This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY
NKVV YORK
PAII.AS

BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
MACMILLAN & CO,
LONDON
LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK
THE MACMILLAN
CO. OF TORONTO
CANADA,
LTD.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
BY
ARTHUR
SCJBULIi/TZE,
PH.D.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T, HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, NEW 1 ORK CUT
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved
COPYRIGHT,
1910,
BY
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Published
Set up and electrotyped.
May,
1910.
;
Reprinted
1913,'
February, January, 1911; July, IQJS January, 1915; May, September, 1916; August, 1917.
September, 1910
;
.
J. 8. Cushlng Co.
Berwick & Smith Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
PREFACE
IN
this
book the attempt
while
still
is
made
to shorten the usual course
in algebra,
giving to the student complete familiarity
with
all
the essentials of the subject.
"
While
in
many
respects
similar to the author's
to its peculiar aim,
Elementary Algebra,"
this book,
owing
has certain distinctive features, chief
:
among
These
which are the following
1.
All unnecessary methods
and "cases" are
omitted.
omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible, in order to make every example a
social
case of a memorized method.
Such a large number of methods,
however, not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized
rules,
and ingenuity
while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Typical in this respect is the
treatment of factoring in
many
textbooks
In this book
all
methods which are of
and which are applied in advanced work are given, but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition, shortcuts that solve only examples
real value,
specially
2.
manufactured for this purpose, etc., are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension
of
the student or wliicli are logically
unsound are
omitted.
All
practical
teachers
know how few
students understand and
appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory, and conse
vi
PREFACE
quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. Moreover, a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound ; e.g. all proofs for the sign age
of the product of
of the binomial
3.
two negative numbers, all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents, etc.
TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.
The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. For the more ambitious student, however, there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance
of
more
difficult
work.
differ
With very few
from those
exceptions
all
the exer
cises in this
book
in the
"Elementary Alge
bra"; hence either book
4.
may
be used to supplement the other.
Topics of practical importance, as quadratic equations and
graphs, are placed early in the course.
enable students
who can devote only a minimum
This arrangement will of time to
algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work.
In regard
to
some other features of the book, the following
may
be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra":
which
"Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to
the beginner, especially problems and factoring. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter
V
quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject, and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis
sion to our best universities
and
colleges, in particular the
requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions
PREFACE
vii
and graphical methods into the first year's work, an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point
of view.
By studying proportions during the first year's work, the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most
needed,
viz. in
"
geometry
;
while in the usual course proportions
are studied a long time after their principal application. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value,
but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of
memorized
rules.'
This topic has been preit is
sented in a simple, elementary way, and
of the
hoped that some
modes of representation given
will be considered im
provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish
a shorter course
may omit
these chapters."
Applications taken from geometry, physics, and commercial are numerous, but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham
life
applications.
to solve a
It is
undoubtedly more interesting for a student
problem that results in the height of Mt.
McKinley
than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are
genuine applications of algebra,
of the Mississippi or the height of Mt.
nobody would find the length Etna by such a method,
and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. Moreover, such examples, based upon statistical abstracts, are
frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform, and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote
than when the arrangement
braic aspect of the problem.
is
based principally upon the alge
viii
PREFACE
problems relating to physics often
offer
It is true that
a field
for genuine applications of algebra.
edge of physics, however, is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the
teacher of algebra.
pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of
The average
Hence the
field of
suitable for secondary school
tations,
genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi
but within these limits the author has attempted to
give as
many
The author
for
simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
William P. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and
many
valuable suggestions.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
NEW
YORK,
April, 1910.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers
I
PAGB
1
1
3
Numbers represented by Letters Factors, Powers, and Hoots
Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions
....... ...
II
6
7
10
CHAPTER
Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials
Subtraction
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, AND PARENTHESES
15 15
10
........ ....
III
22 27
Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression
29
CHAPTER
MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication of Algebraic
Multiplication of
...
Numbers
Monomial
Monomials
31 31
Multiplication of a Polynomial by a
....
34
35
36
Multiplication of Polynomials
Special Cases in Multiplication
39
CHAPTER IV
DIVISION
Division of Monomials
46 46
47
Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division
ix
48
61
X
CONTENTS
CHAPTER V
PAGE
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Solution of Linear Equations
Symbolical Expressions
Problems leading
.....,.
Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r
f
,63
55
67
to
Simple Equations
63
CHAPTER VI
FACTORING
76
I.
Type
Polynomials, All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor
Com77
.
Type II. Type III. Type IV. Type V. Type VI.
Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the
78
.
The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms
of Factoring
....
/^
. . .
80 83
84
86
87
Summary
CHAPTER
Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple
Highest
VII
. .
HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
89
89
91
CHAPTER
VIII
93 93 97
FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions
Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions
102
104
* ,
* .
Complex Fractions
105
CHAPTER IX
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
Fractional Equations
Literal Equations
......
.
108
108
112
Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations
.114
CONTENTS
XI
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Ratio
.........
CHAPTER XI
CHAPTER X
PAGE
120
120
121
Proportion
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution
Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than
....
Two Unknown
129
130
133 138
Quantities
Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations
....
140
143
CHAPTER
XII
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS
Representation of Functions of One Variable
....
.
.
148
164
Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities
168
160
CHAPTER
INVOLUTION
Involution of Monomials
XIII
165
165 166
Involution of Binomials
EVOLUTION
...
CHAPTER XIV
169
.
Evolution of Monomials
170
.
Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers
.
171
CHAPTER XV
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY
Pure Quadratic Equations
Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics
Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots
.
1*78
178
181
189
191
Form
193
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
10
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
They are used, as in arithmetic, to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole.
Each
10
is
of the forms 10
to be multiplied
x (4 f 1), 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5.
+
1],
10 x
4"+T indicates
that
(a
b) is
sometimes read "quantity a
b."
EXERCISE
If a
1.
7
= 2, b = 3, c = 1, d
7. 8.
0,
x
9, find the numerical value of:
Vff.
Val
\fi?.
13.
4(a
6(6
+ &).
+ c).
2
.
2.
3.
V36".
14.
V2a.
v'Ta.
\/c.
9.
4V3~6c.
15.
16.
(cfd)
4. 6.
10.
11.
5Vl6c.
aVc^.
[6c]
3
.
17.
6.
V^a6.
12.
ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS
24.
AND NUMERICAL
sym
SUBSTITUTIONS
An
algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic
bols representing
25.
some number
is
;
e.g.
6 a26
7
Vac
~*
2
f 9.
A
monomial or term
f
an expression whose parts are not
as 3 cue2,
separated by a sign
(6
+ c + d}
is
o c ^and (6 + a monomial, since the parts are a
;
or
9
Vx,
c f d).
26.
A polynomial is an
y,
expression containing more than one
and a 4
term.
!^f\/03
3
ft,
+ M f c
4
f
d 4 are polynomials.
27.
A binomial is
62 ,
a polynomial of two terms.
a2
+
and 

\/a are binomials.
is
28.
A trinomial
a polynomial of three terms.
are trinomials.
V3
INTRODUCTION
29.
11
if it
In a polynomial each term
is
treated as
were con
tained in a parenthesis, i.e. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. Otherwise
operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written
all
from
left to right.
__
E.g. 3
4
.
5
means 3
4
20 or 23.
Ex.
1.
Find the value of 4
28
+5
32

*^.
= 32 + 4527 = 50.
Ex.
2.
2 of 6 ab
If a = 5, b = 3, c = 2, d = 0,  9 aWc + f a b  19 a 6cd
3
2 3
find the numerical value
6 aft 2  9 a& 2 c + f a 6  19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32  9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3  19 = 6. 5 99. 6 9 2 + I126 30 = 270  810 + 150 =  390. EXERCISE 8*

.
.
52
.
3
2
If
1.
a=4, 5=3, c=l, d=Q, x=^,
find the numerical value of:
9.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6.
+ 26+3 c. 3a + 56
a
2
.
5c6 2 +6ac3 a
3
17c3
hl2o;.
10.
'
f & f c
3
8
d
s
.
a 2 6. a2
11.
2
3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2
.
5c
+d
2
.
12.
5a2
2 a2
46cf2^^ + 3 a& + 4 6^9 ad.
l
13.
14.
4
.
(a (a f b)
7.
8.
6a2 +4a62 ~6c'
27
c
3
+12a(i
*15.
16.
a2
f
+ (a + 6)c 6+ a (2
2
c
2
.
2
).
 5 ax
50 a6cd.
4a6fVaV2^.
* For additional examples see page 268,
12
17
&
*
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
18
'
8
Find the numerical value of 8 a3
21.
22.
12 cr6
f
6 a6 2
6s, if
:
a = 2, 6 = 1. a = 2, 6 = 2.
26.
27.
23.
a =3,
6=2.
28.
29. 30.
24. 25.
6 = 4. = 3, 6 = 5. a
a=3,
a = 3, 6 = 3. a = 4, 6 = 5. a =4, 6 = 6. a = 3, 6 = 6. a = 4, 6 = 7.
Express in algebraic symbols 31. Six times a plus 4 times
32. 33.
34.
:
6.
6,
Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.
Six
2
.
w
cube plus three times the quantity a minus
plus 6 multiplied
6,
35.
The quantity a
6
2 by the quantity a
minus
36.
Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.
37. 38.
Read the expressions
of Exs. 26 of the exercise. of this exercise?
What kind of expressions are Exs. 1014
The
representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic, geometry, physics, and other sciences.
30.
sible to state
Ex.
a, 6,
and
If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length), and the area of the
is
triangle
S
square feet (or squares of other units selected),
then
8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4 6  c) (a  6 f c) (6
a
+ c).
INTRODUCTION
E.g. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13, 14, 15 therefore feet, then a 13, b 14, and c
13
and
15
=
=
=
;
S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15)
= V421214.16
1
= 84,
i.e.
the area of the triangle equals
feet.
84 square
EXERCISE
1.
9
distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula
The
Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds, if v .16 centimeters per second. A train in 4 hours, if v = 30 miles per hour. b. c. An electric car in 40 seconds, if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. d. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes, if v
:
a.
2. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet, count the resistance of the atmosphere.) Assuming g
.
=
(a)
How
far does
a body fall from a state of rest in 2
seconds ?
(b)
*
stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J seconds. Find the height of the tree. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c)
A
second ?
3.
By
using the formula
find the area of a triangle
whose
sides are respectively
(a) 3,
(b) 5,
(c) 4,
4, and 5 feet. 12, and 13 inches. 13, and 15 feet.
14
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
the radius of a circle
etc.),
is
H
2
units of length (inches,
meters,
the area
etc.).
$ = 3.14
square meters,
square units (square inches, Find the area of a circle whose radius is
It
(b)
(a) 10 meters.
5.
2 inches.
(c)
5 miles.
fo
If
i
represents the simple interest of
i
p
dollars at r
in
n
years, then
=p
n
*
r
%>
or
Find by means
(a)
(b)
6.
of this formula
:
The The
interest on interest
$800
for 4 years at
ty%.
on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.
If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length, the
3.14d (square units). (The number 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. This number cannot be expressed exactly, and the value given above is only an
surface
$=
2
approximation.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals
(a)
7.
:
8000 miles.
If the
(b) 1 inch.
(c)
10
feet.
diameter of a sphere equals d
feet,
then the
volume
V=
(a) 10 feet.
~
7n
cubic feet.
6
Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals:
(b)
3
feet.
(c)
8000 miles.
denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale, the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula
F
C
y
= f(F32).
to Centigrade readings:
(b)
Change the following readings
(a)
122 F.
32 F.
(c)
5
F.
CHAPTER
II
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, AND PARENTHESES
ADDITION OF MONOMIALS
31.
While
in arithmetic the
word sum
refers only to
the
result obtained
by adding positive numbers, in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative, or positive and negative numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4, but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In algebra, however, we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Or in the symbols of algebra
$4) =
Similarly, the fact that a loss of
loss of
+ $2.
of
$6 and a gain
$4
equals a
$2 may be
represented thus
In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a
of
loss
$4
( $6) + (
$4) = (
$10).
Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results, we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general, or that
and
(+6) + (+4) = +
16
10.
16
32.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
These considerations lead to the following principle
:
If two numbers have the same sign, add their absolute values if they have opposite signs, subtract their absolute values and
;
(always) prefix the sign of the greater.
33.
The average
of two
numbers
is
average of three numbers average of n numbers is the
is one half their sum, the one third their sum, and the sum of the numbers divided by n.
is 0.
Thus, the average of 4 and 8
The average The average
of 2, 12,
4
is
3 J.
of 2, ' 3, 4, 5,

0, 10, is 2.
EXERCISE
Find the sum
of:
10
Find the values
17.
18.
of:
20.
(17)
15
+ (14).
lf(2).
19.
+ (9). + 12.
23. 24.
21.
22.
(_
In Exs. 2326, find the numerical values of a + b
f cjc?, if :
a
a
= 2, = 5,
6
6
= 3, c = = 5, c =
4,
5,
d = 5. d = 0.
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
25.
AND PARENTHESES
d = l.
d=
3.
'
1?
a
26.
27.
= 22, = 13,
= 23, c=14, & = 15, c = 0,
&
28.
29.
30.
31. 32.
33.
What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards, 7 yards, and 3 yards. }/ Add 2 a, 7 a, and 3 a. \\ Add 2 a, 7 a, and 3 a.
'
Find the average of the following
34.
sets of
numbers:
13.
6,
3 and 25. 5 and
12,
^
'
37. 38.
2.
2, 3,
35.
36. 39.
 13.
13,
 3,
 7, and 4,  4,  5,
 7,
:
and
1.
and
8
F.,
Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F., and 3 F.
4
F.,
40. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30, 32, 37,
:
48, 60, 09, 74, 72, 66, 55, 43, 34. 41. Find the average gain per year of a merchant, if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain, $3000 gain, $1000 loss, $7000 gain, $500 loss, and $4500 gain.
:
Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12, 10, 4, 1, 6, 10, 12, 10, 6, 0,  5, 11 (Centigrade).
42.
:
34.
Similar or like terms are terms which have the same
literal factors, affected
by the same exponents.
5 a2 &
6 ax^y and
7 ax'2 y, or
and
,
or 16
Va + b
and
2Vo"+~&,
are similar terms.
Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms
4 a2 6c and o
4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.
which are not
similar.
18
35.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The sum
of 3
of
two similar terms
x2
is
is
another similar term.
The sum
x 2 and
f
x2 .
sum of two such terms can only be them with the f sign.
The sum The sum
of a of a
Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and
a
is
is
f
a2
.
b
a
f (
6), or
a
6.
In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. Algebraic sum. b wider sense than in arithmetic. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only, in algebra it may be considered b. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and
The sum
of
a,
2 a&, and 4 ac2
is
a
2 a&

4 ac2.
EXERCISE
Add:
1.
11
2 a +3a 4o
2.
ab
7
c
2
dn
6.
12
13
b sx
xY xY 7 #y
7.
1
\
f
7 a 2 frc
Find the sum of
9.
:
2 a2,
3a
,
2
,
f
4 a2,
,
5 a2
,
+ 6 af
.
10.
12
2 wp2  13 rap
25 rap 2, 7 rap2.
9(af6),
11.
2(af &),
5l
3(af6),
12(af b)
12.
13.
Vm
f ii,
5Vm + w,
12Vmfn,
14
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
Simplify
:
AND PARENTHESES
19
15.
17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3
3 3
.
17.
xyz
+ xyz
12 xyz
+ 13 xyz + 15 xyz. m
n
^
2
Add:
18.
ra
19.
+m
"""
20.
21.
a
a8
ZL
**,
n
x*
2
22.
6
23.
c
2
^24.
l^S
25.
2
7
1
26.
1
27.
i
xyz
co*
mn
mri
Simplify the following by uniting like terms:
29.
30.
3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8.
2
2
2
31.
32.
33.
"Vx + y
Vaj + y 2
2 Vi
+ + 2 Va; + / + 3 Va; + y.
2/
:
Add, without finding the value of each term
34.
35.
36.
5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173.
4x9'
10x38
ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS
Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column, and to add each column.
37.
is
20
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
,
2 Thus, to add 26 ab  8 abc  15 6c,  12 a& 4 15 abc  20 c 5 ab 4 10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4 4 6c + c 2 we proceed as
, ,
f 110WS:
26 aft 8
& c~15&c
12a&4l5a&c
20c2
flO&c
 6a&
7
6ca
a5c
+
4 be
6c
4
26
ca
c'
9a&
38.
2
Sum.
Numerical substitution
offers a
convenient method for
the addition of
checking the sum of an addition. 3 a f 4 1) 4 o c and 4 2 a 26
To check
c
assign
numerical values to
then
 3 a f 4
the
sum
a = 1, 6=2, c = 1, =  3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0, 2 025 c= 2 41 = 3, 4 = 7. a 4 2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4
a, 5,
ft
any convenient
and
c, e.g.
f 5
c
f
But 7
= 10
;
3, therefore the answer
is
correct.
NOTE. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g. the erroneous answer
equal
7.
to
show any
error,
It is
not
also
a406
4c would
In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter, it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers
39.
of that letter.
7 4.
x
of x.
6 a7
4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a
fi
5
4
is
6c
8
arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac
aW
a.
cording to descending powers of
EXERCISE
12
Add
1.
the following polynomials
:
2a
3646
t
c,
s,
3a
2?
,
46
4z
7
c,
and
2
,
4a46
12 q
5
2
a;
2c.
4
2.
9 q 4 7
2
.
5
 3 s,
and
J
2
s.
2
,
V3. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2
5
3ar 22/2 4
4
3 / 2z
and
0^9 z
* For additional examples see page 259.
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
4.
</
AND PARENTHESES
2i
14d15e + 2/, 16e + 17/90, 18/+6y + d,
d.
2
2
and
 15
5.
and
12a 4 15& 20c  12 6 ~5 a  5 c ll& 7c 6 4 a  1 a 4 1 0, 7ar + 3B 5,and 6. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7, 6 #
2
2
2
2
2
2
,
,
,
2
2
.
3
2
tf
2
l
2
^_.Ga 43x45.
2
and
9m 48m 4 7v/if 6, 56 w 7m  8 m 2m 12, m 4 6. 8. xy3xz + yz, 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz,4:xy xz 6yz, and  2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft  5 cr& + 7 6 9. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and
7.
3
2
2
3
9
,
2
?ft
?/z.
8
2
2
3
s
2
3
,
,
,
10a
+lOa 6ll& 10. a + 1>
8
2
2
.
4
3
3
^*
f
h
<l,
^2
1
e, e
a4
/,
3
?/
3
?
2
j
and a 2 4 a.
a.
11.
a
4ar
!
byb
8
c^c
8
,
d
and
/
3
?
12.
+ 50 + 62  5a^6
f 6)
 7^
2iB 8
+ 2y + 2
8
8
,
and and
13.
4(a
 (b + c)
1,
2
3(c f a),
2(6
+ c) + (c f a),
+ a + 1.  9(a + &)  12,
a2
2
14.
a4
6(a
a
a2
f
a
f
1,
a2
a,
and
v 15.
 12(a 4 6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 16. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf,
2 a;
4
+
6)

5 (a
+
6)
+ 3,
7(a
+ 5)
4
2
and
6
4
a;
4
o^?/
4 y\
and
a;
4 ajy
17.
2
?/.
and 5 Vb
18.
19.
4 3
 VS 4 2 Vc,  Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc,  4 Va  10 Vc, 4 Vc. a 4 a  a, a 4 a  1,  a 4 a 4 1, and 1 4 a  a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy  3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and  3
5 Va
2
2 3
3
2
.
4
8
3
4
4
,
?/ ,
a)
y ^/. v/20. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w  2n
2
2
3
rz ,
in
8
3
m n 4 3 mn
2
2
n8
,
and
8
3
.
22
21.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4
w + 3 m + 2 m,
5
3
f
4
?n
4
2m+2m
e,
8
,
 ra + m,
5
}
and
3
m
3
7 m.
22.
a
6
2
c,
6 f c
2
23.
16m 7/12my
d+e a 6. +d a, and e + 6y  17 + 4 ?nfy  m 4m ?/?/
d, c
3
3
3
2
3
,
,
1/
,
and 2
24.
m
3
3
5y
3
8
.
2
8
n + <w 2 ,4
2tn*
Sic
2
,
8
f3f
a
n2<w +n ,5< 3
2 s
4^4.3^* 2n
2
,
s
,
and
25.
4^ + 3t*n
l2aj
2
a,.
+ n*.
45a6
2
,
T8a;9aj
2,
and
6
+ 9 x + 12
26.
2fa
3
4
a +7a,
2
a3 a 4
3 af^, a s f3o
$ xy
and
5+a\
^
"27.
 11 xy + 12.
SM/Z + 2
a:?/
f
x
y
bxyz~lx,
12 xyz, and
3^2
SUBTRACTION
EXERCISE
1.
13
1,
If from the five negative units three negative units are taken, how
1,
1,
1,
1,
many
negative units
re
main ?
from
2.
What
is
therefore the remainder
when
3
is
taken
5?
Instead of subtracting in the preceding example, what to obtain the same result ?
total of the units f 1, f 1,
f
number may be added
3.
The sum
and
?
1, f 1,
+ 1,
1,
1,
1, is 2.
What
away
is
the value of the
sum
if
two neg
ative units are taken
?
If three negative units are taken
away
4.
What
is
therefore the remainder
is
when
2
is
taken from
2?
When  3
taken from 2
?
5. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number?
same
result as the
6.
If
you diminish a person's
debts, does
he thereby become
richer or poorer ?
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
7.
AND PARENTHESES
23
subtraction of a negative
positive number.
State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a
40. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. In addition, two numbers are given, and their algebraic sum is required. In subtraction, the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is
The algebraic sum is given, the other number is required. called the minvend, the given number the subtrahend, and the
required number the difference. Therefore any example in subtraction
different
;
may
be stated in a
:
5 take form e.g. from What 3, may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. Or in symbols, ab =
x,
if
x
Ex.
1.
+b
3.
a.
From
5 subtract
to
The number which added
Hence,
3 gives 5
is
evidently 8.
6
(3) = 8.
Ex.
2.
From
5 subtract
to
 3.
3 gives
3)
The number which added
Hence,
5
is
2.
(
6)
(
=  2.
Ex.
3.
From
5 subtract
+ 3.
This gives by the same method,
41.
The
results of the preceding examples could be obtained
by the following
Principle.
To
subtract, change the sign
of the subtrahend and
add.
NOTE. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc, ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of
;
24
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
we change the
subtract 2 x
sign of each term
42. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
Ex.
From _6ar3
3z + 7
2
6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3  3 r*5o;f 8
 3 x*  5 x + 8. Check, If x = l = 2
t
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
41. 42.
AND PARENTHESES
from
14 a
25
Subtract the sum of 2
m and 7 m
c
10m.
f 12 b f
From 10 a
12 &
f
6
subtract
5
c,
and
3
7/ ,
check the answer.
43.
From
From
$ a
3
7 x 2 ?/
5
a/ + ?/ subtract
f
ar f
7 a 2 ?/  5 #?/
2
and check the answer.
44.
f
2 aa
7a
2
?/
2 subtract a3
take 11 a
2 :c
+ 2 a  7 a  2.
6 6
2
2
?/
.
45.
46.
47. 48. 49.
50. 51.
From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2
From mn f ??/>
8d
11 cf 17
d.
take 2
8 o#
+ qt
c
mt subtract
a2
f
mn f wp f w>t.
c f d.
From a3
From
6a
1 subtract
f
a
+
b
3
1.
96
subtract 10 b
2
From
From
1 f & take 1 f b
f
&
s
.
6
4
a;
+3x
f &
f
12 take 3
f
ar f
4 x + 11.
52.
53.
From
2 a
take a
&
j c.
54.
From a3 subtract 2 a3 f a 2 j a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract
2
1.
?/
3
#?/
2 y2 .
55.
56.
57.
From 5 a 2
2 ab
?/'
subtract 2 a 2
+ 2ab
.
2y
2
.
58.
4v
From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4  4 a*& + 6 a &  4 a^ 4 & 4 subtract a
2
2
4
+4
8
6
6 a&
59.
2
+ 4 a&
3
f 6
4
.
From
6(af 6)f 5(6
+ c)
4(c
+ a)
subtract
7(af&)
REVIEW EXERCISES
1.
From
From
x2
the
sum
sum
7.
of
a
4 b h c
and
a
& f c
subtract
a
_ 6 _ 2 c.
2.
tract 4
x
3.
+
a
the 2 a;
of x2
4x
f
12 and 3 a2
3 #
3 sub
From a3 +
2 a2
4 a subtract the sum of a 3
}
a2
2a
and a 2
+ 4.
26
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
From
the difference between a?
a?
3
j
+5
a:
2
+ 58+1
+
cc
and 4
a?
2
+4x
5.
subtract
#
+ 1.
sum
of
Subtract the
x2 + 2 and
6 a
iE
3
2
from x3
+ a^
4
6.
Subtract the
sum
of 5 a2
+
2
7 and
2a2 + 3a
and
from 2 a2 + 2 a
7.
+
2.
Subtract the
sum
s
of 6
m +5 m +6m
8
4m*
5
m +4m
2
from 2 ra
+ 7 m.
of #
2
8.
9.
Subtract the difference of a and a
Subtract the
sum
+ f and
+ 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2
2
2
ar*
2
*/
10. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11.
4 6
2 c add the
To
the
3
sum
a3
4
a2
3
between 5 a
12.
+4
and 4 a
+1 +a
2
and a2
a.
+a
add the difference
duce
13.
What expression must 8a3 2a7?
What
What
be added to 7 a 3
+4a
2 to pro
expression must be added to
3a + 56
cto
pro
duce
14.
~2a6 + 2c?
expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce
a+6?
v
,15.
What must
be added to
b
4^ + 4^ + 2
z,
to produce
find
:
0?
= x +g
c
=x
18. 19.
16.
a
+
6.
6.
a
2y + z, + 6 + c.
6
17.
a
a
+
c.
20.
2
m
21.
A is n years old. n years hence ? A
c
How
old will he be 10 years hence ?
a
+b
is 2 a years old. years ago ?
How
old was he a
b years
ago?
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
AND PARENTHESES
27
SIGNS OF AGGREGATION
43.
tractions
By using the signs of aggregation, may be written as follows:
a
f ( 4 & c
additions
and sub
+ d) = a + b
c
+ d.
Hence
the
it is
sign
may
obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol:
lowing principles
44. I. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
II.
A
moved
w
may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is
E.g.
changed.
a+(bc) = a +b  c.
6
o+(
a
+ c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4 b c = a a
&
f
f c.
& f
c.
45.
If there is no sign before the first term within a paren*
f
thesis, the sign
is
understood.
(b
c)
a
=a
6 4
c.
46. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation, one occurring within the other, we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. The beginner will find it most convenient
at every step to
remove only those parentheses which contain
(7 a
no others. Ex. Simplify 4 a f
+ 5&)[6& +(25 a^6)]

}
.
4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2& a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [ 6 b f ( 2 b  a
f
= 4a
sss
7a
12
06
6.
66
2&a + 6
4a
Answer.
28
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 15*
Simplify the following expressions
1.
:
x + (2yz).
6.
a
(a + 6).
6)
2.
3.
a(3b
a3
3
2 2
2c).
3
3
f
7.
8. 9.
a f (a a
 (a + 6).
4.
5.
+ (2a 6 + c ). a (a + 26 c ). 2a (4a 26 +c ).
2 2 2
a( + 6)f (a2 b). 2m
4af
2
2
2
10.
2
2a;y
(60;
?
11.
2a
2
+ 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).
13. 14.
(m
a2
f 7i
h jp)
(m
?*,)
5
.
15.
16.
m+n
+ [#
(6
(m
(r
+ M> + w
n p) ___
(
m~n\p.
m f
ft)
a;)].
17.
18.
a
a
c)
+ [3 a
{3c
(c
26
a)}
6a].
19.
[36+
(a
2c].
21.
7
6)+
{a
[a:
22.
By removing
parentheses, find the numerical value of
{
1422  [271 47.
271 + (814  1422)
J
]
.
Signs of aggregation
1.
may
be inserted according to
43.
In the following expression inclose the second and third, the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses,:
Ex.
Ex.
2.
last three
Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of
the
See page 260.
ADDITION, SUBTRACTION,
EXERCISE
AND PARENTHESES
16
29
In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis
:
1.
a\l>
>
c
+
d.
3.
5 a2
2.
2mn + 2q3t.
m
x
2
4.
4 xy
7 x* 49 x + 2.  2 tf  4 y*  1.
terms
5.
In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign
:
27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.
y
f
8
.
5^2
_ r  7fa. )X
6.
z
+ d.
7.
p + q + rs.
EXERCISES
IN"
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
17
:
EXERCISE
Write the following expressions
I.
The sum^)f
m
and
n.
2.
first,
The
difference of a
and
6.
'
NOTE. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.
3.
and the subtrahend the second,
The sum
of tKe squares of a
and
b.
4.
5.
The The
difference of the cubes of
m
and
n.
difference of the cubes of n and m.
6.
The sum
of the fourth powers of a of
and
6.
7.
8. 9.
The product The product
m
and
n.
of the cubes of
m and
n.
10.
Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n.
m and n.
II.
12.
13.
The square of the difference of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference
of
m and n.
Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b.
6 diminished
30
14.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The sum
x. 6.
dif
of the squares of
a and
b increased
by the
square root of
15. 16.
x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus
The sum
of the cubes of a,
d.
b,
and
c
divided by the
ference of a and
Write algebraically the following statements:
V 17.
18.
The sum
The
of a
and
b multiplied
b is equal to the difference of
by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2
.
difference of the cubes of a
and
b divided
by the
difference of
a and
6,
6 is equal to the square of
b,
a plus the prod
uct of a and
s
plus the square of
19. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers.)
CHAPTER
III
MULTIPLICATION
MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS
EXERCISE
18
In the annexed diagram of a balance, let us consider the and JB, and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weights, applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
A
A
A
1. 2.
3.
4.
By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weight at B ?
If the
addition of five 3
plication example.
5.
two loads balance, what force is produced by the Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance,
If the two loads
what
What,
force is produced
therefore, is
by
taking away 5 weights from
A?
5
X 3?
6. If the two loads balance, what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What, therefore, is 5 x ( 3) ?
7.
If the
two loads balance, what force
31
is
produced by tak(
ing away 5 weights from
B ? What therefore is
5)
x(
3) ?
32
8.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
the signs obtained by the
true,
examples were generally
method of the preceding what would be the values of
(
5x4, 5x(4), (5)X4,
9
9.
x
11,
( 9) x
11, 9 x
(
11),
(
9)
x (
11) ?
State a rule by which the sign of the product of
two
fac
tors can be obtained.
48. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition; 4 multi44444 12, thus, 4 multiplied by 3, or plied by 3, or
4x3 =
=
(_4) X
The preceding
3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.
however, becomes meaningless
if
definition,
the multiplier is a negative number. To take a number 7 times. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun
tion
7
Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative, and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Practical examples^
it
however, such as given in the preceding exercise, make venient to accept the following definition
:
con
49.
Multiplication
by a negative
integer is a repeated
sub
traction.
Thus,
4
x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12,
(
( 4) x
braic laws for negative
~ 3> = ( 4)( 4)(4) = +
12.
NOTE. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers, a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.
In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases
trated
illus
by the following examples
:
4x3 = 412.
4x(3)=12.
MULTIPLICATION
50.
33
We
shall
and negative integers
the
assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers, and obtain thus
product of two numbers with
like signs in signs is negative.
etc.
Law
Thus,
of Signs:
TJie
positive; the product of two
numbers with unlike
&)
(a)(+6) = a&; ( a)(
=+
a&;
EXERCISE
19
:
Find the values of the following products
1.
6
2.
3.
X(5). (7) X (12).
4.
5. 6.
is
6x7.
(2)x9. (4)X(15).
about
fac
(2)X
If
6.
NOTE.
tors
is
no misunderstanding
possible, the parenthesis
frequently omitted.
7. 8. 9.
5x3. 4  7.
.
13.
14.
(2) 8 ( 3)
(1)
7
2
.
.
_3.(4J).
15. 16.
17.
(4)'.
.
10. 11. 12.
19.
_2. . 3. _2^ 3.
(10)
4
.
6.2f
18.
1 2 3 4. +5.
Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an
even number of negative factors.
20. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.
If a
cal
=
4a6c.
2, b
= 3, c =
25.
1,
x=
0,
and y
= 4,
29.
30.
find the numeri
values of:
21.
3
aW.
8 4
 (a&c)
2
2
.
22.
23. 24.
3 a2?/2
.
26.
27.
x.
2a6
c
.
2a
2
6c.
z s
11 aWcx.
8
31. 32.
4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c*
.
Ua b
28.
(c#)
.
4 a2  2
f+x
2
.
34
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of 8
Find the numerical value
33. 34.
a8
a=2,
a=
1,
&
= 3. 4. 6 =
 1 2 a 6 f 6 aW  6 if 35. a = 2, 5 = 2. 36. a = 3, 6 = 1.
2
3
,
MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS
51.
By
3
definition,
a
23
=2
Hence 2 x 2
general, if
=2
a
a
to

2 2
x2
2 2, 2 2 2
.

and
2
25
8
,
= 2 2 2
23 + 5
.

2
2.
=2
a
*.<?.,
Or
in
m and
n are two positive
to
factors) f n) factors.
fl*"
integers,
am
Xa
n
= (a =aa
is
m
(a
a
to
n
factors)
(m
X
fl
w
=
fl
/w
+w
.
This
52.
known
as
of Multiplication
:
The Exponent Law
The exponent of
is
the
product of several powers of the same base
the exponents
equal to the
8
(ft
sum
oj
Ex.
1.
of the factors. 6 aWc x  7 &*# =(6

7)
(a
2
a8 )
.
.
&*)
c
d*.
53. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number, only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. Ex. 2. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2
.
.
.
.
Ex. 3. 4 x (2
25)
=8
25, or 2
.
100,
i.e.,
200.
EXERCISE
20
:
Express each of the following products as a power
1. 2. 7.
B.
m*.m
a
3

4
.
3.
2 2
3
6
.
5.
5
3
5
3
2
.
5
.
6"
127 U
.
a
2
2
.
4.
9
.
3
2
.
3
3
4
.
6.
127

127 9
7
.
(a6) (a5)
9.
a
5
(a)
(^
+
14
8
2/)
(a?
+
4
2/)
(aj
.
+
2/).
10.
78
.(7).7.
11.
12
U U .(12) .12
Perform the operation indicated
12.
13.
:
3a7abc.
4 (2 257).
14.
2(7.35),
50(112.3).
16.
17.
5(711.2).
2(14.503),
IB.
M UL TIPLICA TION
18.
19.
35
4
7(6 f
2).
27. 28.
29.
.
20.
21.
11(3 6 A). 4 aft 5 aft 2
.
7p*q r*.7pqt. _4aft.4a#.
 7 w'W (8 n^W).
2
19
'
mV
2
ft
5

2 ran4
30.
5
aft
3
(
ftc
(
2
2ac).
22.
23.
 5 xy 19 aW
lla
(
3
3 tfy 2z*.
31.
4
9 afy
2 a3 ?/ ).
.
( 2
3
aft
).
2
32.
( 4
(2
a 2 ft 3) 2
3
.
24.
25.
c(4a ftc ).
)
2
33.
34. 35.
5
2
aft
(6
e
8
C a 2ftc).
/).
ax /) 2 4 1 ( 3 win )
.
26.
6 e/ a
(
(
2 a2 ) 3
.
MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL
we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3, the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8
54.
If
results
ft,
= (a + 26)+(a + 2
ft)
f (a 4
2
ft)
+ (a + 2
ft)
55. This principle, called the distributive law, is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier, but we shall assume it for any number.
Thus we have
in general
a(b
56.
tet^m
f c)
= ab
+ac.
To multiply a polynomial by a monomial, multiply each
by the monomial.
 3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be 
1)
=
18 a 4 6 2 c
 6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.
EXERCISE
21
Find the numerical values of the following expressions, by first multiplying, and then adding
:
1.
2(5fl5f25).
3.
2.
6(10420430).
4.
7.
3(124342). 2(645410).
5.
6.
12( + 1
4 i).
17(10041042). 23(10004100420).
36
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Express as a sum of several powers
8.
5(5
+
52
+
2 2
5 7 ).
3
).
11.
12.
4 13 (4 9
4
5
4).
9.
6 (6
2
+6 +6
10.
7 3 (7 3 f7
+7
10
).
Perform the multiplications indicated:
13.
2
m(mhn \p).
2
2
16.
2
4 %Pq\
14.
~2mn(m +n p ).
19.
17.
5 x\5
pqr + 5 pr 5 x2  5 x
7).
5).
5
aW(
3
2
2
aW + 3 a
2
2
?/
6 c
2
 6 a6).
20.
21. 22.
23.
7 a 6
c( ^ c + 2  2 mn(9 mV  5 w*V f 7 wn).
 3 aftc).
:
expression must
24.
By what
25.
26.
be multiplied to give
4o; f7a;asa product. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.
2
27. 28.
29.
30.
Find the factors of 6
Find the factors of 2
or*
f
3
x* f
arty
3 a4
.
ofy
2
4
+8
2
4 a; .
Find the factors of 5 a
6
 60 a&
10
aft.
Find the factors of 6 ary  3 x2y 2 + 3
xy.
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
57.
Any
it
closing
x
+y
(a
polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z,we b) (x
law.
 6) (x f y
z)
= x(a = (ax
b)
+ y(a
b)
z(a
(az
b)
bx) f (ay
by)
bz)
by
az
+ bz.
M UL TIP LICA TION
37
58. To multiply two polynomials, multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.
The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns, as illustrated in the following example
:
Ex.1. Multiply 2 a  3
b
by a
5
b.
2a3b a66 2 a  3 ab
2
2 a2
10 ab

13 ab
+ 15 6 2 + 15 6 2
Product.
59. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter, the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.
Ex.
2.
Multiply 2
+ a a 3 a
3
2
by 2 a
:
a2 + l.
Check.
If
Arranging according to ascending powers
2
a
 3 a 2 + a8
a
a = =
I
1
=2
f
2
a
4 4.a
 3 a 2 + a8  2 a2 6 a8
2 a*
*

2"
a2
7
60.
a2
+ a8 + 3  a6 4 a 8 + 5 a*  a6
=2
by numerical
Examples
in multiplication can be checked
substitution, 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since all powers of 1 are 1, this method
tests only the values of the coefficients
and not the values of
the exponents. Since errors, however, are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else, the student should
apply this test to every example.
38
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE 22*
Perform the following multiplications and check the results
1.
;
(2s
3y)(3a?
+ 2y).
36).
17. 18.
(2 x*
x
2
 4) (x + 1).
l)(raf 2).
2.
3.
(4af 76)(2tt
(4ra
fra
(5c2d)(2c3d).
(2w
19.
4.
5.
6.
3n)(7m
f6<7)(5^)
+ 8n).
3<7).
20.
(6p
(2
f
21. 22.
a
5c)(2a6c).
7.
8.
(9m2n)(4m + 7tt).
(ajf6y)(aj
23.
24.
2
(a
al)(2a?fl).
7y).
9.
(6i7n)(llJn).
(13
A;
25.
26.
10.
2) (3 A: 1).
4 2).
11.
(6xy + 2z)(2xy
27.
28.
29.
12.
13.
(8r7*)(6r39.
(llr + l)(12r
(rcya
(2m
(a (4 a
2
 1  2m)(l m).
2
.
1).
36)
I)
14. 15. 16.
12)(a?^2l).
30.
2
.
(a&c
2
+ 7)(2a&c3).
31.
32.
(6a~7)
2
.
(a 2a
+ 2)(a3).
(4a
2
33.
6
2
(6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l).
^
2
.
35.
36.
2
(m?n?p
(x
(a
//)4 lA/
//j.2 ^/
'
2
mnp f 4) (mnp 4 2).
+ & + 1f a^faj 1).
2

37.
OQ OO.
QQ O7.
40. 41.
I
(mfn)(m4 n)(m
8
n)(m
n).
(a^26)
.
* For additional examples see page 261.
MUL TIPLICA TION
SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION
61.
39
The product
of
two binomials which have a common term.
The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term, plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term, plus the product
62.
in
of the two unequal terms.
6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term, 25 a 2 , (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms, i.e. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab, plus the product of the two unequal terms, i.e. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 75 ab f 54 ft .
=
+
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
23
2.
3.
+ 2) (a f 3). (a3)(a + 2).
(a
(a
(a;
15.
(a
9) (a + 9).
ft
16. 17. 18. 19.
_3)(a _4).
(ra n)(wf w). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a
2
4.
6.
+ 3) (a 7).
 4). (ofy* f 3) (tfy*
(a5
2 ).
(!)(* 5).
(p12)(p + ll).
(wi
2^*12)(ajy
6. 7.
8. 9.
20.
21.
22.
3
(a
7)
3
(a
8).
+ 9)(m+9).
(100
+2) (100 + 3).
1) (10 + 2). + 5) (1000 + 4).
(6
12) (6 f 13).
(10+
(1000
(2,25)(y+4).
(J
23. 24.
25.
26. 27.
10.
11.
+ 60)(f2).
(1001) (100
(1000
+ 2).
(* !!)(
(a
+ 21).
2) (1000 + 3).
12.
13.
14.
 2 6) (a f 6). 2 6) (a 3 6). (a
102 x 103.
1005x1004.
99
(a
+
2 6) (a
6).
28.
X
102.
2 a?
29.
Find two binomials whose product equals
3x
+ 2.
40
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of each, of the following expres
Find two binomial factors
sions
30.
:
ar'Sz +
a
2
G.
34.
35.
31.
32.
33.
+ 6 a + 8. 7 a + 10. w 2 ro  15.
a2
2
w + 2 w  15. m2_ 3m _ 4
2
36. 37.
n2
10ii+16.
p
2
p 30.
63.
Some
special cases of the preceding type of examples
:
deserve special mention
II.
III.
(ain general language
:
Expressed
is equal to tlie square I. 77ie square of the of the first, plus twice the product of the first and the second, plus
sum of two numbers
the square
II.
of the second.
square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst, minus twice the product of the first and the
71ie
second, plus the square of the second.
III.
is
The product of the sum and
to the difference
the difference
of two numbers
equal
of their squares.
(II) is only a
The student should note that the second type
special case of the first (I).
Ex.
second,
(4
x3
+
7
2
i/
2 is )'
equal to the square of the
first, i.e.
,
16 y* t plus twice
the product of the
i.e.
49
y*.
and the second, i.e. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f 66 s; 8j/ 2 + 49 y4
first
.
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
24
(a
2.
3.
+ 6) (a + 2)
a)
2
.
4.
.
(a2)
(p
a
.
7.
8.
<J>7)
J
.
2
5.
6.
+ 3)
2
.
(a26)
2
.
2
(a
(*5)
2
.
9.
(x+3i/)
2
.
MULTIPLICATION
10.
41
16.
17.
11.
12.
(2x3yy. 2 (4a36)
2
13.
14.
G> +5g)*.
2
(2a6c)
(2a#
(4 a 6
2 2
.
2
.
.
(3p 9)
(6a
2
2
2
.
+ 3z)
2
2
.
(a
3)
2 2
2
.
15.
2
.
7& )
25.
2 2
.
18.
2
2
5c )
2 2
19.
(6afy
2
5)
(a;
2
11 # )
2
20. 21. 22. 23. 24.
31.
(m f
2
tt
n)(ra
w )
26

(^
(2m + 3)(2m3).
(
27.
28.
29.
2
+ 11 2 (5 r
2
2
2/
)
2

Z
)
2
2 (5 r f 2 2
.
2
J
).
7)(a
2
2
f 7).
2 2
(5
(a
r*2t )
2
5
(cd
5)(c d
2
.
+ 5).
).
(^.ll^X^+lly
(100
30.
.
+ 5)(5+a). (m 27i )(m + 2n
2
5
).
32.
33.
+ 1) (100 + 2)
2
.
34.
35.
104 2
37.
991
2
2
.
(1000
2
.
I)
2
.
38.
(20
f
1)
.
103
36. ,998
39.
22
2
.
40.
(100
+ 2) (100 2).
45.
41.
99x101.
42.
998x1002.
:
Extract the square roots of the following expressions
43.
44.
x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + &
2
m
2
2mhl.
47.
n*6n+9.
a 2 8a6+166 2
.
.
46. 49.
n 2 f4n+4.
48.
a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\
Pind two binomial
sions
50.
54. 55.
:
factors of each of the following expres
y?f.
51.
2
.
a2 9.
52.
m
2
16.
4
53.
62
25n
2
.
2
9a 496
2
56.
25 a
9.
16aW25.
The product
of
57.
9 a2
 30 ab + 25 6
64.
two binomials whose corresponding terms
are similar.
By
actual multiplication,
we have
3x 5x
+
2y
4y
2xySy*
42
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of the result is obtained
product of 5 x
follows:
by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products, and are represented as
2 y and 4y 3 x.
The middle term
or
Wxy12xy
Hence in general, the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two
terms, plus the
last terms.
sum of the
cross products, plus the product of the
EXERCISE
Multiply by inspection
1.
:
25
2.
3.
(2a3)(a + 2). (3m + 2)(ml).
8. 9.
2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & +
5).
2
(2x y
(6
2
2
+ z )(ary + 2z ).
2
(2m3)(3m + 2).
(5a4)(4al). (4s + y)(32y).
(5a64)(5a&3).
2
10.
11.
4.
5.
((5a?
(10
12. 13. 14.
6.
7.
(x
i
5
2
ft
x 2 3 6 s). ) (2
of a polynomial.
2
2
+ 2) (10 43). (100 + 3)(100 + 4).
65.
The square
2
(a 4 &
+ c) = a + tf + c
,f
2 a&
f
2 ac
+ 2 &c.
7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.
that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive,
or
The student should note
minus
signs.
M UL TIPLICA TION
EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
:
43
26
(mf
n+p)
2
2
.
6. 7.
8.
2
2. 3. 4.
5.
(xy+z)*.
(a
(.r
_
2
.
+ 65)
.
(2a36 + 5c)
(3
(,i2&c)
2
.
9.
4y
sf n)
2
.
(u4& +
3c'.
of
z
:
10.
Find the square root
11.
12.
13.
s?
+ y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.
2
m
2
+
n2
2
"f
jp
f 2
mn
2 ?wp
2 np.
66. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. Hence, after multiplying the factors of a term, the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.
Ex.
Simplify (x + 6) (a
 4)  (x  3) (x  5).
Check.
If
x
=
1,
+ 6)(  4)  (>.3)(z 5) = (7  3)  (= [ Xa + 2  24]  [a?  8 x + 15]  X2 + 2 x  24  y? + 8  1 5 = 10  39. = 10 x  39.
(

2
4) =

20
a;
a;
=  29.
EXERCISE
27
:
Simplify the following expressions, and check the answers
!.
6(a
2.
2)6. 6~2(a + 7).
5.
3.
4(* + 2)5(3).
4.
4(aj2)h3(7).
n).
8
2(m
3(6
3
n)
2
3(m + n)H (m
2
6.
+ 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).
7. 8.
(mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).
(a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
DIVISION
14.
51
15.
16.
v/17.
18.
+ 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).  11 a + 9 a  2) (3 a  2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f
(6a
2
&
2
2
2
3
2
f
2
3
f
)
5
1) .
(a?
s
8)
4
*(
2).
19. 20.
(aj
3aj2)^(oj2).
(81
m + 1  18 m
2
)
f
(1
G
m f 9 m
2
).
SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION
78.
Division of the difference of two squares.
(a f b) (a
V)
Since
=a
a
2
b
2
,
,
.
a
I.e.
b
f b
by the difference or by the sum
Ex.l.
the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.
EXERCISE
Write by inspection the quotient
31
of
:
2
x
1
c
2
6
'
3
^.
c
+ 3*
'
v7
169 a<6 2
'
 81 c8
f
'
ISVftQc 8
64
'
a2 166 2
'
a?
10
1
52
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
of
Find exact binomial divisors of each
expressions
9.
:
the following
w
a
4
!.
f
13.
36 a4 ?/ 4
 49.
9&
2
.
10.
4
b.
1.
16
.
14. 15. 16.
121a
a
16
100
11.
,
aW
12
a;
100ry.
12.
r/
1,000,0001.
CHAPTER V
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
79.
The
first
member
or left side of an equation
is
that part
The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of
equality.
Thus, in the equation 2 x 0. second member is x
+
4
x
9,
the
first
member
is
2 x
+
4,
the
80. An identity is an equation of the letters involved.
,
which
is
true for all values
a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus, (a + ft) (a b) and b. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write
;
(rt+6)(aft)
=
2

b'
2
.
81. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. An equation of condition is usually called an equation.
.r
f9
= 20
is
true only
when
a;
=11;
hence
it
is
an equation
of
condition.
A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members, is said to satisfy an equation.
82.
in
Thus x
12 satisfies the equation x
+
1
13.
x
20,
y
=
7 satisfy
the equation x
y
=
13.
83.
ber
equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x, y y or z) from its relation to
63
An
known numbers.
54
84.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
value of the
an equation contains only one unknown quantity, an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is
a root of the equation.
9
is
a root of the equation 2 y
+2=
is
20.
85.
To
solve
an equation
to find its roots.
86.
A numerical
equation is one in
which
all
;
the
known quan
x) (x f 4)
tities are
=
 2. 87. A
2
a;
;
expressed in arithmetical numbers
literal
is
as (7
equation
is
one in which at least one of the
known
quantities as x f a letters
88.
= bx
expressed by a letter or a combination of
c.
A
linear equation or
which when reduced
first
to its simplest
an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the
as
9ie
power of the unknown quantity;
2
= 6#f7.
fol
A
linear equation is also called a simple equation.
89.
The process
of solving equations depends upon the
:
lowing principles, called axioms
1.
If equals be added
to equals, the
sums are
equal.
2.
If equals be subtracted from equals, the remainders are
equal.
3.
If equals be multiplied by equals, the products are equal.
If equals be divided by equals, the quotients are equal.
4.
5.
Like powers or
like roots
of equals are equal.
the divisor equals zero.
E.g.
NOTE.
Axiom
4
is
not true
if
0x4
= 0x5,
90.
but 4 does not equal
5.
Transposition of terms.
A
term may be transposed from
its sign.
one member to another by changing
x + a=.b. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members, x
I.e.
a.
(Axiom
2)
the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ
right
member by changing
its
sign.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Similarly, if
55
x
members,
if
a x
= b.
b
Adding a
to both
+ a.
(Axiom
1)
The result is first member to
the same as
the right
we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign.
91. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.
may
be
changed
Consider the equation Multiplying each member by
x\1,
a=
a
6fc.
b
c.
x
=
(Axiom
3)
92.
Ex.
SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.
a?
Adding 5 to each term,
Subtracting 4 x from each term, Uniting similar terms, Dividing both members by 2,
Check.
Qx
6# = 4x + l + 6. 4x 1 + 6. 2 x = 6. x = 3. (Axiom
4)
When x =
3.
The first member, The second member, Hence the answer, x =
93.
6a5 = 185 = 13. 4fl = 12fl = 13
3, is correct.
To
solve a simple equation, transpose the
unknown terms
to the first
member, and the known terms to the second. Unite similar terms, and divide both members by the coefficient of the
quantity.
y) (5 y)
unknown
Ex.2. Solve the equation (4
Simplifying,
= 2 (11
3 y)
+ #*.
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing by
Check.
 8, f If y
20  9 y + y2 = 22  6 y f y\  9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 3 y  2 y= f
.
The first member, (4y)(6 y) = C4 + })(5f The second member, 2(11  3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 +
i)^ V=
2)
1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$
JI
56
Ex.
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Solve the equation  (x
4)
= \ (x + 3).
f
Simplifying,
\x
x
2^xfl.
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing by
Cfcecfc.
J,
=2 = 3. x = 18.
x
x
1
.
If
x
= 18.
{(x
(x
The The
member right member
left
 4) = + 3) =
\
x 14 x 21
= 7. = 7.
= 3,
it
NOTE. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.
BXEECISB 32*
Solve the following equations by using the axioms only
1.
:
5# = 15+2a;.
7a?
5. 6.
7.
2.
3.
3
7
a;
4.
a;
= 5a?+18. = 60 7 = 16 + 5
:
Xx 7 = 14. 4a + 5 = 29.
17
7
a;
a?
a?.
a?.
8.
+ 16 = 16 + 17. 3 = 17 3
a?
a?.
Solve the
following
equations
by transposing,
etc.,
and
check the answers
9.
4y
10.
11.
 17 + 4y = 36. = 2 ?/ 7. 12. 9 9a? = 7 13. 13 y 99 = 7 y 69. 13a? 3a?. 14. 32 = 264. 247y = 68lly. 15. 17 + 5a;7a: = 394a; + 22. 50. 16. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 14y = 59(24y + 21).
11
?/
a?
18.
19.
20. 21.
22.
87
9(5 x 3)
6(3
a?
= 63.
a;
v23. 7 (6 x
16).
24.
3)= 9(3
7
a;
+ 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). + 7(3 + 1) =63.
aj
* See page 264.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
25.
57
734* = 13*~2(5*12).
6(6a;5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.
7(7 x
y
26. 27.
+ 1) 8(75
a?)
+24 = 12 (4  5) + 199.
a?
28.
29.
30.
31.
.32.
5)
(as
(a;
 1) (a
(a?
+ 3) =  5) =
(a;
7) (a; + 4).
(a;
+ 7)
(.7;
 3) + 14.
33.
34.
35.
36.
(aj
37.
38.
.
39. 40.
41.
42.
 12) (2 + 5)  (2 + 6) (4  1 0) = 0.  7) (7 x + 4)  (14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.  3) +  4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.  2) (M  3)  5(2 u  1) (u  4) + 4 w  14 = 0. (6 u =5 44.  +6= aj
(4
t
t
t
1
(5 x
(a?
2
2
2
2
2
2
(a?
.
2
2
*
Jaj.
a?
43.
SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS
94.
Suppose one part of 70 to be
a?,
and
let it
be required to
If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. this question, he should first attack a similar problem stated
in arithmetical
numbers
is
only,
e.g.
:
One part
is
of 70 is 25
;
find
the other part.
Evidently 45, or 70
a?,
25, is the other part.
Hence
if
one part
the other part
70
x.
WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols, he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only, and apply the method thus found to the
algebraic problem.
58
Ex.
1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
What must
be added to a to produce a sum b ?
:
Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ?
What must
be added to 7 to pro
The answer is 5, or 12 7. Hence 6 a must be added
to a to give
5.
Ex.
If 7
2.
x
f
y yards cost $ 100
;
find the cost of one yard.
$> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars, one yard will cost 
Hence
if
x
f
y yards cost $ 100, one yard will cost
100
dollars.
EXERCISE
1.
33
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 6.
9.
10.
By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7, and the smaller one
parts, so that
of c ?
is
p.
Find the greater one. 11. Divide 100 into two
12.
13.
14.
one part equals
is 10. is b. is d,
a.
Divide a into two parts, so that one part Divide a into two parts, so that one part
The
difference between
is s.
two numbers
and the and the
2
Find the greater one. 15. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. greater one is g.
smaller one
16.
17.
is
a?
2
is
c?,
What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient
?
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
18.
19.
59
What must
The
be subtracted from 2 b to give a?
is a.
smallest of three consecutive numbers
Find
the other two.
20. The greatest of three consecutive the other two.
numbers
is x.
Find
21.
is
A A
is
# years
old,
and
B
is
y years old.
How many years
A
older than
is
B?
old.
22.
y years
How
old was he 5 years ago ?
How
old will he be 10 years hence ?
23.
sum
If A's age is x years, and B's age is y years, find the of their ages 6 years hence. Find the sum of their ages
5 years ago.
24.
A
dollars, find the
has ra dollars, and B has n dollars. amount each will then have.
If
B
gave
A
6
25.
26.
How many
cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ?
A has
a
dollars, b dimes,
and
c cents.
How many
cents
has he ?
27.
A man
had a
dollars,
and spent
5 cents.
How many
cents had he left ?
28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ?
How many
2 feet longer
29.
Find the area of the Find the area of the
feet
floor of
a room that
is
and 3
30.
feet wider than the one
mentioned in Ex. 28.
and 4
floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28.
?/
31. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field.
32. 33.
34.
A
feet wide.
Find
35.
What What What What
is
the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ?
is
is is
x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ?
the cost of 1 apple
if
60
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
wil\
36. If a man walks 3 miles per hour, how many miles he walk in n hours ?
37.
If a
man walks
?
r miles per hour,
how many
how many
miles will
he walk in n hours
38. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours, he walk each hour ?
39.
miles does
will
If a man walks r miles per hour, in how many hours he walk n miles ?
40.
How many
x years ago
miles does a train
move
in
t
hours at the
rate of x miles per hour ?
41.
A
was 20 years
old.
How
old
is
he
now ?
by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ?
42.
A
cistern
is
filled
43.
A
cistern can be filled
in
alone
fills it
by two pipes. The first pipe x minutes, and the second pipe alone fills it in
filled
y minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ?
44.
per
Find 5 Find 6
45.
48.
Find
a;
% % %
of 100
of
x.
a.
46. Find a
47.
Find x
% %
of 1000.
of 4.
of m.
49.
The numerator
If
of a fraction exceeds the denominator
by
3.
m is the
denominator, find the fraction.
.50.
The two
digits of a
number
are x and
y.
Find the
number.
b
To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9," we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ), and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=)
95.
as
a exceeds
b
by as much
as c exceeds 9.
c
a
b
=

