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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD.
PH. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
COPYRIGHT. 1910. . . May.A. July.. January. Berwick & Smith Co.S. Cushlng Co. 1917. IQJS January. Reprinted 1913. 1915. 1910. 1910 . September. Published Set up and electrotyped. U. 1916.' February. Mass. . 1911. May. September. August. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. J. 8. Norwood.
shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Such a large number of methods. chief : among These which are the following 1. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. however. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted." this book. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. and conse .PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. etc. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Elementary Algebra. owing has certain distinctive features. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. specially 2. are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.
two negative numbers. however. In regard to some other features of the book.g. hence either book 4. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. especially problems and factoring. e. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. as quadratic equations and graphs. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Topics of practical importance. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. For the more ambitious student. may be used to supplement the other. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra".vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. etc. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. Moreover. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .
" Applications taken from geometry. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. is based principally upon the alge . and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. Moreover. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. based upon statistical abstracts. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. in " geometry . McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and commercial are numerous. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. elementary way. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. By studying proportions during the first year's work. physics. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. viz. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. such examples.
Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. NEW YORK. 1910. April. . pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. edge of physics.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. William P. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . ....... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors........ SUBTRACTION... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Powers. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION...
. Type V. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . . Type Polynomials. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .....114 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .... * . Type IV. Type VI. . Type III. /^ . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type II...63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. ... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . .
..... . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..... CHAPTER XIV 169 . Evolution of Monomials 170 ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
as in arithmetic. x 9. [6c] 3 . 7 = 2. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 14. V36". 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 15. 8. + 1]. 27. 26. Val \fi?. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. is 28. aVc^. 5Vl6c. 2. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. some number is . Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 13. find the numerical value of: Vff. e. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 10." EXERCISE If a 1. V2a. 17. 6. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 16. c f d). \/c. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 4(a 6(6 + &). + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 6. b = 3. (cfd) 4.g. 3. + c). 2 . V^a6. 4V3~6c. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. c = 1. A binomial is 62 . a polynomial of two terms. !^f\/03 3 ft. 11. V3 . 9. 12. A polynomial is an y. v'Ta. are trinomials.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. or 9 Vx. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. 0. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. d 7. since the parts are a . AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25.
d=Q.9. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . find the numerical value of: 9. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. l 13. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5=3. subtraction. i.30 = 270 . 6. (a (a f b) 7. Ex. * For additional examples see page 268. 3a + 56 a 2 . 3 4 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. __ E. 4 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 12. 5.e. c = 2.2 + I126. + 26+3 c. 2 ).9 aWc + f a b .19 = 6.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 4a6fVaV2^. a=4.INTRODUCTION 29.4 6^9 ad. 3.g. 2.390. 3 2 If 1..99. 52 . . 4. . . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. Ex. a 2 6. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 1. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 6. .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . a2 11. x=^.5 ax 50 a6cd. d = 0. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 16. c=l.810 + 150 = .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 8. multiplication. b = 3. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 14. 10. 5c +d 2 . Otherwise operations of addition. EXERCISE 8*  . 2. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.
a = 4. a =3. 26 of the exercise. Six times a plus 4 times 32. and other sciences. 6 = 6. 6 = 1. 24. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a. 22. 6 = 5. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. : 6. a = 3. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). . 6 = 5. = 3. 37. 35. a = 3. Six 2 . 23.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 30. 29. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. 27. physics.c) (a . 6.6 . 6 = 3. sible to state Ex. 28. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 26. a = 4. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6=2. a = 2. 30. 38. 6 = 2.6 f c) (6 a + c). a =4. 33. 34. geometry. if : a = 2. 25. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 7. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 4. 6. a a=3.
16 1 = 84. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. c.seconds. Find the height of the tree. 13. and 13 inches. A train in 4 hours. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.16 centimeters per second. count the resistance of the atmosphere.e. b. d. 15 therefore feet. and 15 feet. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. and 5 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13. 12. An electric car in 40 seconds. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 2. the area of the triangle equals feet.INTRODUCTION E. i. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (c) 4.) Assuming g . 14. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v : a. (b) 5. b 14. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.g. 4. . if v . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.
denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. is H 2 units of length (inches.14 4.). 32 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. $ = 3. (The number 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. (c) 10 feet. .14d (square units). the area etc. ~ 7n cubic feet. 5.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (c) 5 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. square units (square inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. : 8000 miles. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.14 square meters. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).). (c) 8000 miles. meters. (c) 5 F. the 3. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. If the (b) 1 inch. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. This number cannot be expressed exactly. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 2 inches. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. . In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. SUBTRACTION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). or positive and negative numbers. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION. however. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.
2326. 10. 4 is 3 J. 5. + 12. 6 6 = 3. the one third their sum. is 0. 18. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 19. d = 0. if : a a = 2. 22.16 32. lf(2). '. 23. 12. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. . EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. subtract their absolute values and . 5. of 2. is 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. = 5.3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. c = = 5. 24. Thus. + (9). (17) 15 + (14).  0. 33. (_ In Exs. 21. c = 4. 4. of: 20. d = 5.
' 1? a 26. 6. : 34. 12. 13. c = 0. and 3 yards. . 1. 34.. $7000 gain. 10. 7 yards. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 0. 2. . 36. 41. and 8 F. and 3 a. = 23. and 3 a. which are not similar. d= 3. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.ADDITION. 33. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 4. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. . 55. are similar terms. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 42. $1000 loss.. 30. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. & 28. 38. & = 15. 7 a. $3000 gain. 40. 74. }/ Add 2 a.7. 11 (Centigrade). : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. SUBTRACTION. 32.3. 43. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. . 66. 60. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 29. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. = 13.7. 10. c=14. 31. 72. 2. and $4500 gain. 5 and 12. sets of numbers: 13. 37. 6. : 48. ^ ' 37. $500 loss.13. = 22. 10. affected by the same exponents. and 3 F.4.. 7 a. . : and 1. 32. \\ Add 2 a. 6. 3. . ' Find the average of the following 34. 27. or and . 4 F. and 4. 25. . 09. 35.5. 3 and 25. 39.5.
9(af6). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign. Vm f. 5Vm + w. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . in algebra it may be considered b. 5l 3(af6). 2 .13 rap 25 rap 2. 5 a2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 12(af b) 12. 11. 12 2 wp2 . 2 a&. : 2 a2. 7 rap2. 12Vmfn. 14 . 3a .18 35. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 13. The sum x 2 and f x2 . or a 6. + 6 af . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 10. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. b a f ( 6). f 4 a2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. . Algebraic sum. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. EXERCISE Add: 1.ii. 2(af &). ab 7 c 2 dn 6. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.
4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. without finding the value of each term 34. 2 2 2 31. c 2 ^24. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 21. l^S 25. 1 27. 36. 17. 2 7 1 26. n x* 2 22. SUBTRACTION. + y. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. ra 19. +m """ 20. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. and to add each column. 37. is . Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . a a8 ZL **. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 33. + / + 3 Va. 6 23. 2/ : Add. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 30. 35.ADDITION. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 32.
7 2 .8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 2c. c = 1. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. f 110WS: 26 aft. therefore the answer is correct. the erroneous answer equal 7. 3a 2? .15 6c. to add 26 ab .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. and 2 .12 a& 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 Sum. 3.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 3 a f 4 1) 4.20 c 5 ab 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2 Thus. a 4. 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 4 2. NOTE. of that letter. to show any error.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6=2. 4 = 7. e.g. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . V3.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. x of x. 9 q 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 5 . s.41 = 3. = .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 7 4.g.8 abc . . While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 2 025. ft any convenient and c.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .o c and 4.c= 2. 46 4z 7 c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. . . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 5.15 abc .3 s. and J 2 s.
2 3(c f a). 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. a + 1> 8 2 2 . ^2 1 e. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . a 4 a .12. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.VS 4 2 Vc. . + a + 1. . and 1 4 a . 7ar + 3B 5. . m 4 6. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 2 a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. . a.a .1 a 4 1 0. 4 ajy 17. and v 15. a2 a.a 4 a 4 1.2n 2 2 3 rz . 16e + 17/90. 16. 11. 19. 56 w. + 50 + 62 . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. .10 Vc.a.and 6. a) y ^/. .3 mn 2 2 n8 . 4(a .8 m 2m 12. 18/+6y + d. 8. a 4 a . d and / 3 ? 12.9(a + &) .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. xy3xz + yz. 4 3 . 4 8 3 4 4 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .1.5a^6 f 6) .15 5.7v/if. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . .(b + c) 1. and 8 3 .a. 4 Vc. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz.Ga 43x45. and .6. v/20.7m .4 Va . 2 2 and . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. in 8 3 m n 4. 3 2 2 3 9 . and and 13. d. 2 ?ft ?/z. ?/ . . 2 2 . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.ADDITION. 2 ?/.4:xy xz 6yz. . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . and 5 Vb 18. and 12a 4 15& 20c . .12(a 4.12 6 ~5 a . 4. SUBTRACTION. a2 2 14.5 cr& + 7 6 9. e a4 /.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.
1. 1/ . 45a6 2 . . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. + n*. If you diminish a person's debts. and e + 6y . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 1. 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .11 xy + 12. . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. +d a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . + 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. T8a.m 4m ?/?/ d. and 25. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. The sum and ? 1. 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 12 xyz. 6 f c 2 23.17 + 4 ?nfy . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. is 2. f number may be added 3.22 21. 8 .3^* 2n 2 .. .4 2tn* Sic 2 . a 6 2 c. 22. how 1.ra + m. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1.9aj 2. f 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. f 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. and 2 24. s .3 taken from 2 ? 5. 2 8 n + <w 2 .
The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Ex. 3. Or in symbols. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. This gives by the same method. ab = x. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. .g. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. if x Ex. In addition. 2. NOTE. 5 is 2. 7. From 5 subtract + 3.ADDITION. the given number the subtrahend. Therefore any example in subtraction different . ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . 41. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 6 (3) = 8. two numbers are given. To subtract. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 1. SUBTRACTION. and their algebraic sum is required. In subtraction. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. called the minvend.3. +b 3. from What 3. ( 6) ( = . and the required number the difference. Ex. the other number is required. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. a. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number.2. From 5 subtract to .
If x = l = 2 t .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.f 8 .5 x + 8.3 x* . Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o.
5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.a 2 j. 58. 49. .4 a^ 4. check the answer. 44. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 56. 47. 46. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f.6)f. From 6(af. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. c f d. 52. From 2 a take a & j. 6 4 a. 50.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 55. + a the 2 a. of a 4.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 57. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 48. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .7 a . 2.c. 41. 2y 2 . +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . and 3 7/ . From From x2 the sum sum 7.2. tract 4 x 3. 51.w>t. 54. 53.ADDITION.4 a*& + 6 a & . 42. 43. 45.
6 17. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a 2y + z. a a + c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. A is n years old. 9. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.15. + 2. a + 6. +a add the difference duce 13. 6. + 6 + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. subtract # + 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 19. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. 16.26 4. 2 m 21. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. of # 2 8. 20.
& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 45. a+(bc) = a +b . (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 46. one occurring within the other. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a^6)]  } . tractions By using the signs of aggregation. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. SUBTRACTION.c. the sign is understood. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4.g. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.6 b f (.ADDITION. I. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.c.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.2 b . II. Ex.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. & f c. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. changed. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.b c = a a & f f.
+ 6)f (a2 b). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 13. 15. 14. 8. 5. m f ft) a. a (a + 6). 16. + (2a 6 + c ). 2 2 2 a(. ? 11. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).[271 47. may be inserted according to 43. 3. 21. 4. a (a + 26 c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 6. 271 + (814 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.7i h jp) (m ?*. In the following expression inclose the second and third.: Ex. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).) 5 . Ex.)]. a f (a a . 2. 18. 17. (m a2 f.y (60. . find the numerical value of { 1422 . 2a (4a 26 +c ). By removing parentheses. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 9. 3 3 f 7. : x + (2yz). Signs of aggregation 1.(a + 6). 19. [36+ (a 2c]. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 2 2a. 6) 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.1422) J ] .
7. difference of the cubes of n and m. terms 5. 5^2 _ r . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. and the subtrahend the second. The product The product m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 12.ADDITION. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. The square of the difference of a and b. 2. m x 2 4. 4. 6 diminished .2 tf . z + d. 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. of the cubes of m and n.1. first. )X 6. 8. 5 a2 2.4 y* .7fa. II. 3. 2mn + 2q3t. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. m and n. 5. 9. 13. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. y f 8 . ' NOTE. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 7. a\l> > c + d. p + q + rs. The difference of a and 6. SUBTRACTION. 10. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. .
) . 18. 6 is equal to the square of b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 16. 6. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.30 14. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. b.
A A A 1. let us consider the and JB. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 2. force is produced therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 4. If the two loads balance. If the two loads balance. 3. what force is produced by the Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. two loads balance. If the two loads what What. weights.
To take a number 7 times.4)(. ( (. or plied by 3. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 multiplied by 3.9) x 11. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. however. such as given in the preceding exercise. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. (. 5x(4). thus. the multiplier is a negative number. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 9 9. Thus. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. NOTE. 4 multi44444 12. x 11. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Practical examples^ it however.4)(4) = + 12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. becomes meaningless if definition. (5)X4. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.32 8. 48. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. 4x(3)=12. 9 x ( 11). .
z s 11 aWcx. 1. 8. . .2f 18. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 19. (4)X(15). 27. Ua b 28. X(5). (7) X (12). 13. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. x. 3 aW. (10) 4 .(a&c) 2 2 . (2)x9. is 6x7. (c#) . 11. . 14. .4. 20.3) (1) 7 2 . (2) 8 (. 4 . (. 4. 2. 22. If a cal = 4a6c. 6.MULTIPLICATION 50. 2a6 c . _2^ 3. 8 4 . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 15. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .2 f+x 2 . 1. _2. . about fac (2)X If 6. 3. 5x3.a)( =+ a&. 6 2. _3. 7. 2a 2 6c. 30. 3. of Signs: TJie positive. 4 a2 .(4J). x= 0. 23. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. NOTE. c = 25. and y = 4.3. 10. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 29. Law Thus. 17. 32. (4)'.2. 6. 24. 12. etc. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 16. 8 31. find the numeri values of: 21. 5. 9. +5. b = 3. 3 a2?/2 . 26. the parenthesis frequently omitted.7. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.
 and 2 25 8 . 4. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 5(711. 16.<?. 6 aWc x .(7).257). : 3a7abc. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. or 2 .6 if 35. 36. of the factors. 50(112. . 2. 2. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. a8 a=2.  2 2. 3. 53. 78 .3). + 2/). i. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. IB. 4. 7. fl*" integers. 5 .m a 3  4 . This 52.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. &*) c d*. 2 2 2 . . 13. 2(14. m*. (a6) (a5) 9. . 100. 10. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .. 12 U U . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2.e. . a 2 2 . Ex. 34.. 6 = . a = 3. B. 11. =2 a *.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .2). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 3.2 2 23 + 5 . 4. & = 3. 9 . 1. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 200.(2. 3 3 4 . 3 2 . a= 1. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2(7. . By 3 definition.503). a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 5 = 2.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .(12) . 6. 6" 127 U . 14. 17. = 2. 2 3 . Ex. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 5. a = 2. 6 = 1.35). 127  127 9 7 . 5 3 5 3 2 .7. 2 2 3 6 .
tet^m f c) = ab +ac.2 3 aft ). 5. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).A). 34. by first multiplying. 28. This principle. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 26. and then adding : 1. 22. 3(124342).3 win ) . . 29. 25. 27. /). . _4aft. 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . . multiply each by the monomial.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 20.7 w'W (8 n^W). 24.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.f 2). c(4a ftc ). 3.4a#. 6. 21. 7p*q r*. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 4 aft 5 aft 2 .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 2(5fl5f25). . 19. 2 32. but we shall assume it for any number. ) 2 33. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. (. 35 4 7(6. 17(10041042). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 6(10420430). 2(645410). called the distributive law. 35. 23(10004100420). If results ft. 2. 11(3. 31. . (. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 23. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.7pqt. 7. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 12( + 1 4 i). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.6.
: expression must 24. 17. Find the factors of 6 ary .6 a6). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. ~2mn(m +n p ).2 mn(9 mV . 7 a 6 c(. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 5).asa product. 29. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . By what 25. 2 2 16. 9. 2 27. 20. 3 ). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).3 aftc). be multiplied to give 4o. 12.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.^ c + 2 . 22. 2 m(mhn \p). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.5 w*V f 7 wn). Find the factors of 5 a 6 .60 a& 10 aft. 19. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 30. 26. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. . 21. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 28. f7a. 11. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 23.we b) (x law.5 x 7). . Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.
Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. a2 + a8 + 3 . 59. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. To multiply two polynomials. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. 2a3b a66 2 a . .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 b by a 5 b.a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Multiply 2 + a a. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. the student should apply this test to every example. 2. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 a 2 + a8 . Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Check.1. Multiply 2 a .4. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . however.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.
l)(raf 2). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (8r7*)(6r39. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 5. 2. 36) I) 14. (4a 2 33. 7. * For additional examples see page 261. (a^26) . (13 A. 2  37.n)(m 8 n)(m n). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 41. . 25.4) (x + 1). 18. 32. (6a~7) 2 . (2w 19.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). OQ OO. 15. (2 x* x 2 . 2 . I (mfn)(m4. 4. . 11.4) (mnp 4. 26. 40. 22. 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 7y). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 10. 3<7). (6i7n)(llJn). 1). 24. 17.1 . 13. 8. 3. a 5c)(2a6c). 20.2). 31. 30. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 12)(a?^2l). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 2) (3 A: 1). 6. QQ O7. 12. 16. 35. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d).2m)(l m). 36). 29. 36. 4 2). (6p (2 f 21. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 28. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 9. ^ 2 .
15. i. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 8. in of the two unequal terms. 9. + 3) (a 7). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 7. (10+ (1000 (2. 75 ab f 54 ft .n)(wf w). X 102. 1) (10 + 2). 25. (J 23. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 25 a 2 . . 13. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 2) (1000 + 3). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (a (a (a. 17. (a 9) (a + 9).!!)( (a + 21). 14. 6. i. 21. (!)(* 5). 1005x1004.2 6) (a f 6). plus the product of the two unequal terms.13). + 2) (a f 3). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. ft 16.e. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 28. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 18.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61.e. + 60)(f2). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 22. + 5) (1000 + 4). plus the product 62. . 2 a? 29. : 23 2. . = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (a3)(a + 2). 11. 19. 2 6) (a 3 6). (ra. 10. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).25)(y+4). 26. 12.4). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (*. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. _3)(a _4). (6 12) (6 f. 20. (a 102 x 103. + 9)(m+9). 24. (p12)(p + ll). 27. 3.
+ 3) 2 .e. 34.66 s. 32. 31. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 3. 77ie square of the of the first. 2 5. (a26) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. . 49 y*. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 9. a2 2 w + 2 w .15. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second.e. p 2 p. 7. (a2) (p a . of the second. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. + 6 a + 8. 7 a + 10. 63. : ar'Sz + a 2 G.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 4. plus the square of the second. w 2 ro . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. n2 10ii+16. 8. : 24 (a 2. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 37. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . and the second. i.15. III. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 33. <J>7) J . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (x+3i/) 2 . Ex.30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . i. 2 (a (*5) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. second. III. 6. .e. . 35.
. 52. + 3z) 2 2 . 31. 2 J ). 21. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 22 2 . + 5)(5+a). 2 . 54. 48. 25 a 9. 40. n*6n+9. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. By actual multiplication. ). two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 55. n 2 f4n+4. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 32. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 17. 104 2 37. a 2 8a6+166 2 . I) 2 . 35. 49. 14.MULTIPLICATION 10. 29. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3).998 39. 99x101. 46. G> +5g)*. 11. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 24. 16aW25. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. (1000 2 . 2 2 . 45. The product of 57. 7& ) 25. ( 27. 4 53. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (6afy 2 5) (a. 103 36. 23. 2 . 34. 12. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 62 25n 2 . (^. . 998x1002. 47. a2 9. 991 2 2 . 33. . 15. 51. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 . 41 16. + 5). 22. (2x3yy. 2 9a 496 2 56. 42. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 44. 38. 9 a2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30.30 ab + 25 6 64. 41. (20 f 1) . 18. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 28. . 2 11 # ) 2 20. m 2 16. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 .
and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (5a64)(5a&3). 8. or The student should note minus signs. 9. (5a4)(4al). The square 2 (a 4. ((5a? (10 12.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 7. .42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. sum of the cross products. : 25 2. (2a3)(a + 2). (4s + y)(32y). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 14. 4. 11. (3m + 2)(ml). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 3. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 2 10. 13. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 65. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 5.& + c) = a + tf + c . ) (2 of a polynomial. plus the last terms. 6. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).
In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.4) . 5. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. .24] .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. (a (. 6(a 2. If x = 1. Hence.(m 2 6. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 2 2. 3.3) . 4y sf n) 2 .4) . after multiplying the factors of a term.39.1 5 = 10 .29. 4(aj2)h3(7).3) (x . (u4& + 3c'. + 65) . 8. Check. = 10 x . 7. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. Find the square root 11. 4.(= [ Xa + 2 . 2)6. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . + 6)( .8 x + 15] .5) = (7 . 13. 3. 12. 4. 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). a.3)(z.24 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).39. 5. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 9.(x . 6~2(a + 7). (xy+z)*. of z : 10. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).X2 + 2 x . 4(* + 2)5(3).i2&c) 2 .r _ 2 . and check the answers !. = . 7. 66.[a? .5). n). Ex. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.y? + 8 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. (  2 4) =  20 a. 8.(>. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Simplify (x + 6) (a .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . 18. a I. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . . 51 15. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). 16.11 a + 9 a .2) (3 a . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).l. Division of the difference of two squares. v/17. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).e. .DIVISION 14. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.2). 19.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (81 m + 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 20.
16 . r/ 1. 15. 12.0001. : the following w a 4 !. 9& 2 . . 4 b. aW 12 a. 10.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 121a a 16 100 11. f 13. 100ry. . 14. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 1.49. 16.000.
r f9 = 20 is true only when a. the 80. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. is said to satisfy an equation. 83. in the equation 2 x 0. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . 81. x 20. the first member is 2 x + 4. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. (a + ft) (a b) and b. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. 82. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. =11. hence it is an equation of condition. Thus. .
The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. NOTE. 86. A 2 a. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.e. 5.b. 3. 2. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the divisor equals zero. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. If equals be divided by equals. To solve an equation to find its roots. the quotients are equal. 87. one member to another by changing x + a=. 90. E. but 4 does not equal 5. If equals be added to equals.g. . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. 4. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity.54 84. 89.2. If equals be subtracted from equals. the products are equal. called axioms 1. . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. If equals be multiplied by equals. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. x I. the sums are equal. Transposition of terms. a. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 2 = 6#f7. the remainders are equal. A numerical equation is one in which all . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. A term may be transposed from its sign. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 85.
9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Ex.8. b Adding a to both + a. 4x 1 + 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Check.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. To solve a simple equation. if 55 x members. x = 3. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. and the known terms to the second. Uniting similar terms. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.6 y f y\ . b c. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. 6a5 = 185 = 13. x = 93. Dividing both members by 2. Transposing. 91. a= a 6fc. Unite similar terms. The first member. f If y 20 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . is correct. x = (Axiom 3) 92.2 y= f . Dividing by Check. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 3 y . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. . 2 x = 6. Uniting. Subtracting 4 x from each term. a? Adding 5 to each term.9 y + y2 = 22 . The second member.2. if a x = b. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Hence the answer. The first member. (4y)(6. 2(11 .
+ 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3)= 9(3 7 a. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 4.17 + 4y = 36. 6. 247y = 68lly. aj * See page 264. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. = 3. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.7a: = 394a. =2 = 3. 15. \x x 2^xfl.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 11. 4a + 5 = 29. x = 18. 12. 24. . : 5# = 15+2a. 20. 13a? 3a?. v23. 19. 4y 10. 17 + 5a. 7 (6 x 16). 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. Solve the following equations by transposing. = 7. 21. 50. If x = 18. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. and check the answers 9. . 11 ?/ a? 18. 7a? 5. 3. f Simplifying. a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 17 7 a. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.. {(x (x The The member right member left . it NOTE. Transposing. = 5a?+18.. a?. a? a?. x x 1 . 7. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3 7 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).7. Uniting.69. = 2 ?/. J. 22. 32 = 264. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3. etc. + 22. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 8. 2. 9 9a? = 7 13.56 Ex. a. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 16. 14.
. 7(7 x y 26.1 0) = 0.3) . 2 2 * Jaj. + 7) (.1) (u . e. 42. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.3) + . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 33. 29. 25.14 = 0.4) + 4 w . . 39.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.5(2 u . 6(6a.12) (2 + 5) . or 70 a?. 27. 31. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 38.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 40. . . .2) (M . .1) (a (a? + 3) = .(2 + 6) (4 . a? 28.7. is the other part.3) + 14. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 41. 34. (a. : One part is of 70 is 25 . (6 u =5 44. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (aj 37. 5) (as (a. .5) + 199. . + 4). 36.5) = (a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 30.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 35. Evidently 45. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.32.7) (7 x + 4) . 7) (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . a? 43.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.g. this question. find the other part.
Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 1. greater one is g. x f y yards cost $ 100 . is d. is b. 9. 11.58 Ex. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 6. 14. and the smaller one parts. 3. 5. is a? 2 is c?. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 4. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 10. smaller one 16. Find the greater one. 15. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost 100 dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. find the cost of one yard. or 12 7. a. 13. so that of c ? is p. 17. so that one part The difference between is s. one part equals is 10. If 7 2. EXERCISE 1. 33 2. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Ex. 7. 6.
?/ 31. and B is y years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. sum If A's age is x years. 19. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. is A A is # years old. 26. If B gave A 6 25. and B has n dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . numbers is x. Find 21. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. b dimes. Find 35. and spent 5 cents. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. A dollars. 24. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. and B's age is y years. 28. A man had a dollars. 28. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A feet wide. How many cents has he ? 27. How many years A older than is B? old.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. amount each will then have. 20. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 34. find the has ra dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 33. 22. and c cents. 32.
and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a 47. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A cistern is filled 43. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9.50.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. m is the denominator. of 4. he walk each hour ? 39. 49. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. The two digits of a number are x and y. find the fraction. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. ." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find the number. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. a. The first pipe x minutes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. 48. . how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A was 20 years old. % % % of 100 of x. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. c a b =  9. 46. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. of m. Find a. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.
6. The double as 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. a exceeds b by c. double of a is 10. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 3. c. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of x increased by 10 equals x. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. of a and 10 equals 2 c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. etc. 2. 80. 80. 4. The excess of a over b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. by one third of b equals 100. of a increased much 8. 9. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 5. same result as 7 subtracted from . equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a.
In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 14. and C's ages will be 100.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B. pays to C $100. m is x % of n.000. 16. express in algebraic 3x : 10.62 10. B's. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. and C's age 4 a. a. A gains $20 and B loses $40. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. is If A's age is 2 x. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. In 10 years the sum of A's. sum equals $20. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 17. >. 11. express in algebraic symbols : 700. x 4 If A. amounts. as 17 is is above a. they have equal amounts. of 30 dollars. B's. (c) If each man gains $500. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. 6 % of m. symbols B. a second sum. they have equal of A's. 3 1200 dollars. B's age 20. . 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. 50 is x % of 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. #is5%of450. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.. a. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 18. and C have respectively 2 a. x is 100 x% is of 700. 12.
= x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. 6 years ago he was 10 . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. be 30 . number of yards. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. In 15 years 10. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 23 =30. Dividing. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 4 x = 80. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. x = 20. A will Check. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Uniting. Ex. the . 2. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Ex. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. x= 15. 3z40:r:40z. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. the required . 15. etc. Find A's present age. Let x = the number. Simplifying. In order to solve them. NOTE. Three times a certain no. . denote the unknown 96. but 30 =3 x years. 1. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x+16 = 3(35). number. Check. Transposing. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Transposing. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. much as 40 exceeds the number.
5. 11. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. by as much as 135 ft. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10.64 Ex. exceeds the width of the bridge. Dividing. EXERCISE 1. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. % of 120. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Forty years hence his present age. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. twice the number plus 7. Six years hence a 12 years ago. 300 56. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. 4. A number added number. 14. Find the number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Let x 3. A will be three times as old as toda3r . What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft.2. 120. Find the number. Find 8. Hence 40 = 46f. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 13. .
97. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. The problem consists of two statements I. which gives the value of 8. The other verbal statement. If a problem contains two unknown quantities.000. 14. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. Ex.000. . and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. is the equation. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. written in algebraic symbols. statements are given directly. and B has $00. the second one. Vermont's population increased by 180. F 8. 1. B will have lars has A now? 17. and as 15. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. One number exceeds the other one by II. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. Find the population of Maine in 1800. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 65 A and B $200. Maine's population increased by 510. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. x. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. times as much as A. five If A gives B $200. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. B How will loses $100. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. During the following 90 years. How many dol A has A to $40. two verbal statements must be given. A and B have equal amounts of money.
the sum of the two numbers is 14. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = B's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Dividing. If A gives are : A If II. = 3. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. has three times as many marbles as B. A gives B 25 marbles. If we select the first one. x x =14 8. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 8 = 11. and Let x = the Then x +. A will lose. + a f f 8 = 14. / . 8 the greater number. 25 marbles to B. B will have twice as viz. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. A has three times as many marbles as B. Statement x in = the larger number. Then. Let x 14 I the smaller number. consider that by the exchange Hence. terms of the other.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 2x a? x j = 6. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. to Use the simpler statement.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. which leads ot Ex. = 14. I. although in general the simpler one should be selected. the smaller number. . 2. B will have twice as many as A. the greater number. Uniting. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. < Transposing. unknown quantity in Then. = A's number of marbles. . Let x 3x express one many as A. x = 8. The two statements I. .
