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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.
D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
. 8. . 1911. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1916.' February.S. September. . September. Norwood. . J. Berwick & Smith Co.A. 1910. 1910 . May. IQJS January. January. Mass. May. 1910. U.COPYRIGHT. Reprinted 1913. July. 1915. Cushlng Co. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1917. August.
All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. manufactured for this purpose. etc. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Such a large number of methods. are omitted." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. and conse . Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. Elementary Algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. however. chief : among These which are the following 1. specially 2. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. owing has certain distinctive features.
and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . are placed early in the course. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. For the more ambitious student.g. two negative numbers. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Topics of practical importance. In regard to some other features of the book. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. however. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. especially problems and factoring. hence either book 4. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. e. may be used to supplement the other. etc. Moreover. as quadratic equations and graphs.
but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. is based principally upon the alge . to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. such examples. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. in " geometry . viz. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and commercial are numerous. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. By studying proportions during the first year's work. Moreover. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work." Applications taken from geometry. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. based upon statistical abstracts. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. physics. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. elementary way. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt.
is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . William P. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. however. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. edge of physics. 1910. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . ........ . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . Powers.. SUBTRACTION......
* . .. Type II.... Type IV.. . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ... Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type III.. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . /^ .114 .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. Type Polynomials. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. Type V.. Type VI. . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. .
171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .... ..... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. .... Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XIV 169 . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
c = 1. 5Vl6c. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. are trinomials.g. + 1]. aVc^. 8. or 9 Vx. 17. 26. v'Ta. V^a6. a polynomial of two terms. 12." EXERCISE If a 1. some number is . A polynomial is an y. 11. e. V2a. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 2. 10. as in arithmetic. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 0. d 7. 2 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 4V3~6c. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 14. 9. 6. 6. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. is 28. 7 = 2. find the numerical value of: Vff. 15. Val \fi?. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 13. \/c. since the parts are a . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. + c). (cfd) 4. A binomial is 62 . ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 27. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 16. c f d). [6c] 3 . b = 3. V36". x 9. !^f\/03 3 ft. V3 .
3.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . . . 4. a=4. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. Otherwise operations of addition. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .9 aWc + f a b . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. x=^. i.99. __ E.5 ax 50 a6cd. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.4 6^9 ad. 4a6fVaV2^. 6.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .390. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 4 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. d = 0. . 16.810 + 150 = . 1. 2. 2. c=l.19 = 6. 3 4 . 5. find the numerical value of: 9.30 = 270 . 5. l 13. 5c +d 2 . 52 . b = 3.. . Ex. * For additional examples see page 268.INTRODUCTION 29. subtraction. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.g. + 26+3 c. Ex.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 3 2 If 1. a2 11. EXERCISE 8*  . 14. 2 ). 6. 3a + 56 a 2 .2 + I126. 12.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . a 2 6. c = 2. 10.e. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . d=Q.9. 5=3. multiplication. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 8. (a (a f b) 7.
Six 2 . a = 4. . 38. a =4. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 26. 27. 6 = 1. if : a = 2. 34. a =3. 6 = 2. 6.c) (a .6 . Express in algebraic symbols 31. 23. physics. 6 = 7. 6. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 5. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 29. a = 3.6 f c) (6 a + c). Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 35. 25. a. Read the expressions of Exs. 30. a a=3. 37. 30. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). : 6. a = 4. 26 of the exercise. 33. 28. = 3. a = 3. geometry. 6 = 3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. and other sciences. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. sible to state Ex. 6 = 6. 24. 6 = 5. 6 = 4. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 2. 22. 6 = 6. 6=2. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21.
4.e. (c) 4.INTRODUCTION E. b. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.seconds. and 5 feet. and 13 inches. 84 square EXERCISE 1. b 14. 14. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. . S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. An electric car in 40 seconds. if v = 30 miles per hour. and 15 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. if v : a. then a 13. c. the area of the triangle equals feet.g.) Assuming g . (b) 5. Find the height of the tree. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 15 therefore feet. 13.16 centimeters per second. i. if v . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. A train in 4 hours. 2. d. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 12.16 1 = 84. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.
fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. is H 2 units of length (inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. . diameter of a sphere equals d feet. 2 inches. the area etc.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.14d (square units). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. ~ 7n cubic feet. $ = 3. If the (b) 1 inch. This number cannot be expressed exactly. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. (c) 5 miles.). 5. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.14 square meters. (The number 3. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 10 feet. (c) 5 F. : 8000 miles.). 32 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). the 3. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. square units (square inches. meters.14 4. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.CHAPTER II ADDITION. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. SUBTRACTION. however. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. . In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. or positive and negative numbers.
'. 2326. + (9). 5. 22. 12. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. . the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. d = 0. 6 6 = 3. the one third their sum. (_ In Exs. subtract their absolute values and . (17) 15 + (14). 24. 5. c = 4. 19. 33.16 32. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. if : a a = 2. 10. 21. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 23. 4. lf(2).3. d = 5. of 2. = 5. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.  0. is 0. of: 20. is 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. Thus. c = = 5. 4 is 3 J. + 12. 18.
6..ADDITION. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 33. . \\ Add 2 a. ' Find the average of the following 34. which are not similar. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 4. 12. $500 loss. 42. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 7 yards. 7 a. 1.. 11 (Centigrade). 30. 37. 32. 74. d= 3. 3. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 10. and $4500 gain. 10. 4 F.4.5. & 28. 60. 29. $3000 gain. 6. ' 1? a 26. : 48. 3 and 25. 27. . 5 and 12. 38. 32. and 4. 43. and 8 F. 31. 41. 09. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. or and .. 7 a. . 10. 2. ^ ' 37. : and 1. and 3 a. .5. 55. 25. and 3 a.13.7. 34. . 6. }/ Add 2 a. 36. : 34. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. $1000 loss. & = 15. affected by the same exponents. . 40. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. = 22.7. 35. 72. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. and 3 F. 0. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. c=14. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . SUBTRACTION. 66. sets of numbers: 13. and 3 yards. . = 23. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.3. = 13. 39. $7000 gain. c = 0. are similar terms. 2. 13.
5 a2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. f 4 a2. EXERCISE Add: 1. + 6 af . Vm f. 12(af b) 12. or a 6. 9(af6). ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 2 . 2 a&. . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 14 . Algebraic sum. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 2(af &). b a f ( 6). The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. 10. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9.18 35. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 3a . : 2 a2. 13.ii. 11. 5Vm + w. 5l 3(af6).13 rap 25 rap 2. 12 2 wp2 . 7 rap2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. in algebra it may be considered b.sign. 12Vmfn. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.
2 7 1 26. 32. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 35. 21. c 2 ^24. is . + / + 3 Va. 30. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. ra 19. n x* 2 22. +m """ 20. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 6 23. 17. a a8 ZL **. and to add each column. + y. 33. without finding the value of each term 34. 2 2 2 31. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 36. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.ADDITION. 1 27. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2/ : Add. l^S 25. 37. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. SUBTRACTION.
x of x. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2c. and 2 . the erroneous answer equal 7.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 5 .g. e.20 c 5 ab 4. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 2 Thus. 3a 2? .o c and 4. 2 Sum. a 4. 9 q 4.8 abc .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. . 2 . . 4 = 7. V3. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. s. 3 a f 4 1) 4. of that letter. therefore the answer is correct.7 2 . 4 2.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . to show any error. NOTE. 7 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 46 4z 7 c.15 6c. 2 025. 5.c= 2. = .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. and J 2 s.41 = 3.3 s. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. ft any convenient and c.15 abc .12 a& 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. . 3.g.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . c = 1. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 6=2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. to add 26 ab . f 110WS: 26 aft.
3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. a) y ^/.a 4 a 4 1. and 1 4 a .7m . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. ^2 1 e. 4 ajy 17. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.4 Va .(b + c) 1. v/20. . a2 a.12 6 ~5 a . in 8 3 m n 4.VS 4 2 Vc. + 50 + 62 . and 5 Vb 18. xy3xz + yz. 2 a.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . 4 3 .8 m 2m 12. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. and 8 3 . a 4 a . 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . a. 2 2 and . . e a4 /. SUBTRACTION. a2 2 14. 3 2 2 3 9 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 7ar + 3B 5.a . and v 15. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 ?/. d. ?/ . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . . 2 ?ft ?/z. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.a.6. 4(a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 8.5 cr& + 7 6 9. + a + 1. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. . . 2 3(c f a). . 4 Vc.9(a + &) .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a + 1> 8 2 2 .2n 2 2 3 rz .15 5.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 19. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 4 8 3 4 4 .1. m 4 6. a 4 a .7v/if.a. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. . and . 18/+6y + d.Ga 43x45. and and 13.12(a 4.1 a 4 1 0.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . . 11. 56 w.and 6.12. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . .10 Vc. 16e + 17/90.5a^6 f 6) .ADDITION. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . d and / 3 ? 12. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 16. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 2 2 .4:xy xz 6yz. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.
ra + m.17 + 4 ?nfy .m 4m ?/?/ d. The sum and ? 1. 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4.9aj 2. 45a6 2 . +d a. 13 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.11 xy + 12.22 21.. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 1/ . T8a. . + 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. f 1. and 25. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 22. c 3 3 3 2 3 . + n*.5< 3 2 s 4^4. f 1. 6 f c 2 23. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . f number may be added 3. s . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. If you diminish a person's debts. how 1. 1. and e + 6y . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . many negative units re main ? from 2. is 2. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.3^* 2n 2 . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 8 . 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. . a 6 2 c. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 12 xyz.3 taken from 2 ? 5. and 2 24. 1. . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1.
the other number is required. Ex. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. from What 3. In addition. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 7. SUBTRACTION.3. ( 6) ( = . From 5 subtract to . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. In subtraction. 1. the given number the subtrahend. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Or in symbols. ab = x. 5 is 2.ADDITION. 41. 2. and the required number the difference. two numbers are given. NOTE. 6 (3) = 8. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.2. To subtract. Therefore any example in subtraction different . called the minvend. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. +b 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.g. Ex. and their algebraic sum is required. a. 3. . From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. if x Ex. From 5 subtract + 3. This gives by the same method.
3 x* .5 x + 8.3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . If x = l = 2 t .
of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. check the answer. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.a 2 j.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 55. 52. 42. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.ADDITION. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 50. 2. 54. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 56. 41. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 46. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. tract 4 x 3.7 a . + a the 2 a. 2y 2 .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From From x2 the sum sum 7. 44. 51. From 6(af. 48. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.c. of a 4. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. SUBTRACTION. 47.4 a^ 4. and 3 7/ .w>t. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 43. 57. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .2. 6 4 a. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 58. . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.4 a*& + 6 a & . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 49.6)f. 45. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 53. From 2 a take a & j. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . c f d.
6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 19. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. A is n years old. a 2y + z. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. +a add the difference duce 13.26 4. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. of # 2 8. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 9. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. + 2. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. + 6 + c. subtract # + 1. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. a a + c. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. a + 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.15. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 16. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. 2 m 21. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6 17. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.
2 b . I. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. one occurring within the other.c. a+(bc) = a +b . (b c) a =a 6 4 c. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II. changed.6 b f (. Ex. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.g.c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. SUBTRACTION. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 46. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 45. the sign is understood. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. . & f c.a^6)]  } .b c = a a & f f. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.
the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. a (a + 26 c ). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 6) 2. 17. + (2a 6 + c ).: Ex. find the numerical value of { 1422 . Signs of aggregation 1.7i h jp) (m ?*. 15. m f ft) a. 21. 18. (m a2 f. 3 3 f 7.+ 6)f (a2 b). 2a (4a 26 +c ).28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 19. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). In the following expression inclose the second and third. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. a f (a a . 8. By removing parentheses. 2 2a.(a + 6). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 271 + (814 . [36+ (a 2c]. 2 2 2 a(.y (60.) 5 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. ? 11. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].1422) J ] . 9. 16. 5. Ex. 4. 14. 2. 6.[271 47. may be inserted according to 43. : x + (2yz). 13. 3. a (a + 6).)].
7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 6 diminished . 2mn + 2q3t. The product The product m and n. 8. m x 2 4. The difference of a and 6. 5. z + d. terms 5. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. )X 6. p + q + rs. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. a\l> > c + d. y f 8 .ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. II. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 5 a2 2. 9. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. The square of the difference of a and b. of the cubes of m and n. 4. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 3. 2. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.7fa. 12. m and n.2 tf . difference of the cubes of n and m. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 5^2 _ r . first. and the subtrahend the second. 6. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 7. . 10.4 y* . 3. 13. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. ' NOTE.1. The sum^)f m and n.
d.30 14. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) . 6. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. b. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 16. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
2. 5. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads balance. 3. therefore. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. A A A 1. If the two loads what What. what force is produced by the Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 4. let us consider the and JB. force is produced therefore. weights. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
5x(4). Thus. 9 9. . x 11. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.4)(4) = + 12. however. or plied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.9) x 11. 4 multi44444 12. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. To take a number 7 times. 4 multiplied by 3. the multiplier is a negative number. (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions.32 8. thus. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 4x(3)=12. NOTE. such as given in the preceding exercise. 9 x ( 11). ( (. 48. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. Practical examples^ it however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4)(. becomes meaningless if definition. (5)X4.
(10) 4 . 5x3. 2a 2 6c. 1. 22. 1. +5. 4 . 5. _2^ 3. NOTE. is 6x7. 29. 6. 17. z s 11 aWcx.a)( =+ a&. 2. etc. X(5). 32. 3 aW. tors is no misunderstanding possible. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. find the numeri values of: 21.7. 3. 16. 12. 8 4 . x= 0. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 7. 20. . _3. (2) 8 (. Ua b 28. . and y = 4. 3.(a&c) 2 2 . 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 11. (. 14. c = 25.(4J).2. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 24. If a cal = 4a6c. 4 a2 . b = 3. 8. . (7) X (12). about fac (2)X If 6. 19. 23. 13. 10. (c#) . (2)x9. 26. of Signs: TJie positive. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 6 2. . 9.MULTIPLICATION 50.2 f+x 2 . 27.2f 18. (4)X(15). 2a6 c . 8 31.3) (1) 7 2 . the parenthesis frequently omitted. (4)'. x. 30. 15.4. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 3 a2?/2 . . 4. _2. Law Thus.3. 6.
 2 2. 13.m a 3  4 . Ex. 127  127 9 7 .6 if 35. 7. Ex. 9 . This 52.<?. 16. . 2 3 .3). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 2. a = 3. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 11. 200. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51.7. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 3 2 .2). or 2 . a = 2. 6" 127 U . 78 . known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 3.2 2 23 + 5 . 4. &*) c d*. 12 U U . 3.257). + 2/). 50(112. 5 3 5 3 2 . : 3a7abc. 1. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. . 53. m*.(12) .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 10. 6 aWc x . a 2 2 ..7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . of the factors. 6 = . 2(7. a= 1. 14. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5. 2 2 3 6 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 6 = 1. 2 2 2 . . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. = 2. By 3 definition. 3 3 4 . .(7).(2. i. 2(14. 5(711. 4. 4.35). 2.. & = 3. 100. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 36. 5 = 2.503). fl*" integers.e. 17. 34. 6. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.  and 2 25 8 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . =2 a *. B.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. a8 a=2. (a6) (a5) 9. IB. 5 .
. 2(5fl5f25). 23(10004100420). Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. called the distributive law. 19. 17(10041042).7pqt. 2(645410). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 2. 31. 21. 27. (. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 2 32. . . 3.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.A). 35. Thus we have in general a(b 56. /). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30.6. 26. by first multiplying. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). (. 7p*q r*. 6(10420430). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 29. .4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . ax /) 2 4 1 (. multiply each by the monomial.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 4. 24. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 28. ) 2 33. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 20. 23. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. . and then adding : 1. 5. 6. 3(124342). If results ft. _4aft. 25. .4a#.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 34. 12( + 1 4 i). c(4a ftc ).7 w'W (8 n^W). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 11(3. 7. 35 4 7(6. 22.3 win ) .f 2). but we shall assume it for any number.2 3 aft ). This principle.
6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 2 m(mhn \p). ~2mn(m +n p ).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 2 27. Find the factors of 6 ary .asa product. By what 25. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 9. 5). be multiplied to give 4o. : expression must 24. . 29. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). 23. 30. 22. 17. 7 a 6 c(. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 2 2 16.2 mn(9 mV .3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 19.5 w*V f 7 wn). Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .3 aftc). 12. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . . . 11.^ c + 2 . 28.5 x 7). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.60 a& 10 aft. f7a. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.6 a6). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 3 ). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.we b) (x law. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 20. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 21. 26.
Multiply 2 + a a.1. 2. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. however.4. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. To multiply two polynomials. .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 59.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 2 + a8 . Multiply 2 a . Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Check. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Since errors. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. the student should apply this test to every example. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a .3 b by a 5 b.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 2a3b a66 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.
17. 35. 12. 36) I) 14.1 . 12)(a?^2l). 2  37. (6i7n)(llJn). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 8. 36). 29. (8r7*)(6r39. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 11. 22. (2 x* x 2 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2 . 13. 5. (6p (2 f 21. 16. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 6.2). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 7y).2m)(l m).4) (x + 1). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 40. 1). . a 5c)(2a6c). 7. I (mfn)(m4. 18. 4. 41. (4a 2 33. 3. 2) (3 A: 1). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 36.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 26. l)(raf 2). ^ 2 . (13 A. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 20. (6a~7) 2 . 25. 28. 15. (2w 19. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 32. (a^26) . QQ O7. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). . * For additional examples see page 261. 2 . 10. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2. 9. OQ OO. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). + & + 1f a^faj 1). 30. 4 2).4) (mnp 4. 31.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 3<7). 24.
. 12. (ra. 2) (1000 + 3). 8. (*.n)(wf w). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). + 5) (1000 + 4).e. 1) (10 + 2). 25. 11. in of the two unequal terms. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (10+ (1000 (2. (p12)(p + ll). 17. 9. + 3) (a 7). plus the product 62. i. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. _3)(a _4).4). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 2) (a f 3). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 6. 26. . 1005x1004.!!)( (a + 21). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 2 a? 29. i. 22. ft 16. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 18. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 3. 10. 7. . 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. : 23 2.25)(y+4).2 6) (a f 6). 20. (a 9) (a + 9).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 75 ab f 54 ft . (J 23. 13. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 21. 2 6) (a 3 6). (6 12) (6 f. 19. 28. (!)(* 5). 24. + 60)(f2). 14. X 102. (a3)(a + 2). (a (a (a. 25 a 2 . (a 102 x 103. 15.e. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term.13). + 9)(m+9). 27.
i. (a26) 2 .e. (x+3i/) 2 . : 24 (a 2. . 34. 33. 35.15. 4. + 3) 2 . 32. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 8. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15. + 6 a + 8. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. of the second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. a2 2 w + 2 w . w 2 ro . 9. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.e. plus twice the product of the first and the second. .30. plus the square of the second. 3.66 s. 7. 7 a + 10. 77ie square of the of the first. III. 63. 49 y*. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. n2 10ii+16. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). Ex. . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. (a2) (p a . 2 (a (*5) 2 . i. <J>7) J . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.e. III. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. p 2 p. 2 5. second. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 37. 6. and the second. 31.
45. 12. 104 2 37. 2 . 34. (20 f 1) . n 2 f4n+4. ( 27. 54. G> +5g)*. (6afy 2 5) (a. (^. 2 (4a36) 2 13. . . 2 . + 5)(5+a). 21. 46. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 28. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (2x3yy. (100 + 2) (100 2). 47. a 2 8a6+166 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 49. + 3z) 2 2 . 17. 44. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . n*6n+9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 991 2 2 . 2 . 41 16. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 9 a2 . 16aW25. 40.998 39. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 15. 55. 38. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 103 36. 29. 24. 2 9a 496 2 56. 42. 11. m 2 16. 2 2 . 4 53. 33. 25 a 9. 51. By actual multiplication. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. The product of 57. ). .30 ab + 25 6 64. 998x1002. 31. (1000 2 . 48. a2 9.MULTIPLICATION 10. . 62 25n 2 . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 22. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 52. 22 2 . 7& ) 25. 99x101. 41. 14. 32. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 23. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 2 J ). a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 35. I) 2 . + 5). 18.
sum of the cross products. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 6. ) (2 of a polynomial. 7. 3. 9. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (4s + y)(32y). . 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 65. or The student should note minus signs. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 11. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (3m + 2)(ml).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (2a3)(a + 2). 14. plus the last terms. 2 10. The square 2 (a 4. 8. (5a4)(4al). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). : 25 2. 5. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). (5a64)(5a&3). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 13.& + c) = a + tf + c . ((5a? (10 12.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 4. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general.
3)(z. 12. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. Simplify (x + 6) (a .1 5 = 10 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) . a. 7.39. 4.[a? . and check the answers !. 5.8 x + 15] .i2&c) 2 .(>. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.X2 + 2 x . (a (. 4(* + 2)5(3).29.(= [ Xa + 2 . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 8. (xy+z)*. 6~2(a + 7). (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.5) = (7 . n). 3. . 66.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.(x . 2 2. 5.4) .4) . 6(a 2. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).24 . Check. = 10 x . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (  2 4) =  20 a. = .24] .39. 7. 4. + 6)( . 4(aj2)h3(7). 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. Find the square root 11. 6. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).3) (x .5). of z : 10. Hence. 4y sf n) 2 . after multiplying the factors of a term.(m 2 6.y? + 8 . Ex.r _ 2 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 3. If x = 1. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 8. 9. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. + 65) . 2)6. 13. (u4& + 3c'.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
18. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (81 m + 1 .e. . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .l. Division of the difference of two squares.2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2) (3 a . 51 15. a I. 19. . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 16. 20. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). v/17.11 a + 9 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.DIVISION 14.
0001.49. 1. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16 . aW 12 a. 9& 2 . 12. 100ry. r/ 1. . 10.000.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. . 4 b. f 13. 15. 121a a 16 100 11. 16. : the following w a 4 !. 14.
which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. 81. . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. the 80. Thus. hence it is an equation of condition. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. (a + ft) (a b) and b. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. in the equation 2 x 0. the first member is 2 x + 4. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. second member is x + 4 x 9. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. =11. x 20. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 82. .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. is said to satisfy an equation. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 83.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write .
2. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. called axioms 1. the quotients are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the products are equal. 89. A 2 a. 3. 90. one member to another by changing x + a=. If equals be added to equals. NOTE. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 2 = 6#f7. E.g. 5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 87. 86. a. . A term may be transposed from its sign. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. . the sums are equal.b. A numerical equation is one in which all . To solve an equation to find its roots. 4. Transposition of terms. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.2. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. x I. 85. but 4 does not equal 5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . If equals be multiplied by equals. the remainders are equal.e. If equals be subtracted from equals. the divisor equals zero. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.54 84. If equals be divided by equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.
9 y + y2 = 22 . Hence the answer.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. a= a 6fc. Unite similar terms.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 2(11 . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Ex. The second member. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. (4y)(6. x = 93. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 3 y .2 y= f . x = 3. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Uniting similar terms. Uniting. . The first member. a? Adding 5 to each term. f If y 20 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. is correct. Dividing by Check. To solve a simple equation. x = (Axiom 3) 92.2. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member. 91.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . b c. Transposing.6 y f y\ . 4x 1 + 6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. Check. and the known terms to the second.8. b Adding a to both + a. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Dividing both members by 2. if a x = b. if 55 x members. 2 x = 6.
7. 9 9a? = 7 13. + 16 = 16 + 17. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. aj * See page 264.56 Ex. x x 1 . 14. = 2 ?/. 4y 10.. .. If x = 18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. {(x (x The The member right member left . a. f Simplifying. 17 7 a. 4. 6. =2 = 3. : 5# = 15+2a.17 + 4y = 36. + 22. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 7a? 5. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 17 + 5a. Uniting. 4a + 5 = 29. . a?. and check the answers 9. 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 14y = 59(24y + 21). 7. 15. 22. Solve the following equations by transposing. a. 12. x = 18. 32 = 264.7a: = 394a. 11. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. = 3. a? a?. = 7. 8. 50. etc. 24. \x x 2^xfl. 13a? 3a?.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 3. 21. 2. 19. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 13 y 99 = 7 y. Transposing. 3 7 a. 11 ?/ a? 18. = 5a?+18. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. v23. 3. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 247y = 68lly.69. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 16. it NOTE. J. 7 (6 x 16).
+ 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. .5(2 u .g.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.1 0) = 0. (a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).(2 + 6) (4 . 34. 7(7 x y 26. 2 2 * Jaj. 27.32. 33. . 36. a? 28. 40.14 = 0. . 7) (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.7) (7 x + 4) . or 70 a?. 5) (as (a.4) + 4 w .3) . .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 29.5) + 199. . 39. this question. a? 43.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . + 4). Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. find the other part.3) + 14. . e.7.12) (2 + 5) . (aj 37. .3) + . + 7) (. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 31.1) (a (a? + 3) = . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 35. 30. 25.5) = (a. . 41. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.2) (M .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. (6 u =5 44. is the other part. 42. Evidently 45. 6(6a.1) (u . 38.
33 2. a. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 1. Ex. and the smaller one parts. 14. find the cost of one yard. one part equals is 10. so that one part The difference between is s. 11. EXERCISE 1. Divide 100 into two 12. is d. 13.58 Ex. 10. 3. greater one is g. or 12 7. one yard will cost 100 dollars. If 7 2. 4. 6. so that one part Divide a into two parts. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is a? 2 is c?. 9. Divide a into two parts. smaller one 16. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. Find the greater one. 15. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 5. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that of c ? is p. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. is b.
feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents has he ? 27. 28. How many cents had he left ? 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the has ra dollars. numbers is x. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 26. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 32. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B's age is y years. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 20. A man had a dollars. ?/ 31. 24. amount each will then have. 28. and spent 5 cents. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. If B gave A 6 25. 33. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. b dimes. and B has n dollars. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. Find 35. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. Find 21. and c cents. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. is A A is # years old. and B is y years old. A feet wide. 22. 19. How many years A older than is B? old. sum If A's age is x years. A dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 34.
" we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. find the fraction. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. m is the denominator. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. he walk each hour ? 39. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. a. per Find 5 Find 6 45. of m.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern is filled 43. Find x % % of 1000. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. % % % of 100 of x. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. .50. Find a. Find the number. A was 20 years old. The two digits of a number are x and y. of 4. 46. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find a 47. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. c a b =  9. The first pipe x minutes. 48. 49. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. . How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes.
5. 9. c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . The double as 7. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. The excess of a over b is c. c. of x increased by 10 equals x. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. same result as 7 subtracted from . double of a is 10. 2. by one third of b equals 100. etc. a exceeds b by c. 80. 4. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a and 10 equals 2 c. of a increased much 8. 3. 6. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or.
m is x % of n. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. they have equal of A's. pays to C $100. 14. a. >. of 30 dollars. amounts. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 12. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50.. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. x 4 If A. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. B. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 3 1200 dollars. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C's ages will be 100. B's. In 10 years the sum of A's. 11.000. and C's age 4 a. sum equals $20. B's age 20.62 10. symbols B. express in algebraic 3x : 10. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. is If A's age is 2 x. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 18. and C have respectively 2 a. as 17 is is above a. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. . they have equal amounts. x is 100 x% is of 700. (c) If each man gains $500. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 6 % of m. a. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 17. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. #is5%of450. a second sum. 50 is x % of 15.
denote the unknown 96. Transposing. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. etc. x = 20. Simplifying. 2. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. A will Check. x+16 = 3(35). 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. but 30 =3 x years. the . In order to solve them. Dividing. Let x = the number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. x= 15. 4 x = 80. Uniting. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. much as 40 exceeds the number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Ex. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Uniting. Transposing. 6 years ago he was 10 . 23 =30. 1. Three times a certain no. NOTE. 3z40:r:40z. be 30 . verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Ex. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. . the required . number. Find A's present age. In 15 years 10. Check. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. number of yards. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40.
47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. 14. 4. 300 56. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. % of 120.64 Ex. Forty years hence his present age. . Hence 40 = 46f. 11. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 13. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 120. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number.2. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. twice the number plus 7. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. exceeds the width of the bridge. 5. by as much as 135 ft. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Let x 3. Dividing. 3. A number added number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find 8. EXERCISE 1. Six years hence a 12 years ago.
while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. and as 15. written in algebraic symbols. A and B have equal amounts of money. Vermont's population increased by 180. and B has $00. Ex. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 97. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. 14.000. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. During the following 90 years. If A gains A have three times as much 16. the second one. . is the equation. The other verbal statement. F 8. 65 A and B $200. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Find the population of Maine in 1800. How many dol A has A to $40. One number exceeds the other one by II. The problem consists of two statements I. Maine's population increased by 510. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. statements are given directly. two verbal statements must be given. x. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. B will have lars has A now? 17. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. five If A gives B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. times as much as A. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. B How will loses $100. 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. If a problem contains two unknown quantities.000.
. B will have twice as many as A. 8 = 11. If A gives are : A If II. I. = 14. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. Dividing. unknown quantity in Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. has three times as many marbles as B. 25 marbles to B. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. x = 8. the greater number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. 2. the smaller number. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. Uniting. consider that by the exchange Hence. 8 the greater number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. x x =14 8. = A's number of marbles. Statement x in = the larger number. = 3. + a f f 8 = 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A gives B 25 marbles. A will lose. < Transposing. although in general the simpler one should be selected. to Use the simpler statement. B will have twice as viz. If we select the first one. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 14 I the smaller number. . The two statements I. Let x 3x express one many as A. which leads ot Ex. Then.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. and Let x = the Then x +. / . . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 2x a? x j = 6. x 3x 4 and B will gain. = B's number of marbles. terms of the other.
