2 9tt + 2. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 12y 2/6. since all others (II. 2 . f go. 21. and the monomial factors should be removed. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.83 x = (3 . 3. 5.83 x . 35. 30. 10a2 G a2 2 . 10a?2 2 33. 6. 25. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 fc .
Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 4. i. 2 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. however. it is a perfect square. 2. 11. . square.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.20 xy f 4 y\ .e. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) .10 x f 16. 3. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 2 9 10gf25. 25 7. 12. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. x* . . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 8. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 9. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares.26 ab + 9 6 2 . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . form are special cases of the preceding type. of its terms are perfect squares. and factor whenever possible : 1.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 10. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 9 10a625. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 116. 5. 14. it is more convenient for that type. 13. must have a positive sign. and a perfect square. 6.
18. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 10 a 2 4 2 . ^//c to the Ex. 27.e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. According to 65.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). . 225 ofy .64 6 = 16(a .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).6 m* + 9 m. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 9. 149 a 81 8. 26. 3. 19. a. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. ). 4a2 l. 6. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). +( )f816 30. TYPE 117. 1. 36 2 4. 16&*.2 ofy + ofy m . ). . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 48 a +( ). a2 24. 3. 2 .3 * ). aV . 17. 25. 2 . 2.84 15. prime.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. a. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 22. V. 29. 2 20.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 6 2 . 5. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 2 .20 ab + 10 b a . 16.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. + GO + 25. 4 2 23. 9a2 . Ex. * 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 7. . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.60 a# + 4. product i. !Gar 9 ( )+25.
Ex.FACTORING 85 118. 14. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.d) 2 . a2 . Ex. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 8. 5. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(I) . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 11. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 4. 36> . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 16p 2 . T. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. a:) 12. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Factor a 2 . One or both terms are squares 1.c . 9. 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . of polynomials.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 6. 2 . 2 .(c 4. (m7?) y. 13.
and trinomials. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.a a . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. ive find that the new terms con common factor. = (3 x + y . After grouping tain a the terms. x8 .7 c + 2c .14. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 5.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. a? 11. 4:cx . Ex.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 4 B. 10. By grouping.ab + bx. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. + x + 2x + 2. a5 + ab 6 . which may be factored according to types I. 5) .VI. .1. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. Ex. 9. 1. 6. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. .r. A. a 26 2 2 3 . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 12. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.2 ) (3 x .(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 3.y + 2 2). 2. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 8. 2. 7. 119. ma ?*a + m& nb.
6 6. 3. 2. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8. IV. Arranging the terms. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 6.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 8ra 2 + 16.l. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. First find monomial factors common to all terms.4 f . 5. 36 9 m . : m 2 2 16.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 4 a2 . 4.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. $ a8 . l~a 2a56 2 2 . .12 aaj 4 6y. + 2xy + y*q*. w m 2. 6a4 12a2 + 6.FACTORING Ex. 2 7. : 46 x* 2. 4. 3. = (a + 6)(a6). II. 8. +c+ 2 2 2/ . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.9 a2 4 v* 2 . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 2a3/ 7. 2. .
a5 a 1 4 2 39. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 13. 12. 42 x .310 x . 22. a6 36. 4 a. 48. a + a + a + l. 18. + 6 aft + 3 . 30. 80 a 2 ft 38.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. or 3 7#2 . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 24.13 c . 11.24. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 29. 40. (a. a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif.40. 27.88 10. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 4 8 tt 2 z . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 3 a2 23. 3 2 . 13 c . 3 41. 25 a + 25 aft . a3 156. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 50^ + 45. 5a' 20. 5 a. 19. 42 s 2 . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 14. + 14. (^ 34. 2 a 128. 2 17. 35.156. 3 25. 2 ft . 28. . 32.
C. 89 . The H. 13 aty 39 afyV. are prime can be found by inspection. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . The student should note H. C. of the algebraic expressions. The H. 5 7 34 2s . F. 15 aW. C. C. 8 . 3. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . Two common factor except unity The H. F. C. 5. Thus the H. aW. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 5 2 3 . 5 s 7 2 5. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of aW. 6. 54  32 . F. EXERCISE Find the H. 25 W. F.) of two or more . The highest is common factor (IT. F. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. of 6 sfyz. 12 tfifz. 2. 2 2 . . 24 s .  23 3 . C. 122. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . of two or more monomials whose factors . 121. F. C.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. of : 48 4. F. 3 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. II 2 .
9 aj*(a? . 25 m27i. 2.90 7. 52 oryz4. 12.5 y).?/ .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 10.12 as 66 . x* x2 Hence the H. a2 + 7af!2. 6(m+l) (m+2). 6 mx . 15 3ao. 4 ?io.y + y42. 4(m+l) 3 . 2 . 3). 10. 12. 14. ^2 2 . F. C. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . of polynomials. a2 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 2 . 95 2/V. 16 a . 1. F. F. ^a + 5^ + 6. = x 2 y. ^f a. 8. . . ^707 + 12.5 + 6. 1. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.6.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 11. a3 16 a. 49 C. 13.2 y) (a. 6 3 a. 2 . y + 3y64. and apply the method of the preceding article. Find the H. 225 4a 9 .2 ?/) (x . 16. Ex.y) 123. of + 4 if. aWd. 0^80:416. 9. 3^ 2 4 . of: . 8. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 3. 8(?/ifl) 14.^9. a2 + 2a3. F.5 x3?/ 2 6. (a7 ?/) . 11.6 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 8 6. . 38 #y. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .# 4 afy f 4 . 13. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 12 w*nw 8. 15. 9. 12 . 6 a2 y? . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.8 a + 16. 57 a>V. C. a. . 3 . 2a f5af 2. 8 a 10 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 2 . 7. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. To find the H. 24 a 2 .y) . a2 ar* 4. 65 zfyV. 5. a3 9a. C. . .6 a&. a 3a4.
of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. C. The lowest common multiple (L. M. Find the L. C.6 3 ).C. . M of the algebraic expressions. =4 a2 62 (a2 . etc. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M. M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. a^c8 3 . 60 x^y' 2 . 300 z 2 y. Common 125. C. L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 128. 2 The The L. 1. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. M. thus.M. C. Hence the L. C.M. M. To find the L. Find the L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. The L. NOTE. Ex. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. of the general. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. of 3 aW. Ex. C. M. C. ory is the L. of tfy and xy*. which also signs. C. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. but opposite . &) 2 M. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. L. 126. M. C. A common remainder. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.C.6)2. 127. each set of expressions has In example ft). 2. . two lowest common multiples.
a f 2 19. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3 .1. (a 4)(a2) 12. 6 y. + 6. 6. 8. T a 3 a 2 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 . by. a 2 fa6. a& 4 +& 2 . 2. + 2. f b. or f 3 a 15 #. 24. a^1. 3. a. x* ~5a. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2 10. 17. a2 ~ab 1. 6 a. 24 x. ) . 9. 3(a + b). y*. afy. (For additional examples see page 268. 2 . 3 6 xif. 2 a . M. 2 a. 7.1. a2 4. 1. . 11. G a. 14. 2 a . + 2 7i) . a. a { a~b. 30 a. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a !. a 1. ic 2 ?/. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 22. 2 x \2 y. x2 + 4 a f 4. 20. 3 f2. 3 Z> . 2 . 21. 4 a 5 6cd. 6b 2 . 15. Find the L. 20 9 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 5. xy\ . . 4 a . ic 23. 8 afy. 3 ab. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 40 abJ. 18. 2 7ic+10. x 2 5 a. 4 a f 2. 2(m 2 . afc'cd 2 . a?b. b 2 . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a. of: 4. 13. 3. #. a f 3. 16. a 2 a3 . a 2 f 4 a +4. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 8 d 5 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6.f 6.
however. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. C. A f fraction is b. an indicated quotient. a b = ma mb . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. rni Thus 132. 131. 130. but we In arithmetic. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. as 8. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .ry ^ by their H. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Remove tor. Ex. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. a?. F. etc. and denominators are considered. successively all 2 j/' . Thus.
94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both. 3. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. cancel factors only.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.*. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.' 32. 11 ^ Mtr f . 16. g J 21. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ' ^ . . ^" a. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 23. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ny 4 18. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. LJZJ^JL.. 9x + "a" 10. 29. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 19.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . """. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. .10 a + 3 2 14. ^+3*.7 . 5^10 y 30. nx 17. ^' rt ^  31.
r 2 2 . . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.M. =(z (x + 3)(z.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.1^22 ' . ^ to their lowest com The L. C. by the denominator of each fraction. mon T denominator. . 1.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .3) (!)' = . we may extend this method to integral expressions. and (a 8).~16 (a + 3) (x. take the L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. 1).  of //* 2 . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . multiplying the terms of 22 . Ex.C. + 3). of the denominators for the common denominator. we have M^. C. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and the terms of ***. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. 2> . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.D. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.C.96 134. M. and 135. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . Divide the L. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. .  by 4 6' . TheL. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.M. Reduce ^. we have the quotients (x 1). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.
7i 2 ab* ". 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . . 18. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 22 a2 5a * .^1. 74). 137. o o a. If the given fractions have different denominators. JL. 2aj ~ . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2 ay IB.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . common denominator 6.. . .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. a? 1 5 > ^* . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. j y 3..Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 5?.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 3. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 8 i i. i. 2. .oj o* or / .
cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + ..3 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . 2 ^. ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 ft 2).2 = a(a .(a 2 6). (a ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) . as 4 aft f. D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.. 2. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.7 .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .aft) Ca2 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.ft)(a . C. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. L. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 ' 2 _.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. and adding.g. e. D. (a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . the student should remember that parentheses are . in the beginning. T? Ex. 4(2 a 3 ft).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. The L.
2L + 2a 1 17. a 36 ++. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. + . 18 v 19. 2. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 1 f q * 1 m m . A+2_3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 46 2a 4a 12. j>0 i> 21. 5a76 4a 106 9. 23. 15. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. a+6 a 6 2 14. 6 c 3a 7. 1 1 f w 16. 24.5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3.
1 34. af 1f /j.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 43. a ?^ 40. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ic 1 + 1.9. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a 30. ! n. 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .9 79 6 2 i. a. _ + a? ?/ + y. 42. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 41. a 4 31. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .
.FRACTIONS 139.  4 or 3 2a. 1.6 + 4x 4 x2 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .  . 101 mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. T. . .7 5a v Ex.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . Reduce . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .
2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. fractions to integral numbers. Since  = a. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. F J Simplify .) Ex. (In order to cancel common factors.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. integer.g. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . or. we may extend any e. !. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.
2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 50 . 2 f 5 a. 14. .. 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. aj 5 1 a? 18..6 12 d6 4.
x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. .y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 144. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. Divide Xn?/ . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.5 ??i 80 50 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.afr 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Ex.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.FRACTIONS 105 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. a a2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . l.6 s + 064.^c 2 2 . are fractional.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . or both.10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. 6. the answer is directly obtained. . i. C. .a ^c c _^ a . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. Ex. . a m "" . & . 10.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. 9. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. y X 4* 2 y 3. 7i+~ 7. JL.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. c +6. . n a 8. 2. Simplify x }. of their denominators.y 32 .
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.) . 1 i 1 2 5 . 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. sy 18. : .~l (For additional examples see page 273. m^n* n L a 17.
2z2a.9 x2 + 9. 2. If x 6. each member is reduced to Ex. 1.14 (a. 9x x Check. . each member is reduced to 1. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). M. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Uniting. of the denominator. = 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . tions.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). x = 6.42 + 9. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Transposing.l)(z + 3) = .28 a = 5 x2 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. C. Bx 12 Qx.48. Clearing of fractions. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).1. 2x Transposing. 5(3 85 Check. 2 3. a. Uniting.8 x = . + 1) (a + 3) .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 148.f3# + C:E=6f7212. If = 64. 4 4)  x.28 x + 42 = . = 6. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . these Ex.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 108 .
16. 15.1 _77 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. a. '  4 13. +4 14. a: 7 a.= 2. 1 *> = 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 18. . +1 = 5. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . ^' 2. . a/  5 a/ = 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9.
. If two or more denominators are monomials. 26 26. . J_. . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. .  38 = 40. 31 31. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 3x 35. 27 . 33. y+3~2 29. 2^12 = 2 = 34. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 4a4l4* + l~.11_4 x 149._ _ . ?_=_.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 32 6 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 25.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 .
 5 = 20 x 45. Check. 1. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .29 50712' 9 18 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Transposing and uniting. . M. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. C..1. each member is reduced to ^.2 42 9 43. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.2 3 ~  == 7a. 60. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 24 a. 26 a. the 1 5 L. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5# 10.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . a. = 9. If a. Dividing. 5x x : = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.
b a a a z Clearing of fractions. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. .3 6 2 = a' . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . jr. Uniting. Thus.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = 2 f b 2 .2 ac + 3 aft . = 6 a2 .be. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. 2. 4 ac 1. = l^ 9 b 4 .1. = = 6 6c 7 6c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. find a in terms of b and c. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.m bx 2 mn) x.& . Dividing. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.2 62 2 ab. y.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. a. It frequently occurs that the x. 5> a. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Ex. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. fr Reducing lowest terms. they are united by factoring. f ~ 5c. If 3ac L= = a ? . =a 2 151. Uniting the Dividing. ax f x f. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.
m a? x . denoting the interest. If * 33. 5) is t =^. ^ ax a^ 26. + 3a. 4. 11. 3(* 8. If s (wi n) x =px + q. q solve for/. 2 solve for y a. 31. * Solve the same equation for^). 17. 30. = rt. in terms of other quantities. Ex. . s = Vt solve for v. 10. rate. 9. . iw 21. r the number of $>. c. solve for a. t. 12. f P =+!. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 4.i l . 13. = 5. IIL n b + &o. 29.a. + xx = 1. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. and n the number of years. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. _ 2. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. If s If 16. = vt.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . The The i time. mx = n. . 14.= c a Z> . 6. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. If ^^ = a 1 32. = 3 (6 a). c 18. = 8 4 #. p the principal.= n. solve for . 3. f ^o. 34. . a. 1 f.= H. 15. co?. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).
Multiplying by Dividing. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.180. .. Find R in terms of C and TT. is 36. then = 2 TT#. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. and 12 = the number over. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. . A would do each day ^ and B j. Ex.20 C. 2. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2 3 . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 1. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Ex. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 100 C.. = 16^.114 35. x Or Uniting. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.
the required number of days. Solving. 3. the rate of the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Ex. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. or 1J. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. and the statement." : Let x  = the required number of days. 4x = 80. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train." gives the equation /I). 32 x = . in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x. Clearing. = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and of the father's age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. money and $10. Find A's 8. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his son. of his present age. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. which was $4000. and J of the greater Find the numbers. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. fifth Two numbers differ 2. make 21. is oO.  Find their present ages. is equal 7. by 3. length in the ground. and 9 feet above water. ceeds the smaller by 4. a man had How much money had he at first? . by 6. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. ex What 5. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. to his daughand the remainder.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. 3.
3. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. Ex. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 152. investments. . A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. air. and B in 4 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A has invested capital at more 4%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 2. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. How much money $500? 4%. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) 22. what is the 14. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. ^ at 5%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and it B in 6 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 1.
. n x Solving. 26. B in 30.e. is 57. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. . 3. B in 12. they can both do in 2 days. A in 6. we obtain the equation m m . 25.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Hence.g. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. B in 16. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. B in 5. is 42. and apply the method of 170. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. e.414. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. and n = 3. 2. A in 6. To and find the numerical answer. m and n.= . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Ex. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. if B in 3 days. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.118 153. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. A in 4.009 918. Then ft i. The problem to be solved. therefore. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.
000. The one: 31. respectively. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. After how many hours do they meet. and the rate of the second are. 4J miles per hour. 34. if m and n are. is ?n . 33. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and the second 5 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 3 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 3J miles per hour. squares 30. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 29. (c) 16. respectively (a) 60 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. Find the side of the square. the second at the apart. meet. same hour from two towns. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. is (a) 51. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.721. 2 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour. (d) 1.001. (b) 35 miles. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the rate of the first. : (c) 64 miles. (b) 149.
Simplify the ratio 21 3. the denominator The the 157. 158. 1.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. is numerator of any fraction consequent. In the ratio a : ft. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.5. " a Thus. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b is the consequent. Ex. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. E.g. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. b. . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. 6 12 = . antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. etc." we may write a : b = 6. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The first 156. : : 155.
J:l. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 18. and c. proportional between a and c. two  ratios. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. b is the mean b. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 10. 3:1}. 16. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161.RATIO Ex. 4. 12. a and d are the extremes. extremes. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 16a2 :24a&. 17. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : 1. 3. 6. 159. The last first three. 27 06: 18 a6. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 4:5f : 5. 61 : ratios 72:18. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. Simplify the following ratios 7. 9. $24: $8. 1. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. Transform the following unity 15. 8^ hours. b. terms. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 7f:6J. 7:4 T T 4 . 11. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 62:16. 5 f hours : 2. b and c the means. 3:4. and c is the third proportional to a and . equal 2. : ay . 3 8.
is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 2 165. ccm.30 grams. of a proportion. 163. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. The mean proportional of their product. 163. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. Hence the number of men required to do some work. of iron weigh . of iron weigh 45 grams. then G ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. In any proportion product of the extremes. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. If (Converse of nq.e. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.) b = Vac. = 30 grams 45 grams. i. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. briefly. are : : : inversely proportional. 164.122 162. Clearing of fractions. !. 3 4. ad = be.) mn = pq. : : directly proportional may say.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.__(163. and the other pair the extremes. q~~ n . " we " NOTE. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 6 ccm. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. and the time necessary to do it. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. : c. pro portional.
By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. V. (163. a III. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. ad ( 163. bd bd. (Division. (Frequently called Inversion.) d 167. = 35 . ad = be. is Ex.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. d d. Or IV. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. I. then =d c.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. 1.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Composition.) (Called Alternation. is 4$ = 35. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. I. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) = f f = 3 J. . 2. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) II. 166. 12x Hence a? = 42. hence the proportion true. + b:b = c + d:d. if 6 : 7. a:c=b:d. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.PATIO Ex.
= 2:3. Apply composition. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. Or III. 120:42 2 2 7. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 4. = 7:2f 3J. : x.!=!*. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. V. 3.124 IT. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. i. 2. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. . 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.g. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 6 =4 : x. = 180:125. = 12 5ft.e. 8. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. x = 2. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 9. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. E. .:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 20:7. IV. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 5 5. the consequents by 7. 10. = 2:x. 5. Simplify the following proportions. mx tin Apply composition and division. and determine whether they are true or not : 6.
j>. 38. 42. 7iy = 2:x. (a : : 45. to: = 35:*. 1 and a.:ff. Find the 37. 5. 22. x:5 = y:2. if : 40. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 33. 34. 35. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. a.x: 6:5 a : x. to : a and 1. 4 and 16. 43. : 53.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 6. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2= 5 x x. to : 9 and 12. 14 and 21. 6 x = y. 50.  32. 2 a and 18 a. 17. 29. 112:42 = 10:a. Find the third proportional 24. 31. 23. ra + landra 1. 26. 12. : . and 2/. = 5 x 12. w. 18. Find the mean proportional 30. 25. 9 x = 2 y.. 20. 46. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 51. 21. mx = ny. = l^:18. 4. a?:15 15. b. = 15o. 27. : a2 . 14. = 3 43 + x. 2. 3. 03:a?=135:20. rap. 47. 13. 3. ra 2 . rag. 52. 6x = 7y. ra. 2. 16. 1. 44. x m = y n. a 2 and ab. f. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a.8:1. 16 and 28. ratio of y. 39. 2 3 = y #. terra 2:3 = 4. + fyx = cy. 28. = 2 + x: x. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. . 3t. 41. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 5= 18 a? : a?. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.
(d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). A line 7^. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the time. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. and the speed of the train. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the area of the larger? the same. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the area of the rectangle. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 56.126 54. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. what 58. the squares of their radii (e) 55.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. 57. and the : total cost. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the time necessary for it. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').
RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. . = the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. is A line AB. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. AB = 2 x. 4 inches long. 2. x = 6. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2 x Or = 4.000 168. Let A B AC=1x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. x=2. as 11 Let then : 1. produced to a point C. : Ex. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 18 x = 108. 11 x = 66 is the first number.
) . 13. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11.000. and 15 inches. Gunmetal tin. 6. How many 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. How The long are the parts ? 15. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and c inches. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 7. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 14. 12. : 197. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 2. 11. 9. 3. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b.000 square miles. What are the parts ? 5. How many gen. 12. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. : 4. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.
such as + = 10.y=. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. a? (1) then I. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.e. expressing a y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1. values of x and y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. if . =..CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. is x = 7. y = 1. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. 2 y = . Hence. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.L x If If = 0. However. etc. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 .
y = 2. the last set inconsistent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. By By Addition or Subtraction. and 3 x + 3 y =. to The two methods I. 21 y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.X. = . for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 26 y = 60. cannot be reduced to the same form. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.130 170. y I 171. Substitution. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 6x . same relation.26. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. ~ 50. 4y . x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.3 y = 80. 3. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. unknown quantity. viz. for they express the x f y 10. The first set of equations is also called consistent. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.24. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . of elimination most frequently used II. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). Therefore. E. are simultaneous equations. 172. 174.
add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 64 x = 040. 37. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 10 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. Transposing. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).3 1 = 47. 3y = 3. 60 . 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. x = 10. subtract the equations. 8 2. = 235.14 =8. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Therefore Check.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 5 13 . = 406. + 2.3 y = 47.2 = 6.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. y = 1. whose coefficients In general. 3. 25 x . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 2. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). x = 10. are like.
= 41. i 3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. x 11. O t K 8. + 2/ 17.9 *. 19< I a.f2/ ' = 50.3. v ^ = ll. I oj 5y = 17. 9 1 r 20.4. I i 3 a. . = 6. = 24.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 13 61 l7a. I . ' 12. [2o. * + 3 y = 50. I ~ y~~> 22. _. J I y = 1U.v 23. 13. f 3# ?/ = 0. f 3X 7x 14. ] ^ .3. 7 ' 1fi fl .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.5 y = 2.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 4#8. . x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 60. 3. and solve the resulting equation. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 2y + 10. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 8.
(8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 21z6y=9. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19.6)7(y7)==18. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 2 y = . 3 (1) Ex. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . simplified before elimination is possible. \ \6(a. 29 x = 29. 7x_2y=3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. however. + 212y4 = 14. 3. . 7 y = 6. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.3. Substituting in (6) . From 9 = 36. (7) (7) (8) . (4). x = l. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3.
1) = 121. J 9.f2 2. . 10 2a?5 17.1) + 5(6 y . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 10. +y 2 . 4 11. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 12. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. a. = 3. . yM a. . 16. a.
{. but some expressions involving x. . f y .#. and y. 180. <X + 20. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . e.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. ?~y . 22.Q ^ 4 21. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. * ((* (( .
4 x = 4 xy. . of this type. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Substituting x = 3 in (1). Dividing by 11 3 = #. can also be solved Examples method. y 1. however. y 4. Clearing of fractions. x 3. 137 Solve y y (1) . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (4) + (G). 1. etc. 15 y + 8 x .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.3 xy. Therefore y=4. y. . 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. x 2x(2). (2) (3) a.
= 5. 4 13. 253 7.= o 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . y MOi y a. x y 5. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 1. Ex. 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). n. x y 331 9. x 8. 6w3 + bny = 6p. . = en. 21 9 .
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. W . d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. fax f = l. From the same equations find s in terms of a. x a. Uniting. ax + by = 2 a&. . . bmy bm}y ap cm. w. and I. ny = fy/ I sc 1. Dividing.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. s in 11. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. a Find a and terms of n. x 12. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 14. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5. . ap. x f my = 1.y = = 9a + 46. 6.W. apan cm. .
25. = 30.2 + 3. 1. 3.2 + 4. 182. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. = 3. . Ex. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). ties are Similarly.1+4. etc.lf> z . 3y = Hence Check.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.3 = 8. f 3y 12 =s 8.by 2. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.13.15z=12 Adding. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). (8) 2. y =* 2. To solve equations containing By tions.16. 20. 8 x . by 3. 3. 1. x + 12 y . 4. (4) (5). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.8 = 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. l.12 y + 6 z = .3=4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 6.
x 13. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 2 4. 12. 8. 10. 2 . == 6. 14. 15 2 = 45. 4 = 42. 7. + y f z = 15. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 49.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. ~6?/ 5. a? 11. a? + 709 = 26. 2z = 40.
1510 4 17. 32. 60. = 8*. = 5. 19. . (3 _. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. ?/ 3x = 0. 16. 22.42 = 2. 23.2 a.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 84 21. 4.6 2.3 y + .. . ^ = 2. . 27. =s 20. ? = llz.
y * z 30. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. ( 99. 1 = 2. + 396 = 521. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. y 31. Find the number. # 4. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. and if 396 be added to the number. however. z + x = 2 n. Ex. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 1 digit in the tens place. . . M=i. 2 = 1(1+6). and to express In complex examples. Check. +2+ 6 = 8. 1.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = l. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. = 2 m. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. 2 = 6. either directly or implied. Obviously of the other . symbols: x + y +z 8. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + z = 2p.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. x : z =1 : 2.