The value of the half : is 11.10. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Two numbers the smaller. 1. * 98. by 44. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Check.$3.10. dollars and dimes is $3. the price. Check. x = 6. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 15 + 25 = 40. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 2. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.25 = 20. Uniting. the number of dimes. The number of coins II. 60. The sum of two numbers is 42. 6 times the smaller. Dividing. Find the numbers. and the Find the numbers. but 40 = 2 x 20. Eleven coins. A's number of marbles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.10. Uniting. Let 11 = the number of dimes. w'3.75. . Simplifying. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. cents. 11 x = 5. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). of dollars to the number of cents. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.. 50. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. x = 15. is 70. etc. . 45 . x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). then.. Dividing. Simplifying. the number of half dollars. 3.240. Find the numbers.550 f 310. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. greater is .5 x . (Statement II) Qx . B's number of marbles. 3 x = 45. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. have a value of $3. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. x = the number of half dollars.. * ' . 50 x Transposing. x from I. 40 x .
? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. Everest by 11. McKinley. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 11. Twice 14. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. 5. How many hours does the day last ? . How many inches are in each part ? 15. A's age is four times B's. the number. one of which increased by 9. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. United States. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. Find their ages. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 9. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 6. as the larger one. How many 14 years older than B. Two numbers The number differ by 39.000 feet. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.68 4. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and twice the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches.. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. tnree times the smaller by 65. 7. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. On December 21.
and C together have $80. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. number had. number of dollars of dollars B C had. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. B. times as much as A. 19. bers is denoted by x. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. B has three times as much as A. The third verbal statement produces the equation. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. III. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. original amount. and C together have $80. number of dollars A had. I. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. they would have 3. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. then three times the money by I. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and B has three as A. II. If A and B each gave $5 to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. Ex. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. Let x II. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. If 4x = 24. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. 8(8 + 19) to C." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. B. has. 1. are : C's The three statements A. x = 8. . = 48.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and 68. has.
37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. number of horses. cows.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. sheep. number of sheep. x f 4 = 9. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. three statements are : IT. and Ex. x = 5. 9 cows. + 35 x 4. and each sheep $ 15. number of cows. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and the sum of the . and. the third five times the first. The total cost equals $1185. according to II. 90 may be written. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. The I. first. Dividing. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. each horse costing $ 90. 1 1 Check. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. x j = the number of horses. Let then. according to III. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. each cow $ 35. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Uniting. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 185 a = 925. x Transposing. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. III. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 2.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 4 x f 8 = 28. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. + 8 90 x and. = the number of dollars spent for horses. 9 5 = 4 . 28 2 (9 5).
is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. v .000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 13. New York delphia. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the population of each city ? 8. and children together was 37. 7. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.000. A 12. the third 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. first. increased by three times the second side. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. twice as old as B. twice the 6. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 9. "Find three is 4. women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the copper. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. If twice The sum the third side. The gold. what is the length of each? has 3. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years.  4. equals 49 inches.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. men. how many children were present ? x 11. and 2 more men than women.
. 7 Uniting. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.g.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Find the value of each. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Hence Simplifying. speed. and distance. number of miles A x x walks. First fill in all the numbers given directly. we obtain 3 a. and quantities area.000. such as length. Let x = number of hours A walks. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. Dividing. 3 and 4. 8 x = 15.000. number of hours. The copper had twice the value of the gold. or time. but stops 2 hours on the way.000. After how many hours will they meet and how E. A and B apart. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 14.000 more than that the copper. width. how many 100. = 35. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. i. = 5. together.e. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems.
Check.01 = = . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.053. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . + 8. original field has Check.06 = $ 40. z = 20. Transposing and uniting. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less.04 = $ 40. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. were increased by 30 yards. 2   and transpose. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. x + 200). 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. x . Multiplying. 2 a = 40. the second 100. x . $ 1000 x . $ 800 = required sum. $ 800 = 800. . But 700 certain = 800 2. Find the dimensions of the field.M(x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. l.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 70x10 Ex. The an area 40 x 20 =800. or 700. 10 x = 200.04 8.05 x x ." gives (2.
A sets out later two hours B . mobile. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. 1. but four men failed to pay their shares. together bring $ 78 interest. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. 3.55. twice as large. invested at 5 %. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. of coffee for $ 1. Six persons bought an automobile. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. 2. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and its width decreased by 2 yards. After how many hours will B overtake A. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. the area would remain the same. A of each. Find the share of each. sions of the field. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and a second sum. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Ten yards $ 42. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. What are the two sums 5. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. as a 4. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. were increased by 3 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. how much did each cost per yard ? 6.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A and B set out direction. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at . but A has a start of 2 miles.
An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a2 to 6. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. expression is rational with respect to a letter. it is composite. but fractional with respect 103. vV . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . which multiplied together are considered factors. stage of the work. if. a. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. irrational. if it does contain some indicated root of . at this 6 2 . 104. 6. f db 6 to b. a.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . 76 . An after simplifying. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. it contains no indicated root of this letter . this letter. as. we shall not. + 62 is integral with respect to a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. consider 105. 5.
107. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient.FACTORING 106. It (a. in the form 4) +3. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.62 + &)(a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 2. x. or that a = 6) (a = a . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Ex.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 110. Divide 6 a% . for this result is a sum.62 can be &).3 sy + 4 y8). 01. Factor G ofy 2 . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. TYPE I. 55.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. x. ?/. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. it follows that a 2 . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.g. E.3 6a + 1). 1.) Ex. y. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 109. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2. . 8) (s1). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 2.
4 tfy f. TYPE IT. 34 a^c 8 .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 3 3 5 6.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 14a 4 5.6. 2 23. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.g. . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).5 x*y 2 17 a? . 32 a *?/ . 3x*6x*. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 16. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 2 6. . 13. 2 2 .12 cdx. 17.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. : 6 abx . q*q*q 2 a. 20.2. a6c. 2. 5f 2 . obviously. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 11.30 aty. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. a a 'Ja . Ilro8 9. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 19. 18. 15. 14.3.45 afy . 12.5 + 13 8. 3 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . (as 3) and (ccf5).8 c a 15 ofyV .3. 4 8 .4. 3. 7a & 10. 7i 13. 15 2 7. 8.4. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. + llm llm. in general. 2 Or.51 aW + 68 21. e. 2 + q.5 + 2. 4. ) 22  2.
. is The two numbers whose product and 6.11 a + 30.FACTORING Ex. the two numbers have opposite signs. determine whether In solving any factoring example. Ex. We may consider 1. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 11 7.5) (a 6). can be factored. or 7 11.. or 77 l. 77 as the product of 1 77. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Therefore Check.5) (a . of this type.6 = 20.30 = (a . Factor x? . 79 Factor a2 4 x . a 2 .4 . but of these only a: Hence 2 .77 = (a. . Factor + 10 ax .11 a 2 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.a). 5. Ex. 4.4 x . 2 6. If q is positive. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). as p. 2.G) = . If q is negative.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. however. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.11) (a + 7).1 1 a tf a 4. . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. + 30 = 20. 3. m 5m + 6.11. + 112. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. Factor a2 . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. tfa2  3. and (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.
^ </ 2 2 7p8. x2 23. 12.500 x + 600.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. + 44. 18. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 2xS. a 7 a 30. ITT. and 5 x. 17. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. or . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 . 27. 2 . 35. a2 . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 2 2 . 13. 16. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 2 ?/ 22. + 30. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. + 5<y 24. ay 11 ay +24. 4 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. ra + 25ra + 100. 31.70 x y . 8. 26. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 6 8 8 4 2 a. .48 + + 446 200. a? + 5 + 6 a. 15.180 a. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66.6. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 4 3 2 . 100 xr .80 7. 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 24. 2 2 a' 34. . 19. 11. 33. 16. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.17 + 30. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 21 a 2 2 . 25. 21. 32. + 4?/21. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 20. 36. 29. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 14. . 2 ?/ 28. TYPE 113. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 9.
2 x 27. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 9 x 6. the If p and r are positive.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 3 x and x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.5) (2 x . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 6 x 9. and r is negative. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.1). 18 x 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. the signs of the second terms are minus. If p is poxiliw. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 54 x 1. 27 x 2. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. or G 114. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . a. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. but the opposite sign. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 3. viz.5 . sible 13 x negative. 2.13 x + 5 = (3 x . X x 18. .83 x f 54.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Ex. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 11 x 2x. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. Factor 3 x 2 . and that they must be negative.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.
x54 a. 2 28. Sar' + SaG. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 9 y + 32^16. 100^200^ + 100^. 4. 4a2 9tt + 2.2) (x . + 11 or 2 + 12 a.30 y 6 4 . 12^17^16. 6.y + 172/9. 7. 2 fc .163 x 2 . 9. 2 . 10a?2 2 33. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 144 x .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . since all others (II. 24. 14 a fa 4. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type.179. 30.83 x .7. . 2m t7w + 3. 2 ar* 2 i/ .83 x = (3 . 3a + 13a. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 12. : 41 2. 34. 9a. the expressions should be it. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 90 a 8 2 . + 2/3. 2x* + 9x5. 22. . 20. X 27 . 10. 13.27).300 ab 2 f4 250 . 18.2 a 90 x*y . 5. 2 2 2 23. 8. 29. and the monomial factors should be removed. 2. 2 31. 10a2 G a2 2 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.19 a f 6. + 4. 3. 32. . 35. 11. 2 26. 2 . 16. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 10 a . 21. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 25. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 3x*Sx + 4. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 19. f go. 14.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 2 2 2 . 15.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 12y 2/6. 6n + 5?i4. 17. 5m 26m f 5.260 xy .
3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . must have a positive sign. however. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. . x* . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. form are special cases of the preceding type. of its terms are perfect squares. and a perfect square. 12. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.20 xy f 4 y\ . 9. square. 2. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.e. and factor whenever possible : 1. 25 7. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. .10 x f 16. 2 9 10gf25. 10. it is a perfect square.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 4. 16 y? The student should note that a term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 5. it is more convenient for that type. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . To factor a trinomial which maining term. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 11. 6. i. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 116. 14. 3. 2 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 13. 9 10a625. 8.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a. 2 . difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 9.e. . 36 2 4. 2 20. 3.2 ofy + ofy m . 27.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 149 a 81 8. a2 24. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 19.64 6 = 16(a . ). 3. u2 6& + 2 ( ). V. a. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 2. 26. ^//c to the Ex. 4 2 23.3 * ). According to 65. 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). Ex. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 16&*. 48 a +( ). 2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).60 a# + 4. 1. 25.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . . . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. product i.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 4a2 l. 17. prime. 7. TYPE 117. 16. 9a2 . 6. 18. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.6 m* + 9 m. 29. 2. 6 2 . 5. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.20 ab + 10 b a . +( )f816 30. 225 ofy .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. ). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. * 2 .84 15. aV . 10 a 2 4 2 . + GO + 25. 22. ).
c . 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 16p 2 . 4. 2 . 36> .(I) . a2 .FACTORING 85 118. a:) 12. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 9. One or both terms are squares 1. 14. (m7?) y. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. Ex.(c 4. 5. 13. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . of polynomials. Ex. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 6. Factor a 2 . T.d) 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2. 2. 11. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 8. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .
7 c + 2c . 12.2 ) (3 x .VI.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. A. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 7. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 2. . + x + 2x + 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 9. x8 .1. 8. a5 + ab 6 . By grouping. 4 B. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 5) . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 6.r.a a . a? 11. which may be factored according to types I. Ex. 4:cx .14. a 26 2 2 3 .y + 2 2). 1.ab + bx.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.and trinomials. Ex. After grouping tain a the terms. = (3 x + y . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 10. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 5. 2. 119.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. ma ?*a + m& nb. 3.
a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. : 46 x* 2. 4. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . .4 f .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. First find monomial factors common to all terms. : m 2 2 16.12 aaj 4 6y. 2. .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. l~a 2a56 2 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. IV. w m 2. = (a + 6)(a6). Arranging the terms. $ a8 .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 8.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2 7. 4 a2 .l. 5. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 3.9 a2 4 v* 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8ra 2 + 16. 6 6. 2. 4. 3. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 8.FACTORING Ex. 36 9 m . II. 2a3/ 7. + 2xy + y*q*. 6.
or 3 7#2 . (a. 13 c . 2 a 128. 25 a + 25 aft . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 4 8 tt 2 z . a.310 x . 24. 42 s 2 . 5a' 20. 35. 3 25. 12. 11. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 3 2 . 32. 40. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 256 4 2 2 ?/) .88 10. 27. 48. 13. 22. 50^ + 45. a3 156. (^ 34. 18.156. 2 3#4 3a2 36. . + 6 aft + 3 . 19. 30. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.24. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a + a + a + l. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 2 17. 2 ft . 29. 42 x . 80 a 2 ft 38. 5 a. 3 a2 23. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 3 41. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 4 a.40.13 c . 14. a6 36. + 14. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.
F. C. F. The H. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 89 . C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. aW. The highest is common factor (IT.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 122. Two common factor except unity The H. The student should note H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 15 aW.  23 3 . 3. of the algebraic expressions. 121. of 6 sfyz. 5 2 3 . of aW. F. 8 . F.) of two or more . 24 s . 2. C. F. of : 48 4. C. 5 7 34 2s . 5. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. C. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. are prime can be found by inspection. 12 tfifz. F. II 2 . 2 2 . 3 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 54  32 . C. Thus the H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. The H. C. 6. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 5 s 7 2 5. C. EXERCISE Find the H. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . 25 W.
8 6. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 8. 2 . a2 + 2a3. a3 9a.2 y) (a. a3 16 a. 12 . a2 ar* 4. 9.5 y). 38 #y.6 . of polynomials. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. F. To find the H. . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 8(?/ifl) 14. 0^80:416. 2 . 52 oryz4.^9. . C.6 a&. 4(m+l) 3 .90 7.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . ^2 2 .y + y42. . 2 . 57 a>V. 11. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 6 a2 y? .y) . 65 zfyV. 8 a 10 . 7. 5. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . (a7 ?/) . 15. ^a + 5^ + 6. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .y) 123. ^707 + 12. C. . Find the H.12 as 66 . 225 4a 9 . 95 2/V.?/ . y + 3y64. 9 aj*(a? . . 6 mx . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV.6. 15 3ao. 6(m+l) (m+2). and apply the method of the preceding article. 11.5 x3?/ 2 6. 24 a 2 . a 3a4. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). C. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .2 ?/) (x . 13. F. 1.5 + 6. 12. 3 . of + 4 if. 13. F. Ex. 3. 3^ 2 4 . 14. a2 . 10. 12 w*nw 8. = x 2 y. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 16. F. 3). 8. 16 a .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 12. aWd. of: . 49 C.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 9. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 2 .# 4 afy f 4 . 4 ?io. x* x2 Hence the H. 10. a. . ^f a. 1.8 a + 16. a2 + 7af!2. 6 3 a. 2a f5af 2. 25 m27i. 2.
128. but opposite . find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. Ex. NOTE. M. C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.M. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C.6)2. M. L. of the general.C. To find the L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. ory is the L.M. The L. A common remainder. C. C. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. thus. Find the L. &) 2 M. two lowest common multiples. Ex.C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . a^c8 3 . L. M. each set of expressions has In example ft). Hence the L. M. M of the algebraic expressions. C. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . The lowest common multiple (L. C. 300 z 2 y. C. Common 125. of 3 aW.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 127. . 1. 126. 60 x^y' 2 . C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 2. which also signs. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.6 3 ).LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. Find the L. etc. 2 The The L. of tfy and xy*. . C. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) .
a2 ~ab 1. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. b 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 3(a + b). 6 y. of: 4. 40 abJ. 18. 2 . 30 a. . 1. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 9. 3. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 a . 21.1. a { a~b. #. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. (For additional examples see page 268. + 2 7i) . a !. 11. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3. 2 . a^1. G a. a2 4. 2 a. 4 a f 2. 24 x. 2 7ic+10. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 6b 2 . M. 14. a f 2 19. 3 f2.1. a 2 fa6. x2 + 4 a f 4. . 5. 3 ab. 3 6 xif. 2 x \2 y. 2 a . 2. ic 23. 2 10. 3 Z> . 4 a . f b.f 6. 13. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 7. 15. 22. 16. a. 6 a. + 2. a f 3. by. x* ~5a. 4 a 5 6cd. a?b. T a 3 a 2 . 8 d 5 . 24. a. 6. 2(m 2 . a& 4 +& 2 . a 1. afy. ) . 3 . a 2 f 4 a +4. ic 2 ?/. a 2 a3 . y*.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. x 2 5 a. a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . (a 4)(a2) 12. xy\ . 2 . 20. 8. + 6. 17. 8 afy. afc'cd 2 . 20 9 a. Find the L. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . or f 3 a 15 #.
The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and denominators are considered. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. 131. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. but we In arithmetic. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. a?. rni Thus 132. an indicated quotient. successively all 2 j/' . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . and i x mx = my y terms A 1.ry ^ by their H. as 8. C. however. F. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. etc.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. 130. A f fraction is b. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Remove tor. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. Thus. a b = ma mb . Ex.
. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. cancel factors only. 3. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.4) Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 .6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.
^+3*. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.*. 9x + "a" 10. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 11 ^ Mtr f . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.' 32.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 19. ^" a. . ' ^ . 23. """. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 5^10 y 30. . ny 4 18.10 a + 3 2 14. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. _ 3 7i rt< 26. LJZJ^JL. 29. . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. g J 21. ^' rt ^  31.7 .. 16. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. nx 17.
we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. multiplying the terms of 22 . M. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. and the terms of ***. + 3). Reduce ^. . 1). we have the quotients (x 1). .M. and 135.r 2 2 . we have M^.C. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . take the L. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.3) (!)' = . of the denominators for the common denominator.  of //* 2 . mon T denominator.D. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. TheL.1^22 ' . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. ^ to their lowest com The L.C.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . Divide the L.~16 (a + 3) (x. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.  by 4 6' . we may extend this method to integral expressions. 2> . Ex.96 134. =(z (x + 3)(z. C. by the denominator of each fraction.M. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and (a 8). 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . 1. . by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. C.
. 137. common denominator 6. . 22 a2 5a * . 2aj ~ . o o a. 18. . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2 ay IB. 8 i i. JL.oj o* or / . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.^1. i. a? 1 5 > ^* . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .. 2. j y 3. 74). 3. 7i 2 ab* ". 5?. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). If the given fractions have different denominators.
3 ft 2). the student should remember that parentheses are . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 . ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . as 4 aft f. e. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.aft) Ca2 .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . T? Ex.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.(a 2 6). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . ^ is 2^JT) . 2.2 = a(a .ft)(a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). ^ _ ^ a3b ft).g. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. (a ft).. L. D. 2 ^. and adding. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.3 ft). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . The L.7 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . (a .2 ' 2 _. D. 4(2 a 3 ft).. C. in the beginning.ft) (a ft ft)~.
t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a 36 ++. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 1 f w 16. 2. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. + . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 20. 1 f q * 1 m m . 23. 6 c 3a 7. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. A+2_3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. j>0 i> 21. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 24. 5a76 4a 106 9. 18 v 19. + a "" 2 6 ' .5 18 ^4f25. 2L + 2a 1 17. 15.
42. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . af 1f /j. 2 af1 32. a ?^ 40. a 4 31. _ + a? ?/ + y. ic 1 + 1. ! n. 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9 79 6 2 i. a.9. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 3a 9 +. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 41. a 30.
2 x2 + 2 g 4. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . .6 + 4x 4 x2 . . T. Reduce .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.  4 or 3 2a.FRACTIONS 139.7 5a v Ex. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  . 1. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 101 mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .
2. !. multiply the 142.) Ex. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. 2 a Ex. F J Simplify . we may extend any e. Since  = a. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. (In order to cancel common factors. integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.g. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . and the product of the denominators for the denominator. or. fractions to integral numbers. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.
2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 4 8.6 12 d6 4.. 50 .. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. aj 5 1 a? 18.
invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . 1. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 144. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. .
5 ??i 80 50 . or both. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. l.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.FRACTIONS 105 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.10 ?/ _. ga2 4 8 5 a . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. Ex. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.^c 2 2 .' ' * ' ^5^+4 .afr 4. a a2 4.6 s + 064. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. are fractional.
c +6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. a m "" . & . . the answer is directly obtained. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). 9.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . of their denominators.y 32 . 2.a ^c c _^ a . . JL. Simplify x }. x* 4. M. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. C. . 6. . n a 8. 7i+~ 7. Ex. i. 10. y X 4* 2 y 3. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.
FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.~l (For additional examples see page 273. 1 i 1 2 5 . o 15. : . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) . m^n* n L a 17. sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13.
2z2a. Clearing of fractions. = 6.42 + 9. tions. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Uniting. = 6.48. 4 4)  x.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 9x x Check. each member is reduced to 1.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Transposing.1. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. Bx 12 Qx. 148. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .8 x = . x = 6. of the denominator.28 x + 42 = .l)(z + 3) = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 2 3. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . M. 5(3 85 Check. C. + 1) (a + 3) . 2x Transposing. If x 6. a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Uniting. . 108 . each member is reduced to Ex.28 a = 5 x2 . these Ex. If = 64.9 x2 + 9. 2. 1. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).14 (a. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.
a/  5 a/ = 12. . 18. 1 *> = 2. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +1 = 5. +4 14. ^' 2. a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. a: 7 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. 15. ^1 = 9. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.= 2. 16. '  4 13.1 _77 a.
31 31. 26 26. 27 . 4a4l4* + l~. and" the remaining one a polynomial. J_. 25. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. .  38 = 40. 33.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 3x 35. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . y+3~2 29. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 2^12 = 2 = 34. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. .11_4 x 149. If two or more denominators are monomials. 32 6 . ?_=_. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ._ _ .
24 a. = 9. 5# 10.2 3 ~  == 7a. If a. .29 50712' 9 18 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 5x x : = 9. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. each member is reduced to ^. Dividing.1. the 1 5 L. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Transposing and uniting. a. M.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Check. 26 a. 1.  5 = 20 x 45.2 42 9 43. 60.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. C..
m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Ex.2 ac + 3 aft . = = 6 6c 7 6c. It frequently occurs that the x. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.m bx 2 mn) x. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = l^ 9 b 4 . jr. . they are united by factoring. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.3 6 2 = a' . If 3ac L= = a ? . 4 ac 1. 5> a. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.& . = 6 a2 .1. ax f x f. =a 2 151.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). 2. f ~ 5c. Ex. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. fr Reducing lowest terms. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. = 2 f b 2 . Dividing.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Uniting. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Thus. Uniting the Dividing. y. a.2 62 2 ab. find a in terms of b and c. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.be.
* Solve the same equation for^).= n. 4. . 12. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. r the number of $>. t. . 14. 34. . + xx = 1. 6. _ 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. rate. 17. solve for . solve for a. = 5. Ex. m a? x . If s If 16. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . a. ^ ax a^ 26. iw 21. 1 f. . 3. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 30. c 18.i l .a. = 8 4 #. and n the number of years. IIL n b + &o. s = Vt solve for v. 9.= H. in terms of other quantities. = vt. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. If * 33.= c a Z> . f P =+!. q solve for/. c. 13. 15. The The i time. co?. p the principal. 10. mx = n. 2 solve for y a. 3(* 8. + 3a. 29. 4. 11. = 3 (6 a). If ^^ = a 1 32. = rt. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 31. f ^o. denoting the interest. 5) is t =^.
Multiplying by Dividing. A would do each day ^ and B j. then = 2 TT#. Find R in terms of C and TT.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.114 35. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. is 36. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 12. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.. . = 16^. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.180. 2. x Or Uniting. 100 C. Ex. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.20 C. . Ex. and 12 = the number over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.. 2 3 . 1.
the rate of the express train. 180 Transposing." gives the equation /I). 3. Clearing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Solving. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Ex. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. and the statement. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . the required number of days. = the x part of the work both do one day. 32 x = . or 1J. 4x = 80. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. = 100 + 4 x. in Then Therefore.
116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. length in the ground.  Find their present ages. which was $4000. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. ex What 5. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and of the father's age. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. of his present age. How did the much money man leave ? 11. make 21. and 9 feet above water. Find A's 8. ceeds the smaller by 4. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is equal 7. by 6. and J of the greater Find the numbers. 3. money and $10. a man had How much money had he at first? . Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and one half the greater Find the numbers. by 3. to his son. is oO. to his daughand the remainder. A man left ^ of his property to his wife.
and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. Ex. . investments. and it B in 6 days. ^ at 5%. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. 152. How much money $500? 4%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. and B in 4 days. air. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex.) 22. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 2. 1. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 3. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. what is the rate of the express train? 152.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. after rate of the latter ? 15. what is the 14.
if B in 3 days. n x Solving. m and n. To and find the numerical answer.118 153. 3. 2. A in 6.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. is 57. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 30. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. B in 12.009 918. and n = 3. . make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Then ft i. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. and apply the method of 170. e. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. 25. Hence. . is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.414. Ex. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 16. B in 5. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.g. they can both do in 2 days.e. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= . A in 6. The problem to be solved. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. therefore. is 42. A in 4. we obtain the equation m m . . 26. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.
is ?n . 3 miles per hour. . 3J miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. respectively (a) 60 miles.001. and the rate of the second are. 5 miles per hour. (b) 149. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. is (a) 51. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. same hour from two towns. and the second 5 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. (d) 1. (b) 35 miles. 33. the second at the apart. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. squares 30. 34. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. respectively. : (c) 64 miles. if m and n are. The one: 31. 4J miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 29. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. After how many hours do they meet. 2 miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. meet. (c) 16. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.721. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the rate of the first. 2 miles per hour. Find the side of the square.000.
Ex. 6 12 = . : : 155. is numerator of any fraction consequent. b. the antecedent. E. In the ratio a : ft. b is the consequent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. . the second term the consequent. the symbol being a sign of division.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. a ratio is not changed etc.g. " a Thus.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. The first 156. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is ." we may write a : b = 6. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.5. 1. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b. 158. antecedent. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. etc. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. Simplify the ratio 21 3. the denominator The the 157.
8^ hours. : 1. Simplify the following ratios 7. The last first three. 3 8. and c is the third proportional to a and . either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. $24: $8. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 27 06: 18 a6. 11. 61 : ratios 72:18. 12. 7:4 T T 4 . 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. Transform the following unity 15. 5 f hours : 2. a and d are the extremes. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b is the mean b. 4. 62:16. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. two  ratios. 3.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. extremes. 16. : ay . proportional between a and c. 1. equal 2. 17. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. J:l. 9. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 16a2 :24a&. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 18. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 7f:6J. 159. 10. 3:4. b and c the means. 4:5f : 5. b. terms. and c. 6.
Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 163. " we " NOTE. 164. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. ad = be. of a proportion. 3 4. q~~ n . briefly. Hence the number of men required to do some work. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. !. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.122 162. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. pro portional. of iron weigh . 6 ccm.) mn = pq. and the other pair the extremes. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.30 grams. then G ccm. 2 165. are : : : inversely proportional. Clearing of fractions.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind.) b = Vac. In any proportion product of the extremes. If (Converse of nq. : c. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.e. = 30 grams 45 grams. of iron weigh 45 grams. The mean proportional of their product. i. 163. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. : : directly proportional may say. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the time necessary to do it.__(163. ccm.
hence the proportion true.) d 167. 12x Hence a? = 42.) = f f = 3 J. is Ex. d d. 2.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. Or IV. (Division.) (Called Alternation. 166. 1. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is 4$ = 35. = 35 . ad ( 163. (Frequently called Inversion. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (163. + b:b = c + d:d. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I. V.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. bd bd. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) II.PATIO Ex. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. then =d c. I. ad = be. a:c=b:d. . These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Composition. a III. if 6 : 7.
!=!*. 2. . . 120:42 2 2 7. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 5. = 180:125. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. : x. x = 2. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 9. = 20:7. 4. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 10. = 2:3. = 12 5ft. mx tin Apply composition and division.e. Or III. E. 5 5. Simplify the following proportions. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. V. IV. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 8.g. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 6 =4 : x. i. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. = 2:x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 3.124 IT. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. the consequents by 7. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 7:2f 3J. Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion.
rag. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. + fyx = cy. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. ra 2 . 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 21. 2. 16. 9 x = 2 y.. b. Find the 37. 1 and a. and 2/. 46. . : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 2 3 = y #. rap. 3. a 2 and ab.j>. mx = ny. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 14 and 21. 5. 6x = 7y. 29. w.x: 6:5 a : x. (a : : 45. 5= 18 a? : a?. 42. = l^:18.:ff. 03:a?=135:20. Find the mean proportional 30. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 12. a. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 43. 17. terra 2:3 = 4. : . 44. 28. 7iy = 2:x. 26. 25. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 14. 22. 3. 31. 2= 5 x x.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 4. 4 and 16. 35. 34. 38. if : 40. 20. 13. 51. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. Find the third proportional 24. 52. : a2 . ra. 18. 6. 23. 112:42 = 10:a. f. = 3 43 + x. ratio of y. 39. 2. x m = y n. = 15o. 3t. 1. : 53. 50. to : 9 and 12.  32. to: = 35:*. 27. a?:15 15. = 2 + x: x. = 5 x 12.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 41.8:1. 47. 33. x:5 = y:2. 6 x = y. to : a and 1. 2 a and 18 a. ra + landra 1. 16 and 28.
what 58. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the speed of the train. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet.126 54. and the time necessary for it. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the area of the rectangle. A line 7^. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the : total cost. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. 56. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. 57. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.
is A line AB. 2. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. produced to a point C. so that Find^K7and BO. x = 6. . Let A B AC=1x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. as 11 Let then : 1. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. AB = 2 x. 18 x = 108. = the second number. 11 x = 66 is the first number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 4 inches long. 11 x x 7 Ex. 2 x Or = 4. 11 x f 7 x = 108. : Ex. x=2. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 7 x = 42 is the second number. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20.000 168. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles).
12. find the number of square miles of land and of water.000. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. : 197. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. and c inches. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.) . How The long are the parts ? 15. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Gunmetal tin. How many gen. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 13. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 9. 7. How many 7. 11.000 square miles. 12. 3. : 4. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and 15 inches. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 14. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. What are the parts ? 5. 6. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 2.
etc. The root of (4) if K 129 . a? (1) then I. 2 y = . the equations have the two values of y must be equal. However. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. is x = 7.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. =. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.y=. x = 1. such as + = 10. y = 1. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. expressing a y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. there is only one solution. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. if .. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. values of x and y.L x If If = 0.e.
130 170. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. viz. y = 2. 6x .26.24. = . Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. same relation. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. By By Addition or Subtraction. 174. to The two methods I. and 3 x + 3 y =. ~ 50. y I 171. 3.X. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 26 y = 60.3 y = 80. 172. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. are simultaneous equations. of elimination most frequently used II. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they express the x f y 10. cannot be reduced to the same form. unknown quantity. Substitution. the last set inconsistent. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 4y . E. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. The first set of equations is also called consistent. Therefore. 21 y . 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous.
