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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
.A. Berwick & Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910 . 1916. 1917. 1910.S. May.COPYRIGHT. May. August. Mass. Published Set up and electrotyped. Cushlng Co. . July. January. September. Reprinted 1913. Norwood. September. . J. IQJS January. 8. 1911.' February. . 1915. U. 1910.
PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. Such a large number of methods. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. and conse . are omitted. however. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. owing has certain distinctive features. specially 2. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study." this book. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Elementary Algebra. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. etc.
however. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". are placed early in the course. etc. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. For the more ambitious student. especially problems and factoring. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.g. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. hence either book 4. e. two negative numbers. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. Moreover. may be used to supplement the other. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . as quadratic equations and graphs. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. In regard to some other features of the book.
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. is based principally upon the alge . an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. physics. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. in " geometry . elementary way. By studying proportions during the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. viz. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. such examples.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and commercial are numerous. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem." Applications taken from geometry. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. based upon statistical abstracts. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. Moreover. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.
genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. William P. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. 1910. edge of physics. April. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. .
Powers.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ........... SUBTRACTION... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . . .......
* .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ....114 . . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type IV.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. .. Type Polynomials. Type III. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type VI... Type II. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. . Type V.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . /^ .. ..
. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... CHAPTER XIV 169 .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. Evolution of Monomials 170 ..... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ......
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
(cfd) 4. 9. 13. 17. V36". + c). [6c] 3 . A trinomial a polynomial of three terms.g. 2 . 6. find the numerical value of: Vff. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 12. v'Ta. V^a6. 5Vl6c. 2. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. e. d 7. + 1]. 27. c = 1. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 10. aVc^. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. x 9.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. V2a. 16. c f d). 14. since the parts are a . \/c. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. is 28. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. 8. or 9 Vx. 0. as in arithmetic. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 11. 15. b = 3. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. a polynomial of two terms. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. V3 . 4V3~6c. Val \fi?. 26. 7 = 2. 6. some number is . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. !^f\/03 3 ft. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. A binomial is 62 . 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). are trinomials.
19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . EXERCISE 8*  .810 + 150 = .9.INTRODUCTION 29. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. = 32 + 4527 = 50.9 aWc + f a b . 52 . 3a + 56 a 2 . 5=3.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . __ E.. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 16. 5. Ex. a2 11. 5c +d 2 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 2. . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . * For additional examples see page 268. 4a6fVaV2^. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 4 . Otherwise operations of addition.4 6^9 ad. 2. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.g.99. a=4. d = 0. x=^. (a (a f b) 7. multiplication. 6. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 3 2 If 1.5 ax 50 a6cd. 12. subtraction. 8. .30 = 270 . d=Q. 10. find the numerical value of: 9. 1.e. 5. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. i. . 2 ). + 26+3 c. 14. 3 4 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. a 2 6. Ex. 4. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. b = 3. .19 = 6. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . c = 2. l 13. 3.390. c=l.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 6.2 + I126.
6=2.6 . 26 of the exercise. 30. 6 = 3. 6 = 6. 29. 26. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 1. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. geometry. 24. a. sible to state Ex. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 28. a = 4. . 6 = 6. 34. 38. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 3. 6. a =4. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 30.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 3. 6 = 2. 33. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 25. 6 = 4. 6 = 7. and other sciences. physics. Six 2 . a = 4. 6. a = 2. Six times a plus 4 times 32. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. if : a = 2. 6 = 5. a =3. Read the expressions of Exs. 35. : 6. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 27. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. a a=3.6 f c) (6 a + c). 22. 23. 37.c) (a . and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). = 3. 6 = 5.
. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 12. d.g. 15 therefore feet.) Assuming g . b. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.16 centimeters per second.e.16 1 = 84.INTRODUCTION E. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. An electric car in 40 seconds. i. 4. (b) 5. count the resistance of the atmosphere. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v = 30 miles per hour. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. b 14. and 13 inches. and 5 feet. and 15 feet. Find the height of the tree. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. if v . (c) 4. 14.seconds. A train in 4 hours. the area of the triangle equals feet. 2. 84 square EXERCISE 1. then a 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. if v : a. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 13. c.
meters.). is H 2 units of length (inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.). the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).14d (square units).14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the area etc. $ = 3. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 2 inches. If the (b) 1 inch. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 5 F. (c) 5 miles. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. square units (square inches. ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 10 feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.14 square meters. 32 F. 5. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14 4. : 8000 miles. the 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (The number 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.
SUBTRACTION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. however. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. or positive and negative numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. . Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In algebra. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.
5. 21. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 18. is 0. 5. 33. lf(2). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 0. 23.3. 4. 2326. of 2. = 5.  0. (_ In Exs. 24. 19. 4 is 3 J. the one third their sum. if : a a = 2. is 2. (17) 15 + (14). (always) prefix the sign of the greater. c = 4. + 12. 12.16 32. 10. + (9). d = 5. c = = 5. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. subtract their absolute values and . '. 6 6 = 3. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 22. . Thus. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. of: 20.
. 4 F. and $4500 gain.13. 27. c=14. and 3 a. $1000 loss. 37. 30.. . 10. 13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. & = 15. 4. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. : 48. = 23. 40. $7000 gain. 42. 3. c = 0. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. and 3 yards. 6. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. \\ Add 2 a. : and 1. 0. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. affected by the same exponents. and 3 F. 12. 43. . 5 and 12. which are not similar.3. 11 (Centigrade).7. 66. 33. 7 yards. 09. 55. ' 1? a 26. sets of numbers: 13. or and . ^ ' 37.5. 38. 35. 31. 34. 2. = 13. 6. 2. 74.4. . 72... 6. $3000 gain. 1. & 28. and 8 F. and 4. SUBTRACTION. 32.5. AND PARENTHESES d = l. .7. are similar terms. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 39. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. : 34. }/ Add 2 a. d= 3. 41. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. . 7 a. $500 loss. 10. and 3 a. . 36. 32. 7 a. . = 22. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 29. 3 and 25.ADDITION. 10. ' Find the average of the following 34. 60. 25. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12.
14 . 7 rap2. 11. 13. 12 2 wp2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. in algebra it may be considered b. 9(af6). : 2 a2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 10. + 6 af . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 2(af &). Vm f. 5Vm + w.18 35. b a f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.ii. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 5l 3(af6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 12(af b) 12. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 5 a2 . 2 a&. 12Vmfn. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign.13 rap 25 rap 2. or a 6. 2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 . f 4 a2. Algebraic sum. 3a .
2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. without finding the value of each term 34. n x* 2 22. 2 2 2 31. 30. l^S 25. 21. 17. 36. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 37. and to add each column. 6 23. SUBTRACTION. 1 27. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. c 2 ^24. is . 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 .ADDITION. 35. + y. 33. + / + 3 Va. 2 7 1 26. ra 19. a a8 ZL **. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. +m """ 20. 32. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2/ : Add. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15.
the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 9 q 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . f 110WS: 26 aft. 3.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.20 c 5 ab 4. to show any error. = . 3a 2? . therefore the answer is correct. 46 4z 7 c.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .3 s. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. NOTE. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.g.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 4 = 7. 2 Sum. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.15 6c.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. and 2 .12 a& 4. . . 7 4. 5.41 = 3. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. e. of that letter.7 2 . to add 26 ab . 4 2. ft any convenient and c.15 abc . 2 Thus. c = 1. x of x.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 2 . and J 2 s. 5 . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. a 4. .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6=2. 2 025.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.c= 2.g. the erroneous answer equal 7.8 abc . 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. V3.o c and 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. s.
and and 13. . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. xy3xz + yz. 16.7v/if. m 4 6. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . . .1. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 4 ajy 17. ^2 1 e. 56 w. a 4 a . 2 3(c f a). 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. and v 15. and 12a 4 15& 20c .5 cr& + 7 6 9.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 7ar + 3B 5.4:xy xz 6yz. . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .12.9(a + &) . a 4 a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . .(b + c) 1. 8. 3 2 2 3 9 . . and 1 4 a .VS 4 2 Vc. a) y ^/. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 2 2 and .7m .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . a + 1> 8 2 2 .5a^6 f 6) . 16e + 17/90. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .a. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. SUBTRACTION.a . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. . in 8 3 m n 4. v/20. 18/+6y + d.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 4 8 3 4 4 . e a4 /. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .8 m 2m 12. a2 a.a 4 a 4 1. a. + 50 + 62 .15 5. 4 Vc. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). a2 2 14. 4 3 .10 Vc. 2 and 9m 48m 4. ?/ .Ga 43x45. . 2 2 . and .a. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.2n 2 2 3 rz . and 5 Vb 18. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .12(a 4. 2 ?ft ?/z. and 8 3 . d and / 3 ? 12. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 2 a.ADDITION. d.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.4 Va . 2 ?/. 4. 4(a . + a + 1. 11.and 6.1 a 4 1 0. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. . 19.6. .12 6 ~5 a .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .
1.5< 3 2 s 4^4.17 + 4 ?nfy . 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . how 1. 12 xyz. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 8 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.ra + m. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 6 f c 2 23. and 25. 1. is 2. . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and e + 6y . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. +d a.11 xy + 12. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. . If you diminish a person's debts. f 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. . 1/ .22 21.m 4m ?/?/ d. 45a6 2 . f number may be added 3. 1. + 1. + n*.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. s . The sum and ? 1. 22. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1. a 6 2 c. many negative units re main ? from 2. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2fa 3 4 a +7a.3 taken from 2 ? 5.3^* 2n 2 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 .9aj 2. T8a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. f 1. and 2 24. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 1.
ADDITION. and the required number the difference. called the minvend. a. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. ( 6) ( = . and their algebraic sum is required. from What 3.g. 2. 6 (3) = 8. NOTE. the given number the subtrahend. Ex. 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 7. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 1.3. two numbers are given. SUBTRACTION. This gives by the same method. In addition. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. In subtraction. 41. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 5 is 2. Or in symbols. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Ex. ab = x. From 5 subtract + 3. From 5 subtract to . change the sign of the subtrahend and add.2. +b 3. To subtract. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. the other number is required. . if x Ex. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of .
Ex.5 x + 8.3 x* .f 8 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check. If x = l = 2 t .
From 2 a take a & j. 45. 56. 51. 55. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 44. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.a 2 j. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 50. tract 4 x 3. c f d. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. check the answer.w>t. 41. 54.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 49. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.2. 42. From 6(af.c. 53. of a 4. and 3 7/ . 47. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 52.7 a . 46. + a the 2 a. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 6 4 a. 43.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.4 a*& + 6 a & . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 2y 2 .6)f. 58. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 48.4 a^ 4. 57.
6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 19. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 2 m 21. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11.26 4. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . + 6 + c. a 2y + z. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +a add the difference duce 13. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. of # 2 8. A is n years old.15. a + 6. 16. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a a + c. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 9. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 20. + 2. subtract # + 1. 6 17.
the sign is understood. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. a+(bc) = a +b . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. I.b c = a a & f f. SUBTRACTION.c.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. changed. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.a^6)]  } . The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.c.g. one occurring within the other. . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 46.6 b f (.2 b . Ex. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. & f c.ADDITION. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 45.
13. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. find the numerical value of { 1422 .y (60. + (2a 6 + c ). 271 + (814 . Ex. 5. a (a + 6). (m a2 f. 14. 16.(a + 6). .7i h jp) (m ?*. ? 11. [36+ (a 2c]. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). In the following expression inclose the second and third. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 18. m f ft) a. 2 2a. By removing parentheses. a f (a a . 2a (4a 26 +c ). 8. 17. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).: Ex.1422) J ] .+ 6)f (a2 b). 2. 21. 9. 6) 2. 4. : x + (2yz). the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.)]. 19. may be inserted according to 43. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 15. Signs of aggregation 1. 2 2 2 a(.[271 47. a (a + 26 c ). 3 3 f 7. 6.) 5 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 3.
5. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n.ADDITION. 6. 6 diminished . 5 a2 2. m x 2 4. The difference of a and 6. of the cubes of m and n. z + d. The square of the difference of a and b. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. a\l> > c + d. 13. m and n. 2. first. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 5^2 _ r . and the subtrahend the second.2 tf . 7. ' NOTE. y f 8 . terms 5. 10.4 y* . EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The product The product m and n. 4. 9. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 8. SUBTRACTION. The sum^)f m and n. 7.1. 2mn + 2q3t. . II. 12. difference of the cubes of n and m. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 3.7fa. 3. )X 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. p + q + rs.
a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 16. 18. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. b. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 6. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.30 14.) .
If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. two loads balance. 3. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. therefore. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 2. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 4. force is produced therefore. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. A A A 1. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the Ib. weights.
32 8. (5)X4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Practical examples^ it however.4)(4) = + 12. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. however. 9 x ( 11). the multiplier is a negative number. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 9 9.4)(. becomes meaningless if definition. 4 multiplied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. To take a number 7 times. 4x(3)=12. 48. NOTE. such as given in the preceding exercise. Thus. 4 multi44444 12. thus. 5x(4). Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. (. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. . or plied by 3. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.9) x 11. ( (. x 11. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.
2a 2 6c. 10. _2^ 3. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. of Signs: TJie positive. 4. Law Thus. (10) 4 . find the numeri values of: 21.2. x. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 5x3. 8 4 . NOTE. 8 31. 13.a)( =+ a&. 15. . 2. 30. 17. If a cal = 4a6c.(a&c) 2 2 .2 f+x 2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . 14. _3. etc. 7. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . +5. 5. 4 a2 . 19. 26. and y = 4. 22. is 6x7. Ua b 28. 16. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.7. X(5). 32. (4)X(15). 3 a2?/2 . 6. (2)x9.3.2f 18.(4J). . 9. _2. 24. (. 8. (4)'. 29. z s 11 aWcx. 23. x= 0. 27. 4 . 1.MULTIPLICATION 50.4. 6. 1. . (c#) . (2) 8 (. c = 25. 3. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 12. b = 3. 6 2. (7) X (12). 11. 2a6 c . about fac (2)X If 6. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 3 aW. . 3.3) (1) 7 2 . 20.
100. 5(711. i. 7. = 2. .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 36. 2. 2 2 3 6 . 14. 4. 5.(2. IB. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . .. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.6 if 35. . 12 U U . .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .. 4. This 52. 5 . &*) c d*. 4. 16. a 2 2 . 6" 127 U . 17. 2 3 . =2 a *. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. a = 3. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 2. 1. Ex.(12) . + 2/). 11. a8 a=2. 2(7. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.2 2 23 + 5 . (a6) (a5) 9. 2 2 2 .<?. & = 3. 5 3 5 3 2 . 6 = 1. of the factors.  2 2.35). 10.503). if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 78 . 6 = . 3 2 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 53. 13. a = 2.2).34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 3.257).7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . : 3a7abc. 6. Ex.7. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 6 aWc x . B. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 2(14. fl*" integers. . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.3). 5 = 2.(7). only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 3 3 4 . 9 . 127  127 9 7 .e. a= 1. 34. 3.  and 2 25 8 . By 3 definition.m a 3  4 . m*. 50(112. or 2 . 200.
24. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 12( + 1 4 i). 6(10420430). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 3. This principle. 2 32. 21. /). . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 2(5fl5f25).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. . by first multiplying. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 23. 23(10004100420). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 17(10041042). . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). but we shall assume it for any number.A).4a#. tet^m f c) = ab +ac.7 w'W (8 n^W). 35. 2. 7p*q r*. .2 3 aft ). 20. 31. 5. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . ) 2 33. 25. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . multiply each by the monomial. and then adding : 1. 4. If results ft. 27. (.6. 35 4 7(6. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 7.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.f 2). 22. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 29.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . _4aft. called the distributive law.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 2(645410). 19. 26.3 win ) . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 6. (. 34. .7pqt. 11(3. Thus we have in general a(b 56. c(4a ftc ). 3(124342). 28.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .
9.we b) (x law. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.2 mn(9 mV . 30.60 a& 10 aft. 21.5 x 7). 23. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 26. 7 a 6 c(. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 12. .5 w*V f 7 wn). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Find the factors of 5 a 6 .^ c + 2 . 22.asa product. By what 25. f7a. 28. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 11.3 aftc). Find the factors of 6 ary . 17. : expression must 24. be multiplied to give 4o. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 2 2 16. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 3 ). 2 m(mhn \p). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . ~2mn(m +n p ). 29. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 20. 2 27. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). . . 5). 19. .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.6 a6). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14.
4.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Multiply 2 + a a. Since errors.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Ex. Multiply 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 . 2.1. the student should apply this test to every example. however. To multiply two polynomials. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a .a .3 a 2 + a8 . . Since all powers of 1 are 1. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. Check.3 b by a 5 b.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 59.
17. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).2). 10. 7. 30. 13. 20. (8r7*)(6r39.4) (mnp 4. 4 2). 3<7). 28. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 4. 7y). 11. 9. 1). 5. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. . 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 15. l)(raf 2). 26. 2 . ^ 2 . QQ O7. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (6i7n)(llJn). 36) I) 14. 24. (4a 2 33. 31. 6. 2. 8. 41. 2  37. (13 A.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.2m)(l m). (6a~7) 2 . a 5c)(2a6c).n)(m 8 n)(m n). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 25.4) (x + 1). 2 . (ajf6y)(aj 23.1 . 18. OQ OO. (2w 19. (a^26) . 2) (3 A: 1). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 16. 29. (6p (2 f 21. + & + 1f a^faj 1). * For additional examples see page 261. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 12)(a?^2l). 36). 3. 12. 32. I (mfn)(m4. 22. (2 x* x 2 . 40. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 36. . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 35.
2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 25 a 2 .e. 2 a? 29. 2 6) (a 3 6). (ra. . (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. . + 9)(m+9). 11. (a3)(a + 2). 3. _3)(a _4). 8. 9. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (10+ (1000 (2. 1005x1004.4). 19.e. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 12. (p12)(p + ll). plus the product of the two unequal terms.13). 75 ab f 54 ft . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 24. + 3) (a 7). 18. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). X 102. + 2) (a f 3). (J 23. 7. 13.!!)( (a + 21). (a 9) (a + 9). 21. (a 102 x 103. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 17. in of the two unequal terms. + 60)(f2). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 26. 2) (1000 + 3). 6. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 27. plus the product 62. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.2 6) (a f 6).25)(y+4). 1) (10 + 2). (*. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (a (a (a. + 5) (1000 + 4). 20. 28. : 23 2. .MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (!)(* 5). (6 12) (6 f. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 10. 22. 25.n)(wf w). 15. i. i. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 14. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . ft 16.
(II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). of the second.30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 49 y*. 6. (a26) 2 . plus the square of the second. III. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 32. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 31.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 3) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus twice the product of the first and the second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 35. : 24 (a 2. 33. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 3. second. 4. Ex.e. 63. 8. . 7. 37. p 2 p. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 2 5.e.e. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. .15. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 7 a + 10. + 6 a + 8. i. (x+3i/) 2 .15. and the second.66 s. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. i. a2 2 w + 2 w . w 2 ro . . III. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. n2 10ii+16. <J>7) J . 9. 34. 77ie square of the of the first. (a2) (p a . 2 (a (*5) 2 . oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.
(a 3) 2 2 2 .998 39. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (2x3yy. 2 . n 2 f4n+4. . 9 a2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . n*6n+9. a2 9. 42. G> +5g)*. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20.MULTIPLICATION 10. (^. + 5). 62 25n 2 . 47. 22 2 . 41 16. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 99x101. 38. 34. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 49. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 103 36. 15.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 35. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 7& ) 25. 991 2 2 . 55. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 18. m 2 16. . The product of 57. By actual multiplication. 2 J ). (6afy 2 5) (a. 23. 54. 45. 22. 104 2 37. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 998x1002. 21. 25 a 9. ). 29. 33. 2 2 . ( 27. 52. 2 (4a36) 2 13. . + 3z) 2 2 . 12. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 14. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 . 32. 44. . 17. 48. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 40. 16aW25. (20 f 1) . + 5)(5+a). 41. 24. 31. (1000 2 . 11.30 ab + 25 6 64. 51. 46. 4 53. I) 2 . 28. 2 9a 496 2 56.
and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. . The square 2 (a 4.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. or The student should note minus signs. 65. 9. 13.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 10. (5a4)(4al). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 7. 8. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 11. 5. ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (5a64)(5a&3). (4s + y)(32y). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). : 25 2. 4. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. ((5a? (10 12. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 6. (3m + 2)(ml). 14. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. plus the last terms. 3. (2a3)(a + 2). 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).& + c) = a + tf + c . sum of the cross products.
4(aj2)h3(7).4) . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) (x . 9. 6. 7. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). . Hence. + 65) . 8. 13. of z : 10.[a? . 6(a 2.29. 4(* + 2)5(3). n). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 4y sf n) 2 . 4. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.(>. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (a (. 3. (u4& + 3c'. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (xy+z)*. = . 66.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 6~2(a + 7).(m 2 6.8 x + 15] . 12. and check the answers !. 5.y? + 8 .24 .3) . 5.39.4) . Find the square root 11.(x . after multiplying the factors of a term. Ex. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).(= [ Xa + 2 . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).i2&c) 2 . + 6)( . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (  2 4) =  20 a.5). 2 2.3)(z.X2 + 2 x . 8. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 2)6. 3. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.r _ 2 . If x = 1. = 10 x .5) = (7 . a.39.1 5 = 10 .24] . 7. 4. Check. Simplify (x + 6) (a . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. .e. (81 m + 1 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). Division of the difference of two squares. . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). 18. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.l. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). . 51 15. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2) (3 a .11 a + 9 a . v/17. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .DIVISION 14. 19. 16.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). a I. 20.
f 13. 9& 2 . r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16 . 100ry. : the following w a 4 !. . . 1. 15.49.000. 121a a 16 100 11. 4 b. aW 12 a.0001. 12. 10. 16. 14.
CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the first member is 2 x + 4. Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . 81. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. the 80. hence it is an equation of condition. is said to satisfy an equation. . 82. . =11. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. x 20. 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. in the equation 2 x 0. (a + ft) (a b) and b.r f9 = 20 is true only when a.
b. the products are equal. 5.g. If equals be subtracted from equals. the sums are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. A 2 a. If equals be divided by equals.2. 3. . E. one member to another by changing x + a=. 89. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A numerical equation is one in which all . . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. If equals be added to equals. A term may be transposed from its sign. called axioms 1. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. 4. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. x I. 85. If equals be multiplied by equals. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.54 84. To solve an equation to find its roots. 90. a. the quotients are equal. 87.e. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 2. the divisor equals zero. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . NOTE. Transposition of terms. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2 = 6#f7. 86. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. the remainders are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.
x = 3. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Transposing. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. 3 y . and the known terms to the second. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.2. 6a5 = 185 = 13. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Dividing both members by 2. a= a 6fc. . The first member. Uniting similar terms. Hence the answer. x = (Axiom 3) 92. To solve a simple equation.9 y + y2 = 22 . The first member. if 55 x members. 2 x = 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. (4y)(6.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Check. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Dividing by Check. The second member. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. 91. if a x = b. b c. Ex. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. b Adding a to both + a.2 y= f . Uniting. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. is correct. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. 2(11 .8. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. f If y 20 . x = 93.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI .6 y f y\ . 4x 1 + 6. Unite similar terms.
22. 3. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.. a? a?. 8. 2.56 Ex. x = 18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. If x = 18. Uniting. 15. + 7(3 + 1) =63. x x 1 . 13 y 99 = 7 y. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 + 5a. . 11 ?/ a? 18. v23.7a: = 394a. etc. = 3. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 19. 247y = 68lly. {(x (x The The member right member left . 7a? 5. 17 7 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 3 = 17 3 a? a?. it NOTE. Solve the following equations by transposing. 7 (6 x 16). \x x 2^xfl. 20. Dividing by Cfcecfc. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.7. 14y = 59(24y + 21). J. 13a? 3a?. = 7. . a?. 4a + 5 = 29. 3. a. 14. 9 9a? = 7 13. =2 = 3.17 + 4y = 36.69. 7. Transposing. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.. 24. f Simplifying. 3 7 a. 21. 32 = 264. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. = 2 ?/. 11. 4. and check the answers 9. a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 12. aj * See page 264. 4y 10. + 22. 6. 50. = 5a?+18. : 5# = 15+2a. 16.
(2 + 6) (4 . 36.5(2 u . 25. 29.7) (7 x + 4) .1 0) = 0. . 2 2 * Jaj.1) (u .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. a? 43. 40. Evidently 45.2) (M .3) + 14.7. 7(7 x y 26.4) + 4 w . 41. + 7) (.5) + 199. .3) . .12) (2 + 5) . (a. a? 28. (aj 37. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 33. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 5) (as (a. 38.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 6(6a. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. this question. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.5) = (a. 39. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 42. 35. or 70 a?. (6 u =5 44.3) + . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.g. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.14 = 0. is the other part.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.32. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 27. .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. . find the other part. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. e. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). + 4). 7) (a. . . 30. 31. 34.
11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. find the cost of one yard. greater one is g. 1. so that one part The difference between is s. one part equals is 10. 6. 5. 15. 9. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 33 2. 10. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 14. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Ex. is d. or 12 7. so that of c ? is p. and the smaller one parts. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Divide a into two parts. a. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 13.58 Ex. is b. EXERCISE 1. 6. Divide 100 into two 12. 7. is a? 2 is c?. smaller one 16. If 7 2. 17. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 4. Find the greater one. 3. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. one yard will cost 100 dollars.
Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 28. If B gave A 6 25. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B has n dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 26. A dollars. ?/ 31. 33. Find 21. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. amount each will then have. A man had a dollars. numbers is x. 24.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 22. How many cents had he left ? 28. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. is A A is # years old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the of their ages 6 years hence. How many years A older than is B? old. and B's age is y years. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. Find 35. find the has ra dollars. 19. A feet wide. 28. and B is y years old. How many cents has he ? 27. 20. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 32. and spent 5 cents. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. b dimes. 34. sum If A's age is x years. and c cents.
What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. of 4.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A was 20 years old. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.50. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 46. he walk each hour ? 39. A cistern is filled 43. . m is the denominator. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. find the fraction. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 49. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. of m. 48. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. Find a. % % % of 100 of x. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. Find x % % of 1000. a. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find a 47. c a b =  9. The first pipe x minutes. Find the number. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. .
EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. a exceeds b by c. The excess of a over b is c. 80. double of a is 10. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. same result as 7 subtracted from . 4. c. 80. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 2. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 5. by one third of b equals 100. c. The double as 7. 9. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. of a increased much 8. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 3. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of x increased by 10 equals x. etc. 6.
first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 11. A gains $20 and B loses $40. as 17 is is above a. express in algebraic 3x : 10. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. amounts. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. >. 3 1200 dollars. (c) If each man gains $500. B's age 20. a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. x is 100 x% is of 700. m is x % of n. 12.000. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. x 4 If A. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and C's age 4 a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 18. 6 % of m. 17. pays to C $100. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B. they have equal of A's. and C's ages will be 100. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 14. of 30 dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. and C have respectively 2 a. 16. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 50 is x % of 15. #is5%of450. is If A's age is 2 x. they have equal amounts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.. B's. symbols B. sum equals $20.62 10. B's. In 10 years the sum of A's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. . a second sum.
Dividing. x= 15. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Three times a certain no. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Find A's present age. Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. much as 40 exceeds the number. etc. Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. number. the . Uniting. 4 x = 80. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. be 30 . 6 years ago he was 10 . Transposing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. number of yards. 2. 1. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Uniting. In order to solve them. Simplifying. the required . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. but 30 =3 x years. In 15 years 10. x = 20. 3z40:r:40z. 15. x+16 = 3(35). A will Check. . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Ex. 23 =30. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. denote the unknown 96. Let x = the number. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Ex. NOTE. Let x The (2) = A's present age.
by as much as 135 ft. exceeds the width of the bridge. EXERCISE 1. 300 56. Find the number. How many miles per hour does it run ? . . Six years hence a 12 years ago. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 3. % of 120. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 14. twice the number plus 7. Find 8. 5. A number added number.2. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 120. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.64 Ex. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 13. Dividing. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Let x 3. 11. Hence 40 = 46f. 4. Find the number.
Find the population of Maine in 1800. Ex. the second one. The problem consists of two statements I.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 97. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. A and B have equal amounts of money. Maine's population increased by 510. is the equation. During the following 90 years. x. 14. 65 A and B $200. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. statements are given directly. . One number exceeds the other one by II. and B has $00.000. The sum of the two numbers is 14. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B will have lars has A now? 17. times as much as A. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. The other verbal statement. and as 15.000. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. written in algebraic symbols. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B How will loses $100. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dol A has A to $40. F 8. 1. Vermont's population increased by 180. five If A gives B $200. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. two verbal statements must be given. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.
Dividing. unknown quantity in Then. / . expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Let x 14 I the smaller number. . . < Transposing. B will have twice as viz. terms of the other. 8 = 11. A will lose. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = 14. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. = A's number of marbles. 8 the greater number. which leads ot Ex. the smaller number. x = 8. The two statements I. to Use the simpler statement. If we select the first one. 25 marbles to B. 2. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. and Let x = the Then x +. = 3. has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as many as A. Statement x in = the larger number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. If A gives are : A If II. consider that by the exchange Hence. x x =14 8.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. although in general the simpler one should be selected. . Then. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Uniting. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. = B's number of marbles. + a f f 8 = 14. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 3x express one many as A. 2x a? x j = 6. the greater number. I.
