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bclo*v.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAI-I.AS - BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. . OF TORONTO CANADA.

PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.

May. January. 1910 . May.A.. Cushlng Co. 1917. September. U. Published Set up and electrotyped. August. J. . 1911. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. September. Norwood. Berwick & Smith Co. Mass.' February.COPYRIGHT.S. 1910. . 1916. IQJS January. 8. Reprinted 1913. 1910. July. . 1915.

owing has certain distinctive features." this book. specially 2. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Elementary Algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many text-books In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. however. etc. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.. Such a large number of methods. short-cuts that solve only examples real value. and conse- . but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. chief : among These which are the following 1.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. manufactured for this purpose.

TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. however.g. are placed early in the course. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge- bra". e. as quadratic equations and graphs. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertext-book is logically unsound . This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. hence either book 4.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Moreover. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. For the more ambitious student. Topics of practical importance. two negative numbers. may be used to supplement the other. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. especially problems and factoring. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis- sion to our best universities and colleges. In regard to some other features of the book. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. etc. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.

viz. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. based upon statistical abstracts. By studying proportions during the first year's work." Applications taken from geometry. such examples. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. elementary way. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. is based principally upon the alge- . in " geometry . Moreover. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im- provements upon the prevailing methods. physics. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and commercial are numerous. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.

is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi- but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. 1910. NEW YORK. edge of physics.

.... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. SUBTRACTION... Powers... . ......

Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .114 . /^ .. Type III.... * .. Type II... . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type Polynomials. . Type V.. . Form x'2 -f px -f q Form px 2 -f qx + r -f . Type VI.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type IV.. . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ...

171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... . CHAPTER XIV 169 .... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... ........ CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .

xii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195

THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents

....

195

200

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals

205

206 210

.212

Involution and Evolution of Radicals

.....

214

218

Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations

219
221

CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM

XVIII
227

CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.

......
.
.
.
.

232
232

II.

Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic

.

.

234

III.

Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices

236
237

IV.

Interpretation of Negative Results

and the Forms

i

-,

.

.

241

Problems

243

CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.

246
24(j

251

Geometric Progression

263

CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

255

BEVIEW EXERCISE

.

268

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I

INTRODUCTION
1.

Algebra
it

may

arithmetic,

treats of

be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,

quently denoted by problem.

as illustrated in

the following

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.

Problem.
'

The sum
x

is five

times the smaller.

Let

two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of

Then
and
Therefore,

5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x

= 42,

and
3.

x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.

A problem
An

is

a question proposed for solution.

4.

equation is a statement expressing the equality of

two

quantities; as,
5.

6 a?

= 42.

In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.

Unknown numbers
;

are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,

by the

last

letters of the alphabet

but sometimes other letters

are employed. B

1

2

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1

Solve algebraically the following problems
1.

:

of two

times the smaller.
2.

numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.

is

four

twice as

and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse

A man
A

much

How

3.

and

B own

a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.

A

has

in-

vested twice as
invested ?
4.

much

How much
is

has each

The population

of

South America

9 times that of

Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.

and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.

The

rise

of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.

6 times as
7.

Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.

A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.

The sum

If

two

of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?

A

9.

The sum

triangle is are equal,

of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4

times their sum,
there in each ?

how many

degrees are

is

G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?

B

INTRODUCTION
11.

3

twice as
12.

Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.

B may

receive

twice as
13.

Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.

A
is

which
14.

line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.

How

travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.

A

sum

of the dis-

How many

miles did

each travel ?
15.

4

A, B, C, and

does

A

take, if

B

D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much

much

as B,

and

D

six times as

NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.

2

Subtract 9 from 16.

2.
3.

Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic

why

cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*

\

4.

The temperature
is

What
5.

noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at

of subtraction.

The temperature

4 P.M.

is

7, and

at 10 P.M.

it is

10

less.
6.

What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 -10?
(3

expressing the last

answer
7.
8.

Can you think

of

any other

practical examples

which

require the subtraction of a greater

number from a smaller

one?
7.

Many

greater

number from a smaller

practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in

a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,

4

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.

8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;

quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as -f- 5 or 5.
;

The

fact that a

thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 -10

below zero

may now

= -3.
is

loss of $ 60,

Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write

equal to a

$30
9.

-$90 = -$60.
number
is

The

absolute value of a

the number taken

without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.

6,

of -f 3 is 3.

It is convenient for

many

discussions to represent the

positive

a line

numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar

series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I

lit
-4
to

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-6

-5

-3

-2

-1

+\
4,

+2

+

3

+4

4-5

+6

y

Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.

to 4- 6 represents 4- 5,

resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the

The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.

Thus, 5 added to

1

equals 4, 5 subtracted from

1 equals

6, etc.

EXERCISE
1.

3

If in financial transactions

we

indicate a man's income

by

a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west

longitude, motion upstream

and downstream.

INTRODUCTION
3.

5

If north latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what

is

south latitude represented ?
4.

If south latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what
?

is

north latitude represented
5.

the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.

What

20 A.D. ?

Of an

east-

A

his total gain or loss ?
7.

merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350. - 350. (b) Find 200

(a)

What

is

higher, is 8

- +7? 8. A vessel
(6)

If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,

starts

sails

38 due south,

(a)

from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the

journey.
9.

Find 25 -38.

A
22

sails

vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)

journey,
10.

Subtract 22 from

15.
18.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.

From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From

19. 20.

21.
22.

23.
24. 25.

To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To - 8 To 7 From

add add add

12.
1.

2.

subtract 2.

add add

9. 4.

1 subtract 2.

Add

1 and 2.

26.

the one of

Solve examples 16-25 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as

motions.
27.
(a) 28.

Which is the greater number lor -1? (b) -2 or -4?

:

By how much

is

7 greater than

12 ?

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.

Determine from the following table the range of tempera:

ture in each locality

NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;

EXERCISE
1.

4
is

If the letter

t

means 1000, what

the value of

5t?
a=

2.
3.

What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?

if

6,

and

b

=

4?
is

4.
5.

What
If a

the value of 17

c,

if c

= 5?

ifc

= -2?
marbles,

many
6.

boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last

how

7.

How
8.
9.

merchant had 20 much has he left ?

A

answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m

dollars.

What

is

the

sum

of 8 &

and G

b ?

Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain

of the last

answer

if b

= 15.

10.

number, what represents 9 times

that

number ?

INTRODUCTION
11.

1

From 26 w

subtract 19 m.

12.
if

What is the numerical
From 22m
if

value of the last answer

if

m = 2?

m = -2?
13.

subtract
1

25m, and

find the numerical value

of the answer
14.

m=

2.

Add

13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.

15.
16. 19.

From

10 q subtract 20

q.

17.
18.

Add -lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=

From subtract 26 Add - 6 x and 8 x.

x.

20.

From

Wp subtract 10^).
is

What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.

The

and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.

signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have

If there is no sign between

two
is

letters, or

a letter and a

number, a sign of multiplication
6

is

understood.
written win.

x a

is

generally written 6 a

;

m

x n

Between two
(either

figures,

x

or

)

however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;

4x7 cannot be
14.

written 47, for 47

means 40

-f 7.

A product is
=

the result obtained by multiplying together

two or more
Since 24
Similarly,

quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.

7, a, 6,

and

c are factors of 7 abc.

15.

A

power
is

thus,

aaaaa

6 aaaaaa, or a ,

is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.

;

;

The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.

8
16.

ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a

power

is

the

number which

is

repeated

as a factor.

The base

of a 3

is a.

17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.

The exponent

of

m

6

is

6

;

n

is

the exponent of an

.

EXERCISE
1.

5

find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.

Write and

72

.

6.

42

.

10.
11.
.

8

(i)

.

14.
15.
2
.

25 1

.

2*.

7.
8. 9.

2*.

O

9
.

.0001 2

.

4. 5.

52
83

.

10 6
I 30
.

12.

(4|)
(1.5)

16.
.

l.l 1

.

.

13.

2

17.

22

+3

2
.

If

a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.

d=^
22.
a*.

find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.

20.
21.

c

10
.

3

(2 c)
ab.

.

26. 27.

2

at).

b2

.

d\

23.

(6cf)

25.

(4 bdf.

28.

If

29.
30.

= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
-jJg-,

In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.

is

called the coefficient of the

In 12 win 8/), 12
19.

is

the coefficient of
is

mw 8p,

12

m is the coefficient of n*p.

A
17

numerical coefficient

a coefficient expressed entirely

in figures.
In
aryx,

17

is

the numerical coefficient.
is

When

stood ; thus a

a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.

under-

=

=

INTRODUCTION

9

20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.

3 9

2

means 3
3

aa, while (3

2

)

=3ax

3 a.

= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 2-2.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty

1 abc*

7 abccc.

EXERCISES
If

a

= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the

numerical values of

:

21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is

A

6

is is

the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth

a

root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,

The nth
Va,
is

fifth root of a,

indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is

A/27

Using

this

(Va)
22.

n

= a.
The

symbol we

may
is

express the definition of root by
the

index of a root

number which

indicates

what

root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.

It is written in the opening of the radical

is

the index of the root.

The
[ ]
;

signs of aggregation are

:

the parenthesis,
.

( )

;

the

bracket,

the brace,

j

j

;

and the vinculum,

separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. are trinomials. 8. + 1]." EXERCISE If a 1. A binomial is 62 . 7 = 2. !^-f\/0-3 3 ft. 9. V^a6. 15. is 28. 5Vl6c. 4V3~6c. Val -\fi?. x 9. 10. 27. 12. v'Ta. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 11. since the parts are a . aVc^. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. V36". 6. 2. 4(a 6(6 + &). a polynomial of two terms. + c). find the numerical value of: Vff. V3 . 26. 2 . 14. 17. some number is . d 7. a2 + and | - \/a are binomials. \/c. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. AND NUMERICAL sym- SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. as in arithmetic. 6. c -f d). 3. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. e. V2a.g. or 9 Vx. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 -f 1). 13. + M -f c 4 -f- d 4 are polynomials. 16. b = 3. (c-f-d) 4.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 0. A monomial or term -f- an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. [6-c] 3 . c = 1. A polynomial is an y. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 -f 9.

52 . 2. _|_ E. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32 - *^. -5c +-d 2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 2.390. 4a6-fVa-V2^. 10. 16. . a2 -f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . * For additional examples see page 268. Ex.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5=3. 6. 4. Ex.9-9.INTRODUCTION 29. 5 means 3 4- 20 or 23.19 = 6. 3 2 If 1. c = 2. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 12. find the numerical value of: 9. (a (a -f b) 7.. l 13.5 ax 50 a6cd.g. . . EXERCISE 8* - .2 + I-126. 3.4 6^9 ad. 8. . a 2 -6. d = 0. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con- tained in a parenthesis. 4 . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6-a&c2 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 2 ). x=^.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .3-0 = 270 .e.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . Otherwise operations of addition. d=Q. subtraction. a2 11. ' -f & -f c 3 8 -d s .9 aWc + f a b . 3 4 .9. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 -+12a(i *15. b = 3. c=l. 14. 5. + 26+3 c. 1. = 32 + 45-27 = 50. i. 5c6 2 +-6ac3 a 3 17c3 -hl2o. 5. multiplication.810 + 150 = . 5a2 2 a2 -46c-f2^^ + 3 a& +. a=4. 6.

Six 2 . 10-14 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 28. 29.6 . 2-6 of the exercise. and other sciences. a =3. 38. 6 = 4. if : a = 2. 6. 12 cr6 -f- 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 7. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6 = 5. : 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a = 2. 34. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 27. 6 = 6. 6 = 3. 35. 6 = 1. 23. Read the expressions of Exs. 30. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 3. a = 4. sible to state Ex.c) (a . 37. a = 3. 24. geometry. 25. a. = 3. 6 = 2. 6. a =4. a = 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32.6 -f c) (6 a + c). and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). . a a=3. 6 = 6. 22. 26. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 33. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6=2. 6 = 5. 30. physics.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.

and 15 feet. A train in 4 hours.seconds.INTRODUCTION E. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. 13. c. d. S = | V(13-hl4-fl5)(13H-14-15)(T3-14-i-15)(14-13-f-15) = V42-12-14. and c 13 and 15 = = = . b.16 centimeters per second. . 84 square EXERCISE 1. 14. 2. i. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 15 therefore feet. if v : a. and 13 inches. (b) 5. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. if v .) Assuming g . the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the area of the triangle equals feet. An electric car in 40 seconds. b 14. (c) 4.e.16 1 = 84. if v = 30 miles per hour. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. count the resistance of the atmosphere.g. Find the height of the tree. 4. 12. and 5 feet. then a 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2-J.

then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. $ = 3. the 3. the area etc. This number cannot be expressed exactly. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 5. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 10 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. . diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 5 miles. 32 F. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. If the (b) 1 inch. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.). (c) 5 F. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. : 8000 miles. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.14d (square units). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F-32). (c) 8000 miles.14 square meters. (The number 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. square units (square inches.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.). ~ 7n cubic feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 2 inches. meters. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14 4.

In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. or positive and negative numbers. however. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.$6) + (- $4) = (- $10). but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.CHAPTER II ADDITION. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. . we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.

10. - 0. is 2. subtract their absolute values and . if : a a = 2. 33. 23-26.3. of: 20. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. (_ In Exs. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 19. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 12. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. = 5. 4. the one third their sum. 5. l-f(-2). find the numerical values of a + b -f c-j-c?. c = = 5. (-17) 15 + (-14). The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 23. Thus. + (-9). 4 is 3 J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. + -12.16 32. 21. is 0. d = 0. 6 6 = 3. '. . 5. 24. 22. of 2. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. c = 4. d = 5. 18.

10. : 34. 0. AND PARENTHESES d = l. and 4. 34. 1. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. . sets of numbers: 13. 38. 32. 7 yards. 5 and 12. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 60. 6. and 3 F. 66. 43. = -23. 3.. $3000 gain. c=14. : and 1. 41. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. SUBTRACTION. . $1000 loss. 6. 30. 36. -' 1? a 26.13. 27. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 32. d= 3. and 3 a.ADDITION. 40. 39. 7 a. \\ Add 2 a. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. ' Find the average of the following 34. 2. 13. affected by the same exponents. = 22. & = 15. 6.7.3. $7000 gain. c = 0. 10..4. . 4 F. 31. -11 (Centigrade). .5. $500 loss. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. or and . and 3 yards. ^ ' 37. 3 and 25. 09. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 7 a. . 10. 72. and $4500 gain. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. : 48. . . 12.. 2. 42.5. 74. = -13. & 28. 33. 25. 29. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. which are not similar. and 3 a. -4. 35. 37.7. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. are similar terms. . }/ Add 2 a. and -8 F. 55.

sign. Vm -f. 5Vm + w. -3a . EXERCISE Add: 1. sum of two such terms can only be them with the -f. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 13. 14 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a& -|- 4 ac2. -f 4 a2.13 rap 25 rap 2. in algebra it may be considered b. 12 2 wp2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 1 \ -f- 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 11. Algebraic sum. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is -f- a2 . 2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. . 2 a&. 9(a-f-6). 12(a-f b) 12. 7 rap2. 11 -2 a +3a -4o 2. 10. + 6 af . 5 a2 . 5l 3(a-f-6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 2(a-f &).ii. : 2 a2. 12Vm-f-n. or a 6.18 35. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. b a -f ( 6).

2/ : Add. 6 23. l^S 25. + y. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2 7 -1 26. -36.ADDITION. and to add each column. 35. 2 2 2 31. 32. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 5x173 + 6x173-3x173-7x173. 37. a a8 ZL **. 1 27. is . 33. 3a-76 + 5a + 2a-36-10a+116. 30. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. n x* 2 22. 2a -4a-4 + 6a -7a -9a-2a + 8. ra 19. SUBTRACTION. i xyz -co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. + / + 3 Va. 17. without finding the value of each term 34. 21. c 2 ^24. +m """ 20. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. -17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 .

20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . f 110WS: 26 aft.g.g. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. of that letter. e.4-1 = -3. 5 .3 a -f 4 the sum a = 1.2z and 0^-9 z * For additional examples see page 259.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 7 4. 9 q 4. 3 a -f 4 1) 4. and 2 .15 6c. 6=2. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 -7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac- aW a. .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.7 2 . a 4. 3a 2? . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2 Thus. to add 26 ab . 46 4z 7 c. x of x. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2z2 -4?/ 2 -f2z 2 5 -3ar -22/2 4- 4 -3 /.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . therefore the answer is correct.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 4 = 7. 2 0-25. s.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. the erroneous answer equal 7.o c and 4. ft any convenient and c.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 3. . to show any error.12 a& 4. . V3.8 & c~15&c -12a&4l5a&c -20c2 -f-lO&c . = .8 abc . 2 Sum. 4- 2.3 s. and J 2 s.15 abc . 2c. c = 1. 5. NOTE. 2 .c= 2. 4a4-6 12 q 5 2 a. the following polynomials : 2a 364-6 t c.20 c 5 ab 4. -f 5 c -f- But 7 = 10 . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.

^2 1 e. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.1. and 8 3 .9(a + &) .4:xy xz 6yz. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .a. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d-15e + 2/.15 5.VS 4 2 Vc.8 m 2m -12.7m . 2 2 . . .a -.Ga 4-3x45. . . .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 and 9m 48m 4.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a 4 a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 4 + 6) - 5 (a + 6) + 3.a 4 a 4 1. 3 2 2 3 9 . 2 ?/.a. a4 6(a a a2 -f a -f- 1.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . in 8 3 m n 4. 4 3 3 ^* -f- -h <l. -18/+6y + d.and 6. 4(a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . -7ar + 3B -5. d and / 3 ? 12. 4 Vc. . 2 3(c -f a). 8. + a + 1. .2n 2 2 3 rz . and and 13.12(a 4.3 mn 2 2 n8 . e a4 /. d.ADDITION. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . and -12a 4 15& -20c . 4 8 3 4 4 . 4. a2 a. 2(6 + c) + (c -f a).7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . SUBTRACTION. 2 2 and .5a^-6 -f 6) . 16. + 50 + 62 . a + 1> 8 2 2 . and v 15.5 cr& + 7 6 9. a) -y -^/.7v/i-f. and 1 4 a . 16e + 17/-90. 4 ajy 17.4 Va . a2 2 14. 19. v/20. 2xy + 4:XZ-}-5yz. m 4 6.(b + c) 1. .1 a 4 1 0. a 4 a . xy3xz + yz. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. and 5 Vb 18. 5-6 w. 4 3 . 6a -5a &47a& -4& and 7. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .5 c ll& -7c -6 4. ?/ . 11.6. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 10a +lOa 6-ll& 10. a. 2 a.12. 2 ?ft ?/z.12 6 ~5 a .10 Vc. . and .

+ 1. 13 1. +d a.m 4m ?/-?/ d.3 taken from 2 ? 5. s . 8 -f-3f a n-2<w +n . 1. -f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken -5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 2-fa 3 4 -a +7a. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ -f x y bxyz~lx.17 + 4 ?nfy . -f 1. 5 -}- and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. 6 -f c 2 23. 1. 1. -f- number may be added 3.4 2tn* Sic 2 .11 xy + 12. . m 3 3 5y 3 8 .3^* 2n 2 . -4-5a-6 2 . -T-8a. 1/ . 2 a3 -a 4 3 a-f^. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1. 8 . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. What away is the value of the sum if two neg- ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.5< 3 2 s 4^4. -2 8 n + <w 2 . 1. is 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . how 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units -f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. The sum and ? 1. 5 3 -f- 4 ?n 4 -2m+2m e. 16m 7/-12my d+e a 6. . and 25. 22.-9aj 2. a 6 2 c. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.22 21. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . . and e + 6y . a s -f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 4^ + 3t*n l-2aj 2 a.ra + m. + n*.. and 2 24. many negative units re- main ? from 2. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 12 xyz.

may be stated in a : 5 take form e. . From 5 subtract to . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. the other number is required. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.3. called the minvend. 3. 41. two numbers are given. +b 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 1.2. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. To subtract. From 5 subtract + 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . Or in symbols. a.ADDITION. (- 6) -(- = . Ex. a-b = x. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. SUBTRACTION. 2. and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. if x Ex. and the required number the difference. In addition. In subtraction. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.g. 7. NOTE. from What 3. 5 is 2. This gives by the same method. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. the given number the subtrahend. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 6 -(-3) = 8.

Ex. Check. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. From _6ar3 -3z + 7 2 -6ar3 -3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 x* .5 x + 8.3 r*-5o.-f 8 . If x = l = 2 -t- .

52. From 2 a take a & -j. 57. 55. check the answer. -f 12 b -f From 10 a 12 & -f 6 subtract 5 c. 2 + 4 a& 3 -f 6 4 .w>t. 48.b -h c and a & -f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.2. +3x -f & -f- 12 take 3 -f- ar -f- 4 x + 11. 45. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 -f mn -f wp -f. 51. + a the 2 a.c. From a3 subtract 2 a3 -f. From From $ -a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract -f- ar -f 7 a 2 ?/ .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 49. -f 2 aa -7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. c -f d. SUBTRACTION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract -f a + b 3 1.ADDITION. 46. 44. 41. 2y 2 . 58. of x2 4x -f- 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub- From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 -}- a2 2a and a 2 + 4. and 3 7/ . 42. 56. 53. . 2. From 5a-(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn -f ??/> 8d 11 c-f 17 d. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 -f & take 1 -f b -f- & s . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 -f a3 From a 4 . 47. 54. of a 4.7 a .6)-f. 50. 4v From 6 subtract l-t-2a-f3& + 4<7. 43. From From x2 the sum sum 7. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 6 4 a. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(a-f&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.4 a^ 4. tract 4 x 3.a 2 -j. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/-' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From 6(a-f.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a-& 59.4 a*& + 6 a & .

10 a + 5 b sum of9ci-66 + c and 11. 2 m 21. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. a + 6.15. ~2a-6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce -a+6? v . subtract # + 1. 16. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 9. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. What expression must 8a3 -2a-7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro- expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro- duce 14. of # 2 8. a 2y + z. + 6 + c. 19. 20. +a add the difference duce 13. 6. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.26 4. + 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 -j- +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4- a2 3 between 5 a 12. a a + c. A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.

SUBTRACTION. . A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign -f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Ex.c.g. one occurring within the other. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.c. the sign is understood. I. a+(b-c) = a +b . 45. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. may be written as follows: a -f ( 4. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 46. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4-.b c = a a & -f- -f. & -f c. II.a -f- = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.& c additions and sub- + d) = a + b c + d.2 b .ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 4a-{(7a + 6&)-[-6&-f(-2&. changed.a~^~6)]} = 4 a -{7 a 6 b -[. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* -f- thesis. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.6 b -f (. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the -f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)-[-6& +(-25. 66 2&-a + 6 4a Answer. (b c) a =a 6 4- c.a^6)] - } .

15. 3. 6) 2. find the numerical value of { 1422 .)]. a (-a + 6). may be inserted according to 43. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 9.- ? 11. 8. 2.1422) J ] . Ex. 2a 2 + 5a-(7-f 2a )-f (5-5a). 2m 4a-f- 2 2 2 10. 21. 4. 14.: Ex. 16. m -f ft)- a. a-(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). a -f (a a . 2 2a. 5. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n-\-p. 6.) 5 . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. [36+ (a -2c]. 271 + (814 . In the following expression inclose the second and third. + (2a -6 + c ).+ 6)-f (a-2 b). 13. By removing parentheses.(a + 6). (m a2 -f. a -(a + 26 -c ).7i -h jp) (m ?*. 17. : x + (2y-z). 3 3 f 7. Signs of aggregation 1.-y (60. .28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.[271 47. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 2 2 2 a-(. 2a -(4a -26 +c ). 18. 19.

9. difference of the cubes of n and m.ADDITION. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 3.4 y* . Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. SUBTRACTION. 4. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : -27i2 -3^ 2 + 4r/.7-fa. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.2 tf . 5^2 _ r . y -f- 8 . 6. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 5. 8. 3. m x 2 4. ' NOTE. of the cubes of m and n. m and n. 6 diminished . terms 5. II. 10. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 2. 2m-n + 2q-3t. p + q + r-s. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. first. The sum^)f m and n.1. 5 a2 2. and the subtrahend the second. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 7. 12. a-\-l> > c + d. The square of the difference of a and b. 13. 7. z + d. The product The product m and n. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. )X 6. 4 xy 7 x* 4-9 x + 2. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The difference of a and 6. .

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod- uct of a and s plus the square of -19.30 14. 6 is equal to the square of b. b. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 16. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif- of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.) . 18.

5. force is produced therefore. therefore. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weights. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 2. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads what What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 3. A A A 1. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.

4)-(. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus- by the following examples : 4x3 = 4-12. make venient to accept the following definition : con- 49. 4 multi44-44-4 12.32 8. To take a number 7 times. . Practical examples^ it however. Thus. (.9) x 11. 9 9. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub- traction. thus. or plied by 3. such as given in the preceding exercise. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. (- 9) x (- 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac- tors can be obtained. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. becomes meaningless if definition. NOTE. 48. 9 x (- 11). the multiplier is a negative number. (-5)X4. 4 x(-8) = ~(4)-(4)-(4)=:-12. 4x(-3)=-12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = -(. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(-4)+(-4)+(-4)=-12. 4 multiplied by 3. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. ( (. 5x(-4). x 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.4)-(-4) = + 12. however. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.

3. . Ua b 28. X(-5).(-4J). (-2) 8 (. Law Thus. 6 2. of Signs: TJie positive. 16. 2a 2 6c. 23. -1. NOTE. z s 11 aWcx. about fac- (-2)X If 6. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 12. 6.a)(- =+ a&. c = 25. (-10) 4 . 5. _2.(a&c) 2 2 . 20. x= 0.7. x. 24.-2--f 18. 17. 8 31. 4. . 13.MULTIPLICATION 50. 3 a2?/2 . 2a6 c . 22. and y = 4. . the parenthesis frequently omitted.2 f+x 2 . 9. 11. If a cal = 4a6c. 7. 4a -f-26 2 2a + 3&2 -6c* . etc. 30. 8. 27. is 6x-7. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.-2. 15. -5x-3.3) (-1) 7 2 . 10. . 2. +5. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (-a)(+6) = -a&. (c#) . 1. b = 3. 4 . _3. 26. (-4)X(-15). 14. -. (-2)x9. (. _2^ -3. 32. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 3. 8 4 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.-3. find the numeri- values of: 21. 29. 4 a2 . 6. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 19.-4. (-7) X (-12). (-4)'. 3 aW.

200. IB.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. m*. a = 2. .e. 6" 127 U .(-7). This 52. &*) c d*. fl*" integers. 2 2 2 . 13. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a= 1. - 2 2.m a 3 - 4 . (a6) -(a5) 9. 2. a8 a=2. 16. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 12 U U . 4. & = -3. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.50-3). MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.1 2 a 6 -f 6 aW . 2(14. 5 3 5 3 2 . 6 aWc x .2). 17. 36. 4. Ex. 10. . .6 if 35. 78 . 3 2 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) -f n) factors. =2 a *. 2 -2 3 6 .3-5). = 2. 6 = . 5. a 2 2 . 3. a = 3.. 6. 6 = 1. 5 . of the factors.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 5(7-11. 14. 2(7.7.2 -2 23 + 5 .257). or 2 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 7.3). i. 1. 9 . 53. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2. 100. 3 3 4 . By 3 definition. 2 3 .7 &*# =(6 - 7) (a 2 a8 ) . : 3a-7abc. 50(11-2.<?. 11. if =2 a a to - 2 2 x2 2 2.. 3. 34. 5 = 2. - and 2 25 8 . .(-12) . B. a 5 (-a) (^ + 14 8 2/) -(a? + 4 2/) -(aj . 4.(2. + 2/). 127 - 127 9 7 . .

/). .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be - 1) =- 18 a 4 6 2 c . 2(5-fl5-f25). 3. 35 4 7(6. and then adding : 1.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . _4aft. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 29. 5. multiply each by the monomial. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) -f (a 4- 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. This principle.-7pqt.7 w'W (-8 n^W). 20.2 3 aft ). 4. (. 6. 11(3. .f- 2). . tet^m -f c) = ab +ac. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. by first multiplying.6 a2 62c -f 8 a2 6. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 24. 22.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 21. 25. 6 e/ a (- (- 2 a2 ) 3 . 34.6. ) 2 33. 2(645410). If results ft. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 7.A).-4a#. 26. 2 32. (. . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . Thus we have in general a(b 56.3 win ) . 35. 27. 19. . 2. 23(10004100420). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 31. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5 - 2 ran4 30. called the distributive law.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. -7p*q r*. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 3(124342). 17(10041042). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a -f 8 54. 23. but we shall assume it for any number. c-(-4a ftc ). 6(104-20430). 28. 4 aft -5 aft 2 . 12(| + 1 4 i).

28. 7 a 6 c(. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). -f7a. 20. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* -f 3 x* -f arty 3 a4 . . 11. 2 27.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 26. By what 25.6) (x -f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) -f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. -5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .5 x- 7). 7 3 (7 3 -f-7 +7 10 ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 2 2 16.^ c + 2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.5 w*V -f 7 wn). 21. 22. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 17. ~2mn(m +n -p ).asa product. 9. 5). . . 12. 30. .we b) (x law.60 a& 10 aft. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.6 a6). be multiplied to give 4o. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). 4 13 (4 9 -4 5 -4). 3 ). Find the factors of 6 ary .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. -: expression must 24. 23. 29. 2 m(m-hn -\-p). 19.2 mn(9 mV . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.

M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Check.3 a 2 + a8 . 2a-3b a-66 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab - 13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.a .1. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors. To multiply two polynomials. however. 59. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Multiply 2 + a -a. .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . the student should apply this test to every example.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* * - 2" a2 -7 60. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. 2. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since all powers of 1 are 1.3 a 2 + a8 a a = =- I 1 =2 -f 2 a 4.4.

12)(a?^2-|-l). . -2) (3 A: -1). 28. (4a 2 33. 6 2 (6a&c-5) -3a6-f-2)(2a6~l). 3n)(7m -f-6<7)(5^) + 8n). (4a-f 76)(2tt (4ra -f-ra (5c-2d)(2c-3d). 2 - 37.2). 22. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (2w 19.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 26. (8r-7*)(6r-39. + & + 1-f a^faj -1).4) (x + 1). a 5c)(2a-6c). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 32. 4. 3<7). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. . 18. OQ OO. * For additional examples see page 261. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j.1 . 36. I (m-fn)(m-4. 16. (6p (2 -f- 21. l)(ra-f 2). (aj-f6y)(aj 23. 3.4) (mnp 4. 17. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c-3). 36) I) 14. (9m-2n)(4m + 7tt). (a-^-26) . 40. -^ 2 . 7. 30. 24. 41. 31. (6i-7n)(llJ-n). 1). 2.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 25. 13. (6a~7) 2 . 35.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp -f. 7y). 8. 11. (13 A. (2 x* x 2 . 2 (a a-l)(2a?-fl). 4 2). 12. 29. 15. QQ O7. 36). 5. 9. (a -|-2a + 2)(a-3). 2 . 2 .2m)(l -m). 20. 10. 6.

27. (a-3)(a + 2). 11.13). plus the product 62. + 5) (1000 + 4). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a -9) (a + 9). i.!!)( (a + 21). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 8.e. (a (a (a.n)(w-f w). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 75 ab -f 54 ft . (J 23. 13. 3. 25.e.4).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (*. -2) (1000 + 3). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. : 23 2. + 60)(f-2). (p-12)(p + ll). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. ft 16.-25)(y+4). 10. (-!)(* -5). . X 102. (wi 2^*-12)(ajy 6. i. 1005x1004. (100-1) (100 (1000 + 2). 7. 21. 6. + 3) (a -7). 3 (a -7) 3 (a -8). (100 +2) (100 + 3).2 6) (a -f 6). 12. 28. 17. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. + 9)(m+9). 20. _3)(a _4). in of the two unequal terms. . + 2) (a -f 3). 1) (10 + 2). (6 -12) (6 -f. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (ofy* -f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (a 102 x 103. -2 6) (a -3 6). 14. (10+ (1000 (2. 18. (ra. 22. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 2 5 b z) (a2 -f 4 (a 2 4. 2 a? 29. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 24. 9. 15. . 19. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 25 a 2 . 26.

31. 8. 49 y*. of the second. III. second. III. + 6) (a + 2) -a) 2 . (a-26) 2 . (a-2) (p a . . 7. w 2 ro . <J>-7) J . n2 10ii+16.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e.30. and the second. 77ie square of the of the first. 4. . square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.e. 9. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 32. . 35. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .15. Ex. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. plus the square of the second. 2 (a (*-5) 2 . i. : ar'-Sz + a 2 G. p 2 -p. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.15. (x+3i/) 2 . 7 a + 10. + 6 a + 8. 63. 34. of the following expres- Find two binomial factors sions 30. 33. + 3) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP -f. 6. : 24 (a 2. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. plus sum of two numbers the square II. i. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.e. 3. a2 2 w + 2 w .66 s. 37. 2 5. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I.

47. 54. 2 . : factors of each of the following expres- y?-f. 2 9a -496 2 56. (2x-3yy. 35. a 2 -8a6+166 2 . 25 a -9. 45. 32. (a -3) 2 2 2 . 2 . 28. 22 2 . 46. a 2 + 10 ab -f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 48. 2 . (^-. 15. -7)(a 2 2 -f 7). a2 -9. ( 27. 2 2 . 41. 18. ). By actual multiplication. (3p -9) (6a 2 2 2 . . (20 -f- 1) . 103 36. 2 + 11 -2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2 - Z ) 2 2 (5 r -f 2 2 . 49. 16aW-25. 998x1002. n*-6n+9.998 39. 2 2 (5 (a r*-2t ) 2 5 (c-d -5)(c d 2 . (m -27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 14. 42. 2 -11 # ) 2 20. 17. 4 53. 2 (2a6-c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 11. The product of 57. 2 J ). + 3z) 2 2 . 2 (4a-36) 2 13. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 52. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 24. (6afy 2 -5) (a. 38. 104 2 37. .MULTIPLICATION 10. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xy-Sy* . n 2 -f4n+4. 22.30 ab + 25 6 64. 34. (100 + 2) (100 -2). 9 a2 . 12. 55. 41 16. G> +5g)*. m 2 16. (1000 2 . + 5).ll^X^+lly (100 30. -I) 2 . + 5)(5+a). (m -f 2 tt n)(ra w )- 26 - (^ (2m + 3)(2m-3). 991 2 2 . 62 -25n 2 . 51. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 -2a6 + & 2 m 2 -2m-hl. . 29. 33. 23. -7& ) 25. 44. 99x101. 31. 40. 21. 2 2 -5c ) 2 2 19. .

4. (2a-3)(a + 2). ) (2 of a polynomial. sum of the cross products. (4s + y)(3-2y). 6. 8.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (x i- 5 2 ft x 2 -3 6 s). or The student should note minus signs. : 25 2.-f 2 a& -f 2 ac + 2 &c. 65. The middle term or Wxy-12xy Hence in general. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 -7)(a & + 5). 2 (2m-3)(3m + 2). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 3. 14. ((5a? (10 12. . (3m + 2)(m-l). 5. The square 2 (a 4. 7. plus the last terms. (5a-4)(4a-l). 2 10. 11. 2 2 + 2) (10 4-3). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 9. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 13. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.& + c) = a + tf + c . (5a6-4)(5a&-3).

y? + 8 .X2 + 2 x . (2a-36 + 5c) (3 (. Ex. 4. 4y s-f n) 2 . 4(* + 2)-5(-3). after multiplying the factors of a term. 5. + 6)( . ( - 2 -4) = - 20 a. (x-y+z)*.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.4) .i-2&-c) 2 .39. Simplify (x + 6) (a . : 43 26 (m-f n+p) 2 2 . and check the answers !. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 8. Check.r _ 2 .8 x + 15] .29. (m-f n)(m+2)-3m(n + m). 7. n). + 6-5) . 12. 13. 7. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 3. 6~2(a + 7).(x . 4. -2)-6. 9.3) (x . a. If x = 1.(m 2 6. 2 2. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.24 .5) = (7 . 6(a 2.[a? . = 10 x . Find the square root 11. Hence.3)(z. (u-4& + 3c'. (a-2)(a-3)~(a-l)(a-4). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.3) . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. = . 3. 2 m 2 -+- n2 2 "-f- jp -f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 4(aj-2)-h3(-7).4) .(>-. of z : 10. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.24] . . + 6 )-2(6 + &)~(&4-& ). (a (. 8. 66.(= [ Xa + 2 .39. 6.1 5 = 10 . 5.5).

44
9.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

10. 11. 12.
13.

4(m + 2)
(a?

+ 5(w

3)

5)(oj-2)

(a;-

(n -f 5) (w

- 2) + (n - 7) (n + 4) - 2 (n* - 2)

14.
15.