8 2. are like. 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 3.2 = 6. = 235. 3y = 3. 25 x . Transposing.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Check. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. x = 10.3 y = 47. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 10 + 5 1 = 135. y = 1. 10 . 60 . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 64 x = 040. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. = 406.14 =8. 5 13 . add the equations. 37. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .3 1 = 47. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Check. subtract the equations. whose coefficients In general. x = 10. + 2. y = 2. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. * + 3 y = 50.3. = 41. f 3X 7x 14. J I y = 1U.9 *. = 24.v 23.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 6. I . 19< I a. I oj 5y = 17. 9 1 r 20. 13 61 l7a. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I ~ y~~> 22.4. + 2/ 17. x 11. . i 3. 7 ' 1fi fl . v ^ = ll. _. [2o.3. I i 3 a. f 3# ?/ = 0. ' 12. ] ^ . 13.f2/ ' = 50.5 y = 2. O t K 8. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.
8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 3. = 60. and solve the resulting equation. = 13. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. (1) (2) Transposing 2. . = 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 4#8. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other.
Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. \ \6(a.3. Substituting in (6) . (7) (7) (8) . however. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 3. (4). 7x_2y=3. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. x = l. simplified before elimination is possible. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). From 9 = 36. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.6)7(y7)==18. 3 (1) Ex. 2 y = . 21z6y=9. 4* + 3y = 19. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. + 212y4 = 14. . 7 y = 6. 29 x = 29.
1) = 121. 10 2a?5 17. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. = 3. 16. a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. . J 9.f2 2. yM a. 14. 4 11. +y 2 . . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 12.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . 10. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a.1) + 5(6 y .
l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. e.Q ^ 4 21. {.and x y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. * ((* (( . ?~y . and y.#. but some expressions involving x. <X + 20. 22. f y . 180. . 3x\" 1 23 24.
15 y + 8 x . 137 Solve y y (1) . etc. . however. Clearing of fractions. can also be solved Examples method. Dividing by 11 3 = #. 33 = 11 x. y. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1).3 xy. (2) (3) a. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1.4 x = 4 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (4) + (G). of this type.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. x 3. 1. Therefore y=4. y 4. 2* * x 2. y 1.
253 7. y MOi y a. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).= o 6. = en. x y 331 9. 4 13. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x y 5. n. 21 9 . x 8. 1. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 6. . Ex.= 5.
amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. a Find a and terms of n. apan cm.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d. Uniting. and I. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . . . x f my = 1. s in 11. and I if 13. fax f = l. ap. x 12.y = = 9a + 46. 14. ax + by = 2 a&. W . .W. Dividing. ny = fy/ I sc 1. x a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. 6. f 5. w. bmy bm}y ap cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.
1. 6. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).16.13.15z=12 Adding. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.1+4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).3 = 8. 4.2 + 4. To solve equations containing By tions. (4) (5).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 20. y =* 2.12 y + 6 z = . 3. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.lf> z . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 1. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. l. 4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. by 3. .25. 3y = Hence Check.2 + 3. etc. 3. Ex. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).8 = 1.by 2. 182. x + 12 y . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. f 3y 12 =s 8. = 30. 8 x .3=4. = 3. (8) 2. ties are Similarly.
x 13. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. k 2/ f 2 x a. 4 = 42. 2 . 15 2 = 45. 10. 2 4. 2z = 40. a? + 709 = 26. 7. ~6?/ 5. 12. + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 49. 8. + y f z = 15. == 6. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? 11.
6 2. 22. ?/ 3x = 0. . (3 _. 84 21. = 5.2 a.3 y + . ? = llz. 27. 60.42 = 2. 32.. ^ = 2. 19. =s 20. 23. = 8*. . 1510 4 17.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 4. 16. . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.
# 4. +2+ 6 = 8. . x : z =1 : 2. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. the number. Ex. 2 = 6. + z = 2p. however. and if 396 be added to the number. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . M=i.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. either directly or implied. . 1 digit in the tens place.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. = l. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Find the number. symbols: x + y +z 8. = 2 m. z + x = 2 n. Obviously of the other . y * z 30.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. + 396 = 521. 1. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Check. ( 99.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. 1 = 2. y 31. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 2 = 1(1+6). and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples.
6 x 4 = 24. Find the fraction. x 3 = 24. x 3x4y = 12. Ex. = 8. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . we obtain.144 Ex. y = 3. From (3) Hence xy Check. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 4 x = 24. 3+1 5+1 4_2. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. direction. 2. increased by one. 2. the distance traveled by A. = the fraction. x y = the = the x denominator . By expressing the two statements in symbols. = Hence the fraction is f. 5_ _4_ A. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. C. . + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. B. Or (4)2x(3).
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. its value added to the denominator. A fraction is reduced to J. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. ? What 9. number by the first 3.) added to a number of two digits. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the digits will be interchanged. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the fraction is reduced fraction. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the number (See Ex. Find the numbers. it is reduced to J. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 183. 5. the value of the fraction is fa.}. Find the numbers. and the fourth 3. 6. If the denominator be doubled. the fraction equals . Find the number. tion ? 8. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 27 is 10. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If 9 be added to the number. 7. part of their difference equals 4. added to the numerator of a fraction. fraction is reduced to \. and the numerator increased by 4. Find the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. 2. . 1. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the Find the fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. both terms. Find the fraction. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the last two digits are interchanged.
5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. How 6 %. and partly at 4 %. A sum of $10. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Find the rates of interest. A man invested $750. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. the annual interest would be $ 195. now. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find their present ages. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 13. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and in 5 years to $1125. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 19. the rate of interest? 18. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 12. and money and 17.000 is partly invested at 6%. partly at 5 %. .146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. 14. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. respectively ? 16.grams. and 4 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%.
On /). respectively. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and $15 for each sheep. cows. c. An C touch ing the sides in D. three AD = AF. the length of NOTE. and angle BCA = 70. is the center of the circum scribed circle. what is that = OF. but if A would double his pace. BC = 7 inches.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. the three sides of a triangle E. and F. B find angles a. points. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and GE = CF. 23. andCL4 = 8. BE. are taken so ABC. angle c = angle d. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. receiving $ 100 for each horse. ED = BE. triangle Tf AD. 24. 1 NOTE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. and sheep. for $ 740. $ 50 for each cow. and F '(see diagram). and their difference by GO . and angle e angle/. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. . and CE If AB = G inches. BC=7. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. A farmer sold a number of horses. . BD = HE. E. Find their rates of walking. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. 25. then AD = AF. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and AC = 5 inches. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and e. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and F.
the ordinate by ?/. Thus the points A. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. PN. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . (2.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. ?/. PM. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. the ordinate of point P. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and r or its equal OA is . (7. and point the origin. jr. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). (3. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and PJ/_L XX'. It' Location of a point. 186. and PN _L YY'. YY' theyaxis. first 3). The of Coordinates. .. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN are given. (2. is the abscissa. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. 3). 2). B. or its equal OM. is The point whose abscissa is a.
.) EXERCISE 1.2). 4). and measure their distance. (2. i. 0).and(l.1). What is the locus of (a?. (4. (3. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. !). whose coordinates are given NOTE. (0. 4) and (4. Plot the points (6. (5. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 11. 4). Plot the points: (4. (0. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. (4. 2. 6. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 3). (4. 2J). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 4) from the origin ? 7.4). Plot the points: (4. (4. 3). 2). 6. 12. 0).e. Graphs.3). which of its coordinates known ? 13.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 1). 71 2). 0). Plot the points : (0. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. . (1. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 3. (See diagram on page 151.(!. 8. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4. 3). (4. (4. 1). 0).
or the curved line the temperature. Thus the first table produces 12 points. 188. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we meas1 . C. B. 15. from January 1 to December 1. 10 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. ure the ordinate of F. D. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .. A. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. however. may be found on Jan. 1. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.
concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. etc. (b) July 15. the matics. and to deduce general laws therefrom. uses them. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages. physician. (c) January 15. The engineer. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. . EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1.
How much.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (1) 10 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 1? 11 0. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.. is 10. (freezing point) ? 7. When the average temperature below C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. During what months above 18 C. on 1 to the average. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ?  3. ? 9. 1 to Oct. (d) 9 0. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. 15. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.152 2. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11..
Hour Temperature . 19. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.09 yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 20. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. One meter equals 1. NOTE. Draw a graph for the 23.
function If the value of a quantity changes. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. represent his daily gain (or loss). 4. x* x 19. 9.50. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .g. the daily average expenses for rent... x increases will change gradually from 13. 29.50. x 7 to 9. if each copy sells for $1. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. to 27..inch. then C irJl. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 1 to 1200 copies.) T circumferences of 25. binding. A 10 wheels a day. 190.5 grams. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 3.154 24. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. gas. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. . e.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 26. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. amount to $8. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 3. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. books from for printing. etc. etc.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. if he sells 0. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. and $. the value of a of this quantity will change. 2. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 28. 2 .
2). Graph of a function.0). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. (1^. be also represented by a graph. as 1. Draw the graph of x2 f. etc. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.1). may. 2 (1. may . 1 the points (3. Ex. 4).2 x may 4 from x = 4. (2. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 3 (0. E. 3 50.1). construct '. plot points which lie between those constructed above. and join the points in order. The values of func192. (1. is supposed to change. ( 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. however. J).g. x a variable. for x=l. to x = 4. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. while 7 is a constant. 9). 2. it is In the example of the preceding article. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 4). If a more exact diagram is required.e. Q. and (3. a*. 9).
. = 4. etc. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. 1).) For brevity. j/=3. straight line produces the required graph. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.20). and join(0.4). (4.. rf 71 . 7 . as y. 2 4 and if y = x f.. y = 6. (3. (2. 2... 4). Thus 4x + 7.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. the function is frequently represented by a single letter.2 x . 4J. Ex. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. 5).. = 0. r */ +* 01 . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. 194. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Thus in the above example. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.
(d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2J. 11.5)2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. a?. Jar .e. 2 a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 6. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. if the function equals zero. 21. a? 2 4. if"a. a* 13. 9. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. + 4. 23x. the function.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. (7i) (c) 23. 1 8 10. a. 2 2 a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. a? 1. x+1. 2x + 3x a?. y = 2x = 4. 3 a 8. The values of a?. 1J. J. 18. The values of a*. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. i. (If) Va25. 2J. 1J. 2 a. (C ) (2.8)'. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 22. if y = 2. (ft) (_ 1. 2 or 2 20. 4 a. 14. The smallest value of the function. 19. if a. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4.5)2. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 16. 5. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. from x VlO'S". xz + x. . fa 17. 3. 2. = The values of a*. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. l. 8. . 1. 7. 15. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 6 fa.or. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. ?/ a. 1J. xl. 12. 2 2. a ar. 2. 4a? I. = 4. 3.
where x c is a constant. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 32 F.. then y = .24 or x = P and Q.158 24. i.e. C.. the abscissas of 3. y= formula graphically.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). then cXj where c is a constant. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. that graph with the o>axis. 25. Represent 26.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 9 F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.24. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. Show any convenient number). GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 14 F. Therefore x = 1. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. . If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. 1 C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation..
0. (a) (6) 9. . de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 13. 11. a2 2a.f 9 = 0. 12.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. is called a quadratic equation. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 6. (a) x2 = 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. = 0. 8. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 6.7 2 a 5 = 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. crosssection paper is used. 2 and 1. (0. + + = where a. viz. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 14. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 4. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. Such equations in general have two roots. 3. 197. or 5 2. 7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 10.
4) and (2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. T . we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . NOTE. and joining by a straight line. If x = 0.1. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. ?/. ?/ =4 AB. 199. unknown quantities.2 y ~ 2. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. locate points (0. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). i. 1) and 0). = 0. and join the required graph. y y 2.2. fc = 3. (f . Hence we may join (0. produces the 7* required locus. Hence if if x x  2. 2). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. X'2 Locating the points (2. Ex. solve for ?/.e. Ex. 3x _ 4 . first degree. == 2. because their graphs are straight lines. . if y = is 0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 0). 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence. y= A and construct x (  graphically.
viz. AB y = . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. (2) . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. linear equations have only one pair of roots. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. we obtain the roots. Graphical solution of a linear system. and CD. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.15. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). To find the roots of the system. 202.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 201. 203.57.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.
4.g. . and . Locating two points of equation (2). 4. the point we obtain Ex. the graph of points roots.9. (4. In general. if x equals respectively 0.e. y equals 3.y~ Therefore. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 2. 3x 2 y = 6. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. AB the locus of (1). Measuring the coordinates of P. (1) (2) C.5. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. = 0. 0) and (0. 2 equation x 3).5. 2. 5.0. 4. etc. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. P graphs meet in two and $. The equations 2 4 = 0. intersection. 1. Locating the points (5. 3. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. There can be no point of and hence no roots.. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. 1. 0. (4.0). 3. e. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. i. 3. Using the method of the preceding para. we of the + y* = 25. 3). and joining by a straight line.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. and + 3).  4. they are inconsistent. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 5. x2 . Solving (1) for y. (2. 0. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. 4.
1 6* + 7 y = 3. 3. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 6. Draw system. \ 2x + 3^ . y 2 4. y= a2 2x y6. 9.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. state reasons. if possible. y = 4.. '163 Dependent equations. vice versa. a+r/=6. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 20. 17. y=x + 5. x~y=0. a. 10. and solve each If there are no solutions. . 2. 8. 4. the graphs of the following systems. 7. and. 16 23. 5. 2x 3?/=6. 19. 16 22. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.
8. 25. 26. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 3 31. CUBES. 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. 30.164 24. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. AND SQUARE HOOTS .y).14 y = . 4 a = 3(6 .
a special kind of product. .faa a a a Obviously 1.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. involution repeated multiplication. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. etc. 2. According to 1. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ^4/? it According to 50. follows that 3.a2 . 3 f a = f a = +. ( a) is positive. 8. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. is may be by 207. 52. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Law of Signs. a = a3 . on to in factors 4. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. 2. fa. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive.
the required power. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 4.6 (a 8 8 . 4 /2mV. (a ) 2 5 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (277171 )*. 2.166 To find To To power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . raise a fraction to a power. 24. 210. 5. amVy) 3 . 3 2 2 8 . (a ) 2 4  3. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. (2ar). (^^) 2 . 76 : (>y. 15.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 2 11 (afc ) . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 16. a product to a given power. V V/ 13.6) = a . . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 6. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. \ 3 J '  MW 10.
INVOLUTION Ex. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.y) = (3 y?y . (aj7) . . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (3 x . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 3. An 1. a. 211. (3af26) 8 . 21. 4. 7. pansions.6 2 8 ft) . = s= (2s) 8 a. 3 . Ex. 8. 12. 23. 1 f 3 2 3 . : a 20.3 y. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 1. 3 8 . 13. (3 (l I) 2 8 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 9. 8 (a??/) 3 . + a 2 a.) 14. are obtained by multiplication. 6. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 18. frequently called ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . +5a) 22.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 5. + 4aj) 3 . 15. 2 . 2. 2.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.y . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . etc. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . nent of the binomial. (afl) . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 16. The higher powers of binomials. (a + &)8 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a .
6. (2 4. (?>i?i f c)*. (1 + 4 ?/) . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (p + q) 4 * 7. 5.a) 3 19.96 ^y f 216 o?y . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (m 2 + n) 8 .168 3. 23.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 5.2. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . and the powers negative. 15. (l 8 . (tff1) (cfd) .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (la&) 4 12. is the coefficient of the next term. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. . 4 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 9. 2. 3. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. Ex. . ( &) 5 . 1. 8. (?/i~w) : 16. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (mJ) 4 11.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. mn 5 2 5 ) .216 a^ 4. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 4. 25. 14. 18. (af 5) . Ex. . 24. 4 (1for) 5 . 3. (m 5 I) 2 22. (a~^) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. 21. (2 a 4 . . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. The minus. 78 s . (m fl) 2 20. 17. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 13. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 10. Ex. (lfa 6 2 ) 5.
Since even powers can never be negative. etc. 109 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. and all other numbers are. or 3 for (usually written 3) . V \/P 214. 4 4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. tity . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for distinction. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. V9 = + 3. and ( v/o* = a. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. a) 4 = a4 . called real numbers. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. numbers. 27 =y means r' = 27. = x means = 6. \/"^27=3. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 2. (_3) = 27. or x &4 . or y ~ 3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 1. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. which can be simplified no further. 215.
64 5 4 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. . = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 6 7 = 030. 10. 62 = V2* . 9. EXERCISE 1. To extract a root of a fraction. 2.200 . for (a")" a = a mn 3.4. V?. v/2^. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 3 33 53 . roots of the numerator \/18 . v/^i2 = a*. 7 . Ex. 7 . index. . 2. Ex. Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.lL. 82 .201) = 2.1.  100 a 2 . 3. extract the and denominator. 5. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V25 9 16. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . V5 v/2 7 2. = 199 + (_ 198) . .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 3i . 8. \/2 4 9 . 7. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 8. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. V36 9 4. Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 .(. To extract the root of a power. 9. 6. 3/0** = am .9 = 136. 7.125. fy 5 3 . 2 . = 19472. Ex 5 a" . 4 v.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 6. Ex.
2 . .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3 y2) ( vV . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V8./). 116. 2. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. V20 . a f2 l 2 + l. ^40^4. 29. 2 f ( V240) 3 . 32.3 . 33.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 5.75.EVOLUTION 171 28. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 6. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Ex.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 45 V5184. 2 . V9216. 31. Find the square root of a2 . 34. 3.3.98. 30.) by inspection. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 1. a* 4 8 2 .
and b. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 &c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . + 6 + 4a&. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. i. 14.2 ac . however. mV14m??2)f 49. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.e. . the given expression is a perfect square. 10. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 2 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2 2 218. #2 a2  16. 2ab . 12.b 2 2 to its square.> 13. 15. 8 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. a\b is the root if In most cases. a f. The term a' first 2 .2 ab + b . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 11.72 aW + 81 & 4 . and b (2 a f b).172 7. let us consider the relation of a f. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.
First complete divisor. 8 a 2 2. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. . 6 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Ex. 1. of x. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. the first term of the answer. 10 a 4 8 a. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 219. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. . Second trial divisor. The square . . 8 a 2 .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. */'' . 2. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. is As there is no remainder. and so forth. First trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and consider Hence the their sum one term.EVOLUTION Ex. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. As there is no remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Explanation. by division we term of the root. 8 /. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. . . 1.
42 a*& 4. 8. . 12. 10.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.37 a ^ .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.V430^425^ 4m 4. 14.25 x 4 4. 6 11.12 m 4.9. > 7. 18. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .20 J or 2 16 x 4.12m 5 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 20. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 16x6 4.25. 436^?/469a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .40 a 22 .10 x2 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 6.a 6 x*y 2 . 5.16. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.20 o 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 5 4 16 4 iK . 9. 15. 2 4. 19. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 16.4 x 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . l 4. 4 . 24. 1 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .73a4 440^436^460^. 729 4. a? 2 . 2 x2 3 2x. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.73 a8 . 17. 36it. 3.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.24 or .6 .
etc. a 2 = 6400.000 is 1000.. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. first . Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.1344. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Ex. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .176. two figures. the square root of 7744 equals 88.EVOLUTION 220. Therefore 6 = 8. etc. 1.000. Find the square root of 524. Find the square root of 7744. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. of 10. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. of 1. = 80. Ex. the first of which is 8. and the complete divisor 168. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the first of which is 4. which may contain one or two). and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. 2.000. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000 is 100. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. and the first remainder is. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. The is trial divisor = 160.
1 are Ex. The groups of 16724.0961 are '.7 to three decimal places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3. 12. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.1T6 221. annex a cipher.70 6. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. Find the square root of 6/.10. in . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.GO'61. places.
30. 37. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 34. T\. 5. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.01.) 40. = 3. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . feet. . feet.22. 13.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. J. 31.53. 1. 39. 33. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 36. 35.1410.58 square 38. whose area equals 48. 1. JT .4 square when R = radius and 11.
absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Ex. A pure. 6#2 = x* 24. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is 12. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . or incomplete. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. x = + 2 or x =2.g.. = 7^ + 5. Transposing. The 7 equation. 226. 1. . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 178 . ax 2 + bx + c = Q. This answer Check. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. Dividing. 2. or affected. but no higher power e. 225. is A quadratic equation. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 6 y2 = 17. complete. 2 ic = a. or equation of the second degree. 224. x 2 7. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Extracting the square root of each member. = 4. 2)* + 5 = 33. Solve 13 x2 19 etc.
19 + 9 = 5500. 2 4fc 5' 18. Solve 179 . 10.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 16^393 = 7. 7. . 3. (a? 9. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 8. 5. 4. 6(2)=10(ajl). ' =: y? b* b . 15^5 = 6.25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 0^ + 1 = 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 4 ax. ax Transposing and combining.2. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. or Therefore. 2 2 a. o. 2. : 83 2. 7 = 162. . s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.
then Since such a triangle tangle. 27. 28. and their product : 150.) of their squares 5. 25. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . . Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 3. 26. Find is the number. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 22 a. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 29. If G=m m g . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2 : 3. 24. : 6. 228. 2a f 1 23. If 22 = ~^. A right triangle is a triangle. may be considered one half of a rec square units. . find a in terms of 6 . 2. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). is one of _____ b The side right angle.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 108. 2 .b 2 If s If =c . is 5(5. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. If a 2 4. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . Find the numbers. solve for r. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. r. 4. ' 4. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . Find the side of each field. 2 . EXERCISE 1. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for v. and they con tain together 30G square feet. solve for d. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units.
and the other two sides are as 3 4. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Method of completing the square. Find the sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. J = 12. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the unknown sides and the area. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. . and the two smaller 11. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . The area : sides are as 3 4. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 9. 24. 8.7 x f 10 = 0. (b) 44 square feet. Find these 10. radii are as 3 14. 2m. Find the radii. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 4. (b) 100 feet? = . Solve Transposing. and the third side is 15 inches. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. x* 7 x= 10. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. is and the other two sides are equal. sides.2 7 . of a right triangle Find these sides. . .) 13. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. add () Hence 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. To find this term. we have of or m = .
. Extracting square roots. a.2.. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. J. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Hence Therefore Check. Transposing. Transposing. or x = 2. (*~8) a = at . adding member). Uniting. = . Ex. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 62 x 5 = f. or J.e.a. 2 a* a. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. = \ # = ff. a Clearing of fractions. Simplifying. 230.1.2 a2 . = x\ = 2.x(l = . 2  . Therefore. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  \. = 6. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Ex.
4 ~ a2 Transposing. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying.
x la 48. = 12. =0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . ao. 49. 231. 2x 3 4. Solution by formula. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. and c in the general answer. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. article. =8 r/io?. .c = 0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
?i 2 . 15. 2 a. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6 . 11. 9. 2.4 4 5 . 3. 20. = 64120?. c = 5. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2 a? = 44 x . 2 . = 12 . 2. 5 x2 Transposing.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 14. 16. 10. 1. Reducing to general form. 6. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 18.25 x. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. b =  + 20 == = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.  . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 21. 13. 6 Ex. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. TIO. c p. 2 o. 17.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.. 26. V^tT)* . 2or } 5o. 6. 4. 6^+5^ 56. 12. 19. 8. 7^ + 9 x 90. a.
orz roots. Solution by factoring.5) =0. Factoring. }. and 6. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . x(x <2 . 5 = 0. member can be Ex. 0.4) = . all or. transposing terms to one member. a=:i^^. Eesolving into factors. x2 = 1 . = 14. 25. 26. factors Now. 233. ar>8o. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. any degree.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 1. 23. 24. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 3x?+x = 7.x. Clearing for fractions. 27 x== 42a. . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?.5 Solving (1) and (2). 5) = 0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. = 0. 2S3x 1 2 . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Transposing. (5 a? !)(. Bx 1 1.2. = 0. or # 5 is zero. if either of the uct is zero.
x2 f 2 x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 0^ ar> 11. Or Hence the 234. a?.6)) = 0. 3 or 2 a. Therefore x =3 = 2. 12.e. is 5) = 0. 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. for a: . 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 4. + 6)=0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.24 = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 9. aj( 15. + 8=s: 7.g. 3# y 5 = 0. 6. 4)(z3) = 0. : 87 = 0. 5 = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. a?10a=:24. 2. we 9 obtain x 4. E. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. + 10 a = 24.(.3)(x + 3 3. 7. 2o3 f9a.:=0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 14.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0.= 24. } 2 2 (5 . + 9 f 20 x = 0. (aj4)(a. ar'Sa^ 12. The equation I. 13. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. + 100. and the equation thus formed be solved. Ex. a* 10a=24. 16. 3. O roots are 2. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 0(02) = 7(02). 3) Factoring. 8. 3) = 0. 5.
uz + u 21. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 25. 2. 20. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 22. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. '3a!J  . 19. 50. 27. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. ara + ft + c*.188 17.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (a + 1) (a. a 2 =(x a)b. 18. 23.
Find the numbers. 4. 0. 52. is Find two numbers whose product 288. and the difference Find the numbers. 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 5. of their reciprocals is 4. G. 2. feet. 58. 2.0. 54. EXERCISE 1.3. The 11. . number by 10.9. 8. 2. 2. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the number. The difference of . Find the sides. 6.3. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 3. 56. two numbers is 4. 55. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. : 3. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 57.1. 1.0. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.2. and equals 190 square inches. 5. 1. 7. and whose product 9.3. and whose sum is is 36. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 3. and consequently many prob 235. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find the number. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.
he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. ABCD. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. as the 16. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. c equals 221 Find AB and AD.10. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. he would have received two horses more for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. What did he pay for 21. ply between the same two ports. watch for $ 24. 15. 14. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. . vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. and Find the sides of the rectangle.190 12. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. Two vessels. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. dollars. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. If he each horse ? . other. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 17. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 13. Find the rate of the train. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21.
27. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. (tf. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 237. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. contains B 78 square inches. constructed with and CB as sides. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. is On the prolongation of a line AC. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.) 25. Ex. Find and CB. the two men can do it in 3 days. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. . B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. how wide is the walk ? 23. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. ^3^ = 7. and working together. or x = \/l = 1. By formula. Find TT r (Area of a circle . so that the rectangle.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. of the area of the basin.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. a point taken. 1. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 24. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. as 0. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 23 inches long.
a 21or=100. a? 15 1=2*. 19. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a4 5o.T 2 2 . 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 18. or y = 8. Hence Le. a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.)+72=0. 2. 4 6. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . Solving. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.2 =4. 6. 436 3. 10. y8)=0. aV+9o 4 =0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 16. 4. 2 h9:=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 a. = 1. 7. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 16 a^40 11. = 13. 4 : 89 10a. 9. 12. 8. Ex.192 238. >. T 17.
and unequal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . ( 2a Hence 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The discriminant =(. the roots are irrational. is 4ac not zero. the roots are unequal.5) = 04. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . negative. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 2.bx 4. rational. Hence the roots are real. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. 3. rational. the roots are real. the roots are equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are rational. Relations between roots and coefficients.2 z . 240. 1. and equal. the roots are imaginary. c the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.12 x + 9 = 0. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.f> = 0. a perfect square. b 4. Ex. Ex. 241.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.2) 2 4 3 (.
If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. f 2 E. lla. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 2.g. 24. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 60 2 = 0. = 0. = 0. = Q. 12. + 2a. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. o. = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 10 x = 25 x + 1. tfmx+p^Q. + 18 2 8. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. their product isf. x2 7 10. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 14. + 12 2  . ^12. 4.. 23. : a 2 . (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 9a3 = 0. 3a. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 5oj aj + l = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 6. 5aj 9. = 5x. 2 7. 22. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 15. 17. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2 a. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.19 # 20. 2 : 3. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 18. 21.
that a an = a m+n . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. = a"" < . provided w > n. It is. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. a m a" = a m+t1 .CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. ~ a m f." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The first of these laws is nition of power. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. such as 2*. 244.* III. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. however.a" = a m n mn . (ab) . while the second of the first. must be *The symbol smaller than. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. (a m ) w . Then the law of involution. hence. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. and . II. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . > m therefore. for all values 1 of m and n. no Fractional and negative exponents. We assume. m IV.
23. 24. e. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. laws. fractional. (bed)*. disappear. 4~ .g. 3*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 29. a*. a?*. a\ 26. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 25. a . Assuming these two 8*. m$. . etc. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. (xy$. or zero exponent equal x. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. n 2 a. 0?=^. '&M A 27. ml. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 30. as. 245.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 31. = a. 28. at.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.
45. = 2.g. 246.g. hence is . : 2' 4* = 4. Vo5 . 7z* Find the values of 47. a . 35. the base is zero. \fi?. e. a. = 49. 48. a* * = 3. \/xy \/m. 3* = 27. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 49. If. 37. a * a2 Or a=l. 40. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 50. 41. ty?. Let a = a. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. v'mT 36. 46. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. equal to unity.\/n. e. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. : 197 33. 27* = 3. v/o&cT 34. 42. 44. 38.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. however. 43. Solve the following equations 39. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 5 a* = 10. = 2.
2 = a2 . each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. 248. cr n. etc.g. e. Multiplying both members by a". Let x= or". . vice versa. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. by changing the sign of NOTE. or the exponent.198 247. consider the following equations. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. an x = a. Or a"# = l. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .
25. 2m~i 43. 22. m . * 24. ^?2 y' 34. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 7~ l a 2b 2 . . a^ 41. a. : or 5 . 66 45. 37. 36. 2 . ^L. 3 a. 27. c 32. 40. f (2w)~i 1 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29."* 38. rfS. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 44. 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . : mi m~^. 3 a? * 42.
(.6). Ex. z* = 1. = ^. 58. 48. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. + 1~* f 21 . 53. 52. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. ar = i. 49.1. 17' 2 51. 10* Find the values 56. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. of: 3ll4~* 60.81 f (a . = . 10* 5* = .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.001.343)* + (. + A_. = l. 61. = 5. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 54. . 57. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 59.008)* + A. 55. 47. 250.9*. 1. z 5or*=10. (.26)* 1 (I) 2 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.
