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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.
Reprinted 1913. Mass. . . Norwood.' February.. 1910. September. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. U. Berwick & Smith Co. August.COPYRIGHT. IQJS January. May. 8. 1910 .A. 1911. Published Set up and electrotyped. J. September. January. 1916. May. Cushlng Co. 1910. July.S. 1915. 1917. .
not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. etc. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. and conse . Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. owing has certain distinctive features. however. are omitted. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition." this book.. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. specially 2. Elementary Algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Such a large number of methods. shortcuts that solve only examples real value.
hence either book 4. as quadratic equations and graphs. Moreover. In regard to some other features of the book. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. especially problems and factoring. etc. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.g. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . e. For the more ambitious student. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. however. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. two negative numbers. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . Topics of practical importance. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.
McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. is based principally upon the alge . and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations." Applications taken from geometry. viz.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and commercial are numerous.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. in " geometry . based upon statistical abstracts. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. Moreover. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. elementary way. By studying proportions during the first year's work. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. such examples.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE. 1910. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. William P.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. April. edge of physics. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. however. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible.
... Powers.... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. SUBTRACTION.CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors...... . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..... ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ......
Type III. . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type V.... * . Type Polynomials..114 .. Type II. ... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . /^ ... Type IV.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type VI... All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . ..
. ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ..... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ...... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . Evolution of Monomials 170 . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . CHAPTER XIV 169 . .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
V36". 14. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). Val \fi?. some number is . x 9. + 1]. [6c] 3 . e. 17. or 9 Vx.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 0. 13. aVc^. 9. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. are trinomials. A binomial is 62 . A polynomial is an y. 26. 2 . as in arithmetic. is 28. a polynomial of two terms. 7 = 2. 2. 11. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 4(a 6(6 + &). 10. \/c. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 5Vl6c. find the numerical value of: Vff. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. V2a. + c). 3. V^a6. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. V3 ." EXERCISE If a 1. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. b = 3. since the parts are a . c f d). 6. 16. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 27. (cfd) 4. 8.g. 4V3~6c. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 15. c = 1. v'Ta. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. d 7. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 6. 12. !^f\/03 3 ft.
3a + 56 a 2 . 4 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. (a (a f b) 7. c = 2. 52 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. Ex. __ E. a 2 6. EXERCISE 8*  .4 6^9 ad. 5. + 26+3 c. 2. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 6. 3. 1. . Otherwise operations of addition. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . i. * For additional examples see page 268.9 aWc + f a b . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.INTRODUCTION 29. multiplication. 8. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.g. d=Q. 5c +d 2 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 3 4 . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 2. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 12. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.9. l 13. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 4. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.e. 14.30 = 270 .810 + 150 = . b = 3. 4a6fVaV2^. 16. 10.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5. 2 ). c=l. a=4. .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .99.390. x=^. 5=3. a2 11. . find the numerical value of: 9. 6.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .. d = 0.19 = 6. subtraction. 3 2 If 1.2 + I126. Ex.
= 3. 6.c) (a . 25. 24.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 7. a. and other sciences. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Read the expressions of Exs. 33. 6 = 2. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. . 26. a = 4.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 1. 6 = 6. 34. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 4. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 37. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 30. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 27. a a=3. 6 = 3. 6. a =4. a = 3. 30. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. a =3. sible to state Ex. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 22.6 . 6 = 5. Six 2 . 23. 35. 6 = 5. if : a = 2. physics. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 3. 29. a = 2. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6=2. : 6. geometry. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 38. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 4. 28. 6 = 6.
INTRODUCTION E. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. the area of the triangle equals feet. 15 therefore feet. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 15 feet. 2. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. (b) 5. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. Find the height of the tree. 14. c. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. i.16 centimeters per second. and 13 inches. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. . b 14. (c) 4. if v = 30 miles per hour. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.g.seconds.) Assuming g . 13. 12. count the resistance of the atmosphere. An electric car in 40 seconds. then a 13. A train in 4 hours.16 1 = 84. d. if v . 84 square EXERCISE 1. if v : a. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 4. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and 5 feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. b.e.
32 F. (c) 5 miles. (c) 8000 miles.14d (square units). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 2 inches. If the (b) 1 inch. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 5 F. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. square units (square inches. (c) 10 feet.). This number cannot be expressed exactly. $ = 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. . and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (The number 3. 5.14 4. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. : 8000 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. the area etc. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. the 3. is H 2 units of length (inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14 square meters. meters.
however. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). . we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. SUBTRACTION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or positive and negative numbers. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION.
find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. Thus. '. 23. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 6 6 = 3.16 32. c = 4. 18.  0. + (9). 22. if : a a = 2. 4. lf(2). subtract their absolute values and . d = 0. 5. (_ In Exs. 10. is 0. c = = 5. d = 5. 2326. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 19. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.3. of: 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. + 12. 12. the one third their sum. = 5. 33. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. is 2. 4 is 3 J. 5. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. of 2. . 21. (17) 15 + (14). The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 24.
. 42. = 22. : and 1. 6. c = 0. 72. 13. and 3 a. . sets of numbers: 13. 31. and $4500 gain. . . 40. ' Find the average of the following 34.13. 66. . 2. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors..5. 11 (Centigrade).4. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. are similar terms. d= 3. 37. 55. 10. 6. which are not similar. = 13. $7000 gain.ADDITION. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. c=14. 38. 25. 39.5. 0. . . 12. 4. 36. = 23. 1. 7 yards. $3000 gain. AND PARENTHESES d = l.7. 30. and 3 a. 27. 41. 33. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. and 3 yards. SUBTRACTION. 32. and 8 F.. 09. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. : 48. $1000 loss. 60.7. 32. ' 1? a 26. and 3 F. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 10. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. $500 loss. 35.3. or and . 5 and 12. \\ Add 2 a. 10. 74. 2. : 34. 3. & = 15. 3 and 25. 7 a. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. & 28. . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. affected by the same exponents. . 6. 7 a. 34. ^ ' 37. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. and 4. }/ Add 2 a. 29. 4 F. 43.
sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 2 a&. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. or a 6. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 10. 12 2 wp2 . 14 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2(af &). Vm f. 11. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 7 rap2. 5l 3(af6).ii. : 2 a2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. in algebra it may be considered b. 5 a2 .18 35. 5Vm + w. 2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12(af b) 12.sign. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12Vmfn. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. EXERCISE Add: 1.13 rap 25 rap 2. 3a . 13. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 9(af6). . Algebraic sum. b a f ( 6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. The sum x 2 and f x2 . + 6 af . f 4 a2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.
without finding the value of each term 34. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. ra 19. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. is . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. a a8 ZL **. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. l^S 25. and to add each column. 30. +m """ 20. 17. 2 2 2 31. 2/ : Add. 1 27. 2 7 1 26. 32. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 33. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 6 23. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 36. c 2 ^24. 35. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. n x* 2 22. + y. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. SUBTRACTION. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 37.ADDITION. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. + / + 3 Va. 21.
3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.g. . . and 2 . 2 Sum. 2 Thus. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. c = 1. f 110WS: 26 aft.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 3. 6=2.8 abc .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.15 6c. e.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . and J 2 s.7 2 . 46 4z 7 c. s. therefore the answer is correct. of that letter.41 = 3.g. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. ft any convenient and c.12 a& 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. NOTE. 2 . .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 3a 2? . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. V3. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .3 s. a 4. x of x.c= 2. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 4 = 7. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.o c and 4. to show any error. 9 q 4. 4 2. to add 26 ab . 2 025.15 abc .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 5. 7 4. 5 .20 c 5 ab 4.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 2c.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . = .
56 w. SUBTRACTION. a + 1> 8 2 2 .VS 4 2 Vc. in 8 3 m n 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.ADDITION. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 7ar + 3B 5. 3 2 2 3 9 . a2 a.3 mn 2 2 n8 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .Ga 43x45. a 4 a . a. 2 a. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 4(a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . d and / 3 ? 12.4:xy xz 6yz.1.5a^6 f 6) . and 1 4 a .2n 2 2 3 rz . and 8 3 . . . 16. 4 8 3 4 4 .a. a 4 a . ?/ . 18/+6y + d. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . m 4 6. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. d. 2 ?/. 2 2 and . + 50 + 62 .7m .a .15 5. .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . e a4 /.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . and v 15. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 4 Vc.7v/if. v/20. . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2 3(c f a). and 12a 4 15& 20c . a2 2 14. . 19. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .a 4 a 4 1.1 a 4 1 0. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 2 2 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.12(a 4.9(a + &) .10 Vc. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 16e + 17/90. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .8 m 2m 12. + a + 1. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 2 ?ft ?/z.and 6. 4 ajy 17.4 Va . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. and .6. 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 8. 4 3 . ^2 1 e. .12 6 ~5 a . . and 5 Vb 18. and and 13. 11.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.(b + c) 1. xy3xz + yz. a) y ^/.5 cr& + 7 6 9.12.a. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.
a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 1..3^* 2n 2 . c 3 3 3 2 3 .9aj 2. 12 xyz. The sum and ? 1.11 xy + 12. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. . and 25. f 1. 1. 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. many negative units re main ? from 2. how 1. 22. and e + 6y . a 6 2 c. If you diminish a person's debts. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. + 1. is 2. 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 1/ . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. + n*. 1. 13 1. 1. and 2 24. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 6 f c 2 23. 8 . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. +d a. f number may be added 3.ra + m. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. T8a.4 2tn* Sic 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .17 + 4 ?nfy . .5< 3 2 s 4^4. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.m 4m ?/?/ d. f 1. s . 8 f3f a n2<w +n .3 taken from 2 ? 5. 45a6 2 .22 21. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .
ADDITION. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . two numbers are given.2. and the required number the difference. 1. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 3. the given number the subtrahend. Or in symbols. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. from What 3. From 5 subtract to . This gives by the same method. In subtraction. ab = x. To subtract. 5 is 2. ( 6) ( = . In addition. Therefore any example in subtraction different . From 5 subtract + 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. 41. 2. called the minvend.3. 7. a. the other number is required. . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. SUBTRACTION. if x Ex. NOTE.g. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 6 (3) = 8. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. +b 3.
To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Ex.5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check.f 8 .3 r*5o.3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.
2. and 3 7/ . From 6(af.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 54. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 43. 46.a 2 j. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 51. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 55. SUBTRACTION.c. 52. From 2 a take a & j. 42. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 44. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. tract 4 x 3. 53. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 58. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. c f d. + a the 2 a.7 a . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 2y 2 . 45. 48. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . . 41. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. of a 4.4 a^ 4.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.4 a*& + 6 a & . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . check the answer.ADDITION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 6 4 a.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 56.2.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 50. 57.w>t. 49. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.6)f. 47.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.
9. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.26 4. subtract # + 1. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c.15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a + 6. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 6. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 16. a a + c. of # 2 8. 6 17. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a 2y + z. + 6 + c. + 2. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. +a add the difference duce 13. A is n years old. 19. 20. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 2 m 21.
changed. one occurring within the other. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. I.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.b c = a a & f f.c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.a^6)]  } . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.g. & f c.ADDITION. a+(bc) = a +b . 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. . Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. SUBTRACTION. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.c. 45. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. Ex. II. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.6 b f (.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. the sign is understood.2 b . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.: Ex. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 8. 3. : x + (2yz). 5.) 5 . In the following expression inclose the second and third.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. m f ft) a. ? 11. + (2a 6 + c ). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 14.+ 6)f (a2 b). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). (m a2 f. [36+ (a 2c]. Signs of aggregation 1.(a + 6). By removing parentheses. 16. 9. 2. 15. 19. may be inserted according to 43. 17. 6) 2.1422) J ] . 21. Ex. a f (a a . 2 2a. a (a + 6). 6. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2 2 2 a(.[271 47.7i h jp) (m ?*.y (60. 2a (4a 26 +c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 18. .)]. 3 3 f 7. a (a + 26 c ). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 271 + (814 . 13. 4.
The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. p + q + rs. ' NOTE. The difference of a and 6. 4. of the cubes of m and n. 13. 3. and the subtrahend the second. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 10. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. y f 8 . terms 5. 5. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 3. The square of the difference of a and b. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. a\l> > c + d. The sum^)f m and n. difference of the cubes of n and m. II.2 tf . SUBTRACTION. 2mn + 2q3t.7fa. first. 7. 6 diminished . 5^2 _ r . 8. 5 a2 2. 6.1. 9. )X 6. m and n. The product The product m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. m x 2 4. 12. 2. . 7.4 y* . The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. z + d.ADDITION. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.
6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.) . x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 16. d.30 14. 18. b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.
therefore. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. If the two loads balance. 3. If the two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 5. 2. 4. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. force is produced therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. two loads balance. A A A 1. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights.
becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. however. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.32 8. To take a number 7 times. 48. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. x 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. the multiplier is a negative number. . 5x(4). NOTE. 4 multiplied by 3. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Thus. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 9 x ( 11). This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. or plied by 3. 4 multi44444 12.9) x 11. 9 9. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. (5)X4.4)(. ( (. (. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 4x(3)=12.4)(4) = + 12. such as given in the preceding exercise. thus. Practical examples^ it however.
_3. 32. . 1. 2a6 c . 4 . (2)x9. (10) 4 . 6. about fac (2)X If 6.2f 18. 6. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (2) 8 (. 8 31.(4J). Law Thus. b = 3. 23. of Signs: TJie positive. Ua b 28. 10.2. 3 aW.2 f+x 2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible.(a&c) 2 2 . 3 a2?/2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 27.3. (7) X (12). 5. _2^ 3. +5. 2a 2 6c. 14. 7. 4. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .MULTIPLICATION 50. 24. 5x3. 15. . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 29. 3. . 3. If a cal = 4a6c. 12. 8 4 . 6 2. 30.3) (1) 7 2 . c = 25.a)( =+ a&. NOTE. 26. 1. find the numeri values of: 21. is 6x7. x= 0. (. etc.7. the parenthesis frequently omitted. (c#) . 19. X(5). 4 a2 . 17. . _2. 8. 22. and y = 4. (4)X(15). 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 16. 2. z s 11 aWcx. . 9.4. x. 11. 20. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. (4)'. 13. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1.
6. 2 2 3 6 . 14. a8 a=2. 2(7. 100.. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.6 if 35. 4. . 9 . 2 2 2 . = 2.7.<?. 5 = 2. &*) c d*. 50(112.2 2 23 + 5 . 3 2 .(7).7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 5. 2 3 . & = 3. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 4. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.e. fl*" integers.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 13. 36. i. By 3 definition. 34. . 6 = . . 6" 127 U .(2. (a6) (a5) 9. + 2/). a 2 2 . 2. 3 3 4 . a = 2.(12) . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.m a 3  4 . 11. a= 1. 7. 200.503). . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 2(14.257). 6 = 1. 3. 10. a = 3.3). 1. or 2 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 17. . 4. 2. 16. Ex. B. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 12 U U .35)..12 Perform the operation indicated 12. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 6 aWc x . 127  127 9 7 . 3. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. =2 a *.2). Ex. 5 .  2 2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . m*. of the factors. This 52. 5 3 5 3 2 . : 3a7abc.  and 2 25 8 . 5(711. IB. 78 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 53. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.
= (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.6. . 31. and then adding : 1. /). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . . 19. ) 2 33. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 2 32. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. This principle. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 2(645410).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 3(124342). 2(5fl5f25). 12( + 1 4 i).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . ax /) 2 4 1 (. called the distributive law. _4aft. .7pqt. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 21. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 23. 3. 22. 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 24. . 17(10041042). 26. 25. 11(3. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 23(10004100420). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 20. 5. (. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 6(10420430). by first multiplying. (. 6.3 win ) . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 35. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. c(4a ftc ).2 3 aft ). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . .4a#.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 34.f 2). 35 4 7(6.A). 7p*q r*. multiply each by the monomial. 27. 7. 29.7 w'W (8 n^W). 2. . 28. but we shall assume it for any number. If results ft.
19. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 26.^ c + 2 . 20. 29. . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 23. 11. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. ~2mn(m +n p ).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 2 2 16. be multiplied to give 4o.5 w*V f 7 wn). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5). 2 m(mhn \p). Find the factors of 6 ary . : expression must 24. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 9. 28.5 x 7). 3 ).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 30. f7a. 17.60 a& 10 aft. 21. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).2 mn(9 mV . .we b) (x law. 7 a 6 c(.asa product. 12. By what 25.3 aftc).6 a6). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 2 27. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 22. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .
Multiply 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 b by a 5 b. Since errors. Ex. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. 59.a . . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 2a3b a66 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 2.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. however. the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Check. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.1. a2 + a8 + 3 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. To multiply two polynomials. Since all powers of 1 are 1.4. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Multiply 2 + a a.
(2 x* x 2 . 30. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4 2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 5. * For additional examples see page 261. OQ OO. (2w 19.1 . 36. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). . 4.n)(m 8 n)(m n). a 5c)(2a6c). 10.4) (mnp 4. 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). I (mfn)(m4. 22. 15. 8. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 7. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (6a~7) 2 . 9. (13 A. . 1). (6p (2 f 21. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 36) I) 14. l)(raf 2). 2 . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 32. 16. 7y). 3<7).2m)(l m). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).2). 24. 26. 3. 13.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 28. 6. (8r7*)(6r39. 2) (3 A: 1). 35. 12. (4a 2 33. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 40. 17. 31. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). ^ 2 . 20. (6i7n)(llJn). 41. 2. 18. 12)(a?^2l). 36). (a^26) . 29. 11.4) (x + 1). 25. 2  37. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). QQ O7.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.
(1001) (100 (1000 + 2). i. i.13). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms.e. (10+ (1000 (2. 1005x1004. 6. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 15. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (!)(* 5). 18. 25.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. _3)(a _4). (a 9) (a + 9). (J 23. + 60)(f2). . X 102. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 9. 22. 27. 28. 21. + 5) (1000 + 4). 14.25)(y+4). 26. (*.2 6) (a f 6). (a 102 x 103. : 23 2.e. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 24. (100 +2) (100 + 3). . 1) (10 + 2). in of the two unequal terms. 11. . (ra. 19. 2) (1000 + 3). + 3) (a 7). 3.4). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. ft 16. 10. + 9)(m+9). 17. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 25 a 2 . 8. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 12. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 13. plus the product 62.!!)( (a + 21). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 2 a? 29. (6 12) (6 f. (a3)(a + 2).n)(wf w). 7. 20. (a (a (a. 2 6) (a 3 6). + 2) (a f 3). (p12)(p + ll). 75 ab f 54 ft .
40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. and the second. III. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. i.15. 37. Ex. 34. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 33. 9. . <J>7) J .15. of the second. plus twice the product of the first and the second. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 2 5. p 2 p. 2 (a (*5) 2 . III. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.30. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 32. 4. (x+3i/) 2 . + 6 a + 8. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 3. second.66 s. (a26) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 31. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 49 y*. i. .e. + 3) 2 . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36.e. n2 10ii+16.e. 8. 63. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (a2) (p a . w 2 ro . 7 a + 10. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). a2 2 w + 2 w . 7. 35. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 6. . 77ie square of the of the first. : 24 (a 2. plus the square of the second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.
47. 17. 46. 38. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 7& ) 25. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 40. 25 a 9. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 45. 24. 35. (1000 2 .998 39. 22. 991 2 2 . 14. 16aW25. 28. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. (100 + 2) (100 2). + 5). 103 36. 23. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (20 f 1) . 41. ( 27. 99x101. . 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 998x1002. 15. 48. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 12.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. + 3z) 2 2 . 32. 4 53. 54. 49.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 2 . 62 25n 2 . 51. a2 9. The product of 57. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 22 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . I) 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. 34. (^. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 52. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). (2x3yy. ). 2 J ). 41 16. 33. .MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 9a 496 2 56. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 42. . 18. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 29. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 21. 2 . . n*6n+9. 44. a 2 8a6+166 2 . m 2 16. 55. 31. By actual multiplication. 2 . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 104 2 37. 11. + 5)(5+a). G> +5g)*. 9 a2 . n 2 f4n+4.
The square 2 (a 4. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4s + y)(32y). 6. plus the last terms.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. . 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 3. 9. 4. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 13. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ((5a? (10 12. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 2 10. 14. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ) (2 of a polynomial. 5. (3m + 2)(ml). 65. 7. 11. or The student should note minus signs. 8. sum of the cross products. (5a4)(4al). (5a64)(5a&3).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.& + c) = a + tf + c . : 25 2.
In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 6~2(a + 7). 4y sf n) 2 .r _ 2 . 8.24 . and check the answers !. . If x = 1.8 x + 15] . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . Ex.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 9.(m 2 6. 6. + 6)( .(x . 8. Find the square root 11.(>. Hence.3) (x . (  2 4) =  20 a.[a? . of z : 10. 5. 3. = 10 x . 7. 6(a 2. a. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. + 65) . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 4(aj2)h3(7).39. 3. 5. 66.X2 + 2 x .3)(z. 12.1 5 = 10 . (u4& + 3c'.4) .5) = (7 . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). Check. n). 7. (xy+z)*.4) . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.3) . 4. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).5).i2&c) 2 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 4(* + 2)5(3).39. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). after multiplying the factors of a term. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 13.24] . (a (. 2 2. 2)6.(= [ Xa + 2 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 4. = .y? + 8 .29.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.11 a + 9 a . a I. 51 15. 20. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .2) (3 a .l. . v/17. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. Division of the difference of two squares.2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 19. 18. 16.DIVISION 14. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (81 m + 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.e. .
16 . 1. aW 12 a.49. : the following w a 4 !.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 10. 14.000. 12.0001. 100ry. 4 b. . 121a a 16 100 11. f 13. 9& 2 . 15. r/ 1. 16. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . .
The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. second member is x + 4 x 9. in the equation 2 x 0. 82. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. the 80. 83. x 20. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the first member is 2 x + 4. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . (a + ft) (a b) and b. is said to satisfy an equation. 81. =11.
A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. To solve an equation to find its roots.b. If equals be divided by equals. the products are equal. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 4.g. x I. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 86. If equals be subtracted from equals. 2 = 6#f7.e. 85. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 87. A 2 a.54 84. If equals be multiplied by equals. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. called axioms 1. A term may be transposed from its sign. .2. A numerical equation is one in which all . NOTE. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 90. but 4 does not equal 5. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. one member to another by changing x + a=. . 89. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . a. 3. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. E. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. If equals be added to equals. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. the quotients are equal. 5. the remainders are equal. the divisor equals zero. Transposition of terms. the sums are equal.
2 y= f . if a x = b. x = (Axiom 3) 92. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Uniting similar terms. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. if 55 x members.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Check. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. x = 3. . and the known terms to the second. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Ex. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. a? Adding 5 to each term. Unite similar terms. Uniting.9 y + y2 = 22 . The first member. 3 y . b c. The first member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. The second member. To solve a simple equation. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 4x 1 + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. is correct. f If y 20 . a= a 6fc. Dividing both members by 2. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . b Adding a to both + a. Dividing by Check. 91. Subtracting 4 x from each term. (4y)(6.8. 2(11 . x = 93. Transposing.2. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Hence the answer. 6a5 = 185 = 13. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.6 y f y\ . Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. 2 x = 6.
6. aj * See page 264. : 5# = 15+2a. Uniting. a?. 19. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).7. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3. a? a?. 17 + 5a. 50. 3 7 a. 3. x = 18. = 7. 4y 10. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 24.69. 4a + 5 = 29. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 22. 4. 247y = 68lly. 7 (6 x 16). . Dividing by Cfcecfc. 21. 9 9a? = 7 13. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. Transposing. 11.. it NOTE. = 5a?+18. 17 7 a. 12. 7a? 5.7a: = 394a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. = 2 ?/. v23. x x 1 . 14y = 59(24y + 21). Solve the following equations by transposing.17 + 4y = 36. f Simplifying. a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 15. J. 32 = 264. + 7(3 + 1) =63.. 8. + 22. = 3. 11 ?/ a? 18. 2. 16. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 13a? 3a?. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 20. 14. etc. \x x 2^xfl. 7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.56 Ex. . =2 = 3. If x = 18. and check the answers 9. a.
5) + 199.32. 35. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 2 2 * Jaj. 36.7) (7 x + 4) .3) . is the other part. a? 43. a? 28. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 6(6a.3) + .4) + 4 w . 7) (a. (aj 37.12) (2 + 5) . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. . find the other part.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 7(7 x y 26. 31. or 70 a?.g. . .1 0) = 0. 33.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 5) (as (a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.3) + 14. 30. 38. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. . . + 4). + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . .14 = 0.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. e. 29. 39.5(2 u . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 41. Evidently 45. (a.(2 + 6) (4 . : One part is of 70 is 25 .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.1) (a (a? + 3) = . this question. (6 u =5 44. 27. 42.7. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.2) (M . . . 40. 25.1) (u .5) = (a. 34. + 7) (.
3. is b. greater one is g. 4. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. EXERCISE 1. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 15. 9. or 12 7. 5. Divide 100 into two 12. Find the greater one. so that one part The difference between is s.58 Ex. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Ex. 10. 33 2. If 7 2. smaller one 16. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. is d. Divide a into two parts. 14. 6. so that of c ? is p. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 7. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. one part equals is 10. 11. is a? 2 is c?. 17. 1. find the cost of one yard. 6. one yard will cost 100 dollars. so that one part Divide a into two parts. a. and the smaller one parts. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 13.
rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. is A A is # years old.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. If B gave A 6 25. 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 20. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 34. How many cents has he ? 27. numbers is x. Find 21. 22. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. find the has ra dollars. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 24. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many years A older than is B? old. A feet wide. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. sum If A's age is x years. 19. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A man had a dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 28. ?/ 31. amount each will then have. and B has n dollars. 26. Find 35. b dimes. find the of their ages 6 years hence. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. A dollars. and c cents. and B is y years old. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 33. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 32. and spent 5 cents. and B's age is y years.
The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). a.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. Find the number. The first pipe x minutes. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find a. 46. Find x % % of 1000. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. 48. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. % % % of 100 of x. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. 49. The two digits of a number are x and y. . miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. of m. of 4. he walk each hour ? 39. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find a 47. find the fraction. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. A was 20 years old. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A cistern is filled 43. c a b =  9. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. .50. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. m is the denominator.
thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. by one third of b equals 100. 9. 4. The double as 7. 3. 2. 6. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 5. of a increased much 8. a exceeds b by c. double of a is 10. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. of x increased by 10 equals x. of a and 10 equals 2 c. same result as 7 subtracted from . Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 80. The excess of a over b is c. c. c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 80. etc.
pays to C $100. (c) If each man gains $500. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C..*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. . the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's age 4 a. of 30 dollars. 16. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 17. 18. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. x is 100 x% is of 700. 3 1200 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 11. >. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. as 17 is is above a. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. amounts. 6 % of m. 12. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 50 is x % of 15. express in algebraic 3x : 10. a second sum. 14. B's. m is x % of n. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. #is5%of450. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. x 4 If A. they have equal of A's. and C's ages will be 100. a. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.62 10. B. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. sum equals $20. they have equal amounts. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. is If A's age is 2 x. and C have respectively 2 a.000. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. In 10 years the sum of A's. B's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. B's age 20. symbols B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. a.
by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. In order to solve them. Ex. Simplifying. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. x+16 = 3(35). x = 20. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Dividing. . 6 years ago he was 10 . number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. NOTE. 23 =30. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. the . Check. but 30 =3 x years. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In 15 years 10. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). the required . 3z40:r:40z. x= 15. 4 x = 80. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Ex. 2. etc. Uniting. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 1. Uniting. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Transposing. Transposing. A will Check. much as 40 exceeds the number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Let x = the number. be 30 . Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. 15. denote the unknown 96. Three times a certain no. number of yards. Find A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no.
2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Dividing. How long is the Suez Canal? 10.64 Ex. Find the number. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. EXERCISE 1. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 11. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 4. by as much as 135 ft. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. . Let x 3. 120. 3. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Hence 40 = 46f. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number. Find 8. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. exceeds the width of the bridge. 14. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 300 56. A number added number. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 13. % of 120. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Six years hence a 12 years ago. twice the number plus 7. 5. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. How many miles per hour does it run ? .
1. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. two verbal statements must be given. written in algebraic symbols. 65 A and B $200. The problem consists of two statements I. x. B will have lars has A now? 17. How many dol A has A to $40. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 14. The sum of the two numbers is 14. which gives the value of 8. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. A and B have equal amounts of money. is the equation. Ex. If A gains A have three times as much 16. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. . Maine's population increased by 510. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. times as much as A. Vermont's population increased by 180.000. statements are given directly.000. F 8. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. and as 15. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. the second one. five If A gives B $200. The other verbal statement. B How will loses $100. One number exceeds the other one by II. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. 97. and B has $00. During the following 90 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.
to Use the simpler statement. A will lose. / . the smaller number. which leads ot Ex. Let x 14 I the smaller number. although in general the simpler one should be selected. . 8 = 11. x = 8. terms of the other. 2x a? x j = 6. = A's number of marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. has three times as many marbles as B. + a f f 8 = 14. Statement x in = the larger number. 8 the greater number. The two statements I. B will have twice as viz. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A has three times as many marbles as B. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. consider that by the exchange Hence. I. = B's number of marbles. x x =14 8. 25 marbles to B. unknown quantity in Then.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. . If A gives are : A If II. B will have twice as many as A. < Transposing. A gives B 25 marbles. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Uniting. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = 14. 2. the sum of the two numbers is 14. the greater number. Let x 3x express one many as A. Then. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = 3. If we select the first one. and Let x = the Then x +. Dividing.
45 . the number of half dollars. Find the numbers.240. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.. consisting of half dollars and dimes..5 x . 3. then. the number of dimes. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 6 times the smaller.$3. 40 x . * ' .75. Check. x = 6. Find the numbers. Two numbers the smaller. 3 x = 45. . Check. The value of the half : is 11. x from I. The number of coins II. B's number of marbles. Dividing. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Simplifying. x = the number of half dollars.10. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.25 = 20. Uniting. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. by 44. of dollars to the number of cents. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.. w'3. 2. cents. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 60. and the Find the numbers. etc. 50. have a value of $3. Let 11 = the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.550 f 310. * 98. A's number of marbles.10. Dividing. . (Statement II) Qx . is 70. the price. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 11 x = 5. greater is . 1.10. Simplifying. The sum of two numbers is 42. 50 x Transposing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Uniting. x = 15. 15 + 25 = 40. but 40 = 2 x 20. dollars and dimes is $3. Eleven coins.
000 feet. McKinley. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. On December 21. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and four times the former equals five times the latter. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. A's age is four times B's. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. as the larger one. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and twice the altitude of Mt. one of which increased by 9. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many inches are in each part ? 15. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. 7. Everest by 11. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 6. Find their ages. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many 14 years older than B. 11.. the number. How many hours does the day last ? . 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Twice 14. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 9. 5.68 4. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. United States. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. Two numbers The number differ by 39.
