This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE
BOOK ONLY
(255,256)
CO >
DO
164146
CQ CO
Call
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

'
I'*
No.
*
7
*
Author
" Title
,'
U
.^
>
x.V\ x
u
:
/
/
i>A ^
.
._
This book should be returned on or before the date
las^
marked
bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
July. . . Reprinted 1913.COPYRIGHT. Published Set up and electrotyped. . 1910. Berwick & Smith Co. September. 1915. May. 1911.S. 1916. IQJS January. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Cushlng Co. August.' February. September.. U. January. 1910 . J. May. Mass.A. Norwood. 8. 1917. 1910.
not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. etc. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method." this book. however. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. are omitted.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Such a large number of methods. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. chief : among These which are the following 1. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. specially 2. and conse . manufactured for this purpose. owing has certain distinctive features. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition.
and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. etc. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. In regard to some other features of the book. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . e. as quadratic equations and graphs.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. especially problems and factoring. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. Topics of practical importance. two negative numbers. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . For the more ambitious student. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. however. are placed early in the course.g. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. hence either book 4. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. Moreover.
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. viz. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. elementary way. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform." Applications taken from geometry. physics. based upon statistical abstracts. and commercial are numerous.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. is based principally upon the alge . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. in " geometry . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. such examples. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. Moreover. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.
genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. edge of physics. April. however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. William P. . is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. 1910.
.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.......... SUBTRACTION. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . . Powers... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. ...
Type Polynomials.. Type VI. Type III. Type II.. . .... * .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. /^ . .. Type IV... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . .114 . Type V. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ...
.....CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Monomials 170 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..... ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .... ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
c f d). 7 = 2. 5Vl6c. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. aVc^. 0. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + c). since the parts are a . [6c] 3 . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 4V3~6c. some number is . 13. V3 . A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. x 9. 2. a polynomial of two terms. e. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. find the numerical value of: Vff. 26. Val \fi?. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 15. 14. as in arithmetic. are trinomials. + 1]. V36".10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 2 . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 4(a 6(6 + &). 27. 6. (cfd) 4. 8. c = 1. A polynomial is an y. 12. !^f\/03 3 ft. b = 3. A binomial is 62 . a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 17.g. 3. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). V2a. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 16." EXERCISE If a 1. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. V^a6. \/c. 6. or 9 Vx. 11. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. is 28. d 7. 10. 9. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. v'Ta.
12. 4 . 10. 5=3. multiplication.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . + 26+3 c.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . subtraction. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . b = 3. l 13.INTRODUCTION 29. * For additional examples see page 268. find the numerical value of: 9. d=Q.99.. 1. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. . 8.19 = 6. 6.4 6^9 ad. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 6. (a (a f b) 7. a2 11.g.5 ax 50 a6cd. 3. 14. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . i.810 + 150 = . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. Ex. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .390. 3a + 56 a 2 . 2. 4a6fVaV2^.9 aWc + f a b . 4. . Ex. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. x=^. a=4. . EXERCISE 8*  . 52 . __ E. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.e. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 16. 5c +d 2 . c=l. d = 0. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. = 32 + 4527 = 50. . 3 4 .2 + I126. 2. c = 2.9.30 = 270 . a 2 6. 5.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 5. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. Otherwise operations of addition. 2 ). 3 2 If 1. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.
6 = 7.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 26 of the exercise. 27. physics. 6.c) (a . 6=2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 6. a =3. a. a = 3. 6 = 1. 28. 6 = 3. 26. 25. 35. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 5. 22.6 f c) (6 a + c). a = 2. Six times a plus 4 times 32. = 3. : 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. sible to state Ex. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 37. 33. 38. a a=3. 34. 6 = 4. 6 = 5. 23. if : a = 2. a =4. 24. a = 4. 30. and other sciences. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 2. geometry. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. . a = 3. 6. 30. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. Read the expressions of Exs. a = 4. Six 2 . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 29. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.6 . 6 = 6. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length).
and 13 inches. Find the height of the tree.seconds. 12. and 5 feet. i.e. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 14.g. (c) 4. 15 therefore feet.) Assuming g .16 centimeters per second. if v . b. if v = 30 miles per hour. the area of the triangle equals feet. 13. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. (b) 5. and c 13 and 15 = = = . and 15 feet. A train in 4 hours. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. An electric car in 40 seconds. b 14. d. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. if v : a. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.16 1 = 84. count the resistance of the atmosphere.INTRODUCTION E. . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 2. c.
and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14 4. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14d (square units). (c) 5 F.). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (c) 5 miles. (The number 3. $ = 3. : 8000 miles. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 10 feet.14 square meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 8000 miles. 2 inches.). the 3. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. 5. square units (square inches. 32 F. the area etc. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. This number cannot be expressed exactly. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. is H 2 units of length (inches. . ~ 7n cubic feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.
of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. . Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or positive and negative numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. In algebra.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. however. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10.
of: 20. Thus. 2326. (_ In Exs. . of 2. 33.  0. 10. 4. 21. + 12. 18. 23. = 5. 5. 19. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. d = 5. 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. the one third their sum.3. + (9). d = 0. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. if : a a = 2. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. c = = 5. is 0.16 32. lf(2). 24. (17) 15 + (14). 4 is 3 J. c = 4. 6 6 = 3. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 12. subtract their absolute values and . '. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. is 2. 22.
c = 0. 30. : 48. 43. are similar terms. 37. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain.7. = 13. . = 22. 55. 66. 40.4. 33. & 28. and 4. or and . affected by the same exponents. 09. ' 1? a 26. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . 13. & = 15. 4. and 3 a. 31. = 23. . 32. 32. . ' Find the average of the following 34. $1000 loss. 11 (Centigrade). $7000 gain. 36. 74. 4 F.. 3 and 25. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 38. 42. and 3 F. .13. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. $3000 gain. 10. 25. 2. 6. 6. and $4500 gain.7. 10. 3. $500 loss. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. and 3 yards. . 34.. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 27. 6.5. 7 yards. SUBTRACTION.5. AND PARENTHESES d = l.3. 41. ^ ' 37. 35. 7 a. 12. 7 a. : and 1. \\ Add 2 a. 72. 10. 39. which are not similar. 2. 60. c=14. }/ Add 2 a. 5 and 12. 1. . sets of numbers: 13. . : 34. d= 3.ADDITION. and 3 a. 29. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.. and 8 F. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 0.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 2 a&. + 6 af . 5 a2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 10. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 7 rap2. 11. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. Vm f. or a 6. 12(af b) 12. f 4 a2. 5Vm + w.18 35. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 3a . Algebraic sum. b a f ( 6). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. . 14 . 2(af &). 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. : 2 a2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.sign. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12Vmfn. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 9(af6). in algebra it may be considered b. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 13. 12 2 wp2 .ii. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. EXERCISE Add: 1.13 rap 25 rap 2. 5l 3(af6). 2 .
37. 6 23. a a8 ZL **. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. c 2 ^24. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 32. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. m n ^ 2 Add: 18.ADDITION. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . is . 2 7 1 26. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. l^S 25. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. + y. 35. 33. 2/ : Add. 30. 17. 36. n x* 2 22. 1 27. +m """ 20. without finding the value of each term 34. + / + 3 Va. and to add each column. SUBTRACTION. 2 2 2 31. ra 19. 21.
2 025.g. f 110WS: 26 aft. to show any error. 2 Thus.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . a 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. .15 abc . 7 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 46 4z 7 c. 2 . 2 Sum. of that letter.12 a& 4. and J 2 s.41 = 3. therefore the answer is correct.8 abc . V3. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 3 a f 4 1) 4.c= 2. 4 2.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 2c.o c and 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . = . . 4 = 7.20 c 5 ab 4.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 5. NOTE.g. the erroneous answer equal 7. 3a 2? . and 2 . x of x.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.15 6c. s.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 5 . 6=2.3 s.7 2 . to add 26 ab . 9 q 4. ft any convenient and c. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. e. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. . c = 1. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 3.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.
8. 4 Vc.4 Va .ADDITION. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . SUBTRACTION.12 6 ~5 a . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 2 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .a. . a 4 a . d. 4.and 6. 4(a . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.Ga 43x45.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . . 7ar + 3B 5. 16e + 17/90. d and / 3 ? 12.1 a 4 1 0. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .7m . 2 ?/. a. 4 ajy 17. 4 3 . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. in 8 3 m n 4. + 50 + 62 .7v/if.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .4:xy xz 6yz.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .15 5. 3 2 2 3 9 . . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. . 56 w.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . + a + 1. m 4 6. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . and and 13. a + 1> 8 2 2 .9(a + &) .5a^6 f 6) .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. e a4 /. 2 ?ft ?/z. . 2 a. and 5 Vb 18. and . a 4 a . ?/ . .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. xy3xz + yz. 4 8 3 4 4 .(b + c) 1.10 Vc. . and 1 4 a . a2 2 14. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. .5 cr& + 7 6 9.8 m 2m 12.a 4 a 4 1. a) y ^/. ^2 1 e. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. v/20. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.VS 4 2 Vc. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .6. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. and v 15.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. and 8 3 . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2 2 and . .a.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 2 3(c f a). .12. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).2n 2 2 3 rz . 18/+6y + d.a . a2 a. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 19. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 16.12(a 4. 11.1.
If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. and 25. a 6 2 c. 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.5< 3 2 s 4^4. s . . .9aj 2. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 22. 1. +d a. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1. 12 xyz. 45a6 2 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. and e + 6y . f 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . is 2. T8a. . 1. f 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.22 21. 2 8 n + <w 2 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 1/ . 8 .ra + m. If you diminish a person's debts.. and 2 24. f number may be added 3. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .m 4m ?/?/ d.3^* 2n 2 . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. + n*. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 13 1. 6 f c 2 23. + 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . many negative units re main ? from 2. 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. The sum and ? 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. how 1.11 xy + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.
ab = x. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. SUBTRACTION. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. Or in symbols. ( 6) ( = . Ex. two numbers are given.2.3. 6 (3) = 8. NOTE. This gives by the same method. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 7. and their algebraic sum is required. 41. 3. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40.ADDITION. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 5 is 2.g. In subtraction. the given number the subtrahend. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract to . From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . Therefore any example in subtraction different . a. To subtract. the other number is required. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. From 5 subtract + 3. if x Ex. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 2. called the minvend. In addition. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 1. . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. +b 3. from What 3.
If x = l = 2 t . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. Check.3 x* . Ex.3 r*5o.f 8 . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.
53.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.7 a . . 42. 41. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 54. 49. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From From x2 the sum sum 7.w>t. of a 4. 50. 2. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . SUBTRACTION. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2y 2 . 58. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.2. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . c f d. 55. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 45. + a the 2 a.4 a^ 4.6)f. From 2 a take a & j. 48. 46.c. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 56.4 a*& + 6 a & . 44. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 57. check the answer.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 52. From 6(af. 47. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. tract 4 x 3. 43.a 2 j. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 51. 6 4 a. and 3 7/ .ADDITION. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .
~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.15. + 6 + c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +a add the difference duce 13. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 16. a + 6. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 9. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 20. 6 17. 19. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a a + c. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. A is n years old.26 4. 6. + 2. a 2y + z. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 2 m 21. subtract # + 1. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . of # 2 8.
4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.2 b .c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. . II. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.g. 45.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 46.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.ADDITION. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.6 b f (. & f c. SUBTRACTION. changed. I. one occurring within the other. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. a+(bc) = a +b .a^6)]  } . Ex. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.b c = a a & f f. the sign is understood.
2 2a. may be inserted according to 43. (m a2 f.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.+ 6)f (a2 b).: Ex. [36+ (a 2c]. . ? 11. 2. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 21. 9. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 6. 18. 13. m f ft) a.7i h jp) (m ?*. 4. 6) 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 17. In the following expression inclose the second and third. + (2a 6 + c ). By removing parentheses.[271 47. 15. 8. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2 2 2 a(. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.) 5 . Signs of aggregation 1.)]. 3 3 f 7. Ex. 16.y (60. 5. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 19. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).1422) J ] . : x + (2yz). a (a + 26 c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . a (a + 6). 271 + (814 . a f (a a .(a + 6). 14. 3. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].
3. II. 2mn + 2q3t. 12. The difference of a and 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 2. 7.4 y* . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. z + d. 5. )X 6.ADDITION. 5^2 _ r .2 tf . 6 diminished . 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. of the cubes of m and n. m x 2 4. 9. The product The product m and n. m and n. 4. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The square of the difference of a and b. ' NOTE.1. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 5 a2 2.7fa. 10. SUBTRACTION. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. first. terms 5. a\l> > c + d. 13. 7. p + q + rs. and the subtrahend the second. 3. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 8. difference of the cubes of n and m. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. y f 8 .
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.) .30 14. b. d. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 16.
therefore. 3. 2. A A A 1. what force is produced by the Ib. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weights.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 5. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. force is produced therefore. 4. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. two loads balance. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads what What.
4x(3)=12. the multiplier is a negative number. Thus. Practical examples^ it however. 5x(4). make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. To take a number 7 times.32 8. 9 x ( 11). examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.4)(4) = + 12. such as given in the preceding exercise. . becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. thus. 4 multi44444 12. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multiplied by 3. NOTE. 48. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. ( (. x 11. 9 9. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. however. (5)X4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.9) x 11.4)(. (. or plied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.
6. 3. 11. (2) 8 (. 2a 2 6c.(4J). (. 13. find the numeri values of: 21. 4. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 9. . 32. . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 5. 12. about fac (2)X If 6. . 2a6 c . 27. 3.2 f+x 2 .(a&c) 2 2 . If a cal = 4a6c. 30. 23. . 24. 4 a2 .a)( =+ a&. is 6x7. 10. z s 11 aWcx. tors is no misunderstanding possible. (7) X (12). 6 2. _3. c = 25. 4 . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 1. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .7. 14. _2. +5.2. 8 31. _2^ 3. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 29. of Signs: TJie positive. . Ua b 28. 15. 22. 16. (4)X(15). (4)'.MULTIPLICATION 50. 3 a2?/2 . x. etc.4. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 8 4 . X(5). (2)x9. (10) 4 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 1. 3 aW.3. b = 3. and y = 4. 8. (c#) . 2. 26. 6. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.2f 18. NOTE. 17. x= 0. 19. Law Thus. 7. 20.3) (1) 7 2 . 5x3.
2(7. 2 2 3 6 . a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5 . 5(711. 2. a 2 2 .(2. 3 3 4 . (a6) (a5) 9. 1. 2 2 2 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. : 3a7abc. 5 = 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. =2 a *. fl*" integers. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .<?. ..m a 3  4 . a = 2. 78 . 5. = 2.3).(12) . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 14. 4. 7. 11. B.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 aWc x . or 2 .2). 5 3 5 3 2 .6 if 35. 36.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 2(14. 3. & = 3.35). 6" 127 U .  and 2 25 8 .. 10. Ex. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 3 2 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. a = 3. 4.257). 6 = . . 34. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. .  2 2. 127  127 9 7 . 2 3 . Ex. + 2/). 6 = 1. m*. IB. 16. 53.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 17. &*) c d*. .7. . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. of the factors. 9 . 3. 6.(7). MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. By 3 definition. a8 a=2.2 2 23 + 5 . 50(112.503). i. 2. 12 U U . 100.e. This 52. 4. 13. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a= 1. 200. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.
If results ft. /). c(4a ftc ). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 2 32. 2.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .4a#. 4. 2(5fl5f25). 17(10041042). 23(10004100420). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 12( + 1 4 i).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.7 w'W (8 n^W). 19. 21. 6(10420430). tet^m f c) = ab +ac. This principle. 5. 31. 26. 27. 35. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier.7pqt. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.A). 2(645410). . ) 2 33.3 win ) . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 20. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 7. 11(3. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . . (. 35 4 7(6. 3.2 3 aft ). 7p*q r*. 23.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. . 22. . ax /) 2 4 1 (. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 29. 6.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . by first multiplying. 24. 28.f 2).6. but we shall assume it for any number. multiply each by the monomial.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. (. 34. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . and then adding : 1. _4aft. . 25. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 3(124342). . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. called the distributive law.
4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). By what 25.60 a& 10 aft.asa product. 20. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 26. 11.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 m(mhn \p).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8.5 x 7). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 21. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.3 aftc). 19. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . . 2 27. .6 a6). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. f7a. 29. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. Find the factors of 6 ary . 3 ).we b) (x law. 9.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 22. .2 mn(9 mV . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . 30. ~2mn(m +n p ).^ c + 2 . : expression must 24. 23. be multiplied to give 4o. 2 2 16.5 w*V f 7 wn). 28. 7 a 6 c(. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 5). 12. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 17.
3 b by a 5 b. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . 2a3b a66 2 a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. however. the student should apply this test to every example. Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.1. Multiply 2 + a a. 59.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. Since all powers of 1 are 1. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. . Since errors. 2. To multiply two polynomials.3 a 2 + a8 .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.4. Check. Multiply 2 a . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. a2 + a8 + 3 .a .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.
(9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 5. 10. (4a 2 33. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 17. 28. 16. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 3. 1). 32. 9.4) (mnp 4. . 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 4. 13. 36.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (a^26) .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 26. 31. 40. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). ^ 2 . 30. 2) (3 A: 1). 36). (2w 19. 29. 7.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 20. 18. (13 A. * For additional examples see page 261. (6i7n)(llJn). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .1 . 41.2m)(l m). 36) I) 14. 22. I (mfn)(m4. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 2 . 4 2). 8.2). 11. l)(raf 2). 35. 15. 12)(a?^2l). QQ O7. 24. 2 . 3<7). 7y). OQ OO. 25. 6. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (6p (2 f 21. 2. (6a~7) 2 . 12. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (8r7*)(6r39. a 5c)(2a6c). 2  37. (2 x* x 2 . . 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (a 2a + 2)(a3). (ajf6y)(aj 23.4) (x + 1).
plus the product 62. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 13. 18. 10. .n)(wf w). i. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 17. . (a3)(a + 2). 7. 15. 27. + 5) (1000 + 4). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. ft 16. 6. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. i. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (a 102 x 103. + 9)(m+9). 8. : 23 2. 25 a 2 . 75 ab f 54 ft . 21. 9. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 24. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 1005x1004. 25. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (!)(* 5). plus the product of the two unequal terms. (ra. 1) (10 + 2). (a (a (a. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 19. _3)(a _4). 26. 2 a? 29. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 12. 14. 11.e. 2) (1000 + 3). + 3) (a 7). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). . 3. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).13).25)(y+4).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. in of the two unequal terms. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (J 23. 22. + 60)(f2). (10+ (1000 (2. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (6 12) (6 f.2 6) (a f 6). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (*.!!)( (a + 21). 2 6) (a 3 6). (a 9) (a + 9). X 102. 20. + 2) (a f 3). (p12)(p + ll).e. 28.4). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2).
plus sum of two numbers the square II. p 2 p. 2 (a (*5) 2 .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. + 6 a + 8. w 2 ro . plus twice the product of the first and the second. 63. 2 5. plus the square of the second. .e. i. 8. 37. : 24 (a 2. 4. 32. . 7 a + 10. 77ie square of the of the first. 7. (a2) (p a . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .66 s. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 6. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. of the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f.15. (x+3i/) 2 . 3. (a26) 2 . + 3) 2 . III. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 49 y*. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 9. 35. . n2 10ii+16. i. III. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . and the second. 34. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. a2 2 w + 2 w . 33.30. second. 31. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.15. <J>7) J . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). Ex. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.
(a 3) 2 2 2 . 21. 2 J ). 41 16. n 2 f4n+4. 24. 47. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 25 a 9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 4 53. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 22 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 51. 104 2 37. m 2 16. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 34. 17. 55. 99x101. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 40. + 5)(5+a). 14. 2 2 . ). : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. The product of 57. (1000 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 31. G> +5g)*. 45.998 39. 44. (2x3yy. 998x1002.ll^X^+lly (100 30. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 103 36. . (^. 38. 41. 49. 7& ) 25. By actual multiplication. n*6n+9. 29. . 28. 2 9a 496 2 56. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 52. . 991 2 2 . 62 25n 2 . 42. 12. 48. (20 f 1) . 11.30 ab + 25 6 64. 33. 46. I) 2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. 54. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 22. 15. 32. 2 . 9 a2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 23. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. a2 9. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . ( 27. + 5). 35. 2 . 16aW25. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 18. (6afy 2 5) (a.
9. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 14. 2 10. 7. : 25 2. 5.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (3m + 2)(ml). 3. (5a4)(4al). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. or The student should note minus signs. . plus the last terms. 65. 4. 6. 13. 8. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 43). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. ) (2 of a polynomial. 11. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ).& + c) = a + tf + c .f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (4s + y)(32y). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The square 2 (a 4. ((5a? (10 12. (2a3)(a + 2). sum of the cross products. (5a64)(5a&3). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x.
[a? . n).24] .4) . + 6)( . 6(a 2. Hence. 7. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). (u4& + 3c'. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 4. = 10 x .39. after multiplying the factors of a term. 4. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 3. 5.(x . of z : 10. Ex.(= [ Xa + 2 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). Find the square root 11. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 5. + 65) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.39. = .4) . 8. If x = 1. 2 2.X2 + 2 x .y? + 8 .(m 2 6. 7. 4(aj2)h3(7). 4(* + 2)5(3).3) . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 3. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 6.r _ 2 . 13.8 x + 15] . .29.3) (x .i2&c) 2 .1 5 = 10 . (  2 4) =  20 a.24 . 66. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).5) = (7 . Check. a. Simplify (x + 6) (a . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 12. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 2)6. (xy+z)*. 9. 4y sf n) 2 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 8.(>. (a (. and check the answers !.3)(z. 6~2(a + 7).5).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
19.11 a + 9 a . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . 16.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . .DIVISION 14. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . Division of the difference of two squares.e. . 51 15. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. a I.l. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2). v/17. (81 m + 1 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 18.2) (3 a . 20. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).
49.000. 12. 14. . 121a a 16 100 11. 9& 2 . aW 12 a.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. : the following w a 4 !. 100ry. 1. f 13. r/ 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 16.0001. 4 b. 10. 16 . 15.
y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. x 20. second member is x + 4 x 9. hence it is an equation of condition. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in the equation 2 x 0. 81. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. the 80. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. . . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. =11. . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. is said to satisfy an equation. Thus. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 82. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. 83. the first member is 2 x + 4.
the divisor equals zero. a. 86. E. 87. If equals be added to equals. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. Transposition of terms. 90. 85. If equals be multiplied by equals. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the products are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 2. the quotients are equal. 3.54 84. one member to another by changing x + a=. 4. the remainders are equal. If equals be divided by equals. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. A 2 a. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 89. x I. A term may be transposed from its sign.b. To solve an equation to find its roots.2. 5. A numerical equation is one in which all . . If equals be subtracted from equals. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. called axioms 1. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.e. 2 = 6#f7. the sums are equal. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. . NOTE. but 4 does not equal 5.g. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.
3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 4x 1 + 6. Ex. The second member. b c. a? Adding 5 to each term.6 y f y\ . f If y 20 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. To solve a simple equation. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. x = 93. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. if a x = b. b Adding a to both + a. 2(11 . 91.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Uniting similar terms. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Subtracting 4 x from each term. .8. Dividing both members by 2. Unite similar terms. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. (4y)(6. Dividing by Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. a= a 6fc. is correct. The first member.9 y + y2 = 22 . Uniting. x = (Axiom 3) 92. if 55 x members.2. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Transposing.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. x = 3. 2 x = 6.2 y= f . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 3 y . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Check. The first member. and the known terms to the second. Hence the answer.
Transposing. = 3. a. 13a? 3a?. x x 1 . + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). If x = 18. 4a + 5 = 29. 4. a? a?. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 19. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3. 3 7 a. 7a? 5. 4y 10. x = 18. 15. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. . 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 17 + 5a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). Uniting. 22. a?. 17 7 a. 3.. 32 = 264. Dividing by Cfcecfc.7. = 2 ?/. Solve the following equations by transposing. a. etc. J. 11 ?/ a? 18. =2 = 3. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 20. 8. 16. . aj * See page 264. : 5# = 15+2a. + 22. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 21. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 24.7a: = 394a. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.17 + 4y = 36. v23.69.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 12. 9 9a? = 7 13. 11. 7 (6 x 16). + 16 = 16 + 17. = 5a?+18.. f Simplifying. and check the answers 9. 2. \x x 2^xfl.56 Ex. 3)= 9(3 7 a. it NOTE. 7. 247y = 68lly. 50. 14. 13 y 99 = 7 y. = 7. 6.
39. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 33. a? 28. + 4).2) (M . . . : One part is of 70 is 25 . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. find the other part. 34. . 35. is the other part. (aj 37. this question.5(2 u . a? 43.32.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 25. 29. 5) (as (a.3) + .1) (u .3) + 14.1 0) = 0. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. or 70 a?. (a. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .g. (6 u =5 44. Evidently 45. 27. 6(6a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).5) + 199. 30.3) .12) (2 + 5) .5) = (a. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 40. 42.7. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 2 2 * Jaj. 38.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.14 = 0.1) (a (a? + 3) = . . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . .7) (7 x + 4) . 7(7 x y 26. 36. 7) (a.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.4) + 4 w . . 41. e. 31.(2 + 6) (4 . + 7) (. .
Ex. 7. or 12 7. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. one part equals is 10. 10. Divide a into two parts. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 14. so that of c ? is p. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100.58 Ex. so that one part The difference between is s. EXERCISE 1. If 7 2. 9. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 5. 6. 13. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 3. 6. a. so that one part Divide a into two parts. and the smaller one parts. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. greater one is g. is a? 2 is c?. find the cost of one yard. is b. 1. 33 2. is d. 11. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Divide 100 into two 12. smaller one 16. 4. Find the greater one. 17. one yard will cost 100 dollars.
square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. sum If A's age is x years. How many years A older than is B? old. and B has n dollars. 28. If B gave A 6 25. 26. and c cents. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and spent 5 cents. b dimes. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find 21. Find 35. ?/ 31. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 33. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. A dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. is A A is # years old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. amount each will then have. 32. 28. 24. numbers is x. A man had a dollars. and B's age is y years. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A feet wide. 22. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 34. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and B is y years old. How many cents had he left ? 28. 20. find the has ra dollars. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 19. How many cents has he ? 27.
Find a 47. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A was 20 years old. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. of m. he walk each hour ? 39. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 48.50. Find the number. Find a. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. . Find x % % of 1000. 46. a. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. . The first pipe x minutes. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. The two digits of a number are x and y. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). of 4. c a b =  9. m is the denominator. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. % % % of 100 of x. 49. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9.
of a increased much 8. c. 5. by one third of b equals 100. 80. of a and 10 equals 2 c. of x increased by 10 equals x. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. etc. 8 b ) + 80 = a . equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. The double as 7. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 6. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 80. 3. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. double of a is 10. The excess of a over b is c. 9. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. c. a exceeds b by c. 4. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7.
16. (c) If each man gains $500. x 4 If A. they have equal amounts. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now.. they have equal of A's. x is 100 x% is of 700. In 10 years the sum of A's. and C's age 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. symbols B. a second sum. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 11. 12. express in algebraic symbols : 700. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. sum equals $20.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 6 % of m. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. B. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. and C have respectively 2 a. of 30 dollars. 17. pays to C $100.62 10. B's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000.000. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a. B's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 3 1200 dollars. 50 is x % of 15. amounts. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. . a. 18. B's age 20. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. m is x % of n. 14. and C's ages will be 100. as 17 is is above a. express in algebraic 3x : 10. #is5%of450. >. is If A's age is 2 x. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.
1. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Check. number. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Ex. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. x = 20. Ex. Simplifying. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. the required . 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. much as 40 exceeds the number. Find A's present age. In 15 years 10. Dividing. A will Check. the . be 30 . 6 years ago he was 10 . number of yards. etc.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 23 =30. In order to solve them. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Uniting. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. x+16 = 3(35). Let x = the number. Three times a certain no. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Let x The (2) = A's present age. but 30 =3 x years. 15. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Uniting. denote the unknown 96. . Transposing. 2. 3z40:r:40z. x= 15. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Transposing. NOTE. 4 x = 80. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no.
EXERCISE 1. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 3. Let x 3. 11. by as much as 135 ft. 14. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find 8. Find the number. A number added number. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. exceeds the width of the bridge. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.64 Ex. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 300 56. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 120. 13. Find the number. 4. Hence 40 = 46f. Dividing. . % of 120. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. twice the number plus 7.2. 5. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Forty years hence his present age. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Six years hence a 12 years ago. then the problem expressed in symbols W or.
000. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. The sum of the two numbers is 14. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. five If A gives B $200. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B will have lars has A now? 17. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. 1. statements are given directly. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. B How will loses $100. The problem consists of two statements I. times as much as A. One number exceeds the other one by II. and B has $00. Find the population of Maine in 1800. written in algebraic symbols. If A gains A have three times as much 16. . 14. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. The other verbal statement. Maine's population increased by 510. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ex. two verbal statements must be given. A and B have equal amounts of money. 65 A and B $200. the second one. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15.000. which gives the value of 8. Vermont's population increased by 180. x. is the equation. How many dol A has A to $40. During the following 90 years. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and as 15. F 8. 97.
2x a? x j = 6. = 14. I. x 3x 4 and B will gain. A gives B 25 marbles. + a f f 8 = 14. Uniting. = 3. If A gives are : A If II. Statement x in = the larger number. x x =14 8. .66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. to Use the simpler statement. If we select the first one. Then. although in general the simpler one should be selected. A will lose. . o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. terms of the other. < Transposing. To express statement II in algebraic symbols.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 2. unknown quantity in Then. A has three times as many marbles as B. the smaller number. the greater number. 8 = 11. which leads ot Ex. consider that by the exchange Hence. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 25 marbles to B. The two statements I. has three times as many marbles as B. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. / . . x = 8. B will have twice as many as A. = A's number of marbles. and Let x = the Then x +. Dividing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. B will have twice as viz. Let x 3x express one many as A. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. 8 the greater number. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. = B's number of marbles. the sum of the two numbers is 14.
x = 15. of dollars to the number of cents. w'3. Dividing.5 x . 3 x = 45. Let 11 = the number of dimes.75. have a value of $3. B's number of marbles. cents.. Dividing.550 f 310. Uniting. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. (Statement II) Qx . the number of dimes. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. The value of the half : is 11. Find the numbers. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. consisting of half dollars and dimes. the price. 50 x Transposing. Simplifying. by 44. . * 98. etc. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 2. 15 + 25 = 40.$3. x from I. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. and the Find the numbers. The number of coins II. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. 3. dollars and dimes is $3. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. 45 . Check.25 = 20. x = 6. 1. Simplifying. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). x = the number of half dollars. Two numbers the smaller.10..10. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Check. but 40 = 2 x 20. . * ' . 50. A's number of marbles. Find the numbers. 40 x . the number of half dollars.240. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.. The sum of two numbers is 42. 6 times the smaller. greater is .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. is 70. then. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 60.10. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Eleven coins. Uniting. 11 x = 5.