9.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Similarly, the difference of the squares of a
61
and
b increased
}
a2
i<5

b'
2
'
by 80 equals the excess of a over
80
Or,
80.
=
2
2
a3
(a

80.
8
b ) + 80 = a
;
80.
cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols.
In
many
word
There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words, thus:
a
b
= c may
be expressed as follows
difference between a
:
The
and
b is
c.
a exceeds b by c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by
c.
c.
The
excess of a over b
is c, etc.
EXERCISE
The The double The sum
One
34
:
Express the following sentences as equations
1. 2.
3.
double of a
is
10.
c.
of x increased by 10 equals
x.
of a and 10 equals 2
c.
4.
5.
third of x equals
difference of x
The
and y increased by 7 equals
a.
6.
The double
as
7.
by one third of b equals 100. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as
d exceeds
9.
of a increased
much
8.
The product
of the
is
diminished by 90 b divided by 7.
9.
equal to the
sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and
gives the
Twenty subtracted from 2 a
a.
same
result as 7
subtracted from
62
10.
11.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Nine
is
as
much below a
13. 14.
as 17
is
is
above
a.
#is5%of450.
x
is
100
x%
is
of 700.
a.
12. 16.
6
%
of m.
50
is
x % of
15.
m is x %
of n.
is
If A's age is 2 x, B's age
20, express in algebraic
3x
:
10,
and C's age
4
a;
symbols
B.
(a)
(b)
(c)
A is twice as old as B. A is 4 years older than
Five years ago A was x years old. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.
>.,*(/)
(g)
(Ji)
Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. In 10 years the sum of A's, B's, and C's ages will be 100.
a;
17.
x
4
If A, B, and C have respectively 2 a, 3 1200 dollars, express in algebraic symbols
:
700, and
(a)
(6)
A
If
has $ 5 more than B.
A
gains
$20 and B
loses
$40, they have equal
of A's, B's,
amounts.
(c)
If each
man
gains $500, the
sum
and C's
money
(d)
(e)
will be $ 12,000.
A
If
and
B
B together have $ 200 less than C. pays to C $100, they have equal amounts.
18.
5x
A sum of money consists of x dollars, a second sum. of 30 dollars, a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. Express as
:
equations of the (a) 5
(b)
(c)
% a%
of the second
(d)
x c of / a % of
4
sum equals $ 90. sum equals $20. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by
first
(e)
%
of the first plus 5
%
of the second plus 6
%
of the
third
sum
equals $8000.
first
00
x % of the
equals one tenth of the third sum.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
63
PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS
The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. In order to solve them, denote the unknown
96.
number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact, the
;
equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand.
Ex.
1.
much
as 40 exceeds the number.
Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number.
Let x = the number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Three times a certain no. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. = x x
3x
40
3x
40
Or,
3z40:r:40z.
Transposing,
Uniting,
3 x or 60 exceeds 40
+ x = 40 + 40. 4 x = 80. x = 20, the required
;
number.
Check.
by 20
40 exceeds 20 by 20.
Ex. 2. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Find A's present age.
Let x
The
(2)
= A's present age. verbal statement (1)
(1) In 15 years
A
will
may be expressed in symbols (2). be three times as old as he was 5 years ago.
3
x
+
16
=
x
x
(x

p)
Or,
Simplifying,
x+16 = 3(35). 15. x + 15 = 3 x
3x 16
15.
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
23 =30. x= 15.
A
will
Check.
In 15 years
10.
be 30
;
6 years ago he was 10
;
but
30
=3
x
years,
NOTE. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars, number of
yards, etc.
64
Ex.
Let x
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
56
is
what per cent
of 120 ?
= number
of per cent, then the
problem expressed in symbols
W
or,
Uldbe
66
 x x
5(5 is
=
*.
300
56.
120,
Dividing,
Hence
40
= 46f. % of
120.
EXERCISE
1.
35
What number added
to twice itself gives a
sum
of
39?
44.
 2.
3.
Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.
4.
Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much
as 24 exceeds the number.
5.
A
number added
number.
to
42 gives a
sum
equal to 7 times the
original
6.
Find the number.
twice the number plus
7.
47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Find the number.
Forty years hence
his present age.
A will
be three times as old as toda3r
.
Find
8.
Six years hence a
12 years ago.
How
old
is
man will be he now ?
twice as old as he was
9. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. How long is the Suez
Canal?
10. 11.
14 50
is
is
4
what per cent of 500 ? % of what number?
is
12.
13.
What number
7
%
of
350?
Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. by as much as 135 ft. exceeds the width of the bridge.
Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 14. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How many miles per hour does it run ?
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
15.
65
A
and
B
$200, and
as
15.
B
How
will loses $100, then dollars has each ? many
have equal amounts of money. If A gains A have three times as much
16.
A
and
B
have equal amounts of money.
five
If
A
gives
B
$200, B will have lars has A now?
17.
times as
much
as A.
How many
dol
A has
A
to
$40, and
B
has $00.
How many dollars
must
?
B
give to
18.
make A's money
equal to 4 times B's
money
wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many, and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as
A man
number
of acres.
the second one,
how many
acres did he wish to
buy
?
19. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. During the following 90 years, Maine's population increased by 510,000, Vermont's population increased by 180,000, and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. Find
the population of Maine in 1800.
97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities, two verbal statements must be given. Ill the simpler examples these two
lems they are only implied.
statements are given directly, while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown
x,
numbers (usually the smaller one) by
and use one of the
given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The other verbal statement, written in algebraic
symbols,
is
the equation, which gives the value of
8,
x.
Ex.
14.
1.
One number exceeds another by
:
and their sum
is
Find the numbers.
The problem consists of two statements I. One number exceeds the other one by II. The sum of the two numbers is 14.
F
8.
66
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other, although in general the simpler one should be selected.
If
we
select the first one,
and
Let x
= the
Then x + = The second statement written
the equation ^
smaller number, 8 the greater number.
in algebraic
i
symbols produces
#4a;
,
/
,
o\
(o?f 8)
Simplifying,
+
a
f
f
8
= 14. = 14.
<
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
x
x =14
8.
2x
a?
x
j
= 6. = 3, the smaller number. 8 = 11, the greater number.
;
Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. the sum of the two numbers is 14.
Let
x
14
I
the smaller number.
Then,
Statement
x
in
=
the larger number.
expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method.
x
= 8,
which leads
ot
Ex. 2. A has three times as many marbles as B. 25 marbles to B, B will have twice as many as A.
The two statements
I.
If
A gives
are
:
A
If
II.
has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles, B will have twice as
viz. I, to
Use the simpler statement,
terms of the other. Let
x
3x
express one
many as A. unknown quantity
in
Then,
= B's number of marbles. = A's number of marbles.
To
express statement II in algebraic symbols, consider that by the
exchange
Hence,
A will lose,
x
3x
4
and
B
will gain.
26
= B's number of marbles after the exchange. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Therefore,
Simplifying,
67
x
f
25 25
Transposing,
Uniting,
x x
+
= 2(3 x = 6x
25
25).
50.
60.
(Statement II)
Qx
 5 x   75. x = 15, B's number of marbles. Dividing, 3 x = 45, A's number of marbles. Check. 45  25 = 20, 15 + 25 = 40, but 40 = 2 x 20.
*
'
.
*
98.
The numbers which appear
in the equation should
always
be expressed in the same denomination. of dollars to the number of cents, the
price, etc.
Never add the number number of yards to their
Ex. 3. Eleven coins, consisting of half dollars and dimes, have a value of $3.10. How many are there of each ?
The two statements are I. The number of coins II. The value of the half
:
is 11.
dollars
and dimes
is
$3.10.
Let
11
= the number of dimes, then, x = the number of half dollars.
x
from
I,
Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions),
we
express the statement II in algebraic symbols.
Simplifying,
50(11 660 50 x
)+ 10 x = 310.
50 x
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
Check.
.$3.10.
6 dimes
= 60
= 310.   550 f 310. 40 x   240. x = 6, the number of dimes. 11 x = 5, the number of half dollars. cents, 6 half dollars = 260 cents, their sum
+ +
10 x 10 x
is
EXERCISE
36
is five
v
v,
1.
Two numbers
the smaller.
2.
by 44, Find the numbers.
differ
differ
and the greater and their sum
times
Two numbers
by
60,
is 70.
Find
the numbers.
w'3.
6 times the smaller.
The sum of two numbers is 42, and the Find the numbers.
greater
is
68
4.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
One number
is
six
times another number, and the
greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number.
5.
Find
Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.
6.
Two numbers
The number
differ
by
39,
tnree times the smaller by 65.
7.
and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers.
of volcanoes in
Mexico exceeds the number
of volcanoes in the United States by 2, and four times the former equals five times the latter. How many volcanoes are
in the
8.
United
States,
and in Mexico
?
A
cubic foot of aluminum.
cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and
Ibs.,
2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance.
9.
find the
weight of a cubic
Divide 20 into two parts, one of which increased by
9.
3 shall be equal to the other increased by
10.
A's age is four times B's, and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Find their ages.
11. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. McKinley, and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of
Mt. Everest by 11,000
feet.
What
is
the altitude of each
mountain
12.
?
Two
vessels contain together 9 pints.
it
If the smaller
one contained 11 pints more,
would contain three times as
pints does each contain ?
much
13.
as the larger one.
How many
14 years older than B, and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. What are their ages ?
is
A A
much
line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Twice 14. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many inches are in each part ?
15.
On December
21, the night in
Copenhagen
lasts 10 hours
longer than the day.
How many
hours does the day last ?
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
99.
69
If a
verbal statements must be given. bers is denoted by x, and the other
of x
problem contains three unknown quantities, three One of the unknown num
two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. The third
verbal statement produces the equation. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state
ment
directly in algebraical symbols, try to obtain
it
by a
series of successive steps.
Ex.
1.
times as
much
as
A, B, and C together have $80, and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C, then
three times the
money by
I.
sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.
are
:
C's
The three statements
A, B, and C together have $80. II. B has three times as much as A. III. If A and B each gave $5 to C, then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally.
Let
x
II,
I,
the
the
number
of dollars of dollars of dollars
A
B
C
has.
has,
has.
first
According to
3 x
number
number
and according
to
80
4
x
=
the
express statement III by algebraical symbols, let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C."
To
x
8x
90
= number of dollars A had after giving $5. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10.
5
5
Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. original amount. x = 8, number of dollars A had. The solution gives
:
3x
80
Check.
If
4x
= 24, = 48,
number
of dollars of dollars
B
C
had.
number
had.
A
and B each gave $ 5
respectively.
8(8
+ 19)
to C, they would have 3, 19, and 68, or 66 exceeds 58 by 8.
70
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
man spent $1185 in buying horses, cows, and Ex. 2. sheep, each horse costing $ 90, each cow $ 35, and each sheep $ 15. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by
4,
A
and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ?
of horses and cows together.
The
I.
three statements are
:
IT.
III.
The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and
x 4
the
cows together. Let
then, according to II,
x
j
= the
number of horses, number of cows,
and, according to III, 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x
Therefore,
+
8
90 x
and,
85 (x 15 (4 x
I
+ 4)
+
8)
= the number of sheep. = the number of dollars spent for horses, = the number of dollars spent for cows, = the number of dollars spent for sheep
Hence statement
90 x
Simplifying, 90
may
be written,
x
Transposing,
Uniting,
Dividing,
+ 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. + 35 x 4 140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 185 a = 925. x = 5, number of horses. x f 4 = 9, number of cows. 4 x f 8 = 28, number of sheep.
1 1
Check.
28 x 15 or 450
5 horses, 9 cows, and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185; 9 5 = 4 ; 28 2 (9 5).
x 35
f
+
=
+
EXERCISE
1.
37
Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first, the third five times the first, and the difference between the third and the second is 15
2.
first,
first
the third exceeds the second by and third is 20.
Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2, and the sum of the
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
3.
71
the
Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second, and the sum of the first and third is 36.
first,

4.
"Find three
is 4,
the third
2.
is five
numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first, and the third exceeds the
is
second by
5.
twice the
6.
v

Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first, and the third part exceeds the second by 10.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals
63.
7.
and
of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches, the second one is one inch longer than the first. If twice
The sum
the third side, increased by three times the second side, equals 49 inches, what is the length of each?
has 3,000,000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1,000,000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin, what is the population of each city ?
8.
New York
delphia,
9.
The
three angles of any triangle are together equal to
180.
first,
If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and
first,
what are the three angles ?
10. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women, and 2 more men than women. men, women, and children together was 37, how many children
were present ?
x
11.
A
is
Five years ago the What are their ages ?
C.
v
.
twice as old as B, and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.
A
12.
the
first
Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.
13. The gold, the copper, and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value
72
of
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
$ 750,000,000.
The copper had twice
the value of the gold,
of
arid the value of the iron
was $300,000,000 more than that
the copper.
14.
Find the value of each.
California has twice as
many
electoral votes as Colorado,
and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes, together.
how many
100.
has each state
?
If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. of 3 or 4 different kinds, such as length, width, and quantities
area, or time, speed, and distance, it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.
start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour, but stops 2 hours on the way, and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. After how many hours will they meet and how
E.g.
A and B
apart,
B
many
miles does
A
walk
?
Explanation. First fill in all the numbers given directly, i.e. 3 and 4. Let x = number of hours A walks, then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of
rate
and time, we obtain 3 a; and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.
Hence
Simplifying,
3x
+
4 (x
2)
=
27.
3z + 4a:8 = 27.
7
Uniting,
Dividing,
= 35. = 5, number of hours. 8 x = 15, number of miles A
x
x
walks.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Ex.
l.
73
of a rectangular field is twiee its width. were increased by 30 yards, and the width decreased by 10 yards, the area would be 100 square yards less. Find the dimensions of the field.
If the length
The length
" The area would be decreased by 100 square yards," gives
(2.x
+ 00)
2 x2
Simplify, Cancel 2 # 2
(a 10) = 2s 100. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.
2


and transpose,
10 x
= 200. z = 20. 2 a = 40.
fid
1
The
field is
40 yards long and 20 yards wide.
original field has
Check.
The
an area 40 x 20 =800, the second
100.
70x10
Ex.
or 700.
But 700
certain
= 800
2.
A
sum invested
larger at
at 5
%
terest as a
sum $200
4%.
What
brings the same is the capital?
in
Therefore
Simplify,
.05
x
x
.053;
.01
= =
.M(x
.04
8.
x
+ 200). + 8.
Transposing and uniting,
Multiplying, Check.
$ 800
= 800; $ 800 = required sum. x .06 = $ 40; $ 1000 x .04 = $ 40.
x
74
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
38
rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first, and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards.
1.
A
of each.
2.
A
If its length
rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. were increased by 3 yards, and its width decreased
by 2 yards, the area would remain the same.
sions of the field.
3.
Find the dimen
A
certain
sum
invested at 5
%
%.
as a
4.
sum $ 50
larger invested at 4
brings the same interest Find the first sum.
A sum
?
invested at 4 %, together bring $ 78 interest.
invested at 5 %, and a second sum, twice as large, What are the
two sums
5.
Six persons bought an automobile, but as two of them were unable to pay their share, each of the others had to pay
$ 100 more.
mobile.
Find the share of each, and the cost
of silk
of the auto
and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth, how much did each cost per yard ?
6.
Ten yards
$
42.
If the silk cost three times as
For a part he 7. A man bought 6 Ibs. of coffee for $ 1.55. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ?
8.
Twenty men subscribed equal amounts
of
to raise a certain
money, but four men failed to pay their shares, and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How much did each man subscribe ?
sum
walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour, and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. After how many hours will B overtake A, and how far will each then have traveled ?
9.
A
sets out later
two hours
B
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
v
75
10.
A
and
B
set out
direction, but
A has
a start of 2 miles.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate
of 2
far
miles per hour, and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour, how must B walk before he overtakes A ?
walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour, and from the same point, traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours will they be 36 miles apart ?
11.
A
sets out
two hours
later
B
starts
New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping, and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour, how many miles from New York will they meet?
X
12.
The
distance from
If a train starts at
CHAPTER
VI
FACTORING
101.
An
after simplifying,
expression is rational with respect to a letter, if, it contains no indicated root of this letter
;
irrational, if it does contain
some indicated root of
,
this letter.
a2
to 6.
\
V&
is
a
rational with respect to
and
irrational with respect
102. An expression is integral with respect to a letter, if this letter does not occur in any denominator.
f
db
6
to b.
+ 62
is
integral with respect to a, but fractional with respect
103.
An
expression
is integral
and rational with respect
and rational, if it is integral to all letters contained in it; as,
a
+
2 ab
+ 4 c2
.
104.
The
factors of
an algebraic expression are the quantities
will give the expression.
which multiplied together
are considered factors.
J Although Va'
In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions
b~
X
V
<2
Ir
a2
b'
2
2
?>
,
we
shall not, at this
6
2
.
stage of the work, consider
105.
vV
;
a factor of a 2
A
factor is said to be prime, if it contains
no other
factors (except itself
and unity)
otherwise
,
it is
composite.
The prime
factors of 10 a*b are 2, 5,
a, a, 6.
76
FACTORING
106.
77
Factoring
is
into its factors.
An
the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the
form of a product.
2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.
in the
form
4)
+3,
It (a; 8) (s1). for this result is a sum,
107.
The factors
of a
monomial can be obtained by inspection
2
The prime
108.
factors of 12
&V
is
are 3, 2, 2,
01,
x, x,
?/,
y.
Since factoring
the inverse of multiplication,
it fol
lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method
of factoring.
E.g. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored, or that a
=
6)
(a
= a  62 + &)(a 2
,
it
follows
that a 2
 62
can be
&).
109.
or
Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.
TYPE
I.
POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR
(
mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).
110.
55.)
Ex.
1.
Factor G ofy 2
 9 x if + 12 xy\
2
The
greatest factor
common
2
to all terms
flcy*
is
8
2
xy'
.
Divide
6
a%  9 x2 y 8 + 12
3 xy
f
by
3
xy\
and the quotient
But, dividend
is
2 x2
4
2
1/
.
Hence
6 aty 2
= divisor x quotient.  9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2  3 sy + 4 y8).
Ex.
2.
Factor
14 a*
W
21 a 2 6 4 c2
+ 7 a2 6
2
c2
7
a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2
 3 6a + 1).
78
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
39
Resolve into prime factors
1.
:
6 abx
 12 cdx.
2
6.
4 tfy f 5 x*y 2 17 a?  51 x4
2
6 xy
s
.
2.
3.
3x*6x*.
15
2
7.
&{20a
6
4
&3
2
.
.
8.
4.
14a
4
5.
Ilro8
9. 7a & 10. + llm llm. 11. 32 a *?/  16 a'V f 48 ctfa^
2 s
4
:
+ 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V  8 c a 15 ofyV  45 afy  30 aty. a a 'Ja
.
2
2
.
3
2
.
4
8
.
12.
13.
14.
34
a^c 8  51
aW + 68
21.
a6c.
15.
16. 17. 18.
q*q*q
2
a;
2
+ q.
7i
13 5
+ 13 8.
5f 2
.
19.
a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).
)
22

2.3.4.5 + 2.3.4.6.
2
23.
3
3
5
6.
20.
TYPE
IT.
QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM
111. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm, e.g. (as 3) and (ccf5), we had to add tain the coefficient of x, and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. x2 f2 x
=
15 we have, obviously, to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f 2. 2 Or, in general, in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q,
f
In factoring x2
2x
we have
to find
whose product
is g;
two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found, the
y
factored expression
is
(x }m)(x
+ n).
FACTORING
Ex.
or
77
l.
79
Factor a2
4 x  11.
77 as the product of 1 77, or 7 11, or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.
.
We may consider
1,
11
7,
but of these only
a:
Hence
2
 4 x  77 =
(a; 11) (a
+
7).
Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers, but only in a limited number
of ways as a product of two numbers, it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. If q is positive, the two numbers have both the same sign as p. If q is negative, the two numbers
have opposite
signs,
and the greater one has the same sign
Not every trinomial
Ex.
2.
as p. of this type, however, can be factored.
Factor a2
 11 a + 30.
is
The two numbers whose product and 6.
Therefore
Check.
If
30 and whose
sum
is
11 are
5
a2
11
a = 1, a 2  1 1 a
tf
a 4 30 = (a  5) (a 6). + 30 = 20, and (a  5) (a  G) =  4  6 = 20.
.
Ex.
3.
Factor
+ 10 ax  11 a
2
.
11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a a). Hence fc f 10 ax
is
10 a are 11 a

12 /. Factor x?  1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).
Ex.
4.
+
112.
determine whether
In solving any factoring example, the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.
EXERCISE
Besolve into prime factors :
40
4.
5.
tfa2 
3.
m 5m + 6.
2
6.
80
7.
8.
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
x*2x8. + 2xS.
16. 16.
2
?/
22.
x2
23.
24.
25.
y_ 6y
+6y
15?/
2
?/
10.
11.
12.
+
44.
26.
27.
2
?/
5?/14.
13.
14.
15.
+ 4?/21. + 30. or  17 + 30.
2
?/
28.
29.
30.
a 2 +11 a
a?
16.
17.
^
</
2
2
7p8. + 5<y 24.
31.
32. 33.
2
.
ay 11 ay +24. ra + 25ra + 100. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. a 7 a 30. a? + 5 + 6 a. 100 xr  500 x + 600. 6 a 18 a + 12 a
2 2
?/
.
2
2
.
4
2
.
6
8
8
4
2
a;
4
3
2
.
x*y
ra
2
2
4xy
4 wia 2
2
21y.
21 a 2
2
.
18.
19.
a 2^ 2
a2
+ 7ax 18. 17a& + 7(U
9a&226 + 8 a 20.
2
2
a'
34.
35. 36.
10 x y 2 200 x2
 70 x y  180
a;
2
.
20.
21.
a2
.
+
400 x
aft
a4
4 a 2  48
+ + 446
200.
2
.
TYPE
113.
ITT.
QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM
According to 66,  2) = 20 x2 + 7 x  6. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a; and 5 x. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2.
.
+7
Hence
a?
is
the
sum of the
13 x
cross products.
in factoring 6
x2
+ 5,
we have
to find
two
bino
mials whose corresponding terms are similar, such that
The The
first
last
two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5,
.
and the sum
of the cross products equals
13
x.
By
actual trial
give the correct
we find which of the sum of cross products.
factors of 6 x 2
and 5
FACTORING
If
81
we consider that the
factors of f 5
as
must have
is
:
like signs,
and that they must be negative,
sible
13 x
negative, all pos
combinations are contained in the following
6xl
x5  31 x
Evidently the
last
2
V A
6.e5
V A
x1
3xl \/ /\
is
3
a;
11 x
2x 5  17 x
2o?l
V A
5

13 a
combination
the correct one, or
G
114.
a;
 13 x + 5 = (3 x  5) (2 x  1).
all
it is not always necessary to write down combinations, and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials
In actual work
at the first trial.
The work may be shortened by the
:
follow
ing considerations
1.
the
If p and r are positive, the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2. If p is poxiliw, and r is negative, then the second terms of
have opposite signs.
If
the factors
a combination should give a sum of cross products, which has the same absolute value as the term qx, but the opposite sign, exchange the
signs of the second terms of the factors.
3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor, none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.
Ex.
Factor 3 x 2
 83 x
f
54.
The
and
factors of the first term consist of one pair only, viz. 3 x and x, the signs of the second terms are minus. 64 may be considered the
:
product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54, 2 x 27, X x 18, 6 x 9, 9 x 6, 18 x 3, 27 x 2, 54 x 1. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3, we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need
be considered.
82
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
3xl
3s2
x
X
115.
x54
a;
X
27
 83 x  163 x 2  83 x = (3  2) (x  27). Therefore 3 z + 64
The type
pa; f go; h r is
2
the most important of the
trinomial types, since all others (II, IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type, the expressions should be it.
arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter, and the monomial factors should be removed.
EXERCISE
Kesolve into prime factors
1.
:
41
2.
3.
2x* + 9x5. 4a2 9tt + 2. 3x*Sx + 4.
19.
SoJ + llay
15
aj*
40*.
2
.
20.
21. 22.
10a2
G a2
2
 77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126
.
2
.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
5m 26m f 5. 6n + 5?i4. 3a + 13a; + 4. Sar' + SaG.
2 2 2
23.
24.
25.
 13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay 10 4a? + 14oj + 12.
2
ar*
2
i/ .
+ 11
or
2
+ 12 a.
12y 2/6.
2
26.
9.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
+ 2/3.  179. 10 a  19 a f 6. 9 y + 32^16. 2m t7w + 3.
2i/
*
2
2
x
27.
2
28.
29.
30.
100^200^ + 100^.
5 a6
2
2
9 a  2 a 90 x*y  260 xy  30 y
6
4
.
2
2
2
.
2
31.
32.
90 a
8
2
 300 ab
2
f4
250
.
2
fc
.
16.
17.
18.
9a;7. 12^17^16. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.
10a?2
2
33.
34. 35.
2.y
+ 172/9.
2
f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 144 x  290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y
2
2
4
2
4
f
.
14 a fa 4.
FACTORING
83
TYPE
IV.
THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL
2
Jr
2 xy
+/.
form are special cases of the preceding type, and may be factored according to the method used In most cases, however, it is more convenient for that type.
116.
Expressions of this
to factor
them according
a2
to
65.

2 xy
+ if = (x
2
?/)
.
A
term
when two
is
trinomial belongs to this type, i.e. it is a perfect square, of its terms are perfect squares, and the remaining
equal to twice the product of the square roots of these
in order to be a perfect
terms.
square,
16 y?
The student should note that a term, must have a positive sign.
24 xy
+ 9 y'
2
is
Evidently 10
&
24 xy
a perfect square, for + 9 y2 = (4 x  3 y) 2
is
2VWx
2
x V0y2" = 24
xy.
.
To factor a trinomial which
maining term, and
a perfect square, connect the
re
square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the
indicate the square of the resulting binomial.
EXERCISE
42
per
Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares, and factor whenever possible
:
1. 2.
3.
m + 2mn + n c 2cdd
2
2
.
8.
9
+6a6
2
2
f
a4
.
2
2
.
9.
a flOa&46 4
wi f
2
2/
2
.
2
9
10gf25.
10.
11.
4
6 m*ti
f
9
n*.
4.
5.
6.
x*  10 x f 16.
x>
2
a 2_4 a &
a
2
+ 462.
2
.
12. 13. 14.
9
10a625.
25
7.
m 14ww + 49n
2
16 a
 20 xy f 4 y\  26 ab + 9 6
2
.
84
15.
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
16a 2 24a&4 9& 2
3<>
4 2
.
18.
17.
+ GO + 25. 225 ofy  60 a# + 4.
a; a;
19.
2
20.
 20 ab + 10 b a  2 ofy + ofy m  6 m* + 9 m.
10 a 2
4
2
.
2
.
3
Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms
:
21.
u2
6& +
2
(
). ). ).
26. 27.
22.
x*Sx + (
64 a 4
100w +( )+49. 48 a +( ).
4
2
23. a2
24.

+ 6a + ( 9a ( ) +
144 a 2
28.
29.
2
.
16&*.
m 4a + 12a + (
2
4m
2
20
f
(
).
).
25.
+(
)f816
30.
!Gar
9
(
)+25.
TYPE
117.
V.
THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES
JT
2
/.
According
to
65,
difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. product
i.e.
^//c
to the
Ex.
Ex.
1.
2.
 3 * ). aV  9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a  64 6 = 16(a  4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ).
4
3
4
^
3
8
10
8
10
)
4
5
4
5
Ex.
3.
a4
a2
2 f 6 is
 6 = (a
4
b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).
2
f b
2
2
2
)
(a
NOTE,
prime.
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
1.
:
43
tfy\
a 9.
36
2
4. 5.
4a2 l.
7.
2
.
100a2 68
a2 & 2 121.
.
2.
3.
149 a
81
8.
6
2
.
6.
*
2
.
9.
9a2
FACTORING
85
118.
One or both terms are squares
1.
of polynomials.
Ex.
Factor a
2
 (c 4 d)
2
.
a2  (c
+ d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a  c  (I)
.
Ex.
2.
Resolve into prime factors and simplify
EXERCISE 44
Resolve into prime factors
1. 2.
2
2
:
(mfn)
_p
2
.
8.
(m
3n)
2
( 2
2
.
(m7?)
y.
16p
2
.
9.
2
.
(2a5&) (5c9ef)
2
3.
(m f
#
2
2
n)
42:)
10.
11.
(a
x?
f
6)
6
2
.
4.
5.
(?/ 2
cc
(x
y)*.
2
?/)
16
2
(y f
2
.
a:)
12.
(x f
3
9 2/ 2
.
6.
T.
25a (&c)
(mh2n)
2
2
.
2
.
13. 14.
(2a
(2s
+ 5) (3a4)
2
2
.
36>
86
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
TYPE
VI.
GROUPING TERMS
By the introduction of parentheses, polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi and trinomials, which may be factored according to types I VI.
119.
A. After grouping
tain a
the terms, ive find that the
new terms
con
common factor.
1.
Ex.
Factor ax
ax
f
bx
f
ay
f by.
+
bx
+
ay
+ by
= x(a + &) +
y(a
+
6)
Ex.
2.
Factor
or
5
5 x2
x
x
f 5.
x8
 6z2
+
5
= z2
(.r,
5)
 (x 
5)
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
1.
:
45
ax + bx
+ ay+by.
7.
8.
9.
2.
3.
ma
?*a
+ m&
nb.
raV + nV
3 a 2ic
2
m ?/
2
n
2an3&n + 2ag3&?.
4:cx
 4 6 x f 3 a y 2
4.
5.
6.
+ 4cy5dx
2
5dy.
10.
a3
c
3
10ax5ay6bx + 3by.
a?
11.
12.
+ x + 2x + 2.
a5
+ ab 6  7 c + 2c  14.  a a  ab + bx.
a 26
2
2
3
.
4
B.
By
grouping, the expression becomes the difference of two
squares.
Ex.1. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.
= (3 x + y  2
)
(3 x
 y + 2 2).
FACTORING
Ex.
2.
87
f
Factor 4 a2

6
2
+ 9 tf  4 f  12 aaj
4
6y.
Arranging the terms,
4 a2
 62 + 9
_ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2  12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2  12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2)
a;*
*/2
ft
EXERCISE
Kesolve into prime factors
1.
:
46
x*
2. 3.
+ 2xy + y*q*. l~a 2a56
2
2
.
4.
5. 6.
36
9
m  6 ww + n 2 2
<
a
2
4a6 + 46 25.
2
7.
8.
a 2 10a6
4
2
+ 256 2
x ar 2a;l.
SUMMARY OF FACTORING
I.
First find
monomial factors common
to all terms.
II.
Binomials are factored by means of the formula
a 2 6 2
III.
= (a + 6)(a6).
Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products, although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.
IV.
Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping
terms.
EXERCISE
47
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES*
Resolve into prime factors
!.
:
m
2
2
16.
4.
2. 3.
8ra
2
+ 16. w m 2.
6
6.
6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6a4 12a2 + 6.
2a3/
7.
8. $
a8  9 a2
4 v*
2
.
 10 xy + 4 y\
2
.
+c+
2
2
2/
.
m Gw + 9n
* See page 266.
88
10.
11.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x*xif.
10 a 2
4a
4
26.
2
ft .
32 aft + 6
4ft
4
.
27.
28.
12.
13. 14.
49 a 4
4
42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.
3
2
.
29. 30.
4
2
2
ft
ft
2a + a*l. 42 x  85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 25 a + 25 aft  24. 13 c  13 c  156.
4
8
tt
2
z
.
6
:J
2
2
ft
2
16. 2 17.
18.
or
3
7#2
.
4 a;
+ 14.
32.
20
>r
+ 2 ?<s
__ G4.
(a;
42 s 2
.
1
?v
_w
8
2
33. (^
34.
__ ft)2
n Qy 2 .
256
4
2
2 ?/)
.
19. 5a' 20.
50^ + 45.
a3
156.
35. 2
a 128.
a6
36. any
V
2
(
51 xyz
+ 50.
22.
3 a2
23.
48. + 6 aft + 3  310 x  40. 80 a
2
ft
38.
a5
a
1
4
2
39.
24.
a;
5
a.
40. 3
41.
3 25. a
+ a + a + l.
2
3#4 3a2 36.
CHAPTER
VII
HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR
120.
The
highest
is
common
factor (IT. C. F.) of
two or more
.
the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. F. of a 7 and a e b 7
;
expressions which have no are prime to one another.
121.
Two
common
factor except unity
The H.
C. F. of
two or more monomials whose factors
.
are prime can be found by inspection. The H. C. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2
The H. The H.
C. F. of
aW, aW,
+
8
ft)
and
cfiW is
2
a 2 /) 2
ft)
.
C. F. of (a
and (a
+
fc)
(a
4
is
(a
+ 6)
2
.
122. If the expressions have numerical coefficients, find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients, and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. F. of the algebraic expressions. Thus the H. C. F. of 6 sfyz, 12 tfifz, and GO aty 8 is 6 aty.
The student should note
H. C.
F. is the lowest
that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any
of the given expressions.
EXERCISE
Find the H. C. F. of
:
48
4.
33
2
7
3
22 3 2
,

23 3
,
24
s
.
2.
15
aW,
8
,
25
W.
5.
6.
5
2
3
,
3
,
2
2
.
5
7
34 2s
,
54

32
.
3.
13 aty
39 afyV.
5
s
7
2
5,
.
II
2
.
89
90
7.
8.
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
6 rarcV, 12 w*nw 8, 30
mu\
39 afyV, 52 oryz4, 65 zfyV. 38 #y, 95 2/V, 57 a>V.
225
4a
9
,
10. 11. 12.
13.
aWd,
8 a
10
,
75
a&X 15 bed
11
,
2
.
16 a
,
24 a
2
,
8
6.
4(m f ?i)
3
3
5(w + w)
5
7(m + n}\m
2
ri).
6(m+l) (m+2),
6
3
a;
8(?/ifl)
14.
(a7
?/)
,
9
aj*(a?
 y)\
O+
0^(0;
3),
4(m+l)
3
.
2
.
12
 y)
123. To find the H. C. F. of polynomials, resolve each polynomial into prime factors, and apply the method of the preceding article. Ex. 1. Find the H. C. F. of + 4 if, x2
^4^
and
tf
7 xy + 10 f.
x*
x2
Hence the H. C. F.
 3 xy + 2 y* = (x  2 ?/) (x  y)  7 xy + 10 2 = (x  2 y) (a;  5 y). = x 2 y.
.
7/
EXERCISE
Find theH.
1.
,
49
C. F. of:
.
4 a3 6 4 8 a663  12 as 66
,
5.
.
6 a2
y?
 6 a&,
2
,
5 a6
5^
2
a;?/
.
3
.
2.
3.
15 xy^ 2 10 arV  5 x3?/ 2
6.
25 m27i, 15
3ao;
9.
4
7/i
3
n2
10
4
mV.
4 ?io; .
7.
8.
a2
ar*
4.
3^
2
4
,
6 mx  6
 # 4 afy f 4  6 a' + 2 a& + 6  5 + 6, ^2
2 ,
2
.
a;
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
^707 + 12, 0^80:416, ^a + 5^ + 6,^9, ^f a;6. a2  8 a + 16, a3 16 a, a 3a4. a2 + 2a3, a2 + 7af!2, a3 9a. y + 3y64,y + y42, 2a f5af 2, 4a f 4a2
2
2
a
2

LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
91
LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression
124.
A
common
remainder.
Common
125.
2 multiples of 3 x
and 6 y are 30 xz y, 60
x^y'
2
,
300 z 2 y,
etc.
The
lowest
common
multiple (L. C. M.) of
two or more
expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree; thus, ory is the L. C. M. of tfy and xy*.
126. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient, find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C.
M of the algebraic expressions.
2
The The
L. C. L. C.
M.
of 3
aW,
a^c8
3
,
6
c6 is
C a*b*c*.
&)
2
M.
of 12(a
+
ft)
and (a
+ &)*( 
is
12(a
+ &)(  6)2.
127. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. M. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the
given expressions.
128. To find the L. C. M. of several expressions which are not completely factored, resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials.
Ex.
1.
Find the L.
C.
M.
of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4
4 a 68
2
.
4 a 2 &2
_
Hence, L. C. M.
=4 a2 62 (a2  6 3 ).
,
Ex.
2.
Find the L.C.M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.
Hence the L.C.M.
NOTE.
= (a f
last
2
&)'
is
(a

6) .
The
L. C.
M. of the
general, each set of expressions has
In example ft). two lowest common multiples, which
also
signs.
 (a + &) 2 (a
have the same absolute value, but opposite
92
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
50
C.
.
Find the L.
1. 2.
3.
M. of:
4.
a,
a 2 a3
,
3
6
xif,
8 afy, 24
x.
3
Z>
,
afy,
xy\
,
y*.
2
,
5.
a?b,
3
,
5 a 2 ^ 2 15
,
30
a.
2
ic
3
4a
8 a.
afc'cd
2
,
6.
T a
3 a
2
,
G
a, a.
7. 8.
4 a 5 6cd, 20
9
a,
40 abJ, 8 d 5
.
3 ab, 3(a
+ b).
2
,
.
9.
2(m
2
,
+
2
7i)
,
3(m
+ n) 4 m
2
.
2
10. 11.
3
(a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a, 2 a
,
(a
4)(a2)
12.
13. 15. 16. 17.
18.
6
a;
f
b,
6 y, 5
a?
5
a?
y,
ic
2
?/.
a
{
a~b,
a;
b
2
.
14.
2
,
a2
4,
a 2 f 4 a +4.
2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b.
+ 6. + 2, a f 3, a 1. 2 a  1, 4 a  1, 4 a f 2.
2
a,
3
f2, x
2
5
a;
a
f
2
19.
x2
5
f
2
3#
5
+ 2,
#,
x2
2
+ 5 a + 6,
3,
x2 + 4 a
f 4,
20. 21.
or f
3 a
15
#.
a 2 fa6, a&
4
+&
2
,
a2
~ab
1.
6b 2
.
22.
a !, a^1,
ic
23.
24.
2
7ic+10,
bx
a?
8
2
lOajflfi,
by,
x*
~5a;f 6.
ax {ay ~
3 a
3
b,
2 x \2 y.
(For additional examples see page 268. )
CHAPTER
VIII
FRACTIONS
REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS
129.
A
f
fraction is
b.
an indicated quotient; thus 
is identical
with a
divisor b the denominator.
The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator
are the terms of the fraction.
130.
All operations with fractions in algebra are identical
with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Thus, the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number;
the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators, etc.
and denominators are considered, but we
In arithmetic, however, only positive integral numerators shall assume that the
all
arithmetic principles are generally true for
algebraic numbers.
131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered.
rni
Thus
132.
a b
= ma
mb
,
and
i
x mx = my y
terms
A
1.
fraction
is
in its lowest
when
its
numerator
and
its
denominator have no
common
factors.
Ex.
Reduce
~
to its lowest terms.
Remove
tor, as 8,
a?,
successively all
2
j/' ,
common
6
2
divisors of
numerator and denomina
and z 8
(or divide the terms
.ry ^
by
their H. C. F.
TT
Hence
24
2 z = 
3x
94
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
133. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms, resolve numerator and denominator into their factors, and cancel all factors that are
common
to both.
Never cancel terms of the numerator or the
denominator; cancel factors only.
Ex.
2.
Keduce
a*
~
6 a'
4
*8a
6a
qs
_. 6
24 a2
to its lowest terms.
tf
a*

n2 + 8 a 24 a*
_ ap 2  6 a + 8) 6 d\a*  4)
Ex.
3.
Keduce
62
~ 2 62
a2
to its lowest terms.
_Q
2 6
EXERCISE 51*
Reduce
i
to lowest terms
3
:
95
2
*'
o 3
*
3T5"**
T^
12a4 "
3
K 6
'
32
78
'
'
2.33
7 a
36 arV 18 x2^'
39 a2 6 8c4
* See page 268.
FRACTIONS
7
95
22 a 2 bc
1
4
^.
n h
'
m11
2
m
3
8.
g
J
21.
~__ 9n _ 22
9.
^+3*.
9x +
"a"
10.
LJZJ^JL.
.
23.
11
^ Mtr
f
.
.
04
!l
9
or
2
6
it*?/
+y
2
12.
'M
3
??i
2fi 25.
_
3
7i
rt<
26.
3a
^
^
"^
2
9  10 a + 3
2
14.
'
^
.7
,
x1
15
' ft<
4 xy
//(/
_.*..
+
'
4
2
?/
27.
12 15
m m
2
2
7 w,n
8
+
T>
?
wn + n
2
?i
2
m
"
*7 , *
OQ
3 a3
_6a
a/i
2
2
5
?tt
+6
^.
29.
16.
^"
a;
nx
17.
ny
4
18.
5^10
y
30.
^'
rt
^

31.
19.
""";'
32.
96
134.
ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA
Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied
denominator.
by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction, we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest
common
denominator.
Ex.
1.
mon
T denominator.
Reduce ^, and 6rar 3 a? kalr
,
,
^
to their lowest
com
The
L. C.
M.

of
//*
2
,
3 a\ and 4
aW
is
12 afo 2 x2 .
,
To reduce
to a fraction with the
denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator
^lA^L O r 2 a 3
'
and denominator must be multiplied by
Similarly, multiplying the terms of
22
.

by 4
6' .r
2
2
,
and the terms of
*** by 3 ^
A
2
' ,
we have
M^ 1^22
' ,
2>
,
and
Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator, C.M. of the denominators for the common denominator. Divide the L.C.M. by the denominator of each fraction, and
135. take the L.
multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.
Ex

Reduce
to their lowest
common
denominator.
1).
TheL.C.D. =(z
(x
+ 3)(z 3)O 
Dividing this by each denominator,
we have
the quotients (x
1),
+
3),
and
(a
8).
Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator, we have
(a
+ 3) (a 8) (!)'
NOTE.
Since a
(z
6 + 3)(s3)Ol)'
6a;~16
(a
+ 3) (x 3) (!)'
=
,
we may extend this method
to integral expressions,
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
52
97
.Reduce the following to their lowest
1.
common denominator
6.
.
5?, JL.
22 a2
5a
*
.
3.
2,^1.
8
i
i, i.
a?
1
5
>
^*
.T
n">
^'
5c
3
26
o atf
o>
5
77"
'
.,
.,
?y2"
m^
S?
m
2
7^
m
S*
**.
7i
2 ab*
",oj
o*
or
/
.
o o
a.
2aj ~
.
5a 3
zl
'
_ 2al n.
2
3
9a ~l' 3al
6
8
a
'
2 a8
*
5
4a
8'
'
a
jj
+ 6 a
9
^
,
j
y
3.T
3y
Ga1
ax
9
'
2a
;
2
ay
IB.
bxby
g
!
a
5
'
a
f5
a2
25
?,
.
18.
 a+2
'
a 2 3af 2
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS
136.
Since {c
c
= 5L^
c
(Art. 74), fractions having a
common
denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.
137. If the given fractions have different denominators, they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01
subtracted).
98
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

Ex
'
Sim
C. D.
^
is
2^JT)
 3 ft)(2 a
f
+
:
Ga6
+ 3 ft),
The L.
4(2 a
3
ft).
Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a  3 ft), and adding, we obtain
2 a
the terms of
2(2 a
+3 3
ft
6 a
f
ft
_ 2(2 a +
ft)
3
ft)
(2 a
ft)
4(2 a
3
4(2 a
~~
+ 3 ft) f (2 a  3  3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft)
ft
ft)
(6 a ft)
_ 8 a 2 f 24 aft
20 a 2
f
f
18
2
+
ft
12 a 2
 20 aft
3ft)
f
3
ft
2
4(2a3ft)(2af
4
aft f
21
2
138.
The
results of addition
and subtraction should be
re
duced to their lowest terms.
T?
Ex.
2.
cr
\t
Simplify
_T__
r*
+
,
^
_
^
a3b
ft). ft).
a2
ab
ft2
Hence the
a a2
f
2 6
a2
 aft

_ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=( 2 = a(a  (a 2 6). L. C. D. a 3 2a + "~
a2
ft).
ft)
ft ft
a(a
~
3
aft
+
2
ft2
a2

2
aft
_(a +
2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a  ft) (a
ft
ft)~.
(a8ft)(a~ft)
8
2
2ft)
2 =a 4
2
+
2 (2 a 4 aft)
Ca2
 4 aft +
ft
ft
)
a(a

ft)(a
2ft)
2
=a
...
2
^.
4 6
+ 2qg+6~agf4a&8
a(aft)(a 2ft)
ft
2 a2
a(a
+ 5 aft  7  ft)(a  2
'
2
_. (2
~
a
ft)
a(a

+
7 ft)fa
ft)(a
2
ft)

ft)
a(a
2
ft)
NOTE.
(a
3
ft)
In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign, e.g. (a ft), the student should remember that parentheses are
;
understood about terms ( 66) hence he should, in the beginning, write 2 the product in a parenthesis, as 4 aft f 3 ft 2). (a
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE 53*
Simplify
:
99
2a4
5
3.
2.
9m + 7n
3
6m
5n
2x + 3y
3x
15
y
x + 2y 45
8.
5a76
4a
106
9.
6a116
13 a
15a26
116
e
'
6
2
10.
a
36
++.
6
c
3a
7.
46
2a
4a
12.
36
3u
2v v 5 wv
8v
12 uv
13.
18 v
19.
30 u
+? + i
_H_ + _*_. a+6 a 6
2
14.
20.
+
a "" 2 6
'
,
15.
A+2_3.
j>0
i>
21.
1 f
q
*
1
m m
.
1
1 f
w
16.
1*
1
+
mf 3
1
M.
23.
2L +
2a
1
17.
t3
m2*
a _2
6 a 4 5
18
^4f25.
24.
a2 a + 3* 2 a 7
af1
'
2) * See page 270.
+
LOO
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
26

x*3x + 2 x2
5x
27
'
~.
x
+ 3y
x3y
Gx
x2
2x
,9.
a
4
31.
3a
9
+. a
30.
2
af1
32.
1
34.
_m
&
2
i
+m
6
i
_w
36
a2+ a ^_2&2
35.
x2
Q 3
/Yl
Qfi ou
L
"I
"I
\_
L
I
*
7
ITi ~T~ 7
TTo
O :_
'
i
37
_
9
<1

1
i
1
'>
a2
.9
79 6
2
i. _
'
a
+b
+a=
(
38.
af 1f
/j.
!
n.
/ IIlNT:
Let a
1 
39.
ic
1
+ 1.
a;
42.
a
?^
40.
_ +
a?
?/
+ y.
43.
41.
^2^+6m 3
45
'
44.
a
2
^>
2
x2
7x+12~x
l7x + 4:~
' }
FRACTIONS
139.
101
mixed expression.
To reduce a
fraction to an integral or
= + ceo
2
*
*
(S74) v '
Hence
5a2 15a7 = 5 a2
oa
5a
15a
oa
7
5a
=a
3
.7
5a
v Ex.
,
1.
T,
Reduce
,

4
or
3
2a; 2
+ 4tf
3
17
,
.
2x
4 x3
to a
mixed expression.
,

;
2 x2
+
2 g 4 6
+ 4x 4 x2  6 x + 10x4 x2
17
Therefore
x
y
3g
 17
(2^ + 2x
f
53
(2x,'3)
2
EXERCISE
expression
54
to a
Keduce each of the following fractions
:
mixed or
integral
a
a
+1
9a2 6a + 2 3a
m
2
*
5
m f 6
4
m
7
n 2 + 7n + 14
fi
102
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS
140. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator, and the product of the denominators for the
denominator;
or,
expressed in symbols:
c
a
_ac b'd~bd'
principle proved for
b
141.
Since 
= a,
we may extend any
e.g.
fractions to integral numbers,
x
b
c
=
numerator by
To multiply a fraction by an
that integer.
integer, multiply the
142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. (In
order to cancel
common
factors, each
numerator and denomi
nator has to be factored.)
Ex.
!.
Simplify 1 J
The
expreeaion
=8
6
.
2
a
Ex.
2.
F J Simplify
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
Find the following products
'
103
55
:
2!v! 2 4
5
8
a2
"
'
^
'
36^
21m*
'
17 ab
'
'
2
48
as b*'
34 ab 2
14m4
..
53 *38
"
'
4
'
14 b*
'
10 a 8
' "
4af86
76
5c
36C2
10 (a
7a216
a2
2
q~. 4
8.
6)
12
ot
2 ab
+
2
fc
a
b*
o,
5#
56
/
c&
4 6
12 d6 4 20
3a 2 6
'
GoA
ai>
56 2c
"
ar
"
'
4 ac2
V
V
3m
"
"
+1 "
"
o?f
2
~
'
_ 9m JO.
2
25n
2
1
3m +&n
15.
,. 14.
5n
a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4
a 2 5ah4
<

x2 + x
(x
2
I)
17.
_G
x
7
a2 5a6
a; aj
5
1
a?
18.
2
f
5
a;
50
104
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
DIVISION OF FRACTIONS
143. To divide an expression by a fraction, invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.
144.
The
reciprocal of a
number
is
the quotient obtained by
dividing 1
by that number.
The The
reciprocal of a
is
a
1
f
reciprocal of J
is

.
The reciprocal of ?
Hence the
:
+*
x
is
1
+ + * = _*_. x a + b
obtained by inverting
reciprocal of a fraction
is
the fraction, and the principle of division follows
may
be expressed as
145. To divide an expression by a fraction, expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.
8
multiply
the
Ex.
1.
Divide Xn?/
.
* x* f xy 2
by
x*y
+y
x'
2
3
s^jf\ =
x'
2
x*
 y3
+
xy*
x*y~ f y
8
y
f
3
2/
x3
EXERCISE 56*
Simplify the following expressions
2
x*
'""*'*'
:
om
2 a2 6 2
r 
3
i_L#_i17
ar
J
13 a& 2
5
ft2
'
u2
+a
. :
a 41
ab
* See page 272.
FRACTIONS
105
.' '
*
'
^5^+4
.
t '
a^3^4
?
4*
'
a?~ab
>
a
2
a
4a
4
4
a:
+3
m
12
2
f 1
5
w + 56
a
2
w
a2
2
4 5
??i
80 50
.
mm
5
a a2
6
2
4g2
2a
2
4g20
25
.
ga2
4
8
5 a
.T ?/
4
2
a*?/
15 #4 10 ?/ _._ # ~
y
'
45
14
in^o
2
?/
^y
"xy
15
a2
+
(Jf
fr
a
b
.
a a2
4 6
s
+ 064 6
COMPLEX FRACTIONS
146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator, or both, are fractional.
Ex.
l.
Simplify
<!
c
a
a2 c
4
L
4.
c
ab 2 4
&c*
&
a
,
a 6
_6
c
c
ac
a6 2 4 &c 2
~
a
4
a2c
4 afr 4 ^c
2
2
16
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
In
147.
many examples
the easiest
mode
of simplification
ia
multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. C. M. of their denominators.
B
If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c, the answer is directly obtained.
Ex.
2.
Simplify
x } ?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y
.
.
xy
x
+y
Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y), the expression becomes
(x
EXERCISE
Simplify
:
57
x
2.
y X
4* 2 y
3.
JL.
x*
4.
i.
c
+6.
.
7i+~
7.
.
9.
&
,a
^c
c
_^
a
.
,y
32
.
6.
n
a
8.
10.
a
m ""
FRACTIONS
107
1
i
m
11.
:
,
o
15.
1
i
1
2
5
,
i
~T"
*
~
1
y
19
4
'
!^5n
a "~
12.
2
&
a
20

a46
13.
m^n* n
L
a
17.
1
+2
1
i
"
f
"
(
a
+
1
/*_i_i
4
14.
sy
18.
1
+
1+ 1
ti
flgfl
a?l
ic+1
a;~l
(For additional examples see page 273.)
CHAPTER IX
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. C. M. of the denominator. 148.
Clearing of fractions.
tions, these
Ex.1. Solve
^2^ = 63
2 x
12
* + **.
2
3,
Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom
89),

2(x
2
+
3)
Removing parentheses, 2x
Transposing,
Uniting,
a;
6
= =
72 72
3
(a; 4
4)

x.
Bx
12
Qx.
2z2a;f3# + C:E=6f7212.
9x
x
Check.
If
= 64. = 6.
1.
x
= 6,
each
member
is
reduced to
Ex.
2.
Solve
5
I
14 x
+1
x
+3
I).
Multiplying by (x
Simplifying,
Transposing,
Uniting,
!)(&+ 1) (x + 3), + 1) (a + 3)  14 (a;  l)(z + 3) =  9(se + !)( 14 x 2  28 x + 42 =  9 x2 + 9. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15  42 + 9. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x  28 a = 5 x2  8 x =  48, = 6.
5(3
85
Check.
If
x
6,
each
member
is
reduced to
1.
108
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:
109
58
^
4
3
_ +7
a?
32
3
10.
.
3
a?
'2
4
"

2
a?
"T"" 4
4 1
_77
a;
o
""~TiT"
'
3
12.
+4
14.
^1 = 9.
a/

5
a/
= 12.
'

4
13.
1+5
&
^0 ^
a?
= 19
1
11.
 = 2.
1
*>
= 2.
18.
15.
a:
7
a;
+1
= 5.
16.
= xx
a? a?
hi
x
+^ + 3 = 11.
^'
2,
a;
4
y
2
^
16
20
+2
334
y2
y3 ==
on
110
ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA
24.
?_=_.
y+3~2
29.
25.
26 26.
4a4l4* +
l~.
.
.
31 31.
27
.
2^12 = 2
=
34.
32
6
.
2
20
x+3 x3
3
o^
28
.
.
33.