3 x = 45. The sum of two numbers is 42. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 2. Dividing. then. dollars and dimes is $3. Simplifying.550 f 310. the number of half dollars. The number of coins II. 6 times the smaller.240. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. but 40 = 2 x 20. x = the number of half dollars. 3.$3.5 x . Two numbers the smaller. 50 x Transposing. Find the numbers. The value of the half : is 11.25 = 20. . 50. 1. Uniting. 11 x = 5. greater is . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. x = 6. x = 15. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).75. have a value of $3. by 44. B's number of marbles. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.10. cents. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Dividing. A's number of marbles. 60. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.10. Simplifying. and the Find the numbers.. (Statement II) Qx . Find the numbers. is 70. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 40 x . Eleven coins.. Let 11 = the number of dimes. consisting of half dollars and dimes. the number of dimes. of dollars to the number of cents. Check. the price. Uniting. * 98. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). w'3. . x from I. Check.. 45 . * ' . 15 + 25 = 40. etc.
and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Everest by 11. 11. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. as the larger one. How many inches are in each part ? 15. How many 14 years older than B. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. How many volcanoes are in the 8.. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and twice the altitude of Mt. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley.68 4. On December 21.000 feet. How many hours does the day last ? . A's age is four times B's. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 9. 7. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. tnree times the smaller by 65. 5. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and four times the former equals five times the latter. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. one of which increased by 9. Find their ages. 6. Twice 14. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. the number. United States. Two numbers The number differ by 39.
and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. are : C's The three statements A. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. number of dollars of dollars B C had.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. bers is denoted by x. x = 8. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. number had. Ex. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Let x II. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B has three times as much as A. they would have 3. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. number of dollars A had. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and 68. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. B. and B has three as A. 1." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. . has. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. times as much as A. 19. B. original amount. and C together have $80. The third verbal statement produces the equation. I. III. = 48. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. II. has. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If 4x = 24. 8(8 + 19) to C. then three times the money by I. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. and C together have $80. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. If A and B each gave $5 to C.
Dividing. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 2. 9 cows. + 8 90 x and. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 4 x f 8 = 28. and Ex. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. number of sheep. each horse costing $ 90. 90 may be written. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. cows. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. III. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. according to II. Let then. 28 2 (9 5).140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and. The total cost equals $1185. 1 1 Check. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Uniting. each cow $ 35. + 35 x 4. first. The I. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. x Transposing. three statements are : IT. and the sum of the . = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x f 4 = 9. sheep. number of horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. the third five times the first. number of cows. 9 5 = 4 . 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x j = the number of horses. and each sheep $ 15. 185 a = 925. x = 5. according to III. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. If twice The sum the third side. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.  4. 9. A 12. the copper. what is the population of each city ? 8. twice the 6. increased by three times the second side. 7. first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the second one is one inch longer than the first. what is the length of each? has 3. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and children together was 37. twice as old as B. 13. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.000. The gold. the third 2. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. New York delphia. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. what are the three angles ? 10. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. equals 49 inches. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. men. and the sum of the first and third is 36. "Find three is 4. women. how many children were present ? x 11. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and 2 more men than women. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v .000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).000.
Let x = number of hours A walks. number of miles A x x walks. speed. 14. of arid the value of the iron was $300. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. together. Find the value of each.000 more than that the copper. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 3 and 4. we obtain 3 a. The copper had twice the value of the gold. and quantities area. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. = 35. = 5. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. such as length. Hence Simplifying. i. width. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.g. A and B apart. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. and distance. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. how many 100. but stops 2 hours on the way.e. number of hours. . Dividing. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 7 Uniting. or time.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750.000. 8 x = 15.
70x10 Ex. x . + 8. Transposing and uniting. 2 a = 40. Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. x + 200). $ 1000 x . and the width decreased by 10 yards. Multiplying. the area would be 100 square yards less. . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. $ 800 = 800. were increased by 30 yards.M(x ." gives (2.04 = $ 40. 10 x = 200. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Find the dimensions of the field. the second 100.053. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. or 700. . z = 20. original field has Check. But 700 certain = 800 2. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. l.01 = = . 2   and transpose. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.06 = $ 40. x .05 x x .04 8. The an area 40 x 20 =800. $ 800 = required sum.
how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. the area would remain the same. and its width decreased by 2 yards. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. 2. mobile. and a second sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. together bring $ 78 interest. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. Ten yards $ 42. A of each. twice as large. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. were increased by 3 yards. Six persons bought an automobile. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. sions of the field.55. A sets out later two hours B . How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. Find the share of each.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A sum ? invested at 4 %. invested at 5 %. as a 4. but four men failed to pay their shares. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A man bought 6 Ibs. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. of coffee for $ 1. What are the two sums 5. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. After how many hours will B overtake A. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 1. 3.
how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at .will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A and B set out direction. but A has a start of 2 miles. and from the same point. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. After how many hours.
it is composite. a. but fractional with respect 103. a2 to 6. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . we shall not. f db 6 to b. + 62 is integral with respect to a. this letter. 6. vV . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. at this 6 2 . if it does contain some indicated root of . An after simplifying. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. which multiplied together are considered factors. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 76 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. as. 5. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a. 104.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. consider 105. irrational. it contains no indicated root of this letter . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. stage of the work.
Divide 6 a% . 2. Ex. 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 107. 77 Factoring is into its factors.62 can be &). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 110. E. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 8) (s1). Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.62 + &)(a 2 .) Ex.g. it follows that a 2 . ?/. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. .3 sy + 4 y8). for this result is a sum. in the form 4) +3. 109. TYPE I. 1. 01. factors of 12 &V is are 3. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Factor G ofy 2 . x. y.3 6a + 1). or that a = 6) (a = a . 2.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .FACTORING 106. 55. . x. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. It (a.
51 aW + 68 21.3. 15 2 7. Ilro8 9. ) 22  2. 3 2 . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 14a 4 5. . 8.5 + 2. (as 3) and (ccf5). 7i 13. 2. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . a a 'Ja . 2 23. e. 32 a *?/ . in general. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 4. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). a6c. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 16. 34 a^c 8 . 2 2 . 3x*6x*. 20. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. + llm llm.4. 15.30 aty.g. 7a & 10. 2 + q.5 x*y 2 17 a? .45 afy . 4 tfy f. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 2 6.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. : 6 abx . 14. 3 3 5 6. 19. . 3. obviously. 18. 17.6.4.5 + 13 8. 12. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). q*q*q 2 a. 2 Or. TYPE IT.8 c a 15 ofyV . 5f 2 .12 cdx.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .3.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 11. 4 8 . 13. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.2.
5.G) = . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. or 77 l. If q is negative. of this type.6 = 20.FACTORING Ex. Factor x? . Therefore Check. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a.11 a 2 . m 5m + 6. 79 Factor a2 4 x . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. + 30 = 20. determine whether In solving any factoring example. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. . 2 6. 4.11. as p. 2. tfa2  3. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). the two numbers have opposite signs.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 11 7. and (a .77 = (a.30 = (a . Factor a2 . or 7 11. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 77 as the product of 1 77.1 1 a tf a 4. + 112.a). Factor + 10 ax .5) (a . . We may consider 1. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Ex.11 a + 30. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. can be factored.4 x . . a 2 . Ex. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.5) (a 6). 3..11) (a + 7). however. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. If q is positive. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. is The two numbers whose product and 6.4 .
17 + 30. + 5<y 24. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 4 3 2 . 12.70 x y . + 4?/21. ay 11 ay +24. 100 xr . 2 ?/ 28. 2 . 33. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. TYPE 113. 21 a 2 2 .500 x + 600. 2 2 . 18. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 20. 16. 27. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 19. 2 2 a' 34. ra + 25ra + 100. 13. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. . + 2xS. 36. 16. . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 25. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. + 30. 8. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. and 5 x.180 a.6. 15. + 44.48 + + 446 200. x2 23. 2 . 29. 21. 31.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 14. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. a 7 a 30. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . . 26. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 ?/ 5?/14. a? + 5 + 6 a. 32. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 2 ?/ 22. 4 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5.80 7. 30. 24. or . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 9. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 11. 17. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 35. ITT.
all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3.83 x f 54. and r is negative.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. but the opposite sign.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.5) (2 x . Factor 3 x 2 . a. 2. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. . 11 x 2x.5 .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. 54 x 1. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. . or G 114. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 6 x 9. the signs of the second terms are minus. 9 x 6. If p is poxiliw. X x 18. and that they must be negative. 27 x 2. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. viz.1). sible 13 x negative.13 x + 5 = (3 x . the If p and r are positive. 3 x and x. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 2 x 27. Ex.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 18 x 3.
4. 10. X 27 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. and the monomial factors should be removed. 5. since all others (II. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 15. 32. 4a2 9tt + 2.260 xy . + 2/3. the expressions should be it. 2 2 2 . 29. 10 a .83 x = (3 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 35. 3. 12. f go.83 x .7. 2 . 2x* + 9x5. 90 a 8 2 .2 a 90 x*y .2) (x . 25. 9. . 30.163 x 2 . 16.y + 172/9. 34. 14. 18. 2 26. 20. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 5m 26m f 5.30 y 6 4 .179. 12^17^16. 14 a fa 4. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 ar* 2 i/ . . 2 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6. 2 31. 9a. 10a2 G a2 2 . 3x*Sx + 4. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 17. 8. 144 x . 11. 9 y + 32^16. 21.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.19 a f 6. 2 fc . 12y 2/6. 6n + 5?i4. x54 a. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 10a?2 2 33. . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 13. 100^200^ + 100^. 24. 22. 2m t7w + 3. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 19. 7. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2 28. Sar' + SaG.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . : 41 2. + 4. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2. 3a + 13a. 2 2 2 23.27).
2 9 10gf25. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a .10 x f 16. 6. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 13. form are special cases of the preceding type. of its terms are perfect squares. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 9. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 116. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 2 . 3. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*.20 xy f 4 y\ . and factor whenever possible : 1. 10. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. i. 14. it is a perfect square.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 16 y? The student should note that a term. square. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 12. 8. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. To factor a trinomial which maining term.e. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 25 7. must have a positive sign. 2 . 5. however. and a perfect square. x* . 9 10a625. it is more convenient for that type. 11. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. . 2. 4. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.
+( )f816 30. ).20 ab + 10 b a . 3. TYPE 117.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 19. 36 2 4.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). . 6 2 . According to 65.e.64 6 = 16(a . a. 7. Ex. 149 a 81 8. ). .2 ofy + ofy m . 9. 1. a.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 4 2 23. ^//c to the Ex. 10 a 2 4 2 .3 * ). 29. V. 2. 2 . * 2 . 22.6 m* + 9 m. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. prime. 2 . !Gar 9 ( )+25. 16&*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. . a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 18. 225 ofy . 16.84 15. u2 6& + 2 ( ). ). product i. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 2 20. aV . 26. 2 . 48 a +( ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 9a2 . 25. 27. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. a2 24. + GO + 25. 5. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.60 a# + 4. 2. 17. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 3. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 4a2 l. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 6.
Ex.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 16p 2 . 2 . 6.(I) . 2. (m7?) y. (a x? f 6) 6 2 .(c 4. 2 .FACTORING 85 118. of polynomials. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.c . 5. 36> . 2. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . a2 . 9. 8. One or both terms are squares 1. a:) 12. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 13. Factor a 2 . Ex. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11. T.d) 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 14. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 4.
A. 7. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 10. x8 . which may be factored according to types I.7 c + 2c . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. a? 11. 4 B. 119. a 26 2 2 3 . 2. 8.r.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.ab + bx. + x + 2x + 2.14.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. By grouping. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 1. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. After grouping tain a the terms. Ex. a5 + ab 6 . 4:cx . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 9. 2. = (3 x + y . 12. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. ma ?*a + m& nb. 3. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Ex. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.a a .and trinomials. . 5. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.1.y + 2 2). GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 6.2 ) (3 x . 5) .VI.
8.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. II.FACTORING Ex. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. . 4. . + 2xy + y*q*. 5. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 8. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.9 a2 4 v* 2 .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6 6. 2a3/ 7. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 3. 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 2. 8ra 2 + 16.l. $ a8 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 3. 4 a2 . : 46 x* 2. 36 9 m .12 aaj 4 6y. 6. w m 2. : m 2 2 16.4 f . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Arranging the terms.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. +c+ 2 2 2/ . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. IV. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2 7. = (a + 6)(a6).
. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 27. 32. 11.310 x . 13.13 c . 4 a. a6 36. 35.156.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.24. 50^ + 45. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 48. 3 2 . 5a' 20. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 42 x . (a. 2 17. 18. 19. 24. 29. 28. a + a + a + l. a. 42 s 2 . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 14. 22. 3 25. or 3 7#2 . 30. + 14. 25 a + 25 aft . 3 a2 23. 2 a 128. 4 8 tt 2 z .40. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 13 c . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 5 a. 3 41. a3 156. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 80 a 2 ft 38. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. + 6 aft + 3 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 40. 12. 2 ft .88 10. (^ 34.
3 . 8 .) of two or more . F. . 5 7 34 2s . aW. 3. C. of 6 sfyz. C. C. of aW. The highest is common factor (IT. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. The student should note H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .  23 3 . 2 2 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. F. C. C. II 2 . 25 W. 5 s 7 2 5. C. The H. F. of the algebraic expressions. F. 24 s . 5. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. EXERCISE Find the H. 5 2 3 . of : 48 4. Two common factor except unity The H. 6. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 122. 15 aW. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. Thus the H. 121. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. are prime can be found by inspection. The H. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. C. 89 . 12 tfifz. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 54  32 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 2.
9 aj*(a? . 8(?/ifl) 14.# 4 afy f 4 . ^707 + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 1. a3 9a. 12 .y + y42. . a2 + 7af!2. 38 #y. a2 + 2a3. . 2. y + 3y64.?/ .5 + 6. a3 16 a. 12. F.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 11.y) 123. 3). 16 a . 15 3ao. 14.2 y) (a. 24 a 2 . 3 . of polynomials. F. ^f a. C.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 57 a>V. 9.5 y). ^2 2 .y) . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a2 . 8.2 ?/) (x .12 as 66 . 8 6. 0^80:416. 13. C. 8 a 10 . 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 5. 16. . a 3a4. 15. of: . 6(m+l) (m+2). 3^ 2 4 . C. (a7 ?/) . a2 ar* 4. = x 2 y. To find the H. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 6 3 a. 1. F. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 49 C. 8. 95 2/V. 2 . 4(m+l) 3 . a.5 x3?/ 2 6.6 a&. 11. 225 4a 9 .6. aWd. 10. 52 oryz4. 65 zfyV. . 6 a2 y? . Ex. 25 m27i. .^9. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. Find the H. 6 mx . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). .90 7.8 a + 16. ^a + 5^ + 6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . x* x2 Hence the H. 3. 2 . 2 .6 . 12 w*nw 8. 13. 2a f5af 2. 10. 7. 12. of + 4 if. 9. 4 ?io. F. and apply the method of the preceding article.
128. 300 z 2 y. of 3 aW. M.6 3 ). C. which also signs. thus. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). =4 a2 62 (a2 . of several expressions which are not completely factored. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. L. M. L. C. two lowest common multiples.M. C. M. Find the L. Hence the L. C. . 60 x^y' 2 . The lowest common multiple (L. 127. Ex. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. M. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . C. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. ory is the L. M.M. Common 125. M. Ex. To find the L. C. etc. &) 2 M.6)2. C. of tfy and xy*. 1. . NOTE. A common remainder. Find the L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .C. The L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. a^c8 3 .) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C. but opposite . 126. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. M of the algebraic expressions. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 2.C.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 2 The The L. of the general.
x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. ) . 40 abJ. 24 x. 3 6 xif. y*. (a 4)(a2) 12. 24. a 2 fa6. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . afc'cd 2 . a?b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. M.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 8. 3(a + b). or f 3 a 15 #. ic 23. 2 10. 3 Z> . a !. 6b 2 . by. 4 a f 2. 2 . 20. 30 a. 11. a& 4 +& 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. a 2 f 4 a +4. 5. b 2 . afy. 7. (For additional examples see page 268. a^1. ic 2 ?/. x 2 5 a. a. Find the L. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 13. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 17. 9. 16. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a 2 a3 . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. + 6. 8 afy. 3. 6 a. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. + 2 7i) . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 a . 5 a? 5 a? y. a { a~b. a. xy\ . 3 ab. 3 . . 6 y. 2(m 2 . a.f 6. 2 x \2 y. 15. 1. 2 a . 2 . 6. 3 f2. a2 ~ab 1. of: 4. 22.1. 3. #. 4 a . a2 4. T a 3 a 2 . 2. 21.1. 8 d 5 . + 2. 14. 20 9 a. 2 7ic+10. a 1. G a. a f 2 19. . a f 3. f b. x2 + 4 a f 4. x* ~5a. 18. 2 a. 2 .
an indicated quotient. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. a b = ma mb .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Ex. but we In arithmetic. Thus. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. a?. 131. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. etc. F. Remove tor.ry ^ by their H. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. however. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. A f fraction is b. C. and denominators are considered. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . successively all 2 j/' . as 8. rni Thus 132.
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. cancel factors only.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.4) Ex. Ex. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 3. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. and cancel all factors that are common to both. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.
ny 4 18. 23. nx 17. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. LJZJ^JL.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 11 ^ Mtr f . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. ' ^ . 5^10 y 30. . ^+3*.*. """. _ 3 7i rt< 26.' 32.7 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^..10 a + 3 2 14. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^" a. ^' rt ^  31. g J 21. 16. . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 19. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 29.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 9x + "a" 10.
M. and 135. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . C. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex. multiplying the terms of 22 .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.  by 4 6' .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 1.M. Reduce ^. of the denominators for the common denominator.3) (!)' = . TheL. . ^ to their lowest com The L. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . and the terms of ***.96 134. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. take the L. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. M. and (a 8). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. 2> . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. C.~16 (a + 3) (x. we have M^. by the denominator of each fraction. + 3). To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.D.1^22 ' .r 2 2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.  of //* 2 . Divide the L.C. . =(z (x + 3)(z.C. 1). we have the quotients (x 1). mon T denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.
. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 8 i i. 2 ay IB. . If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). .^1. 2. 22 a2 5a * . common denominator 6.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . i. o o a. 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 74). 7i 2 ab* ".a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. j y 3. 5?. 2aj ~ . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . a? 1 5 > ^* .. . 18. 137.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. JL.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .oj o* or / . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.
3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a .ft) (a ft ft)~.g.2 ' 2 _. (a ft).2 = a(a . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. The L. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).3 ft 2). L. the student should remember that parentheses are . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) .aft) Ca2 .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . as 4 aft f. e. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 2. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. T? Ex. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 ..ft)(a . 2 ^. in the beginning.(a 2 6).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. C. and adding..20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 4(2 a 3 ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.7 . D. ft). D. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .
FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3.5 18 ^4f25. 5a76 4a 106 9. 20. a 36 ++. A+2_3. + . 46 2a 4a 12. 2. 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. + a "" 2 6 ' . t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 15. 24. 6 c 3a 7. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1 1 f w 16. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 23. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 f q * 1 m m . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. j>0 i> 21.
x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . a 4 31.9. 41. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ + a? ?/ + y. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . 1 34. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 43. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 3a 9 +. ic 1 + 1. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a.9 79 6 2 i. a ?^ 40. a 30. af 1f /j. 2 af1 32. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ! n. 42.
1. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.FRACTIONS 139. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . 101 mixed expression. . .6 + 4x 4 x2 . T.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  .7 5a v Ex. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .
Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . (In order to cancel common factors.) Ex. 2 a Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2. F J Simplify . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142.g. we may extend any e. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. or. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Since  = a. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. fractions to integral numbers. integer. !.
6 12 d6 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 ..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 5# 56 / c& 4. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a. 14..
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Divide Xn?/ . 144.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.
FRACTIONS 105 .^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .10 ?/ _. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . l.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. or both.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. are fractional. a a2 4. Ex.6 s + 064.afr 4.5 ??i 80 50 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . ga2 4 8 5 a .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.
. . C. 2. i. n a 8. x* 4. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 7i+~ 7. & . . 6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. .y 32 . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Ex. Simplify x }. y X 4* 2 y 3. M. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). JL. a m "" .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . c +6. 9. the answer is directly obtained. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. of their denominators.a ^c c _^ a . 10.
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) . : . m^n* n L a 17.~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. sy 18. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 1 i 1 2 5 . 2 & a 20  a46 13.
x = 6.14 (a. Clearing of fractions. + 1) (a + 3) . a.48.l)(z + 3) = . = 6. 108 . each member is reduced to Ex. of the denominator. M. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Uniting. 1.f3# + C:E=6f7212.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to 1. 2x Transposing. 148. Uniting. . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .42 + 9. 2 3. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. these Ex. 2. = 6. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).8 x = . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. If = 64. 4 4)  x. tions. 5(3 85 Check. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 9x x Check.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Bx 12 Qx.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.1. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). C.28 a = 5 x2 . 2z2a. Transposing. If x 6.9 x2 + 9.
a: 7 a. ^' 2. 16. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 18.= 2. 1 *> = 2. +4 14.1 _77 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +1 = 5. '  4 13. a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 15. a/  5 a/ = 12. . = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. .
3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 31 31. ?_=_. . y+3~2 29. J_. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 26 26.11_4 x 149. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 32 6 . 3x 35. 27 . . 25. If two or more denominators are monomials._ _ . 33. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.  38 = 40. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 4a4l4* + l~.
 5 = 20 x 45. 26 a. 1.. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.29 50712' 9 18 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. If a.1. each member is reduced to ^. 60. 24 a. Check. Dividing. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . the 1 5 L.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. . 5# 10. = 9. M. Transposing and uniting.2 42 9 43. C. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.2 3 ~  == 7a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5x x : = 9.
ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.2 ac + 3 aft . fr Reducing lowest terms. jr. It frequently occurs that the x. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. If 3ac L= = a ? . =a 2 151. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.1. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.& . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = 2 f b 2 . = = 6 6c 7 6c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Dividing. = 6 a2 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.m bx 2 mn) x. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .be. Uniting.2 62 2 ab. 2. Uniting the Dividing. 4 ac 1. . Thus. ax f x f. y. 5> a. f ~ 5c. they are united by factoring. Ex.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = l^ 9 b 4 .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. a. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. find a in terms of b and c. Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6.3 6 2 = a' .
iw 21. If * 33. 11. _ 2. IIL n b + &o. Ex. 6. * Solve the same equation for^).= n. If ^^ = a 1 32. 2 solve for y a. 12. a.= H. 4. . + xx = 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. t. 13. 17. solve for . = 8 4 #. 30. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .= c a Z> . 1 f. denoting the interest. m a? x . 14. 5) is t =^. If s (wi n) x =px + q. p the principal. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. r the number of $>. 3. mx = n. = 3 (6 a). q solve for/. 4.i l . = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 3(* 8. s = Vt solve for v. c 18. f ^o. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). in terms of other quantities. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. co?. ^ ax a^ 26. f P =+!. solve for a. c. 31. . The The i time. + 3a. and n the number of years. 29. 15. = rt. . = 5. 10. = vt. If s If 16. 34. rate. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 9.a.
In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.20 C. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 1. Ex. 12. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A would do each day ^ and B j.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 2 3 . Ex.180.. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = 16^. Find R in terms of C and TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. then = 2 TT#. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^..114 35. 2. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. and 12 = the number over. Multiplying by Dividing. is 36. x Or Uniting. 100 C. . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." gives the equation /I). u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J. = 100 + 4 x. Ex. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. and the statement. in Then Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 4x = 80. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. Clearing. 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing. the rate of the express train." : Let x  = the required number of days. the required number of days. Solving. 32 x = . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore.
its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find A's 8. to his daughand the remainder. money and $10. a man had How much money had he at first? . Twenty years ago A's age was  age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and of the father's age. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. fifth Two numbers differ 2. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. How did the much money man leave ? 11. by 6. is equal 7. of his present age. length in the ground. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. make 21. to his son. and one half the greater Find the numbers. ex What 5. 3. is oO. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50.  Find their present ages. ceeds the smaller by 4. which was $4000. and 9 feet above water. A man lost f of his fortune and $500.
air.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and it B in 6 days. 3. investments.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. How much money $500? 4%. . An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. 152. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.) 22. A has invested capital at more 4%. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 2. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 1. and B in 4 days. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. ^ at 5%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. what is the 14. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. after rate of the latter ? 15.
: In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 26.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. . if B in 3 days. 2. A in 4. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. The problem to be solved. A in 6. . Then ft i. n x Solving. 25. 3. e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. To and find the numerical answer. B in 5. they can both do in 2 days. is 42. A in 6. we obtain the equation m m . 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 16. m and n. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 12. . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.009 918. Hence. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.e.118 153. Ex. and apply the method of 170.414. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. is 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. therefore. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.g.= . B in 30. and n = 3.
(b) 8 and 56 minutes. After how many hours do they meet.000. and the rate of the second are. squares 29. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. respectively (a) 60 miles. is ?n . 2 miles per hour. if m and n are. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. The one: 31. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. meet. (d) 1. the second at the apart. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. same hour from two towns.721. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. (b) 35 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. is (a) 51. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 4J miles per hour.001. (b) 149. Find the side of the square. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. (c) 16. respectively. 34. 3 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. : (c) 64 miles. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. the rate of the first. 5 miles per hour. . 33. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. and the second 5 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. squares 30. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 3J miles per hour.
) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. " a Thus.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. . a ratio is not changed etc. E. is numerator of any fraction consequent." we may write a : b = 6. the denominator The the 157. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. : : 155. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The first 156. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. the antecedent.g. b. 6 12 = . 1. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. etc. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.5. b is the consequent. 158. In the ratio a : ft. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the second term the consequent. Ex. Simplify the ratio 21 3. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b.
= or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. terms. 61 : ratios 72:18. 17. 4:5f : 5. two  ratios. 3:1}. 1. 12. The last first three. : 1. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 159. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. a and d are the extremes. 62:16. and c is the third proportional to a and . : is If the means of a proportion are equal. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. : ay . 11. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 9. b. equal 2. 3:4. 7:4 T T 4 . term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 18. extremes. 3. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif.RATIO Ex. 27 06: 18 a6. 6. 10. 4. proportional between a and c. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. J:l. 3 8. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 8^ hours. Simplify the following ratios 7. In the proportion a b : = b : c. b and c the means. b is the mean b. and c. 16. Transform the following unity 15. $24: $8. 16a2 :24a&. 5 f hours : 2. 7f:6J.
e.) mn = pq. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. q~~ n . 2 165. Clearing of fractions. Hence the number of men required to do some work. ad = be.122 162. : : directly proportional may say. of a proportion. briefly. of iron weigh 45 grams. of iron weigh . and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. The mean proportional of their product. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 3 4. ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. are : : : inversely proportional. and the time necessary to do it. pro portional. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. " we " NOTE. 6 ccm. i.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.__(163. !. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. then G ccm.30 grams. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. If (Converse of nq. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. 163. 164. In any proportion product of the extremes.) b = Vac. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the other pair the extremes. 163. : c.
(Division. 1.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. is 4$ = 35. if 6 : 7.) II. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) (Called Alternation. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. d d.) = f f = 3 J. V. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. Or IV. hence the proportion true. then =d c. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. bd bd.PATIO Ex.) d 167. a III.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. ad ( 163. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166. I. 12x Hence a? = 42. is Ex. 2. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. . ad = be. (Frequently called Inversion. I. = 35 . (Composition. a:c=b:d. + b:b = c + d:d. (163.
= 20:7. : 3 = 5 f x : x. E. = 2:x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Simplify the following proportions. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. mx tin Apply composition and division. the consequents by 7. . i.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 5 5. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. : x. 5. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 180:125. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 6 =4 : x. 3. V. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 8. 4. . 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. x = 2. = 7:2f 3J. IV.g.e. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.124 IT. 2. Or III. 9. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 120:42 2 2 7. = 12 5ft. Apply composition. 10. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.!=!*. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. = 2:3. to simplify 48:21=32:7x.
14. 2. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3t. w. 16.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. to : a and 1. 6 x = y. = 2 + x: x. 29. (a : : 45. Find the third proportional 24. = l^:18. rap. ratio of y.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. f. 44. : 53. 27. and 2/. 112:42 = 10:a. 16 and 28. 03:a?=135:20. 6. . : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 34. a. if : 40. 1. 33. 20. 9 x = 2 y. 43. 4 and 16. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.. 5. 3. rag. 26. 2 a and 18 a. 2 3 = y #.:ff. ra 2 . 17. 1 and a. ra. ra + landra 1. 12. Find the mean proportional 30.8:1. 52. 47. 6x = 7y. 7iy = 2:x.x: 6:5 a : x. mx = ny. 39. + fyx = cy. 35.j>. 38. x m = y n. 31. = 15o. = 5 x 12. x:5 = y:2. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. : . Find the 37. 4. 5= 18 a? : a?. a 2 and ab. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 46. to : 9 and 12. 41. 21. b. 23. 25. 18. 28. 50. : a2 . 13. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. to: = 35:*. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 42. 3. terra 2:3 = 4.  32. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 2= 5 x x. = 3 43 + x. a?:15 15. 2. 51. 22. 14 and 21.
and the speed of the train. A line 7^. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time necessary for it. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the area of the larger? the same. and the : total cost. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work.126 54. 56. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. what 58. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the area of the rectangle. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the time. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.
produced to a point C. . is A line AB. : Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 2. as 11 Let then : 1.000 168. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 18 x = 108. 4 inches long. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. x=2. 2 x Or = 4. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x x 7 Ex. so that Find^K7and BO. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. x = 6. 11 x f 7 x = 108. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. = the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 11 x = 66 is the first number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). AB = 2 x. Let A B AC=1x. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.
Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.000 square miles. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. What are the parts ? 5. 9. Gunmetal tin. and 15 inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 11. 13. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many gen.) . Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 12.000. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 7. How many 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 6. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 3. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How The long are the parts ? 15. and c inches. 2. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 12. : 197. : 4. 14. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.
