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This book should be returned on or before the date
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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
1917. May. 8. 1915. 1911. January. Mass. Published Set up and electrotyped. .COPYRIGHT.' February. August. September. 1910. 1916.A. 1910 . September. . . U.S. J. IQJS January. 1910. Reprinted 1913. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. May. July. Norwood. Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co.
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. and conse . Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. etc. Elementary Algebra. specially 2. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected..PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. Such a large number of methods. chief : among These which are the following 1. however." this book. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. shortcuts that solve only examples real value.
all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. however. two negative numbers. In regard to some other features of the book. Moreover. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. etc. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. hence either book 4. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. especially problems and factoring. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . e. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .g. as quadratic equations and graphs. For the more ambitious student. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.
" Applications taken from geometry. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and commercial are numerous. viz. in " geometry . " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. such examples. By studying proportions during the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. is based principally upon the alge . an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. elementary way. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. physics. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt.
desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. however. William P. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. . edge of physics. April. 1910. NEW YORK.
....... Powers. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... ...... SUBTRACTION... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..
. Type III.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ..... All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. ..114 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . ...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type IV. Type Polynomials... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type V... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type II. /^ . * . Type VI.. . .
. CHAPTER XIV 169 ..... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ........
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
13. a polynomial of two terms. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 27. [6c] 3 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2.g. e. V36". 17.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 2. since the parts are a . + 1]. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. or 9 Vx. c = 1. !^f\/03 3 ft. V2a. A polynomial is an y. d 7. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. are trinomials. is 28. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. (cfd) 4. 26. 7 = 2. x 9. 6. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 2 . 10. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). v'Ta. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 12." EXERCISE If a 1. c f d). 9. aVc^. 3. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. some number is . V3 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 8. V^a6. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. \/c. 14. 6. + c). Val \fi?. 16. 0. 11. 4V3~6c. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 4(a 6(6 + &). A binomial is 62 . 15. find the numerical value of: Vff. as in arithmetic. b = 3. 5Vl6c.
3a + 56 a 2 . 12.4 6^9 ad. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 52 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2. Otherwise operations of addition. Ex. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. . find the numerical value of: 9. 10. 1.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . i.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.. . c = 2.5 ax 50 a6cd.9.e. 3 2 If 1.9 aWc + f a b . . d=Q. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a 2 6.INTRODUCTION 29. __ E. multiplication. x=^. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . b = 3. 2.390.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 3. 5=3. 6. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 4 . . 8. 14.19 = 6. a=4.30 = 270 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.810 + 150 = .99. 3 4 . d = 0. subtraction.2 + I126. 16. Ex. + 26+3 c. 5. 5c +d 2 . l 13. a2 11. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 4. c=l. 5. 6. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. EXERCISE 8*  . 2 ). * For additional examples see page 268. (a (a f b) 7.g. 4a6fVaV2^.
a = 2. 6 = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6. 30. physics. 25. 27. 6.c) (a . if : a = 2. a =3. 30.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 6. 29. 6=2. 23. 6 = 2. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). Read the expressions of Exs. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 38. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 6 = 5. 28. 33. and other sciences. 22. 37. 34. 26 of the exercise. a. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. . 6 = 1. a a=3. 35. a = 3. Express in algebraic symbols 31.6 . a = 3.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. a = 4. = 3. Six 2 . sible to state Ex. 6 = 5. 6 = 4. a = 4. geometry. 6 = 7. 24. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 26. a =4. : 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).
A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v : a. 15 therefore feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. . and c 13 and 15 = = = . 13. i. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 13 inches. Find the height of the tree. and 5 feet. if v . the area of the triangle equals feet. 2. and 15 feet. 12.16 1 = 84. if v = 30 miles per hour. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. count the resistance of the atmosphere.16 centimeters per second. 14. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.e. b. (c) 4. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. then a 13.INTRODUCTION E. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.g. An electric car in 40 seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (b) 5. d. 4.) Assuming g . b 14. c. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.seconds. A train in 4 hours.
~ 7n cubic feet. the 3. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the area etc. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. $ = 3. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. This number cannot be expressed exactly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14 square meters. (c) 5 miles. 2 inches. square units (square inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14 4. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. is H 2 units of length (inches.).). : 8000 miles. (c) 10 feet. (c) 8000 miles.14d (square units). then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 5. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. meters. . 32 F. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (The number 3. If the (b) 1 inch. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.
Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. . Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or positive and negative numbers. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. however. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION.
of: 20. 19. 5. + (9). = 5. is 0. 22. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 2326. (17) 15 + (14). Thus.  0. 10. 24. 4. d = 0. (_ In Exs. d = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 18. 6 6 = 3. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. + 12. 4 is 3 J. the one third their sum. '. subtract their absolute values and . c = 4.16 32. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. . 33. 21. c = = 5. is 2. of 2. 23. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 5. lf(2). if : a a = 2. 12. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.3.
. 6. 55. 35.7. 33. 7 yards. : and 1. 72.13. 38. = 22. 39. affected by the same exponents. 7 a. 10. 3. and $4500 gain. 34.. 30. ' Find the average of the following 34. 25. 29. or and . 31.. and 3 a. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.7. \\ Add 2 a. 11 (Centigrade). 4. 37. $3000 gain. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. c=14. and 3 yards. 2. $500 loss. 7 a. 42. : 34. . & 28. SUBTRACTION. . 10. 32.4. . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. and 4. 4 F. ^ ' 37. 12. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 36. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 27. . = 13. 0. 6. = 23. 74.5. ' 1? a 26. 41. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. $7000 gain. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.5. sets of numbers: 13.ADDITION. 5 and 12. 40. 2. are similar terms. 66.. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 43. }/ Add 2 a. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. . and 8 F.3. 1. c = 0. & = 15. 32. which are not similar. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. : 48. $1000 loss. and 3 a. 09. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 10. 6. and 3 F. 60. 13. 3 and 25. d= 3. .
and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 10. 2 . 5Vm + w. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 3a . : 2 a2. 13. 12 2 wp2 .sign. Vm f. 11. Algebraic sum. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. + 6 af . EXERCISE Add: 1. 12(af b) 12. The sum x 2 and f x2 . in algebra it may be considered b. 7 rap2. f 4 a2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b wider sense than in arithmetic.13 rap 25 rap 2. 2 a&. 2(af &). 5l 3(af6). b a f ( 6). 5 a2 . 9(af6). or a 6. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. .ii. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 12Vmfn. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 14 .18 35. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.
SUBTRACTION. ra 19. 1 27. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 30. l^S 25. and to add each column. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 37. 35. c 2 ^24. 2 7 1 26. 21. 33. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 2 2 31. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. is . xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. +m """ 20. without finding the value of each term 34. 36. 32.ADDITION. + y. 2/ : Add. 6 23. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. n x* 2 22. + / + 3 Va. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. a a8 ZL **. 17.
a 4. 5. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 4 2. e.15 abc . to show any error. 5 . 46 4z 7 c. 2 . .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 3. and J 2 s. the erroneous answer equal 7. of that letter. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .o c and 4.8 abc .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .g. s.g.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2 Thus.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. . 9 q 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.20 c 5 ab 4. therefore the answer is correct. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. x of x. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 2 025. to add 26 ab . ft any convenient and c. 3a 2? . 2 Sum. 2c.41 = 3. 6=2. 4 = 7.12 a& 4. .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. c = 1. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.15 6c.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .c= 2.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. f 110WS: 26 aft. 3 a f 4 1) 4.3 s.7 2 . 7 4. and 2 . V3. = . NOTE. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.
(b + c) 1. and 5 Vb 18. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 8. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 7ar + 3B 5.8 m 2m 12. 3 2 2 3 9 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and .9(a + &) .6. 4 8 3 4 4 .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .10 Vc. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. e a4 /.a 4 a 4 1. 19.3 mn 2 2 n8 . xy3xz + yz. . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 2 ?ft ?/z. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. .1 a 4 1 0.a.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 16e + 17/90. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. ^2 1 e. 2 a.12 6 ~5 a . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. + 50 + 62 .2n 2 2 3 rz . 11. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2 ?/. m 4 6. 18/+6y + d.7v/if. and 12a 4 15& 20c . a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.and 6.1. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4 Vc.12(a 4. 4 3 . d and / 3 ? 12. a 4 a . and 1 4 a . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a . 2 3(c f a).7m . . . 2 2 . .12. and and 13. .a. 56 w. SUBTRACTION. and v 15.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .4:xy xz 6yz. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. v/20. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2 2 and . .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 16.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.4 Va . a + 1> 8 2 2 .VS 4 2 Vc. 4 ajy 17. a 4 a .5a^6 f 6) . ?/ . a2 2 14. . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 4(a . .ADDITION. d. a) y ^/.Ga 43x45. a2 a. and 8 3 . . 4. in 8 3 m n 4. + a + 1.15 5.
1/ . 22. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . is 2.3 taken from 2 ? 5. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. f 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . c 3 3 3 2 3 . 12 xyz.17 + 4 ?nfy . and 2 24. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1.ra + m. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. how 1.9aj 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 45a6 2 . 13 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 1. . many negative units re main ? from 2. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.m 4m ?/?/ d.3^* 2n 2 . s . a 6 2 c. f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. 8 . 6 f c 2 23. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f number may be added 3. and 25. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. The sum and ? 1. 1. + n*. T8a.. + 1. +d a.11 xy + 12.5< 3 2 s 4^4.22 21. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. . and e + 6y .
may be stated in a : 5 take form e. .ADDITION. This gives by the same method. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. In addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. SUBTRACTION. a. From 5 subtract + 3. the other number is required. 41. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 5 is 2. To subtract. NOTE. from What 3. +b 3. 6 (3) = 8.g. 2. 1. and their algebraic sum is required. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. if x Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.3. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. ( 6) ( = . In subtraction. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. Ex. Or in symbols. ab = x. and the required number the difference. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 3. called the minvend. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.2. two numbers are given. From 5 subtract to . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. the given number the subtrahend. Therefore any example in subtraction different . ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 7.
3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .5 x + 8. Check.3 x* .
2. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 41. From 6(af. 46. 2. c f d. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. of a 4.7 a . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a*& + 6 a & . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 52. 57. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.ADDITION. 6 4 a. check the answer. 49.6)f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.4 a^ 4. 48. 45. 56. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 42. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 44. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 2y 2 .c.a 2 j. 54. 53.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 55. tract 4 x 3. 58.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 51.w>t. 50. From 2 a take a & j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 47. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 43. . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. + a the 2 a. SUBTRACTION. and 3 7/ . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .
a 2y + z. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 20. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. subtract # + 1. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. +a add the difference duce 13. of # 2 8. A is n years old. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 9. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 6 17. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.15. a + 6. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 16. + 2. a a + c. + 6 + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 2 m 21.26 4. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c.
c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 45. 46. II.6 b f (. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. one occurring within the other. changed.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.2 b .ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. . a+(bc) = a +b .c. the sign is understood. Ex.a^6)]  } . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.g. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. I.b c = a a & f f. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. & f c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.
2 2 2 a(.+ 6)f (a2 b). 14. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 2a (4a 26 +c ). + (2a 6 + c ).[271 47. Ex. In the following expression inclose the second and third. . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. By removing parentheses. 8. 6. 18.1422) J ] . 19. may be inserted according to 43.) 5 . 9. [36+ (a 2c]. a (a + 6). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). a (a + 26 c ). 2 2a. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). Signs of aggregation 1. 13. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 5.(a + 6). 3 3 f 7. 16. 21.7i h jp) (m ?*.y (60.: Ex. 3.)]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 4. ? 11. m f ft) a. : x + (2yz). (m a2 f. 271 + (814 .28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 6) 2. 15. a f (a a . 17.
' NOTE. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 7. and the subtrahend the second. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 8. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. m and n. II.ADDITION. difference of the cubes of n and m. )X 6. The sum^)f m and n. m x 2 4. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. of the cubes of m and n. 3. 7. a\l> > c + d. 3. y f 8 . The difference of a and 6. 6 diminished . 2mn + 2q3t. 5 a2 2. 12. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. terms 5.1. p + q + rs. The product The product m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 4. . 13. 10. The square of the difference of a and b. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.7fa. first. z + d. 5. 6.2 tf . 9. SUBTRACTION. 5^2 _ r .4 y* .
b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6. (Let a and b represent the numbers. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 16.30 14.) . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. 18.
2. two loads balance. If the two loads what What. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force is produced by the Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. let us consider the and JB. 3. A A A 1. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 4. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. therefore. 5. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. force is produced therefore.
( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 48. 5x(4). x 11.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. (. becomes meaningless if definition. To take a number 7 times. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. the multiplier is a negative number. 4 multi44444 12. however.4)(. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. ( (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. thus.4)(4) = + 12. (5)X4.32 8. . make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 9. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 multiplied by 3. or plied by 3. 4x(3)=12.9) x 11. Thus. NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 9 x ( 11). In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. Practical examples^ it however.
NOTE. find the numeri values of: 21.7. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.2 f+x 2 . 1. (. 8 4 . b = 3. 11. 6. 19. 6 2. . 2a 2 6c.(a&c) 2 2 . X(5).MULTIPLICATION 50. etc. 4 a2 . 3 aW. (2) 8 (. 17. 3. 3. 5. (7) X (12). If a cal = 4a6c. 29. 10. +5.(4J). 13. Law Thus. . 4.3. z s 11 aWcx.2. 26. _2^ 3. about fac (2)X If 6. is 6x7. 12. x.2f 18. 8. c = 25. tors is no misunderstanding possible. .3) (1) 7 2 . (c#) . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 2. 1. (2)x9. and y = 4. 2a6 c . 15. 23. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (4)'. _3. 3 a2?/2 . 24. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 20. 8 31. 22.a)( =+ a&. 32. 16. 27. of Signs: TJie positive. . 30. 9. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (4)X(15). _2. (10) 4 . Ua b 28.4. 14. x= 0. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 5x3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 7. . 6. 4 .
IB.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2. 200. 2 2 3 6 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . & = 3. 9 . 2 3 .(2.7. + 2/).m a 3  4 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 14.  2 2. 2. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 5(711. . 10. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 2 2 2 .257). . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 100. of the factors.. 6" 127 U . 34.503). a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. m*. 12 U U .  and 2 25 8 .35). Ex. 3. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.2). 50(112. 2(7. 16.2 2 23 + 5 .e. 7. a= 1. 78 . 5 . 3 2 . . fl*" integers..1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2(14. 6 aWc x . . By 3 definition. 53. &*) c d*. B. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.6 if 35. Ex. 36. a 2 2 . a8 a=2. 4. 6 = . i. a = 2. 4. 5 = 2.(12) . 5. 3 3 4 . . 6.3). or 2 . : 3a7abc. 5 3 5 3 2 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . a = 3.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.<?. =2 a *. 3. = 2. 6 = 1.(7). 1. 127  127 9 7 . 13. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. (a6) (a5) 9. This 52. 17. 11. 4.
3(124342). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 11(3. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 20. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). ) 2 33. . 21. If results ft. 35. 2 32. 34. 23. 17(10041042). 25.3 win ) . 19. 6(10420430). /). ax /) 2 4 1 (.7pqt. 12( + 1 4 i).f 2). multiply each by the monomial. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 2.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.7 w'W (8 n^W). _4aft. This principle. 2(5fl5f25). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 7p*q r*. called the distributive law.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. by first multiplying. 22. 2(645410). (.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . but we shall assume it for any number. 24.4a#. 3.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 5. . 27. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 35 4 7(6. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 7. 29.6.2 3 aft ).A). 23(10004100420). 31. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 6. . 4. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 28. . and then adding : 1. c(4a ftc ). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 26. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). . . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. (.
ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 21. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 2 2 16. 20. be multiplied to give 4o. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy.5 w*V f 7 wn). Find the factors of 6 ary . By what 25. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 9. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 22. 17. ~2mn(m +n p ). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 26. 29. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 2 27.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 12.60 a& 10 aft. f7a. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 11. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.5 x 7). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 30. . 19. 2 m(mhn \p). . 23. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).we b) (x law.^ c + 2 .asa product. 28. : expression must 24. 5).2 mn(9 mV . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .3 aftc). . 7 a 6 c(.6 a6). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 3 ).
this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. 59.3 a 2 + a8 .1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. a2 + a8 + 3 . Multiply 2 + a a. Since errors. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. To multiply two polynomials. . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Check.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.4. Multiply 2 a .3 b by a 5 b.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. the student should apply this test to every example. 2. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. however. 2a3b a66 2 a .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Ex.
(8r7*)(6r39. 3<7).2m)(l m). 30.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (a^26) . 13. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 7y). 3. * For additional examples see page 261.4) (mnp 4. 41.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 36). 24. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 8. QQ O7. 12)(a?^2l). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2  37. (6i7n)(llJn). 32. 35. I (mfn)(m4. . 36. 2) (3 A: 1). 12. 17. 40. 25. 29. 16. 7. 20. 36) I) 14.1 . OQ OO. 15. ^ 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 22. . 2 . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2 .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 4 2). (6p (2 f 21. 26. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (2w 19.2). 10. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 11. 4. 31. (4a 2 33. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 6. 1). (13 A. 9.4) (x + 1). 28. 2. l)(raf 2). (2 x* x 2 . 5. (6a~7) 2 . 18. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.
+ 2) (a f 3). (p12)(p + ll). 22. 2) (1000 + 3). 28. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.4). 11. 10.e. i.e. (100 +2) (100 + 3). : 23 2. . (a 102 x 103. i. 19. + 9)(m+9). + 5) (1000 + 4). + 60)(f2). 2 a? 29. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. .!!)( (a + 21). 26. (6 12) (6 f. (a 9) (a + 9). (a3)(a + 2). 20. X 102. 18. _3)(a _4). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (*. 75 ab f 54 ft . 21. (!)(* 5). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. . 14. 15. 2 6) (a 3 6). + 3) (a 7). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (J 23. 8. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . plus the product 62. 27. (ra. 12. 17. (a (a (a. 1005x1004.2 6) (a f 6). 3. 6. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 1) (10 + 2). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 25 a 2 . 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8).25)(y+4). 9.13).n)(wf w). in of the two unequal terms. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). ft 16. 7. 24. 13. 25. (10+ (1000 (2. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.
(a26) 2 . i. (a2) (p a . <J>7) J . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (x+3i/) 2 . 34. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. Ex. 4.e. . second. 9.15. 37. plus sum of two numbers the square II. . 3. 6. 32. and the second. plus the square of the second.66 s. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . of the second. III. 7. 33. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. w 2 ro . p 2 p. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. III.e. 2 (a (*5) 2 . i. : 24 (a 2. 7 a + 10. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 31. 63.e. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. a2 2 w + 2 w . . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 77ie square of the of the first. 8. 49 y*. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 6 a + 8. 2 5. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 35. n2 10ii+16.15. + 3) 2 .30. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I).40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.
40. + 5)(5+a). 2 . 11. 34. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 38. (100 + 2) (100 2). 22. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 991 2 2 . 35. 54. 44. n*6n+9. (20 f 1) . . n 2 f4n+4. ( 27. 32. 22 2 . 103 36. (2x3yy. . (^. 4 53.MULTIPLICATION 10. a2 9. 9 a2 . ). 42. 17. 15. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 28. m 2 16. 51. 55. 2 (4a36) 2 13. G> +5g)*. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 52. (6afy 2 5) (a. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . + 5). . 47. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* .998 39. 23. 46. 48. The product of 57. 2 . 16aW25. 49. + 3z) 2 2 . 2 2 . 104 2 37. 99x101. 7& ) 25. 24. 2 . (1000 2 . 14. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . I) 2 . 12. 31. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.30 ab + 25 6 64. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 J ). 41 16. 25 a 9. By actual multiplication. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 33. 998x1002.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 29. . 45. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. a 2 8a6+166 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 9a 496 2 56. 62 25n 2 . 41. 18. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 21.
7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ((5a? (10 12. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. plus the last terms. 6. The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 14. 13. 11. 65. 7. 2 10. (4s + y)(32y). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.& + c) = a + tf + c . 9. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a64)(5a&3). sum of the cross products. 8. 5. (5a4)(4al). 3. 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (2a3)(a + 2). : 25 2.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. or The student should note minus signs. (3m + 2)(ml). .
5. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Find the square root 11. and check the answers !. 4(aj2)h3(7).(>. Hence. 4(* + 2)5(3).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.24 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. a. (u4& + 3c'. 6~2(a + 7).39. 4.4) .5) = (7 .3)(z.i2&c) 2 . (a (. 8.r _ 2 . + 65) . after multiplying the factors of a term. 3. 3. 13.8 x + 15] . Check.1 5 = 10 . = 10 x .(= [ Xa + 2 . 7.(x . 2 2. of z : 10. 9. 8. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).24] . + 6)( . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.3) .29. 4y sf n) 2 . 7.X2 + 2 x . n).5). Simplify (x + 6) (a . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (xy+z)*. = . . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 6(a 2. 66. Ex. 12. 4.(m 2 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 5.3) (x . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.39. 2)6. If x = 1. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.4) . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 6. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). (  2 4) =  20 a.[a? .y? + 8 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
20. 51 15. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). v/17. (81 m + 1 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). .DIVISION 14. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .11 a + 9 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . a I.e. 19. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 18. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 16. .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).2) (3 a .l. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). . Division of the difference of two squares. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .
0001. 100ry. 12. 15. 4 b. . aW 12 a. 10. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16. f 13.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.000.49. 14. 16 . 9& 2 . : the following w a 4 !. 121a a 16 100 11. 1. . r/ 1.
. 81. second member is x + 4 x 9. 82. =11. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. . (a + ft) (a b) and b. . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the 80. the first member is 2 x + 4. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. x 20. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. 83.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. in the equation 2 x 0. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation.
87. the sums are equal. 2 = 6#f7. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.e. A numerical equation is one in which all . The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. Transposition of terms. NOTE. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. . 3. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. A 2 a. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. a. If equals be divided by equals. To solve an equation to find its roots. 5. the divisor equals zero. called axioms 1. If equals be subtracted from equals. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the quotients are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 85. 2.b. If equals be multiplied by equals. the products are equal. x I. E.2. 4. If equals be added to equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.54 84.g. one member to another by changing x + a=. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 90. the remainders are equal. 86. 89. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A term may be transposed from its sign. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.
x = 93.2.8. is correct. Dividing both members by 2. Uniting. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. and the known terms to the second. Check. To solve a simple equation. b Adding a to both + a. (4y)(6. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 2 x = 6. Dividing by Check.6 y f y\ . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. a= a 6fc. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member.9 y + y2 = 22 . Ex. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 3 y . Unite similar terms. 2(11 . f If y 20 .2 y= f . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. if 55 x members. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Hence the answer. Uniting similar terms. The second member. a? Adding 5 to each term. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. b c. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. The first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . x = (Axiom 3) 92. 91. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 4x 1 + 6. .y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. x = 3. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Transposing. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. if a x = b.
{(x (x The The member right member left . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. + 22. : 5# = 15+2a. a. = 3. 13a? 3a?. =2 = 3. If x = 18. = 2 ?/.69. 50. = 7. 4. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 11 ?/ a? 18.. . Transposing. 16. 247y = 68lly. Solve the following equations by transposing. 21. 22. x x 1 . and check the answers 9.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 7. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. a? a?. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). a..56 Ex. 2. + 16 = 16 + 17. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 3. 24.7. 3 7 a. 4a + 5 = 29. 7 (6 x 16). = 5a?+18. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. \x x 2^xfl. 15. v23. etc.7a: = 394a. aj * See page 264. 3. 19. J. 11. 32 = 264. + 7(3 + 1) =63. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. it NOTE. 7a? 5. 17 7 a. 6. Uniting. f Simplifying. 4y 10. . 13 y 99 = 7 y. 20. 14y = 59(24y + 21). x = 18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 14. a?. 3)= 9(3 7 a.17 + 4y = 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 9 9a? = 7 13. 8. 17 + 5a. 12.
: One part is of 70 is 25 .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.5) = (a. 42. e. 41. 34. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . find the other part. is the other part.14 = 0. 36. .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 33. .12) (2 + 5) . 7(7 x y 26.2) (M . . . 30. 6(6a. or 70 a?. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 5) (as (a. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.3) + 14.7) (7 x + 4) . 38. a? 28. + 7) (.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. + 4). (a.3) .1 0) = 0. 35. 31. 39.1) (u .32. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. .5(2 u .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 27. this question.4) + 4 w .1) (a (a? + 3) = . 2 2 * Jaj. 7) (a. (aj 37. . (6 u =5 44.g. . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.(2 + 6) (4 .5) + 199. . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 29. Evidently 45. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.3) + . 25. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 40.7. a? 43.
Ex. 11. 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. smaller one 16. 15. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. 13. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. is d. find the cost of one yard. 1. or 12 7. one yard will cost 100 dollars. EXERCISE 1. greater one is g. is a? 2 is c?. 7. 3. If 7 2. one part equals is 10. 6. Find the greater one. 6. a. Divide a into two parts. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 14. 17.58 Ex. 33 2. 9. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. so that one part Divide a into two parts. is b. and the smaller one parts. 10. x f y yards cost $ 100 . so that of c ? is p. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. so that one part The difference between is s. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one.
and c cents. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. How many cents had he left ? 28. and B is y years old. find the has ra dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. numbers is x. A dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 28. and B's age is y years. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. sum If A's age is x years. How many cents has he ? 27. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many years A older than is B? old. 24. ?/ 31. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. Find 21. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 22. 26. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. 34. b dimes. A feet wide. amount each will then have. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B has n dollars. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 20. 32. A man had a dollars. 33. is A A is # years old. 19. and spent 5 cents. 28.
and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. A was 20 years old. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. Find a 47. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find the number. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. find the fraction. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. Find a. 46. m is the denominator. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. c a b =  9. . of 4. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. A cistern is filled 43. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. 48. The first pipe x minutes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. a. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9.50. of m. Find x % % of 1000. % % % of 100 of x. he walk each hour ? 39. . 49. The two digits of a number are x and y.
of x increased by 10 equals x. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a and 10 equals 2 c. The double as 7. 80. 5. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. a exceeds b by c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of a increased much 8. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 3. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. The excess of a over b is c. etc. c. 6. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . 80. 4. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. double of a is 10. 9. 2. by one third of b equals 100.
5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 12. B's. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. is If A's age is 2 x. sum equals $20. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's age 4 a. >. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's ages will be 100. 11. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. a. m is x % of n. they have equal amounts. 17. x is 100 x% is of 700.000. a second sum. B's age 20. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 6 % of m. A gains $20 and B loses $40. . 14. express in algebraic symbols : 700. pays to C $100. In 10 years the sum of A's. 50 is x % of 15. amounts. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. of 30 dollars.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 3 1200 dollars. #is5%of450. symbols B. B.62 10. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. x 4 If A. as 17 is is above a. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. 18. 16. (c) If each man gains $500. and C have respectively 2 a. they have equal of A's.
be 30 . Uniting. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Transposing. In 15 years 10. the required . exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Find A's present age. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. but 30 =3 x years. Let x = the number. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. x = 20. x+16 = 3(35). be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Ex. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. In order to solve them. Ex. NOTE. 15. 1. Uniting. number. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Three times a certain no. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 3z40:r:40z. etc. denote the unknown 96. 4 x = 80. 6 years ago he was 10 . . verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Simplifying. A will Check. the . 2. Transposing. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. much as 40 exceeds the number. Dividing. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. number of yards. 23 =30. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. x= 15.
47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Hence 40 = 46f. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.2.64 Ex. 5. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Dividing. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. EXERCISE 1. Forty years hence his present age. A will be three times as old as toda3r . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 11. twice the number plus 7. 3. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number. . % of 120. How many miles per hour does it run ? . to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. by as much as 135 ft. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 120. 300 56. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 14. A number added number. Let x 3. exceeds the width of the bridge. 13. 4. Find 8. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Find the number.
make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. How many dol A has A to $40. statements are given directly. 65 A and B $200. One number exceeds the other one by II. written in algebraic symbols. Ex. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. The problem consists of two statements I. F 8. The other verbal statement. B How will loses $100. B will have lars has A now? 17. The sum of the two numbers is 14. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 97. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.000. and B has $00. . numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. x. During the following 90 years. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. the second one. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Vermont's population increased by 180. is the equation. five If A gives B $200. If A gains A have three times as much 16. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. 14. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. A and B have equal amounts of money. times as much as A. 1. two verbal statements must be given. Maine's population increased by 510. which gives the value of 8. and as 15.000. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres.
= 3. although in general the simpler one should be selected. = A's number of marbles. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. terms of the other. which leads ot Ex. Uniting. 8 = 11. Then. 8 the greater number. unknown quantity in Then. + a f f 8 = 14. A will lose. has three times as many marbles as B. If we select the first one.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. A gives B 25 marbles. consider that by the exchange Hence. B will have twice as many as A. < Transposing. to Use the simpler statement. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. To express statement II in algebraic symbols.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. . Dividing. The two statements I. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Statement x in = the larger number. B will have twice as viz. = B's number of marbles. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. x 3x 4 and B will gain. / . 25 marbles to B. the smaller number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 2x a? x j = 6. A has three times as many marbles as B. x x =14 8. and Let x = the Then x +. the greater number. I. Let x 3x express one many as A. If A gives are : A If II. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. = 14. x = 8. 2.
$3. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. . Simplifying. The number of coins II. x = the number of half dollars.. 60. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). dollars and dimes is $3. 11 x = 5. 6 times the smaller. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. w'3.10. Find the numbers. x from I. but 40 = 2 x 20.10. Check. Simplifying. etc.5 x . have a value of $3. 45 . 3. cents. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.10. the number of half dollars. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Find the numbers. and the Find the numbers.240. consisting of half dollars and dimes.. (Statement II) Qx . Dividing. 15 + 25 = 40. 1. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. * ' . is 70. Let 11 = the number of dimes.75. Check. the number of dimes. Eleven coins. .550 f 310.. 2. the price.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. greater is . 50 x Transposing. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. by 44.25 = 20. The sum of two numbers is 42. of dollars to the number of cents. x = 15. Dividing. Uniting. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). B's number of marbles. 40 x . The value of the half : is 11. Uniting. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. A's number of marbles. Two numbers the smaller. 50. x = 6. * 98. 3 x = 45. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. then.
of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22.68 4. 9. How many inches are in each part ? 15. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. Twice 14. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. one of which increased by 9. A's age is four times B's.000 feet. 7. as the larger one. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. the number. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 5. Everest by 11. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. and twice the altitude of Mt. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 11. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 6. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. On December 21. United States. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. How many 14 years older than B. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.. tnree times the smaller by 65. Find their ages. How many hours does the day last ? .
