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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.D. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.
U. . August. Published Set up and electrotyped. May. May. Berwick & Smith Co. 1910. Norwood. J. 1915. Reprinted 1913. Mass. 1911. . September. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1917. July. 1916. September. .COPYRIGHT.' February..S.A. Cushlng Co. IQJS January. January. 8. 1910 . 1910.
shortcuts that solve only examples real value. are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. chief : among These which are the following 1.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected." this book.. and conse . specially 2. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. Such a large number of methods. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. etc. owing has certain distinctive features. however. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose. Elementary Algebra.
In regard to some other features of the book. Topics of practical importance.g. are placed early in the course. For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. especially problems and factoring. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. as quadratic equations and graphs. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". etc. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . e. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . two negative numbers. may be used to supplement the other. hence either book 4. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Moreover. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges.
is based principally upon the alge . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. Moreover. viz. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value." Applications taken from geometry. elementary way. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. based upon statistical abstracts. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. By studying proportions during the first year's work. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and commercial are numerous. such examples. in " geometry .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.
viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. . ARTHUR SCHULTZE. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. edge of physics. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. William P. NEW YORK. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. 1910. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. however.
. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION........ SUBTRACTION.... ...... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. . Powers.. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ...
. Type II. Type VI..114 . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type V.. ...... Type IV.. . Type Polynomials.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.... 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . /^ . Type III. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . * . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . .
. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ... .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... CHAPTER XIV 169 .... ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ...... Evolution of Monomials 170 ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
6. 26. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 2. \/c. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 14. 6. 2 . c f d). 3. A polynomial is an y." EXERCISE If a 1. V^a6. 7 = 2. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial.g. as in arithmetic. V3 . c = 1. 16. !^f\/03 3 ft. 12. 11. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. 8. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. since the parts are a . e. b = 3. aVc^. 9. V36". + 1]. V2a. 15. 4V3~6c. 27. Val \fi?. 5Vl6c. [6c] 3 . + c). v'Ta. d 7. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. (cfd) 4. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. are trinomials. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. A binomial is 62 . Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 10. 17.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. find the numerical value of: Vff. 4(a 6(6 + &). a polynomial of two terms. 13. is 28. or 9 Vx. 0. x 9. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. some number is . to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole.
. b = 3. 16. 3 4 . c=l. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . * For additional examples see page 268. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.9 aWc + f a b . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.19 = 6. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 5.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . d=Q. 5=3. find the numerical value of: 9. 2 ). 10. 4. . Ex. Ex. c = 2. x=^. a2 11. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. l 13. a 2 6. __ E. subtraction.. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. d = 0.e. . + 26+3 c. . 2. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 8.9. 5c +d 2 .810 + 150 = . 3a + 56 a 2 . 3.4 6^9 ad. 4a6fVaV2^. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. Otherwise operations of addition. 4 . 14. 1. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.30 = 270 .5 ax 50 a6cd. EXERCISE 8*  .INTRODUCTION 29.g. = 32 + 4527 = 50. multiplication. ' f & f c 3 8 d s .99. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. a=4.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 6. i. 12.390. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. (a (a f b) 7.2 + I126. 3 2 If 1.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 5. 6. 52 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 2.
if : a = 2. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 3. and other sciences. 22. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a = 3. 6 = 5. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 1. 6 = 2. 24.6 f c) (6 a + c). a = 4. 35. 6. 30. 26. = 3. physics. Six times a plus 4 times 32. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a a=3. a = 4. . 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 26 of the exercise. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs.c) (a .12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 5. 6 = 6. 6 = 7. 29. 23. 33. sible to state Ex. a =3. a =4. geometry. 6 = 4. a. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 37. 28. 6. 38. 6=2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 30.6 . : 6. Read the expressions of Exs. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. a = 2. Six 2 . 34. 27. 6 = 6. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 25. a = 3.
A train in 4 hours. b. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 15 therefore feet. 13. if v . c.16 centimeters per second.INTRODUCTION E. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 2. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J.16 1 = 84.g. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. b 14. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. d. then a 13. (c) 4. . An electric car in 40 seconds. i. 4.) Assuming g . Find the height of the tree. and 5 feet. and 13 inches. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 12. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.e. if v = 30 miles per hour. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. (b) 5. and 15 feet. the area of the triangle equals feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1.seconds. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 14. if v : a.
meters. square units (square inches. . 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. 5. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14 4. the area etc. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. the 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. 32 F. is H 2 units of length (inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.14 square meters. $ = 3. : 8000 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. 2 inches. (c) 10 feet. This number cannot be expressed exactly.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. (c) 5 miles.). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (The number 3. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.14d (square units). ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 5 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.
In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. . Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. In algebra.CHAPTER II ADDITION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. or positive and negative numbers. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. however.
is 2. (17) 15 + (14). 22. 2326. (_ In Exs. 4 is 3 J. subtract their absolute values and . 18. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. = 5. c = = 5. is 0. d = 0.3. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. if : a a = 2. 5. Thus. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 12. 6 6 = 3. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. of: 20. 19. 10. of 2. '. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum.  0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 24. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 5. . 23. + 12. + (9).16 32. 33. 4. d = 5. the one third their sum. 21. lf(2). c = 4.
ADDITION. 4 F.5. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. = 22. $1000 loss. = 23. : 48. and $4500 gain. 35. \\ Add 2 a. 74. 10. 25. 0.. 3. 36. and 3 F. 5 and 12. 66. 60. 09. and 3 yards. 4. and 8 F. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. }/ Add 2 a. 42. 2. 3 and 25. : and 1. . SUBTRACTION. .3. . : 34. d= 3. 6. and 4. 43. or and . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 13. which are not similar. c = 0. 7 a. 11 (Centigrade). Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 27.5. 37. 33. 7 a. are similar terms. . 39. 31. ' 1? a 26.7. $7000 gain. & = 15.13. $3000 gain. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 2. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 40. 7 yards. 10. 32. 6.4. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. = 13. . or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 12.7. $500 loss. & 28. . 30. affected by the same exponents. 29. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 34. 10. ' Find the average of the following 34.. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . sets of numbers: 13. 41. . c=14. 1. and 3 a. 72. ^ ' 37. 32.. 6. and 3 a. 55. 38.
Vm f. 5l 3(af6). 11. 5Vm + w. 3a . 10. 2 . In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. EXERCISE Add: 1.sign. 14 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12 2 wp2 . : 2 a2. 5 a2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 7 rap2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 12(af b) 12. . 2(af &). sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9.ii. The sum x 2 and f x2 . and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. in algebra it may be considered b. 2 a&.13 rap 25 rap 2. 13. b a f ( 6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12Vmfn. + 6 af . or a 6.18 35. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 9(af6). Algebraic sum. f 4 a2.
It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2/ : Add. 33. a a8 ZL **. 37. 1 27. SUBTRACTION. 30.ADDITION. 17. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 2 2 2 31. 32. l^S 25. + / + 3 Va. without finding the value of each term 34. is . 35. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. c 2 ^24. + y. n x* 2 22. ra 19. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. and to add each column. 21. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. +m """ 20. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 36. 2 7 1 26. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 6 23.
a 4.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. and 2 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 2 Sum.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. to show any error.c= 2.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 2c.15 6c. 3a 2? . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 5.8 abc . 2 .15 abc .41 = 3.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.3 s.12 a& 4. 6=2. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. c = 1. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . . 3. 2 025. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . 3 a f 4 1) 4. x of x. of that letter. = .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 46 4z 7 c. s. NOTE. 9 q 4. V3. 4 2. 5 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . the erroneous answer equal 7.20 c 5 ab 4. 7 4. therefore the answer is correct. and J 2 s. f 110WS: 26 aft. to add 26 ab .g. 2 Thus. ft any convenient and c. 4 = 7. . .2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . e.7 2 .o c and 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.
SUBTRACTION. 7ar + 3B 5. a 4 a .7m . and v 15. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). . and 5 Vb 18.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . e a4 /. and 12a 4 15& 20c .8 m 2m 12. 16. . ^2 1 e. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.9(a + &) . + a + 1.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .a 4 a 4 1. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. d. 16e + 17/90. 18/+6y + d.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.6.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. . and and 13. v/20.a . . 2 a.ADDITION. 2 ?ft ?/z.2n 2 2 3 rz . and 1 4 a .a. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2 ?/.a. . 3 2 2 3 9 . xy3xz + yz.5a^6 f 6) . a 4 a . 2 2 and . in 8 3 m n 4. 19. a2 2 14. a) y ^/. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.15 5.VS 4 2 Vc. and 8 3 . . m 4 6.12(a 4. 4 ajy 17. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. . .7v/if. . 56 w. 4 3 .1. a. 2 3(c f a). 4 8 3 4 4 . 4 Vc.3 mn 2 2 n8 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .12. and . ?/ .and 6.12 6 ~5 a .Ga 43x45. 8. + 50 + 62 . 4. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.5 cr& + 7 6 9.1 a 4 1 0. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4(a . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .10 Vc. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.4 Va . 11. a2 a. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 and 9m 48m 4.(b + c) 1. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.4:xy xz 6yz. 2 2 . d and / 3 ? 12.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .
f 1. + n*. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . and 2 24. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.3^* 2n 2 .22 21. and e + 6y . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . T8a. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.9aj 2. +d a. and 25. 8 . f number may be added 3. 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. 1. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.ra + m.11 xy + 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . s . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. how 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. a 6 2 c. 12 xyz. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . + 1.m 4m ?/?/ d.. c 3 3 3 2 3 . . f 1. . 1. 45a6 2 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . is 2. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1/ . The sum and ? 1. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a.3 taken from 2 ? 5.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 22. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 13 1.
. Ex. From 5 subtract + 3. the other number is required. 1. To subtract. two numbers are given. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 7. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.g. ab = x. This gives by the same method. +b 3. Therefore any example in subtraction different . may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . NOTE. In addition. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. In subtraction. SUBTRACTION. 41. if x Ex. 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 5 is 2. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to .ADDITION. and their algebraic sum is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. the given number the subtrahend. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 6 (3) = 8. Ex. 2. and the required number the difference.3. from What 3.2. ( 6) ( = . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. a. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. called the minvend. change the sign of the subtrahend and add.
Ex. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 .3 x* . Check.3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. If x = l = 2 t .
5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 53. + a the 2 a. 48. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 57.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 50. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.6)f. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 52.ADDITION. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 42. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 44. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 41. 49.c. of a 4. 6 4 a. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . and 3 7/ .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 51. 54. 45.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.7 a . 2. 56. From 6(af. 58.4 a*& + 6 a & . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .2. c f d. 47. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 43.a 2 j. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.w>t. 55. . 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.4 a^ 4. 46. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 2y 2 . check the answer. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From From x2 the sum sum 7. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 2 a take a & j. tract 4 x 3. SUBTRACTION.
a a + c. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 19. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. of # 2 8. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. + 6 + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 16. +a add the difference duce 13. a + 6. a 2y + z. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 2 m 21. 6. A is n years old. 9. + 2. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18.26 4. 20. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v .15. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. subtract # + 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5.
b c = a a & f f. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. SUBTRACTION.2 b . II. Ex. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. one occurring within the other. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.c. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. changed. a+(bc) = a +b . 45. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.a^6)]  } . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.6 b f (. the sign is understood. . I. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. 46. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.ADDITION.g.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. & f c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.
7 6)+ {a [a: 22. Signs of aggregation 1. .: Ex. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 6. may be inserted according to 43.[271 47. 271 + (814 . 3 3 f 7. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. In the following expression inclose the second and third.1422) J ] . 15. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 2 2 2 a(. 2. 17.+ 6)f (a2 b). 2a (4a 26 +c ). 18. ? 11. : x + (2yz). 3. + (2a 6 + c ). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).)].(a + 6). [36+ (a 2c].) 5 . Ex. 4. 21. a (a + 26 c ). 19. 8. 2 2a.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.y (60. (m a2 f. By removing parentheses. 16. a (a + 6). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). m f ft) a. 6) 2. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a f (a a . 14. 9. 5. find the numerical value of { 1422 .7i h jp) (m ?*. 13.
9. y f 8 . The sum^)f m and n. 6 diminished .ADDITION. 2. )X 6.2 tf . The square of the difference of a and b. ' NOTE. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 6. a\l> > c + d. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. z + d. 4. 8. 12. of the cubes of m and n. and the subtrahend the second. m x 2 4. terms 5. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n.1. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. first. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. The product The product m and n. 10. 7. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2mn + 2q3t. p + q + rs. 5^2 _ r .7fa.4 y* . difference of the cubes of n and m. 5. 7. SUBTRACTION. II. 13. The difference of a and 6. m and n. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. . The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 3. 5 a2 2.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17.) .30 14. 18. b. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. d. 16. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
let us consider the and JB. 3. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . 2. 4. force is produced therefore. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. A A A 1. If the two loads balance. weights. therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force is produced by the Ib. two loads balance. If the two loads what What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.
however. 5x(4). 4 multi44444 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. NOTE. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. becomes meaningless if definition. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. To take a number 7 times. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. . ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained.4)(. 4x(3)=12. 4 multiplied by 3. 9 9. or plied by 3. Thus. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. Practical examples^ it however.4)(4) = + 12. the multiplier is a negative number. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 9 x ( 11). thus. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( (. (.32 8. (5)X4. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 48. such as given in the preceding exercise. x 11.9) x 11. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.
29. (4)'. of Signs: TJie positive. (10) 4 . (. 30. 6. and y = 4. . etc. (2) 8 (. 11. 6. . 23. 4. 3 aW. _2^ 3. 7. c = 25. 10. 9. +5. Ua b 28. 2. 6 2.3. 4 a2 . b = 3.a)( =+ a&. Law Thus. 8 4 . (c#) . 27. 1. 16.2 f+x 2 . 20. . If a cal = 4a6c. 13. (7) X (12). (4)X(15). . NOTE. 2a 2 6c. about fac (2)X If 6. 3.2. 5. 15. 24. find the numeri values of: 21. 4 . is 6x7. 12.2f 18. . x. 26. 1. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 8. 19. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (2)x9. _2. x= 0. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 14. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 3. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 3 a2?/2 . 22. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 8 31. X(5).4.(a&c) 2 2 . _3. 17. the parenthesis frequently omitted.3) (1) 7 2 . z s 11 aWcx. 5x3.7. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 2a6 c .(4J).MULTIPLICATION 50. 32. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors.
1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .. 2(14. a = 3. = 2. 50(112.6 if 35. 12 U U . 6 = . =2 a *. 5 3 5 3 2 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 2 2 2 . a= 1. 100. .m a 3  4 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 36.7. 9 . fl*" integers. This 52. 127  127 9 7 . 2 3 .(2. 53.. 3.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 34. By 3 definition. a8 a=2. + 2/). 5 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. B.2).  2 2. . 3 3 4 .2 2 23 + 5 . 6 aWc x . & = 3. 17. i. a = 2. 6. 2. 2 2 3 6 . 14. of the factors. 13.35). 4. Ex. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 4. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 7. 16.503). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. . a 2 2 .(12) . 200. 11. 78 .e. 5(711.257). 2(7. 3 2 . . 5 = 2.(7). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .3). 1. 10. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 6 = 1. or 2 . 4. &*) c d*. 6" 127 U . Ex. m*. : 3a7abc. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 2. 3. IB. . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 5.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.  and 2 25 8 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.<?. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . (a6) (a5) 9.
3 win ) . called the distributive law.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .f 2).7pqt. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. by first multiplying. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 4. and then adding : 1. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). multiply each by the monomial. . To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 35 4 7(6.4a#. ) 2 33. _4aft. 28. This principle. 2. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 22. c(4a ftc ). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 3. 29. 6(10420430). 25. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 23. 34. . 12( + 1 4 i).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 17(10041042). If results ft.2 3 aft ). but we shall assume it for any number. 11(3. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. . /).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 2(645410). 24. . 2 32.6. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. Thus we have in general a(b 56.7 w'W (8 n^W). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 31. 19.A). 35. (. 27. 7p*q r*. (. 7. 3(124342). 6. . 26.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 21. 20. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 23(10004100420). 2(5fl5f25). . 5.
5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 9. 20. ~2mn(m +n p ). 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).we b) (x law. 2 27. Find the factors of 6 ary . 11. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . : expression must 24. .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 22. 30.asa product. 26. 2 2 16.2 mn(9 mV . 28. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 23. 2 m(mhn \p). By what 25.5 w*V f 7 wn). 17. 3 ).^ c + 2 . 19. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).5 x 7).3 aftc).6 a6). 12. 21. 29. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. be multiplied to give 4o. f7a.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 7 a 6 c(. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .60 a& 10 aft. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 5). .
3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.4. a2 + a8 + 3 .a . 2. however. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. Check. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. To multiply two polynomials. 2a3b a66 2 a . Ex.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since errors. 59. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 b by a 5 b. Since all powers of 1 are 1. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. the student should apply this test to every example. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Multiply 2 a .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Multiply 2 + a a.
(a^26) . (4a 2 33. (2w 19. 20.4) (x + 1). 35. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (13 A. 13. 4. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 2. 28. 26. 32. 31. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 40. 24. (6p (2 f 21. 25. OQ OO. 36. 16. . (8r7*)(6r39. 2  37. 36). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 9. 12)(a?^2l). 3. 1).2m)(l m). 30. 7.4) (mnp 4. (ajf6y)(aj 23.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 22. (6i7n)(llJn). 2 . (2 x* x 2 . l)(raf 2). 7y). a 5c)(2a6c).1 . 12. 8. 5. .2).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 11. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 15. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2 . 4 2). 18. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . * For additional examples see page 261. 41. ^ 2 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 17. 29.n)(m 8 n)(m n). I (mfn)(m4. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2) (3 A: 1). (6a~7) 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). QQ O7. 3<7). 10. 6. 36) I) 14.
26. (10+ (1000 (2. 25 a 2 . (100 +2) (100 + 3). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 13. . Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 22. ft 16. + 5) (1000 + 4).!!)( (a + 21). 75 ab f 54 ft .e. in of the two unequal terms. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 10. (*. i. 25. 1) (10 + 2).4). 24. plus the product 62. 2) (1000 + 3). (a 102 x 103. 21. 14. 18.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 3. (6 12) (6 f. 19. (p12)(p + ll). 20. 7. _3)(a _4). (ra. 15. + 60)(f2). (a (a (a. . (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 17. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (J 23.n)(wf w). 12. 2 a? 29. (a 9) (a + 9). 27. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (!)(* 5). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. X 102. plus the product of the two unequal terms. + 2) (a f 3). : 23 2. 6. 8. + 9)(m+9). 9. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 1005x1004. i. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.e.2 6) (a f 6). 28.25)(y+4). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 11. 2 6) (a 3 6). (a3)(a + 2).13). . + 3) (a 7).
i. 4. a2 2 w + 2 w . <J>7) J . . 31. 6. 34. 77ie square of the of the first. 9. second. n2 10ii+16. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. i. : 24 (a 2.30. .66 s. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first.e.e. 3. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. of the second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 2 5. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15.15. p 2 p. and the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . III. 7 a + 10. 49 y*. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus the square of the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 . 8. 7. + 6 a + 8. 32. w 2 ro . 37.e. plus twice the product of the first and the second. plus sum of two numbers the square II. + 3) 2 . (x+3i/) 2 . . 63. (a2) (p a .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. 35. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 33. III. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (a26) 2 . Ex.
48.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 32. 41 16. 62 25n 2 . (^. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . G> +5g)*. 52. 41. 47. ( 27. . + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 40. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 24. 16aW25. 46. 55. 54. 17. 28. 2 2 . 4 53. 31. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 33. ). 23. 38. 998x1002. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 12. (1000 2 . 14. 22. The product of 57. 34. 103 36. 22 2 . 7& ) 25. By actual multiplication. . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 991 2 2 . I) 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .998 39. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). a2 9. (6afy 2 5) (a. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 29. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 11. (20 f 1) . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. . 21. 99x101. 2 . 18.30 ab + 25 6 64. 45. 104 2 37.MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . + 5)(5+a). 2 . (2x3yy. . 2 11 # ) 2 20. + 3z) 2 2 . 2 J ). m 2 16. 35. 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . n*6n+9. 49. (100 + 2) (100 2). 15. 9 a2 . n 2 f4n+4. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 42. 51. 44. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). + 5). 25 a 9.
(5a64)(5a&3). ((5a? (10 12. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ) (2 of a polynomial. : 25 2. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).& + c) = a + tf + c . and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. (5a4)(4al). 2 10. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 9. 7. 4. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The square 2 (a 4. 65. (3m + 2)(ml). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). sum of the cross products. (2a3)(a + 2). 13. (4s + y)(32y). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 6.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. or The student should note minus signs. 11. 5. 3. 8. plus the last terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 14.
(= [ Xa + 2 .(>. 4.y? + 8 . a. 9.5). Check. 3. 8.29.i2&c) 2 .5) = (7 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 2)6. = 10 x . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (xy+z)*. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.1 5 = 10 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 8. 4. 13.39. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 5. of z : 10. n). Hence.4) . 7. and check the answers !. + 6)( .3) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. (  2 4) =  20 a. 7. 4(aj2)h3(7). = .(x . (a (.4) . 4(* + 2)5(3). (u4& + 3c'. 3. 2 2.39. Find the square root 11. 6. + 65) . If x = 1.24 . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).8 x + 15] . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 4y sf n) 2 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 5. 6(a 2.r _ 2 . .24] .(m 2 6. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 6~2(a + 7). EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.X2 + 2 x . 66. 12. after multiplying the factors of a term.3)(z. Ex.3) (x .[a? .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
20. (81 m + 1 . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex.l.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . v/17. a I.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). .11 a + 9 a . . 16. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 19.2) (3 a . . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. Division of the difference of two squares. 18. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).DIVISION 14.2).e. 51 15.
100ry. 10. r/ 1. 4 b. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16 . . f 13. 1. . 16. 15. 9& 2 . aW 12 a.0001. 121a a 16 100 11. 12.49.000. : the following w a 4 !.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 14.
x 20. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 83. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. in the equation 2 x 0. . hence it is an equation of condition.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 81. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . the 80. Thus. is said to satisfy an equation. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. =11. the first member is 2 x + 4. second member is x + 4 x 9. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. 82.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13.
the sums are equal. If equals be divided by equals. 2. . expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. the quotients are equal. To solve an equation to find its roots. A numerical equation is one in which all . one member to another by changing x + a=. the divisor equals zero. Transposition of terms. . 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.2. 87. If equals be subtracted from equals. called axioms 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 5.e. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.54 84. A term may be transposed from its sign. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. E. 4. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. NOTE. x I. the remainders are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity.g. 3. but 4 does not equal 5. a. A 2 a. the products are equal. 90. 85. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.b. If equals be added to equals. 2 = 6#f7. 89. If equals be multiplied by equals. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 86.
6 y f y\ . if 55 x members. x = 3. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. f If y 20 . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.2 y= f . 3 y . b c. 2 x = 6. x = 93. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. a? Adding 5 to each term.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. To solve a simple equation.8. if a x = b. 4x 1 + 6. 2(11 . (Axiom 4) When x = 3. b Adding a to both + a. transpose the unknown terms to the first member.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. and the known terms to the second. The first member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Dividing both members by 2.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Ex. Dividing by Check. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Hence the answer. Transposing. a= a 6fc. (4y)(6. Subtracting 4 x from each term. Check. is correct. 91. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.9 y + y2 = 22 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The first member. Unite similar terms.2. Uniting similar terms. The second member. x = (Axiom 3) 92. Uniting. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. .
x = 18. J. a?. 20. a. 17 + 5a. 19. it NOTE.. 50. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. = 3. . + 16 = 16 + 17. 3.56 Ex. Solve the following equations by transposing. Dividing by Cfcecfc. Uniting.17 + 4y = 36. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 21. 7 (6 x 16). BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 9 9a? = 7 13. 8. 6. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.7. 11. x x 1 . 4. 3)= 9(3 7 a. . 13 y 99 = 7 y. 13a? 3a?. = 2 ?/.. If x = 18. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. and check the answers 9. a. \x x 2^xfl. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 22. etc. 3 7 a. =2 = 3. + 22. = 5a?+18. 4y 10. v23. : 5# = 15+2a. 247y = 68lly. 2. 14. 32 = 264. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 15. aj * See page 264. = 7. 7a? 5.7a: = 394a. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. {(x (x The The member right member left . 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 11 ?/ a? 18. 17 7 a. 4a + 5 = 29. 16. 12.69. 7. 24. f Simplifying. Transposing. a? a?. 3.
and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. (aj 37. a? 43. . (6 u =5 44. .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.4) + 4 w . 33.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.7. 35. 7) (a. 38.1) (a (a? + 3) = .12) (2 + 5) . 5) (as (a. 39. e. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.14 = 0. . 40. 30.g.32. Evidently 45.(2 + 6) (4 . . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 6(6a.3) + . 29. 34. . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 2 2 * Jaj.5) + 199.5) = (a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 25.3) . find the other part.1 0) = 0. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. + 7) (.7) (7 x + 4) . (a. a? 28. this question.2) (M . . 42.3) + 14.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. is the other part. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .5(2 u . 41.1) (u .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 7(7 x y 26. 36. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 27. . 31.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. or 70 a?. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. + 4).
find the cost of one yard. 3. 10. Ex. 13. 6. Divide 100 into two 12.58 Ex. a. 15. 1. Divide a into two parts. one yard will cost 100 dollars. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 7. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. smaller one 16. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. greater one is g. EXERCISE 1. and the smaller one parts. 6. 17. is a? 2 is c?. one part equals is 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 5. is d. 11. 4. 33 2. If 7 2. Find the greater one. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. or 12 7. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. so that one part Divide a into two parts. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 9. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . so that one part The difference between is s. 14. is b. so that of c ? is p.
19. ?/ 31. A man had a dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. Find 35. and B has n dollars. sum If A's age is x years. 32. find the has ra dollars. and c cents.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 22. Find 21. and B is y years old. How many years A older than is B? old. 33. A dollars. and B's age is y years. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. If B gave A 6 25. 34. 20. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 24. b dimes. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 28. A feet wide. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. How many cents has he ? 27. and spent 5 cents. 28. amount each will then have. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. numbers is x. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. is A A is # years old. 26. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30.
find the fraction. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. A was 20 years old. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find x % % of 1000. The two digits of a number are x and y. m is the denominator.50. 48. % % % of 100 of x. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find the number. a. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. .60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. he walk each hour ? 39. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. A cistern is filled 43. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. . as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find a. Find a 47. 46. 49. The first pipe x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. of 4. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. c a b =  9. of m.
8 b ) + 80 = a . double of a is 10. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 4. 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. The double as 7. 3. 9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. etc. c. of a increased much 8. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 2. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. of x increased by 10 equals x. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 80. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. a exceeds b by c. 80. c. 5. The excess of a over b is c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a.
x 4 If A. 6 % of m. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. is If A's age is 2 x. (c) If each man gains $500. 50 is x % of 15. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. a. and C's ages will be 100. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. and C's age 4 a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. they have equal of A's. a. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 17. x is 100 x% is of 700. 18. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 11.62 10. .*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. A gains $20 and B loses $40. B's. #is5%of450. B's age 20. pays to C $100.. a second sum. sum equals $20. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. of 30 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. In 10 years the sum of A's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. B. amounts. as 17 is is above a. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 16. B's.000. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. m is x % of n. 3 1200 dollars. >. they have equal amounts. symbols B. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 14. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 12.
number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. the required .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Transposing. 6 years ago he was 10 . Ex. etc. Three times a certain no. x= 15. but 30 =3 x years. Uniting. Uniting. Find A's present age. NOTE. Transposing. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 23 =30. 3z40:r:40z. 4 x = 80. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. In order to solve them. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. 1. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Check. number of yards. x = 20. 2. the . Ex. Dividing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Let x = the number. much as 40 exceeds the number. be 30 . A will Check. . In 15 years 10. x+16 = 3(35). be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 15. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Let x The (2) = A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Simplifying. denote the unknown 96.
What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Dividing. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.2. Find 8. exceeds the width of the bridge. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 5. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. EXERCISE 1. 120. twice the number plus 7. Hence 40 = 46f. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. by as much as 135 ft. . Let x 3. A number added number. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 4. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal.64 Ex. Six years hence a 12 years ago. % of 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Forty years hence his present age. 3. 300 56. Find the number. 14. 11. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find the number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. 13.
Find the population of Maine in 1800. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. F 8. 65 A and B $200. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. 97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. The other verbal statement. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. The problem consists of two statements I. 1. x. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. One number exceeds the other one by II. Vermont's population increased by 180.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. times as much as A. two verbal statements must be given. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. B will have lars has A now? 17. the second one. Maine's population increased by 510. and B has $00.000. How many dol A has A to $40. written in algebraic symbols. B How will loses $100. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. During the following 90 years. . The sum of the two numbers is 14. A and B have equal amounts of money. which gives the value of 8. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and as 15. statements are given directly.000. Ex. If A gains A have three times as much 16. five If A gives B $200. 14. is the equation.
Statement x in = the larger number. A gives B 25 marbles. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. . Let x 3x express one many as A. which leads ot Ex. 2. B will have twice as viz. I. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. . = 3. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. A has three times as many marbles as B. The two statements I.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. . < Transposing. 2x a? x j = 6. If A gives are : A If II. x x =14 8. B will have twice as many as A. x 3x 4 and B will gain. / . expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 8 the greater number. x = 8. + a f f 8 = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. has three times as many marbles as B. consider that by the exchange Hence. Let x 14 I the smaller number. terms of the other. the greater number. = A's number of marbles. the smaller number. Dividing. 8 = 11. Uniting. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 25 marbles to B. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. and Let x = the Then x +. although in general the simpler one should be selected. = B's number of marbles. If we select the first one. to Use the simpler statement. unknown quantity in Then. A will lose. = 14. Then.
. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Simplifying. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. x = the number of half dollars. 3 x = 45. 3. 60. . the number of dimes. Eleven coins. Find the numbers. 40 x . have a value of $3.10.550 f 310. 15 + 25 = 40.5 x . greater is . 45 .25 = 20. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). Check. Dividing. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. consisting of half dollars and dimes. but 40 = 2 x 20. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 50 x Transposing. A's number of marbles. cents. dollars and dimes is $3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 50. The sum of two numbers is 42. and the Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 11 x = 5. etc. Check. Uniting. (Statement II) Qx .75. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.10. * ' .. Uniting. 6 times the smaller. the price. Dividing. Two numbers the smaller. x from I. of dollars to the number of cents. is 70. * 98. The value of the half : is 11.. the number of half dollars. . x = 15. 2. then.$3.10. 1. w'3. The number of coins II. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. by 44.240. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 6 dimes = 60 = 310. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. x = 6. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Simplifying. B's number of marbles.
Twice 14. On December 21. 7. How many volcanoes are in the 8. McKinley. as the larger one. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. Find their ages.000 feet. and four times the former equals five times the latter. 11. and twice the altitude of Mt.68 4. one of which increased by 9. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt.. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. Everest by 11. How many 14 years older than B. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. A's age is four times B's. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. How many hours does the day last ? . would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the number. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. 5. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 9. tnree times the smaller by 65. United States. 6. Two numbers The number differ by 39.