6(p+2)-7(p-9)-2(i> + l)(p-l).

16.
17.

x- 2 y)(3 x -f 2 y) - (4 - y) (a3 (a -f 6) - 4 (a + &) (a -f 2 6) + (a (5
2

18.

19.

20.
21.

22.

2

(a

-fa-f

1)

(

a - 1)

- (a + 1) (a - 1).
8

CHAPTER
DIVISION

IV

is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

67.

Division

if

their product

is

Thus
by
-f

to divide
12.

12

by

+

3,

we must find
is

the
;

number which

3 gives

But

this

number

4

hence

_

multiplied

12 r +3

=4.

68.

Since

-f

a

-

-f b

-fa

_a
and
it

-f-

a

= -f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
-f-

follows that

4-a

=+b

ab

a
ab

a
69.

Hence the law
:

of signs

is

the same in division as in

multiplication
70.

Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.

Law

of
,

a8 -5- a5

=a

3

for a 3

It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8

=

.

Or

in general, if

greater than

m n, a

-f-

and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"-", for a
<

m

m

is

45

46

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent

of the divisor.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently

2x y
6

2
,

we have
z

to

find

the

2x*y

gives 10 x^ifz.

This

Therefore,
the quotient

*

,

= - 5 a*yz.
is

Hence,
sign,

of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the

a monomial whose

coefficient is the quotient

preceded by the proper
literal

and whose

literal

found

in accordance with the

quotient of their law of exponents.

parts

73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)-?-4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.
-

-

.

-

.

-

.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:

28

'

2

.

76-H-15.
-39-*- 3.
2
15

3"
7

7'

3.

-4*
'

4.
5.

-j-2

12
.

4

2

9

5 11

68

3 19 -j-3
5

10.

(3
38
-

-2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'

11.

3

(2

.3*.5 7 )-f-(
2
'

12

'

2V

14

36 a
'

13

''
y-ffl-g

35

-5.25

-12 a

2abc

15

-42^
'

-56aW
'

UafiV

DIVISION
lg

47

-^1^. 16 w
7

20>

7i

9

_Z^L4L.

22.

10 iy.

132 a V* 14 1

*

01

-240m
120m-

40

6c

fl

/5i.
3J)

c

23.

2 (15- 25. a ) -=- 5.

25. 26.

(18
(

.

5

.

2a )-f-9a.
2

24.

(7- 26 a

2

)

-f-

13.

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS

To divide ax-}- fr.e-f ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx -J- ex.
74.

But
TT

x(a
aa?

Hence

+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx -f ex = a 4- b +
-\.

,

.

c.

a?

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.

3 xyz

EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:

29

2.
5.

fl

o.

(5*

_5* + 52)

-5.

52

.

3.
97
.

(2

(G^-G^-G^-i-G
(11- 2

4.

(8- 3

+

11 -3

+ 11

-5)-*- 11.

18 aft- 27 oc

Q y.

9a

4

-25 -2 )^-2
<?

2

.

+8- 5 + 8-

7) -*-8.

5a5 +4as -2a

2

-a

-14gV+21gy
Itf

15 a*b

-

12

aW + 9 a
2

2

3a

48
,

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,

m n - 33 m n
4

s

2

-f

55

mV

- 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3

- 49 aW + 28 a -W - 14 g 6 c
4 4

15. 16.

2 (115 afy -f 161 afy

- 69
4
2

a;

4
?/

3

- 23 ofy
3

4

)

-5-

23 x2y.

(52

afyV - 39
4
?/

oryz

- 65 zyz - 26 tf#z)

-5-

13 xyz.
-f-

,

17.

(85 tf

- 68 x + 51 afy - 34 xy* -f 1 7

a;/)

- 17

as.

DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.

Let

it

be required to divide 25 a

- 12 -f 6 a - 20 a
3

2

by

2 a 2 -f 3 a, divide

4

a, or, arranging according to
2

descending powers of

6a3 -20a

-f

25a-12

2 by 2a -

The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is

If

the product of 3 a and 2

2

4 a

+

3, i.e.

6 a3

12 a 2

-f

9 a, be sub-

8 a 2 -f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have

therefore to divide the remainder,

8 a2

-f-

16 a

12,

2 by 2 a

4 a

+

3.

consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,

We

4,

the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
-I-

+ 3, we

obtain the product

8 a2

16 a

12,

which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.

no remainder. Hence 3 a

4

is

DIVISION
The work
is

49
:

usually arranged as follows

- 20 * 2 + 3 0a-- 12 a 2 +
a3

25 a
{)

-

12

I

2 a2 8 a

-

4 a 4

a

_
12

+3

I

-

8 a? 4- 16

a-

76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:

descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.

Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and

subtract the result
4.

from
it

the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.

Arrange

the

remainder in
as a

expression, consider
5.

until the highest poiver

Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less

was arranged
the divisor.

than the highest poiver of the same

letter in

77.

Checks.

Numerical substitution constitutes a very con-

venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division

was

exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.

if

the

Ex.

1.

Divide 8 a3

-f

8 a

- 4 + 6 a - 11 a
4

2

by 3 a
,

- 2.
^ _ _
,

Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4

,

,

+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8

11

a2 a2

-f

8a

4

I

3 a
2 a8

-2
-f

=
a _+ 2
.

7-r-l,

4 a2

=

7

+

-11

-

3 a2

3

a'

2

+ +

8 a 2 a

-4 + 6a - 4

50
Ex.
2.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4

- 46 -6a6
4
3

-f-

9

2

6

2

2 l by 26 -3a& + a

.

Arranging according to descending powers of

a,

we have

a<a4

6 a36
fr

-f
-f

9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2

-46*

I

a2
a*

-

8 ab 3 ab

- 3 a8

-

|

+ 2 6^ - 2 62

-46*

- 3 a^ + 9a 2 6 - 6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a - 4 6 4 - 2 a^a + 6 aft - 4
Check.
ft*

The numerical
it

substitution a

=

1,

&

=

1,

cannot be used in this
either to use

example since
larger

renders the divisor zero.

Hence we have

a

number

for a, or multiply.
2 - 8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab - 2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2 - 3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2 - 3 a&) - 2 62 ] = (a 2 -3 aft) 2 -4 6* = a2 - 6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2 - 4 5*.

EXERCISE

30 *
:

Perform the operations indicated and check the answers

2. 3.

(jf_2y-15)-i-<y-6).
2 (15 a
2

4.
5.
6.

- 46 a# -f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4- 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/

-5-

(5

a5 w).

2

-*-

(m

7.

(6^-53^ + 40)^(6^-5).
(56
2 a; -f-

8.

19 x

-15) --(8

-3).

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

2 (25 a

- 36

2
ft

)

-j-

(5

a

-f-

6

6)

* See page 263.

DIVISION 14.2). (8xy + lo-22x' y)-+(2x y-3). . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 18. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . . (a? s -8) 4 -*-( 2). Division of the difference of two squares. 51 15. b -f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . + 23a& + 20)-*-(2a& + 6). (a -f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .l. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m -f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 -f- 2 3 -f- ) -5- 1) . a I.18 m 2 ) -f- (1 G m -f 9 m 2 ).e. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 -x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 -^.81 c8 f ' ISVft-Qc 8 64 ' a2 -166 2 ' a? 10 -1 . 20. (aj -3aj-2)-^(oj-2). 19. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.11 a + 9 a .2) (3 a . v/17. (81 m + 1 . 16.

4 -b. . aW 12 a. 15. f 13. -r/ 1. 12. -100ry. 16 . . -9& 2 . 121a a 16 100 11. 16. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . : the following w a 4 -!.49. 14.000-1. 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 10.000.

which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. is said to satisfy an equation. x 20. in the equation 2 x 0. 83.r -f9 = 20 is true only when a. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the first member is 2 x + 4. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. =11. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 81. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 82. second member is x + 4 x 9. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. . the 80. (rt+6)(a-ft) = 2 - b' 2 .

2 = 6#-f7.54 84. the products are equal. A 2 a. 5. 86. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be multiplied by equals. but 4 does not equal 5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 89. If equals be subtracted from equals. the sums are equal. 3. the quotients are equal. 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. If equals be added to equals. . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. fol- A linear equation is also called a simple equation. If equals be divided by equals. . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots.e. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x -f a letters 88. the divisor equals zero. NOTE. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. E.2. a. Transposition of terms. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. x I. 87. the remainders are equal.g. A term may be transposed from its sign.b. one member to another by changing x + a=. 90. called axioms 1. the known quan x) (x -f 4) tities are = . 85. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 2. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.

6 y -f y\ . b Adding a to both + a. x = (Axiom 3) 92. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x-\1. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i + | = 26 -f f = 26$ JI .y) = C4 + })(5-f The second member.9 y + 6 y = 20 -f 22. 91. Transposing. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 -f 1.2. Dividing both members by 2. 4x 1 + 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. Dividing by Check. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Check. x = 3. Hence the answer. The first member. a= a 6-fc. b c. 6a-5 = 18-5 = 13. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 2 x = 6. 2(11 . 3 y . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. x = 93. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. and the known terms to the second. if a x = b. Unite similar terms.2 y= f . if 55 x members. --f If y 20 .8.9 y + y2 = 22 . is correct. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Ex. The first member. Uniting similar terms. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. (4-y)(6. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. To solve a simple equation. 4-fl = 12-fl = 13 3. The second member.

Uniting. 3 7 a. 7. etc. .56 Ex. 21. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation | (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 20. -3)= 9(3 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. = 3. 4a + 5 = 29. 4y 10. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 11 ?/ a? 18. a. . 3. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. + 16 = 16 + 17. If x = 18. = 7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). Solve the following equations by transposing. 24-7y = 68-lly. x x 1 . 17 -9 x + 41 = 12 -8 17. + 7(3 + 1) =63. aj * See page 264. 22. 13a? 3a?. =2 = 3.69. x = 18. 17 7 a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 12.. 8. : 5# = 15+2a.17 + 4y = 36. 3-2 = 26-4. 11. 24. -f- Simplifying. 4. = 2 ?/. + 22. 14y = 59-(24y + 21).4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 19. J.. = 5a?+18.-7a: = 39-4a. a. 7 (6 x -16). it NOTE. 9 9a? = 7 13. = 60 -7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. a? a?. 17 + 5a. 16. a?. 3. 13 y -99 = 7 y. -50. and check the answers 9. \x x 2-^x-fl. 87- 9(5 x -3) 6(3 a? = 63. 14. Transposing. v23. {(x (x The The member right member left .7. 6. 7a? 5. 2.

.g. . 35.5(2 u .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.5) + 199. 29. a? 43. or 70 a?.12) (2 + 5) . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.1) (u . is the other part. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.3) + 14. this question.3) + . 39. : One part is of 70 is 25 .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) -(2J-3)( + 2) = 12. Evidently 45. 41.-5)-5(7a>-8)=4(12-3a5) + l. + 1) -8(7-5 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 6(6a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 38. . .3) .7) (7 x + 4) . 30. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. a? 28.32. 42. (a. 2 2 * -Jaj.1) (a (a? + 3) = . (aj- 37. 27. + 7) (. .(2 + 6) (4 . -7) (a. . 31. (6 u =5 44. 7(7 x y 26. 36. 5) (as (a.7. 57 73-4* = 13*~2(5*-12).(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) -(a-5) :=2.5) = (a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.2) (M . . .1 0) = 0. + 4). he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 40. find the other part. | +6= |aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .14 = 0. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 34. 25. 33.4) + 4 w . e.

Ex. EXERCISE 1. 13. one yard will cost 100 -dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro- The answer is 5. a. 17. 1. is a? 2 is c?. and the smaller one parts. is d. 5. is b. greater one is g. or 12 7. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . so that of c ? is p. 33 2. 10. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Find the greater one. If 7 2. 3. Divide a into two parts. one part equals is 10. 7. smaller one 16. 4. 11.58 Ex. 15. one yard will cost - Hence if x -f y yards cost $ 100. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Divide 100 into two 12. find the cost of one yard. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 6. so that one part The difference between is s. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 14. 6. x -f- y yards cost $ 100 . 9. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7.

and B is y years old. 19. and spent 5 cents. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. b dimes. find the of their ages 6 years hence. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find 35. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. numbers is x. Find 21. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 34. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. sum If A's age is x years. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. A feet wide. and B has n dollars. A dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. How many cents has he ? 27. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. If B gave A 6 25. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. is A A is # years old. ?/ 31. find the has ra dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 32. and B's age is y years. 26. A man had a dollars. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 28. 22. and c cents. How many cents had he left ? 28. 33. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. amount each will then have. 24. 28.

m is the denominator. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. The two digits of a number are x and y. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. find the fraction. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. 48. Find the number. per Find 5 Find 6 45. of m.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. % % % of 100 of x. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. 49.50. -46. Find a 47. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. Find a. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A was 20 years old. -. he walk each hour ? 39. c a b = - 9. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. of 4. a. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find x % % of 1000. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. . The first pipe x minutes. A cistern is filled 43.

3. double of a is 10. of x increased by 10 equals x. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased -}- a2 i<5 - b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. The double as 7. of a increased much 8. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . 4. The excess of a over b is c. 6. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 5. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 8 -b ) + 80 = a .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. a exceeds b by c. -80. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 2. = 2 2 a3 (a - 80. 9. 80. etc. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a.

and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000.62 10. they have equal of A's. ->.000. B's. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. In 10 years the sum of A's. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic 3x : 10. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 11. and C's ages will be 100.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 50 is x % of 15. as 17 is is above a. B. 3 1200 dollars. x is 100 x% is of 700. 14. of 30 dollars. amounts. B's. a. a second sum. symbols B. a. 18. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. they have equal amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. x 4- If A. pays to C $100. 12. B's age 20. and C's age 4 a. express in algebraic symbols : -700. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. . (c) If each man gains $500. is If A's age is 2 x. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old.. #is5%of450. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 6 % of m. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 17. 16. m is x % of n. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. and C have respectively 2 a. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. A gains $20 and B loses $40. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. sum equals $20. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12.

be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x = 20. Dividing. the required . Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. denote the unknown 96. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. number. Three times a certain no. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 2. -23 =-30. NOTE. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. etc. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Transposing. the . but 30 =3 x years. x+16 = 3(3-5). Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. In order to solve them. Ex. Find A's present age. 6 years ago he was 10 . Ex. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Uniting. . Let x = the number. be 30 . x= 15. Transposing. 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Let x The (2) = A's present age. much as 40 exceeds the number. In 15 years 10. 3z-40:r:40-z. Simplifying. A will Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3 x + 16 = x x (x - p) Or. number of yards. Uniting. 4 x = 80. = x x 3x -40 3x 40- Or. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols.

47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. by as much as 135 ft. % of 120. 13.64 Ex. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Forty years hence his present age. A number added number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find 8. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 300 56. 5. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 4. Find the number. 120. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. twice the number plus 7. 3. Hence 40 = 46f. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Let x 3. Dividing. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Uldbe 66 | x x 5(5 is = -*-. A will be three times as old as to-da3r . exceeds the width of the bridge. 11.2. 14. EXERCISE 1.

The other verbal statement. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. During the following 90 years. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Maine's population increased by 510. 65 A and B $200. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. F 8. statements are given directly. written in algebraic symbols. The problem consists of two statements I. A and B have equal amounts of money. One number exceeds the other one by II. is the equation. and B has $00. the second one. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. 1. .000. Vermont's population increased by 180. which gives the value of 8. 97. 14. Ex. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. B How will loses $100. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.000. two verbal statements must be given. x. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dol- A has A to $40. times as much as A. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B will have lars has A now? 17. five If A gives B $200. Find the population of Maine in 1800. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.

66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. which leads ot Ex. unknown quantity in Then. = A's number of marbles. x x =14 8. x = 8. = 14. If A gives are : A If II. + a- -f -f 8 = 14. 25 marbles to B. < Transposing. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 3x express one many as A. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. B will have twice as viz. 8 = 11. . = B's number of marbles. 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Dividing. and Let x = the Then x -+. the sum of the two numbers is 14. in algebraic -i symbols produces #4a. B will have twice as many as A. has three times as many marbles as B. 2. to Use the simpler statement. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. The two statements I. the smaller number. consider that by the exchange Hence. If we select the first one. the greater number. Let x 14 I the smaller number. Then. A will lose. / . although in general the simpler one should be selected. A gives B 25 marbles. terms of the other. o\ (o?-f 8) Simplifying. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x 3x 4- and B will gain. Uniting. . I. = 3. 2x a? x -j- = 6. Statement x in = the larger number.

$3. x from I. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Uniting.25 = 20.10. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).5 x . the price. but 40 = 2 x 20. 11 x = 5. Two numbers the smaller. Simplifying. Eleven coins. 50(11 660 50 x -)+ 10 x = 310. is 70. 45 . cents. Simplifying. The value of the half : is 11. by 44.. x = 6. Check. then. 50. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. x = the number of half dollars.75. greater is .550 -f 310. Dividing. Find the numbers.. 2. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 6 times the smaller. 1. 60. Find the numbers. The number of coins II. and the Find the numbers. * ' . differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. * 98. 50 x Transposing. (Statement II) Qx . B's number of marbles. Uniting. Let 11 = the number of dimes. A's number of marbles. the number of half dollars. . w'3. consisting of half dollars and dimes.10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.240. x = 15. of dollars to the number of cents. etc.. 40 x . we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 15 + 25 = 40. 67 x -f 25 25 Transposing. . the number of dimes. Check. The sum of two numbers is 42. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v.10. 3 x = 45. Dividing. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 3. have a value of $3. dollars and dimes is $3.

and four times the former equals five times the latter. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many hours does the day last ? . On December 21. the number. 7. 6. McKinley. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Everest by 11. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.68 4. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 11. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 5. one of which increased by 9. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. How many inches are in each part ? 15. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find their ages.. United States.000 feet. 9. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. as the larger one. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many 14 years older than B. and twice the altitude of Mt. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Two numbers The number differ by 39. A's age is four times B's. tnree times the smaller by 65. Twice 14. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. How many volcanoes are in the 8.

first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80. has. x = 8. are : C's The three statements A. number of dollars A had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. has. B. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. Let x II. 19. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If 4x = 24. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. they would have 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. = 48. B has three times as much as A. times as much as A. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z-5) (90-4z) = x. and B has three as A. three One of the unknown num- two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. 1. II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. Ex. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. bers is denoted by x. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. and C together have $80. then three times the money by I." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state- ment directly in algebraical symbols. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. I. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. III. original amount. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and 68. B. .

x Transposing. Let then. x = 5. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. sheep. + 35 x 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. III. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. + 8 90 x and. the third five times the first. Uniting. The total cost equals $1185. and each sheep $ 15. 4 x -f 8 = 28. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x 35 -f + = + EXERCISE 1. 90 may be written. and. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. three statements are : IT. first. x -j- = the number of horses. according to II. 2 (2 x -f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 1 1 Check. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 185 a = 925. cows. + 35 (x +-4) -f 15(4z-f 8) = 1185. x -f 4 = 9. each horse costing $ 90. 90 x -f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. number of cows. number of cows. and Ex. 28 2 (9 5). 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Dividing.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. each cow $ 35. number of horses. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. number of sheep. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 -f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 2. 9 cows. 9 -5 = 4 . = the number of dollars spent for horses. The I. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. according to III. and the sum of the .

000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. "Find three is 4. increased by three times the second side. v . the copper.000. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. equals 49 inches. the third 2. v - Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). what is the length of each? has 3. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. The gold. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. what are the three angles ? 10. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000. women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the second one is one inch longer than the first. men. first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . 7. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 9. what is the population of each city ? 8. 13.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the sum of the first and third is 36. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and 2 more men than women. how many children were present ? x 11. twice as old as B. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. twice the 6. If twice The sum the third side. New York delphia. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. A 12. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and children together was 37. - 4.

of 3 or 4 different kinds. of arid the value of the iron was $300.000. together. how many 100.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. = 35. 8 x = 15. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. number of hours. Let x = number of hours A walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. Dividing. 7 Uniting. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. width. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. A and B apart. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.e. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. Find the value of each. Hence Simplifying. The copper had twice the value of the gold. = 5. and distance. and quantities area. . such as length. i. speed. 3 and 4.000 more than that the copper.000. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E. First fill in all the numbers given directly. we obtain 3 a. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.g. number of miles A x x walks. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. 14. or time. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 3z + 4a:-8 = 27.000. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.

x .05 x x . 70x10 Ex.04 = $ 40. $ 800 = required sum. Find the dimensions of the field. l. z = 20. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. $ 800 = 800. Multiplying.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. and the width decreased by 10 yards. + 8.053. 10 x = 200. or 700. the second 100." gives (2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.01 = = .M(x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x + 200).04 8. were increased by 30 yards. x . . Cancel 2 # 2 (a -10) = 2s -100. . 2 a = 40.06 = $ 40. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. original field has Check. What brings the same is the capital? in- Therefore Simplify. 2 - - and transpose. the area would be 100 square yards less. Transposing and uniting. $ 1000 x . Check. But 700 certain = 800 2.

2. What are the two sums 5.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. twice as large. and the cost of silk of the auto- and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. Ten yards $ 42. A sets out later two hours B . sions of the field. A man bought 6 Ibs. A of each. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and a second sum. of coffee for $ 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. together bring $ 78 interest. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. invested at 5 %. Find the dimen- A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 3. were increased by 3 yards.55. as a 4. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A sum ? invested at 4 %. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. the area would remain the same. 1. Six persons bought an automobile. mobile. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. After how many hours will B overtake A. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Find the share of each.

A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. After how many hours.

if. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 76 . if it does contain some indicated root of . which multiplied together are considered factors. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a. 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. it is composite. 5. irrational. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a2 to 6. a- + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 104. vV . as. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. we shall not. stage of the work. An after simplifying. + 62 is integral with respect to a. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. consider 105. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. -f- db 6 to b. this letter. at this 6 2 . \- V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. expression is rational with respect to a letter. but fractional with respect 103.

3 sy + 4 y8).g. it fol- lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 55. Divide 6 a% . or that a = 6) (a = a . it follows that a 2 .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2. 107. x. . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.62 + &)(a 2 .FACTORING 106.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . It (a. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 1. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Factor 14 a* W- 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .3 6a + 1). factors of 12 &V is are 3. 109. Factor G ofy 2 . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 110.) Ex. TYPE I. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 01. E. x. for this result is a sum. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Ex. . 2.62 can be &). 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy -f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 8) (s-1). ?/. y. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. in the form 4) +3.

q*-q*-q 2 a.g. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 8. 2 + q. )- 22 - 2. 4. e.16 a'V -f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b -f 8 6V . 4 tfy -f. 2 6. 3. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x -f 5) 15. -f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. the y factored expression is (x -}-m)(x + n). 20.51 aW + 68 21. 14.45 afy . a -a '-J-a .4. 2 23. 32 a *?/ . 5-f 2 . 2. in general. 11. 17. 2 2 .8 c a 15 ofyV . 34 a^c 8 . 4 8 . a6c. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. in factoring a trinomial of the form x -f-/>#-f q.12 cdx. 3 3 5 6.6. -7a & 10. 16.30 aty.5 + 13 -8.4. obviously. 3x*-6x*. 19. + llm -llm. 3 2 . &-{-20a 6 4 &3 2 . 18.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.3. 12. 15.3. : 6 abx . 7i 13. a(m-f-7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) -3 /(a + 6). (as 3) and (cc-f-5). x2 -f-2 x = 15 we have. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.5 + 2. 14a 4 5.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 15 2 7. . TYPE IT. Ilro8 9. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is -f. .2. 13. 2 Or.51 x4 2 6 xy s .

and (a . Hence fc -f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a - 12 /. 11 7. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Therefore Check.5) (a . is The two numbers whose product and -6. 79 Factor a2 -4 x . or 7 11. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.6 = 20.FACTORING Ex. a 2 .11.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are -4 y* and -3 y*. If q is positive. + 112.30 = (a . Factor x? . Factor + 10 ax . can be factored. Factor a2 . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.G) = . as p. Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. however. 3.4 x .11) (a + 7).11 a 2 . the two numbers have opposite signs.5) (a 6). 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. m -5m + 6. but of these only a: Hence 2 . determine whether In solving any factoring example. We may consider 1.a). If q is negative. or 77 l. 2 6. 4. + 30 = 20. of this type. 2.77 = (a.4 .. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 5.11 a + 30. . Ex. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. . tfa2 - 3. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 77 as the product of 1 77. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.1 1 a tf a 4. Hence z6 -? oty+12 if= (x -3 y)(x*-4 y ). but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.

6. ra + 25ra + 100. 32. 6 a -18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . a2 . 100 xr . 13. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 29. a -7 a -30. + 5<y 24. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 15. 26. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 35. 31. 19. 2 . + 44. 16. 2 2 . 8. ay -11 ay +24. 2 .80 7. -17a& + 7(U -9a&-226 + 8 a -20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*-2x-8. y_ 6y +6y -15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 4 3 2 . we have to find two bino- mials whose corresponding terms are similar. + 30.48 + + 446 200. 36. and 5 x. or . 9. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . ^ </ 2 2 -7p-8. 2 ?/ 22. 3?/-4 + a' -2a&-24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a -30. a? + 5 + 6 a. x2 23.70 x y . . 16.180 a. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 11. + 2x-S. 4 2 . 2 . ITT. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 25. 21 a 2 2 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 2 2 a' 34. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 4?/-21. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. . 33. 2 ?/ -5?/-14. 27. 17. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 21. 14. 24.17 + 30. 18. a 2 +11 a a? 16.500 x + 600. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . 20. TYPE 113. 12. 2 ?/ 28. 30. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x.

2 x 27.5 . then the second terms of have opposite signs. 54 x 1. 3. 27 x 2. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. sible 13 x negative. X x 18. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 3 x and x. 9 x 6. Ex. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.17 x 2o?-l V A 5 - 13 a combination the correct one. If p is poxiliw. The work may be shortened by the : follow- ing considerations 1. and that they must be negative.1).83 x -f- 54. 18 x 3. and r is negative. . all pos- combinations are contained in the following 6x-l x-5 . the If p and r are positive. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. Factor 3 x 2 .5) (2 x .FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of -f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. the signs of the second terms are minus. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. but the opposite sign. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 6 x 9. . If py? -\-qx-\-r does not contain any monomial factor. a. or G 114. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. viz. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 11 x 2x.e-5 V A x-1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.

20. 21. 2 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. . 12. 90 a 8 2 . 29. 6n + 5?i-4. 34.2 a 90 x*y . + 4. + 2/-3. 2 2 2 23. the expressions should be it. 12^-17^-1-6. 5 a6 2 2 -9 a . 6n 2 -f 13w + 2. 12y -2/-6. 16. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 9 y + 32^-16.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x -7 ay. 15. 4. 5. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 fc .290 xy -f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 -f- . 10. 2 26.300 ab 2 -f4 250 . X -27 .-7. 2 2 2 . 13. and the monomial factors should be removed.y + 172/-9. 100^-200^ + 100^. 24.77 xy + 10 y -23afc + 126 . 11. -9a. 14 a -fa -4. 2x* + 9x-5. x-54 a.163 x 2 .30 y 6 4 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 28.260 xy . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 3a + 13a. 30. 22. 14. 2 f-3y -4y 40a -90aV + 20aV.2) (x .17-9. 2m -t-7w + 3. 144 x . Sar' + Sa-G. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 3x*-Sx + 4. 2 31. 6. : 41 2. . 10a?2 2 33. 9. . -f go. -h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3x-l 3s-2 x X 115. 19. 25. 10 a .83 x . 32.27). 18.83 x = (3 . 7.19 a -f 6. 10a2 G a2 2 . 5m -26m -f 5. 2. 17.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. since all others (II. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 4a2 -9tt + 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 8. 35. 2 . 3.

Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. m -14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 9 -10g-f25. 2 . 13. a -flOa&4-6 4 wi -f 2 2/ 2 . it is a perfect square. . and factor whenever possible : 1. 2. of its terms are perfect squares. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. connect the re- square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. it is more convenient for that type. 4 6 m*ti -f 9 n*. 4. 12. 9 +6a6 2 2 -f a4 . 9 -10a6-25. . EXERCISE 42 per- Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.10 x -f 16. 2 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. form are special cases of the preceding type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 10. however. 14. 116. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . - 2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . and a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 11. 5. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. m + 2mn + n c -2cd-d 2 2 . 6. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 3. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 9. 25 7.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. i. 8.20 xy -f 4 y\ . x* . must have a positive sign.e. square.

aV . 16&*. !Gar 9 -( )+25. . 10 a 2 4 2 . product i.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a -26 ). 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 1. Ex. x*-Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.6 m* + 9 m. + GO + 25. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 -/. a4 a2 2 -f 6 is . prime. 2 -f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 -f- ( ). -* 2 . 17. 6. -6 2 . 2. 225 ofy . 26.6 = (a 4 -b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(a-b).20 ab + 10 b a . 1-49 a 81 8. ). 25. : 43 tf-y\ a -9. 9a2 .2 ofy + ofy m . 2. +( )-f816 30. 7. ^//c to the Ex. u2 -6& + 2 ( ).84 15.3 * ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2 . a. 2 . ). a. 18. TYPE 117. . 3. 100a2 -68 a2 & 2 -121. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 36 2 4. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 19. 3. . -48 a +( ).64 6 = 16(a . V. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 -24a&4.e. 4a2 -l. 9. 27. 22. According to 65. - + 6a + ( 9a -( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4 2 23.60 a# + 4. 16. 5.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 2 20. 29. ). a2 24.

4. 2. Factor a 2 . (m -f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. of polynomials. T. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2. 13.c . 36|> .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 9. 6.(I) . (x -f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y -f 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 16p 2 . 25a -(&-c) (m-h2n) 2 2 . (a x? -f- 6) 6 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 . Ex. a:) 12.FACTORING 85 118. (2a (2s + 5) -(3a-4) 2 2 . (m-7?) -y. (2a-5&) -(5c-9ef) 2 3.(c 4. a2 . Ex.d) 2 . 2 2 : (m-f-n) _p 2 . 11. 14. 8. 5. One or both terms are squares 1.

1.y + 2 2). Factor or 5 5 x2 x x -f 5. ive find that the new terms con- common factor. A. 9. . ma ?*a + m& nb. = (3 x + y .ab + bx. 12. . 2.7 c + 2c . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 5. 4 B. After grouping tain a the terms. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 7. 4:cx .a a .14. 3.4 6 x -f 3 a y 2 4. 5) . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.2 ) (3 x . 2. 8.1. a? 11.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.and trinomials. 119. Factor ax ax -f- bx -f ay -f by. Ex.r. By grouping. which may be factored according to types I. Ex. a5 + ab 6 .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. + 4cy--5dx 2 5dy. a 26 2 2 3 . a3 c 3 10ax-5ay-6bx + 3by. 6. + x + 2x + 2.VI. Factor 9 x*-y*-4:Z 2 -f 4 yz. x8 . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.(x - 5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 10. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an-3&n + 2ag-3&?.

$- a8 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. IV.12 aaj 4 6y. : m 2 2 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ .9 a2 4 v* 2 . m -Gw + 9-n * See page 266. 8ra 2 + 16. . . 2. 8. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 3. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 -12a2 + 6. 5. 36 9 m . l~a -2a5-6 2 2 . 6 6. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. = (a + 6)(a-6).FACTORING Ex.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Arranging the terms. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 -6 2 III. 2. 3. a 2 -10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x -ar -2a. II. 4. : 46 x* 2. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.4 f .-l. 6. 2a3/ 7.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 -4a6 + 46 -25. + 2xy + y*-q*. w -m 2.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 4. 8.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 4 a2 . 2 7. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 87 -f- Factor 4 a2 - 6 2 + 9 tf .

(a. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 4 a. + 6 aft + 3 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. a. 13. 24. 18. 4 2 2 ft ft -2a + a*-l. 29. 19. 28. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*-xif. _|_ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 3 41.13 c . 2 a -128. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. a3 156. a5 a 1 4 2 39. .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 22.310 x .88 10.156. 25 a + 25 aft . 40. 11. 5 a. (^ 34. 2 17. 3 25. a6 36. 2 3#4 -3a2 -36. 30. -32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 5a' 20. a + a + a + l. 3 2 .40. or 3 7#2 . 42 x . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 27. 4 8 tt 2 z . 42 s 2 . 14. 13 c . 12. -50^ + 45. 2 ft . 35. 32. 80 a 2 ft 38. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 3 a2 23.24. + 14. 49 a 4 4 -42 a + 9 a 20a -90a -50. 48.

are prime can be found by inspection. The student should note H. The H. of 6 sfyz. 54 - 32 . 2 2 . F. 25 W. 8 . 15 aW. 5. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 121. C. C. C. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. F. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 89 . 12 tfifz. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. aW. . II 2 . The H. expressions which have no are prime to one another. F. F. of : 48 4. C. of aW. 2. of two or more monomials whose factors . 5 7 34 2s . EXERCISE Find the H. - 23 3 . The highest is common factor (IT. 3 . 5 2 3 . C. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 122. F. Two common factor except unity The H. 6. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. 24 s . Thus the H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .) of two or more . 3. of the algebraic expressions. 5 s 7 2 5. C. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions.

F. 95 2/V. 7. To find the H. 38 #y. 8 a 10 . 16. ^2 2 . . 4(m -f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).12 as 66 . 2. a. a2 . a3 -9a. (a7 ?/) . 57 a>V. x2 ^-4^ and tf -7 xy + 10 f. 12. 49 C. 24 a 2 . 10. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . -3^ 2 4 .y) .^-9.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . . . = x 2 y. 3.?/ . C. 12 w*nw 8. 13. of: . 75 a&X -15 bed 11 . 12. 25 m27i. 2 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. F.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . a -3a-4. 52 oryz4. a3 -16 a.2 ?/) (x . 6 3 a. y + 3y-64. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 6 mx .6 a&. aWd. 0^-80:4-16. 5 a6 -5^ 2 a. 3). 8. 12 . 15 3ao. 10. F. 3 . 2 . a2 + 7a-f!2. 15. 4a -f 4a2 2 2 a 2 - . 2 . 8 6. 8(?/i-f-l) 14. 2a -f5a-f 2.y)\ O+ 0^(0. of polynomials. 4(m+l) 3 . a2 + 2a-3. 15 x-y^ 2 10 arV . 9. 4 ?io. 65 zfyV. ^a + 5^ + 6. Ex.2 y) (a. 13. ^-707 + 12.# 4 afy -f 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.5 y). 11. 1.-6. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. . 6 a2 y? . 9. . 1. 14. C. of + 4 if. 6(m+l) (m+2). a2 ar* 4. 2 .y + y-42. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. x* x2 Hence the H. F. ^-f a. 8. 225 4a 9 . 5.5 + 6.6 . Find the H.8 a + 16.90 7. 9 aj*(a? . C. 16 a .y) 123.5 x3?/ 2 6. and apply the method of the preceding article. 11.

M. of 3 aW. 2. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 -4 a 68 2 . C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. The L. 2 The The L. &) 2 M. M. C. C. two lowest common multiples. M. of tfy and xy*. M. 1. which also signs. L. Common 125. M. 127. . A common remainder. 128.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.C. C. a^c8 3 . but opposite . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. To find the L. C. 300 z 2 y. M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. Ex. of the general. M of the algebraic expressions. 126. C. C. = (a -f last 2 &)' is (a - 6) . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. each set of expressions has In example ft). thus. Hence the L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . Find the L.C. The lowest common multiple (L. M. Ex. .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. L. of as -&2 a2 + 2a&-f b\ and 6-a. Find the L.6 3 ). NOTE. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. etc. ory is the L. C. M.6)2. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*( - is 12(a + &)( .M. of several expressions which are not completely factored. 60 x^y' 2 .

2 . 3(a + b).92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 13. a 2 -f 4 a +4. 3 ab. 20. + 6. 24 x. 17. a^-1. . 5. 2. 14. 6 y.- 3 -f2. a 1. 16. 3 (a-2)(a-3) ( a -3)(a-4) 2 2a?b-'2ab 2 a. T a 3 a 2 . ) . . 7. 11. 2 .1. a -f 3. a. 20 9 a. 3 Z> . by. 4 a .1. 6 a. (For additional examples see page 268. afy. (a -4)(a-2) 12. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a 2 a3 . x 2 5 a. 3. 6b 2 . 24. a& 4 +& 2 . afc'cd 2 . 8 afy. 18. 15. ax -{-ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a 2 -fa6. -f b. a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 30 a. ic 23. or -f- 3 a 15 #. 2 7ic+10. Find the L. y*. a2 4. 2 a?-b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a-2b. bx a? 8 2 lOaj-f-lfi. G a. ic 2 ?/. 3 . a -!.-f 6. 8. 21. x2 5 -f 2 3# 5 + 2. x2 + 4 a -f 4. a -{- a~b. a. a2 ~ab 1. #. 40 abJ. 2 a . 2 a. 3. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a -f- 2 19. 3 6 xif. b 2 . 2 . of: 4. xy\ . 6. + 2. M. 1. a?b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 8 d 5 . 9. 4 a 5 6cd. x* ~5a. 2 10. 5 a? 5 a? y. + 2 7i) . 2 a . 2(m 2 . 2 x -\-2 y. 22. 4 a -f 2.

ry ^ by their H. 130. F. but we In arithmetic. TT Hence 24 2 z = -- 3x . Thus. Reduce ~- to its lowest terms. and denominators are considered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. rni Thus 132. etc. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a b = ma mb . an indicated quotient. A -f- fraction is b. 131. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. successively all 2 j/' . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Remove tor. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. however. a?. C. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. thus - is identical with a divisor b the denominator. as 8. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina- and z 8 (or divide the terms .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Ex.