69 If a verbal statements must be given. If A and B each gave $5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. original amount. bers is denoted by x. times as much as A. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. then three times the money by I. has. and C together have $80. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. I. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. Let x II. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 19. they would have 3. and 68. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 1. number of dollars of dollars B C had. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. . = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and B has three as A. The third verbal statement produces the equation. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. B. number of dollars A had. If 4x = 24. Ex. has. x = 8. B has three times as much as A. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. III.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. number had. 8(8 + 19) to C. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. are : C's The three statements A. = 48. B. II. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and C together have $80.
number of horses. 4 x f 8 = 28. number of cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The I. 28 2 (9 5). and the sum of the . 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Let then. cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. and each sheep $ 15. sheep. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. + 35 x 4. 1 1 Check. each horse costing $ 90. number of sheep. number of cows. 9 cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. three statements are : IT.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 185 a = 925. first. and. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. and Ex.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 90 may be written. x f 4 = 9. 9 5 = 4 . Dividing. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. the third five times the first. III. + 8 90 x and. 2. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. x j = the number of horses. x = 5. each cow $ 35. The total cost equals $1185. according to III. Uniting. according to II. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x Transposing. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.
000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. the third 2. The gold. first. and children together was 37.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. twice as old as B. what are the three angles ? 10. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. "Find three is 4. increased by three times the second side. what is the population of each city ? 8. the second one is one inch longer than the first. men. 7. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.  4. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. what is the length of each? has 3. v . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. how many children were present ? x 11. twice the 6. A 12. and 2 more men than women.000. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. If twice The sum the third side.000. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. 13.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. equals 49 inches. New York delphia. the copper. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 9.
After how many hours will they meet and how E. speed. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. 14. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.e. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Dividing. or time. such as length. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and distance. . has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Hence Simplifying.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Let x = number of hours A walks. we obtain 3 a. together.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Find the value of each. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. and quantities area. of 3 or 4 different kinds. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000. 3 and 4. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000 more than that the copper. width. = 5. number of hours. number of miles A x x walks. A and B apart. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. i. = 35. The copper had twice the value of the gold. but stops 2 hours on the way. how many 100.000. 8 x = 15. 7 Uniting.g. of arid the value of the iron was $300. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.
and the width decreased by 10 yards. 2   and transpose. The an area 40 x 20 =800.06 = $ 40. 70x10 Ex. were increased by 30 yards. .x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. But 700 certain = 800 2. 10 x = 200." gives (2. + 8. $ 800 = required sum. Transposing and uniting. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.01 = = . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Check. $ 1000 x . 2 a = 40.05 x x . z = 20. x . Multiplying.M(x . the second 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. x . the area would be 100 square yards less. or 700. original field has Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x + 200).04 = $ 40.053. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. Find the dimensions of the field. $ 800 = 800. l. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. .04 8. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.
Six persons bought an automobile. as a 4. A sets out later two hours B . What are the two sums 5. but as two of them were unable to pay their share.55. A of each. Find the share of each. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but four men failed to pay their shares. together bring $ 78 interest. sions of the field. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 1. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. 2. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Ten yards $ 42. twice as large. and a second sum. After how many hours will B overtake A. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A sum ? invested at 4 %. 3. of coffee for $ 1. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. were increased by 3 yards. invested at 5 %. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. mobile. the area would remain the same.
A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and from the same point.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A and B set out direction. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. After how many hours.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.
f db 6 to b.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. it contains no indicated root of this letter . expression is rational with respect to a letter. irrational. 76 . it is composite. An after simplifying. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. + 62 is integral with respect to a. 5. consider 105. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. as. vV . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. stage of the work. this letter. which multiplied together are considered factors. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it does contain some indicated root of . but fractional with respect 103. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a. a. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a2 to 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . we shall not. at this 6 2 . 6. 104.
in the form 4) +3.3 sy + 4 y8). 110. 109. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 2. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).62 can be &). 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. y. Ex. or that a = 6) (a = a . x. 2. It (a.3 6a + 1). 8) (s1). ?/. Divide 6 a% .) Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 107. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. it follows that a 2 . 77 Factoring is into its factors. TYPE I. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 1. factors of 12 &V is are 3. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .g.FACTORING 106.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 55. for this result is a sum. E.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . x.62 + &)(a 2 . Factor G ofy 2 . . 01.
.30 aty. 34 a^c 8 . Ilro8 9.4. 14a 4 5. 8. 2 6.2.4.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 2 Or. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 19. 2 + q. 3 2 . obviously. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 11. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.g. 15.3. 2 2 . 17. 7a & 10. 3. + llm llm. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . : 6 abx .51 x4 2 6 xy s . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 4.51 aW + 68 21. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 4 8 . a6c. 3x*6x*. . 32 a *?/ .12 cdx. 4 tfy f. 20. 15 2 7. 18. 3 3 5 6.5 + 13 8. q*q*q 2 a.6.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 2 23.5 + 2.3. in general. (as 3) and (ccf5). a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 7i 13. 12. ) 22  2. 5f 2 . 13. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. TYPE IT. 2. 14. e.8 c a 15 ofyV .45 afy . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 16. a a 'Ja .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.
the two numbers have both the same sign as p.11 a + 30.FACTORING Ex.4 x . 2.11. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.6 = 20. 5. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. a 2 . + 30 = 20. 4. . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 112. of this type.G) = . 77 as the product of 1 77.5) (a 6).5) (a . is The two numbers whose product and 6. or 77 l. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. If q is positive.4 .a). Ex. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.30 = (a . the two numbers have opposite signs. Therefore Check. determine whether In solving any factoring example. and (a .11) (a + 7). but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor a2 . Factor x? . 2 6. . as p. . 79 Factor a2 4 x . Factor + 10 ax .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.77 = (a. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). tfa2  3. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. m 5m + 6. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Ex.1 1 a tf a 4. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. however. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.11 a 2 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. If q is negative. can be factored. 3. We may consider 1. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. or 7 11. 11 7..
2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 18. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 21 a 2 2 .180 a. ra + 25ra + 100.70 x y . 2 ?/ 22. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 20. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 12. 2 . 11. 2 ?/ 28. a 2 +11 a a? 16. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. . 4 2 . 29. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . x2 23. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 100 xr . 17. 2 ?/ 5?/14. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 30. 2 2 a' 34. 13. 30. 16. 24. 2 . . 14. 4 3 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . ITT. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 27. 15. 16. 2 2 . TYPE 113. a 7 a 30. 21. 2 . . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. and 5 x. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 8. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 35. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 4?/21. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 26. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 36.17 + 30. + 44. 31.6.80 7. + 5<y 24. ay 11 ay +24. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 25. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.48 + + 446 200. + 2xS.500 x + 600. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 32. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 19. or . 33. 9.
17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. Ex.5 . 3. . . 9 x 6. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. but the opposite sign. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. and r is negative. 2 x 27. X x 18. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. sible 13 x negative. If p is poxiliw. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 18 x 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. or G 114. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. a.83 x f 54. and that they must be negative. 3 x and x. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.1).e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. viz. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. the If p and r are positive. 54 x 1. 11 x 2x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. Factor 3 x 2 . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 6 x 9. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.5) (2 x . 2. 27 x 2.
77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 5m 26m f 5. 11. 30. 144 x . 8. 100^200^ + 100^. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. .260 xy . f go. 14. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2 28. 10a?2 2 33.179. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 13. 90 a 8 2 .19 a f 6.163 x 2 . 2 fc . 2. 14 a fa 4. 18.7. 9a. 4. Sar' + SaG. 2 . 9. 17. 12^17^16. 2 26. 6.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 7. 20.27). 2m t7w + 3. . 6n + 5?i4.300 ab 2 f4 250 . x54 a. 12y 2/6. 4a2 9tt + 2. the expressions should be it. 2 31. 2x* + 9x5. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 10 a . 5. 3. 34. 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 9 y + 32^16. 32. : 41 2. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.30 y 6 4 . + 4. and the monomial factors should be removed. . 3a + 13a. X 27 .83 x = (3 .83 x . 22. 10a2 G a2 2 . since all others (II. 25.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. + 2/3. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 2 2 23.y + 172/9. 21. 19. 10. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 16.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 2 2 .2) (x . 12. 15. 24. 29. 3x*Sx + 4. 35.2 a 90 x*y .
FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 10. 14.20 xy f 4 y\ .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. 2 2 . . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 3. 4. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 6.10 x f 16. form are special cases of the preceding type. 9. 13. however. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. of its terms are perfect squares. and a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 12. 9 10a625. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2. square.e. . 11. 5. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 2 9 10gf25. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. and factor whenever possible : 1. x* .26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 . i. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 25 7. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 8. To factor a trinomial which maining term. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. it is more convenient for that type. 116. it is a perfect square.
22.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 5. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 4a2 l.20 ab + 10 b a . 19. 17. 3. 6 2 . 2 . .84 15. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 29. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 2. 2. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 9. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 7. 25. 16&*. + GO + 25.e. 16. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .64 6 = 16(a . . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. u2 6& + 2 ( ). . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 26. 1. ). prime. ). aV . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).60 a# + 4. ^//c to the Ex. According to 65. +( )f816 30. 3. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. ). 18. * 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 6. 2 . a2 24. 2 . a. V. a.6 m* + 9 m. 149 a 81 8.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . TYPE 117. 2 20. 10 a 2 4 2 . 9a2 . product i. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.3 * ). 4 2 23.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 36 2 4. 27.2 ofy + ofy m .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 225 ofy . Ex. 48 a +( ).
(m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 9. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . a:) 12. One or both terms are squares 1.(c 4. 14. (m7?) y. 13.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2. 2 . 6. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.c . 2. 36> . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . a2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 . Factor a 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Ex.(I) .FACTORING 85 118. T. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . Ex. of polynomials. 4. 8.d) 2 . 11. 16p 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 5. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.
14. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 119. = (3 x + y . x8 .a a . ma ?*a + m& nb.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. a5 + ab 6 .r. a 26 2 2 3 . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. After grouping tain a the terms.VI. . 12. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 1. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. ive find that the new terms con common factor. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. By grouping. 2. 5. 7.and trinomials. Ex. 4:cx . 3. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.1.ab + bx.7 c + 2c . A. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 8. 5) . Ex. a? 11. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 6. + x + 2x + 2. . 2. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.y + 2 2). 4 B.2 ) (3 x . which may be factored according to types I. 10.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 9.
Arranging the terms. II. = (a + 6)(a6). : 46 x* 2. 4. .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 2 7. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.4 f . 2. : m 2 2 16. 5. 2. 36 9 m . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6 6. 6. 8ra 2 + 16. 2a3/ 7. 8. l~a 2a56 2 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. + 2xy + y*q*. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 4 a2 . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. IV.FACTORING Ex. w m 2.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 8. 4.l.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. +c+ 2 2 2/ .9 a2 4 v* 2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . $ a8 .12 aaj 4 6y. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 6a4 12a2 + 6. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 3. 3.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .
4 8 tt 2 z . 48. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 13 c . 27. 50^ + 45. + 14.310 x . (^ 34. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a + a + a + l. a. 11.24. 28. 3 a2 23. 5a' 20. 18. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 22. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 14.156. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 30. 3 2 . 42 x .40. . 3 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 4 a. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a6 36. (a. 2 a 128. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 12. 40. 29. 42 s 2 . + 6 aft + 3 .88 10.13 c . 5 a. a3 156. or 3 7#2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 24. 25 a + 25 aft . 13. 2 17. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 19. 35. 32. 80 a 2 ft 38. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 3 41. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 2 ft .
the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Thus the H. C. F. F. . F. of two or more monomials whose factors .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120.  23 3 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 15 aW. Two common factor except unity The H. 89 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 13 aty 39 afyV. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 25 W. C. 3 . 2 2 . 12 tfifz. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 5. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 121. 5 2 3 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. 24 s . The student should note H. C. C. aW. 122. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. C. F. F. F. 2. F. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . EXERCISE Find the H. The highest is common factor (IT. The H. 3. 6. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. 8 . of the algebraic expressions. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. II 2 . C. of 6 sfyz.) of two or more . C. 54  32 . of aW. of : 48 4. 5 7 34 2s . The H. are prime can be found by inspection. F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.
. 16. 7.^9. a2 ar* 4. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F. 95 2/V.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. a2 . 2a f5af 2. . C. . 5. 9 aj*(a? . Ex. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 3^ 2 4 . 52 oryz4.5 + 6. 12 . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . of polynomials. 6 a2 y? . 8. 2. 4 ?io. 8(?/ifl) 14. F. a. 2 . 1. 3). x* x2 Hence the H. . 13. ^2 2 .y + y42. 10. 8 a 10 . 14. 2 . 0^80:416. 25 m27i. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 8. y + 3y64. 3 . of: . a3 16 a. 65 zfyV. 2 . a 3a4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. and apply the method of the preceding article. .?/ . 38 #y. of + 4 if. .6. 49 C. 225 4a 9 .12 as 66 . 4(m+l) 3 . 15 3ao. 12. 11.# 4 afy f 4 . 3.8 a + 16. 8 6. Find the H.6 a&. ^a + 5^ + 6. F. 57 a>V. 12. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 13. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. To find the H. 24 a 2 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.2 ?/) (x . 11. 6 mx .6 . ^f a. C.y) 123.y) .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . a3 9a. (a7 ?/) . 6(m+l) (m+2). a2 + 7af!2. 9. 15. = x 2 y. 10. 9. 1. F. 6 3 a. ^707 + 12.5 y). aWd.90 7.2 y) (a. 12 w*nw 8.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 .5 x3?/ 2 6. 2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a2 + 2a3. C. 16 a . 5 a6 5^ 2 a.
of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. M. C. A common remainder. C. 300 z 2 y. M. Ex. C. etc. M. of the general.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. a^c8 3 . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions.C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. which also signs.6)2.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. The L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 2. C. . M. 60 x^y' 2 .C. ory is the L. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of several expressions which are not completely factored. M. Ex. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.M. Hence the L. NOTE. Find the L. L.6 3 ).M. 1. M. C. . 126. 128. 2 The The L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C. C. To find the L. but opposite . C. The lowest common multiple (L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . of tfy and xy*. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. &) 2 M. two lowest common multiples. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Common 125. C. thus. each set of expressions has In example ft). 127. Find the L. of 3 aW. M of the algebraic expressions.
5. 40 abJ. 24 x. 24. . 4 a f 2. 6. 8 d 5 . 2(m 2 . 2 a . x 2 5 a. a?b. 5 a? 5 a? y. a2 ~ab 1. G a. 8. a. a. a { a~b. 2 . + 2 7i) . 4 a . 8 afy. 15. 14. 2 a . 3 f2. a 1. 6b 2 . 2 7ic+10. 17. 3 ab. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a f 2 19. or f 3 a 15 #. 22. ic 23. 7. 20 9 a. a2 4. ic 2 ?/. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 30 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. y*. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 13. 4 a 5 6cd. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . of: 4.1. Find the L. 2 10. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2. 2 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. x2 + 4 a f 4. x2 2 + 5 a + 6.f 6. a. f b. . M. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. xy\ . 3 6 xif. b 2 . 3. a^1. 2 . a f 3. x* ~5a. 20. 9. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 11.1. 3 . 1. 18. by. + 6. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 x \2 y. 16. (For additional examples see page 268. a 2 a3 . T a 3 a 2 . + 2. 3(a + b). #. 6 a. a 2 fa6. afy. a& 4 +& 2 . 3. 3 Z> . 21. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. afc'cd 2 . 2 . ) . a !. 6 y.
If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. but we In arithmetic. rni Thus 132. F. Ex. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . 130. C. however. and denominators are considered.ry ^ by their H. a b = ma mb . an indicated quotient. as 8. etc. successively all 2 j/' . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a?. 131. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . Remove tor. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. A f fraction is b. Thus. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic.
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. cancel factors only.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex. Ex. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. 3. 2. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
9x + "a" 10. . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ny 4 18. g J 21. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. """. ^" a. 23.*. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. LJZJ^JL.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 29. 19.' 32. ' ^ . . 16. 5^10 y 30. ^' rt ^  31.. ^+3*.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 .10 a + 3 2 14.7 . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. nx 17.
D.r 2 2 . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. C. 1). Ex. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. and 135.  by 4 6' . ^ to their lowest com The L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 1. M. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. and the terms of ***.3) (!)' = . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.C.M. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. C. mon T denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. . 2> . Reduce ^. . and (a 8). .  of //* 2 . TheL.C. Divide the L. take the L.M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. we have the quotients (x 1). by the denominator of each fraction. + 3). we have M^. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.~16 (a + 3) (x. multiplying the terms of 22 . of the denominators for the common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .1^22 ' . =(z (x + 3)(z. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.96 134.
2aj ~ .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. .. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). If the given fractions have different denominators.. .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 3. j y 3. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . i.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 18. a? 1 5 > ^* . 2. 137.^1. 8 i i.oj o* or / . . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. JL. 7i 2 ab* ". 2 ay IB.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74). 5?. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. common denominator 6. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 22 a2 5a * . o o a. .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .
2.ft) (a ft ft)~. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .g.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . The L.3 ft 2). (a ft). L.(a 2 6). C.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.. as 4 aft f.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 4(2 a 3 ft). 2 ^. the student should remember that parentheses are . D. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.2 = a(a .3 ft). and adding. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. T? Ex. in the beginning.2 ' 2 _. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . D.ft)(a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).aft) Ca2 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.. e.7 . (a .
5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 46 2a 4a 12. 5a76 4a 106 9. 18 v 19. 15. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 23. 6 c 3a 7. a 36 ++. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 1 f w 16. + . 20. j>0 i> 21. 24. 2L + 2a 1 17. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1 f q * 1 m m . 2. A+2_3. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. a+6 a 6 2 14. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.
_ + a? ?/ + y. 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ! n. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9. af 1f /j. 42. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 41.9 79 6 2 i.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 1 34. a 4 31. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 30. a. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ic 1 + 1. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a ?^ 40.
6 + 4x 4 x2 . . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .FRACTIONS 139. 1. T.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .  . . 101 mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.7 5a v Ex. . Reduce .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .
and the product of the denominators for the denominator. !. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.) Ex. 2. we may extend any e. 2 a Ex. or.g. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . (In order to cancel common factors. F J Simplify . fractions to integral numbers.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. multiply the 142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. integer. Since  = a.
5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.. 2 f 5 a. 50 . 14. .. aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4. 5# 56 / c& 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.
To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 144. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . : a 41 ab * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. Divide Xn?/ . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.
ga2 4 8 5 a .FRACTIONS 105 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .5 ??i 80 50 . or both.' ' * ' ^5^+4 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Ex. l.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. a a2 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.6 s + 064. are fractional. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.afr 4.^c 2 2 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.10 ?/ _. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
7i+~ 7. the answer is directly obtained. . C. Ex. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. M. c +6. 6. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. JL.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. i. . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 2. n a 8.y 32 . 9. Simplify x }. a m "" . y X 4* 2 y 3.a ^c c _^ a . . of their denominators. x* 4. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. & . .
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. : . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13.) . sy 18. o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273.
 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Transposing. = 6. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). = 6. 108 . x = 6. M. a. tions. If x 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 2z2a. Bx 12 Qx. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .8 x = . 148. each member is reduced to Ex. Uniting.48. 4 4)  x. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. these Ex. Uniting. 2. Clearing of fractions.14 (a. 2x Transposing. of the denominator. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. each member is reduced to 1. 1. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .1. 5(3 85 Check. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 2 3. . If = 64.f3# + C:E=6f7212. + 1) (a + 3) .28 a = 5 x2 .l)(z + 3) = .42 + 9.28 x + 42 = . C.9 x2 + 9. 9x x Check.
= 2. a. 18.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. . a: 7 a. ^' 2. . 16. a/  5 a/ = 12. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 1 *> = 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. '  4 13. +1 = 5. 15. ^1 = 9. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +4 14.1 _77 a.
26 26.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24._ _ . 32 6 . J_. . . 3x 35. 4a4l4* + l~. . . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 33. 31 31. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . If two or more denominators are monomials.11_4 x 149. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 2^12 = 2 = 34.  38 = 40. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. ?_=_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . y+3~2 29. and" the remaining one a polynomial. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 25.
60. 26 a. a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .  5 = 20 x 45. 24 a.1.29 50712' 9 18 . each member is reduced to ^. . C. Dividing. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 5# 10.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. If a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5x x : = 9. Check. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Transposing and uniting. the 1 5 L.. 1.2 42 9 43.2 3 ~  == 7a. M. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.
b a a a z Clearing of fractions. . It frequently occurs that the x. Uniting the Dividing. Ex. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. a. = 2 f b 2 .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. jr.3 6 2 = a' . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. = l^ 9 b 4 . =a 2 151. ax f x f. 5> a. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting. = 6 a2 .1.2 62 2 ab. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Ex.& . If 3ac L= = a ? . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Thus.2 ac + 3 aft . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. find a in terms of b and c. = = 6 6c 7 6c.m bx 2 mn) x.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Dividing. f ~ 5c.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).be. y. they are united by factoring. fr Reducing lowest terms. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. 2. 4 ac 1.
= vt. a. 5) is t =^. rate. iw 21. 4. 30. = rt. p the principal.i l . 2 solve for y a. + xx = 1. 12. s = Vt solve for v. . 10. 31. If s If 16. = 8 4 #. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. co?. If * 33. = 3 (6 a). 15. . 34. c. * Solve the same equation for^). 1 f.= n. If ^^ = a 1 32. IIL n b + &o.= c a Z> .= H. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 3(* 8. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. q solve for/. t. . _ 2.a. mx = n. solve for a. 13. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 29.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. r the number of $>. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . f P =+!. 9. 3. 17. m a? x . denoting the interest. + 3a. = 5. . c 18. The The i time. 6. Ex. 4. in terms of other quantities. f ^o. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). and n the number of years. solve for . 14. 11. ^ ax a^ 26. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal.
100 C. . Find R in terms of C and TT. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. A would do each day ^ and B j. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.180. and 12 = the number over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.. Multiplying by Dividing. Ex. = 16^. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 1. 12. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. then = 2 TT#. 2.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.20 C. Ex. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. x Or Uniting. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.114 35. 2 3 . . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. is 36.
= 100 + 4 x. 32 x = . 3. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Solving." gives the equation /I). Ex. the required number of days. = the x part of the work both do one day. 4x = 80." : Let x  = the required number of days. Clearing. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. and the statement. the rate of the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. or 1J. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. in Then Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 180 Transposing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train.
fifth Two numbers differ 2. is equal 7. money and $10. of his present age. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. make 21. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is oO. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. length in the ground. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. to his daughand the remainder. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. which was $4000.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. ex What 5. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. by 3. Find A's 8. by 6. and J of the greater Find the numbers. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and 9 feet above water.  Find their present ages. a man had How much money had he at first? . and one half the greater Find the numbers. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. to his son. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 3. and of the father's age.
? In how many days can both do working together 23. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 2. Ex.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. investments. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and it B in 6 days. what is the 14. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and B in 4 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. ^ at 5%.) 22. 1. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. Ex. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. How much money $500? 4%. 3. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. . 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A has invested capital at more 4%. air.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. after rate of the latter ? 15.
In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. m and n. Then ft i. if B in 3 days.118 153. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. Ex. Hence. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. The problem to be solved. they can both do in 2 days. . therefore. and apply the method of 170. 3. 2. is 57. is 42. 25. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. B in 12.= . To and find the numerical answer. A in 6. A in 6. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. 26. .009 918. B in 30. B in 16.e.g. we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.414. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. B in 5. n x Solving.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. and n = 3. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. . is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. e. A in 4.
4J miles per hour. if m and n are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. Two men start at the first miles apart. 34. same hour from two towns. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. squares 30. respectively (a) 60 miles. (b) 149. 3J miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. is (a) 51. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. : (c) 64 miles. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 33. meet. respectively. and the rate of the second are. and the second 5 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32.721. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. the second at the apart.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28.001. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. is ?n . (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (b) 35 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. Find the side of the square. 5 miles per hour. (d) 1. squares 29. (c) 16. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. After how many hours do they meet. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 2 miles per hour. . The one: 31. the rate of the first. 3 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour.
Ex. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 6 12 = . a ratio is not changed etc.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. 158." we may write a : b = 6. the antecedent. the denominator The the 157. 1. b. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. The first 156. b is the consequent. antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. the second term the consequent. etc. . the symbol being a sign of division.5. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers.g. Simplify the ratio 21 3. In the ratio a : ft. E. " a Thus. : : 155.
17. 11. and c is the third proportional to a and . 27 06: 18 a6. 4. 1. 5 f hours : 2. 7f:6J. 16a2 :24a&. 3:1}. 159. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 8^ hours. : ay . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. Transform the following unity 15. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 18. b. 16. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : 1. 3:4. The last first three. J:l. terms. b and c the means. extremes. 61 : ratios 72:18. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 4:5f : 5. a and d are the extremes. 6. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. two  ratios. Simplify the following ratios 7. 3 8. b is the mean b. $24: $8. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. In the proportion a b : = b : c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. and c. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif.RATIO Ex. 12. 62:16. proportional between a and c. 10. 3. 9. 7:4 T T 4 . equal 2.
and the time necessary to do it.__(163. are : : : inversely proportional. 6 ccm.e.) mn = pq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 164. of iron weigh 45 grams. !. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. of iron weigh . pro portional. i. of a proportion. then G ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.122 162.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. 163. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. The mean proportional of their product. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.30 grams. ad = be. and the other pair the extremes. : c. ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. " we " NOTE. briefly. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. 2 165. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. 163. 3 4. = 30 grams 45 grams. Clearing of fractions. q~~ n . : : directly proportional may say. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.) b = Vac. Hence the number of men required to do some work.
(Frequently called Inversion. Or IV. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. d d. . These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a:c=b:d. hence the proportion true. then =d c. a III.) (Called Alternation. I.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. ad ( 163.) d 167. 1. bd bd. if 6 : 7.) II. is Ex. 12x Hence a? = 42. ad = be. 166. is 4$ = 35. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 2. (163. = 35 . (Composition.) = f f = 3 J. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. V.PATIO Ex. (Division. I. + b:b = c + d:d.
EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 120:42 2 2 7. i. mx tin Apply composition and division. 10. x = 2. : 3 = 5 f x : x. Apply composition. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 12 5ft. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. IV. = 2:3. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. . = 180:125. = 7:2f 3J. Simplify the following proportions. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 9. 5. 6 =4 : x. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 20:7.g. 3. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.!=!*. 5 5. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.124 IT.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : x. . 4. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. the consequents by 7. 2. Or III. E. 8. V.e. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 2:x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.
13.. ratio of y. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. terra 2:3 = 4. 22. 25. 6 x = y. = 2 + x: x. 43. 26. 23. ra. 17.x: 6:5 a : x. and 2/.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 3. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2. mx = ny. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 9 x = 2 y. 20. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 4 and 16. 5. 35. a. 16. 03:a?=135:20. x m = y n. = l^:18. rap. = 5 x 12. ra 2 . : 53. 5= 18 a? : a?. Find the 37. 2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 47. Find the mean proportional 30. 18. a 2 and ab. 12. 27.:ff. 6. 2 3 = y #. 50. to : 9 and 12. a?:15 15. 42. if : 40.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. to : a and 1.8:1. 44. w. 52. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. f. 1. 3t. b. Find the third proportional 24. (a : : 45. = 15o. 21. 2 a and 18 a. 51. 41. 16 and 28. 14 and 21. 14. 38. + fyx = cy. 6x = 7y. : a2 . rag. ra + landra 1. = 3 43 + x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.j>. 2= 5 x x. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 112:42 = 10:a. 3. : . 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 7iy = 2:x. x:5 = y:2. .  32. 31. 46. to: = 35:*. 34. 33. 28. 29. 1 and a. 39. 4.
126 54. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the squares of their radii (e) 55. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. what 58. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the speed of the train. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . A line 7^. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the time necessary for it. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. the area of the larger? the same. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the area of the rectangle. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. and the : total cost. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 56. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.
. 11 x x 7 Ex. is A line AB. 11 x f 7 x = 108. = the second number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. x=2. produced to a point C. 2. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 inches long. : Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Let A B AC=1x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 18 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. x = 6. AB = 2 x. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). as 11 Let then : 1. 2 x Or = 4. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.000 168. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.
12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 11. 7. find the number of square miles of land and of water. : 197. How The long are the parts ? 15. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 9. How many 7. and c inches. 3.) . and 15 inches. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Gunmetal tin. : 4. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.000 square miles. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.000. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 12. 6. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 14.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. How many gen. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. What are the parts ? 5. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 13. 2. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.
a? (1) then I. Hence. etc. such as + = 10. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. there is only one solution. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.e. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. x = 1.L x If If = 0. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y = 1. expressing a y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. The root of (4) if K 129 . =. 2 y = .CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. if . values of x and y.y=. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. is x = 7.. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. However.
for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). to The two methods I. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. Therefore. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 21 y .X. same relation. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. are simultaneous equations. cannot be reduced to the same form. E. 3. Substitution. for they express the x f y 10. 4y . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. ~ 50. The first set of equations is also called consistent. = . 172. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.24. 174.3 y = 80. y = 2. unknown quantity. 6x . y I 171. the last set inconsistent.26. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. viz.130 170. By By Addition or Subtraction. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . of elimination most frequently used II. 26 y = 60. and 3 x + 3 y =. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f.
5 13 . 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). x = 10.3 y = 47. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. = 406. x = 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). y = 1. 64 x = 040.2 = 6. 10 . 8 2. 3y = 3.3 1 = 47. subtract the equations. 25 x . + 2. Therefore Check. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Transposing. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). whose coefficients In general. = 235. y = 2. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3. add the equations. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.14 =8. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 60 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Check. 37. are like.
= 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 41. I ~ y~~> 22. I i 3 a. * + 3 y = 50. 7 ' 1fi fl . f 3# ?/ = 0. x 11. 13 61 l7a.3. ] ^ . _.v 23.4. 9 1 r 20.f2/ ' = 50. I . J I y = 1U. + 2/ 17.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *. 19< I a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 13. O t K 8.5 y = 2. ' 12. v ^ = ll. f 3X 7x 14.3. [2o. = 24. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. . I oj 5y = 17. i 3.
3. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. (1) (2) Transposing 2. x ) ^"" 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. and solve the resulting equation. . = 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 60. = 4#8. = 2y + 10. = 2. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 8.
Substituting in (6) . simplified before elimination is possible. \ \6(a. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 7 y = 6. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. however. From 9 = 36. 7x_2y=3.3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 4* + 3y = 19. + 212y4 = 14. (4). (7) (7) (8) . 3 (1) Ex. x = l. 21z6y=9. 2 y = . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 29 x = 29. 3.6)7(y7)==18.