Let x II. they would have 3. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. original amount. are : C's The three statements A. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. has. The third verbal statement produces the equation. II. and 68. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. number had. I. Ex. and B has three as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. number of dollars of dollars B C had." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. times as much as A. B. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. bers is denoted by x. B. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and C together have $80. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. then three times the money by I. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. number of dollars A had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = 48. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and C together have $80. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. B has three times as much as A. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. III. x = 8. 1. . = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 19. has. If 4x = 24.
4 x f 8 = 28. = the number of dollars spent for horses. Let then. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 9 cows. and the sum of the . x j = the number of horses. 90 may be written. 28 2 (9 5). 9 5 = 4 . 2. first. and each sheep $ 15. Dividing. and. the third five times the first. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. each horse costing $ 90. 1 1 Check. cows. The total cost equals $1185. each cow $ 35. + 8 90 x and. x = 5. and Ex. sheep. III. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x f 4 = 9.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. number of horses. three statements are : IT. number of cows. The I. Uniting. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. x Transposing. according to III. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. according to II. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of sheep. 185 a = 925. + 35 x 4.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of cows.
what is the length of each? has 3. what are the three angles ? 10. the second one is one inch longer than the first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. twice the 6.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. twice as old as B. and children together was 37.  4. equals 49 inches. "Find three is 4. first.000. the copper. The gold. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. increased by three times the second side. 7. v .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and 2 more men than women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. If twice The sum the third side. how many children were present ? x 11. first. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the third 2. 13. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. men. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. what is the population of each city ? 8. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. 9. New York delphia. A 12. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. women. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.
3z + 4a:8 = 27. First fill in all the numbers given directly. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.e. together. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. . then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Find the value of each. or time. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. such as length. number of miles A x x walks. After how many hours will they meet and how E. width. of arid the value of the iron was $300.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. i. = 35. = 5. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. how many 100. and distance. The copper had twice the value of the gold. we obtain 3 a. and quantities area.000. 8 x = 15.g.000. but stops 2 hours on the way. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. speed. 3 and 4. Hence Simplifying. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Let x = number of hours A walks. 14.000. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of hours. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. A and B apart. 7 Uniting. Dividing.000 more than that the copper. of 3 or 4 different kinds. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.
the second 100. x . l.04 = $ 40. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.M(x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.06 = $ 40." gives (2. x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Transposing and uniting. 70x10 Ex.05 x x . 2 a = 40.01 = = . 2   and transpose. Find the dimensions of the field. the area would be 100 square yards less. were increased by 30 yards. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. 10 x = 200. or 700. z = 20. original field has Check. + 8. The an area 40 x 20 =800. $ 800 = required sum. . Check. $ 1000 x .053. Multiplying. and the width decreased by 10 yards. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.04 8. x + 200). 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 800 = 800.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. But 700 certain = 800 2.
What are the two sums 5. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Find the share of each. together bring $ 78 interest. as a 4. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. the area would remain the same. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. After how many hours will B overtake A. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. twice as large. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. invested at 5 %. A sets out later two hours B . 1. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. but four men failed to pay their shares. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. mobile. Ten yards $ 42.55. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A sum ? invested at 4 %. 2. A man bought 6 Ibs. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and its width decreased by 2 yards. sions of the field. 3. A of each. Six persons bought an automobile. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. of coffee for $ 1. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and a second sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. were increased by 3 yards.
The distance from If a train starts at . A and B set out direction.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. After how many hours.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.
expression is rational with respect to a letter. if. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. which multiplied together are considered factors. 5. 76 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a. it is composite. if it does contain some indicated root of . we shall not. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV . An after simplifying. a. but fractional with respect 103. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. consider 105. 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. it contains no indicated root of this letter . stage of the work. irrational. a2 to 6. 104. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. as. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . this letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. f db 6 to b. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102.
it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 01.g. 77 Factoring is into its factors. for this result is a sum.62 + &)(a 2 . .3 6a + 1).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. . It (a. x. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.3 sy + 4 y8).) Ex. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Ex. ?/. it follows that a 2 . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 2. in the form 4) +3. 110. 1. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. E.62 can be &). factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2. Factor G ofy 2 . 55. 8) (s1). y.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .FACTORING 106. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Divide 6 a% . or that a = 6) (a = a . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 107. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. TYPE I.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . x. 2. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 109.
7i 13. 3 3 5 6. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 23. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 19. (as 3) and (ccf5).45 afy . ) 22  2. a a 'Ja . a6c. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 13.3.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. e. 34 a^c 8 . 15 2 7. 12.5 + 13 8.51 aW + 68 21. 18. 32 a *?/ .6. in general. 4. + llm llm. 3. 16. 2 Or. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 8. q*q*q 2 a. 2. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 17. TYPE IT.4.3.12 cdx. 2 6. 2 + q.2. obviously.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 5f 2 . 20. 14. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.5 + 2. 4 8 . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).4. 4 tfy f. 3x*6x*. : 6 abx . . 14a 4 5. 3 2 . Ilro8 9. 15. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 2 2 .8 c a 15 ofyV . 7a & 10. .30 aty.5 x*y 2 17 a? .g. 11.
Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. We may consider 1.30 = (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.11 a + 30. 2. If q is negative. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. + 30 = 20. but of these only a: Hence 2 .1 1 a tf a 4. . or 7 11. a 2 . 79 Factor a2 4 x . Factor a2 .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 4.4 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. . + 112.11) (a + 7). 5. as p. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.11. 3. 77 as the product of 1 77. the two numbers have opposite signs.5) (a . of this type. 2 6.11 a 2 .a). m 5m + 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Therefore Check.G) = .5) (a 6).4 x . is The two numbers whose product and 6. tfa2  3. however. . Ex. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.6 = 20. or 77 l. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 11 7. Factor x? . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.FACTORING Ex. Factor + 10 ax . determine whether In solving any factoring example. Ex..77 = (a. and (a . If q is positive. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. can be factored.
180 a. 27. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 17.6. 4 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 15. 19. 36. 16. 2 ?/ 5?/14.70 x y . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 16. + 2xS. a 2 +11 a a? 16. a2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 2 2 a' 34. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. x2 23. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 33. 20. 24. 2 ?/ 28. 31. 21 a 2 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 ?/ 22. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. ITT.48 + + 446 200. TYPE 113. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 35. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. ay 11 ay +24. 8. 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 29. and 5 x. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66.17 + 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 18. 12. 11. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 . . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 25. 32. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 4 3 2 . 26. 14. . 9. 2 2 . 30. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 13. ra + 25ra + 100. + 44.80 7. 100 xr . + 30. + 4?/21. a 7 a 30. + 5<y 24. or . 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .500 x + 600. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 21.
If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.1). 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. Ex. X x 18. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. .13 x + 5 = (3 x . none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and r is negative. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.5) (2 x . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. and that they must be negative. or G 114. . If p is poxiliw. the If p and r are positive. the signs of the second terms are minus. viz. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 11 x 2x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Factor 3 x 2 . 3 x and x. 54 x 1. but the opposite sign. a. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. sible 13 x negative. 2.5 . 9 x 6. 6 x 9. 2 x 27.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.83 x f 54. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 18 x 3. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 27 x 2. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.
25. + 4.2 a 90 x*y . f go. 12y 2/6. 15.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . . since all others (II. 2 fc . 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 29. Sar' + SaG. 14.260 xy . 24. X 27 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 2m t7w + 3. 34. 3. 30. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 26. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 17.y + 172/9. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 5. the expressions should be it. 10. 90 a 8 2 . 9 y + 32^16. + 2/3. 19. 3a + 13a. 2x* + 9x5. 20. 6n + 5?i4. 16. 18. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 2 2 .83 x = (3 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 9a.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .27). 13. 22. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 3x*Sx + 4.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 5m 26m f 5. 12^17^16. 2 28. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 12.2) (x . 4. 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 35. 8. 7.163 x 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a.83 x .300 ab 2 f4 250 . : 41 2. 2 2 2 23. 9. 2 . and the monomial factors should be removed. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 11. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 100^200^ + 100^.7.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 21.179. 6.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 32. 2 31. 10a?2 2 33. . 10 a . 14 a fa 4.30 y 6 4 . .19 a f 6. x54 a. 144 x .
. 11. 2 . 14. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . .e. of its terms are perfect squares. form are special cases of the preceding type. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 12. 9. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 3.20 xy f 4 y\ . however. it is more convenient for that type. 2 9 10gf25. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 6. 8. 13. 25 7. 2.26 ab + 9 6 2 . square. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 10. and a perfect square. i. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. x* . and factor whenever possible : 1. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . it is a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 2 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 116. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 4. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .10 x f 16. 5. 9 10a625. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. To factor a trinomial which maining term.
6 m* + 9 m. a. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. ). 26. a. ). 18. . + GO + 25. 16&*. 16.e.20 ab + 10 b a .60 a# + 4. 22. 6. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. aV .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .2 ofy + ofy m . 10 a 2 4 2 . 29. prime. V. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 36 2 4. 25. a2 24. 2 . 27. 5. 1.3 * ). ^//c to the Ex. u2 6& + 2 ( ). ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 48 a +( ). 149 a 81 8. According to 65. 9a2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. Ex.64 6 = 16(a . TYPE 117. . 17. 4 2 23. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 3. 9. 225 ofy .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 2 . +( )f816 30. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 6 2 . 2 20. 19. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 4a2 l. 3. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. . 7. 2.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 .84 15. product i. 2.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). : 43 tfy\ a 9. * 2 .
(?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 13. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . a2 .(c 4. 6. 5. T. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 4. (m7?) y.d) 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 2 . 36> . 11. 2. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 16p 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . a:) 12.FACTORING 85 118. Factor a 2 . 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .(I) . of polynomials.c . 8. 9. Ex. Ex. 14.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a .
4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 8. 2. 5. a? 11. . .2 ) (3 x . After grouping tain a the terms. x8 .a a .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. + x + 2x + 2. 12. Ex.VI. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. By grouping. 7. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. ive find that the new terms con common factor. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.7 c + 2c .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. a 26 2 2 3 . which may be factored according to types I.1. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.and trinomials. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. a5 + ab 6 . 6. Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb. 5) . 9. 10. 4:cx . 4 B. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.y + 2 2). Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 2. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 119.r. A. 1.14. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 3. = (3 x + y .ab + bx.
m Gw + 9n * See page 266. : m 2 2 16. II. $ a8 . : 46 x* 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 4. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. = (a + 6)(a6). 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. First find monomial factors common to all terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. w m 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 2. 8. 6a4 12a2 + 6. Arranging the terms.9 a2 4 v* 2 . .12 aaj 4 6y. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 5. 8ra 2 + 16. 2. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 8. 4 a2 . 2a3/ 7. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .FACTORING Ex. 36 9 m .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 3. 6 6. l~a 2a56 2 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. + 2xy + y*q*.4 f .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6. 3. IV. 2 7.l. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 4.
3 a2 23. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 3 2 . 32. 4 a. 14. 13 c . 11.40. 50^ + 45. + 6 aft + 3 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 3 25. 24. 40. 48. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 25 a + 25 aft . a. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 22. 12. + 14. 13. 42 s 2 . 3 41. 2 a 128. or 3 7#2 . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.156. 27. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 5a' 20. 5 a. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 17. . a + a + a + l. 42 x . 30. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 3#4 3a2 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 35. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 .88 10. 29. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 2 ft . a6 36. (^ 34.24. (a. 18. 80 a 2 ft 38.310 x .13 c . 19. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 28. a3 156. 4 8 tt 2 z .
 23 3 . C. 5 s 7 2 5. of 6 sfyz. F. The H. II 2 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 54  32 . F. F. 8 . C. 89 . 15 aW. 3. 25 W. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 5 7 34 2s . of two or more monomials whose factors . find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 3 . 121. 2 2 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . Two common factor except unity The H. aW. The student should note H. of : 48 4. C. 13 aty 39 afyV. are prime can be found by inspection.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of a 7 and a e b 7 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 5 2 3 . C. F. of aW. 6. F. C. F. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 2. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 12 tfifz. C. . C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 5. 24 s . The highest is common factor (IT. 122. C. The H. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. EXERCISE Find the H.) of two or more . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. Thus the H. of the algebraic expressions.
3. ^707 + 12. 13. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 6 3 a.12 as 66 .^9. 7.y + y42. 9.5 + 6. 5. 95 2/V. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. (a7 ?/) .y) 123. aWd. a 3a4. 2 . a2 ar* 4. 8. 8 6. . 6 mx . 2a f5af 2. 2 . 4 ?io. 6 a2 y? .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 225 4a 9 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . ^f a. Ex. 13.y) . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).2 ?/) (x . 1. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 8 a 10 . ^2 2 . 3). 49 C. C.90 7. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. ^a + 5^ + 6. 3 . a2 . of polynomials. 38 #y. 14. a2 + 7af!2. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 11. . of + 4 if. a.?/ .6 . 16. 10. x* x2 Hence the H. 3^ 2 4 . a2 + 2a3. . F.2 y) (a. 4(m+l) 3 . a3 16 a. 12 . 57 a>V. = x 2 y. . 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 2 . 16 a . To find the H. . 24 a 2 . C. 9. 15. 2. and apply the method of the preceding article. Find the H. .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 8. C. 2 . 65 zfyV. 12. of: .5 x3?/ 2 6.# 4 afy f 4 . F. 9 aj*(a? .8 a + 16.6. F. y + 3y64. F. 25 m27i. 15 3ao.5 y). 52 oryz4. 0^80:416.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 10. 12 w*nw 8. a3 9a. 12. 8(?/ifl) 14.6 a&. 6(m+l) (m+2). 11.
a^c8 3 . Hence the L. 60 x^y' 2 . C. M. 127.C.M. The L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. =4 a2 62 (a2 . ory is the L. M. C. L. M. Find the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. M.6)2. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . The lowest common multiple (L. etc. Ex. 2. C. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Common 125. C. A common remainder. but opposite . M.M. each set of expressions has In example ft). is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Ex. 2 The The L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. which also signs. &) 2 M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. . C. C. NOTE. 126. two lowest common multiples. M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. L.C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. M of the algebraic expressions. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. To find the L. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. Find the L. of 3 aW. thus. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 1. . of the general. of tfy and xy*. 300 z 2 y.6 3 ).LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . of several expressions which are not completely factored. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . M. 128. C.
M. x 2 5 a. 24 x. afc'cd 2 . 2 x \2 y. a { a~b. y*. 3 f2. a f 2 19. a 2 fa6. 20 9 a. 2 . 21. 4 a 5 6cd. 2 . . . 6b 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y. ic 2 ?/. a.1. a 1. 8 d 5 . 2 7ic+10. 7. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a f 3. x* ~5a. f b. a& 4 +& 2 . 24. 22. 16. Find the L. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a 2 f 4 a +4. a2 ~ab 1. 3 6 xif. #. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. G a. 3(a + b). ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. (For additional examples see page 268. ) . or f 3 a 15 #. x2 + 4 a f 4. 3 Z> . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2. 6 a. 8 afy. 2 .f 6. 40 abJ.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2(m 2 . 3 . 3 ab. a 2 a3 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. + 2 7i) . 11. 9. + 6. 6 y. 13. T a 3 a 2 . 1. a2 4. by. a?b. 2 a. a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . xy\ . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a.1. ic 23. 3. 3. a !. 20. 5. 2 10. b 2 . 2 a . 18. 14. 30 a. 4 a . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 15. of: 4. 2 a . 4 a f 2. 17. 6. a^1. 8. + 2. a. (a 4)(a2) 12. afy.
and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. successively all 2 j/' . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. etc. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a?. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. as 8. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Remove tor. rni Thus 132. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . C. Ex. a b = ma mb . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. 130.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 131. Thus. and denominators are considered.ry ^ by their H. an indicated quotient. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. A f fraction is b. but we In arithmetic. F. however.
33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Ex. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. cancel factors only. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. .4) Ex. 2.
16. . nx 17.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.10 a + 3 2 14.. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^" a. 5^10 y 30. . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.7 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 29. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. _ 3 7i rt< 26. g J 21. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ^' rt ^  31. ^+3*. 19. 23. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. LJZJ^JL. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*. 9x + "a" 10. ' ^ . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . .' 32. """. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ny 4 18. 11 ^ Mtr f .
D. multiplying the terms of 22 . we have M^. . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). mon T denominator.C.3) (!)' = . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .1^22 ' . and 135. 1. ^ to their lowest com The L.~16 (a + 3) (x. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Divide the L.96 134. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.C. . TheL. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . Reduce ^. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by the denominator of each fraction. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. take the L.  by 4 6' . and the terms of ***. 1). Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. M. C. and (a 8).  of //* 2 . + 3). ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .M. 2> . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.M. C.
oj o* or / . 2 ay IB. If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74). bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. j y 3. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 3. 2. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . common denominator 6. .Reduce the following to their lowest 1.. i.. 7i 2 ab* ". 5?. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 22 a2 5a * . a? 1 5 > ^* . 2aj ~ . 137. . 8 i i. o o a.^1. JL. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 18. .
g. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . 4(2 a 3 ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. and adding.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ^ is 2^JT) .. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).ft) (a ft ft)~.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(..7 . ft).aft) Ca2 .2 = a(a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . D. the student should remember that parentheses are .3 ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (a .3 ft 2). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). in the beginning. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . C. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (a ft). 2. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. D.(a 2 6).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 . The L. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. 2 ^. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.2 ' 2 _. T? Ex. L. e. as 4 aft f. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.ft)(a .
5 18 ^4f25. 1 1 f w 16. j>0 i> 21. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 5a76 4a 106 9. 23. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. + . a+6 a 6 2 14. 2. A+2_3. a 36 ++. 6 c 3a 7. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 24. 46 2a 4a 12. 20. 2L + 2a 1 17. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 f q * 1 m m . 15.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 18 v 19. + a "" 2 6 ' . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.
2 af1 32. a 30. a 4 31. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } .9.9 79 6 2 i. a. 1 34. 41. _ + a? ?/ + y.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. af 1f /j. ic 1 + 1. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ! n. 42. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 3a 9 +. a ?^ 40. 43.
To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .  .6 + 4x 4 x2 . . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. T. 1. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.FRACTIONS 139. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 101 mixed expression.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. .7 5a v Ex.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .
Since  = a.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. integer. 2 a Ex. fractions to integral numbers. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. multiply the 142. (In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 .g. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. !. or. 2.) Ex.
. 50 . . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 5# 56 / c& 4.. aj 5 1 a? 18. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 4 8. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.6 12 d6 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 144. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. . Divide Xn?/ . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. To divide an expression by a fraction.
l.10 ?/ _.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Ex.^c 2 2 .6 s + 064. a a2 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. are fractional. or both. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .FRACTIONS 105 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. ga2 4 8 5 a .5 ??i 80 50 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.afr 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. C. x* 4. & . Simplify x }. a m "" . M. . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. Ex. . 6. c +6. 9. . 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. i. JL. 10.a ^c c _^ a . 7i+~ 7.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . the answer is directly obtained.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). of their denominators. . n a 8.y 32 .
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. sy 18.) . 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. m^n* n L a 17. : .~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.
48. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 148. 4 4)  x. 5(3 85 Check. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. Uniting. 1. Bx 12 Qx.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .l)(z + 3) = .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.9 x2 + 9. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. C. Uniting.28 a = 5 x2 .8 x = .28 x + 42 = . Transposing. 2z2a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).42 + 9. 2x Transposing. a. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). these Ex. of the denominator. If = 64.14 (a. . Clearing of fractions. each member is reduced to 1. = 6. each member is reduced to Ex. 108 . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). = 6. M.f3# + C:E=6f7212. If x 6.1. 9x x Check. 2 3. 2. + 1) (a + 3) . x = 6. tions.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.
= 2. ^' 2. a: 7 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. ^1 = 9. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 1 *> = 2. +4 14. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a/  5 a/ = 12. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13. 15. 18. .1 _77 a. +1 = 5. 16. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. . a.
and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 32 6 . 3x 35. 31 31. . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 27 . y+3~2 29. If two or more denominators are monomials.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. J_.  38 = 40. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. . . 33. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 25. 4a4l4* + l~. ?_=_. 26 26. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only._ _ . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.11_4 x 149. 2^12 = 2 = 34.
Check. Dividing..2 42 9 43. = 9. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1. Transposing and uniting. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. each member is reduced to ^. .29 50712' 9 18 . 1.  5 = 20 x 45. If a. 5# 10. 5x x : = 9. 60. C.2 3 ~  == 7a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. M.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 24 a. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . a. the 1 5 L.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 26 a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.
Uniting. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.2 62 2 ab. y.3 6 2 = a' .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Thus. ax f x f. It frequently occurs that the x. jr. 2. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Ex.m bx 2 mn) x. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.2 ac + 3 aft . If 3ac L= = a ? . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. they are united by factoring. f ~ 5c. 4 ac 1. = 6 a2 . .1.be. =a 2 151. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.& . fr Reducing lowest terms. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Dividing. = l^ 9 b 4 . 5> a. = 2 f b 2 . find a in terms of b and c. Uniting the Dividing.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). a. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.
= c a Z> . The The i time. 3. * Solve the same equation for^). 9. q solve for/. 29. m a? x . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. in terms of other quantities. 17. mx = n. + 3a. 14. solve for . = vt. 6. 3(* 8. denoting the interest.= n. 5) is t =^. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. = 3 (6 a). = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). a. = 8 4 #. 31. = 5. If ^^ = a 1 32. . f P =+!. 11. If s (wi n) x =px + q. If s If 16. rate.i l . If * 33. 30. 10. p the principal. c. 2 solve for y a. 13. t. . ^ ax a^ 26. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . Ex. + xx = 1. = rt. . f ^o. co?. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.a. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 15. 1 f. solve for a. IIL n b + &o. and n the number of years.= H. _ 2. 4. . iw 21. r the number of $>. 34. c 18. 4. s = Vt solve for v.
A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Ex. and 12 = the number over.114 35. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. is 36. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock..20 C. Multiplying by Dividing.. 2 3 . = 16^. then = 2 TT#.180. Find R in terms of C and TT. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. A would do each day ^ and B j. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . Ex. 12. 100 C. x Or Uniting. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. . 2.
Clearing. = 100 + 4 x. = the x part of the work both do one day. the rate of the express train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 4x = 80. 3. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 32 x = . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles." gives the equation /I)." : Let x  = the required number of days. 180 Transposing. Solving. in Then Therefore. the required number of days. and the statement.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Ex. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J.
money and $10. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. a man had How much money had he at first? . by 6. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and J of the greater Find the numbers. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. of his present age. fifth Two numbers differ 2. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. 3. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. to his son. and one half the greater Find the numbers. make 21. How did the much money man leave ? 11. Twenty years ago A's age was  age.  Find their present ages. which was $4000. and of the father's age. length in the ground. is equal 7. and 9 feet above water. by 3. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find A's 8. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. to his daughand the remainder. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ex What 5.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1.
after rate of the latter ? 15. ^ at 5%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. what is the 14. Ex. A has invested capital at more 4%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 1. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 3.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. . A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. what is the rate of the express train? 152.) 22. Ex. Ex. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and B in 4 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. air. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. How much money $500? 4%. 2. 152. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and it B in 6 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. investments.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. therefore. m and n. e. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.g. B in 5.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. A in 6. Then ft i. 25.414. and apply the method of 170. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. The problem to be solved. and n = 3. A in 4. if B in 3 days. 26.= . B in 12. . 3. 2. we obtain the equation m m . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.e. they can both do in 2 days. .118 153. n x Solving. B in 16. . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. To and find the numerical answer. B in 30. is 42. Hence. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Ex. is 57. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.009 918. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. A in 6. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.
(d) 1. the second at the apart. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 3J miles per hour. 3 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. The one: 31. Find the side of the square. the Two men start at the same time from two towns.721. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 29. 2 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet.000. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. the rate of the first. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. and the second 5 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. is (a) 51.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. Two men start at the first miles apart. (b) 149. respectively (a) 60 miles. (c) 16. (b) 35 miles. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. respectively. if m and n are. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.001. 34. meet. 5 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. is ?n . and the rate of the second are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. squares 30. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 33. . 4J miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number.
) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 6 12 = . a ratio is not changed etc.5. the symbol being a sign of division. E.g. b. etc. In the ratio a : ft. 158. b is the consequent. Ex.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : : 155. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. antecedent. the denominator The the 157. . 1. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. is numerator of any fraction consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. " a Thus.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b. the antecedent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The first 156. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. Simplify the ratio 21 3. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers." we may write a : b = 6. the second term the consequent.
term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. : ay . 12. and c. 17. 5 f hours : 2. and c is the third proportional to a and . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. equal 2. 159. b. Transform the following unity 15. two  ratios. a and d are the extremes. 18. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 1. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 4:5f : 5. terms. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 61 : ratios 72:18. $24: $8. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 4. proportional between a and c. 3:1}. 3. 8^ hours. J:l. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 3:4. 7:4 T T 4 . Simplify the following ratios 7. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. The last first three. 62:16. extremes. 10. b is the mean b. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. In the proportion a b : = b : c. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 7f:6J. : 1. 16a2 :24a&.RATIO Ex. 27 06: 18 a6. 16. b and c the means. 3 8. 11. 9. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 6.
Hence the number of men required to do some work. If (Converse of nq. of iron weigh . : : directly proportional may say. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 163. and the time necessary to do it. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. Clearing of fractions. are : : : inversely proportional. The mean proportional of their product. In any proportion product of the extremes. 3 4. ccm. 6 ccm.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. = 30 grams 45 grams. !. 2 165.__(163. of a proportion. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.30 grams. then G ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and the other pair the extremes. q~~ n . 163. i.122 162.) mn = pq. briefly. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. pro portional. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.e. ad = be.) b = Vac. " we " NOTE. 164. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. : c. of iron weigh 45 grams.
1.) II. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (163. 12x Hence a? = 42. I. bd bd. is 4$ = 35.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. (Composition. (Division.) = f f = 3 J. if 6 : 7. is Ex. d d. then =d c. ad ( 163. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. = 35 . 166. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.PATIO Ex. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. .) a + b:a = c + d:c. V. Or IV. I.) (Called Alternation. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. a:c=b:d. + b:b = c + d:d. (Frequently called Inversion. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) d 167. 2. hence the proportion true. ad = be. a III.
3n JJ =n x NOTE. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 180:125.!=!*. i. . 8. 10. E. x = 2.g. : x. 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Or III. Apply composition. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25.e. 3. the consequents by 7. Simplify the following proportions. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 12 5ft. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. . mx tin Apply composition and division. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 7:2f 3J.124 IT. = 2:x. = 2:3. 4. 5 5. 5. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. = 20:7. 120:42 2 2 7. IV. V. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 6 =4 : x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 9. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.
6. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 18. . 50. 2. 46. 43. 42. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 28. ra + landra 1. b. terra 2:3 = 4. x:5 = y:2. ra.8:1.j>. : 53. 38. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 13.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 41. 2. 33. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 51. 6x = 7y.:ff. = 3 43 + x.x: 6:5 a : x. 47. ratio of y.. x m = y n. 03:a?=135:20. 12. 2 3 = y #. 35. = 2 + x: x. 6 x = y. f. = l^:18. 17. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 39. w. and 2/. 27. 14 and 21. 52. a 2 and ab. a?:15 15. to : a and 1. 14. Find the third proportional 24. 16. 22. to : 9 and 12. 4 and 16. 5= 18 a? : a?. 2= 5 x x. 44. a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra.  32. 21. 1. 26. rag. 112:42 = 10:a. 3. 3t. 25. = 5 x 12. 2 a and 18 a. rap. 3. Find the mean proportional 30. + fyx = cy. ra 2 . 16 and 28. 7iy = 2:x. 4. if : 40. : a2 . 31. 9 x = 2 y. = 15o. 23. Find the 37. : . 1 and a. 34. to: = 35:*. 20. 5. mx = ny. 29. (a : : 45.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure.126 54. and the time necessary for it. and the time. and the : total cost. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 7^. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . and the area of the rectangle. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the area of the larger? the same. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 56. and the speed of the train. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the squares of their radii (e) 55. what 58. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. 57. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.
so that Find^K7and BO. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. as 11 Let then : 1. . it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. is A line AB.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. produced to a point C. = the second number. : Ex. 2. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. AB = 2 x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x x 7 Ex.000 168. 18 x = 108. 4 inches long. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2 x Or = 4. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Let A B AC=1x. x=2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. Then Hence BG = 5 x.
How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Gunmetal tin. What are the parts ? 5. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. : 197. 6. : 4. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 14. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 7. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 12. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.) . The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.000 square miles. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 12. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 9. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many 7. How many gen. and c inches.000. and 15 inches. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. How The long are the parts ? 15.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 2. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 13. 3. 11.
y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. Hence. there is only one solution.. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.y=. such as + = 10. is x = 7.e. etc. expressing a y.L x If If = 0. =. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. a? (1) then I. 2 y = . x = 1. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. The root of (4) if K 129 . y = 1. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. if . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. However. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. values of x and y.
24. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. y I 171. By By Addition or Subtraction. 174. to The two methods I. same relation. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. Substitution. 21 y . 3.26. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. viz. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. are simultaneous equations. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. the last set inconsistent. y = 2. unknown quantity. 6x . ~ 50.X.3 y = 80. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. and 3 x + 3 y =. = . for they express the x f y 10. cannot be reduced to the same form. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 172. Therefore. 4y . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.130 170. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 26 y = 60. The first set of equations is also called consistent. E. of elimination most frequently used II.
preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 64 x = 040. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. = 406.3 1 = 47. y = 1. Check. 10 . whose coefficients In general. subtract the equations. 25 x . x = 10. 3y = 3. Therefore Check. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Transposing.3 y = 47.2 = 6.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). + 2. = 235. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 37. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 8 2. x = 10. are like. 60 . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. add the equations.14 =8. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 5 13 .
9 1 r 20.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. O t K 8. = 6. 13. [2o. I i 3 a. x 11. 7 ' 1fi fl . = 24.f2/ ' = 50. f 3# ?/ = 0. i 3. ' 12.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4. 13 61 l7a. = 41.5 y = 2. * + 3 y = 50. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.9 *. .3.v 23. J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I ~ y~~> 22. _.3. v ^ = ll. + 2/ 17. I oj 5y = 17. 19< I a. I . f 3X 7x 14. ] ^ .
. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 60. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 2y + 10. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. and solve the resulting equation. 8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 2. x ) ^"" 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 4#8.
