This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. . LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.D.
. Norwood. 8. 1910. July. 1917. Reprinted 1913. 1910. January. 1916. August.A. U. IQJS January.S. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. September. May.' February. . Berwick & Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. Cushlng Co. September. May. J. . 1911. 1915. 1910 . Published Set up and electrotyped. .
manufactured for this purpose. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Such a large number of methods. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. owing has certain distinctive features. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory.. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. however. are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. and conse . Elementary Algebra." this book. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. chief : among These which are the following 1. specially 2.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. etc. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.
This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. two negative numbers. may be used to supplement the other. however. For the more ambitious student. In regard to some other features of the book. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.g. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. hence either book 4. Topics of practical importance. especially problems and factoring. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. as quadratic equations and graphs. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. e. are placed early in the course.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . etc.
" Applications taken from geometry. physics. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. is based principally upon the alge . nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. Moreover. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. viz. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. in " geometry . By studying proportions during the first year's work. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. such examples. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. elementary way. and commercial are numerous. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. based upon statistical abstracts. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles.
Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. William P. however. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. 1910. NEW YORK. edge of physics. April. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. Powers.. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.... SUBTRACTION....... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .... .. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..
63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type II. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type VI.. . Type IV.. .114 . /^ .. Type V. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type III. * . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. .. Type Polynomials.
. Evolution of Monomials 170 .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ..... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..... ... . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XIV 169 .... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
14. A polynomial is an y. 6. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 7 = 2. find the numerical value of: Vff. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. or 9 Vx. 0. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. V2a. + c). to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 26. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. are trinomials. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. x 9. 6. 4(a 6(6 + &). as in arithmetic. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 2. a polynomial of two terms. d 7. V36". c = 1." EXERCISE If a 1. aVc^. V3 . A binomial is 62 . b = 3. is 28. + 1]. 3. e. V^a6. 15. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 12. since the parts are a . Val \fi?. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 10. c f d). 16. 27. 5Vl6c. 4V3~6c. \/c. 9.g. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. 11. 13. 2 . v'Ta. 17. 8. [6c] 3 . (cfd) 4.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. some number is .
2 ). 16. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . = 32 + 4527 = 50. 3.4 6^9 ad. 5. 5. 2. __ E.99.5 ax 50 a6cd.g. x=^.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . a2 11. c = 2. . subtraction. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 3a + 56 a 2 .2 + I126. 52 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. i. + 26+3 c. a 2 6. 4 . multiplication. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. Ex. 14. 1. . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. a=4.. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. l 13. Otherwise operations of addition. . * For additional examples see page 268. 6. EXERCISE 8*  . 3 2 If 1. 5c +d 2 . (a (a f b) 7. 12.9 aWc + f a b .e.30 = 270 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . d=Q. d = 0.19 = 6. 4. 5=3. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 6. Ex. b = 3.9. 8. find the numerical value of: 9.INTRODUCTION 29. 3 4 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 4a6fVaV2^. .390.810 + 150 = . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. c=l.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 10. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .
. geometry. a = 2. a = 3. 38. 28. 27.c) (a . and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). = 3. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 35. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4.6 . 6 = 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Six 2 . Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 6. 29. a =3. a = 4. 6=2. and other sciences. 30. 23. 6. a. 6 = 5. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. physics. a = 3. 30. 33. 26. 6 = 2. : 6.6 f c) (6 a + c).12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 4. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 25. 37. if : a = 2. 6 = 3. 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 1. 24. 22. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a =4. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 7. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 4. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 5. a a=3. sible to state Ex. 34.
b.16 centimeters per second. 84 square EXERCISE 1. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.seconds.INTRODUCTION E.g. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. .e. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 15 feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. i. An electric car in 40 seconds. if v = 30 miles per hour. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. c. 14.16 1 = 84. (b) 5. if v . and 5 feet. 13. A train in 4 hours. 15 therefore feet. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. b 14. and 13 inches. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 2. if v : a. 4. Find the height of the tree. d. 12.) Assuming g . then a 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. (c) 4.
2 inches. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.). If the (b) 1 inch.14 4. ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 5 F. the area etc. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (c) 8000 miles. is H 2 units of length (inches. 32 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 10 feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. $ = 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. This number cannot be expressed exactly. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. square units (square inches.14d (square units). meters. the 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. (c) 5 miles.14 square meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. . diameter of a sphere equals d feet. : 8000 miles. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (The number 3.). denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 5.
In algebra. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . or positive and negative numbers. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). however. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.
16 32. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 6 6 = 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. + 12. = 5. 5. '. c = 4. 12.3. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 24. lf(2). of 2. + (9). of: 20. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 19. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. .  0. (17) 15 + (14). is 0. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. is 2. 4. 23. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 18. the one third their sum. 22. 4 is 3 J. 10. if : a a = 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. d = 5. d = 0. 2326. 21. c = = 5. (_ In Exs. subtract their absolute values and . 33. Thus. 5.
' 1? a 26. 6. 0.ADDITION. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 40.7. and 3 yards. 38. 37. $3000 gain. 09. ^ ' 37. and 3 a. 10. . . and $4500 gain. c=14. 7 yards. 27. 2. 13. . 10. . = 13. 12. = 22. 30. : 34. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 1. 39. 29. 41. 34. 10. $7000 gain.. affected by the same exponents. 2. 74. 6. 66. 7 a.5. 43. c = 0. 4 F. : 48. $500 loss. 72. 25. .3. and 3 a. d= 3. 35. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 7 a. 4. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 3 and 25. 5 and 12..5. AND PARENTHESES d = l. : and 1. 32.. which are not similar. are similar terms. 11 (Centigrade). = 23. sets of numbers: 13. and 3 F. ' Find the average of the following 34. 55. . 42. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. SUBTRACTION. }/ Add 2 a. 31. & = 15. 36. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. \\ Add 2 a. 3. and 4. & 28. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 32. 6. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 60.4. and 8 F. $1000 loss.13. 33. or and .7.
13. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. : 2 a2. Vm f. 12Vmfn. + 6 af . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. EXERCISE Add: 1. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 5 a2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 2 . 14 .18 35. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. or a 6. 11. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.13 rap 25 rap 2. 5Vm + w. in algebra it may be considered b. 10. b wider sense than in arithmetic. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. Algebraic sum. f 4 a2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . . 7 rap2. 9(af6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 12 2 wp2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 5l 3(af6). While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. b a f ( 6).sign.ii. 12(af b) 12. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a . 2 a&. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 2(af &).
i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. is . SUBTRACTION. l^S 25. 33. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. without finding the value of each term 34. + / + 3 Va. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 17. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 35. 37. 21. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. c 2 ^24. n x* 2 22.ADDITION. 1 27. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 36. a a8 ZL **. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 2 7 1 26. and to add each column. 30. +m """ 20. + y. 32. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2/ : Add. 6 23. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15.
5 . e.8 abc . 2c.g. 2 Sum. 9 q 4. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 2 . 2 025. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.41 = 3. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 3a 2? .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. to add 26 ab . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.12 a& 4.c= 2.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 3.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.7 2 . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. = . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .15 6c.15 abc . x of x.3 s. to show any error. 2 Thus. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. .g. ft any convenient and c. a 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. therefore the answer is correct. 4 = 7. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. f 110WS: 26 aft. 5.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . the erroneous answer equal 7. 46 4z 7 c. s.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . and 2 . . and J 2 s. 6=2. NOTE. 4 2. c = 1.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . V3. 7 4. of that letter.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.o c and 4.20 c 5 ab 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.
(b + c) 1.1 a 4 1 0. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 16e + 17/90.15 5.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 16. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.5a^6 f 6) .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. d and / 3 ? 12.4 Va . 2 3(c f a).a. xy3xz + yz. 4.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 7ar + 3B 5.VS 4 2 Vc.ADDITION. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.a . 3 2 2 3 9 . 2 2 and . and v 15. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. m 4 6.7v/if. 2 2 . a + 1> 8 2 2 .9(a + &) .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . + 50 + 62 . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.12 6 ~5 a . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . .Ga 43x45.2n 2 2 3 rz . 4(a .8 m 2m 12. 11.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a2 a. a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.7m . ?/ .3 mn 2 2 n8 . . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. d. and 12a 4 15& 20c .and 6. . 19.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . . 2 ?ft ?/z.a 4 a 4 1. . 4 Vc. SUBTRACTION. and and 13. a 4 a . 4 ajy 17.5 cr& + 7 6 9. . a 4 a .6.a. in 8 3 m n 4.12. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 ?/. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 4 3 . 18/+6y + d.1. e a4 /. and . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. + a + 1. . a2 2 14. .12(a 4. and 8 3 . a) y ^/.10 Vc. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. and 1 4 a .4:xy xz 6yz. ^2 1 e.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2 and 9m 48m 4. . v/20. 56 w. 8. and 5 Vb 18. 2 a. 4 8 3 4 4 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .
+d a.4 2tn* Sic 2 . and 2 24. 12 xyz. 1. a 6 2 c. 6 f c 2 23. The sum and ? 1. f number may be added 3. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. c 3 3 3 2 3 . . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . f 1. f 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 13 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. and 25. many negative units re main ? from 2.. . + 1. is 2.22 21. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 45a6 2 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.17 + 4 ?nfy . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.9aj 2. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. T8a. 22. If you diminish a person's debts. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1. 1/ .m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. + n*. 2 8 n + <w 2 . how 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. . 8 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n .3^* 2n 2 .ra + m. and e + 6y . s .11 xy + 12. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.
41. the other number is required. a. From 5 subtract + 3. the given number the subtrahend. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 1. Ex. . may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. From 5 subtract to . 3.3. 6 (3) = 8. 7. Or in symbols. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 2. two numbers are given. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. and their algebraic sum is required. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.g. Ex.ADDITION. +b 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. In subtraction. 5 is 2. and the required number the difference. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.2. if x Ex. In addition. This gives by the same method. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. To subtract. ab = x. ( 6) ( = . called the minvend. SUBTRACTION. NOTE. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. Therefore any example in subtraction different . from What 3.
Ex.3 x* .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .
From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.ADDITION. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 47. 2. tract 4 x 3. 2y 2 . 43. 57. From 6(af. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . + a the 2 a.2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 50.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a^ 4. 6 4 a. SUBTRACTION.4 a*& + 6 a & . c f d.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. . 56.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. From 2 a take a & j. 42. 53. 58. 48. 54. 49. 41.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. of a 4.c. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . and 3 7/ . 44. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.a 2 j. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 55.6)f. check the answer. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 51. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 52.w>t.7 a . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 45. 46.
10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 6 17. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. of # 2 8. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 2. + 6 + c. 19. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 6. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c.15. subtract # + 1. a 2y + z. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. a a + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 2 m 21. A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. a + 6. 9. 20.26 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 16. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12.
c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. a+(bc) = a +b .6 b f (.ADDITION. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. & f c.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. changed.b c = a a & f f.c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. I. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.g. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. SUBTRACTION. one occurring within the other. 46. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Ex. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 45. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II.2 b . . 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.a^6)]  } . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. the sign is understood. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.
: Ex.+ 6)f (a2 b). 21. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2.y (60. a (a + 26 c ). 19. m f ft) a.7i h jp) (m ?*. Ex. a (a + 6).[271 47. 14. 3. 6. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. . 9. 17.) 5 .(a + 6). 5. a f (a a . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 18. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.)]. + (2a 6 + c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. (m a2 f. 16. may be inserted according to 43. 3 3 f 7.1422) J ] . 6) 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. By removing parentheses. 2 2a. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). ? 11. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. : x + (2yz). 4. 8. 13. 271 + (814 . Signs of aggregation 1. 2 2 2 a(. 15. In the following expression inclose the second and third. [36+ (a 2c]. find the numerical value of { 1422 .
4. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 3.7fa. 7. z + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. and the subtrahend the second. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n.4 y* . 2. The product The product m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 2mn + 2q3t. 7. 12. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. y f 8 . terms 5. ' NOTE. .ADDITION. 9. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. difference of the cubes of n and m. SUBTRACTION. The difference of a and 6. )X 6.2 tf . 8. m and n. II. 10. 5 a2 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 3. p + q + rs. m x 2 4. The sum^)f m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5.1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. first. 13. of the cubes of m and n. a\l> > c + d. The square of the difference of a and b. 6 diminished . 5^2 _ r . 6.
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. d. b. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6.30 14. 18. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) . The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force is produced by the Ib. 5. A A A 1. 3. two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. let us consider the and JB. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. If the two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 2. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. 4. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads what What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
Thus. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. 9 9. thus.4)(4) = + 12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4 multiplied by 3. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. becomes meaningless if definition. 9 x ( 11). Practical examples^ it however. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.32 8.9) x 11. 5x(4). a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. (5)X4. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. ( (. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 4x(3)=12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. 48. (. . the multiplier is a negative number. 4 multi44444 12. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4)(. or plied by 3. however. NOTE. x 11.
MULTIPLICATION 50. X(5).3) (1) 7 2 . If a cal = 4a6c. 15. +5. 10. 1. 19. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)'. 3 a2?/2 .(a&c) 2 2 . z s 11 aWcx. 2a 2 6c. the parenthesis frequently omitted. (4)X(15). 16. 9. _3. 30. 22. b = 3. (10) 4 . 27.a)( =+ a&. . . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 6. 20. 4. 12.2f 18. is 6x7. 8 4 . NOTE. . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 6. (2)x9. Law Thus. c = 25.(4J).4. (7) X (12). 11. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . about fac (2)X If 6. 17. (c#) . 7. 26. 2a6 c .7. 1.3. (2) 8 (. . _2^ 3. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&.2 f+x 2 . 13. 2. 4 a2 . x. 8 31. 3. 24. _2. Ua b 28. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 3 aW. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 4 . 14. . find the numeri values of: 21. of Signs: TJie positive. 32. 29. etc.2. 5. 8. x= 0. 6 2. 23. 3. 5x3. and y = 4.
+ 2/). 100. 16.7. 4. 50(112. . 2(14. 11. 3 2 . or 2 . 127  127 9 7 . 7. i. 4.  2 2. 9 . . 12 U U .(12) . 6" 127 U . 3.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a = 3. &*) c d*.3). : 3a7abc. Ex. a8 a=2. 5 . 2(7. B. fl*" integers. 6 = .503).e. 5(711. 6 = 1. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 14.6 if 35. = 2.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a= 1. 2 3 .<?. 10. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . =2 a *. 53.  and 2 25 8 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 3. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .(2. . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2 2 3 6 . 78 .257). IB. 5 3 5 3 2 . m*. 2 2 2 . 200. 1. 6. & = 3.m a 3  4 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. of the factors. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.. Ex. a 2 2 .2 2 23 + 5 . 36.. a = 2.2). 5 = 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .35). 34. 3 3 4 . This 52. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 5. .(7). . By 3 definition. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 13. 4. 2.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 2. 6 aWc x . (a6) (a5) 9. 17. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.
by first multiplying. 12( + 1 4 i). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 26. /). 27. 3. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).7pqt. 3(124342). 21. 7. 6. 34. . . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. and then adding : 1. 7p*q r*. 2(5fl5f25). If results ft. 24. . 22.2 3 aft ).6. Thus we have in general a(b 56. ax /) 2 4 1 (.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 25. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 5. . but we shall assume it for any number. 31. c(4a ftc ). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . _4aft. 2. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 2(645410).4a#. 23(10004100420). ) 2 33.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 6(10420430). 35. called the distributive law. (. 17(10041042). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. multiply each by the monomial. 28. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 .3 win ) . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. . This principle.7 w'W (8 n^W).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 20. 4. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 29.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 2 32. (. 19.A). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 11(3. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 35 4 7(6.f 2). 23.
3 aftc). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . .5 x 7). 7 a 6 c(.6 a6).60 a& 10 aft. 2 2 16. 3 ). 17. 29.2 mn(9 mV .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 12. 26. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 30. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. be multiplied to give 4o.asa product.we b) (x law.5 w*V f 7 wn). 5). : expression must 24. . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 28.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. f7a. 11. . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 9. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 m(mhn \p). . 20. ~2mn(m +n p ). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 21. By what 25. 23. 2 27. 22. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 19.^ c + 2 . Find the factors of 6 ary .
4. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 2. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. . however.1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 2a3b a66 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example. Multiply 2 + a a. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.3 b by a 5 b. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since all powers of 1 are 1. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Check.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Multiply 2 a . Ex.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.a .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . To multiply two polynomials.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 a 2 + a8 . 59.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.
6. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .2m)(l m). 25. (a^26) . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 9. (4a 2 33. 36.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 8. 32. 22. 15. 36).1 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 26. 18. 28. 2  37. 30. 7y). . 35. 12)(a?^2l). QQ O7. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).4) (mnp 4. 12. 36) I) 14. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 17. 29. 10. 7. ^ 2 . 3. 24. 31. 4 2). * For additional examples see page 261. OQ OO. 16. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (2w 19. (2 x* x 2 . 5. (13 A. (6i7n)(llJn). 3<7).4) (x + 1). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 40. 4. 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). . 11. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2. 2) (3 A: 1). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2 . 20. l)(raf 2). I (mfn)(m4. a 5c)(2a6c). 13. (6a~7) 2 . (8r7*)(6r39.2).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (6p (2 f 21. 41. 1).
plus the product 62. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. ft 16.e. + 60)(f2). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 25 a 2 . 2) (1000 + 3). (10+ (1000 (2. _3)(a _4). 1005x1004. (a3)(a + 2). 7. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. X 102. in of the two unequal terms. 19. : 23 2. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 17. (J 23. + 5) (1000 + 4). 3. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (6 12) (6 f. 22. + 3) (a 7).25)(y+4). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. + 9)(m+9). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .13). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 13. 2 6) (a 3 6). 25. 1) (10 + 2). plus the product of the two unequal terms. (p12)(p + ll). 28. (a 9) (a + 9). + 2) (a f 3). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 20.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 21. 75 ab f 54 ft . 12. 15. 8. (a (a (a.!!)( (a + 21). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 24. (!)(* 5). (a 102 x 103. 9. 18. 11. 6.e. 2 a? 29. (ra. i. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). . (*. 27. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. i.n)(wf w). 10. 26. 14. . 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4.2 6) (a f 6). .4).
2 5. 63. 7. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. .66 s. 34. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. 31. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 37. 3. : 24 (a 2. n2 10ii+16. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.15. 33.30. 6. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 49 y*. a2 2 w + 2 w . i.e. Ex. III. + 3) 2 . 8. . 9. of the second. 7 a + 10. and the second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). (a2) (p a . 35. plus twice the product of the first and the second. + 6 a + 8. second. 2 (a (*5) 2 . w 2 ro . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a26) 2 . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. plus the square of the second. III. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 77ie square of the of the first. i. . <J>7) J . 4. (x+3i/) 2 . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 32. p 2 p.15. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I.
47. 2 . 22 2 . (2x3yy. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 41. 40. 17. . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 51. 25 a 9.998 39. 42. (20 f 1) . + 3z) 2 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). m 2 16. n*6n+9. 55. 998x1002. By actual multiplication. 29. I) 2 . 103 36. 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. n 2 f4n+4. 21. 2 (4a36) 2 13. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 104 2 37. 52. 2 9a 496 2 56. 41 16. 15. (6afy 2 5) (a. 32. 16aW25. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 . G> +5g)*. ). we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 11. 48. 46. . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 24. 44. 9 a2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 33.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 28. (1000 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). + 5)(5+a). : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 35. 4 53. . 14.MULTIPLICATION 10. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl.30 ab + 25 6 64. 34. 22. 18. . 62 25n 2 . 2 . 2 J ). The product of 57. + 5). 45. 31. 7& ) 25. 991 2 2 . 99x101. (^. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . a2 9. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 38. 23. 49. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 54. ( 27. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 12.
4. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (4s + y)(32y). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus the last terms. or The student should note minus signs. ((5a? (10 12. 65. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 8. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). : 25 2. 7. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 9.& + c) = a + tf + c . (2a3)(a + 2). 13. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 11. 3. 6. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 14. 5.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 10.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (5a64)(5a&3). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (5a4)(4al). ) (2 of a polynomial. sum of the cross products. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (3m + 2)(ml). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. .
(>. 4. a.1 5 = 10 . (u4& + 3c'. Check.y? + 8 .X2 + 2 x . and check the answers !. + 65) . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). n). 2 2. 4(* + 2)5(3).8 x + 15] .(x . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. = . Find the square root 11. Ex. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.4) .r _ 2 . of z : 10.4) .3) (x . 6~2(a + 7). Simplify (x + 6) (a . 9. If x = 1. 8. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 6(a 2. (a (. (xy+z)*. 2)6. + 6)( .24 . Hence.(= [ Xa + 2 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 3. = 10 x . 4(aj2)h3(7).5). 7. 4y sf n) 2 . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 4. 6. 5. 12. .24] . (  2 4) =  20 a. 3. 5.5) = (7 .29. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 13. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.(m 2 6. 7. after multiplying the factors of a term.39. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.i2&c) 2 .3) .3)(z.[a? . 8. 66.39.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). a I. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 18. 16. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .11 a + 9 a . .DIVISION 14. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . .e. (81 m + 1 . . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). Division of the difference of two squares. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 20.2). 19.2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.l. v/17. 51 15.
121a a 16 100 11. 4 b. f 13. 100ry. 16. 15. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14.000. .49. 16 . aW 12 a. 9& 2 . 12. : the following w a 4 !. 1.0001. 10. r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. .
(a + ft) (a b) and b. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. =11. x 20. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. hence it is an equation of condition. . Thus. 82. is said to satisfy an equation. the 80. 83. the first member is 2 x + 4. 81.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . in the equation 2 x 0.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. second member is x + 4 x 9.
A 2 a. To solve an equation to find its roots. 87. 4. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 90. A term may be transposed from its sign. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be multiplied by equals. 89. the products are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. A numerical equation is one in which all . NOTE. x I. one member to another by changing x + a=. the remainders are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.2. 2. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.g. but 4 does not equal 5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. . 86. . the sums are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.b.54 84. E. 5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.e. the divisor equals zero. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. a. 3. Transposition of terms. 2 = 6#f7. 85. If equals be added to equals. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. called axioms 1. the quotients are equal.
Check. Dividing both members by 2. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 91.2. 3 y . 4x 1 + 6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Unite similar terms. a= a 6fc. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. if 55 x members. 2 x = 6.6 y f y\ . x = 3. b c.2 y= f . b Adding a to both + a. x = 93. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. a? Adding 5 to each term. if a x = b. Ex. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. The second member. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. The first member.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Hence the answer. Transposing. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Dividing by Check.9 y + y2 = 22 .8. Subtracting 4 x from each term. and the known terms to the second. 6a5 = 185 = 13.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. is correct. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. To solve a simple equation. The first member. Uniting similar terms. f If y 20 . 2(11 . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. . x = (Axiom 3) 92. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. (4y)(6.
17 7 a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). . a. 13a? 3a?. Solve the following equations by transposing.17 + 4y = 36. 20. 32 = 264. 50. + 16 = 16 + 17. 7a? 5. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3. a? a?. it NOTE. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 7 (6 x 16). 7. + 7(3 + 1) =63. Transposing.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3 7 a.7a: = 394a. 6. 11 ?/ a? 18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. Uniting. 22. f Simplifying. 12. 21. 16. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 19. a?. 13 y 99 = 7 y. and check the answers 9. \x x 2^xfl. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.69. x = 18. x x 1 . = 2 ?/. = 3. 2. 17 + 5a. 9 9a? = 7 13. 247y = 68lly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). If x = 18. aj * See page 264. {(x (x The The member right member left . + 22. . a. 8. 15. v23. =2 = 3. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 11. 24. = 7.56 Ex.. = 5a?+18. 4a + 5 = 29.7. etc. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 14. 4. 3. J. : 5# = 15+2a. 4y 10.
42.5) + 199. 5) (as (a.7) (7 x + 4) . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. . find the other part. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. e. . 35. + 7) (. 34. 31.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 7) (a. (6 u =5 44. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. this question.32.1 0) = 0. 2 2 * Jaj. or 70 a?. .3) + . . 27. 7(7 x y 26. + 4). he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.5) = (a. 33. 38. 40.5(2 u .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .3) . 30.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.14 = 0. 36. 39. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 6(6a. is the other part.(2 + 6) (4 . Evidently 45. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 29. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.1) (u . a? 43.4) + 4 w .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.2) (M . (a. a? 28.g.7.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 25.1) (a (a? + 3) = . . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.12) (2 + 5) . + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . 41.3) + 14. . (aj 37.
Find the greater one. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 11. 3. is b. smaller one 16. 6. 10. 17. 1. Divide 100 into two 12. so that one part The difference between is s. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one yard will cost 100 dollars. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. greater one is g. or 12 7. EXERCISE 1. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Divide a into two parts. is d. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 5. 15. 7. 13. Ex. 6. 33 2. and the smaller one parts. 14. a. 4.58 Ex. is a? 2 is c?. 9. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. If 7 2. find the cost of one yard. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. one part equals is 10. so that of c ? is p.
and B's age is y years. A man had a dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A dollars. 24. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 26. b dimes. 33. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. find the of their ages 6 years hence. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. How many years A older than is B? old. A feet wide.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and c cents. 28. and spent 5 cents. If B gave A 6 25. amount each will then have. numbers is x. Find 21. and B has n dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. and B is y years old. 32. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 19. find the has ra dollars. 28. is A A is # years old. 20. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. ?/ 31. Find 35. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. sum If A's age is x years. How many cents has he ? 27. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 34. 22. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a.
miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The two digits of a number are x and y. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. 48. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. of 4. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. c a b =  9. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). a. A cistern is filled 43. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. he walk each hour ? 39. m is the denominator. . What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. find the fraction. Find the number. Find x % % of 1000. per Find 5 Find 6 45. Find a 47. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. 49. 46. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. . of m. A was 20 years old. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find a.50. The first pipe x minutes. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks ? r miles per hour.
etc. c. of a increased much 8. c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. a exceeds b by c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. of x increased by 10 equals x. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 80. 4. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 2. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. double of a is 10. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. The double as 7. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 3. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. The excess of a over b is c. 5. 6. same result as 7 subtracted from . by one third of b equals 100.
the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. . express in algebraic symbols : 700. 16. is If A's age is 2 x. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 10 years the sum of A's. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. m is x % of n. and C's ages will be 100. and C's age 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 50 is x % of 15. B's. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 18. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. amounts. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 3 1200 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. 12.. B's age 20. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 14. of 30 dollars. sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. (c) If each man gains $500. 17. a. symbols B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum.62 10. they have equal of A's. >. 6 % of m. B's. pays to C $100. x 4 If A. as 17 is is above a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. B. a. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. they have equal amounts.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. #is5%of450.000. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 11. a second sum.
number of yards. denote the unknown 96. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Let x = the number. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. much as 40 exceeds the number. . NOTE. Check. be 30 . etc. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Ex. Find A's present age. x= 15. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Dividing. In 15 years 10. Simplifying. 15. the . x+16 = 3(35). Three times a certain no. Ex. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. the required . In order to solve them. 6 years ago he was 10 . x = 20. but 30 =3 x years. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. A will Check. 23 =30. number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 4 x = 80. Uniting. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Transposing. 1. Uniting. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 2. Transposing. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 3z40:r:40z.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. % of 120. exceeds the width of the bridge. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2.2. Find the number. by as much as 135 ft. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A number added number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 3. twice the number plus 7. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How long is the Suez Canal? 10.64 Ex. 300 56. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 120. 14. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Hence 40 = 46f. EXERCISE 1. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. . Find 8. Let x 3. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 4. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Forty years hence his present age. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 13. 5. Dividing. Find the number. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 11.
The sum of the two numbers is 14. During the following 90 years. written in algebraic symbols. statements are given directly. The other verbal statement. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. Vermont's population increased by 180. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. the second one. A and B have equal amounts of money.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. B will have lars has A now? 17. B How will loses $100. How many dol A has A to $40. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. x. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. and B has $00. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. which gives the value of 8. The problem consists of two statements I. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ex. 97. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 1. and as 15. . If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. If A gains A have three times as much 16. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money.000. One number exceeds the other one by II. times as much as A.000. Maine's population increased by 510. 14. is the equation. two verbal statements must be given. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. F 8. five If A gives B $200. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 65 A and B $200.
+ a f f 8 = 14. Then. to Use the simpler statement. 8 the greater number. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as many as A. If A gives are : A If II. consider that by the exchange Hence. = 14. = A's number of marbles. = B's number of marbles. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. has three times as many marbles as B. / . although in general the simpler one should be selected. 8 = 11. the greater number. and Let x = the Then x +. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as viz. the smaller number. which leads ot Ex. 25 marbles to B. x x =14 8.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. Let x 3x express one many as A. . 2x a? x j = 6. = 3. 2. Uniting. . Statement x in = the larger number. x = 8. If we select the first one. A has three times as many marbles as B. < Transposing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. The two statements I. A gives B 25 marbles. I. .66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. unknown quantity in Then. Dividing. the sum of the two numbers is 14. A will lose. terms of the other.
$3. 3. Simplifying. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. x = the number of half dollars. (Statement II) Qx . 60. The sum of two numbers is 42. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.10. cents. x = 15.. w'3. The value of the half : is 11. Find the numbers. Dividing. dollars and dimes is $3. Check.550 f 310. . greater is . Uniting. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. have a value of $3. Simplifying. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.75. the number of dimes. Uniting. but 40 = 2 x 20. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.240. Check. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.. B's number of marbles.10. is 70. 11 x = 5. x = 6. Eleven coins. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. . 1. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. The number of coins II. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 2. 50 x Transposing. etc. then. A's number of marbles. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). * 98. 6 times the smaller.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 40 x .25 = 20. 3 x = 45. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. * ' . Let 11 = the number of dimes.5 x . Find the numbers. the price. the number of half dollars. of dollars to the number of cents.. 45 . 15 + 25 = 40. by 44. Two numbers the smaller. x from I. 50. and the Find the numbers.10. Dividing.
cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. On December 21. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 6. How many hours does the day last ? . as the larger one. Twice 14. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and four times the former equals five times the latter. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. What is the altitude of each mountain 12.68 4. Two numbers The number differ by 39. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts.. A's age is four times B's. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many inches are in each part ? 15. United States. Everest by 11. tnree times the smaller by 65. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many 14 years older than B. the number. 7. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 5. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. one of which increased by 9. McKinley. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 11.000 feet. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 9. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Find their ages. and twice the altitude of Mt.
and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. number of dollars of dollars B C had. If 4x = 24. has. B has three times as much as A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. III. has. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. B. original amount. = 48. 8(8 + 19) to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and 68. 19. bers is denoted by x. I. . number of dollars A had. and C together have $80. times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. they would have 3. Let x II. II. then three times the money by I. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. number had. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 1. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and B has three as A. and C together have $80. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. x = 8. The third verbal statement produces the equation. Ex. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols.