A's number of marbles. 1. greater is . x from I. have a value of $3. x = 15. Eleven coins.10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. * ' . consisting of half dollars and dimes. Uniting. 11 x = 5.240. of dollars to the number of cents. Simplifying.. Let 11 = the number of dimes. but 40 = 2 x 20. 15 + 25 = 40.. B's number of marbles. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.$3.75. 50 x Transposing. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. the number of half dollars.5 x . . The sum of two numbers is 42. then. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. the number of dimes. 60. and the Find the numbers. etc. by 44. 3 x = 45. x = 6.10. 3.. Find the numbers. .25 = 20. is 70.10. w'3. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. (Statement II) Qx . Two numbers the smaller. 6 times the smaller. 2. Dividing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). dollars and dimes is $3. The value of the half : is 11. Dividing. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 50. Uniting. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Simplifying. The number of coins II. Check. the price. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Find the numbers. Check. x = the number of half dollars.550 f 310. * 98. cents. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 40 x . 45 .
one of which increased by 9. A's age is four times B's. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. tnree times the smaller by 65. How many 14 years older than B. Twice 14. McKinley.000 feet. as the larger one. 5. United States. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 7. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10.68 4. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. How many inches are in each part ? 15. the number. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. Everest by 11. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 6. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Find their ages. and twice the altitude of Mt. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. How many hours does the day last ? . On December 21. How many volcanoes are in the 8. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. 9. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 11. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts..
then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. and 68. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. B has three times as much as A. number of dollars A had. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and C together have $80. III. If 4x = 24. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 1. = 48. II. they would have 3. B. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. Let x II. x = 8. has. . times as much as A. I. and B has three as A. B. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. number of dollars of dollars B C had. number had. are : C's The three statements A. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. bers is denoted by x. 19. If A and B each gave $5 to C. and C together have $80. The third verbal statement produces the equation. Ex. then three times the money by I. has. original amount.
x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x = 5. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 90 may be written. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and each sheep $ 15. + 35 x 4. number of cows. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. each horse costing $ 90. 1 1 Check. 28 2 (9 5). first. number of sheep. 2. the third five times the first. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. III. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Uniting. Let then. 9 cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. cows. and the sum of the . The I. and. sheep. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. x j = the number of horses. The total cost equals $1185. number of horses. 9 5 = 4 . according to II. three statements are : IT. number of cows. and Ex. = the number of dollars spent for horses. according to III. x Transposing. + 8 90 x and.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. x f 4 = 9. Dividing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 4 x f 8 = 28. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 185 a = 925. = the number of dollars spent for cows. each cow $ 35. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2.
If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. the copper.000. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. twice as old as B. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. equals 49 inches. If twice The sum the third side. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. The gold. A 12. 9. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.  4. what are the three angles ? 10. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. 13. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). increased by three times the second side. twice the 6. and 2 more men than women. and children together was 37. women. and the sum of the first and third is 36. New York delphia. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . what is the population of each city ? 8. the third 2. 7. how many children were present ? x 11. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. men.000. what is the length of each? has 3. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. first. v . first. "Find three is 4. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.
e. of 3 or 4 different kinds. After how many hours will they meet and how E. The copper had twice the value of the gold. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and distance. but stops 2 hours on the way. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Find the value of each.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 8 x = 15. we obtain 3 a.000 more than that the copper. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. width. First fill in all the numbers given directly. A and B apart. how many 100. 14. speed. 3 and 4. or time. and quantities area.g. number of hours. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Hence Simplifying. . 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. i. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000. = 35. = 5. such as length. number of miles A x x walks. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. Dividing. together. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. 7 Uniting.000. Let x = number of hours A walks.
$ 800 = 800.01 = = . 2   and transpose. the second 100.M(x . . . x + 200). x . 70x10 Ex. + 8. $ 800 = required sum. l. were increased by 30 yards. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%.053. or 700. original field has Check. 10 x = 200.05 x x . But 700 certain = 800 2. z = 20. The an area 40 x 20 =800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify." gives (2.04 = $ 40. the area would be 100 square yards less.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. and the width decreased by 10 yards. Multiplying. Transposing and uniting. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Find the dimensions of the field.06 = $ 40. x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. 2 a = 40. Check. $ 1000 x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.
but four men failed to pay their shares. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. twice as large. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. were increased by 3 yards. 1. as a 4. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A of each. and a second sum.55. 3. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. of coffee for $ 1. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %. sions of the field. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. invested at 5 %. 2. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. together bring $ 78 interest. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Ten yards $ 42. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. After how many hours will B overtake A. Find the share of each. Six persons bought an automobile. A man bought 6 Ibs. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. mobile. What are the two sums 5. the area would remain the same. and its width decreased by 2 yards. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A sets out later two hours B .
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. The distance from If a train starts at . but A has a start of 2 miles. After how many hours. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. and from the same point.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping.
An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. a. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. it is composite. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. this letter. f db 6 to b. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if it does contain some indicated root of . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. we shall not. 76 . at this 6 2 . An after simplifying. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. as. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . but fractional with respect 103.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a2 to 6. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 104. + 62 is integral with respect to a. irrational. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . vV . 6. it contains no indicated root of this letter . 5. a. consider 105. which multiplied together are considered factors. if. stage of the work. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise .
. 2.62 + &)(a 2 . Ex. Divide 6 a% . factors of 12 &V is are 3. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. It (a. 2. 8) (s1). ?/.) Ex.62 can be &). x.3 sy + 4 y8). 77 Factoring is into its factors. 107. in the form 4) +3. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. y.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . or that a = 6) (a = a . . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 109. for this result is a sum. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. it follows that a 2 . E.FACTORING 106. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 110. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .g. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. TYPE I. x. 01.3 6a + 1). 55.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2. 1. Factor G ofy 2 .
45 afy . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.3.4.51 aW + 68 21. 19.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 8. 3 2 .8 c a 15 ofyV . 7a & 10. 17. 12.2. 15 2 7. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 20. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. ) 22  2. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.30 aty. 11.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 4 8 .12 cdx. a6c. . 14. a a 'Ja . 4. q*q*q 2 a. obviously. 13. 16. 14a 4 5. 2 2 .51 x4 2 6 xy s .g. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. : 6 abx . 4 tfy f. .3. 2 + q. TYPE IT. 3 3 5 6.5 + 13 8. 2 Or. 7i 13. 34 a^c 8 . in general.5 + 2. Ilro8 9. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 18.6. (as 3) and (ccf5).4. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 15. e.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 32 a *?/ . 2 6. 5f 2 . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 2. + llm llm. 3. 2 23. 3x*6x*.
however.6 = 20. can be factored. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /.5) (a 6). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.4 .G) = . We may consider 1. If q is negative. . m 5m + 6.4 x . + 30 = 20. the two numbers have opposite signs. tfa2  3. + 112. If q is positive. 3.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. of this type. is The two numbers whose product and 6. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 4. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Factor x? .5) (a . 5. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. and (a . 79 Factor a2 4 x . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. Ex. Factor a2 . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Therefore Check.11 a 2 . or 77 l.77 = (a. Factor + 10 ax . as p. determine whether In solving any factoring example. Ex. or 7 11.a). If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.30 = (a . 77 as the product of 1 77. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. but of these only a: Hence 2 . a 2 .1 1 a tf a 4. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.11 a + 30. .11. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.FACTORING Ex. 11 7. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.11) (a + 7).. . 2. 2 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).
10 x y 2 200 x2 . ay 11 ay +24. 11. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 9. 13. 33. 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 35. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 21 a 2 2 .6. 32.17 + 30.70 x y . 29. 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 8. 21. ra + 25ra + 100. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 26. a? + 5 + 6 a.500 x + 600. 2 2 . + 4?/21. TYPE 113. 27. 31.48 + + 446 200. 15. 4 2 . 30. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. a2 . 18. 2 2 a' 34. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. + 44. . + 5<y 24. 19. ITT. 6 8 8 4 2 a. . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 20. 2 ?/ 28. 16. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 4 3 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. or . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 25. 2 ?/ 22. 17. 24. 16. 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 12. a 7 a 30. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 100 xr . + 30. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 14. . + 2xS.180 a. x2 23. 36.80 7. and 5 x. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x .
or G 114. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. the signs of the second terms are minus. sible 13 x negative. 9 x 6. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 27 x 2. 11 x 2x. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.5) (2 x . X x 18. 2. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 6 x 9. the If p and r are positive.83 x f 54. . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. Ex. 3 x and x. viz. 2 x 27.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. If p is poxiliw.1). all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and that they must be negative. 3. 54 x 1. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. but the opposite sign. then the second terms of have opposite signs. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. 18 x 3.5 . Factor 3 x 2 . a. and r is negative.
27). IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 18. 7.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 16. 11. 2 .260 xy . 32. 25. 2 .83 x . 10. 2 31. 21.y + 172/9. : 41 2.19 a f 6. 90 a 8 2 . 15. 3a + 13a.7. 2 2 2 23. and the monomial factors should be removed.30 y 6 4 .83 x = (3 . 30. 12. . 6. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. the expressions should be it.179. + 4. 29. 5m 26m f 5. 10 a . Sar' + SaG.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 13. 19. 2 26. 14. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 34. 10a?2 2 33. + 2/3.2) (x . 3x*Sx + 4. 100^200^ + 100^. 10a2 G a2 2 . 12y 2/6.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 9a. 2x* + 9x5.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 22. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 20. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 28. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 5. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 14 a fa 4. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. . . 9 y + 32^16. 8. f go. 144 x .163 x 2 . x54 a. 2 fc . 2. 2m t7w + 3. X 27 . 6n + 5?i4. 35. 4. since all others (II. 24. 12^17^16. 9. 3. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 4a2 9tt + 2.2 a 90 x*y . 17. 2 2 2 .
5.e. of its terms are perfect squares. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2. 13.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 9 10a625. it is a perfect square. 4.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. however. and a perfect square. 116. i. . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 11. it is more convenient for that type. form are special cases of the preceding type. 3. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . 8. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 25 7. must have a positive sign. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. .10 x f 16. 10. 12. 14. 9. and factor whenever possible : 1. x* .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 6. 16 y? The student should note that a term. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 2 . square. 2 2 . connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 .
: 43 tfy\ a 9. +( )f816 30.84 15. 9. 36 2 4. 1. 16&*. a2 24. 2 . 2 20. a. 149 a 81 8. 225 ofy . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 3. 6. 48 a +( ). 9a2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 2 . TYPE 117. . a. 6 2 . Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. + GO + 25. 7. 27.3 * ). According to 65. 10 a 2 4 2 .e.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 22. . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 18.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 19.6 m* + 9 m. 17. ^//c to the Ex. 2 . 5. 4a2 l. 2. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 26. aV . ). V.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 25.60 a# + 4. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 2. 4 2 23. . prime. !Gar 9 ( )+25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 29. ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.20 ab + 10 b a . product i. ). a4 a2 2 f 6 is .2 ofy + ofy m .64 6 = 16(a . 16. * 2 .
d) 2 . 5. 8. 2. a2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 11. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(I) . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 13. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .(c 4. 9. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . of polynomials. 36> . Factor a 2 . One or both terms are squares 1.c . (m7?) y. Ex. 2 . 16p 2 . 2. a:) 12.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 14. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Ex. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 4. T. 6. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .FACTORING 85 118.
8.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. After grouping tain a the terms. 10.ab + bx.a a .r.7 c + 2c . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 2. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.14. 5. 9. A. 1. + x + 2x + 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. . 6. Ex. x8 . 4:cx . Ex. . 4 B. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. ive find that the new terms con common factor. which may be factored according to types I. a5 + ab 6 .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.2 ) (3 x . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.1. By grouping. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 5) . 3.and trinomials. 12.VI. 7. = (3 x + y . the expression becomes the difference of two squares. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.y + 2 2). a 26 2 2 3 . a? 11. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 119. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. ma ?*a + m& nb.
w m 2. Arranging the terms. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. IV. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. + 2xy + y*q*. 5. 36 9 m . 3.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . $ a8 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. 8ra 2 + 16. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. : 46 x* 2. = (a + 6)(a6). SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 12a2 + 6.FACTORING Ex. . 6 6. 2 7. First find monomial factors common to all terms. : m 2 2 16.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 4 a2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 .4 f . 2. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. II.12 aaj 4 6y. .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 8.l. 2a3/ 7.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 4. 6. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 8. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 4.
310 x . 27.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. + 6 aft + 3 . 24. 11. (a. 48. 35. 12.24. 42 x . 4 a. 3 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. or 3 7#2 . 25 a + 25 aft . 19.40. 32. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.13 c . a6 36. 29. 4 8 tt 2 z . 28. 5a' 20. 30. 3 41. 18. a5 a 1 4 2 39. a3 156. 13 c . 42 s 2 . 2 a 128. 13. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 22. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 80 a 2 ft 38. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . + 14. 2 17.156. (^ 34. 2 ft . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 5 a. 3 2 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 14. 40. a + a + a + l. 50^ + 45. a. . 3 a2 23.88 10. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.
C. C. F. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 15 aW. C. 25 W. 2. The H. The H. C. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. aW. II 2 . Thus the H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. Two common factor except unity The H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F. 12 tfifz. of a 7 and a e b 7 . EXERCISE Find the H. C. F. are prime can be found by inspection. 122. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of 6 sfyz. C. 3. 6. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 8 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of two or more monomials whose factors . 5. The highest is common factor (IT.  23 3 . of the algebraic expressions. 5 2 3 . C. 5 s 7 2 5. 5 7 34 2s . of : 48 4. F. . F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 2 2 . 54  32 . 3 . of aW. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 24 s .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 89 . 121. F. C.) of two or more . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The student should note H. F. C. C.
3 . 12. 2 . ^f a. of + 4 if.5 y). 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 12 . 4(m+l) 3 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . F. 1. . F.90 7. 3^ 2 4 . 24 a 2 . 10. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . aWd. 15. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 225 4a 9 . 25 m27i. .8 a + 16. Find the H.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 52 oryz4. F. = x 2 y. F. 12.5 + 6.12 as 66 . 12 w*nw 8.6 a&. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 0^80:416. 3. C. x* x2 Hence the H. 57 a>V. of: .5 x3?/ 2 6. 2 . 6 3 a. 95 2/V. Ex. a3 9a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . C. 8(?/ifl) 14. . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 16 a . 1. 2a f5af 2. 8. 8 6. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0.# 4 afy f 4 . ^707 + 12. 9 aj*(a? . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .y) 123.^9. 16. and apply the method of the preceding article. a3 16 a. a2 + 7af!2. a 3a4. (a7 ?/) . a. . 49 C. 15 3ao. 10. 8 a 10 . 6 a2 y? .y) . .6 . a2 . 6(m+l) (m+2). 9. 2. ^2 2 . 6 mx . 7.2 y) (a. a2 + 2a3.2 ?/) (x .6. 13. 11.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 38 #y. 8. 13. 65 zfyV.?/ . 4 ?io.y + y42. . 2 . 9. a2 ar* 4. 5. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. C. of polynomials. 14. ^a + 5^ + 6. To find the H. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). y + 3y64. 3). 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .
6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 126. NOTE. C. C. C. Ex. M. C. L. of the general. M of the algebraic expressions. ory is the L. etc. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . of 3 aW. To find the L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M.M. which also signs. M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . M. &) 2 M.C. M. Find the L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 128. two lowest common multiples.M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. 300 z 2 y. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. . C. Hence the L. M. 60 x^y' 2 . .6 3 ).) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 2. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. thus. Find the L. M. but opposite . The lowest common multiple (L. A common remainder. Ex. C. M. The L.6)2. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C. 127. C. each set of expressions has In example ft).C. 2 The The L.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of tfy and xy*. a^c8 3 . Common 125. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. 1.
M. a. 4 a 5 6cd. a 2 f 4 a +4. 24. 14. + 6. or f 3 a 15 #. b 2 . a2 ~ab 1. ic 23. 4 a . a. . Find the L. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a { a~b. ) . 6. 4 a f 2. ic 2 ?/. G a. 15. 13. a. 40 abJ. a !. 2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 22. a 1. 1. 2 7ic+10. 17. 2(m 2 . f b. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. + 2 7i) . a 2 fa6.1. 3. 20 9 a. 3 f2. 7. 2 10. 8. 2 . . a^1. (For additional examples see page 268. 3. of: 4. 2 . x* ~5a. y*. T a 3 a 2 . 24 x. 6 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. x2 + 4 a f 4. 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. x 2 5 a. a f 2 19. 18. 16. 5. 6b 2 . 11. #. a& 4 +& 2 . 2 a . 3 6 xif.f 6. 5 a? 5 a? y. 30 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. 3 Z> . afc'cd 2 . afy. 2 a . 6 y. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 3 ab. 2 x \2 y. 9. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 3(a + b). 21. 8 d 5 . 8 afy. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . a 2 a3 .1. a?b. xy\ . 2 a. by. + 2. a2 4. 3 . 20. a f 3.
All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Remove tor. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. an indicated quotient. Ex.ry ^ by their H. a?. F. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. 130. rni Thus 132. A f fraction is b. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . as 8. successively all 2 j/' . however. but we In arithmetic. 131.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. C. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. a b = ma mb . and denominators are considered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Thus. etc. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .
Ex. . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 2. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.4) Ex. 3. and cancel all factors that are common to both. cancel factors only. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.
* OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 19. nx 17. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 23. """.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . LJZJ^JL. ^' rt ^  31. ny 4 18. . 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 5^10 y 30. .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . g J 21. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.7 . 29.10 a + 3 2 14. 11 ^ Mtr f . ^+3*.. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.' 32. 16. ^" a.*. . ' ^ . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 9x + "a" 10.
C. take the L. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. TheL. we may extend this method to integral expressions. 1. multiplying the terms of 22 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. . M.3) (!)' = . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.D. of the denominators for the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z. C.  of //* 2 .C. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . C.M.  by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x.r 2 2 . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . we have the quotients (x 1). by the denominator of each fraction. + 3). 1). . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. we have M^. ^ to their lowest com The L. Divide the L.1^22 ' . mon T denominator. Reduce ^. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Ex. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 2> . and 6rar 3 a? kalr .M. and 135. and (a 8).by 3 ^ A 2 ' .96 134. and the terms of ***.
bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2 ay IB. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).^1. 5?. i. 7i 2 ab* ". 18. j y 3. o o a. 3. JL.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . 22 a2 5a * . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2aj ~ . common denominator 6.. 2. . .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . a? 1 5 > ^* .oj o* or / .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. If the given fractions have different denominators. 74). 8 i i.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 137.
g. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .ft)(a . the student should remember that parentheses are . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138... T? Ex. The L. in the beginning. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . 2.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. 4(2 a 3 ft).7 . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (a . (a ft). L. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. ft). (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.ft) (a ft ft)~. D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . and adding. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .2 ' 2 _.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . C.aft) Ca2 . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). D. ^ is 2^JT) . as 4 aft f. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 ft 2).3 ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).(a 2 6).3 . e.2 = a(a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . 2 ^.
23. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. + . 46 2a 4a 12. a 36 ++. A+2_3. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. + a "" 2 6 ' .5 18 ^4f25. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 20. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. 2. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 15. j>0 i> 21. 6 c 3a 7. 18 v 19. 1 1 f w 16. 1 f q * 1 m m . 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. a+6 a 6 2 14. 24.
! n. a.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 1 34. a 4 31. ic 1 + 1. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 2 af1 32. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 42. _ + a? ?/ + y. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a ?^ 40. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 41.9. af 1f /j. 3a 9 +. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 30.9 79 6 2 i.
17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. 101 mixed expression.  . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 + 4x 4 x2 .  4 or 3 2a. . Reduce . . T. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.
Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.) Ex. 2 a Ex. multiply the 142. we may extend any e. !. 2.g. (In order to cancel common factors. Since  = a. fractions to integral numbers. F J Simplify . or. integer.
14.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 ..6 12 d6 4. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 50 .. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 f 5 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. .
The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Divide Xn?/ . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 1. 8 multiply the Ex.
^c 2 2 . ga2 4 8 5 a . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. a a2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.6 s + 064. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. are fractional.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.10 ?/ _.afr 4. or both.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . c ab 2 4 &c* & a . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. l.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.FRACTIONS 105 . Ex. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .5 ??i 80 50 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.
6. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). the answer is directly obtained.y 32 . . Ex. . y X 4* 2 y 3.a ^c c _^ a . i. 2. n a 8. & . x* 4. . . Simplify x }. M. 10.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 7i+~ 7. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . JL. 9. a m "" . of their denominators. C. c +6. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.
m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15.) . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. sy 18. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : .
Bx 12 Qx. 4 4)  x. 2 3. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 108 .1. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.f3# + C:E=6f7212.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.8 x = . 2z2a. of the denominator. each member is reduced to Ex. a. 9x x Check.48.42 + 9. Transposing. M. If x 6. Uniting. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).14 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 1. = 6.28 a = 5 x2 .9 x2 + 9. C. 2x Transposing. 148. 2.l)(z + 3) = . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. If = 64. each member is reduced to 1. . tions. = 6. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. + 1) (a + 3) . Clearing of fractions. these Ex. 5(3 85 Check. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). x = 6. Uniting.28 x + 42 = .
a: 7 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a. ^1 = 9. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. . 15. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.= 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16. '  4 13. +1 = 5. 18. 1 *> = 2. . +4 14. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.1 _77 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^' 2.
?_=_. 31 31. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. y+3~2 29.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 27 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. . J_._ _ .11_4 x 149. . 26 26. 4a4l4* + l~. If two or more denominators are monomials. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 25. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 33. 32 6 .  38 = 40. 3x 35.
26 a. If a. each member is reduced to ^. 24 a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 5# 10. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.2 3 ~  == 7a.29 50712' 9 18 . M.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and uniting. the 1 5 L.. 60.2 42 9 43. 1. . Dividing. = 9. Check. a.1. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .  5 = 20 x 45. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. C. 5x x : = 9.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.
ax f x f.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).2 ac + 3 aft . .m bx 2 mn) x. 5> a. Uniting the Dividing. It frequently occurs that the x.1. jr. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.be. Ex. fr Reducing lowest terms. = = 6 6c 7 6c. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. f ~ 5c. Thus. = 6 a2 . they are united by factoring. find a in terms of b and c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Ex.2 62 2 ab. a. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . y. 4 ac 1.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Dividing. Uniting. = 2 f b 2 . =a 2 151.3 6 2 = a' . 2. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. = l^ 9 b 4 . If 3ac L= = a ? .& .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.
If ^^ = a 1 32.= n. in terms of other quantities.= H. rate. 5) is t =^.a. and n the number of years. = 8 4 #. 29. . r the number of $>. 3(* 8. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. mx = n. c 18. The The i time. m a? x . c. . 4. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 34. 12. 3. = rt. 2 solve for y a. + 3a. 6. 10. f ^o. ^ ax a^ 26. a. If * 33. + xx = 1. = 5. co?. solve for a. t. 30. 31. _ 2. . . If s (wi n) x =px + q. 9.i l . iw 21. = vt. q solve for/. 15. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. s = Vt solve for v. 11. denoting the interest. = 3 (6 a). 17. solve for . p the principal. Ex. IIL n b + &o. If s If 16. 1 f. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.= c a Z> .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. f P =+!. 4. 14. * Solve the same equation for^). 13.
1. 2.180. . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2 3 . is 36. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. then = 2 TT#. Multiplying by Dividing. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 12. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. Ex..minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. = 16^.20 C. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.114 35. . of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Find R in terms of C and TT. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 100 C. x Or Uniting..
180 Transposing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Clearing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. or 1J. 32 x = ." : Let x  = the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. in Then Therefore. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Ex. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the rate of the express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. 4x = 80. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = 100 + 4 x. and the statement. Solving. 3. the required number of days." gives the equation /I). Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.
its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. by 3. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. How did the much money man leave ? 11. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. is equal 7. and J of the greater Find the numbers. which was $4000. by 6. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. to his daughand the remainder. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15.  Find their present ages. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. ex What 5. and one half the greater Find the numbers. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. money and $10. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ceeds the smaller by 4. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. is oO. make 21. 3. and 9 feet above water.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. to his son. Find A's 8. length in the ground. and of the father's age.
) 22. 1. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. ^ at 5%. investments. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 152. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. How much money $500? 4%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. . A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. air. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. what is the 14. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. Ex.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and it B in 6 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B in 4 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. 2. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 3. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152.
6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. 26. they can both do in 2 days. and n = 3.g. A in 4. therefore. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.009 918. is 57. . Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. we obtain the equation m m . 3. A in 6.414. n x Solving. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. B in 16. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. m and n. A in 6. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 12. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. is 42. To and find the numerical answer. Ex. Then ft i. e. if B in 3 days. 2. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. Hence. B in 5. B in 30. . The problem to be solved.= . 25. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.e. and apply the method of 170.118 153.
. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 34. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. squares 29. the rate of the first. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. is ?n . d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 33. (c) 16. respectively. Find the side of the square. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. : (c) 64 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 2 miles per hour. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. (d) 1. meet. Two men start at the first miles apart. 5 miles per hour. (b) 149. is (a) 51. 3J miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. The one: 31. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. same hour from two towns.001. respectively (a) 60 miles. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. After how many hours do they meet. 3 miles per hour. squares 30.721.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and the second 5 miles per hour. the second at the apart. (b) 35 miles.000. and the rate of the second are. if m and n are. 4J miles per hour.
.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. The first 156.5. the denominator The the 157. a ratio is not changed etc. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. the symbol being a sign of division." we may write a : b = 6. antecedent. " a Thus. : : 155. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. 1. In the ratio a : ft. 6 12 = .g. b. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. 158. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. Ex. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. the second term the consequent. the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . is numerator of any fraction consequent. b is the consequent. E. etc. Simplify the ratio 21 3. b.
In the proportion a b : = b : c. and c. 10. 4:5f : 5. 3:4. Transform the following unity 15. 8^ hours. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3. 16. J:l. 11. b and c the means. 3 8. 159. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 3:1}. two  ratios. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 5 f hours : 2. 9. extremes. b. 61 : ratios 72:18. 4. proportional between a and c. 18. 17. 62:16. 12. Simplify the following ratios 7.RATIO Ex. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. a and d are the extremes. and c is the third proportional to a and . : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : ay . terms. 7f:6J. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 16a2 :24a&. 6. 1. equal 2. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. The last first three. : 1. $24: $8. 27 06: 18 a6. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. b is the mean b. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 7:4 T T 4 .
If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.e.) mn = pq. : c. 3 4. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ad = be. briefly. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. 6 ccm. and the time necessary to do it. Hence the number of men required to do some work.__(163. ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.122 162. The mean proportional of their product. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.30 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 163. 2 165. " we " NOTE. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. = 30 grams 45 grams. of a proportion. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. 163. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. In any proportion product of the extremes. of iron weigh . !. 164. then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. : : directly proportional may say. are : : : inversely proportional. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. If (Converse of nq. Clearing of fractions. of iron weigh 45 grams. q~~ n . and the other pair the extremes. i.) b = Vac. pro portional.
if 6 : 7. 12x Hence a? = 42.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be.) = f f = 3 J. ad ( 163.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 1. + b:b = c + d:d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. (Composition. d d. is 4$ = 35. a III. . (Frequently called Inversion. I. ad = be. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. then =d c. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. hence the proportion true. (Division. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. 166. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. (163. a:c=b:d.PATIO Ex.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) (Called Alternation.) d 167. bd bd. V. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. 2. is Ex. Or IV. = 35 . I.) II.
= ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. To simplify m 3n ? = + *.124 IT. 9. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 8. = 7:2f 3J. = 2:3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. E. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. : 3 = 5 f x : x. x = 2. = 12 5ft. Simplify the following proportions. 4. mx tin Apply composition and division.!=!*. 6 =4 : x. = 2:x. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 120:42 2 2 7. . 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. . 5 5. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 3. = 20:7. Or III. Apply composition. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. : x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. the consequents by 7.e. 2. V. 10.g. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 180:125. 5. i. IV.
6x = 7y. 5= 18 a? : a?.x: 6:5 a : x. 35. 1 and a. 9 x = 2 y. 27. = 3 43 + x. 112:42 = 10:a.j>. rap. f. mx = ny. b.:ff.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. a 2 and ab.8:1. 7iy = 2:x. 20. : a2 . (a : : 45. 4. 18. 14 and 21. and 2/. . 39. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. ra + landra 1. ratio of y. 6. 47. 22. to: = 35:*. 17. 4 and 16. a. 12. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 3. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. to : a and 1. 2.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. x:5 = y:2. 2 3 = y #. 21. if : 40. 46. 42. 6 x = y.  32. = 15o. 3t. 51. ra 2 . 5. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 13. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 25. Find the third proportional 24. 2 a and 18 a. w. : 53. : . to : 9 and 12. + fyx = cy. 3. 34. 31. Find the 37. = 5 x 12. 52. 03:a?=135:20. 2= 5 x x. 2. 1. = l^:18. 16. 44. 28. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 43. 16 and 28. a?:15 15. = 2 + x: x. 29. 50.. Find the mean proportional 30. 41. 33. rag. terra 2:3 = 4. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. x m = y n. 14. 26. ra. 23. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 38. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96.
and the : total cost. and the area of the rectangle.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. the squares of their radii (e) 55. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 56. 57.126 54. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the time necessary for it. and the time. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the area of the larger? the same. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 7^. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). what 58. and the speed of the train. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? .
7 x = 42 is the second number.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. AB = 2 x. 4 inches long. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. produced to a point C. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Let A B AC=1x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. is A line AB. so that Find^K7and BO. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 11 x x 7 Ex. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. x=2. x = 6. : Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. = the second number. 18 x = 108.000 168. 11 x f 7 x = 108. . it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 2. 2 x Or = 4.
7. What are the parts ? 5. 13. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 12. and c inches. 14.000. and 15 inches. 3. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.) . : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How The long are the parts ? 15. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 2. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.000 square miles. : 197. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How many gen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. 11. Gunmetal tin. 9. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How many 7. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 6. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 12. : 4.
=. However. there is only one solution. such as + = 10.. x = 1. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.y=. 2 y = .e. Hence. a? (1) then I. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. expressing a y. The root of (4) if K 129 . If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. etc. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y = 1.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. is x = 7.L x If If = 0. values of x and y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. if . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.
cannot be reduced to the same form.24. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 3. ~ 50. 26 y = 60.130 170. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. the last set inconsistent. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Substitution. unknown quantity. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). 4y . By By Addition or Subtraction. y I 171. for they express the x f y 10. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. Therefore. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The first set of equations is also called consistent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 21 y . 172. 174. and 3 x + 3 y =. y = 2.X. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. to The two methods I. of elimination most frequently used II. 6x . are simultaneous equations.26. viz. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. same relation.3 y = 80. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. E. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . = .
add the equations. 10 + 5 1 = 135.3 1 = 47. Therefore Check. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 8 2. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 60 . subtract the equations.3 y = 47. 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 37. 3y = 3. 25 x . are like. Check.14 =8. 64 x = 040. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. x = 10. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 10 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. 3. = 235. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. y = 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 5 13 . Transposing. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. + 2. y = 1. whose coefficients In general.2 = 6. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).