2

13
_J_ = _J3 ._
_
.
J_.
3x
35.
3
3x2
51
3x*2x
23 x
3x2
22
36.
+
26
2^43
1
4^9
1
2a?3
A*
37.

38
=
40.
^^
'
39
7
'
x 11_4 x
149. If two or more denominators are monomials, and" the remaining one a polynomial, it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only, and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
Ex.1.
Solve
111
10
Multiplying each term by
tors,
5#
10, the
1
5
L. C. M. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n
16 x
2( +3~
x
16 x

2.
Transposing and
Multiply ing by 6
uniting.
a;
5
=
20 g
5
a:
~ Jff
1
.
1,
26
a;

5
= 20 x 45.
60.
Transposing and uniting,
Dividing,
5x x
:
=
9.
Check.
If
a;
=
9,
each
member
is
reduced to
^.
Solve the following equations
41
:
5a;2
42
9
43.
,,
24
a;
f
13
8#f 2__ 2x
5
7
15
~~716*
6a?
44.
10 x f 6 __ 4a;r7
5
+l
6afll~~
3
6xflO
'
5
2a?~25
15
17a?~9
14
28
6414
.2
3
~

==
7a;29
50712'
9
18
112
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LITERAL EQUATIONS
150. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be
actually added, they are united
by
factoring.
jr.
Thus,
ax
f
x f m 2*
= (a f 6) mnx = (1 4 m
bx
2
mn) x.
Ex.1.
b
a
a
a
z
Clearing of fractions,
ax
+ bx ax
(a
f
IP
Transposing,
Uniting,
bx
f
6)z
= 3 & 2 ab. = 2 f b 2  3 6 2 = a'  &  2 62
2
ab.
.
Dividing,
l
to
= !=?_=^6?
a
f 6.
fr
Reducing
lowest terms,
a;
=a
2
151.
It
frequently occurs that the
x, y,
unknown
letter is
not
expressed by
or
z.
Ex.
2.
If
3ac
L=
=
a
? ,
find
a
in
terms of b and
c.
3(ac)
c)
Multiplying by 3 (a
 c) (3 a ac
6(rtfc)(ac)
6 a2
6 a&
+6
6c
= (2a + &)(3ac). = 6 a2  2 ac + 3 aft  be.
to
Transposing
all
terms containing a
6 ab
6 ac
one member,
+ 2 ac
9 a&
3 ab
Simplifying,
4 ac
1,
= =
6 6c
7 6c.
f
~
5c.
Uniting the
Dividing, 5>
a,
and multiplying by
a(9 b
4 c
4 c)
= 7 &c.
= l^
9 b
4
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
:
113
59
*,
_
2.
3.
4.
+ 3a; = 8 4 #. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. mx = n.
iw
21.
4 = c
a
Z>
.
6.
3(*
8.
9.
10.
11.
= 3 (6 a). = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^
4 (a
x)
1
a).
a;
1
f a;
3(2a +
aj)
25
?+l
'~~ a/
1
= 2L
;i
l
.
c.
^
ax a^
26.
12.
13. 14.
15.
f
^o;
= 5.
co?.
m
a?
x
,
IIL
n
b
+ &o; = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.
a?
x!7

a ITo
x
T
_ ~
2 8.
29.
30.
If s
(wi
n) x
=px + q.
17.
If s
If
16.
 = H.
+ xx =
1.
 = n.
= vt, = rt, s =
Vt
solve for v.
solve for
,
t.
2
solve for y a.
, solve for a.
c
18.
31.
If
^^ = a
1
32.
If
*
33.
*
Solve the same equation for^).
f P
=+!,
q
solve for/.
34.
i
The formula
for simple interest
(
30, Ex. 5) is
t
=^,
denoting the interest, p the principal, r the number of $>, and n the number of years. Find the formula for:
() The
(6)
(c)
principal.
rate.
The The
i
time, in terms of other quantities.
114
35.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation
(F)
in
(ft)
Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40
If
C.,
100
C.,
 20
C.
is
36.
C
is
the circumference of a circle whose radius
R,
then
= 2 TT#.
Find
R in terms of C and
TT.
PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. 1. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of
a clock together
?
is
At
3 o'clock the hour hand
15 minute spaces ahead of the minute
:
hand, hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ?
Let then
x x
= the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock, = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves
over,
and
12
= the number
over.
of minute spaces the
hour hand moves
Therefore x
~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves
more than the hour hand.
x
Or
Uniting,
~^ = 15
11 x
'
!i^=15.
12,
Multiplying by
Dividing,
 180. = 16^ minutes after x=
^
of
3 o'clock.
Ex. 2. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days, In how many days can both do it working together ?
If
we denote
then
/
the required
number
by
1,
A would do
each day ^ and
B
j,
days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do
respectively
ff
~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^, 2 3
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
A
in symbols the following sentence
115
more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day."
:
Let
x 
= the
required
number
of days.
in
Then
Therefore,
Solving,
= the
x
part of the
work both do
one day.
32
x
= ,
or 1J, the required
number
of days.
Ex. 3. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles, what is
the rate of the express train
?
180
Therefore,
Clearing,
180
Transposing,
= 100 + 4 x. 4x = 80.
fx
xx*
=
152
+4
(1)
Hence
=
36
= rate
of express train.
Explanation
:
If
x
is
the rate of the accommodation train, then
Ox
j
5
a
Rate Hence the rates can be expressed, and the statement, u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train," gives the equation /I).
the rate of the express train.
But
in
uniform motion Time
=
Distance
116
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
60
1.
Find a number whose third and fourth parts added
together
2.
make
21.
its
Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3.
3.
fifth
Two numbers
differ
2.
ceeds the smaller by
4.
by 6, and one half the greater Find the numbers.
is oO,
ex
What
5.
are the
The sum of two numbers numbers ?
and one
is
^ of the other.
Find two consecutive numbers such that
9.
J
of the greater
increased by ^ of the smaller equals
6.
Two numbers
differ
l to s of the smaller.
by 3, and J of the greater Find the numbers.
is
equal
7.
Twenty years ago A's age was 
age.
of his present age.
Find A's
8.
The sum
10 years hence the son's age will be
of the ages of a father and his son is 50, and of the father's age. 
Find their present ages.
9
its
A
post
is
a fifth of
its
length in water,
and 9
feet above water.
length in the ground, one half of What is the length
of the post ?
10
ter,
A man left ^ of his property to his wife, to his daughand the remainder, which was $4000, to his son. How
did the
much money
man
leave ?
11. A man lost f of his fortune and $500, and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. How much money had he at first?
12
left
After spending ^ of his
^ of his money and $15.
money and $10, a man had How much money had he
at first?
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
13.
117
The speed
of an accommodation train
is
f of the speed
of an express train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles, what is the rate of the express train? 152, Ex. 3.) (
An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train, and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train, what is the
14.
after
rate of the latter ?
15.
At what time between 4 and
(
5 o'clock are the hands of
a clock together?
16.
152, Ex. 1.)
At what time between 7 and 8
o'clock are the
hands of
a clock together ?
17.
At what time between 7 and
8 o'clock are the hands of
?
a clock in a straight line and opposite
18.
A man
has invested
J
of his
money
at
the remainder at
6%.
How much money
$500?
4%, ^ at 5%, and has he invested if
his animal interest therefrom is
19.
A has invested capital
at
more
4%.
investments.
at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ?
20. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce, and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing
20 ounces in
21.
air,
and losing
1*
ounces when weighed in water?
do a piece of work in 3 days, and B in 4 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152, Ex. 2.)
22.
A can
A
can do a piece of work in 2 days, and
it
B in 6 days.
?
In
how many days can both do
working together
23. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays, and B In how many days can both do it working together
in
?
12 days.
118
153.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The
last three questions
and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Hence, by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers, e.g. m and n, it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. The problem to be solved, therefore, is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. In how
in the numerical values of the
:
many days
If
can both do
we
let
x
= the
it working together ? required number of days, and apply the
method of
170, Ex. 2,
we
obtain the equation
m m
 = . n x
Solving, 3;=
m
f
n
it
Therefore both working together can do
in
mn
f
n
days.
To
and
find the numerical answer, if
B
in 3 days,
make
it
m
6
A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. and n = 3. Then
ft
i.e.
they can both do
in 2 days.
6
I
3
Solve the following problems
24.
:
In
how many days
if
can
A
and
it
B
working together do a
piece of
work
each alone can do
(a)
(6)
(c)
in the following
number
ofdavs:
(d)
A in 5, A in 6, A in 4, A in 6,
B in 5. B in 30. B in 16. B in 12.
is 42. is 57.
25.
26.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum
last
:
The
two examples are
special cases of the following
problem 27. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Find the numbers if m = 24 30,009 918,414.
; ;
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS
28.
119
Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose
is 11.
squares
29.
Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose
is 21.
squares
30. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot, the area would be increased by 19 square feet. Find the side of the square.
The
one:
31.
is ?n
;
last three
examples are special cases of the following
The
difference of the squares of
two consecutive numbers
By using the result of this problem, solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares
:
find the smaller number.
is (a)
51, (b) 149, (c) 16,721, (d) 1,000,001.
same hour from two towns, 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour, and the second 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet, and how many miles does each travel ?
32.
Two men
start at the
first
miles
apart, the
Two men start at the same time from two towns, d miles the first traveling at the rate of m, the second at the apart, After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.
33.
meet, and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance, the rate of the
first,
and
the rate of the second are, respectively (a) 60 miles, 3 miles per hour, 2 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour, 5 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles,
:
(c)
64 miles, 3J miles per hour,
4J
miles per hour.
by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer, if m and n are, respectively, (a) 20 and 5 minutes, (b) 8 and 56 minutes,
34.
A cistern can
be
filled
(c)
6 and 3 hours.
CHAPTER X
RATIO AND PROPORTION
11ATTO
154.
The
ratio of
first
dividing the
two numbers number by the
and
:
is
the quotient obtained by
second.
b.
Thus the
written a
:
ratio of a
b
is
 or a *
b
The
ratio is also frequently
(In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4, 6 12 = .5, etc.
b,
the symbol
being a sign of division.
:
:
155.
A
ratio
is
used to compare the magnitude of two
is
numbers.
" a Thus, instead of writing
6 times as large as
?>,"
we may
write
a
:
b
= 6.
The
first
156.
term of a ratio
a
the
is
is
the antecedent, the second
term the consequent.
In the ratio a
:
ft,
is
numerator of any fraction
consequent.
antecedent, b is the consequent. the antecedent, the denominator
The
the
157. 158.
The
ratio 
is
the inverse of the ratio .
b
is
a
Since a ratio
a
fraction, all principles
relating
to
fractions
if its
may
be af)plied to ratios.
E.g. a ratio
is
not changed
etc.
terms are multiplied or divided by the same number,
1.
Ex.
Simplify the ratio 21 3.
:
A somewhat shorter way
would be to multiply each term by
120
6.
RATIO
Ex.
equal
2.
1.
AND PROPORTION
ratio 5
5
:
121
first
Transform the
3J so that the
term will
33
:
*~5
~
3
'4*
5
EXERCISE
Find the value of the following
1.
61
:
ratios
72:18.
J:l.
3.
62:16.
4:5f
:
5.
6.
$24: $8.
5 f hours
:
2.
4.
8^
hours.
Simplify the following ratios
7.
3:4.
3:1}.
9.
7:4 T T
4
.
11.
12.
16 x*y
64 x*y
:
24 48
xif.
3
8.
10.
27 06: 18 a6.
:
ay
.
Transform the following
unity
15.
:
ratios so that the antecedents equal
16:64.
16.
7f:6J,
17.
:
1.
18.
16a2 :24a&.
159.
A
proportion
is
a statement expressing the equality of
proportions.
two

ratios.
= or:6=c:(Z are
The
first
160.
extremes, the second
and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. The last
first three.
term
is
the fourth proportional to the
:
In the proportion a b = c c?, a and d are the extremes, b and c the means. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a, b, and c.
:
is
If the means of a proportion are equal, either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms, and the last term the third proportional to the first and second
161.
terms.
In the proportion a b
:
=
b
:
c,
b is the
mean
b.
proportional between a
and
c,
and
c
is
the third proportional to a and
122
162.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper
tional to quantities of another kind, if the ratio of any two of the first kind, is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two
of the other kind.
ccm. of iron weigh ,30 grams, then G ccm. of iron weigh 45 grams, 6 ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. " we " NOTE. Instead of u
If 4
or 4 ccm.
:
:
directly proportional
may say,
briefly,
pro
portional.'*
Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind, if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of
the other kind.
If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days, then 8 men can do it in 3 days, or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3, i.e. 3 4. Hence the number of men required to do some work, and the time necessary to do it, are
: : :
inversely proportional.
163. In any proportion product of the extremes.
t/ie
product of the means
b
is
equal
to the
Let
a
:
=c
:
d,
!;
Clearing of fractions,
164.
ad =
be.
The mean proportional
of their product. a b
:
bettveen two
numbers
is
equal to
the square root
Let the proportion be
Then Hence
6
=b = ac.__(163.) b = Vac.
:
c.
2
165. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means, and the
other pair the extremes, of a proportion.
If
(Converse of
nq,
163.)
mn = pq, and we
divide both
members by
we have
?^~ E.
q~~ n
PATIO
Ex.
1.
AND PROPORTION
x = 12
:
123
Find
x, if
6
:
7.
12x
Hence
a?
= 42. (163.) = f f = 3 J.
is
Ex.
2.
Determine whether the following proportion
8:6 =
and 5 x
7 7
:
true
rn
8 x
t:
4.
is
4$ = 35,
= 35
;
hence the proportion
true.
166.
I.
If
6
:
a a
:
6
=c
:
:
d,
then
=d
c.
(Frequently called Inversion.)
(Called Alternation.)
II.
a:c=b:d.
a
III.
Or
IV.
V.
+ b:b = c + d:d. (Composition.) a + b:a = c + d:c. d d. (Division.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. a+b a (Composition and
:
:
:
Division.)
Any
is
of these propositions
may be proved by
example
:
a method which
illustrated by the following
To prove
This
is
b
if
d
true
ad

Or
if
But
Hence
^ =^'
o
= be = be. ad = be.
bd
bd.
ad
(
163.)
d
167.
I.
These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the
:
:
last term.
By
inversion 5
:
4
=6
:
x.
124
IT.
its
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by
antecedents or
the same number.
E.g. to simplify
48:21=32:7x,
3:3
1:1
divide the antecedents by 16, the
consequents by
7,
Or
III.
= 2:3. = 2:x,
i.e.
x
= 2.
To
simplify the proportion
11
:
5:6
=4
x
:
x.
Apply composition,
6
=4
:
x.
IV. To simplify the proportion 8
Apply
division,
:
3
= 5 f x
:
x.
5
5, 1
:
3 3
Divide the antecedents by
:
= =
5
1
:
jr.
:
x.
V. To simplify
m 3n
?
= + *.
mx
tin
Apply composition and
division,
= ^2x
x
Or
Dividing the antecedents by m,
.!=!*.
3n
JJ
=n x
NOTE.
A parenthesis is understood
about each term of a proportion.
EXERCISE
5^:8 = 2:3. = 7:2f 3J.:J
62
:
Determine whether the following proportions are true
1.
4. 5.
2.
3.
= 12 5ft. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^.
11
:
5
:
15:22=101:15.
Simplify the following proportions, and determine whether they are true or not
:
6.
120:42
2 2
7.
10.
= 20:7. 8. = 180:125. 9. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m
2
:
18:19
6
2
:
= 24:25. 13 = 5f llf
:
:
n 2.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Determine the value of x
11. 12.
:
125
40:28 = 15:0;. 112:42 = 10:a.
03:a?=135:20.
a?:15
15.
16.
21
:
4z = 72
:
96.
13.
14.
17.
18.
= l^:18.
to:
= 35:*. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra.
2.8:1.6
:
:
Find the fourth proportional
19.
1, 3, 5. 2, 4, 6.
21.
3, 3t, f.
ra, w,j>.
23.
ra
2
,
rap, rag.
20.
22.
Find the third proportional
24.
to
:
9 and 12.
26. 27.
14 and 21.
28.
29.
1
and
a.
25.
16 and
28.
a 2 and ab.
to
:
a and
1.
Find the mean proportional
30.
4 and 16.

32.
2 a and 18
a.
.
34.
ra
+ landra
1.
31.
35.
and 2/.
33.
8 a 2 and 2 b 2
Form two
x 10
If ab
proportions commencing with 5 from the
equation 6
36.
= 5 x 12.
form two proportions commencing with
x
:
= xy,
b.
Find the
37.
38.
39.
ratio of
y, if
:
40.
6x = 7y. 9 x = 2 y. 6 x = y. mx = ny.
41.
42.
43. 44.
+ fyx = cy. x:5 = y:2. x m = y n. 2 3 = y #.
(a
: :
45.
46. 47.
7iy = 2:x.
y
:
b
y
:
=x 1 =x
:
a.
:
a2
.
:
:
Transform the following proportions so that only one
contains x:
48.
terra
2:3 = 4 x:
6:5
a
:
x.
51. 52.
22: 3
19
2
:
:
49.
50.
= 15o;:ff. 2= 5 x x.
:
53.
= 2 + x: x. = 3 43 + x. 5=
18
a?
:
a?.
a;
:
126
54.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each, othei
(a) Triangles
as their basis (b
and
b').
1
(6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is
circles are to
each
inversely propor
tional to the pressure (P).
(d)
The
areas
(A and
A') of two circles are to each other as
(R and R'). The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work.
the squares of their radii
(e)
55. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk, and the
:
total cost.
(b)
The time a
The length
train needs to travel 10 miles,
and the speed
of the train.
(c)
of a rectangle of constant width, and the area
of the rectangle.
(d)
The sum
of
money producing $60
interest at
5%, and
the time necessary for it. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate, and the time.
56.
A
line 11 inches long
on a certain
22 miles.
57.
A
line 7^ inches long represents
map corresponds to how many miles ?
The
their radii.
areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as
circle is
4
:
7,
and the area of the smaller
is
8 square inches,
what
58.
the area of the larger? the same, the volume of a
The temperature remaining
body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of
gas
is
A
16 cubic
feet.
What
will be the
volume
if
the pressure
is
12 pounds per square inch ?
RATIO AND PROPORTION
69.
127
The number
is
of miles one can see from an elevation of
very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles
the
Metropolitan
Tower (700
feet high) ?
feet
high) ?
From Mount
McKinley (20,000
168. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n, it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx.
:
Ex.
as 11
Let
then
:
1.
Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other
7.
Hence
or
Therefore
Hence
and
= the first number, = the second number. 11 x f 7 x = 108, 18 x = 108. x = 6. 11 x = 66 is the first number, 7 x = 42 is the second number.
11
x
x
7
Ex.
is
A line AB, 4 inches long, 2. produced to a point C, so that
Find^K7and BO.
4
'
r
i
1
(AC): (BO) =7: 5.
Let
A
B
AC=1x.
Then
Hence
BG = 5 x. AB = 2 x.
2 x
Or
=
4.
x=2.
Therefore
7
=
14
= AC.
128
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
63
1. 2.
3.
Divide 44 in the ratio 2
Divide 45 in the ratio 3
:
9.
7.
:
Divide 39 in the ratio 1
:
5.
:
4.
A line 24 inches
long
is
divided in the ratio 3
5.
What
are the parts ?
5. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ?
6.
Gunmetal
tin.
How many
7.
consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun
metal ?
Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many gen, cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500
:
cubic feet?
8.
The
total area of land is to the total area of
is
water as
7 18.
:
197,000,000 square miles, find the number of square miles of land and of water. 9. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of
If the total surface of the earth
oxygen.
How many
grams of hydrogen are contained in 100
:
grams
10.
of water?
Divide 10 in the ratio a
b.
11.
12.
Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.
:
Divide a in the ratio 3
Divide
:
7.
13.
14.
m
in the ratio x:
y
%
three sides of a triangle are 11, 12, and 15 inches, and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How
The
long are the parts ? 15. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a, 6, and c inches. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two, what are
its
parts ?
(For additional examples see page 279.)
CHAPTER XI
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
169.
An
equation of the
first
unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.
If
satisfied
degree containing two or more by any number of values of
2oj3y =
6,
a?
(1)
then
I.e. if
,L
x
If
If
= 0, =,y=. x = 1, y = 1, etc.
2 y =  . y =
5
/0 \ (2)
of values.
Hence, the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.
However,
if
there
is
different relation
between x and
*
given another equation, expressing a y, such as
+ = 10,
y
(3)
these
unknown numbers can be found. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since
by the same values of x and
to be satisfied
y,
the equations have the two values of
y must be equal.
Hence
2s 5
o
= 10 _ ^
(4)
= 3. is x = 7, which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore, values of x and y, there is only one solution.
The
root of (4)
if
K
129
130
170.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
A
system
of simultaneous equations is
tions that can be satisfied
a group of equa by the same values of the unknown
numbers.
are simultaneous equations, for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous, for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The first set of equations is also called consistent, the last set inconsistent.
x
H
2y
satisfied
6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I, y
I
171. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations
;
cannot be reduced to the same form.
~ 50, and 3 x + 3 y =. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent, for they express the x f y 10. same relation. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f 3 y = 80.
6x
;
viz.
172.
A
system of two simultaneous equations containing two
quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain
unknown
one equation containing only one
173.
unknown
quantity.
The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.
174.
to
The two methods
I.
of elimination
most frequently used
II.
By By
Addition or Subtraction.
Substitution.
ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION
175.
E,X.
Solve
y=6x
6x
f
Multiply (1) by
2, 3,
4y
 26.
(3)
(4)
Multiply (2) by

Subtract (4) from (3),
Therefore,
=  24, 26 y = 60. y = 2.
21 y
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
the simpler one (1),
131
Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations, preferably
3x
Therefore
+ 4 = 13 x = 3. y = 2.
whose
coefficients
In general, eliminate the
letter
have the lowest
common
multiple.
Check.
3. 8
2.
+ 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13, 37 2 = 6 14 =8.
Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by
5,
3,
25 x  15 y 39 x + 15 y
Add
(3)
and
(4),
Therefore
Substitute (6) in (1),
Transposing, Therefore
Check.
5
13
.
= 235. = 406. 64 x = 040. x = 10. 60  3 y = 47. 3y = 3. y = 1. x = 10. 10  3 1 = 47, 10 + 5 1 = 135.
by addition or subtraction :
numbers as
(3) (4)
(6)
176.
Hence
to eliminate
Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such
will
make
the coefficients
of one unknown quantity equal.
coefficients
If the signs of these
if unlike,
are
like,
subtract the equations;
add
the equations.
EXERCISE
answers:
64
Solve the following systems of equations and check the
'
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
5.
I
i
3
a;
v
^ = ll. = 24. = 6.
13
61
l7a; +
2/
17.
7
'
1fi fl ,4.1ft
is
1
fl<>* r A
+ 22/ = 40,
O
t
K
8.
I
oj
5y
= 17.
19<
I
a;f2/
'
= 50.
9
1
r
20.
I
,
_.
= 41, [2o; + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.
f
3#
?/
= 0,
x
11.
I
~ y~~>
22.
'
12.
]
^
,v
23.
13.
f
3X
7x
14.
J
I
y = 1U, * + 3 y = 50.
'
94 ^4
'
15
'
^

25
*
60.
i
3.9
* 3.5 y = 2.3.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION
177.
133
Solve
7 y in (1)
(27, = 13. I3ar + 2y
and dividing by
,
8,
(1)
(2)
Transposing
2,
x
)
^""
13.
Substituting this value in (2)
3
7
(
?/
t
"
8
+2y=
+
4 y 25 y
Clearing of fractions,
21 y
24
Therefore
y
= 26. = 60. = 2.
3.
This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x
178.
Hence
to eliminate
by substitution
:
Find
in one equation the value of
an unknown quantity in
terms of the other.
tity in the
Substitute this value for one
unknown quan
other equation,
and
solve the resulting equation.
EXERCISE
Solve by substitution
:
65
f5aj
l3a;
= 2y + 10, = 4#8.
134
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
179. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions, it is advantageous to do so in most cases, however, the equation must be cleared of fractions and
;
simplified before elimination
is
possible.
3
(1)
Ex.
Solve
2
7
(2)
Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14,
43 + 8f3y +
7z
From
(3), (4),
From
9 = 36. + 212y4 = 14. 4* + 3y = 19. 7x_2y=3.
3,
(3) (4) (6)
(6)
Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by
Sx + 6y =
Adding
and
3S.
(7)
(7)
(8) ,
Substituting in (6)
,
21z6y=9. 29 x = 29. x = l. 2 y =  3. 7 y = 6.
(8)
1
+8
2
_
7
EXERCISE
66
Solve by any method, and check the answers:
+ 5(y + 5) = 64. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26,
(4t(x\)
'
""^IT
3.
\
\6(a;6)7(y7)==18.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
3x
4.
135
"25
'
6
'
tsjj
'
r4(5 1) + 5(6 y  1) = 121, 4(5 x l2(315
8
8.
14.
J
9.
.
a;
+y
2
,
a;
ff
"*"
_13 ~
4
2'
15.
10.
16.
4
11.
;
10
2a?5
17.
12.
2
4^
~
3
=
13.
4~2v
3a?2^4
3
1
18.
yM
a;f2
2,
= 3.
136
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4_1
2'
19.
<X +
20.
l_3
4'
2/41
2
a;
f y  Q ^
4
21.
22.
?~y
,
3x\"
1
23
24.
*
((* ((
,
{;
180. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities, but some expressions
involving
x,
and
y, e.#.
 and x y
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
x
Ex.
1.
137
Solve
y y
(1)
.
x
2x(2),
(2)
(3)
a;
Clearing of fractions,
33
=
11 x.
Substituting x
=
3 in (1),
Therefore
y=4.
of this type, however, can also be solved
Examples
method.
by the regular
Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions,
15 y
+ 8 x  3 xy.  4 x = 4 xy.
(4)
(6) (6) (7)
2x(5),
(4)
+ (G),
y,
Dividing by 11
3
=
#, etc.
EXERCISE
Solve
:
67
2'
1.
x
3.
y
1. 2*
* x
2.
y
4.
138
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4 6 K  = 5, x y
5.
10
"
12
25
U
y
6.
253
7.
21 9  =
o
6,
x
8.
4
13.
y
MOi y
a;
x
y
331
9.
LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
181.
Ex.
n,
6,
1.
Solve
(1) (2)
(1)
(2)
(8)
x
x
(4),
= en. 6w3 + bny = 6p. bmx = en anx
anx + bny
(3)
(4)
ftp.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
Uniting,
139
(an
bm)x
=
en
bp.
Dividing,
(1) (2)
(7)
an
bm
(6)
(7)
x w, x a,
amx + bmy amx f any =
any
(an
cm.
ap.
 W,
Uniting,
bmy bm}y
ap
cm.
apan
cm.
.
W  cm y=
EXERCISE
68
bm
f
6y
=
c,
ax
+ by = 2 a&,
f
6^
[
nx f my == m.
.y
= = 9a + 46.
f
5.
x f my = 1,
ny =
fy/
I sc
1.
6.
fax f
= l,
s in
11.
x
12.
a
Find a and
terms of
n, d,
and
I if
13.
From
and L
the same simultaneous equations find d in terms
of a, w,
14.
From the same
equations find s in terms of
a, d,
and
I.
140
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS
TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES
three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.
182.
To solve equations containing
By
tions,
eliminating one
and
is
the
unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair, the
to the solution
problem
reduced
of two simultaneous equations
containing two
unknown
quantities.
ties are
Similarly, four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown
quantities, etc.
Ex.
1.
Solve the following system of equations:
= 8,
4,
l.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Eliminate
y.
Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by
4,
3,
8B12y +
17 x
16z
z
=
32
Oa + 12?/ 15z=12
Adding,
Multiplying (2)
+
=
20 12
2 10
(4)
Multiplying (3)
Adding,
by 3, x + 12 y  lf> z  by 2, 8 x  12 y + 6 z =  9z =11 x
(6)
Eliminating x from (4) and (5).
(4)
(5),
17 x
100
z
Therefore
Substitute this value in (4),
= 30. = 3.
20.
1.
(6)
+
3
Therefore
Substituting the values of x and z
2
x
=
(7)
in (1),
f
3y
12 =s
8.
3y =
Hence
Check.
6.
y
=* 2.
(8)
2.13.2 + 4.3 = 8; 3.1+4.25.3=4; 4.16.2 + 3.8 = 1.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
10 x
69
141
1.
+ y f z = 15,
8.
49.
k
2/
f 2
x
a;
y
f
?/
M
2?
=
4.
10.
2
4.
a?
11.
+ 2 y f 2 = 35, 4 = 42, 2z = 40.
~6?/
5.
== 6,
a?
+ 709 = 26,
12.
x
13.
f
2
i/ f
z
= 14,
15 2
= 45.
7.
14.
2
142
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
15.
60;
23.
?/
3x
= 0,
16.
=
5,
(3
_. 1510
4
17.
x
_2
3
'
0742!
J
18.
.2
a;
4 .3
y
+ .42 = 2,
^
= 2.6
2.
19.
=s
20.
27.
84
21.
?
= llz, = 8*.
22.
;
32.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
143
x
29.
y
*
z
30.
M=i, y
31.
.
x
:
z
=1
:
2.
= 2 m, + z = 2p, z + x = 2 n.
# 4 2/
2/
PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
183. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain, either directly or implied, as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Simple examples of this
kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one
unknown
every
quantity.
(
99.)
it is advisable to represent a different letter, and to express
In complex examples, however,
unknown quantity by
every verbal statement as an equation.
Ex. 1. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits, and if 396 be added to the number, the first and the last digits
will be interchanged.
Obviously
of the other
;
Find the number.
to express
it is difficult
two of the required
digits in
terms
hence we employ 3
letters for the three
unknown
quantities.
Let
x
y z
= the
the digit in the hundreds' place, 1 digit in the tens place,
and Then
100
+
10 y
+z
the digit in the units' place. the number.
The
three statements of the problem can
now be
readily expressed in
.
symbols:
x
+
y
+z
8.
(1)
100s
+ lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.
=
l,y
125
(3)
The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125.
Check.
1
=
2,
2
= 6.
+2+
6
= 8;
2
= 1(1+6);
+
396
= 521.
144
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA
If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be
;
increased by one, the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin
ished by one, the fraction
Let and
then y
is
reduced to
nurn orator,
2.
Find the
fraction.
x
y
= the = the
x
denominator
;
= the
fraction.
By
expressing the two statements in symbols,
we
obtain,
+
I
2
(1)
and
These equations give x
Check.
3
xand y
I
1
(2)
5.
=
Hence the
fraction
is
f.
3+1 5+1
4_2. 5_
_4_
A, B, and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. C, who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B, starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B.
Ex.
3.
direction.
Since the three
men
traveled the
same
distance,
Or
(4)2x(3), From (3)
Hence xy
Check.
8
= xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. x 3x4y = 12. = 8. y = 3.
xy
a:
2y 4y
2.
(1) (2)
12.
(3) C4)
=
24 miles, the distance traveled by A.
x 3
= 24,
6
x 4
= 24,
4
x
= 24.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
70
145
1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33, and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Find the numbers,
2.
number by
the
first
3.
Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11, and the second one increased by 5 equals twice
number.
Find the numbers.
part of their difference equals
4.
Half the sum of two numbers equals 4, and the fourth 3. Find the numbers.
If 4 be
Tf 3 be
is J.
added to the numerator of a fraction, its value added to the denominator, the fraction is reduced
fraction.
to
L
<>
Find the
If the
numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3, the fraction equals .}. both terms, the value of the fraction is fa. Find the fraction.
5.
6.
If the
numerator of a fraction be trebled, and
its
denomi
nator diminished by one, it is reduced to J. If the denominator be doubled, and the numerator increased by 4, the Find the fraction. fraction is reduced to \.
7. A fraction is reduced to J, if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1, and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15.
tion ?
8.
The sum
18
is is
and
if
added
of the digits of a number of two figures is 6, to the number the digits will be interchanged.
?
What
9.
the
number
(See Ex.
1,
183.)
added to a number of two digits, the digits will be interchanged, and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the number.
If 27 is
10.
The sum
of the first
sum
of the three digits of a number is 9, and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. If
9 be added to the number, the last two digits are interchanged. Find the number.
146
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
11. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30, and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find their present ages. 12.
and 5 years ago
their ages is 55,
13.
Ten years ago A was B was as
as old as
B
is
old as
will be 5 years hence ; now. If the sum of
how
old
is
each
now ?
at
invested $ 5000, a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. What was the amount of each investment ?
A man
%
5%,
14. A man invested $750, partly at 5% and partly at 4%, and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. What was the amount of each investment ?
15.
A
sum
of $10,000
is
partly invested at
6%,
partly at
5 %, and partly at 4 %, bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5
%
%
4%
investments together. How 6 %, 5 %, and 4 %, respectively ?
16.
much money
is
invested at
A sum
of
money
at simple interest
amounted
in 6 years
to $8000,
and
money and
17.
in 8 years to $8500. the rate of interest ?
What was
the
sum
of
A sum
of
money
at simple interest
amounted
in 2 years
to $090, and in 5 years to $1125. the rate of interest?
18.
What was
the
sum and
rates
est
The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. If the rates of interwere exchanged, the annual interest would be $ 195. Find
the rates of interest.
19. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh
together 69 J grams. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS
147
20. A farmer sold a number of horses, cows, and sheep, for $ 740, receiving $ 100 for each horse, $ 50 for each cow, and $15 for each sheep. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. How many did he sell
of each if the total
number
of animals
was 24?
21. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20, and their difference by GO , what are the angles of the triangle ?
22.
On
/),
points,
the three sides of a triangle E, and F, are taken so
ABC,
respectively, three
AD = AF, ED = BE, and CE If AB = G inches, BC = 7 inches, and AC = 5 inches, what is
that
=
OF.
the length of
NOTE.
triangle
Tf
AD, BE, and CF?
is
a circle
inscribed in the
7<7,
An C touch ing the sides in D, and F '(see diagram), then AD = AF, BD = HE, and GE = CF.
23.
A
r
^
A
circle is inscribed in triangle
sides in D,
E, and F.
Find the parts of the
ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9,
BC=7, andCL4 = 8.
In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b, angle c = angle d, and angle e angle/. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50, and angle BCA = 70, B find angles a, c, and e.
24.
,
1
NOTE.
is
the center of the circum
scribed circle.
25.
It takes
A two hours
longer
24 miles, but if A would double his pace, he would walk it in two hours less than
than
to travel
B
B.
Find their
rates of walking.
CHAPTER
XII*
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND
EQUATIONS
184.
It'
Location of a point.
two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles, and PJ/_L XX', and PN _L YY', then
the position of point is determined if the lengths
of
P
P3f and
185.
PN are given.
The
of
Coordinates.
lines
PM
the
and P^V are
coordinates
called
point P.
PN,
or its equal
OM, PM,
the ordinate of point P. jr, the ordinate by ?/.
is the abscissa; and r or its equal OA is
,
The
abscissa
is
usually denoted by
line XX' is called the jraxis, YY' theyaxis, and point the origin. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin, and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive ; hence
The
coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.
186.
?/,
is
The point whose abscissa is a;, and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). Thus the points A, B, (7, and
respectively represented
Dare
and
by
(3 7 4),
(2,
first
3),
(3,
2),
(2,
3).
* This chapter
may
be omitted on a
148
reading.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
The
is
149
process of locating a point called plotting the point.
whose coordinates are given
NOTE. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper, i.e. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (See diagram on page 151.)
EXERCISE
1.
71
2),
Plot the points:
(4, 3), (4,
2J),
2), (4,
(3, 3). (2,
0).
2.
3.
Plot the points: (4,
(5,
1), (4, 0),
Plot the points
:
(0, 3), (4, 0), (0, 0), (0,
 2).
(4, 1),
4.
Draw
the triangle whose vertices are respectively
(l,3),and(l, 2).
6.
Plot the points
(6,
4)
and
(4,
4),
and measure
their
distance.
6.
What
Draw
is
the distance of the point
(3,
4)
from the
origin ?
7.
the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively
(4,1),
8.
(1,4), (4, !),(!, 4).
Where do Where do
Where do
all
points
lie
whose ordinates
tfqual
4?
9.
all all
points
points
lie
lie
whose abscissas equal zero ?
whose ordinates equal zero?
y) if y
10. 11.
12.
What
is
the locus of
(a?,
=3?
is
If a point lies in the avaxis, which of its coordinates
known ?
13.
What
are the coordinates of the origin ? If
187.
Graphs.
two variable quantities are so related that
changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other, the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented
either by a table or
by a diagram.
150
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
tables represent the average temperature
Thus the following
of
New
volumes
1
Y'ork City of a certain
to 8 pounds.
from January 1 to December 1, and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from
pound
The same data, however, may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa, and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the first table produces 12 points, A, B, C, D,
188.
ically
each representing a temperature at a certain date. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time, we obtain an uninterrupted sequence
etc.,
By representing
of points, or the curved line the temperature.
ABCN
y
the socalled graph of
To
15
find
from the diagram the temperature on June
to be 15
;
1,
we meas1
.
ure the ordinate of F.
Thus the average temperature on May
on April 20, 10
;
may be found
on Jan.
15,
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table, but it indicates in a given space a great many more
facts than a table,
A graphic
and
it
impresses upon the eye
all
the peculiarities of
the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
151
i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3
Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments, and to deduce general laws therefrom. The engineer, the
matics.
physician, the merchant, uses them. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically, as the prices and production of commodities, the rise and fall of wages, etc. Whenever a clear, concise representation of a
number
of numerical data
is
required, the graph
is
applied.
EXERCISE
From the diagram
questions
1.
:
72
find approximate answers to the following
Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1, (b) July 15, (c) January 15, (d) November 20.
152
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
At what date
(a) G
or dates
is
New York
is
C., (1)
10
C., (c)
the average temperature oi 1 C., (d) 9 0. ?

3. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature?
?
What What
is
4. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ?
5.
During what months
above 18 C.?
is
is
the average temperature of
New York
6.
When
the average temperature below
C. (freezing
point) ?
7.
From what
date to what date does the temperature
increase (on the average)?
8.
When
What
is
the temperature equal to the yearly average of
the average temperature from Sept. 1 to Oct. 1?
11
0. ?
9.
is
10.
How
much,
on
1 to
the
average,
1 ?
does
the
temperature
increase from
11.
June
July
During what month does the temperature increase most
?
rapidly
12.
During what month does the temperature decrease most
rapidly ?
13.
During what month does the temperature change least?
14.
15.
Which month
is
is
the coldest of the year?
Which month
the hottest of the year?
16.
How much warmer
1 ?
on the average
is it
on July 1 than
on
May
17.
is
ture
we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season, from what date to what date would it extend ?
If
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
18.
153
1?
When is the average temperature the same as on April
Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples, in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
NOTE.
19. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
20. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren
heit)
:
21.
Represent graphically the populations
:
(in
hundred thou
sands) of the following states
22. One meter equals 1.09 yards. transformation of meters into yards.
Draw
a
graph for the
23.
Draw
.
a temperature chart of a patient.
Hour
Temperature
154
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
If
C
2
is
the circumference of a circle whose radius
is J2,
then
C
irJl.
(Assume ir~
all circles
>2
2
.)
T
circumferences of
25.
from
R
Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.
to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters, if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.5
grams.
26. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.50.
to
27. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.
If
dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. the daily average expenses for rent, gas, etc., amount to $8, represent his daily gain (or loss), if he sells 0, 3, 2 ...
28.
A
10 wheels a day.
29.
The
initial cost of
cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates, and $.50 per copy
(Let 100 copies = about \ inch.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books, if each copy sells for $1.50.
books from
for printing, binding, etc. 1 to 1200 copies.
Show
graphically the cost of the
REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE
189. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.
2
is
called
x
2 xy
+ 7 is a function of x. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and
y.
190.
function
If the value of a quantity changes, the value of a of this quantity will change; e.g. if x assumes
successively the
tively
values
1,
2,
3,
4,
x*
x
19.
+7
If
will
respec
assume the values 7, 9, 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2, x
7 to 9.
x increases will change gradually from
13,
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
191.
155
A
variable is a quantity
whose value changes in the
same
discussion.
is
A
constant
a quantity whose value does not change in the
same discussion.
it is
In the example of the preceding article, x a variable, while 7 is a constant.
is
supposed to change, hence
various values of x
The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr, for x=l, 2, 3 50. The values of func192.
Graph
of a function.
may
,
,
may, however, be also represented by a graph. E.g. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1
tions
,
values of x2
nates are the corresponding i.e. construct
',
1
the points (3,
9),
(
2, 4),
2
(1,1), and (3,
3
(0,0), (1,1), (2, 4),
9),
and join
the
points in order. If a more exact diagram
is
required, plot points which
lie
between those constructed above, as
1.
Q,
J),
(1^,
2),
etc.
Ex.
Draw the graph of x2 f 2 x
may
4 from x
=
4, to
x = 4.
a*,
To
obtain the values of the functions for the various values of
the
following arrangement
be found convenient
:
156
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Locating the points(
4, 4),
(3, 1), (2,4)... (4,20), and joining in order produces
the graph
ABC.
(To avoid
very large ordinatcs, the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.)
For brevity, the function
is
frequently represented
by a single letter, as y. Thus in the above example, 2 4 and if y = x f 2 x
;
r
*/
+*
01
.,,
,,
rf
71
.
if
/*
4
>
1i >
>
?/
=
193.
4J, etc.
A
Y'
function of the
first
degree is an integral
rational function
involving only
the
power of the variable. Thus 4x + 7, or ax + b f c are funclirst
tions of the first degree.
194.
It can be
proved that the
graph is a straight
of a function of the first degree
line, hence two points are sufficient for the construction
of these graphs.
Ex.
2.
Draw
y
z x
the graph of
= 2x3.
= 0, j/=3. = 4, y = 6.
If
If
Locating
ing
by a
3) and (4, 5), and join(0, straight line produces the required graph.
7
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
EXERCISE
73
157
Draw
1.
a?
the graphs of the following functions:
+ 2.
a?
2
4.
5.
2x +
3x
a?.
l.
7.
23x.
1
8
10. 11.
12.
a?
1.
2. 3.
xl.
2
a;
2
2.
8.
9.
a?.
xz + x.
4a?
I.
6.
Jar
.
a*
13.
4
a;
+ 4.
2.
16.
2
a;
x+1.
a
ar.
19.
14. 15.
a;
3 a 8.
fa
17.
6 fa or. 2
or
2
20.
3. y = 2x = 4.
?/
a;
2
2
a;
18.
21.
Draw
the graph of
:
from
#=
4 to
05
= 4,
(d)
(^)
1 to
and from
2
;
the diagram find
(a)
(e)
(3.5)2;
(ft)
(_
1.5)2;
;
(C )
(2.8)';
(If)
Va25;
(/)
Vl2^
(0)
V5;
from x
VlO'S".
22. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine:
4
a?
+2
a;
= 4,
and
(a)
(6)
(c)
(d)
The values of the function if x = \, 1J, 2J. The values of a?, if a;2 4 # + 2 equals 2, 1, 1J. The smallest value of the function. The value of x that produces the smallest value
it*
of the
function.
The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (7i)
(c)
23. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine
:
#2 from # =
2 to a?=4,
(a)
(6)
(c)
(d)
(e)
The values of y; i.e. the function, if"a; = The values of a*, if y = 2. The values of a*, if the function equals zero. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l.
J,
1J,
2J.
158
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Degrees of the Fahrenheit
(F.) scale are
expressed in
degrees of the Centigrade (C.) scale by the formula
(a)
Draw
the graph of
C = f (F32)
from
to
(b)
4 F F=l.
From
grade equal to
(c)
the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F., 9 F., 14 F., 32 F.
to Fahrenheit readings
:
Change
10
C.,
C.,
1
C.
25.
A body
moving with a uniform
t
velocity of 3 yards per
second moves in
this
seconds a distance d
=3
1.
y=
formula graphically. Represent 26. If two variables x and y are directly proportional, then
cXj
where
c is a constant.
that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume
for c
27.
Show
any convenient number).
If
two variables x and y are inversely proportional, then
y =  where x
c is
a constant.
if c
Draw
the locus of this equation
= 12.
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE
UNKNOWN QUANTITY
Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero, it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192), we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the
195.
that
graph with the o>axis, i.e. the abscissas of 3.24. Therefore x = 1.24 or x =
P and
Q.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
196.
tion x 2
159
To
+2x
solve the equa4 1, de
=
termine the points where If the function is 1.
crosssection paper
is
used,
the points
may
be found
otherwise
by
inspection,
draw through
1) a line parallel to the #axis,
(0,
and determine the
abscis
1
sas of the points of intersection with the graph,
viz.
2 and 1.
197. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0,
+
+ =
where
a, 6,
and
c
represent
\3
2
1
1/2
known
quantities, is called
a quadratic equation. Such equations in general have
two
roots.
Y'
EXERCISE
4x_ 7
74
:
Solve graphically the following equations
1.
0.
10.
or
5
2.
3.
11.
12.
a2 2a;7
2
a 5 = 0. = 0.
a:
(a)
(6)
(c)
6a;f 9
= 0.
4.
6.
z
2
4x
6
a2
6.
13.
(a)
x2
= 0.
7.
8.
14.
(a)
(6)
9.
160
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES
198.
Graph
of
equations involving two
unknown
quantities.
represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2), we can construct the graph or locus of any
Since
we can
=
equation involving two
to the above form.
unknown
quantities, that can be reduced
Thus
to represent
x


L^
\
x
=2

graphically, solve for
?/,
i.e.
y=
A
and construct
x
(

graphically.
Ex.1. Represent graphically
Solving for
y ='"JJ y.
3x
_
4
;
?/,
Hence
if
if
x
x

2,
y y
2,
== 2.
X'2
Locating the points
(2,
4)
and
(2, 2),
and joining by a straight
line,
produces the
7*
required locus.
199.
first
degree,
If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two
y.
Thus
If
in
points without solving the equation for the preceding example:
3x
s
 2 y ~ 2. = 0, y = l.
(f
,
Hence we may
join (0,
1)
and
0).
Ex.2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.
If
x
=
0,
?/
=4
AB.
;
if
y
=
is
0,
fc
= 3.
Hence, locate points
(0,
4) and
them by
straight line
AB
(3, 0), and join the required graph.
NOTE. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations, because their graphs are straight lines.
T
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
161
200. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation, and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in
the locus.
201.
Graphical solution of a linear system.
To
find the roots of
the system.
By
the
method
of
the preceding article construct the graphs
AB
and
and
CD
of
(1)
(2) respectively.
The
every
coordinates
of
point in satisfy the equation
(1),
AB
but only one point
in
AB
also satisfies
(2), viz.
equation
x=
By measuring
3.15,
and CD. P, the point of intersection of the coordinate of P, we obtain the roots,
AB
y
= .57.
202. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their
graphs intersect.
203.
parallel have only one point of intersection, linear equations have only one pair of roots.
Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous
Ex.
3.
Solve graphically the equations
:
(1)
\xy\ 1=0.
(2)
162
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
graph, construct CD the locus of (2)
of intersection,
Using the method of the preceding para, AB the locus of (1), and
.
Measuring the coordinates
of P, the point
we
obtain
Ex.
4.
Solve graphically the
:
fol
lowing system
= =
25,
(1)
(2)
C.
Solving (1) for y,y~ Therefore, if x equals
respectively
0,
V25
5,
x2
.