185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. each cow $ 35. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The total cost equals $1185. The I. and each sheep $ 15. x f 4 = 9. each horse costing $ 90. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 1 1 Check. according to III. and. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 28 2 (9 5). x Transposing. Let then.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 4 x f 8 = 28. Dividing. three statements are : IT. = the number of dollars spent for cows. the third five times the first. Uniting. number of horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. sheep. x = 5. and the sum of the . cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and Ex. number of cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. III. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of sheep. first. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. according to II. 9 cows. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. = the number of dollars spent for horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. + 35 x 4. + 8 90 x and. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 2. 9 5 = 4 . x j = the number of horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 90 may be written. number of cows.
and the third part exceeds the second by 10. "Find three is 4. what is the population of each city ? 8. and the sum of the first and third is 36. what are the three angles ? 10. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. first. the second one is one inch longer than the first. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and 2 more men than women. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. v .  4. New York delphia. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). twice as old as B. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. women. twice the 6. equals 49 inches. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.000. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 13. increased by three times the second side. the third 2. A 12.000. The gold. If twice The sum the third side. and children together was 37. first. 7. what is the length of each? has 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. men. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the copper. how many children were present ? x 11. 9. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.
such as length. together. i. Dividing. number of miles A x x walks.000. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000 more than that the copper. . statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and quantities area. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. we obtain 3 a. of 3 or 4 different kinds. of arid the value of the iron was $300. number of hours. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 35. or time. = 5.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Find the value of each. 8 x = 15. how many 100. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 3 and 4. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. First fill in all the numbers given directly. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. After how many hours will they meet and how E. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. A and B apart. width.e. Hence Simplifying. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000. but stops 2 hours on the way.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and distance. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. speed. 14.g. 7 Uniting. Let x = number of hours A walks.
73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. l. Multiplying.04 = $ 40. 2   and transpose. original field has Check. .01 = = . x + 200).05 x x . Find the dimensions of the field. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100." gives (2. Check.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. But 700 certain = 800 2. Transposing and uniting. x . 10 x = 200. . and the width decreased by 10 yards.053. 70x10 Ex. were increased by 30 yards.04 8. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. $ 1000 x .06 = $ 40. the area would be 100 square yards less. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. + 8. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800.M(x . $ 800 = required sum. z = 20. $ 800 = 800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. 2 a = 40. the second 100. x . or 700.
and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. invested at 5 %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. the area would remain the same. A sets out later two hours B . sions of the field. together bring $ 78 interest. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8.55. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. as a 4. Ten yards $ 42. twice as large. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A man bought 6 Ibs. but four men failed to pay their shares. mobile. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and a second sum. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. What are the two sums 5. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Find the share of each. Six persons bought an automobile. A sum ? invested at 4 %. 2. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. 1. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. After how many hours will B overtake A. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 3. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. A of each. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. of coffee for $ 1. were increased by 3 yards. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and its width decreased by 2 yards.
traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at . Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. but A has a start of 2 miles.
f db 6 to b. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if it does contain some indicated root of . a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. irrational. this letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. which multiplied together are considered factors. as. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 104. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. consider 105. stage of the work. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. vV . 5. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . we shall not.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. but fractional with respect 103. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 76 . a. a2 to 6. An after simplifying. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 6. if. it is composite. it contains no indicated root of this letter . + 62 is integral with respect to a. at this 6 2 .
x. E. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 107.FACTORING 106. for this result is a sum. .62 + &)(a 2 . 8) (s1).62 can be &). 55.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . in the form 4) +3. . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. or that a = 6) (a = a . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . x. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 110. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).g.3 6a + 1). TYPE I. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 2. 1. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Divide 6 a% .3 sy + 4 y8). y. 77 Factoring is into its factors. ?/. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 01. Ex. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. It (a. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .) Ex. Factor G ofy 2 . 109. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. it follows that a 2 .
20. 15.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 4 tfy f. 12. . 4.3. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. a a 'Ja . 2 2 . 2 Or.4. 7a & 10. 15 2 7. q*q*q 2 a. 3. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 32 a *?/ .5 + 13 8.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 18. 14. Ilro8 9. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).45 afy . a6c.5 + 2. 2. 4 8 . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. obviously. 2 6. 16. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).51 x4 2 6 xy s . 8.30 aty.6. 2 + q. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.8 c a 15 ofyV . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. . 34 a^c 8 . e. 3 2 . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . in general. 2 23. 11. : 6 abx . 13.51 aW + 68 21. 14a 4 5. TYPE IT. 5f 2 . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. ) 22  2.g.3.2.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.12 cdx. 3 3 5 6.4. 7i 13. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. + llm llm. 3x*6x*. (as 3) and (ccf5). 17. 19.
11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.G) = . 3.FACTORING Ex.11) (a + 7). We may consider 1. can be factored. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. or 77 l. a 2 . . 5. 2. . or 7 11. Factor + 10 ax . 11 7. Ex.6 = 20.5) (a .. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Ex.11 a + 30. m 5m + 6. + 30 = 20. 79 Factor a2 4 x . + 112.77 = (a.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.11. Factor a2 . .5) (a 6). 4. Factor x? . of this type.4 x . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. Therefore Check. is The two numbers whose product and 6. determine whether In solving any factoring example. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 2 6. and (a .a). the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. as p. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 77 as the product of 1 77. If q is positive. tfa2  3. the two numbers have opposite signs.11 a 2 . however.4 .30 = (a . If q is negative. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.1 1 a tf a 4.
2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. . 21. 9. 25. 19. + 5<y 24. 16. or . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 18. 4 2 . ITT. 35. 14. 21 a 2 2 . + 2xS.6. 29. . 2 . 31. 30. a 7 a 30. 10 x y 2 200 x2 .48 + + 446 200. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.500 x + 600. 26. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x.80 7. + 4?/21. 100 xr .17 + 30. ay 11 ay +24. 16. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 2 ?/ 22. 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.70 x y . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. x2 23. 4 3 2 . 11. 2 2 a' 34. ra + 25ra + 100. and 5 x.180 a. 20. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 24. 2 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 17. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 13. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 32. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. TYPE 113. 27. + 44. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 33. + 30. . 2 ?/ 28. 36. 15. 12.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 ?/ 5?/14.
viz. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 2 x 27. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.1). Factor 3 x 2 . Ex. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 3. 2. 3 x and x. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 54 x 1. and r is negative. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. . sible 13 x negative. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. then the second terms of have opposite signs.13 x + 5 = (3 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. the signs of the second terms are minus. but the opposite sign. a. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.83 x f 54. 9 x 6. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. or G 114. 27 x 2.5 .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. X x 18. If p is poxiliw.5) (2 x . the If p and r are positive. and that they must be negative. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 11 x 2x. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 18 x 3. 6 x 9. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. . If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.
18. since all others (II. 2 2 2 . f go.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 26. 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 12. 10a2 G a2 2 .83 x = (3 . 9a. 2 2 2 23.19 a f 6. 2 . 90 a 8 2 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. Sar' + SaG. 25. 2 . . 2 28. 4. 5m 26m f 5. . x54 a. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 21. the expressions should be it. 3. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 14 a fa 4. 3a + 13a.260 xy . 20. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2m t7w + 3. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.30 y 6 4 . 13. + 4. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 22. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 30.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 24. X 27 .2 a 90 x*y . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 35. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 100^200^ + 100^.179. 6n + 5?i4. 144 x .7. 14. 29. and the monomial factors should be removed. 2 fc .27). 15. 8.300 ab 2 f4 250 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 10a?2 2 33. 6. 3x*Sx + 4. 34. 5. 12y 2/6. 19.83 x . : 41 2. 4a2 9tt + 2. 9 y + 32^16. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 7. 16. 2 31.163 x 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. . 10 a .2) (x . 11. 12^17^16. 32. + 2/3. 17. 2x* + 9x5.y + 172/9. 9. 10.
8. To factor a trinomial which maining term.26 ab + 9 6 2 . however. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.20 xy f 4 y\ .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 11. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 . square. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 6. 25 7. 2. x* . 9 10a625. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. it is a perfect square. 13. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. . i. 10. 3. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 116. it is more convenient for that type. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.e. must have a positive sign. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . and a perfect square.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 5. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 16 y? The student should note that a term. .10 x f 16. and factor whenever possible : 1. 4. 14. of its terms are perfect squares. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9. 12. form are special cases of the preceding type.
10 a 2 4 2 . 2 .20 ab + 10 b a . .6 m* + 9 m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 2. Ex. ^//c to the Ex. 36 2 4. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 22. TYPE 117. 149 a 81 8. a. 4a2 l. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 7. 225 ofy . 1. 16&*.3 * ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. 29. 2 20.2 ofy + ofy m . 2 . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. product i. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 4 2 23. 48 a +( ). + GO + 25.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . aV . 2. 3. According to 65. 17. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 19. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 5.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 6.64 6 = 16(a . ). 25. +( )f816 30. * 2 . 6 2 . 2 . a. ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 3. 27.60 a# + 4. . difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 9. 9a2 . V.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. a2 24. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. ). 16. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.84 15. 18.e. . 26. prime.
c . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Factor a 2 . a:) 12. 4. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) . 16p 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2. 2 . Ex. 11. One or both terms are squares 1. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 6.d) 2 . 8. 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 .(c 4. a2 . of polynomials. 13. 9. 5. (m7?) y. 14.FACTORING 85 118. Ex. T. 36> .
a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.ab + bx. . Ex. 4 B. ma ?*a + m& nb. 10. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 7. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 2. x8 . 5.1. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 119. 5) . 3.7 c + 2c . raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. which may be factored according to types I. By grouping. a 26 2 2 3 . 2. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. = (3 x + y .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. + x + 2x + 2.14. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.VI.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. .y + 2 2). 8. After grouping tain a the terms. Ex. 6. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 1. 4:cx .2 ) (3 x . a5 + ab 6 . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 12. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 9.r.and trinomials. a? 11.a a . A.
6. 6a4 12a2 + 6. IV. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. w m 2. = (a + 6)(a6). 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . $ a8 .l.12 aaj 4 6y. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 8ra 2 + 16. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. + 2xy + y*q*. 5. 2.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. : m 2 2 16. . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2 7. : 46 x* 2. 36 9 m .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 3. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 3.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.4 f . 4. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 2a3/ 7. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 4 a2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 6 6. 8. Arranging the terms. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2.FACTORING Ex. . 4.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . II.
27. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 25 a + 25 aft . 30. 42 s 2 . 2 a 128. 19. 29. 3 a2 23. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. or 3 7#2 . a. + 6 aft + 3 . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 3 25. 2 17. 5a' 20. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.310 x . 80 a 2 ft 38. 40. + 14. 3 2 .24. 2 3#4 3a2 36.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 28. a6 36. 3 41. 24. 4 a. 2 ft . (^ 34. 4 8 tt 2 z . 42 x .156. 13 c . 5 a. a3 156. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 48. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) .88 10. a + a + a + l. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 35.40. 13. 11. 12. 22. (a. 50^ + 45. 32.13 c . . 14. 18.
25 W. C. F. F. EXERCISE Find the H. F. 8 . 12 tfifz. 6. C. 3. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 5 s 7 2 5. The H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. C. of the algebraic expressions. 54  32 . C. C. 24 s . 122. . C. F. 3 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. The highest is common factor (IT. 13 aty 39 afyV. C. 5. expressions which have no are prime to one another. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. F. II 2 . C. of : 48 4. of aW. Two common factor except unity The H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . aW. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. Thus the H. of two or more monomials whose factors . are prime can be found by inspection. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II.) of two or more . F. 15 aW.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 2 2 . 2. The H. The student should note H.  23 3 . 5 2 3 . 121. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. F. F. 89 . 5 7 34 2s . of 6 sfyz.
5 a6 5^ 2 a. 16. 38 #y. 13. 4 ?io. 3 . F.12 as 66 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. ^2 2 . ^707 + 12.6. 8 6. y + 3y64. 6 a2 y? . 95 2/V.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 9. 7.5 x3?/ 2 6. (a7 ?/) . 49 C. 15 3ao. 4(m+l) 3 . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 2. 6 mx . 2 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 10. 8(?/ifl) 14. and apply the method of the preceding article. 1. x* x2 Hence the H. .5 + 6. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . . a. a2 + 2a3.90 7. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 2 .2 ?/) (x . . 8. 11. 0^80:416.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . a3 9a. 52 oryz4. Find the H. 9. aWd. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 6 3 a. ^f a. 8. 57 a>V.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 13. 5. 24 a 2 . 14. 12.y + y42. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. To find the H. a3 16 a. 3).2 y) (a. 225 4a 9 . 3. C. 12 w*nw 8. F. . 2a f5af 2.# 4 afy f 4 . 9 aj*(a? . . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 12. 3^ 2 4 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . a 3a4. Ex. 2 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .^9. 25 m27i. 10. = x 2 y. of polynomials.5 y). . 6(m+l) (m+2). 2 . C.y) 123. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. of: . ^a + 5^ + 6. 65 zfyV. 11.6 . of + 4 if. a2 ar* 4. F.?/ .y) . 16 a . a2 . 12 . C. a2 + 7af!2.6 a&.8 a + 16. F. 1. 8 a 10 . 15.
2 The The L. C. but opposite . The L. 127. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .C. M. Ex. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . M.C. 126. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. thus. 2. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. 1. two lowest common multiples. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 128. C. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L.6 3 ).6)2. C. Find the L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. a^c8 3 . etc. 60 x^y' 2 .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. &) 2 M. M of the algebraic expressions.M. 300 z 2 y. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. which also signs. of the general. of several expressions which are not completely factored. L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C.M. ory is the L. L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of 3 aW. Find the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. C. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. . Common 125. each set of expressions has In example ft). Hence the L. The lowest common multiple (L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. A common remainder. =4 a2 62 (a2 . C. of tfy and xy*. To find the L. C. . M. NOTE. M. Ex. C.
2 ic 3 4a 8 a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2 a. 40 abJ. b 2 . . G a. 2 a . a& 4 +& 2 . y*. 6 y. 2 . 3 Z> . 21. by. 24 x.1. 3. 6 a. 17. T a 3 a 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 4 a f 2. 6. 13. a2 4. a2 ~ab 1. a 2 fa6. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a f 3. 24. 2 . 2(m 2 . a !. + 2. + 2 7i) . 2 x \2 y. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a 1. 3 . x* ~5a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . M. 30 a. 3(a + b). 5. 2 a . 6b 2 . f b. of: 4. a.f 6. a^1. a?b. 3. 20. 16. a f 2 19. ic 23. xy\ .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. ) . 11. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 10. or f 3 a 15 #. a 2 a3 . afy. (For additional examples see page 268. 4 a . a. 2 . ic 2 ?/. afc'cd 2 . 22. 8 d 5 . a { a~b. 8. 8 afy. . 3 ab. 18. 1. 9. 15. 20 9 a. 4 a 5 6cd. Find the L. 2 7ic+10. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 3 f2.1. a. x 2 5 a. x2 + 4 a f 4. a 2 f 4 a +4. 14. #. + 6. 7. 3 6 xif.
CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 131. successively all 2 j/' . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. F. rni Thus 132. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. a b = ma mb . only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. but we In arithmetic. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. a?. Thus. and denominators are considered. an indicated quotient. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. as 8.ry ^ by their H. Ex. A f fraction is b. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. 130. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . etc. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . C. however. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Remove tor.
4) Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Ex. cancel factors only.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.
""".n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 16. ny 4 18. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.. g J 21. 5^10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f . ^" a. . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*. ^' rt ^  31. 19. 29.7 .10 a + 3 2 14. ' ^ . . . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . nx 17. 9x + "a" 10. 23. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^+3*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. LJZJ^JL. _ 3 7i rt< 26.' 32. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.
multiplying the terms of 22 . C.C.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . we have M^.M. . and the terms of ***. . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and (a 8). and 135. M.1^22 ' .  by 4 6' . Divide the L. 1). Ex. .C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . ^ to their lowest com The L. we may extend this method to integral expressions.3) (!)' = . + 3). Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. mon T denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. take the L.r 2 2 .96 134.~16 (a + 3) (x.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. Reduce ^. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. by the denominator of each fraction.D. TheL. 2> . =(z (x + 3)(z. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.  of //* 2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. C. we have the quotients (x 1). 1.M. of the denominators for the common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.
common denominator 6. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . If the given fractions have different denominators. i. a? 1 5 > ^* .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. j y 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 18. JL. 2 ay IB. 7i 2 ab* ". 3. 2. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .^1.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 74). they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. ..Reduce the following to their lowest 1.oj o* or / . 5?. 137. o o a. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2aj ~ . 22 a2 5a * . . . 8 i i.
we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . The L.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .ft) (a ft ft)~.g. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . as 4 aft f.3 .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). e.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.(a 2 6). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).2 ' 2 _. the student should remember that parentheses are . 4(2 a 3 ft).2 = a(a ... ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.ft)(a . 2 ^. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . T? Ex.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. D. C.aft) Ca2 . ^ is 2^JT) . D. L. and adding. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . 2.3 ft 2).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft).3 ft). (a .7 . (a ft). in the beginning.
A+2_3. 1 f q * 1 m m . 5a76 4a 106 9. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 20. 23. 15. + a "" 2 6 ' . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 46 2a 4a 12. j>0 i> 21. 18 v 19. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 2L + 2a 1 17.5 18 ^4f25. a 36 ++. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1 1 f w 16. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 6 c 3a 7. + . a+6 a 6 2 14. 24.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3.
a 30. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 43. 1 34. ic 1 + 1. 2 af1 32. 3a 9 +.9 79 6 2 i.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 41. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a ?^ 40. af 1f /j. 42. ! n.9. a 4 31. a. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .
Reduce . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 101 mixed expression. .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . T. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .7 5a v Ex.  4 or 3 2a. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.  . . 1.6 + 4x 4 x2 .
we may extend any e. F J Simplify . (In order to cancel common factors. Since  = a.g. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.) Ex. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. !. fractions to integral numbers. or. multiply the 142. integer. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2. 2 a Ex.
14.. 5# 56 / c& 4. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 50 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.. . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 4 8.
expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. : a 41 ab * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . Divide Xn?/ .
Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. or both. are fractional.FRACTIONS 105 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .6 s + 064. l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. ga2 4 8 5 a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .^c 2 2 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.afr 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.5 ??i 80 50 . Ex.10 ?/ _.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a a2 4.
6. Simplify x }. M. x* 4. a m "" . C. 2. . i. & . y X 4* 2 y 3. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).a ^c c _^ a . 7i+~ 7. 10. c +6. . . n a 8. the answer is directly obtained. Ex.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . of their denominators. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. JL. . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 9.y 32 .
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. : .) . m^n* n L a 17.
If x 6.28 a = 5 x2 . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).8 x = . . 148. Bx 12 Qx. tions. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Transposing. 4 4)  x. 108 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying.f3# + C:E=6f7212. If = 64. 2 3. of the denominator. + 1) (a + 3) . Uniting. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .28 x + 42 = .42 + 9. each member is reduced to Ex. M. 5(3 85 Check. = 6. = 6. 2z2a. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Clearing of fractions. x = 6.1. these Ex. Uniting. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . each member is reduced to 1. 2x Transposing. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. a.9 x2 + 9. 2.14 (a.l)(z + 3) = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 9x x Check. C. 1.48.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.
= 2. 15. . a. a/  5 a/ = 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. +4 14. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. . a: 7 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +1 = 5. ^1 = 9. ^' 2. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 16. 1 *> = 2. '  4 13. 18.1 _77 a.
. 26 26.  38 = 40. 32 6 . y+3~2 29. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 27 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 33. If two or more denominators are monomials. 4a4l4* + l~. . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 ._ _ . 31 31. and" the remaining one a polynomial.11_4 x 149. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. . ?_=_. 3x 35. 25. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.
5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . the 1 5 L. . a. 60.29 50712' 9 18 . 24 a. Dividing.1. each member is reduced to ^. Transposing and uniting. 5# 10. If a. = 9.2 3 ~  == 7a.  5 = 20 x 45. Check.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. M. C. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 5x x : = 9. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 26 a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.2 42 9 43. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 1..
If 3ac L= = a ? . = 2 f b 2 .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Uniting.m bx 2 mn) x. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. f ~ 5c. Dividing. It frequently occurs that the x. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.be. Uniting the Dividing. find a in terms of b and c. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.& . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . they are united by factoring. 2. Thus. fr Reducing lowest terms.2 62 2 ab. Ex.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. =a 2 151. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. ax f x f. = = 6 6c 7 6c. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Ex. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.3 6 2 = a' . a. = 6 a2 . = l^ 9 b 4 .2 ac + 3 aft . y.1. . jr. 4 ac 1. 5> a.
4. = 5. solve for a. + xx = 1. . 10.= H.i l . s = Vt solve for v. 17. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 5) is t =^. c 18. 4. iw 21. f ^o. If ^^ = a 1 32. solve for . co?. _ 2. a. 34. ^ ax a^ 26. IIL n b + &o. denoting the interest. 3(* 8. 2 solve for y a. + 3a. 29. . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 12. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 30. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . in terms of other quantities. c. 11. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 6. The The i time. r the number of $>. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = rt. = 3 (6 a).= n. 1 f. t. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. q solve for/. mx = n. p the principal. and n the number of years. = vt. 9. m a? x .a. 31. = 8 4 #. rate. . f P =+!.= c a Z> . Ex. If s If 16. 13. If * 33. 15. * Solve the same equation for^). 14. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. .
2. is 36.180.. 1. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. . 12. Ex. 2 3 . A would do each day ^ and B j. x Or Uniting. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. Find R in terms of C and TT. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Multiplying by Dividing. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = 16^.20 C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over..minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. then = 2 TT#. and 12 = the number over. 100 C. Ex.114 35. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. .
The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 3. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x." gives the equation /I). the rate of the express train. Solving. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. or 1J. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. = the x part of the work both do one day. and the statement. the required number of days. in Then Therefore. Clearing. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. 4x = 80." : Let x  = the required number of days. 32 x = . 180 Transposing.
are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. 3. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. ex What 5. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. money and $10. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and J of the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. and 9 feet above water. make 21. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. by 6. which was $4000. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. is equal 7. and one half the greater Find the numbers. of his present age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and of the father's age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. length in the ground. ceeds the smaller by 4. by 3. a man had How much money had he at first? . A man left ^ of his property to his wife.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his son. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9.
? In how many days can both do working together 23. after rate of the latter ? 15. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. investments. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. what is the 14. A has invested capital at more 4%. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. .) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 3. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) 22. ^ at 5%. and B in 4 days. 1. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. How much money $500? 4%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. air. 152. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and it B in 6 days. Ex. 2.
25. we obtain the equation m m . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.414. therefore. is 42. B in 30. B in 5. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Hence. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 12.118 153. 3. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. if B in 3 days. 26. is 57. . B in 16. .e. m and n. Ex. and n = 3.= . 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. To and find the numerical answer. . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. The problem to be solved.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. n x Solving. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. Then ft i. A in 6.009 918. A in 6. they can both do in 2 days. e. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. A in 4. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. and apply the method of 170.
meet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (d) 1. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. and the second 5 miles per hour. 5 miles per hour. 33.000. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 149. the rate of the first. the second at the apart. is (a) 51. 4J miles per hour. respectively. 34. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. is ?n .721. and the rate of the second are. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. The one: 31. 3 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. squares 30. Find the side of the square. . solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. 2 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. squares 29. 3J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. if m and n are. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. After how many hours do they meet. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (c) 16. (b) 35 miles.001. same hour from two towns. Two men start at the first miles apart.
b. 1. the denominator The the 157. 158. the symbol being a sign of division." we may write a : b = 6.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. " a Thus. a ratio is not changed etc.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. Simplify the ratio 21 3. antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . b.5. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. the second term the consequent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6.g. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. etc. . the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. In the ratio a : ft. The first 156. : : 155. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 6 12 = . Ex. b is the consequent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. E.
11. a and d are the extremes. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 7:4 T T 4 . 27 06: 18 a6. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 16a2 :24a&. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. Transform the following unity 15. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. Simplify the following ratios 7. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. proportional between a and c. equal 2. : ay . J:l. terms. b. 9. 4. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 3. : 1. 12. 4:5f : 5. 6. 62:16. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 8^ hours. and c is the third proportional to a and . 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. The last first three. 7f:6J. 3:1}. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a.RATIO Ex. 10. 3:4. 159. 18. $24: $8. 61 : ratios 72:18. b is the mean b. 16. 3 8. 5 f hours : 2. 1. two  ratios. 17. b and c the means. and c. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. extremes.
q~~ n . i.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.30 grams. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.122 162. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. pro portional. briefly. : c. then G ccm. In any proportion product of the extremes. ad = be. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 164. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 2 165. ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.__(163.) b = Vac. If (Converse of nq. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Clearing of fractions. The mean proportional of their product.e. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. = 30 grams 45 grams. 3 4. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. of a proportion. 163. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 6 ccm. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the other pair the extremes. and the time necessary to do it. of iron weigh 45 grams. !. 163. are : : : inversely proportional.) mn = pq. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. " we " NOTE. : : directly proportional may say. of iron weigh .
(Division. if 6 : 7. Or IV. 2. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.PATIO Ex. + b:b = c + d:d. d d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. a:c=b:d. bd bd.) II. a III. (Frequently called Inversion. . is 4$ = 35.) d 167. hence the proportion true. is Ex. (Composition. = 35 .) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. ad = be. I. 12x Hence a? = 42.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) (Called Alternation. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. 166. V. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. (163. I.) = f f = 3 J. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. ad ( 163. 1. then =d c.
A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 20:7. = 2:x. 9. x = 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 2:3. 5. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. . IV. mx tin Apply composition and division. : 3 = 5 f x : x. the consequents by 7. 5 5. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 10.g. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. E. 3. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr.!=!*. 4. .e. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 120:42 2 2 7. : x. 8. Or III. = 12 5ft. = 7:2f 3J. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 6 =4 : x. 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE.124 IT. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. Simplify the following proportions. i. = 180:125. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. V. Apply composition.
21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 51. to : 9 and 12. x:5 = y:2. terra 2:3 = 4. to : a and 1. 7iy = 2:x. 21. 2. 03:a?=135:20.j>. + fyx = cy. 44. mx = ny. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. = 5 x 12. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 18. 31. 6. 16 and 28. 23. : . 47. 33. 4.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. = 3 43 + x. : 53. Find the mean proportional 30. x m = y n. 52. ratio of y. : a2 . 26. f. 1 and a.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 5= 18 a? : a?. a?:15 15. 43. 46. 41. 2= 5 x x.x: 6:5 a : x. 20.. 27. ra 2 . : 125 40:28 = 15:0. = 2 + x: x. b.:ff. = l^:18. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. if : 40. 22. 12. w. 35. 3t. . Find the third proportional 24. a 2 and ab. 42. 14. (a : : 45. 29. 112:42 = 10:a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. rap. 9 x = 2 y. 38. 6x = 7y. 4 and 16. ra. 3. 6 x = y. 17. 34.  32. to: = 35:*. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 5. = 15o. 2 3 = y #. 3. 1. 25. and 2/. Find the 37. 39. 13. rag. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 2 a and 18 a. a. ra + landra 1. 14 and 21. 28. 2. 50.8:1. 16.
and the time necessary for it. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk.126 54. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the area of the rectangle. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the time. what 58. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. 57. the area of the larger? the same. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the : total cost. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). A line 7^. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 56. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the speed of the train.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%.
Then Hence BG = 5 x. 7 x = 42 is the second number. produced to a point C. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. x=2. : Ex. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 2 x Or = 4. . AB = 2 x. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 inches long. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC.000 168. 11 x x 7 Ex.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. is A line AB. as 11 Let then : 1. so that Find^K7and BO. x = 6. 18 x = 108. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2. = the second number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7.
How many gen. : 197. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many 7. 2. How The long are the parts ? 15. 7. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. : 4. and 15 inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000 square miles. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 9. 12. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. Gunmetal tin. 14. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 13. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 11. What are the parts ? 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. and c inches. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.000.) . find the number of square miles of land and of water. 12. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 3. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.
The root of (4) if K 129 . 2 y = . If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. Hence. if .y=. such as + = 10. there is only one solution. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. values of x and y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. is x = 7. expressing a y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. =. etc. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.L x If If = 0.. y = 1. x = 1.e. a? (1) then I. However.
Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 21 y .X. y I 171. viz. of elimination most frequently used II. same relation. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 6x . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 3. to The two methods I.130 170. Substitution. 172. 26 y = 60. cannot be reduced to the same form. 4y . y = 2.24. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.3 y = 80. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. The first set of equations is also called consistent. unknown quantity. for they express the x f y 10. and 3 x + 3 y =. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). By By Addition or Subtraction. E. Therefore. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.26. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 174. ~ 50. are simultaneous equations. = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. the last set inconsistent. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.
2 = 9 + 4 = 13.3 y = 47. + 2. Therefore Check. 25 x . = 235. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3. x = 10. = 406. y = 1. are like. 60 . whose coefficients In general. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 1 = 47. add the equations.14 =8. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 5 13 . y = 2.2 = 6. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 37. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 10 . 64 x = 040. 3. subtract the equations. 3y = 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Check. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 8 2. Transposing.
9 *. = 6. ] ^ . 13 61 l7a. I ~ y~~> 22.3.5 y = 2. i 3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 19< I a. + 2/ 17.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. x 11. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. f 3X 7x 14. = 41. . I i 3 a. O t K 8. I .f2/ ' = 50.4. 7 ' 1fi fl . I oj 5y = 17.3. J I y = 1U. v ^ = ll. 13. 9 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. _. ' 12.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 24.v 23. * + 3 y = 50. [2o.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 4#8. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 2. = 60. . = 13. 3. 8. and solve the resulting equation. = 2y + 10. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. x ) ^"" 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.
\ \6(a. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 7x_2y=3. x = l.6)7(y7)==18. . + 212y4 = 14. (4). 4* + 3y = 19. 21z6y=9.3. (7) (7) (8) . 2 y = . 7 y = 6. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Substituting in (6) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. From 9 = 36. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 29 x = 29. however. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. simplified before elimination is possible. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 3 (1) Ex.