II. 1. If 4x = 24. are : C's The three statements A. number of dollars A had. and B has three as A. I. and C together have $80. B has three times as much as A. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. and C together have $80. number of dollars of dollars B C had. has. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. Ex. 8(8 + 19) to C. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. B. times as much as A. x = 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. 19." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. . then three times the money by I. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. number had. III. Let x II. they would have 3. If A and B each gave $5 to C. bers is denoted by x. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and 68. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B. has. = 48. original amount.
the third five times the first. Dividing. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of sheep. The total cost equals $1185. x = 5. each cow $ 35. number of cows. 9 5 = 4 . = the number of dollars spent for cows. 2. Uniting. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. cows. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x j = the number of horses. and Ex. 90 may be written. three statements are : IT. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. and the sum of the . first. x f 4 = 9. 185 a = 925. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. according to III. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. and. number of horses. x Transposing. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. = the number of dollars spent for horses. III. 9 cows. number of cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. Let then. 1 1 Check. and each sheep $ 15. 4 x f 8 = 28. 28 2 (9 5). + 35 x 4. sheep. The I. according to II. + 8 90 x and. each horse costing $ 90. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.
A 12. the third 2.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).000. first. 9. twice as old as B. what are the three angles ? 10. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. 13. increased by three times the second side. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 7. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. the copper. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. twice the 6. how many children were present ? x 11. first. what is the length of each? has 3. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. and the sum of the first and third is 36. "Find three is 4. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. what is the population of each city ? 8. v . the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. women. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and 2 more men than women. and children together was 37. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women.000. equals 49 inches. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.  4. The gold. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If twice The sum the third side. New York delphia. men.
First fill in all the numbers given directly. but stops 2 hours on the way. A and B apart. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. 14. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. = 5. how many 100. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. width. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 3 and 4. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. or time. .000 more than that the copper.g. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000.e. number of miles A x x walks. 8 x = 15. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and quantities area. 7 Uniting. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. together. we obtain 3 a.000. i. After how many hours will they meet and how E. speed. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. The copper had twice the value of the gold. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Find the value of each. = 35. and distance. Hence Simplifying. Let x = number of hours A walks. number of hours. Dividing. such as length. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.
+ 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.04 = $ 40.04 8. Multiplying. But 700 certain = 800 2. 70x10 Ex. 2 a = 40. Transposing and uniting. were increased by 30 yards. $ 800 = required sum. Find the dimensions of the field. $ 800 = 800. $ 1000 x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. x + 200). z = 20." gives (2.M(x . 2   and transpose.05 x x .053. x . The an area 40 x 20 =800. + 8. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. the area would be 100 square yards less.06 = $ 40. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. and the width decreased by 10 yards. l. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. or 700. Check. the second 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. original field has Check. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. .01 = = . 10 x = 200. .
sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. as a 4. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and a second sum. A sets out later two hours B . 3.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. What are the two sums 5. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. Ten yards $ 42. mobile. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. A man bought 6 Ibs. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. After how many hours will B overtake A. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. but four men failed to pay their shares. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. Six persons bought an automobile. of coffee for $ 1. A sum ? invested at 4 %. were increased by 3 yards. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. invested at 5 %. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. sions of the field. twice as large. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8.55. and its width decreased by 2 yards. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. Find the share of each. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. A of each. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. 1. together bring $ 78 interest. the area would remain the same. 2.
The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. After how many hours. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point. A and B set out direction. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
if it is integral to all letters contained in it. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. expression is rational with respect to a letter. 6.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 76 . if. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. at this 6 2 . + 62 is integral with respect to a. it contains no indicated root of this letter . irrational. as. this letter. An after simplifying. a. 5. a. if it does contain some indicated root of . it is composite. stage of the work. consider 105. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. we shall not. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. vV . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . f db 6 to b. which multiplied together are considered factors. but fractional with respect 103. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 104. a2 to 6. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime.
it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.g. 8) (s1). factors of 12 &V is are 3.FACTORING 106. x. Factor G ofy 2 . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 77 Factoring is into its factors. . it follows that a 2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Divide 6 a% .62 + &)(a 2 . 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 .62 can be &). y. x. 2. E. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 01. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.3 sy + 4 y8).9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . It (a. ?/. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). in the form 4) +3. Ex. 55. 2. or that a = 6) (a = a . 109.3 6a + 1). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. TYPE I. for this result is a sum.) Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 1. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. . 110. 107.
18. ) 22  2. 3x*6x*.51 aW + 68 21.2. q*q*q 2 a. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.g.30 aty. obviously. 11. + llm llm. 2 + q.8 c a 15 ofyV . 7i 13.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 Or. 17. 34 a^c 8 .5 + 2. 15 2 7. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).3. TYPE IT. 5f 2 . 3 3 5 6. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.5 + 13 8. 19. 20. in general. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).12 cdx. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 3 2 .4. 8. Ilro8 9. 14. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. : 6 abx . 2 6. 4 8 .6. (as 3) and (ccf5).45 afy . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 13.4. e. x2 f2 x = 15 we have.3. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . a a 'Ja . 7a & 10.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 2. a6c. 15. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 4 tfy f. 2 2 . 14a 4 5. 4. . 32 a *?/ . 12. 2 23. 16. . 3. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.5 x*y 2 17 a? .51 x4 2 6 xy s .
and (a .1 1 a tf a 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. as p.. If q is positive. tfa2  3. 2. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).4 x . 4. however.11. . the two numbers have both the same sign as p.5) (a . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. can be factored. + 30 = 20. If q is negative.4 . is The two numbers whose product and 6.a). If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. or 77 l. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Factor a2 . + 112. determine whether In solving any factoring example. 3. 2 6. Factor x? .11 a + 30. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. We may consider 1.FACTORING Ex. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. of this type. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.11) (a + 7). . m 5m + 6. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.G) = . Ex. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Ex. 77 as the product of 1 77. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.5) (a 6). a 2 . Therefore Check.11 a 2 . 5.6 = 20. the two numbers have opposite signs.77 = (a. 11 7. or 7 11. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.30 = (a . . but of these only a: Hence 2 . Factor + 10 ax .
^ </ 2 2 7p8. 31. 8. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 11. + 5<y 24. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 30. 2 2 .70 x y . 21. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 32. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 100 xr .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . a? + 5 + 6 a. 27. 2 2 a' 34. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 19. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. or . 35. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.180 a. + 44.17 + 30. . TYPE 113.500 x + 600. .6. 24. 33. + 30. 18. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 6 is the product of + 3 and 2.48 + + 446 200. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 12. 15. 13. 2 ?/ 22. ra + 25ra + 100. 2 . 20. .80 7. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. + 2xS. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 . ay 11 ay +24. + 4?/21. a 7 a 30. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ITT. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 26. 25. 14. 9. 4 2 . 4 3 2 . 21 a 2 2 . 2 ?/ 28. 2 . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. a2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 16. 16. x2 23. and 5 x. 29. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 17. 36.
. 3 x and x. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . If p is poxiliw. 6 x 9. 2.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 54 x 1. Factor 3 x 2 .5 . then the second terms of have opposite signs.13 x + 5 = (3 x . X x 18. sible 13 x negative. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. viz. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. a. or G 114. but the opposite sign. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. and r is negative. 18 x 3.5) (2 x .83 x f 54. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. 11 x 2x. 2 x 27.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. the If p and r are positive.1). 9 x 6. 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. and that they must be negative. the signs of the second terms are minus. 27 x 2. Ex.
9 y + 32^16. 9a.83 x = (3 .2) (x . 2 . 11. 12. 34. 10. 2m t7w + 3. 100^200^ + 100^. 16. 13. 25. f go. 19. 6n + 5?i4. 2x* + 9x5. + 4. 15. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 32. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 .2 a 90 x*y . 7. 17.83 x .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . . 22. the expressions should be it. 14. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 2 2 . : 41 2. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 10a2 G a2 2 .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 144 x .260 xy . 2 2 2 23. 30.163 x 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. x54 a. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 18. 10 a . 90 a 8 2 . 5. 4.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 14 a fa 4. 8. 9. 12y 2/6. 6. 2 26. 2 31. 35. .19 a f 6. 2 fc . 2. and the monomial factors should be removed. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .7. + 2/3.179. 3a + 13a. 20. 3x*Sx + 4. 2 28. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.y + 172/9.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. X 27 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 12^17^16. since all others (II. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Sar' + SaG. 3. 10a?2 2 33. 29. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.27). 21. 5m 26m f 5.30 y 6 4 . . h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.300 ab 2 f4 250 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 24.
To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 9 10gf25.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 8. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 13. . x* . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . however. 3. 5. 25 7. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. and a perfect square. 116. form are special cases of the preceding type. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 4.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 6.10 x f 16. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 10. it is more convenient for that type.e. 9. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 2 . square. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 2 2 . 9 10a625. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. . 2.20 xy f 4 y\ .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 11. i.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 14. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. it is a perfect square. 12. and factor whenever possible : 1. of its terms are perfect squares. must have a positive sign.
difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 18. a. +( )f816 30.20 ab + 10 b a . prime. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 4 2 23.6 m* + 9 m. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 4a2 l. According to 65. aV .60 a# + 4. 17. 5. 6 2 . ). . 7. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 16. 27. 1. 19. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 .3 * ). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 225 ofy .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). TYPE 117. 25. !Gar 9 ( )+25. Ex.84 15. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 2 . 2 . 26. 22. + GO + 25.2 ofy + ofy m . ). 149 a 81 8. 16&*. 48 a +( ). 6. 10 a 2 4 2 . 2.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29.e. 9a2 . V. 3. 2. ). ^//c to the Ex. . : 43 tfy\ a 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 2 20. product i. a. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. a2 24.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). * 2 .64 6 = 16(a . 9. 36 2 4. 3. . u2 6& + 2 ( ).
T. 6.FACTORING 85 118. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .(I) . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 36> . Factor a 2 . 13. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . a2 . of polynomials. Ex. 8. 14. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2. 11. One or both terms are squares 1. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .c . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. a:) 12. 5. Ex. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (m7?) y.d) 2 . 9. 2 . 2.(c 4. 16p 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 4.
1. 10. x8 .r. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 3. 12. 1. 4 B. 9.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb.VI. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 2. which may be factored according to types I. + x + 2x + 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. Ex.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.7 c + 2c . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. a 26 2 2 3 . After grouping tain a the terms. A. a? 11. 119.a a . ive find that the new terms con common factor. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 5) . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.14. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 8. . 2. 7. By grouping. = (3 x + y . 4:cx . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.ab + bx. 5.and trinomials.2 ) (3 x . 6.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. a5 + ab 6 .y + 2 2).
* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 5. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. l~a 2a56 2 2 .l. 6a4 12a2 + 6.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. . 2 7.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 3. 2. = (a + 6)(a6). 4 a2 . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.FACTORING Ex. 8ra 2 + 16. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. : m 2 2 16. . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. Arranging the terms. 2a3/ 7. 6. 3. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . : 46 x* 2.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. First find monomial factors common to all terms. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8. $ a8 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 36 9 m . IV. 6 6. + 2xy + y*q*.4 f . II. 4. 4.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w m 2.
40. . 80 a 2 ft 38. a6 36. 27.156. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 3 2 . or 3 7#2 . (a.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. (^ 34. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 3 41. 28.310 x . 13. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 4 8 tt 2 z . 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 12. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 3 25. 40. 48.13 c . 2 ft . 30. 32. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 29.88 10. 2 17. 5a' 20. + 14. 4 a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 13 c . 50^ + 45. 42 s 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 35. a + a + a + l. 22.24. 19. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 14. 18. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . + 6 aft + 3 . 24. a3 156. a. 5 a. 2 a 128. 3 a2 23. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 42 x . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 11. 25 a + 25 aft .
of two or more monomials whose factors . of the algebraic expressions. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. The H. of 6 sfyz. C. F. C. 54  32 . 5 7 34 2s . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 12 tfifz. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. The highest is common factor (IT. F. F. of : 48 4. F. expressions which have no are prime to one another. II 2 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 5 s 7 2 5. F.  23 3 . C. 122. C. 15 aW. 8 . C. C. of aW. The H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 3 . 121. 3. . F. EXERCISE Find the H. F.) of two or more . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. aW. 6. 2. F. 5 2 3 . F. C. Thus the H. 5. of a 7 and a e b 7 . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. Two common factor except unity The H. 13 aty 39 afyV. The student should note H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 24 s . C. are prime can be found by inspection. 89 . F. 2 2 . 25 W.
12.2 y) (a. of: .5 y). 6 3 a. 15. 8(?/ifl) 14. aWd. . F. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 8 a 10 . 15 3ao. 14. 4 ?io. a2 ar* 4. 3 . 4(m+l) 3 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . of + 4 if. 25 m27i. 11. 6(m+l) (m+2).6. 7. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.8 a + 16. ^a + 5^ + 6. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . a3 9a.y) . 6 mx .5 + 6. Find the H. 10.2 ?/) (x . F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . and apply the method of the preceding article. 38 #y. a3 16 a. 16. 2 .6 a&. 12 . 3.y) 123. of polynomials. 8. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 24 a 2 . 57 a>V. . a2 + 7af!2. a2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). ^707 + 12. ^2 2 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 0^80:416. 8. 16 a .6 . 1. Ex.90 7.12 as 66 . a2 + 2a3. 6 a2 y? . 52 oryz4. 49 C. . 2a f5af 2. 8 6.y + y42. y + 3y64. 2 . .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . C. ^f a. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 9 aj*(a? . 5. a 3a4. 3^ 2 4 . F. x* x2 Hence the H.# 4 afy f 4 . 12.?/ . = x 2 y. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.^9.5 x3?/ 2 6. 95 2/V. 2 . 2 . 11. 9. 65 zfyV. 3). . 12 w*nw 8. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. (a7 ?/) . a. C. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . To find the H. 13. 2. 225 4a 9 . 9. 1. F. 13. . C. 10.
2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . etc. NOTE. two lowest common multiples. L. C. 2 The The L. . 126. a^c8 3 . L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. ory is the L. . of the general. Find the L. M.C. 127. thus. M. Ex.M.C.6 3 ). = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . 300 z 2 y. C. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 60 x^y' 2 . Obviously the power of each factor in the L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . C.6)2. M. The lowest common multiple (L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. M. which also signs. C. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of tfy and xy*. of several expressions which are not completely factored. The L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. but opposite . Find the L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. of 3 aW. A common remainder. C. C. M. &) 2 M. 128.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. Common 125. 2. Hence the L. C.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Ex. 1. M of the algebraic expressions. M. M. To find the L. each set of expressions has In example ft). M.
x 2 5 a. 2 . a 2 fa6. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a. 8 d 5 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a f 2 19. b 2 . Find the L. 5 a? 5 a? y. xy\ . a.f 6. 22. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. (For additional examples see page 268. 2 a . 14. afy. T a 3 a 2 . 3. 7. 8. 15. 24. 6 y. 20. x* ~5a. a2 ~ab 1. 6. 3 Z> . a. 17. 20 9 a. 8 afy. 3 ab. 2(m 2 . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 4 a . ic 23. 3(a + b). + 6. x2 + 4 a f 4. 24 x. #. y*. a?b. . 3 . 2 . 16. 2 a.1. 13. of: 4. 18. 2 .1. 9. 2 7ic+10. 2. (a 4)(a2) 12. a f 3. 4 a f 2. a { a~b. 2 10. 3. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . + 2 7i) . 40 abJ. afc'cd 2 . 5. 6 a. 11. 6b 2 . a !. G a. f b. 3 6 xif. 2 a .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. . + 2. 1. ) . a 2 a3 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a 2 f 4 a +4. by. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 4 a 5 6cd. or f 3 a 15 #. ic 2 ?/. M. a& 4 +& 2 . 3 f2. 2 x \2 y. a2 4. 21. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 30 a. a^1. a 1.
and denominators are considered. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. as 8. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. however. C. F. a b = ma mb . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. Remove tor. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. Thus. a?. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . but we In arithmetic. 131. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. rni Thus 132. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. etc.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Ex. successively all 2 j/' . 130. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. A f fraction is b.ry ^ by their H. an indicated quotient.
tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. cancel factors only. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. . Ex.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 2. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . and cancel all factors that are common to both. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
23. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ny 4 18. ^' rt ^  31. LJZJ^JL.10 a + 3 2 14.. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . . ^+3*. 11 ^ Mtr f . .7 . 16. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.*. ' ^ . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 9x + "a" 10. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 29. ^" a. 19. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. """. 5^10 y 30. . nx 17.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. g J 21.' 32.
take the L. =(z (x + 3)(z. ^ to their lowest com The L.C. we have M^. + 3). we may extend this method to integral expressions. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and the terms of ***. C. 1).M. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.~16 (a + 3) (x. mon T denominator. .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.M. Ex. 1. multiplying the terms of 22 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. TheL. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. of the denominators for the common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.C. M. 2> .D.  by 4 6' . and 135. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.96 134. and (a 8).r 2 2 .1^22 ' .by 3 ^ A 2 ' . by the denominator of each fraction. . C. . Reduce ^. Divide the L.  of //* 2 . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .3) (!)' = . we have the quotients (x 1).
bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 137. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). common denominator 6. 2 ay IB.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .^1. . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n.. i. 7i 2 ab* ".. 2. 3. . 2aj ~ . j y 3.oj o* or / .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . o o a. 5?.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 22 a2 5a * . 18. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .Reduce the following to their lowest 1. . . 74). 8 i i. a? 1 5 > ^* . If the given fractions have different denominators. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. JL.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . .
ft) (a ft ft)~. e.ft)(a . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). 2 ^.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.2 = a(a .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . L. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. D.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .aft) Ca2 . the student should remember that parentheses are .(a 2 6).g. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. T? Ex. D. and adding. (a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. as 4 aft f. The L.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).. 4(2 a 3 ft).2 ' 2 _.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.7 .3 ft).. ^ is 2^JT) . in the beginning. ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). C.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 . (a ft).3 ft 2). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . 2.
+ . 1 f q * 1 m m . A+2_3. 6 c 3a 7.5 18 ^4f25. 18 v 19. 2L + 2a 1 17. 1 1 f w 16. 20. a 36 ++. j>0 i> 21. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + a "" 2 6 ' . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 23. 46 2a 4a 12. 24. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 5a76 4a 106 9. 2. 15. a+6 a 6 2 14. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8.
a 4 31. 2 af1 32. 41. 42. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . af 1f /j. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ! n. a. 3a 9 +. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . a 30. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 43. ic 1 + 1. _ + a? ?/ + y.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a ?^ 40.9 79 6 2 i.
 .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . . 101 mixed expression. Reduce . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . T.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 1. .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.  4 or 3 2a.7 5a v Ex.6 + 4x 4 x2 .
F J Simplify . we may extend any e. 2. multiply the 142.) Ex. or. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. Since  = a.g. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. !. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. fractions to integral numbers. integer. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2 a Ex. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. (In order to cancel common factors.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141.
5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 4 8. .6 12 d6 4.. 2 f 5 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 14. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 50 . 5# 56 / c& 4. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~..20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.
expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . Divide Xn?/ .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . 144. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145.
Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . ga2 4 8 5 a .afr 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. are fractional.6 s + 064.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .FRACTIONS 105 .10 ?/ _. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Ex. l. or both.^c 2 2 . a a2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.
c +6. . of their denominators. Ex.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. n a 8. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). 9. & . . 10. 2. . 7i+~ 7. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Simplify x }. 6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. x* 4. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.y 32 . y X 4* 2 y 3.a ^c c _^ a . i. C.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . . the answer is directly obtained. JL. a m "" .
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. sy 18. : . m^n* n L a 17. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. 2 & a 20  a46 13. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .) .~l (For additional examples see page 273.
each member is reduced to 1. 108 . these Ex. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. C.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. of the denominator.14 (a. + 1) (a + 3) . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).28 a = 5 x2 .8 x = . 2 3. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.9 x2 + 9. 2. 9x x Check. 1.l)(z + 3) = .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Clearing of fractions. = 6.48. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Uniting. Transposing. 148. each member is reduced to Ex. = 6.28 x + 42 = . 2x Transposing. Uniting.42 + 9. a. 2z2a. 5(3 85 Check.f3# + C:E=6f7212.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . M. If x 6. Bx 12 Qx. 4 4)  x. tions. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).1. . x = 6. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. If = 64.
3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.= 2. . 15. +1 = 5. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.1 _77 a. ^' 2. '  4 13. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. ^1 = 9. a/  5 a/ = 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 18. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. a. a: 7 a. 1 *> = 2. 16. +4 14.
2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .11_4 x 149. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. ._ _ . 3x 35. 25. 33.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . y+3~2 29. ?_=_. If two or more denominators are monomials. . . 4a4l4* + l~. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 32 6 . 31 31. and" the remaining one a polynomial.  38 = 40. 27 . 26 26. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. J_. .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24.
. = 9.2 3 ~  == 7a. 24 a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1. C.2 42 9 43.  5 = 20 x 45. 1. . Dividing. a. 60.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5x x : = 9. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.29 50712' 9 18 . of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 10 x f 6 __ 4a. the 1 5 L.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Check. 26 a. Transposing and uniting. 5# 10. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. If a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. M. each member is reduced to ^.
3 6 2 = a' . . Uniting. = 2 f b 2 . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Uniting the Dividing. =a 2 151.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.1. jr. = l^ 9 b 4 . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. find a in terms of b and c.m bx 2 mn) x.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). a. y. f ~ 5c. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. ax f x f. 4 ac 1. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 5> a. Dividing.2 62 2 ab.2 ac + 3 aft . fr Reducing lowest terms. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. = = 6 6c 7 6c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. = 6 a2 . Ex. Thus. If 3ac L= = a ? . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Ex.& . It frequently occurs that the x. they are united by factoring. 2.be.
= 8 4 #. c 18.i l . 10. t. = 5. . ^ ax a^ 26.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If * 33. co?. c. q solve for/. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. . 4. 17. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 4. iw 21. 30. p the principal. The The i time. r the number of $>. 14. + 3a. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.= H. = vt. 5) is t =^. = 3 (6 a). solve for . Ex. 11.= n. mx = n. 3(* 8. * Solve the same equation for^). 15. . = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). 34. 9. f ^o. If s If 16. 3. + xx = 1. If ^^ = a 1 32.= c a Z> . _ 2.a. f P =+!. m a? x . and n the number of years. 12. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 13. 1 f. 29. 31. 2 solve for y a. = rt. If s (wi n) x =px + q. s = Vt solve for v. solve for a. rate. denoting the interest. in terms of other quantities. 6. . IIL n b + &o. a.
180. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Ex. 100 C. is 36. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.. . then = 2 TT#. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. 12. A would do each day ^ and B j. and 12 = the number over. = 16^.114 35. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. . 1. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. x Or Uniting. Find R in terms of C and TT. 2. 2 3 . Multiplying by Dividing. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.20 C.
or 1J. Clearing. 4x = 80. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . and the statement. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. 32 x = . the required number of days. 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. Solving. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." gives the equation /I)." : Let x  = the required number of days. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 180 Transposing. in Then Therefore. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. = 100 + 4 x.
116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. How did the much money man leave ? 11. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. and J of the greater Find the numbers. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 6. and of the father's age. and one half the greater Find the numbers.  Find their present ages. is oO. a man had How much money had he at first? . The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. ceeds the smaller by 4. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. to his son. make 21. length in the ground. money and $10. Find A's 8. is equal 7. which was $4000. fifth Two numbers differ 2. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. to his daughand the remainder. 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. of his present age. by 3. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. ex What 5. and 9 feet above water. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3.
In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 1. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. investments. 2. after rate of the latter ? 15. 3. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. A has invested capital at more 4%. Ex. and B in 4 days. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train? 152.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. what is the 14.) 22. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. and it B in 6 days. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. . and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. How much money $500? 4%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. air. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. ^ at 5%.
B in 30. B in 5. . B in 12. A in 4. e. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.414.118 153. is 57. . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. therefore. A in 6.g. A in 6. and apply the method of 170. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.= . 2. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. if B in 3 days. 25. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. .009 918. they can both do in 2 days. n x Solving. we obtain the equation m m . The problem to be solved. and n = 3. B in 16. m and n. Ex.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. is 42. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.e. Hence. Then ft i. 26. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. To and find the numerical answer.
is ?n . (b) 35 miles. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. if m and n are. 33. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. same hour from two towns. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer.721. (c) 16. respectively. Find the side of the square. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 2 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32.001. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. . the Two men start at the same time from two towns. meet. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. squares 29. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the second at the apart. : (c) 64 miles. and the second 5 miles per hour. the rate of the first. 5 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 34. 3 miles per hour. (b) 149. is (a) 51. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 30. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 3J miles per hour. 4J miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. The one: 31. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and the rate of the second are. (d) 1. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000.
A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. E. the symbol being a sign of division. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. antecedent. : : 155. the antecedent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the denominator The the 157. . : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. 158. The first 156. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Ex. 1. a ratio is not changed etc. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. etc.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b is the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. b.g. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. b. the second term the consequent.5. 6 12 = . Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. is numerator of any fraction consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios." we may write a : b = 6. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . In the ratio a : ft. " a Thus.
7:4 T T 4 . A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. J:l. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. Transform the following unity 15. 61 : ratios 72:18. 9. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. $24: $8. Simplify the following ratios 7. 11. : ay . and c. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3 8. 4:5f : 5. extremes. : 1. equal 2. 3:1}. 159. 6. b. 3:4.RATIO Ex. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 12. 7f:6J. 4. 17. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. two  ratios. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 27 06: 18 a6. proportional between a and c. 8^ hours. a and d are the extremes. and c is the third proportional to a and . 1. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 10. 5 f hours : 2. 18. 3. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. b and c the means. 16. terms. The last first three. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 62:16. 16a2 :24a&. b is the mean b.
Clearing of fractions. = 30 grams 45 grams. briefly. : : directly proportional may say. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. q~~ n .'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. and the other pair the extremes. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.) b = Vac. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. then G ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. of iron weigh 45 grams.30 grams. " we " NOTE. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. ad = be. 163. 164.) mn = pq. of iron weigh .122 162. ccm. of a proportion. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Hence the number of men required to do some work. 3 4. are : : : inversely proportional.e. 163. : c.__(163. pro portional. 6 ccm. The mean proportional of their product. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. 2 165. and the time necessary to do it. !. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. i. In any proportion product of the extremes.
hence the proportion true. is 4$ = 35. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. V. . 12x Hence a? = 42. (Composition. 2. = 35 . + b:b = c + d:d. I. bd bd. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. is Ex. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. 166. (Frequently called Inversion. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (163. a:c=b:d. I.) d 167.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) II. a III.) (Called Alternation.) a + b:a = c + d:c. (Division. d d. 1. ad = be.PATIO Ex. then =d c. ad ( 163.) = f f = 3 J. Or IV. if 6 : 7. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.
= 7:2f 3J. Or III. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 5 5. x = 2. 3. = 2:x. 4. 2. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. Apply composition. = 12 5ft. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. Simplify the following proportions. = 180:125.124 IT. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. IV. = 20:7. 9. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. V. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 10.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : 3 = 5 f x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 8. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. . 5.g. 120:42 2 2 7. . 6 =4 : x. : x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. E.e. mx tin Apply composition and division. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. the consequents by 7. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 2:3. i.!=!*. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.
rag.j>. 41. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 1. 22. 6 x = y. 3. = 15o. 16 and 28. 9 x = 2 y. f. 1 and a. rap. 2= 5 x x. : a2 . and 2/. a. 4 and 16. 29. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 4. to: = 35:*. 33. 12. 2 a and 18 a. ra. Find the mean proportional 30.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. = 3 43 + x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 5= 18 a? : a?. 18. : 53. Find the third proportional 24. b. = 5 x 12. 46. a?:15 15. = l^:18.  32. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 34. to : 9 and 12. 23. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. a 2 and ab. 20. w. (a : : 45. 6x = 7y. 31. 21. 17. 13. 6. 2. 3t. = 2 + x: x.. ra 2 . if : 40. 14. . 2 3 = y #. ra + landra 1. 26. 42. 03:a?=135:20. x:5 = y:2. 5. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. terra 2:3 = 4. mx = ny. 14 and 21. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. Find the 37. 3. : . 39. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 16. + fyx = cy. 47. 112:42 = 10:a. 35. 38.8:1. 2.x: 6:5 a : x. 50. 51.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. to : a and 1. ratio of y. 7iy = 2:x.:ff. 43. x m = y n. 44. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 25. 28. 52. 27.
A line 7^. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . what 58. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the time. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.126 54. the squares of their radii (e) 55. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the speed of the train. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the time necessary for it. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). 56. and the area of the rectangle. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. 57. and the : total cost.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. the area of the larger? the same. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work.
so that Find^K7and BO. 2. is A line AB. Let A B AC=1x. : Ex. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5.000 168. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. AB = 2 x. . Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 18 x = 108. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 inches long. produced to a point C. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. x=2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). x = 6. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2 x Or = 4.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. = the second number. as 11 Let then : 1.
: 4. How many gen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.) . Gunmetal tin. 14. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. How The long are the parts ? 15.000 square miles. and 15 inches. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many 7. 12. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. : 197. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 9. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. 6.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. find the number of square miles of land and of water. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. What are the parts ? 5. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 2. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 12. 3. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. 11. 13. and c inches. 7.000.
if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. is x = 7. values of x and y. 2 y = . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.y=. x = 1. there is only one solution. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. a? (1) then I. if . expressing a y. such as + = 10. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. etc. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. The root of (4) if K 129 . y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence.L x If If = 0. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.. =.e. y = 1. However.
the last set inconsistent. By By Addition or Subtraction. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. of elimination most frequently used II. E. unknown quantity.3 y = 80. are simultaneous equations. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.X. 3. viz. Substitution. 174.24. ~ 50. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . to The two methods I.26. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. = . same relation. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.130 170. Therefore. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. cannot be reduced to the same form. 172. 4y . (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. y = 2. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. 26 y = 60. 6x . for they express the x f y 10. y I 171. 21 y . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. and 3 x + 3 y =.
10 . are like. 3. x = 10. Therefore Check. + 2. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. = 406.3 y = 47. Check. 64 x = 040. Transposing. 25 x . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 8 2. y = 2.2 = 6.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. add the equations. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. = 235. 3.14 =8. 5 13 .3 1 = 47. 10 + 5 1 = 135. x = 10. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. subtract the equations. 3y = 3. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 60 . whose coefficients In general. 37. y = 1.
v 23. * + 3 y = 50. [2o.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I . I i 3 a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.9 *. 13 61 l7a. ] ^ . i 3. J I y = 1U.f2/ ' = 50. = 6. 7 ' 1fi fl . O t K 8. I oj 5y = 17. I ~ y~~> 22. ' 12. _. v ^ = ll. = 24. 9 1 r 20. f 3# ?/ = 0. x 11. f 3X 7x 14. 13.3. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.3.5 y = 2. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. + 2/ 17. = 41. .4. 19< I a.