11. Twice 14. United States. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. 7. 5.68 4. one of which increased by 9. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Two numbers The number differ by 39. How many 14 years older than B. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find their ages. McKinley. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 9. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. tnree times the smaller by 65. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. A's age is four times B's. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts.000 feet. as the larger one.. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the number. 6. and twice the altitude of Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. On December 21. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Everest by 11. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum.
three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. number had. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. B. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. . 1. bers is denoted by x. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 8(8 + 19) to C. 19. x = 8. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and B has three as A. number of dollars A had.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. The third verbal statement produces the equation. II. If 4x = 24. I. they would have 3. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. number of dollars of dollars B C had. Ex. has. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Let x II. If A and B each gave $5 to C. III. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and 68. times as much as A. and C together have $80. B." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. are : C's The three statements A. B has three times as much as A. then three times the money by I. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. has. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. = 48. original amount. and C together have $80.
The I. 1 1 Check. x f 4 = 9. number of sheep. number of cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first. and. 9 5 = 4 . 90 may be written. x = 5. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. III. + 8 90 x and. sheep. according to II.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and the sum of the . = the number of dollars spent for cows. each cow $ 35. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 2. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. number of cows. 9 cows. x j = the number of horses. Let then. number of horses. 28 2 (9 5). Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. according to III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. The total cost equals $1185. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x Transposing. Uniting. three statements are : IT. Dividing. the third five times the first. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 4 x f 8 = 28. each horse costing $ 90. and each sheep $ 15. 185 a = 925. + 35 x 4. and Ex.
New York delphia.000. "Find three is 4. If twice The sum the third side. and children together was 37. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. women. the third 2. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. increased by three times the second side. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 13. what is the population of each city ? 8. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. men. and the sum of the first and third is 36. 7. how many children were present ? x 11. what are the three angles ? 10. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.  4. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . twice the 6. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). the copper. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and 2 more men than women. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what is the length of each? has 3. A 12. v .000. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first. The gold. twice as old as B. first. 9. equals 49 inches. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.
After how many hours will they meet and how E. 8 x = 15.g. .000. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and quantities area. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. but stops 2 hours on the way. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000 more than that the copper.e.000. we obtain 3 a.000. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. 7 Uniting. Dividing. Let x = number of hours A walks. 3 and 4. of arid the value of the iron was $300. number of miles A x x walks. = 5. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. such as length. = 35. Hence Simplifying. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. or time. how many 100. together. width. number of hours. i. First fill in all the numbers given directly. A and B apart. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Find the value of each. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. speed. 14. The copper had twice the value of the gold. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and distance.
$ 1000 x . What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. x + 200). and the width decreased by 10 yards.06 = $ 40. Check. 70x10 Ex. the area would be 100 square yards less. were increased by 30 yards. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.05 x x . x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. 10 x = 200.04 8. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards." gives (2. $ 800 = required sum. + 8. original field has Check. or 700. 2 a = 40.053. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. Transposing and uniting. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Multiplying.M(x . Find the dimensions of the field. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. l. . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. 2   and transpose. .01 = = . $ 800 = 800. z = 20.04 = $ 40. But 700 certain = 800 2. the second 100.
Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. invested at 5 %. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but as two of them were unable to pay their share.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. Six persons bought an automobile. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. What are the two sums 5. 2. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. A of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Find the share of each. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. together bring $ 78 interest. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. After how many hours will B overtake A. were increased by 3 yards. A sets out later two hours B . Ten yards $ 42. and a second sum. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. the area would remain the same. 1. sions of the field.55. 3. twice as large. but four men failed to pay their shares. and its width decreased by 2 yards. of coffee for $ 1. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. as a 4. A man bought 6 Ibs.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and from the same point. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
it contains no indicated root of this letter . which multiplied together are considered factors. stage of the work. a. if. 76 . as. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. but fractional with respect 103.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. An after simplifying. it is composite. a2 to 6. if it does contain some indicated root of . a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . consider 105. vV . 5. at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. this letter. irrational. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. f db 6 to b. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. we shall not. 104. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 6. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. + 62 is integral with respect to a. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise .
110. or that a = 6) (a = a .) Ex. for this result is a sum. it follows that a 2 . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.FACTORING 106. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).62 + &)(a 2 . Factor G ofy 2 . 77 Factoring is into its factors. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. in the form 4) +3. y. TYPE I. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. ?/. 55. 2. x. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .g.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. It (a. Ex. 1.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 107. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.3 sy + 4 y8). E. . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.62 can be &). 109. x. . 8) (s1). 2. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 01. factors of 12 &V is are 3.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 2.3 6a + 1). Divide 6 a% . it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.
2 2 .5 x*y 2 17 a? . 2 23. q*q*q 2 a. a a 'Ja . ) 22  2. 3 3 5 6. TYPE IT. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. in general.4. 11. 15. e. . 34 a^c 8 . 20. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. (as 3) and (ccf5). 3x*6x*. 2 Or. 19. 16. 13.5 + 2. 14. : 6 abx . + llm llm.3. 5f 2 . Ilro8 9. 3. 18. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 7i 13.4. 4 8 . 4 tfy f. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 17. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.g. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.6. 3 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 4. 32 a *?/ . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 15 2 7.2.5 + 13 8. 2 + q.3. obviously.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. .51 aW + 68 21.45 afy .30 aty. 12.12 cdx. 7a & 10. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 2 6.8 c a 15 ofyV . 8. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 2. a6c. 14a 4 5.
can be factored. 2 6. but of these only a: Hence 2 .4 . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. as p. or 77 l.. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 112.30 = (a . 77 as the product of 1 77.G) = .1 1 a tf a 4. 2. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. If q is negative. of this type. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. a 2 .11) (a + 7). but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.11 a 2 . determine whether In solving any factoring example.FACTORING Ex. We may consider 1. .a).1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. + 30 = 20. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. however. the two numbers have both the same sign as p.6 = 20. 5. tfa2  3.77 = (a.11 a + 30.5) (a . m 5m + 6. the two numbers have opposite signs.11. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Ex. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). If q is positive. 3. . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.4 x . 4.5) (a 6). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor a2 . Factor + 10 ax . Therefore Check. and (a . Factor x? . . Ex. 11 7. or 7 11. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. is The two numbers whose product and 6.
21.48 + + 446 200. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 12. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 11. 27. 21 a 2 2 . 2 ?/ 28. 100 xr .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 2 a' 34. 25. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. . 16. . 2 ?/ 22. 15. 13.80 7. 14. 32. 2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 35. a? + 5 + 6 a. and 5 x. a 2 +11 a a? 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . x2 23. 4 2 . TYPE 113. 24. 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.500 x + 600. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 26. + 44. 6 8 8 4 2 a. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 2xS. 2 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 29.180 a. . 4 3 2 . 31. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. + 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 9. or . 8. 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 20. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. + 5<y 24. + 4?/21. 36. ra + 25ra + 100. ITT. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.6.17 + 30. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30.70 x y . a 7 a 30. 2 . 17. 19. ay 11 ay +24. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 33. 18. 16. 2 ?/ 5?/14. a2 .
3 x and x.5) (2 x . a.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. Factor 3 x 2 . viz. 2 x 27. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. the If p and r are positive. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.83 x f 54. the signs of the second terms are minus. 27 x 2.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If p is poxiliw. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. then the second terms of have opposite signs. Ex. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2. or G 114. X x 18. 6 x 9. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3.1). 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. sible 13 x negative. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. . and that they must be negative. 11 x 2x.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 54 x 1. .13 x + 5 = (3 x . but the opposite sign.5 . 18 x 3. 9 x 6. and r is negative. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.
6n + 5?i4. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 9. 144 x .19 a f 6. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 .260 xy . 13. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.179. X 27 . 32. 20. 12y 2/6.2) (x . 34. 4. 90 a 8 2 . 11.163 x 2 . 3a + 13a. . 2 2 2 . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 6n 2 f 13w + 2.y + 172/9. : 41 2. 35.300 ab 2 f4 250 .30 y 6 4 . 3. 10a2 G a2 2 . 17. the expressions should be it. 12^17^16. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. + 2/3. 9a. 9 y + 32^16. + 4. 10a?2 2 33.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 2 31. 2 28. 7. 100^200^ + 100^. 6. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 22.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. . 5m 26m f 5. 2 fc . 5. f go. Sar' + SaG. 21. 2x* + 9x5. . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. x54 a. 2 2 2 23. since all others (II.7.83 x . 2 26. 2 . 14. 3x*Sx + 4.27). 12. 15.83 x = (3 . 24. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 8.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 19. and the monomial factors should be removed. 10. 10 a . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2. 18. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 29. 16. 25. 2m t7w + 3.2 a 90 x*y . 4a2 9tt + 2. 14 a fa 4. 30.
2. square.e. form are special cases of the preceding type. it is a perfect square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 2 9 10gf25. 4. 11. 6. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .20 xy f 4 y\ . and a perfect square.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. it is more convenient for that type. 10.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 5. 16 y? The student should note that a term. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. of its terms are perfect squares. 14. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 8. 13. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 116. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. must have a positive sign.10 x f 16. 12. however. 25 7. 3. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 . A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. . 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 9 10a625. i. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . and factor whenever possible : 1. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. x* . . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 9.
+ GO + 25. 16&*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 29. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.84 15. 2 . TYPE 117. ). THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. ). !Gar 9 ( )+25. 1. 4 2 23. V.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 26.64 6 = 16(a . . product i. 6. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 10 a 2 4 2 . 7. 16. 9. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 27.e.3 * ). 48 a +( ). 17. 225 ofy . 149 a 81 8. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 3. ). 2 20. prime.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. ^//c to the Ex. 4a2 l. a. 6 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. +( )f816 30.6 m* + 9 m. 5. 2 . . 19. Ex. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 25.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . According to 65. * 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. . difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. a2 24. u2 6& + 2 ( ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . a. 3. 2 . 2. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 9a2 .2 ofy + ofy m . 36 2 4.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 18.20 ab + 10 b a . 22. aV .60 a# + 4. 2.
4. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 6. Ex. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.FACTORING 85 118. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a2 . Ex.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a .(c 4. a:) 12. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 9. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2. 16p 2 . 13. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2 . 5. (m7?) y. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . of polynomials. 14. 11. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. T. One or both terms are squares 1. Factor a 2 . 2. 2 .d) 2 .(I) . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 8.c . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 36> .
1. 8. 119. 4 B.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.y + 2 2). Ex. 3. After grouping tain a the terms.ab + bx. A. ma ?*a + m& nb. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. which may be factored according to types I.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 7. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.r. 12.VI. a? 11. 5.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 9. 6. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 1. . polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. x8 . 4:cx . 2.14. By grouping.a a . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 2. a5 + ab 6 . ive find that the new terms con common factor. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a 26 2 2 3 .7 c + 2c . Ex. 10. = (3 x + y .2 ) (3 x . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 5) . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.and trinomials. + x + 2x + 2.
FACTORING Ex.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . w m 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 6. 8ra 2 + 16. II. 3. IV.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Arranging the terms. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 4. . First find monomial factors common to all terms. 2. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. + 2xy + y*q*. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. : 46 x* 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 3.12 aaj 4 6y. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2 7. 36 9 m . : m 2 2 16. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 4. 2.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 6a4 12a2 + 6.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 8. 5. 6 6. 2a3/ 7.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 8. 4 a2 .l. $ a8 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . = (a + 6)(a6).4 f . +c+ 2 2 2/ .
22. a3 156. 48. 35. 28. a.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 5a' 20. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 11. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 32. a + a + a + l. 30. (^ 34. 40. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 4 a. or 3 7#2 . 18. 2 17. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 4 8 tt 2 z . 19. 24. 80 a 2 ft 38. 3 a2 23.40. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 3 41.13 c . 42 x . 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 .24. 50^ + 45. a6 36. 3 25.156. 13. 27. 12. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 2 a 128. 14. + 6 aft + 3 . 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 13 c . 25 a + 25 aft .310 x . 42 s 2 . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 5 a. 2 ft . (a. . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . + 14.88 10. 29. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 3 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.
of aW. of the algebraic expressions. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. 5 7 34 2s . F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . of two or more monomials whose factors . 121. 5 s 7 2 5. C. The student should note H. C. 15 aW. F. . C. 13 aty 39 afyV. F. II 2 . C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. The H. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 12 tfifz. F. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 54  32 . F. 5 2 3 . The highest is common factor (IT.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 25 W.) of two or more . 24 s .  23 3 . EXERCISE Find the H. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. Two common factor except unity The H. aW. of : 48 4. 122. 2 2 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 3. are prime can be found by inspection. Thus the H. F. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. 2. 5. 6. The H. 89 . F. F. of 6 sfyz. C. 3 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. C. 8 .
57 a>V.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 7. x* x2 Hence the H. 11. 38 #y. 16. 10.12 as 66 . ^a + 5^ + 6. 6(m+l) (m+2). 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. F. 3). 0^80:416.90 7. 2 . 5. a3 16 a. 9. a3 9a. ^f a.6.2 y) (a.5 + 6. 4 ?io. 1.y + y42. y + 3y64. C. 2 . C. Find the H. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 3. 49 C. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 95 2/V. 6 a2 y? . ^707 + 12. 10. 2 . 65 zfyV. a2 . 8 6. 13. . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . . 15 3ao.6 a&.8 a + 16. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 25 m27i. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 8(?/ifl) 14. 2a f5af 2. . 15. a2 + 2a3. . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. aWd. To find the H. 12. 12. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a 3a4. 9. F. of + 4 if. Ex. 16 a . ^2 2 . 52 oryz4. 8.^9. 3 . a. (a7 ?/) . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 1. 13. 8 a 10 . 6 mx . 3^ 2 4 . 9 aj*(a? .5 x3?/ 2 6.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 2.6 . F. 24 a 2 . a2 ar* 4. of: . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.# 4 afy f 4 .y) 123.5 y). 4(m+l) 3 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x .y) . and apply the method of the preceding article. 2 . 11. 12 . 8.?/ .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . F.2 ?/) (x . of polynomials. 6 3 a. 14. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 225 4a 9 . C. . 12 w*nw 8. . = x 2 y. a2 + 7af!2.
The L.C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. NOTE. C. L. 128. 2 The The L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. a^c8 3 . C. Common 125. . C. L. 300 z 2 y.C. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. M. The lowest common multiple (L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 127.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. etc. of 3 aW. Find the L. which also signs. A common remainder. C. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 1. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. M. Hence the L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of the general. &) 2 M. Ex. M of the algebraic expressions. M. To find the L.M.6 3 ). of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. Find the L. 60 x^y' 2 . M. =4 a2 62 (a2 . but opposite . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. of tfy and xy*. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. M. 2. C.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. 126.M. Ex. ory is the L. M. thus. C.6)2. of several expressions which are not completely factored. two lowest common multiples.
a?b. G a. 22. ic 2 ?/. 30 a. a 2 f 4 a +4.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 6 a. y*. a2 4. 8. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 .1. a { a~b. a f 2 19. 5. 3. x 2 5 a. 2 7ic+10. 6b 2 . 2 a . 2 a. xy\ .1. 3(a + b). x2 + 4 a f 4. 3 ab. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a. + 2. 8 afy. (a 4)(a2) 12. ic 23. 4 a f 2. 3 Z> . ) . by. x* ~5a. . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a 2 fa6. afc'cd 2 . 21. Find the L. a. 2 . . 16. 4 a . 24 x. 40 abJ. 3 f2. 9. a f 3. T a 3 a 2 . 2 . + 6. 2 .f 6. 3 6 xif. 3 . f b. 18. 2 10. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. afy. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 17. 2 a . 2 x \2 y. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 7. 4 a 5 6cd. (For additional examples see page 268. a& 4 +& 2 . #. + 2 7i) . 8 d 5 . 13. 20. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . of: 4. a^1. 2(m 2 . 6. M. a !. or f 3 a 15 #. a2 ~ab 1. a 1. 24. 14. 15. 1. a. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2. 3. b 2 . 11. 20 9 a. 6 y. a 2 a3 .
successively all 2 j/' . 130. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. an indicated quotient. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.ry ^ by their H. rni Thus 132. Remove tor. a?. A f fraction is b. but we In arithmetic. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. C. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 131. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. and denominators are considered. F. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. Ex.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a b = ma mb . however. Thus. etc. as 8.
33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. . tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both. 3. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. cancel factors only. Ex. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.
11 ^ Mtr f .' 32. . ny 4 18.7 . . nx 17. _ 3 7i rt< 26. LJZJ^JL. 23. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. ^" a..10 a + 3 2 14. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.*. ^' rt ^  31. . 9x + "a" 10. ^+3*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . """. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 5^10 y 30. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ' ^ . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. g J 21. 19. 16. 29.
+ 3).1^22 ' . and 135. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .~16 (a + 3) (x.3) (!)' = . 1. of the denominators for the common denominator. and (a 8). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.C. C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. ^ to their lowest com The L. . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. . TheL.M.  by 4 6' . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . 2> . multiplying the terms of 22 . M. we have M^. Reduce ^. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. by the denominator of each fraction.  of //* 2 .C. Divide the L. mon T denominator. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. 1).M. we may extend this method to integral expressions. C. and the terms of ***. .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . take the L. we have the quotients (x 1).96 134.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.D. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. Ex.
a? 1 5 > ^* .. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .oj o* or / . . common denominator 6. 8 i i. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.^1. JL. 18.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 74). 2 ay IB. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. . j y 3. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . 137. 2.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . i. If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 2aj ~ . .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 22 a2 5a * . 3. 7i 2 ab* ". 5?. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. o o a..
aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.ft)(a . in the beginning. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . e. ft). C.3 . (a . ^ is 2^JT) .ft) (a ft ft)~. D. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .2 ' 2 _.3 ft 2). The L.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . the student should remember that parentheses are .7 . (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .3 ft). D.aft) Ca2 . T? Ex.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). and adding. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .. (a ft). 2 ^.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. L.(a 2 6).2 = a(a .g. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . 4(2 a 3 ft). 2. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . as 4 aft f.
46 2a 4a 12.5 18 ^4f25. a 36 ++. 2. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 6 c 3a 7. 24. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 18 v 19. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. + . j>0 i> 21. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 15. 1 1 f w 16. 2L + 2a 1 17. 1 f q * 1 m m .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 5a76 4a 106 9. A+2_3. a+6 a 6 2 14. + a "" 2 6 ' . 20. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 23. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M.
_m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . af 1f /j. a. 43. a ?^ 40. 2 af1 32.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 41. 1 34. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . _ + a? ?/ + y. a 4 31. 42. ic 1 + 1.9 79 6 2 i. 3a 9 +. a 30. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . ! n. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.9.
6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. . Reduce . .  .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.7 5a v Ex. 101 mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 1. T.  4 or 3 2a. .
expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. F J Simplify . 2 a Ex.g. we may extend any e. fractions to integral numbers. integer. multiply the 142.) Ex.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Since  = a. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2. or. !. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. (In order to cancel common factors.
20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. . 50 . 5# 56 / c& 4. 14. 4 8.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 f 5 a.6 12 d6 4.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.
8 multiply the Ex.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 144. : a 41 ab * See page 272. Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.
&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. a a2 4. Ex.^c 2 2 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.10 ?/ _. are fractional. ga2 4 8 5 a .' ' * ' ^5^+4 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .5 ??i 80 50 . or both.6 s + 064. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.FRACTIONS 105 .afr 4. l._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.
6. 9. 7i+~ 7.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Ex. JL. a m "" . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . C.y 32 . Simplify x }. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. & . . of their denominators. i. . 2. c +6. x* 4. n a 8. 10. the answer is directly obtained.a ^c c _^ a . y X 4* 2 y 3. M. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.
o 15.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : . m^n* n L a 17. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13. sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 .) .
= 6. 2x Transposing. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. a.1. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).48. 2z2a. 9x x Check. + 1) (a + 3) . C. these Ex. If x 6. of the denominator. = 6. . Uniting. each member is reduced to 1. each member is reduced to Ex.f3# + C:E=6f7212. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). If = 64. 4 4)  x.l)(z + 3) = . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 2 3. tions. 2. 5(3 85 Check.8 x = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.9 x2 + 9.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .28 x + 42 = .28 a = 5 x2 . Clearing of fractions. 148. Transposing. 108 . M. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Uniting. Bx 12 Qx.42 + 9.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. x = 6.14 (a. 1.
. 16. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 1 *> = 2. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +4 14. a. a: 7 a.1 _77 a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 18. ^' 2. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. '  4 13. +1 = 5.= 2. 15. a/  5 a/ = 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.
25. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. y+3~2 29. 4a4l4* + l~. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 26 26. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . and" the remaining one a polynomial.  38 = 40. ?_=_. 27 . .11_4 x 149. . 33. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . . 32 6 ._ _ . If two or more denominators are monomials. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3x 35.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. . J_.
2 42 9 43. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5x x : = 9. C. If a.1. . 26 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. a. = 9.. Transposing and uniting. 5# 10.2 3 ~  == 7a. Check. 24 a.29 50712' 9 18 . each member is reduced to ^. the 1 5 L. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.  5 = 20 x 45. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 60. M.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Dividing. 1. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.
l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. y. = 6 a2 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. If 3ac L= = a ? . jr. Uniting. f ~ 5c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. = = 6 6c 7 6c. ax f x f.be. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.2 ac + 3 aft . 4 ac 1.1. Ex. find a in terms of b and c. =a 2 151. Dividing. = l^ 9 b 4 . = 2 f b 2 . 2. a.& . Ex. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. Uniting the Dividing.2 62 2 ab.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). . they are united by factoring. fr Reducing lowest terms.3 6 2 = a' .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. It frequently occurs that the x. Thus.m bx 2 mn) x. 5> a. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .
p the principal. If s If 16. 10. rate. 11. If ^^ = a 1 32. r the number of $>. 3. 6. = vt. denoting the interest. 2 solve for y a. 12. 15. iw 21.i l .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.a. If s (wi n) x =px + q. 34. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 30. 29. co?. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. solve for a. 4. 14. The The i time. a. solve for . + xx = 1. . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. + 3a. 5) is t =^. . ^ ax a^ 26. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. s = Vt solve for v.= n. .= c a Z> . and n the number of years. m a? x . 13. = 8 4 #. = 3 (6 a). f ^o. in terms of other quantities. c. mx = n. IIL n b + &o. 17. c 18. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).= H. = 5. 9. 31. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . Ex. 1 f. _ 2. . 4. = rt. q solve for/. t. * Solve the same equation for^). 3(* 8. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. f P =+!. If * 33.
of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Find R in terms of C and TT. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 100 C. Multiplying by Dividing. . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A would do each day ^ and B j.. Ex.180. . Ex. 2. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. then = 2 TT#. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. = 16^. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 12. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 2 3 . is 36. and 12 = the number over. 1.114 35.. x Or Uniting.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.20 C. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.
u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 3. in Then Therefore.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." : Let x  = the required number of days. 32 x = . what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 180 Transposing. Solving. the rate of the express train." gives the equation /I). The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. and the statement. Clearing. or 1J. the required number of days. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = 100 + 4 x. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 4x = 80. Ex. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
Twenty years ago A's age was  age. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. fifth Two numbers differ 2. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. 3. Find A's 8. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and 9 feet above water. and one half the greater Find the numbers. by 3.  Find their present ages. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. and of the father's age. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. ex What 5. of his present age. length in the ground. money and $10. How did the much money man leave ? 11. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. is oO. by 6. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. is equal 7. make 21. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. a man had How much money had he at first? . The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his daughand the remainder. which was $4000. to his son.
A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. air. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 3. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. How much money $500? 4%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the 14.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. A has invested capital at more 4%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. investments. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. . ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ^ at 5%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17.) 22. Ex. 152. and it B in 6 days. and B in 4 days. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 1. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. what is the rate of the express train? 152. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. 2. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.
A in 6.118 153. A in 4. is 42.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.g. therefore. The problem to be solved. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. n x Solving. 25. Then ft i. if B in 3 days. e. . they can both do in 2 days. Hence. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 12. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. A in 6. B in 16. and apply the method of 170. B in 5. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.414. 26. m and n. B in 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.= . we obtain the equation m m . Ex. . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.e. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.009 918. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. is 57. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. To and find the numerical answer. 3. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. 2. and n = 3.
33. respectively (a) 60 miles. . (a) 20 and 5 minutes. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.000. 34. 3 miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the second at the apart. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 2 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. meet. The one: 31. squares 30. (b) 35 miles. if m and n are. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. (d) 1. Find the side of the square. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. Two men start at the first miles apart. After how many hours do they meet. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 5 miles per hour. is (a) 51. 3J miles per hour. (c) 16. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. 2 miles per hour. 4J miles per hour.001.721. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. : (c) 64 miles. squares 29. same hour from two towns. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. (b) 149. and the second 5 miles per hour. the rate of the first. respectively. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. is ?n . by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively.
g. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. In the ratio a : ft. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b. a ratio is not changed etc. the denominator The the 157. Simplify the ratio 21 3. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. " a Thus.5. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. : : 155. 1. b is the consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. the symbol being a sign of division. The first 156. 6 12 = . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. etc. b.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division." we may write a : b = 6. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 158. is numerator of any fraction consequent. E. Ex. the antecedent. the second term the consequent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. .
In the proportion a b : = b : c. terms. b. 1. 3 8. equal 2. 5 f hours : 2. proportional between a and c. a and d are the extremes. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : ay . 3. extremes. 12. b is the mean b. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. Simplify the following ratios 7. : is If the means of a proportion are equal.RATIO Ex. 9. 61 : ratios 72:18. : 1. 11. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. Transform the following unity 15. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 7f:6J. $24: $8. 27 06: 18 a6. 4. 3:1}. 6. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 17. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. and c is the third proportional to a and . b and c the means. 7:4 T T 4 . The last first three. 62:16. 8^ hours. two  ratios. J:l. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 10. 4:5f : 5. 159. and c. 16. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 16a2 :24a&. 18. 3:4.
__(163. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. : c. Clearing of fractions. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then G ccm. : : directly proportional may say. i.) mn = pq. of iron weigh 45 grams. = 30 grams 45 grams. q~~ n . ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and the time necessary to do it. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 2 165. 6 ccm. 163. ad = be. briefly. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.e. are : : : inversely proportional. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. pro portional. !.30 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. and the other pair the extremes. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 163.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. " we " NOTE.122 162. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. 164. The mean proportional of their product. of a proportion. In any proportion product of the extremes. If (Converse of nq. 3 4. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.) b = Vac. of iron weigh . Hence the number of men required to do some work.
) II. Or IV.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. 1. is Ex. (Frequently called Inversion. I.) d 167.) = f f = 3 J. 12x Hence a? = 42. (163. (Composition. a III. 166. then =d c. V. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. + b:b = c + d:d. hence the proportion true. 2.PATIO Ex.) (Called Alternation. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. bd bd.) a + b:a = c + d:c. if 6 : 7. d d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. ad = be. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. ad ( 163. .) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (Division. a:c=b:d. I. is 4$ = 35. = 35 .
E. Or III. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 9. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 5. i. Apply composition. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 120:42 2 2 7. = 2:3. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 10. = 12 5ft. = 7:2f 3J.g. 8. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. : x.e.!=!*. Simplify the following proportions. IV. = 2:x. 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. V. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. . 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 3. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. the consequents by 7. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 5 5. = 20:7. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m.124 IT. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. x = 2. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 4. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 6 =4 : x. mx tin Apply composition and division. . and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = 180:125.
8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. Find the third proportional 24. . : a2 . 2. 22. 5. 51. 52. 26. 41. = l^:18. b. w. 9 x = 2 y. 39. 2 3 = y #. 4. Find the mean proportional 30. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. ra 2 . 03:a?=135:20. 2. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 6x = 7y. Find the 37. f. 7iy = 2:x.. 2 a and 18 a. 25. mx = ny. to: = 35:*. 3. to : a and 1. 44. 43. 23. 33. if : 40.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 3. 50. a 2 and ab. and 2/. x:5 = y:2. 5= 18 a? : a?. ra + landra 1. 20. 18.j>. ratio of y. a. 47. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 21. 3t. rap. 34. = 3 43 + x. 13. 27. 1 and a. 46. 42. 38. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x.:ff. 14 and 21. 31. rag. 28. 6. + fyx = cy. 16 and 28. x m = y n. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 6 x = y. 35.x: 6:5 a : x. 2= 5 x x. 4 and 16. terra 2:3 = 4. (a : : 45. to : 9 and 12. : 53.8:1. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. = 15o. 29. ra. 1. 112:42 = 10:a. a?:15 15. 16. 12. = 2 + x: x. : .6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.  32. 17. = 5 x 12. 14.
the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the time. 56. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate.126 54. and the : total cost. and the speed of the train. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. the area of the larger? the same. and the time necessary for it. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the area of the rectangle. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. A line 7^. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . 57. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). what 58.
Then Hence BG = 5 x. 4 inches long. = the second number. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. so that Find^K7and BO. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 18 x = 108. AB = 2 x. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 7 x = 42 is the second number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 2.000 168. x=2.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 2 x Or = 4. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. is A line AB. : Ex. produced to a point C. as 11 Let then : 1. . Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 11 x f 7 x = 108. x = 6. 11 x x 7 Ex. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.
How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.) . 2. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : 4. How many 7. 7. 9.000. 12. How The long are the parts ? 15. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 11. What are the parts ? 5. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 3. 12. Gunmetal tin. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.000 square miles. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 6. and 15 inches. How many gen. 13. and c inches. 14. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. : 197.
values of x and y. However. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. 2 y = . The root of (4) if K 129 . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. =. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. if .e. x = 1. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation.. is x = 7. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. Hence. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. a? (1) then I. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. y = 1. such as + = 10.L x If If = 0. etc. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.y=. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. expressing a y. there is only one solution.
y = 2. same relation. 4y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.3 y = 80. Therefore. 26 y = 60. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 172. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. unknown quantity. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. for they express the x f y 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Substitution.130 170. are simultaneous equations. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. y I 171. = .26. 6x . 3.24. of elimination most frequently used II. cannot be reduced to the same form. to The two methods I. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 174. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. By By Addition or Subtraction. E. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). viz. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . the last set inconsistent.X. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. ~ 50. and 3 x + 3 y =. 21 y .
= 406. 64 x = 040. 5 13 . Check. are like. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.2 = 6. add the equations. 10 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 25 x . + 2. x = 10. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3.3 y = 47. Therefore Check. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. subtract the equations. Transposing. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 3y = 3. whose coefficients In general. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 8 2. x = 10.14 =8.3 1 = 47. 37.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 235. y = 1. y = 2. 60 .2 = 9 + 4 = 13.
4. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. J I y = 1U. = 24. O t K 8. 7 ' 1fi fl . v ^ = ll.3. ] ^ . [2o. 19< I a. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. x 11. 9 1 r 20.3. * + 3 y = 50.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I oj 5y = 17.f2/ ' = 50. i 3. ' 12. = 6. I i 3 a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *. = 41.5 y = 2.v 23. 13 61 l7a. f 3# ?/ = 0. + 2/ 17. . I ~ y~~> 22. _. f 3X 7x 14. I . 13.
= 2y + 10. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 2. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. (1) (2) Transposing 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. and solve the resulting equation. . = 13. 3. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. x ) ^"" 13. = 4#8. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 60.
the equation must be cleared of fractions and .6)7(y7)==18. 21z6y=9. + 212y4 = 14. (7) (7) (8) . 2 y = . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 3. 7x_2y=3. (4).134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3 (1) Ex. 29 x = 29.3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 4* + 3y = 19. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. Substituting in (6) . From 9 = 36. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. \ \6(a. x = l. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 7 y = 6. simplified before elimination is possible. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. . however. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26.
ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. +y 2 . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a.1) + 5(6 y . 14.f2 2. = 3. a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10 2a?5 17. . yM a.1) = 121. 16. . J 9. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 10. 12. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4 11. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.
but some expressions involving x. * ((* (( . . {. 180. 22. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y . 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y . <X + 20.Q ^ 4 21. and y.and x y .#. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. e.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
etc. Substituting x = 3 in (1). . however. of this type. 33 = 11 x. y 1. Dividing by 11 3 = #. x 3. Clearing of fractions. (2) (3) a. 15 y + 8 x . y 4. (4) + (G). can also be solved Examples method. Therefore y=4. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). x 2x(2). 137 Solve y y (1) . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 2* * x 2. . y.3 xy.4 x = 4 xy.
y MOi y a. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. n. 4 13. x y 331 9. 6. = en. Ex.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.= 5. 1. 21 9 .= o 6. x 8. x y 5. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. .
d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ny = fy/ I sc 1. fax f = l. f 5.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. . . 139 (an bm)x = en bp.y = = 9a + 46.W. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. x f my = 1. 14. w. d. 6. bmy bm}y ap cm. s in 11. x a. Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a. apan cm. . x 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. ax + by = 2 a&. W . and I if 13. Dividing. ap. . a Find a and terms of n. and I.
3=4. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.25. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 182.12 y + 6 z = . Solve the following system of equations: = 8.1+4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.15z=12 Adding.16. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). Ex. l. ties are Similarly. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (8) 2. by 3.lf> z . x + 12 y . 3. 4. etc. . 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.8 = 1. (4) (5). 1.2 + 3. 20. 4. To solve equations containing By tions. 6.2 + 4. 1. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 3y = Hence Check. f 3y 12 =s 8. y =* 2. = 3. 8 x .13. = 30. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.3 = 8.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).by 2. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.
+ 2 y f 2 = 35. 10. 14. + y f z = 15. == 6. 8. f 2 i/ f z = 14. x 13. 2z = 40. a? 11. 2 . 7. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 15 2 = 45. 49. 2 4. a? + 709 = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. k 2/ f 2 x a. 12.
19. . =s 20. 60. 22. = 8*. 16. . 23. (3 _. . = 5. 4. 27. 32.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15..6 2.3 y + . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 1510 4 17. ? = llz.2 a. ^ = 2. 84 21.42 = 2. ?/ 3x = 0.
z + x = 2 n. Check. y * z 30. +2+ 6 = 8.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. however. . M=i. Find the number. Obviously of the other . y 31. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. + z = 2p. ( 99. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. = l. and to express In complex examples.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. either directly or implied. # 4. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. 1 digit in the tens place. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1. . 2 = 1(1+6). Ex. and if 396 be added to the number. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. 1 = 2. = 2 m. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . x : z =1 : 2. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. + 396 = 521. the number.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 2 = 6. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125.
who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B.144 Ex. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 2. direction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 3+1 5+1 4_2. Or (4)2x(3). x 3 = 24. = 8. . the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. = the fraction. the distance traveled by A. 2. 4 x = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. = Hence the fraction is f. Ex. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. y = 3. 5_ _4_ A. By expressing the two statements in symbols. x 3x4y = 12. x y = the = the x denominator . B. increased by one. Find the fraction. we obtain. C. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (1) (2) 12. From (3) Hence xy Check.
tion ? 8. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. it is reduced to J. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the digits will be interchanged. If 27 is 10. 6.) added to a number of two digits. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Find the numbers. the last two digits are interchanged. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. part of their difference equals 4. its value added to the denominator. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. fraction is reduced to \. both terms. 183. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. A fraction is reduced to J.}. . Find the fraction. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. the value of the fraction is fa. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. If 9 be added to the number. the fraction equals . Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the number. If the denominator be doubled. 1. the fraction is reduced fraction. Find the number. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 2. and the fourth 3. the Find the fraction. added to the numerator of a fraction. Find the numbers. ? What 9. Find the numbers. the number (See Ex. 5. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. number by the first 3.
If the rates of interwere exchanged. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. How 6 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Find the rates of interest. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 14. A sum of $10. now. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence .grams. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. respectively ? 16. 19. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11.000 is partly invested at 6%. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. in 8 years to $8500. and money and 17. A man invested $750. and 4 %. the annual interest would be $ 195. 5 %. . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 12. 13. and in 5 years to $1125. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Find their present ages. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and partly at 4 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. the rate of interest? 18. partly at 5 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.
the three sides of a triangle E. but if A would double his pace. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and $15 for each sheep. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and F. 1 NOTE. and e. An C touch ing the sides in D. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. A farmer sold a number of horses. and angle BCA = 70. what is that = OF. and CE If AB = G inches. E. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. . he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and F '(see diagram). respectively. three AD = AF. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. ED = BE. c. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. are taken so ABC. for $ 740. and their difference by GO . is the center of the circum scribed circle. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC = 7 inches. andCL4 = 8. 24. and sheep. 23. and F. BD = HE. angle c = angle d. triangle Tf AD. On /). and angle e angle/. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. BC=7.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. the length of NOTE. points. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. BE. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. Find their rates of walking. then AD = AF. cows. receiving $ 100 for each horse. B find angles a. and AC = 5 inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. $ 50 for each cow. and GE = CF. . 25.
Thus the points A. is the abscissa. The of Coordinates. It' Location of a point. 2). and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). (7. the ordinate of point P. or its equal OM. and point the origin. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . 186. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. (3. 3).. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. (2. PN are given. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). is The point whose abscissa is a. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. first 3). jr. the ordinate by ?/. and PJ/_L XX'. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. YY' theyaxis. B. . and r or its equal OA is . (2.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. PN. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. ?/. PM. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading.
and(l. 4. (4. 6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. (0. 71 2). 0). 4). (3.) EXERCISE 1. 3). 4) and (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point.2). Plot the points (6. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 2). (See diagram on page 151. 0). . 3). (5. 6.(!.3). (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13.4). 2). (0. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (4. Plot the points: (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 0).1). 11. What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points : (0. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 4). . (4.e. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. (2. Plot the points: (4. 1). (4. 2. 0). (1. 4) from the origin ? 7. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. i. (4. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. 1). 3. and measure their distance. 12. 3). 2J). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 8. Graphs. !).
ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 10 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ure the ordinate of F. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. C. or the curved line the temperature. 15. may be found on Jan. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. however. 188. 1.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. . Thus the first table produces 12 points. B. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. By representing of points. D. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. from January 1 to December 1. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A. we meas1 . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations.
Whenever a clear. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. uses them. (d) November 20. as the prices and production of commodities. The engineer. . Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. etc. and to deduce general laws therefrom. physician. (b) July 15. the rise and fall of wages.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the matics. the graph is applied. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the merchant. (c) January 15.
(c) the average temperature oi 1 C.152 2. During what months above 18 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1? 11 0. 1 to Oct. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. is 10. When the average temperature below C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.. (d) 9 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (1) 10 C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. 15.? is is the average temperature of New York 6.. ?  3. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. ? 9. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. How much. (freezing point) ? 7. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. on 1 to the average.
19. transformation of meters into yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Draw .09 yards. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. One meter equals 1. Hour Temperature . a temperature chart of a patient. 20. Draw a graph for the 23. NOTE. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.
A 10 wheels a day. to 27. the value of a of this quantity will change. and $.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.50. 2. if he sells 0. 2 . etc. represent his daily gain (or loss). if x assumes successively the tively values 1.50. 28. gas. x* x 19. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. the daily average expenses for rent. +7 If will respec assume the values 7.inch. 3. function If the value of a quantity changes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. . 29.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 9. books from for printing.) T circumferences of 25. e. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. then C irJl.154 24. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 3.5 grams. etc. binding. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.g. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 26. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. x 7 to 9. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. 4. 1 to 1200 copies. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.. amount to $8. x increases will change gradually from 13. if each copy sells for $1. 190..
is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. is supposed to change. however. E. 3 50. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . The values of func192. to x = 4. Ex.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. and join the points in order. 2 (1. etc. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.g. Q. construct '. Draw the graph of x2 f. 4). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. J). . as 1. a*.0).1). 9). 2). ( 2. may. (1. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . (1^.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 1 the points (3. it is In the example of the preceding article. 4). while 7 is a constant. may . plot points which lie between those constructed above.1). and (3. 3 (0. x a variable. If a more exact diagram is required. Graph of a function.e. 2. (2. for x=l. 9). be also represented by a graph.
.. 1). the function is frequently represented by a single letter. r */ +* 01 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.4)..2 x . 2 4 and if y = x f. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 7 . hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. rf 71 . 5). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. = 0.. 194. Thus in the above example. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. = 4. straight line produces the required graph.) For brevity. (2. 4). and join(0. (4. (3. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. Thus 4x + 7. Ex. y = 6. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.20). etc. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4J. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. as y.. j/=3. 2.
1J.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. (7i) (c) 23. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 15. fa 17. 21. 2J.5)2. a?. = 4. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. if a. 2 2. 6 fa. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.5)2. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. i.or. 19. 11. if the function equals zero. 1 8 10. a* 13. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 18. 1J. 2 2 a. (ft) (_ 1. 2J.8)'. the function.e. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 3 a 8. a ar. xz + x. from x VlO'S". a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (C ) (2. Jar . if y = 2. 2 or 2 20. y = 2x = 4. 2. 8. a? 2 4. The smallest value of the function. . 16. if"a. (If) Va25. ?/ a. + 4. 9. xl. a? 1. 14. 1J. 2 a. 12. 22. J. 4a? I. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2 a. 7. 1.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. = The values of a*. 6. . 3. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . l. x+1. 23x. The values of a*. The values of a?. 2. 3. 5. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 4 a. 2x + 3x a?. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2.
e.. i. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. that graph with the o>axis.where x c is a constant. 14 F. Show any convenient number). it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. then y = .. the abscissas of 3. ..) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. Therefore x = 1.. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. y= formula graphically. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. 1 C. Represent 26..24 or x = P and Q. 25.158 24. 32 F. then cXj where c is a constant. 9 F.
= 0. 3. (a) (6) 9. 10. is called a quadratic equation. . (a) x2 = 0. 11. 2 and 1. 0. or 5 2. 4. 197. (0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities.7 2 a 5 = 0. 13. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. crosssection paper is used. + + = where a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 8. a2 2a. 6. 14. Such equations in general have two roots. 12. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 7. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. viz. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.f 9 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.
?/ =4 AB.1. Ex. (f . and joining by a straight line.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. 2). i. and join the required graph. T . locate points (0. fc = 3. 1) and 0). If x = 0. if y = is 0. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). solve for ?/.2 y ~ 2. 3x _ 4 .2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 199. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. produces the 7* required locus. NOTE. Ex. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence. y = l. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Hence we may join (0. first degree. Hence if if x x  2. == 2. y= A and construct x (  graphically. unknown quantities. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. y y 2. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. ?/. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 4) and (2.e. because their graphs are straight lines. = 0. X'2 Locating the points (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . . 0).
AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. P. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. parallel have only one point of intersection. viz. Graphical solution of a linear system. and CD. To find the roots of the system. 3.1=0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. AB y = . By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. linear equations have only one pair of roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.15. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. equation x= By measuring 3. 202. (2) . 201. we obtain the roots. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 203. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.57.
(1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. y equals 3. the graph of points roots.0. and joining by a straight line. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.0). There can be no point of and hence no roots. 3.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph.  4.e. x2 . 4. 0. intersection.5. 1. if x equals respectively 0.. . This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. (2.y~ Therefore. the point we obtain Ex. (1) (2) C. 2 equation x 3).g.5. 3. 4. 2. etc. 2. 3x 2 y = 6. and . Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. P graphs meet in two and $. we of the + y* = 25. Locating two points of equation (2). 4.9. they are inconsistent. 4. 3). (4. 4. AB the locus of (1). Inconsistent equations. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 0) and (0. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. i. 0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. The equations 2 4 = 0. (4. e. 5. Solving (1) for y. In general. 1. 5. and + 3). Since the two  we obtain DE. Measuring the coordinates of P. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 4. Locating the points (5. 3. V25 5. = 0.
16 22. 20. y 2 4. Draw system. y= a2 2x y6. 19. if possible. 16 23. 6. vice versa. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. '163 Dependent equations. 4. y=x + 5. the graphs of the following systems. 2x 3?/=6. \ 2x + 3^ .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. . 3. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. a. and solve each If there are no solutions. 2. y = 4. 5. 8. x~y=0. 10. and. 9. a+r/=6.. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 17. 7. state reasons.
8. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . TABLE OF SQUARES. 4 a = 3(6 .y). Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 29 . 25. 3 31. 30. 26.164 24. CUBES. AND SQUARE HOOTS .14 y = .
Law of Signs. . 52.a2 . a special kind of product. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ^4/? it According to 50. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. on to in factors 4. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. etc. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. powers of a positive quantity are positive. a = a3 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. involution repeated multiplication. follows that 3.faa a a a Obviously 1. is may be by 207. According to 1. ( a) is positive. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 8. fa. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 3 f a = f a = +. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .
The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 210.6) = a . 16. 4 /2mV. 2. 3 2 2 8 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.166 To find To To power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. amVy) 3 . 4. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. \ 3 J '  MW 10. raise a fraction to a power. 76 : (>y. 2 11 (afc ) .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 24. 6. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (277171 )*. (2ar). ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.6 (a 8 8 . (^^) 2 . (a ) 2 4  3. (a ) 2 5 . . 15. the required power. a product to a given power. 5. V V/ 13.
examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (3 (l I) 2 8 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . + a 2 a. 1. 3 . 2 . +5a) 22.y .INVOLUTION Ex. pansions. (6m+2w) (3 8 .) 14. 2.y) = (3 y?y . 211. etc. (5 (1 a) 3 . 3 8 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. (afl) . . + 4aj) 3 . (3af26) 8 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . a. 3. 4. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 6. 15.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 16. (aj7) . The higher powers of binomials. 18. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. are obtained by multiplication. (a + &)8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 21. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. = s= (2s) 8 a. : a 20. 9. . nent of the binomial.6 2 8 ft) . Ex. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (3 x .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 1 f 3 2 3 . 8. 5. or*  Find the cube root of 19. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . 7. 2. 13.3 y. frequently called ex. 12. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 23. An 1.
.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . mn 5 2 5 ) .a) 3 19. 17. 4 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (2 a 4 . 3. (p + q) 4 * 7. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 6. 4 (1for) 5 . . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 5.168 3. (1 + 4 ?/) . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . (a~^) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 3. (mJ) 4 11. . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (m 2 + n) 8 . 8. . . 1. The minus. 4. Ex. (?/i~w) : 16. and the powers negative. 23.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 78 s . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 21. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 14. (l 8 . 24. . 15. (?>i?i f c)*. (mnp 5 I) 5 . ( &) 5 . 18. 13.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.2. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (la&) 4 12. Ex. 10. 2. (m fl) 2 20. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 9. (af 5) . 5. is the coefficient of the next term. 25. (3a f5) 5) 4.216 a^ 4. Ex. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (tff1) (cfd) . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2 4.
etc. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 1. or 3 for (usually written 3) . V \/P 214. 27 =y means r' = 27. and ( v/o* = a. = x means = 6. a) 4 = a4 . or y ~ 3. tity . numbers. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. or x &4 . and all other numbers are. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 4 4 . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. called real numbers. (_3) = 27. Since even powers can never be negative. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for distinction. V9 = + 3. 2. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. \/"^27=3. 215. 109 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity.
79 2 v/2 5 .200 . Ex 5 a" . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 9. index. 2. V25 9 16. 7 . . Ex. v/2^. = V26TIT81 = 53. = 199 + (_ 198) . 2. To extract the root of a power. EXERCISE 1. To extract a root of a fraction.9 = 136. 2 . 5.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 6. roots of the numerator \/18 . 10. 3/0** = am . V5 v/2 7 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 6 7 = 030. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.  100 a 2 . \/2 4 9 . 9. 7 . = 19472. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors.201) = 2. 4 v. for (a")" a = a mn 3. fy 5 3 . V36 9 4.lL. 7. 3. 3i . Ex. Ex. 8.(. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 6.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 8.125.64 5 4 . 62 = V2* . V?. 7. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. . Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.1. v/^i2 = a*. 3 33 53 . 82 . .4. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. extract the and denominator.
33. 32. a f2 l 2 + l. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 31. ^40^4.3. a* 4 8 2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .98. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . Ex.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2. 5. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2 f ( V240) 3 . . Find the square root of a2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . V20 .75. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 29./). 45 V5184.6 tfif + 9 y = O .3 . V8. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. V9216. 34. 2 .3 y2) ( vV .) by inspection. 30. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 116.4/. 2 . 3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 6.
and b (2 a f b). however. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 14. + 6 + 4a&.b 2 2 to its square. let us consider the relation of a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .172 7. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 12. 15.e. and b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 8 .2 ab + b . a f.2 ac . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.> 13. 2 .2 &c. 2ab . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. the given expression is a perfect square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a\b is the root if In most cases. #2 a2  16. mV14m??2)f 49. The term a' first 2 .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 11. i. . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 10. 2 2 218.
and so forth. */'' . . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 /.EVOLUTION Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 219.24 afy* f 9 tf. of x. 2. . 1.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Explanation. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . First complete divisor. Ex. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. . . and consider Hence the their sum one term. the first term of the answer. 10 a 4 8 a. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. As there is no remainder. 6 a. 8 a 2 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. by division we term of the root. First trial divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. The square . Second trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 1. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot.
2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 17.20 o 4. 1 4. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .73a4 440^436^460^. a? 2 .25. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 3.25 x 4 4.37 a ^ . 16. 13#4 413ar 44a. 6. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.12 m 4. 729 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.24 or . > 7.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .73 a8 . 5 4 16 4 iK .9.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 24. 12. 18.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 20.40 a 22 .10 x2 4. 4 . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 5. 2 x2 3 2x. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.42 a*& 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 16x6 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .12m 5 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.6 . 10. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 19. 15. 2 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 436^?/469a. 6 11. .14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.16. 36it. x 6 4 4 0^4. 14.a 6 x*y 2 . 9.4 x 4. 8. l 4.
1. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. The is trial divisor = 160. and the square root of the greatest square in units. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. of 10. two figures. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.EVOLUTION 220. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10.000. a 2 = 6400. As 8 x 168 = 1344. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 7744. and the complete divisor 168. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . the first of which is 8. = 80. etc. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.. the first of which is 4. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. the square root of 7744 equals 88.000 is 100. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. etc.000 is 1000. 2. Find the square root of 524. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Ex.000. of 1. of a number between 100 and 10.176. Therefore 6 = 8. which may contain one or two).1344. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the first remainder is. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Ex. first .
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. in . 12.1T6 221.7 to three decimal places.10. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.70 6. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Find the square root of 6/.0961 are '. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 3. The groups of 16724. annex a cipher.1 are Ex.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.
58 square 38. 39. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 13. 36. feet. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .01.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.22. 5. T\. 34. 35. 30. 37. 33. JT . 31. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.53.) 40.1410. feet. = 3. whose area equals 48.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. J. 1. 32. .
is 12. x = + 2 or x =2. or incomplete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 224. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. but no higher power e. Ex. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 6 y2 = 17. Transposing. 1. complete. = 4. . is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . x 2 7. 226. is A quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or affected. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 2)* + 5 = 33. 6#2 = x* 24. The 7 equation. 225.g. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2. Dividing..CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 178 . Extracting the square root of each member. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. This answer Check. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. = 7^ + 5. A pure. 2 ic = a.
4. Dividing by Extracting the square root. : 83 2.25. 3. Solve 179 . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 8. or Therefore.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. . .2. 5. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 4fc 5' 18. 10. 19 + 9 = 5500. 15^5 = 6. ax Transposing and combining. 4 ax. 16^393 = 7. 7 = 162. o. 6(2)=10(ajl). ' =: y? b* b . 2 2 a. (a? 9. 7.
The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. and their product : 150. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. Find is the number.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If a 2 4. 24. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 22 a.b 2 If s If =c . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find the side of each field. solve for d. 4. solve for r. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2a f 1 23. : 6. 2. find a in terms of 6 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. . then Since such a triangle tangle. and they con tain together 30G square feet. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 228. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 2 . EXERCISE 1. If 22 = ~^. r. 2 . 27. A right triangle is a triangle. If G=m m g . 2 : 3. Find the numbers. solve for v. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 108. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 3. 25. 28. . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 26. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. Find the side of each field. ' 4. is 5(5.) of their squares 5. 29.
make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Solve Transposing. and the third side is 15 inches. (b) 44 square feet.) 13. of a right triangle Find these sides. 2m. Find the sides. and the two smaller 11. To find this term. 8.7 x f 10 = 0. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Find the unknown sides and the area. 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. sides.2 7 . J = 12. Method of completing the square. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 4. 24. Find these 10. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. . and the other two sides are as 3 4. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the radii. radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. x* 7 x= 10. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . we have of or m = . is and the other two sides are equal. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . . add () Hence 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. . (b) 100 feet? = .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.
80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2  . Ex. adding member). 2 a* a. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.2 a2 . a Clearing of fractions.2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.  \.1. Transposing.e. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.a. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. 230. = . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Extracting square roots. Ex. or x = 2.. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Uniting. = x\ = 2. J.x(l = . Simplifying. or J.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. (*~8) a = at . 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. . Transposing. Therefore. a. = \ # = ff. 62 x 5 = f.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = 6. Hence Therefore Check. 7 5 + 10 = 0.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl .
and c in the general answer. article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula.c = 0. . 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. ao. =0. 49. =8 r/io?. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48. 231. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . \bx\. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46.
7^ + 9 x 90. 3. 17. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. TIO. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 1. 2 a. 2 o. 6. c p. 26. 21. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 5 x2 Transposing. 6.4 4 5 . = 64120?.  . 2 a? = 44 x . 18. V^tT)* . 7. 4. 2or } 5o. 9. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 13. c = 5. a. 11. 15. 6 .. 16. = 12 . 20.25 x. 14. 8. 19. 10.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6^+5^ 56. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 12. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6 Ex. 2 . 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. b =  + 20 == = 0. Reducing to general form. ?i 2 .
4) = . 233. factors Now. Bx 1 1. 25. all or. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. or # 5 is zero. Transposing. 5 = 0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. x2 = 1 . 5) = 0. any degree. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 3x?+x = 7. .5 Solving (1) and (2). 27 x== 42a. = 0. 0. if either of the uct is zero. Eesolving into factors. = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Clearing for fractions. a=:i^^. }. 23.5) =0. (5 a? !)(. transposing terms to one member. ar>8o.2.x. Factoring. 1. = 14. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Solution by factoring. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. x(x <2 .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. orz roots. and 6. member can be Ex. = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 24. 26. 2S3x 1 2 .
6)) = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 3^ = 0(1106). 3) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4. + 100. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.e. a?. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 6. 0(02) = 7(02). 4)(z3) = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. + 10 a = 24. a* 10a=24. 13. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 6)=0. E. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2.3)(x + 3 3. 7.g. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 12. 8. O roots are 2. 2. 5. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.(. (aj4)(a.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 14. 2o3 f9a. Or Hence the 234. : 87 = 0. evidently (x Or 4)(x . The equation I. 0^ ar> 11. } 2 2 (5 . 9. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.:=0. aj( 15. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 16.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3 or 2 a. 3) Factoring. a?10a=:24. + 8=s: 7. is 5) = 0.= 24. 3. 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. for a: . 5 = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4.24 = 0. Ex. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3. x2 f 2 x .
18. 27. 20. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 23. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 50. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. (a + 1) (a. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. '3a!J  . 19. 25. ara + ft + c*. 2. 22.3) = (s + l) (3 a). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.
2. 56. 1. 54.1. and consequently many prob 235. The difference of . and whose sum is is 36. 2. 5. and equals 190 square inches. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 8. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 3. The 11. G. 1. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.2. Find the number. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. of their reciprocals is 4. Find the numbers.9.3. 5. feet.3. 52. 2. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 57. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. : 3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2. Find the sides. . 55. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 2. 0. Find the number.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. and the difference Find the numbers. 2. and whose product 9. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 4. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.0. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 7.3. 58. two numbers is 4. 6. EXERCISE 1. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.0. number by 10.
and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. 13. as the 16. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 15. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. other. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. If he each horse ? . one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle.190 12. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. Find the rate of the train. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. A man cent as the horse cost dollars.10. ply between the same two ports. and Find the sides of the rectangle. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. . What did he pay for 21. dollars. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. ABCD. he would have received two horses more for the same money. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. Two vessels. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 17. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. watch for $ 24. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. 14. sold a horse for $144.
Find TT r (Area of a circle . By formula. 23 inches long. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Ex. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. 1. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. as 0. how wide is the walk ? 23. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.) 25. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. . 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. the two men can do it in 3 days. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. ^3^ = 7. 24. of the area of the basin. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 237. or x = \/l = 1. 27. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. constructed with and CB as sides. contains B 78 square inches. so that the rectangle.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. and working together. Find and CB. a point taken. (tf.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. is On the prolongation of a line AC.
Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 7.192 238. 4 a. a 21or=100. Solving. Ex. 10. a? 15 1=2*. 4 6. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 9. 2. 4 : 89 10a. 12. 19.)+72=0. 16. 2 h9:=0. 18. = 1.T 2 2 . a4 5o. a. aV+9o 4 =0.2 =4. 6. Hence Le. 436 3. or y = 8. >. 4. y8)=0. = 13. T 17. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 8. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 2 16 a^40 11.
is 4ac not zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 2. negative. rational. the roots are unequal.12 x + 9 = 0. Ex. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are irrational. 241. it 2a follows 2 : 2. c the roots are real.bx 4.f> = 0. The discriminant =(. 3.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are equal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Ex. 240. and unequal. ( 2a Hence 1. and equal. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . rational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.5) = 04.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are imaginary.2) 2 4 3 (. a perfect square. Relations between roots and coefficients. Hence the roots are real. the roots are rational. the roots are real.2 z . b 4. 1.
9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j.g. 21. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 10 x = 25 x + 1. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 14. : a 2 . = 5x. tfmx+p^Q. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 5aj 9. 18. + 2a15 = 0. 2 7.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. + 2a. 17. 15. 12. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. = 0. o. f 2 E. their product isf. 60 2 = 0. 22. 24. 4. 2. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.19 # 20. 2 a. 3a. 9a3 = 0. x2 7 10. 6.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0.. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2a 4z5 = 0. + 12 2  . 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. ^12. 2 : 3. lla. + 18 2 8. 5oj aj + l = 0. = Q. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 23. = 0. 12~x = x 2 .
II. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. > m therefore. 244. for all values 1 of m and n. and .a" = a m n mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . a m a" = a m+t1 . The first of these laws is nition of power. We assume. that a an = a m+n .* III.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . however. = a"" < . while the second of the first. must be *The symbol smaller than. no Fractional and negative exponents. It is. provided w > n. ~ a m f. m IV. (a m ) w . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. (ab) . Then the law of involution. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. such as 2*. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. hence.
23. fractional. a?*. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. (xy$. '&M A 27. etc. laws. a .g. n 2 a. as. at. 28. m$. ml. 24. a*. a\ 26. 25. 30. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. disappear. 0?=^. 31. 29. 3*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. = a. . ^=(a^) 3* 3 . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 4~ . 245. e.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. or zero exponent equal x. (bed)*. Assuming these two 8*.
equal to unity. 45. 37. 50. however. 44. 38. 41. e. Solve the following equations 39.g. a. 5 a* = 10. Vo5 . v/o&cT 34. v'mT 36. e.g.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4. a .\/n. : 197 33. 48. 3* = 27. To find the meaning of zero exponent. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 49. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 46. 27* = 3. = 2. 42. 35. 49. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. \/xy \/m. \fi?. a * a2 Or a=l. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 7z* Find the values of 47. 43. a* * = 3. 40. 246. Let a = a. If. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. ty?. hence is . the base is zero.
in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Or a"# = l. vice versa. by changing the sign of NOTE.198 247. etc.g. Multiplying both members by a". an x = a. consider the following equations. Let x= or".2 = a2 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. e. 248. or the exponent. cr n. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.
m . 2 . 44. * 24. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 25. ^?2 y' 34. 3 a? * 42. 7~ l a 2b 2 . ^L. 66 45. f (2w)~i 1 . : mi m~^. 2 ."* 38. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 39. : or 5 . a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2m~i 43.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 40. 22. 3 a. 27. . 36. c 32. . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 37. a^ 41. rfS.
ar = i. = ^. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 57. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 59. 17' 2 51. = 5. 48. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . .9*. Ex. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. of: 3ll4~* 60.008)* + A.1.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* 5* = .343)* + (. 61. 53. z 5or*=10. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 10* Find the values 56. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 54. z* = 1.(.81 f (a . 55. (. 52. + A_. 49. = l. = .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 47.001. 1. 250. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 58. + 1~* f 21 .6).
a. Perform the operation indicated. 23. 7.7*. 12. (d) If required. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 26.$". S'sS8. 14. 3.7W. 3 a. etc. 27  28. are performed.$*.&. 7~ 6 .^/5^5.5. 6 *.&.4 a8 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 18. 6. 10. . 3sVS. V5. ' 11. 17. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents.5a. / 7fv 7. 79 . 4 x^. 7~ 5 27  .3 aj" a. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .6 *' 6 *25. NOTE.. 16. Remove the negative exponents. #* a.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.4 . 6a. 7*. 13. 72 . . 95 ^9i 5**. . 8 ' 9. 16. OA 20.7i. &. remove the fractional exponents. 4 5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.
Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 40. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 6 35. If powers of a?. 34.2 d . lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The 252. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 1. 2.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^30. ^5. subtract surds. 33. 27. \/5. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. + . ^2. connect them by proper 1. 39. V3. ^/IT. 4^/4. </20. </3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 30. V5. 32.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^4. To add or form. Ex. ^6. v/3. v^S. V2. A/3.e. V3. 28. 31. ^2. 3. 34. ^126. </2. Simplify V + 3 VlS.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . Simplify V~ . s!/3. in order of magnitude : \/7. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.2 V50. 5V2. v/3. (i. ^4. V2.3\ . v/4. if dissimilar. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. ^2. Ex. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 26.10 V2 =  V2. 2\ 3*. VS. signs.2. A/2. 38. 40. 37. 29. ^7. Arrange 35. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 36. ^3. V2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. \/7.
VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. . 6. V175V28+V634V7. 3.J a6 V4 aft. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VJ+V8V1 + V50. 11. 12. 4V805V45. 6. 10.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 13. 14. 8VT8J2V32 7. + 3V835V2. 9. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.3V20 + 6V5. 4. 8.
2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 26^ .6V35 106 460V35100 . y* = Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. and then multiplied. 2. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 3.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. . 6*. . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 1. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 23.
6. . (Va Va 36. 34. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 2. (3 20. (V6 + 1) 1 . 40. VlO V15. 4. 7. 39. VTO.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 9. a?. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. fWa 17. 3. (2V3) 8 . 213 98 11. 2 . 28 . aVa. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). Vll. 41. 12. + VB)(2V5). V20 V30. V3 Vl2. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). (V2+V3+V4)V3. 10. 6 V4 5. 21. V2 V50. 38.^/2.VSS. 40 10 30. 19. 13. 18. 6. V3 V6. 14. v/18 v"3. V42. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 27. 8. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 37. v/4. V2aV8^. 25. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 15. \/3 \^).
46. 268. Ex. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. . (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 47. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 43. 44. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). V3 . 53. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. a fraction. Va v/a. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 52. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (2 45. the quotient of the surds is If. Ex. 49. 51.214 42. 48. 60.y. is 1 2.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS).
the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.57735. is illustrated by Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. e.73205. Divide VII by v7. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.RADICALS This method. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. arithTo find. Evidently. 1.by the usual arithmetical method. . The 2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . by V7. . 3.g. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. . called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. /~ } Ex. metical problems afford the best illustrations. however.. we have V3 But if 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.
7. 20. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. A.4142. V5 270. 21. and Given V2 = 1. V5 = 2. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. ^/H . 23 . V3 24 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. . Vll 212*. V3 = 1. V48 25.2361. V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V2 22 .. V8 JL. A. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms.7320. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 272. VffV?. 271. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 14. i.
RADICALS Ex. 3. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a.= 18.vffi^T _ .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . Ex.Vs2 . 1. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . .2. s Simplify a. . Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
four places of decimals 23 .5 3 = 125. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . = V3 = 1. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. V5V7 18> ^SVg.7320. v 2V3 28.W3. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.4142. V21 = 25 . Vo1 26. . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 27. find to _!_. : and V5 = 2. By the use of fractional exponents . J?_. 6V7. Given V2 1. 19. 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.2361.218 6 .
V643 . 4.RADICALS 219 274. Simplify Ex. In other examples of involution and evolution. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. the If. According to G3. \/l6*. 2. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. 5. v8f 2\/15. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 8. 9. 2 12. it to this form. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. on the other hand. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. \/125" . 1. 2. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. V255 . 11. viz.
Find Vll . Find V4 + VJ8. Find Vl2 4. is 11. 2 \/18.A/2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 . These Ex.6 V2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. +2 Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.2 \/20. The Hence ^11 . ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.220 Ex. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . and whose product is 18. 2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . 3.
they are transto formed into rational equations. r 22. : 221 Vl32V22. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Before performing the involution. first involution. = xa + 4 x f 4.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. . examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. x2 = x f 2. 4. member to 2.V48 4 20. i. Ex. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 8. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Dividing by Check.e. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 277. 19.. (2x xrf 1. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Radical equations are rationalized. 4x x = 2. a.1. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. are radical equations. VT . by raising both members equal powers. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. V48 23. The value x =2 reduces each . Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 5. Transposing and uniting. +=.
tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. a. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Ex. 5. Extraneous roots. at . viz. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. Transposing. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 3. 2. Dividing by 24. a socalled extraneous root.222 Ex. x = J. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots. Squaring both members. tion which has two roots. Squaring both members. V24~+~l = 0. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. It = 3 x . . viz. 4#f 4 = 9. . Transposing and uniting. V4afT~l. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Transposing and uniting. f 25 = 12. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. Therefore Check. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. one root. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Therefore CftecAr.3. 278. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . the first member = V2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25.1) = 0. Factoring.
3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.12 . Hence there is only one root. If If x 3 = 3. = 3. Check. \ does not satisfy the given. equation it is an extraneous root. Therefore. Solve the following equations : = G. Hence x = the only root. 2 Clearing of fractions. for it satisfies the equation . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Transposing. Factoring. Squaring. NOTE. + 6~ieT~3 . . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . and to 5. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. the right member = V2. viz. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. is x V. 4. (x x = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 223 x = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. both members reduce to 5. or x *j.47) = 0. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. . ViTie 4 z2 .2 r. x root of the preceding equation.
Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Many 1. Solve af*.
45 14VJB = . for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. Q . = 7. 2. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. This can be seen without substituting. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 2Va. Vi 2 8a. . members of the equation were squared. x Since both =9 or 1. Ex. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. x =6 or 3.35 = 0.8 z40 = 7. 4. 2. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. + 40 = 6. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.*2a. Substituting. = 26. _ 2 y . o. y then x2 . 412a* = 16.8 x + 40 = 36. x + Vx a? = 6.f40= 5. some of the roots be extraneous. 3. Let 8 x f 40 .i~24 = 0. 2_8z 440 = 49. = 0. 3 6. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.
or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 19. 17. 12. 20.a 440 = 35. 15. 18. a^x2 5 2 13.f 18 = 24. 2.226 11. 14. +x . +3= 6. 4 V SB* 4 a. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. a. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 16.
3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2 + 80 = 12. ^ = 381+2. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. Ex.2 + 4.2 x 5 by x 3. 227 . 1. if Q was known.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . 2.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. could.4 a. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.360 = 244. however. Without actual division. = 2. Hence.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. If x* . 3 2 Ex. no matter If. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. find the remainder when m. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder." transposing. E = ax + &z + m) Q. a? R = x* . then (x 2)Q 0. does not contain a?. " Or. even if Q is unknown. Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. by dividing 3 x* f. ax4 4. we make a? what the value of Q.
ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. fora?.4(.228 282. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. + 6.949. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . of the division 3) is m in place of x.8. if 8 42  . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. hence (x divided by x 4. 8.3)f 11 =. x m is factor of the expression. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 5 (4x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + ^by x + b. 5.8'= 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. + 7 = 632. } 2 by a1. x* s 2 4. If the remainder is zero. the remainder equals 8 2 x . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. The Factor Theorem. 43 3 E. 3. 2 j 7.g.
a^8^ + 19a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1.49 = 0.1. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 7 46 = 0. & p*.1. + 27 + 27. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2. a 8a f 19 a 12. 11. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. are f 1. f 3. a? 19. 229 1. 8. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 20. 21. 24. a + 32. 3 2 : 7. 2m 5m . 5. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 18. a 5x 6.r6 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. oj 5x2 f3a. 6. 25. Therefore x ( 1). 9. . 15.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. a. or 5 4 + 3^ . factors of the absolute term. 3. + ttt15 = 0. then x8 7 x'2 4. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. i. 1. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.9^ + 23^15. + 15. f 5. _ .12 = 0.e. 17.12. 1. or x 4. is a factor. 23. f 15 does not vanish. Factor a? 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.7 + 16 . Resolve into factors 4. The 5.13m + 30 10. a 2a + 4. 106 division. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. p 5^ + 8p 4.7 x + 15 = 0. ^10^429^20=0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 8. m f m n 14. 2 2. Let x = .
Ex. : importance. If n is a Theorem that 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. xn y n y n y n = 0. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . is odd. if n is even. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.230 285. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2 Ex. It y is not divisible by 287. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. By we obtain the other factors. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if w is odd." . 286.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 2. xn f. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. x* f/ = (x +/)O . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. ar +p= z6 e.g. 2. actual division n. For substituting y for x.xy +/).
28. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . since it more directly to the prime factors. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. a.= .i mn f w 2). however. y 3 +8=0. 3. x3 8=0. leads 231 is The first method. preferable. 26. 27. Hence = (m Ex. as 27=0.
If two of the quantities x f y. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 290. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.1. = 6. to equations of the fourth few cases. xywe have 3. can be solved by the methods degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. in general. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. x y. 232 . of quadratics. xy are given. Squaring Solve (1). (5) Combining (5) with (1). Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. however. * A I. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. (4) Hence. + 6 a?V . ==5 > 1^ = 4. 4 xy = 16. & + 2 xy + = 25.
F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. = . x and xy are not given. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. but can be found. 3. ^. The arranged in pairs. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.g. r (" 1 = 876. ' 10. 233 y. 1. 12. 108 2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. I I x + y=7. " "' "' { r 8. b=3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.
THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. ' ' . 5.20) = 0. la. . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 19. one linear and ne quadratic. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 7 . I* Jj ^ [. Factoring. x " (3) 49 etc. I x+y = a.a. + 29 = 0.i/ = r 13. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.~ y = 5. or y = 1 . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0..  f J. 3. . 6 "I 14. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. A system of simultaneous equations. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .o 18. 2 (1) From (1) we have. Ex.?/ i = 6. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). r^ 2 as ] f. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 4 y = 20.  .  42 y + Transposing. aj = 2. or JJ.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 3y) : Factor (2). Solve . = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 1. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ':il e :) . III. 10. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). If of the preceding type. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 9. y* + 2y = 3. ' x*. quantities. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.
2. j Substituting y in (2).236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 15 x2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. Solve 2. 2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 11 a2 Factoring. = 0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 109 a. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. = Ex. (1) (2) x x 5. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (3) (4) Subtracting. } VI09.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
(4) (3).3^42^=43. 298. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).175 ay = 12. ' ^ 15. Bxy9. . and others not belonging to them. 150 */2 .6. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.125 ay = . E.y = 7. " IV. Division of one equation by the other. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. A. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. f 1 150 a?. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices.!.xy 4. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
quadratics can be solved by ?/. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . y = 3. Therefore x = 16. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. = 12 J. (1 > (2) 1. = 189. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. from (2). Some simultaneous ?/. at first it is unknown quantities. we have from (1).. xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. we obtain by squaring. y . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. Solve Ex. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. B. jc~ y = 9. * ' 300. x 2 . 2. x +y y etc. i ^ *>.
[2x + : y= 17. 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 2. M6. Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4. . 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. 36* 2. F+y+ . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. I e.
27. . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 19 ' 26. 25. f 18. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = 198. 16.4 y = 47 a. ( xy (7 m 2 n*.21 ^ = 15. * . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. .
as a . oo 301. ^ oo .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . . Interpretation . or ~ indeterminate. 25 34. hence may be any finite number. = 48201. 31. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 32. 33. 3 a2 38. . 30. . .of  According to the definition of division. 7' j/ 39. Q 7. finite  =x y if = x. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. ~\ OK OO.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. etc. etc 302.
x'2 2 x = 1. The ~~f fraction . Or. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. I. . By making x any * assigned zero. i. be the numbers.increases if x de x creases.decreases X if called infinity.000 a.e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. equation. i. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.can be If It is made larger than number. 306. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. as + l. ToU" ^100 a. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. it is an Ex. cancel. without exception. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. or that x may equal any finite number.242 303. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. (a: Then Simplifying. x f 2. . is satisfied by any number. great. (1). (1) = 0.g. and . and becomes infinitely small. oo is = QQ. Hence such an equation identity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. (1) is an identity. Let 2. creases. 1.e.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. TO^UU" sufficiently small. 1. the answer is indeterminate. = 10.
two numbers is 76. 1=0. 3. Solve . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve  9 7. Hence /. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. (2). 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. y finite QO. is their 2. Solve x a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. z = 1 Substituting.e. and the sum of Find the numbers. The sum is of squares 2890. * 6. and a. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. EXERCISE 1. third and sixth parts.8 x + 15 6. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 42 and' their product is 377.2 y = 4. = oo. 2. .
Find these sides. 13.) 53 yards. 8. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 9. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the side of each square. and the diago(Ex. the area becomes f% of the original area. 6. 146 yards. p. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the edge of one. Find the sides of the rectangle. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. of a right triangle is 73. increased by the edge of the other. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the sides. Find the numbers. Find the edges. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. of a rectangular field feet. is is 17 and the sum 4.244 3. is 6. Find the other two sides. The area of a nal 41 feet. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the edge of each cube. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 190. 12. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 14. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 255 and the sum of 5. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. two numbers Find the numbers.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 103.quals 20 feet. equals 4 inches. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 10. . and the sum of ( 228. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters.
(Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. .) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. the quotient is 2. Find the radii. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. differ by 8 inches. irR *.) 17. is 20 inches.
of a series are its successive numbers. of the following series is 3. Hence / = a + (n . 11.. To find the nth term / of an A. (n 1) d must be added to a. An arithmetic progression (A. to produce the nth term. The common differences are respectively 4. 17. .CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. except the first. . The first is an ascending.) is a series. each term of which. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. and d.1) d.. : 7.. series 9. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.. to each term produces the next term.. to produce the 4th term. P. 12. . 3 d must be added to a. a + 2 d. + 2 d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a f d. 4. 15 is 9 f. 19. f . a 11. a. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. to produce the 3d term. 16. a + d. P. 2 d must be added to a. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. .. progression. a 3d. 309.7.. Since d is a f 3 d. added to each term to obtain the next one. 10.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. The progression is a. P. 3.. the second a descending.
if a = 5. 2 EXERCISE 1. 3. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 1.. the term a. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). Find the nth term of the series 2. 2. the last term and the common difference d being given. . .8. 9. 7. 5. 6 we have Hence .. 7... 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. 4^.. 2J... ? (a) 1..3 a = l. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. P. 3.. d . 5. a = 2.. d = 3. P.. 6. series . .. 1. 3. = a + (a Reversing the order. 19.' cZ == . 1J. 99) = 2600.. 10. Adding. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2.16. 24.PROGRESSIONS 310. .. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 5. 5. 8. = I + 49 = *({ + . . 3. 8. = 2. = 99. 115. 6. 9. 5. 7. 21. 8.. (d) 1J. of the series 10... 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . Find the 5th term of the 4. . 3. . series 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 6. Find the 12th term of the 4. (a + + (a + l) l). Find the 10th term of the series 17. 4. P.4.
29. to 15 terms. 31. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . strike for the first yard. 33. hence if any three of them are given. rf. to 20 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 1. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 1. . . to 20 terms. . 2. 7. 3. 7. 12. 2J. 11. 1J. 21. > 2f 2. . 15. 8. P. (i) (ii) . 4. 6. 19. 15. to 7 terms. 1. to 8 terms. + 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 16. Sum the following series 14. 11. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. to 10 terms. .. 11. 20. 15. 17.248 Find the 10. 16. In most problems relating to A. striking hours only.1 f 3.7 f to 12 terms. (x +"l) 4. 7. 12. Jive quantities are involved. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. \n. to 16 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. 11. : 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 22. to 20 terms. . 18. .(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. '. 13. 23.
312. But evidently n cannot be fractional..6. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. a = 49 6(71 . if s = 204. #. 78 n Substituting in (1). 204 = ^ (a + 49).1). a = 12. = 144. 100. Ex. and b form an A. 6. 67. = 13. P. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll..104 w + 408 = 0. 133.1) . = n(104 . The series is. s 24ft last term 144. hence n = 6. the second one mean between the other two. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 56. 111. Find the series. P. d = 6. P. or 11 J. . I Substituting in (I) and (II).e. 23. From (1). 78. 2. 45. = 1014. 144. Solving. The first term of an A. 12. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 34. 204 = ^ (98 . = a + (w. is 12. Substituting in (2).PROGRESSIONS Ex. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. if a. Findn.6 n). 89. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 6 n2 . 1. the and the sum of all terms 1014. l)e?. = 1014.~n~\ 408 6). or if x Solving. n = 6. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. J = 49. . n d. 122. I.
n = 4. 78. Find w. 3. Given a = . s == 440. s = 70. 6? 9. Find?. 7. 13. = 52. n = 16. Find d and Given a = 1700. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. produced. I. 14. d = 5.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 74. = 17. T? ^. P. 15. n = 20. = 16. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. a x f b and a b. Find n. 8. . n = 17. How much . n. m and n 2. 4. Find d. Given a = 4. n = 13. 12. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 17. = 45. 16. 11. Find a and Given s = 44. a+ and b a b 5. y and #f5y. Find d. has the series 82. f J 1 1 / . Find a Given a = 7. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Given a = 1. I Find I in terms of a. f? . of 5 terms 6. = 1870. How much did he save the first month? 19. = 83. and s.3. = ^ 3 = 1. 10. Given a = . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n has the series ^ j . ceding one.
To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. is it (G. is 16(f) 4 .. NOTE. . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 4 (1) . +1.. called the ratio. (I) of the series 16. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. and To find the nth term / of a G. ratios are respectively 3. 24. rs = s 2 . or 81 315. 36. P. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.g. A geometric progression first.. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 36. 12. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. of a G. or. ar. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .arn ~ l ...PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 2 a. . 4.. The progression is a. The 314. E.. . If n is less : than unity. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. the first term a and the ratios r being given. <zr . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. P. 24.) is a series each term of which. 2. P.. 4. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . 36. 108. I.. . r n~ l . ar8 r.
whose ... + 5. 4. Jive quantities are in. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. first term 4. +f%9 % . P. volved . P._!=!>.. . 9. 144.. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 2 term 3. 144.. whose and whose second term is 8. P. r^2.. 36. 6. 9. 144. . 0. EXERCISE 1. 8. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. (it. .. 18.4. I = 670. (d) 5.288.. . a = I. 1. . In most problems relating to G. Find the 5th term of a G. 72. is 16. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. l. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. i 288. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . 10. 20. ...6. 676. hence. fa.18. 7. series 6.18. first term is 125 and whose common .5.l. first 5. P. Find the 6th term of the series J. .. 288. . . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. is 3. if any three of them are given. f. ? (c) 2. 3. Hence n = 7. Hence the or series is 0.54. . series 5. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. 72.. . Ex. P.72. (b) 1. 36. 36.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. And the required means are 18. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. .5.. \ t series . . or 7.*. 4. 80. 9. 576. 25. fa. series . f. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^.
Z s. a^. 72. 1.. 54. 15. = 3. . s = 310. Given r = n Z 5. 2. Find the geometric mean between 7. 24. 36.. 81. >"> . J. 14. Find a and n = 4. 243. of r n decreases. 14. be written If the value of r of a G. J. 81. 12. 1. 23. 25S series : 32. 27. a. 13. J. to G terms. 4. .. to 6 terms. 16 .. P. = 3. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 5 terms. M. . 48. n = 5. + 4 . 21. Find a and Given r = 3. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. == 160. 20. 19. . r . 126. n = 5. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. I. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to 6 terms. to 7 terms. to 8 terms. 22... . to 6 terms.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. is less than unity.i a9 .J and 270. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. to 7 . may be than any assignable number.. 12 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. J. s = 605. and hence ~ r . Find a and 4. 42. .nV> i*> !718.
.99 . = . The sum Find the of an infinite G. Find the sum to infinity.. =A+ 10 i.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G..= .272727. 5. 66 Therefore ..... 9. of all squares ? . 14.191919. P.1.555. I. . Hence . 4. r = j.. 9.. Find the value 9. .717171. 13. 6. . . 1. .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 5.. 12. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. If a = 40. . . . is 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 100. of an infinite G.. The sum r. . ..3121212.= _4Z* . 1 r = . 40.00072 f . 7. .3 + .072.. .27777 . Given an infinite series of squares. ..072 + ... . is 9... i. = a . first and the common term. ratio 15. 1. of: 11. 2.. 1.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 3.3727272 .. = . 12. 1..254 Ex. ....Ql.)7?7272 . and the first term is Find 17. = 990 . .37272 . 8. is J. 16. 6. . (6) the sum of the perimeters.. 10. i i J.01 ^ .. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. P. P. 2. 4.. 16. 8...72. 250.
Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .b ). 11. 10. 13. (s + i). 17.b) w (a (a f (1 . : (1 + xy. . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 2 2 24. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (\ 9 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 25. 5. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 14. Find the 6th term of (x . 4 7. l 2. 28. (xy) : 6 . 20. 26. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . 12.6) 20 . .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 7 . (a 100 .6) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 29. 21. /2a+Y\ 8. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (a + b) . 4. a6 8 16 in . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. (a2) 6. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . coefficient of . 16. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 15. 22.
4. 3. 2. 1. aft 3 + 4. 5. 3. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 5. 2.  8 ^ 2. 1. 5. 4 ft  c) 2. c if 7 . 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 1. + 2. 5. 2. 5. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4. 4 2. 1. 4.  a)(a 1. 2. 5. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. if = = 2. 2.  2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. 1.c )(fta) 1. 3. 2. 2. 24 4. 2. 6.a(a 4. 2. 2. 2 . = 2. 4. ft 4 ) 5. 6. 3. 3. 1. 3. 3. 2. 6. 3. 1. 5. if y=2j 2. 2. 3. 2. 6. + 1. 5. 2. 5. if x^l. 3. + 2. . 2. 2. 4. 4. 4. c = = = 2. 3. l. 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. ^+^ 3. (c 3. 3. 2. a ft c = = 2.  2. ft) . 5. 2.f ac 1. 3. 1. 1. 2. 6. y 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 7. 1. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 1. 3. + c(a  c). of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 2. 2. 1. 1. 1. if = = = 2. 2. 2. 4. 4. if a ft c = = = 4. . 3. 2. 4. 2. 3. 2. 1. 1. 2. 3.
or .4. + 4. 5. 9. c = 3. 2.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 8 . 1. + 2. r> .x 5 4 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2 x?/. 24.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 3. a: . + 3 y 2* . + 4 ?y . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 7 xy 3 . 2 . ~c)(b.259 x c) . 26. c)(x a} . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 15. 17. x C 4 4x y + . (5. 6 a4 4 a8 . x 3 x' 14. 7y 4 . 1. 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.3 a?y . 2.8 + 2 // . 2 x 8. 2  + 12 a 8 .2. 15. 20. 10. 9. 41. 6.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2. + 8 x4 *y .  a) (c 2. ' b) + 3. x = 4.\ yz + xz. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 4.2 a?y + 3 aty . 25. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.7 + . b(x (b 1. 4 z .7 y 2* 4. 29. . 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.7 ys. + 1. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.2 z8 4 x. 40.8 3 + 7 x4 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. = 2. 5. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 16.1. x 3 11. x3 2 a2 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .10. a /> 3. 4 x 4 . 7.a) . 4 y 13.a 4 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 5.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . f 8. 18. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5. 21.3 xyz. 3. a.c' 2 4 / . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 12.a8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 8. if a 6 = = c = 3.2 x2 .2. . a. 4.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . a 4 + 11 a . . 21. .r 6 x  4 xy .5. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .a 5 a .
and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .3 .(a . sum of .x .x 4. 4 2 x2 23.2 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. ft 25.6T . 7 12 . c =x y }~ z. From of 2 the 4. 33. 34.6 x ] . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4 ft) 4.2 3 ax 2 .(x* . 5 4 7 12 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .(x 4.c 3 a.260 19.{G * 2 .] 26. ft.1)}] . 3 ft. .(4 * .3.2 .[4 z 8 . Take the sum 4x 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4.5 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. c 4ft. 542 x 2 and .(5 c .1). and . 5 10 4 G 11 4.c. 2 x 32. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.x .[4 x 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.a ft.?> x 4 20. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . .8 3 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.#48. of a. : a x .(5 y .3 x .(4 x 2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.. 4 3 5 y/ . 4 4 4.2 a . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.4) .27~~7)}].x2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 29. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 36. 4vTT~y 3.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. . 35.{2 x 2 . 0" 30. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. c 4.2) .4. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 4 .x 2 4. take the sum of G x 5 .5.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.c.c 4 3 a.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . (*) a  c. . Simplify 31.2 x 8y2 44 . a  ft + c.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. = x y ft z.(7 x 4. f ft. x8 x2 2 a'2x.3 . x'2 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.4 Vl 4.7. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 5 10 + 7 .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].
e '/)}] (2a + 2b .0)} .4 a 2 + a 4 ).2a .96 [17 a.12).5)} + (3 a 2 . (1 ar+a. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 : 7e)a}].6 xy . (r (1 (a. 46. 59. a {. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 54.a~^~c)K]. 57.3 *).3). 49. + 4x + 5)(j.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 2 52. 64. 60. 48. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. .3c).3 z 2 ).  2 a  {3 2x a .5 )}] + {4 c .[2 .2 2 + 1)(7. (1 55. .2c(V/ .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .{3 c . 2 53.6)}]. + *+!){> + 2).REVIEW EXERCISE 37.3)(*5)(* 7).(2 x2 . )(lz a ). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. (. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .& + {.2 zz .(4 d .r 2:c+ l)(ar. .(2 a 2 . 67.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 4 + 2 2 + 1). 68.b (c . 45.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].2 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).3 c)].JT^T+1)} + (2 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .7).(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 56.6c) (a + f c). 50.[4 x  5 . 'J 44. . .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 63.rf)} + a [.(2 .c 2 . 3 x 42.Z . 2 ft 41.{2 a (ft . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . a .2x + 3). 51. 13 a . (. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (x .ab . 43.4 a . 65. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .2)(1 .(2 a + 5 a .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). .c).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(6 .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (/> 4 .(7 a.(5 y . (5 a 39.ac . (4 + 3a 2 .1). .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 62. 2 2 x + !)(* .be) (a 58. 2 f [3 c 7 a .{2 a .56. (x. . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).
88.<f(p . .y + z)(x + y .n pc). 87. b 4. (p 2 .:y)( a. 76.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).r 2 .c) 2 .b 4. ft 95. 85. 93.ft) 4 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).z\x 4.5 .z) .(a 2) (s 4 ft. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c .2y)(. xy y 2 ). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.y). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.2 (y 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4. ar .y)\x y).(ft 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 71.3 (ft .c) .x + y + z). ft /.{3 a . 77.262 69. Prove the following 8 4.3y) a (* 2 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c)} .c)].m np c . 4 4 . 94. 90. 70. 91. . ft" l Simplify 80.(c 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.2 (a .c) j.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 2 + a 2 ). (a 2 ft 2n 4. (x (x ( + *) .q).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c . f 72. 84. 89. 82.6*y .(a 48 8 8 4. ft 78. ft ft ft a}. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 75. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 1).v) 4.(4 .3 a . 74. 1). 92. 73.2 ft}) f (3 a .ft) + 4(2 . 2 (x 2 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 79. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). 86.c) 4) (ft 4.O (a 4(a 4. 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c) . 83.a) 2 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.9y2).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.am&t 4 A 2 *).z)(x y + z)(.(/>  3 v)^(. .c) rr identities. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .
103.(a 1 2 8 . (80 a 112.) .16 a 6 4. (a 8  8 68 8 4.5 xy). 10).a".&). 113. 106.xy 4.2 2% 4.40 />) . 108. 117. 120. 2 4 41 x 4a. 105.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 116. 110. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.(x 2 .*) (x 8 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 124.b) 98.y 4 . 123. 25 4 .v/ ~ // = a: . 3*.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 121. (2< 107.5 b*). .1).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.4 aft . 118. 99 100.(2 a 2 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. r .3 a"+ 4.6 y 4 4.27 x* . [10( 4. 2 (a+ . 1O4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. . (. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 1).2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .9 x 2 .2y 2 4.y 4 ) . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 114. 102. 122. a*.y 2 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).35 x 2 2 ) .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".(7 xi/ .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 26 (a 4 c).r 4 4. 109. (8 x* 115.2 xy 8 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).
. 149.8 6 . 3(2 x 134.18 *&) (1 . (4 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. .G) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2(10 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .(x + 3) ] . . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .1) (a? . 148.a:)]}. o o 140. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3 a:).1) .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.4) . 127. 126.12 M 132.2) (a: + 3).5).3) = 12 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).22. 42(3ar 145.r + 7[or . (5a: 150.3). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.4) . 1) . 129.2) = 3 .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . (*+ + .19) + 5 = 4 .7(4 * . 139. 143.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 3) = x\x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 135.(x .(1 .(x f 9).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). . 142.n .2(j: .2 7^~5] + 1).r>) .(j a? 144. 2 4(ar .2(4 .264 125. y (* l x. 5(2 x . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.4(0 x .3(2 z .27 a 3" .3). 128. 136. 1) = 2(* .3) (3 x 4. x 147.9) 4.3 x). .5) = 12(4 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 10(2 x 141. .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 7(2 x .9) + 3. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.2) + 2(ar + 4).2(5 . 5 146.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).7) = 4 . 138.5{. 137.
. a: ar a. 155.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.5)(.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.(5 x . = 15.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . . (7 14 .5(x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. .6 x) (3 . 157.1) O + 4) = (2 * . (x (x a. If the area of the frame inches.1) (s + 3).19) + 42. .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. . + 10) (ar .9) + (a. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.. will produce F.5) = (3 . =  (F 32). 163.2) (7 *) + (*. 159. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The second contains 3 first. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. (2 .T)O . 156. The sum What 171.7) (a. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 160. + 5) = (9 .? .r + 3) .3) (j. 2 4 .2) (j? + 1) + (x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.2). How many 170. 158. (3 O + .3) = (3 x .3) (3 . sheep more than the 169. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 166.3) (a: . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. and the third twice as many as the first.25) 2 . 154. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. (a) If C. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. (a.a:) + 229. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.2 x) = (1 .3) (3 . f^ + ^sO. 265 152. + 4) (2 x + 5).z) (4 . these two angles would be equal. transformed into F. = 2 C.5 x) = 45 x .7) (1 x . 164. 153. find the value of F. + 2) + (5 .l)(z . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.5*) + 47.76.17) 2 + (4 x . 165.4) (a . 161.29) 2 = 1. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. (a . 5(ar x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.8) = (2 x 4.2) a + 7(x . 162.2 x) (4 .14) (a: + 3).24.
7/ 191. father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. ll?/102. 10x 2 192. 15 m. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 178. 4 a 2 yy 42. younger than his Find the age of the father. sister . + a.36. number divided by 3. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. +x 2. 13 a + 3. . x* 185. dimension 182. + 11 ~ 6. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. two boys is twice that of the younger. was three times that of the younger. 181. 186. How many are there in each window ? . side were one foot longer. 12 m. 176. 188. z 2 + x . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 180. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other.266 173. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. and 5 h. same result as the number diminished by 175. A boy is father. . train. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 189. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. respectively. A house has 3 rows of windows. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. Find the number. 179. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. aW + llab2&. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence.56. if each increased 2 feet. 2 2 + a _ no. 187. z 2 92. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A each 177. . 190. power one of the two Find the power of each. Find the dimensions of the floor. 3 gives the 174.