B.144 Ex. By expressing the two statements in symbols. C. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . 4 x = 24. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 5_ _4_ A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3+1 5+1 4_2. 2. direction. 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. = the fraction. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. increased by one. 6 x 4 = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 3. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. y = 3. . From (3) Hence xy Check. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Or (4)2x(3). who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x 3x4y = 12. x 3 = 24. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Ex. we obtain. the distance traveled by A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. (1) (2) 12. = 8. xy a: 2y 4y 2. Find the fraction.
to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Find the numbers. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11.) added to a number of two digits. If 9 be added to the number. added to the numerator of a fraction. the value of the fraction is fa. 6. Find the number. If the denominator be doubled. and the fourth 3. the number (See Ex. number by the first 3. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 183. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the last two digits are interchanged. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. its value added to the denominator. 7. the digits will be interchanged. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the number. 1. . it is reduced to J. 5. 2. part of their difference equals 4. ? What 9. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. fraction is reduced to \. Find the numbers. the Find the fraction. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If 27 is 10. A fraction is reduced to J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the numbers. the fraction equals .}. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. both terms. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the fraction. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the numerator increased by 4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. tion ? 8.
bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 14. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. How 6 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and partly at 4 %. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the annual interest would be $ 195. the rate of interest? 18. 5 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. 19. If the rates of interwere exchanged. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. 12. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. now. Find the rates of interest. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and money and 17. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. partly at 5 %. . and in 5 years to $1125. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . respectively ? 16.000 is partly invested at 6%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. A sum of $10. in 8 years to $8500. 13. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. A man invested $750.grams. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and 4 %. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Find their present ages. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.
and $15 for each sheep. angle c = angle d. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. but if A would double his pace. and angle e angle/. BC=7. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. the length of NOTE. receiving $ 100 for each horse. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. On /). and sheep. then AD = AF. . $ 50 for each cow. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. points. and e. cows. triangle Tf AD. and F '(see diagram). the three sides of a triangle E. 25. and F. andCL4 = 8. 1 NOTE. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. B find angles a. and angle BCA = 70. three AD = AF. and F. . If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and CE If AB = G inches. for $ 740. respectively. 23. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BD = HE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. are taken so ABC. Find their rates of walking. BE. 24. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and GE = CF. An C touch ing the sides in D. and their difference by GO . what is that = OF. ED = BE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and AC = 5 inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. BC = 7 inches. E. c. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21.
PM. is The point whose abscissa is a. jr. the ordinate of point P. the ordinate by ?/. (7. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and PJ/_L XX'. B. YY' theyaxis. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. (3. is the abscissa. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). . PN are given. The of Coordinates. first 3). Thus the points A. and r or its equal OA is . 3). or its equal OM. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). ?/. (2. It' Location of a point. 186. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and point the origin. PN. 2). (2.. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles.
(0. 2). 2J). (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. whose coordinates are given NOTE. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 0). 4) and (4.2). 11. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 3). (1. 2). 0). (4. and measure their distance. 4). (See diagram on page 151. Plot the points: (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3.(!. (5. What is the locus of (a?.4). 1). 8.3).and(l. (3. Graphs.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Plot the points (6.) EXERCISE 1. . 6. 71 2). 1). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (0. (2. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points: (4. 4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 3). i. 3. 4). 6. 2. 0). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4.1). 3). 0). which of its coordinates known ? 13. . (4. 4) from the origin ? 7. (4. !).e. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Plot the points : (0. 12.
ure the ordinate of F. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. C. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 15. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. however. from January 1 to December 1. Thus the first table produces 12 points. By representing of points. D. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 10 . B. . we meas1 . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A.. 188.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. or the curved line the temperature. may be found on Jan. 1.
physician. (b) July 15. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (c) January 15. etc. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (d) November 20. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. uses them. Whenever a clear. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
(d) 9 0. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .. 1 to Oct. 1? 11 0. on 1 to the average. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ? 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. is 10. How much. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 15. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (1) 10 C. (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C...152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.
in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 20. Draw a graph for the 23. 19. NOTE. Hour Temperature .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw . One meter equals 1.09 yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.
(Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. if each copy sells for $1. if he sells 0.5 grams. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 9.. function If the value of a quantity changes.) T circumferences of 25. and $. binding.inch. 2 . etc. x increases will change gradually from 13. gas. 3. e. the value of a of this quantity will change. A 10 wheels a day. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. then C irJl.. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.50.. amount to $8. represent his daily gain (or loss). x 7 to 9. 28. 29. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 26. . 3. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50. 1 to 1200 copies.g.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. books from for printing.154 24. to 27. 190. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. the daily average expenses for rent. x* x 19. 4. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 2. etc. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.
g. 1 the points (3.1). J).e. 9). (1^. 3 50. The values of func192. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. and join the points in order. it is In the example of the preceding article. 4). 4). Ex. 9). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.1). etc. E. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.0). construct '. may. Draw the graph of x2 f. 2). for x=l. Q. is supposed to change. 2. and (3. to x = 4. may . as 1. plot points which lie between those constructed above. ( 2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. a*.2 x may 4 from x = 4. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. x a variable. 2 (1. while 7 is a constant. (2. Graph of a function. however. 3 (0. . 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. be also represented by a graph. If a more exact diagram is required.
. (3. 7 . (2. 5). straight line produces the required graph. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.4). 4). A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 194. 1). 4J.20).. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. and join(0. y = 6. rf 71 . If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. Ex. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. etc.. Thus 4x + 7.2 x . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. = 4. j/=3...) For brevity. 2 4 and if y = x f. r */ +* 01 . Thus in the above example. as y.. (4. = 0.
the function. a?. if the function equals zero. 1J. xl. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . a? 2 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. + 4. 21. 16. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 8. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 22. a. 11. a? 1. The values of a?. ?/ a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 1J. 4a? I. y = 2x = 4. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (7i) (c) 23. if"a. (C ) (2. 2x + 3x a?. 2. 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 2 a. 23x. The values of a*. if y = 2. fa 17. 14.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. Jar . Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. xz + x. if a. 2 2. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 3 a 8. 2J. 3. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 1. 2 2 a. 18. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 15. = The values of a*. from x VlO'S". The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. i. l. 2 a. x+1. 1J.e. 5. 4 a. (ft) (_ 1. 7.or. 2 or 2 20. 12. . a ar. a* 13. = 4. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. J. 6 fa. . (If) Va25. 6. 19. 3. The smallest value of the function. 2J.8)'. 1 8 10. 9.5)2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3.5)2.
) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C... 1 C. that graph with the o>axis. then y = .24 or x = P and Q. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. Represent 26. 25.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.158 24. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. C.24. 9 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. then cXj where c is a constant. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. Show any convenient number). 14 F. 32 F.where x c is a constant. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. Therefore x = 1. y= formula graphically.. i.e. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). the abscissas of 3. .
11. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 10. 7. 2 and 1.f 9 = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. or 5 2. (a) (6) 9. (a) x2 = 0. + + = where a. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 197. viz. = 0. Such equations in general have two roots. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 0. 13. is called a quadratic equation. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. 3. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. a2 2a. . 4. 8. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 14. crosssection paper is used. (0.7 2 a 5 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 12. 6. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.
Hence if if x x  2. ?/ =4 AB. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Ex.2 y ~ 2. Hence we may join (0. because their graphs are straight lines. i. and join the required graph. first degree. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Ex. y = l. y= A and construct x (  graphically. ?/. 1) and 0). T . unknown quantities. 3x _ 4 . solve for ?/. produces the 7* required locus. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y.1. (f . 4) and them by straight line AB (3. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. fc = 3. if y = is 0. y y 2. locate points (0. NOTE. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . . 199. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 2). X'2 Locating the points (2.2. If x = 0. = 0. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. == 2. 4) and (2. 0).e. and joining by a straight line.
viz. equation x= By measuring 3. 203. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.15.57. P. 201. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. we obtain the roots. Graphical solution of a linear system. 202. 3. To find the roots of the system. linear equations have only one pair of roots. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).1=0. parallel have only one point of intersection. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and CD. AB y = .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. (2) .
3. 4. Solving (1) for y. e..y~ Therefore. etc. V25 5. 4. and . (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Since the two  we obtain DE. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. the graph of points roots. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Locating the points (5. 0) and (0. 5. (4. we of the + y* = 25. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. (2. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P.e.g. (1) (2) C.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. if x equals respectively 0. 0. intersection.  4. and + 3). y equals 3. 1. Using the method of the preceding para.5. AB the locus of (1). the point we obtain Ex. 3. 2. There can be no point of and hence no roots. In general. 3.5. 1. 4. P graphs meet in two and $. i. they are inconsistent. 2 equation x 3).0). 5. . Inconsistent equations. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3x 2 y = 6. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 3). 0. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.0. (4.9. = 0. Locating two points of equation (2). x2 . 2. and joining by a straight line. 4.
. 6. y = 4. 17. y= a2 2x y6. 5. 2x 3?/=6. \ 2x + 3^ . 16 23. 7. 16 22. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. state reasons. x~y=0. 19. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. Draw system..GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. y=x + 5. '163 Dependent equations. if possible. 9. 4. 20. 3. and. and solve each If there are no solutions. a+r/=6. y 2 4. 8. vice versa. a. 10. the graphs of the following systems. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2.
TABLE OF SQUARES. 4 a = 3(6 . 29 .164 24. 26. 25. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 30.14 y = .8. 3 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .y). CUBES. 28.
Law of Signs. etc. According to 1. involution repeated multiplication. ^4/? it According to 50. 8. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 2. fa. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 3 f a = f a = +. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. . a = a3 . is may be by 207.faa a a a Obviously 1. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. follows that 3.a2 . powers of a positive quantity are positive.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 2. 52. on to in factors 4. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . a special kind of product.
^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 3 2 2 8 . 76 : (>y. (a ) 2 5 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 24. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (2ar). 6. a product to a given power.166 To find To To power. 15. (a ) 2 4  3. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 4 /2mV. amVy) 3 . 210.6) = a . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 2 11 (afc ) . (^^) 2 . 4. V V/ 13. 2. 16. (277171 )*. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise a fraction to a power. the required power.6 (a 8 8 . 5. .
y . (3af26) 8 .3 y. 3 . 13. . 12.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. etc. 16. An 1. + 4aj) 3 . 3 8 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 9. 2 . 23. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 7. 21. pansions. (3 x . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . a. 5. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .6 2 8 ft) . 18. (aj7) . 1 f 3 2 3 . 211. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. Ex. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 8 (a??/) 3 . : a 20. 3. 8. (a + &)8 . + a 2 a.y) = (3 y?y . 2. 6. 4. frequently called ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . nent of the binomial. (afl) . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . The higher powers of binomials. are obtained by multiplication. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 1. +5a) 22. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (3 (l I) 2 8 .) 14. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 15. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 2.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.INVOLUTION Ex. and decreases in each succeeding term by L .
(3a f5) 5) 4. 1. Ex. Ex. ( &) 5 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 5. . (?>i?i f c)*. mn 5 2 5 ) . 3. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 4 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (1 + 4 ?/) . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 21. .2. (la&) 4 12. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (a~^) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 14. (l 8 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2 a 4 . (mJ) 4 11. is the coefficient of the next term. (?/i~w) : 16. (af 5) . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 5. (m 2 + n) 8 . 10. 9. 24. . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 25.a) 3 19.168 3. 6. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 13. and the powers negative. 15. 17. (m 5 I) 2 22.96 ^y f 216 o?y .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . . . 8. (m fl) 2 20. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 .216 a^ 4. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . 4. Ex. 78 s . 3. 23. 18. The minus. 4 (1for) 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 2. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (tff1) (cfd) . (p + q) 4 * 7. (2 4. . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 .
Since even powers can never be negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. a) 4 = a4 . 1. tity . 4 4 . numbers. for distinction. \/"^27=3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 215. = x means = 6. 27 =y means r' = 27. called real numbers. 109 . or y ~ 3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. and ( v/o* = a. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. (_3) = 27. V \/P 214. 2. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. V9 = + 3. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. or x &4 . etc.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. which can be simplified no further. and all other numbers are.
V25 9 16. = 199 + (_ 198) . EXERCISE 1.64 5 4 . = V26TIT81 = 53. .201) = 2.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.4. 9. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .9 = 136. Ex. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex 5 a" . . index. 5.1. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . 7 . 6. 8. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . v/^i2 = a*. Ex. \/2 4 9 .200 .  100 a 2 . 3 33 53 . 7. 3. 8. 6 7 = 030. 7 . To extract the root of a power. Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. = 19472. extract the and denominator. 9. Ex. 3/0** = am .(. Ex. fy 5 3 . 3i . 62 = V2* . 2. V?.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . . 7. Ex.lL. 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. v/2^. To extract a root of a fraction. 82 . 6. 4 v. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 2 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V36 9 4.125. 10. V5 v/2 7 2.
116. 2 .3 y2) ( vV . a* 4 8 2 . 33. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.6 tfif + 9 y = O .) by inspection. . 30. 45 V5184. 3.75.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 6. V9216.4/./). 2 f ( V240) 3 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Find the square root of a2 .3 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 34. 1. 5. a f2 l 2 + l. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .EVOLUTION 171 28.3. 29. 31. V8. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 32. Ex. 2 .98. V20 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 2.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . ^40^4. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.
15. . 2 2 218.e. i. + 6 + 4a&. 10. 8 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. and b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b . however.72 aW + 81 & 4 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. The term a' first 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 14. mV14m??2)f 49.172 7. 2ab . 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 11.2 &c. and b (2 a f b).2 ac .b 2 2 to its square. #2 a2  16. let us consider the relation of a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . a\b is the root if In most cases. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 12.> 13. a f.
. Ex. 10 a 4 8 a. First trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. The square . and consider Hence the their sum one term. */'' . 6 a. . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 219. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 1. Second trial divisor. . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. First complete divisor. and so forth. 8 a 2 2. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. the first term of the answer. 8 a 2 . . 8 /. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. by division we term of the root. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. As there is no remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 2. . of x. Explanation. is As there is no remainder. 1.24 afy* f 9 tf.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.
16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. x 6 4 4 0^4. 4 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81.37 a ^ .25. 436^?/469a.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 2 4. 16.9.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.10 x2 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .73a4 440^436^460^.12 m 4. l 4. 15.162 a2 60 a10 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. .24 or . 729 4.42 a*& 4.6 .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 16x6 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 9. 12. 14. 20.25 x 4 4. 24. 13#4 413ar 44a. 1 4. 5. 6. 10.73 a8 .20 J or 2 16 x 4.40 a 22 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . a? 2 . 17.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 8.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. > 7. 3.16. 6 11.12m 5 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 18.a 6 x*y 2 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 36it. 19. 2 x2 3 2x.4 x 4.20 o 4.
etc. of 1. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Find the square root of 7744. Ex. 2. two figures.EVOLUTION 220. As 8 x 168 = 1344. The is trial divisor = 160. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of a number between 100 and 10. = 80. the first of which is 4.000.000 is 1000. first . and the first remainder is. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. of 10. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. a 2 = 6400. and the complete divisor 168. Therefore 6 = 8. 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the first of which is 8. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Find the square root of 524.000 is 100. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. which may contain one or two). the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Ex. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number..000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.176.1344. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.
Find the square root of 6/.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.70 6.1T6 221. places. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. in . 3. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.7 to three decimal places. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher.10.0961 are '. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.
whose area equals 48. 1. JT . 39.) 40. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .53. 31. . 5. 37. = 3.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. feet. 30. 13. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.22.58 square 38. 36. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. T\. 34.01. 32. 33. J. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.1410. feet.
CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 225. or affected. = 7^ + 5. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 226. x 2 7. 6#2 = x* 24. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. = 4. A pure. x = + 2 or x =2. Transposing. complete. This answer Check. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Dividing. or incomplete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 6 y2 = 17. is A quadratic equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. 224. 2. The 7 equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. is 12.g. Extracting the square root of each member.. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. . 2 ic = a. but no higher power e. or equation of the second degree. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 1. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Ex.
+ 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 19 + 9 = 5500. 4. . (a? 9.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 16^393 = 7. o. Solve 179 . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 1 = 1. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 10. 15^5 = 6. or Therefore.2. 4 ax. 5. .25. 7 = 162. ax Transposing and combining. 2 4fc 5' 18. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 3. 7. 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2 2 a. ' =: y? b* b . : 83 2.
2 . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 29. . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. Find the side of each field. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . . find a in terms of 6 . ' 4. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . EXERCISE 1. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144).b 2 If s If =c . 24. solve for v. A right triangle is a triangle.) of their squares 5. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . solve for d. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is one of _____ b The side right angle. 26. 2 . If 22 = ~^. If G=m m g . 2a f 1 23. Find the numbers. 2. and their product : 150. 4. solve for r. 2 : 3. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 228. : 6. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. r. If a 2 4. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. then Since such a triangle tangle. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. Find the side of each field. 108. 3. 22 a. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 25. may be considered one half of a rec square units. is 5(5. Find is the number. 27. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 28.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a.
its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find the unknown sides and the area. . Find the sides. The area : sides are as 3 4. x* 7 x= 10. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.7 x f 10 = 0. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. and the other two sides are as 3 4. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . (b) 44 square feet. is and the other two sides are equal. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. 4. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.2 7 . (b) 100 feet? = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . we have of or m = . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. A body falling from a state of rest. sides. 24. Find these 10. .) 13. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. To find this term. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. J = 12. 9. Solve Transposing. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. add () Hence 2 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the two smaller 11. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Find the radii. of a right triangle Find these sides. radii are as 3 14. Method of completing the square. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 2m.
2 a2 . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.e. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. = .  \. J. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Simplifying. or x = 2. Hence Therefore Check.x(l = .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.a. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.. Transposing. Therefore. = x\ = 2. (*~8) a = at . Ex. adding member). Uniting. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.1. 62 x 5 = f. Extracting square roots. a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .2. 2  . 230. Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0. = \ # = ff. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. = 6. Ex. a Clearing of fractions. 2 a* a. or J.
Extracting square root. x .4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
c = 0. ao. =8 r/io?. x la 48. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4. Solution by formula.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. and c in the general answer. 49. . = 12. 231. article. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =0. \bx\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.
6. c = 5. ?i 2 . V^tT)* . 2or } 5o. 14. a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. = 12 . 20. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 16.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. b =  + 20 == = 0. 2 a.. 17. 26. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6 . 6 Ex. 7. 4. : 86 + 2 = 0. 12.  .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = 64120?. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 . 10. 11. 19. 21. 2 a? = 44 x . Reducing to general form. 2. 13. 8. c p.4 4 5 .25 x. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2. 15. 9. 6. 18. TIO. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 5 x2 Transposing.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2 o. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6^+5^ 56. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 1. 3.
Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. x(x <2 . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 23. transposing terms to one member. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. member can be Ex. orz roots.x. all or. any degree. 27 x== 42a. or # 5 is zero. 25.5 Solving (1) and (2). a=:i^^. }. Solution by factoring. Factoring. 1. 233. (5 a? !)(. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.5) =0. ar>8o. = 0. and 6.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Transposing. . 26. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. = 14. 3x?+x = 7. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Clearing for fractions.2. factors Now. 0. x2 = 1 . 5 = 0. Eesolving into factors. = 0. Bx 1 1. if either of the uct is zero. 2S3x 1 2 . 5) = 0. = 0. 24.
(aj4)(a. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. ar'Sa^ 12. Therefore x =3 = 2. and the equation thus formed be solved. 4. for a: . 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 12. + 100. 6. is 5) = 0. Ex. 2.(. 0(02) = 7(02). x2 f 2 x . + 9 f 20 x = 0.6)) = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.24 = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 4)(z3) = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 13. + 10 a = 24. The equation I. 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . we 9 obtain x 4. E. 0^ ar> 11. 3 or 2 a.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 5 = 0. a* 10a=24. 8. } 2 2 (5 . Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3# y 5 = 0. O roots are 2. aj( 15. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. + 8=s: 7. 2. 3. 4or + 18a f 8a.e.:=0. a?. 7. 3) = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. a?10a=:24. 3) Factoring. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. Or Hence the 234.3)(x + 3 3. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. : 87 = 0. + 6)=0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3^ = 0(1106).g. 16.= 24. 2o3 f9a.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 9. 5.
22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 23.3) = (s + l) (3 a).188 17. 19. '3a!J  . uz + u 21. a 2 =(x a)b. (2a? 3) (a 24. ara + ft + c*. 2. 18. 50. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 20. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 25. 27. (a + 1) (a.
57. Find the number. 56. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 58. number by 10. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. G. 2. The 11.0. 2. 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. 1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 0. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 8. two numbers is 4. and consequently many prob 235.3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. of their reciprocals is 4. The difference of . Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 7. and whose sum is is 36. and whose product 9.9. 3. Find the numbers. and the difference Find the numbers. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. feet. . 3. 4. 5.2. 1. 54. 52.3. EXERCISE 1. Find the number. Find the sides. 5. 6. 2. and equals 190 square inches.3. 55. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . : 3.1. 2.
Find the rate of the train. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. What did he pay for 21. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. 19. he would have received two horses more for the same money. .190 12. 13. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 14. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and Find the sides of the rectangle. ply between the same two ports. other. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. watch for $ 24. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. as the 16. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. 17. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4.10. If he each horse ? . dollars. Two vessels. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. ABCD. sold a horse for $144. 15. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other.
237. constructed with and CB as sides. Find and CB. is On the prolongation of a line AC. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. the two men can do it in 3 days. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. so that the rectangle. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. ^3^ = 7. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. . Find TT r (Area of a circle . or x = \/l = 1. Ex. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. (tf. how wide is the walk ? 23. of the area of the basin.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.) 25. a point taken. 27. By formula. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. and working together. 24. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 1. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 23 inches long. contains B 78 square inches.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. as 0. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.
3 a4 44s + 121=0. a? 15 1=2*. = 13. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . y8)=0. or y = 8. 16. 18. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. = 1.192 238. 2 h9:=0. Ex. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4.)+72=0.T 2 2 . 2 16 a^40 11. >. 4 a. a4 5o.2 =4. aV+9o 4 =0. 10. 12. 6. a. 7. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 8. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 436 3. 19. Hence Le. 4 : 89 10a. 9. 4 6. Solving. 2. a 21or=100. T 17.
kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. a perfect square.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .bx 4. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 241.12 x + 9 = 0. Hence the roots are real. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 3. ( 2a Hence 1.2) 2 4 3 (. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . is 4ac not zero. The discriminant =(.2 z .Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. negative. Ex. Ex. c the roots are real. . the roots are equal. and unequal. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . and equal. 240.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.5) = 04. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. rational. 1. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are unequal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients.f> = 0. 2. b 4. the roots are imaginary. the roots are irrational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . it 2a follows 2 : 2. rational. the roots are rational. the roots are real.
If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 5oj aj + l = 0.19 # 20. lla. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. o. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 14. f 2 E. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. ^12. = 5x. 17. 2a 4z5 = 0.. their product isf. 5aj 9. 22. 9a3 = 0. 2 : 3. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 2 7. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 24. 2 a. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 2a15 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. + 12 2  .g. x2 7 10. 15. 12. + 2a. 3a. : a 2 . 23. 18. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 2.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 6. 4. = Q. 21. 60 2 = 0. = 0. tfmx+p^Q. = 0. = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. + 18 2 8. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.
we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. (ab) . while the second of the first. that a an = a m+n . It is. such as 2*. 244. provided w > n. Then the law of involution. We assume. a m a" = a m+t1 .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. hence. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. > m therefore. (a m ) w . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.* III. m IV. for all values 1 of m and n. and . must be *The symbol smaller than. The first of these laws is nition of power. ~ a m f.a" = a m n mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. II. however. no Fractional and negative exponents. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. = a"" < .
(bed)*. (xy$. at. a?*. as.g. Assuming these two 8*. m$. 24. 25. 3*. 31. a*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. = a. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 28. .196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a\ 26.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a . 30. e. n 2 a. fractional. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . or zero exponent equal x. laws. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 29. ml. 245. 4~ . 0?=^. 23. '&M A 27. disappear. etc. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.
Solve the following equations 39. a . Vo5 . 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 35. 50. \fi?. 49. If. 48. 38. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a* * = 3. 42. 44. Let a = a. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 3* = 27. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. = 49. a * a2 Or a=l.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. a. 246. v'mT 36. 27* = 3.g. 46. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. e. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4.\/n. = 2. e. v/o&cT 34. 37. 7z* Find the values of 47. hence is . 5 a* = 10. 40. 41. ty?. 45. equal to unity. 43.g. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. the base is zero. : 197 33. however. \/xy \/m.
a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. or the exponent. by changing the sign of NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. etc. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.198 247. e. an x = a. vice versa.g.2 = a2 . Let x= or". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . 248. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". consider the following equations. Or a"# = l. cr n.
2m~i 43. 27. 3 a? * 42. 2 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 66 45. 25. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. . 7~ l a 2b 2 . 37. 44. 22. ."* 38. a^ 41. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 3 a. c 32. 40. 36. : or 5 . ^?2 y' 34. 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : mi m~^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. * 24. a. 2 . rfS. f (2w)~i 1 . ^L. m .
47.343)* + (. 48.6). = ^. 54. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .81 f (a .(. ar = i. + 1~* f 21 . 59. + A_. 58. 1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. . 61.9*. 250. = l. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. z* = 1. 52. = 5. (.26)* 1 (I) 2 .001. Ex. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 17' 2 51. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 53. 10* Find the values 56. 49. 57.008)* + A. of: 3ll4~* 60. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* 5* = . 55. z 5or*=10.1.
25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.. 79 . 95 ^9i 5**. 3 a. 4 5. 7~ 5 27  . 17.$". 13. &.^/5^5. 14.5. remove the fractional exponents.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .4 .6 *' 6 *25. a. are performed. Perform the operation indicated. 26. 27  28. / 7fv 7. 8 ' 9. 3sVS. 23. V5. ' 11. OA 20. 4 x^. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.&. 18. 7. 7~ 6 . 3. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 72 . . . 16.7i. 6 *.7W. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. S'sS8. 12. . 6. (d) If required.4 a8 .7*. 7*.3 aj" a. NOTE. 10. Remove the negative exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 16. etc. #* a.5a.&. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 6a.$*.