4,
3,
2,
5,
1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
y equals
3, 0.
3,
4,
4.5,
4.0,
4.9,
4.5,
4,
Locating the
points
(5,0), (4,
and
+ 3), (4,
2 equation x
3), etc.,
obtain the graph (a circle)
AB C
joining, we of the
+
y*
= 25.
Locating two points of equation (2), e.g. (2, 0) and (0, 3), and joining by a
straight line,
3x
2 y = 6. Since the two

we obtain DE, the graph
of
points
roots.
P
graphs meet in two and $, there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of
:
P and Q we find
204.
Inconsistent equations.
The equations
2
4
= 0, = 0,
(1)
(2)
cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y, i.e. they are inconsistent. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2), which consist of a
pair of parallel lines.
intersection,
There can be no point of
and hence no
roots.
In general, parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
205.
'163
Dependent equations, as
2^3
and
3x
f
==l
2y
=6
tical
have identical graphs, and, vice versa, idengraphs indicate dependent equations.
EXERCISE
75
Construct the loci of the following equations:
1.
2.
a+r/=6.
3.
4.
2x
3?/=6.
5.
y
2
4.
7.
8.
y=
a2
2x
y6.
x~y=0.
6.
y=x + 5.
Draw
system,
9.
if possible.
the graphs of the following systems, and solve each If there are no solutions, state reasons.
17.
1
6*
+ 7 y = 3.
10.
.,
a;
y
= 4.
19.
20.
16
22.
16
23.
\
2x
+ 3^
164
24.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
"~
U
#
 14 y =  8.
26.
4 a
= 3(6  y).
25.
28.
29
.
30.
3
31.
Show
that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the
:
three equations
x
f
5y
=
5.
TABLE OF SQUARES, CUBES, AND SQUARE HOOTS
CHAPTER
XIII
INVOLUTION
206.
Involution
is
the operation of raising a quantity to a
Since a power
effected
positive integral power. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.
a special kind of product, involution repeated multiplication.
is
may be
by
207.
Law
of Signs.
fa faa a a a
Obviously
1.
2.
^4/? it
According to 50, 3 f a = f a = + a2
.
.
a
=
a3
,
etc.
follows that
3.
powers of a positive quantity are positive. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.
(
a)
is
positive, (
2 aft ) 9 is
negative.
INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
208.
According to
1.
2.
52,
8.
= a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a
(a
2 3
)
a2
b5
.
a2
6
6
=
?>
2+2 5
5
+ 2 = a. = 6+ 5 + +fi =
fi
62.
on
to in factors
4.
(
3
2
6 3 )*
= (
3 a2 6 8 )
.
(
3 a268 )
(
a 8 = _ (2m )
(8
____ 16 *)"" 27 n
165
166
To find To To
power.
raise
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
the exponent
of the power of a power, multiply tht
raise each of its factors to
given exponents.
a product
to
a given power,
the required power.
raise
a fraction
to
a power, raise
its
terms to the required
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
76
:
(>y.
2.
(a )
2 4

3.
(a )
2 5
.
4.
2 11
(afc )
.
5.
6.
4
/2mV.
(277171
)*.
24.
\ 3 J
'

MW
10.
(2ar).
'
27
'
/
_4_ _4_V '
11.
V
V/
13.
amVy)
3
.
^/2?n?A 4
'
30.
15. 16.
(^^)
2
.
V 3xy )'
INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS
209.
The
square of a binomial
was discussed
in
63.
210.
The
&
cube of a binomial
(a
3
3
_j_
we
obtain by multiplying (a
2 2
+ 6)
1
by
+
and
= a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6)  6) = a  3 a 6 f 3 a6  6 (a
8
8
,
3
2
2
8
.
INVOLUTION
Ex.
1.
167
Find the cube of 2 x f 3 y.
=
s=
(2s)
8 a; 3
3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3
.
Ex.
2.
Find the cube
2
6
n of 3 x*  y
.
(3 x
 y) = (3 y?y  3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a  27 ay + 9 x y2n 2
EXERCISE
77
Perform the operations indicated:
1.
(a
+ &)8
.
7.
8.
9.
.
(5
(1
a)
3
.
13.
3
.
(3af26)
8
.
2.
3.
8
(a??/)
3
.
+
a
2
a;)
14.
(6m+2w)
(3
8
.
(afl)
.
(3
(l
I)
2
8
.
15. 16.
.
a 6
2
8
ft)
.
4.
5. 6.
(m2) 8 (w+w)
3
8
10.
+ 4aj)
3
.
(3a
(a
(4
62
l)
3
.

lx

(7 a
(1
I)
3
17.
(aj7)
.
12.
+5a)
22.
3 8
.
18.
or*

Find the cube root of
19.
:
a
20.
21.
+ 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^
3
2
2
3
.
1 f 3
2
3
.
23.
86
3
w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.
2
.
2
a8 3a2 + 3al.
211. The higher powers of binomials, frequently called ex. pansions, are obtained by multiplication, as follows :
+ 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6)
8
8
2
(a
b*.
4
4
2
2
3
4
.
5
5
4
2
2
3
s
,
etc.
An
1.
examination of these results shows that
:
The number of terms
is
1 greater than the exponent of the
binomial.
TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. nent of the binomial, and decreases in each succeeding term by L
168
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
T7ie
exponent ofb
is
1 in the second term of the result,
and
increases by 1 in each succeeding term.
4.
5.
The The
coefficient coefficient
of the first term is 1. of the second term equals the exponent of the
binomial
6. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a, and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b, is the coefficient of the next term.
Ex.
1.
Expand
(x
=
ic
5
f
5 x*y
+
10
^V +
5
.
10 x*y*
+
2
5 xy*
+ y5
.
Ex.2. Expand (a??/)
x5
5 x4 y
+
10
x'2
(and odd
+
212.
The
minus, since the even powers of
signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive, and the
powers negative.
Ex.
3.
Expand
<?
2 (2 #

3 y3 ) 4
2
.
*
2 4
)
16
ic
8
 4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8  4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y  96 ^y f 216 o?y  216 a^ 4 81 y
2
8 9
8 4
)
.
12
EXERCISE
Expand:
1. 2.
78
s
.
(p + q)
4
*
7.
.
4
(1for)
5
.
13. 14.
(2 4 a)
3
19.
4
.
(mnp
5
I)
5
.
(w
4
?i) 4
.
8. 9.
(
&)
5
.
(m fl)
2
20.
.
(2w
2
2
fl)
4
.
.
3.
(tff1)
(cfd)
.
15. (l
8
.
mn
5
2 5
)
.
21.
(3a f5)
5)
4.
5. 6.
(1
+
4
?/)
.
10.
.
(?/i~w)
:
16.
(m
5
I)
2 22. (2 a
4
.
(mJ)
4
11.
.
(af 5)
.
17.
18.
(m
2
+ n)
8
.
23. 24.
(2a5c)
(1 f 2
4
a:)
4
.
(la&)
4
12.
(a~^)
5
.
(?>i?i
f c)*.
.
25.
(lfa
6 2 ) 5.
CHAPTER XIV
EVOLUTION
213.
tity
;
Evolution
it is
is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution.
\/a
=
x means x n
=
y
?>
a.
V
\/P
214.
1.
27
=y
means
r'
=
27, or y
~
3.
= x means
= 6,
or x
&4 .
It follows
from the law of signs
in evolution that
:
Any
even root of a positive, quantity
may
the
be either 2wsitive
or negative.
2.
Every odd root of a quantity has
same sign as
and
2
the
quantity.
V9 = +
3,
or
3
for
(usually written
3)
;
for (f 3) 2
(
3)
equal
0.
\/"^27=3, (_3) = 27. and ( v/o* = a, for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2, etc.
4
4
,
a)
4
= a4
.
215. Since even powers can never be negative, it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers.
numbers, and
all
other numbers are, for distinction, called real
numbers.
Thus
V^I is an imaginary number, which can be simplified no further.
109
170
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS
The following examples
root
:
are solved
by the
definition of a
,
Ex.1.
Ex.
Ex.
2.
v/^i2
=
a*, for
(a
3
)*
= a 12
.
.
3/0**
= am
,
for (a")"
a
= a mn
3.
v^SjW 3 = 2 a
^/gL^g = * c*
A
82
&c*, for (2
a 2 6c4 ) 8
=
Ex.4.
Ex
5
a"
.lL,for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J
2
2 b'
?*243
ft^c20
216.
index.
To
extract the root
of a power, divide
the exponent
by the
A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.
To extract a root of a fraction, extract the and denominator.
Ex.
6.
roots of the
numerator
\/18
.
14
63
25
= V2 3* = 2 32 6
. .
2
.
.
7
.
7
.
82
.
62
= V2*
.
3i
.
6
7
= 030.
Ex.
7.
VT8226
= V25
2
729
.
= V26TIT81 = 53.9 = 136.
= 19472.
Ex.
8.
Find (x/19472)
Since by definition
( v^)"
= a, we
have (Vl472) 2
Ex.
9.
= 199 + (_ 198)  200  ( 201) = 2.
EXERCISE
1.
79
2
v/2
5
.
3.
fy
5
3
.
5.
V5
v/2
7 2.
7.
V25
9
16.
2.
V?.
V36
9
4.
v/2^.
6.
3
33
53
.
8.
4
v 125 64
5
4
.
9.

100
a
2
.
10.
\/2
4
9
EVOLUTION
171
28.
\/d \Vab
r
+ b\
9.
29.
30. 31.
V8 75 98 3. V20
.
45
V5184. V9216.
2
.
32.
33.
(
VH) + (Vl9)
2
2
 (V200)
f ( VI5)
2
.
2
f
(
V240)
3
.
34.
(
VI5) x ( VT7)
2
2
2
2
x ( V3)
35.
(V2441) ~(V2401)
36.
(Vl24) {
2
EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL
NUMBERS
217.
A
trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is
equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.)
by inspection.
Ex.
1.
Find the square root of a2  6 ofy 2 f 9 y4
.
Hence
_ 6 ary f 9 y = (s  3 y2) ( vV  6 tfif + 9 y = O  3 ;/).
a*
4 8 2
.
116.)
4
3
EXERCISE
80
:
Extract the square roots of the following expressions
1.
a f2
l
2
+ l.
2
.
3.
^40^4 4/.
5.
6.
2.
2yh2/
4

9^ + 60^ +
2
2/ .
172
7.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a
s
.
10. 11.
2
.
8
.
+ 6 + 4a&.
2
49a 8 16 a 4
9.
mV14m??2)f 49;>
13.
14.
15.
12.
 72 aW + 81 &
4
.
#2
a2

16.
a2
+ & + c + 2 a&  2 ac  2 &c.
2 2
218. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial, let us consider the relation of a f b 2 2 to its square, a f 2 ab + b
.
The
term
a'
first
2
.
term a of the root
is
the square root of the
first
The second term
of the root can be obtained
a,
second term 2ab by the double of
by dividing the the socalled trial divisor;
2ab
,
a\b
is
the root
if
In most cases, however,
the given expression is a perfect square. it is not known whether the given
expression is a perfect square, and b (2 a f b), i.e. the that 2 ab f b 2
=
we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a,
and
b,
multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the
as follows
square.
The work may be arranged
2
:
a 2 + 2 ab
+ W \a + b
EVOLUTION
Ex.
1.
173
x*
Extract the square root of 1G
16x4
10 x*
__
 24 afy* f 9 tf.
of x.
Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder, 8 /, we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. As there is no remainder,
Explanation.
The square
,
*/''
,
,
,
,
,
4 x2
3
?/
8 is
the required square foot.
219. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 1, and consider Hence the their sum one term, the first term of the answer.
double of this term
find the next
is
the
new
trial divisor;
by division we
term of the
root,
and so
forth.
Ex.
2.
Extract the square root of
16 a 4
 24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8
s
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
10 a
4
a.

24 a
3
+
25 a 2

12 a
+4
Square of 4 a First remainder.
First trial divisor, 8 a 2 .
First complete divisor, 8 a 2
2.
10 a 4
8
a.
\
24 a 3
4f
a2
10 a 2
Second remainder. 6 a. Second trial divisor, 8 a 2 Second complete divisor, 8 a 2

12 a
+4
a
f 2.
is
As
there
is
no remainder, the required root
(4
a'2
8a
+
2}.
174
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
81
:
Extract the square roots of the following expressions
2. 3.
3 a2 a4
4
2a + a4
2 or 41
3
2 a3
+ 1.
2
x2
3
2x.
2
4.
5. 6.
+ 81 a 454 a + 81. 25 m 20 w + 34 m  12 m 4 9. 412 a& f 37 a' 6  42 a f 49 a 6
16 a4

24 a3
4
J
2
3
3
4
4
.
>
7.
8. 9.
25 x
4
f
40 afy 446 x
2
if 4
24 a^
8
4
9
4
i/
.
16x6 4 73a4 440^436^460^.
l
4.2^43^42^ 46
5
4
a;
4
.
10.
1 4 4 x 4 10 x2 4 20 o 4 25 x 4 4 24
or
.
5
4
16
4
iK .
6
11.
12.
36a 460a 473a 440a 416a
3
2
13.
14.
436^?/469a;V430^425^ 4m 4 12m 5 4 9m 4 20m3 30m 4 25.
36it.
6
6
2
49 a 4
 42 a*& 4 37 a ^  12 a6
2
2
3
4
4 64
.
15.
x
6
4
4 0^4 20
J
or
2
16 x
4 16.
16.
13#4 413ar 44a;6  14^44
ic
4^
3
12^.
17.
18.
4
4?/ 42x
4
3
j/
2xif
6 a5 4 a 6
x*y
2
.
19. 20.
729 4 162 a2 60 a10 4 73 a8
 54 a
40 a
6
4
9 a4 .
.
4
36 a
2
12
4
4
16 a4
4
46 a
4
4
44 a
8
f
25 a
h
12 a
4
4
25 a6 4 40 a
22
.
16
_^ + 2 JX
XT
4a;
24.
a?
2
EVOLUTION
220.
175
The
by a method very similar
expressions.
square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic
Since the square root of 100 is 10; of 10,000 is 100; of 1,000,000 is 1000, etc., the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure, of a number between 100 and 10,000, two figures, etc. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups, beginning at the
and each group contains two digits (except the last, which may contain one or two), then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root, and the square root of the greatest square in
units,
the
consists of
group is the first digit in the root. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits, the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits, the first of which is 4.
first
;
Ex.
1.
Find the square root of 7744.
the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits, the first of which is 8. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number, and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.
From
A
will
show the
comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.
7744 80 6400
1
+8
160
+ 8 = 168
1344
1344
Since a
2 a
Explanation.
= 80,
The
is
trial divisor
=
160.
a 2 = 6400, and the first remainder is 1344. Therefore 6 = 8, and the complete divisor
168.
As
8
x 168
=
1344, the square root of 7744 equals 88.
Ex.
2.
Find the square root of 524,176.
a
f>2'41 '70
6
c
[700
+ 20 + 4 = 724
2 a
a2 = +6=
41)
00 00
1400
+ 20 = 1420
4
341 76
28400
=
1444
57 76
6776
1T6
221.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
In marking
off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point, and if the righthand group contains only one digit, annex a cipher.
places,
we must
Thus the groups
1'67'24.10.
in .0961
are
'.GO'61.
The groups
of 16724.1 are
Ex.
3.
Find the square root of
6/.70
6.7 to three decimal places.
12.688
4
45 2 70
2 25
508
4064
6168 41)600
41344
2256
222.
Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid
ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator, or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.
EXERCISE
Extract the square roots of
:
82
EVOLUTION
Find
177
to three decimal places the square roots of the follow
ing numbers:
29.
30.
37.
feet.
5.
31.
.22.
33.
1.01.
J.
35.
T\.
13.
32.
1.53.
34.
36.
JT
.
Find the
side of a square
whose area equals 50.58 square
38.
Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square
yards.
39.
feet.
TT
Find the radius of a
(Area of a
circle
circle
1 equals irR ,
whose area equals 48.4 square when R = radius and
11.
= 3.1410.)
40.
Find the mean proportional between 2 and
CHAPTER XV
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY
223.
is
A
quadratic equation, or equation of the second degree,
an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number, but no higher power e.g. x 2 7, 6 y2 = 17, ax 2 + bx + c = Q.
;
224. complete, or affected, quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown
A
quantity.
225.
A pure,
or incomplete, quadratic equation contains only
the square of the
axt
unknown quantity. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation.
The
7
equation.
226.
absolute term of an equation
is
the terra which
/
does not contain any
In 4 x 2
unknown
quantities.
is 12.
x
f
12
=
the absolute term
PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
227.
2
ic
= a,
Ex.
A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.
1.
Solve 13 x2 19
etc.,
= 7^ + 5.
6#2 =
x*
24.
Transposing,
Dividing,
= 4.
Extracting the square root of each member, x = + 2 or x
=2.
2.
This answer
Check.
is
frequently written x
13(
2)2
=
7(

19
= 33
;
2)*
+
5
= 33.
178
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.2.
Solve
179
.=g
x2
4 a2
Clearing of fractions, ax
Transposing and combining,
2, Dividing by Extracting the square root,
or
Therefore,
+ 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x =
.
.
4 ax,
,
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
:
83
2.
3.
7 = 162. 0^ + 1 = 1.25. 19 + 9 = 5500.
o;
2 2
a;
4.
5.
16^393 = 7.
15^5 =
6.
7.
8.
(a?
9.
6(2)=10(ajl).
10.
s3
?
+
oj
x
+3
= 4.
2 4fc 5'
18.
'
=:
y?
b*
b
180
on
__!_:L
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
a;
.
22
a;
2
,
'
4,
9
&
{
c#
a
x
+a
and
c.
2a
f
1
23. 24. 25.
27.
If a 2 4 b 2 If s
If
=c
,
find a in terms of 6
.
=
a
2
2
(' 2
solve for solve for
= Trr
,
r.
26.
2
,
If s
= 4 Trr
'
2
,
solve for
r.
If 2
f 2 b*
= 4w
2
f c
sol ve for
m.
28.
If 22
= ~^,
solve for v.
29.
If
G=m m
g
,
solve for d.
EXERCISE
1.
84
is
Find a positive number which
equal to
its
reciprocal
(
144).
2.
A
number multiplied by
ratio of
its fifth
part equals 45.
Find
is
the number.
3.
The
two numbers
(See
is
2
:
3,
and their product
:
150.
4.
Find the numbers.
108.)
of their squares
5.
Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. is 5(5.
2
:
3,
and the sum
The
sides of
two square
fields are as
3
:
5,
and they con
tain together 30G square feet.
Find the side
of each field.
:
6. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2, and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. Find the side of each field.
228.
A
right triangle is a triangle,
is
one of
_____
b
The side right angle. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If the hypotenuse
whose angles
a
units of length, and the two other sides respectively
c
2
contains
c
a and b units, then
Since such a triangle
tangle, its area contains
=a
2
f
b2
.
may
be considered one half of a
rec
square units.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
7.
181
The hypotenuse
of a right triangle
:
is
35 inches, and the
other two sides are as 3
4.
Find the
sides.
8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12, and the third side is 15 inches. Find the unknown sides and the area.
9.
The hypotenuse
of a right triangle is 2,
sides.
is
and the other
two
sides are equal.
Find these
10.
The area
:
sides are as 3
4.
of a right triangle Find these sides.
24,
and the two smaller
11. A body falling from a state of rest, passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet, in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet, (b) 100 feet?
=
.
J
=
12.
The area $
/S
of a circle
2
.
the formula
= Trr
whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S
equals (a) 154 square inches, (b) 44 square feet.
7r
(Assume
and their
=
2 7
2
.)
13.
Two
circles together contain
:
3850 square
feet,
radii are as 3
14.
4.
Find the
radii.
.
8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals
If the radius of a sphere is r, its surface
(Assume
ir
=
2  2
7
.)
COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
229.
Method
of completing the
square.
The following
ex
ample
illustrates the
method
or
of solving a complete quadratic
equation by completing the square.
Solve
Transposing,
 7 x f 10 = 0. x* 7 x=
10.
member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. To find this term, let us compare x 2
The
left
the perfect square x2
2
mx f m
to
2
.
2m, we have
of
or
m = .
add
()
Hence
2
,
make x2
Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square
to
to
which corresponds
m
2
.
182
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
2
Adding
( J)
to each
member,
Or
(*i)
x
Extracting square roots,
Hence
Therefore
Check.
62
x
5
= f. = \ # = ff. or x = 2.
2

.
7
5
+ 10 = 0,
22
7
2
+ 10 =0.
Ex.1.
80^69^2 =
9 x2
sc
Transposing,
15 x
2
Dividing by
9,
= 6. = .  x
Q) 2
to each
Completing the square
(i.e.
adding
member),
Simplifying,
(*~8) a =
at
.
Extracting square roots,
Transposing,
Therefore,
a;
= x\ = 2,

\.
J.
or
J.
230.
Hence
to solve a complete quadratic
:
Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus
formed.
Ex.2.
a
Clearing of fractions,
x
x2 x
x2
+ 2 a2
x
f
a
= 2 ax.
2 a*
a.
Transposing,
Uniting,
2 ax
f 2 o)
s
a
 x(l
=  2 a2  a,
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Completing the square,
183
Simplifying,
Extracting square root, x
 1+2?=
"*"


Vl  4
~
a2
Transposing,
x
= l+ * a
= 1 +2
<*
V IT
*
Therefore
*
Vl
<
EXERCISE
85
184
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
45
46.
2x
3
4.
= 12.
x
la
48.
o^
or
}
3 ax == 4 a9
7 wr
.
49.
=8
r/io?.
=0.
231.
Solution
by formula.
2
Every quadratic equation can be
reduced to the general form,
ao; \bx\ c
= 0.
article,
Solving this equation we obtain
by the method of the preceding
2a
The
roots of
substituting the values of a,
any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6, and c in the general answer.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.
1.
185
Solve 5 x2
= 26 x5.
5 x2
Transposing,.
20 x
Hence
Therefore
a
=
5,
b
= 
+ 20
==
= 0. 26, c = 5. V^tT)*  4
4
5
.
6
.
6
10
2024 =6or
10
l.
6
Ex.
2.
Solve
2
j>o?
p*x
x
px*
a
2
p.
Reducing
to general form,
Hence
Therefore
=p
1
t
b
=
(p
2
+
1), c
p.

P +
VQ^+T? ^4^
EXERCISE
Solve by the above formula
1. 2.
3.
:
86
+ 2 = 0. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.
2or
}
5o;
11.
12. 13. 14.
2
a?
= 44 x  15 x9 25x* =
21
.
2
a;
4.
6.
6.
15.
16.
7. 8.
= 64120?.
17.
18.
a;
= 12  25 x. 6^+5^ 56. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64
7 x2
2 2
a;
2
.
TIO;
?i
2
.
9.
19.
10.
20.
21.
2
o;

186
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
to
Find the roots of the following equations
places
:
two decimal
22. 23.
24.
25.
x2
= 1  x.
26.
x(x
<2
 4) =  2.
2S3x
1
2
.
3x?+x = 7.
ar>8o;
= 14.
27
x==
42a; a=:i^^.
a?
28

7al=7s
be required to solve the
232.
Solution
by
factoring.
Let
it
e(l uation:
5^ + 5=26*;
all
or,
transposing
terms to one member,
Eesolving into factors,
(5
a?
!)( 5) =0.
factors
Now, if either of the
uct
is zero.
Bx
1
1,
or #
5
is zero,
Therefore the equation will be satisfied
5x
_,
the prodif x has
(1) (2)
such a value that either
or
a? 5
Solving (1) and (2),
= 0, = 0.
we
x
obtain the roots
=^
or x
= 5.
any degree,
233. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other
factored.
member can be
Ex.
1.
Solve a*=
7a? + 15x
2 2*
.
Clearing for fractions,
=7
x
se
2
2
+
16 x.
Transposing,
Factoring,
2a^7x
sc(2
16rc
Therefore
a = 0, Hence the equation has three
+ 3) (x 2xf3=0, orz
roots, 0,
5)
= 0. = 0. 5 = 0.
and
6.
},
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.
2.
187
Solve x?
3x
x*(x
2
4x
+ 12 = 0.
3)
Factoring,

3)
2
4 (x
= 0.
Or Hence the
234.
4)(z3) = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.
O
roots are 2,
2, 3.
members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity, the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. In order
If both
to obtain all roots of the original equation, such a common divisor must be made equal to zero, and the equation thus
formed be solved.
E.g. let
it
be required to solve
If or x
we
divide both
= 2.
members by x But evidently the value x
3
3,
we
9
obtain x 4 3
=5
or
=
2
3 obtained from the 5 (x
or x
equation x
(x
=
is also
a root, for
a:
 3)(x + 3
3.
is
5) = 0.
Therefore x
=3
= 2.
3)
= 0,
Ex.
Form an
equation whose roots are 4 and
6.
The equation
I.e.
evidently
(x
Or
4)(x  ( 6)) = 0. (aj4)(a; + 6)=0. x2 f 2 x  24 = 0.
EXERCISE
Solve by factoring
6
2.
3.
:
87
= 0.
a?.
9.
0^
+
21
= 10
10.
4.
ar'Sa^ 12. a* 10a=24.
0^
ar>
11.
12.
13. 14.
5.
6.
+ 100;= 24. + 10 a = 24. + 8=s:
7.
7.
8.
a?10a=:24.
aj(
15.
16.
5 = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a;:=0. 3# y 5 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 0(02) = 7(02).
2o3 f9a;
3
or
2
a;
}
2
2
(5
188
17.
f
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA
tt(3tt
+ 7tt)=6tt.
2.
19.
w(w
x2
2
w)=6tt.
a 2 =(x
a)b.
18.
uz + u
21.
20.
(a
+ 1) (a 3) = (s + l) (3 a).
22. (2a?
3) (a
24.
25.
+ 2)=
(y( j_
?
(+ 3)(a?+2).
27.
23.
or
3
a 2
2
a?
26.
ara +
ft
+ c*.
50.
'3a!J 
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Form
51.
52.
189
the equations whose roots are
53.
:
3,1.
3,
2, 5.
0,9.
55.
1,
2,3.
57.
58.
1,2,3.
2,0, 2.
4.
54.
56.
2,3,0.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS
in general two answers, but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers, and consequently many prob
235.
Problems involving quadratics have
lems of this type have only one solution.
EXERCISE
1.
88
its reciprocal
A
number increased by three times
equals
6J.
2.
3.
Find the number.
Divide CO into two parts whose product
is 875.
The
difference of
.
of their reciprocals is
4.
two numbers is 4, and the difference Find the numbers.
is
Find two numbers whose product
288,
and whose sum
is
is 36.
5.
The sum
of the squares of
two consecutive numbers
85.
6.
What
are the
numbers
of
?
is
The product
two consecutive numbers
210.
Find
the numbers.
7.
8.
Find a number which exceeds
its
square by
is
.
Find two numbers whose difference
is 40.
G,
and whose
product
9.
number by 10. The
11.
Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the number.
its
sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches, and equals 190 square inches. Find the sides.
area
A
a perimeter of 380
rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. feet.
190
12.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The length
1
B
AB of a rectangle, ABCD, exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet, and the line BD joining
two opposite
vertices (called "diagonal")
feet.
.
c equals 221
Find
AB and AD.
13.
The diagonal
:
tangle as 5 4, and Find the sides of the rectangle.
14.
of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches.
A man
A man
sold a
as the watch cost dollars.
15.
watch for $ 24, and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch.
as the
16.
watch cost
sold a watch for $ 21, and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. dollars. sold a horse for $144,
A man
cent as the horse cost dollars.
17.
and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.
Two steamers
and
is
of 420 miles.
other,
ply between the same two ports, a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. At what rates do
the steamers travel ?
18. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster, it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. Find the rate
of the train.
19. Two vessels, one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other, start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively, and the slower reaches its destination one day
before the other.
vessel sail ?
How many
miles per hour did the faster
If 20. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2.10. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple, he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. What did he pay for each
apple ?
A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. had paid $ 20 less for each horse, he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for
21.
If he
each horse ?
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
22.
is
On the prolongation of a line AC, 23 inches long, a point taken, so that the rectangle, constructed with and CB as sides, contains B 78 square inches. Find and CB.
B
AB
AB
2
191
grass plot, 30 feet long and 20 feet wide, is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot, how wide is the walk ?
23.
24.
A rectangular
A
circular basin is surrounded
is

by a path 5
feet wide,
and the area of the path
the radius of the basin.
of the area of the basin.
Find
TT r (Area of a circle .) 25. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work, and working together, the two men can do it in 3 days. In how many days can B do the work ?
=
26.
Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude
equals 3 inches.
27. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ?
236.
EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form
if it
contains only two unknown terms, and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the
other, as
0,
^3^ = 7,
(tf I) 4(aj*l)
2
= 9.
237. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.
Ex.
1.
Solve
^9^ + 8 =
**
0.
By formula,
=9
Therefore
x
=
\/8
= 2,
or x
= \/l = 1.
192
238.
stitute
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA
In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.
2.
Ex.
Let
x
+ 15 =
J
<
Then
or
or
rf 15
=
0,
y8)=0.
Hence
Le.
Solving,
>,
or y
=
8.
=
1,
EXERCISE
Solve the following equations
1.
4
a; 4
:
89
10a; 2 h9:=0.
436
3.
a4 5o;2 =4. a 21or=100.
9.
4
6.
6.
4
8 = 2 a*
2.
a;
= 13.T
2
2
.
4.
7.
8.
3 a4
44s + 121=0.
4
2
4
37aj 2 = 9.
2
16 a^40
11. 12.
aV+9o
4
=0.
10.
(a:
+aj)
18(x2 +a;)+72=0,
2 (^Z) 
"3
14.
a?
15
1=2*. T
17.
18.
19.
16.
^^
~ 28
(a?
^ 2:=Q>
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
193
CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS
239.
The quadratic equation
oa/*
2
f
bx
f
c
=
has two roots,
(
2a
Hence
1.
it
2a
follows
2
:
2.
If b Ifb* 2 If b
Iflr
4 ac
is
is is
4c
4 ac
a positive or equal to zero, the roots are real. negative, the roots are imaginary. a perfect square, the roots are rational.
kac
4 ac
is 'not
a perfect square, the roots are irrational.
the roots are equal.
3.
Ifb 2 Jfb
2
is zero, is
4ac
not zero, the roots are unequal.
240. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4 bx 4 c
4 ac
is
called the discriminant of
= 0.
Ex. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2  2 z  f> = 0. The discriminant =( 2) 2 4 3 ( 5) = 04.
.
Hence the roots are
real, rational,
and unequal.
Ex. 2. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2  12 x + 9 = 0.
Since
(
12)
2
4
4
9
= 0,
c
the roots are real, rational, and equal.
241.
Relations between roots and coefficients.
are denoted
__
Tl
If the roots of
the equation ax2 4 bx 4
by
'
i\
and r2 then
,
b 4 Vfr 2
4 ac
T*
b
Vi
,
2
4 ac
2a
Hence
/ 1
4r2
=
a
Or
194
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
2
a?
these results
If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows
:
x +a += a
0,
If the
(a)
coefficient
ofx
2
in
a quadratic equation
is
is
unity,
The sum of the roots
equal
is
to the coefficient
of x with
the
sign changed.
(b)
The product of the roots
equal to theubsolute term,
f
2 E.g. the sain of the roots of 4 x
5 x
3
=:
is
j, their
product
isf.
EXERCISE
89 a
Determine without solution the character of the roots of the
following equations
1.
2.
2
:
3.
4.
= 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0.
o;
lla; + 18
2
8.
5aj
9.
x2 7
10.
+ 2a;. = 5x. 12~x = x
2
.
2
a;
n
a?3
'
~ ==
l
5.
6.
^12.
3a;2
+ 4a: + 240 = 0.
12.
10 x
= 25 x + 1.
2
7.
9x2 ~
the
In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots:
13.
14. 15.
= Q. 9a3 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.
x2 !i>x + 2
z2
2
16.
17.
18.
= 0. tfmx+p^Q. 5oj aj + l = 0.
Sa^ +
2
Ooj
2
Solve the following equations and check the answers by
forming the sum and the product of the roots
19.
:
a 2  19 #
20.
21.
ar
+ ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0.
60
2
= 0.
22. 23.
24.
x2 4 x
0^
or
j
+
205
= 0. = 0. +
12
2

CHAPTER XVI
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
242. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters
:
I.
II.
a m a" = a m+t1 . ~ a m f a" = a m n
mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm
a
,
provided
w > n.*
III.
m
IV.
(ab)
.
The
first
of these laws
is
nition of power, while the second of the first.
the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences
FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
243.
no
Fractional and negative exponents, such as 2*, 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power, and
,
we may choose
for such
symbols any definition that
is
con
venient for other work.
It is, however, very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws; hence, instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents, we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true.
244.
We assume,
>
m therefore, that a
an
= a m+n
,
for all values
1
of
m and n.
Then the law
of involution, (a m ) w
;
= a""
<
,
must be
*The symbol
smaller than."
means "is greater than"
195
similarly
means "is
196
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
true for positive integral values of n, since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.
Assuming these two
8*,
n 2 a, 4~ , a ,
etc.
laws,
we
try to discover the
let the
meaning of
In every case we
unknown quantity
and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative, fractional, or zero exponent
equal
x,
disappear.
245.
To
find the
meaning
of
a fractional exponent;
a*.
e.g. at.
Let
x
is
The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.
Hence
Or
Therefore
Similarly,
^=(a^)
3*
3
.
= a.
0?=^.

we
find
a?
Hence we
define a* to be the qth root of of.
Write the following expressions as radicals :
22.
23.
m$.
a?*.
24. 25.
a\
26. (xy$.
28.
(bed)*.
30.
'&M
A
27. 3*.
29. as.
31. ml.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
Express with fractional exponents
32.
\fi?.
:
197
33.
v/o&cT
34.
ty?.
38.
35.
v'mT
36.
Vo5
.
37.
\/xy
\/m.\/n.
Solve the following equations
39. 40.
:
2'
4*
= 4.
41.
a*
*
= 3.
43.
3*
= 27.
45.
5 a*
= 10. = 49.
= 2.
42.
= 2.
44.
27*
= 3.
46.
7z*
Find the values of
47.
:
4*
+ 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.
48.
49.
50.
64*
+ 9* + 16* + (32)*.
246.
To
find the
meaning
of zero exponent, e.g.
a.
Let
a = a.
is
The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a, e.g. a *
a2
Or
a=l.
is
Therefore the zero power of any number
NOTE.
If,
equal
to unity.
however, the base
is
zero,
5L is indeterminate
Indeterminate.
a
;
hence
is
198
247.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
To
find the
meaning
of a negative exponent, e.g.
cr n.
Let
x=
or".
Multiplying both members by
a",
an x = a.
Or
a"#
= l.
248. Factors
may
be transferred
from
the
numerator
to
the
denominator of a fraction, or
the exponent.
vice versa,
by changing the sign of
NOTE.
each
is
The
fact that a
if
=
we
It loses its singularity
1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations, in which
obtained from the preceding one by dividing both
members by
a.
a8 a
2
=
1
1
.
a
a
a
= =
a a a
a1
1
a 2
=
a2
,
etc.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
Find the values of:
91
199
Express with positive exponents
21.
22.
:
or 5 .
25.
6 or 2
^^ ^. 3
a;
27.
.
*
24.
7~ l a 2b 2
.
""^T"*'
Write without denominators
29.
:
* 31
l>
'
<W*
arV
8
30.
^L. c
32.
^?2 y'
34.
Write with radical signs and positive exponents
35.
36.
37.
:
mi
m~^.
40.
f
(2w)~i
1
.
44.
a^
41.
66
45.
1 L
?>i""i
3
cci
,
2
.
a;"*
38.
39.
3
a?
*
42.
m
.
2
.
2m~i
43.
rfS.
200
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Solve the equations
46. 47.
48.
49.
= l. ar = i. 2 =f 3* = f
x~
l
50.
17'
2
51.
52.
53.
z*
= 1. = 5.
= .001.
54. 55.
10*
5*
= .1. = ^.
z
5or*=10.
10*
Find the values
56. 57. 58.
59.
of:
3ll4~*
60.
61.
+ 1~* f 21  9*. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 *  81 f (a  6).  (.008)* + A. + A_. (.343)* + (.26)*
1
(I)
2
.
5

75
USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS
249. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law, and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. It then follows
that:
Fractional and negative exponents
may
be treated by the
same
methods as positive integral exponents.
250.
Examples relating
to roots can be reduced to
examples con
taining fractional exponents.
Ex.
1.
(a*&~*)*
+
(aVM = a*&~* +
V
'
=
'*&*
Ex 2
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
251.
201
Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as
:
follows
(a)
(6)
(c)
Write
all radical
signs as fractional exponents.
Perform the operation indicated.
Remove
the negative exponents.
(d) If required,
remove the fractional exponents.
Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division, etc., are performed.
NOTE.
EXERCISE
Simplify
:
92
2.
&.&.&.$".$*.
72
.
OA 20.
3.
79
.
7~ 5
27

.
7~ 6
.
4
5.
6.
25
26

2~ 8
2~ 9
22.
a 3
aj"
a 4
a8
.
3sVS.
/ 7fv 7.
3 a 4
2 a?
2 ar 1
.
23.
7.
6a.5a.
6 * 6 *' 6 *25.
8
'
9.
7*.7i.7*.7W.
.
,
26.
4 x^.
10.
#*
a;
'
11.
12.
13.
V5.^/5^5.
95 ^9i
5** 5.
27

28.
14.
16. 16. 17.
S'sS8.
__ 29
/m '=V
a9 ia 4
.
14an
(4**(Va)
4
.
18.
202
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
32.
V ra
4/
3
\/m
33.
34.
6
35.
40.
we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that, the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The
252.
If
powers of
a?,
powers of x arranged are
:
Ex.
1.
1 Multiply 3 or
+x
5 by 2 x
x.
1.
Arrange in descending powers of
Check.
lix
=
2xl
=+1
Ex.
2.
Divide
by
^
2a
3 qfo
4 2 d
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
210
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Express as surds of the same lowest order
25.
V3,
</2.
29.
2\
3*.
32.
26.
A/2, s!/3.
v/3,
30. 31.
V2,
A/3,
^5.
^7.
33.
V3,
</3, ^4.
27.
28.
^2.
V2.
v^S, \/5,
34.
^2, ^4,
</20.
\/7,
Arrange
35.
v/3,
in order of
magnitude :
\/7,
V2.
^6.
37. 38.
VS.
^/IT,
39.
5V2, 4^/4.
^2,
36.
v/4,
V5,
^126.
40.
^3, ^30.
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS
265.
To add or
form. terms
their
If the resulting surds are similar,
(i.e.
subtract surds, reduce them to their simplest add them like similar
add
their coefficients) ; if dissimilar, connect
them by
proper
1.
signs.
Ex.
Simplify
V + 3 VlS 2 V50.
I
VJ + 3VT8  2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2  10 V2 = 
V2.
Ex.2. Simplify/a35
~
o  3\
.
+
,
3:
\/=^8
v~
8ft 2 s/a;
3 
s/
/
3ft 2

3
^y
Ex.
3.
Simplify
V~
RADICALS
EXERCISE
97
:
211
Simplify the following expressions
2.
2V87Vl8f5V72V50.
VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
3.
4.
V18+V32VT28+V2.
V175V28+V634V7.
6.
6.
VJ+V8V1 + V50.
4V805V45.3V20 + 6V5.
8VT8J2V32
7.
8.
+ 3V835V2.
9.
10.
11. 12.
13. 14.
V45c3
3 abv'ab
V80~c~3
f
V5a c + c
2
+ 3 aVo^
3 Va^
;J
a6 V4
aft.
212
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.
23.
98 ab
^"
fab
1
"
.fab
V
\~\
jab
FW
MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS
266.
the
Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational
factors,
for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order, and
then multiplied.
Ex.
1.
Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y
3v
/
2
.
26^
.
5 4/6072
=
16^6272.
6*. y*
=
Ex.
2.
Multiply
V2 by
3\/l.
Ex.
3.
 2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 5 V7
8\/7
6\/7 2v/6 + IPV6
105 6V35
106
460V35100  100 = f 44 VS6
6
+ 44\/36.
RADICALS
EXERCISE
1.
213
98
11.
12.
13.
14. 15.
2.
3. 4.
V3 Vl2. V2 V50. V3 V6.
6. 7.
VlO V15.
Vll.VSS. V20 V30.
v/4.^/2.
\/3
\^).
v/18
v"3.
8.
9.
V5 Va
VaV?/
V
Vr
16.
VTO.
V42.
aVa; 6 V4
5.
10.
a?.
fWa
17.
18. 19.
V2aV8^.
25.
(V2+V3+V4)V3.
(5V22V3CVS)V3.
(3
20. 27.
21.
28
.
+ VB)(2V5).
40
10
30.
(VmVn)(Vm+Vn>
33.
(
Vm
\
1
Vm) (Vmf 1
6(Vaf Va
{
Vm).
6.
34.
(Va
Va
36.
(6V23V3)(6V23V3).
37.
38.
(5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2).
(VmVn)
(V3V2)
8
.
40. 41.
(V6 + 1)
1
.
39.
2
.
(2V3)
8
.
214
42.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA
(3V55V3)
S
.
43.
44.
(3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).
(2
45.
V3  V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).
46.
(5V72V2)(2VT7V2).
(5V2+V10)(2V51).
47.
48.
49.
(3V52V3)(2V3V3).
60.
51.
52.
Va
v/a.
53.
v/a

DIVISION OF RADICALS
267. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the
surd factors.
E.y. a
VS
f
a?Vy
= \/ 
x*y
this
Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of
the same order,
all
monomial surds may be divided by
method.
Ex.
Ex.
268.
is
1
2.
(V50f 3Vl2)4V2==
however, the quotient of the surds
is
If,
a fraction,
it
more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.
RADICALS
This method, called rationalizing the
the following examples
:
215
divisor, is illustrated
by
Ex.
by V7.
1.
Divide
VII by v7.
we have
to multiply
In order to make the divisor (V?) rational,
VTL_Vll '
~~"
\/7_V77
;
,
/~
}
Ex.
The
2.
Divide 4 v^a by
is
rationalizing factor
evidently \/Tb
hence,
4\/3~a'
36
Ex.
3.
Divide 12 V5
+ 4V5 by V.
is
Since \/8
12 Vil
=
2 V*2, the rationalizing factor
x
' g
\/2,
+ 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8
V2 V2
269. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators, arithTo find, e.g., metical problems afford the best illustrations.
 by the usual arithmetical method, we have
V3
But
if
1.73205
we
simplify
JLV^l
V3
*>
^>
division
Either quotient equals .57735. Evidently, however, the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by
1.73205.
Hence
in arithmetical
work
it
is
always best to
rationalize the denominators before dividing.
216
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
99
Simplify :
1.
^/H
.
7.
V8?^
V7 xy
T
13
11 n
V7
~
VH
5 2.
Vn
V7
'
*
8.
VffV?.
14.
2V5
'
2 V3
o
vfi*
'
^
Va
12.
Vll
212*.
.
and
Given
V2 = 1.4142, V3 = 1.7320,
i.
20.
V5 = 2.2361,
21.
find to
four decimal places the numerical values of:
19.
A.
V3
24
.
V2
22
.
V8
12..
23
.
A.
V8
JL.
V48
25.
V5
270.
if
4=V50
Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate, they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.
Va + Vb
and
Va
Vb
are conjugate surds.
271.
The product of two conjugate binomial surds
is
rational
,
272.
To
rationalize the denominator of a fraction
whose denom
inator is
a binomial quadratic surd, multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.
RADICALS
Ex.
1.
217
Simplify
2V3V2
'
V3V2
~
= 4 + V5.
Ex.2.
s
Simplify
a;
 vffi^T _  Vs2  1 xVtf
a;
Ex.
3.
Find the numerical value of
:
V2 + 2 2V21
e
,
V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.= 18.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1
EXERCISE
Eationalize the denominators of
:
100
.
.
V82
2V3
1fVS
218
6
.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
13
~3
V51
14
A
16.
6V7.W3.
19.
V52
17
1Va?
Vg+v/2
5V77V5
'
V3V2
15.
V5V7
18>
^SVg.
2V5V18
mVm
Va
22.
Given V2 1.4142, four places of decimals
23
.
=
V3 = 1.7320,
:
and
V5 = 2.2361;
27.
find to
_!_.
V21
=
25
.
J?_.
Vo1
26.
v
2V3
28.
24.
V3 + 1
1+V5
_
3V5
'
V5+2
31.
V32*
to 1
Find the third proportional
+ V2
and 3
f
2V2.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS
273.
By
the use of fractional exponents
.
it
can easily be
shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence
3 V25~ = ( V25) 3  5 3 = 125.
RADICALS
219
274. In other examples of involution and evolution, introduce fractional exponents
:
Ex.
1.
Simplify
Ex.
2.
Find the square
of
EXERCISE
Simplify
1.
:
101
(3Vmw)
2
.
5.
V643
.
9.
2.
3.
3
(V2~u)

7.
\/l6*.
11.
4.
V255
.
8.
\/125" .
2
12.
SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS
275.
To
find the square root of a binomial square
by
inspection.
According to
G3,
(
V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3
2
= 8 + 2 VIS.
v8f 2\/15, the If, on the other hand, we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form
v52V3 5 + 3.
To reduce
is
two numbers whose sum 5 and 3.
it to this form, we must find 8 and whose product is 15, viz.
220
Ex.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
l.
Find
Vl2 4 2 \/20.
is
Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.
12
and whose product
is 20.
These
Ex.
2.
Find
Vll  6 V2.
coefficient of the Irrational
Write the binomial so that the
term
is 2.
^TT 6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.
is 11,
2 \/18.
and whose product
is 18.
The
Hence
^11  6\/2
= ^9  2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3  A/2.
+2
Ex.
3.
Find
V4 + VJ8.
EXERCISE
102
:
Extract the square roots of the following binomials
RADICALS
Simplify the following expressions
18.
:
221
Vl32V22.
19.
+=. r
22.
*
4
*
2 V6
VT 4. V48
23.
VT  V48
4
20.
.
V4 + V12
RADICAL EQUATIONS
276.
A
radical equation is
an equation involving an irrational
root of an
unknown number.
5,
\/x
Vx =
+ 3 = 7,
(2x
xrf
1,
are radical equations.
277. Radical equations are rationalized,
i.e.
they are transto
formed into rational equations, by raising both members
equal powers. Before performing the involution, examples to simplify the equation as
it is
necessary in most
as possible,
much
and
to
transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one
member.
If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.
first
involution,
Ex.1.
Solve
vVf!2a = 2.
a;,
Transposing
Vsc2
+
f
12 12
Squaring both members,
Transposing and uniting,
Dividing by
Check.
4,
x2
= x f 2. = xa + 4 x f 4.
8.
4x
x
= 2.
member
to 2.
The value x
=2
reduces each
222
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA
Solve
V4 x + 1 f V4
f
1
,
a; f
25
= 12.
V4afT~l.
24 \/4 #
Transpose
V4 x
Squaring both members,
Transposing and uniting,
Dividing by 24, Squaring both members,
Therefore
CftecAr.
= 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. \/4 jc~+~l = 5.
Vitf
4x
f
25
f
25
4x
f
1
25.
V24~+~l
= 0. f V/2TT25 = 5 +
x
7
=
12.
278.
Extraneous
roots.
tion usually introduces a
new
Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root.
one
root, viz. 5.
4#f 4 = 9, an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. tion which has two roots, viz. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1, a socalled extraneous root.
radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members, the roots found are not necessarily roots of
the given equation
279.
;
they
may
be extraneous roots.
The
results
of
the solution
of radical equations must be
substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are
true roots or extraneous roots.
Ex.
3.
Solve Vx
f
Squaring both members,
x
+
1
+ 2 Vx'2 +
1
x
+
(.
Transposing and uniting, 2 Vx^
Dividing by 2, Squaring both members,
Transposing,
Factoring,
Therefore
Check.
It
= 3 x  3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0.  1) = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3, or =
VzMx2
7
x
f
f 7
x
+
9.
at
.
x
=
J,
the
first
member
= V2.
member =\/2
+ jV2=v^;
RADICALS
Hence x
If
a;
;
223
x
= 3,
\ does not satisfy the given, equation it is an extraneous root. both members reduce to 5. Hence there is only one root, viz.
=
3.
If the signs of the roots were not restricted, x root of the preceding equation, for it satisfies the equation
.
NOTE.
=
}
would be a
VaT+T
Ex.
4.
4
VxT~0 = \/8 x
f 1.
Solve
Vz+T + V2aT+3 =
+ "b"x
f
A5_
15.
2 Clearing of fractions, V2x'
8
42x43
Transposing,
Squaring,
Transposing,
Factoring,
Therefore,
+ 6~ieT~3  12  2 r. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144  48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0.  3) (2 x  47) = 0. (x x = 3, or x *j.
ViTie
4 z2
.
Check.
If
If
x
3
= 3,
is
x
V,
tlie Jeft
both members reduce member = 12T V2, and
to 5.
the right
member
=
V2.
Hence x
=
the only root.
Solve the following equations
:
= G.
* Exclude
all
solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which
make
the given radicals imaginary.
224
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
280.
Many
1.
radical equations
may be
solved by the method
of
238.
Ex.
Solve
af* 33
af*
+ 32=0.
Factoring,
Therefore
RADICALS
Raising both members to the
 power,
225
x
= 32~*
or 1"*
= ^ or
1.
Ex.
2.
Solve x*
8x
x*
Adding 40 to both members,
Let
8 x f 40
 8 x + 40 = 36,
+ 40 =
Vz2
$x + 40 = y,
y
then x2  8 x
2
Hence
y'
2y
= 35.
_ 2 y  35 = 0.
= 7,
or y or
Therefore
2
y
=
5.
 8 z40 = 7,
Vi 2 8a;f40=
5.
2_8z 440 = 49,
= 26.
x
Since both
=9
or
1.
x
=6
or
3.
members of the equation were squared, some of the roots be extraneous. Substituting, it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation, while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. This can be seen without substituting, for 6 and 3 are the roots of the
may
2 equation Vx'
8x
it
positive values,
+ 40 = 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.
EXERCISE
104*
its
Solve the following equations:
1. 2.
x + Vx
a?
= 6.
3
6.
2Va;
= 0.
3.
4.
412a* = 16. 45 14VJB =
.
5.
o;*2a;i~24 = 0.
make
the given radicals
* Exclude extraneous roots and roots which
imaginaries.
Q
226
11.
or
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
8a
f
40
2
V*
2
8.a
440
= 35.
12.
a^x2
5
2
13. 14. 15. 16. 17.
18.
+x
;
4
V
SB*
4
a;
+3=
6.
ar
fll x 3x
12 V5l?
+1 1^7^30 =
1
^
+ G V2^"^I + 2 =
4.
19.
a;
2
7a?HV^
3
7a;f 18
= 24.
2.
20.
6
Va?~3o~
= y?
3 x f
CHAPTER
XVIII
THE FACTOR THEOREM
281. If x*  3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?), then
or*
2
and there
is
a
3 x2 f 4 a;
f
8
=
(a?
2)
x Quotient
f
Remainder.
"
Or, substituting Q " and
ani^
^
2
respectively for
Quotient
"
and
Remainder,"
transposing,
a?
R = x*  3 x + 4 + 8 As
72
(a?
 2) Q
.
does not contain a?, could, if Q was known, assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. = 2, then (x 2)Q 0, no matter If, however, we make a? what the value of Q. Hence, even if Q is unknown, we can find the value of R by making x = 2.
to x
we
# = 2 3 2 + 4 2 + 80 = 12.
3
2
Ex. 1. Without actual division, by dividing 3 x* f 2 x 5 by x 3.
Let
then
find the
remainder obtained
z
= 3,
^ = 381+2.360 = 244.
Ex. 2. Without actual division, find the remainder when m. ax4 4 bx? + ex2 4 <fo f e is divided by x
Let
then
2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w, R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.
E = ax + &z +
m) Q.
227
228
282.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The Remainder Theorem. x is divided by x
The remainder
6
sion involving
If an integral rational expresm, the remainder is obtained
by substituting in the given expression
E.g.
of the division 3)
is
m in place of x.
5
(4x
 4x411)^0 +
4
(
3)
 4( 3)f
11
= 949.
The remainder obtained by dividing
(x
+ 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X 
1)
+7
by x 
1 is 6*
3
.
+ 7 = 632.
EXERCISE
Without actual division
dividing
:
105
find the
remainder obtained by
2.
3.
+ 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.
x*
s
2
4.
5.
a100 50 a47
4
48 a2
b.
}
2 by
a1.
x5 a^
7
b
5
by x
6.
+ ^by x + b.
+ 6.
2
j
7. 8.
a f b 7 by a
^14y
~132/

283.
If the remainder
is zero,
the divisor
is
a factor of the
dividend.
The Factor Theorem.
ing x becomes zero
x8
3 x2 2 4
when
2 x
If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x, x
m
is
factor of the expression.
43
3
E.g.
if
8
42

 8'= 0,
hence (x
divided by x 4, the remainder equals 8 2 x  8. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x



00 *.
fora?.
Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted
TEE FACTOR THEOREM
Ex.
The
5,
229
1.
Factor a?
15.
7
2
a?
2
f
7a?f 15.
i.e.
+ 15, _
,
factors of the absolute term,
15, are f 1,
1,
f
3,
8, f 5,
Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a; f 15 does not vanish. Let x =  1, then x8 7 x'2 4 7 x + 15 = 0. Therefore x ( 1), or x 4 1, is a factor. x8
By
dividing by x
a?8
f 1,
we obtain
7

7
x2
+
x
+
16
= (x +
l)(x
2

8
a;
f
16)
EXERCISE
Without actual
1.
106
division,
show that
divisible
4x
2
j
+3x
2
a?
2
2
as
5
is
or
2
by
is
a;
1.
2.
3.
or
5
4
+ 3^  7
f
5a
18
divisible
by x
2.
x*
34
ar
5
225
is
divisible
by x
5.
Resolve into factors
4.
5.
6.
3
2
:
7.
2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 8. a 5x 6. a 2a + 4. 9. 2m 5m  13m + 30 10. a 8a f 19 a 12. p 5^ + 8p 4. 11. & p* 9^ + 23^15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. m f m n 14. a + 32.
8
}3
3
2
3
s
2
3
4
8
2
2
4
s
3
t
.
5
Solve the following equations by factoring
15.
1ft
:
ar*f 6aj
2
o?5ar
3
l
+ lla;r6 = 0. + ttt15 = 0.
21.
2 2.
23. 24.
25.
17.
18.
^10^429^20=0.
oj
5x2 f3a;49 = 0.
a?
19.
20.
a^8^ + 19a;12 = 0. 7 46 = 0.
a;
+ 27 + 27.  7 + 16  12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^
or*
f
9
or*
2
a?
aj?
a?
a?
2
4
3
230
285. If n is a Theorem that
1.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
positive integer,
it
follows from the Factoi
xn y n is always divisible by x y. For substituting y for x, xn y n y n y n = 0.
2.
xn f y n is divisible by x f ?/, if n For ( y) n f y n = 0, if w is odd.
actual division
n,
is
odd.
By
we obtain the other
factors,
and have
for
any positive integral value of
If n
is
odd,
ar
+p=
z6
e.g.

y
5
=
(x

can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y, if n is even.
286.
It
y is
not divisible by
287.
Two
special cases of the preceding propositions are of
viz.
:
importance,
x* f/
= (x +/)O  xy +/),
2
Ex.
1.
Factor 27 a* f
27 a 6
8.
2 8 (3 a )
+8=
+
288.
The
difference of
two even powers should always be
considered as a difference of two squares.
Ex.
2.
Factor
consider
m
m
6
n9
.
We may
6
n 6 either a difference of two squares or a
dif
* The symbol
means " and so forth to."
THE FACTOR THEOREM
ference of two cubes.
leads
231
is
The
first
method, however,
preferable, since
it
more
directly to the prime factors.
Hence
= (m
Ex.
3.
f
n)(m
2
mn
f
w 2 )(wi
;i
mn
f
w 2).
Factor a 12
EXERCISE
Resolve into prime factors
:
107
Solve the following equations:
25.
x3 8=0.
26.
y
3
+8=0.
27.
as 27=0.
28. a;=
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
289. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
xy
x*y
f
y = 4 is of the second degree. + 6 a?V  y4 is of the fifth degree.
290.
Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un
known
quantities lead, in general, to equations of the fourth few cases, however, can be solved by the methods degree. of quadratics. *
A
I.
EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING
x
+y
AND xy
291. If two of the quantities x f y, x y, xy are given, the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy
Ex.1.
Squaring
Solve
(1),
==5
>
1^ = 4.
& + 2 xy +
= 25. 4 xy = 16.
2
2/
(1)
(2)
(3)
(2)
x
4,
(4)
Hence,
xywe have
3.
(5)
Combining (5) with (1),
= 6,
Hence
"
/

X
y
= =} 4.
*The
graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been
treated in Chapter XII.
232
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
292.
233
y,
In many cases two of the quantities x f y, x
and
xy are not given, but can be found.
F* Lx
'
2
(1)
'
(2)
(3)
(4)
2 + 3 =
293.
1.
The
arranged in pairs,
roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g. the answers of the last example are
:
r*=2,
b=3.
EXERCISE
Solve:
1.
108
2.
'
10.
3.
r
("
1 = 876.
"
"'
"'
{
r
8.
I I
x + y=7.
12.
^, =
4
[
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x
4 i/
=
r
13.
6
"I
14.
,o 18.
I
x+y
= a.
19.
I* Jj
^
[.
=^
18*
ONE EQUATION LINEAR, THE OTHER QUADRATIC
294.
A system of simultaneous equations, one linear and ne quadratic, can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown
uantities
by means
of substitution.
Ex.
Solve 2 x
+
3y
= 7,
2
(1)
From
(1)
we
have,
7
,
Substituting in (2)
Simplifying,
( \
~^V\ +
2
/
2y
2
?/'
 ~ y = 5.
x
"
(3)
49
etc.,

42 y
+
Transposing, Factoring,
9 y2 17 y 2
+
)
8
(y

40 y
(17 y
1
Hence
Substituting in (3),
4 y = 20. + 29 = 0.  20) = 0. or y =
1
,

f J.
aj
= 2,
or JJ.
EXERCISE
Solve
:
109
47/ = 0.
3.
r^
2
as
]
f a;?/ i
= 6,

.
5.
^
f
or*
f
4 xy
= 28,
la;
'
'
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
y
7.
235

>
'
1
lla
8
12~
10
13.
9.
10.
III.
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown
295.
quantities. 4^ 3 x 2 y
3 y3
A
and # 2
2 xy
5 y2
are
homogeneous equations.
one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous, the example can always be reduced to an example
296.
If
of the preceding type.
'
x* 3
2x
2
Ex.
1.
Solve
.
y*
+ 2y = 3,
(1) (2)
7 xy
+ G if = 0.
3y)
:
Factor (2),
(x
to solve the
2t/)(2 x
=
(
Hence we have
two systems
(3)
(1)
From
(3),
x2y.
3 y2
Substituting in (1),
4 f
+ 2 y = 3,
8
V~80
Hence
y
=1
y
,
=
1
3 3,
':il e :)
236
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra, the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.
=
Ex. 2
.
Solve
2,
(1)
Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.
(1)
(2)
x x
5,
2,
15 x2
 20 xy +
15 y 2
= 2 x 5.
(3)
(4)
Subtracting,
11 a2
Factoring,
= 0. = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y)
16 xy f 5 y 2
(3)
Hence
solve
:
(2)
From
(3),
j
Substituting y in (2),
109
a;2
^
EXERCISE
Solve:
6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0,
}
VI09, y
=
110
f
10^370^ + 7^ =
16^7^
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
237
m
U.
'
<""
=m
_
14
'
& 3^42^=43.
'
^
15.
f
1
150 a? 125 ay =  6, 150 */2  175 ay = 12.
"
IV.
298.
SPECIAL DEVICES
Many examples belonging to the preceding types, and others not belonging to them, can be solved by special devices, which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the
student.
Some
of the
more frequently used devices are the following:
299. A. Division of one equation by the other. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.
E,!.
Solve
* + '*
{
Dividing (1) by (2),
y? a?
f
 xy 4 y = 7.
2
(3)
(4)
Squaring (2),
(4) (3),
2 xy
+ y2 = 10.
Bxy9,
238
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
111
Solve
*
:
fajy=152,
i
^
*>.
f^ +
3
7/
= 133,
= 189,
* '
300.
B.
Some simultaneous
?/,
quadratics can
be solved by
?/,
considering not x or
but expressions involving x and
as the
as
x
, xy,
x
2
,
x
+y
y
etc., at first
it is
unknown
quantities.
In
more complex examples
letter for
advisable to substitute another
such expressions.
Solve
Ex.
i"
<Vx
f
'
unknown
6,
2.
(1 >
(2)
1.
Considering
V# +
y and
y as
quantities
and
solving,
we have from (1),
from
(2),
Vx
y
4 or
V^^y = 3
x
4
or
But the negative
roots being extraneous,
we
obtain by squaring,
Therefore
x
= 16, jc~ y = 9. = 12 J, y = 3.
y
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
,
239
Ex.
2.
Solve
(1)
(2)
Let
Then
r
__
17^ + 40.
,
Hence
=
V
or
=
4.
I e.
Hence we have
7
x
4
to solve the
two systems
U)
:
x
!
+
*/
=
17.
[2x +
:
y=
17.
The
solution produces the roots
EXERCISE
Solve
:
112
5.
36*
2.
6.
M6.
4. 7.
F+y+
240
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Solve by any method :
far'
9
+ a^lSG,
= 198.
'
**
5x+ 7y =
13
'
'
1
f 21 ^ =
15.
16.
2
or
5
CCT/
+ 3 f + 3  4 y = 47
a;
.
(
xy
(7
m
2
n*.
f
18.
25.
+ o5)(6hy) = 80, =
y
1
y*
,
.
19
'
26.
x
1
20'
=
41
400'
=34,
'
x2
1
6 xy
= 15.
27.
*
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
i
241
y
.
Q
7,
~\
OK OO.
30.
y
%
9
f*K
36.
31.
32.
3 a2
38.
33.
25
34.
.
7'
j/
39.
= 48201, 203):
ix
y
Solve graphically (see
40.
INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5
. ,
oo
301. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation, as a
,
,
^
oo
,
etc. etc
302.
Interpretation .of

According to the definition of
division,
finite

=x
y
if
=
x.