= 2y + 10. . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. x ) ^"" 13. 8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 13. and solve the resulting equation. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 3. = 60. = 2. = 4#8.
however. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). \ \6(a. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 4* + 3y = 19. 7 y = 6. (4). 7x_2y=3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 21z6y=9. (7) (7) (8) . (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.3. Substituting in (6) . 2 y = . 3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 3 (1) Ex. simplified before elimination is possible. + 212y4 = 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. x = l. 29 x = 29. From 9 = 36.6)7(y7)==18.
ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 12. 16. 14. . 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.f2 2.1) = 121. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. = 3. J 9. 10 2a?5 17. . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. yM a.1) + 5(6 y . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10. 4 11. a. +y 2 . a.
22. f y . * ((* (( . . <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 180.#. ?~y . and y.and x y . {.Q ^ 4 21. e. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. but some expressions involving x.
can also be solved Examples method. y 1. y.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 1. Clearing of fractions. Substituting x = 3 in (1). 15 y + 8 x . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). x 2x(2). 33 = 11 x. of this type. 2* * x 2.4 x = 4 xy. . . etc. (4) + (G). however. Therefore y=4. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (2) (3) a. 137 Solve y y (1) . y 4. Dividing by 11 3 = #. x 3.3 xy.
21 9 . LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Ex. = en. n. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 1. x 8. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 4 13.= 5.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . .= o 6. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. y MOi y a. 253 7. 6. x y 5. x y 331 9.
x 12. apan cm. ny = fy/ I sc 1. s in 11. Dividing. 6.y = = 9a + 46. .W. w. x f my = 1. W . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. and I if 13. and I. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. a Find a and terms of n. bmy bm}y ap cm. d. Uniting. d. From the same equations find s in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 5. 14. . x a. ax + by = 2 a&. fax f = l. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. . ap.
1+4. 4. (8) 2. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. . 3.2 + 4. To solve equations containing By tions. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.13.lf> z . = 30. 182.16. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. by 3.3=4. 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. l. 20.12 y + 6 z = . 1.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).8 = 1. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. = 3. ties are Similarly.by 2. x + 12 y . 4. 3y = Hence Check. 8 x .3 = 8. 6.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. Ex. 1. (4) (5). f 3y 12 =s 8. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.25.15z=12 Adding. etc. y =* 2.2 + 3.
a? + 709 = 26. ~6?/ 5. x 13. == 6. 2z = 40. 8. k 2/ f 2 x a. 49.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + 2 y f 2 = 35. a? 11. + y f z = 15. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 4 = 42. 2 4. 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 10. 2 . 7. 15 2 = 45. 12.
3 y + . .2 a.42 = 2. . 1510 4 17. 19. 32. 60. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 27. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 22. 4. = 5. ? = llz. 16.6 2. = 8*. ^ = 2. ?/ 3x = 0. (3 _.. 84 21. =s 20. 23.
Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Find the number. + 396 = 521. 2 = 6. +2+ 6 = 8. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . = 2 m. Obviously of the other . the number. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. symbols: x + y +z 8. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. x : z =1 : 2. ( 99. the first and the last digits will be interchanged.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. M=i.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 1 = 2. # 4.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. and if 396 be added to the number. = l. y 31. Ex. 2 = 1(1+6). and to express In complex examples. . + z = 2p. however. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. 1 digit in the tens place. . Check. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. y * z 30. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. 1. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. either directly or implied. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. z + x = 2 n.
x 3 = 24. 3. = the fraction. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x y = the = the x denominator . . 6 x 4 = 24. 2. we obtain. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. x 3x4y = 12. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. y = 3. 3+1 5+1 4_2. C. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 4 x = 24. increased by one. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. By expressing the two statements in symbols.144 Ex. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . direction. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 2. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Or (4)2x(3). Ex. 5_ _4_ A. From (3) Hence xy Check. (1) (2) 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. the distance traveled by A. Find the fraction. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. = 8. = Hence the fraction is f.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. tion ? 8. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. both terms. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. part of their difference equals 4. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the number. ? What 9. . If 27 is 10. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Find the numbers. 2. the fraction is reduced fraction. added to the numerator of a fraction. its value added to the denominator. Find the number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. 6. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If 9 be added to the number. the last two digits are interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. 7. the fraction equals . Find the numbers.}. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Find the fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the numbers. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. number by the first 3. 183. the number (See Ex. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 1. the Find the fraction. fraction is reduced to \. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If the denominator be doubled. it is reduced to J.) added to a number of two digits. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. the value of the fraction is fa. and the fourth 3. the digits will be interchanged. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. 5.
grams. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. How 6 %. and in 5 years to $1125. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. respectively ? 16. partly at 5 %. Find the rates of interest. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 5 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. A man invested $750. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. . and partly at 4 %.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Find their present ages.000 is partly invested at 6%. now. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. the rate of interest? 18. 19. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and 4 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the annual interest would be $ 195. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. 12. and money and 17. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A sum of $10. 14. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 13.
. and AC = 5 inches. angle c = angle d. respectively. 23. E. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. BC=7. 1 NOTE. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. receiving $ 100 for each horse. triangle Tf AD. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. the length of NOTE. then AD = AF. 25. 24. but if A would double his pace. and F '(see diagram). are taken so ABC. andCL4 = 8. BD = HE. Find their rates of walking. the three sides of a triangle E. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and sheep. and e. for $ 740. BE. and F. On /). $ 50 for each cow. cows. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. c. An C touch ing the sides in D. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. three AD = AF. B find angles a. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. what is that = OF. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. and F. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and angle BCA = 70. ED = BE. and GE = CF. points. and $15 for each sheep. A farmer sold a number of horses. BC = 7 inches. and CE If AB = G inches. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and their difference by GO . and angle e angle/.
2). PN. (2. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. It' Location of a point. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . PM. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. first 3). (7. PN are given. jr. is The point whose abscissa is a. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. the ordinate by ?/. B.. and r or its equal OA is . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. Thus the points A. 3). the ordinate of point P. and point the origin. 186. (3. YY' theyaxis. and PJ/_L XX'. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (2. ?/. The of Coordinates. or its equal OM. is the abscissa. and PN _L YY'. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). .
(5. 2). What is the locus of (a?. . 6. (See diagram on page 151.4). 12. and measure their distance. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (1. (4. 6. 2). (4. 4) and (4.e. i.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 2J). !). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (0. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4.) EXERCISE 1. (3. 2. . Plot the points : (0.1). (4.3). (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (2.(!. 0). 1). 4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 0). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 4). 11. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4.and(l. 1). Graphs. 3). (4. 8. 0). 0).2). Plot the points (6. (4. 3). 4) from the origin ? 7. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. 3. 4. 71 2). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. Plot the points: (4. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 3).
representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. By representing of points.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. or the curved line the temperature. may be found on Jan. 15. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. from January 1 to December 1. C. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 188. B. D. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. however. 10 . we meas1 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A. 1. Thus the first table produces 12 points. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.. . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc.
the rise and fall of wages. as the prices and production of commodities. Whenever a clear. . (b) July 15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the matics. uses them. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. (d) November 20. The engineer. the merchant. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (c) January 15. the graph is applied.
June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 15. 1? 11 0. How much. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. During what months above 18 C. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. on 1 to the average. (d) 9 0. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C...? is is the average temperature of New York 6. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. (1) 10 C. 1 to Oct. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.152 2. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (freezing point) ? 7. is 10. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. ? 9. When the average temperature below C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ?  3.
20. Hour Temperature . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. One meter equals 1. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient.09 yards. 19. NOTE. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. transformation of meters into yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Draw . in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.
inch. binding. then C irJl. if he sells 0. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. A 10 wheels a day. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 190. function If the value of a quantity changes.. 28. and $. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. to 27. amount to $8. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. x increases will change gradually from 13. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. the daily average expenses for rent. x 7 to 9. .) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.154 24. the value of a of this quantity will change. 1 to 1200 copies.g. etc. books from for printing. 3.. 4. 2 . represent his daily gain (or loss). to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2.. 3. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 29.50. 9. e. gas.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .5 grams. if each copy sells for $1.50. 26. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. x* x 19.) T circumferences of 25. etc. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7.
9). Ex. a*. E. Q. 2. is supposed to change. etc.e. may.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191.0). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . Graph of a function. 4). J). and (3. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 9). and join the points in order. 2).1). be also represented by a graph.1). x a variable. If a more exact diagram is required. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. may . hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. it is In the example of the preceding article. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2 (1. The values of func192.2 x may 4 from x = 4. ( 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. construct '. to x = 4. 3 (0. (2. (1. . for x=l. while 7 is a constant. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 4).g. as 1. Draw the graph of x2 f. (1^. however. 3 50. 1 the points (3.
20). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. = 0..2 x . y = 6. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.. 4).. (3. r */ +* 01 . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. straight line produces the required graph..) For brevity. 2 4 and if y = x f.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 4J. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 1). or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 2. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. j/=3. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. as y. etc. Thus in the above example. rf 71 . Thus 4x + 7.. 5). 194. Ex. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. (2. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 7 . = 4. (4.4). and join(0.
8. 2 2. the function. = 4. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .e. if y = 2. a ar.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 7. 14. fa 17. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. a* 13. a? 2 4. l. 1J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (C ) (2. + 4. xz + x. 6. y = 2x = 4. 2. xl. a?. 16. 2 a. from x VlO'S". if"a. J. The values of a*. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.5)2. (If) Va25. . 1. 11. 9. 2. 2J. 4a? I. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. . The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. The values of a?. 5. 22. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. a? 1. 1J. 23x. 2 or 2 20. i. 4 a. if the function equals zero. 2 2 a. 1J. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 3. 2J. ?/ a. (ft) (_ 1. 2 a. The smallest value of the function. 12. if a. = The values of a*. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. a. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 3 a 8.or. 1 8 10. 18. Jar . The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 19. 2x + 3x a?. 15.5)2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 3. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (7i) (c) 23. x+1.8)'. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 6 fa. 21.
that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1... then cXj where c is a constant.. 9 F. 25. 32 F. y= formula graphically. that graph with the o>axis. then y = . to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.24 or x = P and Q. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.158 24.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. Therefore x = 1. C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. 14 F. 1 C. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).e. Show any convenient number). . i.24. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. the abscissas of 3.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Represent 26. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. If two variables x and y are directly proportional.where x c is a constant.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.
0. 6. is called a quadratic equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. crosssection paper is used. 6. viz. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. a2 2a. 10. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (0. (a) (6) 9.f 9 = 0.7 2 a 5 = 0. (a) x2 = 0. 8. 2 and 1. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 4. 12. . or 5 2. + + = where a. 7. 13. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 14. 197. 11. 3. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. Such equations in general have two roots. = 0.
if y = is 0. . because their graphs are straight lines. X'2 Locating the points (2. solve for ?/. ?/ =4 AB. and joining by a straight line. fc = 3. If x = 0. T . NOTE. = 0. y y 2.e.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.2. Ex. == 2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . y= A and construct x (  graphically. 1) and 0). y = l. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. i.2 y ~ 2. 3x _ 4 . that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 199. locate points (0. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 4) and (2. 2). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence. ?/. Hence if if x x  2. produces the 7* required locus. first degree. 0).1. Ex. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. and join the required graph. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Hence we may join (0. unknown quantities. (f . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations.
3. parallel have only one point of intersection.15. 202. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots.1=0. equation x= By measuring 3. viz. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). we obtain the roots. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. (2) . To find the roots of the system. 203. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.57. and CD. P. Graphical solution of a linear system. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. AB y = . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. 201. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.
Locating two points of equation (2). 3.e. 0) and (0. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.  4. . 4. 3. and + 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. = 0.5.0). 4. they are inconsistent. Locating the points (5. 2 equation x 3). i. if x equals respectively 0. we of the + y* = 25. Measuring the coordinates of P. Inconsistent equations. 0. Solving (1) for y. (2. 4. 1. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining.y~ Therefore.0. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 3x 2 y = 6.5. 2. 2. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. 5. The equations 2 4 = 0. Using the method of the preceding para. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. (1) (2) C. V25 5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. and . 4. (4.g.9. 5. 0. y equals 3. In general. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 1. 4. e. Since the two  we obtain DE. (4. 4. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 3). the graph of points roots. and joining by a straight line. 4. intersection. the point we obtain Ex. etc.. AB the locus of (1). x2 .
and solve each If there are no solutions. 3. a. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 16 23. y= a2 2x y6. 5. \ 2x + 3^ . y 2 4. 4. 2. a+r/=6. Draw system. 6. y = 4. vice versa. y=x + 5. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 20. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 19. the graphs of the following systems. if possible. state reasons. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 9. 17. 16 22. and. 10. 7. x~y=0. '163 Dependent equations. 2x 3?/=6. 8..
26. CUBES. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .y). 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 28.164 24. 3 31. 25.14 y = . 30.8. TABLE OF SQUARES.
involution repeated multiplication. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. fa. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 8. a special kind of product. a = a3 . According to 1. Law of Signs. 2. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .faa a a a Obviously 1. ( a) is positive. . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. powers of a positive quantity are positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. follows that 3. 3 f a = f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 52. is may be by 207. etc. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.a2 . ^4/? it According to 50. 2.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. on to in factors 4.
2. (a ) 2 5 . a product to a given power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 2 11 (afc ) .6) = a . V V/ 13. (a ) 2 4  3. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . the required power. 210. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 16. 76 : (>y. (2ar). 15. 4. 3 2 2 8 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 4 /2mV. raise a fraction to a power. 5.6 (a 8 8 . raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. amVy) 3 . . 24. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. \ 3 J '  MW 10. (^^) 2 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.166 To find To To power. 6. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (277171 )*. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.
and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 2. 3 . 18. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . . 3 8 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . An 1. 7. 16. 8.3 y. frequently called ex.) 14. 5. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. (3af26) 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . 13. + 4aj) 3 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . 1 f 3 2 3 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 15. a. (afl) . etc. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 9. (a + &)8 .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (3 x . (aj7) . Ex. or*  Find the cube root of 19. . 4.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . +5a) 22. 8 (a??/) 3 .INVOLUTION Ex. 1.y) = (3 y?y . = s= (2s) 8 a. : a 20. 21. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 6.y . The higher powers of binomials. are obtained by multiplication. 2. pansions. (5 (1 a) 3 . + a 2 a. 3. 12. 2 . nent of the binomial.6 2 8 ft) . 211. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 23.
168 3. 2. Ex. (l 8 . . 3. The minus. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 5. is the coefficient of the next term. 17. (m fl) 2 20. (mnp 5 I) 5 .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . and the powers negative. (2 4. 18.216 a^ 4. (a~^) 5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. . 4 (1for) 5 . 21. (?/i~w) : 16. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 13. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 15. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (tff1) (cfd) . (?>i?i f c)*.a) 3 19. 3. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (af 5) . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (3a f5) 5) 4. .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . Ex. 10. 9. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 25. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 8.2. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 23. mn 5 2 5 ) . (mJ) 4 11. 78 s . . (2 a 4 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 5. 4 . 1. 24. (m 5 I) 2 22. 4. . (1 + 4 ?/) . 6. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (la&) 4 12. Ex. . (p + q) 4 * 7. ( &) 5 . (m 2 + n) 8 . 14.
Since even powers can never be negative. a) 4 = a4 . V9 = + 3. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. which can be simplified no further. tity . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. for distinction. or x &4 . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 1. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. etc. V \/P 214. called real numbers. 4 4 . Thus V^I is an imaginary number. 27 =y means r' = 27. (_3) = 27. 109 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 2. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 215. and ( v/o* = a. or y ~ 3. \/"^27=3. = x means = 6. and all other numbers are.
\/2 4 9 . 10. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex.201) = 2.1. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 79 2 v/2 5 . To extract a root of a fraction. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. index. v/2^.  100 a 2 . 2. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. = 199 + (_ 198) . for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 62 = V2* . . V36 9 4. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex 5 a" . V5 v/2 7 2.(. Ex. 82 .lL. 7 . EXERCISE 1. 9. 4 v. V?. = V26TIT81 = 53.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . v/^i2 = a*. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 7. . Ex. fy 5 3 . 3i . roots of the numerator \/18 . = 19472. 8. 3 33 53 . 6 7 = 030. To extract the root of a power. V25 9 16. 3. 5. 6. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex.9 = 136. 7 . Ex. Ex.125. 2 . Ex. . 3/0** = am . extract the and denominator. 6. 2.4.64 5 4 . 9.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.200 . 8. 7.
.75. 2. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9./). 2 . 31. Find the square root of a2 . ^40^4. 116. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .EVOLUTION 171 28. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 30.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 29.4/. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .3 . 32. V8. 2 f ( V240) 3 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .3. a f2 l 2 + l.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.) by inspection. 2 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V20 . V9216. Ex. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 3. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 6. 1. 5. a* 4 8 2 . 34. 45 V5184.6 tfif + 9 y = O .98.3 y2) ( vV . 33.
let us consider the relation of a f. 11. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 15. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. however.2 &c. the given expression is a perfect square.> 13. 2ab .e. and b (2 a f b). mV14m??2)f 49. 8 . 12. a f. a\b is the root if In most cases. + 6 + 4a&. 14. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . and b. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.2 ab + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2 2 218. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.2 ac . 2 . #2 a2  16.b 2 2 to its square.172 7. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. i. 10. . The term a' first 2 . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .
24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Ex. 1. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . */'' . 1. of x. The square . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 219. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2. . 10 a 4 8 a. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. and consider Hence the their sum one term. Explanation.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. First complete divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. First trial divisor. 8 a 2 . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. is As there is no remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. As there is no remainder. 8 /. . the first term of the answer. by division we term of the root. .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. . 8 a 2 2. 6 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. and so forth.
6 .25 x 4 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 729 4.73 a8 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.40 a 22 .a 6 x*y 2 .42 a*& 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.9. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. > 7. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 16. 20. 6 11. 5 4 16 4 iK .73a4 440^436^460^. 13#4 413ar 44a. 19.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 24.25.4 x 4. 2 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.10 x2 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .162 a2 60 a10 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4.V430^425^ 4m 4. 1 4. 10. 36it. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .12m 5 4. 8.16. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 4 .37 a ^ .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 5. 9. 14. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 3. x 6 4 4 0^4. 2 x2 3 2x. l 4.24 or . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. . 6. 12.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .20 o 4. 436^?/469a. 18. a? 2 . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 15. 16x6 4.12 m 4. 17.
000 is 1000. the square root of 7744 equals 88. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. which may contain one or two).000..000 is 100. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . As 8 x 168 = 1344. etc. a 2 = 6400. of 10.EVOLUTION 220. Ex. two figures. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. of a number between 100 and 10.000. Ex. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. 1. and the first remainder is. of 1. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. the first of which is 8. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.1344. first . and the square root of the greatest square in units. and the complete divisor 168. = 80. The is trial divisor = 160. etc. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. 2. the first of which is 4. Therefore 6 = 8. Find the square root of 524. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Find the square root of 7744.176.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 3.0961 are '. places.10.1T6 221. 12.70 6. annex a cipher. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. The groups of 16724.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .1 are Ex. in .7 to three decimal places. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.GO'61. Find the square root of 6/. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.
. whose area equals 48. 1.01. 35. 33. 30. 34. 37. 39. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. feet. 31.22. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.1410.58 square 38. J. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 5.4 square when R = radius and 11. feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. = 3. T\. 1. JT .) 40.53. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 36. 13.
Extracting the square root of each member. 2)* + 5 = 33. Ex. is 12. Dividing. but no higher power e.. complete. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 6#2 = x* 24. 2. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. or affected. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. or equation of the second degree. Transposing. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is A quadratic equation.g. x 2 7. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 1. The 7 equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. x = + 2 or x =2. = 4. or incomplete. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . This answer Check. A pure.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2 ic = a. 6 y2 = 17. = 7^ + 5. . 224. 178 . 226. 225.
+ 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 16^393 = 7. 7 = 162. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 8.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4 ax. or Therefore.25. 3. (a? 9. 2 2 a. o. 10. Solve 179 . . 15^5 = 6. 19 + 9 = 5500. 2 4fc 5' 18. 4. 2. .2. 5. ' =: y? b* b . 0^ + 1 = 1. ax Transposing and combining. 7. Dividing by Extracting the square root. : 83 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.
2 . If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. Find the side of each field. A right triangle is a triangle. find a in terms of 6 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 3. 22 a. Find the numbers. 228. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 27. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. solve for r. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. : 6. 29. . . solve for d. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If G=m m g . r.) of their squares 5. EXERCISE 1. 4. solve for v. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is one of _____ b The side right angle. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .b 2 If s If =c . If 22 = ~^. Find is the number. 28. 108. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 25. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 26. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 2a f 1 23. ' 4. and their product : 150. then Since such a triangle tangle. is 5(5. 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 24. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). If a 2 4. 2 : 3. 2.
Find the sides. 24. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . . Find these 10.7 x f 10 = 0. Find the unknown sides and the area. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. is and the other two sides are equal.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. we have of or m = . 4. Find the radii. The area : sides are as 3 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. sides. A body falling from a state of rest. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 2m. . (b) 100 feet? = . . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. add () Hence 2 . 8. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. To find this term. and the third side is 15 inches. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . J = 12. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. of a right triangle Find these sides. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Solve Transposing. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Method of completing the square. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 9. x* 7 x= 10. (b) 44 square feet.2 7 . radii are as 3 14.) 13. and the two smaller 11. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.
62 x 5 = f. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Transposing. Transposing. 230. Therefore. J. Hence Therefore Check. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. = x\ = 2. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2  .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Extracting square roots..2. Ex. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. a Clearing of fractions. or J. 2 ax f 2 o) s a .e. 2 a* a. Ex. a. = 6.1. = . adding member).  \. = \ # = ff.x(l = . x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. or x = 2. Simplifying. (*~8) a = at . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.a. Uniting.2 a2 . . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . 183 Simplifying. x .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
and c in the general answer. ao. 49. 2x 3 4.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =0. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. =8 r/io?. . Solution by formula. \bx\. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . x la 48. article. 231.c = 0. = 12.
16.25 x. ?i 2 . 17. 6. 10. = 12 . 6 Ex. 4. 5 x2 Transposing. 1.4 4 5 . 21. TIO. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 2 a. 13. 14.  . 20. 2. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).. = 64120?. Reducing to general form. a.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 2 a? = 44 x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. V^tT)* . 7. 8. 2 . 2. 11. 15. c p. 12. 6. 3. c = 5. : 86 + 2 = 0.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6^+5^ 56. 2or } 5o. 26. 2 o. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 19. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 18. 6 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 9.
Bx 1 1. . =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. transposing terms to one member. 26. 5) = 0. Transposing. and 6. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. any degree. = 0. all or. member can be Ex.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 5 = 0. x2 = 1 . 27 x== 42a. 3x?+x = 7. Factoring. a=:i^^.5 Solving (1) and (2).4) = . 233. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*.x. Eesolving into factors. 2S3x 1 2 . Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . factors Now. 24.2. Solution by factoring. if either of the uct is zero. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. }. ar>8o. = 14. x(x <2 . 1. 0. = 0. orz roots. 25. (5 a? !)(. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Clearing for fractions. 23. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.5) =0. or # 5 is zero. = 0.
+ 10 a = 24. + 6)=0. and the equation thus formed be solved. a?. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 4. evidently (x Or 4)(x . Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.g. is 5) = 0. 16. a* 10a=24. 12. aj( 15.3)(x + 3 3. + 8=s: 7. we 9 obtain x 4. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.(. } 2 2 (5 . Therefore x =3 = 2.e. 3 or 2 a. + 9 f 20 x = 0. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 0^ ar> 11. (aj4)(a. 2. The equation I.= 24. : 87 = 0. 3) Factoring. 5.6)) = 0. x2 f 2 x . 3# y 5 = 0. 7. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. 2. 3^ = 0(1106). 4or + 18a f 8a. 14. 3. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 5 = 0. a?10a=:24. 9. 4)(z3) = 0.24 = 0. Ex. 0(02) = 7(02).  3) 2 4 (x = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.:=0. for a: . EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 8. 2o3 f9a. Or Hence the 234. 13.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 3) = 0. E. 6. + 100. O roots are 2.
18.3) = (s + l) (3 a). '3a!J  . 22. 27. 23. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt.188 17. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b. uz + u 21. (a + 1) (a. 50. ara + ft + c*. 20. 19. 25. (2a? 3) (a 24.
7. and whose product 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.0.3. The 11.3. 5. 56. and consequently many prob 235. 3. Find the number. 2. Find the numbers. Find the number. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 0.2. . 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 1. and the difference Find the numbers. Find the sides. 2. 2. The difference of . 8. EXERCISE 1. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 2. feet. 6. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. G.3. number by 10.0. 55. : 3. 52. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 2. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 1. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 5.1.9. 3. 54. 4. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 57. 2. and equals 190 square inches. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. two numbers is 4. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . 58. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. of their reciprocals is 4. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and whose sum is is 36.
A man cent as the horse cost dollars. 19. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. sold a horse for $144. 15. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. What did he pay for 21. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. as the 16. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. 14. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet.190 12. If he each horse ? . Two vessels. watch for $ 24. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. 13. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. other. ABCD. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and Find the sides of the rectangle. he would have received two horses more for the same money. dollars. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. . 17. Find the rate of the train. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse.10.
I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. of the area of the basin. is On the prolongation of a line AC. as 0. 1. By formula. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. and working together. a point taken. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. (tf. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. so that the rectangle. 237. Find and CB. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. how wide is the walk ? 23. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. 23 inches long. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. ^3^ = 7. 27. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Ex. constructed with and CB as sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. . 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Find TT r (Area of a circle . A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.) 25. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. or x = \/l = 1. 24. contains B 78 square inches. the two men can do it in 3 days.
2. 19. a? 15 1=2*. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 6. = 13. Solving. 9. 4 a. 8. 7.192 238.)+72=0. Ex.T 2 2 . 10. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. >. T 17. 2 16 a^40 11. 4 6. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a4 5o. y8)=0.2 =4. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. = 1. 4 : 89 10a. 12. 18. a 21or=100. 4. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. or y = 8. 2 h9:=0. 436 3. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. a. 16. Hence Le. aV+9o 4 =0.
2. the roots are imaginary. the roots are equal. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. negative. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .f> = 0. rational. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. the roots are real. and equal. Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. a perfect square. The discriminant =(. b 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .2) 2 4 3 (. rational. the roots are rational. is 4ac not zero. Ex.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. and unequal.5) = 04. Relations between roots and coefficients. the roots are irrational. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 241. c the roots are real. 1.bx 4. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . Hence the roots are real. ( 2a Hence 1. 240.12 x + 9 = 0.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . 3.2 z . . are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are unequal.
tfmx+p^Q. 23. 6. = 0. = 5x. 12~x = x 2 . 2 a. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. ^12. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 18 2 8. 2 : 3.19 # 20. 9a3 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 2a.. 12. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. their product isf. 17. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2. 14. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. f 2 E. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 24. 2a 4z5 = 0. 4. : a 2 . 5aj 9. 22. 18. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 5oj aj + l = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 3a. 60 2 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. o. + 12 2  . 21. 15.g. 2 7. + 2a15 = 0. x2 7 10. = 0. lla. = Q.
(a m ) w . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. It is. that a an = a m+n . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. while the second of the first. We assume." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . no Fractional and negative exponents. The first of these laws is nition of power. (ab) . hence. 244. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. must be *The symbol smaller than. ~ a m f.a" = a m n mn . a m a" = a m+t1 . and . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. = a"" < .* III.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . however. such as 2*. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. > m therefore. provided w > n. for all values 1 of m and n. m IV. Then the law of involution. II.
a?*. . or zero exponent equal x. Assuming these two 8*. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. at. m$. e. fractional. ml. 24. as. (bed)*. 4~ . 29.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 28. 25. 30. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. etc. 23. 0?=^. a*.g. n 2 a. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 31. '&M A 27. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . (xy$. a . a\ 26. 3*. = a. 245. disappear. laws.
= 2. = 2. : 2' 4* = 4. e.g. 41.\/n. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 3* = 27. 35. 43. ty?. a* * = 3. 40. 7z* Find the values of 47. : 197 33. v'mT 36. 45. 50. To find the meaning of zero exponent. Vo5 . a * a2 Or a=l.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 5 a* = 10. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. = 49. the base is zero. If. however. a. 37. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a . 42. 48. Solve the following equations 39. 246. \/xy \/m. 46. e.g. 27* = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. hence is . v/o&cT 34. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 44. 38. \fi?. Let a = a. equal to unity. 49.
vice versa. or the exponent. Multiplying both members by a". ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. 248. consider the following equations. by changing the sign of NOTE. .2 = a2 .198 247. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Or a"# = l. cr n. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. e.g. etc. an x = a. Let x= or".
""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 36. 40. 66 45. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 2 . a. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 25. : or 5 . * 24. 22. rfS. . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. c 32. 27. . ^?2 y' 34. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 2 . ^L. 39. f (2w)~i 1 . a^ 41. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 37. m . 2m~i 43. 3 a. 44. 3 a? * 42."* 38. : mi m~^.
81 f (a .1.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 57. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 61. of: 3ll4~* 60. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 1. + 1~* f 21 . (. 55. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 52.343)* + (.6). and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 17' 2 51. 10* Find the values 56.(. . + A_. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.9*.001. 250. 10* 5* = . = ^.008)* + A. 49.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 59. z* = 1. = . 53. 47. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . = l. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 58. = 5. 48. z 5or*=10. 54. ar = i. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. Ex.
a. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. NOTE. remove the fractional exponents.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 7*. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7. are performed.4 a8 . 4 5. 3sVS. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 10. 7~ 5 27  .7W. .. 6a. 27  28.7*. 79 . 12. &.4 . etc. 13. (d) If required.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 23. 7~ 6 . 16. 95 ^9i 5**.&. 17. 16.5. 8 ' 9. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.6 *' 6 *25. #* a.$*. 3. / 7fv 7. 6 *. 26. . OA 20. 4 x^. ' 11. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. S'sS8.$". 14.5a. Perform the operation indicated. 18. Remove the negative exponents. . 72 . 3 a.&.7i. 6.3 aj" a.^/5^5. V5.
powers of x arranged are : Ex. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Arrange in descending powers of Check. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 2. 1. If powers of a?. 40. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1. The 252.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.2 d . Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
</2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. VS. </20. (i. 5V2. connect them by proper 1. V3.2. v^S. subtract surds. 37.10 V2 =  V2. </3. Simplify V~ . in order of magnitude : \/7.2 V50. 31. ^4. Arrange 35. 34. 28. V3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V2.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^7. \/5. ^2. 3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . A/2. ^4. Simplify V + 3 VlS. signs. ^6. v/4. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. V5. ^2. 38. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^30. Ex. if dissimilar. ^5. 40. 39. ^2. ^126. Ex. To add or form. A/3. I VJ + 3VT8 . V2.3\ .e. \/7. 4^/4. 2\ 3*. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. v/3. 36. s!/3. V2. ^/IT. + . 32. 26. v/3. ^3. 29. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 30. 33. 27.