V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. powers of x arranged are : Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.2 d . 1. If powers of a?. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 34. 2.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^6. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^7. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 40. 4^/4. if dissimilar. V2. ^3. 3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 39. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 28. subtract surds. 38. \/5. A/2. A/3. 34. To add or form. \/7. </3. VS.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 33. s!/3. ^2. signs. Simplify V + 3 VlS. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^4. Arrange 35.2 V50.10 V2 =  V2. V2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . connect them by proper 1. </20. ^2. Ex. 32. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. v/4. v^S. 31. ^2. v/3. + . 26. 5V2. 27. v/3. V5. V3. (i. ^126. ^30. Ex. </2. V2. ^/IT. 29. 37. 2\ 3*. 36. Simplify V~ . 30.3\ . ^4.e.2. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^5. V3.
. 12. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 4V805V45. 10. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. + 3V835V2. 14. V175V28+V634V7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8. 6. 3. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V18+V32VT28+V2. 11. 8VT8J2V32 7. 6.J a6 V4 aft. 9. 4.3V20 + 6V5.
the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. and then multiplied. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. y* = Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 26^ . . Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 460V35100 . 6*. 1. 23. 3.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .
( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). Vll. V42. 6. V3 V6. 19. 2. 34. (V2+V3+V4)V3. v/4. a?. + VB)(2V5). 4. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 25. 14. 6. 37. (6V23V3)(6V23V3).^/2. (2V3) 8 . 6 V4 5. 27. 2 . aVa. 41. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 13. 9. . 21. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 18. fWa 17. (3 20. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V3 Vl2. (Va Va 36. \/3 \^). v/18 v"3. 3. 40 10 30. V2 V50. 10. 39. VlO V15. (V6 + 1) 1 . 8. 7. 15. V2aV8^. V20 V30. 213 98 11. 12. 40. 28 . 38.VSS. (5V22V3CVS)V3. VTO.
44. 268. 48. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 46. 43. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. the quotient of the surds is If. .214 42. is 1 2. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). Ex. Ex. E. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 47. V3 .y. Va v/a. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (2 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 51. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 60. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 49. 53. 52. a fraction.
the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. however. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. we have V3 But if 1. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing..by the usual arithmetical method. arithTo find. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.57735. The 2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . e. metical problems afford the best illustrations. by V7.g. 1. .73205. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Evidently. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. /~ } Ex. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . Divide VII by v7. 3.RADICALS This method. is illustrated by Ex.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .
if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. ^/H . 21.7320. V5 270. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Vn V7 ' * 8. V3 = 1. V8 12. Vll 212*. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 23 . VffV?. 14. . A.2361. 272.4142. V5 = 2. i. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 20.. V48 25. 7. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 24 . A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 271. V8 JL. and Given V2 = 1. V2 22 . . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .
= 18. Ex.1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. s Simplify a. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V82 2V3 1fVS . 3.vffi^T _ . . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. . 1.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex. Ex.Vs2 .2.
2361. V21 = 25 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 6V7. . v 2V3 28.218 6 .5 3 = 125. 19. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.7320. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .4142. Vo1 26. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. Given V2 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. = V3 = 1. 27. 24. V5V7 18> ^SVg. J?_. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. find to _!_. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 .W3. By the use of fractional exponents .
RADICALS 219 274. 11. Simplify Ex. 9. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . \/125" . viz. According to G3. the If. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 2 12. 2. . V255 . 4. v8f 2\/15. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 3. 5. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. V643 . 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. on the other hand. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. it to this form. \/l6*. 3 (V2~u)  7.
6\/2 = ^9 . and whose product is 18. Find V4 + VJ8.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . The Hence ^11 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 12 and whose product is 20. 3.6 V2.2 \/20. 2.A/2. Find Vll . 2 \/18. is 11. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.220 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. ^TT. +2 Ex. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .
member to 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. first involution. VT .RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.e. = xa + 4 x f 4. : 221 Vl32V22. 4x x = 2. The value x =2 reduces each . A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. 277. 5. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.V48 4 20. a. (2x xrf 1. are radical equations. they are transto formed into rational equations. 4. +=. Radical equations are rationalized. x2 = x f 2. Ex.. Transposing and uniting. Dividing by Check. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Before performing the involution. V48 23.1. r 22. 8. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 19. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. by raising both members equal powers.
. Transposing and uniting. member =\/2 + jV2=v^.1) = 0.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. . Extraneous roots. Squaring both members. 3. they may be extraneous roots. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. one root. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 5. V24~+~l = 0. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Therefore Check. It = 3 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. x = J. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Transposing and uniting.222 Ex. viz. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Squaring both members. viz. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. V4afT~l. f 25 = 12. 4#f 4 = 9. 2. . Factoring. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. a. Dividing by 24. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Therefore CftecAr. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 278. Ex. a socalled extraneous root. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. the first member = V2. at . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. tion which has two roots. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.
Check. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence x = the only root. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. . \ does not satisfy the given. Hence there is only one root.3) (2 x . or x *j. Therefore. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 4. and to 5. Squaring.2 r. 223 x = 3. both members reduce to 5. NOTE. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Transposing.12 . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. is x V. Solve the following equations : = G.47) = 0. ViTie 4 z2 . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. = 3. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. + 6~ieT~3 . If If x 3 = 3. Factoring.RADICALS Hence x If a. the right member = V2. (x x = 3. for it satisfies the equation . . viz. 2 Clearing of fractions. x root of the preceding equation. equation it is an extraneous root. .
Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. Therefore . Factoring.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
i~24 = 0. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. This can be seen without substituting. 2Va. members of the equation were squared. 4. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 412a* = 16. + 40 = 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 3. Vi 2 8a. Ex. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. o. 2. Let 8 x f 40 . Substituting. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. = 7.8 x + 40 = 36. 45 14VJB = .*2a. 3 6. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. = 26. x =6 or 3.8 z40 = 7. . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.f40= 5. 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. x Since both =9 or 1. _ 2 y .35 = 0. Q . some of the roots be extraneous.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. y then x2 . 2.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x + Vx a? = 6. 2_8z 440 = 49. = 0.
2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. a. a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a. +3= 6. +x . 15. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 16.a 440 = 35. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 14. 17. 19.f 18 = 24. 20.226 11. 2. 12. 18.
2 x 5 by x 3. 2. Without actual division.bx? + ex2 4. then (x 2)Q 0. Ex. even if Q is unknown. E = ax + &z + m) Q.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2) Q . if Q was known.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .2 + 80 = 12.4 a. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 227 . 3 2 Ex. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. however." transposing. does not contain a?. 1. ax4 4. find the remainder when m. a? R = x* . = 2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. could. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.360 = 244. If x* . we make a? what the value of Q. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. by dividing 3 x* f. Without actual division. Hence.2 + 4. to x we # = 2 3. " Or. no matter If.
4(.228 282. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + 7 = 632. } 2 by a1.949. 8. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.3)f 11 =.8. + 6. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. fora?. 3.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x* s 2 4. + ^by x + b. of the division 3) is m in place of x. If the remainder is zero. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. The Factor Theorem. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.g. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5 (4x . 5. if 8 42  . the remainder equals 8 2 x . 43 3 E. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 2 j 7. x m is factor of the expression.g. hence (x divided by x 4. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.8'= 0.
r6 = 0. oj 5x2 f3a.e. 8.7 + 16 . & p*. then x8 7 x'2 4. 25. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. Let x = . 18. Resolve into factors 4.1. 106 division. 1.7 x + 15 = 0. f 5. m f m n 14. 229 1. a 5x 6. 2. a 8a f 19 a 12. 23. 20. i. factors of the absolute term. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. + 27 + 27.12 = 0. _ . f 3. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2 2. 17.49 = 0. 11. 5. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. The 5. a 2a + 4.12. 15.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. + 15. 21. p 5^ + 8p 4. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . Therefore x ( 1). is a factor. 24. 2m 5m . 6. 9. a + 32.1. Factor a? 15. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 7 46 = 0. a? 19. 8. a^8^ + 19a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. . f 15 does not vanish. or x 4. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 3. 3 2 : 7. 1.9^ + 23^15. + ttt15 = 0. or 5 4 + 3^ . a. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. are f 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. ^10^429^20=0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.13m + 30 10. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.
Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. By we obtain the other factors. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . Ex. x* f/ = (x +/)O . The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.230 285. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. For substituting y for x." . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 1. 2. if w is odd. 286. is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.y n is divisible by x f ?/.xy +/). : importance. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. It y is not divisible by 287. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. actual division n. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if n is even. xn f. ar +p= z6 e. If n is a Theorem that 1. 2. xn y n y n y n = 0.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.g. 2 Ex.
Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 28. 3. a. Hence = (m Ex. preferable. 26. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . as 27=0. 27.i mn f w 2).= . x3 8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. leads 231 is The first method. however.
Squaring Solve (1). x y. xy are given. 232 . 4 xy = 16. can be solved by the methods degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.1. (4) Hence. xywe have 3. (5) Combining (5) with (1). = 6. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. * A I. 290. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.y4 is of the fifth degree. If two of the quantities x f y. however. & + 2 xy + = 25. of quadratics. + 6 a?V . xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. to equations of the fourth few cases.
' 10. EXERCISE Solve: 1. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. 12. The arranged in pairs. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. = . In many cases two of the quantities x f y. I I x + y=7. 233 y. 1. x and xy are not given. r (" 1 = 876.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 108 2. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. ^. but can be found.g. b=3. " "' "' { r 8.
or y = 1 . + 29 = 0. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). I x+y = a.  42 y + Transposing. 7 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. Factoring. 4 y = 20.~ y = 5.  .i/ = r 13. 5.20) = 0. . or JJ. aj = 2. one linear and ne quadratic. r^ 2 as ] f. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . x " (3) 49 etc. la.a. 3. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.?/ i = 6. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 6 "I 14. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. . Ex. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. I* Jj ^ [. 19. A system of simultaneous equations. 2 (1) From (1) we have. ' ' .  f J.o 18.
4 f + 2 y = 3. 9. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). Solve .3 2x 2 Ex. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. x2y. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. III. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . y* + 2y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. ' x*. 3y) : Factor (2). ':il e :) .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. quantities. 10. 1.
11 a2 Factoring. = Ex. Solve 2. } VI09. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 109 a. = 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). j Substituting y in (2). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 2 . 15 x2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.
175 ay = 12.6. (4) (3). A. 150 */2 .xy 4. 2 xy + y2 = 10. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). ' ^ 15. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.y = 7. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. E. can be solved by special devices. " IV. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Bxy9. . Division of one equation by the other. 298. and others not belonging to them.3^42^=43. y? a? f .125 ay = .!. f 1 150 a?.
jc~ y = 9. quadratics can be solved by ?/. x +y y etc.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. y . from (2). x 2 . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. xy. at first it is unknown quantities. = 189. B. i ^ *>. * ' 300. = 12 J. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Solve Ex. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . Some simultaneous ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. we obtain by squaring. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous.. 2. (1 > (2) 1. y = 3. Therefore x = 16. we have from (1).
Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. M6. 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. I e. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 7. 2. 36* 2. F+y+ . 239 Ex. 6. [2x + : y= 17.
x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .21 ^ = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. * . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 19 ' 26. . = 198. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. .4 y = 47 a. 27. 16. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . 25.
25 34. y % 9 f*K 36. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 7' j/ 39. etc.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . finite  =x y if = x. ^ oo . 3 a2 38. ~\ OK OO. or ~ indeterminate. hence may be any finite number.of  According to the definition of division. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. as a . . etc 302. 33. . Interpretation . 32. Q 7. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . = 48201. 30. oo 301.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 31. .
great. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. i. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.x'2 2 x = 1. or that x may equal any finite number. the answer is indeterminate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. and . without exception. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . = 10. (1). cancel.can be If It is made larger than number.increases if x de x creases. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. 1.000 a. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. (1) = 0. By making x any * assigned zero. as + l. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. 306. i. Let 2. it is an Ex. oo is = QQ.decreases X if called infinity. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. .242 303.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. Hence such an equation identity. x f 2. TO^UU" sufficiently small.e. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. I. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.g.e. . Or. (1) is an identity. be the numbers. is satisfied by any number. (a: Then Simplifying. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 1. ToU" ^100 a. The ~~f fraction . equation. creases. and becomes infinitely small.
2. = oo. . third and sixth parts.2 y = 4. 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. (2). and the sum of Find the numbers. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 1=0. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Hence /. EXERCISE 1. two numbers is 76. is their 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y finite QO.e. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 42 and' their product is 377.8 x + 15 6. Solve . z = 1 Substituting. and a. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve  9 7. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve x a. * 6. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2.
12. Find the sides. 10. 255 and the sum of 5. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the edges. and the edge of one. equals 4 inches. 8. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the sum of ( 228.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. is 6. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find these sides. of a rectangular field feet. 103. 9. p. 14. Find the side of each square. increased by the edge of the other. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.quals 20 feet. 148 feet of fence are required. and the hypotenuse is 37.) 53 yards. 6. Find the dimensions of the field. of a right triangle is 73. Find the edge of each cube. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. two numbers Find the numbers. and the diago(Ex. Find the other two sides. Find the sides of the rectangle. .244 3. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 146 yards. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 190. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. the area becomes f% of the original area. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 13. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the numbers.
their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. . Find the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. irR *. differ by 8 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. the quotient is 2. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) 17.
16. . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a + d.1) d. (n 1) d must be added to a.7.. The common differences are respectively 4.. f . P. a 3d. a 11.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the nth term. 12. series 9.. 2 d must be added to a. a f d. a.. .. the second a descending. 309. the first term a and the common difference d being given. P. 3 d must be added to a. To find the nth term / of an A. Hence / = a + (n . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. except the first. 19. a + 2 d. to produce the 3d term.. of the following series is 3. 4. 3. An arithmetic progression (A.. The first is an ascending. each term of which. 10. P.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to produce the 4th term. 11. 15 is 9 f. ..) is a series. The progression is a. . and d. to each term produces the next term. Since d is a f 3 d. added to each term to obtain the next one. progression. 17. of a series are its successive numbers.. + 2 d. : 7.
3.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). P.. 21. 2. . (d) 1J. 9..16. 19. .. 2. = 99.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 6 we have Hence . 1.8. 5. 5. 5. of the series 10. series 2. series . d .. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 4. a = 2. (a + + (a + l) l). .4. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. .. if a = 5. 7. 2 EXERCISE 1.3 a = l.. 1. 8.. 115. 3. 7. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 8. 3. 5.. 24. 8. 99) = 2600. Find the 5th term of the 4. = 2.. 1J. d = 3.. 5. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . = a + (a Reversing the order. 4^...' cZ == . Find the 101th term of the series 1. Adding. . Find the nth term of the series 2. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 7. = I + 49 = *({ + . 3... P. P. Find the 12th term of the 4. the term a. Find the 10th term of the series 17...PROGRESSIONS 310. 10. . 6. 6. ? (a) 1. 6. . 2J.. 3. 9. the last term and the common difference d being given.
to 10 terms. 19. 7. 1. 13. . 20.248 Find the 10. 29. . striking hours only. 1. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. : 3. 11. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 15 terms. to 7 terms. 8. 1J. to 16 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 31. 16. 22. > 2f 2. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 12. 2. to 20 terms. 16.1 f 3. 6. 4. 1. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 7. strike for the first yard. 12. to 20 terms. rf. hence if any three of them are given. 11. . (x +"l) 4. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 3. 21. 18.7 f to 12 terms. 15. 33. . to 8 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. P. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. '. Sum the following series 14. . 15. to 20 terms.. 11. 2J. 23. (i) (ii) .5 H + if f to 10 terms. 11. + 3. 7. \n.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . In most problems relating to A. 17. 15. .
or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 312. 122. = 1014. 6. 204 = ^ (98 . and b form an A. d = 6. 1. P. 100. 133. 56. P. 2 (2) From Hence (2). Findn. Find the series. P. or if x Solving. . .6. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 78 n Substituting in (1).. 111. Solving.1) .. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 78. = 144. I. = n(104 . Ex. 89. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. if a. J = 49. 34. = 1014. But evidently n cannot be fractional. or 11 J. if s = 204. s 24ft last term 144. the and the sum of all terms 1014. is 12. = 13. The series is. I Substituting in (I) and (II). Substituting in (2).~n~\ 408 6). From (1). n = 6.6 n). 45. 67. 23. a = 12. l)e?. n d. 2.e. hence n = 6. the second one mean between the other two. 6 n2 . 204 = ^ (a + 49). = a + (w.1). The first term of an A. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 12. #.PROGRESSIONS Ex. a = 49 6(71 . 144. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.104 w + 408 = 0.
= 17. n has the series ^ j . y and #f5y. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. d = 5. 17. n = 4. Given a = . f? . 4. n = 20. Find w. Find a and Given s = 44. I. f J 1 1 / . 78. Given a = 4. How much did he save the first month? 19. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 3. I Find I in terms of a. Find d. produced. Given a = . 11. = 1870. How much . 15. n = 17. T? ^. s == 440. .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 8.3. = 45. 6? 9. 14. of 5 terms 6. Find d and Given a = 1700. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Find?. = ^ 3 = 1. P. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 7. 12. Given a = 1. = 16. Find d. a+ and b a b 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n = 13. and s. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 16. = 52. s = 70. 74. n = 16. Find a Given a = 7. has the series 82. 13. Find n. = 83. n. 10. a x f b and a b. m and n 2. ceding one.
ar. 36. or 81 315.. 24. 2 a. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. ar8 r.. A geometric progression first. 12. ratios are respectively 3..arn ~ l . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 4. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. r n~ l . (I) of the series 16. 2. 36. . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . is it (G.. . and To find the nth term / of a G. E. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. . 4. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. the first term a and the ratios r being given. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. +1. I.. or. 24. If n is less : than unity.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. The progression is a. P. rs = s 2 . is 16(f) 4 .. of a G. NOTE. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. called the ratio. <zr . The 314. .. .. 36.g. 108. 4 (1) . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .) is a series each term of which. P.
Write down the first 6 terms of a G. a = I. 72. 1. Hence n = 7. . is 16. 3. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. \ t series . Hence the or series is 0. .. or 7.5. And the required means are 18. 18. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.288. (it.. 20. 4. 80.5. .l.. 6. .. 576. P. (b) 1. Find the 6th term of the series J. . I = 670. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 7. 144. series . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G.72. f. 9.4. . if any three of them are given.18.... .. first 5. fa. (d) 5. r^2. 36. Ex. 36. volved .54. series 6.. is 3. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. Find the 5th term of a G.6. first term is 125 and whose common . hence. In most problems relating to G. 144. 2 term 3. fa. . . 72. 25. 676. 144.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. whose and whose second term is 8. 9. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. . P.. first term 4. f. 0. .. whose and whose common ratio is 4. whose . 36. . . i 288.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. series 5. P.18. P. +f%9 % .*. 4. ? (c) 2. l. 9. Jive quantities are in. + 5. P. 288._!=!>. EXERCISE 1. 10... 8.
12. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.i a9 . 2. r . s = 310. J. 13.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.J and 270. J. 21. may be than any assignable number. 16 . Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. J.. 1. >"> .. . 12 terms.. P. to 7 . 4. .. + 4 . 42. J. . to 7 terms. 14. of r n decreases. = 3. == 160. 81. 27. M. and hence ~ r . Find a and 4. .. 20. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 22. 24. Given r = n Z 5. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. n = 5. be written If the value of r of a G. to 8 terms. Z s. 243. Find a and n = 4. I. 48. Find a and Given r = 3. a. 14.. to G terms. s = 605. 15. n = 5. 1. . is less than unity. 72. = 3. to 5 terms. 36. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. 25S series : 32. 126. 19. 23. Find the geometric mean between 7. . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 81.. 54. a^. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2.nV> i*> !718.
.. = 990 . 6. 3.717171.3121212. . is J.191919.. is 9. Find the sum to infinity.= .. 40. .1.. . 7. 16..072. .. 5..72.27777 . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 14. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 13. 4. 12.. of an infinite G.. (6) the sum of the perimeters... = . 2.99 . 12... .. 2. . . 10.01 ^ .254 Ex. 1.. 5. P.3 + . i i J. . 9... 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 16. . i..3727272 . is 16. of all squares ? . 1. 8... . 100. P. ... . = a . The sum Find the of an infinite G.. 250. The sum r. 9.. 1. =A+ 10 i.072 + ..272727. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 8. 66 Therefore .. . Hence . I. P. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. = . 1 r = .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . .37272 . of: 11...Ql.00072 f .. 1. Given an infinite series of squares.)7?7272 .. first and the common term.= _4Z* . .555.. and the first term is Find 17. . 6. Find the value 9. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. r = j.. 4. If a = 40. ratio 15.
16. 21. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 6th term of (x . . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 12. 10. (xy) : 6 .b ). (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 29. (\ 9 . 14. 26.b) w (a (a f (1 . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 5. . (a2) 6. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . coefficient of . /2a+Y\ 8. 4. l 2. a6 8 16 in . 2 2 24.6) 20 . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 17. (a + b) . 7 . 25. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. (s + i). 28. . 15. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 22. . 11.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 20. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 4 7. : (1 + xy. (a 100 .6) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 13.
1. 2. if y=2j 2. 4. 3. 3. 5. 4 ft  c) 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). aft 3 + 4. 1. 3. + c(a  c). 2. 2. 2 . 2. 1. 3. 3. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 3. ^+^ 3. 5. 5. 2. 24 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. 1. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 3. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. if x^l. 5. ft) . + 2. 1. 3. 2. 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 1.  8 ^ 2. 2.a(a 4. 2. 3. 1. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 6. 2. 2. c if 7 . 1. 5. 3. 2. 5. 2. 2. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 6. = 2. (c 3. 4. 2. 4. 2. y 3. 5. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 3. l. 3. 3. 5. 2. 2. + 2. 5. 2. 3. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.f ac 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. . 6. 1. 2. c = = = 2. 3. 4 2. . 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. 3. 2. 1. 4. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 2. 2. 2. 3.c )(fta) 1. 6.  2. 3. 3. 3. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4.  a)(a 1. + 1. 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 7. if = = 2.  2. if = = = 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. 3. 4. 1. 6. 1. 1. 4. 4.
2 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . or . + 1. 25.2.2. c)(x a} .7 + .2 a?y + 3 aty . .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 10.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . f 8. a. 15. 4 z . + 4 ?y . + 4.r 6 x  4 xy . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. x = 4.2 x?/. 21. 4.a8 .\ yz + xz.1. . 26. 1.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .7 y 2* 4. 9.2 x2 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . ~c)(b. 8 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.x 5 4 . 6. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 5. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .a 5 a . 12.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. a 4 + 11 a . x C 4 4x y + .a) . 20. 7 xy 3 . x3 f 3 ax'2 .10. a: . if a 6 = = c = 3. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .259 x c) . 7. 24. 4 x 4 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 2  + 12 a 8 .  a) (c 2. 9. 16. c = 3. 8. 18. 5. + 2. 29. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5.7 ys. 21. a /> 3. r> . = 2. x 3 11. ' b) + 3. 3. 2 x 8. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.2 z8 4 x. + 3 y 2* . 1. 2. 41. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 5. .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 15. 40.c' 2 4 / . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . .4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. x 3 x' 14. a. (5. 6 a4 4 a8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . + 8 x4 *y .5. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.a 4 . 2. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .8 + 2 // . 3. 17. 4. b(x (b 1.8 3 + 7 x4 . 7y 4 .3 xyz.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4 y 13.3 a?y . x3 2 a2 . 2. 4.
?> x 4 20. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .c. = x y ft z. f ft.5. and . c =x y }~ z. .x . c 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].2 x 8y2 44 .{2 x 2 . 36. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 29. ft.(5 y .c 3 a.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .. 35.(4 * . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .a ft.x2 .2 3 ax 2 . c 4ft. 33.260 19. 7 12 .7.c 4 3 a.x . 0" 30.3 x . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.8 3 4. sum of . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 4vTT~y 3. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .[4 x 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .3. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. of a. x8 x2 2 a'2x. .1).6 x ] .2 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 5 10 + 7 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .2 a .2 .c. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . . Simplify 31. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.4 ft) 4.] 26. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 542 x 2 and . 3 ft.(a . .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.4) .{G * 2 . 34. 5 4 7 12 . ft 25.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . x'2 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 4 .4 Vl 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. : a x . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. Take the sum of 3 x 4.(7 x 4. 4 2 x2 23. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.27~~7)}]. 4 4 4.(5 c .5 .x 4. 2 x 32. 5 10 4 G 11 4.2) .3 . take the sum of G x 5 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.x 2 4.3 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. a  ft + c. . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.[4 z 8 .(4 x 2 . Take the sum 4x 4. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.(x* . From of 2 the 4.#48. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .6T .1)}] . (*) a  c.(x 4. 4 3 5 y/ .
2 53.56. (1 55. .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.b (c .(7 a. . .12).ab . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. (x . 48.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(2 a 2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .2 2 . 3 x 42. 60. 57.(2 .c 2 . . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.6)}]. .3c).96 [17 a.2x + 3).4 a 2 + a 4 ).(5 y .3 z 2 ).2 zz .Z . (5 a 39.(2 x2 .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (/> 4 .5)} + (3 a 2 .(4 d . 43. 56.{3 c . + 4x + 5)(j. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .5 )}] + {4 c . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 65.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 50. 68.6 xy . 2 : 7e)a}]. )(lz a ).e '/)}] (2a + 2b .3 *). 51.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (.2 2 + 1)(7.ac . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 49. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.be) (a 58. 67.& + {. 63.7). . (4 + 3a 2 .[2 .3 c)]. 46. 4 + 2 2 + 1).{2 a .2)(1 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . . 62.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. + *+!){> + 2). (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .4 a . (1 ar+a.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 64. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 59.{2 a (ft .a~^~c)K].3)(*5)(* 7). a . (. 2 52. 54. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 2 2 x + !)(* . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 45. . (x.r 2:c+ l)(ar.6c) (a + f c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].c).0)} . 13 a . 'J 44. 2 ft 41.1).(6 .[4 x  5 . .3). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . a {. (r (1 (a.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .  2 a  {3 2x a .rf)} + a [. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).2a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).2c(V/ .(2 a + 5 a .