' 11. 6 *. S'sS8.&. 12. etc. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 16.$*.7W.5.4 a8 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 3sVS. 14. 16. &.$"..^/5^5. 17. 6. V5. 7~ 5 27  . . 3. .7*.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. remove the fractional exponents. 4 5.5a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 .4 . 7~ 6 . 23. Perform the operation indicated. are performed. 72 . 13. 8 ' 9. a. 10.6 *' 6 *25.7i. OA 20. 18. 79 .&. (d) If required. / 7fv 7.3 aj" a.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 7*. . 7. #* a. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 27  28. 26. 4 x^. Remove the negative exponents. 6a. NOTE. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 3 a. 95 ^9i 5**.
1.2 d . 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The 252. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. If powers of a?. 2. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 40. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
32. 26. \/5. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. v/4. 27. v/3. I VJ + 3VT8 . Ex. ^2. 39. Ex. ^7. 28. 5V2. Simplify V~ . V3. v/3. if dissimilar. </3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 38. v^S. VS. 40. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a.2 V50. To add or form. V2. 31. ^6. + .3\ . Simplify/a35 ~ o . 34. (i.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. s!/3. 33. 4^/4.2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 36. signs. 30. subtract surds. 2\ 3*. </20.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . V3. V2. ^3. ^4. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. A/3. </2. 29. 3. ^2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^126. \/7. ^4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. A/2. 37. V2. V5. ^/IT. ^5.e.10 V2 =  V2. Arrange 35. connect them by proper 1. ^30.
8. 4V805V45. 14. V18+V32VT28+V2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. . + 3V835V2. 10. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .J a6 V4 aft.3V20 + 6V5.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6. 13. V175V28+V634V7. 11. 8VT8J2V32 7. 12. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 4. 3. 9. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
Multiply V2 by 3\/l. 2. 6*.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . Ex. 26^ .2v/6 + IPV6 105. and then multiplied.6V35 106 460V35100 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 23. .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 3. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 1. Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. y* = Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .
^/2. V3 Vl2. \/3 \^). 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 34. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 4. 9. fWa 17. 39. (3 20. 38. V42. 19. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 18. 37. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 213 98 11. 3. 13. 2 . . V2 V50. 25. VlO V15. 40 10 30. 14. aVa. 8. a?. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 27. 10. 6. (V6 + 1) 1 .VSS. VTO. + VB)(2V5). (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 15. (2V3) 8 . (Va Va 36. V2aV8^. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 6 V4 5. 21. 12. V3 V6. V20 V30. 41. 40. 2. 28 . v/4. Vll. v/18 v"3. 6.
Ex. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 53. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . the quotient of the surds is If. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 46. 268. V3 . 60. Ex. E. all monomial surds may be divided by method. is 1 2.y. 49. 47. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 43. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.214 42. . 44. a fraction. 52. 51. Va v/a. 48. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (2 45.
arithTo find. 1. Evidently. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . The 2. metical problems afford the best illustrations. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.RADICALS This method. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. /~ } Ex. . we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.57735.. by V7. Divide VII by v7. 3. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .by the usual arithmetical method. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. e.g. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. however.73205. is illustrated by Ex.
A.7320. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.. V3 24 . V5 = 2. VffV?.4142. V8 12. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 272. V48 25. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V2 22 . and Given V2 = 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. i. 21.2361. Vll 212*. 7. . V3 = 1. A. 20. ^/H . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . 23 . V8 JL. 271. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 14. V5 270. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.
. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. V82 2V3 1fVS . 1.1 xVtf a. Ex.Vs2 . Ex.vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a. 3.RADICALS Ex.2.= 18.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5V7 18> ^SVg.4142. 6V7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.5 3 = 125.W3. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. Given V2 1. four places of decimals 23 . = V3 = 1. V21 = 25 . Vo1 26. . find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.218 6 . 27.2361. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 19.7320. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. J?_. : and V5 = 2. v 2V3 28. 24. By the use of fractional exponents .
3 (V2~u)  7. 2. V643 . v8f 2\/15. . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. According to G3. 4. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . it to this form. on the other hand. \/125" . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 8. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. viz. In other examples of involution and evolution. 11. 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. \/l6*. 2. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. V255 . 1. the If.RADICALS 219 274. 5. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 9. 2 12. Simplify Ex. we must find 8 and whose product is 15.
and whose product is 18.A/2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 2 \/18.220 Ex.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find V4 + VJ8. The Hence ^11 .2 \/20. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex. Find Vl2 4.6\/2 = ^9 . is 11. Find Vll . 3. +2 Ex. 2.6 V2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. 12 and whose product is 20. ^TT.
8. 5..e. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. .1. Ex. are radical equations. Before performing the involution. x2 = x f 2. member to 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. : 221 Vl32V22. r 22. +=. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. V48 23. 277. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Dividing by Check. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. first involution. by raising both members equal powers. they are transto formed into rational equations. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. Radical equations are rationalized. The value x =2 reduces each . Transposing and uniting. Solve vVf!2a = 2. = xa + 4 x f 4. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.V48 4 20. 19. 4x x = 2. 4. VT . i. (2x xrf 1. a.
5. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. they may be extraneous roots. the first member = V2. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. one root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. . (x 3) (8 x x = 3. . 2. 3. Therefore CftecAr. Factoring.1) = 0. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Squaring both members. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. It = 3 x . x = J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Dividing by 24. viz. tion which has two roots.3. Squaring both members. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Transposing and uniting. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120.222 Ex. viz. V4afT~l. at . Transposing. Ex. 4#f 4 = 9. f 25 = 12. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. a socalled extraneous root. a. Therefore Check. 278. V24~+~l = 0. Extraneous roots. Transposing and uniting.
. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . = 3. . 223 x = 3. If If x 3 = 3. both members reduce to 5. Hence x = the only root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. + 6~ieT~3 . Factoring. 4.RADICALS Hence x If a. Therefore.47) = 0.3) (2 x . 2 Clearing of fractions. viz. (x x = 3. Check.12 . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Squaring. and to 5. \ does not satisfy the given. ViTie 4 z2 . Solve the following equations : = G.2 r. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Hence there is only one root. NOTE. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. for it satisfies the equation . is x V. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. the right member = V2. equation it is an extraneous root. x root of the preceding equation. Transposing. or x *j.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0.
Many 1. Solve af*. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
2. Q . o. 4. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.i~24 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. x + Vx a? = 6. Ex. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 2Va. = 26. Let 8 x f 40 . some of the roots be extraneous. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 2_8z 440 = 49.35 = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 412a* = 16. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. y then x2 .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. 3 6.8 x + 40 = 36. 5. Vi 2 8a.*2a. This can be seen without substituting. = 7. members of the equation were squared. .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. x Since both =9 or 1. + 40 = 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. _ 2 y .f40= 5. 45 14VJB = . 2. x =6 or 3. Substituting. 3.8 z40 = 7.
+3= 6. 18.226 11. 14. 2. 20. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 19.a 440 = 35. 12.f 18 = 24. a. 4 V SB* 4 a. 15. 17. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +x . 16. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . a^x2 5 2 13.
we make a? what the value of Q. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. if Q was known. a? R = x* . Without actual division. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. E = ax + &z + m) Q. " Or.2 + 4. = 2. If x* . Hence.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. then (x 2)Q 0. Ex. could.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. ^ = 381+2.2 + 80 = 12." transposing.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . no matter If. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.2 x 5 by x 3. does not contain a?. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 227 . even if Q is unknown. by dividing 3 x* f. however. 2. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. ax4 4. find the remainder when m.4 a. 3 2 Ex.360 = 244. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. 1.
} 2 by a1. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.8'= 0.949. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5 (4x . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x m is factor of the expression.3)f 11 =. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. If the remainder is zero. 8. 5. + ^by x + b. 43 3 E. 2 j 7.228 282. 3. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. + 6. + 7 = 632.g.8. hence (x divided by x 4. fora?. the remainder equals 8 2 x . of the division 3) is m in place of x.4(. The Factor Theorem. if 8 42  .g. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x* s 2 4. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .
6. + 27 + 27. 24. 106 division. 18.13m + 30 10.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 7 46 = 0. 25. 2m 5m . a 8a f 19 a 12. 21. 8. or x 4. Factor a? 15. 3 2 : 7. or 5 4 + 3^ . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.9^ + 23^15. are f 1. Let x = .49 = 0. 1. ^10^429^20=0. is a factor. 1. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.7 x + 15 = 0.7 + 16 . f 15 does not vanish. 17. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.r6 = 0. The 5. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.1. Therefore x ( 1). then x8 7 x'2 4.e. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + ttt15 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. p 5^ + 8p 4. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .12 = 0. i. & p*. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. factors of the absolute term. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 8. 3. 20. 23. a 2a + 4. a + 32. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a^8^ + 19a. _ . 15. + 15. 5. 229 1. 2.12. 11. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . a 5x 6. oj 5x2 f3a. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.1. 9. a. f 3. . 2 2. m f m n 14. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. a? 19. f 5. Resolve into factors 4.
286. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n is even.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 2 Ex.g. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . ar +p= z6 e.230 285. For substituting y for x. if w is odd. 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 1. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. actual division n. is odd. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. By we obtain the other factors.xy +/). 2." . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. If n is a Theorem that 1. xn y n y n y n = 0. : importance. x* f/ = (x +/)O . It y is not divisible by 287. xn f.
preferable. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 26.= . Hence = (m Ex. as 27=0. 27. y 3 +8=0. however. 3.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes.i mn f w 2). leads 231 is The first method. since it more directly to the prime factors. x3 8=0. a. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 28.
290. 232 . ==5 > 1^ = 4. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. Squaring Solve (1). (5) Combining (5) with (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. + 6 a?V . the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. x y. however. If two of the quantities x f y. xy are given. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. xywe have 3. 4 xy = 16. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. * A I. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII.1. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. of quadratics.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. (4) Hence. in general.y4 is of the fifth degree. = 6. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree.
but can be found.g. r (" 1 = 876. 12. b=3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. The arranged in pairs. I I x + y=7. 108 2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 1. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . x and xy are not given. 233 y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. ^. 3. ' 10.
7 . Factoring.  42 y + Transposing. 5..4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. . I* Jj ^ [. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. . 4 y = 20.20) = 0. or JJ.i/ = r 13.  f J.?/ i = 6. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. r^ 2 as ] f.o 18. + 29 = 0. one linear and ne quadratic. la. Ex.~ y = 5. A system of simultaneous equations.  . aj = 2. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 19. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . I x+y = a. 6 "I 14. x " (3) 49 etc. 3.a. ' ' . THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. or y = 1 . 2 (1) From (1) we have.
Solve . 4 f + 2 y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ':il e :) . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3y) : Factor (2). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. III. 9. x2y. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . = 1 3 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 10. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. ' x*. If of the preceding type. quantities. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.3 2x 2 Ex. 1.
= Ex. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) (2) x x 5. Solve 2. } VI09. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 2 . 15 x2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. j Substituting y in (2). (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0. 109 a. 11 a2 Factoring.
150 */2 .175 ay = 12.6. 2 xy + y2 = 10. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Division of one equation by the other. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Bxy9. A.!. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?. " IV.xy 4. (4) (3). ' ^ 15.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. and others not belonging to them. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 298.y = 7.3^42^=43. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. E. y? a? f . . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.125 ay = . can be solved by special devices.
Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Therefore x = 16. * ' 300. Some simultaneous ?/. = 12 J. (1 > (2) 1. y . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Solve Ex. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . x +y y etc. we have from (1). from (2). Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. xy. i ^ *>. quadratics can be solved by ?/. at first it is unknown quantities.. = 189. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. B. x 2 .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y = 3. 2. jc~ y = 9. we obtain by squaring.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . M6. 2. F+y+ . 36* 2. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 7. 4. 239 Ex. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence = V or = 4. [2x + : y= 17. 6. . I e. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.
. = 198.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG.21 ^ = 15. . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 19 ' 26. 25. f 18. ( xy (7 m 2 n*.4 y = 47 a. * . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . 27. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 16. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6hy) = 80.
30. . hence may be any finite number. as a . finite  =x y if = x. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 32. = 48201. 3 a2 38. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 7' j/ 39. oo 301. ~\ OK OO. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 33. . 25 34.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. or ~ indeterminate. etc 302. . etc. Interpretation . Q 7. 31.of  According to the definition of division. . ^ oo .
g. Hence such an equation identity. equation.can be If It is made larger than number. or that x may equal any finite number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.000 a. (1) is an identity.x'2 2 x = 1. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. as + l. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.242 303. great. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. Or.increases if x de x creases. (a: Then Simplifying. 1. The ~~f fraction . (1) = 0. 1.e. TO^UU" sufficiently small. be the numbers. oo is = QQ. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.decreases X if called infinity. creases. 306. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . x f 2. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. . i. . ToU" ^100 a. without exception. the answer is indeterminate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. and . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. and becomes infinitely small. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.e. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. is satisfied by any number. i. cancel. it is an Ex. (1). = 10. By making x any * assigned zero. Let 2. I.
= oo. 42 and' their product is 377. 4 3 x x5 a2 . y finite QO. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 1=0.2 y = 4. and the sum of Find the numbers. 2. 3. Hence /. third and sixth parts. (2). Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. * 6. EXERCISE 1. The sum is of squares 2890. two numbers is 76. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. is their 2. and a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. z = 1 Substituting. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve  9 7. . Solve .8 x + 15 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Solve x a.e. no numbers can satisfy the given system.
and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12.quals 20 feet. Find the dimensions of the field. 10. Find the edge of each cube. 13. 146 yards. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 148 feet of fence are required. 255 and the sum of 5. is is 17 and the sum 4. is 6. and the sum of ( 228. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 190. and the hypotenuse is 37. 9. . and the edge of one. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 103. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 12. of a rectangular field feet. Find the other two sides. Find these sides.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 6. The area of a nal 41 feet. and the diago(Ex. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. p. of a right triangle is 73.) 53 yards. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find the edges. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 14. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the sides. equals 4 inches. 8. Find the side of each square. two numbers Find the numbers.244 3. increased by the edge of the other. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the numbers.
is 20 inches.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. differ by 8 inches. irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. by the product of 27 be added to the number.) 17.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. the quotient is 2. Find the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. .
of the following series is 3. 2 d must be added to a... + 2 d. . An arithmetic progression (A. a 3d. a + 2 d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. of a series are its successive numbers. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to produce the 4th term. 10.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. to produce the 3d term. 17. To find the nth term / of an A.. P.. . 16. to produce the nth term.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. . The common differences are respectively 4.7. 309. series 9. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. The first is an ascending.. P. 15 is 9 f. f .1) d. a 11. The progression is a. (n 1) d must be added to a.. a. and d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 19. Hence / = a + (n . except the first. P. to each term produces the next term. a f d. a + d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 12. each term of which.) is a series.. the second a descending. 11. 3 d must be added to a. : 7... 3. progression. 4. added to each term to obtain the next one.. Since d is a f 3 d. .
P. (d) 1J. 8. 1J.16. d = 3. 4. P. 5. . Adding. 4^. of the series 10. 2 EXERCISE 1..8. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.. 8. 2. Find the nth term of the series 2. 3. 5. 6.. 2J.' cZ == . 3. 1. 5. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. the term a. 6. 24. = 99.4. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 9. 115. Find the 5th term of the 4. Find the 12th term of the 4. .... 10.. 3.... series . 99) = 2600. . 3.PROGRESSIONS 310. series 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 9. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. P. = 2.. if a = 5.3 a = l. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 8. 6 we have Hence . . .. Find the 10th term of the series 17.. 19. . 2. = I + 49 = *({ + . 6.. 3. (a + + (a + l) l). = a + (a Reversing the order. 5. 7.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). .. d . the last term and the common difference d being given. 1. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 21.. 5.. 7. 7. ? (a) 1. a = 2..
31. 16. . to 20 terms. 20. striking hours only. 15. + 3. 22. 4. to 7 terms. 12. 1J.1 f 3. Sum the following series 14. 1. 18. . strike for the first yard. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 33. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 12. 11.7 f to 12 terms. 13. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . : 3. 29. 7. 2J. 7.5 H + if f to 10 terms. to 10 terms. to 20 terms. (x +"l) 4. 8. hence if any three of them are given.248 Find the 10. 3. 7. . . 15. to 15 terms. . 1. to 16 terms. 2. 1. and for each than for the preceding one. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 23. 17. rf. 15. to 8 terms. (i) (ii) . 11. 11. . . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. .. 6. 21. > 2f 2. to 20 terms. P.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 19. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 11. In most problems relating to A. 16. Jive quantities are involved. '. \n.
6. s 24ft last term 144. if s = 204. The series is. if a.6 n). . 2. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 2 (2) From Hence (2). n = 6. Find the series. P.1) . hence n = 6. From (1). and b form an A. 45. . #. Solving.. 67. 1. 89. or if x Solving. is 12. P. Findn. l)e?. or 11 J.. 78 n Substituting in (1).1). 111. n d. 34. 204 = ^ (a + 49).104 w + 408 = 0. 204 = ^ (98 . Substituting in (2). 12. 122.~n~\ 408 6). 312. = a + (w. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. J = 49. = 1014. d = 6.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 56. 6. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = 144.e. the second one mean between the other two. 78. I Substituting in (I) and (II). I. 144. = n(104 . is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. a = 49 6(71 . 23. But evidently n cannot be fractional. Ex. = 13. 6 n2 . P. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 133. a = 12. 100. The first term of an A. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. = 1014. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum.
a x f b and a b. How much did he save the first month? 19. How much . 14. Find a and Given s = 44. 12. P. n = 20. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. a+ and b a b 5. . 4. n = 16. 78. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = 17. n = 17. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 8. 15. I Find I in terms of a. 17. Find d. 10. Given a = 1.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 7. 6? 9. y and #f5y. f? . has the series 82.3. Given a = . Find w. 16. s = 70. Given a = . ceding one. I. 3. n = 13. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . s == 440. d = 5. f J 1 1 / . = 83. = 1870. Find a Given a = 7. 11. of 5 terms 6. and s. Find n. 13. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 74. n has the series ^ j . = ^ 3 = 1. = 45. m and n 2. Find d. n = 4. T? ^. produced. = 16. Given a = 4. = 52. n. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find?. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3.
.. .. . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . A geometric progression first. I. .. ar. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 4. r n~ l . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 108. 36. . 24.. . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.arn ~ l . 4 (1) . P. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 4. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . (I) of the series 16. P. called the ratio. +1. 2 a. 2.) is a series each term of which. and To find the nth term / of a G. NOTE. rs = s 2 . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . E. .g. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 12. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). If n is less : than unity. 36. 36... is 16(f) 4 . or 81 315.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. <zr . ar8 r. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. P. 24. The progression is a.. The 314. ratios are respectively 3.. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. or. of a G. is it (G.
0. 576.. 4. r^2. a = I. whose . Find the 6th term of the series J. series 5.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. fa.. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.4. . 9. 3.... series 6. . .. first 5. ? (c) 2. 7. 676. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. I = 670. 8. 6. 9. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Hence n = 7. 144.288. .54. 25. fa. P. f. first term 4. + 5. 72. \ t series . . hence.l. P. EXERCISE 1.6. . 18. whose and whose second term is 8. 144. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 20. 1. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. Jive quantities are in. is 3.. series . volved .. Find the 5th term of a G. 72. 2 term 3. P.5. i 288.5. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. 80. (d) 5. . first term is 125 and whose common .72. 144. (it. is 16. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. or 7.18. 36. Hence the or series is 0. f. 288.._!=!>. 9. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. P.*... . . +f%9 % . . 36.18. Ex. if any three of them are given. 10. P. And the required means are 18. (b) 1. In most problems relating to G. 4.. . l. . 36.
Find a and n = 4. and hence ~ r . 14. Z s. to 6 terms.nV> i*> !718.. 19. to 6 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. J. 72. to 6 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 16 .PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 243.. . a^. . Given r = n Z 5. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. M.. 23. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 126. to 7 terms. 1. . 14. 54. == 160. 81. to G terms. s = 310. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. n = 5. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 12. be written If the value of r of a G. J. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 4. = 3.J and 270. 21. 27.. J. may be than any assignable number. 20. 24. 42. to 8 terms. 48. Find a and Given r = 3. 25S series : 32. r . s = 605. 81. J. I. n = 5... .. = 3. Find a and 4. P. >"> . 13. 1. a. to 5 terms. 22. 2. of r n decreases. to 7 . 12 terms.i a9 . 15. is less than unity. 36. + 4 . . .
191919..)7?7272 . If a = 40. P.. 1. 5.3727272 ....3 + ... 9. 9. . 2. 1.. . what is (a) the sum of the areas.. is J. ratio 15. . The sum Find the of an infinite G. 1 r = .. of an infinite G. 4... . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. Find the sum to infinity. 14.. 5. . = a . = 990 . r = j.00072 f .. first and the common term. .= .717171. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 10.27777 . 250.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. 12. .272727. (6) the sum of the perimeters. The sum r.. 100. = .. 8.01 ^ . 40. 1. ... =A+ 10 i.555. i i J. 6. . 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 6. I. . 3.. . P. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.072. i. 1. Hence .. 12. 13. 8.99 .. ..254 Ex. of: 11.37272 . 2.72.Ql. is 16.. and the first term is Find 17. . 66 Therefore .. is 9.. Find the value 9. of all squares ? . P. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.072 + . . = .. Given an infinite series of squares.3121212.= _4Z* . 16. .. 7.. 16.1. . .. 4..
. coefficient of . (\ 9 . 12. : (1 + xy.b ). 16. 25. 10. (a + b) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 11. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 28. (xy) : 6 . 5. . /2a+Y\ 8. 2 2 24. 4 7. 20. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 17. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the 6th term of (x . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (s + i). 21. 13. 15. 4. . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . a6 8 16 in . l 2. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 26. 29. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.6) 20 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a2) 6. (a 100 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 22.6) .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 7 . 14. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .
 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 4. 4 2. 2. 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. ft 4 ) 5. + 1. 1. a ft c = = 2. 24 4. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 1. 3. 1. . + c(a  c). 3. 6. 4. 3. aft 3 + 4. 2. c if 7 . 2 . 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 5. 3. 2. 1. 3. 3. 3. 2. 3. 5. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. 1.f ac 1. 2. 1. 4. 2. 4. if = = 2. 6. 3. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. if x^l. 4. 2. 2. 6. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 4. (c 3. 1. 4. 4 ft  c) 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 6. 5. 5. 4. ft) . + 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 3. 1. y 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. 3. l.a(a 4. 7. 3. 2. 5. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. c = = = 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 4.  a)(a 1. 6. 2. 5. 5. 4. 1. 3. 2. 3. 2. 1. 3.  8 ^ 2. 2. 2. 5. 1. 3. 1. + 2. 4. 3. 2. if y=2j 2. . 5. 2. 2. 1. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ).  2. 3. 3. if = = = 2. = 2. 2. 2. 2.
+ 4.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 4 y 13.8 3 + 7 x4 . (5.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .7 ys. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. ~c)(b. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.\ yz + xz. 2 . .r 6 x  4 xy . 2. + 8 x4 *y . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. a.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . b(x (b 1.a8 . 10. x3 2 a2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .2. 21. 41.5.a) . 8. 8 . 5. x 3 11. 5.10. 25.a 4 .259 x c) . x = 4. 9. 2.8 + 2 // . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x 3 x' 14. 9. . 7 xy 3 . a. 1.7 y 2* 4.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 4 z .  a) (c 2. 7. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.5 xy 3 + + 4 .2 x?/. + 2. c = 3. . 4. 2. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 15.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . x C 4 4x y + . 6. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .2 a?y + 3 aty . + 3 y 2* . 2 x 8. 3. c)(x a} . = 2. if a 6 = = c = 3. or .x 5 4 .3 a?y .a 5 a . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 29. + 1. 40. 2.2 z8 4 x. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. a /> 3. a 4 + 11 a .c' 2 4 / . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 4 x 4 . a: . 17.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 3. 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 1. 2  + 12 a 8 .4. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 16. f 8. ' b) + 3. 4. 7y 4 .2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 15.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 6 a4 4 a8 .3 xyz. 18. 5. 21. r> .7 + .2 x2 . 5. 26. . 20.1. + 4 ?y . 12. 24.
Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. From of 2 the 4.5 .3 .x2 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . Take the sum 4x 4.4.3 x . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.{2 x 2 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .2 3 ax 2 .c.x 4.x .c 3 a.(x 4.2 . x8 x2 2 a'2x.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .6 x ] .(5 c . ft 25. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 5 10 + 7 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . 35.c 4 3 a. 5 4 7 12 . . .4) . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. sum of .3.7.6T .(4 x 2 .c. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.(a . 4 3 5 y/ . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.260 19. 36. of a. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. . take the sum of G x 5 . 4 4 4.x 2 4.4 ft) 4. 0" 30. = x y ft z. .2 . 7 12 . 4 .[4 z 8 . (*) a  c. 33. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. c 4ft. 29.2 a . f ft. c =x y }~ z.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. .] 26. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.a ft.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. .1)}] .[4 x 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.(7 x 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.5.8 3 4.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.(x* . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . c 4. 4vTT~y 3. : a x .1).#48.3 .(4 * . Simplify 31.(5 y .4 Vl 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .27~~7)}]. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .{G * 2 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 34. and .?> x 4 20. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 5 10 4 G 11 4. x'2 . 542 x 2 and . 4 2 x2 23. 3 ft.. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .x .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2) . 2 x 32.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. a  ft + c.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .2 x 8y2 44 . ft.
56.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 45.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].4 a .2)(1 .6 xy .ab .c 2 .& + {.(4 d .7). 64. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .(2 a 2 . 43.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].5 )}] + {4 c .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 4 + 2 2 + 1). 13 a . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 2 52. 67. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. . 2 : 7e)a}].2c(V/ . (r (1 (a. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).12).5)} + (3 a 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a . . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.(7 a. (. 60.c). (1 55. 65.b (c . + *+!){> + 2).(5 y . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . a {. 2 ft 41.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .[2 . . 62.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.56.(6 . 51.ac . 2 53.Z .2 2 + 1)(7. .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 2 2 x + !)(* .3 c)].(7 i + 4 r:) .(2 .3).rf)} + a [. + 4x + 5)(j. (1 ar+a.96 [17 a. 63. 'J 44.(2 a + 5 a . (x . 59. 46.{2 a . (. .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .3 *). 50.a~^~c)K].2x + 3).6c) (a + f c). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). . 57.{2 a (ft .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 3 x 42.{3 c .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .2 zz . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3 z 2 ).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).1).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .2a . (5 a 39. 54.3c). (4 + 3a 2 .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (x.0)} .3)(*5)(* 7). a . 49.6)}].4 a 2 + a 4 ). 48. . )(lz a ).be) (a 58.(2 x2 .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (/> 4 .[4 x  5 . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 68. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.r 2:c+ l)(ar.2 2 . .
93. 84.c) . ft /. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .z)(x y + z)(.v) 4.c . 83. 86.am&t 4 A 2 *). (a (2 b)*(a 4. 90. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.:y)( a.c)} .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 4.c) .ft) + 4(2 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. ft" l Simplify 80. 2 + a 2 ). (x (x ( + *) .{3 a . 87. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 94. 4 4 . b 4.c) 4) (ft 4.<f(p .6*y . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . (p 2 .(/>  3 v)^(. .3y) a (* 2 4. 70. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .3 a .x + y + z).2y)(. 76.y).ft) 4 . 73. 88.(a 48 8 8 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 77. ar .q). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).z) .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.5 .b 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .9y2). 74. .(a 2) (s 4 ft. ft 95.(c 4. 79.2 (y 4. xy y 2 ).2 ft}) f (3 a .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).c)].(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 1).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). . ft ft ft a}. 1). 71.y + z)(x + y .m np c . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 75.(4 .a) 2 .n pc).y)\x y).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c) 2 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 91.3 (ft . Prove the following 8 4.c . ft 78.262 69. 92. 85.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(ft 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c) rr identities. 82. (.O (a 4(a 4. 89. 2 (x 2 .2 (a .z\x 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.c) j.r 2 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y). f 72. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.
2 4 41 x 4a.6 y 4 4.y 2 4. .(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).v/ ~ // = a: . 123. 1). 121.xy 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 109. (a 8  8 68 8 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 102.(a 1 2 8 . (.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 124.y 4 . (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . [10( 4. 25 4 . 120.35 x 2 2 ) . a*. 108.5 xy).40 />) . 117. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 114. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . (80 a 112.(7 xi/ .2 xy 8 .) .(2 a 2 .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 10). 103.&).*) (x 8 . 118.5 b*). 116. 3*. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.27 x* . (2< 107. r . 110.a". Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 105.4 aft .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). . 99 100.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.2 2% 4. 1O4. 106.3 a"+ 4.r 4 4.9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .b) 98.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 2 (a+ .1). 113. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).(x 2 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).y 4 ) . (8 x* 115.2y 2 4. 26 (a 4 c).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.16 a 6 4. 122.
x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .2(5 .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.5) = 12(4 x .7(4 * . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 148.3).4) .12 M 132. 143.4) . 142.2 7^~5] + 1). 3) = x\x .3(* + 4) + 9} . 42(3ar 145.19) + 5 = 4 . 128. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3 x). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .3).9) + 3. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 1) .(1 .2(10 x . 129. 137.n .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 149.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). x 147.2) (a: + 3). (4 x . . 2 4(ar .4(0 x .(j a? 144. . 5 146. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.264 125. 127.2) + 2(ar + 4).(x . . y (* l x.3) = 12 . (*+ + . 135. 7(2 x .2) = 3 .9) 4.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).22. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 5(2 x .(x f 9). 3(2 x 134.3) (3 x 4. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.1) (a? . 126. 1) = 2(* .5).3(2 z .a:)]}. 139.r>) .27 a 3" . (5a: 150. .7) = 4 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .8 6 .3 a:).(x + 3) ] .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 10(2 x 141.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . . . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 136.2(j: .1) . 138.2(4 .G) .r + 7[or . o o 140.18 *&) (1 .5{.