7 ' 1fi fl .9 *. 9 1 r 20.3. * + 3 y = 50. = 6. [2o. 19< I a. ] ^ .v 23. I i 3 a. 13 61 l7a. = 24. 13. J I y = 1U.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. = 41.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. f 3X 7x 14. O t K 8. I oj 5y = 17. ' 12.f2/ ' = 50. _.5 y = 2. f 3# ?/ = 0. . v ^ = ll. I ~ y~~> 22. i 3. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3. x 11. + 2/ 17.4. I .
. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. x ) ^"" 13. = 4#8. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 60. (1) (2) Transposing 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 8. = 13.
f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. however. From 9 = 36. 2 y = . + 212y4 = 14. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14.3. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. x = l.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.6)7(y7)==18. 3 (1) Ex. (4). Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 7x_2y=3. 4* + 3y = 19. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (7) (7) (8) . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 29 x = 29. 21z6y=9. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 3. simplified before elimination is possible.
. +y 2 .1) = 121. .1) + 5(6 y . 16. 10 2a?5 17.f2 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 10. J 9. 12. 4 11. . = 3. a. yM a. 14. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.
In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.and x y . and y. <X + 20. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. . * ((* (( . e. ?~y . but some expressions involving x. 3x\" 1 23 24. {. 180.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 22.Q ^ 4 21. f y .#.
. (2) (3) a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 1. etc. can also be solved Examples method. 15 y + 8 x . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). y 4. y. x 2x(2). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. .3 xy. 137 Solve y y (1) . 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1). Therefore y=4. 33 = 11 x. of this type. 2* * x 2. x 3. (4) + (G). Clearing of fractions. however.4 x = 4 xy. Dividing by 11 3 = #.
. y MOi y a. x 8. Ex. 253 7. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x y 5. 1. n.= 5. x y 331 9. 4 13. 6. = en. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4).= o 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 21 9 . 10 " 12 25 U y 6.
x a. ax + by = 2 a&.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. apan cm. . fax f = l.y = = 9a + 46. 14. a Find a and terms of n. d. Dividing. x 12. bmy bm}y ap cm. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. w. f 5. 6. W . s in 11. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. ap. and I if 13. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.W. d. . x f my = 1. ny = fy/ I sc 1. From the same equations find s in terms of a. Uniting.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. and I.
4. 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 1. 8 x .140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. l. x + 12 y .2 + 3.15z=12 Adding. To solve equations containing By tions. 3y = Hence Check. 182. y =* 2. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. .by 2. 1.2 + 4. (8) 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.3=4. 6. = 30.12 y + 6 z = . Ex. ties are Similarly.8 = 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 20. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8. by 3.lf> z .1+4.25.3 = 8.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 3. 4.16. (4) (5). 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). etc. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.13. = 3.
2 . 2 4. + 2 y f 2 = 35. a? + 709 = 26. 2z = 40. 7. 49.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. + y f z = 15. a? 11. x 13. ~6?/ 5. f 2 i/ f z = 14. == 6. 10. 15 2 = 45. k 2/ f 2 x a. 12. 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 4 = 42.
2 a. . 32.42 = 2. (3 _. 23. 84 21. ^ = 2.3 y + . 19. 60. = 5. ? = llz. 22. 16. =s 20. . = 8*. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.6 2. .. 4. ?/ 3x = 0. 1510 4 17.
= l. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. 1. however. . y * z 30.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 2 = 6. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the number. Obviously of the other . The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . 1 = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + z = 2p. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. x : z =1 : 2. ( 99. and if 396 be added to the number. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. Check. z + x = 2 n. symbols: x + y +z 8. y 31. # 4. either directly or implied. M=i. and to express In complex examples. Find the number. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Ex. 1 digit in the tens place.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. +2+ 6 = 8. . the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = 2 m. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 2 = 1(1+6). as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. + 396 = 521.
x 3x4y = 12. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 5_ _4_ A. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. x 3 = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Or (4)2x(3). ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 2. 3. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 4 x = 24. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 2. = 8. . B. Ex. Since the three men traveled the same distance. = Hence the fraction is f. x y = the = the x denominator . (1) (2) 12. 3+1 5+1 4_2. C.144 Ex. we obtain. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. = the fraction. Find the fraction. 6 x 4 = 24. increased by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. xy a: 2y 4y 2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. direction. the distance traveled by A. y = 3.
The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. the number (See Ex. the fraction is reduced fraction. 6. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. ? What 9. 5. If 9 be added to the number.) added to a number of two digits. 183. number by the first 3. Find the number. and the numerator increased by 4. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 1. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the fraction equals . and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the numbers. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the numbers. to the number the digits will be interchanged. 7. . Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. 2. Find the number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If the denominator be doubled. and its denomi nator diminished by one. fraction is reduced to \. If 27 is 10. its value added to the denominator. A fraction is reduced to J. both terms. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the digits will be interchanged. part of their difference equals 4. the last two digits are interchanged. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the fraction. the Find the fraction.}. added to the numerator of a fraction. and the fourth 3. Find the numbers. tion ? 8. the value of the fraction is fa. it is reduced to J.
What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. now.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11.grams. 12. . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 14. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. How 6 %. A sum of $10. and money and 17. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.000 is partly invested at 6%. in 8 years to $8500. and partly at 4 %. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 4 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. respectively ? 16. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. partly at 5 %. the rate of interest? 18. 19. and in 5 years to $1125. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. the annual interest would be $ 195. A man invested $750. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find the rates of interest. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find their present ages. 13. 5 %.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. A farmer sold a number of horses. and their difference by GO . Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. Find their rates of walking. B find angles a. . BC=7. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. the three sides of a triangle E. then AD = AF. E. and $15 for each sheep. ED = BE. 1 NOTE. for $ 740. and F. and F '(see diagram). BD = HE. what is that = OF. 23. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. angle c = angle d. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. andCL4 = 8. An C touch ing the sides in D. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. three AD = AF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. the length of NOTE. and e. and sheep. and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. . 24. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. c. 25. is the center of the circum scribed circle. but if A would double his pace. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. receiving $ 100 for each horse. cows. and CE If AB = G inches. points. and GE = CF. On /). and angle BCA = 70. are taken so ABC. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. respectively. BE. and AC = 5 inches. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. $ 50 for each cow. BC = 7 inches. and angle e angle/. triangle Tf AD.
3). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. It' Location of a point. YY' theyaxis. or its equal OM. B. 2). and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and point the origin. and r or its equal OA is . The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. is the abscissa. PN are given. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. PM. is The point whose abscissa is a. first 3). (3. the ordinate of point P. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). jr. ?/. (7. Thus the points A. and PJ/_L XX'.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184.. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. (2. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 186. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. the ordinate by ?/. (2. The of Coordinates. . PN. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/).
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point.(!. (5. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. . What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (0. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. i. Plot the points: (4. 0). (4.) EXERCISE 1. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. and measure their distance. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 11. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187.and(l.3). (See diagram on page 151. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (4. 4). Plot the points : (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. which of its coordinates known ? 13.1). 0). 4. 6. (4. whose coordinates are given NOTE. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 0). 2. (0. (4.e. (4. 3). 2). (2. 2J). 2).2). 4). 3). 1). 8. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 12. (4. 0). Graphs. 3). 3. 1). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (1. . What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points (6. (3. 71 2). 4) and (4. !). 6. 4) from the origin ? 7.4).
and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. however. from January 1 to December 1. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. D. Thus the first table produces 12 points. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. By representing of points.. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 10 . we meas1 . 1. C. ure the ordinate of F. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. may be found on Jan. B.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. A. 15. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. or the curved line the temperature. . 188. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .
(b) July 15. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages. the merchant. the matics. (d) November 20. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Whenever a clear. uses them. (c) January 15. the graph is applied. as the prices and production of commodities. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. physician.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. and to deduce general laws therefrom. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. etc.
During what months above 18 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season.152 2. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. ?  3. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . During what month does the temperature change least? 14.. 1 to Oct. When the average temperature below C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is 10. 1? 11 0. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. on 1 to the average. How much. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.. ? 9. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (d) 9 0.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.
in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. One meter equals 1. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Hour Temperature .09 yards.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. a temperature chart of a patient. NOTE. Draw . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 20. Draw a graph for the 23. transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21.
. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. then C irJl. A 10 wheels a day. . represent his daily gain (or loss). 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 29. function If the value of a quantity changes. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 3. 28. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 26. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. if he sells 0. the daily average expenses for rent. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 3. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. e. and $. the value of a of this quantity will change.5 grams.50. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.g.inch. 2. 1 to 1200 copies. x 7 to 9. binding. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 9. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. books from for printing. if each copy sells for $1.154 24. 190.50. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2 .) T circumferences of 25. gas. x* x 19. 4. to 27. amount to $8. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. etc.
however. 1 the points (3. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . for x=l. 3 (0. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (1^. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.2 x may 4 from x = 4. may . (1. to x = 4. 9). 2 (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. (2. may. etc. If a more exact diagram is required. Draw the graph of x2 f. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 3 50. Graph of a function.1). ( 2. E. The values of func192. be also represented by a graph.g. it is In the example of the preceding article. 2.0). x a variable. a*. plot points which lie between those constructed above.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Ex. 4). Q. J). and join the points in order.e. construct '. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. . is supposed to change.1). while 7 is a constant. as 1. and (3. 2). 9). 4).
(3. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.20). 194.4). 2. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus 4x + 7. Thus in the above example. (2. (4.. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. = 4. j/=3. 2 4 and if y = x f. etc. 5). and join(0. as y.2 x . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.) For brevity.. 4). straight line produces the required graph. . y = 6. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. Ex. r */ +* 01 . 7 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 4J. rf 71 . 1). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. = 0. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.
2J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. the function. 2 2 a. y = 2x = 4.e. 5. + 4. . 1J. 1 8 10. from x VlO'S". 4a? I. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2.or. The values of a?. (C ) (2. J. 2 2. 3. if a. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 9. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 23x. 14. 2 or 2 20. 2 a. 2 a. a. a* 13. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 6 fa. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (7i) (c) 23. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0.5)2. fa 17. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.8)'. . 2J. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 16. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 7. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. = 4.5)2. if"a. 3. a?. i. xl. 4 a. if the function equals zero. 3 a 8. xz + x. (ft) (_ 1. 12.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. a? 2 4. if y = 2. a? 1. x+1. 18. 1. 21. ?/ a. a ar. The values of a*. 2x + 3x a?. 22. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 1J. 15. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. Jar . The smallest value of the function. 8.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. l. 6. 1J. 19. (If) Va25. = The values of a*. 11. 2.
y= formula graphically. 1 C. . that graph with the o>axis. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. 14 F.where x c is a constant.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 25. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.24.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Therefore x = 1.24 or x = P and Q. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. C. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. then cXj where c is a constant. 9 F.. i. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 32 F. Show any convenient number).158 24. the abscissas of 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. Represent 26. then y = .e. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.
Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (a) x2 = 0. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. crosssection paper is used. 2 and 1. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 13. 6. 10. a2 2a. 11. 12. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. + + = where a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. is called a quadratic equation. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 8. . 14. 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. = 0. viz. 3. 197. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 7. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. Such equations in general have two roots. (a) (6) 9. 6. 4. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. (0. or 5 2.7 2 a 5 = 0.f 9 = 0.
If x = 0. Ex. Ex. i. (f . y= A and construct x (  graphically. unknown quantities. locate points (0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . X'2 Locating the points (2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 3x _ 4 . solve for ?/.e. 1) and 0). produces the 7* required locus. 4) and (2. if y = is 0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. because their graphs are straight lines. y y 2.2 y ~ 2.2. 2). . Hence if if x x  2. 0). ?/. == 2. and joining by a straight line. = 0. and join the required graph. NOTE. 199. T . ?/ =4 AB. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. fc = 3. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Hence. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. first degree.1. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Hence we may join (0. y = l.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. 4) and them by straight line AB (3.
201. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. equation x= By measuring 3. AB y = . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). viz. Graphical solution of a linear system. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 3. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. 202.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. and CD. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. To find the roots of the system. (2) . 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). we obtain the roots.57. linear equations have only one pair of roots.15. P.1=0.
(2. 4. the point we obtain Ex. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. and . and joining by a straight line. 3.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 2. (4. if x equals respectively 0. Inconsistent equations. The equations 2 4 = 0.g. i.. Locating the points (5. 4. Solving (1) for y. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.5.0). 5. 1. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. . we of the + y* = 25. 1. y equals 3. 4.e. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 0. 4. 4. In general. they are inconsistent. the graph of points roots.9. (1) (2) C. e. 0. Locating two points of equation (2). V25 5. 3x 2 y = 6.5. x2 . etc.  4. (4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 2. 3. Measuring the coordinates of P. intersection. 3). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 5. = 0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Using the method of the preceding para. 2 equation x 3). Since the two  we obtain DE. 4.y~ Therefore. 4. 0) and (0. P graphs meet in two and $. 3.0. AB the locus of (1). and + 3).
state reasons.. 7. \ 2x + 3^ . . y= a2 2x y6. x~y=0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 9. 16 23. a+r/=6. if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 10. 5. 2x 3?/=6. '163 Dependent equations. the graphs of the following systems. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 20. Draw system. 4. and. y = 4. 8. 2. and solve each If there are no solutions. y=x + 5. a. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 19. 17. y 2 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. vice versa. 6. 3. 16 22.
14 y = . 26. TABLE OF SQUARES. CUBES.y). 3 31. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 4 a = 3(6 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 28. 25.8. 30.164 24.
powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. on to in factors 4. According to 1. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 2. a = a3 . 2.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. Law of Signs. 3 f a = f a = +. ( a) is positive. is may be by 207. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 52. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.faa a a a Obviously 1. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 8. .a2 . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . follows that 3. involution repeated multiplication. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ^4/? it According to 50. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. etc. fa. a special kind of product. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.
16. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 4 /2mV. the required power. a product to a given power.6 (a 8 8 . 76 : (>y.6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) . 24. . amVy) 3 . 15. 4. raise a fraction to a power. (277171 )*. (a ) 2 4  3. 6.166 To find To To power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. (^^) 2 . (2ar). ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. \ 3 J '  MW 10.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. 5. (a ) 2 5 . 3 2 2 8 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 210. 2. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . V V/ 13. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11.
2. 4. 18. (aj7) . . 7. (a + &)8 . + 4aj) 3 . .y . Ex. a. The higher powers of binomials. 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . (afl) . 211.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.6 2 8 ft) . 2. An 1. 8 (a??/) 3 . are obtained by multiplication. 15.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . : a 20. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (3 (l I) 2 8 . + a 2 a. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . or*  Find the cube root of 19. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (5 (1 a) 3 . 21. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.y) = (3 y?y . 3. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 16. 9. 3 8 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 23. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1. nent of the binomial. 2 . (3af26) 8 . 1 f 3 2 3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (3 x . frequently called ex. 12.3 y. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 6. +5a) 22. pansions.) 14.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.INVOLUTION Ex. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 5. 8. = s= (2s) 8 a. 13. etc.
10. 4 (1for) 5 . and the powers negative.96 ^y f 216 o?y .2.216 a^ 4. .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 5. 4. (?>i?i f c)*. 3. 3. . 15. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 4 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 8. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 18. (2 4. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 13. Ex. .a) 3 19. 23. (mJ) 4 11. (1 + 4 ?/) . (2 a 4 . 21. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 9. 6. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (a~^) 5 . . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. . Ex.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 78 s . (af 5) . mn 5 2 5 ) . (l 8 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . The minus. 24. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 17. (m 5 I) 2 22. 5. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . (p + q) 4 * 7. 14. Ex. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. is the coefficient of the next term. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (m 2 + n) 8 . 2. 25. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (la&) 4 12.168 3.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (?/i~w) : 16. (tff1) (cfd) . . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . (3a f5) 5) 4. (m fl) 2 20. ( &) 5 .
215. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 2. numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 27 =y means r' = 27. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. V9 = + 3. or y ~ 3. V \/P 214. Thus V^I is an imaginary number.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Since even powers can never be negative. for distinction. and ( v/o* = a. 1. tity . or 3 for (usually written 3) . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 109 . or x &4 . and all other numbers are. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. etc. \/"^27=3. 4 4 . called real numbers. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. (_3) = 27. a) 4 = a4 . = x means = 6. which can be simplified no further.
we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 6. Ex 5 a" . 3. 6. fy 5 3 . Ex. 6 7 = 030. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 2 . 2.  100 a 2 . 3/0** = am . Ex. 7 . V25 9 16. v/^i2 = a*. 4 v. V5 v/2 7 2. roots of the numerator \/18 . . = 199 + (_ 198) .9 = 136. 2. v/2^. 62 = V2* . 9. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .200 . 3i . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 5. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.125. 3 33 53 . 8. = 19472.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .4. 79 2 v/2 5 . .lL. Ex. EXERCISE 1. extract the and denominator. for (a")" a = a mn 3. 10. Ex. 8. Ex. \/2 4 9 .201) = 2. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. = V26TIT81 = 53. 7. 9. To extract a root of a fraction. 7. V36 9 4. . 82 . index. Ex.1. To extract the root of a power.64 5 4 . 7 .(. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. V?.
116. 31. .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 1.98. V20 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .75.6 tfif + 9 y = O . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .EVOLUTION 171 28. 2 . V9216. 33. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . Find the square root of a2 . 3. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . V8. 2 . 6. a f2 l 2 + l.) by inspection. ^40^4.3 y2) ( vV . 5./). 30. 2.3. 45 V5184. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 29. 2 f ( V240) 3 .3 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. a* 4 8 2 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 32. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 34. Ex.4/.
8 . #2 a2  16. + 6 + 4a&. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . The term a' first 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 10. 11. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.172 7. 15. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . the given expression is a perfect square.> 13. let us consider the relation of a f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . mV14m??2)f 49. however. 2 .2 ac . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.e. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. and b.b 2 2 to its square.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.2 ab + b . i. 12. . and b (2 a f b).2 &c. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. 2 2 218. a\b is the root if In most cases. 2ab . a f. 14.
The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. and so forth. 8 /.EVOLUTION Ex. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . the first term of the answer. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 8 a 2 . by division we term of the root. is As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. */'' .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 8 a 2 2. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. As there is no remainder. Second trial divisor. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. . 6 a. 10 a 4 8 a. The square . . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 1. Explanation. First complete divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. . 219. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. First trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term.24 afy* f 9 tf. Ex. of x. 2. 1. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. .
1 4.40 a 22 . 24. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 3. 18.24 or .174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 20. 16. 19. a? 2 . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 36it. 15.25.10 x2 4.a 6 x*y 2 .4 x 4.42 a*& 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. . 436^?/469a. + 81 a 454 a + 81.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 6. 729 4. 16x6 4. 8.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 10. 4 .6 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 12.9.20 o 4.12 m 4. 6 11.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.V430^425^ 4m 4.73 a8 . 9. x 6 4 4 0^4. 14. 17. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. l 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .12m 5 4. 5. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 2 4. 2 x2 3 2x.37 a ^ .73a4 440^436^460^. > 7. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.16.25 x 4 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 5 4 16 4 iK .
= 80. the first of which is 8. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Ex. the first of which is 4. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Ex. which may contain one or two). the square root of 7744 equals 88. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . and the square root of the greatest square in units.EVOLUTION 220.000. first . The is trial divisor = 160. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.1344. a 2 = 6400. etc.000 is 1000. 1. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Find the square root of 7744. As 8 x 168 = 1344..000 is 100. of a number between 100 and 10. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the first remainder is. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.000.176. of 1. two figures. of 10. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 2. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. etc. Therefore 6 = 8. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the complete divisor 168. Find the square root of 524.
Find the square root of 6/.70 6. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1 are Ex. The groups of 16724.GO'61.7 to three decimal places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. 3. annex a cipher. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.0961 are '.1T6 221. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.10. places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 12.
13. 34. T\.) 40. 39. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . JT . = 3. 32. 35. 33.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 36.4 square when R = radius and 11. 1. .22. feet. 1. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.1410. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 31. J. whose area equals 48.53. 30. 37.58 square 38. 5.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. feet.
2. 224. is A quadratic equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. or equation of the second degree. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. or affected. x 2 7. Transposing.. Dividing. A pure. 2 ic = a. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. = 4. . = 7^ + 5.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 1.g. but no higher power e. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 178 . Extracting the square root of each member. is 12. complete. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. The 7 equation. 6 y2 = 17. 225. This answer Check. 6#2 = x* 24. Ex. or incomplete. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 226. x = + 2 or x =2.
10. 16^393 = 7. 5. 4. ' =: y? b* b . + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 2 2 a. ax Transposing and combining. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 15^5 = 6. Solve 179 . o. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4.2. 7.25. or Therefore. : 83 2. 7 = 162. 0^ + 1 = 1. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 2. 2 4fc 5' 18. 6(2)=10(ajl). 8. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3. 4 ax. 19 + 9 = 5500. (a? 9.
If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 27.) of their squares 5. and they con tain together 30G square feet. Find is the number. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 2 . 2a f 1 23. . : 6. 28. find a in terms of 6 . 4. 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. solve for d. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). Find the side of each field. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. 2 . solve for r. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 29. ' 4. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. Find the numbers.b 2 If s If =c . 24. then Since such a triangle tangle. 22 a. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . r. If G=m m g . is one of _____ b The side right angle. 228. 25. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 26.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. If 22 = ~^. . solve for v. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. A right triangle is a triangle. is 5(5. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). EXERCISE 1. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 2. 108. If a 2 4. 3. and their product : 150.
) 13. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the third side is 15 inches. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the two smaller 11. 2m. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . (b) 100 feet? = . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.7 x f 10 = 0. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Method of completing the square.2 7 . (b) 44 square feet. Find the radii. radii are as 3 14. Solve Transposing. A body falling from a state of rest. 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . 9. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. and the other two sides are as 3 4. 8. . of a right triangle Find these sides. The area : sides are as 3 4. we have of or m = . To find this term. Find the sides. add () Hence 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. J = 12. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. Find these 10. 24. is and the other two sides are equal. x* 7 x= 10. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7.
230. adding member). Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . = . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Transposing. a. 62 x 5 = f.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Simplifying. Ex.2.x(l = . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 a* a. J.a. 2  . = x\ = 2. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. (*~8) a = at .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. = \ # = ff.. or x = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. a Clearing of fractions. Ex.  \.2 a2 . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Extracting square roots. or J. Therefore. Transposing. Uniting.e. 7 5 + 10 = 0. = 6. Hence Therefore Check. .1. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root.4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
and c in the general answer. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. x la 48. =8 r/io?. Solution by formula. = 12. 2x 3 4. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. article.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 231. .c = 0. ao. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 49. \bx\.
25 x. 14. 11.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4. 5 x2 Transposing. 18. TIO. b =  + 20 == = 0. 10. 2 . 21. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 19. 15. 2 a? = 44 x . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. ?i 2 . 20. 2or } 5o. = 64120?. 2 a. V^tT)* . 12. 2 o. 6. 9.15 x9 25x* = 21 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 1.  . Reducing to general form. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. c p. 6. 2. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 8. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6^+5^ 56. 17. c = 5. a. 16. 7^ + 9 x 90. 26. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 3.4 4 5 . 13. 6 Ex. = 12 . 2. 7. 6 .
or # 5 is zero.2. }. orz roots. 2S3x 1 2 . Factoring. Bx 1 1. . x(x <2 . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Solution by factoring. = 14. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 27 x== 42a.5 Solving (1) and (2). 23. 233. any degree.x. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. all or. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. a=:i^^.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. ar>8o. if either of the uct is zero. 3x?+x = 7. 5) = 0. member can be Ex. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 25. Eesolving into factors. Clearing for fractions. = 0. and 6. 26. = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. transposing terms to one member. (5 a? !)(. 24. = 0. 0. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 5 = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . x2 = 1 .5) =0. factors Now. Transposing.4) = . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 1.
such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. O roots are 2. 7. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. } 2 2 (5 . The equation I. 5. + 100. 6. 3) = 0. + 6)=0. aj( 15.g. 12. 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3 or 2 a.24 = 0. 5 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved.(.e. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3) Factoring. Or Hence the 234. we 9 obtain x 4. 3# y 5 = 0.:=0. for a: . 2o3 f9a. 13. Ex. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 16. x2 f 2 x . a?. (aj4)(a. 4. + 10 a = 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 14.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. a?10a=:24. 3^ = 0(1106). evidently (x Or 4)(x . members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.6)) = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. 2.= 24. 8. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 8=s: 7. 0(02) = 7(02). 4or + 18a f 8a. : 87 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. is 5) = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.3)(x + 3 3. E. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4)(z3) = 0. 3. a* 10a=24. 2.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.
(a + 1) (a. 50. 22. 20. 2. (2a? 3) (a 24.188 17. 18. ara + ft + c*. uz + u 21. 25. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b. 19. '3a!J  . 27.3) = (s + l) (3 a). w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 23. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).
The difference of . area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 7. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. . 6. G. : 3. two numbers is 4. 5. 2. Find the number. 1. 2.3.0. 5. The 11. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and equals 190 square inches. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 2. and whose product 9. and consequently many prob 235.0. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J.1. 3. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 8. 54. 58. 52. 57. Find the number. 1. 3.2. EXERCISE 1. 56. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. and the difference Find the numbers. feet. Find the numbers. is Find two numbers whose product 288.3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . of their reciprocals is 4.3. and whose sum is is 36. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 0. 55. number by 10. Find the sides. 2.9. 4.
and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch.10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. ABCD. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. ply between the same two ports. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. . 15. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. If he each horse ? . and Find the sides of the rectangle. 19. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. other. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. What did he pay for 21. sold a horse for $144. watch for $ 24. 17. 14. dollars. as the 16.190 12. 13. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. Two vessels. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. he would have received two horses more for the same money. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. Find the rate of the train. had paid $ 20 less for each horse.
Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.) 25. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Find TT r (Area of a circle . so that the rectangle. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. constructed with and CB as sides. a point taken. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find and CB. By formula. and working together. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. 237. . and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. contains B 78 square inches. Ex. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 1. 27. (tf. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. as 0. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. how wide is the walk ? 23. the two men can do it in 3 days. or x = \/l = 1. 23 inches long.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 24. ^3^ = 7. of the area of the basin. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.
4. y8)=0.2 =4. 2. 2 h9:=0. Solving. Hence Le. a 21or=100. 4 6. 8. = 1. or y = 8. 7. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a? 15 1=2*. 18. Ex.192 238. 6. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. = 13. 12. 4 a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 16.)+72=0.T 2 2 . 10. 2 16 a^40 11. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 436 3. >. a4 5o. aV+9o 4 =0. 19. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. T 17. 4 : 89 10a.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 241. 3. a perfect square. the roots are real.12 x + 9 = 0. rational. is 4ac not zero.2 z . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Hence the roots are real. and unequal. the roots are equal.bx 4. . the roots are irrational. the roots are unequal. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . b 4. c the roots are real. The discriminant =(. the roots are imaginary. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.5) = 04. Ex. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. the roots are rational. 240. Ex.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. 1. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 2. negative.2) 2 4 3 (. rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.f> = 0. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Relations between roots and coefficients. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . and equal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. ( 2a Hence 1.
g. ^12. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2. 4. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 3a. + 2a15 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 18. = 5x. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. + 2a. f 2 E. + 18 2 8. 17. 12~x = x 2 . = Q. x2 7 10. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2 a. 22. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 15. = 0. 60 2 = 0. 2 7. tfmx+p^Q. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. : a 2 . 6. 24.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. their product isf. 2 : 3. = 0. 5aj 9.. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. o. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 12 2  . 14. = 0. 21. lla. 9a3 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.19 # 20. 2a 4z5 = 0. 23. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 12. 5oj aj + l = 0.
It is. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. must be *The symbol smaller than.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. > m therefore. that a an = a m+n . (ab) . (a m ) w . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. for all values 1 of m and n. however. no Fractional and negative exponents. hence. provided w > n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. such as 2*. Then the law of involution. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I.* III. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . We assume. m IV. = a"" < . II. a m a" = a m+t1 . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .a" = a m n mn . 244. while the second of the first. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. ~ a m f. and .
ml. as.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 3*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. '&M A 27. 23. a*. a . fractional. Assuming these two 8*.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. m$. 29. or zero exponent equal x. = a. a\ 26. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 28. 31. disappear. e. . 4~ . 0?=^. 25. (bed)*. 30. a?*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. n 2 a. laws. at.g. 245. (xy$. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 24. etc.
hence is . ty?. 45.g. = 2. 3* = 27. : 197 33. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent. = 49. v/o&cT 34. = 2. 37. 35.g. 44. equal to unity. : 2' 4* = 4. 41. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. \/xy \/m. 27* = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a . 5 a* = 10. e. 38. 246. the base is zero. 48. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 46. however. a. Vo5 . 40. Solve the following equations 39. 49. \fi?. Let a = a. a * a2 Or a=l. 42. a* * = 3. 7z* Find the values of 47.\/n. e. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. If. v'mT 36. 43. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32.
Multiplying both members by a". each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. 248. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. cr n. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. consider the following equations.198 247. vice versa. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.g. Let x= or". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.2 = a2 . Or a"# = l. e. etc. an x = a. . a8 a 2 = 1 1 . by changing the sign of NOTE. or the exponent.
* 24. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 25. m . 37. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 44. 66 45. f (2w)~i 1 . rfS.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. : mi m~^. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 2m~i 43. 22. 2 . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. ^?2 y' 34. 36. : or 5 . . 3 a. 27. . a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 39. 3 a? * 42. ^L. c 32. 40."* 38. 2 .
and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.1. 61. 57. 48. ar = i. . z 5or*=10. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = .81 f (a . 54. = ^. + A_. 53. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 55. = 5. 10* Find the values 56. Ex. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.(. 1. 10* 5* = . 17' 2 51. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 58. (. of: 3ll4~* 60. = l. 49. + 1~* f 21 . 59.001. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .343)* + (.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 250. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 47.9*.008)* + A. 52.6). z* = 1.
6 *.^/5^5. 7. 95 ^9i 5**. 10. #* a.&.. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. a.7W. . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7~ 5 27  .3 aj" a. &. 7~ 6 .5. 72 . 16. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. remove the fractional exponents. 3. 27  28.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 18. 79 . ' 11.$".4 . 4 x^. NOTE. 8 ' 9. 13. Perform the operation indicated. (d) If required.6 *' 6 *25. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . OA 20. 26. 14. 3 a. 6a. 3sVS. / 7fv 7.$*. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7*. 12. 6.7*. 4 5. 16. 23. 17. are performed. . Remove the negative exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.7i.5a.&. V5. etc. S'sS8.4 a8 .