(a 2 ft 2n 4. 2 (x 2 .c) . . 89. ar .3 a .c) . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .2y)(. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.y)\x y). 75.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).q). 92.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.m np c . 88.c) 4) (ft 4. 1). 90.(/>  3 v)^(.(ft 4.ft) + 4(2 .2 (a .ft) 4 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(4 . 73. ft ft ft a}. (a (2 b)*(a 4.3 (ft . f 72. (.{3 a .x + y + z).(c 4. . ft 78.c) rr identities. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 1). 4. 94. 93. 86. .y + z)(x + y .2 (y 4.5 . xy y 2 ).3y) a (* 2 4. 77.2 ft}) f (3 a .c . 76.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).O (a 4(a 4. 70. ft /.c) 2 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).(a 2) (s 4 ft. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). (p 2 .<f(p . 84. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .6*y .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 71.v) 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . b 4. 4 4 . 79. ft" l Simplify 80. 2 + a 2 ).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.z)(x y + z)(. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c) j.c . 82.9y2).a) 2 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c)].b 4.:y)( a.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).z\x 4. 87.r 2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 91. 83. (x (x ( + *) .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.(a 48 8 8 4. Prove the following 8 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).n pc). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.262 69. ft 95.c)} . 74. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .am&t 4 A 2 *).z) . 85.y).
y 4 .16 a 6 4. (. 121. (2< 107. [10( 4. 25 4 . 109. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).r 4 4.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .35 x 2 2 ) . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).2 2% 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 105.5 xy). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.(2 a 2 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.(x 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 117.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 1O4.*) (x 8 .(7 xi/ .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. (8 x* 115.3 a"+ 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 1). (80 a 112. 2 (a+ . 3*. 118. 108.1). 110. 102.&).9 x 2 . 120.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 26 (a 4 c).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.) . a*.y 2 4. 10).5 b*). 103. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).40 />) .y 4 ) . 124. 113. r .2y 2 4. 114.xy 4.a". (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.27 x* . 99 100.2 xy 8 .b) 98. 106.v/ ~ // = a: . 116.(a 1 2 8 .6 y 4 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. . (a 8  8 68 8 4. 122. 123. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). .4 aft .
x 147.5{.4) . .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).3(2 z .2(5 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).12 M 132.1) . .a:)]}. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3) = 12 . . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.n .4) . 3(2 x 134. 135. y (* l x.3 a:).2(10 x .2 7^~5] + 1). (4 x .2) (a: + 3). . 42(3ar 145. o o 140. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 139. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .3(* + 4) + 9} .9) + 3.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 142.(1 .5).7) = 4 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 5(2 x . (*+ + .3 x).(x + 3) ] .G) .22. .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). .(j a? 144.4(0 x .8 6 .9) 4. . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 126. 10(2 x 141.2(4 . (5a: 150.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .r>) . 138. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 127.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.r + 7[or . 129. 143. 1) . 128.2(j: .18 *&) (1 . 148.2) + 2(ar + 4). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3).3) (3 x 4. 5 146. 7(2 x .(x .2) = 3 .264 125. 149. 136. 2 4(ar .5) = 12(4 x .(x f 9). 137. 3) = x\x .27 a 3" .1) (a? . 1) = 2(* .19) + 5 = 4 . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.7(4 * .3).
165.3) (3 . + 5) = (9 . a: ar a.2) (j? + 1) + (x .2 x) (4 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. = 15. 153. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 2 4 .9) + (a.3) (3 .2). (a) If C.19) + 42.29) 2 = 1. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. f^ + ^sO.3) (a: . 156. .3) (j.2) a + 7(x . =  (F 32). 166. How many 170.r + 3) .2 x) = (1 .8) = (2 x 4.? .5*) + 47.6 x) (3 . (7 14 . + 2) + (5 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.(5 x . (2 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . these two angles would be equal. sheep more than the 169.l)(z .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . = 2 C. 159. (a . find the value of F. + 10) (ar .5)(. 160. 5(ar x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F..14) (a: + 3). Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 158.25) 2 . 162.z) (4 .4) (a . If the area of the frame inches. The sum What 171.24. 163.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 161. and the third twice as many as the first. will produce F.1) (s + 3). .5) = (3 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.76.7) (1 x . The second contains 3 first.7) (a.a:) + 229.17) 2 + (4 x .5(x . .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 164. 154.T)O . . (a. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 157. + 4) (2 x + 5). . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.2) (7 *) + (*. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 155.5 x) = 45 x . transformed into F.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 265 152. (3 O + .3) = (3 x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (x (x a.
+ 11 ~ 6.36. A boy is father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. A house has 3 rows of windows. . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. . . 180. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 4 a 2 yy 42. 189.56. x* 185. dimension 182. number divided by 3. 190. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 3 gives the 174. if each increased 2 feet. aW + llab2&. younger than his Find the age of the father. Find the number.266 173. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. father. A each 177. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 13 a + 3. side were one foot longer. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. z 2 + x . power one of the two Find the power of each. was three times that of the younger. train. ll?/102. 2 2 + a _ no. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. 186. 12 m. 179. 176. 188. Find the dimensions of the floor. respectively. two boys is twice that of the younger. 7/ 191. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. +x 2. and 5 h. 181. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 178. sister . same result as the number diminished by 175. 10x 2 192. z 2 92. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 187. + a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. How many are there in each window ? .
210. 232. 207. 7a 228. 8 a: ar. 233. . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 195. a. 16x 4 81. . a. 6 197.x + 1. y 2 194. 203. 3y 2 + ary .3 xy. 23 12. 229.12 * . a: 236. z + 5x 2 . 201. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. wiy + la mx + aw. . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 215. x*y 223. 202.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 3 ap 2 . 218. + 198. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 2 . 4a 2& 2 241. + 8. 217. 227. 4 m +^.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 60 a 2  a: // 205. + 30 x.6 y2 + 4. 245.64. 12 x +4.19 z 4 204. ifWy+b.c) 2 . 239.20 z 8 a: 220. 244. 2  5 xy 13 y a.21 a:  54. 221. x 219. 246. 24 2 + 2 . 8 a. 230.1. x 5 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 206. 267 199.8 6 2. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.6s. 209. 238. . 2a te 3% ly 247. 222. 2 a 8 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 213. x* + 8 2 + 15.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . a+a* + o a +l.22 z + 48.10 xy.3 xf + 3 * 2y . *2 234.6 2 ?/ . 211. + 2 . # 2  29 y + 120.10 y a x* .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 208.6 aq .77 y + 150.28.c) 2  (a . 2 a 2 . 3 x 2 . 5 x 2. 7x 2 225. a. 3y 248. 2 2 y f 1. a^a 226. 224. 235. xm+l 243. (a + . a: 231. 216. a: .19 a . a. . 3 x V .10.6. .(b + rf) 2 . a a: a: 237. + 3a 196. 212.3 c/> + 6 cq. a 2 . z 2 2. 2 200.14 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 x 2 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.r?/f y 2 9.
6. I Find the II.15. 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3.5 ab f 2.4 ab + 1. 18 x 2 . + 8.2/ 2 . of: 253. 254. 252. 259. x* . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.3 abc . 10 a. 8 2 + 10 x . x*y* 4. 1 x ar Find the L.&z.91.11 a 2 .M. 270.73 xy . x 2 263. 260. 10 x 2 . a.9. 251. + 3 x + 2.120. 7 12 2 2 . z 2 267. 2 8 .10 a 4. 15 # 2 z/ /.ry 21.8. 3 a% 2 . 7 ax 250. 5 x 2 256. + 20 x 4. * 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. x 2 + 2 x . 3 ay 4. 3 #2 255. a? a: a: // 262.48 afy 2 . 22x2 a. 28 2 f 71 x .2 z .14 bx a%% 8 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 261.15 + 30. * a .G7 x f 33.80. C. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . x 2 + 5 f .3.36. 2 x2 . 257. ft a.12.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .1 9 . z 2 268.16 x . * 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2.C.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 30 ^ .a + 2 4. + 8 x + 5.4.9 x + 14.10.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. x* . Reduce to lowest terms 271.9 x .(55.18 xy + 5.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 2 a.r . a 4.7 f 5. x 2 .x . 269. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. F.ry . 264.11 x f 28.a 2 />c 2 f 3.3 x . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. a: . 258.2 aft*.13. . of: 266.23 x f 20.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .23 + 12. 265.6 by. x 2 4. + 23 x f 20. * 2 . a 3 a 2 2 .
fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . m 4.ar 1 279. + ac .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.2* + 3 x* 280. z2 (a 2 + c)a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2c a: 282.rL.. 8 . 289 ' ..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j.!/. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . *2 " 2 + Oge.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 285 z4 n* + a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . a.J' 4 2 2 w mp .
+ 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. Lnl + ar 2 a. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. * 19 23 19(23 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. a (: a) (x 2. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x 7. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^_2*(m 308.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^.
 1 x2 + + a.ft) 2 322.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. } . 2 + y 2 319. a: 1 313.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1a: + y a. (a? 4 2) 317. 1 _.(a . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 . (1 .. .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.
250 5 10 2 325. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.9 *// + 27 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 20 44 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a..272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. a: 2 x* .6* t 328.ll.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.7 xy + 12 x . 2 lOx 5x.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.y20  2y + 4 2 .15 33 .2 +lOar 2 a. * 3a.5 a .V  + y  x 3y a .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . .
a>74 . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. a: 349 _ o. f V. 1 345. ** i.r 5 2 .1V. fl. 7 ( ?f!?. +^ a: y x .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.y. \5yl 341. 344.. w \. ' 2 "l 5 . + l + IV. : 1+ i. 348. \x yj 340. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. if a = 3. 338. ( 342. (a \ + lV. (ar \ 346. 5 343. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 352.) 2 . xi 347. (aWi + iJ. aj 339. ?_2 ^ .+ r . + ni + .REVIEW EXERCISE 336.
1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. y360. + x x a . a2 4 . _ + l a 359. (a a b yx c yabc 361.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. ar xy + yl x* 358. I  I f 366. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.
. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + .
276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5*8.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. __4 2x 3_ = !. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 4(* . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.*2 = 15. . <3 378. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 379. . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . ^ . J !__7. 8  376. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 {2 x 381.
 8 9* x ~r. 40. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. _____ . + 4 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.2 a:  1.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 396. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. .. m x 398. u '2 a. 401. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).25 x + .25. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  J).  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. . 3* 177.5 ^ ~ a: a. b 404. 397.1 .5 x =r f . 400. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).147..5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . c .6  . a. f 1 1 + a 403. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. ^ (a .75 x f . 399.8 = . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).
(x . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.278 410. Tn 6 hours . the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number. hour. How long is each road ? 423. and was out 5 hours. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 420. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. In a if and 422.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 418 ~jo.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. far did he walk all together ? A . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 421. 18 be subtracted from the number. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 411. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.(5 I2x ~r l a) .c) . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.
When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. find : a : c. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . x 427. z 2 y. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. . 2 2 8 2 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). a. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 431. y. : i. Solve 436. 438. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. : If is one equal 434. Which ratio is greater. a  t>.46 2): (15a 2 . if . find the angles of the triangle.& 5 ) (a 8 . a + 5.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 433. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Find the mean proportional to 429. 432.49 63). wi* + y= ny. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. b. 428.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find the fourth proportional 426. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 430. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. If a b : =5 n : 7. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).6 8 ). .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . d. Find the length of the parts. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. 435. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.iand 22 22 I a .
4 12 .rf2# = l.35. 455. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.11 7. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . = 25. 457. .89 = q. 9/> = 2 . 1(3  a.7 y = 25. 452. 444. c. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 7 a: . ft. if 2 ft : 439. 446.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 8 . 448. 3 a.. . 5x+4y=lQ. 7jr9y = 17. . . a. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 7 442. Find the value of a. a: a: + 5y). 42 = 15y + 137. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 450. 456. 445. 9ar7# = 71. ft. 5 2 = 7 . 4 = 5 y + 29.59 = 3 z. . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 3 .*. 459. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. /) ar a. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . The volumes If their diameters. 458. 453.11 y = 95. 5z4:# = 3. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 451. 56 + 10y = 7a. 454.55 y = . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). Solve the following systems: 441. x + 17 # 53. + 5y = 59. ?/ 447. 443. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 8 x + y = 19.(or l(*2y)=0. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. />(.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 16. 7a?y = 3. a: 2y= = 1 . 449. 28 = 5 a .
car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.+ =2. + eyn. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. _ 469.?/ + 1 .c=563y. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ^ + i^ = 7. 468. ax by = c \ 472. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5..REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 8 461. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax cx by = m. i = 5. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. (or . 465.  = 2.2y) (2 = 2J. 475.7. x y 474. 473.
Find the numbers. and in 18 months to $2180. Find the sum and the rate of interest. years. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. age. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 487. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A spends \ of his. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 485. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 481. . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 486. fraction becomes equal to . and the other number least. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 483. Find the number. 479. whose difference is 4. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. How much money less 484. A number consists of two digits 4. and in 20 months to $275. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find their ages. the Find their ages. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. by 4. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the fraction. to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 477. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476.
3ar 503./ 504. a. 8. 2 e.5#+2z = $x a: G. = 15. 492. 3 a: + 5=84. . 498. 7 + 2 z . a: 499. 490. . z y x 25 . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . . a number . 2y + 3a = ll. 489. 5 + a. 4 497.z = 12. z y ifi = z x 502. a: f z = 79. : Solve the following systems 491. 1+1 = 6.z = 20. = 20. . 493. *i. x y f z = 13.? + 2y = 8. x s + y z = 18J . ifi = x a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. x f y f z 29 . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 3 x 500. a: + // = 11. + # +z= 35. * + 425  = . 2 2 = 41. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 496. 2a:f 7. = 209. 2y + 2z = a: 2. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. y Solve : x +z= 5. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 7. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 a. \ . ~ 507./ f z =a. 495. 5^ 9z = 10. 494. 4 506. + y 5 y = 101 . . of two the sum of the digits also if number. 1. 4z+3z = 20. 2/>3r = 4.
+ + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. + : = 1472. ll" . 523. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. !f == 2800. z z =3a&c. 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516.
How long will B and C take to do . BC = 5. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. E 533. it separately ? 531. 532. if the number be increased by Find the number. the first and second digits will change places. . Find the numbers. N. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and BE. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. If they had walked toward each other. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. AB=6. and CA=7. B and C and C and A in 4 days. In circle A ABC. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. What are their rates of travel? . 530. Find the present ages of his father and mother.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. . it is filled in 35 minutes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. L. AC in /). and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. if and L. in 28 minutes. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. they would have met in 2 hours. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. 90. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. 527. M. CD. touches and F respectively. When weighed in water. Tf and run together. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air.
The values of y. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. x*  2 x. One dollar equals 4. 546. 543.  3 x. formation of dollars into marks. the function. i. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x*. + 3. z 2  x x  5. If to feet is the length of a seconds. FRANCE. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The values of x if y = 2. 548. 550. . e.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. 536. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . b. 2  x  x2 . 2 x + 5. x 2 544. 545. 2.e. 3 x 539. 540. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.  7. a. x 8 549. x *x + x + 1. then / = 3 and write = 3. 2 541. 547. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. d. to do the work? pendulum. 542. 2. The greatest value of the function. if x = f 1. . Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. c. GERMANY. x 2 + x.10 marks. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. from x = 2 to x = 4.
r?. 555.r 1 561. a? 4 x . z 4 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.= 0. j. \ to t = 5. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.6 + 3 . Solve// = 0.  2 1 a: a.15 = 0. 2 8 . 3 x . x* .0.5 x . Represent meters. . 2.G .11 x* + + 2 8 569. c.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. g. .13 = 0. Solve 552. 15. 558. 572. 553.4 . a. + 5 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. x 2 ~ 2 .9 = 0. a.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 2 a. 3 x* . 557. f. a. h. 562. x 4 . 566. 2 x 2 560. 565.4 x 2 + 4 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 563.= 0.r .11 = 0.7 = .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 556. 568.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. x 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . = 5.r a: a: x a. + 10 x . If y +5 10.1 = 0. if y =m has three real roots.4 = 0. ' = 8. 564. e.3 = 0. 2 554.3 x . J. z 2 . 3 + 3 z . a: 559. i. 18 x  4 = 0.3 x . 2 567. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. . and make the unit of the b.3 .17 = 0. c. 3 .
2 2 + y.4. 592. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. (# 2) . 4 a.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 585 594. j^f = 3. (a  8 ft) . 595. + + 4 . + ^) + (air%)8. 64 a 12 603. a: . 4 (1a:) 3. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . xY. 2  2 aa: 2 . (aiy. + %) (a* + *) 5 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. (1 (1 (1 . 596.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a 612.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 597. f ?>) 3 591. 588. 2 943 ++ ~bx. . a 8 606. 6 + 1) . 2 611. jj+. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 579.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 600.%) 4 (aa. 1 . 3 (f. 608.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 598. [ y =10. 604.(1 . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .5 xy = 0. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. : y* or 25.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 4 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 582. x [ ?/ 577.frf : 583.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . (1 + x a. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. a:. <r)3  2 3 a:) . x + z2) 8 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 593. a. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 589. 3 . 5 a*. + . 9  4 fSb 607. 609.x + 2 )'2 601. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a 2a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 599. (a.
645. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 639. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 630. 40. 2 + 21Ga.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .15174441. = 0. 942841. 21. 620. 494210400001. 633. 651. 629. 210. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 49. 0090. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. a 642. : 5. = 70.2. 035. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .V250 . x 2 . Find the eighth root 617. + 24 a 2 4 . According to Kepler's law. 4370404. + 112 a 8 . GGff. 643. 9g. 4J. 626. 624. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.53 x ~ . 625 : 621. *+* = 156. 623.1024 x + a: 256. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 615. /. 7) 2. VOIOOD + V582T09. 2. Find the square root of 619. 25023844.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. find Jupiter's period.150.*. ft . = . 636. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. x 2 641. 650. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 614. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.\/4090. 32 631. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 637.30.191209. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 622. 8*' + 24* = 32.871844. 3a.12 a?y + y*. + 54 'x*y* . 49042009. 632. 647t x 2 648 649. + 2 21 x = 100.2410. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. = 87.49. 9a. 2 + 189 z = 900. 638. 628. V 635. 371240. 644. (x 9 x 646. 634. V950484 . 44352.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
699. 693.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ax 2 698. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 708. 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. = 0. .bx .c = 0. 696. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. ex abc= fx 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. . 1 __ : )'*' _i. a.ax . 694.a a )jr . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 706. 2 2 . 2 702. 695. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 707. 2 2 697.
If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 716. 3or i 16 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 217 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. **13a: 2 710. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. A equals CO feet. 717. 721.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0.292 709.25 might have bought five more for the same money. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find the price of an apple. a: 713.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 729. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 12 4*+  8. in value. 724. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.44#2 + 121 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. 16 x* . . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 722. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 725. Find two numbers whose 719. 723. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 727. and working together they can build it in 18 days.
293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 43. n. 1 6.aft* 1 + a 2*. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).1 f ^ 2).1 + c. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).2 ). 38. . (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 37. 42. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 34. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).l). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).1 f c" ). 31. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (v/x).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 33. 35. 41. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).2)(x2 4.X .)(ai + &. 46. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 39. 40. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 + x. 32.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 52. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 36.2? 50.
JU.294 753.1+J 756. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 759. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. [1r^ T 1 i . 758. 757. 2V2 2V3 ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ~ r* x . 761. 754. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.
VlO.4 V(j. 3812VIO. 786. 103 788. . 16 + 2V55.12VIT. + 2V21. 3J . 789. 7512V21. x 782. a 9442V5. . 13 799. 783. . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 806.2 V30. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 10 785. 790. 92VI5. 787.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. c 792. Va 809. 14 791. 794. .2V3* ^ 807. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 793.
V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. + ViTli + V7 .79.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + 103Var. 3 x + 2 . Va: . 819. x/aT+l .\/2y  810.V2 ar 10. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 815.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .f 5 = V5x + 4. /9ar a: = 17. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 829. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. V3 f 1 V4a. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .  5 + V3 f 12 817. \/12 a. 831. 820. 811.13 = 0. + Vx .V? = 813. VaT+lJ f ^l . 818. 833. = 1. 830.g. 836. 812. V14 a.Vc^lJ .4 = 0. 816. 814.
+ . V4 x 2 . f 841. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 856. + 1. 868. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 8 2a. 4 x 8 858. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a.10 = 118. . a 8 869.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 19 x 14. a. 865.a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 8 848. 875. 64. 853. 8 8  13 a. 845. . 9. 8 4a: 8 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 876. 729 867. z*y 8 l64a. a. 2 a: 64 y*. +3 4 +  4. 8 860. x 11 a^ J 13 854. f b**. y 4. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 275 8 l.3 . 864. a l0m . 16 859. 6. 844. 8 a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. + 512 y8 874. f 12. x 8 2 857.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 871.1000 6.3 a:.3 Va: 2 . 852. 4o. a. a. . 4 a: 2 842. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a: . 863. .ab9 ft*.12. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.3 x . a 8 850. a 8 873. 2 x 3. 8 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 855. 64 a 866. x 4 + f 2 a. 839. 846. 4 a.  3x a. 27 y 8. 851. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 27 862. a 18 4. 840.x*y + 3x f 2. 870. .1. 8^27^. a: 849. 4 x* 847. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 2 f" + a/ 15. a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 861. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a*" & 6n . a 872.
y 2 4. + 2y=\2. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 = 2 + 5. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. f ?/ a: a: . + ary + 2 = 37. y y 2 y 2 1121. a: 884. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a. 896. 900. 2 + xy = 10. x*xy. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.1 = 2 a#. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 5. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .35.18. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.sy = 198. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 2 = 16 y. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.Vi' + 1 1_3. . 883. a# f + xy = 126. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 895. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: a. 2 . xy + y = 32. a: 2 897. 899. 889.15. +y f y = 7. 887. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 1 x 893. . 894. a. a: + y 2 = 34. . 901. x a: lI = xz . 2 + 2 f = 17. z 2 898. 886. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.y 2) = 20.y 2 = 2 y + 2.298 877. a: 888. y*+ xy . 3 x 2 . y 2 2 8f.xy + y 2 = 19. a:y . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. x 882.y 2 + V(j. a. x 8 3 = 13:3.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 . M1 891 1 . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. . 2 + xy = 28. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 878. y = 28. 890. 2 + y 2 . 885. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. .5 xy + 4 f = 13.
a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. a: a. 911.3)2 = 34. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 3 2 2 922. a. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + y = 9. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). # + xy + y = 7.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 3 y 8 ) =1216. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 907. x + y 2 = aar. (o. 2 + y = 2 a 4. y . 2 * 2 ~ g. 917. x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 913. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. a:y xy 929. 7 y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902.x) = 21. = 8.y) = 33. (3 x . or or a? a: a: . x f 2 a:y = 32. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 909. y + a:y = 180. . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. Vary + y = 6. 910. 923. 2 2 2 916. ary y = 8. ^ 2 .y).23 = 200. + 2 a:y + = 243. (* 918. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 914. x + y}(x + y) = 273. .2 y) = 49 2 919. 906. xy + x= 15.y2 = 22. 912. x 2 ry + y = 3. + y 8 = 189.r a. 2 924. yz = 24. 23 x 2 . + ?/) . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.3(* + y) = 6. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 3 :r(3 . + y)(a. y x 2 = by. 905.y) (3 y . *y . (!) * . 908. 4 (a. a: * a: a: ar 928.y = a(ar + y). + 2 ary = 39. 2 915. (a. + ary = a*. 2 5 xy = 11.#y + 2 = 27. xa 903. 921.16 y 3 8 = . 920. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + a. * + y = 444.y) (a? .3) 2 f (y . a: y zx 12.6.
Tf there had been 20 less rows. 937. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet. is 3. + z) =108. is 3 . y( 934. . and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. rate each man ran in the first heat. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the sum of their areas 78$. two squares equals 140 feet. 152. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 942. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. and the difference of 936. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A.000 trees. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. In the second heat A . much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and also contains 300 square feet. 931. 944. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 2240. and 10 feet broader. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. (y + *) = . diagonal 940. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. Find the sides of the rectangle. a second rec8 feet shorter. find the radii of the two circles. s(y 932. feet.102. 935.300 930. feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. How many rows are there? 941. + z)=18. A is 938. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Assuming = y. 943. *(* + #) =24. 34 939.square inches.
Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. triangle is 6. What is its area? field is 182 yards. 949. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. its area will be increased 100 square feet. distance between P and Q. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find the number. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and travels in the same direction as A. . Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. A and B. that B A 955. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and its perim 948. 951. 953. unaltered. P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. Find the eter 947. . the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Two starts travelers. overtook miles. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. and that B. . sum Find an edge of 954. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. and if 594 be added to the number. whose 946. 952. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the digits are reversed. each block. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. set out from two places. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. at Find the his rate of traveling. 950. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find its length and breadth.
to n terms.. 970... 964.... 966. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. s  88. .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. .. 5. 975. fourth of the unity. 16 962.to infinity. + (iiven a +  4 d . (x 4 to n terms. . 974. P.1 4 f j$V . f + 1 . ^ Vfirst five 959.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Sum to 20 terms. \ .4142 . !Ll^ + n . P.302 956. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 969. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.3151515.. Evaluate (a) .141414. Sum Sum to infinity.V2 . Find n f (ft) . '. 5. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. are 29 and 53.. 958. 3 + 5 7 + . and 976. 12434+ j I 967. difference. 4 4 to 7 terms . *" 968. P.>/) to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. 4. 957. Sura to 24 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Find n. 971... the terms being in A. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Find an A. 3 . ^1 + Vj 1 2  . ^ 1 . Find the sum of 4.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.v 973. J. 972.  2. to infinity. n to n terms. (to 2 n terms). 1 to n terms.454.321? 965. 36 963. 18th terms of an A. Find the Find the common 977. P... 1G series . . = 4. 961... x(x to 8 terms. to 7 terms.