3 (1) Ex. x = l. 4* + 3y = 19. 3. 2 y = . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 29 x = 29. + 212y4 = 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. From 9 = 36. simplified before elimination is possible. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 7 y = 6. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. (4). 7x_2y=3.6)7(y7)==18. \ \6(a. . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. however. Substituting in (6) . (7) (7) (8) . 21z6y=9.3.
16. 10. a.1) = 121. 12.f2 2. = 3. yM a. 10 2a?5 17. . . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. a. . 14. 4 11. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. +y 2 . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. J 9. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) + 5(6 y . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.
f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.Q ^ 4 21. * ((* (( . ?~y . 22. {. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. and y. <X + 20. but some expressions involving x. . 180.and x y .#. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 3x\" 1 23 24. e.
(2) (3) a. 2* * x 2.3 xy. y. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). x 3. can also be solved Examples method.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1). y 4. of this type. 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . . Therefore y=4. Clearing of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . however. 33 = 11 x. 15 y + 8 x .4 x = 4 xy. Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 1. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. etc.
138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 1. Ex. x y 5. 21 9 . 10 " 12 25 U y 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.= o 6. 253 7. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13. x y 331 9. 6.= 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). n. = en. . 6w3 + bny = 6p. x 8. y MOi y a.
fax f = l. apan cm. and I. x f my = 1. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.W. ap. ny = fy/ I sc 1. . w. a Find a and terms of n. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. 6. . x a. Dividing. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. x 12. s in 11. . d. W .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 6^ [ nx f my == m.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. Uniting. ax + by = 2 a&.y = = 9a + 46. d. 14. f 5. bmy bm}y ap cm.
the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.25. y =* 2. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.by 2.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.2 + 4. 182.2 + 3. 3y = Hence Check. 4. (4) (5).16. 8 x . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.3 = 8. 1. Ex.1+4.12 y + 6 z = . ties are Similarly. f 3y 12 =s 8. 6.13. x + 12 y . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). l.lf> z .8 = 1. 20. 3. To solve equations containing By tions. . (8) 2. etc. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 4.15z=12 Adding.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). by 3. 3.3=4. 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. = 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. = 30. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.
2 4. x 13. == 6. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 49. + y f z = 15. 4 = 42. a? 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 10. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? + 709 = 26. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 15 2 = 45. 2 . 7. 12. k 2/ f 2 x a. 14. 2z = 40. ~6?/ 5. 8.
(3 _. 32.. 1510 4 17.42 = 2. 19.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 84 21. ^ = 2. 60. .3 y + . ?/ 3x = 0.2 a. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. = 5. 16. ? = llz. = 8*. =s 20.6 2. 23. . . 4. 22.
Find the number. and if 396 be added to the number. y 31. the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + z = 2p. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. however. 2 = 6. 2 = 1(1+6). . = l.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. ( 99. . 1. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. y * z 30. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Ex. Obviously of the other . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . + 396 = 521. and to express In complex examples. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. +2+ 6 = 8. = 2 m. M=i. Check. 1 digit in the tens place. x : z =1 : 2.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. z + x = 2 n. 1 = 2. symbols: x + y +z 8. # 4. either directly or implied.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 5_ _4_ A. x 3x4y = 12. = 8. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Find the fraction. y = 3. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 3+1 5+1 4_2. By expressing the two statements in symbols.144 Ex. Or (4)2x(3). we obtain. x 3 = 24. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Since the three men traveled the same distance. (1) (2) 12. increased by one. 6 x 4 = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. the distance traveled by A. direction. = the fraction. 2. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. . 4 x = 24. x y = the = the x denominator . = Hence the fraction is f. Ex. C. 2. B.
the fraction is reduced fraction. part of their difference equals 4.}. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. A fraction is reduced to J. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 2. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the numbers. 7. both terms. number by the first 3. Find the fraction. its value added to the denominator. the value of the fraction is fa. 1. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 6. 5. and the numerator increased by 4. and the fourth 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. 183. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. it is reduced to J.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If the denominator be doubled. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.) added to a number of two digits. added to the numerator of a fraction. If 9 be added to the number. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the number (See Ex. Find the number. Find the numbers. ? What 9. the Find the fraction. . the fraction equals . If 27 is 10. the digits will be interchanged. fraction is reduced to \. and its denomi nator diminished by one. tion ? 8.
and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and partly at 4 %. the rate of interest? 18. Find their present ages.grams. 13. How 6 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. A man invested $750. 14. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find the rates of interest. and 4 %. A sum of $10. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . the annual interest would be $ 195.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. . What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and money and 17. now. partly at 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains.000 is partly invested at 6%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. 5 %. 12. respectively ? 16. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and in 5 years to $1125. 19. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the amount of each investment ? 15.
A farmer sold a number of horses. then AD = AF. the length of NOTE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. 25. BD = HE. B find angles a. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and angle BCA = 70. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. Find their rates of walking. and their difference by GO . and F. BC = 7 inches. and angle e angle/. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and CE If AB = G inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. An C touch ing the sides in D. ED = BE. c. and e. andCL4 = 8. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. but if A would double his pace. what is that = OF. angle c = angle d. respectively. receiving $ 100 for each horse. the three sides of a triangle E. is the center of the circum scribed circle. . In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. On /). 1 NOTE. cows. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. points. BE.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and F. 24. 23. for $ 740. and sheep. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. E. and $15 for each sheep. . are taken so ABC. and GE = CF. triangle Tf AD. BC=7. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. three AD = AF. $ 50 for each cow. and F '(see diagram). and AC = 5 inches.
is the abscissa. B. Thus the points A. and point the origin. the ordinate of point P. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. The of Coordinates. and r or its equal OA is .. 3). or its equal OM. It' Location of a point. first 3). PN are given. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). 2). the ordinate by ?/. (2. jr. PM. (7. ?/. YY' theyaxis. and PN _L YY'. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. . (2. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (3. and PJ/_L XX'.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PN. is The point whose abscissa is a. 186.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. and measure their distance. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.1). (4. 4) and (4. (2. 3). 2. 4). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. Plot the points: (4. (5. (0.(!. 1). 4). 4) from the origin ? 7.e. 3). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 11. 4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. . 6. Plot the points (6. What is the locus of (a?. !).4). 1). 6.) EXERCISE 1. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (4. (4. 0). whose coordinates are given NOTE. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.and(l. (0. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (3. 0). 2J). (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Graphs. Plot the points : (0.2). (4. 3. (1. 0). 71 2). . two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 12. which of its coordinates known ? 13.3). 8. 0). 2). 2). 3). i. (See diagram on page 151. Plot the points: (4. (4.
Thus the first table produces 12 points. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 1. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 188. or the curved line the temperature. we meas1 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. may be found on Jan. C. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . D. 10 . . 15. however. from January 1 to December 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. A. By representing of points. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. B.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds.
The engineer. . the rise and fall of wages. physician.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the matics. (b) July 15. the merchant. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied. (d) November 20. (c) January 15. Whenever a clear. and to deduce general laws therefrom. as the prices and production of commodities. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. uses them. etc.
At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . When the average temperature below C.152 2. ? 9. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. 1? 11 0. 1 to Oct. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 15. is 10.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. ?  3.. on 1 to the average. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. How much. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (1) 10 C. (freezing point) ? 7. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. During what months above 18 C. (d) 9 0.
09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. NOTE. Draw . Hour Temperature . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. 20. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Draw a graph for the 23. transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1.
The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. binding. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. x increases will change gradually from 13. etc. e. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. . the daily average expenses for rent.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. then C irJl. if he sells 0..5 grams.50. 9. 28. 190.154 24. books from for printing. x* x 19. 1 to 1200 copies.g. the value of a of this quantity will change. 29.50. 3. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.) T circumferences of 25. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if each copy sells for $1. x 7 to 9. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. represent his daily gain (or loss). Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. amount to $8. gas. function If the value of a quantity changes. 4.inch. and $.. 26. A 10 wheels a day.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 3. etc. to 27. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2. 2 . 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.
to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 4). Graph of a function. 2 (1. for x=l. 1 the points (3. a*. . be also represented by a graph. Draw the graph of x2 f. The values of func192. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. may. and (3.0). and join the points in order. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . J). 4). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. (1. (2. 9). 3 50. x a variable.1). however.g. as 1. If a more exact diagram is required. 3 (0. ( 2. is supposed to change. 2. 2). may . 9). (1^.2 x may 4 from x = 4. while 7 is a constant. it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. E. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. construct '. Ex. Q.e.1).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. plot points which lie between those constructed above. etc. to x = 4.
if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 1).. = 0.) For brevity. as y. (3. = 4. (2. (4. 4J.20). . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. rf 71 . straight line produces the required graph. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. j/=3. 194. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.. Ex. y = 6. 2 4 and if y = x f. Thus 4x + 7. 2. r */ +* 01 ..4). Thus in the above example.2 x . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. and join(0. 5). 7 . 4).. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. etc.
19. 15. 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (C ) (2. 2 2 a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. + 4. 2. 2 a.5)2. 3. 4 a. 2J. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a? 2 4. 2 2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 8. The values of a*. (7i) (c) 23. 2. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 12. 9. 4a? I. xl. The values of a?. J. 2x + 3x a?. = The values of a*.8)'. i. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . l. from x VlO'S". ?/ a. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0.5)2. the function.e. a* 13. if y = 2. The smallest value of the function. a?. 23x. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if a. 6 fa. 6. = 4. (If) Va25. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 1 8 10. if the function equals zero. a? 1. 3. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 3 a 8. 1J. . (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. if"a. xz + x. 2J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 16. (ft) (_ 1.or. 1J.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. Jar . 5. fa 17. 11. 7. 1J. 14. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 2 a. 22. a. 18.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. . x+1. 21. a ar. y = 2x = 4. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2 or 2 20.
24 or x = P and Q.. C.. 1 C. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Therefore x = 1.e. Show any convenient number).. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. i. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 9 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. then y = . A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.where x c is a constant. the abscissas of 3. 32 F. 14 F.158 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. that graph with the o>axis. then cXj where c is a constant.24. .) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 25. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. y= formula graphically. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Represent 26.
10. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. = 0. 0. 13. Such equations in general have two roots. 6. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (a) x2 = 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. + + = where a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. a2 2a.f 9 = 0. (a) (6) 9. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.7 2 a 5 = 0. 11. 6. 7. 2 and 1. 14. or 5 2. (0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 197. . An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. crosssection paper is used. 12. viz. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 3. 4. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. is called a quadratic equation. 8.
(f . 1) and 0). locate points (0. produces the 7* required locus. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. y = l. fc = 3. first degree. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. 4) and (2.1. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . i. X'2 Locating the points (2. 2). Hence. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. NOTE. T . If x = 0. y= A and construct x (  graphically.2 y ~ 2. Hence if if x x  2. = 0. and join the required graph. ?/. Hence we may join (0. == 2. if y = is 0. ?/ =4 AB. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 199.2. 0). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.e. Ex. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). . 3x _ 4 . y y 2. Ex. solve for ?/. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. unknown quantities. and joining by a straight line. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. because their graphs are straight lines.
1=0. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). equation x= By measuring 3. 202. AB y = . The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. parallel have only one point of intersection. To find the roots of the system. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Graphical solution of a linear system. 203. 3. P. 201. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). viz.57. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. we obtain the roots. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.15. and CD. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. linear equations have only one pair of roots.
Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. i. Inconsistent equations. if x equals respectively 0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). and + 3).g. e. 3. 3. 4. the point we obtain Ex. Solving (1) for y. (4. 0. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 2. x2 . 1. V25 5. the graph of points roots. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. we of the + y* = 25.5. etc. 5. they are inconsistent. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. . 4. and joining by a straight line. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Locating the points (5. The equations 2 4 = 0. (4. P graphs meet in two and $. 4. 5.e. Measuring the coordinates of P. 4. 4.. 2. There can be no point of and hence no roots. = 0. 0) and (0.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3x 2 y = 6. (1) (2) C.0). which consist of a pair of parallel lines.0. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. In general.5. 0. 3). Locating two points of equation (2). 2 equation x 3). and . 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. intersection.9. 4. (2. y equals 3. 1. AB the locus of (1). 3.y~ Therefore.  4. Since the two  we obtain DE.
'163 Dependent equations. 19.. a. . 16 22. and solve each If there are no solutions. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. \ 2x + 3^ . state reasons. if possible. 16 23. y = 4. 10. 7. 2x 3?/=6. and. the graphs of the following systems. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 8. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 3. a+r/=6. y 2 4. vice versa. y= a2 2x y6. Draw system. 20. 6. x~y=0. 17. 5. y=x + 5. 9. 4.
30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24. 3 31. 25.14 y = . 28.y). 29 . 4 a = 3(6 . CUBES. 26. AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.8. TABLE OF SQUARES.
a = a3 . . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.a2 . follows that 3. 2. ^4/? it According to 50. powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 3 f a = f a = +. Law of Signs. 2. ( a) is positive. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 52. involution repeated multiplication. a special kind of product. is may be by 207. on to in factors 4. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. etc. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. According to 1.faa a a a Obviously 1. fa. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 8.
3 2 2 8 . 2. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 6. the required power.166 To find To To power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . . (2ar). 15. 76 : (>y.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 210. raise a fraction to a power. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 . (a ) 2 5 . V V/ 13. 4 /2mV. \ 3 J '  MW 10. a product to a given power. (277171 )*. amVy) 3 . (a ) 2 4  3. 24. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (^^) 2 . 4. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) . 16. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 5. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.
3 y. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.y) = (3 y?y .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 2. . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . + 4aj) 3 . pansions. 21. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. a. 18. 3 . 16.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 12. An 1. = s= (2s) 8 a. 8 (a??/) 3 . (a + &)8 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . : a 20.INVOLUTION Ex. (3 x . 2.6 2 8 ft) . (5 (1 a) 3 . +5a) 22. 4. Ex. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 23. 2 .) 14. 211. 1 f 3 2 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . nent of the binomial. are obtained by multiplication. 13. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 7. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 5. frequently called ex. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.y . 3 8 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 1. 6. (3af26) 8 . The higher powers of binomials. 9. 15. 3. + a 2 a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (aj7) . (afl) . etc. 8.
10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 15. (l 8 . (p + q) 4 * 7. (1 + 4 ?/) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (tff1) (cfd) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 2. Ex.2. 4 (1for) 5 . . 4. 78 s . . 1. is the coefficient of the next term. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 17.168 3. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. and the powers negative. 5. Ex.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . . 23. (3a f5) 5) 4. (m fl) 2 20. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. . 4 . (m 5 I) 2 22. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 6. . 25. (a~^) 5 . (mJ) 4 11. 9.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 13. . 5. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. mn 5 2 5 ) . 3. Ex. (2 4. 3. 18. The minus.216 a^ 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (?>i?i f c)*. 14.a) 3 19.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . ( &) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (af 5) . (w 4 ?i) 4 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 24. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (2 a 4 . 21. (m 2 + n) 8 . (?/i~w) : 16. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 10. 8. (la&) 4 12. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .
Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. or 3 for (usually written 3) . etc. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. \/"^27=3. V \/P 214. which can be simplified no further. 4 4 . for distinction. 27 =y means r' = 27.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 109 . tity . or y ~ 3. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. (_3) = 27. 215. a) 4 = a4 . and all other numbers are. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 1. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and ( v/o* = a. V9 = + 3. = x means = 6. numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 2. or x &4 . Since even powers can never be negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. called real numbers. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.
5. = 19472. 2. 6. V36 9 4. V?. v/^i2 = a*. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.64 5 4 . . roots of the numerator \/18 . 3i . 8. Ex. 6 7 = 030. 8. Ex. Ex. 10.9 = 136.125. 3.201) = 2. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . = 199 + (_ 198) . 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. V5 v/2 7 2. extract the and denominator. 7. 6. 3/0** = am . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 2 . 3 33 53 . Ex.lL. . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. v/2^.4. To extract a root of a fraction. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Ex. 7 . 7. Ex 5 a" . = V26TIT81 = 53. EXERCISE 1. 79 2 v/2 5 . index.(. V25 9 16. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .  100 a 2 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.200 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. \/2 4 9 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 7 . To extract the root of a power. Ex. 4 v. 82 . 9. .1. 9. 62 = V2* . fy 5 3 .
6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . a f2 l 2 + l. 2. 31. V8. 2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . 33. 5. 3. 45 V5184. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35./).75.) by inspection. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. Find the square root of a2 .3. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . Ex.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 116. 1. V9216.6 tfif + 9 y = O .3 . ^40^4.EVOLUTION 171 28.4/. 32. 29. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 30.98. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.3 y2) ( vV . a* 4 8 2 . 34. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V20 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 6. . 2 .
a\b is the root if In most cases.2 ac . + 6 + 4a&. 2ab . 8 . 2 2 218. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 14. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.b 2 2 to its square. . The term a' first 2 . 15. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.> 13. and b. a f. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. however. and b (2 a f b).172 7. i. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ab + b .2 &c.72 aW + 81 & 4 .e. the given expression is a perfect square. let us consider the relation of a f. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . #2 a2  16. 10. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 12. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 11. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. mV14m??2)f 49.
8 /. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the first term of the answer. . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. First trial divisor. . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 6 a. 1. */'' . and so forth. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 10 a 4 8 a. of x. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. by division we term of the root. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Explanation. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. is As there is no remainder. Ex. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 . .24 afy* f 9 tf. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . First complete divisor. . and consider Hence the their sum one term. 219. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . The square . Second trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 1. 2. 8 a 2 2.
10 x2 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 2 4. 19. + 81 a 454 a + 81.25 x 4 4. 4 .6 . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 2 x2 3 2x. 20.9. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 18. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .12m 5 4. 9. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.42 a*& 4. 36it. .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 13#4 413ar 44a.162 a2 60 a10 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.16.12 m 4. 6 11.25.40 a 22 . 5.a 6 x*y 2 . 24. 15.73 a8 . 8.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 12. 729 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 3. 6.24 or .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 1 4. 10.20 o 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 17. > 7. 14.37 a ^ . x 6 4 4 0^4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 16.4 x 4. l 4. a? 2 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 5 4 16 4 iK . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 16x6 4. 436^?/469a.
the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the first of which is 8. a 2 = 6400. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the first of which is 4. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Find the square root of 524. of 10. 1. of 1. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. and the complete divisor 168. first . 2. and the square root of the greatest square in units. and the first remainder is. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000. etc.1344. etc. Ex. Therefore 6 = 8.000 is 1000. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000 is 100. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. As 8 x 168 = 1344.EVOLUTION 220. Find the square root of 7744. the square root of 7744 equals 88. two figures. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Ex. which may contain one or two).000.. of a number between 100 and 10. The is trial divisor = 160.176. = 80. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.
12.7 to three decimal places. places. The groups of 16724. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.GO'61. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . in .10.0961 are '. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.70 6. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. 3.
30. JT . 37. 5. 31. J.01.53. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.58 square 38. 32. feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. T\. 34. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. 1.22. = 3. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 13. . feet. 35. 39. whose area equals 48. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.1410. 33. 36.) 40.
quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. complete. 225. or equation of the second degree. is 12. but no higher power e. 2. x = + 2 or x =2. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 178 . quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Ex. x 2 7. Extracting the square root of each member. The 7 equation. = 7^ + 5.. or affected. 226. 6 y2 = 17. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 224. or incomplete. = 4. A pure. 1. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is A quadratic equation. Dividing. . Transposing. 6#2 = x* 24. This answer Check.g. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 2)* + 5 = 33. 2 ic = a.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ax Transposing and combining. 2. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). 15^5 = 6. 2 4fc 5' 18. 2 2 a. or Therefore. 16^393 = 7. 10. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4. 7 = 162. ' =: y? b* b . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . (a? 9. 5.25.2. o. Solve 179 . 8. 7. 0^ + 1 = 1. : 83 2. 19 + 9 = 5500.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 4 ax. . 3. .
and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. find a in terms of 6 . Find the numbers. If G=m m g . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 25. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 2 : 3. If 22 = ~^. r. solve for v. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. : 6. may be considered one half of a rec square units. then Since such a triangle tangle.) of their squares 5. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. . Find the side of each field. 2 . 4. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). its area contains =a 2 f b2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. is one of _____ b The side right angle. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 24. 26. 108. If a 2 4. EXERCISE 1. A right triangle is a triangle. ' 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. solve for d. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . solve for r. 2 . Find is the number.b 2 If s If =c . 28. 228. 3. 22 a. . 2a f 1 23. Find the side of each field. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 2. and their product : 150. 29. 27. is 5(5.
Method of completing the square. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. .) 13. 2m. Find the unknown sides and the area. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. x* 7 x= 10. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . and the two smaller 11.2 7 . sides. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 4. Find these 10. we have of or m = . is and the other two sides are equal. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. . 9. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. 24. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. (b) 100 feet? = . The area : sides are as 3 4. Solve Transposing. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Find the sides. radii are as 3 14. (b) 44 square feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. . and the third side is 15 inches. Find the radii. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . J = 12. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. To find this term. of a right triangle Find these sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. add () Hence 2 . 8.
Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.e. Extracting square roots. Transposing. Ex. or J.. = \ # = ff. 230. = x\ = 2. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .1.  \. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. adding member). 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 7 5 + 10 = 0.a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. 2 a* a. Uniting. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2  . a Clearing of fractions. Transposing. = 6. = . Hence Therefore Check. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a. Ex.x(l = . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.2. or x = 2. . (*~8) a = at . Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Simplifying.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.2 a2 . 62 x 5 = f. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. J. Therefore.
183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl . x .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root.
. =8 r/io?. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula. =0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . \bx\. and c in the general answer.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 231. 2x 3 4. ao. 49. x la 48. article. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.c = 0.
8. 5 x2 Transposing. 21.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 18. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. TIO. 17. 15. 16. 11. c p. 7^ + 9 x 90. 26.25 x. 2 a? = 44 x .4 4 5 . V^tT)* . 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 10. 2or } 5o. = 12 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. ?i 2 . 2 a. 2. 6 . 19. 20.15 x9 25x* = 21 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 9. 6. 7. 2 o.. c = 5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 6 Ex. Reducing to general form. = 64120?. a. 13. 1. 14. 2 . 6^+5^ 56. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 3.  . 6. 4. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 12. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2.
any degree. }. Transposing. = 0. . Factoring. member can be Ex. orz roots. Bx 1 1. 27 x== 42a. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.4) = . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 1. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 3x?+x = 7.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.5) =0. a=:i^^. 25. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Clearing for fractions. (5 a? !)(.2. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . if either of the uct is zero. Eesolving into factors. 5 = 0. x(x <2 . 2S3x 1 2 . = 0.5 Solving (1) and (2). or # 5 is zero. ar>8o. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. x2 = 1 . all or. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. and 6. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 23. 5) = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. factors Now. 24. = 14. = 0. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. transposing terms to one member. 0. 26. 233.x. Solution by factoring.
3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. The equation I.:=0. 0^ ar> 11. 4. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. + 100. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. : 87 = 0. 3 or 2 a. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.g. 3. we 9 obtain x 4. 5. Or Hence the 234. 12. 4or + 18a f 8a.(.24 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . a?. } 2 2 (5 . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 6)=0. 8.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 7. for a: . 4)(z3) = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 8=s: 7. a* 10a=24. 3) Factoring. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 9. (aj4)(a.6)) = 0. + 10 a = 24. 5 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 13. is 5) = 0.= 24. 3) = 0. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. O roots are 2. 14. 16. 2o3 f9a. 2. E. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. x2 f 2 x . 2. a?10a=:24. Ex.3)(x + 3 3. 6. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3^ = 0(1106).e. 0(02) = 7(02). 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. aj( 15. 3# y 5 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.
25. 27. 50.188 17. 19. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 20. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 18. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). (a + 1) (a. uz + u 21. ara + ft + c*. (2a? 3) (a 24. '3a!J  . 22.3) = (s + l) (3 a). a 2 =(x a)b. 23.
0. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 8. 7. of their reciprocals is 4. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.3. 56. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. . feet. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 1. and whose product 9. EXERCISE 1. 2. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.9. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 55. 4.2. two numbers is 4. The 11. G. Find the sides. 2. 1. and whose sum is is 36.0. and the difference Find the numbers. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. The difference of . PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.1. 2. Find the number. and equals 190 square inches. 54. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 57. : 3.3. 5. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and consequently many prob 235.3. number by 10. 58. 52. 2. 3. 5. Find the numbers.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.0. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 6.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 14. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for 21. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. sold a horse for $144.190 12. Find the rate of the train. as the 16. he would have received two horses more for the same money. ply between the same two ports. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. Two vessels. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. . 13. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 19. watch for $ 24. 15. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. other. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. If he each horse ? . 17. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. dollars. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and Find the sides of the rectangle. ABCD. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4.10.
How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. By formula. of the area of the basin. the two men can do it in 3 days. how wide is the walk ? 23. or x = \/l = 1. Find and CB. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 237. 1. (tf. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. ^3^ = 7. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.) 25. a point taken. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 24. 27. and working together. so that the rectangle. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Find TT r (Area of a circle . Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. as 0. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. contains B 78 square inches. . Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Ex. constructed with and CB as sides. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 23 inches long. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.
a4 5o. 18. 10. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Solving.)+72=0. 4 : 89 10a. a? 15 1=2*. 7. y8)=0. 8. 2 16 a^40 11. = 1. Ex. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 4 a. a 21or=100. = 13.192 238. T 17. 4 6. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 9.2 =4. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a. 16. Hence Le. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. or y = 8. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. aV+9o 4 =0. 19. 6. 2.T 2 2 . 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2 h9:=0. 12. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. >. 436 3.
Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 240. the roots are real. a perfect square. and unequal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . is 4ac not zero. Ex. and equal. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are equal. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. . The discriminant =(. the roots are rational.5) = 04. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. ( 2a Hence 1.f> = 0. the roots are unequal. the roots are irrational. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Ex. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. rational.12 x + 9 = 0. rational. 2. negative. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . b 4. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 3. 241.bx 4. the roots are imaginary. c the roots are real.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Hence the roots are real.2 z .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Relations between roots and coefficients. 1.
. 3a. = 5x. x2 7 10. 4. 17. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. ^12. 2a 4z5 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2 : 3. 5oj aj + l = 0.g. 12~x = x 2 . EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. lla. 23. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. + 2a. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. o. 5aj 9. 60 2 = 0. + 18 2 8. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. = 0. + 12 2  .19 # 20.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 21. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. = 0. 14. their product isf. 15. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. = 0. : a 2 . 2 a. 18. tfmx+p^Q. 2 7. 24.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 12. 22. 6. = Q. + 2a15 = 0. 2. 9a3 = 0. f 2 E. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term.
* III. must be *The symbol smaller than. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. no Fractional and negative exponents. that a an = a m+n .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. (a m ) w . hence. = a"" < . m IV.a" = a m n mn . The first of these laws is nition of power. ~ a m f. Then the law of involution. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. > m therefore. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. while the second of the first. however. 244. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. II. It is. for all values 1 of m and n. such as 2*. a m a" = a m+t1 . and . We assume. provided w > n. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (ab) .
25. etc. 23. 4~ .g. 28. . 30. as. 29. ml. '&M A 27.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. a\ 26. n 2 a. laws. a*. Assuming these two 8*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. = a. at. 0?=^.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. (xy$. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. fractional. or zero exponent equal x. a?*. 31. 245. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 3*. 24. m$. e. disappear. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. (bed)*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . a .
g. 42. 5 a* = 10. 246. hence is . \/xy \/m. Solve the following equations 39. 3* = 27. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 46.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 50. 37. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*.g. 38. Vo5 . = 2. however. 41. 43. 48. If. = 2. the base is zero.\/n. 45. \fi?. a . Let a = a. v/o&cT 34. v'mT 36. : 197 33. : 2' 4* = 4. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 40. 44. e. e. 7z* Find the values of 47. = 49. a. 27* = 3. 49. a * a2 Or a=l. a* * = 3. equal to unity. 35. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. To find the meaning of zero exponent. ty?.
Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.g. by changing the sign of NOTE. . or the exponent. etc. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . 248. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. vice versa. Or a"# = l. an x = a. cr n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.198 247. Let x= or".2 = a2 . e. consider the following equations. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Multiplying both members by a".
rfS. ^?2 y' 34. c 32. 66 45. a^ 41. 37. 22. f (2w)~i 1 . : or 5 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 39. 2 . m . 27. . ^L."* 38. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2m~i 43. a. 40. 36. 25. 44. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : mi m~^.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 7~ l a 2b 2 . . * 24. 2 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a? * 42.
26)* 1 (I) 2 . 55. + A_.6).001.343)* + (.1. (. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 53. = 5. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. Ex. 47. 59. ar = i. 54. = l.9*.008)* + A. 250. 48. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . z* = 1. = ^.81 f (a . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 10* 5* = .(. + 1~* f 21 . 61. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 58. z 5or*=10. 57. = . 10* Find the values 56. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 1. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 49. of: 3ll4~* 60. . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 17' 2 51. 52.
/ 7fv 7.&. 4 x^. Perform the operation indicated.. 6a. are performed. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. ' 11. remove the fractional exponents.$*.5. 18. 3.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .7W. etc. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7~ 5 27  . 4 5. S'sS8. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. . 7~ 6 . OA 20. Remove the negative exponents. 16. 12. . 10.^/5^5.4 a8 . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3 a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. #* a. 27  28. NOTE.4 . 16. 6 *. 14. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.6 *' 6 *25. 8 ' 9.3 aj" a. 79 . 7*. 23. 26. 72 . 3sVS.7*. (d) If required. .$".7i. V5.5a. 6. &.&. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 13. 95 ^9i 5**. a. 7. 17.
1. If powers of a?. 2. 34. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The 252. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 40.2 d . 6 35.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. Arrange in descending powers of Check. powers of x arranged are : Ex. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
36. ^2. 39. 37. 40. subtract surds. 2\ 3*. Ex. v/3. \/5. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. + .10 V2 =  V2. 38. V2.2 V50. signs. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. </2.e. I VJ + 3VT8 . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^30. V3. 33. 28. ^7. ^4. 3. V2. ^4. ^6. 5V2. s!/3. 31. Simplify V + 3 VlS.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. A/3. ^/IT.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 29. ^2. V5. Ex. </3.3\ . ^2. VS. A/2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 4^/4. connect them by proper 1. V2. ^3. if dissimilar. \/7. in order of magnitude : \/7. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^5. 30. 27. v/3. 26. Simplify V~ . </20. Arrange 35. v^S. ^126.2. 32. (i. 34. V3. To add or form. v/4. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.
11. 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 4V805V45. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 6. 3. 8. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V175V28+V634V7. 10. 4.J a6 V4 aft. 9. 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 13. 6. + 3V835V2. . 12. V18+V32VT28+V2.3V20 + 6V5.