4) Ex. Keduce -62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 9-5 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . tf a* - n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.33 -7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. . cancel factors only. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. 3. Ex.

' 32. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^" a. . g J- 21. "-""-.7 . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. . 9x + "a" 10. ' ^ . ^+3*. 23. 16. 3a ^ ^ "-^ 2 -9 .10 a + 3 2 14. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 5^-10 y 30. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 29.FRACTIONS 7- 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4- ^-. LJZJ^JL. '-M 3 ??i 2fi 25.*. .. nx 17.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " -*-7 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 19. ny 4 18. ^' rt ^ - 31. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.

C.96 134. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. we have (a + 3) (a -8) (-!)' NOTE. and 135.M. - by 4 6' . C. C.r 2 2 .D.C. + 3). Divide the L.~16 (a + 3) (x. - of //-* 2 . Reduce -^-. we have the quotients (x 1). Ex - Reduce to their lowest common denominator.-1^22 ' . M. by the denominator of each fraction. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. 1). and the terms of ***.3) (-!)' = . mon T denominator. ^ to their lowest com- The L. . multiplying the terms of 22 . Ex.M. Since a (z -6 + 3)(s-3)O-l)' 6a.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . of the denominators for the common denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . 2> . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .3)O - Dividing this by each denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. take the L. and (a- 8). TheL. 1. we have -M^. =(z (x + 3)(z. we may extend this method to integral expressions. .

?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2aj ~ .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . . o o a.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2 3 9a ~l' 3a-l 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a- 9 ^ . 8 i i. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.. 7i 2 ab* ". 137. i. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2a-l n.^1. .. bxby g ! a 5 ' a -f-5 a2 25 ?--. common denominator 6. 2.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 3. 74).a+2 ' a 2 -3a-f 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.T 3y Ga-1 ax 9 ' 2a . If the given fractions have different denominators. 2 ay IB. 22 a2 5a * . a? 1 5 > ^* . JL.oj o* or / . . Since --{-c c = 5L^ c (Art. 5?. 18. j y 3.

4(2 a 3 ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a - + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft) - ft) a(a -2 ft) NOTE. C. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. L. cr -\-t Simplify _T__ -r* + . D. a -3 2a + "~ a2 ft). (a . D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a -ft) _ 8 a 2 -f 24 aft 20 a 2 -f -f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 -f 2 6 a2 .aft) Ca2 . 2 ^. (a-8ft)(a~-ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a -4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. the student should remember that parentheses are . e.7 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 -3 ft 6 a -f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) -f (2 a . and adding. The results of addition and subtraction should be re- duced to their lowest terms. T? Ex. as 4 aft -f.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a - ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ft).2 = a(a .ft)(a .ft) (a ft ft)~. in the beginning. (a ft).aft - _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 -2 aft :=(. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 ft)(2 a -f + : Ga-6 + 3 ft).(a 2 6)... 4 6 + 2qg+6~ag-f4a&-8 a(a-ft)(a -2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2 - 2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a-2ft) +a (2q + a(a . The L. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 ft).2 ' 2 _.20 aft 3ft) -f 3 ft 2 4(2a-3ft)(2a-f 4 aft -f 21 2 138. 2. ^ _ ^ a-3b ft). ^ is 2^JT) .g.3 ft 2).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA - Ex ' Sim C.

A+2_3. 1 1 -f w 16. 5a-76 4a 106 9. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 6 c 3a 7. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. a+6 a 6 2 14. a 36 ++. + a "" 2 6 ' . a-2 a + 3* 2 a -7 a-f-1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2L + 2a 1 17. t-3 m-2* a _2 6 a 4. 15. 20.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a-4 5 3. 18 v 19. 46 2a 4a 12. 6a-116 13 a 15a-26 116 e ' 6 2 10. + . 2. 1 -f q * 1 m m . j>0 i> 21. 23. 30 u -+? + i- _H_ + _*_. 24.5 18- -^4-f25. -1* 1 + m-f 3 1 M.

_m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a-f 1-f /j. 3a 9 +. 41. ic 1 + 1. 43. -_ + a? ?/ + y. a ?^ 40. a. 1 34. 42. a 4 31. / IIlNT: Let a 1 - 39. a 2 ^> 2 x2 -7x+12~x -l7x + 4:~ ' } .9. 2 a-f-1 32. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ! n. a 30. ^-2-^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x-2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 IT-i ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1 - 1 i 1 '> a2 -. x + 3y x-3y Gx x2 2x .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26 - x*3x + 2 x-2 5x 27 ' ~.9 79 -6 2 i.

- 4 or 3 2a. Reduce . . .6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 1.7 5a v Ex.17 (2^ + 2x -f 5-3 (2x-. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * *- (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 -15a-7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . - .FRACTIONS 139. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 101 mixed expression. T.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 -6a + 2 3a m 2 *- 5 m -f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .

expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.) Ex. fractions to integral numbers. (In order to cancel common factors.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi- nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . F J Simplify . !. -x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. multiply the 142. integer.g. or. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Since - = a. we may extend any e. 2.

_G x 7 a2 -5a-6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4a-f-86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a-216 a2 2 q~. 2 -25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 50 . 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. 5n a2 4-3a-4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 -5a-h4 < - x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.. 14.. 4 8. aj 5 1 a? 18.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?-f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 -f 5 a. .

expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ -f y 8 y -f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'-*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r - 3 i_L#_-i-17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 -f- reciprocal of J is | |. 1. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 8 multiply the Ex. * x* -f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . . Divide X-n?/ . : a 4-1 a-b * See page 272. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.

FRACTIONS 105 -. l.10 ?/ _.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4- -L 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4-g-2 2a 2 4-g-20 25 .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. c ab 2 4- &c* & a .6 s + 064.^c 2 2 . are fractional._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .&c 2 ~ a 4- a2c 4. ga2 4- 8 5 a .5 ??i 80 50 . t ' a^-3^-4 ? 4* ' a?-~ab > a 2 a- 4a 4- 4 a: +3 m 12 2 -f. or both.' ' * ' ^-5^+4 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. a a2 4. Ex.afr 4.

6. 10. . 9. 2. & .y 32 . M. . i. . C.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). Ex. x* 4. JL. 7i+~ 7. -n a 8. . of their denominators.a ^c c _^ a -. the answer is directly obtained.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. a m "" . y X 4* 2 y 3. c +6. Simplify x -}.

) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. : . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*-_i_i 4- 14. 1 i 1 2 5 . o 15. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flg-f-l a?l ic+1 a. m^n* n L a 17. -i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^-5n a "~ 12.-~l (For additional examples see page 273. 2 & a 20 - a4-6 13. s-y 18.

2 3. = 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 6 = = 72 72 -3 (a.l)(z + 3) = . - 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. M. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 108 . If x 6.28 a = 5 x2 .1. 9x x Check. x = 6. Transposing. a. 2z-2a. each member is reduced to Ex.48. Bx 12 Qx. each member is reduced to 1. C. -!)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).-f3# + C:E=-6-f72-12. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Solve 5 -I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Solve ^-2^ = 63 2 x 12 -* + *-*.8 x = .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 2. 5(3 85 Check. Uniting.42 + 9. If = 64. 4- 4) - x.9 x2 + 9. 148. these Ex. 1.28 x + 42 = . + 1) (a + 3) . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . . Uniting. tions. = 6.14 (a. 2x Transposing. of the denominator. Clearing of fractions.

18. +1 = 5. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y-2 y-3 == on . 1+5 & ^0 -^ a? = 19 1 11. a/ - 5 a/ = 12. 16. . --. 15. ^' 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. ^-1 = 9. a.1 _7-7 a. 3 a? '2 4 " - 2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1 *> = 2. ' - 4 13. a: 7 a. = xx a? a? hi- x +^ + 3 = 11. +4 14.= 2.

. 2 20 x+3 x-3 3 o^- 28 . - 2 - 13 _J_ = _J3 . . . . + 26 2^4-3 1 4^-9 1 2a?-3 A* 37. 31 31.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 33. y+3~2 29. 25. 26 26. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.11_4 x- 149. ?_=_. 3 3x-2 51 3x*-2x 23 x 3x-2 22 36. J_. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 27 . - 38 = 40. 4a4-l4* + l-~. 32 6 . If two or more denominators are monomials. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3x 35. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 2^12 = 2 = 34._ _ .

FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. C. a. If a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. = 9. Dividing. each member is reduced to ^.-29 507-12' 9 18 .-2 42 9 43.2 3 ~ - == 7a.1. M. . 24 a. 60.. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . the 1 5 L. Check. 1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Transposing and uniting. 5x x : = 9. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3-~ x 16 x - 2. - 5 = 20 x 45. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 10 x -f 6 __ 4a. -f 13 8#-f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~7-16* 6a? 44.-r-7 5 +l 6a-fll~~ 3 6x-flO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 64-14 . 26 a. 5# 10.

bx -f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. jr. fr Reducing lowest terms. Uniting.be. ax -f- x -f. . Dividing. = 2 -f b 2 . y. find a in terms of b and c. 4 ac 1.2 62 2 ab. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. If 3a-c L= = a ? . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Ex.1.3 6 2 = a' . 5> a. It frequently occurs that the x. Uniting the Dividing. they are united by factoring. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. Ex.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 . l to = !=?_=^6? a -f 6.2 ac + 3 aft .c) (3 a ac 6(rt-fc)(a-c) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3a-c). = -l^ 9 b 4- . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. =a 2 151. Thus. 2. -f ~ 5c. a.& . ax- + bx ax (a -f IP Transposing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. 3(a-c) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.m 2* = (a -f 6) mnx = (1 4. = = 6 6c 7 6c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.

10. q solve for/.= c a Z> . 3. = 5. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . -f- ^o. * Solve the same equation for^).= H. If s If 16. + xx = 1. 14. solve for a. p the principal. denoting the interest. _ 2.= n. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 9. -. 2 solve for y a.i l . If ^^ = a 1 32. 6. f P -=-+!.a. = 6 (m -f n) = 2 a + (m-?i)a?. . 31. -4-. 15. 5) is t =^. solve for . ^ ax a^ 26. = 3 (6 a). 30. 34. r the number of $>. in terms of other quantities. 4. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. + 3a. rate. = rt. a? x!7 - a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. iw 21. co?. c 18. a. 12. c. If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 2(3a = aaj-ffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 29. 11. and n the number of years. = 8 4 #. 13. 17. 3(*- 8. . If * 33. mx = n. m a? x . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. IIL n b + &o. The The i time. 1 -f. Ex. s = V-t solve for v. = vt. . t.

Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j.114 35. and 12 = the number over.20 C. 2. then = 2 TT#.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. .. Multiplying by Dividing. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.. = 16^. 2 3 . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . x Or Uniting. 1. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then /- the required number by 1. is 36. 100 C. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Find R in terms of C and TT. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.180.

u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Clearing. 180 Transposing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. and the statement." gives the equation /I). Solving." : Let x - = the required number of days. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 32 x = |.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. or 1J. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Ex. 4x = 80. in Then Therefore. the rate of the express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. 3. = 100 + 4 x.

9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 3. make 21. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. How did the much money man leave ? 11. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ceeds the smaller by 4. and J of the greater Find the numbers. is oO. to his son. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . length in the ground. ex- What 5. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and one half the greater Find the numbers.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find A's 8. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. and of the father's age. is equal 7. by 6. which was $4000. J- of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his daughand the remainder. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and 9 feet above water. money and $10. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Twenty years ago A's age was | age. 3. -| Find their present ages.

investments. and it B in 6 days. and losing 1-*- ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. air. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. Ex. Ex. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 3. after rate of the latter ? 15.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 1. A man has invested J- of his money at the remainder at 6%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. Ex. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. ^ at 5%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses -fa of an How many ounce. 152. How much money $500? 4%. . In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. 2. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver -fa of an ounce. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. If the rate of the express train is -f of the rate of the accommodation train. and B in 4 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days.) 22. what is the 14. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.

m and n.414. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. is 42. . it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. n x Solving. The problem to be solved. 3.009 918. B in 16. e. they can both do in 2 days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.= -. A in 6. we obtain the equation m m -. Ex. B in 5. . B in 12. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. therefore. and apply the method of 170. B in 30. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 2. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.= m -f- n it Therefore both working together can do in mn -f- n days. A in 4. 25.g. A in 6. Then ft i. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. is 57. .118 153.e. Hence. To and find the numerical answer. 26. and n = 3. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. if B in 3 days.

(b) 8 and 56 minutes. 5 miles per hour.721. the area would be increased by 19 square feet.000. if m and n are.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. : (c) 64 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 3J miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. After how many hours do they meet. the second at the apart. 4J- miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. meet. 2 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (b) 35 miles. squares 29. same hour from two towns. The one: 31. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 34. (c) 16. (b) 149. is (a) 51. the rate of the first. (d) 1. Find the side of the square. . 2 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. respectively. is ?n . last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. Find two consecutive numbers -the difference of whose is 21.001. 3 miles per hour. squares 30. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 33. Two men start at the first miles apart. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance.

1. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. a ratio is not changed etc. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.g. 6 12 = . the symbol being a sign of division. E. In the ratio a : ft.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. : : 155.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b. b is the consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3|. the denominator The the 157. etc. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. the antecedent. " a Thus." we may write a : b = 6. b.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The ratio - is the inverse of the ratio -. the second term the consequent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. antecedent. Ex. The first 156.5. . 158.

RATIO Ex. 3. 3:4. proportional between a and c. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 9. $24: $8. Simplify the following ratios 7. In the proportion a b : = b : c. and c. b is the mean b. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 16a2 :24a&. 16. 1. b and c the means. 3:1}. equal 2. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. = |or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 12. b. two | ratios. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 62:16. and c is the third proportional to a and . AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 8^- hours. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. : 1. 4. 17. 5 f hours : 2. a and d are the extremes. 18. 3 8. 11. The last first three. J:l. terms. Transform the following unity 15. : a-y . 7f:6J. extremes. 6. 159. 4|-:5f : 5. 10. 61 : ratios 72:18. 7|:4 T T 4 . 27 06: 18 a6.

then G ccm. ad = be. 163. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. and the time necessary to do it. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. i. 163. pro- portional.__(163. 164. !-. Clearing of fractions. = 30 grams 45 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. are : : : inversely proportional.122 162. In any proportion product of the extremes.) b = Vac.30 grams. 3 4. of iron weigh .e. " we " NOTE. ccm. 2 165.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.) mn = pq. and the other pair the extremes. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. of a proportion. q~~ n . : : directly proportional may say. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. If (Converse of nq. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. The mean proportional of their product. briefly. : c. of iron weigh 45 grams. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 6 ccm. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. Hence the number of men required to do some work.

ad = be. I. . a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. Or IV. V. 1. (Division. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) (Called Alternation. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4|. hence the proportion true. = 35 . bd bd. (Composition. 2. then =d c. 166.) a + b:a = c + d:c. a III. is Ex.) = f f = 3 J. a:c=b:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad - Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) d 167.PATIO Ex. 12x Hence a? = 42. (163. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (Frequently called Inversion. I.) II. if 6 : 7. ad ( 163. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. d d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. is 4$ = 35. + b:b = c + d:d.) a b b=c b = c-)-d:c d.

2. : 3 = 5 -f x : x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 20:7. 3. : x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. E. 120:42 2 2 7. 9.e. V. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. x = 2. IV. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 6 =4 : x. . To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. Or III. Simplify the following proportions. = 12 5ft.124 IT. mx tin Apply composition and division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l-^. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Apply composition. 10. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 5. 4. 5 5. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 8. i.g. = 180:125. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x.!=!*. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. = 7:2f 3J. = 2:3. the consequents by 7. .

13. (a : : 45. 14 and 21. 46.:ff. 4. a?:15 15. b. 12. 03:a?=135:20. 14. 18. 35. 2= 5 x x. 39. 43. 52. 3t. and 2/. |- 32. 20. = 3 43 + x. 4 and 16. : 53. 17. 6 x = y. Find the third proportional 24.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.x: 6:5 a : x. w. = 2 + x: x. 7iy = 2:x. = 15-o. 44. Find the 37. 9 x = 2 y. to : 9 and 12. 6. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. = 5 x 12. rap. 23. 2. 38. a. Find the mean proportional 30. 1. 3. rag. 34. 16. if : 40. 5= 18 a? : a?. 47.j>. mx = ny.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 2 a and 18 a. x:5 = y:2. 16 and 28. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 25. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 29.8:1. 27. 22. 3. + fyx = cy. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. : . 5. 33. 41. 112:42 = 10:a. terra 2:3 = 4. 2 3 = y #. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 42. ra + landra 1. x m = y n. 26. f. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. to : a and 1.. ratio of y. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 51. ra. to: = 35:*. 28. 2. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. . 6x = 7y. 50. a 2 and ab. 31. ra 2 . 21. = l^:18. : a2 . 1 and a.

A line 7^. 57. the area of the larger? the same. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. the squares of their radii (e) 55.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor- tional to the pressure (P). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time. and the time necessary for it. and the speed of the train. 56. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. what 58. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the area of the rectangle. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the : total cost. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .126 54. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').

as 11 Let then : 1. 2 x Or = 4. . produced to a point C. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. is A line AB. Let A B AC=1x. AB = 2 x. 2. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. so that Find^K7and BO. x=2. 11 x x 7 Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 18 x = 108. 4 inches long. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. = the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6.000 168. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. : Ex. 11 x -f 7 x = 108. 7 x = 42 is the second number. Then Hence BG = 5 x.

Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Gunmetal tin. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. : 4. 14.) . If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 11. 12. How The long are the parts ? 15. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun- metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. What are the parts ? 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 12. 13. and c inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. find the number of square miles of land and of water. and 15 inches. How many gen. 2. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.000 square miles. 9. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many 7. 3.000. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. : 197. 6. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.

there is only one solution. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. values of x and y. Hence 2s -5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.-L x If If = 0. =.-. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj-3y = 6. y = 1. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. x = 1. expressing a y. Hence. 2 y = .e. etc. The root of (4) if K 129 . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. such as + = 10. However.y=--|. a? (1) then I. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. is x = 7. if .

(3) (4) Multiply (2) by - Subtract (4) from (3). for they express the x -f y 10. are simultaneous equations. 30 can be reduced to the same form -f 5 y Hence they are not independent.130 170. Solve -y=6x 6x -f Multiply (1) by 2. 4y . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.26.24. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. The first set of equations is also called consistent. = .X. ~ 50.3 y = 80. the last set inconsistent. y = 2. x -H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. same relation. 174. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. unknown quantity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Therefore. 6x . 172. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . viz. 3. to The two methods I. Substitution. 21 y . and 3 x + 3 y =. By By Addition or Subtraction. y I 171. of elimination most frequently used II. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x -f. cannot be reduced to the same form. 26 y = 60. E.

3-7. 8 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 y = 47. + 2. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . subtract the equations. x = 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 60 . 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. = 235. 3y = 3.2 = 6. 5 13 . 3. y = 1. x = 10. Therefore Check. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Transposing. 10 .3 1 = 47. y = 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Check.14 =-8. 25 x . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. add the equations. whose coefficients In general. are like. 64 x = 040. = 406. 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 10 + 5 1 = 135. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3.

v ^ = ll. I ~ y~~> 22.3. 13. 19< I a. 13- 6-1 l7a. . x 11.v 23. -I i 3 a. * + 3 y = 50.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. ' 12. + 3?/ { 3 x -f 2 y = 39. + 2/ 17. _. ] ^ . 9- 1 r 20. I . [2o. = 41. = 6.-f2/ ' = 50. I oj 5y = 17.9 *. O t K 8. J I y = 1U. i 3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^ - 25 * -60. = 24. 7 ' 1fi fl .3.5 y = -2. f 3# ?/ = 0. f 3X 7x 14.

EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (2-7. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan- other equation. 8. . = 2. and solve the resulting equation. 3. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. (1) (2) Transposing 2. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 60. = 4#-8. = 13. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. x ) ^"" 13.

(4). 2 y = . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 7 y = 6. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 21z-6y=-9. simplified before elimination is possible. 29 x = 29. (7) (7) (8) . x = l. \ \6(a. (4t(x-\-) ' ""^IT 3. 3. 4* + 3y = 19.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179.-6)-7(y-7)==18. however. Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. From 9 = 36. + 21-2y-4 = 14. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14.3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 7x_2y=-3. 3 (1) Ex. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. f8(z-8)-9(y-9) = 26. 43 + 8-f-3y + 7z From (3). .

16. 14. .-f-2 2. +y 2 . 10. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . y-M a. . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. a. = 3. J 9. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 10 2a?-5 17.1) + 5(6 y . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) = 121. 4~2v 3a?-2^4 3 1 18. 12. 4 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.

180. ?~y . * ((* (( .#. l_3 4' 2/4-1 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA -4_1 2' 19. and y. but some expressions involving x. e. 3x-\" 1 23 24.and x y . . {.Q ^ 4 21. -f y . <X + 20.

x 3. 33 = 11 x.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.3 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Dividing by 11 3 = #.4 x = 4 xy. 137 Solve y y (1) . y 4. x 2x(2). of this type. Therefore y=4. . y. etc. Clearing of fractions. y 1. (2) (3) a. 1. (4) + (G). Substituting x = 3 in (1). . 2* * x 2. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. however. 15 y + 8 x . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. can also be solved Examples method.

= 5. 4 13. 1. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 --. 253 7. . y M-Oi y a. 6.= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. n. x y 331 9. x 8. = en. x y 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K --.

ap. From the same equations find s in terms of a. fax -f = l. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.W. ny = fy/ I sc 1. 14. . and I if 13. bmy bm}y ap cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm -f- 6y = c. . w. W .y = = 9a + 46. Dividing. d. f 5. x -f my = 1. . Uniting. x a. . apan cm. amx + bmy amx -f any = any (an cm. and I. a Find a and terms of n. x 12. -f- 6^ [ nx -f my == m. s in 11. d. ax + by = 2 a&. 6. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a.

1-6. etc.8 = 1. 6. 3. 20. . the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 3y = Hence Check. 8 x . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). ties are Similarly.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. l.1+4. 1. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.lf> z .15z=-12 Adding. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. by 3. x + 12 y . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. -4.2 + 4.3 = 8. = 3. 4.1-3.2 + 3. (8) 2. 1. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). y =* 2. To solve equations containing By tions. Ex. 8B-12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. (4) -(5).by 2. -f 3y 12 =s 8. = 30. 3.12 y + 6 z = .140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 182.2-5.3=-4.

2 . k 2/ -f 2 x a. a? + 70-9 = 26. 8. y -f ?/ -M 2? = 4. == 6. 2z = 40. 15 2 = 45. + y -f z = 15. 14. 7. x 13. -f- 2 i/ -f- z = 14. ~6?/ 5. 49. a? 11. 4 = 42. 2 4. 12. 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + 2 y -f 2 = 35.

2 a. 1510 4- 17. . 22. 16. 60. 27. .3 y + .42 = 2. = 5. 19. =s 20. 23. 32..142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0. 84 21. 4. x _2 3 ' 074-2! J 18.6 2. (3 _. . ^ = 2. = 8*. ? = llz.

z + x = 2 n. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. +2+ 6 = 8. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. y 31. Find the number. Check. x : z =1 : 2. 1 digit in the tens place. 1. the number. + z = 2p. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. y * z 30. either directly or implied. 2 = 1(1+6). symbols: x + y +z- 8. and if 396 be added to the number. = l. . = 2 m. # 4. M=i.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Ex. Obviously of the other . and Then 100 + 10 y +z- the digit in the units' place. ( 99. and to express In complex examples. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 1 = 2. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. however.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. + 396 = 521. The digit in the tens' place is | of the sum of the other two digits.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . . 2 = 6.

From (3) Hence xy Check. 5_ _4_ A. 2. the distance traveled by A. the fraction is reduced to | and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin- ished by one. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Since the three men traveled the same distance. increased by one. (1) (2) 12. 4 x = 24. 8 = xy + x xy = xy -f 3 x 2 y = 2. 2. B. x y = the = the x denominator . + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. C. 3+1 5+1 4_2. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . xy a: 2y 4y 2. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (3) C4) = 24 miles. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.144 Ex. 6 x 4 = 24. 3. x 3x-4y = 12. direction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. x 3 = 24. Or (4)-2x(3). Find the fraction. = Hence the fraction is f. we obtain. = 8. By expressing the two statements in symbols. y = 3. . = the fraction.

Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 5. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. If 27 is 10. the number (See Ex. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 6. and its denomi- nator diminished by one. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. added to the numerator of a fraction. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the last two digits are interchanged. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. 1. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. number by the first 3. If the denominator be doubled. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. fraction is reduced to \-. If 9 be added to the number. it is reduced to J. 2. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the number. Find the numbers. its value added to the denominator. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. tion ? 8.) added to a number of two digits. 7. Find the fraction. the fraction is reduced fraction. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. the fraction equals . 183. the Find the fraction. . both terms.}. and the numerator increased by 4. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the value of the fraction is fa. ? What 9. Find the number. part of their difference equals 4. Find the numbers. and the fourth 3. the digits will be interchanged.

146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. A sum of $10. 5 %. partly at 5 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and in 5 years to $1125. Find their present ages. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. respectively ? 16. and 4 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Find the rates of interest. 19. 14. 13. A man invested $750. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. . bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. the rate of interest? 18. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the annual interest would be $ 195. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 12. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. in 8 years to $8500. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. now.000 is partly invested at 6%.grams. and money and 17. How 6 %. and partly at 4 %. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.

Find their rates of walking. three AD = AF. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. points. triangle Tf AD. . the length of NOTE. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BC=7. BE. B find angles a. ED = BE. is the center of the circum- scribed circle.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. cows. and CE If AB = G inches. then AD = AF. c. and e. . $ 50 for each cow. BD = HE. and F. but if A would double his pace. 23. what is that = OF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. BC = 7 inches. and F '(see diagram). and F. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. for $ 740. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. andCL4 = 8. 25. and angle BCA = 70. the three sides of a triangle E. and sheep. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. angle c = angle d. respectively. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. On /). The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and their difference by GO . E. and angle e angle/. receiving $ 100 for each horse. 24. 1 NOTE. A farmer sold a number of horses. are taken so ABC. and GE = CF. and $15 for each sheep. An C touch ing the sides in D. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and AC = 5 inches.

Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. the ordinate by ?/. first 3).. YY' they-axis. and PJ/_L XX'. PN. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jr-axis. and r or its equal OA is . PN are given. and ordinates abore the x-axis are considered positive . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and point the origin. B. (7. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). ?/. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. is the abscissa. jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. . 186. The of Coordinates. the ordinate of point P. (2. Thus the points A. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and PN _L YY'. -3). It' Location of a point. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. or its equal OM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. (2. PM. (3. 2).

Graphs. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4). . paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.4). (4.e. Plot the points : (0. 1). (-5. 71 2). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 0).1). 0). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. -2). 0).and(l. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of cross-section paper. Plot the points: (4. 6. What is the locus of (a?. 12.2). 8. -2). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.3). 2. Plot the points: (-4. 0). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (-l. 1). (4. (4. (0. (-4. (-1.) EXERCISE 1. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.(!. 2J-). and measure their distance. 4) from the origin ? 7. 11. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. i. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (See diagram on page 151. 4. Plot the points (6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 3). (4. (-3. (-2. -4). -!). . 3). 4) and (4. 3. whose coordinates are given NOTE. -3). (-4. 6. (0. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187.

1. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ure the ordinate of F. 188. 10 . By representing of points. C. from January 1 to December 1.. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. . ABCN y the so-called graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . D. may be found on Jan. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A. 15. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. we meas1 . Thus the first table produces 12 points. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. or the curved line the temperature. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. however. B. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa.

EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the graph is applied. the matics. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utt|s33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. (c) January 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. The engineer. uses them. and to deduce general laws therefrom. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the rise and fall of wages. as the prices and production of commodities. the merchant. (b) July 15.

June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is 10. (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. How much. 1? 11 0. ? 9. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ? - 3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.152 2. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. on 1 to the average.. 15. (1) 10 C. (d) 9 0. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1 to Oct. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .

One meter equals 1. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. a temperature chart of a patient. 19. 20. transformation of meters into yards.09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren- heit) : 21. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 1-18. Hour Temperature .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. NOTE. Draw . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou- sands) of the following states 22. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23.

books from for printing. 3. 26.50. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.5 grams. 2. the value of a of this quantity will change. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. etc.50. etc. x* x 19. if he sells 0. x increases will change gradually from 13. 9. . function If the value of a quantity changes. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. if each copy sells for $1.g. 3. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. x 7 to 9. amount to $8. represent his daily gain (or loss). The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates..inch.154 24.. to 27. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 1 to 1200 copies. +7 If will respec- assume the values 7. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . gas. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.. the daily average expenses for rent. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. binding. 4. and $. 2 x -f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. A 10 wheels a day. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 28. e. then C irJl. 29. 190.) T circumferences of 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2 .50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \.

(2. 2. 4). 4). 3 50. 2). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . it is In the example of the preceding article. to x = 4. is supposed to change. The values of func192. 9). 3 (0. 9). (1^. Ex. E.1). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. plot points which lie between those constructed above.e. for x=l. however. . 1 the points (-3.0). (- 2. (1. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of -3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . and join the points in order. construct '. Q-. 2 (-1. etc. may . x a variable.g. -J). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. as 1. If a more exact diagram is required. 155 -A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. a*.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. may.1).2 x may 4 from x = 4. Graph of a function. and (3. be also represented by a graph. Draw the graph of x2 -f. while 7 is a constant.

or ax + b -f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2 4 and if y = x -f... r */ +* 01 . It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.2 x .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. (4. = 4. y = 6. . Thus in the above example. 2. 194. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. j/=-3. and join(0.. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x-3. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.20). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. Ex. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (-3. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4J. Thus 4x + 7. 4).) For brevity. 7 . straight line produces the required graph. 5). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. = 0. rf 71 . (-2.. -1). etc.4). as y.-.

(</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x -f 2 = 2. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 16. 1 8 10. 21. 2. + 4. 12. 22. The values of a*. 14. 1J-. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 2J. a. 2 4 x -f 2 = 0. i. ?/ a. 8.5)2. a? 2 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x -f 2 = 1. 2-3x. if the function equals zero. 7.5)2. 1-J-.8)'. 18. The roots of the equation 2 -f 2 a a*2 = 0. = 4. l. x-l. = The values of a*. 2. -J-. 11. 6. 2 a. 4a? I. a?. if"a. 15. 4 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2x + 3x a?. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2 or 2 20. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . xz + x. (C ) (-2. . if y = 2. 2J-. -3 a -8. 1. (-If) Va25. Draw the graph ofy=2-j-2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (7i) (c) 23. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 3. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. x+1. (ft) (_ 1. 2 2. a ar. -Jar .2 4 # + 2 equals 2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 19. 3. The values of a?.e. 2 a. the function.-or. a* 13. if a. The roots of the equation 2 -{-2x a*2 = l. 5. a? 1. y = 2x = -4. . 6 -fa. from x VlO-'S". Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 9. -fa-- 17. 2 2 a. 1-J-. The smallest value of the function.

. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Show any convenient number). to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. i. Represent 26. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi-1 F. 9 F.. that graph with the o>axis. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 14 F. the abscissas of 3. .where x c is a constant. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. then y = . C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.24. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. y= formula graphically.24 or x = P and Q.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F-32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F... If two variables x and y are directly proportional. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. Therefore x = 1.e.158 24. 25. then cXj where c is a constant. 1 C. 32 F..

and c represent \-3 -2 --1 1/2 known quantities. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. Such equations in general have two roots. or 5 2. 8. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. and determine the abscis- 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 7. 2 and 1. . 10. de- = termine the points where If the function is 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 14. 6. 197. 0. 3. + + = where a. (0. 12. is called a quadratic equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #-axis. (a) x2 = 0.-7 2 -a -5 = 0.-f 9 = 0. = 0. (a) (6) 9. 4. viz. 6. a: (a) (6) (c) -6a. 11. 13. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. cross-section paper is used. a2 -2a.

160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.2. fc = 3. 1) and 0). represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2).2 y ~ 2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. NOTE. == 2. 0). and joining by a straight line. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Represent graphically Solving for y ='-"JJ y. 199. locate points (0. 2). unknown quantities. produces the 7* required locus. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x ( - graphically. first degree. = 0. Hence. (f . y = -l. Ex. Hence if if x x - 2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. ?/. If x = 0. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 4) and (2. if y = is 0. T . and join the required graph. ?/ =4 AB. y y 2. Ex. Hence we may join (0. because their graphs are straight lines.e.1. X'-2 Locating the points (2. . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. i. 3x _ 4 . that can be reduced Thus to represent x - - -L^- \ x =2 - graphically. solve for ?/.

and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. (2) . The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). equation x= By measuring 3. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. AB y = . we obtain the roots. 202. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Graphical solution of a linear system. linear equations have only one pair of roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. parallel have only one point of intersection. and CD. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \x-y-\. To find the roots of the system. P. viz. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.57.15.1=0. 201. 3. 203.

P graphs meet in two and $. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 2 equation x 3). 5. 3). - 4. 0. (-2. 4. 4. e. 2. etc. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3x 2 y = -6. intersection. 4.y~ Therefore. if x equals respectively 0. Since the two - we obtain DE. There can be no point of and hence no roots. i. Locating two points of equation (2). = 0. V25 5. AB the locus of (1). Measuring the coordinates of P.5. 3. 0) and (0. Locating the points (5. 1. Inconsistent equations. In general. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 4. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. Solve graphically the : fol- lowing system = = 25. they are inconsistent.0). (4. Using the method of the preceding para.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 5. and joining by a straight line.0. 4. y equals 3. x2 . we of the + y* = 25. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 1. 4.9. 2. the point we obtain Ex.e. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. (-4. (1) (2) -C. The equations 2 4 = 0. 3. the graph of points roots.g. 4. and + 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. and . . Solving (1) for y. 3. 0.5..

idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 9. 17. 4. a. 5. as 2^3 and 3x -f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 6. y=x + 5. '163 Dependent equations. vice versa. 20. the graphs of the following systems. 2x 3?/=6. and solve each If there are no solutions. and. \ 2x + 3^ . 8. 16 22. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 10. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 23. state reasons. 7. if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. y= a2 2x y6. x~y=0. .. y = 4. Draw system. 3. y 2 4. a+r/=6. 2.

AND SQUARE HOOTS . 4 a = 3(6 . 26. 30. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x -f 5y = 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . CUBES. 29 . 25. 3 31.8. TABLE OF SQUARES.164 24.14 y = . 28.y).

According to 1. involution repeated multiplication. a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a = a3 . Law of Signs.-faa a a a Obviously 1. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. on to in factors 4. 8. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 52. 3 -f a = -f a = +. is may be by 207. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 2. (- 3 2 6 3 )* = (- 3 a2 6 8 ) . . etc. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( a) is positive. -fa. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.a2 . ^4/? it According to 50. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . (- 3 a268 ) (- a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . follows that 3. 2.

5. 210. raise a fraction to a power. 2 11 (afc ) . 76 : (>y. 16. the required power. V V/ 13. (-a ) 2 5 . 4 /2mV. . am-Vy) 3 .3 a 6 -f 3 a6 . 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (-2ar). (-277171 )*. 3 2 2 8 . 2. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 24. (-a ) 2 4 - 3. a product to a given power. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. ^--/-2?n?A 4 ' 30. The &- cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 15. (-|^^) 2 . 4. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.6) = a .6 (a 8 8 .166 To find To To power. \ 3 J ' - M-W 10.

+ 3a 6 + 3a& -f-& ^-Sx^ + S^ -^ 3 2 2 3 . (a + &)8 . etc. (a-fl) . (5 (1 -a) 3 . (m-2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 -f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . pansions. nent of the binomial.) 14. . = s= (2s) 8 a. An 1. . or* - Find the cube root of 19. 8 (a?-?/) 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 21. - lx - (7 a (1 -I) 3 17. : a 20. (3 (l -I) 2 8 . The higher powers of binomials.y . 2 a8 -3a2 + 3a-l. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 -126 + G6-l. 18. 2. +5a) 22. 3.6 2 8 ft) . 167 Find the cube of 2 x -f. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 13. 2 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (3a (a (4 62 -l) 3 . (3a-f26) 8 . 12.INVOLUTION Ex. 15.3 y. Ex. 211. 6. 7. a. (6m+2w) (3 8 . + a 2 a. 1. 3 8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 8. 2. 5. (3 x . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. frequently called ex. are obtained by multiplication. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 16. 9.y) = (3 y?y . + 4aj) 3 . 4. (a-j-7) .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 23. 3 . 1 -f 3 2 3 .

. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (tf-f-1) (c-fd) . 2. 17. Ex. The minus. . (m -fl) 2 20. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 6. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (m-J) 4 11. and the powers negative. 3. (a~^) 5 . (?/i-~w) : 16. ( &) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (2 4. 18. 23. 10.168 3. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. .2. (w 4 ?i) 4 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 9. . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (a-f 5) . 13. . 21. (p + q) 4 * 7.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 78 s . (l-a&) 4 12. 25. 8. 4. Expand <? 2 (2 # - 3 y3 ) 4 2 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 4 (1-for) 5 . Expand (x = ic 5 -f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (2w 2 2 -f-l) 4 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) -f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .216 a^ 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 4 . 5. (m 2 + n) 8 . 5.a) 3 19. 15. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.96 ^y -f 216 o?y . (l-fa 6 2 ) 5. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2a-5c) (1 -f 2 4 a:) 4 . Ex. (3a -f5) 5) 4. 3. . 14. 24. (1 + 4 ?/) . (2 a 4 . 1. is the coefficient of the next term. (m 5 I) 2 22. (?>i?i -f c)*. . (l 8 .

1. or -3 for (usually written 3) . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 109 . tity . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. \/"^27=-3. etc. 215. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. (_3) = -27. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 2. numbers. or y ~ 3. or x &4 . It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. called real numbers. a) 4 = a4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. and ( v/o* = a. 27 =y means r' = 27. 4 4 . and all other numbers are. which can be simplified no further. = x means = 6-. for (-f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for distinction. Since even powers can never be negative. V9 = + 3. V \/P 214.

7 . -fy 5 3 . 82 . V5 -v/2 7 2. v/^i2 = a*. Ex.4. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. . Ex. 3. Ex. 9. index. 4 v. 7 . 7. = V26TIT81 = 5-3.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 2.64 5 4 . 5. = 19472.lL. To extract a root of a fraction. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . for (a")" a = a mn 3.125. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. V?.201) = 2. extract the and denominator. 6- 7 = 030. V36 9 4. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .9 = 136. Ex. 6. 62 = V2* . Ex 5 a" . 7. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.1. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex. - 100 a 2 .(. 8.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 79 2 -v/2 5 . Ex. . To extract the root of a power. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 10. 2. V25 9 16. -v/2^. 3/0** = am . 2 . 6. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. EXERCISE 1. 9.200 . . = 199 + (_ 198) . \/2 4 9 . 8. 3i . 3 33 53 .

A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 3. 2 -f ( V240) 3 .4/.6 ofy 2 -f 9 y4 . 5. . 2 . -\/d -\-Vab r + b\ 9./). (Vl24) -{ 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. V8. a -f2 l 2 + l. 33. 2 . 6. Find the square root of a2 . 30. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 31.75. ^-40^4. V9216.98.3 . Hence _ 6 ary -f 9 y = (s . 45 V5184. 116.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2. Ex.) by inspection. 1. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 29. a* 4 8 2 .3 y2) ( vV . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 34. V20 . 2y-h2/ 4 - 9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 32.(V200) -f ( VI5) 2 .3.6 tfif + 9 y = O .

In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 -44a?> + 121V2 4a s .2 ac . 11. The term a' first 2 . 10. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. i.172 7. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the so-called trial divisor. a -f.2 &c. the given expression is a perfect square. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 14. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a-\-b is the root if In most cases. 15. however.2 ab + b . 12. let us consider the relation of a -f. 2 . and b. the that 2 ab -f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2ab .72 aW + 81 & 4 . mV-14m??2)-f 49. #2 a2 - 16.b 2 2 to its square.e. . and b (2 a -f b). 2 2 218. + 6 + 4a&.> 13. 8 .

24 afy* -f 9 tf. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 1. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 /-. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. . 8 a 2 . . . As there is no remainder. of x. is As there is no remainder. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 - 12 a +4 a -f 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.EVOLUTION Ex. 219. the first term of the answer. \ 24 a 3 4-f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. by division we term of the root. 6 a. and consider Hence the their sum one term. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 2. - 24 a 3 + 25 a 2 - 12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. The square . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 a 2 2. */'' . Ex. Explanation. . First complete divisor. 1. . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. First trial divisor.24 a + 4 -12 a + 25 a8 s . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and so forth.

73a4 4-40^4-36^4-60^. 14. 3. 5. 18. 25 x 4 -f- 40 afy 4-46 x 2 if 4- 24 a^ 8 4- 9 4 i/ . 3 a2 a4 4- 2a + a4 2 or 4-1 3 2 a3 + 1.37 a ^ . + 81 a 4-54 a + 81. 8.6 .12 a6 2 2 3 4- 4 64 . 36it. 4 . 17.10 x2 4. 2 4. 10.12m 5 4.42 a*& 4. 15. 36a 4-60a 4-73a 4-40a 4-16a 3 2 13.24 or . 6. l 4.42 a -f 49 a 6 16 a4 -|- 24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.2^4-3^4-2^ 46 5 4 a.25 x 4 4.9. 1 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 13#4 4-13ar 4-4a. 4- 36 a 2 12 4- 4- 16 a4 4- 46 a 4 4- 44 a 8 -f 25 a -h 12 a 4- 4 25 a6 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.14^4-4 ic 4^ 3 12^. 4 4-?/ 4-2x- 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 729 4.V4-30^4-25^ 4m 4. 24. 12. 4-36^?/4-69a.54 a 40 a 6 4- 9 a4 . . 20.a 6 x*y 2 . 19. 6 11. > 7.162 a2 60 a10 4.73 a8 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 4-12 a& -f 37 a' 6 . a? 2 . 16.20 J or 2 16 x 4.25. 9. x 6 4- 4 0^4. 5 4- 16 4 iK . 16x6 4.16.20 o 4.12 m 4.4 x 4.40 a 22 .

the first of which is 8. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. which may contain one or two). the square root of 7744 equals 88. Ex. of 1. the first of which is 4. of 10. of a number between 100 and 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.EVOLUTION 220. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Therefore 6 = 8. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Find the square root of 7744. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.000.000. 1. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. two figures. etc.000 is 1000. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the first remainder is. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. The is trial divisor = 160. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. first . = 80. and the complete divisor 168. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Find the square root of 524. a 2 = 6400.1344.176. Ex. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. As 8 x 168 = 1344. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000 is 100. 2. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. and the square root of the greatest square in units. etc.

0961 are '. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1 are Ex.1T6 221. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/.7 to three decimal places.GO'61.70 6. 3. in . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12. annex a cipher.10. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid- ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .

53. JT . = 3. 1.1410. 35.01. 32.58 square 38. feet. 30. J-. 5. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 1. whose area equals 48. 39. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.4 square when R = radius and 11. T\. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .) 40. 37. 31. 36. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 34. feet.22. . 13. 33.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow- ing numbers: 29.

A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. = 7^ + 5. 225. Dividing. x 2 7. 2. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or incomplete. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. 226. 1. or equation of the second degree. 178 . is 12. x -f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. . Transposing. 224. Solve 13 x2 -19 etc.g. A pure. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2 ic = a. + bx -f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Ex.. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. Extracting the square root of each member. = 4. The 7 equation. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7( - 19 = 33 . or affected. 6#2 = x* 24. is A quadratic equation. 6 y2 = 17. x = + 2 or x =2. This answer Check. complete. 2)* + 5 = 33.

. ax Transposing and combining. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8.2. : 83 2. 4 ax. s-3 -? + oj x +3 = 4. 4. o. -7 = 162. Solve 179 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. or Therefore. (a?- 9. 6(--2)=-10(aj-l). 0^ + 1 = 1. 3. 19 + 9 = 5500. 10. 2 4fc -5' 18. . 7. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 -f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .25. 15^-5 = 6. 2 2 a. ' =: y? b* b . 16^-393 = 7. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 2. 5.

find a in terms of 6 . solve for r. . 24. A right triangle is a triangle. its area contains =a 2 -f- b2 . : 6. If 22 = ~^-. 2 . is one of _____ b The side right angle. 9 & -{- c# a x +a and c. 2 : 3.) of their squares 5. If G=m m g . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If a 2 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. 228. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 22 a. and they con- tain together 30G square feet. . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. r. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If 2 -f 2 b* = 4w 2 -f c sol ve for m. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 25. 28. Find the side of each field. 2. 4. Find the side of each field. 27. 3. may be considered one half of a rec- square units. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. ' 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. Find is the number. is 5(5. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2 . 26. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1.b 2 If s If =c . 29. 2a -f- 1 23. solve for v. solve for d. 108. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and their product : 150.

Find the radii. we have of or m = |. Find the unknown sides and the area. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 24. . 4. 8. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. (b) 100 feet? = . add (|) Hence 2 . Find the sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. (b) 44 square feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 2m. of a right triangle Find these sides. Method of completing the square. and the two smaller 11. radii are as 3 14. sides.2 7 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest. x* 7 x= 10. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx -f m to 2 . -J- = 12. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Find these 10. 9.) 13. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.7 x -f 10 = 0. . . Solve Transposing. To find this term. and the third side is 15 inches. is and the other two sides are equal. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The following ex- ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area : sides are as 3 4.

x(l = . or J. a Clearing of fractions. Ex. Or (*-i) x Extracting square roots. 2 ax -f 2 o) s a . adding member). = 6. Transposing. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x -f a = 2 ax. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*-\-px==q. . 22 -7 2 + 10 =0. = \ # = ff. 230. = x-\ = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 80^69^-2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. (*~8) a = at . or x = 2.e. 2 a* a. 2 -| . Therefore. a.1. -7 5 + 10 = 0. 62 x 5 = f. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. | \. | x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Simplifying. Ex. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.2..2 a2 .a. Hence Therefore Check. J. = |. Extracting square roots. Transposing. Uniting.

183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT -* Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*" - - Vl . x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.

article. ao.c = 0. x la 48. o^ or -}- 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. and c in the general answer. =0. = 12. 49. 2x 3 4. -\-bx-\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 231. =8 r/io?. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. Solution by formula.

5 x2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 17. 7^ + 9 x 90. c p. 13. = 12 . V^tT)* . 6^+5^ 56. 3. 2 o. 2 a? = 44 x . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 11.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6 . 7. 12. 6. 3 x -11 + 10 = 0. ?i 2 . 16. 2or } -5o. 2. 18. 6 Ex. 21. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x-5. 1. 19. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.4 4- 5 . b = - + 20 == = 0. : 86 + 2 = 0. - P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. = 64-120?. 2. Reducing to general form. - . 2 a. 9. a. c = 5. 4. 10. 15.. 2 . 14.25 x. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 6. 26. 8. TIO. 20. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.

= 0. 2a^7x sc(2 --16rc Therefore a = 0. a=:i^-^.2. 5 = 0. Eesolving into factors. if either of the uct is zero. or # 5 is zero. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 0. . 26. all or. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 3x?+x = 7. and 6. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 5) = 0. Bx 1 1. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Factoring. = 0.5) =0. 24. member can be Ex. ar>-8o. 23. = 14.x. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2x-f3=0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. transposing terms to one member. 27 x== 4-2a. x2 = 1 . a? 28 - 7a-l=-7s be required to solve the 232. Clearing for fractions.4) = . Solution by factoring.5 Solving (1) and (2). (5 a? -!)(. = 0. any degree. x(x <2 . we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 2S-3x 1 2 . }. Transposing. factors Now. 1. 25. orz roots. 233.

3)(x + 3 3. + 9 -f 20 x = 0. 7. 5. a?. 4. 9. 3. - 3) 2 4 (x = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . (aj-4)(a.24 = 0. Ex. 3) = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. x2 -f 2 x . The equation I. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. O roots are 2.= 24. ar'-Sa^ -12. + 8=s: 7. Therefore x =3 = 2. 5 = 0. 2o3 -f9a. 8. 13. 0(0-2) = 7(0-2). Or Hence the 234. a?-10a=:-24. 3# y 5 = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 2. + 6)=0. : 87 = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3^ = 0(110-6). aj( 15. 16. a* 10a=24. 6.:=0. + 10 a = 24.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. is 5) = 0.(. E. 187 Solve x? -3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 4or + 18a -f 8a. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 3. } 2 2 (5 . we 9 obtain x 4. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. (*-2)(x + 2)(a-3)=0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. and the equation thus formed be solved.e. EXERCISE Solve by factoring -|-6 2. 0^ ar> 11. 3) Factoring.g.6)) = 0. 2. -4)(z-3) = 0. 12. 14.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. + 100. 3 or 2 a. for a: .

f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. uz + u 21. 19. or 3 -a -2 2 a? 26. (a + 1) (a. 25. 50. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. 27.3) = (s + l) (3 -a). 20. 23. 22. 2. '-3a!J - . + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).188 17. 18. ara + ft + c*.

-2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and consequently many prob- 235. 6. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. two numbers is 4. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.0. number by 10. 54. .1. 1. Twenty-nine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. The difference of |.0. 3. Find the number. 3. and equals 190 square inches. -2. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 7. 8. and the difference Find the numbers.3. and whose sum is is 36.2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find the sides. G. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. is Find two numbers whose product 288. -4. Find the number. EXERCISE 1. of their reciprocals is 4.3. 1.3. 52. and whose product 9. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. -5. 58. 0. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 55. 56. 2. 57. -2.9. 5. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. The 11. feet. Find the numbers. -2. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Find a number which exceeds its square by is -|. : 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.

and Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 19. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. dollars. watch for $ 24. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. sold a horse for $144. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. other. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. Find the rate of the train. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle.190 12. 13. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. If he each horse ? . What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 14. as the 16. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money.10. ABCD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. . 15. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 17. he would have received two horses more for the same money. ply between the same two ports. What did he pay for 21. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. Two vessels. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey.

Find TT r (Area of a circle . Find and CB. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. B AB AB -2 191 grass plot. contains B 78 square inches. and working together. (tf. is On the prolongation of a line AC.) 25. a point taken. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot.I) -4(aj*-l) 2 = 9. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Solve ^-9^ + 8 = ** 0. 27. 237. 1. ^-3^ = 7. or x = \/l = 1. how wide is the walk ? 23. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 23 inches long. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. By formula. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is - by a path 5 feet wide. as 0. constructed with and CB as sides. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. 24. Ex. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. the two men can do it in 3 days. so that the rectangle. of the area of the basin. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.

= 13. 4 6. 4 a. 7.2 =-4. 4-36 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. >. ^^ ~ 28 (a?- ^ 2:=Q> . a4 -5o. 2 -h9:=0. 2 16 a^-40 11. 4 : 89 -10a. 10. Hence Le.192 238. a. 6. (a: +aj) -18(x2 +a. 4 2 4 -37aj 2 = -9.)+72=0. 9. 18. 3 a4 -44s + 121=0. 4. a -21or=100.T 2 2 . 4 -8 = 2 a* 2. 2 (^-Z) - "3 14. a? 15 1=2*. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or r-f 15 = 0. Ex. or y = 8. aV+9o 4 =0. T 17. 19. Solving. = 1. 2. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 8. y-8)=0. 12. 16.

bx 4- by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are imaginary. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 -f- bx -f- c = has two roots.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. is 4ac not zero. . 241. The discriminant =(. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .5) = 04. 3. a perfect square. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Hence the roots are real.bx 4. the roots are equal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. Ex. Ex. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . 240. c the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. and unequal. Relations between roots and coefficients. 2. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. b 4. the roots are rational. rational. the roots are irrational.f> = 0. negative. rational. ( 2a Hence 1. 1. the roots are unequal.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are real. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4-r2 = a Or .2) 2 4 3 (. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. and equal.2 z .

= Q. 10 x = 25 x + 1. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 2. + 12 2 - . 21. + 2a-15 = 0. n a?-3 ' ~ == l 5. 15. 2 : 3. x2 -4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 24. 23. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 22. = 0. = 5x. : a 2 . -9a-3 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.. 3a. 12.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : -x +a +-= a 0.19 # 20. 12~x = x 2 . 4. -f 2 E. o. their product is-f. 6. 18. 60 2 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2a -4z-5 = 0. 14. x2 -7 10. ar + ^ + 2^-2 = 0. 2 7. + 18 2 8. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 2-a. 5aj 9. -lla. x2 -!i>x + 2 z2 2 16. tfmx+p^Q. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 5oj -aj + l = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1.g. ^-12. = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2 a. 17. 5a -26a? + 5 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.

It is. (a m ) w . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. that a an = a m+n . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con- venient for other work. 244. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .a" = a m n mn . The first of these laws is nition of power. II. such as 2*. no Fractional and negative exponents.* III.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. and . a m a" = a m+t1 . while the second of the first. = a"" < . (ab) . m IV. ~ a m -f. provided w > n. for all values 1 of m and n. must be *The symbol smaller than. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. however. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. We assume. > m therefore. hence. Then the law of involution." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power.

0?=-^. - we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. m$. 3*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. '&M A 27.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. a*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. a?*. at. = a. laws. n 2 a. 30. ml. a\ 26. a . . (xy$. fractional. 25. etc.g. e. 28. or zero exponent equal x. Assuming these two 8*. (bed)*. 23. 245. 4~ . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. disappear. 24. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 29. 31. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. as.

27* = 3. 41. the base is zero. hence is . = 2. 46. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. however. 7z* Find the values of 47. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 2. -\/xy- -\/m. e. 48. : 2' 4* = 4. 64* + 9* + 16* + (-32)*. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. a* * = 3.\/n. 45. equal to unity.g. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 246. 37. 38. 50. Vo5 . 42. 43. = 49. : 197 33. Solve the following equations 39. 5 a* = 10. e. a. ty?. 40. 49. To find the meaning of zero exponent. If. v'mT 36. 35. Let a = a. 3* = 27. -v/o&cT 34. 44. a * a2 Or a=l. a . -\fi?.g.

g. cr n.2 = a2 . 248. etc. . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. or the exponent. e. an x = a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.198 247. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Multiplying both members by a". by changing the sign of NOTE. vice versa. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. Let x= or".

Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. : or 5 . rfS.- 27. 3 a. 2 . m . 2m~i 43. 22. 3 a? * 42. ^?2 y' 34. f (2w)~i 1 -. a^ 41. . 66 45. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 44. 36. c 32. 40. a."* 38. 37. : mi m~^.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 2 . * 24. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. . 1 -L ?>i""i 3 cci . 25. ^L. 39. 6 or 2 ^-^ ^. 7~ l a 2b 2 .

57. 53. 47. 5 - 75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z 5or*=10. 55. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 250. .6). 1.1. 10* Find the values 56. 61. = 5.26)* 1 (I-) 2 . 58. 17' 2 51.343)* + (. + 1~* -f 21 . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.(.9*. + A_. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con- taining fractional exponents. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* 5* = .001. 54. = l. 49. = . ar = i. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 48. = -^. (81)* + (3f)*-(5 TV)*-3249 + 16 * . 52. Ex. of: 3-ll4~* 60. (. 59. z* = 1.81 -f (a .008)* + A.

NOTE.5a. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.3 aj" a.&. 8 ' 9. 6 *. 27 - 28.6 *' 6 *25. etc. 7. 25 26 - 2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 3. &.4 a8 . 18.$-*. 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . S-'-s-S-8. 12. remove the fractional exponents. are performed. Remove the negative exponents. .5. __ 29- /m -'-=V a9 -i-a. / 7-f--v 7.$-". 26. 4 x^. 13.7i. . 4 5. (d) If required.^/5-^5. 6. 6a-.&. 72 . 7~ 5 27 - .4 . ' 11. Perform the operation indicated.. 79 . OA 20. 3-s-VS. 7*. 10.7*. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. a. 14. 95 -^9i 5-*-*. #* a. 23. 16. 17. .7W. 14an- (4**(Va) 4 . 7~ 6 . V5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 3 a. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.

1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. The 252. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . lix = 2x-l =+1 Ex. 2. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 40. 34. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 6 35. If powers of a?. V ra 4/ 3 -\/m 33.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.

THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93

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1

-f-

3.

V25 #

- 2()"ar r+ 34 - 12 x -f 9 x*.

20.

^^
l

21. 22.
23. 24.
25.

+2
a?
8

(l+4^-flO^ + 20oT-f 25^T -f-24-\/i?-f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V2-2). (5+V3)(5-2V3).
26. 27.

)*.

(1-3VS)(2 + V5).

(VU - V2)(Vn~3V2)

204

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:

Find by inspection
28.
29.

(x*

+ 3)(tf*-f 2).

35.
36.

8 (a;*

yi)

.

a*

+ 3l-5.
V2

(5*-2*

2
.

30.
31.
32.

38. 39.

(3^
(#* ^
(fl

2*)
-f-

.

33. 34.

5) (x*

5).

40.

(m

n)

-f-

(m*

11
-f-

n 5 ).

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.

A

radical is the root of

a quantity, indicated by a

radical sign.

254.

The

radical is rational, if the root can be extracted

exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.

^9
4^
\/2,

(*

+ V) *

are radicals.

= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4a-f
b are irrational.

255.
root.

The

order of a surd

is

indicated by the index of the

va
\/2

/-

.

is
is is

of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.

Vc

256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.

An
257.
factor.

entire surd is

one whose coefficient

is

unity; as

Va,

Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6

which contain the same irrational
are similar.

av^

3V2 and

3 V8 are dissimilar.

206

206
258.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.

All even roots
e.g.

may

be positive or negative,

VI = + 2

or

2.

Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict

the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.

Thus

5 V4 4- 2 V4

= 7 VI = 14.

If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;

=-

(oj- 2).

259.

Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional

exponents, all examines relating to radicals

may

be solved by the

methods employed for fractional exponents.

Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T

1

1

(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.

(242).

to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the

factors.

TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.

A radical is simplified when the

expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.

Ex.

1.

Simplify

= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4

Ex.

2.

Simplify

-v/16.

-J/lB^^.

4/2

= 2^.

RADICALS
.

207

261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.

Ex.

3.

Simplify V|.

Ex.

4.

Simplify

EXERCISE

94

208

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s

37.

39.

j

*x+y
38.

n

\ 2m

262.

An

same manner

imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;

42.

V-16a
:

,

2
.

44.

2\-

Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.

VJ.*

49.
50.

Vf.

VJ.

VA

263.

Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.

Ex.

Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.

EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:

95

4V5.

3.

2-\/lL

5.
6.

7.

2.

3V7.

4.

3^5.

a VS.

8.

* See table of square roots on page 164.

RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.

209

Ex.

1.

Transform -\/uW into a surd of the 20th order.

Ex.

2.

Transform

\/2,

V3, and

\/5 into surds of the

same

lowest order.

V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. |^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1

Ex.

3.

Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.

Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by

same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.

96
:

to surds of the 6th order
2.

Va?.

-fymn.

3.

\/ v

4.

v'c?.

5.

\|

z

\

^3

6.

mn.

Reduce
7.
8.

to surds of the 12th order
9.

:

V2~a.

\/a4 6 2c.
-\/3ax.

11.
12.

-\/oP6.

13.
14.
a.

^v/mV

10.

\/5a5V.

Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:

15.

-v/o

5
.

16.

\/oW.

17.

-v/IaT .

2

18.

-\/

20.

A/^

22.

VSlmV.

24.

3. subtract surds. 26.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25.3-\| . 32. -^7. V2. To add or form. (i. 28. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. Ex. A/2. V3. V2. -^6. VS. 37. -^4. if dissimilar. signs. + . in order of magnitude : \/7. </2. ^2. </20. -\/5. Arrange 35. ^30. ^2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . s!/3.2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 34. -v/3. -v^S. I VJ + 3VT8 . 38. V2. 4^/4. 40. 29.e. -v/3. 36. Simplify V|~ . 2\ 3*. Simplify V| + 3 VlS. 33.10 V2 = - V2. ^3. 27. 3 - s/- / 3ft 2 - 3 ^y Ex. -\/7. V3. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^126. ^4. V5. 39. 31. 5V2.2 V50. ^5. connect them by proper 1. </3. -v/4. ^/IT. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. Ex. 30. -^2. A/3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 .

V18+V32-VT28+V2. 14. 4. 6. 11. 9. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 -f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .J a6 V4 aft.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 10. 6. V175-V28+V63-4V7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V75-9V48. . 3. 8VT8-J-2V32 7.3V20 + 6V5. 8. + 3V8-35V2. 12. 2V8-7Vl8-f5V72-V50. 4V80-5V45-. VJ+V8-V1 + V50. 13.

Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 23.100 = -f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 3-\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .6V35 106 4-60V35-100 . 26^ . 3. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 1. and then multiplied.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. y* = Ex. Ex. 2. 6*.

(2-V3) 8 . (5V2-2V3-CVS)V3. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 3. V42. 39. -v/4. 25.^/2. -VTO. 40. 40 10 30. 7. 12. V20 V30. . 21. V3 Vl2. VlO V15. + VB)(2-V5). (3 20. ( Vm -\- 1 Vm) (Vm-f 1 6(Va-f Va -{- Vm). 2 . 10. (Vm-Vn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 27. 28 . aVa.VSS. fWa 17. 213 98 11. (5V5-8V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 19. (V6 + 1) 1 . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (Va Va 36. 9. -\/3 -\^). 34.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 4. 41. (Vm-Vn) (V3-V2) 8 . 38. 6 V4 5. 37. 6. 6. (6V2-3V3)(6V2-|-3V3). V2 -V50. 8. a?. 14. 13. 18. -v/18 -v"3. 15. Vll. V2a-V8^. 2. V3 V6.

it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 51. is 1 2. 43. -v/a - DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47. E. 49. 268. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (2 45.y. 44. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V5-5V3) S . Ex. .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). all monomial surds may be divided by method. (V50-f 3Vl2)-4-V2== however. 52. 48. V3 . (5V2+V10)(2V5-1). (3V5-2V3)(2V3-V3). 60.214 42. Ex. 46. (3V3-2Vo)(2V3+V5). 53. a VS -f- a?Vy = -\/ - x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. the quotient of the surds is If. a fraction. (5V7-2V2)(2VT-7V2). Va -v/a.

metical problems afford the best illustrations. 3.g. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. we have V3 But if 1. Divide VII by v7. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.by the usual arithmetical method. is illustrated by Ex. by V7. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. however. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.57735.73205.73205 we simplify JL-V^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . . e. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. . /~ } Ex. . The 2. Evidently. arithTo find. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1..RADICALS This method. 1.

. V48 25. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. ^/H . V3 24 . Vf-f-V?. V2 22 . 271.7320. 23 . . 272. -i.2361. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom- inator is a binomial quadratic surd.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 20. V3 = 1. V5 270. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. --. V5 = 2. V8 JL. Vll 212*. A. 7. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V8 12.4142. 14. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Vn V7 ' * 8. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . and Given V2 = 1. A. 21. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 -2-.

Ex.Vs2 . . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex.vffi^T _ . 3. V8-2 2-V3 1-fVS . s Simplify a. 1.RADICALS Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V2-1 2V2-1 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .2. 217 Simplify 2V3-V2 ' V3-V2 ~ = 4 + V5.1 x-Vtf a. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V2-1 e . .= 18.

find to _!_. : and V5 = 2. -J?_. V2-1 -= 25 . 6V7-. 2V5-V18 m-Vm Va 22.2361. four places of decimals 23 . V3-2* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 -f- 2V2. Vo-1 26.218 6 . .4142.5 3 = 125. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .7320. By the use of fractional exponents .W3. 27. V5-V7 18> ^-SVg. = V3 = 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V5-1 14 A 16. V5-2 17 1-Va? Vg+v/2 5V7-7V5 ' V3-V2 15. Given V2 1. 24. 19. v 2-V3 28. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3-V5 ' V5+2 31. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.

\/125" . it to this form. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. -\/l6*. According to G3. 3 (V2~u-) - 7. 11. 2.RADICALS 219 274. 5. 2. 2 12. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . . 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v5-|-2V3 5 + 3. 1. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. viz. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 9. 3. on the other hand. V255 . v8-f 2\/15. V643 . the If. Simplify Ex.

Find Vll .2 \/20. is 11. ^TT.6\/2 = ^9 . These Ex. The Hence ^11 . 2 \/18. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. 3. +2 Ex. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find V4 + VJ8. 12 and whose product is 20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. and whose product is 18.2 A/2 = V9-A/2 = 3 .A/2.6 V2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . Find Vl2 4.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.220 Ex.

5. -+=. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. r 22. Transposing and uniting. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. . 4. Dividing by Check. Transposing Vsc2 + -f 12 12 Squaring both members. x2 = x -f 2. V48 23.V48 4 20. a. member to 2. by raising both members equal powers. 8. Before performing the involution.. i. The value x =2 reduces each . : 221 Vl3-2V22. = xa + 4 x -f 4. * 4-- * 2 V6 VT 4. -\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. 4x x = 2. are radical equations.1. 277. VT . first involution. they are transto formed into rational equations.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Ex.e. 19. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Radical equations are rationalized. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. (2x xrf 1. Solve vV-f!2-a = 2.

Extraneous roots. Dividing by 24. 4#-f 4 = 9. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25x-f3 = 0. Squaring both members. a. Therefore Check. member =|\/2 + -jV2=|v^. 5. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Transposing and uniting. . they may be extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. a so-called extraneous root. .222 Ex.1) = 0. or = VzMx2 7 x -f -f 7 x + 9. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Squaring both members. Factoring. 2. at . Transposing.3. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 -f V4 -f 1 . . 24 \/4 #-|- Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Vitf 4x -f 25 -f- 25 4x -f- 1 25. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. the first member = V2. Therefore CftecAr. viz. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. tion which has two roots. -f- 25 = 12. x = J. viz. 3. V24~+~l = 0. one root. V4afT~l. Transposing and uniting. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 278. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. -f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. It = 3 x . tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Solve -Vx -f- Squaring both members.

Check.12 .3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. and to 5. (x x = 3. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. .RADICALS Hence x If a. 4- VxT~0 = \/8 x -f 1. = 3. the right member = |V2. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x -f A5_ 15. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. \ does not satisfy the given. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Factoring. ViTie- 4 z2 . NOTE. x root of the preceding equation. 223 x = 3. Squaring. If If x 3 = 3. Therefore. Solve the following equations : = G. is x V. + 6~ieT~3 . 4. for it satisfies the equation . equation it is an extraneous root.47) = 0. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. . 2 Clearing of fractions. viz.2 r.48 x + 2 x2 53 -f 141 = 0. or x *j-. Hence there is only one root. both members reduce to 5. Transposing. Hence x = the only root. V2x' 8 4-2x4-3 Transposing.

radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Solve af*. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.

some of the roots be extraneous. 4. x + Vx a? = 6. 3 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 x + 40 = 36. x =6 or 3. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 45 14VJB = . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2Va. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.i~24 = 0. Vi 2 -8a. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2.35 = 0. _ 2 y . This can be seen without substituting. 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the | power. members of the equation were squared. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. . x Since both =9 or 1.-f40= 5. Q . Ex. = 26. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2. 4-12a* = 16. 2_8z 4-40 = 49. 3. y then x2 .*-2a. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. = 0.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. Let 8 x -f 40 .8 z-|-40 = 7. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. = 7. Substituting. o. + 40 = 6.

17. a. +x . 16. 19. ar -fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7-^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"-^I + 2 = 4.226 11. 2. +3= 6. 15. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x -f .-f 18 = 24. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a -f- 40 2 V* 2 8. 18. a^x2 5 2 13. 2 7a?H-V^ 3 7a. 20.a 4-40 = 35. 14. 4 V SB* 4- a.

ax4 4. If x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 227 . could. to x we # = 2 -3. then (x 2)Q 0.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . find the remainder when m. a? R = x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. no matter If. even if Q is unknown. 3 2 Ex. -f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient -f Remainder. does not contain a?. Without actual division.2 + 8-0 = 12. E = ax + &z + m) Q. 2.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Ex. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.3-6-0 = 244.bx? + ex2 4. however. if Q was known. we make a? what the value of Q. " Or.2 x 5 by x 3. = 2. 1. then or* -2 and there is a 3 x2 -f. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. by dividing 3 x* -f. Without actual division.2) Q . ^ = 3-81+2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.<fo -f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: -f (to + e (x = w.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Hence.2 + 4." transposing.4 a.

fora?. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. a -f b 7 by a ^-14y ~132/ -- 283. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x - - - 00 *. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .4(. + 7 = 632. x* s 2 4. 3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . of the division 3) is m in place of x. if 8 42 - . 8. + 6. x*-x + 4x -Tx + 2\)y x + 2. + ^by x + b.3)-f 11 =. 5.4x4-11)^0 + 4 (- 3) . + 3x3 -2x* 32x12 by a?-3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 5 (4x . hence (x divided by x 4. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.8'= 0. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.g. The Factor Theorem. a100 -50 a47 4- 48 a2 b. 2 j 7. 43 -3 E.g.228 282. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. -}- 2 by a-1.949. x m is factor of the expression.8. If the remainder is zero. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X - 1) +7 by x - 1 is 6* -3 .

18. -f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.-r-6 = 0. a. p -5^ + 8p 4.-12 = 0. 106 division.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 25. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 2m -5m . 229 1. Resolve into factors 4. + 15. 8. are -f 1.12. -f 15 does not vanish.9^ + 23^-15. The 5. or 5 4 + 3^ .7 x + 15 = 0. 1. or x -4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. -7 2 a? 2 -f 7a?-f 15. 6. i. 1ft : ar*-f 6aj 2 o?-5ar 3 l + lla. a -8a -f 19 a -12. is a factor. a + 32. 21. 9. we obtain 7 - 7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2 - 8 a. factors of the absolute term. m -f m n 14. + 27 + 27. & p*. 11.7 -f -5a 18 divisible by x 2.1. a -2a + 4. 24. 7 4-6 = 0. _ . . x -4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* -f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . -f 5. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 2 2. 15. x8 By dividing by x a?8 -f 1. -f- 3. 5. + tt-t-15 = 0. Let x = . x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.7 + 16 . ^-10^4-29^-20=0. a^-8^ + 19a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 2.1. 20. 3. then x8 7 x'2 4. 17. 3 2 : 7. a? 19.4-9 = 0. oj 5x2 -f3a. 23. 8. a 5x 6. 2o? m -6ra -fllm 6. 8 -}3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 -t- . Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. ^ + 7y + 2y-40 = 0. Factor a? 15.e.13m + 30 10. Therefore x ( 1). 1.

g. actual division n.y n is divisible by x -f ?/. 2." . xn -f. It y is not divisible by 287. If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor 27 a* -f 27 a 6 8.xy +/). x* -f-/ = (x +/)O . The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. is odd. ar +p= z6 e. For substituting y for x. 2. By we obtain the other factors. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 1. : importance. if n is even. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif- * The symbol means " and so forth to. if w is odd. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. 2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. xn y n y n y n = 0. if n For ( y) n -f y n = 0. - y 5 = (x - can readily be seen that #n -f either x + y or x y. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. 286. Ex. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.230 285.

y 3 +8=0. x3 -8=0. 27. 26. 3. as -27=0.= . since it more directly to the prime factors. preferable. Hence = (m Ex.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. a. -f n)(m 2 mn -f w 2 )(wi . leads 231 is The first method. 28.i mn -f w 2).

2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. 290. Hence " / | X y = =} 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. xy x*y -f y = 4 is of the second degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. + 6 a?V . Squaring Solve (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND x-y 291. xy are given. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un- known quantities lead. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. however. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. If two of the quantities x -f y. 232 . of quadratics.y4 is of the fifth degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. x y. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 4 xy = 16.1. the third one can be found by means of the relation (oj-j-y) 2 4 xy Ex. in general. can be solved by the methods degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. x-ywe have 3. = 6. * A I. (4) Hence.

1. ^. ' 10. but can be found. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x -f y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.g. The arranged in pairs. " "' "' { r 8. 233 y. = . 3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. r- (" 1 = 876. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. b=-3. I I x + y=7. 12. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) -2 + 3 = 293. x and xy are not given. the answers of the last example are : r*=-2.

2 (1) From (1) we have. x " (3) 49 etc. 7 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. la. 19. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x -4. + 29 = 0. . aj = 2.a. 5.i/ = r 13.?/ i = 6. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.20) = 0. Factoring. I x+y = a. 6 "I 14. or JJ. EXERCISE Solve : 109 -47/ = 0. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y - 40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. ' ' .o 18. one linear and ne quadratic. - 42 y + Transposing. . - . - f J. Ex. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.~ y = 5. ^ f or* -f 4 xy = 28. I* Jj ^ [. 4 y = 20. 3. or y = 1 . r^ 2 as ] -f. A system of simultaneous equations.