The 21st term of an A. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 0.. 4 grains on the 3d.2 .04 + . Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. . 5 11. Find four perfect numbers... and so on. P.. P. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. P. The sum 982. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. to n terms.) the last term the series a perfect number. to infinity may be 8? . of n terms of an A. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find the first term. 303 979. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 990. first 984. 986. 980... If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. named Sheran.001 4. The term. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. is 225. Find n. and of the second and third 03. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .3 ' Find the 8th 983. to 105? 981. : + 9   V2 + . Find four numbers in A. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .1 + 2.. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 1. "(. to oo. 989. and the common difference.+ lY L V. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 987.001 + .. 992. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Find the sum of the series 988. 985.01 3. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 2 grains on the 2d.
Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. 997. 1001. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 512 996. (6) the sum of the infinity. inches. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 999. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. in this square a circle. P. and so forth to infinity. The sum and sum . Under the conditions of the preceding example. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. prove that they cannot be in A. are unequal. of squares of four numbers in G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 1003. ABC A A n same sides. The fifth term of a G. 1000. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. is 4. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. P. find the series. Two travelers start on the same road. P. in this circle a square. If a. ft. 998. and G.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. areas of all triangles. c. 995. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. AB = 1004. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 994. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. (a) after 5 strokes. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. at the same time. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. are 28 and find the numbers. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters.
a: 8 7.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.o/) 14 . 2 ) 5. 1012. Find the middle term of 1020. (1 1018. . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. (12 #) 7 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. 1006. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Expand  2 a. ) 1021. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .iV 2i/ 5 . + lQ . 1011. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.l) w f . 1009. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1014. x) 18 .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the middle term of ( . 1008. . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).
.
..178 Completing the square . Aggregation. 123 .130 . 232 169 807 . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . . 9 ** ... lowest ratio " '* . . 8 .. 112 54 54 251 . 19... .. quadratic . ..] Abscissa Absolute term ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . . . . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. simple simultaneous . numerical ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . signs of Algebraic expression ... Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ... . . graphic tion of representa .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. .. . ...... . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. linear literal Common ** * difference .108 160 " ... ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. . .. ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 246 91 " multiple. 232 mean progression .. 129. 160 in quadratic form 191 .193 11 . 129 54. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 37. . 97.. 158. .... . Checks Coefficient 20. t 53 120 . .. 54. . 9. .. . .
. law of Extraneous roots . 212 .. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . exponent . numbers .. . . 120 Member. arithmetic . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . INDEX 8 . 45. . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities ..31.. . 205 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . . 84.C Multiplication . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 63. Mathematical induction .. . 34. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . Product '* 76 Infinite. 253 28 70 1. 9.. inversely 122 numbers . 114. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions... L. 109 102 . directly.808 Exponent Exponents. Like terms Linear equation .108 Minuend . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. P . Negative exponents 11 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 112 . .. 227 .. 195 33.. . 45. addition of " square of . . 180. . . 143. 23 10 91 102. 243 7 . Geometric progression .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 17 65. Inconsistent equations . . 91 .... . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 227 geometric . 241 123 geometric . Known numbers . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Insertion of parentheses .. Imaginary numbers . 184 54. . 45 Laws of signs . . first and second .154 Order of operations " of surds . 189. G.
. algebraic Surds . .... 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... ... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . 129. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . binomial Third proportional Transposition . 45 Trinomial 240 . polynomial .. Sum. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.... . .. 4 155 9 " of .... ..... absolute 54 Variable ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. . 9.
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Published September. Reprinted April. Berwick <fe Smith Co. NorfoooS J. . August. December. 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916. Set up and electrotypcd.COPYRIGHT. Gushing Co. Mass. 1917. 1910.A.S. 1910.. Norwood. 8. U.
32.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 1. 9. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 3. 19. 16f 2. 9 16  larger than 7. 6. 20. $40. 37 S. A Bl 7. 7. 12. 2. 8. 37. 16. 3. 21. 9. 7. 2  Page 8. 64. 24.. 16 in. 4. 18. 27. 1.. 128. 12. 5. 3. 126. 6. 5. 2 ~ 15. 1. 210. arithmetic. 4. x.  1. 32. Not 5. B $4700. 5. 17. 1 16. 9 = 4. 16 in. 6. 4. 3 below 0. ft.1. 7.. 73. 8. 14. 6. 12. 3.000. 20. 13 V. 18. 2. 2. 21. 36. 7. 30?. 14.000.  1. 18. 3. . 10. 6. 6 yd. 11. 15. 9.$9400. 5. 2. 27. Yes. 9 14. Page 4. 9. 16. 4.000. Multiplication. (a) (/>) 1. 18. 10. Page 8. C $ 16. 106. 13. $100. b. 7. + 1. 0. 85. 89. 2. 1. 32. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 512. 6. 13 S. 15. 2. 10. B $ 128. 12. 20 jo. 6. 3 m. 7. 8. 10. . 3* 7. Page 1. 16. 3. 32. in 12. sign. 6. 22. 15. 3. 59. 25. 20 B. 7. 17. A 15. 25. 25. C $60. 12. 10. 16. 6* 16. 9. 8. 14 11. 48 ft. 18. }. 1. 5. 4. 14. 13. 13. 10. 11. 10. 2. 1.150. 5. 3. 20. 2. 2. is $10. 5. 2. 5. 21. 1. 115. 3. 29. 6. 14. 256. 1. 8 ft. 24. 8. 0. A .. 72 = = 216. 49. 28. 19. i . 10g. 4. 4. 3.3. . 16. 28. 26z. Page 13. 3. 9.000.000. 16. ^. 14. 2.. 6. 7. C $1(50. 11. 1. 29. 1. 8.21 24. 17.. 9. 12. in. 2 5. 1. B $80. 2.  2 p.. 30. 1. 15.2. loss. 576. 14.. 23.  13. 7m. B 10 mi. 14. 7.000. 26. 15. 3. 192. 12. Ot 15. A $90. 17. 16. 11. Australia ft. 2. 9 m. = 5 81. 9. Page?. 11. 16. 6. x. 12. 8. 1.  22 20. $ 1 50 10. B $20. . 14.00000001. 9.. 10. 1. South America 46. V 23.8.C. 18. 16. 24. 2. 25. in. T . 27. per sec.000 negroes. 144. c. 20. 3. A 38 mi. 13 d. 49. sign. 6. westerly motion. . 20 \.000.12. 1. 3. 17. 8 13. 3. 3. _ 32. 5000. 22. 13. 150. 19. $160. 13. 12. 3. 19 4.000.000 Indians. 12.
. f  5e 35. 7. 6. 23. 21. (r) 78. 3a. Page 18. Monomial. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 173. 1. 0.. 3. 16.900.r 2 . 19. r+l. 38. ft. vi 14. 35. ^. 18. 17. 21. 14. 16. 28.x. ft f 19. a 32. 00 24 04 ft. 5x+3. x^ 20. 1. ^). //'. 1. 28. (ft) mi. It. 14. + 5. 92. 19. 240... 41.  0. 22. 12. 8. 12. 0. 15. in. 3.  1. 16. 32.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 2. 8. sq. 17. 9. 31. 32 2 ftc. 14. 14. 30.000 sq. 9. (ft) 7. 33. 35. 26. 5. Pagel4r. 6. Page 23. 5.4  2ft 2 33. 3 . 21 a 3 4 10.'JO ft. 42. ft. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.  3. 6. 0. yyz+xyz*. 0. $80. 30. 2. 13. 18. 19. 8. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. :J!>r'. 10. 11. .9?/2 8. rt. + v> 2 .  12. 25. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 12. 0. . 5. +/2(/.ft) 4. .3 * 10 r5 <3 . 104. 3. 17. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 14:). 8. o^ft. t. 12 a. 13. 3. 2. 3. 4.  40. . m + 3(a.1. 3. 51 f.32 c2 > ft 3 . (a} 100 1(5 cm. 25. 13. 31. 2x' 2 5 . + ft). 5. 0. 14. ft. 1. 16. 9. 28. 4.5 (ft) sq.q 4. 12. 11. (b) 135 mi. 15a. m 24. 27. 22. (59. ft. 57. .rty8. 10. 33. 13 cu. 27. WIN + wiw. 237. 5. 16. 32. (ft) 12. y. (ft) $40. _ 4 . 15.<>Gq. 7 7. 15. 8. a2 4 15^44. 49. 18.. 34.14 sq.~4. (ft) Page 2. 0. 22.. #1111. 8. 20. Page 7. 22( 19. 4.r f 15. 14. 3. 7. (a) 50. (a 4 4. 43w//2 17. 35. 27. in. . 0. 10. = 81. (r) 2.ab. 3rf 27.. a ft c. 13. 04. 4. 2. 7. 34. 1. . arty 1 20. (<7) (a) 314 sq.  xV 3 y. 27. 26. ??i??. 20.6) 38. 25.000 . 1. 12. 8. in. (c) S(i. in. 30.. (a) r>23ifcu. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 23. 1. 0* Page 3 w" 0. (a) 200. 11. 24. 21. 38 ab. i:5. 17. mi. 2oVmf?i.GOG. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. r/ \(\xyz. 18. 5. jrif 4 9.. Trino inial. 4. 17. Page 21. 3.ft.'J. 27. 1. c. I. 6<t. 4 y/ . Polynomial.. (c) 8.. ft n. 29.  11. ]*. 36. 15. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. II. 3(c4a). 22. 3. 50. 9. 3 a* + 2 at*. 0.94(>. ft. 2ftx. 8. ft' 3 . r:A 29. 24. 4 9/^/rl 2.. 12yd. 2. Binomial. 314 sq. 7. (r) 2000 m. . 27. 9.4 ft.5f> sq. 18. $3000 Page 6. 15. 21^.r~ f 34. 12.. 7. (r) 2G7. 11. 15. 14. 5. 13. <i~ 26. = ()501. 39. \'\ 4. Polynomial. :.a . (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 31. 37. 1. 20. 2. w. 29. 20(. 5. 58. 13.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 36. Page 31. 4. . (a) <> sq.
mn. 29. 18. 2x 4 a 13.  b. x  + 3z. 8. 16. G.1 . 31.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 25 47. 2 3x f z. 11. 33. 15. w 17. 36. 3. (mn} 11.2 a2 2m 2 4. 25. 2. ri\ 18.2 ft 2 r2 10.c. . 4. 12. 1. 51. 7  # + 12. 22.4x. 34. ?>4tl 53. ' 12 m?/'2 27.ws 2 ft) . 2. 13.  14 afy . 31. 2 2 2 6. . c. 8. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 38. 24. 2. Page 7. 20.(7x2 Ox2). 2// 16. 21.h. 15.5 z?/ + 3 y . 1. 2 y' 4 . 8. 3 a3 & 41. a4 4 4.4 d. + 6. 2. 2 3. 17. 2 + a4l). 2. :5 41. 12. 1 + 45. 3.a f 54. 37. 14.  12. 40. a  49. 8 + 2 a .abc.  1. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. _5a<>&43c. \ :{ 2 a 48. 5 2 Page 29. m*  n*. c. j)(g1. 10 x. a). 30. ?/.  4 b 17 y*. 19. 7  a + 2 + c. 7.2 .1. Exercise 16. . 5. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .2 57. 6. 25. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 26. ^ <.2 a. lOrt 15w4. 36. 14. 14. !  </ . 42. Page 44. 50. 2 4. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. + a 2 f 2 a 4.11. . ii\ 22. 1 4. 35. w* ( . 2a: 2 4x. + 8. 4.. 56. (2n' 43p 47 ). a 3a 4 2 &.4.a . a 10w.aft. 22. 10. 5. 2.3 6. ft Exercise 17. 10. 4 21. 11. 10. 34 39. 1. 10 m. 6. 4.  a: 2. 2m + 2w. ar. . 58. 4r 2 . 0. 8 b. 21.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . + 2y. ti. . 3 Ji 8 . 24. 12. 2 2. 2 . 2m. G a bd. 15. 6.a~.7. + 4 c.4c 3 8 8 J. .'U4j>. 9. a a.6 x + 0) 16. 2.r 2. 7 a5 1 . 4ft ~.(2 x2 . _ Page 30. 6.8(c + a). Page 28. 26. a + a. 814. . 2. 2.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. . 16. . 2 . 28. a' 4ab + ?/. c2 . 2a. 2. ?/i 13. 18. a. 4. 0. a f 2 f 2 9. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. a 4 + ft. a  ISjfat. &.Oa: + 10.2. . 20. 2 a f 6 414. 5x 2 rt ft. 8 . t). 24 b 46. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. a + (ftc4df). 19. a 52.. .a*.5 4 2 3 ?/ . r. 43. 7. 13. . 5. 0. 59. 11. 1. '  .l. a2 9. M + 10. f 2 ?/  2. + c 4 d x + 6 e. (5x47 3. 2 17. .  b* 4 r 1 . ?> 22. 12.5. Page 8. 1. 14. 18. a 3& .r 2 + 4?/ 4l). . a 6 2 . 55. 17. 2 6. f ft 9. 32 w 2 w. 25. ab a. 4.x f 1 2 . (w4w)(ww). n*. 8 8 . (yz~d}. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . x3 . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .r.  23.a'2 . 3 m. 26. 21. a 3 . 20. . 3 a . 364c. 2 a 37.3x 2 2 tf. 3. 24. 7. 32.  17. 1.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 7. ( 7. a2 24. x a8 1. s_r>a5. 4. 19. 4wipg>' 27. 5.
3. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. Page 35. 4200. 210. 10.32 y s s G . 90. 25. 18. Page 3. 30 j9 jt?g j . 38wiw. 83 In + 1 n*. 13. 34. 24. a + ft. 14 m 2 . + 7. 13. 10.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. + 58 . 108. 21. 15. 108. 1. . . 0. 84. 16. 60. 20. m. Page 5. 22.. 11. 30. 29. 2 ). .12.1. 21 a'&c. 16. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 6.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. x2 xy42^. 19. 127"'. 33. 6". . 3300. 23. 27. . 12. 1. 25. 29.11 xyz . 4 a8 . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 30. ! 2. 30. 12. 4. 37. 34. 26. + O4 66 . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .. 2 n8 29 a + 30. ?> 4 . 25. a 8 . 5. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 4. 1. 2 2 2 . 1400. 18a% y. 28. 19. 3. 18. ft 17. 34. 15. ?/ . 4. 1904. 4aWy. 25. 42.26.69 rt + 21 132 + r .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 29. 18. 40 r 2 . n (a6) 125. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. Page 38.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 161b. a: . 9. 16.18 w w + 10 WI M . 18> ^* = a . +. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 20.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 6. 27. 14. (+3)x6=+16. 23. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 15. 66 39 k* . 14. a. 17.r% 2 2 ry. 14f 5. 1. 2''. 9. ll 2 i. Ox a 5 .25 + 14.21. 6. 2 . 21. 30 n?b*c*. 31. 7. 1. . 17. 19. 18. fa 2.28 p'^/. 10. 22. 7. 8. 27. 42. 27. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 60. 16. a.19p" + 19^ 10 .2. 24. 6 .15. 11.8 12. 19. ISartyW e*f*tj. 12 ^. s 9 ww. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 2.19 + 2. 2 ). 22. 102. 13. 15 lb. 4. 8 . 28. 27. 5. 28. 30.20 xyz . 35. 2 7t A.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 343. 20. 30. ^^ = 20. 25 4 4. 5aft(a 126 2).36 35. 24. 66 8W 34. 216. 216.(3x2_4^+7). Page 7. 30.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a*b*c. 8.14 w 2 2 . 10. 31.64 190 p6. . 7. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 16 lb. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 11. 770. 2. etc. 17. 4 jcy*z*>. 28. 23. Page 36. . 20. 36.>(/ r . 20 aW. 3 a 3 . 24. 64. 3(*+0 + 2). //. 14. +15. . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 4. 32. 21. 0. 12. 24.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 33. 2. 3. . 18. 4 a2 . 7G . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2*8f x2 6x4. 11. 8. 1.16 x2/ 5 4. 16. 15 q\ 6. . 16 51. . 13. 161b.21 a 3 c2 21. 52 + 6s 12.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 76 8 a' 1 . 26. 18. f 26.6 2 . 22. 2.. 1. ci 5 .. iSx8 . 2 a2 (y 2 . . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 20.iv ANSWERS + &)(.32.14 . 2 w +2 2 . 8. 7. 29. 33. 6. 2 8 xy f 4 a.:>/ . 23. 15. 15. 360. 2 * 80 . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 3 a 2 46.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 14. . 17.000. 12 x2 2 . 9 13. 120. 20.16 a 2 + 32 a . 4 fc. 04. 4.7(50. 13.12.44 aWc 16 abxy. 9. 3. a.6) =a2 31. 32. 8. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.
000. 2 . 40. 36. .^. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . . 35. 26.20.15. .. 35. 51. 24. 4 . . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 2). .^V"' . x4 28. 10. 10. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .4 a&+ 4 &*. 30 /><. 10. x 48.020. n + 2. 8. 2. 1). 5. 33. 31. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 29. p4 + . 1. 484. 6 2 + 6lf>0.8. 4. a4 4 ?/ . 18.500.84 a' 9. a + 25.ab . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. r.4 12. 10. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). a3 0.001.000. 9. 2 62 V2 132. . 25 a 2 6 2 . 25 25. 36 a 4 . n2 a4 6. 34. 2 j3 Z . 4 21. 4x21. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 4. 33. a 2 . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 12 x2 .606.r . + 3)(3). 9999. 36. 998. 41. w'n 2 //^ + 25.2 x + 2 x.m 30 6 4 1. 31.14 jp + 49.2 6 + 13. 990. Page 12. 33. 7. 24. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 7. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).25. (p 2. 10. 2 a' y' . Page 39. 11. 8 a W . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 26. 14. G a6 2. ^' J  7 f 12.4 n. 1. 2 fr . 2 a 2 + a . a + 25. m 2 .16 a3 f 50. (w+4)(m4). 2 1: 21. 10. 4 + 25 q*.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.5 ~ 81. 7. 1. ^/> 8 4 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 2 (5 a 3). 8.201. 14. 8 38. 3. ab. 3wi2 m Page 42.098. +   5). 32. 10. 17. 42. 34. . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.810.004. +  m' 1. 10. + 7 6)(3a~76>. lflrt 2 8 + l. x*2^f I.996. y.008.^ + a? + 1. 29. 8. 999. (n 2 5. 27. 11.p132.10 35. m 3 j) 3 . .00 + 37. 25. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 57. fo*. ^V^4 .2 y*. 7 . 40.ANSWERS 28.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . + 10 + 121 y*. ~ 6 20 . Om2 4 6m 6. 56. 9 4 /> . 1.2. 37. ?/H)0. + 4 t*. . 55. ) 4' 6/ 49. 3. ft' 11.r* 2 30. 16. 1. . 4. 53. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 7> . 52.ri 17. ' 46. 38. 20a 2 21a + 4. 23. x2 GiC+5. 6. 8)(?i (x2)(x3).712.6. 19. 2 6' . 1.r . + 2 9.3. 39. 10 a' 2 . x* . 2 4 2 2 64 . 44. x 4 ?/4 + ab . .35 ab 9. (m + 6)(m3).009. + 12. V + o ft . a' .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.6 x2 13. 32. 10. 9801. 5. 2 12. 21 2 . 30 x + 19 x3 . a + 56. 39. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 40. . 36. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . 2 . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 2. ab . 9990.020. 15. 10. 9. 4 x2 13. 19. 37. I/). 31. (a (3 54.6 xy . 4 2 //. 2 4 a + 4.10 x + 25. 15. 2 +10s281.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .994. (w4)(w + l). 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 2 0)(p + 5). 166.404. .6 y4 10. 45. . +4 34. a2 ' + 48Z100. s rc 47. . 27.009./ . (a + 4) (a + 2). 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 14. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.x2y22. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 41. 10 a 4 ?. 30.54 p 2 + 81. 10.49. p 2 .. + 4 a +4.1. 28. 4 . 441. 6.
ft ? ft' ft ft.2 ar. 2 2 + 2 a. 125. abc 7. 4.2 2 2 8 .  . 13. 8. m'2 3. 4 x. + 4. . 14.29. 5. 2. 2 4.2 . 5^418(7. . 5. 8 ?/ .10 xy*. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 4.3 a 41. 5. x 2 + 2r f J.> 10.2 <</.7. ft* ft / . 4 c m . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 21. 18.2 ftc .x^. 3*y2 w + 1. 3 aft 20.2. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. a 10. x 4. 7. 3. 5. 1. Page 48. 6.1. . 17.5 a . .9 d. :r !>. 6. 5.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. ti'jry1 7.rw f 8 . j) .1.8 y.15. r ft. 4x43?/. yfl. 5. 8.lit x + 4. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 15.2 ac . 10 ft. 19. . 4ft. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 3. r 7. m L 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 16. aftc 52. 10. 4 d 2 4. 4 a* 4 9 11. 2 a 3 ft. 4. .3 3.3 x 2 2 4.8. 21. 2 12.25. 47. c 12. a. . as _ 10 16. 2 .1. . 15. 13. 2 . 24. 3. 50. 19.1. 2.  11. 8. 5 a  (5 ft.10 2 + z 2 410. 6.8. G. ft 17. 4 ac. a 8 4. 12.2 . 4 pq. 22. 8 ?/ . _ 2 a . 20. 6. 4xy + 13 <) .2 1 //. . l 4 . + 3. Osy.12 aft 4 20 ac .r?/.  5 z* . 4.5 mp.30 ftc. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.r" 20 S? . Exercise 2 a:// 26.21 2 2 f + . 4.25 c . 14. 23.rw. 16.000. 1. 12.24 . ft. 3. i 9. 75 a 2 29. 14. *3 y 4 . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. /r . 2.3 ry. aft 12.  12 y 25. 1. 8 x . 7a3ft.n. '.y3. r//. 8. +w . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .r?/ j/.23. 12. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.9 4. 10. a 4 4 ft. 6. 9. 135.3 5. 5.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 49. ??. 26.VI ANSWERS 43. a 2 . 16. c3.r ?/ ??i ?).3^V. z. 1. 2 4 3 9. 2 1.8 yn . 17. 11. . aft. 1. 5. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.2 . 4.w. x4. 8.15 21. 10. 7 r .  10. 14 r 2 . // 19. ?/2. 13.34. Page 7. 18. 8 r<ft 4 2 . i 2 tji. w 2 .r'^ 15. . 2. 6x 3. 13.2 aft 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 4. 14. 17.27 x 2 4. 13.5 n*. r/2 4. f>r* 4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. .4.r . Page 11.1. 2. + x?/ 2 1. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 3. 12. 44.1. 13. 5. 1. 4 a 2 4. 9. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 4. 2 ? 14 . 11 4.6 :rs 4. 5 4 a Oft. . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . Page 51.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 1/*. 1000 1000 .+ 77 15. 3. . 2.r' ~ 16.1. 46. 2 ?/ 4. 01.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.2 2 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . Page 22. Exercise 27. y 7. 20 15. 9.  3 c. 1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. . x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 11. 9./ 4. 2 ?/' . . sr 11. 2 4 2 x 4. 12.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 8 x5 ? + 4 1.1*5 2 r 2 . 14. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 8. 3 a. w . Page 13. 9.2 wZ 4.
4. ct. 10.7). <>. x + 1=a. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. . 37. 5.x700.  1$. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 19. 1.. 2.. 58.100. 10. 5. 14. l. . Page 40. xy ft. 33. 23. = 5 ?i x 460. . 7. 44. 8. 7. I. 30. 7. 2 ct. 59. 2=10. I. '^ . m +~m 3.200) f(^ + (e) 200. y 50. 16. 20. ft. 30.  9 = 17 a. " lir. 10 >_&. 4^ = 100. 3 9. 12. vil 56. 1&. 3x  1700) = 12. . 5.p+7. X 60. 16. x 49. 100 2. }f. 100= ^. . x = m.. (2 a. x 2y 10 act. 22. 2. 18. 7. r>?imi.(3x  700) = 5. f (I. b. 2. 11. 10) + = (a) 2 x . </ 20. 23. 35. 8. ft. 2b. 24. 2. 17.ab a. 25. 32.10) 100. 36. 1. 11. 60 25 1. 3.  6 10. 25. 100 14. 39. 38. 7. 43. 3x2. 2x + 35. 20. b. 20. 5. 18. d. 33. 4. m+ 11. a 8. 00. 14. ] 2 ri 42. 0.000. 44. 10. 31. 'nj 100 a 28. 1. + 3 = 2(3* . 57. 42. 10. 2. 37. 7. 45. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 10 a. f 6)(o 62. 4 f 39. 19. 7x 2 Page 21. 34. s. 47.  />) a = all. 50= L 100 15. (a) ' 12. a 10. 3. + 4x 3y 34. ? 43.(3x+ = rraxlO. 28. y yr.ANSWERS Page 9. ( a f 4.. 5. + 10 b + c ct. 17. v (6) 2x. . Jj12. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 2b 22.r ct. lO. 41. (> 27. r tx mi. / + y + a// 12 yr.  2\. 21 2. (</) 2a. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 6. iL*. 4. 1. 9. ct. 5. ct. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 9. 8 n  10 yr. 40. d + !. 0. 4. 4. "mi. 6. ft. 6. (>.r1. 41. 15. 15. # + 20yr. 38. + f + b 2. 46. y ?>i x + 26. 22. 6. ^ 12 sq. 29. 1. 16. sq. 10 yr. 3. 29. 13. 26. 7. 800 = x + 1300.rr2. . 13. x 48. 10 x sq. 27. 12. + 3x + 2y + 32. Page 13. !). 13. y 2z p= 3 (a c. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. y 100 a 24. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 11. fix. Page 31.6 = *. (c) 2x. n M. x. % 4. Page 61. Page 6. rn mi. 17. 100 d ct. lOx 10 + w. 2. 36. 6. f = eZ 2 x. x y $ 6 yr. 4(a ft) c = 8.