4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 12. a.1) = 121. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . yM a.f2 2. +y 2 . 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10.1) + 5(6 y . a. J 9. = 3. 16. 10 2a?5 17. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4 11.
#. f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. e. ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. 180. . * ((* (( . but some expressions involving x. <X + 20. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 22. {.Q ^ 4 21.and x y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. and y.
x 2x(2). 33 = 11 x. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. x 3. of this type. y 4. (2) (3) a. Substituting x = 3 in (1). (4) + (G). Dividing by 11 3 = #. however.3 xy.4 x = 4 xy. 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). . Therefore y=4.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 137 Solve y y (1) . by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. can also be solved Examples method. Clearing of fractions. y. y 1. . etc. 2* * x 2. 15 y + 8 x .
10 " 12 25 U y 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 21 9 .= o 6. 4 13. 1. = en.= 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x 8. x y 5. Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. n. . y MOi y a. x y 331 9. 6. 253 7. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .
f 5. a Find a and terms of n. x 12. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. 14. . s in 11. d. Uniting. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. w.W. ny = fy/ I sc 1. ax + by = 2 a&. . From the same equations find s in terms of a. 6.y = = 9a + 46. fax f = l. x f my = 1. . Dividing. d. apan cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. ap. and I if 13. . and I. bmy bm}y ap cm. x a. W .
four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. To solve equations containing By tions. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 4. 1. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. f 3y 12 =s 8.1+4. 3. 182. 20.lf> z . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). etc. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. (4) (5). Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 6.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 3y = Hence Check. . by 3.by 2. 1. x + 12 y . 4.8 = 1. Ex.3 = 8. = 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. y =* 2. = 30.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.13.25.3=4.15z=12 Adding.2 + 4. ties are Similarly.12 y + 6 z = .2 + 3. l. 3. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.16. 8 x . (8) 2.
7. + 2 y f 2 = 35. ~6?/ 5. + y f z = 15. k 2/ f 2 x a. x 13. 2z = 40. 2 4. 14. 15 2 = 45. == 6. 49. 10. 12. 2 . a? + 709 = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 4 = 42. 8. f 2 i/ f z = 14. a? 11. y f ?/ M 2? = 4.
84 21. 23.. . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. . 4. 32. (3 _. ? = llz.6 2. = 5. ^ = 2. 19. 27. 1510 4 17.2 a. 16. 60. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.42 = 2. =s 20.3 y + . ?/ 3x = 0. = 8*. 22.
and to express In complex examples. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1 = 2. however.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Check. the number. # 4. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. and if 396 be added to the number. + 396 = 521. + z = 2p. either directly or implied. 1 digit in the tens place. . ( 99. y * z 30. 1. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 2 = 6. . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. y 31. M=i. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. x : z =1 : 2.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Find the number. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. z + x = 2 n. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. +2+ 6 = 8. = 2 m. Ex. 2 = 1(1+6). Obviously of the other . = l.
= 8.144 Ex. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Ex. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. . By expressing the two statements in symbols. 6 x 4 = 24. direction. Find the fraction. B. 3. Since the three men traveled the same distance. y = 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x 3 = 24. 2. Or (4)2x(3). From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. (1) (2) 12. 2. 4 x = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 5_ _4_ A. C. x 3x4y = 12. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . the distance traveled by A. xy a: 2y 4y 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. we obtain. increased by one. = the fraction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check.
Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the Find the fraction. Find the number. If 27 is 10. Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. Find the numbers. A fraction is reduced to J. and its denomi nator diminished by one. 183. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. ? What 9. and the numerator increased by 4. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the digits will be interchanged. tion ? 8. . Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the numbers. its value added to the denominator. 7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 1. both terms. 2. it is reduced to J. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. 6.}. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If 9 be added to the number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If the denominator be doubled. 5. the last two digits are interchanged. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first.) added to a number of two digits. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the fraction. number by the first 3. Find the number. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. and the fourth 3. the value of the fraction is fa. fraction is reduced to \. to the number the digits will be interchanged. added to the numerator of a fraction. the fraction equals . the fraction is reduced fraction. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. part of their difference equals 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4.
and 4 %. How 6 %. 14. and in 5 years to $1125. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. If the rates of interwere exchanged. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. now. 12. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the rate of interest? 18.000 is partly invested at 6%. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . A man invested $750. . and money and 17. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. the annual interest would be $ 195. Find their present ages. 13. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. in 8 years to $8500. A sum of $10. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.grams. and partly at 4 %. 5 %. respectively ? 16. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. partly at 5 %. 19. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the rates of interest.
The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and angle e angle/. BE. ED = BE. B find angles a. BC=7. then AD = AF. and e. c. and F '(see diagram). How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. points. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. $ 50 for each cow. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. are taken so ABC. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and CE If AB = G inches. the three sides of a triangle E. 25. and F. but if A would double his pace. and angle BCA = 70. what is that = OF. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 24. On /). three AD = AF. and $15 for each sheep. . and their difference by GO . triangle Tf AD. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. cows. An C touch ing the sides in D. respectively. 1 NOTE. andCL4 = 8. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and AC = 5 inches. . 23. A farmer sold a number of horses. E. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and sheep. BD = HE. and F. Find their rates of walking. and GE = CF. angle c = angle d. the length of NOTE. for $ 740. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. BC = 7 inches. is the center of the circum scribed circle.
PN. Thus the points A. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. ?/. the ordinate by ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. The of Coordinates. It' Location of a point. and PN _L YY'. the ordinate of point P. (3. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). and r or its equal OA is . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (2. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and point the origin. 186. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. (7. B. 2). YY' theyaxis. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. is the abscissa.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2.. . first 3). or its equal OM. PN are given. 3). PM. and PJ/_L XX'.
2). 3). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Plot the points : (0. 12. 3. 2). Plot the points (6. 1). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.4). 4) from the origin ? 7.e. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (3. 11. (4. 0). 4) and (4. !). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. which of its coordinates known ? 13. 2.) EXERCISE 1. 6. 0). 0).(!. 8.and(l. (4. 6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. . (4. Plot the points: (4. (4.1). 2). 1). . What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (4. (5. (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (0. whose coordinates are given NOTE. Graphs. 4. (2. Plot the points: (4. and measure their distance. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.3). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 3). 3). (See diagram on page 151. (0. 4). i. What is the locus of (a?. 4). (1. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 2J). 71 2). 0).
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 10 . 15. A. we meas1 . C. from January 1 to December 1. 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. or the curved line the temperature. By representing of points. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ure the ordinate of F. may be found on Jan. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. B. 188. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. however. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. D. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. .. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. Thus the first table produces 12 points.
. physician. the graph is applied. The engineer. (d) November 20. the rise and fall of wages.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (c) January 15. (b) July 15. etc. Whenever a clear. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. uses them. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.
from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1 to Oct.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. on 1 to the average. When the average temperature below C.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (d) 9 0. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what months above 18 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. How much. 1? 11 0. (freezing point) ? 7. ? 9. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ?  3.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. is 10.152 2. 15. (1) 10 C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. a temperature chart of a patient. transformation of meters into yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23. 20. 19. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. One meter equals 1.09 yards. NOTE. Draw . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Hour Temperature .
amount to $8. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 29. then C irJl. x 7 to 9. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2. if he sells 0. x* x 19. gas. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 3.g.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. e. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.50.) T circumferences of 25. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. the daily average expenses for rent. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x... 28. the value of a of this quantity will change. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 . 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. books from for printing. A 10 wheels a day. function If the value of a quantity changes. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.154 24. represent his daily gain (or loss). 9. 190. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.. etc. if each copy sells for $1. to 27. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.5 grams. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. x increases will change gradually from 13.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.50. 1 to 1200 copies. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. etc. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. and $.inch. binding. 26. 3. 4. .
as 1. be also represented by a graph. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Ex. E. (1^.1). 3 50. however. Graph of a function. may. it is In the example of the preceding article. If a more exact diagram is required.e. and join the points in order.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. x a variable. 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 1 the points (3. may . Draw the graph of x2 f. while 7 is a constant. Q. . a*. 9). 9). for x=l. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. construct '.2 x may 4 from x = 4. to x = 4. 2). and (3. (1. is supposed to change. 2 (1.1). ( 2.g. J). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . etc. 3 (0. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 4). The values of func192.0). (2. 4). plot points which lie between those constructed above.
. 2 4 and if y = x f. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. and join(0. etc. straight line produces the required graph.4). 7 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. j/=3. 4). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4J.2 x . r */ +* 01 . 2. 194.) For brevity. . as y.. = 0. (4. 1). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.20). Thus 4x + 7. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.. Thus in the above example. 5).. rf 71 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. (3. Ex. y = 6. (2.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 4. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.
(d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . . 2J. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. Jar . if"a. 1. 15. ?/ a. 4a? I. (ft) (_ 1. a?. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 1J. The values of a*. 2x + 3x a?. 2 a. 2 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. a. J. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 5. The values of a?. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 6 fa. . 6. 8. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.5)2. the function. if a. 2 or 2 20. a? 1. a? 2 4. l. 18.5)2. y = 2x = 4. + 4. a* 13. = The values of a*. 2 a. 2 2 a. 7. The smallest value of the function. 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. (C ) (2. xl. 2.or. 2J. xz + x. 14. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 22. 1 8 10. 21. if the function equals zero. (7i) (c) 23. = 4. 11. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 23x. i. 1J. 12. 3. 3. a ar. 9. if y = 2. 19. from x VlO'S".8)'. 16. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. fa 17. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1.e. x+1. (If) Va25. 1J. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 4 a. 3 a 8.
) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.. then y = .where x c is a constant. then cXj where c is a constant. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 14 F. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.. 25. that graph with the o>axis. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. Show any convenient number). it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. 32 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).e. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. . 1 C. Represent 26. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. Therefore x = 1.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.. i.158 24. y= formula graphically. 9 F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. the abscissas of 3. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. C.24 or x = P and Q. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.
7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 6. = 0. (a) x2 = 0. is called a quadratic equation. 8. 14. 2 and 1. 4. 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. or 5 2.f 9 = 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. (a) (6) 9. 197. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. . draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a2 2a. + + = where a. (0. 12. 13. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 0. 3. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. Such equations in general have two roots. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 10. viz. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. crosssection paper is used. 11.
NOTE. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. T .e. ?/. 2). Hence.2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Ex. 0). 1) and 0). Hence if if x x  2. If x = 0. = 0. Hence we may join (0.1. unknown quantities. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. solve for ?/. and joining by a straight line. (f . Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . y y 2. y= A and construct x (  graphically. first degree. and join the required graph. produces the 7* required locus. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. ?/ =4 AB. locate points (0. y = l. i. 3x _ 4 . fc = 3. X'2 Locating the points (2. . Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. if y = is 0. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 4) and (2. == 2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Ex.2 y ~ 2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 199. because their graphs are straight lines.
By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. and CD.57. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. P. Graphical solution of a linear system. 201.15. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. equation x= By measuring 3. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. we obtain the roots. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.1=0. 202. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. To find the roots of the system. 3. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. viz.
.5. the graph of points roots. 3. In general. (1) (2) C. 4. AB the locus of (1). intersection. 5. 4. we of the + y* = 25. 3x 2 y = 6. Since the two  we obtain DE. (4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 1. 3. e. 0) and (0. = 0. Locating the points (5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.  4. and + 3). V25 5. the point we obtain Ex. Measuring the coordinates of P. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. and . 4.9. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. Solving (1) for y. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. . 4. There can be no point of and hence no roots. etc.5. Locating two points of equation (2). The equations 2 4 = 0. 0. 2. 1.0. 4. they are inconsistent. if x equals respectively 0. 4. Inconsistent equations. 3). and joining by a straight line.y~ Therefore. (2. Using the method of the preceding para. 0. x2 . (4.e. 3. 2 equation x 3). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. P graphs meet in two and $. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection.0). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 2. 5. i.g. 4. y equals 3.
16 23. and. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. a. 10. y=x + 5. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. '163 Dependent equations. 2. 3. 17. x~y=0. y 2 4. 9. y = 4. 2x 3?/=6. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 4. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. Draw system. the graphs of the following systems.. . state reasons. 16 22. vice versa. if possible. 6. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. a+r/=6. 20. and solve each If there are no solutions. y= a2 2x y6. 8. 7. 5. \ 2x + 3^ .
25. 4 a = 3(6 . 28. CUBES.14 y = . 30. TABLE OF SQUARES. 26. 3 31.8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .y). AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 29 .164 24.
= 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.faa a a a Obviously 1. 52.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . . 2. 8. powers of a positive quantity are positive. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. fa. According to 1. a special kind of product. 2. 3 f a = f a = +. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. Law of Signs. a = a3 .a2 . involution repeated multiplication. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. on to in factors 4. etc. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. is may be by 207. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ^4/? it According to 50. follows that 3. ( a) is positive.
76 : (>y. .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (2ar). 6.6 (a 8 8 . (a ) 2 5 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 2. 4. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (a ) 2 4  3. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. the required power.166 To find To To power. 4 /2mV.6) = a . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 2 11 (afc ) . 5. 24. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise a fraction to a power. 3 2 2 8 . (^^) 2 . a product to a given power. 210. 16. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. V V/ 13. 15. amVy) 3 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. (277171 )*.
23.6 2 8 ft) . 18. : a 20. 2. nent of the binomial. 1 f 3 2 3 . + 4aj) 3 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . +5a) 22. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. The higher powers of binomials.y . 8. (5 (1 a) 3 . (afl) .INVOLUTION Ex. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 16. (a + &)8 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 6. (3 x . a. 2. etc.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. Ex. .3 y. 3 8 . 13. (3 (l I) 2 8 . . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . frequently called ex. (aj7) . 3.y) = (3 y?y . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. are obtained by multiplication. 12. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 211. 15. 7. pansions. 21. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 9. + a 2 a. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 1. 4.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 2 .) 14. = s= (2s) 8 a. 5. An 1. 8 (a??/) 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 3 . (3af26) 8 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .
(tff1) (cfd) . 21. Ex. 4. (af 5) . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (?/i~w) : 16.96 ^y f 216 o?y .2. (mJ) 4 11. 5. (2 4. (a~^) 5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Ex. (m fl) 2 20. 15. Ex. 6. 14. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 10. 4 . The minus.216 a^ 4. 78 s .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 17. . and the powers negative. 3. 13. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . ( &) 5 . 4 (1for) 5 . (la&) 4 12. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 3. (1 + 4 ?/) . 5. . (m 2 + n) 8 . (?>i?i f c)*. 23. is the coefficient of the next term. 24. . 2.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (w 4 ?i) 4 . (2 a 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. mn 5 2 5 ) . 18. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.168 3. . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . (l 8 . 8. 9. 25. (m 5 I) 2 22. 1. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. .a) 3 19.
and ( v/o* = a. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or x &4 . 109 . a) 4 = a4 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. which can be simplified no further. or y ~ 3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 2. 1.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 27 =y means r' = 27. and all other numbers are. \/"^27=3. V \/P 214. or 3 for (usually written 3) . numbers. for distinction. called real numbers. V9 = + 3. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. tity . 215. (_3) = 27. etc. 4 4 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. = x means = 6. Since even powers can never be negative.
2. 6. 6 7 = 030. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3 33 53 . 5. . 3i . v/2^. 7. Ex.1. \/2 4 9 . V25 9 16. 2. Ex 5 a" . Ex. 9. 7. V36 9 4. index. = 199 + (_ 198) . 79 2 v/2 5 . roots of the numerator \/18 . 4 v.9 = 136.201) = 2. Ex. 8. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex.125. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .lL. = V26TIT81 = 53. = 19472.64 5 4 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 6. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 62 = V2* . . 2 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex. v/^i2 = a*.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . fy 5 3 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 82 .(. EXERCISE 1. 8. To extract the root of a power. 9. Ex. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . extract the and denominator. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 3/0** = am . .200 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. V?. 3.  100 a 2 .4. 7 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 7 . 10.
3.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 29.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .98. 2 f ( V240) 3 . V20 . 5. 2. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 45 V5184./). (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.EVOLUTION 171 28. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Find the square root of a2 . 3.3 . 30. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V8. 2 . 32. 2 . 34. 31. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .4/. ^40^4.75.3 y2) ( vV .) by inspection. a* 4 8 2 . 6. . 116. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . a f2 l 2 + l. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V9216. 1. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. Ex. 33.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .
10.2 ac . the given expression is a perfect square.b 2 2 to its square.2 &c. a\b is the root if In most cases. 2ab .2 ab + b . mV14m??2)f 49.72 aW + 81 & 4 .e. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. and b (2 a f b). term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 2 2 218. The term a' first 2 . 8 . 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. and b. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . #2 a2  16. 12.> 13. 11. i. let us consider the relation of a f. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 15. 14. + 6 + 4a&. however. . a f. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.172 7.
.24 afy* f 9 tf. of x. by division we term of the root. Explanation. The square . 10 a 4 8 a.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 6 a. 219. Ex.EVOLUTION Ex. As there is no remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and consider Hence the their sum one term. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . and so forth. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 1. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. */'' . the first term of the answer. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Second trial divisor. 1. . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 8 /. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. First complete divisor. First trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 2. 8 a 2 2. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.
16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.12 m 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .12m 5 4.20 o 4. 8. 20.9. 15. 6. . 729 4. 10. 3. 9.42 a*& 4. 19. l 4. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81.V430^425^ 4m 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 14. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 18.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 4 . 6 11.24 or .25 x 4 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 2 4. 1 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.37 a ^ . 16. x 6 4 4 0^4. 16x6 4. 5.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.10 x2 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 .a 6 x*y 2 . 5 4 16 4 iK .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 13#4 413ar 44a.4 x 4.16.20 J or 2 16 x 4.6 . 17.162 a2 60 a10 4.73 a8 . > 7.25. a? 2 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 436^?/469a. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 36it.40 a 22 .73a4 440^436^460^. 12. 24.
beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. two figures. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 2. etc. Ex. 1. etc. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 4.176.000 is 1000.000. of 10. and the complete divisor 168. and the first remainder is. first . Find the square root of 7744. a 2 = 6400. Therefore 6 = 8. the first of which is 8. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.EVOLUTION 220. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .1344.. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Find the square root of 524. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. of 1. the square root of 7744 equals 88.000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. = 80. which may contain one or two).000 is 100. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Ex. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. The is trial divisor = 160.
70 6. annex a cipher. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.7 to three decimal places.0961 are '.10. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Find the square root of 6/. in . The groups of 16724.1 are Ex. 12. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.GO'61. places. 3. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .1T6 221.
) 40. 13.1410. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 1.53. 31. .4 square when R = radius and 11. 5. 39. feet.01.22. feet. JT . whose area equals 48. 30. 37. = 3. J. 36. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 35.58 square 38.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 32. 34. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 33. T\.
6#2 = x* 24. 226.. . complete. x = + 2 or x =2. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Extracting the square root of each member. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 225. 1. x 2 7. 2 ic = a. 2. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Solve 13 x2 19 etc.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 6 y2 = 17. = 7^ + 5. Ex. or equation of the second degree. is A quadratic equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . This answer Check. = 4. A pure. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2)* + 5 = 33. or affected. 178 . x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. or incomplete. 224.g. is 12. but no higher power e. Dividing. The 7 equation. Transposing.
s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. o. 10. 7 = 162. 2 4fc 5' 18. : 83 2. Solve 179 . 4 ax. 19 + 9 = 5500. ' =: y? b* b . . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . or Therefore.2. 2 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. 7. 15^5 = 6. 3. 2. 5.25. .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. (a? 9. 8. ax Transposing and combining. 16^393 = 7.
27. 4. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. A right triangle is a triangle. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 3. 22 a. If G=m m g . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . is 5(5. r. then Since such a triangle tangle. Find the numbers. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2 . solve for v.b 2 If s If =c . Find the side of each field. solve for d.) of their squares 5. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 2. and their product : 150. may be considered one half of a rec square units. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. : 6. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 24. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. EXERCISE 1. . . 228. 26. 2a f 1 23. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). If 22 = ~^. Find the side of each field. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If a 2 4.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 29. 25. find a in terms of 6 . solve for r. 2 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. Find is the number. ' 4. 28. 2 : 3. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 108.
passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 8. x* 7 x= 10. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Find the unknown sides and the area. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. (b) 100 feet? = . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . add () Hence 2 . 2m. its surface (Assume ir = 2 .2 7 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . radii are as 3 14. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the radii.7 x f 10 = 0. Find the sides. J = 12. we have of or m = . (b) 44 square feet. Method of completing the square. A body falling from a state of rest. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. To find this term. . Solve Transposing. 9. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The area : sides are as 3 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. sides. Find these 10. and the third side is 15 inches. is and the other two sides are equal. and the other two sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. . . and the two smaller 11. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 .) 13. 4.
62 x 5 = f.e. 230. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Extracting square roots. Simplifying.1. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.2. Therefore.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 a* a.x(l = .2 a2 . . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2  . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. = x\ = 2. or J.a. Ex. Hence Therefore Check. Transposing. Uniting. (*~8) a = at . a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. = 6. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.  \. a Clearing of fractions. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Transposing. Ex. = \ # = ff. or x = 2. = . adding member). J.
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x . 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.1+2?= "*"   Vl .
x la 48. Solution by formula. ao. \bx\. 49. =0. =8 r/io?. and c in the general answer. 231.c = 0.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. = 12. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 2x 3 4. . any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. article. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .
15 x9 25x* = 21 . 8. 16. = 64120?. 9. 2 a? = 44 x . 13. 6. 17. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. = 12 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. c p. 2 o. 11. 6^+5^ 56. 10. 6 . 6. 19. 18. 5 x2 Transposing. 2or } 5o.4 4 5 . a. c = 5. : 86 + 2 = 0. 7^ + 9 x 90. TIO. 2. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). b =  + 20 == = 0. 3. 4. 15. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 21. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 20. ?i 2 . 26.. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 14. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. Reducing to general form. 1. 12. 6 Ex.25 x.  . 7. 2 a. V^tT)* . 2. 2 .
3x?+x = 7. 25. member can be Ex. any degree. Eesolving into factors. 24. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. factors Now. if either of the uct is zero. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 0. 1. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x.4) = . Bx 1 1. or # 5 is zero. 27 x== 42a.5) =0. x(x <2 . transposing terms to one member. 23. Factoring. Transposing.2. 26. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . }. orz roots.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. a=:i^^. . Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 233. (5 a? !)(. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Clearing for fractions. Solution by factoring. 5) = 0. 0. x2 = 1 . 5 = 0. ar>8o. and 6. = 0.x.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. = 14.
187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 5. + 6)=0. 2o3 f9a. 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 5 = 0. 12. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 16. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. Ex.6)) = 0. 6. a?10a=:24. a* 10a=24. ar'Sa^ 12.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ ar> 11. x2 f 2 x . 4.e. The equation I.:=0. 9.(. 13. 3) = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 0(02) = 7(02). 3^ = 0(1106). O roots are 2. a?. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. + 9 f 20 x = 0. : 87 = 0. 3) Factoring.3)(x + 3 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. aj( 15. + 8=s: 7. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 7.= 24. and the equation thus formed be solved. } 2 2 (5 . 4)(z3) = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.g. + 100. for a: . members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. we 9 obtain x 4. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3.24 = 0. (aj4)(a. 8. 3 or 2 a. E. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 10 a = 24. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 2. 14. Or Hence the 234. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 3# y 5 = 0. is 5) = 0. 2. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2.
a 2 =(x a)b. 19. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 18. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 50. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.188 17. 2. 20.3) = (s + l) (3 a). uz + u 21. ara + ft + c*. '3a!J  . (2a? 3) (a 24. 23. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 22. (a + 1) (a. 27. 25.
7. Find the numbers. 52. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . two numbers is 4.0. 2.3.1.9. 3. G. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. EXERCISE 1. 2. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the number. The difference of . feet. : 3. 1.3. 0. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 58. Find the sides. 2. and consequently many prob 235. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 4. and whose sum is is 36. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. and the difference Find the numbers. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. . 2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 5. number by 10.0.2. 2. 5. and whose product 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 6. 55. Find the number. The 11. 56. 57. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.3. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 3. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and equals 190 square inches. 54. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 8. 1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2.
At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. 15. ply between the same two ports. 13. watch for $ 24. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. What did he pay for 21. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. Find the rate of the train. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. ABCD. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.190 12. Two vessels. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. . as the 16. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and Find the sides of the rectangle. dollars.10. 19. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 17. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If he each horse ? . other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. 14. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. sold a horse for $144.
30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 237. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. of the area of the basin. Find and CB. or x = \/l = 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and working together. the two men can do it in 3 days. ^3^ = 7. constructed with and CB as sides. so that the rectangle. By formula. 23 inches long. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. 24. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. . and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 1. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. Ex. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. contains B 78 square inches. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. how wide is the walk ? 23.) 25. a point taken. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. as 0. (tf. 27.
y8)=0. >. 2. 16.)+72=0. Solving. aV+9o 4 =0. 6. 9. 19. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. Ex.192 238. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a 21or=100.2 =4. a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 : 89 10a. Hence Le.T 2 2 . 2 h9:=0. a4 5o. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . = 1. 8. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 7. T 17. 18. 12. a? 15 1=2*. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 6. 10. 436 3. or y = 8. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4. = 13. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9.
2) 2 4 3 (. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. it 2a follows 2 : 2. is 4ac not zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. a perfect square.bx 4. 241.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. The discriminant =(. the roots are rational. 3. . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are irrational. the roots are real. the roots are equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Ex. b 4.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. and equal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 2. 1.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are imaginary. ( 2a Hence 1.5) = 04. and unequal. Relations between roots and coefficients. c the roots are real. the roots are unequal. 240.12 x + 9 = 0. negative.f> = 0. rational.2 z . Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Ex. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Hence the roots are real.
21. 2. x2 7 10. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.19 # 20. 3a. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. = 0. 9a3 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 23. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2 a. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 12. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 17. = 0.g. 4. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 15. 14. o. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 18.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 5aj 9. : a 2 . f 2 E. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 24. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 60 2 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 22. 2 7. their product isf. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. ^12. + 12 2  . 12~x = x 2 . + 18 2 8. 2 : 3. + 2a. lla.. = 0. = Q. = 5x. 6.
instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. 244. We assume.* III. = a"" < . ~ a m f. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. a m a" = a m+t1 . II. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. hence. Then the law of involution. and . no Fractional and negative exponents. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. such as 2*. provided w > n. > m therefore. however. for all values 1 of m and n. that a an = a m+n .a" = a m n mn . (a m ) w ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The first of these laws is nition of power. (ab) . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. while the second of the first. must be *The symbol smaller than. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. m IV. It is.
25. 23. 3*. 245. a*. laws. n 2 a. 30. etc. disappear. Assuming these two 8*. '&M A 27. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. ml. 29. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. e. 0?=^. 31. as.g. (xy$. at. 24. 4~ .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. or zero exponent equal x. a?*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a . ^=(a^) 3* 3 . m$. 28. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. fractional. . = a. a\ 26. (bed)*.
\/n. 49. 5 a* = 10. \/xy \/m. a* * = 3. v'mT 36. hence is . 42. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 45. : 197 33. ty?. 7z* Find the values of 47. a.g. 44.g. 48. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 246. v/o&cT 34. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent. = 49. 43. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. Let a = a. e. If. the base is zero. 35. Vo5 . 37. 46. 3* = 27. Solve the following equations 39. 38. e. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. equal to unity. \fi?.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 41. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. a * a2 Or a=l. 27* = 3. 40. a . = 2. however.
cr n. Or a"# = l. e. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.198 247. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". etc. an x = a. by changing the sign of NOTE. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.g. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.2 = a2 . 248. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Multiplying both members by a". . consider the following equations. vice versa. or the exponent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ^L. 44. 39. 7~ l a 2b 2 . : or 5 . 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. ^?2 y' 34. 3 a? * 42. . * 24. 2m~i 43. f (2w)~i 1 . c 32. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 27. 66 45. 2 . m . a^ 41. : mi m~^. . a. 40. 36. rfS. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 25. 3 a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 37. 22."* 38.
55. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 57. + 1~* f 21 . . 10* Find the values 56. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. = l. (.343)* + (. + A_.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 52. 47.008)* + A. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 49. of: 3ll4~* 60.001.9*.81 f (a .26)* 1 (I) 2 . ar = i. 61. = 5. 17' 2 51. z* = 1. = ^. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 10* 5* = . 59. 1.1. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 53. = . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.(. 250. z 5or*=10.6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 48. 54. Ex. 58.
&. are performed. a. 27  28. 26. 10. 4 5. 95 ^9i 5**.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 13. OA 20. / 7fv 7. 6.7i.6 *' 6 *25.5. 79 .7W. 7*. S'sS8. 14. Remove the negative exponents. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 72 .$". __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 23. 4 x^. 7. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. NOTE. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3. (d) If required. .7*. 17. 7~ 6 . 12.3 aj" a. ' 11. 6a.. remove the fractional exponents.4 . . etc.$*. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7~ 5 27  .^/5^5. 16. V5. 3sVS. #* a. 8 ' 9.4 a8 . 3 a.5a. 6 *. Perform the operation indicated. &.&. 18. .
6 35. powers of x arranged are : Ex. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.2 d . Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?. 2.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. 40. 34. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
39. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. V2. ^3.e. 29. 36. 37. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. v/4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 26. I VJ + 3VT8 . if dissimilar. ^2. 31.2. \/7. connect them by proper 1. ^6.10 V2 =  V2. V5. 3. ^2. A/3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^5. ^2. To add or form. ^4. ^7. Simplify/a35 ~ o . s!/3. in order of magnitude : \/7. V3. 28. v^S. ^/IT. + . </3. ^30. Ex. 34.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 33. ^126. 32. </2. Arrange 35. ^4.2 V50. V2. 2\ 3*. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 5V2. signs. v/3.3\ . A/2. V2. </20. V3. v/3. 40. 38. VS. 4^/4. 30. 27. subtract surds. Ex. Simplify V~ . \/5. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . (i.
. 9.J a6 V4 aft.3V20 + 6V5. 14. 8. V18+V32VT28+V2. 6. 3. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 4V805V45. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4. + 3V835V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 11. V175V28+V634V7. 6. 10. 13. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 12. 8VT8J2V32 7.
fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. and then multiplied. 26^ . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 3.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex. 2.2v/6 + IPV6 105. y* = Ex. 23.6V35 106 460V35100 .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 6*. Ex. . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 1. . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.