1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 40. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. If powers of a?. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 34. 6 35. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. The 252. 2. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
\/5. ^5. ^2. 3. + . ^6.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 36. ^30. ^4. ^2. 34. v/3. Ex. 2\ 3*. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . I VJ + 3VT8 . 38. 4^/4. ^2. V2. 30. connect them by proper 1. 31. in order of magnitude : \/7. Ex.e. 40. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. v/4. s!/3. ^/IT. V2.3\ . Arrange 35. 27. 33.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . Simplify V~ . Simplify/a35 ~ o .2 V50. V3. V5. signs. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. A/3. 32. V2.2. 37. Simplify V + 3 VlS. 28. 39. ^126. </2. ^7. V3. 29. A/2. </3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 26. v/3. </20. To add or form. (i. VS. 5V2. subtract surds. ^3. \/7. ^4. v^S.10 V2 =  V2. if dissimilar.
4V805V45. 11. 9.3V20 + 6V5. 13. 8VT8J2V32 7. V18+V32VT28+V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 8. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 10. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 4. 14. 3.J a6 V4 aft. V175V28+V634V7. 6. . 12. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 6. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. + 3V835V2.
Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 3.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 1. 26^ . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 23.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. and then multiplied. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. . . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 2. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 6*.6V35 106 460V35100 . Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. y* = Ex.
(3 20. 19. 6 V4 5. 3. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (5V22V3CVS)V3. V42. 41. 25. 7. VTO. 18. 9. 34. V3 Vl2. 40. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 27. 213 98 11. 6. a?. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). aVa. 2. 13. (V6 + 1) 1 . 12. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V2 V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 10. fWa 17. VlO V15. 6. Vll. 28 .VSS.^/2. 8. 4. 39. 21. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). (Va Va 36. 2 . 15. V3 V6. 38. (2V3) 8 . + VB)(2V5). 14. \/3 \^). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). . 37. v/4. V20 V30. V2aV8^. v/18 v"3. 40 10 30.
60. 46.y. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. E. 47. 44. (2 45. Va v/a. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Ex. a fraction. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 43. 53. . (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). V3 . 52. 48. is 1 2. 268. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. the quotient of the surds is If. 49. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (5V2+V10)(2V51). all monomial surds may be divided by method.214 42. 51. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.
however. by V7. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. e. 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. 3.57735.RADICALS This method. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. is illustrated by Ex.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. Divide VII by v7. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Evidently.by the usual arithmetical method.g. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . The 2. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. /~ } Ex.. arithTo find. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . metical problems afford the best illustrations. we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.73205. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. .
V5 = 2. Vll 212*. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V48 25. V2 22 . 21. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V3 = 1. 20.7320. i. 272. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 271. A.4142. ^/H . 7. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V8 12.2361. 23 . V8 JL. VffV?. and Given V2 = 1. 14. A. . V5 270..216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V3 24 .
. Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a. . 1. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2.RADICALS Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.= 18.Vs2 .vffi^T _ . 3. Ex. s Simplify a.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .
Given V2 1.218 6 . 27. 19.4142. V5V7 18> ^SVg. . v 2V3 28. V21 = 25 . J?_. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 . By the use of fractional exponents . Vo1 26. 6V7. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.5 3 = 125. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15.W3. find to _!_. 24.2361. = V3 = 1.7320. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.
1. 8. 5. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. on the other hand. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 9. V643 . \/l6*. 2. viz. 3.RADICALS 219 274. V255 . 4. 3 (V2~u)  7. 2. According to G3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 2 12. it to this form. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . In other examples of involution and evolution. Simplify Ex. \/125" . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. the If. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. . 11. v8f 2\/15.
The Hence ^11 . 3. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.A/2. Find Vll .2 \/20.6 V2. ^TT. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 2 \/18. and whose product is 18.6\/2 = ^9 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . +2 Ex. 2. Find Vl2 4.220 Ex. is 11.
1. first involution. 19. 277. Radical equations are rationalized. 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. x2 = x f 2. 4x x = 2. The value x =2 reduces each . 5. are radical equations. . member to 2.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. V48 23. Dividing by Check. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.. Transposing and uniting.e. VT . : 221 Vl32V22. Solve vVf!2a = 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. a. i. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. r 22. 8. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Ex. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Before performing the involution. (2x xrf 1. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. by raising both members equal powers. +=.V48 4 20. they are transto formed into rational equations.
Solve Vx f Squaring both members. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. at . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Therefore CftecAr. one root. Squaring both members. viz. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. a. tion which has two roots. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3.1) = 0. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Extraneous roots. viz. 2. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. 278. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 5. V4afT~l. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. a socalled extraneous root. Therefore Check. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. x = J.3. Factoring. they may be extraneous roots. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. . Transposing. V24~+~l = 0. Dividing by 24. It = 3 x . 3. Transposing and uniting. f 25 = 12. . the first member = V2. . 4#f 4 = 9. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2.222 Ex. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9.
2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. .RADICALS Hence x If a. 2 Clearing of fractions. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. and to 5. Hence there is only one root. 223 x = 3. the right member = V2. ViTie 4 z2 . both members reduce to 5. = 3. is x V. Squaring. viz. Factoring. for it satisfies the equation . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. or x *j.47) = 0. . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. 4. Hence x = the only root. \ does not satisfy the given. Transposing.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. (x x = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Check. Solve the following equations : = G. Therefore. + 6~ieT~3 . . NOTE.12 . If If x 3 = 3.3) (2 x .2 r. x root of the preceding equation. equation it is an extraneous root. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.
Solve af*. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Ex.
Ex. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 5. members of the equation were squared. some of the roots be extraneous. 2. 45 14VJB = . Vi 2 8a. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. _ 2 y .f40= 5. 2Va. 412a* = 16. 3. Q . = 7. . But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. x Since both =9 or 1.35 = 0. This can be seen without substituting.8 z40 = 7. Let 8 x f 40 . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. o. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. y then x2 .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. = 26.8 x + 40 = 36. Substituting. 2_8z 440 = 49. x =6 or 3. 3 6. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. x + Vx a? = 6. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. = 0. + 40 = 6. 2.i~24 = 0. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 4.*2a.
2. 19.a 440 = 35. 18. 12. a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a. 17. 15. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 20. +3= 6.226 11. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 16.f 18 = 24. a. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 14. +x .
2. Hence. no matter If.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. does not contain a?. = 2. by dividing 3 x* f. however. ^ = 381+2. ax4 4." transposing. E = ax + &z + m) Q. 227 . Ex.2 + 4. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. even if Q is unknown. Without actual division. we make a? what the value of Q. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. Without actual division. 1. then (x 2)Q 0. to x we # = 2 3.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 3 2 Ex. a? R = x* .4 a. find the remainder when m.2) Q . assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. " Or.bx? + ex2 4.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . If x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.360 = 244.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2 + 80 = 12. could.2 x 5 by x 3. if Q was known. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.
The Factor Theorem. 8. 43 3 E. If the remainder is zero.8. hence (x divided by x 4. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.g. of the division 3) is m in place of x. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .228 282. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. } 2 by a1. + ^by x + b. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.3)f 11 =. 3. the remainder equals 8 2 x .949. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. fora?. x* s 2 4. + 7 = 632. 5. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. if 8 42  .4(. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.8'= 0. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 5 (4x . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + 6.g. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x m is factor of the expression. 2 j 7.
TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 8. 1. + ttt15 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.1. & p*. 17. 3. + 15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . _ . Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. f 5. 25. Let x = .12 = 0. are f 1. factors of the absolute term. a? 19. is a factor. 8. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.7 + 16 . f 3. 9. + 27 + 27.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.9^ + 23^15. 7 46 = 0. or x 4. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 21. 106 division. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. oj 5x2 f3a. 18. m f m n 14. Therefore x ( 1).7 x + 15 = 0.13m + 30 10. i. f 15 does not vanish. a 8a f 19 a 12. Factor a? 15. a 2a + 4.12.r6 = 0. 23. . p 5^ + 8p 4. 2m 5m . a 5x 6. The 5. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.1. a^8^ + 19a.e. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. Resolve into factors 4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 2. a. or 5 4 + 3^ . 20. 2 2. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 24. 229 1. 3 2 : 7. 15. 5. ^10^429^20=0. a + 32. 1.49 = 0. 6. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 11.
Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Ex. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. xn f. By we obtain the other factors. 2. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. : importance. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . It y is not divisible by 287. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. is odd. For substituting y for x. 2. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 1.xy +/). 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. if n is even. actual division n.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.y n is divisible by x f ?/. x* f/ = (x +/)O . if w is odd. 286. 2 Ex. If n is a Theorem that 1. ar +p= z6 e.230 285.g. xn y n y n y n = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer." .
preferable. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26.i mn f w 2). as 27=0. 3.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. 28.= . 27. a. since it more directly to the prime factors. y 3 +8=0. leads 231 is The first method. Hence = (m Ex. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. x3 8=0.
The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xy are given.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. = 6. 232 .1. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. can be solved by the methods degree. 4 xy = 16. * A I. of quadratics. If two of the quantities x f y. x y. to equations of the fourth few cases. however. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Squaring Solve (1). Hence " /  X y = =} 4. 290. (4) Hence. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. xywe have 3.y4 is of the fifth degree. (5) Combining (5) with (1). + 6 a?V . & + 2 xy + = 25. ==5 > 1^ = 4. in general.
= . In many cases two of the quantities x f y. 3. The arranged in pairs.g. 12. " "' "' { r 8. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 1. ' 10. 108 2. x and xy are not given. ^.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 233 y. r (" 1 = 876. I I x + y=7. but can be found. b=3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.
o 18. x " (3) 49 etc. 4 y = 20.a.20) = 0. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. la. one linear and ne quadratic. + 29 = 0. .. I* Jj ^ [. 6 "I 14. aj = 2.?/ i = 6. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).  42 y + Transposing. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 5. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 3. Factoring.i/ = r 13. . I x+y = a.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. r^ 2 as ] f. 19. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. or JJ.~ y = 5.  . ' ' . Ex. or y = 1 . A system of simultaneous equations.  f J. 7 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.
4 f + 2 y = 3. ' x*. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. Solve . III. 3y) : Factor (2). 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 9. 3 y2 Substituting in (1).3 2x 2 Ex. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. quantities. If of the preceding type. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. = 1 3 3. 1. 10. ':il e :) . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. y* + 2y = 3.
236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) (2) x x 5.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. = 0. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. Solve 2. 2 . 109 a. 15 x2 . 11 a2 Factoring. } VI09. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 2. = Ex.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
" IV. can be solved by special devices. A.!. and others not belonging to them. ' ^ 15.3^42^=43.xy 4. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. 298. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). (4) (3). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 150 */2 . Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.y = 7. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). E. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. f 1 150 a?. 2 xy + y2 = 10.125 ay = . Bxy9.175 ay = 12.6. Division of one equation by the other.
quadratics can be solved by ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. y = 3. at first it is unknown quantities. we obtain by squaring. i ^ *>. xy. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. B. (1 > (2) 1. = 189. 2. we have from (1). x 2 .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. x +y y etc. y . = 12 J. jc~ y = 9. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. from (2). Therefore x = 16. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. Solve Ex.. Some simultaneous ?/. * ' 300.
[2x + : y= 17. I e. 239 Ex. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 36* 2. M6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 7. 2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. F+y+ . Hence = V or = 4. 4.
4 y = 47 a. 25.21 ^ = 15. . f 18. = 198. . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 16. + o5)(6hy) = 80. = y 1 y* .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. * . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 27. 19 ' 26.
etc. 32. = 48201. . etc 302. 3 a2 38.of  According to the definition of division. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. as a . . or ~ indeterminate. . 31. 30. y % 9 f*K 36.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. Interpretation . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 7' j/ 39.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 33. finite  =x y if = x. hence may be any finite number. Q 7. 25 34. . ^ oo . ~\ OK OO.
By making x any * assigned zero. (1). Let 2. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (1) is an identity.g.increases if x de x creases.x'2 2 x = 1. 1. I.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. be the numbers. . it is an Ex. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. i. the answer is indeterminate. = 10.e. (a: Then Simplifying. great. creases. . The ~~f fraction . is satisfied by any number. Or. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. cancel. TO^UU" sufficiently small.can be If It is made larger than number.242 303. or that x may equal any finite number. oo is = QQ. ToU" ^100 a. i.000 a. without exception.decreases X if called infinity. 306. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. Hence such an equation identity. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. and . or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.e. as + l. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. x f 2. and becomes infinitely small. equation. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. (1) = 0. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.
Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Solve  9 7. . 4 3 x x5 a2 .e. and the sum of Find the numbers. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.8 x + 15 6.2 y = 4. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. = oo. (2). 2. two numbers is 76. The sum is of squares 2890. * 6. 42 and' their product is 377. third and sixth parts. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). z = 1 Substituting. is their 2. Solve . 3. Solve x a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. y finite QO. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 1=0. and a. EXERCISE 1. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Hence /.
the area becomes f% of the original area. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the sum of ( 228. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the sides of the rectangle. is is 17 and the sum 4. 9. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. The area of a nal 41 feet. 8. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the side of each square. Find the edge of each cube. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. 148 feet of fence are required. 190. 103. 14. and the diago(Ex.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. equals 4 inches. . 146 yards. of a right triangle is 73. 12. of a rectangular field feet. 13.) 53 yards. Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the edges. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. p. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. 10.244 3. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find these sides.quals 20 feet. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the other two sides. and the edge of one. two numbers Find the numbers. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the hypotenuse is 37. is 6. 6. Find the sides. increased by the edge of the other.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches. the quotient is 2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. Find the radii. Find the number. and if the digits will be interchanged.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. is 20 inches.) 17. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.
added to each term to obtain the next one. .. 11. . . f . The common differences are respectively 4. the second a descending. The first is an ascending. 12. : 7.. 4. and d. of the following series is 3. 3 d must be added to a.. P. of a series are its successive numbers. Since d is a f 3 d. a + d.) is a series. progression. 309. a + 2 d.. . (n 1) d must be added to a. to produce the nth term.. 19.. P. to produce the 4th term. a. 16. Hence / = a + (n . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. The progression is a. each term of which. P. 10. to produce the 3d term. An arithmetic progression (A.1) d. To find the nth term / of an A. 2 d must be added to a.. 15 is 9 f.7. a f d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. to each term produces the next term. + 2 d. except the first. 17. 3. series 9. a 3d.. a 11.. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.
Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . . 7. the term a. 1. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2.. 6. Find the 101th term of the series 1. d . . 2 EXERCISE 1. 7.16..3 a = l.8.. . 5.. = a + (a Reversing the order. 7.4. 8. = 99. Adding. ? (a) 1. 8. 4^.. 5. P. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 2J. series 2. 19.. 9. .PROGRESSIONS 310. 1J. 99) = 2600. 5. 5. 3. Find the 12th term of the 4.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. 6. if a = 5. 21. 24.. P. P. 8. a = 2. Find the nth term of the series 2. d = 3. Find the 5th term of the 4. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 3. of the series 10. 6. = 2. 1.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 5. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/).... first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. = I + 49 = *({ + ... 10. (a + + (a + l) l). 3. 6 we have Hence . 9. 3. .. 2. . 4. .. series . 3.' cZ == . Find the 10th term of the series 17. 115.. (d) 1J.
. 16.7 f to 12 terms. 20. 1. 11. 15. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 33. and for each than for the preceding one. hence if any three of them are given. 3. to 8 terms. 1. 18. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 7 terms. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 7. 23. . (i) (ii) . 19. 2. . 4. 1. strike for the first yard. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. In most problems relating to A. . to 20 terms. to 20 terms. > 2f 2. 2J. 11. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 7. 6. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . P.248 Find the 10. 12. 7. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. (x +"l) 4. to 20 terms. \n. 31. to 15 terms..5 H + if f to 10 terms. 21. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. . rf. striking hours only. 11. 29. to 10 terms. 1J. : 3. 15. 8. . 11. . 12. Sum the following series 14.1 f 3. . + 3. 22. 15. 17. 16. to 16 terms. Jive quantities are involved. '.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms.
if a.6. n d. Substituting in (2). = 1014. 1. 111.1). = 144. a = 12. 45. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 2. 6 n2 . 49 (1) (2) Substituting. is 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. The first term of an A. 122. 34. or if x Solving. hence n = 6. d = 6. #. = 1014. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. . n = 6.PROGRESSIONS Ex. if s = 204. = 13. The series is. 78. 78 n Substituting in (1). or 11 J. P. = n(104 . 144.6 n).. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 204 = ^ (a + 49). l)e?. a = 49 6(71 . 67. . P. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. s 24ft last term 144. P. 56. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). Find the series. the and the sum of all terms 1014. the second one mean between the other two. 133.. I. Ex.e. and b form an A. Findn. J = 49.~n~\ 408 6). 6. 12. 100. 312. = a + (w. 23. I Substituting in (I) and (II).1) . 89. From (1). 204 = ^ (98 .104 w + 408 = 0. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. Solving. But evidently n cannot be fractional.
Find d. n = 16. Given a = . 6? 9. 78. Find?. f J 1 1 / . has the series 82. P. 13. 4. a+ and b a b 5. = 17. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. I Find I in terms of a. n = 17. Given a = 4. of 5 terms 6. 17. 15. = 83. 12. Find d. = 45. = 1870. 7. produced.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. Given a = . f? . 74. 11. 14. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Find d and Given a = 1700. n. . How much . and s. 8. = 52. m and n 2. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. n = 20. 10. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540.3. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find w. y and #f5y. ceding one. n has the series ^ j . d = 5. = ^ 3 = 1. Find a Given a = 7. = 16. 16. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. I. s == 440. n = 4. s = 70. n = 13. a x f b and a b. Find n. Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = 1. T? ^. How much did he save the first month? 19. 3.
If n is less : than unity.. P. 24.) is a series each term of which. I. is 16(f) 4 .. 4. rs = s 2 .. . 24. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . A geometric progression first. 36.arn ~ l .. the first term a and the ratios r being given.g. 108. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. NOTE. P. ratios are respectively 3.. 12. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4. +1.. ar. or. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. The progression is a. 4 (1) .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . r n~ l . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. . The 314. (I) of the series 16. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 36. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 2.. E. .. 2 a. . P. of a G. 36. and To find the nth term / of a G. or 81 315. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). called the ratio. ar8 r. is it (G.. <zr .
9. series 5. 1.. first 5. f.. 144. f. l. Jive quantities are in. 0. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . . a = I.18..72. 7. (d) 5.. i 288.. 9.. whose and whose second term is 8. 72.l. series 6. And the required means are 18. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.. 6. .288.6. In most problems relating to G.18. 36. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 3. is 16. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.*. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. first term 4. fa. . Find the 5th term of a G. I = 670. series . . (b) 1. 25. 36. hence. 8. is 3. . 576. + 5. 144. 18. P. fa. or 7. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 9. volved . \ t series . 2 term 3.5. .. 10. Hence the or series is 0. (it. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. 4. ..4. 72. 144. ? (c) 2. P. first term is 125 and whose common .. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. P. . 4. 36._!=!>. Ex. EXERCISE 1.. . P. 676. 80. Hence n = 7. if any three of them are given. . . r^2.54. Find the 6th term of the series J. whose and whose common ratio is 4. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.5. +f%9 % ... . 20. 288. whose .
J and 270. + 4 . I. . Given r = n Z 5. J. M. to 6 terms. to 7 terms. to 7 . . 13.. 2. 15. 243. Find a and Given r = 3. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 6 terms. P. 81. 54. 81.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.. 126. . Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 24. 25S series : 32. r . is less than unity. n = 5. a. 12. = 3. 14. J. a^. to 8 terms. 72. Z s. be written If the value of r of a G. 12 terms. 42. 1. to 6 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. 16 . Find a and 4. 23. s = 310. >"> . .. may be than any assignable number. 27. of r n decreases. 14..nV> i*> !718. 36. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. . J. = 3.. 48. s = 605. Find a and n = 4. 22. == 160.i a9 . 4. and hence ~ r . n = 5. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 19. J. to G terms. 21. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 1. 20. to 5 terms...
.... . = . = a . If the side of the first square is 2 inches.1. P.99 . 6. 16.. 7.. i i J. .. 10. 9...Ql. I.27777 . 5.254 Ex. 13.3121212.. i.. 66 Therefore .717171.. of: 11.. is 9. 2. of an infinite G. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.3 + . . . what is (a) the sum of the areas. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. Given an infinite series of squares. 9... . . The sum r... is J. 100.. ratio 15. (6) the sum of the perimeters.= .191919.. 4.. r = j. 5. 8..072. ... . 3. =A+ 10 i.. .= _4Z* . Hence . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 6.37272 ... 1. 12.. . P. 14. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. first and the common term. . 250. . 8. If a = 40.3727272 . 4. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 1. 1 r = .272727. Find the value 9. 1.. . P. 40. 1. . .. 2. Find the sum to infinity. .00072 f . and the first term is Find 17.72. = . of all squares ? . The sum Find the of an infinite G.)7?7272 . is 16..555. 12.072 + . . = 990 ..01 ^ . 16...
. 28. 14. . 20. Find the 6th term of (x . (s + i). (xy) : 6 . 5. l 2. 26. . (a + b) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 12. : (1 + xy.b) w (a (a f (1 . 13. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 10. 4. . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. coefficient of . 29. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .6) . (a 100 . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (\ 9 . a6 8 16 in . 7 . 25. 2 2 24. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 15. (a2) 6.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3.b ). Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23.6) 20 . 17. 4 7. 16.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 22. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 11. 21. /2a+Y\ 8. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .
6. ^+^ 3. 6. 2. 4. 1. 4. 1. 6. 2. 2 . 1. 5. 1. 1. 3. 3. 2. y 3. 3. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. 4. 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 5. 5. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 4. ft) . 1. c if 7 . 2. 5. 1.f ac 1. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. l. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 1. 1. aft 3 + 4. 2. 4. 3. 2. if = = = 2. 2. 1. 3. 2. 2. + 2. 1. 4. 3. 2. 2. 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. . 4 2. 5. + 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. if y=2j 2. 24 4. 4. 3. if = = 2. 5. 1. . c = = = 2. 3.  a)(a 1. ft 4 ) 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 5. + c(a  c). 5.  8 ^ 2. (c 3. 4. (ca)(cft)' 4. 7. 3.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. 6. 3. 5. 2. 3. 3. a ft c = = 2. if x^l. 6. 4. 3.  2.  2.a(a 4. 3. 3. 1. 3.c )(fta) 1. 2. 5. 2. = 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 3. 3. + 1. 2. 1. 3. 1. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3.
1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 4 x 4 . 1.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2  + 12 a 8 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .10. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .5. 2 . 1.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 20. 2. = 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.2. 2. a /> 3. + 1. 4 y 13. r> . a.4. 25.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 9.3 xyz. . x 3 x' 14. 6. . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .8 3 + 7 x4 . 5.2. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 21. 4. 2. x = 4. a 4 + 11 a . + 8 x4 *y . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. f 8. 8. 8 . ' b) + 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .2 a?y + 3 aty .a8 . b(x (b 1. + 4 ?y . 12. c)(x a} . 7 xy 3 . 10.7 + . 7. 21. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. . 4. 16.2 x2 . 6 a4 4 a8 . 5. c = 3. 3. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. + 3 y 2* .c' 2 4 / . a. 3.7 ys.3 a?y . a: .a) .2 z8 4 x. 4 z . 7y 4 . x C 4 4x y + . 18.r 6 x  4 xy . 26.259 x c) . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .  a) (c 2. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. x3 f 3 ax'2 .x 5 4 .8 + 2 // . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . x3 2 a2 . + 2.a 4 . 5.\ yz + xz. or . if a 6 = = c = 3. 9. 41. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 4.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 5. 2 x 8.2 x?/. 15. x 3 11. 40. 15. ~c)(b. (5.a 5 a . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4. 29.7 y 2* 4. 17. 24.5 xy 3 + + 4 .1. .
7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 33. . x8 x2 2 a'2x.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 4 4 4.c 4 3 a.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. c 4. 35.(4 x 2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.a ft.4) .2 . 5 10 + 7 . (*) a  c. .1).x 2 4.[4 x 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.3.c.5 . and . 3 ft. 34.(x 4.(4 * .2 x 8y2 44 .x .. of a.2 3 ax 2 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . a  ft + c. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.8 3 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .c.c 3 a. . 36. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.2) . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. sum of .(5 c .(5 y . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .4 Vl 4.3 .?> x 4 20.6T . Take the sum of 3 x 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . Take the sum 4x 4. Simplify 31.(x* .(a .4 ft) 4.27~~7)}].3 . .[4 z 8 .#48.4.] 26. take the sum of G x 5 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. 7 12 . 29. 4 2 x2 23.x2 .6 x ] . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.1)}] .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. : a x . . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 4vTT~y 3.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.{G * 2 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . f ft.5. c 4ft. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. = x y ft z. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.3 x .x . x'2 . c =x y }~ z. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 4 3 5 y/ .2 . 4 .260 19. 2 x 32.x 4. ft 25. ft.7. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .(7 x 4. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. From of 2 the 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4. 5 4 7 12 .2 a .{2 x 2 . 542 x 2 and . 0" 30.
6c) (a + f c). 48. + *+!){> + 2). 2 ft 41. 2 f [3 c 7 a . + 4x + 5)(j. (1 55. (4 + 3a 2 . 50. 65. 51.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 54.(2 a + 5 a .be) (a 58.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .7). 57. (a:2)(r4)(a:9). . (. 2 2 x + !)(* . .Z .[2 .6)}].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(7 a. 2 52.(2 a 2 .4 a .(6 . 46. 49.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .[4 x  5 . 43. 4 + 2 2 + 1). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].b (c .c).3T~2~s)} + 5 2].56.96 [17 a.3c). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2 2 + 1)(7. (. . 60.{3 c .3 *).5)} + (3 a 2 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (5 a 39. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.3).JT^T+1)} + (2 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).4 a 2 + a 4 ). 2 53. 67. . (r (1 (a. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). a .6 xy .(5 y . (x. (1 ar+a. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .(2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .3)(*5)(* 7). 56. (/> 4 .1).{2 a (ft .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .& + {.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 3 x 42. (x .rf)} + a [. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 'J 44. 59.(4 d . 45.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.3 c)]. 64.2 zz . 63.  2 a  {3 2x a .3 z 2 ).2c(V/ . 68.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. . )(lz a ).5 )}] + {4 c .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. . 62.12).a~^~c)K]. .2x + 3). a {. 13 a .r 2:c+ l)(ar.2 2 .ac . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.2)(1 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(7 i + 4 r:) .(2 x2 .2a .ab .0)} . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.{2 a . .c 2 . . 2 : 7e)a}]. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .
b 4. ft /. 88. ft 78.q).z) .6*y .2 ft}) f (3 a .m np c . 85.y). _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.ft) 4 .x + y + z). 91.2 (a . .z)(x y + z)(. xy y 2 ).(a 48 8 8 4.y + z)(x + y .c) . 79.3 a . (a 2 ft 2n 4.<f(p .r 2 . 87.3 (ft . (.c .O (a 4(a 4. 82.n pc).a) 2 . 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ft ft ft a}.262 69.am&t 4 A 2 *). 94.v) 4. 89.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 92.2 (y 4.(c 4. 73. 93. ft" l Simplify 80.3y) a (* 2 4.y)\x y). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.z\x 4. ft 95. 1).b 4. 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .:y)( a.c) 2 . 2 + a 2 ). 84.(4 .(ft 4.2y)(.9y2). 1).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 2 (x 2 . 90.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).{3 a .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) j. 76.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).c) rr identities. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.c)]. Prove the following 8 4. 74. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 70. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.5 . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . . 86.c) .ft) + 4(2 . f 72.c) 4) (ft 4. 4 4 . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 75. . 83.c)} . a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . (x (x ( + *) . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. ar .(/>  3 v)^(.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).c . 77. (p 2 . 71.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.
a*.27 x* . 114.r 4 4. (80 a 112. 120.a". 113.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 4 . 25 4 .2 xy 8 .1). . .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).(x 2 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 108. (a 8  8 68 8 4. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). (. (8 x* 115.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.) . 99 100.3 a"+ 4. 105.y 4 ) .*) (x 8 . 118.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.xy 4. 121. 123.4 aft . 2 (a+ . 1).6 y 4 4.16 a 6 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(a 1 2 8 . 106. 124. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).2y 2 4. 110. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 10).&). 122.y 2 4.9 x 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a.v/ ~ // = a: .5 xy).2 2% 4.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).(2 a 2 . r .(7 xi/ . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 1O4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 117. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .35 x 2 2 ) . 116. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .40 />) . [10( 4.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 102. 103.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 3*.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. (2< 107. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 109. 26 (a 4 c).5 b*).b) 98.
3) = 12 .r>) .5{. 129.4) .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 1) . . 1) = 2(* .9) 4.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 137. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).a:)]}. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . x 147.(x .4) .264 125.3 a:).18 *&) (1 .12 M 132. (4 x .G) .(x f 9). .1) .2(4 . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.7) = 4 . (*+ + .3(* + 4) + 9} . 139.r + 7[or .22. 148. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.n .7(4 * . .3) (3 x 4. 127. 128. 5 146. 10(2 x 141.(j a? 144. 135. 126. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . .2) + 2(ar + 4). 138. .8 6 .2 7^~5] + 1). 143. (5a: 150. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3).2(j: .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .19) + 5 = 4 . 7(2 x .3(2 z . y (* l x.3 x). 2 4(ar .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .5) = 12(4 x . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(5 .3).2) (a: + 3). .(x + 3) ] . o o 140. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 3) = x\x . 149. 3(2 x 134.2(10 x . 142.9) + 3. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.(1 .4(0 x .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 136.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).1) (a? .2) = 3 . 42(3ar 145.27 a 3" .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 5(2 x .5).
and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.3) = (3 x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 265 152. + 5) = (9 . (a .1) O + 4) = (2 * . sheep more than the 169. 165. 162. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.5 x) = 45 x . 2 4 . How many 170.T)O .29) 2 = 1. 164.2).25) 2 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.? .7) (a.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 157.l)(z . (a.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 153. 158. The sum What 171. f^ + ^sO. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2 x) = (1 .5) = (3 .r + 3) .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.3) (3 . = 2 C. 159.2 x) (4 .14) (a: + 3). + 2) + (5 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.3) (a: . If the area of the frame inches. 161. transformed into F. find the value of F. The second contains 3 first. + 4) (2 x + 5). angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. = 15. .6 x) (3 .2) a + 7(x . 160. . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. .(5 x . 166. (a) If C.2) (j? + 1) + (x . . 156.5*) + 47. these two angles would be equal.7) (1 x .z) (4 .17) 2 + (4 x .76.2) (7 *) + (*. 155.9) + (a.3) (3 .4) (a . (x (x a. (7 14 . 163. a: ar a.a:) + 229.. and the third twice as many as the first.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.5(x . + 10) (ar .1) (s + 3). will produce F.3) (j. (2 .8) = (2 x 4. 154.24. =  (F 32). (3 O + . 5(ar x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.19) + 42.5)(.