Multiply V2 by 3\/l.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. y* = Ex. Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 3.6V35 106 460V35100 . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. and then multiplied. 2. 6*. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.2v/6 + IPV6 105. . 1.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 23. Ex. 26^ .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.
(2V3) 8 . 3. 6. 39. 6 V4 5.VSS. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. v/18 v"3. 19. V2aV8^. (5V22V3CVS)V3. \/3 \^). (6V23V3)(6V23V3). V42. 13.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 34. 6. 213 98 11. 21. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 10. (V6 + 1) 1 . VTO. 38. 9. V3 V6. 41. 37. + VB)(2V5). 4. Vll. VlO V15. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 12. 18. 40 10 30. V20 V30. 7. 2 . 27. V3 Vl2. (Va Va 36. 40. 28 . 25. aVa. v/4. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (3 20. V2 V50. fWa 17. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 2. . a?. 15. 14. 8.^/2.
it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. . 44. Va v/a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . V3 . (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 60. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.y. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 53. Ex. (5V2+V10)(2V51).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 52. Ex. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (2 45.214 42. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. E. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). a fraction. 46. the quotient of the surds is If. is 1 2. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. 51. 48. 49. 43. 268. all monomial surds may be divided by method.
1. metical problems afford the best illustrations.by the usual arithmetical method.g. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. is illustrated by Ex. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. e. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. . /~ } Ex. . Evidently.73205.. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.RADICALS This method. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. by V7. however. arithTo find. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .57735. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 3. The 2. Divide VII by v7.
20.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 272. 7. and Given V2 = 1. 21. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V5 270.2361. V2 22 . Vll 212*. V8 JL. 14. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.. V48 25. VffV?. ^/H . V5 = 2. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. . . V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.4142. 271. 23 .7320. A. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. i. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 = 1. V3 24 .
2. 1. Ex.vffi^T _ . 3. .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .Vs2 .RADICALS Ex. Ex. s Simplify a.= 18.1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . . V82 2V3 1fVS .
J?_. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. = V3 = 1. find to _!_. 19. 27.4142. V21 = 25 . it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. : and V5 = 2. Given V2 1. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. 6V7. By the use of fractional exponents . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.218 6 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.7320. 24.2361. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. v 2V3 28.5 3 = 125. four places of decimals 23 . Vo1 26.W3. .
we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 5. 4. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. According to G3. 3. 2. viz. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Simplify Ex. . 3 (V2~u)  7. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 1. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3.RADICALS 219 274. \/l6*. it to this form. 11. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V643 . v8f 2\/15. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2 12. 9. 2. V255 . on the other hand. the If. 8. \/125" .
2.220 Ex. ^TT.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vll .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. Find V4 + VJ8. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .2 \/20. 3. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is 11. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. The Hence ^11 .6\/2 = ^9 .6 V2.A/2. +2 Ex. 2 \/18.
The value x =2 reduces each .V48 4 20. 19. they are transto formed into rational equations. +=.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 277. are radical equations. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Before performing the involution. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.. Ex. = xa + 4 x f 4. i. V48 23.e. 5. Transposing and uniting. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. : 221 Vl32V22. VT . member to 2. first involution. 4. Radical equations are rationalized. 8. x2 = x f 2. by raising both members equal powers. . (2x xrf 1. 4x x = 2. Dividing by Check. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. r 22. a. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.1. Solve vVf!2a = 2. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.
V24~+~l = 0. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Transposing and uniting. a socalled extraneous root. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Extraneous roots. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. one root.1) = 0. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Transposing. It = 3 x . 5. 3. at . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. . tion which has two roots. 278. Dividing by 24. Factoring. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members. Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. V4afT~l.3. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. x = J.222 Ex. they may be extraneous roots. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . . Therefore Check. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. 2. the first member = V2. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. . 4#f 4 = 9. Therefore CftecAr. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Transposing and uniting. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. viz. viz. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. a. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Ex. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2.
(x x = 3. Squaring. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. Transposing. or x *j. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 2 Clearing of fractions. Hence x = the only root. + 6~ieT~3 . \ does not satisfy the given. Therefore. . .RADICALS Hence x If a. 4. both members reduce to 5. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Solve the following equations : = G. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .12 .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 223 x = 3.3) (2 x .2 r. Check. . Factoring. for it satisfies the equation . and to 5. If If x 3 = 3. x root of the preceding equation. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.47) = 0. Hence there is only one root. = 3. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. ViTie 4 z2 . NOTE. the right member = V2. equation it is an extraneous root. viz. is x V.
Solve af*.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring. Therefore . Ex.
y then x2 . 45 14VJB = . make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2_8z 440 = 49. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.35 = 0. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.f40= 5. 3. some of the roots be extraneous. _ 2 y . = 7.*2a. members of the equation were squared.i~24 = 0. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Q . x Since both =9 or 1. 4. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 2.8 z40 = 7. x + Vx a? = 6. = 26. x =6 or 3. 412a* = 16. 3 6.8 x + 40 = 36.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 2Va. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 5. .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. o. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. Substituting. 2. Vi 2 8a. This can be seen without substituting. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. Let 8 x f 40 . = 0. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. + 40 = 6. Ex.
f 18 = 24. a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. +3= 6. 12. a^x2 5 2 13. 18. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 15. +x . 20.226 11. 17. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 14. 16. 2. 19. 4 V SB* 4 a.a 440 = 35.
we make a? what the value of Q.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.2) Q .2 x 5 by x 3. to x we # = 2 3. Without actual division. If x* . find the remainder when m. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. Ex. ^ = 381+2. by dividing 3 x* f. Hence.2 + 4.360 = 244.4 a.2 + 80 = 12. if Q was known. = 2. a? R = x* . Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. ax4 4. 2. does not contain a?. Without actual division. could.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . however.bx? + ex2 4. 1." transposing. no matter If.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. even if Q is unknown. then (x 2)Q 0. 227 . " Or. 3 2 Ex. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. E = ax + &z + m) Q.
+ ^by x + b. if 8 42  .8. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 8. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. If the remainder is zero.8'= 0. fora?. + 6. hence (x divided by x 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + 7 = 632.g. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x* s 2 4. 5. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x m is factor of the expression. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. The Factor Theorem. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.228 282. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.g.3)f 11 =. the remainder equals 8 2 x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. } 2 by a1. 5 (4x . of the division 3) is m in place of x. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 43 3 E.4(. 2 j 7.949. 3.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.
show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a + 32. 21.9^ + 23^15. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 6. p 5^ + 8p 4. 106 division. _ .1. or x 4. factors of the absolute term.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.7 x + 15 = 0. Let x = . we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. f 15 does not vanish. Therefore x ( 1). 3. 18. or 5 4 + 3^ . then x8 7 x'2 4.r6 = 0. + 27 + 27.e. i. + ttt15 = 0. + 15. oj 5x2 f3a. 8. 7 46 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.12 = 0. & p*. 24. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a 2a + 4.1. 20. 3 2 : 7.12. a? 19. 9. 2m 5m . 8. 15. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 11.49 = 0.13m + 30 10. 5. 25. 229 1. Resolve into factors 4. 23. is a factor. The 5.7 + 16 . f 5. a 8a f 19 a 12. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 2 2. Factor a? 15. ^10^429^20=0. a^8^ + 19a. f 3. a 5x 6. are f 1. 17. m f m n 14. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 1. 1. a. . 2. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .
The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if n is even.y n is divisible by x f ?/. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.xy +/). It y is not divisible by 287. ar +p= z6 e. Ex. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 286. if w is odd. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. x* f/ = (x +/)O . xn f. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. By we obtain the other factors. 2. actual division n. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. If n is a Theorem that 1.230 285. xn y n y n y n = 0. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . : importance.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. is odd. 1. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 2." .g. For substituting y for x. 2 Ex.
26. Hence = (m Ex.= . a. y 3 +8=0. leads 231 is The first method. however. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 3. 28. 27. x3 8=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. preferable.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.i mn f w 2). f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . as 27=0.
x y. xywe have 3. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex.1. ==5 > 1^ = 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. Squaring Solve (1). xy are given. & + 2 xy + = 25. 290.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. however. can be solved by the methods degree. = 6. of quadratics. (4) Hence. * A I. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 232 . in general. to equations of the fourth few cases. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. + 6 a?V . If two of the quantities x f y. 4 xy = 16. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. 3. ' 10. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.g. r (" 1 = 876. = . F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. x and xy are not given. " "' "' { r 8. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 12. 233 y. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. I I x + y=7. 1. b=3. ^. but can be found. 108 2.
4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 3.  42 y + Transposing. ' ' . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. . Factoring. aj = 2. I* Jj ^ [. I x+y = a. x " (3) 49 etc.~ y = 5. 19.o 18. . 5. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 7 . Ex.. + 29 = 0.  f J.?/ i = 6. or y = 1 . or JJ.  . la. one linear and ne quadratic. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.i/ = r 13. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 6 "I 14. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 4 y = 20. r^ 2 as ] f.20) = 0.a. A system of simultaneous equations. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 2 (1) From (1) we have.
3y) : Factor (2). 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. Solve . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. If of the preceding type. 10.3 2x 2 Ex. 1. ':il e :) . III. ' x*. 9. 4 f + 2 y = 3. x2y. y* + 2y = 3. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). = 1 3 3. quantities.
2.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. j Substituting y in (2).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) (2) x x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 15 x2 . = Ex. } VI09. Solve 2. 109 a. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).
Division of one equation by the other. y? a? f . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A. 298. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. ' ^ 15.6.xy 4. 2 xy + y2 = 10.y = 7.!. Bxy9.125 ay = . (4) (3).SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. . and others not belonging to them.175 ay = 12. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).3^42^=43. E. " IV. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. 150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. f 1 150 a?. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices.
B. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. jc~ y = 9. Solve Ex.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. we obtain by squaring. xy. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. quadratics can be solved by ?/. at first it is unknown quantities. = 12 J. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. * ' 300. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . y = 3.. x 2 . (1 > (2) 1. we have from (1). 2. Some simultaneous ?/. Therefore x = 16. = 189. x +y y etc. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y . i ^ *>.
I e. 36* 2. 4. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence = V or = 4. [2x + : y= 17. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ . . M6. 6. 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 239 Ex.
16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 27. 19 ' 26. f 18. = y 1 y* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = 198. . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . .21 ^ = 15. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. * . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 25. + o5)(6hy) = 80.
33. 31. 32. ^ oo . etc. Q 7. . 7' j/ 39.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . = 48201. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . hence may be any finite number. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. finite  =x y if = x. as a . y % 9 f*K 36. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 30. or ~ indeterminate. 3 a2 38. .of  According to the definition of division. oo 301. Interpretation . 25 34. etc 302. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ~\ OK OO.
customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. . (a: Then Simplifying. great.242 303. it is an Ex. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. the answer is indeterminate. By making x any * assigned zero. TO^UU" sufficiently small. creases. Let 2. oo is = QQ. (1). without exception.000 a. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. The ~~f fraction . (1) = 0. equation. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . Hence such an equation identity. i. x f 2. and becomes infinitely small. 1. I. as + l. and . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. 306. i. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.can be If It is made larger than number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. be the numbers. = 10. 1. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. . of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.increases if x de x creases. is satisfied by any number.g. Or. (1) is an identity. ToU" ^100 a. or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1.decreases X if called infinity.e. cancel. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.e.
.8 x + 15 6. 2. = oo. Hence /. 1=0. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve . third and sixth parts. no numbers can satisfy the given system.e. 3. two numbers is 76. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve  9 7. The sum is of squares 2890.2 y = 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. is their 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. * 6. 42 and' their product is 377. z = 1 Substituting. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. and a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). y finite QO. EXERCISE 1. (2). 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve x a. and the sum of Find the numbers.
Find the side of each square. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find the edge of each cube. 255 and the sum of 5. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. and the diago(Ex. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.) 53 yards. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. of a right triangle is 73. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 6. Find the dimensions of the field. Find these sides. is is 17 and the sum 4. 146 yards. Find the sides of the rectangle. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. the area becomes f% of the original area. is 6. Find the other two sides. Find the edges. of a rectangular field feet. and the edge of one. 8. 148 feet of fence are required. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the numbers. 103. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the sum of ( 228. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 9. increased by the edge of the other. p. 10. equals 4 inches.244 3. 13. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the hypotenuse is 37. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. two numbers Find the numbers. 12. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. . Find the sides. 190.quals 20 feet. 14.
) (Area of circle and = 1 16. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. the quotient is 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. Find the number. . is 20 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and if the digits will be interchanged. irR *.) 17. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. by the product of 27 be added to the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.
to produce the nth term. 309. 3. each term of which. 3 d must be added to a. and d. series 9. The progression is a. f .7. added to each term to obtain the next one. + 2 d. 4.... The first is an ascending.) is a series.. : 7. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. of a series are its successive numbers. to produce the 4th term. (n 1) d must be added to a. Since d is a f 3 d. P. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 15 is 9 f. .. To find the nth term / of an A. An arithmetic progression (A. to produce the 3d term... except the first. 12. of the following series is 3. a 3d. P.. . to each term produces the next term. progression.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. . a. P. a + d. a f d. a + 2 d.. a 11. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 10. 16. . The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 17. Hence / = a + (n . 19. The common differences are respectively 4. 2 d must be added to a.1) d. the second a descending. 11..
5. if a = 5.. 19.PROGRESSIONS 310. 21. 4^. 24. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. 1. . Find the 5th term of the 4.3 a = l. . the last term and the common difference d being given... 3. 115. 8. d . 6. 9. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 5. = 99.' cZ == ... a = 2.8. 3. 5. 4... series . 3.. Find the nth term of the series 2. the term a. = 2. P. = I + 49 = *({ + .. of the series 10. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 3. 6. 2J. 2 EXERCISE 1. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . ? (a) 1. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 6.16. 2. 8. 10. 6 we have Hence . . 7. 1. series 2... 7. . 8. P. d = 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. 9.. Find the 101th term of the series 1... 3. 2. 7. 5. 1J. P. (a + + (a + l) l). . 99) = 2600..4. (d) 1J.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 5.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Adding.
and for each than for the preceding one.1 f 3. 13. 15. In most problems relating to A. 8. to 8 terms. to 15 terms. 22. 31. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .. . 2J.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. striking hours only. P. strike for the first yard. 11. 16. 16. 11. 18. 21.7 f to 12 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. hence if any three of them are given. 12. + 3. 2. . . to 20 terms. 15. 1. 7. '. 3. 7. 4. to 7 terms. Jive quantities are involved. . to 10 terms. to 16 terms. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 11. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . 29. . 15. 1. 1. 20. 7. 23. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 1J. . : 3. 11. 6. 19. to 20 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms.248 Find the 10. \n. to 20 terms. rf. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 12. Sum the following series 14. (x +"l) 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . (i) (ii) . > 2f 2. 33. 17.
34. Solving. d = 6. 122. = 1014. 144. Substituting in (2). From (1). The series is. hence n = 6. Find the series. 6. = a + (w. 312. 204 = ^ (98 . 67. P. 6 n2 .. But evidently n cannot be fractional. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A.1) . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. I. 45. if s = 204.6 n).. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. . = n(104 . = 144. J = 49. the and the sum of all terms 1014. The first term of an A. Findn. 204 = ^ (a + 49). n d. . P. 23. 1. I Substituting in (I) and (II). a = 12. = 1014. 78. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. Ex.104 w + 408 = 0. 111. is 12. the second one mean between the other two. l)e?. 100. a = 49 6(71 .6.PROGRESSIONS Ex.1). n = 6. = 13. or if x Solving. or 11 J. 89. #. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 78 n Substituting in (1). and b form an A. 2. 2 (2) From Hence (2).e. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 12. s 24ft last term 144. P. 133. if a. 56.~n~\ 408 6).
6? 9. Find a Given a = 7. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . produced. Find d. 3. n. 14. How much . n = 13. a+ and b a b 5. d = 5. ceding one. . and s. 4. 12. n = 16. Find?. Given a = 1.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 52. = 16. s = 70. 78. I Find I in terms of a. of 5 terms 6. f? . = 17. Given a = 4. How much did he save the first month? 19. 13. n = 20. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. n = 17. = 83. 10. has the series 82. 15. Given a = . 16. 8. I. 17. Given a = . n = 4. Find w. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n has the series ^ j . f J 1 1 / . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 11.3. Find d. = 1870. = 45. s == 440. Find a and Given s = 44. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. y and #f5y. 7. P. Find n. a x f b and a b. Find d and Given a = 1700. 74. T? ^. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. m and n 2. = ^ 3 = 1.
24. The progression is a. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . rs = s 2 . 36. 36. 36. is it (G. 12. P. of a G. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 2 a. 4. ar8 r. <zr . ar. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . E.arn ~ l . NOTE.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.) is a series each term of which. A geometric progression first. the first term a and the ratios r being given. is 16(f) 4 . P. 24. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. or. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 2. ratios are respectively 3.. The 314.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 108. I.. ..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . (I) of the series 16. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). +1. 4 (1) . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. or 81 315.. . 4. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .g.. If n is less : than unity. P. r n~ l ... .. and To find the nth term / of a G. called the ratio. .
676.. . 6.5. volved . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.288. ._!=!>. 8. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. whose and whose second term is 8. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 288. ? (c) 2. 1. r^2.. 36. whose and whose common ratio is 4. first term 4. Hence n = 7.. . 9. . And the required means are 18. 72. 2 term 3..*. I = 670. series 6. whose .18.. P. is 16. P. f.. \ t series .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. (it. is 3. . 144. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.18. 20.l.72. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.. 25. first 5. 18.54. 80. 9. . 36. 72. first term is 125 and whose common . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. fa. 0. a = I. +f%9 % . 3. Ex. . i 288. . P. f. l. Find the 6th term of the series J. (d) 5. series 5. . (b) 1.. 9. .. . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 144. 7. P.... .. Hence the or series is 0. or 7. EXERCISE 1. 10. 4. 4.. . if any three of them are given. 144. Find the 5th term of a G. hence. 576.5. In most problems relating to G. fa. Jive quantities are in. 36. series .4. . P. + 5.6. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.
1. to 7 ... a. 13. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 14. J..i a9 . a^. Given r = n Z 5. 23. 21. = 3. I. 36. 27. of r n decreases. to 6 terms. 20. 81. to 6 terms. 25S series : 32. . 4. 48.. 42. to 5 terms. to 8 terms. 2. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. is less than unity. 15. >"> . Z s. J. . J. . M. 243. 54. 81. . Find a and n = 4. r . s = 310. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. P. Find the geometric mean between 7.. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. . to 7 terms. 126. 14.. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.J and 270. Find a and Given r = 3.nV> i*> !718. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 72. .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find a and 4. may be than any assignable number. 1. 12 terms. 16 .. 12. 24. s = 605. n = 5. to G terms. 19. be written If the value of r of a G. to 6 terms. J. == 160. = 3. 22. and hence ~ r . n = 5. + 4 .
2. 3. 4..27777 ..3121212. 6. is 16. 100. 13. =A+ 10 i. = 990 . .. of an infinite G. 14. i. 4. 8. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.... 1..99 ... Hence . . 1. . . 1 r = .254 Ex. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.191919.01 ^ .3 + . .3727272 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of ... .. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 7. 5. 12... 10... r = j. 16.= _4Z* . 9. The sum r.072 + . 40..= . P. 1.. 12. Find the sum to infinity...555. of all squares ? . Find the value 9. = a . 250. .00072 f . 16.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one..1. If a = 40. . . . 6. 5. 9.)7?7272 . 8. ratio 15.. I. (6) the sum of the perimeters... .Ql. is 9. is J. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.272727.. 2.37272 .72.072. 66 Therefore . = . Given an infinite series of squares.717171.. of: 11.. . .. and the first term is Find 17. . P.. i i J. 1. . . what is (a) the sum of the areas.. P.. first and the common term. The sum Find the of an infinite G.. = .
16. 21. . 10. 20. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (s + i). . 15. . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.6) 20 . 26. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. (a + b) .6) . 28. l 2.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . (xy) : 6 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 29. (\ 9 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 13. . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 7 . 14.b ). 25.b) w (a (a f (1 . 17. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a 100 . coefficient of . 2 2 24. Find the 6th term of (x . a6 8 16 in . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 5.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. : (1 + xy. (a2) 6. 11. 12. 4. 22. 4 7. /2a+Y\ 8. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) .
 8 ^ 2. 2. 2. if y=2j 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. 2. 6. 4.f ac 1. 24 4. 3. 2. 1. 3. + 1. 2. 5. 4. = 2. 4. 2. 4. 3. 5. 3. 3. 3. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 1. 1. 7. if = = = 2. 3. y 3. 2. 4. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. 2 . (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 1. l. 1.c )(fta) 1. 3. 2. if = = 2. aft 3 + 4. 2. 1. 5. 4. 2. 1. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. . 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2. 2. 5. 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. . 3. 2. 5. (c 3. 3. 3. c = = = 2. 3. 1. 5. 5. 2. 4. 2. 3. 2. 3. 2. 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 2. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. + 2. c if 7 . 3. 1. 2. 3.  a)(a 1. ft) . 5. + 2. 1. 1.  2. 4 2. 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. ^+^ 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. a ft c = = 2. 1.  2. 2. 4. 5. 2. 3. 6. 6. + c(a  c).a(a 4. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 6. 6. 2. 3. if x^l. 4. 4. 4. 2. 3. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M.
3.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 1. x 3 11. 4 y 13. 9.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 41. 24. = 2.7 ys.7 y 2* 4.a) . 4. 7. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 29. + 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 10. c = 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 26. 17. 15.a8 . 1.  a) (c 2.2 z8 4 x.\ yz + xz.2 a?y + 3 aty . 2. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 8 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 8. x3 f 3 ax'2 .2. a 4 + 11 a .7 + . 7 xy 3 . 21.a 5 a . . 6. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. + 4 ?y .3 a?y . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. x = 4. + 1.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2. a: . 15. 2 . ~c)(b. 2  + 12 a 8 .8 3 + 7 x4 . 9. ' b) + 3. or . c)(x a} . b(x (b 1. a. 6 a4 4 a8 . 18.1. 5. 16. 25.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . . 5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 21. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .2 x?/. 3.8 + 2 // . 40. + 8 x4 *y . 2. + 3 y 2* .2 x2 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 x 8. 4.4.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. + 2.r 6 x  4 xy . 5.5 xy 3 + + 4 .2.a 4 .259 x c) . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . if a 6 = = c = 3. 5. 4 z . 12. 4.c' 2 4 / . . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. x C 4 4x y + . x 3 x' 14.5.10. 7y 4 . r> . f 8.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . a. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 20. (5. a /> 3.x 5 4 . x3 2 a2 . 4 x 4 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . .3 xyz.
2 .6 x ] . take the sum of G x 5 .c 4 3 a.4 ft) 4. 36. Simplify 31. ft. From of 2 the 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.4 Vl 4. c 4ft.3 x .c. 29.(5 c . Take the sum of 3 x 4. . c 4. 3 ft. c =x y }~ z.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.x .1).5.. . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. .27~~7)}]. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. ft 25.(5 y . = x y ft z.7.{2 x 2 . 4vTT~y 3. 33. .(4 * . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. x8 x2 2 a'2x.[4 x 4. 35.2 x 8y2 44 . 4 4 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 4 2 x2 23. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 34.{G * 2 .4.c.2) .2 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 7 12 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .1)}] . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .2 3 ax 2 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 0" 30.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . : a x .c 3 a.(a . 5 10 + 7 . .x . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.x 2 4. 4 .?> x 4 20.a ft. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .x2 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. a  ft + c. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(x* .3. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.5 . (*) a  c.(x 4. Take the sum 4x 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 5 10 4 G 11 4.#48.6T . 2 x 32. 4 3 5 y/ . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.(4 x 2 .8 3 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].3 . x'2 .] 26.x 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. sum of .4) .3 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.[4 z 8 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. f ft. 5 4 7 12 . and . 542 x 2 and . .2 a . of a.260 19.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.(7 x 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.
67.& + {. (1 ar+a.4 a .(7 a.4 a 2 + a 4 ).r 2:c+ l)(ar. 65.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 46. (4 + 3a 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).3).(4 d . 54.rf)} + a [. 13 a . 2 f [3 c 7 a .96 [17 a.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.ac . 68. 59. (x . 50.[2 .2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 'J 44.56.12). 2 ft 41.(2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .c).2 2 . (. (x. 56.2x + 3).(2 a + 5 a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).3 *).be) (a 58.(5 y . )(lz a ).JT^T+1)} + (2 .3 c)]. . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. + 4x + 5)(j.3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 60. .5 )}] + {4 c .{3 c .[4 x  5 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.6)}].REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (r (1 (a. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. .2a .(6 . 63.7).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (5 a 39. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 : 7e)a}].3)(*5)(* 7). 62.2 2 + 1)(7. a {.2 zz . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 49. .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 64. 45.a~^~c)K].(2 x2 .ab .(2 a 2 . 2 53. 3 x 42.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . .6c) (a + f c). 2 52.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 4 + 2 2 + 1).{2 a (ft . + *+!){> + 2). 57. (1 55. 51.0)} . .3 z 2 ).3c). 2 2 x + !)(* . (.(7 i + 4 r:) . 48. . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. . a .b (c .6 xy .c 2 . 43.2)(1 .5)} + (3 a 2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a . (/> 4 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.Z .1).{2 a .
z) .O (a 4(a 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).2 ft}) f (3 a . Prove the following 8 4.(c 4. .r 2 .z)(x y + z)(.:y)( a. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c . 4 4 . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 92. xy y 2 ). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).3y) a (* 2 4. 2 (x 2 .(/>  3 v)^(. b 4. 85. 77. (p 2 .ft) + 4(2 .(a 2) (s 4 ft.(4 .5 .2y)(.a) 2 .y + z)(x + y . (x (x ( + *) .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).y)\x y). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 2 + a 2 ).ft) 4 .c) .x + y + z). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .n pc). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . (.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 93. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 89.am&t 4 A 2 *).2 (a . 1).<f(p . 82. ft" l Simplify 80. f 72. 4.z\x 4. 75. 1).c) 4) (ft 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 86.c .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.2 (y 4. 94. 70. ar .c) j. ft 78.3 (ft .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 79.v) 4.c)} .y). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).9y2). ft ft ft a}.c)]. 76. 90. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. (a (2 b)*(a 4.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. ft 95.b 4.c) rr identities. 83. (a 2 ft 2n 4.6*y . 73.(a 48 8 8 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c) . 88. 74.3 a .(ft 4. 71. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. .m np c . 84.262 69. 91.c) 2 . 87. ft /. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.q).{3 a .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .
1). 120.27 x* . a*.y 4 ) . (80 a 112. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.35 x 2 2 ) . .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 102.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).1).y 4 . 122.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 114. 118. 2 (a+ . 121. 103.2y 2 4.(a 1 2 8 . 2 4 41 x 4a.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .3 a"+ 4.2 2% 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 25 4 . 108.) . r .(2 a 2 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 113. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.40 />) . 3*. 110. 99 100.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. .(7 xi/ .2 xy 8 . (2< 107. 106.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".5 xy).16 a 6 4. 109. 117.&). 105. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 26 (a 4 c). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).a".xy 4.4 aft .5 b*). (8 x* 115. 1O4.r 4 4. 10). [10( 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.6 y 4 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).b) 98.y 2 4.(x 2 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. (.9 x 2 . 124.*) (x 8 .v/ ~ // = a: . 123. 116.
(x .18 *&) (1 .3 a:). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.7) = 4 .4(0 x . (4 x .(j a? 144. x 147.3 x). 5 146.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . (*+ + . (5a: 150.1) .(x f 9).(x + 3) ] . 137.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2(5 . 136.7(4 * .5).3(* + 4) + 9} .r + 7[or .2) = 3 .27 a 3" .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 142.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).n .G) . .(1 .a:)]}.2(j: .9) + 3. .4) . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 10(2 x 141.5{. o o 140. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. . 128.5) = 12(4 x . 135.4) . 3) = x\x . . y (* l x.8 6 .2) + 2(ar + 4). 138. .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 148.r>) . 139. .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 5(2 x .3(2 z .3) = 12 .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 3(2 x 134.3). 129.2) (a: + 3). 149.19) + 5 = 4 .12 M 132.1) (a? .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 1) = 2(* . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 1) .9) 4. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 7(2 x . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 2 4(ar . 127. 143. 42(3ar 145.22.264 125. 126.3).2(4 .3) (3 x 4. .2(10 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2 7^~5] + 1).
166.24. sheep more than the 169. . =  (F 32).76.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 265 152.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 2 4 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. (x (x a.9) + (a..1) (s + 3).? . 157.3) (a: . (2 . 158. 156.a:) + 229.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. .T)O . these two angles would be equal. + 5) = (9 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. and the third twice as many as the first.25) 2 . 161. 155. . 160. 164. (a) If C.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .6 x) (3 . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 163.3) (3 .3) (3 .z) (4 . = 15. 159.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. (a .(5 x . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. + 4) (2 x + 5).2) a + 7(x .14) (a: + 3).19) + 42.2 x) (4 . The second contains 3 first. transformed into F.5) = (3 .1) O + 4) = (2 * .3) (j. (7 14 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.5)(.3) = (3 x . 5(ar x . f^ + ^sO.2).5(x . How many 170. (a. + 2) + (5 .8) = (2 x 4.2 x) = (1 . If the area of the frame inches.29) 2 = 1. will produce F. (3 O + .4) (a .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.5*) + 47.7) (a. + 10) (ar . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The sum What 171. 165.2) (j? + 1) + (x . 154. a: ar a. find the value of F.2) (7 *) + (*.17) 2 + (4 x .l)(z . 153.5 x) = 45 x . .r + 3) . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. = 2 C. 162.7) (1 x .
188. 179. 12 m. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. younger than his Find the age of the father. . The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 176. side were one foot longer. x* 185. respectively. 186. was three times that of the younger. Find the number. +x 2. z 2 92. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A each 177. How many are there in each window ? . 10x 2 192. 190. 4 a 2 yy 42. if each increased 2 feet. father. + a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. ll?/102. 189. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. . the sum of the ages of all three is 51.36. 180. A house has 3 rows of windows. power one of the two Find the power of each. 13 a + 3.56.266 173. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 187. 2 2 + a _ no. 15 m. z 2 + x . aW + llab2&. 3 gives the 174. same result as the number diminished by 175. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A boy is father. 178. number divided by 3. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. Find the dimensions of the floor. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. two boys is twice that of the younger. dimension 182. train. 181. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. + 11 ~ 6. 7/ 191. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. sister . and 5 h. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. .