+ VB)(2V5). 40. v/4. V3 Vl2. Vll. 2. 13. V2aV8^.VSS. (Va Va 36. 38. VlO V15. 25. . (6V23V3)(6V23V3).RADICALS EXERCISE 1. V3 V6. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 19. 34. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 18. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 27. 6. (2V3) 8 . (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). aVa. 28 . (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 2 . \/3 \^). 15. 40 10 30. VTO. 39. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 6 V4 5. 37. 9. 21. (V6 + 1) 1 . 41. V42. 10. v/18 v"3. 12. 6. 213 98 11. (3 20.^/2. V20 V30. V2 V50. a?. 8. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. fWa 17. 4. 7. 3. 14.
Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 53. 43. E. 49. 46. 48.214 42. 52. the quotient of the surds is If. .y. 51. V3 . 47. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 60. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (5V2+V10)(2V51). is 1 2. (2 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). a fraction. all monomial surds may be divided by method. Ex. 44. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. Va v/a. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 268.
however. Divide VII by v7. .73205.by the usual arithmetical method. metical problems afford the best illustrations. 1. The 2. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 3. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.RADICALS This method. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . e.. Evidently. . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. arithTo find.g. /~ } Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. is illustrated by Ex. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. by V7.57735. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. we have V3 But if 1.
271. V5 270. 23 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 21.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V3 24 . and Given V2 = 1.2361.. V8 12. A. . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. ^/H . VffV?.7320. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20. A. V5 = 2. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. i.4142. V48 25. 14. V2 22 . V3 = 1. V8 JL. 7. . Vll 212*. 272.
2. 3. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex.vffi^T _ .1 xVtf a. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. . Ex. s Simplify a.RADICALS Ex. 1. .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS .= 18.Vs2 . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .
W3. 19. 24.5 3 = 125.7320. By the use of fractional exponents . Vo1 26. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. v 2V3 28. J?_. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . = V3 = 1. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. V5V7 18> ^SVg. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 27. four places of decimals 23 .4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.2361. .218 6 . 6V7. find to _!_. : and V5 = 2. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V21 = 25 . Given V2 1.
2. 3. 11.RADICALS 219 274. Simplify Ex. 2. it to this form. V255 . the If. According to G3. 9. 5. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. viz. v8f 2\/15. \/l6*. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 4. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 2 12. 1. V643 . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 3 (V2~u)  7. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. on the other hand. . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/125" . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 .
2 \/20.A/2. The Hence ^11 . +2 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ^TT.6 V2. 2. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. is 11. and whose product is 18.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .220 Ex. Find Vll . 2 \/18. Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.6\/2 = ^9 .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 3. Find V4 + VJ8.
5. x2 = x f 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. +=. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Ex. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. a. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4.V48 4 20. . 277. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. member to 2. : 221 Vl32V22. i. VT . The value x =2 reduces each . by raising both members equal powers. Radical equations are rationalized. 4x x = 2. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. they are transto formed into rational equations. first involution. (2x xrf 1. r 22.. Transposing and uniting. 19. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. V48 23. Solve vVf!2a = 2.e. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.1. Dividing by Check. 8. are radical equations. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Before performing the involution.
x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. viz. Transposing. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Transposing and uniting. Ex. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Therefore CftecAr. 3. viz. Squaring both members. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 4#f 4 = 9. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. tion which has two roots. . \/4 jc~+~l = 5. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Dividing by 24. the first member = V2.3. at . they may be extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. Extraneous roots. It = 3 x . f 25 = 12. Factoring. . a socalled extraneous root. Squaring both members.222 Ex. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. V24~+~l = 0. 278. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. x = J. Therefore Check. a. one root.1) = 0. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. V4afT~l. 5. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 2. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1.
Therefore. Factoring.2 r. = 3. for it satisfies the equation . 223 x = 3.3) (2 x .RADICALS Hence x If a. (x x = 3. 4. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Squaring. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. .47) = 0. Transposing. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. \ does not satisfy the given. Solve the following equations : = G. both members reduce to 5. equation it is an extraneous root. . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Check. + 6~ieT~3 . or x *j. the right member = V2. NOTE. If If x 3 = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. Hence x = the only root. 2 Clearing of fractions. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. and to 5. x root of the preceding equation. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Hence there is only one root. ViTie 4 z2 .12 . is x V. viz.
Many 1.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
members of the equation were squared. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Q . 2Va. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.*2a. = 0. 3 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. + 40 = 6.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Vi 2 8a. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. This can be seen without substituting. x Since both =9 or 1. 5. x + Vx a? = 6. 2_8z 440 = 49. Ex. 3.i~24 = 0. x =6 or 3.8 x + 40 = 36. 45 14VJB = . Substituting. 412a* = 16. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. some of the roots be extraneous.8 z40 = 7. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. Let 8 x f 40 .35 = 0. = 26. . _ 2 y . = 7. y then x2 . 4.f40= 5. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 2. o.
+x . 12. 17. 16. 4 V SB* 4 a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. a^x2 5 2 13. +3= 6.a 440 = 35. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.f 18 = 24.226 11. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 15. 2. 14. 19. 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 20. a.
CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. does not contain a?.2 + 4. then (x 2)Q 0. If x* .2 x 5 by x 3. we make a? what the value of Q. even if Q is unknown. ^ = 381+2. 1.4 a. if Q was known. 3 2 Ex. by dividing 3 x* f. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. however. " Or. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. a? R = x* ." transposing. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. no matter If. E = ax + &z + m) Q. to x we # = 2 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ax4 4. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. = 2.bx? + ex2 4.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 2.2 + 80 = 12. Ex. find the remainder when m. 227 . Without actual division. Hence. could.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.2) Q . Without actual division. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.360 = 244.
3.8'= 0. fora?.8. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. x m is factor of the expression. 5. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5 (4x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. } 2 by a1. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.4(.g.228 282. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. + ^by x + b. hence (x divided by x 4. 2 j 7. 8. 43 3 E. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 7 = 632. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.949. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . of the division 3) is m in place of x. if 8 42  . The Factor Theorem. If the remainder is zero.3)f 11 =.g. + 6. x* s 2 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. the remainder equals 8 2 x .
1.12. . a 5x 6. + 15. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. Resolve into factors 4. _ .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. is a factor. + 27 + 27. are f 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. 3 2 : 7. + ttt15 = 0. or x 4. 15. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. ^10^429^20=0. a? 19. 1. 18. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 6.r6 = 0. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 2 2. a^8^ + 19a. Let x = . a + 32. 1. 2. 5. 21. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 25.13m + 30 10. 106 division. factors of the absolute term.49 = 0. Therefore x ( 1).7 + 16 .TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.1. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. a 2a + 4. f 15 does not vanish. 2m 5m . f 5. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.e. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. m f m n 14. a. & p*. 8.7 x + 15 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. Factor a? 15. f 3. 20.9^ + 23^15. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 23. 17. oj 5x2 f3a. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 229 1. 24. or 5 4 + 3^ . x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 7 46 = 0. 9. i. 8.12 = 0. a 8a f 19 a 12. 3. The 5. then x8 7 x'2 4. 11.
286. xn f. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. xn y n y n y n = 0. 2. Ex. if w is odd. 1. is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.230 285.xy +/). Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 2. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. For substituting y for x. 2 Ex. ar +p= z6 e.y n is divisible by x f ?/. actual division n." . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.g.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. : importance. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . x* f/ = (x +/)O . By we obtain the other factors. if n is even. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. If n is a Theorem that 1. It y is not divisible by 287.
26. however. a. x3 8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. leads 231 is The first method. 27.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . since it more directly to the prime factors.= . preferable.i mn f w 2). as 27=0. 28. 3.
(5) Combining (5) with (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. 290. can be solved by the methods degree. of quadratics. & + 2 xy + = 25. 4 xy = 16. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. ==5 > 1^ = 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. + 6 a?V . *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Squaring Solve (1). to equations of the fourth few cases. in general. x y. If two of the quantities x f y. however. 232 . * A I.1.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. (4) Hence. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xywe have 3. xy are given. = 6. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.
roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ' 10. but can be found. 108 2. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 233 y. 3. 12. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ^. " "' "' { r 8. r (" 1 = 876. x and xy are not given. 1. The arranged in pairs.g. b=3. I I x + y=7. = .
3. r^ 2 as ] f. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).  f J. . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.i/ = r 13. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. I x+y = a. 2 (1) From (1) we have. A system of simultaneous equations. or y = 1 .20) = 0. I* Jj ^ [.o 18. 6 "I 14.. + 29 = 0. or JJ.?/ i = 6.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.  . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 19. Ex.a. ' ' .~ y = 5. aj = 2. 7 . . one linear and ne quadratic. la. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.  42 y + Transposing. 5. Factoring. 4 y = 20. x " (3) 49 etc.
y* + 2y = 3. ':il e :) . 4 f + 2 y = 3. quantities. 9.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. ' x*.3 2x 2 Ex. x2y. If of the preceding type. 1. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. = 1 3 3. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. Solve . 3y) : Factor (2). III.
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. 2 . (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5. 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex. } VI09. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 109 a.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 15 x2 . Solve 2.
3^42^=43. y? a? f . A.6. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Bxy9.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. and others not belonging to them. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. (4) (3). E. 150 */2 . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.!. f 1 150 a?. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. .y = 7.xy 4. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.125 ay = . Division of one equation by the other. 2 xy + y2 = 10. " IV. ' ^ 15. 298. can be solved by special devices. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.175 ay = 12.
2. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. y = 3. = 189. at first it is unknown quantities. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. Therefore x = 16.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. * ' 300. Some simultaneous ?/.. y . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. quadratics can be solved by ?/. = 12 J. x +y y etc. (1 > (2) 1. B. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i ^ *>. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. we obtain by squaring. xy. x 2 . Solve Ex. we have from (1). jc~ y = 9.
7. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ . 6. Hence = V or = 4. 4. I e. 36* 2. [2x + : y= 17. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. 2. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. M6.
16. = 198. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = y 1 y* . . . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .21 ^ = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 25. 19 ' 26. * . + o5)(6hy) = 80. f 18.
finite  =x y if = x. Interpretation . 32. . 25 34. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . = 48201. y % 9 f*K 36. ~\ OK OO. as a . ^ oo . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 7' j/ 39.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.of  According to the definition of division. etc. . or ~ indeterminate. 33. etc 302. 31. Q 7. oo 301. 30. hence may be any finite number. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . 3 a2 38.
. 1. ToU" ^100 a. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. or that x may equal any finite number. Or.242 303. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. i. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. I.x'2 2 x = 1.e.g. is satisfied by any number. (1) is an identity. and becomes infinitely small. 1. (1). The ~~f fraction .000 a. x f 2. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.increases if x de x creases.decreases X if called infinity. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. without exception. TO^UU" sufficiently small.can be If It is made larger than number. . as + l. 306. equation. Let 2.e. (a: Then Simplifying. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. great. = 10. it is an Ex. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . (1) = 0. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. cancel. Hence such an equation identity. the answer is indeterminate. oo is = QQ. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. i. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. be the numbers. creases. By making x any * assigned zero.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. and .
Solve  9 7. 2. third and sixth parts. . and a. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Hence /. 42 and' their product is 377. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 1=0. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve x a.2 y = 4. EXERCISE 1.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = oo. z = 1 Substituting. is their 2. y finite QO. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. (2).8 x + 15 6. Solve . no numbers can satisfy the given system. and the sum of Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2.e. 4 3 x x5 a2 . 3. two numbers is 76. * 6. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1.
But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the edge of one. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the sides.) 53 yards. 10. 148 feet of fence are required. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 12. Find these sides. p. Find the side of each square. Find the numbers. is is 17 and the sum 4. equals 4 inches. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 14. 9. 13. increased by the edge of the other. the area becomes f% of the original area. of a rectangular field feet.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. two numbers Find the numbers. of a right triangle is 73. Find the other two sides. 103. Find the edge of each cube. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the dimensions of the field. and the sum of ( 228. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. 146 yards.244 3. 8. Find the edges. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. is 6. 6. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 190. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the diago(Ex.quals 20 feet.
Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. the quotient is 2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . irR *. Find the radii. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) 17. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.
progression. 10. 17.. . . An arithmetic progression (A. To find the nth term / of an A. (n 1) d must be added to a. a. 3 d must be added to a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. f . to produce the 3d term. P. the second a descending. 2 d must be added to a.. a 3d. 11.. The first is an ascending.. + 2 d. except the first. 16. Hence / = a + (n .. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. P. a f d.. Since d is a f 3 d. a + d. 19.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a 11. P. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 309. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. . of the following series is 3. a + 2 d... The common differences are respectively 4. added to each term to obtain the next one.1) d. 15 is 9 f. 4.. The progression is a.7. series 9. the first term a and the common difference d being given. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. of a series are its successive numbers. 12. to each term produces the next term.) is a series.. and d. to produce the nth term. . 3. : 7. to produce the 4th term. each term of which.
= I + 49 = *({ + . ? (a) 1. series 2. 8..8. 3.. 3. .. Find the 12th term of the 4. 2. 2. d = 3. 1.PROGRESSIONS 310.. (a + + (a + l) l). Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 5.. P. of the series 10. 3.. 5.. 6. 1. Find the nth term of the series 2.. 9. series .3 a = l. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 1J. 24. 7. P. 6. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 115. 21.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 19.. Adding.. 2J. the term a. . 2 EXERCISE 1. = 2. 6 we have Hence . if a = 5. 3. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5. 8.. P.. 10. 8. 7.16.. 4^.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. = a + (a Reversing the order. = 99. .. Find the 5th term of the 4.. d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 5. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . 4. 5.. 3. 9. 7. a = 2. .. . 99) = 2600. 6. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. (d) 1J.' cZ == .4.
to 20 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. 11. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . to 20 terms. strike for the first yard. 2J. 3. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 21. '. 20. hence if any three of them are given. . 1J.. In most problems relating to A. + 3. 2. 15.7 f to 12 terms. 1. 15. 8. striking hours only. 17. rf. to 16 terms. to 8 terms. 16. Sum the following series 14. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1. 33. . 12. . > 2f 2. 18. 12. P. . . . 23. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 15 terms. 11. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 7. 7. to 7 terms. : 3. 11. 29. Jive quantities are involved.1 f 3. 31. 6. 16. 13. 19. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 1. to 20 terms.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 4. 15.248 Find the 10. to 10 terms. \n. (i) (ii) .5 H + if f to 10 terms. (x +"l) 4. 22. 11. . 7. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO.
J = 49. . a = 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. n = 6. if a.. 111. = a + (w. = 13. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 78 n Substituting in (1). is 12. 204 = ^ (a + 49).6. 312. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. Substituting in (2). P. 204 = ^ (98 . if s = 204. 6. = n(104 . #. or if x Solving. l)e?. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 56. 89. 34. The first term of an A. 100. and b form an A.104 w + 408 = 0. 2. the second one mean between the other two. P. 144. Find the series. = 1014. Ex. 12. 23. I. a = 49 6(71 . P. 122. 78. 45.1) . The series is.e. From (1). the and the sum of all terms 1014. 67. hence n = 6. s 24ft last term 144. 2 (2) From Hence (2). is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. . I Substituting in (I) and (II). Findn. or 11 J.6 n). = 144. Solving.~n~\ 408 6).. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.PROGRESSIONS Ex. n d. 133. 1. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). = 1014. d = 6.1). 6 n2 .
How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 3. 6? 9. 11. = 52. 4. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 10. = ^ 3 = 1. 16. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 45. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 78. n = 20. d = 5. T? ^. s = 70. Find d and Given a = 1700. produced. 17. P. m and n 2. Find?. Given a = . Find a and Given s = 44. a+ and b a b 5. 15. 74. I. = 1870. ceding one. . n has the series ^ j . y and #f5y. = 17. n = 16. n = 13. How much . Find a Given a = 7. n. = 83. 7.3. f J 1 1 / . = 16. Find n. Given a = 4. 13. I Find I in terms of a. f? . Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . s == 440. 8. and s. Find d. Find d. n = 17. of 5 terms 6. 14. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = . Find w. How much did he save the first month? 19. has the series 82. 12. a x f b and a b. n = 4. Given a = 1.
the first term a and the ratios r being given. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. I.. +1. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. of a G. E.. 108. 12. If n is less : than unity.) is a series each term of which.. 2. . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . The 314.. rs = s 2 . or. 4..arn ~ l . 2 a.g. ratios are respectively 3. and To find the nth term / of a G. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 36. r n~ l . 24. .. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. or 81 315. P. . is it (G. 4 (1) . ar8 r. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. ar. called the ratio. NOTE. 36. The progression is a. 24.. 4. (I) of the series 16. P.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. <zr . . . 36. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. is 16(f) 4 . P. A geometric progression first.
first term is 125 and whose common . 10. 72.. whose and whose second term is 8. And the required means are 18.5. . i 288. I = 670. Find the 6th term of the series J. 4.18.. f. Jive quantities are in. is 16. 0. 80. . first term 4. + 5. . (d) 5. if any three of them are given. r^2. series 6. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. (it. whose . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 288. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. \ t series . 3. 18. . Hence n = 7. 36. 36. In most problems relating to G..54. . . ? (c) 2. 20. 36. . series 5.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.4.6. . +f%9 % . 9. 8. series . EXERCISE 1. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.l. Find the 5th term of a G. first 5. 6. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 9. 144. f. P. Hence the or series is 0... or 7. volved .*. 576.5. .. .72... 144. is 3. fa.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.. 4. 144. P. Ex.288._!=!>. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. . (b) 1. P. hence.... 7. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. l. 9. 72. 1. P. .18. 25. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. 676. fa. a = I. . P. 2 term 3.
. J.. of r n decreases.. 14. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. J. 72.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 13.. . J.. 16 . to 6 terms. to 6 terms. and hence ~ r . 243. 12 terms.J and 270. . r . a.nV> i*> !718. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 12. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to 8 terms. 27. is less than unity. Find a and Given r = 3. a^. to 5 terms. Find a and 4. == 160. 1. . 22. = 3. 25S series : 32. be written If the value of r of a G. Z s. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 48. 81. n = 5. 1. J. P. . to 7 . 2. 81. to 7 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. I. 24.. s = 605. to G terms. 54. 42. 4. 15. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. . M. Find a and n = 4. n = 5. 126. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. = 3. may be than any assignable number. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 23. 19. 21. >"> . s = 310. 20. + 4 . 36. Given r = n Z 5.i a9 . 14..
ratio 15.. If a = 40. Given an infinite series of squares. 4.. The sum Find the of an infinite G.3727272 . The sum r.00072 f . 7. P.Ql.27777 . =A+ 10 i. ..3121212. 2. . 16.3 + .. 6. 40. 16. Hence .072. 13. i. 1.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. and the first term is Find 17. . is J. Find the sum to infinity. 1.. . .. = .... . 12. . .37272 .. 100. (6) the sum of the perimeters.555. . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. of: 11. .. 1 r = . 4. = . first and the common term.1... 1. = a . . 250.. .. i i J. is 9.= _4Z* .. = 990 . 6... of an infinite G. 9. 8. Find the value 9. ..254 Ex. 5.... of all squares ? .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3..= . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 8. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 2. 12.)7?7272 .. is 16. 9.072 + . 14.. ..191919. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.272727. r = j.717171. P.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. P.99 . 1. .72. 3... 10.. I. 66 Therefore . .01 ^ . 5.
16. (xy) : 6 . 21. .b ). Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 28. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (\ 9 . . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 14. 12. 26. : (1 + xy. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 29. 25. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . a6 8 16 in . coefficient of . 4 7. 17. /2a+Y\ 8. (a2) 6.6) . 13.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 2 2 24. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 7 . l 2.b) w (a (a f (1 . 15. 20. (a + b) . (a 100 . 4. 11. 5. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the 6th term of (x . . 10.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .6) 20 . 22. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (s + i). .
2 . . 3. 3. + 1. 3. 2. 2. 6. 3. 3.  8 ^ 2. 2. y 3. 1. + c(a  c). 7. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 6. 5. 2. 1. if x^l. 4 2.  2. 2. 1. 1. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 5. 1. 2. 24 4. a ft c = = 2. 1. 2. 5. 1. 5. 4. 4. 3. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 2. 4. 4.a(a 4. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 4. 2. 3. = 2. 2. 5. ^+^ 3. c = = = 2.c )(fta) 1. 6. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 3. 3. 5. 1. 1. 3. 1. 2.f ac 1. + 2. aft 3 + 4. 5. 2. 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 5. 3. 1. c if 7 . 1. 2. 1. 4. 2. 2. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. 3. 4. 2. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. if y=2j 2. if = = 2. 2. + 2. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4. 2. 3. 1.  a)(a 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 4. if a ft c = = = 4. ft 4 ) 5. l. 5. 2. 6. 2. 4. 2. 6. 3. 4. . ft) .  2. 3. 3. (c 3. 2. 3. 2. if = = = 2. 5. 2. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1.
+ 3 y 2* . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .a8 . 10. x C 4 4x y + .  a) (c 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 4. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.3 xyz.7 y 2* 4. 15. 5.2 x2 . a: . a.259 x c) . 21. 2  + 12 a 8 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . r> . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 18. 4. 6 a4 4 a8 .8 y y 5 4 * 8y. (5. x 3 11.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2 x 8. 17. . + 4 ?y . 4 z .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.2. 2 . a. 2. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . a 4 + 11 a . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 41.x 5 4 .a 5 a . . 40. 2.2 a?y + 3 aty .5. 7.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 5.8 + 2 // . 3. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.1. + 4.7 + . b(x (b 1. 5. ' b) + 3.3 a?y . 12. 5. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 15. 9.4. 4 y 13.2. = 2. 8. c)(x a} . 25. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. x 3 x' 14.8 3 + 7 x4 . . 20. + 2. f 8. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 1. 7y 4 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 29. 1.a) . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 8 x4 *y . a /> 3.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . or .c' 2 4 / . 9. 21.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .r 6 x  4 xy . x = 4.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 24. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x3 2 a2 . 16.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 3. 4 x 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3. 6.2 z8 4 x. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. c = 3. 26. 7 xy 3 . + 1.10.a 4 .7 ys. 4. ~c)(b. 8 . .\ yz + xz.2 x?/. 2.
From of 2 the 4.260 19. 35.c 4 3 a. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. x'2 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.{G * 2 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.2 .[4 z 8 .(a .4. c 4ft.4) . .1). f ft.(5 c . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . Simplify 31. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.1)}] . 2 x 32.a ft. 4vTT~y 3. take the sum of G x 5 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 4 4 4. 4 .x .{2 x 2 . 34.c.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 4 2 x2 23.#48.c. of a. . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.2 3 ax 2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. (*) a  c. 29.5 .(7 x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. a  ft + c. 7 12 .5. ft 25.27~~7)}].4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.4 ft) 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 542 x 2 and . . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .(4 * . .c 3 a. = x y ft z. .3 x . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .(5 y .[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .3 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.(4 x 2 .x 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. c =x y }~ z.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 33. 4 3 5 y/ . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .x2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 0" 30.4 Vl 4.2 x 8y2 44 .7.2 a . sum of . ft.3. 5 10 + 7 .[4 x 4. 5 4 7 12 . : a x . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(x* .2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. and . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.3 .x . 3 ft. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .8 3 4.6 x ] .(x 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4.. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 36. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . Take the sum 4x 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].] 26.x 2 4. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. .2) .6T . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. c 4.?> x 4 20.
& + {. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 49.4 a 2 + a 4 ).2 2 + 1)(7.2)(1 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 46.12). 2 f [3 c 7 a . 64.4 a . . 2 53. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .(7 i + 4 r:) . (x .2a . 65. 2 : 7e)a}]. (/> 4 .ac .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .3 *).(4 d . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (5 a 39.(2 a + 5 a . 67. (4 + 3a 2 .(2 x2 .(6 .6 xy .96 [17 a.7).b (c . + *+!){> + 2). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 2 52.3)(*5)(* 7).{2 a . 56. 54.3).a~^~c)K]. 'J 44.be) (a 58. 43.r 2:c+ l)(ar.[4 x  5 . (1 55.6c) (a + f c). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 2 ft 41. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).5 )}] + {4 c .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 57.3 c)]. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. . . a {.  2 a  {3 2x a .2x + 3). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].6)}]. (.(7 a. . a . 48.3 z 2 ). 50.2 2 . . 45.Z .{2 a (ft .56. (1 ar+a.2c(V/ .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 2 2 x + !)(* . 68.c 2 .JT^T+1)} + (2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.(2 .{3 c .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .(2 a 2 .c).2 zz . 63.ab . 60. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). .(5 y .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (r (1 (a.1). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 59.[2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.5)} + (3 a 2 . (x.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). .3c).0)} . 13 a .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 3 x 42. + 4x + 5)(j. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. . . 62.rf)} + a [. 51. )(lz a ).
88.6*y .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 2 + a 2 ).O (a 4(a 4.r 2 . 4 4 . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c) rr identities.(a 48 8 8 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .(/>  3 v)^(.(ft 4. b 4.c) .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). ar .am&t 4 A 2 *). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4.q). 89. (.b 4. f 72.c) 2 .2 (y 4.m np c .y).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c) j.262 69. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . (p 2 .z\x 4. 85. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 77. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 70.ft) + 4(2 . .y + z)(x + y .c .v) 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.5 . 94. (a 2 ft 2n 4. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .(a 2) (s 4 ft. 79.3y) a (* 2 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). ft 78. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). ft 95. 92.z) . 86.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 90.3 (ft . 91.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . . 82. .c) 4) (ft 4.n pc).<f(p . 1).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 83.{3 a . 76.y)\x y).ft) 4 . 74. 71. 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.:y)( a.(c 4. ft ft ft a}. 84.c . (x (x ( + *) .z)(x y + z)(. 87.2 ft}) f (3 a .a) 2 .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).x + y + z). xy y 2 ). ft /. Prove the following 8 4.3 a .(4 . 73. 75. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 1).c) .9y2). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .2 (a . ft" l Simplify 80.c)].> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 93. 2 (x 2 .c)} .2y)(. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.
(x 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 25 4 .&). 106. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).y 2 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (8 x* 115. 105. 120. 113. 102. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.5 xy).9 x 2 .(2 a 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 3*.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 108. (2< 107. [10( 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .5 b*).6 y 4 4. . (80 a 112. 1).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.) . 109. 118. 121. 103. 123.v/ ~ // = a: .a".4 aft . 114.2 2% 4. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). .(7 xi/ . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.b) 98. 26 (a 4 c).27 x* . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 99 100. 122.2y 2 4.*) (x 8 . a*.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 117. (. 110.35 x 2 2 ) .16 a 6 4.y 4 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). r .1). 116. 1O4. 2 (a+ .r 4 4.(a 1 2 8 .2 xy 8 .xy 4. 10).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 124.3 a"+ 4.40 />) .y 4 ) . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".
By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.G) . 137. 127.2) (a: + 3).(x .3 a:). 42(3ar 145.2 7^~5] + 1). 1) .a:)]}. (5a: 150.(x + 3) ] . .(j a? 144. y (* l x.r>) .12 M 132. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.3) = 12 . 5 146.(1 .2) = 3 . 149. o o 140. 138. 148.(x f 9).2) + 2(ar + 4).3(* + 4) + 9} . 3(2 x 134. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.9) + 3. 129. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . . 143. (*+ + .2(4 . .1) (a? .9) 4.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.2(10 x .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).1) .7(4 * .3 x). 5(2 x . 10(2 x 141.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).4(0 x .3) (3 x 4.5{.3).3). 2 4(ar .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3(2 z .22. 135. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .264 125. 3) = x\x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.18 *&) (1 .7) = 4 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . (4 x . . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 136. 7(2 x .2(5 .5). 126.5) = 12(4 x .r + 7[or . 139.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 142.2(j: . .4) .8 6 . x 147.4) . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 128. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).19) + 5 = 4 .n .27 a 3" . 1) = 2(* .
8) = (2 x 4. The second contains 3 first. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (a) If C.2) a + 7(x .a:) + 229. .r + 3) . (7 14 . (3 O + .5)(. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (3 . 158.? .2 x) = (1 . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. will produce F.(5 x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .76. 159. . + 2) + (5 . 161. (2 . find the value of F. 166.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113..24.14) (a: + 3). How many 170.17) 2 + (4 x .z) (4 .3) (3 . . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. f^ + ^sO. + 5) = (9 . 265 152.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. and the third twice as many as the first.2) (j? + 1) + (x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.T)O . The sum What 171. 165. = 15. a: ar a.29) 2 = 1.5(x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 160. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. these two angles would be equal. 153. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) = (3 x .l)(z . 154. sheep more than the 169. (x (x a.6 x) (3 . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.4) (a .2).5 x) = 45 x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.5) = (3 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 162. . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.2) (7 *) + (*.19) + 42.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 163. 157.3) (j. = 2 C. 164. =  (F 32). + 4) (2 x + 5).1) O + 4) = (2 * . transformed into F. + 10) (ar . If the area of the frame inches.9) + (a.1) (s + 3).25) 2 . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. (a . 156. (a. 5(ar x .7) (a. . 2 4 .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.3) (a: .5*) + 47.2 x) (4 .7) (1 x . 155.
266 173. power one of the two Find the power of each. side were one foot longer.36. 2 2 + a _ no. z 2 92. 7/ 191. father. 186. 187. + 11 ~ 6. sister . 189. 4 a 2 yy 42. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 176. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. +x 2. if each increased 2 feet. aW + llab2&. 180. Find the number. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. dimension 182. train. 10x 2 192. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. A boy is father. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A house has 3 rows of windows. 12 m. and 5 h. two boys is twice that of the younger. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. same result as the number diminished by 175. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. + a. 13 a + 3. . 179. 190.56. A each 177. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 178. . A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 188. 181. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. number divided by 3. respectively. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. How many are there in each window ? . z 2 + x . 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. was three times that of the younger. x* 185. ll?/102. Find the dimensions of the floor. . 3 gives the 174. younger than his Find the age of the father. 15 m.
28. 3 x V . 3 ap 2 . 3y 248. 245. . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 4a 2& 2 241. 12 x +4. x 219. a.r?/f y 2 9. a. z 2 2. 235. 213.10. + 8. 60 a 2  a: // 205.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .1. + 2 .12 * . 7a 228. 4 m +^. 224.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. .10 y a x* . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 3y 2 + ary .19 z 4 204.x + 1. 8 a: ar. 24 2 + 2 . 2 . 246. 201. 16x 4 81.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 229. x 5 . a: 236. . 8 a. 238. . 2a te 3% ly 247. . a. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6 aq . ifWy+b. a 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 221. 244. a: . a a: a: 237.20 z 8 a: 220. 23 12.77 y + 150.3 c/> + 6 cq. 215. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. wiy + la mx + aw. 227. 267 199. 6 197. a: 231. 202. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a^a 226. 233.6s. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . xm+l 243. a.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 218. a+a* + o a +l.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 211. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .22 z + 48. 217. 216.8 6 2. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 2 y f 1. x*y 223.6 y2 + 4. x* + 8 2 + 15.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 203. 207. 230.3 xy. 2 x 2 . y 2 194. (a + . 5 x 2. 2 a 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a .(b + rf) 2 . z + 5x 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 239. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. *2 234.10 xy.c) 2  (a . 209. 210. + 198. 2 200. 2 a 8 . 232.6 2 ?/ .6. 206.21 a:  54. 212. 3 x 2 .19 a . + 30 x. 222. 208. . 195.14 2 . + 3a 196. 7x 2 225.64.c) 2 . # 2  29 y + 120.