2 2 y f 1.77 y + 150. 213. . 246. 222. 2 . a.x + 1. a. 6 197. 3 x V . x*y 223. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 3 ap 2 . a. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 8 a. 60 a 2  a: // 205. xm+l 243. a: . 4 m +^.6s. 245. a a: a: 237. x 219. a+a* + o a +l. 7x 2 225. + 3a 196. 230. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . . 238. . + 198. 212.12 * . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. . 244.c) 2 . 208. .6. 201. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 8 a: ar.20 z 8 a: 220.19 z 4 204.6 aq . a 2 . 203.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . y 2 194.6 y2 + 4. 207. 16x 4 81. 2a te 3% ly 247.19 a . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .c) 2  (a . z + 5x 2 . a. + 30 x.3 c/> + 6 cq. 3y 248. 221. (a + .r?/f y 2 9. a: 236. 23 12.10 y a x* . a^a 226.64. 2 x 2 . z 2 2. 2 a 2 .22 z + 48. wiy + la mx + aw. 2 200. 227.1.10. 218.10 xy. 2 a 8 .3 xy. 3y 2 + ary .3 xf + 3 * 2y . ifWy+b. . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 5 x 2. 24 2 + 2 . 211. 215. 12 x +4. 224. 232. 7a 228. 217. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 206. 202.6 2 ?/ . 235. 216.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 239. a: 231. # 2  29 y + 120. x 5 .21 a:  54. *2 234.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 4a 2& 2 241. . 267 199. 210.14 2 . 195.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 3 x 2 . x* + 8 2 + 15.(b + rf) 2 . + 8.28. 209.8 6 2. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 233.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 229. + 2 .
* a .ry . 270. 265.11 x f 28. + 23 x f 20. 28 2 f 71 x . 15 # 2 z/ /.120.a + 2 4. 5 x 2 256. 257. + 20 x 4.2 aft*. 2 a. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.14 bx a%% 8 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. * 2 . + 3 x + 2. 261.23 + 12. x 2 263.G7 x f 33.15.9 x + 14.11 a 2 . + 8 x + 5. * 2 .6 by.1 9 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . of: 253. x*y* 4. x 2 4. C.8. F. 2 x2 . a? a: a: // 262. a: .91.73 xy . x 2 + 5 f . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . I Find the II. x 2 + 4 + 3.36. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 254.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 3 a% 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271. * 2 .15 + 30.x . 8 2 + 10 x .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.5 ab f 2.(55.3 x .13. 6. x 2 + 2 x . x 2 f 9j: + 20.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 3 #2 255. x 2 .ry 21.18 xy + 5. z 2 268. 22x2 a.7 f 5.2 z .16 x .r .4. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.a 2 />c 2 f 3.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. a.10.9. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 259. x* . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 10 a.2/ 2 . 30 ^ . 7 12 2 2 . a 3 a 2 2 . 258. 269.23 x f 20. z 2 267. 2 8 .M. + 8. 2 + 7 r f 2. a 4. .80.&z. 1 x ar Find the L. 252. 10 x 2 . 7 ax 250. 260.3.3 abc . ft a.C. 251. 3 ay 4. 264. 18 x 2 . x* .10 a 4.4 ab + 1. of: 266.12. 2 .9 x .48 afy 2 .
(y 2 z) * t (j.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .2c a: 282. 285 z4 n* + a. 8 ..  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.. 289 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. a.!/. *2 " 2 + Oge.J' 4 2 2 w mp . m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . z2 (a 2 + c)a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. + ac . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .ar 1 279.rL.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.2* + 3 x* 280.
^_2*(m 308. * 19 23 19(23 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 6) _ ~ i 305. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^. 4 3 301. O(ca) 306. x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. Lnl + ar 2 a. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . a (: a) (x 2.
+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.(a .ft) 2 322. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . (1 . 2 + y 2 319. . (a? 4 2) 317.. a: 1 313.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1 x2 + + a. 1a: + y a. 1 _. _ x8 .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. } .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.
20 44 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 250 5 10 2 325.ll.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. . * 3a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 +lOar 2 a.y20  2y + 4 2 .15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . a: 2 x* . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .V  + y  x 3y a .7 xy + 12 x .6* t 328.. 2 lOx 5x.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .9 *// + 27 .
7 ( ?f!?. xi 347. \5yl 341. (a \ + lV. : 1+ i. \x yj 340. 338. a>74 .r 5 2 . f V. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 348. (ar \ 346.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.1V. fl.. 344. 5 343. ** i. if a = 3. +^ a: y x .y. ' 2 "l 5 . a: 349 _ o. + l + IV. + ni + . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (aWi + iJ. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. ?_2 ^ . ( 342. aj 339. (af2/. 1 345. 352.+ r .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. w \.) 2 .
_ + l a 359. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. ar xy + yl x* 358. + x x a .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . y360. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (~ 364. I  I f 366. (a a b yx c yabc 361.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. . b c 368. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
379. + 1) 45 O 377. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 5 {2 x 381. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.*2 = 15. <3 378. . ^ . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5*8. J !__7. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 8  376. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. __4 2x 3_ = !. 4(* . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.
. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.75 x f . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. b 404.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . + 4 a.8 = . . _____ .25.1 . . 399. 396. 3* 177. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.147. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.  8 9* x ~r.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. f 1 1 + a 403. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. c . 397. u '2 a. 400.5 x =r f . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 401.. 40. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).5 ^ ~ a: a. ^ (a .25 x + .2 a:  1. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.  J). m x 398.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.6  . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). a.
418 ~jo.278 410. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 421. Tn 6 hours . Find the number. far did he walk all together ? A . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. How long is each road ? 423.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 420.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. hour. In a if and 422.c) . 411. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.  a) 2 6 2a. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . and was out 5 hours. 18 be subtracted from the number. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. the order of the digits will be inverted. (x . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.
428. if . : If is one equal 434. If a b : =5 n : 7. x 427. a. find : a : c. 431.iand 22 22 I a . 435. 430. . wi* + y= ny. Solve 436. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 3 and 1J. Find the length of the parts. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 2 2 8 2 . a  t>. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. . Which ratio is greater. 433. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.49 63). : i. b. Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. d. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).REVIEW EXERCISE 424.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . . z 2 y. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 432. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Find the fourth proportional 426.a 2^ 8 + aft* .& 5 ) (a 8 . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.6 8 ).46 2): (15a 2 . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 438. and : b : c = 14 : 15. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). y. ax is \ by  ex + dy. a + 5. find the angles of the triangle.
ft. 452. 449. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 7 a: . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.*. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.55 y = . 42 = 15y + 137. a. 28 = 5 a . 9/> = 2 . 5z4:# = 3.rf2# = l. 444.11 y = 95.11 7. 454.4 12 .7 y = 25.. 457. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 446. 458. + 5y = 59. Solve the following systems: 441.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 1(3  a. />(. 15ar = 20 + 8y. . 5 2 = 7 . 456. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 451. /) ar a. . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ?/ 447. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). x + 17 # 53. 3 a. = 25. 9ar7# = 71. 455. . 8 . 8 x + y = 19. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 443. 453. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). if 2 ft : 439. a: 2y= = 1 . The volumes If their diameters. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 56 + 10y = 7a. 450. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 459. . 16. 7jr9y = 17. a: a: + 5y). 5x+4y=lQ.89 = q. Find the value of a.(or l(*2y)=0. . 3 . c. 7 442. 448. ft. 4 = 5 y + 29.59 = 3 z. 21 7 = 27 + Op.35.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 445. 7a?y = 3.
?/ + 1 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.2y) (2 = 2J. 473.c=563y. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.+ =2.. 8 461. i = 5. ax cx by = m. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. x y 474. + eyn.7.  = 2. 468. ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. 465. 475. _ 469. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . (or .
Find the sum and the rate of interest. Find the fraction. Find the number. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 487. age. by 4. A spends \ of his. 479. and the other number least. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . How much money less 484. to . Find the numbers. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the principal and the rate of interest. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. whose difference is 4. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A number consists of two digits 4. Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. the Find their ages. 486. 477. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and in 18 months to $2180. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 485. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 483. 481. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. years. and in 20 months to $275. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find the numbers. . had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. fraction becomes equal to .
3 a: + 5=84. 8. a: 499. 4 506. 7 + 2 z . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a./ 504. + # +z= 35. z y x 25 . 3ar 503. 496. of two the sum of the digits also if number. ~ 507. : Solve the following systems 491. 4 497. 492. 490. a: f z = 79. = 15. 489. 2 a. 2 2 = 41. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. y Solve : x +z= 5. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. *i.5#+2z = $x a: G. x f y f z 29 . and the difference of their Find the numbers. 498. z y ifi = z x 502. ifi = x a. 7.? + 2y = 8. = 20. x y f z = 13. 1. 495.z = 12. a number . . 494. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. + y 5 y = 101 . . a.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. x s + y z = 18J . 5 + a. . 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2/>3r = 4. a: + // = 11. 4z+3z = 20. a. 2 e. 493. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. . = 209. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2a:f 7. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . \ . * + 425  = . 3 x 500. 2y + 3a = ll. 5^ 9z = 10./ f z =a.z = 20. 1+1 = 6.
523. 517. + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 36 + c. z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. i=a + 6 c. ll" . + : = 1472.
532. E 533. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. . his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Find the present ages of his father and mother. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 527. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. If they had walked toward each other. if and L. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Tf and run together. . 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. it is filled in 35 minutes. BC = 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. and BE. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. M. touches and F respectively. What are their rates of travel? . When weighed in water. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 90. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . in 28 minutes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number. L. 530. it separately ? 531. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and CA=7. How long will B and C take to do . the first and second digits will change places. Find the numbers. B and C and C and A in 4 days. CD. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. they would have met in 2 hours. AB=6. In circle A ABC. N. AC in /).
545.  3 x. + 3. . GERMANY. if x = f 1.  3 x. 2 x + 5. 2 541. x *x + x + 1. formation of dollars into marks. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x 2 + x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. a. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. then / = 3 and write = 3. 547. If to feet is the length of a seconds. to do the work? pendulum. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 540. 2  x  x2 . c. i. FRANCE. from x = 2 to x = 4.e. The values of x if y = 2. The greatest value of the function. 542. x 2 544. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 3 x 539. x*  2 x. 2. 2. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. x*. 546.  7.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. b. One dollar equals 4.10 marks. x 8 549. 543. d. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 536. the function. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 550. The values of y. e. z 2  x x  5. . 548.
562. 18 x  4 = 0. 3 . z 4 .4 . Solve 552. . 555. = 5.17 = 0. 557.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.r 1 561. z 2 . i. a. x 5 . 564. c.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. and make the unit of the b. If y +5 10. 563.7 = . g.= 0.0. 15. J.r .11 = 0. 566. r?. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 2 a. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a: 559. a? 4 x . 2 x 2 560. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 568. 3 + 3 z .4 x 2 + 4 . + 10 x .G . 565.= 0. 572. Solve// = 0.r a: a: x a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. .4 = 0. + 5 .3 x . h.13 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . c. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. a. 2 567. 553.9 = 0. 3 x* . j. 2.  2 1 a: a.6 + 3 . x 4 .3 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. e. Represent meters. . 3 x . if y =m has three real roots.3 . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 558.1 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. a. 2 8 . ' = 8. x* .5 x . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.3 x . 556. \ to t = 5.15 = 0. f. 2 554.
+ jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. a. x [ ?/ 577. (1 + x a. 592. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.5 xy = 0. a 612.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .%) 4 (aa. + . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2  2 aa: 2 . a: . (aiy. xY. 596. (a. 6 + 1) . 64 a 12 603.2 2 + y. 1 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 4 (1a:) 3. 5 a*. 2 611. (a  8 ft) . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 609. 599. : y* or 25. . 604. 582. 589. 4 a.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 9  4 fSb 607. 585 594. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 4 . a:.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . + ^) + (air%)8. + + 4 . 3 . j^f = 3.(1 . 579.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 600.x + 2 )'2 601. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 593. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. [ y =10. a 2a.4. jj+.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 598. 608. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. f ?>) 3 591. (1 (1 (1 . 3 (f. . a 8 606. x + z2) 8 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 595. 597. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 943 ++ ~bx.frf : 583. (# 2) . 588.2 6a: + 30 &c a. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. + %) (a* + *) 5 .
Find the eighth root 617. V950484 . 620. + 24 a 2 4 . 2 + 21Ga. 645. According to Kepler's law. = 70. + 54 'x*y* . f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .30. x 2 641. 628. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 49. 9g. 7) 2.15174441. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 44352. x 2 . + 2 21 x = 100. find Jupiter's period. 4J. 9a. ft . 647t x 2 648 649. 650. = 87.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.2. 494210400001. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.12 a?y + y*.2410. *+* = 156. VOIOOD + V582T09. 25023844.1024 x + a: 256.191209.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 371240. 035. 40. 639.53 x ~ . 638.150. = . 636. 0090.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. = 0. Find the square root of 619. 633. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 626. GGff. 4370404. 625 : 621. a 642. 643. 632. 651. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. (x 9 x 646. 637. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 630.49. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 21. 8*' + 24* = 32. 32 631. V 635. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.*. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 2.\/4090. 2 + 189 z = 900. 629. 623. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 614. /.V250 . 3a. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .871844. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 49042009. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 622. : 5. 210. 615. 644. 624. + 112 a 8 . 634. 942841.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
693. ax 2 698. = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 696. 695. . (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 702. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 692. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 2 697. 694.ax . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 2 . 706. 699.a a )jr . ex abc= fx 0. 707.bx .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.c = 0. a. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 708.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.
Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 723. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. in value. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 725. 721. 729. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711.44#2 + 121 = 0. 12 4*+  8. **13a: 2 710. Find two numbers whose 719. How shares did he buy ? if 726.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 717. 716. 722. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 724. 727.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. and working together they can build it in 18 days.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. sum is a and whose product equals J. 217 . A equals CO feet. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. . 16 x* . If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.292 709. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. a: 713. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 3or i 16 .
1 f ^ 2).1 + x. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (v/x). 46. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.X .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 34. n.aft* 1 + a 2*. 31. . 40. 39. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 37. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 42. 52. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 41. 43.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 38. 35. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).l).1 f c" ). 33.1 + c.2? 50. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 32.2 ). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2)(x2 4. 1 6. 36. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).)(ai + &.
\/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753.1+J 756. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. [1r^ T 1 i . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 768. 761. ~ r* x . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. JU. 2V2 2V3 . 759. 754. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 758. 757.._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.
f x Va z Va f x + Va a.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 793. 10 785. 16 + 2V55. + 2V21.12VIT. 13 799. 790.4 V(j. a 9442V5. 806. 3812VIO. 92VI5. 14 791. . x 782. 103 788. 783. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 794. 3J . . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 789. 786. .2 V30. 7512V21. Va 809. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .2V3* ^ 807. c 792.VlO. . 787.
820. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.13 = 0.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. x/aT+l .Vc^lJ .\/2y  810. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. = 1. 833. 3 x + 2 . V14 a. 829. + Vx .  5 + V3 f 12 817. 819. 818. 814.f 5 = V5x + 4.4 = 0. Va: . + ViTli + V7 . + 103Var.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 811.V? = 813. 816. \/12 a.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . VaT+lJ f ^l . 831.V2 ar 10. 836. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V3 f 1 V4a. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 815.g. 830.79. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. /9ar a: = 17. 812.
8 a. y 4. + 1. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. z*y 8 l64a. + 512 y8 874. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 8 8 848. 8 .a.3 Va: 2 . a. a. a 8 873. 845. 870. a 18 4.1000 6. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 4 a: 2 842. 856. 871. 2 a: 64 y*. 844. 27 y 8.  3x a. 861.1. a 8 850. 27 862. 864. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. V4 x 2 . a: . 275 8 l. 2 f" + a/ 15. 19 x 14. 876. .3 . x 8 2 857. 729 867. 855.x*y + 3x f 2. 852. 840. 8 8  13 a. a: 849.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 64 a 866. a l0m . 8 860. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 64. . 5 a 4 7 a8 .10 = 118. 868. f 841. a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 853.3 x . f b**. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a. f 12. 8 2a.12. 875. . +3 4 +  4. . a 8 869. x 4 + f 2 a. 865. 9. a*" & 6n . 16 859.ab9 ft*. + . . 2 x 3. 851.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 4 a. a 872. 4 x 8 858.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 846. 8 4a: 8 a. 839. 6.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 4 x* 847. 8^27^. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4o. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 863. 40 x 2 7 f 49.3 a:. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.
2 = 2 + 5. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a# f + xy = 126. 2 . M1 891 1 . xy + y = 32.sy = 198. y 2 4. +y f y = 7. 878.Vi' + 1 1_3. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.18. a: 884. y*+ xy .5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 + y 2 . + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + xy = 10. . 899. 885.35. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. y y 2 y 2 1121. a. . 883.15.298 877. a: 2 897. 890. x*xy. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a: 888. y = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 + 2 f = 17. 1 x 893.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. a. 895. 886. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 901. 900. 3 x 2 .y 2 + V(j. x 8 3 = 13:3. x a: lI = xz . . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 887.1 = 2 a#. 2 2 = 16 y. . y 2 2 8f. 2 . x 882.y 2) = 20. a:y . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 889. . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 5. a: + y 2 = 34. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.xy + y 2 = 19. a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 + xy = 28. 896. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. . 894. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . f ?/ a: a: . a: a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. + 2y=\2. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. z 2 898.
x + y 2 = aar.y = a(ar + y). . 2 915. 2 913. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 905. # + xy + y = 7.y) (a? .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. yz = 24. xy + x= 15. ^ 2 . Vary + y = 6. 911. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.23 = 200. 7 y . 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 * 2 ~ g. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 923. 917. a. 23 x 2 . + ary = a*. 920. 912. a:y xy 929. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.r a. (!) * . (a. + y 8 = 189. + a. x 4 299 xy z 904. y + a:y = 180.y) = 33. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + ?/) .3)2 = 34. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. * + y = 444. (* 918. 908. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 914. (3 x .y2 = 22. + 2 ary = 39. 4 (a. a: * a: a: ar 928.3) 2 f (y . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. + y)(a. 2 924. 3 y 8 ) =1216. *y . a: a. 2 5 xy = 11. (o. y . 907.16 y 3 8 = . y x 2 = by. x 2 ry + y = 3. .y). L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. a: y zx 12.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y) (3 y .#y + 2 = 27.2 y) = 49 2 919. 910. + y = 9. 921. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.3(* + y) = 6.x) = 21. or or a? a: a: . 2 2 2 916. + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 + y = 2 a 4. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. xa 903. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 906. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 3 :r(3 . y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 3 y 2 + xy = 1. ary y = 8. y 3 2 2 922. x f 2 a:y = 32. 909.6. = 8. . xy + 2 y 2 = 65.
two squares is 23 feet. 34 939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A.square inches. feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133.000 trees. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. and 10 feet broader. 2240. is 3 . a second rec8 feet shorter. A and B run a race round a twomile course. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet.300 930. rate each man ran in the first heat. and the difference of 936. two numbers Find the numbers. s(y 932. find the radii of the two circles. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. A plantation in rows consists of 10. Assuming = y. 937. 942. In the second heat A . is 20. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. A is 938. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the sides of the rectangle.102. How many rows are there? 941. 935. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. (y + *) = . 943. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. y( 934. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 931. + z) =108. and also contains 300 square feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. . the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. Find the numbers. is 3. *(* + #) =24. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 944. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the sum of their areas 78$. feet. 152. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Tf there had been 20 less rows. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. + z)=18. diagonal 940. two squares equals 140 feet.
set out from two places. that B A 955. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . each block. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. unaltered. sum Find an edge of 954. 953. overtook miles. is 407 cubic feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 952. whose 946. distance between P and Q. and its perim 948. Two starts travelers. Find the number. and travels in the same direction as A. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. . . Find its length and breadth. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. triangle is 6. A and B. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and if 594 be added to the number. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find in what time both will do it. 951.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. 949. Find the eter 947. its area will be increased 100 square feet. P and Q. 950. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find the number. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. the digits are reversed. and that B. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together.
302 956. f + 1 . and 976. . P.454. Evaluate (a) . 1G series . 36 963. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 961. *" 968. 12434+ j I 967. fourth of the unity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras... 970. Find n f (ft) .v 973. Sum to 20 terms.. !Ll^ + n . to 7 terms... 5. n to n terms. 974. . 964.321? 965. 16 962. = 4. 4. ^ 1 ... 957.. Find n. 3 + 5 7 + .. difference. Find the sum of 4. Find an A. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . are 1 and sum of 20 terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. to infinity. Find the Find the common 977..V2 .. (x 4 to n terms.4142 .1 4 f j$V . '. 1 to n terms. 975. Sura to 24 terms.. (to 2 n terms). 969. the terms being in A. Sum Sum to infinity. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 4 4 to 7 terms . s  88. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. J. x(x to 8 terms. + (iiven a +  4 d . are 29 and 53.141414. P. 18th terms of an A. P..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 3 .. 958. 971. \ . 5.>/) to infinity. ... to n terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 966. P.  2. ^ Vfirst five 959. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. 972.to infinity.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A..3151515. .
. "(.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. and the common difference.2 . P. : + 9   V2 + . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. P. The sum 982. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .+ lY L V. 985. 980. Find the sum of the series 988. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. The term. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. 990. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. 1. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. first 984. Find the first term. . named Sheran. and of the second and third 03. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 2 grains on the 2d. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to infinity may be 8? . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.3 ' Find the 8th 983. of n terms of an A.. 987. and so on. Find four numbers in A. The 21st term of an A.01 3. is 225.04 + .. to oo.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. to 105? 981. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.001 + .. Find n. 0. 5 11.. Find four perfect numbers.) the last term the series a perfect number. 4 grains on the 3d. 992. to n terms. 303 979.. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .1 + 2. 986. 989.001 4. P. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.
In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. (6) the sum of the infinity. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. of squares of four numbers in G. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. are unequal. areas of all triangles. is 4. 994. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. The sum and sum . inches. AB = 1004. find the series. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and so forth to infinity. (a) after 5 strokes. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. P. P. 995. in this square a circle. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Two travelers start on the same road. in this circle a square. Under the conditions of the preceding example. ft. 512 996. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. 1000. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. are 28 and find the numbers. 1001. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 997. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The sum and product of three numbers in G. prove that they cannot be in A. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 998. . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. The fifth term of a G. P. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. c. 999. ABC A A n same sides. If a. at the same time. many days will the latter overtake the former? . and G. 1003.
2 ) 5. 1011. 1006. (12 #) 7 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of ( . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. . 1009. ) 1021. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .iV 2i/ 5 . + lQ . Find the middle term of 1020.ft) 19 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. (1 1018. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. x) 18 . 1012.l) w f . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. . a: 8 7. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).o/) 14 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1008. 1014. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)".
.
. .] Abscissa Absolute term ... .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .130 .108 160 " . . 232 169 807 . . signs of Algebraic expression .. 97... . 9.. 246 91 " multiple... t 53 120 . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .178 Completing the square . Aggregation..210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 9 ** . . .. linear literal Common ** * difference . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ... . .. numerical . . 8 . ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 129 54.. 37. . . .. 123 . quadratic . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... 232 mean progression .193 11 . 112 54 54 251 . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 19.. simple simultaneous ... . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. 129. Checks Coefficient 20.. . . . . 160 in quadratic form 191 .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . ... . lowest ratio " '* . . .. graphic tion of representa . 54.. 158..... ..... ... .
numbers . . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 180. Product '* 76 Infinite. . 205 .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Known numbers . 45. 23 10 91 102. . 241 123 geometric . 189. 45. directly. arithmetic . .C Multiplication . 109 102 . . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . first and second . 227 . exponent . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .108 Minuend . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Like terms Linear equation . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.. 253 28 70 1. . .. . 45 Laws of signs . G. 63. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Imaginary numbers .808 Exponent Exponents. P . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . INDEX 8 ... 91 . . . . 120 Member.. . addition of " square of .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 112 .. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 184 54. 195 33... Negative exponents 11 ... . 84. 243 7 .. 212 . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Geometric progression . . L. .. . 9.251 Graphic solution of simultane. Insertion of parentheses . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. inversely 122 numbers . . 17 65.154 Order of operations " of surds .. 143. 114. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . law of Extraneous roots . . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 227 geometric . .. 34. .31. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. Inconsistent equations . . . . . . Mathematical induction . .
193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33..... algebraic Surds ..... . absolute 54 Variable .. . polynomial ... . 129.... 9.. ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 27 17 Unknown numbers .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 45 Trinomial 240 . .. binomial Third proportional Transposition .. . 4 155 9 " of ..... Sum. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.
.
MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Reprinted April.. 1913. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1917.COPYRIGHT. U. 1910. NorfoooS J. 1916.S. December. Mass. August. Gushing Co. Published September. 8. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.A. 1910. Norwood. . Set up and electrotypcd.
Page Page Ilis expenditures. Multiplication. 6. 22. 10. 2.000. 2 ~ 15. 7. 3. 6. A . 16. Not 5.$9400. 9. 576. 10. 1. 30. 14 11. 25. 20. 10. 9..  2 p. 3. 4. 10. 16.000. 9. + 1. 16f 2. 20 B. 10. 8 13. 1. 3. 2. 11. arithmetic. Page 13. 8. C $60. 17.000. 17. 1. }. 15. 16. 23. 8. 28. 25. 7. 18. 8. 12. 14. V 23. 5. 3. $40. 15. 49. sign. in. 30?. 5. 3. 7. 16 in. 7. 12. 12. 3 below 0. 13. 73. 2. 20 \. 3.12. _ 32. 1. 9 m. 3. 2.. 27. . 6. 22. 72 = = 216.3. 3 m. A Bl 7.1. 1. 0. 2. 150. 0. 21. A 15. 24. 1. 19. 16. T . 192. 11. 12. 12. 1. 28. 2 5. 3. 16. loss. 18. 5. 26z. . 8. 48 ft. 5000. 16. Page?. 17. $160. 20. 4. 8 ft. Page 4. Page 1. 2. 19. 512. 1. 16.. 9. 10g. C $ 16. 14. 7m. 20 jo. 3* 7.000. 18.00000001.C. 4. 7. B $80. A 38 mi. A $90. 6.000. 9 16  larger than 7.. South America 46. $100. 3. $ 1 50 10. 6. 14. . 2. 14. 144. 32. 2. 9. per sec.. in. ^. 3. 9 14. 27. ft. 2. c. 9 = 4. 6. 2. 9. 15. 5. 32. 32. 17. 21. (a) (/>) 1. 16. Page 8.. 126. 59. 3. 13 d. 4. 14. 12. 18. 1. 36. 85. 2. 13 S. 32. 13. 4.  13. 6. B $4700. C $1(50.21 24. 3. 16. 1. 15. 3. 3.000 Indians. 1. 210. 21. 19. 2. 12. 24. 8. 20. Ot 15. 13 V. 7. 6. 64. 1 16. Yes. x.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 27. 11. 106. 5. 89. 14. 2. 29. 7. 12. Australia ft. 9. 6* 16. 49. 1. 115. 17. in 12. 29. 8. westerly motion. 25. 19 4. 14. is $10. 10. . 1.. 5. 10. 37. 12. 2  Page 8. 13. 25. 128. B 10 mi. 15. 6 yd. 37 S. 12. 11. B $20.150. 8. 2. 9. 1. 3. 3. 26. 18. 16 in. 11. 6. 20. 13. i .000. 10. b. 5.000. 13.  1... 6. 18. = 5 81. 6. 1.2. 9. x. 5. 3. 14.000. . 4.  22 20. 24. B $ 128. 4. 6. Seattle 12 Philadel 9.000 negroes. sign. 7. 7.  1. 256.8.
5.ab. 13.GOG. 22. 31. arty 1 20. 34. 314 sq. 6. (ft) 7. Polynomial. 27. 2oVmf?i. 58. 26. 2ftx. 4. 21^. 28. 11. 1. + v> 2 . (a) 200. (59. 36. 0. 7. 15.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 3. $80. 14. 3. 3.  3. <i~ 26. . :. 51 f. 5x+3. 15. 0* Page 3 w" 0. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  .14 sq. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. + ft). in. 15a. 7 7.  12.5f> sq. (ft) mi. 04. r+l.  40. ft.000 sq.. 2x' 2 5 . ^. 2. 4 9/^/rl 2. 30. 13. 14:). 18. 1. (<7) (a) 314 sq.~4. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 1. 35. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. _ 4 .  1. 12. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 14. 21. t. 16.. 14. 6.'JO ft. 15. 9. 27. 10. 14. 19. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 3a. 31.. 5. 21. m + 3(a. 29. Page 21. 33. 240. c. 13. r/ \(\xyz. 00 24 04 ft. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).. 9. +/2(/. :J!>r'. 3. a2 4 15^44. 18.  xV 3 y. 1. 8. f  5e 35. 9. 32 2 ftc. Va'+Y2 8^2 . v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 5. m 24..6) 38. 8.. (ft) Page 2. vi 14. 0. 11. 22. 13. (r) 2. 0. 2. 17. 4.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 12. 12. 43w//2 17. sq. (a) r>23ifcu. w. 19. 23. ft. 34. 25. y.ft) 4. 39. 2. 20(.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 7. 10.9?/2 8.900. 2. rt. 24. 6<t. 1. 37. 28. a 32. 14. 3 a* + 2 at*.ft.<>Gq. ^). 12. i:5. (b) 135 mi. 8. Pagel4r. 7.. 16. in. 5. 237. x^ 20. ??i??. . 0. 20. (ft) 12. ft. 27.. (a 4 4. 17. 3. 5. WIN + wiw. 173. 8. 25. 11. 41. 50. 1. ft' 3 .000 .r~ f 34. yyz+xyz*. 18. 18. 6.x. 4.32 c2 > ft 3 . 5. 1. 7. 35. . 3. mi. 23. 1. 10. 4. 17. 16. 27. ]*. 14. 5. 8. 0. + 5. 12yd. \'\ 4. 8. 32. in. 12 a. $3000 Page 6. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 13 cu. 0. (a) 50. (c) 8. o^ft. 27. (c) S(i. Binomial. 15.rty8. It. 12.  11. 92. 15. 1. 49. 4. 57. = ()501. 3rf 27. . 33. Page 18. . 22. 4 y/ . (a) <> sq. 17.. r:A 29.r 2 .. Trino inial. 42. 28.4  2ft 2 33. //'. 14.4 ft.a . 31. 3(c4a). ft.r f 15. 21 a 3 4 10.q 4.. 30. 15.  0.1. 21. 25. #1111. in. .94(>. 9. 36. 17. 24. = 81. ft. jrif 4 9. 20. 0. . 11. Monomial. 3. Page 7. 19. 27. 16. 38 ab. Page 23. 8. (r) 2G7. a ft c. 3. 2.5 (ft) sq. 0. II... 104. I. 0. 18. 12. 3 . 9. Polynomial. 26. 13. ft f 19. 7. 22( 19. . ft n. 22. 16. 5. 3. Page 31. 30. 29. (ft) $40. 8. (r) 78. (r) 2000 m. 20. 13. . 4. 35. 32. 38. 2.'J.