10 xy. a a: a: 237. 213. 6 197. 2 x 2 . 267 199. 208. a: 236. 244. 239. 229. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 4 m +^. a. .12 * . 7x 2 225. 207. 246.(b + rf) 2 . 222. 2 2 y f 1. 60 a 2  a: // 205. ifWy+b.19 a . z + 5x 2 . + 198. . 212.10 y a x* . # 2  29 y + 120. *2 234.6 y2 + 4. y 2 194. + 3a 196. a^a 226. x 5 . (a + .1. x*y 223.6s.c) 2  (a . xm+l 243. 216. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6 2 ?/ . 4a 2& 2 241.6 aq . 2 200. x* + 8 2 + 15. 3y 2 + ary .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .22 z + 48. 233. 202.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 8 a: ar. a+a* + o a +l. 221. 224. 206. 3 x V . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. x 219. 195. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . a: 231. 2 .3 xy.64. + 2 . a.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 8 a. 24 2 + 2 . + 30 x.77 y + 150. wiy + la mx + aw. . 238.c) 2 . 215.28. 201. 211. 12 x +4. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a 2 .14 2 . 16x 4 81. 2 a 8 . . 23 12. a. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .r?/f y 2 9. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3 x 2 . 232.x + 1.3 c/> + 6 cq.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a: . 218. 230. a. 227. 210. 3 ap 2 . 3y 248.20 z 8 a: 220. z 2 2.6.19 z 4 204. 5 x 2.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 203. .21 a:  54. 2 a 2 . 245. 235.10. 2a te 3% ly 247. 209. . 7a 228. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . . 217. + 8.8 6 2.
x 2 f 9j: + 20.91.9 x .a + 2 4. 257. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .36. x 2 + 5 f .4. + 20 x 4.6 by.3. C. 28 2 f 71 x . 259. 265. 258. Reduce to lowest terms 271.3 abc . 2 x2 . . 2 + 7 r f 2.ry 21. 3 a% 2 . 252.120. 270.16 x .10. 254.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.15 + 30.4 ab + 1.80. of: 253. I Find the II.11 x f 28. 260. x* . a 4. + 23 x f 20. * a . x*y* 4. 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * 2 . 2 a. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 269.9 x + 14.9. x 2 + 4 + 3.23 x f 20. 1 x ar Find the L. 10 a.2 aft*.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 10 x 2 . 264. a? a: a: // 262. x 2 4.12.(55. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 2 8 . ft a.48 afy 2 .2/ 2 . + 8 x + 5. 7 ax 250.C. x 2 263.18 xy + 5. + 3 x + 2.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 3 ay 4. 5 x 2 256.ry .2 z .1 9 . * 2 .11 a 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 3 #2 255. 261. F.r . 22x2 a. 7 12 2 2 .M. a: . of: 266. + 8. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.3 x . 18 x 2 . 6. a 3 a 2 2 . 8 2 + 10 x .23 + 12. x* .8.13.15. * 2 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x 2 + 2 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . a. 30 ^ .&z.14 bx a%% 8 .x .10 a 4. x 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.a 2 />c 2 f 3.5 ab f 2.73 xy . 251. 15 # 2 z/ /.G7 x f 33.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. z 2 267. z 2 268.7 f 5.
8 . 289 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . a.ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . + ac . *2 " 2 + Oge.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . m 4.2c a: 282.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 285 z4 n* + a.!/. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL... y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.
^_2*(m 308. O(ca) 306. * 19 23 19(23 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. Lnl + ar 2 a. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. x 7. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . a (: a) (x 2. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .
+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 1 x2 + + a. 1 _.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (1 . _ x8 . . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.. 1a: + y a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . } .ft) 2 322. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. . 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. a: 1 313.
2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .V  + y  x 3y a . * 3a.5 a .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 20 44 333. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 lOx 5x.6* t 328.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. 250 5 10 2 325. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . a: 2 x* . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ ..2 +lOar 2 a.y20  2y + 4 2 .7 xy + 12 x . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .15 33 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.9 *// + 27 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.ll.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. . . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .
348. 7 ( ?f!?.) 2 . aj 339. ?_2 ^ . ** i.+ r .y. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 1 345. (aWi + iJ. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (a \ + lV. a>74 . 352. 5 343. \x yj 340. \5yl 341. f V. ' 2 "l 5 . w \.1V.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. + l + IV. ( 342. (ar \ 346. 338. if a = 3.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (af2/. 344. fl. xi 347. a: 349 _ o. +^ a: y x .r 5 2 . : 1+ i.. + ni + . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.
ar xy + yl x* 358.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. + x x a . 1+2 362. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. a2 4 . (~ 364. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359.
.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. b c 368. a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
__4 2x 3_ = !. 5 {2 x 381. . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. <3 378. J !__7. 379. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.*2 = 15. ^ . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . + 1) 45 O 377.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 4(* . 8  376. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5*8. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ .
_____ .  8 9* x ~r. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. .. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 399. 40.  J). a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. u '2 a. 3* 177. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.25. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.8 = .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). c . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). b 404. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).25 x + .. 397. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 ^ ~ a: a.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. a.5 x =r f . m x 398. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.147. ^ (a .75 x f . 401. 400.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. . + 4 a. 396. f 1 1 + a 403.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.2 a:  1.1 .6  .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .
(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.278 410.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. In a if and 422. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. Tn 6 hours . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. the order of the digits will be inverted. 421. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 411. (x . 18 be subtracted from the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.  a) 2 6 2a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. hour. 418 ~jo. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. and was out 5 hours. far did he walk all together ? A . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.c) . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 420. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.
431. b. 432. wi* + y= ny. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find the angles of the triangle. Find the length of the parts. find : a : c.46 2): (15a 2 .49 63). A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. a  t>. a + 5. and : b : c = 14 : 15. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 430.iand 22 22 I a . a. z 2 y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 2 2 8 2 . : If is one equal 434. Find the mean proportional to 429. y. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . : i. 3 and 1J. Solve 436. . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . x 427. 435. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Which ratio is greater. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. if . d. 438. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 428. Find the fourth proportional 426.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.a 2^ 8 + aft* . . 5 7 or 151 208? 437.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. If a b : =5 n : 7. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. . 433.& 5 ) (a 8 . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.6 8 ).
446. 453.11 y = 95. 5 2 = 7 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 21 7 = 27 + Op. ?/ 447. . 445. . 443. + 5y = 59. c.7 y = 25. 7 442. 454. 452. ft. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . /) ar a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 451. 3 .55 y = . Solve the following systems: 441. 450. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. The volumes If their diameters. 459. 7 a: . a: a: + 5y).. 7a?y = 3. 42 = 15y + 137. 444. .rf2# = l. 56 + 10y = 7a. 448. 9/> = 2 . 7jr9y = 17. 4 = 5 y + 29.(or l(*2y)=0.4 12 . if 2 ft : 439. 1(3  a. 3 a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 16.*.35. 15ar = 20 + 8y.11 7. 458. a: 2y= = 1 . 9ar7# = 71. 449. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 5z4:# = 3. />(. 455. 28 = 5 a . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 8 x + y = 19. . x + 17 # 53. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.89 = q. 457. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. . 8 . ft. = 25.59 = 3 z. 456.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 5x+4y=lQ. Find the value of a. a.
468. x y 474. ^ + i^ = 7. ax cx by = m. 8 461. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. i = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 473. 475. (or ..+ =2.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.7. ax by = c \ 472. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. _ 469. 465.2y) (2 = 2J. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .  = 2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. + eyn.c=563y.?/ + 1 .
A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. to . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 486. years.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. whose difference is 4. and in 18 months to $2180. Find the numbers. 483. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. and the other number least. Find the principal and the rate of interest. age. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. the Find their ages. How much money less 484. by 4. 481. 485. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 477. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find their ages. 479. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Find the sum and the rate of interest. fraction becomes equal to . If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the number. Find the fraction. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. A spends \ of his. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 487. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and in 20 months to $275. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the numbers.
5^ 9z = 10. a: f z = 79. a. 492. z y x 25 . 2a:f 7. 3ar 503. .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 8. 2 2 = 41. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 7. z y ifi = z x 502. 494. 4 506. 3 a: + 5=84. The sum of two numbers squares is b. . . x f y f z 29 .z = 20.5#+2z = $x a: G. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 4 497. a. y Solve : x +z= 5./ f z =a. 2 a. 7 + 2 z . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 20. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. a: 499. 496. : Solve the following systems 491. . 4z+3z = 20. = 15. 1. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. and the difference of their Find the numbers. of two the sum of the digits also if number. * + 425  = . = 209. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. ~ 507. 489. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. + y 5 y = 101 . a number . 495./ 504.? + 2y = 8. 493. 7 4#+ 3z = 35.z = 12. ifi = x a. 490. 498. 2/>3r = 4. 2 e. + # +z= 35. *i. 3 x 500. a: + // = 11. 1+1 = 6. . x s + y z = 18J . \ . x y f z = 13. 5 + a. 2y + 3a = ll.
i=a + 6 c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. z z =3a&c. + : = 1472. 523. + + 3579 2+?. 36 + c. !f == 2800. ll" . 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
they would have met in 2 hours. . When weighed in water. it separately ? 531. In circle A ABC. touches and F respectively. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and CA=7. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. if the number be increased by Find the number. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Find the numbers. M. Tf and run together. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. L. What are their rates of travel? . AB=6.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. B and C and C and A in 4 days. in 28 minutes. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. CD. E 533. 532. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 530. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 90. If they had walked toward each other. and BE. N. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. BC = 5. How long will B and C take to do . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. if and L. 527. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. AC in /). it is filled in 35 minutes. the first and second digits will change places. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals .
How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . i. x 8 549. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2. + 3. then / = 3 and write = 3. The values of y. c. FRANCE. 548. GERMANY. 536. 542.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x.e. 543. 550. formation of dollars into marks. 2. b. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. from x = 2 to x = 4. to do the work? pendulum. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.10 marks. 2 x + 5. d. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2 541. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 3 x 539. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 546. x 2 + x. One dollar equals 4.  3 x. 540. z 2  x x  5.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. the function. if x = f 1. x 2 544. 547. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. x*. The values of x if y = 2. The greatest value of the function. a. e. . x*  2 x.  7. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 2  x  x2 . x *x + x + 1. 545. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. .
 2 1 a: a. Represent meters. ' = 8.1 = 0. x 5 . \ to t = 5.6 + 3 .r a: a: x a. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. x 2 ~ 2 . c. e.4 . J. 565. 562. 566.0. 2 a. + 10 x . h.5 x . 3 x . z 4 . x 4 . .3 x . z 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5.11 x* + + 2 8 569.= 0.r 1 561.11 = 0. i. 2. x* . 2 8 . 557.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.7 = . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 558. Solve 552.4 = 0. Solve// = 0. + 5 . = 5. 555. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.r . c. 2 554. 15. 556. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 553.3 .3 = 0. a.4 x 2 + 4 . if y =m has three real roots. 564.9 = 0. 3 + 3 z . r?. 2 x 2 560.3 x . 3 x* . a? 4 x .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. f. . j. and make the unit of the b. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 572. 563. 3 . a: 559. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . If y +5 10. 18 x  4 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.15 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. a.G . 568.= 0.13 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a. 2 567.17 = 0. g. .
a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . + ^) + (air%)8.2 2 + y. a 612.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . . 598. : y* or 25. 585 594. 582.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 597. a:. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 588. 592. 64 a 12 603.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. a 2a. . f ?>) 3 591. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .frf : 583.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 4 . 595. 589. 593. 2 611. [ y =10.(1 . 600. a. 4 a.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + + 4 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. x + z2) 8 . (aiy. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 6 + 1) . + . 579. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. xY. x [ ?/ 577.5 xy = 0. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (1 + x a.%) 4 (aa. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . (a. + %) (a* + *) 5 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.x + 2 )'2 601. 608. 5 a*.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 604.4. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. jj+. 596. (1 (1 (1 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. (a  8 ft) . 2  100 aW + 100 aW.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 1 . 9  4 fSb 607. a: . 3 . 609. (# 2) . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 4 (1a:) 3.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 2  2 aa: 2 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 599. 3 (f.2 6a: + 30 &c a. j^f = 3. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a 8 606.
(x 9 x 646. 644. 651. 630.150. 49. 623.*. + 24 a 2 4 . = . 624. 626. 634. 0090. 647t x 2 648 649. find Jupiter's period. 2 + 189 z = 900. 615.2410. 625 : 621. x 2 641. Find the eighth root 617. 035. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .871844. 645. = 0. = 70. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 639.49. /.V250 . 636.12 a?y + y*. 210. 44352. V 635. 32 631. 633. 9a. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. VOIOOD + V582T09. V950484 . : 5.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 629. 638. 21. *+* = 156. 8*' + 24* = 32. 371240. = 87. 614.\/4090. 2.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. GGff. x 2 .2. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 637. 25023844. 643. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .191209. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 112 a 8 . 4370404. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 650. 494210400001. 628. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 622. 49042009. 942841. 4J.30.1024 x + a: 256. ft . 632. 40. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 620. + 54 'x*y* . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. + 2 21 x = 100. 9g. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 2 + 21Ga. Find the square root of 619. 7) 2.53 x ~ .15174441. a 642. 3a. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. According to Kepler's law.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2 2 697. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 692. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. . 694. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.ax .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . ex abc= fx 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.a a )jr .c = 0. 2 2 . 1 __ : )'*' _i. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. ax 2 698. 708. 699. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 706. 696. a. 707. 695. . 693. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. = 0.bx . 2 702.
Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. in value. and working together they can build it in 18 days. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. Find the price of an apple. 727. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 721. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 716. 723. 725. a: 713. sum is a and whose product equals J.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.292 709. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. .44#2 + 121 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 217 .25 might have bought five more for the same money.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 3or i 16 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. **13a: 2 710. 729. A equals CO feet. Find two numbers whose 719. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 16 x* . 722. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 717. 724. 12 4*+  8. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.
2? 50. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 31. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 42.1 + x.1 + c. 46. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 35. 1 6.aft* 1 + a 2*. 40.)(ai + &. 32. 36.X . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 34. 52. 39.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .l). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .2 ). n. (v/x). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 f ^ 2). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 37.1 f c" ). 33. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 43. .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 41. 38.2)(x2 4. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.
JU. 758. 761. 757. 2V2 2V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 754. 759. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. ~ r* x . 768.. [1r^ T 1 i . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.1+J 756. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. \/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753.
16 + 2V55. 7512V21.2 V30. 13 799. 783. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 793. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 10 785. 790. 794.12VIT. .VlO. 3J . 789. . + 2V21.4 V(j. 787. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. Va 809. .IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 14 791. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . a 9442V5.2V3* ^ 807. 806. 786. x 782. c 792. 92VI5. 103 788. 3812VIO.
830. 816. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. (x a: 2 ) 4 .4 = 0.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 831.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 814. 820. + ViTli + V7 . 819.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 811. V14 a. 836. + Vx .f 5 = V5x + 4. VaT+lJ f ^l .79. 812. Va: .V2 ar 10.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 815.g.\/2y  810.13 = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . x/aT+l . 829. V3 f 1 V4a. 833. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 3 x + 2 . 818. /9ar a: = 17. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. = 1.Vc^lJ . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.V? = 813. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. + 103Var. \/12 a.
871. 8 2a. 851. 4 x* 847. . f 12.1. 8 8 848. f b**. 2 x 3. 861. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a: 849. 875. a. y 4. a. a 8 873. 2 a: 64 y*.  3x a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 844. 4 a. 27 y 8. 275 8 l. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. + 1.3 x . 846. 40 x 2 7 f 49. +3 4 +  4. 2 f" + a/ 15. 4 x 8 858.3 a:.12. 856. . a l0m . x 11 a^ J 13 854. . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a 872. f 841.x*y + 3x f 2. 8 4a: 8 a.3 Va: 2 . a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 864.ab9 ft*. a. 863. a: . 853. 8^27^. a*" & 6n . 8 a.10 = 118. a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 729 867. 8 8  13 a. x 4 + f 2 a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. z*y 8 l64a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 64 a 866.1000 6. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 8 850. 9. 845. . a. . 19 x 14. 64.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a 8 869. 870. 852. 855.a. x 8 2 857. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . + 512 y8 874.3 . 865. 6 2 f 3 6 s.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876. + . V4 x 2 . 27 862. 6. 840. 16 859. 8 860. a 18 4. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 868. 8 . 839. 4o. 4 a: 2 842.
What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. a: + y 2 = 34. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. x*xy. . 883. y 2 4. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + 2 f = 17.35. a: 884. a:y . .18. 901. a. a# f + xy = 126.y 2 + V(j. xy + y = 32. M1 891 1 . 2 . a: 888. 878. + ary + 2 = 37. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. . 2 2 = 16 y.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.298 877. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. x a: lI = xz .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. y y 2 y 2 1121. +y f y = 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 5. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y 2) = 20.1 = 2 a#. 2 + xy = 28. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879.15. 900. a.xy + y 2 = 19. 896. y 2 2 8f. 887. 899.Vi' + 1 1_3. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. y*+ xy . x 882. 1 x 893. 2 + xy = 10. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 886. 2 = 2 + 5. a: 2 897. a: a. z 2 898. f ?/ a: a: . 895. 2 .sy = 198. + 2y=\2. 885. 890. . 889. y = 28. 3 x 2 . . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + y 2 . 894. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.5 xy + 4 f = 13. .
Vary + y = 6. 912. 2 915. = 8. *y . 910. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 917. 3 :r(3 . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. (o. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. a: * a: a: ar 928. x + y}(x + y) = 273. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.3) 2 f (y . ary y = 8. 911.y2 = 22. (* 918.23 = 200. + ary = a*. + 2 ary = 39. . y + a:y = 180. a: a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. x 2 ry + y = 3. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 921. 2 2 2 916. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 909. a: y zx 12. x + y 2 = aar.x) = 21. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2.y) = 33. (!) * . 920. + y)(a. y x 2 = by.3(* + y) = 6. xy + x= 15.6.y) (3 y . # + xy + y = 7.y = a(ar + y). y # 2 2 f f y = 84. * + y = 444. (a. 2 * 2 ~ g. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 3 y 8 ) =1216.y) (a? . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. y 3 2 2 922. 907. 905. x f 2 a:y = 32. 2 5 xy = 11. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. xa 903. + ?/) . 908. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902.#y + 2 = 27. 23 x 2 .y). 7 y .2 y) = 49 2 919. x 4 299 xy z 904. + y 8 = 189. or or a? a: a: . 2 924. a. 4 (a. 914. (3 x .16 y 3 8 = . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). a:y xy 929. + a. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . .3)2 = 34. + y = 9. 906. yz = 24.r a. 923. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. ^ 2 . + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 913.
square inches. feet. two numbers Find the numbers. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. s(y 932. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. find the radii of the two circles. A and B run a race round a twomile course. *(* + #) =24. 935. 931. is 3. 944. rate each man ran in the first heat. and 10 feet broader. Tf there had been 20 less rows. and the difference of 936. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. diagonal 940. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y( 934. 942. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. How many rows are there? 941. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. two squares equals 140 feet. In the second heat A . two squares is 23 feet. (y + *) = . feet.102. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Assuming = y.000 trees. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the numbers. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50.300 930. is 3 . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 152. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. 943. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. . A is 938. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 34 939. 2240. + z) =108. 937. is 20. a second rec8 feet shorter. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. and also contains 300 square feet. + z)=18.
is 407 cubic feet. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find its length and breadth. Find in what time both will do it. set out from two places. at Find the his rate of traveling. triangle is 6. A and B. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. the digits are reversed. 951. overtook miles. . unaltered. and that B.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find the number. and its perim 948. . A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. and travels in the same direction as A. sum Find an edge of 954. 950. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. distance between P and Q. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. 953. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find the eter 947. whose 946. 949. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. that B A 955. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. P and Q. its area will be increased 100 square feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. each block. Two starts travelers. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and if 594 be added to the number. Find the number. 952.
971. 974. 970. s  88... Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms...to infinity. 972. . 5. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms..>/) to infinity. 9th and llth terms of an A.1 4 f j$V . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. and 976.3151515..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Find n f (ft) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.4142 . 961. = 4.. 1G series . \ ... 957. 16 962. are 29 and 53. 36 963.141414. ^ 1 .. 1 to n terms. to n terms. n to n terms. P. + (iiven a +  4 d .454. to infinity. 12434+ j I 967. (x 4 to n terms. fourth of the unity. difference. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 4 4 to 7 terms .. J. Sum Sum to infinity. '. P. 966. (to 2 n terms). ^1 + Vj 1 2  . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). Sura to 24 terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.. P. . Sum to 20 terms.V2 . 3 . 5. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. *" 968. the terms being in A.. 3 + 5 7 + .. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. . 975. . f + 1 .302 956.. Find n. 969. Find an A. 964. 18th terms of an A. Evaluate (a) . are 1 and sum of 20 terms. x(x to 8 terms. Find the sum of 4.  2. !Ll^ + n .321? 965. 4.v 973. 958. to 7 terms. P.. ^ Vfirst five 959.. Find the Find the common 977.
The sum 982.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 989. P.001 4.1 + 2. Find the first term. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.. Find four numbers in A. to n terms. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 5 11. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. . 992.04 + . 980. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. "(. to oo.01 3. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 990. Find n. The term.) the last term the series a perfect number. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. and so on. first 984.2 . 986. of n terms of an A. 4 grains on the 3d.001 + ... 2 grains on the 2d.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 987. and the common difference.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . P. and of the second and third 03. to 105? 981. 1.+ lY L V. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.. Find four perfect numbers. 0. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 303 979.. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find the sum of the series 988. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. is 225. 985. : + 9   V2 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. named Sheran. to infinity may be 8? . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. The 21st term of an A. P.
are unequal. P. The sum and sum . at the same time. c. inches. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 1000. AB = 1004. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. ft. many days will the latter overtake the former? . Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 998. areas of all triangles. prove that they cannot be in A. find the series. and G. in this circle a square. 1003. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. and so forth to infinity. 1001. in this square a circle. (6) the sum of the infinity. 995. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. is 4. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. . ABC A A n same sides. 512 996. (a) after 5 strokes. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The fifth term of a G. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. are 28 and find the numbers. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. If a. Two travelers start on the same road. 997. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 994. of squares of four numbers in G. 999. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32.
1006. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. (1 1018. a: 8 7. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). (12 #) 7 . 1009. 1011. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1008. + lQ . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Expand  2 a. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of ( . 1014.l) w f .ft) 19 . x) 18 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . .o/) 14 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". ) 1021. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the two middle terms of 1013.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1012. 2 ) 5.
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t 53 120 . . . Brace Bracket Character of roots . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . . numerical .130 .. .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . graphic tion of representa . ... .. 8 . 232 169 807 . .108 160 " .. .. .. . . 37.178 Completing the square ... linear literal Common ** * difference . 123 .. 9 ** .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. . 246 91 " multiple. . Aggregation. 9. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... 112 54 54 251 . 129... Checks Coefficient 20. . . . ..] Abscissa Absolute term . .... . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . . .. 97... lowest ratio " '* .. 232 mean progression ..... 19. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . simple simultaneous . quadratic .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 129 54.181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. signs of Algebraic expression . ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .193 11 . . ... 158... 54. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference ..
. Known numbers . addition of " square of . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . INDEX 8 .. .. numbers . P .C Multiplication . . 34. 195 33.108 Minuend . . . . 227 . directly. Geometric progression . Product '* 76 Infinite. L. 114. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . .808 Exponent Exponents. 109 102 . 23 10 91 102. inversely 122 numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 45. 45 Laws of signs . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 112 . 17 65.. Mathematical induction .154 Order of operations " of surds .. 184 54. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 84. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . . Insertion of parentheses .. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. 91 . 120 Member. 241 123 geometric .... ..31. 189. 9. Negative exponents 11 . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. 243 7 ... 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 253 28 70 1. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 212 .. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 45. . . exponent . . Like terms Linear equation . 227 geometric . 205 . Imaginary numbers . G. law of Extraneous roots . . first and second . . arithmetic . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . Inconsistent equations . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 63. . . .. 143. . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . 180.
. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. absolute 54 Variable . ... . .. 27 17 Unknown numbers .. . . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. algebraic Surds .... Sum..... 129. polynomial .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. ...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 4 155 9 " of .. binomial Third proportional Transposition .... 45 Trinomial 240 . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ..... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 9.. .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
August. . Reprinted April.A. Gushing Co. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. 1910..COPYRIGHT. 1913. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Norwood. December. Mass. Published September. NorfoooS J. 1917. U. 8.S. Berwick <fe Smith Co.
8. 3.150. 6. Page 1. 144. 15. 1. 73. 36. Yes. A . 17. 4. 1. 115. 8 ft. 9. 7. 7. 16. 1. 1.  2 p. Page 13. 12. B 10 mi. 32. 12.  13. 18. 14. Not 5. 9. 16f 2. Page 8. 19. 4. 576. 16. 14 11.C. 128. 10g. 22. 192. 15.000 negroes. 1. 16. 2. 2. 9.000. 6.000. ^. 13. 11. 2. 30.. i . 37 S. 3. 7m. 8. 3. 20 \. 18. 49. 16. Page?. 7. 11. 5. 5. 4. C $1(50. 9. 6. 32. B $20. 18. _ 32. 14. 7. $100. 25. 24. 6. sign. 2. in. 12. 3. 2. 20.000 Indians. = 5 81. 1. 3. 21. 10. 4. arithmetic.  22 20. 29. 10. C $60. 9. 16. 12. 12. 2. 18. 27. 512. Australia ft. 20.. 6. 210. Page Page Ilis expenditures.21 24. 2. 12. B $4700. 16. 150. 20. 1. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 5. 24. (a) (/>) 1. 13. 10. 14. 8. 16. . 37. loss. 72 = = 216. 8. 48 ft. 8. 28. sign. 17. westerly motion.000. Page 4. 13. 27. 3.00000001. 11.$9400. . 10. C $ 16. 7. 24.000. 32. c. 0. 8. 0. 1. 8 13. 21. 2. 3. 14. 6. 20. 26. 28. 10.000. . . 5. 9. 6. 1.. 2 ~ 15. 9. 10. Ot 15. ft. 19. 3. 2. 16.. 6. 18. 4. 7. 14. 4. 1. per sec. A Bl 7. 64. 14. 5. 10. T . + 1. 4. 1 16. 3. A 38 mi. 2. . 18.. 9. 2. b. 3. $160. 14. 10.  1. 2. 2  Page 8. B $80. 3. 15.000. 13 S. 1.8. 6. $ 1 50 10. 6. 3* 7. 32. 5.000.. 12. 3. 15. A 15. 5. x.. Multiplication. 25. 2. 3. 29. 5.1. 13 d. 3 m. 2. 15. 85. 20 B. 49. 6. 256. 8. 7. 30?. in 12. 17. 9 14.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 6 yd. 19 4. 6.2. 7. 3. 12. 19. in. 9 m. 89.. B $ 128. 126.. 20 jo. 26z. 9 16  larger than 7. 1. }. 9. V 23. 1. 17. 1. 106. 13 V. $40. 16. 12. 3. 23. 17. 11. 3. 25.  1. 27. 13. 1. 16 in. 11. 14. is $10. 13. 7. 3. 6* 16. 59. 12. 3 below 0. 9 = 4.3. 5000. 22. A $90. South America 46. 21.12. x. 25.000. 2 5. 16 in.
4. 10.~4. 12. 2. 49. 5. 14. 00 24 04 ft. ft f 19. I. (r) 2000 m. 41. 12yd. 3.  40. 1.  11. 16.6) 38. 10. 15. 5. t. + 5. 7. 8. ^). 4 y/ . (c) S(i. 12. 1. (r) 2.GOG. 13.. r+l. 20. 17. o^ft. 14. ??i??. . (59. 12 a.94(>.  3. 18. 31.000 .4  2ft 2 33. sq. 3. 36. 3.a . 1.r~ f 34. 9. 9. 19. 4. 21 a 3 4 10. (ft) $40.. ]*. 58. 17. (r) 78. .  0. 3. 7. 2. 3. (ft) 7. Polynomial.. $80. 18. 2. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 30..1. (ft) Page 2. y. 5. 9. c. WIN + wiw. 33. 0. . 22. 24. 27. ft.. It. //'. (a) r>23ifcu. 4 9/^/rl 2. Binomial. 0.  1. 28. 37. 21. 1. 2ftx. Page 7. Page 23. 15. 7.ft) 4. 22.. 9. 7. 6. 28. ft. x^ 20. 14. ft n. 3. 3rf 27. 237. 35.. 14. 3 a* + 2 at*. a 32. 19. 3. 92. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). yyz+xyz*. 4.. 12. 14:).4 ft. (a) <> sq. 19. 8. 42.  12. 31. 6<t. 04. 50. .900. 43w//2 17. ft. Page 18. 23. 20(. ft. 12. 13. 1. 16. (ft) mi. w. jrif 4 9.  2 4 13 ft 2 . Page 31. 35. 0. 34. (ft) 12. <i~ 26. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 11. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 3. 7 7. mi. 2oVmf?i. f  5e 35. 7. 24. in. 25.r 2 . 1. = ()501.5f> sq. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 18. 29. 15a. 5. in. 1. 8. 17. 11. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 0. 4. 6. Monomial.ft. 8. 173. a2 4 15^44. 27. 22( 19. 34. 2. 2. + v> 2 . 4. 0. 26. 33. 29. (a) 50. ^. 3(c4a). a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 30. 240. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. (b) 135 mi.  xV 3 y. in. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 17. #1111. 14. 23. r/ \(\xyz. 13. 0* Page 3 w" 0.. 32. m + 3(a. 0. 28. (a 4 4. 104. 57. 39.5 (ft) sq. 22.r f 15. \'\ 4. 8.q 4. 15. 38. 18. 13 cu. arty 1 20. ft' 3 . 5. 6. + ft). 11. 21. (a) 200. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 32. 8. _ 4 . 8. 30. 15. :J!>r'. . 12. 36. 38 ab.. 32 2 ftc. 314 sq. ft. 20.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 9. . 2. 5x+3. 12. 25.14 sq. 13. 17. 31. 22.x. i:5. 0. Page 21. 8. in.. m 24. rt. . 1.32 c2 > ft 3 .ab. r:A 29. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 5.'J. 35. 16. Trino inial. (r) 2G7.. +/2(/. 14. 16. $3000 Page 6. 1. . 5. 2x' 2 5 . = 81. 51 f.rty8. a ft c. 3 . Pagel4r. Polynomial. 4. 15. 21^. (c) 8.. 14. 10.000 sq.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 13. 0. 18. 0. 3a. 27. . 27. vi 14. :. 11. 16. 5. 15. 21. II.9?/2 8. 13. 25. 27.'JO ft. 3. 27. 20.<>Gq. 26.