3y) : Factor (2). 8 V-~80 Hence y =1 y . If of the preceding type. ' x*. 1. quantities. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. = 1 3 3. y* + 2y = 3. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 235 - > ' 1 lla 8- 12~ 10 13. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. ':il -e :) . 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.3 2x 2 Ex. 4 f- + 2 y = 3. III. x-2y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. Solve . 10.

= 0. 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar --7aK/4-27/2 ==0. (3) (4) Subtracting. 109 a. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (rc-2/)(llx-5y) 16 xy -f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). Solve 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (1) (2) x x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. j Substituting y in (2). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = Ex. = 0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2. } VI09. 15 x2 . y = 110 f 10^-370^ + 7^ = 16^-7^ .

125 ay = . (4) -(3). ' ^ 15. 150 */2 .!. Division of one equation by the other. ' <"" -=m _ 14 ' &. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices.6.y = 7. Bxy-9. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.3^4-2^=43. f 1 150 a?.xy 4. y? a? -f . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.175 ay = 12. " IV. and others not belonging to them. . E. Solve * + '-* { Dividing (1) by (2). 298. A.

quadratics can be solved by ?/. B. jc~ y = 9. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y = 3|. y . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. = 189. Solve Ex.. Some simultaneous ?/. (1 > (2) 1. x +y y etc.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : faj-y=152. we obtain by squaring. x 2 . * ' 300. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x -. Therefore x = 16. i" <--Vx -f -' unknown 6. from (2). Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4- or But the negative roots being extraneous. i ^ *>. at first it is unknown quantities. 2. xy. we have from (1). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 12 J.

I e. 36* 2. |. 6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 239 Ex. 4. [2x + : y= 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 4-0. M-6. 7. 2. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. F+y+ .

x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.4 y = 47 a. 16. . = y 1 y* . f 18. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . . 27.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6-hy) = 80. = 198. * . 19 ' 26.21 ^ = 15. 25.

= 48201. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. -. . Interpretation . y % 9 f*K 36. 30. etc.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . as a --. 32. oo 301. 25 34. 7' j/ 39. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. or ~ indeterminate. 31. etc 302. -- But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 33. ^ oo . finite - =x y if = x. 3 a2 38.of - According to the definition of division. hence may be any finite number. ~\ OK OO. Q 7. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .

while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.increases if x de- x creases. Or. (a: Then Simplifying.e. equation. (1) = 0. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.242 303. without exception. however x approaches the value be- comes infinitely large. or that x may equal any finite number. as + l. creases. Let 2.000 a. + I) 2 x2 ' -f 2x + 1 -x(x + 2)= . By making x any * assigned zero. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. . = 10. cancel. the answer is indeterminate. be the numbers. it is an Ex. The solution x =- indicates that the problem is indeter- If all terms of an minate. and . Hence such an equation identity. oo is = QQ. 306. and becomes infinitely small.g. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (1) is an identity. TO^UU" sufficiently small. great. (1). ToU" ^-100 a. is satisfied by any number.x'2 2 x = 1. 1. i.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. i. The ~~f fraction .e. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. I. x -f 2. .decreases X if called infinity. 1.can be If It is made larger than number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.

113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. EXERCISE 1. Solve .8 x + 15 6. Solve | 9 7. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. and a. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). The sum is of squares 2890. two numbers is 76. Solve x a. (2). Solve ~o -3 x v ~K -6 x r x 6 4. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. no numbers can satisfy the given system. = oo. 4 -3 x x-5 a2 . * 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2. third and sixth parts. Hence /. 3.e. is their 2. y finite QO. . 42 and' their product is 377. 1=0.2 y = 4. z = 1 Substituting. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. and the sum of Find the numbers.

two numbers Find the numbers. Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. is 6. of a rectangular field feet. p. of a right triangle is 73.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 6.quals 20 feet. Two cubes together contain 30| cubic inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.) 53 yards. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 148 feet of fence are required. and the diago(Ex. equals 4 inches. the area becomes -f% of the original area. 14. increased by the edge of the other. Find the side of each square. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 8. . and the sum of ( 228. Find these sides. Find the other two sides. 10. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 9. 255 and the sum of 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 13. is is 17 and the sum 4. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the edge of each cube. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 12. 146 yards. 103.244 3. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the sides. Find the sides of the rectangle. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 190. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the edge of one. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find the edges.

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. and if the digits will be interchanged. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) 17. irR *. Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. Find the number. . and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. by the product of 27 be added to the number. the quotient is 2. differ by 8 inches. is 20 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.

.. added to each term to obtain the next one. P.. 15 is 9 -f. 19. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. to produce the nth term. . 16. An arithmetic progression (A. 2 d must be added to a. progression. . 10. 309. to produce the 4th term... -4.) is a series. The first is an ascending. series 9. a 3d. a -f d. to each term produces the next term. the second a descending. 12.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. the first term a and the common difference d being given. to produce the 3d term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. The common differences are respectively 4. -f . of the following series is 3.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. each term of which. + 2 d. a 11. a + d.1) d. except the first. (n 1) d must be added to a. a.... The progression is a. : 7. Hence / = a + (n . of a series are its successive numbers.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 3 d must be added to a.. P.7. To find the nth term / of an A. . P. a + 2 d. 11. 3. Since d is a -f 3 d. 17. . and d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.

.-..4.-. -|. 3.3 a = -l. Adding. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 99) = 2600.. .. 5. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. = -2. series . Find the nth term of the series 2. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. P.. . 6 we have Hence . = 99.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 9. a = 2. -4^. Find the 101th term of the series 1.8. Find the 10th term of the series 17.' cZ == . of the series 10.. 8. the last term and the common difference d being given.16. 2. d . = I + 49 = *({ + . .. -24.. (d) 1J. -7.. 5. 2.PROGRESSIONS 310. 6. 5. Find the 12th term of the -4.. . if a = 5. 2 EXERCISE 1. Find the 5th term of the 4. . 19.. 4. the term a. ? (a) 1. 8.- (a + + (a + l) l). 3. 7. ... = a + (a Reversing the order. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 3. 9. 5. -3. 21. 7. P. 6. 8. 1-J. 1. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 5... series 2. d = 3. 1. -10. P. 2J. 6. 3. 115.

6. 18. 15. and for each than for the preceding one. 11. 1. to 16 terms. 13. to 7 terms. -. . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. striking hours only. . . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .7 -f to 12 terms. . '. 29. : 3. 23. P. 7. to 10 terms. 2. to 20 terms. 20.248 Find the 10. . . 11. 7. > 2-f 2. 16. 33. Jive quantities are involved. 3. 1. 31. 8. 12.5 H + i-f -f- to 10 terms. 19. In most problems relating to A.. (x +"l) 4. to 20 terms. to 8 terms. to 15 terms. strike for the first yard. 4. 21. 16. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 12. 15. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 17. 2J. 22.1 -f 3. 15. and a yearly increase of $ 120. hence if any three of them are given. Sum the following series 14. rf. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 7. 1J. + 2-f-3 + 4 H hlOO. + 3. to 20 terms. 1|. 11. \-n.(# 1 2) -f (x -f 3) H to a terms. 11. (i) (ii) .

J = 49. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. P. a = 12.~n~\ 408 6). = 13. 12.6 n). 6 n2 . #. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). the and the sum of all terms 1014. The series is. P. Substituting in (2). n = 6. x= - 4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. or 11 J.PROGRESSIONS Ex. d = 6. hence n = 6. 89. . When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 144. Solving. = 1014. 111. = a + (w. a = 49 -6(71 . l)e?. Find the series. 56. 45. 100. is 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x.6. 1.104 w + 408 = 0. Ex. 133.1). = 1014. . 78 n Substituting in (1). The first term of an A. if s = 204. 2.e. 78. n d. 122. 312. 23. if a. 6.1) . or if x Solving. I Substituting in (I) and (II). = 144. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. But evidently n cannot be fractional. Findn. P. From (1).. 204 = ^ (98 . the second one mean between the other two. and b form an A. I. s 24ft last term 144. = n(104 .. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 204 = ^ (a + 49). 34. 67.

n = 16. Given a = . 6? 9.3. Find a and Given s = 44. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find n. 14. 11. y and #-f-5y. n = 20. a+ and b a b 5. f J 1 1 / . Given a = 1. = 52. Find?. n = 13. = 17. Given a = |. Find d. 17. a x -f- b and a b. s = 70. produced. Given a = 4. 74. = ^ 3 = 1.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. How much did he save the first month? 19. 7. 4. n. ceding one. = 16. Find a Given a = 7. and s. m and n 2. 8. 13. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 78. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. f? . = 83. 10. n = 17. P. I Find I in terms of a. Find d. . I. = 45. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n has the series ^ j . d = 5. T? ^. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 12. = 1870. s == 440. How much . has the series 82. of 5 terms 6. 15. 3. 16. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find w. n = 4.

. 36. r n~ l . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. <zr . (I) of the series 16. . +1. If n is less : than unity. the following form 8 nf + q(l-r") 1 r . P.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 24. the first = a + ar -for ar -f ar Multiplying by r. ar8 r. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 108. . 36.. 12. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. The 314. 24. NOTE. -I. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 4- (1) .. is it (G. 36... |. -2. . rs = s 2 -. The progression is a. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. fl lg[(i) -l] == 32(W - 1) = 332 J. ar. ratios are respectively 3. 4.. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. 2 a.. called the ratio. and To find the nth term / of a G. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4. is 16(f) 4 .arn ~ l .. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). A geometric progression first. of a G. E.g.) is a series each term of which. or 81 315. P.. or.

144. series 5. first term is 125 and whose common . Find the 5th term of a G. 2 term 3. l.. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 288.. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.18. 18. f. a = I. 9. P... .l. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^..4. . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . .. series 6. first 5. Hence n = 7.. 4. 72. 25. \ t series . 36. 6.54.288. 144. Jive quantities are in. I = 670. And the required means are 18. 72.*. 1. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Hence the or series is 0. 9. -fa. first term 4. Find the 6th term of the series J. hence. |. is 16. 0. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.. r^2. 576. .. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/-'. (it. whose and whose second term is 8. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. 3.5. 80.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . +-f%9 % .72.. 9. 144. i 288. 676. if any three of them are given. . 36. . EXERCISE 1. (b) 1. P. . whose . . . P. ? (c) 2.-. In most problems relating to G. . P. -fa. 10. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2._!=!>.18. Ex. .6.5. f... 8. + 5. is 3. series . (d) 5. volved . 36. or 7. P. 7. 20. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 4.

14. s = 310. 12. 48. M. 36. . to 6 terms. 54. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 13. to 7 . 2. s = 605. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 16 . -. a. . Find a and n = 4.i a9 . -J-. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Find the geometric mean between 7. J.-. be written If the value of r of a G. . 42. 126. . 1.. 81. a^. 81. 20. may be than any assignable number. 14.. to G terms. 1. J. I. 243. .. r . 25S series : 32. + 4 . -J. P. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 23. = 3. 24. n = 5. n = 5. 15. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. == 160. >"> -. 72. Given r = n Z 5. 27. Z s.nV> i*> !718. of r n decreases. 21. Find a and Given r = 3. = 3. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less -r^Ex. 12 terms. 19. and hence ~ r . to 5 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.J- and 270.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. is less than unity. 22.-.. to 8 terms. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. 4.-. to 7 terms. Find a and 4.

is 9.3121212-.. 6.717171-. 6. P. P. 9. .254 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 14. . 7. is J. = . I. 2.. ... 3. = . i. .. . 1. .. P. 8. 2. -..27777 .. Hence . first and the common term. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. i i J. .272727-.1. of: 11. 5. 66 Therefore . 16. 1.. The sum r.3 + . . .37272 . of all squares ? . -. ratio 15. If a = 40. 9. The sum Find the of an infinite G. Given an infinite series of squares. 12. -.. and the first term is Find 17.. = 990 .072... 5. . Find the value 9..191919-.......01 ^ . 40.. 12. 1 r = ..99 .555. = a .00072 -f ....3727272 .= . . r = j.Ql. =A+ 10 i. 4. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. . 118 : infinity of the following series 3.= _4Z* .. of an infinite G.072 + .. Find the sum to infinity. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 1. (6) the sum of the perimeters.. 13. 4.)7?7272 ..72. . 8. 1.. . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 10. 100.. is 16... the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 250. 16.

13. /2a+|Y\ 8.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + -^r 18. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .b ). 5. 15. (a + b) . (a-2) 6. 4. . 21. 14. . 16. Find the 3d term of fa -f V -^Y Va/ - 19. : (1 + xy.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 20. . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 28. . 22. (x-y) : 6 . Find the 6th term of (x . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a -f 2 b) . 2 2 24. a4 b 12 in (a -f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 25. coefficient of . (\ 9 . (z2 -^ Simplify 9. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a -f 5) .6) 20 . 7 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. l 2. (s + i).6) . 11.b) w (a (a -f (1 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (a 100 . a6 8 16 in . 10. 29. 26. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 12. 4 7. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 17. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .

3. (c-a)(c-ft)' 4. 3. 2. 24 4. -3. 1. if = = 2. 1. 4. 5. + 2. + 2. 6. 2. 4. ft 4 ) 5. 3.f ac 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. + 1. 5. if y=2j 2. if x^l. a ft c = = 2. 4 *2 - 4 xy - 4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. -1. 5. 3. 2 . 3. 2.a(a 4. -5. 3. 3. 3. 2. 2. -3. 4 (2 a - 13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2 - 38 3. 2. 1. 2. 2. - a)(a 1. 2. 4. 2. 4. 4- ft - c) 2. 3. -3.c )(ft-a) 1. c if 7 . 4. 2. = 2. i (a-ft)(a-c) a 6 (ft. -1. 2. c = = = 2. 1. -3. 1. 3. 3. 2. 4. -6. 3. 5. 3. *=M - M 3J -f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2 (2 a - 3 aft -f- 4 2 ft ). 1. ^+^ 3. 4. 3. 6. + c(a -|- c). 4. if a ft c = = = 4. 1. 2. - 2. 3. 2. 5. 7. . 1. 5. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T -r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. 2. aft 3 + 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 5. 2. 6. 3. 5. (ft c)(c 4- ) 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 3. if = = = 2. 1. 2. 1. 5.] a 2^ aft + -r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. ft) . 4. . - 8 ^ 2. 3. 6. -4 2. 2. 2. 2. 1. l. 3. - 2. y 3. (c 3. -1. 2. 4. -2. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 x-y or -f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4.

5. 21. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 15. .2 x?/.2 z8 4 x. 4 z .\ yz + xz. 15. 4a + 9 a2 - 3 a5 . x3 -f 3 ax'2 .a 4 .8 + 2 // .2. + 1. if a 6 = = c = 3. (5. 1. 20. x = 4.4.2 x2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 10 z 8 12 - 6 2 8. 40. 5. x 2 + - 2 ax* -f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .10. 17. 2. 5. . a 4 + 11 a . 5.5.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .1. c = 3. 18. 16. a: . 4.a) . - 2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/ - 7 y3 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 11 z 4 x4 -12 17. 2 x 8. r> . 21. 3.259 x c) . 4. x 3 11.' 4 x2 2 - 5 z3 8 . x 3 x' 14. 2. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.7 ys. x3 2 a2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . + 8 x4 *y . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . a /> 3. 4 x 4 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .2. 8 . + 2. 4. 25.7 + .c' 2 4 / . 7 xy 3 . . = 2. + 3 y 2* . and 3 y 8 -f 12 z 8 .3 xyz. 2 - + 12 a 8 .7 y 2* 4.a8 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 10.3 a?y . c)(x a} . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 1. + 4. b(x (b 1.2 a?y + 3 aty . ~c)(b. 8.8 3 + 7 x4 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 6.4 yz\ -7xy* + z 3. ' b) + 3. 24.x 5 4 . 2 . 4 y 13.4 x'2 -f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 .r 6 x - 4 xy . c(x (c g)(x 6-) = 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // -f ax'2 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy* - zy + 12 xy* - 4 y4 . or . 2. - a) (c 2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. -f 8. 26. 7y 4 . 7. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 3. 29. a. . + 4 ?y . 41. x C 4 4x y + . 9. 12. 9. a.a 5 a . 2.

sum of . .4 x 8 from ax 2 4- 6 x8 4- 21. a - ft + c. 3 x2 13-3ft-[l7a-5ft^[7fl-3ft-{4fl~4ft-(2a-3ft)}]]. 4- 3 5 y/ . From of 2 the 4.#4-8. 4- 2 x2 23. x8 x2 2 a'2x.(x 4.{G * 2 . 7 x -x the ft 4 x2 11 x.8 3 4. 2 c - 2 a - and 2 a 3 x2 28.4 ft) 4. 35. 29. = x y ft z.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x - 4 x8 22. of a.1 and x 8 G 11 4- 3 x2 + - from G x2 4- x.2 .27~-~7)}].1). . 4- 3 From 44- the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 4- 2 x8 x 4- 4.6T .2 3 ax 2 . c 4ft.[3 if - (3 _^ ft 6- ft -f- c)}] a: .4 Vl 4. and .x . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4- G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 5 4 7 12 . of 2 x 8 4- 4 x2 4- 9 and 4 x . (*) a - c.7. and 7 x a 2x -2 ax'2 4.4.6 x ] . Take the sum of G a8 4- 4- 4 a 2x 4- .(4 x 2 . 54-2 x 2 and ..5 . ft 25. 36. c 4.3 x . c =x y -}~ z. -f ft. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.a ft. 4- 4 4.[4 z 8 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4- .(a . 3 ft.[4 x 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.3. 0" 30. 33. . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. and a ft 4- ft 3 c take - 6 a. .4) . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4- 3 will give 27.2 x 8y2 44 . and d= c c 4- x4-#4-z </.x 4.3 .2 .(4 * . Simplify 31.(5 c .260 19.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 2 x 32.5.2) . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .?> x 4- 20.x .(x* .2 _[5ft-{^ 2 8 4 x* .x2 . . 34. and a 2 ft 4- ft 3 c take sum - 2 c 4- 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 3 4- 5 10 2 - 7 12 .c 4- 3 a. Take the sum of 3 x 4. ft.] 26.n/ 4 4- 12 x 5 4- 4 x?y 4- 2 x6 -f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . take the sum of G x 5 . 7 12 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.x 2 4.c 3 a. 5 10 + 7 .{2 x 2 . Take the sum 4x 4.2 a . [4 I 2a4-7c-(7ft4-4c)-[6a-3ft4 2~c4-4c-{2a-(ft-2T-2)}].1)}] .c. x'2 . : a x .(7 x 4.3 . (/) a + - ft 4- 6 + - rf.c. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4-X-5V14.5 10 b 3 -\- G 11 = ft x4-y4-2. 4vTT~y 3.(5 y . 5 10 4- G 11 4. /- x5 -2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 4 .

5)} + (3 a 2 . 5a-(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 2 -f [3 c 7 a . + *+!){> + 2).c 2 .ac . 62. 2 : 7e)-a}].Z .& + {. (.2)(1 . 57.ab . 49.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).[4 x - 5 .be) (a 58. 45. 50. 2 53.12).[7 a 36 -{4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].7).(2 a + 5 a . + - ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). .(5 y .rf)} + a -[. (1 55.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].6-)}]. .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. . a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 64.[2 . )(l-z a ). 68. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (.1). + 4x + 5)(j.6c) (a + -f c).c).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 2 ft 41.(2 a 2 . 67. 48.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. - 2 a - {3 2x a . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3 z 2 ).{2 a .(7 i + 4 r:) .(6 . 51. 60. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .3~ft -f 2 c + 4 ^ .{2 a -(ft .0)} .2 2 + 1)(7. . 43. (2 x 2 -3 ar+ 1)(3 z -2 x+ 1). 7 a 2 261 -{5 2 a2 -2 a + (2 a 2 i j- 38. .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&-{2c-(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (/> 4 . . (r (1 (a. 63.56. 46.(2 x2 .2 zz .6 xy . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 59. 65. (a:-2)(r-4)(a:-9).4 a . a -{. .(7 a.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (5 a 39.b -(c .3). . 4 + 2 2 + 1).(4 d . 13 a . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .e -'/)}] -(2a + 2b .3 *).3)(*-5)(* -7). 56.{3 c . 2 52.2a . (x .96 -[17 a.a~^~c)K]. 2 2 x + !)(* .5 )}] + {4 c .2c-(V/ .r -2:c+ l)(ar. 'J 44. + 2) - (4 x 2 - 2 x -7)}].2x + 3).(2 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + -*)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 54. (1 -ar+a.3 c)].3c).4 a 2 + a 4 ). (4 + 3a 2 . 3 x 42.JT^T+1)} + (2 . (x.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).2 2 .

1). ar . .c) 2 .(a? 4- y)*(x - y).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) .(/> - 3 v)^(. 2 + a 2 ). (p 2 . .:-y)( a.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).ft) + 4(2 .{3 a .5 .c c 2 4- 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 -f- p ) (w .c)} .2 ft}) -f (3 a . 83.c) j. ft /.(^ 4- y 2 ) - 4 ^/(. 4. ft 8 ft) 4- ft 8 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 85. (a) (a (ft) a8 4- ft 8 4. .(a 2) (s 4- ft.c)]. 73.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).am&t 4- A 2 *).y + z)(x + y .O (a 4(a 4. ft 78.6*y . 94.9y2).3 (ft . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2 - z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a - + l)(a 2 -f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).c . 76.c . 1). Prove the following 8 4.q). xy y 2 ).c) rr identities.(4 . 93.(ft 4.c) .n pc). b 4.(a 48 8 8 4. 70. by multiplying out each 4- side of the equality. 75. -f 72. a(2 + 4- 3ft) 2 -(2a 4- 4- 8 ^) .2 (y 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .z\x 4. 89.x + y + z). 74. ft ft ft a}. 88.3y) a (* 2 4. 84. 77. 92.c) 4) (ft 4.-2y)(. ft" l Simplify 80. 90. 86. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (b-c)(x + ft) (a: 4.ft) 4- .m np c .262 69.r-3y)4-l)y( a :-y)^-2y)4-18 // (2r-y)4-6 8 // . 82.z) . 87.(c 4. (x (x ( + *) . 4- 4- .(x 42 y) O 2 4- y) (^ 44- y ).z)(x -y + z)(. (x 4- 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V) - . O (x (a 2 + 4- y y) 2 a J 4 .c 8 4- 3(6 c)(c 4- a)(n + 2 ft).b 4.y'*4-y 2m )OK --y I)(a m ). + (rtP+i 4- 2 6)(a^+ . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4- 2 2 ^>) c) 44- a2 a8 4- 2 4.<f(p .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 71. (a (2 b)*(a 4.v) 4.y)\x y).a) (a? 4--(c 4- y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).3 a . (. ft 95.a) 2 . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 2 (x 2 . 79.y). a (a 2 -2a + + " 4- l)(u 2a n -f (:r a.r 2 .2 (a . 91.

40 />) . 109.c 4- 6 afo) -f- + ^ 4 ). 120.2 xy 8 . 113. 1). 106. 25 4 .4 aft . [10( 4. 118.*) -(x 8 .2 2% 4. 99 100. 10).y 4 ) .) . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). (80 a 112. 122. 108.&) 8 - 5(a n 4- 2 6) ]- 5(a 4- &) 6 (a 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a -T- (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".27 x* . 117.9 x 2 . -26 (a 4- c).(2 a 2 .y 2 4. 4 (6 x 4- 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. Cr (z -27y -l-9a:y) -(a:-3yy 6 ) -r- 2 (a: 4- xy 4- y 2 ). 123. 20) -*- (3 a* 4- 4 a? + 5). . (20 x* - 4- 72 x 2 - 35 4.b) 98. 116. 110. 103. 2 (a+ . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44- 12 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a - 1).5 a 21 (10 a 4- 5 a*) Qa-f-l^ -=- 5 a*. 121. -r- . .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) ( - 2 2 119.16 a 6 4.r 4 4. (2 y 44- 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4- 3 16 y a 50 4- 48) 2 111. 105.35 x 2 2 ) . a*.(x 2 .1). (2< 107.2y 2 4.(7 xi/ . 4 (a 8 44- 16 a 2 4 4- 256) -s- ~4 2 (a 4- 4a ^ 4- 16).v/ ~ // -=- a: . 124.'30) ~ (4 ^ - 5 x 4- 10).3 a"+ 4.(a 1 2 8 .a".6 y 4 4. (8 x* 115.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 102. (a 8 - 8 68 8 4. 114.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (.xy 4.y 4 . 3*.5 xy). 1O4.5 b*). (4 4 3 a - 4- - 5 a 3 .&). 2 4- 41 x 4a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a - 12).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.

.r + 7[or . .(x . 128. By what expression must x* + G x2 - 4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 7(2 x .12 M 132. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2 - 2 6 2 - 8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .7(4 * . x 147. 5 146. (5a: 150.1) (a? .3).2(4 .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .n . y (* l x. 138. .3).5). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2(10 x .3) = 12 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar- 2 4} = 2(3 x . 10(2 x 141.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 3(2 x 134.18 *&) (1 .3) (3 x 4. 148. . - 9) - 7(0 x a? - 32) + 5 = 4x - 3(2 j - 3). What is the 2 by a*-ab + 26 ? 130.2 7^~5] + 1).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . .a:)]}. (*+ + . . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2 - b* is divided By what expression must a: -f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 149. 3) = x\x .3 a (1 + *- l l 1 3 -f- 2 &).(x -f 9). 137.7) = 4 . 1) . (4 x .2) = 3 . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.5{.2) + 2(ar + 4).2(5 . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.264 125. . 136.3(2 z .9) 4.3 a:). 126. 129. 142. 139.3 x).4(0 x . 127. 4-2(3ar 145.27 a 3" .(1 . 2 4(ar .(x + 3) ] .8 6 . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . o o 140.(9 x + 10) (a: - 3) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3 - G ax z8 - 8 z 8) -5- (1 - a - 2 x).5) = 12(4 x .4) .r>) .G) .7) = (7 x - 1 1) (3 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .(j a? 144.22.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 135.2(j: .1) .19) + 5 = 4 . 5(2 x .4) .2) (a: + 3). 143.9) + 3. -1) = 2(* .

(x (x a. a: ar a. 159.29) 2 = 1. How many 170. 162. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) = (3 x . find the value of F. 155..T)O .? . 164.3) (3 . = 15.1) (s + 3). (3 O + . (a . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 2 4 . + 2) + (5 . The sum What 171.5)(.a:) + 229.14) (a: + 3). Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 163. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. .25) 2 . 154. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 158. 165. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.z) (4 .5(x . + 5) 2 -(4-a:) 2 =r21a:. (2 .8) = (2 x 4. sheep more than the 169. and the third twice as many as the first. = | (F 32).17) 2 + (4 x .6 x) (3 . 166. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.2) (7 -*) + (*.2) (j? + 1) + (x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.4) (a . The second contains 3 first. 5(ar x . 157.7) (1 x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 153.24.1) O + 4) = (2 * . .5) = (3 . (a) If C. will produce F. + 4) (2 x + 5). transformed into F.76.7) (a. + 10) (ar .5*) + 47. If the area of the frame inches.l)(z . 160. (7 14 .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2) a + 7(x . + 5) = (9 . .(5 x . .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.2 x) (4 .3) (j. f-^ + ^s-O.2 x) = (1 .5 x) = 45 x .3) (3 . = 2 C.2).9) + (a. . 156.r + 3) . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. these two angles would be equal. 265 152.3) (a: .19) + 42. 161.3)(* (ar 2 7) - 113.

x* 185. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 189. same result as the number diminished by 175. 10x 2 192. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 2 2 + a _ no. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 188. power one of the two Find the power of each. 12 m. father. + a. -ll?/-102. +x- 2. Find the dimensions of the floor. two boys is twice that of the younger. 181. side were one foot longer. 3 gives the 174. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 4 a 2 y-y -42. How many are there in each window ? . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3.-36. . 187. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 15 m. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row.56. was three times that of the younger. A boy is father. 190. 178. 180.266 173. A house has 3 rows of windows. . 7/ 191. sister . 179. number divided by 3. and 5 h. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. Find the number. younger than his Find the age of the father. z 2 -92. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. . + 11 ~ 6. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 13 a + 3. if each increased 2 feet. respectively. z 2 + x . dimension 182. A each 177. 186. 176. train. and | as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. aW + llab-2&.

z 2 -2. x* + 8 2 + 15.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .22 z + 48. 4 -f yx* + z*x + z*y. a 2 . 216.6 aq . a+a* + o a +l. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. -11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . . . . 4a 2& 2 241. wiy + la mx + aw. x 5 . # 2 - 29 y + 120.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . . 267 199. 8 -a. 195.6. + 2 . 238. 227. x*y 223. a: 231. *2 234. 2 a 8 . + 30 x. 212. 2 .19 a . 232.x + 1. if-W-y+b. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 2a te 3% ly 247. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 210. 239. 7a 228. 221. a: 4 - a: 2 a: V 2 . 9a-4a6 (a 2 + b . 3 ap 2 . + 198. (a + . 213. 233. + 3a 196. a. 2 x 2 . 202.6 2 ?/ . 224.20 z 8 a: 220. .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a a: a: 237.xm y + xym - + (a c) - (c rf) 242. 217. a. y 2 194. 244. a. 8 a: ar.c) 2 . 211. 229. a^a 226. 3y 2 + ary . 2 2 y -f 1.6s. 206. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .10 xy.c) 2 - (a . 201.3 xy. 14x 2 -25ary + Gy 2 3 x* -x 2 .r?/-f y 2 -9. 230. a.19 z 4 204. 3 x 2 . 2 - 5 xy 13 y a. -23 -12.64. a: 236. 218.28. 7x 2 225.21 a: - 54. 5 x 2. 246. 235.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 203. 2 200. 209. 208.12 * .3 c/> + 6 cq.10 y a x* . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 222. 24 2 + 2 .6 y2 + 4. 3y 248.(b + rf) 2 . 207. 6 197. 4 m +^. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 3 x V .8 6 2. 12 x +4. x 219. 215. xm+l 243. + 8. 2 a 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y .10. 16x 4 -81. 245.1. a: . .14 2 . . 60 a 2 - a: // 205.77 y + 150. z + 5x 2 .

15 # 2 z/ /.1 9 . 261. 30 ^ .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 270. z 2 267. 6.&z.7 -f 5.4 ab + 1.13. . + 23 x -f 20.3 abc .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .9 x . 5 x 2 256. + 8.a + 2 4. C.10. * a .(55.4. 3 ay 4. 2 a. x 2 -f 9j: + 20.11 a 2 . * 2 . 2 .6 by.3. + 20 x 4. 2 z 2 -f 13 x + 1 5.8.15 + 30.9 x + 14. 8 2 + 10 x .G7 x -f 33. 254. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 1 x- ar Find the L.2 aft*.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 -7 .ry -21. 264. : x2 4 a: ~ + a.10 a 4. F. + 3 x + 2.120. 2 x2 . z 2 268.a 2 />c 2 -f 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a -5y>+4. x 2 + 2 x . 251.2/ 2 .ry . * 2 . a: .36. x 2 263.r .73 xy .3 x . 265. x 2 + 4 + 3.14 bx a%% 8 . 252.80. a. _ 40 y 2 272 -f -f- 2 !8a: .M.91. Reduce to lowest terms 271. a 3 a 2 2 . of: 253. x 2 4. + 8 x + 5. ^2-7/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a? a: a: // 262.11 x -f 28. of: 266.C. 257.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 3 a% 2 . 28 2 -f 71 x . 2 + 7 r -f 2.x .16 x . 260. * 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x 2 + 5 -f .2 z .23 x -f 20.r + a# + az -f 2 6z fry 4. 2-2x2 a. x* . x 2 . ft a. 7 12 2 2 . G(x+ -|- l)'\ 9(x 2 - 1). x*y* 4. 2 8 .23 + 12. 259.5 ab -f 2. 3 #2 255.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . x* . 269. 7 ax 250. -I- Find the II. 18 x 2 .48 afy 2 . 10 a. 258.18 xy + 5.15.12. 10 x 2 . a 4.9.

m 4. - 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' -8x+8 ' 278.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4- 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^ - ?/.(y 2 z) * t (j. 285 z4 n* + a. -9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x -f *2 ar + a .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2 - a: 2 ) m 288 ' . *2 " 2 + Og-e..REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269 - 6 a. a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 8 . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 -f sa .J' 4- 2 2 w mp .!/.. 289 ' .rL.ar 1 279. y)' z2 283 t- 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2* + 3 x* 280. + ac .2c a: 282. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2 - 4 - ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .

Lnl + ar 2 a. x 7. + 19) 2Lz| + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *-3 a +7 300. a? __ + -*_ + + -la?-la? * a l 303. a (: a) (x 2. X2 (c-a)(a-i) 1 x2 4- (a- +9 i_ 20 a . 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: -2 a: 2 -2 a: - 17 a:-2 ar-3 x 2 -5a:-i-6" . O(c-a) 306. ^_2*(m 308. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a -f e) 304.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. * 19 23 19(23 -23. 4 3 301. ^. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .

Dx x(l *) * 8(1-*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .*) + * 2) 321 - c) 2 . ._ '(a-6)*-(a:-r)a 323.ft) 2 322. 2 + y 2 319.- 1 x2 + + a. (1 .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1a: + y a. 1 _. ( ft-c g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. . a: 1 313. _ x8 -. } .. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 -9*+ 20 *2 - 8* + 15 315.(a . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.2 1 -f 1 + : *2 1 - 2 x' 316. (a? 4- 2) 317.

250 5 10 2 325. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .5 a . 2 a2 - 2 a - ' 03 i^+^T- 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 -i- + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x - 3. .V - + y - x 3y a .2 +lOar 2 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.9 *// + 27 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.15 -33 . 2 -lOx 5x.y 2 x (a?-4y) 3(2 x - ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: -f zy + 4 y* . a: 2 x* . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.28 8 2 - 11 2 + J?_ x fl^-^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a - 4 6~7** 27^-12^7 . z2 - 4 x - ^ "" 12 *. 20 44 333. ./ - 3 y - 6 ( 331 g gy ' -f a 3y ~ 6 q - 9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4-y+ 15 ^e - 10 6y 332 3 a: +lly-10 4 xy -8 2 - a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.ll.B ~ 1037 - 329 4 a.y-20 - 2y + 4 2 . -* 3a.6* t 328..

a>74 . 338. 348.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. : 1+ i--.. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. 278 C | ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q | q c 6 *| \ : f 1 \ - { 337.y. 352.+ r . (a \ + lV. \x yj 340. (a-Wi + iJ. Simplify : 353 ^-3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. + ni + -. (a-f2/. 5 343. xi 347.1V. a: 349 _ o. ( 342. ** -i. aj 339. 1 345. 344. ?_2 ^ .) 2 . f V. + l + IV.r -5 2 . ' 2 -"l 5 . if a = 3. \5yl 341. w \. +^ a: y x . (ar \ 346. fl-. 7 ( -?-f!?.

ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 -f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>-3) 356 fl V ___ _/| 2(*-l)J + ya xl x 1-* YTx 2 1-10*W*-1 1-** JUa-l + xy 357. _ + l a 359. (a a b y-x c yabc 361. I - I -f 366. y360. a2 4- . (~ 364. + x x a .

370 ' 1 (-/')(&-o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2 - m 373 "1*7 374. \b* + c* b + b b*-c*)^ c ^\ b (b* -f c*) } c 4- c a b .

2(3 x |(x + 4) + 10) + 1 |(x + 7) = 0. ^ . + 1) 45 O 377. 4(* .*-2 = 15.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear-7 + i3JTo^ . . 5 {2 x 381. 1 + 16ar_63 -24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5 - 14(ar-l) 18 105 390. -3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.^-^ + x -f o 51) +2J = 0. # k 1 _j- j a: 2 a: 3 383. r 1 - 3(* + 1)} ! ' . 379. 20 iLf-5 + !*=! = 2 J. J !__7. . __4 2x 3_ = !. 8 - 376. + 6)+ - -(* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^-\:) / 380. <3 378. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 -7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 5*-8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^ - 10 x-f x - 382.