1. 25. . .  a: 2. 35. + 8. 4. a 52. r.Oa: + 10. 15. Page 44.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 34 39. 2. . 2. 4wipg>' 27. . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. ar. 10. 51. x  + 3z. 2 2..a'2 .  b. (w4w)(ww). 16. + 6. !  </ . 2 3. 11. ?/i 13. 43.h. 24. j)(g1. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . a' 4ab + ?/. 21. 14.11. 2 4. 8. Page 8. 26.2 a2 2m 2 4.2 . _ Page 30. 30. 1. 18. + a 2 f 2 a 4. a  49. 7.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 1 4. 55.  G J8 r  4 a <?.1 .aft. 2. 24. '  . 15. 3 m.5. 2m + 2w. 4. 19.  23. . w* ( . 21.a . f ft 9. c2 . . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 2x 4 a 13. 18. ii\ 22. 2 3x f z. 4 21. 1 + 45. 17. 22. 2m. 42. 11. 37. 2. 24. 10. G a bd. 34. 32. 4ft ~. 5. 10. 13. 2a. 7. . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. a + a. 2. ( 7.6 x + 0) 16. 26. 36. 2 6. 2 a 37. 10 x.2 ft 2 r2 10. f 2 ?/  2. Page 7.3x 2 2 tf. a. x a8 1. a a.x f 1 2 . . lOrt 15w4.  b* 4 r 1 .  4 b 17 y*. 2. 3. .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. a 3 . 7  a + 2 + c. 20. (2n' 43p 47 ). 6. 8. ab a.r 2. 2a: 2 4x. x3 . 20. _5a<>&43c. 2.  14 afy .4 d. 5. a  ISjfat. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. . 4. a). 814. 26. w 17. 13. 29. . 16. c. a2 9. 19. 12. 5x 2 rt ft. 3. s_r>a5. 1. 25 47. 17. a 10w. 50. 28. 56. 4.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 7 a5 1 . a 6 2 .c. 6. 7. a4 4 4.8(c + a). 32 w 2 w. 8 + 2 a . ft Exercise 17. 3 a . 20.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 8 8 . 36.'U4j>. 5. 3 a3 & 41.3 6. 18. . 33. 21. + 2y. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.  1. ?/. 58. 31. 2.2.4c 3 8 8 J. m*  n*. 25.5 z?/ + 3 y . .a*. 1. ti. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 40. + 4 c. c. a + (ftc4df).  17. 12. 2 .(2 x2 . 22. 11. 2 17. 15. ?> 22. 2// 16. 0. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 1. ?>4tl 53.a f 54. 4. 8.ws 2 ft) . 3 Ji 8 . 4r 2 . ri\ 18. (mn} 11.4x. 19. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. M + 10.abc. G. 2 .1. 14. 2 + a4l).2 57. mn. 12. a 3& . 31. a2 24. . Page 28. . 59. ^ <. 14..(7x2 Ox2). 1.7.4. n*. Exercise 16. 7.2 a. 2 y' 4 . &. \ :{ 2 a 48. 9. 2 2 2 6. a 4 + ft. 8 . :5 41. 38. 8 b.r. 5. 6. (yz~d}. 0. 364c. a 3a 4 2 &. 2. 3. 4. 24 b 46. 10 m. a f 2 f 2 9. 2.  12.l. 2 a f 6 414. 5 2 Page 29. . (5x47 3. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 14.a~. 6. 0. 25. 7  # + 12. t). 12.
25 x* + 25 x + 20 .12.16 x2/ 5 4. 4. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. . 6. 15.20 xyz . 18. 42. 19. 24. 20. 8. 3 a 2 46. 21. 360. 28.21 a 3 c2 21. 27. 2 2 2 . 84. Page 36. 30. 20. 23. 15. 15. 90. s 9 ww. 25. 3 a 3 . 2 . 04. ll 2 i. 15. 17. 20. 2. 11. . 16 lb. 1. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 4 a8 . 11. 2 ). 108. 33. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 34.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 210. 15 q\ 6. 30 n?b*c*. 2 * 80 . 36. 24. 29. 10. 19. 22. a 8 . 18a% y. 25. 4.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 26.44 aWc 16 abxy. a. 161b. 2 w +2 2 . . 11. 4 fc.15. 1. 19. 1. 32. 12 x2 2 . 29. 60. 102. 16.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 1. 7. 9. 21 a'&c. Page 5. a + ft. 33.. 28.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 25.32.>(/ r . m. ?/ . 2 a2 (y 2 . 18. 4 7> 4 :j !} . iSx8 . 15. 13. 18. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 24. 38wiw. 33.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .2. //. 28. . 3.14 xyz + 14 a:y0.r% 2 2 ry. 27. 8.64 190 p6.8 12. 16 51. . 108.14 w 2 2 . 14f 5. 3. Page 3. 1. 66 8W 34. 16.19p" + 19^ 10 . a. 13. 4200. . 3300.1.28 p'^/. 14. 30. 8. ..21. 2 ll9HH 2) + . . 3. 17. ^^ = 20. a: . + 7. 5aft(a 126 2).7(50. 2''. 4. 127"'. 216. x2 xy42^. 83 In + 1 n*. etc. a*b*c. 2. 7. + 58 . 1. 40 r 2 . 2*8f x2 6x4. . 9. 2. 18. + O4 66 .18 w w + 10 WI M .11 xyz . 4. Page 7. ft 17. 32.25 + 14. 6 . 9 13. 16. 21. 7.6) =a2 31. 4 a2 . 4 jcy*z*>. Page 35. Page 38. 12. 30. 26. ci 5 . 23. 34. 24.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 0. 23. 31. 16. (+3)x6=+16. 25.. 4. 6. 13. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 .16 a 2 + 32 a . 9. f 26. 4aWy. 10. 23. 13.26. 24. 37. 18. ! 2. 343.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 7. 13. 17. 4.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. fa 2. 3(*+0 + 2). 21.19 + 2. ?> 4 . n (a6) 125. 42. 29. 16. 2 ). 12.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 76 8 a' 1 .. 18. 10. 3. 1. 60.36 35. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 20. 7G . 31. 14. 29. a.12. 52 + 6s 12. 64. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 1904. 22. 14 m 2 . 0. 22. 161b. 5.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. . 28. 20. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 1400. 5. 216. . 8. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. Ox a 5 . 6". 34. +. 6. 30. ISartyW e*f*tj. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 8. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 30. 18> ^* = a . 14. 20. 19.:>/ . 12 ^. 6. 12. 8 . 2 7t A.32 y s s G . 66 39 k* . .000. 27. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . . 30. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 27. 35. 120. 10.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 20 aW.6 2 . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 2. 770.57 p6 3 2 4 25. . 15 lb. 22.(3x2_4^+7). r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 30 j9 jt?g j . 25 4 4. 11. 17. 27.14 . 14. +15.
2 . 4 . 36. x4 28. ' 46. a4 4 ?/ . Page 12.000.008. 25 a 2 6 2 . 42. 8 38.001.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 12 x2 .712. 33. 32.4 12.2 x + 2 x. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 27. . . (n 2 5. ^/> 8 4 . 15. 29. x*2^f I. + 2 9.15. 2 .25. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.20.6 xy . x 48. x 2 f xy + 9 41. (p 2. 10.54 p 2 + 81.m 30 6 4 1.5 ~ 81. 36. 2 j3 Z . . 36 a 4 . (w4)(w + l).p132. (a (3 54. m 2 . 53. 29. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 441. 36.ri 17. 14. ab.14 jp + 49.1. n + 2. 25 25. . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 2 12. 2 +10s281. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. .8. 4. . ( 5) O5)(w + 3).3. 56. r. 33. 52.020. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 26.201. 3. . . 10. 10 a 4 ?. 27.^. 2).994. 7.6 x2 13. 25.^V"' . 9.r . 24. + 12. 6. 55. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . y. 39. 41. + 4 a +4. lflrt 2 8 + l. 11. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 7 . 6.x2y22.4 a&+ 4 &*. 1). ?/H)0. a + 25. 24. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . . Page 39. 2 1: 21. (a + 4) (a + 2). 4 . 31. 10. 7> . 8.4 n. 37. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. + 3)(3). 14. 9990. (m + 6)(m3). 10. 26. 57. ) 4' 6/ 49. Om2 4 6m 6. 2 6' . 8 a W . 4 + 25 q*. 5.020. 20a 2 21a + 4. 31. . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 19. I/). 2 4 2 2 64 . a2 ' + 48Z100. 45.810. 990. 15.84 a' 9. + 4 t*. 34. + 10 + 121 y*. 10. 4 2 //. +4 34. s rc 47. V + o ft . 10. x2 GiC+5. 999. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 9.2. 16. 2 fr . a + 25. 30 x + 19 x3 . 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 2 a 2 + a . ab . 3. 19. 1. x* .000. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 41. 10. 4x21. 7.r* 2 30. n2 a4 6. +   5). 10 a' 2 .10 x + 25. m 3 j) 3 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.996. 3wi2 m Page 42. . 35.098. 40. p 2 .ANSWERS 28. 4 21. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 9801.500. 40. 1. 10. 34.6.009. 40. 2 (5 a 3).004. 5.. 38.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .2 y*. 30. . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 9999. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 10. 484.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 31. 1. 1. 2 4 a + 4.. 8. a + 56. a3 0. . ^' J  7 f 12. 28. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 17. 8. 4. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 4 x2 13. 6 2 + 6lf>0. . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). . 10. 30 /><. 1. 23. 4. fo*. 2 a' y' .404. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2. +  m' 1.606. 7. 14.35 ab 9./ .r . 21 2 . 2 0)(p + 5). .^ + a? + 1.ab .6 y4 10. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 11. 9 4 /> . 44. 37.009.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .49. ft' 11. . 18. 10.16 a3 f 50.10 35. 998. 33. 2. a 2 .00 + 37. a' . p4 + . ^V^4 .2 6 + 13. 1. 166. 39. 51. 32. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). ~ 6 20 . 2 62 V2 132. (w+4)(m4). 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 35. G a6 2.
4. 18.25. 2 ? 14 . 4xy + 13 <) . 8. 2. aft. 11 4. 2 4. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 19.w. 01. 5. 9. 3. . 2.r'^ 15. 125. 1.2 <</. 5 4 a Oft. :r !>. 20. 2 4 3 9. a. 5^418(7. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. '. 19. 16. . Page 13. 14. 44.1*5 2 r 2 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. m L 4. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.r' ~ 16. a 8 4. 12. G. 4 c m .> 10.3 a 41. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 5. 1. 5.5 n*. 10.5 mp. 4 a 2 4. 3.rw f 8 .1. 3. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 4 d 2 4. 47.1. z. 50. 13.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 14.2 .1. +w .15. Osy. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 1000 1000 .  12 y 25. 13. 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . . 5. 8 x . 6.25 c . 16. sr 11. 14 r 2 . 4 ac.x^. . *3 y 4 . 3 a.2 1 //.2 2 2 8 . i 9. 5.8. 135. 15.r . .VI ANSWERS 43. 21. 3. . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.9 d. 12. c 12. 2 12. 2 4 2 x 4.rw. 8. 5. ft 17. r//.21 2 2 f + . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 17. ft.  11. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. // 19. aftc 52. 8. 4. ft ? ft' ft ft.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 13. 6./ 4. 8. r 7.  10.5 a .1. 10 ft.15 21. l 4 . 12. Exercise 27.r" 20 S? . 13.2. 17. 5. 4.lit x + 4. 10. a 10. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.2 wZ 4. 20 15. 6x 3.2 ac . 1/*. . 7. Page 7. 5. w . 15. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a 2 . r/2 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 1. 4.  5 z* . 3 aft 20. 2 ^r ???' 2 .34. 4 pq.n. c3. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . x4. 3. 3*y2 w + 1.y3.8. 2 a 3 ft.6 :rs 4. 46.  3 c.10 xy*. w 2 . 8. 2 ?/ 4. 16.27 x 2 4. 1. Page 48.10 2 + z 2 410. 8. 6. 9.8 yn . 21. j) . 4 x. .000. . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 7 r .8 y.2 ar. as _ 10 16. 18.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. . 9.1. 4. 26.3 x 2 2 4. 1.2 . abc 7. . aft 12. . 3. 13. ??.+ 77 15. x 2 + 2r f J. 2 2 + 2 a. . 2 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 4.  . /r . 9. Page 11.9 4. 23. 2. 4ft. 2 1. 13. 14. _ 2 a . 14.2 2 . 9. 1. a 4 4 ft.2 . 22.3 5. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 4.1. + 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. y 7. 12.23. 2 ?/' . 49. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .7.3 3. x 4.3 ry. ft* ft / . Page 51. 7a3ft. 12. 6. . Page 22. f>r* 4.24 . 2. 5. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 14.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 4.29.1. r ft. 2. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .r?/ j/. 8 ?/ . i 2 tji. + 3.r ?/ ??i ?). m'2 3.30 ftc. 2. 11. 6. + x?/ 2 1. 4x43?/. yfl. 8 ?/ . ?/2. . Exercise 2 a:// 26.2 ftc . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. . 4 a* 4 9 11. 75 a 2 29. 5 a  (5 ft. 24. ti'jry1 7.12 aft 4 20 ac . 2 .2 aft 4.r?/. 17. 10.3^V. 11. 1.
</ 20. 23. 7. 2. 18. / + y + a// 12 yr. 1. x + 1=a. 43. b. x = m. f 6)(o 62. 20. <>. ct. 4. 2b 22. (c) 2x. . 7. 46. 6. m +~m 3. 20. 1. 100 2. 37.100.000. = 5 ?i x 460. 100 d ct. 0. 37. 26. + 4x 3y 34. 3x  1700) = 12. 1. " lir. 17. 1. a 8. 100= ^. 9. lOx 10 + w. 29. 7x 2 Page 21. 6. 18. 4 f 39. (A) 3 x f (4 x . lO.  6 10. 60 25 1. .. l. 23. 2=10. vil 56. 13. 8. b. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 5. iL*. 22. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 4^ = 100. 3. 17. 39. ft. % 4. 32. I. 3 9. 50= L 100 15.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 1&. + f + b 2. (>. y ?>i x + 26. 7.ANSWERS Page 9. y 50.. ^ 12 sq. 6. 2. 4. 10. 38. y yr. 45.10) 100. 00. 10. 4. 12. . 7. x 2y 10 act. . ct. . 13. 17. 10 yr. 2b. f (I.(3x  700) = 5.  1$. 5. '^ . n M. 47. 2x + 35. 5. 11. 7. sq. 7.(3x+ = rraxlO.7). 6. 1. 10 a. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 35.r1. 36. Jj12.. 59. a 10. ft. X 60.  2\. (d) 2a + 10 = n.. Page 61. d. (</) 2a. s. 36. 2.  />) a = all. ft. 13. ct.r ct. 4. x 48. 3. + 10 b + c ct. 20. 100 14. 5. 2. f = eZ 2 x. Page 13. 44. 0. + 3x + 2y + 32. 10. Page 6. 28. 2 ct. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. y 100 a 24. 16. (a) ' 12. 4(a ft) c = 8. 33. 29. 4. ( a f 4. I. 15. 10 x sq.  9 = 17 a. 38. rn mi. 22. x y $ 6 yr. 16. }f. 42. 58. 14. 5. r tx mi. 25. 30. 10. 30. 6. 16. x 49. 15.6 = *. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 41. 2. # + 20yr. 11.rr2.p+7. 800 = x + 1300. 8 n  10 yr. 3. 11. 34. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 10 >_&. 24. 14. + 3 = 2(3* .ab a. "mi. y 2z p= 3 (a c. v (6) 2x. 9. 31. ? 43. 27. r>?imi. xy ft. 41. fix. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. . 12. 44. 21 2. 19. 'nj 100 a 28. 19. Page 40. . ] 2 ri 42. 33. 57. 8. (> 27. x. Page 31. 3x2. (2 a. !). m+ 11. 7. 5. 25.x700. 2. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. d + !. 40.
5. . + 7)(y3). (p + 7)(3a5&). Page Page 480 12. 30 yr. 6. 1. 18. Page 79. 14. 20 yr. 11 pV (2 p8 .000. Page 7. 15. 55..22.. 20 yr. 7 hr.3aftc + 4). 4.210^. 20. 15. 9. 11 in. 6. (a 4) (a. 12. Page Page 4. 160 lb. 14. 1200.0.3). 7.0. 70. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.. 10. 25. 15 in.000. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 6. 8. 2.000. 9. 18. 90 mi. 9. 14. 1250. 18. (a5)(a4). 19. 11 w(w' + wi . 3. Y.. 30.. 3. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900..000 pig iron.000 gold. 45 in. (yll)(y4). 4. 2$. a 12.000. 1. 1200. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 16. (y8)(y + 2). 7. 13.. 71. (a + 5)(a + 6).000. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 78.5p + 7 g ). 13. 9.11.24. 10 yr. (y + 8)(y2). Oaj(o62cd).3.000.. 40 yr. 6. 30 mi. 4. (m + n)(a + 6). 6.000 Berlin. 25. ^ . 14.5.6).13. 4pt. 15 mi. 30. 150.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 14. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 52.000 Phil. 11.(5z . 12.10. 5$ hr. 600. 78.. 9. 1 lb. (a + 6) (a + 3). 12 mi. 3 hr. 1. 2. 82 mi. 2. 11. 8. 20. 2 3 6 7. 12. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1. 72. 5. 12. 2.000 ft.2). 1. 13. 6. 15. 200. 2 2 ?/ 21. 74. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. Page 7. 7. . 05. 5 lb. Page Page 4. (y 13. 75. 6rt 2 11. 8. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 1.000 N. 50. 6. 100 1.y").. 7. 8. (ro3)(w2).3. 7. 13.000 copper. 8 in.000... 10. $40. Page 5. 5pt.7. 3.411. 10. 15. 2). 11. 67.79. 25 yr.  PageSO. 8.. 68. (z5)(z2). 21. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 42yr. 2. 5. 4. 10 yr.2. 10. 3x (3r. 2. 12. 6. 7. (e) i* + A.. 90. ~=90. 100. 4. 4. 3 (a +&)(*. 480. 28yr. 300. 5 Col. 80 A. = _?_(2ar + 1). (*4)( + 11. 3. 70^. 10 Cal. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 5. by 12 yd. 8 2 19. 11. 10. 8.8. Pace 65. 1. 3. 7a*fe(2a & l). 12. 10 yd. 17. 250. 8 12. 3. (a + 4)(a + 8). 2 2 2 5. 9 in. 3. 9. 1313.21. 2. 20 yd. . . 10 Mass. 10. 5. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 17. 24J.000 ft.. 180. 29. 8. 22. 13. ( + 4)(*2). Ib. 15. 5. 23. a a (a 8 a+l). w (/) 64.1). 9. 8. (y7)(y + 2). 20.. 85 ft. 200. 15 yd. 10. (c) ^ v ' . 14.16.
2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (9y4)(y + 4). (2yl)(y + 9). 17. (g .. Yes. 21. (6n + l)(+2). No. 4. 6. 23. . Yes. 11. 26. 32. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). + 2y). No. 31. (ft + ll)(aftll). (4 13.   . 40 x.2 by2 6. 28. Yes. ( 2 4 19. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 22. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 2. (<7 20.9*).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 10. + 5) a. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). . (:52y)(2a!3y). (w* (3a26). 12. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 22. 2). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 3. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). . 7 6) (a 10 6). 8. 216 aft. 16. . + 0(90 Page 85.* (2 y + 3)(y. 1. 9. 10(2 30. Yes. (3a. 3)(3a.2 y). (15ay2) 2 . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. (2 a? 4.3).r2). 3(x + 2)(zl).4. 13.3)(z2). Yes. 1. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 23. (4a. (a 6 6) (a 4.y4 ). (m7n) (a. 30. (13a +10)(13a 10).1). 24 9. + 9^)(oxy . 17. 103x97.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).5y)(3a. No. + 3). (2o + l)(2l). (y8) 2 2 . 2. (a + 8)(a3). Yes. 3.c 2 ). 21. 34. (4y3)(3y + 2). (3#y)(+4y). (0 (l+7a)(l7a).6) 2 2 . . 10(a . 15. Yes. 28. 21. 23. Page 82. 9. 16. (5x . 30. (w ~ n (x . 25. 5. y) (a. 25. 6. 10. 33. 19. Page 84. (6 a. (10a + ft)(10aft). (5wl)(m5). (2xl)(x + f>). 36. 2 2 15. 13x7. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 2 3 by2 Yes. + 8)(g3). Yes. . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 8. a. a .4 6). x\x 24. (m + n + 4p)(w + . Yes. 25.11 6) (a 4. 2 17. 24. Oa 2 (a2)(al). 18. (0 + 6)(66). . x(x +y)(x y).ANSWERS 16. 2 No 4. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 3. 22. 24. . 26. 12. (m + w) 2 5.y) 2 aft. 14.7) (a. y(x. . Yes. (a. 31. 8. 25. a(2u. 4. (y + 4)(yl). 29. 14. (15z2y)(x5y). 25. 24. No. (5a +l)(5a l). 20. (a a: 19. 7. 19. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 7. .+4 y)(3x4 y).1). (a 3 + 10)(a. 32. (* + y)(zy).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 17.1). 26. 9. 9. (ay8)(ay3). 10 a 2 (4 . . ix 18. 14. 16. 1. 18. 22. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (w + 20)(w + 5). . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). + y + . 9.7)(2z f 1). 35.8). 11. No. 33. Page 83. 21. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (4 18. 26.4p).11 ft)(a6). 100(x.2). (3*2)(. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). Yes. 29.  x (5 a. 15. 5.2). 10(a + ft)(aft). 27. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). + 3)(c44). y) 2 29. 10. 20. a*(5a f l)(flr . 8) (a. (4al)(a2). 35. 3a. (x + y4 )(x . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 23. (az + 9)(ox2).1). Yes. 20. 10. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft).6) 2 1. 27. 27.2 ft). (2 *+!)(* 9). 34. 4 (a . 28. 12. 2. 11. + 4) (a. f 2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 100 (a. (a (p8)0> + l). 7. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).
13. a x 3 10. (w4w) 2 1. 4 a8 . 38. (5^4. 2 k (wi 4. 3 x4 . 10. 5  (2 2 . 4 6. ( a ^)(^3.2). ( rt 23. 3x(x?/) 4.0+ 12). (2 a ~ f> b 4. Gp). 2 2 10.?>) H. (f> + fo 7. 8). (a 4. 12.3)(x 4. fi(c426). 4. 24. 2 2 3 . 28. 6.y).'/)('< 4. 8. a 4. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 42a 3 x. (^ + ?>_8). 6.7s) (2 a. 1. Page 12. ofc)( fid). a8 .w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 4. ?i(w 4y) . 2. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. n  r)(5a 10. 4 a s &8 .!) (x42)(x2).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).e 4. . Page 92.3. 6. 9. (2x7)(x 2 2). 2. 3p (^9)(j) 4).n). 2 1. 3. 7.y '2 2). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (!__/>). 39. 22. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). a 2 (a9). 11. (r420(4 10. 8. 4.1) 3.1).X 5. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).^ 48.l)( a 25. 8. .))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2(m4l)' .&). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. . 14. 8. 11.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).8) n 43*).y)(fi a .2 y). (> 1. 12. 32. Exercise 46. 7. 2 (a 4. 4  9. 35. 8. 8. 6.7)(^ {I 12. 4. 14. 7. y). 13. 20. 2.8) ( (16. Page 86.  29. 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (7/1 2) (m 41).4. (a 9. 5 x8 3.9). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 17(x43//)(x2y). 24x sy s 9.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 14. 7. 40. 8.5 m2 x2. Page 89.8). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . y6. 2 y) ^ .1). 2.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2. 6.?/). x43.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 5. 11. a 4. + 3. a + a b. x  1). . (a />. 2 . 37.  WIM. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 12.3. (16 4  2(5 n . b) (r 4. 10(2 (3 4.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 5. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 30. Page 90. (c. y(2x?/). 3(. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).r(3x' 2 4 (14. + 2 //).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 450. y )(. . ( (<> r4y3 . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (a &4.  (w' 4. ?>).b. 13 x 8 2 .y. Page 87. 42).4. 15 M. 6 f c). 2 21. (5 26.'J)(' . 15. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). ^ . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 18. a (a + 2 6). 11. l. 10(8x' 4l) 4. ( { &). 16. 2 + ..2)(x 1.36). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 4).4). 14. ( y). (x. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). . a 41. 4. r x 2 */3 .'})(c . 16. (w * . 1(V/ 88. 5.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 27. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 13( 33.42 x 4. 19. 2 8(w . (^ 7.&).2). 4. 4 3. (14. 8x. 36. Exercise 47. (m  I)' 6.?50)(xt/z. 7. 5. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 6. (5a+l)(9a). x 4.4). ah}. 7. 41. x .5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 13. 17.) j). 15. (5 31. x(x f y)(jr . (. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 9. (x//.
18. + &)(&) ( . (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 30(3 2 (a 15. + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. x 12. 6a2&(rt6). a 10 25. b ! 21. 13. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . + y) (a: y). (a2)(a + 2)2. 2(2al) + l).6). 11. // m+1 !+*?. +8b a 4 3 / ^.ANSWERS 10.  1). a 23. x 22. +5 1. x 24. 1).
^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.50 ~ 1/2 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. _*^p5_^^_. + 2H 1 ^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. A^.  **/* + 84 _. 28. w1 + ac w 4 7. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. xy 43. i^.. 7. 11. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 26. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. i. 4c 10. . 4. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. + lH + . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . c 8. 2 a. ^~ 29.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 1. Page 100. 6. 6. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . ' 2 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 0. 4 L 8 2 . 6a5f^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 30. a 5.
40. . 4. 21. 1. 6. 3. 11. 39. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 1. 8. 21. 6. 37. 16. 1. 3 7 i o. 11.^U\WF### X<6. 4. 3. 12. 34. +3 ( + 15. 1. 12. 7.  10 X + u. 1.L+ft. 8. 9. ?. 18. 6. a. an 18. f Page 107. 11. Page 110. Of. 6. 5. 4a3ft. 29. 14. 26. 15. ^_. j L . 1. 10. 25. 0. Page 106. 5. + f. (>. 9. J. . 45. 5. pf n 6 1.  V o 4. 35. Page 111. 5 be _J_. . 2 47. ' 6. 15. 7. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 44. y(x + x ?/). 16. 36. ^i 11. f 7. 8j_m 7 3. 15. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 4. 1. 32. . 38. 2ft a i m x. 3. n 16. 9. a 17. 2) 19. flf. 12 28. J. 0. 1. b a f +c 14. 42.^_. 23. a2 2. 33. c 8. ! 4 20. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 7. 10. 46. 3. 13. 11. 4. 3. n m a + 13. 24. J.ft . b 2.y 7. 1. ft. 6 . 30. 20. 21. 5. 7. 43. n . 3. A. 19. 14. m 9. 14. x 1. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. I) 2 3z 1. x 05m ' 5. Page 113. 4. (y + (z 12. 6. 31. ?+_!?>. 17. 41. w^x 2 b Page 105. 17. 4. x\. 27. 11. 4. ac mp lf> n 12. 1.
 C .. 4. 7. 1:3. 27. #V ~~ 34. 5 25. after 18. 19. 9ft.11. 300. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 16. 15. 38ft min. after 20. * 7:9. f. 20. 17. 4.001. 6. 10. (a) 12 hr.0 & .x + y. _JL. ft. 1:1 = 1:1. 1^'. 1:1=1:1.9. 9. 1: ~. 3.004. after $12. 4. ~m . . [>> ^ a .. 24.. 11./hr. Page 117. 11 hrs. 7. () 2.0. 10. Page 125. nm. (a) 25. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 13. 10. Yes.002. 26 30. (c) 8300. ANSWERS 16.000.. 8. J ^'.138. 26.000 1 = 23. 300. Yes.. 28. 4. 7T 2 Page 116. (ft) (r) 8 hr. w 18. 8. . 7 . 9$.000. 30ft. 11. 1:4. 10. 22. 00. 7. . n 32. $30. 14. 18. (ft) 104. 15. 3. 10. 31.. 10. 14. 15. 8. 17. ^m . 0. 7. 26 mi. (ft) 5 da. Page 118. 21ft min. 14. 21. Page 119. (a) 4 min. 500. IV s.000. 20. 17.} da. 9. 40 mi. (c) 2 hr. 3. 7. 4fl M_. 40 yrs. ^p^ r ~ 7. 3:2.. 275:108. 10. 35. Yes. Yes. 7. 8. 4. 2. Yes. .  29. dn ~ mi.  + .XIV '/ . (r) 3^ da. 15. $40. $00. 6. 15. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 15. 12. '"I 22. 5.139./hr. 1. (d) 500. 18. 1 : 12. 5. 11. :2. 30 yrs. 19. 12. 5ft 30mi. 34.2. Yes. 16. 9.15. (ft) 28. P+ ^ 33. 1:1 = 1:1. 7} 18. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 1:1 = 1:1. . 13. 3.10. 9J oz.. 4~r~ n .000. 5. 3. (d) 4 da. No. 1. = A's. w 44. 1. Page 124. a 4 ft. 5 2.137. 16. 2 20. . 18. 2:1. . 6. 75 . 24 mi. xy. 2x:3y. 23< &n b ' . jj. 36. 5.003. w 21. 8. 13. 10 yrs. (a) 30. 12. 40wn. 19. 8301 hr. 19. (ft) 5 hr. 21. 9. min. 15. Yes. J. 33. $45. $0. 14. 1. 212. 30. 3 da. 1 da. " 0.2. 17. 33. 55 mi. 10^ oz. 24. f . 32.. 13. min.000 If da.. ^?i min. Page 121. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 81. gold. Yes. 10. No. 30 mi. 2. 10. 74. 3. silver. 20. 300.