The root of (4) if K 129 . which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. values of x and y. x = 1. However. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. Hence. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. 2 y = . if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.y=.L x If If = 0. if . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. etc. y = 1. there is only one solution. is x = 7. such as + = 10. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. =. expressing a y.e. a? (1) then I.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.
174. 21 y .26. same relation. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. y = 2. E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. are simultaneous equations. By By Addition or Subtraction. to The two methods I. Therefore. 4y . the last set inconsistent. 3.130 170.24. y I 171. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. and 3 x + 3 y =. = . for they express the x f y 10. 6x . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. of elimination most frequently used II. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.X.3 y = 80. cannot be reduced to the same form. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 172. Substitution. unknown quantity. viz. ~ 50. 26 y = 60.
= 235. subtract the equations. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). are like. 64 x = 040. add the equations.3 1 = 47. 3. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Transposing. 3. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 8 2. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 60 . 25 x .2 = 6.14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 y = 47. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). y = 1. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. x = 10. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 37. 3y = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. = 406. Therefore Check.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. + 2. whose coefficients In general. x = 10. Check. 5 13 . y = 2. 10 .
* + 3 y = 50. 9 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. f 3X 7x 14. x 11. v ^ = ll. = 6. ] ^ . I . [2o. I i 3 a. = 24.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. ' 12. O t K 8. _. i 3. = 41. + 2/ 17. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. 7 ' 1fi fl .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.5 y = 2.4. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3. .9 *.f2/ ' = 50. J I y = 1U.v 23. 13. 19< I a. 13 61 l7a. I oj 5y = 17. I ~ y~~> 22.3.
133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 13. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. 8. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. x ) ^"" 13. = 4#8. = 60. (1) (2) Transposing 2. and solve the resulting equation.
however. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 2 y = . 21z6y=9. 3.6)7(y7)==18. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. From 9 = 36. (4). 4* + 3y = 19. Substituting in (6) . 7x_2y=3. 29 x = 29. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 7 y = 6. . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. \ \6(a.3. + 212y4 = 14. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3 (1) Ex. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. (7) (7) (8) . 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and .
12. . 16. . a. a.1) = 121. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 10 2a?5 17. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. J 9.1) + 5(6 y . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. yM a. +y 2 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. = 3. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 4 11.f2 2. .
* ((* (( . 3x\" 1 23 24.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. ?~y . but some expressions involving x. and y. f y . {. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. . e.Q ^ 4 21.and x y . 180. <X + 20.#. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 22.
etc. can also be solved Examples method. (2) (3) a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.3 xy. Dividing by 11 3 = #. x 2x(2). however. y 4. . 33 = 11 x. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1).4 x = 4 xy. 15 y + 8 x . y. 137 Solve y y (1) . (4) + (G). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . Clearing of fractions. Therefore y=4. of this type. y 1. 2* * x 2. x 3. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).
x 8. 21 9 . 10 " 12 25 U y 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). y MOi y a. n.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 331 9.= o 6. = en. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. x y 5. 253 7. 4 13. 1. Ex. .= 5.
x 12.y = = 9a + 46. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. bmy bm}y ap cm. W . and I. 6. x f my = 1. . 14. s in 11. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. apan cm. ax + by = 2 a&. From the same equations find s in terms of a. w. and I if 13. ny = fy/ I sc 1. d. fax f = l. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. ap. x a.W. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. f 5. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. Dividing. a Find a and terms of n. Uniting.
y =* 2.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). etc.25. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 8 x .140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.2 + 4.16.8 = 1. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.3 = 8. x + 12 y . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.1+4. l. 6. 3y = Hence Check. = 3. To solve equations containing By tions. 3. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).3=4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. by 3. (4) (5). Ex. 4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. (8) 2.lf> z . 4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. . ties are Similarly. 1.12 y + 6 z = .15z=12 Adding. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. = 30. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 20. 1. 182. f 3y 12 =s 8. 3.13.2 + 3.by 2.
f 2 i/ f z = 14. a? + 709 = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2 4. 15 2 = 45. 14. x 13. a? 11. 49. 4 = 42. == 6. 10. 2 . ~6?/ 5. k 2/ f 2 x a. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 12. + y f z = 15. 7. 2z = 40. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 8.
?/ 3x = 0.2 a.42 = 2. 32. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 60. =s 20. . ? = llz. 23. 19. . = 5. 27. ^ = 2. ..3 y + .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 1510 4 17. 22. 84 21. 16. 4. (3 _.6 2. = 8*.
( 99. # 4. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Ex. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. 2 = 1(1+6). M=i. . however. .2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. symbols: x + y +z 8. y 31. + 396 = 521. = 2 m. 1 = 2. the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Find the number. +2+ 6 = 8. Check. 1 digit in the tens place.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 2 = 6. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. z + x = 2 n. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. + z = 2p. either directly or implied. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. and if 396 be added to the number.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. x : z =1 : 2. 1. y * z 30. and to express In complex examples. = l. Obviously of the other . as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.
the distance traveled by A. x 3x4y = 12. x 3 = 24. = 8. 3+1 5+1 4_2. = Hence the fraction is f. 5_ _4_ A. we obtain. Or (4)2x(3). 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. direction. 3. 6 x 4 = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. = the fraction. Find the fraction. y = 3. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. . + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check.144 Ex. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. 2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. By expressing the two statements in symbols. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. x y = the = the x denominator . xy a: 2y 4y 2. Since the three men traveled the same distance. From (3) Hence xy Check. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . (1) (2) 12. B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. C. increased by one. 2. Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 4 x = 24.
and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 1. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. its value added to the denominator. and its denomi nator diminished by one. it is reduced to J.) added to a number of two digits. ? What 9. If the denominator be doubled. fraction is reduced to \. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 2. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. both terms. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the last two digits are interchanged. the value of the fraction is fa. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the numerator increased by 4. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the fraction equals .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the number. and the fourth 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. 7. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the fraction. If 27 is 10. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Find the numbers. the Find the fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. the digits will be interchanged. If 9 be added to the number. number by the first 3. 5. tion ? 8. the number (See Ex. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. part of their difference equals 4. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction.}. . Find the number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. 183. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. Find the numbers. 6.
Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.grams. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 14. A sum of $10. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . in 8 years to $8500. and partly at 4 %. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Find the rates of interest. the rate of interest? 18. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and 4 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. A man invested $750. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and money and 17. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 19.000 is partly invested at 6%. respectively ? 16. 12. Find their present ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. partly at 5 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 5 %. . the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the annual interest would be $ 195. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. How 6 %. now. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and in 5 years to $1125. 13.
and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. respectively. what is that = OF. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and e. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and sheep. B find angles a. and $15 for each sheep. 1 NOTE.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. Find their rates of walking. . On /). 25. the length of NOTE. and F. An C touch ing the sides in D. are taken so ABC. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. triangle Tf AD. for $ 740. but if A would double his pace. A farmer sold a number of horses. BD = HE. ED = BE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and F. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. . and CE If AB = G inches. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F '(see diagram). andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. $ 50 for each cow. BC = 7 inches. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and angle BCA = 70. points. BC=7. BE. and AC = 5 inches. cows. and their difference by GO . the three sides of a triangle E. and angle e angle/. 24. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and GE = CF. angle c = angle d. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. three AD = AF. c. E. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. then AD = AF. 23.
It' Location of a point.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PN are given. is The point whose abscissa is a. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).. and point the origin. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. the ordinate of point P. and PJ/_L XX'. (2. PM. or its equal OM. 186. 3). B. YY' theyaxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. . (7. jr. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. The of Coordinates. ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . first 3). Thus the points A. 2). is the abscissa. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate by ?/. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and PN _L YY'. (3. (2. and r or its equal OA is . PN. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.
e. 12. 4). 2). i. (4. 4). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 1). (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.1). (4. Plot the points : (0. (5. (See diagram on page 151. 8. (2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 2J). 71 2). 0). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.and(l. 6. 4) and (4. (4. (3. 1). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (1. 0). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 4. . 3. (4. 3). 2. 6.) EXERCISE 1. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points: (4.4). Plot the points (6. 3). 4) from the origin ? 7. 0). 11. . Plot the points: (4. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.3). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. and measure their distance. which of its coordinates known ? 13. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (4. 0).2). !). (0. 2). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.(!. 3). (0. Graphs.
B.. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ure the ordinate of F. 1. or the curved line the temperature. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. . may be found on Jan. C. Thus the first table produces 12 points. we meas1 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. D. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. from January 1 to December 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 188. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 10 . A. 15. however.
as the prices and production of commodities. (c) January 15. the matics. (b) July 15. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the merchant. The engineer. uses them. and to deduce general laws therefrom. . : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. physician. (d) November 20. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. Whenever a clear. etc. the graph is applied. the rise and fall of wages.
June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ?  3. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (d) 9 0. (freezing point) ? 7.. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (1) 10 C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ? 9. How much. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1 to Oct. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. is 10. 15. 1? 11 0. When the average temperature below C. During what months above 18 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.152 2.
19. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Hour Temperature . 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1. Draw . Draw a graph for the 23. 20.09 yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.
x 7 to 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.. A 10 wheels a day. and $. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. e.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. binding. function If the value of a quantity changes. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. books from for printing. gas. x* x 19. 190. the value of a of this quantity will change. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. . 28.) T circumferences of 25. to 27. if he sells 0.50. 1 to 1200 copies. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 29. 3. if each copy sells for $1. 26. then C irJl. the daily average expenses for rent. 2..g. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 .154 24.5 grams. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. etc. 4. represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. amount to $8. x increases will change gradually from 13.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 3.. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 9.50. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. etc. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.inch.
e. J). ( 2. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 3 (0. 1 the points (3. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. is supposed to change.1). may . 9). while 7 is a constant.1). 9). and (3. x a variable. 2. If a more exact diagram is required. 2 (1. Graph of a function. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. plot points which lie between those constructed above. construct '. to x = 4. 4). E. and join the points in order. 4). etc. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . Ex. Draw the graph of x2 f.0). however. Q.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. (1^. a*.2 x may 4 from x = 4. for x=l. . it is In the example of the preceding article. (1.g. 2). may. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. be also represented by a graph. as 1. 3 50. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. The values of func192. (2.
Ex. .. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (3. 2... A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 7 . j/=3.2 x . etc. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 5). as y. 4). rf 71 . 194. (2. r */ +* 01 . Thus in the above example. 4J..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.) For brevity. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. (4. 2 4 and if y = x f. = 4.20). straight line produces the required graph.4).. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 1). Thus 4x + 7. = 0. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. y = 6. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. and join(0.
5)2. . x+1. 2 or 2 20. 4 a. 3. i. The smallest value of the function. 18. . (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 1J. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. = The values of a*. = 4. 1J. (ft) (_ 1. 6 fa. a? 1. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 1. 2 a. if the function equals zero. a. 9. 11. 23x. xz + x. 2J. the function.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. y = 2x = 4. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 8. 3 a 8. 19. 16. 2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2 2 a. 22. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 2x + 3x a?. (7i) (c) 23. ?/ a. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2J. a? 2 4. 3. J. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a* 13. if a. 14. 15. (If) Va25. a ar.5)2. 21. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. The values of a?. + 4. 1 8 10. 2. 5. fa 17. l. 7. 2 2. if"a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. if y = 2. xl. Jar .or. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. The values of a*. from x VlO'S". (C ) (2.8)'.e. 12. 6. a?. 1J. 4a? I.
it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. C. Represent 26. then cXj where c is a constant.24 or x = P and Q. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.24. Show any convenient number). to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. . A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. y= formula graphically. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i. 32 F.. 1 C. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.where x c is a constant.. 9 F.. 25. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.. that graph with the o>axis. 14 F. the abscissas of 3. then y = ..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.158 24.e. Therefore x = 1. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.
12. 4. . viz. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. (a) x2 = 0. 3. 10. 13. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 6. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. is called a quadratic equation. Such equations in general have two roots. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 0. 2 and 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (a) (6) 9. 197.f 9 = 0. crosssection paper is used. (0. + + = where a. 14. 8. or 5 2. 11.7 2 a 5 = 0. = 0. a2 2a. 7.
?/ =4 AB. 3x _ 4 . produces the 7* required locus.1. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.e. i. = 0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 0). X'2 Locating the points (2. . y y 2.2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence if if x x  2. Ex. fc = 3. first degree. and joining by a straight line. Hence. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. if y = is 0. because their graphs are straight lines. Ex. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2).160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. 1) and 0). y = l. locate points (0. 4) and (2. unknown quantities. y= A and construct x (  graphically. and join the required graph. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 2). solve for ?/. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. ?/. NOTE. T . Hence we may join (0. If x = 0. 199.2 y ~ 2. == 2. (f .
AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). and CD. To find the roots of the system. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 201. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. equation x= By measuring 3.57. 202.1=0. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. Graphical solution of a linear system. 203. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB y = .15. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. viz. we obtain the roots. (2) . and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex.
In general.9. 2. 5. 1. AB the locus of (1). 0. e. (4. 4. they are inconsistent. if x equals respectively 0. Locating the points (5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. and . etc. 3x 2 y = 6. 1. 3. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. Locating two points of equation (2). (4.  4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Using the method of the preceding para. i. the graph of points roots. and + 3). 4. 5. 4. (2. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 4. Since the two  we obtain DE. 3. 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. intersection. P graphs meet in two and $. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Measuring the coordinates of P. 3). 0) and (0. y equals 3. Inconsistent equations. 2. 2 equation x 3). Solving (1) for y. we of the + y* = 25. 0. 4. (1) (2) C. x2 .0..5. .5.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.y~ Therefore. and joining by a straight line.g. 4. the point we obtain Ex. V25 5. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.0).e. The equations 2 4 = 0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. = 0.
y = 4. 6. \ 2x + 3^ . y 2 4. 5. state reasons.. a. 7.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. and. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. vice versa. and solve each If there are no solutions. y= a2 2x y6. y=x + 5. 16 22. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 19. a+r/=6. . 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 4. 2x 3?/=6. if possible. 20. 2. Draw system. 8. 16 23. 10. 9. 17. the graphs of the following systems. 3. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. '163 Dependent equations.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 26. TABLE OF SQUARES.y).14 y = . 29 .164 24. 4 a = 3(6 . 28. CUBES.8. 30. 25. 3 31.
All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 52. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 2. ^4/? it According to 50. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. is may be by 207. involution repeated multiplication. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. a special kind of product. etc. on to in factors 4. 8.faa a a a Obviously 1. 3 f a = f a = +.a2 . fa. ( a) is positive. According to 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. follows that 3. a = a3 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . . Law of Signs. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 2.
16. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. V V/ 13. 210. 2 11 (afc ) . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 5. amVy) 3 .6) = a . (a ) 2 4  3. 15. . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. the required power. 24. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 76 : (>y.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 2.166 To find To To power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .6 (a 8 8 . (a ) 2 5 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. a product to a given power. (^^) 2 . 6. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. raise a fraction to a power. 3 2 2 8 . (2ar). (277171 )*. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 4. 4 /2mV.
+5a) 22. 2. (3 (l I) 2 8 . frequently called ex.y . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (a + &)8 . 3. (5 (1 a) 3 . 21. 5. 13. nent of the binomial. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. An 1. etc. 18.3 y. 7. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 8. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .INVOLUTION Ex. : a 20. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 12. (afl) . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (3af26) 8 . 211.y) = (3 y?y . + a 2 a. pansions. 16. 4. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 9. = s= (2s) 8 a. 6. (aj7) .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 23. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .6 2 8 ft) . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. + 4aj) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . 1. 3 8 . 15.) 14.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (6m+2w) (3 8 . . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. are obtained by multiplication. 2 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 1 f 3 2 3 . Ex. 2. 3 . The higher powers of binomials. (3 x . a.
(w 4 ?i) 4 . 9. Ex. . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. The minus. 78 s . (m fl) 2 20. mn 5 2 5 ) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (?>i?i f c)*. (2 a 4 . (2 4. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (af 5) .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y .216 a^ 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 14. (?/i~w) : 16. 1. (tff1) (cfd) . 23. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (mJ) 4 11. (a~^) 5 . 3. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . ( &) 5 . 21. (1 + 4 ?/) . 3.2. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (la&) 4 12. (mnp 5 I) 5 . (p + q) 4 * 7. is the coefficient of the next term. 18. Ex.168 3. . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 25. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 4. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (l 8 . 6. Ex. 5. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 2. . 8. .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 24. 5. 4 (1for) 5 . 13. 10. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 4 . and the powers negative. . (m 2 + n) 8 . . (3a f5) 5) 4. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (m 5 I) 2 22.a) 3 19. . 17.
Since even powers can never be negative. 27 =y means r' = 27. 109 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 4 4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. 1. or x &4 . (_3) = 27. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. numbers. which can be simplified no further. a) 4 = a4 . or y ~ 3. etc. tity . 215. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/"^27=3. = x means = 6. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for distinction. V \/P 214. and all other numbers are. or 3 for (usually written 3) . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. called real numbers. and ( v/o* = a. V9 = + 3. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0.
6. To extract the root of a power.64 5 4 . = 19472. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . V?. 5.125. = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. V25 9 16. extract the and denominator. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 3 33 53 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . = 199 + (_ 198) . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3. 7. 6 7 = 030. 8. Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. To extract a root of a fraction. index. . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.(. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 9. .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 82 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 3i . v/2^. v/^i2 = a*. 2 . EXERCISE 1. 2. 9. fy 5 3 . 62 = V2* . 3/0** = am .200 . 79 2 v/2 5 . . 10. 7 . Ex.lL. Ex. roots of the numerator \/18 . V5 v/2 7 2. \/2 4 9 . 7. Ex 5 a" .4.  100 a 2 . V36 9 4. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 6.201) = 2. 4 v.1. 7 .9 = 136. 2. Ex. 8.
45 V5184. 32. 1. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .) by inspection. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V20 . V9216. Find the square root of a2 . a* 4 8 2 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 2 f ( V240) 3 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.75. 116. 3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3. . 5. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 29.EVOLUTION 171 28. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 34. 30. Ex.3 y2) ( vV .4/. V8.98./). ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. ^40^4. 31.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 2. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 33.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2 . 2 . 6.3 .
the given expression is a perfect square. i. 2ab . let us consider the relation of a f. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. The term a' first 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 8 . . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. and b (2 a f b). 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 10. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. however. 12.b 2 2 to its square. a f. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2 . 11. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 14.72 aW + 81 & 4 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 ac . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. #2 a2  16. and b. + 6 + 4a&.2 &c.> 13.e. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.172 7. 2 2 218. mV14m??2)f 49. a\b is the root if In most cases.2 ab + b .
4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot.EVOLUTION Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2.24 afy* f 9 tf. . of x. 1.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 6 a. Explanation. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2. 8 a 2 2. . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. and so forth. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 8 a 2 . 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 10 a 4 8 a. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. The square . the first term of the answer. by division we term of the root. First complete divisor. . 8 /. First trial divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Ex. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. . Second trial divisor. 219. */'' . . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. As there is no remainder. is As there is no remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex.
24 or .10 x2 4.9. 5. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.25 x 4 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 1 4. 18.162 a2 60 a10 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 14. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.16.V430^425^ 4m 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 16x6 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 2 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 6.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 15. 20.42 a*& 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. l 4.73 a8 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .20 J or 2 16 x 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 6 11. > 7. 2 x2 3 2x. 36it. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 17. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 10.6 . 3.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 4 . + 81 a 454 a + 81.12m 5 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 729 4. 8.12 m 4. 9.40 a 22 .20 o 4. 16. x 6 4 4 0^4. 19.37 a ^ . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 13#4 413ar 44a.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. a? 2 . 12. 24.25. 436^?/469a.4 x 4.
first . etc. and the first remainder is. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. The is trial divisor = 160.000 is 100. the first of which is 4. Ex. of 1. of 10. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. two figures.EVOLUTION 220. As 8 x 168 = 1344. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.000. Therefore 6 = 8. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. the first of which is 8. 2. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups.000. Ex. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . a 2 = 6400. and the complete divisor 168.176. the square root of 7744 equals 88. of a number between 100 and 10. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. 1. and the square root of the greatest square in units. which may contain one or two). Find the square root of 7744.1344. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Find the square root of 524. etc. = 80.000 is 1000.
3. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.0961 are '.GO'61.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. Find the square root of 6/.1T6 221. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.70 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.10.7 to three decimal places. 12. annex a cipher. in .1 are Ex. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . places.
5. 1. 31. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .1410. 33. JT . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 30. feet. 37. = 3. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .4 square when R = radius and 11.) 40. T\. 36. 32. . 39. feet.22. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 13. whose area equals 48.53. 35. 34.58 square 38.01. J.
Transposing. Dividing. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 2)* + 5 = 33. is A quadratic equation. complete. x = + 2 or x =2. This answer Check. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 226. The 7 equation.. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2. Ex. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. = 7^ + 5. = 4.g. 6#2 = x* 24. 224. 178 . but no higher power e. . A pure. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . Extracting the square root of each member. 2 ic = a. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. x 2 7. is 12. 6 y2 = 17. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 1. 225. or equation of the second degree. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or incomplete.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. or affected.
5. (a? 9. 19 + 9 = 5500.25. Solve 179 . 10. 2 4fc 5' 18. 0^ + 1 = 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing by Extracting the square root.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. or Therefore. : 83 2.2. 2. 7. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . . . 15^5 = 6. 6(2)=10(ajl). 7 = 162. ' =: y? b* b . 3. 2 2 a. o. 4 ax. 16^393 = 7. 4. 8. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ax Transposing and combining. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.
solve for r. 4. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 2 : 3. 228. : 6. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. solve for d. r. and their product : 150. A right triangle is a triangle. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. may be considered one half of a rec square units. If G=m m g . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .) of their squares 5. Find the numbers. 2 . 3.b 2 If s If =c . 25. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Find the side of each field. 2 . ' 4. is 5(5. EXERCISE 1. If 22 = ~^.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 108. 22 a. 24. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. Find the side of each field. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). and they con tain together 30G square feet. then Since such a triangle tangle. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 26. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. . 2a f 1 23. 28. Find is the number. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 29. . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 27. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. find a in terms of 6 . is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for v. 2. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. If a 2 4.
7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Find the radii. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find these 10. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. . of a right triangle Find these sides. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. J = 12. is and the other two sides are equal. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 2m. Method of completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.) 13. Solve Transposing. (b) 44 square feet. sides. 9. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . x* 7 x= 10. A body falling from a state of rest. radii are as 3 14. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .2 7 . The area : sides are as 3 4.7 x f 10 = 0. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . add () Hence 2 . 4. we have of or m = . 24. Find the sides. 8. and the two smaller 11. and the third side is 15 inches. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. To find this term. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. (b) 100 feet? = . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.
2  . adding member).2. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. = x\ = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 230. 2 a* a.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = . (*~8) a = at . = \ # = ff. Uniting. a Clearing of fractions. 62 x 5 = f.  \. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Ex. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Ex.x(l = . Transposing. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.a. Simplifying. Hence Therefore Check. a. .e. J. or x = 2. or J. Transposing. Therefore. = 6.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Extracting square roots.1. 2 ax f 2 o) s a ..2 a2 .
x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl . 183 Simplifying. x . Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
. 49. ao.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. = 12. \bx\. x la 48. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =8 r/io?. =0. Solution by formula. 2x 3 4. 231. and c in the general answer.c = 0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
 P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. Reducing to general form. 10. 2. 6. = 64120?. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 5 x2 Transposing. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 14. 12. 19. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2. c = 5. 2 a. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.. TIO. 18. = 12 . 4. 11. ?i 2 . 6 Ex. 6^+5^ 56.  . b =  + 20 == = 0. 20. V^tT)* . 16.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2 . 15. 8. 2 a? = 44 x . a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 7. c p. 7^ + 9 x 90.4 4 5 . 13. 6. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 9. 6 . 26. 2or } 5o. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2 o. 21.25 x. 17. : 86 + 2 = 0. 1. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5.
= 14.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 5 = 0. and 6. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Transposing.x. orz roots. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. a=:i^^. (5 a? !)(. 3x?+x = 7. 26. 1. or # 5 is zero. any degree. x2 = 1 . all or. Bx 1 1. member can be Ex. Factoring. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. ar>8o. Solution by factoring. = 0. Clearing for fractions. factors Now.2. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 5) = 0. 27 x== 42a. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. if either of the uct is zero. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. }. 0. . 2S3x 1 2 . transposing terms to one member. 25. 24. 233. x(x <2 . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 23.5) =0. = 0. Eesolving into factors. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232.4) = .
0(02) = 7(02). 3# y 5 = 0. 3) = 0. 6. a?. } 2 2 (5 . for a: .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.(. is 5) = 0.6)) = 0. 2. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3. 4or + 18a f 8a. Or Hence the 234. Ex. 4)(z3) = 0.g. 14. a* 10a=24. The equation I. ar'Sa^ 12. 0^ ar> 11. evidently (x Or 4)(x .:=0. + 8=s: 7. aj( 15. x2 f 2 x . 3) Factoring. 2o3 f9a. O roots are 2. 2. 13. 12. : 87 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. (aj4)(a. 3.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4. 5 = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 5. + 6)=0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 8. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 16.= 24. E.e. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 9.24 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. and the equation thus formed be solved. 3 or 2 a. 7. 3^ = 0(1106). we 9 obtain x 4. + 100.3)(x + 3 3. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. a?10a=:24. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 10 a = 24.
(2a? 3) (a 24. 50. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 2. 27. 25. 18. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b. 23.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 19. (a + 1) (a. '3a!J  . + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 20. uz + u 21. ara + ft + c*.188 17. 22.
2. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 52. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. number by 10. : 3. Find the number. 2. Find the sides. 3. and the difference Find the numbers. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 3. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 1. 5. 55. 8. 56. 1. . of their reciprocals is 4. 57. 58. 2. 2. and whose product 9.3.1. 2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 6. G. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85.9. Find the number.3. 5. feet. 4. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. and whose sum is is 36.3. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. The 11. Find the numbers. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 7. The difference of . What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.0. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. and consequently many prob 235. 2. 54. 0. and equals 190 square inches. two numbers is 4. EXERCISE 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.0.
190 12. Two vessels. dollars. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. What did he pay for 21. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. as the 16. 14. . At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. Find the rate of the train. other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 17. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. If he each horse ? . ABCD. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 15. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. ply between the same two ports. 13. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. watch for $ 24. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 19. sold a horse for $144.10.
so that the rectangle.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. as 0. 1. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.) 25. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Ex. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find TT r (Area of a circle . . 27. is On the prolongation of a line AC. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. or x = \/l = 1. the two men can do it in 3 days. 23 inches long. (tf. constructed with and CB as sides. of the area of the basin. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 24. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. and working together. 237. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. By formula. a point taken. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Find and CB. how wide is the walk ? 23. ^3^ = 7. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. contains B 78 square inches. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.
12.)+72=0.2 =4. 2 h9:=0. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. Solving. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 4 : 89 10a. 8. 436 3. 7. 2. y8)=0.T 2 2 . T 17. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 6. = 13.192 238. = 1. a4 5o. Ex. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 16 a^40 11. 19. Hence Le. a 21or=100. or y = 8. 4 6. 4 a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 10. a? 15 1=2*. >. 4. 9. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . a. 16. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 18.
it 2a follows 2 : 2. . the roots are rational.12 x + 9 = 0.5) = 04. the roots are imaginary. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The discriminant =(. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. c the roots are real.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .bx 4. the roots are irrational. Ex. Relations between roots and coefficients. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.f> = 0. the roots are equal. 240. Ex. the roots are real. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 1. a perfect square. 2.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. ( 2a Hence 1. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 241. negative. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. is 4ac not zero. rational.2 z . the roots are unequal. and unequal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. b 4. and equal. Hence the roots are real. 3.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . rational.2) 2 4 3 (. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .
o. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 3a. 4. 5oj aj + l = 0. 2. 12~x = x 2 . 2 a. 60 2 = 0. 15. 22. x2 7 10. + 2a. + 2a15 = 0. 14. lla. their product isf. : a 2 . 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2 : 3. = 0. 6. 24. + 18 2 8. 18.. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.g. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. 5aj 9. tfmx+p^Q. = 5x. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. = Q. 21. ^12. = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. = 0. 12. 23. 17. f 2 E. + 12 2  .19 # 20. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 9a3 = 0. 2 7. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.
such as 2*. > m therefore. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. ~ a m f. hence. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. = a"" < . must be *The symbol smaller than. no Fractional and negative exponents. and . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. II.a" = a m n mn . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 244. however.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. It is. Then the law of involution. (a m ) w . that a an = a m+n . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . We assume. (ab) . while the second of the first. a m a" = a m+t1 . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true.* III. for all values 1 of m and n. provided w > n. The first of these laws is nition of power.
30. (bed)*.g. at. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. (xy$. .196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. = a. 25. 0?=^. or zero exponent equal x. 4~ . a?*. m$.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. etc. 31. e. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . disappear. 245. laws. as. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 29. '&M A 27. 24. a . 3*. a*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. a\ 26. 28. ml. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Assuming these two 8*. fractional. 23. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. n 2 a.
a. To find the meaning of zero exponent. ty?. e. v'mT 36. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 38.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. however. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 41. : 197 33. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 42. \/xy \/m. equal to unity. 50. the base is zero. Vo5 .g. 46. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 35. 45. \fi?. 27* = 3. = 49. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a* * = 3. a . If. 48. 3* = 27. = 2. 44. 5 a* = 10. hence is . Let a = a. = 2. a * a2 Or a=l. Solve the following equations 39.\/n. 7z* Find the values of 47. 40. 43. : 2' 4* = 4. 37.g. e. 246. 49. v/o&cT 34.
e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.g. Multiplying both members by a". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. etc. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.2 = a2 . by changing the sign of NOTE. vice versa. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . consider the following equations. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. cr n.198 247. Or a"# = l. Let x= or". . or the exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. 248. an x = a.