5. 21. 14. a). 2. ri\ 18. 34 39.aft. 2 + a4l). 20. + 8.5. 10 m. 19.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2.1.3x 2 2 tf. 4. x3 . + 2y. ?> 22. 2 a 37. 814. ar. 25. 11.2 . _ Page 30. 7.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2. 12. .  1. 8. 8. 2 . 2 2.1 . 51. (mn} 11. 16.x f 1 2 . 3 Ji 8 . 4. 14. 18. .2 a2 2m 2 4.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. . G a bd. 2m + 2w. . x  + 3z. Page 44. 2m. 31. 25. M + 10. . 1. ?/i 13. '  . 3 a . a + a. 2 3x f z. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . .a'2 . 10.2. \ :{ 2 a 48. 40. 11. n*. (yz~d}. 12. 0. . a 52.5 z?/ + 3 y . 2x 4 a 13. j)(g1. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 7. 7  # + 12. 30. a 4 + ft. 26. 24. 2. 2a. 2 y' 4 . a 3& . . 13. 43. 4ft ~. 58. 25. 12. a' 4ab + ?/. c.  b* 4 r 1 .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. a2 24. . c.c. a 3a 4 2 &.abc. 8. 6.4x.'U4j>. 56.h. a 10w. 59. 15. 19. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 6.  a: 2. w* ( .4 d. 2 . 20. 9.(2 x2 . 38. 33. 2. 2 4. 2// 16. 24 b 46. 2. 32 w 2 w. 7  a + 2 + c. 14. ?/. 5. 8 . 18. Page 7.r. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 4r 2 . . r. + a 2 f 2 a 4.l. 24. 21. 1. 1.a*. 20. 1 + 45. 10. 2 2 2 6.11. . 2.3 6. 28.  b. .a . mn. 55. 2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. !  </ . f ft 9. 2. . ?>4tl 53. a  ISjfat. Page 28.7. 364c. 1. t). 4wipg>' 27. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2 a f 6 414. lOrt 15w4. 4 21. 13. 3. 42. . w 17. 5. 0. 5x 2 rt ft. 18. 22. 11. 8 8 . a2 9. . _5a<>&43c. 10. &. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 0. 17. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . G.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .2 57. 4.. 50. 12. 8 b.ws 2 ft) .. 31. 7. 6. 1 4. 3 a3 & 41. 7 a5 1 . Page 8. ' 12 m?/'2 27. . 25 47. 5 2 Page 29.  14 afy . 37.(7x2 Ox2). f 2 ?/  2. a4 4 4. 5. ti. 22. 3 m. a a. 1. s_r>a5. 2. (2n' 43p 47 ). 35. c2 . a  49. ab a. 36. 16. (5x47 3. 8 + 2 a . 1.Oa: + 10. 4. ^ <. Exercise 16. m*  n*. 2a: 2 4x. ( 7. ft Exercise 17. + 4 c. 19. 32. 36.r 2.  23.a f 54. 15. 34. 3.4c 3 8 8 J. 2 3.5 4 2 3 ?/ .6 x + 0) 16. 4. 6. 29. 2 17.2 a. 15. 17. 10 x.  17. a 3 . + 6. a + (ftc4df). 14. a 6 2 . a f 2 f 2 9. 21. a. 3. 4. ii\ 22.4. x a8 1.  4 b 17 y*.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.a~.8(c + a).  12. :5 41. 26. (w4w)(ww). 2 6. 7. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 26. 24.
7. Page 3. 28. 8 . 16 51. a. 102..14 w 2 2 . 30 n?b*c*. . 9. 21. 19. 11.26. 3 a 2 46. 2 7t A. 29. 10. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 3. 108. Page 35.000. 4 a2 . 16.16 a 2 + 32 a . m. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 13. 120. 22. 35. 2 w +2 2 . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 22. 6. 17. . 14. 30. 28. . 23. 32. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 8. . 8. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. + 7. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7. 25. 34.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 2 8 xy f 4 a. 66 8W 34. 15. 4. 4. 8. iSx8 . 4 a8 . 64. 24. 4 jcy*z*>. 2. 30. 13. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 0. 20.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 12. 90. Page 7. 2. . a + ft. Page 36. 25. a.16 x2/ 5 4. 66 39 k* . 15 q\ 6. 16. 6". 21.8 12. 6. 3300. Page 5.6) =a2 31. 17. 11. 83 In + 1 n*. 33.44 aWc 16 abxy. 11.20 xyz . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 15. 30.21 a 3 c2 21. 27. ?/ . 127"'. 40 r 2 ..19 + 2. 33.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . x2 xy42^. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 31. 30. a: . 343. 6 . . 16. . 2*8f x2 6x4. 15. 30. 17.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 2 . 11. 14. 30 j9 jt?g j . a*b*c. etc. 23.2. 2 2 2 . . 4.25 + 14. 20.32. f 26. 108. 27. 10. +. 20 aW. 4. 33. 4 fc.19p" + 19^ 10 . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 18. 0. 14. 19.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 14f 5. 2''. 1.>(/ r . 26. 14. 360.32 y s s G . 24. 25 4 4. 21. 1904. 37. 16. 3(*+0 + 2). 10. 7.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. + 58 . 2 ).15. 4. 13. 20. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 12 ^. 25.7(50. 36. 18. 1. 14 m 2 . 23. ll 2 i. 9.11 xyz . 2. 76 8 a' 1 . 15. 10. 19. //. 20. 216. 19. 1. 13.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 1. 38wiw. 24.(3x2_4^+7). 27. ci 5 . 18. 15 lb.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .12.28 p'^/. 23. 8. 29. 42. 18. 4200. ^^ = 20.36 35. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 9 13.6 2 . 2 a2 (y 2 . ft 17.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 15. 2. 52 + 6s 12. 16 lb. 2 ). 20. 04. 5. Ox a 5 . 28.21. 31. s 9 ww. 29. 2 * 80 . 210. 7G . 22.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 4.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .57 p6 3 2 4 25. 60. . 24. . 216. 17. 22. 6. 12 x2 2 . ! 2. 27.r% 2 2 ry. . .:>/ . 16. a. 24. 3. 12. 27. 3. 7. . + O4 66 . 1400. 5. 84. 25. 12. Page 38. fa 2. 60.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 1. . 29. 18. 161b. (+3)x6=+16. 28. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 34. 2 n8 29 a + 30.18 w w + 10 WI M . 8. 42. 20.. ISartyW e*f*tj. 32. 26. n (a6) 125. 9.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 18a% y. 4aWy.1. 18. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 21 a'&c. +15.14 . 6.12. 34. 3. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 30.. 770. 5aft(a 126 2). 18> ^* = a .64 190 p6. 1. 13. a 8 . 1. 3 a 3 . ?> 4 . 161b.
x* . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 8.r .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .606. 2 a' y' . 19. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 10. a + 25. 31. 10. 6. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.000.6 xy . 42. G a6 2. ~ 6 20 . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.1. 4. 15. a 2 .00 + 37. 24. 40. 57. a2 ' + 48Z100. 9. 10. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 2 . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.x2y22. 39. +  m' 1. n2 a4 6. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . 52. 2 a 2 + a . 2 4 2 2 64 .000.ab . .009. + 4 t*. (p 2. ab .8.p132. 8 38.m 30 6 4 1. 990. (a + 4) (a + 2). 3wi2 m Page 42.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. m 2 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 10. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. V + o ft . 3. 8. 10. x4 28. 4 2 //.020. 8 a W . 40. 7. 51. 1). ?/H)0.5 ~ 81. lflrt 2 8 + l.2.r .16 a3 f 50. 11. 14. 29.r* 2 30. 11. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 17. 18. x 48. ab. 2 (5 a 3). 26.. 166.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 5.404. 25. 9. a4 4 ?/ . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. .15. 15. 31. + 7 6)(3a~76>.201. 10. 2. 34. (a (3 54. 37.712. 45. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 36. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. s rc 47. + 3)(3).098. a3 0. 1.14 jp + 49. 2 12. +4 34.001. 10 a 4 ?. 40. 35. 7. 2 6' .ri 17. ^/> 8 4 .500. 28. 1. 4 . 10. 53. 1. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . y. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .<* &2 + 106 + tt + .020. 24. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. . (n 2 5. 39. x2 GiC+5. 19. Om2 4 6m 6. . 2 j3 Z . + 10 + 121 y*. 30. 37.35 ab 9. + 12. 44. 441.4 a&+ 4 &*. 1. 31. 12 x2 . 2). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). . p 2 . . 30 x + 19 x3 . . . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.. 36. + 2 9.6 x2 13. 35. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 27. 2 4 a + 4.008. 30 /><. 10.4 n.^V"' . 34. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).2 6 + 13. m 3 j) 3 .2 x + 2 x.2 y*.009.10 x + 25.6. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 7. ' 46.4 12. 26. 21 2 . 9999. 56. 38. (w+4)(m4).996. ft' 11. 8. 2 +10s281.25. 9990. . 2 62 V2 132. 9801. . 10.^ + a? + 1. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.004. 29.3. 32. (m + 6)(m3). 7> . 20a 2 21a + 4. Page 39. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 41. 32.^. 4 . 4x21. 4 x2 13.810. 2 0)(p + 5). 1. 4 21. 41. a' . 27.6 y4 10. r. 33. 10. ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 fr . 25 a 2 6 2 . 5. . (w4)(w + l). ^' J  7 f 12. 2.84 a' 9. n + 2.ANSWERS 28. . 10 a' 2 . . 4 + 25 q*. 9 4 /> . . 33.54 p 2 + 81. 55. 2 . x 2 f xy + 9 41. 999. 1.20. 2 1: 21. p4 + . 14. fo*. + 4 a +4. . I/). 484./ . 998. a + 25.10 35. 33. 25 25. 4.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 6. a + 56.49. 36 a 4 . 4. x 4 ?/4 + ab . ^V^4 . x*2^f I. 23. 14. . 36. 16. 3. 10. +   5). 7 .994. Page 12.
2 wZ 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 1. r ft. ft 17. 6. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .x^. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.+ 77 15. 9. aft. .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 13. a. 5.y3. ft ? ft' ft ft. 46. 17. 4. 2 4.34. as _ 10 16. Page 48. 11.2 2 . 9. . 5. Page 7.24 . 4xy + 13 <) . 2. 1. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. j) . + 3. i 2 tji. c3. 9. r 7. 49.1. 4.5 a . *3 y 4 . 3 aft 20. 9. 16.3^V. .1.  11. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.21 2 2 f + . 5. .1. a 2 . 135. 2 ? 14 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 2 ^r ???' 2 .25 c . Exercise 27. . 8. 6. 2 . w . _ 2 a . 7. 2 . 2 4 3 9. 4 a 2 4.10 xy*. '.rw. 13. 3 a. 01. m L 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .8.1. 10. 1. 2 ?/' . 8 ?/ .12 aft 4 20 ac . m'2 3. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 14. 20. 4. 10 ft. 3. 1. 7 r .8 y. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.9 d.2 . 2 12.4. . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 17.r?/ j/.8. Page 11. 13. a 8 4. x 2 + 2r f J. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. yfl. 3.n. 13. 19.2 aft 4.15. 4. aftc 52. 20 15. 8 r<ft 4 2 .r . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.  10. 6. 3. 4x43?/.1.1.  .9 4. 8.000. 6.r' ~ 16. 5 4 a Oft. 15. G. z. 6x 3. +w . 8.3 x 2 2 4. 4ft. a 10. 3*y2 w + 1. 2. 4. // 19.3 ry.29. 13. 2 1.2 2 2 8 . abc 7.8 yn . 12. a 4 4 ft. . 2 ?/ 4.5 mp. ti'jry1 7. 5. 8.2 . /r . 4. 11 4. . 1. + 4./ 4. 12. i 9. 1000 1000 .r" 20 S? . 8.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. . Exercise 2 a:// 26. 44. 8.1*5 2 r 2 .r'^ 15.2 . y 7.  12 y 25.7.rw f 8 . . r/2 4. aft 12.VI ANSWERS 43. 23.w. 14. 5. Page 22.lit x + 4.2 <</.  5 z* . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 4 pq. 4. 2. r//. 12. 2 2 + 2 a. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 125. 14. c 12. . 13. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .15 21.5 n*.2. Page 51. 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. . . 1/*.25. 8 x . 8 ?/ . 7a3ft. 4 d 2 4. 2.3 3. 6. ft* ft / . 18. x4.10 2 + z 2 410.> 10. 3.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. :r !>. 10. 11. 12. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.2 ac .3 a 41. 1.r ?/ ??i ?). 22. 47. 5. 16. ft. 21. 5. Osy. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . ??. 2.27 x 2 4. 2 4 2 x 4. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 75 a 2 29. 14. 24.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 5.23. 3. 2.30 ftc. 14 r 2 . sr 11. 26. 15. 1. 17. 12.1. w 2 . 4 x. f>r* 4. 18.6 :rs 4. 16. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 5^418(7. 2 a 3 ft. 5 a  (5 ft. + x?/ 2 1.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 50.3 5.  3 c. 19. 21. . 3. ?/2. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.r?/. 4 ac. . 5. 14.2 ftc . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. x 4. 4 c m . .2 ar. 9. 10.2 1 //. Page 13. l 4 . 4 a* 4 9 11.
38. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. + 4x 3y 34. 2x + 35. 11. b. y 100 a 24.x700. 7. 1. x y $ 6 yr. 'nj 100 a 28. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.  2\. 15. 6.rr2. / + y + a// 12 yr. 7. 9. 33. 5.p+7. 14. 2. 36. 10 a. Page 6. (c) 2x. iL*. 100 2. 16. 50= L 100 15. I. 19. ct. 46. 39.r ct. lOx 10 + w.7). b.(3x  700) = 5. 0. x 49. 6. 10 x sq. 2. 2. 35. 1. 13. 34. 4. v (6) 2x. 7. 22. 59. a 8. 17. d + !. Jj12. 4. 29. </ 20. ^ 12 sq. 7. 1. " lir. y 50. 1&. lO. 10. 25.  />) a = all. 57. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 19. . + 3x + 2y + 32. . x + 1=a. 17. Page 61. % 4. 4. 41. 10 >_&. 5. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 11. 41. 6. 2. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 44. ct. 3x  1700) = 12. (> 27. x. 17. "mi. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 4^ = 100. 60 25 1. d. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. + 3 = 2(3* . 9. 58. 10. x 2y 10 act. 10) + = (a) 2 x . '^ . 5.(3x+ = rraxlO. y 2z p= 3 (a c. r>?imi. 800 = x + 1300. 7. 11. 26. . 8. 28. 2b. X 60. (>. 10 yr. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 100= ^. fix. 2b 22. 6. ( a f 4. 47. 8.  9 = 17 a. 3 9. 16. 2 ct. 4 f 39. }f. Page 31. 37. Page 13. 5. (2 a. 2. !). 6. 1. 24. 31. 10.  6 10. f (I. 18. xy ft.. x 48. + f + b 2. 7. 20. 5. m +~m 3. 36.100. 12. = 5 ?i x 460. rn mi.r1. 00. 20. 42. . 33. 13. 13. # + 20yr. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 27. 2=10. 30. 1.. . l. 3. 3. 29. 10. Page 40. f = eZ 2 x. 7x 2 Page 21. a 10. 38.000. . 43.6 = *. sq.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 23..  1$. 14. 22. 100 d ct. 25. (</) 2a. 4. 8 n  10 yr. ] 2 ri 42. s. 7. 0. 18. ? 43.ANSWERS Page 9. 5. 21 2. r tx mi.10) 100. 12.ab a. m+ 11. ct. 40. 3x2. 32. 4. <>. ft. 16. 2. ft. . (a) ' 12. 100 14. ft. 37. 44. 20. I. + 10 b + c ct. 45. n M. 30.. 4(a ft) c = 8. 3. 15. f 6)(o 62. x = m. 23. y yr. vil 56. y ?>i x + 26.
22.. 5$ hr. 8 12.  PageSO.000 pig iron. 9. ( + 4)(*2). 17. 10 yd..000 ft.3aftc + 4). (a5)(a4).16. 70^. 9. (y8)(y + 2).. 30. 8. 75. 6. 180. 30 yr.000.2). 2. (p + 7)(3a5&).7.10. 4. 14. 10. 10 Cal. 11.6).000 gold.000 Phil. w (/) 64. 11. 4pt. 7. 11 in. . 2. 14. 11 w(w' + wi .5. 1. 13. 4. Ib. 40 yr. 10 yr. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 1. . 19.000. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 7. 1. 13. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). Pace 65.. 13. 3.(5z . 250. 9.. 85 ft. 3. 6. Page 79. 8 in. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 78. 10. 2 3 6 7. 2). 8. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 25 yr. . (y7)(y + 2). 3. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 300.21. 480. 12.000 Berlin. (c) ^ v ' . 15 yd. 45 in. 14. + 7)(y3).3. (m + n)(a + 6). (a + 4)(a + 8). 14. 7 hr. ?(g ? g+ 1). 200... 10 yr. 28yr. 2.. 6. 8.000 ft.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.000..1).000.79. 8. 2. 14. 05. 3x (3r. 5. 17. 15. 1. 3.22.5p + 7 g ). 24J. 20 yr. Page Page 4. 25. 15 mi. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 9. 70.000. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 3 (a +&)(*.5. 21.000 copper. Page 5. Y. 9.210^. 1313. 8. 4. 15 in. 5 lb. 1. 100. 16. 52. 20 yd. (z5)(z2).000. 5pt. 15. (ro3)(w2). 55. (y + 8)(y2). Page Page 480 12. 78. 2.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.0. 15. 1200. 4.3). 67. 6. 20 yr. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 12. 25. 1250. 7. 5.. 7. ^ .411.. 1200.11.000 N. 5. 200. 11 pV (2 p8 .13. Oaj(o62cd). Page 7.. 2 2 ?/ 21. 8 2 19. 7. 100 1. 600. 3 hr. 5 Col. 150. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.. 80 A.. 6rt 2 11. (*4)( + 11. 6. 3. 42yr. 13. $40.. 2 2 2 5. (y 13. 5. (yll)(y4). 30. 1. (a + 5)(a + 6). by 12 yd. a 12. 6. 10.24. 2. 10. 18.0. 1. 68. 2$. 12. 18. 15. (a 4) (a. . 6.. 74. 7.000. a a (a 8 a+l). 10. Page Page 4. 8. 2. 10 Mass. ~=90. 160 lb. 11. 11. 12. 4.3. 20. 82 mi. 12. 3. 90 mi. 90. 1 lb. 12. 12 mi. (e) i* + A.8. 50. (a + 6) (a + 3). (6) (6 a 30) =20. 18. 8. 30 mi. 20.y"). 4. 7a*fe(2a & l). 20. 71. 9 in.2. 14. = _?_(2ar + 1). 6. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 3. 72. Page 7. 5. 9. 10. 8. 10. 9. 15. 13. 29. 23.
27. 6. (x + y4 )(x . 17.2). 14. 9. (4y3)(3y + 2). 22. 17. 23. 27. + 0(90 Page 85. 10. 25. 33. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (6n + l)(+2). 16. 20. (15a + 46*)(16a46). + 3)(c44). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). . . Yes. 18. (a a: 19. 26. a. 4. Yes.1). 18. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 27. + 9^)(oxy . 6. 22.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). Yes. 2). Yes. 2 2 15. Yes. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 12. (4al)(a2). ix 18. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Yes. Yes. (g . 22. x(x +y)(x y). 34. (w ~ n (x . 3.* (2 y + 3)(y. 10. 2 3 by2 Yes. x\x 24. . 9. 29. (m7n) (a. (a + 8)(a3). (:52y)(2a!3y). .1). 14. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 4.r2). + 2y). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). . Yes. 32. 4 (a . 24. (4 13. 8. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). No. 7. f 2). 24. 3)(3a. 10. (9y4)(y + 4). (a (p8)0> + l). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 1. 32. 8) (a.7) (a.7)(2z f 1).11 6) (a 4. 30. 8. 25. (5wl)(m5). 3. (ay8)(ay3). (a 3 + 10)(a. No. 10 a 2 (4 . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 5. 100(x.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 25. 2. (10a + ft)(10aft). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 10(a . 20. . 31. Page 84. a . y) 2 29. (2yl)(y + 9). (0 + 6)(66). (ft + ll)(aftll).c 2 ). 12. + 8)(g3). (az + 9)(ox2). (m + n + 4p)(w + . (2 a? 4. 216 aft. 22. (w* (3a26). y(x. 16. 10(2 30.8). 28. 25. 3. 7. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 9. a(2u. 11. (2o + l)(2l).2 y).9*). 15.3). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 9.4 6). (y8) 2 2 .11 ft)(a6). 23. 1. 30. No. 2. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). Page 82. (15z2y)(x5y). (2xl)(x + f>). 31. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). Page 83. .1). 19. .+4 y)(3x4 y). . (2 *+!)(* 9). 20.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (y + 4)(yl). 35. 28. 26. . (3a.5y)(3a. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft).. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 1. 3(x + 2)(zl). 10. . 36. 23. (7 a + 4) (2 a . Yes. 29. ( 2 4 19. (15ay2) 2 . 11. a*(5a f l)(flr . 23. 11. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 3a. 19. (<7 20. y) (a. 21.4p).y) 2 aft.1). 21. (4 18. No. 8. (4a.2 ft). 21. (3*2)(. 21. 9. 7 6) (a 10 6). + 3). 26. 13. 7. 35. 13x7. 17. (w + 20)(w + 5). (a 6 6) (a 4. 34. + y + .   .4. (m + w) 2 5. (3#y)(+4y). 33.  x (5 a.3)(z2). Yes. 5.2). 12. (5x . Yes. (a. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). .6) 2 2 . (* + y)(zy).ANSWERS 16. 40 x. 10(a + ft)(aft). Yes. 25. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 26. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 100 (a.2 by2 6.6) 2 1. 2 17. 28. 16. 24 9. 2. No. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 24. (6 a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . 2 No 4. 103x97. + 4) (a. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (13a +10)(13a 10).y4 ). 14. 15. + 5) a. (5a +l)(5a l).
b.7)(^ {I 12. 13 x 8 2 . 6. x  1).36).y). 20. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).n). a8 . a + a b. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .2). 14. 2 2 3 . 4 a8 . 8. 2 + .9).1). 14. ?>). + 2 //).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). a 4.. . 15.3)(x 4. 2 21.4).8). 42a 3 x. (* _ 2 )(a 4. (f> + fo 7. 17(x43//)(x2y). 6. 8).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .1) 3. ( { &). 1. (a 4. 30.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 8. 12.5 m2 x2. 4. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).1).0+ 12). 38. ( y). (16 4  2(5 n . 4 3. 11. (!__/>). 6 f c).r(3x' 2 4 (14. (5 31. 2. + 3. 2. (a 9. 4). 6. Page 12. 2 8(w . 16.X 5. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 5. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 4 6. 9. 15.?>) H. x43. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 15 M. y )(. (5^4. 11. 10. ofc)( fid).4). (14.  29. (^ + ?>_8).y '2 2). (5a+l)(9a). Page 89. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 7. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.42 x 4. (w * . 42). 41. a 41. 12. 1(V/ 88. 13. (m  I)' 6.) j).?/). 17. ( a ^)(^3. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 37. 2 k (wi 4. 6. 4. 11. 7. Page 92. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). Exercise 47. . 13. 5.?50)(xt/z. ^ .2)(x 1. 2(m4l)' .3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. r x 2 */3 . 9.!) (x42)(x2). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .e 4. Page 90. 450. 3x(x?/) 4. 3. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 13. 24. ( rt 23. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 8. Page 87. 3 x4 . 4 a s &8 . n  r)(5a 10.&).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 7. 4  9.4. 18. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . . a x 3 10.&). 10(2 (3 4. Page 86.3. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 2. Exercise 46. (a &4. 2 2 10. 2 (a 4. 8. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (c. . 35. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 14. 36. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).8) ( (16. 4. y6.l)( a 25.2). x . . 11. 39. 22. y).y)(fi a .^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. (5 26.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 8.^ 48. x 4.  (w' 4. 5. l. 28.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. fi(c426). b) (r 4. 6.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 7. 4. Gp).'})(c .'/)('< 4. 2. (. 24x sy s 9. 14. 4.4. a 4. 4. a (a + 2 6). . y(2x?/). 8. 12. (x//. 3(. x(x f y)(jr .'J)(' . 2 y) ^ .y. 6. (2x7)(x 2 2).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 19. (w4w) 2 1. 4. 7.8) n 43*). 8x. 5  (2 2 . 5. 2 1.2 y).7s) (2 a. 16.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). a 2 (a9). ah}. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 40. 4.  WIM. 2 . (a />. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (x. ?i(w 4y) . (7/1 2) (m 41). 8. 13( 33. (r420(4 10. (> 1. 27. ( (<> r4y3 . 32. 7.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2. 5 x8 3. (^ 7.
+ &)(&) ( . 11. 2(2al) + l).ANSWERS 10. ?_!&. + y) (a: y). a 10 25.6). +5 1. 1). // m+1 !+*?. x 24.  1). 6a2&(rt6). (a2)(a + 2)2. b ! 21. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 18. x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. + &) 2 ( . 13. x 12. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +8b a 4 3 / ^. a 23.
80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 30. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 4 L 8 2 . a 5. 28.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . + 2H 1 ^.. i^. 6. Page 100. 6a5f^.50 ~ 1/2 . 0. 11. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. . 26. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. xy 43. 4. 4c 10.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . i. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.  **/* + 84 _. 6. + lH + . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 2 a. w1 + ac w 4 7. 1. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . _*^p5_^^_. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ' 2 7. c 8. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . Page 101. ^~ 29. A^.
8. 14. 9. 0. 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 6 . 37. c 8. 24. 15. b 2. 45. 12. 6. 1. 21. 14. a2 2. x\.  10 X + u. 14. 15. 43. 6. an 18. x 1. 35. J. . +3 ( + 15. 19. 4. 11. b a f +c 14. Of. 20. m 9. Page 113. Page 110. 15. 6. flf. . 9. 26. 42.^_. 5. . x 05m ' 5. 11. 4. 16. 38. 5. 9. y(x + x ?/). 3. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 11. ^i 11. 17. 3.ft . + f. a. n m a + 13. 21. 46. 23. 1. 1. 12 28. 7. 8j_m 7 3. 18. 6. 3. 4. 3. f 7. 29. 6. 39. 25. (>. . 1. 3. n 16. A.^U\WF### X<6. 10. f Page 107. ac mp lf> n 12. 17. 2ft a i m x. 1. 3 7 i o. 44. (y + (z 12. 7. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. ?+_!?>. 32. pf n 6 1. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. ! 4 20. 1. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 30. 4. n . 33. 1. 13. Page 106. 4. 10. 2 47. 1. ^_. 40. 27. J. 21. 36. ' 6. 11. ?. J. 7. 5. Page 111. ft. 1. a 17. j L .L+ft. 7.y 7. 34. 11. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 3. 16. 41. 5. 12. 0. 4a3ft. 31. 4. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5 be _J_. 2) 19.  V o 4. w^x 2 b Page 105. 8.
12. 4. P+ ^ 33. . . 13. 81. ~m . gold. dn ~ mi. 5ft 30mi. (d) 500. 55 mi. 7 . 40wn.9. 15. 20. 00. 1.137. 7. 10. 32. 18. after 20. 5. ^?i min. 7. 10. (a) 25. $30. 22.10. 13. No. 20. 33. * 7:9. 10. Yes. 10.139.XIV '/ . r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 3. 10. 9. 14.2. 1:1 = 1:1. 1: ~.11.002. 30ft./hr. 30 yrs. 15. 1:1 = 1:1. 75 . 14. 4fl M_.2. 21. 2x:3y. 4. 8..000. n 32. :2. Page 121. w 18. 21ft min. 13. . 15. 24 mi. 18. 18. 24. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . . 9. min. Yes. = A's. 1:3. Page 117.000.138. 500. f.. 15. . 15. w 21.  C . 15. 4. Yes. (a) 4 min. 8. 12. Page 118. 4. . 3:2. 9ft. . 14. J. 3. 19. 17. 6.  29. (c) 2 hr. 1 : 12. Yes. 40 yrs. 9. 14. 31. 1. 11. Yes. 10. 40 mi. (a) 30. 7. 26. #V ~~ 34. 16. 1. 1 da. 27. 34.000. (ft) (r) 8 hr. ft. 10. 20. 2. 30 mi. silver. 9$. No. 2 20. IV s. 7. (d) 4 da. $45. 8.. ANSWERS 16. after 18. 12.  + . 2. " 0. J ^'. (ft) 28. 8301 hr. 5.000. 275:108. nm.. 5 2. 3. 23< &n b ' . 38ft min.000 If da. 17. after $12. (c) 8300. 28. w 44. 300.. 1:1 = 1:1. 1:1=1:1. 212. 300. 7} 18. 30. 26 mi. 3. (r) 3^ da. a 4 ft. 21. '"I 22. 5. (ft) 5 da. 13. 2:1. 3. 7. [>> ^ a ./hr. min. (a) 12 hr. Yes. 35. 10. 6. 11.0.. 11 hrs. 24.003. 17. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 16.. ^m . 1. 9J oz. Yes.} da.0 & . 11.004. _JL.001. 7. 3. $40. 26 30. 8. f . () 2. 1^'. 10 yrs. jj. 7T 2 Page 116. 5.. Page 124. Yes.15. 16. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 300. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 0. $00.. 19.. 36. 19. ^p^ r ~ 7. 17. 6. 10. 3 da. $0.000 1 = 23. 8. 4. 9. (ft) 5 hr. xy.x + y. 4~r~ n . 1:4. Page 125. 33. (ft) 104. 15. 10^ oz. 74. 19. 5 25. Page 119.