+ 3V835V2. VJ+V8V1 + V50. .3V20 + 6V5. V18+V32VT28+V2. 9. 12. 3. 6.J a6 V4 aft. 13. 10. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8VT8J2V32 7. 14. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 4V805V45. 4. V175V28+V634V7. 6. 11. 8.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.
Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 2. . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. . y* = Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 3. 1. Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. and then multiplied. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.6V35 106 460V35100 .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 26^ . 23. 6*. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.
(V2+V3+V4)V3. 213 98 11. (V6 + 1) 1 . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 6. a?. V2 V50. + VB)(2V5). 19. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . V2aV8^. 12. 2. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 4. 40. V3 Vl2. 18.VSS. 41. 2 . VTO. (Va Va 36. . v/4. 34. 10. 9. v/18 v"3. 39. V42. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (3 20. VlO V15. 37. 27. 13. 14. (2V3) 8 . (6V23V3)(6V23V3). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V3 V6. \/3 \^). 15. 6. 3. Vll. 28 .^/2. 25. V20 V30. 6 V4 5. 40 10 30.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 38. 7. 21. fWa 17. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. aVa. 8.
Va v/a. 51. (2 45. . 47.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). Ex. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. V3 . the quotient of the surds is If. is 1 2. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). (5V2+V10)(2V51). Ex. 49. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 60. 52. 48.y. 46.214 42. a fraction. 43. 268. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 44. E. 53. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.
g. 1.by the usual arithmetical method.. however. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. The 2. . /~ } Ex. is illustrated by Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. e.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . .RADICALS This method. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . arithTo find. we have V3 But if 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.57735. . Divide VII by v7. metical problems afford the best illustrations. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. by V7. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. Evidently.73205. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. 3.
multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. Vll 212*.2361. A. Vn V7 ' * 8.. ^/H . and Given V2 = 1. V8 JL. 20. i. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 7. V3 24 . . VffV?. V5 270. 14. V5 = 2. . 23 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8 12. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V2 22 .7320. V48 25. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 21. V3 = 1.4142. 272. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 271. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
RADICALS Ex. Ex.1 xVtf a. V82 2V3 1fVS .2. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. s Simplify a.vffi^T _ .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . Ex.Vs2 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 1.= 18. . 3. .
2361.218 6 . By the use of fractional exponents . four places of decimals 23 .5 3 = 125. 27. . 6V7. Vo1 26. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.W3. V21 = 25 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. : and V5 = 2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 24. find to _!_. v 2V3 28. Given V2 1. 19. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16.4142. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.7320. J?_. = V3 = 1.
To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 1. V255 . introduce fractional exponents : Ex. V643 . viz. 4. 5. \/l6*. 3. the If. 2. 2 12. In other examples of involution and evolution. Simplify Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. v8f 2\/15. 9. it to this form. 11. on the other hand. 8. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/125" . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3.RADICALS 219 274.
12 and whose product is 20. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.A/2. +2 Ex. These Ex. 2 \/18. Find Vll . 3. 2. and whose product is 18. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.2 \/20.6 V2. is 11. The Hence ^11 .6\/2 = ^9 . Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.220 Ex. Find Vl2 4. ^TT.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .
1. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 4x x = 2. 8. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. x2 = x f 2.V48 4 20.e. V48 23. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. 277. r 22. Dividing by Check. : 221 Vl32V22.. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. first involution. (2x xrf 1. 5. Ex. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. they are transto formed into rational equations. The value x =2 reduces each . VT . 19. . Before performing the involution.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. Radical equations are rationalized. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Transposing and uniting. +=. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. i. are radical equations. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. by raising both members equal powers. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. a. member to 2.
Transposing and uniting. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Transposing and uniting. Ex. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . the first member = V2. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. Transposing. tion which has two roots. Factoring. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. they may be extraneous roots. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. 4#f 4 = 9. viz. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 278. viz. 3. Dividing by 24. at . a socalled extraneous root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. f 25 = 12. . the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. 2.222 Ex. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 5. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Squaring both members. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. V4afT~l. . (x 3) (8 x x = 3.1) = 0. Therefore Check. Therefore CftecAr. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Extraneous roots. . a. one root. V24~+~l = 0. It = 3 x .3. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. x = J. Squaring both members.
is x V. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. 4. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. both members reduce to 5. 223 x = 3. . + 6~ieT~3 . equation it is an extraneous root. or x *j.RADICALS Hence x If a.12 . ViTie 4 z2 .3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. = 3. Factoring. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. If If x 3 = 3. Check. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Transposing. \ does not satisfy the given.2 r. the right member = V2. Hence x = the only root. . x root of the preceding equation. Therefore. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. for it satisfies the equation . viz. Solve the following equations : = G. 2 Clearing of fractions. Hence there is only one root. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.47) = 0. (x x = 3. NOTE. .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. and to 5. Squaring.
33 af* + 32=0. Therefore . Factoring. Solve af*. Ex.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.
Vi 2 8a.8 x + 40 = 36. 2. Substituting. = 7. Q . + 40 = 6. 4.*2a. = 0. = 26.f40= 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Ex. 2. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. members of the equation were squared. 3 6. .i~24 = 0.35 = 0. y then x2 . 2_8z 440 = 49. x + Vx a? = 6. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. x =6 or 3. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x Since both =9 or 1. 3.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. o. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 45 14VJB = . This can be seen without substituting. 412a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. _ 2 y . 5. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. some of the roots be extraneous. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.8 z40 = 7. Let 8 x f 40 . 2Va. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.
12. a^x2 5 2 13. 17. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 20. 15.226 11. 14. a. +3= 6. 19. 2. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 18. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 4 V SB* 4 a. +x . 16.a 440 = 35.f 18 = 24.
if Q was known. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 x 5 by x 3. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. If x* ." transposing. ax4 4.2 + 4. Without actual division. " Or. by dividing 3 x* f. ^ = 381+2. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2 + 80 = 12. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. Hence. 3 2 Ex. even if Q is unknown.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. could. 227 . to x we # = 2 3. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 1.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . however. Ex. then (x 2)Q 0. = 2. a? R = x* . we make a? what the value of Q.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. Without actual division. does not contain a?.4 a. find the remainder when m. no matter If. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . 2.360 = 244.
4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.949. + 6. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. + 7 = 632.4(. fora?. if 8 42  . 2 j 7. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. x* s 2 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x m is factor of the expression. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 43 3 E. If the remainder is zero. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3.3)f 11 =.8'= 0. 8. } 2 by a1. The Factor Theorem. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 3.228 282. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 5 (4x . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + ^by x + b.g. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.g. 5. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. hence (x divided by x 4.
20. 8. 15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.9^ + 23^15. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.13m + 30 10. 229 1. oj 5x2 f3a. or 5 4 + 3^ . then x8 7 x'2 4. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. The 5.7 + 16 . m f m n 14. 18. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. p 5^ + 8p 4. 21. i. 7 46 = 0. a + 32. is a factor. 23. are f 1. Resolve into factors 4. or x 4. 25. a? 19.1. 1. 3 2 : 7. 17. 9. + ttt15 = 0. + 27 + 27.1.e. & p*. 2 2. ^10^429^20=0. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 3. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.r6 = 0. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . + 15. 1. a. a^8^ + 19a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. Factor a? 15.12 = 0. 11. _ .12. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 106 division. f 5. 8. 5. Therefore x ( 1). . Let x = . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a 2a + 4. a 5x 6. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. factors of the absolute term. f 15 does not vanish. 2.7 x + 15 = 0. f 3. 24. 6.49 = 0. 2m 5m .
230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. If n is a Theorem that 1. 2. ar +p= z6 e. x* f/ = (x +/)O . xn y n y n y n = 0. 2. if w is odd." .  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.xy +/). It y is not divisible by 287. Ex. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 286. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.g. 1. : importance. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. For substituting y for x. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. actual division n. xn f. By we obtain the other factors.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. is odd. 2 Ex. if n is even.
however. Hence = (m Ex. 26. 28. a. since it more directly to the prime factors. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. preferable. y 3 +8=0. as 27=0.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 3. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 27.= . leads 231 is The first method.
Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. x y. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 290. 4 xy = 16. in general. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. = 6. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. (5) Combining (5) with (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. (4) Hence. If two of the quantities x f y.y4 is of the fifth degree. xy are given. can be solved by the methods degree. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. to equations of the fourth few cases. however.1. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. + 6 a?V . ==5 > 1^ = 4. xywe have 3. & + 2 xy + = 25. of quadratics. * A I. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. Squaring Solve (1). 232 .
roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 233 y. 108 2. 1. r (" 1 = 876. ^. The arranged in pairs. 3. but can be found.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 12. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1. x and xy are not given. I I x + y=7. ' 10. = . the answers of the last example are : r*=2.g. b=3. " "' "' { r 8. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.
. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 6 "I 14. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. Factoring.  . r^ 2 as ] f. I* Jj ^ [. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. + 29 = 0. or JJ. 19. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). 4 y = 20. 2 (1) From (1) we have. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.i/ = r 13.20) = 0.~ y = 5. Ex.a. I x+y = a. or y = 1 .. aj = 2. .?/ i = 6.  42 y + Transposing. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. x " (3) 49 etc. la. A system of simultaneous equations. 5. one linear and ne quadratic.  f J.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. ' ' . 7 . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 3.o 18.
235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. quantities. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). x2y. = 1 3 3. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3y) : Factor (2). (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. ':il e :) . 9.3 2x 2 Ex. Solve . HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 10. y* + 2y = 3. 4 f + 2 y = 3. III.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 1. ' x*. If of the preceding type.
= 0. 15 x2 . (3) (4) Subtracting. } VI09. = Ex. 109 a. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. Solve 2. (1) (2) x x 5.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. j Substituting y in (2). 2. 2 . 11 a2 Factoring.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. (4) (3). f 1 150 a?.175 ay = 12. . 2 xy + y2 = 10. 150 */2 . 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. " IV. y? a? f . Division of one equation by the other. and others not belonging to them. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.3^42^=43.125 ay = . ' ^ 15. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Bxy9. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).y = 7. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. E.6. can be solved by special devices. A.!.xy 4. 298.
= 12 J.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. * ' 300. Some simultaneous ?/. (1 > (2) 1. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. = 189. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . at first it is unknown quantities. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. y . we have from (1). Solve Ex. quadratics can be solved by ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. i ^ *>. B. Therefore x = 16. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. x +y y etc. y = 3. x 2 . jc~ y = 9. we obtain by squaring.. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. xy. 2.
M6. I e. 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 2. 4. [2x + : y= 17. 239 Ex. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Hence = V or = 4. 36* 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . F+y+ .
16. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 25. . 27.21 ^ = 15. = y 1 y* . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. = 198.4 y = 47 a. * . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . + o5)(6hy) = 80. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. f 18. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 19 ' 26.
 But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. 7' j/ 39. ~\ OK OO. etc 302. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 30.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . . 25 34. 31. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . Interpretation . Q 7. 3 a2 38. hence may be any finite number. . as a . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. oo 301. 33. finite  =x y if = x. etc. ^ oo . = 48201. .of  According to the definition of division. 32. or ~ indeterminate.
g. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 1. I. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. cancel. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. Let 2. . (a: Then Simplifying. 306. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.decreases X if called infinity.e. i. (1) is an identity. By making x any * assigned zero. = 10.000 a. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. The ~~f fraction . (1). and becomes infinitely small.can be If It is made larger than number. Hence such an equation identity. great.x'2 2 x = 1. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. TO^UU" sufficiently small. or that x may equal any finite number.242 303. x f 2. be the numbers. without exception. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. and . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.e. creases. (1) = 0. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. is satisfied by any number. it is an Ex. . while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.increases if x de x creases. oo is = QQ. as + l. equation.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. i. Or. the answer is indeterminate. ToU" ^100 a. 1.
(2). 4 3 x x5 a2 . z = 1 Substituting. Solve .8 x + 15 6. . y finite QO.e. = oo. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. * 6. 1=0. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve  9 7. 2. is their 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve x a. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 3. EXERCISE 1. 42 and' their product is 377. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. and a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. two numbers is 76. Hence /. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts.2 y = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.
146 yards. Find the numbers. Find the sides of the rectangle. . 190. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. increased by the edge of the other.quals 20 feet. 255 and the sum of 5. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find the other two sides. two numbers Find the numbers. equals 4 inches. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. of a rectangular field feet. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 13. and the edge of one. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. is is 17 and the sum 4. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 14. 12. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. Find the edge of each cube. 103. 6. 9.244 3. The area of a nal 41 feet. is 6. Find the dimensions of the field. Find these sides. 10. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 148 feet of fence are required. Find the side of each square. p. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the diago(Ex. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the sides. Find the edges. and the sum of ( 228. 8. of a right triangle is 73. the area becomes f% of the original area.) 53 yards.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) 17. . irR *. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and if the digits will be interchanged. differ by 8 inches. the quotient is 2. Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. by the product of 27 be added to the number. Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. is 20 inches.
of the following series is 3.1) d. . .. The first is an ascending. P. progression. of a series are its successive numbers. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 4. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. a.. the second a descending. to produce the 3d term. 3 d must be added to a. Since d is a f 3 d. 3. . and d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A... An arithmetic progression (A.. To find the nth term / of an A. P. 19.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. f . (n 1) d must be added to a.. a 11.) is a series. 15 is 9 f. 12.. 10. Hence / = a + (n . the first term a and the common difference d being given. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. The common differences are respectively 4. . 2 d must be added to a. a f d. to produce the nth term. + 2 d.. P.7. a 3d. 11. : 7. series 9. 309.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. except the first. added to each term to obtain the next one. a + 2 d. The progression is a.. to each term produces the next term. 17. a + d. to produce the 4th term. each term of which. 16.
... 1. 24. 7. 19. if a = 5. a = 2. . 3. 8. (d) 1J. 6.16.' cZ == .. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 3. 1J. 10.3 a = l. 5. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. P. = a + (a Reversing the order.. 2. 3.. .PROGRESSIONS 310. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . series 2. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. . d = 3. .. . 2J. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. Adding. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. P. 9. 5. Find the 12th term of the 4. 3. 8... 8. 2. 21. d .... 1. series .. the term a.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. = 2. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 99) = 2600. ? (a) 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Find the nth term of the series 2. 6. 4. 6 we have Hence . P. . 4^. 6. 5. 115. 9. (a + + (a + l) l).. = 99. 7... 5. 5. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). = I + 49 = *({ + .8.. 3. Find the 5th term of the 4. 2 EXERCISE 1. 7.4. of the series 10.
> 2f 2. and a yearly increase of $ 120.7 f to 12 terms.248 Find the 10. 16. : 3. 1. 16. 13. 18. 2J. 7. . Sum the following series 14. to 8 terms. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 2. P. to 7 terms. striking hours only. 6. Jive quantities are involved. 12. + 3. 1. . to 10 terms. . 15. 15. 11. 7. hence if any three of them are given. to 16 terms. \n. . 1J. to 20 terms. to 20 terms.1 f 3. 22. rf. . (x +"l) 4. and for each than for the preceding one. strike for the first yard. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. . 21. 29. 7. 33. '.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . 17. 20. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 11. to 15 terms. 1. 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 31. 8.. (i) (ii) . 15. 11. to 20 terms. 19. 12.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 11. 4. In most problems relating to A. 3.
When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. P.1) . n d. Find the series. The series is. 100. = 1014. 133. 23. From (1). 312. . 56.e. if a. or 11 J. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. = 13. a = 12. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.1). Solving. 1. I. 2. I Substituting in (I) and (II). if s = 204. #. P.~n~\ 408 6). 2 (2) From Hence (2). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). s 24ft last term 144. The first term of an A. P.. = n(104 . Findn. = 144. the second one mean between the other two. hence n = 6. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. .. Substituting in (2). = 1014. 34. 111. 204 = ^ (98 . 122. or if x Solving. 12. 144. 78. = a + (w. is 12. 45.6 n). the and the sum of all terms 1014. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 6. n = 6. 204 = ^ (a + 49). Ex. d = 6. 6 n2 . 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 67.6. J = 49.104 w + 408 = 0. and b form an A. 78 n Substituting in (1). 89.PROGRESSIONS Ex. l)e?. But evidently n cannot be fractional. a = 49 6(71 .
m and n 2. Given a = 4. n. 8. 74. ceding one. 10. = 16. Given a = . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. of 5 terms 6. s = 70. . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = 1870. 17. a+ and b a b 5. 13. s == 440. Find a Given a = 7. = 45. n = 4. How much . 3. = 52. Find d. n = 16. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 15. How much did he save the first month? 19. I Find I in terms of a. 12. = ^ 3 = 1. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find a and Given s = 44. d = 5. = 83. Find?. 78. a x f b and a b. 16. P. produced. T? ^.3. y and #f5y. n = 17. Given a = 1. f J 1 1 / . Given a = . Find w. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 7. 14. Find n. 11. 4. and s. 6? 9. = 17. n = 13. f? . Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . n = 20. Find d. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. I. n has the series ^ j . has the series 82.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1.
If n is less : than unity... 4. 4. P. 36. The progression is a.. rs = s 2 . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. 24. or 81 315. ar8 r. 2. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. called the ratio. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . .arn ~ l .. .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. or. the first term a and the ratios r being given. The 314. <zr .) is a series each term of which... NOTE. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. is 16(f) 4 . To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. +1.. . is it (G. P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). A geometric progression first. I. 2 a. r n~ l . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. . ratios are respectively 3. (I) of the series 16. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 4 (1) .g. 36. 24.. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. 12. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 36. of a G. 108.. E. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . ar. and To find the nth term / of a G. P.
fa. if any three of them are given. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 144. . . . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. f. 4. . (it. And the required means are 18.l. is 3.. series 5.. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Write down the first 5 terms of a G.18. .. series . first term 4.. 2 term 3. 18. 25._!=!>. or 7. (b) 1.. hence.4. fa. . 10. + 5. 144. P. Ex.. first 5. Hence the or series is 0. f.. 1. 36. 3. 9. P. whose . P.. 9. . is 16.5. i 288. Find the 5th term of a G. 80.*.72. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 36.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. a = I.18. 9. ... whose and whose second term is 8. 36. .54. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 72. 8. r^2. 576. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. volved . +f%9 % . In most problems relating to G. .288. first term is 125 and whose common . . series 6.. EXERCISE 1. ? (c) 2.. \ t series . 144.6. 72.. Find the 6th term of the series J. 676. I = 670. Hence n = 7. 0. (d) 5. 20. P. Jive quantities are in. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. P.. 288. 7. 4.5. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. 6. l.
a. 15. be written If the value of r of a G. J. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. s = 605. 14. Given r = n Z 5. 25S series : 32.. to 7 . 21.. to 7 terms. s = 310. . is less than unity. 19. >"> . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.. P. 42. 54. 12 terms. 36.. to G terms. J. Find a and 4. r .. = 3. 72. = 3. J. 2. . 14. M. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.nV> i*> !718. . 16 . and hence ~ r . a^. 24. 243. Find a and n = 4. 22. 27. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. . J. may be than any assignable number. 81. 81. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 5 terms. 1. 20.. 23.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. of r n decreases. n = 5. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. + 4 . to 6 terms. n = 5. . 48. Z s. 126. 4. .. to 6 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = 3. I.i a9 .J and 270. 13. 12. 1. to 8 terms. == 160.
of an infinite G. (6) the sum of the perimeters..3121212.72. The sum r.072.. 2...00072 f ..37272 . of all squares ? . If a = 40.072 + . . . i i J. . = 990 . first and the common term.. . 9. is 9.27777 . = . .... Hence . = ... .Ql.99 . 7. .1. 12. 13. P... ratio 15. Given an infinite series of squares. 4. 8. . 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . . P.. i. 1. =A+ 10 i. The sum Find the of an infinite G. I. 14.)7?7272 . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. . 1. 12... = a . P. and the first term is Find 17..3 + . 5..191919. is J. of: 11. . 5. is 16. 3.. 66 Therefore ... the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 250. 6. 1. 40.= . 10. .01 ^ . 8...717171. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 100. 4. 2.....3727272 .272727.. .= _4Z* . 6. . Find the value 9.555. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.254 Ex.. r = j.. . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 16.. . 1 r = . Find the sum to infinity.. 16. 1. ..
. . 20. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (a + b) . 4. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . (s + i). Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. . (\ 9 . 13.6) .b ). a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (a2) 6.6) 20 . /2a+Y\ 8. 5. 25. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 21. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . : (1 + xy. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . . 10. 28. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the 6th term of (x . 2 2 24.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 16. (xy) : 6 .b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 14. 12. 4 7. 26. 7 . coefficient of . 15. (a 100 . a6 8 16 in . 29. 22. 17. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. l 2. 11.
4 ft  c) 2. 3. 1. + 1. 4. 1. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 2. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4. if = = 2. 2. 3. 3. . 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. 3. 5. 2. 4 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 4. 3.  2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 1. 1. 4. 2. 5. if a ft c = = = 4. ft 4 ) 5. 1.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 6. + c(a  c).258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. a ft c = = 2. 6.c )(fta) 1. 2. 5. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. if y=2j 2. 2. 3. 3. 6. aft 3 + 4. 5. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 2. 4. 5. if = = = 2. 1.  a)(a 1. 1. if x^l. 3. 3. 2. 4. (c 3. . 2. 4. 5. + 2. 1. 4. 3. 3. 5. 1. 1.f ac 1. 7. 6. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 4. 2. 3. 24 4. ^+^ 3. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. 2. 1. 5. 3. y 3. c = = = 2. 3. 2. 1. + 2. l. 2. 5.  8 ^ 2. 2. 2. 2. ft) . 2. c if 7 . 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 1.  2. 3.a(a 4. 3. 2. 3. 2. 2. 2 . 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 5. 3. = 2. 1. 6. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3.
c)(x a} . 4.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . a. x C 4 4x y + . 4 z . 21. + 3 y 2* . a 4 + 11 a .2 x?/. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 5.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . . . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 15. 3. 4 x 4 . 2  + 12 a 8 .3 a?y . + 1.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 3. b(x (b 1. 15.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .2. ' b) + 3. 2. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . x = 4. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 6.7 ys. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. or . r> . 10. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . (5. 17. 18.2 a?y + 3 aty .7 + .1. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.10.5.4. 5. 5. f 8. + 4. 7. x3 2 a2 .2 x2 .a) . 24. ~c)(b.a8 .259 x c) . 9.8 3 + 7 x4 . 4. 40. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 12.a 4 . a. 25.c' 2 4 / . 8. 29.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. x 3 11.3 xyz. 21.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 9. 2 . 2 x 8. a /> 3. 5. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.2. + 2.  a) (c 2. 7y 4 .r 6 x  4 xy .x 5 4 . if a 6 = = c = 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 4 y 13.2 z8 4 x. 8 . 41.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 16.\ yz + xz.8 + 2 // . 1. 7 xy 3 . 2. . x 3 x' 14. = 2.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . c = 3. 26.a 5 a . 2. a: . 1. . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 2.7 y 2* 4. + 8 x4 *y . + 4 ?y . 6 a4 4 a8 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 20. 4.
Take the sum 4x 4. 34.4 ft) 4. .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 5 10 + 7 . From of 2 the 4. 36.2 a .(4 x 2 . 4 3 5 y/ . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.[4 z 8 . .2) .7. x'2 . Simplify 31. 35.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .4) .x 2 4. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].1)}] .(a .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.x2 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .(5 c . of a.260 19.5 .2 3 ax 2 . 4vTT~y 3. and . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. c =x y }~ z. (*) a  c. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. a  ft + c. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .x 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 7 12 .1). f ft. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 4 . . c 4.2 x 8y2 44 .(4 * .] 26.3.3 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 542 x 2 and .x .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.4. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 3 ft. ft.c 4 3 a.(x 4. 0" 30. 5 4 7 12 . take the sum of G x 5 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .(5 y . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.6T . 4 2 x2 23. c 4ft. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. = x y ft z. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .. . 29. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.c 3 a.#48. 5 10 4 G 11 4.4 Vl 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . : a x .6 x ] . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.?> x 4 20.(x* .2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. sum of . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . . .x .c.5. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 33.27~~7)}]. ft 25. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 4 4 4.[4 x 4.c.3 x .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 2 x 32.{G * 2 .{2 x 2 .3 .8 3 4.a ft.(7 x 4.
(/> 4 . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].3 z 2 ). 48.ab .2c(V/ . 2 53.a~^~c)K]. 64.(2 . . 3 x 42.{2 a (ft . (x. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.[4 x  5 . (1 55. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .7). 50. (.4 a 2 + a 4 ). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).2)(1 .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 4 + 2 2 + 1). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2 2 + 1)(7. a {.  2 a  {3 2x a .3 *).[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.2 2 . 56.12). 60. 59.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). )(lz a ).{3 c . . 43. + *+!){> + 2). (r (1 (a. .(7 i + 4 r:) .(5 y .Z . 2 ft 41. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 2 2 x + !)(* .[2 .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 65. 2 f [3 c 7 a . . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. (4 + 3a 2 .(7 a.6 xy . 46. 63. 49.b (c . 57. .(6 .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 68. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .6c) (a + f c).c). (5 a 39.rf)} + a [.6)}].56.2a .be) (a 58.(2 x2 . 54. + 4x + 5)(j.& + {. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .96 [17 a.3 c)]. a .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.2 zz . 'J 44.ac . (.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . 51. 2 : 7e)a}]. .r 2:c+ l)(ar.2x + 3).3c).0)} . . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).3).{2 a .1).5)} + (3 a 2 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 67. 13 a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).3)(*5)(* 7).JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 52.4 a .(2 a + 5 a .(4 d .c 2 . (x . 62. . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 45. (1 ar+a.(2 a 2 . .5 )}] + {4 c .
v) 4.c .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).y)\x y). b 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 83.2 (y 4.3 a .c) j. 87. 73.y + z)(x + y .b 4.c) 2 .ft) 4 .m np c .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(c 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .c) . f 72. 1). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).n pc). 86. 76. Prove the following 8 4. 77. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.(/>  3 v)^(. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). xy y 2 ). ar . 85.z\x 4. 71.:y)( a.a) 2 .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. (x (x ( + *) .y).c) .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 94. 4 4 .c .z) . . 92. 2 + a 2 ).(4 .9y2). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 84. 74. 79. ft 78.x + y + z). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 89. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 91.6*y .r 2 .3 (ft . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.5 . 88. 2 (x 2 .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .c) rr identities.(a 48 8 8 4. ft ft ft a}.am&t 4 A 2 *). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.3y) a (* 2 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 1). 4. ft /. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).2 ft}) f (3 a .(ft 4. 90. 75.q).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). (. ft 95.c)]. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .z)(x y + z)(.O (a 4(a 4. (p 2 . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.262 69.ft) + 4(2 .2y)(.c) 4) (ft 4. ft" l Simplify 80. 93. 82. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. .c)} .2 (a .<f(p . (a (2 b)*(a 4.{3 a . 70.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). .
[10( 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. 110.(2 a 2 . 102. r . 103. 116.2 2% 4. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).3 a"+ 4.6 y 4 4.2y 2 4.b) 98.*) (x 8 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .27 x* . (. .9 x 2 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.v/ ~ // = a: .y 4 ) . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.2 xy 8 . 25 4 . 117.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 105. 3*.y 2 4. (8 x* 115.y 4 .(7 xi/ . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.35 x 2 2 ) . 106. 108. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 122.40 />) . (2< 107.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).16 a 6 4. a*.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 2 (a+ .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 120.5 xy). (80 a 112. 121. 10). 1). 99 100. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).a".(a 1 2 8 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.xy 4.1).4 aft . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 2 4 41 x 4a. 123. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 118.) . (a 8  8 68 8 4.5 b*).r 4 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 1O4. 26 (a 4 c). 124. 113. .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.(x 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 114.&).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 109.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).
3(2 z .1) .19) + 5 = 4 .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 135.4) .5). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 2 4(ar . 5(2 x .12 M 132. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2 7^~5] + 1). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2) = 3 . o o 140. 7(2 x . 139. . (*+ + . . 1) . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3).(j a? 144. 129. 10(2 x 141. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .9) + 3. 142.2) (a: + 3). .(1 .2(10 x . 3) = x\x .3(* + 4) + 9} . .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 148. (4 x .7) = 4 . 138.8 6 .7(4 * .2(5 .3 a:). 127. .18 *&) (1 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 3(2 x 134. 1) = 2(* .4(0 x . 137. 128.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . .3) (3 x 4.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 136. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.27 a 3" .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 5 146. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.r + 7[or .5) = 12(4 x . 126.3) = 12 .(x + 3) ] .(x . 42(3ar 145.a:)]}.9) 4.r>) . x 147.2) + 2(ar + 4).n .2(4 .2(j: .G) . (5a: 150.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 143. y (* l x.22.3 x).5{.(x f 9). .264 125.4) . 149.1) (a? .
) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. = 15. f^ + ^sO. .29) 2 = 1. 164. and the third twice as many as the first. . a: ar a. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. + 5) = (9 . 165.17) 2 + (4 x .19) + 42. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. (a) If C.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . 265 152. transformed into F. How many 170.5)(.a:) + 229. 153. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. + 2) + (5 .7) (a.2 x) (4 .8) = (2 x 4.2) a + 7(x .14) (a: + 3). A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.3) = (3 x .7) (1 x . If the area of the frame inches.4) (a .3) (a: . + 10) (ar . 2 4 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. (a .l)(z . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. will produce F.5(x . = 2 C. sheep more than the 169.5 x) = 45 x . .2) (7 *) + (*. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 155. 163.25) 2 . The sum What 171. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 159.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.3) (j. 166. (3 O + .24.z) (4 . 157. 154. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.6 x) (3 .(5 x . (x (x a.1) O + 4) = (2 * .1) (s + 3). 158.3) (3 . . + 4) (2 x + 5). 5(ar x . (a. 160. 161.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 162.5*) + 47.. There are 63 sheep in three flocks.T)O .9) + (a. =  (F 32). . find the value of F.2).2 x) = (1 . (2 .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.2) (j? + 1) + (x . these two angles would be equal. (7 14 .5) = (3 .? .3) (3 .76. 156.r + 3) . The second contains 3 first.
266 173. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. same result as the number diminished by 175. father. 13 a + 3.56. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 15 m. was three times that of the younger. ll?/102. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. power one of the two Find the power of each. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. side were one foot longer. Find the dimensions of the floor. 180. number divided by 3. train. 2 2 + a _ no. + a. two boys is twice that of the younger. aW + llab2&. respectively. A house has 3 rows of windows. 176. 181. +x 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. 179. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. + 11 ~ 6. if each increased 2 feet. 187. A each 177. 4 a 2 yy 42. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. How many are there in each window ? . dimension 182. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 188. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. . .36. A boy is father. sister . 189. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 7/ 191. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. and 5 h. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. x* 185. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. younger than his Find the age of the father. 12 m. z 2 + x . An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 186. 190. 178. 10x 2 192. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. z 2 92. Find the number. 3 gives the 174. .
REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 3y 248. 5 x 2.6 aq . 212. 3 x V . a: 231. (a + .c) 2  (a . 7x 2 225. a. + 3a 196. 246. 238. 202. 224. . 206.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . a. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 2 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 244. a 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 211. + 198. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .10 xy. 227. a^a 226. 208. 12 x +4.22 z + 48. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 200. 207. 201. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 235. xm+l 243. 222. . 216. z 2 2.x + 1. 24 2 + 2 . 2 x 2 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 221. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. a.19 z 4 204. # 2  29 y + 120.8 6 2. .3 xy. wiy + la mx + aw.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 3 ap 2 . 203. 23 12. 2a te 3% ly 247. 267 199. 210. 8 a: ar. . 8 a.19 a .c) 2 . ifWy+b. 213.3 xf + 3 * 2y .14 2 .20 z 8 a: 220. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a: 236. 7a 228.10. 232.28.6. 6 197.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.6 2 ?/ . y 2 194. 2 a 8 . + 8. 3y 2 + ary .12 * . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 230. 217. + 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. x 219. 229.64. .(b + rf) 2 . 2 2 y f 1.21 a:  54. a+a* + o a +l.r?/f y 2 9.6 y2 + 4. 239. 209. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .10 y a x* . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . z + 5x 2 . x 5 . 2 a 2 . a a: a: 237.1. + 30 x. a. 215. 4 m +^. 233. 16x 4 81. 195. 3 x 2 .6s. . 245. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .77 y + 150. x* + 8 2 + 15. . x*y 223. 218. a: . 4a 2& 2 241. *2 234.
2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . + 20 x 4. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. * a .G7 x f 33. a 4. x 2 + 4 + 3. 2 x2 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . x 2 263.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.7 f 5. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 260. 1 x ar Find the L.23 x f 20.ry . 5 x 2 256.9.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. 270.10 a 4. of: 266.16 x .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .M. + 8 x + 5.ry 21. 257. 10 x 2 .2 aft*.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. ft a. + 3 x + 2.15. 15 # 2 z/ /. z 2 268. a? a: a: // 262.48 afy 2 . 261. C. 28 2 f 71 x .13. 254.14 bx a%% 8 . 251. 265. 3 a% 2 .9 x . * 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 2 8 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . a: . 6.73 xy . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 30 ^ . . + 23 x f 20. 3 #2 255. 2 + 7 r f 2. 7 12 2 2 . 18 x 2 . 269. of: 253. x 2 + 2 x . 252. 264.36.15 + 30. x*y* 4. 8 2 + 10 x .4 ab + 1. 22x2 a.2 z . 7 ax 250. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.a + 2 4.120.10. x* . x* . F.5 ab f 2. 3 ay 4. 2 a.(55.12.91.3 abc . 258.3 x . x 2 4.C. a.6 by.r .80. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a 3 a 2 2 .3. 259.11 x f 28. 10 a.a 2 />c 2 f 3.23 + 12.11 a 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. * 2 .18 xy + 5.1 9 .9 x + 14. 2 .&z. x 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271.2/ 2 . + 8. * 2 .x .4.8. x 2 + 5 f . I Find the II. z 2 267.
fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.. 289 ' . 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . z2 (a 2 + c)a. 285 z4 n* + a..n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2* + 3 x* 280.rL.ar 1 279.2c a: 282. m 4. 8 .(y 2 z) * t (j. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. *2 " 2 + Oge.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. + ac . a.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.!/.
^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. 4 3 301. ^_2*(m 308. 6) _ ~ i 305. x 7. O(ca) 306. a (: a) (x 2. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^. * 19 23 19(23 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. Lnl + ar 2 a.
} . . (a? 4 2) 317. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 x2 + + a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 2 + y 2 319.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1a: + y a.(a .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. . 1 _. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. a: 1 313. (1 . _ x8 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .ft) 2 322.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.
/  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a..y20  2y + 4 2 .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.15 33 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 20 44 333. . . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 250 5 10 2 325.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .5 a .7 xy + 12 x .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a. 2 lOx 5x. a: 2 x* .9 *// + 27 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3..y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .6* t 328. * 3a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.ll.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.V  + y  x 3y a .2 +lOar 2 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .
348. a: 349 _ o. if a = 3. 1 345.r 5 2 . \x yj 340.y.+ r . (ar \ 346.1V. \5yl 341. 352. : 1+ i. w \. (af2/.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 5 343. ** i. a>74 . + ni + . (a \ + lV. ( 342. ' 2 "l 5 . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. aj 339. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. xi 347. (aWi + iJ. 344.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. fl. +^ a: y x . 338.. 7 ( ?f!?.) 2 . + l + IV. f V. ?_2 ^ . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350.
+ x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. _ + l a 359. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. y360. (~ 364. I  I f 366.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .
r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . __4 2x 3_ = !. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 {2 x 381.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. . J !__7. 4(* . 8  376. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. + 1) 45 O 377. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. ^ . <3 378. 5*8. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. . 379. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.*2 = 15.
1 . .25 x + . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 397. b 404.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .6  . 400. 3* 177.5 x =r f .75 x f . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.8 = . 40. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. . 399.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. u '2 a..2 a:  1.25. m x 398.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. f 1 1 + a 403.  8 9* x ~r. ^ (a . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. _____ . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.  J).147. 396.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. c . + 4 a. 401. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).5 ^ ~ a: a..
(x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. far did he walk all together ? A . hour. 420. 418 ~jo. Find the number.278 410. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. the order of the digits will be inverted. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 421. 411. In a if and 422. and was out 5 hours. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 18 be subtracted from the number.  a) 2 6 2a. How long is each road ? 423. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. (x . Tn 6 hours .c) .(5 I2x ~r l a) .
y. .iand 22 22 I a .a 2^ 8 + aft* . 432. b. x 427. . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. find : a : c.46 2): (15a 2 . Find the mean proportional to 429.49 63). z 2 y. a + 5. wi* + y= ny. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.6 8 ).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. 428. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . Find the fourth proportional 426. If a b : =5 n : 7.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . : If is one equal 434. 438. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 435. . find the angles of the triangle. Solve 436.& 5 ) (a 8 . 3 and 1J. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. a  t>. Which ratio is greater. d. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. if . ax is \ by  ex + dy. 431. 2 2 8 2 . : i. Find the length of the parts. and : b : c = 14 : 15.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 433. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 430. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).
89 = q. a: 2y= = 1 . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 456. 443. 457. 7 a: . 444. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.rf2# = l. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 7jr9y = 17. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.*.55 y = . 451. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ft. 3 . 459. 449. 445. 5 2 = 7 . 5x+4y=lQ. c. 8 .59 = 3 z. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. /) ar a. 7a?y = 3. . 42 = 15y + 137. 16. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. ?/ 447. 450.(or l(*2y)=0. 453. 8 x + y = 19. Find the value of a. 15ar = 20 + 8y. . 454.7 y = 25. 1(3  a. Solve the following systems: 441. a: a: + 5y). 5z4:# = 3. 458..3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 452. 7 442. . ft.35. 4 = 5 y + 29. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 9/> = 2 . a. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 3 a. 455. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. x + 17 # 53. 28 = 5 a .11 y = 95. 56 + 10y = 7a. The volumes If their diameters. = 25.11 7. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). />(.4 12 . + 5y = 59. . if 2 ft : 439.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 446. 9ar7# = 71. 448. . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .
x y 474. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .2y) (2 = 2J. 465. (or . 468. 8 461. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 475. ^ + i^ = 7. 473. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ax cx by = m.7. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .  = 2.. i = 5.?/ + 1 . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.c=563y. + eyn.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ax by = c \ 472. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.+ =2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. _ 469.
the Find their ages. Find the numbers. 485. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. age. 483. and in 18 months to $2180. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. and the other number least. A spends \ of his. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and in 20 months to $275. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. to . least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 477. 487. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find their ages. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. by 4. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. whose difference is 4. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. A number consists of two digits 4. How much money less 484. Find the fraction. Find the numbers. Find the sum and the rate of interest. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the principal and the rate of interest. 486. 481. . fraction becomes equal to . years. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 479. Find the number. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2.
x s + y z = 18J . 2 a. a number . 3ar 503. 492. 2 2 = 41. = 209. x y f z = 13. x f y f z 29 . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 494. .z = 12. 496. . 495. + # +z= 35./ 504.? + 2y = 8. z y ifi = z x 502.z = 20. 5 + a.5#+2z = $x a: G. 4 506. 2y + 2z = a: 2. : Solve the following systems 491. of two the sum of the digits also if number. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. = 20. a: f z = 79. 493. ~ 507. 4z+3z = 20. 2y + 3a = ll.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. ifi = x a. 4 497. 7 + 2 z . 5^ 9z = 10. 1+1 = 6. 7. a. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. . 3 a: + 5=84. 2 e. y Solve : x +z= 5. . . a. * + 425  = . z y x 25 . 1. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 489. a: 499. + y 5 y = 101 . = 15. 3 x 500. 8. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 2/>3r = 4. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2a:f 7. 490./ f z =a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. The sum of two numbers squares is b. a: + // = 11. \ . *i. 498.
284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 517. ll" . 523. + : = 1472. 36 + c. i=a + 6 c. + + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. M. 532. Find the present ages of his father and mother. AB=6. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and CA=7. 90. How long will B and C take to do . B and C and C and A in 4 days. What are their rates of travel? . N. it is filled in 35 minutes. BC = 5. Find the numbers. if the number be increased by Find the number. Tf and run together. they would have met in 2 hours. 530. When weighed in water. and BE. L. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. if and L. CD. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. touches and F respectively. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. E 533. If they had walked toward each other. . . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. the first and second digits will change places. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. 527. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. it separately ? 531. if L and Af in 20 minutes. AC in /). In circle A ABC. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. in 28 minutes. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals .
x*. 542. 536. GERMANY. + 3. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. d. x*  2 x. 2 541. FRANCE. 550. 540. x 2 544. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 545.  3 x. i. 2. 2. x 2 + x. b. 543. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x *x + x + 1. 2  x  x2 .10 marks. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. formation of dollars into marks. a.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2 x + 5. 548. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.e. 3 x 539. The values of y. 547. e. z 2  x x  5. the function. then / = 3 and write = 3. . How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . c. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 546. if x = f 1. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. from x = 2 to x = 4. x 8 549.  3 x. . The values of x if y = 2.  7. to do the work? pendulum. If to feet is the length of a seconds. The greatest value of the function. One dollar equals 4. AND BRITISH ISLES 535.
7 = . // Solve y Solve y = 5. a? 4 x .= 0. h.3 . 562. e.13 = 0.4 = 0. 563.G . J. x 2 ~ 2 .4 x 2 + 4 . 556.6 + 3 .11 x* + + 2 8 569.5 x . 572. 2. g. 3 + 3 z . z 4 . 18 x  4 = 0. Solve// = 0.3 x . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. if y =m has three real roots. j. + 5 . If y +5 10. 2 8 . 566. f.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 3 x* .11 = 0. ' = 8. 568.  2 1 a: a.= 0. 3 x . x 4 . 557.r 1 561. a. 558.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 x 2 560. . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.1 = 0.15 = 0. Solve 552. 2 554. x* . 2 567.9 = 0. i.3 = 0. c.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. r?. Represent meters. a. 564. c. + 10 x .0. . 2 a. \ to t = 5. 3 . 553.r . 565.17 = 0. = 5. and make the unit of the b.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 15. . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 555.3 x . 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. x 5 .r a: a: x a. a. z 2 . a: 559. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .4 .
2 611.%) 4 (aa.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 6 + 1) . x [ ?/ 577.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 596. 599. f ?>) 3 591.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 598.4. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . + . (# 2) . .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 4 . 588. 593. [ y =10. 9  4 fSb 607. 609. 589. (a  8 ft) . 608. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + + 4 . 585 594.5 xy = 0.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 595.2 2 + y. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.x + 2 )'2 601.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 5 a*. 4 (1a:) 3. 64 a 12 603. a 2a. (aiy. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. j^f = 3. 3 (f. 592. 579. (1 + x a. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .(1 . a:. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + ^) + (air%)8. a. 4 a. 582. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 604. a: . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. xY. (1 (1 (1 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. a 612. a 8 606. 1 . 2  2 aa: 2 . 3 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 600.frf : 583. (a. x + z2) 8 . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 597. : y* or 25. . 2 943 ++ ~bx.2 6a: + 30 &c a. jj+.
Find the eighth root 617. 4J. 32 631. According to Kepler's law. x 2 641. 2 + 21Ga. 49042009.2410. 632.49. = . 650. 636. 620. 630.30. 9g.2. 8*' + 24* = 32. 44352. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 637.12 a?y + y*. (x 9 x 646. 622. 633. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 49. 644. a 642. = 70. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 626. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft .53 x ~ . 639. 2 + 189 z = 900. *+* = 156. 494210400001. 645. 371240. ft . 623. 647t x 2 648 649. + 24 a 2 4 .\/4090. 4370404. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .*. 40. GGff. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. V950484 . + 112 a 8 . 628. 9a. 614. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 624. = 87. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. + 2 21 x = 100.1024 x + a: 256. 210. 942841. /. 625 : 621. = 0. 0090.15174441. 638. 21. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 3a. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 629. 643. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . find Jupiter's period. 25023844.871844. : 5. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. + 54 'x*y* . 615. x 2 .8 aft 6 + 8 21G.150. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.191209.V250 . Find the square root of 619. 651. 634. VOIOOD + V582T09. 7) 2. 035. V 635. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 2.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 708. 695. 699. ex abc= fx 0. 2 2 697.c = 0. 693. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 702. a. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.ax .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 706. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ax 2 698. 694. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.bx . 1 __ : )'*' _i. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691.a a )jr . 696. 707. 2 2 . = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 692. .
What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. How shares did he buy ? if 726. a: 713. 724. 729. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. Find the price of an apple. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. . in value. 717. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 723.292 709. Find two numbers whose 719. 12 4*+  8. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. 722. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 716. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 725. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 16 x* . ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. **13a: 2 710.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 721. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A equals CO feet. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 217 . Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. In how many days can A build the wall? 718.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 3or i 16 . 727. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.44#2 + 121 = 0.
)(ai + &. 43. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 33. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 42. 38. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 36.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .2 ).2)(x2 4.X . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). .aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).1 f c" ).aft* 1 + a 2*. 52. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*).1 + x. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 41. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 40. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 32. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 34. 1 6.1 + c. 46.l). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). . 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 37.1 f ^ 2). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 35. (v/x). 31. n.2? 50. 39.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.
758. ~ r* x . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776..1+J 756. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 757. JU. 768. 2V2 2V3 . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 759._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 754.294 753. [1r^ T 1 i . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 761.
7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .2V3* ^ 807. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . . 13 799. 10 785. 14 791. 787. 7512V21.4 V(j. . c 792.VlO. 794.12VIT. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.2 V30. 793. 806. 786. 3J . . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 789. a 9442V5. 92VI5. 16 + 2V55. Va 809. 790. x 782. 3812VIO. + 2V21. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 783. 103 788.
+ 103Var. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.f 5 = V5x + 4. 831. Va: . /9ar a: = 17. 811.V? = 813.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . + ViTli + V7 . \/12 a. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.79.g.13 = 0. 819. 820.V2 ar 10. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. VaT+lJ f ^l . Va: + 28 f + V9 x .4 = 0. 833. + Vx . V14 a.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 814. x/aT+l . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 830.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 812. 836. V3 f 1 V4a. 829. 815.\/2y  810. (x a: 2 ) 4 . = 1. 3 x + 2 .Vc^lJ . 818. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 816. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.
a. 2 x 3. 856.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . f 841. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 9. 4 x 8 858. . x 4 + f 2 a.3 Va: 2 . 853. 4 a: 2 842.3 . z*y 8 l64a. 64 a 866. a. + 512 y8 874. a 8 873.3 a:. 275 8 l. 2 f" + a/ 15. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. . f 12. x 11 a^ J 13 854.3 x . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 8 2a.12. a*" & 6n . 846. 2 a: 64 y*. 729 867.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . a. +3 4 +  4. 4 a. .10 = 118. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 840. 844.  3x a. 64. 8^27^. + . 8 . f b**. 27 y 8. 871. V4 x 2 . 865. a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 16 859. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 864. 27 862. 851. 8 860. . 8 a. 863. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 855. + 216 rt aty a 10 . + 1.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 845. 875. a 18 4. 8 8  13 a. a 8 869. 6 2 f 3 6 s.ab9 ft*. 852.x*y + 3x f 2. 861. a: 849.a. 8 8 848.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 8 4a: 8 a. 839. 4 x* 847. a 8 850. a l0m . y 4. 868. a. 876. a: . 870.1000 6. a 872. x 8 2 857. a. . 6. 19 x 14. 4o.1.
a: a. a. 899. .1 = 2 a#. 890. 5.5 xy + 4 f = 13.y 2 + V(j. + ary + 2 = 37. . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. + 2y=\2. z 2 898. x 882. 2 + xy = 28.Vi' + 1 1_3. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. a. 2 . y 2 4. x a: lI = xz . 886. a: + y 2 = 34. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. a: 884.y 2) = 20. 2 2 = 16 y. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 = 2 + 5. 894. 2 + xy = 10. f ?/ a: a: .298 877.18. a. 2 + y 2 . y = 28. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 896. 2 . 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 3 x 2 . 883. 895.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. . x 8 3 = 13:3. .35. 878. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a: 888.sy = 198. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. y*+ xy . 889. xy + y = 32. a# f + xy = 126. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . a: 2 897. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x*xy. . 900. . 1 x 893. 2 + 2 f = 17. M1 891 1 . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 885. a:y . +y f y = 7. 887.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 901. y 2 2 8f. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100.xy + y 2 = 19.15.
+ 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.y).y = a(ar + y). 923. 920. x 4 299 xy z 904. + a. 4 (a. 2 2 2 916. x + y}(x + y) = 273. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2).r a. + 2 ary = 39. 912. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.16 y 3 8 = . = 8. (a. . y . (* 918. 2 * 2 ~ g. + y = 9. 905. Vary + y = 6.6. . # + xy + y = 7. + y)(a. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. a: a. a. y + a:y = 180. 23 x 2 . xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. a: * a: a: ar 928. or or a? a: a: . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. . 2 915. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. yz = 24.3(* + y) = 6. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. ary y = 8. 2 924. *y . xy + x= 15. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. + y 8 = 189.x) = 21. 910. y 3 2 2 922.y) (a? .2 y) = 49 2 919. (o.3)2 = 34. ^ 2 . 909. (3 x . + ary = a*.23 = 200. 917. * + y = 444.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. a:y xy 929.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 911. y x 2 = by. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 906. x f 2 a:y = 32. xa 903. 921. 914. 2 913. a: y zx 12.y) (3 y . + 2 a:y + = 243. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 3 y 8 ) =1216.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 7 y . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 2 5 xy = 11. x 2 ry + y = 3.#y + 2 = 27. (!) * .3) 2 f (y .y2 = 22. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. x + y 2 = aar. 908. 907. 2 + y = 2 a 4.y) = 33. 3 :r(3 . + ?/) .
943. 937. 944. Find the sides of the rectangle. two numbers Find the numbers. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. Tf there had been 20 less rows. two squares is 23 feet.102. and 10 feet broader. two squares equals 140 feet. find the radii of the two circles. 152. In the second heat A . s(y 932. A is 938. and the difference of 936. + z) =108. feet. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. a second rec8 feet shorter. is 20. y( 934. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. . y(x + y + 2) = 133. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. Find the numbers. z(* + y + 2) = 76. feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. is 3. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. and also contains 300 square feet. 942. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. 34 939. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle.300 930. is 3 . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. Assuming = y. 931. 2240. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. + z)=18. 935. *(* + #) =24.000 trees. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. (y + *) = . the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. diagonal 940. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. How many rows are there? 941. and the sum of their areas 78$. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.square inches.
. that B A 955. sum Find an edge of 954. the digits are reversed. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. and travels in the same direction as A. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. overtook miles. . Find in what time both will do it. 951. P and Q. Find the number. is 407 cubic feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and that B. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. set out from two places. 950. each block. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. and its perim 948. A and B. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find the eter 947. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. . A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. 953. whose 946. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find its length and breadth. 952. and if 594 be added to the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the number. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. 949. triangle is 6. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. distance between P and Q. unaltered. Two starts travelers.
4 4 to 7 terms . 12434+ j I 967. f + 1 . 966. . the terms being in A. 18th terms of an A. + (iiven a +  4 d . are 29 and 53. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. Find the Find the common 977... P. (to 2 n terms)... 957.454. 9th and llth terms of an A. n to n terms. 970. 964. fourth of the unity. 961. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.141414. 5.. Find n f (ft) .4142 . 16 962. '. 36 963. P. s  88..v 973. .. Find the sum of 4.. 1G series . = 4. ^ 1 . 972. Sum Sum to infinity.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.3151515. J. to infinity. 974. Evaluate (a) . . and 976. to n terms.302 956.. \ . x(x to 8 terms.. 971. 1 to n terms. 958.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. *" 968. ^ Vfirst five 959. Sum to 20 terms. . P. Find an A. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.. 3 . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).>/) to infinity.. 4. to 7 terms. Sura to 24 terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 969. 3 + 5 7 + .321? 965. difference. 5.V2 .. 975.1 4 f j$V .. P. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. Find n.  2. (x 4 to n terms.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .. !Ll^ + n .to infinity.
Find n.. 4 grains on the 3d.1 + 2. of n terms of an A. 989. 992. : + 9   V2 + .. Find the sum of the series 988. 980. .3 ' Find the 8th 983. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.001 4. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 303 979. Find the first term. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.) the last term the series a perfect number. P. to n terms.01 3. P. "(. and the common difference. to 105? 981. 5 11.. 986. P. 987.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. The sum 982. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 990. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . named Sheran. to oo. 2 grains on the 2d. to infinity may be 8? . and so on. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + ... first 984. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.04 + . 1. 985.001 + ... Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.2 . The term. is 225. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find four perfect numbers. 0. The 21st term of an A. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. and of the second and third 03. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .+ lY L V. Find four numbers in A. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.
many days will the latter overtake the former? . 1001. P. 1000. c. 994. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Two travelers start on the same road. 999. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. . areas of all triangles. The sum and sum . and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 997. P. 1003. Under the conditions of the preceding example. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. P. of squares of four numbers in G. 995. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. in this square a circle. are 28 and find the numbers. in this circle a square. prove that they cannot be in A.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The sum and product of three numbers in G. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. AB = 1004. 998. ft. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and G. inches. 512 996. find the series. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are unequal. (6) the sum of the infinity. at the same time. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. P. is 4. The fifth term of a G. and so forth to infinity. If a. ABC A A n same sides. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. P. (a) after 5 strokes.
Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Expand  2 a. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. ) 1021. Find the two middle terms of 1013. + lQ . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". a: 8 7. . 1006. x) 18 . Find the middle term of ( .o/) 14 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.l) w f . 1011. (12 #) 7 .iV 2i/ 5 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 2 ) 5. 1012. 1014. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . 1009. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. . 1008. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .ft) 19 . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. (1 1018.
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.] Abscissa Absolute term .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom ... .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. linear literal Common ** * difference . 158. 123 ... . 97. . 129 54. graphic tion of representa ..... 9 ** . ... . .. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .193 11 .130 . simple simultaneous . .. . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .... Checks Coefficient 20.178 Completing the square . . 129.. Aggregation. 54. lowest ratio " '* . 112 54 54 251 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. . 160 in quadratic form 191 . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. . 19. ... .... . numerical . .. .. . signs of Algebraic expression . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . . .. ...181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . . 8 . 37. . . 232 mean progression ... 232 169 807 .108 160 " ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. ... . . 246 91 " multiple. 9. . t 53 120 .. quadratic .
. addition of " square of . 241 123 geometric . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 195 33. 184 54. 212 . exponent . 45. 112 .. law of Extraneous roots . Insertion of parentheses . 180. .. . 205 . inversely 122 numbers . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Product '* 76 Infinite.. 23 10 91 102. . 109 102 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean....31. 9. directly. first and second . . . 227 geometric . . .. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 45. . numbers . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . 17 65. 120 Member. . 114. 63. G. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 34.808 Exponent Exponents.. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . Geometric progression . . . . . . Inconsistent equations . . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. arithmetic . 189. . 45 Laws of signs . .C Multiplication . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.108 Minuend . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . P . ...251 Graphic solution of simultane. Known numbers . 253 28 70 1. INDEX 8 .. 42 7 Independent equations Index . 91 . 84. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 243 7 . 227 .. Like terms Linear equation .154 Order of operations " of surds . . . Imaginary numbers ... Mathematical induction . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. L. .. Negative exponents 11 . . . . 143.
absolute 54 Variable . polynomial . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... . algebraic Surds ....... 27 17 Unknown numbers . .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. binomial Third proportional Transposition . .. 9... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 45 Trinomial 240 . . ...... 129.. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 4 155 9 " of ... . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. Sum. . .. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Berwick <fe Smith Co. Mass. NorfoooS J. August. Reprinted April. December.S. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.. Published September. . 1913. Set up and electrotypcd.COPYRIGHT. 1916. 1917. Gushing Co. U. 1910.A. 8. Norwood.
}. B 10 mi. 72 = = 216. 7.. 7. 12. 27. 1. 25. 6. + 1. 3. loss. 14. 28. 12. 73.000 Indians. 2. 3.000. T . 15.000. C $ 16. Australia ft. 19. 6. 17. arithmetic.. 4. c. 3. 9 14. sign. 7. B $20. sign. 10. ft. 16. 1.  1. Page?. 5. 11. 28. 13. 3. 16. 2. 12. 24.000. 25. in 12. 6 yd. 5. $100. 16. . 4. 6. 11. i . 7. 7. 576. 144. 16. 210. 6. _ 32. 128.150. 0. 13.8. C $1(50. 6. 32. Yes. 8. 25. 37 S.000. . 17. 10. 37. 7m. 9 16  larger than 7. 17. 27.3.2. 5. 13 d. 2.. 3. 2. 13 V. 18. 26z. 7. 106. 17. 4. 1 16. B $ 128. 0. A $90. 16. 8. 4. in. = 5 81. 8 ft. 1. Page 13.C. 9. 3. A 38 mi. A . 14. 512. 2. 5000. x. 1.  22 20. 1. Page 4. 15. 1. 13. x. 14. 30?.. 9. 21. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 18. 19.. 10. 20 jo. 6. 10g. 13. B $80. 2. 29. 18. 6.1. 6. 3. . 24. 5. 25. 15. 3. C $60. ^. 1. 2. 6. 5. 48 ft. 9. 6.. 15. 20. 20. 4. 14.12. 14. 2. 6. 9 m. 1. 22. Multiplication. 64. 32. 19. 3 below 0. 49. 2. 12. 89. 8. 24. 85.$9400. 9. 9 = 4. 59. 2. 1. 3. 32. 8 13. 49. 16 in. 9. 16. 29. 150. 2. 9. 8. 2 ~ 15. 21.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 12. 14. 8.000. 16 in. 1. 2 5. 21. 1. 10. 1. is $10. 1. A 15. 5. b. 3.  13. westerly motion. 16. 3. 1. $160. 10.000. 12. 3. 15. (a) (/>) 1. 2.000. 1. 6. 10.. 9. 12. 12.. B $4700. 126. 19 4. Page 1. 8. $40. A Bl 7. 256. 30. 18. 16. 10. 4. 14. 20. 3. 8. 115. 5. 3. 2. 4. 10. 2. 14. 3. 36. per sec. 3* 7. 27. $ 1 50 10. 20 \. Page 8. 16f 2. 3.  1. 192. 20 B. 26. 17. 7. 12.21 24. 9. 11. 3. 5. V 23. 6* 16. in. 18. 13 S. 20. 11. 18. . Ot 15. 7. 13. 16. 3 m.00000001. 11. 23. 22. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. . South America 46.000. 2  Page 8.  2 p. 14 11. 9. 12. 32. Not 5.000 negroes.. 7.
1..ft) 4. 31.. 1. 32. 35. 1. 3 a* + 2 at*. . 15. 4. Monomial. 3. 2. 25. 0* Page 3 w" 0. Page 18.000 . . 21.  3. 8. . ??i??. 0. 8.. (a) r>23ifcu. 22( 19. 18. 21. . 13. (ft) $40.  xV 3 y. 11. 0. 12 a. 3.r f 15. 19. 22.9?/2 8. 31. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. . . 5. c. 237. (<7) (a) 314 sq.. 10. 42.  11. 32 2 ftc. 14. 27. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 1. 18. w. _ 4 . 12. 12. in.  12. 26.<>Gq. \'\ 4. 5. 17. t. 2oVmf?i.r~ f 34. 16. 15. :J!>r'. 12yd. 23. (r) 2. 9. 39. :. . 17. 20(. 35. (r) 78. 20. 0. in. 8. 4. 24. (b) 135 mi. WIN + wiw. 5x+3. Page 21. 4<> 2 ?t Vc.. 6. Trino inial. 8. 25. 0. in. 12. . (c) S(i. 23.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 2.  1. 4 9/^/rl 2. 2. 11. 18. vi 14. (a 4 4. 3. 37. 9. 19. 3. 26. II. Page 23. 5. 17. 92. 21 a 3 4 10. a2 4 15^44. = ()501. 13.r 2 . ft. 0. 7 7. 16. 22. 29. 7. ]*. 49.4 ft. I. 4. 29.94(>. yyz+xyz*. 51 f. = 81. 12.3 * 10 r5 <3 . (a) 200.rty8. 15a. Page 31. 38.32 c2 > ft 3 .. #1111.. 9. 34. 13. 13. //'. Page 7. 0. 36. 4. (ft) 12.000 sq. 00 24 04 ft. 6. 30. mi. 16. 18. in. m + 3(a. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. ft. It. 10. 14. 8. ft f 19. 3rf 27. 7. 5. 13 cu. (a} 100 1(5 cm. +/2(/. 22. 7. 14. $80. 11. 14. 27. 25. + v> 2 . i:5. (ft) mi. m 24. 8. 33. 2. <i~ 26. 14. ft.. 1. 1. 41. $3000 Page 6. o^ft.14 sq. 0. 2x' 2 5 . r+l. 19.x. 3 . 1. Polynomial.. 22. 314 sq. 15. 1. 13. ft' 3 . 3. arty 1 20. + ft). 21^. 33. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). Pagel4r. ^).. 3. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 8. 24. 43w//2 17. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 7. ft n. 14. 0. r/ \(\xyz. 4 y/ . 5. 6. (r) 2000 m. 240. 173. 18. 32. ^. (r) 2G7. Binomial. 4. 34. 04. 50. 16.'JO ft. 27. 13. 15. 5.'J. sq. 20.GOG. (59.a . 16. (ft) 7. (c) 8.. 3. 30.4  2ft 2 33.900. a 32. 9. 14. 104. 5. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. + 5.6) 38. 28. 11. 4. . 17. 15.1. 6<t. 7. 9. (a) 50. 57. 31. ft.~4. 20. 38 ab. ft. rt. 27. 35. 12.5 (ft) sq.ft. jrif 4 9. 30. 2. 3.q 4. 0. Va'+Y2 8^2 .. 3(c4a). 27. 1. 17. 58. 28.5f> sq. r:A 29. f  5e 35. 3a.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 3. x^ 20. 28. a ft c. 12. 5. (ft) Page 2. 27. 21. 36.ab. 2ftx.  0.  40. (a) <> sq. Polynomial. 2. y.. 15. 8. 10. 14:).