1 x ar Find the L.14 bx a%% 8 . a 4.11 x f 28. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .9 x + 14.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.ry .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 257.15 + 30. 6.a 2 />c 2 f 3. Reduce to lowest terms 271. + 3 x + 2. a 3 a 2 2 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . x 2 263.5 ab f 2. 10 a.(55. 254. 2 + 7 r f 2. 3 ay 4. of: 266.23 x f 20. 258.120.4.7 f 5. 251. + 23 x f 20.4 ab + 1.6 by. x 2 + 5 f .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .13. ft a.12. 22x2 a. x 2 + 4 + 3.3 x . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 260. * a . * 2 . 264. 259. 2 8 .73 xy . F. 2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .80. 30 ^ .10. 15 # 2 z/ /. I Find the II. of: 253.91.15.9. * 2 . 3 #2 255.C.&z.2 z . 28 2 f 71 x . z 2 268. + 8. 269. + 20 x 4.a + 2 4.8. x 2 . a. x* .2/ 2 . 10 x 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. x* . x 2 f 9j: + 20.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 2 a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 265. 270. 5 x 2 256.48 afy 2 . x*y* 4.23 + 12. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .3 abc .10 a 4. x 2 4. a: . 7 ax 250.G7 x f 33. a? a: a: // 262. + 8 x + 5. 8 2 + 10 x .9 x . z 2 267.2 aft*. 252.3.ry 21.x . 2 x2 . . 7 12 2 2 .16 x . 3 a% 2 .1 9 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. * 2 .18 xy + 5.r .11 a 2 .36. C.M. 261. x 2 + 2 x . 18 x 2 .
2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.!/. 285 z4 n* + a.2* + 3 x* 280. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2c a: 282..rL. + ac .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.ar 1 279. a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 289 ' ..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 8 .(y 2 z) * t (j. m 4.J' 4 2 2 w mp . *2 " 2 + Oge.
a (: a) (x 2. O(ca) 306.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. Lnl + ar 2 a. x 7. 4 3 301. ^_2*(m 308. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^. 6) _ ~ i 305. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. * 19 23 19(23 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .
_ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 1 x2 + + a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. _ x8 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2 + y 2 319. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .. 1 _. 1a: + y a. (a? 4 2) 317. . a: 1 313.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .(a . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (1 .ft) 2 322. } .
250 5 10 2 325.y20  2y + 4 2 .V  + y  x 3y a .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .6* t 328.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.15 33 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . .5 a . 20 44 333.. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 lOx 5x.9 *// + 27 . * 3a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .7 xy + 12 x . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.ll. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . a: 2 x* .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.2 +lOar 2 a.
a: 349 _ o. ** i. ( 342. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (af2/. ' 2 "l 5 .y.) 2 . + ni + ..13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. fl.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. w \. + l + IV. \x yj 340. xi 347. 344. 348. 7 ( ?f!?. a>74 .+ r . 5 343. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. +^ a: y x . : 1+ i. 338. \5yl 341. (a \ + lV.1V.r 5 2 . ?_2 ^ . f V. aj 339. (ar \ 346. if a = 3. 352. 1 345.
(a a b yx c yabc 361. y360. (~ 364. 1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. I  I f 366.
REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . a + .
<3 378. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. J !__7. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. . ^ .*2 = 15. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. + 1) 45 O 377. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 5*8. 4(* . 5 {2 x 381.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.
75 x f . . 399. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. c . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). ^ (a .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.25 x + ..  8 9* x ~r. 40. 396. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 3* 177.  J). 401. . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.1 .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . b 404. u '2 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. + 4 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 400.147..  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.5 ^ ~ a: a. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.6  . _____ .2 a:  1.25.5 x =r f . a. f 1 1 + a 403. 397. m x 398.
A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 421. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour.  a) 2 6 2a. far did he walk all together ? A . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . 418 ~jo. In a if and 422. 18 be subtracted from the number. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number. How long is each road ? 423.278 410. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 420. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 411. Tn 6 hours . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. and was out 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) .c) . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.
430. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . a. z 2 y. 431. 433. . ax is \ by  ex + dy.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. if . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. y. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. a  t>. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. find : a : c. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Solve 436.& 5 ) (a 8 .49 63). z2  y\ x* xy + y*.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. wi* + y= ny. If a b : =5 n : 7. : i.iand 22 22 I a . 435. 2 2 8 2 . Find the fourth proportional 426. find the angles of the triangle. Find the length of the parts. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . d. b.46 2): (15a 2 . Which ratio is greater. 432. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 438. . x 427.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : If is one equal 434. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .6 8 ). : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).a 2^ 8 + aft* . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. a + 5. Find the mean proportional to 429. 428. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.
7 a: . . 452. 444. 448.89 = q. 1(3  a. 457.rf2# = l. 8 . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 9ar7# = 71.55 y = . 456. 455. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 8 x + y = 19. ?/ 447. Find the value of a. 454. 21 7 = 27 + Op. The volumes If their diameters. Solve the following systems: 441. 443. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).*. . 458.11 7. 3 . 5#+ 10 = 27 a. a: a: + 5y). 459. 449. 15ar = 20 + 8y. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 5z4:# = 3. 450. . 5x+4y=lQ. 42 = 15y + 137. . c.11 y = 95. ft.7 y = 25. 451. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.59 = 3 z. + 5y = 59. . a: 2y= = 1 . 56 + 10y = 7a. 5 2 = 7 .(or l(*2y)=0.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 4 = 5 y + 29.4 12 . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 7 442. ft. /) ar a. a. 28 = 5 a . 7a?y = 3. if 2 ft : 439. 16. x + 17 # 53.. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 445. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .35. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 446. 3 a. 453. 9/> = 2 . 7jr9y = 17. = 25. />(. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.
i = 5.c=563y. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.. ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. 473. 465. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.2y) (2 = 2J. x y 474. 8 461. _ 469.  = 2.+ =2. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . (or .?/ + 1 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 468. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.7. + eyn. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax cx by = m. 475.
and in 20 months to $275. Find their ages. Find the number. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and in 18 months to $2180. How much money less 484. 487. age. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 479. Find the numbers. 483. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. by 4. whose difference is 4. Find the principal and the rate of interest. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. years. . 477. Find the sum and the rate of interest. fraction becomes equal to . if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 481. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. A spends \ of his. Find the numbers. 485. Find the fraction. and the other number least. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. A number consists of two digits 4. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. 486. the Find their ages. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. to . Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478.
.5#+2z = $x a: G. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 2/>3r = 4. a number .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. x f y f z 29 . + y 5 y = 101 . x s + y z = 18J . 4 497. \ . 492. 7. a: + // = 11. of two the sum of the digits also if number.z = 12. = 209. * + 425  = . = 15. ~ 507. 5^ 9z = 10. 489. 8. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. : Solve the following systems 491. a. ifi = x a. . 2 a. 1. . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 496. 7 + 2 z . 490. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 4z+3z = 20. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 3 x 500. 494.? + 2y = 8. 2a:f 7. 498. 2 2 = 41. . 2 e. 493. y Solve : x +z= 5. 2y + 2z = a: 2. x y f z = 13./ f z =a. . 4 506./ 504. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 .z = 20. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 3 a: + 5=84. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 3ar 503. = 20. a. 5 + a. *i. a: f z = 79. 495. z y x 25 . a: 499. z y ifi = z x 502. 2y + 3a = ll. + # +z= 35. 1+1 = 6. and the difference of their Find the numbers.
ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. ll" . 523. 517. 36 + c. + : = 1472.
if L and Af in 20 minutes. L. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. they would have met in 2 hours. Tf and run together. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. M. 532. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. When weighed in water. . if and L. What are their rates of travel? . BC = 5. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 530. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. E 533. in 28 minutes. N. 90. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. CD. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. and CA=7. 527. AC in /). Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. Find the numbers. the first and second digits will change places. if the number be increased by Find the number. In circle A ABC. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. it is filled in 35 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. touches and F respectively.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it separately ? 531. . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. AB=6. and BE. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. If they had walked toward each other. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. How long will B and C take to do .
the function.  3 x. 546. x 2 544. The values of x if y = 2. formation of dollars into marks. if x = f 1.  7. from x = 2 to x = 4.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. d. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. One dollar equals 4. 536. The values of y.  3 x.e. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 545. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. c. x 2 + x. b. 543. GERMANY. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 8 549. 3 x 539. i. 547.10 marks. then / = 3 and write = 3. 2  x  x2 . . Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. a.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. FRANCE. 2. + 3. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2 541. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. The greatest value of the function. to do the work? pendulum. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 2. 550. 2 x + 5. x*. z 2  x x  5. 548. . x*  2 x. 540. e. 542. x *x + x + 1.
565. 563.17 = 0. x* . 562.6 + 3 .r 1 561. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. h.9 = 0. Solve// = 0. if y =m has three real roots. . z 4 . 557. 3 x . 15. z 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551.4 . e. x 2 ~ 2 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. = 5. a: 559. + 10 x . 568. 2 567. c. Solve 552. 566.r .0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.4 = 0. If y +5 10.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 .7 = . + 5 .= 0. 572. 3 . x 4 .3 = 0. 556. j.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. ' = 8. 18 x  4 = 0.  2 1 a: a.11 = 0.G . \ to t = 5. i. g.r a: a: x a.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. J. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a. 3 x* . . a. r?. 564.13 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 2 a.1 = 0. f.= 0. 2 8 . .3 x . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . c. 555.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 2 554. 2 x 2 560.5 x .15 = 0. a? 4 x . and make the unit of the b. 558. a. 553.3 . // Solve y Solve y = 5.3 x . x 5 . 2. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Represent meters. 3 + 3 z .
Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. + + 4 .2 2 + y. 582. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 599.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. (# 2) . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .x + 2 )'2 601. (1 + x a.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 600. + %) (a* + *) 5 . xY. 604. 9  4 fSb 607. 4 a.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 609. [ y =10. 588. 608. jj+.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . + ^) + (air%)8.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.5 xy = 0. a 612. j^f = 3. 4 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (a. a 8 606. 1 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. (1 (1 (1 . 589. x [ ?/ 577. : y* or 25. 2  2 aa: 2 . 5 a*.%) 4 (aa. x + z2) 8 . 3 . .(1 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 6 + 1) . a 2a. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . a:. a. 592. 595. 2 611. 593. 598.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 3 (f. f ?>) 3 591. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 596. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 4 (1a:) 3.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 579. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + . 597. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 585 594. (aiy. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 64 a 12 603. (a  8 ft) .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.frf : 583.
*+* = 156. 2 + 21Ga. 628. /.2. 625 : 621. x 2 641.49.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. V950484 . 942841.191209. 9a. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 643.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. + 54 'x*y* . 4370404. 40. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. VOIOOD + V582T09. 4J. 49042009. 637. 647t x 2 648 649. 638. 0090.150. 7) 2. Find the square root of 619. 620. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 644. 615. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 633. 32 631. 2 + 189 z = 900. 632. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 636. 035. + 24 a 2 4 .1024 x + a: 256.12 a?y + y*. 494210400001. 8*' + 24* = 32. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 44352. ft . 623. a 642. According to Kepler's law. 49. 21.V250 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.30. 3a. 624.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.*. = .871844. 651. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 112 a 8 . x 2 . 2 2) 2 +x = 14.15174441. 614. 634. 2. 210. V 635.\/4090. 371240. (x 9 x 646.2410. 629. find Jupiter's period. = 87. 626. 25023844. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 639. GGff. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 645. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . = 70. : 5. + 2 21 x = 100. Find the eighth root 617.53 x ~ . 650. 622. 630. = 0. 9g. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.bx .ax . = 0. 706. 699.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 2 . 2 702. .a a )jr . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. a. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. ax 2 698. ex abc= fx 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.c = 0. 695. 693. 696. 1 __ : )'*' _i. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 694. 708. 707. 2 2 697. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 692.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.
he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 716. in value. 12 4*+  8. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. Find the price of an apple. 722. A equals CO feet.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 723. 16 x* . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 725. sum is a and whose product equals J. 717. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 721. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. and working together they can build it in 18 days. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.25 might have bought five more for the same money. **13a: 2 710. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.292 709. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. a: 713. 217 . 729. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. .40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 727. Find two numbers whose 719. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 3or i 16 . Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 724. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.44#2 + 121 = 0.
f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 1 6.2? 50. 37.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2)(x2 4. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).1 + c. .)(ai + &.aft* 1 + a 2*. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). . 46.1 f c" ). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 43. 36. n.1 f ^ 2). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 35. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 40.2 ).l). 52. 32. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 39. (v/x). 42.X . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 + x. 33.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 41. 34. 38. 31.
_ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 768. 758. 757. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 754. 2V2 2V3 . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759. JU. 761. [1r^ T 1 i . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.294 753..1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. ~ r* x .
. 10 785. 14 791. 7512V21. Va 809. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. + 2V21.4 V(j. 786. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 16 + 2V55. 790. 789. 783.2 V30. 793. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 3812VIO.VlO. 806. 3J . a 9442V5. x 782. . 92VI5. . c 792. . 794.2V3* ^ 807.12VIT. 787. 13 799. 103 788.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781.
820. 818.g.Vc^lJ . 831. V14 a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V2 ar 10.  5 + V3 f 12 817. x/aT+l . 836. 812.13 = 0.79. = 1. 814. 3 x + 2 . 819. 829. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . VaT+lJ f ^l . V3 f 1 V4a. (x a: 2 ) 4 . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 833.V? = 813. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. + Vx .f 5 = V5x + 4. 830. + ViTli + V7 . 816. 815. /9ar a: = 17. \/12 a. 811. + 103Var.\/2y  810.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. Va: .4 = 0.
861. + 216 rt aty a 10 . . 64 a 866.1000 6.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a l0m . 27 862. 856. + 1. 2 f" + a/ 15. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 851. 4 x 8 858.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 871. 8 + a: 5 8 a.  3x a. 8 8 848.a. 863. a 872. 868. 4 a. 839. 729 867. 19 x 14. a 8 850. 2 a: 64 y*. 5 a 4 7 a8 . f 12. . 9. 865. 870. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.ab9 ft*. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 855. a.x*y + 3x f 2. a*" & 6n . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. +3 4 +  4. 845. 2 x 3. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 875. 8 4a: 8 a. .10 = 118.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .1. f 841. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 8 a. 840. 27 y 8. f b**. 853.3 Va: 2 . . 876. . x 8 2 857. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 8 8  13 a. 4 a: 2 842. a. V4 x 2 . a. a: .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a.12. + . 8 860. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 275 8 l. 4 x* 847. a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. z*y 8 l64a. y 4.3 x . 16 859. 852. a. a 18 4. 6. x 4 + f 2 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 2a. 846. a 8 869. 8 . 8^27^. 844. 64. 4o.3 . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s.3 a:. 864. + 512 y8 874. a 8 873. a: 849.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. x*xy. 899. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.5 xy + 4 f = 13.y 2 = 2 y + 2. . x a: lI = xz . . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a: 2 897. . a. 2 2 = 16 y. a: a. 895. 2 + 2 f = 17. . a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.Vi' + 1 1_3. 878. 883. a: 888. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 885. 890. 887. x 882. z 2 898. a: + y 2 = 34. y 2 4. + ary + 2 = 37. y 2 2 8f. 2 = 2 + 5. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a.18. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 894. 900. x 8 3 = 13:3. . 2 . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. . 2 + xy = 10.1 = 2 a#. f ?/ a: a: .xy + y 2 = 19. 886. 901.sy = 198.15. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y 2) = 20. 896. a# f + xy = 126. 889. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a:y . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. xy + y = 32.y 2 + V(j.35. a. 5. + 2y=\2. y = 28. 2 + y 2 . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. +y f y = 7. 2 + xy = 28. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.298 877. 2 . y*+ xy . 3 x 2 . a: 884. y y 2 y 2 1121. M1 891 1 . 1 x 893. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .
7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + ary = a*. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 923. x + y 2 = aar. 910. Vary + y = 6. 908. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. y x 2 = by.y) = 33. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. = 8.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. ary y = 8. 2 924. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. (* 918. x 2 ry + y = 3. 23 x 2 . 7 y . 905. .y2 = 22.y) (a? . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 2 2 916. *y .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 5 xy = 11. 3 y 8 ) =1216. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. ^ 2 . 2 + y = 2 a 4. 921. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y = a(ar + y). * + y = 444. a: a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.3)2 = 34. + 2 ary = 39. 3 :r(3 . x 4 299 xy z 904. # + xy + y = 7.3(* + y) = 6. y + a:y = 180. + ?/) . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 912. 906.2 y) = 49 2 919. + y 8 = 189. a:y xy 929. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. (3 x . 909. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. a: y zx 12. 2 * 2 ~ g.#y + 2 = 27. xa 903. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + 2 a:y + = 243. y .y) (3 y .16 y 3 8 = . 4 (a. a: * a: a: ar 928. 920. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. a. y 3 2 2 922. 907. or or a? a: a: . . + a.3) 2 f (y .r a. 911. + y = 9. + y)(a. (o. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 917. 2 915. 914. (a.6. . 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. x f 2 a:y = 32.y). 2 913.23 = 200. (!) * . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. xy + x= 15. yz = 24.x) = 21.
a second rec8 feet shorter. A and B run a race round a twomile course.000 trees. feet. find the radii of the two circles. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 944. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. .102. A plantation in rows consists of 10.300 930.square inches. z(* + y + 2) = 76. A is 938. 943. is 20. and also contains 300 square feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. + z) =108. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. How many rows are there? 941. s(y 932. Find the sides of the rectangle. 34 939. feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. is 3. 2240. 935. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 937. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Tf there had been 20 less rows. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. two squares equals 140 feet. and the difference of 936. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. 942. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. + z)=18. 931. two numbers Find the numbers. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. y( 934. (y + *) = . Assuming = y. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. Find the numbers. *(* + #) =24. rate each man ran in the first heat. If each side was increased by 2 feet. is 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. In the second heat A . and 10 feet broader. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. diagonal 940. 152.
The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A and B. . The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the digits are reversed. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. 953. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. 949. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. . Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two starts travelers. and its perim 948. sum Find an edge of 954. . If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. that B A 955. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and if 594 be added to the number. is 407 cubic feet. each block. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. P and Q. Find in what time both will do it. 951. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. unaltered. Find the number. set out from two places. and travels in the same direction as A. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. 950. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the eter 947. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. What is its area? field is 182 yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. overtook miles. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. and that B. triangle is 6. whose 946. distance between P and Q. 952. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before.
(to 2 n terms). Evaluate (a) . (x 4 to n terms.321? 965. Find the sum of 4.302 956. . 1 to n terms.to infinity. 958. f + 1 . 5. to 7 terms. 961. 970. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 9th and llth terms of an A.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. P. 18th terms of an A... Sura to 24 terms. + (iiven a +  4 d . x(x to 8 terms.454. s  88. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). \ . J. 974. fourth of the unity. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find the Find the common 977. *" 968.. 975.141414.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. 1G series .V2 ..  2. . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. .3151515. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 969. 4 4 to 7 terms . !Ll^ + n . difference. 12434+ j I 967. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . Find n f (ft) . ^ Vfirst five 959.>/) to infinity. = 4. n to n terms. P.. the terms being in A. Sum to 20 terms. ^ 1 . 971. . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Sum Sum to infinity. to n terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 16 962. P. Find n. and 976.v 973. '...... 3 + 5 7 + ..4142 .. 5. 966. P. 972.. to infinity.. 957. are 29 and 53. Find an A. 36 963... 3 . 964.1 4 f j$V .
and of the second and third 03.. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .1 + 2. 4 grains on the 3d. and so on. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.2 . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. named Sheran. Find four perfect numbers. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 1.. 2 grains on the 2d.001 4. and the common difference. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Find the first term.01 3.. The 21st term of an A. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 980. to n terms. 987. is 225.001 + . 0.. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find four numbers in A. "(. Find the sum of the series 988. of n terms of an A. 986. The term. 992. 303 979. 989. 990. first 984. : + 9   V2 + . P.. Find n. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . to oo.. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid... of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.) the last term the series a perfect number. to infinity may be 8? . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 985. to 105? 981. The sum 982. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . P.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.04 + .+ lY L V. 5 11.
The fifth term of a G. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Under the conditions of the preceding example. (a) after 5 strokes. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. find the series. P. c. in this square a circle. AB = 1004. prove that they cannot be in A. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. . is 4. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. P. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sum and sum . Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 1001. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. and G. 998. areas of all triangles. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. are unequal. P. 997. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. many days will the latter overtake the former? . of squares of four numbers in G. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. inches. 994. (6) the sum of the infinity. at the same time. 999. If a. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. and so forth to infinity. 512 996. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. are 28 and find the numbers. ABC A A n same sides. in this circle a square. P. 1000. Two travelers start on the same road. ft. 995. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. P. 1003.
Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1009. 1008. 1014.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 2 ) 5. a: 8 7. Find the middle term of ( . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Expand  2 a.l) w f . Find the middle term of 1020. 1006. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . ) 1021. (1 1018. (12 #) 7 .ft) 19 . + lQ . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .o/) 14 . . x) 18 .iV 2i/ 5 . 1011. 1012. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.
.
181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 37.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ... ... . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 129. 19. 9 ** ... Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .193 11 . graphic tion of representa . t 53 120 ... . 54. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . lowest ratio " '* .. .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 232 mean progression .. .. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 158. 123 . signs of Algebraic expression .. . . ..130 .. . linear literal Common ** * difference . 8 . 246 91 " multiple. 232 169 807 .. 97.210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. numerical . 129 54. 9. . .. . .... . 112 54 54 251 .108 160 " . . ... . Checks Coefficient 20. 160 in quadratic form 191 . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . ..... .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . . . .178 Completing the square .] Abscissa Absolute term . .. Aggregation. . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. ..... . .. simple simultaneous . quadratic ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ..
. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . law of Extraneous roots . 227 geometric . 9. . 243 7 .. Inconsistent equations . Product '* 76 Infinite. inversely 122 numbers . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 112 . 189. 42 7 Independent equations Index . . 195 33. exponent . Insertion of parentheses . Like terms Linear equation .. . numbers . 34. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. .251 Graphic solution of simultane. Imaginary numbers .. .C Multiplication . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Mean " 81) proportional Mean..108 Minuend . . 84. Mathematical induction . . . . addition of " square of . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. 17 65. .. . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 91 . 109 102 .31. 184 54. .. Negative exponents 11 . arithmetic . 114. 23 10 91 102. .. P . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . .808 Exponent Exponents. . 45 Laws of signs . 212 . Known numbers . 180. 63. INDEX 8 . . first and second . L. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 205 . G. . . 45. directly. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . ... .. 253 28 70 1.. . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . 120 Member. . 143. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 241 123 geometric . 227 . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 45. Geometric progression ....
.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. binomial Third proportional Transposition .... 27 17 Unknown numbers . .... 9.. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.... .... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . algebraic Surds . ... absolute 54 Variable . .. . 4 155 9 " of . 129.. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. .... polynomial . . . Sum.. 45 Trinomial 240 .
.
MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
A. Mass.. Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. NorfoooS J. 1910. Reprinted April. U. 1910. 1916. Set up and electrotypcd.COPYRIGHT. . Published September. August. Norwood.S. 1917. 8. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1913. December.
18. 6. 8. 7.000 negroes. 20.  1. 27. 25. 12. B $4700. 12. 5. 9 14. 150. 4. 20. per sec. 13 V. 2. 8. arithmetic. 21.3. 9 = 4. 1. 8 ft. 8. 3. 6. 6.21 24.  1. 16. 4. Australia ft. 13 d. 18. C $1(50. 3. 13 S. 89. 3. 2. 27. = 5 81. 2  Page 8. B $20. 2. 12. 15. 21. 20 jo. 1. (a) (/>) 1. 6. 11. 20. 12.000.. }. 6. 576.000 Indians. 6. 26. 16. 1. 6* 16.000. 16. 22. A $90. 2 ~ 15. B 10 mi. 14. T . 17.. 4. 2. Page 1. 18. 13. A 38 mi. 210. 2. 1. + 1. 1. sign. 2. 17. 27. 16. 9. 64. $160. 12. sign. 9 m. 1. . i . 37. $100. 2.$9400. $40. 16. 5. 7. 6. 1. 10.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 2.000. 14 11. 3. 3 below 0. 16 in. 49. Not 5. 9. 16 in. 9. 13. 1. 25. C $60.8. 20 B. 85. 12. 5. 25. 29. 5. 12. in. 5. 9 16  larger than 7. C $ 16. 6. $ 1 50 10. 11.. 12. Page 8. 19. 20. 0. 10. 16. 7. 4. 29. _ 32. 10.. 128. 11. 1. 11. 7. 9. 3 m.000. 30?. 12. 4. 23. 8.. 1. 4. 2.1. 192. 14. 4. 106. 20 \.000. 2 5. 2. 3. 3. 24.  22 20. 3* 7. 7. 6. 3. 3. 1. 8 13. 19. 2. 21. 1. 10. 126. B $80. 73.. 3.000. 7m. 3. 32. 49. 16. 17. 17. 5. 6.C. 0. 22. b. 6. Page 4. c. 3. 7.  2 p. 19. 12. 15. South America 46. 10. . Ot 15. 115.00000001. Page?. ^. Page Page Ilis expenditures. A . 72 = = 216. 8. 15. 5000. 17. 5. 14.. 13. 7. 2. 9. 32. V 23.000. 30. 5. 10. 10. 16. Yes. 3. 9. ft. 6.12. 37 S.  13.. 14. 28. Page 13. 1. 9. in. loss. B $ 128. 19 4.150. 1. 24. 48 ft. x. . 1. 7. 2. is $10. 512. Multiplication. 10g. 14. 18. 32. westerly motion. 15. 18. 11. 10. 9. 16. 32.000. 6 yd. 9. 1 16. A 15..2. 13. 3. 16f 2. 14. 3. 3. 3. 256. 144. . 8. 15. 3. 25. 24. 2. 59. 14. 28. 13. in 12. 14. 8. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 26z. A Bl 7. . 18. 36. x. 7.
$r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .. 6<t.6) 38. 6.5f> sq.  11. 3. 37. 19. 14:). (a} 100 1(5 cm. 23. 1. 2. 29. 35.. . 50. Trino inial. 57. 27. 173. #1111. 0.32 c2 > ft 3 . 51 f. 8. 9. in. 3. :. mi. 2oVmf?i. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 15. 25. a2 4 15^44. 12. (r) 2000 m.. 32 2 ftc. 9.14 sq. 4. 16. <i~ 26. 35. 22. 13. 17. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 10. 15. 2ftx. 16. 24. 11. 7.. (b) 135 mi. +/2(/. 30. 8. 1. 12. 13 cu. I.4  2ft 2 33. Va'+Y2 8^2 .a . 12. It. yyz+xyz*. 27. (ft) $40. Page 18. 3. 12. (ft) 7. 16. \'\ 4. 19. m + 3(a. 8. 4 9/^/rl 2. (a 4 4. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 20(. 1. 04. . 20. 11. 4. 29. 7. . 3 a* + 2 at*. 14. in. 237. 16. 22. 22. 1. Polynomial. (r) 2. (ft) mi. 5.3 * 10 r5 <3 . (c) S(i. 32.rty8. 0. 24. 33.  1. 0. 14. ft. 7. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 4. 00 24 04 ft. ft. (59. 21. (a) 50. $80. _ 4 .000 . //'. Page 21. . 3. 3. ft. y. 4.  12. 4. ^). 8. 23. + v> 2 . 2. w. f  5e 35. 18. 3. 27. 18. 42. arty 1 20. Page 7. 21 a 3 4 10.4 ft. . 31. 5. Monomial. ]*. 5. r:A 29. ft. :J!>r'. (a) r>23ifcu. 5. 15.  0. a 32. 3 . 49. 14. 3rf 27. 3. 10. (a) 200. 2. o^ft. 14. 12yd. 41.. + ft). 0. 4. 31. 38 ab. ft f 19. 6. 8.ab. in. 0. 1.. t. 9. 7. 19.. vi 14. 314 sq. 16. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. (c) 8. 34. 9.'J. 28. = 81.q 4. 27. 20. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 17.1.900. 14. WIN + wiw. + 5.  40. (r) 78. c. 18. ^. 11. 36. 5. = ()501. 36. 3a. 12 a. Polynomial. 21. r+l. 34. 13. 92. jrif 4 9. 14. 7 7.. rt. 13. 12. 8.x. 5. 17. 1. 2. 3.<>Gq. 39.r~ f 34. 1. 17.94(>. 35. Pagel4r. 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. (ft) Page 2. 10. 15. 15. 26. (r) 2G7. ft.ft. 5. 5x+3.. 27. 25.5 (ft) sq.r f 15. 9. 2. 58.000 sq.GOG. ft' 3 . $3000 Page 6. a ft c.  3. .  2 4 13 ft 2 . . 26.  xV 3 y. Binomial.ii ANSWERS Page 11.'JO ft. 15a. 32. m 24. 11. (ft) 12. 38.r 2 . 2.9?/2 8. 43w//2 17. 28. II. 104. 2x' 2 5 . 13. r/ \(\xyz. 13. 4 y/ . 18.~4. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. ft n. 1. 3(c4a). x^ 20. 30.. 7. 12. 6. 5. 25. 0.. 0. 0. Page 31. 28. 240.. sq.ft) 4. 8. . ??i??. 31. i:5. 3. 15. in. 22. 8. 17. 20. 22( 19. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. (a) <> sq. 27. 14. Page 23. 21^. 1. 33. 30.. . 21. 0. 13.