A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 187. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. + 11 ~ 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3.36. How many are there in each window ? . father. . younger than his Find the age of the father. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each.266 173. A boy is father. . ll?/102. 176. power one of the two Find the power of each. A each 177. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. sister . 188. 10x 2 192. and 5 h. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the dimensions of the floor. 178. 3 gives the 174. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 12 m. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. . 180. number divided by 3. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 179. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number.56. z 2 92. was three times that of the younger. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 2 2 + a _ no. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 186. aW + llab2&. train. respectively. 190. x* 185. two boys is twice that of the younger. Find the number. 189. z 2 + x . 181. 7/ 191. dimension 182. A house has 3 rows of windows. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. if each increased 2 feet. 15 m. 4 a 2 yy 42. side were one foot longer. + a. +x 2. same result as the number diminished by 175. 13 a + 3. the sum of the ages of all three is 51.
222. x*y 223. # 2  29 y + 120. x 5 . 4 m +^. 244. 3 x 2 . + 8. 221.64.10 xy. 3 x V . x 219. 16x 4 81.3 c/> + 6 cq.(b + rf) 2 . a: 231. 224. 210. . 233.c) 2 . + 3a 196. a. 4a 2& 2 241. 267 199. a: 236. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .6. x* + 8 2 + 15. 2 x 2 . 230.10 y a x* . 238.x + 1.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 5 x 2. . 207. 208.3 xy. 6 197. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . z 2 2. 12 x +4. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 3 ap 2 . 3y 2 + ary . 23 12.77 y + 150. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 24 2 + 2 . 209. 239. . 245. 213. 218. 227. 2 2 y f 1. 235. 246.21 a:  54.6 y2 + 4.20 z 8 a: 220. 7a 228. . + 198. 2a te 3% ly 247.8 6 2. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.3 xf + 3 * 2y .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 8 a.22 z + 48. . a^a 226. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.14 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.6 2 ?/ . a. a.6 aq .19 a .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .1. 232.19 z 4 204. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 60 a 2  a: // 205.6s. + 30 x. 201.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a 2 . 203.28.10.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 7x 2 225. a+a* + o a +l. (a + . . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . a a: a: 237. . 216. + 2 . 195. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 229. 2 200. wiy + la mx + aw. 2 a 8 . 215. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 217. 3y 248. 206.12 * . y 2 194. *2 234. 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. ifWy+b. z + 5x 2 . 212. xm+l 243. 202. 8 a: ar. a. 211. a: .c) 2  (a . 2 a 2 .
3 abc . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. + 23 x f 20.73 xy .ry . 30 ^ . I Find the II. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). x 2 + 5 f . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .4.14 bx a%% 8 . x* . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. a: . ft a. x 2 4. x 2 . 7 ax 250. z 2 268. 10 x 2 .80.18 xy + 5.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 2 x2 . 269.a 2 />c 2 f 3.2 z . 1 x ar Find the L. * 2 .ry 21.15 + 30.9. of: 266. Reduce to lowest terms 271. 10 a. 18 x 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. 270. a 3 a 2 2 .23 x f 20.91. 254.10 a 4.12. 265.48 afy 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. * 2 . 3 a% 2 . a 4.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.11 a 2 . of: 253. 6.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .3 x .4 ab + 1.1 9 .C.2/ 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. F.9 x . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .8. 2 8 . 261. 264. x*y* 4. 2 .a + 2 4.13. 5 x 2 256. + 20 x 4. C. + 3 x + 2.(55. 258.M. x 2 + 4 + 3.16 x .11 x f 28. z 2 267.9 x + 14.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . + 8 x + 5.2 aft*. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 257. 15 # 2 z/ /. x* .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 8 2 + 10 x . 251. * a . 7 12 2 2 .&z. 22x2 a.G7 x f 33. * 2 . 28 2 f 71 x .3. x 2 263.120. a? a: a: // 262. 252. a.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 259.15.36.x .23 + 12. 260.7 f 5.r . 3 ay 4. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. + 8. .5 ab f 2. 2 a.6 by.10. x 2 + 2 x . 3 #2 255.
z2 (a 2 + c)a. 285 z4 n* + a. a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a ..ar 1 279. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . + ac .J' 4 2 2 w mp .!/. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 289 ' .2c a: 282. m 4..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.2* + 3 x* 280.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 8 . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .rL. *2 " 2 + Oge.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.(y 2 z) * t (j.
2 + 7 _ 44 3.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. O(ca) 306. 4 3 301. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . Lnl + ar 2 a. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. ^_2*(m 308. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x 7. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. * 19 23 19(23 23. ^. a (: a) (x 2.
.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 1a: + y a.ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. (a? 4 2) 317. 2 + y 2 319. } . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. _ x8 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. a: 1 313.. 1 x2 + + a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. (1 . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.(a . . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 1 _.
9 *// + 27 ..7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.5 a .V  + y  x 3y a . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 20 44 333. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . * 3a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.2 +lOar 2 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.15 33 .7 xy + 12 x . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 250 5 10 2 325. .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .. a: 2 x* .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. .y20  2y + 4 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.ll. 2 lOx 5x. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .6* t 328. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .
xi 347. ' 2 "l 5 . 348. a: 349 _ o. + ni + . 344. aj 339. (a \ + lV. \x yj 340. : 1+ i. 5 343.y. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.+ r .1V. ?_2 ^ . (af2/.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (ar \ 346. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. +^ a: y x . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 338. \5yl 341. + l + IV. 352. w \.) 2 . f V. a>74 . fl. if a = 3. ** i. (aWi + iJ. 1 345. 7 ( ?f!?.. ( 342.r 5 2 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. + x x a . y360.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. 1+2 362. I  I f 366. (~ 364. (a a b yx c yabc 361. _ + l a 359.
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. J !__7. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 4(* . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . ^ . 379. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 8  376. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.*2 = 15. <3 378. . + 1) 45 O 377. .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. __4 2x 3_ = !. 5*8. 5 {2 x 381. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.
f 1 1 + a 403.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar..1 . m x 398.147. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 397. 399. 396. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. c .  8 9* x ~r.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . .5 ^ ~ a: a. a. u '2 a. .6  .75 x f .2 a:  1. 40. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. b 404. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 3* 177. + 4 a. _____ . ^ (a .25 x + . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 401.5 x =r f .  J)..8 = .25.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 400. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.
Tn 6 hours .a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. far did he walk all together ? A . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 411. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.(5 I2x ~r l a) . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0.  a) 2 6 2a. hour. 18 be subtracted from the number. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . How long is each road ? 423. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.c) . 418 ~jo.278 410. 420. and was out 5 hours. (x . 421. In a if and 422. the order of the digits will be inverted. Find the number.
find : a : c. Find the length of the parts. x 427. . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .46 2): (15a 2 . 432. a. 438. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Find the fourth proportional 426. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Find the mean proportional to 429.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 435. d. 433. If a b : =5 n : 7. b. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 430. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. wi* + y= ny. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. y. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. and : b : c = 14 : 15. . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).a 2^ 8 + aft* . if . 3 and 1J. a  t>. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. a + 5. ax is \ by  ex + dy. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. . find the angles of the triangle.49 63). : i.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). 431. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). 2 2 8 2 . z 2 y.iand 22 22 I a .6 8 ). 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.& 5 ) (a 8 . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. : If is one equal 434. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Which ratio is greater. Solve 436. 428.
445. 3 a.3 y = 3 5 f 7 .4 12 . 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). Solve the following systems: 441. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 4 = 5 y + 29. 1(3  a. 7a?y = 3. c. 5 2 = 7 . 452. 446. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 459.7 y = 25. . 455. 449. 454. 5z4:# = 3. The volumes If their diameters. 456. 7 a: . 5x+4y=lQ. 56 + 10y = 7a. ?/ 447. Find the value of a. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. = 25.rf2# = l. a.35.11 y = 95. />(. x + 17 # 53.89 = q. 9ar7# = 71. 16.(or l(*2y)=0. 453. + 5y = 59. . a: a: + 5y). 3 . 7jr9y = 17. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .*. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 450. 448. 451. if 2 ft : 439. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. . 7 442. ft.. 42 = 15y + 137. 9/> = 2 . 443. /) ar a. ft. .55 y = . 444. 28 = 5 a . 457. 458. 8 x + y = 19. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.11 7.59 = 3 z. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. . 8 . a: 2y= = 1 .
?/ + 1 . i = 5. (or . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. _ 469.. 475. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.c=563y. 473. ^ + i^ = 7.+ =2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.  = 2. + eyn.7. 8 461. ax by = c \ 472. 465. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . x y 474.2y) (2 = 2J. 468. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.
if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. Find the sum and the rate of interest. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 486. to . and in 20 months to $275. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. 481. 479. the Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the numbers. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. Find their ages. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. A spends \ of his. Find the principal and the rate of interest. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 477. by 4. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find the fraction. 485. whose difference is 4. Find the number. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. years. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. . 487. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. Find the numbers. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . and in 18 months to $2180. age. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and the other number least. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. How much money less 484. thrice that of his son and added to the father's.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. 483. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age .
492. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. x y f z = 13. 2y + 3a = ll.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 3 x 500. 489. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 493. 3ar 503. 1. 4z+3z = 20. \ . = 15. + y 5 y = 101 . 494. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. + # +z= 35.z = 12.5#+2z = $x a: G. a: + // = 11. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 4 497. 498./ 504. z y x 25 . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. = 20.? + 2y = 8. 3 a: + 5=84. 5 + a. . a number . 490. 4 506. . = 209. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 8. y Solve : x +z= 5. 1+1 = 6. 2a:f 7. . a: 499. : Solve the following systems 491. 5^ 9z = 10. . 2/>3r = 4. a./ f z =a. * + 425  = . 7.z = 20. . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. x s + y z = 18J . ifi = x a. 7 + 2 z . 2 a. a. x f y f z 29 . ~ 507. z y ifi = z x 502. 496. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 e. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2 2 = 41. *i. 495. a: f z = 79.
ll" . i=a + 6 c. 523. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 36 + c. 517. + : = 1472. z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. !f == 2800.
they would have met in 2 hours. N. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. 532. Tf and run together. in 28 minutes. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. If they had walked toward each other. touches and F respectively. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. it separately ? 531.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it is filled in 35 minutes. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. . 90. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. B and C and C and A in 4 days. In circle A ABC. Find the present ages of his father and mother. 527. 530. How long will B and C take to do . Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. AB=6. What are their rates of travel? . if and L. CD. . M. L. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. the first and second digits will change places. Find the numbers. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and CA=7. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and BE. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. AC in /). Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . When weighed in water. E 533. BC = 5. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. if L and Af in 20 minutes. if the number be increased by Find the number. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526.
2 541. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 545. e. FRANCE. GERMANY. formation of dollars into marks. x 8 549. d. 546.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.10 marks. 542. The values of y. from x = 2 to x = 4.  3 x. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. the function. z 2  x x  5. 2. x 2 544. x 2 + x. . x*. 3 x 539. 2 x + 5.  3 x. if x = f 1. b. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x *x + x + 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. 543. 2. c. One dollar equals 4. The values of x if y = 2. 540. 550. 547. to do the work? pendulum.  7. x*  2 x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. then / = 3 and write = 3. The greatest value of the function. + 3. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 536. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 548. a. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.e. i. . If to feet is the length of a seconds. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2  x  x2 . Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES.
c.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. Represent meters. x* . e. h. 558. 2 567. i. 2. 566. f.13 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . x 4 . a: 559. 15. .3 .r a: a: x a. 2 554. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 3 x .= 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.15 = 0.  2 1 a: a. 555.7 = .3 x . Solve 552.r .10 x 2 + 8 = 0. c. 557.5 x . if y =m has three real roots.G . 18 x  4 = 0.3 x . 3 x* . + 10 x . z 2 .6 + 3 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 553. a. . and make the unit of the b.17 = 0. J.11 = 0. z 4 .r 1 561.11 x* + + 2 8 569. x 5 . 3 . + 5 .REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 8 . \ to t = 5.4 = 0. 563. a. a. r?. 3 + 3 z . g. 564. ' = 8.3 = 0. = 5. 572. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. j. x 2 ~ 2 . 2 a. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. If y +5 10. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 556. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.9 = 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.0. 2 x 2 560. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. . a? 4 x . 562. Solve// = 0.= 0.4 . 565.1 = 0. 568.
5 xy = 0.(1 . 596. 4 . 579. + ^) + (air%)8. 598. 588. 6 + 1) .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .x + 2 )'2 601.frf : 583. x + z2) 8 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 585 594. a 8 606.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. (1 (1 (1 . 604. (# 2) .4. 5 a*. + .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . a 2a. . f ?>) 3 591. 593. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 3 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. jj+. (a  8 ft) . + %) (a* + *) 5 . (aiy.%) 4 (aa.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2 611. 64 a 12 603. . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .2 6a: + 30 &c a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 595. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. : y* or 25. x [ ?/ 577. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 600. 3 (f. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (1 + x a. a 612. j^f = 3.2 2 + y. [ y =10. + + 4 . 9  4 fSb 607. 589. 582. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. xY. 599.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 2  2 aa: 2 . 609. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 4 a. (a. 597. a. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. a:.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 592. 2 943 ++ ~bx. a: . 4 (1a:) 3.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 608. 1 . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.
x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . VOIOOD + V582T09. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . ft . 40. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 21.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. = 87. 634.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.15174441. = . 2 + 21Ga. 651. 035. 2 + 189 z = 900. x 2 . 25023844. 639. find Jupiter's period. 8*' + 24* = 32. Find the eighth root 617. 626. 636. 630.1024 x + a: 256. 647t x 2 648 649. 49042009. 210. + 112 a 8 . 32 631. 942841.2. (x 9 x 646. According to Kepler's law. *+* = 156.49.150. 49. 494210400001.\/4090.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 622.V250 . /. 628. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 625 : 621. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 623. = 70. + 2 21 x = 100.871844. GGff. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9a. 629. 632.30. 7) 2. 44352. 3a. 645.*. 0090. 4J. 615.191209. 2. 4370404. = 0. : 5. Find the square root of 619. 633. V950484 . a 642. 620. 643. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 650. 9g. 638. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. V 635. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.2410. 371240. 624. 644. 637. + 24 a 2 4 . 614. + 54 'x*y* .53 x ~ .12 a?y + y*. x 2 641.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 __ : )'*' _i. = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 702. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. a.c = 0.bx . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.ax . 696. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 699.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2 2 697. 695. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 692. . 694. . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 693.a a )jr . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. ax 2 698. 707. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 708. 706. ex abc= fx 0.
725. . Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 716.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 723. 722. in value. 16 x* . needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. How shares did he buy ? if 726. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.44#2 + 121 = 0. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. sum is a and whose product equals J. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. **13a: 2 710. 721. 217 .292 709. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 724. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find two numbers whose 719. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 729. A equals CO feet. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 3or i 16 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. a: 713. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. In how many days can A build the wall? 718.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 12 4*+  8. 727. Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 717.
43. 46.2 ). 32. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2)(x2 4. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2? 50. 35. (v/x).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52. 34. 40. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 33.1 f ^ 2). 37. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 f c" ).l). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 39.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). . 1 6. n.X . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 + x. 31.aft* 1 + a 2*. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 36. 38.)(ai + &. 41. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 42. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).1 + c. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). .
[1r^ T 1 i . 758. 761. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 759. JU. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776..294 753. 754. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.1+J 756. ~ r* x . 768. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2V2 2V3 .
IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 786.2V3* ^ 807. + 2V21. 92VI5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 103 788. 14 791. 13 799. a 9442V5. 789. . Va 809.4 V(j. 16 + 2V55. .2 V30.12VIT. 10 785. 787. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 3J . x 782. 794. 783. 7512V21. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 3812VIO. 806. . 793. 790. c 792.VlO.
V? = 813. V3 f 1 V4a. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 811.13 = 0. /9ar a: = 17.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 814. V14 a.79. \/12 a. 829.  5 + V3 f 12 817. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 831. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 815. 818. 833. 816.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.V2 ar 10. + Vx . + ViTli + V7 .\/2y  810. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 836. 819. 820.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 3 x + 2 .f 5 = V5x + 4. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. = 1. x/aT+l . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 830.g. Va: . 812. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. VaT+lJ f ^l . + 103Var.Vc^lJ .4 = 0.
a. 4 x* 847. z*y 8 l64a. 840. 863. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 846. 8 4a: 8 a.3 . 856. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 9. a 8 850. 19 x 14.28 a 4 xy 8 80.a.12. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. + 1.10 = 118. 27 862. a. 2 x 3.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a*" & 6n . 8 2a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. x 8 2 857.x*y + 3x f 2. 864.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 2 f" + a/ 15. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 875. 871. . +3 4 +  4.3 Va: 2 . x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 876. . 861. 870. a.1.1000 6. 275 8 l. 4o.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 2 a: 64 y*. 4 a: 2 842. f b**. . a: . a. 8^27^. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. f 841. 8 860. + .  3x a. 16 859. . V4 x 2 . a 872. a 8 869. 27 y 8. 64. 8 8 848. 8 a. a l0m . 5 a 4 7 a8 . x 4 + f 2 a. a: 849. 839. a. a 18 4. 64 a 866. 851. + 512 y8 874. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 845. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 . 4 a. 853.3 x . 844.3 a:. a 8 873.ab9 ft*. 852. . y 4. a. 4 x 8 858. f 12. 868. 8 8  13 a. 855. 6. 865. 729 867.
a. y = 28. M1 891 1 . ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 + xy = 28.Vi' + 1 1_3. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a: a.y 2) = 20. 2 + y 2 . 885.y 2 + V(j. . f a: a: 4 ?y = 481.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. + ary + 2 = 37. x*xy. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 896. a. + 2y=\2. 886. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 1 x 893. . a. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. . y 2 2 8f. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. y*+ xy . a# f + xy = 126. 2 2 = 16 y. xy + y = 32. x a: lI = xz . 895. 3 x 2 . a:y . y y 2 y 2 1121. 890.sy = 198.1 = 2 a#. a: + y 2 = 34.35. x 882. 883. a: 2 897. 2 . .18.298 877. 901.xy + y 2 = 19. 887. a: 888.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 878. y 2 4. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. f ?/ a: a: . 899. z 2 898.15. +y f y = 7. . xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + xy = 10. a: 884. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.5 xy + 4 f = 13. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 894. 2 . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 5. . 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 = 2 + 5. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 900. 889. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x 8 3 = 13:3.
y + a:y = 180. 23 x 2 . yz = 24. x 2 ry + y = 3.y2 = 22. * + y = 444. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. (a. 910.y) (a? . = 8. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0.y) = 33. a:y xy 929.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . .#y + 2 = 27. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. (o. 4 (a. + a. + ?/) .3) 2 f (y . y . + y = 9.r a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). xy + x= 15. a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. a: y zx 12. 921. x + y 2 = aar. a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 2 2 916. 912. xa 903.y) (3 y . 914. 3 :r(3 . (* 918. y 3 2 2 922. + ary = a*. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. . y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 907. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y). . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. x f 2 a:y = 32.2 y) = 49 2 919. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.3(* + y) = 6. 2 924. 917. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 7 y . + y 8 = 189. 2 + y = 2 a 4. or or a? a: a: . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 906. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. ^ 2 . 2 913.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.23 = 200. x + y}(x + y) = 273.x) = 21.6. + y)(a. 911. 909. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. (!) * . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.3)2 = 34. x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 5 xy = 11. Vary + y = 6. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 2 * 2 ~ g. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 905. + 2 a:y + = 243. *y . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 908. ary y = 8. 2 915. (3 x . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.16 y 3 8 = . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. + 2 ary = 39. 923. 920.y = a(ar + y). a: a. y x 2 = by.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. # + xy + y = 7.
The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. A and B run a race round a twomile course. Tf there had been 20 less rows. two squares equals 140 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet.square inches. and also contains 300 square feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. In the second heat A . 2240.300 930. 152. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. If each side was increased by 2 feet. A is 938. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. + z)=18.000 trees.102. is 3 . and the sum of their areas 78$. 34 939. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. Find the numbers. Assuming = y. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 944. is 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. How many rows are there? 941. diagonal 940. find the radii of the two circles. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. . = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. 942. rate each man ran in the first heat. a second rec8 feet shorter. and 10 feet broader. A plantation in rows consists of 10. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 943. (y + *) = . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. y(x + y + 2) = 133. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 931. 937. two squares is 23 feet. and the difference of 936. *(* + #) =24. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two numbers Find the numbers. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 935. Find the sides of the rectangle. feet. + z) =108. s(y 932. feet. is 20. y( 934.
the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. is 407 cubic feet. 953. . overtook miles. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. triangle is 6. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. unaltered. . 952. sum Find an edge of 954. set out from two places. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. P and Q. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the eter 947. 950. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. whose 946. and if 594 be added to the number.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. What is its area? field is 182 yards. and travels in the same direction as A. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Two starts travelers. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. . A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. Find the number. A and B. and its perim 948. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. 951. distance between P and Q. its area will be increased 100 square feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find in what time both will do it. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find the number. and that B. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find its length and breadth. 949. each block. the digits are reversed. that B A 955.
. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).to infinity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.. ^ Vfirst five 959. to n terms. 958. 974.. . are 1 and sum of 20 terms.  2. 5. 957. . (x 4 to n terms. (to 2 n terms).. 964. 970...141414. 16 962.321? 965. 3 + 5 7 + .454. Find n. f + 1 . Find n f (ft) . 5.. P. to 7 terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . . 9th and llth terms of an A. !Ll^ + n . 1 to n terms. 971. Sura to 24 terms.. 966. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. P.. Evaluate (a) . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. '.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. + (iiven a +  4 d . Sum to 20 terms. P.. Find the sum of 4. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Sum Sum to infinity.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. ^ 1 . 1G series .. fourth of the unity. P. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 975. \ . 3 . n to n terms. 972.. and 976.3151515. = 4. 18th terms of an A. J.... difference.v 973. to infinity. Find an A. 969. are 29 and 53. *" 968. 12434+ j I 967. Find the Find the common 977..V2 .. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 36 963. 961.1 4 f j$V .>/) to infinity. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. s  88.302 956. 4.4142 . the terms being in A. 4 4 to 7 terms . x(x to 8 terms.
all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.04 + . to n terms. Find four numbers in A.. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.. 989. P.) the last term the series a perfect number. to oo. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. The 21st term of an A. 2 grains on the 2d. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . and of the second and third 03. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The term. 5 11. first 984. to infinity may be 8? . 992. and the common difference. to 105? 981. 1.2 .. is 225. 303 979.1 + 2. The sum 982. Find four perfect numbers. 990. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 987. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard..001 4.3 ' Find the 8th 983. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .+ lY L V. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. of n terms of an A. Find n... Find the first term. Find the sum of the series 988. and so on. 986. 980. P. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. P.01 3. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. . "(.001 + . : + 9   V2 + . 4 grains on the 3d.. 0. 985. named Sheran.
998. 1001. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. (a) after 5 strokes. ABC A A n same sides. P. 1003. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . and so forth to infinity. P. areas of all triangles. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 994. are 28 and find the numbers. The fifth term of a G. (6) the sum of the infinity. prove that they cannot be in A. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 995. and G. 997. AB = 1004. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 999. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. If a. are unequal. P. in this circle a square. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. find the series. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. at the same time. . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. of squares of four numbers in G. The sum and sum . (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 512 996. ft. c. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. inches. Two travelers start on the same road. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 1000. is 4. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. in this square a circle. Under the conditions of the preceding example. many days will the latter overtake the former? .
1006. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. (1 1018. 1014. .ft) 19 . a: 8 7. Find the middle term of ( . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .l) w f .iV 2i/ 5 . Expand  2 a. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. + lQ . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 2 ) 5. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . . Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the 1 5a  6 V . (12 #) 7 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1008. ) 1021. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1009. Find the middle term of 1020.o/) 14 . 1012. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. 1011.
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.178 Completing the square ... . ... . simple simultaneous . 129 54. . . signs of Algebraic expression .... numerical .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 123 . ... 249 246 20 10 23 193 . .. ..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. ... 9... . 129. 246 91 " multiple.] Abscissa Absolute term . 97.... . quadratic .. t 53 120 . .. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.. .. 232 169 807 .. 158. Aggregation.241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. 232 mean progression . . 9 ** . Checks Coefficient 20. lowest ratio " '* . 37... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. .. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . linear literal Common ** * difference . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. graphic tion of representa . . . .. 112 54 54 251 . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. .. Brace Bracket Character of roots ..108 160 " .193 11 . 8 . .130 . . 19. . 54.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. .. ..
227 . Negative exponents 11 .. . 241 123 geometric . 184 54. inversely 122 numbers .. .. . Like terms Linear equation .. 45. . addition of " square of . 84. 120 Member. .. Known numbers . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. 63.C Multiplication . . first and second .808 Exponent Exponents.. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 9. 23 10 91 102. L. 227 geometric .. 45. Imaginary numbers . . . . . . 34.108 Minuend . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. 253 28 70 1... . 195 33. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. P . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 45 Laws of signs . 205 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. Product '* 76 Infinite. 91 .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 143. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. numbers . 17 65. 189. Mathematical induction .31. 180. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . Inconsistent equations . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . .. arithmetic . .. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Insertion of parentheses .154 Order of operations " of surds . . . law of Extraneous roots . Geometric progression . G. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 212 . 114.251 Graphic solution of simultane. . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . . 243 7 . directly. 109 102 . . .. exponent . . INDEX 8 . 112 . .
polynomial . 129. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. . Sum... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 45 Trinomial 240 . ....... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. ... 9. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. . 4 155 9 " of .... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 27 17 Unknown numbers . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . . ...... algebraic Surds .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.... absolute 54 Variable ..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Set up and electrotypcd. NorfoooS J. 1913. . Reprinted April. Norwood. Gushing Co.A.S.. 8. Published September. August. 1916.COPYRIGHT. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. Berwick <fe Smith Co. December. 1910. Mass. U. 1917.
37. 17. 15. 16. 6. 2. Ot 15. 24. 6.8. V 23. 14. is $10. 17. 7. 10. 2.21 24. (a) (/>) 1. 17. 8 ft. 2  Page 8. Yes. 11. 28. 7. $ 1 50 10. 73. 19 4. 2. B $ 128. 18. 7. 3. 6. 20. 512. 48 ft. 11. 9. 14. 3. 9 16  larger than 7. 10. 16. 22.000. 11. 576. A $90. 1. 24. 3. .12. 6 yd. 3. 1. 9. 4. c. 8. 8 13. 27. 22.000. 12. 19. 16. 5. 8. Page Page Ilis expenditures. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 7.  1. 5. 14 11. 5. 5. 9. 0.000. 3. 13. 72 = = 216. 144. 16. b. 1. 30?. South America 46. in. ft. 256. 15. 7. 1. 1..C. 9. 1. 10. 14.. 1. 20. 6.. 13 d. 12.. 1. 14. 12. 10.  2 p. . Not 5. loss. = 5 81. $40. in. 15. 11. 3. 20 \. 6. 2 5. 32..00000001.3. 128. 21. C $ 16. 29. 17. 2. 1. 10. 15.150. 2. 2 ~ 15. 3. 5. 10. 32. 16 in.  13. 21.000. 6. 2.  1. 12. 2. 3. B $4700.. 2. 13 S. 12. 9 = 4. 13 V. 13. 2. 5. 210. 12. 3. . 19. ^. 16 in. 106. 4. 25. 13. 1 16. 9. 16. 1. C $1(50. 26z. 2. 12. A . A Bl 7. sign.$9400. 20 jo. Page 4. . 25. Page 1. B $20.000 Indians. 3. 17. 4. 7. 6. 15.000 negroes. 126. 3. 13. 2. 7. B $80. 9. 25. 2. + 1. 115. 36.000. in 12. 32. 8. 10. 89. 3. 16. 7. 3. 85. 14. 6. 32. 4. 10g.1. 30.2. T . per sec.. 14. 4. 4. 20. 2. 2. 1.000. 9. 18. 20. 9.000. 37 S. A 38 mi. B 10 mi. 6. 8. 64. 9 14. x.  22 20. 6. 8. $100. 16. 24. 3 m. 13. 14. 16f 2. 3. _ 32. 1. 18. 192. 0. 6* 16. 7. 6. 10. 6. 7m. A 15. 49. 23. 59. Multiplication. x. Page?. 3.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. }. 12. 1. 18. 29. 25. 1. 18. 9 m. 8. 3.. $160. sign. 16. 5. 27. i . 8. 28. 5. arithmetic.000. 21. 3* 7. 27. 20 B. 12. 49. 18. 3 below 0. Page 8. 4. Australia ft.. 14. C $60. 26. . 5000. 1. 150. westerly motion. Page 13. 3. 16. 19. 11. 9. 12.