22. ^ <. 3. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 6. 18. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 55.  23. &. \ :{ 2 a 48. 24. 43. 20. 3 m. (w4w)(ww). . 5x 2 rt ft. 7  a + 2 + c.h.Oa: + 10.a . ar. 20. 2 a f 6 414. 1 4. 8. r. 56. 2 4. . 11.1 . 36. 2x 4 a 13. 2// 16.1. a' 4ab + ?/. 4wipg>' 27.  b* 4 r 1 . 7. 7. . 59. c. 42. 25. 36. w 17. ti. 24. 3 a3 & 41. 1. .abc. ab a. 21.c. G a bd. 4r 2 . .5. 26. 15.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 19. ft Exercise 17. !  </ . 1 + 45. 0. 32 w 2 w. a 10w. a 4 + ft. 31. 25. 2 17.4 d. 10 m. Exercise 16. 3. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . . 20. 21. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. a2 9. ri\ 18. 7  # + 12.r 2. 10.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 2. ( 7. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 814. x3 .7. + 6. 2 3x f z. 2 . 34. 38. 21. 18. (5x47 3. 16. a4 4 4. 2. 28.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). ii\ 22. 14. . + a 2 f 2 a 4. 24 b 46. 5 2 Page 29. f ft 9. . c2 . Page 28.  14 afy . G.(7x2 Ox2). + c 4 d x + 6 e.6 x + 0) 16. . . M + 10. 19. . (2n' 43p 47 ). c. 12.  1. ?/. '  . . 4.x f 1 2 .3 6.  b. a  ISjfat. 5. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 14. 2. 2m + 2w. s_r>a5. 9. 5.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 4. Page 8. 17. . 4. 37. 8 + 2 a .8(c + a). 7. 13. j)(g1. 8 . 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 8 8 . 7.  a: 2. _5a<>&43c. a 3 . x  + 3z.ws 2 ft) . x a8 1. 40.l.2 . 2m. 1.a'2 .2 a. 1. 11. :5 41. 8 b. ?>4tl 53. 2 a 37.5 z?/ + 3 y .4. 4. 5. . 2 .  4 b 17 y*. 1. 51. 3. 2 + a4l). ' 12 m?/'2 27.'U4j>. ?/i 13.  12. 24.2 57. 6. n*. 2. 8. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 2 y' 4 . 32.3x 2 2 tf. 364c. Page 7.2 ft 2 r2 10. 12. a 3& . 26. 14. 50. . m*  n*. a). 10. a. 2. 29. 58. + 4 c. a 6 2 . 0. 14.4c 3 8 8 J. 2a. 2. a 52. 2 2 2 6. 35. lOrt 15w4. 15. 6. 1. 1. 33. + 8. a2 24. 7 a5 1 . w* ( .r. a  49. 25 47. a f 2 f 2 9. 2a: 2 4x.. 11. 4ft ~. 0.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 16.(2 x2 .2 a2 2m 2 4. 2 2. 19. 10 x. a + a. 30. 2 3. 5. 34 39.11. 3 Ji 8 .4x. a a. 22. 25. 2. t). 4. 4. 12.a*. _ Page 30. 2 6. 3 a . a 3a 4 2 &. 15. 17.aft. Page 44. 2.a f 54. 10. mn.  17.a~. (mn} 11. (yz~d}. 12. 2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 18.2. ?> 22. 13. f 2 ?/  2. 4 21. 8. 26. + 2y. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2. a + (ftc4df). 31. .. 6.
22. 6. 5aft(a 126 2). 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. . 1400. 3(*+0 + 2). 17. . 11.iv ANSWERS + &)(.19 + 2. 1. 3. 25 4 4. 5. 4 a8 . . + O4 66 . 4. 13.11 xyz . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 24.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 84. (+3)x6=+16. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . +15.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 15. a. 216. 2 + aft 4 ft 2.12. iSx8 . 30 n?b*c*. 28. . 37. 36. 2 ll9HH 2) + .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 2*8f x2 6x4. 25.. + 58 . + 7. 25. a + ft. 60. 8. 360. n (a6) 125. 0. 9. 3 a 2 46. 4200.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 216. 1. f 26. 14. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 76 8 a' 1 . ll 2 i. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 2 8 xy f 4 a. Page 7. 30. Page 35. 29. 23. 14f 5. 20.16 a 2 + 32 a . 7G . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.. 22. 28. 60. 27. 2 a2 (y 2 . 14. 18. . 102. 18. 3.28 p'^/. 28. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 2 w +2 2 . 27.32. 4. 2 ).21 a 3 c2 21. 17. 52 + 6s 12. 20.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .64 190 p6.000. 108. 3. 83 In + 1 n*. 14.19p" + 19^ 10 . 12 x2 2 . 120. 23. 2. 18. 2. 27.. 18. 27. Ox a 5 . 16. . 9. s 9 ww. 9 13. 23. m. 10. 33. 0. 1. 6 . ?/ . 4aWy.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 14. 343. 10. //. 6. . 16 lb. 24. ! 2. 1. 108. 23. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 29.2. 42. 2 ). 19.:>/ . 90.26. 12 ^. 30. ISartyW e*f*tj.14 w 2 2 . 32. ^^ = 20. 2 * 80 . 8. 8. 770. 20. 38 a*b 6 : 24.15. 7. 31. 25. 16. 6.14 . 3300. 16 51. 11. 33.6 2 . . 2 . 29. 17. 18> ^* = a . 30. 04.21.25 + 14. 30. 161b. 1. etc.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 6. +. 29. 15 lb. 26. 7. 161b. a. 1904. 30.(3x2_4^+7). 26. 34. 21. Page 38. 35. 13. 2. 12. 21 a'&c. .6) =a2 31. 14 m 2 . 15. 34.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 4. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 21. 4.36 35.7(50. 3 a 3 . a 8 . a.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 10. 15 q\ 6. 1. 22. Page 3. 22. 6".>(/ r . 32. 16. 20 aW. 127"'. 4 a2 . 1. 12. 33. ?> 4 . 42. 13.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 8 . 18. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18a% y. 24. 2. 31.18 w w + 10 WI M . . 8. 210. 21. 4. 30. 24. 15.44 aWc 16 abxy. 27. 3. 17. 28. 4. 8.16 x2/ 5 4.12. Page 5. 30 j9 jt?g j . 10.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.r% 2 2 ry. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 34. 4 jcy*z*>. 38wiw.8 12.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . ci 5 . . a: . 20. 5. 15. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 11. 9. 7. 66 39 k* . 2''. 64. a*b*c. 4 fc. 13. 16. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 13. . 2 2 2 . 19. 25.1. 19. 7. 15. 11.20 xyz . 2 7t A. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 12. 20. 40 r 2 . Page 36. x2 xy42^.32 y s s G . . 19. 18. 66 8W 34.. 16. 4 7> 4 :j !} . fa 2. . 24.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. ft 17. 20.
41.020.4 12.4 a&+ 4 &*. 30 x + 19 x3 . 998.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 38. fo*. + 4 a +4.606. 4 + 25 q*. x 48. a 2 . 36. 35. 2 fr .49. +4 34. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 10 a 4 ?. ?/H)0. 2 12. 1. 4 . 6 2 + 6lf>0. 18. 990.5 ~ 81. 7. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.r . a' . ^V^4 .001.2 y*.2. 6. 37. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 24. a + 56. 4.000. 2 +10s281. 37. p4 + . 7. + 4 t*. 51. (m + 6)(m3). 26.ri 17. 3wi2 m Page 42. 4x21. 1. 10.10 35. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 33.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . .020. x 4 ?/4 + ab .008. 40. a + 25. . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. . 32.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 166. 41. 10. 12 x2 . 1.6 x2 13.8. 27. 25. 57. x4 28. 25 25. a2 ' + 48Z100. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 1.15. 34. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.6 y4 10. 10. 10. 7. 3. p 2 .^ + a? + 1. +  m' 1. 9999. 2 j3 Z . 30.1.54 p 2 + 81. 484. 21 2 . 4 x2 13. 2 a 2 + a . 34. 30 /><. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 9.996. 2). (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 1. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 36 a 4 . 26. a + 25. 2. 7> . 2 1: 21. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 2 4 2 2 64 .810. 2 6' . 8.009. 4 . ab. 441. 1). (n 2 5.4 n. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 5. + 10 + 121 y*. (a + 4) (a + 2).. 36. +   5).35 ab 9. 55. 9 4 /> . ) 4' 6/ 49. 8 a W . 10 a' 2 .ab .00 + 37. 10. 17. + 3)(3). 24 ab + 9 & 2 . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 39.. 35. a4 4 ?/ . Page 39. x* . 32. ~ 6 20 .m 30 6 4 1.6. . 19. 31. 7 . 2 (5 a 3). n2 a4 6. 14. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). Page 12.004. 11. 3. 8 38. s rc 47. 2 0)(p + 5). 2 ./ .098. 10. r. (w+4)(m4). a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 9801.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 28. 14. w'n 2 //^ + 25. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 24.^. 2 a' y' . ^/> 8 4 .404. 10.2 x + 2 x. (w4)(w + l). x 2 f xy + 9 41. 39. .25. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. ' 46. 14. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 42. m 3 j) 3 . 4. 10. 2 4 a + 4. 44. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. V + o ft . I/). 15.r* 2 30. 10. 9990. 2 .201. + 12. ft' 11. 2 62 V2 132. 9. 15. ab . 20a 2 21a + 4.16 a3 f 50.x2y22. Om2 4 6m 6. . . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.14 jp + 49. a3 0. . (a (3 54. 11. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 2. x*2^f I. 10.500. 33.6 xy .r . G a6 2. . + 2 9. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.^V"' .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.994.3. 40. x2 GiC+5. . 29. 40. m 2 . 25 a 2 6 2 . 8)(?i (x2)(x3).ANSWERS 28. 8. 4 21. 4 2 //. 10. 16. . 33. 999. .009. 53. 23.10 x + 25. ^' J  7 f 12. 27. 4.2 6 + 13. 36.84 a' 9.p132. 5.000. 1. 6. (p 2. . y. 19. . lflrt 2 8 + l. .712. . n + 2. 31. 31.20. 45. 8. 56. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 52. 29.
5. 24. . 5. 5 a  (5 ft.24 .2 2 2 8 . 8. 6.1.25. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .5 mp. 4. ft 17. 17.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18.5 n*.25 c . Osy. 2 a 3 ft. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2 4 3 9. aftc 52.1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. as _ 10 16. 16. Page 7. 3 a. 4 d 2 4. . *3 y 4 . m'2 3. 19. 14. 2 . + 3. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .r' ~ 16. 8. r 7. 14. 5.23. 3. r ft. 8.r ?/ ??i ?). . 2. i 2 tji. Page 48. 6x 3. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 8 ?/ .9 4. 2.y3. 5. 4 ac. . /r . 11 4.  3 c. + x?/ 2 1.1. yfl. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . ft ? ft' ft ft. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 2 4 2 x 4. f>r* 4.3 a 41. '. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 2. 2 4. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. Exercise 2 a:// 26.10 xy*. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 17. Page 13. a 2 . a 4 4 ft. j) . 1. 4x43?/.rw f 8 . 1. 5^418(7. w 2 .21 2 2 f + . 26. 9. 13.r?/. 6. 14.6 :rs 4. 7. 4xy + 13 <) . . i 9. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.2 1 //. 8 ?/ . . 13. y 7.r" 20 S? . 75 a 2 29. 4 pq.3 ry. 2 12. 21. 12. 4. 6.34. 2 ? 14 . 1/*. abc 7.4. . ?/2.2 wZ 4. 9.2 ar. :r !>. 4. 10. a 10.000. 3.29.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 2 . z. 2 ?/ 4. 11.8 yn . 1. aft. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. . 3 aft 20. 135. . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np.VI ANSWERS 43. 8.15 21. 5. 2 ?/' . 9.r . x 2 + 2r f J.9 d. 2. 9.x^. 12. x4. 1.  11. . 46.  . 6. Page 51. 20 15. 47. 7 r .3^V. . 8. 4. 4 a 2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.r'^ 15. 14 r 2 .2 .r?/ j/. 5. + 4. 18.15.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .1. . 44. // 19. 2 2 + 2 a. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 3. . 2. 23. ti'jry1 7. 3*y2 w + 1. 4. 1. 13. 10. 50. 4 c m . 12. 15. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. r/2 4. 2. Page 11. +w . 1. Exercise 27. 21.w. 13. 5. 4 a* 4 9 11.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .lit x + 4. 22.1.5 a . a. 8. 16. c3. 13. 10 ft. 3.2 .+ 77 15. sr 11.3 3. 125.  12 y 25. 8 x5 ? + 4 1.3 x 2 2 4. 6. aft 12./ 4. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 4 x. _ 2 a . 4. . c 12.2 <</. 9.2 ftc . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 3.2 ac . ??. Page 22. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.2 2 . 5. 12.  5 z* . 14.1.8. r//. 4ft. a 8 4. 1. 18.27 x 2 4.1*5 2 r 2 . 2 1. w . 20. 16. 8 x .30 ftc.> 10. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. . 01. 13.1. x 4.10 2 + z 2 410. .2. 1000 1000 . G.8 y. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.n. 5 4 a Oft. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.rw. ft* ft / . 11. 49.12 aft 4 20 ac . ft. 4. 4. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .7. 10. m L 4. 5. 12. 3. 7a3ft.3 5. 17. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 19.  10.2 . l 4 .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .8. 14.2 aft 4. 15.
5. '^ . d. 26. 15. + 4x 3y 34. (a) ' 12. rn mi.r ct. 5.r1. 31.000. ft. x y $ 6 yr. 7. m +~m 3. 7x 2 Page 21. .100. 7. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 36. 2=10. ct. (d) 2a + 10 = n. X 60. "mi. 4. 13. . 17. lOx 10 + w. 4. + 3x + 2y + 32. # + 20yr. 20. fix. 5.p+7. Page 40. 10. 2. 'nj 100 a 28. 7. 10. n M. 15. 12. 16. 4. 38. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 25. I. a 10. x 48. 3x  1700) = 12. sq. 1&. 2. y ?>i x + 26. 50= L 100 15.  2\. 0. 2. d + !. 11. 47. 100 14. r tx mi. 8. a 8. ( a f 4. }f. 2. y 50. 9. 22. 14. lO. 4^ = 100. x = m. 4. 00. 37. 40. 4(a ft) c = 8. 25.10) 100. (</) 2a. l.(3x+ = rraxlO. 12. 18. 5. 8 n  10 yr. Page 31.rr2. 41.  />) a = all. xy ft.  9 = 17 a. 10 x sq. </ 20. . y 100 a 24. 3. 39. ? 43. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 9. 11. 44. 30. 10 a. 42.7).  6 10. (2 a. 10.ANSWERS Page 9. 33. 100 2. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 29. 3x2. m+ 11. f (I..x700. 8. 11. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 1. = 5 ?i x 460. y yr. 46. 16. 30. 60 25 1. . 36. 24. 58. 33. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 16. x + 1=a. 23. 7. 10 yr. 5. 2b 22. 2. 29. 17. 4 f 39.. 13. 1.200) f(^ + (e) 200. / + y + a// 12 yr.6 = *. ct.(3x  700) = 5. . ft. % 4. 19. b. y 2z p= 3 (a c. f 6)(o 62. 5. 4. 2 ct.. " lir. 2b. 100 d ct. 28. 6. <>. 6. 43. 10 >_&. x 49.. 21 2. f = eZ 2 x. 22. 6. Jj12. 27. ^ 12 sq. 13. 7. 18. 1. s. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 10. 3. 6. . 57. x. (c) 2x. 44. 23. x 2y 10 act. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 32.ab a. 38. 0. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 2. ] 2 ri 42. 100= ^. 20. + 10 b + c ct. 37. Page 61. iL*. (>. 19. 41. 3 9. I. r>?imi. + 3 = 2(3* . !). Page 13. 7. v (6) 2x. ct. 45. 17. 800 = x + 1300. 6. vil 56. 20. 34. 14.  1$. ft. 7. 1. Page 6. 2x + 35. . (> 27. b. 1. 59. 35. + f + b 2. 3.
000 Berlin. 20 yr. (a + 6) (a + 3).5p + 7 g ). 1. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 12. 11 pV (2 p8 . 2$. .30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 8.. 200.  PageSO. (a5)(a4).000 ft. w (/) 64. 68. 9. 1 lb. 11. 15.000.. 30 mi. 3. 6. 52. 10.2. 7. (c) ^ v ' . 18. 14. 10. .8. 1. 6.000 copper. 200. 1.. 28yr. (yll)(y4). 5. 8. 11 in. 10 yd. 45 in. 29. 8. 9. 67. 75. (y 13. 2. = _?_(2ar + 1). (*4)( + 11. 55. (e) i* + A.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 1. 21.2). 15.000 Phil. Page Page 4. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 17z8 (l3z + 2x').. (6) (6 a 30) =20. ( + 4)(*2). Pace 65. 14.10. 2 2 2 5. Page Page 4. 8. 23.79. 11. 250. 5. 13. 10 yr.000. 12. 10 yr. 14. 480. (a 4) (a. 7. 10. 78. 1200. 1.. 1. 8.000. 3.. 5. 100 1. 2. 9. 30. Page 5. 10. 10. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 9. 4. 15 mi. 14. (m + n)(a + 6). 82 mi. 12. 18. 25. 15. 6. 300. 1250. 20 yr. 10. 8 2 19. $40. 3. 72. 1.000 gold.. 14. Page 7.. Ib. 6rt 2 11. 50. 20.y"). 74. 10 Mass. 8 12.000 ft. 1313. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.11. 25. ^ . 6.7.. 2 3 6 7. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 4. 17.16. ~=90. 90. 100. 16. 8. ?(g ? g+ 1). (ro3)(w2). 13. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.. 1200. 160 lb.5. 30.000 pig iron. 78. 7a*fe(2a & l).13. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 5 lb.. a a (a 8 a+l). 4. 11. 6.3aftc + 4).3. Oaj(o62cd).0. 7 hr. 13. 12.(5z .000. 3 (a +&)(*. Y. 11 w(w' + wi . (z5)(z2). 2. 2.5. 180. 2. 5$ hr. 24J. 15.. 3. 6. (a + 5)(a + 6). 9 in. 85 ft. 70.. 600. 25 yr. 7. 5pt. 15. 2 2 ?/ 21. 18. 11. 8 in. 22. 13. 150.0. 15 in. Page Page 480 12. (p + 7)(3a5&). (y7)(y + 2). 7. 12 mi.000 N.22. Page 7. 7. 80 A. 2. 6. 05. 3 hr. 5. 7.6). + 7)(y3). 6. 2). 20. 8.000. 20. 4. 42yr. (y8)(y + 2). 40 yr. 19.. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.21. 3. 90 mi. a 12. 9. 12. 8. 4. 2.000. (y + 8)(y2). 4. 3x (3r. 10 Cal. 30 yr. 5 Col. 9. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10. (a + 4)(a + 8). 17. 12. Page 79. 15 yd. 5.411. 13.1).. 3. by 12 yd. 71.3).3.210^.000. 9. . 4pt.24. . '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 3. 14. 20 yd. 70^..
21. 100 (a. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.2). 30. 10. 25. Yes. (m + n + 4p)(w + . . 11. 1. 10(a . (6n + l)(+2). 30. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (a 3 + 10)(a. (2yl)(y + 9). 40 x. .5y)(3a. 23. 21. 5. (w ~ n (x . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). a*(5a f l)(flr . 10(a + ft)(aft). 15. ( 2 4 19. (w + 20)(w + 5).11 ft)(a6). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). y) (a. (* + y)(zy). (m7n) (a. No. 17.1). 9. (:52y)(2a!3y). 24 9. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 33.2 by2 6. 17. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 10(2 30. . 16.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 7. 14. 10(3 5 6) 2 . + 3)(c44).* (2 y + 3)(y. 22. (3*2)(. 7 6) (a 10 6). 2 2 15. + 2y). 2 No 4.4p).7)(2z f 1). (a + 8)(a3). . x\x 24. 31. 24. 8) (a. 2. . 9. (15z2y)(x5y). + 5) a. Yes.c 2 ). 31. 3a.1). 5. 27. 4. (4y3)(3y + 2). 2 17. 9. (4a. 3)(3a. 29. 15. 9.9*). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 16. . (15a + 46*)(16a46). Page 82. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 14. 12. No. Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll). 27. 20.11 6) (a 4. 33. 3(x + 2)(zl). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). y(x. 19.3).ANSWERS 16. . . 3. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). + 0(90 Page 85. (0 + 6)(66).6) 2 1. 103x97. 12. 100(x. (2 *+!)(* 9). 3. (az + 9)(ox2). + 9^)(oxy . 26. 26. (3#y)(+4y). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 22. 23. (a. x(x +y)(x y). Yes. 32. (9y4)(y + 4). Oa 2 (a2)(al). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 19.7) (a. (<7 20. (5wl)(m5). 10.. 27. 26. 24. (a2 + 10) (a2 2).+4 y)(3x4 y). (2w+l)(ro + 3). Yes. 35. (a a: 19. (y + 4)(yl). (5x . 28. f 2). (g .2). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 21.  x (5 a.4. 36. 10. . (3a. 22. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (2xl)(x + f>). 18. 20. 29. . 9. 21. + 3).1). 216 aft. + y + . 17. (x + y4 )(x . 10 a 2 (4 . (m + w) 2 5. (6 a.1). 8. 2). 18. 25. No. a(2u. 12.2 ft). 6. 22. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 26. (15ay2) 2 . 20. Yes. 4 (a . Yes. 23.3)(z2). (10a + ft)(10aft). 3. 34. 11. 7. (13a +10)(13a 10). (a 6 6) (a 4.6) 2 2 . (w* (3a26). No. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). Yes. 35. ix 18.   . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 25. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). Yes. 2. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (y8) 2 2 . 7. + 4) (a. 10.r2). 13x7. Yes. 32. y) 2 29. . 2.y4 ). (2 a? 4. Page 83. 16. 14. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (4 13. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 34. Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). 13. 23. 28. Page 84. 24. 8. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). + 8)(g3). (2o + l)(2l).2 y).8). (5a +l)(5a l). 1. a . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. 11. . . (4 18. 28.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 25.y) 2 aft. 1. Yes.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 2 3 by2 Yes. 4. (ay8)(ay3). (4al)(a2).4 6). (5 a 2) (2 a 3). No. a. 8. 6.
7. 8. 2. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 8. 14. (^ + ?>_8). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 16. (x//. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 11. r x 2 */3 . 2 a 2 13x 3 y.3. 10. (w * . . 2.'/)('< 4. 12.36). 8. (w4w) 2 1.  WIM.4).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (7/1 2) (m 41).!) (x42)(x2). 5. (a &4. (a 4. x  1).n). 4.0+ 12).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). ( rt 23.y). 1(V/ 88. a8 .3)(x 4. b) (r 4. 4. l. a + a b. 6. 2 + . 4).8). 28.r(3x' 2 4 (14. ( (<> r4y3 . (2x7)(x 2 2). 27.?>) H. ( { &). 5  (2 2 . 13.?/). Page 90. 2 8(w .8) n 43*).42 x 4.'J)(' . 4. 6. 9. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 11. 7. fi(c426). (a />.2 y). 19.?50)(xt/z.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 13.&). (14. Page 92. 2 2 10.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.y '2 2). 40. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .^ 48. 4 3. ^ . 14. Page 12. 8x. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 4. (5 31.1). 5 x8 3. 4 a8 .&). x(x f y)(jr .7s) (2 a.4. 17(x43//)(x2y). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. x43. 8.  29. 8. 38. 7. (* _ 2 )(a 4. . 450. 4  9. ah}. 14. 13( 33. Exercise 46.5 m2 x2. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). Page 87. ( a ^)(^3.2). 39. 9. ( y). y )(. 3(. ?>).y)(fi a . 13 x 8 2 . (f> + fo 7. 7. 42a 3 x. 5. + 3. 32.'})(c . 11. 17. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . a (a + 2 6). + 2 //).e 4. 15. 16.2). 15 M.4. 4 a s &8 . a 41. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 20.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 41. 11. 8. 30. Page 89.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 4. 14. (m  I)' 6. a 4. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). (^ 7. 2 k (wi 4.  (w' 4. 22. y6. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 3 x4 . 5. 2 1. 3.l)( a 25. (r420(4 10. (c.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 21.y. a x 3 10. 35. Exercise 47. 12. 1. (5 26. 2 y) ^ .9). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (16 4  2(5 n .4). 2. x . 4 6.7)(^ {I 12. 4. 10(2 (3 4. (5^4. 4. a 4.. 2 2 3 . 2. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 37. 6. n  r)(5a 10. 4. .3. 18.2)(x 1.b. 7. y). 7. 2. (!__/>).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. (5a+l)(9a). ?i(w 4y) . 42). ofc)( fid). 13. . Page 86. 8). 6 f c). (a 9.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 5. Gp). 24. a 2 (a9). 2(m4l)' . 6. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.8) ( (16. 6. 3x(x?/) 4. 2 (a 4. y(2x?/). (x. . (> 1. 6. .i4l)(x4l)(x~l).1) 3. 24x sy s 9.1). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. x 4. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 15. 36.) j).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 10(8x' 4l) 4. 12. (. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 8.X 5.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 2 .
x 22. 6a2&(rt6). x 12. ?_!&. + &)(&) ( . +8b a 4 3 / ^.6).ANSWERS 10. 13. a 10 25. + &) 2 ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. a 23. 2(2al) + l). +5 1.  1). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . b ! 21. // m+1 !+*?. (a2)(a + 2)2. 1). 11. + y) (a: y). 18. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.
3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 30. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. 4 L 8 2 . Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 4. ^~ 29. + lH + .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. a 5.50 ~ 1/2 . 26. 6a5f^. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 4c 10. 1. i^. ' 2 7. c 8. 7. . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + 2H 1 ^. i. _*^p5_^^_. 6. A^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 11. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.  **/* + 84 _. 2 a. Page 100. xy 43.. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 28. 6. w1 + ac w 4 7. 0.
38. . I) 2 3z 1. 6. 2ft a i m x. J. 5. 1. 4. 17. 9. 12 28. 8. 5 be _J_. 3. 4. 8j_m 7 3. 6. f 7. 6. ! 4 20. 6. 27. 25. j L .L+ft. 3. J. 4. 12. 32. 6 .  V o 4. b a f +c 14. pf n 6 1. 31. 11. 43. 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. Page 110. 4. 2) 19. n . (a + y) 2 Page 104. c 8. 45. 10. a2 2. a. 5. 19. 7. 14. x 05m ' 5. 6. an 18. 3. 5. ft. 2 47. . 7. 11. . 15. n 16. m 9. Of. 3. 11. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 8. 17. 0. 4. J. .^U\WF### X<6. f Page 107. y(x + x ?/). 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 39. 21. 1. 1. a 17. 1. 4. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 7.  10 X + u. ?+_!?>. A. flf. 29. 9. 1. Page 113. 16. (>. 9. 26. 15. 1. ^i 11. 41. + f. 3. 14. b 2. 15. 3 7 i o.ft . 34. 13. Page 106. w^x 2 b Page 105. 21. n m a + 13. (y + (z 12. ?. 11. 16. 14. ac mp lf> n 12. +3 ( + 15.^_. 4. ^_. 4a3ft. 18. 1. 24. 30. 20. 1. x\. 42. 46. x 1. 11. Page 111. 44. 1. 7. 21. 33. 35. 0. 5. 10. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo.y 7. 12. ' 6. 36. 37. 40. 23. 3.
40 mi. [>> ^ a . 7T 2 Page 116.. 55 mi. #V ~~ 34. 14. . f. n 32. J ^'. 1 da.000. 300. .. 6. 12. ~m . 11. IV s. 8.} da. after 20. 0. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 9ft. (ft) 28. after $12. 13. 20.. 7. Page 124. 75 . 13. 8.000. 10. 81. 8. 32. .. f . 19. min. 13. ./hr.. ft. 3. 5. 5 2. 2x:3y. 21ft min. silver. 8301 hr. 17. 15. Page 121. 19. 5. 12. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . () 2. 10. 16.138. 4. Yes. 20. _JL. '"I 22. w 18. 9. 16. 7 .  29. 4. after 18.15. 212.000. min.10. 300. 10^ oz. 15. 10. 7. w 21. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 10. (a) 12 hr. 20. 10. 7. Yes. Page 117. Yes. 10. (ft) 104. 26 30. nm. . (ft) (r) 8 hr. 8.  + . 16. 21. 1:1=1:1. 10. 5. 40wn. 14. 3. 4fl M_. 30 mi. 14.9. 2. * 7:9. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .2. (a) 30. 7} 18. 5 25. ^m . 17. 12. 9. 33.002. 2 20. 1: ~. 7. Page 125. 1^'. 1:1 = 1:1. 15. No. 36. 7. 3. xy. 2. . 23< &n b ' . 11. 1. 1.. 500.XIV '/ . 26. 38ft min. dn ~ mi. 9. 30 yrs.004. 19.2. 9$. (ft) 5 hr. $0. 33. 10. Yes. 6.0 & . $40. 1:1 = 1:1.11. 18. 4~r~ n . 5ft 30mi. 9. 3. (r) 3^ da. Yes.003. ^p^ r ~ 7. 2:1. 1. 11 hrs. 28. 74. Page 118.137. 19. 35. 1:4. 34. Yes. $30. (d) 500. 17.001. 1 : 12. 21. 10 yrs. 3:2. . 4. " 0. 1. 14. 4...000 If da. (ft) 5 da. 18./hr. 1:1 = 1:1. 27.0. 7. J. 1:3. 3. 15. $00. P+ ^ 33. 24.000 1 = 23. a 4 ft.x + y. 300. (a) 4 min. w 44. (c) 8300. 3. (d) 4 da. 15. 15. (a) 25. Yes.. Page 119. $45. 15. Yes. 30. 6. 4. 24. 275:108. :2. (c) 2 hr. 26 mi. 10. 24 mi. 22. ^?i min. 00. 17. 30ft. No. 13.. jj.000.  C . ANSWERS 16. 8. 5. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 11.139. 31. gold. 9J oz. = A's. 3 da. 40 yrs. 18.