: mi m~^. a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. c 32. a^ 41. 40. 2 . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. f (2w)~i 1 . 44. 22. 36.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. . 2 . 2m~i 43. rfS. : or 5 . 66 45. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . * 24. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35."* 38. ^?2 y' 34. 37. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 3 a. m . ^L. 3 a? * 42. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 27. 39. 25. .
of: 3ll4~* 60. 49.6). (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 61. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 55. 47. 54. z* = 1.9*. 10* 5* = . = ^. 17' 2 51. = 5.(. 1. = . + 1~* f 21 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* Find the values 56. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.1. (.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.008)* + A. Ex. 250.001. 59. ar = i.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 52.343)* + (. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 48. 58. + A_.81 f (a . = l. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 57. z 5or*=10. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. . 53.
17. .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .5a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 26. 4 x^.&. 3sVS. Remove the negative exponents.$*. . 14. &. #* a. 8 ' 9.7W. 79 . 12. ' 11. / 7fv 7. S'sS8. 3 a. 3.6 *' 6 *25. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 13. 7~ 5 27  . 18. OA 20.4 . V5. 72 . etc. NOTE.. 6. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 4 5. 7. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.^/5^5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 7~ 6 . Perform the operation indicated.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.5. 6a. 10.7*. 7*. 16. 6 *. 95 ^9i 5**. 23. remove the fractional exponents.$".7i.&. 16. 27  28.3 aj" a. (d) If required. are performed. .4 a8 . a.
6 35. 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 2. 34. The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. powers of x arranged are : Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1. If powers of a?. 40.2 d .
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
VS. 33. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. V5.e. v/3. </2. 29. 38. 36. Simplify V + 3 VlS. Arrange 35. A/2. ^2. ^126. if dissimilar.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . Ex. </20. V2.3\ . V2. \/7. ^2. ^30. + . 26. 2\ 3*. </3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^5. 40. ^6. subtract surds.2 V50. Simplify V~ . 30. 32. 3.10 V2 =  V2. in order of magnitude : \/7. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 4^/4. 27. (i. Ex. To add or form. v/4. connect them by proper 1. ^7. v/3. 34. \/5. s!/3. Simplify/a35 ~ o . V3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. v^S. 5V2. ^/IT. V3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V2. 28. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^2. ^4. I VJ + 3VT8 . A/3. 31. ^4. ^3. 39.2. signs. 37.
3. 4V805V45. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 12. 13.3V20 + 6V5. 4.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 10.J a6 V4 aft. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. . 8. 8VT8J2V32 7. V18+V32VT28+V2. 9. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 14. 11. 6. 6. + 3V835V2. V175V28+V634V7. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .
100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 6*. y* = Ex.6V35 106 460V35100 .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 26^ . 2. Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 1. 3.2v/6 + IPV6 105. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex. 23.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. and then multiplied.
34. aVa. v/4. (2V3) 8 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. 37. 12. 14. V3 V6. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). + VB)(2V5). 25. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 19. 10. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V3 Vl2. \/3 \^). 4. 13. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 3. 6 V4 5. 2. 38. Vll.^/2. a?. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 18. 40 10 30. 6. 2 . (Va Va 36. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2 V50. 21. (3 20. VTO. 40. 213 98 11. 9. 6.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. . v/18 v"3. 15. V2aV8^.VSS. 39. V42. VlO V15. 27. 7. V20 V30. 8. fWa 17. 28 . ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 41.
51. 43. a fraction. 48. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Va v/a. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 268.y. 44. 60.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (5V2+V10)(2V51). . Ex. 47. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 49. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 52. 46. the quotient of the surds is If. V3 . is 1 2. Ex.214 42. (2 45. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E.
called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.RADICALS This method. . 1. Evidently.. we have V3 But if 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . arithTo find. 3.73205. The 2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.57735. however. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. e. metical problems afford the best illustrations. is illustrated by Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. by V7. Divide VII by v7. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. /~ } Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .g.
. 272. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V48 25. ^/H . 20. V8 JL. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. Vn V7 ' * 8. 21. 271. and Given V2 = 1. A. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. A. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 23 . V3 = 1.7320. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 14. 7. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V5 = 2. VffV?.2361. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.. V8 12. Vll 212*. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V3 24 .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. V2 22 . V5 270. . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate.4142. i.
.= 18.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .Vs2 .vffi^T _ . 1.2. . Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . 3.1 xVtf a. s Simplify a. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.
27. J?_. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . = V3 = 1. By the use of fractional exponents . V5V7 18> ^SVg.2361. find to _!_. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. v 2V3 28. . Vo1 26.4142.7320. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 24.5 3 = 125. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. : and V5 = 2. Given V2 1. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 19. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. four places of decimals 23 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.W3.218 6 . 6V7. V21 = 25 .
introduce fractional exponents : Ex. viz. v8f 2\/15. V643 . . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. According to G3. it to this form. \/125" . ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. 2 12. 9. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 4. on the other hand. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. \/l6*. Simplify Ex. 2. the If. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 8. 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2. 1. 3 (V2~u)  7. 11. 5. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3.
2 \/18.6 V2.A/2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. ^TT. 12 and whose product is 20. Find Vl2 4.6\/2 = ^9 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . and whose product is 18.2 \/20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 2. 3. Find Vll . These Ex. is 11. The Hence ^11 . +2 Ex.220 Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.
(2x xrf 1. they are transto formed into rational equations.1. The value x =2 reduces each . Dividing by Check. . by raising both members equal powers. first involution. r 22. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. member to 2. x2 = x f 2. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 4x x = 2. Solve vVf!2a = 2.e. Ex. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.V48 4 20. +=. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. V48 23. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Radical equations are rationalized.. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 5. : 221 Vl32V22. VT . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 4. 277. Before performing the involution. Transposing and uniting.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 8. are radical equations. = xa + 4 x f 4. 19. a. i. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.
viz. It = 3 x .1) = 0. Transposing. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. V4afT~l. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 4#f 4 = 9. the first member = V2. a socalled extraneous root. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Therefore Check. f 25 = 12. . Extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. x = J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 3. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. tion which has two roots. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. viz. 278. V24~+~l = 0. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Squaring both members. a. Transposing and uniting.222 Ex. they may be extraneous roots. 2. Dividing by 24. one root. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Ex. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. at . Squaring both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . 5. Factoring. Therefore CftecAr. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.
= } would be a VaT+T Ex. 2 Clearing of fractions. ViTie 4 z2 . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. If If x 3 = 3. + 6~ieT~3 . Therefore. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. x root of the preceding equation. equation it is an extraneous root. .47) = 0. (x x = 3. the right member = V2. and to 5.2 r. Transposing. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. or x *j. both members reduce to 5. Squaring. NOTE. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. . viz. \ does not satisfy the given. . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.12 . for it satisfies the equation . = 3.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . is x V. 223 x = 3. 4.3) (2 x . 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Solve the following equations : = G. Hence x = the only root. Check. Hence there is only one root. Factoring.RADICALS Hence x If a.
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring.
*2a.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.8 x + 40 = 36. Let 8 x f 40 . x + Vx a? = 6.i~24 = 0. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 45 14VJB = . _ 2 y . x =6 or 3.35 = 0. Q . members of the equation were squared. = 7. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. some of the roots be extraneous. . But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. o. Vi 2 8a. y then x2 . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2_8z 440 = 49. 5. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Substituting. 4. Ex. 2Va. + 40 = 6. 412a* = 16. 2. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. This can be seen without substituting. 3 6. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.8 z40 = 7. = 0. = 26. 2.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.f40= 5. 3. x Since both =9 or 1.
226 11.a 440 = 35. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a^x2 5 2 13. +x . 18. a. +3= 6. 2. 20. 16. 12. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 15.f 18 = 24. 14. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. 19. 4 V SB* 4 a.
then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. then (x 2)Q 0.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. If x* .bx? + ex2 4. ^ = 381+2. E = ax + &z + m) Q.4 a. " Or. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. find the remainder when m. no matter If. however. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.2) Q . 227 . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. we can find the value of R by making x = 2." transposing. could. if Q was known.360 = 244. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Without actual division. Ex.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. = 2. Hence.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. 3 2 Ex.2 + 4. does not contain a?.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . ax4 4. 2. we make a? what the value of Q. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 1. even if Q is unknown. by dividing 3 x* f.2 + 80 = 12. a? R = x* .
hence (x divided by x 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. If the remainder is zero. if 8 42  . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. + ^by x + b. x m is factor of the expression. 2 j 7. 3. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.949. the remainder equals 8 2 x .228 282. 43 3 E. of the division 3) is m in place of x.4(.g. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 5 (4x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.g. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.3)f 11 =. + 6. 5.8. fora?. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + 7 = 632. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . The Factor Theorem. } 2 by a1.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .8'= 0. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. 8. x* s 2 4. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.
1. factors of the absolute term. + 27 + 27. f 5. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 7 46 = 0. 20. + ttt15 = 0. a. a^8^ + 19a.49 = 0. 2m 5m .12 = 0. i. 1. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a 8a f 19 a 12. Let x = .1. Resolve into factors 4. oj 5x2 f3a. 11.7 x + 15 = 0. 229 1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.1. 106 division. 8. The 5. f 15 does not vanish. then x8 7 x'2 4.12. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 2 2. 9. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. or 5 4 + 3^ . 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . a? 19. 3 2 : 7. Factor a? 15. 15. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.7 + 16 . 5. 3. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. a 5x 6.r6 = 0.9^ + 23^15. Therefore x ( 1). x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.e. 18. 17. 23. 25. 6.13m + 30 10. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 2. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 21. ^10^429^20=0. m f m n 14. 24. + 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a + 32. p 5^ + 8p 4. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. are f 1. is a factor. or x 4. . a 2a + 4. & p*. 8. f 3. _ .
y n is divisible by x f ?/.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 2. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if w is odd. xn f. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. For substituting y for x. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. xn y n y n y n = 0. ar +p= z6 e. If n is a Theorem that 1. By we obtain the other factors. : importance. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . x* f/ = (x +/)O . Factor consider m m 6 n9 . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if n is even.230 285. is odd. 2. 2 Ex.xy +/). Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. It y is not divisible by 287. actual division n. 1.g. 286. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.
Hence = (m Ex. however. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 27. as 27=0. x3 8=0. y 3 +8=0. leads 231 is The first method. a.= . 3.i mn f w 2). preferable. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26. since it more directly to the prime factors. 28.
290. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.1.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. in general. xy are given. however. to equations of the fourth few cases. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.y4 is of the fifth degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). & + 2 xy + = 25. = 6. (5) Combining (5) with (1). (4) Hence. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. If two of the quantities x f y. can be solved by the methods degree. xywe have 3. ==5 > 1^ = 4. x y. 232 . 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. + 6 a?V . * A I. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 4 xy = 16. of quadratics.
" "' "' { r 8. 12. EXERCISE Solve: 1. x and xy are not given.g. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. The arranged in pairs. r (" 1 = 876. 233 y. = . the answers of the last example are : r*=2. b=3. ^. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. ' 10. 1. 3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. I I x + y=7. but can be found. 108 2.
. aj = 2. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  f J. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 2 (1) From (1) we have.. I* Jj ^ [. 3.  . la. I x+y = a. or y = 1 . Ex.i/ = r 13. Factoring. 6 "I 14. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. + 29 = 0.o 18. one linear and ne quadratic. A system of simultaneous equations. x " (3) 49 etc. .a. 19.  42 y + Transposing. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 5. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. or JJ. r^ 2 as ] f.?/ i = 6. ' ' .20) = 0. 4 y = 20. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 7 .
Solve . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). If of the preceding type. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). ' x*. x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. quantities. y* + 2y = 3.3 2x 2 Ex. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 4 f + 2 y = 3. = 1 3 3. 3y) : Factor (2). ':il e :) . 10. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . III. 9. 1. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. the example can always be reduced to an example 296.
2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 2 . = 0. 2. 109 a. 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. j Substituting y in (2). y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) (2) x x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = Ex. } VI09. Solve 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 15 x2 .
298.!. ' ^ 15. " IV.175 ay = 12. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). and others not belonging to them. (4) (3). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices. y? a? f . f 1 150 a?. Bxy9. Division of one equation by the other. E. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4. A.125 ay = . 150 */2 .y = 7.3^42^=43. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. .6.
x +y y etc. (1 > (2) 1. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x .. jc~ y = 9. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 189. at first it is unknown quantities. xy. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. * ' 300. y = 3. i ^ *>. 2. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. x 2 . quadratics can be solved by ?/. Some simultaneous ?/. B. Solve Ex. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 12 J. y . we obtain by squaring. we have from (1). Therefore x = 16. from (2).
M6. Hence = V or = 4. I e. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 4. 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 36* 2. 6. 7. 239 Ex. . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. [2x + : y= 17. F+y+ .
f 18. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = 198. 16. .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 19 ' 26. 25. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 27. . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .4 y = 47 a.21 ^ = 15. * .
. = 48201. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ^ oo . . etc. . oo 301. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . ~\ OK OO. or ~ indeterminate. 31. 3 a2 38.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 7' j/ 39.of  According to the definition of division. etc 302. 33. y % 9 f*K 36. 32. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. Interpretation . as a . finite  =x y if = x. . 25 34. Q 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . hence may be any finite number. 30.
Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. . is satisfied by any number.e. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . oo is = QQ. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. i.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. as + l. Hence such an equation identity.can be If It is made larger than number. or that x may equal any finite number. ToU" ^100 a. (1) = 0.increases if x de x creases. = 10. be the numbers. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. Or. By making x any * assigned zero. 1. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. great. (1) is an identity.242 303. the answer is indeterminate. cancel. x f 2.g.x'2 2 x = 1. 1. TO^UU" sufficiently small. equation.e. I. . and becomes infinitely small.decreases X if called infinity. (a: Then Simplifying. i. it is an Ex. Let 2. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.000 a. The ~~f fraction . (1). creases. without exception. and . 306.
the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). two numbers is 76. The sum is of squares 2890. 4 3 x x5 a2 . (2).8 x + 15 6. y finite QO. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Hence /. is their 2. Solve x a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. = oo. 1=0. z = 1 Substituting. . The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Solve . Solve  9 7. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.e. 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. and the sum of Find the numbers. and a. 42 and' their product is 377. EXERCISE 1. * 6. third and sixth parts. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number.2 y = 4. 3.
the area becomes f% of the original area. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.quals 20 feet. and the diago(Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the side of each square. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the other two sides. 146 yards. Find the edges. is 6. 13. of a rectangular field feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 103.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the sides. p. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 8. and the sum of ( 228. 255 and the sum of 5. increased by the edge of the other. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.) 53 yards. of a right triangle is 73. Find these sides. Find the numbers. equals 4 inches.244 3. 190. Find the sides of the rectangle. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the edge of each cube. 9. Find the dimensions of the field. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. . 6. 14. and the edge of one. two numbers Find the numbers. 10. 12. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7.
is 20 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii.) 17. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. the quotient is 2. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the number. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. . irR *.
. of a series are its successive numbers. ... 17. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 12. Hence / = a + (n . 309. 3 d must be added to a. progression. 4. series 9. : 7. An arithmetic progression (A. 2 d must be added to a.. 15 is 9 f. added to each term to obtain the next one. a f d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. P. (n 1) d must be added to a. . P. to produce the 4th term. . The progression is a..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. the second a descending. + 2 d. to each term produces the next term. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. a + 2 d. a + d. 3. The first is an ascending. a. 10.. except the first. To find the nth term / of an A. and d.1) d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. f . . P.. of the following series is 3.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. 16. a 3d.) is a series. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 11. 19. Since d is a f 3 d..7. each term of which. to produce the 3d term.. a 11. The common differences are respectively 4. to produce the nth term..
= 99. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . if a = 5. 5. 3. 3. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. (d) 1J. 2J.. 9. . 115. Find the nth term of the series 2. = I + 49 = *({ + ..' cZ == . a = 2.. 2.. Find the 10th term of the series 17.. 10. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 3. Find the 101th term of the series 1. = a + (a Reversing the order. . .4. (a + + (a + l) l). Adding. 4. series .. 7. 6.. ... Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). series 2. 1J.. 6. 2 EXERCISE 1. 5. 8. Find the 5th term of the 4.. P. 6. ? (a) 1. 8. the term a. . . of the series 10. = 2.. 9. d .. P. 1. 3.. 5. 5. P. 8. 4^.PROGRESSIONS 310. 7.. 24. 19..8.. the last term and the common difference d being given. d = 3.3 a = l. 6 we have Hence . 99) = 2600.16. 5... 2. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 21. 1. 3. 7.
. 31. 15. and for each than for the preceding one. 22. 11. Sum the following series 14. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. + 3. 7.7 f to 12 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . to 20 terms. . 15. . to 7 terms. to 15 terms. 13. 1. 12. 1J. 11. P. to 20 terms. 17. 8. to 16 terms.248 Find the 10.. 33. Jive quantities are involved. 11. . 23. 16. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. (x +"l) 4. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. rf. 7. '. 1. 29. hence if any three of them are given. striking hours only. : 3. 21. 18. 20.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 16. 12. 3. 6. In most problems relating to A. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . (i) (ii) . to 20 terms. 1. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. \n. strike for the first yard. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 2J. . 4.1 f 3. to 10 terms. 19. 2. to 8 terms. > 2f 2. . 7. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000.
.104 w + 408 = 0. the second one mean between the other two. 2 (2) From Hence (2). P. Substituting in (2). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = n(104 . 12. 89. hence n = 6. 144.1) . The first term of an A. But evidently n cannot be fractional. or 11 J. P. l)e?. 312. The series is. 78. = a + (w. Findn. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 100. if a. s 24ft last term 144. a = 12. I Substituting in (I) and (II). = 13.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 122. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 204 = ^ (98 .1). or if x Solving. 45. 133. I. 78 n Substituting in (1). d = 6. 1. and b form an A. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. . Solving. n = 6.e. = 144.6. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. From (1). 6 n2 . if s = 204. n d. 2. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = 1014.~n~\ 408 6). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).. Find the series. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 23.6 n). 6. Ex. . a = 49 6(71 . is 12. J = 49. 34. 56. #. = 1014. 111. P. 67.
m and n 2. s == 440. Given a = . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 1870. 3. = ^ 3 = 1. 7. 74. = 17. n = 20. = 52. a+ and b a b 5. Given a = 4. 78. Find d and Given a = 1700. s = 70. n = 17. 16. = 45. 8. Find?. n = 4. How much did he save the first month? 19. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Given a = . ceding one. n = 16. . Find a Given a = 7. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 14. 12. n = 13.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. n. and s. 10. Find d. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. T? ^. 13. d = 5. f J 1 1 / . Find n. 4. How much . Given a = 1. Find d. 11.3. = 83. Find a and Given s = 44. I Find I in terms of a. a x f b and a b. 15. 17. I. produced. n has the series ^ j . Find w. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 6? 9. y and #f5y. P. has the series 82. f? . = 16. of 5 terms 6.
36.. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. . or. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. and To find the nth term / of a G. E. NOTE..arn ~ l . . .) is a series each term of which. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. I. r n~ l . P. (I) of the series 16. ar. If n is less : than unity. 12. ... ar8 r. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 108. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. 2... 24. 4. P. rs = s 2 . ratios are respectively 3. The 314. called the ratio. +1. 2 a.. 4. 36. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. The progression is a. of a G. the first term a and the ratios r being given. or 81 315. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . <zr .. A geometric progression first. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 36.g. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 24. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. is it (G. P. .. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 4 (1) . is 16(f) 4 .
if any three of them are given. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. 6. 72.. 72. 9. P. is 3. . Find the 6th term of the series J. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.18. .6.. 10. 144... whose . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. + 5. series . l.5. P. 20. 3.18. 144.288. Hence the or series is 0. whose and whose second term is 8.. . . Find the 5th term of a G. first term is 125 and whose common . first 5. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. series 5. 288. EXERCISE 1. In most problems relating to G.. . (it. And the required means are 18.l. 8. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 9. is 16.5. 1.. first term 4.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 2 term 3. Hence n = 7. f. I = 670. P. 576. 36. Ex. 9.. series 6.. 80.4. (d) 5. ._!=!>. . or 7. 144. fa.. 0.. P. . a = I. (b) 1. f.. . . hence. 25. .*. Jive quantities are in. \ t series .. 676. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. fa. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.54. r^2. ? (c) 2. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. P. 4. . 7. +f%9 % .. volved . Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. i 288. 36.72. 36. 4. 18.
a. r . Find a and 4. 72.. M. 19.nV> i*> !718. 36. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. s = 605. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 2. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. to 5 terms. . Find a and n = 4. >"> . to 6 terms. == 160. 27. .. 14. J. to 6 terms. . 4. to 7 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. s = 310... the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 126. 12. 54.. may be than any assignable number. 81. 1. 243. 42. Find a and Given r = 3.i a9 . . 23. = 3. to 6 terms. 1. J. J. 81. 12 terms. of r n decreases. n = 5. I. be written If the value of r of a G. 14. J. and hence ~ r . P. Given r = n Z 5. Z s. 15. to 8 terms. 13. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. a^. 24. . 16 . 22.. . to 7 . n = 5. 21. is less than unity.. 25S series : 32. = 3.J and 270. 20. Find the geometric mean between 7. to G terms.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. + 4 . 48.
. 6. = a .. . 14.. i. 250. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 2. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.27777 . . 10.= .... and the first term is Find 17. is 9. . .717171. 9. of an infinite G. r = j.. 8.. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 16.3121212. 3. 1.. 12.72. Hence .. 6. . Find the value 9. . 5. Given an infinite series of squares.3 + .1. first and the common term. =A+ 10 i. 2. 1. 100. of: 11. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. P. P...99 . 5. of all squares ? ... 4. = .072. 1 r = .. .3727272 . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. The sum r. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. 4.072 + .555... 7.. 9. 13.191919. .254 Ex. 12.... I. 16..00072 f . .. 40. ratio 15. . ... 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. is J. 66 Therefore .Ql.37272 . ... P. what is (a) the sum of the areas. = . . .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 1.. .= _4Z* . is 16. 1. Find the sum to infinity.)7?7272 . i i J.01 ^ ... 8.272727. = 990 . . .. If a = 40.
coefficient of . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 21. : (1 + xy. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 4 7. 14. .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 12. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .b ). 16. l 2. 17. 7 . (s + i).6) . . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a + b) . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . . (xy) : 6 . 28. a6 8 16 in . 4. (a2) 6. 20. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the 6th term of (x . .6) 20 . 26. 10.b) w (a (a f (1 . (\ 9 . 29.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 25. 22. 2 2 24. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 15. /2a+Y\ 8. 11. 13. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 5. (a 100 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.
1. 1. 3. 5. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 4. + 2. + c(a  c). 2. 1. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. 2. 2. 3. 1. 6. 1. 2.  2. 7. 1. 2. 1. if = = 2. 1.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 4. 4. 4. ft 4 ) 5. 2.  8 ^ 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 6. 4. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 4.  2. 2 . of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5. if = = = 2. 6. 1. c if 7 . 3. (c 3. if x^l. . 2. 4. 3. 3. ^+^ 3. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 1. 3. 4. l. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. 2. aft 3 + 4. 3. 2. 4. 5. 5. c = = = 2. 4 ft  c) 2. ft) . 4 2. 5. 24 4. 1.f ac 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. y 3. 2. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 5. 4. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 .  a)(a 1. 3. 2. 3. 2. + 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 1. 2. 2. 3. 2. 5. + 1. 2. 1.c )(fta) 1. 3. 2. 1. 1. = 2. a ft c = = 2. 2. 5. if y=2j 2. 5. 1. 2. 5. 3. 1. 6. 4. 3. 2. 2. 3.a(a 4. 3. 1. . 6. 3.
7 + . c)(x a} . + 3 y 2* . 29. 9. or . + 4 ?y .a 5 a . 6 a4 4 a8 . 20.2 z8 4 x.c' 2 4 / . 7 xy 3 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .259 x c) . 18. = 2. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . x3 f 3 ax'2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 .2.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 2. 41.2 x2 . 2 x 8. (5. 15.10. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.7 y 2* 4. 4 z .3 a?y . 3. ' b) + 3.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 5. if a 6 = = c = 3. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. + 2.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .2. a: . 2. . . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 5. 4 y 13. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4. 21. + 8 x4 *y . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.8 3 + 7 x4 . x = 4. + 4. 16.5. 24. ~c)(b. 5. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 10. 25. 5. 4. x C 4 4x y + .2 x?/.a) .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.\ yz + xz. + 1. 7.r 6 x  4 xy . 1. 4 x 4 . . 8 .7 ys. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.3 xyz. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 12. 17. 3. a. 2.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2. 40. 8.  a) (c 2.1. 9. 26. 1. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . x 3 11.x 5 4 . f 8. b(x (b 1.8 + 2 // . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 7y 4 . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2 . 21.2 a?y + 3 aty . r> .4. 15.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.a 4 . 4. 2  + 12 a 8 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . . x 3 x' 14. a. a 4 + 11 a . x3 2 a2 . c = 3. a /> 3. 6.a8 .
8 3 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.(x* . and . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. of a.[4 x 4. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4.] 26.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. : a x . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . Simplify 31. Take the sum of 3 x 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . sum of .2 . 2 x 32.(4 * .x 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . 5 4 7 12 . .(4 x 2 .2) .(5 c .3. .x .(a .5.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .260 19.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. From of 2 the 4. 34. 542 x 2 and .(7 x 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.7. f ft.4 ft) 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .3 x .x 2 4. a  ft + c. 4 3 5 y/ . take the sum of G x 5 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.x . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .1)}] . 35. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.6 x ] . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .(x 4.2 3 ax 2 . 5 10 + 7 .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. x8 x2 2 a'2x.c 3 a. = x y ft z. 4 4 4.2 a .4 Vl 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 7 12 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .2 x 8y2 44 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.[4 z 8 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . (*) a  c. c =x y }~ z. . . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .(5 y .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 0" 30.a ft.c 4 3 a.{G * 2 .4) . 4 2 x2 23. c 4. ft 25. 33..4.?> x 4 20. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. . ft. 4 .1).c.#48.5 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.3 .6T . c 4ft.x2 . 4vTT~y 3.3 .c. 29. x'2 . 3 ft.{2 x 2 .27~~7)}].2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 36. Take the sum 4x 4.2 .
[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 63. 62.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.(5 y .(7 a. (4 + 3a 2 .[4 x  5 .ac .2c(V/ . 54.(2 x2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 68.3)(*5)(* 7). . + *+!){> + 2).r 2:c+ l)(ar.(4 d .{3 c .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].5)} + (3 a 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2 2 + 1)(7.be) (a 58.6 xy . 50. )(lz a ).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). + 4x + 5)(j. .Z . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 3 x 42.b (c .6c) (a + f c).3 c)].c).[2 .12).2 zz . (x.rf)} + a [.96 [17 a. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.(2 a 2 . (r (1 (a.c 2 .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.(2 a + 5 a . (.3). 64. 67. 2 53.0)} .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 56.7). 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.2 2 . (x .4 a 2 + a 4 ).3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .2x + 3). (5 a 39. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 59. .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.& + {. (1 55. a . 51.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.2a . (/> 4 . 46. 48. 57.  2 a  {3 2x a . 2 f [3 c 7 a . . 2 ft 41.{2 a (ft .2)(1 . 13 a .(6 . .a~^~c)K].56. .(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 : 7e)a}].4 a .1). 49. a {.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 2 2 x + !)(* .3c). . .5 )}] + {4 c . (1 ar+a.{2 a .3 *).ab .(2 . 43.3 z 2 ).6)}]. 2 52. 'J 44. 65.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 60. (.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 45.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).
ft 95. 70. 73. ft 78.c) rr identities.am&t 4 A 2 *).c) 4) (ft 4. ft /. 84. (. ar .3 a . 92. 4 4 . 87.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).2 (y 4.3y) a (* 2 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c) j.a) 2 .z\x 4. 86. 75.ft) 4 .262 69. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. (x (x ( + *) .6*y .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 1).2 (a . 94. 91. 90.c) .v) 4.z) . .y + z)(x + y . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.5 .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).q). 83. 76. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). (a (2 b)*(a 4.3 (ft . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft" l Simplify 80. 77. f 72. 93.c)} .n pc). 2 (x 2 .r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .(c 4.2 ft}) f (3 a . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.x + y + z).r 2 .c)]. 1). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).9y2).2y)(. 2 + a 2 ). 89.(4 . 79.(ft 4. ft ft ft a}.c) . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(a 2) (s 4 ft. 71. 74.(a 48 8 8 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).y)\x y).(/>  3 v)^(. 4. . 82. 88.z)(x y + z)(.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).ft) + 4(2 .c) 2 .m np c .O (a 4(a 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.b 4.c . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.<f(p .y). xy y 2 ). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 85.c .{3 a . Prove the following 8 4.:y)( a. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. . (p 2 . b 4.
121.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).b) 98. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.40 />) .16 a 6 4. (80 a 112. 108.) .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .(a 1 2 8 .y 4 . 105.6 y 4 4.2 xy 8 .(2 a 2 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 2 4 41 x 4a.(7 xi/ . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).r 4 4.v/ ~ // = a: .*) (x 8 . 118.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).1).&).35 x 2 2 ) . [10( 4. 99 100.2y 2 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 26 (a 4 c). 122. (.3 a"+ 4. 110. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.y 4 ) . (2< 107.2 2% 4.5 xy). (a 8  8 68 8 4. 117.4 aft . 1O4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".y 2 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 3*. 1).xy 4. 124.27 x* .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 103.(x 2 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 102. 120.9 x 2 . . (8 x* 115. 2 (a+ . 10).a".5 b*). 116. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 113. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). r . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 114. 106. 123. 25 4 . a*. 109.