But this equation
is satisfied
by any
is
value of
a?,
hence
may
be any
finite
number, or ~
indeterminate.
242
303.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Interpretation of ?
e.g.
The
~~f
fraction  increases
if
x
de
x
creases;
ToU"
^100 a,
great.
= 10,000
a.
By making x
any * assigned
zero,
TO^UU"
sufficiently small,
 can be
If
It is
made
larger than
number, however
x approaches the value
be
comes
infinitely large.
customary to represent this result
by the equation ~
The symbol
304.
creases,
oo is
= QQ.
 decreases
X
if
called infinity.
Interpretation of
QO
The
fraction
if
x
x
inis
infinitely large.
and becomes infinitely small, or infinitesimal) This result is usually written
:
305.
I,i
solving
a problem
the result
or oo indicates that the
all
problem has no solution.
the
If in an equation
terms containing
unknown quantity
cancel, while the
remaining terms do not
cancelj the root is infinity.
306.
The
solution
x
=
indicates that the problem
is indeter
If all terms of an minate, or that x may equal any finite number. equation, without exception, cancel, the answer is indeterminate.
Hence such an equation
identity.
is satisfied
by any number,
i.e. it
is
an
Ex.
1.
of the second exceeds the product of the first
Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.
x
f 2,
Let
2,
as
+ l,
be the numbers.
(a:
Then
Simplifying,
Or,
+
I)
2
x2
'
f
2x
+
1
x(x + 2)=  x'2 2 x =
1.
1.
(1)
= 0.
(1),
i.e.
Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.
(1)
is
an
identity,
and
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex.
2.
243
Solve the system
:
(1)
(2)
From
Or,
(2),
z
=
1
Substituting,
1=0.
y
finite
QO,
Hence
/.e.
and
a;
=
oo.
no
numbers can
satisfy the given system.
EXERCISE
1.
113
is
One half
of a certain
number
equal to the
sum
of its
Find the number. third and sixth parts. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.
3.
Solve
~o 3 x
v
~K 6 x
r x
6
4.
Solve
x
a;
4
3
x
x5
a2  8 x
+ 15
6.
Solve
 2 y = 4.
*
6.
Solve

9
7.
Solve
(aj
+ 1)
:
(x
+ 2) = ( + 3)
114
:
(a?
+ 4).
EXERCISE
PROBLEMS
1.
The sum
is
of
squares
2890.
two numbers is 76, and the sum of Find the numbers.
is
their
2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.
42 and' their product
is
377.
244
3.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
The
difference between
is
of their squares
325.
two numbers Find the numbers.
is
is
17 and the
sum
4. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514.
255 and the sum of
5. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet, and the side of one increased by the side of the other e.quals 20 feet. Find the side of each square.
6.
The hypotenuse
is
the other two sides
7.
103.
of a right triangle is 73, Find these sides.
and the sum of
(
228.)
The area
of a right triangle is 210 square feet,
and the
hypotenuse
is 37.
Find the other two
sides.
8. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area, 148 feet of fence are required. Find the dimensions of the
field.
9.
The area of a
nal 41 feet.
10.
rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides.
of a rectangular field
feet,
and the diago(Ex. 12. p. 190.)
53 yards, and
its
The diagonal
is
is
perimeter
11.
146 yards.
Find the
sides.
is 6,
the
The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the numbers.
and
is
The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and
12.
is
the breadth
diminished by 20 inches, the area becomes
f%
of
the original area.
Find the
sides of the rectangle.
13. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches, and the edge of one, increased by the edge of the other, equals 4 inches. Find the edge of each cube.
14. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters, and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edges.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
15.
245
The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches, their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. irR *.) (Area of circle
and
=
1
16.
The
radii of
two spheres
is
difference of their surfaces
whose radius = 47T#2.)
17.
is
20 inches.
differ by 8 inches, and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere
If a
number
of
two
digits be divided
its digits,
the quotient
is 2,
and
if
the digits will be interchanged.
by the product of 27 be added to the number, Find the number.
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
307.
to
A series
is
a succession of numbers formed according
some
fixed law.
of a series are its successive numbers.
The terms
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
308. An arithmetic progression (A. P.) is a series, each term of which, except the first, is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.
The common
Thus each
difference is the
number which added
an A. P.
....
to each
term produces the next term.
of the following series is
3,
:
7,
11, 16, 19,
17,
a,
10, 3,
4, a
11,
f
....
a
+
d,
+
2 d, a
3d,
....
The common differences are respectively 4,  7, and d. The first is an ascending, the second a descending, progression.
309.
To
find the
nth term
/
of an A. P., the first
term a and
the
common difference d being given. The progression is a, a f d, a + 2 d,
Since d
is
a
f
3
d.
added to each term to obtain the next one, 2 d must be added to a, to produce the 3d term, 3 d must be added to a, to produce the 4th term, (n 1) d must be added to a, to produce the nth term.
Hence
/
= a + (n  1) d.
series 9, 12, 15 is 9 f 11 246
(I)
Thus the 12th term of the
3
or 42.
PROGRESSIONS
310.
247
first
To
find the
sum s
19
of the first
n terms of an A. P., the
term
a,
the last term
and the common difference d being given.
= a + (a
Reversing the order,
Adding,
2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l)
2s = n
*
.
(a
+ + (a +
l)
l).
Or
Hence
Thus
from
(I)
= (+/). 2
sum
of the first 60
I
(II)
to find the
' '
odd numbers,
1, 3,
6
we have
Hence
.
= I + 49 = *({ +
.
= 99. 99) = 2600.
2
EXERCISE
1.
115.
Which
(6)
(c)
of the following series are in A. P. ?
(a) 1, 3, 5, 7, .;
2,4,8,16,...;
3,
1,
5,
9,..;
(d) 1J,
, 24, 4^....
first
2
Write down the
(a)
(6)
(c)
6 terms of an A. P.,
if
a = 5, d = 3; a = 2,' cZ ==  3 a = l, d
;
= 2.
series 2, 5, 8,
.
3.
Find the 5th term of the
4.
5.
Find the 10th term of the
series 17, 19, 21,
1J, 2, 2J,
....
Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term
series
.
6.
of the series 10, 8, 6,
series
.
7.
8.
Find the 12th term of the
4, 7, 10,
....
.
Find the 101th term of the
series 1, 3, 5,
9.
Find the nth term of the
series 2, 4, 6,
248
Find the
10.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
last
term and the sum of the following series :
,
3, 7, 11,
to 8 terms.
6,
,
11.
2,
4,
',
to 7 terms.
12.
13.
8, 12, 16,
to 20 terms.
to 10 terms.
:
3, 2J, 1,
,
Sum
the following series
14.
15.
7, 11, 15,
,
to 20 terms.
,
33, 31, 29,
15, 11, 7,
1,
,
to 16 terms.
16.
17.
18.
to 20 terms.
1,
1J,
,
to 15 terms.
>
2f
2.5
H + if
f
to 10 terms.
,
19.
+ 3.1 f 3.7 f
to 12 terms.
,
20.
21.
(x +"l) 4 (#
1
2) f (x f 3) H
to
a terms.
+ 2f3 + 4 H
hlOO.
\n.
22.
23.
1+2+3+4H
Find the sum of the
first
n odd numbers.
Q^) How many times
in 12 hours ?
(&fi)
does a clock, striking hours only, strike
for the first yard, and for each than for the preceding one.
$1
For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all
together ?
^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000, and a yearly increase of $ 120. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ?
j
311. In most problems relating to A. P., Jive quantities are involved; hence if any three of them are given, the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations
.
rf.
(i)
(ii)
PROGRESSIONS
Ex. 1. The first term of an A. P. is 12, the and the sum of all terms 1014. Find the series.
s
24ft
last
term 144,
=
1014, a
= 12, = 144.
I
Substituting in (I) and (II),
l)e?.
(1)
1014
= ^(12 + 144).
2
(2)
From
Hence
(2),
78 n
Substituting in (1),
= 1014, or 144 = 12 + 12
d=ll.
n
d.
= 13.
.
The
series
is,
12, 23, 34, 45, 56, 67, 78, 89, 100, 111, 122, 133, 144.
Ex.
2.
Findn,
if s
= 204, d = 6, J = 49.
= a + (w 1) .6. 204 = ^ (a + 49).
49
(1)
(2)
Substituting,
From
(1),
Substituting in (2),
a = 49 6(71  1). 204 = ^ (98  ~n~\
408
6).
= n(104  6 n). 6 n2  104 w + 408 = 0. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. n = 6, or 11 J. Solving, But evidently n cannot be fractional, hence n = 6.
312.
When
is
called the arithmetic
three numbers are in A. P., the second one mean between the other two.
is
Thus x
the arithmetic
mean between a and
a=b
x.
6, if a, #,
and
b form an A. P., or if
x
Solving,
I.e.
x=

4
the arithmetical
mean between two numbers
is
equal
to
half their sum.
250
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
116
:
Find the arithmetic means between
1.
a x
f
b
and a
b.
3.
m
and
n
2.
y and #f5y.
4.
a+
and
b
a
b
5.
Between 4 and 8
insert 3 terms (arithmetic
is
means)
so
that an A. P. of 5 terms
6.
produced.
Between 10 and 6
insert 7 arithmetic
means
,
7.
8.
How many terms How many terms
Given d = 3, n
has the series
^
j
,
T?
^,
,
f?
,
has the series 82, 78, 74,
I.
6?
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
= 16, s == 440. Find a and Given s = 44, n = 4, = 17. Find a Given a = 7, = 83, n = 20. Find d. Given a =  3, n = 13, = 45. Find d. Given a = 4, n = 17, = 52. Find d and Given a = 1700, d = 5, = 1870. Find w. Given a = , = ^ 3 = 1. Find n. Given a = 1, n = 16, s = 70. Find?.
f
J 1 1
/
.
I
Find
I
in terms of a, n,
and
s.
man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. ceding one, and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. How much did he save the first month?
19.
A
$300
is
divided
among 6 persons
in such a
way
that each
person receives $ 10 did each receive ?
more than the preceding
one.
How much
PROGRESSIONS
251
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
313.
A geometric progression
first, is
it
(G. P.)
is
a series each term of
which, except the
multiplying
derived from the preceding one by by a constant number, called the ratio.
E.g.
4, 12, 36, 108,
....
4,
2, +1, I,....
ar8
r.
,
2 a, or, <zr ,
The
314.
ratios are respectively 3,
,
and
To
find the
nth term
/ of
a G. P., the first term a and
the ratios r being given.
The progression is a, ar, a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by
,
.
r
n~ l
.
Hence
Thus the 6th term
l
= ar
n~l
.
(I)
of the series 16, 24, 36,
.,
is
16(f)
4
,
or 81
315. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.
of a G. P., the first
= a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r, rs =
s
2
 arn ~ l .
4
(1)
,
2
arn
(2)
Subtracting (1) from
(2),
s(r
1)
8
= ar"
7*
JL
a.
Therefore
Thus the sum
= ^ZlD.
.
(II)
of the
8 =s
first
6 terms of the series 16, 24, 36,
fl
lg[(i)
l]
==
32(W 
1)
= 332 J.
NOTE.
If
n
is less
:
than unity,
g==
it is
convenient to write formula' (II) in
*.
the following form 8
nf +
q(lr")
1
r
252
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
316. In most problems relating to G. P. Jive quantities are in.
volved ; hence, if any three of them are given, the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations :
may
(I)
/=<!/',
,_!=!>.
Ex.
l.
(it,
To
insert 5 geometric
means between 9 and 576.
Evidently the total
number
of terms is 5
+ 2,
or
7.
Hence n
=
7,
a
=
I,
9, I
= 670.
676
t
Substituting in
= r6 = 64.
.
r^2.
Hence the
or
series is
0,
0, 18, 36, 72, 144,
288, 676,
576.
 18,
36,
 72,
144,
 288,
And the
required
means are
18, 36,
72, 144,
i 288.
EXERCISE
1.
117
Which
(a)
of the following series are in G. P. ?
(c)
2,6,18,54,.;
...
;
f,l,,4,
....
....
(b) 1, 4, 9, 25,
(d) 5,
 5, + 5,* 5,
2
term
3.
is 3,
Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. whose and whose common ratio is 4.
first
term
4.
is 16,
Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. whose and whose second term is 8.
Find the 6th term of the
series J, f, 1,
series
.
first
5.
6.
Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the
Find the 9th term of the
^,
fa,
series 6,
4, 3,
fa,
,
+f%9 %
....
.
7.
8. 9.
series 5, 20, 80,
series
Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the
ratio is
^,
,
\
t
series
,
.
10.
Find the 5th term of a G. P. whose
.
first
term
is
125 and
whose common
PROGRESSIONS
Find the sum of the following
11.
25S
series
:
32, 48, 72,
..,
to G terms.
,
12.
13.
14.
243, 81, 27,
14, 42, 126,
1,
2, 4,
to 6 terms.
..,
,
to 8 terms.
to 7 terms. to 6 terms.
15.
81, 54, 36,
..,
16  nV> i*>
!718.
>">
, to
7
, ,
to 6 terms.
M,i
a9
,
12 terms.
to 5 terms.
Z
s.
a^,
a;
19.
20.
21. 22.
23.
= 3, == 160. Find a and n = 4, = 3. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2, n = 5, s = 310. Find a and Given r = 3, n = 5, s = 605. Find a and
4,
Given r =
n
Z
5.
J,
J.
I.
Find the geometric mean between
7,J
and 270.
24.
Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.
INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION
317.
of r n decreases, be written
If the value of r of a G. P. is less than unity, the value The formula for the sum may if n increases*
= _
fl
flf
made
taking n sufficiently large, r , and hence ~ r , may be than any assignable number. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is
By
n
less
r^Ex.
1.
Find the sum to
infinity of the series 1,
J,
J,
Therefore
8^
=
1
i
=1
1
' .
+
4
254
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Find the value of .3727272
.;)7?7272
...
....
=
a
.3
+
.072
+
.00072 f
....
The terms afteAhe
first
form an
infinite G. P.
= .072,
1
r
= .Ql.
Hence
.= _4Z*  =
.01
^
.99
.
= .72. =
990
.
66
Therefore
.37272
. . .
=A+
10
i. 65
= 1L
110
EXERCISE
Find the sum to
1.
118
:
infinity of the following series
3.
1,
i
i
J,
.
....
16, 12, 9, ..
3,
5. 6.
5, 1, I,
....
2. 7.
8.
1,
1,
4.
 1,
i,
.
250, 100, 40,
...
9, 6, 4, ....
If
a
= 40, r = j.
of:
11.
Find the sum to
infinity.
Find the value
9.
.555....
.191919...
13.
14.
.27777
....
10.
.717171...
12.
.272727..
is 9,
.3121212..
ratio
15.
is J.
The sum
Find the
of an infinite G. P.
first
and the common
term.
is 16,
16.
8.
The sum
r.
of an infinite G. P.
and the
first
term
is
Find
17. Given an infinite series of squares, the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. If the side of the first square is 2 inches, what is (a) the sum of the areas, (6) the sum
of the perimeters, of all squares ?
BINOMIAL THEOREM
EXERCISE
119
257
Expand
the following
3.
:
(1
+ xy.
7
.
5.
(s
+ i).
4
7.
l
2.
(xy)
:
6
.
4.
(a2)
6.
/2a+Y\
8.
(z2
^
Simplify
9.
4 (1+V#) + (1
Va)
4
.
10.
(\
9
.
11.
12. 13.
Find the 5th term of
Find the 3d term of
+ b)  b) w (a
(a
f (1
.
Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of
12
ri)
11
.
.
14.
15.
+ a)
Find the 4th term of
7 (a f 2 b) .
.
16.
17.
Find the 6th term of (x  a2) 25
Find the 5th term of
f
Vx + ^r
18.
Find the 3d term of fa f
V
^Y
Va/

19.
Find the
Find the
u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .
coefficient of
.
20.
21.
a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a  6) 20
.
22.
Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a
Find the
coefficient of
23.
a6
8
16
in
 6)  b ). (a
100
.
2
2
24.
25. 26.
Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\
.
Find the middle term of
f
f
x
}\8
:
)
27.
28. 29.
Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of
.
.
(a
+ b)
.
258
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
REVIEW EXERCISE
Find the numerical values
1.
of
:
27 x*
~
27 xy
or
f
9 xy~
1
#
8
,
if
y=2j
2.
*=M

M
3J
f
2
2
]
2
]
2
1
3
1
3
1
M.
5J
lj
2j
3}
8
4j
y
8
,
2J
4J
16 x*
32 afy
24 afya
1,

8
^
2,
3,
+
2, 4,
if
x^l,
y
3.
2,
3,
3,
3,
4.
=
2,
3,
2,
4,
5.
4 *2

4 xy

4
^+
a:
?/
2
?/
+
2
3,
^+^
3,
2
,
if
= = =
2,
1,
2,
2,
1,
3,
4,
4,
1,
4,
3, 3,
5.
4,
1,
2, 2,
3,
2.
2,
2,
6.
4.
4 (2 a

13 a a b
+
a
ft
31 a 2 ft 2

38
3, 1,
aft
3
+
4,
2,
24
4,
ft
4
)
5,
6.
2 (2 a

3
aft
f
4
2
ft
), if
= =
2,
1,
2, 2,
3,
2,
4,
2,
3.
5.
a8 + ~T
3
2
ft'
a2
+
+ 3T r C + + c2 + 2
;]
a 2^
aft
+
r
3 a l} 2
be
4,
1,
,f
ac
1, 2,
a
ft
c
= =
2,
4,
5,
1,
5,
1,
5,
5, 5,
5. 6.
2,
3,
3,
3,
2,
2,
4,
2,
7.
6.
(ft
c)(c
4
)
3,
2, l,
(c
3,
1,

a)(a
1,
+
2,
1,
ft)
 a(a
4,
1,
4
ft

c)
2. 3.
+
c(a

c), if
a
ft
c
= = =
4, 2,
1,
2,
3,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3, 5, 6.
c
if
7
,
i
(aft)(ac)
a
6
(ft c )(fta)
1,
(ca)(cft)'
4,
2,
c
= = =
2,
1,
2,
1,
1,
3, 2,
4 2,
1.

2,

2,
+
1.
3,
3,
4,
3, 1, 1, 3,
2.
259
x
c)
.
b(x
(b
1,
c)(x
a}
,
c(x
(c
g)(x
6)
= 1, = 2, c = 3, x = 4,
a
/>
3,
2, 5,
~c)(b a)  1,  2, 3, + 1, f 8, 4,  2,  4, 5, + 2, + 4,
(5,

a) (c
2.
'
b)
+
3,
2,
6,
1,
4,
5,
2. 1.
2,
3,
9.
a, by
The
and
c is represented
radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula
Find
r, if
a
6
= = c =
3, 4,
5,
10,
8,
25,
24,
7,
29, 21,
20,
41.
9.
21,
26,
17,
15,
40.
Add
the following expressions and check the answers
:
10. x 3
11. x 2
+ 
2 ax*
f
a zx
+
2
?/
a8
,
x3
f
3 ax'2 ,
2 a3 7 y4
3
//
f
ax'2
,
2 x 8. 6 y4
y
4
+
3
z8
,'
4 x2
2

5 z3
8
,
8
.c'
2
4
/
,
10 z 8
12

6 2 8.
12.
x
C
4
4x y
+
.r
6 x

4 xy
,
+
4
?y
,
4 x
4
.
xy 2
12 xy*
+
G y4
4 xy*

zy +
12 xy*

4 y4
,
4
y
13. x 3
x'
14.
15.
+ x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2  7 ys,  x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2  2 x?/, 4 z  \ yz + xz, 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8  x 5 4  2 x2  8 3 + 7 x4  4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8  11 x 5 12
z
7/
3
ary,
2
,
a:
,
a;
r>
,
or
.
16.
11 z 4
x4
12
17. 4 a 5
9
4 2 */, 7 xy 3  2 a?y + 3 aty  8 y y 5 4 * 8y, 7y 4  3 a?y  5 xy 3 + +
4
,
+
8 x4
*y
.
2

+ 12 a 8  10, a 4 + 11 a  a 5
a
,
6 a4
4 a8
 a8  7 +  a 4  5.
x3
2 a2
,
4a
+
9 a2

3 a5
,
18.
11 x 8
+
14
x^ij
,
+ 3 y 2*  2 z8 4 x 8 + 2 //  11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2  3 xyz, and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8  7 y 2* 4 4 xyz + 4 xy'2  4 yz\
7xy* +
z 3,

2 x 2//
+
3
2 x?/

7 y3
260
19.
6 VI
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4X5V14 #48,  4\/i + x 3Vl 4 x 4 4 Vl 4 4 3, and 2 Vl 4*/
2VT+7  ?>
x
4
20.
Take the sum
4x
4 7.
of 2 x 8
4
4 x2
4
9
and 4 x  2
3 ax 2
.
4vTT~y 3.  x 2 4 4 x 8 from
ax 2
4
6 x8
4
21.
Take
the
sum
of
G a8
4
4
4 a 2x
4
,
x8
x2
2
a'2x,
and
7 x
a 2x
2
ax'2 4 3
x 3 from G a 8
2 a 2x

4 x8
22.
4
2 x2
23.
Take the sum of 3 x 4 8 3 4 4 x from the sum of 9 x
2,
4
2 x8
x
4
4 5,
x'2 .
and 4
4
2 xs
4
and 5 x 3
y
5
,
4
3
From
44
the
3
//
and
G x 4y
2 x2
2
,
sum of  3 .n/ 4
4
12 x 5
4
4
x?y
4
2 x6
f
4 x 4 ?/
x//
5
?/
,
4
3
5
y/
,
take the
sum
of G x 5
.
2 x2
+
2 y5
24.
2
xy
4
the
^V
4
G x5
From
take 4
sum sum
2 c
of
 2 x 8y2 44  x  x2
,
/
x5
2x
4
#
3 y5
G x
a
4
3
5
x*,
542 x 2 and
,
7 x
x
the
ft
4 x2
11 x.
of
a,
ft
25.
From
of 2
the
4 c 4
3 a,
c 4ft,
ft,
and a
2
ft
4
ft
3 c take
sum

2 c
4
2 a
and 2 a
5 x
c.
;]
26.
Find what expression added
the
ft
to 3 x 2
2 x
4
3 will give
27.
the
From sum of 2
1
sum
2 c
of
ft
4 c
3
a,
c 4 a
ft,
3
ft,
and a
ft
4
ft
3 c take

6
a,
2 c

2 a

and 2 a
3 x2
28.
3 x
Subtract the difference of x 8
4
 2  c.  3 x  1 and x 8 G 11
4
3 x2
+

from
G x2
4
x.
29.
Add
9
Ifcc
2
7 12
,
5 10
4
G 11 4 3
.
7 12
,
3
4
5 10 2

7 12
.
5
4
7 12
,
4
.
5 10
+
7
.
0" 30.
and
 5 10 b
3
\
G 11
=
ft
x4y42,
f
ft,
=
x
y
ft
z,
c
=x
y
}~
z,
and
d=
c
c
4
x4#4z
</,
find
(a) a
(ft)
(c) a 4(</)
4 c,
(*) a

c,
a

ft
+
c,
(/) a
+ 
ft
4
6
+

rf.
Simplify
31. 2 x
32.
33.
:
a
x  (5 y  6T  (5 c  2   4 ft) 4 2 a  (a  2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x*  [4 z 8  {G * 2  (4 *  1)}]  (x 4 [4 x 4 6 x ]
 [3
if

(3
_^
ft
6
ft
f
c)}]
a:
.
4
4
4 1).
34.
35. 36.
3 x2
133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].  (x*  4)  x  5  {2 x 2  (7 x 4 2)  (4 x 2  27~~7)}].
[4
I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].
REVIEW EXERCISE
37. 7 a 2
261
{5
2
a2
2 a + (2 a 2 i
j
38. (5 a
39.

2 a

{3
2x a
 [3 y [2
ft
2 z
+ {4
(3 a
ar
40.
2
f [3 c
7 a  5)} + (3 a 2  4 a  12).  (2 a + 5 a  0)}  (2 a 2  7).  (5 y  3T~2~s)} + 5 2].  JT^T+1)} + (2  3 c)].
2
ft
41. 3 x 42.
43.
 [4 x 
5
 (2 x2  (7
a;
+ 2) 
(4 x
2

2 x
7)}].
'J
44. 45.
46.
5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a 3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^  {2 a (ft  a~^~c)K]. a { b (c  rf)} + a [ & + { 2c(V/  e '/)}] (2a + 2b  3c).  (7 i + 4 r:)  [0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c  {2 a  (6  2a  6)}]. 13 a  96 [17 a 56 [7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. a  [2  {3 c  (4 d  5 )}] + {4 c  (2 ,Z  2 <?)}
13 ft
ft
_[&{2c(3d +
Perform the operations indicated
47.
2
:
7e)a}].
48.
49.
50.
51. (1 ar+a; )(lz a ). + *+!){> + 2). 2 52. (.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2  2x + 3). (;r 2:c+ l)(ar 1). 2 53. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). + 4x + 5)(j;  3). (x  6 x + 5 x'2) (2  3 *). 54. (/> 4  2 2 + 1)(7, 4 + 2 2 + 1), (1 55. (4 + 3a 2  2)(1  4 a 2 + a 4 ). 56. (a 2 + 2 + c 2  ab  ac  6c) (a + f c).  c). 57. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac  be) (a 58. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.c 2  2 2  3 z 2 ). 59. (a 2 + 2 + 9  3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 60. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2  6 xy  2 zz  3 yz)(2
a
(*
2
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
?/
ft
ft
ft
?/
a:
61.
(ar
+
7)(ar
+
5)(a:
+
3).
62. 63.
64.
65.
(x 3)(*5)(* 7).
(a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 2 x + !)(*  * 2 + (x + x + l)(a:
(z
1).
2
a) (2:
+
7/
a)(x
2
2
66.
67.
(r
(1
(a;
+

^+
y)(x
2
)
(x
+ a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).  ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/
*V +
*)(! +
ar)(l
+
^ 2 )(1
+
**).
68.
262
69.
70.
8
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(a
2

z 3) (a 8
2 a
+
z 3 )(a 6
2
+
a:
6
)
(a
12
a
(a

+
l)(a
2
f
2a
+
l)(a
+ +
(
a:
12
).
1).
71.
(a
(2
b)*(a
4 ft)
4
.
73.
74.
f
72.
75. 76.
77.
ar
 y)\x
y).
2
(x
2
 2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).  3y) a (* 2 4 6*y  9y2).
1).
a
(a
2
2a +
+
"
4
l)(u
2a
n
f
(:r
a;y'*4y
2m
)OK
y
I)(a m
).
+
(rtP+i 4
2 6)(a^+  am&t
4
A 2 *).
ft
78.
79.
(a
2
ft
2n
4 c
c
2
4
2 am
20
(??2
+
:
n
6
f
p ) (w
 ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft
n
an b
c)(a"*
?n
+ + c).  m np c  n pc).
ft"
l
Simplify
80. 4 (a
+
ft)(a
2
81.
p(p +
?)
+ 4 A) (a  ft) + 4(2  a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4 <f(p  q).
ft
/;
2
+
a 2 ).
82. a(2
+
4
3ft)
2
(2a
4
4
8
^)
.
83.
84. 85. 86.
87.
(x
4
2 y) (2 ^
3 y)2(/
y) (^
3 V)

,v) 4 (a? 4
y)*(x

y).
(p
2
 (/> 
3 v)^(;>
2 2
+
2
3 9).
O
(x
(a
2
+
4
y
y)
2
a
J
4
 (x 42
y)
O
2
4
y) (^
44
y
).
4
4
 (^
4
y
2
)

4 ^/(.r
2
.
xy
y
2
).
b 4 c)
 (a
2) (s
4
ft c)
j;
88. 89.
90.
(x (x
(
+ *)  2 (y 4 z)  z\x 4 y). 4 y + z)(x + y  z)(x y + z)( x + y + z). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4 c)  a) (a? 4(c
4
y) (y
c)(ar
2
ft
+
8
a).
91.
92.
93.
94.
 (ft 4 c) 2  (c 4 a) 2  (a 48 8 8 4 c) 4) (ft 4 O (a 4(a 4 (4  {3 a  2 ft}) f (3 a  5  3 a  3 (ft  c)}  2 (a  c)]. 3[a{2 a
(a 4ft
4
2
2
^>)
c)
44
a2 a8
4
2 4 c .
ft
8
ft)
4
ft
8
4 c
.
ft
ft
ft
a}.
ft
95.
Prove the following
8 4 b 4 c) rr
identities,
by multiplying out each
4
side
of the equality.
(a) (a
(ft)
a8
4
ft
8
4 c
8
4
3(6
c)(c
4
a)(n
+
2
ft).
(.:y)( a;2y)(.r3y)4l)y( a
:y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46
8
//
REVIEW EXERCISE
Simplify
:
263
96.
[10(
4 &)
8

5(a
n
4
2
6)
]
5(a
4
&)
6 (a
4 b)
98.
3* 5 a 21 (10 a
4
5 a*)
Qafl^
=
5 a*.
99
100.
O3a
n
O2a
4~
i
O4a
2a
T
(3'
3m n
~*~
3 3n
3")
3".
102.
103.
4 (6 x
4
23 x s 33 z
43
42
a;
2
4
41 x
4a;
20)
*
(3 a*
4
4
a?
+
5).
(20 x*

4
72 x 2

35
4 '30)
~ (4 ^ 
5 x
4
10).
1O4.
105. 106.
(2<
107.
108.
109.
110.
(x*
4
9 ax 8
44
12
.
(2 y
44
2 y
2 4
02 y 23 a
4
3
16 y a 50
4
48)
2
111. (80 a 112. 113.
(4
4
3 a

4

5 a
3
 (y 2 ~ (a 2 )
5 y
6 a

12).
10).
114.
25 4  16 a 6 4 40 />)  (2 a 2  4 aft  5 b*).  6 y 4 4 27 x*  35 x 2 2 )  (7 xi/  9 x 2  2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25  2 2% 4 y 4  2 xy 8  21 x*if) (4 ^ 2  y 2 4 5 xy). (8 x* 115. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 116. (.r 4 4 2y 2 4 y 4 )  (x 2  xy 4 y 2 )
4 a 2// 2
/>
8
a,v/
~
//
=
a:
.
117.
118.
4
(a
8
44
16 a 2
4
4
256)
s
~4
2
(a
4
4a
^
4
16).
(a
8
^4
+
8
& 8)
(

2 2
119.
120. 121.
(a
8

8 68
8 4 c 4
6 afo)
f
+ ^ 4 ). 26 (a
4
c).
1).
Cr
(z
27y l9a:y) (a:3yy
6
)
r
2
(a:
4
xy
4
y
2
).
122. 123.
124.
 *) (x 8  1). 2 (a+  3 a"+ 4 a" )  (a 1 2 8  &). a* 6 ) (a** (a
(x
10
3
J
1
a

1).
r
264
125.
(1
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
+
a8
3

G ax
z8

8 z 8)
5
(1

a

2 x).
126.
127.
128.
129.
 3 a#z) (ar + y + s). y (* l x n  x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). (*+ +  27 a 3"  8 6  18 *&) (1  3 a (1
+
*
l
l
1
3
f
2
&).
What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ?
130.
remainder when a
4
3 a b
B
+
12
a 2 6'2

b* is
divided
By what
expression must a:
f
3 be multiplied to give
4
x*7
8 a*b + 4 a 131. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2

2
6
2

8
ttfc
8
+ 2187?  12 M
132.
By what expression must
x*
+
G x2

4
a:
1
be divided to give
x2
+
5 #
9 as quotient, with 8 as
remainder?
Solve the following equations and check the answers:
133. 3(2 x
134.
135. 136. 137. 138.
2
4(ar
 4(0 x  5) = 12(4 x  r>)  22.  3) = 12  (x f 9). 5(2 x  3) 2(j:  2) = 3  2(5  9) + 3. 7(2 x  9) 4 7(4 *  19) + 5 = 4  3(2 z  3). 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x  4)  2(10 x  7) = 4  (x  5).
1)
.
3)
a:
a:
a:
+?+4=
o
13.
139. 1 o
+ 5 + 1=15.
o
o
140. 10(2 x
141.

9)

7(0 x
a?

32)
+
5
=
4x

3(2 j

3).
142.
143.
 3 a:).  G)  2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x  3(* + 4) + 9}  (1  3 x). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a:  1)  (x + 3) ]  5{.r + 7[or  2(4  a:)]}.
 (j a?
144. 42(3ar
145. 5
146. x 147. 148.
149.
 (3 a?
2 [2 x
+ (x 4 1) (a?  l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar
(2ar
2
4} = 2(3 x  2) (a: + 3). 1) = 2(*
 2 7^~5] +
1).
3)
= x\x  2) +
2(ar
+ 4).
(5a:
150. (4 x
 3) (3 x 4 7) =
(7 x

1 1)
(3 x
 4)  (9 x +
10)
(a:

3)
.
REVIEW EXERCISE
151.
265
152. 153.
154.
155.
156. 157.
+ 4) (2 x + 5) (* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (*  3) (3  5*) + 47.  2) (j? + 1) + (x  1) O + 4) = (2 *  1) (s + 3).  3) (a:  4) (a  5) = (3  l)(z  14) (a: + 3) 24. (a  2) (7 *) + (* 5)(.r + 3)  2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (a;  7) (a; + 5) = (9  2 x) (4  a:) + 229. (2  6 x) (3  2 x) = (1  3) (3  2). (7 14   5(x  3) (j; + 2) + (5  z) (4  5 x) = 45 x  76.
(x
(x
a;
a:
ar
a;
158.
159.
160.
161.
+ 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.  2) a + 7(x  3) = (3 x  7) (1 x  19) + 42. 5(ar x  17) 2 + (4 x  25) 2  (5 x  29) 2 = 1. (3 O + ;T)O  9) + (a; + 10) (ar  8) = (2 x 4 3)(* (ar
2
7)

113.
162. 164.
^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o
.
163.
f^ + ^sO. 2 4
;j
Write down four consecutive numbers
of
which y
is
the
greatest.
By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.
165.
166.
;
sheep more than the
169. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. The second contains 3 first, and the third twice as many as the first.
How many
170.
sheep are there in
eacli flock Y
The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first, and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first, these two angles would be equal.
The sum
What
171.
are the three angles?
is
A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. If the area of the frame inches, how wide is the picture ?
surrounded
108 square
is
172. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. =  (F 32). (a) If C. = 15, find the value of F. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers?
(c)
How many degrees C. transformed into
F. will produce F.
= 2 C.?
266
173.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
A A
number increased by
3.
3 gives the
same
result as the
numbet
multiplied by
Find the number.
3 gives the
174.
number divided by
3.
same
result as the
number
diminished by
175.
train.
Find the number.
An
The two
express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 12 m. and 5 h. 15 m.
respectively.
What
is
the distance?
if
square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. side were one foot longer.
176.
A
each
177.
sister
;
A
the
boy
is
as old as his father
and
3 years
sum
of the ages of the three is 57 years.
younger than his Find the age of
the father.
178. A house has 3 rows of windows, 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row, and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. How many are there in each window ?
;
;
179. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now, and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years
hence.
180.
is
What are their ages ? Two engines are together
more than the
of 80 horse
16 horse power
other.
power one of the two Find the power of each.
;
181.
The length
is
of a floor exceeds its width
by 2
feet;
if
each
increased 2 feet, the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. Find the dimensions of the floor.
dimension
182.
The age
of the elder of
it
three years ago of each.
two boys is twice that of the younger; was three times that of the younger. Find the age
5 years older than his sister
183.
father.
A
boy
is
father; the
sum
of the ages of all three is 51.
and  as old as his Find the age of the
Resolve into prime factors
:
184. x*
185.
+x
2.
187.
2
2
+
a
_ no.
190. 4 a 2
yy
42.
188.
186. z 2
92;36.
ll?/102. 189. aW + llab2&.
7/
191. 10x 2 192.
13 a + 3. + 11 ~ 6. z 2 + x  56.
+
a;
REVIEW EXERCISE
193. y 2
194.
267
199. 2
200.
 77 y + 150. 2 a 2  19 a  10.
+
3a
196. 6
197.
a;
2

5 xy
13 y
a;
 6 y2
+
4.
.
3y 2
+ ary  10 y a x*  12 *  64.
a;
2
.
195. a 2
 28.
+
198. x*
+
8
2
+
15.
201. # 2

29 y
+
120.
202. z 2 2;r?/f y 2 9. 203. x 5  19 z 4 204. 5
?/
+ 1 1 a*b  a 2/A 214 12 x*y  14 2  10 xy. 215. z + 5x 2  6s.
213. 60 a 2

a:
//
205.
14x 2 25ary + Gy 2
3 x* x 2
.
216. 2 x 2
 22 z +
48.
206.
12 x
+4.
217. 2 afy
13
28
a:
ary
+
66 y.
207. 16x 4 81.
208. 2 a 8  8
6 2.
218. x
219.
209.
210.
211.
ifWy+b.
11 2 + 10 20 x 4  20 z 8 a:
220. 221.
8
a:
ar.
+ 30 x. 2 + x 2 ) 2  (a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a;y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a  6.
.
+
2
.
5 x 2.
222. x*y
223.
212. 3 x
2
 21
a:

54.
+ G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y  6 2
?/
.
224.
7x 2
225. a^a
226.
a;
4
f
yx*
+ z*x + z*y.
230.
15 x 2
+
26 x
a
.
+
8.
227. 7a 228.
a:
231.
232.
233.
9a4a6
(a
2
+ b  c) 2 
(a
 c) 2
.
229. *2
234. 235.
a;
8
a;
a:
236. 24
2
+ 2  1. 23 12.
a
a: a:
237. 238.
a:
4

a:
2
a:
V
2
.
a:
 x + 1. 2 2 y f
1.
239.
(13z
2
5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6
(12
c 2 ) 2.
2
a:
2
+ 4y2) 2 +
240. 4a 2& 2
241. (a +  xm y + xym 
+
(a
c)

(c
rf)
242. xm+l
243. 4
m +^.
245. 3 ap
2
.
3y
248.
246. 3 x
V
 (b + rf) 2  6 aq  3 c/> + 6 cq.  3 xf + 3 * 2y  3 xy.
.
244. 2a
te
3%
ly
247.
a+a* + o a +l.
wiy
+ la
mx +
aw.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
249. 7 ax
250.
251. 252.
 6 by. 3 ay 4 a + 2 4 14 bx a%% 8  3 abc  a 2 />c 2 f 3. 2 8  2 ax 2 + 2 for 2  2 aft*. 2 a.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4 &z.
ft
a;
I
Find the
II.
C. F. of:
253.
G(x+

l)'\
9(x
2

1).
a;
254. 3 #2 255. 5 x 2
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.
261.
+ 23 x f 20. + 20 x 4 8. 2 2 + 39 xy 4 15. x*y* 4 18 xy + 5, 18 x 2  11 a 2  10 a 4 9. a 4 10, a 3 a 2 2  5 ab f 2, 3 a% 2  4 ab + 1. 10 x 2  23 + 12, 30 ^  G7 x f 33. x 2 4 16 x  13, 28 2 f 71 x  (55. 7 12 2 2  1 9 ;ry 21,48 afy 2  73 xy  91.
10
a;
+
8,
2
+
7 r
f 2,
15 # 2
z/
/;
a?
a:
a:
//
262. x 2
263.
264.
265.
+ 8 x + 5, x 2 f 9j: + 20. * 2  9 x + 14, 2  11 x f 28. x 2 + 2 x  120, x*  2 z  80. x*  15 + 30, * 2  9 x  36.
1
x
ar
Find the L.C.M. of:
266. z 2
267. z 2
268.
269.
270.
+ 3 x + 2, x 2 + 4 + 3, x 2 + 5 f  3 x  4, * 2  x  12. * a  23 x f 20. 2 x2  7 f 5, 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5, 8 2 + 10 x  3. x 2  18 ry + 32 y 2 2  9 xy + 14 y 2
ar ar
a: ;r
,
6.
a:
.
Reduce to lowest terms
271. 22x2
a;
:
x2
4
a:
~ +
a;
8 xf
<
3 xy
+ a;
_
40 y 2
272
f
f
2
!8a:
 77 + 77
'
2?5
5
'
2
5
a:
2
7  17
x
+
6
*
14
273
P a 5y>+4. ^27/7 + 12
2?6
28 x 2
12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .ry  2/ 2
REVIEW EXERCISE
277
8
agg
269

6
a;

9
'
2Q4
4 *2
'
8x+8
'
278.
_
"*
m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f
sa
.
285
z4
n*
+
a;
8
 ar
1
279.
*2
"
2
+ Oge. 9
286
1
1
+
2*
3 x
f
*2
ar
+
a
 2* + 3 x*
280.
m
4 J' 4
2
2
w mp  n 2
)P
*
287
"
281
2 q^(
2

a:
2
)
m
288
'
 2c
a:
282.
z2
(a
2
+
c)a;
+ ac
.
289
'
 (y 2
z)
*
t
(j;
y)'
z2
283
t
290
'
x'2
2
y*
+
z2
+ 2 0:2
291
*2
+
y
2
+
0;2
22
+
2
2 yz
4
2 zx 2
+
ary
_
_ 22 _
292
^

?/.rL.!/...
a;
fr
293
'
y
<?
294
2
2 2
+ 2 cV +
2 a 2^ 2

4

ft*
~
c4
295
296
'
297
'
270
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find the value of
298
23.
*
19
23
19(23
23. + 19)
2Lz + 3 x
"
2 99
'
i
x
+4
*3
a
+7
300.
Lnl +
ar
2
a;
^. 4
3
301.
(a:
1
+
l)(ar
+
2)
(x
+
l)(ar
+
2)(*
+
3)
302.
a?
__ + *_ + + la?la?
*
a
l
303.
(a
1
1
+
a
b
c) (a
+
^
ct)
(a
+
a
c)(a
f e)
304.
x x
~~
+^
i
^
~
''^
.
x
7.
a
(:
a) (x
2.
6)
_
~
i
305.
O(ca)
306.
X2
(ca)(ai)
1
x2
4
(a
+9
i_ 20 a
.
_L
+
12 x
1
+
35
1
307.
2
+ 7 _ 44
3.
^_2*(m
308.
^n
m+n
"*"
+ n) 2
g
309.
x
+
3
^ ""
310
x
a:
2
a:
2
2
a:

17
a:2
ar3
x 2 5a:i6"
BE VIEW EXERCISE
311.
i
271
+
b
a2
+
ft
2
312.
_
x8
.
1
x2
+ +
a;
1
_. a:
1
313.
2ft 2
a8
3
314.
.
}
.,+ a
10 z 2
2
*2
9*+
20
*2

8*
+
15
315.
(1
,2
1 f
1
+
:
*2
1

2 x'
316.
(a?
4
2)
317.
nl
g(jL+ 2 )
^^^_
318.
1a:
+
y
a;
2
+
y
2
319.
Dx
x(l
*)
*
8(1*)
4(1
+*)
2
8(1
+
4(1
 *) + * 2)
321

c) 2
 (a  ft) 2
322.
(
ftc
g~ft
(
6_
c)
2_ (a._
'(a6)*(a:r)a
323.
272
Simplify:
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
~
324.
2 x*
8 x2
4 r8
i
+
2
a;
z2

4 x

^ "" 12 *.
250
5
10
2
325.
*
3a; 2
lOx
5x 2
+lOar
2
a;
2
a2

2 a

'
03
i^+^T
42
^2
_
l5rt~+~54*
327
8
'
^  28
8
2

11
2
+
J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2
12 a 4 a
+
a

4
6~7**
27^12^7  5 a  6*
t
328.
2
^ ""
1B x
+
40
y
*2
+
5 x

3;B
~
1037

329
4
a;
2
?/
4g~0yg
10 o#
2
~
x
6 a*
x'
2
24 y 2
1
 9 *// + 27  7 xy + 12
x
.y
2
x
(a?4y)
3(2 x

' _
^/
3 y) 2
8
330
.V

+
y

x 3y
a
 ll.y20

2y
+
4
2
;/

3 y

6
(
331 g gy
'
f
a
3y
~
6 q

9
G
2
y/
+
5
?/
6
G
fl
y~4y+
15
^e

10
6y
332
3
a:
+lly10
4 xy 8
2

a;
4 y2
2
5 x8
2 z6
3
y
10
a:
2
+ 8 2  4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+  19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a:
?/
'
~"
6
y
333.
a:
2
x*
 7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2
. '
a:
2
2
5 sy
a:
f
zy
+ 4 y*  2 y2
'
334
*2
'
+
2 y
8
a;
 15 33
.a:
'
2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a...
20 44
333.
REVIEW EXERCISE
336.
278
C

~
a
c*
\
c*
~
b
a2
q2
h
c
5
5
~
a
c
b
q

q
c
6
*
\
:
f
1
\

{
337.
(af2/,)
2
.
338.
(a
\
+ lV.
aj
339.
fl.1V. \x
yj
340.
f
V.
\5yl
341.
+
ni + .
1
345.
(
342.
(aWi + iJ.
(ar \
346.
5
343.
+
l
+ IV.
xi
347.
344.
7
(
?f!?.y.
348.
w
\.
a:
349
_
o;
**
i. '
2
"l
5
;
'
~ ~ x2 + 8 +
76
2"
350.
a>74
.;r
5 2 .13
13 s
11
Find the numerical values of
351.
:
1+
i, if a
=
3.
352.
Simplify
:
353
^3
*
2
L
pE+1
a
/2x~l
V
5a:~2
10
4
354.
?_2
^
 +
r
.
+^
a:
y
x
274
355
f
5
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
U<>3)
356
fl V
___ _/ 2(*l)J
+ ya
xl
x
1* YTx
2
110*W*1 1** JUal
+
xy
357.
ar
xy
+ yl
x*
358.
_
+
l
a
359.
y360. (a
a
b
yx
c
yabc
361.
1+2
362.
i+5
1+1
9 x2
f
363.
(~
364.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a
1
365.
+
x
x
a
,
I

I
f
366.
a2
4
REVIEW EXERCISE
2
275
f
367.
\b*
+ c*
b
+
b
b*c*)^
c
^\
b
(b* f c*) }
c
4
c
a
b
,
b
c
368.
(1
+ab)(l+bc)
369.
a
+
.
6
a
c
b
a
b
b
1
'
~ _^
.
370
'
1
(/')(&o)
1
a
372.
2

m
373
"1*7
374.
276
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
375.
3
Solve the equations
:
or
a:
2
(a;
8

376.
5*8,*2 = 15.
+
1)
45
O
377. 20
iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.
<3
378. 2(3 x
(x
+ 4) +
10)
+
1
(x
+
7)
= 0,
379. 4(*
.
+ 6)+

(* +
J
=
_j_
j(* v/
O
+ 5)10
^\:)
/
380. 5 {2 x 381.
r
1

3(*
+
1)}
!
' .
^  ^^ +
x
f
o
51)
+2J
=
0,
J !__7.
a:
r
~
2
+
5"^

10
xf x 
382.
#
k
1
_j
j
a:
2
a:
3
383. __4 2x
3_ = !.
5
3
vC
7
a:
385
10
17
387
*
L*J> _
14
1
7ar =
(5 ar
10ar
+
15
,
"""
2J
7
'
+
2
28
ear7 + i3JTo^
,
,
1
+ 16ar_63 24 g
2T~~~ia
7
12f
a
8 a'
389
5

14(arl)
18
105
390.
REVIEW EXERCISE
391.
277
x
4
_x
5
_ _
a:
ar 5
^
~
a:
a; 6~a:
7 _ x 8~a; 
8
9*
x
~r;
"i
2
37370 ^ x
i
x x
+
1
a?