9. 8. 4pt. 1. 8. 180.000. 5. 3x (3r. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). Page 79.2). 4. 3..7. 13. 11 pV (2 p8 . 300. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 20. 5. 3. 18. 2). 100. 12. 7 hr.. 20. 67. 25 yr. . $40. 12.79. 5. 7. 82 mi..3. 10 yd.3).. 7. 13.000. 13. 20 yd.2.5. 14.5p + 7 g ). . 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 7. (p + 7)(3a5&). a a (a 8 a+l). 16. 5$ hr. 23. 90 mi. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 15 yd. 2. 8. 52. 45 in. 11. 2. 14. 8 12. 30. 20. 10. 14. (a 4) (a. Page 5. 10 Cal. 1. 21. 1.16.0. 10. 55. ?(g ? g+ 1).411. (y8)(y + 2). Page Page 4.3. Pace 65. 9. (a + 6) (a + 3). 4.(5z . 14. (y7)(y + 2). 19. 25. 3. 4. 6. (a5)(a4). 25. (a + 5)(a + 6). 20 yr. 12. 2. Oaj(o62cd). 5pt. 5 lb.000 copper. 18. 8. 5.000 gold.. 18. 2 2 2 5. 5. 85 ft. 14. 22. 10 yr. 12 mi. 3. 2. 1200. 480. (y + 8)(y2). ( + 4)(*2). (m + n)(a + 6). 75. 15..000 N.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 11. 200. 4.3aftc + 4). 8 2 19.. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 1200. 10 Mass.  PageSO. 250. 4. 6. 100 1. 72. 1 lb. 30. Ib.10. 10. 17. . 2. 8. (a + 4)(a + 8). 24J. Page Page 4. 6. 6. 1. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000 Phil. 9.. 30 mi. 10 yr. 74. 29. 78. 68. 7. 8. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000..8. 30 yr.210^.000 ft. 12.. 1313. 150. 13. 71. 10. 13. 28yr. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). (ro3)(w2). .1). 9.000. 3.22. Page 7. 6. 9. 2. 05. = _?_(2ar + 1).24.. 7. (z5)(z2). 90. Page 7. 5 Col. 200.0. 11 in. 2.y"). 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 70^. by 12 yd. 11.21. 15.000 pig iron.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.000 ft. 9. 1250.. 11 w(w' + wi . 3 (a +&)(*. 1. 12. 1... ~=90. 15 in.000 Berlin. a 12. 15. w (/) 64. 8. 15 mi. (e) i* + A.000. 10. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 42yr.. Y. ^ . 40 yr. 6. 6. (c) ^ v ' . (yll)(y4).000. 11. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 7. 10. 20 yr. Page Page 480 12. 9. 14. 7a*fe(2a & l)..13. 8. 2 2 ?/ 21. 9 in.6). 12. 3 hr. 10. 15. 80 A. 6rt 2 11. 6. 600. (y 13. 17. 3. 160 lb.000. 4. 50. 70. 3. 2$. 8 in. 15. 2 3 6 7.11. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).5. (*4)( + 11. 78.000. 1. + 7)(y3).
(<7 20.4p). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). . (2 a? 4. 22. (4a. 16. 27. 2 3 by2 Yes. 11. + 3)(c44). 10.1).y) 2 aft. (w ~ n (x .1). 21. No. (4 18.11 ft)(a6). Yes. (6 a. . 3. (2xl)(x + f>).3)(z2).2 ft). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). Yes. 7 6) (a 10 6). 28. 32. 10(a . y) 2 29. 13x(a + ft)(aft). Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll). 23.ANSWERS 16. (w* (3a26). a. 32.6) 2 1. (13a +10)(13a 10). 16. 28. 3. 21. 26.6) 2 2 . 30.4. Yes. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 13. Yes. Oa 2 (a2)(al). . 18. (ay8)(ay3). (10a + ft)(10aft). 25. 14. 15. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (3*2)(. ( 2 4 19. + 0(90 Page 85. 9.9*). 40 x. 6. 20. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 22. 25. (4al)(a2). 25.r2). (a a: 19. 8. 10. (9y4)(y + 4). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 28. . 3.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 13x7. 7. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 103x97.5y)(3a. . 1. 1. Page 82. (0 + 6)(66). 14.  x (5 a. x(x +y)(x y). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 3a. (a 6 6) (a 4. 31. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 18. 100 (a. Yes. 17. 3)(3a. (2o + l)(2l). (5x . 12. 2. + 8)(g3). 9. a*(5a f l)(flr . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (a. + 3). Yes.   . + 2y). (2 *+!)(* 9). (5a +l)(5a l). (y + 4)(yl). 24. 2). + y + . + 4) (a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 12. 29. 10(3 5 6) 2 .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.2 y). (g .. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .4 6). (15z2y)(x5y). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 10(2 30. y(x. 27. 23. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 2 2 15. (x + y4 )(x . . 29. 3(x + 2)(zl).* (2 y + 3)(y. 7. 36. 24. ix 18. (4y3)(3y + 2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 4. + 9^)(oxy . 30. 216 aft. 10. 4. 24 9. 21. 24. 9. 22. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . . 9. 20. Yes.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 8) (a.2 by2 6. No. (2yl)(y + 9). x\x 24. No. Yes. 10 a 2 (4 . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (* + y)(zy). Yes.7)(2z f 1). 19. y) (a. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (y8) 2 2 . 2. 19.2). 35. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 9.11 6) (a 4. (a (p8)0> + l). No. 34. (15ay2) 2 . 100(x. 21. (a 3 + 10)(a.8). Yes. 33. 2 No 4. 2 17. + 5) a. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).1). .+4 y)(3x4 y). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 8. 7. 11.7) (a. 5.y4 ).1). a . (4 13. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 10. 23. (3#y)(+4y). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 4 (a . (m + w) 2 5. a(2u. (w + 20)(w + 5). 34.3).c 2 ). 26. 31. 5. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 14. 2. . Page 83. Yes. 1. f 2). 23.2). 25. (m7n) (a. (:52y)(2a!3y). 16. 33. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 11. 17. No. 26. . 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (5wl)(m5). (a + 8)(a3). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 12. 20. . 35. 8. . 27. 17. (3a. (az + 9)(ox2). . 6. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Page 84. 22. 10(a + ft)(aft). 25. 26. (6n + l)(+2). 15.
4). (x//. 5. 2 21. 38. 8x.7)(^ {I 12. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .?/). 12. (> 1. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 14.y. 22. 37. 2. x43.y '2 2). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 6. 4.'J)(' . 6. 8). 24x sy s 9. 1. 14. 8.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). ( (<> r4y3 . ^ .X 5. 39. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 4  9.y). 16. x 4.2). 40.4). (a />. 2 2 3 . 41. 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 13. 17. 4. Page 90.  WIM. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 2 (a 4. ( rt 23. 12. (5 26. ?i(w 4y) .  (w' 4. 12.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 2. 3x(x?/) 4. a 2 (a9).&). 1(V/ 88. 10. ah}. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 13. (w4w) 2 1. 3. Exercise 46.!) (x42)(x2). 7. ( { &). 8. ofc)( fid). 24. 5.3. (a 4. 19. 15. Page 92.&). (x. a 4.. 9. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).n). 11. x(x f y)(jr . 4 a s &8 .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). (2x7)(x 2 2). 17(x43//)(x2y).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 6 f c). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. . . 3(. 2 8(w . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.8).8) ( (16.2).y)(fi a .  29. (* _ 2 )(a 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . Gp). Exercise 47. ( a ^)(^3. . 7. 18. 11. y). 4 a8 . 4 6. (7/1 2) (m 41). 2 k (wi 4. 27. 4.5 m2 x2.'})(c . 6. 11. + 2 //). 14.l)( a 25. . 13( 33. 5. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4. r x 2 */3 . + 3. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 7. (a &4. 3 x4 . 4. 2 . x  1). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 16. ( y).7s) (2 a. 11. Page 89.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 8. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (16 4  2(5 n . (. 2(m4l)' . (5a+l)(9a).0+ 12).1) 3. (^ + ?>_8). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 2 y) ^ .))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 1. y )(. 28. y(2x?/). . 2. 13 x 8 2 . (c. Page 12. a + a b. .2)(x 1.'/)('< 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 2 2 10.36). 35. 2. 7. l. n  r)(5a 10. 8. 42). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9.4.8) n 43*). (14. 450. 4. 32.1). 4 3. a x 3 10. (!__/>).1). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. a 41. fi(c426). a8 . 8.42 x 4. 7. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). Page 86. (w * . 8. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 36.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 9. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 30. 6. 15. 5  (2 2 .?>) H. a 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4).2 y). 10(2 (3 4. 6. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).9). 8. 2 + .) j). 2. 6. 4. (r420(4 10. 7. 15 M. ?>). (5 31. 5 x8 3.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 20. (^ 7.^ 48.3.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (f> + fo 7. Page 87. y6. a (a + 2 6).3)(x 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).b.?50)(xt/z. (a 9. (5^4. b) (r 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . x .4). 42a 3 x. 13. 5. (m  I)' 6.e 4. 14.4.
+ &) 2 ( . x 22.6). 30(3 2 (a 15. x 12. 1). 18. 6a2&(rt6).  1).ANSWERS 10. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 24. ?_!&. 2(2al) + l). a 10 25. // m+1 !+*?. (a2)(a + 2)2. b ! 21. + y) (a: y). a 23. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +5 1. 13. 11. + &)(&) ( . +8b a 4 3 / ^.
6. i^. 6. i. a 5. 2 a. 4c 10. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 6. 1. c 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 28. 30. 6a5f^. 26. 4 L 8 2 . 11. 0. + 2H 1 ^. _*^p5_^^_. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. + lH + . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .50 ~ 1/2 . A^. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. xy 43.. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 7.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ^~ 29. w1 + ac w 4 7.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . Page 100. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. .  **/* + 84 _.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ' 2 7. Page 101.
4. 38. 6. y(x + x ?/). Page 113. 16. 4. j L . 16. 2ft a i m x. (y + (z 12. 19. 5. 37. 7. 6. 6. 10. x 05m ' 5. 10. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ^i 11. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 21. 11. 1. 31. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 26. 5. 3. an 18. 5. a 17. +3 ( + 15. 33. b 2. 1. 5. 2) 19. 4. 5 be _J_. 12. 11. + f. 6 . ft. 1. . . 9. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. J.y 7. 27. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. 21. n m a + 13.ft . A. pf n 6 1. 41.L+ft. 15. . 11. 3. 15. 1. a. 6. 35. 3. 21. J. 43.  10 X + u. 8j_m 7 3. 11.^_. x 1. 18. 4. 40. 1. flf. 45. 44. 32. 4a3ft. 9. 39. 20. 24. 8. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 0. Page 111. 36. 13. 29. c 8. ?+_!?>. ^_. 17. 6.  V o 4. Page 106. 15. J. 7. 4. b a f +c 14. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. a2 2. (>. 2 47. 7. 3. ! 4 20. Of. m 9. n . 4. 1. 8. 46. n 16. ' 6. . 14. 25. 12 28. 1. 30. 42. 14. 1. ?. 0. Page 110. x\. w^x 2 b Page 105. 4. 3. 1. 34. f 7. 9. 12. 3 7 i o. f Page 107. I) 2 3z 1. 23. 14.^U\WF### X<6. 7. 17. 1.
000. 3 da. 1:3. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 7} 18.11.000 1 = 23. 4. 300. (ft) 28. 1^'. (ft) (r) 8 hr.9. 1:1 = 1:1.004. . 6.000 If da. 1: ~. 30 yrs. 6.002. 26 30. 13. ANSWERS 16. 1:4. 19. 18.138. 8. 8. (ft) 5 hr. 8301 hr. Yes.000. 20.  C . 2 20.003. $00. 15. 4../hr. 12. 13. 15. 15.. 11. 9J oz. . 5. min. (a) 25. 27. 40 yrs. 5. * 7:9. 3. 22. $40. 11. f . Yes. 2x:3y.2. 1. 14. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 55 mi. Page 121.x + y. 1:1=1:1.10. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 33. 00. f. 7. Page 124.. 300.0 & . 15. 4. 30ft. (a) 30. 10. 8.. 1:1 = 1:1. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . ^m . Yes. [>> ^ a . 7. 10. 38ft min. 7. IV s. 1:1 = 1:1. 75 . . 7T 2 Page 116. 10. .  29.. (d) 4 da. _JL. 15. 18. 31. (d) 500. 2. Yes. (r) 3^ da. Page 119. 21. 20. after $12. 15. 26. J ^'. 1 : 12. silver. Yes. 212. 20. 10. 14. 24. 13. 21. $30. ft. 10^ oz. 6. w 44. jj. 500. No. 74. 3.139. 14. 5. 1. 7 . 4fl M_. 35. 40wn.  + . min. . 3. 40 mi.137.0. 17. 5 25. 16. w 21. 3. 9. 17. (ft) 5 da. 3. 14. (c) 2 hr.001. after 20. Yes. 33. 9$. 21ft min. 10. 12. 26 mi. 36.. " 0. 16. 300. 5ft 30mi. 8. 9. 3:2. 10. dn ~ mi. 23< &n b ' .. 18. 28. nm. . 9. (ft) 104. 12. 9.. 7.. Page 125. '"I 22. J. 8. 9ft. 19. 24. 30 mi. (a) 12 hr. Yes.000. () 2. 17. 10 yrs. (c) 8300. :2. $45. xy. 4. 275:108. 1 da. n 32. ~m . P+ ^ 33. Page 117. 19. $0. 3. 17. 7. 81.XIV '/ .} da./hr. ^p^ r ~ 7. 7. 19. 13.2. 10. No. 1. after 18. 2:1.000. 16. a 4 ft. 32.15. 24 mi. w 18. 5. 10. 0.. 34. ^?i min. 1. 5 2. (a) 4 min. 2. 4~r~ n . 30. 11. . = A's. 11 hrs. #V ~~ 34. 15. Page 118. 10. Yes. gold. 4.
$. 43. 5.1. 2. . b x 37. 47. 15.20. 14. 127. 21. 7. water. 2. 29. 20 cu. 7. . J pq. 9. 2. () Directly. a +b 1. 31J. 10. 1(5. 1. 24. 2.li. . 9. 9. a~. mi. 7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 26. w 8. 1. 5. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 2. 1 rt * vm^1.1. 5. 5. 9. 2.36.3. Page 134. 12. 4. 3. 3  24. 4. 2.3. ig 6. 3. s<i.C ?/ a . x 42. 3. 1. ft. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 3. 3. 12. 6. 7. 5. 35. x +y x + 74 7 \.5. 36. i. 2. = 7 b'. a 3. 2. + 7>i//  ft 1 .1. 15> 9. a f 2 2 = 5 x. "lO.160. mi. copper.5.4.^ 0?j ' gms. 10. 7. 2. 58. .r.12. J. 55. ' 55. 7.  ?. 6. 2. 53.57.4.15. 5. 1./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 19. Of.5. 2.1. 1. 25. 11. + W. 4. x y y . 11. 44. 19. 5:3 = 4: x. x y = 1 = 3 2.3. 5. 2. 2. 2 n . 6*.. . cu. 7. 31.3. 9. 17. ~ 1. 8. (a) Directly. 4. 14. 1. 28. 1.2.4. 27. 56. 4. 945 11 10 . 12. 4.000 sq. 5 2. 3. 38. land.3. Page 132. Page 5. 7. 7. 23. 40. 2. 3 2=3 x.5. 6. 1. 2. 14. 8. 14. 52. 9. 48. 16. 22. + b 7 . 8.3. 2.*. 8.46. y .3. 15. 24. 25. 138.7. t 5. 2. 2. \\.4. 36. 2. 3. 2. 5:0 = 10:12. : : .5. 2. 57. 41. 3. 8. 3.5.x a.].2 x.6. 4. : .  19. 7. 22. 9  15. 7. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. : />. (</) ft. Page 137. . 3}. .8 oz. 4.7. 17. 141. 20. 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. lo mi. Page 131. () 7 Page 126. \. 12.ANSWERS 22. 8. I. 23." ^ 2.J 3. 19 OJ. 30. in n. 4. 7.. 4. 13. 4.2 oz. 59.' : : : : <>. 5. 5. *. 1. Page 136. 7. 5. 4.5. 32+ mi.17. y 1. . 10. l. 5. 4. 1. 8. 6 10 = 12. 174+ Page 128. : 23.9. 2. 49. 3. Inversely. 2. 3. J.3. 54. 11. . 6. 13. 11. x:y a: b. . 7.3. (I.3. 45. 17. 9. 50. /. w. 41. 3. in. 2. tin. Page 133. 7. 2. 16.4. ini. 11 5 . 200 mi. 6. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . Page 9. 13J. : XV 27.5. 20. 10.5.) 31. 3. . 13. 25. OJ.2. 32j.2. 9. 7. 16. ."2:1. 7^. 30. 40. y :y =. J.840. .22. 4. OJ.000 sq.12. 11. .3. Page 135. 20 20 J ^. (b) Inversely. : : T 1' : /> : .J. 4. y a y = 7 0. 21. 19 3 .. 24 1 (e) Directly. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 39. 1 18 = 3 51.1.  28. jc:y = n:m. 11 w a 13. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.2.a.15 x. 18. 26. 13. 46. 19.
Apr. 5. Jan. 4. 17. 5. ' 6 3 a. 1. 4. 5%.8. 20. 7. 1. 7. B's 40 yrs. .2. 5. 10 sheep. ft 3. 1. . 7. 2. Jan. 1. Page 149. 3. $3000. 16. 25. 7. 26. 12. 10. 14. 3. 2. 3. 1. 8. 23f . 24. 7. (a) 12. 14. 27. 2. 6%. 3.10. 100. . 3. 30. 4. 5. . m . 7. parallel to the x axis 0. & May. $900 5%. 3.. 16. a =J (n  1) rf. 1 (d) Apr. $ 1000. 11. 4.  11. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 4 ' q. 6. Jan. Page 145. 16. 12. 26. 3. 20. 4. 6.$5000. 2. . 32.4. 2. 16. 18. 16. 10. 40. 10.. 12. 15. 6. C's 30 yrs.33.. 2. 18. 2. 4.1J. 3.. 3. 11. . 8. 3. (ft) 23 J. 28. 4 mi. Nov. July 20. & part of Sept. 7. $6500at3Ji%. through point (0. 18.0. (c) . A a parallel to the x axis. 9. 30. 21. About 12f. 2. $500. 0. On the y axis. 423. 2. 30. 3. May 5. June. 9. (<f) 13. $4000. 2. 3.1.4. Page 142. 1. . (ft) 20. yrs. 3.3. <*ft/ bd 1. 4. Oct. 5.9. 90. Nov. 17. 3.. m f 9. 12. 6. 11. 0. m + n p. 20.3. 12. 20.l. 19. (5. Page 153. 11. 6. 14. 6. On 11. C's 10 yrs. 4. 3). 11.. 5. The ordinate. 3. 00. 29.2. 21. 19 gms. 4. Jan.^. 16. .4. M 2. 2t2. 9.$2000.n + p. A's 30 18. 3. . be 7. 1. 24. Nov. 20./hr. Page 22. 11. 40. 4. 4. 3. = ^ a Page 141. 7. ad AzA. 1.3. Feb. 5. at 15. 15. 22. (a) Apr. Nov. 2. 23. 20 & Oct. 13. . Jan. 9.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. ^. 10. Page 146. 13. 2 horses. 2. SL=J o ft r^2.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 6. $250. ' . 3. 6 cows. 3. 2. 25. 1 (c) Jan.65. 10^ gms. be 10. Page 152. 1.1. 9. 8. & part of Feb. . 4. 6. 3. 4. 15. July. yrs. 19. A's 50 13. July. 5. 0. 1. On the x axis. 2.XVI Fagel39. Apr. 1. 24. 2 a. 2.  17. 10.7. 25. 2. . 8. 7. B's 15 yrs. Apr. Page 143. 23. m f 8. u 2ft. 2. J. 24. a. . 1. 2.0. 18. 13. 5. 5. Aug. 17. &. 72. 4. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4. 25. 9. 20 to Oct. Page 151. 147. ad _(?jrJL. 31. 16 to July 20. 7.
13. f. 0. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .73. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.. 2 a&m Page 167.17 (ft) (c) 2.75. 5 and 2. jgiooyiio 17. 14. 5. 2ft4 Page 168.1. +3 4. Page 163. 6. 2. xg . 83. 2. a 29. 15 . 3.  1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 3. . 2. 1. 1. 15.13. 3. 8. 30. . 3.79. (c) 7. 12. 20. . 1. 2. (c) 14 F. 12. 3. Indeterminate.25." 23. 18C. 2. 4.4. 8 a1. xW. . 1. 1.24.41 and . 1. 30. 2. 4. . 0C. 2. . Inconsistent. 4.79. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 3. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . . 27 27 81. 1. 2.. 3.73. (/) 3. 5.75. 2. 4. 1 23. 11.83. 10. 28. 27. Inconsistent. 8 1 f f g*. (e) 3. H. 10. 24. 1. * 16. 3. 1. 9. (<?) 2. 3. m. 16.5.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. Page 158. 3. 17. a 6o&i85 c i5o . . 18.2 (ft)  1. . 13 . 15. 7. + a 4 ft* . . (a) 5.5 (ft) 3. 32F.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . f 10. 2. 3. 4. 3. 2. () (rt) 3.  12 ft xW  26 31. 2.. (gr) 21. (ft) (d) 2. (e) 2.6. (c) 2. a 10 ' a ll V&. 10 C. 2. ' :=_!. 9. 14. SlstyW 7. 1. 3. 8mW. 2 2 22. 14. 5. 1.67. 3 ..75. 4. (/) 3. .3. (ft) and (d) 2. 11. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. (a) 12.64. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 2 l. ft . 5. a + ft. .25. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.5.24. 25.59 . 3.  . 1^. 2. Page 164. 4wn8 + n4 5.41 and 23. . \ft) 5.27. 125 a 8 12. 1. 5. 125 16. 1. ImW.1. 8. 3. 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. . . . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. .59. 13.  1. 21. 13C.73 ami . _ 9 x ^27 1 . 1. 1. .25.25. 3. 4.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1 4. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 1.25. . 26.3. 9 and Page 166. 19.73. 2. 10. 22. (a) 4. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. . 13.24 . 24. 2. 20. Indeterminate. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 6. 125a 28.75 (ci) 3^. f. H. 1.83. 1. (ft) (ft) 2. 14. (ft) 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 11. 19. . ft 2 4.7. 2. 4}. . xy. 22. 3. Page 159. 81 ". 2. 5. 4 ) 21. 3. f12 wi 9. 15. 1. G. 27 19. 8.64.34F.84. (a) 2. . 5. 2.
18. 6. 2 2 4. . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. + (win . . 11. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . + + ?V 22. 21. 2 12. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 11. ( Page 174. Page 170. 16 6 w . 5. 8.r 2 + 6jt). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 34. . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 8. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 12. (a + y+l). ? . 13. fe *?>' ?> fi . 21. . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 20. 30. 7. + l). 2 2 7. 6.y2 ). 11. 7. 10. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 3. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 22. Page 171. 6 (\x 3.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 99. 11.a b 22. 13. 2. 3. +3 + 5 4. 15. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 1247. 23. (4a2 9& 2 13. 6. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). . a ). 2038. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 6. 978. . 98. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 35. 3M. ? : 1 . 2. 64. 14. 237.10 a~ + 5 a . 10 x G a 4 . 16. . 24. 9. 20. 2 4 8 2 . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 30. 1. 101. (1 (x2y).2). 4. 72.5). a. 12. 12. 33. 20. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 40. (ly). 20. 18. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. ). 4. 4.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). a: l .5. (48 + 6. 5. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 14. 7. 15. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.3 ab + 2 2 ). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). (x + y\ 90. Zll. 2(> + ( 2 7>). (2 a + ft). ??i ?i . 0. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 1 1 ?>). 5. 8.6. + Z).  x. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.83. 17. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 4.+3^ + 4.1. 3. m 13. + 29. AN S WE no .GO a c + 23. 70. 10. 27. 14. GOO 2 c 2 . (l + x + . 8. 25.i c 6 15. 2. 420. 247. (Gx + (i + 2a. 15. . (a + 2 +l). 71. 10. /> 4 ). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 300.94. 9. r> 4 : 1 . 3 2 ^. 14. + i)). 84. (a 2. 5. 9. 1.  +X '.f 1 m 9 16. 00. 90. 16.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 2. 2 49 . + y). 31. +35. . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 17. 5 5 8.1. 9. rt . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. ^i. 2. 19. 9. Page 176. 28. Page 172. 26. 19. 36. 3 6 23. 119.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 15. 10*. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 3 2 8 3 12. 763. 16. 180 .^). 9. . 76. wi 8 + 3m 2 . (3a. 1. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25.037. 6. 25 19. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. (ab + c). 57. 17. 1. 5. a 2 . (x' l). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 32.7 /)). 309. 3. 8 /. a.XV111 7.x ). 90. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 18. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 8. I 8x2). c 10 6 :l 20.