1. 2. 8. : : . 25.  28. 8.) 31. = 7 b'.7. 8. 30. 14. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 2.x a. 1 rt * vm^1. 4. ft. 19 3 . Page 9. . 5. 3./':</ c a f :y=2:9.a.9. OJ.7. 7. 138. 15.1. 40.15 x.15.5. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2.4.5. 2. 4. 9. 1. 1.6. 15. 3. 13. 20.ANSWERS 22. 13.4. 2.1.2 oz. 4. 7.3. 1. 19. + b 7 . 12. 20 cu. I. 32j. 43. 3 2=3 x. 24. 29. 8. (</) ft. .5. . 19 OJ.5. 9. 3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 2 n . a~. 2. a 3. 7. 11 w a 13.  19. ig 6. s<i. () 7 Page 126. 41. 35.12. Page 132. w 8. 2.1. . 18. 5. 9. 1. : : T 1' : /> : . 4. 12. 3. 31J. Inversely. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 39.2 x. 5:0 = 10:12.3. 4.3. 21. 3. 2. 20 20 J ^. x y y . 1. 41. water. 10.]. 2. 40. 2.46. 7. a +b 1. /. 7^. tin. lo mi. 5 2. cu. b x 37. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .000 sq. () Directly. 7.2. 1. 1. 23. 7. 25. 9. : XV 27. ini. . 7. Page 136. 50.20. 3. (a) Directly. 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x. ~ 1. 4. 16. 48.3. 9. 2. 22. 24 1 (e) Directly. 13J. 11. 5. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. . t 5. 5. 12. 15> 9.C ?/ a . 141. . 26.. 57. l.1. 200 mi. 2. 13. : 23. 4. 1. 22. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.4. 20. 8.5. Page 134.840. 9  15. 4. w.5. 4. in n.5. 31. 4. + W. land.36.4. 2. 6. 56."2:1. Page 137. 3. 7. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 9. 52. . 3.3. 2. 6. 3. 17. 2. "lO. 53. 2. J. 14. 9. Page 135. 945 11 10 . 58. 32+ mi. \\. 3. 11 5 . mi.57. 5. 11.12. 47. . : . y a y = 7 0. 5. 6. 4. 8. 7." ^ 2.4. 6. 21. 7. 16. 16.160.3. 10. copper. y . 3. 7. 38. 6. 36. 19. 7. 55. 5. 23. 28. 10. 6*. 4.2. 5. 14. 11. 3. 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 45. \. 30. 2.3. 5. 8. Of.^ 0?j ' gms. 4. : />. 2.li. 7. 2. $. i.*. 13. . 3. J. in.000 sq. 26. 24. 59.5. y :y =. 44. 9. 7. 54. 1. .3.2. 49. 7. Page 5. y 1. 5. 6 10 = 12. 174+ Page 128..r. 25. mi. OJ.  ?. 27. J. 5:3 = 4: x. 2. 19. x +y x + 74 7 \. 3  24.8 oz.3. 4. 11. 2. Page 133. 17.5. 3}. 2.22.3. Page 131. 11. J pq. 2. ' 55. 4. 36. . 46. x 42.17. (I.2. 5.1. 7.. 12. 3. x:y a: b.J 3. 2. 127. jc:y = n:m. . *.3. 1(5. (b) Inversely. 1 18 = 3 51. 14. 17.J. . 10. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.' : : : : <>.
6. On 11. 6. 24.l. 4. ' 6 3 a. 2. 4. m + n p. $6500at3Ji%. 3. 12. A a parallel to the x axis. 0.1. 20. 4. 9. 20. 0. Nov. 10. 5. 25. Page 143. . 1.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 3.. $250.4. 6. 1. June. 26. 2. 3. 18. 3. 11. 6%. July. (ft) 20. . at 15. = ^ a Page 141. 9. yrs. 100. A's 30 18. 6. ' . 18. 11.9. a. 5%. 10. 4. 11. 5. B's 15 yrs. (<f) 13. 2. 17. 1.$2000. 3.XVI Fagel39. 21. 11. 10^ gms. 7. 31. <*ft/ bd 1. 12. 6. 15. 4. M 2. Jan. 15. 1. 4. 7. 30. Page 142. 13.  11. 20. 5. 5. 12. 14. 3. 13. . 19 gms. Page 151. 16. 0. be 10. 1. 10. 1. ad _(?jrJL. 4. 2. 3. 3. . 11. 3. 24. (ft) 23 J. 20. 20 & Oct. 2 horses. 14. 3./hr.2. July 20. 4. 8. 3). 2. . 147. 7. m . 7.. 9. 1. m f 9. 2. 16 to July 20. 72. 2. 6. 4. 6. 1. 4. parallel to the x axis 0. 1. 5. (a) Apr. 23. About 12f.2. 15. $900 5%. $ 1000. 1. 17. 4. 23. 24.7. 4. 3. 5. 27. 423. 23f . (a) 12. 25.$5000. Apr. . 2t2. 20 to Oct.65. 3. 1 (d) Apr. 2. 40. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 3. 6. 3.0. 1 (c) Jan. SL=J o ft r^2. Page 153. 16. . 1. 4. 11. 5.4.. Nov. On the y axis. 2. 12. 2.1. 2 a. 2. 16. 12. 3. 10. 19. The ordinate. On the x axis. Page 152. 2. Page 145. 8.10. 18.3. 2. 16. 20.4. 28. 22.3. .^. 2. 7. 25. 8. Jan.8. 6 cows. 13. Page 22. 9. May 5. & part of Feb. 7. . 19. 10. 3. 21. Nov. 14. & May. C's 30 yrs. 29. . $500. 30. . 32.n + p. Apr. m f 8. A's 50 13. 2. 9. Page 146. B's 40 yrs. Feb.. 5. 4 mi. ad AzA. yrs. Jan.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 5. $4000. 16. 7. &. Page 149.. July. . Nov.33. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 25. 2. Jan. 3. 2. 7.  17. 90. 3. be 7. Jan. Apr. 3. 26.3. $3000. 24. Aug.0. 3. & part of Sept. 7. through point (0. (5. 5. 17. 18. ft 3. 2. Oct. 4 ' q. 30. ^. 4. 8. C's 10 yrs. 10 sheep. u 2ft. J. a =J (n  1) rf. 1. 00. 40. (c) . 16.. 4.1J. 9. 7. .
1. 15. 20.3. 4. . (e) 3. () (rt) 3. 1.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 3. + a 4 ft* . 1.75.41 and . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (/) 3. . 3.  1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. f12 wi 9. (a) 5. 2ft4 Page 168. 3. 10.73 ami . Indeterminate. 3. 10.  . 24.73. 8mW. 27 27 81. f 10. 2 l.73. (c) 14 F. 17. 26. 1. ImW. 9. 125a 28. 20. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.5 (ft) 3. . 15. 1.27..AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 4.75 (ci) 3^. . 5. 3. ft .  1. 4. 2. . . 3. 8 1 f f g*.59. 21. 2. 4. . 30.5. (a) 12. 9 and Page 166. 2. .5. (/) 3. . 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. (c) 2. 13. (a) 4. 1.1. 125 a 8 12. 6. Page 164. (a) 2.34F.25. 2. 11. 15 . 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 1. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. Inconsistent. Page 158. 1. .64. 5. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. Indeterminate. 1 23. ft 2 4. . a 29. 125 16. G. 32F. 1. H.83. 9. 8. 83.6.1. 3 . 1. 4. . f. 4wn8 + n4 5. 1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1.25.. 0.75. 13C. 4 ) 21.. 3. 2.79.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 27. 1 4. 28. 13. 2. a 10 ' a ll V&. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .79. 22. 5. 1. 7. 3. (e) 2. jgiooyiio 17.24. 2. (ft) 2. . . 16. 2. 3. _ 9 x ^27 1 .  12 ft xW  26 31. 5.25.2 (ft)  1.4. +3 4.24 . 1. (gr) 21. 1. 4. 6. 1. 11.25. 2 2 22. . H. 14. .73.. (<?) 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 81 ". 3. 2. 5. 3. 2. 2. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. m. \ft) 5.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 4.75. 3. 24. * 16. (ft) (d) 2. 18. 5." 23. 2 a&m Page 167. 14. 3. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 8 a1. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.13. 0C. . 13. a + ft. Page 163. 1. 2. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 2. 11. 13 . 22. f. xW. 15. Page 159.25. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 3. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 1^. . 8. 5. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4}.24. 3. 25. 18C. 3. .41 and 23.84. . 14. . Inconsistent. SlstyW 7. 14. 10. .67. . 12.83. (ft) and (d) 2. 10 C. 2. 8. 19. 12. 30. xg .64. xy. 27 19. 3. .59 .7. (c) 7. 2. 2. 1. 1. . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. ' :=_!. 3. 2.3. 5 and 2. 19.
14. 7. (ab + c). 16 6 w . 3M. Page 171. 3 6 23. +3 + 5 4. 2 2 7. 9. + y). 11. ).83. 1. + Z). 14. 1 1 ?>). 5 5 8. 4. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. GOO 2 c 2 . . 18. 6. 26. (ly). (3a. 9. 84. 15. . 7. 3 2 ^.94. +35. 35. . 9. 1247. 17. (1 (x2y). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 64. 20. 19. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. + + ?V 22. 12.x ). 27. 8. . 16. 36. ?7i 1 1 3 1.a b 22. 17. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a).XV111 7. 9. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 0. (4a2 9& 2 13.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 5. 72. 1. . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 763. 2 49 . +(^ 2 3^ + 2). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. Page 172. 21. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 30. 4. 119. + (win . 10*. 2 4 8 2 . 6 (\x 3. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. + l).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 9. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 978. . (x + y\ 90. (x' l). 2. 32. 5. 98. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 12. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 57. 40. 8 /. 1. 00. 70. 14. fe *?>' ?> fi . 180 . ( Page 174. /> 4 ). 12. 2. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 2 4. 3. (48 + 6. 16. c 10 6 :l 20. 20. 2. ? . a 2 . ? : 1 .5. 10.  +X '. 2. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 6. 22. 18. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 15. 11. 13. Zll. 76. AN S WE no . + 29. 2038.GO a c + 23. 247. 3. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 3. 2 12. 25. 5. (a 2. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 1. 24. 30. a: l . (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).5). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 15. . 6. 21. 71. Page 170.y2 ). 2. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . a. 13.7 /)). wi 8 + 3m 2 . + i)). . 10. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 6.10 a~ + 5 a . 5. (2 a + ft). m 13. 20. (Gx + (i + 2a. (a + 2 +l). . 90. 6. 33. 34. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 8. 17.037. ^i. 5. 7. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 11. 309. 9. 10 x G a 4 . 15.2). a.3 ab + 2 2 ). 16. 420. 90. 25 19.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. r> 4 : 1 . 300. 11. I 8x2).f 1 m 9 16. 4. 31. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 20. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 237. 23. . ??i ?i . 14. Page 176.i c 6 15. rt .+3^ + 4.r 2 + 6jt).  x. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 .^). 19. a ). w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.6. 8. (l + x + . 99.1. 18. 3 2 8 3 12. 101. 4. (a + y+l). 28. 8. 3. 8. 10.1.
ANS WERS 22. 6. 23. Page 180. 31. f f V. 48. i.916 yds. Page 179. 6. {. 10. 7. 7}.  1. 3. 16n. 28. 4 a. or 5. .4. (afl).i. 21 28 ft. 13. 3J.. 4. . 17. 1.  14. 1. 9. V J l. 2 sec. ^^7m. 44. ^. V17. 4. l~8. vV'TA 24. 5. 12. () 2.4. 3. 20. 12. * 1. 5. 15. 6V21. 17. 6V'2J. 6yds. 1. 8. " ^_ 22. 2. 10..5. 17. If ^. 7. 9. 7. 5. 2. 14. 1. 6J.60. Page 181. Page 185. 4. 7563. 39. 37. 13. 13. f. 3. m. 6. 6. 9. 3. 3. 29. 9. 7. Page 184. 22.  f. 9. 11. 27.. 2. 5f. Page 177. 30. f. 3. ft. Af^. 34. 40. 10. 15. 1 f Vl3.1. 8. . 34. 4. 13. 8.6. . 1 38. 7 45. 21yds. 2. 2. f . 6 f !. 15 1 10. 2.522 38. f ^ is. 6. 10. 5. 7. or 3.  5. a. 23. 270 sq.  f. > w ft.?. 12. 4. 36. _ iVaft.. 3. .. . 4. w. 14. 5083. 6. 4. i ^. 42. 5. m. 50. 10. 37.005. 39 in. 36. V35 1.6. }. 5. ZLlAiK 19.742 in. ft. 40. 11. 2. 5.. 2. 21 in. 16.5. 7. 7. 4. 2. 1. 1. . 1 7. 11.. 4 W**. 1.. 49.690. 7. 5. 23. 7. 21. 4J.18.6.13.6.  3. 33. 9 15 ft. V. 41. JJI.Sn. 5. 4. 25. 4. V2. 16. 10. /. 8. 5. 12. . V2. 3. 3. 18. 33. 28. 12. 31. ~ V^3.. \/3.367. v 17. 1. 46. 10. 1&. 14. 1. 2. 5.645. / 11. >i 27. ii :J _7. 9. 14. 3.469. 24. 15. ft. Page 183. 29. 3. 39. 16. J. (< + ?>).6. 30.V 8j. 4 n. 1. 7 in. 32. 8. 4 TT M 28.  2. xix 26. 3. .1. a + 61. 16. 2] see. 35. 10. 35. 12. 6.a. 25 J. 2. 9. 6561. 2. ^.}. 29.925 ft. 19. (6) Vl4 3. 21. 8. 5. 9.. 11.4. 1. 4. f 3. 7. 3. 4. 19. 26. 11.935. 12. . 2. 6. . 15. 5. 13. *. 7.243. 4.236. 12. 27. 28 in. 36 in. 3. 10.*. 20. 15. 47. 18. 5.798 yds. 32. . 21.237. 20. 14.w 18.  43. 25. vYb. 24. >TT 26.
5. 3. 70 ft. 8. AB = 204 ft. 12. 4. 9. 42.  24. 2. 3. 10. 4. s 11.70. 120 ft. 3if. 1. 8\/2 17. Page 187. 17. 2.48 3.  5.2. 49. . 1.XX Page 186.. 19.5^. 27. .  2. 2. 7.5 x + 6 = 0. 10 in. i. 4. Real. Imaginary. ' 1. . 13./hr. 16. 1. V2. 39. 2. . 26. 25.62. 7. 6.2.2. 0.  1. . 4. 3. a8 . V2. . irrational. Page 189. 14. 7. 1.  1. 38. irrational. 0. 16.'. AB = 3.* 2. . 6. 12. 18. 10 or 19.3. 30. unequal. 6. 53. 5. 2. . . 2. 2.1. in. 20. 6V64. 64c. 1. Real./hr. V^l. 11. unequal. 1. a + 1. 6. _ 19. 33. ANSWERS 22. 3. Imaginary. = 0. 10 mi. V^l.  9x <). ^l/>> = 85 ft. 24. 5. 3.. Page 188. 2. 0. Real. 3. 14. .3. 6. unequal. 58.  13. 55.4.  2. 26. 10. unequal.4. . 10 mi.23. 0. 6. 1. + 11 x. 1.4. 1.59.1. 6^2 in./hr. 4. 35. 0.41.6.2. 4 da. 2 V3 in. V^~2. 0. 1).a. 3. rational.a. 43. 24. f 6 52 a. 6. 1 3. Real. 2. %. 8.2. 1. unequal. 5. 7. 10.12. 31. f. Imaginary. 18. . .. 28. 4. 3. 2 . 27. Real. 20 eggs. 48. 19. 2./hr. 0.37.Oa. 27. 3. 3..3. equal.. *'' 12. x2 + B .l.. #<7=3. 3. Real. . 0. 1.  i. 3. 7. 2.  1.  Page 194. 25. rational. a + 6. i . 4. 5 ft. 6. 15.2. Page 191. Real.2. Page 192. 41. 1. 18. v^^fcT"^. 29. 1. 3. 3.4. 13. Imaginary. 22. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 15 ft. unequal.02. 44. 3. x* 51. 1. 2. a. 45. 1_^L ft 14. 15.74. 0. 19 in. 2. 8 or 12 mi.  1. 9. $ 120. 0. Real. 2 ft. 11. t is. rational. 12. .23. 1. 7. ft. U. 4.6 = 0. equal. 1. '  f 5. 35. unequal.2.2. r* i. . 20. 40. 64. VV11. unequal.2. 28.  6. 4.48. $30 or $70. 8. 8. 1 .5.  1. 3. 2.17. 3.7. 37. 23.0*8. 0. 3. 7. V7.a 3 a. 46. .7. x 14. H. 0. 21. 2. 22. 32.7. 25. 6.10. 20. 47. 56. 3. 26. . 3. 2.$40 or $60. 57. 12. 3. 16. equal. 2. (5 10. 0. 1. 1. 20 nii. 5. 2. 9. 2. . . 23. 2. 24. 12. 23. Page 190. a. rational.  5. 7. 25. f. 0.]. 2. $80. 4.4. 50. 15. 21. 21. 2. x*4x=0. 0. . 9. V ~ 16 4 2.12 = 0.1. 0. . 2. 26. jr . 52. 1. 3. 36. rational. orf. 1. 6. 3. unequal. 34.2 x2 . + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . If. 28.
5. 28. . 18. . 12. 243. 17. 58. 7. 3. ). r. 56. 7. Vr.  48. I. 3. 7V7. 2. 8. 31. . 11. $7. 12*2 61. Page 200. 49. vm. 0. vV. 3. 2. \. J. ^Sf 3 38. Jb \. x. . 8. 31. 10. (m 26. &. 10. 38. 40. 1 39. 35. 50. 13. 32. 5. 12. 43. 24. x/25. 22. 4. 55. Page 199. 52. 4. 32. xxi 15. J 3. 5. Page 201. 28. _! V3. 44. \. 48. 46. JV37. 50. 9. 14. 23. 5\/5. 19. . 3. 2. 3. 84. 9." 17. i. . 57. 30.//^.32. 25.1 5 15.17. 9. 22. J. 4. 10. 24. 19. . 3. ^49. 3. 15. 59. 24. 2. 9. 16. *V. \ . 60. 0. 26. 2. 4. 6.2. 29. 6. 47. 11. n\/* Page202. 3. 15. 33. 20. 47.^7. v'frW. 8. 36. 1. 2. 33. 25. 14. 5. 9. 1. 17. 18. 1. 4. 3. 2. : . y . ? . 16. Page 196. 2. m. 6  AAf. 4. ifa. 42. v'frc 18. 4. 1. 1. 19. 45. 13. 54. 39. a. 1. 1. 49. 8. 25. \/r\ 11. . fx'^z'l 23. 9. 7.  5. 8. ) 2 >J i 10. 8. 5. 8. 1. 'J. Page 197. 37. 3 4 11. 33. \/. 8. 18. 49. 29. . 125. \/3. 3. 2V a. 5. 27. 0. l  5 12. y. 16. 14. 2. a 18 . 10. 1.  f . 51. 2. 20. 1. 49. 14. ar 1 .ANtiWEUS rational. 13. 7 . v^T4 m. 3. 16. wA 46. V^ 34. J. 21. 30 a. jV 10. 19. 17. 53. z + 22. 20.  f. 30. 29. 1. 3. 2 L ( V.  J j. v. 2.. 15. 23. J. . 21. p. 20. \a\ \/^. aW\ 40. 1. 27. 4. m'.  a'2 .6. r*. 21. 1V1. x$. 41. 13. v/3.
18. 195V3. 2. x y.707. 4aV^J 16. . 23. 11. 3.3 + 40 3 . . . 7. 10. .577. 20&V6. 39. 2 '"V5.692. 3 42. 1 2 or 1 ?. x%  3 ^+ 1. 9.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. Page 207. 26. ^88". 10. l 5.2 VlO. 11. 8. 3^2. 22. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. V. (a 27. 28. 1. a^ + 2^+1. 33. 3 x^y 33. ftV 46. ^7 \AOx. abVab. 3 \ 39. 32. 101 1. yV35. + Vic + 25. 13 35. 2\/7.  2 3:r.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. k/2. 24. 41. v/^r 5  A/^~. . 7. a 3.648. 32. Vr 8.XXii ANSWERS 1. a 4 +* + !. + 2). 2. 2 x* 15. + + ft.). 17. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc).  a Vft 2 121 b. 21. x^ . 3. V63. 3 4\/2. x 7  34. 50. 8. 2>X2. Va 2 "ft. y. 37. + .yl : .. V 5 47.2 18. 29. 40. r 17  Page 204. Page 203. 34 r 6. (x' (l 1+x). 6. 4.f. 5. v'TM. 34. 5. 16. 15. 13. . 21. + 1. 43. 27. 13. 20. 3. + 2 ar 1 ). 19. V. m* n*. 9 . r c . 2. 5 22. 17. 2 4 z2 l 3. 20. 38. 03r* 7. / V3. 6.x^y* + y%. 8a6V5. ). v^. x 25. (o* 2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 10. 31. ^: V2c. a2 4.'\ 14. 3 a~ 3 (x (.Vxy 35. V2 + 4 V22. 3V^T.rV:r. 36. V80. 24. 2v (T 2aVf. 40. 49. x + 5 x3 + 0. 26. 51. x. 11V3. 2. 2. 16. . . 8V/) 15. 135V6. 28. 30. 12.632. 3^ + 2). 2. 37. 4. JIV6. 48. 30. 62V(J. 31. T. 3V5. 25. ?tV?w. 2 a?>V2 a. 9. + 2 Vzy + y 1. Page 208. y (a + ft) V2. 5 ( .r. + 2 V22. 19. 29. 9. 45. 13 a. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 1) 3V3.
^\/3. 21. 6. 14. x/8L v/27. 3 Vl5 30. Vtf +3+ 33. 74\/Jl 120 46. 32. Vdbc. ^ 3 b 5 24. : ^32. Page 210. 8. 8  \/15. 9. 7. 38. 26. 14.T*. ^v 7 15. . 36. 6+2V5. 34. v^4. 23. 40. 3v^2. 46. + VlO  v y (5. 1. \^6. x/8l. 15. 25. % 29. 2. fl^Vac. "^8000. 3. 4 a*. 13. 5. 8. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . . 3. 5. 7. 15. xx 1. 13. 14. / \/w/t 4 13. x/125. Page 211. x/4. 10. 10. 4VO. 7\/(l 7VTO. v^lf. 1. 5V2. \/8. 16. 38. v7^. vT). '. 4\/5. 32m27n. 8V73\/IO. 12. 2yV2?/. 5. 40. V3"m. V5. 36. 4. v/9. ab 4. 3\/wi. 4. 27. 18. 6x2?/. 8V2.. 6. r)\/(l Vrtr. 3\/15  6. v/l2. x/3. ^27. 1. V/. 3 V2. v^O. Vat. 22. a2  b. a\/5c. m ?i2Vm/t. 7. Vn. 39. rtv/5. 21 23. 30 Vl4.30 2. \^r^bVabc. Page 214. x/w^ 8. \/04a. + 20.  3. 5v/2. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . v^f. 6. 6V2. v/lO. V3. 31. 18. v/i). 24. D 45. 35. x/8. . . 27. 16. 24. \/a6c. ^9. 2. 3 V15  47. V8. 6 2\/0. 0. 17. 2 28. 3\/2. . 22. 17. 9. 19. 52.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 31. 8v2T 12. . 44. 37. 20. 2 1. 37. x/27. 2. Page 216.J Page 212. . V5. \XOfl6Vi5. 21. 5V2. \/128. 29. 12. 6. 1V5. 26. 25. 35. 4 >/3. 6aV2\^. w?i. VT5. 23. 5 \/2. VJla. 33. 10V(). 18. 48. 50. 3.r v/^ v^fr*. 30. 32. aVa. 13\/3. 2 \/2. 51. 11. 14c 4 V5. 28. v^a. "v/wi ??. 3. 2 V'3. 6. 53. 2. a^\/a7>. v"5. 41. 39. Page 213. v^30. 3. 2\/7. b. \/2. 10. 9. \V3. V3. W). 0. 16. V2. \/abc*. 19. V2. 9 VlO + 4. v 25^4714 V2"a. 2 ate. 2. 11. \^6. 34. v/8. 49. 42. 17. v"3. 43. 11.
19. . 1. 6 V. V5. . 2. 8. 3. 16. 10.389.V3). 3(7+3V5). 4. 3. 8. 13. Page 219. !^ 6 4. 9. 7. 4. 10. 2V3. ' 22 i . 15. nVTl. (\/3f 1). 23. 26. Page 218. (V6 + 2V2). 9. ^(VlO\/2). 8. 7.  2. 16. 21. 2V3. K>/0 + \/2). 7.. 5 + 2 vU 17. 5 V65. 5. 9. 31. 17.\/TO).3. 21 ' Vob 26. 15. 12. 35. V6c. \/57t. 25. 16. 22.^ (\/22 4. xy 2. 10. 8.5530. 9. Va. Page 223. 3. 8. 2. (V5f 5. 14. 1. Vf6fVtf.1805. ^r. 11. ~ Vac _c 0. 11. 5. 5 f. 81. 9. 5. 0. V. 13. 4.5.6 V3. J. 37. . 20. 4. 10. 7 f 5 4. 5. V3 . (V51). 19. 4. 4.601. 4. 23. 11. Page 225. 10. 1. 9. 6. 27. 2x^2^. 81. (2. 17. 1. ^. Page220. 7. fV2. 1. 15. * 3. m f. 29.2. 4V3 + 6.  13. 4. 8. 100. 64. 17. 9. V3.9. 6 (V2 + 1). 11.4142. 16. (a 1. 2 . 9 mn. \. 18. 3. 512. 25. (3+ v/2). x 20. 15. 34.3. 216. 125.64.7071. 6. 5. 0. 16. 24. 12. 8. 4. 5. 4. 3V23. (VllV2). (VaT^v a). . 29. 18. . 18. 24. 25. 14. i^ ~ 1 v ^.  .81. 16. 4. 2. 14. 30. n*. 24. A . V^TTfc. + 5V2. 4. Page 28. 23. V3. 3. 25. 26. 36. (Vf + (4 V2). 12. 23. V2. 4 14. 30. (\/5V2). Va.625 10. 6. 21. ^\/2. 9. 1. {. 22. p 6 13. j 15. 3. (2Vll). 9. 13. 1. ^. 20. i^Lzi. 7. + 6) 2 . 25. j. 24. 3. 16.13.1547. 8 V3V2. 7. 1. 16. 2ajV2*.6. 12. 1. 7. Page217. 6. 22. 32. 23. 18.  f. 2.732. (V21).732. 5. 20. 18. 2. 25. 5. 17. (2f V"5). 4. 27. i(Vf Vft). 25. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 2!5_. 11. . 6.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .XXIV 7.w 6. 10. 20. 2V2. 2. 14. 19. 33.464. (V8 + V2. ANSWERS 8. . 7 Page221. 27.0606. 12.1.3535. . J. \/3). 11. 15. 21. f. .2. 1. 1. 10.4722. V35. V3. (2V2). +3 V2). 8.7083. 12. 2. _^JflJ?. 19. 4. 224. 19. 7.2828. Page 226. . 5. . 4. 28.
100. 0. 10. 18.3). 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1. 4. ~ f7. o. 3. . (&y2a#H4). 4. 13. .w 4 + 1). ( 16. 12. 87 . . 2.  f . 3 .r . 6. 12. 3. 13. 6.ANSWERS Page 228. 1 . 25. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1.4. 2. Page 236. 4. 21. \/0. .  2. 2 . 2 . 2. . 1 .  3. 7. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 1. 7. (rt. . 15. 15. a(. 1. 5. 5. 8.Y.2. 7. (pl)(p3)(p6). 10. 4. 3. 1 3. 18.  5.4. 4.7. 0. . 12. 1.5 xy + 25) 22. 13. 2. 4. . 2. 11. 1. b . 5. 10.  3. 0. 2. 2. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l).l)(z 2 + z + 1). 73. t/ 23. 3 . 10. 30. 4. . 4.22. 28. 3. 5. 1 (?> x/^3. 6. 14. (w . (4 mn . 4 . 2 > 1.3. 2. 11. 2.3. 9. 11. 4. 4 20. 2. 4. 7. 3. & + 6 2 ). 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1. . 5. 2. 2. 9. 30. 3. V3.4. 1.3.10. l. 0.  4. 3. (a+&)( 2 14. 3. 25. 17. 2 . 11. (m 4 + l)(ro. 25. 17. 17. 16. (a. 2. . 20. 3. 5. 0. 12. 3. 24. 6. 11. 5. 5.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).2)(m. (2 a. 13. 6.  16). 5. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 3. 4 1.  3. 2. 1. . 3. 1. 2.3 2. 14. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 26. f . 5. 4. 7.^a. (+!)( 2) 10.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 8. P. (B43). 4. 50. a . 1. .  1. 7.8a 18. f>. 14. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). . J. 2 &. (63)(6' t 18. 1 . 16. 9.  . 12 24 y .nl^EI. y.2. 4. 4. 3. 1 6.1. 4. 8. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 6. 4. 5. 25. 2. 8 6 & 0.0.12. 5. 3.3. J 24. 1 . 3. 10. 2 V^ . . (8. 2. 3. (pl)(p2)(p2). 3. a: :} . 2. 1. 3.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 2.5. . 21. 11. 4. (a . 1.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). . 3. 7. 13. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 56l). 15. . 1.4). a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). (a. 4. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 2. 22. 2 <? 4a2 .1. J. . 19. 30 .  1. 4. //. 2. 3. 2. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 3.3. 20. 10. . 0. 2. 6 2 2a + 2). 5. 3. 3 . =A^Z3. 8. qpl. (a 4.l)(m . 1. 1. 73. 5. 12. 19. . 23. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 2. 2. 20. 19. 1. 1. Page 234. Page 233. 6. 8. 1 .. 3. . 0. 4 4. 0. ' J.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1. . J Page 235. 2 6. 8.  J. 3. 24. 2. 2 . 1. 7.l)(a 2 + a f 1).l)(a3)(a . 3 9. 2.2)(* . 4 . a  . 3 5. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (r. XXV 4. 22. 30 30.2. 2 6.3.
xxvi Page 237. 15. 13. J. J. Page 243. . 12 1. 3. 2 26.3. = QO 6. 40 25 in. . 2. 1 . (&) 2. 3. c. 40 in. 3. .1. 29. 3. . 2 16. 50. 84. 288.13. 14. $VO. 20. 1 2. 37. 8. 9. 2.3. 30. i i i . (a) 5. 0. 1. 24. 3. i'ljVU. 3. . 5. 24. 39. 13. 30. Page 248. Indeterminate. . 2 1. 5.30. V7. 7. 3. m28. 4. Page 239. 25. 5. 12. 512. 12. 11. 1. . 28yd. 33. 4 34. 4. ft.4. 3 2. in. 12ft.6. $. 18. . 4.5. 40 1} 9 3 ft. ^~2. 7. 1. 2V7. '>.4. 19. 31. 3 . 17. 5. 7. . 4. 4.3. 26. 1. Page 247. 5.3. 2. 12.  2 . 2 10. . 1.. 3. 14. 2 ft. 6. 3. . 3. 5 . 4 . 1. 2. (>. 8 . 4. \/6. 14. 9. 0. . 2. 2.. 36. 8 3. ' j. 5. 2. 2. 2 Y> V . 5. 8ft. 4 8. 4. 21.. . 15. 1. 1.4. 3. i. 14. . }.  11. 12. 1. 5050. 32. 4. in. in. 2. ^ }. . 4. $.1. 1. no co . 11.3 . 7. 14. 1. 10.y. _ 5. 23. 4. ANSWERS 2. 3 . 3. GO . 5. 4. 3. 2 . 1. 3. 0. 125 125. 10. 3 . 4. 40.. 21. $46. 1. m27. 5 cm. . 22. 17. 16. n . 78. . 2. . 1 . 35. 20. 3. 31.0. 4. 8. 3. m + n. _ 13 (0 6. 7. 2. 1. 9. 11. 2 2.3. 5. . 3. . 14.. 4 6. 15. 23. 5. 2. 1 . Page 245. 9. 4. . 16. 2. 4. ri*. 2>/3. Page 244. 7. 15. i j. 17.6. 3 cm. Page 240. 6. 11.200. 1J. 2. 3. 2.  . 1. +  n. 3. 15. 3. 1. . 2. Exercise 114. . 16. . 1. 3. 48. and _ 4. 1. Exercise 113. 1. J. . 2. 69.4. 8. 19. 7f solution. 5 4. 22. 2. 3. 1. 1. 1. 45yd.020. 12 ft. 30 13. jj. .. 15. 20 7.3.18. 12. 3V5. oo . 1 . 5. 21 30. 5. oo .0. ft.. 4. 10. 11. 4. (a) $3400. Page 238. 3. 4. . 1. 15. 5. 35^ 5. 400. 8. . 6. 12 d. 8. 201.3. Page 241. f. 2 . . 9. 8. 17. 4. 1. 5. 900. 20 in. 12. . 3. tn 2. in. 38. 5. 8. 1. 9. 55. 3. 10. 35 a. . 3 3. 512. _ 10. 1. 11. 2. in. 41. 1. J.e. 17. \.  1. . . 1. 1.5..2. 4. 18. 13. 2. } . x 4. Indeterminate. 1. j. oo. 2n. f>. _ 7. 17. . 5. V3~.. 2. 8.136. 50. 7. 35 ft. ft. 2. 2. 5. 3. 6. . (/>) "_. 6. n. 4.1. 37. 37. 2 . 1. ( 3.. 14. 5. 4. 1 . 1. f*. 7 3. co . 3 4. . 18.