6. y a y = 7 0. . ft. s<i. OJ. = 7 b'. ' 55.4. b x 37. 8. 23. 3. 2.57. 13J. 11. l. 25. 9. 5:0 = 10:12. I.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. 7. 3.5. 13.5. 2. 11. . J.2. 43. 4. 7.x a. Page 131.5. 36. ~ 1. 16. 23. 8. 2. . 8.3. 3 2=3 x. 19 3 . 25. 31J. 5. 7. 1. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 3. 57. 7. J pq. . 5. 7. Page 137. 11.ANSWERS 22. in n. (</) ft. 8. 2. 3. 21."2:1. 2. 1. 5." ^ 2. 1. water. 8. : />. 9. 19. 10.3. 141. 29. 1.  ?. a +b 1. 2. 7. lo mi. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 17.5. 46. 5. 4.6. 1. (a) Directly.  28.15 x. in. 7. ig 6. 11. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. Page 133. 10. copper. : 23.r. 2.1. . . () 7 Page 126. 24.5. 22. : .J. 11 5 . 53. 24. . 15> 9. 19 OJ. 1. 4. Page 9. 5:3 = 4: x.17. 4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .4. 47. 1 18 = 3 51. 8. Page 5. 10. 19. 3. 39. 17. 2. 9. 40.1. 2. . 2. 14. 3.a. 138.8 oz.*. 14.].3.5. 12. 3}. J. 4. 6 10 = 12. (b) C C' = fi JR'. . 2. 45. x y y . 7.  19. 3. 12.5. 35.5. 41. 3. Of. 56. 4. 4. tin. 7. 7. 50. 4. 2. 2. 9  15. 5./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 2. . 1 rt * vm^1. 58. 59. 15. "lO. x:y a: b. 24 1 (e) Directly. : : T 1' : /> : . 4. 25. 1. 20.12. . 19. x 42. 1.3. 38.1. 1(5.2. 54. 3. 200 mi. Inversely.5. w 8. 14. 4. 7^. i.li. 13.000 sq. 12. 17. 6*. OJ.1. 31. 41. t 5. 2. Page 132. 6. 36. 13.3.1.2. 27. (b) Inversely. 20 cu.. 26. y :y =.160.12. 2. 18. . 7. 22. 5 2. 10. 7. 40.20.. 30. y . 14. : : . 174+ Page 128. a 3. Page 135. cu. 48. 16. 26. 2. 9. x y = 1 = 3 2. 49. x +y x + 74 7 \. 55. jc:y = n:m.3. y 1.7. 9. /. 2. 5. 3  24. 5.22. 2. 13. 7. Page 136. 32+ mi. 5.3.3. mi. 4. 20.) 31. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 32j. 2. J. 20 20 J ^.4. 3.000 sq. $. : XV 27. + W. 2.4. 5. 30. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 4. land. 945 11 10 . (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 2.840. + 7>i//  ft 1 . \\. 2 n .C ?/ a . ini.' : : : : <>. 16. 3. 3. 1. + b 7 .7. (I. 12. 2.2 oz. 44. 28. 2. 52..3. 5. 11.15. 11 w a 13. 21.3. . 4. 127. w. \. 8.2. Page 134.46. () Directly. 2. . 9.4. mi.9. 7. 7. 3. 2. 6. a~. 6. 4.3. 7. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 5.36. *. 1.2 x.J 3. 6. 3. 15. 9. 9.
SL=J o ft r^2. 1. 2. 6. 3. 9. 4. 30.4. 1. Oct. 2. u 2ft. & part of Feb. 6. 13. be 7. 11..10. ad AzA.7. 1. 2. .2. 20. . 9. 5. 12. A's 50 13. 28. 2.  17. 5. 23. 2 a.$5000. 8. 7. 29. 16. 1 (d) Apr. 10. 25. ad _(?jrJL. Page 142. 20 & Oct. Aug. ' . 30. 90. 32.0. 2.$2000. On the x axis. . m f 9. = ^ a Page 141. (a) 12. B's 40 yrs. Page 146. yrs. 15. 11. 2. 5. 11. Apr. 16.n + p. 4. 22. $900 5%. 1. . 2. B's 15 yrs. Jan. 1. 15. 15.1. 0. 25. 3. 10. (ft) 20. 17. 24. . 23. 19. 3. 7. 20. .3. 5. . 10 sheep. 2. 18. 3. 20. Page 143.3. 4. 12. July. 9. 3. 1. 6. 8. 7. Nov.l. 100. Page 152. 9. 16. 3. 1. 2. . (5. 13. 6. Page 22. 2. July 20. m . 4. J. Jan. (ft) 23 J.  Zn  "(^ll 14. ^. 6.8.. 7. ' 6 3 a. 1. 2. Jan. A a parallel to the x axis. 2t2. 2. 423. 147. a =J (n  1) rf. 14. 5. 16 to July 20. 6 cows. 12. Apr. 20 to Oct. 2. . A's 30 18. 7. 3. 3. yrs. 6%.3.. 4. Jan. (<f) 13. 20. 5. 9. 3. 11. & part of Sept. 2. 24. . 11. 1. $500. 3. $6500at3Ji%. 10. Apr. at 15. Jan. 00. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3.0. 11. 5. 4. 26. 3). 2. 3. 40. 14. $ 1000. 18. 1 (c) Jan.  11. 2. 1. $3000. 26.. 3. June. parallel to the x axis 0. Nov. Page 151. 3. 18. May 5. C's 10 yrs. 40. 3. 10. 21. . 6. On 11. 7./hr. 3. 7. 5. 8.4. 7. 0. ft 3. 4 mi.^. 5%. 6. Page 153. Feb. 21.2. 8.1J. 4. 4. $4000. 14.9.1. 0. 1. 17. 27. &. 2. 31. 4. 16. be 10. (a) Apr. C's 30 yrs. 24. Nov. On the y axis. 16. 17. 25. 12. About 12f. . 1. Page 149. m f 8. 10. 10^ gms. 19 gms. 6. 3. 18. 4. 7. 3.65. a. M 2. 4 ' q. m + n p. 72.. Nov. 24. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. The ordinate.33. 3. July.XVI Fagel39. 7.. <*ft/ bd 1. 5. 4. 19. 9. 4. 20.4. 13. 25. & May. $250. 4. 23f . 2 horses. Page 145. through point (0. 4. (c) . 16. 5.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 2. . 3. 12. 30. 4.
3. (a) 5. 3. 1. 1. 25. xy..3. 15. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 3. jgiooyiio 17. . . 12. m. .. . 30. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 5 and 2.59. 3. 3. 19. 5.5. f12 wi 9. Indeterminate. 9. 18. xg . 2 a&m Page 167. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. (e) 3. Indeterminate. Page 159. 4 ) 21.6. 4. f. 28.24. 2.73 ami . 125 16.73. f.34F. 5. 3. .79.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 16. SlstyW 7. ft 2 4. ImW. 1. 2. 5. (<?) 2. 24. +3 4. (/) 3. 1. 1. 2. 3. 1 4. 2 2 22.41 and 23. 8 1 f f g*. (a) 2. 2. H.7. ft . 6. . 18C. . a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1.27. + a 4 ft* . 10. ." 23. 27 27 81. 2. (ft) 2.5 (ft) 3. 1.67. . .25. 21. 8mW.1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2. 3.  1. 19.64. 1. 1. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 2.75. 10. 8. 4. (c) 14 F. 2. Page 164. 15. 12. 4}. 27. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. . 1.. 17. (ft) (ft) 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. 83.25. . 1. 5. 13. 20. 13 . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 8. 13C. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 1.3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. G.2 (ft)  1. 6..64.5. Page 163. 32F. 8. (ft) and (d) 2.24. 24. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 2. 4.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (ft) (d) 2. 125 a 8 12.83.24 . . 3. . ' :=_!. 3 .  . Page 158.25. 22. 1 23. . 26. . 15. 3. 8 a1. . 5.75 (ci) 3^. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 1. Inconsistent. 11.  12 ft xW  26 31. a 10 ' a ll V&. . 3. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.84.25. 20. 5. . 5. (/) 3. 3. 10. 0C. (c) 7. 9 and Page 166.59 .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 14. 7. 1. 11. 1.73. xW. (e) 2.79. . () (rt) 3. 2ft4 Page 168. 2. (a) 4. 2. * 16. 14. 3. 4. . 22. 9. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 14. 27 19. 14. 15 . H. 3. 1^. 2 l. (c) 2. Inconsistent. . 1. 13. a 29.1. . 3. 0. \ft) 5. 4wn8 + n4 5. a + ft.75.83.75. 3. 10 C. f 10. 3. 2.  1. . 1. 2. 4. 30. . 4. 2. 2. 1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 4. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 1.4.73. 125a 28. 3. 13.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 81 ". 2. 2. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1.41 and . 3. . (gr) 21.25.13. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (a) 12. 11.
57. (3a. 7. 763. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2 2 4. . 4.5). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. wi 8 + 3m 2 . I 8x2). 84. 8. 25 19. 2. 70.i c 6 15. 13. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.r 2 + 6jt). 3. 6. ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . 5. 36. 2. 71. 33. (Gx + (i + 2a. 26. 8 /.  +X '. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. a. 90. 1 1 ?>). a. a 2 .10 a~ + 5 a . 20. 17. 34. (1 (x2y).037. 3. (a 2. 9. (48 + 6. 11. + + ?V 22. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 7. 1. 12. 17. 21. a: l . + l). 13. 24. 15. +35. 35. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 32. 0. 2. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 11. 1. (a + y+l). 14. 12. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 6. ^i.83.a b 22. . 6 (\x 3.GO a c + 23. 23. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 7. fe *?>' ?> fi . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 72. 25. 18. (a + 2 +l). 1. 3 6 23. 180 .f 1 m 9 16. 5. 00. 10. 16 6 w . (7 (2 2 3 2 16.+3^ + 4. 2 2 7. 2 4 8 2 . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. AN S WE no . 19. 30. 101. 2 49 . 300. 247. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 5. 8. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 3 2 ^. 76. GOO 2 c 2 . 5. 5 5 8. (ab + c).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24.3 ab + 2 2 ). r> 4 : 1 . 9. . + 29. 15. m 13. 17.94. 40. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 4. rt .7 /)).2). 18. Zll. (ly). 19. ? : 1 . 3M. a ). 20. 978. Page 170. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. ? . 8. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. (l + x + . + i)). 21. 28. 31. 2. Page 176. 1247. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 420. + (win . . 15. 3 2 8 3 12. 5. 6.1. /> 4 ). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . ??i ?i . 16. 18. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 14. 10*. 14. 12.XV111 7. 3. ( Page 174. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 16. 20. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 2038.^). 22. 2 12. + Z). 1. 237. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 8.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 6. + y). 119.5.x ). 8. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 16. 10. 14. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 20. 10 x G a 4 . c 10 6 :l 20. (4a2 9& 2 13.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 3. 6.6. 27. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 90. 309. . (x' l). 64. 9. 9. 11. Page 171. 30. . . 2. .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 4. 4.y2 ). 9.1. 9. 99. . 98.  x. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. Page 172. 15. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. (x + y\ 90. (2 a + ft). 11. +3 + 5 4. 10.
. 5. 6561. 24. . 21yds. . 10. Page 180. 1. 26. 6. 10.  f. 44.  43. 6. Page 179. 7. 7. V J l. 4 n.4. 12.Sn. 3. 7. 11. . 4. . 1. 33. 5. 20. If ^. 3. 23.6. 7. 12. . 9. 15. 2. 13. (6) Vl4 3. 22. 11.. 3. 25. 14. 4. 5. 7 in. 9. m. ft. 2 sec. 5. 4. 36 in. >i 27. 4. * 1. f ^ is. Page 177. 270 sq. 1. 3. 6V21.18. 15. 2. 46. f 3. 29.. i. 5.*.645. Page 181. 2. ZLlAiK 19. 33. 12. 2. 3. ^.. 20.4. 24.5. 25 J. 15. 4. 37. 14. 4..}. 1&. 2. 6V'2J. 21. 15.ANS WERS 22. 16. 48. 4. a + 61. V. 39. *. 2. 1.237. 9. 9. . 8. 10. 41. 6. 10. 28 in.690. 49. V2. f f V. a. 23. 14. 1. 15. () 2.005.w 18. 1. 12. 30. 13.i. . 4. 8. 12. 40. 9. 50. J. 7. 9. 11. 2] see. xix 26. 9. 21 in. 5. 5. 6. 7. 3. 2. 8. 5083. 28. 28. 12. 15 1 10. \/3. 1 7. v 17. f . vV'TA 24. 3. 10.236. 4 TT M 28. 1. 19. 6. Af^. 17. 29.  3.6. 6J. 5.  f.  5..a. 12.1. 19. 4 W**. 7.6. 2. 5. 18. 36.916 yds. ^^7m. or 5.V 8j. 27. . {. 11. f. 1. 10. ii :J _7.13. >TT 26. Page 185. 16. 8. 3. 2. V35 1. 3. 5.6. 20. . 31. 10. 3.4. 4. 21. / 11.5. 7. Page 183. 40. 13. 7 45. 17. 31. 39. 4J. ft. 14. 6.. 7. 32. 2.243. JJI. 7. 13. > w ft. 16. 1. 2. 2. 5. _ iVaft. 4. 29. (< + ?>). 10.925 ft.?. 6yds. 5. V2. 1.469. 21 28 ft. f. 4. . Page 184.6. ~ V^3. 39 in.. 3. m. 42. or 3. w. 3J. 8. l~8..522 38. 23. 11. 3.935. .367. 7. (afl). 4. 32. 27. 14.  14. 21. 5f.798 yds. 4 a.60. 5. 16n. V17.. 10. 18. 34. 12. 13. 47. 7563. 17. 6. 8. 1. ft. ^. 34. }. 25.  2. 2. 6. vYb. 16. 36. 6 f !. 35. 7}. 3.742 in. i ^.  1. 1 f Vl3. 9 15 ft.. /. 5. 37.1. 1 38. " ^_ 22. 9. 30. 4. 3. 35.
0. 16. AB = 204 ft.  24.. 1.  6..5^. V7. 8\/2 17.2.7.3.  Page 194. 6^2 in. 2.a. . Imaginary. 50. 2. . 9. 1. 1. 32.2./hr.4. 1. 2. rational. 1 . 3. 0. 2.2 x2 . 27. 64c. . 0. . 3. Page 189. 14. 0. 6. 53. 55. 36. Real. 10.1. 8./hr. . 70 ft.* 2. 0. 0. 1. ' 1.2. H. 2. 3. 3. 3. f. 3. #<7=3.  1. 28. 2. x2 + B . U. 3.2. 2. 12. Real. 28. 10 mi. 20. 3. 6. 4.  1. 0. 12. Real. 4. ANSWERS 22. 20 nii. 27. 7. 1. 5. 24.XX Page 186. . $80. 3if.7. 18. 16.l. 15. 5. 35. s 11. 3. 2. 4.4. 7. 10. 1. 2. *'' 12. 5. 1. . 38. 11.2.0*8. 23. 4. V2.37. 6V64. 25. 4 da. 25. 23.  5. 3. 3.23. If.  i. %.  1. rational. equal. 14.a. '  f 5. 48. 52.5. orf. Real. 8. 9. 57. 0.4. . 8. V^l. 44. 3. 5. 2. 0.70.  2.$40 or $60. a + 6. 4. Real. unequal. Page 192. 120 ft. 21. 7.5 x + 6 = 0. 21. 13. 3. 18. . . unequal. 0. 7. 17. 2. 41. f 6 52 a.  1. Page 190. 5 ft. 7. unequal. 20 eggs. 2.1. unequal. in. 2. jr . . 7. 10. 25. 7. + 11 x. unequal.02.2. 18. . ^l/>> = 85 ft. 26. . . 4. 27. Real. 4. _ 19. Page 191. 29.3. 19 in. 6. 10 in. unequal.Oa. 46. 3. 15. 1. 2 ft. 47. 56. 58.  2. i . 34. 35.2.12. 3.41. 22. 4. unequal. rational. rational.48 3. . 3.. $30 or $70. 2. 24. 1. . 2. 2. unequal. 6. 2. 0. 6. V ~ 16 4 2.  13. . (5 10.48. 16. 0. 2. 49. 33. 25.10. 12. a8 . 8. 28. unequal. 1 3. V^l.17. . 11. a. VV11. irrational. 1. V^~2. ./hr.. 12. 10 or 19. . f. x* 51. v^^fcT"^. t is. 6. Page 187. 1_^L ft 14. 9. 19. 1. 3.. 6.2. a. . 2. 26.  9x <). 3. 5. Real. 23. 4. 3. 3. . 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. i. 3. AB = 3. a + 1. 64. 6. 1. 6. 1. 40. 37. 15 ft. 1. = 0.12 = 0. 3. 26.4.  5.4.2. 4. 2.59. 20. ft. 20. equal. 2. 0. Imaginary.'. 30. V2. 45. 1.2. Imaginary. 21.1.  1. 15. r* i. 8 or 12 mi. 43. 2 V3 in. x*4x=0.7. 13. 31.6. irrational. 2 .. 7. 42. Real. 0.74. Page 188.23. 1). 22. 26.a 3 a. x 14. equal. 6. 24.62. 0. 12. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 1./hr. rational. 2. 9. 1. 39.6 = 0. 1.]. 10 mi. 3. 1. 2. Imaginary. 0. $ 120. 19.3.
*V. 25. 3. 1. 24." 17. J. 0.6. 48. z + 22. 7 .32. 49. \/r\ 11. 2. 33. 10. . 6. 1.  J j. 15. 8. . 60. 12. 3. 0. 4. 40. 4. 16. 9. 6  AAf. 3. 20. 18. a. 1. 7V7. \/3. Vr. 8. $7. 1V1. J. 20. 50. 3. v^T4 m. 47. &. 49. Page 196. i. Jb \. 12. _! V3. 3.  5. \. 53. vV. 'J. 43. 19.  f..1 5 15. . 21. 10. 1. 3. 4. 13. 8.  f . 44. 9. 1.//^. 24. xxi 15. 2. \/. . 0. 49. 2. 41. 17. Page 197. J 3. x.^7. 17. v'frW. vm. 42. 36. 59. 37. 5. 23. I. 22. 16. . 16. 21. m'. 1. . 28. 32. 39. 13. 2 L ( V. 14. 38. 55. 15. n\/* Page202. . 22.ANtiWEUS rational. fx'^z'l 23. 21. 6. 56. 46. 5. ) 2 >J i 10. Page 200. p. 29. 10. 2. 10. 35. 14. 30. 24. \ . 1. 7. 3. 8. 45. 5. Page 201. 4. m. 5\/5.  48. 2. J. 2. 28. V^ 34. x$. 243. 33.17. 1 39. 9. 84. 2V a. 25. 19. y . 9. \. 4. 47. 23. 29. J. 14. ^Sf 3 38. 7. 2. 11. 1. 50. 7. 3. ). 1. 12*2 61. 4. 54. y. : . 58. \a\ \/^. 2. r*. 49. 8. 19. 3.  a'2 . 3.2. 27. 16. 51. l  5 12. 31. . 25. 5. 13. 13. jV 10. 2. 33. 1. 5. 8. JV37. 14. 30. ? . v. ^49. a 18 . 15. 4. 5. 29. 8. 57. 2. 125. 8. . v/3. 4. 9. 3. r. 18. 3. 19. 1. 9. wA 46. . v'frc 18. 31. 32. aW\ 40. ifa. 27. 11. 17. 30 a. x/25. 20. 18. 3 4 11. 20. 2. Page 199. ar 1 . (m 26. 26. 1. 52.
+ + ft. T. Vr 8. + 1. 37.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. . 30. ^7 \AOx. 34. (a 27. / V3. V. 2 x* 15. 19. 41. 03r* 7.577. 2. 8a6V5. 2. 20. 9 . JIV6. 21. y. 38. l 5. 3 a~ 3 (x (. abVab. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 2. 13 35. 8. Page 207. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. ftV 46.r. 26. . 49. y (a + ft) V2. 3. yV35. 39. Page 208. a 3. r c . . . 7. 9. 48. 7. 29. 15. 11. .r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 43. 30. 29. 34 r 6. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 6. v^. 19. 2. ?tV?w. v'TM. 27. 50. 11. 2. 10. 3 \ 39. V63. ). 5 ( . 28. 13 a. ^88". x^ . + 2 ar 1 ). 25. Va 2 "ft. 135V6. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 1 2 or 1 ?. 3. a^ + 2^+1. 4aV^J 16.Vxy 35. 10. 3^ + 2). Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 20&V6. 32. x%  3 ^+ 1. V2 + 4 V22. . x 25. k/2. 8V/) 15.XXii ANSWERS 1. 62V(J. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 4. 9. Page 203. 9. 3^2. 12. 1.rV:r. 2>X2. ^: V2c. 51. 16. a 4 +* + !.  a Vft 2 121 b. r 17  Page 204. 18. 17. V 5 47. 8.692. 3 x^y 33. 4. 40. 5 22.2 VlO. m* n*. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3. 20. 2.632. 28.x^y* + y%. 31. 33. 17.3 + 40 3 . 23. + 2 V22. V80. 6.648. 45. x. 3 4\/2. + . V. 1) 3V3. 32. 195V3.2 18. 101 1. 22. 2 a?>V2 a. 3V^T.'\ 14. 37. 2v (T 2aVf. x + 5 x3 + 0. . 2\/7. (x' (l 1+x). 13.  2 3:r. 13. 26. x y.. 5. 24. 3V5. . 2 '"V5. 31.707. 24. x 7  34. 40.). 11V3.f. + 2). 3 42. 36. 16. v/^r 5  A/^~. + Vic + 25.yl : . 5. 10. 21. (o* 2. a2 4.
31. 51. 6. 4 >/3. 12. 2. V/. x/w^ 8. 38. 52. x/27. 3. 6aV2\^. 11. v7^. 0. 2. 2 ate. "v/wi ??. 27. 3. a\/5c. V8. 44. 3 V15  47. x/125. vT). r)\/(l Vrtr. V3. 4. + VlO  v y (5. VJla. 5. 6. 13. a^\/a7>. 14. \/128.r v/^ v^fr*. 5 \/2. 3. 34. ^27. . 2 28. v^4. 8  \/15. aVa. : ^32. 15. x/4. 16. 38. 43. 9. 12. 74\/Jl 120 46. . v"5. "^8000. 4VO. V5. \/2. % 29. 32. ^\/3. 17. 3\/2. ^ 3 b 5 24. VT5. 36. 15. 6+2V5. \/8. \XOfl6Vi5. W). 2. 6. 16. m ?i2Vm/t. 50. 41. 1. 8. 24. rtv/5. 18. 23. 23. 3. .  3. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 4 a*. 5v/2. V3. . 1. x/3. Vat. v/l2. 18. 33. 42. 35. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 2 V'3. Vdbc. fl^Vac. 3 Vl5 30. / \/w/t 4 13. 2. Page 216. 19. x/8L v/27. v/9. . v/i). \/a6c. 29. 2 \/2. '.T*. 35. 40. 39. v^30. \^6.. w?i. V2. 37. 1. + 20. 3. 21. 32. \^r^bVabc. 22. ^v 7 15. 26. 3v^2.30 2. 2\/7. 34. v^lf. 6 2\/0. 27. 6. 19. 2 1. 28. 6. 10. v"3. V3"m. 11. 2yV2?/. 8. 9. 8V73\/IO. v^O. 7. Page 210. 6x2?/. Page 213. . .J Page 212. 10V(). 20. Vtf +3+ 33. 17. 5V2. x/8l. 26. 30. 17. 8V2. \/abc*. 9 VlO + 4. 25. b. D 45. v 25^4714 V2"a. ab 4. 30 Vl4. 4. 7. V5. 39. v^f. 3\/15  6. 10. 49. 7\/(l 7VTO. 31. 5V2. v^a. 40. 8v2T 12. 22. 7. 2. V2. 21 23. a2  b. 48. v/lO. 6V2. Vn. 18. 5. xx 1. ^9. 24. 32m27n. \^6. x/8. v/8. 4\/5. Page 211. 14. 11. 0. 53.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 3 V2. 13. 14. \V3. 21. 3\/wi. 36. 13\/3. 5. 10. 25. 16. Page 214. 1V5. 46. 9. 37. 14c 4 V5. \/04a.
7. 23. (Vf + (4 V2). nVTl. 1. 8. 36. 18. 25. 13. V3.5. Page 218. 4.64. 9. 22. V35. 8. 14. .625 10. 1. . (2. ^r.1547. . Va. 8. 21 ' Vob 26. 14. 5. 26. Page 219. 24. 16. \. V2. 23. Page 223.4142. 19. 17. V5. 21. 10. 3V23. . Page 28. V.  f. V3. 30.464. 15. 21.732. 0. j 15.3. 19. 4.1805. 3. 30. + 5V2. 2!5_. 5. 8. V3. 4. 8. 15. 22.w 6. 2V3. 4. 4. \/57t. 25. 224. 28. 5. 4. K>/0 + \/2). 9. 5. 1. J. (V21). 16. 4. (VllV2). 18.\/TO). 8.81. n*. 2. !^ 6 4. 14. 25. 21. 100. 9. 24. ANSWERS 8. 3. 13. 16.601. p 6 13. (V8 + V2.2. (V51). 25. 4. 216.389. A . 23.  2. 20. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 5. Va. i^Lzi. 125. (2Vll). 4. 16. 4. 6 (V2 + 1). 2. (2V2). 1. 31. 9.6 V3. 7.2828. 5. 25. 14. 1.6. 4. 5. 8. _^JflJ?. 12. xy 2.4722. 1. 64. V6c. 29. Page220. * 3. 6. 27. 4 14. . 4. 22. 2 . 20. Vf6fVtf.7083. 6. Page217. (V6 + 2V2). 32. 1. 5 + 2 vU 17. 17. \/3). 5 V65. 24. 9.9. 3(7+3V5). 81. 19.2. 17. 11. 33. 7. 3. 13. . 19. 35. 7. 4V3 + 6. 19. 4. 23. 2.1. 26. 81. 2x^2^. 5. ' 22 i . 25.^ (\/22 4.0606. 16. (VaT^v a). 12. 18. 1. 11. . 8 V3V2. 0. ^\/2. (\/3f 1). j. 512. 12. 2. J. 16. fV2. i(Vf Vft). 12. 9. ^(VlO\/2). 25. 7. 6. 10. Page 225. 2V2. . (2f V"5). 4.  . 11. ^.  13. 10. 9. x 20. (3+ v/2). 1. 10. + 6) 2 . 2. 11.13.3. 17. 1. 12. 9. 7. (a 1. Page 226.732. 18. ~ Vac _c 0. 27. 6 V. f. 5. 24. 7 f 5 4. 27. 16. 9. 6. m f. 20. 7 Page221. 3.7071. 10. 5 f. 10. 11. 11. 2V3. (\/5V2). . ^. 29. 10. 20. 37. 2ajV2*. 15. i^ ~ 1 v ^. (V5f 5. 2. 2. . 18. 16. 4. 7.. 9 mn.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . V^TTfc. V3 .3535.XXIV 7. {. 15.5530. 8. .V3). 3. +3 V2). 34. 15. 3. 23. 12. 6. 3. 1. 7.
17. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 0. 25. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 2. 12.12. 12. 5.3. . 1. 4. 28. & + 6 2 ). 3 5. 4. 5.  1. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 16. 1.ANSWERS Page 228.3. 2 > 1. 56l). 3.5. 2. 1 .3 2. (2 a.3. 4. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 4 4. . 2.  2. 17. 6. 1 . 19. 3. 10. (+!)( 2) 10. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 20.Y. 9. 4. 5. 2 6. 1. 4. 6. . 1. 5. 2. 11. 13. 3.w 4 + 1). 9. . 2. a  . 1 3. 3.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 6. . 18. 4.2)(m. 4. 8. 30. 5. qpl. 7. 0.1.nl^EI. b . 1. 1.8a 18. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (a 4. . 1 . 23. . 2 . 100. 1 . 0.2. l.3. ' J. 0. . 3. 1. (m 4 + l)(ro. 2.5 xy + 25) 22.  3. 16. 25.  16). t/ 23. . 5. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). (pl)(p3)(p6). 22. Page 233. 13. P. 2. 4. 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3.  J. 3. 3. 6. 2 &. 2. J. 9. 7. 2. 3 . 7. 3. 7. (a . 21. 2 6. 15. (a+&)( 2 14.  5. 4. . V3. 4 20. 5. 12. 3 9.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. (4 mn . 20. 6. 73. a(. 3. 22. (pl)(p2)(p2). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 4. 8 6 & 0. 20. XXV 4. .22. 3. //. 2 <? 4a2 . 10. 30 30.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 4. 3. (r. 3. 2.3. 2 . 2. 13. 1. (8. 5.  1. 4.2. 3. . 1. 11. 13. 1 (?> x/^3.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2.2)(* . 15.  . o. (xy + 5) (x*y* .  3. 17. 12. 14. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). . 3.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 13. 2. (a. 4 . 14.. 24. 8. 30.3.l)(m . 3. f>. 7. 4. 4. 1. 6 2 2a + 2). . ~ f7. . . (w . 1 6.1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 0. 1.4. 1. 5. 15. 1. 5. 5.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).r . (B43). 4. 2. 5.l)(a3)(a . 26. \/0.0.10. 0. 2. 1. 8. a . 3. 4 1. (a. 2. 2. 3. 0.4. . 11. 1 . 3 . 4 . 10. . 3. 2. 2. 1. . 10. 73. 2 . 5. 4. 3. 8. 2. 21.7. 5. 2. 8. 12 24 y . 11. 3 .4). 14. . 2. 4. 2 V^ . 1.^a. 25. 2. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1.  f . 6. 4. . 24. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 2 . 7. 50. 19. 3. 7. f . 10. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 10. 3. (63)(6' t 18. 1. 2. 2. 11.3). (&y2a#H4). 19. Page 236. 1. 6. 87 . 11. 1. a: :} . 2. . 18. 30 . J Page 235.  4. Page 234. . J 24. ( 16.4. =A^Z3. 25. J. 4. 3. 2. 12. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 7.  3. 8.2. 0. (rt. y.