~ V^3. 40. 7.}. 15. 12. 42. f ^ is. V17. 41. 23. 48. 10.?. V J l.  14. 4 n. a. 17. vV'TA 24. 270 sq. . 30. m. 40. V2. 1. 6. 13. 2. 6V21. 6. ii :J _7. Page 179. 23.4. 46.645. 2 sec. 5. 10. 4.6. (< + ?>). 13. > w ft. 7}. 4. 28.. 29. 6. \/3. 26. 3. 12. 18. >TT 26. .w 18. 3. 15. 49. 3.ANS WERS 22. 6yds. ^^7m. Af^. (6) Vl4 3. 21. 25 J. 8. 2. 1 7. 30. 1. f f V. 16n. 17. 1. 9. 4. 4.237. 9 15 ft. 12.6.1. 6. i ^. 1 f Vl3. 2. vYb. 31. * 1. . 6V'2J. 36.Sn. 7. 9. 7. 16. 27.469. 5083.6. 13. 23. 5f. . 28. 39. 20. l~8. 37. 5. 15. 3.. m. .60. 15 1 10. 16. 9. 1. 16.4. 4. 35. f 3. 12. 19. 2] see. 4J.4. 2. 6. i. 12. 39. 44. 8.  3. 14. 4. 21 in. 8. 7.. 39 in. 10. 6.236. 34. Page 185. 33. 4. 8. 4. 20. ^.. 2.a. or 5. 7. 2. 4. JJI. 2. 14. 2.005.  2.367. 12.  43. a + 61. 5. 32.  f. 25. ft.1. 1. . 13.6. 31.5. 10. 12. {. 8. 4 TT M 28.. 3.V 8j. v 17.5. 4. f. 6 f !. ZLlAiK 19.742 in. 7. 6561.916 yds. 2. ft. 14. 3. ft.. 18. f .243. 15. w. 3. / 11. . 2. . 33. 22.6. 9. 7 45. Page 177. 13. 9. 50.*. 27. 3. 3.. 19. () 2. _ iVaft. 21. V35 1. 6. 9. 2. 1&. 5. 2. 1 38. 5. J. 21 28 ft. . 5. 10. 5.935. 5.690. }. Page 181. 14. 7 in.  1. 47. . 4 a. 7. f. 3. 7. xix 26. (afl). 3J. 9. 3. 15. 37.. 10. 24. 1. 7. 11. 1. 25. 24. " ^_ 22. 11. 5. 4 W**. 1. 10. 10. 11. V2.925 ft. or 3. . 17. 4. >i 27. 7563. 3. 4. 36 in. 16. 9. 28 in. 1. V. 12.522 38. 10. /. Page 184. 20. 21yds. 32.  5. . 29. ^. 36. 3.18. 29. 1. *. 8.13.  f. 34. 1. 35. 5. 6J. 6. Page 183. 7. If ^. Page 180. 14.798 yds. 5. 4. 7. 11...i. 3. 5. 5. 21. 11. 5. 2.
.  1. 12. 12. Page 189.. 6. + 11 x.1. 7. Imaginary. ' 1. 0. 22. $ 120. 26. rational. 6^2 in.62. 28. 0. 20. 6. . 20 nii. . 5. H. 3.4. 1. 2 . 9.. 15. Page 190. 23. Real. 1. 2. 0. 46. 18.4. irrational. 3. Imaginary. 5. V2. 47. $80.59.  2. jr . 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 64c. 6. 35.  9x <).41. . 0. 14. f 6 52 a. 34. V^l. a8 . . equal. 3. 23. 0. 5. x 14. 1. 0. 7. 18. 3. Imaginary. 53. 19 in. 19.7. 8. . 3..2.1. irrational. equal. 10 or 19.7.'. 26. 1. 13. 28. 2. 3.2. 28. 1. . 29. 4. 24. 3. 1.3. f. . If.48.2.2. 20 eggs.  5. 2. 12. 3. 20.74. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. f. 8. 2. 8\/2 17.12 = 0. Real. 45. 2. . 37. 7. x2 + B .6. unequal. 21.1. 6.  1. 24. a. 9. 26.a. 43. 1. 10 mi. 3. AB = 204 ft. in. 1. 16. 1).l. 9.0*8. 8 or 12 mi. . 33. 3. %.5 x + 6 = 0. Page 191.]. 0. 3./hr. 2. 10 mi. . 40. 13. 2.6 = 0.5^. 0. 0. 27. 42. 4. 2. 56.3.$40 or $60. 0. Real. 4.4. 7.4. 1 . 50.23.12. 27./hr. $30 or $70. 4. 57. 0.  2. 23. VV11. 1. 1.10. a + 6. 1. rational. 1. Page 187. unequal. Real. 21. 3. '  f 5. 2 V3 in. 3. orf. 3. . 6. 4.70.48 3. 5. 16. 0. Imaginary. (5 10. a. 6. unequal. r* i. . 25. ANSWERS 22. 2. x* 51. 3.02.a 3 a. = 0. 64. 4. . t is. 16. Real. 36. 21. 2. 14. 2. 2.7. 10 in. U. unequal. 0. 48. 19. 41. 17.a. 1. 2. 9.  1. . unequal. 70 ft.4. unequal.2.2. 8.  5. Real.2. 26. 44. 20.23... Page 188.XX Page 186. unequal. rational. 24.* 2. 11. 25. 4. equal. . 52.2 x2 . v^^fcT"^. 1_^L ft 14. 3. 0. x*4x=0. 3. V7. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . V^l. 2.  13.2. 55.  24. 1 3.37. AB = 3. 2. rational. 3. 15. 38. . rational. 10. 1. 6.  1. 1. 1. 15. i. 3if. . V2. 1. 120 ft./hr. 1. 2. 4. 10. 32.  Page 194./hr.  i.2. 18.17. 12. 2. 4. 27. 2 ft. .5. 49. 31. 7. 12. ft.2. 6. 6V64. 7. 15 ft. 4 da. 30. 22. s 11. 10.. 2. 8. 2. . 0. 3. 2.3. 35. 25. . 3. 39. #<7=3. unequal. Page 192. 4. 1. 6. 3. 2. 2. 2. V ~ 16 4 2. i . 5 ft. Real. Real. a + 1. *'' 12. 7. 1. 11. 0. 6. unequal. 3.Oa. 5. 25. 3. V^~2. _ 19. 58. 7.  6.  1.
26. xxi 15. 31. Page 196. 49. 10. 5\/5. $7. 37. 30 a. 43. 19. 5. 2. J. 25. v'frc 18. 1. vV. J. 13.17. 47. 40. Page 200. 3. 8. p. 21.ANtiWEUS rational. 2. 5. 20. 8. y . 13. 10. 27. 2. \. x/25. r*. (m 26. 23. 1. 50. 42. i. 4. 33. Page 197. \a\ \/^. ifa. 4. 35. 1. 9. 32. 17. 1. 25. 33. 16. 14. 59. 10. 8.  48. 2. 28. v. 58. 1. \ . 20.  J j. 3. 2. 8. ? . 20. 5. n\/* Page202. 14. r.  a'2 .6. 29. 21. 3. aW\ 40. x$. 12. . \/3. 9. 8. 1V1.  f. 28. I. 7. 2. 2. 24. 38. ^Sf 3 38. l  5 12. vm. 55.. 2. 21. 30. 4. ) 2 >J i 10. wA 46. 18. 7. . m'. 3. 3. 8. . 2. 16. 6  AAf. 9. 7 . . 1. \. 49. v'frW. 39. 51. 3. 47. . 12. 9.  5.32. JV37. : . 22. 30. m. Vr. 53. Page 201. 4. 15. 48. &. \/r\ 11. 18.2. 10. 1. 4. ar 1 . 243. 5. 14. 19. 14. 16. 15. 5. 49. . 27. 3. . 24. 84. v/3. 2. Page 199. _! V3. J. 29. y. 23. 15. 11. 44. 2V a. fx'^z'l 23. V^ 34. \/. 57. 50. 1. 60. 0. 4. 3. 54. a 18 . 2. 6. x. 7. Jb \. 0. 52. 19.1 5 15. 31. 17. 33. 24. 12*2 61. 11. . 13. 18. 45. *V. 4. 1. 29.^7. 46." 17. 9. 20. 'J. 3. 49. ). 25. 32. 9. 1. a. z + 22. 16. 125. 41. 8. 1. J 3. . v^T4 m. 8. 13. 17. . 1. 2 L ( V. 22. 7V7. 36. 6. 3. 3. 4. 0. jV 10. 1 39. J. 56. 19. 3. 5. ^49.  f .//^. 3 4 11.
1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 3. 03r* 7. 3 x^y 33. 2\/7. x^ . .3 + 40 3 . 3V5. 28. 16. x y. a2 4. 6.Vxy 35.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . 11.XXii ANSWERS 1. 48. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). r c . y (a + ft) V2. 49. 40. V2 + 4 V22.r. 2 '"V5. k/2.2 18. 32. 13 35. Page 203. 32. 13. 11V3. v/^r 5  A/^~. 51.692. 3. 2. 9. l 5. abVab. ?tV?w. + .f. 31. 11. 22. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 40. 50. V. 8. 4aV^J 16. JIV6. x 25. Vr 8. 28. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 2. 1 2 or 1 ?. 12. 5 22. 2 4 z2 l 3. 25. x + 5 x3 + 0. V.x^y* + y%. 1) 3V3. 24.648. 10. V 5 47. 101 1. 3. 43. / V3. 13. 20. Va 2 "ft. 5.577. 4. 2>X2. Page 207. x 7  34. . 19. 17. 9 . 29.). V80. 34 r 6. 29. 2. 16. 4. 2.'\ 14.  a Vft 2 121 b. + + ft. 9. ^88". v^. 20. 2 a?>V2 a. 5. V63. ftV 46. 37. 30.. 26. 20&V6. 5 ( . y. 38. 26. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 31. 9. 195V3.2 VlO. 2v (T 2aVf.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. + 1. 34. 3 \ 39. 3 4\/2. + 2 V22. m* n*. 3V^T. x%  3 ^+ 1. (o* 2. 135V6. 17. 21. 7. 27. 18. 62V(J. + 2). 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 21. ^: V2c. 10. 2. 19. 1. 7. . + Vic + 25. 39. T. 23. (a 27.  2 3:r. 37. 8a6V5. 24. 13 a. . . 36.rV:r. a 4 +* + !. 3 a~ 3 (x (.707. 8V/) 15. 3^2. 30.632. x. ). . 45. 3 42. + 2 ar 1 ). 41. a 3. (x' (l 1+x). 3^ + 2). r 17  Page 204. 10. 15.yl : . 2 x* 15. . v'TM. 8. yV35. ^7 \AOx. 2. 33. a^ + 2^+1. Page 208. 6.
36. \V3. Vat. 35. . V5. 2 \/2.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 14. 23. 49. 7. 8v2T 12. .. r)\/(l Vrtr. 37. v/lO. 3. + VlO  v y (5. 3v^2. x/125. \/a6c. 17. 2. 32m27n. x/8l. Page 211. a2  b. v 25^4714 V2"a. 1V5. 18. 9 VlO + 4. + 20. 53. 14c 4 V5. 32. V3. 10V(). 33. x/8. 6. V/. 3. \XOfl6Vi5. 2 28. x/27. 5. 18. v"3. 10. 37. . 21. 13\/3. 40. v/l2. 28. 34. V3. 11. "^8000. 41. 14. 51. 35. VT5. 9. 50. 1. 6V2. 32. 46. 31. 38. 27. 3\/15  6. '. . 15. \/2. 27. / \/w/t 4 13. V8. : ^32. D 45. \^r^bVabc. v^4. b. 7. 16. 21. \^6. 4 a*. 38. v^lf. v^f. 30. "v/wi ??. 7\/(l 7VTO. 4\/5. V2. 52. w?i. 0. 14. aVa. 2. 26. 3\/wi. 4.30 2.r v/^ v^fr*. x/8L v/27. 5V2. 3. xx 1. Vtf +3+ 33. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 5 \/2. 6. v"5. ^27. 8. 6aV2\^. 24. % 29. 10. 40. 16. Vn. V5. a^\/a7>. ^9. 11. 43. 6. 19. 26. 20. v7^. 9. Page 213. 29. 22. 8. v^O. VJla. v^30. Page 214. x/4.T*. 7. 6x2?/. 2yV2?/. m ?i2Vm/t. 13. 13. \/128. 9. 17. 31. 4VO. \/abc*. . ^ 3 b 5 24. 2. 3 V2. . 16. 5. 42. . 4. \^6. 48. 5V2. Page 210. v/9. fl^Vac. x/w^ 8. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 4 >/3. 18. 5. 6 2\/0. 15. 3. 10. a\/5c. ^\/3. 25. 6. v^a. 24. 21 23. 0. 8V2.J Page 212. 39. v/i). 2. 44. Vdbc. ab 4. 12. 5v/2. 2 ate. 74\/Jl 120 46. 3\/2. 23. 19. Page 216. 1. \/8. vT). V3"m. 30 Vl4. 2. 3 V15  47.  3. 1. 6+2V5. \/04a. 22. W). 8V73\/IO. 2 1. x/3. 2\/7. rtv/5. V2. 34. 17. ^v 7 15. 12. 39. 2 V'3. 3. 25. 11. 3 Vl5 30. v/8. 8  \/15. 6. 36.
(a 1. (VllV2). 1. 4.464. 9. 4. 6. 10. 3(7+3V5). 6. 25. i^ ~ 1 v ^. V35. 10. 100. 12. 12. _^JflJ?. 16.1805. 29. {. n*. Vf6fVtf. 14.  13.5530. (VaT^v a). ^\/2. (3+ v/2). 8. 6 V. i^Lzi. 2. 4. 2. 26. (\/5V2)..389. 2V3. 21. (\/3f 1). 3. f. 4. 25. 5. 34. 1. 1. 1. 512.3535. 12. (V51). 2. * 3. 2x^2^. . 15.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 15 f 3 V2L 4. 7. 2. 3V23. 17. 1. 19. 9. Page 28. 8.V3). 20.  2. +3 V2). 32. 6. 18. 11. 2 . 4. 23. 24. \. 216. 8. 12. x 20. 3. Page 223. . 18. 0. J.7083. 16. 64.w 6. 10. 16. 24. 25. 11. 22. 27. (Vf + (4 V2). 5. V. 18. 5. .1547. 19. (V5f 5. 35. 5 f. 10.6 V3. 15. 8. 9. 14. 8. j 15. 9. 20. 4. 8 V3V2. Page 226. \/3). (V21). 24. . 7 f 5 4. 2!5_. + 6) 2 . 12. 8. 4. 4. 8. 6 (V2 + 1). . 7. Page220. 7 Page221. 28. 11.5. 2. 9. 4. 11. 25. 4. 1. A . 27. 4 14. 23.81. 9. 2V3. + 5V2. 25. 3. 30. 16. j.  f. 11. 22.2. 7.\/TO). 25. 4. xy 2. 7. 7. 5 + 2 vU 17. (2V2). 7. V3. 1. 21. 5. 224. 7. m f. 81. 17. V3. 5.XXIV 7. ' 22 i . 9. 23. 18. \/57t.9. 10. !^ 6 4. 1. (2f V"5). 1. 0. 15. 15. 25. 16. ^. nVTl. V^TTfc. 19. 9. (2Vll). 5. (2. 29. 31. 20.1. 36.64. 16. 3. 37. 9 mn. . Page217. p 6 13.2. 16. 13. K>/0 + \/2). 12. 13. ~ Vac _c 0. 20.732. 27.13. 13. 1.601. 4. 3. 10. 2ajV2*. 5. 1.4722. i(Vf Vft). 15. ^r. 4. fV2. Page 218. . V3 . 5.4142. V5. 125. .2828. 8. V6c. 10. .^ (\/22 4. 2. ^(VlO\/2). V3. 2. 9. 18. 17. 22. . 7.732. 24. ANSWERS 8. 4. (V6 + 2V2). 3. 23. 3. 14. Va.  . 23. Va. ^.0606. 33. 19. 11. 6. Page 225. 21 ' Vob 26. 4V3 + 6. 5.3.6. 21. 19. 16. Page 219.7071. 2V2. 5 V65.625 10. 30.3. 4. V2. 14. (V8 + V2. 17. . 81. J. 6. 26.
V3.r . 2 V^ . 5.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 0. 3. 25. 100. 0. 5. 6. 8. 1. 1. 0. 6. 5. 1. .4.4. 12 24 y . 4. ' J. 5. 4. 6. 4.4. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).  4. 4. 3. (a. 2 . a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).7. 1. 8. 19. qpl. (63)(6' t 18. 2 . 3.  .8a 18. (a . 9. 2. 8. 12. 3 . 73. 25. 2. 3. 3. 2. f . 4.  2. 10. 11. 5. 3. 3. 4.3. 5.  f . (r. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 6.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . Page 234. 4. Page 233. 1. . 3. 17. 56l). 14. y. 4 1.  1. 8. 30. 5.2. 3. 6. 2. 13. 3. 4. (pl)(p3)(p6). 20. 7. 5.5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).2)(m. 10. . 10.  3.5 xy + 25) 22. 2. 7. (B43). 3. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 2 &. 30 . 1. 10. 4. 3. 3. a(. (rt.2)(* . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3. 0. 2. 2. 19. 1. 3 . 7. (+!)( 2) 10. 2. 1 . . 1. 1. 11. 14. 12. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). a: :} .  3. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1. 0. 2. . 1. 2. 5. 2.2. 12. 13. 25. 1. 15.  J. 22.l)(a3)(a . . 6. .1. 3. 3 . 1. P. 9. 2 > 1. .2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).^a.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 18.ANSWERS Page 228. 1 . 3.  3. 2. f>. . 1. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3.0. //. 1 . 1. 7. 2 <? 4a2 .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). . (4 mn . 3. 1 6. 2 6. 13. 14. 1 . 1. 2.  1.3. b .22. 3. a . . 13. 4. 2. J. 5. 2 . 2. . 2. 10. 17. 1. (w . 0. 24. 2.10. 13.w 4 + 1). (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 7.3. (2 a. 2.  16). 2. 21. . 2 6. . 24. o. & + 6 2 ). 2. 4 20. 20. .. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 2. 6. a  . 0. 73. 1. 10. 20. .  5. 2. 26. 4.l)(m . 17. 21. 4. 4. 4. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 0.3. 4. 1. (a. ( 16. 6 2 2a + 2). 4.3 2. 7. 87 . 1. 8. 3. 2.3). 4. 3.3. 1 . . t/ 23. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. J Page 235. 15. 12. \/0. . 5. 5. 18. 2. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. J 24. 3. 4.nl^EI. 19. 11. 3 9. . 50. 11. 4 . ~ f7.3. 7. (8. 8 6 & 0. (a+&)( 2 14.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 4 4. 5. 25. 30 30. 2 . 1 (?> x/^3. (a 4.1. . 22. 16. (pl)(p2)(p2). . Page 236. 8. 23. 3 5. . 1 3. J. 11. 3. 7. =A^Z3. 12. 16. (&y2a#H4). (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). XXV 4.4). 4. . 11. 2. 9. (m 4 + l)(ro.l)(z 2 + z + 1). (a + 2) (a Page 229. 28. 15. 5. l.Y. 4 .12. 30.
5. 3. 3. 8 . J.3. 13. . Exercise 113. 24. 2. Exercise 114.e. c. 31. 5. 7 3.4. 5. 15. 3. 3 3. 15. .  2 . $46. } . 2. n. 3. . m + n. 12. 14. 2.6. ( 3.4.. f*. 15. oo.3. 26. 4. 40. x 4. . j. 12 ft. 5. . 1. 12. 4. 14.136. . 0. 4. oo . 14. 18.. . ft. 3. 1. 50. . 4. 3 . 5. 2. 55. 1. 2. in. 3.3. 2>/3. 9. 3. 3. 8. Page 243. 1 . 2V7.  1. 3. 1. 8ft. }. 10. 512. ' j. 8. 12 d. 4 6. 1. 28yd. 14. 4. . 13. . 2. (/>) "_. 12 1. 33. 3. 2 ft. 2. 3 cm. 31. . 2. 5 . 2. 5. ANSWERS 2. 512. 9. J. ri*. _ 10. . ft. 2. _ 5. 2. 1. 4. 17. 3V5. 5. 3. 3. 15. 9. 1. 2 . 4. 7. 19. . 23. 8. $. 4. 201. ft. 2. . 2. 16. 8. 41. 5050. . 2 Y> V . 8. 7.3. Indeterminate.020. 3 4. 1. 78. 1 2. Page 239.. 5. 17.30. 5. J. _ 13 (0 6. 5. . Page 247. 6.. 1. 8. . 48. 4. 17. 1. . 12. 1. 15. jj.. i i i . $VO.200. 1. in. 29. 3. 35^ 5. f>. 21. . 6. 3 . 1. 38. 0. . 5. 1. 20 7. . 32. 40 in. 5. 3. in. Page 245. 2. 23. 4. 2 10. 17. Indeterminate. 11. 36.. . 11. 13. 16. 9. 4. 10. 4. . 1.3. n . 37. 2. 3. m28. . 16. 3. = QO 6. 37. 18. 1. 5. 69. 30. 3. .xxvi Page 237. 4 . 35 a. 2. Page 248.4. 900. 1. 3. 3... 2 . 2 1.6. Page 240. 288.5. . 5. 1 . 1. i'ljVU. 4. 5. 2. 1. 1. 17. . 3. 25. 35 ft. 50.3.y. 5 cm.2. 45yd. in. . 125 125. 35. 21 30. 1. 30 13. 11. 4.3 . and _ 4. 4. 39. 1 . co . tn 2. 14. 1. .3. in. 12. 7.1. 4. 12. . 1 . . 3. J. m27. 1. 14. 1. 18. 2. 4 8. i j. 7. Page 244. Page 238. 8. i.4. 2. 1J. 1.13. 6. 2. (>. 4.5. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 15. 7. 30. 21. 17. . 2. 37. 1. 22. no co .18. 10. 9. +  n. (a) 5. $. 400. '>. 9. 20 in. 8.. 7. 15. . 0. V3~. 12ft. 11. 4. (&) 2. ^ }. 3. ^~2. 12. 2. 2 .  .0. 3. 5. 6. V7. 4. 5 4. 5.1. 2 16. f. 20. 3.0. 19. 8 3. 11. 4 34..  11. 24. 84. . oo . 14. 1. 2. 2 2. 7. 1. GO . 3. 4. (a) $3400. . 3. 6. 7f solution. 11. 10. 22. . 4. 1. 20. 3 2. Page 241. 2 26. 1.1. 1. 3 . 2n. \/6. 4. 1 . _ 7. 40 25 in. 1. \. 5.
910. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 4. 11. 8. 1. 43. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 6. Jj? 45.r 4. . 5. . 8J. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. ~ an . d.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 81. 5. . 327.13. 8. i 10. 7. 12. . &' 14. 5. . 50. 12. 8. 3. 05. . 18. 17. 7. 18. 343. 4. 192. 4. 495. 105. 1 7 4. a. ?/i 6 x llj . 5.8. 11. 4950 M 2 b y *. 15. 1. 220 . 4. G. 70. 2. 8 1. a4 4 14. 1. 1.5. 4. 7. 0.6 . 7. 2. REVIEW EXERCISE . '23. 45. 10 14. 20. 304.3 ays. 10. 15. x + Vy. 16.419.ANSWERS Page 250. 1.7 10. 4. 18. 3. 4. 70. 3. . 5. 19.504. 8 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12.470. 48. \ w 4 . 45. . 9. 27. 4. . ' 1. 8. 4. Page 259. 18. 35. c. ().  20 flW. f y 8 + z* . ^a 8. 1. 0. r 5 4. . x r 4. 22.  101.2 9. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 04. in. 1820. 20. . 5. 708. 23.x' 10 . 2.170. 005. Y11. 4. 3.<2 4. 04.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . I. 19. 16 11. 13. 7. 3. 45 Page 257. 2. r r j. 6. 120 aW. **+. 3. 10. 17.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 15. 55.^ ?>i 2412x4. 9. 5. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 5. sq. 32.920. 15. 53. 1 14. 8. 2.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 405. 3. 29. } $ 50.53. 8. 280 53. 3.r x>/ 7 3. ~v 9.r* 4 70 . 10.0. JSg. 28. 17. 0.4 &z x>&. . 125. 2i* 7f. 4.5y 4 . 14. J 2 //2 25. 2. 12. 6i.680. 12. and 1. 21. 0. 2. 16. 7. 6. 8 4x' 2 . 4. 16. 9. 6.v Page 253. 35. 1. 25. y ^ 5  ^\ ).r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 0. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). x4 . 27. 10. 4. 2. 3. 410. 7. 1000 aW. 12.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 5. 6. 3.384. 16. 44. 5. 13. 1. 3. 12. 5. 10. . 9.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .210. .  17. 6. 128. 16. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .2 45 a 8 /). 5 13. 2.4. 1. 1JH. Page 252. 75. 4. 4 0. 70. 21. 3. 2. 0. <. 100. 6. 1. 9. B . 8. 2. 16. 125. 13.870 m*n*. 8. xxvii 1. 26. 8. 20.5.120. 10. 16.12 x*y 16. 27. 2.6. 3. 22. . Page 258.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.5 x. 343.700. 12. 7. 6. 0. 6. 8. 4. 0. 4. w9  8. 15. . Page 254. 9. Ja.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 11.192.1. 0. 1. />*. 7 x4 17. 12. 27. vy. 4. A. 19. 2.