R

7 ~r
*
1
a;
u
'2 a;
6
7
7
^
2
1(5
a;
+
4
a;*
2
+
*2
"
2
~
^
H 1
.
^ (a .
l)(x

a)
(a:

3)
42
3(4 *

2)(ar
+
1).
396.
(8 x

3) (x
2

1) = (4 x
a:
1) (4 x

5).
397.
m
x
398.
.5
1
f 1
x

2
=
x
.25 x
+
.2
a:

1.
399.
.5
x
=r
f .6

.8
=
.75
x
f .25.
400. 3*
177,147.
c
.
401. y
~
rt
^=
&
~
402.
a;
f
1
1
+
a
403.
JLg:==
7wa:
c
c
}
q.
b
404.
n
a
4O5
b b
x
f
(a:

a)
+
a(a;

ft)
=
2(ar

) (a;

J).
40,.
a:
a)(a:

&)(>:
+ 2a +2&) = (a: +
2 a)
408. (x
~
a)(x
f 6) f c
=
^
(z
a:
+
2
a)(a:
a:
5
i).
_____
278
410. 411.
(x
f
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
a)(z

b)
=
a
2 alb
=
a
(x
f
b)(x
2
.

a)
2
6 2a.
(x
 a)(x b
b)
(x
b
~
)
412.
a
x
a
x
b
b
x
c
b
_a
b
f
x
414.
f
a
x
f
x
f c
1
1
ab
b
x
415. x
1
a
x
x1
ab
1
1
a
x
a
c
+
b
c
x
a
b
b
~
c
x
b
416
417.
mx ~
nx
(a
~
mx
nx
c
d
d
c)(:r
lfi:r
a
b)(x
 c)  (5 I2x
~r
l
a)
 (c rt
a)(x

b)
=
0.
418 ~jo.
a
x
)
~
a
2 b
2
ar
a
IJ a;
4x
a
a
2 c
6
Qx
3 x
c
419.
2 a
x
c
x
6
f c
a
+
a
+
a
+
6
f
walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.
420. Tn 6 hours
;
A
in 9 hours
B walks
11 miles
number of two digits the first digit is twice the second, 18 be subtracted from the number, the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
421. In a
if
and
422.
hour.
A man
drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an
Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour, he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. How long is each road ?
423.
down again
How
person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour, and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour, and was out 5 hours. far did he walk all together ?
A
REVIEW EXERCISE
424.
279
A
in 2
lowed
steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. When will
the second steamer overtake the first?
425. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.
Find the fourth proportional
426. x
427.
,
:
i,
y,
.
z2

y\
x*
xy + y*.
428. a
+
5,
a

t>,
a8
f
2 ab
f
6 2.
Find the mean proportional to
429. 3
and
1J.
430. z 2
y, if
 iand
22
22
I
a
.
431. Find the ratio x
5x
:
=
7y
;
wi*
+ y=
ny; ax
is
\
by

ex
+
dy.
432.
A
line
10 inches long
divided in the ratio m:n.
Find
the length of the parts.
433. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two, find the angles of the triangle.
:
If
is
one
equal
434. If a b
:
=5
n
:
7,
and
:
b
:
c
=
14
:
15, find
:
a
:
c.
435. Solve
436.
:
m
n(n
x)
=p
:
m n(p
:
x).
Which
ratio
is
greater, 5
7 or 151
208?
437. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation
of h feet
is
very nearly equal to ^

miles.
438.
a.
b.
Which
of the following proportions are true?
(9
c.
d.
+ 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).  46 2): (15a 2  31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2  49 63), 2 2 8 2  2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b*  a 2^ 8 + aft*  & 5 ) (a 8  6 8 ), (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a
(3a
2
2
: :
fc
:
:
:
280
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
x, if
2
ft
:
439. Find the value of
a.
29(a
+
&)
:
x
=
551 (a 3 
)
19(a