0.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 18. 29. JSg. 8.4.504. 70. 1. 1. 45 Page 257. xxvii 1. Page 252. 16. 1. 405. 21. 7. Jj? 45.384. 0. 1820. . 1. . 343. 3. 1. 10 14. 8. 3. 2. 3. 120 aW. 2.8.6. 8 1. 4. Y11. 2. x4 . 125.192.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 1.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 5. . 2. 4. . 17.170. . 0. 7 x4 17. 16.r* 4 70 . .4 &z x>&.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 25.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 05.5y 4 . 17. w9  8. A. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 12. 10. a. 4.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 13. <. />*. J 2 //2 25. 3. x r 4.2 9. 105. 8.13. 9. 5. 27. sq. &' 14. 28.1. G. 16. c. 8. 10. 22. 4. 2. 16. 4. 1 7 4. 16. 8 4x' 2 .210. 48. 16 11. 4. 280 53. 5. 35. in. 27. 11. 10. 1.12 x*y 16.3 ays. 12. 6i. 2. 4. vy. 8J. 9. 3. 7. 3. 5. 19. 15. 125. 6. 7. 12. 5. 16.0. 14. 15. 10.x' 10 . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 15. 1. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 3.6 . 6.920. . ~v 9. 8.5. ?/i 6 x llj . 16. ^a 8. . 17. 910. ~ an . 8. 11. 343. 5. 2. 2. 8.^ ?>i 2412x4. 70. 8. 8. 4.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 3. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *. 4. 6. 2. 1. 13. 0. 0. 128. 4 0. 9. 27. 410. 12. 6. I. '23. 21. . . 18. 4. 10.<2 4. 2. **+. (). 50. 44. 3. r 5 4. 1 14. 12. 35. Ja. a4 4 14. 23. 2. 32. . Page 254. 327. 3.700. 22. 81. f y 8 + z* . 45. 192. 7. Page 259. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 7. 15. \ w 4 . 9. 10. ' 1. 5. 13. Page 258. 4. d.120. x + Vy.419. 3.680. 15. } $ 50. 19. 1. 6. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. .7 10. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 005. 75. 9. 70. 4. 45. 11. . 0. 1000 aW. 6. 0. 6.2 45 a 8 /). 304. 12. 04. 20.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 8 . 0. 708. 04.53. 7. r r j. 4.  101. .130 x30 189 a 4 24. 55.870 m*n*. 12. 5.5. i 10. 5 13. 20. B . 8. 18. 4.r 4.5 x.v Page 253. 2. . 220 . 2. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . . 100.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 3. 9. REVIEW EXERCISE . 18.  20 flW. 7. 53. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 26. 5. 0. 495. 1JH. 7. 3. 19. 43. 4. 2i* 7f.470. and 1. 4. 5. 20. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).  17. 12.r x>/ 7 3.ANSWERS Page 250. 6. 5. 6. 1. 27.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.
6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. x . x } 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 1 121.  12 a.3 .rty x2 4 123. a 3m 4. x2 2 .3 b . 0. !! 71. 10 4.1 4 jry 4 x ..3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 127. x2 471x4. ?/ 3. . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. + a 4. 24. 3 36 b c . . x 2 .4 ac. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 82. 16. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . . + 3 a?. a 4 . Page 263. 37. 30.4 x y 87.1. 96.c. 64. _55_7c 48. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 2 113.x x*  f 2 ax 4.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 4.5 b + c . a4 x. 5x + 2y~z. .7 x   15. 4 15 x 5 . 2 . 133.18 ?/ 5x4. .1w 77.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 43. 22. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 93. 2 53. 130.4. x4 f + 23 . ft n . 8 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.5x4. 50.18 x?/0.5 3n 4. * 60. 100. ^ . I 57.5 a 2x8 x 3 .4 x?/2 3 4. x2 a2 1 . 0. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 66. 122. m " + n + P3c . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 7 + 3 xf 2.2.2. 4 2 . . 3 a .2.x. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 76.  4 a3 85.9 b. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 3a'2 Page 261. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 4 . 9 2w 128. 4.x 2 4.7. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. (a + ft)" 98.a6 2 4. az 4. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 1 x 45.y*. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . y 4 z* 0. 35.a' 'ft 4.3 aftc. 2 x2 108. 62. 2 30 . 104. 70. + z. 114. a~b 89. 4 69. 6a6c. 5 42. &p 84. ft2ft 4 4l. 3 c .a'2 c. 4 115. 131. 2 q.2 x 4. +^ + ft W.4 x 2 . x' . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.2 xy + 4 y2 106. . . 3 a 5 a 5. 132. 12 x. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 2 x'V2 90.6 am b\ 129. /> 4 83. 102.4. a2 2 aft 2 2. a* 4.ft). x 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 13 + 2 s.6 b.3 y. a* a 8 a aftc.fee 2 4. 4. x8 x2 55. 29.  e +/.4.1. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 243x4729. 25. 23. 3~ n 4.x 51.2 c . ?> . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. as 20. 4 65.41. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. a J . 107. x 3 41. 110.a. 3a~2c. df. 1 a"* 4 an . a' 111. 6 c 47. f5+7. 32. . 14 x . 91. 2 x2 4. . 80.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. () 2 x 33. 27. 2 . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 105. x' 79. x* . 40. 1 + 4 xy. .xxviii ANSWERS 19. . . 2 . xyxzyz.x24 73. 4 fee 4.1.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 28.3 x 2 + 3 x . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 52. ft /> 78. 2 a. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 26.^a . 94. . 2 2/' .3 103.9 x . 31. 120. 61.ac 44 aft. . 4ft y3. 0.a*ft 2 126. 36. .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .4.2 x^. 6 a2 97.x4 + y'2 z 4. 88. 9x. 21. . 4 Page 264.{ 54. 12 a/.c. . . t 81.c 3 4. 16t/. x 3 4. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.1. 125. 99. 3 a 44.5.105. x 8  a8 . 4 ! . x 8 + x 4 68. 49. 10 a 12 b. Page 260. 5x 2 2x43.  . 63. . 46.15 4 62 x  72. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 1 .  3 x2 .4 2 4 c2 42 . 118. 6 8 j27 40 ab. .3 a'ft. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 2 *  3 2n 101. ?/ . . 124.  + 3 x2 . c3 4 58. 8x3 8x. 5 4 4. . 109. . 72. 86.a 2 x 2a .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 38. 39.
(?/+l)(yl). . 220.l)(a 2 +3). 152. 191.3 y).  1. 6). G7. z(x10)(xl). 161. a 2 (15./_4). 142. as 194. 175. (7 c 2 ). 75. 1. + 2) + 9a. Or (a + 2)0el). 206. 202. 40 yr. 2. ft. 138.. 182.r + 4). (x + 6)(x6). fc'2a+62c). 20. 224. p. 222. 218. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 236.3. a + 2x2 ). 233. + 3) (x f f>) .l)(y + 1). + 11) (a 10). (2 198. (. . 2(x8)(x3). 201. Page 267. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 184. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 193. (at (4 a +!)( + 3).6)(4 + 6). . Iff 145. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 12. 168.2)..9)(xf 2). 211.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 156. 7. y 245. (3x  .2). 163. (a} 59. 1.2. 136. 32 h. 153.y) (\r3y). 237. 166. 149. 216. 205. 199. C3 y _l)(.. 190. (2a + l)(a . y3. m. 36ft. + 22).2 )(x+y) 228. 15  a. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. .c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 1. 6. 208. 235. 186.y)(jc + 7 y). 239. 140. 185. 173. 151. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (JT y 225. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2 2 (a. 19. + y. x(x + 6) 213. 147. (c) 160 C. 30 + xyr. 2 xy(3 x . (7x2//) 203. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 207. 1. 37 1. 180.6 . 171.1). + 7)(rt4). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (x . 150. 22. 187. 226. 167. 23 18. 5. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). .. ( + 2y)(2x3y). (x 227. 179.y)(z . 172. 154. 137. (y_24)(y5). 214. 24. 159.3 y)(a . 181. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3).r . Page 266. ?. (y 7f))(y 196. 2. 244.1(5) 200. (r7y)(ai. 240. xxix 139. . 174. (ab + 8) ( 7). (/ 246. 10). 1. 10). 215. 8(ar}(/)27).I2y). (5 x . a. 176. Page 265.3). y  y 165. y. 1. HI. 146. (a 2 + 2a6.l)(x8 + x2 . 169. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 3. (6) 40. 195.6) (2 x + 1). (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 18. 183. 2. p. 212. 170. (r^x + 1). 21. 3(x .3) (2/3y). 10. 148. 144. +)(x2 x^+2. 230. 12 6 panes. (3x2?/)(2. 247. 12 yr. 2. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 177.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).1). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 197. 164. 157. 30. 4. (233).2) (3 x . 143. 210.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 217. 10 in. . 238. 15.m)(x + a). 218. 1. (y  17)(y + (>). 2. 3. 1. 10 ft. 2 (4 x . 4. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 241. (8x + 3)(3x4). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 2^. k.4xl). (y7)(y + 188.ANSWEKti 135.y + 3)(r (. 162. 189. 12. 6. 219. 15. 160. a(a. 12 yr. 50. 8 204. 231.1). 12) (j. 209. 178.y2 ). 30 yr. yr. (x + 2)(x . (y _ ft)(y 4. (x^ + x1) 234. 48 h. + 3). 158. 20. 232. (a& 192.2ac + 229. 155. 147 mi. r>x 2 (4x. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.y). aft. (x  42 yr.
306. 279. x 267.. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . &).^ ^^. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 268. 3  262. 0. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 0. 303. a~ ' b*). x ?/ z 1.1. 260. o.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268.  7. 263. 7. > 4. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 266. x 283. 269. 259. Ca&c 1)(M 253. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 43 '^rJ'. 249. ^/>J. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. ?^ZLiZ 308. 5. *. 307. 2 4 300. 10. 2. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 305. 4 5. 301.   . 295. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 256. a. (7 255. 3). 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.  3xyf x// 257. 7 x 265. 258.4) 1) (3 x . + f. x12. ^ 299. o(x4l). 261. 3. 2 x  3.(x  4) (x4 304. 251. 254. 3).4).^^^^^^^^. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 310. ? 1) 302. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . x .2* i^^ !^. 7^T 2 . 250. *>). 264. 298.
2. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 390. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 333. 2 ).XXXI Page 272. ?/ + 3 332. 2 ?/ 363. 377. a +6. 1.H ' 2wi ^' /' . .!. 3. 1. 0. A^L5L. .vin a /r " 337. 0. 7. ^_:r f> 331. 343 00 351. 13 391. 398. 375. 325. ?>*. ^"" 4 s . T+^. 376. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 366. 2 r36 384. 326. 380. 388. 4 rw. 387. S. . c 402. 389. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 392. a 2 .".1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. If. 404. 2(q. 406. 1. 383. 3. 3. 364. f.1. 1. 1. Page 274. .3. 401. 408. 396. 339. <L 409. 355. 385. * 357. 386. 399. 405. . 382. 2(a i 403. 4 A. 11.)Cr4)__ . 9^. L . 336. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). ab. 6a. T\. 324. + x 362. 329. 393. 360. y 4 I 340. Page 277. 400. ?=. 407.  1. 397. j 328. 1 i 2 ^. (a + b + c\ .. 4. x 54 359. " 4 378. 12. + 335. 6 ?/+:>. 20. 0. ^ 3 // . 7/i ^ _ .7. 2 ab  a Page 276.  1 356. _*L'L+. 334. 379.. 370. 361. 2 327. 394. a + b + 6). a) A^_. l'j.J . 4. 0. 365.(5 a . + 4 & 4 \ b. 395. l . . m. 2.
B 4 mi. 455. 22. 7. 1. : />a.1. 5. 456. z8 +?/ 3 431. 472. 5. . not true.488. 484. 1. 2. ISjmi.46. 2..0. 28 yr. 5. 1$. 448.. 2. 506. 463. 17. 2 a 2. 53 yr.  10.7. 2. 9. 413. 502. 8. 445. 426. 478. 24 days. 42. 6. 10.  2. 442. 447. 492. . 8. <L+ 6 (. 486.. 6. m. 2. 2.12. 7.  . L (c) I. ft 5. />c c(f be. 11.te + . (a) 1. a* 424. ' $260 at 0%. 412.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 461.vz in. a 22 .7. 508. 84.2.. ^V. 0. . 457. 4.7. 4. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 418. 0. 485. 51. + () 433. 0. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 487. Page 278. 4. Page 282. 10. 498.}. 5. (c) not true.4. 0. 425. 5. 10. $2000 at 0%. i.489. fj. 460. 90. 20 yr. 493. 503. 50. . 20. 10. c 6fc 10. 420. 3. (d  6) f. !L=4. 17.3. 495.5. 0. 32. 63. 2.  2. . . I. 21. 450. 422. 459. . 1 a /?$+&?. '. (&) true. 4.}. b 449. 483. 427. 1. 7. ^r?i 434. 476. 429. \. ISJini. 481. 5. 8. 6. 467. 7.  505. 494. c. 5J. . . 465.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. i a b 451. 436.3.  2. a + + ft c. 12. 480. . 435. . 454. 490.4. 468. ^. 452. 0. 446. A 5 mi . 6. 1. B $ 2500. 458. L2 a  6 . *+. . 3. 419. 466. 0. 499. 10. . . fc.rz Page 279. 477. \ 1. 432.  7.  1. 500. 440. 462. 10$. 3a 4 5. 423.  2f 504. . 10. 6. 411. 33. 421. m 1 : wi. 18. 6. 1.  7. 7 : . 479.  453. 40.55. 439. 6.2. 8. & 491. 444. (&) 443. 410. 507. (d) true.. 14 miles. 2$. . 496. 3 . 497. Page 281. 464. . . 482. 32 yr. 3. 2. A $ 3500. 2. Page 280. 2. 40 oz. 501.  f>. 7. 2 438. Page283. 430.. 441. 428. (a  c). .  1.0.m  m+ M in. * .7. 10.7.
27 y* f\4 . 525. 3.51. 513. .02. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .  557. 24. If 572. 1. 0000.4.1. 2. (6) 3.7. . ^ ft 4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .1. 4.  . 2 1.02. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). imag.24 sec. 509. 562. 8 mi. 2(4 602.3.4. 563. 7. 2 imag. 1 . . 603. 3. 533. (d) 537. y 4. 559.62.ANSWERS Page 284. 578.3.52.. 4. 569.62.54. per hour. 14.88.  2ft da. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. T . 556. 4. 581. 1.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.1. 1.8. (ft) Ill Ib. 115 Ib.0. 515. 577.24. . 3.3. 6435. 576. 4. 1 580. Page 287. 555. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.83. .15. 5. 3. 566. .04.15. 574.5. 3. .5+.  2.04.5. per hr. (a) 74 Ib. (gr) 10 1.7. . 3. (ft) 4.4.16. 1.4. 7^ da. 3f 4f.0. 1. 512.  + + c. 568. 2 1.. + 6 tf f 3 .6. 553. 5.6.  4. .56 sec.55. lead.% rr\* 585. 1. 2 . 3. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 4* da. 2. 6. . 573. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. > ^ . 1. <z ft 1.75. 2.1.5.5. y% Z * 586. 1$.4.9. 4. 567. 591.4 x + . ft 584.. 3. 1. g(rc+ 6c).2. (/)  10 to 8. 531. 21*_.8. 1J. 529. f36a28x8 592. 5. S82 c.5 f. 1.3. 1.10. (e) 570.00.31.6. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 3 da. 2. 2.6 2.7.1. . . 3.54. 232.f 1.12. 571.03.3. 3.  3.73. Page 288.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.37.75. 2. 3. .10.xj/ f xV .24. 550. 530. 4. 532.25m. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 1. 552. f. 3.8. .14.. 3. 1. 8.  1. (i) 3. 2(6 597. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 528. 1. 1. 1. J7] min. 4. 551. 560. x8 .3. 4 mi. 579. 1. 4 0. . . 593. 518. 582. 40 Ib.  J(a f + 2c). 3 . o> .78.  (a) 2.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . f ? a f ft __ + c C). _ 3. . 31. ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 4.  imag.5. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.35. 2 .8 x3^. + 12 x . 6.4. Roots imaginary. 1. 2.38. (c) 3.8.53.83. 536. H.15.03. (6) . xxxin 511.6.20.02. 514. 527. 516.02. a+ Page 286. 599.21. or 8. tin. a + ft  a  f c. a f ft + c. 1 .  7. . 2. 1. 5. . tin. 558. 575.30. 0. . f. 1. 565. 4.3.r8 596.78. 1. 526.31.1. (c) 4. . 2.0. 554. 1.25. 564. 2 10. 510. . + 26 + .05. 1 600. . .  ft*. _^ 2754x . da. 598. . lead. 2 2.   (h) 8. 561.0.. 583. _ 4.3.33. 3. . (e) (c) 2.37. 2$. . 24 da. 1.  (a) (d) 1. Page 285. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.
50. If .  . 2. . ab 689. 3. . 625.  3. 25. 3. V^~3). 8. y  619. 8 f 3.  1.  13.  2f r 659. ' fe 2 ). a 2. 616. 4 V 0.3f l 668. 620. ix 2 . 649. 10. ^. 4$. 14. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . .2f (5 4.2f Page 290. 706.203. 2&). ^ 1. 636.  ft. 617. 633. . <T! .001. 705. 4. 11. 613. 25. 5. o. 690.  6. . 1$ 639. 1m*. 12. 7. . If. 655. + ~^'2 + a 1. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.3. 628..702. 4330 da. 672. If b. 1. 608. 654. 9. 666. 3 x2 . \+ab 699. ab.04. z  1. 5002. 1010.0. 644. 0. 2 a 688.  4. 2f. a ' 2 + . af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 702. 2 x 44 ^/. 638. 1. n^l +^. . 6. 650. 0. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 634.303. 651.049.. 629. 657. 0. 618. 653. 683. 2. 5 3. 646. 622.3.  4. 635. I}'/.3. 2. a 4. 2. if 4/> 671. 701. 670. 4 676. 2f. 656. 652. 607. 5. 2. 7003. 698. 612. 637. b 664.f 3 V^3). \. 626.25.b 686. 624. 2. ' 674. 3 681. fe + a. 662. V2. 692. 691. 2 a  6*. a. V7. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 4. /> 4. 703. 2. 3 a. 632. . 1. ^. 6. b . 2. If f 667. 642. 661. 645.002. 2 / 2 4. 1 V5 1.>A 610. 2092. 2 ab + a  &. ^^ 695. c. 630. 6 685. 643. 0.b. 1. 647. 8 6 fo . . 703. 13. V"^TJ. 971. be ac \. J^^.XX XIV 606. 5.a~ {Z 663. K 5 2 V2. 623.  a2  a (ab).3. 641.14 If 1. / V^+lO^M"^. 696. 640. a 673. 7. 700. 1 2. 0. 4. 1 704. 669. 660. fta a/> ^A. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 2. 9*. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687.y. 678< 682. . 009. 615. 3. b. 677 680.001. (*_ + a: 611. 4. Page 289. 679. 898. i. 0. . If 665.c ) 697. (a3&45rj. 631. 78. 648. 1 ~a . a + b. 11. . 210.  684. 621. . la6 2. a 1J. 614. l/'3.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 708. 5. 627.43^4. V2. If 658. . 2 a: 4. ft).
3V52V3. 24 4 . 733. 755. 1 [ + '> J.2. 3 VlT 795. i 2. 731. 740. 710. 768. 738. v/7 / . 778. 29\/3. 300.9.rJ w L 754. a 2  x2 . a db Va^T < 45da. 5. 2x3^ a.^ 743. 794. 769. r. 1. . 24.~ . y  1. 767. 1. 773. 718. 4 104 v/2. 776. / 787.11.10. Page 294. 1^ _ 760. 2\/53V2. 789.4 .V2. . 32>/2. 1 747. VIO\/3. 3V7. 730.4 . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. J(v'lO2V 791. 793. 24V2.. 33^2. 713. 728. 727.ANSWMHti Page 292. 1 752. fyaw&cu.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 790 2v 3v 2. 25. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 717. 3V72VO. 721.257. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.V/^ 741. 7  3V5.r. . 723. 750. 782 785. ^ ?>.. 763. 796.. Page 293. 30\/10 764. v'll. 39. j 742. 722. 2 V2 . 724. 13ft. 3^. 726.r+y> 759.9. 716. 3V72V3. 756.8. 736. 3 720.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 1. 8. 714. 712. 711. 737. 715. 47. 00. 342V3. Hi a. 732. 34. + 6 2 tf'c. T%. 749. 746. + < 735. VV> L4V34. 5. 734. 3.^. cr*lr*. "V313. 59. rt3 2 ^i^. a 5 . a:* . 15 shares. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. x\y. 758..12 af V^ 4 744. ^ . mn. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 17ft. 729. a".1 . 788. 709. iv/Jj. 739. i^. . x i f^' . > 748. a 2 6^. ^7xy. 751. 777. VT14V5. . 792. 753. 8. 1 I . 719. 725.
.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 825. f. + d)*. Page 297. 0. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 5. 2 (x 4*4. 888.a 2 2 ). 898. (x 2 .y) 852.3. 835. 3. 831. 4 818. (1 . J V. 841. 25. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.+ m f ") (a* ). 0. 6. 3 . ((' 1).1)(0 865. jV3 f 3. 7. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 830. 3. 887. (.a 3 " 4. 4. 5. 2  2. (x3).  1. b' 2 821. 1 . 858.0. 813. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 836. 822. 838. 834. $. 5).2 ax 4. 824. 1.om 441) (a 855. 6+V7. 2 *x 807. 800. (x . 814. 1. (x*y*ryz + z*). 4. 6 $. 3.1. 1C. 863. 2.l)(x + 2). 867. 819.l)(x + 3)(2x43)./>") (a'. db 7.7). 2. 0. 801. 4 885. 2 . 882. 810. 17. 2. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 5. a2 ^E*!. (x 845. (3 b . (x 4. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 844. 20). (2 4. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . a 42)(x . 7.f.5 b) 4 1). m = 2.l)(x . 4. 11. +j!>.  tt 815.1)(V 2 . 799. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). . 2 854. H.1) (a 8 . V 3.2w . (4 c 4. 1. (x 2 f r . . $. (3 862. 881. 857. 816. 829. 2 2 . 4.  ' . ANSWERS 798. 4. 817. 833. 880.5) (x + * 853. .3. 812. 5. \/5. 8. 19. Page 296. 896. (a 1) (x 4. 900. 48.rae) (4 . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 0. 4. 1.r . 891. 849. 872. 1 1. . a* 4. x . 842.  + l(l^). 827.2) (x 4 2). (x . (a m . 3. (a 4 871. x. 6. 883. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ).4. m 875.. 6. 4. (xl)(^~3)(. ^VG. 894. 847. 811. 11. 895.4) 860. 832..  839. X4 1). 2. **. n =  29. . o. 4. .r4). 2 j 889. o 828. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). a(ft)( 873. 5. 2. \/2. 8 09.a 4 + 1). 2/ 856. .1). ( 4 4. 3. 868. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 2 m .1) . 14. (2 a . 2. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). ( 869. 2.XXXVI 797. Hoots are extraneous. 876. 3.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 879. 899. . Hoots . 840.. ) (a' 874. 3. 2. 3. 826. 886. . (x + 0X024. (2x (r. a(ry + 864. (2 x + 3 y} . 851. 848.4.7 4 1) 846. 837. 843. 2 . 2. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .25 ?>2). 1. 897. ^. 820.3)(x + 4). 861.l)(x . 3. 884. ^ V}. 2 . 4. Va. 808. 10. are extraneous. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.7. . 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 2. 13. 4 . . 890. 4.10 ab 4. 859. 892.7)(4 x. Va 803. 7. 2 806.7). 893.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 17. 7. 23. 8. 823. (:r 11. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 804. 3. 4.
2.I. 916. 3. 936. 333. w. 937. 2. T 6. 14 . Page 301. 12. r ft ' < Page 299. '3 3 in. 7. 9 in. 3. 66 924. 4 6 mi. 12 mi. . f ft 4 . 921. 1 _2 . 0.2. 115. 7. 912. 8 . 8. 4 . ft. Y. 917. V5 T 2 . 909. 2 i ' a V. J.  26j. 6. 955.V~~3). 925. 944.. 5. 3). 933. 2 w 914. 3. ft. 941. ft. 2. . 3. 5. 934. 977.. 5. 20 19 ft. 961.  1. J(_ ft. ft. 11. 15 946. 908./hr.073. . . 7.. 28. 40 16 in.. . 2 1. 11. T3. dL 4. 73. a. 948. 931. 18.615. 6. .111. 985. 4. 111. Page 300. 958.. T 6.1 = 9. i 8.709. 3 4 . ft. v/(ai !)(&910. i(6 in. S07. 983. 1.. 978. 1 . w 3. 6 1 1. 951.. 2. 4 in. 4. 4. 950. ft. . 943. 6. 11. 4. 906. .  1 . 1. f. 945. 2. V^3). 3 . i 3. 1 1.2. 1. 939. 2. . ft. 4. 960. 6. =F J. 5 .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901.. 962. Page 303. 4.. 3.1.01. 8. 942. 10. 4. 329. 954. 2. 7 ft. 940. 1 2. Z ^. 4. Page 302. ?/i 6. 80. 922. . . 6 da. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 280. 904. 28.. 957. 480 8 sq. . . 8128. . 2 yd.. 982. 56.744. ft.760 sq. 0. 496. 902. 6. 8. 980. 100 rows. 108. i1" 913. 8. 11. 987. 333.. 903. 8. 935. 927. 979. 1 XXXVll ' a 1.1.446. 2. 7. 60 949. 3. 959. 8. 7 or 30.. %* . 911. $(l 4. 984. 12. tt2 19.. 6 a 915.. 1). 12. 905. 5. 248.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 920. 952. 919. 15 16 ft. . 28. 0. i>. 963. V5 fj. 986. . 6. 6 .651. 5. 4. 932. 12 in. 2. 10. 923. 918. . J. 956. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 8.0. 2 ft. 947. 4. . 981. 6. 964. Va926. 3. . 2. 1 + V953. 0. ^y. 5l4f. 938. yd. 930. a + . 8. .
9 da. (6) 8(1 .192rt?)r 120 *. 48. 1(5. Page 305.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 72. X.378 1015. ^Trsq. 108. 994. 0. (a) (6) ^ 1002. (Z>) 999. (5. 12.. 991. 24. 1 1004. 12. 995. 2 . 1010. 1012. 1005.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 162. 4 and 1020.. . 1003.51. Page 304. 0. 192. 1019.18. 4. . 1007.128 I. 988. 1018. + v 2). in. 993. 8. 992. 6 70 . 990. r = 2. 32 13 (tx 4V3.378 <W and 92. 1 8 8 2. 996. () 12(2+V3).870 a 6 1011. ~ \. 1014. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1009. 1008. 120 a.  5&7 1021. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .'^^ } ( . 2(2 v/2). 120 i^l^. 1006. ^f (2f3V2).870 z8 . 1016. 1000. 1017. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (J. .92. 1013. + 448 . 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1001. 997. 3003.
etc. comparatively few methods are heretofore. than by the . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. great many work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.25 lamo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. save Inequalities. Half leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. $1. $1. HEW TOSS . The more important subjects tions. so that the Logarithms.D. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. physics. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. given. and commercial life. A examples are taken from geometry. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. xi 4 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Ph. xiv+563 pages. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. i2mo. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. so that the tions. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. Logarithms. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. In Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. comparatively few methods are given. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. HatF leather. HEW YOKE . not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.D. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. and commercial life. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. 12010.25 i2mo. Half leather. xiv+56a pages. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xi f 373 pages. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. physics. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. save Inequalities. Ph. The author grade. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. $1.
PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. xii + 233 pages. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Ph. Attention is invited to the following important features I. These are introduced from the beginning 3.10 L. Cloth. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. $1. . i2mo. SEVENOAK. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7.. 7 he . 4. 9. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. izmo. more than 1200 in number in 2. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . lines. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 10. SCHULTZE. State: . Half leather. aoo pages. Cloth.D.r and. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. NEW YORK . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. wor. under the heading Remarks". iamo. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 6.
New York City. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. of these theoretical views. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . . . 370 pages. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. $1. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. and not from the information that it imparts. 12mo. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . .
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Cloth. diagrams. i2mo. $1. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. An exhaustive system of marginal references. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . photographs. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Topics. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. diagrams. " This volume etc. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. and a full index are provided.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Maps.
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