4. 18.r~ f 34. 18. 30. 7 7. 0. 43w//2 17. 5. 20. 7. 11. 4. 7. ^). .. 39. 27. 15a. 42. 0.. 14. sq. (a) 200. 8. 17. 1. 2x' 2 5 .1. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 4. Page 31. 28.. 3. 0. i:5. ??i??. 13.  0. 3 a* + 2 at*. 9. 38 ab. 31. 17. . 3 . 10. 33. 104. 1. 4.. 3. m + 3(a.'J. 18. o^ft. 12 a. 11. 21. _ 4 .. 26. 13. 17. 34.5 (ft) sq. (r) 2G7. 2oVmf?i. 50. (r) 2000 m. 15. 0.. 22. 3. . 9. w. t. ft' 3 .ab. Pagel4r.4  2ft 2 33. 33.. WIN + wiw. 36. 5.. 92. Page 21. a 32. vi 14.  11.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 32 2 ftc.32 c2 > ft 3 . a2 4 15^44. x^ 20. 19. (a) r>23ifcu. 9.GOG. Va'+Y2 8^2 . in. arty 1 20. 8. 173. ft. 41. 29.a . 19. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.rty8. 4. 4 9/^/rl 2. 21 a 3 4 10. 23. 1. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 3. r+l. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 34. c. 12.~4. 25. 8. 27. 28. \'\ 4. 21. Polynomial. 237. 17. Binomial. + v> 2 . 12.r 2 . rt. 5x+3. 3.<>Gq. ft f 19. 10. 00 24 04 ft. 35. 13. 18. jrif 4 9. II. 31.9?/2 8. 15. 19. 2.. (ft) 7. ft.14 sq. 51 f. 8. 12. in. 14. 1. ft n. 18. 28. 58. 24. 25. (ft) 12. 12. 1. 240. 9. +/2(/. 21^. 8. f  5e 35. 16. 3. Page 18. 2ftx. . 04. 0. (ft) mi. 16.6) 38.4 ft. 21. 30. (a 4 4. ft. 20. 20. = 81. + 5. 2. 25. 27. #1111. :. 3(c4a). 11. 314 sq. r:A 29. 24. 0. 27.  xV 3 y. 13. 13. 1. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 2. 15. yyz+xyz*.  3. 3. 16. 16. 15. . ^.r f 15. 2. r/ \(\xyz. 5.'JO ft. 38. 7. $3000 Page 6. 8. 9. (ft) $40. 14. 0. 10. 27. 15. 17. Monomial. a ft c. 2.. (r) 2. :J!>r'. ft. 2. y. . 1. mi. 12. 0. 6<t. 3a.ft. 11. <i~ 26. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). (a) <> sq. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 7. 14. 13.. (c) 8.  40. 5. (r) 78.. 27. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 22( 19. 20(. 26. 5. 12. . (a} 100 1(5 cm. It. //'. 22. $80. 14. Polynomial.ft) 4. 5. 32. 22. Trino inial.x. m 24. 14. = ()501.000 sq. 16. 3. (a) 50. (b) 135 mi. . in. 36. 5. 22. 7. 1. 32.. Page 23. 0. (59. (ft) Page 2.000 .  12. 49.  1. 31. 37. 29. . 0* Page 3 w" 0. 6. 6. 3. 57. (c) S(i. 8.ii ANSWERS Page 11. in. 35.900. 14:). 4 y/ . I. 35.94(>. 15.q 4. 5. 13 cu. 6.5f> sq. 14. Page 7. 23. ft. + ft). 30. 12yd.3 * 10 r5 <3 . ]*. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 4. 1. 3rf 27. 8.
5. Exercise 16.  14 afy . 22. . 4. 2a: 2 4x. 10 x.1 .l.  a: 2. + 2y. a a. (yz~d}. t). a' 4ab + ?/. 4.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .3x 2 2 tf. 10. 19. 31. 20. '  .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 43. 2 3. + 4 c. 11. 14.  12. x  + 3z. 18. c. 4. 29. 16. 55. . 3. 30. 25. !  </ . ab a. a 3& . 17. a  ISjfat. 5. Page 44. w 17. ri\ 18. 1 4. 4. 2. 36. ' 12 m?/'2 27.c.ws 2 ft) . . 5. n*. ?> 22. 2m + 2w. (5x47 3. 12. 8 8 . 2 2 2 6. 15. (mn} 11. a 4 + ft. 7.  b. 9. G. 36. a 3 . ar. 50. 4wipg>' 27. :5 41. 15.h. a2 9. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2. 24. Page 28. 8 + 2 a . 5. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 28.a . (2n' 43p 47 ). ti. 8. 25.r. . 3 m. 2 .1. 31.  1.. a 52. x a8 1. 7. 21. 32 w 2 w.x f 1 2 . 34. a).2 a2 2m 2 4.'U4j>.5 z?/ + 3 y . 8. 32. 1.aft. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 6. 2 2. M + 10. 7  a + 2 + c. 1 + 45. 2m. 3. 8 b. 7 a5 1 . + 8.Oa: + 10. ?>4tl 53..  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2 17. + 6. . 8. 2 6.abc. 40. . 4 21. . c. 3 a3 & 41. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 19. 17. a 6 2 .4. ( 7. w* ( . 33. 11. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 0. a f 2 f 2 9. 6. . mn. ii\ 22.(2 x2 . 8 . \ :{ 2 a 48. 6.2 a.  b* 4 r 1 . 12.2 57.11. 10 m. a 3a 4 2 &. 26. j)(g1.a*. 13. 3. 14. a + (ftc4df).5 4 2 3 ?/ . 11. Page 8. 15.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.(7x2 Ox2). 2 + a4l). _ Page 30. lOrt 15w4. x3 . 14. a  49. 2. 5x 2 rt ft. 3 a . 37. 7.r 2. 20.4x. 1. 7  # + 12. ^ <.4 d.8(c + a). . 2 3x f z. 25 47. 26. 2. 1. 2. 4. ft Exercise 17. 2. 18. 2. 22. 19. s_r>a5. 2// 16. .6 x + 0) 16. 1. 4.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 16. 2 y' 4 . a + a. 2x 4 a 13. Page 7. 21. 10. 10.2. a4 4 4. 20. 12.5. 24. 1. 34 39. 2a. 56. 2.2 ft 2 r2 10. 6. 58. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2 . 14. 42.7. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 3 Ji 8 . 18. 24. r. . 38. a2 24. ?/. 5 2 Page 29. 1. 35. c2 . . ?/i 13. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 13. f 2 ?/  2.a~. 59.  4 b 17 y*.a'2 . 814. _5a<>&43c. a 10w. G a bd. (w4w)(ww). . 51.3 6. 4ft ~. 2 4. . . m*  n*. a. 4r 2 . 24 b 46.a f 54. + c 4 d x + 6 e. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve.  17. 2.4c 3 8 8 J. 2 a 37. 0. f ft 9. 12. 2. 2 a f 6 414. 7. 25. &. 0.2 .  23. 21. 26. . 364c.
38wiw. 3. 27. (+3)x6=+16. 76 8 a' 1 . 30.. ! 2. 66 8W 34. 30 j9 jt?g j . 161b. 14f 5. 2 7t A. 29. 18. 14.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 19.8 12. 31. 102. 108. 16. ll 2 i. ?/ . m. 9. 12. 29. 8 . 84. 4 a8 . 1904. 4. 1. 27.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 6 . iSx8 . 29. . 28. 17. 25 4 4. 33. 4 a2 .12. 14 m 2 . 216. 2.6 2 .1. 14. Page 3. 3. 24. 28. 17. 161b.000. 13. .r% 2 2 ry. 13. 24. . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 9. 4. 2. 22. 26. Ox a 5 . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 108. 24.21. 19. 33.:>/ .25 x* + 25 x + 20 .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 90. 16. 23. a 8 . 20. 18. 36. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 4. 19. . a. 2''. 60. 1. 3 a 3 . 0. . (x f ?/)  a 12 10.6) =a2 31. 52 + 6s 12. 32. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 4aWy. 2*8f x2 6x4. 210. . .>(/ r . 8. .44 aWc 16 abxy. 25.36 35. 7.16 a 2 + 32 a . 10. 30. 17. 20. 60.2. 20 aW. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 23. x2 xy42^. 31. 11.. 15 q\ 6. 27.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .14 w 2 2 . 24. 27. 83 In + 1 n*. 18> ^* = a . 0. 4. 38 a*b 6 : 24. ?> 4 . 30. 22. 14. n (a6) 125. Page 7. ci 5 . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 64.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. a: . ISartyW e*f*tj. 12 x2 2 . 16 lb.16 x2/ 5 4.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .32. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. Page 36.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .18 w w + 10 WI M . 21 a'&c.32 y s s G .22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 20.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 12 ^. 2 + aft 4 ft 2..14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 11. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 2 w +2 2 . . 3. 24. 8. 25. 10. 18. 28. 8. . 40 r 2 .14 . 18. 15. 1.28 p'^/. . 5aft(a 126 2). 17. ft 17. 360. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 120.19p" + 19^ 10 . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . f 26. 34. 20. 13. 42. 22. 3. 33. 1. 2 . 1. 16. . + 7. 16 51. 9. a + ft. 4 fc. 14. 04. 6". 32. 1. 5. 30. 2. 8. 4 7> 4 :j !} .21 a 3 c2 21. 12. 7. 2 * 80 . s 9 ww. +. 30.20 xyz . 66 39 k* . Page 5. 6. 6. 10. 7. 34. 6. 12. 5. 15 lb. 16. 22. 15. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 10. a. 6. 4 jcy*z*>. 127"'. 23. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 2 ). +15. 343. 2. 2 a2 (y 2 . ^^ = 20. 15. fa 2. 11.69 rt + 21 132 + r . + O4 66 .. a.19 + 2.15. 216. 26. 19. 4200. 3 a 2 46. 1. 2 ). 34. 4. 18a% y. 7.7(50. 21. 20. 770. 15. 1400. 42. 13. 18. 37. 3300. 35. 21. 25. 4. 8. + 58 . //. 21. 30. Page 35. 15. 11.25 + 14. 2 2 2 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. a*b*c.26. 30 n?b*c*.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 25.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 7G . 13. . .12. Page 38.(3x2_4^+7). 29. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 3(*+0 + 2). 28.11 xyz . 18. 16. etc.64 190 p6. 9 13. 27. 20. 23.
x* . 33.r* 2 30. 38. 4 . 14. 166.8.2 6 + 13. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 4. 10.25. 2 j3 Z . 24. + 4 t*. 31. 30 x + 19 x3 . 9999.x2y22. 36 a 4 . 28. 2). 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. .3. +   5). Om2 4 6m 6.001. (a (3 54.098. x 48. 37. 2 . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.000. 2 +10s281. 44. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 3. 53. I/). 4 . 2 1: 21. . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. n + 2.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 41. ^V^4 . 29. . 4 x2 13. 4 2 //. (a + 4) (a + 2).m 30 6 4 1. r. 14. 998. 999. 10.009. 55. a + 25. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 10.49. + 4 a +4.008. 7> . 32. + 10 + 121 y*. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 2 6' . 16. 2 a 2 + a . x2 GiC+5. . 41. 9801.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . + 2 9. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. a + 56. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 484.810. . ~ 6 20 . 15. p4 + . ( 5) O5)(w + 3).004. n2 a4 6. 1. 33.712.^V"' . 10./ . 33. ' 46. a4 4 ?/ . 5. ) 4' 6/ 49. 40. 42. lflrt 2 8 + l. 25 a 2 6 2 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 31. 7.84 a' 9.14 jp + 49. .10 x + 25. 2 62 V2 132. y. (p 2. 19. (w+4)(m4). 36. 36. 52. 10.p132. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 1. 2 (5 a 3). 23.404. ab . 2 12.16 a3 f 50. x4 28. 17. 57.020. 8. 9. . 5. 51. 3. 7 . 36. + 12. 441. 2 4 a + 4.2 x + 2 x. 15. 4. +4 34.20. 2 fr . 4x21.2 y*. 35.5 ~ 81.35 ab 9. (m + 6)(m3).994. 2 m3 + 4m2 .6 x2 13. 25. 27.500. 2. 1. ab. 2 . 1). 35. . 3wi2 m Page 42. 8 38. 26. a3 0. 39. . 34. . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 7. + 3)(3).6. 30. ?/H)0. 2 0)(p + 5). 11. 10. 2 a' y' . 7. ^/> 8 4 . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 9. . 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 6. 2 4 2 2 64 . 30 /><. G a6 2. m 3 j) 3 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 4 + 25 q*.009.10 35. 1. Page 12.15. 9990.54 p 2 + 81.1. . 10 a 4 ?. 12 x2 . 1. 27. m 2 .020. 990. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). a + 25. a 2 . 2.996. 8.6 y4 10. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 4 21.. 19. 32. +  m' 1. . 10. fo*. ^' J  7 f 12. 18. 40. 29. 37. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. .^. 8 a W .ANSWERS 28. 25 25.ab . 9 4 /> . 14. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 24.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). s rc 47.00 + 37. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 40.ri 17.4 12.6 xy . 10. 20a 2 21a + 4. 21 2 . x*2^f I. 31. 1. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 11. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. a2 ' + 48Z100.2.000. . 26. 10. p 2 . 10.201. 39. 34. 56.^ + a? + 1. ft' 11. 6. a' . 8. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.. Page 39.r . V + o ft .r . .606.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 45.4 n.4 a&+ 4 &*. 10. 10 a' 2 . (n 2 5. 4. (w4)(w + l).
x4. . 8 x .2 ac . y 7. 4. 125. 19. 75 a 2 29. 4xy + 13 <) .1. . 23. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.  3 c. 2 ?/ 4.21 2 2 f + .2 aft 4. . 17.1. 10. 15.1. 2 12. 13. 13.VI ANSWERS 43.r?/. 135. 12. 2 ?/' . 5.5 mp. 4. 10 ft.2 ar. 3. m L 4. + 3.2 1 //. 7a3ft. 6. j) . + x?/ 2 1. w . 4 pq. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . . 12.> 10. '. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 9. 1. 44.  . /r . 4 d 2 4. 9. 4 ac. 7 r . c 12. 15. . a 4 4 ft. 6. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 17. 47.r' ~ 16. 22.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .9 4. 1. 3.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.5 a . 20.1. 5. 6. 2 . r/2 4. 16.1. . Exercise 2 a:// 26. 18. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 2 4 3 9.30 ftc.2 2 2 8 . 4 c m . // 19. 26. 2.1. 8. 1. 4. ft. 5^418(7. 5.10 xy*. x 2 + 2r f J. 5.2. ft 17. w 2 . Exercise 27. 1/*. 13. 8 ?/ . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . ft* ft / . +w . 3. . 4ft. aft. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 1. 6.000. 2. 10. c3. 2 4. 13. 3 a. a 8 4. . 4 x.3 ry. Osy.2 ftc .1*5 2 r 2 . abc 7.2 <</.8 yn .3^V. ti'jry1 7. 7. x 4. f>r* 4. a. 5.24 . 50. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 4 a* 4 9 11.2 wZ 4. 12.1. 14.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.5 n*. 8. 2. a 10. 8.8. 3. . 4.rw f 8 . . 3. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 1. . 2 ^r ???' 2 .15. 19. 5. 4. 3.n. Page 11. *3 y 4 . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. + 4. 5 4 a Oft. 8. 12.2 . 16.23. 18. r 7. 5. 5. 8. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 49.2 2 .15 21. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 1.r ?/ ??i ?). 1. aft 12. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. _ 2 a . 01. 24. 4. .4.6 :rs 4.  5 z* . Page 51. 2. . G. 14 r 2 .25. 9. . 9. 3 aft 20. aftc 52. 20 15.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 8. 4 a 2 4. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .2 . 5 a  (5 ft. 12.25 c .3 5. i 9. 2 2 + 2 a. 2 a 3 ft. 1.27 x 2 4.9 d. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 13. 21.34.2 . 8 ?/ . Page 7. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. Page 13. Page 22. 16.3 a 41. sr 11.  10. ??. i 2 tji. 6x 3.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .r" 20 S? .rw. 4x43?/. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. as _ 10 16. 10. 14. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 11. . 14. 11 4.3 x 2 2 4. 2. yfl.7.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .  11.  12 y 25.12 aft 4 20 ac .29. 14. ?/2. 2 4 2 x 4. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 13.r .r'^ 15.8. 46. 11.w. 14. 4. :r !>./ 4. 2 ? 14 .r?/ j/. ft ? ft' ft ft. 21. 9. 17. 1000 1000 . z. 2 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. l 4 . a 2 . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . m'2 3. r ft.8 y. 4.10 2 + z 2 410.+ 77 15.3 3. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . r//. 5.lit x + 4.x^. 6. 2. . Page 48.y3.
I. 8.. }f. 13. 31. = 5 ?i x 460. 19. 800 = x + 1300. ct. 1. (</) 2a. 17. 4 f 39. 4. 13. 46. f (I. 10. l. 16. + 3 = 2(3* . m +~m 3.r ct. . y 50. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 12. 26. 34. r>?imi. 4. 16. x 2y 10 act. ft. 6.. 14. !).(3x+ = rraxlO. rn mi. 10 a. 6. '^ . iL*. y 2z p= 3 (a c. ft.  1$. 30. f 6)(o 62. 17. 10. 4^ = 100.. 7. 15. 7. x.200) f(^ + (e) 200. x 49. x + 1=a. 2x + 35. 2. 0. y ?>i x + 26. 32. 3x2. Page 6. s. 17. . (> 27. Page 13. 16. b. 35. ( a f 4. 14.  />) a = all. ^ 12 sq. lO. f = eZ 2 x. 44. 5. d + !. 1.10) 100. 4. 11. x 48. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 38. 4. 21 2. 3 9. 1&. 7. 59. 33. 7. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 10) + = (a) 2 x . ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 58. 20.x700. 38. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. ? 43. 100 2. Jj12. r tx mi. Page 40. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 22. # + 20yr. 40. 10 >_&. . . 15. . 2b. 2=10. 37. x = m. + f + b 2. 47. (>. (c) 2x. d. 22. ct. 9. (a) ' 12. 6. 5.  9 = 17 a. . 1. 11. 45. 8 n  10 yr. m+ 11. 7. 13.ab a. 9. 60 25 1. 5. 39. I. 44.  6 10. 7x 2 Page 21. 5. 5. y yr. 25. 6. + 3x + 2y + 32. 23. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. ct. 18. n M.7). 2. b. 50= L 100 15. 23. 2. 57. 2. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 4. Page 61. x y $ 6 yr. 19. . 2b 22. 0. 1. 18. vil 56. v (6) 2x. 37. 36.100. / + y + a// 12 yr. 2 ct. 4(a ft) c = 8. 20. xy ft. 25. 41. <>. 7. 7. 3x  1700) = 12.  2\. 5. 41. 10 x sq. 6. (2 a. ft. lOx 10 + w. a 10. 10. fix. ] 2 ri 42. sq. 'nj 100 a 28. 8. + 10 b + c ct. Page 31. 10. 12. 33. 1. 36.6 = *. X 60.ANSWERS Page 9. 100= ^. 2. 42. " lir.000. % 4. a 8.rr2. 20. 29.. 11. 3. </ 20.(3x  700) = 5. 00. y 100 a 24. 28. 27. 10 yr. 43.r1. 30. 3. + 4x 3y 34. 29. (A) 3 x f (4 x . "mi. 2. 100 14.p+7. 100 d ct. 3. 24.
.000 pig iron. 16.. 7a*fe(2a & l). 8 in. 11. 17. 12. + 7)(y3). 8. 2. Page Page 4. 2. 10 yr. 72. 82 mi.21. 480. 29. 13. 4. 15 in. 9. 3.2). a a (a 8 a+l). (y + 8)(y2). 10 Mass. 15.411. 7. 3 (a +&)(*. 1200. 600. (*4)( + 11. 80 A.. (y7)(y + 2). 13..16. 1. (a + 6) (a + 3). 7 hr. 200. 30. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).3aftc + 4).. 200. 6. 9. 18..8.5. 11. 1200. 14. 70^. 74. 13. 14.000 copper. 180.. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 5pt.. 2 3 6 7.3.. 5 Col. 75. 5. 68. Page 7.1). 28yr. 6.11. 14. w (/) 64. 8. 78. 25.000. 8. 300. ?(g ? g+ 1). 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).0. 18. 10 Cal. 1. 85 ft. 6. 3. 5.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 9. 2 2 2 5.5. 2. 67.000 ft.13. 9. $40. (a + 4)(a + 8). 5. 30 yr. ^ . 20 yr. 250. 5. 71. Y.6).000 gold.(5z .000. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 4pt. 55. 12.5p + 7 g ). 20. . 6rt 2 11. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 3. 13. (a 4) (a. (e) i* + A. 30. Page 5. (p + 7)(3a5&). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 20.000 Phil. 05. . 11 pV (2 p8 . 2. 11 in. 2. 25 yr. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 7. 90 mi. 100. 90. 19. 6. 15 mi. 20 yd. 24J..000 ft. Page Page 480 12. 8. 11 w(w' + wi . 3. 9. a 12. 78. (yll)(y4). 1 lb.24.. 100 1. 10. 10 yr. 15. Pace 65. ~=90.3). 4. (m + n)(a + 6).000. 11.000. Ib. 42yr. (c) ^ v ' . 12.79. 2. 25. 4. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 12. 14. 50. 7.2.22. 20. 70.y"). 4. 18. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 14. . 8. 1.000 Berlin.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. (y8)(y + 2). 3 hr. Page 7. (ro3)(w2). 20 yr. 160 lb. 3x (3r. 12. 1. (y 13. 22. 15 yd. 15. 5 lb. 3. (a + 5)(a + 6). 52. 7. 6.000. ( + 4)(*2). 2 2 ?/ 21. 7.. 10. = _?_(2ar + 1). 8. 1313. by 12 yd. 12. 4. 6. 13. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 10. 30 mi. Page 79.3. 40 yr. 11. 10 yd. 3.000. (a5)(a4). 9. 6..  PageSO. 9. 8 12. 8. 15. 4. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 2). 1. (z5)(z2). Oaj(o62cd). 15. 1.000... 5$ hr. 3. Page Page 4. 10. 2$. 10. 5. 1. 1250.210^. 10.000 N. 6. 23.7. 8 2 19.0. 7. 150. 10. 21. 12 mi.10. 17.. 45 in. 14. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 8. 9 in. 2. .
Yes.4 6). (0 + 6)(66). 22. 9. (15z2y)(x5y). 9. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 6. 24. y) (a.2 by2 6. 1.r2). 16. 10(a . 8) (a. Yes.6) 2 2 . 10. Yes. 2).8). 9.y4 ). 28.7) (a. (6 a. Page 84. 30.  x (5 a. (9y4)(y + 4). 2. 23. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 20. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 26. 25. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 18. (4 18. 21. 29. (2 *+!)(* 9). (m + n +p)(m + wp). (2xl)(x + f>).+4 y)(3x4 y). . No. (a + 8)(a3). + y + .9*). (g . (6n + l)(+2). . 100 (a. + 3)(c44). 16. 36. (m + w) 2 5. 14. 20. 216 aft. 19.2 y). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 13. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 3a. 23. (2yl)(y + 9). 31. 12. 11. 2 2 15. . 10. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). + 0(90 Page 85. Yes. . 4. 8. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). . ( 2 4 19. 27. 3.11 6) (a 4. Yes. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . a 2 (w7)(w + 3).11 ft)(a6). 19. (3a. 4. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 1. (a 3 + 10)(a. 23. Yes. 9. . 15. (13a +10)(13a 10). 32. Yes. Yes. + 2y). 5. 2 No 4. 32. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 28.. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (y + 4)(yl). . (a a: 19. 11. (w* (3a26). 35. No. 10. . 9. (15ay2) 2 . (3#y)(+4y). 25. 10. (x + y4 )(x . (m7n) (a. 31. 7. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 40 x. 12. 8. (ft + ll)(aftll). y) 2 29. . (15a + 46*)(16a46). Page 83.3). 26. 24. 27. y(x. (w + 20)(w + 5). 3)(3a. (5x .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 10 a 2 (4 . + 9^)(oxy .1). 23. No. . 2 3 by2 Yes. 35. 3(x + 2)(zl). a(2u. 10(a + ft)(aft). (2w+l)(ro + 3). 14.5y)(3a.1). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (ay8)(ay3). (4al)(a2). 100(x.6) 2 1. 28.y) 2 aft. + 5) a. 12. Yes. ix 18. (4y3)(3y + 2). 17. 5. (2 a? 4. 13x(a + ft)(aft). (a. x\x 24. 2 17.3)(z2). (a (p8)0> + l).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 25.4. (10a + ft)(10aft).7)(2z f 1). (5wl)(m5). Yes. (* + y)(zy). 3. 21. 34. 33. 29. 10(3 5 6) 2 . No. (w ~ n (x . 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). a*(5a f l)(flr . 7. (a 6 6) (a 4. 2. (y8) 2 2 .* (2 y + 3)(y.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.c 2 ).2). (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (5a +l)(5a l). 20. 33. 22. 24. 3. . + 3). .1). 7. + 4) (a. 11. 21. 27. (4 13. 18.ANSWERS 16. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 103x97. 34. (4a. 1. (3*2)(.4p). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 13x7. x(x +y)(x y). Yes. 26. (2o + l)(2l).   . 30. 4 (a . 14. + 8)(g3). a . (az + 9)(ox2). 25. No. (<7 20. 7 6) (a 10 6). Yes. 8. 15. 26. 16. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 6.2 ft).1). 17. 22. (:52y)(2a!3y).2). Page 82. f 2). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 10(2 30. 17. 22. 24 9. . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 25. x (z + 2)(x + 3). a. 21. 2.
(xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.3)(x 4. Page 12. 10. 6.^ 48.) j).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 8. + 3. 2. Page 89. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 24x sy s 9.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 8. 11.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).'})(c . 10(8x' 4l) 4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 2. 32. 2 2 10. 3 x4 . (^ 7. 5 x8 3. x 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q).36). (7/1 2) (m 41). 5. 14. 42a 3 x. 17. (14.42 x 4. 40.'/)('< 4. (5a+l)(9a). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 2. 8). 4 6. 24.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. a 4. 8. .y)(fi a . 11. + 2 //). ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 9. Page 90. 5.b. 14. 2 k (wi 4.3. 8. 1(V/ 88. 3(. n  r)(5a 10. a 41. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .!) (x42)(x2). 2 21. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 4  9.l)( a 25.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.2)(x 1.2). a (a + 2 6). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 6. . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 4. 14. 2 (a 4. 15 M. x43.9). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 13.5 m2 x2. 2. b) (r 4. 13. 4 3. y). 11. 38. 6. 16. 14. 3p (^9)(j) 4). (16 4  2(5 n . x(x f y)(jr .2 y). Gp). (2 a ~ f> b 4. (5 26. Page 87. 4. (!__/>). (a />.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 4 a8 .4).  29. 35.y). (5^4. (x//. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 2 2 3 . 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 12. ?i(w 4y) .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 37.  WIM. 18. 6. 2 y) ^ . 2 1. 36.1). . 7. 7. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 28. y )(. 19. a8 . (x. 4 a s &8 . ^ . 4. ( { &). (2x7)(x 2 2). a 4.8) ( (16. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 5.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). x  1).e 4. 13( 33. 4. 15. . 10(2 (3 4. 4. Page 92. 9. 7.n).X 5. l.7)(^ {I 12. 6 f c). 4. Exercise 47. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 7. (f> + fo 7. Exercise 46. (w * . ofc)( fid). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (w4w) 2 1.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 12.y '2 2). y6. (^ + ?>_8). 4.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).2). 12. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (. x . 2 . 2(m4l)' . (a 9.1). 27.3. 41.8). 450.&). ( (<> r4y3 .8) n 43*). (5 31. 2 + . 7.))(x  ^OC 1 1). ah}. 11. 39. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. fi(c426). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 1. ( y). a 2 (a9). ( a ^)(^3. .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .?/). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. (m  I)' 6. 3x(x?/) 4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 4)..?50)(xt/z. 2 8(w . 17(x43//)(x2y). 13 x 8 2 . 8. (r420(4 10.4. 42). 16. a x 3 10. 4. 30. r x 2 */3 . 22. 15.4. 7.7s) (2 a.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (a &4. 13.0+ 12). Page 86. 20. 5  (2 2 .1) 3.y. 3.4).?>) H.'J)(' . a + a b.&). 8. 8. y(2x?/). 5. ( rt 23. . 8x. ?>). 6.  (w' 4. (c. (> 1. 6. 2. (a 4.
+5 1. 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . + &) 2 ( . 6a2&(rt6).  1). 1). x 22. b ! 21. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. + y) (a: y). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 30(3 2 (a 15. (a2)(a + 2)2. 11. a 23. x 12.6). // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. 18. ?_!&. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 13. a 10 25.
^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. Page 100. 26. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i^. w1 + ac w 4 7. _*^p5_^^_. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. a 5. 4. c 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 4 L 8 2 .. A^. ^~ 29.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .50 ~ 1/2 . 28. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . 7. . 11. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . i.  **/* + 84 _. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 6. 2 a.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 30. 4c 10. + lH + .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . Page 101. 6. 0. xy 43. ' 2 7. 6a5f^. 6. 1. + 2H 1 ^.
^_. 3. 1. 6. 8. 4. 15. J. flf. 38. y(x + x ?/).  V o 4. . 18. (>. 12. 37. 12 28. 31. f 7. 2 47. 3. I) 2 3z 1.^_. 19. 3. 4. 41. 43. Of. ! 4 20. Page 113. 1. 9. 0. b 2. pf n 6 1. 5. a 17. A. 4. 7. +3 ( + 15.L+ft. 21. 9. 6. 7. 1. ^i 11. 9.y 7. 32. 5. 10. 34. 7. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 8j_m 7 3. n m a + 13.  10 X + u. 12. ?. f Page 107. 4. 3. n 16. 1. J. 27. 26.ft . w^x 2 b Page 105. 11. 3 7 i o. 1. 6. 21. 11. x\. c 8. 11. 1. 24. . a. x 05m ' 5. 8. n . 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 5. 14. 11. 3. 25. 4. 46. ft. 21. x 1. 15. 6. 40. ' 6. 1. 17. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 3. 39. 7. 6 . 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 14. Page 106. . b a f +c 14. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 20. 6. 30. (y + (z 12. 5 be _J_. 23. j L . 10. 11. 44. 15. 42. 45. 4. a2 2. ?+_!?>. 29. 5.^U\WF### X<6. (a + y) 2 Page 104. m 9. Page 111. . an 18. 16. 4. 2) 19. ac mp lf> n 12. + f. 16. 1. 4a3ft. 1. J. 17. 0. 2ft a i m x. 36. Page 110. 1. 13. 14. 33. 35.