&).
c.
2 (3 a
+
2 ab

8 ft)
:
2 (5 a
f
4 ai

12
ft
2
)
=
a?
:
(5 a

6
ft).
of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces, what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ?
440.
The volumes
If
their diameters.
Solve the following systems:
441. 7
442. 443.
a:
2y=
=
1
;
3
a;
+
5y
=
59.
x + 17 # 53; 8 x + y = 19. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 *  55 y = ;
16.
444. 445.
446.
7jr9y =
17;
9ar7# =
71.
7a?y = 3; 5x+4y=lQ. = 25. 7 a:  3 y = 3 5 f 7
;
a;
?/
447.
448.
449. 450. 451.
452.
453.
454.
455.
456.
457.
458. 459.
x + 5 y = 49 3 x  11 y = 95. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 5z4:# = 3;rf2# = l. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 28 = 5 a  4 12  89 = q. 5j + 7 7 = = 2; 42 = 15y + 137. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y; 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 56 + 10y = 7a;; 15ar = 20 + 8y.  11 7; 21 7 = 27 + Op. 9/> = 2  7 y = 25; 4 = 5 y + 29. 3  35. 8  59 = 3 z; 5 2 = 7
;
;
;
/>(.*;
ft.
ft;
;
/)
ar
a;
a:
a:
+ 5y) (or l(*2y)=0; 1(3 
a;
REVIEW EXERCISE
460.
3 x
28i
+
7
~~~^ = 5;7;c=563y. 8
461.
3
a?
_
y
7
a?
3 y
_
1
12
15
~~10
4
__
10
"10
463.
465.
4 g
~
2
7g
+
3
.?/
+
1
.
'
a:
+
2 g
+
3 y
_
467.

= 2;
(or
 2y)
(2
= 2J.
468. ^
+
i^
= 7; + =2.
_
469.
i = 5; i
47O
_
3~12
}
4*
471. ax
by
=
c
\
472. ax
cx
by
= m;
473.
car
=
4
rf
cte 
ey =/.
+ eyn.
x
y
474.
475.
_
&
+y
3
dx+frj
c\
282
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
476. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12, and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. fraction becomes equal to .
477. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1, and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ?
j
478.
to
,
If 1
be added to the numerator of a fraction
it
if 1
be added to the denominator
it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find the
fraction.
479.
least
The sum
of three
numbers
is
is
21.
by 4, and the other number least. Find the numbers.
half the
The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and
480. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2, also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the numbers.
481. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age
;
years, and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find their ages.
thrice that of his son
and added to the father's, the Find their ages. age.
483.
latter
would then be twice the
son's
A
and B together have $6000.
A
spends \ of his. had each at first?
B
B
then has
J
as
much
spends } of his money and as A. How much money
less
484. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30, and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3.
485. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100, and in 18 months to $2180. Find the sum and the rate of
interest.
486. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260, and in 20 months to $275. Find the principal and the rate of
interest.
487.
A
number
consists of
two
digits
4,
whose difference
is
4;
if
the
sum of
the digits be multiplied by
the digits will be inverted.
Find
the number.
REVIEW EXERCISE
488. There
is
283
digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.
a
number
;
of
two
the
sum
of the digits
also
if
number.
489.
Find two numbers whose sum equals
is
s
and whose difference
equals d.
490. The sum of two numbers
squares
is b.
,
and the
difference of their
Find the numbers.
:
Solve the following systems
491. x
f
y
f
z
29
;
x
s
+
y
z
=
18J ; x
y
f z
=
13.
492. ,
493. 494. 495.
5
+
a;
2
2
=
41; *
+
425

=
;
*i, ,
3
a:
+ 5=84.
f
+
3 y
62
4
y
4a;5#+2z =
$x
a:
G; 2
ar
+
3 y
2 z = 8  z = 20;
;
a;
2y + 2z =
a:
2.
7
4#+
3z
=
35.
496. 4
497. y
Solve
:
x
+z=
5; z
y
x
25 ;
a;
+
#
+z=
35.
498.
a:
+
//
=
11;
;/
f
z
=a;
1;
a:
499. 3 x 500.
+
y
5 y
=
101
;
7
+
2 z
 z = 12. = 209; 2
e.
a: f
z
= 79.
ifi
=
x
a;
1+1 = 6; z
y
ifi =
z
x
502. 3ar
503. 2a:f 7;/ 504. 7;?
+ 2y = 8; 4z+3z = 20; = 15; 2y + 3a = ll; = 20; 2/>3r = 4; 30 2^
3^ =
'
'
4r=9.
4
506. 2
a;
8;
5^
9z
=
10;
a:
+
?/
2z
= 15.
~
507. \
284
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
516.
517.
+ + 3579
2+?.
523.
!f
== 2800,
ra?
+
y
2
+
524
x
\
+y + = +
t
jx [y +
9
= 3af& + r, 36 + c, i=a + 6 c,
z
z
=3a&c.
+
:
=
1472.
ll"
REVIEW EXERCISE
285
525. When weighed in water, 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds, and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air, and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ?
in 3 days,
and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days, B and C and C and A in 4 days. In how many days can each alone do the same work?
526.
527. Throe numbers are such that the
A
the
first
and second equals
;
and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Find the numbers.
sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and
the
sum
528. A vessel can be filled by three pipes, L, M, N. Tf and run together, it is filled in 35 minutes; if and L, in 28 minutes; if L and Af in 20 minutes. Tu what time will it be filled if all run
M
N
N
t
together?
529. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born; his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Find the present ages of his father and mother.
;
530. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. How long will B and C take to do
;
;
it
separately
?
531. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits; if the number be increased by Find the number. 90, the first and second digits will change places.
532. In
circle
A ABC, AB=6, BC = 5,
AC
in /),
touches
and
F respectively.
and CA=7. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD, CD, and BE.
E
533. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart, and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. If they had walked toward each other, they would have met in 2 hours. What are their rates of
travel?
286
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
534. Represent the following table graphically
TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES, FRANCE, GERMANY, AND BRITISH ISLES
535. One dollar equals 4.10 marks. formation of dollars into marks. 536.
of
Draw
a graph for the trans
The number
in
of
workmen Draw
required to finish a certain piece
the graph
work
D
days
it
is
from
D
1 to
D=
12.
How
is
t /
long will
I
take 11
men
2
t' .
to
do the work? pendulum, the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0
537. If
to
feet is the length of a
seconds, then / = 3 and write
=
3.3
Draw
down
the time of swing for a
pendulum
of length
8 feet.
Draw
the graphs of the following functions
:
538. 3 x
539. 2 x
+
5.
542. x
2
+
x.
546. 2

x

x2
.

7.
543. x 2 544. z 2

x x

5.
547.
x*.
540. 2 541.

3 x.
+
3.
2.
548. x 8
549. x*

2
x.

3 x.
545. x *x
+
x
+
1.
550. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine
:
+
2 x
x*,
from x
=
2 to x
= 4,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The values of y, i.e. the function, if x = f 1, 2. The values of x if y = 2. The greatest value of the function. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.
,
REVIEW EXERCISE
551.
287
by a falling body
is
The formula
2
] f/f
for the distance traveled
a.
Represent
meters, and make the
unit of the
b.
c.
\
to t = 5. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale
^
2
.)
How
In
far does a
how many
body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters?
Solve graphically the following equations
:
x*"2x7 = Q. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 553. 2 554. + 5  = 0. 555. x*  5 x  3 = 0. 556. z 2  3 x  = 0. 557. x 2 ~ 2  9 = 0. 558. 3 x*  3  17 = 0. 566. x 4  4 x 2 + 4  4 = 0. 2 567. x 5  4  11 x* + + 2 8 569. If y +5 10, a. Solve// = 0. = 5. J. Solve
552.
a:
559. 2 x 2
560. 2
a;
.r
1
561.
562.
563. 564. 565.
a;
a?
4 x  15 = 0. + 10 x  7 =  13 = 0. 3 x  G  3 x  1 = 0. 3 + 3 z  11 = 0. 2 8  6 + 3  0. z 4  10 x 2 + 8 = 0.
j;

2
1
a:
a;
3
.r
.r
a:
a:
x
a;
18 x

4
=
0.
568.' 2*
+
Z

4
= 0.
a;
c.
r?.
//
Solve y Solve y
=
5.
15.
2.
e.
f.
Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie, if y
=m
has
three real roots.
g.
h.
i.
Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ?
:
Solve graphically
570
'
571.
572.
.
'
=
8.
288
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
4,5 xy = 0.
[
y =10,
+ ,4, j^f = 3. x
[
?/
577.
3
(f,
=
2 \*> + a: [
^
=
4'
=
581.
{f_7l j?
2* +
'' o 2
[
?/
>
3'

578.
: y*
or 25.
582.
a:.
579.
jj+;frf
:
583.
+
jf:ji f590>
(2
(3
(1
Perform the operations indicated
584.
fMV

586
'
^
(a
+
6)T
'
587.
(aiy.
f ?>)
3
591.
+ + 4
.
<r)3 
2
3
a:)
,
585
594. 595;
588. 589.
(a

8
ft)
.
592.
593.
xY.
4
(1a:)
3.
(#
2)
.
596.
600.
(a; + ^) + (air%)8. 4  %) 4 (aa; + %) (a* + *) 5  (1  a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x +
f.
.
597.
598.
(1
(1
(1
.
+
+
4
x) (l
2
^)
.
599.
4
a;
2
2
a:'
)
+ x' )'2  x + 2 )'2 601. (1 +
x
a;
.
x
+
z2) 8
.
Extract the square roots of the following expressions:
602. 64 a 12 603. 604.

128 a 10 6
30
3
a:
+
2
?/
'
100 a 8
/;
2

100
aW + 100 aW 48 a*h +
6
a:
?/
10 6.
1
.
48 xf +
a:
4

04 aty 6
a:
//
16
2
605. a 8
606. 9

4 fSb
607.
2 (2 a ft 6
+ + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2  4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1  2 & 2 ) (4
a:
?/
14
a:
1
2
2
?y
4
a:
10 2 + x^f  128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy  4 x*y* + 3 4 6  2 2 + y. f ^s_ 14 a 4/,4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8
9(5
a:
7
//
fe
.
a;
a:
.
6
+
1) . 5 a*.
608. 609.
a:
f
~+
x
[
10
^i 
1
V 6x
+
4
+
610. a 2a; 2
611. a
612.
a:
f
2
2
aAa:
+
2 ?/
 2 6a: +
30 &c
a;
2

2
aa: 2 .
2
+
f
9 6
+
25 c
2
10 ac

a6.
2
943
++
~bx.
3
REVIEW EXERCISE
Find the fourth root
613. 614.
615.
4
289
of
:
4
4 a*b
+
a2
2
/;
f
4
aft
8
+
4
ft .
10:r 4
+ 9G* 3 +
HI x s

108 afy
616.
10 a 4
32
fe
2
+ 81. + 54 'x*y*  12 a?y + y*. + 24 a 2 4  8 aft 6 + 8
21G.*; 2
+
21Ga;
/;
ft
.
Find the eighth root
617. a 8
of:

8 tvb
+
28 a 6 //2

50 a c ft 8
+
70 a 4 ft 4

50 a 8 ft 6
+
28 a 2ft
618. a 8
10 a*
8
aft
7
+
ft
8
,
+
112 a 8
 448 z +
1120
a:
4

1792 x*
+ 1792 2  1024 x +
a:
256.
Find the square root of
619. 942841. 620. 25023844.
625
:
621. 0090.2410.
623. 49042009.
624. 44352.30.
622. 4370404.
626.
VOIOOD + V582T09.
V950484
 V250  \/4090.
Find to three decimal places the square numbers
:
roots of the following
627. 49.871844. 628. 371240.49.
629. 035.191209.
630. 210.15174441.
32
631. 494210400001.
632.
2.
638. GGff.
633. 21.
634.
V
635. 4J.
636.
9g.
637. 40.
639. According to Kepler's law, the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. If the distances of Earth and
Jupiter from the sun are at 1
days, find Jupiter's period.
:
5.2,
and the Earth's period equals 3G5J
Solve the following equations
:
640. x 2
641.
a
642.
643. 644.
645.
= 70. + 2 21 x = 100. *+* = 156. x 2  53 x ~  150. 8*' + 24* = 32. 9a; 2 + 189 z = 900. 651. (x 9 x
646. x 2
f
x
~

16
= 0. = 0. =
.
647t x
2
648
649.
x2
+ 9x _ 5x _
22 66
? * + 9 , = 87.
650. 3a; 2
2)
2
+x = 14.
7)
2.
f
(x
+
5)
2
= (x +
290
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
"""
ar
a
x
b
ab
REVIEW EXERCISE
~
291
X+ x
1>
a
+c
~ a
i~
i
c ~ b

~
"
x
690.
+
~T~
*
a
+
b
x
=
rj* 2
4(5
4 x + + Ox + 4
691.
692.
693.
694. 695. 696.
1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax  a a )jr  2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2  ax  bx  c = 0.
.
2
ft
2
2
fi
2
=
0.
2
2
697. ax 2
698.
699.
a;
2 2
 2V3:r
2 V5
a:
f
+ fa + 1 = 0. =
0.
ex
abc=
fx
0.
4
a:
+
4
^^
6a:x2
8
701. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a; 2
702. 2(4 :r
7r\O
/'r'S
=
a:
0.
2
'
3
2
a:)

28
+
21
+
5
'^
=
0.
1
__
:
)'*' _i.
7^^
^3"
^^ ^T
704.
2
(:r
+
:r)O
2
+
:cf 1)
=
42.
706.
707. 708.
292
709. **13a: 2
710.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
+36 = 0. 16 x*  40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.
714
2
*2
'
+
25
4
16

25 a2
711.
a:
713. 3or
i
16  44#2 + 121 = 0.
___ _ 2* 5 3*27
715.
716. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 717. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.
sum is a and whose product equals J. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B, and working together they can build it in 18 days. In how many days can A build the wall?
718. Find two numbers whose 719.
A
equals CO feet.
of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 721. Find the price of an apple, if 1 more for 30/ would diminish
720.
The area
the price of 100 apples by $1.
722.
217
;
The
difference of the cubes of
two consecutive numbers
is
find them.
723. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 724. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 725. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for
$375;
in value, he
many
312?
he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6.25 might have bought five more for the same money. How shares did he buy ?
if
726. 727.
What two numbers
are those whose
sum
is
47 and product
A man
bought a certain number of pounds of tea and
10 pounds more of coffee, paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee, what is the
price of the coffee per
pound ?
:
Find the numerical value of
728.
729. 12
4*+

8 l
+
8
8
+
ft)'
(J)*
(3)*
+
(a
+
64
+ i.
REVIEW EXERCISE
implify :
30.
31.
32.
293
(y* (a*
+ f
y*
+ y*+l)(y*.l).
+
a*x*
x*)(a*
/^
(a*
(rrr
+
c^
s
M
'
+ x*).  aM ?n^n^
f
ft*c*)(a*
+
6*
+
c*).
33.
+w
5 n*
+w
n
3
+
n )(m*
3
n^).
34.
35.
 2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM +  1 + x 2)(x2 4 1 f ^ 2). (x*
(i*
(a2
(a(1
1
4 d*).
36.
37.
38.
39.
+
&2)( a
2_
1
j2).
1
6 1 + c )(ai + & 1 f c" ). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l  aft* 1 + a 2* 2 ).
(4 x~*
+
l
3 ar 2
+
2
2
)
a;
1
+
l)(>r
2

i
+
1).
40.
(64 x~
+
27
y
r
(4 x~^
+
3 y"*).
41.
42.
43.
(^ (a*
(a^
ary*
+
x^y
f
y*)
* +
*
(x*

y*).
f
+
M
6*
f
6)
(a*
U*")
4
a*6^
(<i*
&*).
+ 

c*
+
2
+
^ + cbf
44.
(x*
2 a
M+
f
a8)
(x*

2
aM"
a).
46.
(4
a:
2

12 x*
28 x
+
9 x*

42 x*
+
49)*.
48
^i?
x T
^
^2?
x
sT~
x
.2?
50.
n.
52.
(v/x) X
294
753.
754.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
755.
[1r^ T
1
i
;.
~
r* x ._
1 4j "r
O/lf * ^ ^ II r*
4"*"
1 A "1
1.
JU.1+J
756.
757.
758.
759.
2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.
+ V22
+ +
12 V2b8

760. 4\/50
4
SVlOOO.
761.
\/G86
v/lGv/128.
768.
vff +
V^~ 4^ 2^/2
776.
2V2
2V3
IIEVIEW EXERCISE
y/a
295
f
780.
x
782.
y/a
+ Va
Va
x x
+
x
781.
783.
Find the square roots of the following binomial surds:
784. 10
785.
+ 2V21.
789.
3812VIO.
794.
3J
 VlO.
786.
787.
16 + 2V55. 92VI5.
790. 14
791.
 4 V(j.
 12VIT.
103
788. 13 799. a
9442V5.  2 V30.
c
792.
7512V21.
793. 87
ac + 6t

12 ^
+ 2 Vab
Simplify
801.
806.
7
+ 3 V5
(
7
7

3 V'5
(
2 4
73V5
+ 3V5
+ V3 + V3
4

5
 2V3*
^
807.
Va
809.
f
x
Va
z
Va
f
x
+ Va
a;
296
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
 \/2y 
810. Find the sum and difference of
(ar
+ V2yx 2)* and
1.
(x
a:
2
)
4
.
811.
812.
x/aT+l
 V? =
813.
VaT+lJ
f
^l  g.
814.
815.
816.
\/2(r+
/3
a:
1)
+ v/2 x +
a:
15
=
13.

5
+ V3
f
12
817. 818.
819.
+ 103Var 1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25  79.
/9ar
a:
= 17. = 1.
820. 3
x
+
2
 Vc^lJ  V2 ar
10.
829. 830.
831.
Va:
+
28
f
+ V9 x  28 = 4 V2 ar
14.
V14 a;
\/12
a;
9
7
3
+ V3a:+ = 0. + ViTli + V7  13 = 0.
f
2 VaT+1
1
a:
832.
833.
V2a:
Va:
+
3
+
ar
2 Vx
f
1
834.
V3
f 1
V4a;f 5
= V5x + 4. + Vx  4 =
0.
836.
Va:
KEVIEW EXERCISE
838. 5 x*
f
297
9)
11 x
 12\/(ar44)(5z~
=
36.
6.
839. 4 a;
840.
a:
2
+ 4\/3^~ 7x + 3 = 3ar(a;  1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7  3 a:.
f
841. 4 a: 2
842.
V4 x 2  10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2  3  3 Va: 2  3 x  10 = 118.
a:
:
Resolve into prime factors
843. x 4
+
f
2
a;
8
+
a:
5
8
a;
2
f
2
18a:
f
+ 16.
844. x
6
x4
f
+
+
a:
x
f 1.
845. 5 a 4
7 a8
 28 a 4 xy 8
80.
846. 4 x*
847.
a;
 x*y +
3x
f 2.
2
a:
64 y*.
8
8
848.
a:
849. a 8
850.
a;
+3 4
+ 
4.
6 2 f 3 6 s.
8
+
4
4 ar 2
2
a;
2 x
3.
851. x*
8
^
8
2 a#*
a;
y
4.
852.
a;
8
2a; 2
f"
+
a/
15.
4o.
853. x
11
a^
J
13
854.
a;
8
8

13
a;
f 12.
855.
a;
8a: 2
4
f
8
a:
+
2
19a;12.
19 x
14.
856. x 8
2
857. 4 x 8 858. 16 859. 8 a; 8
860. 8
4a:
8
a;

3x
a;
9.
40 x 2
7
f
49.
27 y 8.
a;
868. a 8
869. a* *
1
+ a8
8 a;
8
.
f
b**.
861. 27
862.
64.
870. a*"
& 6n .
863. z*y 8
l64a. +
.
871. a
872. a 8 873.
864. 275 8 l.
865. 64 a
866. 729
867.
a:
 1000 6. + 512 y8
874.
+ 1. + 216 rt aty a 10  ab9
ft*.
.
.
875. a 18
4 a.
8^27^.
876. a l0m
 1.
298
877.
878.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Show
Show
3 ?
that 99
+
1 is divisible
by 100.
that 1001 79
of
1 is divisible
by 1000.
5x 3 exactly divisible
879. For
what value
m
is
2 #3
mx*
by x

880.
What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by
a;
:
x
3?
Solve the following systems
881. x
882.
883.
a:
884. 885.
886.
887.
a;
a;
+ 2y=\2, xy + y = 32. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. y = 28, x 8 3 = 13:3. +y f y = 7, 2 + xy = 10, y*+ xy  15. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37,
f
a:
a:
4
?y
=
481.
.
a:
888.
889.
a:
a;
890.
a:
+ y 2 = 34, 2  y 2 + V(j; 2  y 2) = 20. 2 + y 2  1 = 2 a#, xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 f ary = 8 + 3, 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 = 2 + 5, a:y  y 2 = 2 y + 2. xy
2
a: a:
?/
a;
M1 891
1
,
;Vi'
+
1
1_3. =
? + p"iaL+L=13.
a:
1
1
_
5
892. 1 x
893.
894.
895. 896.
5;
y
y
2
y
2
1121; x
a:
lI =
xz
;
y
2
2
8f.
8 8
+
y y
9
9
a:
= =
37
a:
152,
a:
2
897. z 2
898.
899.
900.
901.
x*xy 35, a# f + xy = 126, y 2 4 sy = 198. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43, 2 + xy = 28. 2 + 2 f = 17, 3 x 2  5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 2 = 16 y, y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy  y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6
a;
a;
+ ary + 2 = 37.  xy + y 2 = 19.  18. f
?/
a:
a:
,
.
REVIEW EXERCISE
902. xa
903. x 4
299
xy
z
904.
905. 906.
907.
908.
909.
910.
+ 2 a:y + = 243, x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y # 2 2 f f y = 84, Vary + y = 6. x + y}(x + y) = 273, (!) *  y) (a?  y) = 33. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12, * + y = 444. x + y 2 = aar, y x 2 = by. + y = 9, ^ 2  #y + 2 = 27. 23 x 2  y2 = 22, 7 y  23 = 200.
f
y
2
x
2 y
=
1,
xy 2
2 x 2y
2
=
0.
+
a;
2
2
f
4
a:
ar//
or
f
a;
?/
^:
^f!i^2, ny
ft
ma:
=
*
a
2
m*.
911. 912.
L/ay =
a:
+
5?
+
g = ^ + g. a o
o
2
j
+ a:y = 2, 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 913. + 2 ary = 39, xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 5 xy = 11, y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 914. 2 915. x f 2 a:y = 32, 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 2 2 916. x 2 ry + y = 3, # + xy + y = 7.  3) 2 f (y  3)2 = 34, *y  3(* + y) = 6. 917. (* 918. (3 x  y) (3 y  x) = 21, 3 :r(3  2 y) = 49 2 919. (a; + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20, 4 (a; + ?/)  16 y 3 8 =  y). 920. (o; + y)(a; 3 y 8 ) =1216, y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 921. a;y = a(ar + y), y 3 2 2 922. + y 8 = 189. y + a:y = 180, 923. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0, 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 2 924. + ary = a*, y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy + x= 15, ary y = 8. 2 * 2 ~ g.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a?  y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 2 + y = 2 a 4 6, ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a
2
3
a:
a:
a;
y
.r
a;
.
a:
a;
or
or
a?
a:
a:
.
a:
*
a:
a:
ar
928.
a:
y
zx
12,
a:y
xy
929. yz
=
24,
=
8.
300
930.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
(*+s)(* + y)=10,
931. s(y
932.
+ z)=18, = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y
933. (y
(* + y)(y +*)= 50, (y + *) =  102, *(* + #) =24. 152, y(x + y + 2) = 133, z(* + y + 2) = 76. + z) =108, (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96,
y(
934. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the numbers.
935.
is
3
;
the difference of their
The
is
difference of
their cubes
270.
two numbers Find the numbers.
is 20,
is 3,
and the
difference of
936.
2240.
The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.
and the sum of their cubes
is
tangle
certain rectangle contains 300 square feet; a second rec8 feet shorter, and 10 feet broader, and also contains 300 square feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle.
937.
A
is
938.
The sum
of the perimeters of
sum
of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet.
two squares is 23 feet, and the Find the sides of the and
its
is
squares.
34
939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. feet.
feet,
diagonal
940. A plantation in rows consists of 10,000 trees. Tf there had been 20 less rows, there would have been 25 more trees in a row. How many rows are there?
941.
the
The sum
of the perimeters of
sum
of their areas equals 617 square feet.
two squares equals 140 feet; Find the side of each two
circles is
IT
square.
942. The
sum
of the circumferences of
44 inches,
and the sum of
their areas 78$ square inches.
Assuming
= y,
find
the radii of the two circles.
943. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet, the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. Find the sides of the rectangle.
944. A and B run a race round a twomile course. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. In the second
heat
A
;
much and A then
Find at what
increases his speed 2 miles per hour, and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B.
rate each
man
ran in the
first
heat.
REVIEW EXERCISE
301
945. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet; if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet, its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find its length and breadth.
whose
946. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its
is
length increased by 2 inches, the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.
unaltered.
Find the
eter
947. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. What is its area?
field is
182 yards, and
its
perim
948. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the number.
949. Find two numbers each of which
is
the square of the other.
950. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14; the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits, and if 594 be added to the number, the digits are reversed.
Find the number.
951. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer, and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find in what time both will do it.
;
952. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches, the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. triangle is 6.
953. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks
the
of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. each block.
is
407 cubic feet;
sum
Find an edge of
954.
Two
starts
travelers,
;
A and
B, set out from two places,
P and
Q, at
the same time
A
it
starts
and
B
from
Q
with the design to pass through Q, and travels in the same direction as A. When
from
P
A
was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before, and that B, at Find the his rate of traveling, was 9 hours' journey distant from P. distance between P and Q.
overtook
miles, that
B
A
955. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards.
302
956.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Sum
to 32 terras, 4,
',
J,
\
,
....
957. Sura to 24 terms,
958.
3
,

2.
Sum
to 20 terms,
P.
5,
^ Vfirst five
959. Find an A.
fourth of the
unity.
such that the sum of the
1
terms
is
one
sum
of the following five terms, the first
term being
Find the sums of the
960.
1G
series
,
:
+
f
24
21 24
4f
32
36
1G
10,
4
4
to 7
terms
;
961. 16 962. 36
963. 964.
..,
to 7 terms;
+
(iiven a
+ 
4
d
...,to infinity.
=
4, s

88.
Find
n.
How many
Sum Sum
terms of the series
1
+
3
+
5
+
amount
to
123,454,321?
965.
to n terms, 1
to n terms,
3
+
5
7
+
.
966.
12434+
j I
967. Find the
sum
of
4 1 4
f
j$V
,
to infinity.
*"
968. 969.
970. 971.
972.
Sum
Sum
to infinity,
f
+
1
;>/)
to infinity,
^1 +
Vj
1 2

 V2
 4142
....
Sum Sum Sum
to 10 terms, (x 4
to n terms, x(x
to 8 terms, (x
+ O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4 x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.
.v
973. Evaluate (a) .141414..; 974. Find n
f
(ft)
.3151515....
^
1
,
n
to n terms, the
terms being in A. P.
975. Find the difference between the sums of the series
5 n
+ !Lni
n "
4
4.
!Ll^ +
n
...
(to 2 n terms),
and
976.
first
?
n+l(n + l)
The 10th and
The
term and the
T +
(
+
+!)
V (to
J' infinity).
18th terms of an A. P. are 29 and 53.
difference.
5.
Find the Find the
common
977.
9th and llth terms of an A. P. are 1 and
sum
of 20 terms.
REVIEW EXERCISE
978. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.
303
979. Insert 8 arithmetic means between
1
and
,
0.
980.
How many
sum
terms of 18
+
17
+
10
+
amount
,
to 105?
981. The sum
982. The
term.
of n terms of 7
+
9
+ 11+
is
is
40,
Find
n.
of n terms of an A. P.
"( + lY L V;3 '
Find the 8th
983. The 21st term of an A. P. is 225, and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Find the
first
term, and the
common
difference.
first
984. Find four numbers in A. P. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55, and of the second and third 03.
985. Find the value of the infinite product 4
v'i
v7!
v^5
....
986.
all
A
perfect number
is
a number which equals the sum
divisible.
If
of
2
of
integers + 2 1 + 2'2
by which
is
it
is
the
sum
of
the series
2 n is prime, then this
sum multiplied by
(Euclid.)
the last term
the series
a perfect number.
Find four perfect
numbers.
987. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah, named Sheran, who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on
Sessa for the
the 1st square of a chessboard, 2 grains on the 2d, 4 grains on the 3d, and so on, doubling the number for each successive square on the board.
Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. Find the sum of the series
988.
989. 5
11 
:
+
9


V2
+
.
..,
to oo.
v/2
1
+ +
+
1
4
+
+
3>/2
to oo
+
+
.2
.04
+
..,
990.
1.1
+
2.01
3.001
4.001
+
.,
to
n terms.
992.
What
2 a
value must a have so that the
sum
of
+
av/2
+
a
+
V2
+
,
to infinity
may
be 8?
304
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
993. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162.
994. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 995. The
fifth
term of a G. P.
is 4,
and the
fifth
term
is
8 times
the second ; find the series.
512
996. The sum and product of three numbers in G. P. are 28 and find the numbers.
;
997.
The sum and sum
;
of squares of four
numbers
in
G. P. are
45 and 765
find the
numbers.
998. If a, ft, c, are unequal, prove that they cannot be in A. P. and G. P. at the same time.
999. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed, in this square a circle, in this circle a square, and so forth to infinity. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences, (I) the sum of the perimeters of
all
squares.
1000. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first, the sides
of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second, and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters, (6) the sum of the infinity. areas of all triangles.
1001. Each stroke of the piston of an air
air contained in the receiver.
pump removes
J
of the
of air
is
fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver, (a) after 5 strokes, (6) after n
What
strokes?
many
1002. Under the conditions of the preceding example, after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original
density ?
a circle is inscribed. 1003. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC.
third circle touches the second circle and the
to infinity. inches.
ABC
A A
n
same
sides,
and
if
so forth
What
is
the
sum
of the areas of all circles,
AB =
1004. Two travelers start on the same road. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. many days will the latter overtake the former?
REVIEW EXEHCISE
1005. Write down the
(a
first
305
three and the last three terms of

*)".
1006. Write down the expansion of (3
1007. Expand

2
a;
2
)
5.
(12 #)
7
.
1008. Write down
(x
the
first
four
terms
in
the
expansion
of
+
2
#).
1009. Find the 9th term of (2 al
1010. Find the middle term of
(
 o/) 14  l) w
f
.
.
1011. Find the middle term of (a$
bfy.
1012. Find the two middle terms of
1013. Find the two middle terms of
( (
9
.
 ft) 19
.
+
lQ
.
x)
18
.
1014. Find the
fifth
term of (1

a:)
1015. Find the middle term of (a
+
b)
1016. Find the two middle terms of (a
*2
x)
9
.
(1
1018. Find the
coefficient
a:
X 
\88
1
in
1019. Find the middle term of
1020. Write down the
1
5a

6
V
.
coefficient of
x 9 in (5 a 8
7
.
a:
8 7.
)
1021. Find the eleventh term of /4 x
>>
 iV
2i/
5
INDEX
[NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.]
Abscissa Absolute term
.
148
178
Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . .
....
.
t
53
120
.
.210
130
"
Addition
value
4
15, 19, 97,
.
....
sum
Consequent
Consistent equations
210
27
10
18
....
Aggregation, signs of
Algebraic expression
.
.
....
9,
Constant
Coordinates
Cross product
155
148
41
"
Alternation
123
Antecedent
Arithmetic
*'
120
Degree of an equation
Difference
.
.
.
232
mean
progression
.
. .
249
246
20
10
23
193
. .
Discriminant
Discussion of problems
Arrangement of expressions Average
.
.241
45 45
Dividend
Division
Divisor
Axiom
.Base of a power Binomial " theorem
54
8
45
130
10
255
9
Elimination
Equations
'
63
consistent
fractional
.
Brace
Bracket
Character of roots
.
.
9
**
.
.
.
.130 .108
160
"
.
graphic
tion of
representa
.
.
.
.193
11
.
....
Checks
Coefficient
20, 37, 49
Clearing equations of fractions
108 8
'
graphic solution, 158, 160 in quadratic form 191 .
linear
literal
Common
**
*
difference
....
.
.
.
246
91
"
multiple, lowest
ratio
"
'*
.... .... numerical ....
quadratic
.
54, 129
54, 112
54
54
251
.
.
.
.178
Completing the square
.181
105
"
Complex
fraction
"
Evolution
Composition
...
8
...
123
........
simple simultaneous
.
129, 232
169
807
808
Exponent
Exponents, law of Extraneous roots
.
INDEX
8
.
Like terms
Linear equation
. .
17
65, 184
54, 112
.
34, 45, 195
Extreme
Factor " theorem " II. C
Factoring
222 Literal equations . 120 Lowest common multiple
70
.
91
...... 227
....
.
. .
Mathematical induction
.
.
.
Mean
"
81)
proportional Mean, arithmetic
346 120
338
341
53
70,
227
geometric
. .
Fourth proportional Fractional equations
u
Fractions.
exponent
.
.
.
120 Member, first and second .108 Minuend .105 Monomials 03 Multiple, L.C
Multiplication
. .
23
10
91
102, 212
.31,
Geometric progression .251 Graphic solution of simultane.
.
Negative exponents
11
.
195
4 13
ous equations
100
158
.
. .
numbers
.
.
Graphic solution of simple equations
Graph of a function Grouping terms
Highest
.154
Order of operations " of surds
.
.
.
.
205
148 148
27
86 Ordinate Origin
.
common
factor
Homogeneous equations
Identities
.
89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square
53
......
.
9,
83
10
19
Polynomial
Polynomials, addition of " square of
.
Imaginary numbers
.
.
109
102
.
Inconsistent equations
.
.
42
7
Independent equations Index
.
.
130
9
Power
Prime factors
Problem, Product
'*
76
Infinite, G.
P
.
253
28
70
1,
63, 114, 143, 180, 189, 243
7
.
.
Insertion of parentheses
. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions
Progressions, arithmetic
.
241
123
geometric
.
.
.
246 251
121
Inversion
Involution
Irrational
Proportion
105
Proportional, directly, inversely 122
numbers
.
.
.
205
.
.
Known numbers
.
1
Quadratic equations Quotient
Radical equations Radicals
....
178
45 221
205
Law
of exponents
.
.
84, 45, 195
33, 45
Laws of
signs
INDEX
Ratio
national
Rationalizing denominators
76,
.
309
171
133
120
Square root
Substitution
205
Real numbers
Reciprocal
215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend
104
22
Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root
Roots of an equation " character of
"
.
....
...
.
.
Sum, algebraic
Surds
......
23
18
228
27 9
205
10
Term
"
absolute
54
193
178
Theorem, binomial
Third proportional
Transposition
....
255
120
54
10
sum and product
of
.
.
193
Rule of signs
Series
Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms
Similar surds
33, 45
Trinomial
240
...
9,
.
27
17
Unknown numbers
....
1
Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial
205 Value, absolute 54 Variable
.
4
155
9
"
of
.... polynomial ....
129, 232
Vinculum
Zero exponent
40 42
197
Printed in the United States of America.
ANSWERS
TO
SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR
WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP
WILLIAM
P.
MANGUSE
STrtn
gork
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1918
All rights reserved
COPYRIGHT,
1910,
BY
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Published September, 1910.
Set up and electrotypcd.
Reprinted April, 1913; December, 1916; August, 1917.
NorfoooS
J. 8. Gushing Co.
Berwick <fe Smith Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
ANSWERS
Page
phia
8 in.
2.
1.
32,8.
2.
$160.
3.
A
.$9400,
5.
B
$4700.
ft.,
4.
South
America 46,000,000, Australia
ft.
5,000,000.
Seattle 12
Philadel
9.
8. 16 in., 16 in., 7. 48 ft., 8 ft. 6. A $90, B $ 128, C $ 16. 10. 150,000,000 negroes, 15,000,000 Indians. 18, 18, 144.
Page
13.
1.
3.
11.
A
Bl
7.
in.,
16f
2.
in.
$40, B $80, C $1(50. 14. A 38 mi., B 10 mi.
in
12.
A
15.
is
$10, $100.
B
$20,
C
$60.
Not
5.
arithmetic.
3. 6.
9
16

larger than
7.
3.
7.
4.
9
=
4.
7.
1.
3
below
0.
 3.
sign.
7.
7,
Page Page
Ilis
expenditures.
sign.
4.
5.
5.
3.
westerly motion. 9. 37 S., 37.
14.
20.
6.
$ 1 50
10.
loss,
 150.
7.
1.

1,
20 B.C., 6 yd. per sec.  1, 8. 13 S., 13.
12.
10.
16.
11.
3.
17.
2.
18.
6.
13.
15.
14.
15.
32.
+
1.
21.
1,
27.
(a)
(/>)
1. 2. 28.
9,12.
b. 9.
3.
22.
5.
23.
2. 3.
19.

1.
1.
24.
3.
25.
Page
1.
6.
8.
29.
2.
73, 126, 89, 13 V, 106, 59, 115.
12,2.
10.
4.
5000.
85,
_ 32.
3 m, 2
5.
13 d.
6.
Yes.
7.
9 m.
14
11.
210.
12.
9
14.
c.
15.
Page?. 30?.
20
jo.
7m.
16.
14,

13.
x.
36.
14. 19.

2 p,
x.
10g.
49, 6*
16.
17.
26z.
18.

22
20.
21.
1.
Multiplication.
Page
4.
8.
5.
72
=
=
216, 3*
7.
=
5 81, 2
~
15.
32.
2.
9.
49.
1.
3.
32.
.
25.
0.
512.
6.
16. 14.
8.
1,000,000.
10.
11.
17. 25.
12.
20 \.
27.
12.
1.
13.
19.
4.
24.
20.
25.
21. 29.
T
.00000001.
22.
9.
16.
9.
1.21
24. 8
13.
6.
18.
1.
V
23.
26.
9.
9.
27.
16.
16.
2.
28.
3.
2.
3.
}.
30.
5.
3.
Page
8.
8.
4.
4. 12.
12.
13.
6.
1.
64.
7.
.
16.
10.
10.
576.
17.
2. 2.
11.
18.
3.
16.
256.
14.
Ot
15.
128.
16.
192.
1.
^.
2.
19
4.
2

Page
8.
10.
9.
3.
3.
2.
5.
1.
6.
6.
7.
2.
3.
12. 12.
10.
20.
11. 6.
12. 0.
13.
20.
14.
24.
15.
1
16.
8.
17.
i
ii
ANSWERS
Page
11.
8. 1.
13.
9.
2.
57.
10.
3.
i:5.
4.
II.
5.
(59.
6.
104.
7.
7.
237.
50.
17.
58.
92.
11.
240.
12.
14:).
13.
14.
15.
27.
17.
8.
7.
16.
49.
18.
1.
Page
23.
31.
35.
12.
24.
4 4
ft.
11.
19.
35.
27.
20.
27.
]*.
21.
8.
27,
0.
:;
22.
30.
8.
t.
.
04.
25.
<i~
26.
27.
33.
28.
//'.
29.
a
32.
ft)

3 /A

8x
:i
(/* 4
ft)(X
36
2
"'*
~ 5V (a ft).
_
4
;r~ f
34.
m +
3(a 6)
38.
Polynomial, Trino
inial,
Polynomial, Monomial, Binomial.
13.
1. (ft)
Page
2.
00
24
04
ft.,
(a} 100
1(5
cm., (b) 135 mi., (r) 2000 m.,
(V)
(rf)
(ft)
50,000
.'JO
ft.
ft.,
o^ft.
3.
(a)
<>
sq.
It.,
sq. in.,
(c)
S(i. ft.
Pagel4r.~4.
5. (<7)
(a) 314
sq.
6.
in.,
(ft)
12.5f>
sq.
in.,
(r) 78.5
(ft)
sq.
mi.
in.
$80,
(ft)
$40.
(a)
200,900,000 sq.
(ft)
mi.,
3.14
sq.
(c)
8.
314 sq.ft.
(a) 50,
(ft)
7.
(a) r>23ifcu.
(r)
2. 9.
ft.,
14.
13 cu.
ft.,
(r) 2G7,94(>,GOG,<>Gq.
0,
1.
15.
Page
7.
8.
,'J.
16.
8.
1.
1.
22.
15.
3.

0.
4.
0.
0.
13.
19.
14. 14. 2.
20.
10.
11.
0.
9.
0.
2.
16.
2. 15. 17. 31.
5.
0.
6.
15.
12.
5.
18.
0.

12.

1.
21. 26.
5.
22.
34.
23.
24.
9.
5.
Page
31.
37.
3.
17.
25.
14.
27.
6<t.
3.
28.
14.
3.
35. 41.
4.
9.
29.
30.

3.
12yd.
38.
32.
12 a.
39.
33.
4.
#1111.
5.
36.
42.
I.
\'\
4.
1.
7.
^.

40.
51 f.
$3000
Page
6.
18.
18.rty8.
 ab. 3. 0. 3a. 2. 8. 15a;. 32 2 ftc.
12.
4
9/^/rl
2.
2ftx.
10.
.
43w//2
17.
.
11.
22(
19.
w.
+
ft).
20(.r f
15.
^).
:J!>r'.
??i??,
13.
16.
2.
2oVmf?i.
Page
18.
vi
14.
38 ab.
21^.
21.
r/
\(\xyz.
ft
f
19.
m
24.
ft
n.
20.
ft'
3
.
22.
1.
23.
r+l.
yyz+xyz*.
3rf
27. 31.
28.
+ v>
2
.
25.
7
7.
.
r:A
29.
ft.
26.
30.
WIN
+
wiw a .
f

5e
35.
12.x.
32.
3
y
v>
<Mft
3*
2.
a2
4
15^44.
rt 4

2ft 2
33.
2V^4^/
8 x*
6.
Va'+Y2
8^2
.
34.
173.
0*
Page
3 w"
0.
arty
1
20.
1.
= 81. a ft
c,
36.
c.
= ()501.  q 4 3 * 10
r5
<3
.
3.
 9?/2 8.r 2
.
Page 21.
7.
4.
+/2(/.
5.

2
4
13
ft
2
 32 c2
> ft 3 .
.
+
5.
8.

11.
16.
19.
12.
2x'
2
5
.
13.

xV
3
y.
x^ 20.
y. 3(c4a).
jrif
4
9.
21 a 3
4
10.
15.
5x+3. 3 a* +
2
at*.
14.
v'ft
a4
4
a a 41.
18.
(a
4
4 ft)
4 1.
4
y/
.
17.
4<>
2
?t
Vc.
3
.
a3
a2
4
a
4
1.
$r*y
4
3x?/
4
m*
run

AXSH'EJtS
Page
23.
26.
ii\
22.
4
21.
3 nv>
w
3
a
24 npy
.
+ 4 m4
4
8
7?i
8

G m.
8
8
.
22.
'
12 m?/'2
27.

4
b
17 y*.
24.
25.
 11.
+
c
4 d
x
+
6
e.

a:
2.
a2
24.
+
8.
7

#
+
12.
Page
7.
1.
2.
2.
9.
12.
17.
3.
2.
4.
G.
5.
6.
14.
12.

17.
13.
19.
7.
14.
 1.  7.
1.
2
.
10.
0.
11.
1.
17.
n*.
24.
1.
31.
15.
34.
t).
16.
22.
ri\
18.

1.
18.
0.
20.
21.

23.
24.
29.
32 w 2 w.
25. 30.
26.
4wipg>'
27.
32.
7
a5
1
.
31.
a

ISjfat.
28.
33.
 abc.
a
10w.r.
2
6.
2
a
37.
4 h.
1 4 a*.

b.
34
39.
a
4
+
ft.
35. 40.
a
a.
36.
a
+
a.
38.
ab
a.
a 6
2
.
Page
44.
25.
:5
41.
4.
2.
10 m.
42.
\
:{
2 a
48. a
52.
a
3
 a'2  c.
1
+
45.

G
J8 r

4 a
<?.
24 b
46.
+
4
c.
?/.
43.

14 afy
;5
4
2
3
?/
.
25
47.
51.
a

49. G a
bd.
50.
1.
/>
Zmn + qt
G/ 4  3x
2
2
tf.
?>4tl
53.
55.
58.
1.
a' 4ab + ?/. 8a*b8<tb'\
a
+
/>
fc
+
4
r.
 a f 54. 3 a  5 z?/ + 3 y  2  4 d. 56.  1  2 57. 8 + 2 a  a~. 59.  (a f 6) + 4(1 + c)  8(c + a).  Oa: + 10. 2. 3.  a  4.
'

 x f 1
2
.
!

</
.
Page
8.
26.
4.
c.
.r
2.
5.
2
 r'
2 z2
2
4
a
1.
6.
^
<;.
2
4
5
2 a3
1.
7.
3
m.
a
f 2
f 2
9.
2
y'
4
.
10.
2 a f 6 414.
11.
12.
s_r>a5.
2x 4
a
13.
2.
_5a<>&43c.
18.
36.
2//
16.
21.
+
2y. 6, w
17. 2
3x
f z.
19.
x

+ 3z.
r.
+ a 2 f 2 a 4 5. 15. 4r 2  4x 2. 20. M + 10, 2m.
3 a3
& 41.
c.
4.
8.
Page 28. _2?> 2 +
3
x
9.
f
2
?/

2.
2.
a
3&
.
+
6.
2
3.

b* 4
r
1
.
c2 .
5.
a 3 6.
14.
 2 a2 2m 2
4 2
ft
2
r2
10.
2
2.
ar.
&.
7.
a
3a
4
2
&.
ti.
0.
11.
12.
8
b.
13.
18.
10 x.
lOrt
15w4.'U4j>. 19. 37;. 364c.
2m + 2w.
16. 2
17. 2a 2 a;l.
20. 2a: 2 4x.
21. 7

a
+ 2 + c.
?>
22.
814.
3.
 (7x2 Ox2). 2 2 2 6. (2n' 43p 47 ).
5
2
Page
29.
Exercise 16.
x
a8
1.
a + (ftc4df).
4.
2.
2m(4?
2
4ir#(2;r
2
+
4?/
4l).
8.
5x 2
rt
ft.
2.
8.
(5x47 3. a2
9.
a).
f
ft
9.
.
(yz~d}. 2 + a4l). (
7.
j)(g1.
ft
Exercise 17.
2
4.
m*

n*.
8
.
5.
w*
(
 ws
2
ft)
.
.
6.
a4
4
4.
7.
mn.
?/i
13.
3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2  aft.
3 Ji 8 .
2.
10.
(mn}
11.

12.
(w4w)(ww).
.
_
Page 30.
14.
a2
4
2
ft
4
Ve.
15.
x3
 (2 x2  6 x + 0)
16.
4ft ~ 4c
3
8
8
J.
iv
ANSWERS
+ &)( 6) =a2 31.
1.
ft
17. fa
2.
18>
^* = a
.
7.
2
+
aft 4
ft
2.
19.
^^ =
20, 20,
60.
6.
a
+
ft.
Page
5.
.
6.
161b.,15.
2. 3. +. 161b., 15.
4.
15
lb.,
(+3)x6=+16.
8.
16
lb.,
+15.
20,
20, etc.
Page
7.
33.
8.
15.
15.
04.
0.
30. 1. 28. 9 13. 16. 1. 17.
108.
16. 33.
37.
!
2.
84.
3.
12.
18.
4.
42.
14f
5.
18.
4.
10.
1.
11.
12.
13.
14.
10,000.
18.
120.
0.
21. 24.
22.
102.
23.
27. 24.
34.
24.
31.
25.
26.
108.
34.
6.
27.
28.
64.
36.
8.
29.
30.
1.
8
.
30.
29.
32.
Page
3.
2''.
34.
4.
343.
216.
127"'.
35.
7.
5.
6".
12.
216. n
(a6)
125.
m.
9.
2.
ci
5
. .
.
(x
f ?/)

a 12
10.
17.
7G
.
11.
12 ^.
21
a'&c.
13.
1400.
14. 210.
15. 3300.
16. 770.
4200.
18. 60.
.
Page 35.
23.
27.
19. 30.
20.
8.
20
aW.
25.
21.
38wiw.
a*b*c.
2 * 80
.
22.
38 a*b 6
:
24.
28.
 44 aWc
16 abxy.
30
?
49 p*qh*t.
29.
66
8W
34.
f
26.
30.
 36
35.
ISartyW
e*f*tj.
30 n?b*c*.
31.
1.
18a% y.
90.
2.
32.
3.
16
51.
4
fc.
33.
5.
4aWy.
13.
s
9
ww.
7.
76
8
a'
1
.
360.
8.
4.
42.
6.
1904.
25,7(50.
10.
Page 36.
11.
14.
16.
52
+
6s
12.
+
58
.
9.
+
O4
66
.
7
+
r/m
4^4^414.
2
ll9HH 2) +
.
ll 2 i.
13.
2
w +2
2
.r
+ 7 1S + 2 mp.
.
18.
20.
22.
24.
27. 30.
2 .r% 2 2 ry. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 17. 25 4 4 25 x* + 25 x + 20 ;>(/ r  28 p'^/. 6  14 ;:>/  14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 19.  10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc  35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e  21 a 3 c2 21.  18 w w + 10 WI M  14 w 2 2  32 y s s G  16 x2/ 5 4 64 190 p6. 23.  19p" + 19^ 10  57 p6 3 2 4 25. a;(3x2_4^+7). 26. 3(*+0 + 2). + 7.
3
?i
w
1(5
pag'V
2
W
2
.
?>
4
.
4
7>
4
:j
!}
.
//.
.
4
jcy*z*>.
a;
a:
3a: 2 (2a:f iHa; 2 ).
28. 2
a2 (y
2
.
2
8
xy
f
4 a; 2 ).
29.
5aft(a
126
2).
Page 38.
4. 7.
1.
Ox a 5
.
14
m 2  6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww  14
?/i
r?/6j/
5.
.
2.
2
2
+2621ft 2
.
3.
10c 2 19rd+0c? a
I'
.
10.
13.
16.
19.
21.
24.
.26.
15 q\ 6. 4 a2  22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. x2 xy42^. 83 In + 1 n*. 9. 66 39 k*  19 + 2. 11. 12 x2 2  20 xyz  8 12. 40 r 2  69 rt + 21 132 + r  1. 14. 2 2 2  11 xyz  12. 15. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c  21. 3 a 2 46. 17. 2*8f x2 6x4. 18. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m 2. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 9 w 2 + 13 n  12. 20. 3 a 3  14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 22. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 23. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 4 a8  16 a 2 + 32 a  32. 25. a 8  3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2  8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 27. iSx8  6 2  25 + 14.
30
j9
jt?g j
.
2
7t
A;
?/
.
.
r'
2
a: j/
(?
ft
.
a;
a:
ANSWERS
28.
31.
V
+
o
ft
.
2 m3 + 4m2  m 30
6
4
1.
29.
a2
>2
2
2

84 a
a
+
49.
32.
30
/><;
 00
+
37. 40.
7
 2. +4
34.
^/> 8
4
.
8
38.
r.
.<*
&2
+ 106
+
tt
+
.r*
2 30. lflrt 2 8 + l. a + 25. 33. 8 a W  10 35. m 3 j) 3  8. 36. x*  1.  ^ + a? + 1. 39. x*2^f I,
ab
;
7>
;5
?i
m
#2
4
?7i%'2
4
.
41.
a3
0.
G a6
2.
6.
+
a2
12 ab 2
8
0.
fo*.
Page 39.
4.
8.
1.
2 a'
+
2
?/
5
+
a
3.
7.
^'
J

7
f 12.
4x21.
9.
2 6' .
5.
x2
GiC+5.
?/H)0.
2
j3
Z
.p132.
m'2 +18?rt
2
'
+
81.
6 2 + 6lf>0.
21
2
.
10.
2
12.
15.
19.
 ab  2 6 + 13. a'  5 ~ 81. 16. m 2  ri 17. ~ 6 20  16 a3 f 50. ^V^4  ^V"'  ^ 20.
a2
'
+ 48Z100.
ft'
11.
14.
2
+10s281.
2 62 V2
132.
.
2
.
2
4
2
2
64
.
18.
x 4 ?/4
+ ab  x2y22.
2
1:
21.
10,500.
27.
23.
28.
1,000,020.
10,098.
24.
10,008.
25.
1,000,994.
1).
26.
10,606.
1,009,020.
29.
30.
(x

2) (x
Page
(rt2).
36.
1.
40.
33.
8)(?i
(x2)(x3).
34.
31.
(a
+ 4) (a +
2).
32.
(
5)
O5)(w + 3).
2).
2
fr
.
(m + 6)(m3).
35.
(w4)(w + l).
4.
2 4 a + 4,  4 a&+ 4 &*.
(n
2
5.
9.
+ 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. x 2 f xy + 9
41. n2 a4
6.
2
0)(p + 5). + 4 a +4. 3. a 2  2 x + 2 x  10 x + 25. 7. p 2  14 jp + 49.
37.
(p
2.
2
.r
.
8.
2 a'
y'
.
Page
12.
10.
4 x2
13.
.

12 xy
+9
2
>2
?/
2.
+
2
9.
15. 36 a 4
 84 a'
9.
p4
+
.
10 p 2 g
?>
2 ?/
+ 49 & 4
2
16. 4
+ 25 q*. 4 a&c + c2
30 x 4 ?/
23.
r*d<
x/2 ?/'2
18. 10 a 4 ?; 4
21. 4 m'2
40
(i
V2 c 2 + 25 r 4
22.
19.
24 ab + 9 & 2  54 p 2 + 81. 17. 4 2 // + l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. w'n 2 //^ + 25.
11.
10
a'
2
.
14.
9
4
/>
.
.r
./
.
.
a4
4
?/
.
 49.
26.
 25.
24. 27.
x4
4
121
4
?/
.
x4 28. 25
25.
22 x 2 ?/ 2
y
+
121
x4
29.
+
<z
22
2
4
20 rt2
32.
+
4
t*.
+
10
+ 121 y*. a + 25.
34.
25 r 4
?/i
30.
4  4 n.
4
.
31.
36.
10,201.
10,404.
38.
y.
33.
10,009.
10,810.
40. 9990.
35.
998,001.
41. 9999.
990,004.
37. 9801.
441.
44.
39. 484.
42.
999,996.
s rc
47.
51.
 3.
(a
(3
54.
45. ab. a + 56. 53. 52. (w+4)(m4). + 3)(3). + 7 6)(3a~76>. 55. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.
x
48.
+ 
m'
1.
'
46.
n
+ 2.
I/).
)
4'
6/
49.
(r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(&
50.
+


5).
56.
2 (6 a
+
3)
(3a66)(3a6&). 2. 3wi2 m Page 42. 1. 2 a 2 + a  6. 5. 12 x2  6 xy  2 y*. 4. 20a 2 21a + 4. 8. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 7. 11.  x2 + 6 x2y 2  6 y4 10. 6 x6 + 13 x3  15.
57.
.
2 (5 a 3).,
2.
3.
Om2
4
6m 6.
+
12.
.
6.
25 a 2 6 2  35 ab
9.
.
2xV+6x2y2^2 +22;4 12. 30 x + 19 x3  6 x2
13.
166.
14.
10,712.
VI
ANSWERS
43.
2
?/
ft
Page
2.
Exercise
2
a://
26.
2
1.
?/2.
m'2
3.
4
n2
4
+p
ft
2
42
2
aft
2
mn + 2 mp 4
10 a
ft
\
x* 4
4
2
z2
+ 2 jrz
a2
2
2
f
25

2 np. 10 ft.
+ c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 5. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.  2 <</. r 7. 4 d 2 4 2 aft 4 2 ac  2 wZ 4 2 ftc  2 2 2 8 .r" 20 S?  lit x + 4. 8. 4 a 2 4 9 4 25 c  12 aft 4 20 ac  30 ftc. 2  24  6 :rs 4 rw f 8  8 yn  2 .rw. 9. r/2 4 10 2 + z 2 410. 4 a* 4 9 11. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2  1*5 2 r 2  21 2 2 f + . c 12. 1. Exercise 27. 1.5 a  15. 13. +w  w. 6. 2 4 2  3 5. 2. _ 2 a  8. x 4 23. 4. 7 r  29. 3. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 8. 2.
4.
6.
a 2 44 a2
ft'
4
ft
2
2 4 c
ft*/
1

ft'
?/
.r?/
j/.r
.
ft*
ft
/
.r
?/
??i
?).
ft
?
ft'
ft
ft.
.
Page
13.
44.
i
9.
5.r?/.
j)
;>
10.
.
4 pq.
sr
11.
2
^r
???'
2
 25.
16.
12.
4 x.
ft
17.
20.
 34. 14.  2 2  + 77 15.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 4 27 x 2 4 15 21. 4xy + 13
<)
,/
4 2 1
//.
r// 8
<r
2
2
?/'
.
8
r<ft
4
2
.
i
2
tji.
//
19. 2
2
+
2
a.
aft
4
tt
ac
2
ftc.
2
?/'
.
:r
!>.
22.
8.
Page
7.
46.
8.
1.
5.
2.
01.
12.
13.
14.
49. 3.
18.
9.
5. 125.
3
a.
3.
13.
10.
12.
'.
4.
5.
3.
6.
9.
11.
17.
135.
12.
50,000.
15,
16.
19.
3
aft
20.
4 ac.
1.
Page
22.
1.
47.
23.

 5 mp.
.

12 y
25.
4.
2
?
14
.
21.
4ft.
2
ft
2 ?nc w
.
4.
75 a 2
29.
24.
3.
14 r 2
.
20
15.
aft.
.
a.
26.
5.
a
10.
21.
2.
G.
9
5
4a'
2
ft
6.

3
c.
7.

10.
2 ?/ 4 3 ry. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4
8.
3.
2
4
3
9.
3
5 a4

4 a2
4 

11.
14.
16.
2 12. Page 48. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.
w
2
 3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn  5 n*.
17.
13.
.r'^
15.
f>r* 4 7 arty
4
4 x 2 //V2

3 Z2 3
1.

5 z*
 2.
2.
6x
3.
l
4
 1.  3^V x^.  3 x 2 2 4 2  y3.
x' u'
2 2
z~ 4 2
ar.yar
4
*/
?/
Page 50.
5.
x4.
6.
y
7.
+
3.
8 x  8 y.
8.
4.
9.
5
4 a
Oft.
4x43?/.
/r
 8.
4 x y
2
7
x
+
5.
4 c
m  n.  9 d.
10.
5^418(7.
11.
Osy.
aft
12.
7a3ft.
13.
5.
5 a

(5 ft.
Page 51. 14. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.
17.
.
+
4.
15. 18.
,r'
~
16.
19.
2
4
2 x 4 4.
a 2  3 a 41. x 2 + 2r f J.
1. 6.
??.
z.
2.
yfl.
1.3
3.
c3.
8.
4.
a
4
4
ft.
5.
2 a
3
ft.
ti'jry1
7. 9.
a 2 ft
4
9 c3
.
8 x5
?
+
4
1.
Page
11.
13.
aftc
52.
+
x?/
2
1,
abc
7,
m L 4 1,  1.
3*y2
w
+
1,
w  1,
12.
2
 1.
8
?/
,
10.
6
<z
2
4
ft
3
,
r
ft,
ft.
8
?/
,
*3
y
4
,
a2 x 8 4
ft
8
.
1/*.
6 x 2 t/ 2
4
.
 7.
14. 11
4 1,
a r'43
ll'a^S
15.
as _ 10
16.
1000
1000
 1.
a 8 4 10 xy*,
ANSWERS
Page
9.
vil
56.
10.
1.
1. 1.
6.
2.
!).
3.
5.
4. 4. I.
8.
5.
7.
6.
6.
7.
2.
8.
2.
2.
11.
11.
7.
12.
19.
13.
5.
7.
14.
%
4.
.
15.
22.
16.
00.
5.
17.
18.
20.
21
2.
22.
10.
23.
24.
2.
Page
31. 38.
57.
32.
25.
7.
26.
33. 40.
3.
27. 34.
4.
28.
5.
6.
29.
<>.
36.
l.

1$.
0.
30.
37.
13.
12.
I.
}f.
35.
.

2\.
1&.
58.
7.
39.
1.
2.
41.
]
2
ri
42.
0.
43.
20.
44.
20.
Page
6.
1.
a
8.
10.
9.
x.
3.
(
a
f
4.
4.
m+
11.
n
M. 5.

6
10,
10
>_&.
2b .
14.
Jj12.
17.
lO.p+7.
s.
,100.
16.
a 10.
.
13.
b,ab
a.
d
+
!,
15.
</
20.
d.
3x2.
7x 2
Page
21.
59.
y yr. 10 yr.
18.
2b 22.
19.
+
f
+
b
2.
;r1,rr2.
x
y $
6 yr., y
?>i
x
+
26. 29.
y 100 a
24.
f
(I,
8 n

10 yr.
(>.
23.
/
+
y
+
a//
12 yr.,
25.
ct.
100 d
ct.,
10 x
sq.
ct.
ft.
+
10 b
+
c ct.
(>
27.
30. 'nj
100 a
28.
xy
ft,
+ 3x + 2y +
32.
sq. ft.
+
4x
3y
34.
x
2y
10 act.
33.
2
ct.
^
12 sq.
ct.
ft.
31.
2x
+
35.
'^
.r
ct.
X
60.
36.
Page
40.
r>?imi.
37.
rn mi.
42.
38.
"mi.
4
f
39.
"
lir.
r
tx mi.
41.
#
+
20yr.
?
43.
44.
fix.
x
48.
.
x
49.
y
50.
45.
iL*.
46.
10
a.
47.
60
25
1.
100
2. 6.
m +~m
3.
lOx
10
+
w.
Page 61.
4.
2=10.
y
2z
p=
3
(a
c.
b.
x
+ 1=a.
90
7
2
+ 10 = c. 4^ = 100.
3
9.
f
=
eZ
2 x.
9.
7.
4(a
ft)
c
=
8.
f
6)(o
62.

/>)
a
= all.
)
2^ x
20
=a
7.
Page
13.
10.

9
=
17
a.
11.
= 5 ?i
x 460.
16. (a) '
12.
x
=
m.
100= ^ x700.
100
14.
50=
L
100
15.
m= 
100
2x=2(3x~10), v
(6)
2x (3x+ =
rraxlO,
(A)
3 x f (4 x  10) 100. 17. (2 a; 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740, (c) (2zf 600) (3
=4, (c) 2x 6 = *, (d) 2a + 10 = n, (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60, (</) 2a; + 3 = 2(3*  7),
10)
+
=
(a) 2 x
 (3x 
700)
=
5,
+
(d) 2 x
+
(3
sc
700)
=
(x
f
1200)

x 200) f(^ +
(e)
200,
3x 
1700) = 12,000, 800 = x + 1300.
vili
ANSWERS
(a) V J^. = _?_(2ar + 1), ~=90, (6) (6 a 30) =20, (c) ^ v ' ; MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900, (e) i* + A (5z  30) + (2s + 1) v v '
'
5
18.
^
;
k
'
_
ft
v J (d)
100
100
'
V
'
'
100
100
100
=^8000,
w (/)
64.
?
2

= SJL+J10
13.
2.
.
100
1.
Page
7.
15.
3.
25. 10.
4.
18.
5.
7.
6.
9.
20 yr. 13. 85 ft.
8.
30 yr. 14. 30 mi.
15.
1.
9.
90 mi.
2$.
11.
1250.
12.
24J.
Pace 65.
250.
16.
2.
300.
17.
$40.
3.
18.
80 A.
19.
150,000.
Page Page
480
12.
Ib.
67.
68.
9.
55,11.
12,2.
13.
5.
05,5.
30,0.
4.
13,7.
6. 52,13. 8. 160 lb., 7. 8,10. 78,79. 10. 40 yr., 10 yr. 11. 29,000 ft., 20,000 ft.
4pt., 5pt.
70.
1.
42yr., 28yr.
2. 4.
14.
45
in.,
15
in.
15.
7 hr.
Page
5, 10, 25.
6, 12, 14.
Page
7.
71.
9
in.,
3.
12,8,24.
8.
1,3,5.
5.
3,0,16.
6.
20,21,22.
8
in.,
11 in.
9.
30, 50, 100.
90,000,000 gold,
72.
14.
1.
1,000,000 Phil., 2,000,000 Berlin, 4,000,000 N. Y. 10. 21. 11. 20 yr., 10 yr., 25 yr. 12. 6, 7, 8.
13.
180,000,000 copper,
480,000,000 pig iron.
Page
Page
4.
8.
5 Col., 10 Cal., 10 Mass.
74.
15 yd., 20 yd.
5.
2.
10 yd.
6.
600,
4.
1200.
9.
200, 3 hr., 15 mi.
10.
1.
1200.
by 12 yd. 70^,210^.
82 mi.
3.
200.
1 lb.
7.
5 lb.,
Page Page
4.
7.
75.
78.
12 mi.
11.
5$ hr.
a
12.
3. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 3x (3r.2). Oaj(o62cd). 2 2 2 5. 11 w(w' + wi  1). 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy  6). 7a*fe(2a & l). 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 8. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 9.
.
10.
13.
15.
a a (a 8 a+l).
6rt 2
11.
17.
14. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2  3aftc + 4). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 11 pV (2 p8  5p + 7 g ). 8 2 19. 3 (a +&)(* y"). 18. (m + n)(a + 6). ?(g ? g+ 1).
'2
>
10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).
8
12.
2
2
?/
21. 1313. 23. 2 3 6 7. 22. 2.3.411. (p + 7)(3a5&). Page 79. 1. (a 4) (a 3). 2. (a + 4)(a + 8). 3. (ro3)(w2). 5. 6. 4. (z5)(z2). (a5)(a4). (a + 6) (a + 3). 20.
.

PageSO.
10.
7.
(*4)( +
11.
14.
2).
(y
13.
(y
+ 8)(y2). + 7)(y3).
8. ( + 4)(*2). (yll)(y4).
9.
12.
(y8)(y + 2). (y7)(y + 2).
(a
+
5)(a
+ 6).
15.
ANSWERS
16. 19.
ix
18. (az + 9)(ox2). + 8)(g3).  11 6) (a 4 2 ft). 21. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 23. (w + 20)(w + 5). 24. (y + 4)(yl). 22. 26. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 25. (a 6 6) (a 4 4 6). 27. (a 3 + 10)(a 3). 29. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 30. 100(x 3)(z2). 28. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 32. y(x 7) (a; + 3). 33. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 31. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 35. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 36. 4 (a  11 ft)(a6). 34. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). Page 82. 1. (2xl)(x + f>). 2. (4al)(a2). 3. (3*2)(.r2).  1). 5. 6. 4. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (5wl)(m5). 8. 9.* (2 y + 3)(y 1). 7. 3(x + 2)(zl). (4y3)(3y + 2). 10. (2 *+!)(* 9). 11. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 12. (9y4)(y + 4). 15. (4 13. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 14. (5x  7)(2z f 1). 3)(3a;  2). 18. (7 a + 4) (2 a  1). 16. (6n + l)(+2). 17. (2yl)(y + 9).
(a
(p8)0> + l). 7 6) (a 10 6). (ay8)(ay3).
17.
(<7
20. (a
a:
19. 22. 25.
28.
31.
(3#y)(+4y).
a(2u; + 3)(c44). 100 (a; y) 2 29.
.
20.
(15z2y)(x5y).
23.
21.
(:52y)(2a!3y).
(4a;5y)(3a; + 2y).
(5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 24. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2).
26.
10(3
5 6) 2
.
32.
a*(5a f l)(flr  2). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).

x (5 a;
+ 4) (a;
f 2).
a; y) (a; 2 y). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 33. 10 a 2 (4  w*)(l 2 n 2 ).
27. 10(2
30.
34.
2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 35. (2 a? 4 3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes, (g  6) 2 1. 2 No 4. No, Page 83. Yes, (m + w) 2 5. Yes, (a 2 by2 6. No. 7. Yes, (m7n) (a; 8) (a; 2).


.
.
.
8.
No.
9.
No.
13.
10.
Yes, (w*
(3a26).
Page 84.
(15ay2)
2
.
Yes,
+ 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2
.
.
11. 14.
16.
Yes, No.
(y8) 2
2
.
12.
Yes,
15.
.
2
3 by2 Yes, (4 18. Yes, 10(a  6) 2
2
.
a
.
.
19.
23.
21. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 9. 1. (* + y)(zy). 4. (2o + l)(2l). 7. (10a + ft)(10aft).
22.
28.
10.
Yes, (6 a; Yes, x\x 24. 24 9.
30.
 y) 2
aft.
+
5)
a.
.
17.
20.
Yes,
25.
Yes, 216 aft.
26.
.
25.
2.
5.
29.
9.
40
x.
3.
(a
+ 8)(a3).
(0
(l+7a)(l7a).
6.
(0
+ 6)(66). + 0(90
Page 85.
12.
14.
16.
18.
20.
23.
25.
1.
9. (3a;+4 y)(3x4 y). 8. (ft + ll)(aftll).  8). 11. + 9^)(oxy  9*). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft  c 2 ). (5a +l)(5a l). 2 2 15. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (13a +10)(13a 10). 2 17. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). ( 2 4 19. 10(a + ft)(aft). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 22. (x + y4 )(x  y4 ). 21. x(x +y)(x y). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 24. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2  1). 3a;y (6x + 4)(5x4).
10.
(5xy
)
3
ft
8
B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ).
26.
13x7.
27.
2.
103x97.
3.
(m + n +p)(m + wp). (m + n + 4p)(w +  4p).
(w ~ n
(x
.4.
+
y
+
X
5.
ANSWERS
r)(4x (4x 4 y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m +
\
.y
'2
2).
6.
8.
(f>
+
fo
7. 9.
n

r)(5a
10.
6 f
c).
Gp).
(2
a
~
f>
b 4 5
<:

9
</)
(2 a
12.

(m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).
c
5 b
5
+ 9 iZ)
.
a (a
+
2 6).
11.
14.
y(2x?/). (5^4 //)(5y
x(x4ti<0.
13.
(5a+l)(9a).
(w *
,)
j).
b) (r
4.
4
3. 6.
Page 86. 1. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).
7.
y).
2.
(r420(4
10.
ofc)(
fid).
8.
5

(2
2
 y)(fi a  36).
y )(.?/).
4 2).
(
{
&).
(.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).
(a
9.