6 x) (3 . (7 14 . 165. .17) 2 + (4 x . + 5) = (9 . (a) If C.z) (4 .14) (a: + 3). (2 . 154. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 163. The sum What 171.2) (j? + 1) + (x . If the area of the frame inches. .29) 2 = 1.5*) + 47.4) (a .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. (3 O + . a: ar a.2).r + 3) .24. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.(5 x . (a. 155.76. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.5)(.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. + 4) (2 x + 5).2 x) = (1 . sheep more than the 169.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. these two angles would be equal.3) (a: . 156. 159. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 166. (a . find the value of F.3) (3 .5) = (3 .19) + 42.T)O . 162.3) (3 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.l)(z . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 158.1) (s + 3). = 2 C. 153.a:) + 229.7) (a.. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 160.25) 2 . .2) a + 7(x . . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 5(ar x .? . How many 170. + 10) (ar . and the third twice as many as the first. transformed into F.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. =  (F 32).2 x) (4 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. + 2) + (5 .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . . = 15.3) = (3 x . f^ + ^sO.2) (7 *) + (*.3) (j. 2 4 . will produce F.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.9) + (a. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . 161. The second contains 3 first. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.5 x) = 45 x .5(x . 164.7) (1 x . 157. (x (x a. 265 152.8) = (2 x 4.
. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. ll?/102. + a. 3 gives the 174. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. younger than his Find the age of the father. power one of the two Find the power of each. number divided by 3. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A boy is father. 186. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. . 7/ 191. A house has 3 rows of windows. Find the dimensions of the floor. respectively. 181. z 2 + x . . + 11 ~ 6. 10x 2 192. side were one foot longer. two boys is twice that of the younger. and 5 h. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. if each increased 2 feet. 4 a 2 yy 42.266 173. aW + llab2&. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. dimension 182. 189. 176. was three times that of the younger. A each 177. 187. Find the number. 2 2 + a _ no. +x 2. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. z 2 92. 188. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. train. 178. 15 m. 190. 180. sister .36. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. How many are there in each window ? . x* 185. same result as the number diminished by 175.56. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 13 a + 3. 179. father. 12 m.
3 xy.10 xy.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. a. x*y 223. . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 206.3 xf + 3 * 2y . *2 234. a+a* + o a +l. 2 200. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . z 2 2. 2 a 8 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.10. 203.6s. 3y 248. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . (a + . .20 z 8 a: 220. . a 2 . 244. 232. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a: 236. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .6 aq . 212. 5 x 2. 213. 7a 228. ifWy+b. 221. 233. 267 199. 227.64.c) 2  (a . + 8.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 210.r?/f y 2 9. 2a te 3% ly 247. 3 ap 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .6 2 ?/ .1.19 z 4 204. 201. 2 x 2 . 8 a. 16x 4 81. 211. 245. x 219. + 2 .21 a:  54.14 2 .22 z + 48. a: 231. 6 197. + 198. + 3a 196. a a: a: 237. 246. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 8 a: ar. 4 m +^. # 2  29 y + 120. 239. 238. . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.19 a . xm+l 243. 222. 230.6 y2 + 4. x 5 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 2 y f 1. . 215.c) 2 . 3 x V . + 30 x. .12 * . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 23 12. x* + 8 2 + 15. 209.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 7x 2 225.77 y + 150. 24 2 + 2 . 218. 3 x 2 . 207. .28.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . y 2 194. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 2 a 2 . a^a 226.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . z + 5x 2 . wiy + la mx + aw.(b + rf) 2 . a. 195. 3y 2 + ary . 12 x +4. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 202.8 6 2. 224. a. a.10 y a x* .x + 1. 217. 235. 229. a: . 2 . 208. 216. 4a 2& 2 241.6.3 c/> + 6 cq.
x 2 .2 aft*.13. 2 a. 269.ry .120. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.3 abc .16 x . 22x2 a. 260. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. x 2 + 5 f .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. a? a: a: // 262. 258.G7 x f 33. 28 2 f 71 x . + 8. 7 ax 250.36.9 x + 14. ft a.12.a 2 />c 2 f 3.3 x .9. F. * 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. x 2 f 9j: + 20.48 afy 2 . 10 a.5 ab f 2. a: .4 ab + 1. 6.23 x f 20. + 23 x f 20. of: 266. 3 ay 4.9 x . I Find the II. x 2 + 4 + 3. x*y* 4. a.73 xy .15. * 2 . . 261.11 x f 28. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 257.1 9 . Reduce to lowest terms 271. 15 # 2 z/ /. a 4.14 bx a%% 8 .M. 3 a% 2 .15 + 30.11 a 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .ry 21. + 20 x 4. C. 10 x 2 . z 2 267. 18 x 2 . 2 8 .23 + 12. + 3 x + 2. 251.7 f 5. 254. x 2 4. 270.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . + 8 x + 5.6 by.2 z .2/ 2 .91. x* . x* .80.C. 252. * a . a 3 a 2 2 .r . 1 x ar Find the L.3. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).&z. * 2 . 259. 8 2 + 10 x . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 + 2 x . 264. 2 + 7 r f 2.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 3 #2 255.10.(55. 2 .4. 5 x 2 256.18 xy + 5. of: 253.a + 2 4. 7 12 2 2 . 265. 2 x2 .8.x .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 30 ^ . x 2 263. z 2 268.10 a 4.
. *2 " 2 + Oge.. a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2* + 3 x* 280. m 4. + ac .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 285 z4 n* + a. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 8 .2c a: 282. z2 (a 2 + c)a.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .rL. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j.!/. 289 ' .ar 1 279.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.
^. * 19 23 19(23 23. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. O(ca) 306. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. Lnl + ar 2 a. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304.
 1 x2 + + a. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. (a? 4 2) 317. 1a: + y a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.ft) 2 322. a: 1 313.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . . 2 + y 2 319. 1 _. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. _ x8 . } .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. .
B ~ 1037  329 4 a. . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a..6* t 328.9 *// + 27 . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.15 33 .ll.y20  2y + 4 2 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . a: 2 x* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *..V  + y  x 3y a . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325. 20 44 333. 2 lOx 5x. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . * 3a.5 a .2 +lOar 2 a. . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x .
348. \5yl 341. ?_2 ^ . ' 2 "l 5 . a>74 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 5 343. 338. : 1+ i. ** i. (a \ + lV. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.. 352. +^ a: y x . fl. if a = 3. \x yj 340.1V. 344. aj 339. 7 ( ?f!?. (ar \ 346. a: 349 _ o.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. + ni + . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. w \. (aWi + iJ.y.) 2 . ( 342. 1 345. + l + IV. f V.+ r . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337.r 5 2 . xi 347.
y360. I  I f 366. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. 1+2 362.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. _ + l a 359. a2 4 . ar xy + yl x* 358. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . (~ 364.
6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. b c 368.
+ 1) 45 O 377.*2 = 15. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 5*8. 5 {2 x 381. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. . 379. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 4(* . . __4 2x 3_ = !.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. J !__7. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . ^ . <3 378.
. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. 396. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).  J). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 397. 401. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.75 x f . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). _____ .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.1 . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 40. f 1 1 + a 403.8 = .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. a. ^ (a . . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. 3* 177.5 ^ ~ a: a. + 4 a.147. b 404.2 a:  1.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. ..5 x =r f .  8 9* x ~r. m x 398.25. u '2 a. 400. 399.6  .25 x + . c .
(x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number. 411. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. hour. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. (x .  a) 2 6 2a. 421. 18 be subtracted from the number. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. In a if and 422. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 418 ~jo.c) .278 410.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 420. and was out 5 hours. far did he walk all together ? A . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. How long is each road ? 423. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Tn 6 hours . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.
iand 22 22 I a . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. . z 2 y. Find the fourth proportional 426. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 435. if .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* .& 5 ) (a 8 . and : b : c = 14 : 15. 433. find the angles of the triangle. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 432. Find the mean proportional to 429. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 430.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. wi* + y= ny. 438.46 2): (15a 2 . Find the length of the parts. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 431. a + 5. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). find : a : c. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 428. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).6 8 ). Solve 436. d. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. : i. If a b : =5 n : 7. . b.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 3 and 1J. . y. x 427. 2 2 8 2 . : If is one equal 434. Which ratio is greater. a  t>. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.49 63). ax is \ by  ex + dy. a.
/) ar a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 9ar7# = 71. />(. = 25. 7 442.rf2# = l.35. 443. Solve the following systems: 441. a. 9/> = 2 . 459. . 5x+4y=lQ. 7jr9y = 17. 8 . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. ft. . 444. 56 + 10y = 7a. 455.59 = 3 z. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 28 = 5 a . ft.89 = q. 445. . 3 a. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 42 = 15y + 137.(or l(*2y)=0. 457. 452. x + 17 # 53.11 7.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 451. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. . a: a: + 5y). 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 448. ?/ 447. 8 x + y = 19. 15ar = 20 + 8y.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 453.11 y = 95. if 2 ft : 439. 3 .55 y = . 16. Find the value of a. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 1(3  a. c. 458. 5z4:# = 3.4 12 . a: 2y= = 1 . 446. . 5 2 = 7 . 4 = 5 y + 29.*. 449. 456. The volumes If their diameters. 450. + 5y = 59. 7 a: .7 y = 25. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 5j + 7 7 = = 2. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 454. 7a?y = 3..
+ =2. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. + eyn. ax cx by = m.. 468. 465. x y 474. ax by = c \ 472.c=563y.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ^ + i^ = 7.?/ + 1 . i = 5. _ 469. (or . 8 461. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.7. 475. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.  = 2.2y) (2 = 2J. 473. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.
Find the numbers. and in 20 months to $275. years. the Find their ages. 481. whose difference is 4. Find the numbers. and the other number least. 479. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the fraction. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. fraction becomes equal to . A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 18 months to $2180. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. age. 477. 483. A number consists of two digits 4. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the number. A spends \ of his. Find their ages. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the principal and the rate of interest. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. How much money less 484. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. . 487. 486. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. to . by 4. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 485.
: Solve the following systems 491. x s + y z = 18J . + y 5 y = 101 . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. . 2a:f 7. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . * + 425  = . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2 e. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: + // = 11. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 2 2 = 41. 4z+3z = 20.? + 2y = 8. = 15. z y x 25 . . = 20. + # +z= 35. a: 499. *i. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 1. 3 x 500. 8. = 209. 7 + 2 z . a: f z = 79. 4 506. 4 497. 3ar 503. x y f z = 13. 2/>3r = 4./ f z =a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 495. 5 + a. 490. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 494. 489.z = 12.z = 20. . 2y + 3a = ll. 493. 3 a: + 5=84. a. ~ 507. a number . \ . 2 a. 492. z y ifi = z x 502. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 496. 498. x f y f z 29 . y Solve : x +z= 5. . 5^ 9z = 10. ifi = x a. 1+1 = 6. a. ./ 504. 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 7 4#+ 3z = 35.5#+2z = $x a: G.
523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800. 36 + c. z z =3a&c. 517. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" .
in 28 minutes. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. BC = 5. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. it is filled in 35 minutes. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. 527. the first and second digits will change places. 90. they would have met in 2 hours. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. M. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. CD. 530. and CA=7. E 533. What are their rates of travel? . Find the present ages of his father and mother. . if L and Af in 20 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. How long will B and C take to do . AC in /). . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. it separately ? 531. L. if and L. and BE. In circle A ABC. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. AB=6. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. touches and F respectively. If they had walked toward each other. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. N. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. 532. if the number be increased by Find the number. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. When weighed in water. Tf and run together. Find the numbers. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525.
The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. e. to do the work? pendulum. 2. x 8 549. 550. 540. 536. 545. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The greatest value of the function.10 marks. FRANCE. x 2 544. 2  x  x2 . 3 x 539.  7. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . z 2  x x  5. if x = f 1. c. x*  2 x. If to feet is the length of a seconds. x*. 2 541. 542. x *x + x + 1. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. The values of x if y = 2. formation of dollars into marks.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. x 2 + x. i. 2 x + 5.e. 546. then / = 3 and write = 3. + 3. GERMANY. The values of y. . b. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. from x = 2 to x = 4. . One dollar equals 4. a. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2. 547. d.  3 x. 548. 543.  3 x. the function.
3 x . 2 8 . a: 559. 18 x  4 = 0. z 4 . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.= 0. i. 556. a.r .0. ' = 8. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.  2 1 a: a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. + 10 x . 557. x 4 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. j. 572. J. 2.4 x 2 + 4 . c. = 5. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.15 = 0. 562. . z 2 . 558.11 = 0.9 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . a. 3 + 3 z . 15. 563. 2 x 2 560. 566. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.6 + 3 . 555. 3 x . c. r?. \ to t = 5. g. 2 567.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.17 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r a: a: x a. // Solve y Solve y = 5. and make the unit of the b.3 x .4 . Represent meters. x 5 . a.13 = 0.5 x . if y =m has three real roots. e. 564. . h. + 5 . 565. Solve// = 0. a? 4 x . 3 x* . 568. 2 554.3 = 0.4 = 0.r 1 561.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 a.G .1 = 0. 553.3 .= 0. x* . 3 . Solve 552. If y +5 10. .11 x* + + 2 8 569.7 = . f.
a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. . a. (# 2) . 1 . 598. 599. 4 . 595. 588. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. x [ ?/ 577.x + 2 )'2 601. jj+. : y* or 25. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . a:.5 xy = 0. 6 + 1) . 609. a 2a. <r)3  2 3 a:) .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 585 594. (a  8 ft) . 608. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 593. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. + %) (a* + *) 5 .%) 4 (aa.frf : 583. xY. a: .4. + ^) + (air%)8. a 8 606.2 2 + y. 4 (1a:) 3. 589. 582. 600.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.(1 .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 579. 2  2 aa: 2 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 4 a. [ y =10.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . f ?>) 3 591. 64 a 12 603. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 3 (f. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (1 + x a. a 612. 604. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . (1 (1 (1 . 3 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 611. . 5 a*. + . (a. + + 4 . j^f = 3. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 597. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 9  4 fSb 607. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 596. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 592. x + z2) 8 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. (aiy.
448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 636. 21. 638. + 24 a 2 4 . 2 + 21Ga. + 112 a 8 .150. ft .REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 210. 371240. 620. = . 035. 8*' + 24* = 32. 0090. + 2 21 x = 100. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. According to Kepler's law.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 632. x 2 641.30. 639. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 625 : 621. a 642. 40. = 0. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 494210400001.1024 x + a: 256. find Jupiter's period. V 635. Find the eighth root 617.*. 626. 3a. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 637. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 644. 634.191209. 643. : 5. 49042009. 629. = 70. x 2 . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .12 a?y + y*. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.V250 . 622. 44352. = 87. Find the square root of 619.871844. 614. 630. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . V950484 . 942841.\/4090. VOIOOD + V582T09. GGff. 9g.2410. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. (x 9 x 646. 650. 623. + 54 'x*y* .49. *+* = 156. 615. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 4J. 25023844. /. 7) 2. 624.53 x ~ . 32 631.15174441. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 2. 651. 633. 628.2. 647t x 2 648 649. 9a. 645. 49. 2 + 189 z = 900. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 4370404.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. ax 2 698. 1 __ : )'*' _i. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. . 706. 696. 2 2 697. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. = 0.bx . ex abc= fx 0. a. 2 2 . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.c = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 694. 707. 708. 699.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .ax . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 702. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 692. 695. . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 693.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.a a )jr .
722. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 16 x* . 3or i 16 . sum is a and whose product equals J. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 12 4*+  8. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726.44#2 + 121 = 0. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 716. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. a: 713. 723. 724. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 727. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. in value. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find the price of an apple. 217 . and working together they can build it in 18 days. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find two numbers whose 719. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. A equals CO feet. 717.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i.25 might have bought five more for the same money. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. **13a: 2 710. 729.292 709. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 721. 725. .40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720.
(x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). n.2)(x2 4. 46. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 37. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 32.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 40. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 42. 41.1 + c. 31.2 ). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 f ^ 2).1 + x. 35.aft* 1 + a 2*. . 38.l). 39. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). . 33. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (v/x). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).X . 52.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 36. 43. 34.2? 50. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f c" ). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 1 6.)(ai + &.
758. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.294 753. 754. [1r^ T 1 i ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2V2 2V3 . 757. 759. JU. 768. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. ~ r* x . 761. \/G86 v/lGv/128.1+J 756. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.
Va 809. 7512V21.12VIT. 806.2V3* ^ 807. 13 799. 793. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 787. 3J . 789.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 790. 10 785. + 2V21.4 V(j. a 9442V5. 3812VIO. 14 791. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 16 + 2V55. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. . . 786. . x 782. 103 788.VlO. 794. . 92VI5. c 792. 783.2 V30. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.
V? = 813. /9ar a: = 17. 829. 831. 812. V3 f 1 V4a. VaT+lJ f ^l . Va: . 830.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 816. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .28 = 4 V2 ar 14. + Vx .f 5 = V5x + 4. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 818.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 814. x/aT+l . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . V14 a.\/2y  810. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. + 103Var. 819. + ViTli + V7 .V2 ar 10.  5 + V3 f 12 817.Vc^lJ . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 815. \/12 a. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.79. 820. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 836.g. 811. 3 x + 2 .4 = 0. 833.13 = 0. = 1.
y 4. 8^27^. a. . + 1. 6.10 = 118. 864. 8 . f 841. a. 863. .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 871.28 a 4 xy 8 80. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 8 4a: 8 a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 876. a 8 850. 861. a. 729 867. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.  3x a. 4 x 8 858. 852. a. .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8 8 848. f b**.1. 846. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a. + 512 y8 874. V4 x 2 . a l0m . a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 27 y 8. 840.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 8 a. x 4 + f 2 a. 9. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 64. x 8 2 857. 8 8  13 a. 2 f" + a/ 15. a 872. 64 a 866. 853. 4o. a 8 873. 845. 275 8 l. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.12. 856. 855.x*y + 3x f 2. 2 x 3. + . . 4 a: 2 842. 8 860.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 4 a. a 8 869.a. +3 4 +  4. 839.3 x . + 216 rt aty a 10 . 6 2 f 3 6 s. 4 x* 847. 8 2a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a: 849. 16 859. 865.3 a:.1000 6. z*y 8 l64a. 875. 870. 8 + a: 5 8 a.3 . x 11 a^ J 13 854. 844.3 Va: 2 . 27 862.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . . a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.ab9 ft*. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 2 a: 64 y*. 851. a 18 4. a*" & 6n . f 12. 19 x 14. 868. a: .
2 + 2 f = 17. a:y . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. x*xy. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. a: a. 885. 895. 887. y 2 2 8f. z 2 898. 2 . a: + y 2 = 34.298 877. 2 = 2 + 5. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 + xy = 28. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + y 2 . 899.y 2) = 20. . y 2 4.35.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 5. x 882. +y f y = 7. a: 884. f ?/ a: a: . x a: lI = xz .xy + y 2 = 19. 883. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 900. . a. 2 2 = 16 y. + 2y=\2. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. xy + y = 32. 2 . 890. 886.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 896. . 878. a. a: 2 897. . a: 888. a. y*+ xy . 901. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880.5 xy + 4 f = 13.y 2 + V(j. a# f + xy = 126. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. y y 2 y 2 1121. 889.18. y = 28. 894. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.Vi' + 1 1_3. a: 1 1 _ 5 892.15.1 = 2 a#. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . M1 891 1 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 1 x 893. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + xy = 10.sy = 198. 3 x 2 .
xy + 2 y 2 = 65.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + 2 ary = 39.16 y 3 8 = . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. (o. (* 918. or or a? a: a: . 905. 923. a: a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. ^ 2 . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 + y = 2 a 4.y2 = 22.y) (a? . + ary = a*. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. x 4 299 xy z 904. x + y 2 = aar. + y)(a. 908. 912. x f 2 a:y = 32. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. + y = 9. . 911. y x 2 = by. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xa 903. = 8. a:y xy 929. 909. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 921. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 906.3(* + y) = 6.y) (3 y . (!) * .#y + 2 = 27. 917. a: * a: a: ar 928. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). (a. y + a:y = 180.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 23 x 2 . 2 915. 2 * 2 ~ g. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 914.2 y) = 49 2 919. 2 5 xy = 11. 910. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.r a. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. * + y = 444.3) 2 f (y . a: y zx 12. + 2 a:y + = 243. + ?/) .x) = 21. 2 924. ary y = 8. y 3 2 2 922. a.y). + y 8 = 189.23 = 200. . yz = 24. 7 y . y . *y .3)2 = 34. 920. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. xy + x= 15. 3 :r(3 . 4 (a. 2 2 2 916. .y = a(ar + y). 3 y 2 + xy = 1.y) = 33. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 907. + a. # + xy + y = 7. Vary + y = 6.6. y 2 + 3 ary = 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. (3 x . 2 913. x 2 ry + y = 3.
+ z)=18. and the sum of their areas 78$. 931. two numbers Find the numbers. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. How many rows are there? 941. A and B run a race round a twomile course. 935. Assuming = y. A plantation in rows consists of 10. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. y( 934. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 3 . feet. A is 938. z(* + y + 2) = 76. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. rate each man ran in the first heat. and also contains 300 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. find the radii of the two circles. two squares equals 140 feet. 2240.102. (y + *) = . and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. + z) =108. Tf there had been 20 less rows. is 20. s(y 932. diagonal 940. In the second heat A . is 3. 944. Find the sides of the rectangle. two squares is 23 feet. 152. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 34 939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. *(* + #) =24. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 937. a second rec8 feet shorter.300 930. If each side was increased by 2 feet. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. and the difference of 936. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour.000 trees. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Find the numbers. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 942. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet.square inches. 943. and 10 feet broader. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933.
was 9 hours' journey distant from P. sum Find an edge of 954. unaltered. Find the number. the digits are reversed. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. is 407 cubic feet. and if 594 be added to the number. . at Find the his rate of traveling. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. P and Q. Find the eter 947. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. set out from two places. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and travels in the same direction as A. overtook miles. . distance between P and Q. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and that B. Find its length and breadth. 951. 953. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. whose 946. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find in what time both will do it. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Two starts travelers. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. that B A 955. triangle is 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. each block. 949. 952. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. and its perim 948. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. A and B. . 950.
Find n. x(x to 8 terms... 16 962. 969.. the terms being in A. 970. 964. = 4.v 973.. 4. 1G series . . Evaluate (a) . 4 4 to 7 terms .. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. '. P. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Sum Sum to infinity. 975. Find an A.... s  88.. .. n to n terms.  2. Sura to 24 terms. 972. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. Find n f (ft) . f + 1 . 971. 12434+ j I 967.4142 . 3 . ^ Vfirst five 959. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . ^ 1 . 1 to n terms. 18th terms of an A. difference.. 5.>/) to infinity. P. fourth of the unity. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.. 957. (to 2 n terms).. P.302 956.V2 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. *" 968. . Find the Find the common 977. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).3151515. to infinity. P. 36 963. to 7 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A. (x 4 to n terms. and 976.to infinity. 966. 958. Sum to 20 terms. 974. 961.. 5.454. Find the sum of 4.141414. !Ll^ + n .321? 965. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 3 + 5 7 + . + (iiven a +  4 d . \ .. J..1 4 f j$V . are 29 and 53. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. . to n terms.
How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 990. 4 grains on the 3d.2 . and of the second and third 03.+ lY L V. P.. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Find the sum of the series 988. 5 11.001 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. 987. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. first 984. Find n. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.001 4. of n terms of an A. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .. : + 9   V2 + . P.3 ' Find the 8th 983. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.. 980. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 985. is 225. 1.04 + . The term.) the last term the series a perfect number. Find four numbers in A. 2 grains on the 2d. 992. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. to n terms.1 + 2. named Sheran. and the common difference.01 3. 303 979. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. The 21st term of an A. . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. to 105? 981. "(. Find the first term. 986. P.. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. and so on. 989.. Find four perfect numbers. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. to infinity may be 8? . The sum 982. to oo. 0.
998. If a. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. P. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . . inches. P. P. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 512 996. find the series. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. in this square a circle. 999. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. 1001. c. and so forth to infinity. The sum and product of three numbers in G. in this circle a square. areas of all triangles. are unequal. at the same time. Two travelers start on the same road. (a) after 5 strokes. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. are 28 and find the numbers. 1000. ABC A A n same sides. 1003. and G. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 994. P. is 4. 997. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. AB = 1004. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 995. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ft. prove that they cannot be in A. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. (6) the sum of the infinity. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. of squares of four numbers in G. The sum and sum . The fifth term of a G. many days will the latter overtake the former? .
Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #).REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.l) w f . Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1014.o/) 14 . (12 #) 7 . (1 1018. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. + lQ . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the two middle terms of 1013. .ft) 19 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . . 1011. 1009. 1012. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. ) 1021. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . x) 18 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. a: 8 7. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1006. Expand  2 a.iV 2i/ 5 . 2 ) 5. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 1008.
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.. Checks Coefficient 20.. . 54. ... . .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . t 53 120 .. . ... . Brace Bracket Character of roots . signs of Algebraic expression . . 232 mean progression . .. 9 ** . .108 160 " .130 . linear literal Common ** * difference .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 9. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. . 37. .. . .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . 19. 129.178 Completing the square . Aggregation.... ... . .. 123 .. 97... 246 91 " multiple.. 112 54 54 251 . .] Abscissa Absolute term .. . 8 ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ... . 232 169 807 . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. quadratic . ... 129 54. lowest ratio " '* .. 160 in quadratic form 191 .. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. .193 11 .. . simple simultaneous ... 158..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . numerical . ... graphic tion of representa . .
INDEX 8 . directly. 195 33.C Multiplication . . 114. Negative exponents 11 .. .. . 180.. L.. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 143. . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Known numbers . Imaginary numbers . 42 7 Independent equations Index .31. 205 . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. . . 17 65. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .. addition of " square of . 184 54. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 227 geometric . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. 23 10 91 102. . . 253 28 70 1. ... Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . Geometric progression .. 109 102 . P .. 120 Member. . . 91 . . . Inconsistent equations . . 9. Like terms Linear equation . 45 Laws of signs . .. arithmetic . Mathematical induction . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . first and second . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 112 . numbers . Insertion of parentheses . . G. . .. 63. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .108 Minuend . .808 Exponent Exponents. . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 45. . 241 123 geometric . 189. .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. inversely 122 numbers . .. law of Extraneous roots . exponent . 34. 84. 243 7 . Product '* 76 Infinite. 45. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.154 Order of operations " of surds . .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 227 . 212 .
INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. absolute 54 Variable . Sum. . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ..... 9.. .... 129. algebraic Surds ... 45 Trinomial 240 . polynomial . 4 155 9 " of . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33..... 27 17 Unknown numbers . .... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... . binomial Third proportional Transposition .. . .. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America..
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Gushing Co. 8.S. 1913. Mass. Reprinted April. Published September..A. NorfoooS J. August.COPYRIGHT. . Set up and electrotypcd. U. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. December. 1917. 1910. 1910. Norwood. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1916.
7. C $1(50. 2. sign. 17. 8. 4. 5. 14. 12. 1. 2. 21. 15. 16. 12.  13. in. 21. 6. 12. 14. 13.  2 p. per sec.  22 20. 7.12. 1. 16. 2 ~ 15. 19. 9. 3. 16. westerly motion. 10g. = 5 81. 1. 19. 27. 1. 9 m. 2. 7. 2.. ft. 20 B. 13.000. 29. 144. 5. 15.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 6. 192. 37. 12. 4. x. 6. 20. 6. B $80. 15. 6.C. 150. 3. 14. 13. 29. 3. 12. 7. 18. 3. 0.. 2. 19 4.  1. 10.000 Indians. 4. 23. 6. 32. 14. 13 V. 9. . 9 = 4. 72 = = 216. 11. 85. 19. 4. 9. 18. 1. $100. 4. 14. 49. 10. 6 yd. 11. 3* 7. i . T . 15. 12. 1 16. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 3. 24. 10. 9. 20. 36. 210. Page 13. 2. Yes. 16. 7. 115. 28. 12. C $60.8.3. 256. 8 13. 6. 3. 126. 28. 37 S.150. 6. 8. ^. 576. 8. 1. B $ 128. 49. 11. 8 ft. . 27. 24. 14. 11. 15. 3. $ 1 50 10. 89. 1. 16. 2. 1.. 3 m. 6. 10. Page?.  1. 6. 7. 26. 5.2. B 10 mi. A 15.000 negroes. 2. 17.21 24. Multiplication. . 9. 10. 7. South America 46. 25. 14. 16. 3.00000001. 2  Page 8. 10. 5. 16 in. 18. 26z. 3. 3. 12. A $90. 16 in. 2. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. B $20. 8.$9400. 2. 9 16  larger than 7. 59. Australia ft. A Bl 7. + 1. 14. c. 7. 20 \. 30?. 4. loss. 10. 16f 2. 18. 12. 9. 17. 22. 48 ft. 128. C $ 16. 7m.000. 3.000. 1. }. 4. A 38 mi. (a) (/>) 1. arithmetic. 13. 18. .. 16. 32. Page 1.. 1. Page 8. 1. 3. 13 d.. Ot 15. 2. Not 5.. 17. $160. 5. 6. 16. 2 5. 32.. 20 jo. 106. 8. is $10. B $4700. 2. 512. 30. Page 4. 14 11. in.1. 27.000. 5. 25. 13.000.000. 22. 18. 1. 9. 3. 25. sign. 10. 20. 5000. 11. x. 17.000. 64. 7.. A . 9. 2. 0. 32. 5. 12. 3. 73. _ 32. 1. 3. 13 S. V 23. . 2. $40. 9 14. 21. 20. 5. 8. b. 25. 3. 24. 16. 3.000. 8. 9. 1. 1. 6* 16. 6. in 12. 3 below 0.