31.11. 18. . 5. (5x47 3.4. 7. 2 17. 6.2 a.abc. 55. 3 a . a f 2 f 2 9. 31.3x 2 2 tf. 2 2. 16. 25 47. 19. 2. 28. 32.  14 afy . ' 12 m?/'2 27. ti. 36. 2 4.4c 3 8 8 J. 12. a). x  + 3z. 4ft ~. 8.h. . a + a. 10 x. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2 a f 6 414. 2 2 2 6. 2 .a . . 24. 4. _5a<>&43c. . ?/i 13. 2x 4 a 13.2 .  4 b 17 y*. 4 21. 814. ar. . 4. 11. 14.6 x + 0) 16. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 7. Page 44.5. a a. a 3& . n*. . . &. 8. 29. 7. (2n' 43p 47 ).  1. a + (ftc4df).r 2. 0. 3 Ji 8 .'U4j>.2 a2 2m 2 4. 1.a*. 4. 2 3x f z. . s_r>a5. 14. Exercise 16. 8 . 1. 5 2 Page 29. + a 2 f 2 a 4. a  49.8(c + a). 5. 1. 17. 12. 2// 16. 1. 19. 51. 50.5 4 2 3 ?/ . f ft 9. 0.  12. 24. 2 3. a 3 .5 z?/ + 3 y . c. a 10w. 1 4.3 6. 2 + a4l). 4r 2 . ^ <. w 17. 32 w 2 w. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2. :5 41.  23. + 4 c. 9.1 . ( 7. \ :{ 2 a 48. 15. 11. 25.4x. 43. 3.r. c. 10 m. 12. Page 8. 8 + 2 a . G. 3 a3 & 41.2 ft 2 r2 10. 3.4 d. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2. 364c. + 2y. 59. 2 a 37. x a8 1. 2.2 57. 3. 18.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. . c2 . 26. . 15. 2. 24 b 46. 38.Oa: + 10. 6. . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 4.aft. 25. 5. 34 39. . 2. . 7  a + 2 + c. ?/. (yz~d}. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 10. 25. a 3a 4 2 &. 4. a' 4ab + ?/. 22. a2 24. 40. a2 9. 2 . 21. a4 4 4. 20. 2a.. 14. 1 + 45. . .  17. ?>4tl 53. ii\ 22. lOrt 15w4. + 8.a~. 7 a5 1 .a'2 . 26. 11.1. 1. mn. + 6.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .l. 20. 42. 20. 21. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 4wipg>' 27. Page 28. 8 b. G a bd. 4. '  .  b. 6. 34. 36. j)(g1. a 52. 58. 8 8 . (mn} 11. 22. w* ( . m*  n*. 7  # + 12. 10. Page 7. 2m.a f 54. a. 26. !  </ .ws 2 ft) . 35.c. 2 6. 8. 2m + 2w. ri\ 18.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 1.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 6. 37.(7x2 Ox2). x3 . 2. 2a: 2 4x. 3 m. 15. 2. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 16. 7. 13.  b* 4 r 1 .  a: 2. 56.7. a  ISjfat. 13. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. (w4w)(ww).. 24. . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 19. 0. ft Exercise 17. 12. 30.2. 18. ab a. 21. r. 2 y' 4 . t). 33. 17.(2 x2 .x f 1 2 . M + 10. f 2 ?/  2. a 4 + ft. 10. 2. ?> 22. 5x 2 rt ft. 5. 14. 2. _ Page 30. a 6 2 .
0. 83 In + 1 n*. . 16. 6 . 18.r% 2 2 ry. 13.. 25. 3300. 90. 4. + O4 66 .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . x2 xy42^. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 12. 7. 10. 108.16 a 2 + 32 a . 16 lb. . 30.. 7. 6. 4 a8 . 2z 8 s 2 3zl.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 24. ?/ . 17. 4. 24. 25.16 x2/ 5 4. 23. 216. 11. . 343. +15. 19. n (a6) 125.12.. 2 ). 20. 12 x2 2 . 30 n?b*c*. 360. 15. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 4 fc. . 30. 32. 17. 24. 14f 5. 35. 3.36 35. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 22. 20.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 16 51.2.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .32 y s s G . 17.14 w 2 2 . 29. 6".18 w w + 10 WI M . 108. 29. . iSx8 . a. 8. . 2 * 80 . 1. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 34. 12. ci 5 . 34. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 8. 16. 40 r 2 . 25. 15 q\ 6. Page 7.12. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 4. 216. 30 j9 jt?g j . 1904. 24. 21. 15. .20 xyz . 28. 7. 27.1. 28. 2. 3(*+0 + 2).19 + 2.(3x2_4^+7). a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 10. 2. (+3)x6=+16. a. 22.32. 76 8 a' 1 . 18. 15. 5aft(a 126 2). 0.64 190 p6. 38wiw. 42. . 31. 9.14 . 1. ^^ = 20. 7. 9. 84. 2 . 2 7t A. 2 w +2 2 . 20.. 26. Page 38. 6. 30. 1.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 9 13. 3. 4aWy. 13. s 9 ww. 770. ISartyW e*f*tj. 33. 14. 14. 66 8W 34. 16. 27. 120.11 xyz .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 4.6) =a2 31. a: .19p" + 19^ 10 . 29. 23. . .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 18. 22. 04.8 12. etc. 29. 24. 8. 8 . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 1. 23. 38 a*b 6 : 24. ! 2. 12 ^. 3 a 3 . 102. 1. 5.>(/ r . 16. 42. 19.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 28.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 11. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 14. + 7. 16. 21. 18a% y. 2.25 + 14. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 18> ^* = a . 31. 11. 60. 9. 2*8f x2 6x4. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 36. . +. 4200. //. Page 5. fa 2. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 22. 2 ). 21 a'&c. 161b. Ox a 5 . 37. 60. 33. a*b*c. 7G . 1400. 2 2 2 . 28. 6. 2 n8 29 a + 30.26. . 4 a2 .:>/ . 26.44 aWc 16 abxy. Page 36. 15. 4 jcy*z*>. 17. 4. a 8 . 15 lb. 10.7(50. 25 4 4. f 26. 30. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . ft 17. Page 3.6 2 . 13. 2''. a. Page 35. 23. 3. 127"'. 1.28 p'^/. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 2. 6. 8. 32.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . + 58 . 20.15. 20. 52 + 6s 12. 161b. 33. 20. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 3 a 2 46. 13. m. 20 aW.57 p6 3 2 4 25.21 a 3 c2 21. 30. 66 39 k* .21. . 13. 15. 14. 27. 1. 12. 14 m 2 . 27. 11. .000.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. a + ft. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19. 10. 64. 19. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 27. 18. 3. 34. ?> 4 . 30. 21. 5. 8. 25. 18. 210. 18. ll 2 i. 4.
+  m' 1. 7> . 441. 10.020. 41. . 35. 1. m 2 . 7 . + 4 a +4. 2 12. 3. x2 GiC+5. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). p4 + . (w4)(w + l).35 ab 9. 30 /><. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 31.14 jp + 49. (w+4)(m4). . 20a 2 21a + 4. 10. a + 25. 29. 45. 2 . 1. 2 (5 a 3). 14. 41. 10. 9999.10 x + 25.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 10 a 4 ?. 1. . s rc 47.p132. 57. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 2 fr . 4 21.009.404. 10. 4 . 36. .606. 56.020. 484. 21 2 . 25 25. +4 34.^. 999. 19. a + 56. 998. 2 a 2 + a . . 9990.ab . 24. 2 j3 Z .6 y4 10. 3. 34. p 2 . 4 2 //. ^/> 8 4 .000.3.000. 27. 33. . 26. 36.996. 40. (n 2 5. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.1. 24.810.. . 2 4 a + 4. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. V + o ft . 23. 25. 36.r . 2 +10s281. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 28. (p 2.5 ~ 81. ~ 6 20 . 37.4 n.2 x + 2 x.4 12. 31. 30 x + 19 x3 . ^' J  7 f 12. ab. +   5).r* 2 30.001. 1. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).^V"' ./ . 4. ^V^4 . n2 a4 6. 33.6. 6. 17. 15. 31. 14.54 p 2 + 81. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 30.712. 10. . 4 . 9. 1). lflrt 2 8 + l. 8 38. 2 m3 + 4m2 .16 a3 f 50. 2 0)(p + 5). w'n 2 //^ + 25. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. Page 12.6 x2 13.009. 9. ab . 10. x*2^f I. 2). 14. a2 ' + 48Z100. ) 4' 6/ 49.^ + a? + 1. + 12. 38. 35. x 48. 36 a 4 . 1. y. a' . 16. 12 x2 . 18. 990. 6 2 + 6lf>0.00 + 37. fo*. 10. 2. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 9801. 40. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 1. (a + 4) (a + 2).2 y*. Page 39. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. m 3 j) 3 . 4 + 25 q*.x2y22. 2 62 V2 132. 8.84 a' 9. 19. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 55. 10. (a (3 54. 6 x6 + 13 x3 .500.20. ' 46. 4. 6.10 35. 2 1: 21. 7. 166. 40. 7. 5. 11. 32. 2 a' y' . (m + 6)(m3). a3 0. . 25 a 2 6 2 . 39. + 3)(3). a + 25. .201. 42.. . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.098. r. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 37. 5.25.004. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. a 2 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. x4 28. I/). r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 3wi2 m Page 42. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.2. 4x21.49. 27. 51. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.008.m 30 6 4 1. 26. a4 4 ?/ . 39. + 10 + 121 y*. 34. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 33. 2 6' . 4 x2 13. 29. 10. . Om2 4 6m 6. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). + 4 t*.2 6 + 13. . .6 xy .8. .ri 17. 10 a' 2 . 2. G a6 2.994.15. 8. n + 2. 11. ft' 11. 10. x* . ?/H)0. 15. 4. + 2 9. 2 4 2 2 64 . . 52. 8.r . 10. 7. 2 .4 a&+ 4 &*. 8 a W . . 44. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .ANSWERS 28. 32. 9 4 /> . 53.
1*5 2 r 2 . r/2 4. 12. 17. 2.8. ?/2. 11 4. 2 ? 14 . y 7. 8 ?/ .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 3. a 4 4 ft. .10 xy*.2 2 . 15. 15. 3. 4. 4x43?/. 125.  10.rw f 8 .3 a 41. as _ 10 16. 4. +w . 4.8.+ 77 15. 19. 6. . 1. 17.  12 y 25. 10 ft. a 8 4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 11. Page 7.r?/ j/. 1.1. 2 . 5. 16. 2 12.15.r'^ 15. 2 4 2 x 4.8 yn .1.x^.2 2 2 8 .21 2 2 f + . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8.000. 11. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 16.2 ac . 4.27 x 2 4. m L 4.2 ftc . 9. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. .5 n*. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 26. aft. // 19. 1. 12.  . z. 13. 46.9 d. 7 r .25 c . 2 a 3 ft. aftc 52. 14 r 2 . .3^V. 1/*. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. .29.2 <</. 6x 3. 2 4 3 9. 3 aft 20. Osy. 4. 50. ft 17. 14.r' ~ 16. m'2 3. 4. 2 ?/' . r 7. 8 ?/ . . c 12. 4 a* 4 9 11. 5.1.1. yfl. 5. 13. r//.r .2 .2 1 //. 9. i 9. Page 51. .w.9 4. l 4 . x 4. 20 15. 2 ?/ 4.r ?/ ??i ?). 6. 4 c m .12 aft 4 20 ac . ti'jry1 7. 5. 13. 1.10 2 + z 2 410. sr 11. :r !>. i 2 tji. 5 a  (5 ft. 10. 2 4. abc 7. 4 a 2 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. *3 y 4 . 14. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. a 10. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2.VI ANSWERS 43. 4xy + 13 <) . r ft. 2. 5 4 a Oft. ft ? ft' ft ft. 7a3ft. 1.3 5. w . 8. _ 2 a . 13.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 49. Page 48. 2.r?/.34. . 18. a 2 . 75 a 2 29. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 8. 47.8 y.23. 1. . j) . /r . . 4ft. f>r* 4. 16.lit x + 4.  3 c. 5. 12. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. + x?/ 2 1. ft. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. . 135. 14. 9. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 3. 3.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 8. 12. 10. 4 pq. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . . 9. 21.2 . 8.n. 6.1. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. ft* ft / . Page 22. 01. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 4 x. 18.4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 17.15 21. 7. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. aft 12. 2 2 + 2 a.7. . + 4. Exercise 2 a:// 26.30 ftc. 2.5 a . 5. 10. 20.3 x 2 2 4. 2. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.24 . 44. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 14. G.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 4 d 2 4. 3. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 24. x 2 + 2r f J.r" 20 S? . w 2 . 5. 21.2 ar. 23.6 :rs 4.> 10. ??. 6. 4 ac. . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 3*y2 w + 1. 9. Page 13.2 aft 4. 5. 14.1. '.  11.2. 13. 2 1.3 ry.25. Exercise 27. a. 3 a.y3. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 1.  5 z* . 4. 8. 1000 1000 . 2 . 3./ 4. 5^418(7. 22.5 mp.1.2 wZ 4.rw. Page 11. 6. 13. + 3. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.2 . . 4. 19.3 3. 8 x . c3. 5. x4. 12. .
3. + 3 = 2(3* . 46. 7. a 8. 37. I. d + !. (2 a. r tx mi. x 2y 10 act. 6. 13.  6 10. x + 1=a.  1$. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 23.10) 100.p+7. 43. Page 6. 2. 18. s. 30. 7. 4. 10. 800 = x + 1300. 2. 42. + 10 b + c ct. 10. 60 25 1. . (d) 2a + 10 = n. 5. v (6) 2x. 6. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 2x + 35. . y 100 a 24. ft. 22. 30. 100 2. 19. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. Page 13. 8. 31. 3x2. 14. 38. + 3x + 2y + 32. 9.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 28. 11. 15.  />) a = all. n M. 12. 45. "mi. 16. 20. x y $ 6 yr. x. (c) 2x. '^ . }f. 7. x 49. 5. 39.rr2. <>. 4. 'nj 100 a 28. 1&. (A) 3 x f (4 x . b. . % 4. r>?imi. 10 x sq. 59. lO. 58. 2b 22. x 48. 4. ft. f 6)(o 62. ^ 12 sq. " lir. 50= L 100 15. 10 >_&. 20. 0. 25. 2b. Jj12.r1. y ?>i x + 26. 23. 6. 4 f 39. 1. 7.ANSWERS Page 9.  9 = 17 a. 4. 19. 29. 2. 41. m+ 11.. 17. !). 8 n  10 yr. 22. </ 20. (>.7). 13. 5. (</) 2a. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. y 2z p= 3 (a c. rn mi. 35. 6. 1. f (I. 14.000. y 50. m +~m 3. ct. 10 yr. 5. 00. 11. 4^ = 100. 3 9. 100= ^. 7. ct. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 38. 18. (> 27. 10. 1. vil 56.(3x  700) = 5. 1. 7x 2 Page 21.(3x+ = rraxlO. 40.100. . 7. 25. iL*. (a) ' 12. 44. 5. / + y + a// 12 yr. 17. 16. 2. 15. + f + b 2. X 60. Page 40. 33. 8. 7. 4. 47. 44. ft. 41. 6. l. 36. 17.. 24. 36. x = m. . 32. lOx 10 + w. Page 61. b. + 4x 3y 34. 10 a. 9. 100 14. ] 2 ri 42. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.6 = *. 2=10. 10. 33. 27. 16. a 10. 0. 1. 57. Page 31. 3.. = 5 ?i x 460. . y yr.ab a. . ? 43. 12. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 34. 3. 29. 26. 13. fix. 11. 10) + = (a) 2 x . ct. xy ft. 4(a ft) c = 8. 5. 2.r ct. ( a f 4.. 21 2. 2. 2 ct. 20. f = eZ 2 x. 100 d ct. 3x  1700) = 12.  2\. sq. I. d. 37.x700. # + 20yr.
15 mi. 7. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 2$. 7. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.000. 68. 2.2). (6) (6 a 30) =20. 180. 9. . 2 2 2 5.5p + 7 g ). 75. 12. (z5)(z2). 6. 50. 14. 9. 7. 18. 10 Cal. (e) i* + A. 14. Page Page 480 12. 1.y"). 8.5. 10. 8. 3. 25. 15. 10.. 15. ^ . 5.000. Y. 1 lb. 28yr.. 67. 2. 9. 11 w(w' + wi . 20. 70. 12. 12 mi. (a + 4)(a + 8). . 8 12... 7.. 9.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.13. (y7)(y + 2).6).411.3). 100.8. 30 yr. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 1250. 17.000 N. 14. 71.7. 10 yr. (ro3)(w2). 160 lb. 15. 3. 6. Ib. 15. 15 in. 13. 6. 7a*fe(2a & l). 52.0.. (a5)(a4).1). (p + 7)(3a5&). 12. 3 (a +&)(*.000 ft. (y 13. 12. 250. Page Page 4. 18. (a + 5)(a + 6). 4. .000. 3. 17. 150. (y8)(y + 2). 9. . 2. 600. 11. 3. 6. 15 yd. 6. 10. a a (a 8 a+l). 8 in. 8. 20 yd. 2. 82 mi.000 pig iron. 3. 13. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).000 gold.. 19. 11. (a 4) (a...000 copper.000.000. 40 yr. 5. 42yr. 45 in. 8. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 200. 10. 20 yr. Pace 65. 05.21. 8. 9. 4. 6rt 2 11. 5. 4. 6. 10. 78. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). $40.(5z . 8 2 19. 22.210^.3aftc + 4). 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 3 hr. 1313..000. 1. 7 hr. 10 yd. 55. 2 2 ?/ 21. 14. 4pt. 8. + 7)(y3). 100 1. 5pt. 15. 5 Col. by 12 yd. 21. w (/) 64. 1200. Page 7. (y + 8)(y2). 9 in.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 1.79. 1. Oaj(o62cd). 4. (c) ^ v ' . 10. Page Page 4. 12. 2 3 6 7. 2. = _?_(2ar + 1). 13. 2). 10 Mass. 85 ft. 13.. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 5$ hr. 90 mi. 20 yr. 480. 5.10.0. 25 yr.000 Phil. Page 7. 9. 14.16. 23. 2. ( + 4)(*2). (m + n)(a + 6). 90.000 ft. 11 in. 11. 1. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 30 mi.3. 13.. 4. 11.. 3. 1. 5. 11 pV (2 p8 . 8. 20.000. 200. 3. (yll)(y4). 70^. 10. 3x (3r. 2.000 Berlin. Page 5. 29. 24J. ~=90. 30. 74. 300.. Page 79. 78. (*4)( + 11. 25. 14.. 8.3. 12.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 6. 6.24. 7. 18.5.22. a 12. 30. 1200. 10 yr.  PageSO. 80 A.2. 16. 5 lb.11. 1. 7. 20. (a + 6) (a + 3). 72. ?(g ? g+ 1). 4. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.
y(x.6) 2 2 .11 6) (a 4. . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 26. f 2). 216 aft. (6 a. 4. . (5x . 11. x (z + 2)(x + 3).2 by2 6. y) (a. (:52y)(2a!3y). 10. 10.y) 2 aft. 24. 14. No. 8. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . a. 34. 2. 10. 21.r2). (3#y)(+4y). 24. 25. 27. 7 6) (a 10 6). Oa 2 (a2)(al). (3a. + y + . . 6. (15z2y)(x5y).7) (a. 14. 100 (a. 9. 11.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 10. 1.y4 ). 17. 33. 2). 24 9.6) 2 1. 7. 29.11 ft)(a6). (ft + ll)(aftll). (w + 20)(w + 5). No. (15ay2) 2 .   . (a 6 6) (a 4. 24. 26. 28.8). 8. 15. . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (a + 8)(a3). 28. Page 84. No. 20.4p). (9y4)(y + 4). Page 82. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 16. 35. 20.2 y). 17. 16. (ay8)(ay3). (a a: 19. 31. 8) (a. 3. Yes. 3a. + 5) a. + 0(90 Page 85. 2 2 15. 18. (0 + 6)(66). 16. 22. 23.. + 3).ANSWERS 16. 10 a 2 (4 . 100(x. 5. 21. 13. Yes.2). Yes. 33. Page 83. 10(a + ft)(aft). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 19. a . (m + n + 4p)(w + . Yes. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 2 3 by2 Yes. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 35. (2xl)(x + f>). ( 2 4 19. . 3)(3a. (4 18. x(x +y)(x y). (5wl)(m5). Yes. (2 *+!)(* 9). 10(2 30.+4 y)(3x4 y). 12. (x + y4 )(x . 25. + 3)(c44). (w* (3a26).1).7)(2z f 1). 34.2 ft). 200 (x + l)(x + 1).3). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .1). (4al)(a2). 22. 21. 11. 26. 22. 12. 2. 14. 20. 103x97.3)(z2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. a(2u. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).1). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). y) 2 29. (2 a? 4. 25. 23.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 3. 22. Yes. 32.* (2 y + 3)(y.4. 5. Yes. 27. (2o + l)(2l). 19. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (y + 4)(yl). 17. 4. 23.5y)(3a. + 8)(g3). + 2y). . . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 9. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 12. Yes. 8. 26. 13x7. 1. Yes. (az + 9)(ox2). 18. 25. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 9. . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 9. (a (p8)0> + l). 28. . (y8) 2 2 . ix 18. 10(a . 21. 25. Yes. 6. No. . (m7n) (a. (* + y)(zy). . 36. (10a + ft)(10aft). (2yl)(y + 9). (4y3)(3y + 2).1). (3*2)(. No. 29. 9. (13a +10)(13a 10). a*(5a f l)(flr . (4a. . Yes.  x (5 a. 7. (a. 27. + 9^)(oxy . + 4) (a. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 31. 7.c 2 ). 3(x + 2)(zl). (5a +l)(5a l). 30. 1. 30.9*). (a 3 + 10)(a. 2 No 4. (m + w) 2 5. 23. 15. 40 x. 2 17. (g . 2. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 4 (a . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). Yes. x\x 24. (6n + l)(+2). (7 a + 4) (2 a . .4 6). (4 13. (w ~ n (x . (m + n +p)(m + wp).y (6x + 4)(5x4). (<7 20. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 10(3 5 6) 2 . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 3. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 32.
4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). .y). Page 86. 13.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 14.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. ( a ^)(^3. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 7. (5 26. 9. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2 k (wi 4.36). .X 5.2 y).1) 3. (14. 4. (7/1 2) (m 41). y )(. 2 1. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 4.y)(fi a .0+ 12).4. ( y). 16.4. 8. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 24.  (w' 4. 39. y). 5. (5a+l)(9a).7)(^ {I 12. . 7. 7. 17.'J)(' . 4 6.3)(x 4. ah}. 7. 2.42 x 4. 7. 4. ( rt 23. n  r)(5a 10. 15. 8. 2 + .?50)(xt/z. 9. + 2 //). 6. 4 a s &8 .b. a x 3 10. 35. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 5. 2 21. a 4. 27. . y6. 2(m4l)' . + 3.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 30. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 8.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 14. 8.3. a + a b. 2 (a 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 37. 8x.&). x(x f y)(jr . (2x7)(x 2 2).e 4. 16. 8. ?>). l.5 m2 x2. 36. x43. 6. ofc)( fid). 11. 10. (5^4.8). (a />. (c. (m  I)' 6.1). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 10(2 (3 4. ?i(w 4y) .l)( a 25. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .9). 10(8x' 4l) 4.&).4). x  1). 6. 13( 33. (w4w) 2 1. 11. Exercise 47. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 32. 2.?/).8) ( (16.. ( { &). 42).1). ^ . 7. (w * . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). Gp). 450.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . Page 92. Page 90. (* _ 2 )(a 4. fi(c426). x . 6. 6.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.y. . 3(.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (x. a 41. 3 x4 . (> 1. 2 8(w . 4. (x//. 5. 8. 5.  WIM.!) (x42)(x2). y(2x?/). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (r420(4 10. 2. 11. 2. 2 2 10.'})(c . 1. Page 12. 5  (2 2 . (^ + ?>_8). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.^ 48.7s) (2 a. b) (r 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). Page 89.) j).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 24x sy s 9. 2 . a8 . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (2 a ~ f> b 4.'/)('< 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 42a 3 x. 14. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 2 y) ^ . (f> + fo 7. 12. 8).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 20. 1(V/ 88. 17(x43//)(x2y). 15 M. 18. 15. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 41.4). 6. 2 2 3 . 12. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 4  9. 38. a 2 (a9). 13 x 8 2 . 12. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).8) n 43*). 5 x8 3.2)(x 1. (!__/>). x 4. 4. (.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (a 9.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 28. 14. 19. 11. 8. r x 2 */3 . (a &4. 4. a 4. 3x(x?/) 4. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. Exercise 46.  29. 4. 2.3. 6 f c). 4. 13. .?>) H. 3. (^ 7. 4 a8 . 22. (a 4.2).n). 40. 4 3. (5 31. (16 4  2(5 n .2). Page 87.y '2 2). 13. a (a + 2 6). ( (<> r4y3 . 4).
6). x 24. (a2)(a + 2)2.  1).ANSWERS 10. a 23. // m+1 !+*?. 6a2&(rt6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 11. ?_!&. 18. + y) (a: y). b ! 21. 1). + &) 2 ( . +5 1. x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 13. 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . a 10 25. x 12. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
26. c 8. 4. 2 a.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + lH + . ' 2 7. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 30. . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. ^~ 29. i^. 11. i.50 ~ 1/2 . Page 100. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + 2H 1 ^. 4 L 8 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. A^. 0.  **/* + 84 _. 7. 6.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. a 5. 6. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 4c 10. Page 101. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 28. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . _*^p5_^^_. 6.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. xy 43.. 6a5f^. 1.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .
2 re +3y mn 10 lo. . 24. 8. 19. ^i 11. 45. 4. x 1. 21. 4. n . 15. 17. 46.L+ft. 3. 6. 8. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 0.ft . a 17. n 16. 30. 5. 33. (>. 18. 2) 19. ac mp lf> n 12. 6.^U\WF### X<6. (y + (z 12. pf n 6 1. 1. 4. 1. 6. a. 1. c 8. 27. Page 106. 4. 4. 21. 1. 5 6 Q 5 a 12.  10 X + u.y 7. 42. 39. 7. 41. x 05m ' 5.  V o 4.^_. 11. 31. 7. 34. 37. 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 4. . Of. 14. 16. J. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. Page 110. 0. 6 . I) 2 3z 1. ^_. J. 1. 26. b 2. 5 be _J_. 11. 43. Page 113. 11. ?. w^x 2 b Page 105. 10. 5. 2ft a i m x. 20. b a f +c 14. 36. 4. ! 4 20. 1. 7. 3. 6. . 35. . 14. 10. 1. 9. 29. j L . 1. 16. 3. +3 ( + 15. 14. 5. 3. 44. 9. 3 7 i o. f Page 107. 12. flf. 3. y(x + x ?/). 11. 8j_m 7 3. 11. ?+_!?>. 40. ' 6. 13. 4a3ft. f 7. 17. 2 47. + f. Page 111. a2 2. 6. 1. 9. 15. 12. n m a + 13. 12 28. J. m 9. an 18. 7. 21. 23. 3. 25. ft. 32. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 38. 5. A. 15. x\.
8. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .000 1 = 23. after 18. Page 121. 1:1=1:1.003.9.. 26 mi. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 7. (ft) 5 hr. No.. 500.15. 21. . ^p^ r ~ 7. (c) 2 hr. 18./hr. f . (c) 8300. 10. 3:2. 33. 17. 30ft. 8. 1. Yes. 7 . w 18. [>> ^ a . 00. 14.10. 74. Yes. gold. after 20. 1: ~. (ft) 5 da. 2 20. 9. jj. 40wn. 32.2. 1^'. #V ~~ 34. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 300. _JL. Yes. 18. 8301 hr. 11. 33. 10. 5. J ^'. . 8. 8. 14. 16. 12. 1:4. (ft) (r) 8 hr. Yes. 14. 26. 40 yrs. 300. 23< &n b ' . 9J oz. 10. Page 124. 17.. 4. . 14. 12. xy. (a) 30. 6. 10. 17. 20. 275:108. * 7:9. 1 da. :2. (ft) 28.137. 19./hr. 4.  + . 3. 2. 4fl M_. 7} 18. ~m . 13. 75 .004. 30 yrs. 4. 5. 9$. nm. 24. 2. 5 2. 20. Yes. P+ ^ 33. 24. 20. 16.. 1:1 = 1:1.. after $12. 1:1 = 1:1. 10. 10^ oz. f. min. 10. 15. 2x:3y. 10. 11. 55 mi. ^?i min. 16. 1:1 = 1:1.000. 9. 11 hrs.139. 13. 24 mi. Yes. 1:3. Page 118. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 22.. Yes. 2:1. 7. Yes. J. 7T 2 Page 116. a 4 ft. 12. 1. 7. 0. $45.2. 300. 8. min.000. ANSWERS 16. 26 30. 3. 15. 28. 4.000. 21. ft. $40. 15. 7. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. ^m . ..001. 27. 31. 34. . 38ft min.. . 35. 9. No.0. 1 : 12. 36.} da. 3. (r) 3^ da. 21ft min. 11.11. 3.000. 40 mi. 19. 5.0 & . n 32. . 1. $00. '"I 22. 30 mi. 19. 4. = A's. 3 da. (a) 25. 6. $30. (a) 4 min. 13. 6. 4~r~ n .x + y. 5.. 10 yrs. 1. 15. w 44. 3. silver.. 5ft 30mi. 7. Page 119. 9ft. 17.000 If da.  C . 13. 3. (d) 4 da. 9. 19. 30. (ft) 104. () 2. 10. $0. Page 125. 15. " 0. IV s. Page 117. 15. w 21. 212. 18.138. dn ~ mi. 5 25. 81. (d) 500.XIV '/ . 7. 10.002.  29. (a) 12 hr. 15.
s<i. y . 4. 58. 14. 54. 41. 12. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 32j.5. 12. 5. 40.46.15 x. 13J.3.3.2 x. 2 n .4. 7. "lO. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 17. 30. 5:0 = 10:12. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 16. 7. (a) Directly. 2.r.12. 13. 2. 2. 3.. 15. 2.36. x +y x + 74 7 \. 11. b x 37.a. 3.. . 2. J. 3.3. 48. 29. 21. 3 2=3 x. 32+ mi. 1. 4. 7. 3. 19. 4. . 59. .2. 2. 3. 4. 7. Page 5. *. 7. 3. \\. x:y a: b. 27. 5.000 sq. 4. 31J. 1. 26. J pq. 17. 9.20. t 5. in.1. 53. 6 10 = 12. OJ. 2. . y a y = 7 0. 7. 11. 5. 24. 7.12. x y y . l. 2. 11. 11 5 . 12.. 30. + W. tin. 19. 9. Page 133.17. 9. 49. Page 134.5. 2. 20. 4. 8. 3. 13. 1. 4. .4. ini. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 10. cu.ANSWERS 22.5. 25. 14. 2. /. J. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 31. 6. 1. .J 3. y :y =. 7. a 3. 14. 23. 1. 36. J. 15> 9. 127. 21.  19. 4. 2. . : .li. jc:y = n:m. 52. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 17. 24.3. . Page 131.1. 8. ~ 1. 2. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 9. () 7 Page 126. 2.57. 6. (</) ft. : : T 1' : /> : . 1. x 42. 45. 7.3.3. () Directly. 5.5. 12. 1(5.) 31. OJ. 5 2. 11 w a 13.6. 20 cu. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. Page 132. 2.7. + b 7 . 35.1. 7. 5. 9  15. 1 18 = 3 51. 141. 945 11 10 . 7.3. land. . 38. 5.4. Page 135. 25.5." ^ 2.1.  ?.1. 22. 19 3 . 4. ig 6. 200 mi. 7. in n. Inversely.  28. 6*.7. 2. Page 136. 4. (I.5. mi. 1.5. 1 rt * vm^1. I."2:1. a +b 1. . . 2. 2. 24 1 (e) Directly.2. Page 9. 15. 2. 25. 10. : 23.C ?/ a . 4. 6.x a.].3./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 3.5. mi. 23.3. 28. 5:3 = 4: x. 16. 174+ Page 128. 7. water.4. 2. 50. 3}. 44. 3.840. 3. . : />. lo mi. 8. 20 20 J ^.J.000 sq. 5. i. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 5. 36. 3. 19 OJ. 11. 4. 14. 43. x y = 1 = 3 2. 7. 20. copper. 7. .2. 6. = 7 b'.*. 2. 5.8 oz.160. ft. 9. 8.15.2 oz. 4. . 3. 2. 8. 2. 13. a~. 11.2.^ 0?j ' gms.3. 1. 3  24. 9. 19. 18.4. 26. 46. 1. 57. 55. : : . 4.' : : : : <>. $. 9.3. Page 137. 7. 8. ' 55. 16. 56. 5. 8. 13. 47. 41. Of. 2. 10. 4. 5. 2. y 1. 22. 6. 3. \. 39. (b) Inversely. : XV 27.5. w 8.9. 3. 2. 7^.22. 10. 40. 1. 9. 138. 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. w.