138. o o 140.(x .18 *&) (1 . 2 4(ar .9) + 3. (4 x . y (* l x.2) + 2(ar + 4).(1 . 42(3ar 145.(x f 9).r>) . 136. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(5 .27 a 3" .3). .9) 4. 135. 137. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .3 a:).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 142.n .12 M 132.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . .4) .4) .7(4 * . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 3(2 x 134.4(0 x .22. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.r + 7[or .5) = 12(4 x . 128.8 6 . 129.(j a? 144.G) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 1) .3) = 12 . 143.2(j: . 127. .5{.5). (5a: 150.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. .3) (3 x 4.1) .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). . 149.(x + 3) ] . 3) = x\x .2 7^~5] + 1). 139.2(4 .2) = 3 .2(10 x . 7(2 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 5 146.3(* + 4) + 9} . 10(2 x 141. 148. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2) (a: + 3).(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .19) + 5 = 4 . x 147.7) = 4 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).264 125. (*+ + . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. . 1) = 2(* .3 x).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).1) (a? . 5(2 x . 126. .a:)]}.3).3(2 z .
2) a + 7(x . f^ + ^sO.3) = (3 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. . a: ar a.5) = (3 .3) (3 . 265 152. 162.2) (j? + 1) + (x .19) + 42. (a) If C.25) 2 . (3 O + . 157. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. (2 . 163. . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 158.9) + (a. and the third twice as many as the first. .2).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2 x) (4 . 153. How many 170.4) (a . 156.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.14) (a: + 3). The sum What 171. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 5(ar x . =  (F 32). .5)(. sheep more than the 169.3) (3 . (x (x a.z) (4 . 160.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. (7 14 . + 2) + (5 .5(x .8) = (2 x 4. 166. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .1) (s + 3).T)O .29) 2 = 1.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.2) (7 *) + (*. 2 4 ..2 x) = (1 . will produce F.7) (1 x .6 x) (3 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.3) (a: . If the area of the frame inches. transformed into F.5 x) = 45 x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.? .17) 2 + (4 x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 164. The second contains 3 first. 159. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. + 5) = (9 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . .l)(z . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.7) (a. (a. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 165.24. 154. these two angles would be equal. 155.a:) + 229. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.3) (j. = 2 C. 161. + 10) (ar . find the value of F. = 15.76. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. + 4) (2 x + 5).(5 x .5*) + 47.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. (a .r + 3) .
+ 11 ~ 6. How many are there in each window ? . A each 177. x* 185. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. z 2 92. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each.36. 10x 2 192. 190. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. +x 2. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. father.56. . number divided by 3. 178. 3 gives the 174. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 7/ 191. . respectively. side were one foot longer. ll?/102. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A house has 3 rows of windows. power one of the two Find the power of each. and 5 h. younger than his Find the age of the father. Find the dimensions of the floor. sister . 4 a 2 yy 42. aW + llab2&. if each increased 2 feet. A boy is father. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184.266 173. dimension 182. 179. 187. was three times that of the younger. 180. two boys is twice that of the younger. 189. Find the number. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 181. . 13 a + 3. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. + a. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 188. 186. 12 m. 176. z 2 + x . 2 2 + a _ no. same result as the number diminished by 175. train.
2 x 2 . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 16x 4 81. 8 a. 7x 2 225. wiy + la mx + aw. 2 . 216.14 2 . + 30 x. 209. 235. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 201. a 2 . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .10.10 y a x* . 208. 2 2 y f 1. 246. 239. a: 236.77 y + 150.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.r?/f y 2 9. 215. 3 ap 2 . 3 x 2 . . 2a te 3% ly 247. y 2 194. 211.3 c/> + 6 cq.21 a:  54.6. a: 231. x* + 8 2 + 15.c) 2 . a. 23 12. x 219. .3 xf + 3 * 2y . xm+l 243. 229. 212. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . + 8. 7a 228.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .c) 2  (a . 4a 2& 2 241.64. 207.22 z + 48. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 233. .10 xy. 267 199. ifWy+b. a a: a: 237. 221. + 2 . 195. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . z 2 2. 224. (a + . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 213. + 198. 3y 2 + ary .(b + rf) 2 . + 3a 196. 60 a 2  a: // 205.x + 1. a^a 226. 232. 230. a. a: . 2 a 8 .12 * .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 217.6s. 203. . 238. 3 x V . 4 m +^.1. 5 x 2. a. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .6 y2 + 4. . x*y 223. 218. z + 5x 2 .3 xy. a+a* + o a +l. . 245. 210. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .19 z 4 204.19 a . 2  5 xy 13 y a.6 2 ?/ . 202.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 244. 2 a 2 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. x 5 . 8 a: ar. *2 234. 6 197. 2 200. 227.28. # 2  29 y + 120. 206. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .6 aq . a.8 6 2. 3y 248.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 12 x +4. . 24 2 + 2 . 222.20 z 8 a: 220.
x*y* 4. x 2 4.11 x f 28. 251.9 x .1 9 . x* . . a. + 20 x 4. 30 ^ . 6. x* . F.9.ry 21.4 ab + 1. x 2 + 2 x .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.4. 269. 258.10 a 4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 10 x 2 .r .36.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. of: 253.23 x f 20.8. 2 8 . 257. 7 12 2 2 . 261.x .73 xy .7 f 5. 270. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.9 x + 14. * 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 3 #2 255. 2 a. 3 a% 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20.3 abc . 260.91.2 z .11 a 2 .3. C.13.&z. x 2 + 4 + 3.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.14 bx a%% 8 . * 2 .16 x . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . of: 266.2/ 2 .G7 x f 33. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 x2 . a: . a? a: a: // 262. 265. + 23 x f 20.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .2 aft*. a 4.48 afy 2 . 259. 10 a.a 2 />c 2 f 3. x 2 + 5 f . 264. Reduce to lowest terms 271.(55.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 18 x 2 .ry . z 2 268. x 2 . 22x2 a. 252. * 2 . x 2 263. + 3 x + 2.M. * a . 3 ay 4.18 xy + 5. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .6 by. 28 2 f 71 x .10. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.12.a + 2 4.3 x .15 + 30.15.5 ab f 2.C. a 3 a 2 2 .80. z 2 267.120. ft a. + 8 x + 5. 254. 1 x ar Find the L. 7 ax 250. I Find the II. + 8. 15 # 2 z/ /.23 + 12. 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . 2 + 7 r f 2.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 5 x 2 256. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).
rL.(y 2 z) * t (j. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2* + 3 x* 280. 285 z4 n* + a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 289 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .!/.2c a: 282.ar 1 279. *2 " 2 + Oge. + ac ...J' 4 2 2 w mp . a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 8 .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. z2 (a 2 + c)a.
(a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 4 3 301. Lnl + ar 2 a. x 7. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . a (: a) (x 2. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. O(ca) 306. 6) _ ~ i 305. * 19 23 19(23 23. ^_2*(m 308. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.
} . (1 . (a? 4 2) 317.. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. _ x8 . 1 x2 + + a. 2 + y 2 319. 1a: + y a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. a: 1 313. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 _. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.(a .ft) 2 322.
y20  2y + 4 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. * 3a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .9 *// + 27 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .V  + y  x 3y a .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 +lOar 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 lOx 5x. .ll.6* t 328.7 xy + 12 x .5 a ..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .15 33 . . 250 5 10 2 325.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. a: 2 x* ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 20 44 333. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .
13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 348. +^ a: y x . 344. (af2/. f V. 352. fl. ** i. + l + IV. (aWi + iJ. ?_2 ^ . + ni + . a: 349 _ o. ( 342. 7 ( ?f!?.r 5 2 . (ar \ 346. 5 343. : 1+ i. \5yl 341. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.1V. \x yj 340. ' 2 "l 5 . xi 347. w \. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. a>74 . 338. aj 339. (a \ + lV.y. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.+ r .. 1 345.) 2 . if a = 3.
_ + l a 359. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. y360. (a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. + x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . I  I f 366. 1+2 362.
REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . b c 368. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + . .
5*8. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.*2 = 15. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 5 {2 x 381.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 379. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . ^ . 4(* . J !__7. __4 2x 3_ = !. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 1) 45 O 377. . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. <3 378. 8  376. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382.
 ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .1 . b 404.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).147.25 x + . 399. u '2 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.6  . .25. m x 398.  8 9* x ~r. 397. 400. 40.8 = . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 ^ ~ a: a. c . 401. 3* 177. ^ (a . f 1 1 + a 403. 396. . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..5 x =r f . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.2 a:  1. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.75 x f .  J).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. + 4 a. _____ . a.. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).
420. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . far did he walk all together ? A . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. (x .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. and was out 5 hours. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. How long is each road ? 423. 418 ~jo.278 410. 421.  a) 2 6 2a. Find the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. hour. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.c) . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 411. Tn 6 hours . In a if and 422.
If a b : =5 n : 7.6 8 ).2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find the mean proportional to 429. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. wi* + y= ny. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. b. 433. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). : If is one equal 434. Find the fourth proportional 426. y. .46 2): (15a 2 . and : b : c = 14 : 15. find : a : c. Solve 436. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . .& 5 ) (a 8 . 430. ax is \ by  ex + dy. . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 432.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Find the length of the parts. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. a  t>.49 63). a + 5. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. find the angles of the triangle. if . z 2 y. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. 435. d. 428. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Which ratio is greater.iand 22 22 I a . 2 2 8 2 . x 427. : i. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 431. a. 438.
449. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 5z4:# = 3. 459. 457. 5 2 = 7 . of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. Solve the following systems: 441. 458. . 455.4 12 . x + 17 # 53. 42 = 15y + 137. if 2 ft : 439. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . c. 3 . />(. 8 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. The volumes If their diameters. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).55 y = . 16.7 y = 25. 3 a. 7jr9y = 17. 56 + 10y = 7a.(or l(*2y)=0. . /) ar a.. a. 443. ft.35.rf2# = l. 448. Find the value of a. = 25. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). . 7 a: . 8 x + y = 19.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 7 442. 456. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .59 = 3 z. 4 = 5 y + 29. a: 2y= = 1 . 9ar7# = 71. 9/> = 2 . 28 = 5 a . 450. 453.11 7. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 444. ?/ 447.11 y = 95. + 5y = 59. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 446.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 451.*. a: a: + 5y). . 452. 445. 7a?y = 3. . 454. ft.89 = q. 1(3  a. 5x+4y=lQ.
7. ax cx by = m. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.+ =2.2y) (2 = 2J. 473. _ 469. 468. 475. 8 461.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 465. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. x y 474. (or . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .c=563y. + eyn. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.  = 2. i = 5. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . ^ + i^ = 7..?/ + 1 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ax by = c \ 472.
and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the fraction. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and in 20 months to $275. whose difference is 4. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. and the other number least. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 479. and in 18 months to $2180. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the numbers. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. 486. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the number. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 487. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. . How much money less 484. years. by 4. age. the Find their ages. 485. 477.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. A number consists of two digits 4. Find their ages. 483. A spends \ of his. 481. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. fraction becomes equal to . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the numbers.
3 a: + 5=84./ f z =a. a number . 2/>3r = 4. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 7. 1. \ . a: + // = 11. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. y Solve : x +z= 5. a: f z = 79. 3ar 503. + y 5 y = 101 . The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2y + 3a = ll. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 496. 4 497. . 8. . = 20. a. = 209. 1+1 = 6. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 492. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 498.5#+2z = $x a: G. : Solve the following systems 491. 3 x 500. = 15. 2 e. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 489. + # +z= 35. . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 493. x s + y z = 18J . 490. 5^ 9z = 10.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a.z = 12. 494. *i. 4 506. x f y f z 29 . 495.z = 20. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 2 = 41. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 2 a. z y x 25 . 2a:f 7./ 504. ~ 507. 7 + 2 z . . * + 425  = .? + 2y = 8. . a: 499. z y ifi = z x 502. x y f z = 13. ifi = x a.
i=a + 6 c. 523. 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. !f == 2800. + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. z z =3a&c. 36 + c. ll" .
and BE. 527. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. 532. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . BC = 5. it is filled in 35 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. if and L. and CA=7. in 28 minutes. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. In circle A ABC. they would have met in 2 hours. B and C and C and A in 4 days. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 90. AC in /). Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the present ages of his father and mother. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. L. . How long will B and C take to do . AB=6. 530. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. N. E 533. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. CD. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Find the numbers. M.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. What are their rates of travel? . touches and F respectively. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. the first and second digits will change places. If they had walked toward each other. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. When weighed in water. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. Tf and run together. it separately ? 531. . if the number be increased by Find the number.
FRANCE. GERMANY. . the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. x*. to do the work? pendulum. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .  3 x. 536. x 2 + x. then / = 3 and write = 3. formation of dollars into marks. if x = f 1.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x *x + x + 1. from x = 2 to x = 4. z 2  x x  5. 546. 3 x 539. 2  x  x2 . The values of y. b. 550. x 2 544. . x*  2 x.  3 x. 542. 547. x 8 549. + 3.10 marks. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 545. 2. If to feet is the length of a seconds. c. The greatest value of the function. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 543. i. One dollar equals 4. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. a. 2. e.e. 540. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. the function. 548.  7. d. 2 541. 2 x + 5. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. The values of x if y = 2.
2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . 563. 3 x .r a: a: x a.4 . c. Represent meters. j. 2. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. ' = 8. x 2 ~ 2 . c. x* . .G . a? 4 x . J. 15. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 572. 553. // Solve y Solve y = 5. x 4 . 2 x 2 560. . and make the unit of the b.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 2 567. h. 3 x* . 564. 18 x  4 = 0. a: 559.5 x . 558.3 = 0.= 0. \ to t = 5.17 = 0. If y +5 10. = 5. 2 a. 556.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. 3 .3 . a. 557.r 1 561. 3 + 3 z . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .15 = 0. + 10 x .3 x .11 x* + + 2 8 569. .3 x . g. f. 2 8 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.r . 566. a.4 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.13 = 0. 562. 555. Solve// = 0. z 4 . i. e. r?. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. a.= 0.  2 1 a: a. 568.9 = 0. if y =m has three real roots.7 = .6 + 3 . + 5 .1 = 0. 2 554.11 = 0.0. 565. Solve 552. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. z 2 . x 5 .
4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 599.2 6a: + 30 &c a. x [ ?/ 577. 2  2 aa: 2 . 9  4 fSb 607. a 612. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 595. f ?>) 3 591. 4 . 608. <r)3  2 3 a:) . (a. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.4. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 579.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . jj+. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. (aiy.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.5 xy = 0. 3 (f. a: . 588. x + z2) 8 . 600. 593. 589.frf : 583.%) 4 (aa.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 5 a*.2 2 + y. 4 (1a:) 3. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 2 943 ++ ~bx.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . . 64 a 12 603. 6 + 1) . 3 . 604. + %) (a* + *) 5 . (1 + x a. 2 611.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . a 8 606.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 582. 597.x + 2 )'2 601. + . 592. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a 2a. a:. j^f = 3. [ y =10. 585 594. 609. 1 . 596. 4 a. . 598.(1 . (# 2) . + + 4 . (1 (1 (1 . : y* or 25. + ^) + (air%)8. (a  8 ft) . xY.
and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 44352. 625 : 621. x 2 . 628. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.871844. 8*' + 24* = 32. 645. 637. 634.150. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9g. ft . 620.\/4090. 32 631. = 70. + 24 a 2 4 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. + 112 a 8 . : 5. 638. According to Kepler's law. = . 9a. 40. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 623. 624. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. Find the square root of 619. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 7) 2.*. 650. /. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .15174441. + 2 21 x = 100. 647t x 2 648 649. 630. 2 + 21Ga. 629. 622.30. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. GGff. = 87.12 a?y + y*. 626. VOIOOD + V582T09.1024 x + a: 256. 632. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. find Jupiter's period. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 0090.49.V250 . 4370404. *+* = 156. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 942841. 636. a 642.53 x ~ . 49042009. 639. V950484 . 371240. 633. 651. 21.2. 49.191209. 643. Find the eighth root 617. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. x 2 641. 035. 644. 614.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 2. 25023844. 2 + 189 z = 900. V 635. 615.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . (x 9 x 646. 3a. 494210400001. 210. 4J. + 54 'x*y* . = 0. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.2410.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
c = 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 694. 696. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. . 2 702.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 2 . 692. ax 2 698.a a )jr .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 693. 708. 706.bx . 695. . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. ex abc= fx 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. a. 2 2 697. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 707. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 699.ax . = 0.
Find the price of an apple. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. a: 713.292 709. How shares did he buy ? if 726. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 716. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.44#2 + 121 = 0. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 721. 3or i 16 . A equals CO feet. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. **13a: 2 710. 16 x* . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 723. 717.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. in value.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find two numbers whose 719. 12 4*+  8. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 725. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 217 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 724. 729. 727. . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 722.25 might have bought five more for the same money. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. sum is a and whose product equals J.
2? 50.aft* 1 + a 2*. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. n. . 43. 38.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 32. 33.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 31.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).)(ai + &.2 ).1 + x. 42. 1 6. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 39. 37.1 f ^ 2). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f c" ). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 34. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (v/x). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 36. . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2)(x2 4. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 52. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 41. 40. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 35.l).X .1 + c. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 46.
+ V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. JU. 761. \/G86 v/lGv/128. [1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x . 768. 757. 2V2 2V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 754._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.294 753. 758.1+J 756. 759.
10 785. x 782. . 14 791.2V3* ^ 807.2 V30. 806. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. a 9442V5. .4 V(j. + 2V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 92VI5. 787. 13 799. 793.12VIT. 794. Va 809. .VlO. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. c 792. 783.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 786. 790. 7512V21. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. . 789. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 3J . 16 + 2V55. 103 788. 3812VIO.
\/2y  810. V3 f 1 V4a.V? = 813. VaT+lJ f ^l . /9ar a: = 17. 830. + 103Var. 3 x + 2 . 812. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. x/aT+l . Va: . 818.4 = 0. 836.f 5 = V5x + 4. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . (x a: 2 ) 4 .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 816. + Vx . 829. = 1. 831. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 833. 820.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 811. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 815.13 = 0. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .g.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.V2 ar 10. \/12 a. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.79. + ViTli + V7 .Vc^lJ . V14 a.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 819. 814.
a. 64. a. 839. 871. 27 862.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.12. 8 . a 8 869.  3x a. 8 8 848. a 8 873.ab9 ft*. 729 867. a 8 850. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 8^27^.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 846. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 856. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 8  13 a. . 853. 851. z*y 8 l64a.10 = 118. 64 a 866. 9. a l0m . 8 4a: 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 6. 4 a: 2 842. 844. 2 f" + a/ 15. 864. 8 a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 19 x 14. x 4 + f 2 a. 855. f b**. 845. + 512 y8 874. V4 x 2 . 870. . 8 + a: 5 8 a. f 841. 275 8 l. . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 865. 8 2a. 861. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a. 876. 4 x 8 858. a 872. a. a 18 4. 8 860. a: 849. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . f 12. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a.x*y + 3x f 2. . 16 859. 852.1. 4 a. a. 875.3 x . + . x 8 2 857. 4 x* 847. . a.3 Va: 2 . a. 2 a: 64 y*. 2 x 3. 863. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 868.3 . a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 840.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a: . + 1. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. +3 4 +  4.1000 6. 4o. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a*" & 6n .3 a:. 27 y 8.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 40 x 2 7 f 49. y 4.
900. 2 + 2 f = 17. 5. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + xy = 10. .y 2) = 20. a:y . a: + y 2 = 34. 883. 886. a# f + xy = 126. +y f y = 7. x 8 3 = 13:3. y 2 4. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. a: 888. 887. a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 895. . a: a. a: 2 897. x 882. 894.1 = 2 a#. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. y 2 2 8f. . 890.15. 2 + xy = 28. 889. z 2 898. 2 + y 2 . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. + 2y=\2. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.sy = 198. 3 x 2 . 2 2 = 16 y. . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . y*+ xy . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. . 1 x 893. 885. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 . xy + y = 32. a: 884. x a: lI = xz . 896. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 901.5 xy + 4 f = 13. M1 891 1 .35.298 877. x*xy. 899. . a. 878.xy + y 2 = 19. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 = 2 + 5.Vi' + 1 1_3. y = 28. f ?/ a: a: . 2 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y 2 + V(j.18. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.
3)2 = 34. y x 2 = by. 23 x 2 .#y + 2 = 27. 917. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 4 (a. 907. (3 x . 2 915. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. = 8. x + y 2 = aar. * + y = 444. xa 903. 905. + y)(a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + 2 a:y + = 243. a: a. a:y xy 929. 3 :r(3 . 910. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 * 2 ~ g. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. ^ 2 . y . + y 8 = 189. . 921. + a. x 4 299 xy z 904. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. 2 + y = 2 a 4.y) = 33. y + a:y = 180.r a. *y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. xy + x= 15.y = a(ar + y). yz = 24. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. y 3 2 2 922. 2 924. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 8 ) =1216. # + xy + y = 7. 912. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 909. x 2 ry + y = 3.y) (a? . 920. 906. 908. 914. (a. 923.23 = 200. (o. + 2 ary = 39. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 913. 2 2 2 916. a: y zx 12.6. or or a? a: a: . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. (* 918. 911. + ary = a*. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. . + y = 9.y). . (!) * . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.x) = 21. a.y) (3 y . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 7 y . f y 2 x 2 y = 1.16 y 3 8 = .3(* + y) = 6. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.y2 = 22. ary y = 8. Vary + y = 6. 2 5 xy = 11.3) 2 f (y . + ?/) . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.2 y) = 49 2 919. x f 2 a:y = 32.
much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. diagonal 940. a second rec8 feet shorter. s(y 932. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle.300 930. two squares equals 140 feet. is 20. 944. Find the numbers. and also contains 300 square feet. In the second heat A . + z) =108. 34 939. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. is 3. . (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. feet. 2240. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. 931. If each side was increased by 2 feet. A is 938. is 3 . How many rows are there? 941. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. and the difference of 936. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. *(* + #) =24. two squares is 23 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. (y + *) = . two numbers Find the numbers. 937. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. Assuming = y. A and B run a race round a twomile course. feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Tf there had been 20 less rows. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.000 trees. z(* + y + 2) = 76. rate each man ran in the first heat. + z)=18. A plantation in rows consists of 10. y(x + y + 2) = 133. find the radii of the two circles. 935.102. 942. 943. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.square inches. and the sum of their areas 78$. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 152. y( 934. and 10 feet broader.
Find the number. distance between P and Q. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. at Find the his rate of traveling. the digits are reversed. and if 594 be added to the number. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. P and Q. Find the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A and B. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. . its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. Find the eter 947. that B A 955. 952. . A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find in what time both will do it. . The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find its length and breadth. is 407 cubic feet. 953. 949. sum Find an edge of 954. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. triangle is 6. set out from two places. What is its area? field is 182 yards. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. overtook miles. Two starts travelers. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and that B. whose 946. 951. each block. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. 950. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and travels in the same direction as A. and its perim 948. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. unaltered.
. s  88. Sura to 24 terms.1 4 f j$V . !Ll^ + n .. Find an A. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .302 956. 1 to n terms. to n terms. 966. . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.141414. are 29 and 53.  2. 964.. Sum Sum to infinity. n to n terms. the terms being in A. Find the sum of 4. = 4.. 18th terms of an A. 958. 9th and llth terms of an A. Find n f (ft) ...321? 965. 5. 975. 974. difference. 972. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. P.to infinity. fourth of the unity.. ^ Vfirst five 959..454. f + 1 . 957. P. Find n. and 976.v 973. 12434+ j I 967. 961. . Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 4.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. '.>/) to infinity. 5... (to 2 n terms). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. + (iiven a +  4 d . such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. 3 . *" 968. 969. \ . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. 36 963. to 7 terms. J.3151515. x(x to 8 terms. Find the Find the common 977.. 3 + 5 7 + .4142 . P. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 970.. P. to infinity. (x 4 to n terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. 1G series .V2 .. Evaluate (a) . 971. ... Sum to 20 terms. ^ 1 .. 4 4 to 7 terms . 16 962. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.
is 225. Find the sum of the series 988. 4 grains on the 3d.. first 984. Find the first term. 1. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .+ lY L V.001 4..01 3. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. to infinity may be 8? . The sum 982. to oo. 989. and the common difference. P..04 + .2 . The 21st term of an A. The term.001 + . of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. P. 987. Find four numbers in A. 986.. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Find n. 0.3 ' Find the 8th 983. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. : + 9   V2 + . Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. 5 11. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. 985. of n terms of an A. P. "(. named Sheran. to n terms.. 980. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54..REVIEW EXERCISE 978.1 + 2. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 303 979. 990. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. and so on. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. Find four perfect numbers. and of the second and third 03.) the last term the series a perfect number. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. . 992. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . to 105? 981. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 2 grains on the 2d.
in this square a circle. is 4. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. The sum and product of three numbers in G. (6) the sum of the infinity. and so forth to infinity. of squares of four numbers in G. 1000. are 28 and find the numbers. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. are unequal. and G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 512 996. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . (a) after 5 strokes. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 994. P. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 999. . The sum and sum . in this circle a square. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. prove that they cannot be in A. Under the conditions of the preceding example. areas of all triangles. If a. find the series. inches. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 1003. 997. at the same time. 995. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. 1001. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. ABC A A n same sides. The fifth term of a G. Two travelers start on the same road. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. 998. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. AB = 1004. P. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ft. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. c.
Find the middle term of 1020. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.ft) 19 . a: 8 7. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the two middle terms of 1013.l) w f . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. (12 #) 7 . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. + lQ . . 1008. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . x) 18 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.iV 2i/ 5 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1006. Find the middle term of ( . 2 ) 5. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Expand  2 a. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1012. (1 1018. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1009. 1011. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . ) 1021. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.o/) 14 . . 1014.
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. 129 54. 112 54 54 251 .. signs of Algebraic expression .193 11 ... .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. 123 .... numerical .. .. t 53 120 . . . graphic tion of representa ... . . simple simultaneous .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . Checks Coefficient 20.. .] Abscissa Absolute term . . 97. ... . 232 169 807 . 8 .178 Completing the square . . .. lowest ratio " '* ... . . 54. . .130 . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . . 9.. 37.. . 246 91 " multiple. . . .. ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional ... 129. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .... . . ...108 160 " . quadratic . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 158.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . 19. ..... 232 mean progression . 9 ** . linear literal Common ** * difference . Aggregation..
law of Extraneous roots . INDEX 8 . . . . 253 28 70 1. G. 143. . . 212 . . 34. 23 10 91 102. first and second .251 Graphic solution of simultane. inversely 122 numbers . . 63. . 195 33. 184 54. P . numbers . . 45. 45 Laws of signs .. Imaginary numbers . .108 Minuend . .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 189. .154 Order of operations " of surds .. 84. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . addition of " square of .. 17 65. directly. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 109 102 . 9..C Multiplication . .808 Exponent Exponents. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . .. Geometric progression . . . Insertion of parentheses . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . exponent . 114. . 112 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . Mathematical induction . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 243 7 .. 241 123 geometric . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 45. .... 91 . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. Product '* 76 Infinite. 227 .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . . Like terms Linear equation . Known numbers .. . Inconsistent equations . 120 Member. 227 geometric . 205 .31. Negative exponents 11 .. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.. . . . . L. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . arithmetic .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 180.
1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. .. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 45 Trinomial 240 . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. . Sum. . polynomial .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. binomial Third proportional Transposition ... . . 129... .. 9........... 4 155 9 " of ... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. . algebraic Surds . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 27 17 Unknown numbers . ... absolute 54 Variable .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Norwood. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Mass. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. Published September. 8. Gushing Co. 1917. December. 1910. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. 1913. .S.A. NorfoooS J. Reprinted April. U. 1916.COPYRIGHT..
3. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 25. 11. 5. 9.  1. 10. 106. 1. sign. 1. $40. 1.. 7. 13 S. 8 13.150. 4. 8. 2  Page 8. 18. 3. A $90. 13. 13 V. 11. 37. 16. 9 = 4. 16. westerly motion. 8. 3. 5. 6. 17. 24. 2. 7. 49. 0. 10. 1.000. 6.000 Indians.3. 28. 12. 16.00000001. 25. 64. 5000. 11. A 38 mi. sign. 14..000 negroes. 89. 14. 22. 1 16. 3. $ 1 50 10. arithmetic. 15. 32. 16 in. 4.000. 59.C. 3 m. 9. 2. 5. 192. 6* 16.1. 12.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 13 d. 29.21 24. 36.2. 14. 48 ft. 9. in. Page 4. 256. 8 ft. A 15. 9. 22. 1. 10. 4. 17. 9 16  larger than 7. 2. _ 32. 18.. 16. 16f 2. 10g. 12. 2. 10. 4.. B $80. 8. 3. 16. loss.000. in. 26. 12. 2. 72 = = 216. in 12. 18. 15. V 23. 9. 12. 12. 3. 6. 14. . 1. A Bl 7. 10. c. T . 576. 20 jo. 4. 23. 2. 3. per sec. 5. Page?. 25. 20. 6. 5. South America 46. 5. 18. (a) (/>) 1. 6. 2.  1. 32. 6. 27.000.  2 p. 73. 7. 2 5. 85. 1. 2. 14 11. 27. 9. x. 21. is $10. 30. 15. 21. 16. 1.12. 20.000. 3. 19 4. C $60. 20. 9.. 3. 21. 37 S. 1. 1. 32. 3* 7. 6. 10. 1. ^. 2. 11. 7. 16. 2. 17. 17. $100. 126. 25. 7. 17. 19. x. 1. B $4700. 128. 24. Yes. 19. 14. 20 \. 12. 6 yd. 6. 2.000. 8. B 10 mi. . 8.$9400. 6. 115. 3. 11. 7. C $1(50. 210. 9. 15. 3 below 0. + 1. 9. 29. 7.. 6. 12.. Page 1. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 19. 9 m. 1. 0.. Ot 15. Australia ft. 8. 16. 26z.8. 6. 1. 12. . i . 30?. 3. 16. }. 13. 3. 20 B. 14. Page 13. 3. 9 14. Page 8. 6. 7m. 3. A .000. 2. 16 in. 10. 150. 1. 15. 13.. 13. 7. 8. 14. ft. 3. 12. 27. 32. 18. Multiplication. 18. 14.000. B $20. 2. 4. C $ 16. 5.  13. 5. $160. 13.  22 20. = 5 81. 10. 2. B $ 128. 7. . 24. . 512. 144. 3. 4. Not 5. b. 49. 28. 20. 2 ~ 15. 3.