25. It. 6. 16. 28. . m 24. .r~ f 34. 10. ft n.  11.9?/2 8. 27. (b) 135 mi. 3. 4.1. (ft) $40. 1. 20. 3. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2.. 22.. Polynomial. . 21. 1. + ft). (r) 2G7. 7.. 21 a 3 4 10.. 41.ab.x. ]*.GOG. 14. . 4 y/ . 1. 12. (r) 2. 9. 13. 18. 30.  0. 5.. Page 7. 27. 14. 9.rty8. //'. 15. 0.. .. 19. 3.14 sq. 11. 18. 39. 8. 27. 37. $3000 Page 6. 5. 5. 38.  xV 3 y. 20. 8. 30. m + 3(a. 34. 30. 8.. 36. 17. 27. . 19. 31. 26. mi. :J!>r'. 18. ??i??.'JO ft.5 (ft) sq. 5. 33. 27. 2ftx. sq. 5. 27. 13 cu. 1.<>Gq. 25. 42. Va'+Y2 8^2 . (<7) (a) 314 sq. r:A 29. 12. 3a. t. ft' 3 . 21^. 0. 22( 19. 1. (ft) 7. 3. (a) r>23ifcu. 6. (ft) Page 2. 32 2 ftc. in. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).. ^. in.000 sq. 0. (a 4 4. (c) 8. 4.ft. 0. 13. 17. 15. ft. w. a ft c. 32. 9. 58. (a) 200. 15. 2. 5. . (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 314 sq. (r) 78. 3 . 0. 35. arty 1 20.000 . 3rf 27. 50. 23. 24. a2 4 15^44. 00 24 04 ft. 7 7. 25.  40. in. Trino inial. 18.a . 13. 5. a 32. ft. 12yd. 38 ab. 4. 3. Page 18. . WIN + wiw. 22. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 0.  3.94(>.ii ANSWERS Page 11.  12. 16. 36. :. 2. y. 13. = 81. 34. 11. 26. 6<t. 17. 8. +/2(/. 35. (a) 50. 1. 14:). x^ 20. 2. 4.. 17. 31.900. (r) 2000 m. 8. 10. (59. 0. 2. Binomial. 11. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 12. Page 23. c. II. ft. 4 9/^/rl 2.r 2 .. 12. Page 31. (ft) 12. jrif 4 9. o^ft. 3. 14. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6..  1. 240. 9. 16. 31. ^).~4.6) 38. <i~ 26. 14. 104. r+l. 8. 19. 12 a. 9. #1111. 43w//2 17. 6. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 3(c4a). 15. 11. 7. 28. 29. 23. _ 4 . Monomial. 29. 7. 8. = ()501. 0. 51 f. yyz+xyz*. 32. ft. 22.4 ft. Pagel4r. 13. 18. 17. 4. Polynomial. 4. 28. 3. 8. ft f 19. (c) S(i.32 c2 > ft 3 . 20(. 16. 7. r/ \(\xyz.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 1. 3 a* + 2 at*. 2.5f> sq. ft. 49. 21. 15a. 20. + v> 2 . 12. 1. 15. 237. 14. 24. + 5. 5x+3. in. 0. 12. 1. 10. 35. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 04. 33. 14.q 4. 92. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 0* Page 3 w" 0. 21. (a) <> sq. Page 21.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 173. 5.ft) 4. 3. I. 14. 2oVmf?i. i:5.r f 15. $80. 22.. 57. .4  2ft 2 33. 7. rt. 15. 16. (ft) mi. 2x' 2 5 . f  5e 35. vi 14. 13. 3.'J. \'\ 4. 2.
(yz~d}. 2. w 17. 364c. m*  n*. 0. 40. . 2 17.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 6. c. a 3& .5. 4. 29. a + a. Exercise 16. G. 25 47. 7. 19. 15. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 8 b. 56. . 2. 8 8 . 5. ?>4tl 53. 20. 4. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. x3 .Oa: + 10. (2n' 43p 47 ). a 52. 2. 16. ?/i 13. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2 . 5x 2 rt ft. 24 b 46. 10. 5. 6. 25. ?> 22. 18. ( 7. + 6.  1. 35. a. 14.  G J8 r  4 a <?.  4 b 17 y*. 2. ^ <. . a a. 2. a' 4ab + ?/. a 6 2 . 10 x. 31. 2m + 2w. a 3a 4 2 &. 814.a*. a2 24.4c 3 8 8 J. 4wipg>' 27. 3 Ji 8 .c. 2m. f ft 9. ft Exercise 17. 8. 14. 5 2 Page 29.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 21. a 4 + ft. 3. 11..  23. 7. 18. ri\ 18. 4. 2 3x f z.4x. 2 2. 14.r 2. 55. 8 .(2 x2 . 3 a3 & 41.2. 4. w* ( . a 10w.2 ft 2 r2 10. 42. a2 9. f 2 ?/  2. c. 1.ws 2 ft) .l. 1.a . (5x47 3. a + (ftc4df). x  + 3z. a 3 . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 2. s_r>a5. 24. 2. 33. 26.8(c + a). ar. Page 28. 2x 4 a 13. a  49. 7 a5 1 . 15. 43. 24. 10. ab a. 37. 19.  b* 4 r 1 .a f 54. 34.  12. j)(g1. 2 6. . 2// 16.2 57. .2 a. 51. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ti. 2 + a4l). 3.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 4ft ~. 2 a 37. 30. 8 + 2 a . 0. 7.  14 afy .3 6. . 5. 58. 11. 2. 18.4. n*. 2. 2 4.2 . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. r. 2 2 2 6. 4. + 4 c. 20. \ :{ 2 a 48. . ?/. 8. . 25.11. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 26.1. 6. . 12. 7.x f 1 2 . a f 2 f 2 9. 4 21. 2a: 2 4x.a'2 . 12. 2 a f 6 414.'U4j>. 19. + c 4 d x + 6 e.  17. 32. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 22. 12. 59.abc. 25. 14.3x 2 2 tf. _ Page 30. . '  . 17.  b.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.r. 11. . (mn} 11. 2 y' 4 . a4 4 4. 10 m. 8. 32 w 2 w. 2. !  </ . 26. . x a8 1. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 50.4 d. a). 38. + 2y. 10. 9. 3 a . . + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. Page 7. 16. 4r 2 . 28. 4. 7  # + 12. 36.2 a2 2m 2 4. . (w4w)(ww). 5.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 12. 34 39.1 . 6. mn. 2 3. 13. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . Page 8.6 x + 0) 16. ii\ 22. t). 2a. 0. 1. 1 4. 21. 2 . Page 44.a~. 21. lOrt 15w4.aft. 15. + 8. 13.(7x2 Ox2). . 31. 3 m. 22. . 1 + 45. _5a<>&43c. &. 1. a  ISjfat.h.5 z?/ + 3 y . :5 41.  a: 2. 24. 20. c2 . G a bd. 36. 3. 7  a + 2 + c. 1..7. 1. 17. M + 10.
?/ . Page 38. m. . 26. 4.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 4 a2 .. 14. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 29. 127"'. 23. . 33. s 9 ww. 6 . 14. 4 jcy*z*>. 10. 28. 7G . 38 a*b 6 : 24.7(50. 21. ?> 4 . 15. . 8.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 33. 4 a8 . 1400. 37. 10. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.15. a. . 11. 1. 360. 8. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 31. 36. 24. 2 7t A. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 30. 6. 11. Page 5. 216. 20. 161b. 15 lb. 12 x2 2 . 3300. 4. 27. 27.44 aWc 16 abxy. 20. 18a% y. 5aft(a 126 2). 83 In + 1 n*. 14. 52 + 6s 12.19 + 2. 4 fc. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 15 q\ 6. 25 4 4.36 35. 770. 25. 18. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft .(3x2_4^+7). 3. 04. 16 lb. 3. 6". a. 19. 14. 1. + O4 66 . iSx8 . 17. +15. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4. 16 51. 28. 30 j9 jt?g j . 108. a. 13. 24. 25.21. 34. 2 2 2 . 8. 20. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 19..32.25 + 14. 5.11 xyz . 24. 12.32 y s s G . 161b. ci 5 . 29. 20.21 a 3 c2 21. . 25. 11. ft 17. 16. . 22. 9.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 33.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 9. 28. 22.64 190 p6. 2 * 80 . 19. 42. a 8 .19p" + 19^ 10 .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 32. 30.12. 1. 18. 30 n?b*c*. 1. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 210. 10. 1.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 60.2. 22. .57 p6 3 2 4 25. fa 2. 2 ).10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 7. 7. . 18> ^* = a . 14f 5. 102. 90. 76 8 a' 1 . 21. 23. 12 ^. 9. ^^ = 20. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 66 8W 34. 4. 4. + 7. 2 a2 (y 2 . 10. 9 13. 5. 18. 17. 2*8f x2 6x4. 3 a 3 . x2 xy42^. a*b*c. 32. 3.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 27.000.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 21. 13. 2 8 xy f 4 a. Page 7. 30. 4. 24. 14 m 2 . Page 35. 20. 16. 26. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.6) =a2 31. 12. 8. 30. 21 a'&c. 8. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 0.16 a 2 + 32 a . 35. 20 aW.18 w w + 10 WI M . 7. 15. 11. Ox a 5 . 2. 22. 27.16 x2/ 5 4.26. 3 a 2 46. 6. 29. 216. a: . 2 . . //. 34. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10.14 w 2 2 . ll 2 i. Page 3.. 15.20 xyz . 12.28 p'^/. 40 r 2 . 84. 6. 2. 2. 343. 13. . 28. 34. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 3(*+0 + 2). 25. 15. n (a6) 125. 7. 23. f 26. 16. 42.14 . a + ft. . 29. 16.1. .6 2 . 17. +. 18. ISartyW e*f*tj. 13.12. 38wiw. + 58 . 6.>(/ r .iv ANSWERS + &)(. 2 w +2 2 .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 1. 2 ). 1. 4200.:>/ . 0. 66 39 k* . 30. 18. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . ! 2. 20. 108. . 17. 120. 4aWy. 30. 18. 15.69 rt + 21 132 + r . Page 36. 31. 16. 13. 19. 8 . 1904. 3. 23. (+3)x6=+16.. 60. 2''. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 24. etc. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 27. . 64. 2.r% 2 2 ry.8 12.
w'n 2 //^ + 25. a + 25. 33.020.098.8. 10 a 4 ?. 6. 2 a 2 + a . 16. 10.m 30 6 4 1.1.2 y*. 31. 2 a' y' . (a (3 54. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .^V"' .15. 57. 37. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.6. . 10. r.x2 + 6 x2y 2 .r . 26. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.009. 7> . ' 46. 18. 10.20. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. .16 a3 f 50. 10. . 30 /><. 4 . 4. 2. 8 38.4 a&+ 4 &*.810. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 15. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 1. 9. 45. 2. 3. 4. 25.5 ~ 81. 34. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 30 x + 19 x3 . 19. 12 x2 . 14. (a + 4) (a + 2). a4 4 ?/ .606. 1. . 1. a + 25. ft' 11. 1).. 8. 14. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.004.4 12. 33. + 2 9.2 6 + 13. 29. 34. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 29.404. 15. ?/H)0. 56. 41.6 y4 10. . a + 56. V + o ft . .r . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 40. 4 2 //. 5. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 38.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . ^/> 8 4 .54 p 2 + 81.84 a' 9. 37. 1.ri 17. 36 a 4 .^. 7 . 2 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. (w+4)(m4). 24. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 3wi2 m Page 42. 40. m 3 j) 3 . (x  2) (x Page (rt2).x2y22. 20a 2 21a + 4. +  m' 1. 32. 8 a W . 4 . . . m 2 . 53. (n 2 5. 26. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 2 . a2 ' + 48Z100.2. 32. + 4 a +4. x 2 f xy + 9 41. fo*. 27. .p132. 44.00 + 37. 23. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 2 (5 a 3). 31. . 4 21. 36. 27. Page 12.000. + 3)(3). 36. 52.3. 9. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 30. 7. G a6 2. 6.10 35. +   5). ^' J  7 f 12. 10. 25 25.35 ab 9. . n + 2. 2 62 V2 132..201. 4x21. . 484. x*2^f I.994. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 2 +10s281. 10. 2 6' . . ab . 36.009. 55. 21 2 . 10. 1.996. x 48. 10. 3.ANSWERS 28. 28. + 10 + 121 y*. I/). 11. 2 12. . 51. 9 4 /> . 24. . a3 0. 7. ) 4' 6/ 49. lflrt 2 8 + l. 17. 40. p 2 . y. Page 39. 33.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 10 a' 2 .ab . (w4)(w + l). ~ 6 20 . 4. 4 x2 13./ . 990. 9801.r* 2 30. 19. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).25. + 12. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 999. 39. 31.000. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). (p 2.500. 2 4 a + 4. x2 GiC+5. 10. 441. 9990. n2 a4 6. 2). 9999. 42. 8. x4 28.4 n.49. 1. ^V^4 . 14. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 10. 39. 4 + 25 q*.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 10.712. 2 1: 21. 41. 25 r 4 ?/i 30.001. 11. a 2 . 2 0)(p + 5). 2 fr .6 x2 13. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . p4 + . (m + 6)(m3).008.2 x + 2 x. 998. 2 4 2 2 64 . 5. 7.6 xy .020. s rc 47. Om2 4 6m 6. x* .14 jp + 49. 166. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 35. 8. 35.10 x + 25. 2 j3 Z . . 25 a 2 6 2 . +4 34. a' . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.^ + a? + 1. + 4 t*. ab.
2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 3 a. Exercise 27. 1.2 <</.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.  . :r !>.1. 2. 5.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2. 4 a* 4 9 11.r?/ j/. + x?/ 2 1.w. 5 4 a Oft. 2 2 + 2 a. . 6. 18.1.27 x 2 4.23. 4 c m . 14. l 4 .lit x + 4.25 c . . 15.3 5. as _ 10 16. Page 22. abc 7. 12. 18.000.n. // 19.2. j) . 16. i 2 tji.7. Page 11. 3. 125. sr 11.> 10. 2 . r//. 135. 23. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 2 ? 14 . 12. 6.1. 5^418(7. r 7. 4 a 2 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 13. 50. 4.9 d.2 ac . 8 ?/ . 9. x 4. 8.3^V. aft 12.25. a 10. 1. 14. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 . + 4. yfl.2 aft 4.3 a 41.8 yn . 21.1. 16. 10. Osy. a 8 4. 17.r ?/ ??i ?). 9. 4xy + 13 <) . 4 x. G.2 . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 9. a.15 21. . 5. 49.3 ry. 6x 3. 2 4.10 2 + z 2 410.9 4. 4 ac. Exercise 2 a:// 26. . +w . 10 ft. 8.  5 z* . 2 ?/ 4. . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 ./ 4.10 xy*.r' ~ 16. 2 1. a 4 4 ft. . 5. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .2 ftc . c 12. 5. z. 5. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. Page 48. *3 y 4 .30 ftc. . 22. 2 4 3 9.x^. 5. 11. 8.2 ar. 44. 13.1. 4. 7a3ft. 14. 10. 14 r 2 .  3 c. 2 4 2 x 4. 3. 1/*. 26. 3. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 7 r . .29. .2 2 2 8 .2 . 16. aftc 52.8.1. aft. r/2 4. 10.+ 77 15. 12.6 :rs 4. 5. Page 13. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 13. 3. Page 51. 4.r?/. 1. 5. . m L 4. r ft.rw. 75 a 2 29. 17. 2 a 3 ft. 13.34. '. 6.15. 2. y 7.  12 y 25. 4.21 2 2 f + .r . a 2 . ft. w 2 . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.8.2 wZ 4. 8 ?/ . 14. 9. ft* ft / . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 5. . 15. f>r* 4. ??.8 y. 8. 1000 1000 . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 17. 4. 8. 46.12 aft 4 20 ac . 21.1. Page 7. 20 15. 4ft.2 2 .  10.VI ANSWERS 43.5 mp. 4 d 2 4.3 x 2 2 4. 5 a  (5 ft.r'^ 15. 9. 11 4. 4. x 2 + 2r f J.5 a . 3. 24. . 1. m'2 3.  11. ti'jry1 7. 13. 2. 14. 3 aft 20. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 47.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 6.3 3. 1. 4. 6. . 19. .1*5 2 r 2 . 19. i 9. 11. 2 ?/' . ?/2. 4.r" 20 S? . + 3. 2 12. 01.2 1 //.24 .2 .rw f 8 . _ 2 a . x4. 7. 2. 4x43?/. ft 17. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 12. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 2. /r . ft ? ft' ft ft.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.y3. 1. 12. 20. 4 pq. 3. . aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 1. 8 x . 8. w .4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .5 n*. 13. c3.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 8 r<ft 4 2 . a r'43 ll'a^S 15.
100 2. I. 44. 1. 10) + = (a) 2 x . . 38. a 10.. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 35. 2b. 23. (> 27. y 100 a 24. 7. 16. 6. 10.p+7. 1.  9 = 17 a. 7. 40.  2\. ct. (2 a. m+ 11. 2=10. . x y $ 6 yr. # + 20yr. 45. 44.ab a. 1.ANSWERS Page 9. </ 20. 5. Page 61. x. 22.000. 1. . 17. 15. 3x  1700) = 12. 41. 5. 10. rn mi. = 5 ?i x 460. 17. 7. 57. 7. 10 x sq. / + y + a// 12 yr.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 10.. r>?imi. 11. 29. d + !. '^ . 4 f 39. l. 8. n M. 11.  1$. . ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 2. x = m. 30. 100 14. 4^ = 100. ? 43. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.(3x+ = rraxlO. 2x + 35. 33. 25.7). 36. 2. 39. 28. 16. . 12. Page 6. 4. 58. 16. 21 2. 27. 'nj 100 a 28. b. f = eZ 2 x. iL*.r1. 100 d ct. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. b. y 50. 33. 4. 3. + f + b 2. 5. 47. ^ 12 sq. d. 2. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 6. (c) 2x. 24. 10 >_&. 11.x700. 5. 1. + 10 b + c ct. 25. 30. ft. !). fix. r tx mi. 46. x 49. (d) 2a + 10 = n. % 4. 20. 20. 8. 00. 10 yr. 100= ^. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 800 = x + 1300.(3x  700) = 5. 18. 14. 7.. . 13. 6. y yr. Jj12. 9. 19. + 3x + 2y + 32. 59. 13. xy ft. 17. 4(a ft) c = 8. 7x 2 Page 21. 5. 37. 2 ct.100.  />) a = all. 4. 2. x 48. 43. f (I. "mi. 8 n  10 yr. 22. a 8. 4.. 0. 31. X 60. 36. Page 31. f 6)(o 62. 2. 0. 7. 19. ( a f 4. 2. lO. 37. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740.  6 10. sq. 29. 10 a. ct. 60 25 1. s. ] 2 ri 42. m +~m 3. vil 56. 10. 13.10) 100. 12. ft. + 4x 3y 34. 3 9. 23.r ct. 6. 1&. 7. (</) 2a. 3. 15. 50= L 100 15.6 = *. 2b 22. " lir. I. Page 13. + 3 = 2(3* . Page 40. 3x2. 38. x + 1=a. 26. v (6) 2x. ct. 32. (>. y ?>i x + 26. 9. <>. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 3. 5. 34. ft.rr2. 18. . 6. (a) ' 12. 20. 14. lOx 10 + w. 41. 4. x 2y 10 act. }f. 42. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60.
MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. (a + 5)(a + 6). (y8)(y + 2).. 67. 12.(5z . (p + 7)(3a5&). 5pt. 90 mi. Page 7. 8 in.000.000 Phil. (yll)(y4). 9. 2). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 12.210^. 14. Page Page 4.. (y 13. 7.22.000. 4. 2. 100. 3. 4. 5 Col. 10 yd. 52. 2. 4.y").000. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 15. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. (ro3)(w2). = _?_(2ar + 1). 3 (a +&)(*. 1200. 8 2 19.0. 15. 3 hr. 24J. 20. 1. 8.21. $40. 300. a a (a 8 a+l). 5. 5. 6. 11.16. 6rt 2 11. 3. 9.. 7a*fe(2a & l). 16. 2 2 2 5. 5$ hr. 20 yd.. 6. 15. 2. 2$. 30. 10. . 3. 13. 70^. 4. 1 lb. 40 yr. 10. (y + 8)(y2). 5. 18. 7. (y7)(y + 2). 4pt. 8. 12. 25 yr. (*4)( + 11. (a + 4)(a + 8). 05. 4..000 gold.. 7. 55. 11. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 29. 11. 11 w(w' + wi . 1. 30.3). 18. 10. 15 in.. 10. Oaj(o62cd). 2.3. 68. 12 mi. 10.. 8. 1250. 6.7. (a5)(a4). (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.5p + 7 g ). ^ . 100 1.  PageSO. 13. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). a 12. (e) i* + A. Page 79.000 copper. Pace 65. 78. 2 2 ?/ 21. Page Page 480 12. . 15. 1200..000 ft.000 N.411. 75.. 74.0. 82 mi. 7. 14. 13.79. 9. (6) (6 a 30) =20.3. 2. . 6.. 9 in. 19. 150. (a 4) (a. 7. Page Page 4. 180. 8 12. 2. 45 in..6). 12. (c) ^ v ' . 11. (m + n)(a + 6). 5 lb. 85 ft. 2. 10. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). Page 7. 15 mi. 14. Page 5. 11 pV (2 p8 .. 8. ( + 4)(*2). 71. Ib. 50. . 10 yr. w (/) 64. 15 yd.5. 1. 200.5. 8. 10 Cal. 3. 3. 1. 7 hr.000 Berlin. 15. (z5)(z2). 4. 20. 21.10. 10 Mass. Y. 6. 3. 250.2). 6. 9. by 12 yd. 2 3 6 7. 6.. 8. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 200.1). ~=90.000 pig iron. 70. ?(g ? g+ 1). 80 A. 12. 14. 1313. 600.24. 14. 72. 42yr. 480. 8. 10 yr. 7. 22..000. 3x (3r. (a + 6) (a + 3).8. 9. + 7)(y3).11. 1.2. 17. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 9.000. 5. 18.000 ft. 13. 13..000. 14. 5.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 1. 90. 160 lb. 25. 25.13. 6. 28yr. 20 yr.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 78. 1. 3. 30 mi. 20 yr.000. 10. 8. 20. 17. 12. 9. 23.3aftc + 4). 30 yr. 11 in.
(<7 20. . (w* (3a26). 2.r2).1). y(x. (2w+l)(ro + 3). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). x(x +y)(x y). 22. 10. 25. 26. 8. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).4p). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). Page 82. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). + 2y). 29. (2o + l)(2l). (5x . 4. 7 6) (a 10 6). 2 17.2). 33. (a. 36. 3. x (z + 2)(x + 3). (m7n) (a. 22. Yes.ANSWERS 16. (w + 20)(w + 5). 20. ix 18. 26. (15a + 46*)(16a46). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (a a: 19. (a 6 6) (a 4. (9y4)(y + 4). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 4. 20.8). (4 13. 35. (az + 9)(ox2). ( 2 4 19. 24. Yes. 8.11 6) (a 4. No. . 28. . (a (p8)0> + l). a . 2. Yes. 5. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 2 No 4. 21. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 9. . 4 (a . 103x97. 40 x. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). y) 2 29. (3a. 24 9. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .y4 ). 5. 23. (2yl)(y + 9). 23. (15ay2) 2 .2 ft).* (2 y + 3)(y.  x (5 a.. (y + 4)(yl).7) (a. .+4 y)(3x4 y). (2 *+!)(* 9).3)(z2).7)(2z f 1). 10(2 30. 21.4. 24. 9. 14. Yes. Yes. 19. 19. Yes. + 3). 32. (10a + ft)(10aft). 2.2 y). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 21.y) 2 aft. 1. 1.c 2 ). 3)(3a. 18. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 3a. 25. 10(3 5 6) 2 . No. . Yes. 2 3 by2 Yes. (:52y)(2a!3y). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 17. 26. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (6 a. 9. . . a*(5a f l)(flr .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 17. (a + 8)(a3). 27.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (2 a? 4. (2xl)(x + f>). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (ay8)(ay3). 3(x + 2)(zl). (a 3 + 10)(a. 21. 32. 14. No. 22. 17. 29.   . . (w ~ n (x . (15z2y)(x5y). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 16. y) (a. 16. 10(a . 27. (5wl)(m5).3). 30.2 by2 6. 6. + 4) (a. a(2u. 100 (a. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). No. 28.1). f 2). 31. 31. 100(x. (x + y4 )(x .4 6). 11. 15. 12. (* + y)(zy). Page 84. 16. 12. 10 a 2 (4 . (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 34. . 10. 8. 24. 25. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 10.y (6x + 4)(5x4). Yes. 13x7. 7. 6. 25. 7. 10(a + ft)(aft). + y + . 11. 13. 2 2 15. (4a. 23. . 30. + 5) a. 14. 28.2).5y)(3a. + 9^)(oxy . 33. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 23. 216 aft. (3*2)(. 10.9*). 22. (y8) 2 2 . 18. 11. (ft + ll)(aftll). a. 3. (4 18. x\x 24. (5a +l)(5a l). . 13x(a + ft)(aft). 15. 9. 20. Yes. 12. (6n + l)(+2). 2). (4y3)(3y + 2). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . + 3)(c44). 35. 26. No. (4al)(a2).1). 25. (m + w) 2 5. (13a +10)(13a 10). Yes. Yes. 34. 3. 7. (0 + 6)(66). (3#y)(+4y).1).6) 2 2 . Yes. (g .11 ft)(a6).6) 2 1. + 8)(g3). 9. . 1. Page 83. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 27. 8) (a. + 0(90 Page 85.
5. 4). . 28.1). 24x sy s 9. 15. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. a 41. a 2 (a9).&).b. (x. a x 3 10.9). 10. (a />. 5. Page 92. 6 f c). 8. + 3. (* _ 2 )(a 4. x . (^ 7. 11. (c.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 9.8) ( (16. 14.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. Page 89. y )(. 2 k (wi 4. 6. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 2. 2 8(w . 2 1. (a 9. ofc)( fid). ( y). 27. 37. y). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).1). x  1). (7/1 2) (m 41). (a &4. ^ . ( { &).8) n 43*). y(2x?/). l. 13 x 8 2 .?>) H.?/).1) 3. 450. ?i(w 4y) . Page 86. Page 87.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 7.4). 8. 24. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). ( a ^)(^3. 4. 6.36). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 7. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .0+ 12). 7. 2. 11. 4. 8. 13. 6. 6.  (w' 4. ?>).4. x(x f y)(jr . 5  (2 2 . 14.5 m2 x2. 15. 16.4). 12. 3x(x?/) 4. (m  I)' 6.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). Exercise 46. Page 12. 2 y) ^ . 4 a s &8 .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (16 4  2(5 n . 20.. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . b) (r 4. 12. 4 6. 4.!) (x42)(x2).3. . ( (<> r4y3 . 2 + .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 13( 33. 36. a 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 30. Gp). x43.y '2 2). 35. (^ + ?>_8). 2(m4l)' . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 8. 10(2 (3 4.4. (2x7)(x 2 2).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 6. (f> + fo 7. Exercise 47. 11.3)(x 4.7s) (2 a. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.  WIM.42 x 4. 18. 2. 1(V/ 88.'/)('< 4. 2 2 10.2). (5a+l)(9a). r x 2 */3 . 8. 11. y6. 14. 41. a (a + 2 6). 7. . 4  9. 5. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 4 3. 12.n).?50)(xt/z. 8x. (!__/>).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 8). 2. 2.3. 13. x 4. 22. 42). 6.y)(fi a . 8. 4. n  r)(5a 10. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 3.^ 48.2)(x 1. 4. 32. 40. (14.  29. 4 a8 . 7.e 4. 5 x8 3. 16.8). 1. (5 31. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. (. fi(c426). (> 1. + 2 //). 3p (^9)(j) 4). a 4. 9. 42a 3 x. ( rt 23.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).y. 8. 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (w * . 3(.) j). 5. 17. 2 (a 4. a + a b. 4. (r420(4 10. 2 a 2 13x 3 y.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . a8 . (5 26.2 y). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).&).2). (a 4. 17(x43//)(x2y). 13.7)(^ {I 12.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (x//. 39. . 2 2 3 . 19. 3 x4 .'})(c . 2 21. Page 90. 38.X 5.l)( a 25.y). (5^4. .i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 7. (w4w) 2 1. 2 . 14. ah}. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 15 M. . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.'J)(' . 4.
13. + y) (a: y). x 22. +5 1. + &) 2 ( . + &)(&) ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. 18. 2(2al) + l). +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1).ANSWERS 10.6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 24. a 10 25. (a2)(a + 2)2. x 12. // m+1 !+*?. a 23. b ! 21. ?_!&. 11. 6a2&(rt6).  1). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
6. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. w1 + ac w 4 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 4. 2 a. c 8. A^. 26. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. xy 43.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 0.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. a 5.50 ~ 1/2 . 28. Page 100. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. Page 101. _*^p5_^^_. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. i. 6. 4 L 8 2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 7. 6a5f^. 30. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ^~ 29. + 2H 1 ^. ' 2 7. 11.  **/* + 84 _. i^. 4c 10.. . + lH + . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 1.
2) 19. 15. 4. . pf n 6 1. x 1. ^i 11. 15. +3 ( + 15. 7. 21. b a f +c 14. flf. 11. 46. 38. 11.  V o 4. f 7. 13. y(x + x ?/). 7. 14. ft. 27. 25. 30. an 18. a.ft . 3. x\. 3. Page 106. 5.^U\WF### X<6. 8j_m 7 3. A. Of. 31. x 05m ' 5. 6. 41. 1. 21. . 1. 1. j L . 44. 3 7 i o. 6. ac mp lf> n 12. 11. J. m 9. ?+_!?>. 8. 34. 1. 4. 3. 3. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 3. 14. 0. ! 4 20. 10. b 2. Page 111. ?. 17. 29. 45. 7. f Page 107. 36. 2ft a i m x. 16. 23. 9.^_. I) 2 3z 1.y 7. n m a + 13. + f. n . Page 110. c 8. 6. 4. 4. 5. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. (>. 4. 3. 4a3ft. 43. . 32. 26. 17. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 21. 15. 5. 10. 12. J. Page 113. w^x 2 b Page 105. 37. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. a2 2. . 5 be _J_. 40. 20. 39. 8. 19. 12. (y + (z 12. 1. 18. n 16. 4. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 6. 9. 0. 4. 5. 1. 42. 14. ^_. 1. 11. J. 1. 6 . a 17. 1. 2 47.  10 X + u. 1. 35. 24.L+ft. 11. 6. 33. 7. ' 6. 9. 16. 12 28.