J 9. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8.f2 2. 10. 12. 10 2a?5 17. 14. = 3. 4 11. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. yM a. . . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. . 16. a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.1) + 5(6 y . +y 2 . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) = 121. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.
#.Q ^ 4 21. * ((* (( . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y . e. 3x\" 1 23 24. {. and y. 180.and x y . . ?~y . but some expressions involving x. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 22. <X + 20.
15 y + 8 x . x 2x(2).4 x = 4 xy. y 4. y 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Clearing of fractions. x 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . Therefore y=4. (2) (3) a. (4) + (G). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. etc. Dividing by 11 3 = #.3 xy. Substituting x = 3 in (1). can also be solved Examples method. however. . 2* * x 2. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. of this type. 33 = 11 x. y.
bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. = en. n. 253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 331 9.= o 6. . 21 9 . x 8. x y 5. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 6.= 5. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 1.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. Ex.
y = = 9a + 46. apan cm. . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. bmy bm}y ap cm.W. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. f 5. d. w. W . . and I if 13. 14. x 12. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. Uniting. s in 11. . x a. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. a Find a and terms of n. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ap. ny = fy/ I sc 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. 6. Dividing. From the same equations find s in terms of a. and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. x f my = 1. fax f = l. ax + by = 2 a&.
140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. l. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.15z=12 Adding. by 3. 4. = 30. Ex.8 = 1. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 182. = 3. 1. ties are Similarly. (8) 2. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). y =* 2.16. f 3y 12 =s 8.13. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. etc.2 + 4. 6. 3. 20. 1.3=4. . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.1+4.by 2.2 + 3. 3y = Hence Check.3 = 8. 8 x . To solve equations containing By tions. (4) (5). 4.12 y + 6 z = . Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 3. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. x + 12 y .25. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).lf> z .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).
+ y f z = 15. 2z = 40. 8. a? + 709 = 26. 10. 14. x 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 12. a? 11. 2 . y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. 2 4. f 2 i/ f z = 14. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 49. 7. 4 = 42. 15 2 = 45. == 6. ~6?/ 5.
142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.42 = 2. 4. 22.6 2. 60. . ?/ 3x = 0. 23. 27. = 5.3 y + .2 a. 32. . =s 20. = 8*. ? = llz. 84 21. 19. 16. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. . 1510 4 17.. (3 _. ^ = 2.
1 = 2. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Obviously of the other . however. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. either directly or implied. + 396 = 521. Find the number. y 31. ( 99. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. # 4. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. = 2 m. 2 = 1(1+6).y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. + z = 2p. . Check. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. +2+ 6 = 8. z + x = 2 n. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. symbols: x + y +z 8. M=i. 1. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. 2 = 6. . as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. y * z 30. and if 396 be added to the number. the number. x : z =1 : 2.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. and to express In complex examples. Ex.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1 digit in the tens place. = l.
the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. 6 x 4 = 24. y = 3. x y = the = the x denominator . C. x 3x4y = 12. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. Find the fraction. (3) C4) = 24 miles. we obtain. the distance traveled by A. increased by one. . x 3 = 24. Or (4)2x(3). 3+1 5+1 4_2. 2. 5_ _4_ A. 4 x = 24. = the fraction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B.144 Ex. 2. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Since the three men traveled the same distance. xy a: 2y 4y 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. direction. 3. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (1) (2) 12. Ex. = 8. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. B. = Hence the fraction is f.
Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. the fraction equals . and its denomi nator diminished by one. number by the first 3. ? What 9. 1. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 5. both terms. . its value added to the denominator. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the number. If 27 is 10. Find the number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. the digits will be interchanged. part of their difference equals 4. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. If the denominator be doubled. 6. the value of the fraction is fa. 183. 2. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the fraction. 7. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. tion ? 8. fraction is reduced to \. A fraction is reduced to J. the fraction is reduced fraction. the Find the fraction. the number (See Ex. to the number the digits will be interchanged.}. Find the numbers. If 9 be added to the number. it is reduced to J. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the last two digits are interchanged.) added to a number of two digits. and the numerator increased by 4. and the fourth 3. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6.
partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and partly at 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find their present ages. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. If the rates of interwere exchanged. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. . the annual interest would be $ 195.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. bringing a total yearly interest of $530.000 is partly invested at 6%. How 6 %. and in 5 years to $1125. in 8 years to $8500. 12. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.grams. and 4 %. the rate of interest? 18. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 14. partly at 5 %. 5 %. A man invested $750. respectively ? 16. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. A sum of $10. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 19. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and money and 17. Find the rates of interest. now. 13.
receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F. An C touch ing the sides in D. for $ 740. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. Find their rates of walking. and e. 25. and angle BCA = 70. three AD = AF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. $ 50 for each cow. and GE = CF. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. 23. are taken so ABC. points. triangle Tf AD. cows. On /). and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BE. ED = BE. 1 NOTE. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. B find angles a. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and AC = 5 inches. BD = HE. and F. what is that = OF. and $15 for each sheep. E.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. . the three sides of a triangle E. then AD = AF. BC=7. A farmer sold a number of horses. and angle e angle/. . 24. andCL4 = 8. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and sheep. angle c = angle d. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and F '(see diagram). the length of NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. and their difference by GO . The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. but if A would double his pace. BC = 7 inches. c. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. respectively.
and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). ?/. and PN _L YY'. the ordinate of point P. (2. B. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. jr. (3. It' Location of a point. (7. YY' theyaxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). PN are given. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 3). and point the origin. first 3). 186.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. PM. (2. . is the abscissa. the ordinate by ?/. The of Coordinates. and r or its equal OA is . or its equal OM. Thus the points A. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading.. 2). and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and PJ/_L XX'. PN. is The point whose abscissa is a. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.
11. Plot the points: (4. 2J). 6. (4. . (5.4). 3). (See diagram on page 151. 4) and (4. 12. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (1.e. which of its coordinates known ? 13. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 71 2). . (2. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4. 4). 3).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 4). Graphs.2). (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 8. 2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 0). 0). i. (0. (4. 3. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.) EXERCISE 1. Plot the points: (4. 0). !). 2). 2. (0. 3). (3. 0). Plot the points : (0. What is the locus of (a?. (4. 4. 6. (4. and measure their distance. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.1).and(l. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 1). Plot the points (6. 4) from the origin ? 7.3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 1).(!.
but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. may be found on Jan. 15. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. from January 1 to December 1. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 1. C. Thus the first table produces 12 points. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A. D. we meas1 . however. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. B. 10 .. or the curved line the temperature. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . ure the ordinate of F. 188. By representing of points. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.
EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. (c) January 15. uses them.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the rise and fall of wages. The engineer. . the matics. Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the graph is applied. (b) July 15. the merchant. (d) November 20. as the prices and production of commodities.
from what date to what date would it extend ? If . is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1 to Oct. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1? 11 0. When the average temperature below C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (d) 9 0. (1) 10 C. ? 9.. How much. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.. is 10.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.152 2. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. on 1 to the average. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. During what months above 18 C. 15. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ?  3. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (freezing point) ? 7.
NOTE. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. transformation of meters into yards. Draw . 19.09 yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20. a temperature chart of a patient. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.
if he sells 0.50. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. x 7 to 9. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 3. 1 to 1200 copies. then C irJl. 28. x* x 19. books from for printing. 29. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. represent his daily gain (or loss).50.154 24.g. 4. the daily average expenses for rent. amount to $8. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. and $. 9. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. if each copy sells for $1.) T circumferences of 25. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.. 26. to 27.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. A 10 wheels a day. the value of a of this quantity will change. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . . e.5 grams. 2. function If the value of a quantity changes. 3. 2 . If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.inch. etc. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. gas.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. x increases will change gradually from 13... 190. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. binding. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.
x a variable. Ex. to x = 4. The values of func192. (2.0). Q. 9). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. plot points which lie between those constructed above. (1^. 4). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 4). a*. 2 (1.1). . be also represented by a graph. 3 50. 1 the points (3. 3 (0. while 7 is a constant. and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 f. and (3. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. (1. ( 2. etc. for x=l.1). construct '.g.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Graph of a function. 2. it is In the example of the preceding article. E. as 1. may . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . however. J). If a more exact diagram is required. 9). is supposed to change.e. may. 2).2 x may 4 from x = 4. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion.
and join(0. 4J. = 0. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. as y. (2.. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. = 4.. r */ +* 01 . Thus 4x + 7. (3. y = 6. 2 4 and if y = x f. 7 . It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. Ex. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. straight line produces the required graph. j/=3.2 x . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. (4. rf 71 . 5). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 1).. . 4). Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.) For brevity.20).4). 194. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. etc.
16. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 7. fa 17. 2J. 6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 1J. 1J. (If) Va25. if"a. 15. l. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.or. if a. from x VlO'S". 23x.e. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2 or 2 20. y = 2x = 4. 3. a? 1. (7i) (c) 23. a. 14. The values of a*. Jar . 2J. J. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2. i. xl. 19. ?/ a. 2 2. (C ) (2. 3 a 8. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 12. The smallest value of the function. a? 2 4. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. . = The values of a*. 8. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2.5)2. The values of a?. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 22. 9. a?. (ft) (_ 1. xz + x. 18. 4a? I. = 4. a ar. x+1. 2x + 3x a?. 1J. 4 a. . a* 13. 2 a. 3.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 5. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 11. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 1. 2 a. if y = 2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0.8)'. 21. if the function equals zero. + 4. 2.5)2. 6 fa. 2 2 a. 1 8 10. the function. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.
where x c is a constant. 25. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. the abscissas of 3. i. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.24 or x = P and Q. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. Represent 26. 32 F. then y = .. Show any convenient number). y= formula graphically. that graph with the o>axis.158 24. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12... Therefore x = 1. then cXj where c is a constant. C.24. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 9 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 1 C.e.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. .. 14 F.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.
6. 6. 13. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. = 0. 197. 0. 7. (0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 2 and 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 4. a2 2a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 3. (a) (6) 9.f 9 = 0. viz. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. Such equations in general have two roots. 12. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 10. + + = where a. is called a quadratic equation. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. crosssection paper is used. or 5 2. 11. 8. .7 2 a 5 = 0. (a) x2 = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 14.
NOTE.2 y ~ 2. solve for ?/. i. 0).160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. X'2 Locating the points (2. = 0. unknown quantities. If x = 0. because their graphs are straight lines. Hence if if x x  2. ?/ =4 AB. Ex. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 4) and (2. 1) and 0). T . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. first degree. produces the 7* required locus. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. if y = is 0. == 2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 3x _ 4 . represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. y y 2. y = l.e. Hence we may join (0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. (f . 199. and joining by a straight line. fc = 3. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. locate points (0.1. and join the required graph. . 2). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence. ?/. Ex.2.
The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 203. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. (2) . The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Graphical solution of a linear system. To find the roots of the system. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 202. and CD. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. linear equations have only one pair of roots. viz. 3. we obtain the roots.1=0. parallel have only one point of intersection.15.57. AB y = . 201. P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
Using the method of the preceding para. 4. 3). 4. (1) (2) C.e. = 0. and . (2. e. 4. (4. There can be no point of and hence no roots. The equations 2 4 = 0. V25 5. 2. (4. y equals 3. 5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 3. x2 . which consist of a pair of parallel lines. the graph of points roots. intersection. etc. 4.0. 1. 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 1. AB the locus of (1). 2 equation x 3). 4.. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 2. . the point we obtain Ex.9. 3. and + 3).0).g. and joining by a straight line. 4. Solving (1) for y. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Inconsistent equations. Locating two points of equation (2). 3x 2 y = 6. Since the two  we obtain DE.  4. 5. if x equals respectively 0. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. we of the + y* = 25. 3. Locating the points (5. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 0. P graphs meet in two and $.5. In general.y~ Therefore.5. i. 0) and (0. they are inconsistent.
as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs.. y = 4. 5. 16 23. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 3. \ 2x + 3^ . y 2 4. 19. 16 22. 20. 17. '163 Dependent equations. state reasons. a. a+r/=6. if possible. y=x + 5. Draw system. . 2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 7. and solve each If there are no solutions. x~y=0. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. the graphs of the following systems. and. y= a2 2x y6. 9. 6. 2x 3?/=6. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 4. vice versa. 8. 10.
Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . CUBES. 29 . 3 31.164 24. 28.8. 4 a = 3(6 . 30.y). 25. TABLE OF SQUARES.14 y = .
involution repeated multiplication. powers of a positive quantity are positive. . a special kind of product. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. is may be by 207. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.faa a a a Obviously 1. fa. Law of Signs. ( a) is positive. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. follows that 3. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a = a3 . 52. 8. 2. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . on to in factors 4. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. According to 1. ^4/? it According to 50. etc. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .a2 . 3 f a = f a = +.
5. (a ) 2 5 . (a ) 2 4  3. amVy) 3 . 6. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 3 2 2 8 . .6 (a 8 8 . 24. (2ar). The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . a product to a given power. V V/ 13. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 210. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 4 /2mV. (277171 )*. 2 11 (afc ) . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 76 : (>y.166 To find To To power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . raise a fraction to a power. the required power. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. (^^) 2 . 4. 2.6) = a . 15. 16. \ 3 J '  MW 10.
1. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (3 (l I) 2 8 . The higher powers of binomials. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . Ex. 4. 3 8 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. a. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . are obtained by multiplication. (3af26) 8 . (5 (1 a) 3 . nent of the binomial.) 14. . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 6.INVOLUTION Ex. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.y . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 211. = s= (2s) 8 a. 7. 18. etc. + a 2 a. pansions. 9. (afl) . (a + &)8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 3.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 5. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 8. 3 . 21. 12.y) = (3 y?y . 1 f 3 2 3 . 2 . 16. 15. + 4aj) 3 . 2. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 2. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 8 (a??/) 3 . +5a) 22. 13. (3 x . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. An 1. : a 20.3 y. . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 23.6 2 8 ft) . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . frequently called ex. (aj7) . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .
24. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 8. 4 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . 4. (2 4. .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (3a f5) 5) 4.2. (?>i?i f c)*. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 4 (1for) 5 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 15. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 21. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 3. . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (a~^) 5 . 10. (m 5 I) 2 22. (2 a 4 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . The minus. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 13. is the coefficient of the next term. 25. 9. (mJ) 4 11. . . . (1 + 4 ?/) . 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. Ex. 1. (m fl) 2 20. 5. (tff1) (cfd) . . 14. 78 s . and the powers negative. 23. mn 5 2 5 ) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b.216 a^ 4.a) 3 19. . Ex. 17. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Ex. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (m 2 + n) 8 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 5. (la&) 4 12. 3.168 3. (p + q) 4 * 7. (?/i~w) : 16. 6. (l 8 . ( &) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (af 5) . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 2.
or y ~ 3. = x means = 6. or 3 for (usually written 3) . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. called real numbers. V9 = + 3. a) 4 = a4 . tity . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. and ( v/o* = a. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 2. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Since even powers can never be negative. and all other numbers are. 1. 109 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. numbers. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for distinction. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. 4 4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. etc. V \/P 214. \/"^27=3. 27 =y means r' = 27. or x &4 . 215. (_3) = 27. which can be simplified no further.
(. = V26TIT81 = 53. .4. 62 = V2* . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 9. 8. 7. 10.200 .201) = 2. Ex. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex 5 a" . 7 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex. \/2 4 9 . fy 5 3 . = 19472. V?. index. 2. 6 7 = 030. Ex. 6. 8. Ex. 5. . Ex. 2. 9.  100 a 2 . 4 v. 3 33 53 .lL. EXERCISE 1. 79 2 v/2 5 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. v/2^. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. To extract the root of a power. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. To extract a root of a fraction. 7.125. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 6. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.64 5 4 .1. roots of the numerator \/18 . 3/0** = am .9 = 136. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 82 . 2 . 3i . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . = 199 + (_ 198) . V36 9 4. Ex. 7 . 3. extract the and denominator. v/^i2 = a*. V25 9 16.
3 y2) ( vV . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V9216. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 34.3. 2. Find the square root of a2 . 5. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 33. a* 4 8 2 ./). 2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 .4/.75. 30.) by inspection. 3.EVOLUTION 171 28. V20 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 .3 . Ex. 45 V5184. 116. .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.6 tfif + 9 y = O . a f2 l 2 + l. 6. 32. 29. ^40^4. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V8.98. 1. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 31.
and b (2 a f b). second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.172 7. and b. 8 .2 ab + b . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . mV14m??2)f 49. + 6 + 4a&.72 aW + 81 & 4 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. i. #2 a2  16. 15.e. 12. . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .2 ac . 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2ab . let us consider the relation of a f. however.2 &c.> 13. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . 2 . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. a f. 11.b 2 2 to its square. a\b is the root if In most cases. 10. 2 2 218.
Second trial divisor. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 a 2 . 10 a 4 8 a. . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 219. the first term of the answer.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 8 a 2 2. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Explanation. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. and so forth. is As there is no remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 1. Ex. 2. by division we term of the root. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 /. of x. 6 a. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . */'' . The square . As there is no remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. First complete divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. First trial divisor.
25.10 x2 4. 19. 2 x2 3 2x. 1 4.73a4 440^436^460^.16. 36it.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 2 4.37 a ^ . 24. 16x6 4. 436^?/469a. l 4. .162 a2 60 a10 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 5 4 16 4 iK .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.20 J or 2 16 x 4.24 or . 3.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 m 4. 16. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.73 a8 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .4 x 4.6 . 4 .a 6 x*y 2 . > 7. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.12m 5 4. 10. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 6 11.25 x 4 4. 9. 18.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 13#4 413ar 44a.9. 5.20 o 4. 17. 20. 6. 15. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 12.40 a 22 . a? 2 .V430^425^ 4m 4.42 a*& 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 8. 14. x 6 4 4 0^4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 729 4.
and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.000 is 1000. Find the square root of 524. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. two figures. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the square root of 7744 equals 88. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 1.176. and the complete divisor 168. a 2 = 6400. and the first remainder is. first . 2.EVOLUTION 220. = 80. of a number between 100 and 10. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. etc. of 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Ex. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 10. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 175 The by a method very similar expressions. etc. which may contain one or two).000 is 100. The is trial divisor = 160. and the square root of the greatest square in units..000.000. Ex. Find the square root of 7744. the first of which is 4.1344. the first of which is 8. Therefore 6 = 8.
Find the square root of 6/.1 are Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.GO'61. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places.70 6. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.10. The groups of 16724. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.7 to three decimal places. in . 12.1T6 221. annex a cipher. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. 3.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.0961 are '.
13.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . feet. = 3. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 34.22. J.01. 39.58 square 38. . 37.) 40. 35. 31. feet. T\. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.4 square when R = radius and 11. JT . whose area equals 48. 36. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 1. 30.53. 5. 33.1410.
= 4.g. Transposing. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 178 . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 2)* + 5 = 33. is 12. The 7 equation. = 7^ + 5. . Ex. 2. 2 ic = a. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 224.. but no higher power e. x = + 2 or x =2. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation. A pure. 6 y2 = 17. This answer Check. or equation of the second degree. Extracting the square root of each member. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. or affected. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or incomplete. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. x 2 7. 225. 1. 226. 6#2 = x* 24. Solve 13 x2 19 etc.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. complete. Dividing.
0^ + 1 = 1. 5. 15^5 = 6. : 83 2. 19 + 9 = 5500. Dividing by Extracting the square root.25. . 16^393 = 7. Solve 179 . or Therefore. 2. 7. 2 2 a. ' =: y? b* b .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. o. . 6(2)=10(ajl).2. (a? 9. 4. 4 ax. 8. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2 4fc 5' 18.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7 = 162. 10. ax Transposing and combining. 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .
its area contains =a 2 f b2 . . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 26. ' 4. 2 . 28. Find the side of each field. 4. 25. 29.) of their squares 5. 2. If 22 = ~^. 3. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 27. solve for r. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . Find the side of each field. r. and they con tain together 30G square feet. .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find the numbers. and their product : 150. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 24. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. : 6. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45.b 2 If s If =c . find a in terms of 6 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find is the number. If a 2 4. 2 . 108. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If G=m m g . A right triangle is a triangle. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2a f 1 23. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. solve for d. 228. 2 : 3. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). EXERCISE 1. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for v. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 22 a. may be considered one half of a rec square units. then Since such a triangle tangle. is 5(5.
member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. (b) 100 feet? = .2 7 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find these 10. radii are as 3 14.) 13. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . is and the other two sides are equal. (b) 44 square feet. sides. and the third side is 15 inches. Solve Transposing. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . . and the two smaller 11. .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. . Find the unknown sides and the area. of a right triangle Find these sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. J = 12. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. A body falling from a state of rest. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Find the sides. 8. and the other two sides are as 3 4.7 x f 10 = 0. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Method of completing the square. 9. To find this term. we have of or m = . x* 7 x= 10.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. The area : sides are as 3 4. add () Hence 2 . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the radii. 2m. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 4. 24.
Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.2 a2 .  \. 2  . a Clearing of fractions. Uniting. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. a. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. J.x(l = . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Ex. . = \ # = ff.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 a* a.. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . or x = 2. = 6. Hence Therefore Check.2. (*~8) a = at . Simplifying. Transposing. = x\ = 2.1. Ex. 230. Therefore.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. or J. adding member). Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 7 5 + 10 = 0. = .a.e. Transposing. Extracting square roots. 62 x 5 = f.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying. x . Extracting square root.
. 49. =8 r/io?. 231. ao. =0. x la 48.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.c = 0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. \bx\. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . article. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2x 3 4.
b =  + 20 == = 0. 14. c p.. 6 . 2 a. : 86 + 2 = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 .  . 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2 . 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = 12 . 18. 5 x2 Transposing.4 4 5 . 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 6. 19. Reducing to general form. 13. ?i 2 . 12. 7. 2 o. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 17. 6. 3. 20. 10. 6 Ex. a. 26. V^tT)* .25 x. c = 5. 11. 1. 2. 2. 9. 15. = 64120?. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 21. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 16. 4. 2 a? = 44 x . 6^+5^ 56.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. TIO. 2or } 5o. 7^ + 9 x 90.
Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. any degree. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. }. orz roots. (5 a? !)(. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. and 6. 26. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. = 14. x(x <2 . 5) = 0.5) =0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 27 x== 42a.5 Solving (1) and (2). Transposing. 233. = 0. Factoring. = 0. 1. a=:i^^.4) = . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. or # 5 is zero. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . = 0. Eesolving into factors. x2 = 1 .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Clearing for fractions.x. factors Now. 24. if either of the uct is zero. Bx 1 1. 25. 23. 3x?+x = 7. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 5 = 0. ar>8o. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Solution by factoring. 0.2. member can be Ex. 2S3x 1 2 . transposing terms to one member.
3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x .= 24. a?.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. and the equation thus formed be solved.:=0. 2. 5. + 10 a = 24. 8. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 4. Or Hence the 234. 0(02) = 7(02).3)(x + 3 3.(. 7. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3) Factoring. 3 or 2 a. aj( 15.g. Ex. O roots are 2.24 = 0. is 5) = 0. } 2 2 (5 . EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. a?10a=:24. we 9 obtain x 4. 4or + 18a f 8a. x2 f 2 x . 3# y 5 = 0. (aj4)(a. ar'Sa^ 12. + 100. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 13. E. The equation I. 3. 5 = 0. 2o3 f9a. Therefore x =3 = 2. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. a* 10a=24.6)) = 0. 9. + 8=s: 7. 4)(z3) = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 2. + 6)=0. 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. for a: . : 87 = 0. 3. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 16. 3) = 0.e. 6. 3^ = 0(1106). 0^ ar> 11. 12. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.
23. '3a!J  . (a + 1) (a. 22. 25. 18. uz + u 21. 50. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). ara + ft + c*. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 2.188 17. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. 27. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b. 20. 19.
189 the equations whose roots are 53. and equals 190 square inches. 2. is Find two numbers whose product 288. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and the difference Find the numbers.9. 7. 1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 58. 8. 3. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3.0. and whose product 9. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 5.3. 5. . two numbers is 4.1. 3. 55. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 6. Find the number. 2. 2. feet. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 57. G. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. Find the sides. The 11. and consequently many prob 235. 54. number by 10. 4.3. 2. of their reciprocals is 4. and whose sum is is 36.2. The difference of . area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.0. 56. 1. 0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. EXERCISE 1. Find the numbers. 52. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. : 3.
190 12. What did he pay for 21. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 17. he would have received two horses more for the same money. 19. 14. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other.10. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. . c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 13. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. ABCD. other. Two vessels. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. as the 16. watch for $ 24. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. sold a horse for $144. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. Find the rate of the train. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and Find the sides of the rectangle. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 15. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. ply between the same two ports. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. If he each horse ? . What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200.
a point taken. how wide is the walk ? 23. 24. 23 inches long. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. contains B 78 square inches. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. so that the rectangle.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 237. 27. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.) 25. By formula. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. of the area of the basin. Find and CB. as 0. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Ex. constructed with and CB as sides. and working together. 1. the two men can do it in 3 days. ^3^ = 7. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. or x = \/l = 1. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. . (tf.
2. 4. a? 15 1=2*. or y = 8. Hence Le. 19.)+72=0. aV+9o 4 =0. >. a4 5o. 12. 9. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 2 h9:=0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a 21or=100. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 : 89 10a. 6. 10. 436 3. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 8. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 6. Solving. T 17. 2 16 a^40 11. 18.2 =4. 7. y8)=0. 16. = 13.T 2 2 . = 1. 4 a. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a.192 238.
241. a perfect square. it 2a follows 2 : 2.5) = 04. the roots are real. b 4.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 3.12 x + 9 = 0. Ex. ( 2a Hence 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . and unequal. the roots are equal. The discriminant =(. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. the roots are imaginary. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. rational. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are rational. and equal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. is 4ac not zero. . c the roots are real. Hence the roots are real.f> = 0.bx 4. rational. Ex. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are unequal. the roots are irrational. negative. 240. Relations between roots and coefficients.2) 2 4 3 (. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . 1. 2.2 z . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0.
5a 26a? + 5 = 0. lla. = Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 2a. 3a. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 4. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. = 0. 14. 12~x = x 2 . x2 7 10. 2a 4z5 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0.19 # 20. o. 9a3 = 0. + 18 2 8. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. : a 2 . 2 a. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 15. 22. 12. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 18. 2 7. their product isf. 24. 6. 2. + 12 2  . tfmx+p^Q. 60 2 = 0. = 0. 2 : 3. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0.g. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 23. 5aj 9. f 2 E. = 0. = 5x. 5oj aj + l = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 17. 21. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.. ^12.
no Fractional and negative exponents. > m therefore.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. 244. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. for all values 1 of m and n. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. however. must be *The symbol smaller than.a" = a m n mn . provided w > n.* III. It is. a m a" = a m+t1 . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. (ab) . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. that a an = a m+n . = a"" < . hence. II. such as 2*. Then the law of involution. while the second of the first. The first of these laws is nition of power. and . (a m ) w . ~ a m f. We assume. m IV.
23. 31. fractional. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. '&M A 27. m$. a . 245.g. etc. as. . Assuming these two 8*. a?*. 3*. 29. (bed)*. (xy$. or zero exponent equal x. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . disappear. 0?=^. 24. a*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. ml.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 30. n 2 a. a\ 26. 4~ . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. e. 25. at. = a. 28. laws.
g. 41.g. 49. e. 38. however. e. hence is . 35. 5 a* = 10. 50. 43. 246. ty?. Solve the following equations 39. 46. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 27* = 3. 42. 40. a. v/o&cT 34. 48. = 2. 44. 3* = 27. 45. the base is zero. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. v'mT 36. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 37. If. 7z* Find the values of 47. = 49.\/n. Let a = a. To find the meaning of zero exponent. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. : 197 33. a * a2 Or a=l. \fi?. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. = 2. a . : 2' 4* = 4. Vo5 . a* * = 3.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. equal to unity. \/xy \/m.
. by changing the sign of NOTE. e. an x = a. cr n. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. or the exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.g. etc. Multiplying both members by a".2 = a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Or a"# = l. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. 248.198 247. Let x= or". vice versa. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.
36. 2 . : mi m~^. 22. 2 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. ^?2 y' 34. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. 2m~i 43. c 32. rfS. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . a. 37. 44. . m . f (2w)~i 1 . 39."* 38. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. . : or 5 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 27. 3 a. 25. * 24. ^L. 66 45. 40. 3 a? * 42.
ar = i.1. z 5or*=10. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 61. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 17' 2 51. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 49. 250. 55. Ex. 48. = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 10* Find the values 56. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. z* = 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .6).001. 57. 52.343)* + (. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 10* 5* = . . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.(. + A_. = 5. = l. + 1~* f 21 .008)* + A. = . of: 3ll4~* 60. 58. (. 54. 1.81 f (a .26)* 1 (I) 2 . 53. 59. 47.9*.
etc.7*. 6a.3 aj" a. 3sVS. 79 . 4 x^. 3. 12. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 95 ^9i 5**. Remove the negative exponents. 72 . 16. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 16. &. remove the fractional exponents.$*. a. #* a.&. OA 20. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7~ 5 27  . 8 ' 9.4 a8 . 10. . . 18. 23. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 4 5. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 7*. 7~ 6 . 17.6 *' 6 *25.&. 6. V5. Perform the operation indicated. 27  28. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.5. 13.5a. NOTE. 6 *. are performed.^/5^5.4 .7i. 14. 26.7W..$". S'sS8. .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. / 7fv 7. 3 a. 7. (d) If required. ' 11.
202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 34. If powers of a?. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 40. 2. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Arrange in descending powers of Check. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.2 d . 1. The 252. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V3. To add or form. </3. A/2. ^7. v/3. ^6. signs.2 V50. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 39. </2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^4. ^3. 4^/4. ^2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . v/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. Simplify V~ . V2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 3. A/3. 26. V5. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. \/5. ^2. (i. s!/3. 2\ 3*. 37. v^S. 31. Ex. 27. 38.10 V2 =  V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . Arrange 35. Ex.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 28. </20. V2. v/4. \/7. 29. ^4. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^30. connect them by proper 1. ^5. 36. V3. 33. subtract surds. + . 5V2.3\ . ^/IT. ^2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .e. 32. if dissimilar. 40. 30.2. VS. ^126. 34. V2. Simplify V + 3 VlS.
4V805V45. + 3V835V2. 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. 6. 13. 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. .J a6 V4 aft. 12. 4. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 10. V18+V32VT28+V2. 8. V175V28+V634V7. 3.3V20 + 6V5. 11. 9.