2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).

(w'
4 >*)(:> 4
lj
4 ?>)
H. (c 7)(^
{I
12.
(
a
^)(^3.
?>).
Page 87. (!__/>).
5.
7.
Exercise 46.
(a
/>; (>
1.
O + ?/4<?)O
?>
4
q).
2.
(14.^46)
a?/
2
/>
+ o) (ff
n
2
T>).
4.
(
(<>
r4y3
.^
c)((>
4
3
(3
w
2
w
4
m

).
ah}.
6.
4 ^ 48.
4 .'/)('< 4 &
(a
5 & 4#

2 y) (a
1.
(
y).
Exercise 47.
4.
8.
2
k
(wi 4 4)(?

5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).
+ 2 //).  4). K + l) a (a 5 />z
9.
(x 42
x
4 1)
3.
2
.
(^
7.
x

1).
2.
2
8(w
.
42).
(7/1
2) (m 41).
a 2 (a9).
(m 
I)'
6.
(xf!/)'
3
4
w)(m 3 n).
11.
Page
12.
1(V/
88.
2 2
10.
x(x
f y)(jr
 y).
15.
2(5 a

ft)
(a
3
?>).
4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e
62
2 2 4l)(a' &
&)
5).
17. 19
13>
(7rt3)(7a~3).
14.
16. 18.
10(2
(3 4 a
+
(<
(3
7>)(3

a
l
fo).
(2x7)(x 2 2).
?i(w 4y)
.r(3x'
2
4 (14 w )(l
4
w 2 )(l
3
+
(
y)
r)(x
(
,))(x

^OC 1
1).
20.
4).
l.'J)('
 0+ 12).
2
21.
22. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 24. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)(  !) (x42)(x2).
( rt
23.
10(8x' 4l)
4 l)(
a
25.
(a
4 1).
(5
26.
a 2_rt4l)(a rt
1).
27.
(Ox

7 ?/)(7
x4
y/).
28. (5
31.
(
4
1
)
(2
m  9).
8
4
15 ?>)(a
34.

29. (5 al)
3)
(f> a/>
15
?>).
32.
35. 2 (a 4 8) ( (16 4 2 y). 8). 36. (x//,?50)(xt/z 1). 37. 17(x43//)(x2y). 38. (* _ 2 )(a 4 &). 2 2 3  2). 39. fi(c426). 40. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 41. 3(.e 4 3)(x 4 2)(x 1. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 4. 12. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 5. 450. Page 89.
(^
+
?>_8).
(16
4

2(5 n
 7s) (2
a;
4 8).
30. 13( 33.
2
+ .'})(c  4).
(a
&4 8)
n 43*).
2 y)
^
.
.
6.
7.
12.
Page 90. (w4w) 2
1.
7.

WIM.
13.
8.
13 x 8
2
.
^
.
4

9.
19.
10.
8.
15
M.
11.
4 a8
.
2(m4l)'
.
14.
3x(x?/)
4.
4 a s &8
.
7.
a
+
a
b.
8.
13.
4 3.
2. 5 x8 3.5 m2 x2. 9. x43. 14. y6. 15. 2
1. 7.
3 x4
.
5.
a x
3
10.
x
 4.
16.
,
11.
 b. + 3.
6.
.
6.
x
4 y.
12.
a 4.
a 41.
3.
8.
a
4.
4
6.
Page 92. 42a 3 x.
a8
.
2.
r
x 2 */3
.
8x.
24x sy s
9.
5.
80a6
4
40
aV>*>c >d\
!)&(<*
4 &).
12
m 2 (m
n)
2
.
ANSWERS
10.
x
12.
13.
11. 6a2&(rt6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. (a2)(a + 2)2. + &)(&) (
.
30(3
2 (a
15.
+ y) (a: y). + &) 2 (  6).
2(2al)
+ l).
18.

1).
1).
x
22.
+5
1.
a
10
25.
?_!&.
a
23.
x
24.
+8b
a
4
3 /
^. //
m+1
!+*?.
b
!
21.
w
2
^
(!L
5
+2 3 i
+
63
3^1
rr
Pace
991
20
Xll
ANSWERS
21
2
.
ab121
12
ft
2
8 a 2
196 a2
8.
^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa
bc
9
11
92
aft

1>*

10
12
+ qc + ab
'
238
.

**/*
+ 84 _ y~ z
'
]
5 x2 y
+
:j
y;2g
ftc
46
?t
~ 30 y  50
~
1/2
 80 MP 2
30
?/
r
+
t
S
^
2ft
"'
180 wv
15.
3a 2
2)
'
i
(x
'
t+3)
5x
(wi8)(w
go
a
3ffl
+
13
+ *2)(x + 3)'
19
'
rtv+Ji:'.
a
2
ft
2
+
21
ft'
1
4m m2
26
9
fi
7
,,
Page 100.
28.
26.
_*^p5_^^_.
'
2 7.
30.
^~
29.
^i
2n a
22
9x * T
94 4<i
^
33
9 ^
37
(a
2
b)'
(a
+
ft)
a
42.
+
^8
1
a
2
1
~
41.
xy
43.
r >
'a2 f an f
ft'
'
2(czft)
(x
2.
Page 101.
4.
1.
6a5f^.
a
5.
rt
3a2 + ~3a
a
3.
w1 +
ac
w
4
7.
w + _ i + _J? a
w+4+
?
3
8.
2 a;
+ lH
+
.
6.
+
2H
1
^. 2x1
+
5x
12
+ ^.
6.
4
L 8
2
.
7.
i^.
c
8.
6.
0.
A^.
4c
10.
i.
11.
^U\WF###
X<6.
xiii
in
<l
~
2b
18.
a
17.
1.

10 X + u.
j
L
.
x
1.
+3
(
+
15.
I)
2
3z
1.
16.
(a
+
y)
2
Page 104.
6
.L+ft.
1.
?.
x
05m
'
5.
1.
w^x
2
b
Page 105.
7.
^i
11.
1.
(y
+
(z
12.
a.
1^)2 ' 2
1)
2
13.
14.
15.
1.
Page 106.
' 6.
1.
b
2.
.
4.
.
5
be
_J_.
x\ y
7.
9.
ac
mp
lf>
n
12.
2
re
+3y
mn 10 lo.
an
18.
f
Page 107.
14.
11.
2ft
a
i
m
x.
n
16.
y(x
+
x
?/).
15.
17.
2)
19.
!
4
20.
+
f.
21.
^_.^_.
a2
2.
ft
2
f 1
+
a
+
1
Page 109.
7.
1.
23.
9.
11.
3.
flf.
4.
5.
J.
5.
1.
6.
21.
.
8.
8.
5.
12.
10.
(>.
5.
11.
6.
J.
12.
13.
f
7.
14.
15. 3.
16.
6.
17.
18.
19.
A.
20.
21.
6.
Page 110.
30. 37.
4.
1.
24.
3.
0.
25.
4. 0.
4.
26.
33.
3.
J.
27. 34.
3.
12
28. 35.
9.
29.
3.
36.
7.
31. 38.
32.
11.
39.
40.
42.
4.

V
o
4.
1.
Page 111.
46.
7.
41.
6.
Of.
43.
44.
45.
2
47.
Page 113.
pf n
6
1.
8j_m
7
3.
ft.
4.
m
9.
.
?+_!?>.
3
7 i
o,ft
.
c
8.
4a3ft.
5 6
Q
5
a
12.
10.
11.
n
m
a
+
13.
b
a
f
+c
14.
n
XIV
'/
.
ANSWERS
16.
15.
nm.
.
17.
w
18.
a
4
ft.
19.
2
20.
~m
.
w
21.
'"I
22.
[>>
^
a
.
"
0.0
&
.
23<
&n
b
' .
.
24.
0,
4~r~
n
.
b
25
'
mft
26
'
w
27
^
'
~i~
^
.
n
32.
a
4
ft
3
T
29
30
'
5T
(a)
^
10
(ft)
31.
1^'.
4fl
M_.
P+
^
33.
#V
~~
34.
J
^', r/
i

PM
xx
HXH
/>/
Page 114.
35.
1.
(a)
30.

+
;
5
2.
8.
(ft)
104, 212,
8,2.
9.
4.
4.
36.

C .
7T
2
Page 116.
6.
00.
3.
18,15.
$0,000.
7.
11.
30 yrs. 12. $00.
13.
40 yrs., 10 yrs.
21,9. 30ft.
5.
15,10.
10.
$30,000.
Page 117.
16.
19.
40 mi./hr.
7.
14.
17.
5ft
30mi./hr.
min. after
20.
7.
15.
21ft min. after
18.
4.
38ft
min. after
$12,000.
$40,000
If da.
=
A's, $45,000
1
=
23.
IV s.
3 da.
9J oz. gold, 10^ oz. silver.
21.
22.
24.
1
da.
Page 118.
14, 15.
()
2.}
da., (ft) 5 da., (r)
3^ da., (d) 4 da.
5
25.
13,
26.
18, 19, 20.
27.
^p^
r
~
7, 8,
9; 10,002, 10,003,
10,004; 300,137, 300,138, 300,139.
Page 119.
(ft)
28.
5,0,
;
74, 75
;
(c) 8300, 8301
hr.,
33.
_JL.
26 mi.
7
;
^m
,

29. 10,11. 31. (a) 25, 26 30. 9ft. 32. 11 hrs., 33, 55 mi. (d) 500,000, 500,001. dn ~ mi. (a) 12 hr., 30, 24 mi.; (ft) 5 hr.,
;
10,
(ft)
(r) 8 hr., 28,
;
30 mi.
34.
w 44.
^?i
min.
;
(a) 4 min.
;
min.
(c) 2 hr.
1.
Page 121.
7.
4.
2.
3.
3.
f.
J.
5.
3.
6.
*
7:9.
4x'2 :3?/ 2
1
.
8.
2:1.
13.
9.
275:108.
14.
10.
3:2.
15.
11.
2x:3y.
16.
1
:
12.
1:3,2.
xy.x + y.
1:4.
jj.
17.
:2.
18.
1:
~.
Yes.
7.
2.
Page 124.
6.
1.
Yes.
3.
No.
4.
8.
Yes.
5.
Yes.
1:1
=
1:1, Yes.
Yes.
11.
9.
1:1=1:1,
Page 125.
17.
10.
1:1 = 1:1, Yes. 1:1 = 1:1, Yes.
12.
3
:
19
=
4
:
25, No.
10.
ft.
3.
13.
19,
9$.
15.
14.
1. 12.
15.
7.
16. 20.
7}
18.
40wn.
20.
81.
f
ANSWERS
22.
30.
:
XV
27.
6*.
w;

?.
w
8.
:
23.
J
pq.
3

24.
1(5.
25.
40.
26.
31.

28.
a~.
29.
1
rt
*
vm^1. 35. 5:0 = 10:12; 6 10 = 12. 36. b x 37. y  x a. y a y = 7 0. 40. jc:y = n:m. 38. 41. ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 39. x y = 1 = 3 2. 45. y :y =."2:1. in n. 5 2. 43. 44. x 42. x y y  a 1. 48. 5:3 = 4: x. 49. 11 5  15 x. 46. x:y a: b. 47. 52. 1 18 = 3 51. 19 3  2 x. 50. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 53. 3 2=3 x. = 7 b'. 54. () 7 Page 126. (b) C C' = fi JR'. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (,)
31.
32

<>'
33

4 <^:
34
:
:
;
/;
:
.'
:
:
:
:
<>.
:
/>.
:
:
;r.
:
:
:
?/
:
tf
:
?/
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
sr.
:
:
T
1'
:
/>
:
.
.
1
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
(I.
55.
(a)
Directly.
56.
()
Directly.
(b) Inversely. lo mi. 57. 24 1
(e) Directly.
s<i.
(</)
ft.
Inversely.
in.
ini.
58.
20 cu.
Page
5.
127.
59.
1.
200 mi.,
8,36.
6.
32+
mi., 174+
Page 128.
OJ, 3}.
8.
2. 3. 13J, 31J. 19.8 oz. copper, 2.2 oz. tin.
OJ, 32j.
7.
9.
4.
9,15.
cu.
ft.
945
11
10
,
'
55,160,000 sq. mi. land, 141,840,000 sq. mi. water. 20 20 J ^ ^ 0?j
'
gms.
11
w
a
13.
+
W.C
?/ a
,
+
7>i// 
ft
1
,
.
..
+m
'
12
3_a
'
7^
10
'
1
,
+ m*
<7^'
10
7)C
14.
x
+y
x
+
74 7 \,
2
n
,
7^.
7,12.
7.
9

15.
y
1.
5.
a
3.
+
b
7
,
.
a
+b
1,3.
2,
Page 131.
30,17.
5,4.
ig
6.
2.
2,3.
8.
4.
Page 132.
10.
16.
7, 9.
3,3.
5, 7.
7,4.
9, 4.
.
 3.
5, 5.
\.
9.
4,
 2.
5, Of.
11.
t
5, 4.
12.
13.
14.
15.
7,5.
17.
l,li.
23.
1.
5,"
^
2.
15>
9,
19
OJ.
28,22.
25.
3.
20.
22.
27,20.
 5.
8.
\\,
21.
19,57.
24.
3,4.
2,
6.
Page 133. 7. 2, 3.
1,
14,1.
1, 2.
2,
 ].
"lO.
4.
2,5.
5.
3,3.
4,
1.
3.
3.
9.
4,5.
2,1.
11.
2,2.
12.

19.
1.
Page 134. Page 135.
9.
2,3.
2.
5.
9,7.
2,3.
6.
4.
4,5.
11.
3,9.
12.
8.
(I,
7,4.
13.
7.
2,3.
8.
5,7.
7,5.
11, 7.
10.
16,12.
16.
41,2.
17.
36,3.
4, 3.
6,
4.
14.
7,46.
15.
17, 13.
19.
18.
Page 136.
24.
2, 3.
2,1.
20.
26.
2.
2,3.
2, 3.
21.
10,5.
22.
1,1.
23.
4,6.
25.
7, 7.
1.
Page 137.
Page
9.
1,2.
2,
2,3.
6.
3.
2,5.
7.
4.
4,
,
$.
138.
5.
2.
11.
3,4.
12,
 5.
13.
i, *.
8.
1,
~ 1.
J,J
3, 2.
10.
I, J.
J.J.
,*.
14.
XVI
Fagel39.l. 2t2,
4
'
q & w_ i
ae
22
5
L=.
M
2.
SL=J
o
ft
r^2.
ft
3.
0,1.
'
w_i
7
fr^
m
w
'
2
m+w
.
m f
9.
'
6 3 a.
' .
u
2ft,
ad
AzA,
be
10.
ad
_(?jrJL. be
7.
<*ft/
bd
1.
afcd
ae
ftd
8
ft,
a.
11.
2 a,
12.
a
=J
(n

1)
rf,

Zn

"(^ll
14.
=
^ a
Page 141.
6.
6, 3, 1.
1. 7.
1, 2, 3.
2. 8.
1, 5, 0.
3.
4, 5,
(5.
4.
3, 2, 1.
5.
1, 2, 3.
2, 3, 4.
9.
5, 7.
 4,
14.
7.
2, 3, 4.
.
4, 4.
10.
2,
 3, 
11. 9, 7, 3.
12.
20, 6, 4.
,
13. 16.
3,
11, 13, 17.
3, 5, 7.
Page 142.
19.
15.
J, .
9, 7,

17.
18.
2, 3, 4.
2,3,4.
90.
20.
2, 3,
4.
21. 26.
11,8,7.
1, 2, 3.
22.
8,0,2.
18, 32, 10.
23.
11,33,65.
24.
24, 30, 40.
25.
6, 7, 1.
27.
28.
 9,
72,
Page 143.
29.
2, 2, 2.
30.
2, 3, 4.
31.
m + n p, m  n + p,
5.
m f
8.
;
Page 145.
24.
9.
1. 3, 7.
2.4,3.
423.
yrs.,
3.0,2.
4.
&.
.
12.
6.^.
7.
^.
25.
11.
10.
Page 146.
B's 15
yrs.,
A's 50
13.
B's 40 yrs., C's 30 yrs.
14.
A's 30
18.
yrs.,
C's 10 yrs.
16.
$ 1000, $4000.
17.
$500, $250.
at
15. .$5000,
$3000,$2000.
19.
$6500at3Ji%.
$900
5%.
6%, 5%.
19 gms., 10^ gms.
Page
22.
147.
20.
2 horses, 6 cows, 10 sheep.
5, 4, 3.
21. 25.
3,
100, 00, 20.
4 mi./hr.
2, 4, 3.
23.
24.
20, 40, 30.
8.
5. About 12f. 6. 5. Page 149. On the y axis. 10. On the x axis. 12. The ordinate. through point (0, 3).
9.
On
11.
A
a parallel to the x axis. parallel to the x axis
0, 0.
(<f)
13.
Page 151.
1.
(a)
12;
(ft)
23 J; (c)
 1J;
May
5.
;
4. Jan. 16,  1. July 20, 23f . 5. June, July, Aug., & part of Sept. 6. Jan. & part of Feb. 7. Jan. 16 to July 20. 8. Apr. 20 & Oct. 25. 9. 18. 10. 4. 11. Apr. & May. 12. Nov. 13. Jan. 14. Jan. 15. July. 16.10. 17. Apr. 20 to Oct. 26.
;
Page 152. 2. (a) Apr. Feb. 1 (d) Apr. 16, Nov. 6.
1,
Nov. 15;
3.
(ft)
20, Oct. 1
(c) Jan. 1,
Page 153.
18.
Nov.
16.
AN WE US
'S
xvii
Page 157.
(/) 3.6;
(gr)
21.
(a) 12.25;
(ft)
(ft)
2.25;
(c)
7.84;
1.75,
2.24;
3.25.
22.
(a) 4.25,

 1.75
(ci)
3^;
;
(<?)
2.5;
(ft)
2,3.73
ami
.59
;
.27,
3.87
(0) 3
(c)
and and 1
2.73,
.13;
;
(c)
2;
4.
(ft)
and
(d) 2; (e) 3.41 and .59; (/) 3.41 and 23. (a) 2.75,  3.25, 1.5 (ft) 3.24 ;
;
1.24;
.7;
(ft)
(d) 2.73,
.73;
(e) 2.4,
4.
0C.
;
Page 158.
24.
18C., 13C., 2.
10 C.,
(c)
14 F.
;
32F.,34F.
7.
Page 159. 1. 8. 1.
1.
1.75.
9. 3,
2.5.
10.
3.
G.
4. 2.67.
5.
2.
6.
3.
2.
;
2.79,
13.
1.79.
(a) 5.
1,
11.
3.83,
;
1.83.
5,
12.
()
(rt)
3,
3
;
\ft)
5. 83, .17
(ft)
(c)
2.
1, 5.

1.2
(ft)

1.
14.
1.64,
3.64;
4,
Page 163.
14.
3, 1^.
9. 2, 1.
10. 2, 3.
11. 3,
17.
,
0.
1.
12.
H,
1.
13.
 1,
19.
2.
4, 3.
15. 3,

1.
16. 5, 5.
f.
18. Inconsistent.
20. Inconsistent.
21. ,
, 1.
22.
4}, 2."
23. 3, 2.
Page 164.
28.
24.
25.
2,
2.
.
Indeterminate.
5 and
2,
3.
.
26.
30.
4.
3, 2.
27.
2, 4.
5.
2, f.
Indeterminate.
1.
a
29.
15
.
3,
9 and
Page 166.
6.
xg
.
3.
a 10
'
a ll V&.
8mW.
SlstyW
7.
125 a 8
12.
8.
04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2
t

9
11. 15.
_
9
x ^27
1
.
.
10.
a 6o&i85 c i5o
.
13
.
.
I21a 4 ftc 2
18.
.
14.
27
19.
.
ImW.
*
16.
xW.
jgiooyiio
17.
H.
81
". 27
27
81. i/*
25 a8
343x30
'
1
125
29.
125a
28.

12
ft
xW

26
31.
'
:=_!.
64_
a 12 ft 27
'
a 121
81
a 4) ft 44
a 4TO a3
l.
.
30.
2
a&m
Page 167.
3.
1.
+3
4.
ft
2 4 3 aft
2
+
8
ft
.
2. 8. 5.
x3
3x2y + 3x?/2 2
a 3 +3a 2 +3a +
m8 6w
_ i.
ft
.
f12 wi
9.
27a 3 27
343 a 6
27
2
+9al.
f
10.
11.
147 a 4
ft
21 a 2
12.
1
+ I5a 3 + 75a6 +
150
126a 9
ft
.
13.
15.
14. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8
.
125
16.
m +
8
m% f 60 win2 4 8 n
27 a 4 ft 4
f
8.
27 a6 ft

9a 2
1.
2
l.
19.
a
+
ft.
20.
xy.
1.
4 )
21.
8
a1.
2 2
22.
8
1 f
f g*.
m.
2.
1
23.
2ft4
Page 168. 4wn8 + n4
5.
f4p
7+6p
g f4pg
6.
m4
1/
m%+6 w2 n
f
2.
.
3.
x*f
4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf
1.
1
4.
44
+ 6t/2
m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.
 4 aft h
a 2 ft 2
 4 a^ft
4*/
3
+
t/*.
+ a 4 ft*
XV111
7.
AN S WE no
.
.
9.
5 5 8. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7  5 a 4 + 10 a9  10 a~ + 5 a  1. 12. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 16 6 w  f 1 m 9 16. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4  i c 6 15. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w + 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip 1. 20. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 22. 10 x G a 4  GO a c + 23. GOO 2 c 2  1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10
i
c5
.
fe
*?>'
?>
fi
.
rt
.
?
.
?7i
1
1
3
1.
?
:
1
.
??i
?i
.
r>
4
:
1
.
8
4
se
1
1
:J
.
a:
l
.
8
/;
.
Page 170.
7.
1.
2.
2.
9.
9.
3.
5.
10.
4.
4.
5.
+35.
a.
6.
30.
00.
8.
20.
11.
180
.
a.
4.
90.
Page 171.
16.

+X
'.
2
12. 18.
m
13.
25
19.
.
.
14.
2
49
.
15.
10*.
2
?>i?<
>2
10.
.
17.
3
2 ^.
24.
c 10
6
:l
20.
.
21.
Zll.a
b
22.
28.
^i. 3 6
23. 0.
25.

x.
26.
31.
(x
+ y\
90.
27.
2(>
+
(
2
7>).
(a
2.
+ Z).
+
29.
420.
30. 90.
72.
32.
33. 70.
1.
34. 300.
35. 40.
36. 23.
3.
+
l).
6.
7.
(ly).
(1
(x2y).
4.
(3a;
+
y).
5.
(x'
l).
I
8x2).
1
1 ?>). 9. + (win  7 /)). 8. (2 a + ft). 3M. 12. (4a2 9& 2 13. 14. 16. 15. (a + y+l). (ab + c). (a + 2 +l). 3. ( Page 174. 1. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 2. 2 2 4. ). + i)). 5. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 6. 2 2 7. 8. (l + x + .^). (48 + 6.r 2 + 6jt). 9. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 3 2 8 3 12. 10. 11. (Gx + (i + 2a;+3^ + 4.x ). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 14. a 2  3 ab + 2 2 ). 3.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 13. wi 8 + 3m 2  5). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 15. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a;2). 17. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2 4 8 2  y2 ). 19. a ). 18. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 20. + + ?V 22. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).
Page 172.
(rt'
(2 a
(7
4
10.
/> 4 ).
11.
.
fr
ft
i/
/>
^

23 .
l lV (l+? + & + x J x V
s
24.
6
(\x
3.
+3 + 5
4.
Page 176.
8.
1.
76.
10.
2.
64.
57.
71.
5.
84.
13.
6.
98.
7.
99.
119.
9.
101.
237.
8.6.
11.
309.
.94.
12.
247.
763.
14.
978.
15. 2.83.
16. 6.5.
17.
18.
19. .037.
20. 1247.
21.
2038.
ANS WERS
22. 7563.
28.
xix
26. 6J.
23. 5083.
24. 6561.
25. 15,367.
27.
If
^.
29. 2.236.
30. 3.60.
Page 177.
34. .935. 40. 4.690.
31. .469.
ft.
32.
1.237.
33. 1.005. 39. 3.925
ft.
35. .645.
36. .243.
37. 7.522
38. 9.798 yds.
Page 179.
7.
3. 8.
1.
13.
9.
2.
.5.
3.
17.
l~8.
4.
5.
5.
5. f
.
2.
6.
1.
4.
5.
V2.
16.
10.
v
17.
/
11.
12.
13.
^.
14.
20.
5.
15.
_
iVaft.
21.
V
J l.
f
^
is.
vYb.
19.
(<
+
?>).
Page 180.
25
J.
"
^_
22.
(afl).
23.
vV'TA
24.
Af^.
*.
>TT
26.
>i
27.
.
4
TT
M
28.
4
W**. >
w
ft.,
29.
1.
JJI.
*
1.
2.
15.
3.
10,
15.
4.
2,
4,
6.
5.
9
15
ft.
6.
21yds., 6yds.
Page 181.
10. 6, 8.
7.
21 in., 28 in.
12.
8.
39
in.,
36
in.,
270 sq.
or 3.742
in.
ft.
9.
V2.
ft.,
11. 2 sec.., 2] see.
()
2.
7 in.; (6)
Vl4
3.
13. 21
28
ft.
14.
V35
1.
or 5.916 yds.
10,
5.
Page 183. 12, 5.
6, i.
,

2.
7.
1
7,5.
\/3.
8.
3,
9.
9.
14.
4.
7, 7,

1.
6.
7,4.
10.
15.
11.
8,
2.}.
12.
5,
4J.
7},
22.
6V21. 13. 1,  *.
18.
12.
10.
ZLlAiK
19.
7,
V.
25.
16.
J,?,.
17.
2.
7,
11,1.
23.
3, .

3.
20.
6V'2J.
4,
21.
^,6.
26.
7,

f.
29.

14,6.
f
3,
11,
3.
28.
24.
3,
2,
27.
4.
10.
1,V
8j.
/.
Page 184.
34. 39.
3,
1.
30.
7,
 4.
1.
31.
4.
32.
12,
1
f
Vl3. V17.
33.
14,
9,
35.
9,
36.
4,13.
3,6.
2,
37. 42.
47.
1
38.
10,18.
40.
2.
4,i.
41.
5f, 5.

43.
48.
44.
49.
6,
7
45.
50.
1.
18,6.
a, 5. 2,
46.
1&.
5,  a, 4 a.
5,
m, w.
Page 185.
6
f
!,
2.
2, f.
8.
3. 3, 3. 9.
4.

5,
3J.
5.

f.
ii
:J
_7.
4,
16.
10,1.
14.
12,6.
15
1
10.
6, {.
11.
16.
}, f.
12.
17.
^^7m, m.
1,
13.
i
^,4.
19.
f
f
V.Sn.w
18.
4 n,
16n.
~
V^3.
20.
21.
a
+ 61.
XX
Page 186.
25.
1.2;],
ANSWERS
22.
.02,

1.62.
23.
1.37,
8.
1.70.
3. 3.
24.
28.
9.48,
.23.',

1.48
3.23.
1.
26. 3.41, .59.
27. 2.74,
2.
7.
H.
6,2.
 .0*8.
2,12.
5.
Page 187. 0, 4.
7,

6,
4, '
1.
3,7.
4.
9.
6.
2,
12.
6,4.
12.
0,
1, 7.
1. 2
,6.
(5
10.
U. s
11.
15.
0, '

f
5.
 4, 
13.
1_^L
ft
14.
0, 3, f.
7, 2.
16.
3,
.
0,
1 ,
2, If.
Page 188.
21.
 17.
22.
 1,
0,
0, 6,
18.
23.
 2.
1, 2.
3.
 2.
27.
19. 0, 3,

2.
20. a,
 a.
26.
a
+
1.
64c.
31. 28, 36.
30. %,
35.
2,
f.

1, 2,
 3.
32. 6, 3.
37.
0,

24. 0,
V7.
25. 0, 2, 3.
28.
33.
3.
41.
3. 1,
42.
29. 3, 7. 4, 21. 38.
.
6V64.
34. 39.
3,
1),
2.
2.
4,7.
43.
0,
4,7.
44.
ft.
3if.
40. 45.
,3.
46.
r*
i,l.
a
+
6,a
3
a.
f 6
52 a.
53.
56.
1.
7.
49.

5, 2,
jr
 2.
64.
57.
v^^fcT"^.
50.
3,
3.
47.
 a,
48.
2
ft,
Page 189.
x*
51.
2
4jr
+
x2
8
3
= 0.
+ 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x =
or
.
0.

9x
<).
a;
 Oa;*
2, 6.
52. x2 + B  12 = 0. = 0. 55. a8  2 x2  5 x + 6 = 0. 58. x*4x=0. + 11 x 6 = 0.
4.
10.
12, 24.
5.
2.
25, 35.
9.
3.
6, 7.
6.
14, 15.
orf.
8.4,10.
10 or 19.
10 in., 19
in.
11.
70
ft.,
120
ft.
Page 190. 12. 14. ,$40 or $60.
10
mi./hr.
AB = 204 ft.,
15.
19.
^l/>>
=
85
ft.
13.
8\/2
17.
in.,
6^2
in.
$30 or $70.
#<7=3.
2.
16.
$80.
10 mi./hr.,
21.
18. 20 nii./hr. 22.
27.
1.
8 or 12 mi./hr.
23.
20.5^.
24. 15
ft.
$ 120.
Page 191.
26.
AB =
3,
26,
5
ft.
25. 4 da.
2
V3
in.
20 eggs.
1. 6.
Page 192.
5.
5.
3,
1,
2.
3.
2,
1.
4.
V^l,
2,
V^~2.
2,

i, 3.
VV11.
8.
*''
12.
1,
.
10.
2,
3,
1
3,
4.
V2.

1, 2,
x
14.
i, i
 2, 3. V ~ 16
4
2.
 2,  4.
V2.
16.
13.
0, 1,
t
is.
V^l,
1,2,4,5.
17.1,2,2,3.
1, 0, 1.
18.
0, 1,
 1, _
19.

1,
2,

5.
20.
2.

2,

Page 194.
3.
1.
Real, unequal, rational.
Real, unequal, rational.
4. 5. Real, Imaginary, unequal. Real, unequal, irrational. 6. Imaginary, unequal. 7. Real, equal, rational. equal, rational.
8.
Imaginary, unequal.
11.
9.
Real, unequal, irrational.
12.
10.
Real,
unequal, rational,
Imaginary, unequal.
Real, equal,
ANtiWEUS
rational.
17.
13.
xxi
15.
2,
5,2.
,
14.
19.
9,
3.
20.

f.
16.
3.

f
.
m, p.
18.
23.
1.
22.
2,6.
2. 8.
8.
1V1.
3.
8.
2.
J.
4, 15.
_!
V3.
21.

5, 3.
24.
2.
J
3.
JV37.
4.
Page 196.
7.
4.
4.
.
2.
5.
3.
6.
4.
4.
9.
10. 17.
9.
.
11.
5.
J.
12.
13.
1.
14.
2.
).
15.
16.
y,
0.
v'frc
18.
19.
20.
(m 26.
21.
z
+
22.
7
.
23.
Vr.
24.
vV.
25.
\a\
\/^.
27.
\/3.
28.
v'frW.
32.
x$.
29.
\/.
30.
V^
34.
:
.
31.
vm.
m'.
42.
49.
8.
Page 197.
37.
33.
aW\
40. 20.
r*. 41.
9.
35.
36. 43.
50.

a'2 .
*V.
\.
38.
wA
46.
1
39. 2.
\.
3.
44.
45.
10.
1.
49.
47.

48.
jV
10.
29.
&.
Page 199.
7.
1.
?
,
)
2
>J
i
10.
Jb \.
3
4
11.
8.
l

5
12.

J
j.
6

AAf.
'J.
8.
i.
,1 5
15.
.
9.
J.
y
.
4."
17.
13. 19.
14.
16.
32.
18.
49.
Page 200.
51.
57.
125.
46.
52.
10.
5.
47.
53.
59.
2.
9.
3.
2.
48.
54.
60.
3.
1.
3.
25.
33.
58.
1.
1.
1. 1.  17.
4.
J.
49.
55.
2. 3.
0. a.
50. 56.
0.
3.
12*2
61.
5.
Page 201.
7.
8.
6.
.
30
a.
8.
5.
7V7.
a 18
.
10.
\/r\
11.
17.
5\/5.
12.
243.
.
13.
ifa.
14.
3.
15.
16.
2V a.
22.
fx'^z'l
23.
18.
24.
19. 25.
11.
ar
1
.
20.
26.
v.
.
21.
27.
x.
x/25.
28.
v/3.
1.
^49.
2
L
(
V.
v^T4
m.
29.
30.
31.
r;//^.
n\/*
Page202.32.
$7.
1.
I.
39.
33.^7.
84.
^Sf
3
38.
\
..
40.
1.
XXii
ANSWERS
1.
Page 203.
34
r
6.
a2
4.

a Vft
2
121
b.
2.
x Vxy 35.
y.
3.
03r*
7.
9.
101
1.
Vr
8.
5.
a
4
+* + !.
9.
+ 2 Vzy + y 1. 13 a;3 + 40 3  12 *^ +
x
7/>
x 
a**
+
or "
2
+
1.
2
4 z2
l
3.
10.
13.
x^
 x^y* + y%.
+
+
ft.
11.
4 or
+
3
9 <r
+
12.
+
.
8V/)
15.
1
2 or 1 ?; 2
18.
+ 1. Va
a
+
2 a^b*
14.
3 a~ 3
(x
(;r^
5 a~ 2 ft~ 1
+
Vft.
19.
16.
(Va
(5xJ
Vft+Vc).
17.
20.
+
2 ar 1 ).
(x'
(l
1+x).
).

2
3:r,).
3^ + 2).
23.
21.
24.
+ Vic +
25.
22.
1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.
26.
V2 +
4 V22.
2.
2.
195V3.
28.
135V6.
29.
27.
r
17

Page 204.
31.
2.
x
+
5 x3
+
0.
x
25.
2 x*
15.
30.
x
y,
32.
62V(J.
3 x^y
33. 36.
x
7

34.
a^
+ 2^+1.
13
35.
x%

3
^+
1.
7.
 yl
:
 2 VlO.
40.
37.
+
2 V22.
39.
(o*
2.
+
2).
m* n*.
4.
Page 207.
6.
1)
3V3.
8.
3V5.
9.
3.
3
4\/2.
10.
2\/7.
11.
l
5.
2v (T
2aVf.
/
V3.
11V3.
13. 17.
.rV:r.
V.
abVab.
15.
12.
16.
8a6V5.
2 a?>V2 a.
5 (
.'\
14. 18.
20&V6.
19.
2
'"V5.
2>X2.
3^2.
20.
24.
21.
25.
5
22. 26.
y
(a
+
ft)
V2.
(a
27.
k/2.
28.
33.
JIV6.
29.
34.
30.
yV35.
31.
^:
V2c.
32.
V.r.
?tV?w.
a
3,f.
Page 208.
41.
45.
50.
1.
37.
^7 \AOx.
38. 3 \
39.
Vz2 ?/ 2
44.
.707.
.
40.
3V^T.
3
42.
2.
4aV^J
16,
43.
.
r
c
.577.
T.
48.
ftV
46.
.692.
V
5
47.
49.
.632.
.648.
51.
2.
V80.
V63.
8.
3.
^88".
4.
v'TM.
10.
5.
v^.
6.
Va 2
"ft.
7.
v/^r
5

A/^~.
9
ANSWERS
_
Page 209.
6.
"v/wi
??,
xx
1.
V/.T*.
2.
x/w^
8.
.
__
rw
3
\~s~'
]
*
.
7.
\/04a.
12.
/
\/w/t 4
13.
.
9.
\/abc*.
14.
11.
16.
\^r^bVabc..
v 25^4714
V2"a.
\/a6c.
17.
18.
fl^Vac.
24.
19.
21.
22.
3\/wi.
23.
V8.
27.
31.
34.
Page 210.
28.
25.
x/27, x/4.
30.
26.
\/8,
x/8L
v/27,
\^6.
W),
:
^32.
,
32. 35. 39.
%
29. \/128, v/9.
x/8, vT), v"5.
v/i),
x/8l, x/125,
v/lO,
^9.
v^lf.
;r
v/^
v^fr*.
36.
33.
^27,
v/8.
v^f.
v^O, "^8000.
v^a,
V2.
v^4, \^6.
\/2,
37.
V5,
38.
v/l2, V5,
5V2, 4\/5.
1.
40.
v^30, v"3.
2.
Page 211.
6.
4VO.
8.
8V2.
9.
3.
13\/3.
10.
4.
0.
5.
2\/7.
6V2.
7.
v7^.
13.
3 V2.
14.
^\/3.
^v
7
15.
11.
16.
8v2T
12.
8V73\/IO.
\V3. 18.
a\/5c.
a^\/a7>.
15.
V3"m.
VJla.
17.
VLV/ ^i?i=
a:
;J
Page 212. 21
23.
6aV2\^.
1.
24.
0.
Page 213.
6.
r)\/(l
Vrtr.
7.
6.
8.
2.
10.
9.
3.
2.
3\/2.
10.
3.
4.
5V2.
5.
7\/(l
7VTO.
14.
19.
10V().
15.
11. 3v^2.
12. 5v/2.
17.
13.
rtv/5.
2yV2?/.
20.
16.
2 ate.
21.
'.
4
a*.
18.
14c 4 V5.
Vdbc.
22. 26.
V3.
23.
27.
31.
^
3 b 5
24.
2
28.
25.
Vtf
+3+
33.
2 V'3.
3 Vl5
30.
+
20.
\XOfl6Vi5. 32. 6x2?/.
37. 41.
1V5.
38.
29.
1.
a2

b.
w?i.
35.
.
32m27n.
34.
b.
36. 40.
46.

3.
m
?i2Vm/t.
39.
6
2\/0.
6+2V5.
74\/Jl
120
46.
Page 214. D
45.
42.
 30
2.
VT5.
30 Vl4.
43.
44.
8

\/15.
ab
4.
3
V15 
47. 9
VlO +
4.
2.
5 \/2.
48.
53.
2 \/2.
49. 3\/15

6.
50. 2
1.
+ VlO 
v y (5.
3.
51. 4 >/3.
52.
Vat.
5.
aVa.
6.
Page 216.
V2.
x/3.
V3.
Vn.
3.
XXIV
7.
ANSWERS
8. f.
2V3.
V5.
9.
^\/2.
16.
10.
V3.
17.
11.
Va.
12. 18.
p
6
13.
nVTl,
14. j
15.
V3.
V^TTfc.
fV2. *
3.
19. .7071.
20. 1.732.
21, .3535.
1.
22. 4.4722.
2.
23. 1.0606.
24. 1.1547.
25. .2828.
Page217.
5.
2V3.
6.
3V23.
7.
15
f
3 V2L
4.
Vf6fVtf.
8
V3V2.
11.
(Vf +
(4
V2).
12.
8.
9.
+ 5V2.
10.
3(7+3V5).
+3
V2).
6
(V2 + 1). 4V3 + 6. V3  13.
Page 218.
16.

13.
i^Lzi.
4
14.
5
+ 2 vU
17.
15.
6
V;W +
12 v/7

3 \/15
 6 V3.
V35.
18.
19.
i^ ~
1
v ^.
x
20.
24.
29.
1.
^r. 2
.732.
_^JflJ?.
xy
2.
21
'
Vob
26.
'
22
i
.601.
~ Vac
_c
0.464.
23.
2.4142.
25. 30.
0.7083.
27.
28.
5.5530.
1.1805.
26.389.
3.
31.
7 f 5
4.
V2.
5.
Page 219.
6. 4.
9 mn.
25.
9.
2x^2^.
n*.
2ajV2*.
125.
12.
512.
\/57t.
7.
8.
8.
1.
15,625
10.
V6c.
11.
Va.
4.
8.
Page220. (3+ v/2).
(\/3f 1).
(V5f
5.
9.
12.
(2f V"5).
2. 3. \/3). (V21). (V51). (V8 + V2;. 6. (\/5V2). 7. K>/0 + \/2). (2 V3). 10. ^(VlO\/2). 11. (2V2). 13. 14. j ^ (\/22 4 \/TO). (2Vll).
15.
(V6 + 2V2).
18.
16.
i(Vf
Vft).
19.
17.
(VaT^v a).
20.
7
Page221.
21.
(VllV2).
23.
2.
.
5
V65. 7.
1.
2V2.
22.
1.
4.
4.
23.
V3.
(a
1.
Page 223. 8. 3.
^.
10.
6.
+
6)
2
.
4.
27.
14.
5.
7.
6.
4.
9.
10.
10.
5.
0.
11.
19.
12.
4.
13. 2.

f.
15.
16.
16. 5.
17.
24.
18.
20.
Page
28.
36.
224.
29. 9.
37.
21. 7. 30. 64.
J. 1.
22. 5.
81.
23.
4.
24.
.
25. J, \.
33. 4.
26. 25.
35.
27. 25.
^. 5
f.
100.
32.
!^
6
4.
34. {.
2!5_. m f w
6.
Page 225.
7.
4.
4.
5.
2.
9.
3.
16.
25,81.
5.
216,
 64.
14.
16.
8.
4.
9.
10.
3.
Page 226.
15.
2,
11. 16.

.
 2,  3.
1,9.
12.
17.
8, 8,
 3.  1.
13. 18.
3,2.
3,
4,5.
9,
 6.
19.

2.
20.
7, 4.
81.
V, A
ANSWERS
Page 228.
7.
XXV
4.
 1.
7.
2.
30.
3.
50.
1.
5.
0.
6.
2 &.
0.
8.
100.
6
2 2a + 2). 5. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 4. (w  l)(m  2)(m 3). (pl)(p2)(p2). 7. (pl)(p3)(p6). 8. (+!)( 2) 10. (a  l)(a3)(a  4). 9. (B43). (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).
.
11.
(63)(6'
t
18.
12. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 56l). 14. (a 4 2)(*  2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).
2
<?
4a2  8a
18. 3, 3,

16).
1.
15.
19.

1,

2,
 3.
20.
16.
3, 1
3.
\/0.
21.
17.
3,
1, 4,
f>.
1, o, 4.
1,2,
22.
2, 2, 3.
23. 2,

4,

5.
24.

1, 1, 1, 3.
25.

3,

3.
2,

J, 3.
1. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (a l)(a 2 + a f 1). (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 4. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 5. (r.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2 6. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 7. (2 a 1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 8. & + 6 2 ). 9. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 10. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 11. a(.r  l)(z 2 + z + 1). 12. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 13. (a+&)( 2 14. (rt + ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 15. ( 16. (a l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). (&y2a#H4). 17. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 18. (m 4 + l)(ro w 4 + 1). 19. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 20. (8 a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 21. (xy + 5) (x*y*  5 xy + 25) 22. (4 mn  2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2
Page 231.
3.
a:
:}
.
t/
23.
o&
(3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).
J
24. 25. 2,
1
(?>
x/^3.
26.
2,
87
.
3,
=A^Z3.
1.
28.
l,nl^EI.
2.
Page 233.
4.
7.
4,
2
;
2, 4.
5.
5,
;
3
;
10,
30
;
30, 10.
8.
22, 3
9.
3,
 3,  5.  22.
10.
3.
6,
6.
3
;
 3,
;
5.
25, 4
4, 25.
73,12; 12, 73.
3,4; 4,3.
12.
;
7,2; 2,7.
11,10; 11, 10.
11.
13,3; P,, 13.
13.
4, 4
20,0; 0, 20.
14.
0, 1
;
Page 234.
16.
19.
1.
4, 4.
3,
1, 0.
15. 18.
4, 1
6, b
;
1,
6,
2
;
2, 5.
;
17.
4
;
4, 3.
a

;
6,
a
 4. //.
0,
30
30, 0.
4, 1
;
;
4.
8, 2
V^
 4, ~ f7.
1.
2. 5.
3, 1
;
 3,  1.
6.
1,

3.
;
2, 1
;
'
J,

f
.
2,
3
;
y,
11.
J.
2
>
1, 2.
J
Page 235.
f
,
2, 1
;
;
. 5,
10.
1,
3
5,

 Y, 1.
V3,
;
8
6 &
0, 0.
9. 5,
4
;
13.
2
;
6,
1.
2.
1,
5.
14.
 2,  3
2,
1,
4, 3.
2.
12.
2
;
 ^a, 3;
3,
7,
24, 12 24
y
;
J,
Page 236.
3.
.
2;
4.
3.
2.
2, qpl.
5.
2,
2,
1,
4
1,
2;
2.
3,
7.
2;
5.
5;
3, 4.
2
6,
2,
4;
3,
8.
3;
xxvi
Page 237.
3V5.
13.
9.
f>,
ANSWERS
2,
5;
2
1.
;
2>/3,
V3~.
10.
12.
3,
jj,
2;
$;
15.
\/6,
f,
J.
11.
},
V7,
14.
2V7.
7,
i
i
i
;
i
j,
5
4,
;
5,
1.
1,
2,
1.
16.
3,
2;
$VO, i'ljVU.
1.
17.
2.
7.
3;
3.
12.
5,
Page 238.
5.
6, 4
6.
;
 4,  6.
;
3,1.
3,
4
8.
;
4, 5.
4,
4.
2,3.
6, 2
2,
;
2, 5.
1
;
4, 1
2.
1, 4.
2.
3
;
 3,  4.
1,
7.
9.
1,
Page 239.
3.
1.
1,
(>,
2
;
;
1,

2
;
1,
2
;
;

1,
2.
6.
$, 
;
2.
, J.
8;
2, 1.
;
4,
1
;
1, 4.
4.
1,
3
4,
3, 0.
5.
2,
3
3. 2.
8, 512.
8.
3;
9.
.
7,
512, 8
3.
11.
1,
12.
15. 18.
Page 240. 7 3, 2 Y> V
;
10.
5,
2
;
'>,
 y.
1,
11.
4,
;
3; 3,
2,
4.
1.
13.
12, 19.
2
16.
;
3,
5.
14.
2
ft,
12
1.
2.
;
9.
1,
4,
;
3;
'
j,
15,
f*.
20.
17.
,
6, 3;
1
;
 3,  0.
^
},
J.
2,
1,
125
125,
1.
21.
22.
m28.
1,2;
25.
1,
3, 4.
23.
15, 5
;
_ 5.
4, 5.
24.
m + n, m27.
n
;
n, tn
2,
+

n.
1.
4;
;
3, 2.
3, 5.
26.
5,
4
;
}
;
J, \.
29.
30.
2,
5,
3
;
Page 241.
33.
36.
4, 1
;
4
34.
4, 2. 8, 3.
31.
0.
1,
 4.
37.
,
j.
;
32.
5,
;
35^ 5, 3
2,
 3  5,
(
3,
1
;
1,
3.
3
;
5, 3.
40.
1,3; 3,1.
41.
2,
38.
8
;
8, 2.
39.
^~2.
1,3;
1J, 7f
solution.
7.
3,4; 4,3.
1.
Page 243, Exercise 113.
3.
Indeterminate.
5.
x
4.
= QO
6.
,
i.e.
no
co
.
oo
.
4.
Indeterminate.
GO
,
oo
;
4,
co
,
oo.
Exercise 114.
1.
37,30.
1.
ft.,
2.
20,13.
15.
9. 5.
ft.,
7.
Page 244. 12 ft., 35 ft.
2,18.
3.
18,
8.
4.
17,
ft.
8ft., 12ft.
6.
55, 48.
40
25
in.
40
1}
9
3
ft,
10.
11.
12.
15.
1.
40
in.,
30
13.
16.
2.
in.,
in.
in.
28yd., 45yd. 14. 5 cm., 3 cm.
17.
Page 245.
35
a, c,
;
in.,
12
d.
in.
20
in.,
21
30.
Page 247.
and
_
4.
4,
_
7,
_
10,
_ 13 (0 6.
1,
 3,  5, 7.
(a) 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20
7,
;
(&) 2,
3.
 1,
14.
12.
0,

11.
9.
35.
5.
4.
10.
30.
37.
8.
201.
2n.
13.
Page 248.
14.
31,136.
16.
900.
15.
288.
11. 14, 50. 400. 17. 50. 22.
84,020.
3,0.
69.6.
78.
18.
21.
5050.
(/>)
"_.
2
10.
23.
ri*.
19.
24.
2
26.
(a)
$3400;
$46,200.
ANSWERS
Page 250.
6.
xxvii
1.
a.
2.
x
+
Vy.
16.
3.
**+.
8.
4.
~v
9.
5.
5,0,7
10.
5.
9, 9, 8J, 8, 7, 7, 6i.
4.
7.
20.
6.
5, 50.
11.
3.
12.
4.
13.
3,470.
14.
35.
15.
16.
2i*
7f.
17.
~ an
.
}
$
50.
19.
1.
25, 35, 45, 55, 05, 75.
,
Page 252.
1, I.
c,
and
1.
d.
6.
2.
3, 12, 48, 192, 708.
7.
3.
16, 8, 4, 2,
.8.
4.
vy.
10.
5.
1JH.
327,680.
16,384.
9.
,v
Page 253.
Y11.
005.
18.
12. 304.
5
13. 45,920.
1
14.
43.
20.
15.
16.
21.

17.
910.
22.
1.
y
^
5

^\
).
19.
10,210.
81,120.
10, 100.
5,
2. <.
405.
2.
'23.
3.
Jj?
45. 04. 12.
44.
Page 254.
'
1.
11.
;
2.
5.
6.
6. 410.
7.
27.
8.
70.
A.
9.
i
10,
r
r j.
.13.
&'
14.
JSg.
15. 0.
16.
17.
(). 8
1.
sq. in.
(?>)
4
8(2
V2).
45
Page 257. x r 4 15 x 4 //'?/
a5
4
J
5
4
Z>
4 10
a 3 ?/2
10
4<J
aW 4 5 M
'
41
fc
5
.
2.
f
r6
4

20
rV
42
15
xV
8
.r
x>/
7
3.
:r
4
4
8 x
28 x~
60
.r*
4
70
.K
4
4
50 x 5
4
28 x
4
4
^8
1
g
!
.
4.
f
7
^
14 x
84
4
.r^

280 x 4
4i^S
+
6.
500 x3
10
4
4
072 a?
3 .^
448 x
a'
3
/')
.
128.
^a
8.
5.
.r
4 5
J4
10
47
d*b
6
4
4 2 9.
\ w 4  ^ ?>i 2412x4 2
45 a 8 /).
70. 18.
1
7
4 5*7
+
^4
1
12 w 4
10 x' 2
//^.
/>*.
r
5
4 ^
x2
^x
w
^2
?
.
8
4x'
2
.
?/i
6
x llj
 5y 4
.
;<2
4 5
x 6  x' 10
.
10.
10
14.
% 4 20 ab* 42
330 x 4
15.
11. 16.
120
aW,
.
12. 17.
13.
220
.
w9

8.
280
53,130 x30
189 a 4
24.
19. 105.
20. 1820.
21.
15,504.
70.
22. 27.

101,700.
23. 495. 28.
J 2 //2
25.

20 flW.
26.
12,870 m*n*.
4950 M 2 b y *.
29. 1000
aW.
REVIEW EXERCISE
 53,  192,
0, 32,
Page 258.
27,
1.
1, 0,
 170,  419.
125, 04, 27, 8, 343, 125, 343.
3.
2.
8, 4.
53, 8,
4. 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 9, 4, 6.
0, 8, 0, 3,
7. 0,
 1, 0. 5. 0, 7, 7, 10,  4, 3,  6, 4, 5,  5, 2.
8
.
8,
12, 12, 18.
6, 3, 8, 2, 2, 4, G, 0.
Page 259.
Ja.
18. 16
11.
4, 5, 2, 4, 6, 2, 3, 1.
9.
1, 4, 3, 3, 6, 4.
10.
2
1
x
4
6x'2
12.
x4
.
13.
B
.
f
y
8
+
z*
 3 ays.
a4
4
14.
4
0.
15. 7
2
x 4 x8
 x^ 4
x8
15 x 4 5. 4 12 x*y
16.
7
x4
17. 3
4
15 a 8
11
4
14 a

1

2 y*
 4 &z
x>&.
xxviii
ANSWERS
19.
22.
Page 260. 14 x  7.
28.
23.
r
5
VFTx + vTfy + 1. 24. 1 + 4 xy.
as
20.

3 x2
.
21.
 5 a 2x8 x 3
;
.
x2
2
;
.
25.
;
2 a.
26. x } 4 x 2 4 x.
27. 0.
12 x.
29. 0.
30.
+ z;
36.
(d) x

(a) 2 x
2
?/
4
?/
(ft)
2 y
2 y
2 g
(c) 3
x
+y
11
a:
y
4
3 2
;
()
2 x
33.
+
f
2 2
(/) 2
34.
13
+ 2 s.
31. 35.
16t/.
32.
3a~2c.
37.
8x3 8x.
38.

12 a.
9x.
 5 b + c  2.
3a'2
Page 261.
40. 3
a 44. 3 a
 3 b  c. _55_7c
48. x 3
41. x 2
.
f5+7.  9 x  4.
5
42. 7
+ 3 xf 2. + 28 x2 13x 3
56.
4
15 x 5
.
 6 b. 46.  3 x 2 + 3 x  1. 49. x'  x 51. 1 x
45. a
J
 9 b c. 36 + 9c9
a x3
4
+
8.
39.
5x + 2y~z.
43.
6 c
47.

e
+/.
df.
x8
x2
55.
 7
x


15.
50. 2
53.
4
!
.
52.
x4
3
4
2 x 2 4 0.

+ 3 x2  15 x 6 x4 ?/
Ilx 2
ft
a8
4
8 y4
 18
?/
5x4 1. 3 c  3 aftc. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.
;{
54.
ft2ft 4 4l.
a*
a 8 a
aftc.
I
57.

ft
3

13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.
c3
4
58.
x4
f
+
23
.
^
.
6 8 j27 40 ab.
62.
*
60.
8 x* + 27 y
2 x2 2  18 x?/0.
61. x 3 4 15
4
62 x

72.
8
.
x2 471x4 105. 64. x 8 + x 4
68.
x3

15 x 2
71 x

105.
63.
x3

15 x 2
48
?/
.
4
65. x 8

a8
.
66. x 8
+
x 4 y*
67.
1x
4 x3
xty6
a 24
3

Page 262.
72.
4
69.
4.
 x24
73.
.
70.
4
 3 x?/ 2
1/
4a
3
a o_a 4 a2 +l.
!!
71.
ft
/>
78.
80.
a 4  a 41. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. a 3m 4 5 3n 4 c 3 4 3 a 2 '6 w 4 3 a'ft.

+
16
a/>
8

a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4
74.
?>
,
10
4.
.
76.
x'
79.
24 a 2 6
3 x3
0.

 1w 77. m " + n + P3c  3 mn p
2/
x 4  36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4 3
.
3
36
b
c
.
12
a/;
2
.
t
81.
/>
4
83.
86.
4
2  4 x?/2 3 4 4 x y 87. 4 fee 4 4 ac.
.
&p
84.
2
q.
82.

4 a3
85.
+ 3 a?; 2 2 x2 ?/ 2
4
63
4
?/
.
?/
3.
88.
x?/
2 2/V2
4
2 x2z2
4
92.
6a6c.
93.
2 x'V2 90. 10 a 12 b.
a~b
89.  x4 + y'2 z 4 2 x^.  a6 2 4 2 c  fee 2 4 ^a  a'2 c.
fc'
6 p'2 q

54 ? 3
.
2
.
y
4
z*
0.
91.
94.
6 a2
97.
15 ab
4
Oac
4
6
be.
Page 263.
az
4 5.
96.
99.
2 2a
2
2
2(a.+
4
2
ft)
(a
4 ft).
2 30
 2.
100.
3~ n 4 3
103.
6y 2 a2
_52 45 = 73(). 102. 2 x2 4 5x4 4.  4. 105. x  2 xy + 4 y2 106.
.
.
 2.  1. 5x 2 2x43.
(a
+
ft)"
98.
2
2
*

3 2n
101.
104.
5 4 4,5 3 2 y2
5
a2
4
2
aft 4
ft.
2
.
107. 110.
2 x2
108.
x2
3x2/?/ 2
112.
.
109.
x2
5r*x
ft
5
.
a'
111. 114.
16.
3 a
5 a 5.
118.
2 a2
4 aft 5
116.
2
113.
2
2/'
.
3 r2
2 ?/ 2

ax
.
?/
 4.
3 y2
2z2 ~3xy?/.
a4
x.
4
115.
4ft
y3.
4.
x2 a2
1
.
+^ +
ft
W.
fi
:ry 42 4

a
2
4
a 2 ft 2
3
119.
4 4
2
4
c2
42
 ac 44
aft.
120.
122.
x2
+
4
x7
9 y2 x4 4
4 1 4
jry 4
x
 3 y.
1
121.
x*
 ;rty
x2
4
123.
1
a"*
4
an
 a"
xy
2
2/'
3
 y*.
.
124.
a* 4 a' 'ft 4 a*ft 2
126.
4
Page 264.
125.
127.
xyxzyz.
+ a 4 a 2 x 2a  x x*

f
2 ax 4 2 x 4 4 x 2 . 9 2w 128. 1
.
4
4
4
ft*"
3
4
+ 2'2 ~+ 2
81 x2
134.
ft
n
 6 am b\
129.
2
aft 3 4
3
ft
4
.
130.
ft
x6

3 x5
4
9 x4

27 x 3
1.
0.
243x4729.
131.
a2
2 aft 2
2.
132.
x
4 1.
133.
ANSWEKti
135. 2. 142. 148.
 3.
xxix
139.
24.
136.
m.
2.
137.
1.
138.
12.
140.
146.
6.
HI.
147.
7.
?.
143.
149.
2^.
144.
 2.
Iff
145.
2.
5.

1.
150.
Page 265.
156.
163.
1.
151.
2.
1.
158.
3.
152.
1.
4.
1, y.
153.
160.
6.
1.
154. 161.
3.
1.
155.
15.
157.
159.
2,
169.
162.
50.
20.
164.
y3,
y

y
165.
21,
22.
15

a.
166.
15,
23
18,
k.
30.
167. 170.
30
+
xyr.
168.
171.
18,
19,
20,
37 1, 75, G7.
173.
10 in.
172.
(a}
59;
175.
(6)
40;
(c) 160
C.
Page 266.
177.
1.
ft.,
174.
4.
179.
182.
147 mi.
176.
180.
36ft.
p.,
30 yr.
178.
181.
12, 10,
48 h. p.
184.
187.
12
6 panes. 10 ft.
40
yr., 12 yr.
32 h.
12 yr.,
6),
yr.
186.
183.
Or
(a
+ 2)0el). + 11) (a 10).
190.
185.
(y7)(y +
188.
(y

17)(y
+
(>).
(a&
192.
+
22).
(at
(4 a
+!)( +
3).
191.
+ 3).  11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).
12)
(j;
(x 
42 yr.
189.
(ab
+ 8) (
7).
193.
Page 267.
195.
(
+ 2y)(2x3y). 197. C3 y _l)(,/_4).  1(5) 200. 199. (2 198. + 6 y) (x 2 y)  3). 201. (y_24)(y5). 202. (x  y + 3)(r (.r + 4). 8 204. (5 x  3 y)(a  y). 205. (7x2//) 203. (r7y)(ai I2y). 206. (x + 2)(x  2) (3 x  1). 207. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4 3) (2/3y). 208. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 209. (y _ ft)(y 4 6  1), (233). 210. z(x10)(xl). 211. r>x 2 (4x 4xl). 212. 3(x  9)(xf 2). 214. 2 xy(3 x  6) (2 x + 1). 215. x(x + 6) 213. a 2 (15 6)(4 + 6).
+ 7)(rt4). 2 2 (a; + 3) (x f f>)
.
(y 7f))(y 196. (3x

 2).
as
194.
(2a + l)(a .
10).
(
jc
//
a
2
(a1).
218.
216.
x(x f 3)(x+
2).
10).
2(x8)(x3). 219. a(a l)(a 2
+3).
(7
c 2 ).
217.
4
2 ?/(x

ll)fx 3).
a
+ 2x2 ).
222.
220.
ry(x
(a
(y
+
+
*
221.
(32)(2a
ftc
v?y(x
+
223.
(3x2?/)(2.r
&
(a
+
ary
c)(a
1
2
+
)
+ 3y). aft 2ac +
229.
224.
a y)(jc + 7 y).
226.
(JT
y 225.
+ 2) + 9a;y2 ).
 c)
+
or OB
(2
+
4
y) Oe*
+
2
s).
(x
227.
(7
x
+
y
+y+
2)(x
 y)(z  3 y). + y 2). 230.
+)(x2 x^+2;2 )(x+y)
228.
(5x
+
2) (3 x
yfory) +4).
231.
232. fc'2a+62c). 233. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 235. (x^ + x1) 234. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (?/+l)(yl). 236. (8x + 3)(3x4). 237. (,r  l)(x8 + x2  1). (r^x + 1). 238. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 239. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 241. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 240. (a 2 + 2a6.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ).
?
>2
ft
?)
ft
242.
(xyX^+y" )1
243.
2 (4 x
 y) (\r3y).
y
245. (x + 6)(x6). 247. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).
8(ar}(/)27).
218.
(/
246.
(2x3y) 3 xy(x l)(y + 1).
244.
 m)(x
+
a).
AN 8l\' Eli S
Page 268.
251. 254.
249. (7 255.
x3y 4 1)( 4 2
252.
*>).
250.
Ca&c
1)(M
253.
263. x
267.
269.
3).
2x(x)(x 4
3x44.
&).
(a
4
A)(2 x
5.
7.
4
II
4
)rt
5x42.
256.
259. 2 x

3.
260. 7 x 265.

3xyf
x//
257.
5.
261. 3

262. x
 1. 4 5.
3).
o(x4l).
258. ^/>J.

7.
264.
a;
10.
x12.
268.
266.
(2
(x
4
(x
4
3) (x
 4).
\')(s
x

5) (x
4 2)(x 4  4) 1) (3 x
.
(x
4 (x 4
1)
5)
275.
279.
*.
x
283.
+ f. 43
'^rJ'.
x
?/
z
1.
a~
'
b*).
295.
^
299.^^^^^^^^.
(x44)(x3)(?/47)

Page 270. 298.
2
4
300.
0.2* i^^ !^ ^ ^^.
>
4.
301.
3;(x

4)
(x4
304. 2.
?
1)
302.
303.


.
305. 0.
306.
7^T
2
.
307.
?^ZLiZ
308.
^^A^ + w^
n(w4
n)
a
309.
o.
310.
4 11) (xJ^l^^J..
(^4) (x
x'2
13)
5x46
XXXI
Page 272.
326.
324.
;
A^L5L.
2
).
325.
5
^^K^+M^
AC^Ln?)..
2
327.
2(q.".)Cr4)__
.
j
328.
329.
A^izA??r+J!j/?_
*x
330.
^_:r
f>
331.
6
?/+:>. ?/ + 3
332.
1.
333.
^
3
//
.
334.
^"" 4
s
.
+
335. xa'
2
'2
7/
+
4
f
Page 273.
336.
(a
+
b
+
c\
.vin a
/r
"
337.
+
4
& 4
\
b.
.
339.
T+^.
y
4
I
340.
27 ^"
li'oy
3
r J // J
341.
m H
'
2wi ^'
/' ;J
.
**"
~
2
3 >
+
8 x*
f
2 y
4
1
^
350.
.
343
00
351. If.
Page 274.
355.

1
356.
1
i 2 ^.
+
x
362.
*
357.
4
rw.
x
54
359. a
2
.
360.
1.
361. 0.
?=.!.
2
?/
363.
1.
364.
1.
365.
L
.
366.
?>*.
370.1.
2
ab

a
Page 276.
379.
385.
375.
_*L'L+.1 ')_
x'2
+ 4x +
381.
376.
2.
12.
S.
l'j.
377. 4 A. " 4
378.
.
4.
0.
l
 7.
380.
386.
f,.
382.
388.
393.
383.
2 r36
384. 390. 3.
.
9^.
7.
387.
1.
389. 0.
394.
Page 277.
396. T\. 13
391.
392. 4.

1.
2.3.
395. 3.
397. 0.
398. 20.
399. 3. 405.
400. 11.
406.
401.
c
402.
407. 2(a
i
403.
408.
7/i
^ _  (5
a
.
404.
ab.
6a.
a)
A^_. a + b
+ 6).
<L
409. a
+6.
XXX11
ANSWERS
ab.
Page 278. 410.
413.
411.
1
a
/?$+&?.
412.
.
+
b
'
+
a
__
b
c
'
2
w
f
w
417.
c.
418. 0.
419. a
+ +
ft
c.
420.
A
5
mi
,
B
4 mi.
421. 42.
422.
ISjmi., ISJini.
423.
14 miles.
425. 51,55.
430.
.rz
Page 279.
428.
a*
424. 24 days.
429.
21.
426. z8 +?/ 3 431.
7
:
.
427.
.
:
/>a.
 vz
in.
ft
5,
m
1
:
wi,
(d

6)
f.
(a

c).
432.
 m

m+
M
in.,
^r?i
434.
435.
m.
436.
^.
(&) 443. 2
438.
+ ()
433.
40, 50, 90.
not true, (&) true, (c) not
true, (d) true.
Page 280.
441. 3, 10.
446. 1$, 2$.
439. (a)
1,
fc,
442. 2,
3.
2.
L
(c)
I.
3a
4 5.
10.},
3
,
\,
444.
10$.
^V.
440. 40 oz. 445. , 1.
447. 33, 452.
7,
448.
5.
\
1.
I.
b
449.
8.
,,
450.
455.
i, i a b
451. 0,

7.

453.
 7,

7.
456.
 1,
465.
454. 0,
7.
 2.
459. 10,

1.
457. 6,

2,
458. 10,

2.
Page 281.
464.
460. 8,0.
11,
461.
1.
0,7.

10,7.
, 2.
462. 0,12.
467.
0,
463.
5,
',}.
466.

f>.
468.
1,0.
472.
<L+ 6
(.te
+
,
/>c
c(f
be,}
'
c^acjd}
^
fcfZ
a/
?>rf
+
86
(;
Page 282.
481.
476.
fj.
477.
.
478.
.
479. 483.
20
yr.,
32 yr.
484.
17,4.
482. 53 yr., 28 yr. 485. $2000 at 0%. 486.
63.
480. 12,4. 9,7,5. A $ 3500, B $ 2500.
487.
'
$260
at
0%.
490.
84.
Page283.488. &
491.
495.
10, 7, 5J.
1, 4, 6.
496.
500.
22,46.
502.
2, 1, 4.
7, 2, 0.
a
22   489. 492.
18, 32, 10.
5, 6, 7.
*+, !L=4.
493.
20, 10, 5.
,
*
,
L2 a

6
.
2 a
2, 2, 2.
494.
5, 6, 8.
497.
498.
5, 6,
.
 7.
501.
499.
17,

,
6
f
c
a
+
? &
~
a
0.
c
6fc
10,2,3.
503.
507.
,
2,
506.

2f
504.
508.
2,
 3,

505.
4,

1,

2.
3, 2, 6.
8,
4, 6.
ANSWERS
Page 284.
509.
xxxin
511.
515.
2
10,6,0.
510.
5,3,8.
1.
3,0,5.
f, f,
512. 516.
8,

1,
,
 2.
513.

7, 6, 14.
514.
1J, 4,
f
?
a
f
ft
__ +
c C),
518.
^
ft
4.
+ 26 +
.

J(a
f
+
2c).
,
,
S82
c,
;_
ft
523
a
2
ftc
2
524.
M
ft
c
2
ft
3465, 0000, 6435.
a
f
ft
+
c,
a
+
ft

a

f c,

+
+
c.
(a) 74 Ib. tin, 40 Ib. lead. (ft) Ill Ib. tin, 115 Ib. 526. 4* da., 3 da., 24 da. lead. 527. 3f 4f, 24. 528. J7] min. 6. 530. 531. 232. 529. g(rc+ 6c), 532. 3,4,9. da., 7^ da. 533. 8 mi. per hour, 4 mi. per hr.
Page 285.
525.
,
a+
Page 286.
(6) 3.24,
536.

2ft da.
(d)
537.
1.
1.56 sec.
(e) (c)
2.4,
550.
1.24.
(c) 3.

(a) 2.75,
 3.25,
1.5.
.4.
Page 287.
553.
3, 3.
551. 554.
(6)
.7,
31.25m.
5.7.
2.24 sec.

557.
.62.

2.10, 4.16.
558.
561.
1.31,3.31.
564.
567.

 .54.  1.03, 2.03. 559.  1.02, 562.  1.53,  .35, 1.88.
555.
5.54,
552. 3.83,
556.
3.02.
1.83.
4.37,
560.
 1.37.  5.62,
imag.
563.
1.78, 2
1.04, .55, 1.30.
2.00,
565.
.04,
3.02.
566.
1.38.

3.
2.5, 1.73, 2
1.15, .21, 1.0, 3.05.
568.
569.
.02.

(a)
(d)
1.75, 1.20.
(ft)
4.12, 2.4, 1.52. (c) 4.78, 1.14,

imag.
4.51,
5.10,
2 imag. (e)
570.
574.
1$, 2$.
4,
(/)

10 to 8.5 f.
(gr)
10
1.6
2,
;
or
8.5+.
571.
3
.
_
3,
_ 4.
,
If
572.
3.6,
4, 2
;
575.


(h) 8.5. (i) 3.33. 573. 3, 2 2, 3. 1.6, 3.6.
;

4.
576. 4.3,1.4; 1.8, 3.4. Page 288. 1.15. 578. 4.8. 4.8, 1.3; 1.3, 1 580. Roots imaginary. 581.  7, 583.
577.
2.3,1.15; 2.3,
1
;
579.
;
H,
o>
,
T
;
1, 7.
582.
2,
4
0, 0.
3,0;
<z
ft
1,
2.
ft
584.
21*_.
27 y*
f\4
,%
rr\*
585.
+
35
86
4
4 &8
3
+
589.
1
 21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA
86
3 4
ft
+
35
4
+
21
2&6
fts
+
7
7
rt?>
6
a^
_
8
+^
57.
y% Z
*
586. a
7
687i
588i
tt
e
a _ _3
7
ir
7
rt
e
&
+
2 1 a 5 ft 2

rt 4^2
+
i
3 ^254
590.
+
12 x
.
+
6 tf f
3
.
591.
_^ 2754x
.
593. a*8a + 24tf 82a;f 1. f36a28x8 592. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 2  4 x + .r8 596. 2(6 597. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6)
.
.
>
^
.
598.
1
600. 2(4 602. 8 a6
42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).
.
599.
1
1

2 x
7
2
f
3
2 x'
2
+
x8
f
x4
.
8
+3
x
f
6 x2 2
a4 &
604.
x8
 xj/ f xV  xV f
+6
a2 &2

4 6. y
4.
603.
 2 xt/
a4
+
x3
4
6 x4
3 xG fx.
4
8 x2 ?/4
605.

2 a*b
+
3 a6 3
 8 x3^. 
ft*.
XX XIV
606.
ANSWERS
(
3
x
2
S
2
.
607.
2 ab
+
a

&.
608.
ft).
x3
4
3 x
x
'
4
X*
609. 2 x
44 ^/ 43^4 >A
610.
(*_ +
a:
611.
(a3&45rj.
612.
Page 289.
617.
613.
a
2.
4 b.
614. 2
a:
4 3.
615. 3
x2
 y.
616. 2 a

6*.
ab.
618. y

619. 971.
620. 5002.
626. 898.
621.
78.04.
622. 2092.
628. 009.3.
623. 7003.
624. 210.0.
625. 1010.
631.
627. 7.002.
629. 25.203.
635. 2.049.
630. 14.702. 636. 3.001.
703,001.
638. 8 f
3.
632.
637. 0.303.
633. If. 634. 1$ 639. 4330 da. 640. 5,  14
If
1,
641. 25, 646. 2, 651.
2,
4.
642.
12,

13.
643. 50,
644.

4.
645. 4,
650. 2,
8.
10.
647. 2,
11.
648. 11,
0.
649. 9,
9*.
7,
 25.  2f
Page 290.
656. 661.
666.
652. 2,

ft.
653. 2,3.
654.
4$.
If
b.
657.

1,
If
658. 3,
b.

3,
.
655.
If
665.

2f
r
659. 3,
I}'/.
660. 2, 4
V
0.
a, 13,
662. a
+ b,a~
{Z
663. b
,
b
664. 4, 0.
669. 5,
If
f
667. 0,
 3f
l
668. 5,
.
.
l/'3,
If
,
670. 5,
if
4/>
671. 2f, 0.
672. a
673.
4
676. i,
679. 683.

a2

a
(ab).
677
680.
'
674.
<T!
.
..
3
681.
2
/
2 4 7/ ~
+w
(
7>)
^~
V3 ^'
3.
.
678< 682.
ix
2
,
a
'
2
+
,
/
V^+lO^M"^. 2 + 36 )K3 + (
687. a
1J.
2&).
6,

684.
^, ^.
6
685.
0,
+ ~^'2 +
a
1.
'
fe
2
).
a
4 b
686. o, 3 a.
+
2 A
(i f
Page 291.
691. 2 a
688.
c,
n^l +^.
ab
689.
fe
+
a,
6.
690.
be
ac
\,
\.

6,
8 6
fo
.
692.
^^
695.
^
_
\/3
+^~<
2 a
a
+^
694.
1
~a
,
1m*.
fta
a/>
^A, la6
2,
J^^.
696.
1,
\+ab
699.
af6fc
__
__
(
a
4.
/>
4 c )
697.
700.
703. 705.
z

1,
^
1,
698.
2f.
V2.

 2f (5
4,
701.
1,

4.
702.
1,
1,
1
V5 1.  ,  f
3 V^3).
5
3, 2,
V^~3).
1
704. 706.
1
2,
.
 3,
K
5
2
V2,
V2.
708. 1
^

7Q7>
b
j(_
(_
x/^15).
V7,
V"^TJ.
ANSWMHti
Page 292.
712. 715. 719.
724.
709.
3,
i
2.
710.
i^,
;
711.
VV> L4V34.
1, 1,
713.
v'll,
iv/Jj.
5.
714.
718.
^
?>.^.
3
720.
725.
716. 24, 25.
721. 00.
717.
a
db
Va^T
<
45da.
17ft., 13ft.
722. 8,9.
723. 8,9,10,11.
"V313,
15 shares.
726.
39,8.
727.
300.
728.
1
I
,.
729.
Page 293.
733.
730.
y

1.
731. a 2

x2
.
732.
a
+
6
+cx*
2
(t'
3
1
a*&M.
mn.
cr*lr*.
734. 737. a" 2
4
w" +
4
d" + Hid.
+
<
735.
738.
1
[
+
'>
J 4
.
736.
+
6
2 tf'c 1 />f
f
+
lr'~
+
_L
a 4 6 4
.
739. 4 x' 5
x
4
3 x~*
(
2 ar
1.
740.
Hi
a;~
 12 af V^ 4
744. x i
f^'
.,V/^
741. x\y.
j
742. ^ Ti
i
a*tj~
4 ^
743.
^^
f
^3
_
r} t
2
i3x
4
rt
+
+
2u: 8'o'a
+a2
3
.
746.
2x3^
a;1
,
47.
1
747.
rt3
2
^i^ ,
>
748.
a
5
,
a:*
,
1.
749.
r,
a 2 6^.
750.
2
V2
,
24
4
,
.rJ w
L
754.
751.
1
752.
755.
Page 294.
753.
.r.
^
;r+y>
759.
756.
34.
1^ _
760.
758.
5.
29\/3.
763.
30\/10
764.
4
104
v/2.
33^2.
768.
59,257.
769. T%.
767.
fyaw&cu.
3^.
773. ^7xy.
776.
24V2.
777.
342V3.
778.
32>/2.
782
785.
*+V(
x
2
"r 2
)'
^
786.
789.
793.
VT14V5. 2\/53V2.
v/7
/
 V2.
/
787. 7

3V5.
788.
VIO\/3.
790
2v 3v 2.
J(v'lO2V
791. 3 VlT
795.
3V72VO.
794.
 2. 792. 3V72V3. 3V52V3. 796. 3V7.
XXXVI
797.
800.
ANSWERS
798.
6+V7.
Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.
801.
\/5.
799.
Va 803.0.
6 4
V& 
e
" X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l
V
2
802.
^VG.
808.
804.
\/2.
+j!>..
2
806. 48.
2
*x
807.
**.
a2
^E*!. x
.
8 09. x.
811. 817.
1C.
10.
Page 296.
812.
1.
810.
19.
8(?/
+ 2x2 ?/
~
x 4 ), 16xyV2*/^~x2
.
813.
814.
820.
13.

tt
815.
17.
816. 23.
823.
17.
7.
4
818. 4.
825. 7. 819.
11.
b'
2
821.
6.
822. 3.
824. 7.
830. 833.
826. 0.
827.
Va.
o
828.
1.
829.
832.
25.
Hoots
.
are extraneous.
834.
o.
831.
Hoots are extraneous.
836.
4, 6,
(('
1).
835.
0,3.
838.
+
d)*.
837.
Page 297.
841. 0, 2.
2 (x 4*4 1)(V
2
 7,
843.
H.
(x 845.
842.

839. 2, 3,
.r
, $.
840.
4, 1.
(:r
11, 14.
X4 1).
2
+ 2)^ 3 +
(a
4
5
f
8).
844.
a* 4 7
4
1)
846.
848. (x
2
 l)(x  l)(x + 2). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3)  1). 851. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x  y) 852. (x 2 f r  5) (x + * 853. (x + 0X024. 2 854. (x  l)(x  3)(x + 4). 5). (x3).
(x42?/)(x2y)(4x
.r?/
50(i
(
2)(5
04.
20).

+
l(l^).
847.
(a
1) (x 4 2) (x
4
2).
849.
(

?>)
(a +
^>
,
(,
.
a
42)(x  7). 857. (x  1)  7)(4 x 7). 859. (2 x + 3 y}  4) 860. (2 4 rae) (4  2 ax 4 a 2 2 ). 861. (3 862. (1  4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 863. a(ry + 864. (3 b  1)(0 865. (2 a  5 b) 4 1). f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). (4 c 4 10 ab 4 25 ?>2), 868. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 867. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 2 m  a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. ( 869. (a m  />") (a' + m f ") (a* ). '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 872. (a 4 871. ( 4 4 1) (a 8  a 4 + 1). ) (a' 874. a(ft)( 873. 6(a6)(o a + + &). m 875. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 876. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m  a 3 " 4 2w  om 441) (a
855.
(xl)(^~3)(.r4).
858.
2/
856.
(x 4 l)(x
+ 3)(2x43). 2 2  6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). (x*y*ryz + z*).
(2x
(r. 4
1)(4 x
jc
jr
::}
?>
?>
.
%7
?/
(
2
>wt
2wt
ft
ft
4
rc
f
1
'*
Page 298.
882.
3,
879.
4.
880.
5,
m = 2,
2, 5.
n
= 
29.
2, 3.
881. 4, 4
885.
888.
;
 4,
4,
;
8.
3,
1
;
1, 3.
883.
2,
2
;
884.
3,
4.
886.
;

1,
2,
5,
2

2,
 1.
896.

'
;
1,
V
3,
887.
5, 4 3.
,
2, 1
1,
2
j
889.
6
$.
;
897.
 f.
^, 2.
db 7,
890. 894.
11.
5,
2
;
f,
891.
895.
4
;
4, 2.
3, 6.
892.
$,;,
7,
2.
893.
4,
3
;
3,
 4.
jV3
f
3;
898. 4, 3;
899.
8,
2
;
J V,
^ V}.
900.
0,
;
ANSWERS
oJV 41
6
901.
1
XXXVll
'
a
1;
6
1
1,
2
i
'
a
V.I.
12.
,
a
+
,
r
ft
'
<
Page 299. 904. T3.
329; 333, 111.
908.
3,
902.
8,
2, 1
2, 8.
;

1,
$(l
4,
V^3),
3
;
903.
906.
3,
2;
905.
;
115,
1).
S07. 0,
909.
v/(ai
!)(&910.
I)
v/Ca^T)^ 2
5.
?/i
6;
6, 3.
tt2
19,01;
912.
V5
fj,
^y.
w, w
3,
;
2 w
914.
1,
911.
Z
^.
,
6
a
915.
918.
4, 3,
, i1"
913.
2, 1
1, 2
1,
V5
T
2
;
Y,
8,
=F J.
2. 2.
916.
;
;
 2, 
1
;
 1,  2.
5,
917.
6
;
6, 8.
919.
2.
920.
922.
3
4
;
3, 6.
4, 5.
921.
0,0;
0,
;
6,
;
923.
4,
 1.
28, 66
924.
,
925.
3,
4
;
5, 2.
Va926.
8,
f
ft
4
;
;
;
4,
8
;
56, 28.
927.
a, 6
a
+
3
2
ft
'
4
3
&
928.
1, 1
_2
;'
ifcVira^
2
3,
7,
2,
4,
6.
Page 300.
7,
930.
T
6.
2.
931.
0,
T
6,
8. 7, 4.
932.
i
8,
dL 4.
933.
i
3,
4,
934.
i>,
6.
935.
936.
12, 8.
937.
20
19
ft.,
ft.,
15 16
ft.
938. 942. '3
3
in.,
ft.,
2
ft.
939.
480
8
sq. ft.
ft.
940.
100 rows.
941.
ft.
4
in.
ft.
943. 15
946.
3),
ft.,
944. 10, 12 mi./hr.
947.
Page 301.
yd.
951.
948.
73.
945.
60
949.
ft.,
40
16 in., 9
in.
i(6
in.
1
+ V953.
J(_
ft.
1
 V~~3).
954.
11,760 sq.
950.
955.
2,
248.
6 da.
952.
12
in.,
4.
7 ft., 4
6 mi.
1,
2 yd.
Page 302.
960.
956. 961.
957.
333.
962.
958.
108.

26j.
959.
4.
5
....
280.
5l4f.
963.
964.
11,111.
977.
80.
Page 303.
981.
4.
978.
3.
10, 12, 14
....
979.
984.
, J, f,
.
J.
980.
11.
7 or 30.
982.
983.
5, 11.
5,
7,
986.
6,
28, 496, 8128.
987.
%*  1 =
9,
985.
8.
18,446,744,073,709,651,615.
xxxviii
ANSWERS
989. 993.
994.
988.
992.
^f (2f3V2).
2(2 v/2).
0.
990.

W1W
JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\
a
.
991.
.
(5,18,51.
995.
Page 304.
997.
X,
(J,
162, 108, 72, 48.
~
\, r
=
2.
996.
4, 8,
1(5.
12, 24.
(Z>)
999.
(a)
2^ +
1
\/2), (6) 8(1
,
+ v 2).
0.
2 ...
1000. 1003.
() 12(2+V3), ^Trsq. 32
13
(tx
4V3.
9 da.
1001.
1005.
(a)
(6)
^
1002.
in.
1
1004.
a
a 13

13
ax + 78 a3
4y*>
.
78
n+ a' x
2
t

13
.
Page 305.
1007.
1008.
1009. 1012. 1014. 1017.
1006.
243
?/
810 x 2
+
y
1080 x*
4
5
?/
720 *
240 r 8
7
?/
. 5
:J2
r 10

14 y
+
84 y*

280
+
5(>0

72
C
K
4
2 MJiy
8
r?
"
8
.
+ 448  128 I '^^
} (
.
192,192rt?)r
120
*.
1010.
9 /> l 6 /> 6
. .
1
8 8 2,870 a 6
1011.
6
70
 92,378 <W
and 92,378
1015.
1013.
"
1710 rtV and 1710
252
35.
1016.
120
a;
4
and
1020.
120
i^l^.
3003.
1018.
1019.
12,870
z8
.

5&7
1021.
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA
By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
i2mo.
Half leather,
xi 4
373 pages.
$1.10
The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical, without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner, especially
duction into Problem
Work
is
very
much
Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the
methods given
In Factoring, comparatively few methods are heretofore. given, but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further
The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many
work, than by the
;
A
examples are taken from geometry, physics, and commercial life, but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of
time for the teaching of physics or geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board, proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course, but the work in the latter subject
has been so arranged that teachers
who
wish a shorter course
may omit
it
ADVANCED ALGEBRA
By ARTHUR SCHULTZE, Ph.D.
$1.25
lamo.
Half
leather.
xiv+563
pages.
not
The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board
have been omitted from the present volume, save Inequalities, which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The more important subjects
tions,
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix, so that the Logarithms, etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The author
has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade, and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
PUBLISHERS, 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC,
HEW TOSS
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA
By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE.
12010.
Half leather,
xi
f
373 pages.
$1.10
The treatment
of elementary algebra here
is
simple and practical, without
Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner, especially
duction into Problem
Work
is
very
much
Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the
methods given heretofore.
In Factoring, comparatively few methods are
given, but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further
work, than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded; there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many
A
examples are taken from geometry, physics, and commercial life, but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of
time for the teaching of physics or geometry. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board, proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course, but the work in the latter subject
has been so arranged that teachers
who
wish a shorter course
may omit
it
ADVANCED ALGEBRA
By ARTHUR SCHULTZE, Ph.D.
$1.25
i2mo.
HatF leather.
xiv+56a
pages,
not
The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board
have been omitted from the present volume, save Inequalities, which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. The more important subjects
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix, so that the tions, Logarithms, etc. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The author
grade,
has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
PUBLISHBSS. 6466
7HTH
AVENUE,
HEW YOKE
.
PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY
F.
By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and
370 pages,
$1.10
L.
SEVENOAK.
i2mo.
Half
leather,
xttt
PLANE GEOMETRY
Separate,
izmo.
Cloth,
xii
+ 233 pages.
80 cents
This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.
wor.r and, at the
It
same
provides a course which stimulates him to do original time, guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best
advantage. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner ; more than 1200 in number in 2. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. These are introduced from the beginning 3. State: ;
ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises, under the heading Remarks"; 4. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5.
;
of Propositions has a
Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow ; 6. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other
distinct pedagogical value.
textbook in Geometry
more
direct
ositions
7. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation ; 9. 7 he
;
Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry ; 10. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures
throughout the book.
KEY TO THE EXERCISES
in
Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. SCHULTZE, Ph.D. iamo. Cloth, aoo pages. $1.10
By ARTHUR
This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook.
lines,
and no attempt has been made
to present these solutions in such form
that they can be used as models for classroom work.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
PUBLISHERS. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE,
NEW YORK
The Teaching
of
Mathematics
in
Secondary Schools
ARTHUR SCHULTZE
Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce, New York City, and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University
of
Cloth,
12mo, 370 pages, $1.25
The
author's long
and successful experience as a teacher
of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view, enable him to
" The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface, making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords, and not from the information that it imparts. of these theoretical views, a great deal of mathematical spite
teaching
is
still
informational.
Students
to
still
learn
demon
strations instead of learning
how
demonstrate."
The treatment
treated are
:
is concrete and practical. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach
ing
;
causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching;
;
methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
6466 Fifth Avenue,
New York
DALLAS
CHICAGO
BOSTON
SAN FRANCISCO
ATLANTA
AMERICAN HISTORY
For Use
fa
Secondary Schools
By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY
Illustrated,
Cloth.
i2mo.
$1.40
is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the
This book
pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. All
smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.
An exhaustive system of marginal references, which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library, supply the student with plenty of historical
narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.
Topics, Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method,
but in being fully illustrated with
many excellent maps,
diagrams,
photographs, " This volume
etc.
is
an excellent example of the newer type of
school histories, which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. Maps, diagrams, and a full index are provided. The book deserves the attention
of history teachers/'
Journal of Pedagogy.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
6466 Fifth Avenue,
New York
SAN FRANCISCO
BOSTON
CHICAGO
ATLANTA
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.