9. & May. 5. Page 153. 3.. 2. Aug. 30. 1. 147. 10.$5000. Nov. 8. (<f) 13. 2. 1 (c) Jan. . 2. 2.7. 16 to July 20. 7. 5. 4. Page 152. 23. 7. 25. 24. The ordinate.. B's 15 yrs..1J. 4. Page 151. 3. 40. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. Page 146. 16. Apr.0.  17. yrs. 12. 7. 2. 11. 2. 3. 6 cows. 0. Feb. Apr. Apr. (5. 11.. 20. $6500at3Ji%. 6. 7. 0. a. $ 1000. Page 143.4. 2. 1. 12. Page 149. 16. 32. 3. 2. 1. 3. 17. at 15. 1. 16. 5. 10. . On the y axis.. 16.3. 7. 1. 1. 4. 12. 5. 23f . be 7. (c) . Page 145. 29. 2. 20. u 2ft. . 4. 3. 3. 4 ' q. 10 sheep. 5%. On the x axis. 12. 21. 5. m . 10. 21. 20. 20. Jan. Jan. 4. 1.9. 4 mi. 19. 26. 18. 14. &. 19 gms. 11. 15. Nov. 6. 2 a. . 11./hr. 3. 4. 8. 1. June. 3. 5. 1.^. 00. 4. About 12f. 9. SL=J o ft r^2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3. 6. 3. . 2. 11. 19. m f 8. 3. 14. ' . 18. m f 9.10. May 5. 72. $250. 22. 2. Nov. 6.4. 8. 2. Nov. (a) 12. 6%. <*ft/ bd 1. On 11. $900 5%.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 20 to Oct. 6. 3. 16. C's 30 yrs. = ^ a Page 141. 9. 17. 24. 4. 3. 4.33. ad AzA. 12. 23.2. July 20.4. 25.. . 30. 3. 5.  11.3. ad _(?jrJL. . ft 3. & part of Sept. 9. Page 22. 1 (d) Apr. 14. July. & part of Feb. 2 horses.3. 28.XVI Fagel39. 7.n + p. 13. $3000. 11. 4. 3. . A's 50 13. Jan. 30. 423. (a) Apr. 10.1. 9. 5.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 4. 24. ^. 3. 7. m + n p. 26. 1. 0. 3. 6. 18. A's 30 18. 2. July. 9. 31. parallel to the x axis 0. 90. 4. 13. J. $4000. 2.0. 7. 18. .2. 2. a =J (n  1) rf. ' 6 3 a. (ft) 23 J. 2. 3. 20 & Oct. 4. B's 40 yrs. 3). Jan. 15. 6. 1. . be 10. 20. 16. 2t2. 3. 27. 1. 4. M 2. 25. 25. $500. 15.1. 10^ gms.65. 2. (ft) 20. 5. Jan. . yrs. 24. 2. C's 10 yrs. 40. Page 142. 7.8. 8. 10.$2000. 17. 7. through point (0. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.l. . 6. 13. 100. Oct. . 5.
(a) 4. . 1 4.73 ami . .27. xy.64.73.17 (ft) (c) 2.13. 10 C. .34F.  1. 1^. 4}. Page 164. 3. . 2ft4 Page 168. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 3. . (a) 5. ' :=_!. 0C. 3. 1. 10. (/) 3. f. (ft) (ft) 2.75 (ci) 3^. 1. 2. 19. (ft) and (d) 2. . 16. 20. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. .25. 3.7. 1 23. 5 and 2. a 10 ' a ll V&. 2. 1. 3. (ft) (d) 2. .4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 4.79.59 . 10. 15. 22. 3. 3. 1. 125a 28. 12. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 32F.73. 8.24. 2. 24. . (e) 2. 3. 2. 1. 5. (/) 3.  .83. (a) 2. 27. 2 2 22.41 and 23. 3. 4. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (ft) 2. 8. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 4wn8 + n4 5. 3. Page 158. .6." 23. Page 163. 30. 3. 2. f12 wi 9. 8. 3. (a) 12. ft 2 4. (c) 14 F. ImW.3. 4. 5.75. . (<?) 2. . 15. 81 ". 21.24 . xW. 10. 5. 9 and Page 166. 2. 2. 15 . 13.4. 5. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 14.5.25.59. 1. 4. 6. 13.75. 7. 1. 3. 83. 125 a 8 12. . 11. 3. . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. a + ft. .75. 5. (c) 7. 28.  1. a 29. (gr) 21. 1. H. 2.83. 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 18C. 12. . 1. 11. 25.1. 18.67. 20. 1. 2 a&m Page 167. 3. Inconsistent. 1. 30. SlstyW 7.1. 1.5. 8mW. . 2. 4. 2. Indeterminate. . 2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . Page 159. 14. 9. 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 15. 1. G.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.79. 9.25. 14. 17.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. . * 16.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 2. 1. 0. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.25. jgiooyiio 17. 125 16.73. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.5 (ft) 3. . ft . 2. 4. 2.3.  12 ft xW  26 31. xg . 1. 5. 13. . (e) 3. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . \ft) 5. m. f. (c) 2. 3 . 22. Indeterminate. + a 4 ft* .. 6. () (rt) 3.. _ 9 x ^27 1 . f 10. Inconsistent. . 4. . 3. 27 27 81.41 and . 14. 3. 13 . 4 ) 21. 8 1 f f g*. . 27 19. 2. 2. 24.64.25. 2. 3. . 2 l. 11.84. 5.2 (ft)  1. 1.24. 1. H.. 19. 13C. +3 4.. 8 a1. 26. 1.
. 9. 3.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. + l). 25. .10 a~ + 5 a .83. (ab + c). 6.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .^). 1 1 ?>). 71. 6. . f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 2(> + ( 2 7>). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 35. 17. 309. 3. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 4. 40. ^i. +3 + 5 4.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 3. 6. 247. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 3. . 3M. 16 6 w . ( Page 174. 70.x ). 17. 2. + 29.7 /)). 9. 8. 1. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 9. 18. 420. 10*. 3 6 23. /> 4 ). c 10 6 :l 20. wi 8 + 3m 2 .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (4a2 9& 2 13. 30. ? . +35. I 8x2). ? : 1 . Page 170.5). 3 2 ^. + i)). 10. 10 x G a 4 . 8. 14. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . AN S WE no . 4. 2 ?>i?< >2 10.5.2). 90.r 2 + 6jt). (48 + 6. + y). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.GO a c + 23. Zll. Page 171. 31. (x' l). 9. 25 19. 2. m 13. 33. . (a 2. 22. rt .+3^ + 4. 19. 13. 2 4 8 2 . 9. 4. 7.1. a ). 20. 14.i c 6 15. 5.f 1 m 9 16. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 20. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 5 5 8. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.3 ab + 2 2 ). 180 . 13. . 2. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. Page 172. 76. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10.037. 14. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 15. + + ?V 22. . a 2 .  x. 20. (2 a + ft). 90. (ly). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3).  +X '. 16. 28. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. (3a. a. 98. 12. 1. 5. 21.a b 22. 4. (x + y\ 90. Page 176. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 7. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 2 2 7. (a + y+l). r> 4 : 1 . 99. 36. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 11. . 8.XV111 7.1. 6 (\x 3. 9. 2 49 . 23. 18. 5. 101. 1. 6. + (win . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 19. 15. 2. 763. 16. 2 2 4. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 0. 11. 5. 2. (1 (x2y). 8. (a + 2 +l). 8. a: l . 10. 16.6. 30. 57. 119. 17. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 24. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 15. GOO 2 c 2 . + Z). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 21. 10. 237. 27. 14. 11. 26. 1247. 18. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.y2 ). ). 3 2 8 3 12. 34. 300. 15. 72. 7. (Gx + (i + 2a. 978. 64. a. fe *?>' ?> fi . 5. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 84. 2 12. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 6. 8 /. (l + x + . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .94. 20. 32. 1. . ??i ?i . 12. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). . 2038. 12. 00. 11.
1.V 8j. 5f. 25. 1. 9. 46. 37. 8. 10.925 ft.  f. 14. 28 in. 2. f. Page 185.18. (< + ?>). 4 a. . 10.237. 34. 14. 27. 3. 14. 3. 21. 17. 12. 1 38. 7.243. 2. ft. 2. 15 1 10. 7}. 30. 36 in. 8. 1. 33. Page 183. 12. 20. 7. 2. 13. 2. 12. 36. 12. f 3. J. 1. m. 7. 19. 6J. 1 f Vl3.798 yds. 5. V17.. 23. f .522 38. 39. 5. 35. . 4 TT M 28. w.. 3. \/3.5. . . vV'TA 24.  14. 15. _ iVaft. 50.}. Page 180. / 11.60. . 11. 14. 47.6. 4. 40. 11. 21 28 ft. Af^. or 5. f f V. }.. 3. 19. V35 1.935.6.367. 5.6. 24.. 8. 4.4. 1. 6. *.  3. V2. 13. 270 sq.  5. 32. 1. 29.916 yds. 5. 2. 7.645. . 3. 21. 16n. 4. ^. 29. 7. . 5. {. 5. 9.469. " ^_ 22.  43. 21yds.6. 15. 24.w 18.*. 6. Page 179.236.4. 7. 3. 10. 17. 5.4. 31. . 1. 31.. 16. 2 sec. 16. >TT 26. 2. 28. 10. 7. 2. a + 61. 39 in. 1. 3. i ^. 35.690. 25. 12. . 7. 6. 18. 1. 4. or 3.6.. 2] see. 1&. 42. 21 in.a. 34. 2. JJI. 9. a. Page 177. >i 27. 6. 6yds. 21. 14. > w ft.ANS WERS 22. 23. 3. 6V'2J. 4. 6. 7.742 in.. 4 n. 18. 4J. 4. 3. 8. 9. V J l. 10.?. 5. f. 9 15 ft. 49.  1. 16. 3. 10. 9.1. 2. 39. 9. 6V21. 26. 13. 13. /. ii :J _7. 4. 25 J. xix 26. 28. 5.. V.. 13.005. 15. 4. 40. 4. 44. 7. ft. Page 184.  2. 9. 3J. 5. 27. If ^. 4. ~ V^3.13. 23. 6. 5. 5. 20. 3. 11. () 2. 12. ft. 7 45. 30. 8. 3. 1.. 7563. 22. 36. 5. 6. 9. (6) Vl4 3. 16.1. 6. . (afl). ^. f ^ is. 5. 33. v 17. 1 7. 12. 2. 32. 48. 5083. * 1. 2. 4.  f. 2. 15. ZLlAiK 19.5. 7 in. 3. . Page 181. 41. m. 1. 11. l~8. 8. 17. V2. 12. 10. 15.Sn. i. 3. 11. 4. 4 W**. 6 f !. 7. 10. 37. vYb. 20. . 6561. 4. 10. 29.i. ^^7m.
2. 3. 20 nii. 3. 8. 15. 3. 32.74. '  f 5. 3. 17.2. 44. 52. 6. 0.2. 2. 0. 12. 24. 26.$40 or $60. ./hr.48. . 18. 7.  9x <).4.6 = 0.Oa. 2. 1. 6. . 6. 8. unequal. 20 eggs. unequal. 3.70. 4. Real.23. 13.5 x + 6 = 0.  1. 2 ft. *'' 12. 7. orf. . Real. 6. 15 ft. 18. $ 120. 1. 58. 3. 7.3. 1. 47. 3. 16. x*4x=0.12. 4. 48. 4.3. 3. . 12.62. unequal. Imaginary. 1. 28. 28. 2. 10 mi. . 7. 18.2. 10 or 19.  6. #<7=3. 31..5^. 0.a.'. 1. 1. 2. 0. 1. 4. 2 . (5 10. 6V64. 5. 70 ft. 57. rational. 26. 1. 6. 2. 37.. 7.2 x2 . 2. equal.XX Page 186.2. 2 V3 in.12 = 0.4. 42. Page 191. 16.2. 38. 40.4. 4. 0.. 21.  2. x* 51. 1. 23.4. VV11. 6. 22. 19 in. 15. 1. 0. 3if. 22. rational. 27. v^^fcT"^. 19.  Page 194. %. 3.4.5. . 4. 6^2 in. equal. 8. + 11 x. 45. 1.37. . f. 8. 2. 25. 7. 4. H. 0. 10 in.7. 56. 46. V2.17.  24. 6. 1 3. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 53. Real. 10. 2. 6. . 64. V^~2. 55. 23.41. 20. 1. Page 192. 1). $80. 3. f 6 52 a. . 3. 2. rational. 1. 25. 3. 49. 5.  5. 3. 1.  5. . . rational. 28. 9. .  2. 2./hr. V2. 0.  i. 3. .  1./hr. 9. 41. If. 0. 0. rational. i. . Imaginary. 30. 19. 29. Page 187. 10. 3. 20.].7.3. 24.a. 33.. . . 7.7. ft. 1. 2. r* i. equal.2. unequal. 2.  1. 5. 34. 1. 64c. 21. 0. 3. 35.* 2. 14. 36. 3. $30 or $70. . unequal. V^l. 14. Imaginary. . a. a + 6. = 0. Real. _ 19. 4. 0. V7. 27. 26. 9. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3.2. 1. Imaginary. 24. 6. 27. 23. 21. . 2.59. 5 ft.  1. Real. 2. 4 da. 2. 12.l. 1_^L ft 14. . 2. 43. 120 ft. irrational. 5. 11. 1. 4. 8 or 12 mi. 39. 35. 11. 7. 3. 5.1. 1 . AB = 204 ft. V^l. 26. 0. 8\/2 17.0*8. in.  1. 20. jr . 1. unequal. unequal. x2 + B . 9. 12. 3.23. 1. x 14.. 2. 2. 50. Page 189.48 3. t is. 2. 3.2. irrational. Real. Page 188. 0. s 11. f. 3. ' 1.10. 15. 13.2. 2. unequal. 16. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 25. ANSWERS 22. .  13. 25. a + 1. 2. U. 2. 3./hr.6.02. a8 . AB = 3.a 3 a.1. 0. 0. 4. 6. 12. 10 mi. unequal. Real. Real. V ~ 16 4 2.1.. i . a. Page 190.2. 10.
49. 17. 1. 47. . m'. 33. Page 196. 2. 4. 1V1. 25. 3. 6. 9. 5. 1. Vr. 5\/5. 9. 12. 1.17. 23. i. 50. 3. l  5 12. \/r\ 11. 28. 53. 15. 13. 8. 2. x$. 2. 24. 23.. 4. 19. r*. \a\ \/^. 29. 3 4 11. 14. z + 22. \ . J 3. 8. 1. 1 39. 3.32. . ) 2 >J i 10. v'frW. 12. 52. 5. 3. 60. 1. ifa. 22. 33. 3. 3. 45. wA 46. 1. 2V a. JV37. 1. 17. 31. v/3. 26. 8. 4. 3. 57. r. v. 19. Page 201. m. 49. . \/. 2. 32. 2. 31. 27.^7. 2. J. 14.  f . 25. 16. ). 27. Page 199. 43. 14. 2. 30 a. 30. 36. 5. 20. 8. y . 1. .2. v^T4 m. 41. vV. 1. J. _! V3. &. 8. 4.  5. 6  AAf. 48. J. 24. 18. 19. 9. a. 6. fx'^z'l 23. p. 84. 33. J. 54. 1. 2. a 18 . x/25. 9. . 3. 47. y. 8. ? . 14. 20. 243. 16. 3.  48. 16. 10. 17.//^. 0. 18. . \. (m 26. Page 200. v'frc 18. 13. 4. 21.  J j. 44. 30. ^Sf 3 38. 59. 1. . 3. \/3. 10. 5. vm. 0. ar 1 . 7. 4. ^49. 2. . 20. 8. 2. 15. 2 L ( V. 3. 25. 4. 56. 7V7. 42. 13. \. 46. 7. 7 .6. V^ 34. 51. 32. 5." 17. 11. 24. 18. $7. 125. 4. 9. 3. 13. 28. 40. . 19. x. 58. 20. 37. 55. 21. 'J. Jb \. 29. 1.ANtiWEUS rational.  a'2 . 38. 8. 39. 7. 35. 49. 50. 12*2 61. 9. 16. 0.1 5 15. I. Page 197. 15. . jV 10.  f. aW\ 40. 11. xxi 15. 10. n\/* Page202. : . 10. 5. 21. 22. 2. 29. *V. 49.
101 1. . 50. 2 '"V5. . 16. 3^ + 2). V63. 1) 3V3. 3. 45. 13. x. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 3V5. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 3 42. 2 x* 15. ^88". 2>X2. . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. abVab. 33. 51. 37. 2 4 z2 l 3. x y.707. 28. ^: V2c.3 + 40 3 . 4. 03r* 7. Page 208. 24.r. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 19. 22. m* n*. 26. + 2). 8. + Vic + 25. + 2 ar 1 ). ?tV?w.  a Vft 2 121 b. 40. 38.). v'TM. x%  3 ^+ 1. 20&V6. ^7 \AOx. 3.577. 3. a2 4. 39. 9.692. (o* 2. 27. 20. 8V/) 15.Vxy 35. 1 2 or 1 ?. r 17  Page 204. 32. v/^r 5  A/^~. 25. 3 4\/2. V. 9 .yl : . 34 r 6. 9. 7. 2v (T 2aVf. 8. l 5. 5. 28. a 3. / V3. 4aV^J 16. 5. 2. 3 x^y 33.f. 5 ( . 48. 19. + .x^y* + y%. 26. 30. 2\/7. 4. . 11.2 VlO. 7. ftV 46. 13. . 3V^T. 11. Page 203. 2. 3^2. 21. r c . 3 \ 39. x 25. 36. 10. 24. V. yV35. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. T. + + ft. a 4 +* + !. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 10. 2. 2. 30. (a 27.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. a^ + 2^+1. v^. 195V3. Va 2 "ft. ). 41. 12. 13 a. (x' (l 1+x). 135V6. 62V(J. V80. 5 22. 40. 2 a?>V2 a. 2. x^ . .648. V2 + 4 V22. + 1.XXii ANSWERS 1..  2 3:r. 37.2 18. 13 35. y. 49. 31.632. 2. y (a + ft) V2.'\ 14. 16. 29. 8a6V5. k/2. 21. 1.rV:r. 6. 17. 6. 17. 11V3. 23. . 43. . x + 5 x3 + 0. Vr 8. 32.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 34. 18. x 7  34. 31. 10. Page 207. JIV6. 20. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V 5 47. + 2 V22. 29. 9. 15.
v^f. v/i). 11. \/128. Page 214. v^30. 6 2\/0. 2yV2?/. 28. V3. 2 1. 2. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . W). 26. 14. 8V2. xx 1. 37. 8. 4VO. 22. 8V73\/IO. \/2. 27. ab 4. 49. Vat. 2. ^v 7 15. w?i. vT). "v/wi ??. 6. 24. 21. v"3. 22. 5V2. 3. 5. V2. ^27. 12. Vtf +3+ 33. 4\/5. 3\/15  6. 5v/2. 13\/3. 16. 9. V3"m. b. 4 a*. . 74\/Jl 120 46. 2. v/9. 6+2V5. 38. 1.  3. 9 VlO + 4. 9. 50. 10. x/8. ^9. 8. 10. v^O. . 32. 32m27n. 1. 14. 19. 6. 3. 14. v/l2. Vdbc. 37. 8  \/15. Page 216. 30. 25. 6. 26. 29. 21. 3 V2. 2\/7. v^4. : ^32. 21 23. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 7\/(l 7VTO. 48. x/8l. 2. . 44. 27. 30 Vl4. 7. 3. 18. V2. 32. 2 ate. 40. 2 \/2. 43. 15. 4. x/3. 3 V15  47. 6x2?/. ^ 3 b 5 24. \^r^bVabc. ^\/3. 8v2T 12. 13.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 38. \^6. V/. V5. 17. 31. v^a. v/8. v^lf. 14c 4 V5. 11. 40. 19. 3v^2. 5. 39. \/8. / \/w/t 4 13. a2  b. r)\/(l Vrtr. 51. 2 28. 2 V'3. 20. . % 29. aVa. 2. Page 213. 3. 25. x/4. 4 >/3. . 16. V3. \^6.T*. 3 Vl5 30. 1. 7. 23. v/lO. 6V2. 0. a^\/a7>. 34. V8. 5 \/2. 5. x/125. 18. \/04a. 10V().. 11. "^8000.J Page 212. + VlO  v y (5. V5. 35. 16. 13. x/27. x/8L v/27. 53. 36. 12. 9. + 20. VJla. 18. 6. 41. \V3. 52. Vn. 7. 3.r v/^ v^fr*. \/a6c. 17. 3\/2. 6. \/abc*. D 45. 46. 42. 17. x/w^ 8. . Page 210. 36. 10. fl^Vac. 3\/wi. 39. 24. 23. Page 211. 4.30 2. 1V5. v"5. 6aV2\^. v 25^4714 V2"a. v7^. 31. m ?i2Vm/t. a\/5c. 35. VT5. 34. '. 15. \XOfl6Vi5. rtv/5. 5V2. 0. . 33.
16. +3 V2). V5. (V8 + V2. 25.1805. 6 V. Va. 4. 16. 24. 30. 4. x 20. 7. 25.7083. 1. xy 2. 6. V3. 2. 4.. V6c. 8. Page 226. 1. . 1. 4. 4. 9 mn. 2. 27. 6. 18. 9. 11. f.732. 1. 5. 18. m f. 12. 34. . 11. . (VaT^v a). Page 225. 19. 0. 14. 4 14.81.7071. 4. 4. 17. V3. 25.601. 2!5_. 25. 31. ^r. 5.^ (\/22 4. . (V6 + 2V2). V^TTfc. 10. 6 (V2 + 1).1547. 23.9. 25. nVTl. 28. 9. 9. 20. 30. 81. 8 V3V2. 2.732. (\/5V2). 19. 8. ^. 7. 6. 27. (3+ v/2). i^Lzi. ANSWERS 8. 23. 25. 81. 11. (V5f 5. 7 Page221. Page 219. 1. 15. 8. 0. 22. 16. 7. (Vf + (4 V2). 21. 17. 3. 8. Page217. J. 14. 2. (2. 8. 2 . 5 + 2 vU 17. 5 f. (2V2). (a 1. \/3). Page 28. 2V3.2. 11. 2. 4. 100.1. 23. 3. K>/0 + \/2). 7 f 5 4. 3. 15. 36. 5. 5. Va. 3. ^. 5. 18.XXIV 7. 12. 32. 125. V. 5. 18. 19. 16. 24.625 10.4722. 37. 4V3 + 6. A . 23.0606. 22.  13.  . 5. 6. 13. 3. 2V2. 21. V3.  2. 7. 10.6.3. 3(7+3V5). 7. 7. 4. 11. 23. (V21). + 6) 2 . Page 223. 5.w 6. ~ Vac _c 0.464. 19. 1. 12. 13. 8. * 3. 33. 14. 2ajV2*. . 15 f 3 V2L 4. 9. !^ 6 4. 2x^2^. 9.\/TO). fV2. . 9.3. 10. 5 V65. (VllV2). 16. 6. 27. 7. 26. 5. 16. \. 7. J. 3V23.4142. . 2.2828. Page 218. . _^JflJ?. (\/3f 1). 19. 3. i(Vf Vft). 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 2V3. 1. V2.  f. \/57t. 26. V3 . ' 22 i . 22. 4. 29.2. 16. 15.389. 216. i^ ~ 1 v ^. Page220. 224. 24. 10. (2f V"5).64. 4. 8. 10. 20. 13. 11. (V51).5530. j. 10. . 8. V35. 21 ' Vob 26.V3). n*. 12. 18. 2. 15.3535.6 V3. ^(VlO\/2). + 5V2. 17. 4. 1. 24. . 17. 16. 4. j 15. 10. 1. 25.5. 12. 1. 14. 3. 512. Vf6fVtf. ^\/2. 20. 12. 15. 9. 35. 20. (2Vll). . 64.13. 9. 29. p 6 13. 21. 9. 1. {. 4.
3 .2.3). 4. 18. 11. 2. 1 . 1. 2. 0. .2)(m. 4. .  5. 2 6. 2 . . (pl)(p2)(p2). . (r. 50. 5.2. //. Page 233. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). . . a  . b . 8. 5. 16. 3. 4. 0.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 11. (2 a. 17. 73. 1. 6. 0. 1 6. 1. 4 1. (pl)(p3)(p6). 7.2)(* . 6. J Page 235. 100.1. 1. 5. 30. 3 . 87 .l)(m .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 7. 10. 4 . 4 .r . 7. 2. 56l).  1. 17. 3. 1.  J. 4. 3. 28. 30. 2. (a . 3. 2 .0. 8. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 3. 2 &.3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 6. 24. . 1 . . 2. 26. 1. 5. 2. 0. . 14. 1. 3. 11. 2. 3.3.5 xy + 25) 22. 0. 1. ~ f7. 13. 4. Page 234. 14.3. 3.4. 6. 2. (w . 3. y. 12. 8. 30 30. 0. 2 V^ . & + 6 2 ). 9.  f . 11. 8. 4.3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). . (+!)( 2) 10.w 4 + 1). 1. 10.l)(a3)(a . 7.22. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 8 6 & 0. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). Page 236. 5. 7.  2. 3. . 5. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (a 4. 3. a: :} . 25. J 24. 4. 3 9.5. 1. 14. 2. 3 5. 4.  3. \/0. (B43). (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . 1. 25. 8.  3. f . 21. 2 > 1. 2.  . 2 6. 3. 2. 2.3. 20. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ).7. 15. . 2. 2. 2 . 2. 4 4. 3. 9.  16). 2. f>. 0. (&y2a#H4). 2. 13. 2. 16. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). . 3. 5. .8a 18. . 5. 19. 1. 6.nl^EI. 3. XXV 4. 4. 9. l. 2. 0. P. 10.  4. . 4. 13. J.4). 8.3. 1. 30 . 4. 10. . 25. 3. 11. 15. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 12.^a. 12 24 y . 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 7. 15. 3. 3. 10. 21. 1 3. 1.1. 5. .4. 13.4. 2. =A^Z3. 2. 19. 1. (a+&)( 2 14. 18. 13.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). (m 4 + l)(ro.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 4. J. 4 20. 2 <? 4a2 . (a. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1 (?> x/^3. ( 16. 3. 11. 12. 6 2 2a + 2). 1. o. 3. . 17. . 20. 3 . 2. . 2. 4. 2 . 7. 20. 12. 5. 4. 4. 25.2. t/ 23. 19. 4. 1.  3. 5. (8.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 7. 4. 23.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).3 2. (a. 5. ' J. 24. 22.Y. 1 . 73. 1. 5. (4 mn . 4. 10. 12.10. 22. (xy + 5) (x*y* . qpl. 5. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). a . 2. V3. 6. 1. 2.. . 4. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 3. 6. (rt.ANSWERS Page 228. 2. 1. a(. (63)(6' t 18.12. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3. 1 . 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 1 .  1.