212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 2. 3. 1. Ex. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 6*. and then multiplied. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 26^ . Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.6V35 106 460V35100 . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 23. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. . y* = Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .
213 98 11. V2 V50. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 8. 4. 21. 2 . (V6 + 1) 1 . a?. V20 V30. 28 . v/18 v"3. 6 V4 5. fWa 17.^/2. 13. 25. 40. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V2aV8^. 7. 40 10 30. 39. 3.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). VlO V15. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 15. 6. 2.VSS. (2V3) 8 . 38. . (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 12. (Va Va 36. 9. V3 Vl2. 6. VTO. 10. 27. 37. V42. aVa. 14. V3 V6. + VB)(2V5). (3 20. 34. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). Vll. v/4. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 41. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 18. \/3 \^). 19.
46. 52. Va v/a. 43. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.214 42. (5V2+V10)(2V51).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). Ex. 47. 49. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.y. 44. V3 . 48. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. the quotient of the surds is If. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. 51. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (2 45. . a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. a fraction. E. 53. 268. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. is 1 2. Ex.
57735. e. . we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. /~ } Ex. is illustrated by Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .g. 3. however.. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Divide VII by v7. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.RADICALS This method. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.by the usual arithmetical method. The 2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Evidently. 1. arithTo find. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.73205. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . by V7.
V48 25. V3 = 1. V5 = 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. VffV?. 23 .7320. 272. 7.4142. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V2 22 . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V3 24 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .2361. 271. . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V8 JL. and Given V2 = 1. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. i. ^/H . 14.. 20. A. Vll 212*. V8 12. A. V5 270. . 21. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.
V82 2V3 1fVS .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex.= 18. Ex. s Simplify a. 3.Vs2 .1 xVtf a. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. . . 1. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.2.vffi^T _ . Ex.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. : and V5 = 2. find to _!_.5 3 = 125. J?_. V5V7 18> ^SVg.W3. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.4142. By the use of fractional exponents . Given V2 1. 19. V21 = 25 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. = V3 = 1. four places of decimals 23 . Vo1 26. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.7320. .218 6 . 6V7. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 24.2361. v 2V3 28. 27. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.
\/l6*. 4. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Simplify Ex. 11. it to this form. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 5. According to G3. \/125" . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 3. the If. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 9. 2. 3 (V2~u)  7. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 1. V255 . on the other hand. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . V643 .RADICALS 219 274. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. . 2. In other examples of involution and evolution. viz. v8f 2\/15. 2 12. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 8.
2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 3. is 11.2 \/20. The Hence ^11 . Find V4 + VJ8. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ^TT.6 V2. 2.220 Ex. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20.6\/2 = ^9 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. Find Vll . +2 Ex. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. and whose product is 18.A/2.
+=.e.. they are transto formed into rational equations.1. a. 4. Dividing by Check. . by raising both members equal powers. Radical equations are rationalized. = xa + 4 x f 4. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Before performing the involution. member to 2. first involution. The value x =2 reduces each . Transposing and uniting. 5. : 221 Vl32V22. 277.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Solve vVf!2a = 2. are radical equations. 8. Ex. (2x xrf 1. x2 = x f 2.V48 4 20. 19. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. r 22. VT . i. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 4x x = 2. V48 23.
at . 4#f 4 = 9. Therefore Check. . a. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Extraneous roots. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Squaring both members. 3. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. V4afT~l. 5. tion which has two roots. 2.1) = 0. Transposing and uniting.3. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. one root. . Transposing and uniting. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Factoring. they may be extraneous roots. Transposing. It = 3 x . Squaring both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. viz. Ex. viz. a socalled extraneous root. Therefore CftecAr. x = J. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.222 Ex. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 278. Dividing by 24. the first member = V2. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. V24~+~l = 0. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. f 25 = 12.
47) = 0. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. 223 x = 3. Solve the following equations : = G. Hence there is only one root.3) (2 x . Check. the right member = V2. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. (x x = 3. + 6~ieT~3 . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . 2 Clearing of fractions. Factoring. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence x = the only root. = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. . Therefore. .12 . both members reduce to 5. NOTE. equation it is an extraneous root. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. for it satisfies the equation . Transposing. or x *j. and to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. is x V. ViTie 4 z2 . 4.RADICALS Hence x If a. Squaring. x root of the preceding equation. If If x 3 = 3. viz. \ does not satisfy the given.2 r.
Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. Solve af*. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex.
*2a. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Let 8 x f 40 . + 40 = 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. x Since both =9 or 1.35 = 0. = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 45 14VJB = . = 26. 2.i~24 = 0. 3. _ 2 y . Q . This can be seen without substituting. some of the roots be extraneous. 412a* = 16. = 7. 3 6.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. y then x2 . 2Va. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. x + Vx a? = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.f40= 5. 2. Ex. Vi 2 8a. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 5. o. x =6 or 3.8 z40 = 7.8 x + 40 = 36. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. . members of the equation were squared. Substituting. 4.
+x . 20.f 18 = 24.a 440 = 35. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 14. 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 15. a. 16. 2.226 11. 12. 19. +3= 6. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 17. 4 V SB* 4 a. a^x2 5 2 13.
bx? + ex2 4. ax4 4. however.360 = 244. find the remainder when m.2 x 5 by x 3. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. could.2 + 4. Without actual division. = 2. If x* . does not contain a?. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. to x we # = 2 3. if Q was known. 3 2 Ex. Hence.2 + 80 = 12. then (x 2)Q 0. a? R = x* .3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . no matter If." transposing.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Without actual division. Ex.2) Q .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 227 . then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. by dividing 3 x* f. ^ = 381+2. " Or. we make a? what the value of Q.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 2. 1. E = ax + &z + m) Q.4 a. even if Q is unknown.
if 8 42  . 8.g. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 3.8'= 0. The Factor Theorem. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 2 j 7. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x* s 2 4. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x m is factor of the expression.g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 5. + 6. If the remainder is zero. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. + ^by x + b. + 7 = 632. of the division 3) is m in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. fora?. hence (x divided by x 4. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .8. the remainder equals 8 2 x . 5 (4x .228 282. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.4(. } 2 by a1.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .3)f 11 =.949. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 43 3 E.
_ . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 229 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 9.e. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 25. f 3. 8. a^8^ + 19a.12. i. & p*. or x 4. 21.12 = 0. 18. f 5. 23. . 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 106 division. are f 1. or 5 4 + 3^ . 11. 2m 5m . 7 46 = 0.9^ + 23^15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. + ttt15 = 0. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 3 2 : 7. a? 19. m f m n 14.13m + 30 10. 5. + 15. 1.7 + 16 . Factor a? 15.1.1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a. 6. 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 20. oj 5x2 f3a.49 = 0. f 15 does not vanish. 2 2. 3. a + 32. a 2a + 4.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.r6 = 0. 17.7 x + 15 = 0. is a factor. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + 27 + 27. ^10^429^20=0. a 5x 6. a 8a f 19 a 12. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. p 5^ + 8p 4. 15. The 5. Resolve into factors 4. Let x = . 8. 24. Therefore x ( 1). m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. factors of the absolute term.
For substituting y for x. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 286. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. By we obtain the other factors. ar +p= z6 e. 2.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. : importance. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O .xy +/). 1.230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if w is odd. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . if n is even. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. It y is not divisible by 287. 2. Ex. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. actual division n. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.y n is divisible by x f ?/. is odd." . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.g. xn f. 2 Ex.
a. leads 231 is The first method.= . since it more directly to the prime factors. as 27=0. 27.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Hence = (m Ex. preferable. x3 8=0. 28. y 3 +8=0. however. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). 3. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 26.
(5) Combining (5) with (1). (4) Hence. x y. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. If two of the quantities x f y. in general. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead.1.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. ==5 > 1^ = 4. xywe have 3. 290. Squaring Solve (1). the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. of quadratics.y4 is of the fifth degree. however. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. to equations of the fourth few cases. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 232 . & + 2 xy + = 25. * A I. can be solved by the methods degree. = 6. 4 xy = 16. xy are given. + 6 a?V . Hence " /  X y = =} 4. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
' 10. 233 y. The arranged in pairs. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. " "' "' { r 8. = . r (" 1 = 876.g. but can be found. 12. ^. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. x and xy are not given. 3. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. b=3. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 1. I I x + y=7. EXERCISE Solve: 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.
7 . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Factoring. aj = 2. ' ' .. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 3.~ y = 5. or JJ. Ex. la.a.i/ = r 13. r^ 2 as ] f. I* Jj ^ [. A system of simultaneous equations.o 18. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.  f J. 6 "I 14. 2 (1) From (1) we have.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 19.20) = 0.?/ i = 6. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.  42 y + Transposing. one linear and ne quadratic. .  . 4 y = 20. x " (3) 49 etc. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. . + 29 = 0. 5. or y = 1 . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). I x+y = a. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.
8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 4 f + 2 y = 3. quantities. III.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. Solve . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. y* + 2y = 3. 3y) : Factor (2). ':il e :) . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. ' x*. 9. x2y. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 10. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.
109 a. = Ex.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. (1) (2) x x 5. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). } VI09. 15 x2 . 2. j Substituting y in (2). (3) (4) Subtracting. 2 .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. Solve 2.
SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. can be solved by special devices. (4) (3). and others not belonging to them.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.125 ay = .175 ay = 12.xy 4. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).!. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. 2 xy + y2 = 10.6. " IV. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).3^42^=43. Bxy9. Division of one equation by the other. 298. 150 */2 . y? a? f . . ' ^ 15.y = 7. f 1 150 a?. E.
2. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1). xy. = 189. Therefore x = 16. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. we obtain by squaring. (1 > (2) 1. y .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. * ' 300. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. from (2). B. = 12 J. y = 3. Some simultaneous ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133.. quadratics can be solved by ?/. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. at first it is unknown quantities. x +y y etc. jc~ y = 9. x 2 . Solve Ex. i ^ *>.
2. 6. 239 Ex. Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . I e. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 36* 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. M6. 7. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. . [2x + : y= 17. F+y+ .
25.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = y 1 y* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. * . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. + o5)(6hy) = 80. . = 198. 19 ' 26. 16.4 y = 47 a. f 18.21 ^ = 15.
203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . ~\ OK OO. . hence may be any finite number. ^ oo . 7' j/ 39. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .of  According to the definition of division. Interpretation . finite  =x y if = x. etc. 3 a2 38.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. etc 302. 30. 25 34. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 32.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. Q 7. . 31. . as a . y % 9 f*K 36. = 48201. 33. or ~ indeterminate.
of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (1) = 0. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. = 10. without exception. is satisfied by any number. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 306.e.e.000 a. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. i.can be If It is made larger than number. equation. cancel. ToU" ^100 a. Or. or that x may equal any finite number. the answer is indeterminate. The ~~f fraction . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. 1. i. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. oo is = QQ. be the numbers. TO^UU" sufficiently small. . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Let 2. By making x any * assigned zero.g. and becomes infinitely small. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. creases. (1). + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .decreases X if called infinity. 1.242 303. (a: Then Simplifying. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1) is an identity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. x f 2.increases if x de x creases.x'2 2 x = 1. it is an Ex. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. . Hence such an equation identity. and . great. as + l. I.
third and sixth parts. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. and a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. y finite QO. is their 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 4 3 x x5 a2 . Hence /. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 2. Solve  9 7. z = 1 Substituting. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. (2). and the sum of Find the numbers. * 6. = oo. The sum is of squares 2890.8 x + 15 6. EXERCISE 1. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.2 y = 4. 42 and' their product is 377. two numbers is 76. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 3. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 1=0. .e. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve x a. Solve .
The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 14. increased by the edge of the other. Find these sides.quals 20 feet. p. Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 13.244 3. .) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. and the diago(Ex. 10. 9. of a rectangular field feet. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the other two sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the dimensions of the field. and the edge of one. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 103.) 53 yards. 12. is is 17 and the sum 4. of a right triangle is 73. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the sides. Find the edges. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. the area becomes f% of the original area. Find the edge of each cube. equals 4 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. 190. 8. Find the side of each square. and the sum of ( 228. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 146 yards. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. is 6. 6. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.
245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. Find the radii.) 17. Find the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. . the quotient is 2. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. irR *. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. is 20 inches.
. 16. to produce the 3d term.. a.) is a series. . except the first. the first term a and the common difference d being given. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. . a f d. (n 1) d must be added to a. To find the nth term / of an A. P. 2 d must be added to a. . to produce the 4th term.. The progression is a. Hence / = a + (n . to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. An arithmetic progression (A. 11. progression. The common differences are respectively 4. 3. 3 d must be added to a. The first is an ascending... a 3d.. added to each term to obtain the next one. 12. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. the second a descending. a + 2 d... and d. a + d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. series 9. P. to produce the nth term. each term of which. 19. to each term produces the next term. P. : 7. . 4. f . of a series are its successive numbers. + 2 d.. a 11. 10.7.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 15 is 9 f. of the following series is 3. Since d is a f 3 d. 17. 309.1) d.
= I + 49 = *({ + . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . . 1. (d) 1J. 6. . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. 1... 115. 21. a = 2.' cZ == .. the last term and the common difference d being given. Adding. 5. 24. 5. Find the 5th term of the 4. 8. 7.. 19. P. the term a. 2J. 2.. . ? (a) 1.. 8. 6 we have Hence . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. = a + (a Reversing the order. = 99. if a = 5. series . P.3 a = l. . 6. 9. 7. 6. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 2 EXERCISE 1. 5. 4. 10.8.. 9. . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Find the 10th term of the series 17. .PROGRESSIONS 310. 4^.. 3.4. (a + + (a + l) l). 8. series 2. . of the series 10. 99) = 2600. P.. 2. 3..16. d ... first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. 3. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Find the 12th term of the 4. 5. 5. 7. 3.. = 2. 1J. Find the 101th term of the series 1... d = 3..
striking hours only. Jive quantities are involved. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers.1 f 3. 11.7 f to 12 terms. 2J. P. 29. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . . 7. (x +"l) 4. 3. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . . . to 8 terms. '. . to 15 terms. \n. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 12. : 3. In most problems relating to A. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.248 Find the 10. 16. 23. 7. to 16 terms. 15. 1. hence if any three of them are given. 8. 19. 13. and a yearly increase of $ 120. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 31.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 20. 11. > 2f 2. (i) (ii) . 4. rf. 15. 1. 21. to 7 terms. strike for the first yard. 1. to 20 terms. to 20 terms. 12. . and for each than for the preceding one. 22. to 10 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 2. 18. + 3. 11.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 7. .. 16. 11. 6. 17. 33. 15. Sum the following series 14. 1J. to 20 terms.
= 144. #. 312. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 78. 100. Ex. = a + (w. .. 111. if a. l)e?. and b form an A. 56. = 1014.6. The series is. 122. 133.e. P.1) . But evidently n cannot be fractional. Findn. 1. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. a = 12. a = 49 6(71 . Solving. n d. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 204 = ^ (98 . the and the sum of all terms 1014. Substituting in (2). 6. or 11 J. the second one mean between the other two. if s = 204. hence n = 6. 34. I. 23.1).~n~\ 408 6). 45. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 12. 144. 89. is 12.104 w + 408 = 0. 2. 67. Find the series. s 24ft last term 144. d = 6. . 6 n2 . P. I Substituting in (I) and (II). J = 49. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). = n(104 .6 n). From (1). 78 n Substituting in (1). = 1014. or if x Solving. = 13.. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. The first term of an A. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 204 = ^ (a + 49).PROGRESSIONS Ex. n = 6.
f? . Find w. 17. How much . 16. 6? 9. T? ^. m and n 2. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = ^ 3 = 1. Find n. Find?. . 14. 12. of 5 terms 6. has the series 82.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Find d. 3. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 8. 13. 4. n = 16. P. f J 1 1 / . = 16. I Find I in terms of a. Given a = . a+ and b a b 5. Given a = 1. = 52. Find a Given a = 7. = 17. Given a = . s = 70.3. ceding one. n = 13. and s. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Find d. = 1870. Find a and Given s = 44. 74. n = 4. s == 440. 78. How much did he save the first month? 19. d = 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. I. y and #f5y. 11. n = 20. n. = 83. n = 17. 10. a x f b and a b. 7. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find d and Given a = 1700. 15. n has the series ^ j . produced. = 45. Given a = 4. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means .
and To find the nth term / of a G. 24. P. is it (G. ratios are respectively 3. rs = s 2 . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. 24..arn ~ l . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. (I) of the series 16. 36. r n~ l . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 12.) is a series each term of which. 2 a. ar8 r. . P. called the ratio. . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. A geometric progression first. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . or 81 315. I. The progression is a. 4. . ar.. or. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. 108. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . . 36. 4. +1. 36.. The 314. . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.g. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). <zr .. NOTE. 4 (1) . is 16(f) 4 .. E. of a G.. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . 2. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . If n is less : than unity. P.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313.
288. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. (b) 1.. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 4. 6. 576. if any three of them are given. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. I = 670. 36.. f. 80. first 5. f. EXERCISE 1. volved . 676. Ex. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. ? (c) 2. Find the 5th term of a G. 4. whose and whose second term is 8. . . 144.4. hence. whose . . Hence the or series is 0.. is 3. . or 7. 144. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.. Find the 6th term of the series J. 9. . +f%9 % . . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. first term is 125 and whose common . Write down the first 6 terms of a G.5. 288. Hence n = 7. 9. 7. 72.. 20. l. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^..*.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . 1. P. whose and whose common ratio is 4. In most problems relating to G.72. is 16. . . + 5.18... 36.. fa. P. P. 10. series 6. 9. 3. 36. \ t series . And the required means are 18.5. Jive quantities are in. . P._!=!>. series 5. . 144. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.. ... 8. 25. i 288. 72. 2 term 3.l. 18. 0. (d) 5. a = I.54. r^2. (it. .18.6. fa.. first term 4. series . .
to 6 terms. Z s. s = 310. 22. 21. a. 81. a^. to 7 . to 6 terms. Given r = n Z 5. 81.. to G terms. . I. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. . to 8 terms. is less than unity.. n = 5. Find a and 4. be written If the value of r of a G. 243. 126. 14. Find a and n = 4. .. s = 605.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 54. J. 16 . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 12 terms. >"> . r . J. 24. 1. 13. and hence ~ r .. . J. 48.J and 270. 42. 4. n = 5. 19. 12. = 3. 2. 27. 36. may be than any assignable number. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 72.. 20.. . . to 7 terms.i a9 .nV> i*> !718. P. 25S series : 32. 14. 1. J. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. == 160. 23. Find the geometric mean between 7. Find a and Given r = 3. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1.. to 6 terms. of r n decreases. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. = 3. to 5 terms. M. 15. + 4 .
. Find the value 9..= _4Z* .717171. . = .72.. 7. . If the side of the first square is 2 inches.27777 . 100. 3. 1. The sum Find the of an infinite G.191919.555..Ql. .)7?7272 ... 1.. .272727. = 990 . .. . 250. i i J. is 9. P.= .3 + .254 Ex. 6.99 . P.. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 16. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. Given an infinite series of squares. of an infinite G. .. 40. . 66 Therefore .3121212.. .. 8.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.1. 2. 4. 5. The sum r.00072 f . 10. 4. 6. .. 9.. = a ..072 + . is 16....072. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. I. 1 r = ... . 16.37272 . 8. = . what is (a) the sum of the areas. Find the sum to infinity. of all squares ? .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.01 ^ . ... .. . first and the common term. 5. is J. 12. 12. 14. i. ratio 15. .. of: 11..3727272 . 1.. If a = 40. 13.. . r = j. =A+ 10 i. P... 2.. 9.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . . Hence . and the first term is Find 17. 1.
26. 7 . (a2) 6. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 11. (a 100 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 14. /2a+Y\ 8. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 25. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 10. (xy) : 6 . 22. 13. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 5. . 17. (\ 9 . . . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the 6th term of (x . : (1 + xy. 28. 29. (z2 ^ Simplify 9.b ). (a + b) . 12. 4. l 2. (s + i). 2 2 24.6) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . a6 8 16 in . 15. 4 7. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 21. 20.6) 20 . 16. coefficient of . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.
 8 ^ 2. 5. . 3. c = = = 2. 2. 4. 5. 1. 3. ft) . if x^l. 1.  a)(a 1. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 1. 2. 1. 3. 2. . 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 4. 3. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 3. 1. 2. 5. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 5. 4.f ac 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 3. 2. 3. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 4. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 1. 2. 2. + 2. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). + 2. 2. 6. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 3.a(a 4. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. if y=2j 2. 5. 2. 3. 4. 24 4. + 1. 2. l. 4.  2. 2 . 1. 4. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. 2. if = = = 2. 3. 2. 1. = 2. 3. 6. 1. aft 3 + 4. 6. 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 2. 4 2.c )(fta) 1.  2. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 2. 3. 2. 5. 5. 2. if = = 2. 1. 2. 3. a ft c = = 2. 1. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 6. 3. 3. 1. 7. if a ft c = = = 4. (c 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 2. 5. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. y 3. 5. 3. 4. + c(a  c). 4. 2. 4. c if 7 . 6. 1.
5.1.2 x?/. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2  + 12 a 8 .4.x 5 4 .\ yz + xz. 7y 4 . 41.7 + . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 4. .2 z8 4 x. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 4 y 13. + 8 x4 *y . b(x (b 1. 18. + 1. 15.7 y 2* 4. 4 z . a 4 + 11 a . if a 6 = = c = 3. c)(x a} . a /> 3. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 6. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .3 xyz. ' b) + 3. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . . 7 xy 3 . 5. 2. 7. x 3 x' 14. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.10. 6 a4 4 a8 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . x 3 11. 17.2.8 3 + 7 x4 . 2 x 8. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 4 x 4 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. a. 40. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . a: .8 y y 5 4 * 8y.a) . x C 4 4x y + . 20. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . x3 2 a2 . (5. or . 29. 3. 2. c = 3.a 4 . 8 . + 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 21. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .7 ys.5 xy 3 + + 4 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 12. . 2. 16. 5. 10.3 a?y .a 5 a . 4.  a) (c 2. 3. 1.2.r 6 x  4 xy . = 2. 26.259 x c) . x = 4. 4. ~c)(b.8 + 2 // . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 2 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. + 4 ?y . 9. 9.c' 2 4 / .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . . f 8. a. 8.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 1. 24. 15.5. + 3 y 2* .2 a?y + 3 aty . x3 f 3 ax'2 . r> . 5. 2.a8 . 25. + 2. 21.2 x2 .
sum of . Simplify 31. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. From of 2 the 4.2) . . 5 10 4 G 11 4.8 3 4.c. f ft. x'2 . 4 4 4. .(5 c .#48.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . c 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].2 a . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].4 ft) 4.x 2 4. 542 x 2 and . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . (*) a  c.(7 x 4. c 4ft. . c =x y }~ z.(5 y . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. .c 4 3 a.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(x* .3. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. .{2 x 2 .4) . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. of a.2 .1)}] . = x y ft z. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 34. : a x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . ft. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 33.3 .2 x 8y2 44 . .(a . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.a ft.{G * 2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.2 3 ax 2 . x8 x2 2 a'2x.6 x ] . Take the sum of 3 x 4.4 Vl 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .5 . ft 25. 0" 30.(x 4.x2 . 35.4.6T .] 26. and .c 3 a.c. take the sum of G x 5 . 3 ft. 4 2 x2 23. 4 3 5 y/ .260 19. 4 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .3 x . 5 10 + 7 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.7.[4 z 8 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. Take the sum 4x 4.5. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.1). a  ft + c. 2 x 32. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.(4 x 2 .[4 x 4.3 . 29. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .x . 7 12 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .?> x 4 20. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 4vTT~y 3. 5 4 7 12 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.(4 * .x 4..27~~7)}]. 36.x .
(x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. a {.0)} . 51.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 13 a . .2 zz . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).3).ab .c 2 .& + {. 2 f [3 c 7 a .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 65.(2 a + 5 a . 43. + 4x + 5)(j. 'J 44. 56. .(2 x2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].3)(*5)(* 7). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3 c)]. (. .7).{2 a (ft . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).a~^~c)K].[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].ac . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (x .3c).3 z 2 ). 49. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . . 2 ft 41. 2 2 x + !)(* .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).[4 x  5 . 45. 64. .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].12).b (c .(4 d . 57.JT^T+1)} + (2 .5 )}] + {4 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 54. 2 : 7e)a}].c). (4 + 3a 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a .1). .6)}]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (x.2c(V/ . + *+!){> + 2).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2 2 .be) (a 58. 59. (. 60. 62. 50.96 [17 a. 67. 68. 63. (r (1 (a.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).2x + 3).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 53. (5 a 39. . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.2)(1 .[2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 48.(7 a. 4 + 2 2 + 1).6c) (a + f c). a . (1 ar+a. .4 a .rf)} + a [. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.r 2:c+ l)(ar.2a .(2 . .(6 .56.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (/> 4 . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3 *). 46.Z .(7 i + 4 r:) .(5 y .{3 c . 3 x 42.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . )(lz a ).{2 a . (1 55.4 a 2 + a 4 ).(2 a 2 .5)} + (3 a 2 .6 xy .2 2 + 1)(7. 2 52.
1). 77. 89.2 ft}) f (3 a .(a 2) (s 4 ft. 2 (x 2 . 93.2y)(. ft 78. 76.<f(p .(4 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.ft) + 4(2 .262 69.r 2 . 87. 73. 4 4 .q).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 86. . 91.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).> 2 2 + 2 3 9).9y2). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.c)} .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.:y)( a. 85. ft ft ft a}.O (a 4(a 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).x + y + z). 84.3 a . 2 + a 2 ).c) . Prove the following 8 4.y + z)(x + y . ar . . (x (x ( + *) .c) j.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . xy y 2 ).(ft 4.3 (ft . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. b 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .z)(x y + z)(. 90. 79. f 72. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.(/>  3 v)^(. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 71.b 4. 88. (p 2 . ft /. . ft 95. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.2 (a .c .y)\x y). 83. 4.c) 2 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.3y) a (* 2 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).2 (y 4.v) 4.z) .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).am&t 4 A 2 *).6*y . 74.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).{3 a . 92. (a (2 b)*(a 4. 75. 82. 70. 94. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c) 4) (ft 4.m np c .5 .y).ft) 4 .(a 48 8 8 4.c) .(c 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) rr identities.n pc).a) 2 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 1). (.c)]. (a 2 ft 2n 4. ft" l Simplify 80.c .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .z\x 4.
2y 2 4. r . 3*. (a 8  8 68 8 4.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 117. 1O4. 102. 26 (a 4 c).2 xy 8 . 108. 99 100.27 x* . .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 110. 105. 2 4 41 x 4a. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 116.y 2 4. (2< 107.40 />) .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 123. 120. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 113.35 x 2 2 ) .y 4 .9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .5 xy).6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(2 a 2 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 118.v/ ~ // = a: .y 4 ) . 114. 109. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.(7 xi/ . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).xy 4.6 y 4 4.(a 1 2 8 . (.r 4 4.) . 25 4 .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.3 a"+ 4.1). 106. 121. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.&). .(x 2 . (80 a 112.16 a 6 4.*) (x 8 . 103.2 2% 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 2 (a+ . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 122.b) 98.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.5 b*). (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (8 x* 115. a*. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 10).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.4 aft . 124. [10( 4. 1).a".
n .a:)]}. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 5 146.2(j: .2 7^~5] + 1).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2(5 . .r + 7[or .2) + 2(ar + 4). 149. . 3) = x\x . 1) = 2(* .3 a:). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.19) + 5 = 4 .264 125. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(x + 3) ] . 3(2 x 134.2(4 . x 147. 7(2 x . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).3). .8 6 . . 1) . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 148.5{.(1 .1) (a? . 135.2(10 x .7(4 * .5) = 12(4 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.G) .(x f 9).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3) (3 x 4. 142. 5(2 x .3).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2) = 3 .4) .18 *&) (1 . 128. 2 4(ar .27 a 3" .9) 4.r>) . 139. 138.7) = 4 .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).9) + 3. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .3 x).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2) (a: + 3).3(2 z .12 M 132. 129. 143. (5a: 150. (4 x . 127. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.5). . 136.4) .(j a? 144.3) = 12 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . (*+ + .1) . y (* l x.22.3(* + 4) + 9} . 126. 137. 42(3ar 145. o o 140.4(0 x . . 10(2 x 141.
5 x) = 45 x .a:) + 229. 2 4 . The second contains 3 first. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 5(ar x .T)O . . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. will produce F. If the area of the frame inches.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.7) (a.9) + (a.2 x) (4 . (2 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. (a) If C. How many 170.? . (7 14 .5)(. and the third twice as many as the first.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . + 5) = (9 .17) 2 + (4 x .. The sum What 171. 158.3) (j. 164. 159. (a.4) (a .3) (3 . + 10) (ar .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 165. (3 O + . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.1) O + 4) = (2 * . (x (x a. 160.5(x .29) 2 = 1. 153.2).2) a + 7(x . f^ + ^sO.7) (1 x .(5 x .19) + 42. a: ar a.8) = (2 x 4. 157. + 2) + (5 .5*) + 47. these two angles would be equal. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. (a .76. = 2 C. .3) (a: . 161. transformed into F. 155. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.r + 3) . 166. find the value of F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2) (j? + 1) + (x . sheep more than the 169.2 x) = (1 .3) (3 .l)(z . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.3) = (3 x .14) (a: + 3).2) (7 *) + (*. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.6 x) (3 . 156.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 154. = 15. . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 163.24. 265 152.1) (s + 3). and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. + 4) (2 x + 5). . 162. .5) = (3 .25) 2 .z) (4 . =  (F 32).
A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. younger than his Find the age of the father. + 11 ~ 6. Find the number. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 188. A house has 3 rows of windows. 13 a + 3. 3 gives the 174. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. side were one foot longer. 10x 2 192. 180. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. same result as the number diminished by 175. 15 m. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. z 2 92. power one of the two Find the power of each. two boys is twice that of the younger. sister . 189. 176. x* 185. 178. A each 177. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. respectively. .266 173. was three times that of the younger. number divided by 3.36. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. A boy is father. 187. + a. 190.56. 179. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. +x 2. . is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. and 5 h. How many are there in each window ? . Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. train. 2 2 + a _ no. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 7/ 191. dimension 182. Find the dimensions of the floor. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. ll?/102. if each increased 2 feet. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. z 2 + x . aW + llab2&. father. 181. . 4 a 2 yy 42. 12 m. 186.