7. 25.57. 24. y a y = 7 0. 46. 9. 15> 9. y 1.3. : : . 3. 6. 20. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 8. 11 5 . 2. 10. . 30. . () 7 Page 126.]. . 2.3.6. Page 133.  19. 2. 7. 47. 14. 4. 55.15 x. 2. 12. 2. 5. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 7.12. 3. 1. s<i. 25. 8. Page 135. : ."2:1. 7. 7.9. 18. y :y =. 36.17.  28.1. 23. 17. 5. x y y . 1. 4. 19. 3. 4. jc:y = n:m. 21.r. 14. 5.4. . (a) Directly.2. 10.*. 2 n . $. 11. 3. Of. /. 12. 8.000 sq. 49. i. 8. 2. 7^. 44. x y = 1 = 3 2. 15. cu.4. 26. 1. 2.. *. land. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 4.3. 6. 3. Page 9. 2. J pq.840. a +b 1. 39. \\. y .1.46. : />. 127. 41. 2.2 oz. 7. 17. 11. 3. 8. 56. 9. 8. w. = 7 b'. in n. OJ. 3}. 8.li. 2.' : : : : <>. 12. 19 OJ. 53. ' 55.1. .3. 2. 9. 40. "lO. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 24. I. 4.5. 4. a~. 48.12. OJ. b x 37. 4.. Page 132. 31J. J. 6. 13. 6. J. : : T 1' : /> : . 1. () Directly. 1(5. mi. water. 1 rt * vm^1.5. 3. 4. 9  15. . 2. 138. 3  24. 5. 54.2. 13. 50. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .5.^ 0?j ' gms. 32+ mi. 17. 4. in. 20 20 J ^. 32j. 15. 141. 38.1. 2. 7.3.3. .3. 59. 7. 13. 2. + W.2. + b 7 . l.8 oz.J 3. 200 mi.5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 4. : XV 27. 5. ~ 1.2.3. 23. 2. 1. 2.5. 7. 2. 5. 6*. 945 11 10 .20.x a. lo mi. 2. 16. 2. 7. 22. 20. .a. 14.ANSWERS 22. 11.5. 36. Page 136. 10. 3. 9. 5./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 7. 52. 3. 3. 3. 2." ^ 2. ft. 16. a f 2 2 = 5 x. Inversely. 13J. 27.5.22. 7. .15. 57. ig 6. tin. (b) Inversely. 7. 14. 6.3. t 5. 29. 4.7. 2. 3. 43. 30. . Page 134. 5. 1. 6 10 = 12. 11.2 x. 9. 13. 9. . 40. 9. 3. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 24 1 (e) Directly. . 1. 2. x 42. 7.1.3. 174+ Page 128. 45. 3 2=3 x. w 8.C ?/ a .3.4. 35. \. Page 5.4. 4. 4. 26. 3. 4. 7.36. 9. a 3. . 10. 1.160. 28. J. 19. 2. 25. 20 cu. 7. 1. 2. 16. 2.000 sq. . 19 3 . x +y x + 74 7 \. 31. Page 137.J. Page 131. 5. 5:0 = 10:12. 11.  ?. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 1. 22. 2. copper. 5. (</) ft.7. x:y a: b. 5 2. 19. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. (I.) 31. ini.5.5.. 58. 4. 11 w a 13. 5:3 = 4: x. 12. 41. 21. 1 18 = 3 51. mi.4. : 23. 5.
2 horses. 24. . 2. July. (5. m . 2. 2 a. 32.4. 4. Jan. (ft) 20. 21. 4. 30. 4. & May. 3. 0. ad AzA. 3. 21. (c) . 2.1. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 7. 2. a. 2. . 22.l. B's 15 yrs. (a) Apr.2. . 00. yrs. Oct. 5. 26. 7. 1. 1 (c) Jan. 6.0. 3. Aug. & part of Sept. Page 146. On the x axis. 6. 20. 4. ad _(?jrJL. 90. 40. 20 & Oct. B's 40 yrs. 18. 1. 2. 8. 1. Nov. ^. 3.$2000. 16. 31. 24. . (ft) 23 J. 18. J.0. 8. 2. Page 22. The ordinate. 16. A's 30 18.9. 15. 5. ' . 7. 16. 15. 13. 9. Jan. 2. 3. 4. $ 1000. <*ft/ bd 1.3. 2. 25. 10 sheep. 6%. Page 145. 20. 12. 17. About 12f. 23.33. & part of Feb. 7. Page 151. m f 9. Feb. $900 5%. 27. 12. 14. ft 3. ' 6 3 a. 18. 3. 3. 16.4. 30. Nov. 7. $250. 25. 4 mi. 14. 3. 11. 30. 18. 3. . 5. 4. 7. 147.7. A's 50 13. 40. m + n p. 7. Jan. 23. 0. On 11. 9. 3.. Apr. 2. 14.2. 9. 16. 3. Page 149. 7. Page 152. 6. 4. Page 153. 6. 4. 2. 2. . July 20. 16 to July 20. 2. 1.$5000. 25. 11. 2.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 2. 6. 11. Nov. 4. 1 (d) Apr. 11. 4.  17. 2. through point (0. . 5. 20. 10. 1. &. Page 142. 1. . 4 ' q. 6. (a) 12. 10. 20. Nov. m f 8.8. 0. 6. 4. 4. 1. 100.. 2. 3. 4.4. 1. 3. 12. $500. 3. 23f . 3.1J. 5. SL=J o ft r^2. 29. C's 30 yrs. 9. 3. . 26. 72. 3. Page 143. Apr. yrs. 8. 9.65. 11. . 1. 10. 3. July. 6 cows. $6500at3Ji%. (<f) 13. 13.3. 12. be 7. 8. 5. $4000.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2.XVI Fagel39. 1. 12. 1. parallel to the x axis 0. 13. Jan. 28. 5. 15. 20 to Oct. at 15. 10. 3. On the y axis. 19. 4.n + p. May 5. . 5%. 423. 17. be 10. 19. . 5. C's 10 yrs. 24. .. 10.^. A a parallel to the x axis. = ^ a Page 141.3. Apr. 24. June.. 2t2. 4. 5. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 16. 20. a =J (n  1) rf.  11.. 19 gms. 1. 5. 11.10. M 2. 9. u 2ft. 3.1./hr. 10^ gms. 3).. 6. 17. 7. 25. 7. $3000. Jan.
3.  12 ft xW  26 31. .3.73. 1. (a) 12. 2 2 22. 3. 1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 25. 4}. f 10.79. xy. 2.75.5. 1. 1. 2. (a) 2. 2. 3.41 and 23. 3.24 .64. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. Page 163. 3. 13. 8.  . 3. 2.75 (ci) 3^. 125a 28.1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.5 (ft) 3. . 4. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . 5. 4. G. 1. 10. 2.1. (<?) 2. 14. 19. 8mW.25.17 (ft) (c) 2. 2. . (c) 2. 24. 30. 5. 1. xW.64. a 10 ' a ll V&. 4 ) 21. 2. 22. 5. 14. 1. 15 . 2. 20. . 3. 18. 2. . 28. H. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 3. Page 164. . . (c) 14 F. 1. 6." 23.59 . 3.2 (ft)  1. * 16. . 14. 27 19.83. xg .25. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (/) 3. (ft) (ft) 2. 17.73. 10 C.41 and . 30. 22.67. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.25. (ft) (d) 2. 18C. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.. (e) 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 3. 2ft4 Page 168. 4.5. 26. 27 27 81. 24.84. 1^. f. SlstyW 7. 1.75. f12 wi 9. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 11. 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. . jgiooyiio 17.13. 14. .25. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 13.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. .83. .25.73 ami . Page 158. 10. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 125 16. 2. 11. ' :=_!. (ft) and (d) 2. 4. 27. a 29. 19. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. . 2. . . 83.34F. ft . 125 a 8 12. H.27. 5. 81 ". 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 16. 8 1 f f g*. 3. 3.73. 11. +3 4. (ft) 2. Indeterminate. (a) 5. 9. (c) 7. 6. 2. 1. () (rt) 3... 20. 32F.  1. 8. 8. 13C. 3. . + a 4 ft* . (a) 4. 2.6. 12. 9. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 7. Inconsistent. 0. . . 5. 4. 4. Indeterminate. 3. 1. 3. . 2 a&m Page 167. 5 and 2. 8 a1. 2. 2. 3 . 1. 15. 2. 21. 1. Page 159. 0C. 1. .79. 9 and Page 166.. 2 l. 2. 3. . ImW. 4.59. 13. . 1. (e) 3. 15. (/) 3. 13 .24. Inconsistent. m. a + ft. 1 23.  1.24. 4wn8 + n4 5. 1. 1 4. 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.4. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 5. 1. 3. 1. 10. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. f. 3. . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 .75. . I21a 4 ftc 2 18. \ft) 5. . 3. 15. ft 2 4. 12. 5.7. (gr) 21.
8. ?7i 1 1 3 1. r> 4 : 1 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . (Gx + (i + 2a. Page 170. 14. 2 49 . 13. c 10 6 :l 20. +3 + 5 4. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 84. 9. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . + l). 72. 26. 71. 19. 8 /. 17. 6.  +X '. 17. 3 2 ^.i c 6 15. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 22.2). 40. . . (a + 2 +l). 2 2 4. ? . 1. 17. (l + x + . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 8. ). 15. 978. 3. 76.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). /> 4 ).6. 10*. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 36. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 20. 6. ??i ?i . 15. 7. (ab + c). AN S WE no . 16. 64. 10. 18. 16. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 23. 2. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. +35.10 a~ + 5 a . 10 x G a 4 . 11. 70. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 28. 6. rt .r 2 + 6jt). 12. 20. 90. 5 5 8. 16. + i)). a ). 25 19. 57. + 29. ? : 1 . a 2 .1. 8. 99. 11. I 8x2). 20. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).037. (4a2 9& 2 13. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w.5. 4. 25. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. (x' l). 1. 12. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 15. 180 .+3^ + 4. 34. (a + y+l). 1. . (7 (2 2 3 2 16.3 ab + 2 2 ). 98. 12. 9. 7. (ly). 6. m 13. a: l . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 2 4 8 2 . 11. 24. 3M. 3 6 23. 30. a. ( Page 174. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 6. 5. 9. 3. 4. 11. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 16 6 w . . 101. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 2.f 1 m 9 16. 3. 0. 10. 14. 30. Page 172. 13. 2 2 7. Page 176.  x. + (win . 1247. . 7. 32.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. Page 171. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a).y2 ). (1 (x2y). GOO 2 c 2 . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 35.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.94. 247. 21.5). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 4. .83. 5. 2(> + ( 2 7>). . (48 + 6. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 420. 309.XV111 7. (2 a + ft). 19. 15. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. . 20. 9. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 31. 18. 5. (x + y\ 90. + Z). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 5. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 2. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 763. 119. 3 2 8 3 12. 2. 9. ^i. 1. (3a. 21. 10. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 33. fe *?>' ?> fi . 8.x ).7 /)). 1 1 ?>). .1. 2038. 14. Zll. 90. 6 (\x 3. 4. + y). 14. 237.a b 22. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 18. . 00. 3. a. 8. 2. 27. 9. (a 2.GO a c + 23.^). + + ?V 22. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 5. 2 12. 300.
4 W**. 6. 5. 29.  14. 10. * 1. 5083. ZLlAiK 19.  43. 36 in. Page 185. 33. 4J. . 14. (afl). i ^. 19. 17. () 2. 35. 9. 3. 13.935. 19. 9.. 5.367. 21yds. 15. . 4. 4. 9 15 ft.. 42. 21 28 ft. V2. or 5. Page 181. 30. 3. 5. 4. _ iVaft. . 5.742 in.. 41.w 18. > w ft.916 yds. w. 7.  f. 16n. 6. 12. 12. . 21. 1 f Vl3. 25. {. Page 180. vV'TA 24. 36. 2. 17. Page 184. 15 1 10. 7. 5. 4 n. l~8. 7. 7. 5. 8.  3.237. 21 in. a + 61. 9.  1. 5. 12.5. 31. / 11. J.6. 8. . 15. . ... 5. ^. 1.005. If ^. 10. 15. 27. ft. . 4. . 2. *. 15. a. m. 33. 1. 4.4. 24. 10.6. 2. 11. 12. 5.236. 13. 6J. 14.. 25 J. 11. 6V'2J.243. 2. 29. 2. 5. 7563. V. ft. f. 3. 2. 7. 9. 4.469. 3J.1. 10. >i 27. Page 179. 1..  2. 4. 4 TT M 28. 7.*. 2.  5. 5. 21. 35. xix 26.925 ft. 28. 1. 7. f. 6. ^^7m.522 38. 34. 5. . 2. 7. 3. V2. v 17. 1. or 3. 1. 4. 37. 12.6. i. 13. 31.13. 6V21. V35 1. 6yds.V 8j. Page 177. 1 38. Page 183. f 3. 40. 5f. 18. 3. 40. 10. 6561. 11. f . 4.  f. 47. V J l. 23. 32.4. 2. 9. >TT 26.}. Af^. 24.690. 2. 10. 6. V17. 37. 11. 39. }. 20. 4. 26. \/3. 1. 1 7. f f V.a. 16. 4. 27. 6.ANS WERS 22. 5.18. 1&. ^. 3. 15. ~ V^3. 23. 7. 10. 50.6. 39.i. ft.4. . 7. 3.. 7. 36. 44. 16. 2] see.. 10.1. 16. 7}. 46.6. 16. 5. 3.Sn. 20. 1. 13. 13. 2. 3. 8. (< + ?>). 21.?. 6. m.60. 6. 4 a. 7 45. 1. 48. 3. 3. 23. 14. 9. 49. 18. . 7 in. 3.5. 9. 28 in. 32. 1. 8. f ^ is.645. 8. JJI. 10. 17. 3. 25. 4. 270 sq. 28. 22. 3. 12. 9. 6. 29. 2. (6) Vl4 3. 20. 39 in. 14. 4. /. 2 sec. 2. vYb. 12. 11. 6 f !. " ^_ 22.. 14.798 yds. ii :J _7. 8. 12. 1. 30. 34.
a 3 a.70.  9x <)..7. 16. 8 or 12 mi.2. .  2. 56. 5. 3. 0. 0. 2. jr . 7. Real. . 0. 4. 52. 0. 3.02. 15 ft.  1. 64c. 5 ft. irrational. 3. Real. 4.  5. 24. 40.37.5.  5. a. 46. 28.4. 2. 0. 6. 3. x2 + B . 1.  2. Imaginary. in. rational. .0*8. Real. 2./hr.. 7. V^l. 24. 1. 3. . 35. 3. 23. 6. .62. rational. 12. . . 7. 4. 7. Real.12. unequal.$40 or $60. Imaginary. 7. 3. 6.6 = 0. 17. 4. 5. AB = 3. 2. 120 ft. 20. 48.2. U. 4. V2. 1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. . 18. unequal. a8 . 64. f 6 52 a. 4. 10 mi. 10 mi./hr.2 x2 . x* 51.* 2.. 10. r* i.1. 3. 20. AB = 204 ft. 1.XX Page 186.23.2. unequal.4. 18. 6. . 39.4. 1. Page 188. Real. H. 0. 10 in. 9. Page 187. V^l. 0. 55. 1. 31.. 9. 8. 2. 0. 26. ANSWERS 22.l. 0. Page 189.5 x + 6 = 0. 1. 10 or 19. orf. 16. *'' 12. '  f 5. 10.  24.2. 53.48 3. 2. . 21. 2. 3. 15. 3. 2 ft. 8\/2 17. 0. v^^fcT"^.4. 2. %. 2. 11. 23. a + 1. 37. 0.74. . 49.2. 25. 2. 30. . 22. 24. 25. unequal. s 11. 0. V^~2. . 4.  Page 194.. 2. 47. 70 ft. 1_^L ft 14. 27. 7. (5 10.  6. . 20 eggs. 3. 1 . i. . 1. 3. 0. 3. 21. _ 19. 28. If.48. 8. 4./hr.5^. 12. Real. #<7=3.2. 21. 28. unequal. 25. . 12. 43. rational.  1. 1. 2. t is. 0. 7. 34. unequal. 19. 2. rational. = 0. 3. 2. a + 6.a. 3./hr. 2. 4 da. x 14. 0. 4. Imaginary.1. 3. 22. 5. 12. rational. 2 . 25.6. irrational. Real. 41. 9. Imaginary. equal. 58.  1. 2. 14. Page 191.7. ft. 3.'. 6. 2 V3 in.2. 23. 6.2. 36. 6. 1). 5. . 1. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 6V64. Real.4. Page 190. unequal. 2. 2. 6. 15. 2. 3. $80..3.41. 4. 19 in.2. 27.Oa. f. 1. 32.23. i . 1. 8. ^l/>> = 85 ft. + 11 x.3.17. V2. unequal. 1. .7.a. unequal. 12. 38. V7. 2. 1. f.59. VV11. 14. equal. $ 120.3. 7. 2. 20 nii. 26. 3. $30 or $70.10. . 33. 9. 16. 29. a. 1. equal. 3if.  1. Page 192. x*4x=0. 19. 1.  i.12 = 0. 13. . 2.]. 18. 13. 26. 0.  13. . 1. 57. 6. 3. 35. 11. 1. 45. . V ~ 16 4 2. 3. ' 1.2. 8.  1. 20. 44. 15. 1. 26. 6^2 in. 3. 3. 5. 1. 10. 6. 50. 2.1. 42. 1 3. 27.
3. 16. 29. \/r\ 11. 30. 12. 25. Page 199. 8. 22. 28. &. 13. 10. 53. 243. 14. 33. vV. 16. 2 L ( V. 5. J. \ . 1. 22. 1. J 3. 30. 0. 4. 2. 7. \/. 44. l  5 12. 7. 4.  f. 9. 29. 3. 15. 19. 2. 3. 45. 0. \/3. 10. 14. ar 1 . J. 1.ANtiWEUS rational. _! V3. p.32. 27. 2. ? . 1. a. \a\ \/^. 13. ^Sf 3 38. 1. ifa. 3." 17. 0. 1. 4. 21. 37. 25. 30 a. .1 5 15. JV37. 5. \. 8. 12*2 61. . 8. v/3. . vm. 3. 1. 2V a. wA 46. 2. x$. 36. \. jV 10. 5. 17. 50. 8. Page 197. 54. (m 26. 8. 1 39. 59. . 13. z + 22. 6  AAf. 32. 19. 8. 1. 15. 27. 16. . 31. 14. 1. 5\/5. 4. 40. 56. 5.6.  48. 6. 9. 1V1. v'frc 18. 49. . Vr. Page 200. 32. fx'^z'l 23. 35. Page 196. 8. 2. v'frW. 57.. r*. 21. v. y. 19. 3. 13. 42.  a'2 . n\/* Page202. 51. 2. 6. r. 38. 41. 43. 24. 20.^7. 9. . 7V7. 2.//^. v^T4 m. 3 4 11. 3. 2. . : . 31. 26. 49. 20. 48. m. 125.  J j. 7. 1. 47. 4.17. 60. 21. 'J. . 1. 11. V^ 34. 3. 18. 17. 5. 58. 9. 47. J. Page 201. i. 5. . 8. 25. m'. 9. 9. 16. 52. ). 4. 33. 11. 3. ^49. 20. 39. 2. 23. 20. 55. J. $7. xxi 15. 18. 1. 46. 84. 23. y .2. 14. 3. aW\ 40. 17. 18. 50. 2.  5. 4. 24. 15. Jb \. x. ) 2 >J i 10. 29. 3. a 18 . *V. 7 . 49. 28. 10. 3. 4. 49. 33. 12. 10. 24. 19. x/25. I.  f . 2.
a2 4. + + ft. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 3^2. V80. . . 10. Va 2 "ft. 40.f.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 3 4\/2. 13 35. V2 + 4 V22. ftV 46. 101 1. . + 2). 5 ( . (x' (l 1+x).r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. . 20. m* n*. 2. V. 22. 20. x 25. x^ . + 1. 26. 26. 28. 33. . JIV6. T. 21. 41. 2 x* 15. 3 \ 39. v'TM. x 7  34. 8V/) 15. 7. 34. Page 208. 19. a^ + 2^+1.'\ 14. 34 r 6. 5 22. 27.692. 10. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. (a 27. 3 42. 2. 40. + 2 Vzy + y 1. Page 207. 4. . 8. Page 203. 38. abVab. 24. 31. 195V3. 9.XXii ANSWERS 1. 29. x. + . 9. 11. 3V5. 43. 2 4 z2 l 3. 9. 10. . 2 a?>V2 a. 37. 2. 17.yl : . V. + 2 V22. ). 9 .). (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 19. r c .rV:r. 48.  2 3:r. 18. 2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44.x^y* + y%. x%  3 ^+ 1.3 + 40 3 . 8. 2v (T 2aVf. l 5. k/2. v^.707. 30. 2 '"V5. + Vic + 25. 1 2 or 1 ?. y. 2>X2. 3 x^y 33. 24. 49. v/^r 5  A/^~. 13. / V3. 3V^T. ^7 \AOx.632. V 5 47. 03r* 7. 50. a 3. 23. 62V(J. 2\/7. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 5. 31. 17. 4aV^J 16. 4. 3.  a Vft 2 121 b. + 2 ar 1 ). 13. 11V3. 36. 16. (o* 2. 135V6.r. y (a + ft) V2. 8a6V5. .648. 37. Vr 8. V63. 15. 3. 1) 3V3.2 18. 12. 13 a. 20&V6. 5. 3^ + 2). 1. 16..577. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 39. 51.2 VlO. a 4 +* + !. 2. 32. x + 5 x3 + 0. x y.Vxy 35. 7. ?tV?w. 11. 28. ^88". 21. 2. 6. 25. 30. r 17  Page 204. 3. 6. 32. 45. yV35. ^: V2c. 29.
25. 13\/3. x/4. 0. aVa. 6x2?/. 18. 4. 49. ab 4. 24. 16. 5. x/w^ 8. x/8l. 3 V2. 13. 2. 26.. 15. 7. 7. 16. 6V2. Page 211. Vdbc. V5. v^4. 74\/Jl 120 46. 42. 5. v^f. \/a6c. "^8000. \/abc*. 14c 4 V5. v/9. "v/wi ??. 7\/(l 7VTO. 32. 8v2T 12. ^\/3. 3. 5 \/2. 2 V'3. 51. 10V(). 5v/2. 5. 23. 3\/wi. 38. 37. D 45. v^lf. x/27. v 25^4714 V2"a. 6. 2 28. V3. 36. 3v^2. 40. 4VO. 44. v^O. V8. Vat. 17. 6. 14. 22. 3\/15  6. . 32. v/i). 25. 37. Vtf +3+ 33. x/8L v/27. 3. xx 1. . Vn. VJla. 6. Page 213. . 5V2. 10. 43. v/lO. 40. 27. vT). \^6. 9. 19. \^6. \/2. \/04a. . V2. 8  \/15.30 2. % 29. 6aV2\^. + VlO  v y (5. Page 210. \V3. 4 >/3. 5V2. 32m27n. 6. 2\/7. 46. 7. v/l2. 8V2. 11. 2 1. 6+2V5. \XOfl6Vi5. fl^Vac.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 13. x/125. v"3. 29. V/. a2  b. v"5. .J Page 212. x/8. \/8. ^ 3 b 5 24. 3. 4 a*. m ?i2Vm/t. 34. 1V5. 11. VT5. 2. \/128. 24. 12. 14. V2. 33. 4\/5. V5. V3"m. 26. 2. 20. 28. 9 VlO + 4. 3 V15  47. 31. w?i. 35. 10. V3. 1. 6 2\/0. 2 ate. 21. 35. v^a. 6.  3. 2. v^30. rtv/5. 50. 9. ^9. 3. 27. 18. 3\/2. 52. v/8. 39. . 22. 30. \^r^bVabc. : ^32. 21. 14. 0. . 10. 17. 39. 38. 3. 23. v7^. a\/5c. r)\/(l Vrtr. 8. 2yV2?/. 1. 17. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 34. 48. W). 9. 8V73\/IO. 11. 8. a^\/a7>. 15. 12. '. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . + 20.T*. Page 214. 36. 2. x/3.r v/^ v^fr*. 21 23. 19. / \/w/t 4 13. 1. 30 Vl4. 53. 4. 3 Vl5 30. 2 \/2. 41. ^27. 18. b. ^v 7 15. Page 216. 31. 16.
2. 27. ANSWERS 8. . 29. ^r. 8. 5. 100. 4. 3. x 20. 4. 20. 9. i^Lzi. (3+ v/2). 37.1547. (VaT^v a). 10. 9. . (V8 + V2. 30. 11. 4. 17. (V5f 5. 4.389. 16.64. 512. 2. 34. +3 V2). 224. V^TTfc. !^ 6 4. 6. 10. 4. 2!5_. 4V3 + 6. 64.V3). 14. 23. 8. Page 225. 8. 20. 13. V. 22.81. 21. 28. 9. . 21 ' Vob 26. 5. 25. 12. 12. 23. V35. Page 218. 7. j 15. 18. V5. 7.1. 9. 25. ^\/2. 3(7+3V5). A . 3.13. \.XXIV 7. 24. (Vf + (4 V2). J.. 1. 32. 25. ' 22 i . 24. (a 1. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). 14. + 5V2.  . Vf6fVtf. 18. . 25. 1. f. J. 15. Va. 7 Page221. 2. Page 223. 7. 2. 5. 19. 9.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .732. 18. (2V2). 8.3. 0. 2x^2^. (VllV2). 3. 4. fV2.464. 4. 9. 81.6. 12. . 27. 9. . 6.7071. 3. . + 6) 2 . 21. 15 f 3 V2L 4. ^(VlO\/2).5530. 7. 5. 15. 6 V.2828. 16. 9 mn. 25. 7. 24. 14. 33. 10.3. (2f V"5). 22. V6c. 31. . . 2ajV2*. 2 . 5. 25. V2. 8. 2. 35. 17. 9. 7. 216.  2. 13.601.w 6. p 6 13. 19. 1. 1. 18. 4. 16. 25. V3. 12. Page220. 1. 1. ~ Vac _c 0. 2V2. (V21). 0. 30. 2V3. . 3. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 8. 125. 24. 1. 10. nVTl. 15.2. 81. 10. 16. 18. 11. 16.3535. 3V23. (2. Page 28.6 V3.^ (\/22 4. 11. 6. \/3). 19. {. 12. 23. 7. j. 7. 4. 15. Page217. (V6 + 2V2). 12. 5. 23. 5. Page 219. 26. i(Vf Vft). 17. 19. 22.625 10. 4. 4. 1. 5 + 2 vU 17. 8. (2Vll). 5. n*. 14. * 3. 16. 15. m f. 23. V3. 11. 16.4722. 27. 4. \/57t.4142. 3. 36. .  13. Va. Page 226. ^. 11. _^JflJ?. 21. (\/3f 1). 7 f 5 4. xy 2. 8 V3V2. V3 . 3. 29. 2. 4. 4 14. 20. 4. 1. 26. 8.7083. 10. 5.  f. 2.2.\/TO). 4. 13. 20. K>/0 + \/2). 10. 17. (V51). 9. 19.0606. 1. 5 f. 5 V65.5. (\/5V2). 6.9. ^. V3. 2V3.732. 1. 6.1805. 11.
2. //. 4. 3. 2. 0. 1. a: :} . 24. 73. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 3. J Page 235.10. 2 > 1. 17. (a. 4.Y.2. 2. 24. 1. . 2. 6. 1 6.  .4. 5. 19. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 5. 17. 10. 5. 2. 6.  16). 4. .3. ~ f7. 2. 3. XXV 4. 14. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 19. 2 . 8. 3. (+!)( 2) 10. 4. 23.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). o. 1.  1. 1 3. 26. 0. . f . J 24. 3. 10. 5. 1.3. . 7. .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 7. 11. 3.3. . 2. 10. 2. 4. 3. . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 22. 0. 5. 14.5 xy + 25) 22. . l. 73.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).4. 25.l)(m . 3. 2. 25. 13. a  . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 4. 8. (63)(6' t 18. 1. 6.r . 8. =A^Z3. 8. (a . 12. 2. 12. . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 2 . (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). P. 4 4. 12 24 y . 2 &. 1 (?> x/^3.0.2)(m. Page 236. . 3. 25. 5. 1.2)(* .5. 21. 30 30. (a+&)( 2 14. 14. y. 3. 4 20. 1 . 4. Page 233. 2. 1. 3 9. (2 a. Page 234.nl^EI. . (rt. 1. 11. 2 . 9. 5. 2.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). V3. 1. 5. . 2.22. 18.  3. (m 4 + l)(ro. 50. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 17. 100. 4 .^a. 2. 12. (4 mn .  1. J.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).  J. 3. 1. 7. (pl)(p2)(p2).4.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). a(. 9. 1. 87 . 28. 4.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).7. 2. 20. \/0. 3.2. 2 V^ . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 21. 30. 2. 16. . 5.3).3.  f .l)(a3)(a . . 16. 11. f>. 2 <? 4a2 . 3 . 11. 5. 2. 5. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 13. 3. 30.1. 9. 2.1. 1. 3. 7. (8. (pl)(p3)(p6). . 1 .3 2. 15. 13. 30 . 2 6. 22. 3. 3. 11. . . 1. 7. ' J. . 2.8a 18. 15.. 1. 6. . 12. 3 . 20. 1. 15. 1. 2. 5. 3.  5. 20. 7. 1. 3. 18. (&y2a#H4). 56l).ANSWERS Page 228. 4. 10. 25. 4. 0. 4 . 10. 3. 2.  2. 3.  4. 2. (a. 4 1. 4. 2 . 7. 4. 4. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 11.3. qpl. J. 4. 13. 7. 1 .12. 2. 0. (B43). 4. 2. 2. & + 6 2 ). t/ 23. 3 . 6.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 13. 3. 3. (w . 3. 4. 6.2. (a 4. .3.  3. 8 6 & 0. 4. 5. 6 2 2a + 2). 6. a . 3. 1.4). 19. ( 16. 1 . 4.  3.w 4 + 1). 8. . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 0. 2 6. 10. 1 . b . 1. 1. . 3. 3 5. 0. 4. 12. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 8. (r. 5. 0.