4 115. a~b 89. .a*ft 2 126.4 x 2 . ft2ft 4 4l. * 60.2.9 x . 13 + 2 s. 62. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. Page 263. 5 42. 3a~2c.x4 + y'2 z 4. 2 . 4. + z. 23. 14 x .a' 'ft 4. 4. 16t/. . 2 x2 4. 2 x2 108. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 5x + 2y~z. 76. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .4. 0.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .a. a4 x. . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. az 4. + a 4.  4 a3 85. . 127. ?> . . 120. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. x 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 2 30 . a* a 8 a aftc.9 b. x2 471x4. 61.  . 6a6c. .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 8x3 8x. 6 a2 97. _55_7c 48. 2 x'V2 90.3 aftc. 26. 6 c 47. x 8  a8 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.3 x 2 + 3 x .ft). 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 35. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. . t 81. 102. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 32.4 ac. 4 . 66.x24 73. ft /> 78. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  e +/. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x 8 + x 4 68. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.x 2 4.2. 105. x2 a2 1 .  12 a. 46. 94. 4ft y3. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 64. 4 69. 31.c. 133. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. +^ + ft W. ?/ . 82.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 3 c . 3~ n 4.1. I 57. . . 4. a 3m 4. 1 121.3 y. 3a'2 Page 261. . 3 a 44. . 4 2 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. x* . c3 4 58. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. a J .c 3 4. .a6 2 4. 50. 63.1w 77. 8 . 80. 93.. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 4 15 x 5 . 91.1 4 jry 4 x . 43. + 3 a?. m " + n + P3c . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 110. Page 260. x 3 4. 52. .  3 x2 .3 103. . 12 a/. ft n . 100.4 x y 87. 21.4.fee 2 4. x . 70.ac 44 aft. 124. y 4 z* 0. 49. . x } 4.{ 54.4. x2 2 . 5x 2 2x43. 4 fee 4. . 131. 4 ! .41.5 b + c . 37. 3 a .5 a 2x8 x 3 . x' 79. 16. 3 a 5 a 5. 107. 4 65.15 4 62 x  72. 7 + 3 xf 2.a'2 c. 10 a 12 b. 30.x 51. .1. 2 a. 2 . 22. 40. 109. 9x. ^ .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .3 a'ft. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. a* 4. . 88.c. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 9 2w 128. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 1 a"* 4 an .5. 72. 29. 2 . x 3 41. 38. 2 2/' . 1 x 45. 1 . 118.2 xy + 4 y2 106. df. 0. .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.6 b. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . . 86.18 x?/0. a 4 . 0. x8 x2 55. () 2 x 33. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .^a .7.3 a 2 '6 w 4. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 132.y*. 36. 96. .  + 3 x2 . 28.6 am b\ 129. as 20.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . a2 2 aft 2 2. 2 53. x' .3 b .x. 6 8 j27 40 ab.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.4 x?/2 3 4. 114. . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 3 36 b c . 104.2.4 2 4 c2 42 .a 2 x 2a . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. x4 f + 23 .2 x^. /> 4 83. 12 x.105. !! 71. a' 111. xyxzyz.3 . ?/ 3. 2 113. 27.4. x 2 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.1. f5+7.2 x 4.2 c . 122.5 3n 4. 39. 5 4 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. (a + ft)" 98. 99. x2 5r*x ft 5 .5x4.18 ?/ 5x4. 4 Page 264.rty x2 4 123. 243x4729. 25. 2 q.7 x   15. 125. 10 4. .1. 1 + 4 xy. &p 84. 130. 24.
y  y 165. ( jc // a 2 (a1). (3x2?/)(2. .2) (3 x . (233). 167. 205. 232. 191. 202. 6. 181.r . 15. 212. (c) 160 C. 150. 30.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 2. 189. 136. 10 ft. 149. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . . (7 c 2 ).1(5) 200.1). 187. 159. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 177. 217. 168. 2 2 (a. 210. 174. 206. 207. 1. (x + 6)(x6). 1. 10). 142. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 151.. 21. (y _ ft)(y 4. 2.2). 156. p.2 )(x+y) 228. (r^x + 1). 2. 1.3). 12) (j. 236. 214. +)(x2 x^+2.  1. (r7y)(ai. 2(x8)(x3). 175. 193.l)(x8 + x2 .y)(z . Iff 145.3. 190. (/ 246.I2y). 173... + 3). 8(ar}(/)27). (5 x . (ab + 8) ( 7). k. 2^. Or (a + 2)0el). 153.l)(a 2 +3). a(a. 186. (?/+l)(yl). (. 158. Page 266. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 247. 48 h. + 22). (xyX^+y" )1 243. 10). 12 yr. ?. 226. + 2) + 9a.3 y)(a . 231. 12 yr.ANSWEKti 135. + 11) (a 10). 8 204. 3. 240. 4. 208. 37 1. y. 2. 4. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).y). 163.6)(4 + 6). (2a + l)(a . (y_24)(y5). + 7)(rt4). 18.4xl).6) (2 x + 1). + y. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242.1).y2 ).6 . 3. 237. (8x + 3)(3x4). 2. 155. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 166. 140. 6). (x^ + x1) 234.y) (\r3y).l)(y + 1). (x + 2)(x .r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 199. ft. a. (6) 40. 241. . 183. r>x 2 (4x. 15. 3(x .y)(jc + 7 y). m. Page 265.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). (y  17)(y + (>). (a 2 + 2a6. 138. 239. (y7)(y + 188. (x 227. a + 2x2 ). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). yr. 164. 15  a. 218. 36ft. x(x + 6) 213. z(x10)(xl).2). 197. 1. p. 22.1). 224. 154. 172. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 157. 2 xy(3 x . (7x2//) 203. (a} 59. aft.r + 4). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 233. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 146. 171. 147 mi.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 222. 144.y + 3)(r (. 10 in. 209. . 201. 238. (y 7f))(y 196. 19. (3x  . 216. 1. 32 h. 161. 40 yr. 179. 235. (x . 211. 137. fc'2a+62c). 218. xxix 139. 24. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 10. C3 y _l)(. 1.9)(xf 2). 20. 148. 160. y 245. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 147. 182. 1. . 170. 20. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). G7. . 12.3) (2/3y). .3 y). 23 18. 220. 184.. 12 6 panes.2ac + 229. 169./_4). (x  42 yr. 180. 230.2. 244. 185. 143. a 2 (15. (2 198. 6. 2 (4 x . (JT y 225. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 75. 215. Page 267. 162. + 3) (x f f>) . ( + 2y)(2x3y). 176. 152. y3.m)(x + a). 30 yr. 1. 219. 5. 30 + xyr. 12. (a& 192. 7. 195. as 194. 50. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 178. HI.
(^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 295. x . 258. ?^ZLiZ 308.. 306. 0. 259. 307. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 7^T 2 . o. 298. ^/>J. 7 x 265. 260. 2 x  3.  7. 256. &). 3). 5. x ?/ z 1.^^^^^^^^. 3). 43 '^rJ'. 3  262. x12. 249. 2 4 300. ^ 299. 305.1. 3. a. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 10. 301. > 4. (7 255.(x  4) (x4 304. 263. 303.   .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 268.4). 254. ? 1) 302. x 283. o(x4l). + f. 261. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.4) 1) (3 x . 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 269. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 251. 264. 0. a~ ' b*). 250. 279. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . x 267. *>). 7. 2. *. 310.  3xyf x// 257. 4 5.2* i^^ !^. 266.^ ^^. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.
383. 382. a + b + 6). 6 ?/+:>. + 4 & 4 \ b. . 397. A^L5L. ?>*. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330.7. 392. 386. y 4 I 340. 387. 333.3. * 357. 4 rw. 324. ab. 376. 4 A.". 325. 3. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 2. 394. 0. 408.!. T\. 12.XXXI Page 272. . 2 ab  a Page 276. _*L'L+. 396. 6a. 364. 377. a +6.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 1. 0. 360. 334. 2 ).vin a /r " 337. 404. j 328. 326.. 7/i ^ _ .1. 1. 0. 393. 3. 20. l .. 399. f. 361. 366. + 335. 398. L . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 7. 0. 2. 1. 1. 339. 400. ^"" 4 s . 395. 336. 385. 389. 355. ?/ + 3 332. If. <L 409. 380. ?=. 2 327. 370.J . 2(q. 388. 9^. 379. 11. . 329. . 4. x 54 359. 343 00 351. 2 r36 384. 375. 401.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 405. 406. S. 1. c 402. Page 274.  1. l'j. a) A^_.(5 a . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 2 ?/ 363. m.  1 356. T+^. 4. . ^ 3 // . 390. " 4 378. (a + b + c\ . 407. 1 i 2 ^. 3. . a 2 . + x 362. 2(a i 403.)Cr4)__ . 365. 13 391. Page 277. ^_:r f> 331.
(a) 1. 468. I. . 8. 1. 486. 6. 507. 457. 436. 6. i. 465. 422. 435. . L2 a  6 .m  m+ M in. 460. 444. c 6fc 10. ' $260 at 0%. i a b 451.  2. 2. . 455.489. 445.7.vz in. 480. L (c) I.2. <L+ 6 (. 432. 10. 3 . 430.. 446.. 4. + () 433. 2. 5. A $ 3500. \ 1. 472. 5. 463. 24 days. 2. 50.}. (d  6) f. 440. 11.488.2. 461. 452. 501. .  2. 481. 10. * . 3a 4 5. 17. 493. 2. ft 5. 8. 2 438. m.. . 476. 9. \. 0. (&) true. $2000 at 0%. 5.4.te + . 40. 2. />c c(f be. . (&) 443. 18. . 4. 0.  2f 504.12. 411.1. 4. 429. 496. ^. fc. 447. . 500.  1. 466.  f>. 2$. c.  7. 1. 10. m 1 : wi. 42. 487. 3. 28 yr.  . . .55. 1. 12. 506. 2. ISjmi. 467. 8. 7.. 7.0. Page 281. 17. 503. 418. . 7. 484.  505.3. 477. ^r?i 434. a + + ft c. 462. 4. 419. 5J. 485. 6. 32. 483. 410. 32 yr. 3. 3. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 2. & 491.rz Page 279. 441.  453. 421. 0. 7 : . A 5 mi . 0. 428. 2 a 2. 456. 1$. 423. 492. 497.5. a 22 . b 449.0. 495. 442.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 14 miles. . 439.46.}.  7. 2. 63. 494. 7. 6. 508. not true.7. 458. Page 278. . a* 424. 5. 427. 20. ^V.  1. 2.7. fj.4. 51. : />a. Page 280.. 6. (a  c).7. 1. . 40 oz. 1 a /?$+&?.3. 420. 448. 459. 10. 498. .  10. 90. 425. 6. 53 yr. . 1. B $ 2500. 21. 10. 490. 20 yr. 413. 10. 5. '.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.7.  2. 482. 426. . 454. 6. 0. 0. 479. 10$. 2. 84. !L=4. *+. 502. Page 282. 22. 7. . 464. . 412. B 4 mi. 450. 33. 10. (c) not true. 8. 499. 478. ISJini. 5.. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. (d) true. Page283. z8 +?/ 3 431. 0.
2. 603. 525. 1. 2 . 552. .8. y 4. 6. 4.  1. 558. 3. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 3. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 4* da.5. 1.6. 4 0.03. + 26 + . 579. f ? a f ft __ + c C).31. 562. .3. 31. 4. + 12 x . f. 6435.78.5. . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 593.10. 3 . g(rc+ 6c).78. 1.8. o> .4. H.12.4.24 sec.9. 4. 556. 24. . 1. 3.1. 5. 3f 4f.% rr\* 585.5. . 2 1.33. 21*_. 531. (d) 537.10. 515. 1. 574.02. . 5.25.3. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.8.6. . xxxin 511.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 3. 577. 536.3. 3.. .38. tin. (a) 74 Ib. or 8.1. 2 imag. (c) 4. (6) . 1. _^ 2754x . . 5. .83. 573. 232. 510. . 1.25m. 526. . 559.62. 1. 4 mi. ^ ft 4. 509. 14. 1.4. M ft c 2 ft 3465. . 513. 2$. 1. .6 2. 5. 2.5+. . Roots imaginary. .r8 596.  + + c. _ 4. .51. 1. 2(4 602. lead. 3.3. 3.02. 555. 3. 571. 533. 2 10. 576.  3.14.   (h) 8.  . 7^ da. 561.83. 2.8. 2 2. (c) 3. 4. 512.7. 3. 2(6 597. 529.3. S82 c. 4. 598. 2.02.35.. 3. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . f36a28x8 592. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 578. . 530. 554. 591.15.24.1. 1. 518.54. 528. 1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 4. 6.3. a + ft  a  f c. . . J7] min.3. 564.  (a) (d) 1. 599. . 3. 2 . 4. . (ft) Ill Ib. 2. 565._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 3.4 x + .1.24.37. .8 x3^. + 6 tf f 3 .5 f.00.20. 1J. 1.6. 550. If 572. imag. f. tin. 7. a+ Page 286.75. 115 Ib.37. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. _ 3. 27 y* f\4 . 1.88. (6) 3. 8 mi.31.  ft*.52. (i) 3. (gr) 10 1.  4.04.  2ft da. a f ft + c.4. 2 1. . ft 584. 0000. 40 Ib. 1 . Page 287.1.5.75.04. per hour.7.4. (ft) 4. T . .0.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. . 1$. 1.21. 1 .0. 1.  2.15.62. 4.53.02. . 3. 1. 2. 567.. 24 da.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.05. 516. .6.  imag.1. 560. 532. 1. 8.0.30..5. Page 285. 527. <z ft 1.  557.4.. 4. Page 288. 2. (e) 570. 1. 1 580. 3 da. 569. 1. 1 600.  7.0. 563.16. lead.f 1. 582.55. x8 .54. (e) (c) 2. 2. 566.7. 2. 1. 3.3.  J(a f + 2c). > ^ .ANSWERS Page 284. 568. per hr. y% Z * 586. 575. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.73.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.  (a) 2. 553. 583. 514. 581.56 sec. 0.03. da. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.2. (/)  10 to 8.15. 551.xj/ f xV .
 684. ^. 11. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 679. 620. . be ac \. 1.3. (a3&45rj. If . 661. .. 672. 633.  1. 702.  ft. + 2 A (i f Page 291. o. 645. 2 a 688. 638. 662. 10. 11. 706. 210. 626. 3. If. 1$ 639. 898. 614. 653. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 649. / V^+lO^M"^. 3 a. 25. ab. If 658. . 612. 2. ab 689. ^ 1. K 5 2 V2. 666. \+ab 699. a ' 2 + . b. J^^. 670. a 1J. a 673.702. 2. b 664. . 646.  3. 647.3. 009. 0.001. 78. 703.  13. If f 667. 1 ~a . 634. 692. 2f. If b. .. 2092. 2. 644. 642.  . z  1. 1 704. V"^TJ. 624.>A 610. 3 x2 . 4.25. 12. 0.b. 648. /> 4. 25. 705. 5002. 1 V5 1. 4 V 0.049. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 4330 da.  4.  2f r 659. a 2. 700. 615. V2. 703. 701. 650. 5. 3. ' 674.b 686. 618. 0. i. I}'/. 625. 8 f 3. \. 50. 690. 607. 1. 1m*. 683. 635. 6. 631. fe + a. 971. 1010. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.3.04. 3. 636. 2 x 44 ^/. 643. Page 289. 698. 9*. <T! . 678< 682. b . 669. c. 7. . la6 2. 6 685. 629. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. . 640. 655. 0. . (*_ + a: 611. l/'3. 5. 641. 5. ^. 7003.0. fta a/> ^A. + ~^'2 + a 1. . 608. if 4/> 671. 14. a 4. V2.  4. 2. 657. 3 681.c ) 697.XX XIV 606. a. 2. If 665. y  619.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2 ab + a  &. 660. 696. 630.203. . 677 680. V^~3).f 3 V^3).002.  6.y. a + b. 2 / 2 4. 0. ^^ 695. 613. 1. 4 676. ft). 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 627.14 If 1. . 5. 623. 651.2f Page 290. 2. 1. 0. . 8 6 fo . 6. 656. 13. 708. 2. 2 a: 4.3f l 668. 632. . 9. 2. 652. 691.2f (5 4. 4. 622. 7. 5 3. 617. 1 2. 2 a  6*.43^4.001. n^l +^.303. . 2f. 8.a~ {Z 663. ix 2 . 621. 637. 654. 628. 2&). 4.3. ' fe 2 ). 616. V7. 4$.  a2  a (ab). 4. 2.
8. 714. + < 735. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 32>/2. j 742. 15 shares. i^. 1. 1. VT14V5. 3V72VO.r+y> 759. 1 747.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 730. 3V7.10. 24. 1 I . x\y. 717. J(v'lO2V 791.~ . 718. y  1. 731. 1 752. cr*lr*.4 .. 755. a db Va^T < 45da. 1. a 5 . 13ft. 17ft. 4 104 v/2. 788. 1 [ + '> J. ^ .ANSWMHti Page 292. 8. v'll. r. 719. 2\/53V2. VV> L4V34. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 725. 792.rJ w L 754.4 . 723. 796. a 2 6^. Page 293. 773. T%. 2 V2 . 732. 768. 25. 733. + 6 2 tf'c. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 777. 3. 712. iv/Jj. 710. 33^2. 34. / 787.9. 7  3V5. 5. 39. . ^7xy. 782 785.257. 750. .V/^ 741. 47. 753. VIO\/3. fyaw&cu. 24 4 . 749. 721. 728. 793.. x i f^' . 756. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 29\/3. 776. 736. 758. 769. . 5. 30\/10 764. 794.V2. 1^ _ 760. . 3^. Page 294.8. Hi a. 724. 734. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 342V3. 24V2. v/7 / . 3 720. 716.11.^ 743. 3 VlT 795. a 2  x2 . 726. 300. 2x3^ a. 789. 767. 711. 713. ^ ?>. a". 729. mn. 740.12 af V^ 4 744. 3V72V3. 738.9. "V313.2. 715. 751. 763. a:* . i 2.. . 59. 739.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 709.1 . rt3 2 ^i^. 722. 778..^.r. 746. 3V52V3. > 748. 00. 737. 790 2v 3v 2. 727.
0. 858. 813. 1. a2 ^E*!. 2. 894.3)(x + 4). 859. 14. 833.3.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 7. 876. ^. 4. 4. 2.  tt 815. 840. 834. m = 2. 1 . H. 10. 830. 800. 888. 2 m . x . V 3. a(ry + 864. 892. 7.  839. 799. m 875. $. 4. ^ V}. 2. 880. (3 862. 881. 825.1). 6 $. . 2 854. (x 4. J V. 2. 2 j 889. 868.. 801. b' 2 821.  1. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . (2 4.l)(x + 2). n =  29. 0. 897. 838. (2 x + 3 y} . 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. Va 803. 810. 1C. 898. 20). Va. (a 1) (x 4. 882.7). 890.  ' . 844. 900. 4. 7. are extraneous. 835. 11. 17.a 2 2 ). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).a 4 + 1). 3. a(ft)( 873. (x*y*ryz + z*). 812. Page 296.7). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 4 885. 2 2 . 6.. 814.4. . 8.1)(0 865. 832.y) 852. a* 4. (x + 0X024. 895. . 879. 2. f. 816.r4). 3. Hoots . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 827. (a m .7 4 1) 846. .om 441) (a 855. (3 b . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 6.1) .a 3 " 4. 861.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).4. 4. jV3 f 3.rae) (4 . 13. 2 (x 4*4. . ( 4 4. 3 . 3. . 3.1)(V 2 . (x 845. 2 . 3. 883. 3. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 857. 5. 4. 2/ 856. (x 2 . 0.0. 5). 804. o 828. 11. 1. +j!>. (x . 48. 820. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 848.5 b) 4 1).f. 851. 3.10 ab 4. 841. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 4. 2. 7. 4 . 817. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). .3. 2 .l)(x .XXXVI 797.l)(x + 3)(2x43). (x 2 f r . 5. (4 c 4.  + l(l^). 6. \/5. 867. 6+V7. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . . . 884. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 3. $. 8 09.2) (x 4 2). 1.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 811.r . 1. 6(a6)(o a + + &). o. 23. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 872.5) (x + * 853. ANSWERS 798. 5.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 4. (:r 11. (a 4 871. (x3). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). a 42)(x . (2 a . (x . 849. . Page 297. ( 869.7)(4 x. 4 818. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).4) 860. x. X4 1).. 826. 2 . 5. 837. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .2w . 2. 1 1. 2. ) (a' 874. 2  2. 899. ((' 1).25 ?>2). 4. (2x (r. 891. 808. 823. 824. + d)*.l)(x . 842. 25. 0. \/2. 3.7. 822. 847. 836. (. 819. 17. 893. 887. 5./>") (a'. 8. (xl)(^~3)(. 829. 1. db 7. 896. 843. 4.1. ^VG. 4.1) (a 8 .2 ax 4. 2 806. 2 *x 807. (1 . 886. Hoots are extraneous. 2. . 831. 863. . 2. 19.+ m f ") (a* ). **. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 3. .
3 4 .651. 0. f. 984. tt2 19. 4. 3). 60 949. 7 ft.111. 982. 941. 0. . 4. 933. J. ft. 987. 8. 911. 7. 931.. f ft 4 . 11. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. Page 300. 951. Z ^. . 11. 944. 908. 12. 12 mi. 922. i>... 6. 5 .2. 954. . 916.  26j. 56.. ft. 3. 906. 10. 7. 1. 920. 936. 937. 2.073. dL 4. v/(ai !)(&910. ft. V5 T 2 .615. 2 1. 8. 1 2.709. 11. . 15 946. . 4. 2.1. 40 16 in..I. Y. r ft ' < Page 299. Page 301. 7. 12. 10. 2. '3 3 in. J. 2 i ' a V. 5. 6 a 915. . 0. S07. 8. T 6. 20 19 ft. i 8. ft. a. w 3. 15 16 ft.. V5 fj.  1. ^y. ft. ?/i 6. i(6 in. 932. 958. 985. . . %* .. 8. 8128. 959. . 983. 945. 2 yd. ft. 961.  1 .2. 3 . 956. 904. 952. 8 . 8. 7.760 sq. 18. 963.744. 939. 981.. . 8. . 80. 333. 930. 919. 921. 6. 5. 6 . 12 in.1 = 9.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 2. ft. T 6.V~~3). 480 8 sq. $(l 4. 4 . i 3. . 1. 28. 938.. =F J. 3. 5. . 8. . 917. 73. 4 6 mi. 2 w 914. 950. 1). 4. 960.. 964. 948. 912. 2. 8. 6 da. . 943. 6. 6. 3. 902.01. 986. 947. w. 955. 5. . 496.. 978. 2 ft. . 12. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 935. 962. 979. 108. 6. 3. 329. 980. 9 in. . 4. 1 1.0.. yd. 2. 4. 1 + V953. Page 302. 111.1. a + . ft. 903. 4. 1 .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 0. 5./hr. 1 _2 . Page 303. Va926. 977. T3. 934. 3. 4 in. 4. 942. 115. 100 rows. . 2. 66 924. 3. 6. 3. 2. 4. 28. . 909.446. 2. 923. i1" 913. 248. 11.. 280. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 905. 5l4f. 7 or 30. 1. V^3).. J(_ ft. 14 . 940. 918. 6 1 1. 957.. 4. 6. 333. 927. 28. 925. 2.
5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1005. ^Trsq. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1016. 1000. 162. 1007. 1008. 2(2 v/2). 988. r = 2. 12.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1017. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 992. 1(5. Page 305.378 1015. (6) 8(1 . 1019. 1010. ^f (2f3V2). 192.128 I. ~ \.51. 1006.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. () 12(2+V3). a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .192rt?)r 120 *. + 448 . . 4. 1003. 8. 997.18. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 0. 1012. 991. 9 da. (J. 1018. 72. 6 70 . 995. 3003. 120 i^l^. 990.  5&7 1021.378 <W and 92. 1013. 32 13 (tx 4V3. X. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 994. 1 8 8 2. 996.92. (Z>) 999. 0. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . in. . 1009. 2 . 48... Page 304.870 a 6 1011.'^^ } ( . 12. (5. 4 and 1020. + v 2). . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1 1004. 24. 993.870 z8 . 1001. 120 a. 108. 1014.
10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. A examples are taken from geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. than by the . i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.25 lamo.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Ph.D. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. xiv+563 pages. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. physics. $1. comparatively few methods are heretofore. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. save Inequalities. and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. great many work. xi 4 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. given. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. HEW TOSS . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The more important subjects tions. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. so that the Logarithms. Half leather.
save Inequalities. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. Logarithms. The author grade. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. In Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph.25 i2mo. xiv+56a pages. comparatively few methods are given. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. $1. HEW YOKE . HatF leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. xi f 373 pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work.D. physics. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. so that the tions. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. $1. Half leather. 12010. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. and commercial life.
Cloth. SCHULTZE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . lines.D. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . wor.10 L. 9. Cloth. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. more than 1200 in number in 2. 6.r and. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. under the heading Remarks". KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. $1. iamo. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 4. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. State: . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Ph. SEVENOAK. i2mo. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. aoo pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xii + 233 pages. 10. Attention is invited to the following important features I. These are introduced from the beginning 3. $1. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. . and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Half leather. NEW YORK . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. izmo. 7 he .
enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . of these theoretical views. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . New York City. . $1. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. 12mo. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 370 pages. . and not from the information that it imparts. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view.
diagrams. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. An exhaustive system of marginal references. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. and a full index are provided. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Topics. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. " This volume etc. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. $1. photographs. Maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. i2mo.
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