JLg:== 7wa: c c -}- -q. 397.5 1 -f 1 x - 2 = x . "i 2 3737-0 ^ x i x x + 1 a? - R - 7 ~r * 1 a.25. a. l)(x - a) (a: - 3) 42 3(4 * - 2)(ar + 1). . n a 4O5 b b x f -(a: - a) + a-(a.1 .147. + 4 a. - ft) = 2(ar - ) (a. 399. b 404. ^ (a . u '2 a. - 8 9* x ~r.25 x + . ____-_ .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.6 - . c . . a:- a)(a: - &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. (x ~ a)(x -f 6) -f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 x =r -f . 401. m x 398. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.75 x -f . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 3* 177..8 = .2 a: - 1. 396. 40.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. -f 1 1 + a 403. (8 x - 3) (x 2 - 1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x - 5). - J)..5 ^ ~ a: a.6~a: 7 _ x -8~a. 400.

hour. - a) -2 6 2a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .(5 I2x ~r l a) . 418 ~j-o. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Tn 6 hours . far did he walk all together ? A .c) . -f a x -f x -f c 1 1 a-b b x 415. 420. (x -f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z - b) = a 2 alb = a (x -f b)(x 2 . (x . How long is each road ? 423.278 410. 18 be subtracted from the number. 2 a x c x 6 -f c a + a + a + 6 -f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(c rt a)(x - b) = 0. In a if and 422. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. a x a x b b x c b _a b -f x 414. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 411. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 421. the order of the digits will be inverted.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. and was out 5 hours. Find the number.

and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the mean proportional to 429.49 63).REVIEW EXERCISE 424.a 2^ 8 + aft* . if . 435. Find the fourth proportional 426. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. : If is one equal 434. a - t>. y. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .2 (a + &*) (a -h & ) = (a ) (a -6). x 427. 428. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a-26):(3o-46). Which ratio is greater. a + 5.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . b.6 8 ). When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 432. z2 - y\ x* -xy + y*. 431. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 433. 438.& 5 ) (a 8 .46 2): (15a 2 . If a b : =5 n : 7. 2 2 8 2 . a. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. ax is -\- by - ex + dy. find : a : c. find the angles of the triangle. |.iand 22 22 -I a . Solve 436. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. d. : i. . z 2 y. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. a8 -f 2 ab -f 6 2. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^- - miles. wi* + y= ny. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 430. . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 3 and 1J. Find the length of the parts.

33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 2 (3 a + 2 ab - 8 ft) : 2 (5 a -f 4 ai - 12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a - 6 ft). 21 7 = 27 + Op. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 5#+ 10 = -27 a. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3 - ) 19(a - &). 28 = 5 a .59 = 3 z. 443.11 y = 95. ox -f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. ?/ 447. 7jr-9y = 17. 7a?-y = 3. 5 2 = 7 . ft. 454. 457. 16. 459.r-f-2# = l. 453. 15ar = 20 + 8y. a: a: + 5y). 450. . . 448. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 7 442. /) ar a. Find the value of a. c. Solve the following systems: 441.(or |-l(*-2y)=0. ft. . 3 .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.55 y = . 452. . 9ar-7# = 71. 1(3 | a. 9/> = 2 . a: -2y= = 1 .11 7. 444. 42 = 15y + 137. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 3 a. 8 x + y = 19. 456. + 5y = 59. a. x + 17 # 53. if 2 ft : 439.89 = q.3 y = 3 5 -f 7 . 446. 56 + 10y = 7a. 451.. 445.4 12 .*. 455. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.7 y = 25. 5z-4:# = 3. 7 a: . 4 = 5 y + 29. 5x+4y=lQ. 458. 8 . The volumes If their diameters. />(.35. = 25. 449. .

7. 468. (or .REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 465. ax by = c \ 472. 473.?/ + 1 . ^ + i^ = 7.2y)- (2 = 2J. + ey-n. --i = 5.+ -=2. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. i- 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. x y 474. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 8 461. -_ & +y 3 dx+frj- c\ . _ 469. car = 4- rf cte - ey =/. ax cx by = m.. - = 2.c=56-3y. 475. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.

Find their ages. A number consists of two digits 4. the Find their ages. Find the number. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. age. Find the sum and the rate of interest. by 4. 483. and in 18 months to $2180. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. to . Find the principal and the rate of interest. 487. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . whose difference is 4. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and the other number least. years. fraction becomes equal to |. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and in 20 months to $275.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. How much money less 484. 479. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j| 478. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. . 486. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A spends \ of his. Find the numbers. Find the fraction. 485. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 477. 481. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction.

a: + ?/ 2z = 15.-5#+2z = $x a: G. 494./ -f z =a. 8. 490. of two the sum of the digits also if number.z = 12. 3 a: + 5=84. 495. 489. 493. 2 a. x s + y z = 18J . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2 2 = 41. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. --\ . 30 -2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=-9. 1. 7 -4#+ 3z = 35. 4 506. + # +z= 35. . 496. 3ar 503. i-f-i = x a. . 5^ 9z = 10. a. a: 499. 1+1 = 6. 492. z y x 25 . 2y + 3a = ll. y Solve : x +z= 5.? + 2y = 8. * + 425 - = . . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . a: + // = 11. 2/>-3r = 4. *i. 2y + 2z = a: 2. . and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: -f z = 79. a./ 504. 4 497. 7. = 15. 2a:-f 7. 5 + a. 2 e. : Solve the following systems 491. 7 + 2 z . x y -f z = 13|. 3 x 500.z = 20. -f- + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 498. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. ~ 507. + y 5 y = 101 . = 209. 4z+3z = 20. a number . z y i-fi = z x 502. = 20. x -f y -f z 29| .REVIEW EXERCISE 488.

i=a + 6 c. 517. + + 3579 2+?. ll" . + : = 1472. 36 + c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3a-f& + r. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 523. z z- =3a-&-c.

N. M. CD. 530. it separately ? 531. if and L. E 533. What are their rates of travel? . and BE. 527. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . When weighed in water. AB=6. AC in /). BC = 5. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Find the present ages of his father and mother. 90. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. if the number be increased by Find the number. Find the numbers. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. . B and C and C and A in 4 days. How long will B and C take to do . Tf and run together. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. in 28 minutes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. it is filled in 35 minutes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. if L and Af in 20 minutes. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. In circle A ABC. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 532. the first and second digits will change places. If they had walked toward each other. touches and F respectively. L. and CA=7. they would have met in 2 hours. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528.

If to feet is the length of a seconds. - 3 x. b. of Draw a graph for the trans- The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. . x* - 2 x. 546. d. The values of y. 542. 548. i. x 2 + x. from x = 2 to x = 4. The greatest value of the function. if x = f 1. x *-x + x + 1. x*. 2|. One dollar equals 4. 545. GERMANY. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. - 7. 3 x 539. 2. FRANCE. 2 541. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 2 x + 5. 547. - 3 x. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. . Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 550. x 2 544. 536. 543. to do the work? pendulum. e. z 2 - x x - 5. the function.10 marks.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. formation of dollars into marks. 540. a. The values of x if y = 2. then / = 3 and write = 3. x 8 549. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.e. 2 - x - x2 .3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . + 3. c.

+ 10 x . r?.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a. c. J.' 2* + Z - 4 = 0. 572. x 5 .17 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. x 2 ~ 2 .11 = 0.9 = 0. 2 567. . 3 x . z 2 . 568. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.1 = 0.r a: a: x- a. g.r -1 561.3 x . - 2 1 a: a.3 = 0.5 x . ' = 8.= 0. h. Solve 552. 15. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 562. 3 . 563.G . f. and make the unit of the b. 565. \ to t = 5. 564.11 x* + + 2 8 569. Represent meters.4 . x* . Solve// = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. c.0.6 + 3 .r .13 = 0. + 5 . a. if y =m has three real roots. 2 a. 2 x 2 560.4 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 556. 566. . 18 x - 4 = 0. 3 + 3 z . 2. 555.3 x . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .= 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*-"2x-7 = Q. 558. x 4 . 553. a. 2 8 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 554. . a? 4 x . a: 559. e. z 4 .7 = . 557.15 = 0. i. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. If y +5 10.4 x 2 + 4 . = 5.3 . 3 x* . j.

2 6a: + 30 &c a. x [ ?/ 577.%) 4 (aa. 588.frf : 583. + ^) + (air-%)8. [ y =10. 5 a*. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . + . a. <r)3 - 2 3 a:) . a: -f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 600. + %) (a* + *) 5 .4 8 -f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 -f (a 1 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 596.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 598. 579. x + z2) 8 . 4-8 xf + a: 4 - 04 aty 6 a: // 16 -2 605. + + 4 . a:.2 2 + y. a: -f ~+ x [ 10 ^i - 1 V 6x + 4 --+ 610. (a-iy. (a.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) -f (2 -3 x + -f. 1 . 582. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 9 - 4 fSb 607.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA |4. -f ?>) 3 591. 3 . j^-f = 3. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x -f 13 2 . 585 594. 4 . 608. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 599. a 2a. jj+. : y* or 25. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . f-MV -- 586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 589.-4. 2 - 100 aW + 100 aW. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 609. 2 + -f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac - a6.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2 611.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y -4 a: 10 2 + x^f .x + 2 )'2 601. -f ^s_ 14 a 4/.o 2 [ ?/ > 3' - 578. . {f_7l j? 2* + |''. a: . 3 (f-. 592. 4 (1-a:) 3. . (a - 8 ft) .-5 xy = 0. 597. 593. - 128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. xY.(1 . (1 (1 (1 . 2 - 2 aa: 2 . (# 2) . a 8 606. 4 a. (1 + x a. 64 a 12 603. 604. 2 943 +-+ -~-bx.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 6 + 1) . 595. a 612.

ft . GGff. 633. + 54 'x*y* .448 z + 1120 a: 4 - 1792 x* + 1792 2 . 647t x 2 648 649. -f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 628. x 2 641. 644. 2 + 189 z = 900. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 2 + 21Ga. : 5. 620. 615. 210. 49. a- 642. 9g.150. -f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 49042009. = . (x 9 x 646. 629. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.V250 . 639. VOIOOD + V582T09. V 635.1024 x + a: 256. 7) 2. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 632. 643.2.15174441.30. 626. 40. 636.53 x ~ .2410. 494210400001. 614. 3a. find Jupiter's period. x 2 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 622. = 70. 32 631. 624. = 0. *+* = 156. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 24 a 2 4 . 623.871844. 651. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s - 108 afy 616. x 2 -f x ~ - 16 = 0. 637. 371240.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 25023844. 942841. Find the eighth root 617. 21. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 4J.\/4090. = 87. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. V950484 . 44352. 0090. 634. 2.12 a?y + y*. /. According to Kepler's law. + 2 -21 x = 100. 4 289 of : 4- 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 9a.191209. 630. 625- : 621. 650. 8*' + 24* = 32. 638.*. Find the square root of 619. + 112 a 8 .49. 035. 4370404. a 8 of: - 8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2 - 50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4 - 50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 645.

290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .

696. ex -a-b-c= fx 0. 707.ax .c = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b - ~ " x 690. 695. 706. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 697. 699. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. . 692.a a )jr .2V3:r 2 V5 a: -f + fa + 1 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 -2a. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 694. 693. . 2 ' 3 2 a:) - 28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :c-f 1) = 42. 1 + V* -2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ -6a:x2 8 701. 2 702. 708. ax 2 698.bx .2 a(l + & )z -fa 2 (1 ax + to -f ru: 2 . a. 1 __ : )'*' _i. = 0. 2 2 .

a: 713. 724.44#2 + 121 = 0.l + 8 -8 + ft)' (J)-* (3|)* + (a + 64- + i. . 16 x* . 727. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. ___ _ 2* -5 3*2-7 715. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 217 . 3or i -16 . and working together they can build it in 18 days. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0.25 might have bought five more for the same money. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. A equals CO feet. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 12 -4*+ - 8. Find two numbers whose 719. **-13a: 2 710. 717. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16 | 25 a2 711. How shares did he buy ? if 726. sum is a and whose product equals J. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. Find the price of an apple. 723. 729. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 716. 725. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 2n n 2 2 -f-2aar + a -5 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 722. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 721. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.292 709. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.

1 -6. . 38. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).-l). -f- + M 6* -f 6) (a* U*") -4- a*6^ (<i* &*). 37. (64 x~ + 27 y -r- (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 -f c" ). 52. (x* 2 a M+ -f a8) (x* - 2 aM" a). 32. (v/x). 36.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. + - - c* + 2 + ^ + cb-f 44.2? 50.2 ).)(a-i + &.2)(x2 4.X .1 -f ^ 2). 31.aft* 1 + a 2*. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y -f- y*) * + -* (x* - y*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (x* (i* (a-2 (a(1 1 4 d*). (4 a: 2 - 12 x* 28 x + 9 x* - 42 x* + 49)*.aM ?n^n^ -f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 43.2 d*m* + 4 d-)(w* + 2 rfM + . 42. 40. 35. 39. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 293 (y* (a* + -f y* + y*+l)(y*.1 + x.1 + c. 34. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .- 1 + l)(>r 2 - -i + 1). 41. n. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + &-2)( a -2_ 1 j-2). . 46. 33.

JU. 757. 759. 2-V2 2-V3 . 754. ~ r* x ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2^3(^-2^21 + 4^-3^:0. 761. \/G86 v/lG-v/128. 768. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.1+J 756.. [1r^ T 1 i . 4\/50 4- SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8 - 760. 758. vff + V^~ 4^ -2^/2 776.294 753.

.12VIT.VlO. 806. 16 + 2V55. 786. 790. .2 V30. 787. 794. Va 809. 13 799.2V3* ^ 807. 793.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 -f 780. c 792.4 V(j. 9-2VI5. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. a 94-42V5. 103 788. + 2V21. 789. . 87 ac + 6t - 12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 10 785. x 782. 14 791. -f x Va z Va -f x + Va a. 38-12VIO. 3J- . 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7 - 3 V'5 ( 2 4 7-3V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4 | 5 . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 783. . 75-12V21.

4 = 0.V? = 813.13 = 0. 819. 815. 833. + Vx . + ViTli + V7 .g. 831. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor-7 = V25 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar -2 Vx -f 1 834. 829. + 10-3Var. 812. VaT+lJ -f ^l . V3 -f 1 V4a. V14 a. -f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 3 x + 2 . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2y-x 2)* and 1. 811. - 5 + V3 -f 12 817.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~-K5 + V5.V-c^lJ .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .\/2y - 810. \/12 a. Va: + 28 -f + V9 x . 836. 816. 830. (x a: 2 ) 4 . /9ar a: = 17. 814. 820.V2 ar 10. 818. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. x/aT+l .-f 5 = V5x + 4.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.79. Va: . = 1.

a. 8 + 4- 4 ar 2 2 a. 40 x 2 7 -f 49.x*y + 3x -f 2. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 5 x* -f 297 9) 11 x . 852. . y 4. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 16 859. +3 -4 + - 4. 844. a. x 6 x4 -f + + a: x -f 1. -64. 2 -f 2 18a: -f + 16.3 Va: 2 . 275 8 -l. 855. x 11 a^ -J- 13 854. + . 4o. z*y 8 l-64a.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x -f 5 = 7 . a 18 4. 729 867. a 8 850. -8a: 2 4 -f 8 a: + 2 19a. . 839.1. 4 x 8 858. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 868. 8 . 2 -f" + a/ 15. .1000 6.12\/(ar4-4)(5z~ = 36. 871. 863. 853. . 6. a*" & 6n . a 8 869.28 a 4 xy 8 80.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a: 849. a. x 8 2 857. 840. 2 a: 64 y*.ab9 ft*. 870. 27 y 8. a. 8 8 848. + 1. 4 a: 2 842. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 2 x 3. 865. 861.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a l0m . 8^-27^. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 8 860. + 512 y8 874.3 x . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. -f 841. a 8 873. a. a: . 864. 8 4a: 8 a. 8 a.a. 8 -2a. 876.3 . 64 a 866. 4 a. 875. 9. 846. 6 2 -f 3 6 s.3 a:. . 4 x* 847. a. 845. 27 862. 8 8 - 13 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.10 x -f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .-12. 856. V4 x 2 . x 4 + -f 2 a. 851. - 3x a. 19 x 14. -f 12.10 = 118. a 872. -f b**.

1 = 2 a#.y 2 + V(j. y 2 2 8f. y 2 4.Vi' + 1 1_3. 899. 1 x 893. a:y . 901. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a.5 xy + 4 f = 13. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx -f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . 3 x 2 .y 2 = 2 y + 2. x*-xy. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. -f- a: a: 4 ?y = 481. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y*+ xy . x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + 2 f = 17. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + -f ary + y = 37. y y 2 y 2 1-1-21. 2 = 2 + 5. 889. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y = 28. 2 2 = 16 y. 895. 2 + xy = 10. a: a. 5. x 882. 886.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. z 2 898. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + xy = 28. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . -. +y -f y = 7. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a# f + xy = 126. 885. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a: 888. a: + y 2 = 34. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 878. M1 891 1 . 2 .18. 896. a: 884. xy + y = 32.y 2) = 20. a: 2 897. 887. + ary + 2 = 37. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x - 880.298 877. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a. 890. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.xy + y 2 = 19. 900. . 2 + y 2 . + 2y=\2. 894. . x a: l-I = xz . --. a. -f ?/ a: a: . 883.sy = 198. 2 -f ary = 8 + 3. 2 .15.

x) = 21. 906. 914. 910. 907. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 4 (a.#y + 2 = 27. x -f 2 a:y = 32. Vary + y = 6. y 3 2 2 922. + ary = a*. 2 2 2 916. (a.23 = 200. (!) * . x 2 ry + y = 3. ?/ ^: ^-f!i^2. .y) = 33. ary y = 8.16 y 3 8 = . (0 Vx -f 10 -f v^+T4 = 12. y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. ^ 2 . ny ft- ma: = * a 2 m*. y # 2 2 -f -f y = 84. (3 x . y + a:y = 180. 908. 2 915.2 y) = 49 2 919. 3 -|-y 8 ) =1216. . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 909. 7 + 4 y -f 6 ary = 0. + ?/) . + 2 a:y + = 243.y2 = 22. 911. (o. + a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 3 :r(3 . 2 + y = 2 a 4. xy + x= 15. a o o- 2 j + a:y = 2. 23 x 2 . a: * a: a: ar 928.y = a(ar + y). a: y zx 12. + y = 9.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 921.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. * + y = 444.6. = 8. 9 -f 8 y -f 7 ay/ = 0. # + xy + y = 7.y). or or a? a: a: . x + y}(x + y) = 273. 923. x + y 2 = aar. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. a: a.3(* + y) = 6. 2 2 -f 4 a: ar// or -f- a.y) (3 y . 7 y .3)2 = 34. -f y 2 x 2 y = 1.r a. x* + ary -f y 2 = 9.y) (a? . 912. (* 918. xa 903. 917. yz = 24. + y 8 = 189. a. 920. + y)(a. 2 913. 2 5 xy = 11. *y . a:y xy 929. 905. 2 924. 2 y 2 -f ay/ = 16.3) 2 -f (y . 2 * 2 ~ g. + 2 ary = 39. y x 2 = by. . x 4 299 xy z 904.

(3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. a second rec8 feet shorter. (y + *) = . A plantation in rows consists of 10. + z) =108. two squares is 23 feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y( 934. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. diagonal 940. = ar(a? -f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. Assuming = -y. two squares equals 140 feet. How many rows are there? 941. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. rate each man ran in the first heat. is 20. A and B run a race round a two-mile course. and the sum of their areas 78$. two numbers Find the numbers. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.102. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. feet. *(* + #) =24. Find the numbers. If each side was increased by 2 feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. + z)=18. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 943. Tf there had been 20 less rows. 942. A is 938. and 10 feet broader.300 930. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 34 939. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 935. 2240. 944. 937. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. find the radii of the two circles. feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B.000 trees.square inches. s(y 932. is 3 . is 3. 931. 152. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. In the second heat A . . The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and also contains 300 square feet. and the difference of 936.

at Find the his rate of traveling. and if 594 be added to the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet. whose 946. . and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. . The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find in what time both will do it. 952. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . A and B. P and Q. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. unaltered. and its perim- 948. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. that B A 955. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the digits are reversed. 950. set out from two places. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. What is its area? field is 182 yards. and travels in the same direction as A. 949. Find the eter 947. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. 953. Find its length and breadth. Find the number. 951. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. overtook miles. sum Find an edge of 954. is 407 cubic feet. each block. triangle is 6. distance between P and Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and that B. Two starts travelers. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet.

J. Find an A.V2 . -^-1 + V-j 1 2 - . 36 963. Find the sum of 4. Find the Find the common 977.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4- 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 964.>/) to infinity. 972. 12434+ j I 967.-. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). and 976. 4 4- to 7 terms . P. 974..302 956. 966.1 4- f -j$V . P. Sum to 20 terms. the terms being in A. s - 88. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x-(x 2 4 y 2} 4.. to infinity.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Sum Sum to infinity. are 29 and 53. 9th and llth terms of an A... to n terms.. 4.141414. (x 4- to n terms. + (iiven a + - 4 d . 971. P.. Find n -f (ft) .-. = 4. ^ 1- . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. Evaluate (a) . f + 1 .. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. to 7 terms. 18th terms of an A. n to n terms. 1G series .. !Ll^ + n . \ . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 5. 969. ^ Vfirst five 959. Find n. 957. fourth of the unity. . .321? 965. 975. Sura to 24 terms..x*(x 3 -f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 5. . 16 962. x(x to 8 terms. (to 2 n terms).4-142 . . P. : + -f 24 21 24 4-f 32 36 1G 10. 961..3151515. 1 to n terms.to infinity. 3 + 5 7 + -. '. difference. - 2. 3 ..454. 970. 958.. *" 968.v 973...

is 225. and the common difference. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.+ lY L V. 992.. 985. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.001 + . to infinity may be 8? . 2 grains on the 2d. 4 grains on the 3d.001 4. "(. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chess-board.. P. The sum 982. named Sheran. Find the sum of the series 988. and so on. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.--- : + 9 - - V2 + . The 21st term of an A. P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. 990.. 986.-. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .1 + 2. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. to n terms.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.-. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. to 105? 981. 980. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. 1. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .2 . and of the second and third 03. 5 11..01 3. Find the first term. Find n. Find four numbers in A. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7-! v^5 . first 984. . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and -.3 ' Find the 8th 983. of n terms of an A.) the last term the series a perfect number. 989. Find four perfect numbers. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.04 + .. P. to oo. 0. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 987. 303 979. The term.

in this circle a square. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 994. and so forth to infinity. and G. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 1001. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. many days will the latter overtake the former? . (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. c. (6) the sum of the infinity. in this square a circle. P.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. ABC A A n same sides. If a. 1003. are unequal. The fifth term of a G. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . at the same time. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 995. ft. (a) after 5 strokes. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The sum and sum . P. Two travelers start on the same road. inches. of squares of four numbers in G. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. is 4. prove that they cannot be in A. 999. find the series. 1000. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 512 996. . 998. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. AB = 1004. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. areas of all triangles. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. are 28 and find the numbers. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 997. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The sum and product of three numbers in G. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day.

. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 .o/) 14 . x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of 1013.-i-V 2i/ 5 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Write down the 1 5a - 6 |V . 1011. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the coefficient a: X ---- \88 1 in 1019.l) w -f . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 2 ) 5. (1-2 #) 7 . Find the middle term of ( . 1014. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of - *)". coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 -7 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. (1 1018. Expand - 2 a. . 1008. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .ft) 19 . 1006. a: 8 7. 1009. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). ) 1021. Find the middle term of 1020. + lQ . 1012. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the fifth term of (1 - a:) 1015.

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37.... 129. .. .. .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . 9 ** . 232 mean progression . ....210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 232 169 807 .. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . Brace Bracket Character of roots . 19. 123 .. quadratic . .... 246 91 " multiple. graphic tion of representa- . 129 54. ... .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. lowest ratio " '* .. . .178 Completing the square ....130 . simple simultaneous . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . Aggregation.193 11 . 97. .. .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. . . Checks Coefficient 20.... . . . .. linear literal Common ** * difference .. 8 . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 -10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 112 54 54 251 . 158. . . ... 9. t 53 120 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .. 54.] Abscissa Absolute term . ...... .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.108 160 " . . numerical . . . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . signs of Algebraic expression .

178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 42 7 Independent equations Index . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 109 102 . Like terms Linear equation .. . Insertion of parentheses .154 Order of operations " of surds . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. ... inversely 122 numbers . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . 45. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . P . 63. 23 10 91 102. L. 45 Laws of signs . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 114.108 Minuend . .. 205 . . 241 123 geometric . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . 84.105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. . Geometric progression . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . . . . Known numbers . 180. 184 54. first and second . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. . .. 91 . 17 65. Negative exponents 11 . . 34. exponent . numbers .C Multiplication . 195 33... arithmetic . 189.. 120 Member.. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 243 7 . . directly. . . . 253 28 70 1.31. .808 Exponent Exponents. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 45. . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 227 . Imaginary numbers . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .. Mathematical induction . Inconsistent equations . G. 112 . 143. . . .. addition of " square of .251 Graphic solution of simultane.. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . INDEX 8 . 227 geometric . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 9. 212 .. law of Extraneous roots . Product '* 76 Infinite. .

. 129. . 4 155 9 " of . 27 17 Unknown numbers . . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. Sum.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. ...... . ... . 45 Trinomial 240 . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value..... 9.. . absolute 54 Variable ..... algebraic Surds ... binomial Third proportional Transposition . polynomial . .....

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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.

1913. 1910. Set up and electrotypcd. NorfoooS J. Published September. August.. 1917. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1910.COPYRIGHT. December.A. Norwood. Reprinted April. Mass. 8. U.S. .

12. 6. c.000 Indians. 59. - 22 20.000. 22. -2. 2. 126. 1. 11.. - 1. 6. 20 jo. Page 1. 9.000. 6 yd. 8 13. 16. westerly motion. 12.8. arithmetic. 12. 89. ft. 19. 0. 106. 4. 25. 9. 16f 2. -37.000. 14. 24. -7. 20. 13. A Bl 7. 16. 2. - 13. 49. 3. 7. 16 in. 9. A 38 mi. 19. 1. 15. x. 10. 9. 6. 3. 4.150. 576. 17. i . Ot 15. 210. Yes. 13 d. 4. 3. 1. 36. 21.000. 73. 6. 3. 12. B 10 mi. 2 5.00000001.. Page 8. 8 ft. C $1(50. 16. 5. -15. -2. 16 in. B $4700. A $90. 7. sign. Australia ft. 10g. 2. 37 S. 12. -2. South America 46. 29.C. 3. 9. 13. 17. is $10. 7. 2. 3. 9 = 4. 12.. 19. 17. 10. 24. _ 32. 9. 5. 9 m. 1. 32. 3. 28. = 5 81. 9. 27. 256. . 14. per sec. 1. 3 m.000. 22. 12. |. . -26z.000.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in.000 negroes. C $ 16. 2. 26. 1. (a) (/>) -1. 2. 12. 3. B $20. 13 S. $ 1 50 10. 16. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 32.000. 8. B $ 128. 13. 85. 8. x. 8. 2. 18. - 1. 18. 144. 7. 64. 18. 8. 9. + 1.. 3. 13. 20 B. 16. 16. 1. 11. 48 ft. 14 11. 4. 6. 8.. - 2 p. 21. -14. 9. 512. 16. 3. sign. C $60. 2. 6. 4. 17. -10. Not 5. 14. 5. 11. 1. 1.. 6. 11. 9 14.$9400. b. A 15. 3. B $80. $100. 12. 16. 7m.1. 6. 13 V. -3. 192. 7. 8. 5. 1. 17. 14. 72 = = 216. 20 \. 29. 20. 1. 6. 10. 128. 18. Page 13. 12.3. 30. 3 below 0.21 24.. Multiplication.12. 150. 7. 16.000. T . Page 4. $40. 49. 1 16. 1. -32. 28. 32. 9 16 - larger than 7. 19 4. 8. 2. 20. 5000. 15. 15. 3. Seattle 12 Philadel- 9. 14. 25. 4. loss. Page?. . 14. 7. 5. . in. 2 - Page 8. in. 3. -3. 24.. 5. 2. 1. 14. 2. 3* 7. $160. 3. 21. 11. 0. 5. 6. 25. 6. 10. 18. 18. 6* 16. 23. A . in 12. }. 10. 5. 4.2. 10. 27. -3. 7. 15. 6. 1. ^. 2 ~ 15.. 1. 25. 115. 20. 13. -30?. 27. 10. V 23.

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12.19 + 2. -04. a. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 2.. 216. 343. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 30. 15 lb. 25. -20. 4 -jcy*z*>.21 a 3 c2 21. 2 7t A.16 x2/ 5 4. 29. 24. 0. 8. 18> ^|* = a -. 2 ). 28. -42. 0. . 31. 9z 8 -16z2 -9z + 10. 28. 11. 2. 25.20 xyz .14 w 2 2 .000. 3. 13. 4.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 15. 25 4 4. 3 a 3 . 30. 8. 76 8 a' 1 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. -24. 2 2 2 . 30 n?b*c*.8 4a-12 a2 ft-f 5aft2 -f 6 6.26. 21. 6. Page 36. 30 j9 jt?g -j- . a*b*c. 8.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 37. 1. 7. 3. 1. 16 lb. + 7. 6". . 66 8W 34. -12. -2 8 xy -f 4 a. 6 . 66 39 k* .r% 2 2 ry. 4. 35. 13.32 y s s G . 33.7(50.57 p6 3 2 -4 25. 60. 2 ll9H-H 2) + . 102. +. 7 + r/m 4^-4^-414.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 27. 360. 13. 27.18 w w + 10 WI M .35 a*b*c8 -f 14 a?/e . . 7. 19. etc. 120. 16. 32. ?/ . 2 2 +26-21ft 2 . 2 . 24. 2z 8 -s 2 -3z-l. 4. .. 23. . 4. + O4 66 .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4 a2 . 8. 8 . 27. 17. 30. 21 a-'&c. s 9 w-w. -108. .25 + 14. 18. 5. 23. 11. Page 38.19p" + 19^ 10 . -161b. 5aft(a- 126- 2). 18. 29. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. //. 33. 127-"'. 26. 25. 16. (+3)x6=+16.6) =a2 31.10 3 30 a a 4 c -f 15 aWc . 2 w +2 2 . 14 m 2 . a. 13.21. 1. a: 3a: 2 (2a:-f iH-a. 27. 16. 1904. -64. m. 30. 16 51. .1. 22. +15. 2'-'.44 aWc 16 abxy. 23. -18a% y.>(/ r . ?> 4 . 19. 18. 34. -30. 22. 10c 2 -19rd+0c? a I' . 210. Page 5. (x -f ?/) - a 12 10. 20. 12 ^. 17. a: . 10.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 14.28 p'^/-. -15. 15. 19. 3300. 2 * 80 . 8. 22. 4 fc. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 21.16 a 2 + 32 a . ! 2. 9. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. -. 18.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 2. 11. 4 a8 . 4200. iSx8 . -108. 1400. 10.-15.(3x2_4^+7). 23. 1. n (a6) 125. 6. 2 ). Page 3. 1. + 58 . 7. 2. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. ft 17. 42. 28. a + ft. 20.8 12. 33. . 770. -30. -1.32. 1. 21. . 17. 20.:>/ . 34. 15. 40 r 2 . ll 2 i. 3. 83 In + 1 n*. 60. 32. 3. 31. 14f 5. Page 35.14 . -18. -ISartyW e*f*tj. Ox a -5 . 4. . 12 x2 2 . ^^ = -20. a 8 . 24. 90.64 190 p6. 15. 20 aW.14 ?/i r?/-6j/ 5. -161b. 2*8-f x2 -6x-4. 12.12. -216. 84. 38wiw. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 26.11 xyz . 4. 7G . 17. 4 7> 4 :j !} . . a. Page 7. 5. 9. -f 26. 34. 6. 14. 7. 6.12. -28. 10. 11. 22. 3 -a 2 -4-6. .6 2 . 16.. 24. 3(*+0 + 2). 2 + aft 4- ft 2. 52 + 6s 12. 29. 20. 4aWy. 29.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .36 35..2. 14. -27. 13. 36. 10. 15 q\ 6. 9. ci 5 . . 25. 14. 9 13. fa 2.69 rt + 21 132 + r . x2 -xy-42^. 16.

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+ 77 15.12 aft 4 20 ac . 2 4- 2 x 4. f>r* 4. 2 a -3 ft.7. . r/2 4. -3. 6.lit x + 4. 5 4 a Oft.2 2 .r' ~ 16. 2 ? 14 .c ft*/ 1 -|- ft' ?/ .3 ry. 10. 18. + c 2 -4 aft-2 ac + 4 ftc. 5. -14.9 4. 5. 4. 6. :r !>. 3. 2.2 <</. Page 22.8. 2 4- 3 9.1. 4 c m .7 arty 4- 4 x 2 //V2 - 3 Z2 3 1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . z. 19.1. 3 aft 20. aft. a. 46.5 mp. 5 a - (5 ft. .r?/ j/.2 aft 4. 13. .10 2 + z 2 410. 5. 20 15. 21. abc 7. 19. aft 12. 3 5 a4 - 4 a2 4. 4.1*5 2 r 2 .x^. 16. 18. 12. -G. 8 r<ft -4 2 . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 6 <z 2 4- ft 3 . 3. . 14. 22. 9.2 . 8.2 2 2 8 . r ft. Page 48. y-fl. 6. 11. + 4. a2 x 8 4- ft 8 .3 3. 1. ft 17.y3. 8 x5 ? + 4- 1. 3 l4-8m4-7?n 2 20. a 10. 4 a-c-. aftc 52.2 .5 a .8 y.w. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 4. a 4- 4 ft.VI ANSWERS 43.r'^ 15. 4x4-3?/. 2. . -49.1. 1. 4.8. w .15 21. 15. 8 ?/ . 44. Os-y.1. ft* ft /- .3 a 4-1. 3. 7 r . - . 1/*. 5. +w . 7a 2 ftc 4 -4c4-2a. . 3*y2 w + 1. Page 7.2. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 12.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. i 2 tji. 2. 10. as _ 10 16. 1. 13. c-3. -13. 5.25 c . 10 ft. 8.2 . 15. 9. ft. a r'4-3 ll'a^-S 15. + 3.5 n*.27 x 2 4.2 ar. 135. /r . Page 11.1.2 ac . 2 4. 13. . - 3 c. 14. -9. 16.2-1 2 2 -f + -. 2 . 8. . a 2 4-4 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 5. .23. 13. *3 -y 4 .n. 17. m'2 3.2 wZ 4. -4xy + 13 <) . _ 2 a . 5. 17.3 w 4-*7 m 2 3 mn . 8. 2 . 23.34. m L 4. 4. 6. 1000 1000 . 7. . 4 d 2 4. 4 a* 4 9 11. 12. '.30 ftc.> 10.2 1 //. 01. w 2 . x-4.rw.6 :rs 4. 24. 11 4. 4. - 10. ?/2. -i 9. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.- - 11. 50. 6. Page 51. . x 2 + 2r f J. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 1. ?--?. 1. 2 ?/' . 3. 9. 5^4-18(7. 4ft.r ?/ ??i ?). // 19. 75 a 2 29. sr 11.r?/. a 8 4.r" 20 S? . 12. Exercise 27. . 4 x.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 14 r 2 . y 7. 8.3 x 2 2 4. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 1. . 8 x .10 xy*. - 5 z* .rw -f 8 . . 1. 13. aft 4 tt ac -2 ftc. 3. Exercise 2 a:// 26.1. j) .8 yn . + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 ./ 4.25. 12. a 2 ft 4- 9 c3 . 2. 16. 2 2 + 2 a.4.29.3^V. 20. 9.24 . -5.9 d. 10. 47. 2.1. . 2 1. 14. 4- n2 4- +p ft 2 4-2 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \- x* 4- 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 -f 25 - 2 np. -6x 3. 11.15. Page 13.3 5. x 4. 4 a 2 4. 7a-3ft. 21. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 26.r . ti'jry-1 7. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. . 2 ?/ 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . + x?/ 2 1. l 4 . 4 pq. a 2 . 8 ?/ . c 12. -5. - 12 y 25. 17. r 7.000. 14. 3 a-.2 ftc . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. r//. 2 12. 2. -125. 8. a 2 4-10 + 9 r -8 + w-2l ftc. 4.

lOx 10 + w. 57. 9. Page 6. 58. 3. 4. 4. b. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x -f 1200) - x. 23. y 50. 100= -^. ^ 12 sq. 47. 33. 13.r ct. 22.. 3. 60 25 1. 7. 14. . 11. x 2y 10 act. v (6) 2x. 10. 2.100-. -Jj12. 2b. 45. 1. Page 31. (</) 2a. 12. 2. 0. 46. 10. 26. X 60. 8 n - 10 yr. 7x 2 Page 21. 43. 15. 18. 38. + 4x 3y 34. 800 = x + 1300. - 9 = 17 -a. Page 13. 10 x sq. 30. . 17. 1. y ?>i x + 26. . 31. ? 43. 16. ( a -f- 4. 18. 39. 1.000. 4. x + 1=a. 20. 3x - 1700) = 12. 3 9. x 48. 11. s. 25. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl5-8)-h(8ar-ia)=60. (A) 3 x -f (4 x . 27. 41. 4-^ = 100. 28. = -5 ?i x 460. - 1$. 19. 32. 7. 29. 30. 10. 12. 11. 2.a-b a. Page 61. 44. 00. - 2\.200) -f(^ + (e) 200.r-1. 6. 23. 5. 3x2. 7.10) 100. 24. -f = eZ 2 x. <>. 1. 0. 8. m+ 11. 2 ct. x. 100 2. l. 4 -f 39. 16. 33. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 9. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 6. 37. x 49. 100 d ct. b. 21 2. (c) 2x. 100 14. + 3 = 2(3* . . 5. 15. I. xy ft. 36.p+7. -13. 1&. 6. a 8. / + y + a-// 12 yr. 5.. m -+~m 3. "mi. 13. 59. 50= L 100 15. 34. 6. rn mi. d + !. 29. 20. - 6 10.rr-2. n M. 2. 17. + -f + b 2. I. 10) (6) 2 z-f 20 3^-740. 2. 36. vil 56. ct. 10 yr. r>?imi. 16. 10 >-_&. 17. - />) a = all-. 7. a -10. " lir. 5. 14. ft. 8. (>. ft. 35. 2. 20. 5. ft. ] 2 ri 42. 40. -f (I. ct. + 10 b + c ct. x y $ 6 yr.6 = *. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. . 7. y 100 a 24. (a) ' 12. Page 40.(3x - 700) = 5. 6. 7. 2=10. 10 a. 5. + 3x + 2y + 32. .(3x+ = rrax-lO. 44. -f 6)(o 62. 25. (c) (2z-f 600) (3 =4. 4. ct.-. . # + 20yr. </ 20. (2 a. (> 27. lO. 41. 'nj 100 a 28.7). d. 42. 3. iL*.ANSWERS Page 9. 2b 22. y yr. r tx mi. ) 2^ x 20 =a- 7. sq. m= -- 100 2x=2(3x~10). x = m. 2x + 35. 10.. % 4. 22. 4(a -ft) c = 8. 7. 19. 4. 37. 38. '^ . fix. !). }f.x700. 1.