21.. 1. 3. o^ft. 21 a 3 4 10. 15. //'. 57. 8. (r) 2000 m. 04. 5. 17. . 3a. (ft) Page 2. 13.000 sq. 27.  3. Page 18. 7. 0. 4. 9. WIN + wiw.'J. 173.. t. Monomial. 5.. 1. Page 7. .4  2ft 2 33. Page 21. mi. 18.a . 0. 5x+3. 21. 19. 30.  11. a2 4 15^44.. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 3. m + 3(a. 3. 3. 17. 3.. (a} 100 1(5 cm. w. 6. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 00 24 04 ft. 15. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 31. 0. Polynomial.ft. 13. Polynomial. 27. (ft) 12. ??i??.  1. ]*. 4. 6. 42.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 58. 41. 2. in. 8. 13. ^). 43w//2 17. . (b) 135 mi. 24. 29. vi 14. 11. (a) 200. +/2(/. 27.900. $3000 Page 6. It. y. 8. 9. 8. 35. (r) 2G7. 22. 5. = ()501. (a 4 4. 240. 31.<>Gq. 14. 15a. .5f> sq. 14:). 29. 3. 23. (ft) $40. 14. 20. :J!>r'. in. 9. 14. 8. 12 a. <i~ 26. 104. ft n. 11. 25. 49. + 5. 17. 28. 4. _ 4 . 28. 26. 1. r:A 29. 5.  12. 8. 12. a 32. 50. 21^. 14. (a) r>23ifcu. 7.r~ f 34. 36. 0. 13. #1111. 24. 1. i:5.000 .1. 33. 5. 2. 30. 20(. 2. 0.r 2 . 23. 2x' 2 5 .3 * 10 r5 <3 . Page 31. 1. 20.  40.x.. 25.4 ft. 16. 2oVmf?i. 27.9?/2 8. 3 . 31.. ^. 25. (ft) mi. 314 sq. 5.ft) 4. 4. 16. 22. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. (r) 2.GOG. :. 8. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. Pagel4r. 3 a* + 2 at*. 18. 0. ft. 34. \'\ 4. 16. 27. 18. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 5. jrif 4 9. 14. 7 7. 2ftx. 237. 12. (a) 50. yyz+xyz*. 3(c4a). ft. 6<t. 19. (59. = 81. 9. 18. 17. . 1. arty 1 20. 2. (a) <> sq. $80. 16.14 sq. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 14.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 17.5 (ft) sq. 12. 28. 22. 16. 4 9/^/rl 2. 8. 0. 36.. 21. 15. 39.rty8. c.. 11.q 4. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6.94(>. r+l. 32. 34. + v> 2 . 1. 3rf 27. 7. x^ 20. sq. Binomial. rt. 12. 10. 2. 3. 15. in. 32 2 ftc. 18. 14. 9. 35. ft f 19.. 26. in. I. 11. 1. 27. 33. 22( 19. .'JO ft. 4. 37. 51 f. 7. 0. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .32 c2 > ft 3 . 12yd. 15. 0. . 32. ft.. 7. 3. 35. 12. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 10. (ft) 7. ft' 3 . ft. 10. m 24. 30. . Trino inial. r/ \(\xyz. 92.r f 15. (c) 8. 38. II. a ft c. Page 23. 38 ab.  0. ft. 13. 2.6) 38. 13. 13 cu. 4 y/ . 4.  xV 3 y. f  5e 35.. 5. 3. 12. 19.. 20.~4. Va'+Y2 8^2 . (c) S(i. . + ft). 15.ab. 1. 22. 6. (r) 78.
?>4tl 53.a .5 z?/ + 3 y .aft. 37. . 14. 56.. 0. 24 b 46. 28. G.Oa: + 10. 2. a4 4 4.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 15. mn. 2x 4 a 13. .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2a: 2 4x. 32. 20. 2. 8 b. 7  a + 2 + c. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 24.3 6. 8. 2. .ws 2 ft) . 25. 3 a . 1.abc. a 10w. 4. 34 39. 31. 10. 12. a' 4ab + ?/.1 .c. a.a'2 . ^ <.2.(7x2 Ox2).  a: 2. 35.  b. . (mn} 11. ti. 2 3x f z. f 2 ?/  2. a 3a 4 2 &. Page 28. 2 3. :5 41. 11. + c 4 d x + 6 e. (w4w)(ww). 7 a5 1 . a 6 2 . 40. 18.  12. j)(g1. a2 24. 4wipg>' 27. 10 m. 8. 4.7. . 18. w 17. 26. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.x f 1 2 . 2.a f 54. G a bd. 10 x. ' 12 m?/'2 27. a + a. 6. 32 w 2 w.5. 7.h.6 x + 0) 16. 26. lOrt 15w4. ?/i 13. 10. 8 + 2 a . 2 .2 a2 2m 2 4.  b* 4 r 1 . 1 + 45. ( 7. 8. 9. _ Page 30.a~. 5. 10. r. 2 a 37. x  + 3z. 2m + 2w. f ft 9. 12. 15. . 8 . (5x47 3. 1. 12. 36.  14 afy . w* ( . 15. 18. 13. 13. 4r 2 .r 2. 21.l. 14. . + 6. a2 9. 50.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. a  ISjfat. x3 .  4 b 17 y*. 1. a 3 .1. 16. 2. 814. 21.'U4j>. 38. 2 . a + (ftc4df). .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 42.2 ft 2 r2 10. 4. 12. 4. 2m. a a. 36.8(c + a). n*. 2 y' 4 . 1. + 4 c. 31. Page 44. Page 7.r. ?/. 7. Page 8. 25. 7  # + 12. . a 3& . 14. 24. 2 + a4l). 5. _5a<>&43c. 25 47. 5x 2 rt ft. c2 . c. 59.4c 3 8 8 J. s_r>a5. 22. 51. 2 6. 7. . 21. . 2 2. ?> 22. ab a. ii\ 22. 364c. 19. 3. c. 22.2 57.a*. '  . 2a.2 . 25.4. t). ft Exercise 17. 6.  23. 43. 2 2 2 6. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2. 5 2 Page 29. 4ft ~. .  1. 0. \ :{ 2 a 48. a  49.3x 2 2 tf. (2n' 43p 47 ). a 4 + ft. 2. 2 17. 24.4x. 2 a f 6 414. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 3. a 52. 29. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 17.11. !  </ .  17. 5. ar. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 20. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. x a8 1. 7. M + 10. 3 m. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. &.(2 x2 . 2. Exercise 16. 2. 11. 8 8 . 2 4. . 5. a). 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . + 2y. 33. 58. 17. . 2// 16. 1 4. m*  n*. 11. 19. 26. 1. 4. 3. 20. (yz~d}. 4 21. 6.4 d. 1. 3 a3 & 41. 55.2 a. ri\ 18. 16.  G J8 r  4 a <?. + 8. a f 2 f 2 9.. 14. 34. 0. 30. 6. 2. . 3 Ji 8 . 4. . 19.
2 ). 14. 34. Page 36. n (a6) 125.. 8.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. s 9 ww. 34. 7. 27. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 3 a 2 46.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 11. 37. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 24. 10. 18. ! 2. a: . 42. 12 ^. 2 a2 (y 2 . 19.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2 . Page 38. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. + O4 66 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. Page 7. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 28. Page 35. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 12. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .2.44 aWc 16 abxy. 13. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. . 22.16 a 2 + 32 a .28 p'^/. 25. 14. 18. ll 2 i. 18. 3300. 20 aW. 16.8 12.14 w 2 2 . 18a% y. ?> 4 . 40 r 2 . 15 q\ 6. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 28.16 x2/ 5 4. 8.6) =a2 31. 20. 32. 161b. 29. 1. 21.:>/ . 25. 42. 14.. 60. 12. 16. 21. 19. 11. 9. 2. 2 7t A. 210. a 8 . 64. 16 lb. 23. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 76 8 a' 1 . 770. 21 a'&c. 12 x2 2 . 11. 27. . 15 lb.>(/ r . 161b. 10. ft 17. 7. 24. 90. 84.26. 30 n?b*c*. +. 2. 14 m 2 . + 7. 2''. . 2 ll9HH 2) + . a + ft.(3x2_4^+7). 360.36 35. 34. 108. 32. Page 5. 4 7> 4 :j !} .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 8. 15. iSx8 . 16. 6.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. (+3)x6=+16. 28. 15. //. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 30. 22.32 y s s G .25 + 14. 2 * 80 .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.6 2 . 2 w +2 2 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 17. 18> ^* = a . 2. 30. 3. 1904. 19. 4. 24. 4aWy. 4 a2 . 16. 2 8 xy f 4 a. fa 2. 66 39 k* . . 30. 4200. 13. 15. 120. 4. 3. 8. 33. 1.. 38wiw. 13.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 26. . 2. 1. 102. 66 8W 34. 18. ISartyW e*f*tj. 15.r% 2 2 ry. 11. 5aft(a 126 2). +15.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 4 fc. 23. . 343. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 216. 8. 12. 26. 33. 23. 5. 24. 14. 24. 6.7(50. + 58 . a*b*c. 16.20 xyz . 19. Page 3.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 4 jcy*z*>. 18. 17. 2 2 2 . 27. 15. 17. ^^ = 20. 28. 25 4 4. 31. 60. 1. 30. 25.1. m.32. 2*8f x2 6x4.64 190 p6. 216. 13. ci 5 . 7.15.19p" + 19^ 10 . 10. 29. 3. 4.. 127"'. 3. 7G . 21.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 13. 108. 6". 6.000. 20. 30 j9 jt?g j . 83 In + 1 n*. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.11 xyz . 1. 7. 2 ). 6 . 25. 4.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 23. 04. 4 a8 .21. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 16 51. 30. 36. 9. .21 a 3 c2 21. a. . 8 . 1. a. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 18. 27. 4. ?/ . 20. 1. 6.14 . 20. x2 xy42^.r + 7 1S + 2 mp.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 31. 29. 10. . 30. 22. 17. 20. 9. Ox a 5 .12. 9 13. 27. . 22. 0.19 + 2. 5. f 26. 1400. . 0. 3(*+0 + 2).12. 33. . 3 a 3 . a. 52 + 6s 12. 20. 4. 14f 5. 35. . etc. 29. .
098.35 ab 9. 2 62 V2 132. 4 . 6. 1. .4 n. Page 39. 7. 2 fr . + 10 + 121 y*. n2 a4 6. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 32. 16. 9 4 /> . Page 12. 11. 31. 35. (m + 6)(m3). 9.2 x + 2 x.14 jp + 49. 34. 1. ^' J  7 f 12.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 20a 2 21a + 4.2 6 + 13.6 xy . 2 (5 a 3). 33. . x2 GiC+5.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . . 166. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 990. 10. 10. 2 1: 21. 4 x2 13. 17. 41. 484. 33. 39. 3. 441. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. ~ 6 20 . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.10 x + 25. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. .p132. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 36 a 4 . . . 6.^ + a? + 1. 42.. 27. ) 4' 6/ 49. 21 2 . G a6 2.20.4 a&+ 4 &*. 55.1.84 a' 9. 35.994. .000.020. 2 . ^/> 8 4 . 2. n + 2.^V"' . 29. (w+4)(m4). . 26. 25 a 2 6 2 .6 x2 13.3. 10. 10.r* 2 30.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 40. 2 a 2 + a . 10. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 51. 4 .009. 2 j3 Z . x4 28.606. (w4)(w + l). V + o ft . 10. + 4 a +4. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 998. . 3wi2 m Page 42. a4 4 ?/ . 2 +10s281. ^V^4 . 4x21. 1.10 35. 10. x*2^f I. +4 34. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 2 0)(p + 5). 1. 40. 36. .8. 999. 2 4 a + 4. 7. 36. 7> . 2 4 2 2 64 .500. 4. (p 2.000. .201. 2 6' . 14.r . 39.ri 17. .008. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 4 2 //. 2 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. a + 56. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 4.404. (a (3 54. 52. 8 a W .^. 24. 8 38. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 10. fo*. +   5). 9. + 3)(3). . + 4 t*. 23.5 ~ 81. r.ANSWERS 28. s rc 47. 19. 14.004. 8.810. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 9999. 37. 30 /><. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.16 a3 f 50.ab . 9990. 27. 31.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. ?/H)0. 1. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 10 a 4 ?. 7.49. m 3 j) 3 . . 2). 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 2 a' y' . 45. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. a 2 . 8. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 30 x + 19 x3 . 3. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 4 21. 4 + 25 q*. 57.15. a + 25.001. p 2 . 9801. ab. 2. a3 0. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 1).. 28. . a2 ' + 48Z100.r . 5. +  m' 1. ft' 11. lflrt 2 8 + l. ab . 37. 7 . 34.712. a' . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).020. 10. 41. 4. m 2 . 56. 1.25. 10. 5. 18. (a + 4) (a + 2). 15.2 y*. a + 25. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.x2y22. 29. ' 46. 8.009. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 32. 14. y. 19. 38. 31. 2 12. Om2 4 6m 6. 33. 10.2. 36. . 15.54 p 2 + 81.4 12. 24. + 12. 11. w'n 2 //^ + 25. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . + 2 9. 10 a' 2 .6 y4 10.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . p4 + . 44. x* . I/). 40.996. 30. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 53. 26. (n 2 5. x 48./ .m 30 6 4 1.6.00 + 37. 25. 25 25. . 12 x2 .
?/2.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. a 8 4.12 aft 4 20 ac . // 19. 13. 19.  . 47. 2 4 3 9. 14. 2. 3. 46. 125. 2 . 3 aft 20. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.3 3. . 6. 4x43?/.+ 77 15. 9. i 2 tji. 4. . 14. 1.w. ??. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 16. 4 x. r//. ti'jry1 7. 8 ?/ .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 17. + 4. 17. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 2 1. 16. z. 135.rw. 20. 11. /r . yfl. 11 4. . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 19. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 13. x 2 + 2r f J. l 4 . x 4. :r !>.x^. 3. 8. . 7. 4. 3. 5. 8. 4 a 2 4. 3.5 n*. 4. 10.3 ry.2 ac . Page 51. 6.1.2 aft 4. '.1. as _ 10 16. 13. . 21. 5. 5 a  (5 ft. 2.2 . 44. 4 pq. . 14 r 2 . 15.2 ar. r/2 4. 2.25.10 2 + z 2 410. 4.1. 01. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. + x?/ 2 1. 4. 22. 10 ft. 1000 1000 .2 2 2 8 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .2 wZ 4. 3 a. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.6 :rs 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 16.4.7. ft ? ft' ft ft. 2 a 3 ft. Page 7. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 23.5 a . 7a3ft. 6x 3. 2 12. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .25 c . _ 2 a . 4 ac. x4.1*5 2 r 2 .  3 c. 75 a 2 29. 2 ?/' .30 ftc. c 12.34. 12.rw f 8 . . 9.  10. 13. 6. .8 y. 9. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 2 2 + 2 a.9 4. .2 <</.15. 9. 4 a* 4 9 11. 24. a 10. 2 ? 14 . . . a 2 .3 5.10 xy*. 5. 1/*. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4.r" 20 S? . 1. f>r* 4. r 7. 12. 8. 9. 4xy + 13 <) . 21.3 x 2 2 4. m'2 3. 4. 4. abc 7. 5.29.23. 13.r?/ j/. 3. 2 .24 .VI ANSWERS 43. 1. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 12. ft 17.2 1 //. 5. .1. sr 11. 6.3^V. i 9. 10.1.  5 z* . 1. 1. 5. Page 22. 4ft. .r ?/ ??i ?).  12 y 25. 6.2 . 2.9 d.lit x + 4. 3. *3 y 4 . 8. 8. aft. . 8.000. Page 13. 5. aftc 52. .r' ~ 16. 11. 2. 2. + 3.21 2 2 f + . 18.1.8. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 12. c3.r . 1.n. w 2 . 7 r . m L 4. 5^418(7. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 26. r ft. 8 x .2 2 .r?/.2.2 ftc . 2 ?/ 4. 4 c m . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .r'^ 15. .1. Exercise 2 a:// 26. y 7./ 4.15 21.5 mp. 4 d 2 4. Osy.  11. 13.2 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 14. 1. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 15. 10.8 yn . 50. 5. 18. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 12. Exercise 27. +w . 8 r<ft 4 2 . j) .y3.8. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 3*y2 w + 1.3 a 41. 2 4. 2 4 2 x 4. w . ft* ft / . 8 ?/ . 5 4 a Oft. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.> 10. Page 11. 14. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 20 15. aft 12. 17. ft. a. a 4 4 ft. G. 5.27 x 2 4. 49. Page 48. 14.
17. ( a f 4. 21 2. x 2y 10 act.10) 100. 59. 2b 22. 57. 00. 100 14. 44.ANSWERS Page 9. 2. 38. 8. 23. 58. 14. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. a 10. 10.. 6. + f + b 2. 0. f (I. 1. 4^ = 100. y ?>i x + 26.rr2.r ct. 23. rn mi. 42. m+ 11. x y $ 6 yr. 14. # + 20yr. 60 25 1. 35. . 100 d ct.. 10 a. r tx mi. x 49. 5. .100.r1. "mi.  6 10. v (6) 2x. r>?imi. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 11. ct. Page 13. 2. 13. 18. x. " lir. . 2=10. 3x  1700) = 12. 25. 7. '^ . sq. 27. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 3. 3. y 100 a 24. 7. + 3x + 2y + 32. 36. 3x2. y yr. 37. 10. 1.p+7. 7. lOx 10 + w. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 5. 41. 3. ft. 34. + 10 b + c ct. 29. 31. 100 2. 5.x700. 10. 5. 2x + 35. d. 37. m +~m 3. 13. ct. 5. 32. 15. a 8. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. </ 20. 20. 100= ^. 2. 25. % 4. Page 6.7). !). 11. 41. d + !. 24. (d) 2a + 10 = n.. 47. 18. 10 x sq. 50= L 100 15. b.  1$. b. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 13. f 6)(o 62. 17. 2. Page 61. 6. 36. 4(a ft) c = 8. (a) ' 12. 19. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 2b. 1. 800 = x + 1300. 6. 10 >_&. 33.. 20. 16. lO.  2\. 7x 2 Page 21. 33. 2 ct. 30. 44. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 45. }f.6 = *. 2. 16. (>. 19. X 60. 9. 4. x + 1=a. 5. 9. 7.ab a. 4 f 39. y 50. ft. Jj12. 30. s. 40. 1. . 7. vil 56. 39. 4. 22. = 5 ?i x 460. 15. 20. 43. . + 3 = 2(3* . 4. ft.000. (</) 2a.(3x  700) = 5. x = m. 8. I. + 4x 3y 34. Page 40.  9 = 17 a. (2 a.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 10. (c) 2x. / + y + a// 12 yr. xy ft. 2. 16. Page 31. 22. 10 yr. 46. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 6. ct. . 7. 12. ^ 12 sq. 1. fix. 38. 17. f = eZ 2 x. <>. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 4. I. ] 2 ri 42. . 8 n  10 yr. 7. 12. 3 9. l. x 48. 0. 'nj 100 a 28. 1&. (> 27. n M. 29. 26. 6. iL*. 4. ? 43.  />) a = all.(3x+ = rraxlO. 11. 28.
2. 5. 22.. 15. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).. = _?_(2ar + 1).210^. 6rt 2 11. Page Page 4. 78. 10 Cal. 13.24.. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 55. 71.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 13. 5. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 9. 29. 5 lb. Ib. 28yr. 200. 12.000 Berlin. 2). 82 mi. 4. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 7a*fe(2a & l). 8. 15. .21.000. ?(g ? g+ 1). 8 2 19. 4. 10 yr. 14.1). 80 A. 2. (a5)(a4).16. Oaj(o62cd).11. 90 mi. 70^. 7. 15 mi. 5. 3x (3r. 45 in. 2. 2 2 ?/ 21. 20 yr. 25 yr. ~=90. a 12. $40. 20 yd. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 9. 19. 12. (y 13.6). 11 w(w' + wi . 14.000. 12. 5 Col.3aftc + 4). 7.000. 9. 10 Mass.2). 2 2 2 5. 1200.. 15. 13. 42yr.. (e) i* + A. 1313. 15. 4.000 ft. 18. 11. 6. w (/) 64. 2. 9.. 3. 1. 72. 8. 6. Page Page 4. 30 yr.8. 3. 1 lb. 6. 4pt. 70.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.000 gold. 8.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18.10. 300. 25. (m + n)(a + 6). 67. Page 79. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 6. a a (a 8 a+l). by 12 yd. 16. (p + 7)(3a5&). 20. 10 yd. 100. 6. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 25. 1. 74. 7. 1250. 1. Page 7. 480. 6. Page 5. 7. 15 in. (z5)(z2). 4.. 11. 250. 11. 10. Page Page 480 12. 8. 10. 3.5. 23. 4. 14. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. (a + 5)(a + 6).. 75. Page 7.3). 10.000.  PageSO.411. 52.000 copper. 160 lb.000 Phil. 17. 9.5. 30. 11 pV (2 p8 .(5z . (*4)( + 11.79. 1. (a 4) (a. (y + 8)(y2).3. 2. 15 yd.5p + 7 g ). 1200.000 pig iron.000. (a + 4)(a + 8). 05. 8.000. 180. 7 hr. (yll)(y4). Y. 85 ft. Pace 65. 5. + 7)(y3). 7. (y7)(y + 2). 1. 10. 200.. 3 hr. 8.0. 2 3 6 7. 14. 20. 12. 100 1. 5$ hr. 11. 8. 18. 600. 6. 4. 12 mi. 30. 40 yr. (y8)(y + 2). 90. 20 yr. 21. 10 yr. . 18. 1.. 8.0.. . 6. ( + 4)(*2).22. (ro3)(w2). ^ . (a + 6) (a + 3).. 3. 1. 17. 68.000 N. 10. 8 in. 12. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 5pt.2. 24J. 9. 13.. 2$.000 ft. 17z8 (l3z + 2x').3. 50. 9. .y").7. 9 in. 8 12. 30 mi. 3. 10. 150. 10. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 5. 12. 3.. 7. 3.. 14. 11 in. 3 (a +&)(*. 13. 2. (c) ^ v ' .000. 15. 78. 14.13. 20. 2.
16. (5x . (m7n) (a. (5a +l)(5a l). x\x 24. 25. (2yl)(y + 9). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 2). + 3).2 y). 26. 24. (2 *+!)(* 9).r2).2 by2 6. (6n + l)(+2). + 9^)(oxy . (<7 20. 13x(a + ft)(aft).11 ft)(a6). y(x. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (5 a 2) (2 a 3).2). (y8) 2 2 . (15ay2) 2 . y) 2 29. . (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 11. 17. 20. 14. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). a*(5a f l)(flr . 9. No. 11. 8. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 24.2 ft). (a 3 + 10)(a. a. (3*2)(. 33. 28. 33. + 5) a. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (9y4)(y + 4).4p). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (2o + l)(2l). f 2). 15. 21. (15a + 46*)(16a46).7) (a. (y + 4)(yl). (13a +10)(13a 10). 25. (w + 20)(w + 5). 12. 22. 19. 25. + 8)(g3).11 6) (a 4. . Yes. Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). 9. (az + 9)(ox2). Yes. 3)(3a.7)(2z f 1). . 31. 3(x + 2)(zl). 19. a(2u. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 23. 10. 25. 15. Yes. 4. 10. Yes. 27. 9. (10a + ft)(10aft). Yes. 4. 14.* (2 y + 3)(y. 9. 24. 1.1). (w ~ n (x . 7. (a 6 6) (a 4. 7. (2 a? 4. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (2xl)(x + f>). (4 13. 2 2 15. 3. 14. .c 2 ). . 3a.4.3). a . (4y3)(3y + 2). . 2 No 4. + 3)(c44). 6. 24 9.2).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 27. 6. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3).y) 2 aft.y4 ). 2 3 by2 Yes.4 6). 26. .1). 7 6) (a 10 6).   . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (* + y)(zy). 23. 10(a + ft)(aft). (m + n + 4p)(w + . Yes. 26. 9. 20. 40 x. 13. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 2. Yes. y) (a. (5wl)(m5). 8. 5. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 216 aft. 2 17. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).6) 2 2 . 22. 17. (4a. 10..5y)(3a. .y (6x + 4)(5x4).3)(z2). 31.6) 2 1. Page 82. (4 18. 18. 8. 100(x. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 21. 25. + 0(90 Page 85. (g . Yes. 4 (a . 35. Page 83. 21.ANSWERS 16. 34. (6 a. 29. . x(x +y)(x y).  x (5 a. 30. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 27. 11. 21.1). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 12. 3. 26. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 30. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 10(2 30. 22.9*). + 4) (a. 28. No. ix 18. 20. 10. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (3#y)(+4y). (m + w) 2 5. 28. Yes. (ay8)(ay3). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 16. 23. 2. 17. 29. No. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (15z2y)(x5y). 2. (3a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 8) (a. (4al)(a2). . 3. 1. 35. 23. . 13x7.+4 y)(3x4 y). Page 84. Yes. (x + y4 )(x . 10(a . ( 2 4 19. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 22. + 2y). No. 16. 1. (w* (3a26). 10 a 2 (4 . (0 + 6)(66). 100 (a. 18. 5.8). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). No. . + y + . . (a. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 32. 103x97. (:52y)(2a!3y). (a + 8)(a3). (ft + ll)(aftll). 34.1). Yes. (a a: 19. 36. 32. 12. 7.
O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (5 31. 3. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).4). (w * . x(x f y)(jr . a8 . . . 2 1. 6. (m  I)' 6. 17(x43//)(x2y).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 10(2 (3 4. 4. 5 x8 3.1). 17. 4. 8. 2 (a 4. 7. . 8. Page 89.4). 4. 41.8). ( y). 11.r(3x' 2 4 (14.8) ( (16.2). (f> + fo 7.b. 2 2 3 . 4 6. 14. (a 9. 8. ^ . 2 . 5. 19. + 3. y6. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. a (a + 2 6). a 41. (. 24x sy s 9.^ 48. 1(V/ 88. 32. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).) j).y '2 2).42 x 4.  (w' 4.  WIM. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). a x 3 10. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .e 4. 39.2 y). 27. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 4.36). 13. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.  29. (a 4.2). Page 92. Page 86.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 5. (7/1 2) (m 41). (> 1. 15.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.y). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34..))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2. 8x. Page 12. Exercise 46.!) (x42)(x2). 15 M. x  1). l. 2 21. 5. (14. (5^4.4. (x//.2)(x 1. Exercise 47.7)(^ {I 12.'J)(' . 7. 450. Gp).4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 4. 11.0+ 12). 6. 5.3)(x 4. 14. . 2. ( (<> r4y3 . 3x(x?/) 4. a + a b.l)( a 25. (^ 7.'/)('< 4. 24. 12. 4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 8. 7. 42).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 7. 2 8(w . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 4).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 4. 38. ofc)( fid). x43. 10. 13. 30. 2 + . b) (r 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . + 2 //). 12.X 5. 42a 3 x.3. 20. (c.y)(fi a . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (^ + ?>_8).&). 4 3. (r420(4 10. 8. r x 2 */3 . n  r)(5a 10. Page 90. a 2 (a9). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 9. 6. a 4.8) n 43*).'})(c . 13( 33. y).?50)(xt/z. 3 x4 . 11.?/).n). 4 a8 . 6 f c).1). 37.9). 8.4. 3(. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 35. 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . Page 87. ?>).?>) H. 8. 13 x 8 2 .i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 6.7s) (2 a. 2.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).1) 3. 16.3. 40. 7.5 m2 x2. 1. 6. ( rt 23. y )(.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 11. 36. (16 4  2(5 n . 4 a s &8 . 14. 2. (5 26. 4  9. 13. fi(c426). (!__/>). a 4. (a &4. (w4w) 2 1. 2 k (wi 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 2(m4l)' .y. 6. 7. 15. ah}. 14. 16. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 22. 9. 2 y) ^ . ( { &). x .^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). . y(2x?/). 18. 5  (2 2 . x 4. ?i(w 4y) . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (x. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 12. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). ( a ^)(^3. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 2 2 10. 8).&). (5a+l)(9a). 28. (a />. 2. (2x7)(x 2 2).
(a2)(a + 2)2. b ! 21. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. + y) (a: y). x 24. 11. x 12. a 10 25. x 22.ANSWERS 10. 18. ?_!&. a 23.6). // m+1 !+*?. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 13. 6a2&(rt6). + &)(&) ( . + &) 2 ( . +5 1.  1). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 30(3 2 (a 15. 1). 2(2al) + l).
ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'.  **/* + 84 _. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. c 8. 6. 6. 1. 4 L 8 2 . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 4c 10. . + lH + . ^~ 29. 30. 26.50 ~ 1/2 . 6a5f^. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. _*^p5_^^_. i. 7. Page 100. 2 a. 4.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ' 2 7. 6. 0. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. a 5. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3..Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . xy 43.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 28. w1 + ac w 4 7. i^. 11. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. A^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. + 2H 1 ^. Page 101.
y(x + x ?/). 11. 8j_m 7 3. 11. ^i 11. 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. n . x\. 1. pf n 6 1.  V o 4. 1. ^_. 40. 5. x 05m ' 5. 6 . 16. 4.L+ft. b a f +c 14. (y + (z 12. 4. a 17. Page 113. 6. 14. 2 47. J. 13. ?. 17. j L . Page 111. 23. 5. 25. 3. 1. 7. 19. 29. ! 4 20. 12. Of. 1. flf. 10. 15. 30. 7. Page 106. 27. . 0. (>. 2) 19. 17. 4. 2ft a i m x. 0. 12 28. an 18. n 16. 15. 32. 20. 8. f Page 107. 1. 9. . 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. . 35. I) 2 3z 1. 14. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 4. 5 6 Q 5 a 12.ft . 5 be _J_. 8.^U\WF### X<6. a2 2. 6.  10 X + u. 38.y 7. J. 4. 1. 45. 44. A. 11. 3. 18. +3 ( + 15. m 9. 7. . 9. 4. 3. 5. ac mp lf> n 12. 21. a. 6. 3.^_. c 8. Page 110. 4a3ft. 7. 3. 5. 9. b 2. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 33. ?+_!?>. 1. 21. 3. f 7. 11. 1. 46. 41. 6. 21. 42. 43. 36. 12. 24. 16. 11. 6. 3 7 i o. 4. J. 39. x 1. 10. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 15. 26. 37. ft. 14. 1. n m a + 13. + f. 34. ' 6. 31. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo.
Yes. 3 da. 5. 13. . 30 yrs. Yes. Yes. 27. 5. (ft) 28. 8. No. (ft) 5 da.138. 40 mi. a 4 ft. 17. 24. 20. min. $45. 5ft 30mi. 20. 23< &n b ' . ^m . _JL. () 2. 18. . 15. (ft) 104. 11 hrs. 4~r~ n .10.0 & . 12. 17./hr. . 11. 24. 2 20. 10.001. 31. 26 mi. 8. 10. 12. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.002. jj. 21. Page 125.. 2x:3y.2. . 16. gold.2. 7T 2 Page 116. 1. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 34. 22. 10. 9$. 4fl M_. 75 . 33. 3:2. 4. 1. 3. silver.0. 36. 1 : 12. 17. ANSWERS 16. Page 118. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 18. 4. 3. 3. (d) 500.. $40. 14. 10. 30.004. $00. Yes. 6. 5 2. 30 mi. 26. (c) 8300. 19. 19.9. 275:108. . w 21. * 7:9. '"I 22. 19. 5 25. 7} 18. 7. J ^'. ^p^ r ~ 7. 500. 1: ~. 9. 3. 10^ oz. 4. 9.. 10 yrs. 38ft min. 14. 21. 7. 00. 2. 8301 hr. 19. 3. 7.. 5. (r) 3^ da. (ft) 5 hr. 300. 15. 81.. 1:1 = 1:1. 1:1=1:1. ~m . 212. 9.000. 32. $0.003. (d) 4 da.. Page 119. 7. Yes. 14. after 18. .000. P+ ^ 33. 26 30. No. 30ft. 10. = A's. w 18. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 124. 13. :2./hr. 7. 24 mi. 11.x + y. 300. 0.15. Page 117.137. 1:1 = 1:1. 40wn. 9J oz. 12. 5. 1:4. 6. 2. 15. ^?i min. 17. 40 yrs. 13. Page 121. after 20. 16. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 8.11. 6. . (c) 2 hr.  29. 10. w 44.XIV '/ ...000 If da. min. 4. 14. 9. 1 da. $30. (a) 4 min. 15. Yes. (a) 30. 13.. 28. 4. 8. 1:3. 7 . 20.000.  + . [>> ^ a . (a) 25. nm. 11. 7. 33. dn ~ mi. Yes. 300. 15.000. 15. 74. 35. J.  C . 16. 21ft min.139. #V ~~ 34. 15. (a) 12 hr.000 1 = 23. f. 10. 2:1.. 9ft. xy. after $12. IV s. 3. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . Yes. ft. 1. 8. 10. " 0. 55 mi. 10. n 32. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 1. 1^'.} da. 18. f .
5. 1. 55. "lO. 4. (a) Directly.3. 28. s<i. 3. tin. J pq. 4.7. 11. 8. 8. (b) Inversely. y 1.4. 56. 1.' : : : : <>.4.a. 6. 12. : .3. ft. 53. : : . 9. 4. 2. 3. 29. 138. . 27.5. .2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 12. 2. 49. 9.3. 30. 6 10 = 12. mi. mi.36. 2. Page 133. in.2 oz. ' 55. 7. 32j..12. 24. .3. 945 11 10 . 1 18 = 3 51. 2. 11.. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 13. 4.5. jc:y = n:m. 7.C ?/ a . . 10. 14. 3. . 20 cu. .*. 7^. 17. 5. 141.160. cu. 14. 2. 57. 22. t 5. 58. () Directly. 16. 7. 4. 2. 1.15. Page 131. 2. 24.000 sq. 20 20 J ^. 3. 5. 54. + W.. 2. 3.46. 36. 2. . 4. 15. 2. 6.5. x +y x + 74 7 \. 8. 10. land. 3. 9.r. 4.6. 40. y a y = 7 0.]. (</) ft. 5. 39. 19. 7. 30. 7. . 9. Page 137.ANSWERS 22. 26. 11 w a 13. 12. 19. 31. : />. 9. OJ. 50.3. ig 6. 6. w. Of. 18. . 6*. 12. 2. lo mi. in n. 1.9.22. 1.1. 13. 3. 43. (b) C C' = fi JR'.1. Page 136. 5. Inversely. l. 7. 16. 17. 2. 25. 4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .) 31. 5. 5:0 = 10:12. = 7 b'. 2 n . 3. Page 5.12.3. 7. 5. 17. 4. 2.4. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. y . 10. 1. 4. 22. 3. 13J. 20.1. 4. 38.  28. : 23. 4. 7. 7. 200 mi. 8./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 2. 26. J. 13. 11. a +b 1.3. .2. 8. 19 3 . a 3.57. 3}. 7. 5. (I. $. 15.5. 2. 4. 8. 6. 4. 52. 41. 11. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 1. 25. 2.5. 19. 14. 36. 2. OJ. 32+ mi.5. 7. 3. 35.4. . copper. 7. 10. 3. 2. Page 134.840. 3  24. 9. \\. *. 127. 13. 9. Page 132. () 7 Page 126.000 sq.  ?.3. 21. 1 rt * vm^1. 2. ini. 1(5. 7. 47.x a. 23. 7.15 x.^ 0?j ' gms. 11. 5. 7. w 8.  19. 45. 41. Page 9. 23.17. I.2 x. 24 1 (e) Directly. ~ 1.J. 9. 20. 2. .4.5. 2. y :y =. J. 8. 16. 3 2=3 x. 59. : : T 1' : /> : . J. a f 2 2 = 5 x. x y y . /. 9  15.2. .7. 46.J 3. : XV 27. 5. x 42. + b 7 . 5 2. 2.20. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.3. 11 5 . 44. Page 135. \. 40." ^ 2. 1. 2. b x 37. x y = 1 = 3 2. 25. 3. 2. 15> 9.8 oz."2:1. 5. 3. x:y a: b. 1. 5. 48.3. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 174+ Page 128.2. 31J. 14. 2.li. 19 OJ. 2. 21.3.5. 4. . 5:3 = 4: x. 3. a~. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 7. i. 1. 6.1. water.1.
25. 1. 5. 19.1J. 7. ad _(?jrJL.. 3. 10. 14. (a) 12. 9. 3. 25.3. $250. at 15. . 20. 14. . 3. . 147. 22. (ft) 23 J. 7. 3. 21. 10. $500. 3. Aug. 2t2. $3000. 7. <*ft/ bd 1. 29. Page 151./hr. Page 22. 15. 5%. 5. 10. 6. 12. yrs. 4. 100. 3). Apr. 20. 9. Jan.3. 6. Page 149. 6. & part of Feb. m .0. 3. 13. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . &. 2. . 4.. 7. 4.4.1. 2. ^. 0. 25.XVI Fagel39.4. 11. C's 30 yrs. 3.$5000. 1. 20. 9. 3. 16. ' . 3. 5. .l. 23f . u 2ft. 2. 4. 3. 20. 17. 2. 4 ' q. 3. Page 145. July.8. 3. May 5. Apr. 24. 7. (<f) 13. 2. Nov. 6. Page 142. 2. . 23. 4.. June. 4. 12. 1. = ^ a Page 141. 11. 8. . ft 3. 3. parallel to the x axis 0. Feb. Jan.1. 11. 5. 4. 2. 6. 7.2. B's 40 yrs. ad AzA.  11. 20 & Oct. m + n p. The ordinate. 26. July. 1. & part of Sept. m f 8. 31. 3. 16 to July 20. SL=J o ft r^2. 15. . 7. 2.n + p. 00. . 6. On 11.. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. 4. 10. Apr. 1. 20 to Oct. 72.9. 2. 1. 13. 12. 7. 423. Page 152. Nov. 4. 4.3. 1. Page 153.4. (a) Apr. 16. 7. $4000. 1 (d) Apr.10. 3. (5. 40.. 14. 16. 30.  17. 4. 5. & May. 5. C's 10 yrs. 16. 17. . 8. Nov. 30. 4.33. 26. 90. A's 50 13. Page 146. 5. 17. 18. be 7. 24. 0. 8. 18. 19 gms. B's 15 yrs. 18. 10. 40. 30. 12. 16. 5. A's 30 18. 28. 2 a. 7. 5.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. On the y axis. 1 (c) Jan. About 12f. ' 6 3 a. July 20. 3. 15.. Page 143. m f 9. 10^ gms. 1. 6 cows. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. 9. 12. 2.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 2. 13. On the x axis. 1. . 25.65. 0. 11. yrs. 3. 2. 11. 24. 4. (c) .^. Jan. 1.0. 1. (ft) 20. Jan. Nov. 24. 9.2.$2000. 3. 4 mi. 2. 6. 16. 27. 2 horses. Jan. 6%. 8. 2. 20. a. 6. 18. 2. 1. 19. M 2. 23. 9. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 2. . $900 5%. Oct. 2. J. 32. be 10. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 21. 5. 4. 10 sheep.7. $ 1000. 3. . 11. through point (0.
22. 5.  . .25. (<?) 2. \ft) 5. . 4}. 9. 4. 3. (c) 7. 27 27 81. 1. 81 ". (/) 3. 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 30.79.5. 10.  12 ft xW  26 31. jgiooyiio 17. 6. 1. 1. 2. 1^. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 3. (a) 4. 8. 15. Indeterminate. 5 and 2. 1. 3 . 2. 2. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 20. Inconsistent. 4. . 10 C. 3. SlstyW 7.1. 11. 125 a 8 12. .34F.41 and . xg . 8. 5. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 11. 3.75.. 12.75 (ci) 3^.83. +3 4. (a) 12. (ft) (ft) 2.5 (ft) 3. (ft) 2. 2. . () (rt) 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 15. 21. 8.3. .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.59. . 6. 17.4. (c) 14 F. ft 2 4. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2 2 22.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 5. Indeterminate. 14. 20. 1. 3. 15 .25. a 29. 3. 28. 2 a&m Page 167. 4. Page 158. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 13 . Inconsistent.3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. ' :=_!. 18C. . 2ft4 Page 168. 13. ft . ImW. .41 and 23. 13.75.  1. a + ft. . 7. . 3.84. 4. (e) 3.73. (ft) (d) 2. 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. 10. 13. 14.24. .64. (a) 2. 1. .1. 11. 27 19. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . (gr) 21. f. 5. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. 30. 1. 14. m. .79. 1.59 . 19.73 ami . . 1 23. 3. 4. 4. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. . . 1.64. 2. 8 a1. 1. 25. 0. 10. 2 l. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.73. 2. 1. 1. 3." 23. 24.27. 2.. + a 4 ft* . 15. 27.7.2 (ft)  1. 1.24 . Page 163. 3. 3.75.  1. 0C. .5. 2. 2. 1.25. 83. .73. f12 wi 9. 2. 5. 3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 2. 2. (a) 5. (/) 3. 1. 8mW. 4 ) 21. 1. f 10. 22. a 10 ' a ll V&. 2. 3.6. Page 159. 4. 2.24.25.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 12. . 1. Page 164. 2. .. 3. (e) 2. . 1. 3. 26. . 19. 125a 28. H. xW. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 32F. 5. 13C. 4wn8 + n4 5. 18. . xy. 125 16. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. a 6o&i85 c i5o .25. 1 4. 9 and Page 166.83.67. H. 9. f. 2. 2. 2. (c) 2. 14. 24. 3. 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. (ft) and (d) 2. 16. * 16. .. . 1. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 8 1 f f g*. 5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. G.13.
5 a 4 + 10 a9 . ( Page 174. Page 170. ? : 1 . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. ). 23. (4a2 9& 2 13. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 5 5 8. Page 176. + y). 90. 3 2 ^. 18. c 10 6 :l 20. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 2. 6. + (win . j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. a: l . 12. 72. 2 49 . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 5. 763. (x' l). . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. /> 4 ).^). 22. 40. 3M. 4. 2 12. 11. 10. 180 . 14.3 ab + 2 2 ). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 8. 1247. 6. 10 x G a 4 . . fe *?>' ?> fi . 5. 1. . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 9. 420. 36. + l). 4. 978. 99. 3. (x + y\ 90. a. 70. 17. 1. 5. (a + y+l). 20. (ly). 26. 3. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). GOO 2 c 2 . .y2 ). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (a 2. 12. 21. 8. ??i ?i . 20. (1 (x2y). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 11. 10. 24. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 21. 300. + 29. 3. 17. a ). 15. 30. 1. (ab + c). + Z).7 /)). 98.6. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. I 8x2).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.f 1 m 9 16. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 9. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . r> 4 : 1 . . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.a b 22. 10. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 13.1. Zll. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 20. 2038. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 9.5). 4. 12. 18. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 25. 6 (\x 3.94.x ). Page 171. 20. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 3. . 7. 16 6 w . 101. 2. 2.2). 14. (Gx + (i + 2a. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. (a + 2 +l). 25 19.i c 6 15. 18. m 13. . 30. 3 2 8 3 12. 2. +35. . 13. 27. 1 1 ?>). 16. 00. 2 4 8 2 . 35. (48 + 6. 14. 64.r 2 + 6jt). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 4. 17.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. Page 172. 309.  x. 11. 15. a. . rt . + + ?V 22. 15. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 14. 5. 2 2 7. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. (l + x + . 32.  +X '.GO a c + 23. 6. 71. 9.5. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 1. 5. +3 + 5 4. 6. 3 6 23. a 2 . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2. 119. 34. 7. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 15. 33. 9. 84. 8. 31. (3a. + i)). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).+3^ + 4. 16. 19. 57.037. 6. 9.XV111 7. 11. 16. 28. 8. 2 2 4. 10*. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 90.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). ? . 7. 8 /.83. ^i.10 a~ + 5 a . 19. 237. 8. 0. (2 a + ft). AN S WE no . . 247. 76.1.
 14. 4. 25. 30. 6. 7. f. 27. 7.6.. 44. Page 180. 5. 25. 1 f Vl3. 15 1 10. 9 15 ft.. 31. 28 in. 6. Af^. 5. . 7. v 17. 2. 2] see. V17. 4. \/3.6. . 17. 5. 12. 1 7. 17. 6. 12. 4. 21. 3. V. 21yds. 4. 34. V2. 2. 32. 35. a + 61.V 8j. 3. 6. a. 4 a.237. 5083. i. 270 sq.1. 36. (< + ?>). 1. 10. 9. Page 179. (6) Vl4 3. . J. 2. 10. 5f.6. Page 185. 9. V2. . 1. . 8. l~8. ^^7m. () 2. 39. 9. .925 ft. 6. 4. 19. 32. 5.4.  1. 27. ZLlAiK 19. ft. 39. 16n. 4. 22. 16. 5.4. 1.690. 2. ft. w.. 7 in. 2. 40. JJI. 20. 15. 3.a. 3. 14. i ^. >TT 26. 36. 4. 1. 5. 20. *.. 28. 6V21. . 5. 16. 14.935. 29.367. 4.798 yds. Page 184. 10.. 19. 16.18. 40. f . 21 in. vV'TA 24. 13. 10. 11. Page 183. 15. 15. 10. 7563. 7}. 3. 6 f !. 5.916 yds. 4. 4. 3. 1 38. 23. 4. 2. 5. >i 27. 29. 6561. 12. 5. 5. 12. . 4. }.ANS WERS 22.13. 1. 2.522 38. 48. 16. 10. 3. ~ V^3. 31. 12. 9. 49.469. 1. 15. 11.  f.i. 3J. > w ft. 2.. 6. 7. 3.  2. 21. 2.  f. 12. 13. 28. 20. 9.243. or 3. 7.. V J l. 6. 35. _ iVaft. 36 in. 1. 3. 7..005.6. 7. 4. 14. 15. 33. 1. 10. 7. 7. 6.1. 18. f ^ is.}. 23. 24.6. 9. 17. 2.5. . . 2. 5. 4 TT M 28. 9. 11. .  5. " ^_ 22. 1&. or 5. 8. Page 181. f f V. 13. 29. 6yds. 25 J.. 10.60. 21 28 ft. 2. 46. 1. 34. xix 26. 37. 12. 23.*. ft. ii :J _7. /. m.4. 4 n. 13. vYb. 50. 7 45. 3. 8. 5. f. 9. 26. 4J.742 in. 8. 39 in. 7. 24. 6J. 11. 21. (afl). f 3. . 42. ^. 41. 3. If ^. 33. m.5. ^.. 1. V35 1.Sn. 37.  43. 2 sec.w 18. / 11. 8. 14.?.  3. 11. 3. * 1.645. 7. 18. 47. 4 W**. 3. 10. 1. 5. {. 13. 12. 30. 8.236. 3. Page 177. 14. 6V'2J. 2.
1. 26. unequal. 9. 2. Page 191.3. 6. Page 192.Oa. . '  f 5. 15.. 25.70. . unequal. unequal. 2. 6.  i. 3. V^l. 7. 15. 7. f 6 52 a. V2.2. 4. 4. VV11. U. 56. 8 or 12 mi. 2 . ^l/>> = 85 ft. 53. V2.37. 4. 10 mi. 5. Real. 1).. 3. 2. 10.4. 2. a + 1. rational. 27. 0.02. 9. 58. 4.  24. 1 3.. 28. Real. 20 eggs. Real. 35. . 4. 10.6 = 0. 41. H. 10 mi. 10 or 19. 27. 0. 3. = 0. 39.2. 5. 6. 2. 120 ft. 1. 10 in. rational. . 3. ANSWERS 22. 2. Imaginary. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 57. 2. 0. 0. _ 19. . equal. 4. 20 nii. 25.. 26.1. 2 ft. 37. 4. . 52. 22. 0. . 0. 24. 40.. 2.* 2. 1. 9. 12. 1. Real. 0. 6. 3.2. 3.2.  5. r* i. unequal. 2. 1. #<7=3.4. 0. Page 190. 1 . Real. x 14. 16. Imaginary. rational. 2.7. 3. unequal.$40 or $60. . V^~2. 4. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.a 3 a. s 11. 1. .2.  1. 3. 38. 3. 32. Page 189. x2 + B . 18. 1. 8. unequal. 3.2. 49. 21. Real. 20. 3.  9x <).1.a.'. 12. . 2.XX Page 186. 1. *'' 12. . AB = 3.10. . rational. 27. + 11 x. 24. ft. 5. 64.2. 2. i . . 9. 5.  2.]. 50. 5 ft. 2. If. 1. 6. 2. (5 10.4. 22. 2. 12.12 = 0. 0. 4. 1. 7. 1. 16. 24.23. 47. 8.l.  13. Imaginary. 3. 1_^L ft 14. 17. x* 51. ' 1. 6^2 in. 21. 6V64. 3. V ~ 16 4 2./hr. 0. 26. 14. Real. 44. 3. 23. 7. V7.  1.6. 46. 14.59. 64c. .  1. 19. 21. 4 da. . 2. a8 ./hr. . 1. 1. 15. jr . 3. 12. 4.  1. 7. 11.74. 13.a.2. t is. a. equal.41. 6. 3. 0. 2. rational. 23. x*4x=0. . 1. 2. 36. $30 or $70.5 x + 6 = 0.48. 1. 1. 35.4. . 7. 19 in. irrational. 34. Real. 0.4. . f. 28. 2. 1.12. 8\/2 17. 42. 6. 13. 5. f. 31. 2.3.  2. . 48. 1. v^^fcT"^. 3. 15 ft.  1. . 23.7.62.2 x2 . 25.2. 19.. 0. 2.48 3./hr. 7. 55.  6. V^l. 45. 1. . 1. unequal. 25. a. unequal.1.17. 7. 20. 2.5^.23. in. orf. 6. 43. 33. 6.3. 3.0*8.7. %. irrational. i. 3. equal. 20. 26. 3if. a + 6./hr. 0. 0. 29. 3.  5. 12. 8. 28. 18. 8. 3. 10.2.5.  Page 194. 11. 18. $ 120. Imaginary. unequal. Page 187. AB = 204 ft. 0. 2. 3. 70 ft. Page 188. 2 V3 in. 16. 30. 3. 6. $80.
4. 24. 21. 14. 1. r. 12. 20. 28. 50. 42. 5. 29. 8. Page 197. 28. 5. 25.32.6. 1. 27. 19.17. 9. 4. \a\ \/^. n\/* Page202. 243.  48. . 8. 21. 23. 37. 47. 19. 13. 52. 8. 30. 3. 49. aW\ 40. 12. 15. 20. 4. 40. 22. 8. 25. 12*2 61. V^ 34. 3. 53.//^. 57. . vV. 5. 3. 49. 2. \. ^Sf 3 38. 22. 2.  f. 1 39. 3. 1. 1. 3. 32. . . ? . 2. 11. 1. v. 49. 58. 27.  5.2. 17. 9. 3 4 11. 60. . Page 196. 38. 18. v/3. 4. 4. 10. 8. 43. 20. 7 . xxi 15. (m 26. J. 5. 15. 48. 6. 3. .  J j. 56. Jb \. _! V3. $7. 14. . m'. 9. l  5 12. ifa. ar 1 . vm. 46. a. 21. 1. 29. 9. . 39. 36. 33. 16. &. 14. J 3. 3. Page 201. 49. 6  AAf. 5. jV 10. 2. 2. ^49. 41. x$. 4. z + 22. 2 L ( V. 10. 24. 16. 17. 45. I.. 1V1. 1. 50. 32. J. 8. 33. 31. 54. 30. ). 20. 17. 7V7. 1.  a'2 . \ .1 5 15. 3. 24. 3. 5. 19. 4. \/. ) 2 >J i 10. x/25. x. J. Page 199. 9. wA 46. 10. v^T4 m. 125. 6. 8. \/3. 19. 47. 29. 84. fx'^z'l 23. 35. J. 'J. 2. 3. 2. JV37. \. 7. 9. 25. 10. 55.^7. 26. 1. 51. 11. . 13. 33. 15. 2. . 2. *V. 1. 3. : . 5\/5. 1. 13. 1." 17. 44.  f . y. v'frc 18. y .ANtiWEUS rational. 3. 16. 0. 59. 4. 2V a. 13. 2. 14. Vr. 18. 23. p. m. r*. 31. a 18 . 7. \/r\ 11. 30 a. Page 200. 0. 8. 7. v'frW. i. 0. 18. 2. 16.
34. v'TM. 20. 6. . 33. 2v (T 2aVf.2 18. x.f. 17. x + 5 x3 + 0.rV:r. 4. + 1.577. JIV6. 2 a?>V2 a. .yl : . a2 4. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 30. a 4 +* + !. 03r* 7. 5. 6. 10. 29. r 17  Page 204. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 1) 3V3. 18. 43.r. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12.'\ 14. ?tV?w. 2 4 z2 l 3. Page 203. 8. V 5 47. + 2). 11V3. (a 27. 3V^T.632. 32. 13 35. 32. 2 x* 15. 7. . 3 \ 39. ^88". V80.x^y* + y%. + Vic + 25. v/^r 5  A/^~. 28. + . 19. 11. 27.  a Vft 2 121 b. 135V6. / V3. yV35. 3 42. 38. 20&V6. 3 4\/2.XXii ANSWERS 1. 8a6V5. Page 208. 3^ + 2). 2. 24. 37.. 40.692. . Page 207. 49. 21. 62V(J. ^7 \AOx. 39. 7. 29. 2 '"V5. . (o* 2. 34 r 6. 3.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 48. 13. l 5. k/2. 19. 5.  2 3:r. 4aV^J 16. 2>X2. 3 x^y 33. 10. 1 2 or 1 ?.3 + 40 3 . 9. . 5 22. 3. 20. 2. 51.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 8. 23. a 3. . 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. ). 1. a^ + 2^+1. 40. 50.). 12. V. 2\/7. 36. 16. 9. x%  3 ^+ 1. 10. 9. + 2 ar 1 ). abVab. 31. Vr 8. 28. 16. V2 + 4 V22. 9 . 15. 2. 17. V. + 2 V22. 2. x^ .Vxy 35. 31. m* n*. y. 13. 26.648. T. ^: V2c. x 7  34. 41. 4. 11.707. V63.2 VlO. 37. 21. x y. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 8V/) 15. 101 1. 13 a. x 25. r c . 25. 22. y (a + ft) V2. 26. Va 2 "ft. 195V3. 30. 3V5. 24. 3^2. 3. (x' (l 1+x). 2. 45. v^. + + ft. ftV 46. 2. 5 ( .
52. 13. 5v/2.T*. 7. x/w^ 8. 4 >/3. b. v/8. 1. V3. v^4. "v/wi ??. 32. 5. 17. 44. "^8000. . V5. 4VO. 9. 0. x/27. Page 210. 74\/Jl 120 46. 3 V15  47. 7. VT5. Page 214. 25. v"5. \^6.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 36. 3v^2. 35. 23. Page 211. 6x2?/. 2. 21. 2 V'3. 5 \/2. v 25^4714 V2"a. 17. Vtf +3+ 33. 2 ate. 33. v/i). 3 V2. 6. 32m27n. 5V2. 46. 38. 27. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 3\/wi. 19. 34. ^ 3 b 5 24. x/8L v/27. Vn. 16. . V3"m. 3. VJla. 6. 24. v^30. rtv/5. v^lf. 21 23. 32. \^6. 11. v7^. 9. . 42. 4 a*. 2. 5. \/128. 35. 4\/5. . '. 6. 3. 3. 6 2\/0. 14c 4 V5. 8. 40. 26. x/125. 43. x/3. 29. 39. v^f. 8  \/15. v"3. a^\/a7>. 41. . ^9.30 2. W). 14. 50.. V/. 15. 36. 4. 37. 2. 9 VlO + 4. 40. 16. v^O. \/abc*. V2. fl^Vac.  3. 28. 24. 18. 30 Vl4. 2. 6. 2. 31. 22. D 45. 1. \/04a. 15. 18. ab 4. 3\/15  6. 19. 14. 22. 37. 11. Vat. 2 \/2. 13\/3. + 20. + VlO  v y (5. : ^32. x/8. V8. 51. vT). 8V2. 16. 8V73\/IO. 10. ^\/3. \XOfl6Vi5. v/9. 0. \/2. \/a6c. 7. 3\/2. V5. Page 216. 26. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 9. aVa. w?i. 6+2V5. V3. 39. . \V3. ^v 7 15. 4. 27. 10. 8. Page 213. 3.r v/^ v^fr*. a\/5c. x/8l. 8v2T 12. 14. xx 1. r)\/(l Vrtr. 20. \/8. 12. 10V(). 17. 31. 49. x/4. 25. Vdbc. 2\/7. 38. a2  b. 1. / \/w/t 4 13. 2yV2?/. 3 Vl5 30. ^27. 18. v/lO. % 29.J Page 212. 10. 6. 2 1. V2. 5V2. 11. 48. . 5. m ?i2Vm/t. 53. 1V5. 7\/(l 7VTO. 2 28. 13. v/l2. 12. 6aV2\^. v^a. 21. \^r^bVabc. 34. 30. 3. 23. 6V2.