15.2. 7T 2 Page 116. 3. 1^'. 1:4. 15. ^p^ r ~ 7. 19. 24. 8. 3. 11 hrs. 11. 30ft. .139. 13.. * 7:9. 75 . 9. Yes. 5. 1. 5 2. 30 mi. 1 da.. . 2:1. 1:1 = 1:1.. Yes. _JL. 10. Yes. 1 : 12. . 17. 40 yrs. 6. Page 117. ~m . P+ ^ 33.. 14. 74. 34. 4fl M_. (r) 3^ da. 33. 18. Page 118. 2x:3y. Page 124.. 7. 4. 14. 3. 11..10. ANSWERS 16. 9. (ft) 5 da. $0. 1:1 = 1:1.000 If da. Page 125. 16. 4. 23< &n b ' . 10. 16. 15. 9J oz.11. 21. . :2. n 32. 13. 7. 17.137. 10. 300. 4.x + y. 18. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . . (c) 2 hr. 500. 7 . 26 30. 24. 5.002. (a) 30. (ft) 28. 21. w 21. () 2. 40wn. 7. = A's. 17. (ft) (r) 8 hr.. 81. 38ft min.XIV '/ . 212. 3. 12. Yes. 1. J. (ft) 104. 30. 00./hr. $00. 17. 13. 18. 3 da. xy. 1:3. " 0. f. 0. 10 yrs. 7} 18.9. (d) 500. 10. 21ft min. 28. 15.  C . 9. 5ft 30mi. Yes. . $30. Yes. 2. 7. 6.  + . 33. No. [>> ^ a . 20. $40. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .  29. (d) 4 da. 55 mi. 22. 1: ~. w 18. 14. Yes. 1. 8301 hr. 300. 10. 2. 19. dn ~ mi. 12. 32. 4.2. 300. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 10^ oz./hr. 7. 15. a 4 ft. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 12.138. min. gold. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 9$.0. '"I 22.004. 30 yrs. nm. Page 121. J ^'. ft. w 44. 5. 9ft.} da.003. 20. No. 10. (a) 25. Yes. 35. 8. 4~r~ n .. 14. 19. 1:1=1:1. 2 20. 6. 8. after 20. 13. 3.0 & . 1. 31. $45.000. jj. 15. 16. 5. .000. 1:1 = 1:1.15. silver. min. after 18. 10. (a) 4 min.000.. #V ~~ 34. 8. 3. 4. 3:2. ^?i min. 8. 24 mi. (a) 12 hr.000 1 = 23. (c) 8300. 10. 27. 5 25. f . 26 mi. IV s.000. (ft) 5 hr. Page 119. ^m .001. 7. 10. 15. after $12. 26. 19. 40 mi. 20. 275:108. 36.. 11. 9.
cu.C ?/ a .a. 3. 46./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 2. 31.  28. 3. 7^. . 174+ Page 128. 4. 3  24. : XV 27. 7. 11. 3. 200 mi. 2. 26. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. + W. 8.1. 56. mi.. 38. 25. J.3.17. 11. 3. 8. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 8. Page 134.4. 9. 12. 7. 17.2. Page 132. Page 136. 1. 127. copper. /. 3 2=3 x. tin. 15. Page 5. 9. 11. 9.5. 30.4. 5. 7. 5. 1." ^ 2. 13J. 6. 2.840.  19. 3.1.6. 18. 7. x:y a: b. t 5. . 24. w. 11. 3. 2. 5 2. 14.5. 11. 5. .20. J.x a. 28. OJ. 39. 13.4. 25. 3. 4. 43. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 40. 5.3. 11 5 . 15. 19 OJ.^ 0?j ' gms. 9..5. Page 131.1. = 7 b'. 29. OJ. 4. ~ 1. lo mi. 8. . 5. 2. 7. 59. 36. 138. 49. 58. + b 7 . 30. Page 133. in. 20. 1. 4.7. 53. 2. 5. J. 7.5. . jc:y = n:m. s<i. 3. 7. 3. Inversely. 54. y a y = 7 0. 9.8 oz. a 3. 7. : 23. . (</) ft. 2.5. 4. w 8."2:1. 52. 5.4. in n. 35. Page 137. Of. 23. 1(5. 6. 11 w a 13. 3.J 3. () 7 Page 126. 6*.  ?. Page 9. b x 37. 4.000 sq. (I. 6. 2.3. (b) Inversely. . 5. 20. 945 11 10 . a f 2 2 = 5 x. 50. 20 cu. J pq. 9. () Directly. 7. 3. 7.5.2 x.3. 1. x y y . 22. 6. 48. 19. 2. *. 2. 40. 10. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. ft.22. 1.1. 24. . 16. .3. 2. (a) Directly. 21.57.ANSWERS 22.*. 26. 16. 41. l.J.4. 2. 4. 2. 8. I. 4. 22. 10. 12. 6 10 = 12.2.3. 4. 3. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2. "lO. 20 20 J ^.) 31. 10. \. . 12. (b) C C' = fi JR'. land. 13.000 sq. 1. 13. 3}.5. 5.r. $. 17.' : : : : <>. 2. 9. 141. 5. 2. . 4. 21. 1 18 = 3 51. .1. 32+ mi. : . 4. 16. 7. 4. 8. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 55.46. 19 3 .12.3. 13. 15> 9.15. 2. 5. 4. 7. 1. 2.160.3. a +b 1.]. 36.3. 4. 24 1 (e) Directly. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 7. \\. 7. 9  15. 12. water. 2 n . 5:3 = 4: x. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 1. 1.9. ig 6. 27. 5:0 = 10:12. 9. 45.3. 2. 19.7. 4. y . 23. 17. 41. 2. ini. 14. : />. mi.15 x. 2. x 42. 1 rt * vm^1.5. 2.2. a~.3. 31J.5. 44. 2. y :y =. Page 135. 2. 2. 10. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. ' 55. 8. 19. 14.li. i. 7. 57. 3.2 oz. 25.2. 2.. 1. 7. 47.36. 6. 3. x +y x + 74 7 \. . 32j. . 14.12. : : T 1' : /> : . y 1. : : .
.8. & part of Feb. 1. 5. 29. (ft) 23 J. Nov. yrs. 18. 9. 16. 3. 30. 2. 3. 7. 0. 15.7. 1. On the y axis. Nov. Page 152. 2. 3.33.$2000. 1. 2. 20. 5.. 7. 4 ' q. 1.4. A's 50 13. 1 (c) Jan. Apr.. $250. 3. . 12. 4. 7. 1. 19. The ordinate. Page 22.0. 100. 3. . C's 10 yrs. Apr. 28. 11. 2. Jan. 11. (<f) 13. Page 145. 3. 13. 40. 3. 11. 3. 4. 10. 4. 423. 4. 9. 6. 11. ' 6 3 a. 7. M 2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . . 3. Jan. 10 sheep. . 0./hr.1. 13. &. m f 8. About 12f. 72. 3. $ 1000. ad AzA. 10. 20. 20. 1. 2. Jan. 3). 13. 10. 6 cows. = ^ a Page 141. u 2ft. ft 3. B's 40 yrs.3. m .0. 20. 25. 25. 24. 1 (d) Apr. 18. 4. (5. 40. 1. 3. 15.  17. 6. 1. through point (0. 22. 2. On the x axis. J.. 1. 2. 4. 18. 16. 12. . 3. $500. 24. A a parallel to the x axis. Page 146. 6. 3. 16. 4. 2. 23f . 4. & May. 14. . On 11.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 14. 6. (a) Apr. 19. (a) 12. 7. 25. 3. $6500at3Ji%. 15. 5. 6. 18. Feb. 4. 8. 12. Apr. 00. (c) . 2. 6. SL=J o ft r^2. 4 mi. 2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft.  11. $3000. $4000. 5. at 15. 30.2. 10^ gms. 147. 16.l. 3. . 23. July 20. 3. 3. 14. 4. 9. B's 15 yrs.$5000. . 17.XVI Fagel39. 5. 21.3. 2. 23. Page 143. 26. 0.4.65. 17. 7. 5. 6%. C's 30 yrs. 4. 2 a. 2.10. 10. 16 to July 20. 9. 11. yrs.1J. July.. ^. 9. June. be 7. Jan. Page 153. 7. 11. Jan. 20 & Oct. a =J (n  1) rf. 2. Page 142. 4. 6. . a. May 5.^. 2. 25. Nov. $900 5%. 19 gms. 7. 24. 5%. 7. m f 9. 3.3. 5. be 10. 2.1. 8. 3.9. 6.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 20. parallel to the x axis 0. 4. 1. Nov. 8. Page 149. ' . 21. 20 to Oct. 4. 1. 5.n + p. 90. 16. 30. . <*ft/ bd 1. 9. Oct. 2 horses. 7. 17. ad _(?jrJL.4. m + n p. 32.. 10. . Aug. 12. (ft) 20. 16. 12. A's 30 18..2. 27. 31. 3. 1. . 4. 5. 5. 8. 2. 2. 2. July. Page 151. 2t2. 24. 26. & part of Sept.
1. 3. 1. 1. 4. 27. 13. +3 4. H. xW.73. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. jgiooyiio 17. . Inconsistent. 13. (a) 2. .  1. . . 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. Page 164.34F. 12. 17.27. 8. (ft) (d) 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. 24. 1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . . (/) 3.25. . m.2 (ft)  1. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . . (c) 14 F. 8mW... 1. . 81 ".25. 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3. 10 C. 3. 14. xg .24. 19. 3. 4wn8 + n4 5. 3. 27 27 81. 5. (ft) and (d) 2. . 2. . 20.67. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 10. 4 ) 21.84. 16. 14.75.3. G. 15.  . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.  1. . ' :=_!. xy. (a) 4. 1. 14. 1. 1. 1. 2 l. H. 10. 15. (ft) (ft) 2.64. 3. 4. 4. 3 . . 2. 1. 2. + a 4 ft* . 0C. 3. 28. 25. 3. 10. Indeterminate. 3.73. 2 a&m Page 167. 9 and Page 166.5 (ft) 3. 1.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 8 1 f f g*.1. (/) 3. 20. Inconsistent. 4}.64. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. Page 159. 1. 2. 8 a1. . 7. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. 30. 3. 18. SlstyW 7. 15. 3.79. f. 1. .5. ImW.83. Indeterminate. 32F. 3. 2.75.24 . 9. 3. 4. 1 23. .4. . 13C. 2.. f 10. 0. 8.. 24. . 19. 5. 3. 2. 1. (e) 2.6. 2. 11. (e) 3.13.83. \ft) 5. .25. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 12. 2 2 22. a 10 ' a ll V&. . (a) 5. Page 163. (ft) 2. 3. .  12 ft xW  26 31.41 and 23.59. 5. 6.3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. (gr) 21. Page 158. 6. () (rt) 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 8. 11. 2. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 2. 3. 5. 2. (a) 12. 1 4. a + ft.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. . 2. 30. 2. 2.1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.75. . 4.73 ami . 21. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.7. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 22. 9. 2. 1^. 5. 5. 1. f12 wi 9. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.5. 3. * 16. f. 27 19. 4. 4. (c) 7.79. 3. .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. 15 . (c) 2. 26. 5. 2ft4 Page 168. . 5 and 2.73. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 ." 23. 2. (<?) 2. 125 a 8 12.41 and . 2. 125a 28. 1.25. a 29. ft 2 4.24. 83.25. 13.75 (ci) 3^. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 13 . 14.59 . 1. 1. 125 16. 22. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. ft . . 11. 18C.
14. a. 16. 76. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . 6. 2. . 2.5. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 20. 9. a ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 2 2 4. 27. 0. 35. 10 x G a 4 . c 10 6 :l 20. . a: l . 10. 5. (ab + c). 3 2 ^. 2038. 12. GOO 2 c 2 . ^i. 2. 8. Page 172. 98.1.^). 13.a b 22. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 70. 5. 7. 17. ?7i 1 1 3 1. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. + Z). 6. ??i ?i . 14. 978. 20. ? : 1 . (a 2. 19. Page 170. r> 4 : 1 . 7. 17. (Gx + (i + 2a. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 15. .XV111 7. 3M.037. 34. 2 ?>i?< >2 10.y2 ).5). 2 49 . 9. Page 171. 2 12. 57. m 13. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 6. 420.GO a c + 23. a 2 . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. (2 a + ft).94. 2. 3. (l + x + . 22. 30. + 29. 25. 6 (\x 3. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 5. 23. 18. 15. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 9. 7. 21. 4. ( Page 174. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 9. 2(> + ( 2 7>). wi 8 + 3m 2 . .+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 20. +3 + 5 4. 8. 2 2 7. 17. 11. 40.  +X '. 3. 4. + (win .3 ab + 2 2 ). .83. 309.2). 84. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 247. /> 4 ). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. (1 (x2y). 5. 15.r 2 + 6jt). Zll. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 1247. 4. 2. 4. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 5. 2 4 8 2 . ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 101. 18. a. 10. + + ?V 22. 33. ? . 24. +35. (4a2 9& 2 13. 180 . (ly). + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 3 2 8 3 12. 28.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .+3^ + 4. 10*. 90. 1 1 ?>). 300. 14. + l). .7 /)). 19.i c 6 15. (x' l).1. 14.  x. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1. + i)). fe *?>' ?> fi . 6. 26. 72. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 32. (a + 2 +l). 25 19. 12. 99. (48 + 6. 13. 8 /. 237. 5 5 8. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. rt . Page 176. 11.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 71. . (3a. 11.f 1 m 9 16. 21. 30. 9. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 16. 00. 31. 36. 3. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. ). 10. 18. 16. . 8. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. (a + y+l). + y). 1. 3. 9. 763. 3 6 23. 6. 8. AN S WE no . 90. 1.x ). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 16 6 w . 119. 15. I 8x2). 64. 12. (x + y\ 90. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 8. 11. 20.10 a~ + 5 a . 1.6.
26. 7. ~ V^3. 1. . 23. 37. 42. 15 1 10. 25. }. 16n. . 3. 32. 3. 15. ^^7m. 5.60. 40. 9. 1 f Vl3. 4. 13.690. 8. 25. 14. 1. 6J. 17.6. 31. 13. 18. 7. 39. / 11. 2. 4. 2] see.  f.. 16. 39. 3. 2. f ^ is.. 15.. 13. 6. 44. 12. . 37. 16. 10.005. 4. _ iVaft. V. 7. 1. 30. 6. 36.1.  14. 1.  3.237. 25 J. * 1.18. 12. 3. 39 in.i. 6. 5. 1. vV'TA 24. v 17. f 3. 2. 7 45. ^. 11. 19. 3. (afl). m. 1 7. . 5. 9. 8. 20.  5. 5f.5. xix 26. 5. ^. V2. 47. 14. 5. f. 10. 1. 3. 22.Sn. 4 a. (6) Vl4 3. 21 28 ft. \/3.?. 4J. 27. 23. . . 29.a. 7. 6. 2. 2. 7563. 19. /. Page 177. 17. 5.  f. 5.469.4. 11. 32. 36 in. V2. Page 183. >TT 26. .6. 21. 7. 6. 6561. 3. Page 179.  43. Af^. 1. 2. 50. 12. 3. 2 sec.}. 4 n. 40. >i 27. 10. f. 7. . 1 38. 14. 2. 11. 4. 4. 13. 24. 4 TT M 28. 4.916 yds.4. 21. 46. 2.798 yds. 9. 2. 7. 6. 7}. 15.925 ft. . 35. 49. 3. 3. 21 in. 30. .742 in. J. 14. 9. 7. .*.w 18. 4 W**. f . 4. 12.367. 29.. 48.1. ft. m. 4. 4. 20. Page 185.. 270 sq. 11. 15.935.5. f f V. (< + ?>). 1. 12. 28. If ^. i. 2.. 13. 23.645. 5. a. 3. ii :J _7. 16. 6. 12. 4.  1. 33. 24. > w ft. 29.. {. 6V21.13. vYb. 16. 28 in. 1. 1.236. 35. Page 184.ANS WERS 22. 27. 3. . 4. 4. 7. l~8. 34.. 5.6. 34.522 38. 5. ft. () 2. w. 18. i ^.243. 7. 17. 3. 28. 7 in.  2. 10. 10. 41. 8. 2. 14. or 5. 5. 5. 3. ft. 8. V35 1..6. 8. 15. 9 15 ft. 5083. 33. 7. " ^_ 22. ZLlAiK 19. *. a + 61. 6 f !. JJI. V17. 1. 6V'2J. 11. 10. 10. 31. 9.. 5. Page 181. or 3. 36. Page 180. 3J. 4. 5. 6. 21. 2. 10. 10. 8.V 8j. 12. 20. V J l.4. 9. 1&. 9. 6yds. 9. 21yds. 2. 12.6.
1. 3. 4. 3. 2 V3 in.41.Oa. x* 51. Imaginary.48. 3. 4.37.4. 15. 34. unequal. 27.5 x + 6 = 0. 6. 2. 15 ft. 14. 3. . V2. 49. x2 + B . 23.2. Page 192. 0. H. 26. 1). 4.23. 40.  9x <). 26. 8 or 12 mi. 4. 33. 58. 1.12. 0. 26. a + 1.]. ft. . unequal. 25. i .  1. Page 187. 11. 15.59.a. Imaginary.2. 10. equal. 2. 2.2 x2 . . unequal. 2. 37. V^~2. 20 nii. 2. 6. 8.  Page 194. 1. 5. 2. 6.62. 24. '  f 5. . . 2.. Page 189./hr. rational. 3. a. V2. 3. 2. 0.5. V^l.  2. a. 1. 0.4. 19 in. 9.1. Real. 4 da.  2. a + 6. 0. . 3. 17. . 2 ft. 11. 1 3. AB = 3.a 3 a. 120 ft. 0. 2. 31. .a. 2. 3. t is. 6.48 3. 27. 0. rational.l. 21. Real. 6.4. 1. Real. 2. 21. 24. 9.1. Imaginary. 3. rational. 4. 1. 2. 1. unequal. VV11. equal. 53. 42. . Page 188.6. 1. *'' 12. 3. s 11. 20. If. .2.6 = 0. 20.2. unequal. x 14. unequal. f. 41. 43. 0. 4. 2. 30.17. V ~ 16 4 2.  24.. 19. V7.. x*4x=0. 2. 45.  i. 6^2 in. + 11 x. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 22. 39. Real. 7. 3.  1. 55.7. 1. 3. . 28. 35. 24.7. 0. Real.3.. 12.2. AB = 204 ft. 6. 9. 64. 1 . 10. 2. 5 ft. 18. 1. v^^fcT"^. 16. f 6 52 a. a8 . . 4. .2. 50. orf. 1.2.XX Page 186. 6.3. 3. 23. 10. ' 1. 8. 0.3. 1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. 3.'. 8. 1. 5. 13. 10 mi.1. 48. 3. 28. 19. 12. 1. 4. . 9./hr. 3. 23. 12. U. 8. 27. 57.  13. $30 or $70. 2./hr. in. 3.  1. . 3. 36. r* i. 7. 25. Page 191. $80. 2. 4. 0. 5. 46. 22. 7. Real. 1. irrational.23.0*8. Imaginary.4. 5. 1. 20. 3. i. 0. 21. rational. Real. equal. 64c. 70 ft. . 7. 35.2. 25. 1. 2. 16. = 0. (5 10.7.74. irrational. 14. . 29. 3. 12.10. 0.  5.* 2. 0. 32. 18. $ 120. 10 in. 10 mi. 52.5^. 5. _ 19. 8\/2 17.  5. %. 6. 1.  1. 0.2. 56. 6V64. 2. .$40 or $60. ANSWERS 22..2. 2.02. 38. Real.12 = 0. unequal.70.. . 13. 47. unequal. . 2. 6.  1. 3. ^l/>> = 85 ft./hr. 6. V^l. 7. 18.4. 12. 7. unequal. 0. f. . Page 190. 15. rational. 26. 3. 7. 16. 10 or 19. 1. 1_^L ft 14. 20 eggs. #<7=3. 2. 44. 25. 1. 2. 28. 7.  6. 4. 2 . jr . 3if. .
30. 5. 13. r*. 59. m'. 7. 7 . \. m. _! V3. 27. 44. 16.  f . ^49. 3.17. 50. fx'^z'l 23. JV37. 22. ifa.32. 49. 60. 12. 2. x/25. 9. 6. \/3. 4. 23. 1. 58. Page 201. 28. 29. 3. Page 196. J 3. 52.^7. 12*2 61. 13. 23. \/r\ 11. . Vr. 8. x$. 4. 7. 56. 2.  a'2 . 15. Page 197. 16. 49. x. 47. 243. 49. 3.//^. 0. r. 20. i.6. 4. 3.  5. 8. 1. xxi 15. ar 1 . ). V^ 34. 4. 20. 24. 25.2. 36. 18. 9. 40. 5. 1. 17. .1 5 15.  f. p. ? . 1. . jV 10. 1. 37. 5\/5. 2. 10. 4. 1. 3. 21. 33. 21. 14. 57. . 33. 35. z + 22. 1V1. 2. 1. 31. vV. 6. 48.ANtiWEUS rational. \/. l  5 12. 3. 29. 17. 53. aW\ 40. 47. 31. . . 49. 30. 2V a. 24. 9. 9.  J j. 50. v." 17. 54. . 10. 1. J. 10. 25. a 18 . 20. 3. 19. \a\ \/^. 0. v/3. (m 26. 11. 8. 10. 5. \ . n\/* Page202. 19. . 28. 38. Page 199. v'frW. *V. 8. 2. \. . v'frc 18. 3. 1. I. 2. 0. 18. 42. 13. 8. 1. 8. 16. 24. y . 19. 13. Jb \. 2. 3. 2. 17. 26. 55. 9. 27. 20. 2 L ( V. 9. ^Sf 3 38. &. 46. 8. 1. 22. ) 2 >J i 10. J. 1 39. 12. 2. 5. 14. 3 4 11. 45. 18. 41. wA 46. 14. 84. $7. 8. 29. 'J. 1.  48. 16. 14. 6  AAf. 25. 2. a. y. 30 a. 7V7. 32. 21. vm. 51. 15. 11. Page 200. 4. 33. : . 3. 39. 4. 5. 125. 5. 19. 4. J. 3. J. 2.. 15. 3. 7. v^T4 m. 32. . 43.
1 2 or 1 ?.577. 18. 5 22. . 40.2 18. 4. 26. 17. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 34. / V3.632. 1. 32. 3.  2 3:r. 41. 38. 10. V80. 2>X2. 2. . + 2 Vzy + y 1. 2. Vr 8. + 2 V22. r 17  Page 204. 101 1. 28. . 21.r. 2 '"V5. x 7  34.XXii ANSWERS 1. 21.2 VlO. 2 4 z2 l 3. Page 208. 9. 10.rV:r. 24. 51. 2. a2 4.  a Vft 2 121 b. 13. 9 . JIV6. yV35. 24.yl : . a 4 +* + !. 5. k/2. 11.. 2v (T 2aVf. 135V6. 6. 11V3. 2\/7. . v/^r 5  A/^~. 4. y (a + ft) V2. 37. 48.3 + 40 3 . 2. ). Page 203. 5. 3^ + 2). + + ft. ^7 \AOx. 8. 3. 3V^T. 3V5.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. + 2). 30. 62V(J. .f. V63.692. 22. 8a6V5. r c . 49. 26. 3^2. 2 x* 15. y.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. V2 + 4 V22. 10. ?tV?w. m* n*. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). + Vic + 25. 3.x^y* + y%. ^: V2c. V. 03r* 7. + . x. 3 42. 7. 25. 23. 31. 37.Vxy 35. ^88".). 4aV^J 16. Va 2 "ft. x y. + 1. (o* 2. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . 6. 16. 36. 16. 20. + 2 ar 1 ). 45. x^ . . 3 \ 39. x + 5 x3 + 0. 32. 2. V. 19. 29. 13 a. a^ + 2^+1. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 15. (x' (l 1+x).648. v^. 195V3. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 34 r 6. 5 ( . abVab. 8. a 3. 30. 7.707. V 5 47. 40. 19. 17. x 25. 28. l 5. 39. 11. x%  3 ^+ 1. 33. 20&V6. 12. 8V/) 15. v'TM. . Page 207. 1) 3V3. (a 27. 27. 3 4\/2. 13 35. 13. 50. 31.'\ 14. 43. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 29. 3 x^y 33. 9. 20. 2. T. ftV 46. 2 a?>V2 a. 9.
43. v^lf. v^O. 30. 40. x/125. 8v2T 12. 53. v 25^4714 V2"a. 3 V2. fl^Vac. 10. \/a6c. 36. 5 \/2. V5. 50. 37. Vat. 38. 4\/5. 3. v^30. 6aV2\^. xx 1. \V3. 41. 6+2V5. 18. Vdbc. VT5. 31. 14. vT). 10. 21.  3. 22. 1V5. b. 6 2\/0. x/27. V2. ^27. 16. / \/w/t 4 13. V3"m. \^6. \/128. 2. 46. 6. 10. 9. 6. V/. 21 23. v/lO. 34. rtv/5. 48. 3v^2. 28. 6V2. 4VO. 11. 1. 4 a*. \^r^bVabc. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 32. 8  \/15. 19. Page 214. 51. 4. a\/5c. D 45. 8V73\/IO. 0. V2. v/i). 5V2. 74\/Jl 120 46. 2. 7\/(l 7VTO. 25. 23. 8. . v7^. 5. 3\/15  6.30 2. 40.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 9 VlO + 4. 35. 30 Vl4. V5. . 9. V8. 15. 18. Vtf +3+ 33. 27. 2. ^9.. 34. \/abc*. 1. 14c 4 V5. 6. r)\/(l Vrtr. v^a. 44. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . . 5V2. v^4. v/9. \/8. 17. . 16. V3. Page 211. 11. \^6. v^f. 6x2?/.r v/^ v^fr*. x/3. 4. 52. 10V(). 8. 26. 19. x/8l. v"5. 35. a2  b. 14. 2 V'3. w?i. : ^32. \/2. 13. 3 Vl5 30. a^\/a7>. 18. ^v 7 15. 2 ate. 32. . x/4. Page 216.T*. x/8L v/27. 3. 36. 11. \XOfl6Vi5. 37. \/04a. + 20. ab 4. 49. 23. 12. v/l2. Page 213. 5v/2. 3. 2. 14. Vn. 3. W). 13\/3. 25. '. 3\/wi. 7. v"3. 39. 24. 12. 2 1. V3. 33. 31. 15. 13. . Page 210. 21. 17. 27. 7. 2. 29. . 0. 42. m ?i2Vm/t. "v/wi ??. x/w^ 8. 1. 38. 9. VJla. 22.J Page 212. v/8. 17. "^8000. 20. 3 V15  47. 3. x/8. 2 28. ^\/3. 16. 8V2. 6. 5. 4 >/3. 39. 26. 6. + VlO  v y (5. 3\/2. 2 \/2. 7. 2yV2?/. aVa. 24. 5. 2\/7. 32m27n. % 29. ^ 3 b 5 24.
f. 11. V5. 16. 9 mn. 33. 81. 15 f 3 V2L 4.1805. 25. V. (2Vll). (VllV2). 1. 1. n*. (2V2). . 9. 20. 512.\/TO). 13. 18. V3. 18. (V51). J. 4. 7.XXIV 7.6. 6.5530.464. Page 226. 1. Page217. 7. . 16. 1. 19. 19. 6. 15. 18. 15. 8. 12.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .4722. ANSWERS 8. 13. 36. 5. 3. 23. 4. 19. 5. 12. 24. 0. 4. 9. 14. Va.w 6. 10. 3. 18. 23. 8. 9. 5. 2. 23. . (V6 + 2V2). \. 7 f 5 4. 8. J. * 3.601. 37. 3. Page 28. 25. 11.3. 2. V6c. 10. . .  . 5. 19. 1. 30. + 6) 2 . (2f V"5). 2V3. 6 (V2 + 1). ^. 16. 15. 5. 7. 4. 2. 22. p 6 13. 64. 22. Va. V^TTfc. 4V3 + 6. (a 1. 26. 9. 7. 8. 7. Page 223. 2x^2^. 24. 27. 14. \/57t. 24.81. K>/0 + \/2). 3(7+3V5). 224. 8. 25. 20. 15. 28. (VaT^v a). 17. 21 ' Vob 26.V3). 2. Vf6fVtf. 7. V35. fV2. 6. 4. nVTl. 14. 6. .5. 32.3. 29.732. 2. 7. V3. 5 f. .  2. 12. 15. 16.13. ^\/2.^ (\/22 4. . 6. 8. (\/5V2).1. ~ Vac _c 0. 3. 125. 3.6 V3. 11.625 10. 2 . 4. 17.  13. (V8 + V2. 8.732. 2ajV2*. 9. 5. 10.389. 1. 13. . 1. 10. 4. 4 14. (\/3f 1). 21. i^Lzi. Page 218. 9. 31. (Vf + (4 V2). Page220. 10. ^. 16. 11. 14. 17. 24. 1. 2. 11. 8. V2. 2!5_. 27. 34. Page 219. 19.4142. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 12. m f. {. 25. . 2. i(Vf Vft). 10. 20.2. (2. 12. (V5f 5. 35. 18. 0.  f. !^ 6 4.0606. 4. + 5V2. \/3). 30.1547. 17. 25.9. +3 V2). j 15. Page 225. 5. 4. 3. 26.7083. A . 16. 16. 9. V3. 81.3535. 3. 16. 100.. 5 + 2 vU 17. 25. 1. (3+ v/2). 23. . 2V3. 21. 2V2. _^JflJ?. 4.2. 7. 20. V3 . ^(VlO\/2). (V21). 4. j. 22.64. x 20. 5. ^r. ' 22 i . 4. 9. 4. 10. 21. xy 2. 4. 8 V3V2. 23. 11. 29. 5.7071. 9. 3V23. 6 V.2828. 4. 25. 1. 12. 5 V65. 216. 27. 1. 7 Page221.