6. 5pt. 1200. 8. (m + n)(a + 6).24. a a (a 8 -a+l). 1. 42yr.000. 7a*fe(2a & -l). 10 Cal. 7. (a + 5)(a + 6).8.210^.. 67. (a + 6) (a + 3). (6) --(6 a -30) =20. 1200. . 10 yr. 2 2 ?/ 21.4-11. 3. 30 mi. ( + 4)(*-2).22. . 3 hr.(5z . 2 3 6 7. 10. 14. 9. (*-4)( + 11. 180. 3. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. . 4. MOO HXT 100 100 -^-~ -(5z-30) =900.000.. Ib.. 5. w (/) 64. 200. 200.000 ft. 13-13. 20.. 29. 1. 11 w(w' + wi . 3 (a +&)(*.. 70.5. ?(g -? -g+ 1). 11. 21. 12. 20 yd. 5. 160 lb. 100 1. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 -ay4-3y 2 ). 5 Col.0. 8 12. 15. 12. 3.000.000. 17.000 gold. 9 in. + 7)(y-3). $40. 13. 6. Page 7. 9. 10. 250. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 8...000 copper. 1. 4.000 Phil. ^ .000.3. 3. (ro-3)(w--2). 82 mi.79. 19. 15 in. 10. 1. (p + 7)(3a-5&).000 N. (e) -i* + -A. 8. 30 yr. 7. 85 ft. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 18.0.. 6.000 pig iron.10. Page Page 4.y"). 4. 6rt 2 11.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 2.21. 11.. 8(a6 2 +6c2 -c2 a2 ).3).13.. 14.. Pace 65. 13. 24J. . 17. 10. 4pt. 1. 25 yr. 2. 80 A. 14. 13. 2$. 7. 10.2. 10 Mass. 1.000 ft. 1. 11 in. 25. (a -4) (a. 15.5p + 7 g ). Page 5. 12.5. 4. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (5-3 xyz + x y'W). 12. 10. 13.000 Berlin. Page 79. 14. Y. 9. 2. 90. ~=90. 50.11. 5 lb. 600. 9. Page Page 4. 20 yr. 15 mi.000. 30. 8 in. 20. = _?_(2ar + 1). 5$ hr.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 3. 10 yd. 2 2 2 5. 2). 10. 7.. 15. 45 in. (a-5)(a-4). 18. a 12.1). 18. 2. 71. z?/(4^ + 5xy . (z-5)(z-2). ? 2 - = SJL+J10 13.. 3. 23.3. 7. 9. 8. 150. 5. 55. 4.-2). (y-7)(y + 2). 12. 6. 8. 05. 40 yr. - PageSO. 6. 20 yr. 5. 1250. (y + 8)(y-2). 2. by 12 yd. 8 2 19. 7. 8. 11. Page Page 480 12. 12 mi. 9. 68. 10 yr. 11. 2. 74. 8. 15. 90 mi. 6. 2.000. 75. (a + 4)(a + 8). 12. 11 pV (2 p8 . 15. 15 yd. (c) ^ v ' . 100.7.16.3aftc + 4). (y-8)(y + 2). (y 13. 70^. 8. 17z8 (l-3z + 2x-'). 28yr. 72. 22. 6.. 14. (y-ll)(y-4). 30. 6.6). (2a6-3?2_4 a /^) 16. 16. 25. 480. 300. 14. 78. 3x (3r. Oaj(o6-2cd). 78.. 52. 7 hr. 13. 20. 4.. Page 7. 1 lb. 3. 5. 9.

40 x. Yes. 25. Yes. . 8. 21. 25.1). 21.y) 2 aft. 28. 6. (w ~ n (x . . 10x2 (y-9)(y + 2). (:5-2y)(2a!-3y). + 2y). 15. (w + 20)(w + 5). 10(3 -5 6) 2 . (a 4 -10) (a 4 + 3). Page 82. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 22. 27.11 ft)(a-6). . (2y-l)(y + 9). Yes. 4 (a . + 3)(-c4-4). 9. 216 aft. (3a. -2). No. Yes. (g .2 by2 6. 30. Yes.3). Yes. 29. 2 -y' (2y-3)(2y-l). Yes. (9y-4)(y + 4). 24 9. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 18. 103x97. 18.7) (a. 10. (az + 9)(ox-2). 10. y(x. (13a +10)(13a -10). 23. . + 9^)(oxy . (a + 8)(a-3). 34.. (a (p-8)0> + l). 34. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 26. 14. . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 1. 36. x(x +y)(x -y). No. (m-7n) (a. (a2 + 10) (a2 -2). (a 3 + 10)(a. 17.ANSWERS 16. Page 84. 2 17.2 y). -y) (a. . ( 2 4 19. + 2 )(a + ft)(a-ft). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (4a. (5x . -8) (a. 12. + 8)(g-3). 13. (5 a -2) (2 a -3). 16. (4 18. 13x7. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(l-x). Yes. 14. 17. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (a -6 6) (a 4. . (6 a. Yes. (3*-2)(. 4. (a.-5y)(3a.3)(z-2). 4. x\x 24. (5a +l)(5a -l). . -y) 2 29. 24. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . + 5) a. No. 23. 33. 7. Oa 2 (a-2)(a-l). 3. (m + n +p)(m + w-p). (15z-2y)(x-5y). (a a: 19. (2 a? 4.7)(2z -f 1). (4 13. (ft + ll)(aft-ll). 2 No 4.11 6) (a 4. 3. 28. 32. 19. 31. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft -3). a- . 1. (m + n + 4p)(w + .2).1). 2. 3. 32. 20. 10. 23. 1. 9. a. Yes.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 -f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 11. 8. 30.4p). + 3). 22. + 0(9-0- Page 85. 10(a . ix 18. 24. 27. -3)(3a.6) 2 2 . 25. 12. a(2u. (15a + 46*)(16a-46). 10. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). (2 *+!)(* -9). (15a-y-2) 2 . (m + w) 2 5. .c 2 ). (0 (l+7a)(l-7a). 3(x + 2)(z-l). - x (5 a. 31. No. (2x-l)(x + f>). (6n + l)(+2). -7 6) (a -10 6). + 4) (a. 25. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). x (z + 2)(x + 3). 7. 11. 20. Yes.4. 24. 23. (5w-l)(m-5). 9. a 2 (w-7)(w + 3). (x + y4 )(x . 29. 21. 100 (a. 35. 2. 10(2 30. 13x(a + ft)(a-ft). 21. 33. (0 + 6)(6-6).9*). -f 2). 35. 2 2 15. + 3?i) 2 (5x-2y) 2 .6) 2 1. (y + 4)(y-l). 28. 12. (ay-8)(ay-3). 22. (4y-3)(3y + 2).4 6). (w* (3a-26). 26. 6. (10a + ft)(10a-ft). 3a. 2. 5.r-2).2). (4a-l)(a-2). 11. . 10(a + ft)(a-ft). 20. 5.8).* (2 y + 3)(y. a*(5a -f l)(flr . 100(x.+4 y)(3x-4 y).2 ft). 2 3 by2 Yes. 7. . (<7 20. 10 a 2 (4 . (* + y)(z-y). (5a-4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 9ft w(?-3) 140 w 2 27. 14.y (6x + 4)(5x-4).1). . - - . (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12-y 2 ). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 16. . (2o + l)(2-l). 19. 26. Page 83. 17. 27. 9. (3#-y)(+4y). (y-8) 2 2 .w*)(l -2 n 2 ). 25.1). + y + . 15.y4 ). Yes. 16. 8. 2(9a:-8y)(8a:-0y). 22. No. 26. 9.

. y-6. 16. 7. a (a + 2 6).42 x 4. 24x sy s 9. 6. 38. 2. (a 4.4)(? - 5 (6a 4-l)(a +)2( 2x-2/)(x-2?/). 6. 4. Page 92.'})(c . 1(V/ 88. ( rt 23. 2. - (w' 4. 24. 8x. 2 y) ^ . 7. 4. ( y).5 m2 x-2.a + (< (3 7>)(3 - a l fo). 8. Page 12.i-4-l)(x4-l)(x~l). 12. ^ .2). 13 x 8 2 . (5 26. 6. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 2 8(w . (x//. 14. ANSWERS -r)(4x (4x 4. a -4. 10(8x' 4-l) 4. 37. 8. 7. 2 2 10. 14. 8. 8. 13( 33. a 4-1. (m - I)' 6. x - 1).e 4. 2 2 (3a -4// )(x4->/).>*-)(:> 4- lj 4. 10(2 (3 4. 19. . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ( a -^)(^3.X 5. 40. 4.!) (x4-2)(x-2). 5 x8 3. 27. 2 k (wi 4. a 2 (a-9). 4). ( -{- &).'J)(' . 32. 7. 4 a8 . 2(m4-l)' . 9. 42a 3 x. 3(4-7>4-4)(^4-'> -22/)((3-x). (w * . 4. 3(.5 <: - 9 </) (2 a 12.4).0+ 12). 18.y)(fi a . (a &4. (16 4- - 2(5 n . (. ah}. 1. Page 87. 13.&). ?>).3. 39. 5. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 2 (a 4. 2 2 3 . ofc)( fid). 12. (a 9. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 2 + . 6. 4. - WIM. x 4. 3x(x-?/) 4. 3. x4-3. x . (c. 7. Page 90. x(x -f y)(jr . 19- 13> -(7rt-3)(7a~3). O + ?/4-<?)O ?> 4- q). 13. 6.y).9). . 3 x4 . Page 86. 15 M. - (m3n + a + b)(m 3n-ab). 8 4- 15 ?>)(a 34. (5a+l)(9-a). 4- 3. 450.?-50)(xt/z.y. + 3. (2x-7)(x 2 -2). 11. r x 2 */3 . Exercise 46.&).^ 48.7)(^ {I 12.w )(l 4- w 2 )(l 3 + ( y)- r)(x- ( . (x. 10. 2 21. 5. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4.l)( a 25. 5. y(2x-?/)..^ c)((> 4- 3 (3 w 2 w 4- m - ). 11.2 y). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . ( (<> r4-y-3 . (r4-20(4 10. 9.^4-6) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 4 a s &8 . (5 31.n). 13. 11.2).4.2)(x 1. b) (r 4. Gp). (^ 7. Exercise 47. 12. (x-f!/)' 3 4- w)(m. (-> 1. (a + (2a-3fc)0*+ tf)Or 4-1) (^4-2). 2 1. Page 89. (7/1 -2) (m 4-1). K + l) a (a 5 />-z 9.8) ( (16. a8 . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. n - r)(5a 10.))(x - ^OC 1 1).& (a 5 & 4-# - 2 y) (a 1. . -8). l.3.1). 2. y )(. 17(x4-3//)(x-2y). 5 - (2 2 . 14.//)(5y- x(x4-ti<0. 16. (f> + fo 7.4). (5^-4.4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 4 - 9. 8. . ( 4- 1 ) (2 m . 35. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 4-& 2 )(tt4-/>)('e 62 2 2 4-l)(a' & -&) 5). 8. fi(c4-26). 4-2).?>-) H. 4- 6. (w4-w) 2 1.) j). 15. 22. a 2_rt4-l)(a -rt- 1). 4. 4. 7. 6 -f c). 41. y).1).8). 11.8) n 4-3*). (^ + ?>_8). 2. 17. a + a b. 8. 5. 6.y '2 2).1) 3. (Ox - 7 ?/)(7 x4- y/). (a />. 15. - 29. 3p (^-9)(j) -4).'/)('< 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + -\- . a 4. ?i(w 4-y) .b. (14. 80a6 4- 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 2 .7s) (2 a. (!__/>).36). a x 3 10. 30. + 2 //). 28. 2. 20. 2(5 a - ft) (a -3 ?>). 36.-?/).3)(x 4. . 14.

6). a 23. 6a2&(rt-6). x 22. + y) (a: -y). a 10 25. - 1). + &)(-&) ( . 18. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^-1 rr Pace 991 20 . x 12. 13. ?-_!&. (a-2)(a + 2)2.ANSWERS 10. 2(2a-l) + l). +5 1. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21. x 24. +8b a -4 3 / ^. 30(3 2 (a 15. + &) 2 ( . 1). (a-2y2 (a-3) 2 (a-4) 2 14. 11.

28. . 26. 4. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 7. -^-~ 29. 0. 4 L 8 2 . 2 a. ' 2 7.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 30.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft - 1>* - 10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . + 2H 1 ^. a 5. r > 'a2 -f an -f ft' ' 2(cz-ft) (x 2. 6. ^i 2n a 22 9x * -T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 6. x-y 43.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 6. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 11. + lH + . Page 100. - **/* + 84 _.50 ~ 1/2 . 6a-5-f^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + -^-.. 4c 10. -A^. c 8. ab121 12 ft 2 -8 a 2 196 a2 8. w-1 + ac w 4 7.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . Page 101. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi-8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i^. i. 1. _*^p5_^^_. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . rt 3a-2 + ~3a a 3.

46. 32. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 11. 16. -Of. 34. 8. 23. Page 111. ft 2 -f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 3.^_. 9. 4. y(x + x ?/). 1. 15. 11. - V o 4. 15. 5 be _J_. 21. -f Page 107. ^_. a. 11. + f. +3 ( + 15. ft. 4. I) 2 3z 1. x 05m ' 5. 18. 25. 41. 20. - 10 X + u. 10. 1. 5. 37. -3. 42. a2 2. 4. n m a + 13. 13. .y 7. 6. 1. 4. j L . 9. an 18. b 2. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 3 7 i o. 0. 7. 16. 19. 1. 1. x 1. 27.ft . x-\. 39. . 26. 31. 1. 6. 5. 14. a 17. 3. 3. -3. (>. 38.^U\WF### X<6. 15. m 9. 45. 11. 14. 11. 7. Page 106. 40. 8. ac mp lf> n 12. 21. 3. 5. 21. (y + (z 12. . 12. 29. 35. 33.L+-ft. 2) 19. 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. b a -f +c 14. c 8. ?-+_!?>. 4. 30. A. (a + y) 2 Page 104. n . ! 4 20. flf. f 7. 17. n 16. 2 47. 10. 12. 14. 43. J. 4. 36. 6. 9. J. 7. 6. ' 6. Page 113. 6. 6 . J. 5. 4a-3ft. Page 110. p-f n 6 1. 17. 12 28. ^i 11. 44. 1. 0. 8j-_m 7 3. . 1. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 7. ?. 4. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 24. 2-ft a i m x. 1.

. (a) 30.. 1:1 = 1:1. 5.x + y. 14. 1. 7. 1:1 = 1:1. 26.. 1:4. 1 da. 24. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 17. 19. (r) 3^ da. 14. 3./hr. 15. 7. Yes. 7.000. . 10. 5ft- 30mi. 24 mi. 3 da. $45. 0. 7. 18. 1.2. 17. 13.004. No. 8. 9. * 7:9. . 10. 00. 20. 4~r~ n . w 18. 4. 3. 500. $0. 31. 15. 26 mi. 23< &n b ' .000. 9ft. 2 20. 9J oz. 74. 21. 33. .. 10. 9$. --1^'.001. -^?i min. jj. 14. (ft) 5 hr. (ft) 28. 10 yrs. dn ~ mi. ANSWERS 16. . $40. 10. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . No. ^p^ r -~| 7. min. (c) 8300.000. 10. 5. 8. r/ i - PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 4. 8301 hr. Yes. 3. . 2:1. 19. -4.. 16.139.137. 15. J. (a) 25. 17. 2x:3y. 1. - 29. - C -..0 & . $00. 20. 75 . 16. 22. 32. 13. 15. 10. 40 mi. 15. 6.11. f. 30. 38ft- min. 12. 28. (a) 12 hr. Page 117. 3. (ft) 5 da. 24. (c) 2 hr. 2.XIV '/ . J ^'. Page 118. Yes.002. -#V ~~ 34. Page 125. [>> ^ a . 33. Page 119. 275:108. 3|. nm. 4fl -M_. 81. 40 yrs. 4. 212. Yes. 9. w 21. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 5. ----- + . . 8. 1:1 = 1:1. 2. 10. Page 124. 55 mi. x-y. 7T 2 Page 116. 1:1=1:1. 10. (a) 4 min. 1: ~.. 30ft. Yes. silver. ft. $30. -'"-I- 22. min. (d) 500. 7. 3:2. 5 2. 13. Page 121. IV s. . 18. Yes. 18. 34. 19. 27. :2./hr.000 1 = 23. 10^ oz.138. 300. 8. 3.15. 35. 7.003.000 If da. (d) 4 da. 14. P+ ^ 33. 19.000. Yes.. 36. 6. 8. -^m -.10. a 4- ft.9. 12. after 20. 21. 15. 7 .. 300. = A's. 5 25. 16.} da. 12. 21ft min. 6. 11. 1|. 30 mi. 1:3. (ft) (r) 8 hr. w 44. 26 30. 4. 20. f . 30 yrs. () 2.2. ~m . Yes. 11.0. 11 hrs. 11. 17. n 32. 1 : 12. 9. (ft) 104. gold. 7} 18. 13. 5. _JL. 15. after 18. 9.. 40wn. 10. 300. " 0. a 4- ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. after $12.

r.5. 4. 52. 11. 15. 43. 20. 41. 174+ Page 128. -1. 9.5. 49. 12. 10. 8. 2. 7. 16. 8. 27.5. 3. 3. land. 6. 4.15. x y y . 5. 25. 26. () Directly. 44. 19. 5. Page 9. 21.7.2. 20 cu. ' 55.5. 46.5. 15. : 23. y 1. 30. 40. -7.1.4. ini. mi. (</) ft. x +y x + 74 7 \. 50. Page 134. 9 - 15. lo mi. J. 141. 13.1. 1. 2. (b) Inversely. 5. "lO. 31.li.4. ig 6. 13. 32j. 4. 4.2 oz. tin. 41. - 28. 2 n . 15> 9. x 42. 3. 10. 3. 8. 14. w 8. 39. 45. . ~ 1. 11. . 32 - <>' 33 - 4 <^: 34 : : . 5. 6 10 = 12. 20.-) 31. - 19. water.a. . w. 3. 38. 36.7. 1 18 = 3 51. 2. Page 133. (I. : : . I.. 9. -1. 6. 6. (b) C C' = fi JR'.3. 2. OJ. (a) Directly.2 x.*.4. cu. 6.9. jc:y = n:m.160. 17. 8. i. 17. 58. 1.20. Inversely. 2. . 11. 7. -3. 2. 4.57. -2. 19 3 . 2. 19 OJ. 24. + b 7 . J pq.3. 4. 32+ mi. 5. 1. 5:3 = 4: x."2:1. 3. 13. 5. in. 200 mi. 2. 7.5. -J. copper. . 5. + W. 4. () 7 Page 126. 14.5. x:y -a: b. 4. 3. 11 w a 13. 7. 5. 2. -2. 2. 13J. 26. 16. 20 20 J -^. 14.' : : : : <>. 7. 3. 2|. 2. 18. 59. : XV 27. 1. -7. 1.6.12. 2.4. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 13. 8. *. Page 135. = 7 b'.840. 55. 7. a 3. 8.3. 7. .3. 6*. 47. Page 5. 1 rt * vm-^1.3.]. 3}. 9. 25. 40. 7^. : : T 1' : /> : -. 9. -4. 2. 12. 2. . . 1. 945 11 10 . 48.22. Page 136. 4. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 2.J -3. 19.3. \. 7. b x 37.1.2. : .4. 1. . 28. 4. 7. -2.2. 6.8 oz.3. 7. 35.J. 127. x y = 1 = 3 2. in n. y . 11. . 3 - 24.3.3. a +b 1. 23. 4. 9. a~. 36. 11 5 . J.5. 10. l. 23.1. 30. \\. - ?. 12. 138.- 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 4. $. a -f 2 2 = 5 x. 2. Page 132. 11. y :y =. 24. 5. mi. 2. : />. -7.ANSWERS 22. 22. 17. 9. 12. 19. . 22. 25. 24 1 (e) Directly. ft. 2.3. 10. 3. s<i. 31J. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.2. 7.1. 5:0 = 10:12.46. 2. . 2. 9. 53. 3.. 1. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 5. 3." ^ 2.3. 21.12. 1(5.5. 57. 7.000 sq. 29. 5 2. 56. 14. Page 137. 2. 4.^ 0?j ' gms.36.000 sq. y a y = 7 0. Page 131. -3.17. 54. 5. Of. 4. 16. + 7>i// - ft 1 . 8. t 5. 2. OJ.15 x. .C ?/ a . 7. 9. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.. 3. /. -./':</ c a -f :y=2:9.x a. 3 2=3 x.

24. 2. . 4 ' q. 18.0. 147. 13. 25. 5. Page 153. . 9. . 17. 20.n + p. Page 145. 1. 14. 1. $3000. 2. Jan. af-cd ae ftd 8 ft. Oct. 4 mi. 9. |. ad AzA-. 5. On 11.8. 1. 0. 6. 10. 21. 5. 2.9. (ft) 20. 3. $250.1. a. B's 15 yrs. 19. & part of Sept. m -f 8. 3.. 6. 3. 28. Page 142. 20. 12.$2000. 1. 00. 4. ' w_i 7 fr-^ m -w ' 2 m+w .. $500.3. On the y axis.2. 8. 25. 2t2. A a parallel to the x axis.1. 2. 13.2. 2.65. J. 13. 24. On the x axis. 20 to Oct. 3. 14. 16. 5. & May. 3. 2. A's 50 13. 2. . 40. 10. 423. 40. Aug. & part of Feb. - 11. 4. 2. 2. 1. 1. 0. 10. M 2. About 12f. 27. 5. 6. SL=J o ft r^2. 10. 3./hr. 24. m -f 9. 24. . 5%. . 11. July. 30. 6.33. 17. 6. . C's 30 yrs. ad _(?jrJL. parallel to the x axis 0. 3. 6%. A's 30 18. 2. 5. $ 1000. 7. 30. 5. 1. through point (0.0. B's 40 yrs. = ^ a Page 141.4. 3. 3. Page 146. 25. 12.XVI Fagel39. 6. 3. C's 10 yrs. 4. Feb. 4. 4. -3. 4. (a) 12. July. $4000. 3. 2. 2.3. Jan. 1. . ^. $6500at3Ji%. 16.. 2. 16.10. 4. May 5. 5. 15. 2 a. &. 26. 10^ gms. 8. 1. Nov. 7. at 15. 11. 1 (d) Apr. yrs. 2 horses. Page 149. Apr. 3.. 4. 6. 6. ' . Jan. .-l. a =J- (n - 1) rf. 16. -. yrs. 5. 2. 4. 19.1J. 29. 11. 6 cows. 12. -4. 4. Apr. 0. Jan. 3. 5. be 7. 3. 18. 3. Page 152. 100. 1.. 18. 20. Nov. 23f . m + n -p. July 20. - 17. (c) . 1 (c) Jan. 25. 11. 3.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 18. . 3). 20 & Oct. 32. 16. 20.^. 8. 10. ' 6 3 a. 31. 3. <*-ft/ bd 1. 19 gms. 9. 1. 3. u 2ft. Apr. Jan. 7.3. 8. 9. Page 151. $900 5%. 4. 15. - Zn - -"-(^-ll 14. 14. 17. 7. 23.4. Page 22. 26. 7. ft 3. 72. (<f) 13. 16 to July 20. (5. 12. (ft) 23 J. m . 2. 16. 1. 11. 9. 7. Nov.7. 22. 21. The ordinate. 7. 3.$5000. 15. 11. 20. 7.4. be 10. 10 sheep. 2. Nov. . Page 143. 23.. 30. 7. 90. 4. 2. 9. 7. 12. 4. 4. 2. (a) Apr. June.

(ft) and (d) 2. 15 . ft 2 4. 2.. Indeterminate. +3 4.25.. . I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2. - .64. m + 8 m% -f 60 win2 4. 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .75. (gr) 21. 1.13. -13C. 4 |) 21. 4. 11. 0C. 8 1 -f -f g*. f. (a) 4.1. 2. -f-12 wi 9.79. . 2. 27 a6 ft - 9a 2 1. 4. 1|.. 1. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.73.5. 2. 17. 5. Indeterminate. . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t - 9- 11. 3 . . -4.25. 125 16. 6. 2. jgiooyiio 17. a 6o&i85 c i5o . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n -f 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. .24. . -1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. . 14. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' -1 125 29. 3.25. 16. 3.2 (ft) - 1. 13. (a) 5. (a) 2. 3.4 aft -h a 2 ft 2 . 13 . 15. 3. . (/) 3. |. 5. -4. (ft) 2. a + ft.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 2ft4 Page 168. 8. 3. 125a 28. -27 19. 10. 28. . 5. a- 29. xW.84. 12. 5 and 2. -125 a 8 12. 2. () (rt) 3.1. -2.83. 1. 8. .24 . 19. 24. 22. 11. 2 2 22. 19.75 (ci) 3^. H.41 and 23.5. (/) 3. 1. 2.3. - 1. 11.75. x*-f 4x 8 + 6x2 -f-4 x-f 1. (ft) (d) 2. 6. (a) 12. 27a 3 -27 343 a 6 27 2 +9a-l. -3. 2|. -2. 26. - 1. 27 27 81.. 3. -2. _ 9 -x ^27 1 . 14.7. 1. Inconsistent. 1 23. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 1. 24. .6.27. -1. . 8. 21. 2.24. . 5. 3. 3. -. -1. 1. 13.25. 1. 3. 9.3. . 3. 4. SlstyW 7.59 . . 1. 1. ' :=_!.25.73. (e) 3.59. . 3. 9. 7. 4}. 20. 10 C. 10. -.17 (ft) (c) 2. (<?) 2. 3. Page 163. 8 a-1. - 12 ft xW - 26 31. 2. 15. 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 -f 8. 3. . \ft) 5. Inconsistent.5 (ft) 3. -1. ft . 14. 32F. m.83. Page 164.67. 20.64. 15. * 16. 9 and Page 166. (c) 7.34F. (ft) (ft) 2. 2. . |. -a 10 ' a ll V&. ImW.73. G. 83. 4-4 + 6t/2 m4 -4m8 H-6m2 -4m4-l. 0. . + a 4 ft* . 1. 10.41 and . H. 5. -f-4p 7+6p g -f-4pg 6. . 30. f. 25.73 ami . 2 -l. 2. 1. -8mW. 2. x-y. 2. 1 4. 2 a&m Page 167. 5. . -18C. 4. 81 -".75. 5. (c) -2. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a-135a2 ft4-225aft2 -125ft8 .79. 3. . 30. -f 10. 3. 1. 14. 3. 13. 1. 18. 3. (e) 2. x3 -3x2y + 3x?/2 -2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 27. Page 159. 4wn8 + n4 5. Page 158. 3.4." 23. 12. (c) 14 F. 1^. 22. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . xg .

(1 (x-2y). 25. 3. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 8. 2. (a-b + c). 00.XV111 7.037. 10. 16.5. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 12. ). 3.83. 2(> + ( 2 7>).+3^ + 4. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . +35. 8. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 247. 17. 119. 1. 70. 15. ??i ?i . 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 3. 1 1 ?>). (a + y+l). AN S WE no . 7. ? . 2.-f 1 m 9 16. 10*. (3a. 7. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 17. 22. 31. fr -ft i/ /> ^ | 23 . 763. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 5. 13.10 a~ + 5 a . (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 180 . 20. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. rt . 101. -3M. 20.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 12. 6. 2. 11. (rt'- (2 a (7 4 10. + (win . + + ?V 22. (2 a + ft). + Z). 0. 237.94. 10 x G a 4 . 978. (a 2. 15.6. -20. . 14.1. 12. 14.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >-/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 3 2 ^-. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 32. . 15. 27. 2 2 4. (4a2 -9& 2 13. 16 6 w . ?7i 1 1 3 1. 2 49 . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 18.^). 4. 2 2 7. 16. 57. 15. Page 170. 33. 11. ( x + 2 x -2z + 4). 35. . GOO 2 c 2 . 9. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 30. 300. -5. 71. 4. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 26. 40. ? : 1 . -^i. 76. (48 + 6. (a + 2 -+l). 90. . 309. 17. 30. 3 2 8 3 12. 2. 5 -5 8. 23. . (x' -l). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 -G mw 6 + w 6 11. 16. 5. 8. 10. + y). 5. (:' + (2a-3a: 2 + a. ( Page 174. 6. 28. a 2 .i c 6 15. 6. 9. + l). 14. 64. 11. 1. Page 176. 14. 72. (2-3 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 9.y2 ). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. (l + x + .r 2 + 6jt). 19. 9. 2038. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . - +X '-. 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. - x. (x + y\ 90. 1. 11. 3 6 23.1. 98. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 24. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 25 19.7 /)). r> 4 : 1 . 19. 18.3 ab + 2 2 ). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 8.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 7. 8 /. 3. 6 (\x 3. 34. Page 172.x ). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 420. + i)). . 4. (l-y). -f 21 rt'-6 + 7 -f 6 13. 6. 8. 18. -/> 4 ). .5). a. 4. m 13. 20. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. +3 + 5 4.GO a c + 23. Page 171. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. a ). 2. 90. fe *?>-' ?> fi . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 4 8 2 .a b 22.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 84. a: l . 21. + 29. 9. Zll. 1. 21. 2 12. 1247. 10. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 -fa 5 14. +(^ 2 -3^ + 2). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). I 8x2). 5. 9. c 10 6 :l 20. 99. . a. . 13. 36.-2).

3. V2. 17. 47. V35 1. w. 5. ft. 7. 40. 15. 4. - -|f. -m. 5. 5083. 14. 7563.-6. 9. . 7. 1. -V. - f. V17.--w 18. 19.6. 8. 12. 5. ft. 3. 14. Page 181. 10.13. 24. - 2. 36. 11. 1 38. -16n. 29. 1 -7. >TT 26.243. 4.4. _ iVaft. 20. 1. i. 4. . Page 177. 9. 46. 3. 7. v 17. f. 16. i-i :J _7. 1. . 10.237. - 1. . 7. 27. 12. 5.1. Page 184. 39 in. 6. - 3.-?.367. 2. 5. 2. 32..60. 42. 7. 34. 35. 3. 13. -4. 3. 21. 4 TT M 28. 25.690. {. 4 n. 4.935. 7 in. 12. 26. 13. 2. 7. vYb. 5f. -4J. 7 45. 39. . 13. * 1. 21 in.236. -f 3. 39. 1. 17. Page 185. 9. 5. f. 37.5. 7}.. xix 26. vV-'-TA 24. 11.925 ft. 40. 17. 36 in.522 38. 37. a + 6-1. l~8. 14. 3J. 12. 15. 1 -f Vl3. J. 6yds. 8. Page 179. . > w ft. 5. 34. -2. . 9.6. 6|. 19. 2 sec. 4. 23. 270 sq. 4 a. 36. - 14. 21yds. 4. V2. 14. m. (< + ?>). 6. 3.S-n. 10. 21 28 ft. 16. 4.645. -^-^7m. 15. 31.*. 25. 27. 4. ft. . 14.V 8-j. 3.i.. 5. 7.742 in. 6- f !. a. 15 1 10. 20. 33. 5. 23.798 yds. >i 27.. 3. 35.916 yds. 50. 2. /. 12. 1. 41.18. " ^_ 22.-4. 2. 28. 12. *. 6J. 33. ^-. . 1. 22. 18. 7. 48. 5. 29. 6561. 18. 30. 1. 15. f -f -V. or 5. 2. 5. 10. -^. 6. (a-fl). ~ V^3. - 5.1. -5. 31. -3. 28 in. 2] see. 23. 8. 6V21. 7. If ^. Page 180. 6. -4. Af^.6. 4 W**. 1. -16.. ZLlAiK 19. 15.5. 2.4.469.. 3. (6) Vl4 3. 6. -2. 32. or 3. 5. 10. 8. 7.. 30. 3. 2. 13. 6V'2J. 12. 10. 1. 49. 1. -6. 8. 20. 3. V- J l. 8. JJI. 5. 4. 1&.005. 9. 2. - 43. 9 15 ft. 21. 16. . () 2. -9.. |.ANS WERS 22. 3. 13. Page 183. 9. 11. 4. 6. 25- J. 10. 3. 29. 9. 2. -i ^. \/3. 11. 11. 28. 1. }. / 11.a. -10. f ^ is. 10.. 7. 44.. 21. 24. 2. 4. f . 12.6. |.}.

15 ft. 70 ft..2. . 12. 30. -2.4. 1. 2.48 -3. _ 19. 10. 6V-64. 3.1. 6. Imaginary. %. -21. V ~ 16 4 2. 9.12. 3. 39. . 1. ANSWERS 22. -0. 6. v^^fcT"^. 7. 41. -1|. 25.4. 2. -3. + 11 x. - 5. - Page 194.a. 2. 14.2. a + 6. 9. . - 13. - i. .23. 4. s 11. . -7. Real. in. 2. 3. 5 ft./hr. 1. f. 3.12 = 0. 38. 20. x2 + B . equal.10. 64-c. irrational.74. -4. AB = 3.XX Page 186. - 6. 3.2. 12. 43. 20. V2. 34. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. - 1.1. 10.2.23. 6. 46. (5 10. 0.7. ft. 20 eggs. .2. -3. 3. . 120 ft.2 x2 . 3.5.41. . 4. VV11. 9. 0. 42. 10 in. 0. - 1. 2. jr . Page 191. Real. 5. 6^2 in. 56. - 2. 4 da. 48. . 0. 6. rational. . r* -i. 26. -12. ' 1. 6. Imaginary.17.2.l./hr. 36. 12. . 19 in. 8. Imaginary. If. 18.4. 28. . unequal. -f 6 5-2 a.59. rational. 5. 10 mi.62. 0..0*8. 8. 2. 7.48. x 14. V^~2. Real. . 2.]. unequal. 25. 3. AB = 204 ft. unequal. 1. . 17. 35. 1 . 0.6 = 0. f.7. 10. 3. equal. - 1. 3.4. unequal. 2. = 0. 27. 24. 1). 1. 1. .'. 23. 27. 1. 1. - 9x <)./hr. 16. 1. i. |.. 0. 11. rational. -1. 2. 3|. 23. 23. 1.. $80. 0. 4. 26. -2 ft.5 x + 6 = 0. Page 187. - 1. 12. Real. 1 3.37. V2.70. 37. 8. 21. 15. equal. 4. t is. 1. - 2. unequal. 2. 1. V^l. 2. 19. 13. 33. unequal. Real. 0. 1. 1. 3. 53. 26. unequal. unequal. $ 120. 6. a. 20. 57. 11. x*-4x=0. 20 nii. 8. 2 . . Page 190. a.1. 0. 2.. 49. 0. . 1. 24.7. 0.2. 19. 2. 3. 31. 58. 28. 3if. 8 or 12 mi. 25. i . 14. 5. -4. H. 6. 1. #<7=3. 16. 2. 7. 2. U. + 7 x + 10 = x*-x 2 -6x = or . a8 .2. 7. 8\/2 17. 13. 47. Real. 29. 64. 21.. 3. V^l. 3. 1. 2. 45. 7. -4. 2. ' - f 5. *'-' 12. 18. . 22.Oa. unequal. rational.a. V7. - 5. 3. 35. 25. 18. - 24. 2. 44. 50. 3.2. 4. 16. 28. rational. 2. 6.02. 1_^L ft 14. 0. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 7. orf. 6. Real. Imaginary.3. 15. 10 or 19. 26. 7.3. 2. 6.2. 3. x* 51. 5. $30 or $70.$40 or $60.a 3 a. 24. 2. 27. - 1.4. 9. . 10 mi. 15. 40. 55. Page 188. 4. 1. a + 1. 2 V3 in. 3.* 2.-6./hr.5^. -3. Page 192. 4. irrational. . Page 189. 5.3. 3. Real. 0. . 32. 2. 52. 0. 22.