8 6 2. . # 2  29 y + 120. 2 200. 222. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .6. 5 x 2. + 8. 208. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 224. 238.c) 2  (a . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 211. 2 a 8 .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .12 * . 3 ap 2 . + 2 . a. 23 12. x 219. wiy + la mx + aw. 202. 239. . 229.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. . 3 x V .(b + rf) 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247.19 a . 15 x 2 + 26 x a .x + 1.r?/f y 2 9.3 c/> + 6 cq. 218. 7a 228. 2 2 y f 1. x* + 8 2 + 15. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . a^a 226. a. 2 .10 y a x* . + 30 x.1. 212. 213. 216. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.19 z 4 204. 209.6s. .10 xy. 3 x 2 .77 y + 150. 232.14 2 . a 2 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.c) 2 . 206. a a: a: 237. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6 y2 + 4. x*y 223. 12 x +4. . 2 x 2 . 245. ifWy+b. a: 231. a: 236. 201. 227. 7x 2 225. (a + . 244. 2 a 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 .21 a:  54. a. 207.64.10. + 3a 196. 217.3 xy.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . x 5 . 4a 2& 2 241. a. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 16x 4 81. 4 m +^. 24 2 + 2 . z 2 2. a+a* + o a +l. 221.28. z + 5x 2 . 233. 203. *2 234. . 246. a: . 6 197.6 2 ?/ . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 8 a. 230. xm+l 243.20 z 8 a: 220. 195. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 3y 248. 215. 210. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . + 198. 235. 267 199. y 2 194. 8 a: ar.6 aq . 3y 2 + ary .22 z + 48. .3 xf + 3 * 2y .
x*y* 4. F. a 3 a 2 2 . 251. 261. + 3 x + 2.10 a 4. C. + 23 x f 20. 6. x* .C.9. z 2 268. 7 ax 250.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .2/ 2 .48 afy 2 .&z.10.36.3 x . x 2 .r .G7 x f 33. ft a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.80. x 2 + 5 f . x* .1 9 .120.23 + 12. a 4.5 ab f 2. 2 . of: 253. 7 12 2 2 . 258. * 2 .9 x + 14. 2 x2 . 254.14 bx a%% 8 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). I Find the II.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .73 xy .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 264. * a . 269. x 2 4.13. + 20 x 4. 259.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 2 8 .2 aft*. 260. 270. 3 ay 4.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.91. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .15 + 30.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 18 x 2 .2 z .23 x f 20. a. x 2 + 4 + 3.9 x . 5 x 2 256. 2 a. 1 x ar Find the L.3 abc . x 2 + 2 x . * 2 .ry . x 2 263. 257.15. 22x2 a. 10 x 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 28 2 f 71 x .18 xy + 5. 8 2 + 10 x . z 2 267. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.a + 2 4.x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 15 # 2 z/ /.6 by. 252.4. a: .11 x f 28.11 a 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2.12.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 3 #2 255. of: 266. + 8 x + 5. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 10 a.M. 3 a% 2 .4 ab + 1.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. Reduce to lowest terms 271.3. * 2 .ry 21.8.7 f 5. 30 ^ . a? a: a: // 262.16 x .(55. 265. + 8.
y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 285 z4 n* + a. + ac . *2 " 2 + Oge.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 289 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a.2c a: 282. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .rL. m 4..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .ar 1 279. 8 .2* + 3 x* 280. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.(y 2 z) * t (j.!/. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .J' 4 2 2 w mp ..
* 19 23 19(23 23. O(ca) 306. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^_2*(m 308. a (: a) (x 2. 4 3 301. x 7. ^. Lnl + ar 2 a.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. (a? 4 2) 317._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316..(a . . 1 x2 + + a. a: 1 313. } .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .ft) 2 322. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 . (1 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 1a: + y a.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1 _. 2 + y 2 319.
6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.V  + y  x 3y a .ll. 2 lOx 5x.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .y20  2y + 4 2 .. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .15 33 ..7 xy + 12 x . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. a: 2 x* . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . . 250 5 10 2 325.5 a .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 +lOar 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.9 *// + 27 . * 3a. 20 44 333.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .
REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 352. f V. + l + IV. \x yj 340. xi 347.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.+ r . a>74 .y. w \. fl. + ni + . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.) 2 . +^ a: y x . \5yl 341.r 5 2 . (aWi + iJ.. ?_2 ^ . 7 ( ?f!?. 5 343. (ar \ 346. ' 2 "l 5 . ** i. if a = 3.1V. 338. (a \ + lV. 344. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 1 345. a: 349 _ o. ( 342. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 348. : 1+ i. aj 339. (af2/.
i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. 1+2 362. y360. + x x a . I  I f 366. a2 4 . ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.
a + . b c 368. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. <3 378. . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . ^ . 5*8. + 1) 45 O 377. J !__7.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. 5 {2 x 381. __4 2x 3_ = !. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 4(* . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15. 8  376. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. .
3* 177.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 400. _____ . . .25 x + . a. f 1 1 + a 403. u '2 a. b 404. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). m x 398.. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. + 4 a. ^ (a . 401. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. 396. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.  8 9* x ~r.5 ^ ~ a: a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 40.8 = . 399.2 a:  1.5 x =r f .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).6  .  J). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. c .75 x f . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.25. 397..* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.147.1 .
How long is each road ? 423. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. and was out 5 hours. 411.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Find the number.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. the order of the digits will be inverted. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .  a) 2 6 2a.(5 I2x ~r l a) . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. (x . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. In a if and 422. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 420. 421.278 410. hour.c) . far did he walk all together ? A . 418 ~jo. Tn 6 hours .
a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 2 2 8 2 .46 2): (15a 2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. and : b : c = 14 : 15. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.49 63). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. b. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).iand 22 22 I a . a. z 2 y. 430.6 8 ). Find the length of the parts. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.& 5 ) (a 8 . y. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . if . : i. : If is one equal 434. If a b : =5 n : 7. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 438. Find the fourth proportional 426. . 431. 432. a + 5. wi* + y= ny. x 427. a  t>. Find the mean proportional to 429. 433. d. find the angles of the triangle. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Solve 436. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . ax is \ by  ex + dy. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Which ratio is greater. find : a : c. 3 and 1J. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 428. 435.
2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). c. 9ar7# = 71. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. . if 2 ft : 439. 449. 4 = 5 y + 29. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.55 y = . a. 5 2 = 7 .*.7 y = 25. The volumes If their diameters. 7 a: . . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 7 442. 452.11 7. 16. 5z4:# = 3. 42 = 15y + 137. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). = 25. 456. 451. 56 + 10y = 7a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 454.11 y = 95.(or l(*2y)=0. ft. 1(3  a. Find the value of a. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 459. 8 . 7jr9y = 17.rf2# = l.. 458. 457. Solve the following systems: 441. 443. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.89 = q. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 3 a. ft. 444. 7a?y = 3. 3 . /) ar a. 8 x + y = 19.59 = 3 z. . 446. x + 17 # 53.35. a: 2y= = 1 . 445. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. .4 12 . 450.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 448. 453. + 5y = 59. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 28 = 5 a . />(. 5x+4y=lQ. a: a: + 5y). ?/ 447. 455. 9/> = 2 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . .
' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.?/ + 1 .7. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. (or . ^ + i^ = 7. 468. _ 469. i = 5. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. + eyn.2y) (2 = 2J.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 8 461. x y 474.+ =2.c=563y. 473. ax by = c \ 472. 465. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 475. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5..  = 2.
years. 479. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . A spends \ of his. A number consists of two digits 4. fraction becomes equal to . 481. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and the other number least. 483. Find the numbers. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 486. Find the fraction. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. Find the principal and the rate of interest. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 477. whose difference is 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. by 4. and in 18 months to $2180. 485. age. and in 20 months to $275. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the sum and the rate of interest. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. How much money less 484. to . Find the number. the Find their ages. 487. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. . Find the numbers. Find their ages. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A.
a: 499.z = 20. 2 e. 2 a. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 5^ 9z = 10. . = 20. a. + y 5 y = 101 . 496. 7. and the difference of their Find the numbers. x s + y z = 18J . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. . The sum of two numbers squares is b. a. 4 497./ f z =a./ 504. x f y f z 29 . . 495.5#+2z = $x a: G. . 489. 3ar 503. : Solve the following systems 491. 498. 4 506. 2 2 = 41. a: + // = 11. y Solve : x +z= 5. 494. . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. *i. 7 + 2 z . a number . a: f z = 79.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 5 + a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2/>3r = 4.? + 2y = 8. 493. 490. z y x 25 . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. = 15. 1+1 = 6. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 3 a: + 5=84. = 209.z = 12. ~ 507. 4z+3z = 20. 1. * + 425  = . + # +z= 35. 2y + 3a = ll. 3 x 500. 8. 492. z y ifi = z x 502. \ . 2a:f 7. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. ifi = x a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . x y f z = 13.
z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. + : = 1472. ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523. !f == 2800. 517. 36 + c.
and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. M. 530. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . and CA=7. B and C and C and A in 4 days. if and L. and BE. in 28 minutes. 532. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. if L and Af in 20 minutes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. touches and F respectively. if the number be increased by Find the number. it separately ? 531. When weighed in water. 90. If they had walked toward each other. they would have met in 2 hours. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. N. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. In circle A ABC. 527. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. E 533. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. What are their rates of travel? . . Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. Tf and run together. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. L. it is filled in 35 minutes. AB=6. AC in /). How long will B and C take to do . . CD. Find the numbers. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. BC = 5. the first and second digits will change places.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it.
Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2. If to feet is the length of a seconds. FRANCE. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. The values of x if y = 2. i.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 542. x*  2 x.  3 x. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 550. 3 x 539. The values of y. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.10 marks. GERMANY. + 3. formation of dollars into marks. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 540. 545. the function. 2 x + 5. x *x + x + 1. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. z 2  x x  5.e. 543. . 547. then / = 3 and write = 3. 536. x 2 544. b. to do the work? pendulum. x*. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2  x  x2 . .  7. 2 541. d. x 8 549. 548. x 2 + x.  3 x. if x = f 1. One dollar equals 4. e. The greatest value of the function. from x = 2 to x = 4. 546. a. c.
11 x* + + 2 8 569. j. . a.13 = 0. a: 559. 2. 18 x  4 = 0. 556.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. = 5.  2 1 a: a.15 = 0. a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.17 = 0. x 4 . 572. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .3 x . c. x* . 555. 3 x .5 x . x 2 ~ 2 . 566. . 2 x 2 560.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 2 8 . 568. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.6 + 3 . + 5 . 562.3 x . a? 4 x .4 . z 4 . i. 564. 2 554. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. e. // Solve y Solve y = 5. \ to t = 5. g. J.11 = 0. h. Represent meters. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 553. ' = 8. z 2 .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.9 = 0. 565.4 x 2 + 4 . 15.1 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. r?. 3 + 3 z .3 . and make the unit of the b. .r 1 561.0.3 = 0. Solve 552. c. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 558. + 10 x .= 0. Solve// = 0.r a: a: x a.4 = 0.7 = . a. If y +5 10. 557.G . 563.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 a. 3 . x 5 . 2 567. f.= 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 3 x* .r .
f ?>) 3 591. a 8 606.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2 611. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. (1 (1 (1 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + . 4 a. a: . (a  8 ft) . 1 . 599.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .4. a. 5 a*. 596.5 xy = 0. 6 + 1) .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 593. 9  4 fSb 607. <r)3  2 3 a:) .(1 .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 582. x [ ?/ 577. + %) (a* + *) 5 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. . 595.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .%) 4 (aa.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 64 a 12 603. 588. a:. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. jj+. . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . + + 4 . xY. (a. j^f = 3. 3 (f.frf : 583. 4 (1a:) 3. 608. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 598. a 2a. 2 943 ++ ~bx. (aiy. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 597. + ^) + (air%)8. 604. 585 594.2 6a: + 30 &c a.2 2 + y. 600. (# 2) .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. (1 + x a. : y* or 25. [ y =10. x + z2) 8 .x + 2 )'2 601. a 612. 579. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2  2 aa: 2 . 609. 3 . 589. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 592. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 4 .
f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 44352. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 0090.49. 4370404.*. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 651. 49. x 2 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 633. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 4J.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .53 x ~ .\/4090. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 25023844. GGff. /. 625 : 621. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .150. 49042009. a 642. 942841. + 24 a 2 4 . 630.2410. 8*' + 24* = 32. Find the eighth root 617. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 644. 210. + 112 a 8 . = 87. 40. 2 + 21Ga.V250 .2. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 629. 2 + 189 z = 900. x 2 641. 632. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. + 2 21 x = 100. 639. 035. = 70. : 5. 623.12 a?y + y*. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 622.15174441.191209. According to Kepler's law. find Jupiter's period. 371240.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. (x 9 x 646. ft . V 635.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 637. 2. V950484 . 32 631. 647t x 2 648 649. 615. = . 626. 7) 2. 21. + 54 'x*y* . 638. = 0.871844.30. 3a. 634. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. VOIOOD + V582T09. *+* = 156. 643. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 620. Find the square root of 619. 628. 9g. 650. 494210400001. 645. 614. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 9a. 636. 624.1024 x + a: 256.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 2 . 695.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. ax 2 698.bx . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 708. 694. 707. ex abc= fx 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 702. 696.a a )jr . . = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 692. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. a. 706. 699. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 __ : )'*' _i.c = 0. 2 2 697.ax . 693. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.
3or i 16 .25 might have bought five more for the same money. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. . What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 724. 727. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 729. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. and working together they can build it in 18 days. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 722. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 12 4*+  8. 16 x* . How shares did he buy ? if 726. sum is a and whose product equals J. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 716. a: 713. Find the price of an apple. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 217 . If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. **13a: 2 710. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 723. in value. A equals CO feet.292 709. 721. 717.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 725. Find two numbers whose 719. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.44#2 + 121 = 0.
n. 32.)(ai + &. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 35.aft* 1 + a 2*. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 1 6. 38. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 33.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). (v/x). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .1 + c. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 40. 41. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52.X . 31. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).1 f c" ). . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 42.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. .1 + x. 46. 37. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).l). 39.2? 50. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 34.2 ). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 43. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f ^ 2).2)(x2 4. 36.
2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.1+J 756. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 754. 768. [1r^ T 1 i .. 757. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 2V2 2V3 .294 753. 758. 761. 759. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lGv/128. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. JU.
794. + 2V21. 92VI5. . 783. 806.2 V30. 789. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 16 + 2V55. 787.12VIT. 3J . 3812VIO. 786. x 782.4 V(j. 10 785. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.VlO.2V3* ^ 807. 7512V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 13 799. c 792. 793. 103 788. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . Va 809.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . 14 791. 790. a 9442V5.
Va: .Vc^lJ . 818. 830. + ViTli + V7 .4 = 0. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 819.f 5 = V5x + 4. (x a: 2 ) 4 . = 1. 816. V14 a.13 = 0. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 833. 831. 829. 3 x + 2 .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V2 ar 10.V? = 813. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/12 a.79. /9ar a: = 17. 815. 836.g.  5 + V3 f 12 817.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.\/2y  810. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 811. + 103Var. 814. V3 f 1 V4a. 812. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . + Vx . 820. x/aT+l .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
64. 8 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 852. z*y 8 l64a. 8 2a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. f b**. 40 x 2 7 f 49. . a.3 Va: 2 . 851. + 216 rt aty a 10 . a l0m . 8^27^. +3 4 +  4. a: 849. + . 846. a 8 869. f 12. 875. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.a.x*y + 3x f 2. x 8 2 857.10 = 118. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 4 a: 2 842. 856. 27 y 8.3 . . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 275 8 l.1. a 8 873. a. 8 4a: 8 a. 840. 868. 8 8 848.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .  3x a. f 841.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a. 2 f" + a/ 15. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a. 8 860.1000 6. x 4 + f 2 a. 876. . 4 x 8 858. 64 a 866. a. a 8 850. 27 862. 9. 8 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 4 a. 16 859. + 512 y8 874. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 870.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 4o. 853. a 18 4. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. . 6. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x .ab9 ft*. 845. 855. 864. 729 867. 4 x* 847. a: . 871. 839. 2 a: 64 y*. 844. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 2 x 3. 861. 865. 8 8  13 a.12. + 1. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 19 x 14. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a*" & 6n .3 x .3 a:. 863.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. V4 x 2 . y 4. .1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a 872. a.28 a 4 xy 8 80.
y 2 2 8f. . 895. a: 2 897.xy + y 2 = 19. a: 884. z 2 898. M1 891 1 . 890.sy = 198. 2 .1 = 2 a#.18. 899. 887. 878. 2 2 = 16 y.35. 2 = 2 + 5. 901. y = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a# f + xy = 126. 2 + y 2 . a: a. .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 883. 2 + xy = 10. + 2y=\2. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. a: + y 2 = 34. y 2 4. f ?/ a: a: . . x*xy. 5. y*+ xy . .Vi' + 1 1_3.298 877. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. . a. x 8 3 = 13:3. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y 2 + V(j. a. 2 + xy = 28. y y 2 y 2 1121. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 3 x 2 . +y f y = 7. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 886.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a. 896. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 1 x 893.y 2 = 2 y + 2. . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a:y . 885. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 889. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. xy + y = 32. 894. 900.15. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. x a: lI = xz . 2 + 2 f = 17. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. x 882.y 2) = 20. a: 888.
a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 2 2 916. xy + x= 15. = 8. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.y) (3 y . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. Vary + y = 6. a: a. . 923. x 2 ry + y = 3. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 23 x 2 . y 3 2 2 922. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. + y)(a. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 3 y 8 ) =1216. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 2 913. yz = 24.y) = 33. 2 915. ary y = 8.y). (o.3) 2 f (y . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 906. y x 2 = by. or or a? a: a: . x + y 2 = aar.3)2 = 34. 914.6. + ?/) . 2 924. 3 :r(3 . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. x 4 299 xy z 904. .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. ^ 2 . 910. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 911. 921. 920.#y + 2 = 27.x) = 21. 917. # + xy + y = 7. 909. 905. + a. 2 + y = 2 a 4. *y . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. a:y xy 929.2 y) = 49 2 919. (!) * . + 2 ary = 39.3(* + y) = 6. 912.y = a(ar + y). . (* 918. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). y + a:y = 180. 2 5 xy = 11. * + y = 444. + y 8 = 189. + y = 9. 907. (3 x . 908. x f 2 a:y = 32.16 y 3 8 = . (a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .y) (a? . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y . 4 (a.y2 = 22. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 * 2 ~ g. a. xa 903. 7 y . x* + ary f y 2 = 9.23 = 200. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.r a. a: y zx 12. + 2 a:y + = 243. + ary = a*. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.
34 939. If each side was increased by 2 feet. . 2240. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 20. and also contains 300 square feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. In the second heat A . is 3 .square inches. feet. 943. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 944. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933.300 930. a second rec8 feet shorter. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. *(* + #) =24. feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. y(x + y + 2) = 133. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Assuming = y.102. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = . 937. two numbers Find the numbers. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. and 10 feet broader. rate each man ran in the first heat. diagonal 940. 931. is 3. 942. and the sum of their areas 78$. y( 934. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. find the radii of the two circles. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares.000 trees. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 152. 935. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. two squares is 23 feet. s(y 932. A is 938. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. How many rows are there? 941. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. and the difference of 936. + z)=18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. + z) =108.
Two starts travelers. is 407 cubic feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. that B A 955. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and travels in the same direction as A. distance between P and Q. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. and if 594 be added to the number. 952. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. 949. Find the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find its length and breadth. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. A and B. P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. whose 946. overtook miles. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. unaltered. and that B. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find the eter 947. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. at Find the his rate of traveling. sum Find an edge of 954. 950. . Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. each block. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. set out from two places. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. 951. the digits are reversed. 953. Find the number. triangle is 6. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. and its perim 948. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. .
958. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 12434+ j I 967.V2 . 9th and llth terms of an A. 36 963. 4 4 to 7 terms .. *" 968. 957.3151515. \ . 3 . f + 1 . . x(x to 8 terms. 1G series . difference..4142 .. are 29 and 53. to infinity. Sura to 24 terms. . (to 2 n terms). n to n terms.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. to n terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.>/) to infinity. . Find the Find the common 977.. 975...to infinity. 5.. J.. Sum Sum to infinity. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Evaluate (a) . 4. 3 + 5 7 + . + (iiven a +  4 d . the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123..454. and 976. P. Sum to 20 terms.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. .321? 965.. 972. = 4.1 4 f j$V .141414. 961. 18th terms of an A. 969. ^ 1 . 971. to 7 terms. fourth of the unity. P. Find an A. !Ll^ + n ..v 973. P. 964. 16 962.  2. Find n f (ft) . ^ Vfirst five 959. 5. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. '. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.302 956. Find the sum of 4. the terms being in A. 970. 966. Find n. (x 4 to n terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .... s  88. 1 to n terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. P... 974. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.
. 0. The sum 982. 992. to oo.001 + .2 .04 + .. 5 11. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.01 3. 4 grains on the 3d.. first 984. to 105? 981. of n terms of an A. to n terms. 980. 2 grains on the 2d. Find four perfect numbers. is 225.. The 21st term of an A. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 1. and of the second and third 03.. Find the sum of the series 988. and so on. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 985. 987. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 990.+ lY L V. Find the first term. Find n. "(. Find four numbers in A. to infinity may be 8? . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . named Sheran. P. . 989. The term. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.. 986.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . P. 303 979.1 + 2...3 ' Find the 8th 983. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.001 4. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. P. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. : + 9   V2 + . and the common difference. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.) the last term the series a perfect number. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.
many days will the latter overtake the former? . the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. find the series. 997. 998. and so forth to infinity. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 512 996. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. (a) after 5 strokes. ft. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 1001. are unequal.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. areas of all triangles. prove that they cannot be in A. 1000. c. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. The fifth term of a G. is 4. ABC A A n same sides. 999. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. in this square a circle. Two travelers start on the same road. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. The sum and sum . If a. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The sum and product of three numbers in G. of squares of four numbers in G. are 28 and find the numbers. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. at the same time. in this circle a square. 995. inches. P. AB = 1004. 1003. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . are 45 and 765 find the numbers. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 994. . P. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity.
Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .o/) 14 . 1012. . (12 #) 7 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.iV 2i/ 5 . (1 1018. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1009. ) 1021. 2 ) 5. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. x) 18 .ft) 19 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . + lQ . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . . 1011.l) w f . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1006. a: 8 7. 1014. 1008. Expand  2 a. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015.
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. 160 in quadratic form 191 . .] Abscissa Absolute term . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 8 . 9... Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 9 ** .. .... . 97. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 232 mean progression . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average ..130 .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. 246 91 " multiple. . . ... 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 232 169 807 . 19. ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. 123 . .. 129 54. 112 54 54 251 . .. ... numerical . 54.. . Aggregation. Checks Coefficient 20.. .. t 53 120 .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . . . . .193 11 .. . . lowest ratio " '* .. . quadratic .108 160 " . 158... . . 37.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. graphic tion of representa ... simple simultaneous ... 129. . linear literal Common ** * difference . . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. .. . ..178 Completing the square .. signs of Algebraic expression ...181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. . ..
. . 63.. 42 7 Independent equations Index . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .154 Order of operations " of surds .251 Graphic solution of simultane. inversely 122 numbers . exponent . . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . 112 . . 9. 45. 84. 241 123 geometric . 253 28 70 1. 205 . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 227 geometric . Mean " 81) proportional Mean.... Mathematical induction ... . numbers . arithmetic . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .C Multiplication . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 45 Laws of signs .31.. Negative exponents 11 ..108 Minuend . 143. G. Like terms Linear equation . 109 102 .. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Product '* 76 Infinite. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 17 65.. . 243 7 .. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . first and second . . 114. directly. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. addition of " square of . 23 10 91 102. Inconsistent equations .. . Imaginary numbers . 180.. 227 .. . 195 33. . 212 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Geometric progression . . 184 54. . . . 34. P . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. INDEX 8 . . . law of Extraneous roots .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . Known numbers . . 120 Member. 91 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 189. Insertion of parentheses . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. 45.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. L. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.808 Exponent Exponents. . .
. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America... . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 9.. .. 45 Trinomial 240 .. .... . 4 155 9 " of .. . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76..... .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 129.. 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. algebraic Surds . polynomial .... Sum... . absolute 54 Variable .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Mass.A. 8. December. Published September. 1917. 1913.. Reprinted April. NorfoooS J. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. . Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. August. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.S. 1916. 1910. 1910. Set up and electrotypcd. U.
. 8.2. 85. 2. $160. 4. 3. 5. 10. 36. 6. 6. 27. 16. 14. 512. 3. 1. 8. 16. 115. 24.. $40.  13. ft. 21. 3. 13 V. 13. 32. loss. 6. 12. 2. 3. 26. 1. 12. 17. 4. 6.000. 3* 7. 13. 3. 18. 59. 19. 13 d. 13 S. b. 4. in 12. 0. 5. 8. 15. 9. 3. 2. 5. per sec. 24. Ot 15.150. 1. 1.C. C $60. 20 \. 2. $100. B $80. 8. .. in. 9. 21. 1. 3.  1. 9. 3. 144. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 24. C $ 16. = 5 81. x. 72 = = 216. Page 1. 6. A Bl 7.000. 5. 7. 10. 16. 16f 2. 6 yd. 16. 14. 29. Page?. 4. 2. 2. 1. Page 13. 9 14. 32.000. $ 1 50 10. 4.000 negroes. 7. 14. 17. 8 ft. 150. 12. 8 13. B 10 mi. 1. 1. 1. .. Page 4. 1.12. 7. 128. 28. Page Page Ilis expenditures. A $90. 5. 13. 18. sign. 11. 8. 29. 2. 1. 126. . 2. 10g.000. 18. 37. 11. 4. 1. 15. V 23. in. 1 16.  22 20. 16 in. 8. B $4700. 13. 2. 3. 16 in. 2. A . 8. i . 2. C $1(50. 19. 2  Page 8. 13. 0. 7. 25. 3. 16. 22. 25. 7. 6. 32. 27. 11. 89. 6. 11. 10. 20 jo. 6. 18. 12. westerly motion. 15. Not 5.000 Indians. 3. 7. 11. 3. 9. Australia ft. 28. 30?.8. 3 m. 73. 19. 10.000. 106. 9 m. 18. 7. 49. arithmetic. 3 below 0. 64. 3. 4. T . 2 ~ 15. Yes. . 12. Page 8.  2 p. 7m. A 38 mi.000. 9. 9. 20.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 7.$9400. (a) (/>) 1.1. 17.. c. 25. 12. 9 16  larger than 7. 12. 6* 16. . 20. 1. 10. 2. 15. 20. 12. 9. 6. 17. 3. }.  1. B $20. 14. 37 S. 20.. is $10. 10. 21. _ 32. 12. 23. 27. Multiplication.. 5. 9. 5000. 32. 26z. sign. 7.21 24. 25. 6. 14 11. 14. x.000. 2. 19 4. 9. 16. 30. 6. + 1. 3. 2 5. 16. 210. 576. 20 B.. 3. 1. 5. 49. 15. 14. 2. A 15. 256.000. 17.3. 10. 22. 5.. 6. 9 = 4. 14. 12. 14. 18. South America 46. B $ 128. 1. 48 ft. ^.00000001. 3. 16. 10. 192. 16.
8.000 sq. 2ftx. 2. 13. mi. 8. 1. ft. 23. 5. 15.  xV 3 y. 17. 31. 7. 1. 4. 5. 15. 25.32 c2 > ft 3 . ]*. 14. 14:). 6<t. 29. ft. 8. + ft).'J. 2. (59. yyz+xyz*. + v> 2 . 10. 9. f  5e 35. 13. 6. Polynomial.. 14.6) 38. 21. r+l. Page 7. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).  0. 5. 15. 5. 3. 24. 11. 19. 28.rty8. 25. 12. 21. in. (a) <> sq.r 2 . 7. 2. 32 2 ftc. 18.14 sq. 35. 14. 0. 2.<>Gq. 33. 1. ft n. 3.9?/2 8. 9.  11. 13. 3. 0.x. It. Page 31.. 3rf 27. 8. 3. 16. 92. 27.  3. 26. . 8. rt. 15.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 11. ft. 3 . 3. 30. 314 sq.'JO ft. 25. (b) 135 mi. 8. 6. 13. 21 a 3 4 10. 41. 5. 9. 237. 29. 12. 14. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. (ft) Page 2. 1. 0. (r) 2G7. 14.ft. 37. <i~ 26. 17. Page 23. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. ft f 19. i:5.1. 27. 4 y/ . 12. 57. 18. r/ \(\xyz. 27. 31. 2x' 2 5 . 4.q 4. ^. 20. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 35. 10. 13. Page 18. 24. 5. 3. 12. . sq. . . 27. w. 34. :. (ft) mi. #1111. 8. 17. in.  40. Page 21. = ()501. . 20(. I. +/2(/. 4. vi 14. 16. c. (c) 8. 18. \'\ 4. 18. 12.. 11. $80. (a) 50. 28. :J!>r'. (ft) 7.. Polynomial. 15. 3. 8. + 5. (a 4 4.900. 49. 32. (r) 2000 m. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 28. 30.5f> sq. 35. 51 f.4  2ft 2 33.. (c) S(i. 15. 3 a* + 2 at*. 2oVmf?i. 0. 26. 1. Binomial. t. Pagel4r. 4.  2 4 13 ft 2 .4 ft.GOG. 17. 32. in. 12. 3a. 22. 20... 42.  12. 16.000 . 4. 22. 22. a ft c. 13 cu. 1. Monomial. 58. 43w//2 17. 27. 23.a . 21^. (a) r>23ifcu. 18. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 39. 0* Page 3 w" 0. in. 0. 00 24 04 ft. 6. 7. 21. 20. 3. 5.94(>. (r) 2. y.. 36. ft' 3 . $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 3. 14. (ft) 12. 13.ab. 31. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 38 ab. 9. 1. 38. 34. o^ft. . 36. 50. 22( 19. ft. 12yd. II. = 81. //'. a2 4 15^44.. a 32. 27. 10. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 3(c4a). 15a. ^). m 24. 12 a. 7. $3000 Page 6. 16. . 19. 0. 104. (r) 78. 173. _ 4 .5 (ft) sq.~4. 4 9/^/rl 2. (ft) $40..r~ f 34. 0. 2. 16. 30. arty 1 20. 240. 7 7. ??i??. 22. 2. 5. .  1.3 * 10 r5 <3 . . 4. 11. WIN + wiw. jrif 4 9. 17. m + 3(a. 1. 19. 0.ft) 4. x^ 20. 9. 04.. 1. ft. Trino inial.r f 15.. 7. 14. 5x+3. 33. 0.. r:A 29. (a} 100 1(5 cm. (a) 200. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.