3.5. 3. (8.22. 4 20. 2. 4. =A^Z3. 15. 10. (a . 30. 0.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 2. . Page 234. 14. 24. //. 1. 0. 3. 1. 11. 17. 4. 3 5. 2 &.  . . y. 5. 2. . 12. 4. 73. 2. 2 6.r . 1. 5.4. 2. 22. (4 mn . 3. 10.3. 11. 0. 24. 2 . P. 1 .  4. 1 . (pl)(p2)(p2).^a. 28. f . 5. 4.2)(* . 10. 6. 4.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 3. J Page 235. 16. 2. (63)(6' t 18. 7. 3 . 10. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 8 6 & 0. 3 . 5. 4. 5. (rt. 4. a: :} . 1 6.12. 8. 0. XXV 4. 11.5 xy + 25) 22. 2 . 2. 2. . 3 . .  J. 12. 1. 15. 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 17. 1. 25.  3.ANSWERS Page 228.  5. . 4. 1. 17. 3. 8.3. 16.3. 2. t/ 23. 6. J. Page 233. 18. 50. 9. 4. 5. 14. 3. o. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231.  f . . 2. 12 24 y . 2. .1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 2. 3.  3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).nl^EI. (a+&)( 2 14.2. 2. 13.0. 4.2)(m. 20.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 2 V^ . 4. 19.4. 21. 1. 22. 7. 4 . 6 2 2a + 2). 0. 1. 10. V3.4. 6. 1. 2. 18. f>. 1. 7. 8. 20. 12. 25. & + 6 2 ).  2.10. 20. 3. 8. 3. 4. 1. 7. 2. 3. 3.. (a. 19. 1. 30 30. 3. 5.3 2.7. . 73. 2. 2 6. (B43). (2 a.  3. 5. qpl. 3. 11. . 3. 25.  1. 2. ' J.1. 5. . 14. (&y2a#H4). 5. 11.3. 3 9. . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 3. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 5. 6. 13. 2. 1 . 2 . 1. b . a . 2. J 24. 6. 3.  1. . 87 . 3.2.3). 13. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). . 3. 7. 5.8a 18. J. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 6.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). (a 4. . 8. 21. . 25. ~ f7. 3. ( 16. 26.l)(a3)(a . . 2. 11. 2 . 13.2. 19. 56l). 3. Page 236. 7. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). (a. 10. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1. 7. 4. 4 4. 4 1. 9. 2 > 1. 0. 5. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2 <? 4a2 . (r. 12. a  . 7. 4 . (pl)(p3)(p6). . (w .4). 4. 1.  16). 1 3. . 4. 0. 30 . 4.3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (+!)( 2) 10.Y. 100. 2. 2. 4. 3. \/0.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 9. 2. .l)(m . 3. (m 4 + l)(ro. 1. 2. 2. 30. 15.3. 5. 1 (?> x/^3. 1 . 2. 4.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 13. 0. 8. .w 4 + 1). l. . 12. 3. a(. 3. 6. (a + 2) (a Page 229. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1 . 1. . 23. 4.
9. 50. 4. 1. 2. Exercise 114. 3. $. 13. 7. 3. $46. 5. 30. 11.020. . ft. 5. 8. 17. 32. 1 2. ( 3. 40 25 in. . 20 7. 3. 18. i. 16. 84. in. ^ }. . 1. 2.13. 12.1. 15. 1. 4.1. . 8ft. 1. (/>) "_. 1. 1. 2. 9. 5 cm. Indeterminate. 4. ft. 3. 3. 3. 4.y. . 36. 1. Page 245. 4. . ft. 5. Page 244. . 37. c.  2 . 41. 1. 4 6. 14. 29. 2 2. i j. 2. 1. Indeterminate. 15. }. 21. (>. f*. 4. 3 . 9. 18. and _ 4. 8. $. .. . tn 2. $VO. 3 . 17. 7. 2. ^~2. . m + n. J. 5. i i i . 4. 1.1. 50. 2.3.  1. 26. (&) 2. 2. co . m28. 3. 12. 4. 9. . . 4.e. 5. 7. _ 13 (0 6. 14. 11. oo. 0. 3 . V3~. . 7. 7. oo . 3. 33. 10. 1. 2. 11. 4. 17. 3. 14. 2 . 24. 25.. 1 .. 5050. . 24. 16. 30. 4. 1. 1 . 4.0. in. 6. 2. .5.. . 2n. 1 . 35 ft. ri*. ' j. 512.136. Page 238. 3 2. 5. J. 38. 1. 3. 2. 1. 5. . 3. 6. 4. 4. _ 10. . 3. 5 4. 2 Y> V .3.4. 69. J. 2. 2 . 4. 288.3. Page 241. J. Page 248. 201. 3. 3. in. 55. 40. 5 . 2. .. 14. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 15. no co . 4..  11. 5. 4 8. 3 cm. 17. 22. 21. 2. 1. 12. 2V7. \/6. 6. 14.0. 6. f>. 2>/3. Page 243. 4. 2 ft. 0. 3. 30 13. 3. . } . 900. 48. n. 1. 10. 5. Exercise 113. . 1. f. 1. 2. 13. 4. 2 1. 6.. 37. 2.xxvi Page 237. 2. 5. 1. 12 d. 1. 11. 12ft.3. 8. 2. 7. 23. 5. ANSWERS 2. Page 247. 3. 3. 11. 1. 4. 2. 1 . 8. . 1. (a) 5. GO . 19. 2. 5. 19. 5.6.4.5. 15. _ 7. m27. 3 3. . 39. .4. 16. 35 a. 12 ft. 2. 1.6.3. 0. 22.4. 13. 2 26. 35. 17. 15. 1. in..18. 9. . 1. 2. 5. Page 240. 78. 3. . oo . 1. 10. . 8. 125 125. 15. 3. V7. 3. 14. 2. 21 30. 400. 1. 40 in. 23. in. 15.. 31. 9. 37. 20 in. 1. . 7f solution.. . '>. 1. n . 28yd.3. 12. 31.200. 3. 2 . 512. . 4. (a) $3400. 7. 12. 3V5. . . 2 10. i'ljVU. +  n. 12 1. 3. _ 5. 3. 7 3. 8.2. 8 3. 4 34. 5. 45yd. 1. . Page 239. 12. 3 4. . 5.3. 3. 20. 5. 2 16. 4. 5. 3. 11. 1J. 4 .30. 1. j.  . 17. 1 . 8 .3 . 8. 20. 35^ 5. 18. 14. \. 10. 4. 2. x 4. = QO 6. 1. . 8. . jj.
410. JSg. . 2. 12. 6.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 29. 4. 0. . 13. .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . in. 4.680. 18. 1. 6. 8. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 19. 10 14. 50. ~v 9. . 5. 15. 17. 4. 220 . 11. 8. . 15. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 6. 27. 48. 708. Page 252. 4. 5. 3. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 7. ?/i 6 x llj . x4 . 13. 43. 327. . 11.2 9. 8J. 8.419. .r 4. 55. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 128. G. 3. 16. 0. 21. 1000 aW. 8. 10. 12. 8. sq. 05. 3. 70. i 10.210. Ja.384. } $ 50. 04. 6. Page 258. 3.870 m*n*. 15. 18. 70.1. 343. 18. 2. 1.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . Page 259.700. 20.  20 flW. 20. 3. 15. 405. 8. Jj? 45. 7. f y 8 + z* . 10. 6.504. 0. r 5 4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.7 10. &' 14. ' 1. ~ an . 4. 27. 192. 5. 3.<2 4. 12. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . .5. 125. 26. 304. 16. 4. 6. a4 4 14. **+. 1. 2. Y11. 15. 105. 343.5. 0. 5. REVIEW EXERCISE .6. 22.6 . 18. 2. 4950 M 2 b y *. 4.920.3 ays. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 5.r* 4 70 . 1. 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 9. Page 254. . 7. 5. 5. 45. 3. 16. 2. a.r x>/ 7 3. 280 53. 5. 1JH. 10. 8. 25.170. 16. 10. 81. 27. 17. 6. 35. 120 aW. 16. 0. 1820. 2. 7. 53. xxvii 1. 45 Page 257. (). 2. 8.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. <. 19.192.x' 10 . 12. 04. r r j.4 &z x>&. 27. 4 0. 13. 28. 2. '23. 8 4x' 2 . 2. vy. 32. . 16. 910. 12. 4. 6i.13.5 x.  101. 1 14. 1.v Page 253. B . 4. 4. 75.53. 4. x + Vy. 3. 3.2 45 a 8 /).  17. 17. 9.^ ?>i 2412x4. 1 7 4. 5. 3. />*. 1. 20. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . \ w 4 . 12. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). ^a 8. . 10. 7.4.ANSWERS Page 250. 19. 0. 4. 2. . c. . 7. 3. 5 13. d. 12. 1. 0. 8 . . 2.130 x30 189 a 4 24.12 x*y 16. 6.120. 1. 2i* 7f. I. J 2 //2 25. . A. 70. 7.0. 11. 100. w9  8. 005. 45. 4. 7 x4 17. 14. 3. 5. 2. 9.8. 9. . 5. 12. 8. 10. 4. 2. 1.5y 4 . 0. x r 4.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 495. 22. 0. 9. 6. 16 11. 44. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 9. 1. 16. 23. 8 1. 4. 125.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 1.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .470. 35. and 1.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 4. 7. 8. 21. 3. y ^ 5  ^\ ).
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142. k. (5 x . (r7y)(ai. 208.3. (y  17)(y + (>). 157. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3).1). 244. 233. (/ 246. 147 mi. 37 1.l)(x8 + x2 . a 2 (15. 15. 1. 144. 50. 1. 150.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).2ac + 229. 235.6 . 137. +)(x2 x^+2. 151.r + 4). 2 (4 x . 212. 154. 173. Or (a + 2)0el). 216. 209. 21. (y7)(y + 188. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 18. 10 in. 164. 10. 186. 231. 179. 239. 206. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 4. 19.6) (2 x + 1). ft. 195. 3(x . 152. Page 265. (JT y 225.2). 143. 5. (6) 40. 2 2 (a. 156. 140. 218. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). xxix 139.  1.. 146. 12. Iff 145. 163. 210. 6). 12 yr. (a} 59. 202. 205. 238.1). as 194. (y _ ft)(y 4. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. x(x + 6) 213.3).. (x^ + x1) 234. HI. . (8x + 3)(3x4).l)(y + 1). (. .2. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 230. 30 + xyr. 187. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (2 198. y  y 165. 182. p. 185.2) (3 x . 2. 138. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 190. r>x 2 (4x. 168. 226. 199. 236. 222. m. 2. 12 6 panes. 181. (r^x + 1). (7 c 2 ). . 136. . 232.1).3) (2/3y). (3x  . 211. 169. 224. 1. 8 204. 12) (j. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. fc'2a+62c). 2a(42ft)(2fo). 160. ..r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (7x2//) 203. C3 y _l)(. 147. 161.3 y).2 )(x+y) 228.y)(jc + 7 y).y). 15. p. 1. 36ft. (x .9)(xf 2). 15  a. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).l)(a 2 +3). 158. 24. 197. 1. a. 10). 6.4xl). (3x2?/)(2. 153.m)(x + a). 7. 6. 149. 172. 162. 2. 183. 1. + 3). + y. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 178. Page 266. 12 yr. (a& 192. 207. (y_24)(y5). 10 ft. (233). (x  42 yr. 2. y3. 167. 184. (c) 160 C. 220. 1. 237. 1. 32 h. 175.y)(z .1(5) 200. 40 yr. (?/+l)(yl). . Page 267. 155. 3. .I2y). (ab + 8) ( 7). a + 2x2 ). 193. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. aft. 171. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).. 20. 12. + 22). 30. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .2). 217. ?. 174. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).3 y)(a . y 245. + 11) (a 10). y. 218. + 2) + 9a. 10). (2a + l)(a . 2 xy(3 x . 201. 247.y + 3)(r (. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 4. 241. 219. 20. 30 yr./_4). 75. 148. a(a.r . (x + 2)(x . 214. z(x10)(xl).y2 ). 191. 180. + 3) (x f f>) . (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 22.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). ( + 2y)(2x3y). G7. 23 18. 3.ANSWEKti 135. 176. 48 h.y) (\r3y). (x + 6)(x6). (2x3y) 3 xy(x. + 7)(rt4). 2^. 2(x8)(x3). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4.6)(4 + 6). yr. 159. 177. 2. (x 227. 170. 215. (y 7f))(y 196. 166. 8(ar}(/)27). 189. (a 2 + 2a6. 240.
2 x  3. 256. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 269. ^ 299. *>).1. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. x 267. 263.4). x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309.4) 1) (3 x .^^^^^^^^. > 4. 303.  7. a~ ' b*). 261. 2. 295. 3. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 43 '^rJ'. 254.   .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 260. x 283. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 268. 249. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. ^/>J. a. x ?/ z 1. 298.  3xyf x// 257. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. + f.(x  4) (x4 304. 4 5. 251. o. 3). 259. ?^ZLiZ 308.^ ^^. 306. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . x . 7. 3). 264. (7 255. 307. 266. x12. &). (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 .2* i^^ !^. 305. 0. 7 x 265. ? 1) 302. 5. 258. 3  262.. 250. 0. 10. 279. o(x4l). *. 310. 7^T 2 . 2 4 300. 301.
2(a i 403. 360. 2 ). 3. 382. 1. ^ 3 // . l'j. 388. 325. 13 391. 336. " 4 378. 1 i 2 ^. 1. 364. 2 r36 384. + 335. 407. 326. .3. 0. . a + b + 6). ?/ + 3 332.1. L . 408. 4. 400. 401. (a + b + c\ . 343 00 351. A^L5L. 395. .)Cr4)__ .7. 380. ^"" 4 s .. 0. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.vin a /r " 337. + x 362. 355. 404. l . 1.XXXI Page 272. 365. 399. 6a. 2. 2. 1. 370. 377. 393. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 396. 385. 20. 387. 4 rw. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 375. 334.. . 406. 4 A.!. m. 3. + 4 & 4 \ b. 1. 390. 389. 398. . 7/i ^ _ . . 376. * 357. 3. 324. 11.  1. ?=. _*L'L+. f. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. If. 339. S.  1 356. 361. ?>*. 2(q. x 54 359. y 4 I 340. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. <L 409.". 2 ab  a Page 276. ^_:r f> 331. a +6. Page 274. 333. 383. 386. 0. 329. Page 277. ab. 9^. 366. a 2 . 2 ?/ 363. a) A^_. 0. 392. 7. 397. T+^. 2 327. c 402. 4. T\. 6 ?/+:>. 405. j 328.(5 a . 12.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 379. 394.J .H ' 2wi ^' /' .
. 10. 53 yr. 421. b 449. 1$.vz in. 10$. c. 0. 3... 418. 478. 50. .m  m+ M in. 425. 1. 506.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 2. 428. 11. 5. 435. 18. B $ 2500.  453. . 423. 10. 495. 2. 2 438. 419. . 7. 482.12. 430. 501.2..7. 444. 2. 487. 10. 461. + () 433. 420. 463.3. . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 63. 2.  7. . a 22 . 40 oz. 457.te + . . 445. 2. $2000 at 0%. 4. A $ 3500. B 4 mi. 427. 479. \. 477. . 459. 6. 3. 33. 500. fj.3. I. a + + ft c. 447. A 5 mi . 14 miles. 6.0. 2$. 468. 6. 480.0. 8. 0. . * . 10. 484.rz Page 279. 7 : .  1. 410.  2f 504. 503. 32. fc. 4. 22.7. Page 281. 6.  2. 467. <L+ 6 (. 448. . 502. . Page 278. 2 a 2.  f>. 0. 7. 464.  2.  10. i a b 451. 17. 42. L (c) I. 454.4. . 5. 456. 8. Page283. 432. 452. ^V.7. '.}. 458. 486. 450. 496. 426. 483. !L=4. ft 5. : />a.  505.}. />c c(f be. 6. 17. ^. 498. 3 . 429.  .55.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 1. m 1 : wi. 2. 411. 24 days. 422. (&) 443. 10. 7. 0.  1. 6. 472. 28 yr. 4. c 6fc 10. not true. \ 1. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 462.. Page 280. & 491.46. 490. 2. 465. 508.. 5J. m. 446. 7.7. 455. (a  c). 0. ' $260 at 0%. (a) 1.1. a* 424. 7. Page 282. i. 10. 6.5. 0.  2. (d  6) f.7. 84. 2. (&) true. 442. 0.4. 1 a /?$+&?. 440. 439. 493. 1. .489. 481.. . 32 yr. 436. 90. ^r?i 434. 5. L2 a  6 . . 2. 466. 40. . 441. 21. 412. 12. . 51. 492. 20 yr. 10.2. 494. 5.488. (c) not true. z8 +?/ 3 431. ISJini. 8. 1. 20. 3a 4 5. ISjmi. 476. 1. 497. 485. 499. *+. . .  7. 8. (d) true. 5. 413. 507. 9. 5. 460. 4. 3. 2.
37.6. .7. 2$.8. 4* da. 578.5. 40 Ib. 1.1. per hour. . 3. 553. (c) 3. 3.. 2 imag. 567. . (/)  10 to 8. 4.3._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.24.31.51. 3. 1$. (6) .15. 598.25m. 565. 4. f ? a f ft __ + c C). . (c) 4.  imag. 562.0.56 sec. lead. 3. 1 580. 3.  J(a f + 2c). M ft c 2 ft 3465. 3. 2. J7] min. (gr) 10 1.12. 3. Page 285. 1.78.83. 518. x8 . 1 600.8. . . a*8a + 24tf 82a.3.8. . 3. (ft) 4. 2 2. 1. . (a) 74 Ib. .0.3. + 12 x . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 1.02. f36a28x8 592. f.21. 2 . 3 .54. g(rc+ 6c).  (a) (d) 1.6.37.5 f.15. 531. 4. 591. . 6435. xxxin 511.f 1. . 6.r8 596.7.7. (ft) Ill Ib. 31. y% Z * 586. 509. _^ 2754x .03. 5. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 556. 5. tin. 2 . 27 y* f\4 . 512. 3 da. 1.  4. 24. (e) (c) 2. S82 c. 573. 583. 115 Ib. _ 4. 593.5.. If 572. 4. 4 mi. 566. 568.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.75. 0. 6. 2 10. 8 mi. 3. 582. > ^ . + 26 + .38.  2. per hr. . . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 564.53. 2(4 602. y 4.62. 577.  1.05.04. lead. 603.00. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .4 x + . 3. Page 288.6.3.20. 2. 5.5. 1. 4.78. .0. (d) 537. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.10. 1. 574. . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 3. 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . ft 584.10. 533. . 558. 1. (e) 570.02. 571. 1. (6) 3. f.55. 2. 552.4.  3.4. .21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 599. 1J. T .4.. 3.52. 2. a + ft  a  f c.24.31. 2.15. 4.4.3. tin. 559. . 2 1.  . or 8. + 6 tf f 3 . 550. da. 1. 3. .73.04.  7. 2.xj/ f xV .24 sec. 563. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. . 1 .% rr\* 585. 561.5+. 1. 1. 1. imag. 2(6 597.3.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.6.  2ft da. 510. o> . 2. 529.54.ANSWERS Page 284. 232. 1. _ 3. 7^ da. a f ft + c.0. 530. 4. 516.03. 1. 560.  557.3.1. 2.9.4.02.75. . 3. 1. 4. Roots imaginary.8 x3^. . . <z ft 1. 536. 24 da.2.1. 528. . 555. 8. (i) 3. 2. 526. 527.25.35. 575. . 513.83. 14.5.62. .  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .6 2. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). .14.1.8. 1.  + + c. 1 . 1. 2 1. 576. Page 287. 569.1. 579..88. 514. 1. 554. 532. 4 0. 1. 1.33. ^ ft 4..  ft*. 5. H. 4. . 0000.3.02. 551.1. 515. 7.  (a) 2. 21*_. 3f 4f. 581.4. a+ Page 286.30.5.16. 525.   (h) 8.
V^~3). . 2.f 3 V^3).049. 1$ 639. 622. fe + a. i.>A 610. 210. 696. 6. . 0. If 665. 2f. 613. 630.2f Page 290. l/'3. 679.001. <T! . 2. 701. 9*. 666. a 673. . 708. 678< 682. 652. V"^TJ. 0. 4. 615. 641. 647. . a 2. 898.  6. 625. 2.  4. 635. b 664. 640. 11. 627. 6. 651. 3. 3 a. 0. 608. 5.b.3.14 If 1. . . 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.  ft. 683. . 4$. 690. 1 V5 1.  3. . 692. 612.303. 2. If. 672. V2. y  619. 5. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . .3. be ac \. ab 689. z  1. ^^ 695. 4 676.  1. 1. 1.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 677 680. 698. a.002. 0. 4 V 0. 13. I}'/. 634. 644. 657. 2. K 5 2 V2. a 1J. 2 a  6*. 705. (*_ + a: 611. 649.. 1. 12. ^. 636. 8 f 3. c. 706. 1. 624. 4. .0. n^l +^. \+ab 699. 7. 1m*. 009. 645. 628. 3. 5 3. 1 704. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 2&). J^^. a ' 2 + .702. 648. 650. 646. Page 289. 2. If ..  684.3. fta a/> ^A. \. if 4/> 671. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15).  13. 10. 631. b. /> 4.y. 633. 0. 703. 2 ab + a  &. 632. 2f. 11.2f (5 4. ix 2 . 0.25. 3 x2 . 1 2. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 661. 653.b 686. 702. 629. ' 674. 2 / 2 4. 2 a: 4. 618. ft). ^ 1. 2. ' fe 2 ). . . V7. 50. 662. 660. (a3&45rj.  . 670. 6 685.  2f r 659. la6 2. 4. 2. 4.04. 700. 703. 669.a~ {Z 663. 616. 25.XX XIV 606. 620. 25. 9. If 658. 8. . 655.  a2  a (ab).43^4.c ) 697. 8 6 fo . 642. 2092. 623. 14. / V^+lO^M"^. ab.203. 626. 2 a 688.3f l 668. 78. 643. ^. + ~^'2 + a 1.3. 607. 654. 5. 2 x 44 ^/. o. + 2 A (i f Page 291.  4. 617. b . V2. If f 667. 638. 614. 7003. a 4. . 621. 3.001. a + b. 3 681. If b. 691. 2. 1 ~a . 5. 656. 637. 4330 da. 971. 1010. 5002. 7. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.
750. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 5. 3 VlT 795.2. 728.^ 743. 746. y  1. 734. iv/Jj. 2x3^ a. 777. 711. a 2  x2 . *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 34.~ . T%.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 778. r.1 .ANSWMHti Page 292. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 756. i 2. . 13ft.9. . 7  3V5. 713. i^. 3V72V3. 17ft. x i f^' . a 5 . 753. 4 104 v/2.rJ w L 754. 1 752. 3^. a 2 6^. 719. Page 294. 717. ^ . 718. 755. 730. 710. 788. 736. . 5. 716. 776.. 792. "V313. 3V7. v/7 / .1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. a". 723. 737. 758. 739. 712. 3. 715. 342V3. 782 785. 47.10.. + 6 2 tf'c. 29\/3. 1 747..V/^ 741.11. 24.9. . 1^ _ 760. 794. 00.^. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 1. 769. 1 I . 733. v'll. 732. a db Va^T < 45da. 32>/2. fyaw&cu. VIO\/3. 789. 722. 773. 763. 2 V2 . / 787. 8. 731.4 . + < 735. 793. x\y. 1 [ + '> J. 24V2. 33^2. 709. 30\/10 764.r. 751. 724.8. ^ ?>. Page 293. 727. 729. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 59. mn. 1. 1. cr*lr*. 15 shares. J(v'lO2V 791.V2. 2\/53V2. ^7xy. 3 720. . 796. 3V52V3. Hi a. VV> L4V34.r+y> 759.257. 24 4 . 3V72VO. 721. 725. 790 2v 3v 2..12 af V^ 4 744. 749. 768. j 742. 726. VT14V5. 714. 300. > 748. a:* . rt3 2 ^i^. 39. 738.4 . 25. 767. 740. 8.
2. o. 48. 2. 2 2 . 7. 890. db 7. 892. 863. 823. 14. 894. (3 b . 876.+ m f ") (a* ). 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). a(ft)( 873. ^ V}.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). a* 4. 880. 833. 829. 8. 840. 2. 3. Page 297. 3 . 0. x . 2. ANSWERS 798. 5. 868. 804. 838. 2. 0. 836. 2. 2. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).l)(x + 3)(2x43). 816. 10. . 2 m . 13.  tt 815. 2 . 884. $. 3. 835. 882. 891. 5. 4. . 16xyV2*/^~x2 . \/2. 837. (1 . 2 j 889. jV3 f 3. 810. 813. 1 .  839. 2. 843. ^VG. 1. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).3./>") (a'. 7.2) (x 4 2).r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 867. (x . (.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 811. 887.  1.a 3 " 4. 4. 6. 5). 2. 0. . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).1)(V 2 . are extraneous. m = 2. 4. 817. Hoots .25 ?>2).4. . 842. 17. 4. 847. .XXXVI 797. 2 854.l)(x . 2  2. 858. 851. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 3. (x + 0X024.5 b) 4 1). 6 $.7. b' 2 821. .1)(0 865. 3.7 4 1) 846. 800.r .. 2 *x 807. (x 2 f r . 8. 5. Page 296. 6. 3. 2. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). ) (a' 874. 0. +j!>. (xl)(^~3)(. 7. 898. 2 . (:r 11.7)(4 x.0. 4. 812. 2/ 856. m 875. **. 857. 1. 824. .1). Va 803. 3. Hoots are extraneous. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.3)(x + 4). 2 (x 4*4.2 ax 4..7). (a 1) (x 4. (x3). 2 . 900. 8 09. (x 2 . X4 1).5) (x + * 853. 3. a 42)(x .a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 879. (2x (r. n =  29.f. 4. . 826. ( 869. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . . (2 a . (x 4. (x .  + l(l^). 825. 841. 820. $. 20). 11. 23. (4 c 4. (3 862. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. a2 ^E*!. 1. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 3.1) (a 8 . ( 4 4.7). V 3. 849. 4. . x. Va. + d)*. (x 845. 4. 19. 886.3.rae) (4 . . 4 885. . 888. 4 818. 799. \/5.  ' . 881. (a 4 871.om 441) (a 855.a 4 + 1). 899. 1.l)(x .r4). 859. 832. H. 897. 819. 848. 861. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 801. 6+V7. . 3. 6. 4. 1C. 896. (a m . 1 1. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 6(a6)(o a + + &).l)(x + 2). 1. 25. 844. 4.y) 852. (2 x + 3 y} . (x*y*ryz + z*). 7. o 828.. 5. 17.1.2w . J V. 3. a(ry + 864. 5. 11. 827.a 2 2 ). 814. 893. 830. 822. 808. 895.4) 860. 4 . (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 4.1) . f. (2 4. 831.10 ab 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x .4. 883. ^. 834. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 872. 2 806. ((' 1).
952. 115. 6. 954. '3 3 in. 2 w 914. 925. 3. 3. r ft ' < Page 299.1. i 3.744. . 4.. 986. 956. 1 + V953. 11.. 1). 906. 280. ft. 908. 8 . .. 6 da. 12. dL 4. 904. 6. 911. 12 in.. ft. 15 16 ft. 1. 4 6 mi. 931. 60 949.709. 943. 982. 933. 108. 3.. J. 8. .760 sq. 329. 3. 921. yd. 4. 73. 2. 4. 961. 3 . 8.. i1" 913. ft. 7 ft. 8. S07. ?/i 6. 28. 3. 80. 1 2. 903. 4. 922. i(6 in.. . 916. tt2 19. 983. 6. 56. 945. 962. a + . 6. Va926. 4. . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 12. 12. 964. . T 6. 4. 923. 0. 11. 333. 2. 3. 905. 4. 920.. 66 924. 0. 944. 917. f ft 4 . w. 936. . . 3 4 .. i>. Y. 985. 8. 7.1.  1. 5. w 3. ft. 8. . 8.1 = 9. 0. 6 1 1. . 939. 480 8 sq. 942. 5. %* . 980. 2. T 6. 3). 2. ft. a. . 2. . 950. V^3). i 8. 979. 909. 4. 0../hr. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 3. .2. 955. 4. 1 . 20 19 ft. 6. 987. 5 . 947. V5 T 2 . 496.0. . 11.111. 918. 333. 984. Page 303. 2 yd. 8. 7. 12 mi. 934.  1 . . 1 1.615. 11. . 981.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 2.073. f.  26j. 18. 919. Page 301. 938. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.2. 932. 8128..ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 15 946. 40 16 in. 2. 248. 1. 1. 5. 2. 2 i ' a V. . 9 in. 6 a 915. Page 302. 912. 948. 7 or 30. ft. 7. 10. ft. 2 ft. 28.V~~3). 8.. 5. 960. 7. 963. 977. v/(ai !)(&910. 10. . 4 . 927. 1 _2 . V5 fj. 5. 902. 28. 935.651. 4.01. 930. 940. 100 rows. 5l4f. J(_ ft. 978.. 111. 941..I. 2. . ^y. Z ^. J. ft. 951. 6 .. Page 300. =F J. 958. $(l 4.446. 4 in. 957. 937. 959. 6. 2. 2 1. T3. 6. 14 .
1009. (J. 995. (Z>) 999. 1010. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1001. + v 2). 108.. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1017. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.. 1014. 988.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .192rt?)r 120 *. 2(2 v/2). 1019. 1008. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1005. 1013. Page 305. 1003. ~ \. 72. 993. 1007. . 1000. 48.xxxviii ANSWERS 989.870 a 6 1011. .18. 994. 1012. ^Trsq. 0. 192. 9 da. X. 1 1004. in. 4. r = 2. + 448 . 1(5. 0. 24. 162. 12. 4 and 1020.51. 1006.92. 6 70 . ^f (2f3V2). 1016.128 I. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).870 z8 . 991. 997.'^^ } ( . 8. 1018. (6) 8(1 . . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 990. 996. (5.378 1015.  5&7 1021. 2 . 3003. 120 i^l^. 1 8 8 2. 992. () 12(2+V3).378 <W and 92. 12. Page 304. 120 a.
so that the Logarithms. xi 4 373 pages. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. great many work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. i2mo. save Inequalities. The more important subjects tions. and commercial life. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. $1. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Ph. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. etc. comparatively few methods are heretofore. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.25 lamo. xiv+563 pages. than by the . without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. given. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. physics. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. HEW TOSS . especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. A examples are taken from geometry. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.D. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Half leather. Half leather. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
12010. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. save Inequalities.D. $1. Logarithms. xiv+56a pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.25 i2mo. In Factoring. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. and commercial life. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. HEW YOKE . great many A examples are taken from geometry. comparatively few methods are given. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. physics. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Half leather. HatF leather. so that the tions. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. $1. xi f 373 pages. The author grade. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph. etc.
Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 9. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. SCHULTZE. SEVENOAK. Ph. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time.10 L.r and. 4. $1. State: . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. iamo. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 6. Half leather. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. . Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . under the heading Remarks". more than 1200 in number in 2. aoo pages. wor. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. izmo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 10. 7 he . NEW YORK .. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .D. Cloth. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. xii + 233 pages. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. $1. lines. i2mo. Cloth.
25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. 370 pages. New York City. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . . $1. of these theoretical views. and not from the information that it imparts. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. 12mo.
is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Cloth. diagrams. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Maps. diagrams. $1. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. i2mo. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Topics. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. and a full index are provided. photographs. " This volume etc. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.
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