. no co . 5. 3 . ft. 18.4. 20 7. . tn 2. . 8 . 5. Page 244.. 4. Page 245. i i i . 4. 13. \/6. 4 6.6. V7. 40 1} 9 3 ft. $VO. 2 16. 40 in. 5. 2. 7. 7. oo. 1. 12. 8ft. 1. 3. Page 241. 11. 2V7. 17. 3. 1. 5. f. $46. 9. 4. 4. 1. 40. 2. GO . 32. 2 . 11. 5. 11. 26. '>. 30. in. 2 1. 2 ft. . . 1.. 33. J.13. 5 4.y.200. 201. 6. 400. 1. 1. 1. 12. 9. 3. .4.136. 55. 22. in.0. 4 .5. 3. (a) 5. 2. 84. 11. 4 8.1. 1. c. 41. oo . 2. 12. 38. ft. 30. 2. 9. . . 512. 9. 3 4. 28yd. 4. . 22. 2.  11. 17. 4. 20. Exercise 114. 2>/3. 2. 5. 12. 19. 3. 14. 3. Page 238. 0. . 35. 1. . 20 in. 2. co . 31. 1. 7.18.6. 12. n. 1 . 37. and _ 4. 12 ft. jj. 5 . 17. 17. 2. 50. 8.. 8.e. 14. 2 10. 35 a.  . 1. 21 30. 3..xxvi Page 237. . }. . 900. 15. 1. 5. 7. 14. 1.. 4. 11. 3. ^~2. 2 Y> V . 4. 6. J.3 . 3. 1. 4. 3. 5. 17. 8. 2. . in.3. 35^ 5. in. 10. 7f solution. 5. 1 . 15. 1.3. ANSWERS 2. 78.. Indeterminate. 1. 4. 6. (>. 21. 7. 35 ft. 5050.3. Page 243. ri*. 1. 5. _ 10. 3 .3. i j. 9. . ' j. 8. 10.. 4. 3 3. 23. 15.4. (/>) "_.1. . 12 d. . 3. 3. J. n .. . 21. . 10. Page 240. 2. 16. 12. 8. 12ft. 4. 3.30. . 2. 14. 8. 2. 36. $. 2. . 1. ft. 24. } . ( 3. 3. 4 34. 37. 4. 5. 4. 2. 6. 14. (a) $3400. \. (&) 2.. 2. 3. 1. 3. = QO 6. 30 13. V3~. 3. 4. Page 248. . Indeterminate. 5.1. 1.. 3. 0. 24. 50. 4. 125 125. 14.4. 9. 1 2. . 1 . _ 13 (0 6. m + n. . 0. j. 2 2. 3. 2. . 1J. . 1. 5. 37. 45yd.3. 4. 15. . 25. 5. 5. 2.3. oo . 48. 2 . 18. 3.2. m27. 15. 512. 17. 69. 6. 18. i'ljVU. . 3.  1. 39.5. . Page 247. 3. 29. 23. 4. 1. . 3. 1. 2 26. 2 . 5. 40 25 in.  2 . 5 cm. 1. 1. in. 1. 3. 19. 3 2. 1. 1. 14. f*. 12 1. 3 . 2n. 4. _ 7. 2. 15. 5. 4. 3 cm. 11. 16. $. . Exercise 113.020. 2. . 7. f>. 7 3. 3. +  n. ^ }. 1. 13. 3. 2. 7. 5. 1. 16.3. 15. . 20. m28.0. . 8 3. 13. 1. . J. 288. 31. 4. 2. Page 239. 10. _ 5. 4. 8. i. x 4. 8. 1 . 3V5. 2. . 1 .
in. 0. />*. 3. 18. 43. 13. 18. 8. 27. 16. 2. 4.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7 x4 17.680. 9. 3. 22. 6. 3. i 10. 21. 05. 35. 3. 5. 6. vy. Ja. a4 4 14. 220 .6 . . \ w 4 . c. 1JH.  101. 5. 70. 708. 1. 1. 280 53. G. 8. 1820. 4. . 4. 8 . 1. 3.<2 4. ^a 8. 9. REVIEW EXERCISE . 3. Page 254. 2. 1. 327. 1 7 4. 1. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 2. 6. 5. 22. 20. 6. 8 4x' 2 . 6. 0. 9. 2. 5. 17. 75. f y 8 + z* . . 495. 5 13. 3. and 1. 0.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 0. 70.2 45 a 8 /). xxvii 1. 9. 4.120.5y 4 . d. 28. 8.0. 3. 11. . . 6. 3. '23. 19.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 35.870 m*n*. 2. 4. 19. . B .5 x. 27. 8. . 0. 15. . Page 252. 27. 21. 15. 6i. 10. 8 1. Jj? 45. 10. 4. 7.ANSWERS Page 250. J 2 //2 25. 5. 1. 7.4. 304. 12. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 45.384. 5. 005. 4. . 1 14. 4.5.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 10.1. 12. 6. x4 . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 8. 16. 12. 3.192. ~ an . 3. 7. 12. 128.3 ays. 12. 2. 192.504. 16. 8. 7. 2. 15. A. 5. 44. 4. 2.8. 2. 11.r* 4 70 . 20. 7. 50. 70. 8. ?/i 6 x llj . 4. ~v 9. 1000 aW. 0. 15. 26. 4. } $ 50. ' 1. 9. 7. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . . &' 14. 7. . 23. . 13.^ ?>i 2412x4. 18.170. 4. 9. 04.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 8. 10.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 2. <. 27. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 13. 3. 16. 11. sq.r 4.12 x*y 16.x' 10 . 10. 55. 20. 45 Page 257. 7. 12.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 2.920. 1.5. x r 4. 4. 120 aW.470.  20 flW. 14. x + Vy. 343. 12.700. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 17.7 10. 2i* 7f. 405. 10 14. 100. 410. . (). 5.2 9. JSg. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 10. 12. r r j. 18.v Page 253.4 &z x>&. 25. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 4 0. Page 258. 4950 M 2 b y *. 48. I. 0. 45. 1. 16 11. . 04. 53.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. Page 259. 5. 3. 19. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 4. a.419. 5. 910. 16. 81. 125. 1. 1. 16. .13. 15. 1. 6. 5. 29. 105. r 5 4. 6. 8. 2. 4. 343.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 0. 32.53. 17.6.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . **+. 2. w9  8. 8J. 4. 125. 4. . 8.  17.210. 0. y ^ 5  ^\ ).5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. Y11. 16.r x>/ 7 3.
6 c 47. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .3 103. . 70. x 3 41. x2 2 . 8 . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. + z. ?/ . . . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 1 . 16t/. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . ft n . x' . 4 69. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 104. .x24 73. 3 a . 5 4 4.3 b . 2 x2 4. 4 Page 264.6 b. 2 x'V2 90. 96. +^ + ft W.41. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 46. y 4 z* 0. 2 .a' 'ft 4.5. ^ .a6 2 4. . 43. 122.ft). x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.a 2 x 2a . 24. . .1.18 ?/ 5x4. 4. 2 . 50. 39. a J .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. a 3m 4. .  3 x2 .c. 31.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 4. .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 86. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().x4 + y'2 z 4.  12 a.2. x 8 + x 4 68.^a . 0.x 51.1 4 jry 4 x . . .fee 2 4. 63. a* 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 132. x' 79. 120.2.3 . 5 42.4 x 2 .1w 77. 3 a 5 a 5.15 4 62 x  72. Page 263. I 57. 93. df. 61. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 5x 2 2x43. x* .1. 4ft y3. 3 c .a. 29. c3 4 58.5 b + c . 7 + 3 xf 2. !! 71. x8 x2 55. 107. 0.4 x y 87.1. ft2ft 4 4l. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 64. 2 x2 108. 10 4.2 c . &p 84. . 3 a 44. 2 30 . a' 111.4. .18 x?/0.{ 54. 38. az 4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 80. 1 + 4 xy.c 3 4. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. (a + ft)" 98. . 130. 118. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. () 2 x 33. 4. x2 471x4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 114. 16. x } 4. 3a'2 Page 261. 25.3 aftc. 76. 131. m " + n + P3c . 105. 125. 37. 5x + 2y~z. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. . 2 113. 72.3 x 2 + 3 x . 28.y*. /> 4 83. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 99. 82. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 32. 1 a"* 4 an . a* a 8 a aftc. f5+7. 4 2 . 30.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 35. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 40. 21. 0. x 8  a8 . x2 a2 1 . 100. . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 2 53. 4 15 x 5 . 10 a 12 b. 124. . x 2 . 2 a. 2 q.a'2 c. x 4. a 4 . 66.3 a'ft. 91. x . + 3 a?. 2 2/' .x 2 4.2. 4 ! .  e +/. 52.2 xy + 4 y2 106. . 133. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. * 60. 6 8 j27 40 ab.5 a 2x8 x 3 .4 ac. 4 fee 4.c.  + 3 x2 . 12 x. 94.9 x .2 x^. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 36.4. _55_7c 48. ?> .5x4. 9 2w 128.9 b. 27. ?/ 3.  .3 y. 22. t 81.4 x?/2 3 4. 243x4729.xxviii ANSWERS 19. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 4 . 12 a/.4. a2 2 aft 2 2. 6a6c.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.x. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.7 x   15. 13 + 2 s. . . a~b 89.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 102.105. a4 x. Page 260. . . x 3 4. 3~ n 4. 26. 9x.. 8x3 8x. 62.3 a 2 '6 w 4.7.a*ft 2 126. 3a~2c. 14 x .1.5 3n 4. . 127. 49. 1 121. ft /> 78. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.  4 a3 85.2 x 4. 23. 4 115. 1 x 45. xyxzyz.4. + a 4. 110.4 2 4 c2 42 .rty x2 4 123. 2 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 109. x4 f + 23 . as 20.ac 44 aft. 3 36 b c . 6 a2 97. . 4 65. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.6 am b\ 129. 88.
3 y)(a .11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). a. 147 mi. 1. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). a 2 (15. 167. 173. 136. 12.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 2^. Page 267. aft.6)(4 + 6). 235. (233). 48 h. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . a(a. 147. 239. a + 2x2 ).y + 3)(r (. 205. 157. 15. 218. 219.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). (r7y)(ai.r + 4). + 3) (x f f>) . (2a + l)(a . (. 24. . 22. (2 198. 169. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 142. 1. 12 yr. 154. 140. 181.y)(z .y). 2(x8)(x3). 160. 10). 237. 3. (at (4 a +!)( + 3).l)(y + 1). (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). .y2 ). 226. . 220. 216. 32 h. 208. 152. 215. 3. Page 266. 168. + 11) (a 10). p. 209. . k. yr. 178. 23 18. r>x 2 (4x.3). 1.2. 10 ft.I2y). 3(x . xxix 139. 19. 184.3) (2/3y).1). + 22). 230. 6. (JT y 225. 2. +)(x2 x^+2. 190. G7. 183. (x 227. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 206. as 194.6 . (?/+l)(yl). 15. 2.2ac + 229. (a 2 + 2a6.1(5) 200. 146. 214. 6). 212. (/ 246. 201. 159. . 179. 189. y 245. 12 6 panes. 10). (3x2?/)(2. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 174. 143. (3x  . 20. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 5. Iff 145. 30. 202./_4). 10. 244. 151. 148. ?.m)(x + a). 30 + xyr. 144.. (y7)(y + 188. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 163. 176. 138. 199..l)(x8 + x2 . (a& 192. 1. 162.1). 195.2) (3 x . 8 204. 156.. 158. 2. 172. 240.4xl). 153. 15  a. 75.3 y). 2 2 (a. 1. + 7)(rt4). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (6) 40. C3 y _l)(. 238. 50. 222.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 2 xy(3 x . m. 1. 170. 7. 193. ft.r . 40 yr.9)(xf 2). (7x2//) 203.y)(jc + 7 y).  1. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). x(x + 6) 213. ( jc // a 2 (a1). + 2) + 9a. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). . 155.2). 2a(42ft)(2fo).2). z(x10)(xl). p. 166. 236. 36ft. 150. 218. HI. + y. (x + 2)(x .l)(a 2 +3). 21. (x  42 yr. (x . (y_24)(y5). 191. 247. 2.2 )(x+y) 228. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. y  y 165. (y 7f))(y 196. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. (7 c 2 ). y3. fc'2a+62c). 4. 177. (a} 59. 207. 233.ANSWEKti 135. 217. 149. 37 1. 8(ar}(/)27). 224. 1. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 232. (y _ ft)(y 4. 2. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .y) (\r3y). (ab + 8) ( 7). 12. 30 yr. (x^ + x1) 234. 10 in. 185. 182. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 12 yr. 2 (4 x . (x + 6)(x6). Page 265. + 3). 18. 171. 137. 164. 161. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 4. 6. 197. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 187. 180. 211. 241. (r^x + 1). y. 12) (j.1). (c) 160 C. 186. 20. Or (a + 2)0el).6) (2 x + 1). (8x + 3)(3x4). 1. (5 x . 175.. (y  17)(y + (>). 231.3. 210. .
268. 249. 250. 7 x 265. ? 1) 302. 261. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 263. 43 '^rJ'. 3). > 4. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 256. 305. 303. 7^T 2 . 2 4 300. 279. 2. a~ ' b*).4). x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 0.^^^^^^^^. 254. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 2 x  3.4) 1) (3 x .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. (7 255. x 283. 306. 3  262. 4 5. 295. ?^ZLiZ 308. 10. 3. x12. 269. &).   .1.^ ^^. o. 301..(x  4) (x4 304. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 3). 0. o(x4l). a. ^ 299.  3xyf x// 257. + f. 298. 260. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.  7. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 259.2* i^^ !^. 7. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. x 267. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 266. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x . 307. *>). 310. 258. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ^/>J. 5. 264. 251. x ?/ z 1. *.
360. 1. ^_:r f> 331. 1. 401. l'j. 396. . 325. 1. y 4 I 340. 389. 406. T+^. 404. 2 ). S. <L 409. 13 391. 366.1. . 4. * 357. . 1 i 2 ^. j 328. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 0. 2 r36 384. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 336. x 54 359. A^L5L. ^"" 4 s . L . 3. a +6.(5 a .J . 9^. 6a.XXXI Page 272. 397. 4 rw. 407. 375. (a + b + c\ . + 335. 3. 2. 324. 2 ab  a Page 276. c 402. ^ 3 // .  1. 400. 408. m. . 390. 386. 329. 339. 343 00 351. 20. 364. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 6 ?/+:>. 2(a i 403. 326. 383. a) A^_. ?/ + 3 332. _*L'L+. 7/i ^ _ .)Cr4)__ . 1. If. ab. 380. + x 362.!.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 382. 376. 395. 0.  1 356. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 394. l . 355. 11.". 0. ?>*.. + 4 & 4 \ b. 3. 365. 392. 388. ?=. Page 277. 387. " 4 378. 2(q. 379. 7.. 1. 4 A. 2 ?/ 363. a 2 . 377. 2 327. 385. 2. 370. 4. . 333. 334. 393. 12.vin a /r " 337. Page 274. T\. 0. f. 361. 399.7. a + b + 6). . 398.3. 405.
454. 466. 8. 2. i.1. (c) not true. 450. 494. . 456. 5. 5J. 496.m  m+ M in. . 410. 5. <L+ 6 (. 1$. 481. 487. * . 2.7. 452. 445. 10. 462. 7. 472. 4. B $ 2500. 460.0. 40 oz. 425. 20. 6. .  7. (a) 1. . c. fj. m. 447.  505. 33. ^. 441. 1 a /?$+&?. 1. 480. 412.}.  10. 435. 455. 476. 461. 477. Page283. A 5 mi .2. 10. . 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 17. 5. 479.4. Page 278.  7. . 10. 428. . 32 yr. i a b 451. : />a. 495. 8. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 446. 7 : . ft 5. 10. 420. 5.  2. . *+. 51. 12. 6.te + . $2000 at 0%. 419. 432.0. 24 days. 448. 0. 421. 502. (d  6) f. 499. ISjmi. 8. . 1. I.  1. 6. 20 yr. 413. m 1 : wi. 2. 8. 468. 2. 50. \. 457. 500. ISJini. 501. a 22 . .. ' $260 at 0%. . \ 1. 436.vz in. 497.2. 423. fc. 3 . 1. 467. 482.  2. L2 a  6 .4.3. 3. 10$. 498. 4.55. 422. 7.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 0.. 478.7. . 10. c 6fc 10. />c c(f be. 486. (&) 443. 458. 5. 5. . B 4 mi.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 2. 483. . 4. not true. 2. 53 yr. 0. 90. 21. 2 438. 2. 6. 442.46. 2. . 22. 42. 464. 2. 40. 9.  . 493. 6. 2$. .  2f 504.3. 427. 444. L (c) I.rz Page 279. (&) true. 18. 418. 2. ^r?i 434. 14 miles. . b 449. 485. 440. 4... ^V. (a  c). 10. 465. 17. 430. 507. 63.}. Page 280. 0. 0. 0.7. 503. 2 a 2. 3.12. 7. . 463. 6. (d) true. + () 433. & 491. 28 yr. 490. z8 +?/ 3 431. 3. a* 424.. a + + ft c. 459. 32. 11. 84.7.489. Page 282. '. !L=4. 7. 506..488. 1.  f>. 6.7. 7. 484. 10. 0. 508. . 426. 411. 492. 3a 4 5.  453.  2. 429. 1.  1.5. Page 281. A $ 3500. 439.
31. 5.53. 568. 4.37. 3f 4f. If 572.f 1.78.0. 4. 532. 3.25m. 3 da.3. g(rc+ 6c). 3.6. (c) 4.25.. 583. 3. _^ 2754x . 551. H. 1. . 3. 3. . 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .15. (/)  10 to 8. 2 .  + + c.8. lead. 582. 2. .75. . xxxin 511. 4* da.24. .56 sec.9. + 12 x . 591.15.   (h) 8. 3. 1.  (a) 2. 1. 536.  4. 2 . y 4. 4. 1.10. a f ft + c.12. Page 288. 1.2. . 593.55.6. 4. 0.7. 567.6.31. 5.1.04.4. o> .8. 514.62.0. 8. 115 Ib. 3.  557. .1.4. 560. . 4. 24.3.73.16.83._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 8 mi. 599.3. 525. 232. 581. 3.51. 574. .05. 1. . 577. .75. 531.24 sec.3. 4. 575.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . a+ Page 286. T . lead. a + ft  a  f c.  (a) (d) 1.5.02. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 3. 3.04. 24 da. da. + 26 + . 2 imag. 1. f36a28x8 592. 528.. 556.83. 526.00. 598. 3. tin. 6. 2. 2. 529. 4.3. 2(4 602.4. 4. .7. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 2.5. . 4. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 0000. f. 516. 1. ft 584. 1. . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 27 y* f\4 .03.03. 7. . 555.4. 533. (c) 3. <z ft 1. . Page 285.35.  .6 2.8.3. 1.54.78. 579.3. 1 580. . 31.  7. 2 10. 559. _ 4.0.30. per hr. 2. 603. 564.1. 566.  1..2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.1.14. (6) . 1. 2$. .  2. 2 1. Page 287. 2 1.54.21. . 553.0. 7^ da. S82 c. 6.37. ^ ft 4. 3. or 8. 3.20. .5+.ANSWERS Page 284. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 1. (i) 3. 515. imag. 1. 2. 561.% rr\* 585.1. 1J. 40 Ib.  J(a f + 2c). f ? a f ft __ + c C).xj/ f xV . 550. 5. 1. . x8 . 1. 1 . 3 . 2. 1$. . 1. .. 4 0.10. (ft) Ill Ib. 21*_.52.8 x3^. 565.5.5. 1.02. 512.  3. .3. 1 600. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. Roots imaginary. 2. 1. 14.4. 5.4 x + . (a) 74 Ib. + 6 tf f 3 . .  2ft da. 552.15. M ft c 2 ft 3465.02. 563. . 2(6 597.  ft*. 1 . (gr) 10 1. 6435. 513.02.24. 4 mi.38. 1.1. 1.  imag. 518. (ft) 4. y% Z * 586. 578. 510. 571. per hour.88. f. (e) (c) 2. . (d) 537. 1. 569. tin. 554.r8 596. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 527.5 f.. 558. 2. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. J7] min. 530.6. 576.62. (6) 3. (e) 570. . 3.4. 573.5. 2 2. 1.8. 509.33. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.7. 562. _ 3. > ^ .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.
645.3f l 668. K 5 2 V2. 632. 2f. 657. 691. (a3&45rj. b. 703.. 616. 642.3. 2 x 44 ^/. 7003. ix 2 . 607.a~ {Z 663. 1 704. 2. 630.3. . + ~^'2 + a 1.  .b 686. 646. V^~3). . a. 5. l/'3. If 658. 1m*. 2. 683. 701. 2092. 4 V 0.  684. 618. /> 4. 708. 636. J^^. 0. 702. V"^TJ. la6 2. 641. b 664. 0. 2. 1. 4. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 617.b. b . 631. . ' fe 2 ). 1. 78. be ac \. 8 6 fo . 653. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 4330 da. 2. 651. 620. 1010. 2. If.25. 623. 652.  4. \. z  1. a + b. 670. 3 681. 25. fta a/> ^A.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 677 680. 660. 644. <T! . 7.  6. 635. ' 674.002. 700. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. If b. 690.  4. 703. 637. ab. 621. 1 V5 1. 698. 1. 640. Page 289. 4. V7.3.  a2  a (ab). ab 689. 654. a 1J.  3. .049. 2&).  1. 6. . 0.3. . 624. ^. 612. 6. ft). c. 10. 627. 3.XX XIV 606. 656. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 2 ab + a  &. a 4. n^l +^. a 673. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. . 629. / V^+lO^M"^.14 If 1. (*_ + a: 611. 679. 615. 14. 2 a  6*. 50. 8.43^4.2f Page 290. 626. 1. 898. 3 a. 1 2. 13. 0. V2. 662. fe + a. 628. 5. 2 a 688. 12.. 650. 4. 696.y. If 665. 9. 648. 5. 4$. 655. 614. 608. i. . I}'/.001.c ) 697. 678< 682. 2 a: 4.  ft. 25. 706.702. 2f. ^. 2. 1 ~a . 2. 625.>A 610. 692. 672.f 3 V^3). 613. y  619. 11. 971. . . ^^ 695.303. o. 11. ^ 1.001. 0. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 647. 5. 2. 5002. 2. 633. 4. 1$ 639. 705. . V2. 666. . 3. 009. \+ab 699. If .  2f r 659. 5 3. 669. . 634. 7. 3. 661. If f 667. 2 / 2 4. 649. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). a 2.0.2f (5 4. 3 x2 . 9*.203. . 0.04.  13. 6 685. if 4/> 671. 638. 622. 8 f 3. 4 676. 643. a ' 2 + . 210.
718.12 af V^ 4 744.V/^ 741. 721.^.8. 3 720. 1. 3V72VO. 792. v'll.11. iv/Jj. 300. 716. 737. . . 34. 736. 713. 3V72V3. i 2. 773. 30\/10 764. .V2. 8. mn.4 . 722. 24V2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. y  1..^ 743. 33^2. 24 4 . 1. 788. J(v'lO2V 791. VT14V5.10. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 715. VIO\/3. 719. v/7 / . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. x i f^' . 32>/2. 732. 29\/3. 729. 342V3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.2.. 778. a 5 . 47. + < 735. 2 V2 . cr*lr*. a db Va^T < 45da. VV> L4V34. 777. 00. 13ft. 750. 753. a". 739. 731. fyaw&cu.9. 7  3V5. 767. 782 785. 740. 709. 4 104 v/2. 746. 5. x\y. 796. . 712. 794. 3. 3V52V3. 25. 3^. 717. 3 VlT 795. 1 747.r+y> 759. i^. 724. 734.ANSWMHti Page 292. 758. 751. 2x3^ a. 1^ _ 760. 730.rJ w L 754. 714. 1 [ + '> J. 39. 5. a:* . 749. ^ . 776. j 742. 59. 755..r. 728. 723. 789. 727. 763.~ . 15 shares. a 2  x2 . 793. 8. 738. 710. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 17ft. 1 I . 711. 790 2v 3v 2. Page 293. 769.4 . ^7xy. Page 294.. 2\/53V2. > 748. 725. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 1 752. 726. 24. Hi a. r.1 . 3V7. 733. a 2 6^. 1. ^ ?>. rt3 2 ^i^. + 6 2 tf'c.257.9. 768. T%. / 787. . "V313. 756.
2.+ m f ") (a* ). 4. $. 2. 0.rae) (4 . . 6.4. 4 . 811. 20). 3.  1.r4).4. J V. 834.y) 852. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 5..1). (a 1) (x 4.. 2. 812. 11. 3. 858. ^. . 2. 882.. 857. f. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . ^VG. . 890. V 3. Page 297. 1. (:r 11. 872. 836. (x3). 886. m = 2. 7. 804. 2 854.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 868.l)(x .  + l(l^). 4. b' 2 821. 4. . . 2. (3 b . (xl)(^~3)(.25 ?>2). (3 862.3)(x + 4). 832. \/2. 1. 2 . X4 1). 3. (x 2 f r .3. 3 . +j!>. 867. x. .1. 838. 5. 11.0.1) . 0. 833. are extraneous. 859. 840.7)(4 x. 2. 1. Hoots . 17. 835. (. 827. ( 869. (x . 810. (x + 0X024. 880. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). a2 ^E*!. ((' 1). 863. 4. 826. 887. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.  839. 3.10 ab 4. . 894. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 820. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 5.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 3. (2 4. 2 (x 4*4. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 4. 1 1. 849. 2 . 0.f. 4 818. ^ V}. 2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. (2 x + 3 y} . 1. 847. 4.l)(x . 2. 4. 2 m .a 3 " 4. 893. 831. 3. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 7. 899. 837. .7). db 7. 8 09. Va 803. 898. 824. ( 4 4. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 876.a 2 2 ). o. 4. 881. jV3 f 3. 819. 842. 817. 841.7 4 1) 846. 808. 23. 884. 8. 1 . 2 2 .7. 2 .2w . 848. 2 *x 807. a* 4. 883.1)(0 865. 2/ 856.5) (x + * 853. 3. 2. 1. . 844.1) (a 8 .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).XXXVI 797. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). ) (a' 874. 896. 5. 7. 19.om 441) (a 855.7). 891. 799.a 4 + 1). 823. 822. \/5. Page 296. (  ?>) (a + ^> .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). a 42)(x . **.2 ax 4. 1C. 0. 851. (2 a . 5). H. 895.r . 10. (a m . 813.2) (x 4 2). 2  2.  ' . 3. 17.3. 6. (x 845. 2 j 889. 829. x . 2 806.  tt 815. $. m 875. 800. 4. 816. 4. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 879. (4 c 4. a(ft)( 873. (1 . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 814. 825. 6+V7. 2. 14. 830. 892. (x 4. Va. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 6 $. 5. 897. 4 885.5 b) 4 1). 861. 25. 843. o 828. 6. (x 2 . 48. (x*y*ryz + z*). 3.l)(x + 2). 888. .1)(V 2 . 4. 8. (2x (r. 13. n =  29. 801./>") (a'. Hoots are extraneous. (a 4 871. . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 7. 900. ANSWERS 798. (x . a(ry + 864.4) 860. . + d)*. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 3.
80. 941. 8. 902. 0.073. Va926. 4 . i(6 in. 985. 6 1 1. 1. ft. 978. i 8. 983. 4. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 2 yd. 6 . 496. ft. ft. f. ft. 950. . 931. 15 946. 2. 7. 2. 951. 1 1. 984. 0. . 40 16 in. 938. 280. 11. 980. a + . . 933. 7 ft. yd.. 4. 8. 909. 8. J. 2 w 914. 6. . 7. 1). 905. i1" 913. 66 924. tt2 19. ft. 904. 5. r ft ' < Page 299. 4 6 mi. S07.  1. T3. 956. 964. 960.  26j.709. 15 16 ft. 5. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 28. 919. 954. T 6. 987. 1. . 943. '3 3 in.760 sq. 4 in. 962. 935. 2 ft. 961. 977. i 3. 2 i ' a V. 4. 8. V5 T 2 . . 111. 73. 4. 60 949. 7. 5 . 2. 5. 911. 912. =F J. . 1 2. 963. V^3). . i>. 11. . 480 8 sq.. 947. 14 . 920. 3. 925. 940.. ft.1. . 100 rows. 9 in. J(_ ft. 5. ^y. 8. Z ^. 12. 945. 6./hr. dL 4. V5 fj. w. 2. 2 1. .0. 981. 12 in.. 1 _2 . . 937. Page 303.446. 11.  1 . 0. 3. 2. 932. 8. 952.. 979. 6 a 915. 2.651. Y. 957. 5. 921. 333. 982. 986.. 20 19 ft. 959. 955.V~~3).2. 7 or 30. 8128.1. 6. T 6.615.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 4. 922.. 8 . 918. 939. 5l4f. 6. . .. 18. 6. 927.2. 108. 2. 28. 3). %* .111.I. 2. 11. . 948. 6. v/(ai !)(&910. 8. 0. 1 + V953.. 2. 3.. 3. 4. . . 12. . 1. 333. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 2. 1 . 906.. 10. 3 . Page 301. Page 300. a. 329. 916. ... ?/i 6. ft.744. 3. w 3. 6 da. 942. 56. 12. 6. 917. 930. 10. 12 mi. 958. 8. 4. 944. 908.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 115. J.1 = 9. 3.01. Page 302. ft. 4. 903.. 3 4 . 28. .. 923. 4. 934. 3. 7. f ft 4 . 936. 4. 248. $(l 4.
9 da. . 12. 997. 192. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1012. ^f (2f3V2). 1000. . 994. 1017. 120 i^l^. .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1018.51. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .128 I.870 z8 . ~ \. 4. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 72. 1007. 1001. 162. 1006. 1008. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 0. 993. 120 a. 1005. 992. 1016.192rt?)r 120 *. r = 2. 1019. (6) 8(1 . 48.92. 1 8 8 2. 996. (5. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .'^^ } ( .. (Z>) 999. 12. 1014. 1(5. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). ^Trsq. 6 70 . 990. 991. 3003.870 a 6 1011. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1010. 2(2 v/2). in. 0. + 448 . Page 305.378 1015. () 12(2+V3). + v 2). 1003. 24. X. (J. 1013.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 8.. 108. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 988.378 <W and 92. 1009. 4 and 1020. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 995.18. 1 1004. Page 304. 2 .  5&7 1021.
and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. etc. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. so that the Logarithms. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xiv+563 pages. $1. HEW TOSS . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. and commercial life. A examples are taken from geometry. Ph. than by the . proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. physics. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. i2mo.D. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. comparatively few methods are heretofore.25 lamo. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xi 4 373 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The more important subjects tions. given. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many work. save Inequalities. Half leather.
but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. physics. 12010. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Logarithms. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Ph. HEW YOKE . so that the tions. etc. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. $1. save Inequalities. $1. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.25 i2mo. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The author grade. and commercial life. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xi f 373 pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. In Factoring. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. xiv+56a pages.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Half leather. comparatively few methods are given.D. HatF leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . State: . Cloth. 9. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. NEW YORK . wor. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . SCHULTZE. aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Half leather. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. $1. xii + 233 pages. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. lines. i2mo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 7 he . izmo.D.r and. Ph.10 L. SEVENOAK. 4. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. under the heading Remarks". $1. . 6. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 10. iamo. Cloth.
methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. and not from the information that it imparts. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . of these theoretical views. 12mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. $1. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . . New York City. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.
All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. diagrams.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Cloth. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Topics. photographs. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Maps. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. diagrams. $1. and a full index are provided. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. i2mo. " This volume etc.