15. $46. 3. 2. oo. _ 5. 5. 1. 1. m + n. . 2. 13.4.. 4. 4 6. 16. 4. 14. 0. 8. $. 15. 15. 2.3. 3.5. 3. 5. 3. 11. 22. 5. 8. 48.4. 7.3.1. x 4. . 28yd. 15. +  n. 24. 31. 5. . 5. 1. 8. 1. Page 240. 2. 16. . no co . }. Page 247. 1. 9. 6. 7f solution. 1. Indeterminate. 17. 2 Y> V . 31. 35 a. 2.13. 201. = QO 6. 36. Page 244. GO . (a) $3400. 50. 21. 6. 5. 11. 15. f*. 9. 8ft. 2. 4. 2. 8. 0. 1. 0. 1. 1. 1. 20 in. 37. ( 3.e. Page 248. 1. 1. 5. Exercise 114. 4. 2. 4. 17. 1. 12.0. 1. 14. n . 512. 30 13..y. 6. . 3. 24. 2. n. 4. 1 . } . . J. ' j. 6. 400. V3~. 1. 4 8. 22. i. 2. oo .3. 19. 3.4. m28. 29. . 17.200. . (/>) "_. 3. . Page 239. 12ft. 4. 5 cm. 1. \. ANSWERS 2. 2 10. 4. 3. 3. 14. c. . 2. 3. 4. 1. Exercise 113. ri*. 3. $. 2. 2. 2. 4. 2>/3. . 9. 5 4.  . 7. 2. 4.136. 15. 2 16. tn 2. 19. 3. ft. 12. 3. 12. 3 . V7. 1. 5 . in. . 4. 3. 2 ft. 37. 9. 14. 2 1. . .0. 2 . 8 3. 5. 3 . . 41.6. . ft.. 21. 12. in. 4. 20. 2. ^ }. 5.. Page 245. co .. 38. ft. .4. 1. 2. 9. 8..1. 50. 9. 23. 3. f. oo . 12. 3. 4. 1. J. 3. 3V5.020. and _ 4. 7 3. 8 .xxvi Page 237.. 21 30. 14. 3. 7. 2 26. i j. 1. 15. 12. 1. 5. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2n. 3 4. 10. 512.3. 18. 3. 11. . 20. 35^ 5. _ 7. 2 .3 . 1 .3. 4. 35.1. 4 .  11. 4 34.2. 11. J. j. 12 d. 3 2. Page 238. 7. 1. '>. (&) 2. 1.30. _ 10. . 17.. 55. 1J. 900. 1. . 37. 32. 3. 2. 1 2. 2. . ^~2. m27. 3.  1. 18. 3 3. 40. . 6. 5. 18. 39. 1. 17. .  2 . 12 1. . \/6. . 8. 5.3. $VO. 17. 2. 5. 30. . 2 . 3 cm. 1 . . . 23. 5. 3.18. 12 ft. 25. 7. i'ljVU. Page 241. 1. 2 2. 10. Indeterminate. 14. in. in. 3. . 30. 4. 5. jj. 3. Page 243. 288. 1. 10. 4. 3 . 8. . 69. 40 in. 7. 2. 45yd. 11. 4. . i i i . J. 4. 1 . 5050. . 125 125. 35 ft. . f>. _ 13 (0 6. 26. 1 . 4. (a) 5. 16. 7.3. . 3. 4. 1. 40 25 in. 3. 13. 2V7. 13. 1. 2. 2.. 5. 33. 1. 84. 20 7. .6. 4. (>. 11. 5. 5. 14. 78. 1..5. in. 10. . 8.
&' 14. 2. 6.419. J 2 //2 25. 3. 5. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 12. } $ 50.2 9.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.4. 27. 8. 21. 220 . % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 13. 3. 11. sq.7 10. />*. 16. 8. 0. 2.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . REVIEW EXERCISE . 20. 6. 4.3 ays. 2. 4. 04. . in. . 100. 4.504.5y 4 . Jj? 45. 5. 280 53. 8. Ja. 53. 7. 910. 6. 10. 50. 2. 11. 21. ^a 8.6 . 5. 1. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .870 m*n*.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 7. 81. 16. 8. 125. 22. 4. 1 14. 20. ' 1.  101. 12. Y11. Page 252. 35. 04. 10. 3. 2. ~v 9. 0. 4.680. 8. 495. 2. 12. 410. 8. 8.53. and 1. 105. . a4 4 14. 0.170. 0. 343. 8. 327. 19. Page 259.5. 17. 3. 2i* 7f.8. \ w 4 . 15. . 18. 7.  20 flW. 12.1. 005. . 44.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 4950 M 2 b y *.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 6.r 4. . 2. x4 . 8. 1. 12. 4. 5. 8 4x' 2 . 16. 9. 28. vy. 0.v Page 253. 27. 9. 10 14. ~ an . 4. 26.^ 448 x a' 3 /') .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 6. 1. 5 13. 4. 4. r 5 4. 343. . 27. c. 2. . 1. 15. 20. r r j. 1 7 4. 4. . x + Vy. 0. 3. 12. 9. 3. 7. 6. 7 x4 17. 25. 10. 7. 32. . 7. 3.5 x. 13. 8 . . 27. 9. 405. 16. 70. 1000 aW.^ ?>i 2412x4. 7. w9  8.12 x*y 16. <. 125. 9. 05. 8 1.r* 4 70 . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 29.  17. 1. 4.0.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 18. 12. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .210. 10. ?/i 6 x llj . 0. 4. 6. 16. 11. 5. 6i. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 2. 8. 5. x r 4. 5.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 708. 2. 10. 16 11. 19. 1JH. 2. 18. G. 1. 3.470. 1. 17. B .ANSWERS Page 250. 13. 4 0. . a. 192. 15. 5.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. . 4. xxvii 1. 45.192. 1. 4.700. 4. . 3. 5. 55. 22. 3. '23. i 10. 35.<2 4. 16. 70. 128.920. 7 2 x 4 x8 . Page 258.5. 17. 0. 1820. 120 aW. 9. 0. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). Page 254. 70. 16. f y 8 + z* . 3. 2.6. 75.x' 10 . 4. 3.4 &z x>&. d. 48.13. JSg. 2. 19.384. A. . 1. . y ^ 5  ^\ ). 5. 43. **+. 6. 15. 12. 7.2 45 a 8 /). 18. 8J.r x>/ 7 3.120. 3. 304. I. 10. 23.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 4. (). 45 Page 257. 45. 5. 6. 1. 1. 15. 14.
3 36 b c . + a 4. 14 x . 96.2 x^. . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.6 am b\ 129. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.3 103.  + 3 x2 . 2 . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.5 3n 4.x 2 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4 115. ft2ft 4 4l.18 ?/ 5x4. 27. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 4 65. 94. x8 x2 55. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .2.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 38.2 x 4.x 51.^a . 3 a 44. 8 . 10 4. 31. c3 4 58.x x*  f 2 ax 4. () 2 x 33. x2 a2 1 . 100.6 b.4. 114.1. 130. 10 a 12 b. Page 260. a2 2 aft 2 2.4 x 2 . a 3m 4. x 3 4. df. .18 x?/0. a* 4. a' 111. _55_7c 48. 4 15 x 5 . 50. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.1w 77. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.a. 2 2/' . 4. x . 109.rty x2 4 123. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .fee 2 4. 91. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 30.4 2 4 c2 42 . 21. 102. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 2 30 . 2 53. 2 . ?> . 125. 32. 52.a*ft 2 126. 3a~2c. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 5x + 2y~z. x2 471x4. ?/ 3.3 aftc.{ 54. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 3~ n 4. 62. ft n .15 4 62 x  72. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. . 0.  e +/. . 4 ! . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 63. 2 . 4 Page 264. . 1 x 45. 64. x' 79. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. +^ + ft W.x4 + y'2 z 4. . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. . .9 b. 37. 70. 8x3 8x. (a + ft)" 98. + 3 a?.4 x y 87.c. 80. . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .3 . 3a'2 Page 261. xyxzyz. . * 60. 16.9 x . . 72.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 4 2 .a 2 x 2a .2. 4 69. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. . ft /> 78. f5+7. x 8  a8 . 3 a 5 a 5. 2 113. 61. ?/ .4 x?/2 3 4. 16t/. a* a 8 a aftc. x2 5r*x ft 5 . I 57. 6a6c. a J . az 4. 124. 7 + 3 xf 2. 122. 1 + 4 xy. 0. .3 a'ft.1. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 118. as 20. 6 8 j27 40 ab.7 x   15. 1 a"* 4 an .4. a 4 .  4 a3 85. 110. 127. ^ . 243x4729. x } 4. 1 121. 28. 132.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 2 x'V2 90. 120.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.a6 2 4. 88. 6 c 47. .ac 44 aft. 4 . 0. x 3 41.5.3 a 2 '6 w 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. x4 f + 23 . a~b 89. 1 . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. /> 4 83. 93.a'2 c.4. x 4. 107. 3 c .41. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. . x2 2 . 35. 4. . 2 x2 108. 133. x 2 . 76. 26. 131.. .2 xy + 4 y2 106.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.4 ac. 22. a4 x. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.3 y. 2 a. 24. 2 x2 4.105. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. Page 263. 23. 40. 4 fee 4.x.y*. 5 4 4.3 b . 25. 43. 6 a2 97. + z. 82.c 3 4.1 4 jry 4 x . 12 a/. 2 q.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 39. 99. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 49.3 x 2 + 3 x .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .c. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .7.5x4. . . 104. y 4 z* 0. 29.2.1.2 c .1. 12 x.5 b + c . 9x. !! 71.  3 x2 . 46. 13 + 2 s. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. . m " + n + P3c . . 5 42. 4. 66. 9 2w 128.4.ft). 105.  12 a. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.x24 73.  .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 5x 2 2x43. 36. x* .a' 'ft 4. t 81. x' . 86. 3 a . x 8 + x 4 68. 4ft y3. . . &p 84.
5. 1. (. 30 + xyr. . (x .l)(a 2 +3). (c) 160 C. 154. 148. (x + 2)(x . 185. (5 x . p.1(5) 200. (3x2?/)(2. 2. 37 1.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 241. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 2^. 15  a. 149. ft.ANSWEKti 135. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 235. (/ 246. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 190. 199. (r^x + 1). + 7)(rt4). (y7)(y + 188. . .y). a 2 (15. G7.2) (3 x . ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. + 11) (a 10). (x + 6)(x6). 189.r . (x  42 yr. y 245. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 15. y3. + 3). 206. 214. 151. (ab + 8) ( 7).y + 3)(r (. 171. 181. 22. + 22).y2 ). 233. 10 in. 202.I2y).3. . 174. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). Iff 145. 138. as 194. 20.1). aft. 182. ( jc // a 2 (a1).2). + y. a + 2x2 ).y)(jc + 7 y). 146. 163. 19. 8 204. (2 198. 201. (233). 6). 156. 226. 187. 32 h. 170./_4). 4. (y_24)(y5). (a} 59. 166. 236. 179. (a& 192. r>x 2 (4x. z(x10)(xl). 143. C3 y _l)(. (y  17)(y + (>). (JT y 225. 209. 30 yr. 40 yr. 10). 244. 169. 12) (j. 7. 207. 30.m)(x + a). HI. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). k. 218. 10).. (xyX^+y" )1 243. a(a. 211.2 )(x+y) 228.  1. ?. 152. 1. 158. 48 h. 3. 162. (7x2//) 203.3). 12 yr. (x^ + x1) 234. x(x + 6) 213. 3(x . ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 3. 224. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 142. 2. (x 227. 240.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (r7y)(ai. xxix 139. (y _ ft)(y 4.2). 175. 218. 186. 222. 167.. 155. +)(x2 x^+2.6)(4 + 6). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 178.2. 2. 238. 36ft. 8(ar}(/)27). 197.y) (\r3y).l)(x8 + x2 . 184.. 157. 12 6 panes. 208. 23 18. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).4xl). 2(x8)(x3). 137. 150. 24. 2 2 (a. 2. 193. 21. 75. 172.6 .3 y). 215. y. 2 (4 x . a. 210. Page 267. 12. 220. 10 ft. yr. (a 2 + 2a6. (2a + l)(a .9)(xf 2).y)(z . 216. 161. . 239. 247. 2. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). fc'2a+62c). 6. 159. 1. 176. 183. 18. 147 mi. p. 191. 6. 1. Page 266. 20. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (y 7f))(y 196.3) (2/3y). 136. 205. 230. 153. 50. ( + 2y)(2x3y). (8x + 3)(3x4). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. .l)(y + 1). 217. . 212. 177..c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 180. (6) 40. + 3) (x f f>) . Or (a + 2)0el). Page 265. 168. 1. (7 c 2 ).1). 12. 160. 10.2ac + 229. 12 yr. 4. 173. 231. + 2) + 9a. 1. (3x  . 195. 232. 2 xy(3 x .r + 4). 1. 147. 219. 140. y  y 165. 237. m. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 164.1). 1.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 144. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 15.6) (2 x + 1).3 y)(a . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (?/+l)(yl).
260. 0. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 43 '^rJ'. + f. x 267. 254. 0.   . 3. 258. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 7 x 265. 307. 7. 2 x  3. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 2 4 300. 4 5. 301. 7^T 2 . Ca&c 1)(M 253.2* i^^ !^. ? 1) 302. 3). 303. *>). o. 256. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 306.. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (7 255. 269. x 283. 305. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .  7. 259. 310. 266. x . 279. a. 251.^^^^^^^^. 249.(x  4) (x4 304. > 4. 2. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.4). (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. ^/>J. 5. 268. &). ?^ZLiZ 308. 295. 263.4) 1) (3 x . a~ ' b*).^ ^^.1. x ?/ z 1. 250. x12.  3xyf x// 257. 298. 3  262. o(x4l). *. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 3). 261.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. ^ 299. 10. 264.
2 r36 384. a 2 . + 335. 333. ^_:r f> 331.  1 356. 11. 4. 405. _*L'L+. 390. 398. 399. 1. c 402. f.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381.. 396. 2 ?/ 363. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 3. 376. 1. 387.vin a /r " 337. a +6. . 386. 20. 401. ab.H ' 2wi ^' /' . ?>*.  1. 370. 1. * 357. a) A^_. A^L5L.3. 383. 3. 375. 339. 393. 326.1. (a + b + c\ . j 328.(5 a . " 4 378. ?/ + 3 332. 329. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 389. 395. 7/i ^ _ . 0. 380. 1. 400. 6 ?/+:>. 360. 379. 406. T\. Page 277. 388. 3. .)Cr4)__ . Page 274. 9^. 364. 12. 6a. 325. y 4 I 340. 397. 4 A. <L 409. 334. 2. 4. 2(a i 403.!. 4 rw. 0. 2 ). 2 ab  a Page 276. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 13 391. 366. 394. 377. m. 385. 0. L . 2(q.". T+^. .7. 7. + x 362. . l'j. 355.J . S. + 4 & 4 \ b. 407. a + b + 6). ^ 3 // . x 54 359.XXXI Page 272. 2. 336. 361. 404. ^"" 4 s . ?=. 392. 343 00 351. . . 408. 382. If. l . 365.. 1. 2 327. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 0. 324. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1 i 2 ^.
460. 487. 7.. 428. 5. 457. 42. 0. 420. 3. (a  c). 7 : . 3. 3a 4 5. L (c) I. 6. 6. 465. 8. 432. 467.7. 32 yr. . .7. 2. 413. 14 miles. 10. 84. not true. 2. 6. 2. 411. 1$. 439.}. Page 280.7. 10$.m  m+ M in. *+. b 449. 429. & 491. A 5 mi . * .. 3. : />a. 40. 8. 427. 6. fc. 7. Page 281. 494. . B $ 2500. 5. 0. . 472. 464.4. 3 .  453. 495. 447. . 20 yr. 486. 7. 442. 2. 18. (d  6) f. 10. 63. m. ^V.2. . (a) 1.2. 490.3. 4.}. 2.1.  7. . 10. 446.7. i a b 451. 17. 10. A $ 3500. Page 282. 0. 479. 2. 53 yr. 2. 493.7. 2. '. 7. 478. . 445. 482. 4. B 4 mi.12. 508. L2 a  6 . ... 483.vz in.  . ' $260 at 0%. 4. . 500. 498. . (&) 443. 1 a /?$+&?. 425. m 1 : wi. . 6. 6. 50. 90. 10. 461. 5. ^.  7. 1. . 450. 17. c. 484. 430. $2000 at 0%. 492. 448.rz Page 279. 506. 477. a* 424.4. Page283. 481. 452.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 440. 410. z8 +?/ 3 431. 454. 422. 11. fj.. 4. !L=4. 455. <L+ 6 (. 462.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 2$. (&) true. c 6fc 10.0.  2.55. 501. 51. 2. 9. . 5J.  2. 32. + () 433. 20. 40 oz. 10.489. 418. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 1.  10. 502. . 419.te + . 459. 435. 24 days.488. 441.  1. . \ 1. 497. . 423.  2. 0. 468. 2. 499. 463. />c c(f be. 5. . 0. 1. 436. 8. I. 503. \. 6.. 444. 5.3. ft 5. 421. a 22 . 476. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 412. 33. 22. i. 2 a 2. (d) true. 0. a + + ft c. 0. 1. 1. . (c) not true. 10. 507. 12.0. 485. ISJini. 5. 480. 458.  2f 504. 456.  1. ISjmi.  f>. 28 yr. 2 438. 466. 21.46.  505. 8. 426.5. Page 278. ^r?i 434. 7. 496.
> ^ .31. 576. . 2.  2ft da. 566. _ 4. .. 1$. 1. 556. 513. 1 .8. 14. 560. 562. 27 y* f\4 . 516. 571. 603. 2 .15. 2.  1.r8 596.6 2.7. 3. tin.0. 6435.7. 568. 553. 1 600. 579. (e) 570.3. 2 2. x8 .12. _^ 2754x . 1. 5. . . a+ Page 286.24. xxxin 511. f. 5. 0000. . 4. 563.  3. 569.6.  4.25. 3. . 591. (d) 537. 564.02. 526. 4 mi. . 1. <z ft 1. 3. . 2 imag.75.55. 1. 1. J7] min.8 x3^. 4. 6. lead. 574.  2. 3f 4f. 1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 565. tin. 3. . . 536. 1J. T .7.0. 531. 3 . 2. 1. . 4. 4. 558.. 5. da. 40 Ib.  7.24.25m.6.5. (6) . 593.16. 31. 0. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 1. 115 Ib.  J(a f + 2c).f 1.83.1..9. 527. If 572.4.10. f ? a f ft __ + c C).  . 4. .54.52. imag. 3.3.05. 512. 2 10. 509.02.6.20. 599. . . per hr. 514. 7.1.3. 2 1.  + + c. 551.35. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .3. H. S82 c. 3. 1. 4* da.24 sec. 2.15. a*8a + 24tf 82a. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .1. Page 287. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).54.56 sec. y% Z * 586.4.78.5. (c) 4.0. ft 584.73. .. . 1.  557. f. 8.8. (a) 74 Ib. . 529. 532. M ft c 2 ft 3465. . (gr) 10 1. 567.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 533. 2. 530.% rr\* 585. 2 1. 552.ANSWERS Page 284. 24.83. 8 mi.8.75.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. (e) (c) 2.1.xj/ f xV .21. 21*_.4.03. o> . . a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 561.3. . (c) 3. 4. 1. Page 288.5. 4.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. Page 285. 2(4 602. 525. 583.  (a) (d) 1. 550. 2. 5.4.0. 1 . 1.33. 232.37. 3. .38. 3. 1. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.4. 6.5+._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 554. or 8.3. 3. 1. 555.4 x + .5. 3. 1.02. 510.   (h) 8. _ 3. Roots imaginary.6. a f ft + c. per hour.10.00. 559. 3 da. lead. y 4. g(rc+ 6c).1. 2 . (/)  10 to 8.31.1. 3.30..04. f36a28x8 592.2. 24 da. 2. 578. + 12 x .5.14. 573. 7^ da. .62. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.02. 575. . 2$.03. 1. 528. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.  ft*. . 2. 3.78.53. a + ft  a  f c. . (ft) 4.3. 1.15. 3. 518.4. 4. ^ ft 4. 3. 1. + 26 + . .3. 1. 581. 598. . 515. 1.51. (6) 3.62. (ft) Ill Ib.88.37. + 6 tf f 3 . 582.5 f. 1. (i) 3.04. 1.  (a) 2. 2(6 597. . 2. 577. 1 580.  imag. 4 0. 4.8.
2. 649. 1 ~a . 628. 1m*. . (a3&45rj. 647.  684. 631. 9. 656. 13. b 664. 621. 1010. 612. 640. a 1J. la6 2. 623. o. 0. a ' 2 + . 2&).7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 651. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 1 704. 655. 3. 617. 633. ab 689. 637. 10. 657. \+ab 699. 624. 2.  13. 2.3f l 668. 1. 703. V2. 705. 678< 682. 9*.. 1$ 639.001. 2 a 688. 0. 898. V"^TJ. 4. 629. 210. 2 a  6*. a 673. 25. 8 6 fo . . 706. 616. Page 289. 696. ^^ 695. 4. 700. if 4/> 671.  2f r 659. ix 2 . 50. 635. 2 x 44 ^/. 5 3. 626. 641. 4330 da. 2. 009.2f Page 290. ab. c. 650.3. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 636. 4 V 0. 7003. 669. 708. 5. 2. 642. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 662. 2092. 6 685. b. 622. ^. If 658. . 6. a 2. 654. 5. + ~^'2 + a 1. . 4. i. 0. a.b 686.25.001. If . 2 a: 4. 608. 698.  4. 3. a 4. 690. 660. 677 680. 12. 701.y. z  1. J^^. 8 f 3. 652. 679. 607. V2. 8. . . ' 674. 5002.  3. b . n^l +^. 6. V^~3). 653.049. 971. 5. 1. 692. V7. 0. 618. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 615. 646. If b. be ac \. 630.  .3. 4.203. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. /> 4. 2. 670.a~ {Z 663. . fe + a. .702. 634. 648. 614. ^.c ) 697. If.  ft.3. 2. 3 681.3.2f (5 4.b. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 7. 683. 4$. / V^+lO^M"^. If f 667. 645. 1. 11. . . . <T! . fta a/> ^A. 666. 613.  4. 3.14 If 1.303. If 665. a + b. 2. (*_ + a: 611. I}'/.f 3 V^3). l/'3. 11. 2f. 691. 703. y  619. .  a2  a (ab). ft). af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 14. 2 ab + a  &. 672. 3 x2 . 625. . 1 2. 661. ' fe 2 ). 1. 4 676.  6. 638. 1 V5 1. 0.002. 643. 78. \.04. 2.>A 610. 702. 2 / 2 4. 627. 2f.43^4. 632. 0.  1. 7. . K 5 2 V2.0.. 25. 644. ^ 1.XX XIV 606. 5. 3 a. 620.
718.11. 768. 728. 777. 769. Page 293. 2\/53V2... 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.2.4 .^. 17ft. a 5 . 3 720. 5. 792. . 750. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.1 . . j 742. VT14V5. i^. 731. x\y. 1 752. ^ ?>. a 2 6^. 793. 711. 3V52V3. 726.ANSWMHti Page 292. / 787. 4 104 v/2.V2. 30\/10 764. T%. 737. 342V3. 712. 729. 755.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 734. 715.r+y> 759. 776. 3V72VO. y  1.10.r. rt3 2 ^i^.~ . 732. Hi a. 767.rJ w L 754. 740. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 722. v/7 / . 3V72V3. 24V2. + < 735. . a db Va^T < 45da. 1. 730. 713. 32>/2. 746. 749. 25. r. J(v'lO2V 791. ^7xy.257.^ 743. 739. cr*lr*. 790 2v 3v 2. "V313. 1 I . 1^ _ 760. + 6 2 tf'c. 756. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 1. fyaw&cu. 710. 8. ^ . 24 4 . 751. 2x3^ a. 15 shares. 782 785. 796. 3^. i 2. 59.9. 33^2.4 .2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 7  3V5. 1 747. VV> L4V34. 00. 723. VIO\/3. 3V7. 1 [ + '> J.12 af V^ 4 744. iv/Jj. 3 VlT 795. 709.9. 794. 763. 13ft. 2 V2 . . 1. 8. a 2  x2 . 29\/3. 778. . x i f^' . 721. 788. mn. > 748. 773. 714. 753. 34. 727. 5. 733.8.. 24. 719. 758. 725. a:* . 738. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 39. 716. a". 300.. 717. Page 294. v'll. 789.V/^ 741. 724. 736. 47. 3.
7. 2. 4. 881. 811. 3. $. 5. 810. 1. . 2 *x 807. ANSWERS 798. 4. 23. 812. 4 . 3. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). a 42)(x . 837. 825. 2.5 b) 4 1). 843. . n =  29. (xl)(^~3)(. 900. (x . 17. 0.rae) (4 . 2. . . (2 a . 6. ^. 896.2w . 836.  ' . 3. (3 862. 842.3)(x + 4). 4. 4 885. 4 818. (a m . Page 297. . 14. 880. 7. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 891. (1 .. jV3 f 3. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. . 2.3. (.XXXVI 797. \/2. 2 . 7.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 898. 831. 838. 3. o. 6.  839. 883. (3 b . (2x (r. (x 2 . 861. (2 4. a(ry + 864. V 3.  tt 815.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 823. 13. Page 296. .a 4 + 1).7. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 0. ( 4 4.1)(V 2 .l)(x .  1. a2 ^E*!. 819. 4. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 897. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.y) 852. 3..6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).3. 824. ^ V}. 857. 7. 17. 840. 899. \/5.7). (x3). (:r 11. 8.2) (x 4 2). 4.4.1. m = 2. (a 4 871. 835. 2 854. 2 806. 6 $. 841. . ) (a' 874. 893. 844. 2 . 2 2 . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).r4). 887. 3. ^VG. (x 845. 1. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .l)(x .. 11. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 3.a 2 2 ). (x . 2 (x 4*4. 849. 892. (4 c 4.1) (a 8 . 8 09. 863. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 808. (x 2 f r . a* 4. 872. 4. 858. 2. 851. **. 826. 813.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 890. x . x. 800. . 2. 886.4) 860.1). 3.25 ?>2). J V. 5. 25./>") (a'. ((' 1). +j!>. 799. 2. 1 .7).7)(4 x. . 822. (x*y*ryz + z*). 1C. 2 j 889. 833. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 19. a(ft)( 873. o 828. f. . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 867. 2. 817. 879. 48. 2  2. 848. 827. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 1. (x + 0X024.0. 876. Hoots are extraneous. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 1 1. (x 4. 4. 1. 2/ 856.+ m f ") (a* ).4. H. 4. 4. (2 x + 3 y} . ( 869. 859. 829. 820. 895. 894.5) (x + * 853.10 ab 4. 3. 6+V7. are extraneous. 1. 2. 3.f.1)(0 865. Va.a 3 " 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 4. 5. 4. 8. 2. Va 803. 882. 3 . . 888. 832. 2 . 5.2 ax 4.l)(x + 2).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. . 5. 0. 814. 11. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). db 7. 20). 868. 834. + d)*. 816. b' 2 821. $.7 4 1) 846. 10.r . 884.om 441) (a 855. 801. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 5). Hoots . 847. 830. m 875. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 2 m .1) . 6. (a 1) (x 4. 804. 0.  + l(l^). X4 1).
2. 950. 40 16 in. 982. J. r ft ' < Page 299. 28.. 6. 980. 15 16 ft. Page 300. 918. i 8. S07. 957. ?/i 6. 960. . 933. 902. 28. . 940. . 978. T3. . 963. i 3. tt2 19. 955. . 958.2. 927. 920. 0.. 1. 8 . 11. . 951. dL 4. 986. f. 5 . 6.. 115.. . 108. T 6. ft. 8. 954..1. ft. 8. 28. 1 1.. . a + . 2. 10. 5.0. 7 ft. 4. 280. 0. 2. ^y. 4. 11.1 = 9. 6 . f ft 4 . 15 946. 0. 922. 921. 7 or 30. 6. 14 . 911. 981. 7. . 925. 987. 905. 6 1 1. 2. i1" 913. 939. 931. 5l4f. 8. 480 8 sq. ft. 984. 6. w 3. 12. 0. 5. 4. ft. 5. . 8. 908. 4 in. 111.446. 3 4 . 903. 7.I. 4 .. 8128. 496. ft. 3). 73. 2 i ' a V. 947. 916. 4. 12 mi. .073. 7. 4. 6 da. 1 . 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 2. Page 302.760 sq. 100 rows.  1 .. 248. 961. 944. 4. 1 + V953.. 2. V5 T 2 . . . 8. 935.111. %* . 979. '3 3 in. 909. 5. . 4. 917. 1. 12 in. 2. 12. 8. 333.615. 9 in. T 6. i(6 in. 983. i>. 3. 5. 2.. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.01. 942. 3. 2. 977. 1 2. 934. 6.  1.. Page 303. 962. Page 301. 3.1. 6. 923. =F J. yd. 1. 6. 12. . 964.744.651. 936. 3 . 3. 2 ft. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.  26j. 932. 4. J. 8. w. 1). 3. V^3)./hr. 941. 938. 4 6 mi. 919. 930.2.. 952. 2. 11. Va926.709. 8. .. .' ifcVira^ 2 3. Z ^. 18. 956. ft. J(_ ft. 3. 2 w 914. . 56. 20 19 ft. .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 937. 945. V5 fj. 10. 2 yd. 6 a 915.. 943. 985. . 4. 3. 80. 906.. 11. Y. 66 924. 912. v/(ai !)(&910. a. 7. 959. 4. 904. 333. 329. 948. 2 1.V~~3). ft. 1 _2 . $(l 4. 60 949. ft.
in. .. 1 1004. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 2 . Page 305. 2(2 v/2). 991. 1014. 1007. 9 da. X. 162. 992.92.51.870 z8 . (J.18. 1017. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 48. 995. 1001. 1 8 8 2. 1008. 1018. 1000. 1016. + v 2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1013. (5. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1006. ^f (2f3V2).192rt?)r 120 *. 994.'^^ } ( . . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 990. 988. 1005. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 0. 1010. Page 304. 120 i^l^. () 12(2+V3). 120 a. ^Trsq. 0. 1012.128 I. 1019.378 <W and 92. 6 70 .  5&7 1021. 3003. + 448 . 32 13 (tx 4V3.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 192. (Z>) 999. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1003. ~ \. 108. 1(5.870 a 6 1011. 72.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 24. 993. 12. r = 2. 4 and 1020. 8.. 997. 4. (6) 8(1 . 12. 1009. 996.378 1015. .
very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. xi 4 373 pages. Ph. so that the Logarithms. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. than by the . save Inequalities. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1.25 lamo. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The more important subjects tions. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. i2mo. $1. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. etc. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.D. physics. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. A examples are taken from geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. and commercial life. Half leather. xiv+563 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. great many work. HEW TOSS . without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. comparatively few methods are heretofore. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade.
HEW YOKE . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. save Inequalities. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. and commercial life. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 12010. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The author grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. great many A examples are taken from geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. physics. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. so that the tions. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.25 i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Logarithms. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. In Factoring. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather. $1. xi f 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. HatF leather. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. comparatively few methods are given. Ph.D. xiv+56a pages. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
izmo. aoo pages. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. i2mo. NEW YORK . Cloth. more than 1200 in number in 2. State: . 4.. Half leather.10 L. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. . ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. $1. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 9. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Attention is invited to the following important features I. xii + 233 pages.D. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. $1. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .r and. SEVENOAK. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. lines. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. iamo. Cloth. 10. wor. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Ph. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. under the heading Remarks". 6. 7 he . Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SCHULTZE.
.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. 370 pages. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . . $1. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. and not from the information that it imparts. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. of these theoretical views. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. New York City. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. 12mo. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.
diagrams. " This volume etc. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. i2mo. diagrams. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. and a full index are provided.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. photographs. Maps. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Topics. Cloth. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.