2 6.5. 24. 6. 2. 26. 9. 2a. 36. . 36. 28. 12. 0.2 a. 1. 2 17. 34 39.  4 b 17 y*. 3. . 37. x  + 3z. a + a. 1 + 45. 8. 4 21. 2 a 37. m*  n*. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. ?/. (yz~d}. 3 a ..4x.4. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 38. 16. a 6 2 . G. 5x 2 rt ft. a2 24. 12. 10. Page 8. 25. ?/i 13. _5a<>&43c. . 1. 24. a  49. 2x 4 a 13. 2 2 2 6. + c 4 d x + 6 e. a 10w. 14. 19. 25. 2.  G J8 r  4 a <?. + 8. 4ft ~. Page 28. 14. . 4. 51. (w4w)(ww). 0. 20. 2 4. 40. . 19.a . 8 b. 7.a*. a4 4 4. 2m. a  ISjfat. 1 4. 2// 16.(7x2 Ox2). 7  a + 2 + c.2 ft 2 r2 10. 7  # + 12. 31. 8 + 2 a . a. 22. a). (mn} 11. 5 2 Page 29. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. ?>4tl 53.3x 2 2 tf. 2 2. :5 41. .  b* 4 r 1 . 364c.  17. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . a 3a 4 2 &. (2n' 43p 47 ). 2 .2 . 12.a'2 .a f 54. 4r 2 . a' 4ab + ?/. 11. 55. 2. \ :{ 2 a 48. 17. a a.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. . c2 . 19. 2. . 24.a~. f 2 ?/  2. 814.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 20. 24 b 46. ti. 58.l. 4. . !  </ . 3 a3 & 41. 18.1. 4wipg>' 27. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 13. . G a bd. c. 5. 22. 12. 21.4c 3 8 8 J. ?> 22. Page 7. 18. a f 2 f 2 9. 8 . 2. . 1. f ft 9. w 17. 6.ws 2 ft) . 2.2 a2 2m 2 4. 5. 17. + 4 c. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. s_r>a5.aft.  b. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 42.c. 3.5 4 2 3 ?/ .8(c + a). 31.2 57. 2 y' 4 . ri\ 18. 8. 4. 29. 1. 15. 16.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). w* ( . r. . 3. 1.abc. 59. 14.  a: 2. n*. 4. + 2y.  14 afy . 35. 2 + a4l). 21. 11. c. . 2 . 18. .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .2.  12. a 52. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 43. 8 8 . 11. 5. 4. 0. 3 m. 1. lOrt 15w4. a2 9. 25 47. 34. t). 2m + 2w. 26.4 d. 32. 10 m. j)(g1.x f 1 2 . Exercise 16. x a8 1. 2. 7. 7.11.'U4j>.r 2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 10 x. a + (ftc4df).h. a 3 . 8. ^ <. 2 3. 3 Ji 8 . 20.5 z?/ + 3 y . 32 w 2 w. Page 44.3 6. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 5. 2a: 2 4x.Oa: + 10. 7 a5 1 . a 4 + ft. 7.6 x + 0) 16. '  . + 6. 14. 50. _ Page 30. x3 . 21. 25. &. 2 a f 6 414. 2.  23.r. ab a. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 6. 2.7. 15. 2. (5x47 3. M + 10. 10. 15. ii\ 22. ar. 33. 56. 6. . 10. a 3& . 2 3x f z. ft Exercise 17. 13.1 . 4.(2 x2 .. mn. ( 7. 26. .  1. 30.
2z 8 s 2 3zl. 14.14 . ?/ . 0. 20. 16 51.6 2 . 19. 161b. (+3)x6=+16. 108. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 90. 29. ^^ = 20. 102. 15. 4. Ox a 5 . 23. 9. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 66 39 k* . ft 17. 22. 12. 11. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 127"'. 16. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.20 xyz .:>/ . Page 36. 6. 24. ci 5 . 21 a'&c. 29. ! 2. 34. 10. 10. 8.21. s 9 ww. 108. 7.19 + 2. 4. 360. 120. 31. 4. 30 j9 jt?g j . 6. Page 5. .12. 25 4 4. 18a% y. 1. 2 ). 20 aW. 35. 2. 770.. 18.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . +.7(50.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 20. 161b. Page 38. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 26. 12.21 a 3 c2 21. 18. iSx8 . 19. m. 37. 16.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. //. 18. 8.32. 23. Page 35. 2 a2 (y 2 . 7 + r/m 4^4^414.28 p'^/.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 83 In + 1 n*.16 a 2 + 32 a . 16.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 14. 15 q\ 6. 25.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 8. + 7. etc. 24. 5aft(a 126 2). 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . Page 7. 60.(3x2_4^+7). 31. a 8 . 2 ). 36. 40 r 2 . 42. 42. 12 x2 2 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 33. . 30 n?b*c*.2. 33. 10. 23. 15. 15.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a. . . 1. 4. 2. 30. 3 a 3 . 26. . 216. 24. 13. 7. 30. 18. 20.32 y s s G . 16. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 29. . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 6. 20.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 2''. 4aWy. 3(*+0 + 2). 3. 4 a8 . . 20. 4 jcy*z*>.1. 27. 34. 17. 14f 5. 17. 18. 13. + 58 . 64. 27. 16. +15. 17. 3. 17. 76 8 a' 1 .>(/ r . 11.64 190 p6. 28. 6 . 3 a 2 46. 32. 2. 28. 25. 22. 9. a: . + O4 66 . n (a6) 125.26. 7. 18> ^* = a .. 33. 30. 1. 28. ll 2 i. 1904. 24.8 12. 21. 22. Page 3.. 7G .25 + 14. 21. 3. 3. 20.12. 11. 2 7t A. 30. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 30. 343. 60.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 23. 216. 04. ?> 4 . a. 12. 10. 2. 32. 2*8f x2 6x4. 15.36 35. 12 ^. 29. 30. 5. fa 2. 15 lb. 25. 8 .r% 2 2 ry. 5. 1. 19.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 8. 0. 18. 13.11 xyz . 27.57 p6 3 2 4 25. . 14 m 2 . 22. 34. 1.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . a*b*c. 1. . ISartyW e*f*tj. f 26. 2 w +2 2 .19p" + 19^ 10 .14 w 2 2 . a. 21. 25. 27. 1. 13. a + ft.000. 13.15. 11. 1400. . 9 13.. 210. 19. 3300. . 52 + 6s 12. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4. 4.16 x2/ 5 4. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 15. 16 lb. 66 8W 34. 4 fc.44 aWc 16 abxy. 28. 14. 38wiw. 4 a2 . 14. 8. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 2 * 80 . 27. .iv ANSWERS + &)(.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 2 2 2 . 6. 9. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 84. 2 . 6". x2 xy42^. . 24. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 4200. .6) =a2 31.
Page 39. +  m' 1. m 3 j) 3 . lflrt 2 8 + l. 7> . 990. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. . . 45. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 38. 33. 35. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. (a (3 54.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. a + 25. 37. 10 a 4 ?. (w4)(w + l). 10. 33.20.712. x4 28. 10 a' 2 . 999. 51. 4.000. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 11. .6 y4 10. 8 a W . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 53.1. . 27.6 x2 13. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). ) 4' 6/ 49. .3. 40. ~ 6 20 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 a' y' . 10. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . + 10 + 121 y*. 30 /><. 2 4 2 2 64 . 30 x + 19 x3 . 35..10 x + 25. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.500. 11.098. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.r . 56. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). Om2 4 6m 6. 6. 9.2 6 + 13.ab . 8.6 xy . 36 a 4 . 27. 9 4 /> . a3 0. 10. 10.ANSWERS 28. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.2.^. 8 38. 2 . a2 ' + 48Z100. 8.15. . a + 25. 14. 2 12. 9990. 36. 1. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . 2 +10s281. m 2 . 15. a + 56. 34. 2. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 4 + 25 q*. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 28. ft' 11. 1. 10. 33.606.404. ^V^4 .00 + 37. 2 fr .^ + a? + 1. +4 34.4 a&+ 4 &*.54 p 2 + 81. (w+4)(m4). (p 2.020. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 10.4 n.000. 57.r . ^/> 8 4 . 2 0)(p + 5). 2 . x2 GiC+5.201.004. ^' J  7 f 12. 7.84 a' 9. 40. 39. 3. 32. 19. 31. 3.10 35.14 jp + 49. a' . ' 46. 29. 32.996. . 12 x2 . Page 12. 4 . p4 + .6. 41. y. I/). 10. 26. 4 2 //. 14. 5. 441. +   5). 41.5 ~ 81. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 2 6' . 4 x2 13. 20a 2 21a + 4. p 2 . 25. 40. 21 2 . fo*. 4 .2 x + 2 x. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.49.810. 3wi2 m Page 42. x 4 ?/4 + ab . (m + 6)(m3).001.4 12. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 484. 1.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 166. 4.25.2 y*. 1. 998. 52. 4 21.994.16 a3 f 50. . 1. 2 j3 Z . 7. 15. (n 2 5. 2 1: 21. 6. + 2 9. 10. . + 3)(3).020. 19. 10. 4x21. G a6 2. n + 2.009. 9. 26. 5. 10. 24. 6 2 + 6lf>0.8. 17. 44. 24. 8. 2. 42. 31. n2 a4 6. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . a 2 . x*2^f I. 2 (5 a 3).ri 17. 7. x* . . 16. 14. 30. . 29. + 4 a +4. 36.008..35 ab 9. 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 62 V2 132. s rc 47. 2 m3 + 4m2 . a4 4 ?/ . 1). . 39. .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . (a + 4) (a + 2). . r. 34. 7 . + 7 6)(3a~76>.m 30 6 4 1. + 4 t*. 9999.009. 37. 36. 55. ?/H)0.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 31. 25 25. 10. + 12. 2 a 2 + a . ab. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.x2y22. ab .r* 2 30. 2 4 a + 4. 23. 9801.p132. x 48./ .^V"' . . 4. 2). . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 18.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 1. V + o ft .
12. ft. 23. ft 17. *3 y 4 . .12 aft 4 20 ac .23.29.9 4. 135.5 n*.2 2 . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 13.2. j) . 18. ?/2. 2. . Page 51.  . Page 22. 17.3^V.3 a 41. 47. 2 2 + 2 a.8.2 2 2 8 . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 1000 1000 . '. 9. 1.2 aft 4. yfl. r/2 4. 4 pq.15 21. .25.5 mp.  3 c. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 2. 4. 13. . r//. /r .15. 4. +w . 4xy + 13 <) . 18. 2 ? 14 ./ 4. 14 r 2 .10 2 + z 2 410. l 4 .+ 77 15. 8 x . Page 11. 6. 1. m L 4. 21. sr 11.r" 20 S? . 10. a 10. a 2 . 5. Page 48. 2. aft. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .27 x 2 4.6 :rs 4. a 4 4 ft. 4. // 19. 5. ti'jry1 7. . 9. 46. ft* ft / . 4 d 2 4. ??. 44. 1/*.r?/ j/. . 01. 2 4 3 9. 12. 13. 26. 1. 49.000.rw f 8 . 21. 11. 8 ?/ . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 12.1. 4 a 2 4.3 ry. 1. .2 . Exercise 27. 3. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. f>r* 4. r 7.30 ftc. Exercise 2 a:// 26. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 4. 15. G. 7. 2 4. 6. 24. 9. 4 a* 4 9 11. 50. 10.10 xy*. 14. 2 a 3 ft. 13. aft 12. 10 ft. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.1.w. 8. 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. a.2 ftc . 5. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 10. 16. 5.1. . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 16. 4. r ft. 3. . .r' ~ 16. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 14. 13. . + x?/ 2 1.1*5 2 r 2 . 7 r . 4 c m . 2 . 2 ?/' .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 2 4 2 x 4. 125. x 2 + 2r f J.34. 11. . Page 7. 12. 2 12. 22.1. 3. 3. m'2 3. 11 4. x 4.8 y. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 4.9 d. 2 1. 9. 8. 5.  10.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 19. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.21 2 2 f + . 3*y2 w + 1.  11. ft ? ft' ft ft. 14. aftc 52. x4.x^.2 ar. 20 15. 5. i 2 tji. _ 2 a . 8.> 10.3 x 2 2 4.VI ANSWERS 43. . 8. 2 . 5. y 7. c3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . a 8 4.r'^ 15.2 .  12 y 25. + 3. 2 ?/ 4. 8. 4 ac. 1. Osy. 7a3ft.r ?/ ??i ?). a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.8.2 wZ 4. Page 13.1. 4x43?/. 14.1. 14. :r !>.  5 z* .2 <</.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3 aft 20. 17. z. 15. 3 a. w 2 . c 12.3 3.rw. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.25 c . 3. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.1. 13. 6. . . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 16. 6x 3. 6. 75 a 2 29. 4. 8.n.5 a . 5 4 a Oft. 5.24 . 6. 9. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 8 ?/ . 19.r?/. 5^418(7. 2. 8 r<ft 4 2 .y3. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.8 yn . i 9.7. w . as _ 10 16.2 ac . 1. 17.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 2.3 5. 4 x. abc 7. 12.2 1 //. 4ft. + 4. 3. 2.2 . 1. .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.lit x + 4.4. 5. 5 a  (5 ft.r . 20.
n M. 1. 1. 43. 4. ct. 3. 7. 13. 58. 8 n  10 yr. (a) ' 12. 17. 10 >_&. 25. x 48.. y yr. + 3 = 2(3* . 6.  1$. Page 40. 11. Page 61.. a 10. r>?imi.. 24. 100= ^.  9 = 17 a.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 20. ] 2 ri 42. 7x 2 Page 21. 9. 14. 27. 2=10.x700. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. I. 25. 35. f 6)(o 62. 12. 19.(3x  700) = 5. / + y + a// 12 yr. 59. 8. # + 20yr.  2\. y ?>i x + 26. 2. 3 9.100. d.ab a. 2 ct. 5. 38. 7. 100 d ct. 4. !).p+7. }f. 2. 4. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. . 5. "mi. 12. 44. 5. (c) 2x.6 = *. xy ft. 5. y 100 a 24. rn mi. </ 20. a 8. (>. ft. 41. 100 14. 100 2. 29. 10 x sq. 3. Jj12. 30. 10 yr.000. <>. 18. 38. ? 43. . y 2z p= 3 (a c.rr2. 14. . 16. 10. 46. 2. 28. r tx mi. 6. 2b 22. fix. % 4. 3x2. 33. 3x  1700) = 12. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60.10) 100. '^ . 8. f = eZ 2 x. 42. 4^ = 100. 2. 17. ct. s. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). .  6 10. 3. . 2x + 35. lO. ^ 12 sq. 29. 21 2. 2. 7. ( a f 4. 4. 37. 0. 1. " lir. I. lOx 10 + w. 36. iL*. d + !. (2 a. Page 13. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 00. 9. 16. 1&. 7. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 26. 19. b.7). (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 7. 0. 30.ANSWERS Page 9. 800 = x + 1300. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.  />) a = all. 20. 7. . + f + b 2.. + 4x 3y 34.r ct. Page 6.(3x+ = rraxlO. 60 25 1. 6. ct. 22. y 50. 15. 45. (> 27. ft. 32. m +~m 3. 6. 13. 23. b. + 3x + 2y + 32. 34. 40. 10. 57. 10. 5. x 2y 10 act. 7. 4(a ft) c = 8. 2b. 47. 15. x y $ 6 yr. 2. 1. Page 31. m+ 11. . 36. 13. 4. 41. (</) 2a.r1. 50= L 100 15. ft. 10. 44. 31. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 5. 20. 39. 6. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. vil 56. 1. x 49. l. 33. 11. f (I. v (6) 2x. 10 a. 4 f 39. sq. x. 22. 23. 11. 18. x = m. x + 1=a. 37. + 10 b + c ct. = 5 ?i x 460. X 60. 16. 'nj 100 a 28. 17.
6. 80 A. 2 3 6 7. 7.24. 250. 200.5. Pace 65. w (/) 64.6). 150.11. 10 yd.y"). 9. 3 hr. 3. 14. 5pt. 3.7. 5 Col. 1. (z5)(z2). 2. 6. 2. 4.. 50.000 pig iron. (y 13. (ro3)(w2). 9..000. 7. 12. + 7)(y3). 14. 13.. Page 5.. (p + 7)(3a5&). 14. 55. 85 ft. 100.16. ~=90. 1. 3. 10 yr. 19. 12. 67. 15 yd. . 15 mi. 5. 6. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 600. z?/(4^ + 5xy . ( + 4)(*2). 7.. Y. 11. Page 79.. . 20 yr. 3.000. 1200. . 3. 1.0. 78. 40 yr. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 25 yr. 74.13.. 8. 1. (e) i* + A. 8 2 19. 20.210^. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 4pt. 8.3.2.21. 200.411. 10. 7. Page Page 4. ?(g ? g+ 1). (y7)(y + 2). 300. 9 in. (a + 4)(a + 8). 30 yr.0. 68.5.000 Phil. 18.5p + 7 g ). 90. 180. by 12 yd. 8. 23..000 N. (a 4) (a. 480. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 6rt 2 11.3).. Page 7. 15. 4. 10 yr. 6.000 Berlin. 6. 2. 1313. 10. 42yr. 25. 90 mi. 25. 2$.000 copper. 29. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 8 in. 78.000. 2. (a + 5)(a + 6).vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 11. 9. 12. Oaj(o62cd). 18. 05. 12. 71. 1 lb. 14. 2 2 ?/ 21. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.000 ft. 9. 100 1. 17. 1. 13. 10. 18. Page Page 4. 7.79. 24J. . 15. = _?_(2ar + 1). (*4)( + 11..3aftc + 4). 30 mi.3. 5. a a (a 8 a+l).. (a5)(a4). 22..000 gold.(5z .000. 15. Page Page 480 12.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 5 lb. 8. 6. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 75. 5. 20 yd. 2 2 2 5. 21. 11.. 6. 4. 4. 11 pV (2 p8 . 8.000. 5$ hr. 11. (c) ^ v ' . 12 mi.10. 9. 15. 2).2). 20. 11 w(w' + wi . 3. 6..8. 8. 7 hr. 13. 2.1). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). $40. 4. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 7a*fe(2a & l). 5. 2.000. 16. (y8)(y + 2). 13. (y + 8)(y2). 3. (a + 6) (a + 3). 1. 10. 17. 1. 20. 12. 70^. 11 in. 20 yr. 13.000. Page 7. 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10. 14. 82 mi. 3x (3r. 15. 10 Mass. 12. 5. 14. 15 in. 10.. 9. 8 12. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 1200. (yll)(y4). 52. 70. Ib. 9. 10. 1250. 45 in. 10 Cal. 7. 2. 3 (a +&)(*.000 ft. ^ . 30.. (m + n)(a + 6). 72.  PageSO. 160 lb. a 12. 30. 28yr.22. 8. 4.
(5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). a.6) 2 1. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. . 14.5y)(3a.2). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (m + n +p)(m + wp). (2 a? 4. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). Yes. (<7 20. Page 83. Yes. (a a: 19. No. (a (p8)0> + l). 28.y) 2 aft.1). 28. ix 18. 8. . 21. 10(2 30. 6. y(x. . 8. (2o + l)(2l). 32. 1. 3.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). f 2). 12. 3a. (4 13. No. 16. . (w + 20)(w + 5). (4a. (a 6 6) (a 4. 13x7. No. 9.3)(z2). (az + 9)(ox2). (4al)(a2). Yes. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 34. 27.2 by2 6. 28. 16. 25. a . Yes. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).9*). Yes. 9. 16. 100(x. 25. + 2y). (y8) 2 2 . 31. 27. 29. 26. 3(x + 2)(zl). 9. 10.4p). + 9^)(oxy . 23.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 30. 24.2 y). 25. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 7.* (2 y + 3)(y.  x (5 a.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. a*(5a f l)(flr . 19. 100 (a. 3. + 8)(g3). 10.2).4. 27. 31. 36. 11. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Yes. 2. (x + y4 )(x . 40 x.r2).1). 4. 26. (15z2y)(x5y). 3)(3a. + y + . (5x . a(2u. 19. 29.7)(2z f 1). (2xl)(x + f>). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 23. 18. 2 3 by2 Yes.2 ft).6) 2 2 . 9. (3a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). . 103x97.y4 ). (10a + ft)(10aft). (9y4)(y + 4). 12. 32. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 10(a . Yes.1). (6 a. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). No. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 15. (4y3)(3y + 2). 7. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . Yes. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 35. 2 No 4. + 0(90 Page 85. 22. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 35. 2 2 15. 24.. . + 5) a. (g . 10. 7. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 25. 26. 10(a + ft)(aft). 14. . (w ~ n (x . No. 7 6) (a 10 6). . 22. 20. 21. y) 2 29.11 ft)(a6). (:52y)(2a!3y). + 3). + 4) (a. 15. 1. 2. ( 2 4 19. 21.8). (4 18. (2 *+!)(* 9). (a 3 + 10)(a. 26. 2 17. 30. (* + y)(zy). (3#y)(+4y). 17. 21. 6. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (0 + 6)(66). (13a +10)(13a 10). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. . 33. 10 a 2 (4 . (2yl)(y + 9). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (m + w) 2 5. 9. 14. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 13. (ay8)(ay3). 20. Page 82. 17. 22. Yes. 11. x(x +y)(x y). 2. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). x (z + 2)(x + 3). . 5.+4 y)(3x4 y). (15ay2) 2 . .11 6) (a 4.4 6). 216 aft. 12. 4 (a .c 2 ). 24. + 3)(c44). x\x 24. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). Page 84. (y + 4)(yl). Yes. 23. . y) (a. 10. 33.   .3). 3. 34. (w* (3a26). 11. (6n + l)(+2). (3*2)(. (a + 8)(a3). Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll). Yes. 1. 22. 23. . 20. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 4.7) (a. (5a +l)(5a l). 25. 8) (a. 24 9. (m7n) (a. 2). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 5. (5wl)(m5).ANSWERS 16. 17. 8. (a. 18.1).
2).X 5. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. . ?>). a 4. 3. ^ . 4 6.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 2. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 22. 4. 16. 4. . (^ + ?>_8).3. 4. (. 13. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).9). x 4. 9. (5 26. 10(2 (3 4. 42a 3 x. 7.y)(fi a .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . . 2 8(w .r(3x' 2 4 (14. 24x sy s 9. x43.5 m2 x2. (a />. 14. 450. ( (<> r4y3 . 2 2 10.1). 10. Page 87. 7. ofc)( fid). 11. Page 86. 2 y) ^ . y(2x?/). 13( 33. (c.&). a (a + 2 6). 3(. 27.8) ( (16.3)(x 4. 14. (x. 8.y). 2 21.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). . (m  I)' 6. 2 2 3 . 4.n). 4 a s &8 . Exercise 47. 15 M. . 15. 14.2 y). (2 a ~ f> b 4. (^ 7. 8. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). x(x f y)(jr . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 6.4. 3x(x?/) 4.4). 42). 8x. 24. 7. 11. y )(. a 4. 4. (5^4.2)(x 1. 7.?>) H. 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 4.4). (x//.'})(c . 2. 2(m4l)' . l.8). 5. 1(V/ 88. 2 . Page 92. 5.8) n 43*).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (5a+l)(9a). 13 x 8 2 . (!__/>). 17. a + a b. 14. Page 90. ( rt 23.) j).^ 48. a8 . Page 12. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. Page 89. 2 (a 4. 28. (5 31. r x 2 */3 . 2. 40. + 2 //). 6 f c). 11. 5 x8 3. (a 4.l)( a 25. 8.1) 3. (2x7)(x 2 2).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ( a ^)(^3. 4 a8 .  29.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 4). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 32. 12.y. a x 3 10. 2 + . y). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 15. 4  9. 8. (7/1 2) (m 41). 6. 13.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). x .. (a &4. (16 4  2(5 n . 8.7s) (2 a.2).y '2 2). (w4w) 2 1. 41. a 41. Exercise 46. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.0+ 12). 30. 2 k (wi 4. 7. 39.  WIM.&). .b. 6. 3 x4 .!) (x42)(x2).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).  (w' 4. ( y). 1.42 x 4. 16. (f> + fo 7. (w * . 7.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 37. 13. 6. (> 1. 35.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (a 9.'J)(' . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).1).7)(^ {I 12. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. n  r)(5a 10.36). ( { &). 8). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).3. 17(x43//)(x2y).?/). ah}. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 12.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 19. 8. 36. 5. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . Gp). + 3. b) (r 4. 5. 9. 5  (2 2 . ?i(w 4y) . 18. y6. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 2. (r420(4 10. x  1). fi(c426). 10(8x' 4l) 4.4. (14. 4 3. 6.'/)('< 4.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 38. 11. 4. 8. 2 1.e 4. a 2 (a9). 20. 6. 12.?50)(xt/z.
18. b ! 21. 13. a 23. a 10 25. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). + &)(&) ( . (a2)(a + 2)2. // m+1 !+*?. x 12. + &) 2 ( .6). x 24. 6a2&(rt6).  1). 11. +5 1. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + y) (a: y). 30(3 2 (a 15. x 22. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.ANSWERS 10. 2(2al) + l). ?_!&.
2 a.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 6a5f^. 6. 6. 6. 4. ^~ 29.  **/* + 84 _. 28. . 30. w1 + ac w 4 7. Page 100. A^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . + lH + . _*^p5_^^_. c 8. 11. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. a 5.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. Page 101. 4c 10. + 2H 1 ^.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 7. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 26. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. xy 43. 4 L 8 2 .. i. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. i^. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 0. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ' 2 7. 1.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .50 ~ 1/2 .
w^x 2 b Page 105. 15. 3. 1. 10. 11.^U\WF### X<6. 34. ft. 13. . ?+_!?>. 4. 1. I) 2 3z 1. 12 28. (>. 15. 37. 10. 8j_m 7 3. 43. 6. 33. 1. 23. m 9. Page 113. 5 be _J_. 7. flf. 9. ^i 11. 16. 30. 36. 6. . 26. 9. Page 111. . 42. 7. 1.L+ft. f 7. 14. x 1. 8. 1. 6. + f. n . 5.ft . 2 47. 4. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. +3 ( + 15. 11. ?. 21. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 14. y(x + x ?/). 6. ' 6. an 18. x 05m ' 5. 1. J. J. 3. 41.  V o 4. 40. 12. ac mp lf> n 12. . j L . 32. 3. (a + y) 2 Page 104. Page 106. 1. b 2. 15. Page 110. 12. 5. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 45. b a f +c 14. 29.  10 X + u. a2 2. 24. 1. 7. 0. n m a + 13. 25. 4a3ft. 11. 4. 44. ! 4 20. 16. pf n 6 1. n 16. J. 5. 3. 46. 1. a 17. 2ft a i m x. 5. 4. 0. 38. 11. 7. 20. 3 7 i o. a. 39. 17. 18. 1. 9.y 7. 8. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. Of. A. x\. 35. 21. 6 . 27. 19. 4. 4. 17. 11. 2) 19. 21. f Page 107. 31. 14. c 8. ^_. 4. 6. 3. (y + (z 12. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo.^_. 3.
(a) 25. 4.000 1 = 23. 9. 5. 24.9. 15. 10^ oz. 31. = A's. Page 118. . 26. 75 . nm. Yes. Yes. 13. 14.15. 18. 27. 3. ^p^ r ~ 7. 1:4. 1. 1:3.138.. n 32. 12. 19. (ft) 104. $40. 40wn. 00. 17. 4. 18. 10.003. 13. 19. a 4 ft. ~m .. J. Page 117. 8. 21. w 18. 1 da. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 14. 1. Yes. 5 2. 5ft 30mi. (a) 4 min. 16. 22. 40 yrs.2. 24 mi. 23< &n b ' .x + y. 20. . No. 81. 1. 15. 13. 8301 hr. 19. (r) 3^ da.2. $45. (a) 12 hr. 11.XIV '/ . . after 20. 7.. " 0. 10. 500. 21ft min. f. Page 121. 15. 15. 40 mi.} da. 10. 6. 13. 1: ~. 17..001. 8. 3 da. 24. 7. 20. 2 20. after $12. 33. 10. ft.11. 3:2. $30. 26 mi.004. Yes. 5 25. ^m .000 If da. 1:1 = 1:1. ANSWERS 16. 3. 212. 18. 8. Page 124. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . P+ ^ 33. 1^'. 30. 1:1 = 1:1. 5. _JL. (c) 8300. 9. 16. 8. :2.002. 28. silver. [>> ^ a . 2. 1. . 17. $00./hr. 10. J ^'. $0. 0. 33.. 9.000. gold. 3. 7. 11. 12. 9$. 21. Page 125. 10 yrs. 4.139. 7} 18. min. 55 mi. (d) 4 da.0 & . min. Yes. * 7:9. 16. . 35. ^?i min. 2x:3y. after 18. No. 15. 11 hrs. 4.000. 36. 275:108. 3. f . 7.000. (a) 30. 3./hr. 2:1. xy. Yes. IV s. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. () 2.000. 26 30.137. #V ~~ 34. 10. 19. 1:1=1:1. 30 mi. 4~r~ n . 30 yrs. 1:1 = 1:1. 7. 12. 1 : 12. 8. Yes. 17. 7 . 15. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. . dn ~ mi. 300. 5. 300. (c) 2 hr. 2. 14.. 30ft. (ft) 28. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 14. Page 119. w 44.. 32. 10. w 21. 38ft min. 4. 300. 7.  + .0. Yes. . jj. (ft) 5 hr.10. 9J oz. 74. 9. (d) 500.. '"I 22. 11.. 7T 2 Page 116. 10. (ft) 5 da. 3. 6. 5.. 9ft.  29. 20.  C . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 4fl M_. 6. 10. 15. 34.
. ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 8. 7. . a +b 1. 19 3 . 20.6.840. + b 7 . 2. 1 18 = 3 51. Page 133. 59.5. 9. mi. 9. 3. I. 10. 11. 27. . 6. 138.2. 2.9. 46. 10. 20. 945 11 10 . 19. x y = 1 = 3 2.20. 5. 11 w a 13. 30. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 40.. l. 13. 2. 15> 9. 6. 11. 20 cu.8 oz. 3. 1. $.46.1. 5.li. 7.12. 8. 4. 1. 13J. 3  24.3. 3. Inversely. 1.160.. 16. 2. 6*. (</) ft. lo mi. in.3. 2. 2. 14. 31J. 38. 19.) 31. .1. b x 37. OJ. Page 137.4. 1. 13.J 3. 44.36. 48. \\. 39. water.7. Page 136. 7. 23. 3 2=3 x.000 sq. 52.2. 24. 18. 28.3.22. 25.15. 9. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 10.3.5. 7.5. a f 2 2 = 5 x.4. 2. 2..3. ' 55. 19 OJ." ^ 2. 7. 11. 13.*. 17. 4. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.]. 2. copper.17. 15. 5:3 = 4: x. : : T 1' : /> : . 4. 1. 11 5 . 7^. 3. 29. : 23. + W. 14. 4. 141. J. . 58. 55. J. (I. 26. 35. 16. 25. 36. 9  15.2 x. 3. y :y =. 4.1.5. 2.000 sq. 2. 5.57. 5. 3. 40. 1(5. 2. 2 n . a 3.1. 14. . 6 10 = 12. *. . 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . = 7 b'. 3. 9. 9. 1 rt * vm^1. "lO.4.3. 11. 6. 7. w 8. 24 1 (e) Directly. 5:0 = 10:12. 2. 3. 14. 3}. 4. 15. 7. Page 5. Page 134. 4.2. 7."2:1.2 oz. 8. 45. 1. x y y . : : . 2.3. : . 2.3.r. 9. mi. 4. J pq. (a) Directly.ANSWERS 22.7. 50.a.4. 7. 2. 8. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 5. 32+ mi.15 x. 17.1. 200 mi. 26. 10. Page 132. t 5. 7. land. 5. in n. 8. Page 135. 12. 49. Of. 2.C ?/ a . () 7 Page 126. 5. ig 6.5. 22. 3. 4.  28. 7. 2. w.12. 2. s<i. 56.3. 57.' : : : : <>. 4. 3. 9. tin. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. y a y = 7 0. 4. 23. OJ. 22. 3. x:y a: b. 32j.3.J. ~ 1. 30. ft. 19. . 20 20 J ^.5. x 42. 4. 24.5. 5. x +y x + 74 7 \. 6. 13. jc:y = n:m.2. 41. 4.4. 11. a~. i. 1. 53. 3. 12. 54. 2. .  ?.  19. 3.5. 5. . 8. 127. Page 9. .x a. 174+ Page 128. 21. 12. \. 3. : />. 2. Page 131. ini. y . cu. . y 1. 2. 9. 5 2. 2. 1. (b) Inversely. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 12. 2. 8. 2. 4. 7. 5. 25. 6. : XV 27. 36. . J. 1. 47. 2. 41. 4.5. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 7. 43. /. 17. 7. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.3. 7.^ 0?j ' gms. 16. 31. () Directly. 21. 7. 5. 1.
23. 19 gms. <*ft/ bd 1. 7. 1. 1 (d) Apr. 25. 4.$2000. 6 cows.2. ad _(?jrJL. at 15. m + n p. 5. Page 152. 8. 1. 9.0. 2. 15. 5. 1. 13./hr. On the y axis. Page 149.. 2. 6. (a) 12. m . C's 10 yrs. 11. 10^ gms.l. & part of Feb. 7. 6%. B's 15 yrs. 14. 13. Jan. 25. 11. 2 horses.  17. 1.XVI Fagel39. 15. $4000. 14. 17. $ 1000.2. $900 5%. 4 mi. yrs.3. 10. 3.65. (<f) 13. 12. 30. Oct. 00.. 1. .. 147. 23f . Nov. .& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2. 10. 4. 26. Nov. 14. 12. 7..0. 3. 2t2. . 9. 10. 6. 20 to Oct. Page 145. 4. u 2ft. ' 6 3 a.3. m f 9. 24. 2. ad AzA. 3. 9. 6. yrs. 2. 16. Apr. 16. 3. 2. 4. 10. On the x axis. 6.4. 100. 4. 3.3. 5.8. $6500at3Ji%. 4. 3. 3.4. 0. 2. J. 40. 16 to July 20. 5. 5. 17. 18. C's 30 yrs. 1. 19. 3). & May. 8. 40. 6. 1. About 12f. June. 2. July.. a =J (n  1) rf. 21. 20. 9. 3. 3. $250. = ^ a Page 141. 3. Page 142. Feb. 21. 2. 3. On 11. (ft) 20. 3. 2.10. 3. 7. Nov. 1. ^. 24. 11. 10. 3. 32. 423. . 2. 20 & Oct. 22. 2. Jan. 12. 30. 20. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 4. 13. . 2. 3. Page 151. $3000. 3.7. 16. Nov. 27. 23. 25. 1. 25. ft 3. 4. be 7. 1. Page 143. 1 (c) Jan. 24. 15. 30.1. (c) . 1. 4. parallel to the x axis 0. . 29. 11. A's 50 13. 16. 4. 6. Apr. through point (0. July. 2. . m f 8. 0. 7. be 10. 20. 12. &. 6. 4. 2. . 31.9. 19. 2. 28. a. (a) Apr. . .$5000. 3. . M 2. 5.33. 2. May 5. 16. 9. 2. 0. 4 ' q. ' .  11. Jan. B's 40 yrs.. (ft) 23 J. (5. 7. 8. . 4. 1. Jan. A a parallel to the x axis. 3. 6. SL=J o ft r^2. Page 22. Apr. 16. 7. 5. 26. 20. Jan. 12.1. 7. 5%. 2 a. 18. 24. & part of Sept. The ordinate.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 72. 7. 11. 5. 17. 18. 20.^. July 20. 8. 5. 4. Page 146. 10 sheep. Aug. 3. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . A's 30 18. 90.4. 4.1J. Page 153. $500.n + p. 3. . 18. 4. 11. 7. 5. 9.
13. H. (e) 2. 1. Page 159. 4. .41 and . . f. 10. (ft) (ft) 2. (gr) 21. 10 C.17 (ft) (c) 2. SlstyW 7. 15 . 2. 6. 3.  . 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . Inconsistent. 5. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . ' :=_!. 3. 3.24 .75.59. . 15. ft . 9. 20. 10. . 19.27. 11. 2 l. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. . (ft) (d) 2. 1. 1. 4}.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2. 7. xW.5. 8. 8mW.5. 4..79. ft 2 4. (a) 2. Indeterminate. 3. 14. 14.73.41 and 23. (c) 7. 125 16.  1. 2. 125 a 8 12.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 5. (<?) 2. 2. 11. 1. 2. 3. (c) 2. a 29. 4 ) 21. 1. 3.6. ImW. . 32F. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. Inconsistent. 15.24.25. 22. . 4wn8 + n4 5.83. 3.84. . 27. 1.. 27 19.1. 3. .  1.73 ami . _ 9 x ^27 1 .2 (ft)  1.5 (ft) 3. 18C. 14.24. 1. 2. 5 and 2.34F. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 10. 3. * 16.3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. a 10 ' a ll V&. . 3 . 2 2 22. Page 158.. + a 4 ft* . 19. H.25. 125a 28. 2. 5. 81 ". xg .  12 ft xW  26 31. . 2. jgiooyiio 17. (/) 3. G. 1. 2ft4 Page 168. 12.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 1 23. . 2. 1." 23. 1. 8. . 5. . 13. 3. (a) 12. 28. 14. (e) 3. .1.4. . 8 a1. 22. 2. 25. 16. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4. 3. 17. \ft) 5. 5. 5. . a + ft. 4. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 3. . 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 83.75 (ci) 3^. xy.75. 13 . 27 27 81. 5. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 4. 0C. 11. (c) 14 F. m. Page 164. . . f 10. 2. 1..13. 24. (/) 3. 3. 0.83. 4. 2. 3.75.25. f12 wi 9. 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (a) 5. .25. 1.73. . (ft) and (d) 2.73. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 26. Page 163. 30. 1 4. 6. +3 4. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .59 . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. (a) 4. 2. 12. 1. 2. 9 and Page 166. 8 1 f f g*. 13. 2. 1.3. 1^. 15. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 4. 2. 30. () (rt) 3.79. 1. 2. 3. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. f. .64. 24.64. 18. 8. (ft) 2. Indeterminate. 1. .7. 3. 3. 3. 9. 1.67. 21. 13C.25. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 20. 1.
21. 8. 34. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 17. 36. + (win . 14. 4.GO a c + 23. 84. 309. 15. 3. 24. . 6.3 ab + 2 2 ). 2. 1. 10. (7 (2 2 3 2 16.7 /)). + y). Page 172. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (a 2. 32. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 20.1. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . + + ?V 22. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 18. 20. + l).5). 26. . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + i)). 2. 4. 3. 10*. Page 176. 420. 2. (4a2 9& 2 13.83. 8. 35. 17.y2 ). 180 . 0. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 4.a b 22. 3 2 ^.  x. 3. a. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 90. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 98. 5. 19. 64.XV111 7. 28.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 8. 9.+3^ + 4. 30. 247.037. 11. 4. 3M. 237.i c 6 15. . . 3. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. + 29. 3 6 23. 12. 13. 17. 1. 19. ). 57. r> 4 : 1 . 14. 16. 11. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. . ? . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.^). 00. 90. (48 + 6. 16 6 w . 15. 119. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 10 x G a 4 . 70. 1. 2 2 7. 99. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 9. 40. 6. ? : 1 . 6. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 71.5. .f 1 m 9 16. 10. a: l . a 2 . 763. 20. 12. (2 a + ft). a ). 18. 5. (x' l). 2 2 4. 15. Zll. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 6. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 27.  +X '. 23.6.1. 5.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.2). 25. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 978. 8 /. 1247. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. . (1 (x2y). 5 5 8. (l + x + . 9. (ly). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 5. 16. . 16. 6 (\x 3. 300.10 a~ + 5 a . 2 12. ??i ?i . 30. 3 2 8 3 12. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 5. Page 171. 1.r 2 + 6jt). c 10 6 :l 20. 14. GOO 2 c 2 . 10. ^i. 2038. 22. 7. 15. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 7. m 13. 20.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 11. 7. 1 1 ?>). ( Page 174.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 21. 12. 9. 8. 2. + Z). 2 49 . 18. 9. (ab + c). +35. +3 + 5 4. 2.94. 9. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 33. 14. 31. 101. ?7i 1 1 3 1. . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. I 8x2). 8. 6. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (3a. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . (a + y+l). rt . 25 19. 76. fe *?>' ?> fi . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 2 4 8 2 . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 11. a. 72. 13. (a + 2 +l). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. . (Gx + (i + 2a. /> 4 ).x ). (x + y\ 90. AN S WE no . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. Page 170. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).
 f. 19. 1&. 2. 5f. 3. 9. 13. 6V21.. 6. 4. . 15. l~8. 2. JJI. V. 31.5. 6V'2J. v 17.1. 3. ZLlAiK 19. or 5. 28. 8.  43.469. 6. 32. vV'TA 24. V35 1. 9. 2.742 in. 4.005. 2. 3. 20. 7. Page 180. 6. 18. . 14.6. 5.}. 31. 15... 7 45. 30.4. 47.i. 1. 4. 6. . a. If ^.4. * 1. f ^ is. () 2.925 ft. 11.?. 7. 7. V2. *. 33. 25. 12. 6yds.6. 1. 1. 15. 35. 17. 20. 2. ^. w. ft. 21yds. 29. Page 185. Page 177. Af^. 10. . 9.  5. 1 7. 4. Page 183. 2. vYb. 29.  2. 5. }. 5. 28 in. 27. 1. 12. V2. 12. V J l. Page 184. 48. 15. 6. 34. 36 in.1. 9. 5. 20.Sn. 3. 9. 16. 4 n. 17. 36. ^. 3J. 39.690. 1 f Vl3.  3. 50.  14. 39.13.ANS WERS 22. 12. 7}. 5. 2 sec.. 21 28 ft. 4. 6 f !.6.. 10. 10. 4 TT M 28. 10. 35. xix 26. 14. 23. 23. Page 181. 11. 3. 22. 5. 23. 13. 2. ft. 7. 26. 29. 16. 5083. 13. 4. / 11. _ iVaft.. 7. 7563. 270 sq. 4. 3. 2. J. 1. 4. 3. 19. 7. ^^7m. f . 4 W**. 25 J. 5. 13. 36. 10. 3. 16. 12. 18.237.935. 2. 3. 25. a + 61. /. >i 27.. 6. 14.60..798 yds. 21.  f. 10. ~ V^3. 4. f. 34. 2.645. 5.5. i.18. 21. 24.a. 1. 32. 8. V17. 37. 14. 4J.6. (< + ?>). 8. 40. 8. 10. or 3. 15 1 10. f. 7. f f V. 15. 7. 16n.6. 12. 4. 24. 4.522 38. . 39 in. 21. . 3. m. 44. ft. 10. (6) Vl4 3. 12. 1. (afl). 17. 5. >TT 26. 42. 7. 9 15 ft. 30. 2. . 27. .V 8j.*..243. 5. 6J. 5. f 3. 2.367. 12. 1 38. 9.. > w ft. 11. 13. 11. . 46. 21 in.4.916 yds. 14. 9. . 3. 41. 7 in. 1. 16. m. ii :J _7. 3. 1. 11. 5. 4 a. 2] see. 6. 10. {. 8. 6. 6561. 9. 4.  1. 4. " ^_ 22. 3. \/3. 40. 1. 49. 3. 5.236.w 18. 5. . 7. 28. 1. 37. Page 179. 7. i ^. 8. 2. . 33.
. . 64.17. 28. 6. 11. 3. s 11. . 6. 21. 22.a. 10 mi. 0.4. 1. 1. unequal.7. 18. 1. 9. 57.  Page 194. V2. 26. Page 189. 2. 2. 35. 44. 10. 1. 3. . unequal. Page 192.3. 40. 0.  1. V^l. 2. 19 in. 23. 16. Page 190. 8. 39. 4 da. 3.1. unequal. 25. 31.62. 0. 7. 24./hr.6 = 0. 37. 7. 24. jr . 6. 0.  13. 11. . 2 ft. 1. 42. 28. 33. 4.a. 22. 2. 5. 0. 7. 10./hr. 19. 18.$40 or $60. rational. 15. 35. 4. 1. 1 . (5 10. 2. 16. 3if. 47. 0. 4. 6. 3. 1.0*8. 2./hr. unequal. in. 1 3. 16. a. 9. 2. Real. 25. 3. 8 or 12 mi.1. irrational. 8.  1. Real.2.  2. unequal. rational. 1. 34. r* i. 1. V^l. 0. 2. 1. 26. '  f 5. 1_^L ft 14. . 2. $30 or $70. 5.7. a8 . 52.7.6. . 3. .. 0. 36. unequal. unequal.10.. 2. 2. 1. 3.12 = 0. x 14. 13. 2.l. 24.2. 1. 13. 53. 0. equal. 9. 6.2. Imaginary. 0. 28. 3. 2. Real. . 3. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 23.3. 30. 12.]. . x2 + B . 4.  1. 0. . x* 51. *'' 12. f. 3. 64c. 20.Oa. 2. 6V64. ft. 2. ^l/>> = 85 ft.23. 15. 23. t is. 27. Real.5. 3. Page 188. 45.a 3 a. 27. Real. . 7.* 2. AB = 204 ft. 7. 12. 3. f. 1. 7. Imaginary.02. 26. 1. 2.2. 1. #<7=3. . 2.48. v^^fcT"^. 5. 46. $80.3. 3.5 x + 6 = 0. 70 ft. V7. 0. 4. V ~ 16 4 2.4.59. 0. 21. $ 120. 3. 5. ./hr. Real.2. 0. 6.2. 3. 12. 41. 4. VV11. rational. 3.'. 5 ft.4. f 6 52 a. 25. 0. 6^2 in. 2. unequal. 12.2.1. 120 ft. 4. 56. 2. 15. 3. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 20. ' 1. 29. 18. 2. x*4x=0. . .  5. i. orf. 1. U.41.  2. 2 V3 in. Page 191. 0. 10 in. rational.  i. 7. 8. equal. 6. 58. 38. 3.2. 15 ft. 48.4. a + 1. 10 or 19. 10. 1. ..  5.  1. 5. 43. 26. 2 . unequal. 20 nii.. . 2. 2. 50.XX Page 186. 3. 27. .  9x <). 12. Real. 32. 20. If. equal. 10 mi. .2 x2 . 2. 3. 1. 1). . rational.74. 17. i . 4. a + 6. Imaginary.4. 3. = 0. 3. 4. . 4. irrational.2. V^~2. 55. H. _ 19. 1. 49. %. 6. Page 187. 9. V2. 3. 7. ANSWERS 22.2.. 21.  24. 14. 25.70.37. 6. 8. 19. 6. 20 eggs.48 3. Imaginary.  1.12.. a. 8\/2 17. + 11 x. AB = 3. 14. Real.5^.  6.23. 1.
25. 7. 1. 47. 2. 51. 5\/5. 20.  f . 21. jV 10. 13. 2. 1. 0. 33. 45. 32. 53. 25. 4. (m 26. 16. I. 14. 1. v'frW. 13. 19. 37. Page 196. l  5 12. 7. x/25. 1. 10. 6. V^ 34. 8. vm. m'. 12. 4. 52. 13. 4. 49. 7V7. 3.  f. J. J. 4. 3. 59. 84. 40. J 3. 17. 3. 5. 8. . 3. 8. 32. 6  AAf. aW\ 40. r*.17. 9. z + 22. 2. 1. 2. 2.  48. 42. 56. 9. wA 46. 12. 39. p. 13. 22. 3. 1. 0. 9. 3. 22. 18. 12*2 61.  a'2 . 10. 57. 9. \a\ \/^. Page 200. 8.^7. . 44. 0. a. 8. 49. Jb \. 9. JV37. 23. . 33. . x. ^Sf 3 38. 31. 55. 29. 5. \ . 2. 29. 49. 243. Page 199. 28.6. x$. 8. . 5. ) 2 >J i 10. \/3. 29. 18. 23. 3 4 11. 15. 19. 18. &. 1 39. i. J. 20. 4. 'J. 9. 33. 125..2. xxi 15.//^. 5. . n\/* Page202. 3. 2. 3. 2. 10. : . 14.ANtiWEUS rational. 21. 1.32. 2 L ( V. 24. 1. 3. 6. J. 1." 17. 4. 3. ^49. ar 1 . v^T4 m. 2. 54. r. 14. v'frc 18. 3. 26. 50. 19. 8. 50. $7. 17. a 18 . 48. 24. 30. fx'^z'l 23. 4. 8. 7 . 15. 47. ifa. 17. 38. 2.  5. Page 201. ? . 25. 1. Page 197. 16. m. 28. 5. 16. 20. 2. v/3. Vr. 10. 16. 21. 5. _! V3. ). 31. 19. 1. 27.1 5 15. 49. 35. vV. \. 3. 27. \/r\ 11. . 46. 30. 36. 2V a. y . . \. 11. \/. 7. 41. 30 a. 24.  J j. y. 14. 20. 58. 15. . *V. . v. 11. 60. 1V1. 4. 43. 1.
2. 50. 1 2 or 1 ?. 2>X2. 13 35. 21.  a Vft 2 121 b. 21. 1) 3V3. Page 203. 29. a 4 +* + !. ^7 \AOx. + Vic + 25. x. V. x%  3 ^+ 1.rV:r. a 3. 24. 17.Vxy 35. 2v (T 2aVf. 3^2. ^: V2c. 20&V6. 38. 39. 29. V. abVab.2 18. 11V3. 2.f. y (a + ft) V2. 2. Vr 8. 7.3 + 40 3 . 48. 43. 45.577. 31. 1. V80. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. ftV 46.  2 3:r. 40. 3V5. 10. ?tV?w. 32. 10..632. 8a6V5. V63. 20. 3 4\/2. 11.XXii ANSWERS 1. 2 a?>V2 a. 4. . 33. (x' (l 1+x). 4. 37. 6. (o* 2. 28. 19. 25. Va 2 "ft. 9. / V3. + 2 Vzy + y 1. . 34 r 6. 22. x^ . 10. x 7  34. 5. x + 5 x3 + 0. y. 23. 24. 3. 3 42. 20. 101 1. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). . a^ + 2^+1. r 17  Page 204. m* n*. 19. 6. 8. 3V^T. 40. 26. v'TM. 32. T. l 5. V2 + 4 V22. 3. 195V3. JIV6. 16. 62V(J. + 1.2 VlO. 15.648. 13 a.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. yV35. . ^88". V 5 47. 9 . 3^ + 2). 41. x y.). 2\/7. 135V6. Page 208. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. + 2 V22. (a 27. 2 4 z2 l 3.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 2 '"V5. .692. 2. v/^r 5  A/^~.'\ 14. k/2.x^y* + y%. 9. 5. 7. 28. 12. ). . 17. . 30. 27. + . 03r* 7. a2 4. 5 ( . 3 a~ 3 (x (. 3. + 2 ar 1 ). 51.707. Vz2 ?/ 2 44.r. Page 207. 9. 18. 5 22. 8V/) 15. 37. 2 x* 15. 36. 8. . 2. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 16. 2. v^. 49. 30. 26. + + ft. r c . 34. x 25. 11. 3 x^y 33. 31.yl : . + 2). 13. 3 \ 39. 13. 4aV^J 16.
V3"m. V2. 4 >/3. x/4. "v/wi ??. \^r^bVabc. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 6. Page 210. \^6. 3\/wi. 30. 4\/5. v/lO. aVa.T*. 6. : ^32. D 45. 21. 50. 10. v^30. v"5. 2. % 29. V3. v/8. v^O. b.  3. 21 23. 3. 19. 26. \/abc*. 5V2. \/2. 6 2\/0. 3v^2. 2. 2 28. 22. V/. xx 1. 9 VlO + 4. 10. a\/5c. \/128. 14c 4 V5. Page 216. 8. a^\/a7>. 41. 11. 3 V15  47. x/27. 6x2?/. 4VO. 30 Vl4. Vtf +3+ 33. 2\/7. 3. 2 ate. v 25^4714 V2"a. v^a. 2 \/2. . 17. 3 Vl5 30. 24. 2 1. 6. 6aV2\^. 8. x/8. Page 213. 39. 29.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 18. 27. 21. 13. 16. ^27. 6+2V5. v^4. 2yV2?/. 74\/Jl 120 46. v"3. 46. 0. 48. 27. 1. 15. 51. VT5. \XOfl6Vi5. V8. 5. 40. 12. "^8000. 31.. 16. 7. V5. v/i). 52. Page 211. Vdbc. ^\/3. 2 V'3. 43. 10. 2.30 2. vT). Page 214. . 19. 7\/(l 7VTO. 7. . 35. fl^Vac. 3\/15  6. x/w^ 8. 42. 20. 34. v^lf. ^9. + VlO  v y (5. 37. 36. W). 8  \/15. 10V(). 31. V2. 26. a2  b. 6V2. 6. 13. 3. 5. 44. \V3. \^6. \/a6c. Vn. 7. . VJla. rtv/5. 32. 5. 13\/3. 23. 3. 11. 9.J Page 212. 4 a*. 18. 23. 32m27n. 14. 15. '. 14. x/8L v/27. 6. 16. 3\/2. 12. ab 4. x/3. 2. 34.r v/^ v^fr*. 17. 28. 37. 17. 18. 0. 3. 53. 4. 1. 24. x/125. 14. 33. / \/w/t 4 13. 25. V5. . 38. x/8l. 40. 9. 8v2T 12. 32. 49. v7^. \/8. 22. 5v/2. ^v 7 15. v/9. 25. 5V2. 1V5. 38. v/l2. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . . 2. 8V73\/IO. v^f. . r)\/(l Vrtr. \/04a. m ?i2Vm/t. 4. V3. ^ 3 b 5 24. w?i. 5 \/2. Vat. + 20. 35. 3 V2. 36. 1. 8V2. 39. 11. 9.
!^ 6 4. 22. 19. 16. 11. 0. . 6. (\/3f 1). 6. 26.6 V3. (\/5V2).  . 4. 9. 12. 5. 25.389. 25. 6 V. 5 f. 20. 25. 13. 1. 16. 4. V^TTfc. 5. 24. 5. 2. 26. i^Lzi. 12.625 10. 37. 125. 30. 25. 4. 15. (Vf + (4 V2). 19. (V21). 23. 21. (V5f 5. Page220. 36. 25.5. V3 . 3. nVTl. 10.  f. 3V23. (2f V"5). 2x^2^. 4. (2Vll).. 7.732. 33.XXIV 7. 7 f 5 4. 2V2. \/3). 4. xy 2. 9 mn. V. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 2. Page 28. 15. 18. 3. 4. 7.1547. 1. 3. 19. 1. fV2. 16. 2V3. 9. 10. 13. 9. 22. 21 ' Vob 26.4142. 11. 1. 9.  2. 216. + 5V2. 7. J. f. 1.464. V3. 7.2828. 6. (V6 + 2V2). 18. . 25. Page 219. Page 225. (V8 + V2. (V51). 18. 3.2. Va. 2. 0. 2. 27.3. 11. 5. 13. 12. 10. 9.732. 2. 24. 2 . 4. . 5. 11. (3+ v/2). 16. n*. 8. V3.1805. 4. 23. 31. 9. 8. 3.13. 7.  13.1. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 9. (2V2). (VllV2). A . 23. 6. 8. 1.7071. 4. 10. 1. ^. 17. 6 (V2 + 1).5530. 14. ^r. 11. 29. 512. 10.^ (\/22 4. 3.9. * 3. 2. Page 226. \/57t. j. 20. 17. .2. 18. 81. Page 223. 21. +3 V2). 100. ^\/2.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 17. 8 V3V2. 8. 20. V2. 224. ANSWERS 8.7083. 9. x 20. 1. 5 V65. 11.64.V3). 1.3. 23. 7. 24. 8. 5. 16. 81. 35. Vf6fVtf. 29. 10. 3(7+3V5). 15. 64. 16. 23. Page217. . . 18. _^JflJ?.4722. V35. 21. 4V3 + 6. V6c. 5. 12.0606. 5 + 2 vU 17. 27. . J. 4. ' 22 i . 16. ^. . 4 14. 8. j 15. 14. 19. 10. V3. 12. 2. (a 1. . 7. Page 218. 4. 8. 24. 27.601. 14. 5. 8. 1. K>/0 + \/2). 9.w 6. 14. 20. 4. 22. 3. Va. \. m f. 7. 25. 2ajV2*. 32. 12. ~ Vac _c 0. .81. 4. 5. 15. 19. (2. 34. 1. V5. (VaT^v a). 28.3535. . 6. 16. 17. {. 7 Page221. 2V3. 2!5_. 4. 30.6. 15. ^(VlO\/2). i(Vf Vft).\/TO). + 6) 2 . p 6 13. 4.
15. (4 mn . a . 4.^a.3. 14. 5.12. (2 a. 4 4. 1 . 0. & + 6 2 ).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2. . 22. 5. 4. 2.  1.3. 4 20. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 6. b . 6.3. 6. .8a 18. 25. 11. 2 . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 28. 8. 1. 12 24 y . 30 30. 1. 7. 7. 4 . 9. 0. 3. 13. 4. 3 .2. 3.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 17. 56l). 30. 0.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).2)(* . (pl)(p2)(p2).  4.  3. 2. Page 234. 20.10. 2. 3. 18. 8. 4.3. 8. J Page 235. 12. 4. . 9. 3. 5. 3. 3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). . 3. 19. 21. . 2. 24. 50. 17. 20.  2. 3. 0. 2.nl^EI. 19. 0. 3. 9. 1.  5.w 4 + 1).22. 4. 2. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . 5. 1. 17.  3. 6. f>. o. .l)(a 2 + a f 1). 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3. 15. 6. 5. 3. 24. 2. 1 .  3. 1.4). . 2. 2. 14. 1. 1 6.5 xy + 25) 22. 3. 7. a: :} . (a. 4.  16). 3. 25.Y. 3. 4. 26. 20.3). 2 6.4. 3. 3. 1. (a . a  . 13. J. 5. 4. 4. 16. (+!)( 2) 10. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 12. 25.  . 2.l)(m .r . 6 2 2a + 2). 25. 1. J 24. 11. 1 (?> x/^3. XXV 4. 1. 4. 2. 4. f . (w . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 3. 8. .3. 1. 10. 2 6. 3. 1. t/ 23. 1 . 4. 18. . 7. 2. 1 . 2 . 1. 2 V^ . 11. . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3. 4. . 11. 2. 3. 6. .0. (a.ANSWERS Page 228. 2 &.3 2. 3 9. 5. ( 16. . a(. 73.. 15. 1. 30 . 2. //. (8. (m 4 + l)(ro. 2 . 10. 2. 73. 1. 2 . 5. ' J. 1 . 13. . . 10.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). (63)(6' t 18. 13. 2.l)(a3)(a . . 3 . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).2. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). l. 87 . 3. (B43). 2. (rt. 10.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 5. 13. J. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.  1. Page 236. 12. 16. 1. 4 .  f . 23. 4 1. 5. 0. 8. (a+&)( 2 14. 10. 7. . 8 6 & 0. 5. 3 . 2 > 1. (&y2a#H4). (a + 2) (a Page 229. y. 1. 22. 4. 8. 14.1.4. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 21.4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 19.2. 5. 0. 10. 12. 7. (a 4. 1 3.1. V3.2)(m. \/0. 2. . 5. 2. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).3. 3. (pl)(p3)(p6). qpl. 0. . 4. 4.7. ~ f7. 3. 30. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 100. 4. 1. 12. . Page 233. 11. (r. 2. 2. 2. 7.5. 3. 11. 6. 4. 5. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 1. 2. =A^Z3. . 2. 1.  J. . 7. P. 3 5. . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).