000 If da. 1. (ft) 104. 1:1 = 1:1. Yes. 4. (c) 8300. 5 25. 11. 8. 1. 28. 12. dn ~ mi.11.139. 3:2.001. Page 118.0. 1 da. 8. 8. 10^ oz. 30. 26 30.137. $40.. 21. . ^m . 16. 3 da. (ft) (r) 8 hr. . (a) 12 hr. w 18. ^p^ r ~ 7.XIV '/ .  29. 8. 11. 30 yrs. 18. 7. 300. w 21. (r) 3^ da. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .. $0. 1:4. 24.. 26 mi.15. 10. 13.2. 7} 18. 8.  C . 00. 212. 12. 2x:3y. 7 . 75 . 21.004. $00. 20. 7... 18. 13. 15. 6. J. 10. (a) 25. 7. 14. 19. 13. 40 mi. nm. 20. w 44. f. 1:1=1:1. . 35. 1:1 = 1:1. . 7. = A's. 30ft. Yes. 9J oz. 2.2. 4. ^?i min. 3. 9.002.. 9ft. 15. after 20..} da. 10. 10 yrs. 300. 19. 3. 33. 7. No. (ft) 5 hr. J ^'. 30 mi. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.000. a 4 ft. 3. IV s. (a) 30. 19. 16. 36. 16. 15. Page 124. 1:1 = 1:1. 27. ANSWERS 16. 17. xy. 7. 12. ft. 14.  + . 4. 3. No. 4~r~ n .9. 9. 1:3. 13. (d) 4 da. 19. 24./hr. 1 : 12. 15. .10. Page 125. 34. 26. 15. 22. (d) 500. 17. 14.000. 15. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. () 2./hr. 5.138. . Yes. (a) 4 min. :2. 33. Page 119. silver. [>> ^ a . '"I 22. 11 hrs. 4fl M_. 0. " 0. (c) 2 hr. (ft) 28. 38ft min.003. 10.. ~m . 15. * 7:9. 300. 5. 6. Yes.000. 10. Page 117. 10. 40 yrs.x + y. 10. Yes. 2 20. #V ~~ 34. 32. 17. 11. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .000. gold. . P+ ^ 33. 14. 1. min. 9. 4. 3. jj. 81.0 & . 5 2. 500. 24 mi. 5. (ft) 5 da. 9. 20. 1. after $12.. 31. 8301 hr. after 18. 17. 2:1. Yes. Yes. 6. 21ft min. 1^'. $30. _JL. Yes. $45. Page 121. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 1: ~. 5. 275:108. 9$..000 1 = 23. 18. 5ft 30mi. 3. 55 mi. n 32. f . 23< &n b ' . min. 74. 7T 2 Page 116. 4. 10. 40wn. 2. 10.
36. y 1.2 x. copper. 10.9. in n. + W. 6. 4. 29.1. 31J.) 31.ANSWERS 22. 1 18 = 3 51. x y y . 2. 9. 3. + b 7 . () 7 Page 126. 25. 3.4. 2. = 7 b'. 7.5. 2. 3. 7^. ' 55.  ?. 7. 1. 4.160. 6. 9.8 oz. . 13J. 3. 7. 25. Page 136. 8. Page 137. 5:3 = 4: x. 16. Page 9. x 42."2:1.4. 2. 31. 2.4. 4. 26. . + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.. .J 3. 8. 5. 44. Of. 2. 3 2=3 x. 5.5.000 sq. 3. 36. 59. 7. 11 w a 13.840. 11. 11. : 23. 1.5. 200 mi. 4. 7.5. 7. 6 10 = 12. . 6. 7. 41. 3}. 2.*. 2.. Inversely.3. 5.17. 40. 32j. 4.3. 27. 20 cu. 2.5. 9. 2. 22. . 9.2 oz. 4. 2. (a) Directly.1.J. 6. 4.000 sq. 4. .3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 9. 3. Page 132. *. 30. () Directly. 945 11 10 . in. ~ 1. 5 2. 50. 2. 22. 9. 2. 20 20 J ^. 2. 7. 5. J. I. 174+ Page 128. 1.^ 0?j ' gms. 12. w 8.  19. 55. : . OJ. 6*. 46." ^ 2.2. (I. J.1.3. 2. 15. 58.15 x. 5. 53. 5. y . 47. 38. 20. 48.2. 13. 7. 49.3. 2. 2. 19. (</) ft. 8. y :y =. 3. ini. a~. 14. 10. 11. 1. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 56.15.20. 7. lo mi. 6. 7. 26. 45. $. 1. 2. 19 3 . jc:y = n:m. 127. 43.12.22. ig 6. a +b 1. \\. 13. 25. 138. 17. : XV 27. 7.' : : : : <>.7.4. 23.r. 4. Page 135.5. 8.].3. 4. : : T 1' : /> : . 12. 32+ mi. 2. J pq. 5. 2. 40. y a y = 7 0. 3.6. 18.li. 5. \. . 39. 1. 11. 21. 10. 19. "lO. 11. 9. 16. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 2. w. x:y a: b.7. t 5. : : . . 7. 8. 5.  28. . 1(5. 12.2. 19 OJ.5. a f 2 2 = 5 x. /. 7. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 8.3. 7.57. 54. 24. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 12. 4. 3. . 24 1 (e) Directly.a. 2. 14. 1 rt * vm^1./':</ c a f :y=2:9.2. 8. 11 5 . 2.5. : />. OJ.12.. 24. 2. 1.3.4. ft. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. water. 35. 4. Page 133. 3  24. 14. 3. 36. 19. 30. 17. 2. 3. 5. 7. 5:0 = 10:12. 1. i. mi. 3. b x 37. 9  15. Page 131. 13. 10. 23. 20. (b) Inversely. 9. 52. Page 134. 13. 2. 28.3. 2 n .1. l. x y = 1 = 3 2. 1.3. 3. 41.x a. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. mi. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 3. cu. land. 141. . a 3.C ?/ a . 4. 15> 9. Page 5. 4. 57. 4. s<i. 5. .46. tin. . 16. J. 17.1.5. 1. x +y x + 74 7 \.3. . 14. 15. 21.
0. 3.$2000. 4. 20. Page 151. 18. a =J (n  1) rf. 3. Page 152. 3. (a) Apr. Jan. 3. 1. 28. . 2. & part of Feb. . 72. A's 30 18. (c) . 17. 6. . & May. $3000.8. 3. 3. 11.3. 6. . 25. 5. 7. M 2. 90. 5. 4.0. 1. 12. m + n p./hr. Apr. 20 to Oct. Nov. 15. 6. 8. July 20. $250.. 10 sheep. 32. 3. 16.2. 15. 6. 11.3. 4. m f 9. at 15. B's 40 yrs. . SL=J o ft r^2.7.0. 17.1. 7. 3. 423. 20 & Oct. 10^ gms. 4. ad AzA. 2.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 16. 2. ^.3. 3. (a) 12. 5. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 5%. 6. $900 5%. (<f) 13. (ft) 20. 4. 29. 16.n + p. Aug. 6. 40. $6500at3Ji%. On 11. yrs. On the x axis. 30. C's 30 yrs. 23. 14. 2. 23. 16. 22. . Page 145.33. 1 (d) Apr. May 5. 20. 3. 10. 0. 2. 27. 3. 14. 1. 6. 2t2. 7. 1. 6.  17. 13. be 10. B's 15 yrs. Feb. Nov. 2. .. 2. 3. yrs. 12.2. J. . Page 149. Page 146. 1. Oct. Apr. 11. (ft) 23 J. $ 1000. ad _(?jrJL. 4. 18. 7. The ordinate. 9. . a. 9. 4. 21. 2. About 12f. 2. 25. 16 to July 20. 19. 3. 2 a. 4. 2. 5. 4. July. 2 horses.65. 1. 19 gms. 6%. 4. & part of Sept. 11. 4 ' q.1J. 5. $500. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 8. 2. 7. 8. 14. ' . June. 6 cows. . On the y axis. 23f . 7. 147. 13. 40.. u 2ft. A's 50 13. Jan. through point (0. . 19. . 9. ft 3. <*ft/ bd 1. 24.l. 2. 26.4. be 7. 3. 12. . 25. 21. 3. Jan. Page 142. 15. 10. 3. 2. 11. 8. Nov. 00. 1.4.. 12. 3. 16. 5.$5000. 3.. Page 153. 4. 17. 4. 20. 2. 11. 12. 13. 10. July. 20. 16. 24. C's 10 yrs. 7. Apr. Page 22.. ' 6 3 a. = ^ a Page 141. 10.  11. 4. 3). 31. 26. m . 5.XVI Fagel39. 1. 9. 5. 20. 3. 5. 7. 4. 2. 9. Jan. (5.9. 24. 2. 2. 7. 30. 5. Nov. Jan. m f 8. 18. 100. 18.10. 4 mi. 1. 9. 1. Page 143. A a parallel to the x axis. $4000. 25. &. 30. 3. parallel to the x axis 0.4. 7.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 2. 1. 24. 1 (c) Jan. 10. 4. 0.^. 1.1.
1. 13. 17. 3 . 3. 25.17 (ft) (c) 2. 11. 3. (ft) (d) 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 2. . 15. 21.73. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. Inconsistent. xg . 27 27 81. f 10. . . 10. 125 16.84. (c) 7. . 125 a 8 12. 2. 3. . . (/) 3. 3. 28.75 (ci) 3^. Indeterminate. 2. 125a 28. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 14.25. 26.5.25. 2.3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 19.  12 ft xW  26 31. 8. 13. 15. 32F. 1. . a 10 ' a ll V&. 1. 1. 8. Page 164. 1. 2. 9 and Page 166. 4}.41 and 23.73 ami . 1 23. Page 163.1. 4.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 5. 0C. 1.5. 13C. 10. 1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.5 (ft) 3. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. . 27. 5. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . . 15. 2. . 14. 4 ) 21.  1.  .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 1. .. 3.1. (gr) 21. (a) 2. (ft) 2. .34F. 2. 9.75. 2 a&m Page 167. 4.75. 1. 6. 1. 1 4. (/) 3. . 7. a + ft. 3.  1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 1^.. 10 C. 4. 12. 8mW. 4. 3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. f. \ft) 5. xW.67. . 14. 3. jgiooyiio 17. 22. Inconsistent. 2. Page 158. 2. 24. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. * 16.79. 5. 16. a 29. 3.13. 5. . 15 . 8. . H. 18. 12. (c) 2. 3. . 3.83. 1..41 and . 2. 24. 1. 30.25. 6. 3. 1. SlstyW 7. 2. 8 a1.59. . (e) 3. ft . 9.. 4wn8 + n4 5. .73. 4. 4. 30. ft 2 4.24. . (e) 2. 3. 5. 0.83. () (rt) 3.73. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 5. . 2. (ft) and (d) 2. 1.79. 3. 20.3. (a) 4. (<?) 2. 27 19. ImW. 3. 2. 11. 2 l.64. (a) 5.2 (ft)  1.7. +3 4. 3. 1.24. 4. . xy. (ft) (ft) 2. 14.4. .3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 11.59 . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 3. f12 wi 9. (a) 12.25.75." 23. ' :=_!. . 81 ". 2 2 22. 22. 1. 3. m. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.6.27.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 19. Indeterminate. 13. H. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 2. 3. 2ft4 Page 168.24 . 1. 18C. 2. 2. 2. f. 5. + a 4 ft* . 83. 10. . 1.25. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 8 1 f f g*. 5 and 2. 13 . 2. . _ 9 x ^27 1 . Page 159. 20.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. G. (c) 14 F.64. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2.
15. /> 4 ). ?7i 1 1 3 1.037.i c 6 15. 9. 22. 763. 23. 8. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 10. 33.x ). 5 5 8.6. 31. 2 4 8 2 . 9. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 2 2 7. 18. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 20. + + ?V 22. ? : 1 . 72. 4. 9. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 3. (2 a + ft). 3 2 8 3 12. 24.r 2 + 6jt). 12. r> 4 : 1 . 11. 25 19. 15. + l). 5. 20. 10*.XV111 7. 4. (1 (x2y). 21. 978. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). c 10 6 :l 20. +3 + 5 4. 14. 2. (4a2 9& 2 13. 1 1 ?>). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3).2).7 /)). 6. 2038. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 13. 8. 11.1. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 6 (\x 3. 20. (a 2.1. 12. 11. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 1. 1. 84. 10 x G a 4 . (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 1. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 18. (48 + 6. 16 6 w . 2(> + ( 2 7>). a ).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. a. 30. (l + x + . 8. . 5. 10. ).5.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 2 2 4. . 3.83. 4. 13.10 a~ + 5 a . 300. 2 12. 237. . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 2 49 . + 29. 25. 34.  +X '. 16. GOO 2 c 2 . 71. 10. 6. 2. 6. 15. +(^ 2 3^ + 2).a b 22. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 18.GO a c + 23. 27. + y). 180 . Page 170. 30. 5. 2. 21.5). (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 00. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . (Gx + (i + 2a. Zll. . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 9. 16. 0. . 8 /. ^i. + i)). +35.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 1247. Page 176.y2 ). 119. 11. 101. 14. a. 3 6 23. 3. 17. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 98. Page 171.3 ab + 2 2 ). 247. 64. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 6. (x' l). 70. 7. 90.  x. 17. 309.94. 15. 19. 3. . (ab + c). 35. 420. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. + Z). 36. (a + y+l). 99. 6.f 1 m 9 16. 14. 2. 17. a: l . 8.+3^ + 4. m 13. 32. 5. + (win . 8. 16. (ly).^). 7. ( Page 174. a 2 . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 5. Page 172. 4. . 26. (a + 2 +l). rt . 40. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 90. 7. 2. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . 3 2 ^. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 1. 76. 9. I 8x2). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 57. (3a. 3M. ? . 28. 19. 9. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (x + y\ 90. 20. AN S WE no . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 12. fe *?>' ?> fi . 14. ??i ?i . .
6. 1. . 16. /. 14.916 yds. a + 61. 21. 21.i. / 11. 11. 8. 3. 29.1. 7. 9 15 ft. >i 27. 46. 1. ft. 12. 10.. 1. 4. 12. 24. 4J. 13. 28. 10. 5f. }. 1. 3. (< + ?>).236. . 2. 15. * 1. Page 179.645. 4. 37. 27.60. 32. 39 in. 44. 40. 28 in. 4 TT M 28. . 31. 10. a. 9.. (afl). 6. ft.w 18. 5. 12. 2 sec. 37. 15. 15 1 10. Page 177.13. 1 7. 3. 7. xix 26. 12. >TT 26. 11. 6V21. 24.  f. 9.522 38. 2. 1. 12. 31. 4. V17. 10. . If ^.. 15. 21. 5. 6. f ^ is. 3J. 42.6. .  14. 1. 13.243. 36. vYb. 12. 34. 3.4. Page 180. 3. 7. 9. 5. 9. 3. 13. 39. 8. 17. 4 a. 25. 13. vV'TA 24. 1&. 2. 10.  5. 18. 270 sq. 7. 9. w.  1. 5. 27. *. 7. 21 in. 10. m.5. 6. 7563. 16.?. 5. 3. 5. v 17. 6J. 39.6. 22.4. 2] see. 4. 35. 49. 21 28 ft. ^. 7. 4. V. 21yds. V J l. 3. 7.4. 47. 4. 10. 5.Sn. Af^.5. 14. 7. 5. 7.469. 1. 4.742 in. 3. 14. 8..935. ^^7m. m. Page 181. JJI. 4. 4 n. 2.6. 3.ANS WERS 22. 4. 5. 33. 9. 2. J.V 8j. 23. 30. 6. 2. 13. 7. 12.  43. 16n. 2. 3. 6561. 7 45. 6. . 20. ^. 14. 6yds. 14.6. 4 W**. _ iVaft. 3. 4. (6) Vl4 3.. 36 in. 4. 1 38. . 8. 19. 5. f. 2. 32. 6.237. ii :J _7. 26. 2. 1. Page 183. 34.6. 19. 17. 18. 11. 4.690. 16.}. V35 1. f f V. 1. 29.798 yds. 40. 20. 23. 5.005. 11. 2. 30. () 2. ~ V^3. Page 184. ft. 33.  f. " ^_ 22. 8. 8. 1. 10.. f. i ^. 35. . 1 f Vl3. 7}.. i.. or 3. 29. or 5. V2. 5. 20. Page 185. 3. 28. 15. 5. 4. 6. . 12. > w ft. 3.925 ft.  3. 25.*. 36. 2. ZLlAiK 19. 7 in. 6 f !.1. 11. . \/3. 25 J. 23. 16. 6V'2J. {. 7.  2. 2. 15. 1. 41.. 5.. f . 17.18. V2. 9.a.367. . l~8. 2. 5083. 10. . 48. 9. f 3. 50.
.12 = 0. 6. 25. . unequal. 35. 4. 11.1. 1. 32. 12. 12. _ 19.2 x2 .. 1 . V7. Real. 41. 33. 28. 3.  5.10.$40 or $60. . unequal. Real. 6. 2.1. 2. 7./hr.3. x 14. 28. 49.1. 20. 30. rational. . 39.  1. 47. 21. . 2 . 70 ft. 27. t is. 3. rational. 3. 1.]. . 40. 44. 0. equal. 1). 2. s 11. 7. 3.62. #<7=3. 4. rational. 3. 6.4. 34.  1. i . 1. 0. 2. 7. 8\/2 17. 2. 3if. . 6.Oa. .2.2. 7. 7. %. 6... 15. 4. 1. 17.2. 0. 2 ft. 25.a. 20. V2. 4. 2. 0. 6. unequal. 27.  2. 0.41. 25.  i. 5 ft.12. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 56. 6V64. 9. equal.2. . 6. . 31.2. 64. = 0. 12..2. 58. orf. 9. 3. unequal. 3. 2. rational. 0. 4 da.2. 16. 15. 23. 7. unequal. 0. a. 0. V^l. Page 189. unequal.74.  6. . Page 190. 0.0*8. 2. a + 1. 3. 2. 2 V3 in. 4. 0./hr. unequal. 5. 1. Page 187. 8. Imaginary. Real. Real. 21. ft. 15. equal. 1. Real. 53. 3. 12. 3. 0. AB = 204 ft. 22.l. i. 12. 55. r* i.  13. 6.  9x <).6. 0. 2. 14. 10 mi.3. 3. 4. ' 1. 1. 3. 15 ft. Page 188. 24.5 x + 6 = 0. 0. in. V^l. 52. f. 4. 19 in. 8. Imaginary. Imaginary. 23.6 = 0. unequal. 2. 1 3. 1. .7. 3. a8 .2. VV11. Page 191.4. Real. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. a + 6. 24. 1. 21. 2. 3. 18.  1. 2.17. H. 18. irrational. 5. 19. $30 or $70.. 3.  24. 1. Real. 26. 2. ANSWERS 22. 1. V^~2. (5 10.7. 1. 3.3. irrational. 13. f 6 52 a.XX Page 186. 10 in. 1. 4. x*4x=0. unequal. 8 or 12 mi.. 11.48 3. rational. 2. 2. '  f 5.2. 64c.  1. 8. 2. 3. .7.2. 5. 10. x2 + B . .02. 19. 7. $ 120.  5.4. 46. 42. f.37. 120 ft.5. v^^fcT"^. V2. 27. 3. If.5^. 13. *'' 12. 5.59. V ~ 16 4 2. 0. 20 eggs. . 6. 37. 1. jr .a. 2. 26. .a 3 a. 16. 5. 26. . 35. 7. . U. 4. 9. Real. . 3. Page 192. 22.4.'. 18. 1. 43. 0. 20 nii.70./hr. 4. + 11 x. a. 38. 1.23. Imaginary. 48. $80. 1_^L ft 14. 25. . 6. 45. 23. 9. 36. 0. 2. 26. 28. 3. 2. 2./hr. 3. 1. 1. 20. 10 or 19. 14. 10.23. AB = 3. 50. x* 51. 10.  1. 1.* 2. 3. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 57.  Page 194. . .  2. 24. 8. 2. 10 mi. 1.48. 6^2 in.4. 29. 2. 16.
30. 49. J 3. 1 39. 35. 33. 46. ifa. 25. ^49. 19. 4. ? . 18. 32.ANtiWEUS rational. 31. 50. 12. a 18 . \a\ \/^. 49. 125. 5. ar 1 . 9. 11. 6. 0. 16. 12. 2. 21. 3." 17. 29. Page 196. 1. m'. &. 84. 3. Page 197. 4. 17. 8. xxi 15. . 8. 47.//^. $7. 10.  J j. 40. \/. 1. vm. J. 20. 39. J. 8. 3. m.^7. v^T4 m. 9. 6. x/25. v. 51. 10. 16. 2. 0. i. 1.. 4. 1. 1. l  5 12. 19. 8. 7. . 20. . 2. a. 25. . 2. 6  AAf. v'frc 18. . 0. 3. 'J. x$.32. 44. 47. 15. 57. 28. 41. 55. 1. wA 46. 33. \/r\ 11. 8. 50. jV 10. 21.  5. 2. 9. 5. 5. 22. 9. 33. 48. 3. 21. Page 200. 3. 58. 4. 13. p. 49. _! V3. 9. 1. 23. 4. 8. 13. . 27. JV37.2. 17. 9. 4. 1. 17. 19. 27. . 14. 14. (m 26. 7 . Vr. 31. 45. 42. 14. 2. I. 54. 24. 30 a. *V. 24. 59. y.  48.6. 5. 56. Page 201. 29.  f. 1. : . J. 20. 49. J. 2. 25. 18. 2. ). 243. 5\/5. ^Sf 3 38. fx'^z'l 23. V^ 34. 20. 8. 23. 18. 2V a. 24. 1V1. 1. \ . 4. 29. r*. x. 22. 16. aW\ 40. 3. .17. 12*2 61. ) 2 >J i 10. 3. 7.  f . 10. . 3. \/3. 19. 26. 2. vV. 3. y . 7. 60. v'frW. 13. 1. 28. 3. 3 4 11. 30. 2. r. 2. \. n\/* Page202. 15. 2 L ( V. 14. \. 52. 38. 3. 43. 1. z + 22. 36. . 32.1 5 15.  a'2 . 7V7. 5. 10. v/3. 8. 5. 11. Page 199. 15. 13. 37. 16. Jb \. 53. 4.
40.r. v/^r 5  A/^~. Vr 8. 195V3. 1. 31. 12. 2 4 z2 l 3. (x' (l 1+x). k/2. 11. 20&V6. 1 2 or 1 ?. Va 2 "ft. 49. v^. 37.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 19. x%  3 ^+ 1. Vz2 ?/ 2 44.rV:r. . 34 r 6. 9. 2\/7. + 2 Vzy + y 1. r c . 2 '"V5. 3V^T.707.XXii ANSWERS 1. 29. + 2 ar 1 ). 5 22. 24. 9. 34. V2 + 4 V22. 62V(J. m* n*. / V3. x + 5 x3 + 0. + . 3^ + 2). . 16. 2. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 50. 17. 3 x^y 33. 10. + + ft. 2. 6. 18. 30. 5. 5. x 25. y. 5 ( . V80. 26. 20. 17. 8. + Vic + 25. x. 22. 3 4\/2. 4.'\ 14. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 32.f. 11V3. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. y (a + ft) V2. x 7  34. 20. 21.2 VlO. 7. Page 203. 31. 13. V. 41. 101 1. ). 3V5. 3. 2 x* 15.. 28. x^ . 36. 2.692. 26. 1) 3V3. 3. 2>X2. .2 18. 7. 11. yV35. ^: V2c. 28. 21.577. 39. . 13. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 40. 19. V. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. Page 207. 33. 3^2.3 + 40 3 .648. 2. 43. 3 42. 9. 135V6. 30. JIV6. 03r* 7. T. 4aV^J 16.). 2. V 5 47. a 3. Page 208. ftV 46. + 2). 37. a 4 +* + !. 6. 15. 8a6V5. ?tV?w. 16. 29. 25. (a 27. 2v (T 2aVf. 27.yl : . 48. 23. 24.Vxy 35. ^7 \AOx. . 10. 3. (o* 2. + 2 V22. V63. a^ + 2^+1. 38. 2 a?>V2 a. 51. ^88". 4. 9 . .r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft.  2 3:r. abVab. x y. 13 a. + 1. 10. . v'TM. . 8V/) 15. 2.  a Vft 2 121 b. 3 \ 39. 45.x^y* + y%. r 17  Page 204. l 5. 32. a2 4.632. 13 35. 8.
D 45. 10. 50. 14. 9. x/125.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 2. 6. 2\/7. 37. 32. 24. 6. 14c 4 V5. r)\/(l Vrtr. 5. 7. 16. 11. 6V2. V5. 28. 24. 11. v 25^4714 V2"a. "v/wi ??. x/3. 5 \/2. '. 6. Page 213.. . V2. 8V2. 31. 16. 8. a2  b. 21. 6+2V5. 53. v7^. 19.  3. . 22. 10. 3 V2. 4 >/3. 3. 3\/15  6. 2 1. v/l2. 39. 4. 17. : ^32. 5. 15. + 20. 4 a*. v/8. \/2. 34. 36. v^O. 26. 3. \^r^bVabc. / \/w/t 4 13. 8v2T 12. \/a6c. w?i. x/w^ 8. 52. 23. Page 211. V/. 42. "^8000. . Vn. 3. 0. x/8. 7. v"3. 3\/wi. 2 \/2. 6aV2\^. 33. m ?i2Vm/t. 6 2\/0. 21. 19. v/lO. 8. 37. 7\/(l 7VTO. V3. x/4. x/8l. 30 Vl4. 27. 9. 7. 43. 0. \V3. . 6. 8V73\/IO. 6x2?/. ^27. Vtf +3+ 33.T*. 1V5. 38. 12. 16. 40. 26.30 2. 40. 18. Page 216. VT5. 4\/5. v/9. 25. 27. 48. 18. v^f. 2. 2. 22. 32m27n. 44. \/abc*. rtv/5. 3 Vl5 30. v^30. ^\/3. v/i). 49. 2 ate. 35. fl^Vac. 41. 6. V5. 15. Vdbc. \XOfl6Vi5. Page 214. 1. v^4. x/8L v/27. 11. 25. 8  \/15. 35. 74\/Jl 120 46. \^6. . \/128. 12. 30. 38. 29. 5. ^ 3 b 5 24. vT). 2. W). v"5. ^v 7 15. 13\/3. x/27. 17. % 29. 18. ab 4. 36. 39. VJla. V2. V3. 14. 13. 10. 3 V15  47. 9 VlO + 4. 51. + VlO  v y (5. v^a. \/8. 31. 5v/2. a^\/a7>. 9. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . ^9. a\/5c. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . V3"m. 3. 23. 3\/2. 13.J Page 212. V8.r v/^ v^fr*. 46. 10V(). 5V2. v^lf. . \^6. aVa. 3. xx 1. 3v^2. \/04a. 17. 1. 4VO. 34. b. 5V2. 4. . 14. 2yV2?/. Page 210. 1. 2 V'3. 2 28. 2. 32. Vat. 20. 21 23.
4. 2. 30. {. 3. 34. 19.5.1. Page 223.  2. Vf6fVtf. Va. 12. 16. 10. 3V23.XXIV 7. 29. 2 . 3(7+3V5).7071. 6. 12. V. 16.6. 8. 4. (\/5V2). K>/0 + \/2). (Vf + (4 V2). Page 219. 20. 16. 9.64. n*. . 25.7083. 9. 10. 0.  13. 18.  f.0606. (V21). 6. 2x^2^. 16. 33. 2. 16. 7. 9. + 5V2. 21. 9. 15 f 3 V2L 4.3. 3. 25. 22. 29.601. 23. 5. 21 ' Vob 26. 11. 512. 10. 11. 4. 1. j 15. 20. . 1. ' 22 i . V3. 17.81. 5. +3 V2). \. ^r. fV2. 15. 35. * 3. . 12. 19. 9. 100. 4. + 6) 2 .732. 18.2828. 4. 9. 6. Page217. 64. 16. Page 225. 1. i^Lzi. 10. 7. 2!5_. 14.. 5 f. xy 2. (VllV2). 5 V65. V6c. 4.13. 10. (V8 + V2. 2. . 7. (V5f 5. 4.3. 26. 2.5530. 9. V3 . V3. 32. 1. (V51). 9 mn. 27. 16. (a 1. 14. ^(VlO\/2). 15.3535. 14. 4. 17. 36. 16. p 6 13.  . 5 + 2 vU 17. 11. (V6 + 2V2). 8. 11. 3. 9. 4. 4. J. 13. 24. 3. 1. 37. 15. x 20. 13. 12. 28. 24. . 125. 1. V3. 1. 8. 15. V2. 8. 27. (2. 23. 7 f 5 4. V35. 15.6 V3. Page 226. nVTl. 11. 14. _^JflJ?.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 2. 7. 4. 3.464.2. 11. (2f V"5). 25. 24. 4 14. 4. . 8. (2Vll). 17. (2V2). . 7 Page221. ^\/2. 23. 25. . 7. 6 V. 5. f. 81. 0. 2ajV2*. 81. 4. \/3).625 10.\/TO). 22. j. 9. 1. 27. ~ Vac _c 0. 2V2. 1. 10. (VaT^v a). 4. m f.1805.^ (\/22 4. 8. 25. 6 (V2 + 1).9. 24. . 4. . ^. 25. 3. 8. 18. Page 28. 26.1547. 6.2. Page220. 4V3 + 6. 2. J. 17. 5. 23. 31. 7. ANSWERS 8. A .389. 2V3. 30. 21. i(Vf Vft). 12. 2.4142. 5. 7. 2V3. 3.732. 13. 8. \/57t. Page 218. 19. 18. 5.w 6. 20. 10. 5. 5. 1. 6. 25. 216. ^. 23. 7. 1. !^ 6 4. 19. 8 V3V2. 21. Va. V^TTfc. (\/3f 1). 20. 22. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 19. 18.V3). V5. 224. (3+ v/2). 12.4722. 5. .