50.. \/. v^T4 m. 18. 47. 38. 45. 35. 42. l - 5 12. 29. 2. 17. 3. 5\/5. 25. p.1 5 15. 4. 18. 24. 5. J. 3. vV. 10. 21. \/3. Page 200. -1. v'frc 18. 37. Page 201. 8. 12*2 61. 4. 57. 0. a 18 . 13. x/25. 28. 20. 16. 40. ^Sf|- 3 38. I. 1 39. fx'-^z'l 23. 5. - 48. 4. 6 - AAf. 4. 25. 22. 27. 9. z + 22. ). 9. 27.2. 56. 30. v. 8. 60. 7. 19. 2. 59. 26. 58. -2. &. 49. 6. 33. 30. xxi 15. -3. - J j. 0. 2. vm. . 44. 10. - f . 17. 48. \. 5. 13. 125. V^ 34. 18. 47. aW\ 40. 30 a. 16. wA 46. 6. 17. r*. 19. 1.17. v/3. ^49. 3. 14. 31. 3. 54. 1. 1. (m 26. \a\ \/^. *V. Page 199. 5. J 3. 33. . - 5. . 2V a. Jb \. 9. -2. a. m'. 2. 9. 7V7. 2. 43. 8. . 49. 51. 20. 8. -3. 15. J. 25. -1V-1. -jV- 10. 8. \. v'frW. 23. - f. 4. 20. 32. 1. 2. 84. 7. . 15. -1. 11. 29. 14. 3. x$. 24. 1. 52. 1. i. Page 196. 16. 33. 46. 0. 4. 3. 2. 29. m. y. 10. 5. 39. 13. 9. 28. 21. 8. 3 4 11. ar 1 . .-32. 7. 3. x. -ifa.//^. 12. 11. Page 197. 8. . \ -. |. 16. 1. 36.^7. 21. ) 2 >J i 10. 3. 1. 15.ANtiWEUS rational. 19. 31. 9. 20. 4. 8. 49. 10. 5. JV37. 14. 19. -3. 24. -_! V3. 243.6. -2. 13." 17. y . 4. 53. 7 . 23. 50. 1. 1. J. ? . Vr. -3. r. 2 L ( V. - a'2 . 2. '-J. 12. 22. 14. 41. : . \/r\ 11. . 55. 32. $7. n\/* Page202. 49. J. .

r c . 32. + 2 ar 1 ). 9 . 6. Vz2 -?/ 2 44. x 25. 34 r 6. 6. V 5 47. 8V/) 15. 29. 10. 5 22. 13. 3. JIV6. (o* 2. + 2 V22. ^: V2c.632. a 3. . + + ft. 25. 1 2 or 1 ?. 19. 30. 31. (a 27. 03r* 7. 13.692. + Vic + 25. 1) 3V3. . 32. abVab. v'TM. 2 a?>V2 a. 11. -v/^r 5 - A/^~. 40. + 1. 48.x^y* + y%. 1. v^. 37. . 2>X2. . x. 3V5. . 16.3 + 40 3 . 3V^T. 17. 4. 28. 17. 33. a 4 +-* + !. 5. k/2. V63. 101 1. 8a6V5. 2. ). 2\/7. 36. (x' (l 1+x). ^7 \AOx-. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.f.r. 3 x^y 33. m* -n*. 9. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 13 35. 20&V6.r-^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 28. V. 39.'\ 14. 19. x% - 3 ^+ 1. 22. Page 208. V80.. 45. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 49. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 21. 37. a2 4. x^ . 38. 9. 11. x 7 - 34. l 5. a^ + 2^+1. . 3^2. 23. 3. 2 x* 15. 16. 31. 20. . Vr 8. 41.yl : . 27. 30.2 18. 5. 21. yV35. 12.Vxy 35.12 *^ + x 7/> x - a-** + or " 2 + 1. / V3. y. 5 ( . ftV 46. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 2v (T 2aVf. 7. x + 5 x3 + 0. 2. 26. 3. 9. 4. x y. 2.2 VlO. r 17 - Page 204. V. 13 a.rV:r. 10.). 43. 24. 4aV^J 16. ^88". 24. 3 42. - 2 3:r. 15. -2. 3^ + 2). Va 2 "ft.XXii ANSWERS 1. 20. 11V3. y (a + ft) V2. -13-5V6. 26. Page 203. - a Vft -2 121 b. 29. 6-2V(J. V2 + 4 V22. 8.577.707. 40. ?tV?w. 2 '"V5. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 2. 19-5V3. 50.648. Page 207. 8. -T. 7. + 2). 34. 10. 18. 3 \ 39. . 51. 2 4 z2 l 3. + . 2. 3 4\/2.

v"3. 49. \/2. v/i). 22. rtv/5. 35. V5. 14. 24. 6aV2-\^. 12. 3. 9 VlO + 4. 32m-27n. 34. Page 211. xx 1. 36. 52. 3. 18. 11. 16. 6 2\/0. 35.T*. 4. 3\/15 - 6. .r v/^ v^fr*. 6. 6. 13. 1. 10V(). Vat. 38. v^4. 14c 4 V5. 30. 18. 29. 9. -21 23. "v/wi ??. fl^Vac. 10. ^v 7 15. 3. 5. 8V2. \^r^bVabc. 25. 5. 6x-2?/. . \^6. 46. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 23. 32. 39. v7^. . v^30. 5 \/2. 51. 16. 3. 8V73\/IO. 17. . Vtf +3+ 33. 8v2T 12. 4\/5. 18. -V-Jla. 4VO. 34. 3v^2. 40. 40. v/8. 3\/wi. x/125. x/8. 31. x/8l. / \/w/t 4 13. 5V2. 28. V5. x/w^ 8. \/128. r)\/(l Vrt-r. 2. 26. 6. 5. Page 216. 36. 19. \^6. + VlO - v y (5. 23. 24.30 2. Vn. 2. ^27. 12. 11. 8. - 3. ^9. 6. m ?i-2Vm/t. 3 V2. 15. 2 28. Vdbc. \/a6c. -13\/3. Page 213. 53. 32. 7-4\/Jl 120 46. "^8000. . 10. 4. 2 ate-. \/abc*. 3. 17. x/3. 6V2. 21. 6. 21. w-?i. \V3. 37. 4 >/3. 1. 2\/7. 42. \/8. x/27. D 45. 2yV2?/. 2 V'3. 15. 9. 22. . x/4. 3 V15 - 47. ^\/3. a^\/a7>. aVa. 3\/2. 0. 33. 30 Vl4. 19. V3. V/. + 20. 2 1. 8 - \/15. 50. '-. x/8L v/27. 44. . ab 4. 1-V5. 37. v/lO. 5V2. 0. a\/5c. VT5. 7\/(l 7VTO. V8. 48.. 5v/2.J Page 212. -^ 3 b 5 24. 13. 2. 7. 25. 14. 2. 4 a*. v"5. 2. 8. v^a. W). 1. __ rw 3- \~s~' ] * . % 29. : ^32. 39. 9. b.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 31. vT). 41. 17. a2 - b. 11. Page 210. 43. \/04a. V3. v/l2. v/9. 26. v^f. \XO-fl-6Vi5. V3"m. 27. V2. 10. v^lf. v 25^4714 V2"a. 2 \/2. Page 214. 7. 14. 6+2V5. 20. 16. 7. 3 Vl5 30. V2. 27. 38. v^O.

1.732. V3. 64. 6. V. 20. 4. 21. 4. 30. 18. 4. 2. 20. 16. 6. 18. 5 V65. 18. 16. . . 16.^ (\/22 4. 24. Page 28. 8. 18. 25.13. 11. 4.0606. Page 226.64. J.3535. 9. 5. ^. 10. (V5-1). f. A- . 81. 4 14. 6. 20.1805. 27.389. ^\/2. 24.81. 3. 29. 21. 3. + 5V2. 4. 27. -4. !^ 6 4. 11. * 3. 34. . 5 f. 29. 10.XXIV 7.7083. 16. (a 1.V3). 23. 9. m -f.\/TO). 14. 9.4142. 22. . 2. Page 223. 6. 1. 19. 7. 8. 28. 12. 4. 2V2. 15. 7. 9. ~ Vac _c 0. Va. 4. 15. 12. -3. 12. 14. 8. 4. 10. 22. j 15. 1. (V5-f 5. ^r. - . 5. 5.5530.3. i(V-f Vft). -2!5_. . 1. (2-f V"5). 15. 19. 4. 0. 12. 7. ^(VlO-\/2). 2. 8. i^ ~ 1 v ^-. 8 V3-V2. . n*. 11. 512. K>/0 + \/2). 30. 2-V3. V3 . 9.9. j.2. 81. 33. 22. 13. 12. 0. 23.2. 16. fV2. \. {. 19. Page220.6. 2. 8. 3. 1. 125. ' 22 i . 2x^2^. 11. V35.464. 8. 17. 15 -f 3 V2L 4. 3V2-3. (2. (2-Vll). 25. 15. 23. J. 7. 13.601. Page 218. 9 mn. 1. 5. 31. 5. 2 . 1. V^TTfc. 27. (V2-1). -1. (2-V2). 3. 5. . 9. . 25. (\/5-V2). -26. 11. 5 + 2 vU 17. \/57t. 24. 20.w 6. . 6 V. 16. Va. 19. 6. 5. x 20. 10. 26. (Vll-V2). 10. 25. Page 219. 9. 36. 8. 17. 5. V2. V3. i^Lzi. (3+ v/2). 2V3.732. 17.4722. V6c.1547. 24. (Vf + (4 V2). 16. 14. 7. 1. 2ajV2*.2828. 25. 9. 23. 9. 7. 2. 3. 18. 21 ' Vob 26. 25. ANSWERS 8. (VaT^-v a). _^JflJ?. 4V3 + 6.7071. 100. 35. 1. 3(7+3V5). p 6 13. 10. 7 -f 5 4. .625 10. 2. 37. 8. 224. 4. 25. 7. 12. Page217. Vf6-f|Vtf. 6 |(V2 + 1). nVTl. +3 V2). 21. 13. 5. 7 Page221. -. ^. 1.6 V3. 14. - f. 23. 2. \/3). 15. 7. 11. 4. Page 225. 16. - 13. 19. 10. 4. (V6 + 2V2).3.5. 32.. + 6) 2 . x-y 2. 216.1|. - 2. (V8 + V2. 4.W + 12 v/7 - 3 \/15 . V3. 4. 17. 3. V5. (\/3-f 1).

Page 233. 2. 14. . 10. f . (w-p)(w-2p)(wi-3p)(w*4-2p). 24.8a 18. 0. 19. 11. 1.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). ( 16. 0. 10.7. . 4. . 22. b . 4. 12 24 y . 2. 17. 4. 3 5. a(. J 24. 25.4. ~ f7. 1. 3. 19. 1 . a: :} .2.3. 10. (a+&)( 2 14. 25. . 2 > 1. l. J Page 235. 26. 1 . J. 3. 2 . 8.-f 2)(sc 2 -2 r + 4). 15. 16. 2 . 8. . 6. 2. (p-l)(p-2)(p-2). 2 6.2. -0. 3. 2. 5.3. 7.+ ^)( 4 -a 2 6 2 -h6 4 ). 7. 1. (s + l)(x2 -:r + 1). (r. 4 1. 18. 19. 3. -2. 3. 1. 3. //. . -7. 2. 87 . 3 .3. 4. Page 234. 1. 2 &.ANSWERS Page 228. 12. y. 30. 5. 1. & + 6 2 ). 4.l)(m . 9.2.3). J. f>. 2. 13. 13. . 3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 4. 0.nl^EI. 1. 14. 4. 20. -10. - 1. 7. 2. . 4. 2. 1. 10. a . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1. 5. 3. 50. 1 .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 -f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 11. (6-3)(6' -t- 18.w 4 + 1). - 3. -1 (-?> x/^3. 5. 2. 2. 1. -13. - 2.3. 2. 20. 6. 5.0.22. 2. (a . -11. 15. 6. 25. (&y-2a#H-4). - 16). 4 20. 12. 3. 0.Y. 11. 3. 1. 1 3. 3.5 xy + 25) 22. . - f . 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 -f a -f 1). 1 6. o. (8. |. 5. 0. 11. 1 . (w . 2.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 7.. '- J. (m 4 + l)(ro. 2. -20. qpl. 4. 3. 1. 3. 4 . 5.5. (+!)( -2) 10. 2. 8. 8 6 & 0. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l -a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). . 2. (2a + l)(4a*-2a + l). . 18.3. 1. 7. 21.3 2. . - 5.l)(a 2 + a -f 1). 1. (a-2)(:iB2 -f 2a44). 5. 2 6. 2 -V^ . . 5. 1. 3. - . 5. 0.3. 3. 3. 4. 4 . 2. 16. (10 -#0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). + 6 4 )(a*-a' 6 + a 2 6 2 -a& 8 H-6*). (p-l)(p-3)(p-6). 6.10. 2. 2. - 3. 2. . 30 . 3.4. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 27(2 a 4-fc)( 4 2 -2 (a -4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). a - . - 1. (2 a. 100. 9. a(l+a)(l_a-fa 2 ).12. 6 2 2a + 2).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2. Page 236. 13. 73. (a 4. (B4-3).2 + (ro-w)(w-4w)(w a + 6mw -f w 2 ). 17. - 4. 1 .1. 13. 24. 4 4. 30. 22. 6. 3. 3.r . 3 . \/0. 2 .1.^a. -P. 2 <? 4a2 . (rt. 2 . . 4. - 3. 3 9. 2. 11. (l-a&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 8. 4. 3. 6. 7. 15. 12. 14. -56-l). 5. 7. 1. -73.4). 25. 9. - J. . -12. . -3 . V3. 3. 28. =A|^Z3. 0.2)(* . 3. 8. 23. . XXV 4. 4. 1. (w-2)(m-3)(2m + 5). 2. 5. 3. (a. 5. . 1.l)(a-3)(a . 2. 30 30. 3. 21. 5. 4. . t/ 23. 4. 3. 10. 6. (4 mn . 17. 1. (a + l)(a*-a 8 + a--a + l).4. 4. (a. 12. 2. 4. 1.2)(m. 2. 8. 4. . 2. .

37. 4. c. 1 2. 1.. - 11. 0. 25. 50. 15. 3. 2. oo. oo .136.3. 3. 1. x 4. 1. 2 . . . 4 34.. 2. 17. . 69. 6. 1. \. 14. ' j. 2. 3. -2. 2. -37. 3. 2 . 4.. 4. 3. 1 . 23. 8.30. 36.1.13. 2. 11. Page 240. 2. 2. 8 3. . 21. 7. 7. jj. . 1. V7. 1. 30. 12. 32. ft.. . 2. 5. 6. 1. 2. . 7 3. 16. f*.4. 1. 6. J. and _ 4. 5. (>. 4|. 1. 8. 3. '>. 15. | . f>. 1. } .3 . ri*. 14. + - n. 3. 11. 4.020. 1. 5 4. |. 1 . 2. Page 245. 3. Page 239. 33. 1. 2>/3. 4. 15. }. 2 -10. (&) 2. 20 7. 9. 17. 2. 11. Page 247. . 3 cm. 7. in. 2. 12 1. -3. 5. 5. f. 19. 35 ft. 13. 48. 0. 3. in.200. 1 . 35^ 5. Page 238. 2.3. 12 ft. 31. 2. 9. . 1. -1J. 1. . . 3 3. 0. 17. 12. 18. 5. . 24. 7. co .1. 55. 8ft. no co . (/>) "_. 10. 8. 2. Page 243. 1. i i i . 4. 17. 4. 12 d. 4. 6. 5. 3.5. 3. 13.3. Page 244. 45yd. 2n. 1. . 18. in. 2. 3. 5. tn 2. 22. 8 . . $. 17. ^ }. 1. 40 25 in. 13. V3~. Exercise 113. . 5. 3. 2 2.3. 4. 3. 1. 3. 4.0.0. 14. 16. 288. . 4.. m27. 2. 14. m + n. 23. 2V7. 15. 5. -$VO. |. 125 125. 5. Page 248. 2. 19. 900. 84. 5. . 2 16. 1. 2 Y> V . i.4. 9. 37. ft. 2. 9. 40. 1. 10. 35. 3 . 11. 1. .3. 8. 8. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 3. Indeterminate. 12. 17. 4. 3. 3. 21 30. _ 13 (0 6. 2. Exercise 114. 1. _ 10. 1. 5 . 1 . (a) 5. . 4. 3. 1. 2 ft.3. . 4 6. J. 15. 5. -400. 5. 20 in.2. 512. J. 5. . 78. . 4 8. 21. 8. - 2 . 12. 12. 4. 4. _ 5. in. 4. m28. 14. 3 2. 26. 3 . GO . 41. -50. oo .xxvi Page 237.. 14. 24. 5. - 1. 1. ( 3. j. 1. Page 241. ^~2. 4. $. 3. i j. 2 1. 8. 30.3.. 4. 9. 29.18.. 28yd. 1. 15. 6. 4. 8. |. 7. . 7. 12. 3. 16. . 2. 3 4.4. ANSWERS 2. 22. 35 a. = QO 6. 2 26. 38.5. -3. 1. 1. -5. 4. 5050. (a) $3400. . 5 cm. 3. 18.4. 12ft. _ 7.. 5. n. 11. ft. 20. 1. . 11. 1. -14. 31. 9.-y.6. 7f solution. 4. 2 . . in. 15.6.e.1. . 10. Indeterminate. 3. n . 39. 20. 7. . 201. 512. 1 . 2. 4 . 3V5. 40 in. $46. \/6. 3. 1. 3 . . . i'ljVU.. J. 30 13. 5. . 10. .

- 101.r* 4- 70 . 8. 16.x^ 4- x8 15 x 4. 1. REVIEW EXERCISE . 0. 2. 5. 12. **-+-. 20. 6|. 6. J 2 //2 25. 29. . . 05. 410|.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 45. 343.x' 10 . 11. <|. 128. 5.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4- Z> 4. 81.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 4. (). 4. Page 252. 105. 1. 70. 15. . ' 1. x + Vy. 4. 1. 4. 27. sq. Ja. a4 4- 14. . 6. 14. 17. - 20 flW. 6.5 J4 10 47- d*b 6 4- 4. 10. 10. -8. 8. 13. 23. 10.680.K 4 4 50 x 5 4- 28 x 4- 4- ^8 1 -g ! .210.4 &z x>&. 3. 15. 3. 12. r r j. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 12. 04. 6. 8. 2i* 7f.r 4. 16.53. 27. ?/i 6 x llj . Page 254.0. 280 -53. 10 14. 16. in. 7.170. . 50. . 27. I. w9 - 8. 6. 8.7 10. 343. ~ an . 7 x4 17.120. A. 20.ANSWERS Page 250. 12. . 1. x4 . 27. 9. d.384. 75. 4. 19. 2. 192.^ x2 ^x w- ^2 ? . 4. 12. 5. 2. 1.<-2 4. 4. 8 . 3. 3. 19.3 a-ys. 9. 5. 11. 5. 6.6 . y ^ 5 - ^\ ). 5 13. 3.1. 8. 220 . 12. ~v 9. 005. 2. } $ 50. Page 259. 3. 35. 2|. 26. 1. 70.4. 5. 12. 4. 28. 16. 2 1 x 4- 6x'2 12. 0. 1. 18. 9. 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. '23. />*. 7. 15. 4. 8. . vy. 18. 04.r^ - 280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 3.r x>/ 7 3. -. 125. and 1. 2. 304. 2. -15.5. 32. 0. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 13. c. 2. 8J.13. 1. 2.419. 13. 10. xxvii 1. 4. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4| .5. 15. 45. 18. 16. -f r6 4- - 20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 5. 0. 1. . G. 22. -f y 8 + z* . .192.8.5y 4 . 6. a. 44. 120 aW. 4. 7.^ ?>i 24-12x4. 0.700. 2. 16. 1820. 2. 9. 21. 3. .10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 7. 12. 0. Page 258. 4- 0. 8. 3 4- 15 a 8 11 4- 14 a - 1 - 2 y* .5 M ' 41 fc 5 .12 x*y 16. 16 11. 910. 9|. 2. 4. 3.870 m*n*.504. 4. 5. 5. 3.v Page 253. 1. JSg. 8. 17. 125. \ w 4 . 1JH. 1000 aW. 11. 3. 10.5 x. 500 x3 10 4 4- 072 a? 3 . 70. . Jj? 45. 7. 25. 18. 21. 0. 43. 7|. 2. 6. 5. 405. 5. 19. &' 14. 17. 4950 M 2 b y *. 1 14. B .920. 3. :r 4 4- 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 100. 8 1.2 9. 708. 48. r 5 4. 7. 7. 3. 0.470. 1. . 45 Page 257. ^a 8. 8. . x r 4. 1 7 4. 53. . Y11. 55. i 10. 9. 495. 22.2 45 a 8 /)-. 327. 0. 8 4x' 2 .6. 4. 16. 35. 6i. 10. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 4. |- 17. 20. 4.

1-x 4 x3 xt-y6 a 24 3 - Page 262. 1 121.18 ?/ -5x4. 96. x 3 4. 14 x . 29. x4 3 4- 2 x 2 4 0. 3 a . 40. 3 a 44. 76. 4 . . 5 42. 3 a -5 a -5. a 4 . 70. m " + n + P3c . x 8 - a8 . 7 + 3 x-f 2.5 b + c .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . &p 84. 4. 2 . 12 x. +^ + ft W.ac 44- aft. . 23. 104. 2 2/' . * 60.3 b . 27. 4- 4- 4 ft*" 3 4- + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.+ 4- 2 ft) -(a 4. 114.7. 1 . 15 ab 4- Oac 4- 6 be.3 x?/ 2 1/ -4a 3 a o_a 4 -a2 +l. 10 a -12 b. . ?/ . 52. 10 4. . 25. ?/ 3. !! 71. 66. 4ft y-3. + 3 a?. -.5 a 2x-8 x 3 . 2 x2 4. a' 111.c.3 103. + a 4. 94.4. 63. 2 53. 100. 50. x2 4-71x4. .105. 132. x } 4. (a + ft)" 98. 130. 28. 4. 26. 21.x x* - -f- 2 ax 4. 105.x 2 4. x3 - 15 x 2 71 x - 105. 8 . + z. .a6 2 4. .6 am b\ 129. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. . 72.a 2 x 2a . a~b 89. _55_7c 48. a* a 8 -a aftc.2 x 4. 4 fee 4. Page 263.5 3n 4. /> 4 83. - 12 a.4 x?/2 3 4.2 xy + 4 y2 106.4. () 2 x 33. x . 88. 2 2 *- - 3 2n 101. 2 2 -9 ^4 2 59. .x24 73.2. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 2 q. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 aft 3 4- 3 ft 4 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4- 8 y4 .x. 91. -16t/. t 81. 0. 2 2a -2 2 2(a. 31.4 x y 87.1. 4. -- + 3 x2 .4 2 4- c2 4-2 .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. Page 260. 3 36 b c . x2 -3x2/-?/ 2 112. y 4 z* 0.y*. 99. 3 r2 2 ?/ -2 - ax . 124. - 3 x2 .4. x' . 4- 69.a"- xy 2 2/' 3 .4. . 6 8 -j-27 4-0 ab. 3a~2c. x2 -5r*x ft 5 . 1 + 4 xy. . . x 8 + x 4 68. a* 4.6 b. 120. 64. a2 -2 aft -2 2.^a . -f5+7. 24. .c 3 4. 1 x 45. x' 79.a' -'ft 4. 118. -8x3 -8x. 5x 2 -2x4-3. 2 a.ft). x 4. 2 x'V2 90.4 ac.5. 43. 133.{ 54. 4- 65.2.18 x?/0.1.9 x . -9x.4 x 2 . c3 4- 58. 86.rty x2 4- 123.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4- 2 aft 4- ft-. 12 a/.fee 2 4. 2 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4- 2 x2z2 4- 92.. 2 113. 6 c 47. 6 a2 97. - . 3a'2 Page 261. . df. . 49. 0. 4- 115. 3 c . az 4.1w 77. 36. 32. ^ . (d) x - (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4- ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4- 3 2 . as 20. - 4 a3 85.15 4- 62 x - 72.1 4- jry 4- x . 16. 125. -I- 57. 2 . x* . . 4- 2 . - ft 3 - 13 a 4 + ll a 2 -2. 82. 62.3 a 2 '6 w 4.2 x^. . x8 x2 55. . 35. 4- Page 264. x2 + 4- x7 9 y2 x4 4- 4. 30. 22. ft n . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4- 63 4 ?/ . . -5x + 2y~z. 2 x2 108.1. 2 a2 -4 aft -5 116.2 c . 127. 39.a*--ft 2 126. 0. 46. 61. 243x4-729.4-1. ft x6 - 3 x5 4- 9 x4 - 27 x 3 1|. 107. 37. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy-?/. x2 2 . . 9 2w 128. x 2 .3 x 2 + 3 x .9 b. - e +/. 13 + 2 s. . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.5x4.3 . r 5 VF-Tx + vTfy + 1. 3~ n 4. 1 a"-*- 4- an .x4 + y'2 z 4. -36 + 9c-9 a x3 4- + 8. 38.7 x - - 15. 2 30 -. a J . 110.2. fi :ry 42 4 - a 2 4- a 2 ft 2 3 119. + -f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 109.3 y. x4 -f- + 23 . 131.c. ?> . x3 - 15 x 2 48 ?/ . a4 x. 93.3 aftc. 5 4 4-.x 51. .a'2 c.a. x 3 41. 6a6c. ft /> 78. 6y 2 a2 _52 4-5 = 73().xxviii ANSWERS 19. .1. - + 16 a/> 8 - a*-2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. xy-xz-yz.3 a'ft-. 80. ft-2ft 4 4-l. 102. 4 -!- . 122. a 3m 4. fc' 6 p'2 q - 54 ? 3 . 4- 15 x 5 . x2 a2 1 .

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. 370. 393. 0. 0. 380. ?/ + 3 332. 401. 386. 9^. . a + b + 6). . x 54 359. 339.-(5 a . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 2 327. 398. -2. 360. 355.-7.. **" ~ 2 3 >- + 8 x* -f 2 y -4- 1 ^ 350. a-b. l'j. 343 00 351. 333.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. -. 11. ^"" 4 s . * 357. (a + b + c\ . 2(a i- 403. 13 391. + 4 & 4- \ b. 408. 388. ^ 3 // .J . 2(q-. a 2 .!. + 335. 12. 324. 394. -4. 7. 390. 20. 336. 326. 399. a) A^_. c 402. . 334. j 328. -1.)Cr-4)__ . 6-a. 396.3. " 4 378. 375. + x 362. f. 4. 385. 1. Page 277. 2 ab - a- Page 276. 2 ). 4 A. _-*L'L+. 389. 1 i 2 ^. 2. - --1 356. 404. 406.vin a /r " 337. 383. 366. a +6.XXXI Page 272. 3. 379. ?--=. 1. 407. ?>*. 0. 0.H ' 2wi ^-' /' . 377. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *-x 330. 361. 387. 2 r36 384. 6 ?/+:>. 382. 5 ^-^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 2 ?/ 363. 7/i -^ _ .. Page 274. -T+^. 392.1. 3. 3. 4 r-w. 364. T\. 1. ^_:r f> 331. - 1. 397. 325. xa' 2 '-2 7/ + 4 -f- Page 273. 376. S. <L 409. 405. m. L .". If. . A^L-5L-. y 4 -I- 340. 365. l . 400. 1. 395. 329.

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35. 4. 4* da. (ft) Ill Ib. 1. - J(a -f + 2c).10. 1J. . 553.-f 1.. - (a) (d) 1. 3. 591. If 572.02. -21*_. a+ Page 286. 2.88. - imag.ANSWERS Page 284.3. 1. 1.5 -f. (d) 537. 3. 2 1. 509. 3 da. ft 584. 1. 525. .83. 24 da. 4. 4- 8 x2 ?/4 605.6 2. - 2ft da.33. 115 Ib.00. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 -f x4 4 4 594. . T .2.4.3.53.5. 6435. 532. tin. (a) 74 Ib. .5. 24. 3.24. o> . 573. 5. 1 580. 576. 3. 1 1 - 2 x 7 2 -f 3 2 x' -2 + x8 -f x4 .05.r8 596. (c) 3.02. 581.% rr\* 585. J7] min. -f36a-2-8x8 592. (/) - 10 to 8. 561. 559. -2.8 x3^.1. 1. -1. 516.21. 2.6.10. 1 . g(rc+ 6-c). 2 . . .62. . 564. 577. 2 . f.7. -1. + 26 + .37.3. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).4. 2. 0000.0. 571. 1. 603. 4. 575. per hour.8. 1. - - (h) 8. 530. 8 a6 4-2x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4-x4 601. .3. + 12 x . 4. 527. 551. .16. 27 y* f\4 . 3. 0. Roots imaginary. 3f 4f. 1.15.4. 598. _ 3. 3. 4. .8. - 7.62. 1. 3. 1 600.83. . da. (ft) -4.55. _ 4. . -2.1. -1. 2 2.6. 566. (i) -3. 4.12. x8 .31. 563. 7.56 sec. 568.75. .. - (a) 2. - 3. Page 285. -1. a + ft - a - -f c. 531.3. (6) . 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 1. 567. - 557. -2.1. 565. <z ft 1. . 3.4. .54. 3.0.1. + 6 tf -f 3 . .25. y 4. . 3. 569.04. .6.. ^ ft 4.30. per hr. (e) (c) 2.4.24 sec. imag. |. 593. 1$.02. 515. 14.3.1. 1.5. 232. 550. 3 .8.31. 2. 599.02.54.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4- 6 x4 3 xG -f-x.04. 2$. -3. 5. 1. 8 mi. 2 10. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. - . 510. i -_ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a-6) . (6) 3. - + + c.78. 578. 583.24. > ^ . 528. -8 +3 x -f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.52.15. 4. 3. 2 1.4 x + . 558. H. 2(4 602.03.25m.xj/ -f xV . S82 c. (c) -4. lead. 560.15.9. . . 3. 533. lead. -1.78. 574. 7^ da. f -?-- a -f ft __ + c C). . 31. a*-8a + 24tf -82a. f.0. (e) 570.21 a2 + -3x + 3x2 -rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. .75. tin.0.5. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. (gr) -10 1. 2 imag..3.7.xV -f +6 a2 &2 - 4 6.6. 5. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2 - rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. Page 288. - 1. 554.03. 526. 8. 40 Ib. .5. 529. . 513. 4. - 4. 1. 536.14. 6. y% Z * 586. 579. 518. 1.. _^ 27-54x .38.8. - ft*.5+. 582.20.73. 556. 555. 1 . - 2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .51. 1.4._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. .7. 512. 552. 6.3. . 562. 514. or 8. a -f ft + c. 2. xxxin 511.1. 2(6 597. - 2. 4 0. 1. 5. 2. Page 287. 4. 4 mi. 1. .37.

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480 8 sq. 939. - 1 . r ft ' < Page 299. . 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 5. 4. 0. '3 3 in. 6 . 985. 0.111. . a. T 6.V-~~3). 115. 7. tt2 19. 944. 956. 8. 6 da. 933. 12. 11. 8. 6 1 1. 978. 1). 980.01. . i-1" 913. 4.446. f. 7. 4. 952. 3. . 248. 950. . 3 4 . - 1. 987. 963. 2. 940. 1 1.. $(l 4. 1. 111. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 945. 4. 927. 918. -f ft- -4 . . 2. Page 303. 984.. 943. 1 2.2. 981. ft. 3. ft. 919. 6. 12 in. 964.. 40 16 in.ANSWERS oJ--V 41 6 901. ft. J. 904. ft.. 942. 979.. w. 8.709. 5. 2. 28. a + .2. i(6 in. 8.. 7 ft. 948. 8. 906. 930. 931.744. 60 949. -...' -i-fcVira^ 2 3. 921. 4. |. 2 i ' a V. 903. 2. 108. 947. 905. Z ^. 10. 957. dL 4. ?/i 6. T 6. 4. 2. S07. 8. i 8.1 = 9. 6. -5 . 11. 958. 4. 11. 920. 2. 28. V^3). 3). 936.0. 902. . 329. 4. 2. 2| ft. 6. 982. . 959. 100 rows.760 sq. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 2 1. 911. V5 T 2 . 916.. Page 302. 20 19 ft. 4 . 960. ^y./hr. J(_ ft. 1 . . 6. |. 8. 6.. 4 6 mi. ft. 2. 8 . 1. 941. 15 946. %* .651. 2 yd. 1 _2 .1. 909. ft. w 3. 496. 983. i>. 5. . 1. 954. Page 301. 3 . i 3. 937. 28. 4. 917.. 12 mi.. . 4 in. T3. 6. 922. 912.. 333. 1 + V953. 6 a 915. 3.615. 923. 2 w 914. 7. 8128. 2.073. 73. Y. 3. 7 or 30. 0. 6. 925. ft. 12. -333. 9 in. 3. . 12. J. 56. 3. 18. v/(ai- !)(&910. . 280. 3. . 977. 4. Va926. yd. 5l4f. 938. 951. . 935. 15 16 ft. 908. 80. 986. 932. - 26-j.. 934. 2. =F J. V5 fj. ft. 8. Page 300. 11. 66 924. 0. .1. 10. 5.I. 955. 7.. 14 . 962. 5. 961. .

1007.51. 1006. ~ \. 72. 1- 1004.378 1015. 1008. 2(2 -v/2). 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 992. .128 I. (J. 1012. 1018. Page 305. 4 and 1020.'^^ } ( . (5. - 5&7 1021. 6 70 . ^Trsq.. 993. 8. 1010. Page 304. 1013. 1019. 120 i-^l^. + 448 . 4. . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .870 z8 . 9 da. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1014. in. 996. . 0. () 12(2+V3).378 <W and 92. 48. 1001. 995. 24.18. 1017. 1005. 120 a. 1016. 997. 12. 991. 990. 988. 1000. (6) 8(1 . 5 :J2 r 10 - 14 y + 84 y* - 280 + 5(>0 - 72 C- K 4- 2 MJ--iy 8 r? -" 8 . (a) 2^ + --1 \/2). 0. (Z>) 999. 108.192rt?)r 120 *. 1 8 8 2.. 192. 2 . 1003. 1009. r = 2. a- a 13 - 13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 78 n+ a' x 2 t - 13 . 162. (a) (6) -^ 1002. 1(5.92. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. - W1W -JI + 1 / 1 _ -_L\ a . 12.870 a 6 1011. X. ^f (2-f-3V2). 994.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 3003. + v 2).

especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xi 4- 373 pages. comparatively few methods are heretofore. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. given.25 lamo.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. physics. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. 64-66 FIFTH AVBNTC. save Inequalities. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. great many work. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. Half leather. xiv+563 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. HEW TOSS . Ph. etc. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. than by the . and commercial life. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.D. The more important subjects tions. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this grade. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. so that the Logarithms. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. A examples are taken from geometry. Half leather.

but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. xi -f- 373 pages. $1. In Factoring. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.D. 64-66 7HTH AVENUE. so that the tions. $1. HatF leather. etc. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. HEW YOKE .10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. xiv+56a pages. comparatively few methods are given. 12010. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. Logarithms.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author grade.25 i2mo. save Inequalities. Ph. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many A examples are taken from geometry. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and commercial life. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.

6. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Half leather. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. SCHULTZE. under the heading Remarks". Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most text-books in Geometry 8. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. SEVENOAK. xii + 233 pages. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . aoo pages. lines. xtt-t PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. These are introduced from the beginning 3.D. text-book in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK . 10.10 L. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. more than 1200 in number in 2. Cloth. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for class-room work. $1. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 7 he . . wor. 4. $1. State: . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Cloth. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.r and. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. i2mo. izmo.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the text-book. iamo. The numerous and well-graded Exercises the complete book. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Ph.. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 9. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .

methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . Students to still learn demon- strations instead of learning how demonstrate. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 12mo. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . of these theoretical views. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. $1. . and not from the information that it imparts. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach- ing .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . New York City. 370 pages.

photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.40 is distinguished from a large number of American text-books in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. $1. " This volume etc. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Topics. Maps. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. and a full index are provided.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Cloth. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. This book is up-to-date not only in its matter and method. An exhaustive system of marginal references. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. i2mo. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.

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