18.3. Exercise 114. (>. ^~2. ( 3. 1. 6. 2. ^ }. oo . 19. 20 7. 8. . 1. 7. } .3.5. . 3. 8ft. 15. 8. 5.. . 2 .3.4. (/>) "_. 26.. 7. 21. 1. 2. 35^ 5. 2 Y> V . 37. J. $. 1. 33.4. 1. 21. (a) 5. 3. 20. 1J. . 2. . 2 10. 16. Indeterminate. 20. 7.3. 5. 3. 8. in. 512. 8. 12. 1. 2. 1. J. jj. c. 6. Page 241. 50. . 5.1. . 3. 4. 9.3. 2n. 41. 12 ft. 4. V7. 15. 5. 12. 14. 30 13. 2. n . +  n. 3 4. 5.y. 23. 1. 12 1. 30. 1. 2 ft. 19. 3V5. 0. 3. 2. 3. '>. 6. 15. 13. 2. . 12. . 8. 3. 2. $VO. n. 84..13. 4. 5. 11. f>. 11. 400. $46. 2>/3. (&) 2. 28yd. 16. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 31. 3 . 15. 32. 3. 39. 3. co . 4 6. i j. . 5. 4 . 14. 5. 9.6. 4. 7. j.  2 . 3.5. i'ljVU. _ 5.0. 4. 1 . 14. 2. 0. 4. 4. 4 34. 7. 4. 5. Page 248. 15. 2. 18. x 4. 11. 288. 5. 36. 3. 78. 3. 12 d. . 3. m + n. 3. 2. _ 13 (0 6. 40. 40 in. 3.3. 4 8. . Page 238. i.0. 2. 7 3. 17.1. (a) $3400. . 15. 4. 3. 5. 1 2.136. 6. Page 244. 5. 5 . 10. 5 4. . in. 45yd. . 37. tn 2. 1. Exercise 113. 1. 10. 4. \/6.  11. 14. 14. 1 . 5. 20 in. V3~. 50. 4. 8. 1. 21 30.2. i i i . 9. ' j. 3 . 3. 13. 1.. 3. . 25. Page 240. 3 cm. 1. oo ..4. in. 3 . 3. 1. 15. . J. 1. 201. 3. 3. 5. 3. 10. 2 16.. 5050. ft. 2. 2 26. . 8 3. 1. . 18. 2. 3. 125 125. 9. 4. . 4..xxvi Page 237. f*. . 35 ft. 14. 17.. 1. 2. 3. 11.200. 12. 3. 16. 512. 9. 30. m28. 900. 12. GO . 7. 5. = QO 6. 4. 8. 48. 5 cm. 11. 4. 23. 1. 12ft. 1. 7. 10. Page 243. 4. 17. J. 17. . 6. 24. \. 3 3. no co . 31. 1. 1. 22. 69. f. 1.  . 5. 1. 1 . 2 2. 1. ft. 2. . .4. Page 247. 1. $.. m27. 4. 0. 1. 2. 5. 2 . . ri*. 4. 9.1.  1. }. 1 . 8. 14.. 29. 35. 1. 2. 7f solution. _ 7. 22. 8 . _ 10.3 . 17. 2 . .3. . 11. 4. 3. 4. 3 2. 37. 4. 2. oo. ANSWERS 2. 1. 2. . 1. and _ 4. ft. 2. 12. 17. . 2. Indeterminate. in. 40 25 in. . . . . 38. . 24.020. 18. 2 1. Page 239. 13.30. 1 . Page 245. 5. 2. in. 2V7. 55. 1.e. 35 a. . . 1.6.
25. 3. 26. 4. 3. 2. . 3. . f y 8 + z* . 18. 1 7 4. 4. 2. xxvii 1. 125. 16. 1. />*.r x>/ 7 3. 20. 28. 2. ^a 8. 17. 8. 1.4 &z x>&. 3. 55.x' 10 .2 9. 9. ~ an . 2. 2.0. 4.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. JSg. <. 0. 5. 45 Page 257. 8J. 15.192. B . ?/i 6 x llj . 53. 100.5 x. 17. 7. '23.  101. 16. 0. 12.5. 12. 16.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 2. 10 14. 410. . 50. 1. 13. 45. 10. 18. &' 14. 9.6 . 6.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 3.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 0. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 5. 19. . 04. 35. 8. 81. 2. 1. 8 4x' 2 . A. Ja. 2. a4 4 14. . 5.4. vy. 0. 4. 910.8.680. r 5 4. 1. 0. and 1. 1. 1. 280 53. 16. in. 6. 11. 3. REVIEW EXERCISE . 10. 20. . 8. 4950 M 2 b y *.384. 70. . 6. Page 259. 15. 9.3 ays. 4. 4. 2.170. 7. 1JH. 15. 220 . Page 254. 2.53. 5. 4.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 8 . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 7. 9. 17. 4. . I. (). 5. 04.5y 4 . 22. 4.419. 6. 27. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 6. 7.r 4. 21. 4. 5. 12. 2i* 7f. 5.v Page 253. 4. 10. 27. 2. 4. ~v 9.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 29. 3.210. . 8. 1000 aW. 4 0. 12. 16 11. . 005. 2. 11.  17. 16. 21. 27. 12. 1820. 2.504. .13.2 45 a 8 /). sq. 4.^ ?>i 2412x4. 3. 304. 3. 0.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 70.870 m*n*. 11. 8. 343. 10. 75. 3.470. c. 5.  20 flW. .12 x*y 16. 128. 5. 4. 23.6. 45. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 13. 1. 18. 12. 3. 1 14. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 105. . 7 x4 17. **+. 405. r r j. 8. 7.ANSWERS Page 250. 5. 15. Jj? 45. 22. Page 252. 5 13.<2 4.7 10. 35. i 10. 20. d. 4. 7. 8. \ w 4 . 10. 19. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 32. Y11. x r 4. 70. ' 1. G. 6i. 13. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 19. 16. 708. J 2 //2 25. 12. 18. 192.120. . 14. 343.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 3. 9. 43.5. 0. 15. 1. 495.1. 8. x4 . 6. 327. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 6. 120 aW. a. 48. . 8. 125. 1. w9  8.r* 4 70 . 10. 7. 6. . 0. 27.700.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 6. 0. 16.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .920. 4. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . x + Vy. 4. 05. } $ 50. 8. 7. Page 258. 3. 12. 5. 9. 44. 1. 8 1.
1 . 0. 4 .3 . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.  12 a. .  e +/. 2 a. 4ft y3.1w 77.5x4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. . 39.15 4 62 x  72.1.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . ft /> 78. 24.rty x2 4 123.x x*  f 2 ax 4. . 102. 93. 86. 105. 36. 94. 114.y*. x 2 . x 4. 4 Page 264. 28. . + 3 a?. () 2 x 33.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft.6 am b\ 129.3 103. 4.c.4. 3 a 5 a 5. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 243x4729. . 4 65. 4. .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 110. 0. 10 4. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 133. 64. 3 36 b c .4. y 4 z* 0. 22.3 y. 80. + a 4. 14 x . ?> . a~b 89.41. f5+7. 0. . 107. 4 ! . x } 4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. Page 263. 91. &p 84.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 2 30 . 13 + 2 s. 3 c . 122.a 2 x 2a .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 2 . 16t/.2 x 4. 96. x2 471x4.3 a 2 '6 w 4. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 43. 26. 99. . 37. 3 a 44.18 ?/ 5x4. t 81. x4 f + 23 . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.2 c . 127. I 57.4 x?/2 3 4. . 4 115.4 x y 87. 130.{ 54.a. as 20. 2 x2 108.xxviii ANSWERS 19.105.fee 2 4.6 b. 124.7. a' 111. . . 2 x2 4. x' . 2 . 6a6c.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 . . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.  . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . /> 4 83.c 3 4. x' 79. 29. (a + ft)" 98. x 3 4. 118. 32. a* a 8 a aftc.2. 5x + 2y~z.1 4 jry 4 x . 61. x 8 + x 4 68. 72.ac 44 aft. !! 71. * 60. 49. a4 x. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. ?/ .a6 2 4. ^ .a*ft 2 126.4. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 2 x'V2 90. 1 121.2. +^ + ft W. 6 c 47. 4. 104. 100..4 x 2 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 125. 131. 16. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.5 b + c . a* 4.a' 'ft 4. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 8x3 8x. 132.3 x 2 + 3 x . 5 42.18 x?/0. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . x2 a2 1 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 70. 40. x* . Page 260. 63. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. . 1 a"* 4 an . ft2ft 4 4l.9 x . ft n .  + 3 x2 .x24 73.5. az 4.a'2 c. 9 2w 128. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 25. 4 fee 4. x . c3 4 58. .4. ?/ 3. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . a J . .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.ft). 1 x 45. 23. 109. 8 .1. 4 15 x 5 . 10 a 12 b. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. . 38.  3 x2 . 120. x 8  a8 .4 2 4 c2 42 . . .3 aftc. _55_7c 48. 12 a/. a2 2 aft 2 2.3 a'ft.5 a 2x8 x 3 . x 3 41.1. 4 2 . df. 2 q.5 3n 4. 46.  4 a3 85. 31. 35.c. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. a 4 . x2 5r*x ft 5 .9 b. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 21. . m " + n + P3c .x.4 ac.3 b . 2 2/' . 88.2 x^. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 66. x2 2 . 12 x. 82.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 2 53. 50. 5 4 4. 52. 6 a2 97. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.x4 + y'2 z 4. a 3m 4.^a . 27.x 51.1. 1 + 4 xy. xyxzyz. 3~ n 4. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 3a'2 Page 261. 4 69. . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. . 30. + z. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 7 + 3 xf 2. 2 113. 76. 3a~2c.7 x   15. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.x 2 4. . 62. 9x. .2. x8 x2 55. 3 a . 5x 2 2x43.
235. yr. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223.m)(x + a). 195. 40 yr.. y. 180. (x 227. 210. 2(x8)(x3).l)(a 2 +3). 218. 191. 155. 19. 168. (y7)(y + 188. 137.. (x + 6)(x6).9)(xf 2). ft.1). 15. 218. 190. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 197. 186. 202. 199. 222. 177. 232. y  y 165. .l)(y + 1). 158. 206. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 240.r . 143. 162. (x + 2)(x . 32 h. (?/+l)(yl). + y. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 157. 182. (x  42 yr. 2^. 187. + 22).2ac + 229.1). + 3) (x f f>) . 205. 152. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 154. 3. m. (y_24)(y5). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). + 2) + 9a. + 7)(rt4)./_4). Page 265. 224. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). ( jc // a 2 (a1).I2y). 153. 10 ft. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 231. 184. 239. (y  17)(y + (>). 2. (/ 246. 15. 146. (a& 192.r + 4). 3(x . + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (233). 12 6 panes. 161.2). 1. a(a. 12. 164. 230. +)(x2 x^+2. 18. 12. (y 7f))(y 196. 163. 147 mi. + 11) (a 10). a. 12) (j. aft.4xl). 3. 201. 1. 172. G7.3) (2/3y). C3 y _l)(. 75. 173. 12 yr. HI. 50. 151.6) (2 x + 1). 22. (c) 160 C. k.1). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). (r7y)(ai. 185. Iff 145. 212. 150. 174. 171. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 167.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 214.  1. . (a 2 + 2a6. 20. 1. (6) 40. 179. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). (a} 59. 178. . 30. 216. 148. 226. a 2 (15. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 7. (. 2. 169. (2a + l)(a . 1. 170.3. 10). (3x2?/)(2.y) (\r3y).3 y). a + 2x2 ). 10.2. 208. 176.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). . (8x + 3)(3x4).y + 3)(r (. (3x  . 48 h. fc'2a+62c). 183.l)(x8 + x2 . 237.6)(4 + 6). 10). . (JT y 225.2 )(x+y) 228. (5 x . z(x10)(xl). + 3). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 236. r>x 2 (4x. (ab + 8) ( 7). 247. y3. . 207. 4. p. 147. (y _ ft)(y 4. Or (a + 2)0el).. 1. 144. xxix 139.1(5) 200. 156. 37 1. 189. 2 xy(3 x . (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 159. 219. 166. (2 198. x(x + 6) 213. (7x2//) 203. 4.y2 ). 6). 6. 238.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 1. 233. 8 204. 30 + xyr. 181. 160. 140.. 149. 193. 215. 2 (4 x . (x . 2 2 (a. (x^ + x1) 234. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). (xyX^+y" )1 243. 217. 1.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (r^x + 1). 10 in. 2. 175. 8(ar}(/)27). y 245. . as 194. Page 267. 36ft. 220. p. 138.y)(z . 142. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 20. 5. (7 c 2 ). 2a(42ft)(2fo).2) (3 x . 136.6 . 209.ANSWEKti 135. 1. Page 266.3 y)(a . 23 18.y). 24. 15  a. ?. 211.y)(jc + 7 y). 2.3). 21. 12 yr. 241. 30 yr.2). 244. 2. 6.
261. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 251. 10.   . 4 5. 256.(x  4) (x4 304. 7 x 265. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x ?/ z 1. 249. 3  262. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. *>). o.4). 43 '^rJ'.^ ^^. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 7.  3xyf x// 257. 301. 2 4 300. 250. x12. 0. 310. a. 303. 295. 305. 269. 298. ?^ZLiZ 308. 2 x  3. 268. ^/>J. 259. 5. 266.  7. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 3. ? 1) 302.^^^^^^^^. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 0.4) 1) (3 x . x . 264. &). 3). 306. 279. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. > 4. + f. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.2* i^^ !^. 3).1. 7^T 2 . 254. (7 255. a~ ' b*). *. 2. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . o(x4l).. x 267. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 307. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. x 283. 263. 260. 258. ^ 299.
336. 365. <L 409. 1. " 4 378. 0.. 2 ). 386. 397. 325. 385. 11. 4. 375. a + b + 6). 6 ?/+:>. 393. 4. 399. 389. A^L5L. 20. _*L'L+.J . 6a. 366.  1. ^"" 4 s . ?=. 2 r36 384.7. ^_:r f> 331. + x 362. . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 387. Page 277. l . c 402. m. 355. 2. 398. ?>*.vin a /r " 337. Page 274. 0. 326. If.3. 395. 1. L . 9^. j 328. 334. 2 ab  a Page 276. 388. 7/i ^ _ . . 1. . 370. 394. 408. 390. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 376. 396. 1 i 2 ^. 324. 0. ab. 4 rw. 361. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. T+^. 379. T\. + 4 & 4 \ b. 2(a i 403. y 4 I 340. a +6. 360. 364. .)Cr4)__ . 13 391. 2. .  1 356. S. 404. 7.H ' 2wi ^' /' . x 54 359. 392. 2(q. 2 ?/ 363. 380. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 1. 339.!. 12. 383. a) A^_. 343 00 351. 2 327.XXXI Page 272. 333. 405. 1..1. * 357. 3. 407. 3.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 401.". (a + b + c\ . ?/ + 3 332. 329. 4 A. 400. 377. . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. ^ 3 // . 3. l'j.(5 a . a 2 . + 335. 0. 382. f. 406.
439. 428. . i.. 1. 2. 436. . 7. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. . (d  6) f. 1. 498. 472.4. 2.. 28 yr.2. .. 446. 6. ^V. 466. 465. 492. 495.rz Page 279. 17. I. 461. 478. 455.2. 3a 4 5.  . 6. 2 a 2. ^r?i 434. 10.  505. \. 477. *+. 2.  453. not true. 503. 2. 507.1.  7. 486. Page 282. 10.5. Page 281. 32 yr. 10. . 6. (d) true. 482. 435. 2$. 2. 3. a* 424. 7.te + . ' $260 at 0%. 410. 33. 422. 18.7. 5. 430. 2. 487. . . 4. 2. 413.}. 420. 5.7. 0. 500. 1. 2. 0. 50. (c) not true. 459. 51. 421. 53 yr. B 4 mi. Page 280. (&) 443.m  m+ M in. 1.55. 460. 40. 3. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 419. 484.. 10. 5. 411. * . a 22 . 467. a + + ft c. 412. 463. .12. 20. 8. . 11. 444.  1. 7. 5J. (&) true. 440. 457. 506. 490.3. 10$.  f>. 10. 425.489. 7. 8. . 5. m.  2. . 494. 24 days. 501. 0. $2000 at 0%. 7 : .}. + () 433. 4. 0. 90. . 4. \ 1.0. 84. 21. ISJini. 2 438. Page 278. (a  c). 8. 40 oz.7. . 63. ft 5. m 1 : wi. 450.  2. 1. 452. 10. & 491. 483. 1 a /?$+&?. 17. 429. B $ 2500. 10. 42. 1$. 7. 20 yr.. 442. 458. 447. 418. A 5 mi . 497. 496. 445. (a) 1. 464. 476. 6. fc. . 6. 427. 423. 432.488. 456.3. ISjmi. . 2. 448.  2. 426. 6. 22.4. Page283. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 499.  1. ^.7. fj. 479. 3.7. b 449. 508. 481.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. />c c(f be. c 6fc 10. : />a.vz in. 454. !L=4. i a b 451. 5. 4. 2. 3 . c. 8. 5. 0.  10. 485. . 462.  2f 504. 6. L (c) I. L2 a  6 . 32. . 468. . A $ 3500.  7. 441. <L+ 6 (. 0. 493. 14 miles. 480.0. '. 0. 9. z8 +?/ 3 431. 502. 12.46..
a*8a + 24tf 82a.  1. .5.1. 3. 2 imag. 532. a f ft + c. (c) 4.  2ft da.10. 1. 4.  2. 565. _ 4. 4.1. 3. 526.   (h) 8. per hour. <z ft 1. Roots imaginary.14. 0.f 1. 1. 2.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .02. 4.51. ft 584. (6) 3. 3. 575.0.xj/ f xV . 14.1. 558.. 4 mi. . 8 mi. 509. 27 y* f\4 . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .4. 115 Ib. .1. 2. 1$. 3. 578.02. . a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1.33. 1. 2. 574. 3.  imag.38. 3. 40 Ib. 1.62. imag. 1. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 582. f ? a f ft __ + c C).83.. 536.9.02. . y% Z * 586.00. 2 .6. 525.04.8 x3^.25m.55. 2$. 527. (ft) Ill Ib.4. . 4.  . Page 287. 6. 591.10. _^ 2754x .24.56 sec. 1. 576. 1. 4. 514.4.12. 3. 568.  7. g(rc+ 6c). . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.15. . tin. Page 285. 5. 2 10.1. 3 da. 2. 2.5. 24 da. f36a28x8 592. 1.30. M ft c 2 ft 3465.52.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.24 sec. 598. 3. .78.1.5 f.  557. 2. . f.3. 3. 1J. 1.02. (6) . tin. (ft) 4. H. da. 579. 510. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4. 559.88.3. If 572. 515. 571. 2 1. 553.6. 593. 0000. lead. 1.16. 6. 581. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 2.37. (gr) 10 1.0. lead.53.. . 1. .7. 1. 4* da. (d) 537. 24._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 573. 551. (/)  10 to 8. 3. 2. or 8. 31. 564. . . 1. 1.5.03.4 x + . + 6 tf f 3 . 603. 518. 555. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.5+.  3. . 1.75. 1. 232. a + ft  a  f c.  J(a f + 2c). 529.% rr\* 585.8.78. 561. 599. xxxin 511. 2(4 602. 3f 4f.15.3. 577.6.8. (e) (c) 2. 560.7. 516. 5.7.r8 596. 1.3. 5. ^ ft 4. .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.3. 554.24. 4. Page 288. 3. 2 . 5. 552. .8. 583. 1 580. 569.21.  (a) 2. 1 600.05.2.. . 2 2.37. 1. . _ 3.73.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.25. 530.4.03. f.4.3.5. 21*_. 563. 1.8. 4 0. 528. 533.54.31. 3. 2(6 597. 512. . 4.04.62. (c) 3.0.5.6 2.  + + c.15.83. 3. .3. 3 . 7^ da. . 562.3.20. 550. . 2. 1 . 7. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. (a) 74 Ib. 4.6. per hr. 1. 8. .. x8 . + 26 + . S82 c. . (e) 570. (i) 3. 567.  ft*. + 12 x . . 531. J7] min. 3. T . 1.31.  (a) (d) 1. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. y 4. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. o> . 6435. 513. 1 .54.0. a+ Page 286.  4. 556.75. . 566.35.4. 2 1.ANSWERS Page 284. > ^ .
670. 637. 0.f 3 V^3). . If . 627. 210. la6 2. . 971. 0. 618. 607. 653. 608. 651. 617. \. 642. 14.  2f r 659. ' 674. 662. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .049. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 4 V 0. 641. 3 681. 647.>A 610. 633.3. 5. 657. 12. 2.3.001. 3. 7003.  ft. ^^ 695. 2. 622. ix 2 . 2 x 44 ^/. 8 f 3. . 631. 648. ' fe 2 ). \+ab 699. 5. 10. 678< 682. 1 704. 701.  6. 2. 2. K 5 2 V2. 6. 2. V2.001. l/'3. 630. 661. (*_ + a: 611.  . If.XX XIV 606. 614. 1 V5 1. 78. I}'/. If b. 612. If f 667. 703. 623. a 2. 640. 2. 669. a + b.2f (5 4. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 643. 1. 3. 4. 9*. n^l +^. 705.  684. 4$. 2. a 4. 672. 616. 650.43^4. 5. 702. 25. 3. 1m*. ^. 615. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. y  619. 7. 1.303. 698. ab. 6. 656. 1. V^~3). /> 4. ab 689.  4.  13.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 2 a  6*. b .  1.  3. 677 680. 1 2. 632. 11. J^^. b 664. 3 x2 . V7. 629. 6 685. . . 636. 679. 2092.y. 5002.. 898. 660. 0. 4330 da. Page 289.  4. 654. . z  1. 708. 0. 3 a. . 11. 621. <T! . 1 ~a . 0. 4 676. a 673. (a3&45rj. 4. 2. + ~^'2 + a 1. 4. 5 3. 2 a 688. 7. V"^TJ.3f l 668. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 700. 645. b.b 686. 690. If 658. 1$ 639. 655. 638. ^. 50. 696.203. 2 a: 4. . a. 624. if 4/> 671. 13.c ) 697. i.0. 652. 2. ^ 1. be ac \. 1010. 8 6 fo . 635.002. .  a2  a (ab). 5.a~ {Z 663. . 4. 691.3. 2&). fe + a.2f Page 290. / V^+lO^M"^. 25. 666. 706. 2f. fta a/> ^A.25.702.14 If 1. . 683.3. 1. 2f. . 613. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 646. a 1J. 625. o. 9. 692. 628. 626. 649. 620. 2 ab + a  &. c. ft). If 665. a ' 2 + . 703.b. . af6fc __ __ ( a 4. V2. . 0.. 009. 634. 2 / 2 4. 8.04. 644.
3V52V3. x\y. 3^. i 2. cr*lr*. 5. 768. a:* . 3V72VO. 39. 5. 4 104 v/2. 34. iv/Jj.8. . 736.. 1 [ + '> J. 24V2. 47. 719. 13ft. 750.11. 711. a db Va^T < 45da. 8. 790 2v 3v 2.. a 5 . / 787. 758. 712. 59. 727. 732. 723. 738. 733.4 . 1 752. x i f^' .r+y> 759. 767. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 749. . 796. 3V72V3. + < 735. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 739. . v/7 / . 763. ^ . 1. 776. Page 293.V/^ 741. 756. 788. r. 17ft. 7  3V5. 740.1 . 33^2. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 755. 709.2. i^. 751. 3. Page 294. + 6 2 tf'c. 778. 769. 789. 1^ _ 760. 725.257. 782 785. 1. 773. 713.9. 726. 32>/2. 730. 1 I . VT14V5. 777. 2x3^ a.12 af V^ 4 744. J(v'lO2V 791. 342V3. 8. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .ANSWMHti Page 292. 24 4 . y  1. 718. Hi a. 728. 717. v'll. 25. 715. ^7xy.^ 743. 731. VIO\/3. 729. 30\/10 764. ^ ?>. 24. 737. mn. 3 VlT 795. a 2 6^. . 753. 3 720.10. 15 shares. 721. 29\/3. a 2  x2 . 1 747. T%. fyaw&cu.4 .rJ w L 754. 714. 3V7.9. rt3 2 ^i^.~ . . a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. VV> L4V34. 2\/53V2. j 742. 716. > 748. 722. 746. 794. 710. 793. a".r. "V313.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.^. 00. 792. 1. 300. 724.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6..V2. 2 V2 . 734..
2 806. 7. (4 c 4.5 b) 4 1). 2. x . 841. (3 862. (x 845. .  tt 815. 6. 880.  1. 879. 824. 820.. (:r 11. 2. 816.l)(x . 4 .a 4 + 1). 844. 1. 4. 831.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). ^. 2 854. 6. ((' 1). 13.7 4 1) 846. 10. 804. 17. 2 j 889. 2 m . (x 4. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .+ m f ") (a* ). 863. 832. 849. . 847.  + l(l^). 823.2) (x 4 2). 830.1. 0.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ( 869.rae) (4 . (xl)(^~3)(. (2 4. ) (a' 874. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 7. f. 876. 1. a(ft)( 873. 3. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 890.1) (a 8 . 894. (x 2 . 848. 842. a2 ^E*!. 888. 883. . 4. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 7.XXXVI 797. (. Va 803. 872. ^VG. Page 296. 801.7. 14. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 808. 893.. 2. 25. 882. jV3 f 3.25 ?>2). 48. Hoots are extraneous. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 2. 3. 892.4.1)(0 865. a(ry + 864.. are extraneous. 4. . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 837. 811. $. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . .4. ^ V}. 8.y) 852. (x 2 f r . 2.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. a* 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 (x 4*4. 4. 6+V7. .r . . Va.  ' . 3. 3. 891. .f.5) (x + * 853.10 ab 4. 900. (2x (r. m 875. 2 . (a 1) (x 4.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 1C. 4 818. 799. 23. 812. 825. 5. 810. 3. . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 851. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 835. 899. 0.l)(x + 2). 896.1) .3)(x + 4). 836. db 7. (x*y*ryz + z*). 827.om 441) (a 855. Page 297. 2.r4). Hoots . 2. 5). Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.3. (x + 0X024. 859. (x .a 3 " 4. 3. 897. 3. . (a m .1). +j!>. 822. 4. 3.2w . 5.  839. 826. 814. 5. 1 . 833. . o. (x . 7.7). 829. 819. 861. (1 . 868. ( 4 4. 887. 2. 838. 1 1. 3. . **. 20). V 3. o 828.7). \/2. 5.1)(V 2 . (2 a . 867.a 2 2 ).7)(4 x. 4. 800. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 4. 4. 1. 0. 4.2 ax 4. 2  2. 813. 8 09. 11. 8.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). m = 2.4) 860. 17. 857. (a 4 871. 2 2 . ANSWERS 798. 4. 898. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 11. 2/ 856. 0. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 5.0. 6. 3 . 6 $. a 42)(x . (3 b . 2. 881. + d)*. n =  29. x. 843. 858. 4 885. 884. . (x3). 4. (2 x + 3 y} . 834. J V.3. 3. 2 ./>") (a'. 2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 1. 2 *x 807. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 817. 19.l)(x . H. 1. 886. 840. 895. \/5. $. b' 2 821. 2 . X4 1).
906. 945. ft. 933. 11. 977. 111. yd. 956. tt2 19. S07. 28. .I. 986. T 6. 2 i ' a V. 936. '3 3 in. 917. 4 . ft. 28. ft.. 963. 8. 939. 73. 935. 4. 12.  1 . 28. 4. Page 300. v/(ai !)(&910. . 8. 4.111. 925.760 sq. 8128. 8 . . 948. 2 ft.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 115. 12. 942. 2. 15 16 ft. 1. 2. 7.2. . 955. 7. 4. 981.651.. w. 905. 3). 954. f. i 3. 6. i 8. 7 ft.446. f ft 4 . r ft ' < Page 299.. 2. 1 + V953. 2 yd. 6 da. 922./hr. 921. J. 4. . . i(6 in. 978. Y. 932. 4. 959. 2. 961. 8. 4. 947. 60 949. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 3 4 . 1 _2 . Page 303. 983. 902. ft. 982.1. 980. a. 15 946. J. . 2. . 952. 944. 923. . .615. 80. 6. 918. 108. 916. 7. 958. 950. 904.709. T 6. 962. 941. Z ^. Va926. 10. 6 a 915. 940.01. 930. V5 fj. 5l4f. 6. dL 4. Page 302.. 984. 2.. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 8.073. 903.744. a + . 5. ft. .0. V5 T 2 . i>. 333. 7 or 30. 4 6 mi.  1. 2 1. 951. 333. 943. 964.. V^3). 919. . . 0. T3. . 960. 248. 6 . 909. 927. w 3. 5 . 931. 934.. 56. . 3 . 480 8 sq. 3. 7. 5. 329. 6. 8. 912. ^y. 10. 100 rows.1 = 9. 5. 11. 4 in. 3. . 1 . 1). 2. 3. =F J. 40 16 in. J(_ ft.2. 2. 20 19 ft. 3. . 4. $(l 4. 2.. 6. 979.  26j. 6 1 1. 911. 957. 4. 8. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 18. 11. 496.. 8. 0.. 937. 0. ft. ft. Page 301. 6. 3. i1" 913. 66 924.. 1. 987. 920. 12 mi. 1 1. 5. 938. 280. 14 . %* .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 1. 0. 3.1. 2 w 914. 6. 12 in. ft.. 908..V~~3). 985.. 8. ?/i 6. 1 2. 4. . 5. 9 in. 12. 3. . 2. 11.. .
. 996. 991. Page 304. ~ \. Page 305. 2(2 v/2). 1003.18. (a) (6) ^ 1002.128 I. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 6 70 . 1014. 1001.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1006. + 448 . 993. 1 1004.378 <W and 92. 48. 1 8 8 2. 1018. 4 and 1020. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 0. + v 2). 1017. ^f (2f3V2). 992.870 a 6 1011. 162. 1009. 120 i^l^. 1007. 1008.51. 995. 1012. 32 13 (tx 4V3. in. 990. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . (5. 1019. 24.92. 0. () 12(2+V3). 1010. 997. 12.378 1015. 1016. r = 2. 1000.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 994. 72. 1005. (6) 8(1 . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 108. 2 . 12.'^^ } ( . 120 a. 9 da.. 1(5. 192. 4. X. 8.. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1013.870 z8 . (J. 3003. . ^Trsq. . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 988.192rt?)r 120 *.  5&7 1021. (Z>) 999.
save Inequalities. Ph.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. great many work. etc. so that the Logarithms. $1. xiv+563 pages. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. physics. xi 4 373 pages. Half leather. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. and commercial life. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. A examples are taken from geometry. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather.D. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. than by the . given. The more important subjects tions. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. HEW TOSS . i2mo. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.25 lamo. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
HEW YOKE . $1. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. great many A examples are taken from geometry. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. HatF leather. comparatively few methods are given. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xi f 373 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. physics. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. xiv+56a pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. etc. $1.25 i2mo.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. so that the tions. The author grade. save Inequalities. and commercial life. Logarithms. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. In Factoring. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. Ph. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 12010.
Half leather. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 L. under the heading Remarks". Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . State: . Cloth. Ph.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. These are introduced from the beginning 3. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. $1. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. SEVENOAK. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. iamo. 4. $1. 10. izmo. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. SCHULTZE. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Cloth. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . lines. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 6.r and. aoo pages. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. more than 1200 in number in 2. i2mo. wor.D. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. xii + 233 pages. NEW YORK . 7 he . 9. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail.
. . New York City. of these theoretical views. 370 pages. . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. $1. 12mo. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . . and not from the information that it imparts.
Topics. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. i2mo. diagrams. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . photographs. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. " This volume etc. $1. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. and a full index are provided. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Maps. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Cloth.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.
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