4. 12.3).3. 2. 3. 1. 18. 5.  J. 2. 1. 2 V^ . (2 a. 3. a .l)(z 2 + z + 1). 7. 3. ~ f7. 6. 2.  1. . 6. 2 <? 4a2 . 4. 1. 3. 4.  3.3 2.  4.  2. 4 4. 8.l)(m . J. 5. . 4. . f>. 1 .5. J Page 235. 16. 3 9.ANSWERS Page 228. 4. 20. 3. .2)(* . 10. 22. 0. 2. 1 . 5.3.0. 1 3. t/ 23.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 25. =A^Z3. 5. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3 . 15. 2. 11. 1. 5.  . 6. 87 . Page 234. 25. 2.2)(m. 25. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). XXV 4. 3 . 11. 3. 17. 6. 26.3. 20. 8 6 & 0. 1.3. 8. 2 6. . . 73. 5. 2. 4 .3. 0. 0. 2. (m 4 + l)(ro.22. 2. 11. . 3 .4. 6. 2.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. .l)(a 2 + a f 1). 2 . Page 236. 100. .  f .3. 4. 3. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). qpl. J. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). ' J.4). a  . 2. 0. 6. l. P. 1 (?> x/^3. 1. 2. 73. b . 4. 11.5 xy + 25) 22. ( 16. 10. 4. 1. 2. 4 . 3.4. 2. 11.10. 4. 10. a(. 10. 0. 17. 7. 2 . 14. 2 .. (w . 4. 13. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).4. 4. 3. 12. 1. J 24. 1.r . 0. 4. 22. V3. . 3. 2. . (xy + 5) (x*y* .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 50. 4.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 16. 14.  16). 13. 3. 5. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1 . 5. 7. 4. 15. 14. (rt. 24. . 7. 3. y. 4 1. (8. 12. 5. 3. . . (a+&)( 2 14. 2. 23. 2 &. & + 6 2 ). 19. 1. 5. 3. 1.  3. 8. 3. 2. 9. 6. 13. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 3. 12 24 y . 30 30. 2 6. 9.2. 1 6. . 4. 15. 56l). 13. o. 2. 28. 2. 5.^a. 4. (4 mn .2.1. (a 4. 3.w 4 + 1). 30. (a. 3. . 1 . 0. 2. 3. (a . 2.8a 18. . 4. 1. 13.  3. 18. 11. \/0. 5. 19. 2. 7. 3. 3 5. 7. (r. 2. 5. 2. f . (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). //.l)(a3)(a . (pl)(p2)(p2). 8. 5. 2. 1. 1. 6 2 2a + 2). (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2. 0. 12. 1. 24. 3. (B43). 7.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. (63)(6' t 18. 4. 8. 2. (pl)(p3)(p6). .2. . 2 . (a. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 12. 1 . 20.1. 3.7. 1. 30. 2. 4 20.nl^EI. 8. 9. 2 > 1. Page 233. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44).  5. (+!)( 2) 10. 1. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 10. a: :} .Y. 3. . 1. 30 . 1. 17. . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 19.  1. 4. 3.12. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 10. (&y2a#H4). 25. 21. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 1. 21. 7. .
y. oo. 4 6. 19. 2. 48. 2. 14. 5. ANSWERS 2. ^ }. J. _ 10.4. 14. 12ft. 10. 5. ' j.. . 2. . Page 240. 35 a. 3. 2 . 4. 4. 1. Page 243. 2 . 21. 2 ft.. 3 . . 1. 8. (&) 2. 3 2. 4. 37. and _ 4. 125 125. m28.0. 1. 9. 30 13. j. 2. 6. . 3. 16.. . 4. 3. 5 . 12. _ 13 (0 6. 45yd. 14. 5. 18. . 4. 41. 3. 2 26. 2. . . 7. 2. . 11. 7. 29. . 12. m27. 0. = QO 6. . 8. 20 in.  11. f*. 10. 5. 2. 17. 201. 30.020.3 . (/>) "_. GO . 5. 15.18. ft.4. 3. in. 3. 3. 69.3. 22. 7. 1 . . 24. 7. 1J. 5 4.13. J. . 3.4. 5050. 2. 3. Indeterminate. 2. 1. . 1. 5 cm. }. 2. 31. 84. 11. 3 cm. 3 . n. . 20.e. 4. 17. 39. 15. 2n. 4. 15. 9. 2. 1. 4 34. 2. 16. 3. 3. 3. 17. 8ft.6. 33. 12 d. 3. V3~. . 1.3. 5. no co . 15. 35^ 5.xxvi Page 237.. 14. 1.136. 1. 9. 1.30. 2. 14. 21. 1. Page 239. 30. 2V7. f. 2 Y> V . 3 . 2. 25. 3. . 15. 5. 1. J. 6. . 3. _ 5. 1. in. 8. \/6. 4. ft. 2.3.3. . $46. 1. 2. (a) $3400. 2. Page 244. (a) 5. .. 2 2. 12. . . J. 1 . 5. 13. 1. . n . 14. . .. 8 3. 10. 7. 5. 1. 17. 38. 512. 900.3. 11. 5. 12 1. 4 8. co . 21 30. x 4. 14. 2. 3V5. } . 1. 13.1. 6. 1. (>. 1.  1. 3. 3. 1. . 3. 12. 7f solution. 2. 1 . 1. . 1. 11. 8. 9. 40. 35. in. 23. Indeterminate. 31. 6. 12. 2 1. 3 3. 4. m + n. . i i i . 1. 3. 288. 40 1} 9 3 ft. Exercise 113. 2 10. 15. 1. 8. 8. 4. 35 ft. 5. 4.0. in. 18.. 55. i'ljVU. . 4. 1. Page 247. 400. 1 . 18. 37. 19. V7. 16.2.. 37. 4. 50. 9. 2. Page 248. 2 16. 2. 8. 28yd. 4 . 0. 20 7.3. 7. $.. ^~2.1. 3. 24.4. 50. f>. oo . 22. . 40 in. 5. . $VO. 17. +  n. 12. 4. i. 2>/3. 78. Page 241. 15. . _ 7. 8 . 5. 512. 1. 2. 4. 13. 8. 3. 1. 4. 3. 1. 5. 6. 1. 7 3. 2. 4. 9. Exercise 114. tn 2. 17. 5. i j. 10. 3. \. .  . in. 0.5. 40 25 in. 5. 1. oo . 3. 7.1. Page 245. 4. ft. Page 238. 5.5.200. 5. 32. 4. 12 ft. 4. jj. 4. ri*. 36. '>. 26. 1 2. 11. 3. $..6. 3 4. . 23. 4. 1. 1. . 2 . c.3. . 20. 1 . ( 3. 11. 3.  2 .
3. 81.5. 17. 4. 7. . 5. 3. 8 4x' 2 .5 x. 12. 21. 2. ~ an . 280 53. A.5.^ ?>i 2412x4.ANSWERS Page 250. 17. ' 1. 50. Ja. 1. 04. ~v 9. 4. 16. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 120 aW. .8.  20 flW.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . Jj? 45. 05. 7. a4 4 14. in.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 75. 4. 5. 6i. 45 Page 257. . 6.r x>/ 7 3. 8. w9  8. 1. 12.700. 6. 1. 3. 35. 2. 5. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 1. 2. 9. 1. 1. 70. 5 13. and 1. 5. 18. 192. 29. 55. 708.53.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . &' 14. 1820. 14. 10. 4. . 4. 15. 4. 15. 6. 4950 M 2 b y *. B . 53. 04. Page 258.5y 4 . 48. 16. 4. x + Vy.3 ays. 20. 4. 1. 19. i 10. 6. 1 14. 12. 27.0. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 105. 343. 9. 5. 16. 7. 16.  101. 5. 13. 44.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 910. . Page 252. 12. 3. 8. 3. 19. 4. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 2. 21. (). ^a 8.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 0. 0. 2. 405. } $ 50. . 22. d. 220 .384. 9. 11. 10.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 4 0. 100. x4 . ?/i 6 x llj . 18. . r r j. Page 254. 495. 11. 3. 3. 1000 aW. 0. 1. 8 . 327. 16. 2. . 4. 10. 35. 20. 343. f y 8 + z* . vy.210.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 13. 5.6. 27. 27. 0. 2i* 7f. 2. 3. 8. 6. 4. 19. 4.1. 13. 5. . .r* 4 70 . 12. 45.120. Y11. 15.r 4. 1. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 3. I. JSg. 10.13. 410.v Page 253.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 7. 18.<2 4.170. 128. 4. 1JH. 8.4.  17. 0.4 &z x>&. 43.870 m*n*. 15. 4. 11.2 45 a 8 /). 005. 304. 70. 8. 16.12 x*y 16.x' 10 . 12. . 1. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 9. 10 14. . 4. x r 4. 1 7 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.680. 7.419.920. 16 11.6 .2 9. 23. 125. 8. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. xxvii 1. c. 8. 15. **+. 0. 125. 5. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).504. 4. 8. 16. />*. 6. <. a. 25. . 0. r 5 4. 0. 10. 2. . . 2. sq. 2. \ w 4 . 70. 9. 3. 7. J 2 //2 25. 20. 5. 5. REVIEW EXERCISE . 8 1. 10. 7. 8. 22. 6. 4. 3. 32. 3. . 2.470. 27. 2. 3. 2. 7 2 x 4 x8 . G. 8J. '23. 26. 8.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 9. 17. Page 259. 28. 1. 18. 0. 7 x4 17.7 10.192. 12. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 6. 45. 12. 7. 6.
df. ?/ . 3a~2c. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. x' 79. 64. 27.18 ?/ 5x4. .3 a 2 '6 w 4.9 b. 70. c3 4 58.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. x 4. 120. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 62. 31. 1 . xyxzyz. 110. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 3 a .x4 + y'2 z 4.5. 6 a2 97.2 c .xxviii ANSWERS 19.  12 a. x 3 41.ac 44 aft. ?> . . 50.5x4. . 3~ n 4. 102. 88.18 x?/0. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 5x + 2y~z. 96. az 4. 12 a/. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.3 aftc. . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 94.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .1. ft2ft 4 4l.c 3 4. 29. 25.3 . 16t/. 3 a 5 a 5. 36. a4 x.3 b .a6 2 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 13 + 2 s. 5 42.x 51.9 x . 127. x* . . 24. 28.2 xy + 4 y2 106. 2 x2 4. 10 4. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .3 x 2 + 3 x . /> 4 83. x8 x2 55. .4 x 2 . x2 5r*x ft 5 .  4 a3 85. a~b 89. 2 53.{ 54. +^ + ft W.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 4. .a*ft 2 126. 105. 4 Page 264.5 a 2x8 x 3 . x4 f + 23 . 2 . 32. . 3 a 44. 40. 4 ! .7. Page 260. 30.. 14 x .1 4 jry 4 x . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. x 8  a8 .x x*  f 2 ax 4. . 49. 9x. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 109.2. 4 15 x 5 . x } 4. . * 60. 1 a"* 4 an . a J .4 ac. 23. 114.4.  + 3 x2 . . 38.  e +/. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). a2 2 aft 2 2. 3 c . 104.y*. 2 .c. &p 84. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. .3 y. 46.rty x2 4 123. 86. 4ft y3. 10 a 12 b. t 81. ?/ 3.3 a'ft.7 x   15. x . () 2 x 33.4 x?/2 3 4. 8x3 8x. 91.2. 132.5 b + c . 99. 2 . 4. 125. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .15 4 62 x  72.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .1. 7 + 3 xf 2. . !! 71. 243x4729. 76. 1 + 4 xy. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 2 q. .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.5 3n 4.1w 77. 4 65. 12 x. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. + 3 a?. x 2 .c. 9 2w 128. 3a'2 Page 261. + z. 107. . 5x 2 2x43. 52.4 2 4 c2 42 . 4 115. 1 x 45. 3 36 b c .2 x^. 4 2 . 0.ft). .1. a 3m 4. _55_7c 48. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. a 4 . 4 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 8 . ^ . . as 20. . 63. a' 111. 1 121. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 6 c 47.x.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. x 8 + x 4 68.a. x2 a2 1 . ft n .fee 2 4. 22. 35. 82. . 4. .41.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 39. 2 30 . a* a 8 a aftc. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.a' 'ft 4. 0. 37. x 3 4. 61. 43. 122. 130. 2 x'V2 90. a* 4.6 b. x' . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . + a 4. 80.  . Page 263. 4 fee 4. 0.x24 73. 72.2 x 4. .3 103.4 x y 87. m " + n + P3c . 66. 4 69. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . I 57. x2 2 . 16. y 4 z* 0. 93.4. 133. 2 x2 108. 2 2/' .x 2 4. 124.a'2 c.4.1.2. 2 113. x2 471x4. 100. 26. . 131. 2 a. .  3 x2 .^a . 118. f5+7. 5 4 4. ft /> 78.a 2 x 2a . 21. 6a6c.6 am b\ 129.4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.105. (a + ft)" 98.
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. 4. L . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 329. .XXXI Page 272. 326. 360. a +6. 376. 388. 366. 1. 336. 365. 355. 4 rw. . Page 277. 9^.1. 392. ?/ + 3 332.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 6a.  1 356. If. 2. 386. 2 ab  a Page 276. + 335. 6 ?/+:>. 395. 7/i ^ _ . 1. 2 ?/ 363.. 385. 406. m. ?=. 2(a i 403. 4. 408. 394.3. ^ 3 // . l'j. Page 274. 2 r36 384. 13 391. _*L'L+. 1. 2 ).(5 a . ^_:r f> 331. 2 327. 375. T+^. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 370. 1 i 2 ^. c 402.7. 3. 404. 3. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 377. ?>*. 4 A. 7. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330.J . 2(q. a + b + 6).)Cr4)__ . 390. f. 364. (a + b + c\ .". 399. 383. 20. 382. 1. a 2 .. 405. 325. 393. ^"" 4 s . 11.  1. 398. " 4 378. a) A^_. 0. 361. . S. 0. 1. + 4 & 4 \ b. 339.vin a /r " 337. <L 409. 12. 3. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.!. 400. 389. ab. 396. A^L5L. 343 00 351. .H ' 2wi ^' /' . + x 362. l . x 54 359. 380. . y 4 I 340. j 328. 334. 401. 397. 0. 333. T\. 2. * 357. 0. 324. 407. 379. 387.
2. 4. . 439. 492. 1. (c) not true. . 6.. 502. 3. 472. A 5 mi . 7 : . 1. 2.  7. Page 281. *+. 20 yr.7. 0.vz in. 466. \. 2. 8.  505. 0. b 449. 423.  7.. . 6. z8 +?/ 3 431. 2. 6. 2. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 90. 40 oz.488. 508. 1.3. (a  c). . 435. B 4 mi. a* 424. 5.0. 22. 2. 5. I.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 462. 3. L2 a  6 . + () 433. 7. 507. 5. 464. 498. 5J. 17. 4. 476. 450. Page 278. 10. 0. L (c) I. 455. . 467. 2. 446. 2 a 2. 495.2. .0.m  m+ M in.rz Page 279. (d) true. 410. 4. . 477. 18. 459. Page283.  2. ft 5. 10. a 22 . 458. 7. !L=4. 484. . Page 280.  453. 2$. 42. 452. 432.  1. '. 468.  f>. 9. 7. 6. 10. 32. i. . $2000 at 0%. 478. 411. 50. 436. 10. . 5. . a + + ft c. 463. />c c(f be. 17. 421. 493. <L+ 6 (. 465. 445. . 457. 63. 456. 448. 503. 2. ^r?i 434.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 6. 5. 501. 440. 0. 425. 496. 8.5. 12. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 40. 413. 1 a /?$+&?.. 487. 497. 1$. 479. ISJini. 420. & 491. 429. 3a 4 5.489.  2. i a b 451. 482. 454. . 430. 447. m 1 : wi. 8. 10$. 441. 51. ' $260 at 0%.. 444. 10. 426. Page 282. 1. A $ 3500.  2.  . 24 days.4.46. 483..7. : />a. 442. \ 1. 21. 6. 10. 461. 506. (d  6) f. 500. 0. ^V. 1. c 6fc 10. m. .4. ISjmi. 486. 4. c. ^. .  10. 14 miles. 419. 428. fj. 427. 7.7. 490. 494. 7. 3 . (&) true. * . 10.55. . not true.  2f 504. B $ 2500. 3.}. 8. (a) 1.1. 2 438. 28 yr.. 418. . 20. 0. .}. 5. 2. 499. . 32 yr. 412. 2.  1. 53 yr.7. 11.7. fc.te + . 480. 6. 2. (&) 443. 33. 0. 485. 422. 460. 84. 481.12.3.
1.78. 510. 575.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.15. (d) 537. 2 1. 560.xj/ f xV . S82 c.  3. 1. 6435. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . .52. 2 2.02.5+. 563. . xxxin 511. 4* da. a+ Page 286.. Page 287.4. _ 4. 4. 3. (ft) 4. 569. . 1. . 516. 599. 1.00. lead. 1. . 14. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . . 3 .15. 2.0.6.88.02. 1. 0. 3. 591. (6) . _ 3.21. 3. . 3. 598.8. 4. ^ ft 4. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.05. 3. 593. 1. 556.20.37. per hour.  (a) 2.. 21*_. . 1 600.14.56 sec. 1.53. .5. (gr) 10 1.3.04. 565.75. (i) 3. 513. f36a28x8 592. 509. 24.3.3.ANSWERS Page 284. . 578. 1 580. 5.8. _^ 2754x . ft 584. 536. H. 1. 40 Ib. 1. 531. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. imag. y% Z * 586.9.04.0.16.3.1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. y 4.6.78.24 sec.  ft*. 532. 574. 2. 2(6 597. 3. (/)  10 to 8. 550. .54. (c) 3. 6. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. .  J(a f + 2c).8 x3^. 533. .37. . 4. 567.10. 0000. 3. 553. 564. 3. + 26 + . 2. 3.02. 525. + 6 tf f 3 . > ^ . per hr.73. 24 da.31. 1. f.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 115 Ib.f 1. 582. 27 y* f\4 .7. 573. 551. (c) 4. 5.1. .03. tin. a*8a + 24tf 82a. <z ft 1. 568. 4 mi. o> . 527. 8. 528. 559. 3. . 2.83.3. 4.   (h) 8. 31. 530. J7] min. 4. 1.  7. 579. 576.0. x8 .  + + c.  4..75.5. 5.2.31. 2 . 2 1. da. 3.25. 2(4 602. + 12 x .24.5. 2 . 2.4. . 7.55.3. 4.25m. (ft) Ill Ib. .33. or 8. (e) 570. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.  2ft da.62. 1$. T . + 26x2 + 10 x4 )._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. . a f ft + c. 4 0. f ? a f ft __ + c C).. 3f 4f. 583.  .4 x + . M ft c 2 ft 3465.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 518.8. 1. 603. 515.15. 1. 512. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 1. Page 288. 561. f. (e) (c) 2. 3.4. 581. 3.4.51.1.  2. 562. .12. 4.1. 4. (a) 74 Ib. 4. 5. 1 .24. 526.  (a) (d) 1. 232. 1J. 8 mi.02.35. 555. 2$.r8 596.  557.62. 1. 6.4.83. a + ft  a  f c.10.7. 1 .38. 3 da.8.30.3. .  1.7. 3. g(rc+ 6c).4.54. 1.% rr\* 585. . Roots imaginary. 1. tin. . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. lead.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 2 10.5 f. 529. 2. . 558. 2. 1.3. Page 285. . 554.03.5. 566. . 577.6 2. 1. 514. 571. .0. (6) 3.. 1. 2. 1.1. 7^ da.5. 2 imag.  imag.6. 2. 1. . If 572. 552.6.
/ V^+lO^M"^. 645. 898. 643. 631.y. 638. 4$. If . fta a/> ^A.XX XIV 606. ^^ 695. 7. 1m*.  13. 009.  1. a ' 2 + . 9.3f l 668. 2.  a2  a (ab). V2.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. /> 4. if 4/> 671. ' fe 2 ). 617. 644.  4. a. i.3. 2 a 688. 6 685.f 3 V^3). 705. 657. 4 676.  ft. 2 a: 4. 5. 646. 654. 636. 616. 618. 642. 655. 661. . 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 629. b 664. 633. 1.001.>A 610. 1.702.3. 649. 702. 634. 652.  6. 703. 648.. 706.a~ {Z 663. 1 ~a . If 665. a 1J. ^. 1 704. 2f. 11.2f (5 4. a 4. 5. . b. 2.43^4. 2092. 12.001. 0. 0. 647. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2&). 4. 10. 615. 2. ix 2 . 2. 5. ab. 4. V"^TJ. 691. 0. 614. 708.  684. . c. ab 689. ^ 1. 3 x2 . 656. 641. 3 681. 637. 653. 210. 677 680. 650. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 2. 2 a  6*. 613. If f 667. . . K 5 2 V2. If 658. (*_ + a: 611. V7. .25. 3 a. 679. I}'/.3. <T! . 690.c ) 697.  4. . 50. 4 V 0. ^. 612.04. 0. la6 2. 2. 6. 5 3. .b 686. 9*. 625. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 669. 13. (a3&45rj. y  619. 3. V2. 672. 7. 632. \+ab 699. b . 2 ab + a  &. 1010. 640.. 8.2f Page 290. 8 6 fo . 698. 7003.049. 5. 971. J^^. 1. 3. 635. V^~3). 0. 696. 2. 3. 1. 700. 651. 622. 701. 6. 678< 682. 5002. 2 x 44 ^/. \. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 670. a 673. 1 V5 1. 2 / 2 4. z  1. 4.0. 703. 630. 666. 624. + ~^'2 + a 1. If. ' 674. 683. 1$ 639. 621. 2. 0. 1 2. . . ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.  2f r 659. 25. be ac \. .002. 78. 692. 623. 628.  3. 8 f 3. 11. a + b.  .203. o. 660. 620. Page 289. n^l +^. 608.b. . . 662. ft). 4. 25. 626. 607. . a 2. 2f. 627. l/'3. 4330 da. fe + a. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. If b. 14.14 If 1.303. 2.3.
. VV> L4V34. 34. 17ft. 24 4 . 734. 730. 1 [ + '> J. 00. 39.4 . a:* . 725. 2x3^ a. 723. > 748.ANSWMHti Page 292. 738. a 2  x2 . 7  3V5.8. 25.11. 731. 739. 790 2v 3v 2. 789.4 . 716.. 755. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.1 . VT14V5. 2 V2 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. v/7 / . + < 735. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 746. 33^2. 794.r+y> 759. J(v'lO2V 791. 1 I . 47. fyaw&cu. 733. 758. 753. 3V72VO. 1 752. 3 VlT 795. i^. 3. 793.. i 2. iv/Jj. 726.10.V/^ 741.12 af V^ 4 744.257. 5. 777. 737. "V313.rJ w L 754. . 30\/10 764. 792. 3^. 715. 736. 732. 717. 740. x i f^' . 727. 728. 721. 714. 768. 763.r. 32>/2. 1^ _ 760. v'll. 711. 796. . . rt3 2 ^i^. j 742.2. ^ ?>. 719.^ 743.9. 788. 300. 3V7. 1. 767. 709. 782 785. ^ . 776. VIO\/3. 1. 3V72V3.. 3V52V3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. ^7xy. 8. cr*lr*. 751. . 724. 5. 773. y  1. 756. Page 293. 13ft. a db Va^T < 45da. 29\/3. mn.^. 3 720. 24. a 2 6^. 24V2. 718. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 1 747. r. 15 shares. 712. 342V3. 2\/53V2. 729.9. + 6 2 tf'c. 8..V2. Page 294. 769. 778. Hi a.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. T%. 59.~ . 749. 713. 750. 4 104 v/2. a 5 . a". 710. 722. 1. x\y. / 787. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.
 839. 3. ^. 5). 2  2. f. 6+V7. 4 . 799.1. 5. 19. . Hoots are extraneous. 2. 840. (:r 11. 17. 4. $. Page 297. 884. 848. 801. X4 1).  + l(l^). a* 4. 887. 833. 880. (x*y*ryz + z*). (x 4. 842. 5. 4. 835. .f. ( 4 4. (2 a . . 804. 888. (a 1) (x 4. 844. 890.7 4 1) 846.1). 17. 20). (  ?>) (a + ^> .1) . 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 1. 4. o 828. 2. 823. . 25.2 ax 4. 5. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 4.l)(x .XXXVI 797.3. 822. x. 841. 1 .4. 810. (. 0. 843. (x 2 . 827. 48. a(ft)( 873. 1C. 847. 861. (a 4 871. m = 2. . Page 296. 837.2w . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 859. 829. 4. 867. 2 (x 4*4. J V. 2. (2x (r.. 2 m .  1. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.a 3 " 4. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).1) (a 8 .. 6. 811.7).r4).4) 860. 816.25 ?>2). 0. 2/ 856. 817. 2. +j!>. 3. 834. 6. 898. a2 ^E*!. 3. 819. 14. (xl)(^~3)(. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).  tt 815. 883. 5. \/5. . (x3). 4. 11. . 2 *x 807. 886. Hoots .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). . (1 . 4. . 897. 3. (2 4. 4. 0. 11. V 3. (2 x + 3 y} . (3 b .a 4 + 1). 896. 1 1. (4 c 4.4. . 2. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). b' 2 821.l)(x + 2). 849.10 ab 4. 832. 2 .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.7). 7.0.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 893. 814. 891. 3. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . ^ V}. 2. + d)*.r . 824. .y) 852. 800. .  ' . 2 854. 6 $.7)(4 x. 858. 2 . 4. 4 885. 6. 868. (x 845. 1. 3. 2. 3. 3 . 8. Va. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) .3)(x + 4). 830. 3. 1. o. 879.rae) (4 . **. x .+ m f ") (a* ). 8. 7. 900. 825. 894. 2 j 889. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 3.5 b) 4 1). 2. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 2 2 . 7.om 441) (a 855. 851. 882. 895.1)(0 865. . 881. 812. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. H. 872. 3. (x + 0X024.1)(V 2 . 4 818.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 857./>") (a'. 813. 838.3. 13.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 1. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). $. 10. 826. 892. 876. n =  29. 2 . 808. 863. 820. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . Va 803. are extraneous. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.a 2 2 ). db 7. (x . a 42)(x . (a m .2) (x 4 2). 1. 836.. 2. ANSWERS 798. 8 09. m 875. 899. 831.l)(x . (x .7.5) (x + * 853. 0. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). a(ry + 864. ) (a' 874. ((' 1). 5. (3 862. 7. 2 806. ( 869. 4. 23. 2. 4. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . \/2. jV3 f 3. ^VG. (x 2 f r .
954. 904. 8. 8. 964.V~~3). v/(ai !)(&910. 2 yd.1. i>. 2 w 914. 980. T3.. J. J(_ ft. ft. 28. 927. 2. 3. 4. 947. ft. 5 . V5 T 2 . 2. . 934. S07. 4 . 2. 333. 3.. ^y. 111. 916. 942. 909. . 8. 11. 12 in. 7. 11. 1. 944.. 4 6 mi. 6. 939. 28. 906. 12. =F J. . a + . 11. 963. f.01. 948. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.1. 5. T 6. 912. 2. 6. 7 or 30. 4. 952. 921. ft. 940. Page 303. 8. 937. 961. ft. Page 301. Z ^.  1.2. 982. 2 i ' a V. 11. 1 _2 . 15 946. 7. 922. ft. ft.. 73. . 950. V5 fj. 2 ft. 4.  1 . ft. 7 ft. 959. 1 1. 960. 40 16 in. 955. . 8 . 903. 10. 1. 6 da. 985. dL 4. 0.. 981.744.0. 14 . 8. 3 . 951. 10. 943. 8. 938. 1). 4. 66 924. 987. . 8. .. 3 4 . 2 1. i1" 913. 100 rows. 6.. r ft ' < Page 299.. 5. . 3. 918. 4. 28.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. .I.111. 333. 911. i 8.2. 3). 7. 2. tt2 19. 496. 5l4f. 957.615. 933. 945. w. . 12. 925. .073. 18. 56. Y.. 1 2. 0. .651. T 6. f ft 4 . 2. a. 3. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. %* .. i(6 in. V^3). 2. . 12. 3. ft. 0. 108. 4. 932. 6. . 962. 1 + V953. i 3. 4. 1.760 sq.. 983. 6 . 919. 7. 958. 20 19 ft. 15 16 ft. 3. yd. 9 in. 80. 930. 4. 6. 902. 2. Va926.1 = 9.709. $(l 4. .446. 923. 2. 4. .. 5. 6. 5. 12 mi. 977. 3. . 905. 917. 115. 1 . w 3. . 979. 908. 60 949. 936.. Page 300. 280. 5. 248.. 4. . 920. ?/i 6. 0. 480 8 sq. 2./hr. 986. 935. 329. Page 302. 978. J. 931. '3 3 in. 6 a 915.  26j. 941. 8.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 956. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928.. . 8128. 4 in. 6 1 1. 984. 6.
108. 1017. 4 and 1020. 1007. 1013. 1(5. 2(2 v/2). 4.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 1014. 2 .. 162. r = 2. 1009.378 <W and 92. (Z>) 999. in. 1018. 12.378 1015. ^Trsq. . Page 305. 995.192rt?)r 120 *. 1008. 1016. () 12(2+V3). 990. 997. 6 70 . 3003.. 1005. 12. 192. .128 I.870 a 6 1011.18. 993. 120 a. 1012. ^f (2f3V2). Page 304. .'^^ } ( . 1003. 72. 9 da. (6) 8(1 . 120 i^l^. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1001. + v 2). 1006. + 448 . 32 13 (tx 4V3.51. 988. 1 8 8 2. X.870 z8 . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1019. 992. 8. 48. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 0. ~ \. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 994. 0. 1010. 24. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .  5&7 1021. (5. 996. (J. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1000. 991. 1 1004.92. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .
not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xiv+563 pages. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Half leather. HEW TOSS . Half leather. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Ph. i2mo. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. A examples are taken from geometry. given. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. save Inequalities. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. than by the . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. $1. so that the Logarithms. and commercial life. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.D. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The more important subjects tions. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. etc. xi 4 373 pages.25 lamo. physics. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. $1. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. great many work.
book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. HatF leather. Ph. 12010.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. so that the tions. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many A examples are taken from geometry. $1. HEW YOKE . there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.25 i2mo. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. In Factoring. $1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. Logarithms. etc. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. save Inequalities. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. xiv+56a pages. and commercial life. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.D. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. comparatively few methods are given. physics.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. xi f 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The author grade. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.
more than 1200 in number in 2.D. State: . Cloth. $1. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. iamo. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. xii + 233 pages. These are introduced from the beginning 3.. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. SEVENOAK. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. $1. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. i2mo. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . lines. Attention is invited to the following important features I. Half leather. NEW YORK . The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 10. aoo pages. 9. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . wor.r and. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. . 7 he . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 4. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. Cloth. Ph. SCHULTZE.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. under the heading Remarks". and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 6. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. izmo.10 L. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time.
and not from the information that it imparts.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. of these theoretical views. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . $1. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. 12mo. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 370 pages.
Cloth. Maps. diagrams. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. photographs. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. i2mo. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. An exhaustive system of marginal references. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. diagrams. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Topics. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. $1. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . " This volume etc. and a full index are provided.
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