8. 12. Page 225. 5. 3. ~ Vac _c 0.625 10. (\/3f 1). 32. V6c. 23. V^TTfc. 21. 25.0606. 4.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 12. Vf6fVtf.9. . . 2V2.4142. . 5. . 16. 9. 20. 3. 6. 2. 1. 24. V. ANSWERS 8. (3+ v/2). 21.\/TO). (V21). 4. 24.  . 16. 2. V35. 11. 9 mn. 9. 5.1547. 16. (V51). J. 4. J. 15. (V5f 5. n*. 3. j. . 14. 19. ^. 1. (2f V"5). 4. 9. 20. 30. 8. 25. 23.1805. 15. 8. \. 5. 7. 2. 30. 16. 2V3. {.732. 13. 5. 26.w 6.389. V3. \/57t. + 5V2. Page220. 64.  f. 25. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 3. Va. (VllV2). fV2. 25. 125. 7. 17. _^JflJ?. 4V3 + 6. 25. 81. V3 . ^. 35. 2. 17. j 15. 8. 37. (\/5V2). 24. 0. + 6) 2 . 5. 8. 16.3535. 7.2828. (V8 + V2. (2. !^ 6 4. ' 22 i .81.2. 5. 7 Page221.^ (\/22 4. 4. 4. 13. 6 V. Page 28. 3(7+3V5). 6. V2. 17. 22. 20. 9. 19. 8. 12. 3V23. 17. 16. p 6 13. 216. 2!5_. 2. V3. 11. 21.601. Page 226. 7 f 5 4. f. Page 223.  2. Page 219. 4.7071. 24. i^Lzi. 10. 25.2. Page 218. 4. . 15. 16. 27. 34.7083. 224. m f.V3). 9. 19. 1.  13. 7. 4 14. 9.3. 8. * 3.732. 1. 3. 1. 2 . 20. 6. \/3). 22. 0. 7. 3. 18. 4. 33. 3. (2V2). 8 V3V2. ^(VlO\/2). 29. 512. V3. 15. (a 1. V5. 6. 14. 5 f. 25. 4. 9. 4. 19.13. 4. 8. 29. 81. 11. . 5 V65. 11. 23. 23. ^\/2.464. 10. 6. 2. 18. 27. 2x^2^. 10. 100. 18. 1. 5. xy 2. 7. 4. 4. 4. . 18. 28.64. 26. 18. 13. 2V3. 14. 21 ' Vob 26. 2. x 20.4722. 36. i(Vf Vft). A . 16. 9. 31. 9. (Vf + (4 V2). 5 + 2 vU 17. 1. (VaT^v a).6.XXIV 7. . 12. nVTl. 22. (V6 + 2V2).6 V3. 10. 1. 11. K>/0 + \/2).1. 1. . 27. 11. 10. 12.. 10. ^r. Page217. . 1. Va. 19. 1. 15. 2ajV2*.5. 23.3. (2Vll). 6 (V2 + 1). 15 f 3 V2L 4. 7. 12. 10. +3 V2). 14. 7. 5.5530.
6. 5. 3. . . (pl)(p2)(p2). 6.w 4 + 1). 1 3. 1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). J Page 235. 3. 0. 5.4. 2. . 3.3.l)(m . 1 .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). . 11. 1. 3 .2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 7.22. 3. 19. 13. 5. 11.  3.3. 30 30. 5. 4. 19. y. 3. ( 16. 1. a: :} .4. Page 234. 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).3 2. 56l). . 17. 21. . 17. 1 . 3. . . 4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 26. 2 . 0. 1 . 8 6 & 0. 9. 4. 2. 2. 10. a .0. ' J. 3. .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 1. P. l. 16. 6. o. 17. 11. 4. 5.  f . 20.ANSWERS Page 228. 23. . 25. 2 6. 0. 8. t/ 23. (a . 4. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 30 . 8. 2. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 2. 5. 12. 2. . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).  3. 12. 1. (a. 14. 1 (?> x/^3.r . (a 4. 1.3. 12.3). . 15.Y.l)(z 2 + z + 1). . 3. 3 . 2. 2. 2. =A^Z3.1. 2. 1. 4 1. 87 . 0. 7.4). 2. \/0. . 0. 2 > 1. 6. 1. 2. 2. (w . 7. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 100. 1. qpl. 5.2. 2. 21.3. 4.2. 5. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3. (r. 6 2 2a + 2). 1 . 4. J. 3. 2 . . 10. 20. 6. 1 6.7. 2. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3. ~ f7.  3. 2. 2 &. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (B43). Page 236. 2. 25. 73. 4 . . 1.4. 4 . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).2)(* . 4. 1. 1. (2 a. 2. 4. 2.nl^EI. 24. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. J. 1. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 4. f . 14.  1. 2. 7. 2 6. 25. (4 mn . 8. 12. 5. 11. V3. 2. 4.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 13. 3. 18. 28. 0. . 14. 1.3. 4.  5. (+!)( 2) 10. 24. 3. 5. 4. 4.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 2. 13. 2. 4 4. 4. 3.. 73. 1.5.  1.  J. a(. & + 6 2 ).  . 11. 3.1. 10. 3. 3. 1.2. (a. 1. 22. . 3. f>. 25.10. . 2 . Page 233.3.  16). 1. 6. 7. 20. (8. 3 9.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2. (63)(6' t 18. 4. 3. 30. . 1 . 8.5 xy + 25) 22. 3. 6. (pl)(p3)(p6).  2. 2 V^ . 4. 3. 9.2)(m. . 10. 4 20. 9. 18.^a. 0. 16. 3. 7.8a 18. 0. . 5. 13. 4. b . //.  4. 15. a  . (a + 2) (a Page 229. 3. 19. 11. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 22. 7. 4. 3 . 30. 7. 2. 12. 10. (m 4 + l)(ro. 8. 1. 5. 50. 2. 5. 10. 5. J 24. 13. 15. 8. 3 5. 12 24 y . (rt. 2 <? 4a2 . (&y2a#H4). XXV 4. 2 . 3.12.l)(a3)(a .
4. 1. . (&) 2. 3. 5 . 3. 15. . 9.3 . (>. 6. 5050. f*.6. 10. . x 4. 15. 4. 11. 18. 14.1. 17. .3.3. Page 240. 14. 12. ( 3. 30.1. 21 30. 1. 7 3. 2. 12 ft. 24. 10. 2. J. V7.5. 1 . 16. 4. 2 Y> V . 2. ri*. . 3. i. 2V7. c. 3 .. 7. 1.3. 84. no co . co . 3. 3. 2 10. . . 1.. 12. 5. $.3. 1. 8ft. 4. 1. 50.18. 3. . 38. 9. 12 d. 9. 4. i j. 1. j. 10. 8. 3. 7. 5. .5.. 17. 2. 5. 11. 3. 23. '>. 4. 5. 3. 4 . . 5. 2>/3. 1 . 1 2. . m + n. 1 . 2. 4 34. 2. 5. 13. 1. 3. . . . . 3. 201.  2 . 1. 3. 20 in. 1 . 48. 2. 400. 16. 3. 6. 5. 2. 3V5. 1. jj. 0. _ 10. $VO. J. 4. 7. 23. 1. 1. 1. 2 . GO . . 25.  . . 4. 2. 32. 4. Page 245. 0. 69. 40 in. 7. Exercise 114. 1.4. 2. ft. 2n. 4 6. 1. 2. 7. 2. 3. Page 248. in. 37.e. 512. 2 ft. 15. 14. 5. (/>) "_. 24.0. 2. 17. 18. _ 5. 2. 9. and _ 4. 3. 11. 1. 8. 31. 5. 125 125.. 31.1.2.13. oo. . 1. 8. oo . 5. 37. 18. 50. . 15. 15. 19. _ 13 (0 6. oo . 3. 3. 39. +  n. 4. 2. 7. (a) 5.. .6. 1 . .. . 45yd. 3. 17. ft.136. 37. 1. 4. ft. 6. 1. . 512. 29. 5. 2.020. 4.0. n . 1.y. Indeterminate. 1. n. 5. Page 247. 2 .4. 4.3. 12 1. 2 1. 20. 21. tn 2. i'ljVU. 1. . 3. Exercise 113. 14. 21. . 7f solution. 35 ft. . 8.. 1. 3 . 288. 9. 8. 22. 5. i i i . 2. in.30. 2. 7. 2. 1. 3.. 1. 30. ^ }. 5 cm. 4 8. 1. in. 35^ 5. 20 7. 2 2. 1.  1. in. 8 3. 3 3. 35. J. 14. 2. 4. 17. }. } .3. 12. $. \/6. J. 1. 13. 17. 15. 13. f. 8. 15. Page 244. 16. 8 . 4. 4. 3. 30 13. . 55. 6. 4. 3 . \. 6. $46.200. 40 25 in. 8. Indeterminate. 5.. . 20. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 3. 11. 2. 40. 4. 1.  11. 35 a. 3 2. 1. 10. 36. 12ft. 12. 9. 19. ANSWERS 2. 5. ' j. 41. Page 241. 2. 28yd. 2. f>. 4.3. . 11. 12. 1. _ 7. V3~. m28. Page 238. 5. 33. m27. . 1J. 14. 3. Page 243. 3. in. . ^~2. 2 26. 5. 4. 3. 3. 2 16. 5. 4. 22. 4. . 2 . 78. Page 239.. 14. 1. 3 4. .4. .4. 900. = QO 6. . . 11. 26. 5 4. (a) $3400. 0. 12. 8. 3 cm.xxvi Page 237.
18. 10. 6i.192. 10. 3.8. 2. 70. 32. r 5 4.7 10. 12. 0. 5.x' 10 . 10. 44. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. A. Page 252. 12. Page 254. . 3. 6. 7. 220 .^ ?>i 2412x4. 1820. 20. 16 11. 17. 04. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 81. 19. 3. 2. 4. 1.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . w9  8. 9. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 125. 8. . 192. 45. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 5.6 . 3.5 x. 3. \ w 4 . B . Ja.384.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 410. 25. 15. 7. 8. 8.170.r 4. 8. 43.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 3. 910.  101.  17. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . i 10. 14. ?/i 6 x llj . 70. 8.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4.700. 8. 7. 5. 8 1. . 16. 1. 4. 8 4x' 2 . 2i* 7f. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . . <.504. in.4. (). 1 14. ~ an . 9. 100. ^a 8. 0. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 2. 2. 8. 35. 2. f y 8 + z* . 1. 45. 8J. 4950 M 2 b y *. 12. 50. 3. . 35. 05. 7. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 5. 16. 4. 04. 6. .5. 4.v Page 253. 55.470. I. 21. . 6. 1. G. 0. 4.r* 4 70 . x4 .ANSWERS Page 250.2 9. . .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 17. 18.5.13.  20 flW.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . . '23. 327. 495. 26. 2. 5. 22. 16. 13. . 0. 4. 6. 7 x4 17. 27. 1 7 4.210. 16. r r j. 53. 4. 2. 4. 27. xxvii 1. 9. 3. 45 Page 257. 4. 8. 75. 1. ~v 9. 15. 2.6. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 29. 11. 280 53. J 2 //2 25. 1JH. 7. 7.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . &' 14. . . 6. 5. sq. 1000 aW. 125. 0. 19. 6.120. d.53. 3. Page 259. 8. 21. 48. 22. 4. 1. ' 1. 5 13. 343. 0. 2.1. 18. 13. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 4. 12.4 &z x>&. 4. 3. a4 4 14.2 45 a 8 /). and 1.12 x*y 16. 16.0. 1. 19. 3. vy. 2. 20. 8 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 7. REVIEW EXERCISE .419. 0. Page 258. 10. 16. 12. 0.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. Jj? 45. 10 14. 2. x r 4. 12. 4. 15.130 x30 189 a 4 24. Y11. 5. 9.5y 4 . 12. />*. 20. } $ 50. 5. 15. 2. x + Vy. 6. 27. 9. 18. 5.870 m*n*. 15. 1. 13.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.920. 2. 4.r x>/ 7 3. **+. . 11. 3. 27.680. 708. 5. 8. 11. 70. 0. 9. 405. 1. 105. 7. a. 4. 1. 10. 16. c. 304. 28. 4. 17. 120 aW. 12. 128.<2 4. 1. 4 0. . 10. . 6. 005. 343. 5. 4. 6. 3. JSg. 23.3 ays.
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?>*. ^"" 4 s . 360. 0. 2(a i 403. 401. 364. T\. 9^. 1. 2 ). 385. 366. 370.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 6a. 395. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 405. 3. x 54 359. 2(q. 6 ?/+:>. 13 391.  1. 408. 380. _*L'L+. 355. 386. 4 rw. .!. 0. 377. 4 A. 4. . L . 388. 339. l'j.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 4. ^_:r f> 331. j 328.7. 343 00 351. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 392. . 2.. 396. 2. + 4 & 4 \ b.3. a + b + 6). Page 274. 0.J . . + 335. 7/i ^ _ . 20. 375. 393. + x 362. 361. 2 r36 384. 382.(5 a .. 387. 394. l . y 4 I 340. 11. 7.)Cr4)__ . 407. <L 409. 389. c 402. 336. a +6.XXXI Page 272.  1 356. 2 ?/ 363.". 397. 399. A^L5L. ?/ + 3 332. 383. 1. 333. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 379. 2 327. ?=. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. f. a 2 . 3. 2 ab  a Page 276. ab. .vin a /r " 337. 324. 3. 365. 326.1. 1 i 2 ^. 398. If. 325. S. (a + b + c\ . a) A^_. m. 1. " 4 378. 334. ^ 3 // . 12. 1. 329. 390. 1. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 406. 404. 376. 0. 400. . T+^. * 357. Page 277.
498. 2. (a) 1. 33. not true. 448. c.  7.2. i. 10. 486. 2.1. . 464. $2000 at 0%. 22. 440. 10. 481. 423. . a + + ft c. .4.0.46.12. 7 : . 3 . 503. z8 +?/ 3 431. 458. 485. 0. 10.  . *+.7. 483. 466. \. 0. 422. Page 278.. 430. 32 yr. 496. 7. 5J. . 444.  f>.  7.55. . Page283.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.0. B 4 mi. ' $260 at 0%.}. Page 281. 435. 436.  2. Page 280. m 1 : wi. 3. 2. . . 2. 1. fj. 478. ISJini. * . 17. . 4. 20. . 461.. . 2. 3. m. i a b 451. 14 miles. 419.7. 465. 454. . 7. . 9. . 2$. 8.  10. 507. 445.rz Page 279.7. 6. 8. 472. + () 433. 2. 412. . 410. ^V. 457. ft 5. 479. 10. 0. 413. 441. 5. 2 a 2. 494. b 449. 2. 10.  2f 504. 439. 500. 6.te + . . 490. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 90. '. 42.vz in. 12. 455. 411. 0. 497. !L=4. 53 yr. ^. c 6fc 10. 502. 2. (d  6) f. 501. 7. 2. 463.3. 5. 427. 50. 6. 10. 421. . 1. 493.7. 4. 484. 420. 499. 20 yr. 480. 508. 3a 4 5. 450. 84.4. Page 282. 24 days. 425. 426. 2. 6. (d) true. & 491. 32. 6. 5. . 5. 6. 5. 3.489.3.. 1$. 17.  1. I. 5. 7. ISjmi. 0. 462. 456. 477. <L+ 6 (. L2 a  6 . 4. 2 438. 11. : />a. 506. 8. 63. 428.  2. 460. 459.}. 40 oz. 7. 40. 10. L (c) I.  1. (&) true. 442. 482. 418. 28 yr. 495. (&) 443.. B $ 2500. 0. .} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 446. 4. A 5 mi . \ 1. 6. 1.. 1 a /?$+&?. 487. (a  c). 1..  2. fc. />c c(f be.488. A $ 3500.  505. 432.5. 467. a* 424.  453. (c) not true. 429. 447. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 51. 0. 1. 18. 476.7.2. . 468. 10$. 21. 8. 452.m  m+ M in. 492. ^r?i 434. a 22 .
+ 26 + . (e) 570. 562. 1.21. 1.8 x3^. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.62. 1. T . . 555. 14. 553.83.52. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.  557. <z ft 1.5. . 510. 564.75. . 1. 550. 3.5.20.03.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.3. . 2 1.6. (c) 4.  ft*. . 529. 3. y 4.24.  4. 24. . 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. imag.1.02.62.16. 559.15. 3. 3. 232. 518.75. 569. . . 4. . 3 . a*8a + 24tf 82a.10.3. .83.8. Page 288. 1 600.3. 599. 567. 577. 2 1.0. 558. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 533.4. 1.4. 6. 574.55. 513. ^ ft 4. 5.9.3. 575. 1. 3. lead.1.1. 581.  2ft da. 3 da.30. 2 .0. Page 287. ft 584.02. . 2. or 8. 2 10.. 1.4. 1. J7] min.15. 1. 1. 561. 1. . 4 mi. 593.00. 2 . 516. 1. > ^ . 1. 530. 536.78. S82 c. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . tin.  + + c. . f36a28x8 592.0.6 2. .53.r8 596. 4. 551. 2 imag. 526. 4 0. 514. 525.5 f. (c) 3..4.33. per hr. (e) (c) 2. . (/)  10 to 8. 563. 7^ da. 3. ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 583. (6) 3. 573. 24 da. 0. 2(4 602.38. . Page 285.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. .31. 1 . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .  (a) 2. . 571. 560. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.37. 5. per hour.3. 4. H. a+ Page 286. 3f 4f. 528.5. (6) .73.2.04.. + 12 x . 1. 3.  . 2. 40 Ib. 578. x8 . 4.25m. 552. 582. 532. 1J. 566.  1. 509. . .1. tin.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 27 y* f\4 .5. 565. (gr) 10 1.15.37. 531. 31. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 4. 591. 512.02.% rr\* 585. 3.14.7.12. Roots imaginary. 5. 3. 2$.  J(a f + 2c).8.4.4 x + . f. 2. o> . 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. a f ft + c.54. 2. 1. 4. + 6 tf f 3 . . 579. 6. 3. 1 580. 568.24.  (a) (d) 1. 3.7.31. (a) 74 Ib. g(rc+ 6c). . 576. 2(6 597.  imag.4. 2..0. 21*_.6. 4. . 5. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 6435.  3. xxxin 511. y% Z * 586. 2. .3. da. 4* da.05. 3. 1.03. 115 Ib.5+. 2 2.1.04.02.xj/ f xV . 603. 1.3.78. 1. 0000. a + ft  a  f c.  7. 1$.35. . _ 4. 527. 8 mi.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 2.88. (i) 3. (ft) 4. 4.6. 2.54.6. 8.10. 1 . 7. 1.8. (d) 537.3.7. 556. If 572.   (h) 8. 598. 515.5. f. 3.f 1. 1. _ 3.  2. f ? a f ft __ + c C).8. (ft) Ill Ib. lead.ANSWERS Page 284. 2.51. .24 sec. 4. 1.56 sec.1. _^ 2754x .25. 554.. 1.
637. 2 / 2 4. 628. 651. \. if 4/> 671. 616.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 656. If 658. 613. 612. / V^+lO^M"^. 706. 607. V2.XX XIV 606. If f 667. 624. V7.  684. 2. 0. 642. 649.. 627.  4. 8. la6 2. 2&).3. 971. 678< 682. 3 681.3f l 668. y  619. 78. 5. 2. 654. 5. 1. 5002.203. <T! . If . fe + a. 3.. 4.43^4. 638.303.002. a 673. 8 f 3.  3. 623. (*_ + a: 611.b. 634. 650. . + ~^'2 + a 1. 7. z  1. 3 a. . ^ 1.2f (5 4. 661. 705. 641. 2.c ) 697. 702. \+ab 699. 1 2. 2 ab + a  &. be ac \. a. 1 V5 1. 9. i. 2.b 686.25.2f Page 290. 12. V^~3). a ' 2 + . 6. 2092. 629. 0. 700.3. a + b. . 621. 9*. 4 V 0. a 2. 0. 2f.04. 696. 662. 608.001. 698. 11.  ft. 898. a 1J. 632. 708. 1$ 639.  13. If b.  . 652. 0. 3. 4330 da. ab. 2 x 44 ^/. 3 x2 . 25. 636. ^. n^l +^. 647. a 4. 1010. . 2 a: 4. 2. 11.  1.702. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 1. V"^TJ.  6. 210.y.001. 7003. 622. b 664. fta a/> ^A. 620. 25. 4. . 648. J^^. 672. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 1. 5 3.f 3 V^3). ix 2 . 625. ^^ 695. 4 676. 618. 645. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. b . ^. 2. 3. 50. 655. 009. V2. 657. . 626.3. . 0. 633. 5. If. . 4$. 1 ~a . . 643. . 7. ' fe 2 ). 615. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . (a3&45rj. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. ab 689. 679. o. 703. 8 6 fo .14 If 1. 0. 677 680. . 4. 2. 660. 635. 14. 614. 670. 653. 4. 10. 1m*. 691. Page 289.0. b.>A 610. 703. 631. 630.a~ {Z 663. 2. 690. 2f. 1. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.3. ' 674. . 666. 640.  2f r 659. I}'/.049. K 5 2 V2. 13. 1 704. If 665. 646. c.  a2  a (ab). 669. 617. 2. 644. 6 685. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. ft). 692. /> 4. l/'3. .  4. 2 a 688. . 6. 2 a  6*. 683. 5. 701.
. a 5 . 721. 726. Page 293. 709. 719. 24V2. 1^ _ 760. 750. 738. 792. a:* . 5. 25. 728. 778. v'll. 300. 3 720. 2\/53V2. 1 [ + '> J. . 730. i^.4 .^. VIO\/3. 789.257. a". 723.9. 722. 47. 755. T%.V/^ 741. 2 V2 . 15 shares. 39. 714. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . i 2. 793.~ . 746. 753. 733. 24. J(v'lO2V 791. 710. 1 752. 794. 3^. a 2 6^. 3V72V3. a 2  x2 . 777. 17ft. 30\/10 764.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.10. 782 785. 790 2v 3v 2. ^ ?>.12 af V^ 4 744. 342V3. + 6 2 tf'c. 3 VlT 795. 4 104 v/2. 3V7. > 748. 13ft. 1. 739. iv/Jj. 740. 59. 8.r. 731. 776. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 734. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 713. 725. VT14V5. 788. . 34. 729. 751. 718. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. x\y. j 742.. 773. . 2x3^ a. rt3 2 ^i^. ^ .2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 7  3V5. Hi a. 711.V2. 32>/2. 763.8. 758. VV> L4V34. 769. 3. 768.4 . 767. 732. 756.2. x i f^' . 716. 33^2. 737. 796. / 787.ANSWMHti Page 292..^ 743. 3V52V3. ^7xy. 749. cr*lr*. "V313.1 . 1. 29\/3. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.rJ w L 754. 8. 3V72VO.11. . 1 I . . 736. r. + < 735. 715. mn. 727. 24 4 . y  1.9. fyaw&cu. Page 294.r+y> 759. 00. a db Va^T < 45da. 1. 712. 724. 717.. 1 747. 5. v/7 / .
(am l)(a m + 1) 4m . x . 2 m . (2x (r. 2. 8. . 867. 2. .y) 852. . 823. 2. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 1. 3. 897. 7. (. 863. (1 . 2 . H. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 800. ANSWERS 798. 825. (xl)(^~3)(. 3. 819. .2w . jV3 f 3. Hoots . 2. 836.. (x 2 f r . x. 838. 2 806.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 808. 2 . 858. 844. . 898. 841..  + l(l^).l)(x + 3)(2x43). $. 6+V7. 2. 0.f. (x3). 17. a* 4. 1 1. (a 4 871. \/5. . 0. Page 296. 6. b' 2 821. . o 828. 894. 830. 2 2 . 847. 829. (x 4. 834.2 ax 4.1) (a 8 . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . a2 ^E*!. 4 885. 879. 7. 7. 48. 5. 849. f.0. 896. \/2. (3 862. . 886. 4. 4. 4. 2 (x 4*4. 11. 4. n =  29. 837. 19. 2 .7)(4 x. 891. 814. (2 4.l)(x + 2). (2 x + 3 y} . a(ry + 864. 2.+ m f ") (a* ).. 5.3)(x + 4).7 4 1) 846.a 4 + 1). 2. 804. 11. ((' 1).  1. 2/ 856. 900. 6. 833. 4. +j!>. db 7.l)(x .  ' . Hoots are extraneous. 4.1)(0 865. 1. 4.om 441) (a 855. 20). 5. 23. (:r 11. 6. X4 1). (x . 817. are extraneous. ( 4 4. 4. 826. 799. 4. V 3. 824. 2 j 889.l)(x . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. ^VG. 832. 25.2) (x 4 2). 888. 2 854.rae) (4 . + d)*. 2 *x 807. . 893. 1C. 859. ) (a' 874. Va.a 2 2 ). 0.7). 8.r . 1 . 895. 884. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 840. 17.10 ab 4. (x . m 875. 3. 13. .  839. 1. 1.3. Va 803. 3. 3. ( 869.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 868. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 881. (a m . 5. 880. 7. m = 2. 3. 6(a6)(o a + + &). o.a 3 " 4. 857. 3.r4). 810. 890. 861. 4 818. (x 2 .1)(V 2 . 876. 831. 14. ^ V}.4) 860.4. 820. 4 . a(ft)( 873. 842. Page 297. **. 882. . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 0.3. $. 2. (3 b . 6 $. 5). 4. . 8 09. 843. 2. 892. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 883. (x*y*ryz + z*).5 b) 4 1). 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 801. ^. 835. 3. 816. 1. . (x 845. 822.1. 10.5) (x + * 853. 851.25 ?>2).1) .7).4. 812. 2  2. (x + 0X024. 887. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). a 42)(x . 4. 872. J V.  tt 815. 899. (a 1) (x 4. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.7. 3. 827. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . (2 a . 813. (4 c 4. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 )./>") (a'. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 5.1).a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 3. 811.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 848. 2.XXXVI 797. 3 . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .
930. i>. 3. 919. 11. $(l 4. 902. 4. 5.0.760 sq. 4 6 mi. i1" 913. 12 in.. 4. 922. 28. i 3. J. 6. 11. Page 303. 4. 917. 5 .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 942. 1. 7. 1. S07.. 0. 0. 982. 6. Z ^. 20 19 ft. ft. f. ft. 983. 7 ft.1. 4 . 11. Page 301. 0. 2. 11. 6. 909.I. 1 . . 985. 941. ft.. 2. 6 1 1. 959. 1 _2 . . .. . 3. 2. .446. i(6 in. 977. 2. T3. 111.073. ?/i 6. 80. 2. . w. ^y. 923. Va926. 962. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. . 943. 4. 2 1. a + . 8 . J. . 1)..  1. 0. 945. 2 w 914. 911. 934. 3. Y. 3). 978.111. 6 .  26j. 4.744... 8. 5l4f.709. 6. 1. 12. . 5. V5 fj. 100 rows. 8. 3. f ft 4 .. =F J. 4. ft. T 6. 947./hr.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 115. 903. 931. ft. 984. 950. 12 mi. 8128. 333. Page 302. 960.2. 963. . 3 . V5 T 2 . 15 946. 981. 7 or 30.. 9 in. 2. dL 4. 951. 28. 948. 8. 1 1. 979. 986. 8.. 4. 6 a 915. 1 2. . 906. 2 yd. 108.1. 939. .. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.615. 2. 7. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. %* . 955. 920. 8.2. 980. 938. '3 3 in. 912. . 56. 73. 10. 932. ft. 12. 6 da. 916. 4. yd. 66 924. 40 16 in. T 6. . 958. w 3.. V^3). 280. 7. 6. 15 16 ft. 927. 333. 28. 3 4 . 4 in.01. 4. 961. 480 8 sq. 12. 1 + V953. 956.. . r ft ' < Page 299. 935. 2 i ' a V. 2. 8. 952. 918. . 6. 933. 6. 2. 987.  1 . 957. 248. i 8. 18. 2. 3.. 940. Page 300. 496.V~~3). 329. 4. 921. 936. 60 949. . ft. 937. 964. 14 . 3. 5.651. 8. 925. 904. 905. 908. . 3. J(_ ft. 10. 944. tt2 19. 5. ft. .. a. 8. 2 ft. 7. .1 = 9. 954. 5. v/(ai !)(&910.
1 8 8 2. 996. 2 . 72.378 <W and 92. 1019. (Z>) 999. 1006. 1008. 1(5.128 I. (6) 8(1 . 120 a. 108. 995. 992. ^f (2f3V2). 1001. 4 and 1020.870 a 6 1011. ^Trsq. . Page 305. Page 304. 12. 997. 1009. 1014..  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 192.  5&7 1021. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .51. 993. in. .92. 1005. + v 2). 0. 9 da. 1003. 6 70 . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . X. 24. 8. 1010. 1 1004. 1013. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 12.18. 120 i^l^. 994. 48. 1007. (J. 1017. 1018. 1016. 2(2 v/2).192rt?)r 120 *. + 448 . . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 990. 1000.. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 0.870 z8 . 4. 991. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . r = 2.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 3003. (5. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 162. 988. ~ \. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. () 12(2+V3).378 1015.'^^ } ( . 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1012.
$1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the Logarithms. than by the . HEW TOSS . very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. $1. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. xiv+563 pages. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. given.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. comparatively few methods are heretofore. The more important subjects tions. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. etc. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. save Inequalities. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. i2mo. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. great many work.25 lamo. and commercial life. Ph.D. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. physics. xi 4 373 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. A examples are taken from geometry. Half leather.
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xiv+56a pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Logarithms. The author grade.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. 12010. great many A examples are taken from geometry. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. and commercial life. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.D. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. so that the tions. etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. Half leather. save Inequalities. $1. comparatively few methods are given. Ph. physics. In Factoring. xi f 373 pages. HatF leather. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.25 i2mo. HEW YOKE .
6466 FIFTH AVENUE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 4. . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Cloth. wor. Attention is invited to the following important features I. more than 1200 in number in 2. izmo. 6. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . under the heading Remarks". and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. xii + 233 pages. aoo pages. NEW YORK . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.. SEVENOAK. iamo. SCHULTZE. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.r and. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. 10. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.D. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.10 L. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 7 he .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Half leather. Ph. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. $1. 9. i2mo. Cloth. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. lines. These are introduced from the beginning 3. State: . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. New York City.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. $1. and not from the information that it imparts. 370 pages. 12mo. . . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. of these theoretical views. . . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority.
An exhaustive system of marginal references. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " This volume etc. and a full index are provided. diagrams.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. $1. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. photographs. Cloth. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Topics. Maps. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. i2mo.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.
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