33. m + n. 20.18. 2. '>. 5050. 3. 28yd. 10. 5. 8 3. 1 . 3 cm. 35. 11.4. 1.3. 1 . . ^ }.. 1. 9. 1. 40.. 2. 24. 4. . 30. 4. 0.3 . 2. . 1 2. 31. 1. . 21. 3.5. 2. 14.13. 20. 23. . 1. 5. 37. = QO 6. 12 ft. oo . J. (/>) "_. 4. 2 ft. Indeterminate. x 4. 19. 17. 12. 2. 16. 1. 14. . 4. 18. 29. 55. . 22. 2. 38.. 11. 14. ri*. . 1 .  11. 1. 3 2. 7. 3. 37.. 15. 2. 6. . $. m28. 3 .3.0. 12. 2 . 9. 8. 12 d. Page 248. 12.3. 4.6. 22. 4. 3 . 2n. +  n. . 3. 3. 900. 11. 10. 3.6. (>.  . 7 3. . 4. 2 26. . oo . 5. 2 16. j. 40 in. 0. 37. . i i i . 7. 50.2. 4. ft. 4. 2.y. 14. 3. 1 . . i j. 1. 1. 13. 35 a. 2 1. ft. . $VO. 2. 12. 21. 3. 5. 5. Exercise 113.020. 2. f*. 16. no co . 8. 78. 3. 3.4. 3. 17. Exercise 114. . . 20 in. 7. 1. 400. J. 12. . 1. 288. 18. 5. 15. 15. 15. m27. . ( 3. 8. 1. 48. 10. 5 . GO . _ 10. 50. 10. 5. 5. 8. V7.3. (&) 2. 2.5.xxvi Page 237. 6. 9.e.3.  2 . 512. 8. 25. 4. 1J. . 40 25 in. 14. 2. 5. 8. 1. 8ft.. . Page 240. 3. . 4. 2. Page 247.. 3.200. 1. 41. 3. 16. 13. 3. 2. 6. 2 . 3. 1. . ' j. 8. 39. 4. 9. 2. 20 7. and _ 4. 2. 15. 1 . 2 10. \/6. . 17. 3. 32. 512. 3. Page 238. J. 11. 30 13. 5. 5 4. in. 5. 1. } . 4. 7.4. .. . J. 3. 5. . 23. tn 2. i. 1. in. 15. 4 6. 3 3. Page 241. 17. 18. }. 7. 14. . 45yd. 1. 5. co . 3 4. 5. 4 8. 84. 1. .1. ANSWERS 2. Page 239. in. 5 cm. 8 . \.3. 7f solution. 1. 4. 36. 9.  1. 1. 1. .. 26. 2 Y> V . 1. 2>/3. 5. c. 1.. 12 1. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 17.0. 201. f. 3. 2. in. 4.1. 3V5. 2. 1. .136. 14. n.1. Page 243. 1. (a) 5. _ 13 (0 6. 12ft. 7. 8. 31. Page 245. 15. . 3. 4.30. 1. 21 30. 4. V3~. 4 34. 35 ft. _ 5. 9. 2. in. . oo. 13. 69. 2. 2 2. .3. 1. 5. 4. ^~2. _ 7. 4. n . 11. 2. 0. jj. $46. 6. 2V7. 4. 3. i'ljVU. 3. 2. 35^ 5. $. 19. 1. 24. 4. . . 6. 2 . 3 . 1. Page 244. ft. 2. 3.4. f>. 11. 30. 5. 3. Indeterminate. 5. 4 . (a) $3400. 7. 17. 12. 3. 4. 1.. 125 125. 1.
5. ~ an . 3. 11. 7. 0. 1. 13.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 18. . 2.4. 280 53. 5. 18. 1 14.0. 12. 8.680. 5. 7. . 8J. 2. **+. . 43. 2. 7. 16. 10.192. 10. 4. 4.470.870 m*n*. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 005. 17. REVIEW EXERCISE . . 16. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 3. 15. 3. 10. 13. 45. 17. 29. 8. w9  8. 1. 8. 4. 6.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 70. 14. &' 14.384. sq. 35. 0. Ja. 20.53. 4. 0. 19. 28.120. 7.x' 10 . 343. Jj? 45. Page 258. 2.504. 0. 5. ?/i 6 x llj . 9. ^a 8. 5. 12. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 16. 4. 15. 18. 4. 2.r 4.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 32. 20. 19. 2. 8.r x>/ 7 3. 45 Page 257.  101. 7. 15. 4. 6. 19. 6. 26. . 4. 1. 12. 8. . 0. 10 14. 125. 0. 192. 2. 12. 2. ~v 9. 22. 6. 4. 9.170. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. vy. a4 4 14.5y 4 . 495.3 ays. 45. 22. 16. 2. 6. 8. Page 252. 5. 35. 6. 1000 aW. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 3. 0. 7. 04. 18.210. 21. 12. a. I. 6i. 125. 2. Page 254. . 5. x4 . 11. 9. 16.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 3. 343. 11.700.8. 304. \ w 4 . 4. 12. f y 8 + z* . . 8 . Y11. 2. 16 11. 3. and 1. 4950 M 2 b y *.v Page 253. 120 aW. 1 7 4.1. 3.419. d. .<2 4. 3. 27.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 3. 220 . 105.7 10. . 70. 17. 81. 55. JSg. 23. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 4. 1. 3. 2. . 708. r 5 4. ' 1. 5.2 9. 4. 128.  17. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.5 x. . 48.5. 6. c.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 12. x + Vy. 1. 1JH.920.6 . } $ 50. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 910.13. 16. .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 50. 5. 0. 3. 9. x r 4. . 5. .^ ?>i 2412x4. 10. i 10.2 45 a 8 /). B . in. 04. 8 4x' 2 . 2i* 7f. 1. 4. 27. 7. 25. 4. 10. 7 x4 17. 75. 6. . 1.4 &z x>&. 3. '23. 21. 15.5. 100. 8. 7. 20. 4. 53.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 4. 327. <. 1. r r j. 5 13. 27. 10. 4. 8. 13. 1820. 8. Page 259.12 x*y 16. 05. 1.  20 flW.r* 4 70 . 405. 8 1. A. J 2 //2 25. 2. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 1.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 27. 5. (). 8. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 4 0.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 44.ANSWERS Page 250. 1. G. 9. 70. 16. />*.6. 410. 15. xxvii 1. 12. 0. 6. 3. 9.
a. 130. 133. I 57. 4ft y3. 127.c 3 4. 10 a 12 b. a2 2 aft 2 2. x4 f + 23 . 5 4 4. 4 2 . .3 a 2 '6 w 4.fee 2 4. 5 42. 12 a/.x.4. 0. 82. 2 x'V2 90. 3~ n 4.4 ac. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 94.7 x   15. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 100. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. _55_7c 48. 14 x . 66. 4 . 243x4729. 1 + 4 xy. ft n .4. .2 x 4. /> 4 83. . 2 .. . 28. 110. c3 4 58. 118.ac 44 aft. * 60. 107. ?/ 3. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 16. . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 1 121. .5 b + c . 3 36 b c . 3a'2 Page 261.41. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 43. 13 + 2 s. 109. as 20. 105. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. +^ + ft W. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. ?/ . 3 a 44. x 2 . ft /> 78. 29. 132.3 y. 88. 2 53.1. 52.a*ft 2 126. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 7 + 3 xf 2. x8 x2 55. a J .  3 x2 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.4 x 2 . 4 115. 131. 120. 99.ft). 4 69. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. .x 51. 2 x2 108. t 81.2 x^. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. x 4. 3 a .x4 + y'2 z 4. x' 79. 8 . 12 x. y 4 z* 0. a 3m 4. ^ . 1 a"* 4 an . 27. x 8  a8 . x 3 41. 2 30 . a' 111. 3 c . 5x 2 2x43. . 3 a 5 a 5.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 96. !! 71.3 b . 122.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 30. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.4 x y 87.3 103. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.c.18 ?/ 5x4.2. x } 4. 2 q. . 36.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . .18 x?/0. 72.y*.1. x . 22. a* a 8 a aftc. 21.a'2 c. 63. 6 a2 97. x2 a2 1 . 1 x 45. m " + n + P3c . .6 b. (a + ft)" 98.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. . 61.{ 54. xyxzyz. x* . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . . 64. . .9 b.  e +/.9 x . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 104.4 x?/2 3 4.x 2 4. 38. f5+7.5.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.3 x 2 + 3 x . 8x3 8x. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 86. 37. . 125.2 c .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 76. 35. x2 2 . 2 . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 31. 4.a 2 x 2a .4. a 4 .2.  4 a3 85.  .1. 50.a6 2 4. 4 ! . 23. 102. 2 2/' . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 80.1 4 jry 4 x . x' . 2 113. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 4 15 x 5 . 24. 4.6 am b\ 129. .5x4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 6a6c. 4.^a . 0. 6 8 j27 40 ab. Page 263. x 8 + x 4 68. . 16t/. 32. 2 x2 4. 49.4 2 4 c2 42 .c. 2 .a' 'ft 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.5 3n 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. ?> . .  + 3 x2 .105.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 26. 4 Page 264.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 25. 5x + 2y~z. a4 x. a* 4. 0.x x*  f 2 ax 4. az 4.1. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. df. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. + a 4. 70. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 114. 9x.rty x2 4 123. + 3 a?. 1 . a~b 89. 9 2w 128. 40. 2 a. Page 260.1w 77.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.4. 4 65.7. 6 c 47. . 4 fee 4. . 10 4. . x2 471x4. () 2 x 33. 39.3 a'ft.x24 73. 62. 3a~2c.3 . 46. 93. 124. x 3 4. ft2ft 4 4l.  12 a. + z. 91. . &p 84.2.15 4 62 x  72.3 aftc.
1(5) 200. 241. (233).3 y).3). 226. 140. 2(x8)(x3). 237. 1. +)(x2 x^+2.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). y. 208. (8x + 3)(3x4). ( + 2y)(2x3y). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (7 c 2 ). Page 266. 144. 186. 152. fc'2a+62c). 236. 2. 191. 6).1). 224. 1. (3x  . a + 2x2 ). (. 15. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 6. 21. 18. 22. (5 x . (x  42 yr.2).3. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 230. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 212.r . 19. 10 ft. xxix 139. 162.. 199. (?/+l)(yl). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. Or (a + 2)0el). 50. 12 yr. . 169. 2 xy(3 x . (2 198. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. a(a.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 24. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. + 3). 218. 8 204. 37 1. + 2) + 9a.l)(a 2 +3). 153.1). 15. 20. + 3) (x f f>) . 185. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 202. 36ft.r + 4). (/ 246. 215. 2^. 12 yr.y)(z . a. m. (r7y)(ai.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 183. 30 yr. 206. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 239. 20. 156.y) (\r3y). 179. 75. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 12. 150. (r^x + 1). + 22). (x . 149.. 6. (c) 160 C. 40 yr. (a 2 + 2a6. 7. 10. y3. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (2a + l)(a . . 138.m)(x + a). 178. 167. 143. 161. (y  17)(y + (>). C3 y _l)(. 197. . 235.2 )(x+y) 228. 48 h. 30. 2 2 (a. 180. Iff 145. 232. aft. r>x 2 (4x. 4. 211. 158. 159.3 y)(a .2.. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). as 194. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . (x + 2)(x . 171. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (x + 6)(x6). 172.  1. 176. . 3. 30 + xyr. (6) 40.6 . 155.y)(jc + 7 y). 240. 219. 142. 170. 2 (4 x . 151. + y. 181. 163. (ab + 8) ( 7). 5. + 11) (a 10). 218. ft. (y7)(y + 188. 136.9)(xf 2). 182. 190. 146. G7. (y_24)(y5). 4. 210. 222.2) (3 x . a 2 (15. 233. 12. 174. 137. 154. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 1.l)(y + 1). 189.4xl). 12) (j. 2. . p. 164. 1. 8(ar}(/)27). + 7)(rt4). (xyX^+y" )1 243. y 245. 184. 247. 217. 205. 32 h.ANSWEKti 135. (a& 192. 173.6)(4 + 6). x(x + 6) 213. 157. 168. . y  y 165. (a} 59. (x 227. 2. 148.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).y). 220. 209.2). 15  a. (x^ + x1) 234. ?.y + 3)(r (. 160. k. 2. . (y _ ft)(y 4./_4). 244. (3x2?/)(2. 147. 10). (y 7f))(y 196. (7x2//) 203. 3(x . Page 267. z(x10)(xl). 12 6 panes. 2. yr. 207. 214. 231.3) (2/3y).6) (2 x + 1). 166. 23 18. 1. 195. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 201. 147 mi. 3. 1. 175.. Page 265. 216.2ac + 229. 187. p. 177. 1. HI. (JT y 225. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4).l)(x8 + x2 .1).y2 ).I2y). 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 10 in. 1. 238. 10). 193.
269. 310.^^^^^^^^. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 251. > 4. 258. 0. 259. (7 255. *.(x  4) (x4 304. 268.^ ^^. ^ 299. 3). ?^ZLiZ 308. 303.4) 1) (3 x . x .   . &). 295. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. ^/>J. 2 x  3. 250. 306. 7^T 2 . 5. 266. 256. 0. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 3  262. 264. ? 1) 302.  3xyf x// 257. o. 3). o(x4l).1. x ?/ z 1. 4 5.. 298. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 10. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.  7. x 267.4). 43 '^rJ'. a~ ' b*). (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .2* i^^ !^. x 283. 261. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 301. a. 7 x 265. 7. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 305. + f. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 254. 260. *>). 249. 2 4 300. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 2. 3. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 263.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 279. x12. 307.
A^L5L. L . 394. . 366. 386. 1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 406. 11. 4 A. Page 277. 0. 7. ?/ + 3 332.  1 356. 325. ?>*. 1 i 2 ^. a) A^_.(5 a . 334. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 364.!.. 3. 360. 20. 2(q. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 388. S. ^"" 4 s . 397.)Cr4)__ . 365. 389. 404. 2(a i 403. 2 r36 384. c 402. 390. + 4 & 4 \ b. 336. 385.vin a /r " 337. * 357. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 2 ab  a Page 276. 393. a + b + 6). 7/i ^ _ . 343 00 351. 324. 370. y 4 I 340.3. 395. 1. 329. . 0. 401.1. 339. 361. 1.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 6a. 1. . 4 rw. + 335. l'j. T+^. ^ 3 // . ?=. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 9^. 2 ).XXXI Page 272. 392. 399. 333.J . If. 398. 408. 377. 387. T\.  1. 396. 0. 4. 382. x 54 359.7. 355. 405. 3. 1. 375. a 2 . ^_:r f> 331. . f. <L 409. 13 391. ..". 407. 2. . Page 274. 4. 6 ?/+:>. l . 379. 376. 12. j 328. 3. ab. 400. " 4 378. a +6. 0. 326. 380. m. 2 327. _*L'L+. 2. (a + b + c\ . 2 ?/ 363. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. + x 362. 383.
430.  2f 504. B $ 2500.3. 503. 18. 444. 426. 446. 10.46. ^V. 6. 452. . $2000 at 0%. 2$. 1. 24 days. 5J. 3a 4 5.0. (c) not true. 63. 454. 476. 10. A $ 3500. * . 84. 480. 467. B 4 mi. 8. 478. 2. 40 oz. 492. 10. 500.vz in. z8 +?/ 3 431.2. . L2 a  6 . !L=4. 6. 28 yr. (d) true. 51. 419.3. .488. 502. 32. 2 a 2. 3 . . 429. 2 438. a* 424.  505. 7 : . 425. 2. 7.  2. ISJini. 455. 484. 0. .7. 465. 464.55.rz Page 279. 458. />c c(f be. .}. 487.. 4. 494. 20. 4. . Page 282. & 491. 7. 1$. + () 433. 462. 1. 0. ^r?i 434. 14 miles. 498. 506. 440. 428. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0.4.489.. 486. 457. 6. . 456.. 6. 33. Page283.7. 2.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. A 5 mi . 441.  2. . 10. 472. i a b 451. 442. a + + ft c. a 22 . 499. . *+. 90. 6. \ 1.  . 508. 460. 459. 12. . 0. : />a. (a) 1. 468. 4.  f>.12. (a  c).5. 410. b 449.  1. 421. 4.  1. 8. 477.}. 423. i. ^.7. 3. <L+ 6 (. 412. 422. Page 280.1. 495. L (c) I. . 8.  453. 32 yr. 413. 466. 1. 7. 411. fj. not true. ISjmi. 17. 418. c. ' $260 at 0%. 7. 493. 8. \. 40. 9. 22. 5.  7. 490. 501. 5. 5. 483. ..te + . 2. 0. 6. . 432. 17.. . 10. Page 278. m 1 : wi. 427. 10$. 2. 448. 2.m  m+ M in. 436. Page 281. 5. 461. 463. '. 1.7. c 6fc 10. 0. 50. 3. fc. 420. 450. 11. 447. 439. 2. 485.  2.0. 0. 21. 10.  7. 1. . 435. 3. 42. 507. 0. 445. 2. (&) true. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 482. 497. I. 20 yr. 5. . 2.  10. 6. . (d  6) f. 496. 2. 7.7. ft 5. 53 yr. (&) 443. . 481.2.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.4. 1 a /?$+&?. m.. 10. 479. 5.
33. 3.3.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.83. 6. 514. 0000.31. .5 f.6 2. 529. 2. .xj/ f xV .1.24.03..54. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .10. 518.14.78. tin. 4 0. . Page 288.56 sec.12. 509. g(rc+ 6c).   (h) 8.3. 582. 27 y* f\4 . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 5. 2. 3f 4f. 2 . .37. <z ft 1. (d) 537.04. da. 2. y% Z * 586.73. 4* da. 564. . 1$. 1. 5. (e) 570. 560.  imag. 1.1.6. 603.9. 1. (e) (c) 2.. 578.05.24. 1. 4. _^ 2754x .6. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 5. 1.8.4. _ 3. a f ft + c. 1. 512. (i) 3.  557. 1. 115 Ib. 581. 3.7. Roots imaginary.7. 3. 552. M ft c 2 ft 3465. or 8.5.1. H.4. .0. 593.52. 550.54.3. 530. 591.3. 1 600. S82 c.02. lead. . 3. 531. J7] min.8. 4.31. .  4. 1 .  3.5. . 579.r8 596. Page 285. 1. x8 . a + ft  a  f c.53.20.4. . .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.  1. 232.30. + 12 x .1. 1. 558. f. 510.4.0.  J(a f + 2c).37. . 1.02. 1. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. (ft) 4. 516.00. 1. 24. (/)  10 to 8. 2$. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 525.0. (c) 3.3.02. 556. 3. _ 4. 1. xxxin 511. (gr) 10 1. (ft) Ill Ib. 3. 1. lead. 4. 577. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 562. 536. 1. a+ Page 286. + 26 + .f 1. 2(6 597. 563.5.04. . 2. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 4.10.16. 566.62. 2. 575. 1. 513.1. 1.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. . . 1. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.. 583. 574..88. 1.3. 2 1. 2. (6) 3. 24 da. . 3. 527. 533. 1. T . tin. 21*_. 568.75. 554. 6.3. 3.02. > ^ .62. ft 584. 2 imag. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  ft*. 3.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . . 569. 4. 2 2.7. 2. .ANSWERS Page 284.75. 3. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 4. 2(4 602. 1. 555. 4 mi.03.4. imag.15. o> .  2ft da.  (a) 2. 561. 2.1.  2. 6435. 3. (a) 74 Ib. 1 . y 4. 4. 4. per hr. + 6 tf f 3 .15. 8 mi.15.  + + c. (c) 4. 2 1. 8. 573.21. Page 287.25. 1.8 x3^.4 x + . f36a28x8 592.38._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.6.51. 565. . 5. 40 Ib.  (a) (d) 1.78.5+. 567. . 559. ^ ft 4. . 532. 3. 598. 599. 3 da. f. 515. 0.8. If 572. . 576. 526. 1 580. 31. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 571. . 7^ da.4.0. 2 10. .5. 528. 553. 4. 1J. 3. 2 . 7. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . per hour.8.  .6. 3 . (6) .35. . 2.3. ..83.25m.24 sec. 551. . 14. 3.  7.% rr\* 585.55.5.2.
14 If 1. 661. 679. 638. 2. 8. 622. If 658. 631. 9. 700. a 1J. la6 2. 7. . 0. 623.  1. 656.  2f r 659. 625. V2. ' 674. V7. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). a 673. 50. n^l +^.001. 4. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 1010. K 5 2 V2. 614. 5002.c ) 697. a 2. 635. 009.25. ab 689. 6. 652. 3 a. 607. 1 V5 1. 1. 650. 2&). i. a + b.  4. 11. .  ft. 640. 0. 5.3f l 668. 5 3. If b. 647. 677 680.3. 1 ~a . if 4/> 671. 696. 11. 7. 25. 2. 0. 636. 703. ^ 1. 3 681. 2 x 44 ^/. J^^. 2. ^^ 695. / V^+lO^M"^. 2 a  6*. b . 0. 2. 626. 10. 705.XX XIV 606. a 4. 4 V 0. 2f. ft). 703. 0. 633.0. 666. 649. \. 5. . 608. 898. 660. 3. . If f 667. 13. 6. ab. 637. + ~^'2 + a 1. a. ix 2 . .04. c. ^. 4$. 1. . 646. 624. 7003. 5. 2 a 688. 4330 da. 5.b 686. 692. 1. a ' 2 + . If 665. 648. 2f. 2 ab + a  &. 644.b.001.. l/'3. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 628. fe + a.  . 1 704. b 664. 1 2. fta a/> ^A. 630. 14. If . y  619.  6. 615. .303. 25. 706. 971. If. 657.3. 654.2f (5 4.203. 708. 653. z  1. 6 685. 2. (a3&45rj. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. (*_ + a: 611. 1$ 639. 2. 655. be ac \. \+ab 699.>A 610. I}'/. ' fe 2 ). 691. 701. 2. 672. V^~3).3. 621. 8 6 fo . 12. 698.y.3. 3. 618. 8 f 3. 651. .a~ {Z 663. 643.  a2  a (ab). 617. 634. 620. 641. 4. 632. 78. 2. 4 676.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. b. <T! .002. . 678< 682. 662.  4. . 645. 2. V2.  13. /> 4. 4.049. 2 a: 4.f 3 V^3). 3 x2 . 4. . 2 / 2 4. ^.  684. 613. 629. 690. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. . 2092.2f Page 290. 670. 1. . 627. 612. 616. 1m*. 0.43^4. 210. V"^TJ. 669. o.702.  3.. 9*. 3. . 702. Page 289. 642. 683.
25.2. 34. 33^2.. v/7 / . a 2  x2 . 716.12 af V^ 4 744. 712. 792. 729. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.1 . r.. 710. 731. 1. 24. 782 785.257. 751. 2 V2 . a 2 6^. 5.V/^ 741.9.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. a:* .^ 743. 721. ^ .8. 3 720. 3V72V3. 750. . 778. 737. 788. 24V2. 719. 790 2v 3v 2. 300. 796. 733. 730. 746. 739.~ . 4 104 v/2. 1 [ + '> J. 24 4 . 768. > 748. 30\/10 764. 17ft. 59. 732.^. + < 735. 734. . 728.9. 5. ^7xy. x\y. 15 shares. 723. VV> L4V34. 714. / 787. 13ft. 2\/53V2. 3V52V3. 00. ^ ?>. "V313. 3 VlT 795. 1 752. Page 294. 1. 2x3^ a. 726. i^. 794. 7  3V5. rt3 2 ^i^. VT14V5. Hi a. i 2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 773. 1^ _ 760. 713. 711. . 793. 758. cr*lr*. iv/Jj. 8. 727. Page 293. 769. 738. 39. 740. fyaw&cu. 3^. 1. 749. v'll. 776. 789. 8.. 755. 3. 3V7. 753. a". 722. .ANSWMHti Page 292.V2.10. 725. + 6 2 tf'c. 756. y  1. T%.r.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. mn. 1 I . a db Va^T < 45da.r+y> 759. J(v'lO2V 791. 32>/2. 342V3. 724. 1 747. 47. 717. 777. 736.. 767.4 . 763. . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .rJ w L 754. 709. j 742. 29\/3.4 . a 5 . x i f^' . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 3V72VO. 718.11. 715. VIO\/3.
833. 7.1) (a 8 .. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 2. 6.7 4 1) 846. 5. 810. +j!>. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.  + l(l^). 824. $. 0. 863. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 872. x . 3. 800. 1.7). 848. 841. 829. (3 b .  839. 820. (x . a(ft)( 873. 0. 897.7. 888. 868. 882. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . (3 862. . 4. 2 854. a 42)(x . 5. . (x 2 . 892. 849.l)(x + 2). . 4. ( 4 4.  ' . 4.  1.25 ?>2). 5). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 835. 836. 4.a 3 " 4.om 441) (a 855. 2 806. 813. 861. Va 803. H. 3. 879. 1 1. 6. 831. . 0. (xl)(^~3)(. . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . \/2. 19. 3. 2. 876. 1C. 858. 819.1. (x*y*ryz + z*). 7. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 2. (.3. (x 845. . n =  29. 857.0. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .7). 838. Hoots are extraneous. 4.5 b) 4 1).5) (x + * 853.1)(V 2 . 2. 3.+ m f ") (a* ). 899. 4. $. 6+V7. a(ry + 864. 884. 1. 834. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 0. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . x. 2 . . Page 296. 843. 6 $. m 875. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 1. 808.rae) (4 . 4. 4. (x . ^VG. 2 2 . (2 x + 3 y} .. 5. (a 4 871. 2. 8.l)(x + 3)(2x43). f.2 ax 4. V 3. **.2) (x 4 2). 2 *x 807. 880. ) (a' 874. o 828. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. . 827. 7. 3 . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 2 m . 840. jV3 f 3. 2 j 889. 837.. a2 ^E*!. ( 869. 898. 887.f. 847. 3. 17. 896. 817. 891. 4. 816. (2x (r. \/5.4) 860. ^ V}. . 900. . 842. + d)*. 2 . 886. Va.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). ((' 1). 4. 1. 2. (a 1) (x 4. (:r 11. a* 4. 25. db 7. 1. 48. 7.  tt 815. 8.XXXVI 797. (x 2 f r . (x3). 895. 10. 812. 3. 2 . 4. 799. (2 a .10 ab 4. (1 . 4 818. 3. 814. 822. 13. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3. 804. 811. 883.1)(0 865.y) 852. 1 . 830. 17. 867. (4 c 4.3. 11. 3. (x + 0X024. ^. o. 844. 2.r .1) .l)(x . b' 2 821. 832. Hoots . (a m .2w . 823.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 2  2. 23.4. 2. 2 (x 4*4.a 4 + 1). 3.3)(x + 4). 2/ 856. Page 297. 2. J V. X4 1). 801. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).a 2 2 ). 20).7)(4 x. (x 4. 826. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 5. .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 11. .l)(x . 859. 890. 2. m = 2. (2 4. 825. 894. 851. 881./>") (a'.4. 4 . 5.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 893.1). are extraneous. ANSWERS 798.r4). 4 885. 6. 14. . 8 09.
ft. 987. 111. 4. i1" 913. 4 . 12 in. 7. 2. 981. Va926. Z ^. . i 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 60 949. 959. 66 924.073. 917..' ifcVira^ 2 3. 982. 945. 28. 1 _2 . 5l4f.01. . 4. 248. 3. . Page 301. 7 or 30. 940.. 2. 3. 955. ft. 5. 11.. 8. ?/i 6. 333. 964.2. 958. . 115. 1. $(l 4. 0. '3 3 in. 943. 2 1. 4. 934. 10. 11. 8. 11. 906.. 6 . 2.111. Page 303. . a. 5. 6.2.615. 938. T 6. 954. 10. %* . 6. . 6. ^y. 909. 6 1 1. 960. ft. 1 1. 8.1. 985. ft. 2 i ' a V. Page 302. 908.. 6 da.I. . 986. 952. 947. i>. 980. 978. 496. 2 w 914. S07. 80. 1. 1 + V953. 903. 2 ft. 956.. 15 946. dL 4. J. . 931. 15 16 ft. 904. 108. 932. 4. w 3. tt2 19. 9 in. 73. 3). ft. 3 . 1 2. 0.. Page 300.744. 2. 333. 3. 40 16 in. 8. r ft ' < Page 299. . yd. 8. Y. 20 19 ft. 12 mi. 7. 911. 4. 936. 7. 921. 941. 979. f. ft. 4. 957. 3. V^3). ft. . 918. 919. J. 12. 28. 2 yd...1 = 9. 2. ..  26j.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 7 ft. 6. 5 . 2. 2. 3. 6.. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.709. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. . 2. 922. 944. 0. 916. 1 . 930. .. . 961.V~~3). 2. 18. 4. a + . ft. 8. i(6 in. w. 942. 8 . . 933. 925. 329. 937.446. . 28. 902. 8128.1. 8. 962. 480 8 sq. .0. 3 4 . 12. 3. 8. T 6. 3.. 935. 6. 2. 1. f ft 4 .760 sq. 4.  1 . 984. i 8. 12. 977. 920. 14 . 280. .. T3. 927. 948. 5. 905./hr.  1. V5 T 2 .. 963. =F J. 1). . 11. . 4 in. 923. 56. J(_ ft. 950. V5 fj. 951. 5.651. 4. 0. 6 a 915. 4. 6. 100 rows. 912. 983. 5. 939. v/(ai !)(&910. 4 6 mi. 7.
51.18. (J. 4. 1001. 990. 6 70 . 1 8 8 2. 108.192rt?)r 120 *. 72. Page 305. 4 and 1020.. 994. 997. Page 304. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).xxxviii ANSWERS 989. X. 1005.378 1015. 996. ^Trsq. ^f (2f3V2). 32 13 (tx 4V3. 8. 9 da. 1009. 995. . + v 2). 1013. 988. 2 . 991.870 a 6 1011. 1007. 1000. 48. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 24. 1017. 0. 3003. 1016. () 12(2+V3). 1019. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1003. 1006. 192.92. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (Z>) 999. 1014. 993. 2(2 v/2). 1008. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .. 0. ~ \. 12.870 z8 . 1 1004. 992. (5. in. . 162. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .  5&7 1021.128 I. 1012. 120 a. 12. 1018. + 448 . (a) (6) ^ 1002. (6) 8(1 . r = 2. 1010. .'^^ } ( .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 120 i^l^. 1(5.378 <W and 92.
especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the . A examples are taken from geometry. Ph. and commercial life. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases.25 lamo. HEW TOSS . The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. The more important subjects tions. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many work. xiv+563 pages. etc. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1. physics.D. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. xi 4 373 pages. given. comparatively few methods are heretofore. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Half leather. i2mo. $1. save Inequalities. so that the Logarithms. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.
especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 12010. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. HEW YOKE . than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The author grade. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. xi f 373 pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Logarithms. physics. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.25 i2mo. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Ph. save Inequalities. great many A examples are taken from geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. xiv+56a pages. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. $1. comparatively few methods are given.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. In Factoring. so that the tions.D. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. and commercial life. etc. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. HatF leather.
under the heading Remarks".. 10. 4. wor. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .D. . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. aoo pages. 6. xii + 233 pages. SCHULTZE. Cloth. more than 1200 in number in 2. izmo. These are introduced from the beginning 3. NEW YORK . $1. i2mo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Half leather.10 L. Ph. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. SEVENOAK. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. iamo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. $1. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: . Cloth. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages.r and. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 9. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 7 he .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. lines.
" is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. and not from the information that it imparts. . . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York City. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 370 pages. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. of these theoretical views. . . 12mo." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . $1. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . .
40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. $1. i2mo. Cloth. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. and a full index are provided. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. " This volume etc. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . photographs. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Topics. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.